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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




LABORATORY 

OF ORNITHOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

Gift of 



Laboratory of Ornithology 
33 Sapsucker Woods Road 
Cornell University 
Ithaca, New York 14850 



Cornell University Library 
QL 689.C7C46 



C.2 



The distribution of bird-life in Coiombi 



3 1924 022 526 390 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022526390 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate I. 




Map of Colombia (except of extreme eastern portion) 
Based chiefly on the maps of Robert Blake White and the Intercontinental Railway Commission, on data 
supplied by the American Geographical Society and information gathered bv the American Mnsenm'ii expeditions. 



BULLETIN 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY 

VOLUME XXXVI, 1917 

Editob, J. A. ALLEN 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIRD-LIFE IN COLOMBIA; A CONTRIBU- 
TION TO A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SOUTH AMERICA 

BY 

Frank M. Chapman 




NEW YORK 

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES 

1917 

FOR SALE AT THE MUSEUM 






3^?S'gt 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
Seventy-seventh Street and Central Park WbSt, New York Citi. 

Board of Trustees. 



President. 
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN. 



FiHST Vice-President. 

CLEVELAND H. DODGE, 

Tbeasubeb. 
HENR'5^ P. DAVISON. 



Second Vice-PaeSident. 

J. p. MORGAN. 

Seoreiabv. 
ADRIAN ISELIN, Jr. 



Ex-OFFICIO. 

JOHN PURROY MITCHEL, MAYOR OP THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

WM. A. PRENDERGAST, COMPTROLLER OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

CABOT WARD, PRESIDENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PARKS. 



Elective. 



GEORGE F. BAKER. 
FREDERICK F. BREWSTER. 
R. FULTON CUTTING. 
THOMAS DeWITT CUYLER. 
JAMES DOUGLAS. 
HENRY C. FRICK. 
MADISON GRANT. 
ARCHER M. HUNTINGTON. 



WALTER B. JAMES. 
A. D. JUILLIARD. 
CHARLES LANIER. 
OGDEN MILLS. 
PERCY R. PYNE. 
JOHN B. TREVOR. 
FELIX M. WARBURG. 
ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES. 



Administrative Officers. 



Director. 

FREDERIC A. LUCAS. 



AaaiSTANT-SECRETAHY. 

GEORGE H. SHERWOOD. 



Assistant-Treasureh. 

THE UNITED STATES TRUST COMPANY OF NEW YORK. 



Scientific Staff. 
Fbedeeic a. LroAS, Sc.D., Director. 

GEOLOGY AND INVERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY. 

Edmund Otis Hovbt, Ph.D., Curator. 
Chester A. Reeds, Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 

MINERALOGY. 

L. P. Gratacap, A.m., Curator. 

George F. Kunz, Honorary Curator of Gems. 

WOODS AND FORESTRY. 

Mary Cynthia Dickerson, B.S., Curator. 
Barrington Moore, A.B., M.F., Associate Curator. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOWGY. 

Henry E. Crampton, Ph.D., Curator. 

Roy W. Miner, A.B., Associate Curator. 

Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Associate Curator. 

L. P. Gratacap, A.M., Curator of MoUusca. 

A. J. Mutohler, Assistant. 

WiLLAKD G. Van Name, Ph.D., Assistant. 

Frank E. Watson, B.S., Assistant. 

W. M. Wheeler, Ph.D., Hon. Curator of Social Insects. 

A. L. Treadwell, Ph.D., Hon. Curator of Annulata. 

Charles W. Leng, B.S., Hon. Curator of Coleoptera. 

ICHTHYOLOGY AND HERPETOLOGY. 

Bashpord Dean, Ph.D., Curator Emeritus. 

John T. Nichols, A.B., Assistant Curator of Recent Fishes. 

Mary Cynthia Dickerson, B.S., Associate Curator of Herpetology. 

MAMMALOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY. 

J. A. Allen, Ph.D-, Curator. 

Frank M. Chapman, Sc.D., Curator of Ornithology. 

W. DbW. Miller, Associate Curator of Ornithology. 

iv 



Scientific Staff. 

Roy C. Andrews, A.M., Assistant Curator of Mammalogy. 
H. E. Anthony, B.S., Assistant in Mammalogy. 
Herbert Lang, Assistant in Mammalogy. 
James P. Chapin, A.B., Assistant in Ornithology. 
Leo E. Miller, Assistant in Ornithology. 

VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY. 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, Curator Emeritus. 
W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., Curator. 
Walter Granger, Associate Curator of Mammals. 
Babnttm Brown, A.B,, Associate Curator of Reptiles. 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Associate in Palaeontology. 
Charles R. Eastman, Ph.D., Research Associate. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator. 

Pliny E. Goddard, Ph.D., Curator Ethnology. 

Robert H. Lowie, Ph.D., Associate Curator. 

Herbert J. Spinden, Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 

N. C. Nelson, M.L., Assistant Curator. 

Charles W. Mead, Assistant Curator. 

M. D. C. Cbawfohd, Research Associate in Textiles. 

George Bird Grinnell, Ph.D., Research Associate in Ethnology. 

J. H. McGregor, Ph.D., Research Associate in Anthropology. 

Louis R. Sullivan, A.M., Assistant in Physical Anthropology. 

Leslie Spier, B.S., Assistant in Anthropology. 

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

Ralph W. Tower, Ph.D., Curator. 

Charles F. Hebm, Assistant. 

Alessandro Fabbri, Research Associate in Physiology. 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

Charles-Edward A. Winslow, M.S., M.A., Curator. 
T. G. Hull, Ph.D., Assistant. 

PUBLIC EDUCATION. 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator. 

G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., Associate Curator. 

Ann E. Thomas, Ph.B., Assistant. 

BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Ralph W. Tower, Ph.D., Curator. 

Ida RicBABpgoN JIood, A.P., Assistant Librarian, 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXVI. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIRD-LIFE IN COLOMBIA. 



Part I. 

Page. 

Introduction 3 

Acknowledgements 8 

A Review of Colombian Ornithology 11 

Bogota Collections ' 11 

The 'Bogotd' Region 13 

Claude Wyatt's Explorations 15 

Berlepsoh on a Bucaramanga Collection 15 

Wirt Robinson on the Magdalena 15 

Salmon's Collections in Antioquia 16 

DeLattre in Western Colombia 17 

The Michler Expedition to the Atrato 17 

Sundry West Colombian Expeditions 17 

Mervyn G. Palmer's Collections 18 

The Santa Marta Region IS 

The American Museum's Expeditions in Colombia 20 

Expedition No. 1 : Buenaventura to the Cauca Valley : Reconnaissance, 

Call to Giradot 21 

Expedition No. 2: The Popayan Region 30 

Expedition No. 3: Lower end of the Cauca Valley, the Quindio Trail, 

Cartago to San Juan River 32 

Expedition No. 4: Call to San Agustin 40 

Expedition No. 5: San Agustin to the Caquetd, Region 45 

Expedition No. 6: Tumaco-Barbacoas 49 

Expedition No. 7: The Bogota Region 50 

Expedition No. 8: The Antioquia Region 58 

Auxiliary Collections 68 

An Outline of Colombian Topography 70 

Remarks on the Distribution of Forests 72 

Notes on Colombian Climatology 79 

The Life Zones of the Colombian Andes 84 

The Tropical Zone and its Faunas 93 

The Colombian-Pacific Fauna 106 

The Cauca-Magdalena Fauna 117 

The Caribbean Fauna 130 

The Orinocan Fauna 132 

The Amazonian Fauna 133 



viii Illustrations. 

Page. 

The Subtropical Zone and its Faunas 135 

The West Andean Subtropical Fauna 145 

The East Andean Subtropical Fauna '. 149 

The Central American Extension of the Subtropical Zone 151 

The Temperate Zone 159 

The Paramo Zone 166 

Tabular Synopsis Showing Zonal Distribution of Families of Colombian Birds 168 



Pabt II. 

Classification 170 

Number of Species Included 179 

Forms Described as New 181 

North American Migrants 183 

Sequence of Localities Cited 185 

References 185 

English Names 186 

Color Terms 186 

Distributional List of Species and Subspecies 187 

Gazeteer of Colombia Collecting Stations 640 

Bibliography 657 

Errata 660 

Index 661 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Plates. 

No. Facing page 

I. — Map of Colombia Frontispiece 

II. — Fig. 1. The Upper Dagua near Caldas; Fig. 2. Lower Dagua (Arthur 

A. Allen) 20 

III. — Fig. 1. Road between Caldas and San Antonio (Arthur A. Allen); 

Fig. 2. Forest at San Antonio (Frank M. Chapman) 22 

IV. — Eastern side of Western Andes from San Antonio (Frank M. Chapman) 24 
V. — Fig. 1. Western slope of outer ridge of Central Andes; Fig. 2. Eastern 

slope of same ridge as above at same altitude (Frank M. Chapman) 26 

VI. — Fig. 1. Cauca River near Buga; Fig. 2. Forest on the Cauca River 

at Rio Frio (Leo E. Miller) 26 

VII. — Fig. 1. Santa Isabel from Laguneta; Fig. 2. Laguneta (Frank M. 

Chapman) 28 

VIII.— Fig. 1. The Quindio Trail; Fig. 2. The Quindio Trail (Frank M. 

Chapman) 28 

IX. — Fig. 1. Railroad between Honda and La Dorada; Fig. 2. Plains of 

Tolima (Frank M. Chapman) 30 

X. — Fig. 1. Crest of Western Andes, west of Popayan; Fig. 2. La Gallera, 

Western Andes (Leo E. Miller) 32 



Illustrations. ix 

No. Page. 

XI. — Fig. 1. Boquilla Valley from Salento; Fig. 2. Stream near Salento 

(Arthur A. Allen) 34 

Xll.^ — Fig. 1. Chiooral Bridge; Fig. 2. Giradot, upper Magdalena River 

(Frank M. Chapman) 36 

XIII. — Fig. 1. Paramo of Santa Isabel, Central Andes; Fig. 2. Paramo 

of Santa Isabel, Central Andes (Leo. E. Miller) 38 

XIV. — Fig. 1. Between Buenaventura and San Josd (Arthur A. TUlen); 

Fig. 2. Juntas de Tamand, (Leo. E. Miller) 40 

XV.— Map of Central Western Colombia 42 

XVI. — Fig. 1. Near the Source of the Magdalena River; Fig. 2. LosChor- 

rillos, above Almaguer (Leo E. Miller) 44 

XVII.— Fig. 1. Coast near Carthagena (Leo E. MOler); Fig. 2. Shores of 

the Lower Magdalena River (Frank M. Chapman) 50 

XVIIJ.— Fig. 1. Central Lower Magdalena River; Fig. 2. A Wood Yard in 

the Magdalena Forests (Frank M. Chapman) _ 52 

XIX.— Fig. 1. Slopes above Bogotd; Fig. 2. The Environs of Bogotd, 

(Frank M. Chapman) 54 

XX. — Fig. 1. Eastern Andes between Bogota and Chipaque; Fig. 2. Chip- 

aque (Frank M. Chapman) '. 56 

XXI. — Rio Negro from Monteredondo; Fig. 2. Junction of Rio Cdqueza 

and Rio Negro (Frank M. Chapman) .^ 58 

XXII. — Fig. 1. Country near Sta. Elena, Central Andes; Fig. 2. Western 

Andes near Antioquia (Leo E. Miller) 62 

XXIII. — Fig. 1. The Paramillo, Western Andes; Fig. 2. Characteristic 

Vegetation on the Paramillo (Leo E. Miller) 64 

XXIV. — Fig. 1. Alto Bonito, Rio Suoio; Fig. 2. Rio Cauca at Puerto 

Valdivia (Leo E. Miller) 66 

XXV. — Distribution of Forests in Colombia 72 

XXVI. — Life Zones and Faunas of Colombia 84 

XXVII. — Western Slope of Central Andes from La ManueHta. (Frank M. 

Chapman) 94 

XXVIIL— Fig. 1. Farallones of Call, Western Andes; Fig. 2. Farallones 

of Call, Western Andes (Frank M. Chapman) 96 

XXIX. — Fig. 1. Cauca Valley from San Antonio; Fig. 2. Cauca Valley 

from Miraflores (Frank M. Chapman) 126 

XXX. — Fig. 1. Near ViHavicencio; Fig. 2. Near Villavicencio (Frank M. 

Chapman) 132 

XXXI.— Subtropical Forest (Frank M. Chapman) 138 

XXXIL— Heart of the Central Andes (Frank M. Chapman) 140 

XXXIII. — Rio Negro Canon near Monteredondo (Frank M. Chapman) .... 148 
XXXIV. — Fig. 1. Primeval Forest at Buena Vista; Fig. 2. Forest Interior 

at Buena Vista (Frank M. Chapman) 150 

XXXV. — Figs. 1 and 2. Characteristic Trees of Temperate Zone Forest 

(Frank M. Chapman) 160 

XXXVI.— Wax Pahns (Frank M. Chapman) ■ 258 

XXXVII. — Fuertes's Parrakeet, i?apatopsitoc£t/Meries!i (Chapm.) (Drawn by 

L. A. Fuertes.) 264 

XXXVIII. — Bills of Toucans (Drawn from fresh specimens by L. A. Fuertes) 328 



X Idstof New Names. 

No. Page. 
XXXIX. — Miller's Ant Pitta, GraUaria milleri Chapm. ; Allen's Ant Pitta, 

Grallaria alleni Chapm. (Drawn by L. A. Fuertes.) 396 

XL. — Black-headed Finch, Ailapetes fusco-oKvaceus Chapm.; Yellow-headed 

Finch, Ailapetes flaviceps Chapm. (Drawn by L. A. Fuertes.) '574 

XLI. — Key Map to Colombian Collecting Stations 656 



Text Figures. 

1. Life Zones of the Colombian Andes 86 

2. Ideal section through the Ecuadorian Andes to show zones of vegetation 87 

3. Known range of Sapayoa cemigma, a characteristic species of the Colom- 

bian-Pacific Fauna of the Tropical Zone 107 

4. Range of Zarhynchus wagleri 108 

5. Known range of Osculatia Ill 

6. Distribution of the western races of Manacus manacus 112 

7. Known range of Arremonops conirostris 113 

8. Ranges of Capita squamatus and C. maculicoronatus 114 

9. Known distribution of Micramanacha lanceolata 118 

10. Known range of Thamnophilus nigriceps 119 

11. Range of Osiinops decumanus 120 

12. Known range of Myrmeciza exsul 121 

13. Range of Donacohius atricapillus 123 

14. Range of Thraupis palmarum 125 

15. Distribution of the Cock-of-the-Rock 137 

16. Distribution of Formicarius rufipectus 147 

17. Distribution of Buarreman brunneinuchus 152 

18. Distrihution oi Atlapetes gutturalis 154 

19. Semi-diagrammatic representation of the range of Scytalopus niger. . . . 162 

20. Known distribution of Pyroderus scutatus 177 

21. A probable case of Hybridism. Ranges of Ramphacelus icteronotus and 

its allies 611 



LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES DESCRIBED OR RENAMED 
. IN THIS VOLUME. 

Page. 

Zenaida ruficauda antiaquioe Chapman 207 

Phaetharnis striigularis subrufesce7is Chapman 283 

Hdianthea coeligena ferruginea Chapman 298 

Vestipedes paramillo Chapman 301 

Brachygalbafulviventris caguetce Chapman 338 

Pittasoma harterli Chapman . 392 

Pipra hucacilla minimus Chapman 480 

Troglodytes muscuLus neglectus Chapman 520 

Henicorhina prostheleuca albilaleralis Chapman 524 

Cyclarhis flavipectus parvus Chapman 540 

Pseudochloris citrina antioquia Chapman 571 



BULLETIN 



American Museum of Natural History. 



Volume XXXVI, 1917. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIRD-LIFE IN COLOMBIA; 

A CONTRIBUTION TO A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 

OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

By Frank M. Chapman. 
Part I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

SYNOPSIS. 

Part I. 

Introduction 

Acknowledgments 

A Review of Colombian Ornithology 

The American Museum's Expeditions in Colombia 

Auxiliary Collections 

An Outline of Colombian Topography 

Remarks on the Distribution of Forests 

Notes on Colombian Climatology 

The Life Zones of the Colombian Andes 

The Tropical Zone and its Faunas 

The Subtropical Zone and its Faunas 

The Temperate Zone 

The Paramo Zone 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Pakt II. 

A Distributional List of the Birds Collected in Colombia by the American 
Mnsemn's Expeditions 

Appendix. 



A Gazeteer of Colombian Collecting Stations 
Bibliography 

Index. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of BirdAife in Colombia. 3 

Part I. 
INTRODUCTION. 

Our knowledge of the animal life of regions remote from the older centres 
of learning has been acquired through essentially similar channels. The 
casual specimens brought back, in whole or part, as curios by early ex- 
plorers, missionaries, travelers and adventurers were, in some instances, 
followed by shipments of the pelage or plumage of those species having a 
commercial value. Material of this kind was generally collected by natives 
and was lacking in data. Later came the exploring naturalists and profes- 
sional collectors. When not members of an expedition designed to enter 
some hitherto unknown region, they at first found near the pathways of 
trade vast territories as yet zoologically unknown. It was only when the 
faunas of the regions reached by these long existing, if little traveled, routes 
failed to yield further novelties, that naturalists penetrated into less accessible 
places which, for some reason, had not lured the prospector, trapper or trader. 

These purely natural history expeditions have, as a rule, gone out to 
discover new species. Collections were made at widely separated localities 
with the double object of avoiding duplication of material, and of securing 
forms which had not before been taken. 

As long as large areas remained unexplored it is natural that we should 
desire a knowledge of their animal life. But having acquired this knowledge, 
if is also natural that we should wish to solve the problems which arise from 
its possession. Thus, through the sources mentioned, we now have so 
complete a knowledge of South American bird-life that it is not probable 
further exploration will reveal any considerable number of distinct species. 
In short, we have now reached that stage in our study of the South American 
ornis, when, the search for species over, we may attempt to learn something 
of the habits, racial variations and geographic distribution of the between 
four and five thousand birds known to inhabit that country. 

Acting on this belief, the American Museum of Natural History in- 
augurated in December, 1910, an intensive zoological survey of South 
America. For the present the work of this survey is restricted to the col- 
lecting of birds and mammals and of information concerning them and the 
country they inhabit. Our ultimate object is the discovery of the geo- 
graphic origin of South American life, but it is understood that this major 
problem cannot be successfully approached until we have a far more definite 
knowledge of faunal areas in South America than exists at present. ' 



4 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

This knowledge is not within our reach until we have a much larger num- 
ber of specimens than our museums now contain. These must be collected, 
not at widely separated localities, but at as many stations as are necessary 
to represent the principal physiographic and climatic areas contained in 
the range of the species. 

Our expeditions were instructed to make as complete a collection of the 
birds at each station as circumstances permitted. The commoner, more 
widely distributed species are more apt to reflect environmental influences 
than rarer ones of limited distribution, and are often, therefore, of more 
scientific value. 

One unfamiliar with the problems involved might imagine that we have 
accumulated an unnecessarily large number of specimens. "^ But I regard 
each specimen as standing for a concrete fact. It places beyond dispute 
the occurrence of its species at a definite place on a certain date. The con- 
dition of its sexual organs helps to determine the relation between season 
and period of reproduction; its external characters enable us to distinguish 
between individual variations of sex, age and season, and those which 
result from environment and mark the nascent species. 

The bird-life of Colombia is probably as well known as that of any 
other part of tropical America of similar extent, but one has only to read 
the 'Review of Colombian Ornithology,' presented beyond, to realize how 
wholly inadequate for the ends in view, were the existing data in regard 
to the distribution of birds in Colombia when we began our work there. 

To determine the boundaries of zones and faunas as they are manifested 
by birds and mammals is our first aim, and in the course of this work we 
trust that our study of purely local conditions will at times so closely connect 
cause and effect, that we may throw some light on the laws governing 



1 Lest we be accused of needless sacrifice of life, it will be well to state that our collections are far 
from sufficient satisfactorily to settle all the questions of speciation and distribution raised by our 
studies. 

From the standpoint of bird protection, the number of specimens taken has produced about as 
much effect on Colombian bird-life as would the collecting of the same number of plants have on the 
Colombian flora. The results of general collecting on the avifauna of a region as a whole are always 
neghgible. It is only when the collector's attention is focused on a certain species that its numbers 
are appreciably diminished. A milliner's agent, for example, whom I met in Mendoza, Argentina, 
told me that be, alone, had sent the wing and tail-quills of 16,000 Condors to Paris! All were killed 
in the Argentine Andes where, in consequence, the species has become comparatively rare. 

On the other hand, eighty years of general collecting for millinery purposes in the Bogota region 
has not, so far as we could observe, seriously affected the numbers of birds inhabiting it. Our expedi- 
tion No. 7, in passing from the Magdalena Valley over the Eastern Andes to Villavicencio, and hence 
through the heart of the Bogota region, secured over five hundred species of land-birds in some two 
months* collecting, a number which clearly indicates the richness of the avifauna. Nevertheless, from 
this region, as stated above, hundreds of thousands, perhaps even millions, of birds have been shipped 
to European dealers. 

In view of these facts, it is hardly necessary to add that our average of twelve specimens per 
species has not perceptibly reduced the bird-life of the wide area over which we worked! 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 5 

the origin of species and the distribution of life. It is also hoped that 
the technical reports on our large collections may be acceptable to the 
systematic ornithologist. 

Colombia was selected as our first field of operations, not because we 
believed it to be zoologically the least known part of South America. On 
the contrary, so far as birds are concerned, the trade in native-made, 
'Bogota skins' has doubtless resulted in a greater number of specimens 
being shipped from Colombia than from any other part of South America. 

Colombia was chosen, therefore, because of its proximity, because cir- 
cumstances ' had already aroused our interest in its avifauna, because lying 
at the base of the Isthmus of Panama it is also at the. crux of the problem 
of intercontinental relationships, and because it possesses more diverse 
physiographic and climatic conditions, combined with a greater variety 
of animal life, than any other part of South America of similar extent. 

The intensely humid Pacific, and arid Caribbean coasts, isolated Cauca 
and upper Magdalena Valleys, widespreading Amazonian forests and no 
less extensive llanos, three distinct mountain ranges and insular mountain 
mass of Santa Marta, each with four zones of life, give exceptionally wide 
scope for the manifestation of biogeographic phenomena in Colombia. 

From December, 1910, to April, 1915, we have had from one to six 
collectors in Colombia, crossing and recrossing the mountains and travers- 
ing the intervening valleys in pursuance of a carefully planned survey, 
designed to extend from sea-level to snow-line, and from the Pacific coast 
to the tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco. 

At the outset we were impressed by the absolute necessity of determining 
the level, as it were, at which a species flows before we could hope to dis- 
cover whence it came and whither it is going. 

A study of the distributional problems presented by Colombian bird- 
life, based on a collection of specimens from unknown altitudes, would lead 
to as inaccurate and confusing results as would the study of a collection of 
fossils from unknown geological formations. 

The differences between the bird-life of the Tropical and Temperate 
Zones, for example, are equally important whether occasioned by latitude 
or altitude. No one would think of removing the labels from specimens 
collected on the Amazon and in Argentina and then writing of them as 
having all been taken at one locality. But it would be no more improper 
to do this than to write of the distribution of bird-life in the Eastern 
Andes of Colombia on the basis of a collection of native-made 'Bogota' 
skins. 

As a result of our labors, we are now in possession of approximately 
15,775 birds and 1600 mammals, all carefully labeled with locality and 



6 Bullelin American Mtiseum o/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

altitude, as well as many field-notes on distribution.'^ To these data the 
writer can add information gained on two expeditions which have led 
him across the three ranges of the Colombian Andes, from Buenaventura 
on the Pacific coast to Villavicencio at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes. Not only does a field experience acquaint one with the country, 
and all that such personally acquired knowledge implies,^ but it gives one a 
supply of negative facts which the most extensive collections cannot fur- 
nish. While specimens show where a species does occur, they fail to tell 
where it does not occur, and the latter fact is quite as important as the 
former. But when one is reasonably famihar with the appearance, espe- 
cially in life, of the birds of a country, not only the presence but also the 
absence of the more common or conspicuous species is noted. The alti- 
tudinal ranges of those most easily observed can be determined with more 
or less accuracy even from horseback as one travels slowly through the 
mountains. Climbing to the summit of ridge after ridge, and descending 
to the floor of the valleys between them, species appear and disappear 
at certain altitudes with a regularity which enables one to predict with 
more or less certainty when they will be found and when lost. 

Satisfactory determination of our Colombian specimens, and a true 
conception of the limits of those f aunal areas lying only partly in Colombia 
required field-work in contiguous regions. Richardson, was, therefore, 
despatched to Ecuador where he collected some 4000 specimens, while with 
Anthony and Ball he secured 1800 specimens in eastern Panama. The Smith 
collection of birds from the Santa Marta region has also been of great 
service for comparison with our material from other parts of Colombia. 

The routes followed by our eight expeditions, and the localities at which 
we, as well as others, have collected, are shown on the map accompanying 
our Gazeteer of Colombian collecting stations; while full itineraries of each 
expedition are given beyond. 

It will be observed that our work has been restricted to what may be 
termed Andean Colombia. We have not attempted to penetrate the 
Amazonian forests beyond the upper Caqueta, or to explore the llanos 
east of Villavicencio. The uniformity of environmental conditions to the 
eastward of these points, in connection with our knowledge of Amazonian 
and Orinocan bird-life, warrant the belief that we should not find eastern 
Colombia to possess any marked faunal characteristics not shown by ad- 
joining regions in the same zones. 

The Sierras of the upper Uaupes and upper Inrida doubtless offer 
habitats not afforded by the country from which they rise, but the explora- 
tions of Rice fail to show a higher altitude in these mountains than 2850 



1 Cf. Bull. \. M. N. H.. XXXI, 1912, p. 139. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. t 

feet, leaving their summits therefore, so far as known, in the Tropical Zone. 
The zoological exploration of these Sierras, is, however, greatly to be desired. 

We have done no collecting in the Eastern Andes north of Cundinamarca, 
since the papers of Wyatt and Berlepsch indicate that this region has no 
faunal features which are peculiar to it; but we do feel the need of exact 
data, particularly in regard to the distribution of forests, from the extreme 
northern end of this range. 

In Antioquia we have felt compelled to duplicate to some extent the 
work of Salmon, especially in the Tropical Zone, which, lying in the region 
where Pacific coast and east Andean faunal elements meet, occupies a posi- 
tion of much importance. 

The Santa Marta group affords a closely related but independent 
problem to the one we have attacked, and its solution may well be left in 
the experienced hands of Mr. M. A. Carriker, Jr., whose six years' residence 
in this region has given him exceptional opportunities for the continuous 
study of its life. 

Even with the restrictions named, the territory to be examined is so 
large, its topography so varied, its fauna so rich, and much of it is so com- 
paratively inaccessible, that we have covered it only superficially. But 
the resources at our command, and the extent of our ultimate plan, have 
made it imperative that we should make only a reasonably thorough recon- 
naissance of this part of the field, if we would hope to advance our study 
of the major problems involved in other parts of South America. 

It was a constant source of regret to us that we were not accompanied 
by a botanist who might have collected and identified at least the more 
characteristic plants of each zone and fauna. I feel, however, that the 
conclusions reached, based wholly on birds, have, in some respects, a greater 
value than if they had been based on the combined study of birds and plants. 
In their present form they constitute an independent contribution to zoogeo- 
graphy, solely from the standpoint of ornithology. The final determination 
of zonal, faunal and floral boundaries, will, in my opinion, be reached 
by the combination of similar independent contributions from the botanist 
and students of other branches of the animal kingdom. Meanwhile, 
comparison of the results here presented with those given by Wolf (Geo- 
grafia y Geologia del Ecuador; see beyond) based only on plants, shows 
a most assuring agreement. 

In this connection I desire to state with emphasis that the maps and 
profiles accompanying this report are not assumed to possess more than 
semi-diagrammatic accuracy. Colombian physiography is still too im- 
perfectly recorded to supply a base map on which faunal data might be 
entered. It is, indeed, so indefinitely diversified that our entire time in 
Colombia might have been devoted to a single mountain range and still 



8 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVl, 

not have given us the information needed to map its zones and faunas with 
a thoroughness which would begin to express all the facts and factors in- 
volved. 

We must, therefore, leave to future workers the task of filling in the details 
of our work in Colombia, with a hope that they will find the zonal and f aunal 
boundaries here proposed at least fundamentally correct. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The American Museum gratefully acknowledges the courtesies extended 
to it by the Colombian Government through its representatives in this 
country, and its administrators at the ports of Barranquilla, Buenaventura, 
and Tumaco. The consideration shown us by these gentlemen, and the 
promptness with which our equipment and supplies have been admitted to 
their country has materially advanced the objects of our expeditions. 

To the representatives of our own country in Colombia we are also 
indebted for many courtesies. 

We have received so many favors from individuals that properly to 
acknowledge them would require the enumeration of the names of the scores 
of persons on whom, for one purpose or another, we have called for assistance. 
Our requirements were often so unusual, or, to us, so pressing, that to meet 
them was frequently not a matter of their money value, and we had then to 
rely upon the generosity and good-will of those on whom we were in truth 
dependent. In this connection we are particularly under obligation to 
Mr. Chas. J. Eder, of the beautiful sugar estate La Manuelita, near Palmira 
in the Cauca Valley. After entertaining our first expedition at his home, 
Mr. Eder not only placed his bungalow ' Miraflores,' in the mountains, 
and ranch 'Guengiie' at our disposal, but supplied us with mules to make 
the journey from one to the other. We have also to thank Mr. Eder for 
many personal attentions which added materially to our comfort, and for 
letters to his agents in various parts of Colombia. 

Mr. Henry Eder, of the firm Eder & Co., at Call, acted as our forwarding 
agent during the year or more of our work in the Cauca region and through 
his efficient service we completed our labors without the loss in transporta- 
tion of a single specimen or item of equipment. 

In Bogota, Mr. F. L. Rockwood has acted in a similar capacity for cer- 
tain small collections acquired since our expedition left that region. For 
•these we have mainly to *hank Hermano Apolinar Maria, Director of the 
admirably arranged museum of the Instituto de la Salle. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 9 

Hermano Apolinar has presented us with numbers of specimens, and 
has secured for us additional specimens of species not satisfactorily repre- 
sented in our own collections. Notably, Cistothorus apolinari and Asio 
accipitrinus bogotensis. 

We are also under obligations to Mr. D. C. Stapleton, Mr. Charles Miller, 
Dr. Hamilton Rice, Gen. Rafael Santos, Sr. Jesus Velez, and Mr. Mervyn S. 
Palmer. 

We should indeed be lacking a sense of appreciation if we did not express 
our gratitude to the people of Colombia with whom at one time or another 
and in a thousand nameless ways, we have come in contact. From the 
peon by the wayside to the owners of haciendas one and all have shown us 
the most courteous attention. 

When traveling through remote, unsettled regions with a valuable 
outfit and often considerable sums of money, we have felt as safe (possibly 
safer!) than when in our own homes. When in camp or at hotels, country 
inns or posadas, we made no special provision for guarding our equipment 
and supplies; nevertheless, during the five years of our work we did not 
suffer the loss of a single item by theft. Indeed, on passing through a 
certain village where one of our party had previously worked, we were 
stopped by a native bringing a needle and thread which had been left behind! 

But especially do I desire, so far as mere words will permit, to pay a 
tribute to the men with whom it has been my privilege to be associated on 
our zoological explorations in Colombia: To William B. Richardson, Louis 
A. Fuertes, Leo E. Miller, Arthur A. Allen, George K. Cherrie, Paul G. 
Howes, Geoffroy O'Connell, Thomas M. Ring, and Howarth Boyle. To 
their untiring enthusiasm and whole-souled devotion to the Museum's 
interests may be credited the most valuable collections of birds and mam- 
mals which have been brought from any part of South America. 

To Richardson, veteran among collectors in tropical America, was given 
the exceptionally unhealthful stations on the Pacific coast. Here he suffered 
from fever and from beri-beri, but with the amazing vitality which has 
carried him through thirty years of exposure to tropical diseases, he con- 
tinued work when most men would have succumbed. 

Miller, a novice on our first expedition, showed such resourcefulness, 
energy and persistence in overcoming the difficulties which are the neces- 
sary accompaniment of collecting in the tropics, that he was subsequently 
selected as one of the Museum's representatives with the Roosevelt Brazilian 
Expedition. 

His work during the rainy season in the humid Amazonian forests of 
the Caqueta, where with only unskilled native assistance he secured 830 
birds and mammals in 30 days is a feat in tropical collecting; while his 



10 BuUetin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

ascent of the Paramillo is our most difficult and noteworthy piece of actual 
exploration in Colombia. On this latter trip he was ably assisted by 
Howarth Boyle. 

Cherrie's extended experience in South America made him an invaluable 
associate on our trip in the Bogota region. Particularly effective as a 
collector he was no less efficient in dealing with those details of transporta- 
tion and subsistance which form so important a part of field-work in thinly 
settled regions. He, too, was chosen as a representative of the Museum 
on the Roosevelt Expedition. 

Allen's admirable descriptions of the country which he explored show 
how well qualified he was for work of this kind, and serve to double our 
regret that an illness contracted in the unhealthful Choc6 region, should 
have necessitated his return to New York just as he was approaching the 
most productive part of Colombia. 

Howes, O'Connell and Ring made up in enthusiasm what, at first, they 
lacked in experience, and to them we owe many specimens of birds and 
mammals which would not otherwise have been obtained. 

I am sure that no other member of our various Colombian expeditions 
will feel that I am giving undue praise to any one member of it when I say 
that the best qualities each one exhibited were all present in Fuertes. 
Officially the artist of the expeditions with which he was connected, he filled, 
in truth, whatever position seemed most to require his attention. In 
looking for an opportunity to help others, he rivalled Cherrie, while his 
unbounded enjoyment of the experiences of his associates, as well as his own, 
made him an ideal companion. 

To the fellow-workers who have rendered me assistance in the prepara- 
tion of this paper, I am indebted no less than to those who have aided us 
in the field. For the loan of specimens used in comparison, I have to thank 
Dr. Chas. W. Richmond, of the United States National Museum, Mr. 
E. W. Nelson, of the Biological Survey, Dr. Witmer Stone, of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Mr. Outram Bangs, of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Mr. Thomas E. Penard, of Arlington, Mass., Mr. 
L. A. Fuertes, of Ithaca, N. Y., Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd, of the Carnegie 
Museum, and Mr. Charles B. Cory, of the Field Museum. Mr. Phanor 
Eder, author of the authoritative work on Colombia in the Fisher-Unwin 
series, has supplied me with numerous references to the literature of Colom- 
bian exploration and loaned me from his extensive Colombian library, a 
number of works not elsewhere available. Professor Isaiah Bowman, 
Director of the American Geographical Society, has given me access to the 
Colombian maps in his charge, and supplied much of the data on which 
the map of Colombia accompanying this paper is based. 



I 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution oj Bird-life in Colombia. 11 

My assistant, Mr. Waldron DeWitt Miller has given me the benefit 
of his. advice in many knotty problems, and to Mr. David S. Ball and Mrs. 
Alice K. Fraser, of the Department of Birds, I am also under many obliga- 
tions. Mr. Ball made the preliminary identifications of the Hummingbirds, 
while to Mrs. Fraser has fallen the clerical labor, comparison of refer- 
ences, proof-reading, indexiag, etc., incident to the preparation of a report 
of this kind. 

Additional assistance of a more specific nature is acknowledged in con- 
nection with the instance in which it has been given. 



A REVIEW OF COLOMBIAN ORNITHOLOGY. 

' Bogota ' Collections. — Eighty years had passed since the publication 
of the tenth edition of Linnaeus' 'Systema Natura' before naturalists began 
to draw on the ornithological treasures of Colombia which, after eighty 
years more, are still unexhausted. It was apparently in 1838 or 1839 that 
a French collector, resident in Bogota, began to send birds' skins to Paris. 
These came to the attention of Boissoneau, Lafresnaye, Des Murs and 
Bourcier, who described many of them as new in the pages of the 'Revue 
Zoologique' and 'Revue et Magazin.' Native collectors soon learned how 
to prepare skins which, in increasing numbers, were sent to Paris, and, 
apparently as early as 1840, reached London, since Fraser described several 
new 'Bogota' birds in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1840. 
So large were the shipments of birds from Bogota that in 1855 Sclater, 
from whose paper we learn these facts, published in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society, a list of 435 species personally known to him from the 
Bogota region. Many of these were species of wide distribution, others 
were migrants from North America, but of the remainder, no less than 180 
had been described from "New Grenada," as the country was then called, 
chiefly from the Bogota region, and of these some seventy were first made 
known by Lafresnaye. In 1857 (P. Z. S., pp. 15-20) Sclater published an 
addendum which added 52 species to his previous list making 487 which at 
that time were known from the Bogota region. 

Since that date hundreds of thousands, possibly even millions, of birds, 
collected primarily for millinery purposes, have been shipped from Bogota, 
in the main to London and Paris. This trade probably reached its maxi- 
mum about 1885, when the fashion of wearing small birds on hats was 
at its height, but with a changP in style which created a demand for the 



12 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

plumes and quills of large birds rather than the entire bodies of small ones, 
the commerce in 'Bogota' skins has declined, and, although it has not been 
wholly abandoned, comparatively few birds are shipped at the present 
time. 

How many species could now be attributed to the Bogota region I have 
made no attempt to ascertain, the rather vague limits of the region itself 
making the number of birds assigned to it of no exact scientific importance, 
but it is safe to say that the "upwards of 700" which Sclater {I. c.) pre- 
dicted would be found, has been reached and perhaps exceeded. 

Bogota skins, as Sclater remarked, "are easily recognized by persons 
who have had experience in such matters, the wings and tail being squeezed 
up into the body and the whole skin pressed together in a manner which 
gives them a very different appearance from birds brought from any other 
country." They are collected by natives and even to this day the birds 
are killed chiefly with the blow-gun, a pellet of clay serving as ammunition. 

The use of this weapon explains why birds like Swifts, Swallows, Hawks, 
and some of the more elusive thicket-haunters, etc., which cannot readily 
be killed with it, are but poorly represented in Bogota collections. It is 
used exclusively for Hummingbirds which are shot as they hover while 
feeding. Mr. L. E. Miller, while in charge of one of our Colombian 
expeditions, encountered a native who was collecting in this manner about 
forty Hununers per day, for the skins of which he received two cents apiece 
in Bogota. Bogota skins, it should be added for the benefit of those who 
are not famiUar with them, are not accompanied by data of any kind. 
Exactly where or when they were taken are therefore matters of conjecture, 
and their sex can only be assumed when sexual difference in color or size 
warrants such assumption. 

The distances from Bogota reached by the native collectors have never 
been stated, so far as I am aware. Sclater was informed that it was prob- 
ably never "farther than a circuit of one hundred miles around the city," 
but with our present-day knowledge of the distribution of birds it is evident 
from an examination of Sclater's list, with its records of Chelidoptera tene- 
brosa, Cotinga nattereri, and Phrygilus geospizopsis that even at that early 
date the Llanos to the east, the humid Magdalena Valley to the west, and 
the Cordilleras from base to summit were visited by the native hunters. 
So great has been the supply of these Bogota skins that no collection of 
American tropical birds is without a more or less representative series of 
them. Exploring naturalists have, therefore, turned their attention to other 
parts of South America and there appears to have been practically no scien- 
tific collecting done in the Bogota region. 

The British Museum Catalogue of Birds lists specimens collected near 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 13 

Bogota and in the Llanos to the east by T. H. Wheeler, but apparently no 
special report has appeared on this gentleman's labors, and I am unaware 
of their scope, but it seems probable that many of his specimens were 
collected by natives. In 1899 Dr. Witmer Stone published a report (Proc. 
Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, pp. 302-313) on some 77 species collected by Dr. 
J. W. Detwiler, chiefly from Honda to Ibagiie, and this short paper appears 
to be the only one which has been issued on scientifically collected birds 
from the Bogotd region; but even this collection evidently contains many 
native-made skins. 

There are doubtless few regions in the world where accuracy in labeling 
specimens is of more importance than in that area whence came the so- 
called 'Bogota' skins. In its most restricted sense this area, extending 
from the Magdalena Valley on the west to the base of the Andes on the east, 
contains four life-zones and two distinct basal faunas. While a dataless 
specimen may help indicate the character of the bird-life of the region as a 
whole, it throws no light on faunal or zonal limits or on geographic variation 
under the strikingly different environmental conditions which prevail in 
this part of Colombia. Not only does the absence of data, particularly 
of altitude, make Bogota skins of no value in determining the limits of zones 
and faunas, but in many instances it has been discovered by comparison 
with fresh material, that the old, native-made skins have undergone so 
striking a change in color that they fail to represent properly the species 
to which they belong, and for purposes of exact comparison they are there- 
fore not only worthless but misleading. 

I shall make no attempt to list in detail the many papers consisting 
merely of descriptions of new birds based on Bogota skins. Our own brief 
explorations show that new species are still to be found in sight of the 
city of Bogota itself, and for many years there will no doubt continue to be 
additions to the list of recognized species to which the type-locality ' Bogota' 
is ascribed. 

The Limits of the ' Bogotd' Region. — While the known ranges of the 
birds contained in even the earliest Bogotd collections make it evident that 
the native collectors worked at comparatively great distances from the 
city of Bogota, so far as I am aware no definite information of the regions 
visited by them has been published. The following facts were gathered 
from dealers and collectors in the city of Bogota during our seventh 
Colombian expedition : 

The majority of the birds' skins brought in by natives are collected by 
them within twenty-five miles of the city. Fu^ugasuga to the south, 
Anolaima, at the border of the Subtropical and Tropical Zones, to the 
northwest, and Choachi and Fomeque on the eastern slope of the first 



14 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI 

range of the Andes east of Bogota, are localities from which many speci- 
mens are now received. 

At a greater distance, the region about Villavicencio has supplied a vast 
number of skins. This city is the gateway of the trail to Bogota toward 
which, in default of an eastern outlet, the current of trade from the Llanos 
flows. Villavicencio thus draws on the region east to the Casanare, and 
south and east to the rubber producing forests of Amazonian Colombia. 

Transportation facilities and commercial relationships, therefore, make 
Bogota the market for the products of the vast region lying to the east of 
it, and for this reason eastern Colombia has supplied a far greater number 
of birds' skins than the region west of Bogota, where transportation to the 
marts of the world may be secured without the passage through Bogota 
required by the products of the east. 

Nevertheless, the demand for skins by the Bogota dealers has brought 
specimens from as far north as southern Santander, from west at least as 
far as Ibagiie at the entrance to the Quindio trail over the Central Andes,^ 
and as far south as the head of the Magdalena Valley at San Agustin. It 
was here, that in April, 1912, Leo E. Miller found a native collecting with 
his blow-gun about forty Hummingbirds a day for a Bogotd, dealer, as 
above related. 

It is apparent, therefore, that in exploring the Andes from base to sum- 
mit and working both to the east and west of the Eastern Range, the Bogota 
collectors have pursued their calling in four life-zones and two quite unlike 
faunas. Nevertheless, for the past seventy-odd years, ornithologists have 
used these Bogota specimens in defining the characters and distribution of 
birds without knowing whether they came from the Magdalena Valley or 
the headwaters of the Meta, from the Tropic or the Temperate Zone. 

Even when used in a broad sense, the locality 'Bogota' has come to 
have a far more definite meaning than, in view of the facts above recorded, 
should be given it. With the wider-ranging species it is obvious that 
Bogota collections may contain specimens from far separated localities, 
and, in default of labels, it is often impossible to distinguish between geo- 
graphic and individual variation. 

In a number of instances our collections show that birds inhabiting both 
the western and eastern slope of the Eastern Andes, which have been sup- 
posed to represent one form, belong in fact to two, while in the case of the 
House Wren no less than three forms occupy the area which the most 
recent reviser of this group believed to be occupied by one. 

It seems not improbable that the least-known portion of the restricted 

1 The type of CAomaspefcs g. ffolido'fi came fr'dm this Tegioii. "' ' ' 



1917.] Chapman, Dislribuiion of BirdAife in Colombia. 15 

Bogota region is the Savanna of Bogota itself. The comparatively limited 
number of birds found in this area has made it an unfavorable spot for the 
resident collectors who have, naturally, been more attracted by the richer 
avifauna of forested humid regions. Doubtless for this reason some of 
the commonest of true Bogota species are comparatively rare in Bogota 
collections. 

During one morning I shot the types of new races of the Least Bittern, 
Short-eared Owl, and Yellow-headed Blackbird at Suba, within sight of 
the city. At the same locality Hermano Apolinar Maria secured for us 
specimens of distinct forms of Cistothorus and Hahrura, genera which had 
not been previously reported from the Bogota region. The Coot {Fulica) 
of the Savanna also proves to be a well-marked, undescribed form which has 
doubtless escaped the attention of earlier writers because of lack of material. 

The forested portion of the Magdalena Valley, from La Dorada north- 
ward, seems to have been but little visited by the Bogota collectors who 
prefer the more healthful localities in the mountains to the hot, fever- 
infested river bottoms. 

Claude Wyatt's Explorations. — Aside from the native collections and 
the few birds secured by Wheeler and Detwiler, we have only three other 
sources of information concerning the bird-life of the Eastern Andes and 
country at their base. In January, February and March, 1870, Mr. Claude 
Wyatt made an ornithological reconnaissance in Santander. He left the 
Magdalena River at Puerto Nacional and proceeded thence by mule through 
Ocaiia, La Cruz and Cocuta Surata to Bucaramanga. From this point he 
ascended to the Paramo of Pamplona and returned to the Magdalena near 
what is now Puerto Wilches. He gives an excellent description of the 
country traversed, and the accurate data as regards locality and altitude at 
which he secured specimens of the 210 species he lists, makes his paper (Ibis, 
1871, p. 113 et seq.) one of real scientific value. 

Berlepsch on a Bucaramanga Collection. — - In 1884 Count von Berlepsch 
pubUshed in the Journal fiir Ornithologie (pp. 273-320) a report on a collec- 
tion of some 800 bird skins, representing 150 species, which was sent him 
from Bucaramanga. These skins were made by natives and were without 
data. It is probable that they came from the country immediately sur- 
rounding Bucaramanga, but beyond indicating in a general way the faunal 
affinity of this region with that of Bogota, the collection possesses little 
value for distributional problems. 

Wirt Robinson on the Magdalena: — In 1895, Lieutenant (now Colonel) 
Wirt Robinson published a list of ninety-one species collected or observed 
by himself and his brother on a trip from Barranquilla up the Magdalena 
to Honda and theijce to GuaduaSj , distant a day's journey pn the road to 



16 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Bogota. He returned to Barranquilla over the same route. The expedi- 
tion occupied but a month (June 20-July 21) and afforded neither time nor 
opportunity for much field work. Nevertheless, the daily record of birds 
observed tells us what species enter into the everyday bird-life of this part 
of Colombia, and the records, as far as they go, are definite. It is to be 
regretted that Col. Robinson did not continue his journey to El Vergel, 
but two hours beyond Guaduas, where he would have found first-growth 
forest and an interesting fauna. 

Salmon's Collections in Antioquia. — Proceeding to the west, we shall 
find that beyond the occasional mention of specimens secured by native 
collectors on the 'Quindiu' and in 'Antioquia', our exact knowledge of the 
bird-life of central Colombia has rested solely on the collections made by 
T. K. Salmon in the Department of Antioquia. These were reported on 
by Sclater and Salvin (P. Z. S., 1879, pp. 486-550) in a list of 468 species 
represented by about 3500 specimens. 

Salmon was an Englishman in the employ of the Colombian Govern- 
ment and lived at Medellin. His collections were made between 1872 and 
1878, chiefly at and near Medellin, but he also visited the country as far 
west as Frontino, Antioquia, and Concordia, and as far south as Jerico, 
while to the north and east he reached Remedios, in the Tropical Zone, on 
the headwaters of the Ite, which flows into the Magdalena. His field, 
therefore, extended from the eastern border of the Atrato, to the western 
border of the Magdalena Valleys. 

The locality "Sta. Elena" which appears so often in Sclater and Salvin's 
list, and which they were unable definitely to locate, is situated a few miles 
east of MedeUin, on the summit of the first ridge of the Central Andes 
between that city and the Magdalena Valley. 

Salmon was the first naturalist to make anything approaching a com- 
plete collection of the birds of a stated area in Colombia and his work is of 
high importance. Where his localities are not on or near the boundaries 
of life-zones the data accornpanying his specimens are sufficient. His records 
from Remedios, for example, a station wholly in the Tropical Zone (alt. 
2360 ft.) and at some distance from altitudes of sufficient height to support 
life of the succeeding or Subtropical Zone, are of much significance and give 
us our first, and, until the present time, practically only knowledge of the 
extension of Pacific coast forms into the Magdalena Valley. From Reme- 
dios, for example, Sclater and Salvin record Cyphorhinus phceocephalus, 
Thryophihis nigricapillus, Orthogonys olivaceus, and Capita maculicoronatus. 
When, however, his collections were made at localities where the precipitous 
nature of the ground and height of the mountains produced marked changes 
in altitude within short distances, Salmon evidently failed to appreciate 



1917.] Chapman, LHstribuiion of Bird-life in Colombia. 17 

the necessity for exactness in labeling and his data, as published, are there- 
fore most misleading. To illustrate: from "Sta. Elena" Sclater and Salvin 
record among the Wrens alone, Thryophilus nigricapillus, Thryothorus 
mystacalis, and Cinnicerthia imibrunnea, species which, respectively, are 
characteristic of the Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate Zones and 
whose occurrence at one place, therefore, would be as remarkable as the 
successful cultivation of cacao and wheat in adjoining fields! 

Many similar instances could be given; thus Troglodytes solstitialis, a 
species of the Temperate Zone, is recorded from "Nechi" (sic), a locality in 
the Tropical Zone, and this inaccuracy destroys, in a measure, the value of 
the paper for distributional purposes. Taken, however, with what we have 
learned of the zonal distribution of Colombian birds, and particularly in 
connection with Miller and Boyle's work (Expedition No. 8), Salmon's 
paper gives us an excellent understanding of the avifauna of Antioquia. 
His notes on nesting-habits and -carefully made collection of nests and eggs 
form a noteworthy contribution to our limited knowledge of the life-histories 
of Colombian birds. 

Delattre in Western Colombia. — In western Colombia small ornithological 
collections were made at least as early as 1846, when Delattre and Bourcier 
published in the Revue Zoologique descriptions of new Hummingbirds 
secured by the first-named author on a journey from Buenaventura through 
Juntas (= Cisneros) to Call, Popayan and Pasto. Other birds collected 
by Delattre were described by Laf resnaye, but the total number of specimens 
secured by this early French traveller does not appear to have been very 
large. 

The Michler Expedition to the Atrato. — Our first real knowledge of the 
character of Colombia's Pacific coast avifauna we owe to Chas. J. Wood 
and Wm. S. Wood, Jr., who, as naturalists of the expedition under Lieut. 
Michler to discover a possible route for a canal from the lower Atrato to the 
Pacific, made a collection representing 144 species of birds on the lower 
Atrato, the Truando, and Nercua Rivers. This collection was reported 
on by Cassin in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia for 1860 (pp. 132-144, 188-197), and his paper still remains 
practically our only source of information of the bird-life of this part of 
Colombia. Of the four new species therein described by him, Pittasoma 
michleri, type of a new genus, is the most noteworthy. 

Sundry West Colombian Collectors. — • In 1894, we learn from Hellmayr 
(P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1084), W. F. Rosenberg visited the region east of Buena- 
ventura working chiefly at Juntas and Call. His birds went to the late 
Adolphe Boucard, who published a list of the Hummingbirds in ' The Hum- 
mingbird' (Vol. V, 1895, pp. 5-7) but the bulk of the collection was never 



18 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXX^'I, 

reported on. In 1896 and 1897, Hellmayr writes, Gustav Hopke "sent a 
fair series" from the same district to Count Berlepsch who described several 
new species in the Ornithologische Monatsberichte, Vol. V, 1897, pp. 173- 
176, and in Ornis, XIV, Feb. 1907, pp. 347, 361, 365. Mr. Eugene Andre, 
in 1899, Hellmayr continues, "forwarded a large collection of birds from 
the environs of Buenaventura and western slope of the Andes above that 
town, to Comte de Dalmas of Paris. Unfortunately, the greater part of it 
was subsequently destroyed by accident, and merely a list of Trochilidae, by 
Messrs. Simon and de Dalmas (Ornis, XI, 1901, pp. 216-224)," is the only 
publication it produced. 

In February, 1898, Walter Goodfellow and Claud Hamilton landed at 
Buenaventura and traveled thence to Cali whence they proceeded, via Popa- 
yan, the Patia Valley, Pasto, etc., to Quito. Such collections as were made in 
Colombia were lost in transit, but Goodfellow's report (Ibis, 1901, pp. 300- 
319; 458^80; 699-715; 1902, pp. 59-67; 207-233) on collections subse- 
quently made in Ecuador, contains an interesting description of the journey 
through Colombia with occasional observations on the birds observed. 

Menyn G. Palmer's Collections. — Prior to 1910, the most important 
collections of west Colombian birds, however, have been made by Mervyn 
G. Palmer who collected in the region between Buenaventura and Cali in 
1907 and 1908 and on the Upper San Juan and its sources in the latter part 
of 1908 and 1909. 

The birds believed to be new in the first-named collections were described 
by Outram Bangs in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
for 1908 (pp. 157-161) and 1910 (pp. 71-76), but the main collection has not 
yet been reported on. 

The San Juan collection, numbering some 700 specimens of 201 species, 
fortunately fell into the hands of Hellmayr whose paper on this material 
(P. Z. S., 1911, pp. 1084-1213), prepared with an exceptionally wide knowl- 
edge of South American birds, is, if not the most extensive, at least the most 
satisfactory treatise on the birds of any part of Colombia with which I am 
familiar. 

From June 19 to July 2, 1904, W. W. Brown, Jr., representing John E. 
Thayer, collected vertebrates on Gorgona Island, which lies some thirteen 
miles off the shore of southwestern Colombia. Birds were rare both in 
species and individuals, examples of only fourteen species being secured. 
These with two others are reported on by Thayer and Bangs (Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., XLVI, 1905, pp. 91-98) who describe as new Sula etesiaca, 
Uruhitinga subtilis, Thamnophilus gorgonm, Cyanerpes gigas, and Ccereba 
gorgoncB. 

The Santa Marta Region. — The Santa Marta mountains, because their 
isolation and altitude promised biological results of exceptional interest. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 19 

have received more attention from exploring ornithologists than any other 
part of Colombia. 

They were first visited by F. Simons who, in 1878 and 1879, worked from 
sea-level to as high as 17,000 feet, and on both northern and southern slopes. 
His collections of 182 species formed the basis of papers by Salvin and God- 
man in 'The Ibis' for 1879 (pp. 196-206) and 1880 (pp. 114-125, 169-178). 

Simons was followed by the well-known American collector, W. W. 
Brown, who, in the interests of E. A. and O. Bangs, collected during the 
years 1897-99, approximately 2500 specimens representing some 242 species. 
A series of papers based on this collection was published by Outram Bangs 
in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, and of the 
New England Zoological Club. 

Before Brown had left the region Herbert Smith entered it in charge 
of a party which planned to make a thorough study of its fauna. A seri- 
ous illness and prolonged revolution so interfered with Smith's plans that he 
did little work above the Subtropical Zone. His collections, numbering 
nearly 3000 specimens representing 304 species, were purchased by the 
American Museum of Natural History and were reported on by J. A. Allen 
in the Bulletin of the American Museum for 1900 (pp. 117-183). Dr. 
Allen includes in this paper references to the 84 species secured by Simons 
and Brown but not by Smith, bringing the total number of birds known 
from the Santa Marta region up to 388. 

■ Since the year 1911, M. A. Carriker, Jr., who has had prolonged experi- 
ence in the American tropics, has been resident in the San Lorenzo moun- 
tains of the Santa Marta group and in the adjoining country, where he has 
made large collections of birds for the Carnegie Museum. W. E. Clyde 
Todd has described some of the species secured, and it is to be hoped that 
we may have a resume of our knowledge of the exceptionally interesting 
bird-life of this group of mountains in which Carriker's field studies may be 
employed to map its zones and faunas. No other part of the Andes has 
received such long continued attention from a trained collector. 

It appears, therefore, that aside from the Santa Marta group, and 
omitting reference to ' Bogota ' skins as of no value in an attempt to deter- 
mine with exactness the boundaries of life-zones and faunal areas, our 
knowledge of Colombian birds rests, in the main, on Wyatt's three months' 
explorations in the Eastern Andes of Santander, Salmon's extensive col- 
lections in Antioquia, the work of the Michler expedition in the lower 
Atrato, and of Palmer on the San Juan and Pacific slope west of Buenaven- 
tura. It is obvious then, in view of these facts and the extent and topo- 
graphic diversity of the area to be covered, that we had before us a task of 
some magnitude when, in November, 1910, we began our field-work in 
Colombia. 



20 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM'S EXPEDITIONS IN COLOMBIA. 

In planning our field-work in Colombia we experienced much difficulty 
in securing definite information concerning means of transportation, routes, 
and the character of the country we proposed to visit. 

Aside from the use of the railways from Buenaventura to Caldas and 
Puerto Colombia to Barranquilla, and La Dorada to Honda, and of 
steamers and launches on the San Juan, Cauca, and Magdalena rivers, 
our work in Colombia has of necessity been conducted solely with the aid 
of pack animals and porters. Such limited transportation facilities in a 
country where topography and climate further add to the difficulties of 
travel, imply a lack of intercommunication between regions which, although 
contiguous, are separated by high mountain ranges with but few passes. 

We should not therefore, have been surprised often to find it impossible 
to learn from the inhabitants of one district even the most salient features 
of what to us seemed comparatively nearby districts. 

For this reason it has seemed to me to be desirable to publish at some 
length the itinerary of each of our eight expeditions in Colombia with a 
general description of the routes followed and stations at which collections 
were made. This information is presented not only for its bearing in the 
present connection, but as a contribution to Colombian geography. 

Miller and Richardson in the Andes west of Popayan, Miller and Allen 
in the Paramo of Santa Isabel and in crossing from Cartago to Novita and 
Popayan to San Agustin; Miller in the Caqueta region and with Boyle on 
the Paramillo, have visited regions about which little or nothing has been 
published; while the narrative of those expeditions which followed more 
beaten trails, may have a practical value to those who, for whatever pur- 
pose, follow in our footsteps. 

That our explorations may be extended to advantage, is beyond ques- 
tion, for there still exist large areas in Colombia of which we know but little 
or nothing. The bird-life of Amazonian Colombia, probably richer than 
that of any other part of the republic, is known to us only through the 
results of Miller's one month's collecting in the Caqueta region; in the 
Llanos proper there has been no scientific collecting; the character of the 
bird-life of the northern end of the Eastern Andes we know only by inference; 
no collections have been made in the Goajira Peninsula, and but few speci- 
mens have been recorded from the arid coastal region west of the Magda- 
lena. The great Magdalena forests are still but imperfectly explored; 
the Central Andes south of Antioquia have been visited only by our expe- 
ditions; even the ornis of the Cauca Valley, as elsewhere stated, is not 



Bulletin A, M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate II. 




Fig. 1. The Uppee Daqua near Caldas 
(Tropical Zone; arid portion of tlie Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 




Fig. 2. The Lower Dagua 
(Tropical Zone; Colombian-Pacific Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 21 

satisfactorily known. Miller and Allen in their rapid crossing from Cartago 
to Novita took species not found by us elsewhere, while work in Tatamd 
Mountain and Cerro Torra in this region, the 'Paramo' of Frontino to 
the north, and Farallones of Cali to the south, would be certain to yield 
valuable results. 

The Patia Valley with its unique tropical connection with the Pacific 
coast, offers an unusual problem in zoogeography, while the Pacific coast 
itself is ornithologically unknown from the Patia to the San Juan rivers. 
Particularly, would I call attention to the need of further exploration in the 
Choco region, and especially in the Baudo range and mountains on the 
Panama frontier. 

Expedition No. 1. Buenaventura to the Cauca Valley; Reconnaissance, Cali 
to Giradot over the Quindio Pass. November 10, 1910- June 4, 1911. 

Personnel. — Frank M. Chapman, Louis A. Fuertes, Wm. B. Rich- 
ardson, Leo E. Miller. 

Itinerary. — Richardson reached Buenaventura on the Pacific coast, 
alone, on November 9, and proceeded at once to Caldas (alt. 2560 ft.) 
distant forty miles at the end of the railway under construction from Buena- 
ventura to Cali. He remained at Caldas until November 24, and thence 
retraced his steps some fifteen miles to San Jose (alt. 600 ft.) collecting there 
from November 27 to December 18. On the last-named date he left for 
Cali, at the eastern foot of the Western Andes, and this large, attractive 
city became our base of operations for the succeeding year. Collections 
were made about Cali until December 31, when Richardson moved to the 
mouth of the pass (alt. 6600 ft.) in the Western Andes, 3100 feet above the 
town, and established himself at a wayside posada surrounded by forest. 
This locality is known as Las Cruces, from three large crosses which mark 
the divide, and also as San Antonio, from a small settlement just below the 
pass on the trail to Cali. It was at this point that Mervyn G. Palmer 
made part of the important collections purchased by Mr. Bangs; and at 
El Tigre, a ranch about 1500 feet below the divide and to the west, Eugene 
Andre collected. * 

February 26, Richardson moved from San Antonio to Las Lomitas 
(alt. about 5000 ft.), a ranch on the Pacific slope some five miles to the 
northwest, and worked there until March 7. 

In order to be near the coast while awaiting the arrival of the remainder 
of the expedition, Richardson went to Los Cisneros (alt. 900 ft), also known 
as Juntas, at the junction of the Dagua and Las Petitas rivers, and the head 



22 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

t)f canoe navigation on the first-named stfeam, and remained there until 
March 21. Two days later he reached Buenaventura where he was joined 
by Chapman, Fuertes and Miller. 

The whole party now went to Call, and after depositing there a large 
part of their equipment and supphes, established themselves, March 29, 
very comfortably in a bungalow at San Antonio, immediately below the 
forest which crowns the crest of the mountain. The collections made by 
us here in connection with those of Palmer, are believed to contain a large 
proportion of the birds which occur in this locality. 

April 8 we returned to Cali and on the 11th reached the sugar estate of 
La Manuelita in the Cauca Valley, some five miles north pf Palmira. Here 
we were the guests of Mr. Charles J. Eder until the 18th, when with pack 
animals supplied by Mr. Eder, we moved to his bungalow, Miraflores, situ- 
ated on the western slope of the Central Andes, about 3000 feet above the 
valley, or at an elevation of some 6100 feet. 

May 1, Mr. Eder sent mules for us and, after a night at La Manuelita, 
we crossed the valley to Cali by way of Florida and Guengiie, stopping at 
the last-named ranch two days and reaching Cali on May 7. 

Some collecting was now done in the marshes of the Cauca River near 
Juanchito, the port of Cali. Fuertes secured here our first specimen of 
Aythya nationi, a practical rediscovery of the species previously known 
only from a pair taken at Lima, Peru. 

May 13, Fuertes and Chapman began their return journey to New 
York in a reconnaissance down the Cauca to Cartago, thence over the 
Quindio Pass to Giradot on the Magdalena, and down that river to Barran- 
quilla, which was reached June 4. 

On the same date Miller and Richardson left on all expedition to the 
Andes west of Popayan. 

On the whole, the work of this first expedition is believed to have given 
us a fair idea of the avifauna of the region covered. We regret now, how- 
ever, that no attempt was made to reach the Farallones of Cali, the highest 
point in the Western Andes, between the summit of the Micai Trail, west 
of Popayan, and the Citara of Antioquia. With an altitude of between 
9000 and 10,000 feet, it is possible that we might have found there some 
species of the Temperate Zone. Our Cauca Valley collections would also 
have been more satisfactory if we had explored' a tract of primeval forest 
between Cali and Florida. 

Description of Route and Collecting Stations. — The rainfall of the Pacific 
slope of Colombia is phenomenal. It has been known to reach 400 inches 
in one year at San Jos^ (see beyond). There is no dry season on the Pacific 
coast and it rains almost daily in this intensely humid belt. 







S ° 

s S 




z 



■ss 



D 



o^ 



o 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution oj Bird-life in Colombia. 23 

As a natural consequence the region is, as a rule, densely forested from 
the very margin of the sea to the summit of the Western Andes. Buena- 
ventura lies at the head of the bay of the same name, some fourteen miles 
from the sea. The shores here are lined with mangroves, and numerous 
small streams and estuaries make a network of mangrove-bordered water- 
ways. 

Buenaventura to Caldas. — Shortly after leaving Buenaventura, on the 
railway to Caldas, one reaches higher ground and enters the true coastal 
forest. The trees are not of great height but the growth is luxuriant in the 
extreme, the floor of the forest as well as limbs of trees being covered with 
vegetation, making progress off trails or clearings impossible without the 
aid of a machete. Richardson, who collected in this coastal forest at San 
Jose and Cisneros, considered it the most difficult ground to work he had 
encountered in a field experience of twenty-five years in the tropics. The 
density of the vegetation limits one's radius of action and makes it difficult 
to shoot birds as weU as to find them when shot; the high degree of humid- 
ity prevents them from drying properly, while the abundance of mosquitoes, 
as well as of other insect pests, makes the region extremely trying and 
unhealthful. Both Richardson and his native assistant suffered severely 
from fevers acquired in this low coast region, the avifauna of which is still 
far from exhausted. 

The Caldas Basin. — -A short distance east of Cisneros, and some 1500 
feet above it, the railroad, still following the shores of the Dagua, passes 
through a narrow canon worn by the river, and emerges in a surprisingly arid 
basin or pocket in which lies the settlement of Caldas (alt. 2560 feet). The 
floor of the valley, and at least lower slopes of the hUls by which it is sur- 
rounded, are covered with short grasses with occasional stands of low cac- 
tus, acacia-like trees and agaves. The abrupt change in climate, indicated 
by the striking difference in the vegetation of Cisneros and Caldas, is evi- 
dently due to the presence of a ridge at the western border of the Caldas 
Valley of sufficient height to protect the area lying east of it from the pre- 
vailing western winds and, consequently, from receiving a share of the 
moisture they carry. A part of this moisture is given up as the air-currents 
strike the Pacific slope of the ridge which borders the Caldas basin on the 
west, with the resulting heavy rainfall of the western slope. In passing over 
or pouring down into the valley at Caldas, the temperature of the air is 
doubtless raised rather than lowered and its moisture-carrying capacity 
correspondingly increased. Consequently, further condensation does not 
occur imtil the higher mountains to the east are reached, and with the 
increase in rainfall the forests reappear. 

This treeless depression or valley on the Pacific slope of the Western 



24 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Andes is therefore surrounded by forest and the character and origin of its 
fauna is hence of much interest. It apparently cannot be derived from the 
humid, heavily wooded slopes above or below it, and the height of the 
mountains to the east is presumably sufficient to separate it from the 
faunally similar Cauca Valley. Nevertheless, its bird-life has evidently 
been derived from that valley. When, however, one observes that owing 
to the aridity of the eastern slope of the Western Andes the Tropical Zone 
ascends nearly to the San Antonio pass, it is clear that the Tropical Zones 
of the Galdas and Cauca Valleys are separated only by the narrow belt of 
timber which crowns the San Antonio pass. Hence we have numerous 
Cauca Valley species occurring at Caldas but apparently not elsewhere on 
the Pacific slope in this section. 

Caldas to San Antonio. — ^At Caldas the trail leaves the banks of the 
Dagua and winds gently up the slope toward the San Antonio pass. At an 
altitude of 5700 feet we entered the clouds and, at the same time, the lower 
border of the cloud forest which characterizes the Subtropical Zone. The 
Caldas region now appeared as a treeless depression surrounded by forest- 
crowned mountains. Everywhere the tree-line was as sharply defined as in 
a fresh clearing. The cloud-line coincided with the tree-line. Cloudless 
hilltops were bare of trees. 

The luxuriant forest of the Subtropical Zone continues to the summit 
of the ridge and as far over it as the cloud's-cap itself. Normally, this is 
not more than a few hundred feet, but when ravines or barrancas slope 
down toward the Cauca Valley the water they carry leads the forest to a 
much lower level than it reaches without the encouragement of such natural 
irrigation. These wooded barrancas are separated by grass-grown ridges 
of the treeless eastern slope of the Western Andes. These ridges carry a 
limited number of species of the Tropical Zone upward almost to the San 
Antonio pass, just as the forest's arms stretching down the barrancas carry 
some Subtropical Zone species well below the upper limits of the Tropical 
Zone. The result is an inosculation of faunas occasioned by causes which 
al-e obvious enough when seen, but which the most accurately labeled 
specimens would not reveal. 

The crest of the range is here so narrow that the descent into the Cauca 
Valley begins almost where the ascent from the Pacific ends. One has to 
go only a few hundred feet below the divide to pass from the forest into a 
low, scrubby growth which quickly gives way to the brown, treeless slopes 
leading down to the Cauca Valley. 

• Most of our collecting in this vicinity was done in the forests, but occa- 
sionally work was done along its border and here certain tropical species 
were secured, a fact which accounts for their being recorded from a locality 
' ■which in reality is in- the Subtropical Zone. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate IV. 




Eastern side of Western Andes from San Antonio 

Note descent of forest down a drainage ravine and ascent of arid zone of the 

Cauca Valley up a treeless shoulder of the range. 

(Interdigitation of Tropical and Subtropical Zones and West Andean Fauna 

with arid portion of the Cauca-Magdalena Faima.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in ColomMa. 25 

The Cauca Valley near Cali. — The Cauca Valley from Call to Cartago 
has a uniform altitude of 3500 feet and an average width of possibly twenty- 
five miles. 

The rainfall is not high, ranging from thirty-five to fifty inches, and 
forests apparently occur only where they receive natural subsurface irriga- 
tion from the mountain slopes. The Cauca River, which is navigable for 
small steamers from Cali to Cartago, except during very dry seasons, is 
bordered by marshes, bamboo thickets and savannas and, in places, by 
heavy forests. Approaching the mountains, on each side, dryer savannas 
with acacias and large tracts of grazing and cultivatable land predominate 
and extend to the bare, rounded foot-hills which lead upward to the lower 
borders of the cloud forest of the Subtropical Zone. 

About Cali we collected in the savannas and marshes; at La Manuelita 
in the pastures, cacao groves and fallow fields grown with scrub and bordered 
by trees. At neither place did we find first-growth forests such as exist 
in the vicinity of Guengiie east of Florida, where, however, circumstances 
shortened our stay. Miller and Allen later collected in primeval forest at 
Rio Frio, but I feel that more work could be done to advantage in the forests 
of the valley. 

The Central Andes above Palmira. — Our location at Miraflores (alt. 
6200 ft.) on the western slope of the Central Andes above Palmira, was much 
like that in which we had lived at San Antonio. The comfortable bungalow 
which Mr. Eder so kindly placed at our disposal is situated near the junction 
of the Tropical and Subtropical Zones. Above us was the lower border of 
the luxuriant subtropical forest; below, the bush-grown or bare hills leading 
to the valley. If, therefore, we went down the trail we encountered chiefly 
tropical forms but if we climbed upward we were soon among the birds of 
the subtropics. Where the change in fauna also implied change in haunt 
the difference between the bird-life below and above our home seemed 
natural. Thus Ground Doves and Seedeaters were to be expected in the 
open grassy country toward the valley, just as Tanagers and Trogons were 
to be looked for in the forests higher up the mountain side. When, however, 
in the belt of timber bordering the Amina River, a thousand or fifteen- 
hundred feet further down, one found Ostinops decumanus, a strictly tropical 
species, and in not dissimilar haunts a few hundred feet above the bungalow, 
encountered Ostinops salmoni a strictly subtropical species, one was more 
impressed by the influence of temperature in determining life-zones. 

The summit of the ridge on which Miraflores is situated has an altitude 
of 8000 feet, and the forest growth increases in luxuriance as one mounts 
toward the crest. Nowhere have I seen a greater profusion of creepers, 
parasitic and epiphytic growth. • ■ Tree ferns here were estimated to reach 
a height of fifty feet. 



26 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

The crest of the ridge is narrow and about 150 feet down the eastern 
slope the character of the forest changed completely. Tree ferns, parasites, 
and epiphytes largely disappeared and trees with small leaves replaced the 
cecropias and other large-leaved species of the western and more humid 
slope. There was little undergrowth and the woods bore a general resem- 
blance to an open beech forest. 

This growth persisted to the shores of a fair-sized stream at the bot- 
tom of an almost V-shaped valley, 1400 feet below and west of the summit 
of the ridge to the west. The succeeding ridge, or east wall of the valley, is 
of apparently the same height as the first ridge and is densely wooded to 
its summit. The trail, however, did not extend beyond the bottom of the 
valley and we made no attempt to explore the uninhabited mountains to 
the east. 

The Reconnaissance ovee the Quindio. 

Cali to Cartago. — The journey from Juanchito, the port of Call, to 
Cartago was made by steamer on the Cauca River. The river is narrow 
enough (averaging one hundred and fifty to two hundred yards in width) 
to permit one to see the details of both banks; the water was high, the cur- 
rent about three miles an hour. The distance in an air-line between Cali 
and Cartago is ninety miles, by the river 172 miles; but if the winding 
course of the steamer increases the length of the journey, it also adds to the 
charm of it. 

The Cauca flows on the western side of the valley, its waters occasionally 
washing the foothills of the Western Andes. The country through which 
it passes is most diversified and attractive. Broad marshes flanked by 
dryer savannas, bamboo forests, patches of plumed wild cane, cacao groves 
and stretches of plantains near the small settlements or ports of the larger 
towns which, like Cali, were some miles from the river, made a pleasing and 
varied panorama of river scenery. Later we encountered heavy, primeval, 
bottomland forest, such as surrounds the port of Rio Frio, selected as a 
locality for subsequent investigation by Miller and Allen. These forests, 
however, are not to be compared in extent to those which border the Magda- 
lena River, for example, and are doubtless limited to areas where they re- 
ceive sufficient subsurface litigation to nourish them. 

Large White and Snowy Egrets, the latter much the less common. 
Gray-green and Night Herons, Wood Ibis, Roseate Spoonbills, Cormorants, 
Jacanas, Pigeons {Columba rufina) a few Ducks, including an occasional 
Muscovy, and Cassiques {Ostinops decumanus) were the birds most 
commonly seen from the steamer, while mammals were represented 



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Bullet 



A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate VI. 




Cauca River near Buga 

Note the treeless eastern slopes of the Western Andes. A fl( 
of white Herons is feeding on the marsh. 
(Tropical Zone; arid portion of Cauca-Magdalena Faiuia.) 




Forest on the Cauca River at Rio Frio 
(Tropical Zone; a humid island in the arid portion of the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of BirdAiJe in Colombia. 27 

by a few Capybaras on the banks, and red Howling Monkeys in the 
bamboos. 

Fresnado, the port of Cartago, hke Juanchito, the port of CaH, is distant 
three miles from the town it serves. The intervening country, again like 
that at Cali, is a dry, open plain or potrero. Here small, scattered acacias 
are the characteristic trees, and Mockingbirds, Vermilion and Tyrant Fly- 
catchers [Tyrannus melancholichus), Anis, Lapwings and Milvago Hawks 
the characteristic birds. 

At Cartago, thanks to the assistance of Senor Jesus Velez, we secured 
riding and pack animals without delay and began our journey across the 
Quindio the day of our arrival. 

Cartago to Giradot. — The trail which crosses the Central Andes over 
the Quindio Pass has been travelled for centuries. Up to the lower limits 
of the Temperate Zone (about 9000 ft.) the country through which it passes 
is more or less settled and under cultivation, and its primitive character is 
therefore not always obvious to one en route. However, Dr. Allen's descrip- 
tion of the stations at which he and Miller subsequently collected, supply 
the essential details, and I give here only the generalized view which one 
may gain from the saddle. 

For the first seven or eight miles, the trail, after leaving Cartago, passes 
over the low ridge which lies between Cartago and Piedra Moler on the 
Vieja River, one hundred feet above Cartago. The country is rather arid, 
and more or less covered with a scrubby growth. From the summit of the 
ridge a view is had of a well wooded valley which opens into the Cauca 
Valley, now much constricted and set with hills which mark its termina- 
tion as a valley and passage into the more mountainous country north of 
Cartago. 

After crossing the Vieja the trail, for the succeeding ten or twelve miles, 
passes through a comparatively level depression known as El Hoyo de 
Quindio. It is bordered by a bushy scrub and some first-growth, with much 
fine bamboo, which reaches its upper limit at about 5500 feet. There is 
no outlook until, at the end of about ten miles, the trail gradually ascends 
and takes to the ridges. The depression through which we have passed 
is now seen behind us with the Western Andes in the distance, and on each 
side well-wooded valleys open. A few miles further the picturesque town 
of Finlandia (6400 ft.) is seen and beyond it we had our first view of the 
main Central Andes with the snow-fields of Santa Isabel. 

Finlandia was reached at 4 P. M. after eight hours' travel by mule 
from Piedra Moler, a distance of about twenty-five miles with an ascent, 
always gradual, of about three thousand feet. We were still in the foothills, 
which, in softly rounded, green, grassy billows, rolled downward toward 



28 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

the Cauca Valley and flowed indefinitely north and south along the base 
of the main range of the Central Andes, which arose impressively across 
a plain-like valley to the east. From this point we had superb but brief 
views of Santa Isabel and Tolima. 

We passed the night at Finlandia and the following morning crossed 
the valley to the east. At the end of an hour we entered the first primeval 
forest through which the trail had passed and from this point to the summit 
of the ridge which overlooks the Quindio River, with the Boquilla at its 
base, there is much Subtropical Zone forest. Here we saw Hypopyrrhus 
pyrohypogaster for the first time. After fording the Quindio River, a rapidly 
flowing stream, at the Boquilla (alt. 6100 ft.), the trail rises steeply through 
an open country to Salento, which is reached in a thirty-minute climb of 
900 feet. 

Salento (alt. 7000 ft.), standing on a shelf at the base of the main range 
of the Central Andes, is the last town through which the traveller to the 
Magdalena Valley passes until he reaches Ibagiie at the eastern base of the 
chain. 

Although one has gained an altitude of about 3500 feet above Cartago, 
the grade is so low that one has done no real climbing, and the ascent of the 
Andes may be said to begin defimitely at Salento or, to be more exact, at 
the Quindio River, 900 feet below Salento. 

In an hour after leaving Salento we felt that we were in the heart of 
the Andes. Below lay the Quindio Valley, carpeted with grass and with a 
scattered growth of tall palms fringing the stream which winds through it; 
above was an endless array of mountains leading up to the brown paramo 
and gleaming snowfields of Santa Isabel. 

Until we reached an altitude of 9000 feet there was little growth near 
the trail and Allen's detailed description of the collecting station near 
Salento must be consulted for information in regard to the nature of the 
primitive vegetation at this point. At the altitude named, we reached the 
lower limits of the Temperate Zone and coincidentally the upper limits at 
which the land had been cleared for agricultural purposes. In consequence, 
forests now bordered or were near the trail. At first they were composed 
of large, open-branched trees among which fine oaks were conspicuous. 
As we ascended they became much lower and more finely branched, with 
small, close-set rigid leaves, and a profusion of white moss. 

This Temperate Zone forest thickly covered the mountains to the 
mouth of the Pass. At Laguneta (10,000 ft.) it was fully developed and 
the abundance of bird-life induced us to select this place as a collecting 
station for Miller and Allen who, three months later, made a most valuable 
collection there particularly noteworthy for the number of Grallarias it 
contained. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate VII. 




Santa Isabel from Laguneta 
Note the continuous forest. 
(Temperate Zone.) 





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Laguneta 

A stopping-place on the Quindio Trail near the camp of Expedition No. 3. 

An ox pack-train is resting. 

(Temperate Zone.) 



Bulletin A. M. N. H, 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate VIII. 




The Quindio Tkail 

A scene in the Central Andes between Volcancito and Rio Tochecito, sliowlng wax palms. 

(Subtropical Zone; West Andean Fauna.) 




The Quindio Trail 

Rio Tochecito. Compare with preceding picture to illustrate differences between vegetation, 

along the trail, of ridges and intervening valleys. 

(Subtropical Zone.) 



1917.1 . Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 29 

At 9000 feet we secured a specimen of Myiohorus chrysops, the first 
indication of an eastern slope fauna, and the following day it was found to be 
abundant on the Tochecito. At Laguneta, distant only three hours by 
mule from Salento, the bird-life had completely changed. The Subtropical 
species were left behind and in their places such characteristic Temperate 
Zone birds as Semimerula gigas gigantodes, Atlapetes schistaceus, and Psitto- 
spiza riefferi were seen commonly by the wayside. 

After crossing the Divide (11,500 ft.) the descent toward Volcancito 
is through a country from which the forest has been recently cut, but the 
evidence indicated that it had covered the mountain sides, as at a distance 
from the trail it still does. 

About 1000 feet below the summit wax palms (discovered on the Quindio 
Trail by Humboldt and Bonpland in 1801) were first encountered and 
these stately trees, in scattered groups or densely growing masses, were the 
most abundant aboreal form, from this point to the Toche River. They 
attained a height of at least 180 feet and were of especial interest to us as the 
home of the fine Yellow-eared Parrot {Ogonorhynchus icterotis). In places 
nearly every palm was occupied by a pair of these birds whose nest-holes 
opened just below the lowest leaves. 

The trail now descends by steep zig-zags to the Tochecito River (alt. 
9000 ft.), a rushing mountain stream some ten feet in width with banks 
bordered by a luxuriant undergrowth and some small parasite-covered 
trees. Beyond these banks the mountain sides were covered with wax- 
palms with some bushy lower growth. Birds were not numerous. 

Essentially similar conditions exist to the Toche Valley (7100 ft.) of 
which a most impressive view is obtained from a point on the trail, at least 
2000 feet above it. To the right the eye follows the course of the beautiful 
foaming Rio Toche, here about eighty feet in width, the home of Torrent 
Ducks (Merganetta columbiana) and Ousels (Cinclus leuconotus); to the left 
at some distance, the floor of the valley is covered with a heavy forest 
growth which, unfortunately, we have not explored. Specimens of wide- 
ranging, plastic species taken at this point are, as might be expected, refer- 
al)le to the Magdalena Valley, rather than Cauca Valley form. 

We had now returned to the Subtropical Zone. There is a small settle- 
ment on the Toche and from this point onward to Ibagiie the country border- 
ing the trail is, or has been, largely under cultivation. Sniall patches of 
the original forest growth were found at intervals, notably near El Eden, 
but the work of man near the trail and heavy clouds which often obscured 
all but the immediate landscape, made it difficult to gain a very clear idea 
of primitive conditions over this part of the trail, though distant mountain 
sides generally appeared to be wooded. 



30 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Ibagiie (alt. 4850 ft.), a city of several thousand people, is situated at the 
definite junction of the Magdalena Valley plains with the mountains. From 
this point to the Magdalena River the road passes through a grass-covered, 
grazing country with more or less scrubby tree growth bordering the streams, 
but with no real forest. Highly eroded, castellated buttes, arising abruptly 
several hundred feet from the plain, are characteristic features of this part 
of the Magdalena VaUey and at least as far north and east as the vicinity 
of La Dorada on the river, where the semiarid upper valley merges into the 
humid forest region. 

The descent is not noticeable, but at Chicoral on the Coello River and 
distant some thirty miles from Igabiie, we have dropped to an elevation of 
only 1800 feet, and Honda, on the river, is but 600.feet above the sea. 

The country lying between Honda and Barranquilla is described under 
Expedition No. 7. 



Expedition No. 2.— The Pofayan Region. May IS, 1911 -July 21, 1911. 

Personnel. — Leo E. Miller; W. B. Richardson. 

Itinerary. — On May 13, 1911, a few hours after Chapman and Fuertes 
started their homeward journey in reconnaissance over the Quindio Pass, 
Miller and Richardson with their pack mules left Call for Popayan. They 
reached that city on the 17th, and three days were consumed there in making 
preparations for a trip to the Western Andes. On May 20 they left Popayan 
for Cerro Munchique, making their first collecting station May 22, at an ele- 
vation of 8325 feet on this mountain. They remained at this station until 
June 4, when they left for Cocal on the western slope reaching that place 
June 6, and working there until June 18 when they returned to Popayan 
for supplies. June 24 they again left Popayan for the Western Andes 
working at Gallera from June 26 to July 4; La Florida July 5 to 9, and on 
the summit of the first ridge of the Western Andes (10,340 ft.) from July 
10 to 23. At this point they found a typical Temperate Zone fauna, this 
being the first time this fauna has been discovered in the Western Andes. 
July 27 they returned to Popayan and at once left for their base at Cali. 

Description of Route and Collecting Stations.^ — " The country through 
which we passed on the road to Jamundi is level, covered with excellent 
grass and given up largely to cattle ranches. Two hours beyond Jamundi 
the country became rolling and here the lomas, or hill country, begins. 
At 2 P. M., May 14, we crossed the Cauca, here practically as wide as at 

1 From the reports of Leo E. Miller. ^ 




a 
o 

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ft 







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,_ 


J= 


ca 






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V 


c« 



m O 






ft 2 



2 !^ 



O 



1917.] Chapman, Dislribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 31 

Juanchito. We passed through a heavy growth of bamboo, creepers and 
brush about a mile before reaching the river and heard here several howling 
monkeys. 

"After leaving this bottom-land the country again became rolling. 
The hills are bare except for a wiry grass. There were no cattle. 

"May 15, we continued to pass through a bare, rolling country and at 
4: 30 P. M. reached an elevation of 5900 feet. The following day the 
country began to look more attractive. The road generally ran along the 
top of a ridge and we could see for many miles. Everywhere the hUls were 
covered with low trees and dense shrubbery. At an altitude of 6400 feet 
we saw Green Jays (Xanihoura), Blue Swallows (Pygochelidon) , Andean 
White-throats {Brachyspiza) and heard Compra Pans {Grallaria ruficeps). 
There were also Black Thrushes {Menda gigas gigantodes)}" 

Popayan to Munchique. — " At first the country is comparatively level 
with small clumps of trees and large cornfields. There were also groves of 
oranges, apples of rather poor quality, fair peaches and good bananas and 
plantains. A very little cacao and a great deal of coffee is grown. 

"The second day out (May 21) the country was rolling and barren 
except for a few clumps of trees and brush. Many Black Merulas and Green 
Jays were seen. After leaving Chappa, on May 22, the road became very 
bad, rough and steep. At an altitude of 7200 feet we entered the forest and 
at 4 P. M. that day made camp at 8325 feet, on the eastern slope, in a 
small old clearing entirely surrounded by virgin forest in which we collected." 

Cerro Munchique to Cocal. — " One hour after leaving camp we reached 
the top of the ridge (alt. 8800 ft.). Below was a sea of clouds, over which 
the Pacific could be dimly distinguished. It is distant fifty miles, but owing 
to the numerous ravines and ridges the natives take eight days to reach the 
coast. There is but a narrow trail through the dense forest which here is 
like that on the crest of the ridge above Miraflores. 

" The trail is like a stairway down which one goes with much difficulty, 
some of the steps being six feet or more. We camped by the Rio Tambito, 
a narrow, swift stream running through a 20-foot gorge, and after crossing 
another ridge (alt. 6900 ft.) through the forest, reached Cocal (alt. 4000 ft.)^ 
at 4 P. M. the next day. 

"Cocal is a settlement of negroes who are practically savages. They- 
live in miserable huts and wear no clothes. The mountain sides are very 
steep and the jungle all but impenetrable. I estimate that fully thirty 

1 Indicating tlie arid Subtropics, to which the Temperate Zone Black Merula descends. — F. M. C. 

2 The collections from Cocal include species which we have not elsewhere found at so low an eleva- 
tion, but Mr. Miller tells me that some of the birds labeled Cocal were taken at a higher altitude than 
the settlement. 



32 Bulletin American Museum oj Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

percent of the specimens shot were lost in the undergrowth. We found 
our first Cocks-of-the-Rock in the tall palms here." 

Popayan to Gallera.— "For the first day the country is rough and bare. 
On the morning of the second day we reached virgin forest on' the eastern 
slope of the Western Andes at an elevation of 7500 feet. After reaching 
the crest of the range (alt. 10,340 ft.) the road runs for about four miles 
along it. From this point one may see the Pacific faintly. The vegetation 
is scarce, scrubby and stunted. Here we worked under difficulties, -living 
in the small tent. The wind blew almost constantly and there were a 
number of severe electrical storms, during which it blew, rained and hailed 
with great violence. These storms are preceded by dense fog, so that it 
was not possible to go any distance from camp without danger of falling 
hundreds of feet off the trail. 

" The new government road runs down the west side in zig-zags. Two 
thousand feet down we struck the heavy forest. Gallera (alt. 7000 ft.) 
is a camp of road laborers in the very heart of the forest. There is not 
one side trail. The forest is impenetrable and we found few birds." 



Expedition No. S. — Lower end of the Cauca Valley, The Quindio Trail, 
Cartage to San Juan River. August 22, 1911 -January 7, 1912. 

Personnel. — Leo E. Miller; Arthur- A. Allen. 

Itinerary. — Miller and Allen sailed from Call on a Cauca River steamer 
August 22, 1911, and arrived, at Gartago on the 25th. Gartago was left 
on the 27th and Laguneta, just below the Quindio Pass, reached on the 28th. 
Here they pitched their tent at an altitude of 10,300 ft. and remained until 
September 11, when they retraced their steps as far as Salento and, the fol- 
lowing day, began the ascent- to Santa Isabel through the Boquilla Valleys 
They rea,ched the Paramo, at an altitude of 12,700 feet, on- September 13, 
and camped there until the 20th, then moved to a point about a thousand 
feet lower and collected there for three days. 

September 25 they returned to Salento and on October 3 they began a 
trip over the Quindio Trail, to Ghicoral in the Magdalena Valley, with the 
object of collecting the more characteristic species at a number of localities 
and thus determining zonal and f aunal limits. Ghicoral ' was reached 
October 6 and collections were made there until the 13th, when they began 
their return journey, stopping at El Eden October 17-21, Rio Tochd 
October 23-27, and returning to Salento October 31. GpUections were 
made in the vicinity of Salento until the 13th when they returned to Gar- 
-tago en route to Rio Frio on the Gauca. Here they worked in the heavy 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol, XXXVI, Plate X. 




Crest of Westebn Andes, West of Popayan. 

Scene near camp of Expedition No. 2; alt. 10,340 ft. 

(Temperate Zone.) 




La Gallera, Western Andes 

Near camp of Expedition No. 2. 

(Subtropical Zone; West Andean Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 33 

forest until December 2, when again they went to Cartago to make prepara- 
tions for the crossing of the Western Andes, the most difficult journey thus 
far undertaken. 

Cartago was left December 7, and, through a misunderstanding, the 
journey to the San Juan Valley was made as rapidly as possible without 
pause for collecting. The few specimens secured en route indicate that the 
fauna differs in some respects from that of a section through the same chain 
from Cali to Buenaventura, and we cannot but regret the absence of speci- 
mens from this region. 

Juntas de Tamana was reached December 14 and left December 20; 
and collections were also made at Novita from December 21 to 27. During 
these two weeks 277 birds and 39 mammals were collected under the unfav- 
orable conditions of the rainy season. Doubtless this over-exertion made 
both men more than usually susceptible to the pernicious type of malaria 
which prevails in this unhealthful region. Both contracted severe attacks 
of fever, and on returning to Cali, January 7, were under a physician's care 
for several weeks. 

Description of Route and Collecting Stations. — A general account of the 
route between Cali and Cartago and Giradot, based on the reconnaissance 
made by Chapman and Fuertes in May, 1911, will be found under 'Expedi- 
tion No. 1.' The following detailed descriptions of the stations on the 
route at which collections were made were prepared by Allen, who also 
writes the report on the ascent to the Paramo of Santa Isabel and on the 
journey from Cartago to the San Juan region. 

Rio Frio. — "Most of our collecting here was done in the forest on the 
east bank of the river except for two trips to a rather extensive marsh some- 
what south of the Rio Frio, and about an eighth of a mile back from the 
Cauca. Some collecting was also done along the northerly edge of the 
forest, the country becoming more open in this direction, the forest extend- 
ing to a much greater distance south from the port. 

" The forest reminds one considerably of our northern deciduous forests 
in which the giant oaks are replaced by ceibas and the maples by cecropias. 
There are comparatively few ferns, orchids or epiphytes of any kind except 
a few "pines" (bromelias) and very little moss. The forest floor is covered 
with dead leaves and with little undergrowth except about clearings and 
more open spots in the forest where it is very dense. But it was in such 
places that the birds were most abundant, as we found here a greater abun- 
dance of individuals than anywhere else, though the number of species was 
perhaps more limited than in the ' cloud' forest.' 



1 That is, forest of the Subtropical Zone. — F. M. 0. 



34 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

" I did not attempt to explore the marsh to its full extent because of its 
evident treachery and the difficulty of progress through it. It was appar- 
ently surrounded on all sides by forest, although toward the south this 
seemed to thin out and was perhaps no more than a fringe about the edge. 
The marsh appeared as though it sometimes might be a lake although at 
this time of year (November) there was little open water. The predominant 
vegetation was a coarse sedge, the tangled roots of which furnished the only 
support for one attempting to walk through it, for elsewhere, and below 
these roots, was bottomless black muck. About the edge of the marsh, 
fringing the forest, was a rank growth, almost impenetrable, of thorny 
bushes and growing out into the marsh were scattered bushes of marsh 
mallows {Hibiscus?). Where the sedges had not yet established themselves, 
were extensive rafts of the water hyacinth and a plant that looks like coarse 
lettuce. On these rafts were flocks of Jacanas and Spurwings, White Ibis, 
Roseate Spoonbills, and White Egrets. In the small patches of open water 
floated Muscovy Ducks, Cinnamon Teal, Fulvous and Black-bellied Tree 
Ducks. In the sedges Rails skulked and there were many Screamers. The 
Black Marsh Hawk (Circus) skimmed low over the sedges just like our 
northern bird, and a few King Vultures sailed high overhead. It was a 
wonderful spot, I should like to have spent a month in studying it alone." 

El Roble.^^"'E[ Roble, at an altitude of 7100 feet, is the last posada 
before descending into the valley of the Boquia. The collecting here was 
done in two kinds of places: the comparatively level forest at the altitude 
given, and the forest at a considerable lower level filling the valley of one 
of the tributaries of the Boquia. The level forest was not much less humid 
than that at Laguneta, with correspondingly less moss on the trees and on 
the forest floor. That along the stream was just as humid, if not more so 
than at Laguneta. Along the trail and about clearings, etc. the plants and 
birds were similar to those about Call, but in the forest and particularly 
along the stream, the forms were those of the Subtropical Zone. The 
'century plant' and the tree fern seemed to me to reach their greatest 
luxuriance here, the tree fern in the forest, the yucca in the open country, 
along roadsides, etc." 

Salento. — " Most of our collecting near Salento was done along the 
Boquia River at an altitude of 6500 feet. The flora and fauna of the open 
country of the Boquia Valley and about Salento is similar to that of El 
Roble with a somewhat larger amount of the Cauca Valley element such as 
the Spanish bayonet, yuccas, plantains, a few bananas and oranges. Com- 

1 To prevent confusion with a station of the same name above Fusugasug^, in the Eastern Andes, 
specimens taken at El Roble are listed under Salento, the Salento collecting ground being nearby and 
in the same zone. — F. M. C. 



^ W¥^, 



> 

X 
X 




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^ a 






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2 





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a 



1917.] Chapman, Distribiition of Birdr-life in Colombia. 35 

paratively little of this open-country fauna was collected and most of the 
birds came either from the narrow strip of woods along the river, or from 
Santa Rita, a small tributary with well-wooded banks, entering from the 
west. The Santa Rita is a beautiful dashing mountain stream, cutting 
through the rock in narrow gorges or pouring over huge boulders and arched 
over by luxuriant vegetation, rich in moss and epiphytes; perhaps the most 
luxuriant that we found except in parts of the Western Andes. Here lived 
the Cock-of-the-Rock and Pharomacrus." 

Laguneta. — " The forest in which we pitched our tent at Laguneta, at 
an altitude of 10,300 feet, is fairly open. The vegetation includes a few 
small palms, tree ferns, orchids and epiphytes of many kinds but gives one 
the general effect of some of our denser northern forests. The large trees, 
of which some are oaks, are rather sparingly branched and thinly leaved so 
that sunlight reaches the ground in most places. The orchids, 'pines,' 
moss and other epiphytes on the branches are responsible for as much shade 
as the trees themselves. The undergrowth is not dense except in the clear- 
ings — it being the vines and 'climbing bamboo' that makes the forest 
impenetrable. The forest floor is remarkably bare with very few herbaceous 
plants (due to season ?), few ferns, and no moss (on the ground). The 
leaves are mostly thick and heavily glutinized or covered with down and, 
though some are large, the average is small. The clearings resemble our 
northern clearings in general appearance — grown up to bushes and small 
trees. Here occurs a pokeberry upon which certain birds feed. The under- 
brush is always extremely dense and almost impenetrable without a knife. 

"We remained in this camp from August 30 until September 11. During 
this time we had very favorable weather with but little light rain. For 
several days, however, we had very high winds. The temperature was very 
uniform averaging 48° at 6 : 30 A. M. and 64° at noon (the nearest to maxi- 
mum and minimum that we could get)." 

Rio TochS. — " Most of the collecting here was done along the river 
where there was a sparse growth of trees, but two trips were made up the 
river to where it was heavily forested, humid and luxuriant, resembling the 
banks off Santa Rita near Salento. A few birds, notably Atlapdes flaviceps, 
were taken from the brush covering the cleared mountainsides of the open 
valley not far from the trail." 

El Eden.— "The country about El Eden at an altitude of 8500 to 9000 
feet, seemed intermediate between the valley type, such as was found at 
Salento, and the cloud forests of Laguneta. This is due, I suppose, to the 
large amount of clearing and the comparatively small extent and isolation 
(?) of the forest. In the forest, birds were very scarce and in the open 
country birds were also less abundant than elsewhere. We were disap- 



36 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

pointed in the collecting here since forms were neither abundant nor dis- 
tinctive." 

Chicoral. — " Chicoral is on the west side of the Magdalena Valley at an 
altitude of 1200 feet. The Valley at this point is very arid, even along the 
streams, although this was probably emphasized by the fact that it had not 
rained for five months when we arrived. There were many more cacti 
and palmettos than in the Cauca Valley, with few epiphytes or orchids on 
the trees. Most of the collecting was done in the sparse woods along the 
river and scrubby places about the pastures and a little on the open plain 
which was covered with coarse dry grass. Along the river birds were very 
plentiful, including many migrants from North America." 

Salento to the Paramo of Santa Isabel. — " The Valley of the Boquia leads 
northeast past Salento and the trail to the Paramo follows this valley to 
the very headwaters. The valley, which we crossed at Boquia on our way 
to Laguneta, at an altitude of 6100 feet, rises gently until, where we left it, 
it was 8300 feet. It is broad and open with little vegetation, except a 
narrow girth along the stream and a scattered growth of magnificent palms. 
These continue to the head of the valley and up on the mountainside to 
at least 9500 feet. 

"Leaving the valley of the Boquia at 8300 feet, the trail leads almost 
due north up the mountainside at a very sharp angle. The trail is poor 
and in some spots practically obliterated. The lower mountainside is 
very bare except for the scattered palms, having been burned and cleared. 
Corn and wheat are growing in spots but most of the country is closely 
cropped by cattle. The open country continues to an altitude of 9300 feet; 
here the forest begins, and so far as we could observe resembles very closely 
that of Laguneta. The trail now becomes slightly more marked so that one 
has no difficulty in finding the way. At 4: 20 P. M. we reached the second 
house above the valley, at an altitude of 10,550 feet, where we stopped for 
the night. The next morning we continued on our way to the Paramo. 
The trail leads through large clearings and patches of woods similar to that 
of Laguneta until the 12,000-foot mark is reached where the forest appears 
quite different. The trees are large, the woods more open with an abun- 
dance of moss even on the forest floor — less of the ' climbing bamboo,' 
which has been replaced by another species more like huge grass. The 
moss itself is very different in appearance being almost black. A few yellow 
orchids were in bloom. The appearance of this woods leads us to decide 
to stop and investigate it for a few days on our way back. This forest 
continues to from 12,400-12,600 feet where a decided change takes place. 
The large trees disappear and smaller, more or less recumbent species, 
take their place, resembling large bushes. Large bushes are intermingled 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XII. 




Chicoral Bridge 

Collecting groxrnd of Expedition No. 2. 

(Tropical Zone; arid portion of Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 




GiRADOT, UPPER MaGDALENA RivER 

(Tropical Zone; arid portion of Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Birdrlife in Colombia. 37 

with them and sphagnum, gentians, dwarf lupines, yellow-eyed grass, a 
yellow sorrel, similar to ours but larger, a buttercup, a peculiar fern, and 
numerous composites, mostly dwarfed rosettes but one a very showy purple 
and yellow species, called "arnica" by the natives. The wet places, along 
streams or in sink holes, give one the impression again of our northern bogs 
only here there is very little or no sphagnum. Its place is taken by a peculiar 
daisy whose thick set rosettes of short stiff leaves form great hummocks 
over soft places. Blueberries were plentiful but bitter, woody, and inedible, 
except for the birds. 

"When we reached the Paramo, we made for the top of the ridge and 
looking over found a beautiful little valley suspended there in mid-air. 
The lower end of it was wooded at the sides but the centre and upper end 
was open Paramo. Down the centre rushed a sparkling mountain stream 
which made up in sound what it lacked in size. On either side of the valley 
the ridge rose from 13,500-15,000 feet and the valley itself lay at about 
12,700. 

"We descended into the valley and pitched our tent at the edge of the 
woods. In this valley was done most of the collecting. We later explored 
up to an altitude of 15,200 feet (nearly the limit of vegetation and above 
the base of the snowline on the peaks) and found the vegetation practically 
the same and the fauna identical, except that it was much more condensed 
in the valleys, especially along the stream. The vegetation extended to 
about 15,500 feet and above that all was bare, frosted rock. At this altitude 
and open situation, birds were very few but without exception were identi- 
cal with those in the valley. The woods which cover the mountainside 
below, and the nature of which has already been described, extend up the 
sides of the valley for about a half mile to an altitude of 12,600 feet. 
The centre of the valley is open from 12,400 feet up but the typical Paramo 
does not begin until 12,600 feet. 

"The birds of the open Paramo are comparatively few in species and 
not extremely abundant in numbers, especially on the ridges. They are 
most abundant along the stream and in the swamp which occurs mostly 
along the stream. 

"The birds of the woods bordering the Paramo were of course very 
different and consisted mainly of Laguneta species with a few others of like 
nature. 

"We remained at this camp for just a week and collected 200 birds. 
The weather was very pleasant although the nights were cold, several times 
ice forming in the water-pail. The temperature at 6 A. M. varied from 37° 
to 45°, dependent upon whether it were cloudy or not, and at noon got up 
as high as 76°. The mornings were generally more or less clear but shortly 



38 Bulletin Americqn Miiseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

after noon clouds usually rolled up the valley surrounding us in fog; the 
ridge at the end of the valley was seldom seen in the afternoon. 

"From the Paramo, on September 2, we retraced our steps through the 
12,000 foot woods to a vacant house at 11,500 feet, intending to remain 
several days and work the woods. We left on the third day, however, 
after making 75 skins, for we found that the fauna was not strikingly differ- 
ent from that of Laguneta." 

Cartago to Novita. — "We left Cartago December 7, Miller having been 
fortunate enough to locate some oxen going to Salencio. Crossing the 
river the valley is more rolling than on the other side, but just as arid. 
Forty minutes brings one to Anserma but the trail branches off just before 
reaching the town and soon winds up a long ridge to an altitude of 6800 feet, 
drops across a valley to 5800 feet, and then rises again to 7800 feet. This 
country is much like that across the valley on the Quindio Trail, and the 
birds, so far as observed, likewise. There is little sign of humidity until 
6800 feet is reached where moss on the trees and an abundance of ferns 
bespeak of the 'cloud zone.' There was little or no bamboo except along 
one stream low-down (3800 ft.) and no apparent change in the birds until 
this upper zone (above 6800 ft.) was reached. This humid forest reached 
its greatest development on the western slope of the ridge although it was 
very distinct on the eastern slope down to 6800 feet. On the western slope 
it extended down to perhaps 6000 feet. (I have not this altitude exactly.) 
On the top it is extremely rank and luxuriant — far more than we had met 
before, although perhaps not more so than at San Antonio. Birds were 
very scarce, as usual in this humid forest; the trail descends very steeply 
from this forest through more or less cleared country to Salencio, at an alti- 
tude of 5,500 feet. Here we staid two days while Miller engaged the peons 
for the rest of the trip. In the river valley (5000 ft.) below is a heavy 
growth of bamboo. Between this and humid forest (at a little distance 
from town) is a good forest growth of an intermediate nature. 

"Leaving Salencio the trail follows up the river Bueltas, a small, dashing 
mountain stream — much like the Santa Rita near Salento — with luxuriant 
woods or mossy cliffs on either side, much moss, epiphytes, etc. It is a 
typical Cock-of-the-Rock stream, and we had not waded many miles over 
its slippery rocks or on its mossy logs before I got a nice male of Rupicola 
sanguinolenta. After leaving Salencio we knew scarcely a dry moment 
till we reached Juntas. The first night at an altitude of 2900 feet, it rained 
all night, and we had neither tent nor blankets, for the peon carrjring them 
deserted us without our knowing it. 

" The trail follows up the Bueltas to its very headwaters (alt. 6,600 ft.) 
where it leads sharply up the mountain through deep crevices or gulleys. 



Bulletin A. M. N, H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XIII. 




Paramo of Santa Isabel, Central Ande 



Collecting ground of Expedition No. 2. 
(Paramo Zone.) 




Pahamo OF Santa Isabel, Central Andes 

Near camp site of Expedition No. 2; alt. 12.500 ft. 

(Paramo Zone.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 39 

in places grown over above by the luxuriant vegetation forming tunnels, 
until an altitude of 7,400 feet is reached. The forest now is very luxuriant, 
similar to that on the top of the first ridge. Here was an assemblage of 
birds mostly new to me. I should like to have been able to work it thor- 
oughly, but of course we could not stop even for a day on account of the 
scarcity of food. 

"This extremely humid forest extends down the western slope of this 
second ridge until 4000 feet is reached where the change, which is complete 
at '3,500 feet, begins. The moss and epiphytes gradually disappear, the 
forest floor becomes dryer, the bamboo appears and becomes abundant, 
and the forest takes on much of the character of the Rio Frio vegetation. 
The change in the birds is likewise very noticeable. This forest continues 
down and across the valley and up the east side of the third ridge to practi- 
cally the same altitude, it being only on its very top that the humid zone 
prevails. The trail coming down the west slope of the second ridge follows 
the ridge which separates the Ingara from the Avita, which flow together 
at El Puente to form the Tamana. El Puente is a collection of some half 
dozen bamboo houses filled with shiftless, long-legged negroes where one 
can get but a few expensive plantains by way of supplies. The fauna of 
the valley contains a large percentage of the coast forms, birds which we 
saw for the first time, but found very common in the Choco proper. 

" The top of the last ridge compares favorably with the similar altitude 
of the second ridge, and is not nearly so humid as the higher altitude, though 
strikingly different from the bamboo zone below. The west slope of this 
last ridge is different from any I have before described. There is but little 
bamboo or none. It is more humid than that zone and yet there is no moss 
and comparatively few epiphytes. The coast fauna, I believe, there extends 
nearly to the top — at least to about 3,500 feet. The forest at Juntas, 
Novita and Noanama seemed practically the same in nature as this western 
slope and though we took different birds at each place I presume it was due 
to the short time spent in each." 

Juntas de Tamand: — "Altitude 400 feet. Except for the clearing in 
which the small village is located, the entire country is covered with a rich, 
humid, steaming forest of large trees and comparatively little undergrowth 
except that formed by the giant vines hanging down from the branches and 
occasional patches of fern. There are many epiphytes and but little moss, 
reminding one of Rio Frio, only much more humid. Birds were abundant 
along the edge of the clearing and along the forest trails but, as elsewhere, 
scarce in the deep woods." 

Novita: — "Altitude (150 feet). Although Novita has the reputation 
of being one of the wettest spots in Colombia, the forest seemed less humid 



40 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

than that at Juntas de Tamana and not very different from that at Rio Frio. 
The clearing in which the town Hes is of much greater extent than at Juntas 
de Tamana, and as a result more of the open country birds such as the little 
Black and White Finches, Blue Tanagers, etc. were found. In the forest 
birds were most abundant about small clearings or plantain patches which 
filled these small clearings, especially about flowering trees. 

"We left Novita in a canoe hoping to make good connections with the 
steamer at Noanama which however did not appear. Fortunately Mr. 
D. C. Stapleton was passing up the river in his launch which was to return 
in a few days, and he offered to ship us back to Buenaventura, an invi- 
tation we gladly accepted. 

"The country seems about the same along the San Juan until one gets 
to sea-level where there is a great increase in the number of species of palms, 
and from the little we could see from the launch, the forest appears much 
denser and more luxuriant." 



Expedition No. 4- — Cali to San Agustin. February 27 -April 7, 1912. 

Personnel. — L. E. Miller and A. A. Allen. 

Itinerary. — Proceeding to Popayan over the route followed by Miller 
and Richardson in May, 1911 (See Expedition No. 2), Miller and Allen, 
accompanied by J. T. Lloyd, left Popayan on foot February 27, 1912, and 
traveled southward to La Sierra (Feb. 29-March 4) and Almaguer (March 
9-18). At the last-named point they turned to the east to cross to the 
Magdalena Valley, stopping at Valle de las Pappas (March 22-April 4), 
and reached San Agustin April 7, after a difficult and trying journey. 
Allen suffered much from a recurrence of fever acquired in the Choc6 and 
shortly after arriving at San Agustin his condition became so serious that he 
was obliged to go to Bogota for treatment and subsequently was invalided 
home. 

Description of Route and Collecting Stations. — The following notes are 
supplied by Dr. Allen: 

Popayan to San Agustin. — "Leaving Popayan (Feb. 27) the country 
continues very similar to that to the north of the city ranging, from 4700 
to 6800 feet in altitude and sparsely covered with vegetation except in the 
immediate vicinity of the rivers. (The haze or the fog was always so dense 
that observations of distant ranges or peaks was impossible so that the 
notes must of necessity be restricted to the country in the immediate vicin- 
ity of the trail). 

"The fauna and flora likewise continues practically the same, being 
similar to that of the open country just below El Roble which I have called 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XIV. 




Between Buenaventura and San Jose 
(Tropical Zone; Colombian-Paciflc Fauna.) 




Juntas de Tamana 

Typical Choco Country 

(Tropical Zone; Colombian-Paciflc Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 41 

'Transition.' It is probably the lower edge of the transition, however, as 
along the streams the large bamboo is prevalent and several of the bamboo 
zone birds noted. Eight miles (approximately) to the south the town of 
Timbio is reached, situated on a small river of the same name. We are 
now on the headwaters of the Patia and the streams lie in very deep valleys 
in places with almost perpendicular sides, averaging a thousand feet in 
depth. Were it not for these valleys the country would be fairly level, but 
the steep descents and ascents in crossing these streams makes the travelling 
slow and difficult. A day and a half journey from Timbio lies the town of 
La Sierra situated op a saddle-back ridge just before the trail drops into 
the canon of the Patia proper. Just before coming to the town small 
groves of rather open forest occur and here we stopped for three days to 
collect, securing sixty-six birds and ten mammals. To the east a trail 
follows the ridge up the sides of Sotara, which is not visible from the trail 
but which shows considerable forest growth, commencing at what I should 
judge to be between 8000 and 9000 feet. We camped at 6800 feet; having 
been told there was no water higher up nor pasturage for the mules. The 
forest in which we collected at La Sierra was comparatively dry and open, 
and very limited in extent. Birds were scarce both as to numbers and 
species, and but a very few new to our former collections were taken. 
Here was seen the only Condor of the expedition, and it was flying rather 
high over the ridge toward Sotara. 

"Leaving La Sierra (where very few supplies can be secured) the trail 
is very poor and probably nearly impassable in the wet season, descending 
steeply to the Patia which here flows at 4700 feet, a rushing, rocky torrent 
similar to the Toche in size, but crossed by a strong brick bridge which leads 
one to believe the trail has degenerated. Along the river is a jungle of low 
trees, but elsewhere the country is covered by coarse grasses and sedges 
with no higher vegetation. A steep and then gradual ascent brings one to 
the town of San Miguel, a row of some forty houses straddling the ridge. 
It is supposed to be but four hours from La Sierra, but our pack mules re- 
quired a full day. Here we learned for the first time the truth concerning 
the trail from Almaguer to San Agustin, and the one that continued on to 
Pasto, and had to alter our plans accordingly. The trail next soon strikes 
into the valley of the Rio La Vega which is, I believe, another tributary of 
the Patia and quite similar to it in its precipitous sides. The trail follows 
a niche in its side for the rest of the day until the town of La Vega is reached 
at an altitude of 7500 feet. Hereabouts are greater signs of industry than 
noted elsewhere in most parts of the country, the precipitous mountain 
sides being covered with corn-flelds or wheat, and neatly marked off with 
beautiful hedges; no forest as yet, however, and the fauna still "transition." 

"Leaving La Vega, the trail continues up the river for about thirty 



42 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

minutes and then cuts steeply up the mountain-side, winding much until 
the very top of the ridge is reached at an altitude of 10,350 feet. The trail 
then follows this ridge for about two miles and then descends on the other 
side two hours' distant to Almaguer. This ridge extends approximately 
northeast and southwest, and shows evidences of timbering along the lower 
hne of forest growth. At present, the whole crest of the ridge is covered 
with most luxuriant forest but it extends downward for but a few hundred 
feet (altitude). From evidences on the south side of the ridge, I should 
judge that this forest may have originally extended down as low as 9500 
feet, this lower stretch now being covered with high . bushes of the " ole- 
ander" type, and with occasional trees of size. The forest itself is a most 
luxuriant one of the 'cloud [= Temperate] zone' type, being much more 
luxuriant and mossy than that at Laguneta at Santa Isabel. Here we col- 
lected nine days — March 9-18. Although the rainy season was not sup- 
posed to have set in, it rained every day and the forest was always draped 
with fog. The trail along the ridge has been recently widened which, to- 
gether with several side trails, made excellent collecting grounds. As usual, 
however, birds were scarce, and a considerable number of species were 
found with nests in the process of construction, a few with eggs, and a few 
with young on the wing; and the majority of all birds with enlarged repro- 
ductive organs. 

"The present lower limit of this forest is about 10,000 feet, the upper 
limit under 11,000, for in following up a ridge which leads off at an angle 
from the one of the trail, open places with stunted trees and numerous 
paramo species of shrub and herbaceous plant were encountered as low as 
10,600 feet, although the ridge did not extend high enough for real paramo. 
These open areas were similar, Miller stated, to the crest of the Andes on 
which he and Richardson had collected west of Popayan. The flora and 
fauna of this moss forest was very similar to that at Laguneta and Santa 
Isabel, comparatively few species new to our former collections being taken. 

"March 18, we broke camp to start for San Agustin. One long day's 
travel, or a day and a half, as we had to travel, brings one to the town of 
San Sebastian. The trail from Almaguer crosses the ridge to the north- 
east at 9600 feet, which is below the present lower edge of the moss forest, 
and then descends steeply into the Valley of the Caquiona at 7700 feet. 
The trail then follows down this valley for about an hour and crosses another 
ridge into the valley of the San Sebastian, at the head of which is the town 
of San Sebastian (alt. 7600 ft.). It is a small town of some fifty or sixty 
houses, where the necessities can be secured on market day; that is, bread, 
meat, rice, beans and sugar, but at other times it is rather devoid of life. 
The fauna of these last two valleys appeared similar to that of La Sierra, 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol XXXVI, Plate XV 




77 West of GreetiH ch 



Map of Central Western Colombia 

(Drawn by F. Miiller mider the direction of Frank M. Cliapman.) 
Dotted red line indicates routes of the Museum expeditions. Collections were made at 

localities underlined in red. 



1917.J Chapman, Distribution of Birdrlife in Colombia. 43 

transition, with innumerable Black Merulas and the common Song Sparrow 
(Brachyspiza). The trail next crosses two ridges at 8000 and 9000 feet 
respectively, the nature of the country and paramo remaining practically 
the same. It then ascends the third and last ridge very steeply to the Pass 
at 10,500 feet, and then descends more gradually into the Valle de Pappas 
at 9900 feet. This last ridge is covered with the moss forest similar to the 
one above Almaguer; the forest extending down to 9600 feet with its flora 
and fauna the same so far as observed. 

" From the Pass, the valley appears perfectly flat, with patches of forest 
and open meadow through which endlessly winds a fair-sized stream. The 
valley is perhaps a mile and a half wide, and the mountains all about it so 
far as could be seen through the clouds covered with dense forest. Above 
this forest again on all the higher peaks and ridges was another area of 
strict Paramo covering their tops, at this time now covered with snow. 
The stream was called by the Indians the " Cosiacu" and said to be the head- 
waters of the Caquetd. 

"Descending into the valley, the vegetation is found to be similar to 
that of the Paramo of Santa Isabel, although here at an altitude of but 
9900-11,000 feet, long sedges with numerous similar herbaceous plants and 
bushes, and numerous "frailejones" were scattered about; at intervals occur 
small clumps of forest similar to that at the edge of the Paramo of Santa 
Isabel. The trail, where it has been repaired with brown soil and guide 
logs, is very good, but in other places where composed of black muck, the 
natural soil, it is almost impassable for the mules. Here we staid ten days, 
finding quarters in one room of a finca, to which we had been recommended 
by its owner in Almaguer. 

" The fauna of this valley, while containing very few new forms, is very 
interesting. As contrasted with Almaguer, where the birds were just 
commencing to nest, here nidification was about completed for most species. 
Trees had ceased flowering, and most of the Hummingbirds had disappeared. 

" We left the Valle April 3, on the trail for San Agustin. The trail leads 
practically northeast upward steeply in places, and very rocky, until the 
top of the Paramo is reached at 12,300 feet. It was extremely rainy and 
foggy so that we could not see far, but it was very noticeable that there 
was no sharp line to tree growth as at Santa Isabel. One Ipoks down into 
narrow valley covered with Paramo vegetation, while all about the moun- 
tains are heavily forested in places probably up to 13,000 feet; but even 
on these wooded slopes the forest is not continuous, but here and there occur 
patches of the Paramo vegetation scattered about rather miscellaneously — 
their presence perhaps determined by the nature of the soil rather than the 
altitude alone. Most of these 'Paramo Valleys' appear to me to be the 



44 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

basins of ancient lakes which have, in some way, broken through their 
barriers and left behind them only those broad flat-bottomed beds of loose 
muck, which have gradually been covered over with the growth of coarse 
sedges, except where the small stream still meanders. 

"Just below timber-line the forest is extremely dense with a great deal 
of moss, caladiums, etc., and with a tree of the banyan type quite prevalent; 
the fringe of stunted trees is restricted. The trail continues along the ridge 
for a short distance fringed by low growth, and then begins a steady descent. 
At 11,000 feet a fair-sized mountain stream is crossed, and then the trail 
follows approximately down its valley, extremely rocky and stony in parts, 
and ever very wet with a stream flowing down it. When a level stretch is 
reached, it is generally very marshy, making progress difficult. In places 
grea;t cliffs rise perpendicularly for hundreds of feet at either side of the 
valley, and waterfalls tumble uninterrupted from the top to the river 
below — at least a thousand feet. These walls could be seen, however, 
only at intervals when the fog parted for an instant; at other times one could 
not see fifty feet in advance. Thus the trail descends to Santa Marta at an 
altitude of 9000 feet. Santa Marta is a rather large but unfinished building 
used as a general posada by all the Indian packers. It is situated in a 
beautiful amphitheatre of perhaps a half-mile in diameter, whose perpen- 
dicular walls are pierced only by the ingress and egress' of the stream (and 
trail). The river even here is a swollen torrent and called the Magdalena 
by the Indians; all about is the luxuriant moss forest. It would make an 
ideal collecting spot. 

"A long day's trip over a trail which is comparable only with that 
between Cartago and Novita, brings one to Los Monos which is nothing 
but a small lean-to situated at the edge of a small clearing. Three hours 
further, ascending and descending, brings one to Penaseca, a niche in a 
perpendicular clifF under-cut so as to be perfectly dry, and no shelter of any 
kind has been erected or is necessary. A few hundred feet below, almost 
straight down, rushes the Magdalena, here a mad torrent. The altitude 
is but 7000 feet, but the moss forest extends uninterrupted down its course 
and covers its sides, — a wonderful country! I was sorry not to be in a 
better position to appreciate it. This country between Santa Marta and 
Penaseca was the most inviting of the whole trip, and the trail the worst. 
From Penaseca to San Agustin, two days, the trail is much better though 
not good. Leaving the Magdalena at Penaseca the trail winds up the 
opposite ridge until an altitude of 7800 feet is reached, and then commences 
a gradual descent. All of this is strangely enough covered with a luxuriant 
moss forest, though less so than that across the valley at the same altitude. 
It extends down to about 7000 feet where a decided change is noticeable. 




a 







1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 45 

and though still heavily wooded is more second growth and much less moss. 
The trail descends again to the river at 6500 feet and follows it to 6100 feet; 
it then ascends another ridge rather steeply up to 6800 feet (Las Cham- 
bas — stop for night) and descends again to 6100 feet, and the river which it 
follows for but a short distance rising abruptly and then gradually until 
7000 feet is reached and a long gradual descent begun to San Agustin. 
This latter country is much more open than that first reached at 7000 feet, 
but there is abundant evidence of deforestation until the last descent is 
commenced to San Agustin, which seems naturally more arid and less for- 
ested except along tributary streams which are forested even down below 
the altitude of San Agustin (6000 ft.). None of these are in the near vicin- 
ity of the town, however, the country being semi-arid and more or less like 
that about Cali. Here I was laid up completely and unable to do any col- 
lecting whatever. Here we met Senor Nieto of the Bogota engineers and 
discovered that our barometer was reading 900 feet too high, so that the 
altitude of San Agustin should be 5000 feet. When this error commenced 
I do not know. 

"The country from San Agustin to Neiva and thence to Giradot in 
general, is very similar to that about the headwaters of the Cauca, being 
semiarid (more so than the Cauca) except along the streams, where con- 
siderable coffee and cacao is raised." 



Expedition No. 5. — Saw Agustin to the Caqueta Region. April 7 - Sept. 1, 

1912. 

Personnel. — L. E. Miller. 

Itinerary. — Illness having compelled Allen to leave the country, Miller 
carried out the plans of the original expedition, assisted only by natives. 
From April 7 to 25, and again on May 19 to 21, he worked in the vicinity of 
San Agustin going far enough from the city to reach the virgin forest. It 
was during this period that he discovered a nesting colony of the Cock-of- 
the-Rock. April 27 to May 5 he was resident at La Palma, and from May 
7 to 19 at La Candela, both in the forest respectively south and west of 
San Agustin. 

Returning to San Agustin May 20, preparations were made for the trip 
over the new government trail to the Caqueta Region. 

The Eastern Andes were crossed at Andalucia (7000 feet) and some col- 
lecting was done on both eastern and western slopes (May 30-June 20). 
Florencia was reached June 24, and collections made there until July 6, 
while at La Morelia the work was pushed vigorously from July 8 to July 26. 
Mr. Miller is, so far as I am aware, the first ornithologist to enter Amazonian 



46 Bidletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Colombia, and his collections from Florencia and La Morelia add many 
species to the known avifauna of Colombia. 

Description of Collecting Stations. — The following notes are supplied 
by Mr. Miller: 

La Palma. — " La Palma is the name given a place about one day south 
of San Agustin, on the same trail we came on from the Cauca. There are a 
numberof clearings and large fields of corn; also some pastureland. Around 
these extends the virgin forest; altitude 5500 feet. The place is not far 
from the junction of the Magdalena and Mulales. 

" The forest is very dense. There are many palms; much large timber 
and a great deal of moss. Ferns, also, are abundant. The country is 
mountainside, cut by numerous ravines. Paths there are none, and it was 
invariably necessary to follow along a small rivulet or ravine. Birds in 
general were scarce." 

La Candela. — " A small Indian ranchito, a day west of San Agustin 
(with pack animals) bears this name. There is a comparatively small 
clearing, surrounded on all sides by giant forest. The altitude is 6500 feet. 
The trail for first half of the way leads through the open country that 
surrounds San Agustin, and then through the forest, and is fair, but narrow 
so that the pack mules pass with difficulty. 

"The lower growth of the forest consists almost exclusively of palms 
which reach a height of perhaps thirty feet. The trees are immense, being 
the thickest, tallest and straightest I have seen in Colombia, and include 
giant 'cedars.' The forest floor is littered with dried palm leaves, but open 
and easy to traverse. Birds are not abundant, but more plentiful than at 
La Palma. 

"The climate was cool and delightful with but little rain. There is 
very little moss in the forest." 

Andalucia. — " Before attempting to cross the Eastern Andes, it was 
thought necessary to make a short survey of the western slope. It had been 
absolutely impossible to get any reliable information as to the road, etc; to 
Florencia, and the only way to learn the conditions was to work near the 
trail and find out from the travellers who chanced along that way. A trip 
was therefore undertaken to the top of the range, one day from Guada- 
loupe, the place being called Andalucia, alt. 7000 feet. The altitude of 
Guadaloupe is 2500 feet. 

"Andalucia is a single, very large, boarded house, owned by the Govern- 
ment, situated on a narrow ridge with a large clearing on each side. At 
least during this season (May- June) the weather was most severe; fog, 
strong wind, almost continuous rain and very cold, almost recalling condi- 
tions on a paramo. Also, the forest was dense, and the vast number of 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 47 

fallen trunks and branches rendered the greater part of it impenetrable. 
Birds were scarce, but small mammals were plentiful. After three days a 
camp was established further down on the western slope where conditions 
were more favorable. 

" It was our intention to remain only a week at most, but a series of mis- 
sions in Guadaloupe attracted everybody for miles around including the 
peons, so I was left alone and of course could not leave until their return, 
two weeks later. 

" On the western slope, the great forest extends down to 3,500 feet, and in 
the canons and ravines, down to 3000 feet. The lower part is comparatively 
open, with numerous ferns and palms, and as one reaches higher altitude 
there is much moss, many 'pines,' parasites, creepers, etc., similar to forests 
of the same altitude previously described. Birds are not plentiful, and 

mammals scarce. 

"Up to 3500 feet there are large areas of wild cane and bamboo along 
the streams, and in these the most successful trapping was done." 

The Magdalena Valley to the Caquetd Region. — " About an hour's ride 
from Altamira, over a nicely constructed gravel road, takes one to the 
town of Guadaloupe. Just before reaching the town it is necessary to cross 
the Rio Saraza, which at this season (June to August) was a swift, muddy 
stream over a hundred yards wide. The town has a population of about 
one thousand, numerous small stores, weekly market, etc. All around are 
thickets of baniboo and wild cane; the altitude is 2450 feet. This zone 
extends up to nearly 3500 feet. 

"The new government road follows closely along a small 'quebrada,' 
the name of which I could not ascertain, but it is probably the Imaya or 
Matayna, and a full day's travel with packs takes one to Andalucia, altitude 
7000 feet, which is practically the top of the range. The forest up to this 
point has been described elsewhere, and is continuous over the eastern side 
until Sucre, altitude 2800 feet, is reached, the second night. The only 
difPerence here is that one finds less moss and epiphytes. Sucre is a large 
board house constructed by the government, and contains the telegraph 
ofHee, the present end of the line which is being constructed by the govern- 
ment to Florencia. 

"From Sucre one continues gradually downward until shortly after 
noon, to an altitude of 1500 feet. Then there is a sharp hill about 500 feet 
high, called Llegua Gorda. This was the only bad part of the trail, and, on 
account of the deep mud, two of the three pack mules had to be unloaded 
and the packs carried to the top. About two hours beyond we camped at a 
small hut called La Recluta where there is a large clearing, fine pasture, 
corn, yuccas and other farm products. It is only a half day to Florencia 



48 Bulletin American ^f^lseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

from here, over a fairly good road, level, with the exception of a small rise 
or two which, however, are of no consequence. 

" Florencia is a small town, with a few hundred inhabitants, but growing 
rapidly. The altitude is 675 feet. The whole Department of the Caqueta 
contains but two thousand souls not including Indians, according to the 
alcalde of Florencia. Provisions can be had at Florencia, but prices of 
everything but meat and corn are very high. 

" Our first work was done a short distance above the town, at an eleva- 
tion of 1000 feet, at the ranch of one Don Bias. The clearing was the 
largest I had seen in this locality, there being fodder, plantains, cacao and 
corn. In this open country birds were abundant. The surrounding forest 
was comparatively open, and not far away. From the elevated position 
one has a good view of the Caqueta country, a perfect ocean of forest stretch- 
ing out ahead as far as the eye can see, which on clear days is many miles. 
The sight is most impressive. There is not a single rise visible and the forest 
is of uniform height. 

" The forest is comparatively open, that is, free from dense undergrowth. 
The trees are tall and there are a few tree ferns, many climbing lilies and 
also many palms. There is not much moss and along the streams there is 
much bamboo and also wild cane, often mixed with dense clumps of creepers, 
tall grass and thorny bushes. In places there are small clumps, perhaps a 
few acres in extent, of dense low trees resembling cecropias and called 
" estrojo." Streams and rivers are numerous and one is at once impressed 
with their large size and depth. Also, while swift, they are so silent that 
one may be near a large river and not know of its presence until at the 
very edge. 

" Clouds hang low, often descending to the ground, especially in the early 
morning and late night, causing a dense fog. We happened to strike the 
country in the height of the rainy season, but there were frequently intervals 
of three bright days with not a drop of rain. On other days the showers, 
which were heavy, were confined to early morning, the afternoon, after 
4 P. M., and night. It rarely rained all daj' long. About 4 P. M. a cool 
wind invariably sprang up. At noon the heat was rather intense but not 
nearly so great in the Magdalena Valley (as I later discovered) below Neiva. 
The nights were cold so that two blankets were none too many. The ex- 
pedition was without a thermometer so no observations as to temperature 
could be made. It is said that during the dry season (December, Janu- 
ary and February) the heat is terrific and there is much fever owing to the 
clouds of mosquitoes that emerge from the pools left by the receding water. 
"La Morelia is two days' southeast from Florencia, between the Bodo- 
quera and Pescado. It seems as if the elevation should be greater than 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 49 

Florencia, but the aneroid registered 600 feet. The trail is bad and all 
but impassable to mules. There is practically no difference in the forest, 
but probably there are more streams. There is a ridge of low hills near by, 
to the east, not over 500 feet higher than the surrounding country, and also 
heavily forested. Some of the larger birds taken here are said to have 
been common around Florencia some years ago, but to have retreated with 
the approach of civilization." 



Expedition No. 6. — Tumaco-Barhacoas. July 26 -Oct. 13, 1912. 

Personnel. — W. B. Richardson. 

Itinerary. — ^ Richardson reached Tumaco by steamer from Panama, 
July 26. He left there July 30, arriving at Barbacoas August 3. In this 
unhealthful locahty he worked until September 10, when an attack of beri- 
beri forced him to seek a higher altitude and he continued up the trail 
toward Pasto to Ricaurte, at an elevation of about 4500 feet. He remained 
at Ricaurte until September 30, and then returned to Barbacoas, stopping 
on the way down, as he had on the way up, at Buenavista on the Pasto 
Trail. Barbacoas was left about October 8, and Tumaco reached October 
13. From this point Richardson sailed for Esmeraldas, Ecuador, and for 
the following year collected in that country. 

Description of Route and Collecting Stations. — The following informa- 
tion is taken from Richardson's letters and reports: 

"The island of Tumaco is dry, sunny, and sandy with only stunted 
vegetation; and, on one side, mangroves. There are only a few common 
birds there. On reaching the mainland at Sala Honda, at the mouth of the 
Patia, everything changes and the next one hundred miles is through a dense 
swamp of flooded forests. It is inhabited only by negroes who live on the 
river banks and cultivate patches of rice and plantains and cut wood for 
the steamer. Their huts are built of bamboo on poles five to eleven feet 
above the ground, and they last only a few years. When abandoned their 
thatched roofs are soon converted by nature into veritable 'roof gardens; 
a mass of vines and parasites, ferns, mosses, and even corn and bananas 
growing on top of them until they cave in. 

" After four days by steamer and canoe, I managed to reach Barbacoas. 
The surrounding country is much like that which exists between Buena- 
ventura and Cisneros on the road to Cali, thick, heavy forest and impene- 
trable jungle all matted together with vines and undergrowth. 

" Nothing is cultivated but plantains. The only paths through the forest 
lead to gold washings. For that reason I did much collecting from a canoe. 



50 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

" I arrived at Barbacoas (a town of 4000 negroes and 50 whites) in what 
was supposed to be the dry season, but it rained about twice a day during 
my stay. Nine months of the year it is said to pour, and even zinc roofs 
corrode. The climate is like a Turkish bath. 

"The journey from Barbacoas to Ricaurte is about a 75-miIe gradual 
climb over a good road. The intervening country is very broken and uncul- 
tivated and is inhabited only along the road, over which hundreds of Indians 
and mules laden with freight from Pasto and the interior pass daily. 

"Ricaurte, with an elevation which I believe to be between 4000-4500 
feet,^ is on the upper edge of the forested zone which extends to this point 
from the coast. The country above Ricaurte is open, bare and grassy 
and through it one may pass over steep ascents to the paramo. 

"At Ricaurte it is dryer, the forest is less luxuriant and dense than 
further down, but the country is very broken except along the gradually 
winding road. I found there many of the birds of Sari Antonio, Munchique, 
and Miraflores. 

"At Buenavista (alt. 1200 ft.) between Barbacoas and Ricaurte it rained 
steadily for six days. Only once did I get a glimpse of the snow cap of 
Mt. Cumbal in Ecuador." 



Expedition No. 7. — The Bogota Region. January 19- April 16, 1913. 

Personnel. — Frank M. Chapman, George K. Cherrie, Louis A. Fuertes, 
Paul G. Howes, Geoflroy O'Connell, Thomas M. Ring. 

Itinerary. — On January 19, 1913, we sailed from Barranquilla up the 
Magdalena, and by taking advantage of stops for fire-wood and cargo, 
collected 300 birds during our twelve-day voyage to La Dorada, the port 
of Honda. 

At Honda (alt. 600 ft.) we remained from February 2 to 9, collecting in 
the immediate vicinity of the city, at the hacienda El Triunfo, a few miles 
to the north, and at the beautifully situated ^osada, El Consuelo (alt. 3300 
ft.) distant four hours' ride on the mule trail to Bogota. 

February 10, we left Honda on mules over this trail for Bogotd.. No 
collecting was done en route during the three-day journey to Facatativa, 
where a train was taken to Bogotd, but our familiarity in life with many of 
the more common species observed, permitted us to make notes on their 
altitudinal distribution as we rode slowly through their respective zones. 



1 Mr. Richardson's barometer not having reached him he was unable to learn accurately the eleva- 
tion of Ricaurte. His collections, however, show that it is in the Subtropical Zone. — F, M. C. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XVII. 




Coast neak Carthagena 
(Tropical Zone; Caribbean Fauna.) 




Shores op the Lower Magdalena River 

The neighboring savannas support many cattle. 

(Tropical Zone; Caribbean Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of BirdAiJe in Colombia. 51 

We remained in Bogota from February 12 to 20 buying mules and sup- 
plies for our. proposed journey to Villavicencio, distant some ninety miles 
by trail, at the eastern base of the Andes, and during this period collected 
on the Savanna in the vicinity of the city. 

In order to simplify the problem of transportation and to avoid over- 
taxing the limited resources of wayside posadas, our party was divided 
into two sections for the journey to Villavicencio. This plan necessitated 
the use of only three saddle- and three pack-mules. At the end of a day's 
journey of twenty to twenty-five miles, the first section stopped. After 
resting a day the mules were sent back for the second section. On its 
arrival the first section advanced another day's journey. Relayed in this 
manner we collected to a limited extent en route, at Chipaque (alt. 9000 ft.), 
Quetame, (alt. 4600 ft.) and Monteredondo (alt. 4500 ft.). The first party 
reached Buena Vista (alt. 4500 ft.), on the summit of the last ridge of the 
Andes (the first ridge above Villavicencio) February 28, the second, March 2. 

March 5, the first party left for Villavicencio, where it was joined by the 
second party March 10. The first party remained at Villavicencio until 
March 15, while the second party returned to Buena Vista March 13. 

In all, therefore, we had nearly two weeks' collecting at Buena Vista 
and Villavicencio. 

March 16, we all left Buena Vista for Bogota. Additional mules were 
hired to avoid delay and the journey was accomplished in the regulation 
pack-train time of three days. 

March 19, we left Bogota for Fusugasuga, distant about 35 miles to the 
south at the upper border of the Tropical Zone of the Magdalena Valley. 

Collections were made in the vicinity of Fusugasuga (alt. 5464 ft.) and 
at Aguadita (alt. about 6500 ft.) March 25 to 31, at El Roble (alt. 8100 ft.) 
in the Subtropical Zone, April 1 to 4, and at El Piiion (alt. 9600 ft.) in the 
Temperate Zone April 1 to 5. 

April 5 to 9 was devoted to packing, and on April 10 we left Bogota on 
our homeward journey, during which no birds were collected. 

Barranquilla to Honda via the Magdalena River. — The Caribbean coast 
of Colombia, both because of a low and irregular rainfall and the character 
of the soil is comparatively arid. Acacias, cacti and other xerophytic 
forms are the prevailing types of vegetation. This region, however, is so 
remote from Bogota that, so far as I am aware, none of the birds which, in 
Colombia, are restricted to it are found in Bogota collections. 

It is not until one has passed Calamar and reached the vicinity of Banco, 
about 150 miles from the mouth of the Magdalena, that the humid, forested 
region is reached. More favorable soil and increased rainfall, doubtless 
following condensation attributable to the proximity of the Eastern Andes, 



52 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

presumably are responsible for the change from the open, scrubby vegetation 
•of the arid coastal area to the luxuriant forests which now almost continu- 
ously line both shores of the river. Away from the border of the river, 
however, at least on its eastern bank, the arid zone continues as far as 
Puerto Nacional whence, according to Wyatt (Ibis, 1871, p. 117) "the first 
few miles" of the road to Ocafia runs through "small savannas, tracts of 
open grassy country sprinkled with a few stunted trees, or through woods." 

In the more northern part of this humid region tributary streams may 
make their contribution to the muddy waters of the Magdalena through 
marshy or low-lying land, but farther up the river the banks are higher and 
the shores of entering streams are forested. 

The humid zone of the floor of the Magdalena continues with no diminu- 
tion in the luxuriance of the vegetation as far up the river as La Dorada, 
about 600 miles from its mouth. Between this place and Honda a marked 
change occurs. Strongly eroded buttes with castellated outlines appear, 
the soil is thinner and less fertile, and although the rainfall is not so low as 
at Barranquilla (Mr. Miller, the manager of the railway between La Dorada 
and Ambalema, tells me that at Mariquita, a few miles east of Honda, 
it has ranged in a few years observation from 85 to 100 inches annually) 
the vegetation suggests that of an arid or semi-arid region. The heavy 
forests are replaced by a more stunted growth and there are large tracts of 
open country devoted to grazing. This condition apparently prevails to 
the head of the Magdalena Valley. 

Honda to Bogota. — In a region which has been inhabited by white man 
for as many years as that lying between Honda and Giradot, and between 
these towns and the plateau of Bogota, it is often difficult to determine just 
what changes man has wrought in the character of the country. At present, 
however, in following either the mule trail from Honda or the railroad from 
Giradot, one sees but little forest growth between the Magdalena river and 
the Savanna of Bogota. In the upper Magdalena Valley proper, the absence 
of heavy forest, as has been remarked, is doubtless due to the character of 
the soil, but on the mountain slopes the first-growth timber has no doubt 
disappeared in many places before , the agriculturist. Remains of this 
forest were discovered between El Consuelo and El Alto de Sargento on the 
first ridge of the Andes east of Honda, where at an altitude of some 4000 
feet, we found such characteristic species of the Tropical Zone as Formicarius 
analis and Myrmelastes immaculatus. 

At El Vergel (alt. 5500 ft.), on the summit of the second ridge, or that 
lying east of Guaduas, there is a small area of apparently primeval forest 
in which oaks, some 75 feet in height, were prominent and the presence 
here of Xanthoura yncas galeata, Brachyspiza capensis, Melanerpes flavi- 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XVIII. 




Central Lower Magdalena River 

The country is heavily forested. 

(Tropical Zone; Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 




A Wood Yard in the Magdalena Forests 

Many birds were collected at such localities when the steamer stopped for fuel. 

(Tropical Zone; Cauca-Magdalena Faima.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 53 

gula and Grallaria ruficapilla indicated that we had reached the second or 
Subtropical Zone. 

Beyond this place the country is again more or less thickly settled and 
coffee plantations have replaced the forest which probably once existed 
here. Certain birds were abundant but the conditions were obviously 
unnatural and far from satisfactory to one who would study animal life in 
an undisturbed environment. Possibly owing to the absence of the luxuri- 
ant forest which usually occurs at an altitude of from 6000 to 9000 feet, 
such birds of the Temperate Zone as Semimerula gigas and Sturnella 
magna meridionalis were encountered as low as 6000 feet. 

At an altitude of 7300 feet, on the line of the railroad from Giradot to 
Facatativa, one passes through a broad belt of superb first-growth forest, 
such as doubtless once occupied the slopes now given to agriculture on the 
Honda trail, but at no other place was primeval forest observed from the 
railway. Aside, therefore, from the few days at El Consuelo and obser- 
vations made from mule-back on the road to Facatativa, we did no work 
in the country lying between Honda and the Bogota Savanna. In the 
country above Fusugasuga, however, to be presently described, primeval 
conditions were found and representative collections made of the bird-life 
of the Subtropical and Temperate Zones of the western slope of the Eastern 
Andes. Q 

The Bogota Savanna. — Bogota, a locality to which so many species of 
birds have been attributed, has, as a matter of fact, a comparatively restricted 
avifauna. Situated at an elevation of 8600 feet, near the southern end of 
the great Savanna which is so striking and unusual a feature of Colombian 
Andean topography, and at the western base of the chain which encloses 
the Savanna at the east, it is in the arid portion of the Temperate Zone. 
The word arid, as used here, does not necessarily imply sterility, but indi- 
cates the existence of conditions which prevent forest growth in a zone 
where, under favorable circumstances, such growth should occur. For 
example, at the altitude of Bogota on the trail from that city to Fusugasugd, 
beyond Cibate, luxuriant forest growth is found and, in consequence, the 
upper limit of the Subtropical Zone here reaches upward to somewhat over 
9000 feet, or nearly, if not quite, to the divide at El Piiion. 

This forest is obviously due to the heavy rainfall which prevails at that 
point, just as on the Savanna of Bogota the lack of forest is possibly attribut- 
able to insufficient rainfall.'^ However this may be, practically the only 
tree we saw on the Savanna between Facatativa and Cibat€, is the intro- 



1 The rainfall at Bogota is given by Petre ('The Republic of Colombia,' London, 1906) as 42 
inches for the six months' wet season. 



54 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

duced eucalyptus, and the existence here of a peculiar race (0. a. peregrina) 
of such a plains-loving species as Otocoris alpestris implies that the region 
is naturally treeless. 

So far as we observed, every available square foot of the Savanna is 
used for pasturage or agricultural purposes, chiefly the growing of wheat 
and corn, the grazing area, however, prevailing. The Bogota River, as it 
winds through the Savanna, in places widens into small pools the banks of 
which are bordered by reeds and cat-tails. In the rainy season depressions 
of from a few square yards to others of several hundred acres or more become 
lagoons, and it is in these restricted localities that the resident, as well as 
winter visitant water-birds of the Savanna are found. 

To the North American ornithologist the bird-life of the Savanna holds 
so many familiar forms that it was difficult for us to realize that we were 
within 300 miles of the Equator. 

By ascending the mountains Guadalupe or Mont Serrate one may reach 
the Paramo Zone, at an elevation of between 11,000 and 12,000 feet. Our 
plans to visit this zone with its restricted avifauna, did not, however, 
mature, and we touched this upper life-zone only at its lower border on the 
higher parts of the trail between Bogota and Chipaque. 

Bogotd to Villaviceneio. — The trail from Bogota to Villavicencio and the 
Llanos of eastern Colombia leads directly over that ridge of the Eastern 
Andes at the western foot of which the city lies. A few squares south of 
the Central Plaza one turns eastward and the ascent begins before the city 
limits are reached. The country is rolling rather than precipitous, and for 
a considerable distance the trail leads over comparatively level country. The 
actual divide is situated at the extreme eastern edge of the ridge, some ten 
miles from Bogota, where from the mouth of the pass, at an altitude of 
approximately 10,700 feet, one looks down the extremely steep eastern slope 
to the valley of Chipaque two thousand feet below. The average height of 
that part of the ridge traversed by the trail is about 10,000 feet, and nowhere 
does it rise higher than 10,300 until the pass is approached. In limited 
areas well-developed Temperate Zone forest exists, but the country for the 
greater part is covered with a bushy scrub, or with low ferns. Both to the 
north and south cones or spurs of the ridge rise at a sharp angle to as much 
as 2000 feet above the trail. On the slopes with a northerly exposure, timber- 
line extended to approximately 11,000-11,500 feet. On southerly slopes it 
was about 500 feet lower and under these conditions, frailejons, one of the 
most characteristic paramo plants, grew abundantly almost down to the 
level of the trail. The pass, using this term in the broad sense to cover the 
higher parts of the trail between Bogota and a point where the descent to 
Chipaque begins, lies in the Temperate Zone and though it is frequently 



BtiiiLETiN A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XIX. 




Slopes above Bogota 
Junction of Temperate and Paramo Zones. 




The Environs of Bogota 

View of the Savanna from the beginning of the trail to Villa vicencio. 

(Temperate Zone.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 55 

referred to as paramo, it barely reaches the level at which true paramo be- 
gins. The prevailing winds are easterly and the clouds which have passed 
over the lower ridges to the east here give up their moisture, producing a 
climate marked by chilling winds with driving mist and rain. 

The upper portions of the eastern slope above Chipaque are covered 
with dense, but rather poorly developed Temperate Zone forest, the last 
forest-growth through which the trail passes until one reaches the eastern- 
most ridge in the range. 

As one descends to Chipaque the forest, doubtless partly because of 
natural conditions and partly because of the demands of agriculture, gradu- 
ally disappears. We were favored in securing quarters at an hacienda about 
a mile west of the town of Chipaque and some five hundred feet above it. 

The avifauna here was characteristic of that of the Temperate Zone, 
a single specimen of Gallinago nohilis and one of Cistothorus wquatorialis 
taken at approximately ten thousand feet, indicated our proximity to the 
Paramo Zone above, while a single specimen of Henicorhina leucophrys 
guttata taken in the dense undergrowth bordering a deep ravine cut by the 
Caqueza, illustrated the tendency of a lower zone fauna to penetrate the 
zone above along the protected banks of barrancas. 

The absence of forests between the summit of the range above Chipaque 
and the most eastern ridges of the range, or approximately between 9500 
and 4500 feet altitude, was a great disappointment to us, since it prevented 
us from securing a collection in the Subtropical Zone forests of the range. 
This is the most serious gap in our field work in the Bogota region. Such 
forest doubtless exists in other parts of the range, but in the region traversed 
by us it was restricted to the summits of the higher mountains and ridges 
where, under the circumstances, it was not accessible. That its exploration 
would yield most interesting results for comparison with those obtained 
near Fusugasugd is indicated by the discovery of a new form of Ostinops 
sincipitalis, taken by Ring with much difiiculty from a forest-crowned 
summit rising to 1000 feet above Monteredondo, and by the striking differ- 
ence found to exist between the Jays of the genus Xanthoura inhabiting 
opposite slopes of the range. 

At Quetame (alt. 4800 ft.), our next station, the trail continues to pass 
through an arid, treeless region with some tree-growth along the water- 
courses in ravines or lateral barrancas, and occasionally a crown of forest 
on some rounded crest high enough to receive moisture. 

The first evidences of Amazonian bird-life were observed just east of 
Caqueza, and about thirty miles from Bogota where, at an altitude of 5500 
feet, Tanagra episcopus was noted, and from this point it became increas- 
ingly common as we journeyed toward the Llanos. 



56 Bvlletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

The scarcity of arborescent vegetation at Quetame necessarily limited 
the numbers of species of birds found there. Altitudinally in the Sub- 
tropical Zone, only the scanty growth of timber along streams flowing into 
the Rio Negro itself furnishes a haunt for the tree-inhabiting species of this 
zone, but in such localities the few species secured were members of the zone 
in which Quetame is situated. Examples are Xanthoura cyanodorsaMs, 
Grallaria ruficeps, and Cindus. 

But mingled with these birds were outlying representatives of the Tropic 
Zone below; for example Planesticus ignobilis and Tanagra episcopus, while 
on the grassy hillsides or along the hedge-rows such characteristic species 
of the Temperate Zone as Sturnella meridionalis and Planesticus gigas found 
their lower limit. At Quetame, then, although the avifauna was in the main 
that of the Subtropic Zone, representatives of both the zone below (Tropic) 
and zone above (Temperate) met, a condition we have not found elsewhere. 

At Monteredondo, some five miles east of Quetame, but at about the 
same altitude (4800 ft.), arborescent vegetation was somewhat more 
developed and from this point it increased steadily in size and abundance. 
Ten miles further east the mountain slopes rising from the southern side of 
the Rio Negro were heavily forested from base to summit, here a matter 
of about 3000 feet, but the slopes on the northern side, or those having a 
southerly exposure, were still comparatively bare; a condition possibly due 
to the fact that the prevailing winds are northeast rather than southeast. 

As we traveled eastward the forested areas continued to increase, the 
most eastern ridge of the range being covered with superbly developed 
primeval woods from the Llanos at their base to their crest (alt. 4500 ft.). 
On the western side, where the slopes reached the Rio Negro, now 
some 2500 feet below, the forest continued to the water's edge. In this 
region we made our base at the posada of Buena Vista, situated at the side 
of the trail on the summit of the ridge directly above Villavicencio lying 
some 3000 feet below at the base of the Andes. 

Buena Vista was our most productive station. From the surrounding 
region have come many Bogota skins. Within two hundred yards of the 
posada lie as finely developed tropical forests as I have ever entered; the 
trees are of exceptional height (averaging over one hundred feet), the forest 
floor is comparatively open. 'Numerous trails greatly facilitate the passage 
of the collector and I recall with unalloyed pleasure our experiences in this 
delightful locality; 

. The fauna of Buena Vista is mainly that of the Tropical Zone, with the 
addition of some species from the zone above. The fact, however, that the 
ridge reaches an altitude of only 4500 feet, and that there are no higher 
ridges nearby, evidently limits the number of Subtropical Zone representa- 
tives. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XX. 




Eastern Andes between Bogota and Chipaqtje 
(Temperate Zone.) 




Chipaque 
View looking west. 
(Temperate Zone.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. ffl 

As has been remarked, the eastern slope of the eastern ridge of the Andes 
is forested from summit to base. At the foot of the ridge which rises 
abruptly from the level plain at its feet, the forest of the mountain gives 
way to the grasses of the Llanos. 

The environs of Villavicencio, to which our collecting was confined, 
are largely under cultivation. The original llano grasses have given way 
to Para and Guinea grass; various crops are cultivated; trees border the 
byways and are found in clumps on small areas in the bottom-lands. 
Somewhat farther east stretches of forest occur. The differences between 
the bird-life of Buena Vista and that of Villavicencio are due to the char- 
acter of the country rather than to altitude. Doubtless had we collected 
in the forests at the base of the mountain, we should have found many 
species which we secured only at Buena Vista. 

Bogota to Ftisugasugd. — Our disappointment in finding so little undis- 
turbed, primeval country along the trail from Honda and the railroad from 
Giradot to the tableland was forgotten when we discovered the admirable 
conditions for collecting which exist between Bogota and Fusugasuga. 

As a region to which Bogotanos repair for climatic change, Fusugasuga is 
often thought of as a suburb of the larger city, a conception which is fostered 
by the apparent proximity of the two cities as seen on maps. It is probable, 
however, that, excepting a few raptorial species, not two birds are common 
to both places. Beginning our journey at Cibate, at the southern end of 
the Savanna, it is doubtful if, even in Colombia, one could encounter more 
pronounced faunal changes than occur in the fifteen miles lying between 
that place and Fusugasuga. 

Cibate has the same altitude as Bogota and, except to the south, the 
surrounding country, and doubtless its bird-life, are essentially similar; 
but within a few minutes after leaving the railway station, which marks 
the terminus of the twenty-miles of track constituting the Ferrocaril del 
Sur, one begins to climb the low hills which form the southern rim of the 
Savanna. Where not under cultivation, the ground is covered with a 
scrubby second growth which, within three miles, is gradually replaced 
by the low, stunted, moss-covered forest of the humid Temperate Zone. 
The ascent is now barely perceptible but it continues to the posada of El 
Pifion, at the extreme southern edge of the ridge dividing the Savanna of 
Bogota from the slopes below it. 

At this point the trail drops abruptly into the almost gorge-like valley 
which leads to Fusugasuga. On each side, and separated by less than a 
mile, stand the precipitous walls which flank the valley. Heated air from 
the broad, radiating surfaces of the semi-arid Magdalena plains below is 
drawn up this slit in the mountains and at El Pinon meets the cooler 



58 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

atmosphere of the tableland. Condensation ensues and in consequence the 
rainfall here, and in the valley immediately below, is doubtless unusually 
high. 

Evidently for this reason, the forest of the Temperate Zone at El Piiion 
is more luxuriant than we have found it elsewhere, while the floor and 
where circumstances permitted, the side's of the valley below were clothed 
with heavy, subtropical forest broken only by artificial clearings until one 
reached a point some 1500 feet above Fusugasuga. From this point down- 
ward the forest has been cleared and replaced by the coffee plantations which 
surround the town of Fusugasuga. 

Our nearest collecting station to El Piiion was El Roble, a posada 1000 
feet lower down on the trail to Fusugasuga. Nowhere in Colombia have 
we found so great a faunal change in so short a distance as that which occurs 
between these two points. Indeed one has to go only a few hundred feet 
below El Piiion to pass from the Temperate, completely into the Subtropical 
Zone. So steep is the trail that one seems to be descending a flight of stairs. 
Within a dozen steps the rolling ground of the dividing ridge is lost to view, 
and one is at once protected from the chill winds of the tableland. Very 
quickly a striking change is observed in the vegetation as the larger, more 
open-limbed, liane-draped trees of the Subtropical Zone replace the smaller, 
thickly branched, moss-covered ones of the Temperate Zone. 

About 1200 feet below El Roble, we collected at a way-side posada known 
as Aguadita. The valley is here somewhat wider, but the heavy subtropi- 
cal forest, essentially like that found at El Roble, and broken only by occa- 
sional clearings, still prevails. 

A short distance below Aguadita the primeval forest ends and the coffee 
plantations begin and continue to and beyond Fusugasuga. While climati- 
cally in the Subtropical Zone, the clearing away of the original forest-growth 
has permitted a number of species characteristic of the semi-arid Tropical 
Zone of the Magdalena Valley to extend their range up the mountai n slope. 
Examples are Mimus, Tanagra cana and 1\ palmarum. Our party was 
stationed only a day or two at Fusugasuga, collections being made from this 
point in the forests 1500 feet above the city. 

Expedition No. 8. — The Antioquia Region. November, 191 4- March 26, 1916. 

Personnel. — Leo E. Miller; Howarth Boyle. 

Itinerary. — Miller and Boyle reached Medellin via the Magdalena 
River to Puerto Berrio, November 11, 1914. After establishing their base 
in this city they proceeded at once to Sta. Elena, one of Salmon's most 
important collecting stations, on the summit of the first ridge of the Central 



Bulletin A. M, N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXI. 




Rio Negro from Monterbdondo 

Upper limits of arborescent vegetation in the Rio Negro Valley; 

Bogota- Villavlvencio Trail at the right. 

(Tropical Zone; Orinocan Fauna.) 




Junction of Rio Caqueza and Rio Negro 
A scene near Caqueza. Bogota-Villavicencio Trail leaves the floor of the valley at the right. 
(Fusion of Temperate, Subtropical, and Tropical Zones.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribulion of Bird-life in Colombia. 59 

Andes east of Medellin. Here they worked from December 15 to 23, and 
then proceeded twelve miles further east to Barro Blanco remaining there 
from November 25 to 29. Returning to Medellin they collected for three 
more days (Dec. 1^) at Sta. Elena and arrived at their base December 5. 

In order to determine to what extent the fauna of the lower Atrato has 
reached the heavily forested portions of the lower Cauca region, the expedi- 
tion left Medellin December 9 and reached Puerto Valdivia at the head of 
navigation on the Cauca five days later. Collections were made here until 
December 26, when the party retraced its steps to La Frijolera, some 5000 
feet higher, working there from December 29 to January 4. About 600 
birds were secured on this lower Cauca trip. These,, in connection with 
Salmon's records from Remedios, Miller and Boyle's later work at Malena 
near Puerto Berrio, and some 300 specimens collected chiefly by the Bogota 
expedition along the lower Magdalena, doubtless give a fair indication of 
the extent to which Pacific coast forms have entered this region. Return- 
ing to Medellin preparations were made for the ascent of the zoologi- 
cally unknown Paramillo, at the northern end of the Western Andes, the 
most important and most difficult piece of exploration planned for this 
expedition. 

Medellin was left January 14, and Peque reached on the 19th. Here 
the mules were replaced by Indian porters, and after four days, which evi- 
dently made exceptional demands on the strength and perseverance of the 
explorers, the Paramo was reached January 23. Between this date and 
February 1, over 150 birds were secured. Several were new to science 
and the collection as a whole very clearly shows the character of this, the 
highest point found by us in the Western Andes. Most of the species belong 
to the upper Temperate rather than the Paramo or Alpine Zone; such char- 
acteristic Paramo species as Phrygilus and Upucerthia were apparently 
wanting. On the other hand, a number of species were taken which had 
been previously found on the crest of the Andes west of Popayan, the only 
other point at which we have discovered a Temperate Zone in the Western 
Andes. Chief among these is an excellent series of Diglossa gloriosissima, 
hitherto known only from the specimens secured by Richardson and Miller 
at an elevation of 10,300 feet west of Popayan. A fine series was also 
taken of Diglossa brunneivcntris, previously found in Colombia only by 
Salmon at Sta. Elena, showing that the Colombian form is not separable 
from the Peruvian race. 

The final work planned for this most successful expedition was on the 
Atrato slopes of the Western Andes. ' From the Paramillo, Miller and Boyle 
returned February 9 to Buritica, left this place on the 9th and reached 
Dabeiba, their first station, on the 11th. Collections were made here from 



60 Bulletin American Mvseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

February 12 to 14, when they moved ten miles further down the river to 
Alto Benito where, between February 16 and 23, they secured 255 birds. 
A two-day stop (Dec. 25-26) was made at Dabeiba in returning to Medellin. 

Only two stations now remained to be visited; Malena near Puerto 
Berrio, selected by Miller as a favorable point on his way into Medellin, 
and La Playa, near Barranquilla. One hundred birds were taken at the 
first-named place March 9-11; and one hundred and five at the latter, 
March 23-26. 

Description of Rovte and Collecting Stations. — The following notes are 
supplied by Mr. Miller: 

La Playa: — "At La Playa, a few mUes from Barranquilla, one enters a 
typical stretch of the Arid Coastal Zone. The country is level or gently 
undulating, sandy, and covered with a sparse growth of cacti and thorny 
shrubs. Toward the river vast shallow salt lakes, swamps and mangrove 
thickets abound. 

" I was greatly surprised to find that the dry, sand-dune country con- 
tained an abundant and varied bird-life, while the green mangrove jungles 
were practically uninhabited. In the lagoons. Pelicans, Black Jacanas, 
Herons, Sandpipers and Anhingas are very abundant, and Terns occasion- 
ally pay them a visit. 

" In the dry brush, large Wrens, Synallaxis, Pigmy Owls, Mockingbirds, 
Thamnophilus, Ground Doves, Sycalis, Orioles and Honey Creepers (sugar 
birds) form the characteristic avifauna; and occasionally one meets Buccos, 
Piculets, Woodpeckers and Herons, Parrots and Parrakeets. Many of 
the bushes are loaded with bulky nests; but they are well protected by the 
thorny branches, in spite of the fact that they are most conspicuous. One 
visit was made at the end of the breeding season, though some species were 
still with eggs and small young (March 23-26.) " 

Malena: — ' The first stop op the railway line beyond Puerto Berrio is 
the village called Malena, and as the locality appeared to offer ideal facili- 
ties for collecting, the expedition moved to that point March 10th and spent 
four days collecting in the surrounding forest. 

" Malena contains perhaps forty huts, and is situated in the heart of the 
immense Magdalena forest. The forest is high consisting mainly of giant 
ceibas, with comparatively little undergrowth; the tagua palm is abundant. 
There is also an abundance of bamboo. 

" Bird-life fairly teems along the edge of the forest, but in the woods 
there is little life except clouds of mosquitoes. 

" During our visit there was but little rain and everything was dry. 
Birds seemed to adhere to the banks of the small streams and, with few ex- 
ceptions, did not band together in fiocks." 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 61 

Puerto Berrio to Medellin: — " Coming up from Puerto Berrio, the heavy 
Magdalena forest extends up until only about 1500 feet, although patches 
of it ascend much higher, to the top of the lower foothills several thousand 
feet high; beyond the forest belt begins open brush and scattered forest 
country. Wild cane and bamboo jungles grow in profusion up to Cisneros, 
alt. 3700 feet, which is the end of the eastern stretch of railroad. Beyond 
Cisneros rocks appear — sandstone and granite, in boulders and outcrop- 
ping ledges. By the time the highest point is reached (carriage road) at 
La Quiebra, altitude 5425 feet, the hills are practically bare. Coming down 
from La Quiebra toward Medellin the country is the same. The railroad 
again begins at Botero and follows the Medellin River to the city; the valley 
of this river is covered with a tall, slender willow growth which I have not 
seen in any other place in Colombia. The trees are like some seen about 
Popayan where a few have been planted along a driveway; but here they 
form a pretty compact forest." 

Santa Elena and Barro Blanco: — Santa Elena is an interesting place 
"with an elevation of 9000 feet, which is the top of the ridge, although there 
are a few peaks near which reach to 9500 feet. The temperature ranged 
between 40° and 62°, and the vegetation reminds me much of the crest of 
the Andes west of Popayan. There are, however, a few patches of forest, 
but most of the country is grassy and brush-covered. 

" Continuing toward Rio Negro (a large town) from Sta. Elena, a good 
trail goes gently downward into an immense, practically level plateau from 
7000 to 8000 feet high. All of this is pretty well settled, devoid of forest, and 
cultivated; corn fields cover practically the whole region, with an occasional 
pasture and small area of brush. Beyond the plateau the peaks again rise 
about a thousand feet, with open or brush-covered sides and tops fringed 
"with low forest. Barro Blanco (our camp) was at the foot of this hemming- 
in ridge. Although the altitude is 7200 feet, the heat at mid-day is intense. 
Tall fan palms grow, though in small numbers, and there are clumps of feath- 
ery bamboo. The fauna is quite different from that at Sta. Elena although 
some forms such as Planesticus gigas and Brachyspiza are abundant. It 
does not seem possible that this part of the Central Range was ever forested, 
that is, as heavily as the jungle we found at San Antonio, above Cali, 
although there are evidences that vast tracts have been cleared. All indica- 
tions are that the mountainsides were to a large extent brush-covered with 
bushes, ferns, and climbing bamboo up to fifteen feet high, with clumps of 
low, rather open forest on the peaks. The soil for the main part is clay 
and rocky. December, January and February, June, August and Septem- 
ber are the dry months; March, April and May, July, October, and No- 
vember are the 'winter' months, during which it rains. Our experience 



62 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

is that there are pretty heavy showers in the late afternoon and rarely a 
rainstorm at night; the mornings were bright and cloudy, with low-hanging 
clouds until shortly after sunrise. Occasional gusts of clouds blew in during 
the mornings, but lasted a few minutes only. The prevailing wind was from 
the east." 

Medellin to Puerto Valdivia: — "From MedeUin we took the train to 
Barbosa, an hour and a half away; then we took mules. The trail at first 
goes up very abruptly from 4625 feet to 8100 feet, which point we reached 
at noon, three hours after starting. The country is barren of forest, 
although there are a few small patches of brush. The high plateau is rough 
and broken with many granite boulders strewn about. Santa Rosa, 9200 
feet, seven leagues from Barbosa is a town of a few hundred houses, situated 
in almost desert country; there are numerous mines in the vicinity, and 
many diggings and tunnels are visible from the trail. This dry, desert 
country continues for about two leagues beyond Santa Rosa; then small 
patches of open, rather stunted forest begin and continue for three leagues, 
interspersed with llanos; this forest has little undergrowth, but the trunks 
and branches are covered with short yellowish moss; apparently there is 
not much rainfall. Woodpeckers (Melanerpes) abound in this semi- 
forested zone. Now follow two more leagues of almost barren country 
until the town of Yarumal, 7000 feet, is reached. Yarumel is a good-sized 
town, nearly as large as Santa Rosa. It rests on a steep hillside, so steep, 
in fact, that it is difficult to walk on the streets. 

About a league bej'ond Yarumal magnificent first-growth forest begins, 
and continues with minor interruptions only until Valdivia, six leagues 
away. This forest reminds me much of that at San Antonio, above Cali, 
and there is doubtless an abundance of rain; small torrents are also numer- 
ous. The altitude of Valdivia is 4200 feet. In the immediate vicinity of 
the town the forest has been cut away, but a mile beyond it again starts and 
continues down to the Cauca River. This lowland forest is as tall or taller, 
but has less moss, etc. than the high country forest. The distance from 
Valdivia to Puerto Valdivia is one and a half leagues. We made the trip 
from Medellin to the port in four and ahalf days. 

" The Cauca, at Puerto Valdivia (alt. 360 ft.), flows directly between the 
Western and Central Ranges, without any valley whatever. The mountains 
slope up sharply right from the water's edge on both sides and are heavily 
forested except for a few small clearings where corn and cacoa grow, but 
the clearings are too few and far between to amount to anything. 

" The climate was hot, the temperature often reaching 85°, but a daily 
breeze in the afternoon, blowing up the Cauca, cooled the atmosphere con- 
siderably. We had comparatively little rain. The rainy months are April, 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVl, Plate XXII. 




Country near Sta. Elena, Central Andes 

The original forest has largely disappeared. 
(Fusion of Subtropical and Temperate Zones.) 




Western Andes near Antioquia 
(Tropical Zone; arid portion of the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 



1917.) Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 63 

June, July, August, October and November, with violent wind and hail 
storms in July. The bird-life is abundant and interesting. 

" On the return trip we stopped at a place called Frijolera (alt. 5000 ft.) 
just this side of the town of Valdivia, principally to collect mammals for 
which the country looked promising; here we took many more fine birds, 
and a good many mammals of numerous species." 

Exploration of the Paramillo. — " The name Paramillo is applied to that 
lofty spur of the Andes jutting out of the western range slightly below lati- 
tude 7°. To explore this section the expedition left its base at Medellin 
on January 14, 1915, with equipment sufficient for about three weeks' 
actual field-work. 

" The very good trail strikes toward the northwest, ascending the moun- 
tainside rapidly, so that four hours after starting we had reached the top 
of the range. A great cleft forms a natural pass 8750 feet high, and saves 
a climb of at least an additional 1000 feet. The slope on the other (western) 
side is more gentle. 

"We were immediately impressed with the barren nature of the country 
for, with the exception of a few patches of low brush and the clumps of 
withered grass, no vegetation was to be seen; and an occasional glimpse of 
the Cauca River far below suggested the picture of a broad yellow ribbon 
lying upon a brown, rocky plain. 

" That night we reached a small town called San Geronimo, elevation 
3200 feet. Near the town small patches of ground are irrigated with water 
brought from mountain brooks and distributed through a network of arti- 
ficial ditches; in these spots rice, corn and pasturage grow but rather 
scantily on account of the rocky nature of the soil. 

"Next morning we were on the road before six; a few hours later, on 
crossing the top of a small ridge, we came suddenly upon the town of Sope- 
tran completely hidden in a fertile little valley filled with palms, mangoes, 
and other beautiful trees ; the cluster of some hundreds of neat white houses 
with red tile roofs, the well-kept streets, and the multitude of birds flutter- 
ing among the deep green foliage rendered Sopetran quite the most attractive 
town of its size I have seen in Tropical America. At noon we reached the 
Cauca and crossed that sluggish, muddy stream on a well-built suspension 
bridge probably 800 feet long. Gravel banks flank the sides of the river, 
and bare sandy islands divide its waters; the elevation at this point is 
approximately 2000 feet. One league beyond the Cauca lies the town of 
Antioquia, altitude 2600 feet. The valley of the Cauca is here five to ten 
miles wide, rolling, and supports no vegetation except occasional clumps of 
mimosas and cacti which rather add to its desert-like appearance. The 
high ranges of the Western and Central Andes hem it in like huge walls 
of pink clay and sandstone. 



64 BvUetin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

"January 16, we reached Buritica. Immediately after leaving Antio- 
quia, a mere ledge of a trail begins the ascent of the Coast Range, and 
while the safety of the two pack animals caused a good deal of anxiety, 
it was nevertheless a relief to escape from the intolerable heat of the low 
country. The altitude of Buritica is 6200 feet. 

" On account of the jaded condition of the animals, we spent the morn- 
ing of January 17, at Buritica; we took advantage of this time to divide the 
equipment, leaving such material as we expected to use on our subsequent 
visit to the Rio Sucio. Leaving at noon, we reached a small settlement 
known as Tabocal, altitude 5400 feet, at 5 P. M. We could now no longer 
see the Cauca, our view having been shut off by a ridge of mountains sev- 
eral thousand feet in height which rises out of the valley between the ridge 
we were on and the river. A slight change was perceptible in the character 
of the country; extensive areas covered with low brush dotted the other- 
wise barren landscape, though far apart; and on the extreme tops of both 
ranges a thin fringe of green could be distinctly seen. 

" Beyond Tabocal the country is extremely broken, there being frequent 
rises and descents of 2000 feet; and several separate mountains, not con- 
nected with the main ranges, stand here and there like huge monuments, 
rising from a basal elevation of 3000 feet to 8000 or 9000 feet, which natur- 
ally magnifies their already impressive proportions. 

" Late in the afternoon of the 18th, we reached an altitude of 8000 feet 
and entered a fine strip of forest, the first we had seen since leaving Medellin; 
this is the beginning of the forested zone, which examination showed to be 
at an equal height on both the Central and Western Ranges, and to con- 
tinue to the tops, which appear to rise to an altitude of 9000 feet or more. 
The night was spent at an Indian hut called La Meseta, altitude 7900 feet, 
just below the forest belt, and situated in the midst of an extensive strip of 
maize. 

" Peque, the end of the journey by mule, was reached at noon on the 19th. 
After leaving La Meseta the trail goes down abruptly; the town has an 
altitude of only 5000 feet. 

" Peque boasts of about fifty decaying mud huts and its population is 
mostly of Indian descent, including some pure-blooded Indians; one of the 
latter, Julian David, received us most cordially and rendered us every pos- 
sible assistance in securing the porters for the ascent of the Paramillo. 

"Some of the country surrounding Peque once doubtless bore a light 
forest growth, with heavier forest in the ravines; but by far the greater 
part is naturally bare or covered with a dense growth of brush. I was told 
that at the time of the Spanish Invasion, 40,000 Indians inhabited this 
region; and as there are several mountain streams supplying an abundance 



Bulletin A, M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVl, Plate XXIII. 




The Paramillo, Western Andes 
Camp of Expedition No. 8 at left; alt. 12,500 ft. 
(Paramo Zone.) 



.Xi- 


^jg 


"' .^i?^*W#fel^ 




1 




f^^ i "vKm j^HHhI 



Charactebistic Vegetation on the Paramillo 
(Paramo Zone.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 65 

of fresh water and the soil responds fairly well to cultivation, there seems to 
be no reasion why it should not have supported an extensive population. 

" The forest zone which, as stated before, begins at La Meseta, at 8000 
feet, gradually extends its limits downward as we go farther north, until at 
Peque it reached as low as 5000 feet in the deeper and well-watered ravines ; 
and as previously reported, at Puerto Valdivia it reaches the very edge of 
the Cauca. 

" We secured four half-breed porters to carry the equipment; and as there 
was no trail to the Paramillo, a fifth man was secured to go in advance and 
clear an opening with his machete. 

" On the 21st we started at 6 A. M., following a short trail that led to a 
lonely hut known as El Madeiro; this three hours' walk took us through 
country covered with large areas of tall brush, blackberry briars and guavas, 
with occasional patches of forest, some of which had recently been burnt. 
Arriving at El Madeiro (8000 ft.) we plunged into the magnificent forest, 
going in a due westerly direction; it was our plan to follow along the top 
of an undulating ridge, which one of the men said was the shortest and 
easiest route. 

" At ^st the forest was fairly penetrable, but soon it assumed the charac- 
ter of the well-known San Antonio (above Call) jungle, being composed of 
a solid wall of moss, ferns, creepers and epiphytes which burdened every 
tree-trunk and branch. 

" On account of the long climb, we made camp at 3 P. M., at an altitude 
of 10,000 feet, having ascended 5000 feet in eight hours actual marching. 
Water was obtained in a ravine over 1000 feet lower down on one side of 
the ridge, and I may here add that this was the only water we had until 
reaching the Paramillo, so that we went nearly two whole days without 
drinking. 

"The second day's march we had hoped would be over a gentler slope; 
but it was soon discovered that our ridge was composed of a succession of 
knolls rising from 500 to 1000 feet above the main level, and the forest grew 
denser constantly. We had to cut practically every foot of the way. In 
places we actually walked over the top of the masses of vegetation; the 
branches were a solid tangle of creepers, climbing bamboo, bromelias and 
mosses, and formed spongy aerial bridges; more often it was easier to bur- 
row through, and frequently ' tunnels ' many yards long were cut through 
which the carriers crawled on hands and knees. The tops of some of the 
hills were void of trees, their place being taken by a dense growth of 
grass-like bamboo, wild oleander, thick-leaved shrubs, and thickets of 
aftall, coarse grass with leaves eight feet tall and six inches wide. We 
camped this night 11,350 feet up; the men eagerly cut down clumps of 



66 Bvlletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

bromelias hoping to obtain water, but all the leaves contained were a few 
drops of liquid mud, utterly unfit for use. Although we travelled steadily 
for ten hours, I doubt if we covered more than three miles. 

" A few hours after starting on the morning of January 23, we emerged 
suddenly from the dark forest; instead of the tall, overburdened trees, 
there were extensive areas of bushes, evergreens, stunted pines, and plants 
with thick, round, rubbery leaves, interspersed with clumps of tall, rank 
ferns. Beyond stretched the bleak, wind-swept surface of the Paramo. 

" The Paramillo region is composed of a series of sharply inclined peaks, 
the highest of which attains an elevation of 13,000 feet, interspersed with 
ravines and deep fissures. The surface consists mainly of dark sandstone 
which in many places has been shattered so that a thin litter of the particles 
cover the basal rock; occasionally a thin vein of white quartz crops out, 
especially where, as often occurs, the strata stand in a perpendicular posi- 
tion. Water there is none; we discovered but one small trickling brooklet; 
but at the bottom of one of the crevices several pot-holes were found, each 
containing several hundred gallons, and apparently remaining perpetually 
full. 

" Each night the temperature fell to 28°, and ice formed in our pails half- 
an-inch thick; in the morning the ground was white with frost. On the 
evenings of January 28, 29 and 30,' there fell very slight, short showers of 
rain. The prevailing wind came from the west. 

"The vegetation is of a typical paramo character, consisting of low 
clumps of 'fraUejones,' blueberry bushes and tough grass. In the ravines 
there are thick bushes and stunted trees, all heavily moss-covered. 

" The vast expanse of level grazing country, and the broad marshes and 
sphagnous areas so common to Sta. Isabel and El Valle de las Pappas were 
conspicuously absent. 

" Naturally, coimtry of this character is not very well adapted to the 
support of an extensive fauna. Birds were extremely scarce; and strange 
to say, exceedingly wary. 

"On all sides, excepting a break toward the west, the Paramillo is sur- 
rounded by ridges, some reaching an elevation of 12,000 feet, the tops of 
which are covered with dense forest, so that it stands Uke a mountainous, 
brown island amid the sea of green. The Paramo of Frontino could be 
seen about twenty or twenty-five miles to the southwest, in a separate ridge, 
not directly connected with the ParamiUo." 

Buritica to the Rio Sudo. — " After completing the work on the Paramillo, 
we returned to Buritica, which place was reached February 7, and on the 
9th we began the trip to the Atrato drainage. 

" Grossing the Western Range was comparatively easy, as the trail is 
excellent; we reached the top four hours after leaving Buritica, the altitude 



Bulletin A. M. N 



Vol. XXXVl. Plate XXIV. 




Alto Bonito, Rio Sucio 
(Tropical Zone; Colombian-Paciflc Fauna.) 



^^^BH 








^^^^H 


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^^H 


B' 






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^^H 


^'J^^SreTKLBg u^^ *^ 


1 


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1 


P 
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1 


■ 


1 


P 


piPpgH 


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i 


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TStt!" 




B' 












go 




^^%_^^t\ 


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IBBWWi^^^'''"'^_,"-t- vflp 


i 



Rio Cauca at Puerto Valdivia 

View looking north, near the southern limit of forest on the lower Cauca. The Central 

Andes arise from the right hand bank, the Western Andes from the left. At no 

other place do these ranges so closely approach each other. 

(Tropical Zone; Cauca-Magdalena Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 67 

of the pass being 8000 feet. Then the trail winds steadily downward, 
adhering closely to the sides of the Rio Canasgordas (Rio Sucio). We spent 
the first night at the town of Canasgordas, altitude 5000 feet, a settlement 
of perhaps 5000 people, and next day reached a house called Orobajo, 
altitude 3225 feet. The river which begins as a small spring just this side 
of the summit of the range, here attains a width of two hundred feet and is a 
raging torrent, the muddy water leaping and dashing over a bed strewn 
with huge rounded boulders of granite. Along the banks grow strips of 
dense bamboo, wild cane and brush interspersed with small patches of culti- 
vated ground; these strips of verdure do not exceed a few hundred yards 
in width, and beyond that the country is bare or covered with short, thin 
grass. This was a surprise to me as I had expected to find the whole west 
slope heavily forested. 

" We reached Dabeiba late on the 11th; as we reached the summit of the 
last little knoll, a beautiful panorama was spread before us; a perfectly 
level valley several miles long and a mile wide, covered with light green 
vegetation lay at our feet; in the center stood a cluster of forty or fifty 
white huts — the town of Dabeiba. Here and there a white area contrast- 
ing strongly with the green, marked the location of a cotton field; and 
through the center of the valley flowed the Sucio, now swollen to a rapid, 
muddy stream a few hundred feet wide. The sides of this valley are hemmed 
in by successive bluffs of sandstone, rising one above the other and at some 
distance apart, and. I could never quite convince myself that this region 
had not once been covered by a good-sized lake. 

" Dabeiba marks the beginning of the coastal forest zone; the change 
from open country to forest is not gradual, but sharply marked. After col- 
lecting in this locality three days we accepted the invitation of an acquaint- 
ance and moved to his house, called Alto Bonito, ten miles down the river 
from Dabeiba. At the latter place the altitude is 2000 ft.,' and Alto Bonito 
is 1500 ft. Primeval forest covers all the surrounding country and the 
abundance of bromelias, ferns, and parasites indicates an abundant rainfall, 
although there is little underbrush. 

"Eight days were spent at Alto Bonito, and a great many specimens 
secured that were new to us; but a large percentage were identical with 
those collected at Puerto Valdivia. 

" The work at Alto Bonito provided the last link in the chain of facts 
regarding the forested areas of northwestern Colombia, together with facts 
concerning the extension of the mountain ranges. 

" The Western Cordillera terminates in the Cerro Aguila, just below 



1 1 am convinced that our aneroid registers at least 500 ft. too high; but I have given its readings 
throughout, except at Puerto Valdivia and at La Playa (Barranquilla). 



68 Bulletin American Mibseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

9°, on the Golfo de Uraba, altitude less than 1000 feet. Gradually, north 
of the Paramillo, the range becomes lower and lower; in lat. 7|°, the highest 
peak, called Alto Esmeralda, does not exceed 4000 feet; and the Abibe, a few 
miles further north,- attains an altitude of only 3600 feet. Beyond this the 
range is described as being mere hills. 

" A new road has Just been completed from Turbo on the Gulf of Uruba 
(Darien) to Monteria, on the Rio Sinu. This cuts right across the country 
about which we know the least, and I was interested to learn two facts: — 
the highest point in the road is 800 feet, and, every mile of the distance was 
cut through heavy, primeval forest. This, it would seem, provides for an 
easy passage for Atrato forms to the Cauca, at least to such forms (forest) 
which can ascend up to 800 feet; and this the collections from Puerto Val- 
divia and Alto Benito should prove. However, I beheve that forms which 
adhere strictly to the coast country, that is to the forest growing in the 
perpetual rain-belt, would be barred to a great extent from entering the 
Cauca, for, from all I can learn, the Cerro Aguila extends to the very coast 
notwithstanding that it is not so marked on our map."^ 

"After having entered the forests of the Cauca, there should be no ob- 
stacle to prevent birds entering the Magdalena forests, via the mouth of the 
Cauca and the San Jorge which furnish a natural connecting link." 



Auxiliary Collections. 

Satisfactory determination of the specimens secured by our expedition 
in Colombia has been greatly facilitated by comparison with collections 
already existing in the Museum, or with others which have been recently 
made primarily for use in this connection. Under the first head should be 
mentioned the Lawrence Collection with its numerous types, and, particu- 
larly, the H. H. Smith Santa Marta collection. This contains some 3000 
specimens of about 300 species collected chiefly in the Tropical and Sub- 
tropical Zones of the Santa Marta mountains. 

Under the second head, a collection made in 1912-1913, in Ecuador by 
W. B. Richardson, is deserving of first place. This contains some 4000 
specimens including much topotypical material. Second place is accorded 
to a collection of some 1800 specimens made in eastern Panama by Rich- 
ardson, H. E. Anthony and D. S. Ball. These collections have been of the 
utmost value in identification and in distributional problems. 



1 This information was given to me by Sr. Cspinos, Director of the School of Mines in Medel- 
lin; and also by Ernesto White who was building the road I wrote you about. — -L. E. M. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 69 

When our own collections lacked the specimens needed to answer the 
question at issue, an appeal to allied institutions or to collectors has rarely 
failed to produce them. 

The Batty Collection. — In 1898, the American Museum purchased from 
the late J. H. Batty 290 bird skins which had been collected by him in the 
region about Cali. The specimens are fully labeled, but I have been able 
definitely to locate only a few of the places at which they were taken, and 
with some exceptions they are therefore not listed in this paper. It should 
be added that the collection contains only one or two species not obtained 
by our Museum expeditions. It was through this collection and informa- 
tion secured in many long talks with Mr. Batty that I was first attracted 
to the Cauca Valley. 

The Mrs. Kerr Collections. — In 1908 the American Museum purchased 
from an American woman, Mrs. Elizabeth L. Kerr, one hundred and ninety- 
four bird skins which she had collected in Colombia west of Honda, in the 
Magdalena Valley, and on the eastern slopes of the Central Andes up to an 
altitude of 3000 feet. 

Later Mrs. Kerr was commissioned to collect specimens in the Atrato 
Valley, and the two hundred skins secured by her and listed under the locali- 
ties she visited are the only ones we have secured from this region, except 
those taken by Miller and Boyle at Dabeiba and Alto Bonito. 

The Hermano Apolinar Maria Collections.- — Through the cordial rela- 
tions established by our Expedition No. 7 with Hermano Apolinar Maria, 
Director of the Instituto de la Salle of Bogota, we have since received from 
him a number of small lots of birds from the Bogota. Some have been col- 
lected at our request, some have been sent for identification, some in ex- 
change, others as a donation. They have included a large proportion of 
rare and interesting species. Brother Apolinar's cooperation has been 
especially valuable in securing specimens of species but poorly or not at 
all represented in the collections made by our Expedition No. 7. 

The Gonzales Collections. — Manuel Gonzales, a native of Bogota, while 
employed as a general helper by our Expedition No. 7, was taught to prepare 
bird skins. A. collecting outfit was left with him and he subsequently 
sent us some six hundred specimens, chiefly from the region about Bogota, 
but including also seventy-nine from Barrigon at the head of navigation 
on the Meta. The localities visited by Gonzales, with the number of speci- 
mens collected at each are listed in the Gazeteer. 



70 Bvlletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



An Outline of Colombian Topogbaphy. 

Detailed descriptions of Colombian topography, so far as we are familiar 
with it, are given in the itineraries of our various expeditions and in the 
characterization of the zones and faunas proposed. The physical, and 
zoogeography of the country is also presented in the accompanying maps. 
But at the risk of some repetition, it is proposed to present here an outline 
of Colombian physiography emphasizing those features which are of special 
importance in the study of the distribution of its life. 

It should be observed that in Ecuador the Andean system is, faunally, 
composed of but one range with, consequently, but one Pacific and one 
Atlantic slope, and one Temperate Zone bordered on each side by the Pa- 
ramo Zone islands of the higher peaks. But shortly after crossing the 
Colombian boundary this great range branches into three clearly defined 
ranges, each one of which is separated from its neighbor by a valley which 
descends to the Tropical Zone. The Magdalena Valley, lying between the 
Eastern and Central Andes, is never less than thirty miles in width and, in 
its lower part, much wider. The Cauca Valley, lying between the Central 
and Western Andes, from somewhat north of Popayan to north of Cartago 
has a width of twenty to thirty miles, but in Antioquia it is contracted to 
the width of the Cauca River from the eastern and western banks of which 
the Central and Western Andes respectively arise. 

Except in this region, therefore, the three ranges of the Andes in Colom- 
bia nowhere approach one another, and at no place do their upper life- 
zones — Subtropical, Temperate, and Paramo — come into contact with the 
corresponding zone of the neighboring range. 

It should further be noted that all three ranges terminate in the Tropical 
Zone, the Western and Central in Colombia, the Eastern in Venezuela. 
It follows, therefore, that their three upper zones end, as it were, in the air; 
that is, at their most northern part, they have no such connection, through 
gradual descent of zonal boundaries with increasing south latitude, as, for 
example, exists between the Temperate Zone in Colombia at from 9500 to 
12,000 feet, and the Temperate Zone in Argentina at sea-level. 

The Western Andes have no peaks reaching to snow-line, and we know 
of only four points at which they enter the Temperate Zone, one of which, 
the ParamUlo, is near the northern end of the range. There appear to be 
no passes below 4900 feet (Cresta de Gallo, 4924 ft.), the average elevation 
is approximately 7000 feet, and the summit of the range is therefore usually 
in the Subtropical Zone. 

The Central Andes have a number of snow-crowned peaks; Paramo 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 71 

Zone islands are not infrequent, I know of no pass below 10,000 feet, tlie 
average height of the range may be said to be about 11,000 feet, and its 
summit is therefore largely in the Temperate Zone. 

The Eastern Andes also possesses several snow peaks and numerous 
Paramo Zone islands. So far as we have learned, at only one point, imtil 
one approaches the northern extremity in Colombia, do they fall below the 
Temperate Zone, the pass at Andalucia between the upper Magdalena Valley 
and the Caqueta region having an altitude, as determined by Miller, of only 
7000 feet. 

In addition to these main branches of the Andean system, all of which ' 
are connected at their base north of the Ecuadorian boundary, Colombia 
possesses three other mountainous areas; the Baudo-Panama, what may 
be called the Amazonian, and the Santa Martan. The Baudo mountains, 
lying west of the upper Atrato form the true Pacific Coast Range. They 
are said to attain an altitude of 5500 feet, making their summit subtropical. 
In discussing the northward extension of the Subtropical Zone into Central 
America, evidence is presented which is believed to indicate that this range 
once possessed a greater altitude connecting it with the mountains of the 
Panama boundary at the north, and Western Andes at the south, at which 
time it formed a fourth Colombian branch of the Andean system on which 
the Subtropical Zone was carried into eastern Panama. 

Little is known about the mountains lying east of the Eastern Andes on 
upper Amazonian drainage (as before remarked), but I can find no evidence 
of their having an altitude of over 3000 feet, and if this be true, they do not 
reach above the Tropical Zone. Hamilton Rice "^ writes that the Sierra 
Chiribiquete "may be a counterfort thrown out from the Suma Paz, and 
is a chain of crag-like peaks and hog-backs rising to an altitude of over 
2800 feet." He doubts the existence of the Tunahi or Padavida range, 
shown by Codazzi. 

The zoological evidence supports the geological belief that the Santa 
Marta mountains are of independent formation and have had no connection 
with the Andes. As such, the life of this group above the Tropical Zone, 
is insular and the study of the geographical origin of its forms is a clearly 
circumscribed problem, supplemental to that presented by the life of the 
main Andean chain. 

Aside from these smaller mountain groups, it is obvious that the exten- 
sion, almost the entire length of Colombia, of three distinct, high mountain 
ranges, effectively cuts up the Tropical Zone through which they pass into 
several sections each of which is more or less segregated from the other. 

1 Geog. Journ., 1914, p. 144. 



72- Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Thus, the great region lying east of the Eastern Andes, the western ex- 
tension of the Amazonian and Orinocan basins, is separated by this range 
from the Magdalena Valley. 

This valley, in turn, is walled about by the Eastern and Central Andes 
and, so far as tropical life is concerned, is accessible only at its northern end. 

The Cauca Valley is similarly isolated and is open only at the north, 
while the Pacific coast region is shut off at the south by the deserts of south- 
ern Ecuador and Peru, and at the east by the entire Andean system. Like 
the Magdalena and Cauca Valleys it, too, is apparently to be entered only at 
the north. Tropical Colombia, therefore, may broadly be spoken of as 
consisting of the western portion of the Amazon-Orinoco Basins and three 
cvl de sacs which debouch on its northern coast. 

To what extent existing faunal conditions are dependent on existing 
topography, and to what extent they have been brought about by what 
may be called pre-Andean topography, remains for us to determine. 



Remaeks on the Distribution of Fokests. 

The detailed information which we gathered in relation to the distribu- 
tion of forests in Colombia will be found in the descriptions of the routes 
traversed by our expeditions, as well as in the Gazeteer. We covered, 
however, so comparatively little ground, and conditions change so abruptly, 
that data are lacking for anything but the most generahzed statements in 
regard to the extent of the forest areas of Colombia as a whole. The pres- 
ence or absence of forests, however, has so important a bearing on the 
boundaries of faunal areas, that from the zoologist's point of view, even 
generalized statements are of value. 

The Forests of the Tropical Zone. — The Tropical Zone possesses five large 
areas of heavy, humid forest. Named in order of their importance they 
are (1) the Amazonian; (2), the Pacific coast; (3), the lower Cauca-Mag- 
dalena; (4) the Maracaibo Basin, only the western portion of which enters 
Colombia, and (5) the Santa Martan. 

The Amazonian forest region occupies all that part of Colombia lying 
east of the Andes and south of the Rio Guaviare. Its northern boundary, 
therefore, lies just north of the divide between Amazonian and Orinocan 
drainage. It forms, in fact, the northwestern corner of the vast forests 
of upper Amazonia which, southward, reach to Bohvia. 

Miller (Expedition No. 5), writing from an elevated position near 
Florencia says " one has a good view of the-Caqueta-eouHtpjv^.-perf ect oceaa 
of forest stretching out ahead as far as the eye can see, which, on clear days. 



Bull. A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI. Plate XXV 




Mountain Forest 
Tropicai Zone Forest 



I I Unforested Areas 

^'- - ' ■ '-"'- 1 Llanos 



DTSTKTBUTTON OF FORESTS IN rOLOMBTA 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 73 

is many miles. The sight is most impressive. There is not a single rise 
visible and the forest is of uniform height." 

Dr. Hamilton Rice writing from a point west of the Sierra Chiribiquete 
(Lat. r 10' 16"; Long. 72° 12' 34" and therefore slightly south of east 
from Miller's station) says:' "From this high land the Chiribiquete was 
seen to extend southeast as far as the eye reached, the rest of the country 
being undulating and forest-covered .... Occasionally the forest gave place 
to a dense growth of bush (rastrojo), a wild tangled thicket, difficult to get 
through, on a bottom of black, boggy mud, and especially hard on the 
carriers." The same writer (Z. c, p. 144) also refers to the densely forested 
plains of the Inirida and Uaupes, while his description of the transition 
from the Llanos north of the Guaviare to the forested region south of it (Z. c. 
p. 145) I quote in full : 

" In passing from north to south across such a stretch of country as that 
between San Martin and the Caqueta district, one may note differences of 
Amazonian vegetation characteristic of each different level of land. First 
there are the grassy savannas or campos with their knolls, glades, thickets, 
and scattered scrub; then the vegetation of the lowlands or rebalsa edging 
the rivers and inundated in the wet or winter season; next the forests of the 
low plains or monte bajo, which when seen from above appear more evenly 
topped and lighter than the woods on land above the highwater mark 
(monte alto), which are known as Virgin or Primeval forest. On closer 
inspection the trees of the low plain are seen to be lower and more scattered 
than those of the high land, without any great abundance of palms or lianas, 
but with a profusion of ferns. In the Virgin forest the trees are densely 
packed and high, from which emerge sohtary individuals still more lofty, 
overtopping even the highest palms, and from whose massive masts are 
spread diverse forms of crowns and summits, dome, pyramidal, and cande- 
labra, the whole interwoven by an intricate meshwork of lianas and vines. 
The vegetation of the rebalsa near the river bank is often low and bushlike, 
but gradually increases in height, the further it is from the bank, until, at 
the point to which the highest floods reach, it almost rivals the trees of the 
monte alto in height." 

The Pacific coast forest extends from northwestern Ecuador northward 
to eastern Panama, and from the shore-line eastward to the forests of the 
Subtropical Zone, or to the summits of outlying ridges. Under the condi- 
tion first-named the entire Pacific slope of the Western Andes from sea to 
summit is covered with unbroken forest, such, for example, as Allen and 
Miller (Expedition No. 3) found on their section from Cartago to Novita. 

1 Geog. Journ. August, 1914, p. 150. 



74 Bvlletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Under the second-named condition, the continuity of the forest is broken 
by such an arid pocket as we found at Caldas, or Miller and Boyle encount- 
ered above Dabeiba. 

At the northeast, on the right side of the lower Atrato, the Pacific coast 
forest apparently connects with that of the Cauca-Magdalena, and this is 
the only connection of which we definitely Imow between any of the forested 
areas of the Tropical Zone. Mr. Douglas Fyfe, an American engineer, sit- 
uated in northern Colombia, writes me of the country at the border of the 
Colombian-Pacific forests and the Caribbean Savannas: "The Sinfl is a 
wide, sluggish stream meandering through a broad plain of very deep allu- 
vium. Along its banks are situated beautiful grass-covered cattle ranges. 
The river is carrying a vast amount of sediment and gradually setting up a 
large area at its mouth forming deltas and reed swamps. Numerous water- 
fowl seem to inhabit these swamps the year around. The country lying 
east of the Sinu for about twenty miles is low-lying and under water part 
of the year; cienagas in fact. Beyond this lie the savannas. The country 
west of the Sinu is entirely forested to the Pacific coast, the forest beginning 
at the Atlantic sea shore and extending inland without a break to the 
interior." 

The differences between the forest of the lowland and that of the foot- 
hills are well described by Allen in the narrative of his journey with Miller 
just alluded to. In connection with the change in gradient, character of 
the soU, etc., we have here two widely varying types of environment which 
doubtless account for the fact that some species appear to be confined to 
the bottomlands. 

The Cauca-Magdalena forest is contained chiefly in the Department of 
Antioquia. Miller's exploration and inquiries show that it extends from 
the northeastern border of the Pacific coast forest northward to the Carib- 
bean coast and thence eastward to the shore of the Rio Sinu, when it meets 
the western border of the marshes which pass into the Caribbean savannas. 
Thence it extends southward up the lower Cauca, and doubtless also the 
Neche, to about Lat. 7°, and up the Magdalena Valley to La Dorada on the 
Magdalena River, where, on the valley floor, it terminates abruptly and is 
succeeded by the Savannas of the upper Magdalena. Along the foothills 
of both the Eastern and Western Andes, the forest extends south of La 
Dorada. Northward, in the Magdalena Valley, it is bounded on the west 
by the San Jorge and on the east by the foothills of the Eastern Andes, 
while its northern limit lies near Banco. Eastward of this point, it may 
occupy the foothills of the Sierra de Motillones and Sierra del Valle de Upar, 
at the northern end of the Eastern Andes, but I have no definite information 
in regard to this region. Whether the Cauca-Magdalena forest is connected 
with that of the Maracaibo Basin, remains therefore undetermined. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 75 

The presence of heavy tropical forest in the southern part of the Mara- 
caibo basin has been made known to me by W. H. Osgood and Ned Dearborn, 
both of whom have visited this region in the interests of the Field Museum. 
As above remarked, I do not know whether this forest is connected with 
that of the lower Magdalena Valley by a belt of foothill forest, such, for 
example, as we found above Villavicencio; but at the east it appears to be 
bordered by the arid coastal region and Venezuelan Andes. It seems, 
therefore, to be an isolated area; nevertheless, it lies at the door through 
which many species have entered the Cauca-Magdalena fauna. Its con- 
nections to the eastward are of much importance, but I have no information 
Concerning them. 

Of the Santa Marta forest, M. A. Carriker, Jr., our authority on that 
region, writes me that on the Carribbean or northern side, from about 
Cabo de San Juan de Guia, to a point known as Camarones, the forest of 
the Sierra Nevada extends right to the coast. He adds: "Whether there 
is any forest connection between the Sierra Nevada and the Cerros Negros 
(Eastern Andes) on the watershed between the Rio Hacha and Rio Cesar, 
I do not know; most likely there is some such connection, although I am 
not of the opiuion that it is heavy forest. This watershed is very low." 

The forest west of the Sierra Nevada, Carriker writes, "extends west- 
ward to the shores of the Cienaga Grande .... The region between Cienaga 
Grande and the Magdalena is swampy and contains many sluggish water- 
ways and is inundated frequently. ..." 

Unforested Tropical Areas. — That part of the Tropical Zone in Colombia 
not covered by heavy forest growth may be grouped under four heads: (1), 
the Llanos; (2), the Caribbean; (3), the upper Magdalena and (4) the 
upper Cauca or Cauca Valley proper. Aside from these major divisions 
there are semi-arid pockets like the upper Dagua on the western slope of 
the Western Andes, bare foothills such as exist above Dabeiba, or brush- 
grown valleys like that of the lower Rio Negro, but these and similar local 
variations do not affect the general truth of our classification. 

The Llanos occupy that part of Colombia lying east of the Andes and 
north of the Rio Guaviare. Of them Rice {I. c, p. 139) writes : " The Llanos, 
extending from the Cordillera to the Orinoco river, and from the Arauca 
to the Guaviare, are covered with dense, tall grasses, from which here and 
there rise groups of palms and bushes and belts of trees. They are well 
watered by innumerable streams, varying in volume and size from immense 
rivers to rivulets, which in winter season overflow the lower lands." 

Of the Llanos of San Martin the same author writes : " To the east they 
are broken by swales, swamps, and eminences of mesa and scarp formation 
which push the Humadea river northeast and deflect the Ariari southeast. 
The high Llanos, at the foot of the forested hills are usually rocky, and semi- 



76 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

arid, covered with wild dense jungle growth, and so deeply ravined as to be 
impassable. These merge into the low Llanos, over which are scattered 
Savannas, immense meadows of fine succulent grasses, dotted with high 
bushes, clusters of palms, and thickets of other trees. During the wet or 
winter season, much of the land is subject to inundation, and consequent 
fertilization, by the swollen rivers." 

Hettner,^ writing of the country lying at the eastern and western bases 
of the Eastern Andes in the Bogota region, describes the Llanos and accounts 
for their lack of forests as follows : 

"The two lowlands which take in the western and eastern foot of the 
Cordilleras, bear altogether different plants; the lowland of the Magdalena 
River below Honda is covered with a thick, primeval forest; the eastern 
low-lands, the so-called Llanos, are on the other hand, wide grassy plains, 
which are only interrupted by a line of forests on the banks of rivers. This 
difference of plant growth has a relation with the rainfall, for the lowland 
of the middle part of the Magdalena River has two rainy and two dry 
seasons, which are, however, of short duration; in the Llanos, on the other 
hand, the one dry season shrinks together to a few weeks, while that of the 
other is extended to from five to six months. With so long a dry season 
near the equator, the forest growth is out of the question. If we should 
travel southward in the Llanos and reach the territory of the equatorial 
rains, we should find here likewise a luxuriant forest, and vice versa, at the 
lower part of the Magdalena River, somewhat north of 8 degrees, where 
the tropical rains begin, the forest is gradually crowded out by grassy plains, 
interspersed with single trees, or in other words, by savannas." 

The Caribbean forestless region corresponds to the Caribbean faunal 
area. It is a semi-arid or arid region in which the absence of forest-growth 
is presumably due to insufficient or irregular rainfall with long periods of 
drought. 

The coast region itself, from the Rio Sinu to the Goajira Peninsula, 
except for the mangrove-bordered lagoons, and the section of forest-covered 
shore north of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, may be described as arid. 
Cacti, thorn-bearing bushes and other xerophilos forms comprise its char- 
acteristic vegetation. Farther inland we pass to the semi-arid savannas, 
a grazing country with scattered mimosas and acacias and frequently 
marshes. 

Carriker writes: "The semi-arid coast belt begins a few miles south of 
Cienaga (town on the Santa Marta Railway) and extends around the coast 



1 ' Die Kordillere von BogotS,' Petermann's Mittheilungen, Erganzungsband, 22, p. 76. I am 
indebted to Dr. Chester A. Reeds for this and following aj^stracts from Hettner's valuable paper. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colonibia. 77 

to somewhere about Cabo de San Juan de Guia, where the forest of the 
Sierra Nevada (as above quoted) extends right down to the sea all along 
the coast to a point known as Camarones, from which point to Rio Hacha 
is a region of scrub and cactus, along the coast, but opening out into savanna 
and scattered woodland toward the south, and continuing on around the 
Sierra Nevada to the region of the Valle de Upar and Rio Cesar Valley .... 
The whole of the Goajira Peninsula, from Rio Hacha east, is an arid region 
of cacti and thorny scrub." 

Hettner's reference to the savannas of the lower Magdalena, "some- 
what north of 8 degrees or just north of the region of tropical rains" has 
been given in connection with his description of the Llanos quoted on a 
preceding page. 

The two remaining unforested areas, the upper Magdalena and upper 
Cauca Valleys, are described both in our itineraries and in connection with 
the characterization of the Cauca-Magdalena fauna of which they form 
arid sections. 

Hettner {I. c, p. 79) referring to the upper Magdalena region writes: 

" Another interruption of the forest was probably formed by the strata 
of sand and gravel, whose porous soil, destitute of nutriments, is not suffi- 
cient for the forest; the mesa of Fusugasuga, for instance, probably always 
consisted of thorny underbrush and grass. Similar, although still more 
adapted to the drought, because it lies in a warmer climate, are the strata 
of sand and gravel of Medina or the tuff plains on the Magdalena River 
above Honda." 

The same author {I. c, p. 80) describes the vegetation of this and similar 
semi-arid localities in this part of Colombia as follows : 

" In many places, the bushy vegetation shows plainly its adaptation to 
drought, and this is generally the case in the vicinity of the lighter mimosa 
forest, which probably took in the place of this brush originally. It is 
small-leaved and thorny and generally shows the acacia form; the agaves 
with their sword-shaped, sharp-edged, fleshy leaves, and the most varied 
forms of cacti, whose juicy trunks give them the ability to overcome drought, 
are numerous and often form impenetrable thickets, while at different spots, 
they stand singly, and leave the bare earth between them. In such places 
the land almost bears the appearance of a desert, and only the donkey finds 
a meagre meal. This vegetation, adapted to the drought, occurs in almost 
all the altitudes, on the banks of the Magdalena River above Honda, as 
well as in the valley of the Rio Bogota between Tocaima and Jiradot, or 
in the vicinity of Cucuta, and at Neiva, or at Soacha in the southern part 
of the plateau of Bogota, but it is, however, more extensive and more devel- 
oped in the lower, warmer parts than in the cooler altitudes." 



78 BvUetin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

The Cauca semi-arid region, begins slightly south of the head of navi- 
gation in the Cauca river, in Antioquia and extends up that much con- 
stricted region lying between the Western and Central Andes, through 
which the Cauca flows, to the Cauca Valley. The topographic isolation 
of this valley is therefore faunally increased by the aridity of the region 
which lies between it and the humid lower Cauca-Magdalena region. 

The Cauca Valley, as elsewhere remarked, is far from arid. Neverthe- 
less, its forests are largely restricted to the banks of streams and low-lying 
areas where a natural subsurface irrigation gives them the water the insuffi- 
cient rainfall does not directly provide. 

It must, howfever, be remembered that the Cauca region has been 
settled for many years, and that deforestation to create grazing for cattle 
has long been practiced. It is probable, therefore, that the forested area 
was formerly more extensive than it is at present. 

Mountain Forests. — Under the general head of Mountain Forests we 
may include the forests of the Subti-opical and Temperate Zones. Both 
may be classed as cloud forests, the lower limit of the first being determined 
by the altitude of condensation, the upper limit of the second by that of 
the temperature at which tree-growth ends. 

Depending for their continuity on topography, or the relation between 
slope exposure and prevailing air currents, on the relative altitude of con- 
tiguous ridges and other comparatively local conditions, a detailed survey 
would be required to make anything approaching an accurate map, showing 
the distribution of mountain forests in Colombia. It may, however, be 
said in a general way that Subtropical forests, or those lying between approx- 
imately 5000 and 9500 feet, because of their lower altitude, are more or less 
continuous on one slope or both, of all three ranges of the Colombian Andes. 

Temperate Zone forest, both because of the higher altitude required, 
and also because of the lower rainfall which usually prevails on this zone, 
is less continuous than that of the Subtropical Zone. 

Unforested Mountain Areas. — As indicated by the statements just made, 
the forestless tracts above the tropics are found largely in the Temperate 
Zone, where on the Bogota Savanna, or in that region lying south of Popa- 
yan, for example, there are wide areas which are treeless. 

What is believed to be an approximation to existing facts is expressed, 
semi-diagrammatically, in the accompanying map in which the yellow color 
employed represents not only the arid coast region, the savannas, and 
plains of the Tropical Zone, but also treeless, grass-covered slopes and 
paramos of the higher summits. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 79 



Notes on Colombian Climatology. 

Temperature: — The temperature of any given locality in Colombia 
shows so little fluctuation throughout the year that the seasons are marked, 
not by increase of cold or heat, but by rainfall. To demonstrate the narrow 
and regular path travelled yearly by the thermometer in Colombia, and as a 
contribution to the unfortunately limited amount of published meteoro- 
logical data from that country, I append a summarized record of the tem- 
perature for the year 1907 at the sugar estate of La Manuelita in the Cauca 
Valley near Palmira. These records were made by Mr. Chas. J. Eder and 
are selected as an average from a series covering a period of ten years. It 
will be observed that there is only a diif erence of six degrees in the average 
weekly temperature for the entire year. 

Temperature for the year 1907 at La Manuelita, Col. 



Week eading 


Highest 


Lowest 


Average for 


Jan. 4 


85 


66 


74i 


11 


86 


63 


74f 


18 


86 


63 


75 


25 


84 


65 


73 


Feb. 1 


86 


64 


74 


8 


86 


67 


73 


15 


86 


64 


73 


22 


85 


64 


73 


March 1 


86 


62 


72 


8 


86 


64 


7Sj 


15 


86 


64 


75 


22 


88 


66 


76 


29 


85 


64 


74i 


April 5 


86 


64 


75i 


12 


87 


66 


75 


19 


86 


66 


76 


26 


86 


67 


76 1 


May 3 


86 


65 


75 


10 


85 


67 


75 


17 


85 


64 


ni 


24 


86 


66 


73 


31 


83 


63 


74 


June 7 


85 


62 


74 


14 


86 


64 


75^ 


21 


86 


66 


76 


28 


84 


65 


73i 



80 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Week ending High^t Lowest Average for week. 

July 5 86 «3 74f 

12 86 64 74i 

19 85 65 74 

26 89 59 74f 
August 2 87 65 76 

9 91? 66 77 

16 90? 61 76 

23 90? 66 78 

30 80 64 77J 

Sept. 6 89 65 76 

13 91 64 76j 

20 89 64 76| 

27 90 65 76i 
Oct. 4 88 67 76 

11 86 64 76^^ 

18 89 65 77 

25 88 64 75j 

Nov. 1 87 66 75 

8 87 66 76 

15 87 68 77i 

22 86 66 75 

29 86 66 76 

Dec. 6 86 65 76 

13 85 65 75 

20 87 64 76 

27 90 66 77i 

The preceding observations were made in the Tropical Zone, but an 

equal stability in the yearly range of temperature is shown at localities in 

the Subtropical as well as Temperate Zones. Thus, Regel states that the 

'lowest monthly average recorded at Bogota is 57° (July, 1880), while the 

highest, 61°, occurred in the same month of the succeeding year. 

This surprisingly small annual range in the temperature of any one 
locality doubtless accounts for the comparatively small variation in the 
limits of life-zones, the boundaries of which are primarily isothermal. 

It is, therefore, of importance for us to know to what extent temperature 
is affected by altitude and I insert here the following pertinent observations 
from Robert Blake White's 'Notes on the Central Provinces of Colombia' 
(Proc. R. G. S., V, 1883, pp. 263, 264). 

"From a numerous series of observations of the mean temperatures at 
different altitudes in the Cordilleras, collected from a great many observers, 
I have formed a table of mean temperatures corresponding to a series of 
altitudes from sea-level up to 16,400 feet in height, which will be found 
very generally applicable over the whole of the Colombian territory. These 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 81 

mean temperatures are derived from observations made on distinct systems, 
but as a rule the temperature of the earth, in a part sheltered from the sun 
and rain, at a depth of 30 inches from the surface of the ground, will repre- 
sent in these latitudes the mean temperature of the locality. In tropical 
regions, where vegetation is not exposed to great variations of temperature, 
the most important point to which the agriculturist should look is the mean 
temperature, if he would judge correctly of the climate of any locality. 

"Table of Mean Temperatures in the U. S. of Colombia, between 2° and 6° N. 
Lat., compiled from observations by Humboldt, Caldas, Boussingalt, Mosquera, 
Reiss, Stubel, and White. 



[eight above 


Mean 


Height above 


Mean 


Sea-level. 


Temperature. 


Sea-level. 


Temperature. 


Feet. 


Fahr. 


Feet. 


Fahr. 





82.4° 


9,020 


55.4° • 


820 


80.4 


9,840 


53.6 


1,640 


78.4 


10,660 


50.9 


2,460 


76.3 


11,480 


48.2 


3,280 


74.3 


12,300 


45.5 


4,100 


71.2 


13,120 


42.8 


4,920 


68.0 


13,940 


40.1 


5,740 


65.3 


14,760 


37.4 


6,560 


62.6 


15,580 


32.0 


7,380 


59.9 


16,400 


30.2 


8,200 


57.2 







"The mean in the greater altitudes varies somewhat according to the 
greater or less extent of snow-covered mountains, and in the lesser altitudes 
the temperature is affected by the open or inclosed character of the valleys 
and by the presence or absence of vegetation. Generally, however, it will 
be found that the above means are suiBciently near the truth to be of 
practical utility." 

Rainfall: — As before remarked, the seasons in Colombia are charac- 
terized by dry and wet periods rather than by variations in temperature. 
It is, therefore, to be regretted that data in regard to rainfall are even less 
satisfactory than those relating to temperature. Furthermore, variations 
in rainfall, both at the same locality and at neighboring stations, are so 
great that the statistics available merely demonstrate the need for additional 
observations before even the most conservative generalizations can be made 
on this branch of Colombian meteorology. 

Two types of the seasonal distribution of rain are commonly recognized 
in Colombia. In one, a wet season of six months duration is followed by a 
dry season of equal length. In the other, wet seasons each of three months 
duration are separated by dry seasons of equal length. 



82 Bulletin American Miiseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Under the first-named condition, rain usually falls from May or June 
to November or December, and the season is termed "invierno" or winter; 
while the months from November or December to May or June are dry and 
the season is known as " verano " or summer. 

North of latitude 8° the seasons are characterized by one dry and one 
rainy period; south of this latitude two rainy and two dry seasons are the 
rule. The comparatively arid Caribbean Fauna possesses therefore but 
one rainy season, while the humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna has two, 
annually. There is, however, much irregularity both north and south of 
latitude 8°, while the amount of variation in annual precipitation at stations 
separated by only a few miles may exceed 300 inches ! 

For example, at San Jose, thirty-seven kilometers from Buenaventura, the 
observers of the Pacific Railway recorded a deposit in 1912 of 400.88 inches, 
while during the same year Caldas, distant 45 kilometers from San Jose, 
received only 54.46 inches, a difference of 346.42 inches. The topographic 
conditions responsible for this remarkable variation will be found described 
under the description of the route followed by our expedition No. 1. 

Ocean currents, comparative temperatures of the air over land and sea, 
prevailing direction of the wind in relation to mountain slopes, relative 
height of ranges in the same chain of mountains are among the more im- 
portant local causes affecting rainfall in Colombia. The subject is inti- 
mately related to the distribution of life and particularly to the breaking 
up of zones into f aunal areas, but, as already remarked, few exact data exist 
and I therefore merely present those I have obtained through the courtesy 
of others, without further comment. 

Record of Rainfall at Paio Mines on the Rio NechS, Antioquia, from August, 

1913, to July, 1914. 



1913. 




August 


17.4 


September 


20.3 


October 


15.7 


November 


18.6 


December 


7.8 


1914. 




January 


8.7 


February 


1.8 


March 


6 


April 


8.8 


May 


18.8 


June 


14.4 


July 


10.7 



143.6 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 83 

Record of Rainfall at certain Stations on the Pacific R. B. 
Contributed by R. Alvarez Salas. 

Stations. 1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 

Buenaventura 323,96 248,66 265,10 234,90 262,86 

San Jos6 Km. 37 270,00 277,37 400,88 296,10 

Caldas Km. 82 57,08 46,66 64,56 50,11 31,09 

Palmar Km. 98 34,06 25,41 

Lomitas Km. 109 33,34 

Yumbo Km. 158 37,73 



Annual Rainfall at La Manueliia, Cauca Valley, 1900-1910. 

Year. Amount. Days on which Rain Fell. 



1900 


37.97 


123 


1901 


45.21 


136 


1902 


33.80 


148 


1903 


56.38 


131 


1904 


37.74 


141 


1905 


33.79 


113 


1906 


39.96 


126 


1907 


47.80 


144 


1908 


54.94 


177 


1909 


55.13 


172 


1910 


48.50 


160 


Rainfall at La Manuelita, Cauca 


Voile 


Month. 


Amount. 




January 


3.19 




February 


3.10 




March 


4.16 




April 


6.09 




May 


5.37 




June 


2.92 




July 


1.50 




August 


1.49 




September 


2.98 




October 


5.81 




November 


4.78 




December 


3.20 





44.59 



84 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



THE LIFE ZONES OF THE COLOMBIAN ANDES. 

The ascent of a lofty mountain on which, faunally, several hundred feet 
of altitude may represent several hundred miles of latitude, is a profoundly 
impressive and fascinating experience for the zoogeographer. One is amazed 
by the distinctness of the life-zones encountered and is led to speculate on 
the origin of their strongly characterized floras and faunas. That the alti- 
tudinal distribution of plants should conform closely to belts or zones, the 
limits of which are determined primarily by temperature, is not surprising; 
but that such mobile creatures as birds should be confined within certain 
more or less definite boundaries by these invisible barriers is a convincing 
evidence of their potency as well as of the sensitiveness of the organisms on 
which they act. 

It does not follow that every species will occur in only one zone, it appar- 
ently being a general law that wide latitudinal or faunal distribution implies 
also great altitudinal or zonal range. Examples may be found among birds 
as widely apart in relationships and habits as the Turkey Vulture and House 
Wren. Both range at sea-level from the South Temperate to the North 
Temperate Zone; both are found from the tropical lowlands to the temper- 
ate uplands of the Colombian Andes. 

These birds, and a few others like them, are, however, marked exceptions 
arid while a species may advance a small distance beyond its true zone, a 
surprisingly large number of species are found in only one zone. The zones 
themselves are not, of course, more sharply defined than the ranges of the 
species which characterize them. 

No one can stand at the foot of a snow-crowned mountain in the tropics 
without at once realizing that temperature, as it is influenced by altitude, 
is obviously the dominant factor in producing the floras and faunas en- 
countered between base and summit. Where humidity, and in certain 
instances, character of the soil, add their influence, the boundary lines 
between life zones are often very sharply defined. One may pass, for 
example, from the upper border of the arid tropics on the eastern slope of 
the Western Andes at San Antonio into the dense forests of the humid 
subtropics on their crest in less than two minutes, and experience a complete 
change in bird-life. But even where temperature alone is active, and there 
is no marked difference in rainfall, the forest being continuous, an alti- 
tudinal difference of 1000 feet may bring one into an essentially new avi- 
fauna. Such a phenomenon we observed when traveling from El Piiion 
(alt. 9600 ft.) to just above El Roble (alt. 8600 ft.), on the trail between 



Bull. A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXVI 




Faunas Faunas 

^^ Colombian-Pacific Subtropical/ gg| West Andean 

I I Cauca-Magdalena ^ Zone I^ ^^ East Andean 

I I Caribbean Temperate WKM Zone and Fauna 

^^M Orinocan Paramo ^^| Zone and Fauna 

A ' -' I Amazonian 

LIFE ZONES AND FAUNAS IN COLOMBIA 
' The dotted area is the arid portion of this Fauna. 



Tropical 

Zone 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 85 

Bogota and Fusugasuga. The first-named locality has a highly developed 
Temperate Zone life; while at the second, the fauna of the Subtropical Zone 
is equally well represented. 

A study of the bird-life of the Colombian Andes, shows, therefore, that 
it is distributed in four zones, and since the lower zone lies wholly within the 
tropics it follows that the remaining zones are all altitudinal. While I 
have been tempted to use names for them which seemed especially descrip- 
tive locally, it has been deemed far more desirable to accept existing terms 
which are generally applicable. These zones with their altitudinal bounda- 
ries are as follows: 

Tropical Zone sea-level to 4500-6000 ft. 

Subtropical Zone 4500-6000 ft. to 9000-9500 ft. 

Temperate Zone 9000-9500 ft. to 11,000-13,000 ft. 

Paramo Zone 11,000-13,000 ft. to snow-line (15000 ft.). 

These divisions correspond to the 'Tierra Caliente,' 'Tierra Templada,' 
'Tierra Fria,' and 'Paramo' of other authors, but the altitudes here given 
are higher than those based on temperature alone. 

Basing the limits of his divisions upon an apparently purely arbitrary 
assignment of isotherms to zonal boundaries, Hettner i places the upper 
limits of the Tierra Cahente [= Tropical Zone] at 1000 metres; the Tierra 
Templada [= Subtropical Zone] between 1100 and 2000 metres; the Tierra 
Fria [= Temperate Zone] between 2100 and 3000 metres, and the Paramo 
between 3100 and 4000 metres. It will be observed that the limits of only 
the upper zone conform to those determined on the distribution of bird-life. 
It is reassuring, therefore, to find a much closer agreement between the 
zonal boundaries here given, based on the distribution of birds, and those 
based upon the distribution of vegetation presented by Wolf,^ who, as a 
result of his studies of the flora of Ecuador, gives for both the Western and 
Eastern Andean slope four zones of life as follows : 

Tropical sea-level to 1600 metres. 

Subtropical 1600 to 3000 metres. 

« Subandine [= Temperate] 3000 to 3400 metres. 

Andine or Paramo 3400 to 4600 metres. 

The limits of the two lower zones, for which Wolf employs names I had 
independently adopted, are essentially the same as those I here give for 
Colombia. The third, which Wolf calls the Subandine, but for which a 
continental-wide view of the subject suggests the name of Temperate Zone 

1 Kordillere von Bogota, p. 70. 

2 Geographia y Geologia de Ecuador, p. 435 et. seq. 




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86 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 87 

as more appropriate, is somewhat less extensive altitudinally than in Colom- 
bia, and the fourth, or Paramo, is correspondingly larger. Local conditions, 
including the much greater superficial area of the Paramo Zone in Ecuador, 
and the isolation of the temperate interandine region from Subtropical 
influences, are no doubt responsible for these differences. 

Wolf's zones, as well as the comparatively simple topography of the 
Andean system in Ecuador, are shown in the accompanying diagram from 
his standard work {I. c, p. 441). 

The extent, general, and ornithological characters of the zones herein 
proposed are presented in detail beyond, but here I offer several general 
considerations in regard to Andean zonal life as a whole. 

Any attempt to explain existing conditions must be preceded by an 
effort to picture to ourselves the effect on the fauna of a tropical region of 
the uplift in it of a mountain system to snow-line. If at some point in the 
heart of the humid tropics, let us say upper Amazonia, progressive cooling 




Fig. 2. Ideal section through the Ecuadorian Andes to show zones of vegetation. 

2. Llanos. 3. Tropical and Subtropical Forests. 4. Interandean Region [ = Temperale Zone]. 

5. Andean Region [ = Paramo Zone]. 6. Perpetual Snow. (From Wolf, 1892.) 

should eventually produce a snow-covered area surrounded by successive, 
concentric, climatic belts leading gradually to the surrounding tropics, we 
should have no more striking climatic change than has been brought about 
by the elevation of the Andes. 

Geologists, I believe, are agreed that this great mountain system is of 
Tertiary origin, and that there have been pronounced uplifts as late as the 
Pleistocene. Perhaps, therefore, we are warranted in assuming that the 
range had not acquired sufficient elevation to become an effective barrier 
to the distribution of tropical life prior to the latter half of the Tertiary. 

However this may be, one's imagination is stimulated by an attempt to 
follow the course of events as a gradually increasing elevation, with its 
subsequent changes, brought into existence new habitable areas of the earth's 
surface with strikingly different climates from that of the base out of which 
they had arisen. 



88 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Where such an uplift created a mountain system as continuous as the 
Andes now are, these new areas were doubtless populated by latitudinal 
extension of range from regions having similar climates, and by altitudinal 
extension as the pressure of life from immediately contiguous regions below 
forced species upward, the more adaptable of which survived. 

Although having the shorter journey, the change of environment would 
be greater for those species coming from another zone in the same latitude 
than for those coming from the same zone in a perhaps distant latitude. 
We should, therefore, expect to find greater variation in what may be called 
zonal representatives than in altitudinal representatives. 

A study of the existing fauna supports these theories of the origin of 
zonal life and the degree of variation it presents. Thus the birds of the 
Subtropical Zone have been almost wholly derived from the zone below; 
those of the Temperate Zone came in part from the Subtropical, in part from 
the same zone at sea-level, while nearly all those of the Paramo Zone have 
come from the sea-level equivalent of this zone in southern South America. 

It follows, then, that the birds of every zone above the tropics have been 
derived from a lower level. There are some exceptions to this rule but they 
do not affect the general truth of the statement. In comparative varia- 
bility the fauna of the Subtropics differs more from the ancestral stock in 
the tropics than do the altitudinal forms of the Temperate and Paramo 
Zones from their distant sea-level derivatives of the South Temperate Zone, 
with which indeed they are often specifically identical. Hence it follows 
that uniformity of life increases with altitude, while as a corollary, the 
number of species decreases; uniformity of environment being apparently 
the underlying cause. 

The sometimes marked difference in the character of alluvial bottom- 
lands and slopes arising from them, even when both are wooded, exerts a 
strong influence on the range of some species of the Tropical Zone. Certain 
terrestrial birds, like Pittasoma, for example, are confined to the muddy 
shores of slow-flowing streams. Others, like Opisthocomus, do not leave 
the growth along the borders of such streams. Still others frequent the 
floor of the lowland forest. 

Such restrictions of range, however, appear to me to be of habitat rather 
than of zone, and do not, in my opinion, require a subdivision of the Tropical 
Zone. 

We obtained no evidence' of altitudinal migration among Colombian 
birds, though it is probable that Hummiagbirds range up and down moun- 
tain sides in search of certain flowers. 

We cannot of course expect to find conclusive evidence of the geographic 
origin of all the species of a given zone. Possibly the ancestral forms and 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 89 

point of origin of only those it has acquired most recently may be determina- 
ble, while the derivation of the earlier arrivals may forever be unknown to us. 
Consequently we have a large group of species whose history is lost to us 
and which, therefore, we can only assume have entered their zone under the 
influences which are still active, and the cumulative effects of which they 
exhibit. 

Aside from creating areas where, under the influence of a new environ- 
ment, evolution has evidently proceeded at a highly accelerated pace, the 
topographic changes incident to the elevation of the Andes have profoundly 
affected the distribution of life in the Tropical Zone. 

A comparison of the bird-life of the Pacific coast of Colombia and north- 
ern Ecuador with that of the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Andes 
in southeastern Colombia and eastern Ecuador, induces the belief that we 
have here, in part, a pre-Andean fauna, the Pacific portion of which has been 
cut off from that of upper Amazonia by the Andean uplift. The specific 
identity of many birds common to both areas is evidence that but little 
change has taken place in their surroundings since their ranges were dis- 
connected, and in such cases evolution has, so to speak, been at a standstill. 
But the elevation of the intervening territory to snow-line has brought into 
play most of the environmental influences one finds between the equator 
and the poles, and where in an unchanged basal zone species remained as 
constant as their habitat, in the new region they sprang forward in an 
evolutionary race. The evidence on which this theory of the Amazonian 
origin of Pacific coast life is based is presented in detail beyond. The 
strongly marked characteristics of the Colombian Pacific Fauna, however, 
indicate that even in the Tropical Zone evolutionary influences have been 
active since the isolation of the Pacific coast region. 

The bird-life of the Cauca Valley and upper Magdalena Valley appears 
to have been acquired under existing topographic conditions. The fact 
that the forests of the Pacific coast compare in luxuriance with those of 
upper Amazonia, while forests are of small extent in the Cauca Valley and 
are wanting in the upper Magdalena Valley, may in part explain the marked 
difference in the bird-life of these valleys and that of the Pacific coast. 

Heavy forest, however, exists in the lower Cauca-Magdalena region, 
the bird-life of which has evidently been acquired in part from the Pacific 
coast, in part from east of the Andes, suggesting that this region was not 
above sea-level prior to the Andean uplift. These, however, are faunal 
rather than zonal problems, and they will be discussed more fully in the 
succeeding pages. 

Our studies of the faunal effects of the appearance of the Andes must 
not be restricted to those changes wrought by the uplift of this system, but 



90 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

must also take into consideration the subsequent modifying factors of 
glaciation, subsidence and erosion. 

In 'Die Kordillere von Bogota' Dr. Alfred Hettner^ gives the results 
of his studies of glaciation in the Eastern Andes showing that at their maxi- 
mum development glaciers which are now retreating were, in at least one 
instance, 460 meters lower than at the time his observations were made. 
He writes (p. 74): 

" During the last years and decades the boundaries of the snow and the 
glaciers have probably retreated to a large extent. All the people who 
served me as guides here agreed to the same opinion; and that the retreat 
must have been quite marked, may be gathered from the words of a peddling 
Indian tradesman, who expressed his lively ill-will for the visits of strangers 
in the mountains, for he thought they were to blame for the disappearance 
of snow. Upon the snow-covered mountain of San Paulin, the smooth 
nature of the strata on the western side for several hundred meters below 
the present snow line clearly shows that it was until recently covered with 
snow. We have previously heard that from the foot of the Sugar-loaf 
Glacier to a distance of 700 to 800 m. and a difference in height of 80 m., 
a great amount of end moraines are found, upon which no plant growth has 
yet been able to settle, which must, therefore, be of a very recent origin. 
About contemporaneous with the retreat of the snow-line of the Alps and 
that of many mountains, the snow-line of the Colombian Andes also re- 
treated." 

On the succeeding page (75) he adds: 

"In more ancient times the glaciers must have been much larger, the 
climate consequently cooler, for I noticed on the slope of the valley, to a 
distance of at least four or five km. from the present foot of the glacier, 
about 460 m. lower, a row of plain end moraines grown over, and it is possible 
that they extend down further. 

"Even if the observation that is taken in general delineations and in 
text-books does not possess any proof, the fact of the existence of an ice 
age in the Andes of Colombia, and supposedly also of Venezuela, may be 
considered as certain. Regarding the appearance of two ice ages, no 
intelligence has yet been gathered from the equatorial Andes up to the 
present time." 

It seems evident, therefore, in view of the different climatic conditions 
which must have prevailed in the Andes during the period of maximum 
glaciation, that the existing zonal boundaries are post-glacial. Without 



1 Petermaim*s Mittheilungea Erganzungsband 22. pp. 74, 75. I have to thank Dr. Chester A. 
Heeds for these references and the accompanying translation. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 91 

a more detailed knowledge of the Andean Ice Age, and of the variation in 
altitude with latitude, of Andean life-zones, we can only speculate on the 
extent to which the zones were affected by the rise and fall of a glacial period. 

We may with some hesitation suggest that s'o pronounced a boreal tj^pe 
as Otocoris is a recent bit of glacial drift stranded on the Savanna of Bogota. 
But on the other hand, with far more confidence, we may believe that the 
undoubted northward extension of South Temperate Zone species along the 
Andes, with increasing altitude, to the mountain crests of Colombia, has 
been coincident with the retreat of the glaciers; and the often close rela- 
tion of these birds with their sea-level, ancestral form supports this view. 
Whether or not this be true there can be no question of the southern origin 
of most of the species of the Paramo and Temperate Zones. 

The trend of life in the Tropical Zone is less susceptible of determination. 
One cannot say that life does not radiate from an equatorial center and 
flow north, and south, to the limits of the Tropical Zone; though the north- 
ward current in America is now not only stronger but reaches farther. 

In the Subtropical Zone with its extremities reaching into Mexico, the 
evidence also indicates a current setting toward the north. If, however, 
this northward bound current is of post-glacial origin, it apparently follows 
that the former subtropical bridge, which carried the numerous subtropical 
species now found in Costa Rica to that country from Colombia (as suggested 
beyond), has disappeared since the Glacial Period. 

It is in this connection that we find our best illustration of the biogeo- 
graphic effects of the two other modifying factors, — subsidence and erosion. 

The retreat of the glaciers to higher altitudes with the resulting upward 
extension of life-zone boundaries, is accountable for the formation of Paramo 
Zone islands separated by Temperate Zone areas. Again Temperate Zone 
islands have apparently been formed by erosion of the mountain crests 
which at one time connected them. This appears to have happened in the 
Western Andes where the close relation now existing between the life of the 
Temperate Zone of the Andes west of Popayan and that of the ParamiUo at 
the northern end of the range, suggests the former continuity of the Temper- 
ate Zone on the crest of that range. 

Apparent proof of subsidence, doubtless accompanied by erosion, is 
found in what I have termed the 'Panama fault' in the Subtropical Zone 
which, after terminating at the northern end of the Western Andes, reap- 
pears again on the crest of the higher mountains of eastern Panama and of 
western Panama, though in the intervening areas it is widely separated by 
the Tropical Zone. The evidence on which this theory of the former con- 
tinuity of the Subtropical Zone from Colombia to Costa Rica rests, is pre- 
sented beyond. 



92 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

The whole question of the origin of Andean life-zones is, from the orni- 
thological point of view at least, a new one, and I cannot at this stage of 
our knowledge hope to do much more than open it for discussion. 

The fundamental factors in zone formation, and the conclusions reached 
from our studies in Colombia, may be stated as follows : 



Factors. 



Past 



Rise of the Andes 
Glaciation 
Erosion 
Subsidence 
[ Temperature 
Present i Humidity 



[Soil 



Environmental factors. 



Corwlusions. 



1. Existing faunal conditions in the Tropical Zone are, in part pre- 
Andean, in part post-Andean. The humid Pacific coast, for example, 
contains many species which appear to have occupied this region prior to 
the Andean uplift. The life of the Cauca Valley, on the other hand, seems 
to be of post-Andean origin, its analysis supporting the geological evidence 
that this valley was occupied by a lake until post-tertiary time. 

2. The Subtropical Zone nowhere reaches sea-level. Its life has been 
derived from the Tropical Zone. Because of its greater age and because 
altitudinal extension of range may imply greater environmental change 
than occurs in latitudinal extension, its life varies more widely from that 
of the ancestral area than does the life of the remaining two zones. 

3. When a Colombian Subtropical Zone form differs from its Ecuadorian 
representative, there is usually one race in the East Andean Faima and 
another in the West Andean Pauna. In some instances, however, the 
Colombian form is alike in all three branches of the Andes, though these 
three arms of its range are separated by the intervening tropical areas, 
indicating that the same characters have been developed in the individuals 
of each mountain chain by parallelism. 

4. Receding glaciers, erosion, and subsidence have produced zonal 
islands and zonal 'faults.' The distributional evidence on which, for 
example, the Panama 'fault' is shown to have occurred indicates that the 
Andes of Colombia and the higher mountains of western Panama and Costa 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 93 

Rica were, until comparatively recent geologic times, connected by a range 
having an altitude of not less than five thousand feet. 

5. The Temperate Zone reaches sea-level in the South Temperate Zone. 
Its life is derived in part by zonal, in part by latitudinal extension and is 
more recent than that of the Subtropical Zone. 

6. The Paramo Zone reaches sea-level in southern South America. 
Its life is derived by altitudinal extension and is more recent than that of 
the Temperate Zone. 

7. The present trend of the distribution of life is northward. Few 
boreal species have entered Colombia in recent geologic times. 

8. With rare exceptions (e. g., Brachysjdza capensis peruviana) no 
species extends its range from an upper to a lower zone. 

9. Wide latitudinal range usually implies wide altitudinal range. 
10. Uniformity of life increases with altitude. 



The Teopical Zone and its Faunas. 

The Tropical Zone in Colombia occupies all that part of the country 
lying approximately below an altitude of 5000 feet. In some few places 
it does not extend much above 4500 feet; in others it reaches to about 
6000 feet. Its limits are determined primarily by temperature, but they 
are further dependent upon humidity, as humidity itself affects temperature 
through radiation. 

On the heavily forested Pacific slope of the Western Andes the lack of 
favorable radiating surfaces is conducive to a lower temperature than is 
found at a corresponding level on the barren eastern slopes of the same range. 
In consequence, the upper margin of the Tropical Zone is at least 1000 feet 
higher on the eastern than on the western side of these mountains. 

Unfortunately no exact data on temperature are available in this con- 
nection, but the influence of radiation was observed in a marked manner 
in the succeeding or Subtropical Zone at the San Antonio Pass (alt. 6800ft.) 
where the road from Buenaventura to Cali crosses the Western Andes;- 

With a regularity which has given it the name of the "San Antonio 
Wind," at two o'clock each day a strong, cold, westerly wind, usually with 
a driving mist, sweeps over the crest of the range. 

This phenomenon is apparently attributable to decreasing barometric 
pressure following radiation from the comparatively open floor of the Cauca 
Valley, when, already urged by the prevailing westerly wind, air from the 
coast rushes into the area of lower pressure and is condensed as it reaches 
the higher parts of the range. 



94 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Where zonal boundaries are determined not only by altitude (= tem- 
perature) but also by humidity, they are more clearly defined than when 
attributable to temperature alone. As with faunas, suitability of haunt 
or habitat here plays an important part. 

The upper limits of the Tropical Zone in the Cauca Valley, for example, 
are arid and meet the lower borders of the Subtropical Zone at the lower 
limit of condensation. In journeying from west to east one therefore passes 
from the dripping, cloud-wrapped forests of the western slopes and crest 
of the Western Andes to the arid, treeless eastern slope of the range. The 
forest-inhabiting birds of the Subtropical Zone stop as suddenly as the 
forest itself and they are succeeded by certain species of the arid Tropical 
Zone which find a suitable haunt on these treeless slopes, whence they have 
extended their range upward from the dry savannas of the Cauca Valley 
below. 

Descending to and crossing this valley, we ascend the bare foothills of 
the western slopes of the Central Andes only to reverse the experience, as at 
the cloud line (about 6500 ft.) one leaves the arid Tropical Zone and enters 
the forests of the Subtropical Zone. 

On both sides of the valley, however, an extremely interesting interdigita- 
tion of zonal boundaries is observed as the arid Tropical Zone climbs up 
the barren lidges or crests of the spurs of the foothills, while the forests of 
the Subtropical Zone seem to flow down the drainage areas or arroyos be- 
tween them. Under such conditions Tropical Zone species are found at 
higher altitudes than Subtropical Zone species on the same mountain slopes, 
and the importance of a personal knowledge of the local factors is obvious. 

The altitude to which the Tropical Zone ascends is determined, there^ 
fore, primarily by temperature, but, as with faunal boundaries, humidity 
may exert an important influence not only as it increases the temperature 
but provides an environment better adapted to the wants of certain species 
of the arid Tropical Zone than to those of the Subtropical Zone. 

Our experience at Buena Vista, in the Eastern Andes, made it apparent 
that the altitude of the upper margin of the Tropical Zone may also, to 
some extent, depend on the altitude of the range or ridge concerned. Here 
a heavily forested spur rises from the Llanos, with only gallery forests, to 
an altitude of 4500 feet. Its direct physical connections are therefore with 
the Tropical Zone, and in spite of the favorable environment and the alti- 
tude, very few Subtropical Zone species were secured. 

Accessibility may therefore be a factor in fixing zonal boundaries. It 
is accessibility which chiefly distinguishes the Tropical Zone from zones 
above it. Life may enter it wherever it comes in contact with areas lying 
below an altitude of approximately 5000 feet; and a glance at an orographic 



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X 







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m ce g 
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CQ -f^ 



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5 S eS 



1917.] Chapman, Distrib,Mion of Bird-life in Colombia. 95 

map will at once show how much more of the earth's surface lies below 
than above this level. Within its latitudinal limits the Tropical Zone may 
therefore be spoken of as a sea of life in which the upper zones are mere 
islands. 

The comparison fails, however, when one examines the conditions under 
which life exists in the Tropical Zone, for instead of finding that uniformity 
of aspect which characterizes the sea, we find a diversity of environment 
far beyond that shown by any of the upper life zones. Shore-line, marsh, 
savanna, llano, plain, and forest afford homes for a correspondingly wide 
variety of forms, and, in connection with the extent of the area, go far to 
account for the richness of its life. 

Returning again to our simile of the sea, when as in Colombia, the upper 
zone islands assume the rank of peninsulas or are numerous enough to be 
likened to archipelagos, more or less land-locked bays are formed which, 
chiefly through their isolation, become centers for the development of new 
types. 

All these characteristics of the Tropical Zone, as compared with those of 
the zones above, are present in Colombia, and an attempt to define its 
f aunal areas results in the recognition of no less than five more or less clearly 
defined Faunas, as follows: 

1. The Colombian-Pacific. 

2. The Cauca-Magdalena, including both humid and arid sections. 

3. The Caribbean. 

4. The Orinocan. 

5. The Amazonian. 

Of these the first, or Colombian-Pacific, is the most important since in 
connection with a high degree of humidity, not equalled elsewhere on the 
tropical Pacific coast, or indeed in the western hemisphere, it combines an 
isolation which has made it the principal local area of adaptive radiation 
in Colombia.^ 

To a limited extent the Cauca-Magdalena region, both in its humid 
lower Cauca and upper Cauca portions, has produced some new forms, and 
the Caribbean Fauna, with its extension on the Venezuela coast, appears to 
have been the birth-place of some of the species which are confined to it. 

'Orinocan' and 'Amazonian' are terms provisionally applied to the 
respectively semi-arid and intensely humid portions of the Orinocan and 
Amazonian basins, which find their western borders at the base of. the East- 
em Andes. They are merely small parts of much larger faunas and possess 
no distinctive features of their own. With these general remarks on the 

1 Cf. Osborn, The Age of Mammals, 1910, p. 22. 



96 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Tropical Zone in Colombia as a whole, we may attempt to describe and define 
its faunas. 

The range of temperature throughout the zone is so small that this 
factor has not to be considered in determining faunal boundaries. Humid- 
ity, character of the soil, and ease of access are the agents which have been 
active in faunal development in Colombia. Of these the first is by far the 
most important. The arid upper Dagua basin, on the western slope of the 
Western Andes, is surrounded by the humid forests of the Colombian- 
Pacific Fauna and Subtropical Zone. Nevertheless, its life was derived 
through the Cauca Valley from east of the Andes, suitability of environ- 
ment as it is controlled by rainfall, here proving far more potent than ease 
of access from immediately contiguous regions, which do not possess species 
adapted to an arid habitat. 



Birds of the Tropical Zone. 



Family Tinamidm. 

Tinamus major ruficeps 
" " castaneiceps 

" latifrons 

Cr3rpturus cinereus 
" berlepschi 
" soui soui 
" " caquetae 

" " caucse 

" " modestus 

" adspersus yapura 
" variegatus salvini 
" kerrise 

Family Cracidce. 

Crax aleotor 
" panamensis 
" alberti 
Penelope ortoni 

" jaoq^iaQU 
Ortalis columbiana columbiana ' 
" " caucsE 1 

" guttata 
" garrula 
Pipile cumanensis 

Family Odontophoridce. 

CoUnus oristatus decoratus 
~ " "^ reucolTs^ 



Colinus cristatus parvicriatatuB ' 
Odontophorus guianensis marmoratus 

" parambse 

Rhynchortyx cinctus australis 

Family ColumhidcB 

Columba speciosa 
" rufina 
" goodsoni 
" subvinacea berlepschi 
" plumbea propinqua 
Zenaida auriculata 

" ruficauda robinsoni 
Chsemepelia passerina albivitta 
" " parvula 

" " nana 

" minuta elseodes 

" rufipennis rufipennis 

" " caucse 

Claravis pretiosa livida 
Leptotila verreauxi verreauxi 
" ruf axilla dubusi 
" " pallidipectus 

" plumbeiceps 
" pallida 
" cassini 
Osculatia purpurata 
Oreopeleia veraguensis 
" montana ^ 



1 Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI. Plate XXVIII. 




Farallones or Cali, Western Andes 
View across the Cauca Valley from La Manuelita. near Palmira, distant about twenty miles. 




Farallones of Cali, Western Andes 

View up the Cali River, from the town of Cali. The summit of this part of the Western 

Andes is unexplored. It may reach the Temperate Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



97 



Family Opisthocomidce 

Opisthocomus hoazin 

Family Rallidx 

Pardirallus nigricans nigricans 
Aramides cajanea cajanea 

" wolfi {_vide Hellmayr) 
Amaurolimnas concolor guatemalensis 
Anurolimnas castaneiceps 

" hauxwelli 

Porzana flaviventris 
Crecisous senops 

" albigularis 
Neocrex columbianus 
Gallinula chloropus pauxilla 
lonornis martinicug 

Family Heliornithidce 

Heliornis fulica 

Family Podicipedidm 

PodUymbus podiceps ^ 

Colymbus dominicus brachyrhynchus 

Family Laridce 

Phaetusa chloropoda 
Rhynchops nigra cinerascens 

Family Charadriidce 

Belonopterus cayennensis ' 
iEgiaUtis coUaris 
Himantopus mexicanus 
Gallinago brasUieasis 

Family Parridce 

Jacana spinosa 
" melanopygia 
" nigra 

Family CEdicnemidoe 
Burhinus bistriatus 

Family Eurypygidce 
Eurypyga major 

Family Psophiidoe 
Psophia napensis 



Family IbididcB 

Theristious caudatus 
Harpiprion cayennensis 
Phimosus berlepschi 

Family Plataleidm 

Ajaia ajaja 

Family Ciconiidoe 

Jabiru mycteria 

Family Ardeidce 

Ardea cocoi 
Herodias egretta 
Egretta candidissima 
Florida cserulea 
Hydranassa tricolor tricolor 
Agamia agami 

Nycticorax nycticorax nsevius ^ 
Cochlearius cochlearius '■' 
PiUierodias pileatus 
Butorides striata 
Tigrisoma lineatum 

" salmoni 
Ixobrychus erythromelas 

Family PalamedeidoB 

Palamedea oornuta ■ 
Chauna chavaria 

Family Anatidce 

Cairina moschata 
Dendrocygna discolor 
" bicolor ' 

Querquedula cyanoptera 
Marila nationi 
Nomonyx dominicus 

Family Phalacrocoracidos 

Phalacrooorax vigua vigua 

Family AnhingidoB 
Anhinga anhinga 

Family Cathartidce 

Gypagus papa 
Catharista urubu ^ 
Cathartes aura aura ' 



1 Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 

2 Ranging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



98 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Family Falconidoe 

Polyborus cheriway ^ 
Ibycter americanus 
Milvago chimachima ' 
Circus cinereus '■ 
" buffoni 1 
Micrastur guerilla interstes ' 
Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi ^ 
Accipiter superciUosus 

" ventraUs 

" bicolor 
Tachytriorohis albicaudatus exiguus 
Asturina nitida 
Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris ' 

" " ruficauda ' 

BusareUus nigricollis 
Urubitinga urubitinga 
" schistacea 

" plumbea 
Leucopternis semiplumbea 

" plumbea (vide HeUmayr) 

Lophotriorchis isidorii ^ 
Spizaetus ornatus 

" tyramius 
Herpetotheres caohimians cachinnans 
" " fulvescens 

Rostrhamphus sociajbilis 
Leptodon uncinatus 

" palliatus 
Harpagus bidentatus 
Ictinia plumbea ^ 
Falco fusco-oserulescens ^ 

" rufigularis '■ 
Cerchneis sparveria caucae ^ 

" " intermedia ' 

Family Buhonidcs 

Otus eholiba 
" watsoni 
Lophostrix cristatus stricklandi 
Ciccaba virgata virgata 

" nigrolitieata 
Glaucidium brasilianum brasiUanum 
" brasilianum phalsenoides 

Tyto perlata subsp. 



Family Psittacidce 

Ara ararauna 
" macao » 

" chloroptera 
" militaris mihtaris 
" severa 
Aratinga wagleri ^ 

" aeruginosa aeruginosa 
Pyrrhura melanura pacifica 
Psittacula conspicillata conspiciUata 
" " caucae 

" spengeU 
" sclateri 
Brotogeris jugularis 

" deviUei 
Amazona inornata 
" amazonica 

" ochrocephala ochrocephala 
" " panamensis 

" salvini 
Pionus menstruus 
Eucinetus pulchra 
PyrUia pyrilia ' 

Family Alcedinidoe 

Megaceryle torquata torquata ' 
Chlorooeryle amazona 

" americana americana 

inda 

Family Momotidm 

Urospatha martii martii 

" " semirufa 

Electron platyrhynchus plat3frhynchus 

" " minor 

" " pjnrrholaemus 

Momotus subrufescens subrufescens 

" " reconditus 

" momota ignobilis 
Hylomanes momotula obscurus 

Family Caprimulgidce 

Nyctibius longicaudatus 
Chordeiles acutipennis acutipenuis 
" " texensis 



1 Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 
^ Ranging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of BirdAife in Colombia. 



99 



Uropsalis lyra 
Hydropsalis climacocerca 
Nyctidromus albicollis albicollis ' 
Stenopsis cayeflnensis cayennensis 

" " monticola 

Antrostomus rosenbergi 

Family Cypsdidae 

Streptoprocne zonaris albicincta ' 

Chsetura spinicauda fumosa 
" cinereiventris sclateri 
" " occidentalis 

Cypseloides bnmneitorques brunneitor- 
ques ' 

Family TrochUidcE. 

Androdon aequatoriaJis 
Threnetes cervinioauda 

" ruckeri fraseri 
Glaucis hirsuta affinis 

" aenea 
Phoethomis yaruqui sancti-johamiis 
" f raterculus moorei 

" hispidus oseryi 

" anthophilus 

" griseogularis 

" striigularis striigularis 

" " subrufescens 

Eutoxeres condamini 
" aquila aqiula 
" " saJvini 

" " heterura 

Campylopterus sequatorialis 
Florisuga meUivora meUivora 
Agyrtria viridissima subsp. 

" fluviatiUs 
Polyerata amabilis 

" rosenbergi 
Lepidopyga goudoti 
" coelina 

Saucerottea saucerottei 
" viridigaster 

Amizilis tzacati tzacatl 

" " jucunda 

Hylocharis grayi ' 

" humboldti 



Damophila julise juUse 
Chlorostilbon gjbsoni 
" haeberlini 

" melanorhynchus ' 

" poortmani poortmani 

Thalurania famiyi fannjd 

" nigrofasciata 

Chalybvira buffoni buffoni ' 

" caruleogaster 

" urochiysa 
C!olibri delphinie 

Anthracothorax nigricoDis nigricollis 
Chrysolampis elatus 
Boissoneaua jardini 
Heliothrix barroti 
Anthoscenvis superba stewarti 
Calliphlox miteheUi 
Popelairia conversi 

Family Trogonidm 

Pharomacrus pavoninus 
Trogormrus strigilatus strigilatus 
" strigilatus chionurus 

" curucui cupreicauda 

" bolivianus 

Chrysotrogon caligatus colvmibianus 

" ramonianus 

Curucujus melanurus melanums 
" " macrourus 

" massena australis 

Family Cucvlidos 

Coccyzus melacoryphus 
Piaya cayana Columbiana ^ 

" " mesura '■ 

" " nigricrissa ' 

" rutila rutila 

" " gracilis 
Neomorphus salvini 
Tapera nsBvia ^ 
Crotophaga ani ' 
" major 

Family Capitonidw 

Capito aurovirens 

" maculicoronatus rubrilateralis 



1 Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 

2 Ranging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



100 



BuUelin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Capito maculicoronatus pirrensis 
" squamatus 
" hypoleuous 
" quinticolor 
" auratus auratus 

Family Ramphastidce 

Ramphastos piscivorus brevicarmatus 

" swainsoni ' 

" ambiguus abbreviatus 

" cuvieri 

" culminatus 

" citreolaemus 

Pteroglossus pluricinctus 

" castanotis castanotis 

" torquatus nuohaHs 

" sanguineus 

" flavirostris flavirostris 

" humboldti 

Selinidera reinwardti 
" spectabilis 

Family Galbulid(s 

Galbula ruficauda ruficauda 
" " pallens 

" melanogenia 
" tombacea tombacea 
" albirostris chalcocephala 
Brachygalba salmoni (vide Sol. & Salv.) 
" fulviventris fulviventris 

" " oaquetae 

Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis 

Family Bucconidce 

Bucco capensis 

Notharous pectoralis 

" hyperrhynchus leucocrissus 
" tectus subtectus 

Argicus macrodactylus 

Nystactes noanamse 

Nystalus radiatus 

Hypnelus ruficollis ruficollis 

Malacoptila fusca 

" mystacalis 

" panamensis poMopis 

" " panamensis 

Micromonacha lanceolata 



Nonnula frontalis 
Monasa flavirostris 

" morphoeus peruana 

" pallescens pallescens 

" " sclateri 

" nigrifrons 

Family Piddce 

Chloronerpes xanthochlorus 

litiB 
Chrysoptilus pimctigula punctipectus 
guttatus 
" " striatigularis 

ujhelyii 
Melanerpes cruentatus 

" • pucherani pucherani 
" rubricapiUus rubricapiUus 

Veniliornis fidelis 

" ruficeps haematostigma 
" kirki cecilii 
Celeus lorieatus loricatus 
" " mentalis 

Campephilus rubricolUs 

" melanoleuous 

" malherbi 

Cniparchus haematogaster splendens 
Ceophloeus lineatus mesorhynohus 
Picumnus cinnamomeus 

" squamulatus squamulatus 
" olivaceus oUvaceus ^ 
" " harterti 

" granadensis granadensis 
" " antioquensis 

Family Conopophagidce 

Conopophaga aurita 

" castaneiceps castaneiceps ^ 

" " chocoensis 

Family Formicariidce 

Cymbilaimus lirieatus lineatus 
" " fasciatus 

Taraba unduHger 

" transandeana transandeana 
" " granadensis 

Thamnophilus nigriceps 

" punctatus punctatus 



^ Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



101 



Thamnophilus punctatus atrinucha 
" canadensis pulchellus 

" doliatus doliatus 

" radiatus albicans 

" tenuipunctatus 

" multistriatus ' 

Thamnistes sequatorialis 

" anabatinus intermedins 

Clytoctantes alixi 

Dysithamnus punoticeps puncticeps 
" " flemnaingi 

" leucostictus 

" capitalis capitalis 

" ardesiacus ardesiaous 

Thamnomanes glaucus 
Myrmotherula pygmiEa 

" surinamensis paoifica 

Myrmopagis fulviventris 
" haematonota 

" ornata ornata 

" axillaris melaBna 

" albigula 
" schisticolor sohisticolor ' 

" " interior 

" cinereiventris pallida 

Herpsilochmus rufomargiaatus frater 
Microrhopias grisea intermedia 

" boucardi consobrina 

Ramphooaenus melanurus trinitatis 

" rufiventris griseodorsalis 

Miorobates cinereiventris cinereiventris 
" " magdalenae 

" coUaris 

Ceroomacra sclateri 

" tyrannina tyrannina ' 

" nigricans 

" berlepsohi 

Anoplops bicolor sequatorialis 
" " daguse 

" bicolor 
Myrmeciza melanoceps 

" maeulifer maculifer 

" " oassini 

" Isemosticta nigricauda 

" longipes boucardi 

" " panamensis 

Myrmelastes immaciilatus immaculatus • 



Myrmelastes immaculatus berlepschi ' 
Gymnocichla nudiceps sanctae-martae 
Dichrozona cinctus 
Hypocnemis cantator peruviana 

" hypoxantha 

Hylophylax lepidonota 

" naevia theresae 

" " nsevioides 

Myrmoborus leucophrys leucophrys 

" mjdotherinus elegans 

Phaenostiotus macleannani macleannani 
Rhopoterpe torquata torquata 
Fornaicarius colma nigrifrons 

" analis connectens 

" nigricapillus destructus 

" analis saturatus 

Chamaeza brevicauda Columbiana 

" " nobilis? 

Pittasoma harterti 
" rosenbergi 
" michleri (vide Cassin) 
GraUaria brevicauda minor 
" modesta 

" guatimalensis chocoensis 
Hylopezus dives barbacoae 

" " fulviventris 

" perspicillata periopthalmica 

" " perspicillata 

Family Dendrocolaptidce 

Furnarius agnatus 
SjmaUaxis mcesta moesta 

" " obscura 

" albescens albigularis 

" pudica pudica 

" " nigrifumosa 

" " caucae 

" gujanensis columbianus 

" cinnamomea fuscifrons 

" candaei candaei 

" rutilans caquetensis 
Xenerpestes minlosi (vide Berlepsch) 
Hyloctistes subulatus subulatus 

" " assimilis 

Automolus melanorhynchus 

" ochrolaemus turdinus 

" dorsalis 



1 Hanging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 



102 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Automolus pallidigularis paUidiguIaris 
" infuscatus infuscatus 
" nigricauda saturatus 
" cinnamomeigula 
Philydor mfipileatus consobrinus 
" pjTrhodes 
" ruficaudatus 
Ancistrops strigilatus 
Xenops genibarbis littoralis 
Sclerurus brunneus 

" albigularis albigularis 
" mexicanus obscurior 
Glyphorhynchus cuneatus subsp. 

" " castelnaudi 

" " pectoralis 

Dendrocincla la'fresnayei lafresnayei 
" " phseochroa 

Xiphorhynchus guttata guttatoides 

" sequatorialis sequatorialis 

" lachrymosus lachrymo- 

sus 
" lachrymosus alarum 

" nanus nanus 

" insignis 

Dendroplex picus picus 

" " picirostris 

Picolaptes albolineatus 
Campylorhamphus trochilirostris procur- 
voides 
" trochilirostris vene- 

zuelensis 
" thoraoicus 

" pusillus ' 

Dendrocolaptes vaUdus validus ' 

" sancti-thoma; sancti- 

thomae 
" sancti-thomse radiolatus 

Family TyrannidcB 

Ochthornis littoralis 
Fluvicola pica 
Arundinicola leucocephala 
Copurus colonus fuscicapillus 

" leuconotus 
Machetornis rixosus flavigularis 
Platytricous albogularis ' 
Placostomus coronatus 



Craspedoprion aequinoctialis 

" pacificus 

Rhjfnchocyclus sulphurescens asemus 
" " assimilis 

" " exortivus 

" marginatus marginatus 

" viridiceps 

" flaviventris aurulentus 

" klagesi 

Todirostrum cinereum cinereum ^ 
" sclateri 

" nigriceps 

" latirostre 

" schistaceiceps superciliare 

Euscarthmus striaticollis zosterops 

" septentrionaHs 

Lophotriccus spicifer 

" squamaecrista minor 

OrchUus atrioapillus 
Atalotriccus pilaris pilaris 
Hapalocercus meloryphus 
Serpophaga cinerea cana ' 
Inezia caudata intermedia 
Mionectes olivaceus hederaceus 

" oHvaeeus paUidus 
Pipramorpha oleaginea oleaginea 

" " parca 

Leptopogon superciliaris poliocephalus 

" amaurocephalus 

Capsiempis flaveola leucophrys 
Phaeomyias murina incompta 
Camptostoma pusillum pusiUum 
" " napseum 

" caucse 

Microtriccus brunneicapillus brunnei- 

capiUus 
Tyrannulus elatus reguloides 
T3T:anniscus chrysops chrysops ^ 
Elsenia flavogaster flavogaster ' 
" gigas 
" parvirostris 
Myiopagis viridicata accola 
paUens 
Legatus albicoUis 
Sublegatus glaber 

Myiozetetes cayeimensis cayennensis 
" similis columbianus 



1 Ran^g upward to the Subtropical Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



103 



Mjdozetetes granadensis 

" similis coimivens 

Pitangus sulphuratus rufipennis 
" " caucensis 

" sulphuratus subsp. 
" liotor 
Sirystes albooinereus 
Myiodynastes maculatus nobilis 
Megarhynohus pitangua 
Myiodjoiastes luteiventris 
Onychorhynohus coronatus castelnaudi 
Cnipodectes subbrunneus {vide Hell- 
mayr) 
" minor 

Myiobius barbatus barbatus 
" " atricaudus 

" villosus 

" sulphureipygius aureatus 
" fasciatus fasciatus 
Terenotriccus erythruius f ulvigularis 
Myiotriocus ornatus stellatus 

" phoenicurus 

Pyrocephalus rubinus rubinus 

" " heterurus 

Empidoohanes cabanisi 
Mitrephanes berlepschi eminulus 
Sayornis nigricans oineraoea 
Mjdochanes brachytarsus 
Myiarchus tyrannulus tyrannulus 
" fortirostris 

" (ferox) panamensis 

" (ferox) venezuelensis 

" apicalis 

" tuberoulifer tuberculifer 
" " nigriceps 

Tyxanniis niveigularis 

" luelaucholicus satrapa ^ 
Muscivora tyrannus 

Family Pipridce 

Pipra erythrocephala erythrocephala 

" " berlepschi 

" mentaUs minor 

" velutina 

" coronata 
Cirrhopipra fihcauda 
Machseropterus striolatus 



AUocopterus deKciosus 
Chloropipo holochlora holochlora 

htaj 
Chiroxiphia pareola napensis 
Corapipo leuoorrhoa 

" altera altera 
Manaous manacus abditivus 

" " interior 



" " flaveolus 

" vittellinus vitellinus 
" " Ttiilleri 

Scotothorus turdinus rosenbergi 

" " stenorhynohus 

Sapoyoa senigma 

Family Coti-ngidm 

Tityra cayana 

" semifasoiata semifasciata 
" " Columbiana 

" " esmeraldae 

" buckleyi 

" a. albitorques (vide Hellmayr). 
Platypsaris homochrous homochrous 

" minor 

Pachyrhamphus cirmamomeus 
" magdalenai 

" eastaneus saturatus 

" polychropterus niger 

" atricapillus 

Lathria cinerea 

" unirufa castaneotincta 
Lipaugus simplex 

" holerythrus holerythrus 
" " rosenbergi 

Attila citreopygus citreopygus 
Euchloruis jucunda 
Cotinga nattereri 
Carpodectes hopkei 
Querula purpurata 
Cephalopterus ornatus 

Family Hirundinidce 

Iridoprocne albiventris 
Progne chalybea chalybea 
Phaeoprogne tapera immaculata 
Atticora fasciata 



1 Hanging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



104 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Neochelidon tibialis 

Stelgidopteryx ruficolMs ruficoHis 
" " sequalis ' 

" " uropygialis ^ 

Family Sylviidoe 
PoUoptila Uvida plumbeiceps 



" sohistaceigula 

Family Troglodytidm 

Heleodjrtes minor bioolor 

" zonatus brevirostris 

" nuohalis nuchalis 
" turdinus hypostictus 
" albobrunneus harterti 

Thryophilus leucotis 

" galbraithi galbraithi 

" albipectus bogotensis 

" rufalbus cumanensis 

" leucopogon 

" nigricapillus schotti 

Pheugopediiis fasciato-ventris fasciato- 
ventris 
" li3rpospodius 

Troglodytes musculus striatulus 
" " neglectus 

Henicorhina inornata 
" leucosticta 

" prostheleuoa albilateralis 

Leucolepis salvini 

" phseocephalus phaeocephalus 

Microcerculus marginatus marginatus 
" " occidentalis 

" squamulatus antioquensis 

Family Mimidw 

Mimus gilvus tolimeiisis '■ 

" " columbianus 

Donacobius atricapiUus albovittata 
Rhodinooichla rosea rosea 

Family Turdidw 

Planesticus phaeopygus 

" gynmopthalmus 

" tristis daguse 

" ignobilis ignobHis 



Planesticus ignobilis goodfeUowi ' 
" debilis ' 
" obsoletus columbianus 

" albiventer ephippialis 

Family Vireonidce 

Vireosylva flavoviridis flavoviridis 

" chivi caucHi 
Pachysylvia semibrunnea ' 

" flavipes flavipes 

" minor 
Cyclarhis flavipectus canticus 

" " parvus 

Family MniotiUidm 

Compsothlypis pitiayumi elegans ' 
" " paoifica 

Dendroica petechia sequatorialis 

Geothlypis semiflava 
" sequinootiaKs 

Basileuterus bivittatus chlorophrys 
" aurioapillus olivascens 

" rufifrons mesoohrysus 

" fulvi Cauda semieervinus 

" " fulvi Cauda 

Family Fringillidoe 

Cyanocompsa concreta cyanescens 

" cyanea caucse 

Oryzoborus angolensis 

" crassirostrLs crassirostris 

" funereus 

Sporophila grisea grisea ' 
" minuta minuta ''- 

" castaneiventris 
" aurita aurita 

" " opthalmica 

" " murallse 

" gutturalis ^ 
Tiaris olivacea pusilla ' 

" bicolor omissa 
Volatinia jacarini splendens 
Pitylus grossus 
Saltator maximus 
" olivascens 
" caerulescens azarse 
" striatipectus striatipectuj ' 



1 Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 



1917.1 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colomhia. 



105 



Astragalinus columbianus ' 
Sicalis flaveola 

" arvensis minor 
Ammodramus savannarum caucss 
Myiospiza manimbe columbiana 

" cherriei 

" aurifrons 
An'emenops conirostris conirostris 
" " inexpectata 

" " chrysoma 

Emberizoides sphenurus 
Paroaria gularis 
Arremon aurantiirostris erythrorhynohus 

" " oocidentalis ' 

" axillaris 

Family Ccerehidoe 

Coereba luteola luteola 

" mexioana columbiana ' 
" mexicana caucae 
Daonis cayana oayana 
" " ccerebicolor 

" angelica 
" egregia egregia 
" venusta fuliginata 
" leucogenys 
Cyanerpes cyaneus pacificus 

" cserulea miororhyncha 
Chlorophanes spiza exsul 

" " oaerulescens ' 

Family Procniatidos 

Tersina viridis occidentalis ' 

Family Tanagridce 

Tanagra cyanooephala cyanocephala ' 

" aurea pileata 

" xanthogastra chocoensis ' 
" " brevirostris ' 

" concinna 

" saturata 

" oHvacea hunailis 

" fulvicrissa purpurascens 
" " omissa 

" crassirostris crassirostris 

" melanura 

" chrysopasta 



Tangara chUensis 
" schranki 
" johannse 
" xanthogastra 
" florida aurioeps 
" vitrioKna ' 
" lavinia lavinia 
" palmeri 
" mexicana boUviana 
" inornata 
" larvata fanny 
Buthraupis rothsohildi 
Thraupis episcopus leucoptera 
" ccelestis coelestis 
" oana cana 
" glaueocolpa 
" pahnarum melanoptera 
Ramphocelus nigrogularis 

" dimidiatus dimidiatus 

" oarbo carbo 

" " unioolor 

" flarmnigerus 

" chrysonotus 

" ioteronotus 

Chlorothraupis oHvacea 

" stolzmani 

Phoenicothraupis gutturalis 
Heterospingus xanthopygius 
Tachyphonus ruf us ' 

" luctuosus 

" surinamus surinamus 

" delattri 

Eucometis oristata cristata 
Mitrospingus cassini 
Erythrothlypis salmoni 
Hemithraupis peruana 

" guira guirina 

Cissopis leveriana minor 
Schistochlamys atra 

Family Icteridm 

Zarhynohus wagleri wagleri 
Gymnostinops guatimozinus 

" yuracares 

Ostinops decxmianus 

' " angustifrons 
Cacicus cela 



1 Ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone. 



106 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. IVol. XXXVI, 

Cacicus vitellinus Leistes militaris 

" hsemorhous afiinis Icterus auricapillus 
" uropygiaUs pacificus " mesomelas salvini 

Amblycercus solitarius " hondae 

" holosericeus fiavirostris ' " xanthornus xanthornus 

Cassidix oryzivora violea ' Megaquiscalus major assimilis 
Molothrus bonariensis atronitens „ ., „ 

cabanisi ^^^^^ ^"'"'^ ~ 

" " sBquatorialis Cyanocorax affinis affinis 

Agelaius icterocephalus icterocephalus " violaceus 



THE PAtTNAS OF THE TROPICAL ZONE. 

The Colomhian-Pacific Fauna. — Th3 fauna for which I propose this 
name is one of the most circumscribed and sharply defined, and possibly 
the most strongly characterized of any fauna of tropical South America. 
Certainly no other area of similar extent in the Tropical Zone has so many 
birds which are peculiar to it. 

In brief, this fauna occupies the entire humid Pacifiic coast region of 
tropical South America. This includes the whole extent of the Colombian 
coast and the more northern portions of the coast region of Ecuador. Its 
southern limits are marked by the northern limit of what may be termed the 
Equatorial Arid Fauna. 

The boundaries of these faunas remain to be determined. Roughly 
speaking they may be fouiid in the Province of Manavi, where the Arid 
Fauna finds its northern limit near Bahia Caraque. The humid Colombian- 
Pacific here recedes from the coast and extends south of Bahia Caraque in the 
region of heavier rainfall near the base of the Andes. 

Northward, the Colombian-Pacific Fauna contributes an important 
element to the composite life of the lower Cauca-Magdalena district, which 
it enters through the forested region at the end of the Western Andes; north- 
westward it continues into the Tuyra region of eastern Panama, where it is 
also associated with Cauca-Magdalena species, which, like Ostinops decu- 
manus and Donacobius atricapillus albivitta, are of purely eastern origin. 

Many Central American species appear to have been derived from this 
small but important area, and its influence may be traced even into southern 
Mexico; but as a fauna, we may perhaps set its northern boundaries in the 
Tuyra River system of eastern Panama. 

Climatically, the Colombian-Pacific Fauna is distinguished by an excep- 
tionally heavy rainfall. Exact meteorological data are lacking, but, as else- 



* Ranging upward to Subtropical Zone. 

2 Hanging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



107 



where stated, the precipitation at San Jos^, east of Buenaventura, on the 
Colombian coast, reached 400.88 inches in the year 1912, an amount doubt- 
less not equalled in any other part of the Western Hemisphere. 

There is no marked dry season in those portions of this region with which 
we are familiar and, as might be expected, it is everywhere covered with 
luxuriant tropical forests. 




Fig. 3. Known Range of Sapoyoa oenigma. 
Fauna of the Tropical Zone. 



Characteristic Species of the Colombian-Pacific 



The arid pockets, like the upper Dagua basin, which lie between the 
coastal forests and those of the Subtropical Zone, have nothing in common 
with the Colombian Pacific Fauna, their life evidently having been derived 
from the dryer country lying to the east of the Western Andes. 

Some 150 species and subspecies are now known from Colombia which 
are largely or wholly restricted to the Colombian-Pacific Fauna. Others, 



108 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



known as yet only from Ecuador, doubtless occur in it; for it must always 
be remembered that not only are there portions of this fauna which have 
never been visited by an ornithologist, but also that in no other part of 
tropical America is the collector confronted by more unfavorable conditions 
than those which prevail in the humid coastal district of Colombia. 

Of the 150 species and subspecies which are known to characterize this 




Fig. 4. Range of Zarhynchus wagleri. A Tropical Zone species of the Pacific Coast which ranges 
northward to Mexico. 



fauna in Colombia, less than fifty can be classed as representative races of 
widely distributed species, leaving therefore approximately one hundred, 
or two-thirds the known characteristic forms, as autocthonous. 

This remarkably large proportion for a continental area of such com- 
paratively limited size indicates that the environment is unusual, the isola- 
tion effective, and possibly also that the region was formerly more extensive. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 109 

It is not probable that the environment difFers appreciably from the densely 
forested region lying at the eastern base of the Andes; but that this humid 
Pacific coastal region is isolated from other regions of essentially similar 
character is evident. 

To the south, the arid coasts of Peru and northern Chile extend far 
below the limits of the Tropical Zone. To the east the Andes form an 
evidently impassable bulwark three zones high, the upper two of which are 
largely or wholly devoid of forest growth. To the west, lies the Pacific 
Ocean and, consequently, under existing topographic conditions, these 
luxuriant coastal forests of northern Ecuador and western Colombia can 
have received their life only from the north. 

That some of their forms have entered it from this direction is obvious; 
but they are to be found among the fifty races which represent widely 
distributed and chiefly Amazonian species. Examples are Cymhilaimus 
lineatus fasciatus, Myrmoiherula surinamensis pacifica, Tityra semifasciata 
esmeraldce, Stelgidopteryx r.. uropygialis, Basileuterics fulvicauda, Arremon e. 
occidentalis, and other birds which have what may be called a completed 
distribution, that is, occupy all the territory in which they might be expected 
to occur. 

Once having reached the forested, lower Cauca-Magdalena district, in 
which they are all represented, there is nothing to prevent these species 
from ranging southward to western Ecuador through the Colombian coastal 
forests. 

We cannot, however, regard this Cauca-Magdalena district as the gate- 
way into the Colombian-Pacific Fauna for those west coast species which 
are unknown in the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna. Many of these, as has been 
said, advance westward and northward into Central America and it may be 
suggested that the autocthonous Colombian-Pacific forms have originated 
in Central America, since access from other areas seems to be impossible 
under existing conditions. 

Possibly some of them may have been so derived, but the fact that a 
large part of them are unknown north of eastern Panama prohibits a belief 
in their northern origin. Even those species which like Neo-nwrphus sahini 
and Selinidera spectahilis are found as far north as Nicaragua, assuredly 
cannot be considered to have entered the Colombian-Pacific Fauna from the 
north. Both belong to Amazonian groups, and both, in South America, are 
known west of the Andes only in the humid coast region; neither having 
been recorded from the lower Cauca-Magdalena district or from western 
Venezuela. Other species fall into this same class, that is, they are repre- 
sented in the Colombian-Pacific Fauna and also east of the Andes, but at the 
north their ranges are apparently not connected. A list of certain species 



110 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

in this interesting group is given at the end of this section. In their distri- 
bution I believe that we have a clue to the origin of many species of the 
humid Ecuador-Colombian littoral whose presence in that region may not be 
otherwise accounted for. Briefly, these forms appear to have been derived 
from upper Amazonia before the Andes had acquired a sufiicient altitude 
effectually to separate, as they do now, the Tropical Zones at their eastern 
and western bases. 

A strong aiBnity exists also between the fresh-water fishes of these two 
regions. Scharf remarks : " The fresh-water fish fauna of the Pacific slopes 
of southern Ecuador still exhibits such affinity to that of the Amazon, that 
the Ecuador mountains could only have had a slight elevation imtU com- 
paratively recent geological times." ' 

Henn, in confirmation of these statements, writes that " the fishes of the 
Pacific slope are in general widely distributed Amazonian types; none of 
them would cause surprise if taken at Manaos." ^ 

Wolf states that the flora of humid western Ecuador is essentially like 
that of Panama and the Choco region of western Colombia, and adds many 
species are identical with or belong to the same genus as those found on the 
eastern slopes of the Andes. (Geographia y Geologia del Ecuador p. 439.) 

Having in mind the possibility of the Amazonian origin of the Pacific 
humid fauna, W. B. Richardson in 1913, after his explorations for the 
American Museum on the Ecuador coast, made, at oiu- request, a section 
across the Andes from Santa Rosa, south of Guayaquil, through Zaruma 
and Loja to Zamora in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Andes. 
It is proposed to report on his collections and notes in a subsequent paper, 
but in this connection it may be said that the results of his journey strongly 
suggest, as the topography of the region indicates, that this section was one 
of the latest to be closed to the passage of Tropical Zone forms from one 
side of the Andes to the other. 

In journeying from Loja to Zamora, Richardson crossed the intervening 
mountains, which here attain an altitude of 11,500 feet; but the Rio Zamora, 
rising in the Loja Valley breaks through these mountains at a much lower 
elevation, below of course, that of Loja, which is given by Richardson as 
7260 feet. 

This theory of the transandean origin of the Pacific humid fauna affords 
a satisfactory explanation for the presence in western Ecuador and south- 
western Colombia of a number of common species which are also represented 
in eastern Panama, or the Cauca-Magdalena district, but are unknown on 



1 Distribution and Origin of Life in America, 1912, p. 
' Arthur Henn, Science, N. S., XL., 1914, p. 603. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of BirdAlje in Colombia. 



Ill 




Fig. 5. Known Range of Osculatia. 

Osculaiia sapphirina occurs in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Andes (probably north to 
the latitude of the Guaviare River). Osculaiia purpurala inhabits the Colombian-Pacific Fauna of the 
Tropical Zone at the western base of the Andes, their ranges apparently being separated by the Andes. 



112 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



the west coast of Colombia north of the Patia River. Reaching western 
Ecuador, before the Loja region had attained its present altitude, they have 
also advanced westward around the northern end of the Andes in Colombia, 
but have not as yet completed their distribution either by ranging north- 
ward from Ecuador or southward from northern Colombia. 




Fig. 6. Distribution of the western races of Manacus manacas. Illustrating the apparent absence 
on the Pacific coast north of the Patia River of a conunon, widely distributed Amazonian species 
which is found in western Ecuador and northern Colombia. 

1. Manacus manacus manacus. 2. Manacus manacus purus. 3. Manacus manacus interior. 

4. Manacus manacus abdiiivus. 5. Manacus manacus flaveolus. 6. Manacus manacus bangsi, 

7. Manacus manacus melanochlamys. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



113 



Doubtless the absence of some of these species from western Colombia 
may be apparent rather than real, but such common, conspicuous species 
as Manacus raanacus, and Arremenops conirostris are not likely to escape 
the collector, if present. Possibly the heavy forests of the Colombian- 
Pacific may have prevented the entrance of Arremenops into this region, 
but this explanation cannot be offered to account for the absence of Curu- 




Fig. 7. Known range of Arremenops conirostris. Illustrating the apparent absence on the 
Colombia-Pacific coast, north of the Patia River, of a species represented in Panama and northern 
Colombia by the same or an allied species. 

1. Arremenops conirostris chrysoma. 2. Arremenops conirostris inexpeciata, 
3. Arremenops conirostris richmondi. 4. Arremenops conirostris conirostris. 



cujus melanurus, while the theory of transandean origin will explain why the 
west Ecuador form of this species should agree with that of Amazonia (C. 
melanurus Tnelanurus) rather than with that of the Cauca-Magdalena 
district (C. m. macrourus). 



114 



Bulletin American Museum,' of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Even within the restricted limits of the Colombian-Pacific Fauna and 
under the uniform conditions which prevail in it, considerable racial varia- 
tion has occurred. Note, for example, the distribution of the Capito- 
squamatus-niaculicoronatus group as mapped herewith. Forms froni the 
Atrato River not infrequently differ more or less from those from the San 




Fig. 8. Ranges of Capito squamaius and C. maculicoronaius — to illustrate the breaking up 
of a characteristic Colombian-Pacific Fauna group into a distinct species south of the Fatia River and 
three races north of it. 

1. Capito squamaius. 2, Capito maculicoronaius rubrilateralis. 

3. Capito maculicoronaius pirrensis. 4. Capito maculicororuilus mdculicoronutus. 



Juan River and southward, and others living south of the Patia differ from 
those found north. This river indeed appears to form the northern limit 
of a number of species, but in view of the lack of knowledge of the coast 
region lying between the Patia and Buenaventura, it is not well to be 
positive in this connection. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



115 



List of Species and Subspecies which Characterize the Colombian-Pacijic Fauna. 



Tinamus major latifrons ' 
Crypturus kerrise 

" berlepsohi 

" soui modestus 
Crax panamensis 
Penelope ortoni 
Odontophorus parambae 
Rhynchortyx einctus australis 
Columba goodsoni 
Columba subvinacea berlepschi 
Leptotila plumbeioeps 

" pallida 

" cassini ^ 
Osculatia purpurata 
Oreopeleia veraguensis 
Aramides wolfi 
Creciscus albigularis 
Leuoopternis plumbea 

" semiplumbea 

Herpetotheres cachinnans f ulvescens 
Pyrrhura melanurus pacifica ' 
Eueinetus pulchra 

Electron platyrhynohus platyrhynchus 
Antrostomus rosenbergi ' 
Androdon sequatorialis 
Threnetes ruckeri fraseri 
Glaucis Eenea 

PhcEthornis yaruqui sanoti-johannis 
" striigularis subrufesoens 

Eutoxeres aquila salvini 

" " heterura 

Polyerata rosenbergi 

" amabilis 
Amazilistzacatl juounda 
Hylocharis humboldti 
Thalurania f annyi fannyi 
Chalybura urochrysa 
Boissoneaua jardini 
Heliothrix barroti 
Trogonurus strigilatus chionurus 
Curucujus massena australis 
■ Neomorphus salvini 



Capito maculiooronatus rubrilateralis 
" squamatus ' 
" qmnticolor 
Ramphastos swainsoni 

" ambiguus abbreviatus 

Pteroglossus sanguineus 
Selinidera spectabilis 
Galbula melanogenia 
Notharcus peotoralis 
Nystactes noanamse 
Nystalus radiatus 
Malacoptila poliopis poliopis ' 

" " panamensis ^ 

Micromonacha lanceolata ' 
Monasa pallescens pallescens ' 
Chloronerpes litai 
Melanerpes pucherani pucherani 
Celeus lorioatus loricatus ' 
Celeus loricatus mentalis ■^ 
Cniparohus haematogaster splendens 
Picumnufe olivaoeus harterti ' 
Cymbilaimus lineatus f asciatus 
Thamnistes anabatinus intermedius 
Dysithamnus puncticeps puncticeps '' 
" " flemmingi ' 

Myrmotherula surinamensis pacifica 
Mjrrmopagis fulviventris 

" axillaris albigula 

Microrhopias boucardi consobrina 
Microbates cinereiventris cinereiventris 
Ceroomacra berlepschi 
Anoplops bicolor bicolor ^ 
" " daguae » 

" " sequatorialis ' 

Myrmelastes immaculatus berlepschi 
Phasnostictus maoleannani macleannani 
Myrmeciza maculiter maoulifer ' 

" " cassini ^ 

" Isemostiota nigricauda 

Hylophylax naevioides 
Formioarius nigricapillus destruotus 
Pittasoma harterti ' 



1 Known only from south of the Patia River. 

2 Known only from north of the San Juan region. 

3 Known only from south of the San Juan region. 
* San Juan River Region. 



116 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Pittasoma rosenbergi * 

" michleri ^ 
Grallaria guatimalensis chocoensis 

" perspiciHata perspiciUata ^ 

" " periopthalmica ^ 

Hylopezus dives barbacose ^ 
Synallaxis pudioa nigrofumosa 
Automolus nigricauda saturatus ' 
Hyloctistes subulatus assimilis 
Xiphorhynohus SBquatorialis sequatorialis 
" laohrymosus lachuymosus 

Campylorhamphus thoraoicus ^ 
Craspedoprion paoificus 
Rbynchocyolus marginatus marginatus 
Todirostrum sclateri ^ 
Lophotriccus squamEecrista minor ' 
Cnipodectes subbrunneus 
Myiobius villosus 

" sulphureipygius aureatus 
Myiobius litse 

Terenotriocus erythrurus fulvigularis 
Mitrephanes berlepschi eminulus 
Tyrannus niveigularis ' 
Pipra mentalis minor 
Allocopterus deliciosus ^ 
CMoropipo holochlora litse 
Corapipo altera altera 
Manacus manacus bangsi ' 

" viteUinus vitellinus 
Scotothorus turdinus rosenbergi 
Sapoyoa senigma 
Titjra semifasciata esmeraldse ' 
Lathria uniruf a castaneotincta 
Lipaugus holerythrus holerythrus ^ 

" " rosenbergi ' 

Euchlornis jucunda ' 
Cotinga nattereri 
Carpodectes hopkei 
NeocheUdon tibialis 



Stelgidopteryx ruficollis uropygialis 
PoliptUa Uvida daguae 
" schistaoeigula 
Heleodytes albobrunneus harterti 
Thryophilus nigricapillus schotti 

" leucopogon 

Henioorhina inornata 
Leucolepis phseocephalus phseocephalus 
Microoerculus marginatus oooidentaUs 

" squamulatus antioquensis 

Planesticus tristis daguse 
Pacbysylvia minor 
Dendroica petechia sequatorialis ' 
Basileuterus f ulvicauda semicervinus 
" bivittatus chlorophrys ^ 

Sporophila aurita aurita ^ 

" " ophthahnica ' 

Arremonops conirostris chrysoma '■ 
Arremon aurantiirostris ocoidentaMs 
Dacnis cayana ccsrebicolor 
Cyanerpes cyaneus paoificus 
Tanagra xanthogastra chocoensis 
Tanagra saturata 
Tangara florida auriceps 

" johannse 

" palmeri 

" lavinia lavinia 
Buthraupis rothschUdi 
Kamphocelus icteronotus 
Chlorothraupis olivaoea 

" stolzmani ' 

Heterospingus xanthopygius 
Taohyphonus delattrii 
Mitrospingus cassini 
Erythrothljrpis salmoni 
Zarhynchus wagleri wagleri 
Cacicus uropygialis pacificus 
Molothrus bonariensis sequatorialis ' 



1 Known only from south of the Patia River. 
' Known only from north of the San Juan region. 
3 Known only from south of the San Juan region. 
* San Juan River Region. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



117 



List of Species or REPBESENTATrvE Forms Found in the Tropical Zone 

op sotttheastern colombia and eastern ecttadob and western 

Colombia and Northwestern Ectiador, the Ranges op 

Which, Separated by the Andes, are not Known 

TO BE Connected.^ 



Eastern or Amazonian 

Leptotila ruf axilla pallidipeotus 
Osculatia sapphirina 
Pyrrhura melanura melanura 
Electron platyrhynchus pyrrholsemus 
Curucujus melanurus melanurus 
Selinidera reinwardti 
Mioromonacha lanceolata 
Thamnistes sequatorialis 
Microrhopias quixensis 
Microbates collaris 
Hylopezus dives f ulviventris 
Hyloctistes subulatus subulatus 
Dendrocolaptes sancti-thomse radiolatus 

Myiotriocus phcEnicurus 
Hapalocercus meloryphus ^ 
Cnipodectes subbrurmeus minor 
Chloropipo holochlora holochlora 

Manacus manacus interior 

Cephalopterus ornatus 
Leucolepis salvini 
Sporophila aurita murallse 
Arremonops conirostris conirostris 
Tanagra schranki 
Cacicus cela 



Western or Pacific 

Leptotila rufaxiUa dubusi 
Osculatia purpurata 
Pyrrhura melanura paoifica 
Electron platyrhynchus platyrhynchus 
Curucujus melanurus melanurus 
Selinidera speotabilis 
Micromonacha lanceolata 
Thamnistes anabatinus intermedius 
Microrhopias bouoardi oonsobrina 
Microbates cinereiventris cLnereiventris 
Hylopezus dives barbacoEe 
Hyloctistes subulatus assimilis 
Dendrocolaptes sancti-thomse sancti- 
thomse 
Myiotricous ornatus steUatus 
Hapalocercus meloryphus 
Cnipodectes subbrunneus subbrunneus 
Chloropipo holochlora Utse 
Manacus manacus bangsi 

" " melanochlamys 

Cephalopterus penduliger 
Leucolepis phaeooephalus phseocephalus 
Sporophila aurita ophthalmica 
Arremonops conirostris chrysoma 
Tanagra florida auriceps 
Cacicus flavicrissus 



The Cauca-Magdalena Fauna. — The f aunal area to which I would apply 
the name Cauca-Magdalena embraces that part of the Tropical Zone which 
is drained by the Cauca and Magdalena River systems from their soiu-ce 
northward to the arid coastal region, or Caribbean Fauna. 

It is divisible into arid and humid sections. The former embraces the 
entire Cauca Valley and extends northward into Antioquia nearly to the 
upper limits of navigation on the lower Cauca, and also the upper Magda- 



i In a future paper on the distribution of bird-life in Ecuador it is proposed to treat more fully of 
the origin of the avifauna of the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast. In this connection I present only 
some of the more striking instances of Tropical species common to both the Pacific Coast and eastern 
Ecuador and Colombia, whose range appears to be separated by the Andes. 

2 S. W. Ecuador, Magdalena Valley, and Amazonia, but unknown on Pacific-Colombian coast. 



118 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



lena Valley from its head northward to the upper limits of heavy forest 
growth near La Dorada. The latter includes the lower Cauca-Magdalena 
forests which cover the bottomlands and lower slopes of the mountains 
from La Dorada northward to the vicinity of Banco. To the northeast the 
country bordering the Rio Cesar is of the open, savanna type, and belongs 
to the Caribbean Fauna, but it is possible that a belt of Tropical Zone 




lOf 



10 



go- 



Fig. 9. Known distribution of Micromonacba lanceolata^ a species of the Tropical Zone which 
is found at both the eastern and western bases of the Andes. 



forest skirts the Eastern Andes and crosses its northern end to connect 
with the forests of the southern Maracaibo district.'^ This connection, 
however, is not known by me to exist. In any event, it is not probable 
that the association of species forming the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna extends 
far into the Cesar Valley. 

To the west, the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna reaches at least to the Tuyra 

1 Compare Simons*s map of the Goajira Peninsula (Proc. R. G. S., 1885) where a considerable 
area at the northeastern end of the Eastern Andes beats the name "Mantes de Oca (woods)." 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colortibia. 



119 



district of eastern Panama, but from the lower Atrato Valley westward it 
merges so completely with the Colombian-Pacific Fauna that any attempt 
to map their respective boundary lines in this region must be purely arbi- 
trary. 

The Cauca-Magdalena Fauna possesses comparatively few species pecu- 
har to itself, its life consisting chiefly of forms received from the Ama- 
zonian region on the east and Colombian-Pacific Fauna on the west. The 




Fig. 10. Known range of Thamnophilus nigriceps Scl. A species of the huinid Colombian-Pacific 
Fauna of the Tropical Zone. 



result is a composite group to which neither of the above names could 
properly be appHed. The region, however, is more than a meeting ground 
for species originating elsewhere. It contains a number of such strongly 
marked indigenous forms as Capita hypoleucus, Xenerpestes minlosi, and 
Gymnostinops guatamozinus, and for this reason, as well as for convenience 
in descriptive zoogeography, it is deserving of faunal rank. 



120 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 




Fig. 11. Range of Osiinops decumanus. A Tropical Zone, Amazonian species which enters Colombia 
from the east, extends southward up the Magdalena and Cauca Valleys euid westward to western Panama, 
but is unknown on the Pacific Coast of Colombia except on the lower Atrato. Dotted area — General South 
American range. Black area — Range west of the Andes. 



1917.1 



Chapman, Distribution of BirdAife In Colombia. 



121 



The humid portion of the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna hes chiefly in the 
Department of Antioquia. It is largely covered with heavy, primeval 
forest, and is connected with the forests of the Colombian-Pacific Fauna 
by the forested area at the northern end of the Western Andes. This 
continuous forest growth has made the lower Cauca-Magdalena district 
easy of access to Pacific coast forms, which have entered it in such large 




Fig. 12. Known range of Myrmeciza exsal. A species which enters the Cauca-Magdalena 
Fauna from the west. 



numbers that it might well be considered a part of the Colombian-Pacific 
Fauna, had not invasion from the east given the Amazonian region even 
greater claims upon it. 

When, however, one compares the narrow strip of country lying to the 
west with the vast area lying to the east, the proportion of western to east- 



122 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

ern forms is surprisingly large. It is, however, to be especially noted that 
whereas many of the Amazonian forms have crossed the Cauca-Magdalena 
district and entered Panama and even Central America, no distinctly 
Pacific coast species appears to have gone east over the route at the northern 
end of the Eastern Andes by which Amazonian species have traveled west- 
ward. This fact might indicate that in spite of the proximity of the district 
whence it has been derived, the west coast element is of more recent origin, 
but a comparison of the changes which have occurred in both groups since 
their establishment in the humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna does not con- 
firm this theory, species of western origin showing as much racial variation 
as those from the east. 

The abrupt cessation of forest growth on the floor of the Magdalena 
Valley at La Dorada marks the southern limit of the range in that valley of 
the forest-inhabiting species which characterize the humid Cauca-Magda- 
lena Fauna. Tropical Zone forest extends at least as far south as the lati- 
tude of Honda, on the slopes of the mountains, carrying with it such forest- 
loving species as Myrmelastes immaculatus and Formicarius analis saturatus, 
but beyond this the avifauna of the Tropical Zone of the upper Magdalena 
Valley is composed of species which frequent plains, thickets and low scrubby 
woods. Examples are Colinus cristata leucotis, Ortalis columhiana 
Columbiana, Psittacula conspicillata conspicillata, Thamnophilus radiatus 
albicans, Myrmeciza I. boucardi, Arremenops conirostris conirostris and A. c. 
incxpectata, Thraupis c. cana, Thraupis palmarum melanoptera, etc. With 
but few exceptions all the Tropical Zone species inhabiting the upper 
Magdalena Valley have evidently entered it from the north passing the 
forested area lying between Banco and La Dorada. Its life, therefore, 
resembles that of the arid lower Magdalena or Caribbean Fauna, rather 
than that of the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes in 
the same latitude. 

Not only have these mountains proved a barrier to extension of range 
directly over them, but of equal, or in view of the low altitude of the Anda- 
lucia Pass (7000 ft.) of possibly greater importance, is the lack of forests 
in the upper Magdalena which would afford a favorable home for the spe- 
cies inhabiting the densely wooded region at the eastern base of the moun- 
tains. 

In several instances, however, notably with species not so strictly con- 
fined by zonal boundaries as is customary, it is evident that forms of the 
extreme upper Magdalena Valley have entered it from the east over the 
mountains. The known examples are Piaya cayana mesura (upper Mag- 
dalena specimens agreeing with those of the eastern slope of the Andes in- 
stead of with those of the vicinity of Honda), Conopophaga castaneiceps 



1917.1 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colomlia. 



123 




2d 



Fig. 13. Range of Donacohius atricapillus. An Amazonian species which enters Colombia from the 
east, eiscends the Magdalena Valley to at least Honda, crosses the lower Cauca-Magdalena district to the 
lower Atrato and Tuyra district in eastern Panama, but is unknown in the Cauca Valley. 

Dotted area — general South American Range. 

Black area — Colombia range. 



124 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

castaneiceps (found in the forests on the west slopes below Andalucia), 
Myiotriccus o. phcenicurus, Tanagra chilensis, and Schistochlamys air a. 

It should be added that our work has been done about the borders of 
this upper Magdalena district. Of the fauna of the floor of the valley, I 
feel that we have still much to learn. 

The second southward extending arm of the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna 
enters the Cauca Valley from Antioquia and reaches almost to Popayan. 
It seems highly inaccurate to speak of so fertile a district as the Cauca 
Valley as arid, nevertheless, in the light of our present knowledge, it must 
be ranked as an arid branch of the Cauca-Magdalena Fauna. 

The marshes and bayous of the Cauca River support a variety of aquatic 
and palustrine species unknown to the dryer upper Magdalena, but aside 
from this difference there is a marked similarity in the Tropical Zone life 
of each. 

There is more forest growth in the Cauca than in the upper Magdalena 
Valley, in spite of widespread deforestation. Localities like those visited 
by Allen and Miller at Rio Frio, and the country through which we passed 
about Guengiie, seem well-adapted to the needs of forest-haunting species; 
nevertheless, we have thus far failed to find in the Cauca Valley a single 
representative of the families Momotidae, Trogonidce, Galbulidw or Biic- 
conidce, and but one species of Ramphastidce, the widely distributed Aulaco- 
rhynchus hcBmatopygms. 

Possibly the comparatively limited amount of forest-growth may account 
for the apparent absence of those species of these groups which inhabit the 
lower Cauca region, and might therefore be expected to occur in the Cauca 
Valley. But it is evident that its isolation, and the fact that the Tropical 
Zone enters it at the north where it is separated from the forests of the lower 
Cauca by long stretches of treeless, truly arid country, are all factors which 
must be taken into consideration in accounting for its apparently limited 
life. That this life is actually limited I believe to be a fact, but I also 
believe that further collecting in the forests of the valley will result in the 
discovery of species which have not thus far been taken there. 

In spite, therefore, of the physical differences between the upper Mag- 
dalena and Cauca Valleys, their land-bird life is much the same. In both 
instances it has been derived indirectly from east of the Andes by a current 
which appears to. have flowed northward around the end of the Eastern 
Andes, and thence southward up to the heads of the valleys. 

The upper Magdalena, being far more accessible geographically, and 
having a narrower belt of humid tropical forest at its mouth, has received 
the greatest number of species. The following common birds for example, 
of the upper Magdalena are as yet unknown from the Cauca Valley: Broto- 




BUENOSAim 



100* 



Fig. 14. Range of Thraapis palmarum. A widely distributed South American Tropical species which 
enters Colombia from the east; ranges southward to the head of the Magdalena and westward through the 
lower Cauca-Magdalena district to the Pacific coast, north to Costa Rica, and as far south at least as 
Buenaventura, but is unknown from the Cauca valley. 

Dotted area — General South American range. 

Black area — Range in Colombia and adjoining territory. 



126 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

geris jugularis, Galbula ruficauda, Myrmeciza longipes boitcardi, Furnarius 
agnatus, Atalatriccus p. pilaris, Hapalocercus meloryphus, Manacus manacus 
fiaveolus, Heleodytes m. bicolor, H. brevirostris, Planesticus a. ephippialis, 
Saltator maxivius, Arremenops conirostris, Thraupis paJmarum tnelanoptera, 
Cyanocorax affinis, etc. 

To this list others might be added. Doubtless further field work in the 
Cauca Valley will result in the discovery of some of them, but it seems clear 
that there will still remain a goodly number whose absence can be accounted 
for only by the isolation of the valley. I dwell on the fact for, it seems 
clearly to indicate that the life of the Cauca was acquired under existing topo- 
graphic conditions. 

Notwithstanding its nearness to the Pacific coast and the comparatively 
low altitude of the Western Andes, few species have entered the Cauca 
Valley from the Pacific coast. This cannot be wholly due to the differences 
in the physical characteristics of these two districts, since there are many 
species of the Pacific coast which would find a congenial home in the Cauca 
Valley, but which have evidently been prevented from entering it by the 
intervening mountains. 

In the appended list of nineteen species common to the Pacific coast 
and Cauca Valley, at least thirteen are of East Andean origin, and are more 
likely to have entered the Cauca Valley from the lower Cauca-Magdalena 
district than from the Pacific coast. Marila nationi is a duck of unknown 
origin, Leptotila plumbeiceps occurs as far north as Central America and is 
doubtless found in the lower Cauca-Magdalena district, where Pachy- 
rhamphus dorsalis is also found, leaving therefore only two species, Tanagra 
saturata and Manacus mtellinv^ vitellinvs which with any certainty can be 
said to have entered the Cauca Valley from the Pacific coast. 

The life of the Cauca Valley has been therefore derived, with surpris- 
ingly few exceptions, from that part of South America lying east of the 
Andes, and has but slight affinity with that of the Pacific- Colombian 
Fauna. 

But if the Pacific coast has given but little to the life of the Cauca Valley, 
the valley has made noteworthy contributions to the arid upper Dagua 
Basin lying in the Tropical Zone on the western slope of the Western Andes. 
Of thirty-three species taken by Richardson at Caldas on the upper Dagua, 
sixteen are common to the Pacific coast and the Cauca Valley, thirteen are 
known from the Cauca Valley but not from the Pacific coast,.while only one, 
Sayornis n. cineracea, is recorded from the Pacific coast but not from the 
Cauca Valley, where, however, it may occur. This case clearly illirstrates 
the necessity of giving due consideration to suitability of environment in 
any attempt to solve distributional problems. The Pacific-Colombian 
Faunal area, an intensely humid district, cannot be expected to enter 



Bulletin A. M, N. H. 



Vol. XXXVT. Plate XXIX. 




Cauca Valley from San Antonio 

The Cauca Valley lies below and the Central Andes arise behind the clouds. Trail to Call in 

the foreground. Taken from the lower border of bushy vegetation near the San Antonio Pass. 

(Junction of Tropical and Subtropical Zones.) 




Cauca Valley from Mihaflores 

Note the level valley floor. The Western Andes- appear in the background. 

(.lunction of Tropical and Subtropical Zones.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 127 

largely into the Cauca Valley, a comparatively arid district; but the tropical 
life of the valley, on the other hand, has crossed the Subtropical Zone of 
the Western Andes and entered a favorable environment on its western 
slope. 

It should be noted, however, that on the treeless lower slopes of the 
eastern side of the Western Andes, the Tropical Zone extends to a greater 
altitude than it does on the humid western slopes. At San Antonio and 
Cresta de Gallo, for example, it practically reaches the divide from which 
one can almost see the Dagua basin, the upper margin of which lies not more 
than 1200 feet below. Only a small barrier, therefore, prevents the passage 
of species from the Cauca Valley to the upper Dagua Valley. 

On the western slopes of the Western Andes, the humid Tropical Zone 
does not attain so great an altitude as does the arid Tropical Zone on its 
eastern side, and the Subtropical Zone to be crossed is correspondingly 
wider. 

In spite of its isolation from other regions possessing similar character- 
istics, the Cauca Valley has given rise to but few geographical forms, and 
this fact in connection with its apparently limited life suggests that the 
existing fauna has been acquired at a comparatively recent date. 

It had occurred to me that possibly the floor of the Cauca Valley is an 
ancient lake-bed but with no geological evidence to support this theory, I 
had hesitated to advance it, but on re-reading Robert Blake White's ' Notes 
on the Central Provinces of Colombia' (Proc. R. G. S., V, 1883, p. 250) after 
the preceding observations had been written, I find this exceedingly inter- 
esting statement: "Directly to the eastward of this group [Supia and 
Tado Moros] of igneous rocks lies the great volcanic centre of Herveo, 
Tolima and Santa Isabel, and there can be no doubt that the valley of the 
upper Cauca was for some time in the post-tertiary period converted into a 
lake, owing to the upheaval of the flanks of the volcanoes mentioned. 
However, their action also produced a fracture parallel to the opposing 
western cordillera, and the waters of the Cauca at last worked their way 
northwards and now run through one of the grandest ravines imaginable." 

Here then, we have an apparently satisfactory explanation of the charac- 
ter of the Cauca Valley fauna, which appears indeed to be of post-Andean 
origin. 

List of Species and Svhspecies which Characterize the Humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna. 

Crax alberti Capito hypoleucus 

Amazona salvini Ramphastos oitreolffimus 

Pyrilia pyrilia Brachygalba satooni 

Momotus subrufescens subrufescens Campephilus malherbi 

" reconditus Thamnophilus nigriceps 



128 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



?Clytoctantes alixi 
Xenerpestes minlosi 
Gymnocichla nudipes sanctae-martae 
Todirostrum nigriceps 
Corapipo leuoorrhoa 
Paohyihamplius magdalense 
Heleodjrtes zonatus brevirostris 
Thryophilus leuootis 



Pheugopedius fasciato-ventris fasciato- 

ventris 
Tanagra concinna 
Tangara inornata 
Phcenicothraupis gutturalis 
Gymnostinops guatimozinus 
Cacicus vitteUinus 



Tropical Zone Species which enter the Humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna from the West. 



Crypturus "boucardi" (vide Scl. & Salv.) 
Leptotila cassini 
Oreopeleia veraguensis 
Creciscus albigularis 
Leucopternis semiplumbea 
Electron platyrhynchus minor 
Chsetura spinicauda fumosa 
Androdon sequatorialis 
Polyerata amabiUs 
Heliothrix barroti 

Anthracothorax nigricollis nigricollis 
Trogomirus strigilatus chionurus 
Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis 
Ramphastos swainsoni 
Notharcus pectoralis 
Nystalus radiatus 

Malacoptila panamensis panamensis 
Monasa pallesoens sclateri 
Melanerpes pucherani pucherani 
Celeus loricatus mentaKs 
Cniparchus hsematogaster splendens 
Dysithamnus puncticeps puncticeps 
Myrmopagis fulviventris 
Microrhopias boucardi consobrina 
Microbates cinereiventris magdalense 
Myrmelastes immaculatus immaculatus 
Phaenostictus macleannani macleannani 
Myrmeciza maculifer cassini 
Myrmeciza laemostiota nigricauda 
" longipes panamensis 



Hylophiylax naevia nsevioides 
Hylopezus perspicillata perspicillata 
Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus alarum 
Dendrocolaptes sancti-thomse sancti- 

thomae 
Cnipodectes subbrunneus 
?Rhynchocyclus marginatus margiaatus 
Pipra velutina 
Manacus vitellinus milleri 
Lathria unirufa castaneotincta 
Lipaugus holerythrus holerythrus 
Cotiaga nattereri 
Neochelidon tibialis 
Polioptila schistaceigula 
Thryophilus nigricapiUus schotti 
Leucolepis phaeocephalus phaeocephalus 
Oryzoborus funereus 
Dacnis venusta fuliginata 
Dacnis egregia egregia 
Tanagra saturata 
Tangara larvata fanny 
Ramphocelus icteronotus 
Chlorothraupis ohvacea 
Heterospingus xanthopygius 
Tachjrphonus delatri 
Mitrospingus cassini 
Erythrothlypis salmoni 
Zarhynchus wagleri wagleri 
Cacicus uropygialis pacificus 
Cyanocorax aflBnis affinis 



Tropical Zone Species which enter the Humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna from the East.^ 



Odontophorus guianensis marmoratus 
Aramides cajanea cajanea 
Phaetusa chloropoda 
Rhynchops nigra oinerascens 



Jacana nigra 
Phimosus berlepschi 
Jabiru mycteria 
Agamia agami 



1 Only species which are unknown in western Ecuador, and whose eastern origin is therefore 
undoubted, are here included. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



129 



Pilherodias pileatus 

Ixobrychus erythronotus 

Chauna ohavaria 

Aratinga wagleri 

Psittacula conspioillata conspicillata 

Brotogeris jugularis 

Amazona amazonioa 

Amazona ochrocephala panamensis 

Uropsalis lyra 

Glaucis hirsuta affinis 

Lepidopyga ooelina 

Chrysolampis elatus 

Pteroglossus torquatus nuchalis 

Galbula rufioauda ruficauda 

?Jacamerops grandis (= anna?) 

Nonnula frontalis 

Chrysoptilus punctigula striatigularis 

Melanerpes rubricapillus rubricapillus 

Ceophteus lineatus mesorhynchus 

Conopophaga castaneiceps 

Myrmeciza longipes boucardi 

Formicarius analis saturatus 

Synallaxis albescens albigularis 

?Automolus paUidigularis pallidigularis 

Xiphorhynchus nanus nanus 

Campylorhamphus troohilirostris vene- 

zuelensis 
Fluvioola pica 

?Euscarthmus septentrionalis 
Atalotriccus pilaris pilaris 
Inezia caudata intermedia 
Pipramorpha oleagina parca 
Phseomyias murina incompta 
?Microtriccus brunneicapillus brunnei- 

capillus 



Myiozetetes similis columbianus 
Pitangus sulphuratus rufipennis 

liotor 
Myiodynastes maculatus nobiUs 
Myiobius fasciatus fasoiatus 
Myiarchus ferox panamensis 
Tyrannus melancholichus satrapa 
Pipra erythrocephala erythrocephala 
Machaeropterus striolatus 
Manacus manacus abditivus ' 
Iridoprocne albiventris 
Progne chalybea chalybea 
?Mimus gilvus columbianus 
Donacobius atricapillus albovittatus 
Planesticus ignobilis ignobilis 

" albiventer ephippialis 

Cyolarhis flavipeotus oanticus 
Geothlypis sequatorialis 
Pachysylvia flavipes flavipes 
Sporophila grisea grisea 

" minuta minuta 

Tiaris olivacea pusilla 

" bicolor omissa 
Saltator striatipectus striatipeotus 
Arremonops conirostris conirostris ^ 
Emberizoides sphenurus 
Tanagra olivacea humilis 

" crassirostris orassirostris 
Thraupis palmarum melanoptera 
Ramphocelus dimidiatus dimidiatus 
Eucometis cristata cristata 
Hemithraupis guira guirina 
Schistochlamys atra 
Ostinops deoumanus 
Icterus xanthornus xanthornus 



List of Species and Subspecies Known only from the Cauca Valley. 



Ortalis columbianus eaucae 
Chamsepelia rufipennis oaucse 
Psittacula conspicillata caucse ^ 
Stenopsis cayennensis monticola 
Synallaxis pudica caucas 
Camptostoma eaucae 
Pitangus sulphuratus eaucae 



Planesticus ignobilis goodf ellowi ' 
Vireosylva ohivi eaucae 
Cyauocompsa cyanea eaucae ' 
Ammodramus savannarum eaucae 
Ccereba mexioana eaucae 
Ramphocelus flammigerus 



1 Represented in western Ecuador by M. m. melanochlamys and in southwestern Colombia by 
M. m. bangsi, but unknown on Pacific coast north of Patia River. 

2 Represented in western Ecuador by .4. c. chrysoma, but unknown on Pacific coast north of Patia 
River. 

3 Occurs also in the arid upper Dagua Valley. 



130 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



List of Species and Subspecies of the Colombian^Pacific Fauna which have entered the 

Cauca Valley. 



Leptotila plumbeiceps ' 
Marila nationi ' 
Micrastur guerilla interstes ' 
Rupomis magnirostris ruficauda ' ' 
Piaya rutila gracilis ' 
Piaya cayana nigricrissa ' 
CeophlcBus Uneatus mesorhynchus ' 
Taraba transandeana transandeana ' 
Myrmopagis schisticolor schisticolor " 



Xenops genibarbis littoraUs ' 
Rhynchocyclus sulphurescens asemus ' 
Mjdopagis viridicata accola ' 
Myiobius barbatus atricaudus ' 
Myiarchus tuberciilif er nigriceps ' 
Manacus viteUinus vitelUiius '' 
Tanagra xanthogastra chocoensis ' 
Tanagra saturata ' 
Ramphocelus flammigerus ' ' 



List of Species and Subspecies Collected in the arid Upper Dagua Basin on the 
western slope of the Western Andes, showing how large a proportion of them has been 
derived from the Cauca Valley. 



Colinus cristatus leucotis " 
ChsemepeUa passerina nana ' 
Leptotila plumbeiceps * 
Belonopterus cayennensis » 
Psittacula conspicillata caucae ° 
Saucerottea saucerottei ' 
Hylocharis grayi * 
Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus * 
Tapera navia ' 
Crotophaga ani * 
Synallaxis albescens albigularis " 
Todirostrum oinereum cinereum " 
Myiopagis viridicata accola ' 
Myiobius fasciatus fasciatus 
Pyrocephalus rubineus heterurus " 
Sayomis nigricans cineracea ' 
Myiarchus apicalis * 
Muscivora tyrannus * 



Troglodytes museulus striatulus ° 
Mimus gilvus tolimensis 
Planesticus ignobUis » 
Compsothlypis pitiayumi elegans *" 
Geothlypis semiflava * 
Cyanocompsa cyanea caucse * 
Sporophila grisea grisea ^ 

" minuta minuta * 

" gutturaMs * 
Tiaris olivacea pusilla " 
Saltator striatipectus striatipectus ° 
Tanagra cyanocephala cyanocephala 

" saturata ° 
Tangara vitriolina " 
Ramphocelus dimidiatus dimidiatus * 

" chrysonotus 

Tachyphonus luctuosus ' 
Molothrus bonariensis cabanisi ' 



The Caribbean Fauna.— The Caribbean coast of Colombia (except for 
a small section of the base of the central part of the Santa Marta group) 



1 Unknown east of the Andes. 

2 Known, elsewhere only from the vicinity of Lima, Peru. 

3 Represented east of the Andes. 

* This species appears to be the only Tropical Zone species of the Pacific coast which has entered 
the Cauca Valley over the Western Andes. A representative, but strongly marked form, Manaaia 
mlellinixs milleri, occurs on the lower Cauca River at Puerto Valdivia, on the route by which this species 
might have been expected to enter the Cauca Valley. 

6 Recorded from the Cauca Valley but not from the Pacific coast. 

B Recorded from Pacific coast and Cauca Valley. 

' Recorded from Pacific coast but not from Cauca Valley. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 131 

from the mouth of the Sinu River to the end of the Goajira Peninsula is 
arid. Farther east the arid coastal strip extends into Venezuela but I have 
not at hand exact data from which to determine its eastern limits. 

In Colombia, in addition to the coastal district, this arid area occupies 
the valleys lying between the Santa Marta groups and the Eastern Andes 
and extends southward up the Magdalena Valley to the northern limits of 
the forested, humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna at approximately the junction 
of the rivers from which this fauna takes its name. 

In those parts of this region with which we are familiar, the rainfall is 
said to be small and irregular. In consequence there are no forests, the 
open savannas supporting a scanty growth of acacias, mimosas, occasional 
cacti and other xerophytic forms. 

In the vicinity of rivers, marshes and bayous afford a home for numer- 
ous aquatic and palustrine forms, and near the coast there are vast expanses 
of red mangroves bordering the bodies of tidal water. These might 
indeed be set aside as constituting a small but distinct £aunal area. We 
have, however, done no collecting in them and I am unable to treat of their 
fauna,, but as a rule, aside from water birds, such regions contain few char- 
acteristic species. 

In addition to such widely distributed scrub and savanna-inhabiting 
species as Pyrocephaltis r. heterurns, Muscivora tyrannus, Saltator olivascens, 
Thraupis cana cana, etc., all of which appear to be of eastern origin, this 
arid district possesses enough forms of its own to warrant, in my opinion, 
its being distinguished as a distinct faunal area, for which the name 
Caribbean seems appropriate. 

Some of the characteristic species of the Caribbean Fauna have crossed 
the forests of the Magdalena and reached the arid upper Magdalena Valley. 
Examples are Colinus cristatus, Brotogeris jugidaris, Furnarius agnatus, 
Heleodytes m. bicolor and H. brevirostris, but such distinctive species as 
Psittacula spengeli, Picumnus cinnamomeus, and Synallaxis candei do not 
appear to be known beyond the confmes of the Caribbean Fauna. 

List of Species and Subspecies which Characterize the Caribbxan Fauna. 

Ortalis garrula '■ ?Brotogeris jugularis 

Colinus cristatus deooratus Galbula ruficauda pallens 

Chaemepelia passerina albivitta Hypnelus rufioollis rufioollis 

Chlorostilbon hseberlini Chloronerpes xanthochlorus 

Aratinga seruginosa aeruginosa ChrysoptUus punotigula ujhelyi 

Psittacula spengeli Picumnus cinnamomeus 

1 Recorded only from the Santa Marta district. 



132 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Thamnophilus canadensis pulchellus Heleodytes nuchalis nuchalis 
Microrhopias grisea intermedia " zonatus brevirostris 

Furnarius agnatus Troglodytes museulus atopus 

Synallaxis cinnamomea fuseifrons Mimus gilvus columbianus 

" candei candei Thraupis glaucocolpa 

Empidochanes cabanisi Coereba luteola luteola 
Heleodytes minor bicolor 

The Orinocan Fauna. — In our work at Buena Vista and Villavicencio, 
as well as at Florencia and La Morelia, we merely touched the western 
margin of a major faunal region which reaches to the eastern border of the 
continent. To define its minor divisions, even were data at hand, would 
take us far beyond the limits of our subject. It will, however, answer our 
present purpose to apply, at least provisionally, the term Orinocan Fauna 
to that part of this region with which we are concerned and restrict our 
comparison of its life to that of the contiguous areas here under review. 

As has been stated elsewhere (see Expedition No. 7), the llanos or 
plains of the Meta, at Villavicencio, come directly to the base of the Andes. 
They bear no large forested areas, but the banks of streams are sometimes 
wooded, and where the streams overflow there are usually patches of forest 
growth. But the slopes of the outermost ridge of the Andes are heavily 
forested from base to summit. 

Our collecting about Villavicencio, was done in the open fields and in 
the strips of woodland. At Buena Vista, some 3000 feet higher, we col- 
lected only in the forests and about their borders. Nevertheless there was 
a surprising similarity in the arboreal tropical bird-life of these apparently 
quite different localities. Thus, of one hundred and fifty species (chiefly 
Passeres), forty-eight were found only at Buena Vista, fifty-eight only at 
Villavicencio, while fifty were common to both places. 

The Amazonian element is apparently quite as strongly shown at Vil- 
lavicencio as at Buena Vista; twenty-three Amazonian forms collected by 
Miller at La Morelia and Florencia, being also taken about Villavicencio, 
and eighteen at Buena Vista. It seems obvious, therefore, that the life of 
these two localities as it is represented in our collections, may be treated 
collectively. 

Compared with that of the Amazonian Fauna of southeastern Colombia, 
it contains a much smaller number of pure Amazonian forms, and much 
larger number of wide-ranging species characteristic of the arid and semi- 
arid portions of northern South America. There are also several so-called 
Guianan species which have not as yet been recorded from upper Amazonia. 
Indicating doubtless a lower humidity, several species common to both the 
Florencia and Villavicencio districts are represented at the last-named 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXX. 




Near Villa vicencio 

Junction of Llanos with Andes. 

(Tropical Zone; Orinocan Fauna.) 




Near Villavicencio 

Exit of Eio Guatequla from the Andes. 

(Tropical Zone; Orinocan Fauna.) 



1917.J 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



133 



locality by paler forms. Examples are: Crypturus soui soui, Leptotila 
rufaxilla pallidipcdus, Brachygalba fuhiventris fulmventris and Synallaxis 
vicesta mwsta. 



List of Species and Subspecies found at Villavicencio and Buena Vista' which have not 
been Recorded from the Amazonian Fauna of Colombia or from eastern Ecuador 
and which, therefore. Characterize the westward extension of the Orinocan Fauna. 



Crypturus soui soui 

Crax alector 

Colinus cristatus parvicristatus 

Columba rufina 

Leptotila rufaxilla pallidipectus 

Stenopsis cayennensis cayennensis 

Brachygalba fulviventris fulviventris 

Chelidoptera tenebrosa 

Veniliornis fidelis 

Thamnophilus doliatus doliatus 

" tenuipunctatus 

Ramphocsenus melanurus trinitatis 
Cercomacra tyrannina tyrannina 
Grallaria modesta 
Synallaxis mcEsta mcesta 

" gujanensis columbianus 
Automolus turdinus 
Sclerurus albigularis albigularis 
Glyphorhynchus cuneatus 
Dendroplex picus pious 
Picolaptes albolineatus 
Campylorhamphus trochilirostris vene- 

zuelensis 
Machetornis rixosa flavigularis 



Todirostrum superciliare superoiliare 
Leptopogon superciliaris poliooephalus 

" amaurooephalus 

Phaeomyias murina incomta 
Myiozetetes granadensis 
Pachyrhamphus qinnamomeus 
Thryophilus albipectus bogotensis 

" rufalbus oumanensis 

Pheugopedius hypospodius 
Troglodytes musculus neglectus 
Pachysylvia flavipes flavipes 
Geothlypis aequinoctialis 
Oryzoborus angolensis 

" orassirostris crassirostris 

Sporophila grisea grisea 
Mjiospiza cherriei 
Arremonops conirostris conirostris 
Arremon axillaris 
Coereba luteola luteola 
Tanagra aurea pileata 
Tangara vitriolina 
Thraupis episcopus leucoptera 
Ramphocelus carbo unicolor 
Icterus xanthornus xanthornus 



Amazonian Fauna. — When we enter that vast territory lying east of 
the Andean system, we leave behind us the more distinctive features of the 
Colombian fauna. We stand now, as it were, on the shores of a great ocean 
of life which stretches far beyond the boundaries of Colombia. No adequate 
analysis of its affinities can be based on the study of a restricted part of it. 
The problem is as wide as the combined Amazonian and Orinocan basins. 
It should, therefore, be understood that in applying the term Amazonian 
Fauna to that portion of tropical Colombia included in the Amazonian 
drainage system, it is not intended to imply that we have here a definite 
faunal area, but that the faunal affinities of this southeastern section of the 
republic are with that wide-spreading region to which the name Amazonia 
is commonly, if somewhat vaguely", applied. 



134 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

So far as I am aware, no attempt to map the faunal areas of Amazonia 
has as yet been made, but it is evident that in spite of its enormous extent 
the comparatively uniform climatic and topographic conditions which 
prevail throughout its forested portions have produced correspondingly 
uniform faunal characteristics. 

Such small, sedentary species as, for example, Dichrozona and Rhopoterpe 
xange, unchanged from the base of the Andes through two thousand miles 
•of forest to the lower Amazon, and the local differences in flora occasioned 
by the wide variations between low and high water on the larger streams 
are often more pronounced than those existing in districts at opposite 
borders of the region. 

The distinctive feature of Amazonia is its forests, so well described by 
Wallace, Bates, Spruce and others. As elsewhere remarked, the northern 
limit of this Amazonian forest coincides approximately with the Guaviare 
River, beyond which lie the Llanos, but a heavily forested belt extends 
much farther north along the lower slopes of the Andes. According to Rice, 
as already quoted, the Sierra Chiribiquete lying south of the Guaviare, 
reaches an altitude of 2850 feet. -Judging by our work at Buena Vista 
(alt. 4500 ft.), on the outermost spur of the Eastern Andes above Villa- 
vicencio, this is not sufficient altitude to produce a marked change in fauna. 
It remains, however, to be discovered td what extent the apparent isolation 
of these mountains and the possibly different environmental conditions 
they may offer, has modified the forms inhabiting them. 

As might be expected, there is a close resemblance between the bird-life 
of Amazonian Colombia, as it is revealed by Miller's work at La Morelia 
and Florencia, and that of eastern Ecuador as that has been made known by 
the so-called 'Napo' specimens. 

It goes without saying that notwithstanding the large collections secured 
by him in a limited time, Miller's month at La Morelia and Florencia 
enabled him to get only enough material to show the faunal features of the 
region, and their Amazonian character is indicated by the appended list of, 
distributionally, the more significant species. 



List of the More Characteristic Amazonian Species collected at Florencia and La Morelia, 
in Southeastern Colombia. 

Penelope jaoqtiaQU Creciscus aenops 

Ortalis guttata Psophia napensis 

Pipile cumanensis Otus watsoni 

Opisthocomus hoazin Psittaoula sclateri 

Anurolimnas castaneiceps Electron platyrhjmchus pjTrholaemus 

" hauxwelli Hydropsalis climacocerca 



1917.1 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



135 



Phoethornis fraterculus moorei , 
Eutoxeres condamini 
Campylopterus obscurus sequatorialis 
Agyrtrina fluviatilis 
Pharomacrus pavoninus 
Trogonurus bolivianus 
Chrysotrogon ramonianus 
Curucujus melanurus melanurus 
Capito aurovirens 

" auratus auratus 
Ramphastos cuvieri 
Pteroglossus pluricinctus 

" oastanotis castaaotis 

" flavirostris flavirostris 

" humboldti 

Selinidera reinwardti 
Galbula tombaoea tombacea 
Bucco capensis 
Argicus macrodactylus 
Malacoptila f usca 
Monasa flavirostris 

" morphoeus peruana 
" nigrifrons 
Veniliornis ruficeps haematostigma 
Campephilus melanoleuous 
Dysithamnus capitalis capitalis 

" ardesiacus ardesiacus 

Cercomacra sclateri 
Rhopoterpe torquata 
Dichrozona cincta 
Myrmeciza melanoceps 



Hypocnemis cantator peruviana 

" , hypoxantha 
Hylophylax lepidonota 

" naevia theresffl 

Synallaxis rutila caquetensis 
Automolus infusoatus infuscatus 
Philydor ruficaudatus 
Ancistrops strigilatus 
Sclerurus brunneus 
Xiphorhynohus guttatoides 

" insignis 

Dendrocolaptes sancti-thomse radiolatus 
Ochthornis Uttoralis 
Todirostrum latirostris 
Lophotriccus spicifer 
Pipra ooronata 
Cirrhopipra fulicauda 
Machseropterus striolatus 
Chiroxipliia pareola napensis 
Lathria cinerea 
Lipaugus simplex 
Cephalopterus ornatus 
Myospiza aurifrons 
Paroaria gularis 
Tanagra chilensis 

" schranki 

" xanthogastra 
Ramphocelus nigrogularis 
Cissopis liveriana minor 
Gymnostinops yucares 



THE STJBTBOPICAL ZONE AND ITS FAUNAS. 



The Subtropical Zone lies approximately between the altitudes of 5000 
and 9000 feet, or from the average upper limits of the Tropical Zone to the 
lower limits of the Temperate Zone. Its inferior boundary is consequently 
as variable as the superior boundary of the Tropical Zone, and hence may 
vary from 4500 to 6500 feet in accordance with the conditions mentioned 
in outhning that zone. The altitude at which it meets the Temperate Zone 
is also governed by humidity. Apparently, however, it never exceeds 
9500 feet, but in the absence of the forest which distinguishes the Subtropical 
Zone it descends to the level at which forest is encountered. Should the 
forest be entirely wanting, the zone, so far as birds are concerned, is also 
missing or but suggested by the occurrence of the few scrub-haunting 
species like Xanthoura, which are found in it. With them will be associated 



136 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

both Tropical Zone and even Temperate Zone species whose habits fit them 
to life in more or less open, bushy places. Such an association was found 
at Quetame (alt. 4500 ft.) in the Eastern Andes, where in the scanty growth 
of low trees bordering the Rio Negro and its tributaries we found Xanthoura 
yncas cyanodorsalis, Schistochlamys atra and Thravpis episcopus leucoptera, 
while in the immediately adjoining fields was Sturnella magna meridionalis, 
and in bordering hedgerows, Semimerula gigas gigas and Brachyspiza capensis 
peruviana. 

Usually, however, the Subtropical Zone is as clearly defined as the condi- 
tions to which it owes its characteristic features. It is pre-eminently a 
zone of forests, the product of the heavy rainfall and high degree of humidity 
prevailing at the altitude in which the Subtropical Zone is found. 

In the field, we termed it the 'Cloud Zone,' so closely does its lower 
border coincide with the height to which clouds descend on the mountain- 
sides. This term, however, may be also applied to the two upper zones. 
Temperate and Paramo, though cloud forests exist only in the Subtropical 
and Temperate Zones, the temperature of the Paramo Zone being evidently 
too low to permit of forest growth. Furthermore, the rainfall decreases 
as the altitude increases. 

The forests of the Subtropical Zone, particularly on windward slopes, 
present a luxuriance of growth not equalled even in the Tropical Zone. The 
lower zone produces nobler, taller trees (we saw nothing in the subtropics 
to approach the ceibas of the basal zone), but in profusion of undergrowth, 
of parasites and epiphytes which thrive in this region of clouds, the Sub- 
tropical Zone excels. It is the zone in which we found tree ferns attaining 
their maximum height of approximately fifty feet, in which a climbing 
bamboo grows in impenetrable tangles, in which orchids, bromelias and 
plants of similar habit occupy every available point of vantage, clustering 
thickly on the limbs and even trunks of trees; while every spot not occupied 
by some other form of plant-life, is cushioned with moss. From each leaf 
and limb water is constantly dripping, the bromelias are usually full to 
overflowing, the moss is like a saturated sponge. Even when, at intervals, 
the sun penetrates the clouds, the falling drops suggest a shower. 

In view of the altitude attained by the Subtropical Zone, far higher 
mountains are required to act as effective barriers to its extension across 
the ranges on the slopes of which it lies. This fact, in connection with the 
exceptional continuity of the Subtropical Zone forests, gives to the life of 
this zone a uniformity which, when one considers its length and the distance 
which its arms are sometimes separated, is surprising. 

Latitudinally, the Subtropical Zone extends from central Venezuela 
and Mexico at the north southward through Colombia to western Ecuador 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



137 




Fig. 15. Distribution of the Cock-of-ihe Rock. A Subtropical Zone species represented in the West Andean 
Subtropical Fauna by one form {Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenia), Eind in the Central and Eastern Andes by 
a closely related but distinct species {R. peruviana aurea), the ranges of which are separated by the Temperate 
Zone of the higher intervening mountains. 



138 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

on the Pacific slope of the Andes, and, on the Atlantic slope, to eastern 
Bolivia, where Miller and Boyle found its southern end between the Yungas 
of Cochabamba and the mountains above Santa Cruz. 

Throughout approximately 2500 miles of its length, that is, from Vene- 
zuela to Bolivia, the bird-life of this zone is so remarkably uniform in charac- 
ter that, as with the Amazonian and Orinocan elements in the Colombia 
fauna, one cannot arbitrarily segregate any part of it and study it satisfac- 
torily to the exclusion of the rest. 

Our field work is now chiefly directed toward the acquisition of adequate 
collections of the birds and mammals of this exceptionally interesting zone 
of life, and until our work is completed, it will be impossible to speak of the 
zone as a whole or of its altitudinal boundaries outside of Colombia. A 
study of the northward extension of the Subtropical Zone into Costa Rica 
reveals what may be termed a ' zoological fault' in Panama, while a compari- 
son of the Costa Rican representatives of Colombian species with those 
recorded from the Santa Marta group gives some significant results which 
will be presented later. 

Data are unfortunately lacking for a satisfactory comparison of the 
Subtropical Zone bird-life of the Andes with that of the mountains of south- 
ern Venezuela, the Guianas, and southeastern Brazil. 

The birds of the Subtropical Zone, as might he expected, are almost 
exclusively forest-dwellers; the Green Jay {Xanihourd) is found about 
forest-borders and is one of the few Subtropical species inhabiting semi- 
arid places. The Dipper {Cinclus) and Torrent Duck (Merganetta) , while 
confined to mountain streams, do not require that the shores be forested. 
But exceptions of this kind are rare. Tanagers are the most numerous in 
species as well as in individuals, the family Tanagridse being the only one 
which, in Colombia, has more species in the Subtropical Zone than in the 
Tropical Zone. The Thrushes, while far less numerous in species, have 
almost as large a proportionate representation. Guans, Trogons, Capites, 
Toucans, Dendrocolaptids, Cotingas and Wrens are all characteristic of 
the Subtropical Zone and, in the Colombian Andes, have about half as 
many species in it as in the Tropical Zone. The Flycatchers are about 
one-half as numerous in the sub tropics as in the tropics. Families of forest- 
inhabiting Tropical Zone birds which have a comparatively poor representa- 
tion in the Subtropical Zone ^ are the Pigeons, Parrots, Woodpeckers and 
Orioles, of which there are about four times as many species in the tropics 
as in the subtropics, and Formicarians, of which we found only seventeen 



1 It should be understood that these statements refer only to the results obtained by us in the 
Colombian Andes. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H, 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXXI. 




Subtropical fokbst 

Characteristic scene in tlie forest at San Antonio, summit of the Western Andes. 

Note the profusion of parasitic growth. 

(Subtropical Zone; "West Andean Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 139 

species in the sub tropics as compared with eighty-two in the tropics. Many 

species of this last-named group, it is true, are scrub haunters, nevertheless, 

' their abundance in heavy tropical forests is shown by the fact that Miller 

secured twenty-four species in the Amazonian Fauna in a month's collecting. 

As might be expected, few true Finches inhabit the Subtropical Zone, 
but the Tanager-Finches of the genus Atlapetes are almost restricted to it. 
The Bucconidse are represented by the only one of the eighteen tropical 
species which ranges upward to the subtropics; the Motmots by but one, 
whUe the Galbuhdte appear to be wholly absent. 

Satisfactory data are wanting for a study of the origin of the bird-life 
of the Subtropical Zone. Our work in Colombia merely touched a portion 
of the vast area in which field studies and' carefully labeled collections must 
be made before one can treat of the zone as a whole, and, as before stated, 
its life is too uniform to permit of conclusions being based on the study of a 
part. 

It appears, however, that so far as birds are concerned, the Tropical 
Zone differs from the Temperate and Paramo Zones in two important 
respects — one of which is the corollary of the other. First, the Subtropical 
Zone, latitudinally, does not extend beyond the limits of the Tropical Zone 
with which, when altitude permits, from Bolivia to Mexico, it is practically 
coterminous. Second, the Subtropical Zone, as a faunal area, does not 
descend to sea-level. Consequently it follows that the Subtropical Zone 
is always an altitudinal zone, and it also follows that its life, as a whole, 
was derived from the tropics. 

To what extent the altitude of the Subtropical Zone is affected by lati- 
tude, I am not as yet prepared to say. Brachyspiza capensis peruviana, a 
species of the Subtropical and Temperate Zones, is found at sea- level on the 
Island of Curasao. It descends the Rio Negro east of Bogota to Quetame 
(alt. 4500 ft.) but was wanting at Buena Vista. It, however, occurs at 
Caicara on the Orinoco. This species is really most characteristic of the 
Temperate Zone, but is also common in the arid subtropics. Its further 
descent to the Tropical Zone forms, therefore, an exception to the rule that 
the life of any zone is derived from a lower level. 

Assuming that species found in all three ranges must have had a com- 
mon point of origin south of the latitude where these ranges leave the 
Ecuadorian Andes, it is interesting to ascertain the results following their 
isolation. In most instances when there is appreciable racial variation, 
two races develop, one of which is found in the East Andean Fauna, the 
other in the West Andean Fauna. Where only one race is evolved it is 
generally found in the East Andean Fauna, while the West Andean form 
resembles that inhabiting western Ecuador. In some few instances the 



140 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

form of each range is alike, all consequently differing from the Ecuadorian 
form in the same manner; indicating, therefore, that their characters have 
arisen independently and hence by parallelism. Examples are Ocrecdus 
underwoodi underwoodi and Boissoneaua flavescens flavescens. 

Usually, however, specific cases of variation in altitudinal distribution 
show a tropical species ascending to the subtropics rather than the reverse. 
Thus, Leptotila verreauxi verreauxi is a form of the Tropical Zone in the 
Magdalena Valley and eastward, but L. v. occidentalis in the Cauca region 
is found in the Subtropical Zone. Columba subvinacea berlepschi of the 
tropics also grades into C. s. bogoiensis of the subtropics. Lophotriccus 
squamcBcrista squamcecrista inhabits the Subtropical Zone in all three ranges 
of the Celombian Andes, but in southwestern Colombia and western Ecua- 
dor L. s. minor is found at sea-level. Thryophilus nigricapillus connectens 
is a subtropical form of the tropical T. n. schotti; Gacicus uropygialis uro- 
pygialis is a subtropical form of C. n. pacificits. These are all intergrading 
forms and as such evidently illustrate how subtropical species are derived 
from tropical species. The inosculation of the upper limits of the Tropical 
Zone with the lower limits of the Subtropical Zone make it difficult to under- 
stand how, under existing conditions, these intergrading, representative 
forms could become specifically separated. When, however, we attempt 
to explain the origin of the numerous wholly distinct species and genera 
now restricted to the Subtropical Zone we must take into consideration 
the profound climatic changes caused by elevation of the Andes, and by 
subsequent periods of glaciation which have produced wide fluctuations 
in zonal levels. We must also consider points of origin and subsequent 
zonal dispersion followed by complete geographic segregation from the 
parent form. 

For example, the basal, or tropical ancestor of Rupicola peruviana is 
possibly Rupicola rupicola; but the former has extended its range through 
the Subtropical Zone to Bolivia, while the latter is restricted to the Guianan 
region. Again, Py rodents scutatus granadensis is now found in the Tropical 
Zone of the Eastern Andes of Colombia, but P. s. scutatus, the probable 
parent form, is found only in southeastern Brazil and eastern Paraguay. 

But until we have a far more detailed knowledge of the geological 
history of the Andes and especially of the extent to which these mountains 
have been glaciated, we shall not be in a position to discuss satisfactorily the 
origin of its Subtropical Zone life. Meanwhile, as an ornithologist; I present 
further data in regard to its Colombian elements. 

The sharply defined topography of the Andean system in Colombia 
gives an equally clear definition to the zones of subtropical life which lie 
on its slopes. In all three Andean ranges, north of Popayan, they are 
widely separated below by Tropical Zone slopes and valleys, except at the 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXXII. 




Heart of the Central Andes 

View of the Rio Tochg from above El Pie de San Juan. Torrent 

Ducks and Dippers were common on this stream. 

(Subtropical Zone; East Andean Fauna.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 141 

northern ends of the Western and Central Andes. In the Central Andes the 
Subtropical Zone of the western slope is prevented from coming in contact 
with the same zone on the eastern slope by the Temperate Zone until the 
northern end of the range is reached in Antioquia. In the Eastern Andes 
the zones of eastern and western slopes doubtless also meet where decreasing 
altitude near the northern end of the range permits them to cross the divide, 
and Miller's work in the southern part of this range shows that the pass at 
Andalucia (alt. 7000 ft.) is in the heart of the Subtropical Zone which here, 
as in the greater part of the ^Yeste^n Andes, occupies both slopes and the 
crest of the range. 

Notwithstanding these, chiefly terminal, connections it is evident that 
the three branches of the Subtropical Zone in Colombia are sufficiently 
isolated from one another to become centers of local, adaptive radiation. 
The life of the Subtropical Zone as a whole, however, is remarkably uni- 
form, more than half of its characteristic species being distributed throughout 
its greater part. 

Thus of the 230 distinctively Subtropical Zone species found by us in 
Colombia, 121 ar^ present either as unchanged or intergrading forms in 
all three Andean ranges. The remaining 109 species may be distributionally 
classified as follows: 

Peculiar to the Western Andes 31 species 
" " Central " 9 " 

" " Eastern " 22 

Common to the Western and Central Andes ' 14 " 

" " " Eastern and Central Andes 2 33 

The facts expressed by this analysis appear to require the recognition 
of at least two subdivisions of the Subtropical Zone of the Colombian Andes 
which I suggest be known as: 

1. The West Andean Subtropical Fauna. 

2. The East Andean Subtropical Fauna. 

Before treating of these minor divisions of the Subtropical Zone it seems 
desirable to give a list of the species we collected in it. 

Birds of the Subtropical Zone. 

Family -TiTiamidcB Family Cracidce 

Tinamus tao Penelope cristata 
Nothocercus bonapartei " perspicax 

" intercedens {vide HeUmasr) Abmria aburri 

^ Chiefly the western slope. 
2 Chiefly the eastern slope. 



142 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Chamaepetes goudoti goudoti i 
Family Odontophoridce 

Odontophorus hyperythrus 
" strophium 

Family Columbidoe 
Columba albilinea albilinea " 

" subvinacea bogotensis 
LeptotUa verreauxi occidentalis 
Oreopeleia montana 

" bourcieri 

" linearis linearis 

Family Anatidce 
Merganetta columbiana 

Family Buhonidce 
Glaucidium jardini 

Family Psiitacidce 

Ognorhynchus icterotis 
Pjrrrhura ealliptera 
" souancei 
Amazona mercenaria 
Pionus chalcopterus 
Hapalopsittaca amazonina 

Family MomotidcB 
Momotus sequatorialis sequatorialis 

Family Caprimulgidoe 
Lm-ocaUs rufiventris 
Stenopsis ruficervix ^ 

Family Trochilidm 

Doryfera ludovicise ludovicise 
Phcethornis guyi emiUse 

" syrmatophorus syrmato- 

pbonis 

" syrmatophorus columbianus 

Campylopterus f alcatus 
Agyrtria viridiceps 
Uranomitra francise 
Thalurania colombica colombica 

" fannyi verticeps 

CoMbri cyanotus 

" iolata 
Simonula berlepschi 



Phaiolaima rubinoides rubinoides 
" " sequatorialis 

Heliodoxa leadbeateri 

Helianthea torquata ' 

" coeligena columbiana 

" " ferruginea 

Lafresnayea lafresnayei ' 

Ensifera ensifera ensifera ' 

Boissoneaua flavescens ' 

Vestipedes aureliae aureliae 
" " caucensis 

Ocreatus underwoodi underwoodi 

Urosticte benjamini benjamini 

Adelomyia melanogenys melanogenys 
" " cervina ' 

Heliangelus exortis' 

Cyanolesbia kiugi kingi 
" mocoa mocoa 

" emmse 

" coelestes 

Schistes geoffroyi 
" albogularis 

Chfetocercus mulsanti 
" heliodor 

Klais guimeti 

Family Trogonidce 

Pharomacrus antisiensis 

" auriceps 

Trogon personatus 
Trogonurus coUaris 

Family Cajritonidoe 
Eubucco richardsoni granadensis 
" bourcieri bourcieri 
" " occidentalis 

Senmornis ramphastinus 

Family Ramphasiid(B 

Ramphastos ambiguus ambiguus 
Andigena nigrirostris nigrirostris 
" '•' spilorhynchus 

" " occidentalis 

Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta 

" '' phaeolaemus 

" " griseigularis 

" hsematopygius 



1 Ranging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



143 



Family Bucconidce 
Malacoptila mystacalis 

Family Picida 
Chloronerpes rubiginosus gularis 

" " buenavistse 

Melanerpes flavigula 
Veniliornis oleaginus fumigatus 
" " aureus 

" dignus 
Campephilus pollens ' 

Family Hylactidce 
Scytalopus micropterus micropterus 

Family Conopophagida 

Conopophaga castaneioeps castaneiceps 

Family Formicariidce 

Thamnophilus unicolor 

" multistriatus 

Dysithamnus semicinereus semieinereiK 

" " extremus ^ 

Myrmopagis schisti color schisticolor 

" " interior 

Drymophila caudata caudata 
Terenura callinota 
Pyriglena picea 

Formicarius rufipeotus catrrikeri 
Chamaeza turdina 
Grallaria alleni 

" hypoleuca 
" ruficapilla ruficapilla 
Grallaricula costaricensis 
" nana 
" cucuUata 

Family Dendrocolaptidce 

Loohmias sororia 
Synallaxis azarse media ^ 
" pudica pudica 
" unirufa ' 
Siptornis antisiensis 

" erythrops griseigularis 

" striaticollis 
Pseudocolaptes boissonneauti boisson- 

neauti 
Automolus ignobilis 



Automolus holostiotus 
PMlydor montanus striaticollis 
Thripadectes flammulatus 

" virgatioeps sclateri 

Xenicopsis subalaris subalaris 

" " mentalis 

Sclerurus mexioanus obsourior 
Margarornis perlata ' 
" stellata 

Prenmornis guttata 
Xenops rutilus heterurus 
Premnoplex brunnescens brunnescens 
Dendrocinela tyrannina tyrarmina 
Xiphorhynchus triangularis 
Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus ' 
Picolaptes lacrymiger lacrymiger • 

" warscewiczi 
Campylorhamphus pucherani 

Family Tyrannidce 
Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris 

" gratiosa ^ 
Mecooerculus poecilocercus 
Platytriccus flavigularis 
Craspedoprion fulvipectus 
Poecilotriceus ruficeps ruficeps 

" " rufigene 

Euscarthmus granadensis ' 
Pseudotriccus annectens 

" pelzeni pelzeni 

Cffinotriccus ruficeps ruficeps ^ 
Lophotriccus squamaecrista squamsecrista 
Hapalocercus acutipennis 
Pogonotriccus pcecilotis 

" opthalmicas 

Oreotriccus plumbeiceps 
Mionectes striaticollis poliocephalus 
Leptopogon erythrops 
Phyllomjdas griseiceps griseiceps 

" " caucae 

Acrochordopus zeledoni 
Tyranniscus nigrioapillus nigricapillus ^ 

" cinereiceps ' 

Elaenia chiriquensis ohiriquensis 
Elsenia pudica bracbyptera 

" pudica 
Conopias cinohoneti 



1 Rangmg upward to the Temperate Zone. 

2 Found also in the Cauca VaUfcy. 



144 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Myiodynastes chrysocephalus minor 
Hirundinea sclateri 
Myiobius flavicans 

" villosus 

" cinnamomeas pyrrhopterus 

" pulcher puloher 
" bellus 
Myiotriccus ornatus ornatus 
Empidochanes pcEcilurus 
Myiochanes ardosiacus ardosiacus 
Myiarchus cephalotes 

Family PipridcB 
Pipra leucocilla minimus 
" " coracina 

" isidorei isidorei 
Chloropipo flavicapilla 
Piprites tschudi 
Masius chrysopterus 
" corunulatus 

Family Colingidce 
Paohyrhamphus versicolor 

" dorsalis 

Lathria fuscocinerea fuscocinerea 

" cryptolopha 
Attila brasiliensis parambse 
Rupicola peruviana aurea 

" " sanguinolenta 

Stietornis einctus 
Euehlornis riefferi riefferi 

" " occidentalis 

" lubomii'ski 

" aureipectus {vide Scl.& Salv.) 
Heliochera rufaxilla 
Pyroderus scutatus granadensis 
" " occidentalis 

Cephalopterus penduliger 

Family Hirundinidos 
Pygochelidon cyanoleuca 

Family Troglodytidoe 
Cinnicerthia olivascens ' 
Odontorhynchus branicki 
Thryophilus nigricapiUus connectens 
Pheugopedius spadix 

" mystacalis mystacalis 



Pheugopedius mystacalis amaurogaster 
" sclateri 

Troglodytes solstitiaUs pallidipectus ' 

Henicorhina prostheleuca eucharis 
" leucophrys guttata 

" " brunneiceps 

Leucolepis dichrous 

Family Cinclidoe 
Cinclus leuconotus 

Family Turdidoe 
Myiadest«s raUoides venezuelensis 
Planesticus serranus 

" fuscobrunneus 

" leuoops 

" caucae 

Catharus birchalli 
" phseopleurus 
" dryas 

Family Vireonidce 
Vireosylva josephaB Josephs! 
Pachysylvia semibrunnea 
Cyclarhis nigrirostris 

Family Mniotiltidoe 
Myioborus verticalis verticalis 
Basileuterus cinereicoUis 

" cabanisi 

" tristriatus tristriatus 

" coronatus '■ 

Family Catamblyrhynchidoe 
Catamblyrhynohus diadema '■ 
Family Fringillldm 

Sporophila luctuosa 

Saltator atripennis atripennis 
" " caniceps 

Spinus xanthogaster 

Brachyspiza capensis peruviana ' 

Pseudochloris oitrina antioquiae 

Lysurus castaneiceps 

Atlapetes flaviceps 

" fusco-oUvaceus 

" gutturalis gutturalis 

" latinuchus latinuchus 



^ Ranging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



1917.1 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



145 



Atlapetes latinuchus elseoprorus 

" albifrenatus 

" crassus 

" semirufus 
Buarremon brunneinuchus 
" atricapillus 

Family Ccerebidce 
Diglossa sittoides similis 
" albilateralis ^ 
" personata '■ 
" cryptorhis 
Diglossopis oaerulescens cserulescens 
Conirostrum albifrons 

" atrocyaneum 

Family Tanagridoe 

Chlorophonia pretrei 

Tanagra xanthogastra brevirostris 

Chlorochrysa calliparEea bourcieri 
" phoeniootis 

" nitidissima 

Pipraeidea melanota venezuelensis 

Procnopis vassori ' 

Tangara guttata tolimae 
" " bogotensis 

" rufigula 
" aurulenta aurulenta 
" " occidentalis 

" icterocephala 
" gyroloides gyroloides 
" " eatharinse 



nigroviridis nigroviridis 
cyaneicolUs caeruleooephala 

" granadensis 

ruficervix rufioervix 
labradorides 
melanotis 
parzudaki 



Tangara venusta 

" atricapilla 
Iridosornis porphyrooephala 
Buthraupis cucuUata ououllata ' 
" edwardsi 

" melanochlamys 

" aureooincta 

Compsocoma somptuoaa victorini 

" " antioquise 

" " cyanoptera 

" notabilis 

Dubusia taemiata ' 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala auricrissa 
Calochcetes ooooineas 
Piranga testacea testacea 

" rubrioeps ' 
Phoenicothraupis cristata 
Taohyphonus rufus 
Creurgops vertioalis 
Chlorospingus albitempora nigriceps 

" flavipeotus 

" canigularis 

" flavigularis flavigularis 

" semifuscus 

Hemispingus frontalis oleagineus 

" atropileus ' 

" melanotis 

Oreothraupis arremonops 

Family Icleridce 
Ostinops salmoni 

" alfredi sincipitalis 

" " neglectus 

Cacicus uropygialis uropygialis 
Icterus giraudi 
Hypopyrrhus pyxoliypogaster 

Family Corvidce 
Xanthoura yncas galeatus 

" " cyanodorsalis 



THE FAUNAS OF THE SUBTROPICAL ZONE. 

The West Andean Subtropical Fauna. — The West Andean Subtropical 
Fauna occupies that part of the Subtropical Zone which extends along the 
Western Andes from southern Ecuador, or at the northern end of the arid 



^ Ranging upward to the Temperate Zone. 



146 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Peruvian region, northward through Colombia. To it should doubtless be 
added the subtropical western slope of the Central Andes which, while far 
from possessing all the forms that characterize the West Andean Subtropical 
Fauna, has a closer affinity with that fauna than it has with the East Andean 
Subtropical Fauna. This is indicated by the presence of such distinctive 
West Andean species as Geotrygon bourcieri, Formicarius rufipectus carrikeri, 
Chlorochrysa nitidissima and Ostinops salmoni. Furthermore, with species 
which have representative races in the West Andean Fauna and the East 
Andean Fauna, the form of the western slope of the Central Andes usually 
agrees with that of the Western Andes, that of the eastern slope with that 
of the Eastern Andes. Taking the Central Andes, as a whole, however, 
the East Andean Subtropical element is much stronger than that received 
from the Western Andes, a fact obviously attributable to existing topography 
and to the humid connection at the head of the Magdalena Valley. 

On the Pacific slopes of the Andes this faunal belt stretches continuously 
from its southern end to northern Colombia. Whether it exists on the 
summit of the Baudo range unfortunately is not known. It reappears in 
dilute form on the crests of the higher mountains of eastern Panama and 
Costa Rica, and its influence extends even to southern Mexico. Its appar- 
ent absence between the higher portions of eastern and western Panama has 
already been mentioned and will be referred to in detail later. 

While apparently always present on the western slope of the Western 
Andes, it is developed on the eastern slope of this range only abbve an eleva- 
tion of 6500 feet; the altitude of condensation, as explained in writing of the 
Tropical Zone, being higher on the eastern than on the western slope of this 
range. 

Its forests stretch, apparently without a break, along the western slopes 
of the Central Andes above the Cauca Valley, are wanting in southern 
Antioquia, but reappear in the more northern part of that department. 
Here the Western and Central Andes are separated only by the Cauca River 
from opposite banks of which they respectively arise. At this point the 
subtropical forests of these ranges are within a short distance of one another. 
Doubtless for this reason forms elsewhere restricted to one range may in 
some few instances here be found in both. Further south, these ranges are 
separated by the increasingly wide Cauca Valley until one reaches the ' knot' 
of Popayan, but although this attains the altitude of the Subtropical Zone 
it is lacking in the heavy forests which characterize it and the West Andean 
Subtropical Fauna is, therefore, not connected here with its Central Andean 
branch, a fact which presumably accounts for the comparatively small 
number of West Andean forms found in the Central Andes. 

The distinguishing characteristics of the West Andean Subtropical 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



147 



Fauna are those of its zone. It cannot be said to have arid sections. When 
the humidity falls below the point required to produce the forests which 
Subtropical Zone species require, the zone practically disappears and its 
place is taken by an upward extension of the Tropical Zone and a downward 
extension of the Temperate Zone. 

Aside from representative forms of species of general Subtropical distri- 




Fig. 16. Distribution of Formicarius rufipectus. A species of the West Andean Subtropical 
Fauna which occurs in eastern Panama, western Panama and Costa Rica but is unknown in the inter- 
vening Tropical Zone. It is represented in the Subtropical Zone of eastern !^cuador by F. thoracicus. 
1. Formicarius rufipectus rufipectus. 2. F. r. carrikeri. 



bution in Colombia, we have taken thirty-one species peculiar to the West 
Andean Fauna, but only twenty-two peculiar to the East Andean Fauna. 
Nevertheless, as we have seen, the West Andean Fauna occupies a compara- 
tively restricted, isolated area, and at the south, whence it seems evident 
subtropical life was derived, it is entirely cut off from corresponding areas. 



148 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

The East Andean Fauna, however, is but the more northern portion of a 
belt of forest which extends southward to central Bolivia. Expressed in 
miles, the West Andean Fauna measures from north to south about 850 
miles, the East Andean, with its subdivisions, nearly 2500 miles. 

Something more than isolation is required to explain the presence in the 
Western Andes of so large a number of species in proportion to its area. 
The Subtropical Zone of the Central Andes, with its narrow basal connection 
with the East Andean Fauna and long peninsula-like projection, is almost 
insular in its isolation; but it has few indigenous species. If this fact is 
attributable to its inaccessibility, one may reply that the subtropics of the 
Western Andes are even less accessible. It therefore seems reasonable for 
us to believe that the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes, as well as the 
Tropical Zone at its western base, received its life in part from what is now 
upper Amazonia, before the Andes were sufficiently elevated to act as an 
effective barrier between the Subtropical Zones lying on their eastern and 
western slopes. Since, however, this was obviously at a later date than 
that at which the Tropical Zones of the eastern and western slopes were 
separated, there is a closer relation between the life of the upper than 
between that of the lower zones. 

List of Species and Subspecies which Characterize the West Andean Subtropical Fauna. 

Nothocercus intercedens Veniliornis oleaginus aureus '■ 

Penelope perspicax ' Formicarius nifipectus carrikeri '■ 

Geotrygon bouroieri ^ Grallaricula costaricensis 

Leptotila verreauxi occidentalis ^ Synallaxis azara? media '' 
Phoethomis syrmatophorus syrmato- Siptornis erythrops griseigularis 

phorus Automolus ignobilis 

Agyrtria viridiceps Xenioopsis subalaris subalaris ' 

Thalurania fannyi verticeps Margarornis stellata 

Phaiolaima rubinoides aequatoriaUs Picolaptes warscewiczi 

HeHanthea coeUgena ferruginea Campylorhynohus puoherani 

Vestipedes aurelise eaucensis Poecilotriocus ruficeps rufigene ^ 

Adelomyia melanogenys oervina Pseudotriccus annectens 

Cyanolesbia emmae Elaenia pudica brachyptera ' 

" ccelestes Myiarchus eephalotes 

Schistes albogularis Masius corunulatus 

Eubucco boureieri occidentalis ' Attila brasiliensis paramba; 

Semnornis rhamphastinus Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta 

Andigena nigrirostris occidentalis Euohlornis riefferi occidentalis 
Aulacorhynchus albivittatus phseolaemus Pyroderus scutatus occidentalis 

Ghloronerpes rubiginosus gularis * Thryophilus nigricapiUus connectens 

1 Found also on the western slope of the Central Andes. 

2 Found also on both slopes of the Central Andes. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVl, Plate XXXIIT . 




Rio Negro Canon near Monteredondo 
A scene near the western limit of arborescent vegetation on the Rio Negro. Trail at the left. 
(Junction of Tropical and Subtropical Zones.) 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



149 



Pheugopedius spadix 

" mystacalis mystacalis ' 

Henicorhina prostheleuca eucharis 
Leucolepis dichrous ^ 
Planesticus fuscobrunneus ' 
Saltator atripennis atripennis 
Lysurus castaneiceps 
Atlapetes latinuchus latinuchus 

" crassus 
Diglossa cryptorhis 
Chlorochrysa phoeniootis 

" nitidissima ^ 

Tangara rufigula 

" aunilenta occidentalis ' 

" icterocephalus 



Tangara gyxoloides bangsi 
Iridosornis porphyrocephala ^ 
Buthraupis cucuUata cucullata 

" edwardsi 

" melanochlamys 

" aureocincta 

Compsoooma somptuosa cyanoptera 

" notabilis 

PhoBnicothraupis cristata 
Chlorospingus flavigularis marginatus 

" • semifuscus 
Oreothraupis arremonops 
Ostinops salmoni ^ 
Cyanolyoa pulohra 



The East Andean Subtropical Fauna. — The Subtropical Zone in the 
Eastern Andes, like the Tropical Zone at their eastern base, is merely a part 
of, a much larger region. Our work in Colombia, therefore, can be con- 
sidered merely as a contribution to the general subject. Even with this 
limitation it must be confessed that our explorations covered so small a 
part of the range that we are sadly lacking in detailed information concern- 
ing its altitude, the distribution of its forests, and its bird-life. 

Miller's section across the Eastern Andes from the upper Magdalena 
Valley to the Caqueta region (see Expedition No. 5) showed, as has been 
elsewhere stated, that the Andalucia Pass has an altitude of only 7000 feet, 
and that both slopes of the range are here forested, the western down to an 
altitude of 3000 feet, the eastern continuously. In other words, at this 
point, the Subtropical Zone occupies both eastern and western slopes as 
well as the crest of the range. It is at this point, and possibly also further 
south, that the subtropical life of the Amazonian slopes of the Andes enters 
the upper Magdalena and thus gains access to the Central Andes. The 
Subtropical Zone evidently extends nearly to the northern end of the Eastern 
Andes in Colombia, where Cerro Piatado has an elevation of about 8600 feet. 
Here it is separated ]^om the Santa Marta group by the valley of the Rio 
Cesar. The zoological as well as geological evidence indicates that there 
has been no connection between these mountains, and the Santa Martan 
portion of the Subtropical Zone should doubtless rank as a faunal area. 

It is also probable that the Venezuelan branch of the Subtropical Zone 
is deserving of recognition as a distinct faunal area, though it has close 
relations with the East Andean Fauna of Colombia. 



1 Found also on the western slope of the Central Andes. 

2 Found also on both slopes of the Central Andes. 



150 Bulletin American Museum of Natural Histvry. [^''ol. XXXVI, 

As stated in outlining the boundaries of the West Andean Fauna, the 
subtropical portion of the Central Andes, as a whole, is more closely related 
to that of the Eastern, than to that of the Western Andes, but the West 
Andean element on its western slopes is sufficiently strong to make it seem 
desirable to place that slope in the West Andean Fauna, while the eastern 
slope may unquestionably be placed in the East Andean Fauna. 

In the latitude of Bogota, the Eastern Andes have a width of about one 
hundred miles, and it is not improbable that the subtropical eastern slopes 
may have forms either not found on the western slopes or representative of 
them. Ostinops alfredi neglectus and 0. a. sincipitalis, and Xarithoura 
yncas cyanodorsalis and X. y. galeatus, are evidently representative races of 
this kind, the first named of each species being found on the eastern, the 
second, on the western subtropical slope of the range. 

As stated in the itinerary of our expedition (No. 7) to the Bogotd region, 
our route on the eastern slope of the range between Bogota and -Villavicencio 
did not take us into the humid subtropics and we are not therefore in a 
position to compare the subtropical life of both sides of the range. 

The East Andean Fauna of Colombia has but few species which are 
restricted to it; its practical physical identity with those portions of the 
Subtropical Zone to the north and south prevent that isolation which 
renders cumulative the effects of environment on an organism. While 
none of the species in the appended list are found in the Western Andes, 
most of them range beyond the Colombian poition of the Subtropical Zone. 



List of Species and Subspecies which Characterize the East Andean Subtropical Fauna. 

Nothocercus bonapartei ' Vestipedes aurelise aureliae . 

Penelope cristata ' Adelomyia melanogenys melanogenys 

Odontophorus strophium Cyanolesbia kingi kingi 
Geotrygon linearis linearis ^ " mocoa mocoa 

Ognorhynchus icterotis '' Schistes geoffroyi 

Pyrrhura calliptera Eubucco richardsoni granadensis 

" souanoei ^ " bourcieri bourcieri ' 

Hapalopsittaca amazonina Ramphastos ambiguus ambiguus ' 

Lurocalis rufiventris Andigena nigrirostris nigrirostris 
Phoethornis syrmatophorus columbianus Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta ' 

Phaiolaima rubinoides rubinoides Chloronerpes rubiginosus buenavistae 

Heliodoxa leadbeateri Veniliornis oleaginus fumigatus 

Helianthea cceligena Columbiana Terenura callinota 

Lafresnayea lafresnayi Pyriglena picea ' 



1 Found also on the eastern slopes of the Central Andes. 

2 Found also on both slopes of the Central Andes. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI. Plate XXXIV. 




Primeval Forest at Buena Vista 
Photograplied with a 14-inch lens at a distance of about live hundred yards, 
slope of the Eastern Andes is here heavily forested. 
(Tropical Zone; Orinocan Faima.) 



The eastern 




Forest Interior at Buena Vista 
A detail of the preceding picture. 
(Tropical Zone; Orinocan Fauna.) 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



151 



Chamffiza turdina '' 
Grallaria hypoleuca ^ 
Grallaricula nana ^ 
Lochmias sororia ^ 
Siptornis antisiensis '■ 
" striaticoUis ^ 
Xenioopsis subalaris mentalis ' 
Platytriccus flavigularis ' 
Pseudotriccus pelzelni pelzelni 
Hapalocerous aoutipennis ' 
Leptopogon erythrops 
Phyllomyias griseiceps griseiceps 
Acrochordopus zeledoni 
Elsenia pudica pudica ^ 
Conopias cinchoneti ^ 
Hirundinea solateri 
Pipra leuoocilla ooracina 

" isidorei isidorei 
Piprites tsohudi ^ 
Masius chrysopterus '■ 
Lathiia fusoocinerea fuscooinerea ^ 

" cryptolopha 
Rupicola peruviana aurea '' 
Euohlornis riefferi riefferi ' 

" aureipectus ^ 
Pyroderus soutatus granadensis ' 
Pheugopedius sclateri ^ 

" mystaoalis amaurogaster 



Planesticus serranus 
" leucops 1 

Catharus birchalli ' 

" dryas ' 
Basileuterus cinereicoUis oinereioollis 
Sporophila luctuosa ^ 
Saltator atripennis caniceps 
Atlapetes albifrenatus 

" semirufus 
Chloroohrysa oalliparaea bourcieri ' 
Pipridea melanota venezuelensis 
Tangara guttata bogotensis 
Tangara aurulenta aurulenta ' 

" gyroloides catharina! 

" c. cseruleocephala ' 

" melanotis ' 

" parzudaki ^ 
Compsocoma somptuosa victorini ' 
Caloohetes coccineus 
Chlorospingus albitempora nigriceps ^ 
" flavipeotus 

" flavigularis flavigularis 

Hemispingus melanotis 

" superciliaris superciliaris 

Ostinops alfredi sincipitalis 

" " neglectus 

Xanthoura yncas oyanodorsalis 



The Centeal Ameeican Extension of the Subteopical Zone and the 

Panama 'Fault.' 

The range of several Subtropical Zone species extends as far north as 
Mexico. Conspicuous among them is the Towhee-Tanager, Buarremon brun- 
neinuchus which is found from southeastern Peru to the mountains of the 
State of Vera Cruz, a distance of over 2500 miles, doubtless a more extensive 
distribution than is shown by any other subtropical species. Atlapetes 
guttwalis, a common Colombian subtropical bird, is found as far north as 
Guatemala, but, as a rule. South American subtropical species do not go 
further north than Costa Rica. Here, apparently, judging from the data 
supplied by Mr. Carriker's valuable work, they sometimes descend to lower 



1 Found also on the western slope of the Central Andes. 

2 Found also on both slopes of the Central Andes. 



152 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 




Fig. 17. Distribution of Buarremon brunneinuchus, A common species of the Subtropical Zone 
which ranges from southeastern Peru to Mexico but is unknown in the area between eastern and western 
Panama. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribviion of Bird-life in Colombia. 153 

levels than we have found them in Colombia, possibly in response to local 
conditions peculiar to that miniature transcontinental republic. The close 
relation existing between Colombia and Costa Rican subtropical bird-life 
is most striking. In many cases, the same species is common to both 
countries. In others, slightly differentiated races of the same species occur, 
and in others still, unquestionably representative, but now distinct, non- 
intergrading species are found. A list is appended of the species which may 
properly be considered as belonging to these classes. It shows that some 
sixty-odd species of Colombian subtropical birds are present or represented 
in Costa Rica, and usually also in western Panama. About twenty-three 
of these are found on the subtropical crests of the mountains of eastern 
Panama, but between these localities these species are not known to occur. 
An orographic map shows that the Subtropical Zone of the northern end of 
the Western Andes is separated from the subtropical crests of the mountains 
on the Colombian-Panama boundary by a tropical area of approximately 
seventy-five miles in width; while the Subtropical Zone of eastern Panama 
is separated from the same zone in western Panama by not less than three 
hundred and fiity miles. Doubtless some of the species in the following 
list will be found in the intervening area. Thus far, however, not one of the 
species , included in the appended table has been recorded from between 
eastern and western Panama and more than two-thirds of them are unknown 
from between the northern end of the Western Andes and western Panama. 
In other words, there is an apparent hiatus in their range of somewhat over 
four himdred miles. This statement is based not alone on published data, 
but on the examination of numerous specimens, including those contained 
in Goldman's fine collection from the Canal Zone and adjoining territory 
and eastern Panama which, through the courtesy of the Biological Survey, 
I have been permitted to see. Goldman reached the subtropical Zone on 
Mt. Pirri and found there most of the subtropical species listed under 
Eastern Panama in the subjoined table. None of these, however, was 
taken elsewhere, though in his work in and near the Zone he collected on 
Cerro Azul at an altitude of 3000 feet. 

Anthony and Ball, of the American Museum Panama Expedition of 
1915, discovered a number of subtropical species (including the distinct 
Scytalopus panamensis) on the crest of Mt. Tacarcuna, at an elevation of 
about 4500 feet. But Richardson's extensive collections from the Tropical 
Zone of eastern Panama, as might be expected, contained none of the species 
which characterize the higher, subtropical altitudes. If then these sub- 
tropical species are not found in the tropics immediately below the zones in 
which they occur, it is of course not to be expected that they will occur in 
the tropics elsewhere. Consequently, the absence of subtropical altitudes 



154 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



between those of eastern and western Panama is in itself evidence of the 
absence of subtrftpical species in this area. 

If the facts then are as stated, it remains for us to explain what we 
may term this Panama 'fault' in the Colombian-Costa Rica subtropical 
stratum of life. To one familiar with the influences governing the distribu- 
tion of birds, the occurrence of so large a number of species, including many 




Fig. 18. Distribution of Atlapeles gutlwalis. A common species of the Subtropical Zone in 
Colombia (A. g. guiiwalis) and from western Panama to Guatemala (A. g. hrunnescens) but which is 
not known in the intervening area. 



of sedentary habit, at two such widely separated localities, is conclusive 
proof that the localities themselves were connected. The fact that they 
are joined by the comparatively low land between them has no bearing on 
the case. The barriers which confine subtropical species to their zone are so 
effective that these birds could no more cross the Tropical Zone separating 
the areas they inhabit, than they could an intervening sea. Some of these 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 155 

species, indeed, are so eminently terrestrial that they rarely fly more than 
a few yards, and a continuous flight of several hundred miles would for them 
be impossible. 

It is true that birds populate remote oceanic islands, but we do not find 
among island forms such sedentary species as Formicarius rufipectus, Gral- 
laricula flavirostris, and Siptornis erythrops, etc., which in but slightly difl'ei- 
entiated races are common to the Subtropical Zones of Colombia and Costa 
Rica. Nor do we find species establishing themselves in regions which are 
already occupied. Early arrivals on oceanic islands encounter no opposi- 
tion, but the mainland offers no such favorable opportunities for settlement. 
The available space is taken and the emigration of even a score of species 
from one mainland home to settle in another mainland home, at a distance 
of several hundred miles, is an unknown phenomenon in the distribution of 
bird-life. 

In this cormection it is quite to the point for us to compare the Subtropi- 
cal Zone bird-life of the Eastern Andes with that of the Santa Marta moun- 
tains. The subtropical portions of these mountains are separated by not 
more than forty miles; nevertheless, of the one hundred and ninety-eight 
species received by us from the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes only 
fifty-odd have been recorded as present or represented in the Santa Marta 
group. On the other hand, as we have seen, some sixty species of 
Colombian subtropical birds are present or represented in Costa Rica, 
though here their ranges are separated by four hundred miles, or ten times 
as great a distance as that lying between the northern end of the Eastern 
Andes and the subtropical Santa Marta slopes. Geologists are, however, 
agreed that the Santa Marta mass is of independent origin and has never 
been connected with the Andean system. Zoogeographically, its life zones 
above the Tropical Zone are, therefore, as much islands as though they stood 
out in the Caribbean Sea. The absence from these zones of many common, 
widely distributed species is doubtless to be accoimted for by the fact that 
they have never been connected with the corresponding zones in the Andean 
system. 

If, therefore, so small a proportion of East Andean subtropical species 
have crossed the forty miles lying between that range and the subtropical 
slopes of Santa Marta, we certainly cannot account for the presence in a 
continental area, distant four hundred miles, of a larger proportion of West 
Andean subtropical species under the assumption that they have reached 
Costa Rica fortuitously or by emigration. 

To my mind, the existence respectively in Colombia, Costa Rica and 
eastern Panama of these two ends and a fragment of the Subtropical Zone, 
is conclusive proof of a former physical connection of the areas concerned. 



156 Bulletin American Museum of Natural Hsitory. [Vol. XXXVI, 

at which time this zone stretched more or less continuously from north- 
western Colombia through Panama to Costa Rica. 

If this be true, it follows that the mountain system of Panama must 
have had an elevation of not less than five thousand feet. The ornithologi- 
cal evidence also indicates that this range could not have had a greater 
elevation than nine thousand feet. This statement anticipates a treatment 
of the Temperate Zone, which, as will be shown, is present at the northern 
end of the Western Andes, above an altitude of 9000 feet. The higher 
mountains of western Panama and Costa Rica also exceed this altitude but 
there is no such close relation between the bird-life of the Colombian and 
Costa Rican Temperate Zones as exists between that of their Subtropical 
Zones. 

The Temperate Zone avifauna of Costa Rica, so far as one can trace its 
origin, appears to have been derived largely from the north, while that of 
Colombia has been derived chiefly from the south. 

We apparently are therefore justified in assuming that there has been no 
actual connection between the Temperate Zones of these two regions and 
this, in turn, implies that the intervening mountains have not exceeded an 
elevation of 9000 feet. 

Subsidence, of which there is abundant geological evidence, and erosion 
are the factors which have doubtless brought the mountain system of 
Panama below the subtropical level, except at its eastern and western 
extremities. In the effort to picture to ourselves this region as it existed 
when, as we believe, the Subtropical Zone extended from Colombia to Costa 
Rica, we may try also to imagine the fate of those individuals of representa- 
tive subtropical species which inhabited that part of the zone which sub- 
sequently disappeared. As their home gradually contracted in extent, only 
two lines of retreat were open to them. They could go downward into the 
Tropical Zone, or they could go horizontally toward that part of their zone 
which had not sunk into the zone below. 

Species of the Tropical Zone extend their range into the Subtropical 
Zone, but I recall only one instance of the reverse occurring. Not only are 
upper zone forms held by those environmental bonds which determine 
their zone, but the causes which prevent an island form from taking root 
on the mainland doubtless also prohibit a bird from extending its range to a 
zone below the one it occupies. In both instances the ground is occupied. 
So we find none of the species which we believe to have occupied the former 
Panama Subtropical Zone in the Tropical Zone of that country. 

Successful retreat toward either end of the disappearing zone would be 
even more diflficult than to the zone below, for here the resulting over- 
crowding would bring them into competition with species of similar habits. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 157 

I conclude, therefore, that those individuals of subtropical species which I 
believe inhabited the Subtropical Zone of Panama went out of existence 
with their zone. 

The student of living species, unlike the palaeontologist, has no means 
of determining geologic time. When the Panama 'fault' occurred cannot 
therefore be determined from zoological evidence alone. The absolute 
identity of many of the birds inhabiting the two widely separated ends of 
the zone implies that they have undergone no change since their ranges 
were disconnected. But neither degree of variation nor stability afford a 
measure of time. 

Still one may believe that under the influence of isolation the more 
plastic species would show some differentiation from one another and the 
fact of the continued close resemblance of forms, which elsewhere vary 
geographically, indicates that this 'fault' in the subtropical stratum took 
place at a comparatively recent period. 

The facts in the case suggest that the subsidence which has occurred in 
Panama, and made parts of its southern coasts the islands of the Gulf of 
Panama, has also involved the littoral of Colombia. The trend of the 
Western Andes and the existence of the Atrato valley, make it improbable 
that this range was connected with the range on the Colombian-Panama 
boundary. If this be true, we may ask how so many subtropical species 
could cross from the Western Andes to eastern Panama, and so few go from 
the Eastern Andes to the much nearer Santa Marta group. The Baudo, 
or true coast range, through a more southern connection with the Western 
Andes might, however, have formed the bridge between the main Andean 
system and the mountains of eastern Panama. We should then have had 
four, instead of three ranges of the Andes in Colombia. The evidence in 
support of this theory is far from conclusive, but includes the apparent 
necessity of a larger tropical area than now exists at the Pacific base of the 
Andes for the development of the Colombian-Pacific Fauna, and the strong 
probability, as shown by its fauna, that Gorgona Island was once a part of 
the mainland. 

Our attempts to reach the summit of the Baudo range have unfortunately 
failed; but such collections as have been made there by Mrs. Kerr appar- 
ently show that some Central America species rare, or not found by us in 
the Western Andes, were common in the coast range. Our data, however, 
are far from satisfactory, and further exploration in this range would, in 
my belief, result in the discovery of facts of much significance to the 
zoogeographer. 



158 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Species of the Subtropical Zone ' of Colomhia with their Representatives in this Zone in 
Eastern Panama, Chirigui and Costa Rica. 



Colomhia 
Nothocercus intercedens 
Columba albilinea albilinea 
Claravis mondetoura ^ 
Geotrygon linearis linearis '" 
Glaucidium jardini ^ 
Bolborhynohus ferrugineifrons ^ 
Doryfera ludovicae ludovicse 
Eutoxeres aqmla salvini 
Saucerottia sophiae saucerrottei 

" cyanifrons 

Chlorostilbon gibsoni 
CoUbri cyanotus 
Heliodoxa jacula jamesoni * 
Calliphlox mitchelli 
Lophomis delattrei 
Pharomacrus auriceps 
Trogon coUaris 
Capito bourcieri occidentalis 
Semnornis rhamphastinus 
Aulacorhynchus albivittus phaeolsemus 

Chloronerpes rubiginosus gularis 
Melanerpes flavigula 

Veniliornis oleaginus aureus 
Seytalopus mioropterus mioropterus 
Dysithamnus semicinereus 

" puncticeps puncticeps 

Formicarius rufipectus oarrikeri 
Grallaricula flavirostris costarioensis 
Siptornis erythrops griseigularis 
Pseudocolaptes boissoneauti 
Thripadeotes virgaticeps solateri 
Lochmias sororia ^ 
Philydor panerythrus ^ 

" montanus striaticollis 
Xenicopsis subalaris subalaris 
Sclerurus albigularis albigularis ^ 
Margaromis squamifera 



Eastern Panama 



E. a. salvini 



H. j. henryi 



L. delattrei 
P. auriceps 
T. collaris subsp. 
C. b. salvini 



A. cseruleigularis 
cognatus 



V. o. aureus 
S. panamensis 
D. mentaHs suf- 
fusus 



F. r. carrikeri 

G. f . brevis 

S. e. griseigularis 



L. sororia 



X. s. subalaris 



Chiriqui-Costa Rica 
N. frantzi 
C. a. crissalis 

C. mondetoura 
G. chiriquensis 
G. jardini 

B. lineolus 

D. veraguensis 

E. a. salvini 
S. s. sophise 

C. c. alfaroana 

C. caniveti salvini 

C. cyanotus 

H. j. henryi 

C. bryantae 

L. helensB 

P. moccino costarioensis 

T. pueUa 

C. b. salvini 
Tetraganops frantzi 
A. c. caeruleigularis 

C. r. uropygialis 
M. formicivorus striati- 

.pectus 
V. o. sanguinolentus 
S. argentifrons 

D. m. septentrionalis 

D. p. puncticeps 

F. r. rufipectus 

G. f . costarioensis 
S. e. rufigenis 

P. lawrencei 

T. rufo-brunneus 

P. panerythrus 
P. variegaticeps 
X. s. lineatus 
S. canigularis 
M. rubiginosa 



1 With exceptions as marked all occur in West Andean Subtropical Fauna. 

2 Eastern Andes. 
8 Central Andes. 

^ Ecuador; unknown as yet from Colombia. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colomhia. 



159 



Colombia 
Premnoplex brunnescens brunnescens 

Sittasomus Eequatorialis ^ 
Picolaptes lacrymiger lacrymiger 
Cephalopterus penduliger ' 
Pachyrhamphus versicolor versicolor 
Acroohordopus zeledoni ^ 
Pseudotriccus pelzelni ' 
Myiochanes ardosiacus 
Elaenia pudica pudica 
Lophotriccus squamsecrista squamae- 

crista 
Myiadestes ralloides venezuelensis 
Catharus birchalli 

" fuscater fuscater 
Cinclus leuconotus 
Henicorhina leucophrys guttata 
Troglodytes solstitialis 
Vireosylva josephse josepha 
Myioborus verticalis verticaHs 
Compsothlypis pitiayumi 
Sturnella magna meridionalis ' 
Chlorospingus albitempora nigriceps 
Piranga leucoptera ardens 

" testacea 
Buthraupis melanochlamys 
Euphonia cyanocephala 
Saltator olivaseens 
Buarremon brunneinuchus 
Atlapetes gutturalis gutturalis 
Lysurus castaneioeps 
Brachyspiza capensis peruviana 
Spinus xanthogaster 



Eastern Panama 
P. b. brunnei- 
cauda 



P. pelzelni 



L. s. minor 



M. coloratus 



H. 1. guttata 
T. festinus 



M. V. verticalis 



Chiriqui-Costa Rica 
P. b. brunneicauda 

S. sylvioides levis 
P. affinis neglectus 
C. glabraooUis 
P. V. costaricensis 

A. zeledoni 

M. lugubris 

E. frantzi frantzi 

L. s. minor 

M. melanops 
C. m. costaricensis 
C. f. hellmayri 
C. ardesiacus? 
H. 1. collina 
T. ochraceus 
V. j. costaricensis 
M. aurantiacus 
C. p. speciosa 
S. m. alticola 
C. novicius novicius 
P. 1. latifasciata 
" testacea 

B. cseruleigularis 
E. elegantissima 
S. grandis 

B. brvmneinuchus 

A. g. brunnescens 
L. crassirostris 

B. c. peruviana 
S. xanthogaster 



The Temperate Zone. 

The Temperate Zone lies between the upper limit of the Subtropical 
Zone and the lower limit of the Paramo Zone, or, approximately, between 
the altitudes of 9000 and 12,000 feet. In humid regions its upper boun- 
daries coincide with timber-line. 

Where the Subtropical Zone is arid and treeless, certain Temperate Zone 
species may descend to the upper borders of the Tropical Zone. Where a 



1 Eastern Andes, 
^ Central Andes. 



160 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

mountain peak or range does not enter far into the Paramo Zone, the 
Temperate Zone may reach a higher than average level. This is especially 
true if the zone is forested; but in the absence of forests the Paramo Zone 
encroaches upon the upper border of the Temperate Zone which may not 
then exceed 11,000 feet. 

In Colombia, except when interrupted by the Paramo Zone, the Tem- 
perate Zone occupies the crest and both slopes of the ranges on which it 
occurs. There is, therefore, no such difference in the life of its eastern and 
western slopes as is found, for example, in those of the Subtropical Zone of 
the Central Andes. 

In the comparatively low Western Andes, the Temperate Zone north 
of Popayan is present only at a few disconnected localities. Richardson 
and Miller found it west of Popayan, and Miller and Boyle discovered it on 
the Paramillo at the northern end of the chain. At both places Diglossa 
gloriosissima was common, but the species has yet to be taken elsewhere. 

Doubtless the Temperate Zone is also present on the "Paramo" (so- 
called) of Frontino, and on the other higher peaks of the northern part of 
the Western Andes. 

In the Central Andes it is probably continuous as far north as Sta. 
Elena, east of Medellin, and, except for the subtropical break at Andalucia, 
the Temperate Zone appears to occupy most of the summits of the Eastern 
Andes, though I am unable to state its northern limits in Colombia. 

In Venezuela this zone reaches the vicinity of Merida. In the Santa 
Marta group, if one may judge from Dr. Allen's summary of our knowledge 
of its bird-life, the Temperate Zone holds comparatively few representative 
species. Of seventy-three species which I list as characteristic of the 
Temperate Zone in the Eastern Andes, only seven are specifically, and only 
eleven are generically represented in this zone in the Santa Marta moun- 
tains. Further field-work will doubtless add to the list of Santa Martan 
Temperate Zone species, and perhaps explain certain anomalies in distribu- 
tion contained in Allen's paper. For example, Buarremon assimilis, which 
we have found commonly in the Temperate Zone of all three ranges but 
never below, is recorded from Bonda (2 adults, 2 juv. in nestling plumage), 
a locality near sea-level. Again, Myospiza manimbe, which we have never 
found above the. Tropical Zone, is recorded on the authority of Bangs from 
the Paramo of Macotama (alt. 11,000-15,000 ft.). 

Southward, the Temperate Zone increases greatly in area in the inter- 
andine valleys of Ecuador, and on the tablelands of Peru and Bolivia. In 
Argentina and Chile it descends to sea-level at a latitude not yet determined. 

Unlike the Subtropical Zone, the fauna of which is almost wanting in 
arid, treeless regions, the Temperate Zone has strongly marked humid and 



Bulletin A. M. N. H, 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXXV. 





Chakacteristic Trees of Temperate Zone Forest. 
(Photographed near Laguneta, Central Andes.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 161 

arid divisions. The first is characterized by a dense low forest of thickly 
branched, sturdy trees on which grow numerous epiphytes and parasites, 
including a great variety of mosses. Allen's description of the Laguneta 
region (Expedition No. 3) gives an excellent idea of Temperate Zone forest. 

The arid portions of this zone include bush-grown or treeless slopes, and 
the Savanna of Bogota, with its exceptionally favorable haunts for plains- 
and marsh-loving species. 

The bird-life of the Temperate Zone is composed of an exceedingly 
interesting combination of species obviously derived from lower zone forms 
of the same latitude and from forms inhabiting the same zone at a different 
latitude. 

Thus, Zenaida ruficauda ruficauda, Z. r. antioquice, Troglodytes musculus 
columboe, and Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis are racial, intergrading 
representatives of Tropical forms of the same latitude. While, though 
now specifically distinct, Penelope montagni, Trogonurus assimilis, Andigena 
hypoglaucus appear respectively to be zonal representatives of P. cristata, 
T. -personatus, and A. nigrirostris, all of which are found in the adjoining 
lower zone. 

Of the second group, or true Temperate Zone species which have ex- 
tended their range to the higher parts of the Andes from a latitude where 
this range reaches sea-level, Porphyriops melanops bogotensis is but a slightly 
differentiated form of P. m. melanops of Paraguay, Scytalopiis niger is found 
unchanged at sea-level in Chile, and Catamenia analis schistaceifrons is an 
intergrading form of C. analis analoides which is foxmd on the coast of Peru. 

One of the most interesting results of our study of zonal life is the dis- 
covery that two forms of Streptoprocne zonaris inhabit the Andes; one, S. z. 
albidnda, occurring in the Tropical and Subtropical Zones; the other, iS. z. 
altissima, in the Temperate Zone. Although these closely related forms, 
when feeding, are doubtless associated, we have found no intergrades be- 
tween them. The latter indeed, more closely resembles S. z. zonaris of 
southern Brazil than it does S. z. albicincta, and it is not improbable that it 
has been derived from zonaris through extension of range with increasing 
altitude in the Andes, rather than from albicincta. The latter, however, is 
also a racial representative of zonaris. Hence apparently two forms ha\'ing 
a common ancestor with which both intergrade, meet as species. 

We must look not only to more southern, but to more northern latitudes 
if we would discover the ancestral type from which certain species of the 
Temperate Zone in Colombia were derived. Possibly no more convincing 
proof of the northern origin of a Colombian Temperate Zone race could be 
asked for than is furnished by Otocoris alpestris peregrina, a common species 
of the Bogota Savanna, to which it appears to be restricted. 




95" »<r «5* W 75' 70* 65* 60* SS" SO" 45* Wt 35* 3<f 25" 21^ 



Fig. 19. Semi-diagrammatic representation of the Range of Scytalopus niger, a Temperate Zone species 
which ranges from the sea-level in Chile to 10,000 feet in the Colombian Andes, without showing racial 
variation. Its range is not known to be as continuous as the diagram indicates. 

162 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of BirdAife in Colombia. 163 

Fulica americana columhiana, Ixobrychus exilis bogotensis and Asio 
flammeus bogotensis are also Savanna forms of presumably northern origin 
which have reached Colombia under climatic conditions no longer existing, 
and are now associated there with species of southern origin, which have 
apparently arrived during prevailing conditions. 

Characteristic forms of the Temperate Zone whose origin is not now 
determinable, are species of the genus Grallaria, Ochthceca, Diglossa and 
Buthraupis, while the Hummingbirds, of which we found some sixteen 
species, are more numerous than the members of any other family. 

The more uniform climatic conditions of higher altitudes, as well as of 
higher latitudes, tends to create corresponding uniformity in their life. 
Unlike the zones below it, the Temperate Zone of Colombia cannot be 
divided into smaller faunal areas. Even when Temperate Zone islands 
of the same range are as widely separated as are those of the Western Andes, 
there is striking similarity in their bird-life. Hence we conclude that as 
with the Subtropical Zone of Colombia and Costa Rica, they were at one 
time connected, and owe their present isolation to erosion in the interven- 
ing area. This belief is strengthened when we compare the life of what we 
believe to be a true "oceanic" Temperate Zone island in the Santa Marta 
group, with that of the same zone in the Eastern Andes, and find how few 
Andean species have crossed to the Santa Martan Zone. 

In the Central and Eastern Andes the Temperate Zone is too continuous 
to permit of isolation with subsequent differentiation. 

In defining the boundaries of the Subtropical Zone we have seen that 
when the Andean system of Ecuador and southern Colombia develops into 
three distinct ranges, the Subtropical Zone of the Pacific slope is continued 
northward in the Western Andes, that of the Amazonian slope in the East- 
ern Andes, while the Central Andes, having an indirect connection with 
both Western and Eastern ranges, has received a certain amount of life from 
each, but has little of its own. 

When, however, we examine the topographical relations of the Temperate 
Zone, we find that the Central Andes carries a direct northward extension 
of the great Ecuadorian interandine temperate region, and as such it has 
some species, particularly at its southern end, unknown elsewhere in Colom- 
bia. Examples are AruBaretes p. cequatorialis, Conirostrum fraseri, and 
Urothraupis stolzmani. 

The importance of giving due consider.ation to suitability of haunt in 
the study of zoogeography, is forcibly illustrated in the Colombian Temper- 
ate Zone by the bird-life of the Bogota Savanna. 

Apparently no other part of this zone in Colombia possesses the physical 
characteristics of that area. Though evidently much modified by cultiva- 



164 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



tion it still may be described as a flat, treeless plain suitable for the wants 
of such plains-loving species as Horned Larks and Pipits, dotted with 
sloughs and reedy marshes, ideal haunts for Coots, Rails, and Bitterns. 
Nowhere else in the Temperate Zone of Colombia do these and certain 
other species find the conditions they require. The Savanna, therefore, 
constitutes the entire range of such forms as Rallus semiplumbeus, Porphy- 
riops melanops bogotensis, Fulica americana Columbiana, Ixobrydms exilis 
bogotensis, Asio flammeus bogotensis, Habrura pedoralis bogotensis, and 
Otocoris alpestris peregrina, when it follows that, lacking this favorable 
locality, none of these species would be represented in Colombia. 

Various other species, generally wide-ranging tropical and subtropical 
forms, are found more or less regularly in the Savanna, but are unknown 
elsewhere in the Colombian Temperate Zone. Examples are Egretta candi- 
dissima, Florida coerulea, Gallinula galeata, all of which have been found in 
the Savanna by Hermano Apolinar Maria, whom I have to thank for this 
information. 

So small a part of the Andean Temperate Zone is contained in Colombia 
that what has been written here can be considered only as a contribution 
toward the solution of a very large problem. 



Birds of the Temperate Zone. 



Family Tinamidoe 
Nothocercus Julius 

Family Cracidce. 
Penelope montagni 

Family Columbidoe 
Zenaida ruficauda ruficauda 
" " antioquise 

Family Rallidce 
Rallus semiplumbeus 
Porphyriops melanops bogotensis 
Fulica americana columbiana 

Family Bubonidce 
Asio flammeus bogotensis 
" stygius 

Family Psiitacidce 
Pionus seniloides seniloides 
Hapalo()sittaca f uertsi 

Family Cypselidoe 
Streptoprocne zonaris altissima 



Family Trochilidce 
Helianthea helianthea 

" bonapartei 

" lutetia lutetia" 

Lafresnayea saiil saiil 
Aglseaotis cupripennis cupripennis 
Vestipedes vestitus vestitus 

" " smaragdinipectus 

" mosquera 

" derbyi longirostris 
MetaUura tyrianthina tyrianthina 
Chalcostigma herrani 
Ramphomicrom heteropogon micro- 

rhynchus 
Opisthoprora euryptera 
Psalidoprymna victoriae victoriae 
" gouldi gouldi 

Family Trogonidce 
Trogonurus assimilis 

Family Ramphastidce 
Andigena hypoglauca 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



165 



Family Picidos 
Hypoxanthus rivoli rivoli 

" " brevirostris 

Veniliornis nigriceps equifasciatus 

Family HyladidcB 
Scytalopus niger 

" griseicoUis 

" infasciatus 

Myornis senilis 
Aeropternis orthonyx 

Family Formicariida 
Chamseza mollissima 
Grallaria squamigera 

" ruficeps 

" rufocinerea 

" monticolor 

" milleri 
Oreopezus rufula rufula 

Family Dendrocolaptidoe 
Schizoeaca fuliginosa 
Synallaxis a. elegantior 

" gularis gularis 

" subpudioa 
Thripadectes flammulatus 

Family Tyrannidoe 
Oohthodieta fumigatus 
Ochthoeca cenanthoides fumioolor 
" brunneifrons 
" frontalis 
" lessoni 
Meoocerculus leucophrys setophagoides 
" stictopterus 

" uropygialis 

Anaeretes parulus sequatorialis 
" agilis 

Family Cotingidce 

Euohlornis arcuata 
Helioohera rubrioristata 

Family Hirundinidce 

Orochelidon murina 

Family Troglodytidas 

Cinnicerthia miiruf a 

" unibrunnea 

Cistothorus apolinari 
Troglodytes musculus oolumbae 



Family Turdidm 

Semimerula gigas gigas 
• " " gigantodes 

Family Mnioiillidoe 
Myioborus ornatus 
" chrysops 
Myiothlypis nigrocristatus 
Basileuterus luteiviridis 
" riohardsoni 

Family Motacillidce 
Anthus bogotensis 

Family AlaudidcB 
Otocoris alpestris peregrina 

Family Fringillidce 
Pheuotious m-opygialis uropygialis 
Catamenia inornata minor 

" analoides schistaceifrons 
" homoohroa 

Spinus spinescens 
" nigricauda 
Spodiornis jardini 
Atlapetes sohistaceus 

" pallidinuchus pallidinuohus 
" " papallactse 

Buarremon assimilis 

Family Coerebidce 
Diglossa gloriosissima 
" brunneiventris 
" lafresnayei 
" aterrima 
Conirostrum sitticolor 
" rufum 

" fraseri 

Family Tanagridm 

Iridosornis dubusia dubusia 
" " ignicapiUus 

" " oaeruleoventris 

Poecilothraupis lunulata lunidata 

" palpebrosa palpebrosa 

" " olivaceioeps 

Buthraupis cucuUata gigas 
" exjmia chloronota 
" " eximia 

Sericossypha albooristata 

Hemispingus atropileus 



166 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Hemispingus superciliaris nigrifrons Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis 

Pseudospingus verticalis Sturnella magna meridionalis 

XTrothraupis stolzmanni Microglseus subalaris 
Psittospiza riefferi riefferi ^,^^^^ (.^^^^ 

Family Icteridce Cyanolyca armillata armillata 
Cacicus leucorhamphus " " quindiuna 



The Paramo Zone. 

The name 'Paramo' is locally applied to any treeless region lying above 
10,000 feet. Thus, the road from Bogota to Chipaque is commonly said 
to pass over the Paramo of Boqueron whereas, fauiially, it nowhere extends 
above the Temperate Zone. 

The true Paramo Zone extends from the upper limit of trees to the lower 
limit of snow. On Santa Isabel, in the Central Andes, Allen and Miller 
found this zone between the altitudes of 12,500 and 15,200 feet, but where 
the upper border of the Temperate Zone is arid and lacking in forest the 
paramo appears to reach a lower level. Thus, on the range east of Bogota, 
the mullein-like 'frailejon' so characteristic of the Paramo Zone, grows 
abundantly at 11,000 feet, and some plants of this species are found even 
lower. 

Where, however, on peaks which do not rise to snow-line, humid condi- 
tions prevail, the tree-line may reach 13,000 feet and the lower level of the 
Paramo Zone be correspondingly higher. 

Miller and Boyle reached this altitude on the Paramillo, the highest 
point in the Western Andes, but found there but few species which may be 
considered as representative of this zone, including Orodynastes striaticollis 
striaticollis. We have elsewhere found this bird only on the Paramo of 
Santa Isabel, but I observe that Bangs records it from an altitude of 8000 
feet in the Santa Marta group, and it possibly may not be a true Paramo 
Zone form. 

Conditions on the Paramillo seem favorable for the presence of species 
which are common on Santa Isabel, and their absence can only be attribut- 
able to the isolation of this peak and may be considered to indicate that at 
no time has it been connected with areas having the life of the Paramo 
Zone. This zone in its full development is therefore, apparently absent in 
the Western Andes. 

In the Central Andes it occurs in at least twelve places between the 
Paramos of Las Pappas and Santa Isabel. Both these localities were 
visited by our expeditions (Nos. 3 and 4) and Allen's careful description of 
the country traversed should be read in this connection. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 167 

In that part of Colombia lying south of Popayan, where the Andean 
system retains much the same character it possesses in Ecuador, there 
are no less than twenty moimtains which rise above the lower level of the 
Paramo Zone. 

The Eastern Andes possesses some twenty mountain summits of suffi- 
cient altitude to support a Paramo Zone fauna, but few of them have been 
explored. This zone also exists in the Andes of Merida, Venezuela, and in 
the Santa Marta group.^ 

The proportion of paramo species in the last-named range is higher than 
that of any of the three lower zones, a fact which possibly is due to the open 
nature of the haunts of paramo birds and their consequent exposure to 
storms which may transport them considerable distances. 

If we except so cosmopolitan a genus as Gallinago, the species of the 
Paramo Zone of Colombia are all of southern origin. All the genera repre- 
sented reach sea-level in the south Temperate Zone and most of them are 
absent from the Tropical Zone. Cinclodes, Upucerthia and J\hiscisaxicola 
are admirable examples of South Temperate Zone genera which, with 
increasing altitude, ha\-e extended their range northward to the very limits 
of the Paramo Zone. Even the Condor, a sea-level bird of Patagonia, 
makes what we think of as his true home on the summits of the Northern 
Andes, where the factors which determine zonal boundaries keep him to his 
true level quite as efPectively as they do a diminutive Marsh Wren. Like 
that of the Temperate Zone, the life of the Paramo Zone in Colombia re- 
quires no faunal subdivisions. Allen and jNIiller's work on Santa Isabel 
shows that the Central Andes, as the topography of the region indicates, 
is the main northward extension of the Andean system. Muscisaxicola 
Columbiana and Upticerthia excelsior Columbiana, both representing genera 
hitherto unknown in Colombia, were found by them in numbers. Doubtless 
additional work in the Paramo Zone of the Central Andes would reveal the 
presence of other southern forms. 

Birds of the Paramo Zone. 

Family Charadriidoe Family Cathartida 

Gallinago nobilis Sarcorhamphiis gryphus 

■' Family Trochilidce 

Family Anatid<B Pterophanes temmiucki 

Nettion andium Vestipedes paramillo 

1 The occurrence of Cinclodes in the Paramo Zone of the Santa Marta group and of the Andes 
near Merida, Venezuela, is surprising. No other species of this genus is known from nearer than 
Ecuador. Possibly the genus will still be discovered in the Colombian Andes. 



168 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Metallura williami 
Oxypogon stiibelli 

Family Hylaclidce 
Scytalopus canus 

" sylvestris 

Family Formicariidoe 
Upucerthia excelsior columbiana 
Family Dendrocolaptidce 
Leptasthenura andicola 
Siptornis flammulata multostriata 



Siptornis flammulata quindiana 
Family Tyrannidoe 

Orodynastes striaticollis striaticollis 
Muscisaxicola alpina columbiana 

Family Troglodytidoe 
Cistothorus aequatorialis 

Family Fringillidce 

Phrygilus unicolor grandis 

" " geospizopsis 



Tabular Synopsis hy Families 0/ Zonal Distribution of Colombian Birds Collected by 
the American Museum's Expeditions. 



Families 





Sub- 


Tem- 


Tropical 


tropical 


perate 


12 


2 


1 


10 


4 


1 + 11 


6 


2 




22 


5 


2 + 11 


1 






11 




3 


2 




11 


1 






2 






4 






3 






1 






1 






1 






3 






1 






1 






13 






2 






6 


1 




1 






1 






3 


22 


21 



Paramo 



TinamidsB 

Cracidse 

Odontophoridae . . 

Columbidae 

Opisthocomidae . . 

RalUdse 

Podicipedidae . . . . 
Heliornithidae . . . 

Laridffi 

CharadriidiE 

Parridse 

Eurypygida; 

(Edicnemidse . . . . 

Psophiidse 

Ibididae 

Plataleidae 

Ciconiidae 

Ardeidae 

Palamedeidae . . . . 

Anatidae 

Phalacrocoracidae 

Anhingidse 

CathartidaR 



1 Ranging upward from the Subtropical Zone. 
8 Ranging upward from the Tropical Zone. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of BirdAife in Colombia. 



169 



Families 



Zones 



Tropical 



Sub- 
tropical 



Tem- 
perate 



Paramo 



Falconidse 

Bubonidae 

Psittacidae 

Alcedinidse 

Momotidse 

Caprimulgidse 

Cyselida; 

Troehilidae 

Trogonidse 

Cuculidse 

CapitonidBB 

RamphastidsR 

GalbuUdae 

Bucconidae 

Pioidss 

Conopophagidae . . . . 

Hylactidae 

Formicariidae 

Dendrocolaptidse . . . 

Tyrannidae 

Pipridse 

Cotingidae 

Hirundinidae 

Sylviidae 

Troglodytidae 

Cinclidae 

Mimidae 

TurdidaB 

Vireonidae 

MniotiltidaB 

Motacillidae 

Alaudidae 

Catamblyrhynchidae 

Fringillidae 

Coerebidae 

Procniatidae 

Tanagridae 

Icteridae 

Corvidae 



33 
8 

22 
4 
9 
9 
5 

48 

10 
9 
7 

17 
8 

19 

25 
3 

82 
48 
90 
22 
24 
8 
3 
23 



7 
10 



35 
13 

1 
51 
22 

2 



112 
1 
6+1 2 

1 

2+1 2 

22 

37+32 

4 
42 

4 
7+12 

12 

7+1 

12 

1 

17+52 

27+32 

38+5 2 

7 

15 

1+2 2 

12 
1 

12 

8+32 

3 + 12 
5+12 



1 

17+72 

7+2 = 

12 

51+72 

6+1 = 
2 



1+52 

2 + 12 

2 



16+6' 
1 



1+1 = 



3+1' 

5 

7 

5+51 

10+5' 

2 
1 

4+2' 



2 
5 
5 
1 
1 
1 
11+1' 
8+21 

15+51 

4+11 

2 



I 



1 Ranging upward from the Subtropical Zone. 

2 Ranging upward from the Tropical Zone. 



Part II. 

A DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE BIRDS COLLECTED IN 
COLOMBIA BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM'S EXPEDITION. 

Classification. — It is greatly to be regretted that no one system of 
classification is accepted as authoritative by writers on South American 
birds. Everyone who has experienced the annoyance of referring to faunal 
papers, the writers of no two of which may have adopted the same system 
of classification, and which as authors' ' separates,' are usually without an 
index, should admit that convenience of reference is here of first importance. 

The writer has seen too many systems of classification accepted and 
rejected to have much faith in the stability of any now, in greater or less 
measure, current. So far as he personally is concerned it is immaterial 
which one of half a dozen now in use be followed, but it is material that we 
use that one consistently. 

If we except Sclater and Salvin's 'Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium' 
(1873), which included the birds of Mexico and Central America as well as 
those of South America, only one list of South American birds, as such, has 
ever been published. This, Brabourne and Chubb's 'Birds of South 
America,' is not only as authoritative in the present state of our knowl- 
edge, as, we can perhaps expect such a general work to be, but it conforms 
to the Classification of Sharpe. 

From the standpoints of both scientific excellence and expediency it 
seems therefore eminently desirable to accept the classification of this work, 
and I have adopted it in the present paper. The numbers in parentheses 
preceding each name in the systematic portion of this paper are those of 
Brabourne and Chubb's work. 

Nomenclature. — The nomenclature in Brabourne and Chubb's list is 
binomial, the authors, having deferred an expression of opinion of the 
subspecific relations of the forms listed until these forms were treated at 
length in succeeding volumes of their work, a plan, which, owing to the 
unfortunate death of the senior author, will now never be realized. 

It is, of course, out of the question to use binomial nomenclature in the 
present paper, and the trinomials employed follow current usage, or express 
the author's views as thej^ have been formed through a study of the material 
at hand and under the requirements stated below. 

Aside from this necessary change from binomialism to trinomialism, 
I have followed the nomenclature of Brabourne and Chubb's list, except 

170 



1917.1 Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 171 

in a limited number of cases where additional material has led to other 
conclusions. From the standpoint of nomenclature, pure and simple, I 
have made no attempt to revise the names they present. 

Treatment of Genera. — I do not approve of the present-day excessive 
multiplication of genera. I believe that we should treat what we term 
genera much as we treat species, and when the variations from a given 
generic type do not result in actual segregation, but simply mark the con- 
necting stages, then such variations should be considered of subgeneric 
value. 

We all exhibit a tendency to forget that a genus is, in a large measure, 
an artificial creation, and that the characters on which it is based are ill- 
defined, unstandardized, and arbitrarily employed. In the hands of the 
systematist whose talent, often highly developed for analysis, leads him to 
magnify the importance of minor characters, classification becomes an end 
rather than a means. Accepting the doctrine of evolution he nevertheless 
seems determined to prove the theory of special creation. It is his business 
to assort, arrange and pigeon-hole certain facts as these facts are repre- 
sented by specimens. The necessity for drawing up diagnoses, keys and 
descriptions for the identification of these specimens leads him to search 
for differences rather than resemblances. To these differences he gives 
names, and to these names we apparently cannot avoid attributing a signifi- 
cance they are often far from possessing. As a result, nomenclature over- 
shadows classification and facts are obscured or wholly disguised by names. 

There is unquestionably lu-gent need for a thorough generic revision of 
many groups of South American birds, but the reviser should not feel com- 
pelled to found a new genus on every species showing a departure from the 
set of artificial characters he has assigned to the so-called type. Further- 
more, in order to determine whether the differences observed are of generic 
or subgeneric value, his revision should be based on all, not a part, of the 
species of the group concerned. 

It was first intended in the preparation of the following hst of species 
collected by us in Colombia, to use currently accepted generic terms, and 
when recent authorities differed to attempt to reach an independent de- 
cision based on original investigation. I soon found, however, that the 
instances in which authorities differ are so numerous, that a proper con- 
sideration of the points at issue would require both far more time and 
material than were available, and I was forced to abandon this plan. I 
have, consequently, followed sometimes one author, sometimes another, 
and the results here presented I frankly confess to be both inconsistent and 
unsatisfactory. I feel that there is no hope for uniformity in the treatment 
of this question -of genera, until systematists reach some agreement in 



172 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

regard to what constitutes a generic character. At present we are without 
such a standard. The genus of one author is the subgenus of another, and 
is not recognized at all by a third. In many instances, therefore, a genus 
becomes merely a personal expression of opinion concerning the taxonomic 
value of certain admitted characters. The same species may be referred 
to a dozen or more different genera by as many writers, all of whom may 
agree on the details of structure and relationships involved, and disagree 
only on questions of nomenclature. 

If the ultimate object of systematic zoology were classification based 
only on analysis, we might be warranted in carrying dissection and descrip- 
tion to their utmost limit and applying to the results as many names as the 
most minute differences discovered seemed to require. It is, however, 
commonly agreed among biologists that the primary object of systematic 
zoology is to provide a nomenclature which can be used with some degree 
of precision, and which shall be based not wholly upon analysis but to a 
degree upon synthesis as well. 

So far as species and their geographical races are concerned, the trinomial 
system of nomenclature permits the systematist to recognize but slightly 
differentiated forms by name without obscuring their more essential rela- 
tionships. He may not express lines of descent, even if they are known, he 
may indeed name first the most recent offshoot of a certain stock, but in 
the naming of a subspecies he does not disguise its group relationships. 

In our treatment of species, intergradation, known or probable (see 
beyond under Treatment of Subspecies) is the test which determines sub- 
specific status. But in our treatment of genera, this test is largely ignored. 
We have, it is true, subgenera, but so far as practical nomenclature is 
concerned we are trinomial with species and binomial with genera. In 
consequence, many of our generic terms are just as false, just as misleading, 
just as far from conveying an idea of actual relationships, as though we 
were to use a binomial for every subspecies. They are, indeed, more 
misleading since in the latter case the name employed would indicate at 
least generic relationship, while in the former all suggestion of relationship 
may be lost. 

I am aware that the two cases are not wholly comparable, and that 
strictly to apply the test of intergradation to generic groups, would, in 
some cases, place in the same genus species, which in the light of our current 
understanding of what constitutes a genus, could not be considered as 
generically related; and thereby lead to nomenclatural results as undesirable 
as those based on excessive analysis. But I am also aware of how erroneous 
an impression may be given by unduly emphasizing differences which are 
obviously of less importance than resemblances, and then, chiefly for con- 



1917.] Chapman, Dislrlhulion oj Bird-life in Colombia. 173 

venience in classification, labeling them with a name to which we can no 
more help attaching the attributes of an entity, than we can avoid think- 
ing of political boundaries as physical facts. 

Two species, for example, may be ninety-five percent alike, and five 
percent unlike, in their so-called generic characters. The five percent of 
unlikeness is made the basis of a generic division, a new name is given and 
the ninety-five percent of resemblance is thereby effectually concealed by 
the combined results of analysis and nomenclature. I will illustrate with 
the following examples: 

The American Quails to which the name Bob-white is commonly applied, 
are by most authors placed in two genera, Colinus (or its nomenclatural 
equivalent Ortyx) and Eupsychortyx. The 'generic' differences between 
Colinus virginianus of the United States and Eupsychortyx cristatus of 
northern South America, structurally as well as geographically the most 
widely separated species of the group, are found in the feathers of the head 
and wings; 'Eupsychortyx' having the central crown-feathers elongated and 
forming a well-defined crest, while the first (outer) primary is slightly 
shorter than the eighth, rather than longer, as in Colinus. There is also a 
well-marked difference in pattern of coloration, though both are obviously 
quails. 

Current standards in ornithology would accept these differences as of 
generic value, and if the two species mentioned were the only ones concerned, 
the appropriateness of the generic distinctions mentioned would not be 
questioned. But in Central America, from Yucatan to Costa Rica, or in 
other words, from the southern limit of the range of true Colinus in Guate- 
mala to the northern limit of the range of Eupsychortyx in western Panama, 
there are found several species in which a crest is evident, in which the 
wing-forriiula is sometimes that of the northern bird, at others that of the 
southern, and which also approach the type of coloration shown by the 
South American species. 

In short, so far as the characters mentioned are concerned, these Central 
American species are intermediate or connecting forms. Practical evidence 
of the truth of this statement may be found in their treatment by various 
recent authorities, some of whom refer them to one 'genus' some to the 
other. In spite of their superficial unlikeness, it is apparent, therefore, that 
a line generically separating North American Bob-whites from South 
American Bob-whites cannot be drawn, and hence it follows that a nomen- 
clature which recognizes generic distinction between them, conceals the 
biologically significant fact of their group relationship. 

Evidence of the closeness of this relationship not found in the birds' 
skins is supplied by their notes. The calls of all the species have not as 



174 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. .XXXVI, 

yet been recorded, but I can affirm from personal experience that the call of 
Colinus nigrogularis of Yucatan and of Colinus cristatus leucotis of Colombia 
is essentially the familiar " Bob-white " of Colinus virginianus. The voice 
of the southern bird lacks the volume of that of the northern one, but the 
notes and their peculiar quality are the same in all three. In view of all 
these facts, I feel that the actual relationships of the species of this group 
are more nearly expressed by referring them all to the genus Colinus. 

To illustrate further what I feel to be the evils of unwarranted generic 
separation, there is found in southern South America (Bolivia, southern 
Brazil, Argentina and Chile) a group composed of those species of small 
black and white woodpeckers, the close relationship of which to the Downy 
Woodpecker is obvious, and which have generally been considered as con- 
generic with that species. They all have the back barred as in Dryobates 
scalaris, of the southwestern United States and Mexico, and the more 
western species {lignariu£) has the underparts heavily streaked. Since, 
however, in this respect it differs from the south Brazilian species cancellatu^, 
more than does that species from scalaris, this cannot be considered a charac- 
ter of generic importance. The southern birds, it is true, have all, instead 
of only the lateral tail-feathers barred as in our northern species; but 
although I believe that pattern of coloration is often a much better generic 
character than differences of degree in the shape of bill, relative length of 
wing, etc., no one, I think, would claim that this difference in the pattern of 
tail-marking would warrant generic separation. The only 'structural' 
differences said to exist between the North American and South American 
species of these Woodpeckers, are to be found in the' relative length of the 
primaries and secondaries, which results in giving the southern birds a more 
'rounded' wing. On the basis of this character it is, therefore, proposed 
to segregate them in the genus Dydiopicyus Bonap., a proceeding which 
would conceal what I believe to be the generic relationships of the Downy 
Woodpeckers of South America and North America, a relationship of high 
importance zoogeographically since in the territory lying between Bolivia 
and western Panama no form of this group is known to occur. A broader 
view of this case would involve a consideration of the generic relationships 
of the New World and Old World forms of these Woodpeckers, but into 
this phase of the subject I am not now prepared to enter, and I here insist 
only on the congeneric affinities of the New World species. That the call- 
note of Dryobates lignarius of western Argentina and Chile resembles the 
familiar peek of our Downy Woodpecker is of significance in this connection. 

This is not the only case in which generic separation would conceal, so 
far as nomenclature is concerned, the exceedingly significant fact that 
species of the same group are present in what may be roughly termed 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 175 

temperate North America and temperate South America, while no species 
of the group is. found in the intervening region. 

An Avocet {Recurvirostra) and Ridgway's Glossy Ibis (Plegadis), for 
example, are found on the highlands of Bolivia and Peru, but the first 
genus is not encountered again south of Guatemala (where it is found only 
as a winter visitant from further north) and the Glossy Ibis {Plegadis autum- 
nalis), a close ally of the Peruvian species, has not been recorded from south 
of the United States. 

The distribution of Flickers presents a similar case. Found throughout 
North America south to Guatemala they occur again on the highlands of 
Peru, but are unknown in the intervening countries. 

It is now proposed, however, to remove the Flickers of the Peruvian 
highlands from the genus Colaptes on the basis of their larger, heavier bill 
and shorter wing, and while it is true that these characters are obvious, I 
feel that the even more obvious and striking resemblances between the birds 
of North America and those of South America call for recognition under a 
common generic name. 

I am not unfamiliar with the perplexing problems which confront the 
systematist. The treatment of the Chilian and Brazilian members of this 
group' of Flickers is a case in point. I know from experience how difficult 
of consistent application is a nomenclature which insists that definite lines 
be drawn where only indefinite boundaries exist; but I maintain, to quote 
the title-page motto of the American Ornithologists' Union's 'Check-List,' 
that " Zoological nomenclature is a means, not an end, of Zoological Science," 
and that any procedure which tends to defeat this end must handicap the 
branch of science to which it is applied. 

Treatment of Subspecies. — Believing that classification is designed to 
show relationships rather than to serve the ends of the classifier, I have 
aimed to treat each case involving the use of a trinomial name on its own 
merits with reference to the factors involved. To refuse to use trinomials 
until the actual intergradation of the forms concerned is proven, is, in my 
opinion, as undesirable as to make every supposed representative form a 
subspecies. 

To lay down a certain rule and blindly be governed by it, is to handicap 
one's discrimination and experience. Everyone accustomed to handling 
large series of specimens knows that complete intergrads^tion remains to be 
demonstrated between many of our familiar birds whose subspecific standing 
is undoubted. The degree, and particularly the character of the differences 
exhibited, range, environment, faunal areas, the relative plasticity of the 
species in question, the action of other organisms in the regions concerned 
under similar circumstances, these and other factors such as habits, voice, 



176 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

etc., are to be considered in reaching a conclusion regarding the status of 
any form. 

To express within the narrow Hmitations permitted by trinomial nomen- 
clature what we believe to be the facts in the case should, in my opinion, 
be our first object; and I consequently have classed as subspecies (1) all 
representative forms whose intergradation is believed to be proven by the 
specimens examined; (2) all representative forms whose ranges are not 
separated by faunal or physical barriers, and which exhibit differences of 
a racial character; (3) all representative forms whose ranges are separated 
by physical or faunal barriers but which exhibit such slight differential 
characters that they may intergrade by individual variation; (4) all repre- 
sentative forms whose ranges are separated by physical or faunal barriers, 
which do not intergrade by variation but which are apparently so closely 
related that they might, with reasonable certainty, be expected to intergrade 
were their ranges continuous. 

The first group calls for no comment. The second contains by far the 
larger number of cases in which the trinomial designation is employed. 
Degree and nature of difference, and proximity of known ranges are usually 
the determining factors here, and any opinion reached must depend upon 
the weight given to them. 

No one, for example, comparing specimens of the Andean forms of 
Pyrodenis scutatus, would doubt their subspecific status. Pyroderus 
scutatus orenocensu is found in western Venezuela, P. s. granadensis in 
eastern Colombia, P. *. occidentalis in western Colombia, and P. s. masoni 
in eastern Peru. The species has not yet been recorded from Ecuador, but 
the close resemblance of the Peruvian race to the more northern races, in 
connection with the possibility of their geographic contact, leaves small 
doubt of their intergradation and they are, therefore, ranked as subspecies. 

It is when we come to a nomenclatural expression of the relationships 
of these Andean forms with Pyroderus scutahis scutaius, that systematists 
disagree. This bird inhabits the forests of southeastern Brazil and eastern 
Paraguay. It has never been recorded from the region lying between its 
known range and that of P. s. masoni of eastern Peru, and the character of 
the intervening country leaves little doubt that it does not occur there. 

From P. s. granadensis of eastern Colombia, P. s. scutatus differs only 
in size. It measures, wing, 242; tail, 163; culmen, 40 mm., as compared 
with wing, 240; tail, 150; culmen, 35 mm., in granadensis. If the birds 
came from adjoining ranges of the Andes, no doubt would be entertained 
of their intergradation, but although separated in size by only a few inches, 
in space they are some 4000 miles apart. It is the latter fact which has led 
to their recognition as different species, rather than as representatives of 
one species which they unquestionably are. 




* 9S' 90* 



60' 55" SIf 45' 4tf 95' 30* 25' ZIf 



Fig. 20. Known distribution of Pyroderus scuiatus. A species inhabiting the highland forests of south- 
eastern Brazil and eastern Paraguay and the Subtropical Zone of the Andes from Peru northward but which is 
unknown in the intervening area. (It has not been recorded from Ecuador.) 

1. Pyroderus sculalus scutatus. 2. Pyroderus scutatus masoni. 

3. Pyroderus sculalus occidenlalis. i. Pyroderus sculalus granadensis. 

5. Pyroderus scuiatus orenoeensis. 
177 



178 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

In spite, therefore, of their non-intergradation, I feel that a knowledge 
of their relationships is best conveyed by a trinomial; and such a designa- 
tion in connection with a statement of their ranges, gives far more informa- 
tion of this interesting case in distribution, than if the birds were treated 
as distinct species. 

The third group contains forms so closely related that in many instances 
their separation would not be suggested were their ranges not known to be 
disconnected. Many island forms come under this category. Separated 
from their mainland representative by a physical barrier which prevents 
contact of their respective ranges, and hence geographical intergradation, 
they are often classed as 'species' when the differentiating characters 
ascribed to them are so slight as to be bridged by individual variation, 
specimens occurring in the range of either form which might readily be 
referred to the other. 

It is in the treatment of the fourth group that the greatest difference of 
opinion is manifest. Here differentiation has been carried too far to permit 
of intergradation by variation, and geographical intergradation is prohibited. 
Such forms therefore might appear to fulfil the requirements of species, but 
I am convinced that in most instances to rank them as such is not only to 
conceal the real facts at issue but to mislead by a false statement. 

An excellent illustration is furnished by that group of subtropical species 
which inhabit the mountains of Colombia and are represented by closely 
allied but well differentiated forms in the mountains of western Panama and 
Costa Rica. Here the Tropical Zone is an actual barrier to contact of range. 
Not only in the lower intervening tropical area, but in the region they in- 
habit, these forms do not occur below a certain level. This discontinuity of 
range indicates almost beyond question the former connection of the now 
widely separated subtropical portions of this mountain system, and is 
consequently a physiographic and faunal fact of high importance. 

The zoological evidence involved can, however, be largely hidden by the 
use of a terminology which recognizes a purely artificial nomenclatural law 
as of greater importance than an attempt to express, so far as the rules of 
zoological nomenclature permit, the actual and undisputed facts in the case. 

An even more striking single case is furnished by the occurrence of a 
form of the boreal species, Otocoris alpestris, on the Savanna of Bogota. 
Geographically the nearest known form of this species is found in southern 
Mexico. Intergradation by contact for this plains-inhabiting species is 
obviously impossible. It is too strongly differentiated to intergrade by 
variation; it consequently conforms to the hard and fast definition of a. 
species, but to refuse to recognize its close relationship to Otocoris by classing 
it as a subspecies of that group under a trinomial, is to, in part, disguise 



1917.] Chapman, Dislrihulion of Bird-life in Colombia. 179 

one of the most interesting and conclusive evidences of the comparatively 
recent invasion of boreal forms into South America. 

It should be remembered that as ornithologists we are not compiling 
data merely for other ornithologists, nor, indeed, if this were true, would it be 
possible for other ornithologists always to examine the specimens on which 
our conclusions are based. Too often works on geographic distribution bear 
painful evidence of their author's unfamiliarity with the species on which 
his theories are raised. It is not to be expected, however, that he should 
be an expert in every group of animals and I feel it therefore to be the 
duty of the specialist to employ a nomenclature which will most clearly 
reveal the known facts in relationship rather than one which, for the sake 
of a comparatively unimportant consistency, conforms to some arbitrary 
standard, and emphasizes differences at the expense of resemblances. 

Number of Specia- Included. — The following list contains only species of 
which, with but few exceptions,' we have collected specimens. It numbers 
1285 species and subspecies of which forty-five are North American 
migrants, the remainder being doubtless permanent residents. 

We have done no work on the coasts of Colombiaj and it will be observed 
that the list includes no marine, and but few littoral species. It might 
have been materially enlarged by the inclusion of species recorded from 
Colombia, by other authors, but not secured by us. Since, however, most 
of these records^ are based on native-made, dataless 'Bogota' skins, it is 
not believed that the faunal value of this paper would have been increased 
by their inclusion. 

It may, however, be of interest to state that, roughly speaking, to add 
to our list of species those recorded by other writers but not obtained by us, 
would raise the total number of birds known from Colombia (including the 
Santa Marta region) to about 1700 species and subspecies. 

In making this estimate, I find that our collection of Hummingbirds 
is more incomplete than that of any other family. There are several reasons 
for our failure to secure a larger number of the some 170 -odd Hummingbirds 
known to inhabit Colombia. 

The collecting of Hummingbirds is a special branch of field work. To 
what extent the wide altitudinal range of many species is governed by the 
blooming of flowers from which they secure their food, I am unable to say. 
But it is a fact that certain species are found at a given locality only when 



' For example, the Condor, Roseate Spoonbill, and some others the identity of which was unmis- 
takable, and under all of which the absence of specimens is acknowledged. 

' This does not relate to the Santa Marta region, which, as elsewhere stated, calls for independent 
treatment, and which I understand is to be made the subject of an elaborate memoir, by Mr. W. E. C. 
Todd. 



180 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

a certain flower or flowers bloom, and that at other times they are appar- 
ently wanting. 

Unless, therefore, one specializes on Hummingbirds, learns the periods 
of inflorescence of their favorite trees and plants, and follows them through- 
out the year, he will secure only such species as chance to be brought to his 
attention by the flowers which happen to be in bloom at the time of his 
presence. 

It is in this family that the native collectors are especially skillful and 
successful. They know the flowers most attractive to Hummingbirds, 
where to find them and when they bloom. These they follow at different 
altitudes throughout the year, and from a suitable vantage point shoot 
the birds with a pellet of clay from a blow-gun as they poise before a flower. 

It is probable, therefore, that so far as the mere acquisition of specimens 
is concerned, our knowledge of Colombian Hummimgbirds is reasonably 
complete. In the restricted Bogota region it is doubtful if any species of 
Hummimgbirds have escaped the native collector. 

Brabourne and Chubb list one hundred and fifty-eight species of Hum- 
mingbirds from Colombia, and to this number we have added eleven, chiefly 
through our explorations in the little-known parts of the country. This 
makes a total of one hundred and sixty-nine species, of which we have 
taken only one hundred and five. Comparison of these figures with those 
of other families gives some most interesting results. Let us take, for 
example, the Formicariidse or Ant-Thrushes. The species of this family 
have never especially claimed the attention of the native collector as have 
the Hummingbirds. They are not in demand by milliners, and their haunts 
and habits make them difficult to collect with a blow-gun. 

Of this family, Brabourne and Chubb record seventy-five species from 
Colombia, and to this number we have added forty-nine, making a total 
of one hundred and twenty-four of which we have taken one hundred and 
three. Expressed in percentages, our addition to the family of Humming- 
birds was only seven percent, while to the family of Ant Thrushes we added 
no less than sixty-five percent! 

Comparison of the proportion of species in each family further shows 
that, whUe Ant-Thrushes are more diSicult to collect than Hummingbirds, 
the specialized habits of the latter require that they shall be pursued over 
a more or less prolonged period; while the former, as permanent residents 
in one locality, may be taken as well at one time as at another. Thus of 
the one hundred and sixty-nine species of Hummingbirds, we took only 
sixty-five percent, but of the one himdred and twenty-four species of Ant- 
Thrushes we took eighty-three percent. 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colonibia. 



181 



List op Families with the Number of Species by which each is Repbesbnted. 



Tinamidae 


15 


Trogonidae 


15 


Cracidje 


15 


Cuculidae 


11 


Odontophoridae 


8 


Capitonidae 


11 


Columbidse 


31 


Ramphastidae 


23 


Opisthocomidse 


1 


Galbulidae 


8 


Rallidse 


16 


Bucconidae 


19 


Heliormthidse 


1 


Picidae 


35 


Podicipedidae 


2 


Hylaetidae 


8 


Laridae 


2 


Conopophagidae 


3 


Charadriidae 


15 


Formicariidae 


103 


Parridse 


3 


Dendrocolaptidae 


82 


CEdionemidae 


1 


Tyrannidae 


146 


Eurypygidae 


1 


Pipridae 


29 


Psophiidae 


1 


Cotingidae 


42 


Ibididae 


3 


Hirundinidae 


12 


Plataleidffi 


1 


Sylviidae 


3 


Ciconiidae 


1 


Troglodytidae 


40 


Ardeidae 


14 


Ciuolidae 


1 


Palamedeidae 


2 


Mimidae 


4 


Anatidafi 


10 


Turdidae 


20 


Phalaorocoraeidse 


1 


Vireonidae 


11 


Plotidae 


1 


Mniotiltidae 


34 


Cathartidae 


4 


Motaoillidae 


1 


Falconidae 


39 


Alaudidae 


1 


Bubonidae 


13 


CatamblyxhyTiohidae 


1 


Psittaoid» 


31 


FringiUidae 


67 


Aloedinidae 


4 


Ccerebidae 


28 


Momotidae 


10 


Procniatidae 


1 


Caprimulgidae 


11 


Tanagridae 


119 


Cypselidae 


6 


Icteridae 


33 


Trochilidae 


105 


Corvidse 


6 


Total number of Families 


61 




Total number of Species and i 


Subspecies 1285 





New Forms Described. — In the course of our work it has been found 
necessary to describe as new twenty-two species, and one hundred and 
fifteen subspecies from Colombia. Some of these are actual discoveries, 
the distinctness of others has been revealed merely by the large amount 
of material we have brought together for comparison. I give below a list 
of the forms described in former volumes of this Bulletin, and also of those 
described in the present paper. In some instances, it will be observed, 
later conclusions based on larger collections, or on information received from 
other ornithologists, notably Dr. C. E. Hellmayr, have induced me to with- 
draw certain proposed forms. 



182 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



As a matter of convenience, I have republished here the diagnoses of 
specific and subspecific characters which appeared in the papers describing 
these forms. These papers should be consulted when a fuller discussion 
of relationships is desired than is given in the present paper. 



List of Species and Subspecies Described by the Author from Colombia, with a Reference 
to the Volume of this Bulletin in which the Original Description was published. 



Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXI, 

1912, pp. 139-166. 
Crypturus soui caucae 
Chamsepetes goudoti sanctEe-marthae 
Leptotila verreauxi ocoidentalis 
Pionopsitta fuertesi 
Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis 
Veniliomis nigriceps equifasciatus 
Ramphocsenus rufiventris griseodorsalis 
Drymophila caudata striaticeps [ = D. c. 

caudata (Scl.)] 
Formicarius rufipectus camkeri 
Grallaria milleri 
Grallaria alleni 

Upucerthia excelsior columbiana 
Synallaxis gularis rufipectus [ = S. g. gu- 

laris Lafr.] 
Picolaptes lacrjrmiger sanctae-marthae 
Xenicopsis subalaris columbianus [ = 

X. s. subalaris (Sol.)] 
Knipolegus columbianus [ = Empido- 

chanes poecilurus Scl.] 
Muscisaxicola alpina columbiana 
Myiodynastes chrysocephalus interme- 

dius 
Tyranniscus chrysops minimus 
Tyranniscus nigricapillus flaviventum 
Platypsaris homochrous canescens 
Attila f uscicauda [ = AttiUa brasiliensis 

parambae Hart.] 
Rupicola peruviana aurea 
Phaeoprogne tapera immaculata 
Trogolodytes solstitialis palUdipectus 
Thryophilus nigrioapiUis connectens 
Cinnicerthia olivascens inf asciata [ = 

C. olivascens Sharpe] 
Planesticus fusoobrunneus 
Vireosylva ohivi caucae 
Basileuterus richardsoni 
Spinus nigricauda 



Ammodramus savannarum caucae 
Myospiza manimbe columbiana 
Atlapetes flaviceps 
Cyanocompsa cyanea caucae 
Diglossa crjrptorhis 
Diglossa gloriosissima 
Sporathraupis cyanocephala margaritaj 
Chlorospingus albitempora nigriceps 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIII, 

1914, pp. 167-192. 
Ortalis columbiana caucae 
Porphyriops melanops bogotensis 
FuUca americana columbiana 
Ixobrychus exilis bogotensis 
Stenopsis cayennensis monticola 
Formicarius analis connectens 
Craspedoprion pacificus 
Craspedoprion aequinoctialis flavus 
Euscarthmus septentrionalis 
Mionectes oHvaceus paUidus 
Camptostoma caucae 
Pitangus sulphuratus caucensis 
Pheugopedius mystacaUs amaurogaster 
Henicorhina leuoophrys brunneiceps. 
Planesticus caucae 
Saltator atripennis caniceps 
Myospiza cherriei 
Arremonops conirostris inexpectata 
Atlapetes fuseo-olivasceus 
Atlapetes paUidinuchus obscurior [ = 

A. p. papallactse Hellm.] 
Coereba mexicana caucae 
Tangara guttata toUmae 
Tangara aurulenta occidentalis 
Tangara florida auriceps 
Chlorospingus flavigularis marginatus 
Ostinops sincipitalis neglectus 
Agelaius icterooephalus bogotensis 
Icterus hondse 



1917.] 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



183 



BuU. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIII, 

1914, pp. 606-637. 
Streptoprocne zonaris altissima 
Trogonurus ourucui cupreicauda 
Chrysotrogon caUgatus columbianus 
Eubucco bourcieri occidentalis 
Chrysoptilus punctigula striatigularis 
Veniliornis oleaginus aureus 
Thamnistes anabatinus intermedius 
MjTmopagis schisticolor interior 
Microrhopias grisea hondse [= M. g. in- 
termedia (Cab.)] 

Hylopezus dives barbacoae 

Synallaxis azarae media 

SynaUaxis mcesta obscura 

Synallaxis gujanensis columbianus 

Synallaxis rutilans caquetensis 

Synallaxis pudica caucse 

Sclerurus mexicanus andinus[=S. m. 

obscurior Hart.l 
Pipra leucocUla minor [ = P. 1. minimus 

Chapm.] 
Manacus manacus interior 
Manacus manacus bangsi 
Paehyrhamphus castaneus saturatus 
Pachyrhamphus magdalenae 
Euchlornis riefferi occidentalis 
Pyroderus scutatus occidentalis 
Cistothorus apolinari 

BuU. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIV, 

1915, pp. 635-662. 
Crypturus soui caquetse 
Crypturus kerriae 
Tachytriorchis albicaudatus exiguus 



Herpethotheres cachinnans fulvescens 
Aulacorhynchus albivitta griseigularis 
Picumnus granadensis antioquensis 
Conopophaga castaneiceps chocoensLs 
Microbates cinereiventris magdalense 
Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus alarum 
Siptornis ilammulata quindiana 
Automolus nigricauda saturatus 
Manacus vitellinus milleri 
Phyllomyias griseiceps caucae 
Habrura pectoralis bogotensis 
Microcerculus squamulatus antioquensis 
Polioptila livida daguae 
SporophUa aurita murallse 
Catamenia analoides schistaceifrons 
Phrygilus unicolor grandis 
Cyanerpes cyaneus pacificus 
Iridosornis dubusia ignicapillus 
Iridosornis dubusia caeruleoventris 
Cacicus uropygialis pacificus 
Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris 
Molothrus bonariensis aequatorialis 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIV, 

1915, pp. 363-388. 
Rhjmchortyx cinctus australis 
ChaemepeUa rufipennis caucae 
Leptotila rufaxiUa pallidipectus 
Asio flammeus bogotensis 
Cerchneis sparveria caucae 
Pyrrhura melanura pacifica 
Psittacula conspicillata caucae 
Curucujus massena australis 
Andigena nigrirostris occidentalis 
Chloronerpes rubiginosus buenavistae 



List of Species and Subspecies Described in this Bulletin. 



Zenaida ruficauda antioquiae 
Phoethomis striigalaris subruf escens 
Helianthea cceligena ferruginea 
Vestipedes paranullo 
Braohygalba f ulviventris caquetae 
Pittasoma liarterti 



GraUaria guatimalensis chocoensis 
Troglodytes musculus neglectus 
Henicorhina prostheleuca albilateralis 
Cyclarhis flavipectus parvus 
Pseudochloris citrina antioquiae 



North American Migrants. — During the course of our worl;; in Colombia, 
we have collected specimens of forty-five species of birds which visit North 
America in summer, and which were apparently wintering in Colombia. 



184 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Twelve of these axe water-birds of which nine are shore-birds; while of the 
thirty-three land-birds fourteen are Warblers. Of the whole number only 
one, the Western Wood Pewee, is a bird of the western United States; two, 
Grinnell's Water-Thrush and the Dickcissel, are birds of the interior of 
North America, while most of the remaining species are birds of the 
Atlantic slope. 

Our dates of captiu^e are, as a rule, during the season when the species 
might be expected to occur. We have, however, two Barn Swallows, one 
collected on the Bogota Savanna, May 13, 1914, and a second taken at 
Quibdo, August 20, 1912. The first date is a month later than the species 
reaches the altitude of New York; the second is more than a month earlier 
than that of the final departure of the species from the same latitude. 

So far as our observations go, they indicate that the range in Colombia 
of these winter visitants from North America is not confined by the zonal 
boundaries which exercise so strong an influence over the distribution of 
permanently resident species. The Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Olive-backed 
Thrush, Yellow Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Mourning Warbler, and 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak all range from the Tropical to the Temperate Zone; 
the Black-and-White Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Grinnell's Water- 
Thrush, Wilson's Warbler and Redstart were taken in both the Tropical 
and Subtropical Zones. 

Faunal boundaries are also disregarded. Nor does the land connec- 
tions between northwestern Colombia and Central America exert any very 
evident influence on the distribution of North American migrants in Colom- 
bia. The Bay-breasted Warbler was common in the Choco region and lower 
Cauca-Magdalena Fauna, and was not found east of the Eastern Andes; 
but, with this exception, migrants appeared to be as common in the Eastern 
Andes as in the Western or Central Andes. Ten of the fourteen Warblers 
taken, for example, were collected on the eastern slope of the Eastern Andes. 

There is, therefore, no indication that the Isthmus of Panama is a 
causeway over which North American migrants enter South America. 
Indeed, so far as Colombia is concerned. Dr. Allen's paper on the North 
American migrants found in the Santa Marta region (The Auk, XVII, 
1900, pp. 363-367) suggests that this mountain promontory is the port of 
entry. 

List of North American Migrants. 

Porzana Carolina Helodromas solitarius 

Charadrius dominicus dominicus Actitis macularia 

iEgialites semipalmata Tringa minutilla 

Totanus melanoleucus Pisobia maculata 

" flavipes Gallinago deHcata 



1917.1 



Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 



185 



Querquedula discors 

Marila affinis 

Circus hudsonius 

Buteo platypterus 

Elanoides forficatus 

Coccyzus americanus americanus 

Empidonax virescens 

" traJlli alnorum 

Myiochanes virens 

" richardsoni 

Myiarohus crinitus 
Tyrannus tyrannus 
Riparia riparia 
Hirundo erythrogaster 
Hylocichla aliciae alioiae 

" ustulata swainsoni 

Vireo flavifrons 
Mniotilta varia 



Protonotaria citrea 
Vermivora chrysoptera 

" peregrina 
Dendroica aestiva sestiva 

" cserulea 

" fusca 

" castanea 

" striata 
Oporornis Philadelphia 
Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis 

" " notabilis 

Wilsonia canadensis 
Setophaga ruticilla 
Zamelodia ludoviciana 
Spiza amerioana 
Piranga rubra rubra 
Icterus spurius 



Sequence of Localities Cited. — The specimens collected by us are listed 
by localities under their respective species. The localities are usually cited 
from the west southward, thence eastward. Thus the first station men- 
tioned for Tropical Zone species of general distribution, is in the Atrato or 
San Juan Valleys, and this in turn is followed by other places on the Pacific 
coast southward to Barbacoas. Localities in the Cauca and Magdalena 
Valleys, and at the eastern base of the Andes are then listed in the order 
named. Localities in the upper life-zones are treated in a similar manner. 
Those in the Western Andes precede those in the Central Andes which, 
in turn, are named before those of the Eastern Andes. 

References. — Aside from a reference to the original description, with its 
type-locality,^ I have restricted my quotations to papers on Colombian 
ornithology, and from them I have selected only such records as, in my 
opinion, were of value in definitely defining the boundaries of a bird's range. 

Under this ruling, most 'Bogota' references, for example, are excluded, 
the zonal and faunal diversity of the Bogota region making records from it 
generally useless for distributional purposes. 

Records from the Santa Marta region are, as a rule, quoted only from 
Dr. Allen's paper (1900) which contains references to the publications of 
earlier authors on the bird-life of the Santa Marta district. 



1 Where circumstances seemed to warrant the step, I have, in some instances, suggested a type- 
locality for species described from unknown or indefinite localities. 

In other cases, where subsequent authors have proposed "Colombia" as a type-locality, I have 
taken the liberty to add the name of a Station where the species is known to occur. With a single 
species represented in Colombia by as many as five races, the proposed addition of "Colombia" to 
the original description may still leave uncertain the proper application of the name concerned. 



186 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI. 

English Names. — Vernaculax names do not exist for most of the species 
treated; in a work of this character it did not seem desirable to use what 
may be called 'machine-made' ones, and I have felt that the common names 
given with the family-headings will supply all the information in regard to 
the general relationships of the species treated that is likely to be required. 

Color Terms. — Ridgway's 'Color Standards and Color Nomenclature' 
(Published by the Author, Washington, D. C, 1912) has been adopted in 
this work. 



DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 
Obdee TINAMIFORMES. ' 
Family TINAMID^E. Tinamous. 

(4) 1 Tinamus tao Temm. 

Tinamus tao Temm., Pig. et GaUin., Ill, 1815, pp. 569, 749 (Parii, Brazil). 

One was shot by Fuertes in the dense subtropical forest of the Western 
Andes. 

San Antonio, 1 (Fuertes). 

(7) Tinamus major ruficeps Scl. & Sah. 

Tinamus ruficeps Scl. & Salv., Nomen. Av. Neotr., 1873, p. 162 (Rio Napo, 
Ecuador); P. Z. S., 1879, p. 548 (Remedios); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, 
p. 124 (Cacagualito). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the lower Cauca and lower Magdalena. 
Study of our forty specimens of this group from northern South America 
and Central America, convinces me that the various species which have 
been described from this area are representative, intergrading, geographic 
races of one species. None of the characters assigned to these forms proves 
to be of true specific value. Color, pattern of marking, and length of crest 
are all shown by our series to vary with locality, and, when the material is 
adequate, it indicates that the various forms merge into those which, geo- 
graphically, are nearest to them. 

Of T. m. ruficeps we have, unfortunately, only one specimen which can 
be considered as approximately topotypical, a male collected by Miller at 
La Morelia. It differs from other Colombian specimens, which I refer to 
this race, in having the inner wing-quills and upperparts more heavily 
barred, but in this respect it is matched by specimens of castaneiceps from 
the Atrato. The crown is brighter than in five Antioquia specimens but 
agrees in color with that of a bird from Santa Marta. 



1 The numbers in parentheses preceding each species are those of Brabourne and Chubb's ' Birds of 
South America.*' When this number is followed by a letter, it indicates that the species in question 
is not contained in Brabourne and Chubb's work. 

187 



188 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Four specimens from near the foot of Mt. Duida at the head of the Ori- 
noco, have the crown of the same bright Kaiser-brown as in the La Morelia 
specimens, and in one there is a noticeable lengthening of the feathers of the 
occiput; but the upperparts and inner wing-quills are less heavily barred; 
in the latter character these birds resemble the Antioquia and Santa Marta 
specimens, and show an obvious approach toward three Guiana specimens 
of true major (Gmel.) (= svhscristatus Cab.) which have the upperparts 
with fewer bars than in any other of our specimens. 

One of these Guiana specimens (Potaro River, Aug. 5) has the front half 
of the crown sooty, the occiput chestnut with black markings. The occipital 
crest is slightly developed. In another (no data) the forehead only is sooty, 
the remainder of the crown and occiput being Kaiser-brown, as in ruficeps. 
The occipital crest is somewhat more evident than in the preceding specimen. 
In the third specimen the crest is intermediate in color between that of the 
two just described, and the occipital plumes are about as long as in the 
Guiana specimen without data. 

While, as above stated, a Santa Marta specimen has the crown of the same 
color as in the La Morelia specimen of ruficeps, five examples from Puerto 
Valdivia, on the lower Cauca in Antioquia, have the crown nearly as dark 
as in Panama specimens of castaneiceps, but there is only the slightest indi- 
cation of black markings. In one of these birds the ear-coverts are of about 
the same color as the crown; in the others they are more dusky. I regard 
these Puerto Valdivia birds as intermediate between ruficeps and castanei- 
ceps; though if the former is typically represented by the Morelia bird, the 
Antioquia as well as the Santa Marta specimens are paler and less heavily 
barred above than either. In brief, the conclusions reached by the examina- 
tion of our specimens may be summarized as follows: 

1. Tinamus major major (Gmel.). Type-locality, Cayenne. 

Char. — Upperparts and inner wing-quills comparatively unbarred; forehead and 
sometimes crown, sooty; occipital crest small. 

Specimens examined. — Guiana: Potaro River, 2; Guiana, 1. 

2. Tirumvus major rujkeps Scl. & Salv. Type-locality, Rio Napo, Ecuador. 
Ckar. — Crown wholly Kaiser-brown, ear-coverts the same; occipital crest not 

evident; upperparts and inner wing-quUls well barred. 

Specimens examined. — • Venezuela: near foot of Mt. Duida, 4; Colombia: La 
Morelia,!; Santa Marta, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 5. 

3. Tinamus major castaneiceps Salvad. Type-locality, Chiriqui. 

Char. — Crown chestnut finely barred with black, becoming sooty toward the 
western and northern, and developing an occipital crest toward the southern part of 
its range. 

Specimens examined. — Panama: Canal Zone, 2; Tapahza, 2; Taearcuna, 2. 
Colombia: R. Salaqui, 1; R. Atrato, 1; Andagueda, 1; Baudo, 1. 

4. Tinamus major latifrons Salvad. Type-locality, Balzar Mts., Ecuador. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 189 

Char. — Crown wholly or largely sooty black; occipital crest well-developed. 

Specimens examined. — Barbacoas, 2. 

5. Tinamus major fuscipennis Salvad. Type-locality, Escondido River, 'Nica- 
ragua. 

Char. — Crown largely or wholly sooty black; no occipital crest. 

Specimens examined. — Nicaragua: Pena Blanca, 1; Rio Grande, 2; Chontales, 
2; Matagalpa, 1; San Rafael del Norte, 2; Rio Tuma, 4. 

In default of specimens of rohustus I am unable to determine whether 
ftiscipennis is separable from that form. The close relation between 
fuscipennis and castaneiceps is shown by the occurrence of a virtually 
typical specimen of the former in the Canal Zone and by Salvadori's refer- 
ence of a specimen from Veragua, the type region of castaneiceps, to fusci- 
pennis! 

Of ' Tinamus serratus' (Spix) I have seen no specimen. 

' Tinamus solitarius' (Vieill.) is obviously only a large race of T. major. 
I have, however, but one specimen. 



(8) Tinamus major castaneiceps Salvad. 

Tinamus castaneiceps Salvad., Cat. Bds. B. M., XXVII, 1895, p. 507, pi. vi 
(Chiriqui). 

Tinamus major Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 195 (R. Truando). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast, evidently intergrading 
at the south with T. m. latifrons and at the north with T. m. fuscipennis. 
Colombian specimens have the feathers of the occiput decidedly longer than 
those from the Panama Canal Zone and thus approach latifrons in this 
respect. This character first appears in specimens from Tacarcuna in 
eastern Panama, but is more pronounced in those from the Atrato. 

A specimen collected by the Shiras Expedition, near Gatun, in the Canal 
Zone, has the crown sooty black with only a trace of ochraceous. It can 
be exactly matched by specimens of T. m. fuscipennis from Nicaragua (if 
that race be valid), which has the crown apparently always sooty, with 
sometimes traces of ochraceous. 

R. Salaqui, 1; R. Atrato, 1; Andagueda, 1; Baudo, 1. 

(9) Tinamus major latifrons Salmd. 

Tinamus latifrons Salvad., Cat. Bds. B. M., XXVII, 1895, p. 506 (Balzar Mts., 
Ecuador). 

I refer to this species, of which I have seen no authentic specimens, two 



190 Bulletin American Museum 0/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

birds collected by Richardson at Barbacoas. In general coloration and 
pattern of marking they can be matched by specimens from western Colom- 
bia and Panama which I identify as T. m. ruficeps, but they have a well- 
developed occipital crest, which, with the entire crown, is sooty black in one 
(labelled "male") and black barred with chestnut in the other (labelled 
"female?"). Both have the ear-coverts dusky, the cheeks, sides and back 
of the nape barred with or looped with black and tawny-ochraceous. This 
is obviously a representative form of T. m. ruficeps with which it nearly 
intergrades by individual variation alone. 
Barbacoas, 2. 

(12) Nothocercus Julius (Bonap.). 
TiTMmus Julius Bonap., Compt. Rend., XXXVIII, 1854, p. 663 (Colombia). 

Found only in the Temperate Zone. A Laguneta specimen, which, 
unfortunately, is not sexed, has the back, wing-coverts, rump and upper 
tail-coverts conspicuously barred, and so far as comparison with faded 
material permits of accurate identification, appears to be essentially typical 
of Julius. A specimen from the Western Andes which is labelled " female, 
ovaries slightly enlarged," resembles the Laguneta specimen in size and in 
general color, the throat being pure white, the forehead and crown hazel- 
chestnut, but the back, rump, wing-coverts, upper tail-coverts, flanks, and 
under tail-coverts are finely and almost uniformly vermiculated with black, 
and the ochraceous spots conspicuous on the wing-coverts and secondaries 
of the Laguneta bird are barely evident on the greater and median coverts. 

In its absence of barring, this bird is unlike any example of Nothocercus 
Julius which I have seen. It may possibly be referable to N. nigricapillus, 
with the description of which it agrees except for the absence of black and 
white blotches on the wings and underparts, its brown head and more 
reddish forehead. 

Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 1; Laguneta, 1. 



(14) Nothocercus bonapartei {Gray). 

Tinamus bonapartei Geay, List. B. Brit. Mus., Gall., Pt. V, 1867, p. 97 (Aragua, 
Ven.). 

Found by us in the Subtropical Zone of the Central and Eastern Andes. 
Lh.Palma, 1; Andalucia (5000 ft.), 1; Aguadita, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 191 

(16) Crypturus cinereus {Gmel). 
Tetrao cinereus Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1789, p. 768 (Cayenne). 
Barrigon, 1. 

(17) Crypturus berlepschi Roths. 

Crypturus berlepschi Roths., Bull. B. O. C, VII, 1897, p. v (Cachab^, Ecuador). 

Apparently not uncommon in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast, 
though it appears not to have been before recorded from Colombia. 
Baudo, 1; Novita, 1; Barbacoas, 1. 

(22) Crypturus soui soui {Herrm.). 
Tinamus soui Heerm., Tab. Aff. Anim., 1783, p. 165 (Cayenne). 

Two males from Villavicencio agree with two from Surinam, and indi- 
cate that true soui ranges across northern South America to the eastern 
base of the Eastern Andes, doubtless as far south as the northern border 
of the Amazonian forest line,- or approximately to the Rio Guaviare. Fur- 
ther south, in Colombia, it is replaced by C. s. caquetce. Four males from 
Trinidad ^ are slightly larger, with larger bills than the four specimens above 
mentioned but agree with them in color. I have seen no Guiana females. 

Villavicencio, 2 cf cf . 

(22a) ^ Crypturus soui caucse Chapm. 

Crypturus soui caucce Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 141 (San 
Antonio, Col.). 

Crypturus pileatus ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 548 (Cauca). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone and lower border of the Subtropical Zone in 
the Cauca and Magdalena Valleys. The birds from this area are difficult 
to determine satisfactorily. The female is very close to the female of soui, 
while the male is quite as near the male of modesty^. Since, however, neither 
of these names could be applied to them, it may, for the present, at least, 
be advisable to use the name I have given above. 

Las Lomitas, 1 cf,- 1 9 ; San Antonio, 1 9 ; Rio Frio, 2 cf cf, 1 9 ; 
Puerto Valdivia,^ 1 cf ; Malena, 1 9 • 

* Crypiwus soui andrei Brabourne & Chubb, Ann. & Mag. (8), XIV, 1914, p. 321. 

2 Species preceded by a number and a letter are addition.^ to Brabourne and Chubb's ' Birds of South 
America. 

3 May be referable to modestas. 



192 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(226) Crypturus soui modestus Cab. 
Crypturvs modestus Cab., J. f. O., 1869, p. 212 (Costa Rica). 

A series of twelve males and eleven females indicates that this form 
ranges from Nicaragua to western Ecuador. Ecuador specimens are 
smaller (females average: Wing, 127 mm. as compared with 132 mm. in 
Nicaragua examples), but I can discover no racial differences in color in 
the twenty-three specimens listed below. Specimens from the Cauca and 
Magdalena Valleys to which I have applied the name caucao, are interme- 
diate between modestus and soui. The males resemble those of the former 
while the females resemble those of the latter. 

A female collected by McLeannan and Galbraith on the line of the Pana- 
ma R. R., and doubtless near or at Lion Hill, differs markedly in color 
from any of the eleven females referred to above and obviously represents 
C. s. panamensis Carriker (Ann. Car. Mus. VI, 1910, p. 379) described from 
that locality. 

This bird has the breast and, to a lesser degree, abdominal region, deep, 
clear ochraceous-orange as in females of soui, instead of ochraceous-tawny as 
in modestus, the back rich hazel more as in some females of mustelinus, in- 
stead of cinnamon-brown as in modestus, the crown browner less slaty than in 
any of the females which I refer to modestus. Furthermore, the inner wing- 
quills and wing-coverts are broadly margined with deep ochraceous-orange. 

A male taken by the same collectors, presumably at the same locality, 
is more nearly like modestus below but has the back lighter and browner, 
and the crown, as in the female, browner less slaty, than in modestus. I 
should be inclined to attribute the brownish crown of these two (Lion Hill?) 
specimens to fading, since both were collected about 1862, did not Car- 
riker (Z. c.) in describing panamensis from recently collected material state 
that the crown is without a grayish tinge. 

If these specimens are typical of the form occurring on the northern slopes 
of the Isthmus, it seems probable that the bird which I refer to modestus is 
restricted to the southern slopes. 

In addition to the Dabeiba female, the following specimens have been 
examined: Nicaragua: Quilali, 1 cf; Chontales, 1 cf; San Juan, 1 9 ; Rio 
Grande, 1 9 • Panama: Boqueron, 1 cf ; El Real, R. Tuyra, 2 cf cf , 2 9 9 ; 
Boca de Cupe, 2 9 9. Ecuador:^ Esmeraldas, 3 cTcf, 3 9 9; Rio de 
Oro, 2 cf cf ; Chone, 1 cf , 1 9 ; Naranjo, Guayas, 1 cf . 

Dabeiba, 1 9 . 

1 Doubtless the form described by Brabourne and Chubb from Vaqueria, northern Ecuador, as 
Crypturas soui harUrli (Ann. & Mag. 1914 (8), XIV, p. 321). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 193 



(22c) Crypturus soui caquetse Chapm. 

Crypturus soui caqiietce Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 635 (Floren- 
cia. Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Most nearly resembling C. s. mustelinus, the underparts in the 
female largely rich ochraceous-orange, the chest chestnut, the throat usually tinged 
with, and sometimes wholly oohraceous, but upperparts much darker, deep chestnut- 
brown rather than Prout's-brown; the crown slaty black without brownish tinge; 
male resembling female above but not unlike male of C. s. soui below. 

This form inhabits Amazonian Colombia. 
Florencia, 2; La Morelia, 1. 



(31) Crypturus adspersus yapura (Spix). 

Pezus yapura Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 62, pi. 78 (Yapura and Solimoens). 
Crypturus adspersus yapura Hellm., Abh. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen, XXII, 1906, 
p. 704. 

Two specimens from La Morelia apparently represent this form of which 
I have seen no authentic specimens. On the whole they agree with a 
'Bogotd' skin identified by Sclater as " C. halstoni." 

La Morelia, 2. 



(38) Crypturus variegatus salvini Sahad. 

Crypturus salvini Salvad., Cat. Bds. B. M., XXVII, 1895, p. 537 (Sarayacu, 
Ecuador). 

A male from La Morelia, on comparison with true variegatus, apparently 
represents this form to which, faunally, it should be referred. 
La Morelia, 1. 

(44a) Crypturus kerrise Chapm. 

Crypturus kerrioe Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 636 (Baudo, 
Choc6, Col.). 

Char. sp. — Most nearly related to Crypturus boucardi, but upperparts more 
barred and anteriorly browner; throat grayer, neck and breast blackish rather than 
gray, rest of underparts deeper, the breast slightly, the flanks conspicuously, barred; 
size smaller. 

Known only from the type collected by Mrs. Kerr at Baudo. 



194 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Ordek GALLIFOEMES. 
Family CRACIDiE. Cuhassows, Guans, Chachalacas. 

(74) Crax alector Linn. 

Crax alector Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 269 (Cayenne). 

An adult female was collected by O'Connell at Buena Vista. I have no 
topotypical specimens for comparison. 
Buena Vista, 1. 

(78) Crax panamensis Ogilme-Grant. 

Crax panamensis Oqilvib-Grant, Cat. Bds. B. M., XXII, 1893, p. 479. (No 
type or type-locality designated; presumably Panama). 

Mrs. Kerr sends two adult females from the Choco. 
Baudo, 1; Bagado, 1. 

(82) Crax alberti Fraser. 

Crax alberti Fraser, P. Z. S., 1850, p. 246 (Colombia); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., 
XIII, 1900, p. 127 (Bonda; Naranjo; Santa Marta). 

A male collected by Mrs. Kerr west of Honda at an altitude of 2000 feet. 
West of Honda, 1. 

(90) Penelope montagni (Bonap.). 

Ortalida montagnii Bonap., Compt. Rend., XLII, 1856, p. 875 (Colombia; I 
suggest El Pifion, above Fusugasugd, alt. 9600 ft.). 

Common in the Temperate Zone of the Central and Eastern Andes. 
The heavier feathering of the tarsi in this species, recalls the increase in 
feathering on the tarsi of certain boreal Gallinse. 

Valle de las Pappas, 2; Almaguer, 1; Santa Isabel, 6; above Subia, 4; 
El Pinon, 1. 

(95) Penelope ortoni Sah. 

Penelope ortoni Salv., Ibis, 1874, p. 325 (Pichincha, w. Ecuador). 

A female of this Pacific slope species collected by Mrs. Kerr, at Baudo, 
is the first specimen to be recorded from Colombia. It is somewhat more 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution 0/ Bird-life in Colombia. 195 

bronzy above and more conspicuously margined with white below, than a 
female from Naranjo, western Ecuador. 
Baudo, 1. 

(97) Penelope cristata (Linn.). 

Meleagris cristata Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766 p. 269 ("West Indies," c/. Edwards, 
I, pi. xiii = Cen. America?). 

Penelope cristata Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Remedies); Allen, Bull. 
A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Bonda). 

Penelope cequatorialis Salv ad. & Fest., Boll. Mus. Tor., XV, 1900, p. 38 (Rio 
Peripa, w. Ecuador). 

Miller collected three specimens of this species at La Candela in the 
Central Andes at the head of the Magdalena River. We have also a Co- 
lombian specimen from the Choco and one from Bonda, Santa Marta, 
while from Ecuador we have one from Gualea and three from Naranjo. 
The latter are essentially topotypical of Penelope cequatorialis Salvad. & 
Fest., but beyond being somewhat smaller, I am unable to see that they 
differ materially from twelve Panama specimens of cristata, including eight 
examples from Darien. 

Salvadori and Festa describe cequatorialis as having the scapulars and 
wings olive-green rather than copper, as in cristata. But since cristata also 
has the wings externally olive-green rather than copper, it seems probable 
that the specimens of 'cristata' used in comparison were not typical. 

The character of coppery wings is, however, strongly shown by Penelope 
perspicax Bangs, of western Colombia, a bird which appears to be speci- 
fically distinct from cristata. 

Choco, 1; La Candela, 3. 







Measurements. 










Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Tarsus 


CulmeD 


Chiriqui, Pan. 


cT 


374 


368 


83 


33.5 


Panama R. R., Pan. 


d' 


374 


345 


86 


35 


Candela, Col. 


& 


368 


370 


85 


33.5 


Gualea, Ec. 


& 


355 


370 


87 


32 


Naranjo " 


cT 


361 


345 


86 


32 


(( (( 


9 


355 


345 


83 


33 


U 11 


9 


374 


336 


83 


33.5 



(97a) Penelope perspicax Bangs. 

Penelope perspicax Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIV, 1911, p. 187 (San Luis, 
Bitaeo Valley, w. Col.). 

Not uncommon in the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes and, at 
least, western slope of the Central Andes. Our San Antonio specimens are 



196 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

essentially topotypical. This species is evidently specifically distinct from 
P. cristata, incjeed appears to be nearer P. jaquagu Spix (= boliviana Rich.). 
It obviously, therefore, is not the same as Penelope oequatorialis Salvad. & 
Fest. which our material shows to be inseparable from true cristata. The dis- 
tinguishing characters of P. perspicax are the coppery auburn of the exposed 
surfaces of the inner wing-quills and the grayish lateral margins of the hind- 
neck and f oreback. In both these respects it differs markedly from cristata; 
but in the last-named character it agrees with P. jacquagu. The latter, how- 
ever, has the wings olive as in cristata, but differs from both cristata and per- 
spicax in the extension of the reddish brown underparts forward to the chest. 
San Antonio, 2; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 1. 

(98) Penelope jacqtiasu Spix. 

Penelope jacqiiagu Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 52, pi. Ixviii ("in sylvis fluminis 
Solimoens"); Hellm., Abh. Akad. Wiss. Mtinchen, XXII, 1906, p. 688. 

Inhabits, the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
Our four specimens agree essentially with one from the Lower Beni and one 
from Porto Velho on the Madeira. 

Villavicencio, 1; Florencia, 3. 

(Ill) Ortalis Columbiana columbiana Hellm. 

Ortalis columbiana Hellm., Abh. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen, XXII, 1906, p. 694 
(Colombia). 

Common in the Tropical and Subtropical Zones of the Ujpper Magdalena 
Valley. 

La Candela, 6; near San Agustin, 1; Andalucia (5000 ft.), 1; Chicoral, 
1; El Alto de la Paz, 2. 

(Ulo) Ortalis columbiana caucse Chapm. 

Ortalis columbiana caucae Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 168 
(Guengiie, Cauca Valley, Col.). 

Char, svbsp. — Similar to 0. c. columbiana Hellm., but with the forehead little if 
any paler than the crown, the lower back, rump, flanks, crissum and under tail- 
coverts more strongly rufous-chestnut; feet horn color instead of red. 

Found only ii} the Tropical Zone of the Cauca Valley and upward to the 
border of the Subtropical Zone. 

Guengiie, 1 ; La Manuelita, 1 ; San Antonio, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 197 

(112) Ortalis guttata (Spix). 

Penelope guttata Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 55, pi. 73 ("adflumen Solimoens"). 

Found by us only in Amazonian Colombia. Our specimens agree with 
one from Napo and another from the Rio Beni. 
La Morelia, 7. 

(114) Ortalis garrula (Humb.). 

Phasianus garrulus Humb., Obs. de Zool., I, 1811, p. 4 (R. Magdalena). 
Ortalis garrula, Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Bonda). 

Found only in the Lower Magdalena region. 
Boca de Chimi, 1; below Banco, 1. 

(116) Pipile cumanensis (Jacq.). 
Crax cumanensis Jacq., Beytr. Gesch. Vogel, 1784, p. 25, pi. x (Orinoco). 

La Morelia, 1. 

(121) Aburria aburri (Less.). 

Penelope aburri Less., Diet. Soi. Nat., LIX, 1829, p. 191 (Bogota,). 
Aburria carunculata ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Cauca; Frontino). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. 

Gallera, 2; near San Agustin, 2; La Candela, 2; Andalucia (5-7000 
ft.), 4. 

(122) Chamsepetes goudoti goudoti (Less.). 

Ortalida goudolii Less., Man. d'Orn., II, 1828, p. 217 ("Quindift = Quindio Trail, 
Central Andes). 

Chamospetes goudoti Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Retiro). 
Chamcepetes goudolii Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1207 (Tatam^ Mts.). 

Not uncommon in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges; reaching 
upward to the Temperate Zone. 

While Goudot, the discoverer of this species, is referred to by Lesson ^ 
as "Naturaliste a Santa-Fe de Bogota" Goudot himself appears to have 
collected the specimens on which the species is based in the Quindio region 

1 Diet. Sci. Nat., LIX, 1829, p. 195. 



198 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

■of the Central Andes, since he writes: ' "Cette espece, que I'on recontre 
■dans les montagnes du Quindiu, se trouve dans les lieux frequentes par les 
pavas aburridas. Je ne I'ai jamais recontree ailleurs." 

While there appears to be no difference between so-called 'Bogotd' 
specimens and those from Quindio, the latter rather than the former locality 
is evidently the type-locality and the birds below recorded from Laguneta 
may therefore be considered as topotypical. 

Salencio, 1; San Antonio, 1; Almaguer, 1; Laguneta, 8; La Palma, 1; 
Andalucia (7000 ft.), 1; Choachi, 2. 



Family ODONTOPHORIDiE. American Quails and Paetridges. 

(125a) Colinus cristatus decoratus (Todd). 

Ewpsychortyx decoratus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXX, 1917, p. 6 (Calamar). 

This form is doubtless restricted to the Caribbsean Fauna. Our speci- 
mens are females or young, but Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd has loaned me two- 
adult males from Calamar, including the type. These specimens very 
closely resemble three adult males from the Santa Marta district (two from 
Bonda) which presumably represent Colinus cristatus littoralis (Todd).^ 
They have more black in the tertials, the crest is darker than in two of the 
SantaMart^ specimens, but is essentially matched by the third; the throat 
averages more richly colored and the underparts more heavily spotted. Mr. 
Todd does not state how many specimens of either form he examined, nor 
indeed does he compare decoratus with littoralis, but the specimens at hand 
indicate that these proposed forms are barely separable. 

From leucopogon, decoratus is separated by the characters to which Mr. 
Todd has called attention, and also by its longer crest. From leucotis it 
may be distinguished chiefly by its more richly colored throat and under- 
parts, due to the increased chestnut area. In the male the white markings 
of the underparts are smaller, rounder and more clearly defined. In the 
female the throat is strongly tinged with rufous and more heavily streaked. 

Whether intergradation between the island-inhabiting cristatus and 
the mainland forms of this group occurs, I am unable to say, but it is obvious 
that they are all representatives of one another. 

Calamar, 1 cf juv., 3 9 9; Turbaco, 1 9 . 

1 ;. ■,. and Man. d'Orn., II, 1828, p. 218. 

2 Proo. Biol. Soo. Wash., XXX, 1917, p. 6. Type from Mamotoco, three miles east of Santa Marta. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 199 

(1256) Colinus cristatus leucotis (Gould). 

Ortyx leucotis Godld, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 133 ("Santa F6 de Bogota" — I suggest 
Honda, alt. 600 ft. Magdalena River, Colombia). 

Eupsychortyx leucotis Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Medellin); Robinson, 
Flying Trip, p. 153 (Guaduas; Honda). 

This is a species of the Tropical Zone which in open country ranges up- 
ward into the Subtropical and even to the lower border of the Temperate 
Zone. It occurs on the western slope of the Western Andes in the arid 
Caldas basin, is not uncommon in the Cauca Valley and is found as far south 
as La Sierra south of Popayan, this marking the southern known limits of 
the genus. In the upper Magdalena Valley it is abundant. To the west 
it reaches up the Central Andes to at least 8300 ft., and to the east we have 
specimens from the Eastern Andes almost up to the border of the Bogota 
Savanna. Quail are said to occur on the Savanna but we have not suc- 
ceeded in securing specimens and cannot say whether the Savanna quail 
represents leucotis or parvicristatus or an intergrade between the two. 

Caldas, 1; Cali, 1; La Sierra, 1; El Eden, 1; Chicoral, 4; Honda, 12; 
Purificacion, 1 ; Fusugasuga, 1 ; Anolaima, 1 ; El Carmen, Bogota region, 
1; El Alto de la Paz, 5. 



(129) Colinus cristatus parvicristatus (Gould). 

Ortyx parvicristatus Gould, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 106 ("Santa F6 de Bogota"; — I 
suggest r6meque, alt. 6300 ft., s. e. of Bogotd). , 

Through Brother Apolinar I have obtained two male specimens of this 
form from Fomeque some twenty miles southeast of Bogota at an altitude of 
6300 feet. A small flock of quail seen at Quetame were doubtless also of 
this species. The country about Villavicencio is suitable for quail but we 
neither saw nor heard any there. Our stay, however, was far too short to 
warrant an assertion of the absence of the species from this locality. 

This form is readily distinguished from leucotis by its brown ear-coverts 
and unspotted breast. Whether it intergrades with leucotis on the Bogota 
Savanna, where quail are said to occur, remains to be determined. In view, 
however, of the height of the mountains bordering the Savanna on the east 
it does not seem probable that this form actually comes in contact with 
leucotis which is doubtless the Savanna bird. 

From C. c. sonnini, parvicristatus is distinguished chiefly by. its shorter, 
darker crest, darker ear-coverts, grayer interscapular region, and blacker 
markings of the lower back and tertials. 

Fomeque, 2. 



200 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(131) Odontophorus guianensis marmoratus (Gould). 

Ortyx marmoratus Gould, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 107 (Bogotd). 

Odontophorus marmoratus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 545 (Remedies). 

I refer to this race two specimens from the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes and also two from Antioquia, though I am by no means certain that 
they belong to the same form, nor, in the event of their being different do I 
know to which one the name marmoratus properly belongs ! The two speci- 
mens from east of the Andes have no chestnut-brown on the head; the two 
Antioquia specimens have the ear-coverts and sides of the head tinged with 
chestnut-brown and thus more nearly conform to the description of Gould's 
type, which may have come from the western instead of the eastern side of 
the Eastern Andes. 

La Morelia, 1 ; Buena Vista, 1 ; Puerto Valdivia, 2. 



(134.) Odontophorus hyperythrus Gouid. 

Odontophorus hyperythrus Gould, P. Z. S., 1857, p. 223 (Bogotd); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 545 (Sta. Elena). 

Common but elusive in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. It 
was far more often heard than seen. 

Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 3; Cecal, 1; Laguneta, 1; La Candela, 1; 
Andalucia (7000 ft.), 2. 



(138) Odontophorus parambse Roths. 

Odontophorus paramhoe Roths., Bull. B. O. C, VII, 1897, p. vi (Paramba, north- 
west Ecuador). 

? Odontophorus baliolus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIII, 1910, p. 71 
(Naranjito, Rio Dagua, alt. 3900 ft., w. Col.). 

A Tropical Zone species which ranges from northwestern Ecuador at 
least to the headwaters of the Atrato. Comparison of a male from Esmeral- 
das, Ecuador, and a female from Barbacoas, both of which may be con- 
sidered as typical, with two males respectively from the Baudo Mts. (alt. 
2500 ft.) and Bagado (alt. 1000 ft.), to the eastward on the headwaters of 
the Atrato, with the type of Odontophorus baliolus, kindly loaned me by 
Mr. Bangs, strongly indicates the specific identity of baliolus with parambce. 

As with some other species of Odontophorus, the four specimens of pa- 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 201 

ramboe above cited show much variation in color, particularly of the upper- 
parts. The female from Barbacoas has the markings of the back and head 
more rufous than in the male from Esmeraldas, but it is by no means 
so extensively marked with this color as it is in the male from Bagado. 
On the other hand, the male from the Baudo Mountains is the darkest 
bird of the four, the rufous vermiculations being greatly reduced. This 
Baudo specimen is nearer the type of haliolus, so far as the color of the 
back is concerned, than it is to the male taken from Bagado, distant 
seventy -five miles, and in the same faunal zone. So far as the color of the 
upperparts is concerned, it is, I think, safe to attribute the dark color of 
haliolus to individual variation in which the rufous markings are reduced 
to a minimum. 

Below, all five specimens are much alike, but the most richly colored of 
the series are the type of haliolus and the male from Esmeraldas. In short, 
the differences between ■paramhw, as it is represented by our four specimens, 
and the type of haliolus, resolve themselves into the single character of a 
narrow, white malar stripe which in the type of haliolus extends from the 
gape to the white breast-patch. 

Three of our specimens sljow no trace of such a stripe, but in the highly 
colored male from Bagado there is a faint trace of one in the basal white 
markings of a few feathers, on each side of the throat. Whether this very 
slight indication of a white malar stripe possesses any significance or not 
I am unable to say, but, in any event, the material at hand, considered in 
relation not only to the range of color it shows, but to the localities it repre- 
sents, throws strong suspicion on the specific validity of haliolus. 

If this form could be allotted a different faunal area its slight differences 
might be considered of geographic value, but with specimens of -paramhw 
taken both south and north of its type-locality and in the same zone, it can- 
not be considered a representative form, and the alternative of specific dis- 
tinctness does not appear to be warranted by the facts in the case. 

Bagado, 2; Baudo Mts., 2; Barbacoas, 1. 

(142) Odontophorus strophium {Gould)\ 

Ortyx {Odontophorus) strophium Gould, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 134 ("The Southern 
Countries of Mexico" = Colombia; cf. Cat. Bds. B. M., XXII, p. 442). 

A male from Subia, near Bogota, resembles Gould's plate of this species 
(Monog. Odont. pi. 31) but has the white spots on the underparts reduced 
to a few shaft-streaks on the front and sides of the breast. 

Subia, 1. 



202 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(143a) Rhynchortyx cinctus australis Chapm. 

Rhynchortyx cinctus australis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 366 
(Barbacoas, Col.). 

Rhynchortyx cinctus Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1207 (Sipi). 

Char, suhsp. — Similar to R. c. cinctus but coloration throughout darker; male 
with the breast slightly darker gray, the abdominal region and, particularly, the 
flanks and under tail-coverts, deeper ochraceous-buff; the crown, margins to the 
feathers of the back, markings to tertials richer, more chestnut; bars on the outer 
vanes of secondaries hazel rather than ochraceous-buff; female differing from the 
female of cinctus much as does the male, the richer color of the markings of the inner 
wing-quiUs being especially noticeable. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. 

Choco, 1; Andagueda, 1; Bagado, 1; Baudo, 2; Barbacoas, 4. 



Ohdeb COLUMBIFORMES. 
Family COLUMBID^. Pigeons and Doves. 

(149) Columba speciosa Gmel. 

Columba speciosa Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 783 (Cayenne); Sol. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (Remedies); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 129 
(Bonda); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1205 (Noanamd,). 

This widely distributed species is found throughout the Tropical Zone 
in Colombia. 

Bagado, 2; Noanama, 1; Novita, 1; w. of Honda, 1; Buena Vista, 1; 
Villavicencio, 2. 

(152) Columba rufina Temm. & Knip. 

Columha rufina Temm. & Knip, Pig., I, 1808-11, p. 59, pi. 24; Sol. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (Medellin); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 153 (R. Magdalena; 
Guaduas); Allen, BuU. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 129 (Bonda). 

Chloromas rufina Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 194 (Turbo; Delta 
Atrato). 

Abundant in the Tropical Zone and ranging upward to the Subtropical 
Zone. We have no specimens from the Pacific coast of Colombia but have 
a small series from western Ecuador. 

San Antonio, 5; Cali, 3; below Mirafiores, 1; Rio Frio, 1; Banco, 1; 
Villavicencio, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 203 



(163) Columba goodsoni Hart. 

Columba goodsoni Hart., Bull. B. O. C, XII, 1902, p. 42 (no type named; 
"S. Javier, Pambilar, and Carondelet, n. w. Ecuador," given as "Hab."); Hellm., 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1205 (Noanamd). 

Apparently restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Our 
two specimens agree with two essentially topotypical ones from Esmeraldas, 
Ecuador. 

Buenaventura, 1; Barbacoas, 1. 



(154) Columba albilinea albilinea Bonap. 

Columba albilinea Bonap., Consp. Av., II, 18S4, p. 51 (New Granada). 

Columba albiUneata ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (Retire). 

Columba albilinea albilinea Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1205 (Loma Hermosa). 

Common in the Subtropical and Temperate Zones of the Western and 
Central Andes. Our only specimens from the Eastern Andes are 'Bogota' 
skins. Specimens in fresh plumage are strongly tinged below with glaucous- 
purple and are therefore less vinaceous than those in a worn condition. 

Paramillo, 2; San Antonio, 2; La Florida, 2; Cerro Munchique, 2; 
Ricaurte, 6; Almaguer, 1; Valle de las Pappas, 1; La Sierra, 1; Miraflores, 
1; Salento, 1; Laguneta, 2; Sta. Elena, 4; Barro Blanco, 3; Rio Toche, 1; 
La Candela, 3; San Agustin, 3. 

(156a) Columba plumbea propinqua Cory. 

Columba plumbea propinqua Coby, Field Mus. Pub., X, 182, 1915, p. 295 (Moyo- 
bamba, Peru). 

Two adult specimens are identified by Mr. Ridgway as Columba plumbea 
propinqua. I call attention under the succeeding species, to the fact that 
these specimens make the known range of bogotensis overlap that of Columba 
plumbea and indicate the specific distinctness of these two birds. 

Four specimens from Gualea, Ecuador, have the underparts and particu- 
larly the abdominal region, the head and neck darker than in the Buena Vista 
birds but in other respects closely agree with them and are therefore obvi- 
ously representatives of plumbea.'- 

Buena Vista, 2. 

1 This form has since been described as (Encenas plumbea chapmani Ridgw. (Bull. U. S.' N. M., 
60, VII, 1916, p. 325). 



204 Bulletin American Museum, of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(159) Columba subvinacea bogotensis {Berl. & Lev.). 

Chlorcenas plumbea subsp. n. bogotensis Berl. & Lev., Ornis, 1890, p. 32 (Colom- 
bia ■ — Santa F6 de Bogota, ex praep.). 

Columba subvinacea Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (Remedios) . 
Columba plumbea bogotensis Auot. 

A series of twenty-five specimens covering the range of Columha sub- 
vinacea berlepschi from western Ecuador to eastern Panama, and of C. s. 
bogotensis from the Western Andes to La Morelia at the eastern base of the 
Eastern Andes, all represent, in my opinion, one species, of which the Pacific 
coast specimens are referable to Columba subvinacea berlepschi Hart., while 
those from the Subtropical Zone of the Western and Central Andes and 
Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes are either inter- 
grades or typical of the bird which is currently known as " Columba plumbea 
bogotensis." That this bird is not a form of plumbea is apparently proven 
by the occurrence of a race of plumbea, at Buena Vista to the north of, and 
in the same zone as La Morelia, whence we have a specimen of bogotensis. 
That bogotensis is a representative of, and probably intergrades with sub- 
vinacea berlepschi, is indicated by two specimens from San Antonio in the 
Western Andes which were doubtless taken on the Pacific slope of the range, 
and one from above Novita in the same range. These birds, as the appended 
table of measurements shows, are intermediate in size between berlepschi 
and bogotensis. In color the two San Antonio specimens are nearer to ber- 
lepschi than they are to bogotensis, as that species is represented by speci- 
mens from La Candela on the Magdalena slope of the Central Andes; but 
the Novita specimen agrees absolutely in color with average specimens of 
bogotensis. Seven specimens from the Central Andes are essentially alike 
and may be considered typical of bogotensis. Compared with fourteen 
specimens of berlepschi from the Pacific coast (Naranjo, Guaymas, Ecuador, 
to Tacarcuna, eastern Panama), bogotensis is much larger, the underparts 
less cinnamomeus and less uniformly colored, the purplish vinaceous of the 
back being more or less mixed with olive; the wings are more olive exter- 
nally and somewhat less rufous internally. 

Intergradation between these two forms appears to occur at the northern 
end of the Western Andes where their ranges actually meet. With an ap- 
preciable increase in size (see table of measurements) and approach toward 
bogotensis in color, berlepschi reaches the summit of the Western Andes at 
San Antonio, above Call. Its further eastward extension here is prohibited 
by the lack of forest growth and specimens from the western slope of the 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 205 

Central Andes above the Cauca Valley are true hogotensis. To the north, 
however, along the Western Andes the Tropical Zone forest of the Pacific 
slope and Subtropical Zone forests of the summit or both slopes, are con- 
tinuous, and thus permit the ranges of the two forms to come into actual 
contact. 

A specimen from an altitude of 2500 feet, on the western slope of the 
Western Andes above No vita, like the San Antonio specimens, shows an 
approach in size toward bogotensis, but in color it goes beyond them being 
in fact so exactly like specimens of bogotensis from the Central Andes that 
I am wholly unable to discover any color difference between them. This 
specimen which has been examined by Mr. Ridgway in the course of his 
studies of Central American birds, is labelled by him C. s. berlepschi, but to 
my mind it is as satisfactory an intermediate between that race and bogo- 
tensis as a systematic ornithologist could well ask for. 

Continuing northward we have three specimens of bogotensis from La 
Frijolera on the lower Cauca River, thus bringing the range of this race to 
the western slope of the northern Central Andes. 

In Colombia, therefore, bogotensis appears to range from the northern 
end of the Western Andes, where it intergrades with berlepschi, through the 
Subtropical Zone of the Central and Eastern Andes to the Tropical Zone 
at the eastern base of the last-named range. From this point it evidently 
extends southward to Bolivia whence we have two specimens which seem 
to be inseparable from Colombian examples. 

This case is particularly interesting since it throws some light on the way 
in which numerous Amazonian species may have reached the Pacific coast. 
It is true that we have no specimens from the Temperate Zone, but in a 
wide-ranging, non-sedentary, adaptable species such as this, it is evident 
that the narrow strip which in places separates the Subtropical Zone of one 
slope from the same zone on the opposite slope of a range, is not a sufficient 
barrier to extension of range. 

Although no form of subvinacea is known from extreme northern Co- 
lombia where the arid coastal zone does not offer a favorable habitat for 
this species, the species appears again in northwestern Venezuela as Colu7nba 
subvinacea zuUcb (Cory, Field Mus. Pub., X, 182, 1915, p. 295) and in extreme 
northeastern Venezuela as Columba subvinacea peninsularis (Chapman, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 366). 

La Frijolera, 3; Salento, 4; La Candela, 3; La Morelia, 1. 



206 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 











Measurements 


t. 




















Wing 


Taa 


Teirsus 


GulmeQ 


c. 


S. 


herlepschij 


Buenaventura) 


, Col. 


^ 


148 


123 


20 


12 


u 


li 


11 


Esmeraldas, Ec. 


cf 


149 


117 


20 


12 


it 


(t 


ii 


N6vita TraU, 


Col. 


& 


160 


131 


21 


13.5 


u 


11 


u 


San Antonio 


u 


& 


160 


130 


21 


12.5 


ii 


u 


hogoiensis, 


Salento 


tl 


& 


168 


141 


21 


12 


ti 


(I 


(I 


tl 


it 


cf 


173 


142 


23 


13.5 


ti 


a 


u 


La Candela 


" 


& 


169 


147 


23 


14 


u 


u 


u 


La Morelia 


l( 


cf 


163 


120 


22 


13 


c. 


S. 


herlepschi, 


Naranjo, Ec 




9 


145 


120 


20.5 


13 


tl 


11 


u 


San Antonio, 


Col. 


9 


150 


126 


21 


12 


tt 


11 


hogoiensis, 


La Frijolera 


H 


9 


165 


136 


23 


13.5 


u 


ii 


" 


Salento 


tl 


9 


165 


138 . 


22.5 


14 


u 


u 


(( 


tl 


it 


9 


172 


139 


23 


13 


H 


a 


iC 


La Candela 


tl 


9 


175 


138 


23 


14 


it 


u 


tl 


11 


11 


9 


175 


138 


23 


15 



(160) Columba subvinacea berlepschi Hart. 

Columha suhvinacea berlepschi Hart., Nov. Zool., V, 1898, p. 504 (Paramba, n. 
w. Ecuador). 

Inhabits the Pacific coast region from southern Ecuador to eastern Pana- 
ma. Specimens from the Western Andes show an evident approach both 
in size and in color to C. s. hogoiensis, as remarked under that species, but, 
doubtless extending up the western side of the Atrato Valley and Baudo 
Ta.nge, berlepschi has reached eastern Panama without departing from the 
typical form. 

Buenaventura, 1; San Antonio, 2 (intermediates); Western Andes 
(2500 ft.), above Novita, 1 (intermediate). 



(162) Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs). 
Peristera auricvlata Des Murs, Gay's Hist. Chile, I, 1847, p. 381, pi. 6 (Chile). 

Found by us only in the Cauca Valley where it inhabits the savannas 
and plantations. Our specimens are somewhat smaller (male, wing 136- 
143 mm.) than one from Chile; have the tail more graduated and the cen- 
tral feathers more pointed. 

Call, 4; La Manuelita, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 207 

(163) Zenaida ruficauda ruficauda Bonap. 

Zenaida ruficauda Bonap., Consp. Av., II, 1854, p. 83 (New Grenada). 
Zenaida bogotensis Lawr., Auk, II, 1885, p. 358 (BogoU; type in Am. Mus.). 

Two forms of this species occur in the Bogota region. One occurs in 
the semi-arid Tropical Zone of the upper Magdalena Valley and doubtless 
extends well up the flanks of the mountains; the other is a bird of the Tem- 
perate Zone and is common on the Bogota Savanna. While they differ in 
color, their most tangible characters are in size; and the lack of measure- 
ments with the original description have made it difficult to determine from 
that alone, to which of the 'Bogota' forms Bonaparte's name might be 
properly applied. Fortunately his type is contained in the British Museum 
and at my request Mr. Charles Chubb has kindly supplied me with measure- 
ments of it and two topotypes. These show that Bonaparte named the 
larger Temperate Zone form (later described by Lawrence as Zenaida bogo- 
tensis), and we may therefore without question accept Mr. Ridgway's name 
of robinsoni for the small race of the Tropical Zone. 

Bogota Savanna, 9. 

(163a) Zenaida ruficauda robinsoni Ridgw. 

Zenaida ruficauda robinsoni Ridgw., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVIII, 1915, p. 
107 (Honda, Col.). 

Apparently restricted to the Tropical Zone in the Magdalena "Valley 
and eastward. In addition to the speciinens listed below, we have also two 
specimens from the lower Orinoco region (Maripa; Cd. Bolivar, Venez.). 
From Zenaida ruficauda ruficauda, of the Temperate Zone of the Eastern 
Andes, this race is distinguished by its smaller size and paler coloration. 

Honda, 2; Chicoral, 2. 

(1636) Zenaida ruficauda antioquise subsp. nov. 

Char, subsp. — Agreeing in the color of the upperparts with Zenaida r. ruficauda 
Bonap. but with the underparts, especially posteriorly, much more vinaoeous, the 
abdominal region and lower tail-coverts being vinaceous-fawn rather than orange- 
cinnamon as in ruficauda; size smaller. Resembling Z. i. robinsoni in the color of 
the underparts, but upperparts much darker and size larger. 

Type.— '^o. 132,926. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.jcf ad., Barro Blanco (7200 ft.), 
Cen. Andes, Antioquia; Nov. 28, 1914; Miller & Boyle. 

This race is probably restricted to the cleared or unforested portions of 
the Temperate Zone at the northern end of the Central Andes in Antioquia. 



208 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Here it appears to be a zonal representative of Z. r. rohinsoni, the tropical 
or base form, which in the Temperate Zone of the Eastern Andes is repre- 
sented by Z. r. ruficauda. 
Barro Blanco, 2. 

Measurements of Males. 

Wing Tail Tarsus Culmen 
Z. r. antioquice, Barro Blanco, Col. 146 104 23 17 



148.5 101 20:5 15 



157 


115 


23.5 




154 


111 


22 


14 


158 


108 


22 


14.5 


161 


104 


25 


16 


136.5 


92 


20.5 


15 


132.5 


89 


21 


15.5 



Z. r. ruficauda, Bogotd Savanna, Col. 

(i a u u a i( 

" " " 'Bogotd' (Typeof bogrotewsis) 

" " " New Grenada (Type of ruficauda) 

Z. r. rohinsoni, Honda, Col. 



(174a) Chsemepelia passerina albivitta Bonap. 

Ch[amcepelia] albivitta Bonap., Consp. Av., II, 1854, p. 77 (Carthagena, Col.). 
Chamcepelia granatina Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S., 1860, p. 195 (Carthagena). 
Chamcepelia passerina Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (Santa Marta). 
Columbigallina passerina Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 154 (Barranquilla). 
Columbigallina passerina granatina Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 128 
(Bonda; Santa Marta). 

This pale form is doubtless restricted to the arid coastal zone. Our 
specimens are essentially topotypical. 
La Playa, 6. • 

(1746) Chsemepelia passerina parvula Todd. 

Chcemepelia passerina parvula Todd, Ann. Carn. Mus., VIII, 1913, p. 544 (Honda, 
Col.). 

Columbigallina passerina Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 154 (Honda; Guaduas). 

Common in the Tropical Zone of the upper Magdalena Valley. The 
small size of a young female from Quetame induces me to refer it provision- 
ally to this form. Probably our very inadequate series of this and the suc- 
ceeding representatives of this genus may be attributed to their abundance ! 
This inspired the belief that specimens could be collected when the search 
for rarer birds was less pressing — a time which never came. 

Our series of the forms of passerina is therefore not large enough to 
warrant a review of Mr. Todd's work on Colombian Ground Doves, and I 

1 Measurements from type in the British Museum by Ghas. Chubb. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 209 

therefore accept his identification of our material most of which he used in 
the preparation of his excellent monograph of the genus ChcBmepelia. 
Honda, 4; Chicoral, 4; Quetame, 1. 



(174c) Cheemepelia passerina nana Todd. 

Chosmepelia passerina nana Todd, Ann. Carn. Mus., VIII, 1913, p. 546 (Jimenez, 
Upper Dagua, Col.). 

Abundant in the Cauca Valley and in the arid basin of the upper Dagua; 
ranging upward to the lower border of the Subtropical Zone. 
Caldas, 2; La Manuelita, 1. 



(176a) Chsemepelia minuta elseodes Todd. 

Chcemepelia minuta elceodes Todd, Ann. Cam. Mug., VIII, 1913, p. 578 (Buenos 
Aires, Costa Rica). 

Chamcepelia amazilia Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (Ooana; Herradura). 

An adult male from the lower Atrato region agrees essentially with a 
Costa Rica specimen. 
Dabeiba, 1. 



(180) Chsemepelia rufipennis rufipennis {Bonap.). 

Talpacotia rufipennis Bonap., Consp. Av., II, 1854, p. 79 (Carthagena, Col.). 

Chamcepelia rufipennis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (Ocafia, Buoaramanga, Magda- 
lena Valley); Scl. & Salt., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (MedeUin); Robinson, Flying 
Trip, p. 154 (Barranquilla; Honda). 

Columbigallina rufipennis Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 128 (Bonda; 
Masinga Vieja; Santa Marta; Cienaga). 

All our specimens from the Magdalena Valley are males ; but the f aunal 
affinities of this region as well as the characters of the specimens indicate 
that they should be referred to this race. 

Calamar, 2; Malena, 1; Chicoral, 1; El Alto de la Paz, 1. 



(180a) Chsemepelia rufipennis caucse Chapm. 

Choemepelia rufipennis caucce Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 367 
(La Manuelita, Cauca Valley, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — ■ Male not certainly distinguishable from the male of C. r. rufipennis 
but averaging paler below and browner above; female conspicuously different from 



210 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

the female of that race; the upperparts rather light Saccordo's umber, practically 
without trace of vinaoeous, except upon the rump and upper tail-coverts where it is 
much less pronounced than in C. r. rufipennis; the crown usually concolor with the 
back; the rectrices, upper wing-coverts and inner wing-feathers externally, the under- 
parts, particularly the flanks and lower tail-coverts, with less vinaceous-tawny than 
in C. r. rufi 



Our specimens of this well-marked race are all from the Cauca Valley 
and the surrounding mountain slopes up to the lower border of the Subtropi- 
cal Zone. This appears to form the southern limit of the range of this 
species in western South America. 

Cali, 5; La Manuelita, 2; below Miraflores, 3; Rio Frio, 1. 



(184) Claravis pretiosa livida Bangs. 

Claravis pretiosa livida Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XVIIl, 1905, p. 153 (Rio 
Cauca, Col.). 

Peristera einerea Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Remedios). 

Claravis pretiosa Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 128 (Minca; 
Cacagualito; Mamatoca; Santa Marta). 

Apparently distributed throughout the Tropical Zone. It is common 
in the Cauca Valley though we did not happen to collect specimens there. 
The characters on which this race is based appear to be more pronounced 
in the female than in the male. 

Dabeiba, 1; Noanama, 1; Los Cisneros, 2; Ricaurte, 1; Puerto Val- 
divia, 3; Enconosa, I; Villavicencio, 4; Florencia, 1. 



(189) Leptotila verreauxi verreauxi Bonap. 

Leptoptila verreauxi Boissav., Consp. Av., II, 1854, p. 73 (New Grenada); Cass., 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 195 (Turbo; R. Truando); Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 383 (Ocafia); Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Retiro; Medellin); Allen 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 128 (Minca; Bonda; Santa Marta). 

Common in the Tropical Zone in the entire Magdalena Valley region, 
northward to the coast and westward apparently to the lower Atrato region. 
Doubtless it occurs at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes, but we did 
not obtain it there. 

La Candela, 2; Andalucia (w. slope 3000 ft.), 2; El Carmen, 1; El Alto 
delaPaz, 1; Chicoral, 2; Honda, 3; Remolino, 2; Algodonal, 1; Calamar, 
3; LaPlaya, 2; R. Sinu, 1; Puerto Valdivia, I; Peque, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 211 



(189a) Leptotila verreauxi occidentalis Chapm. 

Leptotila verreauxi occidentalis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N, H., XXXI, 1912, p. 142 
(San Antonio, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Most closely allied to Leptotila verreauxi verreauxi Bp. but upper- 
parts, wings and tail externally much grayer, more olivaceous, forehead whiter, 
reflections' of crown much less pronounced and obscured by grayish, underparts 
paler, less vinaceous; flanks somewhat grayer; under tail-coverts averaging more 
buffy. 

Common about the border of forest in the Subtropical Zone of the Wes- 
tern Andes and western slope of the Central Andes above the Cauca Valley 
and southward. It is interesting to observe that while this form inhabits 
the Subtropical Zone, L. v. verreauxi is mainly a species of the Tropical Zone. 

Comparison of twenty specimens from western Colombia with twenty- 
six specimens of L. ■». verreauxi from Trinidad, Venezuela, Santa Marta, 
'Bogota,' and the Magdalena Valley in Colombia, Panama, Chiriqui and 
Costa Rica, shows that the differences between the two forms»expressed in 
the preceding diagnosis are constant, and are not bridged by individual or 
seasonal variation. While a specimen labelled "Bogota," probably the 
type-locality of verreauxi, is as richly colored as any bird in the series; 
two specimens from Chicoral Bridge in the foothills of the eastern slopes of 
the Central Andes, opposite Giradot, and a third from Puerto Berrio on the 
Magdalena River, show some approach toward the Cauca form. 

Caldas, 1; San Antonio, 4; Gallera, 1; Cerro Munchique, 5; Mira- 
flores, 6; Salento, 2. 



(191) Leptotila rufaxilla dubusi Bonap. 

Leptoptila dubusi Bonap., Consp. Av., Ill, 1854, p. 74 (Rio Napo). 

Leptotila rufaxilla dubusi Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 369. 

Char, svhsp. — Most nearly resembling L. r. heUmayri but upperparts averaging 
more olive, less cinnamomeus, front and sides of the throat and postocular region 
with less pinkish cinnamon; white of throat more restricted, confined largely to the 
chin; forehead darker; gull-gray of crown less extended posteriorly, reaching little 
if any behind the eyes; wings and tail shorter. Easily distinguished from L. r. 
rufaxilla by its more cinnamon upperparts, paler crown, deeper vinaceous breast, 
small white throat area, and smaller size. 

This is the form of Amazonian Colombia whence it extends southward 
into Ecuador and eastward to at least the upper Orinoco. 
La Manuelita, 9; Florencia, 1. 



212 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(191a) Leptotila rufaxilla pallidipectus Chapm. 

Leptotila rufaxilla pallidipectus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 
369 (Buena Vista, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Differs from all the brown forms of this species in its much paler, 
buff-tinted (vinaoeous-buff) breast, paler light brownish olive back, practically 
without purplish reflections; more grayish, less iridescent occiput and nape; the 
gull-gray of crown as restricted as in L. r. dubusi, the throat as extensively white as 
in hellmayri; agreeing in size with the former. 

Found by us only at and above Villavicencio. Doubtless it extends 
southward to the northern border of the Amazonian forests along the Gua- 
viare River, beyond which it is replaced by L. r. dubusi. 

Buena Vista, 1 ; Villavicencio, 2. 



(1916) Leptotila plumbeiceps Scl. & Salv. 
Leptoptila plumbeiceps Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 59 (Vera Paz, Guatemala). 

A not common inhabitant of the Tropical Zone in the Cauca Valley and 
at Caldas on the western slope of the Western Andes. 

This species, described from Guatemala, appears not to have before been 
recorded south of Costa Rica, and one might expect specimens from Colom- 
bia to he subspecifically separable from those representing the species at 
the northern limits of its range. My unusually satisfactory material in- 
cludes two specimens from Costa Rica, one from Nicaragua, three from 
Honduras, one from Central Guatemala, three from Teaba and one from 
Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico, and two from southern Vera Cruz. The 
Mexican specimen and the one from the vicinity of Coban, Guatemala, may 
be considered typically to represent plumbeiceps and from these birds the 
Cauca specimens differ appreciably in having the bluish gray of the crown 
and nape more extensive and reaching to the foreback, the auricular region 
and sides of the throat much paler, vinaceous-buff rather than buff or ochra- 
ceous-buff, the breast paler, and the under tail-coverts with little if any 
dusky external margin. 

The Honduras specimens, however, are nearer the Cauca bird, the one 
from Nicaragua agrees with true plumbeiceps, while those from Costa Rica 
are somewhat intermediate. To separate the Cauca bird, therefore, would 
make it difficult to name with any exactness specimens from by far the 
larger part of the range of the species, to my mind an unwarranted proceed- 
ing. 

Guengiie, 1; Rio Frio, 1; Las Lomitas, 2; Caldas, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 213 

(200) Leptotila pallida Berl. & Tacz. 
Leptolila pallida Berl. & Tacz., P. Z. S., 1883, p. 575 (Chimbo, Ecuador). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. This species has 
hitherto been recorded only from western Ecuador whence we have seven 
specimens. Comparison with a large series of L. rufaxilla from many lo- 
calities shows no indication of intergradation with that form, the gray 
hind-head and nape and (in view of its humid habitat) surprisingly pale 
breast of pallida being constantly diagnostic. 

Novita, 1; San Jose, 3; Barbacoas, 6. 

(200a) Leptotila cassini Lawr. 
Leptoptila cassini Lawr., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1867, p. 94 (Panama). 

Inhabits the forested lower Cauca-Magdalena region. Our specimens, 
which agree with the type, considerably extend the range of this species 
which appears not to have been before recorded from South America. 

Salaqui, 1 ; Open, below Puerto Berrio, 1 ; Puerto Berrio, 2. 

(202) Osculatia purpurata Salv. 
Osculatia purpurata Salv., Ibis, 1878, p. 448 (Ecuador). 

Apparently restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Our 
specimens extend the known range of this beautiful dove from Ecuador 
northward to the headwaters of the Atrato. 

Although obviously the representative of Osculatia sappMrina of the 
Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Andes, the differences separating 
these two forms seem to me to be now sufficiently pronounced and positive 
to be considered of specific value. 

La Vieja, Choco, 3; Novita Trail (3000 ft.), 1; Buenavista, Narino, 1. 

(204) Oreopeleia montana {Linn.). 

Columba montana Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 163 (Jamaica). 

Geotrygon montana Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 128 (Bonda). 

This wide-ranging dove inhabits both the Tropical and Subtropical 
Zones and appears to be distributed throughout the greater part of humid 
Colombia. 



214 BulleUn American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Las Lomitas, 4; San Antonio, 4; Puerto Valdivia, 1; La Candela, 1; 
Andalucia (7000 ft.), 1; Florencia, 1. 

(205) Oreopeleia veraguensis (Lawr.). 

Geotrygon veraguensis Lawb., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VIII, 1866, p. 349 
(Veragua). 

Geotrygon veraguensis cachaviensis Hart., Nov. Zool., V, 1898, p. 504 (Cachabi, 
Ecuador); IX, 1903, p. 603; Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1206 (Noanamd). 

Not uncommon in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and lower Cauca 
River. Comparison of our sixteen specimens (of which five from Barbacoas 
may be considered as topotypical of cachaviensis) with the type and three 
Costa Rican specimens of veraguensis confirms Hartert's suspicion (Nov. 
Zool. 1898, p. 603) that his cachaviensis is not separable. Colombian birds 
average more purple above, anteriorly, and darker below, but the difference 
is bridged by individual variation. (Females of this species have the fore- 
head and flanks decidedly browner than in the male). 

Puerto Valdivia, 3 ; Baudo, 6; Andagueda, 1; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 5. 



(206) Oreopeleia bourcieri (Bonap.). 

Geotrygon bourcieri Bonap., Consp. Av,, II, 1854, p. 71 (Valle Lloa, Ecuador) ; 
Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1206 (Pueblo Rico). 

Not uncommon in the Subtropical Zone of the Western and Central 
Andes, ranging upward to the lower border of the Temperate Zone, but like 
all terrestrial forest birds difficult to secure. Specimens from the Central 
Andes average more vinaceous below and more cinnamomeus above than 
those from the Western Andes, and thus show a slight approach toward 0. 
linearis linearis of the Eastern Andes. This fact, in connection with the 
evident absence of bourcieri in that range of mountains suggests the con- 
clusion that linearis is a widely differentiated representative of bourcieri, 
but this theory is disproven by the capture of a perfectly typical specimen of 
linearis at Puerto Valdivia, on the west shore of the Cauca River in Antio- 
quia. This species is also recorded from Santa Elena in the Central Andes, 
near Medellin, by Sclater and Salvin. 

It is somewhat surprising to find that our series of bourcieri from the 
Western Andes, rather than those from the Central Andes, agrees with Ecua- 
dor specimens. Of the latter I have six specimens from Zaruma in southern 
Ecuador, and one from Chunchi (alt. 7200 ft.) and a trade skin labelled 
"Ambato". All but the last agree with, the west Colombian form, while 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 215 

the Ambato specimen is nearer the Central Andean form. Unfortunately 
I have no specimens from the type-locality, west of Quito, nor do I know 
whether the Ambato bird came from the eastern or western slope of the 
Andes. Since, however, it resembles in make and came with a collection 
containing specimens of Oscidatia sapphirina, it is probably from the 
eastern slope. The occurrence of the species on that slope is shown by a 
specimen collected by Richardson at Zamora. This bird is in postjuvenal 
molt. So far as its adult plumage has appeared it resembles that of the 
west slope, gray-breasted bird, but its immaturity makes it impossible to 
draw satisfactory conclusions from its color. Under this theory we should 
have the gray-breasted form confined to the Pacific slope and extending 
northward into Colombia along the Western Andes; while the vinaceous- 
breasted bird is found on the Amazonian slope and ranges northward into 
Colombia along the Central Andes. The case is paralleled by the distribu- 
tion in Ecuador and Colombia of Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta and R. 
p. aurea. 

Possibly in this slight geographic variation we have the origin of Oreo- 
peleia erythropareia (Gray). Salvadori (Cat. Bds. B. M., XXI, p. 578) em- 
phasizes the fact that the breast in this form is "brown-grey" rather than 
"greyish-brown," as he describes hourcieri, a statement which suggests that 
the type of erythropareia (which is without definite locality) is really refer- 
able to true hourcieri. In any event, however, I do not feel that the varia- 
tions shown by our series of twenty-six specimens are sufficienth* constant 
to warrant the recognition of two forms. 

Salencio, 1 ; San Antonio, 4 ; La Florida, 1 ; Cocal, 1 ; Cerro Munchique, 
1 ; Gallera, 1 ; Almaguer, 1 ; Miraflores, 1 ; El Roble, 1 ; Laguneta, 1 ; La 
Candela, 4. 

(209) Oreopeleia linearis linearis {Prev. & Knip). 

Columba linearis Prev. & Kxip, Pig. et Gallin., II, 1838-43, p. 104, pi. 55 (Bogotd) . 
Geotrygon linearis ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 544 (Sta. Elena). 

In the Eastern Andes, found by us only in the Subtropical Zone where 
it is not uncommon. Sclater and Salvin record {I. c.) this species from 
Sta. Elena, near Medellin, and Miller confirms this somewhat unexpected 
record by securing a perfectly typical specimen at Puerto Valdivia. In the 
comparative restriction of the bluish gray to the sides of the head, and 
extension of the cinnamon-vinaceous to the nape, four of our specimens 
(including two from Buena Vista) agree with a topotype of '' venezuelensis" 
from Merida. Three young birds from Merida show that this character is 



216 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

due to immaturity, and indicate, in my opinion, that venezuelensis (which 
was apparently based on one specimen) is not a vaUd form. 

Specimens from Andalucia show no approach to bourcieri of which we 
have skins from La Candela on the opposite side of the Magdalena Valley. 

Puerto Valdivia, 1; Andalucia (5000-7000 ft.), 3; Fusugasuga, 1; 
Buena Vista, 3. 



Order OPISTHOCOMIFORMES. 
Family OPISTHOCOMIDiE. Hoatzins. 

(212) Opisthocomus hoazin {Milll.). 
Phasianus hoazin MtjLL., Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, p. 125 (Cayenne). 

Specimens from Florencia and Villavicencio mark the extreme north- 
western limit of the range of this species. 

Florencia, 6; Villavicencio, 3; Barrigon, 1. 



Order RALLIFORMES. 

Family RALLID^. Rails, Gallinules, Coots. 

(217) Rallus semiplumbeus Scl. 
Rallus semiplumbeus Scl., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 31 (Bogotd). 

Locally distributed and not uncommon on the Bogota Savanna. 
Savanna at Bogota, 4. 

(224) Pardirallus nigricans nigricans ( Vieill.). 

Rallus nigricans Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXVIII, 1819, p. 560 (Para- 
guay); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 545 (Medellin). 

Found by us only in the Cauca Valley. Four specimens are all much 
more olive above and more plumbeous below than a single specimen from 
"Brazil." 

La Manuelita, 2; Rio Frio, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 217 



(230) Aramides cajanea cajanea {MiXll.). 

Fulica cajanea Mull., Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, p. 119 (Cayenne). 
Aramides cayennensis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 196 (Turbo); 
ScL. & Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 545 (Remedios). 

Aramides cajanus Allen, Bull. A. M, N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 (Minoa). 

Generally distributed through the Tropical Zone. Specimens from the 
Cauca Valley, upper Magdalena and Buena Vista are paler than those from 
the Atrato and Caqueta region. The latter are more like those from Trini- 
dad. The differences, however, do not appear to be sufficiently constant 
to warrant racial distinction. 

Atrato River, 3; Salaqui, 1; Rio Frio, 1; Honda, 2; Buena Vista, 1; 
Florencia, 2. 

(235a) Amaurolimnas concolor guatemalensis {Lawr.). 

Corethura gualemalensis Lawr., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1863, p. 106 (Guatemala, 
J. MoLeannan). 

The type, an adult, and one immature specimen from Guatemala, an 
adult from Nicaragua and one adult and one immature specimen from 
Chiriqui, indicate on comparison with an adult from Jamaica, that the Cen- 
tral American form may be distinguished by its smaller size, more olive 
upperparts and darker underparts. An immature specimen from Bar- 
bacoas appears to be referable to this form. 



Place 




Sex 


Wing 


Tarsus 


Culm en 


Jamaica 




ad. 


124 


44 


30 


Guatemala 




ad. 


113 


37 


25 


Nicaragua 




9 ad. 


110 


39 


27 


Chiriqui 




9 ad. 


112 


35 


26 


Barbacoas, 


Col. 


cfim. 


118 


41 


26 



(236) Anurolimnas castaneiceps {Scl. & Salv.). 

Porzana castaneiceps Scl. & Salv., P. Z.. S., 1868, p. 453 (Rio Napo); Exot. Orn., 
1869, pi. Ixxviii. 

An adult female from La Morelia agrees fairly well with Sclater and 
Salvin's plate {I. c). 
La Morelia, 1. 



218 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(237) Anurolimnas hauxwelli {Scl. & Salv.). 
Porzana hauxwdli Scl. & Salv., Exot. Orn., 1868, p. 105, pi. liii (Pebas, Peru). 

A pair from La Morelia agree closely with Sclater and Salvin's plate 
(I. c). 

La Morelia, 2. 

(238) Porzana Carolina (Linn.). 

Rallus carolinas Linn., Syst. Nat., 1758, p. 153 (Hudson Bay). 
Porzana Carolina Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 545 (Medellin). 

Represented only by an adult female taken on the Bogota Savanna 
February 21, 1913. 
Bogota Savanna, 1. 

(241) Porzana flaviventris (Bodd.). 
Rallus flamvenler Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 52 (Cayenne). 

A male and female taken in the Juanchito marshes, near Cali, January 
31, and February 3, respectively^ are apparently the first specimens of this 
widely distributed and surprisingly constant species to be recorded from 
Colombia. Compared with a Guiana specimen, they exhibit no differences 
which may not be attributed to the somewhat faded condition of the Guiana 
bird. 

Cali, 2. 

(247) Creciscus senops (Scl. & Salv.). 
Porzana cenops Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1880, p. 161 (Sarayacu, Ecuador). 

A specimen from La Morelia in the same faunal region as the type- 
locality of C. cBnops, agrees with descriptions of that species of which I have 
seen no other specimens. 

La Morelia, 1. 

(248) Creciscus albigularis (Lawr.). 

Coreihrura albigularis Lawb., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., VII, 1861, p. 302 (Panama). 
Porzana albigularis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 546 (Remedies); Allen, Bull. 
A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 (Pueblo Viejo and Palomina). 
Creciscus albigularis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1208 (Sipi). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 219 

A single specimen in juvenal plumage taken at San Antonio, January 12, 
indicates, in connection with Hellmayr's record from the Rio Sipi, that this 
species ranges from sea-level to at least 6600 feet. 

Three adults from Barbacoas are somewhat darker, and less rufescent 
than the type and two other specimens from Panama. Possibly the dif- 
ference may be due to the greater age of the Panama skins. 

San Antonio, 1 ; Barbacoas, 3. 

(254) Neocrex colombianus Bangs. 

Neocrex colombianus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wa-sh., 1898, p. 171 (Palomina, 
Santa Marta); Ibid., 1908, p. 158 (San Antonio). 

Neocrex uniformis Hart., Nov. Zool., 1901, p. 369 (Pambilar, S. Javier, Ec). 

Bangs finds on comparison no difference between a specimen from San 
Antonio and the type of this species, and hence concludes that uniformis 
Hart, is a synonym. I therefore refer our three specimens from Barbacoas 
to this species. 

Barbacoas, 3. 

(255a) Gallinula chloropus pauxilla Bangs. 

GalUnula chloropus pauxilla Bangs, Proc. N. E. Zool. Club, V, 1915, p. 96 (Gua- 
bina, R. Cauca, Col.). 

?Gallinula galeata ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 546 (Antioquia; breeding). 

Abundant in the Cauca Valley, where we took specimens in December, 
May and August. Lacking typical specimens of G. c. galeata for compari- 
son, I accept Mr. Bangs' proposed form from the Cauca Valley, which is 
said to differ from galeata only in smaller size. I agree with Bangs, Hartert 
and Rothschild (Bangs, I. c.) that the relationships of Old and New World 
Gallinules are best expressed by treating them as subspecifically related. 

Cali, 8. 

(257a) Porphyriops melanops bogotensis Chapm. 

Porphyriops melanops bogotensis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, ■ 
p. 169 (Savanna at Bogota, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to P. m. melanops but axillars not barred, the upperparts 
darker, the interscapulars in the adult largely chestnut, like the wing-coverts. 

This rail-like Gallinule is common on the reed-grown sloughs of the 
Bogota Savanna. It is the most northern representative of a species which 
inhabits the Temperate Zone at sea-level in Argentina and Chile. 

Savanna at Bogota, 5; Anolaima, 4. 



220 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(258) lonornis martinicus (Linn.). 

Fulica martinica Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 259 (Martinique, W. I.). 
Porphyria martinica Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (Lake Paturia); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 546 (Medellin; breeding). 

lonornis martinica Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 152 (Barranquilla) . 
Jonomis martinica Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1208 (Tad6). 

Of this common wide-ranging species our collection contains only five 
specimens one of which, taken by Mrs. Kerr at Turbaco, near Carthagena, 
Aug. 3, 1911, is molting from juvenal into first winter plumage. 

Atrato River, 2; Sinu River, 1; Turbaco, 1; Florencia, 1. 



(265a) Fulica americana Columbiana Chapm. 

Fulica americana columbiana Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 170 
(La Herrera, Bogotii Savanna, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to F. a. americana, but tarsi and toes longer, bill heavier 
and longer, frontal shield larger, higher, rounded posteriorly and more clearly defined 
from the bill anteriorly; bill basally, in breeding specimens, yellowish; plumage, 
particularly of the underparts, darker, more slaty; the under wing-coverts darker 
with little or no white edgings; the white at the ends of the inner secondaries averag- 
ing less in extent and confined largely to the inner web of the feathers. 

A locally common bird in the sloughs of the Bogota Savanna. Doubt- 
less this form is deserving of specific distinction, but its relationships seem 
best expressed by a trinomial designation. It is remarkable that while in 
South America as in North America Fulica appears to be a Temperate Zone 
bird, a nearly allied race of americana should be found at sea-level in the 
West Indies. 

La Herrera, 12; La Olanda, 1. 



Family HELIORNITHID^. Finfeet. 



(267) Heliornis fulica (Bodd.). 

Colymbus fulica Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 54. 

Heliornis fulica Wtatt, Ibis., 1871, p. 384 (Ooana); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, 
p. 546 (Dept. Antioquia). 

Barbacoas, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 221 

Order PODICIPEDIFORMES. 
Family PODICIPEDIDiE. Grebes. 

(268) Colymbus dominicus brachyrhynchus Chapm. 

Colymbus dominicus brachyrhynchus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XII, 1899, p. 255 
(Matto Grosso, Brazil). 

Tachybapterus dominicus ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 548 (Antioquia; breed- 
ing). » 

An unsexed specimen from Popayan and a male from Cali. The latter 
measures, wing, 91; culmen, 19 mm., and in length of wing therefore is in- 
termediate between brachyrhynchus and brachypterus, but in size of bill and 
color it agrees with brachyrhynchus. 

Cali, 1; Popayan, 1. 

(276) Podilymbus podiceps {Linn.). 
Colymbus podiceps Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 136 (Carolina). 

A pair of birds (of which the female was laying) taken at Cali, May 10, 
agree in size with North American examples but are much more fuscous 
above, and grayer below. The difference in the underparts resembles that 
which exists between Colymbus d. brachypterus and C. d. brachyrhynchus, 
and is apparently not due to seasonal variation or wear. The Cauca birds 
doubtless represent a resident race. They measure, male (Fuertes Coll.), 
wing, 133; tarsus, 39, culmen, 24; depth of bill at nostril, 12; female, wing, 
119; tarsus, 36; culmen, 20.5; depth of bill at nostril, 11. 

A downy chick but a few days old was taken by Gonzalez at La Herrera 
in the Bogota Savanna, May 13, 1913. 

Cali, 2; La Herrera, 1. 

Order LARIFORMES. 
Family LARIDiE. Skimmers, Gulls, Skuas. 

(319) Phaetusa chloropoda ( VieilL). 

Sterna chloropoda Vieill., N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXII, 1819, p. 171 (Para- 
guay). 



222 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. |Vol. XXXVI, 

PhcBtusa magniroslris Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 150 (R. Magdalena, Barran- 
quilla to Puerto Berrio). 

Abundant on the lower Magdalena. 
La Playa, 1. 

(338) Rhynchops nigra cinerascens S'pix. 

Rhynchops cinerascens Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 80 pi. cii (Amazon). 
Rhynchops nigra Wyatt, Ibis., 1871, p. 384 (Dique, Magdalena). 

Abundant on the lower Magdalena ranging up the river in decreasing 
numbers at least as far as Giradot. No specimens Were taken. 



Order CHARADRIIFORMES. 

Family CHARADRIID^. Turnstones, Oystercatchers, Plovers, 
Stilts, Snipes, Phalaropes, etc. 

(371) Belonopterus cayennensis (Gmel.). 

Parra cayennensis Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1789, p. 706 (Cayenne). 

Vanellus cayennensis Wyati;, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (La Cruz; Lake Paturia); Sol. & 
Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 546 (Retire; Frontino; Concordia; breeding). 

Belonopterus cayennensis Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 302 (Plains 
of Tolima). 

Of local distribution throughout the Tropical Zone, ascending to the 
lower borders of the Subtropical Zone over the treeless slopes or clearings. 

Atrato River, 2; Caldas, 1; Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, (eastern 
slope), 4; Cali, 3; La Manuelita, 2 (including a newly hatched chick, 
taken April 15); El Roble, 1; Salento, 3; Puerto Berrio, 1; Barrigon, 3. 

(375) Charadrius dominicus dominicus Milll. 

Charadrius dominicus Mull., Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, p. 116 (Santo Domingo, 
W. I.). 

Charadrius virginicus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 547 (Medellin). 

Buenvista, Nariiio, 1 (Sept. 27); Cali, 1 (Dec. 22). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of BirdAife in Colombia. 223 



(380) .ffigialitis semipalmata (Bonap.). 

Charadrms semipalmatus Bonap., Journ. Acad. N. S. Phila., V, 1825, p. 98 (New 
Jersey). 

Tumaco (July 28), 1. 

(381) .ffilgialitis coUaris ( Vieill). 

Charadrius collaris Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXVII, 1817, p. 136 
(Paraguay). 

^gialitis collaris Allen, Bull, A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Cienaga, Santa 
Marta). 

Call, 5; La Morelia, 2. 

(388) Himantopus mexicanus {Mull.). 

Charadrius mexicanus MtjLL., Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, p. 117 (Mexico). 
Himantopus nigricollis Wyatt, Ibis., 1871, p. 383 (Cienaga). 
Himantopus mexicanus Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 152 (Barranquilla). 

Cali, 2. 

(397) Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.). 

Scolopax melanoleuca Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1789, p. 659 (Labrador). 

Gambetta melanoleuca Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 195 (Phila.); 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (La Cruz); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 547 (Cauca; 
Medellin). 

Cali (Dec. 25), 1. 

(398) Totanus flavipes (Gmel). 

Scolopax flavipes Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1789, p. 659 (New York). 

Gambetta flavipes Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 195 (Carthagena) ; 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 547 (Medellin). 

Totanus flavipes Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Cienaga, Santa 
Marta). 

Quibdo (Sept. 1), 2; Barbacoas (Aug. 18), 1; LaManuelita (Apr. 12), 1, 

(399) Helodromas solitarius solitarius {Wils.). 

Tringa soUtaria Wils., Am. Orn., VII, 1813, p. 53, pi. 58, fig. 3 (Pennsylvania ?). 
Rhyncophilus solitarius Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 547 (Medellin). 
Totanus solitarius Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Cienaga; Santa 
Marta). 



224 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVIi 

Quibdo (Nov. 14), 1 ; Novita (Dec. 21), 1 ; Buenavista, Narino, (Sept. 28), 
1; San Antonio (Jan. 20), 1; Cali (Dec. 25), 1; La Manuelita (Apl. 11), 2; 
San Agustin (Apl. 9), 1; Puerto Berrio (Jan. 30), 1; Barro Blanco (Nov. 
29), 1. 

(400) Actitis macularia (Linn.). 

Tringa macularia Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 249 (Pennsylvania). 

Tringoides macularius Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (Ocafia); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 547 (Retire). 

Actitis macularia Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 (La Conoepcion; 
Cienaga). 

Dabeiba (Feb. 14), 1; Novita (Dec. 23), 1; San Jose (Dec. 4), 1; Bar- 
bacoas (Aug. 30-Sept. 4), 5; Caldas (Nov. 20), 1; Cali (May 8), male in 
breeding plumage but testes not enlarged; Salento (Sept. 28), 1; Honda 
(Feb. 1), 1. 

(407) Tringa minutilla Vieill. 

Tringa minutilla Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, p. 466 (Nova 
Scotia to Antilles); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Cienaga). 
Tringa unlsoni Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 196 (Carthagena). 

Quibd6 (Aug. 20-Nov. 11), 3; Jurftas de Tamana (Dec. 20), 1; Novita 
(Dec. 24), 1; Cali (Dec. 25), 2; Palmira (Apr. 13), 1; Rio Frio (Dec. 2), 1. 



(408) Pisobta maculata ( Vieill.). 

Tringa maculata Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, p. 465 (An- 
tilles or southern United States); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 
(Cienaga, Santa Marta). 

Quibdo (Sept. 1-Nov. 11), 3. 



(413) Gallinago delicata (Ord). 

Scolopax delioata OuD, ReprintWilson'sOrn.,IX, 1825, p. ccxviii (Pennsylvania). 
Gallinago wilsoni Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 547 (Medellin). 

Three specimens from west of the Eastern Andes are referable to the 
North American species. Those from Villavicencio, east of the Andes, have 
the longer, stouter bill and narrower outer tail-feather of hraziliensis, the 
resident form. 

Novita (Dec. 25), 1; Puerto Berrio (Jan. 30), 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 225 

(414) Gallinago braziliensis (Swains.). 
Scohpax braziliensis Swains., Faun. Bor.-Am., Birds, 1831, p. 400 (Brazil). 

Villavicencio (Mch. 13, 14), 3. 

(416) Gallinago nobilis Scl. 

Gallinago nobilis Scl., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 31 (Bogotd); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 547 (Retire; breeding). 

Our specimens are from the Paramo Zone in the Central and Eastern 
Andes. 

Santa Isabel (12,700 ft.), 2 ; Valle de las Pajppas, 3 ; Chipaque (10,000 ft.), 
1. 

(421) Gallinago jamesoni (Bonap.). 

Xylocota jamesoni Bonap., Compt. Rend., XLI, 1855, p. 660 (Andes of Quito, 
Ecuador). 

Eleven specimens from the Paramo Zone of the Central Andes agree 
with others recently collected on Mt. Pichincha. 
Santa Isabel (12,700 ft.), 11. 



Family PARRID^. Jacanas. 

(427) Jacana spinosa {Linn.). 
Fulica spinosa Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 152 (South America). 
La Morelia, 1. 



(428) Jacana melanopygia (Sel): 

Parra melanopygia Scl., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 283 ("S. Marthe in New Grenada,— 
Verreaux"). 

Eleven specimens from the Cauca Valley all have the back purplish 
brown more or less sharply defined from the greenish black of the anterior 
parts of the body. 

All our specimens from the Santa Marta region are referable to nigra, 
a fact which suggests that the type of melanopygia did not come from Santa 



226 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Marta. A male from Calamar is intermediate between the species and 
nigra. Two other Calamar specimens are referable to nigra. 
Cali, 10; Rio Frio, 1. 



(429) Jacana nigra (Gmel.). 

Parra nigra Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1, 1788, p. 708 ("Habitat in Brasilia"); Robinson, 
Flying Trip, p. 153 (Barranquilla). 

Parra hy-pomelcena Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 196 (R. Atrato); 
Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 383 (Lake Paturia; Delta Magdalena); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 646 (Antioquia; Sta. Elena [!]; breeding). 

Jacana nigra Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 126 (Cienaga). 

This is the only Jacana we have taken in northern Colombia and the 
Magdalena Valley, though as remarked above, one of two specimens from 
Calamar is intermediate between nigra and melanopygia. Since J. spinosa 
is the only species known from Brazil, it is obvious that with this form as 
well, doubtless, as with melanopygia the "type-locality" is incorrect. I 
list below all the specimens of nigra contained in our collections. 

Puerto Berrio, 2; Calamar, 2 (one intermediate); Barranquilla, 2; La 
Playa, 8; Santa Marta, 2; Panama R. R., 1. 



Family CEDICNEMID.^. Thick-Knees. 

(430) Burhinus bistriatus {Wagl.). 
Charadrius hislrialus Wagl., Isis, 1829, p. 648 (Mexico). 
Barranquilla, 1 (Fuertes). 

Order GRUIFORMES. 
Family EURYPYGID^. Sun-Bitterns. 

(434) Eurypyga major Hartl. 

Eurypyga major Haktl., Syst. Verz. Mus. Bremen, 1844, p. 108 (Colombia); 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 546 (NecW). 

. Rio Salaqui, Choco, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 227 



Family PSOPHIIDiE. Trumpeters. 

(437) Psophia napensis Scl. & Sdv. 
Psophia napensis Scl. & Salv., Nomen. Av., 1873,, p. 162 (Rio Napo). 

As might be expected, a specimen from La Morelia is typical. Two 
specimens from near Mt. Duida at the head of the Orinoco, are apparently 
typical crepitans. 

La Morelia, 1. 

Order ARDEIFORMES. 
Family IBIDID^E. Ibises. 

(445) Theristicus caudatus {Bodd.). 

Scolopax caudatus Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 57 (Cayenne). 
Theristiciis colombianus Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus., 1899, p. 23 (Bogotd?) = 
immature caudatus; cf. Salvadori, Ibis, 1900, p. 504. 

Common in the Cauca Valley, frequenting chiefly pastures and fields, 
often far distant from water. It was not observed in the Magdalena Valley 
but was secured at Barrigon, east of Villavicencio. 

La Manuelita, 1; Barrigon, 1. 

(448) Harpiprion cayennensis {Gmel.). 

Tantalus cayennensis Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1, 1789, p. 652 ("Habitat in Cayenna"). 
Harpiprion cayennensis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 197 (R. Nercua); 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (NecM). 

R. Atrato, 1 ; Malena, 1 ; Villavicencio, 2. 

(450) Phimosus berlepschi Hellm. 

Phimosus berlepschi Hellm., Verhandl. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, LIII, 1903, p.-Z47 
(Orinoco). 

I refer a specimen taken by Fuertes at Barranquilla to this species, but 
have no specimens of true nudifrons for comparison. 
Barranquilla, 1. 



228 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



Family PLATALEID^. Spoonbills. 

(457) Ajaia ajaja (Linn.). 

Platalea ajaja Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 140 (" Habitat in America australi"). 
Ajaja ajaja Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 151 (R. Magdalena). 

Of local distribution throughout the Tropical Zone. Common in the 
Cauca Valley. 
Cali, 1. 

Family CICONIIDiE. Storks. 



(460) Jabiru mycteria (Licht). 
Ciconia mycteria Light., Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 76 (Brazil). 



Occasionally seen from the steamer, high in the air, over the lower 
Magdalena. Four adults and two downy nestlings were collected by Mrs. 
Kerr on the Rio San Jorge, the nestlings being taken in December. 



Family ARDEID^E. Herons, Boatbills, Bitterns. 

(461) Ardea cocoi lAnn. 

Ardea cocoi Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 237 (Cayenne); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 384 
(Lake Paturia); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 152 (R. Magdalena). 

Common throughout the Tropical Zone. 
Malena, 1; Villavicencio, 1. 

(463) Herodias egretta (Gmel.). 

Ardea egretta Gmbl., Syst. Nat., I, 1789, p. 629 (Cayenne); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. .384 (Lake Paturia); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 152 (R. Magdalena). 

Locally distributed throughout the Tropical Zone. It was not un- 
common in the Cauca Valley, but few were seen on the Magdalena River. 
Its numbers have been greatly decreased by plume hunters. 

La Morelia, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 229 



(464) Egretta candidissima (Gmel.). 

Ardea candidissima Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 633 (Cayenne); Wyatt, Ibis, 
1871, p. 384; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 542 (Cauoa); Robinson, Flying Trip, 
p. 152 (R. Magdalena). 

Oarzetta candidissima Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 196 (Carthagena; 
R. Atrato). 

Not uncommon in the marshes along the Cauca River, and doubtless 
occurring locally throughout the Tropical Zone, though with egretta it has 
suffered much from plumers. No specimens were taken. 



(465) Florida cserulea (Linn.). 

Ardea coerulea Linn., Syst. Nat. I, 1758, p. 143 (Carolina); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 384 (Lake Paturia; Cienaga). 

Noanama, 1; Malena, 1. 



(466) Hydranassa tricolor tricolor (Mull.). 
Ardea tricolor Mull., Syst. Nat., Anhang., 1776, p. Ill ("America"; Cayenne). 

On geographical grounds I refer our immature female from the Sinu 
River to this form. 

(468) Agamia agami (Gmel.). 

Ardea agami Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 629 (Cayenne).- 
Agamia agami Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 (Mamatooa; Bonda; 
Minca; Santa Marta). 

Rio Salaqui, 1; Rio Atrato, 2. 

(469) Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). 

Ardea nceoia Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 56 (Cayenne). 
Nycticorax nycticorax ncevius Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 
(Bonda) . 

Cali, 2; Rio Frio, 1; La Morelia, 1; La Olanda, 2. 



230 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(473) Cochlearius cochlearius {Linn.). 

Cancroma cochlearia Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 233; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 542 (Remedios); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 124 (Minca; 
Bonda). 

La Olanda, 1. 



(475) Pilherodias pileatus (Bodd.). 
Ardea pileata Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 54 (Cayenne). 

This species, which does not appear to have been before recorded from 
Colombia, was observed by us on the Cauca River and collected on the 
Sinu by Mrs. Kerr. 

Sinu, 1. 

(476) Butorides striata {Linn.). 

Ardea striata Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 238 (Surinam). 

Butorides grisea Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 196 (Carthagena). 

Butorides cyanurus Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 384 (Lake Paturia; Bucaramanga) ; 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 542 (Medellin); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 152 
(Barranquilla). 

Butorides striata Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 (Bonda). 

Common in the Tropical Zone. I observe no racial variation in our 
series of sixteen Colombian specimens, but have no Guiana material for 
comparison. 

Sinu, 1; Atrato, 1; Quindio, 1; Barbacoas, 2; Tumaco, 1; Cali, 5; 
La Palma, 1 ; Chicoral, 1 ; Honda, 1 ; La Olanda, 1 ; Villavicencio, 1 ; La 
Morelia, 1. 

(479) Tigrisoma lineatum {Bodd.). 
Ardea lineata Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 52 (Cayenne). 

We have two adults with rich chestnut-rufous head and neck, and two 
young in barred black and buff plumage which agree with the adults in 
having the long, rather slender, regularly tapering bill that appears to char- 
acterize this species. 

R. Salaqui, 1 juv.; R. Atrato, 1 ad.; Malena, 1 juv.; Puerto Berrio, 
lad. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 231 



(483) Tigrisoma salmoni Set. & Salv. 

Tigrisoma salmoni ScL. & Salv., P. Z..S., 1875, p. 38 (lower Cauoa Valley, Col.); 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 125 (Valparaiso). 

I provisionally refer to this species a young female in broadly barred 
black and rusty plumage from Salento, because of the shortness of its 
bill which measures only 69 mm. as compared with 108 mm. in a female in 
similar plumage from Santa Marta, which I take to be lineatum. The 
Santa Marta specimen has the upperparts more broadly barred with rusty 
of a deeper shade, and the longer under wing-coverts are fuscous distinctly 
barred and tipped with white, while in the Salento specimen they are fus- 
cous; the bars are broken or appear as a spot, and the white tip is more in 
the nature of a rounded, terminal band. I do not know that these varia- 
tions in color have any significance, nor am I aware that the differences, if 
any, between lineatum and salmoni at this age have been pointed out. 

A male from Juntas de Tamana is dark olive-green narrowly barred 
with rusty above, a plumage which seems to follow that of the young bird 
just mentioned, and which is apparently the one referred to in the British 
Museum Catalogue (XXXI, p. 198). The bill measures 88 mm., the longer 
under wing-coverts are fuscous, unbarred, and narrowly margined with 
white. 

The bill in salmoni (of which we have three essentially adult specimens) 
is not only shorter than in lineatum but is proportionately heavier and less 
pointed, while the mandible is sharply bicolor, the basal half being (in skins) 
largely yellowish horn (except along the tomium), the terminal half blackish, 
except along the gonys on which the color of the base extends. This char- 
acter is well shown by the second specimen in intermediate plumage, men- 
tioned above, but not by the black and buff barred young. 

Salento, 1 (black and buff, young plumage, but with ovaries somewhat 
enlarged); Juntas de Tamana, 1. 

(485) Ixobrychus erythromelas ( Vieill.). 

Ardea erythromelas Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XIV, 1817, p. 422 (Para- 
guay River). 

Sio Frio, 1. 



(485a) Ixobrychus exilis bogotensis Chapm. 

Ixobrychus exilis bogotensis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 171 
(Savanna at Bogotd). 



232 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Char, subsp. — Similar to I. e. exilis but slightly smaller; adult male in breeding 
plumage with the underparts more richly colored; the breast, abdomen, flanks, 
under wing and under tail-coverts warm buff, the thighs deeper in tone; the median 
and lesser wing-coverts richer, mainly ochraceous-buff more or less margined with 
tawny-russet; adult female more nearly resembling adult female of I. e. exilis but the 
abdominal region, flanks, thighs, under wing and under tail-coverts deeper, warm 
buff; the back slightly darker; immature male much richer in color than /. e. exilis 
of same age; underparts heavily washed with ochraceous-buff; central wing-covert 
area ochraceous-tawny; in adult and immature, tarsi black, toes brownish, their 
soles yellow. 

Ixobrychus exilis is apparently a rare bird in South America. It is not 
included in Brabourne and Chubb's 'The Birds of South America' (1912), 
but is stated in the A. O. U. 'Check-List' (1910), to occur as far south as 
Brazil. The discovery of a local race of this boreal species on the Bogota 
Savanna is therefore a fact of rather exceptional interest. An apparently 
mated pair, both having the sexual organs enlarged, was taken on February 
17, and an immature male, taken January 21, was purchased by Mr. Fuertes 
from a local collector. Doubtless the bird is not uncommon in the reedy 
marshes of the Savanna, but strangely enough it appears not before to have 
been recorded from the Bogota region. 

Bogota Savanna, 3. 



Order PALAMEDEIFORMES. 
Family PALAMEDEID^. Sckeamers. 

(490) Palamedea cornuta Linn. 
Palamedea cornuta Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 232 (Brasil). 

An adult female was taken by Allen on the Cauca marshes near Cali, 
January 26, 1912. The species does not appear to have been previously 
recorded from Colombia or from so far west; nevertheless Allen reports 
it as " not uncommon." 

(491) Ghauna chavaria (Linn.). 

Parra chavaria Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 260 (Carthagena, Col.). 

Commonly observed along the Magdalena River at times in flocks of 
fifteen or twenty individuals. No specimens were taken. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 233 

Okdee ANSERIFORMES. 
Family ANATID^E. Swans, Ducks, Geese. 

(499) Cairina moschata (Linn.). 

Anas moschata Linn,, Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 124 (Brazil). 

Common in the Cauca Valley and occasionally observed from the steamer 
on the lower Magdalena. 
Rio Frio, 2. 

(508) Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieill.). 

Anas bicolor Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., V, 1816, p. 136 (Paraguay) = D. 
fulva Auct. 

Generally distributed and more or less common in the Tropical Zone 
and occurring also on the Bogota Savanna. 
Cali, 2; La Herrera, 1. 

(609) Dendrocygna discolor Scl. & Salv. 

Dendrocygna discolor Scl. & Salv., Nomen. Av. Neotrop., 1873, p. 161 (Maroni 
River, Surinam); Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1209 (Sipi). 

Dendrocygna autumnalis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. PhUa., 1860, p. 197 (R. Tru- 
ando). 

Cali, 2. 

(518) Nettion andium {Scl. & Salv.). 

Querguedula andium Scl. & Salv., Nomen. Av. Neotrop., 1873, p. 162 (Ecuador). 

Recorded both from Ecuador and Venezuela but heretofore unknown 
from Colombia. 
Santa Isabel, 1. 

(525) Querquedula discors (Linn.). 

Anas discors Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 1766, p. 205 (Virginia or Carolina). 
Querquedula discors Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (Medellin). 

" Not imcommon at Juanchito near Cali, generally associating with the 
Cinnamon Teal" (Allen). 

Cali (Jan. 29), 1; Puerto Valdivia (Dec. 1), 1. 



234 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(526) Querquedula cyanoptera ( Vieill.). 

Anas cyanoptera Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., V, 1816, p. 104 (Rio de la 
Plata and Buenos Aires). 

Querquedula cyanoptera Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1209 (Sipi). 

Abundant in the Cauca Valley. Four males taken from Dec. 30 to 
April 12, have numerous round, black spots on the breast, sides and flanks, 
but in four other males taken in January, these marks are nearly or wholly 
absent. Their relation to age or season I have been unable to determine. 

Cali, 16; Palmira, 1. 

(533) Marila nationi {Sol. & Sah.). 
Fuligula nationi Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1877, p. 522 (Lima, Peru). 

This duck, of which the two specimens in the British Museum appear to 
be the only ones hitherto in collections, proves to be a common species in 
the marshes of the Cauca Valley near Cali, where six males and eight fe- 
males were secured in January, February and May. Doubtless it is a per- 
manent resident. 

This fine series together with Wied's types of "Anas erythropthalma" 
and five specimens^ of the South African M. brunnea, enable me satisfac- 
torily to determine the inter-relationships of these interesting birds (cf. 
Cat. Bds. B. M., XXVII, p. 353). 

Although Wied's types, collected at Lagoa do Braco, near Villa de Bel- 
monte in 1815-17 were mounted and are somewhat faded through exposure 
to light, they are evidently specifically identical with " Nyroca brunnea" 
Eyton (1838) which is therefore a pure synonym of "Anas erythropthalma" 
(Wied). 

The Brazilian birds, in spite of their long exposure to light, differ re- 
markably little from recently collected African skins, while the male type 
agrees minutely with a mounted African specimen which has been on ex- 
hibition for over thirty years. The female type is more rusty below than 
African females, a difference apparently due to that type of rusty coloration 
which is frequently found in the Anatidae. 

With but two specimens at his disposal, Salvadori {I. c.) was uncertain 
whether or not nationi was separable from brunnea (= erythropthalma). 

I Including one from the National Museum and two, collected by George L. Harrison, Jr. at Lake 
Nairasha in 1904, from the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 235 

The material at hand, however, leaves no doubt of their specific distinct- 
ness, although nationi appears to be a Pacific coast representative of ery- 
thropthalma. Although the pattern of coloration is the same in both species, 
the male of nationi is so much darker than the male of erythropthalma that 
less contrast exists between the colors of adjacent areas, notably the sides 
of the head, the crown and nape, and the pattern is therefore less marked. 

In nationi the crown and liape are rich, purplish black and this color 
spreads over the sides of the head and throat where, however, close inspec- 
tion reveals a rvifous shade on the region which, in erythropthalma, is strongly 
rufous-chestnut with but a slight purplish tinge chiefly along the line of 
junction with the clearly defined glossy seal-brown crown and nape. The 
male of nationi further differs conspicuously from the corresponding sex of 
erythropthalma in having the breast and neck all around glossy black, the 
back much darker, though similarly A'ermiculated, the belly dull grayish 
black, and the flanks deeper chestnut. 

The females of the two species, as might be expected, present less strik- 
ing differences than those exhibited by the males, although they are of much 
the same nature, being occasioned by the darker color throughout of nationi. 
This greater intensity of color is most apparent in the increased richness of 
the rufous markings which in nationi approach a chestnut rather than fer- 
ruginous color, as in erythropthalma. The two species, however, are sur- 
prisingly alike and it is conceivable that in certain conditions of plumage it 
might be impossible to distinguish between them. 

Call marshes, 14. 



(533a) Marila affinis (Eyton). 
Fuligula affinis Eyton, Monog. Anat., 1838, p. 157 (North America). 

A female taken by Allen in the Cali marshes January 29, 1912, and said 
by him to be "the only one seen" appears to be the first recorded specimen 
of this duck south of Panama. 

Cali marshes, 1. 

(535) Nomonyx dominicuS {Linn.). 
Anus dominica Linn., Syst. Nat., 1766, p. 201 (Santo Domingo). 

"Not common in the Cali marshes, generally in small flocks" (Allen). 
Cali (Jan. 25-31), 9, all in winter plumage. 



236 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(546) Merganetta colombiana Des Murs. 

Merganetta colombiana Des Mtjbs, Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 179 (Colombia). 
Merganetta leucogenys Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 543 (Frontino). 

Found by us only in the Central Andes where it is not uncommon on 
the rapid rivers of the Subtropical Zone. Our four specimens are males, one 
being adult, the others immature with the underparts white, unmarked ex- 
cept for the bars on the sides and flanks. The male, taken in the Rio Toche, 
October 23, had the testes much enlarged, and is just completing a molt in 
which the tail was renewed, indicating the near approach of the nesting 
season. 

Two of the immature birds, taken at Salento, Sept. 25, are acquiring 
new wing-quills but the rectrices are very worn and the shafts of the six 
central feathers are projected 30-34 mm. beyond the vanes of the feather 
proper. The basal half of this projection is devoid of barbs, while the api- 
cal half is finely set with barbs about 2 mm. in length. In the third imma- 
ture bird, taken at El Eden, Nov. 13, the remiges are fully grown and these 
peculiar projections are wanting on the much worn tail-feathers. Possibly 
they represent a preceding plumage and disappear by breaking off. The 
point at which the break is to occur is indicated by a transparent space just 
beyond the vane of the feather. If, as seems probable, these rather stiflSy 
barbed, projecting shafts constitute the rectrices of the natal down, they 
are doubtless of assistance to the young bird in clambering up on the water- 
washed rocks which form its natural resting-places. 

Salento, 2; Rio Toche, 1; El Eden, 1. 



Obdeb PELECANIFORMES. 
Family PHALACROCORACID^. Cormoeants, Shags. 

(549) Phalacrocorax vigua vigua ( Vieill.). 

Hydrocorax vigua Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VIII, 1817, p. 90 (Para- 
guay). 

Carlo brasilianus'! Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 197 (R. Truando). 
Phalacrocorax vigua Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 124 (Bonda). 
Carbo vigua Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1209 (Noanamd). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 237 

Abundant along the Cauca River where it nests in large numbers, chiefly 
in the upper branches of tall trees on the banks of the river. 

It was also observed on the Magdalena and in immense numbers near 
Cienaga in the Santa Marta region. 

Cali, 2. 



Family PLOTID^E. Daetees. 

(554) Anhinga anhinga {Linn.). 

Plotus anhinga Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 218 (Brazil); Cass., Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 197 (R. Truando; R. Atrato). 

Frequently observed along the Cauca and Magdalena Rivers, but no 
specimens were taken. 



Oedee CATHARTIFORMES. 
Family CATHARTID^. Condoes, Vultuees. 

(565) Sarcoramphus gryphus (Linn.). 

Vultur gryphus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 86 (Chili). • 

Sarcoramphus gryphus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 382 (Paramo of Pamplona, 11500 ft.). 

The Condor is rare in Colombia and occurs only on the crest of the Andes. 
One seen by Allen and Miller near Almaguer is the only one observed by 
any of our expeditions. It is recorded from above Bucaramanga by Wyatt, 
and Brother Apolinar Maria tells me that it is sometimes seen above Bogota. 
We took no specimens. 

(566) Gypagus papa {Linn.). 

Vultur papa Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 86 ("India occidentali" = Brazil). 

Gypagus papa ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 542; Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 154 
(Lower Magdalena); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 129 (El Paramo de 
Macotoma; Chirua; La Concepcion; Bonda; Santa Marta). 

Not common. Observed in both the Cauca and Magdalena Valleys. 
No specimens taken. 



238 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(567) Catharista urubu ( Vieill.). 

Vultur uruhu Vieill., Ois. Am. Sept., I, 1807, p. 23, pi. ii (Carolina and Florida). 
Cathartes atratus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 382; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 542 
(Dept. of Antioquia; breeding). 

Catharista atrata Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 154 (Abundant everywhere). 

Abundant and of general distribution from the Tropical to the Tem- 
perate Zones. Our material of this, and the following species, does not 
warrant a critical study of the groups to which they belong. 

Sta. Elena, 2. 

(568) Cathartes aura aura {Linn.). 

Vultur aura Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 86 ("America calidiore"). 

Cathartes aura Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 382; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 542 
(Dept. Antioquia; breeding); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 154 (Barranquilla; Honda; 
Guaduas); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 129 (Santa Marta). 

Generally distributed throughout Colombia, ranging from the Tropi- 
cal to the Temperate Zone. We observed but one form of Turkey Vulture 
in Colombia, the head of which in life is described by Miller as " top of head 
ashy white; face and neck dark purple." This color varies considerably, 
and the head of a bird shot by Fuertes is described by him as follows : 

"The caruncles about the eyes and forehead, ivory-white, changing to 
light blue on the nape; hard part of the bill ivory-white, and- all the rest of 
the head light crimson-red. The bird appears able at will to drive all red 
from the soft parts of his head, leaving it sickly white." 

Sta. Elena, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 



Oedek ACCIPITRIFORMES. 
Family FALCONID^. Caeacaeas, Hawks, Falcons, Ospeeys, Etc. 

(573) Polyborus cheriway (Jacq,). 

Falco cheriway Jacq., Beytr. Gesch. Vogel, 1784, p. 17, pi. iv (Aruba Island and 
coast of Venezuela). 

Polyborus cheriway Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 542 (Rio Negro breeding); 
Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 155 (R. Magdalena); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 
1900, p. 131 (Bonda; Valencia; Santa Matta). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 239 

Generally distributed throughout the Tropical Zone and occurring also 
on the Bogota Savanna. 

La Manuelita, 1; Bogota Savanna, 1. 



(575) Ibycter americanus {Bodd.). 

Falco ameticanus Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 25 (Cayenne). 

Ibycter aquilinus Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 133 (Turbo; R. Tru- 
ando). 

Ibycter americanus ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Medellin; Remedies; 
Nech^). 

Doubtless distributed throughout the Tropical Zone. We have speci- 
mens from the Atrato and lower Cauca Valleys, and Caquet^ region. 
Salaqui, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1 ; La Morelia, 3. 



(580) Milvago chimachima ( VieilL). 

Polyborus chimachima Vibill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., V, 1816, p. 269 (Para- 
guay). 

Milvago chimachima WTATT,'lbis, 1871, p. 382; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, 
p. 541 (Cauca); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 155 (Barranquilla; R. Magdalena); 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 131 (Valencia). 

Of general distribution throughout the Tropical Zone and ranging up- 
ward to the lower border of the Subtropical Zone. The band across the 
primaries is huffier in Colombian specimens than in three from Chapada, 
Matto Grosso, but I have not sufficient material to determine whether this 
difference is constant. 

San Antonio, 1; CaH, 1; La ManueHta, 1; La Palma, 1; Chicoral, 1; 
Honda, 1; Calamar; Barrigon, 1. 



(582) Circus hudsonius (Linn.). 

Falco hudsonius Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 128 (Hudson Bay). 
Circus hudsonicus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Medellin). 

An immature male was collected by Mrs. Kerr on the Atrato River, 
Nov. 23, 1909. A record from Medellin appears to be the only other known 
instance of this 'bird's occurrence in South America. 



240 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(583) Circus cinereus Vieill. 
Circus cinereus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., IV, 1816, p. 454 (Paraguay). 

An immature female collected by Gonzalez at Anolaima in the Bogota 
region measures, wing 360; tail, 228; tarsus, 72; culmen, 26 mm. The 
under wing-coverts are marked with rusty, blackish and buffy, and the bird 
evidently represents Circus cinereus, though I have no specimens of that 
species (which appears not to have been before recorded from north of 
Ecuador) in comparable plumage. 

Anolaima, 1. 

(584) Circus buffoni (Gmel.). 
Falco buffoni Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 277 (Cayenne). 

I provisionally refer to this species, which has not before been recorded 
from Colombia, two harriers from Rio Frio which resemble one another in 
color and differ from all descriptions, plates, and specimens of Circus buffoni 
which I have examined, in being black below as well as above. In the color 
of the upperparts, wings, tail and white facial markings these birds are not 
unlike two male specimens from Buenos Aires, but the latter have the upper 
tail-coverts white barred with grayish black, while the breast is black tinged 
with rusty and with more or less concealed white bars or spots. The lower 
abdomen, thighs and under tail-coverts are rusty chestnut, the two former 
narrowly barred or tipped, the latter widely barred with white and with 
some trace of black. The Rio Frio birds, on the other hand, have the upper 
tail-coverts black with narrow, usually imperfect white bars, while the en- 
tire underparts, thighs and under tail-coverts are black with a faint trace 
of rusty on the thighs, lower abdomen and under tail-coverts, and in the 
latter a single white spotted feather. 

Whether these birds represent a melanistic phase or undescribed form 
of Circus buffoni the material at hand unfortunately does not show. They 
agree approximately in size with an unsexed, apparently adult, Guiana 
specimen which resembles Lesson's plate in being white below,^ but are con- 
siderably smaller than the Buenos Aires birds, as is evident from the 
appended measurements: 



1 Traits, p. 87, pi. 3, fig. 1. 



382 


242 


72 


34 


403 


248 


79 


31 


438 


270 


82 


31 


412 


247 


81 


— 


392 


250 


80 


32 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 241 

Wing Tail Tarsus Culmeri 

Rio Frio, d', 

9, 
Buenos Aires, cf, 

" 6', 
Guiana, ad. 

(589) Micrastur guerilla interstes Bangs. 

Micrastur interstes Bangs, Auk, XXIV, 1907, p. 289 (Cartage, Costa Rica). 
Micrastur guerilla interstes Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1203 (N6vita). 

I follow Hellmayr in referring Choco specimens to this form. Adult 
males from Las Lomitas and San Antonio agree essentially with them. A 
Novita bird has the plumbeous of the back and wings with a brownish tinge 
and the underparts are more coarsely barred and washed with buffy, dif- 
ferences which probably indicate immaturity. San Jose, Dabeiba and 
Salencio immature males have the upperparts light clove-brown, the under- 
parts imbarred and with the nuchal collar ochraceous-buff. The flanks of 
one bird and the thighs of the other have one or two black and white barred 
feathers, indicating that the succeeding plumage would be that of the plum- 
beous adult. 

An immature Salento bird is slaty black above, cream-buff with narrow 
but well-defined black bars below, and the nuchal collar is white. A grow- 
ing feather on the breast is white finely barred with black, similar to that 
of the adult, indicating that this plumage also would be followed by that 
of the plumbeous adult. Possibly this Salento specimen should be referred 
to M. g. zonothorax. 

Dabeiba, 2; La Vieja, 1; Novita, 1 9 ad.; San Jose, 1 cf im. ; Las 
Lomitas, 1 cf ad. ; San Antonio, 1 cf ad. ; Salencio, 1 cf im. ; Salento, 1 9 
im. 

(593a) Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi (Avd.). 

Buteo harrisi AuD., Birds Amer. (folio), IV, 1837, pi. 392 (Mississippi). 

An adult male, taken at La Manuelita, April 18, 1911, agrees with Texan 
examples and extends the known range of this form which appears not to 
have been before recorded south of Panama. 

(597) Accipiter superciliosus {Linn.). 

Falco superciliosus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766. p. 128 (Surinam). 
Accipiter tinus ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Remedies). 
Accipiter superciliosus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1203 (Tad6). 

Barbacoas, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 



242 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(602) Accipiter ventralis Scl. 

Acdpiter ventralis Scl., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 303 ("In Nova Granada interior"); 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Retire; Concordia; Medellin; Remedios). 

San Antonio, 1; Barro Blanco, 1; Andalucia (3000 ft.), 1; Fomeque, 1. 



(606) Accipiter bicolor ( Vieill.). 

Sparvius bicolor Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., X, 1817, p. 325 (Cayenne). 

Accipiter bicolor Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Remedios); Allen, Bull. 
A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 130 (Bonda; Onaca; Santa Marta). 

Accipiter bicolor schistochlamys Hellm., Bull. B. O. C, XVI, 1906, p. 82 (Nane- 
gal, w. Ecuador). 

An adult female from Popayan agrees with Hellmayr's description in 
being "much darker" below than true bicolor, but an adult male from 
Buenaventura agrees in color with one from Purificacion, on the upper Mag- 
dalena River, and another from Florencia; whereas one would expect the 
reverse to occur. Hellmayr refers Panama specimens to schistochlamys, 
but an adult female from Panama is somewhat lighter below than a Bogota 
skin in our collection. The palest specimen in our collection is from Mata- 
galpa, Nicaragua, while two other Nicaraguan specimens are similar to one 
from Florencia. Our limited material, therefore, does not confirm the 
racial validity of schistochlamys. 

'Popayan, 1; Purificacion, 1; Florencia, 1. 

(610a) Tachytriorchis albicaudatus exiguus Chapm. 

Tachytriorchis albicaudatus exiguus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., Vol. XXXIV, 
1915, p. 637 (Barrigon, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Closely resembling T. a. sennetti (Allen) but notably smaller with 
the upperparts, particularly the head and sides of the neck, darker and more slaty. 

Evidently occupies the llanos of eastern Colombia and eastward into 
Venezuela. 
Barrigon, 1. 

(617) Buteo hypospodius Gumey. 

Buteo hypospodius Gurney, Ibis, 1876, p. 73, pi. iii (MedeUin); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Medellin). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 243 

An immature female from an altitude of 10,500 feet, near Santa Isabel, 
is referred provisionally to this species. We have a specimen in similar 
plumage from Ambato, Ecuador. 

(620) Buteo platypterus ( Vieill.). 

Sparvitis platypterus Vieill., Tabl. Enoycl. M6th., Ill, 1823, p. 1273 (near 
Philadelphia, Pa.). 

Buteo pennsylvanicus ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Concordia; Envigado; 
Sta. Elena). 

Buteo latissimus Allen, BuU. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 130 (Bonda; Valpa- 
raiso; Santa Marta). 

A common, widely distributed, forest-inhabiting Hawk which ranges 
from sea-level to at least 9000 feet. 

Juntas de Tamana, 1, (Dec. 19); Puerto Valdivia, 3; La Frijolera, 2; 
San Antonio, 7 (Jan. 14-Feb. 16); El Roble, 2 (Nov. 10); Salento, 3 (Oct. 
31-Nov. 6); Sta. Elena, 3; Rio Toche, 2 (Oct. 23, 25); Fusugasugd, 1 
(April, 13); Villavicencio, 1 (Mch. 9). 

(621) Buteo brachyurus Vieill.^ 

Buteo brachyurus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., IV, 1816, p. 477 (Cayenne?). 
Buteola brachyura Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Sta. Elena). 

An immature male from the Quindio Pass, apparently represents this 
species, but lacking proper material for comparison the identification must 
be regarded as provisional. 

(623) Asturina nitida (Lath.). 

Falco nitidus Lath., Ind. Oru., I, 1790, p. 41 ("Cayana"). 

Asturina nitida Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 129 (Bonda). 

Found in the Tropical Zone. 

Remohno, Magdalena River, 2; Villavicencio, 1; Barrigon, 1. 

(625) Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris (Gmel.). 

Falco magnirostris Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 282 (Cayenne). 

Asturina magnirostris Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 382 (La Cruz); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 540 (Retiro; Concordia; Sta. Elena; Remedies; MedelUn; breeds). 

Rupornis magnirostris Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 154 (Guaduas); Stonh, Proc. 
Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 304 (Honda; Ibagiie); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 
1900, p. 129 (Santa Marta and Minca). 



244 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

The distribution of this Hawk in Colombia is most puzzUng. It occurs 
in both the Tropical and Subtropical Zones and occupies all the region east 
of the Central Andes and north of the Cauca Valley, and it is also found on 
the Pacific coast and southward along the Pacific coast of Ecuador. In 
general it may be said that in Colornbia the range of magnirostris surrounds 
that of those representatives of ruficauda which inhabit the Cauca Valley 
■ and slopes arising from it. 

All the Colombian specimens listed below (except one from Barbacoas) 
including two from the Atrato Valley, are essentially typical of magniros- 
tris in color, though those from west of the Eastern Andes are somewhat 
smaller than those from the region about Villavicencio ; but a bird from 
Barbacoas and eight from western Ecuador show some slight approach 
toward ruficauda. The white bars below perhaps average wider and the 
bars on the thighs may average somewhat more rufous; the tail shows the 
slightest trace of tawny confined as a rule to the outer pair of feathers ; the 
under wing-coverts are white barred with brownish or black; the upper tail- 
coverts are white, in two specimens with a faint buff tint and barred with 
blackish. Further material and finer discrimination may show that these 
birds are distinguishable from true magnirostris with which they appear to 
have no geographic connection; but there can be no doubt that they are 
referable to that form rather than to ruficauda. 

In addition to the specimens from western Colombia listed below, we 
have Ecuador specimens from Esmeraldas (4), Santa Rosa (1), Naranjo, 
Prov. Guayas (2), and Daule (1). The specimens from the Atrato and 
Dabeiba are essentially typical magnirostris as that species is represented 
by an excellent series from eastern Colombia and Venezuela. The presence 
of this form on the Pacific coast is doubtless due to its extension westward 
from northern Colombia where, as we have seen, magnirostris occurs. 

Inosculation of these forms is indicated by the capture of a specimen at 
Noanama which is obviously nearer to ruficauda than to magnirostris; but 
this makes it difficult to explain the reappearance of magnirostris in Ecuador. 

The further interesting distribution of this species in Colombia is treated 
under the next form. 

Atrato River, 1; Dabeiba, 1; Barbacoas, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1; Sta. 
Elena, 1; Barro Blanco, 2; La Palma, 1; Chicoral, 2; 30 m. west of Honda, 
3; Villavicencio, 3; Florida, 1. 



(625a) Rupornis magnirostris ruficauda {Scl). 

Asturina ruficauda Sol., P. Z. S., 1869, p. 133 (no definite type-locality desig- 
nated, of the localities named, I select David, western Panama, as type-locality). 
? Asturina magnirostris Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S., Phila., 1860, p. 132 (Turbo). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 245 

The problem presented by our large series of Rupornis magnirostris is 
so puzzling that I have assembled a large series of the northern forms of this 
species in order to determine its range of individual and geographic variation. 

Primarily, it was essential to ascertain what were the characteristics of 
R. m. ruficauda and to what area this race was restricted. In describing it, 
Sclater gave no definite type-locality and although the first place named 
under the "Habitat" assigned to the new form is Cordova, Mexico, it is 
evident from his description and subsequent figure in Exotic Ornithology 
(pi. 88) that among his specimens the characters on which he based the form 
were typically developed only in those from western Panama, whence I 
have a series of eleven specimens. From the localities named by Sclater I 
therefore suggest David, as an appropriate type-locality for this form. 

If this suggestion be accepted, our specimens from Boqueron, near David, 
are essentially topotypical. All have the interspaces in the rectrices largely 
or wholly rich tawny or reddish brown, and in the adult, the back and breast 
are mouse-gray, much as they are in true magnirostris. 

Aside from its reddish tail, ruficauda differs from magnirostris in its 
buffy or ochraceous underparts, under wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts, 
the bars on which are much brighter, more tawny than in magnirostris. 

Whether all western Panama specimens have the tail as fully reddish 
brown as in those I have examined cannot be stated. Of five specimens 
from the Canal Zone three are essentially like those from Boqueron, two 
have much more gray in the tail which, however, still shows more or less 
tawny. Two specimens, one each from Coiba and Iguaro Islands, have 
the interspaces wholly tawny. A male from Marraganti, 150 miles east of 
Panama City has about as much gray and tawny in the tail as the two Zone 
specimens above mentioned, with which, in other respects it also agrees. 
Although these three birds have not the wholly tawny and black taU of 
Boqueron specimens, they agree with them in possessing the other char- 
acters which distinguish typical ruficauda; that is, a back and breast which 
are essentially like those of magnirostris, in combination with buffy or 
ochraceous underparts, etc. barred with reddish brown. 

Turning now to the west, a fine series of seventeen specimens from Costa 
Rica makes it possible to learn with some certainty the relationships of the 
form inhabiting that country. In only three does the amount of red in the 
tail compare with that shown by the Boqueron specimens. The back and 
breast average less gray and the latter is more streaked. There is thus an 
advance toward griseocauda; but Costa Rica birds are obviously much 
nearer ruficauda. 

Beyond Costa Rica, however, while specimens with more or less tawny 
in the tail are not infrequent (even southern Mexico birds sometimes show 



246 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

ttis feature) the increasing brownness of the back and breast and of stripes 
in the latter would incline me to extend the range of griseocauda southward 
through the greater part of Nicaragua. 

With the full development of the characters which constitute griseocauda, 
it is interesting to observe that we have in Mexico a race of magnirostris 
which more closely resembles jR. m. nattereri of southern Brazil than it does 
any of the geographically intervening races. 

The excellence of my material has induced me to depart for a moment 
from the consideration of our Colombian specimens, to which, having now 
determined the features which distinguish ruficauda and magnirostris, we 
may return. 

As has been stated under that form, magnirostris occupies the greater 
part of Colombia, even occurring on the Pacific Coast. We have, however, 
sixteen specimens from the Cauca Valley region which are obviously refer- 
able to ruficauda rather than to magnirostris. None are without at least 
a trace of tawny in the tail. In some it is reduced to a minimum, in others 
it covers most of the interspaces. The color of upper tail-coverts and under 
wing-coverts is, on the whole intermediate; but the buffy color and bright 
tawny bars of the abdominal region and thighs is clearly that of ruficauda. 

Five specimens from Salento are nearest magnirostris. One of these 
might be considered typical of that form were it not for a trace of tawny 
on the outer pair of rectrices. 

The capture of a specimen, which I refer to ruficauda, at Noanama re- 
quires comment since a specimen from the Atrato, north of Noanama, is 
wholly typical of magnirostris. 

So far as tail markings are concerned this bird, which is in fresh adult 
plumage, is nearer magnirostris, the outer feathers only showing a trace of 
tawny, but its deep buffy tawny barred belly, thighs, and under wing-coverts 
are those of ruficauda while the upper taU-coverts are more like those of 
ruficauda than of magnirostris. 

The presence of this form at Noanama I take to represent the south- 
ward extension of ruficauda along the Pacific coast lowlands, whence its 
occurrence at Las Lomitas indicates that it has reached the Cauca Valley 
by crossing the Western Andes. The bird of western Ecuador which I refer 
to magnirostris, may have reached that region directly from the east, as have 
many other Amazonian forms. 

Noanama, 1; Las Lomitas, 1; Call, 3; Guengiie, 2; Popayan, 1; La 
Manuelita, 2; Miraflores, 1; Rio Frio, 1; Salento, 5. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 247 



(629) Busarellus nigricoUis (Lath.). 

Falco nigricoUis Lath., Ind. Orn., 1, 1790, p. 35 (Cayana). 

Buteogallus nigricoUis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 132 (R. Truando). 

BusareUus nigricoUis Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 130 (Bonda). 

R. Atrato, 2; Calamar, 1. 



(631) Urubitinga urubitinga (Gmel.). 

Falco urubitinga Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 265 (Brasilia). 

Urubitinga mexicana Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 133 (Atrato). 

Two adults and one immature were collected by Mrs. Kerr in the Atrato 
Valley. 

Salaqui, 1; Atrato River, 1; Monguido, 1. 



(634) Urubitinga schistacea (Sundev.). 

Asturina schistacea Sundev., Ofv. K. Vet. Akad. Forh., VII, 1850, p. 312 (Brazil). 
Barrigon, 1 ad. 9 . 

(635) Urubitinga plumbea (Salv.). 

Leucopternis plumbea Salv., Ibis, 1872, p. 240, pi. viii (Ecuador); Hellm., 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1204 (Sipi). 

Bagado, 1 ad. 9 ; Barbacoas, 1 ad. 9 . 

(642) Leucopternis semiplumbea Lawr. 

Leucopternis semiplumbea Lawb., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VII, 1861, p. 288 
(Panama); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Remedios); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, 
p. 1204 (Juntas de Tamand). 

Inhabits the Pacific coast, Tropical Zone and eastward into the Cauca- 
Magdalena region. 

An apparently adult male from Los Cisneros differs from three adults 
(including the type) from Panama and two from Costa Rica in having two 
bands on the tail, the wing-quills more definitely barred and the feathers 
of the crown and back with more white at the base. A Baudo adult is 
similar but the subterminal tail-band is not so definite. Evidently, there- 



248 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

fore, these birds resemble two specimens from Remedies, Antioquia, men- 
tioned by Salvin and Godman (Biol. Cent. Am., Aves, III, 85). These 
writers, however, also record a specimen from Veragua in which the tail is 
two-banded, and it is not clear, therefore, whether the Colombian specimens 
represent a new race or a phase of plumage. 
Bagado, 1; Los Cisneros, 1. 

(649) Lophotriorchis isidori (Des Murs). 

Falco isidori Des Murs, Rev. Zool., 1845 (May), p. 175. 

Spizaetus isidorii Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Dept. Antioquia). 

Lophotriorchis isidorii Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 130 (Bonda). 

Paramillo Trail, W. Andes (11,000 ft.), 1. 



(651) Spizaetus ornatus {Baud.). 

Falco ornatus Datjd., Trait6, II, 1800, p. 77 (Cayenne). 
Spizaetus ornatus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 540 (Remedies). 

Doubtless occurs throughout the Tropical Zone. 
Atrato River, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1; La Morelia, 1. 



(653) Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied). 
Falco tyrannus Wied, Reis. Braz., I, 1820, p. 300 (Rio Belmonte, Brazil). 
Puerto Valdivia, 1. 

(654) Herpetotheres cachinnans cachinnans (Linn.). 

Falco cachinnans Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 90 ("Amer. meridionali"; Ber- 
lepsch substitutes Surinam; cf. Nov. Zool., XV, p. 290). 

Herpetotheres cachinnans Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Cauca; Remedios); 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 131 (Bonda). 

Occurs throughout the Tropical Zone, except on the Pacific coast, where 
it is represented by a smaller, more richly colored form for which I have pro- 
posed the name Herpetotheres cachinnans fidvescens. Specimens from both 
the Cauca and Magdalena Rivers are clearly referable to true cachinnans of 
which I have seen three specimens from Surinam in the Penard Collection. 

Rio Frio, 1; Honda, 2; Villavicencio, 1; Barrigon, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 249 



(654a) Herpetotheres cachinnans fulvescens Chapm. 

Herpeiotheres cachinnans fulvescens Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., Vol. XXXIV, 
1915, p. 638 (Alto Bonito, R. Sucio, w. Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to H. c. cachinnans (Linn.) but smaller and more richly 
colored; the upperparts and wings externally darker (dark sepia); the underparts, 
crown, nape, upper tail-coverts and under wing-coverts nearly uniform cinnamon- 
buff, instead of white washed with light buff; the crown more streaked, the lower 
wing-coverts more spotted. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast from Panama southward 
to Ecuador. 

Alto Bonito, 1; S^n Jose, 2; Barbacoas, 1. 



(655) Elanoides forficatus yetapa Bonn. & Vieill. 

Elanoides yetapa Bonn. & Vieill., Enc. Meth., Ill, 1823, p. 1205 (Paraguay). 
Elanoides furcatus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 382 (Cachiri; Portrerras; Naranjo); 
ScL. & Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Concordia; Nech6). 

Of general distribution from sea-level up to at least 10,000 feet alti- 
tude. It occurs singly and is also found in companies. Mr. Outram Bangs 
calls my attention to the fact that South American specimens (Costa 
Rica and southward) of this species differ from North American specimens 
in having the scapulars, and to a lesser extent interscapulars, rich bottle- 
green instead of dark purplish maroon. 

Noanama, 1; San Antonio, 1; Laguneta, 1; Andalucia, 1; Florencia, 1. 



(656) Rostrhamphus sociabilis (Vieill.). 

Herpetotheres sociabilis Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XVIII, 1817, p. 318 
(So. Am. Lat. 27°-30° S.). 

Rostrhamphus sociabilis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Remedios) ; Robin- 
son, Flying Trip, p. 154 (Barranquilla) ; Allen,. Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 
131 (Bonda). 

Abundant in the marshes about Barranquilla, where, on one occasion 
we saw as many as sixteen perched in a single tree. 
Barranquilla, 2. 



(658) Leptodon uncinatus (Temm.). 
Falco uncinatus Temm., PI. Col., I, 1824, pis. 103-105, (Rio Janeiro). 



250 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Cymindis undnatus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Medellin). 
Leptodon undnatus Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 131 (Bonda). 

A female from Rio Frio. 



(660) Leptodon palliatus (Temm.). 

Falco palliatus Temm., PL Col., I, 1823, pi. 204 (Brazil). 
Leptodon palliatus Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1204 (Tad6). 
Leptodon cayanensis Auct. (c/. Hellm., I. c); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 
1900, p. 131 (Masinga). 

An immature male collected by Mrs. Kerr appears to be the only recorded 
instance of the capture of this widely distributed species in Colombia. 
Baudo, 1. 

(664) Harpagus bidentatus (Lath.). 
Falco bidentatus Lath., Ind. Orn., I, 1790, p. 38 ("Cayana"). 

We have three adult and five immature specimens, all from the Tropical 
Zone. 

Dabeiba, 2; Bagado, 2; Cisneros, 1;' Puerto Valdivia, 4. 

(666) Ictinia plumbea (Gmel). 

Falco plumbeus Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 283 (Cayenne). 
Ictinia plumhea Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Concordia; Remedies); 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 131 (Valparaiso; Manaure). 

Not uncommon in the Tropical Zone and ranging upward to the Sub- 
tropical Zone. . 

Call, 2; Villavicencio, 2. 

(669) Falco fusco-cserulescens Vieill. 

Falco fusco-coirulescens Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XI, 1817, p. 90 (Para- 
guay). 

Fuertes secured a specimen at Call. 

(671) Falco rufigularis Daud. 

Falco rufigvlaris Daud., Traite, II, 1800, p. 131 (Cayenne); Allen, Bull. A. M. 
N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 131 (Minca). 

Hypotriorchis rufigularis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 541 (Neoh6). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 251 

■ Our specimens are from the Tropical Zone and the lower border of the 
Subtropical Zone. 

La Manuelita, 1 ; La Palma, 1 ; La Candela, 1 ; Honda, 1 ; Florencia, 3. 

(674a) Cerchneis sparveria caucse Chapm. 

Cerchneis aparverius caucos Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 375 
(La Manuelita, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Agreeing in size and general intensity of color with C. s. ochracea, 
but male with the sides conspicuously spotted; crown darker, nape blacker, terminal 
white areas on primaries usually not confluent; female with the crown and nape 
averaging darker; male resembling C. s. sparveria in the coloration of the under- 
parts, but crown usually without rufous; subterminal black bar on central rectrices, 
much narrower; back with fewer bars; female darker above and more washed with 
rufous below than the female of C. s. sparveria, the outer rectrices, quill-markings 
and outer border of outer feather more rufous, the crown darker and with less or 
with no rufous. 

Inhabits the Cauca Valley region apparently ranging from the Tropical 
to the Temperate Zone, southward in the Tropical Zone to western Ecuador. 

Cali, 1; Popayan, 1; La Florida, 1; La Manuelita, 2; Miraflores, 2; 
Laguneta, 1. 

(6746) Cerchneis sparveria intermedia Cory. 

Cerchneis sparveria intermedia Cory, Pub. No. 183, Field Museum, Orn. Ser., I, 
9, 1915, p. 325 (VUlavicencio, Col.). 

Cerchneis sparverius ochracea Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 374 
(excl. Venezuela specimens). 

The Sparrowhawk ranges from the Tropical to the Temperate Zone, 
but although it varies widely faunally, not less than four forms being found 
in Colombia, it appears not to vary zonally in that country. 

Thus the present form ranges from the llanos of eastern Colombia over 
the. Eastern Andes to the Magdalena Valley and the eastern slopes of the 
Central Andes. Northward it enters into Antioquia but in the Paramo of 
Tama, on the Venezuela boundary, it is replaced by C s. ochracea Cory 
(Pub. 182 Field Mus. 1915, p. 298) which, as Cory has shown, is distinguished 
by the greater width of the subterminal tail-band. In the Cauca Valley it 
is replaced by C. s. caucoe, and in the arid north coastal region by a pale form 
of C. s. ochracea. 

La Frijolera, 1 ; Barro Blanco, 1 ; RioToche, 1; Honda, 5; Andalucia, 6; 
Fusugasuga, 2; El Piiion, 1; La Hererra, 2; La Olanda, 7; Tena, 1; Ano- 
' laima, 1; Caqueza, 1; Villavicencio, 1; Barrigon, 1. 



252 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(674c) Cerchneis sparveria subsp. 

A pair of Sparrowhawks taken at Turbaco, near Carthagena, in the arid 
coastal zone, apparently represents a pale form of C. s. ochracea Cory. The 
subterminal band in the central rectrix of the male measures 32 mm. and in 
this respect the bird resembles ochracea, but the general coloration is more 
like that of isabellina. A male from San Antonio, Bermudez, on the coast 
of Venezuela, closely resembles the Turbaco male, but is somewhat deeper 
in color both above and below. The subterminal band in the central rec- 
trix measures 30 mm. The Turbaco female is relatively as pale as the male 
and has an exceptionally small amount of cinnamon in the white areas on 
the wing-quills. A female from Noanama in worn plumage may be most 
closely related to this Caribbean coast form which I hesitate to characterize 
by name on the basis of the material at hand. 

Turbaco, 2; Noanama, 1? 



Order STRIGIFORMES. 
Family BUBONIDiE. Owls. 

(682a) Asio flammeus bogotensis Chapm. 

Asio flammeus bogotensis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 370 
(Bogotd Savanna, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to A. f. flammeus but oohraoeous markings above much 
more restricted or, in places, obsolete, the upperparts, therefore, much darker; tarsi 
and toes less heavily feathered, the feathered area on the latter less extended toward 
the nail; size averaging smaller; bill somewhat heavier and wholly black. 

Found by us only in the Temperate Zone on the Bogota Savanna. 
Bogota Savanna, 3. 

(683) Asio stygius {Wagl). 
N[yctalops] stygius Wagl., Isis, 1832, p. 1221 (BrazU). 

Our three specimens are all from the Temperate Zone. 
Sta. Elena, 1; Laguneta, 1; La Olanda (near Bogota), 1. 



.1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 253 



(691-2) Otus choliba ( Vieill). 

Strix choliba Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VII, 1817, p. 39 (Paraguay). 
/Scops brasilianus ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Envigado; Concordia; 
Medellin; Sta. Elena; breeds). 

Megascops brasilianus Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 304 (Honda). 

I follow Ridgway (Bull. U. S. N. M., 50, VI, p. 711) and Berlepsch (Bull. 
B. 0. C, XII, p. 8) in referring Colombia specimens to this form. A Da- 
beiba female is rufous above and in part below, and a female from Villa- 
vicencio is intense rufous both below and above. It doubtless represents 
the extreme development of this color phase of which Berlepsch {I. c.) also 
records Bogota specimens. 

Dabeiba, 1; Anolaima, 3; Villa vieencio, 1. 



(697) Otus watsoni (Cass.). 

Ephialtes watsoni Cass., Proc. Acad. X. S. Phila., IV, 1848 (So. Am.); Journ- 
Acad. N. S., Phila., II, 1852, p. 95, pi. xii, fig. 1. 

Scops usta ScL., Trans. Z. S., IV, 1862, p. 265, pi. 61 (Ega, Upper Amazon). 

Of two Owls collected by Miller at La Morelia, one agrees with the 
plate of Sclater's " Scops usta" {I. c.) the other is less tawny in color and ap- 
proaches Otus watsoni (Cass.), the types of which have been loaned me by 
Dr. Witmer Stone. 

This specimen, therefore, indicates that this species has a gray and a 
rufous color phase and tends to confirm the belief that usta, founded on the 
latter phase, is a pure synonym of watsoni founded on the former. (Cf. 
Berlepsch, Bull. B. O. C, XII, 1901, p. 10; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., XIV, 
1907, p. 407). 

La Morelia, 2. 

(699a) Lophostrix cristatus Strickland! Scl. & Salv. 
Lophostrix stricklandi ScL. & Salv., Ibis, 1859, p. 221 f\^era Paz, Guatemala). 

Two of three specimens from Barbacoas agree essentially with others 
from eastern Panama and Nicaragua; the third has the face more rufous 
and probably therefore approaches true cristatus. 

Barbacoas, 3. 



254 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(703) Ciccaba albitarsus (Scl.). 
Syrnium albitarse Scl., T. Z. S., IV, 1862, p. 263, pi. Ix (BogoU). 
Anolaima, 1. 



(704) Ciccaba albogularis {Cass.). . 

Syrnium albo-gularis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., IV, 1848, p. 124 (South 
America; Brabourne & Chubb "substitute Colombia," to which I add Choachi, 
about 15 miles east of Bogotd). 

Ciccaba albogularis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Rio Negro; Sta. Elena; 
breeds). 

This species is apparently confined to the Temperate Zone. Four speci- 
mens from Merida, taken at altitudes varying from 8000 to 9000 feet, have 
the crown and nape more conspicuously spotted with white and the back 
with deep buff than Colombian specimens and possibly represent a separable 
race. 

Sta. Elena, 1; Choachi, 3. 



(707) Ciccaba virgata virgata (Cass.). 

Syrnium virgatum Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., IV, 1848, p. 124 ("South 
America"; Brabourne & Chubb give "Colombia"). 

Ciccaba virgata Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Concordia); Allen, Bull. 
A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Santa Marta). 

Of apparently general distribution in the Tropical Zone. 
La Frijolera, 1; above Cali, young in downy (Apl. 3); Rio Frio, 2; En- 
conosa, below Bogota, 1. 



(709) Ciccaba nigrolineata Scl. 

Ciccaba nigrolineata Scl., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 131 (s. Mexico). 

Subsp. a. Syrnium spilonotum Sharps, Cat. Bds. B. M., 1875, p. 277 (Bogotd). 

I can discern no difference between our Colombian specimens and others 
from Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua (see also Ridg., Bull. U. S. N. 
M., 50, VI, p. 762). 

Rio Atrato, 1; Rio Frio, 1; 'Bogota' (native skin), 1. 



1917.1 Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 255 



(720) Glaucidium brasilianum brasilianum (Gmel). 

Strix brasiliana Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 289 (Brazil). 

Glaucidium ferox Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Bonda). 

This does not appear to be a common bird in the country we have 
visited. Its habits quickly make its presence known, nevertheless a female 
collected by Miller iX Florencia is the only one we have secured. 

Florencia, 1. 



(721) Glaucidium brasilianum phalsenoides (Baud.). 

Strix phalcmoides Datjd., Traits, II, 1800, p. 206 (Trinidad). 
* 

A specimen from La Playa, near Barranquilla, is matched by one of 
seven specimens from Bonda, near Santa Marta, and the series of eight 
birds, containing as it does examples in both rufous and gray and inter- 
mediate plumages, doubtless fairly well represents the form of this Owl oc- 
cupying northern Colombia. As a whole these birds are lighter than 
phalaenoides, of which I have six specimens from Trinidad, and darker than 
ridgwayi, of which we have a large series from Mexico. A specimen in the 
red phase resembles one in this phase from Costa Rica, but those in the 
gray or grayish phase have the tail barred with blackish and white, while in 
all our specimens of ridgwayi the tail is more rufous. In this respect the 
Colombian specimens are much nearer phaloenoides. 1 therefore refer 
them to that race, in the belief that there is little or nothing to be gained 
in proposing forms where geographic variation is so slight, and individual 
variation so great that subsequent identification, except at type-localities, 
becomes largely a matter of opinion.* In view of its diurnal habits and fre- 
quently uttered call, the Pygmy Owl is easily observed and collected, and 
our failure to secure it elsewhere in Colombia than at the localities above 
mentioned, is negative evidence of some value. 

La Playa, 1. 

(722) Glaucidium jardini (Bonap.). 

PhalcBopsis jardinii Bonap., Compte Rend., XLI, 1855, p. 654 (Andes of Quito). 
Glaucidium jardinii ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Sta. Elena). 

1 Since the above was written, the Santa Marta form has been described by W. E. C. Todd as 
Glaaeidium brasilianum medianum in the Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIX, 1916, p. 98. 



256 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Our only specimen was collected by a native at Choachi in the Temperate 
Zone some fifteen miles east of Bogota. It is essentially like two topo- 
typical specimens from Gualea, Ecuador. 

Choachi, 1. . 

(724) Tyto perlata subsp. 

Strix perlata Light., Verz. Doubl., 1823, p. 59 (Brazil). 
Stnxflammea Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Medellini. 

We secured but two specimens. Without further material I do not at- 
tempt to determine the status of the Colombian form or forms of this wide- 
ranging bird. 

Miraflores, 1; Anolaima, 1. 



Order PSITTACIFORMES. 
Family PSITTACIDiE. Macaws, Parrots, Parrakeets. 

(732) Ara ararauna (Linn.). 

Psittacus ararauna Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 96 ("America meridionali"; 
Brabourne & Chubb "substitute Brazil"). 

Ara ararauna Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 137 (Atrato); Robinson, 
Flying Trip, p. 155 (R. Magdalena). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone. Common on the central Magdalena River. 
Puerto Nino, 5; Quisiera, 1; Malena, 1; La Morelia 2. 

(734) Ara macao {Linn.). 

Psittacus macao Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 96 ("America meridionali"; Bra- 
bourne & Chubb "take Pernambuco"). 

Ara macao Robinson, Flying Trip., p. 156 (R. Magdalena). 

A species of the Tropical Zone of which we collected only two specimens. 
Algodonal, Magdalena River, 1; La Morelia, 1. 

(735) Ara chloroptera Gray. 

Ara chloropterus Gray, List Psitt. Br. Mus., 1859, p. 26 ("South America"; 
Brabourne & Chubb, "take Guiana"). 

Ara chloroptera Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 133 (Valle Dupar; 
Santa Marta). 

Puerto Valdivia, 1. 



1917.J Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 257 



(736) Ara militaris militaris (Linn.). 

Psittacus militaris Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 139 (no locality; Brabourne & 
Chubb "suggest Colombia"). 

Ara militaris Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S., 1860, p. 137 (R. Nercua); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Dept. Antioquia); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 
133 (Arihueca; Bonda: Santa Marta). 

Our two specimens are from western Colombia. 
Los Cisneros, 1; Salencio, 1. 

(739) Ara severa (Linn.). 

Psittacus severus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 97 ("Habitat in Indiis"; Bra- 
bourne & Chubb "substitute Colombia"). 

Ara severa Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S., Phila., 1860, p. 137 (R. Nercua); Scl. & 
Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Cauca) ; Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 156 (R. Magdalena). 

A common species of the Tropical Zone, particularly in the Cauca Valley, 
ascending to the lower limits of the Subtropical Zone. 

Cali, 2; La Manuelita, 6; Guengue, 1; Rio Frio, 3; near Salento, 2; 
Malena, 1; Barrigon, 5; La Morelia, 2. 

(759) Aratinga wagleri (Gray). 

Conurus wagleri Grat, Gen. Bds., II, 1845, p. 413, pi. 102 (Bogotd); Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 381 (Ocana to Bucaramanga) ; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 
(Medellin); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Valparaiso). 

A widely distributed species of the Tropical Zone which ranges upward 
to the lower border of the succeeding Zone and extends from the Pacific 
coast to the Cauca and Magdalena Valleys. A specimen from the Pacific 
coast has the red of the head darker than in other birds of the series. 

Alto Bonito, 1 ; Los Cisneros, 1 ; San Antonio, 5; Cali, 1; La Manuelita, 
3; Miraflores, 1; La Sierra, 1; Chicoral, 2. 



(762) Aratinga aeruginosa aeruginosa (Linn.). 

Psittacus ceruginosus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 98 (based on Edwards' Brown- 
throated Parrakeet, believed to have come from the "West Indies"; I suggest 
Calamar, lower Magdalena River, Colombia). 

Conurus ceruginosus Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 381 (Cienaga); Robinson, Flying 
Trip, p. 156 (Barranquilla). 

Aratinga ceruginosa occidentalis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVIII, 1915, 
p. 81 (Rio Hacha). 



258 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

This Paroquet appears to be known only from the arid Caribbean por- 
tion of the Tropical Zone of Colombia. In addition to the specimens listed 
below, we have also one labelled " Santa Marta" and the range of the species 
may extend eastward into Venezuela. Farther east it is represented by 
C. chrysophrys Swains ( = oeruginosus Auct.), and to the west by C. ocularis. 

The name wruginosus (Linn.) as currently used, is applied to two quite 
different birds, one of which has a more or less complete and conspicuous 
ring of orange feathers about the orbital region, while in the other this mark 
is usually absent, though in some specimens there are a few yellow feathers 
in this area, particularly below the eye. 

Edwards' plate (No. 177) obviously figures a bird without yellow about 
the eye, and his excellent description makes no mention of an orange orbital 
ring. Linnaeus' name wruginosus, based on Edwards', is clearly, therefore, 
applicable to the bird without this ring. This is the species of the arid 
region of Colombia and I have therefore suggested Calamar as an appro- 
priate type-locality.i 

1 am aware that Brabourne & Chubb (Bds. S. A., I, p. 82) have already 
proposed to "substitute Cayenne" as the type-locality for wruginosus but 
examination of the series of specimens from British and Dutch Guiana in- 
dicate that the Cayenne bird is not true wruginosus. All our fifteen speci- 
mens from the two Guianas named, the lower Orinoco and Bermudez, 
Venezuela, have the orange orbital ring. They further differ from the Co- 
lombian bird, which I consider true wruginosus, in having the forehead 
whiter, the breast and sides of the head paler, and the auriculars less dis- 
tinctly streaked; in short, are evidently distinct. Swainson's name chry- 
sophrys, ^ based on a Guiana bird, is obviously applicable to this form. 

La Playa, 4; Varrud, 1; Calamar, 4; Algodonal, 4. 

(771) Ognorhynchus icterotis {Mass. & SouancS). 

Conurus isterotis Mass. & Souanc^, Rev. et Mag., 1854, p. 71 (Ocafia, New 
Granada). 

Common, and in places, abundant in the Subtropical Zone of the Cen- 
tral Andes. Found in the Western Andes only west of Popayan and on the 
lower Cauca. In May this species was observed nesting in colonies in holes 
eighty or more feet up in the wax palms which are so characteristic a feature 
of the flora along the Quiadio Trail above the rivers Tochecito and Toche. 

La Frijblera, 5; Andes west of Popayan, 10,340 feet, 2; Miraflores, 3; 
Rio Toche, 12. 

•' Since the above was written, I observe that W. E. C. Todd (I. c.) has described the Colombian 
form as Aratinga xraginosa occidentalism but if my understanding of the case is correct he has merely 
renamed the bird on which the name gsragirwsa is based. 

2 Anim. in Menag., 1838, p. 320. 



Bulletin A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXXVI. 




Wax Palms 

Photographed on the Quindio Trail, Central Andes, where In 1801 Humboldt and 

Bonpland discovered this species. Mature trees were estimated to attain 

a height of 180 to 200 feet. A large Parrot (Ognorhynchus icterotis) 

was foimd, nesting in colonies in these palms in May, 1911. 

The nesting-holes were just below the leaves. 

(Subtropical Zone.) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 259 



(785) Pyrrhura calliptera (Mass. & SouancS). 

Conurus callipterus Mass. &. SouANcfi, Rev. et Mag., 1854, p. 72 ("Nouvelle 
Grenade et la Colombie"). 

We found this species to be common in the Subtropical Zone of the 
western slope of the Eastern Andes. Owing to our unfortunate failure to 
discover suitable collecting stations in this zone on the eastern slope of this 
range, we cannot say whether it is confined to the western side. An im- 
mature specimen has the primary coverts green with but a slight yellow 
margin on one feather. 

Fusugasuga, 3; El Roble, 3; Subia, 7. 

(786a) Pyrrhura melanura pacifica Chapm. 

Pyrrhura melanura pacifica Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 382 
(Buenavista, Narifio, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to P. m. melanura but smaller, the tail, relatively, much 
shorter; primary coverts not tipped with yeUow; tail, above, redder; forehead 
greener; bare orbital region blackish instead of whitish (in dried skins); bill less 
stout, mandible blacker. 

This race, which is known only from the type-locality, appears to be the 
only form of Pyrrhura recorded from the Pacific coast region of South Amer- 
ica. 

Buenavista, Nariiio, 3. 



(787) Pyrrhura souancei (Verr.). 

Micrositiace souancei Vbkr., Rev. et Mag., 1858, p. 437, pi. 12 (no locality; 
three specimens from "Napo" listed as "types of the species" in Cat. Bds. B. M., 
XX, p. 224). 

I provisionally refer three adult specimens from La Candela to this 
species, of which I have seen no specimens. They seem to agree more 
closely with Verreaux's plate than with the description of this species in the 
Catalogue of the British Museum. The plate figures a bird having the 
breast-feathers broadly tipped with whitish — described by Verreaux as 
" squame blanchatres" — ; whereas, Salvadori (Cat. Bds., XX, B. M., p. 224) 
describes souancei as having each feather of the breast "with two cross- 
bands, a light brown one and a second blackish at the edge." Furthermore, 
the same writer describes P. berlepschi {I. c, p. 224) as very much like souan- 



260 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

cei, but with the hoary edges of the feathers of the throat and breast much 
broader." Our Candela specimens, however, have the breast-feathers 
even more widely margined than in berlepschi, of which we have one specimen 
from Aplobamba, BoUvia. It is evident, therefore, that the La Candela 
birds cannot be satisfactorily determined without comparison with authen- 
tic specimens of souancei. They measure, wing, 137-142; tail, 122-125 
mm., while Verreaux states that in souancei the wing measures 130, the tail, 
120 mm. 

La Candela, 3. 

(809) Psittacula conspicillata conspicillata Lafr. 

Psittacula conspicillata Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1848, p. 172 ("Colombia aut Mexico"; 
1 suggest Honda, Colombia); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 156 (Guaduas); Stone 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 304 (Villavicencio; Llanos San Martin; Amba, 
lema) . 

This small form of conspicillata inhabits the upper Magdalena Valley 
from at least Puerto Berrio southward, and is also found in the Tropi- 
cal Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. It is thus found 
throughout the restricted Bogota region, a fact which in connection with 
Lafresnaye's description of the rump, etc. of conspicillata as " pulcherrime 
indigotinis" makes it more than probable that his type was a ' Bogota' bird. 

Three males from Puerto Berrio, and two from Malena, have the rump, 
etc. hyacinth-blue, more purple in tone than in specimens from the more 
southern and more arid parts of the Magdalena Valley. 

Andalucia, 3; Chicoral, 5; Honda, 3; Puerto Berrio, 6; Malena, 2; 
Buena Vista, 1 ; Barrigon, 5. 

(809a) Psittacula conspicillata caucse Chapm. 

Psittacula conspicillata cauccs Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 383 
(Call, Col.) 

Char, suhsp. — Similar to P- c. conspicillata Lafr. of the Bogota region but larger, 
the wings and tail constantly longer, the bill averaging heavier, the blue areas of the 
rump, inner wing-quiUs, upper and under wing-coverts decidedly less purple, spectrum- 
blue, rather than Hay's-blue or blue-violet in color. 

Abundant in the Tropical Zone in the Cauca Valley and ranges upward 
to the lower margin of the Subtropical Zone crossing the Western Andes at 
the San Antonio Pass (6800 ft.) to. the arid upper Dagua Valley. It is 
commonly seen along scrub-bordered roads and in bushy places. 

Caldas, 4; below San Antonio, 1; Call, 3; La Manuelita, 2; below 
Miraflores, 2; Rio Frio, 2. 



1917.J Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 261 

(811) Psittacula sclateri Gray. 
Psittacula sclateri Gray, List Psit., 1859, p. 86 (Rio Javarri, upper Amazons). 

I refer to this species, of which I have seen no authentic specimens, two 
females and an apparently immature male collected by Miller at La Morelia. 
The male has the rump green slightly brighter than the back, and all have 
the upper mandible dark brownish black with its cutting edge, to the notch, 
p&le horn. 

La Morelia, 3. 

(819) Psittacula spengeli Hartl. 

Psittacula spengeli Hartl., P. Z. S., 1885, p. 614 (Barranquilla). 
Psittacula exquisitaRiDQW., Proo. U. S. N. M., 1887, p. 542 (Cartagena). 
Psittacula cyanoptera Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila. 1860, p. 137 (Carthagena) ; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 382 (Cienaga). 

Appears to be confined to the arid Tropical Zone of northern Colombia. 
La Playa, 3; Calamar, 2. 

(825) Brotogeris jugularis (Mull.). 

PsUtacus jugvlaris MtiLi,., Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, p. 801 ("America''; Bra- 
bourne & Chubb "give Colombia"; to which I suggest adding Bondj,, near Santa 
Marta). 

Conurus tovi Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 137 (R. Atrato). 

Brotogerys Jowi Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 381 (Naranjo); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, 
p. 538 (Remedies.) 

Brotogerys jugularis Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 156 (R. Magdalena); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Bonda; Santa Marta). 

All our specimens of this common species are from the Magdalena Val- 
ley. We have no record of its occurrence on the Pacific Coast or in the 
Cauca Valley. Honda specimens appear to have the terminal portion of 
the primary coverts bluer than in most specimens of our large series from 
Bonda. 

Honda, 4; Puerto Berrio, 1; Malena, 5; Banco, 1. 

(826) Brotogeris devillei Salvad. 

Brotogerys dewiHei Salvad., Cat. Bds. B. M., XX, 1891, p. 261 ("River Amazons"; 
Bates). 

Our specimens agrSe with others from Maipures on the upper Orinoco. 
Barrigon, 6. 



262 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVT, 

(834) Amazona inornata (Salvad.). 
Chrysotis inornata Sal v ad., Cat. Bds. B. M., XX, 1891, p. 281, (Veragua). 

Two specimens from the Atrato Valley and one from the head of the 
Meta. The former are typical; the latter is somewhat darker and the un- 
derparts especially are more glaucous. Other, but not wholly satisfactory 
material, indicates that the characters shown by our Meta specimen are 
probably of racial value. 

La Vieja (1000 ft.), Choco, 1; Alto Bonito, 1; Barrigon, 1. 

(835) Amazona mercenaria (Tsch.). 

Psittacus mercenarius Tsch., Wiegm. Arch, fur Naturg., 1, 1844, p. 303 (Peru). 
Chrysotis mercenaria Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Concordia). 
Amazona mercenaria Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Paramo de 
Chiruqua). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges, and occurs also in the 
Temperate Zone. I have seen no Peruvian specimens. 

San Antonio, 1; La Sierra, 4; Almaguer, 1; Salento, 1; Laguneta, 2; 
Santa Isabel, 1; El Eden, 1; La Palma, 3; Subia, 1. 

(836) Amazona amazonica {Linn.). 

Psittacus amazonicus Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 1766, p. 147 (Surinam). 

Amazona amazonica Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Arihueca). 

Found in the Tropical Zone of the lower half of the Magdalena Valley 
both in its humid and arid divisions, and at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes. Specimens from the Magdalena Valley are somewhat smaller than 
those from east of the Andes. 

Malena, 1; La Playa, 4; Barrigon, 1. 

(841) Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala (Gmel.). 

Psittacus ochrocephalus Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 339 ("America Australi"; 
Brabourne & Chubb "give Colombia," I suggest adding Villavioencio). 

A species of the Tropical Zone which we found only at the eastern base 
of the Eastern Andes, where five specimens were secured. Only two of 
these, a male and female, have the yellow of the head confined to the crown 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 263 

while the forehead is the bluish green; but in the other, a male, the yellow 
nearly reaches the base of the bill, and the bird therefore approaches A. 
panamensis. In ochrocephala, however, aside from other differences, the 
lower mandible appears always to be wholly or largely blackish horn while 
in panamensis it is whitish. 

Villavicencio, 2; Barrigon, 3. 

(842) Amazona ochrocephala panamensis (Cab.). 
Chrysotis panamensis Cab., J. f. O., 1874, p. 349 (Panama). 

Our specimens of this race, which appears to be a representative of A. 
ochrocephala, are all from the Tropical Zone of the Magdalena Valley. 
Honda, 2; Puerto Berrio, 2; Malena, 2; Algodonal, 1. 

(847) Amazona salvini (Sahad.). 
Chrysotis salvini Salvad., Cat. Bds. B. M., XX, 1891, p. 300 (Lion Hill, Panama). 

Malena, 1. 

(857) Pionus menstruus (Linn.). 

Psittacus menstruus Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 1766, p. 148 (Surinam). 

Pionus menstruum Scl. & Salv., 1879, p. 538 (Remedies); Robinson, Flying 
Trip, p. 156 (Yeguas); Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 304 (Ambalema); 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 132 (Bonda; Santa Marta); Hellm., P. 
Z. S., 1911, p. 1202 (Noanamd; Rio Garrapatas). 

A common species throughout the Tropical Zone. 

Alto Bonito, 5; Barbacoas, 4; Cali, 1; Guengiie, 2; Rio Frio, 1; 
Puerto Berrio, 2; Buena Vista, 1 ; Villavicencio, 1. 

(866) Pionus seniloides seniloides (Mass. & Souance). 

Psittacus selinoides (err. typ.) Mass. et SouANcfi, Rev. et Mag., 1854, p. 73 
(Colombia). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of the Central and Eastern Andes descend- 
ing to the upper limits of the Subtropical Zone. A specimen from Laguneta 
in the Central Andes agrees with others from El Pifion in the Bogota region 
in having the pinkish crown reaching to behind the eyes, whereas in Ecuador 
specimens it is restricted to the forehead. 

The Ecuador bird will stand as Pionus seniloides gerontodes (Finsch).' 

Laguneta, 1; El Pinon, 2; El Roble, 1. 

1 Pionias gerontodes Finsch, Papag., II, 1868, p. 455 (Ecuador; Fraaer). 



264 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(867) Pionus chalcopterus (Fraser). 

Psittacus chalcopterus Frasee, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 59 (Bogotd). 
Pionus chalcopterus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 381 (Canta); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 538 (Envigado; Concordia). 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges, though we did not 
find it in the Western Andes north of Cerro Munchique, except at Alto 
Bonito in the Atrato Valley. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Cerro Munchique, 1; La Florida, 2; Miraflores, 6; El 
Roble, 1 ; El Eden, 1 ; La Palma, 1 ; La Candela, 3 ; near San Agustin, 1 ; 
Andalucia (5000 ft.), 1. 

(875) Hapalopsittaca amazonina (Des Murs). 

Psittacus amazoninus Des Mubs, Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 207 (Bogota). 

A common species at El Roble in the Subtropical Zone above Fusuga- 
suga. 

El Roble, 3. 

(875a) Hapalopsittaca fuertesi (Chapm.). 

Plate XXXVII. 

Pionopsitta fuertesi Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 143 (Laguneta, 
10,300 ft., Cen. Andes, Col.). 

Char. sp. — Most nearly related to H. amazonina (Des Murs) but face yellow, 
crown blue. 

This distinct and interesting species was found by us only in the Tem- 
perate Zone of the Central Andes. Like amazonina, fuertesi has the maxil- 
lary tomium unnotched, while the tail is even longer than in that species. 

Laguneta, 6; Santa Isabel, 1. 

(876) Eucinetus pulchra (Berl.). 

Pionopsitta pulchra Berl., Ornith. Monat., V, 1897, p. 175 (San Jos6, R. Dagua, 
Col.); Hbllm., p. Z. S., 1911, p. 1202 (Noanamd). 

Evidently not uncommon in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast. 

Andagueda, 2; Noanama, 1; San Jose, 7; Barbacoas, -3. 

With every desire to give as much weight to resemblances as to differ- 
ences, I do not feel that the actual facts in relationship are properly ex- 
pressed by retaining in the genus Pionopsitta all the species commonly 
placed there. 



Bull. A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXXVII. 




FUERTES' PARRAKEET. Hapahpsittaca /ueilesi(Chapm.) 

Upper figure, adult ; lower figure, immature. 

(About one-half natural size) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 265 

After examination of all the described species except melanotis and 
pyrrhops (of which, however, there is an apparently excellent plate — PI. IX, 
Cat. B. M.), I agree with Mr. Ridgway (c/. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1912, 
p. 100) that Pionopsitta with pileatus as the type, is monotypic. The re- 
maining species (except melanotis) I allot generically as follows : 

Eucinetus Rchw. (J. f. 0., 1881 p. 353, Type Psittacus caica Lath.) 

1. Eucinetus caica (Lath). 

2. " hcematotis (Scl. & Salv.) 

3. " coccineicollaris (Lawr.) 

4. " barrabandi (Kuhl) 

5. " pulchra (Berl.) 

Pyrilia Bp. (Naumania, 1856, Type Psittacula pyrilia Bp.) 

1. Pyrilia pyrilia (^■p.) 
Hapalopsittaca Ridgw. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1912, p. 100, Type 
Psittacus amazoninus Des Murs). 

1. Hapalopsittaca amazonina (Des Murs) 

2. " pyrrhops (Salv.) 

3. " fuertesi (Chapm.) • 

(879) Pyrilia pyrilia (Bonap.). 

Psittacula pyrilia Bonap., Compt Rend., XXXVII, 1853, p. 807 (" New Granada" 
= Rio Hacha e. of Santa Marta, vide Sol. & Salv., Ibis, 1871, p. 381). 

Caica pyrilia Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 381 (Canta; San Nicolas; Paturia); Scl. & 
Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Remedios). 

Inhabits the humid Tropical Zone of the Atrato, lower Caucd, and 
Magdalena Valleys and evidently ranges upward to at least 9000 feet. 

This species is obviously not congeneric with Pionopsitta pileata, nor 
can I refer it to either Eucinetus or Hapalopsittaca. Its bare orbital and 
loral region and the character of the skin about the base of the bill do not 
appear to be shared by any species of these genera. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Noanamd, 2; Puerto Valdivia, 3; Sta. Elena, 1. 



(890) Fionites melanocephala pallidus (Berl.). 

Caica melanocephala pallida Berl., J. f. O., 1889, p. 317 (Yurimaguas, Peru). 

A pair from Amazonian Colombia agrees with one from eastern Ecuador, 
and differs from lower Orinoco examples in having the flanks, etc. yellow. 
Florencia, 2. 



266 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Ordeb CORACIIFORMES. 
Family ALCEDINIDiE. Kingfishers. 

(895) Megaceryle ' torquata torquata (Linn.). 

Alcedo torquata Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 180 (Mexico and Martinique). 

Ceryle torquata Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. PhUa., 1860, p. 133 (R. Atrato and 
R. Truando); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 373 (R. Magdalena); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 534 (Neoh6); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 157 (R. Magdalena); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 136 (Bonda; Santa Marta). 

Ceryle torquata torquata Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1192, (Siato, 5200 ft.). 

Of local distribution throughout the Tropical Zone and ranging upward 
to the Subtropical Zone. 

Call, 4; Honda, 1; La Playa, 1; Barrigon, 1. 

(89S) Chloroceryle amazona {Lath.). 

Alcedo amazona Lath., Ind. Omith., I, 1790, p. 257 (Cayenne). 

Ceryle amazona Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. PhUa., 1860, p. 133 (R. Nercua); Scl. 
& Salv., 1879, p. 534 (Nech6); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 157 (R. Magdalena); 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 136 (Bonda; Santa' Marta) ; Hbllm., 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1192 (N6vita). 

Ceryle amazonia Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 373 (Rio de Ore; La Cruz; Lake Paturia 
and up to 4000 ft.). 

Lpcally distributed throughout the Tropical Zone. 
Sa^ Jose, 1; Call, 7; Rio Frio, 1; Chicoral, 1; Andalucia (w. slope, 
3000 ft.), 1; La Morelia, 1. 

(899) Chloroceryle americana americana {Gmel.). 

Alcedo americana Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1778, p. 451 (Cayenne). 

Ceryle americana Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 373 (Ocana; Bucaramanga) ; Robinson, 
Flying Trip, p. 157 (R. Magdalena; Guaduas); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 
1900, p. 136 (Bonda; Cienaga). 

Ceryle cabanisi Scl. &. Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 534 (Retire; Concordia; Medellin). 

Ceryle americana americana ? Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1192 (Mouth of Calima; 
Sipi; Noanamd). 

Locally distributed throughout the Tropical Zone. While specimens 
from western Colombia average slightly larger than those from Trinidad 
and the lower Orinoco (which in default of Cayenne specimens I accept as 
representing americana) and thus more closely agree with C. a. isthmica 

1 Cf. MiUer on the Classification of Kingfishers, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 265. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 267 

Goldman in size, they are nearer americana in color; the males have the 
breast-patch deeper and more extended anteriorly, the females have the 
breast-band more.solid, less broken than in isthmica. From C. a. cabanisi, 
of which I have only one specimen, a female from Lima in the Brewster- 
Sanford Collection, the Colombian birds differ in their smaller size, smaller 
bill and more buffy anterior underparts. 

Tumaco, 1; Barbacoas, 2; Cali, 5; Rio Frio, 1; Chicoral, 2; La Mo- 
relia, 1. 

(901) Chloroceryle inda (Linn.). 

Alcedo inda Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 179 ("India occid"; "Surinam" sub- 
stituted by Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1192). 

Ceryle inda Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 133 (Turbo); Hellm., P. 
Z. S., 1911, p. 1192 (Tad6, R. San Juan). 

Doubtless of local distribution throughout the Tropical Zone though our 
specimens come only from the Pacific coast. 
Noanama, 1; Tumaco, 1; Barbacoas, 1. 



Family MOMOTIDiE. Motmots. 

(904) Urospatha martii martii (Spix). 
Prionites martii Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 64, pi. 60 (in sylvis Parse). 

To this form, of which I have seen no authentic specimens, I refer five 
specimens from La Morelia and Florencia. They differ from semirufa in 
having the greenish abdominal area usually more restricted and with less 
of a bluish tinge, but mainly in the absence of the racket-shaped tips to the 
central tail-feathers. 

La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 2. 

(905) Urospatha martii semirufa (Scl.). 

Momotus semirufus Scl., Rev. Zool., 1853, p. 489 ("Santa Marta"). 

Momotus martii Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 136 (R. Nercua). 

Urospatha martii Scl. & Salv. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 534 (Remedies; Neoh6); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 (Honda). 

Urospatha martii semirufa Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1193 (Sipi; N6vita; Noa- 
namd). 

Occurs throughout the humid Tropical Zone west of the Eastern Andes. 
It is doubtful if the type came from Santa Marta which is in the arid or 
semi-arid Tropical Zone. Recent collectors have not found it there. 



268 Bulletin American Museum of ffatural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

I detect no constant difference in color between our twenty-one west 
Colombian specimens, and five from La Morelia and Florencia in the Ca- 
queta region; in the latter the rufous areas average darker, the rectrices 
basally greener, and as a rule, the rufous extends somewhat farther on to 
the abdominal region which is less tinged with blue. The main difference 
between the two series, however, is to be found in the central tail-feathers 
which, in the adult, appear usually to have racket-shaped tips in semirufa 
and to have their vanes entire in martii. Thus, out of twenty adults of 
semirufa, only one has the central tail-feathers non-spatulate ; while none 
of our five specimens of martii has the racket-shaped tips on the central 
feathers. 

These observations confirm those already made by Hellmayr (Nov. 
ZoqI., 1907, p. 403) who states that in five specimens from the upper Ama- 
zon the tail is not spatulated while "in a large series oi U. m. semirufa from 
Bogota collections, western Ecuador, Costa Rica, etc., the tail-feathers are 
nearly uniform blue and the middle pair invariably spatulated in the adults." 

It is important to observe that so f^' as our specimens go, the central 
rectrices in martii do not show that breaking down in the barbs at their 
attachment to the shaft, which is evident in the central tail-feathers of 
semirufa along that portion of the shaft which is in process of losing its barbs. 

Alto Bonito, 1 ; Baudo, 2; Juntas de Tamana, 5; Barbacoas, 6; Puerto 
Valdivia, 2; Honda and vicinity. 5. 

(906) Electron platyrhynchus platyrhynchus (Leadb.). 

Momotils platyrhynchus Leadb., Trans. Linn. Soc, XVI, 1833, p. 92 ("Brazil" = 
w. Ecuador). Cf. Hakt., Nov. ZooL, 1898, p. 497; Hellm., Ibid. 1907, p. 404. 

Crypticus platyrhynchus Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 136 (R. Nercua). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of western Ecuador northward to the Atrato 
Valley in Colombia. I have seen no Ecuador specimens but, although 
showing to a limited extent the decrease in size which occurs in this species, 
as one advances toward the northern limit of its range, it seems evident that 
the long-tailed, large-billed form of extreme western Colombia is referable 
to that form. 

Five specimens from Puerto Valdivia, in the lower Cauca, however, as 
the appended table of measurements shows, are clearly intermediate be- 
tween ■platyrhynchus and minor. 

I follow Hellmayr {I. c.) in restricting the name -platyrhynchus to the 
Pacific coast form. The fact that this species was not definitely recorded 
from Brazil until 1906 (Hellmayr, I.e.), in connection with the fact that it 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 269 

was described as having spatulate central rectrices (a character unknown 
in specimens from east of the Andes), makes it more than probable that 
Leadbeater's type did not come from "Brazil" as he stated. If, following 
Ridgway (Bull. 50, VI, p. 471), we did not accept this view of the case, 
pyrrholoBmus (Berl. & Stolz.) shown by Hellmayr to be the Brazilian form, 
would become a synonym of 'platyrhynchus, leaving the broad-billed race of 
western Ecuador without a name. In view of the facts stated and of the 
action of previous authors this proceeding seems to me to be unnecessary. 

Hellmayr states that in fourteen adult specimens of platyrhynchus and 
minor all have the central rectrices spatulate, but in our eighteen specimens 
of these forms two adults have the vanes of the central rectrices entire and 
in a third they are nearly so. 

San Jose, 1 ; Alto Bonito, 2. 

(907) Electron platyrhynchus pyrrholaemus {Berl. & Stolz). 

Prionirhynchus platyrhynchus pyrrholcemus Berl. & Stolz., P. Z. S., 1902, p. 35 
(La Merced, oen. Peru). 

An adult male from Florencia has the central rectrices fully developed 
(see measurements beyond) and non-spatulate; both this character and 
the locality indicate that it should be referred to this form, of which, how- 
ever, I have no authentic specimens. Aside from the non-spatulate rec- 
trices, which appear to characterize this form, it may be distinguished from 
platyrhynchus by its shorter and narrower bill, while the specimen below 
recorded has the tail bluer terminally than any of our eighteen specimens 
from west of the Andes. 

Florencia, 1. 

(907a) Electron platyrhynchus minor (Hart). 

Prionirhynchus platyrhynchus minor Hart., Nov. Zool., V, 1898, p. 498 (Panama). 
Prionirhynchus platyrhynchus Sol. & Salv., .P. Z. S., 1879, p. 534 (Remedios). 

It is difficult to understand why four specimens from Puerto Valdivia 
on the lower Cauca River, at the eastern base of the Western Andes, should 
be referable to the Panama form rather than to E. p. platyrhynchus which 
occurs on the opposite or western slope of the Western Andes, at Alto Bonito. 
In color these specimens are nearer to Pacific coast birds than to Panama 
birds, in general size, taking Hartert's measurements of platyrhynchus (see 
table beyond) for comparison, they are about intermediate between platyr- 
hynchus and minor, but in the size of the bill they agree with the latter and 



270 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



the difference between the forms concerned is in this respect so marked that 
one can not well refer the Puerto Valdivia birds to the large-billed Pacific 
coast race. While it is true,- therefore, that they are not typical of minor 
they certainly do not differ from it sufficiently to warrant subspecific sepa- 
ration, and quite as certainly they could not be referred to platyrhynchus. 

Of minor I have four topotypical specimens from the Canal Zone, with 
which five specimens from Tapaliza and Tacarcuna essentially agree. 

On purely faunal grounds the latter should be referable to E. p. suboles 
Nels., but none of our east Panama specimens has as large a bill as Mr. 
Nelson's measurements show that his type and only specimen of suboles 
possesses. Either, therefore, the specimen on which suboles is based has 
an abnormally large bill or the race is remarkably localized, and in view of 
the fact that the locality whence the type comes is in the Tropical Zone, I 
incline to the former theory. 

Puerto Valdivia, 4. 







Measurements. 
























Width of 
















bill at 




Name 


Locality 


Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Culm en 


nostril 


Electron 


p. pyrrholcemus, 


Florencia, Col. 


c? 


124 


228 


42 


14 


u 


" platyrhynchus '■ 


Paramba, Eo. 


rf 


130 


223 


49 


? 


K 


U It 


SanJos6 " 


& 


121.5 


— 


45 


17 


11 


" (intermediate) 


Puerto Valdivia, 
Col. 


& 


123 


195 


40 


14.5 


U 


" (intermediate) 


Puerto Valdivia, 
Col. 


C? 


121 


194 


41 


15.5 


it 


" (intermediate) 


Puerto Valdivia, 
Col. 


cf 


118 


183 


40 


15.6 


U 


" minor 


Tapaliza, Pan. 


& 


116 


178 


42 


16 


u 


« « 


tt tt 


^ 


114.5 


178 


42.5 


15 


ti 


u u 


Tacarcuna " 


cT 


115 


170 


41 


15 


(I 


ti 11 


Canal Zone 


cf 


111 


178 


40 


15 


u 


" suboles ^ 


Cana, Panama 


c? 


116 


177 


45 


? 


(I 


" platyrhynchus, 


Alto Bonito, 
Col. 


9 


124 


220 


45.5 


17 


(t 


" platyrhynchus, 


Alto Bonito, 
Col. 


9 


119 


200 


46 


17.5 


u 


" (intermediate) 


Puerto Valdivia, 
Col. 


9 


120 


188 


41 


15 


(I 


" minor 


Tacarcuna, Pan. 


9 


108 


161 


41 


15 


" 


11 11 


Tapaliza, " 


9? 


110 


169 


' 39.5 


15 


li 


11 u 


Canal Zone " 


9 


111 


170 


40 


15 


u 


U It 


tt tt 


9 


111 


174 


39 


15 



1 Ex. Hartert, Nov. Zool., V, 1898, p. 498, 1912. 

2 Ex. Nelson, Smith. Misc. Coll., 60, 1912, p. 6. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colonibia. 271 

(911) Momotus subrufescens subrufescens Scl. 

Momotus subrufescens Scl., Rev. Zool., 1853, p. 489 (Santa Marta, Col.); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 (Ambalema; Honda) ; Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., 
XIII, 1900, p. 135 (Bonda). 

Momotus conexus Thayer & Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1906, p. 215 (Sab- 
ana de Panama). 

A form of the Tropical Zone which we found only in the Magdalena 
Valley. Fourteen specimens taken from La Playa to Chicoral, agree in 
size and color, and differ from a large series of Santa Marta specimens only 
in being slightly larger. Ridgway (Bull. U. S. N. M., 50, VI, p. 462) refers 
two specimens from Honda and Ambalema to M. s. conexus Thayer & Bangs, 
but with six topotypical specimens of that form and twenty-six of subru- 
fescens from Santa Marta before me, I can detect no constant differences 
on which to separate the Panama form. 

La.Playa, 1; Algodonal, 2; Remedies, 1; Malena, 2; Honda, and vicin- 
ity, 7; Chicoral, 1. 

(911a) Momotus subrufescens reconditus Neh. 

Momotus conexus reconditus Nels., Smith. Miscell. CoU., 60, 3, 1912, p. 4 (Marran- 
ganti, e. Panama; type examined). 

Comparison with the type and a specimen from Boca de Cupe, south- 
eastern Panama, loaned me by Mr. Nelson, shows that a male from Salaqui 
and a pair from the Atrato should be referred to this form. There is some 
variation in the intensity of coloration of the upperparts, but not one speci- 
men in our series of some forty specimens of subrufescens has the underparts, 
particularly the abdominal region, as deeply colored as in any one of these 
five birds. 

Salaqui, 1 ; Atrato, 2. 

912. Momotus momota ignobilis Berl. 

Momotus brasiliensis ignobilis Berl., J. f. 0., 1889, p. 307 (Shanusi, Yurimaguas, 
Peru). 

Their characters indicate that nine Motmots from La Morelia and Flo- 
rencia, and three from Villavicencio should be referred to this upper Ama- 
zonian form. These birds are smaller than true momota and the rusty nuchal 
• band appears as a wash rather than a well-defined patch, or it may be en- 
tirely wanting, as in two immature specimens from Florencia. 

Florencia, 5; La Morelia, 4; Villavicencio, 3; Barrigon, 1. 



272 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(916) Momotus sequatorialis sequatorialis Gould. 

Momotus ceqvatorialis Gotjld, P. Z. S., 1857, p. 223 (Archidona, e. Ecuador); 
ScL. & Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 634 (Envigado; Retire; Concordia; Frontino; 
breeds); Stomb, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 (Ibague). 

Momotus (EquatoridLis ceqitatorialis Hbllm., P. Z. S. 1911, p. 1194 (Pueblo Rico). 

A common, species in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges of the 
Andes. It appears to be the only member of this family in Colombia which 
advances above the Tropical Zone. I have no authentic specimens for 
comparison but Hellmayr (I. c.) states that Colombian birds are typical. 

San Antonio, 4; La Florida, 1; Miraflores, 3; Salento, 6; Sta. Elena, 1; 
Rio Toche, 2; La Palma, 1; near San Agustin, 1; Andalucia (7000 ft.), 3. 

(919a) Hylomanes momotula obscurus Nels. 

Hylomanes momotula obscurus Nels., Smiths. Misc. Coll., 66, 1911, p. 1 (Cerro 
Brujo, Canal Zone, Panama). 

Five specimens collected by Miller and Boyle at Dabeiba, agree with nine 
from eastern Panama, and when compared with Guatemalan specimens 
exhibit the characters attributed by Nelson to this race. The species 
has not before been recorded from Colombia. 

Dabeiba, 5. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDiE. Nightjars. 

(923) Nyctibius longicaudatus (Spix). 

Caprimulgus longicaudatus Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 1, 1825, pi. i ("in sylvis 
fl. Japiirse"). 

An adult male and female from Novita, are apparently to be referred to 
this species which has not before been recorded from Colombia. I have no 
authentic specimens for comparison. 

Novita, 2. 



(928) Chordeiles acutipennis acutipennis {Bodd.). 

Caprimulgus acutipennis Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 46 ("Guyane" = Cay- 
enne, c/. Berl. & Hart., Nov. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 90). 

A pair of Nighthawks from Algodonal and Calamar, Magdalena, Mr. 
H. C. Oberholser identifies as this form. The Calamar specimen was shot 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 273 

from a scattered flock flying well overhead much as does C. virginianus 
during its migrations. The sexual organs of neither specimen were enlarged. 
Rio San Juan, June 18, ad. 9 ; Turbaco, Aug. 9, juv. d' ; Algodonal, 
Jan. 23, ad. 9 ; Calamar, Jan. 21, ad. cf . 



(928a) Chordeiles acutipennis texensis Lawr. 

Chordeiles texensis Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VI, 1857, p. 167 (Rio Grande, 
Texas = Fort Ringold, Rio Grande, cf. Oberholsek, Bull. 86, U. S. N. M., 1914, 
p. 105). 

fChordeiles virginianus Sol. & Salv. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 531 (Dept. Antioquia). 

Two males, taken at Noanama December 29 and 30, are evidently winter 
visitants of this northern form which does not appear to have been before 
recorded from South America. Their wing measurements are respectively 
177 and 176 mm. In color they are somewhat brighter than the average 
specimen of texensis with the black of the crown deeper and of greater extent, 
differences which I believe to be seasonal. Only spring and summer speci- 
mens of texensis are available for comparison. 

Noanam^, 2. 

(937) Lurocalis ruflventris Tacz. 
hurocalis rufioentris Tacz., Orn. Perou, I, 1884, p. 209 (Tambillo, Peru). 

Not uncommon locally in the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes 
near Bogota, hawking well overhead as does Chordeiles virginianus. I have 
seen no Peruvian specimens. 

Aguadita, 7; Subia, 3. 



(938) Uropsalis' lyra (Bonap.). 

Hydropsalis lyra Bonap., Consp. Av., I, 1850, p. 59 (Colombia); Sol. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 532 (Envigado). 

Mrs. Kerr obtained three specimens of this bird west of Honda, one of 
which is labeled as having been taken at an altitude of 6000 ft. 
West of Honda, 3. 



1 MiUer, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 516. 



274 Bvlletln American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVl, 

(945) Hydropsalis climacocerca Tsch. 
Hydropsalis climacocercus Tsch., Wieg. Arch, fur Naturg., 1844, p. 269 (Peru). 

A male and two female adults, and two immature specimens from La 
Morelia evidently represent this species which does not appear to have been 
before recorded from- Colombia. I have seen no other specimens. 

La Morelia, 4. 

(948) Nyctidromus albicoUis albicollis (Gmel.). 

Caprimulgus albicollis Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 1030 (Cayenne). 

Nyctidromus guianensis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 133 (Turbo). 

Nyctidromus alhicollis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 375 (Lake Paturia); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 532 (Concordia; Remedies; Medellin); Robinson, Flying Trip, 
p. 158 (R. Magdalena); Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1879, p. 305 (Honda). 

We have found this species to be the commonest member of its family. 
It is distributed throughout the Tropical Zone, and under favorable con- 
ditions ranges upward to the lower border of the Subtropical Zone. None 
of our twenty-six specimens has the wing over 158 mm., and they therefore 
presumably all represent the resident South American form. There is, 
however, as usual in this species, much variation in color. A male from La 
Candela, for example, is paler above and below than any one of ten speci- 
mens from Santa Marta {N. a. gihus Bangs), but a female from the same 
locality is darker than the average "albicollis." Specimens from the Pa- 
cific coast average darker and smaller than those from the interior and doubt- 
less represerit a local race, but I have not a sufficiently large series of true 
alhicollis to determine its characters satisfactorily. 

Novita, 1 ; Los Cisneros, 1 ; Barbacoas, 1 ; Ricaurte, 1 ; San Antonio, 1 ; 
Cali, 1; Rio Frio, 4; Puerto Valdivia, 1; La Sierra, 2; La Candela, 2; 
Chicoral, 1; Puerto Berrio, 2; Malena, 4; Algodonal, 1 (might be referred 
to gihus) ; Buena Vista, 1 ; Villavicencio, 2. 

(951) Thermochalcis cayennensis cayennensis (Gmel.). 

Ca-primulgus cayennensis Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 1031 (Cayenne). 

We have found this species only at Villavicencio where it was locally 
common in brushy places at the border of pastures, and at La Playa. Three 
males taken at Villavicencio March 12, are apparently just finishing a com- 
plete molt, involving both wings and tail. They are considerably paler 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colonibia. 275 

than a Cayenne specimen, two of them being but slightly darker than a 
specimen of insularis from Curasao, loaned me by Mr. Todd. The latter, 
however, has black (and that as a small broken band) on only the outer 
pair of tail-feathers. A male from La Playa agrees with the Villavicencio 
males in general color, but has a black bar on only the outer pair of tail- 
feathers. Possibly it should be referred to insularis. 

Stenopsis tohagensis Ridgw., (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1908, p. 195) ap- 
pears to be the same as Caprimulgus leopetes Jard. & Selb., of Tobago (Ills, 
of Orn., II, 1826-35, pi. Ixxxvii). 

La Playa, 2; Villavicencio, 3. 



(951a) Thermochalcis cayennensis monticola iChapm.). 

Stenopsis cayennensis monticola Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, 
p. 172 (San Antonio, 6600 ft.. Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Wings and tail longer, the bill larger than in S. c. cayennensis, 
the female much darker throughout, the crown largely black, the central feathers 
but narrowly margined with rusty or ochraceous-tawny and grayish; the grayish 
nuchal area almost wanting, the rusty nuchal collar sHghtly deeper in color; in 
the back black predominates, the grayish is reduced to a minimum the feathers being 
minutely marked with broken rusty; scapulars black widely margined externally 
with buff or ochraceous as in cayennensis, black tail-bars wider and more pronounced, 
breast and flanks more heavily barred. 

Our four specimens of this form were all taken at San Antonio in the 
Western Andes in January and February, 1911. 



(955) Thermochalcis ruficervix {Scl.). 

Stenopsis ruficervix Sol., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 140, pi. xiv (Int. Colombia); Scl. & 
Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 531 (Envigado; Retiro; Sta. Elena). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone. In view of the fact that in Colombia, as 
well as in Venezuela and Ecuador, most of our specimens of this bird were 
taken from above 10,000 feet, I am inclined to regard an immature female 
collected by Richardson at Tumaco, on the coast of southwestern Colombia, 
as an accidental visitant at that point. This specimen, it should be added, 
is considerably paler than any of our other twenty examples of this species. 

Tumaco, 1 ; Andes w. of Popayan, 10,340 ft., 2 ; La Sierra, 1 ; Laguneta, 8 ; 
El Eden, 1; Chipaque, 1. 



276 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(959) Antrostomus rosenbergi (Hart.). 

Caprimvlgus rosenbergi Hart., Bull. B. O. C, V, 1895, p. 10, (R. Dagua, w. Col.). 

A pair taken by Richardson at Barbacoas agrees with Hartert's descrip- 
tion. The male has the scapulars, lower breast and abdomen more heavily 
barred than the female. On the abdomen of the latter there appears a 
faint suggestion of the white spotting which is so marked a character of A. 
occellatus. 



Barbacoas, 2. 



Family CYPSELID^. Swifts. 



(968a) Streptoprocne zonaris altissima Chapm. 

Streptoprocne zonaris altissima Chapm., BuU. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 604 
(Laguneta, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Agreeing in size with S. z. zonaris of southern Brazil, but bill 
heavier, the ridge of the culmen more prominent, general color, particularly of the 
inner wing-quiUs and wing-coverts greener, forehead averaging paler, the breast- 
band broader with the terminal half, rather than the terminal third, of its feathers 
white, the edge of the wing, as far as the primary coverts and some of the lesser 
coverts, distinctly margined with white; differs more pronouncedly from S. z. 
albidncia in the characters named, and in its larger size. 

The discovery that even birds of such exceptional power of flight as the 
large Swifts, may have representative forms in zones separated by a few 
thousand feet, is one of the most interesting results of our studies of zonal 
distribution in Colombia. Streptoprocne zonaris albicinda is distributed 
throughout the Tropical Zone of Colombia and ascends to at least the lower 
border of the Subtropical Zone. The form here described, however, we have 
taken in Colombia only at Laguneta, in the Temperate Zone (one specimen) 
and on Mt. Pichincha, Ecuador (3 specimens). The differences between 
altissima and alhicincta are more striking than those which exist between 
zonaris and alhicincta. There is no indication of intergradation among our 
twenty Colombian and Ecuadorian specimens of both forms, and it is not 
probable, in my opinion, that alhicincta and altissima intergrade inter se, 
but that their connectant is true zonaris. The intergradation of altissima 
with zonaris may reasonably be looked for, at some point where increasing 
south latitude brings the Temperate Zone to the altitude at which zonaris 
occurs, let us say northwestern Argentina, while the intergradation of al- 
hicincta with zonaris may be looked for in that region south of the Amazon, 
where the Amazonian forests merge into, or interdigitate, with the highlands 
of southern Brazil. 

Laguneta, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 277 

(969) Streptoprocne zonaris albicincta (Cab.). 

Hemiprocne albicincta Cab., J. f. O., 1862, p. 165 (Guiana = "Mexico bis 
Guiana"). 

Hemiprocne zonaris Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 531 (Concordia; Retiro; 
breeds); Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 (near Ambalema); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 137 (Sta. Marta). 

This deeply colored, blue-black Swift inhabits the Tropical Zone of 
Colombia ranging upward into the Subtropical Zone. I have seen no Guiana 
specimens, but it is not probable that they differ materially from the lowland 
form of Colombia. Should the Colombia bird prove to be distinct, it should 
stand as S. z. minor (Lawr.), the type of which in the American Museum 
agrees with the lowland form. 

Alto Bonito, 2; Dabeiba, 3; Los Cisneros, 1 ; Las Lomitas, 2; San An- 
tonio, 2; Chicoral, 1; Honda,!; Quetame, 3; Buena Vista, 6; Villavicen- 
cio, 1. 

(976) Cheetura spinicauda fumosa Salv. 

ChcBtura fumosa Salv., P. Z. S., 1870, p. 204 (Bugaba, Chiriqui); Wtatt, Ibis, 
1871, p. 375 (Naranjo). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast and lower Cauca. 

In the color of the rump and upper tail-coverts four males agree with 
five others in the Carnegie Museum from Pozo Azul, Costa Rica, but they 
average slightly greener above and are larger, as the appended measure- 
ments show. Possibly the Colombian bird deserves separation. 

Wing Taa 

Colombia, 4 Males 96-101 (99.3) 30.5-41 (40) 

Costa Rica, 5 Males 108-112 (109) 40. -43 (41 .6) 

Juntas de Tamana, 2; Novita, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 



(977) Chaetura cinereiventris sclateri Pelz. 
Chcetura sclateri Pelz., Orn. Bras., I, 1868, p. 56 (Borba, R. Madeira). 

A male from Buena Vista, above Villa vicencio, measures, wing, 107; 
tail, 39 mm. It therefore agrees in size with sclateri (which has been re- 
corded from e. Ecuador, cf. Hellm. Orn. Gesell. Bayern, VIII, 1908, p. 157) 
which, so far as one can judge from descriptions, it also resembles in color, 
the belly and rump being grayer than specimens from the Central Andes, 
identified as C c. occidentalis. 

Buena Vista, 1. 



278 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(978) Chsetura cinereiventris occidentalis Berl. & Tacz. 

Chmtura sdateri occidentalis Berl. & Tacz., P. Z. S., 1883, p. 569 (Chimbo, 
Ecuador). 

A female from Juntas de Tamana, and two from an altitude of about 
6000 feet in the Central Andes between Cartago and Salento, are apparently 
to be referred to this form of which, however, I have seen no authentic 
specimens. They measure, wing, 114-117; tail, 40-i2 mm. 

Juntas de Tamana, 1; Central Andes, 2. 



(983) Cypseloides brunneitorques brunneitorques (Lafr.). 
Chcetura brunneitorques Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 81 (Colombia). 

A specimen taken by Fuertes at San Antonio, is our only representative 
of this species from the Western Andes. It was not met with in the Central 
Andes but was exceedingly abundant in the Eastern Andes at, and near, 
Buena Vista. It appears to be mountain-inhabiting and was not secured 
below 4000 feet. 

The sexing of our nine specimens indicates that the rufous collar is worn 
by adults of both sexes, and that immature birds of both sexes are without 
it. Thus it is present in three females, one of which had the ovaries slightly 
enlarged, and in one male; is almost or entirely absent in three females, 
and indicated by only a slight rufous tint on the nape in one male. 

San Antonio, 1; Aguadita, 1; Quetame, 4; Buena Vista, 3. 



Family TROCHILID^. Hummingbirds. 



(993) Doryfera ludovicise ludovicise (Bourc. & Muls.). 

TrochUus ludovidcB Bourc. & Muls., Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon, X, 1847, p. 136 
("Nouvelle-Grenade"; I suggest Buena Vista, alt. 4500 ft.. Eastern Andes, above 
Villa vicencio). 

Hemistephania ludovicice Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 528 (Sta. Elena). 

Found in the Subtropical Zone of the Central and Eastern Andes. Our 
specimens apparently represent but one form. 
Miraflores, 1; Salento, 2; Buena Vista, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 279 

(995) Androdon sequatorialis GovM. 

Androdon CBquatorialis Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, XII, 1863, p. 247 
(Ecuador); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 528 (Remedios); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, 
p. 1176 (Sipi; Tad6). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward, into the 
Magdalena Valley. Two specimens from "Ecuador" in the Elliot collec- 
tion, one of which is labeled "a type," have both mandibles strongly hooked 
and more strongly toothed than in any one of our Colombian specimens. 
In the latter indeed, the mandibular hook is absent in the adult males as 
well as females. Possibly these differences may be of racial value, but the 
proximity of Barbacoas, Col., to the probable type-locality of this species 
(Tropical Zone west of Quito) and the agreement of our Barbacoas speci- 
mens with those from farther north, argues against the variation in question 
being geographical. Further material is needed, however, to solve this 
interesting problem. 

Juntas de Tamana, 2; Novita, 2; Noanama, 1; Bagado, 1; Barbacoas, 
6. 

(999) Threnetes cervinicauda Gould. 

Threnetes cervinicauda Gould, P. Z. S., 1854, p. 109 (Quijos, Ecuador). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. 
Florencia, 1; La Morelia, 1. 

(1000) Threnetes ruckeri fraseri {Gould). 

Glauds fraseri Gould, Mon. Trochil., I, 1861, pi. 12 (Esmeraldas). 
Threnetes ruckeri {sic) Boucard, Hummingbird, 1895, V, p. 7 (Rio Dagua). 
Threnetes fraseri Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIII, 1910, p. 72 (Naranjito). 
Threnetes ruckeri fraseri Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1177 (N6vita). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Our six specimens from 
Barbacoas agree with nine others from western Ecuador, including six 
topotypes from Esmeraldas. Seven specimens from eastern Panama (El 
Heal; Cupe River; Capeti) while nearer /rasm, indicate, as Hellmayr {I. c.) 
has already surmised, the intergradation of fraseri with ruckeri of western 
Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The east Panama form has the cin- 
namon throat-patch brighter and more extensive, the Underparts paler, the 
tail greener than in fraseri and thus very appreciably approaches rv/>keri. 
Two specimens from the Canal Zone while resembling Costa Rica birds 
below have the back green with little or no brassy reflection and thus 
.approach fraseri. 

Barbacoas, 6. 



280 Bulletin American Museum 0/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(lOOOo) Glaucis hirsuta afiinis Lawr. 

GlaiuAs affinis Lawk., Ann. Lyo. N. H. N. Y., VI, 1858, p. 261 (Napo, Ecuador). 
Glaucis hirsuta Scl. &. Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 528 (Sta. Elena). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes, 
the Magdalena and Cauca Valleys, the lower Atrato Valley and eastern 
Panama. The distribution of this species in Colombia agrees, therefore, 
with that of those birds which evidently have entered the country from 
Amazonia. (Compare, for example, that of Ostinops decumanus). 

After comparison of our Colombian specimens and thirteen from eastern 
Panama (R. Tuyra; R. Capeti) with the type and a topotype of affinis, I 
follow Ridgway in referring birds from the region outlined to that race. 

I have not, however, seen specimens of Glaucis hirsuta fusca Cory from 
the southwest shores of Lake Maracaibo (Field Mus. Pub., 167, 1913, p. 286). 

Alto Bonito, 2; Cali, 1; Malena, 1; Villavicencio, 1; La Morelia, 2. 



(1002) Glaucis senea Lawr. 

Glaucis ceneus Laws., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1867, p. 232 (Costa Rica). 
Glaucis columhiana Bottcabd, Gen. Hum. Bds., 1895, p. 402 (Rio Dagua). 
Glaucis hirsuta cenea Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1178 (Guineo, R. Calima). 

Hellmayr (L c.) has already shown that this species occurs on the Pacific 
coast of Colombia and in northwestern Ecuador, and comparison of eight 
specimens from San Jose, Barbacoas, and Esmeraldas, with two from Costa 
Rica (including the type) and four from Nicaragua, confirms his views. 
The range of the species is not, however, as he surmised, continuous, and 
although it inhabits the Tropical Zone, it appears to have a distribu- 
tion similar to that of the large group of Subtropical Zone species which 
are unknown between Costa Rica or western Panama and northwestern 
Colombia. 

This fact, in connection with the occurrence of Glaucis hirsuta affinis in 
eastern Panama (see above), and the differences in color between asnea and 
hirsuta {cf. Ridgway, Bull. 50, V, p. 329) lead me to believe that these birds 
are specifically distinct, as indeed Mr. Ridgway has aheady surmised 
(Z. c). Aside from its more bronzy upperparts, our series confirms the state- 
ment that in oenea the sexes are alike, the male as well as the female being 
cinnamon below. 

San Jose, 1 ; Barbacoas, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 281 



(1005) Phoethornis guyi emilise {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus emilice Botjec. & Muls., Ann. Sci. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IX, 1846, p. 317 
(Bogotd, Colombia). 

Phcethornis guyi emilia Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, 1901, p. 217 (La Tigra; Las 
duces). 

Found in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. Specimens from 
western Colombia seem to show a slight approach toward P. g. coruscus 
in their somewhat bluer rump. 

Las Lomitas, 5; San Antonio, 3; Miraflores, 5; Peque, 1; west of Honda, 
1 ; Buena Vista, 3. 



(1007) Phoethornis yaruqui sancti-johannis Hellm. 

Phaethornis yarv^ui sancti-johannis Hellm., BuU. B. O. C, XXVII, 1911, p. 92 
(Condoto, Rio Condoto, Choo6); P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1178 (Noanamd; N6vita; Con- 
doto; Sipi; Guineo). 

Phaethornis yaruqui Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 194 (R. Truando) ; 
Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 218 (Buenaventura). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. It differs from yaruqui 
of western Ecuador, of which I have thirteen specimens, mainly in its grayer 
underparts. Four specimens from Barbacoas appear to belong here rather 
than with yaruqui. They are not, however, fully adult. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Monquido, 1; Baudo, 1; Novita, 1; Noanama, 2; 
San Jose, 4; Buenaventura, 1; Barbacoas, 4. 



(1009) Phoethornis fraterculus moorei Lawr. 
Phoethornis moorei Lawr., Ann. Lyo. N. Y., VI, 1858, p. 259 (Nape, Ecuador). 

Found in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. Comparison with 
Lawrence's type (A. M. N. H., No. 37084) shows that our Colombian speci- 
mens should be referred, as might be expected, to the east Ecuador form. 
This race agrees in size with British Guiana specimens of fraterculus ( = 
superciliosus Auct., cf. Hellm. Nov. Zool., 1907, p. 393) but is less rufescent 
below. 

La Morelia, 5; Florencia, 5. 



282 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1017) Phoethornis hispidus oseryi {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus oseryi Bourc. & Muls., Ann. Sci. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, Ser. 2, IV, 1852, 
p. 139 (Pastoya, Ecuador). 

A single specimen from Villavicencio agrees with four others from eastern 
Ecuador including Lawrence's type of P. villosus (A. M. N. H., No. 370991 
"Napo"), which is evidently a synonym of oseryi from essentially the same 
locality. All differ from two Bolivian (Todos Santos, R. Chapar^) speci- 
mens of what is apparently true kispidiis in their smaller size and somewhat 
paler underparts. 

Villavicencio, 1. 

(1019) Phoethornis syrmatophorus syrmatophorus Govld. 

Phaethomis syrmatophorus Gould, Contrib. to Ornith., 1851, p. 139 (Interior 
of Ecuador = western Ecuador, cf. Hellmayr, P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1179); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Sta. Elena; MedeUin); Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 
217 (La Tigra; Las Cruces). 

Phoethornis syrmatophorus syrmatophorus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1179 (La 
Selva). 

Nine specimens from the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes and 
western slope of the Central Andes are apparently typical of this form. 
San Antonio, 5; Cocal, 1; Cerro Munchique, 2; Salento, 1. 



(1020) Phoethornis syrmatophorus columbianus Boucard. 
Phathomis columbianus Boucard, The Hummingbird, I, 1891, p. 17 (Bogotd). 

A specimen from La Palma in the Subtropical Zone, at the head of the 
Magdalena Valley, has a broad white malar stripe, white throat, partially 
developed white median line below, and rich rust-colored rump, and is 
therefore evidently to be referred to the Bogota region form. 

La Palma, 1. 

(1021) Phoethornis anthophilus {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus anthophilus Bourc. & Muls., Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 71 (Upper Magda- 
lena Valley). 

PhoBthomis anthophilus Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 138 (Valle 
Dupar; Valencia; Santa Marta). 

Taken only in the Magdalena Valley. 
Puerto Berrio, 1 ; Chicoral, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 283 

(1031) Phcethornis griseogularis Gould. 

Phaethomis griseogularis Gould, P. Z. S., 1851, p. 115 (Colombia). 

An immature specimen from Florencia is apparently to be referred to 
this species. 

(1032) Phcethornis striigularis striigularis Gould. 

Phaethomis striigularis Gould, Mon. Trochil., I, 1854, facing pi. 37 (Bogota). 
Pygmornis striigularis Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 138 (La Conoep- 
cion). 

Inhabits the Bogota region and apparently reaches westward into 
Antioquia, a specimen from Puerto Valdivia in the lower Cauca River being 
referable to this form rather than to that occupying the Pacific coast, and 
described below. 

West of Honda, 1 ; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 

(1032 a) Phcethornis striigularis subrufescens subsp. nov. 

Phcethornis striigularis Simon & Dalmas (nee Gould), Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 218 
(Naranjo). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to P. s. striigularis Gould but smaller, with a 
shorter bill, underparts more rufescent, the throat more uniform, and less 
streaked. 

Type. — No. 117654, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Barbacoas, Nariiio, Colombia; 
August 30, 1912; W. B. Richardson. 

Range. — The humid Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast region of Colom- 
bia and Ecuador. 

Obe'rholser (Proc. U. S. N. M., XXIV, 1902, p. 313) has called attention 
to the distinguishing characters of the form of this species inhabiting western 
Ecuador, and has applied to it the name atrim,entalis Lawr., a species which 
has commonly been synonymized with striigularis. Examination of the 
type, however, (Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46225) shows that it belongs in the 
group having the underparts cinnamon-rufous, the throat black. In the 
coloration of these parts, and in its black auriculars, the type of atrimentalis 
resembles longuemareu^ ; the upperparts are greener than in striigularis 
and the central tail-feathers are broader and more sharply pointed; the 
lower mandible is bicolor not concolor as in longuemareus. A specimen from 
Bogota agrees with the type of atrimentalis but has the back more coppery, 



284 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

less greenish. I have not at present material with which to determine the 
status of this bird but enough has been said to show that it has no close 
relationship with P. striigularis. 



Measurements. 










Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


P. s. striigularis, Puerto Valdivia, 360 ft., Col., 


, o^ 


36 


36 


23 


" " " Honda 


— 


34 


34 


22.5 


" « " Bogota 


— 


38.5 


36 


22.5 


" " " Napo, Ecuador 


— ■ 


40 


41 


21.5 


P. s. subrufescens, Barbacoas, sea-level. Col., 


cf 


— 


31.5 


19.5 


tt ff » a a u 


? (Type) 35 


32 


19.5 


u a li u It 11 


— 


36.5 


37 


19 


" " " Ndvita, 400 ft.. 


& 


34 


32.5 


19 


" " " Cocal, 4000 ft.. 


& 


35 


32.5 


19 


(( a u it ^c u a 


9 


37 


35 


18 



Novita, 1 ; Cocal, 2 ; Barbacoas, 6. 



(1043) Eutoxeres condaminii (Bourc). 

Trockilus condaminii BouBC, Compt. Rend., XXXII, 1851, p. 186 (Archidona, 
Ecuador, type, 37009, A. M. N. H.). 

Two specimens from the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia are 
somewhat greener above and darker below than the type of this species, 
but agree with another Ecuadorian example of it. This is apparently 
an addition to the known Colombian avifaima. 

La Morelia, 2. 

(1045) Eutoxeres aquila aquila (Bourc). 

Trochilus aquila Bodkc, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 42 (Bogotd region). 

Inhabits the Eastern Andes and slopes rising from the Magdalena River. 
La Palma, 1; Buena Vista, 1. 



(1046) Eutoxeres aquila salvini Gould. 

Eutoxeres salvini GotrLD, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., I, Ser. 4, 1868, p. 456 (Vera- 
gua). 

Eutoxeres aquila Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, p. 218 (Piano de los Monos). 
Eutoxeres aquila salvini Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1180 (Noanamd,). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 285 

Specimens from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast, from San Jose, 
agree with Veragua examples in having the rectrices broadly tipped with 
white. 

San Jos^, 2; San Antonio, 1. 

(1047) Eutoxeres aquila heterura Gould. 

Eutoxeres heterura Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., I, Ser. 4, 1868, p. 455 
(Ecuador). 

Eutoxeres baroni Hakt. & Hart., Nov. Zool., I, 1894, p. 54 (Rio Pescado, w. 
Ecuador). 

Tropical Zone of southwestern Colombia, south of San Jose and south- 
ward into Ecuador. A specimen from Cocal has the white tips of the rec- 
trices reduced to the minimum, and evidently represents the type of colora- 
tion to which Hartert (Z. c.) applied the name baroni. I agree with Salvad. 
& Festa, however (Boll. Mus. Tor., XV, 1900, No. 368, p. 2) that the char- 
acters assigned to this form are not of specific value. We have specimens 
with a maximum and minimum, and intermediate amount of white from the 
same locality (Rio de Oro, Manavi, Ecuador), a variability which I believe 
to be individual or attributable to age rather than to race. 

Cocal, 1. 

(1050) Campylopterus obscurus sequatorialis Gould. 
Campylopterus cequatorialis Gottld, Introd. Trochil., 1861, p. 54 (Quito). 

Occurs in Amazonian Colombia. The type doubtless came from the 
Napo region. I have seen no specimens of true obscurus and follow Hell- 
mayr's form of recognition for the Ecuadorian bird {cf. Nov. Zool., 1906, 
p. 375). 

La Morelia, 1. 

(1052) Campylopterus falcatus (Swains.). 

Trochilusfalcatus.SwMNS., Zool. III., II, 1821, tab. 83 ("Spanish Main" — North- 
east Venezuela, cf. Hellm. & von Seilbrn, Archiv fiir Naturg., 1912, p. 138). 

Our specimens are from the upper border of the Tropical Zone in all 
three ranges. Hellmayr {I. c.) has shown that Vieillot's " TrochiLus lazulus" 
is not applicable to this species. 

Peque, 1; San Agustin, 1; Quetame, 3; Buena Vista, 1. 



286 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1058) Florisuga mellivora mellivora (Linn.). 

Trochilus meUivorus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 121 ("India''; Brabourne & 
Chubb "designate Guiana). 

Florisuga mellivora Scl. & Salt., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Remedios); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 138 (Bonda; Cacagualito) ; Simon & Dalmas, 
Omis, XI, 1901, p. 218 (Las Cruces). 

Florisuga mellivora mellivora Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1181 (Noanamd,; Cajon). 

Doubtless distributed throughout the larger part of the Tropical Zone 
though we failed to take it east of the Eastern Andes. 

Noanama, 1; Barbacoas, 5; Buenavista, Narino, 1; Miraflores, 2; 
Puerto Berrio, 1. 

(1075) Agyrtria viridiceps (Gould). 

Thaumatias viridiceps Gould, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 307 (Ecuador). 

A species heretofore known only from western Ecuador which Richard- 
son secured in southwestern Colombia. 
Ricaurte, 1. 

(1085a) Agyrtrina viridissima subsp. 

An adult male from VUlavicencio apparently belongs to this group, but 
I have not material to determine its status. The tail is greenish with a 
blackish subterminal band and the three outer tail-feathers have small 
greenish tips. 

(1086) Agyrtrina fluvialitis (Gould). 

Thaumatias fluvialitis Gould, Introd. Trochil., 1861, p. 154 (Napo, Ecuador). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia, whence 
it does not appear to have been previously recorded. 
La Morelia, 1. 

(1090) Polyerata amabilis (Gould). 
Trochilus (?) amabilis Gould, P. Z. S., 1851, p. 115 (New Grenada). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward into Antio- 
quia. In addition to the specimens listed below we have also an excellent 
series from Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 

Puerto Valdivia, 3; Alto Bonito, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 287 

(1091) Polyerata rosenbergi Boiicard. 

Polyerata rosenbergi Boucabd, Gten. of Hummingbirds, 1895, p. 399 (Rio Dagua, 
Col.); Hellm., p. Z. S., 1911, p'. 1181 (N6vita; Juntas; Rio Condoto). 

Known only from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast where it is 
apparently not uncommon. 

Bagado, 1; Novita, 2; Noanamd, 1; Buenaventura, 4; San Jose, 1; 
Barbacoas, 6. 



(1093) Uranomitra francise (Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trockilus francioe Boukc. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IX, 1846, 
p. 324 (Bogotd). 

Agyrtria frandoe Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 218 (La Tigra). 

Uranomitra frandcB Bottcakd, The Hummingbird, V, p. 6 (Rio Dagua); Hellm., 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1182 (Pueblo Rico; Siato). 

Our specimens are all from the Subtropical Zone of the Western and 
Central Andes. 

San Antonio, 7; Las Lomitas, 2; Miraflores, 2; west of Honda, 2; La 
Candela, 1; San Agustin, 2. 



(1096) Lepidopyga goudoti (Bourc). 

Trockilus goudoti Botjbc, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 100 (Ibague, Col.). 
Cyanophaia goudoti, Stone, Proo. Acad. N. S., Phila., 1899, p. 305 (Ibague). 

Apparently known only from the Tropical Zone of the upper Magdalena 
Valley. 

•Honda, 1; Chicoral, 3; near San Agustin, 1; Andalucia (3000 ft.), 1. 



(1097) Lepidopyga coelina (Bourc). 

Thalurania coelina Botrac, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1853, p. 553 (Santa Marta, 
Col.). 

This species appears to represent L. goudoti in the lower Magdalena Val- 
ley and west to the Atrato Valley. Apparently the ranges of the two forms 
are separated by the humid, forested region of the central lower Magdalena 
Valley. 

Varrud, 1; Banco, 2; Calamar, 1; Algodonal, 1; Monquido, Choco, 1. 



288 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1101) Saucerottia saucerottei {Delatt. & Bourc). 

Trochilus saucerottei Delatt. & Bomac, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 311 (Call, Col.). 
Saucerottea saucerotti Simon & Dalm., Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 221 (Call; La Tigra; 
Las Cruces). 

Inhabits the semi-arid Tropical Zone locally on the western slope of the 
Western Andes, the Cauca Valley and slopes arising from it. 

Dabeiba, 3; Alto Bonito, 4; Caldas, 5; Las Lomitas, 1 ; San Antonio, 1; 
Call, 9; La Manuelita, 1 ; Miraflores, 5; Rio Frio, 4. 

(1102) Saucerottia viridigaster (Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus viridigaster Bourc. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, 
p. 42 (Fusugasugd, Col.). 

Inhabits open places in the Tropical Zone of the Eastern Andes. We 
found it only on the eastern slopes of the range though the type is said to 
have come from the western slope. 

Quetame, 8; Buena Vista, 4; Villa vicencio, 1. 

(1111) Amizilis tzacatl tzacatl (De la Llave). 

Trochilus tzacatl De la Llave, Registro Trimestre, II, No. 5, 1833, p. 48 (Mexico). 
Amazilia riefferi Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 378 (San Nicholas). 

AmaziUis fuscicaudata Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 139 (Bonda; 
Cacagualito). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone. The identification of Colombian specimens 
of Amazilis tzacatl is largely a matter of opinion. Deprive the specimens 
listed below of their labels and probably no two ornithologists would agree 
as to their proper names. Hellmayr (P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1183) restricts 
A. t. jucunda to western Colombia including Antioquia, and applies the name 
A. t. fuscicaudata (Fraser) to the form of eastern Colombia. Ridgway 
(Bull. U. S. N. M., 50, p. 409) restricts the name jucunda to specimens from 
western Ecuador and southwestern Colombia, and refers all other Colombian 
specimens to the Central American form A. t. tzacatl. With an abimdance of 
material for examination, I incline to Ridgway's views. In specimens from 
the Bogota region the bill averages smaller, but the character is by no means 
diagnostic and I cannot see any reason for recognizing an East Andean form. 

Most of the specimens from western Colombia can be referred to one 
form quite as easily as to the other, but on general faimal principles I limit 
the range of jucunda to that part of the Pacific coast from the San Juan 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 289 

ri^'er southward, leaving the Atrato, lower Cauca and Magdalena Valleys 
as the home of tzmatl. 

Dabeiba, 10; Puerto Valdivia, 2; Puerto Berrio, 1; west of Honda, 2; 
Fusugasuga, 1 ; " Bogota region," 8. 

(1112) Amizilis tzacatl jucunda {Heine). 

Eranna jucunda Heine, J. f. O., XI, 1863, p. 188 (Babahoyo, Ecuador). 
Amazilia riefferi, Simon & Dalm., Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 221 (Naranjo). 
Amazilia tzacatl jucunda Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1183 (R. Sipi; Noanamd; 
N6vita). 

Tropical Zone of western Ecuador northward to the San Juan river in 
Colombia. Western Ecuador specimens average larger; the males have the 
abdomen tinged with rusty; females have this region paler than in tzacatl. 
I can detect no diagnostic differences in the color of the upper mandible. 
On the whole the Colombian birds are intergrades between tza/iatl and 
jucunda and, as stated above, it is purely a matter of opinion where the line 
bounding the ranges of the two forms be drawn. 

Juntas de Tamana, 1; Noanama, 1; San Jose, 1; Los Cisneros, 1; Las 
Lomitas, 1; Tumaco, 4; Barbacoas, 3. 

(1119) Hylocharis grayi {Delatt. & Bourc). 

Eucephala grayi Simon & Dalm., Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 219 (Espinal de Dagua; 
Naranjo; El Carmen; La Tigra; Las Cruces). 

Trochilua grayi Dblatt. & Bouec, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 307 (Popayan). 
Hylocharis grayi Obbkh., Proc. U. S. N. M., XXIV, 1902, p. 317 (Patia Valley). 

Found in open and arid or semi-arid places at Caldas, in the Cauca 
Valley up to the borders of forest, and southward through the Patia Valley 
to northern Ecuador. It is apparently an arid-zone representative of H. 
humboldti which inhabits the humid coastal region. 

Caldas, 1; San Antonio, 18; Cali, 2; Miraflores, 2; Popayan, 3; La 
Sierra, 1. 

(1120) Hylocharis humboldti {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus humboldti Bouec. & Mtjls., Ann. Soc. Agrio. Lyon, Ser. 2, IV, p. 142 
(Esmeraldas, Ecuador). 

Eucephala humboldti Simon & Dalm., Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 219 (Buenaventura). 

Found in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast from at least Buena- 
ventura southward. Females differ from those of H. grayi chiefly in having 
the throat white, unspotted, the tail green. 

Buenaventura, 2; Tumaco, 3. 



290 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1136) Damophila juliae julise (Bourc). 

Ornismya julicB Bouec, Ann. Sci. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, V, 1842, p. 345 (Tunja, 
Col.). 

Juliamyia julicB Cass., Proe. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 194 (Turbo). 

Damophila juMcB Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 378 (Aguachica); Stone, Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 306 (Ibagiie). 

Represented only by a female from Honda. 



(1141) Chlorostilbon gibsoni {Eraser). 

Trochilus gibsoni Feasbe, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 17 (no locality; Brabourne and 
Chubb "designate Colombia"; I add Chicoral, upper Magdalena Valley). Based 
on a female; the male = T. angustipennis Fraser, I.e. p. 18. 

Found by us only in the Magdalena Valley and tributary valleys of the 
Central Andes, from the Tropical Zone upward to the lower border of sub- 
tropical forest. 

West of Honda, 1 ; Chicoral, 3; RioToche, 3; San Agustin, 6. 



(1142) Chlorostilbon hseberlini {Reich.). 

Ckloresies hwberlini Reich., Hand. Om. Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4, pi. 703, figs. 
4578-80 (Colombia; I suggest Bonda, Santa Marta). 

Chlorostilbon hoeberlini Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 378 (Canta and Ocana); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 141 (Valencia; Bonda). 

Inhabits the Caribbean Fauna where it apparently represents C. gibsoni. 
La Play a, 1. 



(1144) Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus Gould. 

Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus Gould, P. Z. S., 1860,^ p. 308 (vicinity of Quito). 
Chlorostilbon angustipennis Scl. &. Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 531 (MedeUin). 
Chlorostilbon comptus Berl., Ibis, 1887, p. 297 (Antioquia) . 
Chlorostilbon pumilus Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 221 (Naranjo; La 
Tigra); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1183 (Pueblo Rico). 

This species is widely distributed in western Colombia from the open 
or semi-arid tropics up to the subtropics of the Western and Central Andes. 

Since this species occurs up to the borders of the tableland of Ecuador 
(Richardson secured it in the Valle de Cumbaza at an altitude of about 
7000 feet on the slopes of Mt. Chimborazo) we are, I think, warranted in 
accepting the vicinity of Quito as an actual type-locality. 'Quito' skins 
agree with those from Cumbaza and the two series combined give what we 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 291 

may doubtless consider a representative series of true melanorhynchus. 
Using this series for comparison, I am imable to find any characters in our 
series of twenty-five adult males from western Colombia, by which the 
Colombian bird may be separated from the species I assume to be melan- 
orhynchus. There are some slight geographic variations in size and color, 
birds from northwestern Colombia averaging smaller and possibly duller 
on crown and belly, but the differences are too inconstant to be of diagnostic 
value. 

I have seen no authentic specimens of the bird known as C. 'pumilus 
Gould. The characters usually assigned to it, however, are covered by the 
variations shown by the series here under consideration. 

Dabeiba, 5; Barro Blanco, 1; Caldas, 5; Las Lomitas, 5; San Antonio, 
3; Call, 3; Miraflores, 6; Popayan, 1; Cerro Munchique, 2; La Florida, 1; 
La Sierra, 1; Ricaurte, 4. 

Measurements of Males. 



Locality 


Wing 


Lat. rectr. 


Med. rectr. 


Bill 


Colombia (16). 


45.7 


26.4 


19.8 


14.1 


Valle de Cumbaza, Eo. (4). 


47.0 


26.0 


20.9 


14.4 


Quito, " (3) 


47.2 


26.5 


21.3 


15.2 


"Citado" (Buckley, 1) 


46.5 


27.0 


22.0 


15.0 



(1153) Chlorostilbon poortmani poortmani (Bourc. & Muls.). 

Ornismya poortmani BouBC. & Muls., Ann. So. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, 
p. 39 (Colombia). 

Our specimens are from the upper margin of the Tropical Zone on the 
eastern slope of the Eastern Andes. 
Quetame, 2; Buena Vista, 1. 

(1168) Thalurania fannyi fannyi (Delatt. & Bourc). 

Trochilus fannyi Delatt. & Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 310 (Rio Dagua near 
Buenaventura). 

Thalurania fannioe Simon & Dalm., Ornis XI, 1901, p. 221 (Buenaventura; 
El PaiLon; Naranjo). 

Thalurania fannyi Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1183 (Pueblo Rico; Noanamd,). 

Inhabits the entire Pacific coast Tropical Zone, and ranges northward 
to eastern Panama (Tapalisa; Tacarcuna) and northeastward into the lower 
Cauca region of Antioquia. It ascends the Western Andes to the Subtropi- 
cal Zone, Hellymayr (J. c.) recording it from Pueblo Rice (alt. 5200 ft.). 
Our specimens, however, from the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes 



292 Bulletin American Mugeum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

appear to be nearer verticeps and resemble Ecuadorian specimens of that 
species in their greener backs and shorter, less deeply forked tails. 

My six adult males from Ecuador are all referable to verHceps. Unfortu- 
nately they are without locality and therefore throw no light on the distribu- 
tion of this species in that country. Specimens from Buenavista, however, 
in southwestern Colombia near the boundary of Ecuador are referable to 
fannyi, and it is not improbable that the coastal form of humid north- 
western Ecuador is fannyi while, as is apparently the case, in Colombia, the 
form of the Subtropical Zone is verticeps. 

Two ' Bogota' males of this species are interesting. They have the short 
tail and green back of verticeps, but the interscapular band is purple as in 
fannyi. 

Alto Bonito, 2; La Vieja, 1; La Frijolera, 1; Juntas de Tamana, 1; 
Buenavista, Narino, 6. 

(1169) Thalurania fannyi verticeps {Gould). 
Thalurania verticeps Gotjld, Jard. Cont. Orn., 1851, pi. 107 ("Quito"). 

I refer two adult males and four females from the Subtropical Zone of 
the Western and Central Andes to this Ecuadorian form with which, as 
stated above, they more nearly agree than with the coastal race of Colombia. 
Measurements of males are appended. 

Las Lomitas, 3 ; San Antonio, 3 ; La Frijolera, 1. 

Measurements of Males. 

Name Locality Wing Tail Bill 

T. f. fannyi 



T. f. verticeps 



(1174) Thalurania nigrofasciata {Gould). 
Trochilus ? nigrofasciata Gould, P. Z. S., 1846, p. 89 (Rio Negro). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
I have seen no topotypical specimens. 

LaMorelia, 1; Florencia, 1; Buena Vista, 1. 



Juntas de Tamand 


52 


46 


20 


La Vieja 


53 


47 


18.5 


Alto Bonito (2) 


53 


45 


19 


Buenavista (5) 


54.5 


40.5 


19 


Las Lomitas 


54 


37.5 


18 


San Antonio 


53 


34 


17 


'Bogotd,' 


52 


• 41 


18 


'Ecuador' (3) 


56 


40 


18.5 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 293 



(1182) Thalurania colombica colombica (Bourc). 

Omismya colombica BotrRC, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 2 (Colombia). 

Thalurania colombica Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 376 (Herradura); Stone, Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 306 (Ibague); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 141 
(Minca; Santa Marta; San Miguel; Paloroina; Bonda; Onaca; Caoagualito; Las 
Nubes; Valparaiso; El Libano). 

Our specimens are all from the Subtropical slopes of the upper Magda- 
lena Valley. 

El Consuelo (above Honda), 1; Andalucia (3000 ft.), 2; San Agustin, 
18; La Candela, 9. 

(1183) Chalybura bufEoni bufEoni (Less.). 

Trochilus buffoni Less., Hist. Nat. Troch., 1832, p. 31 pi. v ("Bresil" = Bogotd? 
cf. Hbllm. & VON Seil., Archiv fur Naturg., 1912, p. 14). 

Chalybura buffoni Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 222 (Naranjo). 

Hypuroptila baffoni Allen, BuU. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 141 (Manaure; 
Minoa; Santa Marta; Bonda; Jordan; Caoagualito; Valparaiso). 

Widely distributed from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast to the 
Eastern Andes and ranging upward to the lower border of the Subtropical 
Zone. Specimens from the Pacific coast differ from those from the Mag- 
dalena Valley (which may be considered essentially topotypicjal) , in having 
less bronze in the tail and the underparts bluer green. They thus approach 
C. cwruleogaster of the eastern slopes of the Eastern Andes. 

Peque, 2; Los Cisneros, 3; Salencio, 1; Rio Frio, 1; Miraflores, 1; 
La Candela, 3; San Agustin, 4; Andalucia (3000 ft.), 5; El Consuelo, 1. 

(1185) Chalybura cseruleogaster (Gould). 
Trochilus (Glaums ?) cceruleogaster Gotjld, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 96 (New Grenada). 

Our specimens are all from the eastern base of the Eastern Andes where 
this species appears to represent C. b. buffoni found by us only west of the 
eastern slope of this range. 

Buena Vista, 2 ; Villavicencio, 2. 

(1187) Chalybura urochrysa (Gould). 

Hypuroptila urochrysa Gould, P. Z. S., 1861, p. 198 ("Panama"? cf. HeUmajrr, 
I. c). 

Chalybura buffoni Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Remedios; Sta. Elena; 
cf. Hellm., i!. c). 



294 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Chalybura urochrysa Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1184 (Sipi; N6vita; Condoto; 
Eio Cajon). 

Occurs throughout the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward 
into Antioquia. While our specimens from Alto Bonito show no approach 
toward C. isaurce, of which we have a large series from eastern Panama 
(21) the latter appears to be the Panama representative of the Colombian 
bird. This probabiUty added to the absence of authentic specimens from 
Panama makes it doubtful if urochrysa is found north of Colombia. 

Alto Bonito, 2; Buenaventura, 2; Barbacoas, 1; Buenavista, Narino, 3. 



(1188) Colibri delphinae (Less.). 

Ornismya delphince Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 44 (loc. unknown). 
Petasophora delphince Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 140 (Minca; 
Santa Marta; Bonda). 

Of this wide-ranging species we took but a single specimen. 
Buenavista, Narino, 1. 



(1189) Colibri cyanotus (Bourc. & Mvls.). 

Trochilus cyanotus Botjrc. & Mtils., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, p. 41 
(Caracas, Ven.). 

Petasophora cyanotis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 377 (Canute, 5000-6000 ft.); Scl. & 
Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 530 (Sta. Elena); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, 
p. 140 (Minca; San Sebastian; El Mamon; Valparaiso; ElLibano). 

Found by us only in open places in the Subtropical Zone. With the 
exception of a male from Cerro Munchique, all our specimens are from the 
Central Andes. The presence or absence of a violet or purple tinge on the 
abdomen, appears to be individual and is possibly due to age. The under 
tail-coverts, in our series, average more buffy than in a series from Merida, 
Venezuela. However, in some Colombian specimens the buff is reduced to a 
minimum, while, on the other hand, the specimen which has the buifiest 
under tail-coverts can be essentially matched by a Merida specimen. I can- 
not feel, therefore, that, so far as our series is concerned, this character is of 
diagnostic value. I am unable to appreciate the validity of the characters 
assigned to the Costa Rican bird "Petasophora cabanidis Heine" and thus 
agree with Ridgway (Bull. U. S. N. M., 50, p. 484). 

Cerro Munchique, 1; El Eden, 1; Rio Toche, 9; Sta Elena, 4. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-Ufe in Colombia. 295 

(1190) Colibri iolata (Gould). 

Petasophoraiolata Gould, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 9 (Bolivia); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., 
XIII, 1900, p. 140 (San Sebastian; Sierra Nevada; Macotama; San Miguel; El 
Mamon). 

Petasophora anais Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 378 (Herradura); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 539 (Sta Elena; Medellin). 

Found by us in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. I can detect 
no racial differences between our Colombia birds and an adequate series from 
Bolivia (Aplobamba; Yungas, 6000 ft.). 

Cerro Munchique, 1 ; La Florida, 1 ; Popayan, 1 ; Almaguer, 3 ; Barro 
Blanco, 1; Buena Vista, 1. 

(1194) Anthracothorax nigricollis nigricoUis ( VieilL). 

Trocklm nigricollis Vieill., N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VII, 1817, p. 349 ("Bresil"). 

Lampomis mango Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 123 (Carthagena) ; 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1874, p. 376 (Bucaramanga). 

Lampomis violicavda Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 141 (Santa Marta; 
Bonda; CacaguaHto; Masinga). 

Doubtless distributed throughout the arid or semi-arid Tropical Zone 
east of the Western Andes. It appears to be unknown on the Pacific coast 
of Colombia, but a closely related form {A. iridescens) is found on the coast 
of Ecuador and nigricollis is found in Panama. 

Call, 3; Honda, 1; Villavicencio, 2. 

(1199) Chrysolampis elatus (Linn.). 

Trochilus elatus Linn., Syst. Nat., 1766, p. 102 (Cayenne). 

Chrysolampis moschitus Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 194 (Carthagena). 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 378 (Ocana); Allen, BuU. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 140 
(Bonda). 

Our specimens are from the open or arid Tropical Zone. 
Caldas, 1; Dabeiba, 2; La Playa, 1. 

(1201) Simonulai berlepschi (Salv.). 

Anihocephala berlepschi Salv., Bull. B. O. C, III, 1893, p. 8 (Bogotd). 

Our specimens were taken in the Subtropical Zone of the Central Andes. 

1 Replacing Anihocephala Cab. & Hein., preoccupied. Cf. Cliubb, Bds. Br. Guiana, I, 1916, 
p. 413. 



296 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Three native-made skins are said also to have come from the same range to 
which possibly berlepschi may be restricted. 
Rio Toche, 3. 



(1223) Phaiolaima rubinoides rubinoides (Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus rubinoides Bourc. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IX, 1846, 
p. 322 (New Grenada). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes. In addition to the 
single specimen listed below we have a good series of 'Bogota' skins. 
El Roble, 1. 



(1224) Fhaiolainia rubinoides sequatorialis Gould. 
Phceolcema aquatorialis Gould, Men. Troch., IV, 1860, p. 269, pi. 264 (Ecuador). 

Specimens from the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes, and western 
slope of the Central Andes, while obviously to be referred to cequatorialis 
show, in some instances, characters which indicate the intergradation of 
this form with true rubinoides. Thus, three adult males from San Antonio, 
have the forehead narrowly glittering green of the same color as in rvhi- 
noides, and in one of these birds this color extends backward on the center 
of the crown as a fairly well-defined stripe. In the length of the bill the west 
Colombian examples agree with Ecuador specimens. Three females, two of 
which had the ovaries slightly enlarged, have a fairly well-developed throat- 
patch. 

San Antonio, 5; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 2. 

(1230) Heliodoxa leadbeateri {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus leadbeateri Bourc. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, 
p. 43 (Caracas). 

Heliodoxa leadbeateri parvula Bbrl., J. ftir O., 1887, p. 320 (Bogotd). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Central and Western Andes. I 
can detect no differences in color or in size between our Colombian specimens 
and a male from Caracas. The bill in the Bogota form, for which Berlepsch 
proposed the name parmda (1. c.) is said by Hartert to measure 18-19 rarely 
20 mm., whereas in five males from the Bogota region, selected at random, 
it measures 21-22 mm., the dimensions accredited to typical leadbeateri. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 297 

So far as my material goes, therefore, it gives no reason for the recognition 
of a Bogota, form. A female from La Frijolera, on the western slope of the 
Central Andes, near the northern limit of the range, is decidedly greener, less 
bronzy than others from La Candela. The culmen measures 22 mm. 

La Frijolera, 1; La Candela, 9; San Agustin, 8; Quetame, 1; Buena 
Vista, 2. 

(1239) Helianthea helianthea (Less.). 

Omismya helianthea Less., Rev. Zool., 1838, p. 314 (Bogota). 

Found by us only in the Temperate Zone of the Eastern Andes and on 
the eastern slope of the range. 
Chipaque, 1. 

(1240) Helianthea bonapartei (Boiss.). 

Omismya bonapartei Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 6 (Bogotd). 

Foimd by us only in the Temperate Zone of the Eastern Andes on the 
western slope of the range. 
El Pinon, 2. 

(1246) Helianthea lutetiae lutetiae {DelaM. & Bourc). 
Trochilus Ivietice Dblatt. & Botrac., Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 307 (Puracfi, Col.). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of the Central Andes which, as in other 
cases, thus carries northward the form fomid on the western slope of the 
Ecuadorian Andes. 

Almaguer, 1; Laguneta, 5. 

(1250) Helianthea torquata (Boiss.). 

Omismya torquata Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 6 (Bogotd). 
Bourderia torquaia Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 530 (Sta. Elena). 

Inhabits chiefly the upper part of the Subtropical Zone in all three ranges, 
but in the Western Andes we found it only west of Popayan. 

Cocal, 1 ; La Florida, 2 ; Cerro Munchique, 3 ; Andes w. of Popayan, 3 ; 
Salento (9000 ft.), 2; Rio Toche, 1; El Eden, 3; Sta. Elena, .5; El Roble, 
6; El Pinon, 1. 



298 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1255) Helianthea coeligena Columbiana {Elliot). 

Lampropygia columbiana Elliot, Ibis, 1876, p. 57 (vicinity of BogotA). 
Lampropygia cceligena Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 378 (Canute, 5000-6000 ft.). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone in the Eastern Andes and eastern slope 
of the Central Andes. The differences between this bird, and our specimens 
of eceligena, are so pronounced as to suggest the specific distinctness of the 
Colombian and Venezuelan forms. In western Colombia columbiana is 
represented by a well-marked race which I describe below. 

El Eden, 3; La Candela, 1; Andalucia, 2; Fusugasuga, 1. 



(1255o) Helianthea cceligena ferruginea subsp. nov. 

Lampropygia columbiana Scl. & Salv., (nee Elliot), P. Z. S., 1879, p. 530 (Fron- 
tino; Sta Elena; Medellin). 

Homophania cceligena colombiana Simon & Dalmas (nee Elliot), Ornis, XI, 1901, 
p. 222 (La Tigra; Las Cruces). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Helianthea cceligena columbiana (Elliot) but underparts 
more strongly washed with tawny, the sides of the throat from the base of the bill 
to the breast tawny or russet; the throat with larger spots and less white, the whitish 
throat-area more sharply defined from the tawny or russet of the breast; the rump 
averaging greener. 

Type.— No. 108816, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., cf ad., San Antonio, alt. 6600 ft.. 
Western Andes, above Call, Colombia; March 30, 1911; F. M. Chapman. 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes and of the Central 
Andes as far east as the Rio Toche at 6800 feet. The strongly marked 
characters of this form are well shown by all of our thirty-one specimens 
from the Western Andes and western slope of the Central Andes. Rio 
Toche specimens show some -approach to columbiana and those taken at El 
Eden, above Ibagiie are clearly to be referred to that form. 

San Antonio, 14; Cerro Munchique, 4; Miraflores, 3; Salento, 2; Rio 
Toche, 8. 

(1267) Lafresnayea lafresnayi (Boiss.). 
Trochilus lafresnayi Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 8 (Bogotd). 

Inhabits the Central and Eastern Andes ranging from the Subtropical 
upward to the Temperate Zone. 

Santa Isabel, 1; Rio Toche, 2; El Eden, 1; El Roble, 1; El Pifion, 1; 
Chipaque, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 299 



(1269) Lafresnayea saiil saiil (Bourc). 

Trochilus saiil BotrBC, Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 309 (vicinity of Quito). 
Lafresnaya gayi Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 528 (Sta Elena) ; Allen, Bull. 
A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 138 (Macotama; San Miguel; Paramo de Chiruqua). 

Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 1. 



(1271) Ensifera ensifera ensifera {Bows.). 
Ornismya ensifera Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 354 (Bogotd). 

Found in the Temperate Zone and upper part of the Subtropical on all 
three ranges. A female from Cerro Munchique on the Western Andes has 
the bill 88 mm. in length and possibly should be referred to E. e. schliephackei 
of Ecuador, provided this form be worthy of recognition (cf. Oberh., Proc. 
U. S. N. M., 1902, p. 327). 

Cerro Munchique, 1; Almaguer, 2; Laguneta, 1; El Roble, 1. 

(1272) Pterophanes temmincki (Boiss.). 
Ornismya temmincki Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 364 (Bogotd). 
Santa Isabel (12,700 ft.), 1. 

(1273) Aglaeactis cupripennis cupripennis (Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus cupripennis BouBC. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, 
p. 46 (Colombia). 

Aglceactis cupreipennis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 377 (Vetas, 9000-10500 ft.). 

A species of the Temperate Zone occurring in all three ranges. Judging 
from locality alone, our specimens should be referred to A. c. cequatorialis 
(Cab. & Hein.) but .comparison of topotypical ('Bogota') specimens of 
cupripennis with topotypical (Mt. Chimborazo) specimens of OBquatorialis 
reveals no differences in color, and but a slight average difference in the 
length of the bill and, in my opinion, the proposed Ecuadorian race is not 
worthy of recognition. I have seen no specimens from Peru. 

Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 1; Valle de las Pappas, 2. 



300 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1280) Boissonneaua jardini (Bourc). 
Trochilus jardinii BouRC, Compt. Rend., XXII, 1851, p. 187 (Nanegal?, Ec). 

Found by us only in the Western Andes where it is apparently rare. 
Our two specimens indicate that it ranges from 1200 to 7200 ft. They 
appear to be the first ones recorded from Colombia. The Novita Trail 
specimen, while immature, has considerably more iridescent purple on the 
throat than any of our Ecuadorian examples. 

Novita Trail (7200 ft.), 1; Buenavista, Narino, 1. 

(1282) Boissonneaua flavescens flavescens (Lodd.). 

Trochilus flavescens Lodd., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 7 (Popayan). 

Panoplites flavescens Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 376 (Oak forest, 7000-8000 ft.; Port- 
rerras; between Cachiri and Cucuta Suratd); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 629 
(Medellin). 

Boissonneaua flavescens flavescens Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1185 (Tatamd, Mt.). 

Occupies the upperpart of the Subtropical Zone and lower border of the 
Temperate Zone in all three ranges. 

Seventeen topotypical specimens from the Andes west of Popayan are 
intermediate between 'Bogota' birds and Ecuadorian specimens {B. f. 
tinochlora Oberh.). They are, however, nearer to Bogota birds, in which the 
greenish tip to the outer tail-feathers is reduced to the minimum, than they 
are to tinochlora. In other words, as with Phaiolaima ruhinoides, West 
Andean birds, evidently by pure parallelism, have departed from the 
Ecuadorian type much as have the birds of the Eastern Andes, but in the 
Western Andes the differentiation has not yet been carried so far as it has 
in the Eastern Andes. 

Cocal, 1; La Florida, 3; CerroMunchique, 14; Almaguer, 2; Laguneta, 
2; Andalucia, 1; ElRoble, 2; El Pinon, 1. 

(1288) Vestipedes vestitus vestitus {Less.). 

Omismya vestita Less., Rev. Zool. 1838, p. 314 (Bogotd). 

Temperate and Paramo Zones of the Eastern Andes. 
El Pifion, 4; Tocaimito, 2; Chipaque, 8. 

(1289) Vestipedes vestitus smaragdinipectus {Gould). 

Eriocnemis smaragdinipectus Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 4, 1868, 
p. 322 (Quito). 



1917.] Chapnmn, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 301 

Found by us in the Temperate Zone of the Central Andes. Our speci- 
mens are all from near the Ecuadorian boundary. 
Almaguer, 4. 



(1289a) Vestipedes paramillo sp. nov. 

Char. sp. — Most nearly related to Vestipedes vestitus smaragdinipectus (Gould), 
but male with the purple throat-patch smaller, triangular in shape, as in Vestipedes 
nigrivesiris, and entirely surrounded by ghttering emerald-green; upperparts greener, 
less coppery, more uniform; rump shghtly bluer; female greener, less coppery, 
throat-patch smaller and bluer, area about it greener; size smaller. 

Type.— No. 133144, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., cf ad., Paramillo, 12500 ft., W. Andes, 
Col., Jan. 29, 1915; Miller & Boyle. 

Range. — Known only from the Paramo Zone at the northern end of the Western 
Andes of Colombia. 

Description of Male. — Upperparts anteriorly uniform grass-green, becoming 
shghtly bluer on the rump and vivid, ghttering metallic brassy green on the upper 
tail-coverts; tail forked, uniform bluish black; wings purpUsh black, their lesser 
coverts green of the same color as the back; the greater coverts purphsh black exter- 
nally, "tinged with green ; lower wing-coverts washed with green ; throat with a bluish- 
violet triangular patch, its apex reaching to the chin which, with the entire malar 
region and breast is, at the best angle of reflection, ghttering metallic emerald- 
green; remainder of the underparts green of essentially the same color as the back, 
through which the blackish bases of the feathers appear to a greater or less extent; 
flanks fluffy, snowy white; under tail-coverts metallic purple of the same color as 
the throat; feet and bill black. Average of five specimens: Wing, 56.6; tail, 39.5; 
bill, 17.5 mm. 

Description of Female. — Upperparts as in the male but more bronzy, the ghttering 
upper tail-covert area somewhat less pronounced; the throat-patch more graduate, 
or circular, peacock-blue with grayish bases of the feathers showing through; sur- 
rounding green area decidedly more bronzy and less uniform on the chin, and more 
or less buffy basally; a buffy loral streak; remaining underparts of a paler green, 
more or less mixed with grayish, especially medianly; lower tad-coverts blue and with 
more grayish. Average of five specimens: Wing, 57; tail, 38.6; bill, 18.7 mm. 

Remarks. — This species, which is based on seven males and six females, 
all from the type-locality, is an obvious representative of Vestipedes vestitus, 
but its differently shaped throat-patch and glittering green malar areas are 
more than differences of degree and, in my opinion, are of specific value. 

The restricted area occupied by the Paramo Zone in the Western Andes, 
and the isolation of these areas from those occupied by the same zone in the 
Central Andes, prevent the range of this species from coming into contact 
with that of its nearest ally. 

Paramillo, 13. 



302 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1295) Vestipedes mosquera {Delatt. & Bourc). 

Trochilus mosquera Delatt. & BotrRC, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 306 (Pasto, Col.). 
Eriocnemis mosquera bogotensis Habt., Nov. Zool., IV, 1897, p. 531 (Bogotd). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of all three ranges. I can detect no racial 
differences between an essentially topotypical specimen of mosquera and 
several Bogota skins. 

Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 1; Santa Isabel, 1. 

(1297) Vestipedes aurelise aureli^e {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus aurelim Botrac. & Mitls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IX, 1846, p. 315 
(Bogotd). 

Eriocnemis aurelice Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 530 (Sta. Elena; MedeUin). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes, and eastern slope 
of the Central Andes. A specimen from Barro Blanco near the northern 
end of the last-named range is typical. 

Barro Blanco, 1 ; LaCandela, 9; San Agustin, 1 ; ElRoble, 1; ElPinon, 
1. 

(1298) Vestipedes aurelise caucensis (Simon). 

Eriocnemis aurelice caucensis Simon, Rev. Fran. d'Orn., 1911, p. 130 (San Antonio, 
W. Andes, Col.). 

Eriocnemis aurelice Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1185 (Pueblo Rico, 5200 ft.). 

A common species in the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes, and 
western slope of the Central Andes. Our large series of this race confirms 
its validity. In both sexes the abdomen is more extensively white than in 
aurelice, and the anterior underparts are margined with whitish instead of 
buffy. In the female, the tawny tinge on the white tibial tuft, present in 
aurelice, is wholly lacking in all but one of our specimens of caucensis, 

San Antonio, 18; Cerro Munchique, 1 ; Gallera, 2; Andes w. of Popayan, 
1; Miraflores, 6; Salento, 3. 



(1305) Vestipedes derbyi longirostris (Hart). 

Vestipedes derbyi longirostris Hakt., Nov. Zool., II, 1895, p. 69 ("Bogotd"). 

Found by us only in the Temperate and Paramo Zones near the northern 
end of the Central ^n^es. Comparison with the type of derbyi, and a 
series from Ecuador, shows that all our birds should be referred to the form 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 303 

described by Hartert, which differs from derbyi only in its longer bill. The 
comparative rarity of this long-billed race in Bogota collections, the absence 
of definite records of it from the Ecuadorian Andes, and the fact that it is 
common at the northern end of the Central Andes, where true derbyi might 
be expected to occur, indicate in my opinion, that this species does not 
occur in the Eastern Andes and that Bogota, skins of it come from the 
Central Andes, probably from the Quindio trail region where oiu- specimens 
were taken. 

The culmen in five males measures 21.0 mm.; in five females, it measures 
22.1 mm. 

Laguneta, 15; Santa Isabel, 1; 

(1307) Ocreatus underwoodi underwoodi (Less.). 

Ornismya underwoodi Less., Hist. Nat. Trooh., 1832, pi. 37, p. 105 (Bogotd). 
Spathura underwoodi Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 376 (Canuto); Simon & Dalmas, 
Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 223 (La Tigra; Las Cmoes). 

Steganura underwoodi ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 539 (Sta Elena; MedeUin). 

Ranges through the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. Our large 
series from Colombia and Ecuador, shows that the males of the present 
race can be distinguished from melanthera only by their longer, tails and 
larger terminal spatules. Bogota females average less spotted below than 
those from Ecuador, but on the other hand, Cauca females, which approxi- 
mately agree with those from the Bogota region in size, are no more spotted 
below than those from Ecuador. The tail increases in length as one advances 
northward, ranging from 68 mm. in the Quito region, to 73 mm. at San 
Antonio, and 82 mm. at Salento and the Bogota region. 

Las Lomitas, 1; San Antonio, 10; Andes w. of Popayan, 1; Cerro 
Munchique, 1; La Florida, 1; Miraflores, 5; Salento, 7; La Candela, 4; 
San Agustin, 2; Aguadita, 1; Buena Vista, 1. 

(1314) Urosticte benjamini benjamini (Bourc). 

Trochilus benjamini Bourc, Compt. Rend., XXXII, 1851, p. 187 (vicinity of 
Gualea, Ecuador). 

Urosticte benjamini Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1186 (La Selva, R. Jamaraya, 
4600 ft.). 

A female from Ricaurte is evidently to be referred to the Ecuadorian form 
rather 'than to U. h. rostrata described by Hellmayr (Verhand. Ornith. 
Gesell. in Bayern, XII, 1915, p. 125), from the San Juan river, western 
Colombia. The culmen measures 20 mm. 

Ricaiorte, 1. 



304 Bulletin American 'Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1319) Adelomyia melanogenys melanogenys {Fraser). 
Trochilus melanogenys Fraser, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 18 (Bogota). 

Our specimens are from the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes. I 
am unable to say what form is present at the head of the Magdalena Valley, 
but a specimen from El Eden, above Ibagiie, on the Magdalena slopes of the 
Central Andes, is typical of cervina, indicating the non-intergradation of 
that form with melanogenys. 

Fusugasuga, 3; Quetame, 1. 

(1323) Adelomyia melanogenys cervina Gould. 

Adelomyia cervina Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 4, X, 1872, p. 453 
(Medellin); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Medellin); Simon & Dalmas, 
Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 223 (La Tigra; Las Graces). 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of the Western and Central Andes, 
occurring on the eastern slope of that range. 

Paramillo TraU, 1; San Antonio, 7; Cerro Munchique, 13; Andes w. 
of Popayan, 1 ; Almaguer, 1 ; Miraflores, 5 ; Salento, 2 ; above Salento, 1 ; 
RioToche, 2; El Eden, 2. 

(1332) Heliangelus exortis (Fraser). 

Trochilus exortis Fraseb, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 14 (Guadas, Col.). 

Heliotrypha parzudakii Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Sta. Elena). 

Heliangelus exortis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1186 (Tatamd Mt.). 

Heliangelus exortis soderstromi Obekh., Proc. U. S. N. M., 1902, p. 334 (female). 

Common in all three ranges. In the Western and Central Andes it is 
restricted largely to the Temperate Zone, but in the Eastern Andes it occurs 
chiefly in the Subtropical Zone — an unusual case in distribution. Males 
from the three ranges agree in color. Those from the Central and Western 
Andes agree in size, but in three specimens from the Western Andes the tail 
appears to average shorter; but since our specimens from this region are in 
molt, measurements taken from them are not satisfactory. 

Seven of eight immature females from the Central Andes have the white 
throat-patch thickly spotted with blackish, while five of six immature 
females from the Eastern Andes have this patch white without spots, and 
in the sixth there are but a few spots near the breast. Nine specimens col- 
lected by us, and sexed as females, have a throat-patch superficially resem- 
bling that of the male in color, but somewhat smaller and less solid, the 
feathers usually being whitish rather than grayish basally. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 305 

The correct sexing of these specimens is indicated by their small size and 
by the collector's comments on the condition of the sexual organs which 
were in one case much enlarged. These specimens have somewhat more 
brownish on the abdomen than adult males and are more bronzy above. 

The type of Heliangelus exortis soderstromi Oberh. (Proc. U. S. N. M., 
1902, p. 334), from western Ecuador, can be closely matched by these 
undoubted Colombian females, and although it is sexed " c?," and was 
'collected' by Goodfellow and Hamilton, the skin resembles a native-made 
skin and is in my opinion that of a female. If this be true, the characters 
attributed to H. e. soderstromi are sexual, not racial. 

Cerro Munchique, 2; La Florida, 1; Andes w. of Popayan, 4; Alma- 
guer, 8; Salento, 1; Laguneta, 27; Santa Isabel, 3 ; Sta. Elena, 4; El Eden, 
1; Fusugasuga, 7; El Roble, 8; ElPinon,,!. 



Measurements of Males 



Cerro Munchique (2) 
Laguneta (4) 

Sta. Elena (3) 

Fusugasugd (3) 

El Roble (3) 



Andes west of Popayan (2) 
Laguneta (2) 

El Roble (5) 



Wing 


Tail 


BlU 


62 


43.5 


14 mm. 


62 


47 


15 


63.5 


47 


15.5 


63.5 


48 


14 


62.5 


46.5 


14.5 


'emales 
Wing 


Tail 


Bill 


58 


43 


15 


58 


41 


15.5 


58 


41 


14.5 



(1342) Metallura williami {Delatt. & Bourc). 
Trochilus williami Delatt. & Bourc, Rev. ZooL, 1846, p. 308 (Popayan). 

Foimd only in the Paramo Zone at the Central Andes. Bourcier's 
type, now in the American Museum, has the wing about four millimeters 
longer and the bill a millimeter shorter than in any bird of our series. The 
tail varies from greenish to purplish blue. 

Valle de las Pappas, 1 ; Santa Isabel, 10. 

(1348) Metallura tyrianthina tyrianthina (Lodd.). 

Trochilus tyrianthinus Lodd., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 6 (Popayan). 
Metallura tyrianthina Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 377 (Bucaramanga to Pamplona, 
9000 ft.); ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Sta. Elena). 



306 BuUetln American Museum 0/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Common in the Temperate Zone of all three ranges. Specimens from 
the Bogota region agree with a topotypical series from the Popayan region, 
and both series differ from Ecuador (Pichincha) birds in their smaller size, 
shorter bill and greener, less brownish underparts. 

Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 15; Almaguer, 10; Laguneta, 10; 
Santa Isabel, 11; Sta. Elena, 7; El Eden, 1; ElPinon, 1; Chipaque, 5. 



(1357) Oxypogon stubeli Meyer. 

Oxypogon stvhelii Meyek, Zeit. Gtes. Orn., I, 1884, p. 204 (Tolima, Cen. Andes, 
Col.). 

Of this rare species, heretofore known only from the type, a female, 
Allen and Miller secured a pair on Santa Isabel (alt. 12,700 ft.) the type- 
locaUty. The male bears a general resemblance to 0. guerini of the Eastern 
Andes, which it evidently represents, but has the elongated feathers of the 
crown more tawny, the underparts generally more rufescent, outer web 
(except at the base), tip, shaft, and a narrow strip along the shaft on the inner 
web of the outer tail-feather ochraceous-buff; an ochraceous-buff shaft- 
streak on the remaining tail-feathers. The metallic throat-plumes are in 
molt, but it is apparent that those of the chin would have been green, while 
the longer plumes would have been orange-purple. 

Santa Isabel, 2. 



(1358) Chalcostigma herrani (Delatt. & Bourc). 

Trochilus herrani Delatt. & Bouec, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 309 (Paste, Col.). 

A Temperate Zone species apparently confined to the Western Andes. 
Andes w. of Popayan, 3. 

(1359) Chalcostigma heteropogon (Boiss.). 

Omismya heteropogon Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 355 (Bogotd). 
Ramphomicron heteropogon Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 377 (Vetas, 9000-10,500 ft.). 

Known only from the upper Temperate and Paramo Zones of the Eastern 
Andes. 

Tocaimito, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribidion of Bird-life in Colombia. 307 

(1366) Ramphomicron microhynchum (Boiss.). 

Omismya microhyncha Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 354 (Bogotd,). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of all three ranges. 

Paramillo, 1; Andes w. of Popayan, 6; Almaguer, 1; Laguneta, 3; 
Santa Isabel, 2; El Roble, 2; EI Pifion, 1. 

(1368) Opisthroprora fturyptera {LoM.). 

TroehUus eurypterus Lodd., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 7 (Popayan). 

A female from the Temperate Zone near the type-locality. 
Almaguer, 1. 

(1373) Cyanolesbia kingi kingi (Less.). 

TroehUus kingi Less., Hist. Nat. Troch., 1382, p. 107, pi. 83 ("Jamaique" = 
Bogotd). 

Cyanthus cyanurus Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 377 (Canute). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes in the Bogota 
region and northward at least to Bucaramanga. 

The distribution of the forms of the genus Cyanolesbia in Colombia and 
the characters they exhibit, present a problem in regard to their relation- 
ships which I confess I am unable satisfactorily to solve. All are confined 
to the Subtropical Zone, and the occurrence of the green-throated C. emmas 
and the purple-throated C. ccelestis in this zone, in the Western Andes, in 
one instance at localities practically within sight of each other, is evidence 
of the specific distinctness of these forms. At no other place, it must be 
stated, have we found the green and the blue-throated forms so nearly 
associated; but on the other hand, om* large series of males do not show one 
intermediate specimen. Thus not one of thirteen males of emmcB from 
western Colombia, and twenty-six males of caudata from Merida, shows 
any trace of a purple throat-patch. With equal truth it may be said that 
twenty-two males of C. mocoa, eight of ccelestis, five of kingi, and two of 
margarethcB, all possess the purple throat-patch.' 

^ Hartert, in his first review (Nov. Zool., I, 1894, p. 47) of this genus reached conclosions in regard 
to the relationships of its forms essentially similar to those I here present; but subsequently (Nov. 
Zool., V, 1898, p. 514) he treated them all, except berlepschi and ctEUstis, as subspecies. Lack of proper 
data accompanying his species prevented Hartert in some instances from giving correct ranges. For 
the same reason his remarks in regard to specimens of emmsE with "blue" on the throat lose point 
since it is not impossible that these birds came from the range of mocoa and hence should be referred 
to that species. 

Of caudata he states that not one among about one hundred adult males from Merida showed 
"even an indication of a blue spot on the throat." Nevertheless, he treats this bird as a subspecies 
of kingil 



308 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

This constancy of marking, and the fact that in at least one range of the 
Andes, the green-throated and purple-throated forms occupy the same zone, 
lead me to believe that we have here two distinct species both of which pre- 
sent somewhat similar subspecific variations. 

Cyanolesbia berlepschi from northeastern Venezuela I have not seen. 
Its description Hartert (Bull. B. 0. C, VIII, 1898, p. XVI) shows that the 
male closely resembles the male of kingi, but the female differs from that 
of any known species in having the abdomen wholly white. It is, therefore, 
nearer to the female of ccelestis in which the breast is white, than to that of 
the remaining species of the group. 

All of these are well represented in our collections, and a study of their 
variations in connection with the information we have gathered concern- 
ing the faunal affinities of the regions they inhabit, leads me to group them 
as below: 

Key to Males. 

Throat green 

Tail green C. emmce 

(Western and Central Andes, Col.). 
Tall blue C. caudata 

(Western Andes, Ven.) 
Throat purple or bluish 
Tail green 

Throat purple C. mocoa mocoa 

(Andes at head of Magdalena Valley southward in Eastern Andes to Ecuador). 
Throat bluish C. mocoa smaragdina 

(Bolivia; Peru). 
Tail blue 

Underparts green 

Upperparts darker green C kingi kingi 

(Eastern Andes ^ Bogotd Region, Col.) 
Upperparts lighter green C. kingi margarethce 

(Caracas region, Ven.). 
Underparts coppery C. ccelestis 

(Western Andes of Colombia and Ecuador). 

I observe no evidence of the intergradation of kingi with mocoa as is 
stated more fully under that species ; but margarethce of the mountains about 
■Caracas is an obvious racial representative of the Bogota form from which it 
differs but slightly. 

Whether the ranges of margarethce and kingi are actually separated by a 
region (Merida) in which the green-throated caudata alone occurs is not 
known. 

El Roble (8000 ft.) above Fusugasuga, 4; Choachi, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 309 

(1374) Cyanolesbia emmse Berl. 

Cyanolesbia emmce Berl., Journ. fiir Orn., 1892, p. 452 (Bogota and Antioquia = 
Dept. Antioquia); Simon & Dalmas, Ornis, XI, 1901, p. 223 (Las Cruces). 
Cyanthm mocoa Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Sta. Elena). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes and at least the 
northern end (both slopes) of the Central Andes. In the Western Andes its 
range appears to coincide with that of C. coelestis. We have specimens of 
emmoe from Gallera and of coelestis from the nearby Cerro Munchique. 

Our large series of emmw shows little individual variation and no indi- 
cation of intergradation with other forms. In the Merida region emmoe 
is represented by C. caudata from which, however, it appears to be specifically 
distinct. 

San Antonio, 6; Cerro Munchique, 9; Salento, 2; Sta. Elena, 1; El 
Eden, 1. 

(1375) Cyanolesbia mocoa mocoa {Delatt. & Bourc). 

Trochilus mocoa Delatt. & Bourc, Rev. Zool., Sept. 1846, p. 311 (Mocoa, Col.). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the slopes of the Central and Eastern 
Andes, arising from the upper Magdalena Valley and southward along the 
Eastern Andes through Ecuador probably to northern Peru. 

The localities at which our twenty-three specimens of this bird were 
taken have a close faunal affinity, indeed almost identity, with the region in 
the same zone about the city of Bogota (Fusugasuga; El Roble, etc.). 
Nevertheless our specimens indicate that mocoa and kingi do not intergrade. 

Specimens from "Ambato" (= e. Ecuador) are referable to mocoa. 
Of the shorter-tailed, blue-throated smaragdina we have four specimens 
from Incachaca in the Subtropical Zone of the Cochabamban Yungas, 
Bolivia. 

La Palma, 2; La Candela, 18; near San Agustin, 2. 

(1379) Cyanolesbia coelestis {Gould). 

Cyanthus coelestis Gould, Introd. Troohil., 1861, p. 102 (Ecuador). 

Cyanolesbia kingi subsp. Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1187 (Tatamd Mt., 4600 ft.). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes, and southward into 
western Ecuador, where it evidently represents C. kingi. Males and 
females from southwestern Colombia agree with Ecuador specimens; 
but males from Novita Trail and TatamS Mt. (ef. Hellm., I. c.) in their 



310 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

greener underparts approach kingi. I have seen no females froin this part 
■of Colombia and cannot therefore say whether the marked characters 
exhibited by this sex also show a racial variation toward the female of kingi. 
Novita Trail, 2; Gallera, 5; Ricaurte, 1. 

(1386) Psalidoprymna victorise victorise {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus victoria Bourc. & Mtils., Ann. So. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IX, 1846, 
p. 312 (New Grenada). 

Lesbia amaryllis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 376 (Pamplona; Vetas, 9000 ft.). 

Oiu- single specimen is from the Temperate Zone near Bogota. 
Chipaque, 1. 

(1393) Psalidoprymna gouldi gouldi (Lodd.). 

Trochilus gouldi Lodd., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 7 (Popayan). 

A female from the Bogota Savanna. 
Sibate, 1. 

(1400) Schistes geofEroyi (Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus geoffroyi Boubc. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, p. 37, 
pi. iii ("La Vallee de Canoa [sic] pr6s de Carthagene, dan la Colombie). 

All the Colombian skins I have seen of this species appear to be from the 
Bogota region where alone we found it. In the Cauca Valley we collected 
only the representative species S. albogularis, a fact which indicates that 
the type-locality given for geoffroyi is incorrect. 

El Roble, 1. 

(1401) Schistes albogularis Gould. 
Schistes albogularis Goxtld, Cont. Orn., 1851, p. 140 (Pichincha, Ecuador). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes, and western slope 
of the Central Andes. 

Las Lomitas, 1; San Antonio, 1; Miraflores, 1. 

(1405) Heliothryx barroti {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus barroti BotrBC. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 1843, p. 48 
("Carthaglne dans la Colombie"). 

Heliothryx barroti Sol. & Saiv,, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Remedies); Helhn., Ibid., 
1911, p. 1186 (Noanamd; N6vita). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 311 

In Colombia this bird appears to be restricted to the Tropical Zone of 
the Pacific coast, and humid lower Cauca-Magdalena region whence it 
ranges southward to western Ecuador and northward to Guatemala. The 
type-locality is obviously incorrect. Doubtless the type came through 
Carthagena from the humid region south of that port. 

Choco, 1; Juntas de Tamana, 1; Noanama, 1; San Jose, 5; Barba- 
coas, 5. 

(1413) Anthoscenus longirostris stewartae (Lawr.). 

Heliomaster stewartce Lawk., Aim. Lye. N. Y., VII, 1860, p. 107 (Bogota). 
Floricola longirostris Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 139 (Bonda; 
Cacagualito). 

Found in the open or semi-arid Tropical Zones. Compared with topo- 
typical (Trinidad) specimens oi A. I. longirostris, Colombian birds appear to 
average darker below, but our material is not conclusive on this point. 
It does, however, show that in Colombian birds the bill averages shorter 
and perhaps for this reason alone a Colombian race may be recognized. 
Measurements of the culmen in the males are appended. 

Trmidad (4), 30-32; Venezuela: Bermudez, (2), 30.5-31.00; Colombia: 
Santa Marta (2), 33-35; 'Bogota' (2), 35-36; Honda, 36; San Agustin, 
36; Cali (2), 33-36 mm. 

Call, 3; San Agustin, 1; Honda, 1; El Consuelo, 1. 



(1419) Calliphlox mitchelli {Bourc). 
Trochilus mitchelli BouBC, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 47 ("Zimapan"). 

Appears to be restricted to the Pacific coast where it ranges from sea- 
level up to at least 5700 feet. The only "Zimapan" I have been able to 
find is in Hidalgo, Mexico. If there be no other, Bourcier's type-locality 
is evidently incorrect. 

Gallera, 2; Barbacoas, 3. 

(1420) Chsetocercus mulsanti (Bourc). 

Ornismya mulsanti Bourc, Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, V, 1842, p. 34, pi. 20 
(Colombia). 

Acestrura mulsanti Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 529 (Medellin). 

Barro Blanco, 1 9 . 



312 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1421) Chsetocercus heliodor (Bourc). 
Omismya heliodor Boxjbc, Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 275 (Bogotd,). 

I am unable to discover any constant difference either in form or color 
between topotypical females of Choetocercus heliodor and C. bombus. Wholly 
on geographical groimds, therefore, I refer a female from San Agustin to the 
former. A female from Miraflores on the western slope of the Central 
Andes, cannot, however, be disposed of so satisfactorily, since the locality 
has famial affinities with both Ecuador and the Eastern Andes. Under the 
circumstances, I can see no valid reason for the generic separation of C. 
bombus (see Oberholser, Proc. U. S. N. M., 1902, p. 341, remarks under 
" Polyxemus bombus") since the characters ascribed to it are sexual rather 
than generic. 

San Agustin, 1; ?Miraflores, 1. 

(1431) Klais guimete {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus guimete Bottbc. & Muls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VT, 1843, p. 88, 
pi. ii (Colombia). 

Found by us only in the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes. 
Andalucia, 1; Buena Vista, 3. 

(1443) Popelairia conversi {Bourc. & Muls.). 

Trochilus conversi BotrRC. & Mttls., Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IX, 1846, p. 13 
(Bogotd). 

I can find no constant racial differences between our Pacific coast speci- 
mens and others from Bogota. Ecuador specimens (P. c. cBquatoriaMs 
Berl.), which our Pacific coast birds might be expected to resemble, are not 
available. 

Noanama, 1 ; Barbacoas, 5. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 313 

Ordee TROGONES. 
Family TROGONID^. Tbogons. 

(1451) Pharomachrus antisiensis (d 'Orb.). 

Trogon antisiensis d'ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., Ois., 1835-1844, p. 38, pi. 66, fig. 1 
(Yungas, Bolivia). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone, doubtless of all three ranges, but it is far 
less common that P. auriceps and we secured specimens only in the Western 
and Eastern Andes. I have seen no Bolivian examples. 

San Antonio, 2 ; Buena Vista, 1 . 

(1452) Pharomachrus auriceps {Gould). 

Trogon auriceps Gould, Ann. & Mag. N. H., IX, 1842, p. 238 ("Quito"). 

Pharomacrus auriceps Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 375 (near Portreras); Sol. & Salv., 
P. Z. S. 1879, p. 535 (Concordia; Frontino; Sta. Elena). 

Pharomachrus pavoninus Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 (Nevada 
delToKma). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. It was common in 
the Western and Central Andes, but we found it to be rare in the Eastern 
Andes. Our specimens agree with others from Ecuador. 

San Antonio, 8; Cerro Munchique, 1; La Florida, 4; Almaguer, 1; 
Miraflores, 5; Salento, 3; Subia, 1. 

(1456) Pharomachrus pavoninus {Spix). 

Trogon pavoninus Spix, Av. Bras., 1, 1824, p. 47, pi. 35 ("in sylvis Tabatingae et 
Maribitanas"). 

Miller secured a male of this apparent zonal representative of P. auriceps 
at Florencia in the Caqueta region, thereby adding the species to the known 
Colombian avifauna. 

Florencia, 1. 

(1457) Trogonurus personatus (Gould). 

Trogon personata Gould, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1842, p. 237 ("The Cordil- 
an Ai 
p. 447). 



314 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Trogon personatus Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 376 (7000 to 8500 ft., Canuto to Cachiri) ; 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 135 (Valparaiso; Las Nubes; Libano; 
Chirua; La Concepcion; Macotama). 

This species occupies chiefly the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. 
My single Peruvian specimen, a female from Inca Mine, has the wing-coverts 
vermiculated with brown and blackish and may therefore be considered as 
representing this species. Colombian females essentially agree with it but 
have the outer tail-feathers less broadly tipped with white. I have no 
males from Peru but our Colombian males agree with three figures in Gould's 
Monograph (2d ed.) which are said to represent the type. 

Puerto Valdi via, 1 ; La Frijolera, 1 ; Cocal, 2; Gallera, 1; Sta. Elena, 1; 
El Eden, 2; Fusugasugd, 1; Enconosa (near Bogota) 1. 

(1457a) Trogonurus assimilis (Gould). 
Trogon assimilis Gould, P. Z. S., 1846, p. 67 (Peru). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone in the Western, Central and Eastern Andes, 
where it appears to be a zonal representative of T. personatus of the Sub- 
tropical Zone. Eleven males differ from a large Colombian series of per- 
sonatus chiefly in the much less pronounced, more broken and, in some cases, 
almost obsolete white bars on the three outer pairs of rectrices and in having 
bluer reflections on anterior parts of the crown and breast, and a smaller 
bill. In the markings of the tail they thus seem to agree with Gould's 
description of assimilis. Seven females, however, differ from Gould's 
description of the female of assimilis, and in a like manner from the female 
oi personatus, in having the wing nearly similar in color as well as in markings 
to that of the male. The lesser coverts are tinged with brown, but the re- 
maining coverts and exposed portions of the inner wing-quills are minutely 
marked with blackish and white, exactly as they are in the male, and all but 
the three outer quills are conspicuously white at the base. Except in hav- 
ing somewhat less white in the tail and a smaller bill, these birds in other 
respects agree with the female of personatus. One of our specimens has the 
ovaries considerably enlarged. There can, therefore, be no question of its 
sex. 

In the absence of specimens from Peru I provisionally accept Gould's 
name for the species. It is true that he described the female of assimilis 
as having the "coverts and secondaries freckled with yellowish brown in- 
stead of gray", but it is not improbable that in the absence of exact data, or 
none at all, he may have had in hand a female of personatus. 

Paramillo Trail (11,000 ft.), 1; Laguneta, 7; Santa Isabel, 2; Almaguer, 
5; Valle de las Pappas, 2; El Piiion, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 315 



(1458) Trogonurus coUaris ( VieilL). 

Trogon collaris Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VIII, 1817, p. 330 (Cayenne) ; 
ScL. & Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 534 (Concordia; Frontino; Sta. Elena); Stone, 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 (Nevada de Tolima; R. Combeima). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. I have no topotypi- 
cal material for comparison. 

La Frijolera, 2; Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 11; Andes w. of Popayan 
(9000 ft.), 2; Cecal, 4; La Florida, 1 ; Miraflores,3; Salento,2; El Eden, 2; 
Cen. Andes w. of Honda (5000 ft.), 2; La Candela, 3; Andalucia (w. slope, 
5000 ft.), 3; Buena Vista, 1. 



(1462a) Trogonurus curucui cupreicauda Chapm. 

Trogonurus curucui cupreicauda Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 
606 (Bagado, Choc6, Col.). 

Trogon atricollis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 136 (R. Truando);- 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 374 (Naranjo); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 535 (Remedios; 
Nech6). 

Char, subsp. — Male most nearly resembling T. curucui curucui but exposed 
upper portions of six inner tail-feathers rich copper-bronze (as in T. ambiguus), in 
some specimens with, in others without, greenish reflections; bars of three outer 
pairs of tail-feathers wider, as in T. c. tenellua; wing-coverts more broadly barred; 
no white evident at the junction of green breast with orange abdomen; resembles 
T. c. tenellus in the barring of the outer tail-feathers and wing-coverts, but differs in 
its copper-bronze tail, absence of white pectoral band, and more deeply colored 
abdominal region. 

Female most like T. c. curucui but wing-coverts apparently more widely barred; 
the abdomen more deeply colored than in T. c. tenellus, the wing-coverts more broadly 
barred, the breast, at junction of brown and orange, without, or with but a slight 
indication of the conspicuous white or grayish pectoral band. 

A Tropical Zone species which extends from the Pacific Coast eastward 
through the humid lower Cauca and* Magdalena Valleys. 

I am in doubt as to the identity of an adult male from La Morelia in the 
Caquetd region. It has the tail more coppery than in the most extreme 
specimen of cupreicauda, there is a more evident white pectoral band, and 
the wing-coverts are less broadly barred, but in other respects it agrees with 
the Pacific coast bird. 

Alto Bonito, 3; Baudo, 2; Bagado, 1; Juntas de Tamand, 1; San Jose, 
1; Barbacoas, 6; Puerto Valdivia, 1; west of Honda, 1. 



316 Bulletin American Museum 0/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1467) Trogonurus bolivianus {Grant). 

Trogon bolivianus Grant, Cat. Bds. B. M. XVII, 1890, p. 470, pi. xv, (Cosni- 
pata, Peru). 

Two males and a female from the Caquet^ region should apparently be 
referred to this species. They agree with an "Ecuador" specimen and dif- 
fer from a male from the lower Beni in Bolivia only in the practical absence 
of the white pectoral zone. Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., XV, 1908, p. 88) sug- 
gests that holivianus is a synonym of hehni Gould. Grant, however, lists 
Gould's type under Trogon variegatus and examination of Gould's figure and 
description (Mon. Trog. 2nd Ed. 1875, pi. 20) confirms this view of its rela- 
tionships. In spite of the fact, therefore, that the type of behni is said to 
have come from Bolivia and that our specimens from the Lower Beni agree 
closely with others from Napo and southeastern Colombia, I accept Grant's 
name for the more western bird. Four males (one each from La Morelia, 
near Florencia, " Ecuador," and the Lower Beni) differ from nine others from 
Chapada, Matto Grosso, which I assume to be variegatus, in having the back 
much greener, less bronzy, the breast bluer, the white pectoral zone less 
pronounced or absent, the white bars in the tail narrower and black ones 
correspondingly wider. A female from the lower Beni has an indication of 
the white pectoral zone, but it is by no means so pronounced as in a Chapada 
female. The white in the tail of the Beni specimen is practically confined 
to the outer margins of the three outer feathers, except for a very narrow 
tip, whereas in the Chapada bird it extends to the inner web and the tip is 
much broader. A female from La Morelia has no white in the breast and 
even less in the tail than the Beni bird. Doubtless the latter to some extent 
approaches variegatiis but so far as the present material goes it is unques- 
tionably referable to bolivianus. 

La Morelia, 2; near Florencia, 1. 



(1461) Trogon strigilatus strigilatus Linn. 

[Trogon] strigilatus Linn., Syst. Nat., 1766, p. 167 (Cayenne) = T. viridis Auct. 
cf. Ridgw.. Bull. 50, V, p. 751. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
Our seven specimens agree with a series from British Guiana and Trinidad. 
La Morelia, 1; Florencia, 4; Villavicencio, 1; Buena Vista, 1 . 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 317 

(1462) Trogon strigilatus chionurus Sol. & Salv. 

Trogon chionurus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1870, p. 843 (Lion Hill, Panama) ; Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 374 (Paturia; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 535 (Remedios; Nech6). 
Trogon melanopierus Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 136 (R. Truando). 

Occupies the humid Tropical Zone west of the Eastern Andes. Our 
species agrees with others from Panama including the type of T. eximius 
Lawr. 

Salaqui, 1; Dabeiba, 1; AltoBonito, 3; Bagado, 1; juntas de Tamana, 
3; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 6; Puerto Valdivia, 4; west of Honda 
<1500 ft.), 2. 

(1463a) Chrysotrogon caligatus columbianus Cftapm. 

Chrysotrogon caligatus columbianus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, 
p. 607 (Opon, Col.). 

Trogon caligatus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 374 (Naranjo); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., 
XIII, 1900, p. 135 (Caoagualito; Minca). 

Char, subsp. — Resembling C. c. caligatus (Gould) of Central America in the 
vermiculation of the wings and feathering of the tarsus, but with the head blue or 
purplish as in C. violacevs ( = meridionalis) and C. ramonianus; size, particularly 
of bill, smaller than in alUes. Wing, 106; taU, 116; bill from nostril, 10mm. 

A Tropical Zone species known only from the humid Cauca-Magdalena 
region and northward to Santa Marta. 

It will be observed that this form to some extent bridges the gap between 
caligatus and violaceus and, in spite of the differences in the feathering of their 
tarsi, it seems not improbable that these two forms will be found to inter- 
grade. There is less difference in size between specimens from Nicaragua 
and Ecuador, than there is betvtreen those from the Caribbean Coast of 
Colombia at Santa Marta and the Magdalena Valley. The Santa Marta 
birds, however, are geographically interposed between Panama and Trini- 
dad, while the Magdalena River form (true columbianus) is an isolated off- 
shoot removed from the direct line of geographical intergradation. 

Puerto Valdivia, 1; Honda, 1; Opon, 2; Puerto Berrio, 1. 

(1465) Chrysotrogon ramonianus {Dev. & Des Murs). 

Trogon ramoniana Dev. & Des Muks, Rev. 2ool., 1849, p. 331 (Sarayacu, 
Ecuador). 

On geographical grounds I refer to this species (of which we have a male 
from Napo) a female from Florencia in the Caqueta region. 
Florencia, 1. 



318 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1470) Curucujus melanurus melanurus (Swains.). 

Trogon melanurus Swains., Anim. in Menag., Ill, 1838, p. 329 (Demerara, Brit. 
Guiana). 

Two males from Florencia are slightly smaller than a male from British 
Guiana and have the bill less stout (see measurements under C. m. macrou- 
rus), and in color they are somewhat more brassy above, but these differ- 
ences are doubtless in part individual. 

Florencia, 2. 

(1471) Curucujus melanurus inacrourus (Gould). 

Trogon macroura Gould, Monog. Trog. Ed. 1, 1838, pi. 17, (" Mexique" ; Caracas, 
Venezuela). 

Trogon macrourus Cassin, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 135 (Rio Truando; 
delta Atrato). 

Trogon macrurus, Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 535 (Remedios and Nech6). 

Inhabits the humid Tropical Zone of the Atrato and Magdalena Valleys. 
When he described this bird Gould was evidently unaware of its range, but 
in the second edition of his Monograph of the Trogons (1875) he writes : " I 
doubt whether it is to be found beyond the district included between the 
lower region of the river Magdalena and the Isthmus of Panama as far as 
the base of the mountainous region of Veragua." So far as Colombia is 
concerned, this statement is approximately correct but the species does not 
appear to have been recorded from west of the Canal Zone in Panama. 
Singularly enough the west Ecuadorian form of this species is, or is very 
near, C. m. melanurus of Amazonia. 

Some difficulty is experienced in distinguishiug females of macrourus 
from females of C. massena avstralis, but macrourus has a relatively longer 
tail which is longer instead of shorter than the wing, the bill is usually 
shorter and relatively narrower, and the wing-coverts and inner wing-quills 
are as a rule more strongly vermiculated with white than in australis, some 
individuals of which are wholly without these white markings on the wings. 

R. Salaqui, 2; R. Atrato, 2. 

(1472) Curucujus massena australis Chapm. 

Curucujus massena australis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 384, 
(Barbacoas, Col.). 

fTrogon massena Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 135 (R. Truando; delta 
Atrato); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1193 (Noanamd). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 319 

Char, siibsp. — Similar to C. m. massena but smaller, male with exposed upper 
surface of the inner reotrices bluish green, much as in C. melanurus, rather than a 
bronze-green; female decidedly darker gray. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward into the 
lower Cauca region, where it extends upward at least to the lower border 
of the Subtropical Zone. A male from La Frijolera (5000 ft.) on the 
lower Cauca has the tail externally, above, much bluer than in the type 
of australis. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Bagado, 1; Barbacoas, 2; La Frijolera, 2. 



Order COCCYZES. 
Family CUCULID^. Cuckoos, Anis. 

(1475) Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieill. 

Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VIII, 1817, p. 271 
(Paraguay); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 134 (Bonda); Hellm., 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1202 (Sipi). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone. Our specimens agree with others from 
Asuncion. 

Dabeiba, 3; Caldas, 2; Cali, 2; Miraflores, 1; Florencia, 1; La Morelia, 
1. 

(1476) Coccyzus americanus americanus (Linn.). 

Cuculus americanus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. Ill (Carolina). 
Coccyzus americanus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Medellin); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 134 (Bonda). 

Eight specimens from the Eastern Andes (March 10-May 13) average 
grayer above than April and May birds from eastern United States, a dif- 
ference possibly due to less worn plumage. 

La Olanda, Cundinamarca, 4, May 10-13; Puente Andalucia, Cundina- 
marca, 3, April 22, 23; Choachi, 2, Oct. 2; Villavicencio, 1, March 10. 

(1482) Piaya cayana Columbiana {Cab.). 

Pyrrhococcyx columbianus Cab., J. f. O., 1862, p. 170 (Cartagena, Col.). 
Piaya cayana Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 379 (Ocana to Buearamanga up to 7000 ft.). 
Piaya cayana mehleri Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 134 (Bonda; 
Santa Marta; San Sebastian). 



320 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

After comparison with an essentially topotypical series from Santa 
Marta, I refer to this form our specimens from the Magdalena Valley and 
western slope of the Eastern Andes as far south as Chicoral. These birds 
have the ventral region darker, the rectrices are blacker, and a bird from 
Puerto Berrio is deeper above than true columbiana. They thus show an 
approach toward P. c. nigricrissa of western Colombia, which, however, is 
darker above and has much more black on the ventral region. 

Puerto Berrio, 1; Chicoral, 2; Alto de la Paz (w. slope, E. Andes), 1; 
Subia (w. slope, E. Andes), 2. 



(1484) Piaya cayana nigricrissa (Cab.). 

Pyrrhococcyx nigricrissa Cab., J. f. O., 1862, p. 169 (Babahoyo or Esmeraldas, 
w. Ecuador) ex Sclater P. Z. S., 1860, p. 285 (nomen nudum); Mus. Hein., IV, i, 1862, 
p. 85. 

Piaya cayana Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Envigado). 

Piaya cayana caucae Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1908, p. 499 (Rio Cauca, 
Col.); CoBY, Field Mus. Pub., 183, 1915, p. 309 (Cauca Valley and possibly south to 
Ecuador). 

Piaya cayana nigricrissa Coby, Field Mus. Pub., 183, 1915, p. 310 (part — 
w. Ecuador only). 

Inhabits the Tropical and Subtropical Zones in western Ecuador and 
western Colombia, extending in Colombia eastward to the eastern slope of 
the Central Andes. Specimens from Antioquia east of the Western Andes 
approach columbiana, but on the whole, are nearer nigricrissa. 

Much against my will I find myself compelled to adopt the name nigri- 
crissa (Cab. ex Scl.) for this form rather than caucoe Stone. 

Sclater first used this name in connection with three specimens collected 
by Eraser at Babahoyo, western Ecuador and, shortly after, applied it to a 
specimen or specimens secured by the same collector at Esmeraldas, western 
Ecuador (P. Z. S., 1862, p. 285 and p. 297). In neither case, however, did 
he publish a description and the name nigricrissa up to this point, is a nomen 
nudum. 

In 1862, however, Cabanis, having before him " ein Eraser' sches original- 
exemplar von Equador," noted its close relation to the Costa Rican bird but 
said that, as its name indicated, the form was distinguished by its black 
crissum, a statement which, in view of the definiteness of the locality given, 
and the character of the form concerned may, I think, be accepted as a suf- 
ficiently adequate description of the race; and, on this assumption, I give 
western Ecuador as the type-locality. Should this view not be considered 
tenable the name could date from its publication later in the same year 



1917.] Chapman, Disiribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 321 

(Cab. Mus. Hein., IV, i, p. 85). The description here given by Cabanis 
may apply to certain Antioquian specimens which, while not typical of 
nigricrissa, as stated above, are nearer to that form than to columhiana. 

Thus while Cabanis describes the tibiae of his Colombian specimen as 
" nigricantibus," a term applied also to other forms, its ventral region and 
crissum are described as "nigris," a statement which is applied, and will 
apply only to the form here under consideration. It is true that the meas- 
urement given by Cabanis for the tail of his specimen (ten inches) is shorter 
than that of the bird to which I apply his name. This, however, may be 
said of all three of the Colombian forms of Piaya and the measurement 
given is apparently, therefore, either an error or is taken from a specimen 
in which the tail was not fully developed. It is not, however, in my opinion 
necessary to resort to this second description of nigricrissa, Cabanis' treat- 
ment of the form in J. f. O. {I. c.) being sufficiently definite to admit of the 
application of the name, in accordance with Sclater's intention, to the west 
Ecuador form. 

These facts, consequently, in connection with those presented under the 
following form, appear to warrant the use of the name nigricrissa of which, 
therefore, caucw Stone becomes a synonym. 

Alto Bonito, 1; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 2; Buena vista, 1; Ricaurte, 1; 
Puerto Valdivia, 2; San Antonio, 4; Cerro Munchique, 2; Guengue, 1; 
Rio Frio, 1; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 2; Sta. Elena, 2; Andes w. of Honda 
.(5000 ft.), 2. 

(1485) Piaya cayana mesura (Cab.). 

P[yrrhococcyx\ mesurus Cab., Mus. Hein., IV, I, 1862, p. 83 (Bogotd). 
Piaya cayana nigricrissa Auct. nee. Cab. 

Two forms of Piaya inhabit the Bogota region, P. c. mesura and P. c. 
■Columbiana. The first occurs on the eastern slopes of the Eastern Andes, 
and, singularly enough, on both eastern and western slopes of the Andes at 
the head of the Magdalena Valley; the second, occurs on the slopes of the 
Eastern Andes west of Bogota and in the Magdalena Valley at least as far 
south as Chicoral. 

Previous authors have considered Cabanis' name mesura as applicable 
to the western slope bird and have, consequently, synonymized it with Co- 
lumbiana; but although western slope specimens are not typical of Colum- 
biana, they are too near that race to make it probable that Cabanis, after 
describing columhiana {I. c. p. 82), would, on the next page, describe as new 
-a bird which is not separable from it. Of more importance, however, is the 
iact that Cabanis' description of mesura will not apply to the western slope 



322 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

bird while it does apply to the bird from the eastern slope. The latter is 
distinguished chiefly by the comparative blackness of all b,ut the central 
tail-feathers, seen from below, a character which at once separates it from 
the other Colombian forms. Moreover, compared with specimens from 
west of Bogota (which in the color of the upperparts agree with true Colum- 
biana) mesura as, Gabanis states, has the upperparts "wenig lebhafter als 
bei C. (= P.) colombianiis." 

A specimen from La Palma, in the Central Andes at the head of the 
Magdalena Valley, has the tail longer than in Buena Vista and Quetame 
specimens, but, in color, I can detect no differences between two specimens 
from this locality, two from Andalucia (w. slope E. Andes, 3000 ft.) and 
others from the eastern slope of the Eastern Andes. In view of the fact 
that this species ranges upward to the Subtropical Zone, it is not improbable 
that this race has entered the upper Magdalena region over the Andalucia 
pass of the Eastern Andes, the altitude of which is only 7000 feet. 

La Palma, 2; Andalucia (w. slope, 3000 ft.), 2; Quetame, 3; Buena 
Vista, 2; Barrigon, 2. 



(1490) Piaya rutila rutila (III.). 
Cucidus rutilus III., Abh. Berl. Ak. Wiss., 1812, p. 224 (Cayenne). 

Two specimens from Villavicencio are somewhat darker and have the 
belly grayer than one from Cayenne but agree essentially with several from 
Trinidad. 

Villavicencio, 2. 

(1490o) Piaya rutila gracilis (Heine). 

Coccyzusa gracilis Heine, J. f. O., 1863, p. 356 (Esmeraldas). 
Piaya minuta Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Medellin). 

* 

Eight specimens from the Cauca Valley and two from the Magdalena 
Valley agree with a series from western Ecuador including six from Esmeral- 
das. This form may be distinguished from true rutila and from P. r. pana- 
mensis Todd ' by its paler colors, particularly below, and by the greater 
restriction of the rufous breast-area. 

Call, 6; La Manuelita, 1 ; Rio Frio, 1; Malena, 2. 

1 Piaya rutila panamensis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus.. VIII, No. 2, 1912, p; 212. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 323 

(1492) Neomorphus salvini Scl. 

Neomorphus salvini Scl., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 60, pi. v, (Veragua). 

Appears to be restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Our 
three specimens agree with others from Nicaragua. 
Alto Bonito, 2; -Baudo Mts., 1. 

(1496) Tapera naevia {Linn.). 

Cuculus ncevius Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 170 (Cayenne). 
Diplopteryx naevius Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 379 (San Nicolas; Naranjo); Scl. & 
Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Concordia; Medellin). 

Inhabits open or arid places in the Tropical Zone. 
Caldas, 1 ; La Frijolera, 1 ; San Antonio, 1 ; La Manuelita, 1 ; Turbaco, 
1; near.Tema, Cundinamarca, 3; Quetame, 2. 

(1499) Crotophaga ani Linn. 

Crotophaga ani Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 105 (Brazil); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 379 (Ocafia); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 536 (Retiro; Medellin); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 134 (Palomina). 

An abundant bird throughout the arid Tropical Zone and in clearings 
or bush-grown places in the humid Tropical Zone, ranging upward along the 
trails or through forestless areas to the Temperate Zone. There is much 
variation in size, and in the size and shape of the bill among our thirty-eight 
specimens, apparently in part due to age, and also to altitude, the largest 
specimens being from the Temperate Zone. 

Dabeiba, 2; Quibdo, 2; Noanama, 1; Caldas, 2; Tumaco, 1; Barba- 
coas, 2; Ricaurte, 2; Cali, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1; La Frijolera, 1; La 
Manuelita, 2; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 4; Sta. Elena, 1; Barro Blanco, 1; 
La Candela, 1; Chicoral, 1; LaPlaya, 1; Turbaco, 2; Pacho, 3; Esmeraldas, 
2; Chipaque, 1; Buena Vista, 1 ; La Morelia, 2. 

(1500) Crotophaga major Gmel. 

Crotophaga major Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 363 (Cayenne); Cass., Proc. 
Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 138 (R. Atrato); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 379 (Paturia); 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 536 (Nechg). 

Locally common in the forests of the Tropical Zone. 
Dabeiba, 1; Atrato River, 2; Noanama, 2; Algodonal, 1; Purteo 
Berrio, 1; Malena, 2; Honda, 1. 



324 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Obder SCANSORES. 

Family CAPITONIDiE. Bakbets. 

(1503) Capito aurovirens (Cuv.)! 
Bucco aurovirens Cuv., Regne Anim., I, 1829, p. 458 (Peru). 

Three males and three females from La Morelia agree with Ecuador 
examples and add this species to the known fauna of Colombia. 
La Morelia, 6. 

(1504a) Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis Chapm. 

Capita maculicoronatus rubrilateralis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, 
p. 144 (Juntas de Tamand, Col.). 

Capito maculicoronatus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Remedios; Neoh6); 
Hellm., p. Z. S., 1911, p. 1198 (N6vita, R. Cajon, Noanamd). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to C. m. maculicoronatus Lawr., but, larger, bill stouter, 
side-patch mainly vermilion rather than mainly orange; crown averaging whiter; 
male with pectoral band wider; flanks, in male, more heavily marked with black. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast at least as far south as 
Buenaventura and, at the north, extends eastward through this zone east 
of the Atrato to Magdalena drainage at Remedios. Specimens from Puerto 
Valdivia havS less black on the sides and flanks than in typical ruhrila- 
teralis, and are therefore more like pirrensis in color, but in general size they 
agree with rubrilateralis. 

Two females from Rio Salaqui have the side-patch mainly vermilion 
rather than mainly orange and thus resemble rubrilateralis in color, but in 
measurements they agree with maculicoronatus and are thus intermediate 
between the two. They should be referred to pirrensis Nels. 

AltoBonito, 5; Andagueda, 2; Baudo, 1; Juntas deTamana, 2; Novita, 
1; San Jose, 7; Los Cisneros, 2; Puerto Valdivia, 11. 

(1504&) Capito maculicoronatus pirrensis Nels. 

Capito maculicoronatus pirrensis Nels., Smith. Miscell. Coll., 60, No. 21, 1913, 
p. 1 (Cana, 1800 ft., e. Panama). 

The fact that two females of this species from Salaqui, are to be referred 
to this form rather than to the one which occurs at the head of the Atrato, 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 325 

further emphasizes the faunal affinities of the western lower Atrato Valley 
with eastern Panama. 

Except for a smaller amount of black on the sides in the ma\e,.pirrensis 
agrees in color with ruhrilateralis but in size it is nearer maculicoronatus. 
In the shape of its bill, however, examination of Nelson's series of seven 
specimens in connection with those in our own collection from Salaqui, shows 
that, in the adult, it possesses characters of its own. In ruhrilateralis and 
maculicoronatus the bill has the same general relative proportions, it being 
simply longer and deeper in the former; but the bill ef pirrensis differs from 
both that of the other two forms in having the outline of the culmen less 
evenly rounded, more angular, with the apex slightly in advance of the nos- 
tril, while its base is more compressed laterally and more elevated into a 
well-defined ridge, which leaves on each side a distinct shelf at the anterior 
edge of which the nostril opens. 

The differences in question are difficult to express by measurements but 
are pronounced in the specimens themselves. 

Average Measurements of Females. 



4 C. m. maculicoronattis (Canal Zone) 
2 " " pirrensis (Cana) 
2 " " " (Salaqui) 

5 " " rubrilateralis (San Jose) 
5 " " " (Puerto Valdivia) 81.7 48 21.5 10.7 



(1505) Capito squamatus Sah. 
Capita squamatus Salv., Ibis, 1876, p. 494, pi. xiv (Santa Rita, Ecuador). 

Richardson secured a single male of this species at Ricaurte. It differs 
from five Ecuador (Esmeraldas and Chone) specimens in having the fore- 
head scarlet or scarlet-red rather than orange-chrome, while the sides of the 
crown are more broadly black, the whitish central area being, therefore, 
more restricted. Should these differences prove constant the Ricaurte 
form would constitute a well-marked race. In any event, the occurrence 
of squamatus in southwestern Colombia, emphasizes the close faunal rela- 
tionships of this region with northwestern Ecuador rather than with west- 
ern Colombia. 

Ricaurte, 1. 



Wing 


Tail 


Ex. Cul. 


Depth of 
Bill at 

Nostril 


76.5 


46.5 


21 


9.5 


77.5 


47 


21.5 


10 


75 


45 


22 


9.5 


82 


49 


22 


10 



326 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1506) Capito hypoleucus Sah. 

Capita hypoleucus Salv., Bull. B. O. C, VII, 1897, p. xvi (Valdivia, Antioquia, 
3800 ft.). 

This species, heretofore recorded only from the type-locality, is one of 
the most distinct forms of the humid Cauca-Magdalena Fauna. There 
appears to be no sexual difference in color. 

Puerto Valdivia, 1 ; La Frijolera, 4; Central Andes w. of Honda (5000 
ft.), 3; El Carmen de Jacopi, w. slope Eastern Andes (Bogota region), 1. 

(1507) Capito quinticolor Elliot. 

Capita quinticolor Elliot, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, I, 1865, p. 76, pi. iv, fig. 1 
(New Grenada); Dalmas, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XXV, 1900, p. 176 (El Paillon, 
near Buenaventura); Hellmayr, P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1198 (Tad6, 230 ft.). 

A fine adult male, collected by Richardson at Barbacoas is apparently 
the fifth known specimen of this rare species, the range of which is evidently 
restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. 

Barbacoas, 1. 

(1510) Capito auratus auratus (Dumont). 
Bucco auratus DrnwoNT, Diet. Sei. Nat., IV, 1816, p. 54 (Peru). 

Common in the forests of the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the 
Eastern Andes. I have seen no Peruvian specimens but Hellmayr (Nov. 
Zool., XIV, 1907, p. 82) states that while " specimens from Eastern Ecuador 
have, as a rule, the forehead and crown paler and less brownish .... those 
from Bogota are exactly like the Peruvian ones." 

Capito auratus intermedins Berl. & Hart., to which I refer four males and 
two females from the Cunucunuma River near Mt. Duida, may be readily 
distinguished by its orange-margined rump, unspotted throat of the female 
and comparative absence of spots below and brighter forehead in the male. 
I am, however, unable to distinguish two topotypical males of " C. auran- 
tiicinctus" Dalmas from the Caura River, Venezuela, from the four males 
from Duida. All, except one from the Caura, show an orange tinge on the 
abdomen and all have the rump margined with orange. If, therefore, the 
Duida specimens truly represent intermedins, I am unable to appreciate 
the characters of aurantiicinctus so far as the specimens at hand are con- 
cerned. 

La Morelia, 1 ; Florencia, 1 ; Villavicencio, 1 ; Buena Vista, 9. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 327 

(1514) Eubucco richardsoni granadensis {Shelley). 

Capito granadensis Shelley, Cat. Bds. B. M., XIX, 1891, p. 115, pi. v, fig. 5 
(Bogotd). 

Found by us only at Buena Vista on the eastern slope of the Eastern 
Andes, where it doubtless occurs as a representative of the Subtropical 
Zone. The bluish gray nuchal band of the male appears to be narrower 
than in E. r. richardsoni. 

Buena Vista, 4. 



(1519) Eubucco bourcieri bourcieri {Lajr.). 
Micropogon bourcierii Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 179 (Bogotd). 

This form appears to be restricted to the Subtropical Zone of the moun- 
tains arising from the Magdalena Valley. Our four specimens (all males) 
are from the head of the valley. 

La Candela, 1 ; La Palma, 1 ; near San Agustin, 1 ; Andalucia (w. slope, 
5000 ft.), 1. 

(1519a) Eubucco bourcieri occidentalis Chapm. 

Eubucco bourcieri occidentalis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 608 
(San Antonio, Col.). 

Capito bourcieri Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 538 (Frontino). 

Capito salvini Dalmas, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1900, p. 180 (Las Cruoes = San 
Antonio, Col.). 

Capito bourcieri salvini Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1199 (Loma Hermosa, 4150ft.; 
Pueblo Rico, 5200 ft.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to E. h. salvini but more richly colored and averaging 
larger; red of throat slightly deeper and more clearly defined or more sharply con- 
trasted with the tawny orange of the breast, this last-named color deeper and of 
greater extent both laterally and posteriorly; flanks and abdomen appreciably 
yellower. 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes where it represents 
E. h. salvini of the Subtropical Zone of Western Panama and Costa Rica. 
La Frijolera, 6; San Antonio, 9. 

(1522) Semnornis ramphastinus (Jard.). 

Tetragonus ramphastinus Jabd., New Edinburgh PhU. Journ., 1855, p. 404 ("East- 
ern Cordillera between Quito and the Mountain Cayambe"). 

Semnornis ramphastinus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1200 (La Tigra, 5700 ft.). 



328 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Richardson secured a male of this species at San Antonio. It differs 
from ten Ecuadorian examples, in having the red pectoral band twice as 
broad, and less clearly defined from the red of the abdominal region. 

San Antonio, 1. 

Family RAMPHASTIDiE. Toucans. 

(1524) Ramphastos piscivorus brevicarinatus Gould. 

Ramphastos brevicarinatus Gotru), Mon. Ramphast., 2d ed., 1854, pi. 3 (western 
side of the Isthmus of Panama) ; Allen, Bull. A. M. N, H., XIII, 1900, p. 133 (Bonda; 
Caoagualito). 

A single specimen from the Rio Salaqui. 

(1525) Ramphastos swainsoni Gould. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Ramphastos swainsonii Gould, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 69 (Mts. of Colombia) ; Hell- 
MAYB, P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1200 (Noanamd). 

Ramphastos tocardus Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 136 (Rio Nercua). 

Ramphastos tocard ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Concordia; Medellin; 
Remedios). 

This is a species of the Tropical Zone of the Pacific and eastward through 
Antioquia to the Magdalena. It also ranges up the Western and Central 
Andes to the Subtropical Zone. In the Pacific coast region this bird occurs 
with Ramphastos amhicjuus abbreviatus (Cab.). Aside from their larger 
size, our nineteen specimens of swainsoni have (in the dried skin) the basal 
and lateral areas of the bill with more or less red or buffy olive tinged with 
red, or with usually some indication of red at the posterior margin ; whereas, 
eleven specimens of abbreviatus have the same part of the bill black without 
a trace of red. 

R. Salaqui, 2; Alto Bonito, 1 ; Baudo, 1; Bagado, 3; Juntas de Tamana, 
1 ; Salencio, 1 ; San Jose, 1 ; Puerto Valdivia, 1 ; Las Lomitas, 1 ; San An- 
tonio, 4; Cocal, 1; Miraflores, 2. 

(1526) Ramphastos ambiguus ambiguus Swains. 

Ramphastos ambiguus Swains., Zool. Ills., Ill, 1823, pi. 168 (no locality; I 
suggest Buena Vista, above Villavicencio, Colombia). 

Based on a colored drawing of a specimen from an unknown locality, by 
an imknown artist, this species was subsequently recognized as coming from 
the Bogota region by Gould (Monog. Ramphast., 2d. ed., pi. v), and I there- 
fore suggest Buena Vista, whence have come many 'Bogota' skins, as an 
appropriate type-locality. The species occurs, however, not only on the 



BuLi.. A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI, Plate XXXVIII 




BILLS OF TOUCANS^ 
(Drawn from fresh specimens by L. A. Fuertes) 

Andigena nigrirostris occidentalis (Chapm.) Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta (Boiss.) 

Ramphastos swainsoni {GomM) Pteroglossus torquatus nuchalis (Cab.) 

Ramphastos citreolaemus (Gould) Pteroglossus castanotis castanotis (Gould) 

Ramphastos culminatus (Gould) Pteroglossus pluricinctus (Gould) 



1917.1 



Chapman, DistribuUon of Bird-life in Colombia. 



329 



eastern slope of the Eastern Andes, but also in the Subtropical Zone on the 
western slope of this range, and on the eastern slope of the Central Andes. 
Singularly enough its western representative, R. a. abbreviatus, appears to 
be restricted to the Tropical Zone. 

Near San Agustin, 1 ; LaPalma, 3; LaCandela, 1; Andalucia, (5000 ft.), 
1 ; Fusugasuga, 1 ; Buena Vista, 4. 

(1526o) Ramphastos ambiguus abbreviatus Cab. 

Rlamphastos] abbreviatus Cab., J. f. O., 1S62, p. 334 ("Kustengegend von New 
Granada, von Porto Cabello"). 

Nine specimens from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast of Colombia 
are smaller with shorter, more vertically compressed bills (in which the ' keel' 
of the culmen shows to its base) than specimens from the Bogota region to 
which, as I have shown above, the name ambiguus is applicable. This small 
form ranges from Panama southward through the Tropical Zone of western 
Colombia and western Ecuador, and doubtless extends eastward through 
northern Antioquia at least to the Magdalena Valley, though a specimen 
from Puerto Valdivia on the lower Cauca approaches ambiguus particularly 
in the size of the bill (see beyond). 

I ha^'e seen no specimens from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela whence Ca- 
banis ' states his type of abbreviatus came, but his description of this bird 
seems to indicate that it is a specimen of the small Tropical Zone form of 
ambiguus, and I, therefore, provisionally accept his name. 

Iguamiando, Choco, 1 ; Novita, 4; San Jose, 1 ; • Barbacoas, 3. 



Name Locality 

R. a. abbreviatus Choc6 
" " " N6vita 

" " " Barbacoas 

R. a. ambiguus Buena Vista 

(( a u a " 

u II II " " 

R. a. abbreviatus N6vita 
" " " San Jos^ 

" " " Barbacoas 

« " " Puerto Valdivia 

R. a. ambiguus San Agustin 



Measurements 










Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Tarsus 


Bill 
Length 


Width at 
base 


cf 


200 


149 


45.5 


142.5 


34.5 


cf 


195 


138.5 


47 


145.5 


35 


& 


203 


145 


45 


120.5 


35 


(f 


230 


164.5 


51 


162 


40 


& 


228 


164.5 


50.5 


154 


42 


cT 


240 


163.5 


53 


159 


40 


9 


190 


133 


43.5 


116.5 


33 


9 


203 


146 


48 


124.5 


34.5 


9 


210 


145 


48 


121.5 


34 


o 


215 


141 


51 


149 


38 


9 


221 


153.5 


51.5 


147 


40 


9 


231 


160 


53.5 


148 


41 


9 


221 


156.5 


51.5 


147 


40 



1 Cabanis (Z. c.) placed Puerto Cabello in New (jiranada, but for some thirty years that name had 
not included what is now Venezuela. 



330 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1529) Ramphastos cuvieri Wagl. 

Ramphastos cuvieri Wagl., Syst. Av. Rhamphast. 1827, p. 5 (" Brasilia versus 
flumen Amazonum"). 

In six males the bill measures from 175 to 198 mm. On the ground of 
their larger size, therefore, I refer our specimens to cuvieri, of which, how- 
ever, I have no authentic specimens. Unfortunately the collector made 
no notes on the color of the bill in the fresh specimen, but in three of these 
five birds there is an indication of red about half an inch from the base of 
the maxilla near the yellow culmen streak, suggesting therefore an approach 
toward R. inca. The occurrence of this species at Barrigon brings it into 
the same region in which we secured R. culminatus. 

La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 2; Barrigon, 3. 

(1530) Ramphastos culminatus Goidd. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Ramphastos culminatus Gotjld, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 70 ("Mexico"; Brabourne 
and Chubb "designate Colombia"; 1 suggest adding Villavicencio). 

Four specimens from the eastern base of the Eastern Andes are evidently 
to be referred to this species. Three of them have the " snow-white" breast 
and -therefore agree with Gould's description, and one has a faint tinge of 
yellow on the breast and therefore resembles his plate (Monog. Ramphast., 
2d. ed.). A colored drawing of the bill made by Fuertes from a specimen 
in the flesh agrees minutely with the figures in Gould's plate {I. c). 

Buena Vista, 2; Villavicencio, 2. 

(1531) Ramphastos citreolsemus Goidd. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Ramphastos citreolcemus Gould, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 147 (Bogotd); Wtatt, Ibis, 
1879, p. 379 (San Nicolas); Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Medellin, Remedies); 
Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 157 (R. Magdalena). 

This species appears to be restricted to the humid Tropical Zone of the 
Magdalena and lower Cauca Valleys. 

Puerto Valdivia, 4; La Frijolera, 1 ; Puerto Berrio, 1 ; Malena, 1: w. of 
Honda (alt. 2000 ft.), 3. 

(1537) Andigena hypoglaucus (Gould). 

Pteroglossus hypoglaucus Gould, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 70 (No locality; Brabourne and 
Chubb give "Colombia"). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 331 

Found by us only in the Temperate Zone of the Central Andes. 
Almaguer, 1; Laguneta, 2; Santa Isabel, 4. 

(1540) Andigena nigrirostris nigrirostris (Waterk). 

Pteroglossus nigrirostris Watbbh., P. Z. S., 1839, p. Ill (No locality; Brabourne 
and Chubb give "Colombia"; I suggest adding Subia, near La Mesa). 
Andigena nigrirostris Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 379 (Portrerras) . 

This bird appears to be restricted to the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern 
Andes. Our four specimens were all collected by Gonzales at Subia, west 
of Bogota. In addition to the lack of red in the bill, this form apparently 
has the black of the nape extending somewhat further on to the back, and 
the chestnut of the thighs slightly deeper than in spilorhynchus. Since, 
however, the last-named race is intermediate between nigrirostris and occi- 
dentalis, it seems not improbable that nigrirostris may intergrade with 
s-pilorhynchus. One of our specimens shows a faint indication of red at the 
base of the maxilla both near the nostril and at the side. 

Subia, 4. 

(1541) Andigena nigrirostris spilorhynchus Gould. 

Andigena spilorhynchus Gotild, P, Z. S., 1858, p. 149 "(Forest of Baeza on the 
eastern side of the Cordillera, Ecuador"); Sol. &Salv. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 ("Reme- 
dios,'' possibly came from above Salmon's station). 

Three specimens from the Central Andes while, in a measure interme- 
diate, are evidently to be referred to this form rather than to the one from 
the Western Andes, for which I have proposed the name occidentalis. While 
all three have more red on the upper mandible than in a specimen from 
Ecuador, two have only the faintest indication of red at the base of the lower 
mandible, while in a third this mark is but slightly more evident. 

True spilorhynchus, so far as I can learn, has no red on the lower mandible 
while the red on the maxilla is comparatively restricted. An Ecuador speci- 
men in our collection is so colored, and in his description of the race Gould 
(I. c.) states that it differs from nigrirostris in the bill being shorter and 
broader and much more robust, and colored with obscure brownish red at 
the base of the upper mandible. The differences in size and form do not 
hold, but the absence of red on the lower mandible is apparently a distinctive 
character oi spilorhynchus. Sclater (P. Z. S., 1858, p. 75) writes that "Napo, 
specimens have an obsolete orange band at the base of the upper mandible 
which extends rather more forward in front of the nostrils." 



332 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVIi 

(1541a) Andigena nigrirostris occidentalis Chapm. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Andigena nigrirostris occidentalis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 
385, (San Antonio, W. Andes, Col.). 

Andigena spilorhynchvs Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Frontino, Concordia). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to A. n. spilorhynchus (Gould) but with the red areft 
at the base of the bill larger on the maxilla and crossing the base of the mandible. 

This form is apparently restricted to the Subtropical Zone of the West- 
ern Andes. 

San Antonio, 6; Cerro Munchique, 1; La Florida, 1. 

In the Western Andes, A . n. occidentalis was found only in the Subtropi- 
cal Zone, where it is not uncommon, but of our three specimens of spilo- 
rhynchus two are from the Temperate Zone and one from the junction of 
this zone with the Subtropical Zone. 

Laguneta, 2; Salento (9000 ft.), 1. 

(1546) Pteroglossus pluricinctus Gould. (Plate XXXVIII.) 
Pteroglossus pluricinctus Gotild, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 157 ("Brasilia"). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. A 
female from Villavicencio agrees with Gould's plate (Monog. Ramph., 1854, 
pi. 17), but two specimens from La Morelia have more red in the abdominal 
belt. 

La Morelia, 2; Villavicencio, 1. 



(1547) Pteroglossus castanotis castanotis Gould. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Pteroglossus castanotis GorrtD, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 119 ("Brasilia"). 

A single specimen from Villavicencio, appears to be not fully mature and 
has only a faint trace of chestnut on the nape. 
Villavicencio, 1. 

(1550) Pteroglossus torquatus nuchalis Cab. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Pteroglossus nuchalis Cab., J. f . O., 1862, p. 332 (Porto Cabello " Neu-Granada" = 
Venezuela). 

Pteroglossus torquMus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Remedios); Robinson, 
Flying Trip, p. 157 (Yeguas); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 133 (Bonda). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the lower Cauca and Magdalena Valleys 
and northward. Comparison of seventeen Colombian, with twenty-five 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 333 

Central American specimens reveals no constant color differences. In the 
former the white border at the base of the bill is usually wider, and the bill 
averages longer, but these characters are not always diagnostic and the 
South American form is, in my opinion, barely worthy of recognition. 
Puerto Valdi via, 6; Puerto Berrio, 2; Malena, 3; west of Honda, 3. 



(1552) Pteroglossus sanguineus Gould. 

Pteroglossus sanguineus Gould, Mon Ramph., 2nd ed. 1854, pi. 21, upper figure 
(no locality; I suggest San Jos6, w. Col.). 

Pteroglossus erythropygius Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila,, 1860, p. 136 (R. 
Truando). 

Pteroglossus erythropygius sanguineus 'H.kum., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1201 (Noanamd). 

A common species in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Our speci- 
mens show no indication of intergradation with P. erythropygius, of which 
I have seven specimens from western Ecuador, including two from Esme- 
raldas. 

Salaqui, 1; Alto Bonito, 6; Bagado, 1; Baudo, 2; N6vita, 1; Noanama, 
1; San Jose, 2; Los Cisneros, 2; Barbacoas, 5; Buenavista, Nariiio, 1. 



(1556) Pteroglossus flavirostris flavirostris Fraser. 

Pteroglossus flavirosiris Fraser, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 61 ("Rio Janeiro"; Berlepsch 
and Hartert substitute Rio Solimoes, Brazil.) 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Andes in Amazo- 
nian Colombia. A specimen from Mt. Duida agrees with four from La 
Morelia and Florencia and also one from La Union on the Caura, Vene- 
zuela. 

La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 2. 



(1559) Pteroglossus humboldti Wagl. 
Pteroglossus humboldti Wagi,., Syst. Av. Pter., 1827, sp. 4 ("Brasilia"). 

Two males from La Morelia agree in color with one from Pebas, Peru, 
but are somewhat smaller (wing, 115 and 121 mm. as compared with 127 
mm.). 

La Morelia, 2. 



334 Bullelin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1567) Selinidera reinwardti {Wagl.). 

Pteroglossus reinwardti Wagl., Syst. Av. Pter., 1827, sp. 11 ("Brasilia"). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes in Amazonian Colombia. 
La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 1. 

(1567a) Selinidera spectabilis Cass. 

Selinidera spectabilis Cass., Proc. Ac. N. S. Phila., 1857, p. 214 (Cocuyos de 
Veragua, Panama); Ibid., 1860, p. 136 (Rio Truando). 

Found by us only near the headwaters of the Atrato and slopes above the 
lower Cauca, whence five specimens agree with a series from Nicaragua. . 
These specimens, with those given by Salvin and Godman from the Rio 
Truando, constitute the existing Colombian records for this species, the only 
member of its genus known from west of the Andes. 

Baudo (2500-3500 ft.) 1; La Frijolera, 1. 

(1576) Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta (5om.) Plate XXXVIII. 

Pteroglossus albivitta Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 70 (Bogotd). 
Aulacorhamphus albivitta Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 380 (Alto; Portrerras). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes and eastern slope 
of the Central Andes. In addition to its white throat this form may be 
distinguished from phwolwmus and griseigularis by the reddish tinge, which 
even in dried skins, shows at the tip of the mandible, and on the end of the 
blackish area on the maxilla; this area is also narrower, particularly termin- 
ally, than in the other two forms mentioned. 

One of three specimens from La Palma approaches griseigularis in the 
color of the throat, while an El Eden specimen has the throat of albiidtta 
but the bill of griseigularis. 

El Eden, 1; La Palma, 3; Andalucia, 2; Aguadita, 6; Subia, 8; Palo 
Hueco, 1. 

(1576a) Aulacorhynchus albivitta phseolssmus Gould. 

Aulacorhamphus phceolcemus Govu), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIV, 1874, p. 184 
(Concordia, W. Andes, Col.). 

Aulacorhamphus albivitta (nee Boiss.) Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Con- 
cordia only). 

Aulacorhamphus petax Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1908, p. 158 (San Antonio, 
Col.). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 335 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes, except at the north- 
ern end. 

Hellmayr (P. Z. S. 1911, p. 1213) has shown that Gould's fJmoloemus is 
based on the Concordia, Antioquia bird and not on the one occurring at 
Merida, Venezuela, which Gould erroneously referred to phaiolmmus. The 
latter form is described by Gould as having the " throat deep grayish blue," 
whereas, the Merida bird, Hellmayr states, has the throat white and is 
referable to aUnvitta. 

An error has evidently been made, therefore, in the Catalogue of the 
British Museum (Vol. XIX, p. 158) in designating as the type of phoeolcemus 
a specimen in the Gould collection from Venezuela, rather than one from 
Concordia. The case is further complicated by the fact that the form of 
this bird inhabiting the western slope of the Central Andes and northern 
end of the Western Andes can be referred to neither alhivitta nor phceolcemus , 
and I have therefore described it under the name Aulacorhamphus albivitta 
griseigularis. 

San Antonio, 4; Cerro Munchique, 1; Florida, 1; Cocal, 1. 

(15766) Aulacorhynchus albivitta griseigularis Chapm. 

Aulacorhynchus albivitta griseigularis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 
1915, p. 639. (Sta. Elena, Cen. Andes, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to A. u. phmolcemus (Gould) but the throat gray with a 
faint bluish tinge instead of deep grayish blue; distinguished from A. a. albivitta by 
the color of its throat, by the greater width, apicaUy, of the blackish stripe on the 
maxilla, and (in skins) by the absence of reddish at the end of this stripe and tip of 
the mandible. 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the western slope of the Central Andes 
and northern end of the Western Andes. 

Paramillo, 1; Sta. Elena, 4; Salento, 3; Miraflores, 3. 

(1577) Aulacorhynchus hsematopygius (Gould). 

Pteroglossus hmmatopygus Gould; P. Z. S., 1834, p. 147 (locality unknown). 
Aulacorhamphus hoematopygius ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 537 (Concordia; 
Remedios). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all the three ranges of the Andes. I 
can discover no racial differences in our series of twenty-three specimens. 

La Frijolera, 4; Salencio, 1; San Antonio, 10; Gallera, 3; Ricaiurte, 2; 
Buenavista, Narino, 1; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 1; Andalucia, 3; west of 
Honda (5000 ft.), 3; near Fusugasuga, 1 ; Buena Vista, 3. 



336 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

ORDER PICIFORMES. 
Family GALBULID^E. Jacamaes. 

(1586) Galbula ruflcauda ruiicauda Cuv. 

Galbula ruficauda Cuv., Regn. An., I, 1817, p. 420 (Guiana); Cass., Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 134 (R. Nercua); Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 535 (Frontino);' 
Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 157 (R. Magdalena); Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 
1899, p. 305 (Honda; Ambalema). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone of the humid portion of the Lower 
Cauca and Magdalena Valleys, where it replaces G. r. pollens of the lower, 
more arid parts of the same valley. Thirteen males and ten females seem 
wholly to agree in color with ten males and five females, from northeast 
Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago. As a Tropical Zone species the birds of 
the Honda region are shut off on the east by the Eastern Andes, while at 
the north their range appears to be bounded by that of G. r. fallens with 
which our series apparently shows they intergrade. Should an arm of the 
humid zone pass through the Valle Dupar to the Maracaibo region we enter 
the range of G. r. brevirostris, which, according to Cory's measurements, has 
a shorter bill than any bird in our series. Additional specimens from Vene- 
zuela and from northeastern Colombia are needed to solve this interesting 
problem in distribution. 

Puerto Valdivia, 3 ; Puerto Berrio, 2 ; Honda, 5 ; 20 miles west of Honda, 
13; Chicoral, 2. 

(1587) Galbula ruficauda pallens Bangs. 

Galbula ruficauda pallens Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 1898, p. 133 (Santa 
Marta, Col.). 

Galbula ruficauda ■pallida Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 135 (Cienaga; 
Bonda). 

Three males and two females from Calamar, on the lower Magdalena, 
agree in color with eleven topotypical specimens of this well-marked form 
but have the bill slightly shorter. Two males from Banco, where the arid 
coastal zone merges into the humid zone of the lower central Magdalena Val- 
ley, are intermediate in color, between •pallens and ruficauda, and indicate 
their intergradation. From ruficauda, pallens may be distinguished by its 
paler rufous areas particularly in the female (the sexual difference being 
more marked in pallens than in ruficauda), narrower pectoral band and 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 337 

consequently large whitish throat area, which is buffy in the female and more 
or less washed with bufPy in the male, and by its longer bill. 
Calamar, 5; Banco, 2. 

(1588) Galbula melanogenia Scl. 

Galbula melanogenia Scl., Contr. Orn., 1852, p. 61, pi. 90 (Vera Paz, Guate- 
mala?); Hellm., p. Z. S., 1911, p. 1194 (Rio Cajon; El Tigre; juntas). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Eighteen specimens 
from this region agree with a series from Ecuador and are somewhat smaller 
and with the rufous areas darker than in twenty-one specimens from Mexico, 
Nicaragua and Chiriqui. Accepting Vera Paz, Guatemala, whence Sclater 
believed his type came {cf. Mon. Jacanas and Puff -Birds, p. 19) as the type- 
locality for melanogenia, it might be considered advisable to separate the 
Colombian and Ecuadorian form; but, in my opinion, the differences be- 
tween even the extremes of the series are too slight to warrant this course. 

Alto Bonito, 2 ; Quibdo, 2 ; Juntas de Tamana, 3 ; Novita, 2 ; San Jose, 
2; Los Cisneros, 1; Barbacoas, 6. 

(1589) Galbula tombacea tombacea S-pix. 

Galbula tombacea Spix, Av. Bras., 1, 1824, p. 55, pi. Iviii ("In sylvis flum, Ama- 
zonum"). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the eastern Andes. 
Twelve specimens from Villavicencio and Buena Vista (whence doubtless 
come Bogota specimens) have the chin somewhat whiter, the abdomen 
slightly paler than three specimens from La Morelia. I have no topotypi- 
cal specimens. The female has the abdomen conspicuously paler'than in 
the male. 

La Morelia, 3; Buena Vista, 2; Villavicencio, 10. 

(1593) Galbula albirostris chalcocephala Dev. 
Galbula chalcocephala Dev., Rev. at Mag. de Zool., 1849, p. 55 (Sarayacu, Ecuador) . 

Five specimens from La Morelia agree with three from eastern Ecuador 
and are readily distinguished from twelve from Guiana (true albirostris) by 
their darker underparts, blacker chin, more purple-bronze crown and 
wholly black (or nearly so) maxilla. 

La Morelia, 5. 



338 Bulletin American Mtiseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1598) Brachygalba fulviventris fulviventris Scl. 
Brachygalha fidviventria Scl., Cat. Bds. B. M., XIX, 1891, p. 172 (Bogotd.). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes, and apparently north of the Amazonian region in which it is replaced 
by B. /. caquetoe, described below. 

Buena Vista, 3; Villavicencio, 5. 

(1598a) Brachygalba fulviventris caquetse subsp. nov. 

Char, subsp. — Most closely resembling Brachygalba fulviventris fulviventris Scl., 
the belly varying from white washed with ochraceous-buff to uniform ochraeeous- 
tawny, but differing irom fulviventris in having the crown tipped with pale ochraceous- 
buff to ochraceous-tawny, the nuchal region and foreback more rufesoent, the lower 
back, rump and upper tail-coverts blacker, in some specimens shining greenish black 
sharply defined from the brownish anterior parts; the inner wing-quills blacker and 
with little or no brownish; the anterior underparts averaging more rufescent. 

Type.— No. 116080, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., cf, La Morelia (alt. 600 ft.) Rio 
Bodoquera, Caquetd, Colombia, July 16, 1912; \,. E. Miller. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes 
from Amazonian Colombia southward at least to Ecuador; eastern limits 
unknown. 

Our series of twenty specimens of Brachygalba fulviventris from the Tropi- 
cal Zone, at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes, clearly represents two 
forms of which eight specimens from Villavicencio and Buena Vista belong 
to one, and twelve from La Morelia and Florencia to the other. Sclater 
based his Brachygalba fulviventris (Cat. Bds. B. M., XIX, 1891, p. 172) on 
a 'Bogota' specimen and, since Buena Vista and Villavicencio are in the 
heart of the eastern Bogota region, while few if any 'Bogota' skins appear 
to have come from the vicinity of La Morelia and Florencia, where, indeed 
Miller secm-ed numbers of species, not before recorded from Colombia, 
there is reason to believe that Sclater's name is properly applicable to the 
Buena Vista and Villavicencio form. Furthermore, the figure of Sclater's 
type (Mon. Jacamars and Puff-Birds, pi. xi, left hand figure) agrees with 
this form rather than with that from the Caqueta region. I have therefore 
described the latter as ntew. Its characters, as the preceding diagnosis in- 
dicates, are pronounced, but it is not improbable that the differences shown 
by my series may be in part seasonal, since the Caqueta birds, taken in 
July, appear to be in fresher plumage than those from Buena Vista and 
Villavicencio, which were taken in March and April. 

Galbula (Brachygalba) inornata Scl. (Jard. Cont. Orn., 1852, p. 32) from an 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 339 

unknown locality, is described as having the "middle of the belly pure 
white," and this fact in connection with Sclater's subsequent reference of 
his type to Brachygalba lugubris Sw. (Cat. Bds. B. M., XIX, p. 172) indi- 
cates that we are not here concerned with that form. Nevertheless, Tac- 
zanowski (Orn. Perou, III, p. 120) refers a specimen from Pebas, Peru to 
"inornata" and Sclater {I. c.) lists a specimen from the same locality under 
lugubris, while ' fulviventris' he records from Sarayacu and Rio Napo, 
Ecuador. 

Specimens ia our collection from the Rio Napo are referable to the form 
here described as caquetae, which name can doubtless also be applied to the 
Sarayacu examples, but the Pebas birds seem to require redetermination. 

La Morelia, 10; Plorencia, 2. 



(1604) Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis Des Murs. 
GcHbaleyrhynchus leucotis Des Mtjbs, Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 207 (Bogota). 

Found by us only at La Morelia where Miller secured six specimens. 
The occurrence of this Amazonian species in Bogota collections as early as 
1845 shows the wide area covered by native collectors at that early date. 
Two of our specimens sexed as " 9 " have the ear-coverts white, indicating 
that in this species the sexes are alike. Possibly, supposed "females" with- 
out the white auriculars, are in reality specimens of G. purusiamis Goeldi ' 
in which the auriculars are brown in both sexes. 

La Morelia, 6. 



Family BUCCONIDiE. Puffbieds. 

(1608) Bucco capensis Linn.^ 
Bucco capensis Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 1766, p. 168 (Guiana). 

Represented by two males from La Morelia and Florencia, respec- 
tively. This species does not appear to have been before recorded from 
Colombia. 

La Morelia, 2; Florencia, 2. 



1 Which appears to have priority over G. l. innoiatus Ihering. C/. Goeldi, Mus. Goeldi, V, 1909, 
p. 85. 



340 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1610) Notharcus hyperrhynchus leucocrissus (Scl.). 
Bucco leucocrissus Scl., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 284 (Babahoyo, w. Ecuador). 

Represented by two specimens from Honda. These appear to agree 
with one from Chone, western Ecuador (which may be considered topo- 
typical of leucocrissus) two from the Panama R. R. Line (McLeannan and 
Galbraith) and one from Tapahza, eastern Panama, and differ from six Nica- 
raguan specimens, which I assume represent dysoni', in having the pectoral 
band conspicuously wider, the flanks more heavily barred, the margins to 
the rectrices narrower, more sharply defined and less extended down the 
inner vane, the outer primary black at the tip, instead of narrowly margined 
with white. The material in question clearly represents two forms, for the 
more southern of which the name leucocrissus (Scl.) appears to be applicable; 
but a specimen from Tehuantepec agrees more nearly with leucocrissus in 
the markings of rectrices and outer primary, though in flanks and pectoral 
band it is like dysoni, and a specimen from El Pilar, northeastern Venezuela, 
seems to be near leucocrissus though the pectoral band is evidently widened 
by the make of the skin. A specimen said to be from Para, has the bill 
larger (culmen 46 mm.) than in any of those above-mentioned, while the 
pectoral band is as narrow as in dysoni and the flanks heavily barred as in 
the Honda and Panama specimens. Doubtless it represents N. h. hyper- 
rhynchus. 

Honda, 2. 

(1613) Notharcus pectoralis (Gray). 

BuAxo ■pectoralis Gray, Gen. Birds, I, 1846, p. 74, pi. XXVI (So. Am.); Wyatt, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 374 (Naranjo) ; Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 536 (Neoh6) ; Hellmayb, 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1194 (N6vita; Noanamd). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward, and to the 
lower Cauca and humiji Magdalena Valleys. 

Bagado, 1; Barbacoas, 7; Puerto Valdivia, 4; Nare, lower Magdalena, 1. 

(1617) Notharcus tectus subtectus (Scl). 

Bvcco subtectus ScL., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 296 (Esmeraldas, Ecuador); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 536 (Nech6); Robinson, Flying Trip, (R. Magdalena). 
Bucco tectus subtectus Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1195 (Tad6). 

Like Notharcus pectoralis this species inhabits the Tropical Zone of tbe 
Pacific coast, lower Cauca and humid Magdalena Valleys. Specimens from 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 341 

the last-named locality have more white in 'the tail than those from Bar- 
bacoas, the white at the tip of the outer feather reachmg the outer web. 
Barbacoas, 4; Nare, 1; Puerto Berrio, 1; Malena, 2. 

(1618) Argicus macrodactylus (Spix). 

Cyppos inacrodactylus Spix, Av. Bras., I, 1824, p. 51, pi. xxxix, fig. 2 ("In sylvis 
flum. Amazonum," Berl. & Hart, substitute Fonteboa). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the base of the Eastern Andes. Speci- 
mens from Villavicencio and Buena Vista average paler below and have the 
breast-band whiter and wider than those from La Morelia. I have no 
topotypical examples. 

La Morelia, 3; Villavicencio, 4; Buena Vista, 2. 

(1619) Nystactes noanamse {Hellm.). 

Bucco noanamoe Hellm., Bull. B. O. C, XXV, 1909, p. 20 (Noanamfi, w. Col.); 
P. Z. S. 1911, p. 1195 (Noanamd; Tad6). 

This well-marked species is known only from the headwaters of the San 
Juan and Atrato rivers. Our four specimens were collected by Mrs. Kerr. 
In the coloration of the upperparts this bird resembles N. tamatia with 
which it appears to be congeneric. 

Iguamiando, 3; Quibd6, 1. 

(1620) Hypnelus ruficoUis ruficoUis (Wagl.). 

C[apito] ruficoUis Wagl., Isis, 1829, p. 658 ("Mexico"; I suggest Bonda, Santa 
Marta, Colombia). 

Bucco ruficoUis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 134 (R. Truando); 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 374 (Santa Marta; Canuto); Robinson, Flying Trip, p. 157 
(Barranquilla; R. Magdalena); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 135 (Bonda; 
VaUe Dupar; Santa Marta). 

Inhabits the more arid portions of the Tropical Zone of northern Co- 
lombia, advancing up the Magdalena Valley to at least Puerto Berrio. 

Turbaco, 4; La Playa, 3; Calamar, 4; Banco, 1; Varrud, 1; Puerto 
Berrio, 1. 

(1629) Nystalus radiatus {Scl). 

Bucco radiatus Scl., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 122, pi. 50 ("Colombia" = Magdalena 
Valley); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 536 (Remedies; NeoM). 

Inhabits the humid Tropical Zone of the Magdalena and lower Cauca 



342 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Valley and the Pacific coast north through Panama to Veragua, south to 
Guayaquil. 

I provisionally place under the above name our twenty-two specimens 
of this species. Among these two from the vicinity of Honda agree with 
the figure of the type of radiatus in being bufly white below, but a third 
specimen from near Honda is much more fulvous below, while one from 
Puerto Berrio, but a short distance down the Magdalena from Honda, has 
the underparts rich fulvous and agrees in color with specimens from Panama. 
This type of coloration is also shown by Sclater's figure of a specimen from 
Neche, and by the remaining birds in our series. 

Possibly the pale type of color may be restricted to the region about 
Honda at the junction of the humid and arid Cauca-Magdalena fauna, 
while birds of the fulvous type {Bucco fidvidus Salv. & Godm., Biol. Centr.- 
Am. Aves, II, 1896, p. 514, Veragua) occupy the humid portion of this 
fauna. I know of no similar case of distribution, however, and since the 
recognition of fulvidus would require that one of our Honda specimens be 
referred to that form, the other two to radiatus, I prefer for the present to 
consider them as one form which possibly may be locally dichromatic. 
Honda specimens average the smallest of the series. 

Barbacoas, 2; Puerto Valdivia, 7; Puerto Berrio, 1; Honda, 1; west of 
Honda, 2. 

Measurements of Females. 

Wing Tail Bill 



Honda (pale below) 


88 


72 


33 


u u 


86.5 


69 


31 


Puerto Valdivia 


88 


71 


31.5 


It u 


92 


72 


33 


u u 


90 


70 


31 


Barbacoas, 


92 


78 


33 


Tapaliza, e. Panama 


94 


78 


30 



(1631) Malacoptila fusca (Gmel). 
Bucoofvscus Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 408 (Cayenne). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes. Three specimens are more broadly streaked above and have the 
abdomen more fulvous than a single one from Guiana. 

Andalucia (east slope, alt. 2000 ft.), 1; La Morelia, 2. 

(1635) Malacoptila mystacalis (Lafr.). 

Monasa mystacalis Lafr., Rev. et Mag., 1850, p. 215 ("Colombia''; I suggest 
Valparaiso, Santa Marta Mts.). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 343 

Malacoptila mystacalis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1197 (Loma Hermosa; Siat6 
near Pueblo Rico); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 134 (Valparaiso; Las 
Nubes; Santa Marta). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. I can detect no dif- 
ferences between our specimens and a large series from the Santa Marta 
Mts. 

No vita Trail, 1 ; La Frijolera, 1 ; Salento, 3; about 20 miles w. of Honda, 
alt. 5000 ft., 1; Anolaima, 1. 

(1637) Malacoptila panamensis poliopis Sel. 
Malacoptila poliopis ScL., P. Z. S., 1862, p. 86, pi. viii (Esmeraldas, Ecuador). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast, north at least to Cisneros. 
Comparison of nine males and six females of true poliopis from western 
Ecuador (including four males from Esmeraldas) with four males and eight 
females from Panama and Costa Rica, shows that the former differ from the 
latter mainly, if not solely, in the deeper color of the breast. In the male 
this is cinnamon-rufous in poliopis, and ochraceous-tawny in panamensis. 
In the female of poliopis the breast is slightly deeper than in the male of 
panamensis while the female of panamensis has the breast ochraceous-buff . 

Having thus determined the differentiating characters of these two 
forms, I have attempted to identify our ten males and five females from 
western Colombia. As might be expected, they show every stage of inter- 
gradation between the two extremes. Some specimens could be referred 
to one form as well as to the other, but on the whole specimens from north 
of San Jose are nearer to panamensis than to poliopis. Most of them are 
quite typical of the northern race, while a female from Los Cisneros is equally 
typical of poliopis. 

Los Cisneros, 1; Barbacoas, 6. 

(1637a) Malacoptila panamensis panamensis Lafr. 

Malacoptila panamensis Lafh., 'Rev. Zool., 184:7, p. 79 (Panama); Cass., Proc. 
Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 134 (R. Truando); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S.,.1879, p. 536 
(Remedios). 

Malacoptila panamensis poliopis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1196 (Sipi; N6vita; 
El Tigre; Condoto). 

As remarked under the preceding form, specimens from north of Cis- 
neros are as a whole nearer to panamensis than to poliopis, though it is 
evident that the two completely merge in western Colombia. 

Choc6, 1; Baudo, 1; Novita, 2; Dabeiba, 1; Alto Bonito, 2; Puerto 
Valdivia, 4. 



344 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1641) Micromonacha lanceolata {Deville). 

Bucco lanceolata Deville, Rev. et. Mag., 1849, p. 56 (Pampa del Sacramento, 
Upper Amazons). 

A male from Buenavista, Narino, is more heavily streaked below and 
the ventral region is deeper rufous than in two specimens from Zamora, 
southeastern Ecuador. This upper Amazonian species has not before been 
recorded from the Pacific coast where its occurrence admirably illustrates 
the type of distribution which I believe to have been evolved by the Andean 
uplift. 

Buenavista, 1. 

(1646) Nonnula frontalis (ScL). 

Malacoptila frontalis ScL., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, XIII, 1854, p. 479 
(interior of Colombia). 

A male collected by Fuertes at Algodonal, on the lower Magdalena River 
is doubtless typical of this species. Two Panama R. R. specimens and two 
from Cana, eastern Panama are much more deeply colored both above and 
below and evidently represent a different race. It would, however, be 
desirable to examine additional Colombian specimens before describing it. 

Algodonal, 1. 



(1650) Monasa flavirostris Striclcl. 

Monasa flavirostris Strickl., Cont. Orn., 1850, p. 47, pi. 48 (Peru). 

Evidently restricted in Colombia to the Tropical Zone at the eastern 
base of the Eastern Andes. I have no Peruvian specimens for comparison. 
La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 3; Villavicencio, 2; Buena Vista, 1. 

(1653) Monasa morphceus peruana Scl. 
Monasa peruana Scl., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 194 (Chamicuros, e. Peru). 

Specimens from Amazonian Colombia are evidently to be referred to 
this race which, however, with its near ally, M. m. morphceus (cf. Hellm., 
Nov. Zool., XII, p. 297), is not adequately represented in our collection. 

Florencia, 8. 



1917.] Chapman, Bistrihuiion of Bird-life in Colombia. 345 



(1654) Monasa pallescens pallescens Cass. 

Monasa pallescens Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 134 (R. Truando); 
Hellm., p. Z. S., 1911, p. 1197 (Juntas, Rio Tamanii). 

This form appears to be restricted to the Atrato and upper San Juan 
Valleys. There is considerable variation in intensity of color particularly 
of the wing-coverts in our ten specimens. 

Salaqui, 1; Iguamiando, 1; Baudo, 3000-3500 ft., 4; Alto Bonito, 4. 

(1655) Monasa pallescens sclateri Ridgw. 

Monasa sclateri Ridgw., Proo. Biol. Sob. Wash., XXV, 1912, p. 89 ("Bogotd"). 
Monasa pallescens Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 374 (Paturia); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 536 (Remedios; Neoh6). 

Inhabits the humid Tropical Zone in the lower Cauca and Magdalena 
Valleys. Comparison of thirteen specimens, with six topotypical examples 
of M. p. 'pallescens clearly indicates that sclateri is a race of pallescens dis- 
tinguished only by its darker coloration, chiefly of the wing-coverts. 

Puerto Valdivia, 7; 20 miles west of Honda, 6. 

(1656) Monasa nigrifrons (Spdx.). 

Bucco nigrifrons Spix, Av. Bras., I, 1824, p. 53, pi. xli, fig. 2 ("In sylvis flum. 
SolimoSns"). 

Like M. m. peruana this species was found only in southeastern Colom- 
bia. Our specimens agree with others from Napo and Chapada, Matto 
Grosso. 

La Morelia, 6. 



Family PICID^. Woodpeckers, Piculets. 

(1665) Hypoxanthus rivolii rivolii (Boiss.). 

Picus rivolii Boiss., Rev. ZooL, 1840, p. 36 (no locality — I suggest Chipaque, 
alt. 9500 ft., 15 miles e. of Bogota). 

This form appears to be restricted to the Eastern Andes where it occurs 
chiefly in the Temperate Zone. Seven specimens differ from specimens 



346 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



from the Central Andes and Ecuador in having, as a rule, the underparts 
deeper, more spots on the throat, a barred rump and, to some extent, barred 
tail-coverts, while the outer pair of rectriees has more or less yellowish brown 
on the center web. While Boissonneau gives no type-locality, his descrip- 
tion obviously refers to the Bogota bird. 

El Pinon (above Fusugasuga), 3; Subia (near Bogota), 1; Palo Hueco, 
Cundinamarca, 2; Chipaque, 1. 

(1666) Hypoxanthus rivolii brevirostris Tacz. 

Hypoxanthus brevirostris Tacz., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 546 (Higos, Cen. Peru). 
Hypoxanthus rivolii Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 533 (Retire, Sta. Elena). 

Our specimens of this race are all from the Central Andes where the bird 
inhabits the Temperate Zone descending in clearings to the upper border 
of the Subtropical Zone. 

Hargitt (Cat. Bds. B. M., XVIII, p. 31) has called attention to the large 
size of Colombian specimens of this form. I have no examples from Peru, 
but Ecuadorian birds are but little larger than measurements given by 
Taczanowski {I. c.) and are evidently very near true brevirostris. As the 
appended table shows, however, birds from the Central Andes are much 
larger. I can detect no differences in color, but those in size appear to be 
constant, and may warrant the separation of a northern form of brevi- 
rostris. It is surprising to find that three specimens from Merida agree 
with brevirostris rather than rivolii in color; while instead of showing the 
progressive increase in size from the south northward, exhibited by other 
birds in our series, these Merida birds are nearer specimens from Ecuador 
than those from Bogota. 

Laguneta, 1; Santa Isabel, 1; Volcancito, 1; El Eden, 2. 



Locality 

Can. Peru' 
Ambato, Ecuador 
Gualea, " 

Santa Isabel, Col. 
El Pinon (near Bogota) 
Palo Hueco " 
Chipaque " 

Merida, Venezuela 



Measurements of Males. 

Wing 

126 
131 
128 
143 
142 
140 
143 
131 
133 



Tall 


Bill from 
Rictus 


Bill from 
Nostril 


108 


31 


21 


98 


32.5 


24.5 


92 


32 


23. 


112 


Broken 


Broken 


112 


40 


28.5 


— 


40 


29 


117 


41 


28.5 


95 


39 


25 


98.5 


34 


25 



1 Taczanowski, P. Z. S,, 1874, p. 547. The discrepancy in tail measurements is evidently due to 
a difference in methods of measurements. All the other measurements of the tail here given are from 
the insertion of the central pair of feathers to the end of the longest one. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 347 

Females. 









Bill from 


Bill from 


Locality 


Wing 


Tail 


Rictus 


Nostril 


Cen. Peru ' 


127 


110 


29 


20 


Loja, Ecuador 


129 


95 


32 


22.5 


Gualea, " 


■ 125 


90 


32 


23 


Laguneta, Col. 


139 


104 


38.5 


25.5 


El Eden, " 


135 


104 


36.5 


25. 


(( (( 


139 


106 


37 


27 


Palo Hueoo (near Bogotd,) 


139 


112 


40 


29 


El Pinon 


142 


112 


37 


28 


Merida, Venezuela 


183 


95 


34 


25.5 



(1672) Chloronerpes xanthochlorus Scl. & Salv. 

Chloronerpes xanthochlorus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 237 (San Cristobal, 
Tachira, Ven.), Ibid., 1879, p. 533 (Remedies). 

A female with much enlarged ovaries, taken at Remolino in the heavy 
forest of the lower Magdalena agrees with the plate of this species in the 
Catalogue of Birds of the British Museum (Vol. XVIII, pi. i). 

Remolino, 1. 

(1676) Chloronerpes litse Roth. 
Chloronerpes litce Roth., Bull. B. O. C, XI, 1901, p. 70 (Lita, 3000 ft., n. Ecuador). 

A female of this species, taken by Mrs. Kerr in the Baudo Mts. (3500 ft.) . 
extends its range from the type-locality. This sex appears not to have been 
described. As it is represented by our apparently adult specimen there is 
no red upon the nape, and if the absence of this mark be characteristic, the 
species is even less closely related to C. leucolcemus than the markings of the 
male would indicate. 

Baudo Mts.,. 1. 

(1681) Chloronerpes rubiginosus gularis HargiUi 

Chloronerpes gularis Haegitt, Ibis, 1889, p. 230 (Santa Elena, Antioquia). 

Chloronerpes rubiginosus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 380 (Ocafia to Bucaramanga) ; 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 533 (Retiro; Concordia; Sta. Elena). 

Chloronerpes rubiginosus gularis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1187 (Loma Hermosa; 
Rio Jamaraya). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of Western and Central Andes and prob- 
ably the western slope of the Eastern Andes. It is worthy of note that 

1 See footnote p. 160. 



348 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

no form of this species is known from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast 
of Colombia but that in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast of Ecuador 
it is represented by C. r. rubripileus Salvad. and Fest., a smaller form in which 
the throat is usually spotted quite to the base of the bill, the rump paler, 
the outer tail-feathers quite as often barred as not (barred in ten out of eigh- 
teen specimens) while the female has less red in the crown. 

A female from La Candela in the Central Andes at the head of the Mag- 
dalena Valley, exhibits in a most interesting way the characters of both 
gularis and rubiginosus, and although not a geographical intermediate, it 
suggests the intergradation of these forms. It has the throat spotted with 
white and well-defined black malar stripe and unbarred rectrices of gularis, 
but the crown is gray, the red being confined to the nuchal region; the rump 
is nearly the color of the back and the breast is narrowly barred with buffy 
as in rubiginosus. 

Specimens from the Central Andes are larger and have the abdominal 
region and under tail-coverts less definitely barred than in those from the 
Western Andes. The minimum size appears to be reached at the type- 
locality, whence a female measures, wing, 125; tail, 75.5; culmen, 26 mm.; 
as compared with wing, 115; tail, 70; culmen, 24 mm. in females from San 
Antonio. Specimens from La Frijolera are intermediate in size. 

La Frijolera, 2; San Antonio, 8; Andes w. of Popayan (10340 ft.), 1; 
Cerro Munchique, 1; Call, 2; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 2; Sta. Elena, 1; 
Barro Blanco, 2; Cen. Andes w. of Honda (5000 ft.), 1; La Candela, 1 (app. 
rubiginosus). 

(1687a) Chloronerpes rubiginosus buenavistse Chapm. 

Chloronerpes rubiginosus husnavistae Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, 
p. 386 (Buena Vista, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to C. r. meridensis, but upperparts and olive bars of 
underparts darker, cheeks grayer, bill longer; similar to C. r. canipileus (d'Orb.) 
but with much more red and consequently darker, less golden in color. Similar to 
C. r. alleni (Bangs) but olive bars of underparts wider and yellowish ones narrower; 
tail always (?) unbarred; posterior underparts, especially lower tail-coverts, less 
distinctly barred. 

Buena Vista, 5. 

(1697) Chrysoptilus punctigula guttatus {Spix). 

Picus guttatus Spix, Av. Bras., 1, 1824, p. 61, pi. liii, fig. 1 (in sylvis flum. Amazo- 
num). 

An immature female from La Morelia in Amazonian Colombia is ap- 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 349 

parently to be referred to this Amazonian species. It is much more deeply 
colored above than a specimen of punctipectus in similar plumage from Ma- 
ripa on the lower Orinoco, and is nearer in color and pattern to an immature 
female from the headwaters of the Huallaga River, Peru. Two adults from 
Moyobamba, Peru, loaned me by the Field Museum, are somewhat darker 
above than one from Santarem, Brazil, indicating that true punctigula 
ranges the length of the Amazon. Indeed I can find but little difference 
in color between these specimens and two adults from Paramaribo which 
may be assumed typically to represent true punctigula. The latter are, 
however, slightly smaller and have a shorter bill. 
La Morelia, 1. 



(1698) Chrysoptilus punctigula punctipectus Cab. & Hein. 

Chrysoptilus punctigula punctipectus Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein., IV, 1863, p. 163 
(Venezuela). 

Specimens from the vicinity of Villavicencio appear typically to repre- 
sent this form. They agree on the whole with an adult from Cumana, 
loaned me by the Field Museum, and since Hellmayr (Abhd. Wiss., 1906, 
p. 607) refers to this form specimens from Caicara and Altagracia on the 
middle Orinoco, it evidently occupies the larger part of Venezuela. Com- 
pared with true punctigula of which, thanks to Mr. Penard, I have three 
specimens from the vicinity of Paramaribo, punctipectus differs mainly in 
having the back warbler-green instead of antique-brown, and in being larger 
(wing 119 mm. as compared with 112 mm.). 

Buena Vista, 1 ; Villavicencio, 2; Barrigon, 1. 



(1699) Chrysoptilus punctigula ujhelyii Madar. 

Chrysoptilus ujhelyii Madar., Orn. Monats., XX, 1912, p. 97 (Aracat^ca, Santa 
Marta). 

Chrysoptilus guttatus Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 136 (Cienaga). 

This form of the arid, Caribbean, coastal region, is one of the most dis- 
tinct of the group. In its white, black-streaked throat it agrees with stria- 
tigularis, but it differs markedly from that race in its paler, less spotted 
underparts and in the much narrower, almost obsolete bars of the back. 
We have one Santa Marta specimen. 

Lower Atrato, 1; La Playa, 1; Calamar, 1. 



350 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(1699a) Chrysoptilus punctigula striatigularis Chapm. 

Chrysoptilus punctigula striatigularis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, 
p. 611 (Call). 

Chrysoptilus punctigularis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 533 (Remedios). 

Char, suhsp.— Differs from all other described forms of Chrysoptilus punctigula, 
except C. p. ujhelyii, in having the throat white streaked with black instead of black 
spotted with white; differs from C. p. ujhelyii in being darker, with the spots below, 
particularly on the flanks, larger, the upperparts and wings with clearly defined broad 
black bars (much narrower and nearly obsolete, dorsally, in ujhelyii) ; differing from 
C. p. punctipectus in the pattern of the throat, as described above, in being browner 
above and in having the spots of the underparts larger, more numerous, and extend- 
ing to the flanks and abdominal region. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of Colombia west of the Eastern Andes and 
south of the semi-arid Caribbean coastal region. 

The occurrence of Chrysoptilus punctigula punctipectus in the Tropical 
Zone of the eastern slope of the Eastern Andes and of C. p. striatigularis in 
this zone on the western slope of the same range brings both forms into the 
Bogota region and hence into 'Bogota' collections. In default of proper 
data, their well-marked racial differences have evidently been considered to 
represent individual variations and we have, therefore, an additional illus- 
tration of the confusion wrought by the use of unlabeled skins from a region 
containing at least two distinct faunas and double the number of zones. 

Noanama, 1; Cali, 2; Rio Frio, 1; near Honda, 1; Puerto Berrio, 2. 

(1702) Melanerpes flavigula Malh. 

Melanerpes flavigula Malh., Rev. et Mag., 1849, p. 522 (Colombia). 
Melanerpes jlavigularis Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 381 (7000 ft. up. "Temperate 
regions"); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 533 (Retire; Concordia; Sta. Elena). 

A locally common bird in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges; rang- 
ing upward to the Temperate Zone. 

Paramillo (11,000 ft.), 1; Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 6; Cerro Mun- 
chique, 4; Gallera, 1; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 1; Laguneta, 4; Sta. Elena, 1; 
San Agustin, 2 ; La Candela, 1 ; Palo Hueco, Cundinamarca, 14. 

(1703) Melanerpes cruentatus (Bodd.). 
Picus cruentatus Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 43 (Cayenne). 

Common in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
A single, immature female from Paramaribo has the postocular stripes 
whiter than in any of our specimens. 

Florencia, 6; La Morelia, 6; Buena Vista, 7; Villavicencio, 5. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 351 



(1708) Melanerpes pucherani pucherani (Malk). 

Zebrapicus pucherani Malh., Rev. et Mag., 1849, p. 542 (" Tabago " = Colombia — 
cf. Hbllm. p. Z. S., 1911, p. 1188.) 

Melanerpes pucherani pucherani Hellm., I. c. (N6vita; Guineo). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and lower Cauca River. 
Alto Bonito, 2; Quibd6, 1; Baudo, 1; Noanama, 2; San Jose, 2; Los 
Cisneros, 2; Barbacoas, 6; Puerto Valdivia, 3. 



(1709 & 1710) Melanerpes rubricapillus rubricapillus (Cab.). 

Centurus rubricapillus Cab., J. f. O., 1862, p. 328 (Barranquilla, Col.). 
Melanerpes subelegans neglectus Rich, Proc. U. S. N. M. 1895, p. 668 (Bogota). 
Melanerpes waglen sanctce-martce Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 1898, p. 134 
(Santa Marta); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 136 (Bonda; Santa Marta). 

Our specimens are all from the Tropical Zone of northern Colombia and 
the Magdalena Valley, as far south as Chicoral. Five males and five females 
from Honda and vicinity may be considered as topotypical of neglectus 
Rich., while of sanctce-martoe Bangs we have an excellent topotypical series 
of twenty-six specimens. Careful comparison of this and other material 
from intermediate localities fails to reveal any constant differences between 
these alleged forms. In specimens from Santa Marta the bill averages larger, 
but the difference is bridged by individual variation and is certainly not 
sufficient in itself to warrant the recognition of two forms. In color, Mag- 
dalena Valley birds agree with those from Santa Marta; in both the red of 
the crown is continuous with that of the nape. 

In view of the evident identity of Colombian birds, I fail to see how we 
can avoid accepting Cabanis' name, based on Barranquilla specimens, for 
this form {cf. also Ridgway, Bull. 50, VI, pp. 53, 75). 

Upper Sinu River (200 ft.), 3; Algodonal, Magdalena River, 2 ; Magda- 
lena River, 2; Honda and vicinity, 9; Chicoral, 1. 





Measurements. 








Wing 


TaU 


Culmen 


Five Males from Bonda 


104-107.5 


50-53 


22.5-26 


Five Males from Honda 


102-107 


50-54 


22.5-24.5 



(1715) Veniliornis oleaginus fumigatus {Lah. & d'Orb.). 

Picus fumigatus Lafr. & d'Orb., Voy. Am. Merid., Ois., 1839, p. 380, pi. Ixv, 
fig. 1 (Chiquitos, Bolivia). 



352 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Our specimens from the Subtropical Zone of the Eastern Andes, agree 
on the whole with a male from Yungas, Bolivia, and a female from Inca 
Mine, southeast Peru, which may be considered as typical of fumigatus. A 
female from Buena Vista, our only specimen from the eastern slope of the 
Eastern Andes, is considerably darker than any other bird in our series. 

La Candela, 2; near San Agustin, 1; near Fusugasuga, 5; Palo Hueco 
(nearPacho), 1; Buena Vista, 1. 

(1715a) Veniliornis oleaginus aureus Chapm. 

Veniliornis oleaginus aureus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 612 
(Central Andes south of Popayan, Col.). 

Char, suhsp. — Similar to V. o. fumigatus, but back richer, more golden, auricular 
region averaging paler, wing averaging shorter, bill longer; resembling V. o. sanguino- 
lentus in general color but wings and their coverts externally with less golden wash, 
more as in fumigatus; white spots on wing-quills larger, the short outer primary 
usually showing trace of white, the second (from without) primary with three instead 
of two white spots; size, larger. 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes and western slope 
of the Central Andes. 

Salencio, 1; Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 3; Gallera, 1; Popayan, 2; 
La Sierra, 1; Miraflores, 1; Sta. Elena, 1. 

(1719a) Veniliornis nigriceps equifasciatus Chapm. 

Veniliornis nigriceps equifasciatus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 144 . 
(Santa Isabel, Cen. Andes, 12000 ft., Colombia). 

Char, suhsp. — Similar to Veniliornis nigriceps nigriceps (Lafr. & d'Orb.) but 
olive-green and yellowish bars on underparts of equal width. 

Found by us only in the Temperate Zone of the Central Andes. 
Santa Isabel, 2; Almaguer, 1. 

(1720) Veniliornis dignus (Scl. & Salv.). 

Chlorcmerpes dignus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1877, p. 20, pi. i (Remedios; Antioquia) ; 
lUd. 1879, p, 533 (Jerioo). 

Our five specimens represent localities in the Subtropical Zone of all 
three ranges. Fuertes' capture of a male at Fusugasuga extends the known 
range of the species (hitherto recorded from Antioquia) into the Bogota 
region where, however, we may assume it to be rare since it seems to have 
escaped native collectors. 

San Antonio, 1; Cerro Munchique, 2; Salento, 1; Fusugasuga, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 353 

(1727) Veniliornis fidelis (Harg.). 
Dendrobates fidelis Harg., Ibis, 1889, p. 59 (Bogotd). 

A male from Buena Vista and a pair from Villavicencio agree with the 
description of this species, which appears to be a representative of V. olivi- 
nus. 

Buena Vista, 1 ; Villavicencio, 2. 

(1733) Veniliornis ruficeps haematostigma (Malk). 

Mesopicus hcematostigma Malh,, PicidEe, II, 1862, p. 72, pi. Ixi, figs. 2-5 (Peru). 

Two specimens from La Morelia are evidently to be referred to this 
form, of which, however, I have no authentic specimens for comparison. 
La Morelia, 2. 

(1738) Veniliornis kirki cecilii (Malh.). 

Mesopicus cecilii Malh., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1849, p. 538 (Colombia). 
Chloronerpes cecilice ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 533 (Antioquia; Remedios; 
NeohS). 

Veniliornis kirkii cecilii Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1188 (Guineo, Rio Calima). 

Found throughout the greater part of the Tropical Zone in Colombia 
though we took no specimens east of the Andes. I can detect no racial dif- 
ferences in our series of sixteen specimens. 

Jimtas de Tamana, 1; Los Cisneros, 1; Barbacoas, 7; Puerto Valdivia, 
1; Rio Frio, 2; Chicoral, 3; Honda, 2; Malena, 1; Boca de Chimi, 1. 

(1751) Celeus loricatus loricatus (Reich.). 

M[eiglyptes] loricatus Reich., Scans. Pic, 1854, p. 405, pi. dolxxxi, figs. 4495-6 
("N. Peru"). 

Celeus loricatus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 533 (Remedios; Neoh6); Hellm., 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1188 (N6vita). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast northward, at least to 
Baudo on the Pacific coast, and on the eastern side of the Atrato River at 
least to Alto Bonito and eastward to the lower Cauca and Magdalena Val- 
leys. Males from Alto Bonito and Puerto Valdivia show in their deeper 
color below some approach toward mentalis but in other respects, particu- 
larly the barring of the upperparts, they are obviously referable to loricatus. 



354 Bullelin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

On the western side of the lower Atrato Valley and north at least to the 
Panama R. R., it is replaced by C. I. mentalis Cass. 

I have seen no Peruvian specimens of this species. Should the south- 
west Colombian bird prove to be different it would doubtless stand as Celeus 
loricatus fraseri (Malh.) described from Babahoyo, w. Ecuador. 

Puerto Valdivia, 1 ; Alto Bonito, 1 ; Baudo, 1 ; Novita, 1 ; Barbacoas, 4. 



(1751a) Celeus loricatus mentalis Cass. 

Celeus mentalis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 137 (Turbo; R. 
Atrato; type in Nat. Mus., examined). 

Celeus squamxitus Lawb., Ibis, 1863, p. 184 (Lion Hill, Panama; type in Am. 
Mus.; examined). 

Inhabits eastern Panama from at least the Canal Zone eastward to the 
western side of the lower Atrato Valley. 

Comparison of Cassin's type, a female in the National Museum, and nine 
specimens from eastern Panama (Cana, Marraganti, Chepigana, EI Real, 
Tapaliza, Boca de Cupe) with our eight specimens of loricatus, shows that 
mentalis is a strongly marked form which may be distinguished from the 
more southern race by the almost entire absence of bars on the back and 
inner wing-quUls, the smaller black area in the feathers of the crown, more 
ochraceous underparts on which the black markings are narrower and a 
more extensive ochraceous-tawny area on the throat, which in the male 
separates the black markings of the breast from the red of the upper 
throat. 

Examination of Lawrence's type of Celeus squaraatus shows that it is 
referable to this form. 

Rio Salaqui, 1. 



(1760) Campephilus rubricoUis {Bodd.). 
Picus rubricoUis Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, p. 37 (Cayenne). 

A female from La Morelia differs from two from British Guiana in hav- 
ing the outer webs of the inner primaries rufous from a point just beyond 
the primary coverts to their base. A small amount of rufous is therefore visi- 
ble in the closed wing, and the bird thus shows some approach toward C. 
trachelopyrus. 

La Morelia, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 355 

(1762) Campephilus melanoleucus (Gmel.). 

Picus melanoleucos Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 426 (Surinam). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
Florencia, 1; Villavicencio, 1. 

(1763) Campephilus malherbii Gray. 

Campephilus malherbii Gray, Gen. Birds, II, 1845, p. 436, pi. oviii (Bogotd); 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 380 (Naranjo); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 532 (Cauoa; 
Concordia; Remedies); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 137 (Bonda; 
Valparaiso; El Libano; Santa Marta). 

Dryocopus malherbei Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 137 (Turbo).. 

This species is distributed throughout the greater part of Andean Co- 
lombia and while confined chiefly to the Subtropical Zone, ranges from sea- 
level to over 10,000 feet, an exceptionally extended altitudinal distribution. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Dabeiba, 1; Peque, 2; Novita, 1; Noanama, 1; Puerto 
Valdivia, 2; Las Lomitas, 3; San Antonio, 4; Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 
ft.), 1; Miraflores, 3 ; Salento, 1; Turbaco, 2; LaPalma, 1; LaCandela, 1; 
Puerto Berrio, 1. 

(1765) Campephilus ' pollens {Bonap.). 

Picus pollens Bonap., Atti Sest. Riun. Sci. Ital., 1845, p. 406 (Colombia). 
Campephilus pollens Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 532, (Sta. Elena; Frontino). 

Inhabits the Temperate, and upper part of the Subtropical Zones of all 
three ranges. 

Cerro Munchique, 1 ; La Florida, 4; Cocal, 4; Almaguer, 2; Laguneta, 
3; Santa Isabel, 3; El Roble, 1. 

(1768) Cniparchus hsematogaster splendens (Harg.). 

Campophilus splendens Hakg., Ibis, 1889, p. 58 (" Bogota " errore; I suggest 
Puerto Valdivia; Antioquia, Col.). 

Campephilus hoemaiogaster Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 532 (Sta. Elena; Reme- 
dies). 

This race appears to be restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific 
coast eastward through Antioquia, and northward to Veragua. Comparison 
of our series (including twelve skins from eastern Panama) with two speci- 
mens from Peru confirms the characters on which this form is based. A 



356 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

native 'Bogota' female is referable to true hcematogaster, which evidently, 
therefore, extends from Peru up to the Eastern Andes of Colombia. 
Alto Bonito, 2; Barbacoas, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 

(1770o) Ceophloeus lineatus mesorhynchus Cab. & Hein. 

Cleophloeus] mesorhynchus Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein., IV, 1863, p. 86 (Costa 
Rica). 

Dryocopvs lineatus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 380 (Naranjo); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 532 (Sta. Elena). 

Ceophlceus lineatus lineatus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1189, (Noananrf,); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 136 (Minoa; Valparaiso; Santa Marta). 

Found throughout the greater part of the Tropical Zone west of the 
Eastern Andes. Comparison with an adequate series of C. I. lineatus from 
British Guiana, and of C. I. mesorhynchus from Panama and Santa Marta, 
shows that all our specimens belong to the latter form. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Noanama, 1; Cali, 3; La Manuelita, 2; Miraflores, 1; 
Guengiie, 1 ; Puerto Berrio, 1 ; near Honda, 2. 

(1776) Picumnus cinnamomeus Wagl. 

Picumnus cinnamomeus Waql., Isis, 1829, p. 646 (Carthagena); Allen, Bull. 
A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 137 (Bonda). 

Evidently restricted to the arid Tropical Zone of northern Colombia. 
LaPlaya, 1; Varrud, 1. 

(1795) Picumnus squamulatus squamulatus Lafr. 

Picumnus squamulatus Lafr., Rev. et Mag., 1854, p. 208 (Colombia). 

A common species at Buena Vista and Villavieencio, and extending 
westward into the mountains as far as Quetame. 
Buena Vista, 7; Villavieencio, 6; Quetame, 1. 

(1808) Picumnus olivaceus olivaceus Lafr. 

P[icumnus\ olivaceus Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 7 (BogotA); Sol. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 532 (Medellin); Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 305 
(Ibagtie). 

Our fifteen specimens of this form indicate that it occupies the lower 
Cauca and Magdalena Valleys and ranges up the western slope of the 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 357 

Eastern Andes and eastern slope of the Western Andes of the Subtropical 
Zone. The occurrence of this form at Rio Toch^ and El Eden, and of P. 
granadensis at Salento, indicates the faunal affinities of the first^named 
localities with the Magdalena Valley and of the last with the Cauca 
Valley. 

Nine males from the Magdalena Valley have the crown streaked with 
scarlet, but a male from La Frijolera in the Lower Cauca region has the 
crown streaked with cadmium-orange. It thus resembles a male from 
Tacarcuna in eastern Panama, but in other respects these two males and 
also two females from eastern Panama (Tacarcima and Tapaliza) agree 
with P. 0. olvoaceus. 

In the color of the crown-stripes these males agree with P. o. flawtinetus 
of western Panama and Costa Rica, but in the jet blackness of the crown 
the Frijolera specimen resembles olivaceus, while the Panama specimens 
show an approach towaxd fiavotinctus. They are thus intermediate between 
these two races, instead of olivaceus and panamensis of the Canal Zone as 
we should expect. In any event it is important to note that representa- 
tives of olivaceus occur at La Frijolera and at Tacarcuna, while at Peque 
southwest of the first-named locality Picumnus granadensis antioquensis 
occurs. 

La Frijolera, 1 ; El Eden, 1; RioToche, 2; LaCandela, 1; San Agustin, 
3; LaPalma, 1; Chicoral, 2; Honda, 2; 20 miles w. of Honda,' 4; Puerto 
Berrio, 1; Malena, 1. 



(1810) Picumnus olivaceus harterti Hellm. 

Picumnus olivaceus harterti Hellm., Bull. B. O. C, XXIII, 1909, p. 67 (Paramba, 
n. w. Ecuador). 

A specimen from Barbacoas agrees with an essentially topotypical 
series from Esmeraldas southward, in Ecuador, of which five males have 
the crown-stripes cadmium-yellow. In its more olivaceous color and 
streaked under-parts this race is much nearer true olivaceus than to canus, 
its nearest geographical congener. 

It is worthy of note that, as in other cases, the Barbacoas form of this 
species agrees with the one from Ecuador rather than with the one from the 
more northern part of the Colombian coast. 

Barbacoas, 1. 



1 These specimens are included by Ridgway (Bull. 50, VI, p. 305) under "P. o. granadensis.'' 



358 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1809) Picumnus granadensis granadensis Lafr. 

P[icumnus] granadensis Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1847, p. 78 (Cali, Col.). 

Picumnus canus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIII, 1910, p. 72 (Naranjito, 
R. Dagua). 

Picumnus olivaceus granadensis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1189 (Primavera, 5200 
ft., San Isidro; Media Luna, 2700 ft.; San Antonio; Rio Dagua). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast, north of Barbacoas, and 
the Cauca Valley, ranging upward to the Subtropical Zone in the Western 
Andes and western slope of the Central Andes. Represented at the northern 
end of the Western Andes by P. g. antioquensis. The occurrence of the 
olivaceous races {olivaceus, panamensis, harterti) at the east, north, and 
south of the range of this species, the absence of intergrading specimens, 
and its strongly marked characters indicate the specific distinctness of this 
form. Furthermore, its stability is indicated by its occurrence in the humid 
coast region (Cisneros, etc.) and in the comparatively dry Cauca Valley 
(Rio Frio) without apparent change. On the other hand, we have yet to 
find granadensis and one of the three forms mentioned above associated; 
they have, however, been foimd in the same faunal area. Thus, at Bar- 
bacoas we have taken the richly-colored P. olivaceus harterti and at Cisneros 
wholly typical examples of granadensis with whitish, comparatively un- 
streaked underparts and grayish back. If, therefore, granadensis is a 
representative form of olivaceus we should have the palest form occurring 
in what is doubtless the most humid portion of the area concerned. To my 
mind it does not follow that granadensis is a representative form of olivaceus 
merely because it occurs in an area where no other species of Picumnus is 
found which could be so considered. Western Colombia is so often with- 
out forms common to Ecuador and Panama, northern and central Colom- 
bia, that the absence of some form of olivaceus between the ranges of P. o. 
olivaceus and P. o. harterti need not surprise us. 

San Antonio, 1; Rio Frio, 2; Los Cisneros, 2; Gallera, 1. 

(1809a) Picumnus granadensis antioquensis Chapm. 

Picumnus granadensis antioquensis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, 
p. 640 (Peque, W. Andes, Antioquia, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to P. g. granadensis but whole breast grayish, the flanks 
and abdominal region distinctly streaked. Differs conspicuously from all the races 
of P. olivaceus in being less yellow throughout. 

Represents P. g. granadensis in Antioquia. 
Peque, 2; Medellin, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 359 

Okdeb PASSERIFORMES. 
Family HYLACTID^. Tapacolas. 

(1812) Scytalopus niger (Swains.). 
Platyurus niger Swains., Anim. in Menag., 1838, p. 323 (Chile). 

This, the most common species of the genus, is found in all three ranges 
of the Andes where it is restricted in the main, to the Temperate Zone. 
Local conditions bring it down occasionally to the zone below. There is 
some variation in size and intensity of color in our series but it appears to 
be individual, and on the whole our specimens agree with one from Val- 
paraiso, Chile. The juvenal plumage is more or less washed with rusty, 
paler below, and is never as distinctly barred as in S. cinereicollis and S. 
micropterus, the bars, when present, being comparatively obsolete. There 
is no indication of bars in the tail or of white in the crown. 

This widely distributed species has been generally confused with Scyta- 
lopus magellanicus (Gmel.) which, as shown by thirteen specimens recently 
secured by Beck in the Cape Horn region for the Brewster-Sanford collec- 
tion, is a wholly different species.' 

Andes w. of Popayan, 8; Cerro Munchique, 9; Cocal, 3; Almaguer, 4; 
Valle de las Pappas, 3 ; Laguneta, 3 ; Santa Isabel, 2 ; Sta. Elena, 1 ; Fusu- 
gasuga, 1; El Roble, 2; El Pinon, 2. 

(1812a) Scytalopus canus Chapm. 

Scytalopus canus Chapm., Auk, XXXII, 1915, p. 412 (Paramillo, 12,500 ft., 
Western Andes, Col.). 

Char. sp. — With a general resemblance to S. niger (Swains.) ^ but adult grayer 
throughout, the underparts paler than the upperparts, the center of the abdomen 
grayer than surrounding parts; tail shorter, the feathers narrower and softer, their 
barbs, apically, more or less separated; bill shorter, feet and tarsi more slender; 
apparently closely resembhng, and perhaps representing, S. unicolor Salv. of Peru, 
but much smaller, the female of the same color as the male. 

The juvenal plumage is evidently conspicuously barred above and below with 
cinnamon-buff and therefore resembles that of S. griseicollis rather than that of <S. 
niger. 



1 Cf. Menegaux and Hellmayr (Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1905, p. 379) who have ab-eady reached a 
similar conclusion, and also Chapman, Auk, XXXII, 1915, p. 411. 

^ 5. magellanicus auct. plur., nee. Gmel., cxcl. more southern references. 



360 Bulletin American Museum of , Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Miller and Boyle secured an excellent series of ten specimens of this 
species in that elevated region near the northern end of the Western Andes 
known as the ParamUlo.. In general coloration it resembles Myornis senilis 
with which, however, it has no close relation. Although approaching in 
size and superficially resembling Scytalopus niger (Swains.), the more loosely 
constructed rectrices and differences in the color of the young indicate that 
it is not a representative of that species. 

Paramillo, 10. 

(1817) Scytalopus griseicoUis (Lafr.). 

Merul[axis] grisei^collis Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 103 ("Bogotd"; type exam- 
ined). 

Found by us only in the Temperate Zone of the Eastern Andes near 
Bogota. Examination of the type of Lafresnaye's Merulaxis squamiger 
shows it to be based on the juvenal plumage of this species. Mr. Bangs 
sends me, ia addition to the types of griseicoUis and squamiger, a Lafresnaye 
specimen (No. 4854) labelled "Scytalopus erythropterus Lafr." I cannot 
find that this name was published. The bird is a not fully adidt specimen 
of Scytalopus griseicoUis. 

The whitish abdomen, unbarred tawny flanks and rump, and brownish 
tail, distinguish the adult of this species. The juvenal plumage is con- 
spicuously and evenly barred both below and above. 

'Bogota,' 6; EI Roble, (8,000 ft), 1; El Pinon, 2; Chipaque, 1; Tocai- 
mito (above Bogota, 10,500 ft.), 3. 

(1819) Scytalopus sylvestris Tacz. 
Scytalopus sylvestris Tacz., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 138 (Pallaypampa, cen. Peru). 

I refer to this species, of which I have seen no authentic specimens, an 
adult female from the Paramo of Santa Isabel, in the Central Andes. It 
has the forehead grayish, the rest of the upperparts somewhat light mummy- 
brown, the feathers of the back narrowly margined with black; the tail is 
somewhat browner than the back; the underparts are deep neutral gray; 
the flanks, ventral region, and under tail-coverts barred with black and 
ochraceous-tawny. A young male from the same locality is passing from 
juvenal into adult plumage. It resembles the adult but has more barred 
feathers in wings and on the nape, and the three remaining tail-feathers of 
the juvenal plumage are distinctly barred with black and ochraceous-tawny. 

Paramo of Santa Isabel, 2. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 361 

(1822) Scytalopus micropterus micropterus Scl. 

Scytalopus micropterus Scl., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 69 (Napo, Ecuador). 
Scytalopus analis Auot. (not of Lafr. = Triptorhinus paradoxus Kittl.; type 
examined). 

Not uncommon in the denser low growth of the heavy forests of the 
Subtropical Zone of all three ranges and occasionally extending upward to 
the lower border of the Temperate Zone and rarely downward to the Tropi- 
cal Zone. All our twenty-four specimens have the flanks, lower abdomen, 
rump and upper tail-coverts barred with rusty black. The white crown- 
patch appears to be a purely individual character not dependent upon age, 
sex, season or locality. It is well developed in some immature specimens 
and wanting in others, is present or absent in both sexes, and in specimens 
from the same locality. Nine specimens possess it to a greater or less de- 
gree, fifteen are without it. 

On examination of Lafresnaye's type of " Mer [ulaxis] analis" (Rev. 
Zool., 184.0, p. 104) loaned me by Mr. Bangs, I find it to be an adult specimen 
of Triptorhinus paradoxus Kittl., a fact confirming Lafresnaye's belief (Z. c.) 
that his specimen came from "Paraguay ou du Chili." Kittlitz's name has 
nine years priority and Lafresnaye's consequently becomes a pure synonym 
of it. The bird hitherto known as Scytalopus analis (Lafr.) will apparently 
therefore become Scytalopus micropterus Scl., as above. I have seen no 
Napo specimens but our collection contains a Bogota skin labelled by Sclater 
" Agathopu^ micropterus." The generic name he subsequently abandoned. 

Alto Bonito, 2; Las Lomitas, 1; San Antonio, 1; Pavas, 1; Andes w. 
of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 1; Ricaurte, 1; Miraflores, 2; Salento, 3; Lagu- 
neta, 1; El Eden, 2; La Palma, 3; La Candela, 2; Andalueia (3,000 ft.), 
1; 'Bogota,' 2; Buena Vista, 1. 

(1822a) Scytalopus infasciatus Chapm. 

Scytalopus infasciatus Chapm., Auk, XXXII, 1915, p. 414 (Paramo de Beltran, 
9750 ft., near Bogotd). 

Char. sp. — In general color resembling Scytalopus micropterus micropterus Sol. 
but somewhat paler, the tail brownish, the rump and flanks tawny, unbarred as in 
S. griseicollis Lafr., bill black, as in micropterus. 

This species, which further illustrates the apparent exhaustlessness of 
the Bogota region as well as of the genus Scytalopus, is based on a specimen 
presented to the American Museum by Hermano Apolinar Maria, the emi- 
nently efficient Director of the Instituto de la Salle in Bogota. 

Paramo de Beltran, 1; El Roble, 1. 



362 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 



(1815) Myornis senilis (Lafr.). 

Merul[axis] senilis Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 103 ("Bogota"; type examined). 
Myornis senilis Chapm., Auk, XXXII, 1915, p. 410. 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of both the Central and Eastern Andes. 
Laguneta, 1; El Pinon, 1. 



(1836) Acropternis orthonyx (Lafr.). 

Merulaxis orthonyx Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 131 (Colombia). 
Acropterynx orthonyx Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 528 (Sta. Elena). 

Two specimens collected by Allen at Laguneta in the Temperate Zone 
are the only ones secured by our expeditions. They agree with others from 
' Bogota ' and Merida, Venezuela. 

Laguneta, 2. 



Family C0N0P0PHAGID.(E. Gnateatees. 

(1839) Conopophaga aurita (Gmel.). 
Turdus auritus Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1789, p. 827 (Cayenne). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. An adult 
male is considerably smaller than one from British Guiana, has the back 
browner and with fewer black margins, while the breast is paler and the 
abdominal region more suffused with ochraceous. If the differences named 
are constant, the bird from the base of the Andes is deserving of separation. 
An adult female more nearly resembles the Guiana male in the color of the 
parts named. I have no female from Guiana. 

La Morelia, 2; Florencia, 1. 





Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Tarsus 


Culm en 


riorencia. Col. 


9 


64 


30 


25 


14 


La Morelia, Col. 


cf 


64.5 


28 


25 


14 


Eockstone, B. G. 


cf 


70 


30 


28 


14.5 



(1846) Conopophaga castaneiceps castaneiceps Scl. 

Conopophaga castaneiceps Scl., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 47 (Bogotd). 

Not rare in heavy forests of the lower part of the Subtropical Zone in 
the Eastern Andes at the head of the Magdalena, but retiring in habits and 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 363 

difficult to collect. We have also two females from the western slope of the 
Central Andes above the lower Cauca. In color and size of the bill they 
appear to be intermediate between castaneiceps and chocoensis, but in default 
of females of that race for comparison I refer them to castaneiceps. 

LaFrijolera, 2; LaCandela, 4; Andalucia (5000 ft.), 4; Buena Vista, 4. 

(1846a) Conopophaga castaneiceps chocoensis Chapm. 

Conopophaga castaneiceps chocoensis Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, 
p. 641 (Baudo Mts., Choc6, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to C. c. castaneiceps but much darker, wings and tail 
shorter and bill longer; male with back mummy-brown with an olivaceous cast 
instead of deep neutral gray (with an olivaceous wash in immature specimens); 
crown chestnut instead of Sanf ord's brown, this color darker posteriorly but reaching 
as far back as the crown-cap in castaneiceps; underparts dark mouse-gray in place 
of deep neutral gray; the center of the belly whitish the flanks heavily washed with 
olivaceous. 

Apparently nearer C. c. brunneinucha Berl. & Stolz. of Peru, but chestnut 
of crown evidently more extensive and size smaller. Wing, 68; tail, 39; 
tarsus, 29; culmen, 15 mm. 

Known only from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. 

Baudo, 1. 



Family FORMICARIIDiE. Antbihds. 

(1854) Cymbilaimus lineatus lineatus {Leach). 

Lanius lineatus Leach, Zool. Misc., I, 1814, p. 20 (Berbioe, Br. Guiana). 

Two females exhibit the narrow barring of the underparts which 
characterize this form. 

Florencia, 1; La Morelia, 1. 

(1855) Cymbilaimus lineatus fasciatus Ridgw. 

Cymbilanius lineatus fasciatus Ridgw., Proo. U. S. N. M., VI, 1884, p. 404 
(Los Sabalos, Nic); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1157 (Condoto). 

llaniiis lineatus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 524 (Remedies; Nech6). 



Found by us only in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. It is re- 
corded from Remedies and Neche in Antioquia by Sclater, but appears to 
be unknown further east in Colombia. East of the Andes the Amazonian 



364 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

form, C. I. lineatus, occurs. Five males and two females agree with Panama 
specimens. 

Novita, 1; Noanama, 1; Barbacoas, 5. 

(1858) Taraba unduliger (Pelz.). 
Thamnophiliis unduliger Pelz., Orn. Bras., 1869, p. 75 (Maribitanas). 

An adult male appears to be referable to this species of which, however, 
I have seen no authentic specimens. 
La Morelia, 1. 

.) 

(1862) Taraba transandeana transandeana (ScL). 

Thamnophilus iransandeanus ScL., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 18 (Guayaquil); Cass., 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 188 (Turbo). 

Thamnophilus major iransandeaniis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1157 (Guineo, 
Rio Calima; El Tigre, R. Tamand; La Selva, R. Jamaraya, alt. 4600 ft.). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. I find also that two 
males and three females from Rio Frio, in the Cauca Valley, are to be re- 
ferred to this form rather than to granadensis of the Bogota region. The 
males have the lower tail-coverts black tipped with white, and the females 
are fully as dark as specimens from the coast. A male from La Manuel- 
ita, in the Cauca Valley, is less typical, the under tail-coverts being less 
black, their white margins broader, but it may be referred to transandeana 
rather than to granadensis. 

The appearance of characters of humid Pacific coast forms in the speci- 
mens from the comparatively arid Cauca Valley, indicates that the charac- 
ters may have been acquired before the form entered the Valley. 

Alto Bonito, 7; La Vieja, Choco, 1 ; Baudo, 1; San Jose, 3; Barbacoas, 
6; Rio Frio, 5; Palmira, 1. 

(1863) Taraba transandeana granadensis (Cab.). 

Diallactes granadensis Cab., J. f. 0., 1872, p. 234 (Bogotd). 
fThamnophilus iransandeanus Sol. &. Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 524 (Remedies; 
NecM). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Magdalena River and also the eastern 
base of the Eastern Andes. Hellmayr (P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1158) has de- 
scribed the differences distinguishing this race from T. t. transandeana. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 365 

The character of "under tail-coverts cmereous with a white apical edge 
preceded by a distinct blackish subterminal band" holds good for four of 
our five males. In the fifth (from Villaviceneio), the lower tail-coverts do 
not differ materially from those of average Pacific coast males. The bill, 
however, is perceptibly smaller than in true transandeana. 

Two females (Buena Vista, 1 ; Villaviceneio, 1) are less deeply colored 
above than Pacific coast females and show slightly more contrast between 
the tone of the cap and the color of the back. 

Malena, 1; Honda, 2; Buena Vista (alt. 4500 ft.), 2; Villaviceneio, 2. 

(1870) Thamnophilus unicolor (Scl). 

Dysithamnus unicolor ScL., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 141 (Pallatanga, Ecuador) ; Scl. & 
Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 524 (Sta. Elena). 

Found by us locally in the Subtropical Zone of all three Ranges. Four- 
teen females and twenty-two males agree in color with specimens from 
western Ecuador, but in size specimens from the Bogota region average 
slightly larger. 

San Antonio, 11 ; Gallera, 4; Cerro Munchique, 2; Cocal, 2; Ricaurte. 
2; Barro Blanco, 2; LaPalma, 3; Fusugasuga, 5; Aguadita, 2. 

(1882) Thamnophilus nigriceps Scl. 

Thamnophilus nigriceps Scl., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 571; published April, 1869 (New 
Grenada, "Bogota, skin"). 

Thamnophilus virgatus Lawb., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., XX, 1868, p. 361; 
published April 27, 1869 ' (Turbo, e. side Gulf of Darien). 

Inhabits the humid Tropical Zone of northern Colombia from eastern 
Panama to the Magdalena River. Our series of twenty-eight specimens 
shows conclusively that both T. nigriceps and T. virgatus are based on the 
female of a species of which the male is black, and indicates that there is 
but one race instead of two in the area in question. 

Sixteen of our specimens are adult males, nine are females, and three 
are yoimg males in transition plumage from the rufous-backed, black- 

1 1 am indebted to Dr. Bichmond for calling my attention to the fact that the publication of that 
part (No. 6) of the Proceedings in which this description occurs was announced at the meeting of 
the Academy held April 27, 1869. (C/. Proceedings, 1869, p. 13.) The last part of the Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society, according to the covers of the numbers of this volume for 1868, was pub- 
lished in March of the following year. The cover for the third part of this volume, however, bears 
the date "April, 1869." It does not seem probable, however, that the number, due in March, was 
issued Eifter April 27, the date of publication of the description of Lawrence's Thamnophilus virgatus, 
and I therefore accept Sclater's name as, in my opinion, having priority. 



366 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

headed female to the black male. The latter plumage appears not to have 
been described. It is dull, velvety black without trace of white anywhere 
except on the under wing-coverts, which are white terminally margined 
with black, and inner margins of the wing-quills. 

In view of the strikingly different plumage of the female which has been 
believed to be that of the male (though Cassin recorded his two Turbo 
specimens as females) and the comparative rarity of males in transition 
plumage, it' is perhaps not surprising that the male of this species has es- 
caped recognition as such; but it would not be surprising to discover that 
it has been described under a different name, though I have been unable 
to find one. 

Lawrence's type of virgatus, loaned me by Dr. Stone, has the white 
stripes on the crown and below wider than in the figure of Sclater's type (Cat. 
Bds. B. M., XV, pi. xii) and two specimens from the Magdalena River. 
We have, however, an essentially topotypical specimen of virgatus from 
the Atrato River which closely agrees with Magdalena Valley specimens, 
and we have also a specimen from the Magdalena Valley which in the 
width of the stripes agrees with others from eastern Panama. It is my 
belief therefore that but one race of this bird is represented by our series, and 
for that race, as stated above, I consider that Sclater's name has priority. 
In addition to the specimens listed below we have also twelve males and 
three females from eastern Panama (El Real, Tapaliza, etc.). 

Atrato River, 2 d" cf ; Iguamiando, Choco, 1 9 ; Algodonal, Magdalena 
River, 1 9 ; Puerto Berrio, 3 cf cf, 1 9 ; Malena, 2 cfcf , 2 9 9; west of 
Honda, 1 cf . 

(1883) Thamnophilus punctatus punctatus {Shaw). 

Lanius punctatus Shaw, Genl. Zool., VII, 2, 1809, p. 327 (Cayenne). 
Thamnophilus ncevivs Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 161 (Bonda; 
Minca; Cacagualito; Onaca; Santa Marta). 

A pair from Barrigon, east of Villavicencio, agrees with a British Guiana 
series, the female having the well-defined cinnamon-rufous or hazel cap of 
this race. While agreeing with atrinucha in length of wing this form has 
the bill considerably smaller, the average being 17.5 mm. as compared 
with 19.5 mm. in specimens from the Magdalena Valley and Pacific coast. 

Barrigon, 2. 

(1885) Thamnophilus punctatus atrinucha Sdv. & Godm. 

Thamnophilus airinucha Salv. & Godm., Biol. Cent. Am., Aves, II, 1892, p. 200 
(Cen. Am.; Hellmayr "fixes" Panama). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 367 

Thamnophilus nceoius Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. PhOa., 1860, p. 188 (R. Traando); 
ScL. & Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 524 (NecM). 

Thamnophilus nceoius atrinucha Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1158 (San Joaquim; 
Noanamd; N6vita). 

Common throughout the greater part of the Tropical Zone but not 
taken by us in the Cauca Valley. Specimens from the Pacific coast region 
are typical; those from La Frijolera show a slight approach toward the 
Magdalena Valley form which agrees with true atrinucha in size, but has 
the underparts in the male paler than in either atrinucha or punctata. The 
upperparts average less black than in atrinucha, while the female is inter- 
mediate in color; those from the central Magdalena (Honda, etc.) being 
nearer atrinucha, while two from the Santa Marta region approach "punc- 
tata in their more rufescent back and more rufous cap. A third Santa 
Marta female agrees with atrinucha. 

It is probable that on the basis of the characters shown by the male 
which, it will be observed is paler below than either of the races it stands 
between, the Magdalena Valley bird is separable, but I do not consider it 
advisable to name it without a more thorough examination of the entire 
group than my material permits of. This is doubtless the form which 
Hellmayr (Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., XXII, 1906, p. 659) provisionally 
refers to albiventris Tacz. of north Peru. It does not seem probable, how- 
ever, that birds from the Magdalena Valley and Peru are identical, while 
the form occupying the east Bogota region, as shown above, is referable 
to punctata. 

Alto Bonito, 2; Dabeiba, 6; Bagado, 3; Baudo, 2; Novita, 3; Novita 
Trail (3000 ft.), 1; Juntas de Tamana, 1; Noanama, 1; San Jose, 1; Bar- 
bacoas, 7; La Frijolera, 15; Malena, 1; Honda, 4; Chicoral, L 

(1903) Thamnophilus canadensis pulchellus (Cab. & Hein.). 

Hypolophus pulchellus Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein., II, 1859, p. 16 (Cartagena). 
Thamnophilus pulchellus Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 161 (Bonda; 
Cienaga; Santa Marta). 

This bird is apparently restricted to the Caribbsean coastal zone. 
Turbaco (near Cartagena), 3; La Playa, 7; Calamar, 3; Algodonal, 2. 

(1908) Thamnophilus doliatus doliatus (Linn.). 

Lanius doliatus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 136 (Guiana). 

Found only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes. Four males average darker and have less white in the crest than 



368 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

eight males from Trinidad, but the differences are bridged by individual 
variation and this small series confirms Hellmayr's opinion (Nov. ZooL, 
1906, p. 30) that T. d. fraterculus Berl. & Hart, is not separable. 
VUlavicencio, 7. 

(1916) Thamnophilus radiatus albicans La}r. 

Thamnophilus albicans Lapk., Rev. ZooL, 1844, p. 82 ("Colombie"; I suggest 
Honda, alt. 600 ft.). 

We found this form only in the Magdalena Valley. At the eastern 
base of the Eastern Andes it appears to be replaced by T. doliatus. The 
female is not barred below as stated by Sclater (Cat. Bds. B. M., XV, p. 
210) but, as might be expected, closely resembles the female of T. radiatus. 

Chicoral, 3; Honda and vicinity, 7; Puerto Berrio, 3; Malena, 4; 
Nare, 1. 

(1917) Thamnophilus tenuipunctatus Lafr. 

Thamnophilus tenuepuntatus {sic) Lapb., Rev. Zool., 1853, p. 339 ("Anolaima," 
w. slope E. Andes, alt. 4600 ft.). 

I refer to this species three males and two females from Villavicencio. 
The females have the throat striped, the rest of the underparts distinctly 
barred with black and white, the black bars being somewhat narrower, 
the white bars wider than in the male. The upperparts are rufous-chest- 
nut immarked except for a slight extension of the markings of the side of 
the neck on to the nape. They thus resemble the females of multistriatus 
but are more heavily barred with black below. 

Thamnophilus tenuifasciatus Lawr. (Ann. N. Y. Lye, VIII, 1867, p. 
468) based on a male from Napo (Type No. 43396, A. M. N. H.) is synony- 
mized by Sclater (Cat. Bds. B. M. XV, p. 211) with T. multistriatus. It 
has, however, the cap black, unmarked, and is apparently a representative 
of T. tenuipunctatus, from which it differs in being larger (cf , wing, 75 
mm. as compared with 70 mm. in tenuipunctatus) and in having the black 
bars wider and the white ones above less broken, the bands on the tail more 
complete. I have no specimens of T. berlepscM Tacz. of Peru, which 
appears to differ substantially from tenuifasciatus {cf. Tacz. Orn. du Perou, 
II, p. 24). 

(1920) Thamnophilus multistriatus Lafr. 

Thamnophilus multistriatus Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 82 ("Colombia"; I 
suggest Fusugasugd, alt. 6000 ft.); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Ocana); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z.S., 1879, p. 624 (Concordia; MedeUin); Stone, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1899, 
p. 306 ("Antioquia"). 



1917.] Chapman, Distrihution oj Bird-life in Colombia. 369 

This species inhabits mainly the lower parts of the Subtropical Zone 
of all three ranges. I can detect no racial differences in color in our series 
of seventeen males and fourteen females, but specimens from the Magda- 
lena region have the tail longer. 

Los Cisneros, 2; Caldas, 4; La Frijolera, 1; Las Lomitas, 2; San An- 
tonio, 4; Cali, 4; Salencio, 2; Miraflores, 3; Salento, 1; La Candela, 2; 
near San Agustin, 3; Andalucia (3000 ft.), 2; Fusugasuga, 1. 



(1928) Thamnistes sequatorialis Set. 
Thamnistes cBquatorialis Scl., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 380 (Rio Napo). 
Three specimens from La Morelia. 

(1928a) Thamnistes anabatinus intermedius Chapm. 

Thamnistes anabatinus intermedius Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, 
p. 614 (Barbacoas, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to T. a. coronatus Nels., but upperparts, wings and tail 
darker, the crown between russet and argus-brown instead of cinnamon-brown, 
and more distinctly defined from the back, the back with a, russet tinge, the tail 
hazel rather than cinnamon-rufous. 

This form, of which we have now two specimens, is clearly an inter- 
mediate between T. oequatorialis of eastern Ecuador and southeastern 
Colombia, and the quite different T. anabatinus group of Panama to 
Mexico, Being forms of the Tropical Zone the ranges of oequatorialis and 
intermedium are apparently separated by the Andean system, but the near 
relationships of oequatorialis and anabatinus are indicated by the discovery 
of this Colombian race. The specimen from Alto Bonito agrees with the 
type. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Barbacoas, 1. 

(1933) Clytoctantes alixii Elliot. 
Clytoctantes alixii Elliot, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 242, pi. xx (Rio Napo). 

An adult male and female collected by Miller and Boyle at Puerto 
Valdivia, are, so far as I am aware, the first specimens of this rare species 
to be taken by other than native collectors. The male agrees with the type, 
due allowance being made for the somewhat faded condition of the latter. 

Puerto Valdivia, 2. 



370 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

1936. Dysithamnus semicinereus semicinereus Scl. 

Dysithamnus semicinereus Scl., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 90, pi. 97 (Bogotd); Todd, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV, 1916, p. 545 (part; Bogotd; La Candela; near San 
Agustin; Andalucia; Buena Vista). 

Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd (l. c.) has presented us with such a careful study of 
the relationships of the puzzling assemblage of birds forming the Dysithamnus 
mentalis group, that I hesitate to advance conclusions differing somewhat 
from those reached by him after an examination of our specimens. 

Whether we have one or more species in this group, I am not prepared 
to say, and so far as specific relationships are concerned, the names here 
adopted must be considered as tentative. Far more material than is now 
available is required before this exceptionally difficult problem can be 
solved. Meanwhile, I merely attempt to identify our Colombian material, 
using my knowledge of the faunal affinities of certain localities when the 
specimens from them cannot be satisfactorily referred to one form or another. 

The specimens I should refer to the present race (the characters of which 
have been fully described by Mr. Todd) are all from the Subtropical Zone 
of the Eastern Andes, and eastern slope of the Central Andes. Seven 
specimens from Miraflores ( = e. of Palmira) and two from La Frijolera, 
both on the western slope of the Central Andes, referred by Mr. Todd to 
this race, I place respectively under D. s. extremus, and an as yet unnamed 
race of D. mentalis; while a series from the Pacific coast of Ecuador, consid- 
ered by the same author to be semicinereiis , I believe to represent a third 
race distinguished by its smaller size, slight color differences in the adult 
male and pronounced color differences in the female and immature male. 

Buena Vista, 12; La Candela, 5; near San Agustin, 1; Andalucia 
(5000 ft.), 1. 

(1936a) Dysithamnus semicinereus extremus Todd. 

Dysithamnus extremus Todd, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV, 1916, p. 549 (Salencio, 
type; near Jimenez; Pavas; La Maria; San Luis; San Antonio; Las Lomitas; Rio 
Frio; Salento). 

Dysithamnus semicinereus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 525 (Concordia). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes and western slope 
of the Central Andes, descending to the upperpart of the Tropical Zone on 
the western slope of the Western Andes and in the Cauca Valley. 

While adult males of this race can readily be distinguished from semi- 
cinereus, immature males of the two forms, as Mr. Todd il. c, p. 551) has 
remarked, are "not distinguishable in any way. ..." 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 371 

In view of this fact, it does not seem to me to be desirable to follow Mr, 
Todd in referring immature males from east of Palmira (Miraflores) on the 
western slopes of the Central Andes to semicinereus. Study of our Colom- 
bian material shows that when a certain species is represented by different 
forms in the Eastern Andes and Western Andes, specimens from the western, 
or Cauca Valley slope of the Central Andes agree, as indeed might be 
expected, with the form from the Western Andes, while those from the east- 
ern, or Magdalena Valley slope of the Central Andes agree with the East 
Andean form. Indeed, a specimen from Salento, a locality on the western 
slope of the Central Andes which has essentially the same avifauna as 
Miraflores, is typical of cxtremus. Either, therefore, we have to treat ex- 
tremus as a full species which occurs in the same fauna as semicinereus, or as 
a representative, intergrading form. The* specimens at hand unfortunately 
do not afford conclusive evidence of the status of the West Andean bird, but 
all things considered, it seems to me more probable that the Miraflores speci- 
mens are immature examples of cxtremus rather than adults of semicinereus. 

Salencio, 3; Las Lomitas, 7; San Antonio, 7; Rio Frio, 5; Miraflores, 7; 
Salento, 2. 

(19366) Dysithamnus mentalis subsp. 

Dysithamnus semicinereus Todd, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV, 1916, p. 549 (La 
Frijolera specimens only). 

Dysithamnus mentalis lateralis Todd, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV, 1916, p. 541 
(Honda specimens only). 

A fully adult male and a female from La Frijolera, in Antioquia on the 
lower Cauca River, and two females from El Consuelo, above Honda, belong, 
in my opinion, to the same form. The male has the back olive-green clearly 
defined from the plumbeous of the nape and head, and the yellow of the 
abdomen extends well up to the breast. It therefore closely resembles 
specimens of mentalis recently taken by us in the Organ Mountains, west 
of Rio Janeiro. 

The female has the underparts much clearer and stronger yellow than 
any bird in a series of some twenty specimens of semicinereus and cxtremus, 
and in this respect agrees essentially with two females of D. mentalis latera- 
lis Todd, from northeastern Venezuela.- 

The two females from El Consuelo, near Honda, have been referred by ■ 
Mr. Todd to his I), m. lateralis, but there can be no doubt that they belong 
to the same form as the birds from La Frijolera. This, as the male from 
that locality shows, is not lateralis, but is nearer true mentalis. In my 
opinion, these four birds represent an as yet unnamed race, which occupies 
the lower Cauca-Magdalena humid fauna. I should, however, prefer to 



372 BuUetin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVl, 

see more material before committing myself definitely on this subject, but 
I feel that when the range and relationships in Colombia of the forms 
of this group are satisfactorily determined, we shall have one race in the 
Jiumid lower Cauca-Magdalena Fauna of the Tropical Zone, one in the East 
Andean Subtropical Fauna, and a third in the West Andean Subtropical 
Fauna which ranges downward to the upperpart of the Tropical Zone. 
La Frijolera, 2; El Consuelo, above Honda, 2. 

(1943) Dysithamnus puncticeps flemmingi Hart. 

Dysithamnus flemmingi Habt., Bull. B. O. C, XI, 1900, p. 38 (Rio Verde, Ecua- 
dor). 

Three males and three females from Barbacoas are to be referred to 
this form which is obviously a representative of D. p. puncticeps. Of two 
males from central western Colombia, as stated below, one is nearer to 
puncticeps the other to flemmingi. 

Barbacoas, 6. 

(1943a) Dysithamnus puncticeps puncticeps Sah. 
Dysithamnus puncticeps Salv., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 72 (Veragua). 

Ten specimens from the Atrato and upper San Juan are intermediate 
between puncticeps and flemmingi. Some are nearer one, some the other, 
but as a whole, the series is referable to the Panama race. 

Baudo, 1; LaVieja, 1; Novita, 1; Alto Bonito, 6; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 

. (1944) Dysithamnus leucostictus Scl. 

Dysithamnus leucostictus Scl., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 66, pi. cxl, 9 ad. (R. Napo, Ec); 
Tacz. & Berl., Ibid. 1885, p. 99, cf. 

Two .females from Buena Vista agree essentially with Sclater's plate 
and description. Although theSe birds were taken in the heart of the east 
Bogota region, this species does not appear to have been before recorded 
from Colombia. 

Buena Vista, 2. 

(1951) Dysithamnus capitalis capitalis Scl. 

Dysithamnus capitalis Scl., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 65 (Rio Napo). 

Found by us only in Amazonian Colombia. I have no material for 
comparison. As before stated, I have followed Brabourne and Chubb, in 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 373 

their allottment to genera of certain Formicarian birds, pending a thorough 
revision of the groups concerned, based on adequate material of the known 
species. The present species, for example, is obviously not referable to 
Dysithamnus, but in most cases the purposes of this paper, are, in my opinion, 
best served by using the nomenclature of a standard Check-List rather 
than by the expression of individual opinion based on only a partial survey 
of the field. 

La Morelia, 2; Florencia, 1. 

(1953) Dysithamnus ardesiacus ardesiacus Scl. 
Dysithamnus ardesiacus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1867, p. 756 (Rio Napo). 

Found in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. Our specimens 
differ from lower Orinoco and British Guiana specimens of D. a. saturinus 
in the smaller amount of black on the throat of the male. 

La Morelia, 4; Florencia, 3. 

(1959) Thamnomanes glaucus Cab. 

Thamnortianes glaucus Cab., Arch. ftir. Naturg. 1847, p. 230 (Cayenne). 

Found in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. Four males are 
slightly darker than recently collected specimens from British Guiana. 
La Morelia, 5; Florencia, 1. 

(1961) Myrmotherula pygmaea (Gmel.). 

Muscicapa pygm(Ba Gmel., Syst. Nat. I, 1789, p. 933 (Cayenne). 

Myrmotherula pygmma Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 190 (R. Truando) . 

We have specimens of this wide-ranging species from the Tropical Zone 
of the Pacific coast and from Amazonian Colombia. They agree with others 
fronj British Guiana. 

San Jose, 1; Florencia, 1; La Morelia, 1. 

(1963) Myrmotherula surinamensis pacifica Hellm. 

Myrmotherula surinamensis pacifica Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1159 (Type from 
Buenaventura; also specimens from Rio Calima; Sipi; near Naranjo, 2800 ft.). 

Myrmotherula surinamensis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 190 (Turbo); 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 525 (Remedios). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward to the 
Magdalena. Comparison of our specimens from this region with a recently 



374 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

collected series from British Guiana confirm the characters ascribed to it 
by Hellmayr (1. c). 

Alto Bonito, 4; Dabeiba, 7; Quibdo, 2; Novita, 2; Novita Trail (2000 
ft.), 1; Juntas de Tamana, 1 ; Noanama, 3; Buenaventura, 6; Los Cisneros, 
5; Tumaco, 4; Barbacoas, 2; Puerto Valdivia, 3; Malena, 1. 

(1972) Myrmopagis fulviventris (Lain:). 

Myrmotherula fulviventris Lawb., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VII, 1862, p. 468 
(Panama); Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 531 (Naranjo); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 
525 (Remedios). 

Myrmotherula omata Cass., Proo. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 191 (R. Truando). 

Myrmotherula viduata Hart., Nov. Zool., 1898, p. 492 (Cachabi, n. w. Ecuador). 

Myrmotherula fulviventris viduata Hellii., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1162 (El Tigre; 
N6vita; Noanamd). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast, the eastern slope of the 
Western Andes and west slope of the Central Andes. Fifteen specimens 
(6 males, 9 females) from this region agree with eight (6 males, 2 females) 
from Ecuador. Hellmayr {I. c.) has already alluded to this resemblance 
between western Colombia and western Ecuador birds. I am, however, 
unable to separate them from true fulviventris of which I have seen seven 
(3 males, 4 females) Panama specimens, including the type. 

Alto Bonito, 3; Juntas de Tamana, 4; Barbacoas, 3; Puerto Valdivia, 
4; La Frijolera, 1; Miraflores, Cen. Andes, 1 9 ; Salencio, Novita Trail, 
e. slope, 1. 

(1975) Myrmopagis hsematonota (Sri.). 

Formicivora hcematonota Scl., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 48 (Chamicuros). 

An adult male from La Morelia agrees with others from the Orinoco. 

(1977) Myrmopagis omata ornata (Scl). 
Formicivora omata Scl., Rev. Zool., 1853, p. 480. (New Grenada). 

Our four speciniens were taken at Buena Vista at the upper limit of 
the Tropical Zone in the Eastern Andes. They are doubtless topotypical. 
Buena Vista, 4. 

(1984) Myrmopagis axillaris melaena (Scl). 
Formicivora meloena Scl., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 130 (Bogotii). 
'Our specimens from the eastern Andes agree on the whole with a ' Bo- 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. '375 

gota' skin. This form is intermediate between the gray M. a. axillaris of 
Guiana, etc., and the black. ilf. a. albigula (Lawr.) of the Pacific coast. 
Florencia, 6; La MoreHa, 2. 

(1984a) Myrmopagis axillaris albigula (Lawr.). 

.Myrmotherula albigula Lawb., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VIII, 1867, p. 131. 
Types Nos. 43401 and 43402, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., females, Panama R. R. line; 
McLeannan and Galbraith. 

Myrmotherula axillaris mel(ena Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1162 (N6vita). 

Myrmotherula melcena Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 191 (R. Truando) ; 
Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S,, 1879, p. 525 (Nechd). 

Inhabits tlie Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecua- 
dor and extends northward to Honduras and eastward into Antioquia. 

This form is characterized by excessive blackness. In the adult male 
the black areas are shining jet black instead of slate-black as in melaena 
(Scl.). This character is well shown by two Panama males, seven from 
western Colombia and nine from western Ecuador. 

Lawrence's inappropriate name of albigula, based on two females from 
Panama, now in the American Museum, is obviously available for this race. 

Se^'en males from Trinidad represent the extreme of grayness and are 
materially lighter than six males from the Potaro River, British Guiana. 

Alto Bonito, 3; Dabeiba, 1; Baudo, 1; Juntas de Tamana, 1; Novita, 
1; San Jose, 2; Barbacoas, 2; Puerto Valdivia, 1 . 

(1985) Myrmopagis schisticolor schisticolor (Lawr.). 

Formicivora schisticolor Lawb., Ann. Lyo. N. Y., VIII, 1867, p. 172 (Costa Rica). 
Myrmotherula schisticolor schisticolor Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1163 (Rio Siat6). 

Inhabits chiefly the Siibtropical Zone of the Western Andes and western 
slope of the Central Andes ranging southward to southwestern Ecuador 
and northward to Guatemala. 

Alto Bonito, 1; La Frijolera, 3; Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 3; Ri- 
caurte, I; Miraflores, 3. 

(1985a) Myrmopagis schisticolor interior Chapm. 

Myrmopagis schisticolor interior Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, 
p. 614 (Buena Vista, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Male like the male of M. s. schisticolor (Lawr.), female very 
different from the female of that race, the back slate-gray, not brownish or buffy 



376 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

olive, the crown grayer, the tail and wings grayish margined externally with oliva- 
ceous instead of russet; size somewhat larger. 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of the eastern slope of the Central 
Andes and of both slopes of the Eastern Andes in Colombia, and eastward 
through the Tropical Zone to the Orinoco. 

La Palma, 2; La Candela, 4; Aguadita, 1; Buena Vista, 12; La Mo- 
relia, 1. 

(1993a) Myrmopagis cinereiventris pallida {Berl. & Hart.). 

Myrmotherula cinereiventris pallida Bbkl. & Habt., Nov. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 74 
(Nericagua, Ven.) 

Comparison with British Guiana specimens shows that a male from La 
Morelia possesses the characters on which this race is based. 
La Morelia, 1. 

(2006) Herpsilochmus rufomarginatus frater Scl. & Salv. 
Herpsilochmus frater Scl. & Saiv., P. Z. S., 1880, p. 159 (Sarayacu, Ecuador). 
Buena Vista, 1 ad. cf . 

2013 (part) Microrhopias grisea intermedia (Cab.). 

F[ormj,civora] intermedia Cab., Arch, fur Naturg., 1847, I, p. 225 (Cartagena); 
Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Bucaramanga). 

Formicivora grisea Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 190 (Carthagena). 

Microrhopias grisea hondce Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXIII, 1914, p. 616 
(Chicoral, Col.). 

Known from the arid coastal zone at Cartagena and eastward to the 
Magdalena, and up the Magdalena Valley to its head. 

Assuming that our large series (18 males, 29 females) from near Santa 
Marta represented intermedia, I described the Upper Magdalena Valley 
bird as new on the basis of the striking diflference between the females from 
these regions, those from Santa Marta having the breast conspicuously 
streaked with black, while the upper Magdalena female has the imderparts 
whitish more or less washed with bufEy and wholly without spots. 

Now, however. Miller and Boyle send four females and a male from La 
Playa, near the mouth of the Magdalena, which are inseparable from the 
Upper Magdalena birds to which I have applied the name hondce; that is, 
the females are unspotted below, and the male has the tail more narrowly 
tipped with white than in the Santa Marta and Venezuela male. I still 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 377 

lack topotypes of intermedia, but there is small probability of there being 
any difference between La Playa and Cartagena birds. In any event, it 
is far from likely that specimens from Cartagena would resemble those from 
Santa Marta rather than those from the intervening locality of La Playa. 

It is true that Cabanis describes the female of intermedia as having the 
breast spotted, but since he had a specimen or specimens from Venezuela 
as well as Cartagena it is possible he may have described a female from 
Venezuela under the belief that it belonged to the same species as that 
found at Cartagena. However this may be, his name is applicable only 
to the Cartagena form, which in view of our recently acquired specimens 
from La Playa, I believe to belong to the species in which the female has 
no spots on the breast. It therefore most nearly resembles true grisea of 
the Guianas in which the female is more washed with ochraceous-rufous 
below than in intermedia, but, like the latter, is without spots on the un- 
derparts. 

Apparently these two forms are entirely cut off from each other by 
others in which the female is conspicuously spotted below. The Orinoco 
form is orenocensis of Hellmayr, and seems to be specifically distinct. The 
form occupying the Caribbean coast region from Santa Marta to north- 
eastern Venezuela, to which the name intermedia has been commonly ap- 
plied, should apparently bear the name of cano-fumosa Cherrie. I have 
not seen Cherrie's type, but in describing cano-fumosa (Bull. Bklyn. Inst. 
Arts & Sciences, 1909, p. 388) from Las Barrancas on the lower Orinoco, 
this author remarks : " Specimens in the American Museum collection from 
Santa Marta, Colombia, San Antonio and Cumanacoa, Bermudez, Vene- 
zuela, all seem to belong to this form." Hellmayr and Seilern (Archiv. 
fiir Naturg. 1912, p. 126) also share this view, though they fall into the 
common error of using the name intermedia for the species in which the 
female has the breast streaked. 

The specimens in our museum, including thirty-four females of cano- 
fumosa from Bonda, Santa Marta; Puerto Cabello, San Antonio, and 
Cristobal Colon, Venezuela, and six males and six females of orenocensis 
from Maripa on the Orinoco, lead me to believe that these forms are spe- 
cifically distinct from each other and from grisea on the east and intermedia 
on the west. The two latter, although most closely related of any in the 
group, would therefore be separated by a wide area occupied with repre- 
sentative but not intergrading races. The case is an exceptionally interest- 
ing one and deserves a study which neither my time nor material wUl permit 
me to give it. 

La Playa, Icf, 4 9 9 ; Calamar, 2 c? cf ; Honda, 8 cf cf , 4 9 9 ; Chico- 
ral, 5 d^(^,3 9 9. 



378 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(2026) Microrhopias boucardi consobrina (Scl). 

Formicivora consobrina Scl., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 279 (Babahoyo, s. w. Ecuador); 
Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 525 (Pocune). 

Formicivora quixensis Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 190 (R. Truando). 

Formicivora quixensis consobrina Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1163 (Bahia del Choco; 
N6vita; Sipi). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific Coast and Antioquia. Co- 
lombia specimens agree with those from Ecuador and differ from those 
from Panama and northward in the broader white tips to the rectrices and 
deeper color of the female. 

Alto Bonito, 2; Novita, 2; San Jose, 3; Puerto Valdivia, 2. 

(2021) Drymophila caudata caudata (Scl). 

Formicivora caudata Scl., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 254, pi. 74 (Bogotd); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 524 (Sta. Elena). 

Drymophila caudata striaticeps Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 145 
(Salento, Cen. Andes, Col.). 

Found by us in the Subtropical Zone of the Western and Central Andes. 
We did not secure it in the Bogota region. In the absence of topotypical 
specimens I was led to believe, both by Sclater's original description and 
plate {I. c), as well as by his description in the British Museum Catalogue 
(XV, p. 253), in which it is said the "centre of the cap is black," that true 
caudata had the cap black and, consequently, that Santa Marta males, 
in which the cap is black represented this form. Hence the birds from 
western Colombia with a striped crown were described under the name 
striaticeps (I. c). 

HellmajT, however, writes me that the type, as well as other Bogota 
specimens which he has examined, have the crown striped, and are not 
separable from Ecuadorian specimens. It follows, therefore, that striati- 
ceps becomes a synonym of caudata, from which the black-crowned Santa 
Marta bird is separable.^ 

Las Lomitas, 1; Cocal, 3; Gallera, 2; Salento, 2; Sta. Elena, 4; El 
Eden, 1. 

(2036) Terenura callinota {Scl). 

Formicivora callinota Scl., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 89, pi. xcvi ('Bogota,')- 

Two females from Aguadita in the Subtropical Zone above Fusugasuga. 
Aguadita, 2. 



1 Since the above was written the Santa Marta race has been described as Drymophila caudata 
hellmayri Todd (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1915, p. 80). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colomhia. 379 

(2043) Ramphocsenus melanurus trinitatis Less. 
Ramphoccenus trinitatis Less., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 42 (Trinidad). 

A female from Buena Msta agrees with Trinidad specimens. 
Buena Vista, 1. 

(2047a) Ramphocsenus rufiventris griseodorsalis Chapm. 

Ramphoccenus rufiventris griseodorsalis Chapm., Bull. A. M. X. H., XXXI, 1912, 
p. 145 (Miraflores, Col.). 

Ramphoccenus rufiventris Scl. & Salt., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 525 (Sta. Elena). 

Char, subsp. — S imil ar to Ramphoccenus rufiventris rufiventris Bp., but with the 
back slaty smoke-gray, the head less rufous gray, sUghtlj' tinged with cinnamon, 
which is stronger, more ochraceous on the forehead; sides of the head less strongly 
ochraceous-buff; but ochraceous-buff of underparts, particularly of abdomen, 
deeper. 

Known only from the northern end of the AVestern Andes, and Sub- 
tropical Zone of the Central Andes. 

Dabeiba, 1; Miraflores, 1; Salento, 1. 

(204S) Microbates cinereiventris cinereiventris (Sc/. i. 

Ramphoccenus cinereiventris Sex., P. Z. S., 1S55, p. 76, pi. Ixxxvii (Pasto, Col.); 
Ramphoccenus cinereiventris cinereiventris Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1164 (X'dvita; 
Sipi; Rio Colima; Buenaventura). 

Probably restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast of Colom- 
bia. The Antioquian form east of the Western Andes is doubtless J/, c. 
magdalenw. Hellmayr (/. c.) has called attention to the obvious error in 
the alleged type-locality. It is probable that Pasto, whence the type is 
said to ha^•e come, is, in a limited way, the ' Bogota' of southern Colombia. 
In other words, as the commercial center of that part of Colombia, it is the 
shipping point for the products of the surrounding country. Consequently 
the specimens recorded below from Barbacoas on the trail from the coast 
to Pasto, may doubtless be considered as topotypical. 

Alto Bonito, 1; Juntas de Tamana, 2; Xovita, 1; Buenaventura, 1; 
San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 4; Buenavista, Xarino, 1. 

(2048a) Microbates cinereiventris magdalense Chapm. 

Microbates cinereiventris magdalence Chapm., BuU. A. ^I. X'. H., XXXIV, 1915, 
p. 642 (Puerto Berrio, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Differing from both .V. c. cinereiventris and M. t. torquatus in 



380 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

having the tail tipped with whitish, the color both above and -below paler, the tail 
and particularly bUl, longer; differs from cinereiventris, its nearest geographic ally, 
and agrees with torquatus in having no postocular spot. Wing, 55; tail, 30; tarsus, 
24; culmen, 21.5 mm. 

Known only from the type-locality in the Magdalena Valley. 

(2049) Microbates coUaris {Pelz.). 
Rham-phocaenus collaris Pelz., Orn. Bras., 1869, p. 84 (Marabitanas). 

A female from Florencia adds this species to the avifauna of Colombia. 
Florencia, 1. 

(2051) Cercomacra sclateri Hellm. 

Cercomacra sclateri Hellm., Nov. Zool., 1905, p. 288 (Chyavetas, e. Peru). 

I refer to this species, of which I have seen no authentic specimens, a 
pair of birds from Florencia and a male from an altitude of 2000 ft., on the 
mountain slopes above Florencia. 

Florencia, 3. 

(2053) Cercomacra tyrannina tyrannina {Scl.). 

Pyriglena tyrannina Sol., P. Z. S., 1855, pi. xcviii, p. 90 (Bogotd). 
Cercomacra tyrannina rufiventris Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1165 (Boca de Calima; 
Rio Calima; N6vita; Pueblo Rico). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the greater part of Colombia. 

After a study of some thirty-four males and thirty-four females, in- 
cluding topotypical series of tyrannina and crepera, I follow Ridgway (Bull. 
U. S. N. M., 50, V, p. 95) in referring central and eastern Panama and Co- 
lombian specimens to tyrannina. Cauca Valley specimens agree exactly 
with those from the Bogota region, but males from southwestern Colombia 
and western Ecuador average darker than true tyrannina but, on the whole, 
are nearer to that form than to the blacker crepera. Females from Panama, 
southwestern Colombia, and western Ecuador agree in the color of the 
imderparts and average deeper rufous than tyrannina but not so deep as 
crepera. Above, however, they agree with the former rather than the 
latter, crepera having the back and particularly tail, often with a rufescent 
suffusion wanting in tyrannina. 

Barbacoas, 1 male, 3 females; Puerto Valdivia, 5; La Frijolera, 3; 
Salencio, 1 male; Rio Frio, 1 male; Miraflores, 2 males; near Honda, 1 
female; Buena Vista, 6 males, 3 females; Villavicencio, 3 males, 2 females. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 381 

(2058) Cercomacra nigricans Scl. 

Cercomacra nigricans Scl., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 245 (Santa Marta) ; Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 526 (Remedios); Hellmayr, Ibid., 1911, p. 1166, (mouth of Calima, 
Rio San Juan). 

Apparently inhabits the entire Tropical Zone of Colombia except the 
arid coastal region from which it was described. Immature birds of both 
sexes are slaty-gray washed with olivaceous above with a concealed white 
dorsal patch; less olivaceous below with the throat and center of the breast 
and abdomen streaked and margined with white. The adult female is 
clearer and darker slate above, the underparts are much blacker and the 
white markings are confined mainly to the throat. The adult male is jet 
black above and below with no white marks on the body other than the' 
dorsal patch. 

Cali, 2; Rio Frio, 3; Algodonal (lowerMagdalena), 2; Banco, 1; Nare, 
1; Puerto Berrio, 3; Malena, 5; Honda, 4; Chicoral, 2; Buena Vista, 1; 
Villavicencio, 3. 

(2061) Cercomacra berlepschi {Hart.). 

Pyriglena berlepschi Hart., BuU. B. O. C, VII, 1898, p. xxix (c? ad. Caohabi, 
n. w. Ecuador). 

Thamnophilus cachabiensis Haht., I. c, p. xxix ( 9 Caohabi, n. w. Ecuador). 
Cercomacra berlepschi Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1167 (near Sipi, San Joaquim). 

Apparently restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Of 
our ten specimens six sexed as "male," are wholly black, save for the con- 
cealed dorsal patch, while the four sexed as "female" have also the throat 
and breast and, to a lesser degree, the wing-coverts spotted with white. 

Bagado, 1; Baudo, 1; No vita, 1; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 5; Buena- 
vista, Narino, 1. 

(2063a) Pyriglena picea Cah. 

Pyriglena picea Cab., Arch, fiir Naturg., XIII, 1847 (pt. 1), p. 212. 

We have taken this species only at the head of the Magdalena Valley, 
Our specimens agree with one from Bolivia. 
La Candela, 12; Anolaima (3000-5000 ft.), 4. 

(2071) Anoplops bicolor sequatorialis {Hellm.). 

Pithys bicolor cequatorialis Hellm., Orn. Monats., X, 1902, p. 33 (Lita, n. w. 
Ecuador). 



382 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Six specimens from southwestern Colombia are typical of this Ecua- 
dorian form (compared with 16 specimens from Ecuador) and in their 
bright rufous crown show no indication of intergrading with A. h. daguce. 

Barbacoas, 5; Buena vista, Narino, 1. 

(2072) Anoplops bicolor daguse (Hellm.). 

Gymnopitkys bicolor daguce Hellm., Bull. B. O. C, XVI, 1908, p. 83 (near Buena- 
ventura, Col.). 

Anoplops bicolor daguce Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1170 (N6vita; Juntas de Ta- 
mand,). 

Restricted to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and thus far known 
only from Buenaventura northward to the head of the Atrato. Speci- 
mens from Barbacoas, as above recorded, are typical of aequatorialis, while 
those from the lower Atrato are referable to A. b. bicolor. 

Bagado, 1; La Vieja, 1; Baudo, 1; Novita, 4; Noanama, 1. 

(2072a) Anoplops bicolor bicolor (Lawr.). 

Pithys bicolor Lawr., Ann. Lyo. N. H. N. Y., VII, 1862, p. 484 (Lion Hill, Pana- 
ma). 

Specimens from both sides of the lower Atrato, in comparison with 
Lawrence's type, are clearly referable to bicolor rather than to daguce. No 
less than three well-marked forms of this species are therefore found in the 
Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Their characters are clearly defined 
by Hellmayr (P. Z. S. 1911, p. 1171). 

Rio Salaqui, 1; Alto Bonito, 3. 

(2084) Myrmeciza melanoceps (Spix). 

Thamnophilus melanoceps Spix, Av. Bras., II, 1825, p. 28, pi. xxxix, fig. 1 
("in Sylvis Parte"). 

Three males and three females from Amazonian Colombia agree with 
descriptions of this species, of which I have seen no authentic specimens. 
The species appears not to have been previously recorded from Colombia. 

Florencia, 5; La Morelia, 1. 

(2091) Myrmeciza maculifer maculifer (Hellm.). 

Myrmelastes exsul maculifer He^llm., Nov. ZooL, XIII, 1906, p. 340 (Paramba, 
n. w. Ecuador); P. Z. S. 1911, p. 1169 (Sipi; Rio Cajon; N6vita; Noanamd). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribviion of Bird-life in Colombia. 383 

This appears to be a very common bird in the humid Tropical Zone of 
the Pacific coast of Ecuador and Colombia from at least Naranjo, Prov. 
Guayas, north* to B.agado at the head of the Atrato. Further north, both 
males and females are paler below and less rufescent above than Ecuador 
specimens, and thus establish the validity of Myrmeciza maculifer cassini 
(see also remarks under that race). 

While Myrmelastes cxsul, of the Canal Zone and northward, is obviously 
the representative of maculifer, existing material (including a large series 
from eastern Panama) indicates the non-intergradation of these birds, and 
this view is supported by the fact that M. m. cassini, the most northern 
form of maculifer is, in general coloration, further from fxsul than is true 
maculifer of Ecuador. Of the latter form I have twenty specimens (15 males , 
5 females) from Ecuador. 

Bagado, 1; Baudo, 1; Novita, 6; Juntas de Tamana, 7; San Jose, 4; 
Los Cisneros, 6; Barbacoas, 6; Buenavista, Nariiio, 1. 

(2091a) Myrmeciza maculifer cassini (Ridgiv.). 

cassini Ridgw., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXI, 1908, p. 194 (Turbo, 



Col.). 

Myrmeciza exsul Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 190 (Turbo); Scl. & 
Salv., P.'z. S. 1879, p. 526 (Nech^). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the lower Atrato eastward through Antio- 
quia to the Magdalena and northward to eastern Panama. 

With a large series (sixty-six males, twenty-eight females) before me 
I find no difficulty in separating birds from western Ecuador and south- 
western Colombia (Barbacoas) from those from the northern end of the 
range of this species (Puerto Valdivia and Rio Salaqui, Col., El Real and 
Tapaliza, eastern Panama). The latter are decidedly paler; the male 
has the back and flanks more olivaceous less intensely rufescent, the head 
and underparts paler gray, the throat less blackish and usually clearly de- 
marked from the gray breast. The difPerences in the female are similar 
in character but are less pronounced. 

Intergradation between these extremes is absolute and intermediate 
specimens occur in so large a part of the intervening area, that it is wholly 
impossible to assign definite geographic boundaries to the range of either 
form. Specimens fairly topotypical of maculifer and others which might 
with equal truth be referred to cassini are found at the same locality, but, 
on the whole, the former may be said to be the prevailing form as far north 
as the upper Atrato, while beyond this cassini occurs. 

Our eastern Panama specimens show no sign of intergradation with M. 
exsul exsul of the Canal Zone and westward. 



384 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Rio Salaqui, 2; Alto Bonito, 9; Dabeiba, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 7; Ma- 
lena, 1. 

(20916) Myrmeciza immaculatus immaculatus (Lafr.). 
T[hamnophilus] immaculatus Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 340, (Bogota). 

Found by us in the Tropical Zone of the Magdalena Valley, at Mira- 
flores, above Palmira in the Central Andes and at La Frijolera on the 
lower Cauca. Two females from the last-named locality are typical of 
immaculatus while three males from Alto Bonito on the western slope of 
the same range are referable to berlepscM. It may be distinguished from 
the Pacific coast race (ilf . i. berlepscM) by the comparatively small amount 
of white in the lesser wing-coverts of both sexes and by the duller, grayer 
underparts of the females. 

La Frijolera, 2; Miraflores, 1 ad. $ ; Fusugasuga, 1; Honda, 3; El 
Consuelo (above Honda, 3200 ft.), 3. 

(2091c) Myrmeciza immaculatus berlepschi Ridgw. 

Myrmeciza berlepschi Ridgw., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXII, 1909, p. 74 (Chimbo, 
w. Ecuador); Bangs, Ibid. 1910, p. 73 (Palmar; Paras; La Maria, Col.) 

Myrmelastes immaculatus immaculatus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1168 (Pueblo 
Rico; Primavera). 

Comparison of fourteen males, and eleven females from the Pacific 
Tropical Zone of Colombia with four males and seven females from western 
Ecuador (Rio d'Oro, Naranjo, Santa Rosa) shows that birds from western 
Colombia and western Ecuador agree. From true immaculatus they may 
be distinguished by the larger amount of white in the lesser coverts and by 
the deeper, more richly colored underparts of the female. M. i. zeledoni of 
Costa Rica, of which I have only a pair of adults, appears to agree with 
immaculatus in the amount of white in the lesser coverts, but in the colora- 
tion of the underparts of the female, it resembles berlepschi. 

Alto Bonito, 3; Bagado, 1; Baudo, 2; Novita, 5; Novita Trail (3500 
ft.), 1; Salencio, 1; San Jose, 5; Las Lomitas, 1; Barbacoas, 6; Buena- 
vista, Nariiio, 1. 

(2107) Myrmeciza longipes boucardi Berl. 

Myrmeciza boucardi Bebl., Ibis, 1888, p. 129 (Bogotd). 

This race appears to be restricted to the Tropical Zone of the upper 
Magdalena Valley. The males have the crown and nape with little or no 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia 385 

rufous and are thereby easily distinguished from M. I. yanamensis, which 
extends from the Caribbean coast of Colombia at least as far up the Mag- 
dalena as Algodonal. 

Vicinity of Honda, 9; El Consuelo (alt. 3300 ft.) above Honda, 1; 
Chicoral, 1; Andalucia (5000 ft.), 1. 

(2107a) Myrmeciza longipes panamensis Ridgw. 

Myrmedza houcardi 'panamensis Ridqw., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXI, 1908, p. 
144 (line Panama R. R.). 

Myrmeciza houcardi Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 160 (Bonda; 
Cacagualito). 

The capture of a typical male of this form at Algodonal on the Magda- 
lena River is especially interesting as indicating how far up the river the 
coastal fauna extends. 

Algodonal, I. 

(2108) Myrmeciza Isemosticta nigricauda Sah. & Godm. 

Myrmeciza nigricauda Salv. & Godm., Biol. Cent. Am., II, 1892, p. 230 (Intac, 
Ecuador). 

An evidently not common inhabitant of the Tropical Zone of the Pacific 
coast which, in slightly modified form, extends in to Antioquia. The Buena- 
vista, Narino, female may be considered as topotypical, and two females 
from San Jose essentially agree with it. A female from Puerto Valdivia 
has -the marks on the throat whiter and, with three males from the same 
locality, the tail more rufous. These four birds thus approach specimens 
from eastern Panama. I have, however, seen no authentic specimens of 
Icemosticta, and if the eastern Panama specimens should prove to repre- 
sent an undescribed form, doubtless it would be desirable to refer the Puerto 
Valdivia specimens to it rather than to nigricauda. 

San Jose, 2; Buenavista, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 4. 

(2092) Gymnocichla nudiceps sanctse-martae Ridgw. 

Gymnocichla nudiceps sanctce-martce Ridgw., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1908, p. 194 
(Santa Marta). 

A female from Nare, near Puerto Berrio on the Magdalena, is doubt- 
less to be referred to this form. It is decidedly less rufescent, more oli- 
vaceous above than a Panama fepiale. 

Nare, 1. 



386 BulUlin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(2104) Dichrozona cinctus {Pelz.). 

Cyphorhinus cinctus Pelz., Orn. Bras., 1868, p. 47 (S. Joaquim, Borba). 
Dichrozona zononota Ridg., Proc. U. S. N. M., X, 1887, p. 524 (Santarem, 
Brazil; type examined). 

A pair from Florencia and a female. from La Morelia add this species 
to the fauna of Colombia. The male agrees with the type of Dichrozona 
zononota Ridgw. of Santarem, but is much deeper above (cinnamon-brown 
rather than dark ochraceous-tawny or buckthorn-brown), the flanks are 
grayer and the breast less heavily spotted. The females have the crown 
and back essentially the same shade as the male and are consequently also 
darker above than the Santarem bird. 

Florencia, 2; La Morelia, 1. 

(2121) Hypocnemis cantator peruviana Tacz. 
Hypocnemis peruvianus Tacz., Orn. Perou, II, 1884, p. 61 (Chamicuros, Peru). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. I have no Peru- 
vian specimens but our birds are much nearer six specimens from Zamora, 
southeastern Ecuador, than they are to twenty-three recently collected 
examples from the Potaro River, British Guiana. The difference is particu- 
larly marked in the females, true cantator apparently never having pro- 
nounced dorsal stripes in this sex, while the female of peruviana (as it is 
represented by our Colombian and Ecuadorian series) is never without them. 
The same comment holds good of our males of peruviana, but several of the 
Guiana birds show well-marked dorsal streaks. 

La Morelia, 4. 

(2124) Hypocnemis hypoxantha Scl. 
Hypocnemis hypoxantha Scl., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 573, pi. xUii (Upper Amazons). 

A female from La Morelia agrees with Sclater's plate of this species 
(P. Z. S., 1868, pi. xliii) which appears not to have been previously recorded 
from Colombia. 

La Morelia, 1. 

(2129) Myrmoborus leucophrys leucophrys {Tsch.). 

Pithys leucophrys Tsch., Fauna Peruana, 1845, 6, p. 176, pi. xi, fig. 2 ("Pluss 
Tullumayo"). 



1917.] Chapman, Disiribuiion of Bird-life in Colombia. 387 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
There is much variation in the width of the frontal band of the male and 
in the intensity of color in the female, but on the whole I can see no racial 
differences in our series of thirty-five specimens, including examples from 
Bolivia, eastern Ecuador, and the upper and lower Orinoco. A specimen 
from the delta of the Orinoco has the frontal band narrow, but no narrower 
than in one from Villavicencio. I have seen no British Guiana specimens. 

Buena Vista, 5; Villavicencio, 7; La Morelia, 3. 

(2131a) Myrmoborus myiotherinus elegans (Scl.). 
Hypocnemis elegans Sol., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 47 (Bogotd,). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. Our 
females agree with an old 'Bogota' skin. I have seen no topotypical speci- 
mens of M. TO. myiotherinus. 

La Morelia, 4; Florencia, 4. 

2128. Hylophylax lepidonata {Scl. & Salv.). 
Hypocnemis lepidonota Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1880, p. 160 (Sarayacu). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. One of our two 
females is brighter, the other agrees with two essentially topotypical fe- 
males from Zamora, Ecuador. 

La Morelia, 3. 

(2143) Hylophylax naevia theresse (Des Murs). 

Conopophaga theresoe Dbs Murs, Voy. Cast., Ois., 1855, p. 51, pi. xvi, fig. 2 (Rio 
Javari). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Colombia. Two 
males differ from two others from La Union on the Lower Orinoco, in having 
the head grayer, the lores black, instead of white, and the throat sohd 
black instead of white or black marked with white. 

La Morelia, 7. 

(2146) Hylophylax nsevioides (Lafr.). 

Conopophaga ncevioides Lapr., Rev. Zool., 1847, p. 69 (no locality; HeUmayr 
proposes Panama). 

Hypocnemis ncevioides Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 190 (Falls of Tru- 
ando); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1167 (Condoto; Guineo; Calima). 



388 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and eastward to the 
Magdalena. Our Pacific coast specimens agree with others from Panama 
which Hellmayr (/. c.) fixes as the type-locaUty, but a female from the 
Magdalena Valley (Malena) is much paler below than any one of eight 
females from Panama and western Colombia. 

Baudo, 1; Upper Atrato, 1; Barbacoas, 6; Malena, 1. 

(2150) Phsenostictus macleannani macleannani (Lawr.). 

Phlegopsis macleannani Lawb., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VII, 1862, p. 285 (Pan- 
ama). 

Found at one station in the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast and also 
on the lower Cauca. The Puerto Valdivia specimen agrees essentially 
with the type and other Panama specimens. Those from Barbacoas have 
a less well-defined, unspotted, chestnut-rufous area posterior to the breast. 

Puerto Valdivia, 1; Barbacoas, 2. 

(2152a) Rhopoterpe torquata torquata (Bodd.). 
Formicarius torquaius Bodd., Table PI. Enl., p. 43 (Cayenne). 

A pair from the Amazonian Tropical Zone adds this species to the known 
avifauna of Colombia. The male differs from two lower Orinoco (Suapure) 
males in having the breast and abdomen centrally barred with black, the 
female differs from a lower Orinoco female in having the hazel-brown throat 
area more restricted and less definitely bordered by a black line. These 
differences may be racial but the material at hand is not, in my opinion, 
conclusive (see Cherrie, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV, 1916, p. 185). Rhopo- 
terpe torquata tragicus Cherrie {I. c.) based on a female from the Rio Roosevelt 
appears to differ from torquata chiefly in its wider and more extensive white 
wing-bar. 

La Morelia, 2. 

(2155a) Formicarius colma nigrifrons Gould. 

Formicarius nigrifrons Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H., Ser. 2, XV, 1855, p. 344 (Chami- 
curos, e. Peru). 

Four specimens were secured in the Tropical Zone of Amazonian Co- 
lombia. Three have the forehead black while in the third (immature?) 
it is rufous of the same color as the back. All four specimens may be easily 
distinguished from any one of twelve specimens of colma from the lower 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 389 

Orinoco (La Union), British Guiana and Cayenne by the greater inten- 
sity and greater extent of the black of the underparts, and their much 
darker ventral, region and under tail-coverts. They also have the tail 
broadly black terminally and raw umber basally, while in most specimens 
of eolma it is more olivaceous basally and more narrowly tipped with black. 

The material at my command, therefore, indicates the validity of a 
black-bellied form for which the name nigrifrons Gould is probably available. 
(Consult, however, Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., XIV, 1907, p. 390.) 

Formicarius nigrifrons glaucoptera Ridgw. (Proc. U. S. N. M., XVI, 
1893, p. 673), the type of which, from British Guiana, is in the American 
Museum (No. 43536) is apparently not separable from F. c. coIma. 

La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 1. 

(2156o) Formicarius analis connectens Chapm. 

Formicarius analis connectens Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 173 
(Villavicencio, Colombia). 

Char, subsp. — Most nearly related to F. a. saturatus Ridgw., but cinnamon at 
the sides of the throat wholly absent or but faintly indicated; upperparts less rufes- 
cent, more olivaceous, breast slightly darker, throat-patch less sharply defined, 
size smaller, cf, wing 86; tail, 52; tarsus, 31.5; culmen, 18 mm. 

This well-marked race is known only from the Tropical Zone at the 
base of the Eastern Andes. Specimens from La Morelia are somewhat 
darker above than those from Villavicencio. 

La Morelia, 3; Villavicencio, 3. 

(2157) Formicarius nigricapillus destructus Hart. 

Formicarius destructus Haet., Nov. Zool., V, 1898, p. 493, (Paramba, n. w. 
Ecuador). 

Formicarius analis destructus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1173 (N6vita). 

A female from San Jose is duller than the type of F. n. nigricapillus and 
can be matched by several of our fourteen Ecuadorian specimens of des- 
tructus. The occurrence of nigricapillus and a second form of this group 
{"Formicarius umhrosus" Ridgw.) in the same zone (Caribbsean Tropical) 
in Costa Rica indicates their specific distinctness. Ridgway (Bull. 50, V, 
p. 118) evidently holds this view but ranks nigricapillus as a subspecies of 
analis, while umhrosv^ with allied forms is placed under F. moniliger as 
Formicarius moniliger umhrosus. To my mind, however, the derivative re- 
lationships of umhrosus are with analis, while nigricapillus and destructus, 
its closely allied representatives in the Tropical Zone of western Colombia 



390 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

and western Ecuiador, form a small and distinct group, distinguished mainly 
by its jet black head, wholly black or blackish, not basally olive-brown, 
black-tipped, tail, etc. It is probable that both have a common origin bdt 
one appears to have entered Central America from the east, the other from 
the south. The discovery of a form {Formicarius analis cohnectens) at 
the foot of the Eastern Andes in Colombia, to some extent bridges the gap 
between the Bolivian analis and the northern saturatus. We have also a 
specimen from Zamora in southeastern Ecuador which in the blackness of 
its tail and breast approaches destructus; the head, however, is olivaceous 
and the upperparts, while somewhat darker, are more as in connectens. 
This specimen suggests the specific identity of the entire group, but the 
impossibility of this Tropical Zone bird's crossing the Andes and the con- 
sequent isolation of the black-headed type, together with the occurrence 
of this type and another representative of the group in the same faunal 
region, indicates their specific distinctness. 
San Jose, 1. 

(2159) Formicarius analis saturatus Ridgw. 

Formicarius saturatus Ridgw., Proc. U. S. N. M., 1893, p. 677 (Trinidad). 
Formicarius hoffmanni Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 526 (Remedios). 

Occurs in the Atrato, Cauca, and Magdalena Valleys. Our specimens 
agree with eleven from Trinidad but have the under tail-coverts slightly 
deeper, while the white loral spot, present in all the Trinidad birds, is ab- 
sent in four of the Colombian specimens and barely distinguishable in the 
other five. 

Upper Atrato, 1 ; Puerto Valdivia, 2 ; Rio Frio, 1 ; Malena, 3 ; Puerto 
Berrio, 2. 

(2160a) Formicarius rufipectus carrikeri Chapm. 

Formicarius rufipectus carrikeri Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 146 
(San Antonio, Col.). 

Formicarius rufipectus rufipectus Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1174 (Pueblo Rico). 

Char, svbsp. — Similar to Formicarius rufipectus rufipectus Salv., but back, sides 
and flanks pronouncedly grayer; wings somewhat grayer, breast paler, averaging 
nearer orange-rufous than chestnut, as in rufipectus, the center of the abdotrun 
much paler, ochraeeous rather than chestnut. 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of the Western and Central Andt.'s. 
La Frijolera, 1; Salencio (Novita Trail), 1; San Antonio, 3; Andes w. 
of Popayan (alt. 10340 ft.), 1; Miraflores, 6; Salento, 1. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 391 

(2164) Ohamseza brevicauda columbiana Berl. & Stolz. 

Chamcem columbiana Berl. & Stolz., P. Z. S., 1896, p. 385 (BogoU). (= Cha- 
mceza bogotensis Auct. nomen nudum). 

This appears to be a species of the Tropical Zone. It was common in 
the heavy forests at Buena Vista, but was not found at Villavicencio at 
the base of the Andes, doubtless because of the lack of suitable haunts. 
In the primeval forests about La Morelia (alt. 600 ft.), however, it was 
represented by a form which I provisionally refer to C h. nobilis. 

The striking difference in the song of this species and that of C. turdina 
has been well described by Fuertes (Bird-Lore, 1914, p. 180). 

Buena Vista, 9. 

(2167) Chamaeza brevicauda (nobilis ?) Gould. 

Chamceza nobilis Gould, Ann. & Mag. N. H., Ser. 2, XV, 1855, p. 344 (Chami- 
curos, Peru). 

Three specimens from La Morelia appear to represent this form of 
which, however, I have no specimens for comparison. They have the tail 
tipped with white rather than with " pale fulvous " and may be separable, 
but I hesitate to take this step without direct comparison with authentic 
specimens of nobilis. 

La Morelia, 3. 



(2169) Chamaeza turdina Cab. & Hein. 
Chamceza turdina Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein., II, 1859, p. 6 (Bogota). 

Probably not uncommon in the upper part of the Subtropical Zone of 
the Central and Eastern Andes, where the density of the vegetation and 
the bird's elusive habits make it exceedingly difficult to secure specimens. 
We did not see or hear this species in the vicinity of Bogota, but in the 
Central Andes above Miraflores at an altitude of 8000 feet, its singular, 
prolonged whistle was not infrequently heard and Fuertes secured one 
specimen. Two others were taken by Miller, one at La Palma, the other 
at Andalucia (alt. 7000 ft.) on the crest of the Eastern Andes. The latter 
specimen being from the range from which the type was secured is probably 
typical of the species. It agrees closely with the Miraflores bird, but the 
La Palma specimen is more olivaceous above; probably an individual 
variation. 

From C. brevicauda this species is readily distinguished by the absence 



392 Bulletin American Mttseum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

of the subterminal black tail-tip and by other characters as has been shown 
by Hellmayr (Archiv. fur Naturg., 1912, p. 133). 

Miraflores, 1; La Palma, 1; Andalucia, (7000 ft.) 1. 

(2171) Chamseza moUissima Scl. 
ChamcEza molissima Scl., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 89, pi. 95 (Bogota). 

Found by us only in the Temperate Zone of the Central Andes. Speci- 
mens from Laguneta are larger than the type (wing, cf, 90; 9 , 85 mm.) and 
more narrowly barred below than Sclater's figure of it. An Almaguer speci- 
men is decidedly more ruf escent above approaching in this respect a specimen 
from " Ambato," Ecuador. I have seen no topotypical specimens. 

Almaguer, 1; Laguneta, 2. 

(2173) Pittasoma rosenbergi Hellm. 

Pittasoma rosenbergi Hellm., Rev. Franc. d'Orn., II, 1911, p. 51; P. Z. S., 1911, 
p. 1175 (Rio Sipi, 150ft., w. Col.). 

Of this interesting bird, hitherto known only from the male type, we 
have two adult males and one adult and one immature female, all from the 
low Pacific coast region to which the species appears to be restricted. The 
males agree with Hellmayr's {I. c.) description. 

The adult female differs from the male mainly in having the broad, 
black superciliary striped with white. The belly is more fulvous but this 
feature appears to be individual rather than sexual since it is not shown by 
the immature female. In that specimen the superciliary is barely evident, 
this part of the head being much like the crown which is dull chestnut 
bordered with blackish. The tips to the coverts are ochraceous, of the 
color of the throat; the belly has a slight ochraceous tinge but is by no 
means so deeply colored as in the adult female. A few soft downy, black- 
ish feathers of the juvenal plumage are on the flanks. The ingrowing 
whitish feathers at the sides of the -abdomen exhibit a faint but unmis- 
takable trace of cross-bars, and this character is present but in an even 
fainter degree on the remaining three specimens. 

Baudo (3500 ft.), 1; Novita, 2; Noanama, 1. 

(2173a) Pittasoma harterti sp. nov. 

Char. sp. — Most nearly related to Pittasoma rufopileatum Hart, and P. rosenbergi 
Hellm., but male with the entire underparts ochraceous-orange; the superciliary 
stripe in the female ochraceous-ordnge and black. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution 0/ Bird-life in Colombia. 393 

Type. — No. 117,876, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, cf ad. Barbacoas, Nariiio, Colombia, 
August 25, 1912; W. B. Richardson. 

Description 0/ Male. — (Four specimens). Crown and nape bright rufous-chest- 
nut slightly paler laterally; lores and a broad superciliary extending to the nape 
black; back Hght brownish olive, sUghtly browner than in P. rosenbergi, the feathers 
widely margined with black; rump browner, unstriped; the feathers much elongated 
and 'fluffy'; tail raw umber; wing-quills black margined externally with Brussels- 
brown, this color increasing in extent inwardly and occupying the entire outer web 
of the inner secondaries and both webs of the tertials which have a rounded buff y 
terminal shaft-spot, and a slightly blackish edging; primary coverts blackish, un- 
marked; remaining wing-coverts of much the same brown as the exposed surface 
of the wing, with conspicuous buffy whitish terminal spots occupying most of the 
end of the feather which is narrowly margined with black; under wing-coverts black- 
ish with some mixture of rusty, those at the base of the outer primaries broadly 
tipped with white forming a conspicuous white patch; throat and sides of the head 
deep, clear orange-rufous somewhat richer than in P. rosenbergi, the feathers without 
any indication of spots as in P. rufopileatum, on three specimens, but with two basal 
concealed lateral black spots on one feather in one specimen; rest of the underparts 
of the same tone of color as the throat but less intense, especially medianly, the sides, 
flanks and tibia brownish oUve, the ventral region and under tail-coverts more buffy; 
in one of four males the underparts from the posterior margin of the throat to, and 
including the upper part of the tibise and under tail-coverts, but excluding the thighs 
and flanks, are more or less regularly and evenly barred with black; in the remain- 
ing three males the bars are wanting in some places, and faint or but merely suggested 
by detached spots in others, no regularity being shown by their distribution except 
on the ventral region and under tail-coverts where they are present much as in the 
fully barred specimen; feet brownish black; maxilla black; mandible wholly black 
in the barred specimen; gonys terminally horn-color in the three comparatively 
unbarred specimens. 

Description of Female. — (Two specimens). Resembling the male but the lores 
blackish with a whitish supraloral stripe, the superciliary strongly streaked with 
ochraceous-rufous, the spots on wing-coverts more ochraceous, the under wing- 
coverts and white patch at base of primaries tinged with rufous; the throat as in 
the male, the remainder of the underparts with but mere suggestions of broken bars 
much as in the least barred male. 







Measurements. 






Place 


Sex 


Wing Tail 


Tarsus 


Culmen 


acoas, Col. 


rf 


89 32 


46 


28 


U (I 


cf 


89 30 


45 


28 


u a 


d' 


90.5 30 


45 


27 


ti a 


& 


88.5 30.5 


47.5 


26.5 


(I u 


9 


92 29.5 


45 


27.5 


a u 


9 


92 32 


48 


28 



It is assuredly surprising to find two evidently representative but appar- 
ently distinct species of birds at localities in the same fauna, 9s closely 
situated as are the ranges of Pittasoma rufopiUatum and the bird described 



394 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

as P. harterti. It should be remembered, however, that in this fauna, 
though at more widely separated stations, we already have three species of 
Pittasoma, namely, P. rufopileatum of northwestern Ecuador, P. rosenbergi 
of the headwaters of the San Juan, and P. micMeri of the lower Atrato and 
eastern Panama. It is evident, therefore, that this genus, which is restricted 
to the Colombian-Pacific Fauna, has a marked tendency to break up into 
distinct species in an area where many other species do not show even sub- 
specific variation. Possibly therefore, it is not much more remarkable to 
find different though representative species of Pittasoma in northwestern 
Ecuador and southwestern Colombia, than it is to find them in central 
western Colombia and northwestern Colombia. 

Of P. rufopileatum I have seen no specimens, but Hartert's excellent 
plate ^ of this species forms an admirable substitute for skins. It should be 
added, however, that Hellmayr (P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1176) has shown that the 
bird figured by Hartert as young, is an adult female. Hellmayr remarks: 
"This is quite evident from the large series, partly in the Tring Museum, 
partly in the possession of Mr. Rosenberg, which I have examined." 

I take pleasure in naming this bird for Dr. Ernest Hartert, in recognition 
of his important contributions to ornithology, and particularly to our knowl- 
edge of the ornis of the Pacific coast region. 

(2175) Grallaria squamigera Prev. 

Grallaria squamigera Pbbv., Voy. Venus, Zool., 1849, p. 198, pi. 3, (Bogotd). 

> 

Four specimens from the Temperate Zone of the Central Andes are 
much deeper plumbeous above than an old 'Bogota' skin. The difference, 
if actual, would constitute a well-marked race of the Central Andean bird, 
but it is doubtless due to fading in the Bogota bird. In the Central An- 
dean specimens the throat averages whiter, but this is probably individual. 

Laguneta, 2; Santa Isabel, 2. 

(2178a) Grallaria guatimalensis chocoensis subsp. nov. 

Char, svbsp. — Resembling Grallaria guatimalensis princeps (Scl. & Salv.) in 
general color but crown more olive, back richer, wings more olive less rufous, lores 
mixed rusty and blackish rather than whitish; size very much smaller. Wing, 89; 
tail, 28; tarsus, 42; culmen, 22 mm. 

Type.— ISfo. 123, 351, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, cf, Baudo (alt. 3000 ft.), Choc6, 
Colombia; July 13, 1912; Mrs. E. L. Kerr. 

- - ~ . , 

i*Nov. Zool., IX, 1902, pi. viil. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 395 

Remarks. — This form known only from the type, is a diminutive of 
Grallaria guatimalensis from which it is possibly specifically distinct. Gral- 
laria regulus Scl. of Ecuador, resembles guatimalensis above but is much 
paler below and its white throat-patch and strongly white or buff-streaked 
olivaceous breast, more olive wings, etc. show that it is quite a different 
species, which the form here described does not approach. 

(2182a) Grallaria alleni Chafm. (Plate XXXIX.) 

Grallaria allmi Chapm., BuU. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 148 (Salento, CoL). 

Char. sp. — Allied to Grallaria varia (Bodd.) but distinguished chiefly by its 
darker upperparts, whitish, unmarked belly, black markings in the malar streaks, 
and other characters. 

Known only from the type, taken at Salento. 

(2187) Grallaria ruflceps Scl. 

Grallaria ruficeps Scl., P. Z. S., 1873, p. 729 (Medellin, Antioquia); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 18VG, p. 626 (MedeUin; Sta. Elena). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of the Central and Eastern Andes. It 
was common in the first-named range but a specimen collected by Fuertes 
was the only one observed in the Bogota region. This closely agrees with 
other birds in our series which, as a whole, is uniformly colored and shows 
no approach toward the Ecuadorian G. nuchalis. An old 'Bogota' skin 
agrees with a fresh one above but is decidedly browner below. 

Laguneta, 8; Almaguer, 5; El Piiion (above Fusugasuga), 1. 

(2188) Grallaria rufocinerea Sd. & Salv. 
Grallaria rufo-cinerea Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 526 (Sta. Elena, Antioquia). 

Oiu" five specimens were taken in the Temperate Zone of the Central 
Andes near the Quindio Pass. I have no material for comparison but the 
locality in question is not far distant from the type-locality. 

Laguneta, 4; above Salento, 1. 

(2189) Grallaria monticola Lafr. 

Grallaria monticola Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1847, p. 68 (Bolivian Andes). 

Common in the upper Temperate Zone of the Central Andes. We 
have not met with it elsewhere. Our Colombian specimens agree with four 



396 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

recently collected birds from Mt. Pichincha but differ markedly from an 
old 'Bogota' and an old Ecuador skin. The latter are almost exactly alike 
in color. Below they are less ochraceous, more orange; above, Ie.ss olive 
more rufous in tone. The difference as a whole is very pronounced and 
the older skins appear to be the most richly colored. I have no Bolivian 
specimens for comparison. 

Santa Isabel, 9; Valle de las Pappas, 7. 

(2193a) Grallaria milleri Chapm. (Plate XXXIX.) 

Grallaria miller i Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 147, (Laguneta, Cen. 
Andes.) 

Char. sp. — ^Apparently most nearly related to Grallaria erythrotis Scl. & Salv., 
but ear region brownish ochraceous not ochraceous-orange; breast tawny olive, not 
ochraceous, back raw-umber, not grayish olive, etc. 

This species is known only from the Temperate Zone of the Central 
Andes at and near Laguneta, whence came our seven specimens. Grallaria 
erythrotis of Bolivia, presumably its nearest described relative, is known to 
me from one Yungas, Bolivia specimen. 

Laguneta, 7. 

(2194) Grallaria hypoleuca Scl. 
Grallaria hypoleuca Scl., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 88 (Bogotd). 

Secured only in the lower part of the Subtropical Zone on the western 
slope of the Eastern Andes and at head of the Magdalena. Our specimens 
are very uniform in color, a bird taken at La Candela on May 10, being 
somewhat more deeply colored than the others. 

Near San Agustin, 1; La Candela, 1; Fusugasuga, 4; Aguadita (6500 
ft.), above Fusugasug^, 2. 

(2199) Grallaria ruflcapilla ruficapilla Lafr. 

Grallaria ruficapilla Lafk., Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 333 (Bogota); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 527 (Concordia, Sta. Elena). 

We have found this to be the commonest and most widely distributed 
bird of its genus. It inhabits mainly the Subtropical Zone but ranges as 
low as 4500 feet and rarely reaches upward to the lower border of the 
Temperate Zone. It frequents rather more open, scrubby and arid places 
than the other birds of the group, and its loud, double-noted whistle, trans- 
lated by the natives as " compra pan" is one of the most characteristic bird 
calls. There is considerable variation in the intensity of color above, and 



Bull. A. M. N. H. 



Vol. XXXVI. Plate XXXIX 




MILLER'S ANTPITTA. Grallaria milleri (Chapm.) 

ALLEN'S ANTPITTA. Grallana alleni (Cha.pm.) 

(About one-half natural size) 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 397 

heaviness of the stripes below, but it appears to be individual and I can 
detect no racial difference between topotypical (Bogota region) skins and 
those from the Western and Central Andes. Old 'Bogota' skins have the 
back notably browner, less olivaCeous above than our recently collected 
ones. 

San Antonio, 4 (one in nestling plumage); Cerro Munchique, 2; La 
Florida, 2; Cocal, 1; Ricaurte, 3; Miraflores, 2; Salento, 4; RioToche, 1; 
El Eden, 3; Fusugasuga, 1; El Roble, 2; El Pifion, 1. 

(2202a) Grallaria brevicauda minor Tacz. 

Grallaria minor Tacz., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 33 (Peru). 

Two specimens from La Morelia and two from Florencia in the Tropi- 
cal Zone of Amazonian Colombia, show on comparison with a specimen of 
brevicauda from British Guiana, the characters attributed to the Peruvian 
race by Taczanowski. The posterior parts of the upper surface, and the 
exposed portion of the inner wing-quills, are decidedly less rufous and more 
olivaceous, the breast is more heavily margined and the size considerably 
less, as the appended measurements of males show: 



G. 6. brevicauda 


Wing 

81 


Tad 
37 


Tarsus 
45.5 


Culmen 

19 


G. b. minor 

H it 


76 

77 


35 
34 


36.5 
40.5 


18 
18 



(2204) Grallaria modesta Scl. 
Grallaria modesta Scl., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 89 (Bogota). 

Found only at Villavicencio where Fuertes shot two specimens and 
Cherrie one. This appears to be a representative of G. b. brevicauda with 
which it doubtless intergrades. 

Villavicencio, 1. 

(2196) Oropezus rufula rufula (Lafr.). 

Grallaria rufula Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 99 (Bogota). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of all three ranges. Our series of fifteen 
specimens (including four from Mt. Pichincha) shows much variation in 
color, some being rich ochraceous-tawny, others nearer ochraceous-buff 
below with a corresponding difference above. This variation, however, 
appears to be individual rather than racial. Both types of color are found 



398 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

in the Bogota district. An old 'Bogota' skin which has been compared 
with the type and is marked typical, is much like a male specimen collected 
by us at Chipaque but is somewhat richer in color. 

I have seen no specimens of the Peruvian G. r. obscura Berl. & Tacz. 
(P. Z. S., 1896,.p. 385). 

Paramillo, 1; Andes west of Popayan (alt. 10340 ft.), 2; Laguneta, 1; 
Santa Isabel, 3; El Piiion, 1; Chipaque, 1. 

(2206a) Hylopezus dives barbacose Chapm. 

Hylopezus dives barba^oce Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 617 
(Barbacoas, Col.). 

Char, suhsp. — Similar to H. d. dives Salv. but crown darker, its color extending 
little if any on to the bacb, which is dark olivaceous rather than slaty; back, as a rule, 
without fulvous shaft-streaks, exposed margins of the wing-quiUs averaging less 
cinnamomeus, Dresden-brown rather than tawny. 

Known only from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. It is evidently 
an intermediate between H. d. dives and H. fuhiventris from the eastern 
base of the Eastern Andes. 

There is no geographical reason why dives and barbacom should not in- 
tergrade, and although fvhiventris is effectually isolated from the latter by 
the intervening Andes, it js evidently a representative form. 

Alto Bonito, 4; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 4. 

(2207) Hylopezus dives fulviventris (Scl). 
Grallaria fuMventris Set., P. Z. S., 1858, pp. 68, 282 (Rio Napo). 

A male from La Morelia is evidently to be referred to this race of which 
I have seen no authentic specimens. It closely resembles H. d. barbacow 
of western Colombia, but has the back more olivaceous, the lores whitish 
instead of ochraceous-orange, the forehead with no trace of ochraceous, 
the wings edged with rufous-brown; it is also somewhat larger. Wing, 80; 
tarsus, 39; culmen, 20 mm. 

La Morelia, 1. 

(2212) Hylopezus perspicillata periopthalmica Salvad. & Festa. 

Grallaria periopthalmica Salvad. & Festa, Boll. Mus. Torino, XIII, No. 330, 
1898, p. 2 (w. Ecuador). 

Confined to the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast, from the upper 
San Juan southward. Specimens from Baudo and Barbacoas differ from 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 399 

Panama (topotypical) specimens of perspicillata in their darker crown, more 
ochraceous (rather than fulvous) lores and orbital region. 
Baudo (3500 ft.), 4; Barbacoas, 1. 



(2212a) Hylopezus perspicillata perspicillata Lawr. 

Grallaria perspicillata Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VII, 1862, p. 303 (Lion 
HiU, Panama). 

Evidently occupies the lower Atrato region and eastward into Antio- 
quia. In its generally paler colors, a specimen from the Rio Salaqui agrees 
with Panama specimens rather than with periopthalmica. A Puerto Val- 
divia male has the fulvous markings still paler while its olive-green back 
is more like that of G. p. lizanoi than of true perspicillata. 

Rio Salaqui, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1. 



(2213a) Grallaricula costaricensis Lawr. 

Grallaricula costaricensis Lawb., Ann. Lyo. N. H., N. Y., VIII, 1867, p. 346 (Bar- 
ranca, Costa Rica). 

A male from Cocal and a female from San Antonio are more extensively 
washed with ochraceous below than five of six specimens of costaricensis. 
The male has the entire underparts ochraceous; the female has the abdomi- 
nal region white; above they agree in color with costaricensis but they 
are somewhat larger. Doubtless the west Colombian bird will be found 
to be separable but this species is so variable in color that I should prefer 
to see a much larger series before adding to the nimiber of described races. 
Grallaricula vegeta Bangs, the type of which I .have examined, appears to 
me to be inseparable from costaricensis. 

Grallaricula flavirostris brevis Nels., of which I have seen the type and 
three topotypes, has the back more olivaceous, the crown grayer than in 
costaricensis. This form may be confined to the Subtropical Zone of Mt. 
Pirri. In the absence of authentic specimens of flavirostris I cannot com- 
ment on its relationships to that race, but it is apparent that all the speci- 
mens examined from Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia, represent but 
one species. Two specimens from Zaruma, Ecuador, which may be flavi- 
rostris, are more yellow below than costaricensis and have the maxilla as 
well as mandible yellow. 

Cocal, 1; San Antonio, 1. 



400 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 







Measurements. 










Sex 


Wing 


TaU 


Tarsus 


Ex. Cul. 


Cocal, Col. 


cf 


68 


24.5 


21 


15 


San Antonio, Col. 


9 


67 


25 


23 


15.5 


Mt. Pirri, Panama 


cf 


63.5 


21 


22 


16 


u a 1 


cf 


62.5 


25.5 


24 


15.5 


a (t 


9 


63 


23 


23 


16 


11 a 


9 


63 


23 


21.5 


14.5 


Chiriqui, Panama ^ 


9 


63.5 


24.5 


— 


15.5 


Chitra, Veragua 


? 


62.5 


— 


22 


— 


Sarapiqui, Costa Rica 


9 


62 


22 


21 


14 


Costa Rica 


? 


63 


24 


20 


14 


Zaruma, Ecuador ^ 


& 


65.5 


27 


23 


15 


{( u 


& 


68 


27 


19 


— 



(2215) Grallaricula nana (Lafr.). 

Grallaria nana Lapr., Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 334 (Bogotd). 
Grallaricula nana ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 527 (Sta. Elena). 

A specimen from Laguneta and another from above Salento in the Cen- 
tral Andes are the only ones we secured. They agree fairly well with two 
birds from Merida and with one from 'Bogota' loaned me by Mr. Bangs. 

Laguneta, 1 ; above Salento, 1 . 

(2218) Grallaricula cucuUata (Scl). 

Conopophaga cucullata Sol., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 29, pi. cxix, (Bogota). 
Grallaricula cucullata ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 627 (Sta. Elena). 

Two specimens from La Candela (alt. 6500 ft.) in the Central Andes 
at the head of the Magdalena River are evidently to be referred to this 
species of which we have no other specimens. 

La Candela, 2. 



Family DENDROCOLAPTIDiE. Woodhewees, Ovenbieds. 

(2240) Furnarius agnatus Scl. & Sah. 

Fumarius agnatus Sol. & Salv., Nomencl. Neotrop., 1873, p. 159 (Santa Marta) ; 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 169 (Bonda; Santa Marta). 

Inhabits the arid coastal zone and ranges up the Magdalena River, at 
least to Puerto Berrio and probably further. The more northern speci- 

1 Type of Grallaricula flavirosir is brevis Nete. 

2 Type of Grallaricula vegeta Bangs. 

3 Grallarioala yiavirostris Scl.? 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 401 

mens agree with a series from Santa Marta, but specimens from Puerto 
Berrio and Malena are more deeply colored than typical agnatus. It would 
not be surprising if the upper Magdalena bird should prove to be separable 
from the one inhabiting the more arid coastal region. 

Turbaco, 2; Calamar, 2; Bocade Chimi, 1; Puerto Berrio, 1 ; Malena, 2. 

(2255a) Upucerthia" excelsior columbiana Chapm. 

Upucerthia excelsior columbiana Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 148 
(Paramo of Santa Isabel, Cen. Andes, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Upucerthia excelsior excelsior Sol., but biU stouter and 
longer, superciliary and light areas of underparts whiter, brownish areas below hair- 
brown rather than broccoli-brown. 

Found by us only in the Paramo of Santa Isabel in the Central Andes 
where Allen and Miller secured twenty specimens. In the British Museum 
Catalogue (XV, p. 19) Sclater lists specimen "a. 9 ad. SK. Pichincha, 
Ecuador (Fraser)" and specimen "6 9 ad. SK. Panza [Chimborazo], Ecua- 
dor, (Fraser)" as types of Upucerthia excelsior. Accepting the locality 
first-named as the type-locality I made my original comparison with Mt. 
Pichincha specimens. I find, however, that in the original description 
(P. Z. S., 1860, p. 77), Sclater made no mention of Pichincha but gave as 
the habitat of the species: "In Monte Chimborazo, reipubl. Equator, ad. 
alt. 14,000 ped." It follows, therefore, that Chimborazo, not Pichincha, as 
stated by me, is the type-locality of the species. Fortunately we have 
since received an excellent series of fourteen specimens collected by Richard- 
son on Chimborazo which confirm the characters ascribed to the Colombian 
bird. 

Paramo of Santa Isabel, 20. 

(2280a) Lochmias sororia Scl. & Salv. 
Lochmias sororia Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1873, p. 511 (Venezuela). 

An adult male from Miraflores in the Central Andes agrees with an adult 
female from Buena Vista, above Villavicencio, and is evidently to be re- 
ferred to this species. A young female from Miraflores has the spots on 
the underparts fewer and less distinct. 

Lochmias obscurata Cab., to which I refer two specimens from Inca 
Mines, Peru, is much darker, less rufous above and below, and has fewer, 
less evident spots on the underparts, those which are present beiftg con- 
fined largely to the median line. 

Miraflores, 2; Buena Vista, 1. 



402 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVIi 

(2285) Schizoeaca fuliginosa (Lafr.). 
Synallaxis fuUginosa Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 290 (Colombia). 

Inhabits the Paramo of the Central and Eastern Andes, descending to 
the upper border of the Temperate Zone. Specimens from the Central 
Andes appear to average shghtly darker in color. While evidently a repre- 
sentative of the Ecuadorian S. griseo-murina (Scl.) a specimen from Al- 
maguer shows no approach toward that form. 

Almaguer, 1; Santa Isabel, 4; Tocaimito above Bogota, 2; El Pinon, 1. 

(2295) Leptasthenura andicola Scl. 

Leptasthenura andicola Scl., P. Z. S., 1869, p. 636, pi. xlix, fig. 2 (Panza, Ecuador) 
Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 159 (Sierra Nevada). 

Met with only on the Paramo of Santa Isabel in the Central Andes. 
Four specimens agree in color with a topotypical series from Chimborazo 
but average more narrowly streaked above. 

Paramo of Sta. Isabel, 4. 

(2305) Synallaxis azarse elegantior Scl. 

Synallaxis elegans Scl. (nee Less.) P. Z. Sr, 1856, p. 25 (Bogota). 
Synallaxis elegantior Scl., Cat. A. B., 1862, p. 151. 

Synallaxis azarm elegantior Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 618 
(orit.). 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone of the Eastern Andes. In view of the 
occurrence of S. a. media at Quito, it might be expected that specimens 
from south of Quito would be intermediate between media and azaras, but 
the distributional problem is much involved by the fact that seven speci- 
mens from Zaruma (6000 ft.), one from Loja (7000 ft.), and one from Na- 
ranjo (2000 ft.) in southern Ecuador, are all clearly referable to elegantior 
of Bogota ! It is sufficiently surprising to find in this group identical forms 
occupying the Temperate Zone in the Bogota region and the Tropic Zone 
near Guayaquil, but the case is rendered still more puzzling by the occur- 
rence between these points of another form with which, at least from the 
north, intergradation with the first-named form appears to be proven. 

Chipaque, 5. 

(2309o) Synallaxis azarse media Chapm. 

Synnllaxis arnrce media Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 618 (Salento, 
Col.). 

Char, svhsp. — Most closely resembling S. a. azarm d'Orb. of Bolivia and south- 
east Peru, but underparts generally paler, abdomen, particularly, whiter, flanks 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 403 

grayer, frontal band grayer and wider. Similar to S. a. elegantior Scl., of the re- 
stricted Bogota region, but lores gray, not white, postooular stripe grayish olive, 
not pale oohraceous-bxiff ; underparts less white, the breast gray, not white, with or 
without a faint grayish wash; throat showing more black, flanks and under tail- 
coverts grayish olive rather than buffy olive; back averaging more ochraceous. 

Inhabits the upper parts of the Subtropical and lower parts of the 
Temperate Zone (7000 to 10,500 ft.) in the western and Central Andes and 
southward into Ecuador (Pichincha). 

Cerro Munchique, 6; Valle de las Pappas, 7; Miraflores, 4; Salento, 5; 
Laguneta, 3; Sta. Elena, 3; Barro Blanco, 1; El Eden, 6; above Ibagiie 
(7000 ft.), 1; La Candela, 2; La Palma, 3. 

(2310) Synallaxis moesta moesta Scl. 
Synallaxis moesta Scl., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 26 (Bogotd). 

Common in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
In the heavy forest of Amazonian Colombia, further south, it is replaced 
by a darker form which I have described as Synallaxis moesta ohscura. 

Buena Vista, 9; Villa vicencio, 2. 

(2310a) Synallaxis moesta obscura Chapm. 

Synallaxis masta obscura Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 620 
(La Moreha, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to jS. m. mmsta Scl. but darker throughout, the upperparts 
browner, the white streakings of the throat more restricted, the remainder of the 
underparts nearly one color, the breast of the same olivaceous shade as the sides and 
flanks instead of being grayer, the abdomen with Httle or no grayish. 

Known only from the Tropical Zone in Amazonian Colombia. 
La Morelia, 2. 

(2317) Synallaxis albescens albigularis Scl. 

Synallaxis albigularis Scl., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 63 (Rio Napo). 
Synallaxis albescens Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 521( Medellin). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone from Caldas eastward. In Cauca Valley 
specimens the breast averages paler than in those from Villavicencio (which 
doubtless are typical) but the difference is entirely bridged by. individual 
variation in both series. 

La Frijolera, 1; Caldas, 1; Cali, 3; La Manuelita, 4; Guengiie, 1; 
Rio Frio, 1; Calamar, 3; Puerto Berrio, 2; Fusugasuga, 1; Quetame, 2; 
Villavicencio, 4. 



404 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(2319) Synallaxis subpudica Scl. 

Synallaxis subpudica Scl., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 10 (Bogotd); Stone, Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1899, p. 306 (Ambalema). 

We met with this species only on the Bogota Savanna, and hence in 
the Temperate Zone of the Eastern Andes, but Stone records it from Am- 
balema, in the Magdalena Valley. 

Bogota Savanna, 7. 

(2320) Synallaxis pudica pudica Scl. 

Synallaxis pudica Scl., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 191 (Bogotd); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 
1879, p. 521 (Remedios). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Magdalena Valley and westward 
into Antioquia, ascending in clearings or along trails into the lower border 
of the Subtropical Zone. 

Near San Agustin, 2; Andalucia (3000 ft.), 6; Fusugasuga, 1; Ano- 
laima, 1; La Frijolera, 1. 

(2320a) Synallaxis pudica nigrifumosa Lawr. 

Synallaxis nigrifumosa Lawb., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VIII, 1867, p. 181 (Grey- 
town, Nicaragua). 

Synallaxis pudica Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1148 (Sipi; Pueblo Rico). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Speci- 
mens from this region average somewhat larger than those from Nicaragua 
and are slightly grayer below and less intensely olivaceous above. They 
are, however, nearer to true nigrifumosa in the color of the parts named 
than they are to pudica, while the tint of chestnut-rufous of the crown and 
wings is alike in Nicaraguan, Costa Rican, and west Colombian specimens. 
In short, while not wholly typical, specimens from the Pacific coast region 
of Colombia are nearer to the Central America, than to the Bogota form. 

Alto Bonito, 6; Dabeiba, 2; Iguamiando, Choco, 1; Bagado, 1; Choco, 
1; Noanama, 2; Novita, 1; San Jose, 3; Los Cisneros, 2; Barbacoas, 4; 
Ricaurte, 2. 

(23206) Synallaxis pudica caucse Chapm. 

Synallaxis pudica caucce Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 622 (La 
Manuelita, Cauca Valley). 

Char, subsp. Similar to S. p. pudica Scl., but the crown is paler, cinnamon- 
rufous rather than chestnut-hazel; the back mouse-gray without the olivaceous 
wash of pudica, the rump and upper tail-coverts dark grayish olive, paler than in 
pudica. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 405 

This, the palest form of the group, appears to be restricted to the Cauca 
Valley. It is one of the comparatively few races confined to that region. 
La Manuelita, 3 ; below Miraflores, 2 ; Cali, 1 ; Guengiie, 1 '. 

(2321a) Synallaxis gujanensis columbianus Chapm. 

Synallaxis gujanensis columbianus Chapm., Biill. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, 
p. 620 (Buena Vista, Col.). 

Char..subsp. — Similar to S. g. gujanensis (Gm.), but the forehead grayer the 
underparts much whiter, the breast very faintly tinted with grayish instead of 
strongly washed with warm buff; the sides and flanks rather warm grayish oUve 
instead of tawny-olive; auricular region grayer. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
Buena Vista, 6; Villavicencio, 7. 

(2332a) Synallaxis cinnamomea fuscifrons Madar. 

Synallaxis fuscifrons Madab., Orn. Monatsber., 1913, p. 22 (Aracatuca, Santa 
Marta, Col.). 

Leptoxura cinnamomea Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Paturia). 

Synallaxis cinnamomea Allen, BuU. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 158 (Cienaga). 

This is evidently a form of the northern coastal region, which, however, 
extends up the Atrato to Bagado. It may easily be distinguished from 
true cinnamomea by its much brighter color and olive-gray forehead. 

Bagado, 2; Atrato, 1; La Playa, 2; Calamar, 2. 

(2335) Synallaxis unirufa Lafr. 

Synallaxis unirufa Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 290 (Bogotd); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 521 (Dept. Antioquia); Hellm., Ibid., 1911, p. 1148 (Tatamd 
Mt., 6700 ft.). 

Apparently of local distribution in the Subtropical and Temperate 
Zones. We did not meet with it in the Central Andes. Specimens from 
the Western Andes have stouter bills but otherwise agree with those from 
the Eastern Andes. 

San Antonio, 1; Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 5; Cocal, 6000 ft., 3; 
4000 ft., 1; Fusugasuga, 2; El Roble, 4; El Pinon, 2. 

(2338) Synallaxis candsei candsei Lafr. & d'Orb. 

Synallaxis candcei Lafr. & d'OKB., Rev. Zool., 1838, p. 165 (Carthagena — type ex- 
amined); Cass., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1860, p. 193 (Carthagena); Stone, Ibid., 
1899, p. 312 (Carthagena); Allen, Bull. A.M. N.H., XIII, 1900, p. 158 (Valencia). 



406 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

This species appears to be restricted to the arid northern coastal zone. 
La Playa, 2; Calamar, 1; RemoUno, 1. 

(2345) Synallaxis gularis gularis Lafr. 

Synallaxis gularis Lafb., Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 290 (Colombia). 
Synallaxis gularis rufipectus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 149 
(Laguneta, Cen. Andes, Col.) . 

Inhabits the Temperate Zone in all three ranges. A male collected at 
El Pifion just south of Bogota, is much less rufescent above and more ru- 
fescent below than two 'Bogota' skins in the Museum collection. The 
latter are bright amber-brown above with the jugulum and center of the 
breast grayish, while the El Pinon specimen is uniform ochraceous-bufi 
below. It thus more nearly resembles S. g. rufipectus in general color than 
it does the Bogota specimens which I assume represent true gularis. One 
of the latter has indeed been compared with Lafresnaye's type which it 
resembles but has the breast somewhat paler. Not one of eight specimens 
from the Western and Central Andes in Colombia and three from near 
Quito are so bright as these two 'Bogota' specimens, but the occurrence at 
El Pinon, in the heart of the Bogota region, of a specimen which is essen- 
tially like those of the Western Andes indicates either that two forms occur 
in the Eastern Andes or that the two Bogota skins are not normally colored 
arid have perhaps undergone some change in color since collected. I in- 
cline to the latter rather than the former theory and therefore enter my 
Synallaxis gularis rufipectus as a synonym of S. g. gularis. 

Paramillo, 1; Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 4; Laguneta, 2; El 
Piiion, 1. 

(2348a) Synallaxis rutilans caquetensis Chapm. 

Synallaxis rutilans caquetensis Chapm., BuU. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 621 
(Florencia, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to S. r. amazonica HeUm., but the rufous areas much 
deeper (mahogany-red rather than cinnamon-rufous) less extensive below, and more 
extensive above, where they occupy most of the crown and back; flanks and abdomi- 
nal region olive-fuscous with a sUght tint of the color of the breast, rather than bufiy 
brown. 

This well-marked race is known only from Amazonian Colombia. 
Florencia, 3. 

(2358) Siptornis antisiensis {ScL). 

Synallaxis antisiensis Sol., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 457 (Cuenca, Ecuador). 

Siptornis antisiensis Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 158 (Valparaiso). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 407 

Found by us only on the subtropical slopes arising from the Magda- 
lena Valley. Our specimens average considerably darker and more oli- 
vaceous below and have smaller caps than four from Zaruma, Ecuador. 

La Candela, 1; El Roble, 1; Fusugasuga, 1. 

(2366) Siptornis erythrops griseigularis (Ridgw.). 

Acrorchilus erythrops griseigularis Ridgw., Proc. Biol. Soo. Wash., XXII, 1909, 
p. 72 (San Antonio, Col.). 

SyrwUaxis erythrops Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 521 (Frontino). 

Siptornis erythrops griseigularis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1149 (Pueblo Rico; 
Siatd; Loma Hermosa.) 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes. An immature 
bird from Ricaurte has the middle pair of tail feathers chiefly of the 
color of the back and, therefore, approaches the Ecuadorian erythrops, of 
which I have no specimens. This specimen is in the plumage of the type 
of S. e. rufigenis, having the superciliary, sides of the head and underparts 
rich ochraceous. 

San Antonio, 5 (topotypes);' Gallera, 1; Ricaurte, 1. 

(2367) Siptornis striaticoUis (Lafr.). 
Synallaxis striaticoUis Lafr., Rev. ZooL, 1843, p. 290 (Bogota — type examined). 

Inhabits the subtropical slopes above the Magdalena Valley. A speci- 
men from La Palma is decidedly more fulvous below than one from Fusu- 
gasuga and two Bogota skins. Doubtless this interesting little species will 
some day be generically separated from Siptornis. 

La Palma, 1 ; Fusugasuga, 1 . 

(2401) Siptornis flammulata multostriata (ScL). ■ 
Synallaxis multostriata ScL., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 273 ('Bogotd'). 
Choachi, 1. 

(2401a) Siptornis flammulata quindiana Chapm. 

Siptornis flammulata quindiana Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 643 
(Paramo of Sta. Isabel, Cen. Andes, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to S. f. flammulata (Jard.) of Ecuador but upperparts 
browner, the front part of the crown richer and deeper in tone, hazel rather than 
ochraceous-tawny, with, as a rule, the shaft-streaks broader, the margins oorre- 



408 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

spondingly narrower; superciliary ochraceous and less clearly defined; throat 
deeper in tone, oohraceous-buff rather than buff, its color spreading to the breast, 
the sides of the head and auricular region; flanks and abdominal region more 
ochraceous. Differs from iS. /. mvltostriata (Scl.) of the Bogota region, in being less 
heavily margined with black below, the margins more even in outline, the throat- 
patch much larger and paler, the upperparts browner, the frontal region less chest- 
nut and less distinctly streaked. 

Occupies the Paramo Zone of the Central Andes. 
Paramo of Santa Isabel, 15. 

(240S) Pseudocolaptes boissonneauti boissonneauti (Lafr.). 

Anabates boissonneauti Lapk., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 104 (Bogotd). 
Pseudocolaptes boissonneauti Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 521 (Frontino; Sta. 
Elena). 

Ranges from the higher parts of the Subtropical Zone through the 
Temperate Zone in all three ranges. Immature birds have the head black, 
unstreaked. 

La Florida, 3; Cerro Munchique, 3; Andes w. of Popayan (10,340 ft.), 
3; Almaguer, 2; Laguneta, 4; Santa Isabel (12,000 ft.), 2; Sta. Elena, 1; 
La Candela, 1; El Roble, 1. 

(2437) Hyloctistes subulatus subulatus (Spix). 

Sphenura subulata Spix, Av. Bras., 1, p. 82, pi. Ixjodii, fig. 1, 1824 ("in sylvis flum. 
Amazonum"). 

A single specimen from Florencia represents this form of which I have 
no other examples. 
Florencia, 1. 

(2438) Hyloctistes subulatus assimilis {Berl. & Tacz.). 

Automolus assimilis Bbrl. & Tacz., P. Z. S., 1883, p. 561 (Chimbo, Ecuador). 
Hyloctistes subulatus assimilis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1150 (Sipi; Noanamd; 
Tad6). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. Our ten specimens 
differ from a single specimen of what I assume to be H. s. subulatus in their 
deeper, more olivaceous underparts and the absence of shaft-streaks in 
the crown and foreback. 

Juntas de Tamana, 1 ; No vita, 2; Barbacoas, 6; Buenavista, Narifio, 1. 



1917.) Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 409 

(2434) Automolus holostictus Scl. & Sah. 

Automolus holostictus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 542 (Frontino, Col.); Ibid., 
1879, p. 522 (Sta. Elena). 

Inhabits the Subtropical and Temperate Zones. Our specimens of 
this species were taken in the Central and Eastern Andes. 

Accepting Wied's " Anabates leucopthalmus" as the type of Automolus 
it is clear that the present species is not properly referable to that genus. 
Its affinities appear rather to be with Thripadectes. As in similar cases, 
where generic separation should, in my opinion, be based only on a study 
of all the species concerned, I follow Brabourne and Chubb's list. 

Salento, 1; Sta. Elena, 5; above Ibagiie, 1; Choachi, 1. 

(2435) Automolus ignobilis Scl. & Sah. 
Automolus ignobilis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 522 (Frontino, Antioquia). 

A male from Cocal and a female from Cerro Munchique indicate that this 
species (which, obviously, is far from being a true Automolus) inhabits the 
Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes. We have not found it elsewhere. 

Cocal, 1 ; Cerro Munchique, 1 . 

(2436) Automolus melanorhynchus (Tsch.). 

Anabates melanorhynchus Tsch.,- Arch, fiir Naturg., 1844, 1, p. 295 (Peru). 

Represented only by a single specimen collected at Buena Vista, above 
Villavicencio. I have no material for comparison. 
Buena Vista, 1. 

(2441) Automolus ochrolsemus turdinus (Pelz.). 
Anabates turdinus Pelz., Sitz. Akad. Wien, XXXIV, 1859, p. 110 (Rio Negro). 

Found by us only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes. Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., XIV, 1907, p. 365) refers Bogota birds to 
the form here given. I have no material for comparison. 

Buena Vista, 4; Villavicencio, 1. 

(2445) Automolus dorsalis Scl. & Sah. 

Automolus dorsalis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1880, p. 158 (Sarayacu, Ecuador). 

Two specimens from La Morelia and one from Florencia agree with two 
from Zamora near the type-locality. A third Zamora specimen has the 



410 Bulletin 'American Museum of Natural, Hsitory. [Vol. XXXVI, 

superciliaries and nuchal region ochraceous and the underparts are washed 
with this color. It agrees more nearly with the description of the type but 
is evidently immature. 

La Morelia, 2; Florencia, 1. 

(2445a) Automolus pallidigularis pallidigularis Lawr. 

Automolus pallidigularis Lawb., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VII, 1862, p. 465 (Lion 
Hill, Panama); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 522 (Remedios). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone in Antioquia and the Magdalena Valley. 
It has been recorded from northwestern Ecuador (Hart., Nov. Zool., 1901, 
pp. 369, 241) as A. p. albidior, an apparently invalid form, but is unknown 
from the Pacific coast of Colombia. 

Our specimens, particularly those from Malena and Honda, are less 
rufous above, less ochraceous below, and have the throat whiter than the 
type, but differ little from east Panama (Tacarcuna) specimens. 

Puerto Valdivia, 2; Malena, 2; Honda, 1. 

(2447) Automolus infuscatus infuscatus {Scl). 

Anahates infuscatus Scl., Ann. & Mag. N. H. (2), XVII, 1856, p. 468 (eastern 
Peru). 

Three specimens from La Morelia and two from Florencia differ from 
two specimens of A. cervicalis (Scl.) from La Union, Caura River, Venezuela 
(= Automolus sclateri in part of authors; see Hellm., Nov. Zool. XIII, 
1906, p. 335), having the upperparts more olivaceous. I have no Peruvian 
specimens for comparison. 

La Morelia, 3; Florencia, 2. 

(2450a) Automolus nigricauda saturatus Chapm. 

Automolus nigricauda saturatus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIV, 1915, p. 644 
(Alto Bonito, Antioquia, Col.). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to A. n. nigricauda Hart, but very much darker; the back 
deep blackish bay instead of between raw-umber and mummy-brown, the crown 
and nape only slightly darker than the back, with more of a claret-brown tinge, 
which is clearer on the sides of the head; wings externally of the same color as the 
back, tail black; breast somewhat deeper than in nigricauda the rest of the under- 
parts darker brown, less olivaceous, the sides and particularly flanks much darker, 
nearly the color of the back. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone in the lower Atrato Valley and northward 
to eastern Panama. 
Alto Bonito, 5. 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 411 



(2454) Automolus cinnamomeigula Hellm. 

Automolus cinnamomeigula Hellm., BuE. B. O. C, XV, 1905, p. 55 (' Bogota ' — 
I propose La Morelia, alt. 600 ft., Rio Bodaquera, Caquetd, Col.). 

This species appears to be the Amazonian representative of A. n. nigri- 
cauda Hart., from which, however, it differs materially in its rufous tail, 
browner upperparts, more ochraceous belly, etc. I have not seen the 
type in the Museum at Tring. 

Two females and a male from La MoreHa. 



(24636) Philydor ruflpileatus consobrinus Scl. 

Philydor consobrinus Scl., P. Z. S., 1870, p. 328 ("Bogotd"; I propose Villa- 
vicencio). 

Philydor rufipileaius consobrinus Hellm., Verb. Ges. Wien., 1908, p. 220. 

Found only in the Tropical Zone at the eastern base of the Eastern Andes. 
I have no specimens of true ruflpileatus and follow Hellmayr (1. c.) in 
the arrangement of names given above. 
Villavicencio, 8. 



(2464) Philydor pyrrhodes {Cab.). 
Anabates pyrrhodes Cab., in Schomb. Reise Guiana, 1848, p. 689 (British Guiana). 

A specimen from La Morelia adds this species to the known fauna of 
Colombia. It agrees essentially with specimens from Napo and the foot 
of Mt. Duida. 

La Morelia, 1. 

(2468) Philydor ruficaudatus {d 'Orb. & Lafr.) subsp. 

Anabates ruficaudatus d'Orb. & Lafr., Syn. Av., II, 1838, p. 15 (Yuracares, 
Bolivia). 

Two specimens from La Morelia, evidently represent this species and 
are doubtless separable from it, but my material is not sufficiently satis- 
factory to warrant this step. They are decidedly darker, less olive above 
than a specimen from: near the junction of the Gy-Parana and Madeira 
rivers, and less buffy below than three specimens from Zaruma, Ecuador, 
which I assume are Philydor subfulvus Scl. These Zaruma birds, however, 
seem to be only subspecifically distinct from ruficaudatus, nevertheless 



412 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Sclater records (Cat. B. M. XV, p. 101) both ruficaudatus and svbfuhus 
from Gualaquiza, essentially the locality in which our Zaruma specimens 
were taken. I do not, therefore, feel that I am in a position to separate 
the Colombian bird without having seen authentic specimens of both rufi- 
caudatus and svhfulms. 
La Morelia, 2. 

(2473) Philydor montanus striaticollis {Scl.). 
Anahates striaticollis Scl., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 17 ('Bogota,' — I suggest Fusugasugd). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. Specimens from the 
mountains about the Cauca Valley average deeper in color below; and 
thus more nearly resemble P m. anxiv^ (Bangs) of Santa Marta than do 
those of the Bogota region. The Santa Marta form, however, is less rufous 
above and has the throat fulvous. The Peruvian form, P. m. montanus, 
is decidedly more rufous above than striaticollis and has the crown rufous 
but little darker than the back, instead of olivaceous, distinctly unlike the 
back. 

Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 4; Miraflores, 7; Salento, 2; La Sierra, 
2; near San Agustin, 1; La Candela, 7; Fusugasuga, 1; Aguadita, 1; El 
Roble, 1. 

(2477) Thripadectes flammulatus (Eyton). 

Anabates flammulatus Etton, Cont. Orn., 1849, p. 131 (Bogota). 
Thripadectes flammulatus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 521 (Prontino); Allen, 
Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 158 (El Libano). 

We have met with this species only in the Temperate Zone of the Central 
Andes. 

Laguneta, 2. 

(2480) Thripadectes virgaticeps sclateri Berl. 

Thripadectes sclateri Berl., Proo. IV Int. Cong., 1905, p. 365, 1907 (St. Pablo, 
w. Colombia, 4500 ft.); Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1149 (Crit.). 

Rhopoctites alogus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIII, 1910, p. 72 (Pavas, 
w. Colombia, 440 ft.). Type examined. 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes. Hellmayr's 
(I. c.) statement that Rhopoctites alogus Bangs is identical with this species, 
is confirmed by the examination of Bangs' type. Comparison with the type 
of Thripadectes virgaticeps Lawr., further indicates that sclateri is a sub- 
species of that form. The differences between the two consist only of size 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 413 

and intensity of coloration, mrgatieeps being larger and with the back and 
underparts more suffused with rufous. In pattern of coloration, that is, 
width of shaft-streaks, markings of throat, etc., the two forms are exactly 
alike. 

Lawrence's type is a trade skin labelled "Quito" and hence may have 
come from the Subtropical Zone of either the eastern or western slope of 
the Ecuadorian Andes. A specimen collected by Richardson at Ricaurte 
(5000 ft.) in extreme southwestern Colombia suggests that the latter slope 
may be the true type-locality. It is nearer to virgaticeps than to sclateri 
in size, agrees with the latter in the color of the upperparts, but below is 
less richly colored than either of the other two. Nevertheless, I am in- 
clined to the belief that it is an actual intermediate between them. I 
append measurements of all the specimens in our collection, including two 
of Thripadectes rufohrunneus (Lawr.) which appears to be a northern repre- 
sentative of the group. 







Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


T.v. virgaticeps (type) 'Quito' 


9 


104.5 


92 


28 


T. V. sclateri, 


, Ricaurte, Col. 


9 


100 


95 


27 


(( it a 


San Antonio, Col. 


cf 


95 


90 


25.5 


(t a u 


U it u 


cf 


97 


94 


26 


a It u 


u u u 


& 


95 


92.5 


26 


U tl tl 


Salencio, " 


9 


95 


90 


26 


T. rufohrunneus, Costa Rica 


? 


91 


90 


23 


« ii 


Irazu, Costa Rica 


cf 


90 


89 


24 



(2481) Ancistrops strigilatus (Spix). 

Thamnophilus strigilatus Spix, Av. Bras., 1825, p. 26, pi. xxxvi, fig. 1 (e. Peru). 

A single specimen from La Morelia adds this species to the recorded 
fauna of Colombia. 
La Morelia, 1. 

(2487) Xenicopsis subalaris subalaris (Scl.). 

Anabates subalaris Scl., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 141 (Pallatanga, Ecuador). 

Xenicopsis subalaris subalaris Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1151 (Loma Hermosa, 
W. Andes). 

Xenicopsis subalaris columbianus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXI, 1912, p. 150 
(Miraflores, Cen. Andes). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of the western Andes and western slope 
of the Central Andes. The receipt of additional material from southern 
Ecuador (six specimens from Zaruma) shows beyond question that my pro- 



414 Bulletin American Museum 0/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

posed separation of the west Colombian bird {I. c.) was not warranted by 
the facts in the ease. 

La Frijolera, 1; Salencio, 1; Las Lomitas, 2; San Antonio, 1; Cerro 
Munchique, 1; Gallera, 1; Miraflores, 2. 

(2487a) Xenicopsis subalaris mentalis {Tacz. & Berl.). 
Anabazenops mentalis Tacz. & Bekl., P. Z. S., 1885, p. 96 (Machay, e. Ecuador). 

Three speciinens from the Subtropical Zone above the Magdalena 
Valley and one from Buena Vista appear to be referable to this form to 
which Hellmayr (P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1151) refers Bogota specimens. The 
intermediate characters shown by one of the La Candela examples indicate 
the probability of complete intergradation with true subalaris. From that 
form mentalis may be known by its blacker head, darker, more olivaceous 
back, the generally broader shaft-streaks of the upperparts which extend 
well down the back, while the streaks on the underparts reach posteriorly 
to the ventral region. 

La Candela, 2; Fusugasuga, 1; Buena Vista, 1. 

(2490) Xenops genibarbis littoralis Scl. 

Xenoys littoralis Sol., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 379 (Esmeraldas, Ecuador). 
Xenops genibarbis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Remedios). 
Xenops genibarbis littoralis Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1152 (Noanamd; Tad6). 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast eastward through An- 
tioquia to the Magdalena Valley and up the Cauca to the Cauca Valley. 
The Malena specimen agrees with west Ecuador birds. We have not met 
with true genibarbis. 

Novita Trail (4000 ft.), 1; Buenaventura, 1; Barbacoas, 1; Rio Frio, 2; 
Puerto Valdivia, 2; Malena, 1. 

(2493) Xenops rutilus heterurus Cab. & Hein. 

Xenops heterurus Cab. &. Hein., Mus. Hein., II, 1859, p. 33 (Colombia). 
Xenops' rutilus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Canta); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, 
p. 522 (Sta. Elena); Allen, BuU. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 158 (Las Nubes). 

Inhabits the Subtropical Zone of aU three ranges. True rutilus, as 
represented by a series from Chapada, Matto Grosso, is brighter above, 
more broadly striped below and has only one pair, instead of two pairs of 
rectrices with the inner web largely black (Cf. Hellm. Nov. ZooL, XV, 1908, 
p. 62). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 415 

San Antonio, 1; Cerro Munchique, 1; Miraflores, 3; Salento, 2; Sta. 
Elena, 3; Rio Toche, 2; San Agustin, 1; Fusugasuga, 2; El Roble, 2. 

(2499) Sclerurus brunneus Set. 
Sclerurus brunneus Scl., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 17 ('Bogotd')- 

Met with only in Amazonian Colombia. Doubtless, as Hellmajrr states 
(Nov. Zool., XIV, 1907, p. 58), a representative of S. caudacutus. 
La Morelia, 4; Floreneia, 1. 

(2501) Sclerurus albigularis albigularis Swainson. 

Sclerurus albigularis Swainson, Birds of Brazil, 1841, pi. 78 ( ?); Scl. & 

Salv., p. Z. S., 1868, p. 630 (Caracas). 

Seven specimens from Buena Vista, above Villavicencia, agree closely 
with seven from Cristobal Colon on the Paria Peninsula, and are doubtless, 
therefore, typical of this species for which, following Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., 
XIII, 1906, p. 28), I accept Sclater and Salvin as the describers and Caracas 
as the type-locality. Four Trinidad specimens are smaller, with shorter 
bills, and average brighter above. 

Buena Vista, 7. 

(2504) Sclerurus mexicanus obscurior Hart. 

Sclerurus mexicanus obscurior Hart., Nov. Zool., VIII, 1901, p. 370, (Lita, 
n. w. Ecuador). 

f Sclerurus caudacutus Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 520 (Frontino). 

Sclerurus mexicanus andinus Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXIII, 1914, p. 622 
(Buena Vista, Col.). 

Found, with one exception, in the Subtropical Zone of the Western 
and Eastern, and doubtless also, the Central Andes. Specimens collected 
by Miller and Boyle on the Western Andes are not separable from Buena 
Vista specimens and in connection with three recently acquired birds 
from Tacarcuna indicate that although the eastern birds average lighter in 
color than the western ones, there is but one valid form of this species in 
Colombia. 

For this I accept the name applied by Hartert to the Ecuador race. Of 
this I have but one specimen. It has the rump duller than the remaining 
birds in the series, but this, Hartert's description leads me to believe, is not 
a constant character. 

As a whole these birds chiefly differ from true mexicanus in being darker 



416 Bulletin American Musemn of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

above, with the rump deeper, the abdomen and especially lower tail-coverts 
less rufous. 

Specimens of S. m. pullus are not now available for comparison but in 
view of the individual variation to which this species is subject, it is evident 
that they are very close to S. m. ohscurior. 

Puerto Valdivia, 1; La Frijolera, 1; San Antonio, 1; Buena Vista, 3. 

(2508) Margarornis perlata {Less.). 

Sittasomus perlatus Less., Echo du Monde Sav., 1844, p. 275 ('Bogotd,'; I pro- 
pose El Pinon, above Fusugasugd, alt. 9600 ft.). 

Margarornis perlata Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Sta. Elena). 

Common in the Temperate Zone of all three ranges. Specimens from 
the Central and Western Andes average somewhat yellower below than 
those from the Bogota region and thus show a slight approach toward M. 
squamigera. Old Bogota skins are paler and hence brighter above and less 
olivaceous below than our recently collected ones. 

Cerro Munchique, 8; Almaguer, 5; Valle de las Pappas, 6; Laguneta, 
6; Santa Isabel, 5; El Pinon, 3. 

(2509) Margarornis stellata Scl. & Salv. 
Margarornis stellata Scl. & Salv., Nomen. Av. Neotrop., 1873, p. 160 (Quito). 

A specimen from the No vita Trail (7000 ft.) and ope from San Antonio, 
indicate that this is a species of the Subtropical Zone of the Western Andes. 
It appears to have been recorded, heretofore, only from western Ecuador, 
whence I have seen no specimens. 

Novita Trail (7000 ft.), 1; San Antonio, 1. 

(2511) Premnornis guttata (Lawr.). 
Margarornis guttata Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y., VIII, 1867, p. 168 (Quito). 

Our seven specimens represent localities in the Subtropical Zone of all 
three ranges. Immature specimens from San Antonio and Fusugasuga 
agree with Lawrence's type, which is in similar plumage. I have no other 
Ecuador specimens. 

San Antonio, 3; La Candela, 1; La Palma, 1; Aguadita, 2. 

(2512) Premnoplex brunnescens brunnescens (Scl). 

Margarornis brunnescens Scl., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 27, pi. cxvi ('Bogotd,'; I suggest 
Aguadita above Pusugasugd,, alt. 6500 ft.); Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Sta. 
Elena). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 41 / 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. Specimens from 
the Central and Western Andes average somewhat darker below than those 
from the Bogota region; some of them closely approaching Santa Marta 
specimens of P. b. coloratus Bangs. 

Las Lomitas, 1 ; San Antonio, 2; Cocal, 2; Cerro Munchique, 4; Gal- 
lera, 1 ; La Florida, 1 ; Miraflores, 2 ; Salento, 3 ; La Palma, 1 ; Aguadita, 1 ; 
Buena Vista, 5. 

(2516) Glyphorhynchus cuneatus subsp. 
Dendrocolaptes cuneatus Light., Abh. Akad. Berl., 1820, p. 204 (Bahia). 

A specimen from Villavicencio cannot be satisfactorily referred to any 
of .the recognized forms of this species. It has the throat ochraceous-buff, 
with barely perceptible margins, and is thus unlike true cuneatus in which 
the throat is but faintly tinged with buff and distinctly margined. The 
underparts have a more olivaceous cast than in the other forms. Identi- 
fication of this specimen would not alone require additional examples from 
Villavicencio, but a revision of the entire group, which appears, from a 
casual examination of the specimens in our collection, to contain several 
undescribed forms. 

Villavicencio, 1. 

(2517) Glyphorhynchus cuneatus castelnaudi Des Murs. 

Glyphorhynchus castdnavdi Des Mtjes, Voy. Casteln. Ois., 1855, p. 47, pi. xv, 
fig. 2, (Santa Maria, Peru). 

Seven specimens from the Tropical Zone in Amazonian Colombia, agree 
essentially with one from Pebas, Peru, and are apparently, therefore, typical. 
Together with four specimens from the foot of Mt. Duida they possess the 
cinnamon-rufous throat which characterizes this form. 

Florencia, 4; La Morelia, 3. 

(2517a) Glyphorhynchus cuneatus pectoralis Scl. & Salv. 

Glyphorhynchus pectoralis Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 299 (Choctiim, Vera 
Paz, Guatemala). 

Klyphorhynchus cuneatus Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Canute); Scl. & Salv., 
P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Remedios). 

Glyphorhynchus cuneatus castelnaudi Hellm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1152 (Noanamd). 

Seventeen specimens from the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast agree, 
on the whole, with six specimens from Panama to Mexico and differ from 



418 Bvlletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

twelve specimens of castelnavdi in having the feathers of the throat ochra- 
ceous-buff rather than cinnamon-rufous and, as a rule, with more evident 
blackish margins. Two specimens from Gallera (5700 ft.) in the Subtropi- 
cal Zone, are more olivaceous below and less rufous above than those from 
the coast region. 

Alto Bonito, 3; Choco, 1; Salaqui, 1; Noanama, 1; San Jose, 2; Gal- 
lera, 2; Cocal, 1; Barbacoas, 4; Buenavista, Narino, 2 ; Puerto Valdi via, 1. 

(2519) Dendrocincia tyrannina tyrannina (Lafr.). 

Dendrocops tyranninus Lafh., Rev. Zool., 1851, p. 328 (Bogota). 
Dendrocincia tyrannina Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Sta. Elena). 

Found by us in the Temperate Zone of the Western and Central Andes 
and in the upper part of the Subtropical Zone of the last-named range. 
Six specimens are less rufous than an old Bogota skin, a difference doubt- 
less due to fading of the Bogota bird. 

Cerro Munchique, 1 ; Almaguer, 1; Salento, 1; Laguneta, 1; El Eden, 1. 

(2521) Dendrocincia lafresnayei lafresnayei Ridgw. 

Dendrocincia lafresnayei Ridgw., Proc. IT. S. N. M., X, 1887, p. 492 ("Upper 
Amazon?" — locality doubtless incorrect; Hellmayr substitutes "Colombia" — ■ 
I suggest adding Valparaiso, Santa Marta). 

Dendrocincia olivacea lafresnayi Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 156 
(Minca; Onaca; Las Nubes; Valparaiso; Palomina; Chirua; La Concepcion; 
Santa Marta). 

Dendrocincia meruloides lafresnayei Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1155 (Noanamd; 
Sipi). 

Dendrocincia lafresnayei inhabits the Tropical Zone of Colombia west 
of the Eastern Andes. Specimens from the Cauca Valley (Rio Frio) agree 
with one from Honda and with seven from Santa Marta, but four speci- 
mens from the Pacific coast (Novita to Barbacoas) are perceptibly darker 
both above and below. Nine specimens from western Ecuador (Manavi) 
agree with Santa Marta specimens in color, but have the bill blacker; a 
difference due, in part, but not wholly to the fact that they were collected 
more recently. 

Possibly the variations exhibited by these twenty-two specimens may 
be in a measure racial, but I see nothing to be gained by applying names to 
differences so minute that their subsequent appHcation becomes largely 
a matter of opinion. I have, for example, a specimen of this species from 
Panama which can be matched by several specimens in the series under 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 419 

consideration, which Lawrence, Sclater, Ridgway, Oberholser, and Chap- 
man have each determined differently! Allen, Ridgway, Hellmayr and 
Oberholser agree in referring Santa Marta specimens to this form, and in 
default of a more definite place it may be well to accept Valparaiso, Santa 
Marta, as the type-locality. 

Xovita, 2; Baudo, 1; Barbacoas, 1; Puerto Valdivia, 1; Rio Frio, 2; 
Honda, 1. 

(2526) Dendrocincla lafresnayei phseochroa Berl. & Hart. 

Dendrodnda [sic] phceochroa Beel. & Habt., Nov. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 67 (Mun- 
duapo, Orinoco). 

To this form I refer three specimens from Villavicencio. They agree 
essentially with five specimens from the middle and upper Orinoco but the 
, throat is not quite so pale. They vary markedly in size but the largest 
about equals average specimens of phceochroa. 
Villavicencio, 3. 

(2539) Xiphorhynchus guttata guttatoides (Lafr.). 
N[asica] guttatoides Lafk., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1850, p. 387 (Loreto, Peru). 

A specimen from Florencia agrees with a 'Napo' and also a 'Bogota' 
specimen, both localities whence Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., XIV, 1907, p. 59) 
records this form. 

Florencia, 1. 

(2542) Xiphorhynchus aquatorialis sequatorialis (Berl. & Tacz.). 

Dendromis erythropygia cequatorialis Bebl. & Tacz., P. Z. S., 1883, p. 563 (Chimbo, 
alt. 1000 ft., w. Ecuador). 

Dendromis triangularis cequatorialis Hellm., P. Z. S. 1911, p. 1153 (Ndvita; El 
Tigre, 320 ft.) 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific slope and eastward into An- 
tioquia. Our specimens have been compared with a series from western 
Ecuador. The occurrence of typical specimens of X. triangularis at Cocal 
on the western slope of the Western Andes at an altitude of 4000 feet (the 
lower border of the Subtropical Zone) in connection with the constancy 
in color maintained by that species throughout its wide range, induces me 
to believe that it does not intergrade with cequatorialis. The differences 
between the two species, described by Hellmayr (Z. c.) are shown by our 
large series of both forms. 



420 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

Xiphorhynchus oequatorialis insolitus ' (Ridgw.) of which I have ex- 
amined the type and a specimen from the Rio Truando, is more deeply 
colored than any of our Colombian specimens (though approached by one 
from Baudo and another near Quibdo) and appears to be more unlike wqua- 
torialis than is the more northern punctigula (Ridgw.), some specimens of 
which are very close to oequatorialis. 

Near Quibdo, 1; Baudo, 1; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 4; Buena vista, 
Nariiio, 1; La Frijolera, 1. 

(2543) Xiphorhynchus triangularis (Lafr.). 

Dendrocolaptes triangularis Lafr., Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 134 (Bogotd,; cf. Hellmayr, 
P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1153). 

Dendrornis triangularis Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Sta. Elena). 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. I detect practi- 
cally no racial variation in our series of forty-eight specimens, though those 
from the Western and Central Andes may average slightly more rufescent 
above. The white area along the cutting-edge of the central part of the 
maxilla to which Hellmayr (P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1154) calls attention is present 
in all but five of our specimens. Two of these are from Cocal, one from 
Anolaima, near Bogota, one from Fusugasuga, and one from Buena Vista. 
I do not regard the absence of this character in the Cocal birds as indicating 
intergradation of triangularis with cequatorialis, which doubtless occurs at 
a few hundred feet below Cocal. In other respects these two Cocal birds 
are typical triangularis having the throat feathers margined or ringed in 
squamate pattern, the crown with shaft-streaks. Furthermore, in three 
other specimens from Cocal the whitish mark on the maxilla is conspicuous, 
while its absence in specimens from the Bogota region shows that it is not 
a constant character. 

Las Lomitas, 3; San Antonio, 1 ; Cerro Munchique, 1 ; Cocal, 5; Mira- 
flores, 3; Salento, 3; Laguneta, 1; El Eden, 1; La Candela, 13 ; LaPalma, 
3; near San Agustin, 1; Andalucia, 3; Fusugasuga, 2; Aguadita, 4; Ano- 
laima, 1; Buena Vista, 3. 

(2544) Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus lachrymosus {Lawr.). 

Dendrornis lachrymosus Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., VII, 1862, p. 467 
(Panama, type examined). 

Xiphorhynchus lacrymosu^ rostratus Ridgw., Proe. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXII, 1909, 
p. 73 (Rio Dagua). 

Dendrornis lachrymosa rostrata Hbllm., P. Z. S., 1911, p. 1153 (Condoto; Noa- 
namd). 

<■ BuU. U. S. N. M., 50, V, 1911, p. 257 (Cocld, e. Panama). 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 421 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast. After comparison of 
our Colombian series with four Panama specimens of lachrymosus, includ- 
ing the type, I find no ground for the separation of a west Colombian form. 

Baudo, 1; Novita, 1; N6vita Trail (2000 ft.), 1; Noanami, 2; Dabeiba, 
2; Alto Bonito, 5; San Jose, 1; Barbacoas, 4. 

Table of Measurements. 

Sex Wing Tail Calmen 



Panama 





119 


92 


40 


« 


— 


110 


92 


37 


(1 





118 


96 


40 


Truando 


cf 


113 


85 


37 


Baudo 


9 


113 


95 


35 


Noanamd 


cf 


124r-5 


102 


41 


a 


cT 


126 


105 


40 


N6vita 


9 


119 


97 


40 


San Jos(5 


9 


115 


91 


39 


Barbacoas 


<f 


122 


97 


40 


a 


cT 


118 


113 


40 


u 


& 


HI 


97 


40 



(2544a) Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus alarum Chapm. 

Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus alarum Chapm., Bull. A. M. N. H., Vol. XXXIV, 
1915, p. 642 (Puerto Valdivia, CoL). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to X. I. lachrymosus (Lawr.), but buffy guttate spots 
on the back smaller and narrowly margined with black and more widely with Dresden- 
brown rather than broadly margined with black; spots below averaging smaller; 
lesser wing-coverts with much less black, the outer greater coverts margined exter- 
nally with brownish above instead of black. 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone of the lower Cauca River and doubtless 
also the adjoining areas on the Magdalena Valley. 
Puerto Valdivia, 12. 



(2545a) Xiphorhynchus nanus nanus (Lawr.). 

Dendrornis nana Lawr., Ibis, 1863, p. 181 (Lion Hill, Panama; type examined); 
Allen, BuU. A. M.N. H., XIII, 1900, p. 157 (CacaguaUto) . 

Inhabits the Tropical Zone in the Atrato, Cauca, and Magdalena Val- 
leys. Specimens from the Magdalena Valley average paler than those from 
Rio Frio and the Atrato, but the difference is fully covered by a series of 
specimens from the Panama Canal Zone, including the type. 

Atrato River, 2; Rio Frio, 4; Manuelita, 1; Puerto Berrio, 2; Opon, 1; 
Honda, 1. 



422 Bulletin American Museum 0/ Natural History. [Vol. XXXVI, 

(2553) Xiphorhynchus insignis (Hellm.). 

Dendrornis insignis Hellm., Bull. B. 0. C, XV, 1905, p. 56 (Samiria, n. e. 
Peru). 

On comparison with X. elegans and X. occellata a specimen from Floren- 
cia shows the distinguishing features on which this species is based, but 
two males and a female from Buena Vista are decidedly paler throughout. 

Florencia, 1; Buena Vista, 3. 

(2559) Dendroplex picus picus (Gmel.). 
Oriolus picus Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1, 1788, p. 384 ("GujanEe arboribus"). 

Three specimens from Villavicencio agree with two others from Maipures 
and San Fernando de Atabapo, in having the throat slightly whiter than 
specimens from Cayenne, British Guiana, Santarem, and Bahia. Possibly 
the difference may be due to the freshness of the skins, which, in other re- 
spects, are typical. 

This form appears not to have been previously reported from the Bogota 
region, in which, as recorded below, D. p. pioirostris also occurs. 

Villavicencio, 3. 

(2561) Dendroplex picus picirostris (Lafr.). 

Dendrocolaptes picirostris Lapk., Rev. Zool., 1847, p. 76 (Rio Haeha, Colombia). 

Dendroplex picirostris Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Santa Marta); Stone, Proc. 
Acad. N. S. PhUa., 1899, p. 306 (Ambalema); Allen, Bull. A. M. N. H., XIII, 1900, 
p. 157 (Bonda). 

Inhabits the arid coastal Zone and southward up the Atrato and Mag- 
dalena Valleys. Our seven specimens agree with a large topotypical series 
from Bonda, near Santa Marta. In this form the bill averages stouter 
than in picus but, aside from the fewer black margins on the feathers of 
the throat, I observe no constant difference in color between the two forms. 

Turbaco, 1; R. Atrato, 2; LaPlaya, 1; Magangiie, 1; Banco, 2; Puerto 
Berrio, 2; Malena, 2; Honda and vicinity, 4; Chicoral, 1. 

(2570) Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Less.). 

Dendrocolaptes promeropirhynchus Less., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 270 (Colombia). 
Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1879, p. 523 (Sta. Elena; 
Remedies). 

Foimd only in the Central and Eastern Andes in both the Subtropical 
and Temperate Zones. Fourteen specimens show much variation in in- 



1917.] Chapman, Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia. 423 

tensity of color and extent of black markings in the underparts, immature 
birds being apparently more deeply colored and more conspicuously barred 
and margined with black below. 

Salento, 2; Laguneta, 1; Rio Toche, 1; La Candela, 3; La Palma, 1; 
Fusugasuga, 2; Aguadita, 2; El Pinon, 2; Subia, 3. 

(2586) Picolaptes lacrymiger lacrymiger {Des Murs). 

Dendrocolaptes lacrymiger Des Muhs, Icon. Orn., 1849, pi. 71 (Bogotd). 
Picolaptes lacrymiger Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, p. 331 (Ocafia to Bucaramanga) ; ScL. & 
Salv., p. Z. S., 1879, p. 524 (MedeUin; Sta. Elena; Envigado; Frontino). 

Common in the Subtropical Zone of all three ranges. I can detect no 
racial differenc