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Full text of "A glossary of Indian terms relating to religion, customs, government, land ; and other terms in common use : To which is added a glossary of terms used in district work in the N.W. Provinces and Oudh., and also those applied to labourers"

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Cornell University Library 
PK 177.T28 

3 1924 023 050 754 

Date Due 

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Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 










With au Appendix giving Computation of Time and Money, and "Weights and 
Measures, in British India, and Forms of Address. 

LUZAC & Co., 

Publishers to the India Office 

46, Great Eussell street, 


(.. 1;!^ I I 





AmsUrdam {Holland.) 


This work has been compiled chiefly for those who have not 
sufficient time to devote to the study of those languages of India 
to which this Glossary pertains, and who yet, in the course of their 
reading of Indian subjects, feel the want of an explanation, in a 
small compass, of terms relating to the religion, manners, customs, &c.,. 
of the Hindu and Mussalman peoples of India. 

These terms are, it is true, to be found in excellent Urdu and 
Hindi dictionaries ; but the latter are large and expensive works, and 
however essential to students of those languages, they would not be 
requisite for the majority of the readers to whom the present compi- 
lation appeals. For these the Roman character is used in this work. 
The Alphabets (in the same character), of the respective languages 
have been prefixed. At the same time, the students to whom we 
have referred will derive an advantage from having in a small 
compass, affording facility of reference, a collection of those particular 
terms" to which this Glossary is confined. The compiler is indebted 
to various valuable Hindustani Dictionaries. 

This Glossary was submitted to the late Dr. Eost, Librarian at 
the India Office, who expressed a very favourable opinion of the 
adaptability of the work to the end which the compiler had in. 


The compiler takes this opportunity of acknowledging his obligation 
to Professor Blumhardt, for kindly looking over the MS., and 
making some useful suggestions. 

It is possible, nay probable, that some errors in accentuation may 
have been overlooked, and for these the compiler must appeal to the 
indulgence of his readers. 

G. T. 
London, 1896. 



The Hindustani Alphabet in Roman Characters i 

The Hindustani Numerals 3 

The Hindi Alphabet in Roman Characters 4 

Glossary of Indian Terms relating to Religion Customs, 

Government, Land, &c., &c., &c 6^ 

Glossary of Terms used in Official District work in the 

N. W. P. and Oudh 319 

Glossary of Terms applied to labourers in the N. W. P. and Oudh 325 


Muhammadan Calendar 328 

Hindi! Calendar 329 

Monetary System of British India 330' 

Weights and Measures 331 

Forms of Address , , 331 

The flindiistani Alphabet in Roman Characters. 






^ b 
























with- modifications of sound, 
vide note (§) 

■'' "la pronouncing the names of the letters let it be remembered that the 
vowels are to be uniformly sounded as follows : — The unmarked a is always 
short, OS a in wouiau, ndriftj etc.; a is always long, as a in art; i is 
^hort, as in pin; 1 or i is long, as in police; U is short, as n in bnll, 
poll, etc. ; u is the same sound lengthened, and pronounced as u in rule, 
■etc.; e is sounded as ea in bear; is always long, as in no; ai is 
pronounced as ai in aisle; and au is sounded as in German and Italian, or 
very nearly like our OU in sonndj or OW in COW." I'or- these and further 
remarks on the pronounciation of the alphabet used (with sometimes slight modifi- 
•cations) in the north and east of Africa, in Turkey, Arabia and Persia, and by 
the, Mussalman portion of the people of India and Malacca, and for the characters, 
the student is referred to Forbes' Hindustani Grammar. 

' §) "Alif, according to the orthography of the Arabs has no sound but that of 
its accompanying vowel." (Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar). 

"Alif is sounded a, i or li, according to the vowel written above or below it." 
^(Arabic Grammar by Faris Ash-Shidyaq.) 

























'a, etc, 
















w, etc. 




y, etc. 

The vowel marks which are sounded after the consonants over or . 
under which they are placed consist of three, viz ; 

(1) fatha, or zabar — , written over the consonant, and having^ 
the sound of a short a. 

(2) kasra, or zer 7, written under the consonant to which it 
belongs and having the sound of i in sip. 

(3) zamma, or pesh J_, written over its consonant, and having 
the sound of u in poll, push, or more exactly of 00 in foot, hood, &c. 

*) a, i or II, guttural. (Arabic Grammar by Paris .\1-Shidiac). 

§) The Northumbrian r, as in round (Do. Ed. Eev. H. G. Williams, B. D. 
formerly Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge) Sir "WiUiani Jones 
(Persian Grammar) says of ain and ghain — the first is considered as a consonant, 
and occasions any vowels with which it is connected to be pronounced as if from 
the chest." Indians pronounce ain very slightly. In this vocabulary we have 
represented the ain either at the commencement or end of a word by an inverted 
comma, 'as 'akl, ma'. 

The Hindustani Numerals. 

1 ek. 

2 do. 

3 tin. 

4 char. 

5 paneh. 
G chlia. 

7 sat. 

8 ath. 

9 nan. 
dO das. 

1 1 igarah. 

1 2 harah. 

1 3 terah. 

1 4 chandali. 

1 5 pandrah. 

1 6 solah. 

1 7 satrali. 

1 8 atharah. 
i 9 nnis. 

20 Ms. 

21 ikkls. 

22 M'lS. 

23 te'is. 

24 chanbis. 

25 pacliis. 

26 chabbis. 

27 sata'is. 

28 atha'is. 

29 nntis. 

30 tis. 

31 iktis. 

32 batis. 

33 tetis. 

34 chantis. 

35 paiutis. 

36 chattis. 

37 saiutls. 

38 athtis. 

39 uutalis. 

40 chalis. 

41 iktalis. 

42 be'alTs. 

43 totalis. 

44 chan'alis. 

45 paintalis. 

46 chhi'alis. 

47 saiutalis. 

48 athtalis. 

49 nuchas. 

50 pachas. 

51 ikawan. 

52 bawau. 

53 tirpan. 

54 chanwan. 

55 pachpan. 

56 chappan. 

57 sattawan. 

58 athawan. 

59 nnsath. 

60 sath. 

61 iksath. 

62 basath. 

63 tirsath. 

64 chansath. 

65 paiusath. 

66 chhi'asath. 

67 satsath. 

68 athsath. 

69 nnhattar. 

70 sattar. 

71 ikhattar. 

72 bahattar. 

73 tihattar. 

74 chauhattar. 

75 pactahattar. 

76 chhihattar. 

77 sathattar. 

78 athhattar. 

79 nuasi. 

80 assi. 

81 ikasi. 

82 be'asl. 

83 tirasi. 

84 chanrasi. 

85 pachasl. 

86 chi'asi. 

87 satasi. 

88 athasl. 

89 uan'asi. 

90 nanwe. 

91 ikanawe. 

92 banawe. 

93 tiranawe. 

94 chanrauawe^ 

95 pachanawe. 

96 chi'anawe. 

97 sataiiawe. 

98 athanaTre. 

99 nlnanawe. 
100 san or sau 


Tlie foUowins are used as collective numbers : 

ganda, a group of four. 

gahi, a five. 

kori, a score. ! 

clialisa, a forty. 1 

The ordinals proceed as follows: 

pahla or pahila 

or paihla 

dSsra 2nd. 

tlsra 3rd. 


saikra, a hundred. 
hazar, a thousand. 
lakh, a hundred thousand. 
karor, one hundred lakhs, or 
ten millions, a 'crore'. 

c]iantha 4th. 

panchwau 5th. 



The followine are fractional numbers: 

chantha, I 
tiha, i . . . . 



sawa ■11/4 

derli 1 i/g 

arha'i 21/2 

The Hindi, Sanskrit or Dera Nagari Alphabet of "the city of the 
gods," from Sanskrit dsTa, a god, and nagara, a city. 

The alphabet consists of fourteen vowels and thirty-three simple 
consonants, and each letter has but one invariable sound. 

The Hindi Alphabet in Roman Characters. 









I, I, u, u, ri, ri, e, ai, 
















va, or wa, 




For further information regarding the Hindi alphabet, and for the 
construction of the language, the student can consult Kellogg's 
Hindi Grammar. The numerals differ very slightly from those we 
have already given. 

The characters of the Sanskrit letters differ considerably from those 
of the Urdu, the Arabic, and the Persian. 

In Sanskrit, the letters have a perpendicular form and are written 
from left to right; while the letters of the Hindustani alphabet are 
written in a horizontal direction from right to left. 

Glossary of some Indian Terms relating to 

Religion ; Customs ; Government; Land, and other 

Words in common use. 

(The letter (a) placed after a word in tie glossary stands for Arabic, (ft) for 
Hindi or HiudastiinT, (p) for Persian, and (s) for Sanskrit). 

A The name of God or Tishnu. As a prefix 

it is a particle of negation. 

*Abd A servant of God. 

Abdhiitni A kind of Hindu devotee who worships 

Abhisliek Sprinkling with holy Ganges water, 

purification, royal unction. 

^Abid An adorer. 

Ab-i-haiwan Waters of life, name of the fabulous 

fountain of immortality. 
Abja The lotus, the moon, the physician of 

the gods. 
Achamau Sipping water before religious ceremonies, 

meals, from the palm of the hand, and 

spitting it out again. 

A-char Religious observance, custom. 

Acharaj A spiritual guide, a learned pandit. 

Acliclihat - (unbrolien) 
— tilalc. (marlc made 
by Hindus on tlie 

Ceremony of putting a few grains ot 
rice on the forehead of an image when 
addressed, or of a Braliman when invited 
to an ealertainment. 

Achcliut Eternal. A name of Yislinn. 

Adab Manners, ceremonies, etiquette. 

'Adiilat A court of justice, 

^Adam . Non existence, nonentity, privation. 


'Adat Habit, custom. 

A-dharm Irreligion, impiety. 

Aditi Tlie proper name of the mother of the gods. 

Aditya Deities in general, the sun. 

Aftab (snn) — parast 

(worshipper) A worshipper of the sun. 

Af rid- gar The Creator. 

Agam A Sastra or work on sacred science and 

of divine origin. 

Aglior-panth A religious order among Hindus. 

The mendicants who profess it, eat every- 
thing, however filthy. Hence a gross 
feeder is so called. 

Agni The god of fire, name of a Fnraua. 

Agras Food offered in oblations, sacrifices, &c., 

to the gods. 

'Ahd Contract, treaty. 

Ahmad Most praisewortliy. Prop, name of Mu- 
hammad, and of Musalmans. 

'Ajam ... Barbarians (all persons not Arabian.) 

A-jat Applied to a man expelled from his jat 

or caste, thence called ajat-i. 

Ajal Tire predestined time of death. 

'Aka'id Articles of religion. 

Akas-diya A lamp which the Hindus hang aloft on 

a bamboo in the month Eartik. 

'Akd The marriage knot. 

Akhara A palaestra, or place for wrestling, any 

place of assembly. 

A-khat, or A-kshat Wliole grain — fried — used in religious 


'Akidat Faith, belief. 

'Akl Wisdom, sense, opinion. 

Akol A plant the oil of which is used in 


'Ala Grlory, exaltation. 

Aiaiya (a crow)-balaija 

(a sacrifice) Sacrifice, lighted wisps with which the 

Hindus divert themselves at the season 
of the dewali. 


'Alam The world, universe. 

'All High, eminent, noble; a proper name^ 

especially of Muhammad's son-in-law. 

'Alim Wise, learned. 

'Amal Action, rule, sway. 'Amil. 

'Amala (Pi. of 'Amil) . . . Collectors of revenue. An overseer. 

Amama A turban, a tiara. 

A-mar Immortal. 

'Amari A seat with a canopy, on an elephant 

or camel. 

_ r 

Ambika A name of Bbawani, wife of Sira. 

A-mrit The food of the gods, Ambrosia, Nectar. 

Amurzish Pardon of sins by the Deity. 

Au-ant Boundless. Name of Visliim. A serpent 

that supports the earth. The name is- 
also given to the cord with fourteen 
knots which Hindus tie on their arm 
on the fourteenth day of bhadou, sukl- 
pachh, which is sacred to Vishiiu, 
and called anant chandis, or anant 

A-niti Rudeness, injustice, immorality. 

Aparas Applied to the condition of a Hindn 

after bathing, when he must touch no 
one before he has prayed and eaten. 

Aradhan Worship, devotion, supplication. 

Archa Worship, adoration. 

Arcliak A worshipper. 

Argil Mode of worship ; an oblation of eight 

ingredients to a god or Brahmau; act 
of pouring out water in honour of a 
deity (the sun, moon, &c.) while per- 
forming worship. 

Argha The boat-shaped vessel, used by Hindns for 

performing libations in their devotions. 

Arjun Name of a celebrated hero, the third son 

of Pandn. 

Arta A ceremony attending marriage. 

When the bridegroom first comes to the 
house of the bride, he is received by 


her relations, who present to him, and 

move circularly round his head, a platter 
painted and divided into several com- 
partments ; in the middle of which is a 
lamp made of flour, filled with ghi, and 

having several wicks lighted. (Hunter). 
Arti A ceremony, similar to the above, in 

which the platter is moved round the 

head of aii image of a god. 
isan A small carpet on which Hindus sit at 


Asfalu-s-safllm The lowest hell. 

'Ashara The name of the first ten days of 

Aslitan^ Adoration performed with eight members 

of the body. 

'Askar An army. 

'Askar-i Military, a soldier. 

A-sram A religious class or state of mankind. 

According to the Hindus there are four 

such states, viz: I. Bralimachari, or 

student. IL Grihastha, or householder. 

III. Yaiiaprastlia, or anchorite. IV. 

Bhikshn, or beggar. 

Astnt Praise, an anthem. 

A-sur A. demon hostile to the gods. (The Abo- 
rigines were so called). 

Atan Incorporeal. Kamdey, the Hindu Cupid. 

Athal Bathing of the bride and bridegroom 

together, the third day after marriage. 

Atit A Hindu pilgrim, or fakir. 

Atka The pot in which food is cooked at the 

door of the temple of Jaganuath for 

the pilgrims. 

Atkiya Keligious devotees. 

Atma The soul, mind, self. 

<Atr Perfume, fragrance, essence (of roses). 

Aubash A mixed crowd of various nations, a 

vulgar mob. 
Auliya = Saints, the apostles, the holy. 


Ava-fSr Birth, descent, incarnation of the deity. 

(The Hindus reckon the following ten 
avatars of the god Vishnu; 1. matsya, 
a fish: 2. kachehapa, a tortoise; 
3. Yaraha, a hog: 4. nri-singlia, a man- 
lion: 5. Tainana, a dwarf: 6. parasa- 
raina : 7. anna : 8. balarama : 9. bnddha : 
10. kalki.) 

^Azab Tprment, martyrdom. 

'Azan The summons to prayer (generally pro- 
claimed from the minarets or towers 
of a mosque). 

<Aziz Darling, precious. A title of the king 

of Egypt. 


Badhawa Congratulatory song. Presents to a woman 

on the sixth, or fortieth day after child- 

Bahnian A Brahman. 

Baina Victuals distributed at marriages. 

Bainda A mark placed on the forehead by Hindus 

before their devotions. 

Bairagi An austere recluse. 

Baital A demon ; also a dead body occupied by one. 

Baitarni The Hindu Styx. 

Baithak A seat, or place where people converse. 

Baltu-1-lah (House of God). The temple of Mecca. 

Bajrang-i A kind of tilak or mark made on a 

Hindu's forehead with red lead. 

Bal (power) Balarama . . . Elder brother of Krishna. 

Bala'eu lena To take the misfortunes of another upon 

one's self by drawing the hand over the 
head of another. 

Bal (a child- Krishna) - 

bhog (enjoy) An offering presented to Krishna in the 

early morning. 

Bal-bakra A goat for sacrifice. One killed in battle 

without doing anything. 

Bali-dan Act of oifering sacrifice to God. 


Bam Interjection addressed to Siva, especially 

by pil2;rinis to tlie temple of Vaidyanath. 
Ban A forest (the pilgrimage through the 84 

forests of Braja). 

Bana Habit, profession, 

Bana A bridegroom. 

Baiia-prastha A hermit. 

Bang Sound, voice of the mu'azzin calling 

Muhammadans to prayer. 

Bara Alms, charity. 

Baran Tribe, or caste. Brahman, Clihatri, Bais, 

Sudra-among Hindus. 
Barat (li.) The company and attendants at a marriage 

Barat (a.) The fourteenth day of the month Slia'bau 

devoted to the commemoration of 


Barat A religious rite or penance. 

Bari The Deity, the Creator. 

Bar! Name of a Hindu caste, who sell torches, 

and leaves used for platters. 

Bardan Answer to prayer to God, or a saint. 

Bargi The Maharattas. 

Bai'na, or Yarua-sankara . Offspring of mixed tribes, or castes. 

Ba's The Resurrection. 

Basak . . The chief of serpents, fabled as supporting 

the universe, and used as a string to 

whirl mount Mandar in churning the 

ocean for the amrit, &c. 
Basma Beard-dyeing, staining the legs-by women 

so as to give the appearance of wearing 

tight drawers. 
Bed, or Veda Name of the four Hindu Scriptures: — 

rik, sania, yajush, and atharva. 
Bera (a raft, or float) . . . The raft floated by Muliammadans in 

honour of Khwaja Khi/r. Besides the 

anniversary bera, the Mnssalraans float 

smaller ones with lamps on Thursdays 

of the month Bhadoii, to pro])itiate the 



Bewan (like bimaii) The automatic car of a Hindu deify 

also a bier. 

Bliagwant God. 

Blia'i-chara Brotherhood. 

Bhajna To worship. 

Bliakt A devotee, a HiudQ actor. 

Bharat India. 

Bliat A warrior, a hero. 

Bliatar A husband. 

Bhatt A learned man. A title of Maharatta 


_ _ r 

Bhawani ... A Hindu goddess, wife of Siva. 

Bhitariya Men who preside at a temple - Bhandarly 

a steward : Pnjari, a priest, and 
raso'iya, a cook — also guests at a 
wedding-feast who eat in company with 
the relatives of the bride. 

Blioukas A wizard, who, by his spells brings- 

women and children to the grave. 

Bhur Charity given to poor people. 

Bldh or Vidlii Rule, decree, Brahma, providence. 

BiJia'I A spirit who by alternately whispering 

sad and pleasant things to children in 
sleep causes them to laugh, or cry. 

'Biinan A celestial throne, or car. 

BTril A sword knot. A custom prevailed of 

throwing a bira of betel, into the midst 
of an assembly as a challenge to any 
one to perform a difficult task. Whoever 
picked it up bound himself to execute 
the task. 

Bishan, or Vishiiu The deity in the character of Preserver 

or Vitality personified. 

Bismi - 1 - lahi ■ r - rahmani- 

-r-rahim In the name of God the most merciful- 

an Invocation used by Mnbammadaus 
at the commencement of their books, 
and generally, at the beginning of all 
actions and works. 

Braliina God, Spirit, the very soul. 


Byah (marriage)-ra-chana, 

(to celebrate) To celebrate a marriage. 

Byas or Vyiisa The Muni or saint, the reputed collector 

and arranger of the Vedas, and tlie 
author of the Mahabharat. 


€liachar . : A pole round which people play during 

the holl festival. 

Chamba A tribe of beggars who cut or scarify 

their skin. 

€hauwar An instrument made of peacocls's feathers, 

&c., waved over the head of a sovereign, 
intended originally to keep off flies. 

-Ciiarcba Adoration. Perfuming a person with 

Sandal- wood. 

Charkh A wheel, especially a potter's, or that 

of a water-mill. 

■Charak— puja (worship) . A ceremony observed principally by the 

lower orders of Hindus in Bengal, on 
the day when the sun enters' Aries, 
when, for the expiation of their sins 
they are suspended, by means of an 
iron hook passed under the shoulder- 
blades, and fastened to one end of a 
lever resting on a high pole. They are 
then whirled round by a rope joined 
to the other end of the lever. 

Ohar-yar-T . . A sect of Mussalmaus who venerate equally 

the four successors of Muhammad. 

■Chaube A Brahman acquainted with the four 

Vedas. Descendants of such Brahmans. 

■Chhathi A religious ceremony performed on the 

sixth day after childbirth. 

•Chhatr (an umbrella)- 

chhatr-pati or -dhari One entitled to cai'ry an umbrella, i.e a 

Chhatri The second of the four Hindu castes. 


Cliihal (forty) A custom observed at the funerals of 

Mnssaliuans, of stepping back forty 
paces from the grave and again advan- 
cing to it before reading the service. 

Chihra A description — roll. 

Chilla Forty days of fasting observed by some 

religious fraternities in the East. 

Cliiragh-I A present made to the Mnlla for offering^ 

up oblations at the tomb of a saint. 

Chnnanti Encouraging troops to fight. Four officers 

were appointed, for the purpose in 
Uindn armies. At Benares, on the Hth 
of Jeth shnkl-paksh Hindus swam across 
the river, and forming two sides fought 
with swords, clubs, &c. This was called 

Chnngi A fakir's tax. 


Uachh (learned) Name of an ancient sage, father-in-law 

of Mahadeva. 

Dachchhiua Eeward to a Brahman for performing^ 

religious ceremonies. Fee. 

Dadu Name of a celebrated fakir. 

Dah Burning. 

Dah karna The ceremony of burning a dead body. 

Daha (from Da,ten) The ten days of the Mnharram, in which 

the tombs of Hasan and Hnsain are 
carried about and thrown into the river 
or other water. 

Dahr Atheism. 

Da'i Destiny, the deity. 

Dair ... A temple where idols are worshipped. 

Dak A post for conveyance of letters, a post- 

Hakhan South. The southern part of India 



Dakait Generally written in English 'dacoit,' a 

robber, a pirate. 
Dakaut A caste of Uimdns, descended on the 

father's side from a Brahman and on 

the mother's from a Crwalin, a female 

of the GJwala, or cow-herd, caste. 
Diiman-i Scrap of the shroud kept by relatives of 

the deceased. 

Dan Charity, alms-giving. 

Dand-wat ^ Hindu salutation, bow, prostration. 

Dant (tooth). Daut nugli 

katna To bite the finger, is a term expressive 

of being surprised. 
Dantan A tooth-brush made from the branch 

of a tree, and generally used by the 

natives of India. 

Daiiw . A wager, a cast of the dice. 

Daph-ali A kind of fakli', who always plays on 

the daph, a sort of tambourin. 

Dar^ah Place, court, door, mosque, shrine. 

Darl A small carpet, a dialect of the Persian 


Daru-1-bawar The abode of perdition, i.e. hell. 

Darn-1-karar The mansion of rest, the grave. 

Daru-s-salam The mansion of safety, heaven. 

Darwesh A dervis (Muhammadan fakir), a beggar. 

Das'hara (Tenth) The birth day of Ganga. {Vide. Sacred 

Places of the Hindus). 

Da'wat Pressing people to become Mnssalmans. 

Dehra A temple where idols are worshipped by 

Jains, a Hindu temple. 
Dev (GfOd) — than (stand- 
ing up) The day on which Tishuu awakes from 

his sleep of four months. 

Devhra A temple where idols are worshipped. 

Devi A Hindu goddess, a queen. 

Dewa-sthan A place of idols, a temple. 

Dewal A temple where idols are worshipped, a 

temple, a pagoda (often used by the natives 

to designate Christian place of worship.) 


Dewall A UiudS festival. 

Dew-stan The habitation of demons. 

Dlianattar (powerful). . . Name of a physician in the court of 


J)hang Breeding, manners, gracefulness. 

Dharl Black lines made on the lips with missl 

(a kind of ink). 
Dharicha The name given to the second husband 

of a Hindu woman among the lower 

classes. Such marriage is contrary to 

Brahmanical teaching. 

Dharui Justice, religion. 

Dharm or Dharam-sala . . . A place where alms are distributed, a 

resting place for travellers. 

• Dheha A kind of fakir; also a tribe of Jats. 

Dho'a Pruit and flowers presented by inferiors 

on festival days. 

Dhora The tomb carried about in the AIntaarram. 

Dhuni (smoke) A fire lighted by a Hindu fakir, over 

which he sits, imbibing the smoke, by 

way of penance. 
DhJip A perfume burnt by Hindus at the time 

of worshipping. 
Dig-gaj Elephant that supports one of the four 

quarters of the earth. Great. 
Big (side) — sui (a dart, 

pain) An unlucky day for travelling in a par- 
ticular direction. 

Dikpal Eegion. (Brahina, for upwards; Auanta, 

for downwards ; ludra, for east ; Agni, 
for south-east ; Yauia, for south ; Nairrita, 
for south-west; Varuna, for west ; Vayu, 
for north-west ; Kuvera, for north ; Isaua 
for north-east.) 

DIa Faith, religion. 

])in-bandhu Friend of the poor, > 

DIn.dayal Protector of tiie poor, Epithets of 

Dina-natli Master of the poor, ' ^^^ ^^^^'^' 

Bola A wife IVom an inferior family married 

by a person of rank, who gives a pre- 


sent to her parents. She ranks below 
wives of equal family, but above con- 

Dora ; Domra A low caste of Hindus, also among 

Mnssalmans, professionals, the males of 
which are musicians, and the females 
sing and dance in the company ol 
females only. 

Dozakh Hell. 

Sabe Knowing two beds, or Veda, a title of 


Dulha A bride-groom. 

Durga A name of BhawanT. 

pnrana A name of a Hindu book containing an 

account of the goddess. 

Durrani Name of a tribe of Pathans, inhabiting 

the country about Kandahar. They are 
said to have got this name from wearing 
pearls (A-dnrr, a pearl) in their ears. 
They are also called Abdalis. 

Dnrtid Salutation, blessing. 

Dut (An ambassador) .... An angel who passes between God and 


Dwarabati; Dwarika . . . . A HindA holy place near the month of 

the Gulf of Ctttch {Fide. Hindu Sacred 

Dwarika-nath ; . . Lord of Dwarika, i.e. Krishna, 

Dwija, (twice-born) A Brahman. 


Eri The heel. 

Eri dekho, . . . : Look at your heel (look at home): a 

phrase used to obviate the effect of the 

evil eye. 

Btwar ■ Sunday. 

Ezid God. 

Ezid-i Divine. 



Fabiha Excellent ! bravo ! very well ! 

Faghfnr Tlie emperor of China. 

Fahim Intelligent, wise, knowing. 

Fahish Nefarious. 

Fahisha A harlot, anything abominable. 

Fahm Understanding, intellect. 

Failsnf {<l>iloao(fioi) A philosopher. 

Fajir A sinner. 

Fakhr Glory, nobility, grace. 

Fakih A theologian. 

Fakir A beggar, a darwesh. 

Falak The heavens, fate. 

Falita Torch, a wick composed of paper in- 
scribed with mystic words, from the smoke- 
of which demons are supposed to be- 
expelled from those possessed by them. 

Fana Mortality. 

Farang Europe. 

Farang-i European. 

Farhang Science, a dictionary. 

Farosh (selling) halwa- 
(sweetmeats) halwa- 

farosh A sweetmeat-seller. 

Fars Persia. 

Fars-I A Persian, the Persian language. 

Fasl Chapter, division, time, season, crop, date- 

Fasli A Hiudn era. 

Fath Yictory, conquest. 

Falwa A judicial decree, judgment, sentence. 

Fauj An army. 

Fauj-dar An officer of the police, a magistrate. 

Faut Death, failure, omission. 

Faut-I Property of those who die intestate — 

escheated to the sovereign. 

Fids Sacrifice, ransom. 

Firoz Victorious, happy. 


Fitr Breaking a fast. 

Fitrat Wisdom, a trick, nature, creation. 

Fota Tax, revenue. 

G. GH. 

trab , A tree, tbe fruit of which yields a 

glutinous, astringent juice, used for 
smearing the bottoms of boats, and for 
soaking nets. 

Gabr A follower of Zoroaster, a fire-worshipper ; 

applied by Musalmans to non-Mu- 

Gada A club, a mace. 

-dhar Mace- bearing, a name of Vishnu. 

Gaddi A cushion, pad, anything stuffed. A 

sovereign's throne. 

Gajar Chimes rung at the expiration of a watch 

or pahar of the day or night. 

Gaj-p^ti (from (Jaj, an 
elephant, and pati, a 

lord, master) The master of an elephant, the title of 

a raja. 

Gall Abuse. In plural (galiyan), indecent 

songs at marriages. 

Gamak Sound of the kettle-drum. 

Gandar A kind of grass of which Ehas Ehas is 

the root. The latter, placed on frames, 
is used before doors, and constantly 
wetted to cool the air passing into the 
rooms, during the hot season. 

Gandhar The name of a Bag or musical mode. 

Gandharb A celestial musician, a demi-god. 

Gandi A circle, particularly that which Eama- 

chandra drew round Sita to protect her 
from Barana. 

Ganes. Ganesh The name of a Hindu divinity. The 

Janus of the Hindus. The God of 
wisdom, represented with an elephant's 


head and attended by a rat. He was 
the Sion of Mahadera and a daughter 
of the mountain Himalaya. He is in- 
voked at the commencement of every 
affair of consequence. 

(xanga The river Ganges, deemed sacred by 

HindSs, and on which they are sworn. 

Oaiiit Arithmetic. 

Ganjha The hemp plant (Cannabis Sativa). The 

fruit when nearly ripe is bruised and 
smoked as an intoxicant. The leaves 
when dried and ground, are mixed with 
water and form an intoxicating drink. 
The mixture is called bliang and gabzi. 

Oara .^ Mud prepared for making pottery. Name 

of a ragini or musical mode. 

Oardnn A wheel, the firmament, the heavens. 

Garwa A vessel for holding water, a flower- 
pot carried by- musicians and dancing 
women at the feast of basant-panehami, 
as an offering to people of rank, from 
whom they receive presents in return. 

Gatli— bandhan Binding in a knot. A Hindu marriage 

festival, on which the bride and bride- 
groom's clothes are fastened togetlier and 
conveyed in procession to a river or lake. 

Gaura A name of the goddess Parwati. 

Ganri Ibid, the name of a ragini or musical 


(raiiriya Inhabitant of Ganr, formerly the capital 

of Bengal ; hence, the followers of 
Chaitanya of Nadiya are so called. (This 
philosopher flourished about the year 
1407 of Salivahaua. — a prince whose 
era commences 78 years after the birth 
of Christ; it is called SaliB. — He was 
by birth a Brahman, and, having become 
a SannySsi, maintained that the doc- 
trines of the Vedas had been hitherto 
misunderstood, and explained tliem in 


a manner peculiar to himself. His sect 
is a branch of tlie Yaishitava or wor- 
shippers of Vishim. His disciples are 
numerous, over five millions. His fol- 
lowers believe him to have been an 
incarnation Of the deity. 

tfayii Name of a city in Bihar, a celebrated 

tirth or place of pilgrimage. 

Gayatri A prayer repeated by Brahmaus with 

the rosary. 

Ghabawat Inadvertency, stupidity. 

(ihabi Negligent, imprudent. 

Ghafr, ghufran Pardon, remission of sins. 

Ctliaib Concealed, invisible, mysterious. 

Gthaib-dan Skilled in discovering mysteries, a prophet, 

a diviner, omnigcipnt., 

Ghair Other, different, foreign. 

Grhair - shar'-I Unlawful. 

Ghalaba Superiority, strength, conquest. 

Cthalat Wrong, erroneous. 

go A false relater. 

-1 A mistake, error. 

-kar Delusive. 

-kar-i Delusion, deception. 

-navis An erroneous writer. 

Grham-aluda Grieved. 

(xhamm Grief, sorrow. 

tfhana Riches, wealth. 

Gjiani K,ich, wealthy. 

(xhanTin An enemy, a robber. 

Gharbi Western. 

Ghari An hour. 

Gharib A foreigner, stranger, poor, humble, 

strange, foreign, wonderful. 

Gharib-mar Oppression of the poor. 

Gharib-nawaz Courteous, hospitable to strangers, kind 

to the poor. 

Gharib-nawaz-I Hospitality. 

Gliarib-parwar Cherisher of the poor. (Often applied 

by inferior persons to their superiors.) 


Uharik Immersed, drowned. 

— i-rahihat Overwhelmed with mercy, drowned in 

the grace of God. 

tthazb Violence, injustice, force, oppression, 


Ohassal One whose business it is to wash the 

bodies of the dead. 

tthat A landing place by a river, a bathing 


(xhatak An ambassador, a mediator; applied, also, 

to one who negotiates a marriage. 

Ghati A mountain pass. (The Ghants, on the 

east and west of the Deccan are so 
called from their numerous passes). 

Ghazal An ode. 

— khwan A reciter of odes. 

sara-i • . . . Singing of odes. 

Gtaopa , A cloth with a part folded like a sugar 

loaf to cover the head worn over the 
body in cold or wet weaiher. 

Ghnbar ; . . . Dust, vapour, the smallest Arabic or 

Persian handwriting. 

_Ghnl An imaginary sylvan demon of different 

shapes and colours, supposed to devour 
men and other animals. 

Ghnl-i-bayaban-i A demon (inhabitant of the woods). 

Girain or Gram A musical scale, an octave. 

Girja {Portuguese Igfreja, 

from Gr. e.xxh/ala) ... A church. 

God Bosom, god lena, to adopt a child. 

Golok Name of the heaven of Vishnu. 

Gopal (from Go, a cow, 

and pal, who protects). A name of Krishna, a cow-herd. 

Gor ^ A tomb, a grave. 

Gotam The name of a mnni, or saint, famous 

in Hiudii mythology. He was the author 
of tlie Nyiiya, or logic, and his doc- 
trines corresponded with those of Aris- 
totle. Gotam and his wife Ahalyu 
lived in a retired forest, where Indra, 


happening to pass, was struck with the 
beauty of the latter; and assuming the 
appearance of Ootam, deceived and slept 
with his wife ; which discovering, Grotam 
cursed them both. He wished that Ahalya 
might be turned into stone; in which 
state she remained till Rainacliandra 
(son of Dasaratha), passing that way 
with his brother Laclihnian, restored 
her to her original form, and after she 
had been purified by Bama, she was 
again received by her husband. 

•Grranth -^ code, particularly the book of the 

Sikh religion composed by Nanak 

•tlrish The name of the fourth of the six 

seasons, from 15th of Baisakh to 15th 
Asharh, summer. 

Oudariya Clothed in patched garments or in rags. 

iGtndarij-a-pir A tree near a town or village on which 

people tie np rags in the manner of 
votive tablets, which they believe to be 
efficacious for the accomplishment of 
their wishes. 

-triidri -A l^il*^ (especially a fakir's). 

(i|jjj.j Name of a raginl, or musical mode. 

4jnlai A farinaceous powder dyed red, which 

the Hindus throw on each other in the 
holi festival, (q.v.). 

^jirn Important, respectable, a spiritual guide, 

a teacher, the planet Jupiter, 

^^tj^a A ball which devotees swallow to make 

themselves invisible, a small book worn 
as an amulet. 

H H. 

Habs (Betention) Applied to retention of breath practised 

by fakirs, as a religious act. It is 


considered a means of prolonging life- 
as extending the time in which the- 
predestined number of inspirations takes- 

Habsliani A female Abyssinian. 

Habsh-i Abyssinian, a Kaffir. 

Hadas or hads An accidental cause of impurity, according 

to MusabnSn traditions, whereby it 
becomes unlawful to commence or finish 
a prayer without ablution. 

Hadd Punishment agreeable to the laws of 

Muhammad, which fix the exact number 
of lashes, &c., to be inflicted for certain 

Hadi Cattle carried to Mecca for sacrifice. 

Hadls A history, a tradition, the traditional 

sayings of Muhammad. 

Hadm Ruin, destruction, a destroyer. 

Hadya The price of a Knr'jln. 

HaflK (a guardian) One who has a good memory, who can. 

recite the whole Kur'an. The poetical; 
name of the celebrated Persian poet — 
Muhammad Sharasn-d-dm. 

Haflza A retentive memory. 

Hall An assembly, council, congregation. 

Haft Seven. 

-taasht Abuse, idle talk. 

-hazar-I A command of seven thousand. 

kalani Seven sorts of handwriting in Persian,, 

one who writes those seven hands. 

Haft-kishwar The seven regions, the world. 

Hai'at Astronomy, the aspect of the heavens. 

Haibat Fright, perturbation, awe. 

Haidar A lion, name of 'All, son-in-law of 


Haidar-I One of the sect of 'All. 

Half. Iniquity, oppression, a pity. 

Haiiii War, battle, conflict. 

Haikal Any great building, a palace, a temple- 

Hii'il Terrible, horrible. 


tt'iilaj (In astrology) A mark by which the- 

duration of life is foretold. 

Haiy Alive. 

kaiyuiu Eternal, immortal. 

la-yamSt Eternal. 

Haija The cholera. 

Hajar A stone. 

Hajaru-l-aswad The black stone in the temple of 


^^^i Need, want, poverty ; also, hope, wish. 

Hiiji. . . Said of one who has taken part in a 

festival, and, particularly, who has per- 
formed the pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Hajiyn-l-haraniain A pilgrim to both Mecca and Medina. 

^''■JJ Act of moving round, or going to a 

place, pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Hajo Satire, a lampoon. 

malih Apparent praise but real satire, irony. 

Hakam An umpire, mediator, arbitrator, also,. 

knowledge, wisdom. 

Hakikat Account, narration, condition, explanation,. 

truth, sincerity. 

Hakim A ruler, governor, master, commander. 

Hakim A sage, philosopher, and, commonly, a 


Hakim-i The practice of medicine. 

Hakk Just, right, true, the deity, justice,. 


Hakk ada karua To render every one his due. 

jaU-o-jalal The deity in all his splendour. 

Hakka Really, truly, by God. 

Hakk-ta"51a God is great, the Almighty. 

Hakkn-l-lah The rights of God, punishment inflicted' 

for religious offences. 

Hala A halo, or circle round the moon. 

Hala-dola Shaking, an earthquake. 

Halak Perdition, ruin, slaughter, death. 

Halakat Death, destruction. 

Halal Legal, right, allowable, a woman laying- 
aside mourning for the death of her 


husband, at the expiration of 100 days 

— during which time she is not allowed 

by law to re-marry. 
Halal karna To slay according to the foi-ms prescribed 

by the Muhammadan religion. 
khor A sweeper of the lowest caste (so called 

because everything eatable is lawful 

food to him. 

Halat State, condition, circumstances. 

Hal-dhar A name of Balarama. 

Hallm A kind of food dressed in the Mn- 


Halka A ring, circle, a fraternity. 

Hama All, the whole, everything. 

dan Knowing everything, experienced, wise. 

Haina'il A small Kur'an suspended to the neck 

as an amulet. 

Hamd Praise. 

Hame-o Vanity, egotism, arrogance, pride. 

Hamosha Always, ever, continually, perpetually. 

Hamesha-gi Eternity, perpetuity. 

Hamid Praised, laudable, glorious. 

Hamiyat Ardor, zeal, a nice sense of honor. 

Ham-kasam Bound together by oath. 

Haug The understanding, wisdom. 

Haniiman A monkey, the name of the monkey 

who headed Baina's forces against 


Hara A name of Mahadeva. 

Haram Sacred, forbidden, the temple of Mecca, 

the Seraglio. 

Haram-I A robber, an assassin. 

Har-bab-i Master of knowledge of every kind . 

Har-giz Ever. 

Hari A name of Vishnu. 

bhajan Adoration of Visluiu. 

bhakt A worshipper of Vishnn. 

tliis A servant of Vishnn. 

Harlm The sacred enclosure of the temple of 



Harlit The name of an angel, who, together 

with another named mariit, severely 
censured mankind before the throne of 
God: they were, therefore, both sent 
down to earth in human shapes, to judge 
of the temptations to which man was 
subject, and these they were unable to 
withstand; being seduced by the planet 
Venus in form of a woman. As a 
punishment, they were suspended by 
the feet in a well in Babylon, where 
they are to remain in great torment till 
the day of Judgment. 

Hasab Pedigree, nobility, sufficiency, religion. 

Hasb-i-hal Agreeably to circumstances. 

Hasbu-1-Unkm Agreeably to orders. 

Hasbu-1-ma'miil Agreeably to customs. 

HaslI A collar of gold, or silver, worn as an 

ornament round the neck. 

Hassas Possessed of the five senses, an animal. 

Hast Being, existence. 

Hast-i Existence, entity, world. 

Hath-lewa A ceremony in marriage among Hindns. 

(The hands of the bride and bridegroom 
are joined palm to palm, with some 
flour put between them, and tied with 
a red thread. 

Handa A litter (used on an elephant or camel, 

in which Arabian ladies travel). Anglice 
Howdah, "a square enclosure, four feet 
by four, formed of wood, or cane stretched 
upon a wooden frame, and provided 
with a seat slung across for the con- 
venience of the occupant. This machine 
is placed on the back of an elephant 
and strapped round its body by means 
of broad leathern girths and chains. 
Seated herein and provided with rifles, 
ammunition, and a day's provision of 
biscuits, sandwiches, and a bottle of ale or 


brandy and water, a European can travel 
in a single day a distance of forty miles, 
either in search of tigers, or to reach a 
station to which he may be summoned 
by business or pleasure " (Stocqneler.) 

Hawari Having a white skin, a friend, companion, 

an apostle, a disciple or apostle (of Jesus- 
Christ), a friend, associate, companion 
(of Mnhammad). 

Hawas Desire, lust, ambition, curiosity. 

Hi or Hiya Heart, breast, mind, soul, life. 

Hidayat, Guidance in the way of righteousness 


Hijrat Separation, flight; particularly the flight 

of Mnhaminad from Mecca to Madina, 
on the 15th of July A.D. 622, the 
commencement of the Mubammadan era. 

Hilal The new moon, the first and last two or 

three days of the moon. 

Hind India. 

Hindol Name of a rag, or musical mode, sung 

in the morning of spring. 

Hindu A negro, a black Arabian, Indian, or 

Ethiopian. A Gentoo (" Indian. One of 
the aborigines of India. At Madras our 
countrymen use this term to designate 
the language and people of TeUina^ana,. 
who occupy the north-eastern portions 
of the peninsula") (Stocqneler.) 

Hindustan India (particularly applied to the upper 

provinces) from Hindu, Indian, and 
Stan, place, country. 

Hing-liij A temple of DbtI. 

Hisn-i-hasin An impregnable fortress, the title of a 

book of Musalinau traditions. 

Holl The great Hindfi festival held at the 

approach of the vernal equinox, when 
great license prevails, and the people 
sprinkle each other with ^uliil, a red 


Hor A wager, an agreement, a bargain. 

Hosh Understanding, mind, soul. 

Hoshang Name of the second king of Persia, of 

the Peshdadiyan dynasty. 

Ho tab Predestination, destiny. 

Hnbal Name of an idol in the Ka'ba at Mecca 

bel'ore the time of Muhammadanism. 

Huma A name given to (1 ) an eagle, (2) a 

phoenix, (3) a bird of paradise. It is 
considered of happy omen, and that 
the head it overshadows will wear 
a crown. 

Hnn A coin, called also a pagoda made of 

gold with an image on it, principally in 
former times in use at Madras. The term 
pagoda appears to have been applied by 
Europeans, who also, by it, designated 
Hiadu temples. In reference to the coin, 
Europeans, of times long since passed 
away, who had made their fortunes in 
India were said to have shaken the 
"Pagoda tree". 

Hnnda bhara Contract for transportation of goods, 

including the payment of duties. 

Hnndari, hnndi A bill of exchange. 

Unnnd The Hindus. 

Hni-muz The isle of Ormuz in the Persian gulf, 

also the name of a king of Persia who 
reigned A.D. 272. 

Huruk A kind of drum in form like an hour-glass 

(generally played on by bearers). 

Hnshaska The last breathings of the dying. 

I'anat Help, aid, assistance, favour. 

'Ibadat Divine worship, adoration. 

'Ibadat-i A devotee,' a religious person. 

'Ibadat-khana A place of worship. 


'Ibarat Style (in writing), speech, a word, dialect, 

idiom, a trope or figure, phrase, sig- 

Ibham The thumb, suspicion, ambiguity, adj. 

covered, concealed, unknown. 

IMis The devil (so named because he despaired 

of God's mercy.) 

'Ibrat An example, warning. 

'Id A solemnity, festival, holyday. (Fide, 


— fasah Feast of the Passover. 

— fatir Feast of unleavened bread. 

- — gah A place of worship. 

— ka chand bona To be seen on very rare occasions. 

— khima Feast of tabernacles. 

'Idi A customary present on the day of 'Id, 

or on some holyday. 

'Idn-l-fltr The festival held on breaking the Mussal- 

man lent. 

Ifrlt Anything frightful or horrible, a giant, 

demon, spectre. 

Iftar Breaking a fast — especially in the even- 
ing, when Mussalmans eat after fasting 
all day during the month of Bamazan. 

Ilikak Act of proving the trutli of a doctrine, 

restoring to rights, administration of 

Ihram Interdicting, applied to the resolution 

formed by pilgrims at a certain distance 
from Mecca to abstain from all worldly 

Ihsan Beneficence, benevolence, benevolent 

actions, favour, courtesy, kindness. 

karua To oblige. 

mand Obliged, grateful. 

Ihtirani Act of honouring, paying respect, vener- 
ation, reverence, attention. 

Ihtiraz Abstinence, abstaining from improper 

passions of any kind, forbearance. 

Ijab Rendering neceesary. (In logic) Affirraa- 


tion. (In Muhammadan law). The first 
proposal made by one of the parties in. 
negociating or concluding a bargain. 

Ijabat Answering (of prayer or of a petition),. 

consent, approbation, compliance. 

IJSd Invention. 

karna To invent. 

Ijara Hire, rent, a farm. 

Ijara-dar A farmer of land or of revenue, th& 

holder of a monopoly. 

Ijazat Permission, leave, dispensation, sanction,. 

commands, orders. 

khwah Asking permission. 

Ijtihad Exertion, effort. 

Ijtlma' Act of assembling or gathering together,. 

agreeing together in opinion, conjunctiorL 
in astronomy. 

Ikhbar Act of giving intelligence or information. 

Ikhtif a Act of hiding, concealing. 

Ikhtilaf Uiiference of opinion, discord, disagree- 
ment ; misunderstanding between friends.. 

Ikhtilal Interruption, disturbance, obstacle. 

Ikhtira' Invention, inventing, fancying. 

Ikhtisar Abridgment, curtailing. 

Ikhtiyar Choice, wiU, opinion, election, authority,. 


— karna. To approve of, to adopt, to choose. 

— men bona To be in the power of, or dependent on> 

Ilah God. 

Ilahi Divine, interj. God ! 

'Daj A remedy, medicine, cure. 

'Ilal (plnr of 'illat) Infirmities, pretences. 

Ilka Inspiration. 

'niat. Pretence, cause. 

i-f a'ill Efiicieiit cause (as the maker, if the work 

of man). 

i-gha'i Final cause, or purpose for which it 

was made. 

i-maddi Material cause, or the matter of which 

the thins; is made. 


-^^1- -i-slirl Formal cause, i.e. that form in which 

its essence consists. 

'Ilm Science, knowledge. 

i-'arnz Poetry, versification. 

i-asma The knowledge of the names, i.e. of the 

attributes of God. 
i-ghaib The knowledge of what is occult or 

absent, or what has not yet existed. 

-i-haiyat Astronomy. 

i-hikmat Philosophy, physics. 

-i-hlsab Arithmetic. 

-i-ilah-I Theology. 

i-kalam The explanatory science, i.e. rhetoric, 

oratory, eloquence. 

-i-ladnn Inspired knowledge. 

i-iflaraya The study of perspective. 

i-mnsiki Music. 

'Ilm-1-riyaji The mathematical sciences. 

-i-sihr Magic. 

- — -i-tasauwuf The mystic, or contemplative science. 

-'nmii-l-yakm Certain knowledge, demonstration. 

'Imad A lofty pillar, confidence, reliance, trust, 

Imam A leader in religious affairs, &c., a priest ; 

also, a large bead in a rosary, which 

remains fixed in the hand while the 

others are turned over and counted. 

(called by the Uindns, SHniern). 
Imamiya Name of a Muhammadan sect, who make 

AIT the rightful imam immediately after 

^Imarat Government, lordship, office or dignity 

of anilr, a public edifice, a fortification. 

Imkan Possibility, contingent existence. 

Imla Pilling up, completing, ^orthography. 

Inabat Conversion to God, repentance. 

In'ain A present, a gift. 

In'iim-i-ikram An honorable gift. 

'Inayat Favour, gift, present. 

Indarii A large well of masonry. 


ludiraj Extinction of a family. 

Indifa* Eepelling, prohibiting. 

Indimal Kecovery, getting well of a wound. 

Indra The regent of the visible heavens and 

of the inferior divinities. 
badhu 1 

^ ,_- The wife of Indra. 


Indra-prastha A name of Dehli. 

Indra-purl The city of Indra. 

Indri An organ of sense, the senses (external 

and internal). 

lus Men, mankind. 

Insan Man a human being. 

Irada. Iradat ......'..... Desire, inclination, design, intention, 


'Irak A territory divided into two portions. 

i-^ajam Babylonia or Chaldea and Media. 

i-'arab Babylonia or Chaldea. 

'Irakan The two cities of Basra and Kufa. 

Iran Persia. 

Iran-i Persian. 

Irs Inheritance. 

^Isa Jesus. 

<Isa-I Christian. 

'Isawi Belonging to Jesus, of Jesus, Christian. 

^Isha The first watch of the night, the prayers 

said when going to rest. 
Isht A god, beloved person, anything wished 

Islam At peace, orthodoxy, the Muhammadan 

religion, Islamism. 

Islami A believer, a Mnhaniniadan. 

Isma'I'l Ishmael, son of Abraham. 

Ispand A seed burnt at marriages and after the 

birth of a child to drive away evil 

spirits ; also, when a child goes out or 

comes home. 
Israfll The name of an angel who, it is said, 

will sound the last trumpet at the 

resurrection. A seraph. 



Istambol Constantinople. (It k so called by the 

Turks. The Persians name it Kustnn- 
tnniya. It is thus called in the Bagh 

Istibdad Absolute dominion, despotism, insisting 

upon a thing's being done. 

Istibra Cleansing, washing one's hands of a 

business or desiring to be freed from 
it, the waiting of a woman (for three 
months, according to the Muhammadan 
law) after being divorced from her 
husband, to ascertain whether she is 
pregnant or not, before she can contract 
another marriage.' 

Istifta Consulting a lawyer or learned man. 

Istihbab Contracting friendship, a work or 


Istihzar Calling, citing, summoning to appear. 

Istikamat Standing erect. Eectitude, integrity. 

Istikbal The ceremony of meeting and receiving 

a visitor, futurity. 

Istikbar Pride, presumption. 

Istiklal Absolute power, intrepidity, perseverance. 

Istikma Bringing to perfection. 

Istikra Reasoning from induction. 

Istimta' Enjoying, the celebrating the solemnities 

•of the festival of Mecca. 

Istinas Familiarity, intimacy, sympathy. 

Istlhas History. (This refers to heroic history, 

fables and traditions, as the Hindus 
were not historians in the proper sense 
of the term. From the time of the 
Mussalman conquest the historians of 
India are the Mussalmans. 

Ittifak Agreement, equality, concord, friendship, 

chance, fortune, accident, success. 

Ittif akan Accidentally, by chance. 

Ittif ak-i-liasana Unexpected good fortune, agreeable ac- 

Ittifak bona To happen, to be agreed. 


Ittifak karua To accord, to happen. 

Ittihad Union, concord, friendship. 

Ittika Abstaining from evil, piety. 

I'tikaf Curbing the desires ; continuing at 

worship in a Mosque, especially at 


'lyadat Visiting the sick. 

Izafat Addition, adjunct, reference ; construction 

of one noun with another. 

Iz"an Obedience, submission, confidence, belief. 

Izhar Manifestation, revelation. 

Izn Pei-mission, dismission. 

Izra'a The angel of death. 

Iztirab Agitation, trouble, chagrin. 

Ijtlrar Violence, constraint. 

'Izz Glory, dignity, grandeur, excellence, 

'Izzat Ibid, glory. 

Jabadda Rigid, stiff, awkward. 

Jabaddiya Ill-shaped. 

Jabal A hill, a mountain. 

Jabalknm An amethyst. 

Jabbar Omnipotent, mighty, a conqueror, a tall 

palm tree, a revenger, Orion. 

Jabha The forehead. 

-sa Eubbing one's forehead on the ground, 

beseeching, begging earnestly. 
sa-i The act of rubbing the forehead on the 

ground, beseeching earnestly. 
Jabr Oppression, violence, strength, force, 


98 By violence, violently. 

i-nnksan Making good a deficiency in exchange 

of goods. 


Jabra'n, The archangel Gabriel. 

Jiicliak A beggar, one who goes about singing 

for charity. 

Jachna To want, implore, beg. 

Jada Pathway, road, the right road, manner, 

Ja-dad A place, station, service,^ employment, 


JadaT One of the lineage of Kjrislma. 

Jadd A grandfather, (plur. ajdad, ancestors), 

dignity, glory (of God), happiness, 


Jadd-i Ancestral, belonging to ancestors. 

JadI A he-goat, a kid, the sign Capricorn, 

the diminutive of Jadi, pronounced 

Jndai is the name of the polar star. 

Jadn An ancestor of Krishna. 

Jadn-bansi One of the family of Jadn. 

Jadn-nath An epithet of Krishna. 

Jadu Sorcery, juggling. 

Jadwal Horizontal, or marginal ruling in a 

book, a tabular form, an astronomical 

Ja'edad An assignment of land for the mainte- 
nance of any establishment. 

Jag A religious sacrifice, vigils. 

Jaga The name of a caste of Hindus. 

Jagadamba (Hother of 

the -world) Epithet of the wife of Mahadeva. 

Jagaran Vigil (in a religious ceremony), vespers. 

Jaggesar A name of Vishnu and of Siva. 

Jbgopabit The ceremony of putting on the Brah- 

manieal thread. 
Jahez A bride's portion, whatever a wife carries 

with her to her husband's house. 
Jai Triumph, promotion, preferment, victory, 

brapo! huzza! all hail! 

Jai-jai-lcar Eejoicings, triumph, exultation. 

Jai-iniil Garland of victory. 

Jait Name of a musical mode. 


Jajak (li.) A player on cymbals or on the tabour. 

J^'ak (s.) ■ A Brahman who presides at the perfor- 
mance of a religious ceremony, an 
officiating priest. 

Jajam -A cloth thrown over the carpet to sit on. 

Jajat The series of binary combinations of 

letters, beginning with J (jim). 

Jajnian , . . . . The hereditary barber of a village to whom 

fees must be paid whether employed 
or not. 

Jak An animal supposed to guard buried 


Jakh A demi-god, or fairy — an attendant on 

Envera, the Indian Plutus. 

Jakhani A female jakli or fairy. 

Jalal Dignity, state, majesty, grandeiir, splendor, 


Jalal-I Divine. 

Jalaliya A worshipper of the more terrible attri- 
butes of the deity. 

Jal-sa'I (Sleeping on the water). Applied to 

Vishnu, the only being who survived 
the destruction of the universe-remaining 
afloat on a leaf of the bar or Flcus 
Indica, or on the great snake, auanta. 

Jal-tarang Musical glasses, playing on gloss or china 

bowls by rubbing the edges, a brass 
vessel in which water is put and the 
edges are beaten with two sticks. 

Jam, or Jamshid Name of an ancient King of Persia. 

Jam The Hindu Pluto, death, and judge of 

departed souls. 

Jam' A congregation, conjunction, collection, 

accumulation, assembly, amount, sum 
total, whole, plural number. 

-bandi Accounts, settlements of revenue. 

dar A native officer. 

-dar-i ,/ // , the business of. 

o-kharch Account of receipt and disbursement, 

account current. 


Jam (A goblet: amirror) 

Jam-Jiimshid The mirror of Jamshid in which he saw 

whatever he wished. 

Jamani A Mahammadan. 

Jambndip One of the seven parts of the world 


Jain-diya A candle or illumination, sacred to Jam, 

lighted on the 13th of Kartik, EJrishn 
paksh, i.e., three days before the 

Jan Cp.) Life, soul, spirit, mind, self, a sweetheart, 

dear beloved. 

— -a-afarln Animator, creator of life (an epithet of 


bakhsh Animating, bestowing life, forgiver of a 

capital crime. 

bar hakk taslim karna To expire, to give up the ghost. 

bar bona To survive. 

-ba-lab At the point of expiring. 

flshaii Eeady to sacrifice one's life for another. 

flsban-i Very hard labour, devotion, extreme 


-kah Heart breaking, life reducing. 

kandan Gasping in the agonies ot death. 

sitan Life destroying (as poison or a snake, &e. 

Jan fh.) An astrologer. 

Janab Majesty, highness, excellency. (A term 

frequently applied to persons, not entitled 
to the appellation, out of courtesy. The 
fact that certain individuals, talukdars, 
or holders of land under the Government, 
were so addressed in the Nawabi times, 
from the exaggerated style common to 
the East, by no means implies that the 
persons so adressed were entitled from 
their rank to the appellations.) 

-l-'ali Your (or his) Majesty or Excellency. 

Janam Birth, life. 

blmm Birfhplace 

din Birthdav. 


Janam-jala Burned or spoiled from its birth, origi^ 

nally bad. 

maran Eternal death. 

Jane'ii The brahraanical thread. 

Jangam A kind of fakir who has matted hair 

and rings a bell. 

Janinashtami The eighth of Bhadra-Krishna-paksh, the 

birthday of Krishna. 

Janmejai The son and successor of Kaja Parikshit. 

Jann A demon. 

Janub The south. 

Janun Madness, a demoniac. 

Janwasa The place at the bride's house where the 

bride-groom and his train are received. 

Jarga Surrounding of game by bodies of men. 

Jashn A royal festival. 

Jat Caste, sect, tribe, class, race. 

— -pant A pedigree. 

Jat The name of a tribe among Bajputs. 

Jath The axis of an oil or sugar-mill which 

presses the grain or the canes, a post 
placed by Hindus in the centre of a 
tank to mark its being dedicated to the 

Jatra A moment (generally implying a fortunate 

moment), pilgrimage, departure, march, 
journey, procession, a festival. 

Jatrl .- A pilgrim. 

Jauhar or jnhar Applied to the custom of Hindus killing 

their wives and children, and then 
committing suicide to prevent capture 
by the enemy. (Literally, a gem, Jewel, 
in a secondary sense, virtue, merit.) 

Jautnk Dower, a nuptial present. 

Jawab (answer)-naina. ... A writing fixed to the vrinding sheet, 

on the breast of the deceased for the 
perusal of Munkir and Ifakir, in case 
the poor soul should be too flurried to 
answer their questions. 
Jawana-marg . . „ Deatli in the bloom of youth. 


Jazam A cloth over a carpet to sit on. 

Jeb A pocket. 

— ^-katrii A pickpocket. 

Jehar The name of an ornament, bracelets. 

jehar A pile of pots filled with water and placed 

one over the other in order to be carried 
on the head. A ceremony preparatory to 
marriage, in which pots filled with water 
are piled over one another, the whole is 
crowned with a bowl of sliarbat, and 
the friends watch by it during the- 

Jel A string or line of captives chained 

together, a string of buckets passed 
over the Persian wheel. 

Jhabba A tassel. 

Jhak Passion, emotion. 

Jhakkar A storm, tempest. 

Jhakmarna To act fruitlessly or absurdly. 

Jhalak .-, Brightness, glitter, reflection of light. 

Jhalna To fan, to move to and fro (as a fan). 

Jlian The sound of platters or of any vessels 

of metal striking against one another,, 
the clash of arms in battle. 

Jhanda A banner, flag, ensign, streamer. 

Jhari Continuedrain,showers,storm,wetweather. 

Jha A lake. 

Jhula A swing, the rope on which people swing_ 

Jhun A slight resemblance. 

.Thnt False, a lie. 

Jhuta Liar, false. 

.Ihiitha (Among Hindus) that which has touched 

food and is thereby defiled. 

Ji (a.) Life, soul, spirit (much used prefixed to 

verbs, as jl-lena, to kill, ji-nikalna, to 
die, &c., &c.) 
Ji (li-J Yes, sir, master, madam. Affixed to sur- 
names it is equivalent to the English Mr., 
biit, the Arabic appellation, sahib, is 


Jlbh The tongue. 

diibke bat kahua To speak with reserve. 

Jibh-i An instrument for cleaning tbe tongue, a bit.. 

Jifa Carcase, corpse. 

Jigar The liver, heart, mind, courage, (used in 

composition as, be-jigar, without courage,. 

a coward ; jigar-afgar, heartbroken ;. 
jigar-sokhta, heart-inflamed, in love, &c. 

Jigijigl karna To fawn. 

Jila Splendour, lustre. 

Jil The note or tone in singing or music, 

opposite to the bass, the treble. 
Jilwa The meeting of the bride and bridegroom 

(in presence of the relations). 
Jimar Capital (as a crime), mortifying one's 

Jin A deified saint of the heretical sects of 

Jin and Bnddh. 

Jina To live, living. 

Jinnat Genii. 

Jira , Cumin-seed. 

Jit Winning, victory. 

Jitiya A Hlndii fast, during which women wh» 

have lost children, in order to preserve 

the remainder sacrifice to, and worship 

Jiw or ji'n Life, soul, animated being, animal, a 

lover. Used as an interjection ; Bravo ! 

Jlwat Living, victorious. 

Jog Penance, devotion, intense meditation. 

Jog-i A Hindu fakir. A caste of HindHs who 

are commonly weavers. (The people of 

this caste do not burn, but bury their 

dead; and the women are sometimes 

buried alive with their husbands corpse). 
Jotik. (Astrology) Jotiki. An Astrologer. 
Ju'ii (dice, gambling)- 

Jfi'e-khana A gaming-house. 

Judliishtar An ancient Sovereign of India, so 

Eaja Panda 


Jug One of the four j;reat Hindu periods. 

Juhar Hindu salutation, obeisance. 

Juti (a shoe). JSti-kar-I. A shoe-beating. 

K. K. Kh. 

• ^— .— ^ 

Ka'b A cube. 

Sa'ba, Ka'bat A square building, the temple of Mecca. 

Kab A large dish for serving rice. 

Kaba. . . . ■. A quilted garment, a jacket. 

Eabala A deed, written agreement, bill of sale. 

Kaba'il Pamily, tribes. 

EabUa A midwife. 

Sabin A marriage portion. 

Kabir Great, illustrious. 

Kabir Name of a fakir, who had several followers, 

called Kabir-panthl. 

Eabis An earth for glazing. 

Kabit A sort of verse used by the Hindus, poetry. 

Kabiz Seizing. 

u-l-arwah The angel of death. 

Kabr A grave, a tomb. 

Kabr-istan A burying ground. 

Kabr-Kan '. A grave-digger. 

Kabul Consent. 

Kabuliyat A written agreement, acceptance, consent. 

Kabz A receipt, tax, tribute. 

Sachahrl A hall of justice, townhouse, court. 

Kachaurl A dish made of wheaten bread and pulse. 

Kacbera The name of a tribe. 

Kachli H. (from S.) dhoti, P. langothi, a cloth 

round the waist, passing between the 
legs and fastened behind, worn by all 
Indians, even by those who have adopted 
European costume. 

Kaclihi A gardener. 

Kachhwahii A tribe of Rajputs, claiming descent 

from Kus, the son of Rauiachaudr. The 
llajas of Jaiuagar are of this family. 


K^ScliI A kind of milk soup. 

Kachpach Crowd, close together. 

' Kaclipach-iya The pleiades. 

Kada A place, house, (Mai-Kada,. a house for 

the sale of wine, &c. — a tavern.) 

Kadewar A gardener. 

Kadir Potent, skilful. 

(Al-)kadir The Almighty. 

Kad— Khuda The father of a family. 

Kadn — Eash A kind of instrument for cutting and 

cleaning pumpkins (Kadn). 

¥*f = To revolve. As a noun, a fabulous moun- 
tain supposed to surround the world. 
It rests on the stone Sakhrat, an entire 
emerald, which covers the azure colour of 
the sky. Also applied to Mount Caucasus. 

Kafan A shroud (coffin) 

Kafara Penitence, expiation for sin. 

Kafcha A spoon, the hood of a snake. 

Kafn Security, surety, bail. 

Kaflla A body of travellers, a caravan. 

Kaflr Infidel, impious, also as a noun, a mistress. 

Kaflya Ehyme, cadence, metre, the last letter in 

a verse, to which all the other distichs 

Eafni A dress worn by fakirs. 

Kafsh A shoe, a high-heeled slipper tipped 

with iron. 

Kafsh-doz A shoemaker. 

Kaftan A robe of honour. 

Kaf nr Camphor. 

Kagrhaz Paper. 

^-i A paper manufacturer, a paper case, 

a stationer, a writer. Delicate, soft, thin. 

-in A kind of lime, made of paper. 

ke ghore Active correspondence. 

danrana. . . To keep up brisk correspondence. 

likhwa lena .... To take a bond. 

milaua To examine or cheek accounts. 

pakka Stamped paper, thick stiff paper. 


Kaghaz patr A written document, a deed. 

sa Thin as paper. 

siyah karua To scribble. 

Kahani A tale, story, fable. 

Kahar A palanquin-bearer. 

Kahawat A proverb, adage. 

Kahin A soothsayer, magician, priest. 

Kahira Victorious, henee Cairo, the city of 


Kahua-wat A proverb, style. 

Kahwa Coffee. 

dan Coffee-pot. 

Kald A fetter, imprisonment. 

Ka'id A leader, a general, the star in the tail 

of the lesser bear. 
Ka"ida Basis, rule, custom, institution, manners,. 

the rules of grammar. 
Kailas A mountain in Hindu mythology, fabled 

to be the residence of Kuvera, and 

favourite haunt of Siva. 

Kaiiiila A siesla. 

Ka'inat The universe, creatures. 

Kainchi Scissors, an oblique, or St. Andrew's cross. 

Kaiwan The planet Saturn. 

Kajal Lampblack used to paint the eyelids. 

Kajawa A camel's saddle. 

Kajlanti Iron snuffers used for the reception of 


Kajra Lampblack for staining the eye-lids. 

Kaka C-, Paternal uncle. 

Kakahra The alphabet. 

Kakh An upper storey, a tower, a palace. 

Kakna-i A ring worn on the wrist, bracelet. 

Kal To-morrow, yesterday, the name of the 

fourth period of the Hindus (Kali-jug.y 
Kal-kii admi An automaton, a puppet (met) a very 

weak person. 

ghora A well-trained horse. 

makal Uneasiness, trouble, a trap, a machine, 

a lock. 


Kiila A minute, the sixtieth part of a degree. 

Kalam A word, speech, discourse. 

Kalaiii A reed (Gr. Kalajxo;), a pen. 

Ealain-band-i Signature, signing an agreement. 

Ealaudar A kind of monk, who deserts the world, 

wife, friends, &c , and travels about 
with shaven head and beard, the fly of 
a tent. 

Kalandar-i A kind of tent (having a fly to it.) 

Kalas A dome, spire. 

Ealannji The name of a medicinal seed. 

Kalawa A skein or ball of thread. The band 

round the elephant's neck in which the 
driver fixes his feet. 

Kaleja The liver, courage. 

Kalghi Aigrette, plume. 

Kali-jng Name of one of the Hindu periods — the 

fourth or present period, supposed by 
Mr. Bailly to have commenced 3102 
years before Christ. 

Kalisa (fr. G. ixxltjala). . . A Christian church. 

Kalki The tOth Hindu incarnation (to come) 

in form of a Braliman to be born in 
the town of Sambal, in the family of 
Vishim Sarma, He will ride on a horse 
& put to death all the wicked. 

Kalma or Eallina A word, speech, the Mnhaminadan con- 
fession of faith. 

Kalpa A Shastra or sacred work, a sacred precept, 

a day and night of Brahma, a period 
of 432,000,000 years of mortals, measur- 
ing the duration of the world, and as 
many the interval of its annihilation, 
a destruction of the world. 

Kalyan Welfare, happiness, name of a Kag sung 

at night. 

Kam Desire, wish, intention, the god of love, 

cupid, business, act, action, affair, use 
occupation, employment, packet, mail, 


Kam Deficient, less, little, seldom. (Placed 

before words as a privative prefix), as 
Eam-asbab-I, deficiency in goods, poverty, 
Eam-bakht, unfortunate, Kam-zor, weak, 
powerless, &c. 

Kaman A bow. 

Kaniand A scaling ladder made of cord — used by 


Kamandal Waterpot used by ascetics and religious 


Kaiuar The loins, the waist, a girdle, belt, 


Kamarthi A person who carries Ganges water for 

the use of such as are not able to go 
to the sacred river. 

Kamasnt A servant, workman. 

Kamis A shirt. (Hence, Tr. Chemise, It. Camicia, 

Hind, and Beng. Kamij.) 

Kam-khwab Silk worked with gold and silver flowers. 

Kamnd A drug used in dyeing, (Rottlera tinc- 

toria), said to be a purgative and 

Eamns The ocean. Name of an Arabic le.\.icon. 

Kanagat A Sraddha, or religious ceremony per- 
formed daily by Hindiis during the dark 
half of the month Asin, (the sixth Hindii 
month when the moon is fuU, near the 
head of Aries — September) in honour 
of deceased ancestors or pitris. 

Eanaha An officer appointed by Government to 

value crops. 

Kanaha'i Valuation of crops of grain. A name 

of Krishiia. 

Kanaiya The ceremony of boring the ears. 

Kanchan A caste selling strings, who catch and 

eat snakes. 

Kandala A precipice, cave, name of a place on 

the ghats, between Bombay and Poona, 
where are the remains of a Buddhist 


Kiindi A sentence of the Vedas, . 

Kandnri A linen (or leather) table-cloth, a feast 

held in honour of Fatima, thephrophet's 

daughter. No male is permitted to see 

the preparation of the food, which must 

only be eaten by virtuous women. 
Kangaa. An ornament worn on the wrist by 

Hiudfi women. 
Kangnra A pinnacle, turret, plumes upon helmets, 

ornaments on crowns. 
Kanli : One of the names of Erishua, applied 

to a husband. 

Kanhaiya A name of Krishiia. 

Eanira A caste generally arrow-makers. 

Kanist A Christian church, Jewish Synagogue, 

a temple of idolaters. 

Kanit Obedient to God. 

Eaniz A female servant. 

Kanjar A caste, selling strings, who catch and 

eat snakes. 
Eaukalin (From Eankal, a skeleton), a witch, 


Eankau A bracelet. 

Eant Husband. 

Eantha A band round the neck of jogis to carry 

things on. 
Eanth-a A rosary of beads, made of gold, or 

silver, or the earth of Earbala. 

Eantiya A fishinn;-hook. 

Ear Business, profession, action, labour, &c , 

much used in composition, as Ear-bar-i, 

a treader, Ear khana, a work-shop, &c. 
Eara A rina; worn on the wrists, a bracelet, 

also ; as adj .- arch, sly, cruel. 
Earahi A flat vessel (earthen- ware, iron, or brass) 

for cooking. 
Earaka The crash made by breaking anything, 

a rigid fast. 

Earam-bhog Hindu worship, devotion. 

Earamblk An alembic, a still. 


Karainchari An iaf'erior officer to collect the revenue 

from a certain division of a village, the 

village accountant. 
Karbala Name of the place in Irak, where Hnsain, 

son of 'All, was buried. 
Karbi The stalk of jo'ar or bajra (Holcus 

sorgum and spicatus). 

Karclilii A spoon. 

Karda Exchange, something to make up a 

difference in price. 
Karez A channel for irrigation, a subterranean 


Kargali A wearer's shop. 

Karhi Pulse, dressed with sour milk. 

Karhu'a Loan, debt, premium. 

Karim Bountiful, an epithet of God. 

Karinda Laborious, a manager. 

Kar'fliait A kind of bard, an officer in Indian 

armies to encourage the soldiers. 

Kar-o-bar A transaction. 

Karoh A Kos equivalent to about two miles. 

Karor Ten millions. 

Karora A tax-gatherer, overseer. 

KartaL A musical instrument. 

Kartar Maker, Creator, Author. 

Karti A calf which has died stuffed, and placed 

near the mother to make her give milk. 

Karii'a An earthern pipkin. 

Karu'a-chauth Name of a Hindu holiday, celebrated in 

the month Kartik, 

Karnbi A cherub. 

KarHn According to Muhammadans, Eorab, the 

cousin of Moses, whose name, on account 

of his riches and avarice, is proverbially 

applied to misers. 
Karj A loan, debt, money borrowed at interest. 

(Earzdena) to lend. 

Kas A kind of grass of which rope is made. 

Kasb Trade, profession, gain. 

Kasbl An artisan. 


Kasam An oath. 

Eashka A mark made by the Hindus on the 

forehead, (vide, tika). 

-^- dena To put the Kashka on the forehead. 

Easiin A. distributer. 

Kat — Eharl A species of steatites with which children 

learn to write, and also used to give a 

polish to stucco. 

Eanl Saying, agreement, promise. 

Kanl-nama A written agreement. 

Kaul — EalMna A kind of song. 

Kanm Tribe, sect, family, nation. 

Eanm-o-khwesh Friends and relations. 

Kauri A small shell used as coin. 

Eausar The name of a fountain or river in 

Eawar The vessels in which the Ganges water 

is carried. 

Eayath Name of a Hindu caste. 

Eaza Pate, death. 

Eaza-e-mnbram Inevitable fate. 

Eaza-e-'umrl fiepeating prayers to make up for those 

omitted in the former part of one's life. 

kar or Kazara. ..... By chance. 

Eaza-o-kadr Fate, predestination. 

Ehabar News, information, intelligence, report, 

fame, account, care. 
Eliabar-dar Careful, cautious, informed, an informer, 

a spy, scout, interj., have a care! Take 

care! frequently used, imperatively. 

-dar-i Caution, care. 

diliinda Intelligence-giving. 

-gir , A spy, an informer, also, a protector, 

a patron. 

-gir-i Spying, informing, also aid, care, protection. 

i-khizr-i Report, sudden news, guessing at the 

future, (derived from Ehizr, a prophet.) 

karna, or -dena. . To inform, to give news. 

lena i . . To take care of, to inquire into, to look 



Khabba Left-handed. 

Khadam (plur, of Kpdim) Servants, retinue. ■ 

Khaf a Concealment, a secret. 

K^afl Secret, concealed, fine or small (hand- 
writing, opposed to jali; large, plain, 

Khagina Pried eggs, a kind of dish made of 


Khair Good, best, adv., well, n., goodness, 

health, happiness. 

andesh A friend, a well-wisher. 

Khairat Alms, charity. 

khana Alms-house. 

Khairati Intended for charitable purposes. 

Khairtad May he prosper ! 

Khairiyat Welfare. 

Kbair-khTrah A friend, a well-wisher. 

Khairn-n-nisa The best of women, Fatima. 

Khak Dust, earth. 

chhanna pit. to sift the dust) expresses excessive- 

labour and exertion in fruitless search. 

meu milua To die, to perish. 

sar Thumble. 

sari Humility. 

Khalaf A successor, an heir, a favourite son,. 

posterity, adj., depraved, corrupted. 

Khalafn-s-sidk True or rightful heir. 

Khalari The place in which salt is boiled (in 

Khalifa A successor, a sovereign, particularly 

applied to the successors of Mnbammad^ 

Hind,, a term applied to cooks, tailors,, 
.a monitor in a school. 

Khalik The Creator. 

Khalk Creation, people, mankind. 

Khallak The Creator. 

Khalwat Retirement, solitude, private apartment 

private conference. 

-gnzm Adj., recluse, a hermit. 

I-rSg' Soft music. 


Kliani A pillar. 

Kham Raw, vain. 

Khama A pen, a writing reed. 

Ehamach Name of a raglnl. 

Khama-dan . A pen-case. 

Khambh A pillar. 

Kham-tab' Ifoolish, dull. 

Khan Lord, prince. 

Khan A mine. 

Khana House, dwelling, room. 

Khana abad A benediction, may your house flourish ! 

-ba-dosh A pilgrim, a rover. 

^-i-zanjir A prison, or mad-house. 

Khanjari A small tambourin, a timbrel. 

Khankah A monastery. 

Khappar A chafing dish, an earthen cup used by 

Jogis, the vessel in which the blood 
ol' a victim is offered. 

Kharahra A currycomb. 

Kharij-i A Mnhammadan sect, who do not rec- 
ognise 'All as a legal successor of the 

Kharita An embroidered packet (according to the 

dignity of the receiver) in which letters 
are sent. 

Kharpa A sandal. 

Kharra ' The rough draft of a letter, or other 


Khas The name of a grass, emitting a pleasant 

odour, when wetted, of which tattis (or 
screens for doors during the hot weatlier, 
to keep the rooms cool) are made. 

Khashkhash A poppy, poppy-seed. 

Khasra A daybook, waste-book, field-book, rough 

drawings, a kind of eruptive disease. 

Khass Excellent, noble, pure, unmixed, partic- 
ular, private. 

mahal The apartments of married women (in 

opposition to Khurd-mahal). 

'amm Noble and plebeian. 


Ehatal Springtide. 

Khatir The heart, soul, inclination^ memory, 

will, choice. 

-aznrda Melancholj', dejeqted, sad. 

-dar-i Encouragement, comfort, satisfaction. 

-dasfat Complaisance, regard. 

karna To fondle, to encourage, to comfort. 

men lana To regard, to attend to. 

-men rakhna Imprinted on the memory. 

-nishan To remember. 

Ehatiya A bedstead, a bier. 

Ehatri One of the four Hindu castes, the 

Khat — shastr or Ehat or 

shat-darshan The six philosophical sciences of the 

Hindus viz; 

1. Nyaya, Logic, taught by Gotaiua. 

2. Taisheshika, taught by Eanada. It 
agrees with nyaya in some points 
and differs in others. 

3. Mimansa, taught by Jaiiuanl. It 
consists of rules for the construction 
and right interpretation of the Yedas. 

4. Tedanta, taught by Vyasadeya, the 
science of theology. 

5. Sankhya, taught by Eapila. The 
followers of this sect disbelieve in a 
creator, saying that the universe is 
from all eternity. 

6. Patanjal, introduced by Sheslianaga. 
It agrees in every point with Sankliya, 
except that it makes God to be the 

Ehattik A hunter, one who lives by killing and 

selling game. 
SljawSss (Plur.) Attendants, domestics, grandees, 

ministers of state, properties, qualities. 

■ o-'awiSmm Nobles and plebeians. 

Khayarl A kind of violet. 

Ehazan or Ehlzan \uturan, the falling of the leaves. 


Khazaua or Khizana A treasury, magazine, granary, the chamber 

of a gun, treasure. 

Khazana'e 'amira The royal treasury. 

Khazanchi A treasurer. 

Kheda The trap or enclosure in which elephants 

are caught. 

Kliedna To run after, to pursue, to persecute. 

Khela A playful, foolish girl. 

Khep A trip, voyage, a piece of base metal 

inserted in coin, or cracked coin, a term 
in algebra, something added to a sum. 

harna To sustain a loss. 

Khepa An idiot, a madman. 

Khera A village. 

Kheri or Klierki A kind of iron, or steel made in India. 

Khet A field, a field of battle, a holy place. 

Kheti Husbandry, crop, arable. 

har A peasant, a husbandman. 

Khewa Fare, ferry-money, price of passage in a 

boat, crossing over a river. 

Khichrl A dish made of pulse and rice boiled 

together (to this Mussalmans add meat 

It has also the following meanings, 
viz; earnest to dancing women, en- 
gaged for an entertainment, a mixed 
heap of gold and silver coin, a barbarous 
mixture of two languages, the flower 
of the Iber tree (Zizyphns jnjuba.) 

Kljil'at A robe of dignity conferred by princes 

on their subjects. 

Khiran A black ring painted on a tambourin. 

Kho'a Plaster, coarse brick-dust, milk, inspissated 

by boiling. 

Khobar A hogsty. 

Khokha A boy, a bill of exchange, the amount 

of which has been paid, remaining in 
the hand of him who has paid it, by 
way of voucher. 

Khonchi A trifle paid by those who draw water 


at a well to the bhishti for the use of 

his bucket. 
Khonpa The hair braided or tied up on the top 

of the head. 
Khonta Deficient, adulterated, bad (as coin), false, 

deceitful, also, a tent-pin, a peg, a nail, 

a thorn, protection. 

Khor An alley, the rage or curse of a god. 

Khn or Kho Habit, custom, disposition, nature. 

Khub Good, excellent, well, beautiful, pleasing, 


j Beautiful (face, form). 

snrat ) 

Khnd Self. 

Khnd-ba-danlat Your worship. Sir ! His Majesty, &c., 

(much used in composition). 

khud Of thine, his, &c., accord. 

Khuda God. 

Khnmra A. small mat of palm leaves for kneeling 

on at prayers, also a smaU drum carried 
by beggars. 

Ehnrfa To pluck fruit from a tree, to strip off 

honours, or decorations. 

Khnrpa An instrument for scraping grass for horses. 

Ehntba A sermon after the service in the mosque 

on Friday, in which the preacher blesses 
Muhammad, his successors, and the 
reigning sovereign. 

Khwaja A man of distinction, a rich man. 

(Khwaja Khijr) The name of a prophet skilled in divi- 
nation, and who is said to have discovered 
the water of life ; hence, he is considered 
as the saint of waters. The Muhamma- 
dans offer to him oblations of lamps, 
flowers, &c., placed on little rafts and 
launched on the river, particularly on 
Thursday evening in the month of 
BliSdou and it is in his honour that 
the feast of the bera, q.v. is held. 

Kibla Anything opposite, the direction of one 


praying, hence Mecca, as a form, of 

address, it signifies ; Worship ! Father ! 

The Kibla of the world, your Majesty ! 
Kibla-numa Showing the direction of Mecca, the 

mariner's compass. 

Kil Word, speech. 

Eil-o-Eal Conversation, controversy. 

Kll'a A fort. 

Kima Minced meat. 

Klmar Dice, or any game of hazard. 

baz A gambler. 

Kimat Price, value. 

Kimiya (x^fiia) Alchymy, chymistry. 

— -karna To do anything with to work rfliracles. 

Kina Malice, spite, rancour, hatred. 

Kinar or Eanar Bosom, embrace, side, margin, edge. 

Kinar khainchna To give up, to quit, to leave. 

Kinara 1 _ „., . ,. . 

prop. Kanara.. Side, margin, part, limit 

• karna To abstain, to refrain. 

kash Withdrawing. 

Einare A side. 

Eingri A kind of fiddle. 

Einkini. Bells, tinkling ornaments. 

Eir Pitch. 

Eiran Conjunction of the planets. 

Eirat A seed of the Abrns precatorions, used 

as a weight, a carat, the twenty-fourth 
part of an ounce : four barley-corns. 

Eiraya Hire, fare, rent. 

Eu'Iyadar A tenant. 

Eirdigar God the Creator. 

Eirmiz Crimson (the origin of the word). 

Eisan Farpaer, ploughman. 

Eisas The law of retaliation. 

Eisbat The case (or bag) in which barbers, 

surgeons, &c., keep their tools, a piece 
of leather worn by a bihishti or water- 
man on his left hip, on which he rests 
the bag containing water. 


Kisbat-nama A book containing the histories of bar- 
bers, surgeons, &c., and directions for 
their practice, the Mhishtis also have- 
such a book. 

Kishan See Krishna. 

Kishmish Eaisins or currants. ' 

Kishuiz Coriander. (Coriandrum SatiTum). 

Kisht A sown field. 

Kisht-kar An agriculturist. 

Kishti A ship, bark, boat. • • ■ 

Kishti-ban The master of a- vessel. 

Eismat Fate, fortune, ' 

Kisna'i Husbandry,' agriculture. ■ 

Kisra Name of a Persian ■ King, applied' to- 

Kings of Persia. 

Kissa faj A tale, a story, a narration. 

-khwan A storyteller. ' 

kotah In sliort, in one word. 

karna To settle a dispute. 

Kissa (in met. Hind.).... A quarrel, a dispute; 

Kist Portion, instalment, tax. 

band! Settlement of the revenues or taxes by 


Kitab A book, scripture. 

Kitmir Pellicle of a date stone, name of the 

dog that accompanied the seven steepers.. 

Kiyamat The general resurrection. 

Kiyas Judgment, opinion. 

Kiyasat Ingenuity, vivacity, cunning. 

SaMb-Kiyasat .... Ingenious, sagacious. 

Koba A wooden instrument for beatiuff mud 

or kankar on rooms and terraces to 
make them level. 

Kobi A cabbage. 

Ko'eri Husbandmen, a Hindii caste whose 

profession is husbandry. 

Koft-gar A gilder. 

Kokii A foster brother. 

KoITi One of the caste of oilmen. 

Kor A new rope of fine cotton, facing of a dressv 


Kor — chl A keeper of an armoury, a wardrobe. 

Kor— khana An armoury, a wardrobe. - 

Kori A score. 

Korma . . A dish of meat, rice, &c. 

Kos A measure of about 2 miles. • • 

Kosh A dictionary. ■. 

Kotha. An apartment, a house of bricks. 

KothT : . — A small house (of bricks or stone) ware- 
house, and, generally, where business- 
is transacted. 

Kotwal. ............. .'. The chief officer of police in a town. 

Kot-wali- chabiitara A place or hall for the office of a 


Kridaut Name of a treatise on syntax. 

Krishn or Krishna Black, dark blue, name of a Hindu incarna- 
tion. The most celebrated form of Vishim,. 
Vishnu himself, distinct- from the ten 
avatSrs or incarnations. - He was the 
younger brother of the -third Rama 
(Balarama). His parents were Vasudeva 
and DcTaki : but he was brought up in 
the house of Nanda and Tashoda, to 
conceal him from the tyrant Eansa whose 
death from a child so born was predicted. 
He passed his youth among the gopals 
and gopis. Like the infant Hercules he 
vanquished a serpent— Kaliya and slew 
many monsters and giants. He put Kansa 
to death, protected YudhishtMra, and 
kindled the war described in the Ma- 
habharata. He is the Apollo of the 
Hindus, and is supposed by Colonel 
"Wilford to have lived about 1300 years 
before Christ. 

Kriya An act, obsequies. 

Ku A street. 

Kn-ba-ku Street by street, in every street. 

Ku'ii A well, angle of the eye, a slice of the 

jack fruit, cocoon of the silk worm. 
Kubba A vault, arch, dome. 


Kucha A street, or lane. 

Kndrat Power, authority, omnipotence. 

Kuds Holiness, the angel Gabriel, Jerusalem. 

Kufu Tribe, family, caste. 

KiikrI Maize, Indian corn. 

Kul Reading of the sura or chapter of the 

Enr'an, entitled Kul hnwa-1-lah, which 
is done, by way of benediction, over 
fruits and sweetmeats presented to the 
guests, at the conclusion of the annual 
religious feasts" held in commemoration 
of ancestors and other relations. Hence 
the term signifies conclusion. 

Kul Family, pedigree, race. 

-deTi The goddess of a family. 

Enlal A potter. 

Kalba A house, cottage. 

Knlhra An earthen vessel to drink out of. 

Kull A slave, labourer, porter, a cooley. 

Knlicha A kind of bread. 

Kulin-a'-i Eespectability of descent, nobility. 

Kulknllan A house-steward. 

Enl-puj The object of family worship, the family 


Eumanclih A kind of bread. 

Kumash Breeding, manners. 

Kumbh A water-pot, Aq^narius. 

Knmhar A potter. 

Kumkuma To hold, a vessel (in Hind.) in which 

the red mixture which they throw at the 
holi is contained. 

Kuncli A little black and red seed used as a 

weight by goldsmiths. 

Kundii A vessel for kneading bread in, a platter. 

Kundi A vessel in which snuff, bhang, ikc. 

are ground. 

Kunut From Kanat — to be obedient to God — 

devotion, piety. 

Kuiiwar A boy, the son of a Raja. 

Kuiiwara A prince, heir apparent. 


Kuiwari Virgin fit for marriage, a princess. 

Kur'a A wager. 

Kni'bau A sacrifice, victini, oblation, Koq§av-N.T. 

Kurban-gah An altar. 

Kurki Confi^scated. 

Knrki partrana A sequestration warrant. 

Knrm A tortoise, a turtle, the name of the 

second Hindu incarnation. 

Snrma Tribe, caste, family. 

Knrs An orb, (pellet of paste), the disk of 

the sun or moon. 

Eiirsl A chair, stool, the eighth heaven, or, 

according to some, the ninth, the throne 
of God, name of a place, 14 miles 
from Lakhnan, the inhabitants of which 
are said to be mad, hence Eursi is 
proverbially used in that sense. 

Kurta A shirt. 

Kuru Name of an ancient sovereign of Dehli 

and the country around. 

Knsh The sacred grass of the Hindus, (Poa- 


Eushk A palace. 

Kusiif An eclipse of the sun. 

Ensum A flower from which a red dye is extracted. 

Eusur Fractions in Arithmetic. 

Eut The base of a right-angled triangle. 

Entak A club, a pestle for grinding bhang. 

Entb The axis of a mill stone, the polar star, 

the north pole. 

Eutir A hut. 

Eutnm Kin, family, tribe, caste. 

Euver The god of riches. 

Enza An earthen pot for water. 


La A negative or privative particle used in 

composition as a prefix. 
— char Helpless, without remedy. 


La-hall Difficult, abstruse not admitting of solution. 

— -hasil Unproductive, profitless. 

— hanl wa la kBwata 

ilia M-l-lahi There is no power nor virtue but in 

God, i.e„ there is no striving against fate. 

— -dil Without a heart, heartless. 

- — ghakk Doubtless. 

— -waris Without heir. 

— -yazal Eternal, that ceases not. 

— -zawal. . , imperishable. 

Lab Lip. 

kha Fastidious, fretful, a prig. 

o-lahja Conversation. 

rez Brimful, overflowing. 

Laba A supplication, request. 

Labe Eidicule, irony, jest, flattery. 

Labeda A club. 

Labera Name of a fruit. (Coadla myxa). 

Labi The juice of the sugar-cane when boiling 

into sugar. 

Lachar A liar, a tattler, left-handed. 

Lachchhan A foolish fellow, a simpleton. 

Lachmi Sign, mark, the goddess of abundance, 

the daughter of the ocean, and wife 
of Vishnu, she is also called Fadma, 
Kamala and Sri, and corresponds with 
the Ceres of the Latins, prosperity, 

Lachua To bend. 

Lad A load. 

Lad phana Loading and packing. 

Ladan CGr. Addavov.).. . . Ladanum, a resinous substance exuding 

from the leaves and branches of the 
Cistus creticus. 

Laf — Liifzan Boasting, vanity. — A boaster. 

Lafz . A word, saying. 

Lag Striking, fixing, a stroke, enmity, ran- 
cour, spite, aifection, love, cost, expend- 
iture, a secret, approach. 

Lagaiu A bridle, a bit. 


Lag^an A moment, the rising of a sign of the 

zodiac, aifection, friendship, love,espousal, 
appointing the day of marriage, a flat 

Lagana To apply, to add, to fasten, to fix, to 

shut, to impute (anything to a person), 
to report scandal, maliciously. 

bnjhana To excite quarrels. 

Laga'o Series, adherence, intercourse. 

Lagawat Connection, application. 

Lag-gi A pole, a staff. 

Lag lagna To fall in love. 

Lah A kind of cloth resembling gauze. 

Advantage, welfare, lac. 

Lahab Flame, plying or ascending (as dust). 

Lahad A niche in the side of a sepulchre in 

which dead bodies are deposited, also, 
in Hindustan, the place where the dead 
are washed. 

Lahak Glitter. 

Lahakna To glitter, to shine, to wave (as herbage 

before the wind). 

Lahar A wave, whim, fancy, vision, emotion, 

the effect of the poison of a snake, a 
waving (pattern in embroidery). 

Laharna To wave, to undulate. 

Lahbar A kind of parroquet. 

Lahbera Name of a plant. 

Labkauwar Kice-milk eaten by bride and bridegroom. 

Lahlaha Blooming, flourishing. 

Lahlaha-na To bloom, to flourish. 

Lahn A sound, a note, melody, modulation. 

Lahna . To answer, to signify, to find, to expe- 

rience, outstanding debt, fate, destiny. 

Lahra Quaver, shake, trill (in music). 

Lahrana To tantalize, to put off, to undulate. 

Lahsan Garlic, a freckle. 

Lahsaniya Name of a precious stone. 

Lahn (Lohu) Blood. 

Lahu'a Name of a plant. 


Lai Voice, sound, tone, melody, symphony, 

ardent affection, immersion, absorption. 

La'i Parched rice mixed with sugar. 

La'ik Worthy, proper, fit, suitable, able, capable, 

qualified, adaptei. 
Laila or Laill Name of the celebrated mistress of Majnnn 

(the name of a celebrated lover whose 

amours with Laila are the subject of a 

poem by Mzami). 

Laj Bashfulness, modesty, shame. 

Lajajat Importunity, adulation. 

Lajain The name of a sensitive plant, (Mimosa 

natans or pndica), bashful. 

Lfijana To be ashamed or abashed, to blush. 

L^award A.zure, lapis laznli. 

Lajlaj Said to be the name of the inventor of 


Lajlajana To soften. 

Lak A kneading trough, a tortoise. 

Lakab A title, surname (either honorable or 

Lakh Gum lac, a kind of wax formed by the 

Coccus lacca, a hundred thousand. 

lagrana To shut up or conceal. 

Lakhanta Besmeared with lac. 

karna To smear with lac, to glaze. 

Lakhpati (from lakh, 

hundred thousand, and 

pati, master, owner). Rich. 

Lakk-o-dakk Desert, waste, dreary. 

Laklaka A stork, the voice of, a continual motion 

■of the jaw or of the tongue (in serpents), 
eloquence, pronunciation. 

Lai An infant boy, a son. 

Lala A boy. 

Laila A tulip. 

Lalii (h.) Sir, master, a schoolmaster. 

Lala (f.) A slave. 

Lali A girl, impotent. 

Liil-T Redness. 


Lal-ri A kind of ruby, also a counterfeit ruby. 

Lalsa Desire, view. 

Lam A ringlet (the letter L, so called, being 

curled), crooked curled. ' 

Kaf kahua To abuse, to give abuse. 

Lamba Long, tall. 

tarna To lengthen, to beat. 

Lam-chhar A long musket. 

Lana To bring, to breed, produce, make. 

Landnra •. . . . Tailless, applied to a person without 

Langar An anchor, a stay or rope for supporting- 

a tent, an alms-house. 
par bona To be at anchor. 

nthfita To weigh anchor, to feed the poor. 

Langhan Fast, fasting. 

Langot, langota, laugot-i. A cloth worn by Indians passing between 

the legs, and bound round the waist. 

band, A bandage to which the above is fastened, 

one devoted to celibacy. 

Langotiya-yar An old friend from childhood, a very 

intimate friend. 

Langra Lame. 

Langra'i Worthlessness. 

Langra-na To limp. 

LangrT .A large shallow pan, made of metal,. 

and generally used to knead bread n. 

Langncha A sausage. 

Langur A baboon. 

La'o la'o Oovetousness. 

Lap ~. . A handful, the space in the palm of the 

hand closed so as to hold water. Indians, 
generally form a hollow by joining the 
palms of both hands for the purpose 
of holding water or other liquid to 

Lapak A flash of lightning, the spring of 

tiger or other wild beast. 

Lapakna To flash (as lightning), to spring or rush 

upon, to attack. 


Lapet A fold, a ply, envelope, jtwist, bandage, 


Lapetan Evasion, subterfuge. 

Lapet-jhapet or -sapet ... A roller on which cloth is wound on the 

loom, a button. 

Lapetna To wrap up, to fold, to pack, to spread. 

Lapet-wan Twisted, ornamented with gold or silver 

thread wound round it. 

Laphna To jump. 

Lapka Nimbleness, a bad- custom or habit. 

Lapki A stitch. 

Lappa Brocade, gold or silver cloth. 

Lar Caress, play, sport. 

Laiia Darling, dear. 

Lasa Anything claminy or glutinous, the milk 

of plants. 

I A dead body, corpse. 

Lasha \ 

Lashkar An army. 

Lashkar — gah A camp. 

Lashkar — kash-i Raising of forces. 

Lashkar — khalas A trull. 

Lat fa J Name of an idol worshipped by the pagan 


Lat C/iJ Bad habits, whim. 

Lat Cs.J The hanging^ branch of a creeper. 

Lat (hj Tangled hair. 

Lat (hj A kick. 

Lat (h.J Dirty cloth (soiled by keeping). 

Lata A creeper, a vine. 

Lata Reduced by sickness, emaciated, lean. 

Lata A kind of food eaten by the poor, (Mahu'a 

pounded with grain, MahS'a is a tree 
from the leaves or flower of which an 
intoxicating liquor is distilled). 

Lathi A staif, club, stick. (These sticks, generally 

of the he-bamboo and bound round with 
iron or brass rings, make formidable 
weapons, they are frequently used in 
fights, and zamindars arm their followers 


with them as weapons both of offence 

and defence.) 

lathi pathi Beating with lathis. 

Lat jana To become entangled. 

latka Incantation, conjuring rod. A philter, 

a quack medicine. 
Lat khora Kicked, beaten, comtemptible, mean, a 

slave, a threshold. 
Lat, lath An obelisk, a pillar, a club or staff", the 

vertical part of an oil-mill. 
Lat-inardan meii parna.. To be trampled under foot, or disgraced. 

— marua To kick. 

Lan The flame of a candle, any pointed flame. 

Lauh' A plank, a table, a board (especially on 

which anything is written). 
Lau lagana To be constant in prayer and devotion. 

— lagui The frequent and long continued repetition 

of any saying (particularly of a dying 
man calling on God, or of a lover on 
his mistress), to have a constant desire 
or craving for anything. 

Lauh-o-kalam The tablet and pen on, and with, which 

the decrees of the Deity are .written. 

Lawahik Servants, domestics, followers, family. 

Lawazima Eequisites, baggage. 

Lehna Pasture, provender. 

Le'i Paste. 

Le-jana To take away, to carry, to run away 

with, to submit, to win. 

Lekha Account, reckoning. 

Lekhak A writer, accountant. 

Le-Iena To take, receive, accept of, to take by 

force, to extort. 

Le-lnt - Borrowing and never paying. 

Lena To take, accept, receive, buy, win. 

Leu-den Traffic, trade, barter. 

Lew Plaster falling from a wall. 

Lewar Mud to plaster a wall with. 

Likha Fate, , predestination, destiny, writing, 




Likha'i The wages of writing, the labour of 

writing, the art or business of writing. 

Likhna To write. 

Likhnl A pen. 

— — — das A writer, amanuensis, copyist. 

Ling Membrum virile, the emblem of Maha- 

deva, and an object of worship. 

Loban A kind of gum, incense, benzoin. 

Lobh Avarice, temptation. 

Lodha Name of a tribe, a husbandman. 

Lodi : Name of a caste of Pathans. 

Log People. 

Loga'i Woman. 

Loha Iron. 

Lohani Name of a caste of Pathans. 

Loh-ar A blacksmith. 

Lok People, a world, region, country. (The- 

Uindiis divide the Universe into three- 
loks or regions, viz. I. Swarg-lok, the- 
Heaven. II. Mart-lok, the earth, the- 
region under the sun. III. Fatal, the 
region under the earth. 

Lokalok A chain of mountains surrounding the 


Lok-paL Supporter or cherisher of a world or 

people, a king. 

-rachclihas A demon. (The spirit of a wicked man, 

converted into a demon. 

Lom Hair, the base of a triangle. 

Lon Salt. 

Lona Salt, brackish. 

Lon-a Name of a fruit. (Annona reticnlata). 

Lon-ar Salt lands, a salt-pit. 

Lonmirch lagana To speak hyperbolically or in high-flowa 


Lop Disappearance, vanished. 

Lor, Lol Tear, tears. 

Lorha A stone pestle. 

Lota ; A pot, pipkin (made generally of brass^ 

an article indispensable to Hindus). 


Loth A corpse. 

Lotha A bag, sack. 

Lnch Pure, mere, naked. 

bahadnr A vagabond. 

Luchcha A vagabond, libertine, rake. 

Luchpan Libertinism, rakishness. 

Luchra A spider. 

Lughat Tongue, speech, dialect, language, a word, 

a dictionaiy. 

Lngho Preposterous, contemptible, absurd, false. 

Lnghz or Ingharz Any ambiguous phrase, an enigma, a 


Luh, Lnk A hot wind, which has often a very per- 
nicious effect on persons exposed to its 

Luhangi A stafl' armed with iron. 

Lnk A falling star. 

Lnkna To lie hid, to be concealed. 

Luknat Lisp, stammer, stuttering. 

Lut Plunder. 

baz A plunderer, murderer. 

khut Plundering and ravaging. 

pat Plunderer and sacking. 

Liitna To plunder. 


Ma A mother. 

Ma'ab Place of return, receptacle, repository. 

Ma"abid Places of worship. 

Ma'ad Place or return, resurrection, the life to come. 

M;a"adin Mines. 

Jia'al End, aim, termination. 

khair A happy issue. 

Ma"ani Mystical, elegant meanings, elegance of 


Ma"a9far Safflower, (Carthamns tinctorins). 

Mabadi Beginnings, origins. 


jjggjj^ A large bedstead or platform, a frame 

on which persons sit to drive away birds 
from corn-fields. 

x._ A lazy person who never stirs from his 

bed, a Rajput soldier, naturally indolent 
and addicted to opium, but active and 
brave when roused. 

Machchh -A. fish, the name of the first avatar, 

or incarnation, when Tishnn appeared 
in the shape of the small fish, saphari, 
to Satyavrata, or Hayagriva, lo warn 
him of the general deluge, and desire 
him to place the four Vedas in the boat 
which he (Tishnn) would preserve. The 
fish was first taken up by Hayagriva 
in his hands when bathing, being then 
of the size of a PSthi; but it grew too 
large to be contained in a tank or river, 
and was carried to the sea ; where, 
afterwards, it supported the ark with 
its horn. Satyavrata lived about 3000 
years before Christ. 

Xachchhar A musquito, a gnat. 

ki jhnl ka chor A petty pilferer. 

Machchhi (h.) A kiss. 

Machchhi (a.) A fish (for machhli.) 

Machhll A fish. 

Machiya A stool, a chair. 

Mad Pride, wine, spirits. 

Mada Female, a female. 

Madad Assistance, help, succour. 

gar An ally, protector. 

-gar-I Assistance. 

khwah One who asks assistance. 

^™^dan Love, lust, a name of Kamadeva, qx., 

name of a medicinal plaiit, Datura. 

'^^^^^ A circumference, a centre, a station, a seat, 

a place of turning to or returjving from. 

Madari A juggler. 

^''^'"^'■y Steps, degrees, ascents, ways. 


Madarij-i-kar A chief manager of business, name of a 

celebrated Mnsalman saint. 

Madda ( E^^'^iision, a mark placed over A to 

Tjj J J I \ to lengthen its sound, it produces sounds 

' of other vowels to the following syllable. 

Madda A matter, subject, article, aifair, clause. 

Maddiih An encomiast, panegyrist. 

Maddi Material. 

Maddi-yat Substantialness. 

Madd-o-jazr Tide, the flux and reflux of the sea. 

Madfan A tomb, a burying-place. 

Madh Praise, commendation. 

Madlia A place for the reception of the bride 

and bridegroom. 

Madh-khwan A bard, eulogist. 

Madh-mas Middle of the month. 

Madhmata Intoxicated, drunk. 

Madlio or Madhava A name of Krishna or Tishnu. 

Madhn-ban i 

-pur ; Names of Mathnra, the birth-place of 

puri ' Krishna. 

Madhnkar A bee, name of Ddhav, a relation of Krishna. 

MadhnkrI A kind of bread baked on live coals 

(charcoal) eaten by fakirs, victuals given 
in alms to pilgrims. 

Madhu-mat Name of a ragini or musical mode. 

Madhn-sndan A name of Krishna, who slew a demon 

named Madhn. 

Madid Long, extensive. 

Mafarr A place of refuge. 

Mafasid Evils. 

Mafasil Joints. 

Mafhnm Comprehended, understood. 

Mafluj Paralytic. 

Maflnk Indigent, distressed, unfortunate. 

Mafruh Glad tidings. 

Mafruk Separated, divided. 

Mafruz Eequisite as a sacred duty, indispensable. 

Magadh Name of a country, including Patna and 

(jraya, &c. 


Magau Delighted, glad. 

Magana To send for. 

Maganta Transport, delight. 

Magar (s.) An alligator. 

Magas A fly, a kind of Indian corn. 

ran A fly-flap. 

Magh Name of the 10th Hindu month. 

Maghflrat Absolution, remission.. 

Maghrab, Maghrib The west, sunset. 

Maha Great, illustrious, very, extremely. 

Maliabat Majesty, greatness, reverence, fear, awe. 

Maha-bharat One of the two great Hindu epics, (the 

other, the Bainayan, composed by Val- 
nilki; contains the history of Kama) — 
signifying the great war of the descend- 
ants of Bharat (Kama's brother) — was 
written by Vyasadeva, and gives an 
account of the wars of the Pandavss 
and the Kauravas. 

-braliman A Brahman who officiates at funerals, 

and is first fed after the mourning for 
a dead person. 


MahadeT A name of Siva, one of the gods in the 

Hindu trinity. 
Maha-dol A large and splendid sort of sedan or 

Xaha-jan A banker, money-dealer, merchant, a good 

or trustworthy person. 
Maha-korh A species of leprosy in its most malignant 


Mahal Formidable, dreadful (places). 

Mahall A place, house, building, seraglio, station, 

■time, opportunity, occasion. 
-i-mujra The place of obeisance, clearance of 

Maha-maus Human flesh (one wlio takes money on 

giving his daughter in marriage, is said 

to sell maliiimaiis, human flesh.) 

mari Plague, pestilence, any epidemic. 

Malitimm Serious aftairs, an important transaction. 


Mahant A religious superior, a chief of fakirs, 

the head priest of a temple who has 
charge of the treasury. 

Maha-pap Atrocity, great sin. 

Maha-prasad The meat which is offered to the deity 

(especially to Jagannath) and afterwards 

Mahar Eeins, a bridle, a piece of wood put through 

the nostril of a camel to guide him by. 

Maharaj Great king, excellency, used by inferiors 

as a form of address to superiors, 
Brahmans are so addressed. 

Maha raja Originally the supreme king, now gener- 
ally applied to quasi-independent princes 
in India. 

Mahela A food given to horses, a mash of beans. 

Mailer / Name of a dish^ consisting of rice or 

Maherl | other grain, boiled in sour milk. 

Mahes A name of Maliadeva, 

Mahl The earth, MaM-pat, lord of the earth, 

a king. 

Mahi A iish. 

-dandan A fish's tooth of which hilts of swords 

are made. 

farosli A fishmonger. 

gir A fisherman, an otter. 

maratib Certain honours, of which the privilege 

is especially conferred on princes and 
great nobles, they are denoted by the 
figure of a fish, with other insignia (two 
balls), carried as ensigns upon elephants. 

Mah-iyana Monthly salary. 

Mahochha A funeral feast-among fakirs. 

Jiahr A portion or gift settled upon the wife 

before marriage. 

jjtahra A palki-bearer (malirai denotes his occu 

pation, and is also applied to a song 
among cowherds.) 

Mahu'a Name of a tree from the flowers of which 

the common spirituous liquor used by 


Indians is distilled, the distilleries are- 
di-med out by the Government to the 
ighest bidder. 

Ma'i Mother. 

](ai Wine, spirituous liquor. 

— iisham A. wine-drinker. 

— farosh A vintner. 

— kada I , , 

> A tavern. 

— khana ) 

'•- [ A wine-bibber, a sot. 

— khwar ) 

— -nab. Pure wine. 

l[ai-uosh-i Wine-drinking. 

Maila Dirty, defiled. 

Maimanat Fortune, prosperity, happiness. 

Maimnn Fortunate, auspicious, prosperous, a 

baboon, monkey. 

Maithal or Maithil An inhabitant of Mithila (Tirhut). 

Maj Eipe, yellow. 

Majal Power, ability strength. 

Majalis Conferences, assemblies, convivial con- 

Majami' Congregations. 

Majaz Lawful, admissible, insincere, feigned, 

1 Adv. superficially, adj. metaphorical, hy- 
perbolical, unreal. 

Majbnr Constrained, helpless. , 

-i Constraint, force. 

Majd GI017, grandeur, the honour derived from. 


Xaj'hala Wrangling. 

ISaj'har An asylum, a hiding place. 

Maj'hud Oppressed with labour or vexation, care, 

trouble, vexation. 

Maj'hul Unknown, little known. 

Maj'hiil-I Ignorance. 

Maj'huI-1-mntlak Very indolent or useless. 

Majid J. Glorious, honourable, noble. 

MajTra Small cymbals. 


Majit Cheap, that which is sold under price, 

bought, second hand. 

Majith Name of a drug used for dyeing red 

(Rnbia manjith). 

Majlis An assemblj', a company, congregations- 

Majma' An assembly, a collection. 

Majmir A chafing dish, a censer for incense, 


Majiiiu'a A crowd, assembly, a collection, maga- 
zine, compendium, a form (in printing), 
adj., collected, assembled, all, the whole.. 

Majmu'a-dar A record keeper, a title given to the 

servants of a Kanun-go (an officer in 
each district, acquainted with its customs- 
and the nature of its land tenures). 

Majnnn Insane, in love, the name of a celebrated 

lover, whose amours with Laila are the 
subject of a poem by Jfizaml. 

Xajns A guebre or follower of Zoroaster, and 

who conforms with the Zendavesta,. 
Magi. The Parsis are the represent- 
atives of this faith in India. 

Makabir (plur.ofMakbara, Tombs, sepulchres. 
a burying place, a tomb) 

Maka'id Frauds, cheats, snares. 


, Speech, discourse sentence, word. 

Makala ' 

Makam Dwelling, mansion a place of residence- 

or encamping, halting of an army, place, 
in a book. 

Makbara A burying place, a tomb. 

Makdur Power, abilily, possibility. 

Makhadim Servants, domestics, ministers. 

Makhafat Dreads, terrors. 

Makhaiyir Expenses, disbursements. 

Maklian Bountiful, charitable, liberal. 

Makharij Butter. 

_ ' ' \ Served, lord, master, mistress. 

Makhdnma, /. 


MakhdSm-iyat Mastership. 

Makhlnk Created, formed, creature. 

Makhlnkat (Plur.) . Things created. 

Makhlnt Mixed, blended, confused. 

Makhmal Velvet. 

Makhmas a Hunger, wretchedness. 

Makkhi A fly, the sight of a gun. 

— cMs A reiser. 

■marna To be idle, to trifle. 

nrana To flatter, to perform servile offices for 

any one. 

Makna' A bride's veil. 

Makr "Fraud, imposture, evasion. 

Makra A kind of grain, a spider. 

Makramat Honour, glory, nobleness, generosity. 

Makrana To move by winding about or crookedly, 

to be averse, or act to the contrary. 

Makrnz Lent. 

Maksam A part, a portion. 

Makta' The last verse of a poem. 

Maktab 1 . , , 

.._ > A school. 

— khana I 

Mai (a.) Property. 

Mai (s.J A garland. 

Mai (h.J A champion, a prize-fighter. 

Mala A Hindu rosary,anecklace,a garland, abook. 

Mala Full. 

Malagir Name of a mountain noted for its Sandal- 

Mala'I Cream. 

Mala'ik 1 

> Angels. 

Mala'ika j " 

Malakh A locust. 

MaM Sadness, anguish, vexation, languor. 

Malani Reproach, rebuke, blame, reviling. 

Malana To cause, to rub, grind or scour. 

Malang A kind of darwesli. 

MalangI A salt-maker. 

Malar Name of a ragini, or musical mode sung 

during the rains. 


Malat A worn rupee or other coin. 

Malaz An asylum, refuge, protection. 

Malba Eubbish. 

Mal-dar Eicli. 

Slal-gnzar A tenant, a subject, a landholder, one 

paying rent or taxes. 

Mal-guzar-i Eent paid in money. 

Mal-I Relating to wealth or merchandise. 

Mall A gardener. 

Malichh An unclean race, those who make no 

distinction between clean and unclean 
food, a barbarian or one speaking any 
language but Sanskrit and not subject 
to the usual Hindu institutions. 

Malik Master, lord, possessor, proprietor. 

ana Like an owner, au annual or monthly 

allowance paid to a zamlu-dar, by the 
person who occupies his lands, whether 
the state or a jagir-dar. 

Mal-khawind A proprietor. 

mast Purseproud. 

Mamalik Kingdoms, provinces, states, 

Ma'mul Custom, practise, habit. 

Mandal A circle, orb, the heavens. 

Mandap. .' A house, a temple. 

Mandar The name of a mountain in Indian my- 
thology with which the ocean was 

Mandha A place adorned with flowers for the 

bride and bridegroom. 

Manjh Name of a ragim, or musical mode. 

Mansab A magistrate. 

Marghat The place where the Hindus burn their dead. 

Marhaba (lit. may you enjoy a spacious abode.) 

Interj. — Hail ! Welcome ! God bless you ! 

Marici Name of the demon, employed by Ravaua 

to entice away Sita. 

Marjan Sprinkling with water for purification 

before the performance of religious 


Marsiya An elegy, a dirge, a funeral eulogium, 

particularly one sung during the Mnh- 
arram in commemoration of the descend- 
ants of 'All. 

Maru Name of a rag or musical mode, also 

of a kettle-drum. 

Marzban A governor of the frontier. 

Masa'il The precepts of Mnhammad. 

Masai A fable, simile, proverb. 

Masan A place where a dead body is burned, 

an evil spirit. 

Mash'had A place of martyrdom, of assembly, a 


Mashshata A tire-woman, one who dresses hair, and 

who prepares a bride. 

Mashrn' Initiated. Prescribed by law, also the name 

of a kind of cloth made of silk and 
cotton mixed — in which it is lawful for 
Mnsalmans to pray, they being forbid- 
den to do so in a garment entirely 
of silk. 

Masih, Masiha Messiah, Christ. 

Masjld A mosque. 

i-jami' A great mosque. 

Masjnd Worshipped, adored. 

Math A Hindu college or convent, a pagan 


Matla' The place of rising — of the sun, the east,, 

the opening of a poem. 

Mania A judge, master, also, a slave. 

Manlavi A learned man. 

Manllk Of inferior caste among Eayasths. 

Manlnd Poetry chanted before the bier of a de- 
ceased person when carried out 

Manlud-i A person who chants before the bier of 

a corpse. 

Maya Illusion caused by the deity and by 

which mankind believe in the reality of 
external objects which exist only in the- 



Mazhab Eeligion, sect. 

Medni Tlie earth, a body of pilgrims to the 

tomb of a saint. 

Megh A cloud, name of a rag or musical mode 

appropriated to the wet season and last 
watch of the night before the first dawn 
of day, and said to have proceeded from 
the head of Brahma, or else from the sky.. 

Megh-pati Lord of the clouds. 

raj The thunderer. 

Mekh A ram, the sign Aries. 

MekM rupaiya An adulterated rupee. 

Mela A fair, an assemblage of Hindus for a 

religious ceremony, as for bathing in 
some river held sacred, especially at the 
junction of the Ganges and the Jumna, 
and the Saraswati, (called after the 
goddess of speech and wife of Brahma) 
of which, however, all traces are lost. 
This junction is at Allahabad (the Hindu 
Prag or Prayag) and considered pecul- 
iarly sacred, immense crowds of devotees 
assemble here to bathe at the full moon 
of the magh, the name of the 10th 
Hindu month, this assembly is hence 
called, the magh mela. 

JSendak. m. 1 

Mendkl./. } ^^^-"S- 

Meadki ko znkam^ hona. . (A frog having caught cold) expresses 

pride or consequential airs assumed by 
worthless persons. 

Merii An axis. 

Mesh A sheep, a ram, the sign Aries. 

-chasm Sheep-eyed, sheepish, a blockhead. 

Mich Death. 

Mihrab The principal place in a mosque where 

the priest prays before the people with 

his face turned towards Mecca. 

Mihrban-gi | t- . i,- i • ji- 

> Iriendliness, kindliness. 



Mihtar A prince, applied first ironically and no\r 

generally to a sweeper, a very low oc- 
cupation in Hindnstan. 

Mikyas The style of a dial, hand of a watcb,. 

the kilometer. 

Mil A needle, a wire made hot, used to blind 

people, the barrel of a gun. 

Millat Religion, faith, a people. 

Milna To be mixed, to be confounded, to meet,. 

to occur, to be got, to associate, to 
agree, to suit, to be united, to find (a. 
person, or thing), to obtain (a thing). 

jnlna To meet, to mix, to visit. 

Min A fish, name of the first incarnation of 

Tishim, also applied to the Hindu 
Cupid: Kam-dey. 

Mina A glass, a decanter, a blue colour, enamel 

blue stone, vitriol, heaven, paradise. 

Minal Enamel. 

MInar Minaret, obelisk, steeple. 

Mnkab An instrtiment with which they tap for 


Mintaka A girdle, zone, belt. 

—— e-mabrnda The frigid zone. 

e-mahrnka The torrid zone. 

e-mn'tadlla The temperate zone. 

tu-l-burnj The celestial girdle, the zodiac. 

Minu Paradise. 

Mir A chief, leader, a title by which Saiyidg. 

(who claim to be descendants of Hnsain, 
grandson of the prophet Mnhammad). 
are called. 

Mir-an The payment out of their fees by inferior 

officers to the head of their department. 

Miras Heritage, patrimony. 

Mirasan A caste of singing girls who only sing 

before women. 

Mlras-i Hereditary, inherited, a caste who follow 

the profession of singing from generation, 
to generation. 


Mir'at A mirror. 

Mir-I A. winner at play. 

^is (pj Copper. 

Mis fs.J Pretence, sham. 

•'*>§*^ An agreement, bargain, league. 

Misal Simile, similitude. 

Mishar, Misra A title of Brahmans, who were brought 

to India from Sakadwip by Erisluia 
in order to cure the leprosy of his son 
Samba: also a title of some Brahmans 
from Mithila, &e. 

Miskal A weight containing 4 mashas and 3| 

rattis, Cvide, appendix, weights and: 

Misr A large city, Egypt. 

Misra' A hemistich, a single line in poetiy. 

Misr-i Sugar candy. 

Mistar A ruler (generally made by parallel threads 

fixed on paper, on which the sheet to- 
be written on is pressed). 

Mitha'i A sweetmeat, sweetness. 

MitI Date, interest. 

MittM , A kiss, 

Mittl or matti Earth. 

dalna To conceal another's fault. 

• dena To bury. 

bona To become weak or faint, to be ruined .- 

karua To ruin or destroy. 

khana To eat flesh. 

Miyaii or myau Sir, an address expressive of kindness, a 

title by which eunuchs are addressed, 


Miyan A scabbard, the loins, the waist. 

Miyana Middling, moderate, (in India), a kind' 

of Sedan or palki. 

Miyau admi A respectable person. 

Xiyan-basta Loins girt, ready for action. 

-jl A mediator, an arbitrator, a broker, a 

Mi'yar Standard of money, a weight or measure.- 


Mizan A balance, a pair of scales, the sign Libra, 

measure, metre, rhyme, verse, prosody, 
addition in arithmetic. 

-dena or -lagana.. . . To add, to cast up. 

Mijratt The quill with which a musical instru- 
ment is struck. 

Mocha A plantain tree (Musa sapientum.) 

Mochh Eelease, salvation, final and eternal 

happiness, the liberation of the soul from 
the body and its exemption from further 

Mod Delight, pleasure. 

Modi A merchant, shopkeeper, grain-merchant, 


-khana A pantry. 

Moh Pity, compassion, sympathy, kindness, 

affection, allurement, fascination, love. 

Mohan A sweetheart, mistress, a name of Krishna, 

and of Hindus. 

bhog A kind of sweetmeat. 

mala Name of an ornament, a string or necklace 

composed of gold beads and corals. 

Moh men ana To faint, as at the sudden appearance 

of a mistress or friend. 

Mohna , To fascinate charm, allure, delude. 

Mor A chaplet worn by Hindns at the time 

of marriage. 

Moza A stocking, boot. 

sir A horse that bites, his rider. 

Mu'af-i Exempt from rent and tax (land), a grant 

of land from a sovereign, free of all 

Mu'allim An instructor, a pilot. 

Mu'arrikh An annalist, historian. 

Mn'azzin A public crier to prayers. 

Miibid or Miibad A doctor, philosopher, counsellor of state, 

a priest of the guebres, or sun- 

Mudra A sign, a silver coin, a ring worn by 

jogis in their ears. 


Mufassal Adj., distinct, full, ample, adv., partic- 
ularly, distinctly, fully, n., (peculiar to 
India), the country — in opposition to 
the town. 

Mufti A superior officer among Mnbammadans 

whose decrees are regarded as law. 

gari OfBce or duty of mufti. 

Muhammad Adj. praised, name of the Arabian prophet. 

Mnharram Sacred, venerable, forbidden. The name 

of the first Mnhammadan month, held 
sacred on account of the death of Husain, 
son of All, who was killed by Yazld, 
near Eufa. 

Muhassil A tax-gatherer, a bailifl', a dun. 

Muhr A gold coin. 

Muhra A shell, a chessman, and generally a 

counter used in any game. 


... , A miracle. 


Mnkaddam Antecedent, prior, a chief, the advanced 


Mukhtar Chosen, an agent, one who receives 

power of attorney to act for another. 

Mnkri A short poem. 

Muksam An oath. 

Mukt Pardon, absolution from sin, deliverance 

of the soul from the body and exemption 
from further transmigration. 

Mukur , Name of the tenth zodiacal sign (Capri- 
corn represented by a water animal 
with the body and tail of a fish, and the 
fore legs, neck and head of an antelope), 
also a shark and an alligator. 

Mul Origin, root, race. 

Mulk A country, sovereignty. 

Mnlla A schoolmaster, doctor. 

Mnmin Orthodox, faithful. 

Mnndaa Shaving, the first shaving of a child (a 

religious ceremony with Hindus.) 

Mundna To shave, to convert and make a disciple of, 



Mnuh Mouth, face, countenance, presence, orifice, 

respect, complaisance, power, fitness, 
qualification, pretence, ability. 

andhera Twilight, evening, dusk, obscure. 

Mnuh bigarna To be displeased, to have the taste blunted 

or depraved. 

-Chang A Jew's harp. 

— '■ zor. Headstrong, obstinate. 

Mnni A holy man, a sage. 

Munis A saint. 

Munkir, Nakir The names of two angels, who, according 

to Muhammadan creed, are supposed to 
examine the spirits of the departed in. 
the tomb. 

Mnnkir Denying, rejecting. 

Munshi A writer, secretary (among Europeans) a 

teacher of the languages of India. 

MnrahM A tutor, protector. 

Mnrakaba Contemplation, fearing God. 

Mnrat A statue, idol, picture. 

Murji One of a sect who think faith without. 

works is sufficient. 

Mnrsal A messenger, prophet, apostle. 

Mnrshid An instructor, guide (to salvation). 

Mnsabbib The first cause. 

Musabbibu-l-ashab The causer of causes i.e. God. 

Musaflr A traveller, passenger, stranger. 

-parwar-I Protection of travellers, hospitality. 

Musa-i Following of Moses (Judaism). 

Mnsalla A carpet to pray on, a place of prayer.. 

Musalll Praying, one who prays, holy, righteous. 

Mngalman A believer, a Muhammadan. 

Mnsalman-i The Muhammadan religion, ( Vulg.) cir- 
cumcision, fHind). a female Musaluiau.. 

Musammam Fixed, concluded, determined. 

Mnsannif A composer, an author. 

Musauwir Adj. forming, figuring, S. M. a painter, 


Mns'haf A book, page, the Kur'an. 

S^nshlr A counsellor, senator. 


Mnshkil Difficult, hard, painful. 

Musi A testator. 

Muslim (Plnr. Muslimin). A Musabnau, Muhammadan. 

Mut'a Taking a wife for a time, a temporary 

marriage among the SM'as, use, profit. 
Mnta^abbid Devout, religious, refractory, stubborn 

(a camel), 
Muta'addi A transgressor, a wicked wretch, an active, 

transitive, or causal verb. 
Mutawalli A superintendent, or treasurer, of a 


Muwahhid Believing in one God, orthodox. * 

Muza'far . Pulao, coloured with saffron. 

Mnzah A jest, joke. 

Muzahamat ■. Prevention, impediment. 

Mnzaraba A battle, combat. 

Muzari' A husbandman. 

Mnzd ^ . . . A reward, premium, salary, wages. 

Muzhda Joyful tidings. 


Jfab A canine tooth, a tusk. 

Nabard Battle, war. 

Nabh The sky, ether, atmosphere. 

Nabl A prophet. 

Na-bina • Blind. 

Nabira A grandson. 

Nach Dance. 

-na To dance. 

nachana To make to dance, to tease. 

Nach-waiya A dancer. 

Jfad A sound, a song. • 

Nadaha A spout, a canal. 

S^adamat Repentance, contrition, regret. 

]Va-dan-T Ignorance, simplicity. 

Nadhna To yoke. 

If adi A river. 

Nadim A companion, intimate friend. 


Sadir-1 A raritj'. 

Nad karna To roar (as a tiger), to sing. 

Nadua To begin. 

Naf The navel, the middle. 

Naf Profit, advantage, interest. 

Nafa A. pod of musk. 

Nafaka The necessary expenses of living. 

Nafal Plunder from infidels. 

Ifafar A groom, a servant. 

i Service, profession, trade (particularly of 

a groom), a giant, a demon. 

Naf as Childbirth, the forty days of a woman 

after childbirth. 

Nafas The breath, respiration. 

Naf as-i-baz-pasin The last breath. 

Naf at Naptha, bitumen, the place whence they 

are obtained, lamp-oil. 

Naf i Forbidding, prohibition, annihilation, non- 

Naf Ir A brazen trumpet. 

Nafkh Blowing with the mouth, inspiring, 

breathing into, sounding a horn or other 
musical instrument. 

Nafl A voluntary act of devotion which may 

be omitted innocently as not being 
prescribed, a work of supererogation. 

Nag A snake. 

Nagr The stone of a ring or a stone on which 

a name is cut, a jewel, a mountain. 

Naga A caste of Hindti th^iTS. 

Ifagal A plough. 

Nagan or nagin 


„_ . _ A female serpent. 

Nagani or Nagini ' '^ 

Nagar A city, a town. 

Nagar Name of a tribe of Gvjarati Braliinans, 

hence applied to cunning or expert 

Nagari The most common Hindi character of 

writing, called Devanagarl, from its 

supposed divine origin. 


Jfagar-I A town, or village, of or belonging to 

a city. 

Nag-bel Betel-leaf. 

Nag-bhasha A Prakrit language said to be used by 

the serpentine race who inhabit Patal. 
Nagdanu A kind of wood, by touching which it 

is said that fetters spontaneously fall off. 

iNag-danna Name of a plant. (Artemisia Tulgaris). 

Nagha Adjournment, respite. 

Nag-kanya A race of females said to inhabit Fatal, or 

the regions under the earth, and to be of 

serpentine extraction but very beautiful. 

— -lok The region under the earth. Fatal, (not 

being accessible to the sun, it is illu- 
minated by very resplendent jewels). 

- -panchami Name of a Hindu holiday the 15th of 

Sravan, snkl-paksk, on which day they 

worship a snake to procure blessings 

on their children. 

Jfahan Bathing. 

Nahana To bathe or wash. 

Ifaharl Breakfast, a kind of bit or bridle. 

Haharni An instrument with which the nails are 


Ifahl Prohibition, an interdict. 

Nahid The planet Venus. 

Ifahj A road, path, manner, prescribing, giving 


Ifalir A stream, rivulet, a canal (of running water). 

Na'i A barber. 

Nai A reed, a tube, a pipe, flute, fife, came. 

Jfa'ib A deputy. 

!\ai-bast Composed of reeds. 

Jfa'ib-diwan Deputy treasurer or accountant. 

Ifaibed Pood consecrated to the deity. 

Naibi Deputyship. 

Nai-eha A hukka snake (or covered pliable tube 

through which the smoke is inhaled). 

-band A person who makes hukka snakes. 

-band-i The trade of a Nai-cha-band. 


Ifaik. A corporal. 

jfa'ira Fii'e, heat, flame, inflammation, enmity, 


Nairang Deceit, trick, evasion, magic, sorcery, a 

miracle, anything new. 

-saz A magician, sorcerer. 

-saz-i Magic, sorcery. 

Ifairit Southwest. 

Naisan Name of the 7tb Syrian month, corre- 
sponding to the Persian, Farordin, and 
Hindi, Baisakh. Abr-i-naisan signifies 
the rain which falls while the moon is 
in the mansion swati, and, of which, 
if it drop into a shell, pearls are formed, 
but, which turns to poison if it happen 
to fall into the mouth of a serpent. 

Ifaiyir The sun, also the moon; the former 

being distinguished by prefixing an 
adjective signifying, greater. 

M'iisha A canal, tube, , the urethra. 

Najat Freedom, pardon, salvation. 

IfajH) A hero, a volunteer, a certain class of 

Indian soldiers distinguished by a pe- 
culiar dress. 

IVajibn-t-tarafaiu Noble on both sides (father and mother). 

ITajisu-l-'ain Impure by nature. 

Najjar A carpenter. 

Najm A star, a planet, fortune, a horoscope, 

calculation of. njitivity. 

(Plural, unjum) Stars. 

.'ilm-i-nnjtim Astrology. 

Nujfim-i An astrologer. 

Nak The heavens. 

Nakil (h.) The extremity of a road, % lane, the eye 

of a needle. 

Naka (s.) An alligator. 

Nakar Eefusal, denial. 

Vakbat Adversity, calamity, misfortune. 

Nakcharhana To be angry or displeased. 

Nakd Heady money, cash. 


ICakhat A star, a constellation. 

Ifak'hat Perfume, odour, anything odoriferous. 

Ifakhatri (from IVakhat) . . Fortunate, born under a lucky planet. 

Hakhiyana To claw, to scratch. 

Nakh-rekh The marks left by the nails, a scratch. 

IN'akhsIiab Name of a city in Turkestan, famous for 

the appearance of the moon which the 
impostor Mnkanna' caused to ascend 
from a pit in its, neighbourhood, during 
the space of two months. 

Nakh sikh From tip to toe, from the toe nails to 

the hair on the crown of the head. 

Nakhnda Captain of a ship. 

Nakhun-a An instrument to strike the strings of a 

guitar, &c. 

Hakib A chief, leader.. 

Wakir Name of an angel. See Munkir. 

IS^akkatana To dishonour. 

kati-hona To lose one's honour. 

Jfakl A history, tale. 

Ifakl-I A narrator, story-teller, fictitious, copied. 

Kakrakhna To preserve one's, honour. 

sakorna To turn up one's nose, to be displeased.- 

Mkns , A bell in eastern Christian churches, also 

a shell blown by Hindus in worship. 

Nal , A tube, barrel of a gun, stalk , of the 

lotus, umbilical cord. 

Jfal Joint of bamboo or other hollow wood, 

specially applied to the piece of bamboo, 
on which bird-catchers put lime. 

JVala (h.). A ravine, rivulet. 

Nala (p.) Lamentation. 

Ifali A drain. 

!Nalish ., Complaint, lamentation, grqan. 

Jfalish-i Complainant, plaintiff. 

Malki A sort of sedan or litter used by people 

of rank. 

Nam Name, character, fame, reputation, honour. 

Nama A letter, written treatise, (in comp.), a 

book, history, account. 


-bar A messenger. 

IN^amak Salt, spirit, animation, bread, subsistence. 

"Chashi The first feeding of a child about six 

months' old, when certain ceremonies are- 
performed by a Brahman, who is feed. 

-dan -A- salt-cellar. 

ka hakk ada karna To discharge, one's obligations. 

-khwar A servant, dependent. 

mirck la^ana To give a relish to. 

parwarda A domestic slave, a favourite, confidential 


phnt phutke 

nikalna To come out in boils. 

Nama-nigar A correspondent. 

Kamaskar Salutation, adoration. 

Namaz Prayer (those prayers especially prescribed 

by the Muliammadan law, which are said 
five times a day, there is a dispute,, 
however, between the Snnnis and the 
Shi^ahs as to the number of times for 
prayer, enjoined by the Kuran). 

Nain-ba-nam After each name, per head. 

— — batana To name. 

cbalna. To remain (one's name). 

charhana To register one's name. 

dharna To name, to fix a name on. 

• dharwana To give a name to a child, to be defamed.. 

dnbona To lose one's reputation, to be disgraced^ 

hona To be famous. 

japna To tell one's beads. 

karna To make famous, to establish a name. 

lagana To be charged, accused. 

lekar mang kbana . . To beg alms in the name of another. 

lena To praise, to repeat the name of God.. 

• nikalna To become celebrated to investigate. 

nishan rahna To be or continue renowned. 

o-nishan Name and vestige, or address. 

paida karna To make a name. 

nchhalna To disgrace. 

nchhaluii To become a byword. 


Kana Maternal grandfather. 

Nanak Name of a fakir, founder of the sect of 


Nand Name of the foster-father of Krishna. 

Nan-kar An allowance of money or land. 

Napit A barber, a surgeon. 

Karad The name of a Hindu saint, son of Brahma^. 

and one of the ten original Munis or 

Narayan A name of Vishnu. 

Nares A sovereign. 

Uariyal A cocoa-nut, a Imkka, (for smoking)' 

made of a cocoa-nut. 

Nar-singh or nri-singh . . The name of the fourth Avatar or incar- 
nation of Vishnu, which happened in the 
Satja-yuga, upon the following occasion. 
Hiranya — Easipn, an impious prince,- 
was enraged at his son Prahlad for 
worshipping the Almighty, and tried 
every means of destroying him, by poison, 
by throwing him into fire, into the- 
ocean, &c , yet Prahlad lived. "If your 
God is present everywhere," said Hiranya- 
Kasipu, "let him come from an alabaster 
pillar", on which Nar-singha appeared, 
with the lower part of a man and the- 
upper part of a lion; he destroyed the- 
father and set the son on the throne. 

Ms Snuff. 

!Nasah Genealogy, descent. 

Ifasara A Nazarene, a christian. 

Msik Devoted to God. 

Sasikh A copier of a book, an amanuensis. 

Jfat A name given to those who practise- 

jugglery, and rope-dancing. 

Mtak A kind of comedy in Sanskrit. 

Ifath A master, lord, husband, affixed to proper 

names especially of Jegls. 

Jfath A large ring worn in the nose. 

Ifati Grandson, daughter's son. 


iNankar A servant. 

IVau-ratan An ornament, con slating, of nine different 

gems, worn on the arm and wrist. 

Ifau-roz The day on which the sun enters Aries, 

and, according to. the Persian calendar, 
the commencement of the year. 

I^ausha Abridegroom,hence,iioslia,fortunate,happy. 

Uanwab A governor of a town or district. 

Jfauwab-I Ueputyship, relating to a nanwab. 

(Nanwab-i governmentl . . . A term applied by the Indians of Oudh 

to the rule which prevailed there before 
the annexation. . . 

Navisht — Khwand Epistolary correspondence, reading and 


Nawa Voice, sound, modulation, opulence, 

wealth, substance. 

Nawadir Miracles. 

Nawakil Histories, traditions. 

Ifawasa A grandson. 

Nawaz A musician. 

Nayak A chief, a native officer of the lowest rank. 

Naz' The last breath, gasping in the agonies 

of death, judicial courts, a sheriff. 

Mazim A poet, a ruler. 

Ifazir An inspector, an officer employed in a 

judicial court. 

Nazr A gift, offered to a superior, (the prac- 
tice of giving and receiving gifts is now 
forbidden by the Indian Government, 
the natives, however still continue it 
among themselves. Kajas, and others of 
position, demand these ^.ifts . from their 
dependants as a matter of right on the 
occasion of birthdays, and. other iinni- 
versaries. Poor tenants and servants are 
obliged to give gifts (in cash), to their 
landlords and masters, on pain of dis- 
missal. It is a relic of feudalism that 
presses hard on the poor and should 
be abolished.) 


Nefa A breeches belt, the part of the drawers 

through which the string runs to tie 
them round the loins. 

Neg Presents made to relatives and servants 

on the occasion of marriages, &c. 

Neg-i-jogI Tenants and dependants who receive 

tho neg. 

Nem A vow, piety, meritorious act. 

Hibedan An address, petition. 

Nicliawar Sacrifice, victim. 

Nidhi A treasure of Kuvera, the god of riches. 

Mgam Holy writ, the Vedas. 

Mkah Marriage. 

Mkas-i Taxes collected on goods passing out of 

a town. 

Milkanth A bird about the size of a jay, of blue 

plumage whose note is harsh and dis- 
cordant. Its throat is said to have been 
stained blue from its swallowing the 
poison produced by over-churning the 
ocean with the mountain Maudara, by the 
Surs and Asnrs, to procure the ainrita. 

Sim A tree from which oil is extracted, and 

said to possess many medicinal properties. 

Mm-cliihra An imaginary being with half a face, one 

arm, &c. It is male and female; the 
male having the righthand, &c., the 
female, the left, &c., when united they 
resemble a human being ; when separate, 
they are supposed to move with amazing 
velocity on one foot, and are considered 
as very dangerous and cruel. 

Jfirankar ■ Without form (the deity). 

Mr-gBBi Without passions or human qualities, (an 

epithet of God). 

Jfirkh The price or tariff at which articles must 

be sold in the bazaars. It is fixed by 
Government ofScials, generally the police. 

Msa The female sex. 

Uisbat Eelation, affinity. 


Hishan Sign, emblem, armorial bearings, standard,. 

Nishast'barkhast Manners, etiquette, good breeding. 

Ifistok Definitive settlement, decree. 

Jfittl Small scales used by goldsmiths. 

Xitya-kariua Constant practice. 

Ifujum Stars. 

JTnjura-i An astrologer. 

Nnpnr. A hollow ring, inclosing pieces of copper^ 

&c., which sound like bells when in 
motion, worn by women on their ankles.. 

Nuwab Vicegerents, governors. 

Ifya'e Justice, reason, argument. 

If ya'e-shastr Logic. 

Nyayak A judge. 

Ochha Light, of little consequence, absurd 

trifling, silly, fruitless, mean. 

hona To want, to be deficient. 

Ochhi sangat Bad company. 

Oda Wet, moist, damp. 

Oghra A dish of food, so called. 

Ojh Stomach, entrails. 

Ojha A Brahman tribe, worshipper of a goddess^ 

Ojhal Privacy, retirement. 

karua To conceal, to screen. 

Ojhri A bag in the stomach.where food is digested. 

Ok Sickness at the stomach, inclination to 

vomit, a draught of water from the 

hollow of the hand. 

Okhli A mortar (wooden). 

Okna To vomit. 

01 Name of a vegetable, the root of which 

is eaten, (Arum cainpannlatnin), a 

015 Hail, the name of a kind of sweetmeat. 

- hojana To become cold. 


— jou sir mundaya ton 

ole pare I had no sooner shaved my head than 

a shower of hail came on : (spoken of 
one who has just engaged in an enter- 
prise which turns out unfortunate). 

Ole parnS or girna To fall (hail). 

-Olka or Slta Territory, dominion. 

OnOh The cord with wiiich rafters or frames 

for thatching on are pulled into their 
places and fastened till the roof is finished. 

•Onth The lip. 

Or Origin, boundary, limit, way, side- ward. 

Us or, that way, on that side, thitherward. 

— nibahna To be constant to, to protect for ever. 

Ora A basket, a pannier. 

■Orhna To put on (dress), a sheet, cloak, or 


■OrhnI A smaller sheet, a veil, or woman's cloak. 

Orma The name of a particular kind of sewing, 

stitching together two breadths. 
Os Dew, mist. 

— par jana To fall in value, to bfi deprived of im- 

portance, to become less iu demand 
than formerly. 

— parua To fall (dew), to be dull, cheerless, to 


Osar A heifer. 

■Osbargr Name of a medicine. 

Osisa The head of a bed, a pillow. 

■Osra Turn, vicissitude. 

Ot Overplus, surplus,abateraent,convalescenc . 

Ot Protection, shelter, shade, screen, covering, 

concealment, partition. 
Ota A partition wall or screen, a raised 

entrance to a house. 
Otna To defend, to screen, to shelter, to 

separate the seed from the cotton, to 

catch a ball. 


Pa The wind, the god of the wind ( J)olng)> 

(In compos :), a nourisher, a protector, 
act of drinking. 

Pa The leg, foot. 

— -audaz A carpet spread at the entrance of a room 

for cleaning the feet on. 

— band Engaged, employed, occupied. 

— -band A rope with which . the fore-feet of a 

horse are tied. 

-hona. To be married. 

Fa-band-i The state of being bound, control. 

— ba-zanjir Fettered, in chains. 

— -shikasta Infirm, reduced. 

Pabitr or Pavitr Pure, holy, clean, undefiled. 

Pabitra A brahmanical thread, a string of silken 

beads, a knotted piece of knsha grass 
used in religious ceremonies of the 

Pabitri A ring of knsha grass, (pod cynosnroides)^ 

or of gold, silver, or copper, worn on 
the ring finger and forefinger by Hindus 
during religious worship. 

Pa-bos Kissing the feet, i.e., adoring, worship- 
ping, revering. 

bona To worship, to revere, to adore. 

Pa-bos-i Worship, reverence, adoration. 

karna To worship, to reverence. 

Fachak A digestive, stomachic, solvent, a cook. 

Pachak Cowdung, dried for fuel. 

Pachchhl An ally, assistant, advocate, patron, a bird. 

Pachchi Adherent, joined, (in music), in union. 

bona To be stuck together, as witli glue, to 

be in unison, to be strongly attached 
by love. 

kari Mosaic, patchwork. 

Pacbli The act of inoculating. 

Pachhau West. 


Pachhar A fall, the act of winnowing. 

khana To fall down, to suffer pain. 

Pachharna To throw down, to abase, to conquer. 

PachMya'o A westerly wind. 

Pachhna To inoculate. 

Pachhna The act of scarifying (tattooing), inocu- 
lation, a scarificator (name of an in- 

Pachhtana To regret, to repent. 

Pachhtawa Eegret, penitence, grief.- 

Pachlsi :....... A game played with kauris (small shells). 

instead of dice, and so named from the 
highest throw, which is twenty-five. 

Pachkha Six days from Awan (the coming, or first)' 

to Bewatior EeTati-(the twenty- seventh 
mansion of the moon), on which days 
several kinds of work are unlawful. 

Pach-lara Consisting of five rows, as in a chain 

of pearls. 

Pacli-lona .• . . . A medicine composed of five kinds of salt- 

Pach-mahalla Of five stories (a -house). 

Pad The foot, foot-step, step, rank, dignity,. 

character, (In grammar) a word, place^ 
station, thing. 

(Bishan - for Tishnn - the 
deity in the character of , , 

, Preserver, or Titality 
personified) — pad A particular song in the name of Vishnu.. 

Padam . ............. The lotus (JfelumMum speciosnm), ten 

billions (according to the shastr) : or 
one thousand billions (according to the- 
DastHru-l-'amal) or the Eoyal ordinances 
of Akhar). 

Padar (in Hind. yiAur) . . Father. 

Padarth A rarity, a blessing, a category in logic. 

Paddhat . . ; . i Manner, custom, a treatise on a particular 

science, ritual, a title or titular name. 

Paddi A path, a way, an alley. 

Padha . A schoolmaster. 

Padharna To go, to proceed, to depart, to arrive. 


Fadma The goddess of riches, Lachhml. 

Fadmani The most excellent of the four classes 

into which the Uindns divide their 
women. The others are cbitrii^i, sankhini 
and hastinl. 


A king, a sovereign. 

Padshah-i 1 j B-oyal, imperial, royalty, empire, reign, 

Badshah-i j | sovereignty. 

Padshah-zada A prince. 

Pa'e (h.) A peasant residing in one village and 

cultivating land belonging to another 

Pa'e (p.) The foot, the stand of a taljle, chair, &c. 

band Tied by the leg, fettered, captivated, en- 
cumbered with a family. 

-dam -A- gin, snare, noose. 

dar Firm, steady. 

liisab lana To settle accounts. 

-^ — >jama Drawers, trowsers. 

khana A privy. 

knban Beating the feet in dancing. 

lagua To make obeisance by embracing the feet 

(a token of respect paid by the Hlndns 
to Brahmans). 

mal Trampled on, ruined. 

mal karoa To trample on, to destroy, to lay waste, 

to ravage. 

•inal-i Destruction, ravage (occasioned by an 

ariny or cattle overrunning and trampling 
on fields). 

n -mardi Courage, resolution. 

-takht The royal residence. 

tnrab The first stage of a journey. (It is usual 

to make one short stage at the com- 
mencement of a journey, and then to 
wait a few days to collect everything 

Pag A turban, syrup. 

Pag The foot. 


Pag-dandl A by-path. 

dandi lena To track, to trace. 

-dharna To travel, to go, to leave, to depart. 

Pagal A Bengali word signifying a fool, idiot, 


Pagla Foolish. (This and the above, term were 

formerly peculiar to Bengal and the 
eastern parts of HindSstan; but since 
the influx of natives of Bengal into 
the West — especially the North-western 
provinces and Oudh — where, from their 
superior intelligence and capacity, they 
fill nearly all the Government offices 
and private banks, &c., these terms are 
in common use in the N. W. P. and 
Oudh, and also in the Panjab). 

I'agna To be dipped in or covered with syrup, 

hence to be in love. 

Pagri A turban. 

atakua To be obstinate, to persist or persevere. 

Pah Dawn. 

phatua To dawn, to grow luminous. 

Pahan Width, breadth, ampleness. 

Pahanana To put on, to wear, to dress, dress, 


Pahanawa Clothing, di-ess. 

Pahar A mountain. 

SI raten Long nights (especially, of sorrow). 

Pahar A division of time consisting of eight 

gharis,. a watch, or 3 hours. 

Pahara The multiplication table (in arithmetic^. 

Pahar-i A hill, a small mountain. 

Pahariya Belonging to, or of a mountain, a moun- 

Pai The foot. 

ana To have a splint (a horse). 

karna To plague, to be importunate. 

Pai A fault. 

Paida Born, created, produced, exhibited, dis- 
covered, invented. 



Paida bona To be born, to be created, to be found,. 

to be produced. 

ish Birth, creation, production, earnings, 

produce, profit. 

karna To discover, to produce, to find, to obtain,. 

to get, to earn, to invent, to procilre. 

Paida-war Produce of a field, fruit, profit of trade. 

Paidal On foot, infantiy. 

Paighama-paighami Mutual messages, mediation, correspond- 

Paigham-bar A messenger, prophet. 

Paighainbar-i Mission. 

Pay A vow, a promise. 

karua To make a vow. 

Paik A courier, a messenger. 

Paikar War, battle, contest. (Hind.) A pedlar. 

Paikar Pace, countenance, visage, form, appearance,. 

a portrait, a likeness. 

Pai-karha 1 J Iron chains on a culprits legs, ornamental 

Pai-kari j | rings wora on the ankles. 

Paila A vessel for measuring grain. 

Paima f/ra compos:) Measuring, a measurer. 

Paima-ish . . . , Measure. 

Paiman A promise, agreement, confirmation, 

security, an oath, asseveration, conven- 
tion, compact. 

Painiana A goblet, a certain dry measure. 

umr ka bharna. To fill up the measure of one's age, to 

die, or kill. 

Paina A goad, sharp. 

Painana To sharpen. 

Paincha Eeturn, retribution, a loan, repayment 

of a loan. 

Paincbna To winnow. 

Painda A road, highway, path. 

marna To stop a road, to rob in the road. 

Paiwand Junction, conjunction, connection, rela- 
tionship, a joint, a patch, graft, bud. 

kar A patcher. 

-kar-i Patching, cobbling. 


Faitrast Junction, connection, friendship, joined, 

a-gi Contiguity, connection, attachment. 

Pak Pure, clean, holy. 

Pakar 1 I The citron-leaved Indian fig-tree. (Ficus 

Pakariya ) ( Tenosa). 

Pak-baz Undefiled (mind), honest. 

Pak-Mz-i Purity. 

Pakha A shed. 

Pakhal , A large leather bag, for holding water, 

generally carried on buUocts. 
Pakhand or pashaud .... Wickedness, deceit, hypocrisy, heresy. 
Pal A sail, a small tent, layers of straw or 

leaves, between which mangos are placed 

to ripen. 
Pal A moment, the 60th part of a gharl or 

dand (2| pais being equal to one minute). 

marte Immediately, instantly, in the twinkling 

of an eye. 

-ot. For an instant. 

Pais A spoon or ladle for taking out oil, &c. 

Pala Prost, snow, trust, charge, a , heap of 

earth made by children to separate the 

two parties in a game called kabaddl. 
Palak A kind of greens resembling spinach, a 

bed-stead, a watchman, preserver. 

putr An adopted son. 

Pa-lakri Blocks of wood placed under the feet 

of a bed-stead to raise it, generally at 

the head. 

Palau Packsaddles. 

Palang A tiger, panther, leopard. 

Palangr A bed (without curtains), a bedstead. 

-posh A coverlet, counterpane. 

Palantha Pirst-born. 

Palethan Dry flour laid under and over bread 

when it is rolled. 

nikalna To beat severely. 

pakaua To contrive the ruin of any one. 

Pale'o Soup, pounded rice or flour put into 

soup to thicken it. 


Pale A field of melons. 

Palki A litter, a sedan. 

-nishin Entitled to be carried in a palki. (For- 
merly this privilege was granted by a 
king or viceroy). 

Palki-sawar One who rides in a palki. 

Palna To be reared, nourished or fattened, to 


Pan (s.) An aggregate number consisting of twenty 

gan^as (a ganda ^ 4 kauris) or eighty 
kauris, and 16 pans make a kahan). 

Pan (h.) A termination affixed to nouns, answering 

to the English terminations ship, hood, 
ness, as larak-pan, childhood, banya- 
pan, the business of a banya. 

Pan Betel-leaf. 

— -snpari (betel-nut) The name given to a mixture of betel- 
nut broken fine, spices, and lime, &c., 
offered to visitors to chew. 

Fana To get, acquire, find, reach, overtake. 

Panch ..■ Five, a councLl, an assembly, a meeting, 


— — -palav The branches of five trees which are used 

in religious ceremonies. 

patr A kind of vessel used by Hindus during 


piriya Any person, Hindu or other, who worships 

the five pirs or saints of tr.e Musalmans, 
a caste of Halalkhors. 

Panchagni Five fires, a posture of Jogis. 

Panchakki A watermill. 

Pancham Fifth, name of a rag and of a sur or 

musical note. 

Panchanan A name of Siva, a lion. 

Pancliayat A meeting of any particular society (gen- 
erally as a court of inquiry), a jury, 
an inquest. A panchayat assembles to 
determine whether for a particular fault 
a man is to be turned out of caste. 

Pii^ Advice, admonition. 


Pand-go Adviser, monitor. 

Panda^ A priest who presides at the temple of 

an idol. 

Pan-dan A box for holding betel and other in- 
gredients for chewing. 

Pandar A descendand of Raja Pandu. 

_ • \ A title of Brahmans, a schoolmaster. 

Panre J 

Pandit . Wise, learned, a learned Brahman. 

Pandita'i The learning of a Brahman, learning. 

Pandit-khana A prison. 

Pandiyayan The wife of a Pande. 

Panga Culinary salt obtained by a process from 

sea sand. 

Panghat A passage to a river, steps from which 

water is drawn. 

Panhara A man who carries water in pots oa his head. 

Panhari A woman. 

Pani Water, lustre. 

bharna To confess inferiority. 

ka balhnla (A bubble of water), instability. 

karna To abash, facilitate. 

marna To dry up, to be evaporated. 

— — men ag lagana To revive a contention which had subsided. 

na maugna To be slain by a single stroke of a sword, 

and to die instantly. 

parna . . To rain. 

Paniha Anything living in water, a water snake. 

Panir Cheese. 

maya Eunnet. 

Paniyana To irrigate, to water. 

Panj Five. 

'aib-i-shar'i' Very vicious, having five vices, (1 ) Robbery, 

(2) Adultery, (3) Gaming, (4) Drunk- 
enness, (5) Falsehood. 

ayat The five chapters of the Knr'an, which 

are read during the mourning of a 

tan-i-pak Five holy persons, ( I . Muhammad, 2. 'AIT, 

3. Fatima, 4. Hasan, 5. Hnsain). 


Paiija A hand with the five fingers extended, 

claw, clutch, grasp. 
-kasli-kash A iron instrument resembling a hand, 

with which wrestlers exercise themselves 

by locking their fingers into those of 

the instrument. 

Fanja-ab A country so called from its 5 rivers. 

Panni Tinfoil, name of a tribe of Pathans. 

Pant or panti A row, a line of writing, a rank of soldiers. 

Pantar A desert field. 

PauTT Leg, foot. 

barbana To take the lead among one's equals. 

bhar jana Numbness, sleeping of the feet. 

dalna To prepare for and commence an under- 


dho dho pma To drink the water with which one's feet 

are washed — a phrase denoting perfect 

lagna To make obeisance. 

nikalna To exceed one's proper limits. 

ra^arna To go about foolishly and unprofitably, 

to be in the agonies of death. 

Pa'o A quarter, a fourth part. 

Pap Sin, fault, crime. 

Papaiya A sort of child's whistle, name of a tree 

and of its fruit (the papaw tree, Carica 

papaya), much used medicinally. 

Pap-i A sinner, a criminal. 

Pa-posh A slipper. 

Par The opposite bank or shore, over, across, 

through, beyond. 
karna To fen-y over, to cross, to finish, to 

transfix, to relieve, to carry oif. 

Par (s.) Distant, remote, strange. 

des Abroad, foreign. 

Par (p.) A feather, quill, wing. 

girana To prepare to fly. 

■nikaluii To display, on acquiring power, those 

qualities which remained concealed in 

poverty or a low station. 


Par A scaffold. 

Para Quicksilver, mercury. 

Para A strap, piece, fragment. 

Para-doz A tent-maker, or one who applies the 

leather parts in tents and pardas. 

Para A quarter of a town, a ward. 

Para A company, a body of troops. 

Parab A festival, holiday, anniversary. 

Parachit A fine or penance imposed on religious 

occasions as the price of absolution, 

atonement, expiation. 

Parachna To be made acquainted, to be introduced. 

Parachna To move a lamp over the heads of a bride 

and bridegroom to drive away evil 


Parah Flight, a general emigration. 

Parakh' Inspection, examination, trial, proof. 

Parakh-na To inspect, examine, prove. 

Parana To lay down, to put to sleep, to cull, to 


Paras The philosopher's stone, Persian. 

Parashn An offensive weapon resembling a hatchet. 

Parasna To worship. 

Parasua To touch. 

Parast (worshipper) atash 

(Are). Atash-parast A fire- worshipper, Gruebre, or follower 

of Zoroaster, a Parsl. 

Parastar An adorer, a slave. 

Parast-i (In compos : only), worship, adoration. 

Parastish Worship, devotion 

gah Place of worship. 

Parat A fold, layer, crust, stratum. 


A large plate. 

Parati | ® ^ 

Paraya Strange, foreign, belonging to another. 

Parayan The act of reading a Puraii continually 

without expressing its meaning. 

Par-bas Depending on the will of another, precious. 

Parbat A mountain. 

Parbat-i A mountaineer. 


Parcha Demonstration, proof, trial. 

Parcha A bit, scrap. 

Parcham A flag or military ensign of horse-hair, 

an ornament of hair carried on a spear, 
a flag, a tassel. 

Parchha-iii Image, shadow, shade. 

. apni SB bhagna To be frightened at one's own shadow. 

Parda A curtain, a screen, secrecy, privacy, 

modesty, a musical tone. 

chhorna To let fall a curtain. 

dar Confidential. 

• dar A betrayer of secrets. 

nisMn Eemaining behind the curtain — applied 

to women in India, who are inyisible 
to men — except their husbands. 

Pardes-i Foreigner, stranger. 

Parekha Eepentance, regret. 

Pareshan Dispersed, perplexed, confused, ruined, 

distressed, wretched. 

dil-i Trouble of mind. 

go-i Confused or absurd talk. 

■ --hal Distressed in condition. 

kahna To talk foolishly from absence of mind» 

Pargar A pair of compasses. 

Parka A hog-deer (Cerrns porcinns). 

Parka Bead, learned. 

-guna A learned, experienced man. 

Parkan The ac t af reading. 

Parkana To cause or teach to read, to instruct, 

to teach, to teach to speak or sing (as 

Parbaut A reading, science, magic. 

Parkez Abstinence, forbearance, continence, control 

of the passions. 

Parkez-gar Abstinent. 

Parkez-gar-i Abstinence, temperance. 

Parkez karua To control one's passions, to be temperate. 

Pari A fairy. 

Pari-khwan A. magician to whom fairies and genii 

are subject. 


Parj Name of a musical mode , or raginiy 

handle of a shield. 

-dar Basket-hilted (a scimitar). 

Parja A subject, tenant, renter. 

Parja'e Order, method, custom, manner, place^ 


Parjank A bed-stead. 

Parjatau Travelling. 

Parjawat Quit-rent, tax. 

Parkas or Pra-kas Light, splendour, revelation, appearance 

apparent, conspicuous, illumined. 

Parkha'i The act of examining, the price paid for 

examination, inspection, trial or proof. 

Parkhana To cause to inspect, examine, tiy or prove. 

Parkhl An examiner, a discriminator. 

Parlai A general destruction, such as the flood 

or resurrection, vexation, fatigue, disgust.. 
Parman 1 I Quantity, authority, proof, example, detail, 

Pra-mau j ( authentic, real, approved of. , 

■ charhna To rise to a high rank. 

Parmiln A kind of dance. 

Parna Breaking a fast, to finish, to accomplish. 

^^^_ f i A gutter, drain, conduit. 

Pranali | 

i'arnam i Salutation, adoration. 


Parnana A great grandfather by the mother's side^ 

Parniyan' A kind of fine painted silk. 

Paroha A bucket for drawing water with. 

Parohan Carriage, vehicle, appliance for transpor- 

Paropakari Acting for others, preferring their interest 

to one's own, benificent, hospitable. 

Paros Neighbourhood. 

Parosi A male neighbour. 

Parosin A female neighbour. 

Par-paith Duplicate of a bill of exchange. 

Parpanch Delusion, fraud, imposition, deceit, artifice, 


Parpanch-i Insidious, fraudulent, artful. 


Pars Persia. 

Parsa Abstemious, chaste, watchful. 

Par-sal Last year, 

Parsan 1 ,-, • i • j 

> Gracious, kind. 

Prasann j 

Parsan Asking, inquiring, inquisitive, inquirer. 

Parsi A Persian, the Persian language. 

ParsI A follower of Zoroaster. 

Parson The day before yesterday, the day after 


Parsnram The sixth Ayatar, or incarnation of 

Vislmn; febled by the Brahmans to 
have destroyed the Kshatriyas. The' 
Brahmans say that he extirpated the 
Kshatriyas, and that there have been 
none since. 

Parwa 1 [ Care, concern, anxiety, fear, terror, in- 

Parwah ) | clination, affection, desire, rest, quiet. 

Parwan The yard of a sail. 

charhna To grow up (a phrase peculiar to women). 

Parwana. An order, a pass, a license, leave, command, 

a precept, a warrant. 

kisi ka hona. . To be desperately in love with any one. 

Parwana-gi Command, order, permission. 

Parwana-jat Orders, licenses, passes. 

Parwar C^.) A patron, protector, cherisher, educated, 

cherished (used in compos: as gharlh- 
parwar, cherisher of the poor, ^ya- 
parwar, educated in the shade, or at 
home, soft, delicate, knowing little of 
the world.) 

Parwar (p.) Name of a kind of gourd (Tricosanthes 



„ , , Bred, reared, brought up, nourished, a slave. 

Parwarda J ^ 

Parwardi-gar A epithet of the deity, nourisher of all. 

Parwarish Breeding, nourishment, maintenance, fos- 
tering, rearing, patronising, education, 


Parwati (Daughter of a mountain), Durga, the 

wife of Siva. 
Parwiz A prince, the lover of SMrin (the mistress 

of Farhad, a celebrated Persian statuary, 

who, to please Shirin, dug through an 

immense mountain), celebrated in romance. 

Pas (h.) A rope, a noose, at the side, near, about, at. 

Pas (p.) Guarding, taking care, respect, observance, 

sake, a watch or term of three hoars. 

i-khatir Attention to one's wishes. 

Pas After, behind, at length, their, therefore, 

-andaz Savings, something laid up to provide 

for old age or want of employment. 

Pasa A die. 

Pasa Two handfuls, as much as can be held 

in two hands open. 

Fasana To skim, to pour off superfluous water. 

Pasand Choice, approbation. 

Pasandida Chosen, approved of, agreed to. 

Pa-sang A make weight, something placed in one 

scale to balance the other, or something 

placed on one side of a load as an equipoise 

to the other 

Pasara Expansion, the act of spreading out. 

karna To procrastinate and find obstacles to an 

easy matter. 

. . One who sells spices. 

Pansarl ' 

Pasarna To spread, distend, stretch out, expand. 

Pas-ban A sentinel, a watch, a guard, a shepherd. 

Pas-ban-i Watch, guard, protection, keeping. 

Pas-dar-i Watching, guardianship. 

Pase (plur.) Dice. 

I f Perspiration, sweat. (Pasina is most com- 

Pasevha ( J , ,, 

monlv used). 

Pasina > \ ^ ' 

Pash Sprinkling, scattered. 

Pasheman Penitent, ashamed, abashed, disgraced. 

Pasheman-i Repentance, regret, shame. 


Pashi A kind of wild, rice growing in shallow 

Pashm Wool, hair, a thing of no moment. 

na nkharna To suffer nothing from the enmity of 

another, not a hair of the head to be 
touched. (Spoken in great contempt of 
an adversary). 

„ , _ I Woollen. 

Pashm-in I 

Pashm-ina Woollen goods. 

Fashna The heel. 

Pa-shoya Washing of the feet. 

Pat A leaf, an ornament worn in the upper part 

of the ear, a draft or cheque on a banker. 

Patou-a-Iagna (A phrase, when applied to trees, which 

indicates the fall of their leaves in autumn, 
metaphorically, the phrase signifies that 
one's power or ability is exhausted, and 
this expression is often applied to patience 
exhausted by the scorn of a beloved 
person, or to a destitute condition from 
adverse fortune). 

Pat (s.J Silk^ a mill-stone, a board, shutter, plank, 

flap, seat, throne, a plank on which 
washermen beat clothes. 

Pat fh.J Breadth of cloth or of a river, tow. 

F*t A shutter, valve of a folding door, a 

sound, upside down. 

I"**^ A sign, mark, symptom, hint, direction, 

address or place, to which one is directed. 

P*t* A plank on which washermen beat clothes. 

Pa-taba A sock. 

Pateit A cudgeller. 

Fatal. . . . ; Regions, according to the Hindus, under 

the earth or towards the south-pole in- 
habited by a serpentine race, the infernal 
regions, hell. 

PStal Rose or pink colour. 

Pat-ambar Silk cloth. 

PStan A roof, name of a city. 


Patan Eoofing. 

Patapar Name of a fruit. 

Patapat The sound of beating or of the falling 

of drops of rain, 
Pati God, name, honour, character,' a lord, 

master, husband. 
Patka A. cloth worn round the waist, a girdle. 

bandhua To determine on, or prepare for any act. 

pakarna To hinder, to obstruct. 

(zari-patka) The golden girdle (an ensign conferred 

by the Peshwa on generals who are 

invested by him with authority). 

Pat-rant A queen, a princess. 

Pat-sal A college, a school. 

Pecli Twist, revolution, a coil, plait, screw, 

perplexity, difficulty, trouble, deceit, 


bandhna To grapple in wrestling. 

chalna To prevail by stratagem. 

chnnna To bind by twists of a turban with care. 

dalna To throw obstacles in the way. 

-dar Twisted, coiled, crooked, intricate. 

-dar-pecli Coil within coil, entangled. 

dena To circumvent, to deceive. 

karna To deceive, trick, complicate. 

khana To coil, to be perplexed, to fall into 

difficulties, to sustain a loss. 

kholna To untwist, unscrew. 

■ lena To meet, to embrace. 

nkliarna To loosen the twist of anything. 

nthana To suffer loss or distress. 

Pecha An owl. 

Pechak A ball, skein or clue of thread. 

Pech-ida' Twisted. 

Pech-ida-gl Twisting, contortion, winding. 

Pekhna To see. 

Pekhna Play, farce, sham, comedy. 

Pekhniya A player, an actor. 

Pela Fault, oppression, a prop, a support. 

Pel marna To shove, to push. 


Pelna To shove, push, stuff, cram, express, 

squeeze out. 

Pel-pal Shoving, pushing. 

Pelu A wrestler. 

Pem Love, friendship. 

Pend or paind Pace, step, a rising ground, an eminence. 

Peng' The exertion made by people in a swing,, 

when two persons keep the swing in 

motion without external assistance. 

Pen . . T Sharp. 

Per A tree, plant. 

lagana To plant trees. 

Pesh Promoted, advanced, respected, confided 

in, possessing influence, before, front, 

the vowel point ('). 

amad Access, admittance. 

ana To treat, to behave, to negotiate. 

l)and A belt passing over a horse's breast to 

prevent the saddle from slipping off. 

-bandi Foresight, timely preparation. 

bin Prudent, provident, wise. 

dast Surpassing, one who excels. 

dast-i Excelling, surpassing, aggression. 

jana To go forth. 

kabz A kind of dagger. 

kadaiu-i Outstripping, alertness, activity. 

-khaima A tent or other bagage sent on before. 

-namaz He that precedes in prayer, tlie priest. 

-nigah Take care ! 

nihad Custom, regulation, habit, example, model, 

— —raft Making impression, successful, efficient, 


-ras Early fruit, grain, crops. 

ran A precursor, leader, an advanced guard. 

-rau-i Act of preceding. 

Pesha Trade, profession, custom, habit, practice. 

-war An artificer. 

Peshaul The forehead, brow. 


Peshaur, properly 

Pesh-awar Name of a city built by Akbar, the- 

word imports "an advanced post", as 
it is the next town to the Afghans. 

Peshanr-i A kind of slipper made in Feslianr, a 

kind of rice. 

Pesh-gah The foremost place, a portico. 

Peshgi An advance of money. 

Pesh-i An advance, precedency, superior rank. 

Pesh-in Anterior, ancient, former, the afternoon.. 

Pesh-karl A deputy, agent, assistant, minister, 


Pesh'kar-i Deputy-ship. 

Pesh-kash A present, a tribute. 

Pesh-tar Before, prior, formerly, heretofore. 

Peshwa A leader, guide, title of the Maharatta 


lena To meet and to receive a friend or visiter. 

Peshwa-i The meeting and conducting a guest or 

visiter, the duty of chief priest, guidance. 

Peshwaz A gown, a female dress. 

Pet The belly, the womb, pregnancy, the bore 

of a gun, cavity, capacity. 

bandhna To eat less tiian one's appetite demands .. 

barhana To eat voraciously, to encroach on the 

share or rights of another. 

bhar Bellyful. 

bharna To fill one's belly, to be satisfied. 

dikhana To complain of poverty and hunger (lii 

to show one's belly; to do so, and at 
the same time, tap it with the hand is a 
usage among certain beggars in the East). 

Pet ka dukh dena To starve. 

katna To pinch one's belly, to starve one's self. 

jjl aff . . Maternal affection. 

ki bateii Bosom secrets. 

lag ralina To be very hungry. 

marna To commit suicide. 

mgj paithna To worm one's self into the secrets of 

another, to become intimate. 


Pet-1 A belly-band, a girth, a portmanteau, a 

box, a tumbril, the thorax, chest. 

Petiya A pension, daily food. 

Pewakkar 1 

Piwakka; / A tippler, a toper. 

Pezna A sieve. 

} Embellishment, ornament, dress. 

Phaban J 

Fhabakna , To shoot forth, as a plant. 

Phabna To become, to fit. 

Phag Eed powder, sprinkled in the time of the 

Holi, the act of throwing coloured 
powders in the Holi, the gambols of 
the Holi. 

Phagu'a The hoK, presents made during that time. 



The name of the 11th month. 


Phakkar Wrangling, mutual abuse, raillery. 

baz An abuser, an indecent chatterer. 

Phakoriya A fop, an absurd prattler, an indecent 


Phakoriyat Absurdity. 

Phakri The act of treating with rudeness. 

Phal Fruit, effect, advantage, children, progeny. 

-dar li'ruitful, the iron head of a spear or 

arrow, blade of a sword. 

pana To reap the fruit of good or bad actions. 

phalari Fruits of various kinds. 

Phalana To cause to produce. 

Phalas A step, stride. 

Phali CsJ A shield. 

Phali 1 w , ( ^ po<l of any leguminous plant, especially 

Phaliya | | of peas, a loop. 

kash A hook for drawing the strings through 

the holes by which the walls of a tent 

are laced to the top. 

PJianda A noose, a net, perplexity, difficulty. 

Phandaua To cause to jump or leap over. 

Phandna To be imprisoned. 

Pliaiiga A grasshopper. 


Plianka The quantity of food, gathered by the 

fingers, that can be thrown into the 

mouth to be eaten. 
. mama To eat by chucking food into the mouth, 

to chuck food into the mouth. 

p]ia,j^g A noose, a slip-knot. 

lagana To catch in a noose. 

Phansa'o Entanglement. 

pjj^jf^gj A noose, loop, strangulation. 

dena To hang, to strangle. 

lagana '^° '=°'ii™it suicide. 

Phausna ^ footpad who strangles passengers or 


Phausna '^° noose, to ensnare, to entrap. 

Phauswana. . . . . . . ..... ^o be entangled, to stick, to be involved, 

or entrapped, to be caught, 
, _, A small quantity given over and above 

that purchased. 

^, _, _ A mattock, spade, hoe. 

Pha'ora ^ , 

■_ A crutch on which a jogi leans, a piece 


of wood with a support at each end, 

held in both hands, horizontally, in 

performing the exercise of dand, which 

consists in placing the hands on the 

ground and then bending down so as 

almost to touch the earth with the breast. 

One who thus exercises himself, called 

dand-pel, will, if expert, raise himself 

to an upright position, without again 

touching the ground, an instrument like 

a small rake or hoe for removing a 

horse's , dung. 

phar A gaming-house where dice are played, 

also the table used — if any, a place where 
goods are exposed for sale, the shafts 
or pole of a carriage. 

baz A player at dice, a gambler, a prater, a 

talkative fellow. 

Ibazi • . Playing at dice, gambling. 

'Pharak fluttering, vibrating, throbbing. 



Fharakna To flutter, io vibrate convulsively, to throb^ 

to writhe the shoulders. 
Phariya A pedlar, retailer, one who keeps a. 


Pharsa A pick-axe, or other instrument for digging.. 

Phasana To cause to stiek-as in mud-, to entangle, 

to catch, to cause to be imprisoned,. 

to squash. 

Phata A crack. 

Phate men panw dena. . . To interfere in anything. 

Phatak A gate, a large, door, stocks, arrest, the- 

bar of a court of justice. 

band! Custody, imprisonment. 

Phatakha A cracker (firework). 

Phatakna To winnow, to dust, to be separated. 

Phatki A fowler's net, a large cage, a rope tied 

to a tree to frighten birds with its sounds .. 

jna J 

.„, _ , Foam, froth, 


Phen-i A kind of sweetmeat. 

Phenk Throw, cast. 

dena' To throw away. 

Phenkna To throw, to fling, to dart. 

Phent or phaint Waist-band, fob. 

Phent^ A small turban. 

Pher Turning, maze, curvature, twisting, cir- 
cumference, equivocation, ambiguity, 
difficulty, distance, again, back. 

dena To return. 

parna To differ. 

Pheri-waia A pedlar. 

Phet The waist when bound with a belt. 

Pheta A small turban, a waist-band without 

a fringe. 

Phik The point of a whip or scourge. 

Phlkii "Weak, vapid, tasteless, pale, sallow, light 

in colour. 

Phir or phlri Again, then. 

Phirki A whirligig, anything turning, as on an. 



Phirna To turn, return, walk about, wbirl, wheel, 


Phirta Returning, premium, brokerage. 

Phisalna To slip, to slide, to err. 

Phitkar Curse, malediction, removing something 

to a distance. 

Phitkarna To curse. 

Phitkari or pMtkiri Alum. 

Phonk The notch of an arrow, hollow, not solid 

(particularly, jewels), 
PhoipM A pipe, a tube, anything perforated or 


Phora A boil, sore. 

Phorna To break, burst. 

Phn'a Father's sister, a lizard. 

Phudakna To jump, to leap, to hop (applied to 

small birds), to dance about in token 

of delight. 

Phndki The name of a bird, (Certhia tula). 

Phiiha A fictitious teat by which milk is given 

to a calf or kid unable to suck the 

Phuhar Undisciplined, uneducated, stupid, obscene, 

rude (applied to women), a bad house- 
wife, a slut or slattern. 

-pan or -pana Stupidity. 

PhuM Small rain. 

PhSiyau Drizzling. 

Phiikar A fine, sensible young fellow. 

Phnkna To blow. 

Phnkni A blow-pipe. 

phnl A flower, a blossom, a swelling, a kind 

of bell metal, a ceremony, the charred 

bones of a burnt body, a kind of drink 

for the dead. 

dar Having flowers. 

jana To swell, to be delighted, to be pleased, 

to become fat. 

jharna To speak eloquently. 

•kol)i A cauliflower. 


^^-snngh te ralina .... To live in the fragrance of flowers, to 

eat very little, 

PMla Swelled, blossomed. 

na-saniaua Not to be able to contain one's self from 

delight, to be overjoyed. 

Phulna To blossom, flower, be pleased, bepufl^edup. 

Phulou ka gahna Flower wreaths or garlands. 

ki chhari A thin stick wrapped round with flowers. 

Fhnnk Act of blowing, a puff, blowing up fire. 

den^ To set on fire. 

phunk-ke paiiw 

dharna To act or walk carefully and cautiously. 

Phnnsi A pimple. 

PhSpha Father's sister's husband. 

PMpM Father's sister. 

Phur True, right. 

Phnrt or phnrti Activity, quickness. 

karna To make haste. 

Phus Old dry grass or stranw. 

■ ineu chingari dalna. To excite contention or strife. 

Phnsahinda Disgusting, stinking. 

Phuska Weak, without strength, slack (as a knot). 

Phnslana To coax, wheedle, cajole, flatter, decoy, 

Phut A kind of melon {Cncumis momordlca), 

odd, unpaired, difference of opinion, 

separation, a flaw. 

parna To arise (dissension). 

hona To be divided in opinion. 

kar rona To weep excessively. 

Phuta Broken. 

Phiitan Wrangling, disagrement, misunderstanding. 

Phiit-i Disagreement, disparity. 

PhStkar Ketail. 

Phutkl A blot, spot, stain. 

Phutna To be broken, to be broken into or 

broken down, to be dispersed, to burst, 
to be made public, to arise or burst 
forth (as a smell). 

Pi Beloved, a lover, husband. 


PTb Pus, matter, corruption. 

Pibiyana To suppurate. 

PIchh Rice-water, rice-gruel. 

PIchha Tlie hinder part, the rear, pursuit, perse- 
cution, absence. 
karna To pursue, to chase, to recoil (a gun). 

lena To pursue, to importune, to obstinately 


pherna To leave, to withdraw. 

Pichharl The rear, the ropes by which a horse's 

hind legs are tied. 
marna To attack in the rear. 

dalna To leave behind, to outstrip. 

pai'ua To dance attendance, to importune, to 

dun, to persecute, to torment. 

Pichkana To squeeze, wrinkle, burst. 

Pichkari A squirt, a syringe. 

Pidar or Padar Father. 

Pidarana Father-like, fatherly. 

Pidda Name of a bird. 

Pighalna To melt, or be melted. 

PI jana, To drink up, to repress one's passions, 

to refrain from answering. 
Pik The juice of the betel-leaf chewed and 

spit out. 

dan A spitbox, spittoon. 

PIl An elephant, name of one of the pieces 

at chess. 

Pna Yellow. 

Pilana To give or cause to drink, to suckle, to 


Pill A gold mohur. 

Pilpa Aiflicted with elephantiasis. 

Pilpaya A pillar, column {lit. an elephant's foot). 

PIna To drink, smoke. 

Pinak The bow of Siva, a musical instrument* 

Pind Body, person. 

chnrana To avoid, to escape. 

parua To follow, to pursue, to be intent on, 

balls made of flour or rice, at a religious 


ceremony of HindSs, they are afterwards 
thrown into the river or given to cows. 

Pind A roller. 

Pinda Body, person, a lump of clay, a bundle 

or ball of string. 

Pindar Thought, imagination, opinion, 

Findara A plunderer, a pillager (among Maha- 


Pindi The upper part of a Siva-ling', a lump 

of anything that can be contained in 
the fist, a small clue or ball of twine, 
a small altar of sand, a cubit square, 
on which oblations to the manes are 

Pindol A kind of white earth used by the Hindus 

to cover or wash the walls of their 
houses with. 

Pingal Art of measuring verses, prosody, name 

of a fabulous being in the form of a 
serpent to whom a treatise on prosody 
is ascribed, tawny, pale. 

Pinjra A cage. 

liona To be or grow lean. 

Pinki Intoxication from eating opium, drowsiness, 


Pipa ; . . A pipe, barrel, cask. 

Pipal , A species of fig tree. (Ficns religiosa). 

Long pepper. 

Pir (p.) An old man, a saint, a spiritual guide. 

-zan An old woman. 

Pir (pj Monday. 

Pir fh.) Pain, sickness, pity, mercy. 

Pira, pila Yellow. 

Pira'i ; Name of a tribe or caste who beat a 

kind of drum called dliol. 

Piran Charity-lands (bestowed on the poor in 

honour of a saint). 

Pirha A stool or chair. 

Pirhi ■ , a generation. 

Pirtima or Pratima Image, statue, picture, likeness, an idol. 


Pirthi, pritUi The earth, the grpupd. 

PirtM or prithi-nath. . . . Lord of the earth, a sovereign, a king. 

^**^'''' An evil spirit of a particular Qiass, a 

demon, a spectre. 

Pisach-m A female pisach, 

Pis^'i Price paid for grinding. 

Pisan Meal, flour. 

Pisana To grind, to reduce, to meal. 

Pisar A boy, a son, a child. 

-khwanda An adopted son. 

khwauda-gX Adoption. 

Pista A pistachio nut. 

Pista-I-rang Pea-green. 

Pistan Breasts. 

Pit Love, friendship. 

Pita A father. 

'inaha Father's father, paternal grandfather. 

Pital Brass. 

PItam IJo^t beloved, a lover, a husband. 

Pit-amltar , A silk cloth of yellow colour. (Vulg.), 

a silk cloth. 

Pitara , . . A large basket, a portmanteau. 

Pitari (h.) A small basket. 

Pitarl (h.) A weevil,an insect bred in rice or other grain. 

Pitar-pakh The first or dark fortnight of the lunar 

asin month. 

Pith The back. 

dena To run away. 

lagana To throw down in wrestling. 

lagna To have a sore pn the back (a horse}. 

par hath pherna . To pat on the back, to encourage. 

pherna To turn one's back, to depart, leave, fly. 

PItha A kind of food made of rice and flour. 

PItna To beat, strike, thrash. 

Pitr Ancestors, manes, of the dead, 

Pitr arpan Gifts in honour of one's deceased ancestors. 

Pitr saradh The obsequies of a father. 

Pitroi ko panl.dena. ... To offer a libation of water. 

\ Beloved, dear, husband, lover. 

Piya J 


Piyada A foot-man, a foot soldier, a pawn at chessv 

Piyala or pyala A glass, cup, priming pan of a gun. 

hona To die (phrase used by fakirs). 

Piyar or pyar Love, aifection. 

karna To fondle. 

Piyara or pyara Beloved. 

janna To esteem. 

Poh Dawn of day. 

To make bread. 

Po'Ts See ! Ho ! holla! (calling to people to get 

out of the way). 

Poklian Breeding, rearing. 

Pokhar A pond, a tank. 

Pola Soft, hollow. 

Polad The finest Damascus steel, which, with- 

that of Kaum, was esteemed the best irt 
the east. 

Ponga A blockhead, a sort of drum, a thin. 

joint of bamboo, empty, 

Popla One whose teeth have fallen out, toothless. 

Popni A wind instrument. 

Per The space between two joints or articu- 
lations of the body or of a bamboo,, 
or sugar-cane. 

Pora Finger. 

Posh Covering, clothed in (used in compos.). 

pa (covering the feet) — shoes, slippers. 

sabz Clothed in green. 

Poshak Vestments, dress, habit. 

Poshak-i fit for making 


Poshida Concealed, hidden. 

■ -gi Concealment. 

Post Crust, shell, skin, bark, rind. 

-kan A preparer of skins. 

Posts Poppy-head. 

Post-1 One who intoxicates himself with infusioa 

of poppy-heads. 
Post-In A leather garment, fur, a fault, blemish. 


Vot Cs. J A boat. 

Pot f/i.J Nature, disposition, quality, glass beads,, 


Pota A grandson, a descendant. 

Potii The eye-lid, the crop of birds, stomach- 

Potdar A cash-keeper. 

Potha A large book. 

PotM fk.J A book. 

Potlu Ck.J A clove of garlic. 

PotI Grand-daughter. 

Potiya A cloth worn at the time of bathing.^ 

Potla A large bundle. 

Potli A bundle. 

Pra-bala Predominant, violent, strong, powerful. 

Prabandh A kind of song, style, composition of lu^ 


Prabes Entrance, access. 

Prabha Splendour. 

Pra-bha'o Influence, prosperity, felicity, majesty. 

Prabhat Morning, dawn. 

Prabhat-i Sung in a tune or ragini peculiar to- 


Prabha Commander, lord, principal, master. 

Prabhuta-i Government, liberty, option, superiority^. 

influence, legislation. 

Prachin Ancient. 

Pra-dacbchbin Going round an object to which respect 

is intended with the right hand always 

towards it (a religious ceremony), circuit,., 

circumambulatio n . 

• i Obvious, notorious, public. 

Pargat J 

Pragatna 1 [ To issue forth, to become manifest, to» 

Pargatna J j appear. 

Prahar The act of beating, a stroke. 

Praharl A striker, smiter, debaser. 

Praja A subject, tenant, renter. 

Prakar Manner, method, kind, sort. 

Prakaram Strength, vigour. 

Prakas Apparent, conspicuous, clear, (m. light)- 


Prakiti Nature, the natural state or disposition, 


Pralabdh Pate, lot, destiny, predestination. 

Praman Quantity, proof, verification. 

Pramanik Proper, creditable, reverend, chairman of 

an assembly, (in Bengal) a chief of a 
tribe among the inferior castes. 

Pran , 

Breath, soul, life, sweetheart, mistress. 

Par an 

pati Soul's lord. 

Pranam Salutation, bow, obeisance. 

Prani Having life, an animated, a human being. 

Prapti Keceiving, getting. 

Prarthana Supplication, prayer. 

Prassan Eejoiced, pleased. 

liona To acquiesce, to like. 

Prasannata Acquiescence, pleasure, favour. 

Praschit Atonement, expiation. 

Prashn Question. 

Prasiddh Notorious, famous. 

Prat Morning, dawn of day. 

Pratap Auspices, splendour, glory. 

Pratapl Glorious. 

Prathain First, before. 

Prathmi The earth, ground. 

Pratipal Patronising, tuition, fostering, rearing, 

breeding, cherishing. 

Pratipalak Cherisher, patron. 

Prem Love, affection, friendship. 

rang-rata Coloured with the dye of love, loving. 

Prem-i Affectionate, lover. 

Pret A departed soul, a spirit of the dead, 

a ghost, an evil spirit. 

Pretni A female ghost. 

Prit Love, friendship. 

fA favourite, friend, lover, beloved. 

Prlthi (see pirthi) The earth. 

Prithu Name of an ancient Raja, son of Vena, 

Raja of Bettoor. He was married to a 


form, of the goddess Lakshmi, and taught 
men to cultivate the earth. 

I'i'iyS Beloved, dear, mistress, sweetheart. 

l?H'a A kind of pancake. 

P. Piicli Absurd, useless, injudicious, inordinate, 

obscene, nonsense. 

baf-I Talking (or weaving) nonsense. 

-go Talking nonsense. 

Puchara Whitewash, a sponge, a brush for white- 

deua I j To lay on a thin coat of clay, to white- 

pherna | ( wash, to flatter. 

Puchh Inquiry, investigation. 

Puchhna To ask, to inquire. 

Puchhwaiya An inquirer. 

Pnja Worshipping, adoration, veneration, de- 
votion, idolatry. 

Piijapa Oft'erings, libations. 

Puja-pat Worship, idolatry. 

Pujari A worshipper, a priest having charge of 

an idol temple. 

PSyna To worship, to adore, to venerate. 

PBjya Venerable. 

Pukar Calling out aloud. 

Pukar dena To proclaim publicly, to call. 

Pnkarna To call aloud, to cry out. 

Pukhraj A topaz. 

Pukhta Dressed food, baked (as bricks), made 

of brick, sly, knowing, wise, firm, strong. 

karna To make strong. 

Pukhtagi Maturity, experience of the world. 

Pnkhtakar Experienced, strong. 

Pukhtakar-i Experience. 

Pukhtari Cakes laid over dishes, in which the 

meat is kept warm, cakes, impregnated 
with ghi, whence, mama pukhtariyau 
khana, to eat cakes prepared by his 
mother, i.e. applied to a person accus- 
tomed to luxury and incapable of labour 
or fatiarue. 


Pnl A bridge, an embankment. 

bandhna (To make a bridge), signifies to limit, 

to bound. 
Pul-sirat The bridge over which Mnsalmans believe- 

they must pass into paradise. 

Pula'o A kind of dish made of flesh and rice. 


, Virtue, virtuous action, charity, merit. 

Punya ) 

Pnnya'i A virtuous action, performed (according 

to those who hold the doctrine of the 
metempsychosis) in one state of existence, 
the reward of which is received in a 
future transmigration, merit of an an- 
cestor rewarded in his descendants. 

Pfinji Capital in trade, stock, principal sum, 

Pnnyatma Charitable, virtuous, religious. 

Pur CsJ A city, town. 

Pnr A son. 

Pnr fpj Full, complete. 

Pnra Entire, complete, exact, full, total,. 

— karua To fill, to reimburse. 

Ptira A kind of cake made of pease meal. 

Pnra A large village. 

Purab East, eastern, former, prior. 

Pnraiia Hindu sacred books. 

Pnrana To fill, old. 

Piiraumasi 1 f The day of the full moon, when Hindus 

Pnrna-masi J ( bathe in the Ganges or other sacred river. 

Pnrbi The bhasha or dialect of the eastern district, 

a rag sung in the third watch, eastern.. 

Purl A kind of fresh cake fried in ghl. 

bat A complete sentence. 

Purl A skin with which a drum is made. 

Pnrkha An old man, an elder, an ancestor. 

Purkhe 1 

} Ancestors, ancestry. 

Pnrnsna | 

Pnrohit A priest who presides at the performance- 

of religious ceremonies, family priest. 

Pnrohitani The wife of a Purohit. 


Pursish Inquiry (generally after health), inter- 
rogation, questioning. 

Purush A man. 

Piirwa A small village. 

Purza A scrap (generally of paper), piece, bit, 

rag, the nap of cloth, or the down of birds. 

Purze hona To be severely wounded in battle. 

Pur-jarur Very necessary, most essential. 

Piis The ninth Hindu month. 

Pushp A flower. 

Push pat The car of Knvera, god of riches. 

Pusht Back, progenitors, ancestry, a prop, second, 

an assistant. 

ba-pusht G eneration by generation. 

Piishta A buttress, bank, hill. 

baudi An embankment. 

PushtainT Hereditary, ancestral. 

Pushtak A vice in horses, plunging and kicking 

up behind. 

Pusht-ara A load borne on the back. 

Put A son. 

zambura A young monkey. 

Putki A term of abuse. 

Pntla A puppet, an image. 

Putli A small — , image, the apple of the eye. 

ka tara karna To honour or esteem as the apple of 

the eye. 

ka tamasha ) 

— swang ) A puppet show. 

— nach I 

Putr(a) A son. 

Putri A daughter. 

PntthS The buttock, the hip of any animal. 

PuttM The felly of a wheel. 

Puwal Straw. 

Puz The lip of a horse. 

-mal A cord twisted tight round a horse's lip or 

ear to enable the farrier to manage him. 

, Love, affection. 

Piyar ' 


Piyar karna To fondle. 

Pyari Beloved, pleasant. 

Pyas Thirst. 

bnjhana To quench thirst. 

lagna To be thirsty. 

marna To suffer thirst. 

Pyasa Thirsty. 

Pyase marna To be very thirsty. 


" This letter is represented by K in this work." 


In Arabic and Persian there is only one form of this letter^ 
which has a distinctly lingual sound. In Hindi, and Hindiistani^ 
there are three forms to denote (1) r, fully sounded wilh the tongue- 
vibrating on the palate, or, as in the French amonr. (2) r, pronouned 
with the point of the tongue reverted on the palate. (3) rh, as^ 
the last, aspirated. 

Ba'aiyat (Plur. ra'aya). . . A subject, tenant. 

-parvrar-I Protection of subjects. 

Ba'aiyat-i Subjection, tenancy. 

Syrup, liquid juice of the sugar-cane. 


Jtabab A kind of violin. 


, A player on the rabab. 

Rabab-iy« ' 

Raban or Bavaua Son of Vishrava and Kalkasi, was king of 

Lanka (Ceylon), carried away Sita, and 

his kingdom was deprived her husband 

Rama-chandra. g.v. It is said that Tishna^ 

having an inclination for war, caused 

a Brahman to curse his two door-keepers 

wishing that 'they might be born on 

earth three times, returning after each 

time to their original forms of porters- 


to the deity. By tliese means Vishnu 
contrived to be nearly matched on 
earth, so as to have a good battle. 
They first appeared as Hiranyaksha and 
Hiranyakashipa ; then, as Havana and 
Enmbhakarna; and lastly, as Shishupal 
and Dantavaktra; in each of which 
characters they opposed the deity in. 
different avatars. 

Babar Patigue, fruitless labour. 

fiabarna To fatigue one's self, to run about 


Eabb Lord, preserver, a name of God. 

Eabbani Divine, godly. 

Eabda Mud. 

Kabda Fatigued. 

Rabi' The spring, the spring harvest or grain. 

cut in the spring. 

RabT-bar Sunday. 

Rabi'i Produced in the spring, vernal. 

Rabri Thick milk, a kind of milk food. 

Rabt Connexion, binding, bond, friendship,. 

practice, habit, use. 

Rachana To set to work, to set a going, to make,. 

to do, to make merry, to stain the nails 
of the hands and feet with hinna, to 

Rachchha . Protection, assistance, patronage, shadowing. 


Rachchhak A protector, keeper, redeemer. 

Racbhas A demon, fiend. 

achbasaul A female racbhas. 

Rachhasi Bemoniacal. 

Rachna To be made, created, prepared, set to- 
work, employed, to stain, colour, love, 
like, keep time in music, penetrate,, 
predestinate, make, form, invent, prepare,, 
compose, perform. 

Had A tooth. 

chhad The lips. 


Kadd EejectioD, repulsion, resistance, refutation, 


-badal Argument, discussion, altercation. 

-i-jawab A rejoinder. 

-i-salam lieturning compliments. 

karna To reject, vomit. 

Badda A layer of a wall, the work of a day. 

Badd-i Rejected, rejected things. 

B^dhana^ari A kind of silk cloth. 

Badif. A man riding behind another on the 

same horse, the rhyming word of a poem. 

Ba'e (Ji.) A (Hindii) prince, chief. 

rayan A Hindii title — the chief of princes. 

Ba'e (a.) Wisdom, opinion, thought, counsel. 

Ba'e-baus A kind of spear. 

Ba'e-bel A flower so called. 

Ba'e gnman 1 | Opinion, judgment, notion, persuasion, 

zann J | one who gives his opinion. 

Ba'ezani karna To form or give an opinion. 

Baf a Mending (a garment), cementing broken 

friendship, quieting, pacifying, peace, 

Baf Elevation, promotion, ascending, finishing, 

completing, settling, deciding, repelling, 


daf Deciding, settling, finishing. 

i-sharr Settling a dispute, deciding a difference, 

getting rid of a dispute. 
Eaf-'at Elevation, promotion, dignity, eminence, 


Baf i' High, sublime, exalted. 

"u-l-kadr Of high estimation. 

"n-1-makan Of exalted rank. 

Baflk A friend, ally, associate, companion. 

BafljT A heretic, particularly a shi'ah. j.b. 

\ Gone, departed, deceased, lost. 

Bafta J 

Bafta rafta Gtoing, in the act of going, by degrees, 

gradually, in process of time. 

Baf ii Darning, a darn. 


Eaf u chakkar Making one's escape, stealing off. 

chakkar meu a-jaua To be lost in astonisiament. 

rgar A darner. 

-gar-i The employment of darning. 

liona To run away, to retire. 

Kag A musical mode, of which there are six, 

music, song, tune, anger, passion, love. 

chhaua To be in concert. 

-mala Name of a treatise on music, consisting 

of illustrations of the primary and subor- 
dinate modes, and the subjects appro- 
priated to each. 

rang Music. 

sSgar A song composed of many rags or mu- 
sical modes. 

Bag A vein, fibre. 

charhna To be obstinate, pettish, proud. 

dar Veined, cloth in which the threads are 

uneven, a wicked brat. 

i-gardan Pride. 

inarna To become impotent. 

resha Every vein. 

ntarna To be appeased, to have a rupture. 

£agar Attrition, friction, rubbing. 

Kagara or Bagra ; . Quarrelling, rubbing, polishing. 

-jhagra Quarrel, debate, discussion. 

Bah Eoad, way, manner. 

award A preseut brought from on a journey. 

bandhua To refuse admittance, to stop one's 


bar A guide, conductor. 

-bar-I Conducting, guiding on the way. 

chhorna To give way. 

dalna To establish a custom. 

. dar A collector of duties (on roads). 

dar-I Collection of duties (on roads). 

To expect, to wait for. 

karna To contract friendship. 

kharch Charges of the road, travelling expenses. 



Rah lagna To follow one's own devices.. 

lena To go, to depart. 

— marna To waylay, to rob, to lay «ne under 

restraint, to ruin one's prospects in life.. 

nama A book or map of roads. 

pama To establish mutual confidence. 

rakhna To keep up an intercourse. 

ran A traveller. 

rawish Manners, habits, customs. 

-sir Just, right. 

zan A highwayman. 

zan-i Highway robbery. 

Rah-i A traveller, way-farer, travelling. 

Eah (Gontracton of rah), a road, path. 

-uaward A traveller, a galloping horse. 

nnma A guide. 

Kahas Waggery, merriment, secret, private. 

Bahasna To be pleased, to rejoice. 

Rabat Staying, remaining. 

Rabat A wheel for drawing water with. 

Rabat Quiet, repose, ease, tranquility. 

Raluk Wine, pure, of the best quality. 

Rahim Merciful (an epithet, of God and the- 

prophet Mnbammad). 

Rahim-i Mercy. 

Rabin A mortgagor. 

Rabkala 1 » ,, . , 

> A small cannon, a swivel, a cart. 

Rabkala I 

Rabla A kind of pulse, chana, (cicer arietinum). 

Rabui Mercy, kindness, pity, a sort of sweet 

cake of a white colour. 

-dil Tender-hearted, merciful, kind. 

Rahman Merciful, forgiving. (An epithet of God). 

Kahna To stay, stop, remain, be, exist, last, 

stand, continue, live, escape. 

Rahta A spinning-wlieel. 

Rabn Typhon, or the dragon that is supposed 

to devour the sun or moon durinar an 

eclipse, the ascending node. 
Rahwa A slave (not purchased). 


Rahwa'I House-rent. 

Eahwalya An inhabitant. 

Ra'i ". A kind of nrastard seed, with small grains. 

— -ka'i Broken to small pieces or atoms. 

Ea'iha Fragrance, perfnme, odour. 

Ka'jj Customary, current, usual, common. 

u-l-wakt The fashion or custom of the time. 

Ba'Is Prince, president, chief, captain. 

Kaj Dust, a substance with which the tilak, 

q.v., is made, quality of passion, love 
of sensual enjoyment. 

Kaj (s.) Government, sovereignty, royalty, reign, 

kingdom, (in compos), prince, king. 

bhog Victuals placed before idols at noon. 

bhnban A royal residence, palace. 

-gadi King's cushion, throne. 

kanya A princess. 

mandir A royal residence, palace. 

pat or -pati A Hindu title, prince. 

-rog A mortal disease, consumption. 

satha The king's court or assembly. 

-tilak The royal mark on the forehead, coronation. 

Baj (p.) A mason, bricklayer. 

Kaja A king, a prince, a title bestowed by 

the Indian Government on distinguished 
Indians, land-holders or others, and 
permitted to some, who were thus 
designated during the Muhammadaa rule 
but which carries with it no authority 
or power, in the ancient acceptation of 
the term. This title, and that of Maha- 
raja, also serves to designate some of 
the quasi-independent princes of India. 

jjaja Hope, prayer, supplication, intercession. 

Kajab The seventh month of the Muhammadan 

year, it was unlawful to go to war 
during this month. 

jjajas Love of pleasure, sensual enjoyment. 

Sajasn-jag.- A grand sacrifice by an emperor attended 

by tributary kings. 


Bajat Silver. 

Raj-baus-i Descendant of a Baja, the name of a 

Bajpnt tribe. 

Baj-dhaui The metropolis, seat of empire, royal 


Eaj-dhar The prime minister of a B^a. 

Rajiii Detestation, reptdse, dejection, stoning 

to death. 

Bajo-gnu One of the three characters or dispositions 

assifj-ned by the HindSs to the human 
mind. They are (1) Satiya, goodness, 
benevolence. (2) Baja, passion or love 
of sensual enjoyment, pleasure. (3) Tama, 
darkness, delusion, promptitude to the 
vindictive passions. These are all ex- 
hibited in the Hindu Trinity ; in Brahma, 
raja prevails, in Yishnu, Sativa, and 
in Siva, tama. 

Eajwara A kingdom, a country under the control 

of a Baja. 

Bakaba Neck, slave, enclosure, esplanade, environs. 

Bakam A mark, sign, writing, character, a mode 

of arithmetical notation, chiefly taken 
from the initials of the Arabic words 
denoting the numbers, also a character 
in this notation, arithmetic, manner, kind, 
method, sort, a royal edict. 

■ karna To mark down, to write. 

Bakam-I Written, marked. 

Bakas A demon, an evil spirit, a giant. 

Bakasan Dancing, skipping about. 

Eak"at Bowing the body in prayer. 

Bakhak Keeper. 

Bakhau Keeping, charge, protection. 

Bakhana To give in charge, to cause to keep, 

put, place. 

Bakhl A tribute paid to a Sikh chief for pro- 
tection, a protector, guardian, grass which 
has been preserved for cattle, hay. (In 
view of the frequent droughts in India, 


it was suggested that the system of silos 
should be introduced i.e. of preserving 
food for cattle in pits ; but this has not 
been, at all events, generally, adopted). 

Kakhl An amulet or string which Hindus tie 

round their arms on a certain festival. 

Rakhiya Protection, keeping. 

Rakhna To keep, put, place, have, hold, possess, 

lay, set, station, leave, own, stop, save, 

Rakh chhorna To place, keep, have, give in charge. 

Rakh dena To put down, place, keep, put by. 

lena To take in charge, to take into keeping 

or service. 

Rakhsh A horse, a famous horse of Bustam, g.v., 

splendour, the rays or reflection of light. 

Rakhshan Eesplendent, refulgent, dazzling. 


Rakhshinda' Shining, flashing. 

RakhsUndagi A flash of lightning. 

Rakht Property, apparatus, furniture, apparel. 

bandhna To pack up. 

i-azimat Intention. 

i-safar Goods for travelling, a pedlar's stock. 

Rakhwa-i The price paid for keeping. 

Rakhwal > 

Rakhwala l A keeper, guard, shepherd, cowherd, 

Rakhwara J goatherd. 

Rakhwal-i Keeping, guarding, grazing cattle. 

Rakib A rival, enemy, one who watches, a 


Rakib A rider, riding, mounted on a horse, 

also, on a ship. 

Rakkas or Rakslias Vide, R^kas. 

Raksh Dance, dancing. 


„ , Blood, red 


-chandan Red sandal-wood. 

Ral Eesin, rosin, pitch, saliva. 

Ram, Rama The seventh Hindu incarnation, God. 


Kam-kahaiii The Bamayan, a long story. 

ram A common Hindu form of salutation. 


I Flight, elopement. 

karua To fly, run away. 

khnr Taking to flight. 

khnrda Taken to flight. 

Bama-cliandra Son of Dasaratha, and conqueror of 

Lanka or Ceylon. He was the seventh 
avatar; when the deity descended for 
the purpose of destroying Havana, who 
having obtained (for his devotion) a 
promise from Brahma that he should 
not suffer death by any of the usual 
means, had become the tyrant and pest 
of mankind. The Deratas came in the 
shape of monkeys, as Havana had gained 
no promise of safety from them ; hence 
^Hanuinana was Kama's general. Bama- 
Chandra's mothers's name was Eanshalya. 
His younger brother Bharata was son 
of Kekayi, who was the cause of Rama's 
going to the desert to perform devotions, 
on the banks of the Pampa nadi, in- 
sisting that her son should reign the 
fourteen years that Rama employed in 
the devotions; while engaged in these, 
or during his sojourn in the forests 
accompanied by Lakshmana (his brother 
by Snmitra), on an occasion of his 
absence, hunting, Ravana appeared as 
a beggar, and enticed away Sita, the 
daughter of Janaka Raja, who had 
promised to give her to any person who 
could break a certain bow, which was 
done by Ramachandra. These incidents 
are related in Ramayau q.v. The story 
given there of the abduction of Sita is, 
as fellows; Rama had drawn a circle 
round Sita, and forbidden her to go 



beyond it, leaving LaJishmana to take 
care of her ; but, he, hearing some noise 
which alarmed him for his brother, !eft 
her to seek him; then, it was that 
Karana appeared, enticed Sita out of 
the circle (gandi), and carried her in 
his flying chariot. In the air Barana 
was opposed by the bird, Jatayu, whose 
wings he cut, and escaped. Bamachandra 
reigned in Awadh (Ayodhya), B.C. 1600. 

Bam-daha'I \ji asseveration, by Bama. 

Bamayan ^n epic poem by Talmiki, containing 

the history of Bama. The rescue of Sita 
from Bavana is celebrated annually by 
Hindus, when an effigy of Bavana, amidst 
a great display of fire-works, is burnt. 

^^^^^ The last breath, departing spirit. 

■_■ Geomancy, foretelling by figures. 

To entice, beguile, take possession of. 

Bamanandi ^ ^^^^ ^^ mnm fakirs, believers in 

Bamavatar ^j^^ incarnation of Vishnu in the person 

of Bama. 
Bamawat gy^^Q^ of ^ sect of Hindu fakirs. 

• ^ To be scorched by the sun ; the name of the 

ninth Muhammadan month because when 
the ancient name given by the Pagans 
was changed, this month happened in the 
season of the greatest heat. During this 
month Musalmans are interdicted from 
eating, drinking, and conjugal intercourse, 
between the morning dawn and appear- 
ance of the stars at night. They believe 
that on the 27th of this month the 
Kur'an. began to descend, and that every 
prayer offered up on that night will be 
complied with. Also, prayers on the 
19th, 21st, and 23rd days of this month 
are supposed to be peculiarly efficacious. 
Bambhna To low, to bellow, crv out. 


Sam-chera Slave of Bam, a common appellation of 

a slave. 

Baindn phattn The mob, vulgar, common people. 

Bamida errified, disturbed, afflicted. 

Bamkeli. Name of a ragini or musical mode. 

Bammal A soothsayer, fortune-teller, conjurer. 

BSmpi A shoemaker's knife, a scraper. 

Kamsar The name of a wood, of a kind of reed. 

Ramtnra'T The name of a vegetable, Ochra (Hibiscus 


Samz A wink, nod, sign, riddle, enigma, mys- 
terious allusion, ambiguous expression. 

Ean Battle, war. 

bhnmi Field of battle. 

BHna A Hindu title of a prince or raja (rani,. 

a princess). 

Ban-ban A wilderness. 

Rand The name of a tree. (Palma christi. Bi- 

ciuns vnlgaris), the castor-oil plant. 

Band A widow. 

ka sand Son of a widow, a spoilt child, 

Banda A plane for smoothing wood. 

Banda A hole, loop-hole, embrasure. 

Banda Rejected, driven out, expelled. 


_ ,„ , Widowhood. 


Banda Barren. (The mangoe fish without roes- 
are so called, and the word is applied, 
to unproductive trees). 

Band! ... A woman (generally in a bad sense). 

baz A whore-monger. 

baz-i Whoring. 

Bandiya A widow. 

Bandna To expel. 

Bandni Parsley. 

Band-paros Neighbourhood. 

Bandua A widower. 



.„_ _ I Pewter, tin. 

Banga ' 


Rang Colour, hue, paint, manner, method, 

amusement, merriment, pleasure. 

afshan-I Scattering colour. 

amez-i Painting, colouring, stratagem. 

bakhta Having lost colour, being lost in fear 

or astonishment. 

-ba-rang Various colours or sorts, various. 

bhang Spoiling of sport. 

-bhnm A place of amusement,- theatre, palaestra, 

-bigarna Changing the state or condition of anything. 

charhna To be elated with liquor. 

dekhua To look at, examine the state or condition, 

result or consequence of anything. 

Bang fak hojana To grow pale from fear or astonishment. 

karna To enjoy, to lead a life of pleasure. 

lagana To colour. 

-mahall An apartment dedicated to voluptuous 


marna To win in gaming. 

nr jana To change colour, to be afraid. 

Banga'i The price paid for dyeing, a certain spac& 

of time during which a cloth is dyed. 

Rangana To colour, to tinge or dye. 

Rang-a-rang Yarious, many coloured, of various kind?. 

Eangat Colour. 

Rang-i A dyer, 

Rang-ila A rake, gaudy, fine, showy. 

Rangin Coloured, painted, figurative, fine, showy, 


ada Of elegant manners. 

ada-i Elegance of manners. 

Rangin-i Colouring, figurativeness, variety. 

Rangna To colour. 

Raugwaiya A dyer. 

Rangwa'I Price paid for colouring, dyeing. 

Kanj Grief, afiliction, anguish of mind, offence,, 


Ranjak Priming-powder. 

dan pan. 

pilana To prime. 


Banjak nrana To burn priming, to flash in the pan. 

nrna To flash in the pan (priming). 

Baujida Afflicted, offended, vexed, displeased. 

Banjida-gi Afilietion. 

Banjish Grief, afilietion. 

Banjnr Sick, afflicted, infirm. 

Ban-sawari Eiding on horseback. 

Banwas The seraglio of a Baja. 

Bapat Fatigue, hard labour. 

Bapatna To slip, to slide. 

Baprapana To gaUop hard. 

Bas Cs.J The gambols of Krishna, in which the 

women of Braj danced round him, whilst 
he stood in the midst, the name of a 
Hindu festival celebrated in the month 
of Eartik. 

Bas-chakr The Zodiac. 

dhari A dancing boy who imitates the ras of 

Krishna, a heap, the sign of the Zodiac. 

Bas (hj The reins of a bridle. 

bithana or -lena .... To adopt a son. 

Bas faj The head, a head of cattle — signifying 

one horse or ox. 

fakat A horse of middling breed. 

kalan A thorough-bred horse. 

n-1-jaili The winter solstice 

n-s-saratan The summer solstice. 

Bas Juice, humour, essence, (in rhetoric) the 

passions or sentiments which a com- 
position describes or is calculated to 
excite. The different styles of such com- 
position are. (1 ) sringara-ras, expressing 
love, or the intercourse between and 
mutual feelings of lovers. (2) hasya-ras, 
the ludicrous style. (3) karuna-ras, the 
pathetic. (4) vira-ras, the heroic or epic, 
describing deeds of courage and martial 
prowess. (5) randra-ras, describing or 
exciting rage and indignation. (6) bhay- 
auaka-ras, the terrible, describing the 


fear and apprehension of the writer. 

(7) vibhatsa-ras, expressing aversion. 

(8) santa-ras, expressing confidence and 
security. (9) adbhnta-ras, the marvellous, 
expressing astonishment. Taste, flavour 
(of which are reckoned six kinds), vk. 
sweet, sour, salt, bitter, acrid and as- 
tringent. Eelish, enjoyment, jocularity, 

q u icksilver, mercury. 

Easa-i Access, entrance, arriving, v/isdom, quick- 
ness of apprehension, cleverness, skill. 

RasM A briber. 

Eashid Pious, faithful, orthodox, following the 

right path. 

BasMd Finding and proceeding in the right way, 

sagacious, intelligent, wise, a guide, a 

Eas-I Of middling breed (a horse), indifferent, 

so, so. 

KasTd Acknowledgment of arrival of, or receiving 

a receipt. 

Baslda Arrived, received, ripe, overtaken by. 

Basikh Firm, durable, constant, rooted, sincere, 


Baslla Juicy, luscious, voluptuous, rakish. 

Basiya A rake, a voluptuary. 

Basiyana To be moist, juicy, to commence ripening, 

to ooze. 

Baskapiii- Corrosive sublimate, or a preparation of 

mercury similar to it, but perhaps 

Basl Sending news. " 

rasa'il Epistolary correspondence. 

Easm Custom, law, model, plan, a game among 

children, in which one, in reply to a 
question, must not use a word containing 
any of the letters in rasm, or, as a 
forfeit, must imitate the voice of any 
animal which may be mentioned by the 


Sasmasana To wet with perfumed essences. 

Kasm-'i Customary, middling, second sort. 

Kaso'i Victuals, kitchen. 

Bassi. String, cord. 

Rat Night. 

Rat, contraction of Bat i A nightly vigil kept by women on reli- 
(nlght) I gious occasions. 

Rata Red, dyed, coloured; 

Ratalu A yam, (Dioscorea). 

Ratan A jewel, gem, precious stone, the pupil 

of the eye. 

Bataua To be lewd. 

Batan-jot Name of a plant, a medicine said to be 

good for the eyes. 

Batan-mala A necklace of precious stones, name of 

a book on astronomy. 

Batan-manjari Name of a flower. 

Rath A four-wheeled carriage. 

ban or -wan A coachman. 

-ban-i - Coachmanship. 

-jatra The festival of the procession of the car 

of Jagannath. " On the occasion of 
the festivals of Juggernaut, he is accom- 
panied by his brother Bala Bama, and 
his sister Subhadra, and is conveyed to 
a place about a mile from the temple 
at Poree. This throne on which he is 
seated is fixed on a stupendous car, 
sixty feet in height ; the enormous weight 
of which, as it passes slowly along, deeply 
furrows the ground over which it rolls. 
Immense cables are attached to it, by 
which it is drawn along by thousands 
of men, women, and even infants ; a» 
it is considered an act of acceptable 
devotion to assist in urging forward 
this horrible machine, on which, round 
the throne of the idol, are upwards of 
a hundred priests and attendants. As 
the ponderous car rolls on, some of the- 


devotees and worshippers of the idol 
throw themselves under the wheels, and 
are crushed to death ; and numbers lose 
their lives by the pressure of the crowd." 
"Jnggernath (prop. Jagannath), in 
Hindoo mythology the re-animated form 
of Krishna. According to the Hindoos, 
the love-inspiring Krishna was one day 
shot with an arrow from the bow of a 
hunter, who left the lovely form of the 
deity, whom the Gopias had so frantic- 
ally adored, to rot under the tree where 
it fell. After some time, his bones were 
collected by some pious persons, and 
made the means of enriching the priests of 
the Hindoos. Being placed in a box, they 
remained till Vishnu, on being applied 
4o by a religious monarch, Indra Dhoomna, 
commanded him to make an image of 
Juggernat'h, and place the bones in it. 
The king would willingly have done as 
he desired, but, unfortunately, possessed 
not the skill for such an undertaking: 
so he made bold to ask Vishnu who 
should make it? Vishnu told him to 
apply to Viswakarma, the architect of 
the gods. He did so, and Viswakarma 
set about forming the image of Jugger- 
nat'h, but declared, if any person dis- 
turbed him in his labours, he would 
leave his work unfinished. All would 
have gone on well, had not the king 
shown a reprehensible impatience to those 
divine injunctions which he had solemnly 
pledged himself to observe. After fifteen 
days he went to see what progress the 
holy architect had made ; which so enraged 
him that he desisted from his labours, 
.and left the intended god without either 


arms or legs. In spite, however, of this 
perplexing event, the work of Viswa- 
karma has become celebrated throughout 
Hindostan, and pilgrims, from the re- 
motest corners of India, flock at the 
time of the festivals of Juggernat'h to 
pay their adoration at his monstrous 
and unhallowed shrine. Between two and 
three thousand persons are computed to 
lose their lives annually on their pil- 
grimage to Juggernat'h. The temples of 
this deity being the resort of all the 
sects of Hindoos, it is calculated that 
not less than two hundred thousand 
worshippers visit the celebrated pagoda 
in Orissa yearly, from which the Brahmans 
draw an immense revenue. All the land 
within twenty miles round the pagoda 
is considered holy;" (The classical scholar 
will compare the Phocian town of Crissa). 
"but the most sacred spot is an area 
of about six hundred and fiftj' feet 
square, which contains fifty temples. The 
most conspicuous of these is a lofty 
tower, about one hundred and eighty- 
four feet in height, and about twenty- 
eight feet square inside, called the Bar 
Dewali, in which the idol and his brother, 
and sister Subhadra, are lodged. Ad- 
joining are two pyramidical buildings. 
In one, about forty feet square, the idol 
is worshipped; and, in the other, the 
food prepared for the pilgrims is distrib- 
uted. These buildings were erected, 
A.D. 1198. The walls are covered with 
statues, many of which are in highly 
indecent postures. The grand entrance 
is on the eastern side; and close to the 
outer wall stands an elegant stone column, 
thirty-five feet in height, the shaft of 


which is formed of a single block of basalt,, 
presenting sixteen sides. Tlie pedestal 
is richly ornamented. The column is 
surrounded by a finely sculptured statue 
of Hanuman, the monkey-chief of the 
Kamayana. The establishment of priests, 
and others belonging to the temple, has 
been stated to consist of three thousand 
nine hundred families, for whom the 
daily provision is enormous. The holy 
food is presented to the idol three times- 
a day. This meal lasts about an hour, 
during which time the dancing girls 
belonging to the temple exhibit their 
professional skill in an adjoining build- 
ing. Twelve festivals are celebrated 
during the year, the principal of which 
is the Eat'h Jattra. Juggernat'h is styled 
the Lord of the World. His temples,, 
which are also numerous in Bengal, are 
of a pyramidical form. During the in- 
tervals of worship they are shut up. 
The image of this god is made of a 
block of wood, and has a frightful visage,, 
witli a distended mouth. His arms, which, 
as he was formed without any, have 
been given to him by the priests, are 
of gold. He is gorgeously dressed, as 
are also the other two idols which ac- 
company him. In a compartment in the 
temple of Eama, he is represented in 
company with Bala Rama and Subhadra, 
without arms or legs. The town of 
Juggernat'h is situated on the coast of 
the province of Orissa, in Lat. 19 deg. 
49 min. N., Long. 85 deg., 54 min. E. 
It is named, and usually called Pooree, 
and is inhabited chiefly by Brahmuns,. 
and others connected with the pagoda. 
On the sea-shore, eighteen miles to the.^ 


novtliward of Juggernat'b, are the 
remains of an ancient temple of the 
sun, called, in English charts — the black 
pagoda. The greater part of the temple 
is in ruins, having been thrown down, 
apparently, by lightning or earthquake; 
but, from what remains, it appears to 
have been one of the most singular 
edifices ever constructed in India. Part 
of the tower, 120 feet high, is still 
standing, and the antechamber, or jnng- 
mohnn, about 100 feet high. They are 
built of immense blocks of stone and 
massive beams of iron, some of which 
are nearly a foot square, and from twelve 
to eighteen feet long. This temple, which 
has been long deserted, was built by a 
Rajah of Orissa,in 1241." (Stocquelee). 

Hati The Hindu Venns,. wife of Eamadera 


Eatib Daily allowance of food (to animals, par- 
ticularly dogs and elephants), allowance, 
portion, provision. 

Satiba Salary, stipend, pay. 

JBatr or ratri Night. 

JBanghau Grease, oil, boiled batter, varnish. 

-dagh A vessel for boiling butter in. 

farosh An oil-merchant. 

i-balsan Balsam. 

i-talkh Oil of mustard. 

-i-zard Boiled butter. 

-josh A kind of dish. 

JRanza A garden, mausoleum. 

-khwan One who recites the praises of Hnsain 

in the month muliarraiu, or an eulogist 
at the tomb of a saint. 

Havana See Kaban. 

Bavish Custom, fashion, institution, law, rule, 

avenue, walk, passage, way. 

Ba>va (p.J Right, proper, accurate, worthy. 


Eawa-dar An approver, chooser, consenter, judging, 


Rawa-dar-i Approbation. 

Rawa (k.) Gold or silver filings, a grain or particle 

of sand, dust, gunpowder. 
Rawaj Usage, custom, fashion, currency, sale, 

customary, current, vendible. 
Sawan Going, flowing, running, text, reading, 

life, soul. 
karna To set agoing, to despatch, to forward, 

to send, to make current. 
Bawana A pass, passport, despatched, departed, 

hona To flow, to be despatched, to be in motion, 

to go, to pass. 
Rawanna A servant who attends at the gate of the 

women's apartment, to purchase articles 

that are required. 

Swift, going, proceeding, travelling swiftly 
Bawa-rau-i ' 

Rawat A hero, a sweeper of a particular caste. 

Rawayat History, narrative, tale. 

Rawi A historian, the author of a fable, ro- 
mance, fiction. 

Rayat Standards, banners, especially of an army 

in motion, a camp. 

Raz -A. secret, a mystery. 

— -dar Trusty, faithful, a confidant. 

dar-i Keeping of secrets, secrecy. 

i-nihnfta A secret. 

niyaz Secrets of lovers, loving prattle, a mason, 


posh-i Keeping or concealing secrets. 

sarbasta A state secret. 

Kaz A. vineyard, vine, grape, a battle, a castle 

in Medina. 

Kaza Consent, acquiescence, permission, leave. 

. --mand Acquiescing, consenting, permitting, wish- 
ing, willing. 

-mand-i Consent, acquiescence, permission. 



Eaja'i A quilt. 

bha'l A foster-brother. 

Bazi Satisfied, contented, agreed, pleased,. 


-ba-riza God willing. 

nama An acknowledgment by the plaintiff that 

a cause is finally settled, the defendant. 

giving a safi-nama, a general release. 

Bazik Sustainer, a title of the deity. 

Eazm War, battle, combat. 

gah The field of battle. 

Razm-i Kelating to -war. 

Bazmiya Poems giving accounts of wars. 

Bazzak An epithet of the Deity, provider of daUy: 


i-mntlak God, the sole provider of daily food. 

Beg Sand. 

i-ra'waii Sand agitated as waves by the wind. 

Beh Fossil alkali used for washing and making; 


Bekh I 

_ , . _ i Writing, line, mark, fate, destiny. 

Bekhta Scattered. The Urdu, or Hindnsiani: 

language is called rekhta, being a mixed 
dialect, a Hindustani ode, mortar, plaster.. 

Bela A flood, line or string of animals, rushing,. 

rush, push, shove. 

Eelna . To shove, push, rush. 

Bel pel Abundance, plenty, crowd, bustle. 

Ben or rain Nieht. 

Bendi ; . . A small melon. 

Eendi Palma christi (Bicinus vnlgarls)^ 

ka tel Castor-oil. 

Bengni Name of a medicinal herb. 

Benkna To bray (as an assj. 

Besh A wound, a sore, pus, matter. 

Dil-resh Wounded to the heart. 

Besha Fibre, stringiness of a mango. 

dar Fibrous. 

Besham Silk. 


Beshm-i i , „ , 

„ , ! Silken, made of silk. 

Beshmina \ 

Ket Sand, filings. 

Keta'i Price paid for filing or polishing. 

Betal Sandy, sandy ground. 

Ret-i Sandy ground on the shore of a river, 

a file. 

Bet-na 1 m -i i. i- i. 

_} To nle, to polish. 

Ret-iyana J 

Bewand 1 uu i, u 

. , > Khubarb. 

"i-chini ) 

Bewri A kind of sweetmeat. 

ke pher meii parna To be involved in difficulties — from a 

game in which a party agrees to eat a 
piece of rewri, after it has increased 
in number so many times in geometrical 
progression, when he is confounded at 
the amount of pieces. 

karna To begin to speak or talk, (as, young 


Beza A. scrap, piece, bit, small coin, a kind 

of cock, children employed in work for 
which they receive a fraction of a 
man's pay. 

khatt Pine-striped, thin-lined. 

reza Scraps, pieces, in pieces. 

Rezgi A small silver coin. 

Ribat An inn, a caravansary. 

Bibati The keeper of a ribat. 

Richh A bear. 

Rih Wind, odour, exhalation. 

Rihan-I A kind of Arabic writing, used in titles 

of books and inscriptions on monuments 
so called from the name of the inventor. 

jjij]i , Choice, approbation, desire, pleasing, 


Rijhana To please. 

Bijhna To be pleased, to be gratified, to be 


Bikebi (prop. Bikabi) A dish, a plate. 


Kikhi A sage, a saint. 

Kikhis A. chief of the rikhis or saints. 

Rim Pus, matter, humours, dregs, lees, rheum. 

Rind A reprobate, drunkard, debauchee. 

Rind-i Drunkenness, debauchery, trick, fraud. 

Rin-I In debt ; a debtor. 

Riniya A. debtor. 

Ris Anger, vexation, passion. 

Risala Mission, sending a letter, a book, treatise, 

an essay, a small tract, a troop of horse. 

-dar The commander of a troop of horse. 

-dar-i The command of a troop of horse. 

Risalajat (pi.) Pamphlets. 

Risalat Mission, divine mission. 

-panah Asylum of prophecy, i.e. Muhammad. 

Risana or rnsna To be displeased, to be angry, to be vexed. 

Rish Beard. 

-banana To shave. 

-khand J .aiighing, risible, ridiculous. 

khand-i Visibility, a laughing-stock, a proverbial 

saying when a man does anything un- 
worthy of his beard. 

Rishi A sage, a saint. 

Rishta A string, line, series, relationship, kin. 

dar A relation. 

Rishwat A bribe. 

-khor One who takes bribes. 


Risiyana To be vexed, angry, provoked. 

Rit Custom, usage, rite, habit, regulation, rule. 

Rita Empty, void. 

Ritha The name of a fruit, of a fish, soap-nut 

(Sapindns saponaria). 

Rltu Season, weather. The Hindus divide the 

year into six seasons; viz. vasanta, 
grishma, varsha, sarad, huna, and 
Riwaj (corruption of rawSj Usage, custom, fashion, currency, sale, 

customary, current, vendible. 
Riwayat A history, narrative, tale, fiction, fable. 


^'y* Hypocrisy, dissimulation, . subterfuge, 

evasion, affectation. 
^^^ A hypocrite, dissembler. 

Riyasat Government, command, dominion. 

KiySz Gardens. 

Kiyazat Abstinence, austerity. 

Kiyajat-i A practise! of austerities, a devotee. 

Kiyaji Mathematics. 

Kifa Wish, will. 

Kizal Mean, worthless. 

pan or pana Meanness, baseness, worthlessness. 

Kizk Food, subsistence. 

Ri/wau Good pleasure, the name of the door- 
keeper of paradise. 

Ko an Hair of the body, down, wool. 

Roliit Weeping, crying, tears. 

fiohini The name of the fourth mansion of the 

moon, comprising Aldebaran and four 
other stars in Taurus. 

Kohn The name of a fish. 

Bo'Idagi Vegetation, growth of a plant. 

Ko'in Brass, bell-metal. 

tan Brazen-bodied, a hero, an epithet of 

Isfandyai', whose body was impenetrable 
to weapons. 

Kok Ready money, cash. 

Kok Prevention, prohibition, stopping, hin- 

Bokar j 

_,■[• Eeady money, cash. 

Eokar-iya A cash-keeper, a treasurer. 

Kokua To enclose, to surround, to stop, to pre- 
vent, to detain, to interrupt, to prohibit. 

Koli or rori A red grain or seed with which the 

tilak is made. 

Kolna To roll, to place, to smooth, to select, 

to pick out. 

Rom Down, small hair of the body. 

Bona To cry, weep, be displeased, be melancholy, 

addicted to crying, lamentation, grief. 


Koni snrat Of a sad countenance, a melancholy 


Bopua To sow, to plant, to defend. 

Kor Noise, clamour, fame. 

Bora or rora (s.J A stone, fragment of stone or brick. 

Bora (h.) Name of a caste of Chhatri or Eshatri. 

Bo-ro-kar With difficulty, labour, pain. 

Bosh Anger, rage. 

karna To be angry, to be displeased. 

Boshan Light, splendid, manifest, conspicuous. 

chanki A kind of serenade with pipes and small 

tabors, round the apartment of a great 
man when he retires to rest, the same 
kind of music used on other occasions. 

dama^h Snuif. 

-dan A small hole for admitting light. 

dll Of an enlightened mind. 

-ra'e Of enlightened understanding. 

■P'*' Of a bright genius. 

zamir Enlightened in mind. 

Boshna'i Light, splendour, ink. 

Boslin-i Light, splendour. 

Bosna or rnsna To be displeased, to quarrel, to have a 

misunderstanding with a friend. 

Bosta I 

jj^g^^,j [ -^ village, a peasant, a villager. 

Bot 1 

■p 1- ) Thick bread, sweetmeats offered to Hanuman. 

Boti Bread. 

Boz A day. 

Boz Jba-'aish A good day to you. 

ba-roz Daily, constantly. 

Mh Fortunate days, happy times, prosperity. 

^jaza Day of judgment. 

-i-shumHr The day of reckoning, (judgment). 

-i-siyah Adversity, misfortune, trouble. 

o-shab Day and night, always, constantly. 

Boza East, fasting, lent. 

-dar One who fasts. 

kholna To kreak a fast. 


Roza rakhna To keep a fast, to fast. 

Boz-ana Dailj', by day, a daily allowance. 

Soz-^ar Service, earning, daily subsistance, the 

world, time, age, fortune. 

■ karna To serve, to earn. 

Koz-gar-i; One who earns. 

Roz-i Daily food, employment. 

Boz-ina Daily pay. 

• -dar One who receives daily wages. 

ES Face, surface, sake, cause, reason. 

— -dar A man of rank and dignity. 

— -dSr-T Eank, dignity, flattery, complaisance. 

— dena To attend to, regard. 

— -gardau Turning away the face, deserting, aban- 

— gardan karna To turn away the face, to abandon, to beat. 

— -kash Exciting some one to calumniate or injure 


— -posh Hiding the face, concealed, being exter- 
nally one thing, and internally another. 

— -posh-i , . Concealment. 

— siyah Disgraced, criminal, sinner, unfortunate. 

— -siyah-I Disgrace, dishonour, criminal conduct. 

— snfaid Fair-faced, of a bright countenance, un- 

blameable, honest, respected, select. 

■^■sufaid-i Honourable conduct. 

Kn'b Fear, terror, awe, dignity. 

dar Fearful, awful, fuU of dignity. 

Eub Juice, syrup. 

Bnbbn-s-sns Extract of liquorice. 

Eub' A fourth part, a quarter. 

i-maskau The inhabited parts of the earth. 

Ettba"! A stanza of four lines. 

Ku-ba-kar Face to business, ready for business, 

intent on, beginning. 
Bn-ba-kar-i Proceedings of a cause. 

Rn-ba-rah Fit for business, reformed (habits). 

Kn-ba-ru Presence, face to face, before. 

Kuch Eelish, desire, ■ intentness, desire of or 

pleasure from eating, a ray of light. 


Bnchna To excite desire, to be agreeable. 

Sndan Weeping. 

BndMr Blood. 

Ku'e The face. 

Bufaka, plur. of raflk. . . A friend, ally, associate, companion.. 

Bnh. Soul, spirit. 

n-l-amin The angel Gabriel. 

n-l-kuds The holy spirit, the angel Gabriel. 

u-l-lali The spirit of God. 

Bnhani Spiritual. 

Euh-i , (My spirit, my word), spiritual. 

Bn'i Cotton. 

dar A quilt stuffed with cotton. 

Bnju' Eeturn, turning towards, appearing. 

lana To turn towards, to submit, to yield.. 


Prevention, detention, hindrance. 


Bakan To boot, over and above. 

Bnkli A tree. 

charha (A climber of trees), a monkey, plain,. 

Bakh The cheek, the castle at chess, face, point,. 

side, quarter. 

dcna To familiarize. 

karna To attend to, to accede to. 

-pherna or -badalna. To be inattentive, to reject, to turn away 

from, to be angry, to be displeased. 
rakhna, To continue friendship, to maintain friendly 

Biikha Dry, plain, pure, simple, rough, harsh^ 


sukha Plain, blunt, harsh (words). 

Bnkha-X Roughness, plainness, unfriendliness. 

Bukham Alabaster, marble. 

Bukh-anI A carpenter's chisel. 

Bnkh-sar The cheek. 

Bnkhsat Leave, license, permission, discharge. 

hona To depart. 

^ karuii To dismiss. 

talab Asking leave to depart. 


liukhsat-aua A parting present. 

Knkhsat-i Anything given at parting. 

Kukn A pillar, prop, aid, support, a grandee,. 

foot of a verse. 

Knkna To stop, to be hindered, to be enclosed,. 

to be prohibited. 

Rnkn' Bowing the head in prayer. 

Snknb The act of riding on a horse, in a carriage,, 

commission of a crime. 

Rukwaiya A preventer. 

Bukwana To cause to prevent. 

Knlana To cause to weep. 

Bnin B.ome, the Turkish empire, Greece, Ro- 

melia, Constantinople. 

Bu-jual A handkerchief, a towel. 

Bu-mal-i A handkerchief worn about the head, a 

kind of pigeon. 

Knmman A pomegranate. 

Hamman-i Belonging to or resembling the pome- 
granate, of a ruby colour. 

Bnndhna To surround, to enclose (as, with a hedge),. 

to watch, to be restrained, to be con- 
founded, astonished. 

Bnngta The short hairs of the body. 

Bnngte khare bona The standing of the hairs on end from fear. 

Eiip Countenance,form,shape,figure,appearance,. 

face, picture, beauty, manner, mode, 
method, silver. 

B3p-nidhan Receptacle or abode of beauty. 

]-as Calcined silver. 

saffar Ocean of beauty. 

Enpa Silver. 

Biipiya -^ "oi'^ *° called, the rupee, the silver 

token of exchange in India, (at one time 
the rupee was equal to two shillings, 
or a little more, English money; but 
since the depreciation of silver, its ex- 
change value is but a fraction over a 

Bnposh Hiding the face, concealed. 


Bnposhhona To hide one's face, to be concealed, to 


Enposh-i Concealment. 

EBp-want Well-shaped, handsome, beautiful. 

Bnsna or risana To be displeased, to be angry, to be vexed. 

Enstam One of the twelve champions of Persia. 

His combat with Isfandiyar is famous 
in the east; it lasted two days: and, as 
the brazen body of his enemy was proof 
against his arrows, he at last killed him 
with his mace. He was son of Zal, who 
was son of Sam, son of Jfariman. He 
was general to Eaika'ns, and considered 
by the Persians descended from Mamnn, 
son of Benjamin, son of Jacob. He 
overcame Afrasiyab, king of Tnrkistan, 
who was joined by the Indians and 
Tartars : nevertheless, he fell into dis- 
grace with his master, principally on 
account of his rejecting the religion of 
Zoroaster; and, it was upon this occasion 
that he killed Kalka'ns's son Isfandiyar 
above mentioned. He was killed by the 
wound of an arrow in an engagement 
with Bahman (or Artaxerxes Longimanus) 
son of Isfandiyar. Hence a hero is 
called Rustam. 

Bustam-i Valour, heroism. 

Ensukli Firmness, constancy. 

Ensnkhiyat Firmness, constancy, steadiness, steady 


Ensum Customs, a fee, duties, taxes, postage of 


Ensumat, (plur. of rnsiim) Customs, fees, usages. 

Euswa Infamous, ignominious, dishonoured, 

opprobium, disgrace. 

-e-'alam Infamous throughout the world. 

Enswa-i Ignominy, infamy. 

Eutba Kauk, dignity, degree, stair, step. 

barhana To advance in dignity. 


Rutba kam Of low rank. 

Rutha-rutM Mutual coolness, misunderstanding. 

Kuthna To have a misunderstanding with a friend, 

to be cool, to quarrel. 
Ruthni Quarrelsome, the name of a species of 

sensitive plant, (Mimosa natans). 
Rutubat Humidity, moisture, freshness. 

s. s. s. s« ss. 

• •• 

Saba A gentle breeze, an easterly breeze, a 

morning breeze. 

Sabadhan Attentive, cautious, with attention. 

Sabah The morning, dawn of day. 

ii-1-khair Morning salutation, good day, name of 

a bird. 

Sabahat Beauty, gracefulness. 

Saban 1 

Sabnn J "' 

Sabar A leather of elk's or any kind of deer's 

hide for bedding, an elk. 

Sabar mantr A spell composed in colloquial language. 

iSabbagh A dyer. 

Sabi A youth. 

Sabih Beautiful, a fine complexion. 

Sabik Former, preceding, anterior. 

iSabika , friendship. 

Sabiya A damsel, girl, child, a daughter. 

Sabr Patience, endurance. 

karna To wait. 

Sach True, truth, indeed, in earnest, actually. 

mnch Truly. 

Sachii-hat Truth. 

Sachak Hinna presented to the bride on the day 

of marriage. 

Sachcha True, genuine, real, honest, sincere, faith- 
ful, sure. 

Sa-chet With circumspection, with caution, cautious' 

mindful, conscious, attentive. 


Sad Desire. 

Sad Hundred. 

Sad (h.) An ode, poem. 

Sada (I.) Always. 

phal A fabled fruit, eating of which confers 

long life, constantly bearing fruit, a kind 

of lemon. 

siva A name of MahadeT. 

sn-hagan The name of a bird (Trogon dilectiis)^ 

the name of a flower (Hibiscus plioeni- 

cens, the white variety). A kind of fakir 

dressed like a woman. 

Sada (a.) Sound, tone, echo, voice, noise. 

Sada Plain, white, unadorned, simple, beardless, 

artless, open, sincere. 

dil Artless, simple, stupid. 

dil-i Simplicity, sincerity, artlessness. 

kar A kind of goldsmith. 

—. — -lanli Same as sada-dil. 

-rS Beardless. 

waz-'i. Artlessness, simplicity, stupidity. 

Sada-bart Alms, or food distributed daily to the- 

poor, travellers and others in want. 

Sadaf A shell, a pearl, mother of pearl. 

Sada-gi Plainness, want of ornament, artlessness, 

simplicity, sincerity. 

Sadakat Sincerity, candour, friendship, truth. 

Sadarat The office of prime minister, of chief 


Sad-barg Name of a flower. (Rosa glandnlifera). 

Sadd A wall, barrier, impediment, ditch, rampart, 

an obstacle, an obstruction of any kind. 

-i-ramak The last remains of life, the agonies of 


i-sikandar Alexander's wall. 

Sadli Virtuous, righteous, good, holy, a reli- 
gious person, a fakir, desire. 

Sadhak Holy, a devotee, a pvactiser. 

Sadhna To teach, learn, rectify, use, practise, 

solicitation, contrivance, devotion. 



SadliTi Pious, a kind of mendicant, a merchant. 

Sadhya Practicable, easy. 

Sadka Alms, propitiatory offerings, sacrifice. 

Sadke-jaua or -hona To become a sacrifice for the welfare of 


karna To sacrifice for the welfare of another. 

Sadma A blow, a stroke of fortune, adversity, 

collision, au adventure. 

Sadr Chief, government. 

i-anjnmau President of an assembly, or association 

for a particular purpose. 

-'ad'alat The chief court of justice. 

'ala A subordinate judge, an officer in the 

civil court. 

-amin An umpire, investigator, arbitrator, an 

oflScer in the civil courts. 

bazSr. The chief bazar in a military station. 

diwani 'adalat The chief civil court. 

-i-sudSr The chief judge. 

nishin A president. 

iUaf Clean, clear, pure, innocent. 

Safa Purity, cleanness, pleasure, content. 

Safa-i Purity, cleanness. 

batani To reject a petition without ceremony, 

to refuse flatly. 

i-kalb Purity of heart. 

Safaid, siifaid, or safed.. White, blank. 

bona To become white or grey, to turn pale- 

-karna To whiten, whitewash. 

mitti Chalky soil, chalk. 

^-posh A man dressed in white, a man who can 

afford good clothing. 

Safaida or safed-a White. 

Safar The second month of the Muhammadan 

year. (On the 20th day of this month is 
held the festival of Sarotan, in commem- 
oration of the junction of the head 
and body of Hnsain. The 28th and the 
last days of this month are reckoned 
unfortunate; the former on account of 


Hasan's being poisoned by his wife ;. 
the latter because destructive vegetables- 
are supposed to be produced on that day,). 

Safar Journey, voyage, travel. 

karna To travel, to go, depart, retire, die. 

men On the journey or voyage. 

Safar-i A traveller, travelling provisions. 

Safarjal A quince. 

Saff Series, order, line, rank, file, row, a mat. 

ara Arraying, putting in order of battle. 

i-jang The ranks of war, the field of battle. 

-kash-i Drawing forth of an army. 

Saf 1 Pure, just. The name of a Persian dynasty 

overturned by Nadir Shah. It was 
founded by Shah Isma'il Safi in 1503, 
and lasted to 1736. 

Saf I A strainer, duster. 

nama A general release.discharge from obligation. 

Safih Foolish, stupid, ignorant. 

Saf ma A shrip, vessel, boat, blank book, common- 
place book. 

Safir An envoy, ambassador. 

Saf nf A medicinal powder. 

Sag Greens, edible vegetables, culinary herbs. 

-pSt Greens. 

hona To become soft. 

Sag A dog. 

-hacha A pup. 

lian A dog-keeper. 

daw-I Running about fruitlessly. 

-lag! Flattery, servitude. 

zada Son of a bitch. 

Saga Belated, of the same parents. 

hha'i Own brother, a relative, kin. 

Saga-i Relationship, betrothing for marriage, 

second marriage of a woman of low caste. 

karna To engage for marriage, to betroth. 

Sagar Sea, ocean. 

Saggar A kind of cart. 

Saghar A cup, wine cup. 


Saghir . • Small, slender, inferior, junior. 

Sinn Of tender age. 

Sagnanti An auspicious sign or omen. 

Sagra or sigara All, every, the whole. 

Sah A banker, a season. 

Saha'i Aider, assistant> helper, kind, favourable.. 

Sahalag The wedding season. 

Sahar-gah The dawn of day. 

■ i Of or relating to the dawn, food taken 

at early dawn or a little sooner, as 
among Muhammadans in time of fasting ._ 

Sahejna To try, adjust, provide. 

Sahell Female companions in a seraglio, hand- 
maids, concubines. 

Sahib A lord, master, companion. 

-ikbal Fortunate, prosperous. 

i khana Master of the house. 

i^ahib-zada Genteely born, a young gentleman, a son.- 

Sahiba A lady, mistress. 

Sahib-I Eule, command, lordship. 

Sahib-kiran An invincible hero, a great emperor. 

Sahifa A book, a leaf, page, letter. 

Sahih Accurate, just, pure, perfect, entire, sound,. 


karna To sign, to correct. 

Saliil A plumb line. 

Salil Easy, not difficult, simple, trifling. 

angari Indifference, carelessness. 

Sahm (p.) Fear, dread. 

Sahm (a.) A arrow, transverse beam of a house, a 

lot, portion, share, the segment of a. 
cirole, segment, a versed sine. 

Salina To bear, endure, support. 

Sahnak A plate, dish. 

Salio An error, mistake, fault. 

Sahol, sahai A plummet. 

Sahra A desert, a plain. 

-nisliin A hermit, an inhabitant of the desert.. 

naward(Pl.Sahara). Wanderer of the desert. 

Sahiikar , A great merchant. 


8ahakar-i Traffic, trade, commerce, exchange, money. 

Sahw Vide, Saho. 

■ i-katib An error of the copyist, 

u-1-kalam An error or omission of the pen. 

Sahwan Erroneously. 

Sa'i -. A wire-chain. 

Sai Hundred. 

kara or saikra A hundred, per cent. 

Sa'I Endeavour, attempt, enterprise. 

karna To endeavour, attempt, strive. 

Said Game, prey, hunting. 

afgan Killer of game. 

-andaz or -baz A sportsman. 

band A taker of game. 

Said-gah A place for game. 

Saif Summer, 

Saif A sword. 

-ban A rocket with a sword attached to its tail. 

zaban One whose curses prevail. 

Saif-I Cursing. 

parhna To destroy one by cursing. 

Saikal Polishing, cleaning, polish, the polishing 


gar A polisher. 

Sail (a.) Flowing, a current, torrent, flood. 

Sail (s.) A mountain. 

Saibani Eond of going about for amusement. 

Sair Taking the air, moving about, amusement, 

adventure, perusal. 

karna To take the air, to travel, to read, to peruse. 

-gah Place of perambulation, passage, pass, 


Sa'il An interrogator, a beggar. 

Sa'in Lord, master, a fakir, the deity, an imi- 
tative sound. 

Sa'ir The whole, the remainder, going, walking, 

wandering, a tax, duty, levied on personal 

Sa'is A groom, a horse-keeper. 

-1 The business of a groom. 


Saiyid A lofd, a descendant of Hnsain, grandson 

of Muhammad. 

Saj Shape, ornament, appeaitinbe, preparation. 

— dar Well-shaped, handsome. ' ' 

— dhaj Preparaition and a'ppearance: 

Saj (s.J Preparation, harness, EfccontreWents. 

Saj (p.) The teak-tree (Teetona gi^nidis). 

Saja-i The price paid fbf tn"aliing belts of scab- 

' bards. 

Sajan A sweetheart, a lover. 

Sajana To cause to prepare. 

Saja'o Disposition, quality, nature. 

Sajaya Preparation, ornament. • 

Sajha ■. . Partnership. 

SSjM A partner. ' • 

Sajid Prostrate iii adoration, an adorer. 

Saj-ila ; Well-shaped, handsome. 

Sajjada A carpet, or mat on which fflnhamihadans 

kneel at prayers, an' altar,' a mosque'. 

Sajji A kind of mineral alkali, natrum. 

Sajna , To- prepare, to* dress, to decorate, to 

become, to regulate. 
Sak The Jeg, the trunk of a tree, the stalk 

of an herb. 

Saka An era. 

karna To establish an' era, to distinguish one's 

self by heroic action's. 

(Sake-lbandli) A king who has established an era. 

Sakana To be sorrowful, to be wearied. 

Sakaf Hell. 

Sakarat -.- Agony, fainting. 

i-mant Senselessness, the poiiit of death. 

Sakari Dawn of day, morning. 

Sakarna To accept (a bill of exchange). 

Sakat (h.J Ability, strength, power. 

Sakat (s.) A cafe, the name of a Hindu holiday, 

festival (Sakat- chaum, -the- birthday of 

Sakat (a J An' error, blunder; mistake, defect, anything 

of a bas'e' or useless- nature, merchandise 



of a perishable quality, either spoilt or 


Sakat hona To die (applied to animals), to miscarry.. 

Saket Narrow, strait, want, distress. 

Sakh (s.) Trust, credit, reputation. 

8akh (h.) Season. 


Sakha A branch. 

Sakha A friend, companion. 

Sakhi A female friend, companion confidant (to- 

a woman), a kind of fakir who dresses- 
like a woman. 

Sakhi An evidence, a witness. 

Sakhi Liberal, generous. 

Sakht Make, fabrication, fashion. 

Sakht Hard, strong, tough, difficult, stingy, very 

cruel, severe, harsh. (Adv.) very, in- 
tensely, violently, extremely. 

-andaz An archer. 

-gir Holding fast (an animal of chase). 

giri Extortion, taking by force. 

Sakht-i Hardness, harshness, intenseness, obdu- 
racy, stinginess, indigence, distress. 

Sakhnn, or sukhan, or 

snkhnn Thing, business, affair, speech, language,. 

a word. 

dalna To ask, to question. 

dan or -jan Intelligent, skilled in language, eloquent,. 

a poet. 

-fahm Intelligent, quick of apprehension. 

fahm-i Intelligence, understanding, apprehension. 

-i-ghaib-i Foretelling, predicting, second sight. 

i-mnkhtasar In short. 

na-shanan Not attending to advice. 

ras Attending to what is said, eloquent. 

sanj A weigher of words, prudent, a poet, a 

wise man. 

"Saz An orator, speaker. 

tiraz-I Eloquence. 

war Eloquent. 

war-i Eloquence. 


Sakhnn-zau Speaking. 

SakI A cup-bearer, a page. 

Sakit Pallen, vile. 

hona To be fallen, to be degraded. 

Sakit Silent, quiet. 

Sakkak A cutler, one who makes knives. 

1 The business of a cutler. 

Sakna To be able. 

Sakora A small earthen vessel. 

Sakori A saucer. 

Sakorna To shrink, to draw up (the limbs), to 

gather up, to shrivel, to tighten, to 

Sakra Small, narrow, strait (not having room 


Sakra'i Smallness, want of room. 

Saki-aua To straiten, to deprive of necessary room. 

Sakraut The entering of the sun into a new sign.' 

Sakshi An eye-witness, evidence. 

Sakta Altrance, an apoplexy, a pause, vacancy. 

Saknch Shrinking, awe, fear, shame. 

Sakuch-na To fear, to be afraid of, to be in awe 

of, to be abashed, to apprehend, to be 


i Residence, dwelling, habitation. 

Snkunat J 

-pazir An inhabitant. 

Sal (p.) A year. 

— gasht Old in years. 

girah Birthday, on the anniversary of which a 

knot is annually added on a string kept 

for this purpose. 

— -ha-sal Annually, for many years. 

— hasil Yearly produce. 

— khurda Old. 

Sal Cs.) Name of a tree (Shorea robnsta), a thorn, 

perforation, bore, mortice, a hole made 

in the ground by a pin, a place, a school', 
ggja, An affix to numbers to denote so many 

years old, as do-sala, two years old. 


Sala A wife's brother, brother-in-law. 

Salabat Firmness, hardness, majesty, dignity. 

Salagram A sacred stone, supposed by HimLos to re- 
present Yislinu, and. an object of worship. 

8alah Peace, concord, treaty,, rectitude, integrity, 

advice, counsel. (Adj.) advisable. 

Salahiyat Virtue, chastity, integrity. 

Sala'i A needle, or piece of wire for tinging 

the eyelids with collyrium also used 
for depriving people of siglit, which is 
effected by dra.wing it while hot close 
Oiver the eyes of the sufferer, a lead 
pencil, a match. 

Salaka , • • • A rule, a mler, a probe. 

Salakh The end of the month, or the day of 

the new moon ; the last day of a month 
of thirty days. 

Salam Peace, safety, sabiting, submitting, cul- 
tivating peace, friendship, free from 
fault or flaw. 

(Sallamahn-l-lahu ta 'all). May the Almigkty protect him. 

Sadam Contractioa of phrase, signifying : — The 

blessing and peace of God be with 
him. It is used in salutation. 

Salam karna To salute, hail, to give up. 

lena To return the saliitation. 

^alaiknm Peace be upon thee ! 

Salamat Safe, well, in safety. 

rahna To live prosperously,. 

Salaniati ,. . . Safety, health, peace. 

— raui j4in economist. 

-rawi Economy, good management. 

Salami Salute, a present given to a landlord for 

granting a lease. 

Salana, sallyana An annual stipend, an annuity, .(arf.) yearly, 


— ~ — • sal Mov years, annually. 

SalSr. . ■. A^ chief, head, leader, prince. 

i-kaflla The chief of a caravan, leader of a troop. 

SalatrSt Prayer, benediction. 



Sail Sister-in-law, wife's sister, especially a 

younger one. 

Sallb Hard, three-cornered, a crucifix, a cross. 

Salih Good, apt, fit,. proper, a man of probity 

and honour, a sedate, steady person — 

not an enthusiast. 

Saliha Virtuous, chaste. 

Salik A traveller, a devotee. 

Salika Nature, genius, taste, good disposition, 

method, knack, knowledge, . dexterity, 


e-gnft-gu Polite conversation. 

-e-majlls Good breeding, 

shi'ar Of good disposition. 

(Sahib-salTka) A man of taste. 

Salim Safe, free, perfect. 

Sallm Pacific, mild, affable, perfect, healthy. 

u-t-tab' Affable, mild, pacific, a real genius, a 

genuine poet. 

Salis Easy, not abstruse, simple. 

--naTis Writing a plain hand. 

Sall-i-'ala (Contracted form of ''SaUl'ala nabiyina," 

0, God bless our propiet!) 
Sails A thong, narrow slips of leather with 

which shoes are stitched. 

Salna A rivulet. 


, Meat or fish eaten with bread or rice. 


Salna To perforate, boie, prick, pierce, to ache, 

to be in pain. 

Sa-lon Salted food, name of a district. 

Sa-lon-a Salted, salt, dark-complexioned. 

Sa-lon-i Seasoned, tasteful, beautiful (when applied 

to a mistress) 

(The full moon in Sawan, (the fourth 
Hindi! month), at which time the orna- 
ment called rakhi (an amulet or string) 
is tied round the wrist. 

Saltanat Empire, sovereignty, reign, 

Salwat Content, cheerfulness, felicity. 


Sam A tone in music. 

Sama (h.) Time, season, state, condition. Concord, 

harmony, unison. 

Sama fa.^ The heavens, sky, firmament, altitude, 

a canopy. 

Sama Apparatus, provisions, furniture, articles. 

Sama^ Hearing, listening, the sense of hearing, 

singing, ecstacy in Dervises when hearing 

Sama^at Hearing, the hearing or trial of a suit. 

karna To hear, to entertain a complaint, to 

try a suit. 

ke kabil Cognizable. 

Samachar News, tidings, . information, intelligence, 

account of circumstances or health. 

Samadh Tomb of a JogI, or of other Hindus, 

who from religious motives, are buried 
alive. The term is also applied to that 
exercise of austerity among Jogis by 
which they pretend to acquire the power 
of suspending for a time the connection 
between their soul and body. 

Samagri Furniture, tools, apparatus, articles, 


Samaj Apparatus, society, a term applied to 

societies for particular objects, religious 
or political, as the Brahma-Samaj, the 
Arya-Samaj, the Hindu-Samaj. 

Samajh Comprehension, understanding, knowledge, 


Samajhna To comprehend, understand, suppose, 

think, conceive, consider,, fancy, per- 
ceive, know. 

Samak A fish on which the earth is supposed 

to rest. 

■(az samak ta samak) .... (Prom the bottom of the abyss to the 

pinnacle of heaven). A fish in general, 
the sign Pisces of the zodiac. 

Saman Jasmine, lily of the valley. 

Samand A horse of noble breed. 


"Samandar A salamander. 

8amar Eveuing conversation, darkness, night, 

time, an adventure. 

Samarth Strength. 

Samasya An exercise among Asiatic poets, wherein 

one writes or speaks an incomplete verse 

or stanza, which is to be filled up by 


.^ambat The name of a particular era. 

•Samjliana To make comprehend, to explain, convince, 

describe, admonish. 
8amosa A kind of small pastry of a triangular 

form containing mince meat. 

Samp A snake, serpent. 

Sampat Affluence, riches, prosperity. 

8ampatl A small brass cup in which offerings and 

chanda (subscriptions) are placed. 

.Sampnru Perfect, full, completed, all, the whole. 

hona To be finished, to complete. 

Sampnt The closely shutting of any cavity, a box 

with its lid shut, a casket. 
Samshan A place where dead bodies are burnt or 

Samshan-basi Eesiding in the Samslian, an epithet of 


rSamum A hot pestilential wind. 


, A year. 

Samvatsar ' 

Samvatsar-i ' . Annual ceremony. 

San (a.) A year. 

San (s.) Name of a plant (Crotalaria juncea). 

San Like, likeness, muster, review (of an 


karna To make muster. 

■ gnman Understanding and imagination. 

San A whetstone, grindstone. 

bnjhana To make one understand by hints. 

8ana Senna, praise, applause. 

khwail One who praises. 

khTvai-i Praise. 


Sanad Sigiia,ture, deed^ grant, diploma, th£ seal 

of a magbtrate, a warrant, anythmg on 
which one leans — a document or proof, 
relation, connection. 

9iiitabjjk cpijnterpart of a grant, the order p> 

, put it into execution. 

Sanadri Held by written deeds. 

Sanani An idol, a mistress, a sweetheart. 

Sanam-khana An idol temple. 

Sa|f.',at. . . . f Profession, trade, art, mystery, miri^uc^e. 

Sanatau EternaJ, everlasting. 

jSgua'siM- • ■ ,- Artful, skilful. 

Sanch True, proper, real. 

Sanclia. A mould. 

(Sanche meii liliS^ia) .... (To mould, form). 

^j^chai Pijrse, capital, stock, store, saving, ho9.rd. 

Sanchhep Abridged, short. 

Sanclijbyepa^ Abridgment. 

Sand or sanr A bull, stallion, an independent, extrav- 
agant fellow. 

Sanda Name of an animal resembling a lizard, 

the oil of which is said to have restorr- 
ative powers. 

l^andaj Sandal wood. 

SandaM Of the colour of sandal wood, a kind ot 

ciajr, a sort of eunuch. 

Sandnk A box, a trunk. 

Sandnk-cha A small box, a casket. 

Sandnk-i Like a box (applied to a tomb, and 

scabbard pf a sword made in that forip). 

San^ Cp.J^ _. A stone, weight. 

baran, ' A shower of stones, pelting with. 

-dana The gizz^'d. 

dil Hard-hearted. 

i-khara Flint, 

i-marmar Marble. 

i-mil^nat^^ The loadstone. 

tara , A kind qf orange. 

tarash A stone cutter. 

"tanl Equal in weight. 


(li-) Along with, association, anion, company., 

Sangam Meeting, conflux, union. 

Sawgat Collection, congxeg^tioni company, a place: 

where the Sikhs celebrate their religious- 
ceremonies, right, proper, . well, . . 

Sang-i (h.) A companion, comrade. 

Sang-i (p.), Stony, of stone, 

Sangi-ali A compilation. 

Sangram Battle, war. 

Sangsar >..••. Stoning to death. 

Sani' ^.rtificer, maker, creator. 

SSni , . Chaff or straw , mixed with grain ,(parti- 

cularly that from which oil has been 
extracted) as faod for cattle. 


Sanichar Saturn, Saturday. 

Sanichar-a Unlucky (fellow). 

Snkbai^Fsanj See 1 62. 

Sanjha Jlyening, a particular prayer said in the 

forenoon, at noon,, and in the evening. 

sawere Morning and evening. 

SanjM Images of cow.-dxmg made by children, 

to represent idols,. 

Sanjida Weighty, grave. 

-^-^ — -luizaj Composed mind, steady temper. 

Sanjldagi Gravity, solemnity. 

Sanjogr Accident, chance, lijck, event, conjunction, 


Sanjona To .arrange things for presentation in a tray. 

Sank A piece of sweetmeat- 

Sankal i 

Sankar [ A chain, a kind' of feniale ornament. 

Sankri ' 

Sankh (s.) A conch which Hindus blow, especially 

as a religious ceremonyj a kind of orna- 
ment, a shell., 

Sankh (h.) Simple, artless., 

(d».polFsankh) (Promising much 9nd performing nothing). 

Sankhlni A description of woman : see under 


SankrantI The sun's entering into a new sign. 


Saninan Kespect, esteem, reverence. 

-I Polite, civil, respectful. 

Sannyasi A Brahman of the fourth order, a reli- 
gious mendicant. 
Saus Breath, sigh. 

bharna To sigh, to regret. 

Sans ruknS To be smothered or throttled. 

ulti lena To gasp or draw • in the breath (as a 

person in agony). 

Saisa Imagination, fancy, reflection, fear, ap- 

iSansa Doubt, uncertainty, dread, apprehension. 

Sansan Still, silent, dreary. 

Sansanahat An imitative sound. 

Sansauana To jingle, to ring, to faint. 

Sansarg Meeting, interview. 

Sauskar A habit, a consecrating ceremony, con- 
secration, adjusting with perfumes. 

Sant A kind of fakir, a saint, pious, virtuous. 

San tana (prop. Santwana) Palliation, consolation. 

karna To appease, still, comfort. 

Saiiwarna -. . . . To prepare, to dress, to decorate, to 

adorn, to arrange. 
.Sanwat Years, old coin current at- a depreciated 

rate after a certain number of years. 

Saparda A musician, attending on singing women. 

Saparda-i Musicians attending a dancing girl. 

.Sapath An oath, an asseveration. 

Sapera A snake-charmer, a snake-catching woman. 



A dream. 

toichar-i An interpreter of dreams. 

Sapna (from Sap, impre- 
cation, curse) To curse. 

Sar The head, top, pinnacle, origin, end, point. 

afraz Exalted, promoted, 

ba-sar All, the whole, from one end to the other. 

basta Closed, hidden. 

^ii'i Intrepid, risking one's head or life. 

bnland Eminent, glorious, exalted. 


Sar-dard Headache, trouble, perplexity. 

khnsh Cheerful. 

-pesli An ornament worn in the turban. 

taj A chief. 

-zada Blamed, depraved, ill-bred. 

-zamin The earth, country, region, territory, limits. 

zor Mutinous, rebellious, disobedient. 

zor-I Mutiny, rebellion, disobedience. 

Sar (s ) Manure, iron, pith, essence, value. 

Sar fp.J A particle denoting plenty, magnitude, 

or similitude ; as Koh-sar, a mountainous 
country ; 'ambar-sar, full of ambergris ; 
shah-sar, like a king. 

Sar-ban A camel-driver. 

Sara Pure, exellent, sweet-smelling. 

Sarada A name of Durga. 

Sarak A road, the high road. 

banana To make or prepare a road. 

i-ahani A railway. 

: nikalna To break ground for a road, to lay down 

or make a road. 

Saran An asylum, shelter, protection. 

Saran-agat A refugee, one who has come for refuge. 

Saraug Name of a musical mode or rag, a peacock, 

a snake, a serpent, a cloud, a deer, a 
woman, water, a lamp. 

Sarangi , . . . A musical instrument like a fiddle. 

Sarangiya A player on the sarangi, 

Saraswati The goddess of speech and wife of Brabma. 

Sarb-byapak All, pervading,, a title of the Deity. 

darsba Omniscient, all-seeing. 

. gaban or grahau ... A total eclipse. 

saktimaa Almighty, all-powerful. 

Sarbhangi A sect of fakirs who eat without dis- 

Sard Cold, damp. 

■ karna To cool, to pacify. 

-mihr A cold or luke-warm- friend. 

^ -mihr-i Coolness or luke-warmness in friendship, 



Sarda A kind of water-melon, a superior kind 

of musk melon brought from Cabul. 

Sard-aba A cold bath, a place built under ground -to 

shelter from heat„a coqI room for summer* 

Sar-dar A .chief, a head man. 

^ kaMu Chief-priest. 

1 Chief-ship. 

Sar- (or sir) "dnwal Eejns of a bridle, head-stsll, 

Saresh prop. Siresh Glue, starch. 

Sarf Expenditure, thq .orthographical and ety- 
mological parts of grammar, dexterity, 
increase, gain, excess, changing, turning, 
volubility, vicissitudes of fortune. 

hona To be expended. 

karna To spend, to pass. 

-o-naho Grammar. 

Sarfa Expense, profusion, surplus, addition, ihe 

twelfth mansion of the moon, a star in 
the tail of Leo, 

Sar-faraz Exalted, eminent, distinguished, promoted. 

Sarfaraz-T Exaltation, promotion. 

Sarf 1 A grammarian. 

Heaven, the firmament, the sky. 


§ar-garm Intent on, earnest, eager. 

-1 Application, attention, earnestness, eager- 
ness, love, or being in love. 

Sar-gnroh A leader, corajnander, cliipf of a sect, 

head of fakirs. 

Sar-gnzasht An event, accident, history, account of 


Sar-hadd Boundary .extremity, frojitier,limit,oonfines. 

Sarhangf A general, commander, overseer. 

Sari or Sari A Hluda female's dress. 

Sari' fa.J Quick, nimble. 

Sari Cs.J The shaft of an ?irrow, the reed of which 

it is made. 

Sarih Apparent, evident, clear, 

Sarir The scratching sound of a pen, the grat- 
ing of a door. 


Sarlsht Nature, temperament, constitution, in- 
8arishta Custom, usage, office. 

— dar The chief under native officer in the 


Sar-kar , . . The king's court, governmeut, estate, 

property, a district comprehending several 
pargauas, a superintendent, a title given 
by way of respect. 

Sar-karii Superintendence, belonging to the state, 

or to the government. 

Sarkash Eearing the head, disobedient, rebellious. 

Sarkash-i Disobedience, mutiny, insolence. 

Sarkhatt An aareement to hire service. 

Sarma Winter. 

Sarma-i Winter clothing,- w-intry. 

Sarmaya Stock in trade, capital. 

Sarnam Well-known, famous^ distinguished. 

hona To be famous. 

— karua To make famous or notorious, to proclaim. 

8ar-nama Title, address, superscription of a letter. 

likhna To address a letter. 

Sarod A song, melody. 

Sarod-i A singer. 

Sarokar Business, intercourse. 

Sarosh An angel, a voice from heaven, the seven- 
teenth day of the solar month. 

Sarp A serpent. 

Sarparast A guardian, patron. 

Sarparast-i Patronage. 

karna To patronize. 

Sarparda Name of a Persian musical mode, supposed 

to have been published by Amir Khnsran 
of DiMI. 

Sarposk A cover, a lid. 

Sarraf A banker, a money-changer. 

-a The place where bankers transact their 

business, a bank; • • - • 

i Banking, money-changing. 

karua To carry on the business of banking. 


Sar-sabz Fresh, verdant, flourishing, prosperous, 

fortunate, happy. 

Sar-sabz-i Verdure, vegetation., 

Sarsa-i Increase, abundanpe,. excellence. 

Sas The moon, sky, heavens. 

Sasta Cheap, easy to procure. 

chhntna To get off cheap. 

laganS To sell cheap. 

mal A cheap article, a good bargain. 

-sama A season of plenty, a good season. 

Sat Power, strength, essence, the principle of 

goodness, virtue, truth, pui;ity,faith,power, 

conjugal fidelity, true,, virtuous, right. 

badi Speaker of truth. 

-jug The age of' virtue, the golden age. 

-kar Good act, piety, hospitality, charity, 

funeral rites. 

-karam Virtuous action, piety. 

-kari Truth, fidelity, .honesty. 

Sataua To tease, to vex, to fret, to trouble, to 

afiiict, to interrupt. 

Satana To unite, to stick, to make adhere. 

Satar A line, row, rank, series, lineament, 

delineating, describing. 

band! Euling, lines for writing on. 

Sath Society, company. 

ka khela Playmates, playfellow. 

rahna To live with, dwell together. 

dena To share, to help, to go with. 

Tf ala A comrade, a companion. 

Sathiya A surgeon, a mark in form of . a cross, 

the four arms of which are bent at right 
angles, prefixed in vermilion by Hindus 
to tlieir account books at the commence- 
ment of a new year. The same figure 
is formed on the ground with flour at 
marriages and other ceremonies. 

Sati A woman who burns on her deceased 

husband's funeral pyre, chaste, virtuous, 


Sati chanura The plaee where a SatI is burned. 

hona To burn alive on the funeral pyre. (This- 

horrible rite was abolished by Lord 
William Bentinck in 1829; though some 
instances of its practise have occurred 
even at the present day). . 

Sat-inasa A feast given in the seventh month of 


„ . ,- I I The name of a book written by Biharl-- 
i lal (an inhabitant of (xo'aliyar) containing 


700 distiches or dohas in Braja-bhakha, 

Satya True, sincere, honest. 

bMi Speaker of truth. . 

Satyanas A term of imprecation, signifying depra- 
vation, destruction. 

-jana or -hona. . To be the depravation or destruction of 

any person or thing. 

karna To make the ruin or destruction of any 

person or thing. 

Sanda Melancholy, love, ambition, desire, madness. 

(Prom which, perhaps, the Portuguese^ 
sandada, signifying love for country and 
intense desire, to return to it, during,, 

Sanda Trade, trafB.c, marketing. 

-gar A merchant. 

-^ar-i Merchandise, trade, commerce. 

kharidna To make purchases. 

-sulnf Traffic, barter. 

Sanrif Aniseed (Pimpinella anisnin). 

8anb Side, tract, way. 

Sawab Kectitude, a virtuous action, success. 

Sawad Ck.J Kelish, flavour, taste, sweetness, pleasure- 

SamM. fa.J. , Blackness, blackening, soot, smoke, en- 
virons of a city, reading, ability. 

Sawa'I A title of the Kajas of Jaipur. 

Sawaj Savage, wild. 

Sawan Name of the fourth Hindu month. 

Sawang' or Swang Mimicry, acting, imitation,, disguise, sham.. 

lana To imitate. 


Sawar (prop. Suwar).. .. A rider, mounted, or riding (on a ship', 

horse, camel, &o.). 

kar k g'obd rider, a jockey. 

-kar-i. Good riding, cavalry, a trooper, drunk. 

Sawar-i Eiding, equipage, suite. 

Sawera Moriling, dawn of day. 

— bona To break the day, to ,b& dawai. 

Saya ShadovT,. shade, protection, an apparition, 

a petticoat 

-dar Shady, a protector. 

. bona A demon appearing to, or possessing 

any one. 

parna To imitate the manner of- another. 

tale ana To take pfotection-. 

Saz Making, preparing, maker, arms, appa- 
ratus, accoutrements^ BarnesfS, furniture; 
a musical instrument, concord. 

-baz Trim, dressy. - • 

-kar Proper, consonant, concordant. 

■ — -yarak Warlike instruments, furniture; bagg:age. 

Saza Correction, punishment, retribution. 

d«na To punish. 

dilana To bring to punishment. 

To be punished. 


-war Fit for, deserving .punishment. 

Sazawal A taxgatherer, a land steward. 

SazaTval-I The business of a land steward. 

Sazinda A maker, a musical performer. 

i^azisb Combination, collusion, confederacy. 

Sela A kind of sheet . constituting a pait of 

dress, especially, worn and given ifl 

presents in the Dakkhin. 
Sell A necklace (of threads) worn by flikirs^ 

a sash, a' belt. 

Sena Cs.J- An army. 

Sena ChJ An officer who collects the. revenue in a 

SenS-pati Commander of the army, also, sometime* 

title giveil to prime ministers. 


Ser Name of a weight equivalent to about 

21bs. avoirdupois; but varying in 
different parts of India. 

•Ses Remainder, end. (The king of the serpent 

race, a large thousand-headed snake, the 
couch and canopy of Tislinu and the 
upholder of the world, which rests on 
one of his heads.) 

Seth A great banker, a rich person, a wholesale 

merchant, hence a patronymic. 

Sewa Service, worship. 

Sewak A servant, a worshipper. 

Sewra A kind of fakir among Hindus. 

Shab Night. 

-i-})arat The ■14th day of the month Sha'bau, on 

which Musalmans make offerings and 
oblations in the names of deceased 

parah A hat. 

-i mah Moonlight. 

b5sh One who stays all night, a lodger. 

Sha'ban The eighth Arabian month, on the 14th day 

of which is a festival (barat), when an 
angel is believed to examine a record 
of the names of the living. 

Khabd A word, voice, sound. 

Shabd-shastr Etymology, the science of grammatical 


Shab-deg A dish composed of meat and turnips 

cooked all night on the fire. 

iSbabdez A black horse of extraordinary size, 

belonging to king Khnsrau Parwez, a 
black horse, a horse of noble breed. 

Shabih A picture, a likeness. 

8hab-nam Dew, a kind of fine linen. 

Shab-nain-i A kind of canopy for protecting one 

from night dew. 

Shada Joyful, glad. 

Shad-i Pleasure, delight, joy, marriage, festivity, 




Shad-marg An easy death, death from joy. 

Shadid Difficult, afflicting, violent, strong, intrepid. 

Shadiyana Relating to marriage or rejoicings, music 

and singing at marriages or on other 

festive occasions. 

bajana To triumph. 

Shafa, prop. Shif a Cure, remedy, healing, convalescence. 

dena To cure, to heal. 

hona 1 

_ > To recover. 

parna J 

-khana A hospital. 

Shafa'at Deprecation, intercession, recommendation,. 


Shafi Healing, salutation, a healer. 

-i-hakiki An epithet of the Deity. 

Shall' An intercessor, advocate, patron. Possess- 
ing a right of pre-emption founded on 

Shaf I'a A kind of Persian character or handwriting. 

Shail'-i One of the chiefs of the four principal 

sects of the Mnhammadan religion. 

Shafik Merciful, compassionate, affectionate, kind^ 

a friend. 

Sha^ird A scholar, disciple, apprentice, a servants 

-i-rashid A complete, an apt scholar. 

Shagird-i Learning, studying, apprenticeship. 

Shaghl Occupation, amusement, religious con- 

• karna To employ one's self, to be occupied. 

Shah A king, check at chess. (In compos :), 

royal, great, large. 

a king ! 

haz The royal falcon. 

mat Check-mate. 

-naiiia. . . . A celebrated epic poem, containing a 

history of the kings of Persia, written 
byFirdausi aboutthe year of Christ1,000. 

-nishin , A principal seat in an assembly, a pre- 
sident's seat, a balcony. 

snwai' A good rider, a jockey, a horse-breaker. 


Shahad Evidences, witnesses. 

Shahadat Evidence, testimony, martyrdom. 

Shahamat Generosity, bravery. 

Shah-ana ) t. , ■ , 

Shah.-aM I ^°y^'' P""''^'^- 

Shahanshah A king of kings, an emperor. 

Shahaushahi Empire, sovereignty. 

Shah-bala The companion of a bridegroom. 

Shahtd A martyr. (Any Mussalman killed in battle 

is so called). 

-hona To be killed. 

Shahna A watchman, a superintendent of police, 

a musical wind instrument. 

Shahna'i A kind of musical pipe. 

^— chi A player on . 

Shahr A city. 

ashob A disturber of the peace of a city, a 

mistress, a kind of verses. 

dar A birdeatcher, a huntsman. 

-gharib A stranger, a traveller. 

-khabra An intelligencer. 

-panah Wall, or entrenchments round a town. 

-pura Suburbs. 

Shahrah The highway. 

Shahr-i A citizen, anything belonging to the city. 

Shah-war Worthy ol a king, princely. 

Shah-zada A prince. 

Shaikh A venerable old man, a chief, a prelate, 

a title taken by the descendants of the 
prophet, and given to proselytes to 

Shaikhau In the manner of a chief, authoritatively. 

Shaikhana My lord ! my preceptor ! my patron ! 

Shaikh-doudn A figure dressed up by way of sport or 


Shaitan The devil, Satan. 

Shaitanat Devil's tricks, wickedness. 

Shakar Sugar. 

bhata A sweetmeat, made of rice, butter and 



Shakar-farosh A seller of sugar, a mistress. 

-kha Chewing sugar. 

lab Sugar -lipped. 

rez Scattering sugar, mellifluous. 

-istan A place where sugar-canes grow. 

kand Sweet potatoes. (ConTolyulus batetas). 

• -para A kind of sweetmeat. 

Shakk Doubt, suspense, hesitation, uncertainty. 

Shakl I Shape, form, figure, appearance, resem- 

banaua , To assume a form. 

• — big'arn3 To disfigure, make ugly, to disgrace, 


-i-mlsal-i A model, pattern. 

-navis A portrait painter. 

Shakti Ability, strength. 

Shal A shawl. 

bab Shawl-cloths. 

baf A shawl-weaver. 

Sham' A lamp, candle, wax. 

dan A candle-stick. 

-saz A candle-maker, a chandler. 

Sham'-rii Having a countenance resplendent as a 


— rnkli Ked-cheeked. 

Sham (p.J Evening. 

Sham C/i.J Black or dark blue (a name of Krishna). 

Shamat Bad fortune, adversity. 

Shamat-i Unfortunate. 

Sham-i Syrian, belonging to Syria. 

Shamil Together, with, along with, united, blended, 

confederated, included. 

-hal Connected from circumstances, of similar 


hona To be blended, to be united. 

karua To blend. 

rahna To live together. 

Shamiyana A canopy, awning (often used to express 

a tent). 

Shams (From Heb. and Chald. word signifying 


to minister, to serve, and as the sun does so 
in giving light to the universe so it is 
applied to that luminary), hence the sun. 

Shaius-nl-'nlama The sun of the learned, a title of a chief 

maulvi in Constantinople, and adopted 
by the Government of India to bestow 
distinction on learned maulvis. 

Shamshad The box tree, a term applied metaphori- 
cally to the form of a mistress. 

Shamslier A scimitar, sword. 

-bahadnr Applied ironically to a useless, worthless 


-zan A swordsman. 

-zan-i Swordsmanshij). 

Shams-i Solar. 

kamai'-i Solar and lunar ; a perquisite taken by 

the officers of government, being the 
difference between the pay for a lunar 
and solar month. A monthly period of 
three or four days, during which the 
female attendants in the women's apart- 
ments have leave of absence. 

Shan (a.) Business, affair, dignity, pomp, state, 

condition, degree, constitution, nature, 

dar A person of state and dignity, a man 

of rank. 

Shan (p.) A honeycomb 

Shangarf Cinnabar, vermilion. 

Shankar A name of Mahadera. 



, Names of musical modes or raginis. 

-bbaran ' 

Shankaracharj Name of a Hindu fakir, celebrated for 

having persecuted the sect of jain. 

Shankai-achari The followers of Shankaracharj. 

8hankar-i A name of Parwati. 

Shar'., The precepts of Mnhamiuad, law, equity, 

a high road. 

Shar'i Lawful, religious. 

Sharab Wine, spirituous liquor. 


Sharab-an tahur^ Nectar. 

khaua A tavern. 

• khwar Drinking wine. 

-khwar-i Wine-drinking, drunkenness. 

zada Indisposed or affected with wine. 

Sharab-i A wine-bibber, a drunkard. 

Sharabor Dripping wet. 

Sharaf. Nobility, eminence, rank, excellency. 

Sharafat Nobility. 

Sharakat Partnership. 

Shararat | w i i ^ ■ 

} Wickedness, depravity, malignancy. 

Sharbat Sherbet, beverage, a dose of medicine. 

dar A butler. 

Sharbat-i A kind of lime or lemon, name of a colour. 

Sharh Explanation, commentary, description, 

allowance, pay, rate. 

-war Explicily. 

Shari'at ThelawsofMuhammad,law,justice,equity. 

Sharif Noble, eminent. 

Sharlf-i-makka The prince of Mecca. 

Sharlfa A custard apple. (Annona squamosa). 

Sharik Partner, accomplice, associate, comrade. 

-hona To partake, to participate. 

Sharlr Vicious, wicked. 

Shark The East, rising. 

Shark-i Eastern, oriental. 

Sharm Bashfulness, modesty, shame. 

-sar Abashed. 

-ana To be abashed, to feel shame. 

Sharmanda Blushing, abashed, ashamed, bashful, 


Sharm-griu Bashful, ashamed, modest, coy. 

Sharm-ila Bashful, abashed. 

Sharm-nak Bashful, modest. 

Shurma sharmi Modesty. 

Sliarr Wickedness, depravity, malignancy. 

-1 Vicious, quarrelsome. 

Shart Condition, stipulation, agreement, wager, 

sign, mark, signal. 


Shart-bart Advantage, success, profit, succeeding in 

one's undertaking. 

karna To agree, to bargain. 

Shash-mahl imtihan Half-yearly examination. 

Shast Aim, a large iishing hook, attached to a 

line fastened on shore, the handle of 
a bow. 

— justa Shot from the bow (an arrow). 

Shastr A weapon, especially one used in the hand. 

dhari Armed, 

karna To use arms. 

8hastr Hindu religious books, Hindu scripture, 

religion, law, institutes of law, science. 

Shastrarth Argument, debate, dispute, discourse. 

Shastr-i Skilled in Hindu law or religious books, 

one skilled in holy science. 

achchhar The Derauagarl character. 

Shatranj Chess. 

-baz A chess player. 

Shatranj-i A kind of carpet. 

-baf A carpet- weaver. 

Shanhar A husband. 

Shank Desire, inclination, love, gaiety, cheer- 
fulness, curiosity. 

zank Pleasure, delight, gratification. 

Shankat State, dignity, magnificence, majesty. 

Shauk-in Intent upon, desirous, lascivious. 

Shaukiya The part of an epistle which foUows the 

complimentary address. 

Shawal The tenth month of the Muhammadan 

year ; on the first day of which the festival 
of Bairam, or 'id is celebrated, being 
the first day after the Mnsalman Lent, 
and, on this day it is customary to 
make presents. 
ShSyasta Worthy, honourable, suitable, polite. 

gl Affability, fitness, propriety. 

-mizaj Affable, mild, good-tempered. 

Shekhan-pnr A town inhabited by descendants of the 



Shekh-i Boasting, bragging. 

— baz A boaster, braggart. 

uikal jana To have one's pride humbled. 

Sher A tiger, a lion. 

-aiift Tiger-like. 

4-gardun , The sun, the sign Leo. 

i-kali (The eflSgy of a tiger), a person only fit 

to be looked at, a braggart. 

Sherni A lioness. 

SM'ali A follower of the sect of 'All, a sectary. 

Shiddat Violence, force, vehemence, adversity, 

affliction, difficulty. 

Shif a Cure, remedy, healing, convalescence. 

khana A hospital. 

Shikar Hunting, chase, prey, game, plunder,. 


afgau Game-killer. 

band Cords for tying game to a horse's saddle. 

baz A sportsman. 

gah Place for hunting in. 

Shikar-i Of the chace, relating to hunting, a hunter. 

Shikast Breaking, fracture, deficiency, loss, defeat,. 

broken, odd, uneven. 

-khiirda Broken off, interrupted, defeated. 

Shikasta Broken, bankrupt, sick, a kind of writing,. 

the Persian running hand. 

Distressed, broken down, wretched. 
-par ' 

-bal-i Distress, wretchedness, affliction. 

— dil . . , Distressed, afflicted. 

-dil-i Distress, affliction. 

— hal Distressed, wretched, broken down, ruined.. 

— halxl Indigence, distress, wretchedness. 

-■■khatir Distressed in mind, afflicted, offended. 

—rang Altered in colour, from affliction. 

— wft'da Broken engagements, faithless. 

Hhimal , 

The north, the north-wind, the left-hand^ 


Shiinal-I Northern. 

-nnma The mariner's compass. 


Shimal-ru Facing the north. 

Shimar The name of one of Tazid's generals who 

slew Husain in the plains of Karbala,. 
lience it means, vile, infamous. 

Shiaa Swimming. 

Shinakht Knowledge, understanding. 

Shiuas Knowing, intelligent, acquainted with. 

-I Knowledge. 

Shirk Company, society, partnership, paganism^ 


SMrkat Partnershij), society. 

SMsha Glass, a battle, a glass. 

-baz A juggler. 

— -baz-T Legerdemain. 

-e sa'at An hour-glass. 

-gar A glass-maker. 

-gar-i Glass-making. 

SMsha-mahall A house or palace all hung with glass. 

ShishI A small glass phial. 

Shitab Haste, quickness, quick, speedy, quickly,, 


-baz Hasty, expeditious. 

Shitab-i Quick, hastily, quickness, haste, expedition. 

Shiv 1 I The Deity in the character of Producer and 

Shiw J I Destroyer, of time personified, Mahadev. 

Shiwala. Temple of Siya. 

Shlok A verse, stanza. 

Shola A kind of wood (^Eschynomene palndosa),. 

very light and spongy, used by fishermen 
for floating their nets. Artificial birds and 
flowers are made of it; garlands ofthesfr 
flowers are used in marriage ceremonies. 
The wood when charred is used for tinder. 

Shor Cry, noise, outcry, disturbance, tumult,. 

salt, vei-y bitter, disturbed, mad. 

angez Exciting tumults. 

bakht Unfortunate, wretched, infamous. 

— — bor Very wet, drenched. 

pnsht Quarrelsome, noisy, encouraging, disturb- 

Noise, tumult, bustle, disturbance, clamour. 


:Shor-]iiacliaua To make a noise. 





zamln Barren land. 

gjiora Marshy, barren ground, nitre, saltpetre. 

.gar -^ manufacturer of saltpetre. 

Shorba Broth, soup. 

Shraddha Funeral obsequies (vide, sraddh). 

Shn'a' Light, splendour, lustre, the rays of the 

sun, sunshine. 

Shuban A shepherd. 

:Shnbha Doubt, suspicion, ambiguity, uncertainty. 

bona To be in doubt. 

To doubt, to suspect. 

Shnbha ka Doubtful, suspicious (things). 

Shndani Occurrence, coming to pass. 

Shud bud So so, a little knowledge. 

bona To have some little knowledge. 

_ \ A flower, a bud. 

8higafa | 

lana To bud, to put forth young shoots, to 

produce something new and wonderful. 

Shugufta Expanded, blooming, blown (as a flower). 

bona To be blown (a flower), to be delighted. 

Shugnn 1 

} Augurv, omen. 

Shngun J ^ ■'' 

:Shugun-iya A diviner, an augur, an explainer of 


iShnhda A rake, prodigal, debauchee. 

• pan Eaking, debauchery. 

-shikasta Euined and wretched. 

;Shulira Fame, renown, reputation. 

e-af ak , t. t i 

Renowned, known over the world. 

e-a'lam I 

:Shiihrat Eenown, fame, divulging, report, rumour, 

;Shiija< Brave. 


Shnja'at Bravery. 

Shukka A royal order, a letter (especially from 

a superior). 

Shukr Thanks, gratitude. 

guzar Grateful. 

guzar-i Gratitude. 

-i-ni'inat A.n ackowledgment of favour. 

karua To thank, to return thanks. 

Shnkr-aua Gratitude, thanksgiving. 

Shum Black, unfortunate, unhappy, disgraceful, 

vile, a miser. 

-kadam Unlucky, bad (omen). 

mizaj Stingy. 

— ra , 

Ugly, miserly, avaricious. 


-tah^ Ill-tempered. 

Shnmar Counting, computing, numbering, number 

account, note. 

Shumar-i Counting, a rosary. 

Shnrafa (pi. of sharl). Nobles, grandees. 

Shurn' Beginning, commencement. 

bona To be begun or commenced. 

karua To commence, to begin. 

Shnsh The lungs. ■ 

Shnsta Washed, dressed, prepared. 

\ Pure language, or conversation. 

zaban I 

Shust-o-shn Washing. 

.Shutar A camel. 

ban A camel-driver (or keeper). 

dil Timid. 

, — dil-I Timidity. 

-gam. A camel-step. 

ghainza Wickedness, deceit. 

i-be-maliar Incorrigible, refractory. 

--katar A string of camels. 

kina Bearing malice (a propensity of camels). 

murgb An ostrich. 

nal A small gun carried on a camel. 

^-sawar Mounted on a camel, a camel rider. 


Shyam V. $f am. 

Sicha-i Irrigation, the cost of irrigation. 

Sichchha Tuition, teaching. 

Sichna To water, to irrigate. 

Sidh Straight, opposite, accurate. 

Sidha A saint, a holy man, a sort of demigod, 

success, accomplished. 

Sidha Straight, opposite, simple, fair, candid. 

Sidha-i Straightness, simplicity, candour. 

Sidharua To go, to depart, to set off. 

Sidk Truth, veracity, sincerity. 

Sif anat ._ The art of ship- building. 

Sifarish Recommendation. 

-karna To recommend, to intercede. 

nama A letter of introduction. 

Sif arish-I An intercessor, recommended. 

Sifat Praise, quality, attribute, manner, descrip- 
tion, like, resembling, a noun adjective. 

Sifla I I Ignoble, mean, contemptible, stingy,. 

Saflla I ( miserly, envious. 

'^^^ A plate to throw scraps, bones, on. 

S'S^l . Thought, suspicion, word, speech, enmity, 


§*8** A mould for casting metal, a word declin- 
able and derivative, the mood of a verb, 
conjugation, derivation, trade, profession, 
a form of words used in marriage 
ceremonies, fund, department. 

Sih-bandi A soldier employed in collecting rents, 

a trident, a contingent. 

-dar-a Three-doored (room). 

-fasl-a Having three harvests. 

^osha Having three corners, a triangle. 

harf-i Triliteral. 

karrar Three times as much. 

-manzil-a Having three stories (house), 

pahal Trilateral. 

pahai- Afternoon. 

sal-a Triennial. 

Hiharna , To shiver, to shake with cold. 


8ihhat Health, entireness, soundness, perfection, 

integrity, accuracy. 

khaua A necessary. 

Sihr ) I Enrhantraent, magic, necromancy. (Sahir, 

Sahir-I J ( an enchanter, a magician, a necromancer). 

Syda Bowing so as to touch the ground in 

adoration, especially to God. 

S5h The place of performing the sijda. 

karua To adore, to worship. 

Syill A register, the decree of a judge, written 

attestation of a notary, seal of a judge. 

(sigillum). Sijil, the recording angel, 

right, proper, good, well-arranged. 
Sgjil Hard stones ; stones made of clay, hardened 

in hell fire, on which are inscribed the 

names of certain men, with a catalogue 

of their sin.^. 
Sikh (s ) Name of a people living in the Panjab 

and in the neighbourhood of Lahose, 

disciples or followers of Kanak. 

Sikh (s.) A disciple, a scholar, a pupil. 

Sikhana To teach. 



„.,,„_ Teaching, instruction. 


Sikka. A coining die, an impression on money, 

sterling, current, stamped coin. 
A stone on which spices are ground, or 

knives sharpened, a hone, a stone in 

Silsila A chain, series, succession, descent of a 

family, pedigree. 

i jama' o tafrik . . Arithmetical progression. 

— i khandan Genealogical tree. 

-mu Having the hair in ringlets like chains. 

-war Linked together as a chain, in regular 

order, in a series. 

Sin or Sinn An age, period of life, nib of a pen. 

i hnlng'h Years of discretion. 

i shn'Hr Age of discretion. 

sal Age. 


Sin raslda Advanced in years. 

Sina Breast, bosom. 

af^ar Wounded in the bosom. 

band Stays, bodice. 

-basta Locked up in the heart, a secret. 

-chak Bosom-torn, afflicted. 

chak-i Affliction. 

-kharashi Laceration of the breast, affliction. 

koM Beating the breast. 

resh Wounded in the heart, afflicted. 

) Tormented, distressed. 

soz I 

-zan One who beats his breast at the festival 

of the Mnharram. 

-zan-i Beating the breast. 

-zor Robust, proud of strength. 

-zor-i Strength, robustness, force, oppression. 

Sincha'i The price paid for irrigation. 

Slnchi The season for watering fields. 

Sinchna To irrigate. 

Sindh Sea, ocean, the name of a district, name 

of a musical mode, or ragini. 

Sing A horu. 

Singa A horn (musical), a trumpet. 

Singar Ornament, dress, embellishment,decoration. 

ras One of the nine ras: q.v. 

Singar-liar The weeping Nyctanthes. (Sfyctanthes. 

arbor tristis). 

iya One whose business it is to dress an idol. 

Singarua To dress, to decorate, to embellish. 

SingautI A polishing tool made of horn, an orna- 
ment of metal on the horns of a bullock. 

Singh 1 f A lion, the sign Leo, a title used by 

Sinha j j Hindus, Rajputs. 

Singi Name of a kind of fish. (Silnrns pun- 

gentissimns). A cup for cupping. 

lagana To cup. 

Singiya A kind of poison. 

Singhar 1 ( Making away, killing, murdering, slaughter, 

Sanghar j 1 destruction, bloodshed, killed. 


Singhara A handkerchief folded diagonally, a species- 

of water-nut, growing in ponds, and 

Singhasan A throne. 

par bithana To enthrone, install. (The term generally- 
used, is to place on the gaddi, H. for 
a sovereign's throne). 


„. , _ , , A lioness. 

Singham I *■ 

Singra A powder-horn. 

STni A salver, tray, trough. 

Sink The culm of the grass (AndropogOtt 

mnricatnm) of which brooms are made. 

Sinkdar Broom-shaped. 

Smkiya Striped, a kind of striped cloth. 

Sip A shell, a kind of mango. 

Sipah pi. Soldiers, an army. 

gar-I The military profession. 

phir jana Revolt or treachery in an army. 

Sipah (Contract, of sipah.) 

salar A general. 

Sipah-i A soldier {pulg. sepoy). 

Sipahr The sphere, the celestial globe, the sky,. 

fortune, time, the world. 
Sipahr-i Afternoon, from sih or si, three, anct 

pahar, watch. 

Sipa'i A tripod, trivet, three-legged stool or table.. 

Sipar A shield, target. 

dar-i Protecting, shielding. 

Si-para Each one of the thirty sections, or thfr 

thirty sections into which the Kur'an 

is divided. 
Sir The head, the top. 

— charha Proud, haughty. 

— charhaua To exalt, assume, to be arrogant, to 

shew respect. 

— charhke marua To lay the guilt of one's blood at th& 

door of another. 

— dharna To be obedient. 

■ — dhnnna To shake the head from affliction. 


LSir dub Perfectly wet. 

— karna To begin. 

— karhna To become conspicuous. 

— ke bhal Head-foremost. 

— ko kadaiu karna To go quickly but with respect. 

— khnjanS To court punishment. 

— marna To take great pains, to search diligently. 

— mnndana To quit one's connections and adopt a 

life of mendicity. 

— uawana To be humble, to be obedient. 

— parasti karna To protect, to aid. 

— par charhana To spoil a child or servant, to raise an 

inferior above one's self. 

— par khak dalna To lament. 

— phirana To labour in vain. 

— pitna To lament. 

— torna To subdue. 

— nthaua To rebel, to rise up against any one. 

— nthate hi pamal hojana To be crushed in the commencement of 

one's undertaking. 

Sir Madness. 

Sir (I.) Damp. 

Sir (s.) Husbandry, agriculture. 

Sir (p.) Garlic. 

Sira A kind of sweet-meat made of meal and sugar. 

: Sira A channel through which fields are watered. 

:Sir-a Mad. 

Sira Head, extremity, end. 

Siraj A candle, a lamp, the sun. 

:Slrajna To create, produce, form. 

Siran A mad woman. 

Sirat Disposition, temperament, nature, qualities, 

way of life. 

Sirat A road. 

n-l-mnstaklm The right way, i.e. the Muhammadan 


^Slrhl A ladder, stair, step, degree. 

Sirka Vinegar. 

• SirkT A. reed of which mats are made, a reed- 
mat to keep of rain. 


Sis The head. 

— ^nudhna To bTaid one's hair. 

— phul An ornament for the head. 

Sisa Lead. 

Sisif One of the six seasons, including frofiithe 

11 th of Pans to the 1 1 th of Phagan, de*. 

SiskI Sobbing. 

Sis-kiyan bharua To sob. 

:Sit Dew, cold, moisture. 

— kal Winter. 

Sita Name of the wife of Bama and daughter 

of Jauaka Baja. 

SitB'isli , Praise, returning thanks. 

Sital Cool. 

chlnl Allspice. (Myrtus pimenta). 

^-pati i . . A kind of fine, cool mat. 

-ta Coolness. 

SItala Smallpox. 

Sltani Tyranny, oppression, injury, violence, 


I Oppressed. 

— kash 


A tyrant, an oppressor. 

gar-i V. Sitam^ 

-knshta Killed by oppression, violently slain. 

-zarif-i Elegance or ingenuity in tyranny. 

STta-phal The custard apple. (Annona squamosa). 

Sitar A kind of guitar with three strings. 

i One who plays on the guitar. 

iya J 

Sitara A. star, a kind of fire- work, name of a 

musical instrument with three strings. 

dan An astrologer. 

-ipesliaBi Having a star on the forehead (reckoned 

a fault in a horse). 

shinas An astrologer, an astronomer. 

Sitar-i A small guitar, a rope twisted with 

three strings. 

Situ (sj Boiled rice, rice gruel. 



Sith (Ji.) , Dregs of betel, or anything that has beeft, 

Slth-a ... Insipid, tasteless. 

• _ I Abusive songs sung by women at weddings.. 

Sithni I ' 

Sitx Whistling. 

bajaua To whistle. 

.l[»az -A. whistler. 

bandhna j 

gnm-hona [ To be distracted or confounded. 

>1)hnlna ' 

Sitla prop. Sitala Small pox, the goddess of small pox. 

Kali, Dnrga, or Bhawant, wife of Sira 
or MahBdeTE. (Hindus consider small 
pox a visitation from the goddess, and 
do not treat the disease from fear of 
incurring her anger.) 

Siwaa A Temple of Mahadera. 

giyah Black, unfortunate, bad. 

bakht Unfortunate. 

bakbt-i Misfortune. 

-chasm Black-eyed, unkind. 

.idil Black-hearted, malevolent. 

fam Black. 

kalam karna To delineate. 

-kar Wicked, tyrannical. 

-karna To take an account of. 

kaga Miser, niggard, a. sordid wretch. 

■ mast Dead -drunk. 

posh Clad in black. 

-roz-i Adverse fortune. 

. rfi Black-faced, unlucky, disgraced. 

-tain Black-mouthed (horse), abusive, whose 

curses prevail. 

Siyaha An account-book or written account, a 

list, inventory. 

Siyah-i Blackness, ink. . 

Soch Consideration, reflection, thought, medi-: 



Sochna To think, to meditate, to reflect, to con- 
sider, to advert (in one's mind). 

Sodh Discharge (of debt), correction, search, 


Sodhna To pay, to discharge or liquidate a debt» 

to refine metals. 

Sog I j Affliction, grief, sorrow, lamentation, 

Sok j I anguish. 

karna To mourn, to wail, to observe a period 

of mourning; this observance among 
women who have lost their husbands, 
consists in strict seclusion from all those 
whom they are permitted to visit, or 
whose visits they may receive. A Hindn 
widow, though the law now forbids her 
immolation on the funeral pyre of her 
dead husband, is, in many parts, com- 
pelled to have her head shaved, and to 
be otherwise disfigured. She is treated 
with contempt; hence her sorrow for 
her husband's death is aggravated by 
her unfortunate position as a widow. 

Sog-I Afflicted, grieved. 

Sohau (p.) A file, a whetstone. 

Sohan (s.) Pleasing, a lover, a friend. 

Sohan (Ji.) A kind of sweetmeat. 

Sokht Burnt, burning, a revoke at cards. 

Sokhta Burnt, scorched. 

dil 1 f Inflamed in mind with love or grief, a 

.jan I I slow match, tinder. 

Sokhtan-i Fit or deserving to be burnt. 

Som The moon. 

-war Monday. 

Son An oath. 

Sona To sleep, gold. 

-chandi Gold and silver, riches, wealth. 

Sone ka nawala An expensive , banquet, a delicious 


^onta -A. club, mace, pestle. 

Sonte-lbardar A mace bearer, a person in the retinue 


of the great armed with a club, generally 
covered with silver. 
i$onth . : Dry ginger, a miser. 

ki SI nas le rahna To endure, to wait patiently, to suffer. 

Sonth ki nas na lena ... To be very covetous. 

Sot 1 I A spring, a fountain, a rivulet, an arm 

Sota J 1 of the sea. 

Soz Burning, vexation, heart-burning, ardour, 

a stanza of a marsiya or elegiac poem. 
^ — -gndaz Burning and melting, an impassioned 

style in poetry. 

-khwan One who chants a dirge. 

khwan-I Chanting a dirge. 

Sozan A needle, pricker of a gun. 

Sozish Burning, solicitude, pain, vexation. 

Sozn-i A kind of small embroidered carpet, 

quilted linen, tamboured work. 


Sraddh Funeral obsequies, consisting in offering 

rice and fruits, &c., to the manes of 
ancestors : feeding of priests and other 
prescribed ceremonies in honour of 

Sraddha Faith, belief, fondness, desire. 

Sradki , The name of a tribe of Hindus. 

Sarap or srap Cursing, a curse. 

dena To curse. 

Saresh, prop, siresh Glue. 


Sri Prosperity, name of Laohhmij wife of 

Tishnn, written before HindB proper 
names of persons, master, sir. 

Srisht 1 

Srishti ? The creation, the world. 

Sarisht ' 

Sthapan Causing to stand, placing, fixing, as the 

placing of a god. 

Sn (In compos :) signifies good, well. 

— rtanl Beautiful, well-shaped. 

— dhal Neat, elegant. 

Sn A side, part, towards. 

- -ba-su Side by side. 


Sn'a A parrot, a needle with which gunny 

bags are sewed, a packing needle, an 
awn of corn. 

Suba A province, also, in Hindustan, a go- 

8&l)a-dar The cLief (or lieutenant) of a province, 

a military officer among Indian troops 
whose rank corresponds with that of a 

-dar-i The office of lieutenant of a province, 

the government of a province. 

Snbh Co-) Morning, dawn. 

gah The morning time. 

gahau The early dawn. 

gah-i Of the morn. 

-i-kazib Just before daybreak. 

-i-sadik Dawn of day. 

khez Eising early in the morning. 

kbez-a 1 j A thief who rises early in the morning 

khez-iya ( 1 and steals before people are awake. 

Snbh (sj Good, pleasant, agreeable, happy, fortunate. 

Snbha A rosary. 

gardan Turning or revolving the rosary. 

gardan-I The turning, or counting the beads in, 

tbe rosary. 

Sttb'han Praising, glorifying God, a title of the 


Sub'hSn-i Of God, divine. 

Sii-bhaw Good disposition, disposition, nature, 

manner, well-disposed, of good quality. 

Snbheta ) ..... 

? Opportunity, convenience, time, leisure. 

Subk-I ' 



Siibar 1 

g^jjj.g I Impure, alloyed silver. 

Snbnk, prop. Sabnk Light (either in weight or character), 

debased, unsteady. 
-bar Lightly, burdened, unencumbered. 

Lightness, levity. 


Snbnk-dosh Lightly laden. 

pa Swift-footed. 

— rau , 

Quick, swift, light-paced. 

Swiftness, celerity. 

Snchet Attentive, mindful, careful, a"ware, cautious. 

Sndh Memory, remembrance, sensation, con- 
sciousness, notice, care. 

be sndh Beside one's self, accurate, correct, pure, 

clean, unpolluted. 

• bndh Sense, perception, sensation, care. 

rakhna To regard, look after, remember. 

Sndha Proper, true, straight, simple, artless. 

Sndharna To be correct, to be mended. 

Sndharna To adorn, to adjust. 

SSd-i ^ Money borrowed at interest. 

Sud-mand Profitable, useful, -beneficent, benefited, 


SSd-mand-i Usefulness. 

Sndr, Shndra A person of the fourth or servile tribe 

of Hindus. (Composed principally of 
the aborigines of the country, at the 
time of the Aryan immigration. The 
caste divisions, and ■ restrictions as to 
intermarriage were imposed, partly for 
social reasons, and partly to prevent 
further intermarriages between the 
Aryans and the- aborigines of India. 
For the latter purpose, however, the 
prohibition came too late, and it is very 
doubtful whether there are, at the 
present day, any Hindus, however high 
their caste, of pure Aryan descent. 
A girl's selecting a husband for herself, 

Snembar 1 the public selection of a husband by a 

S-vrayambar J ' ' princess or lady of rank from among a 

number of assembled suitors. 

racliua. ...... To hold an assembly or tournament for 

the selection of a husband. 

Snf. Wool, also silk, thread and cotton. 


:Snfi A Musalman sectary, holding peculiar 


-nl-mazhab Belonging to the Sufi sect. 

_ ._- , , A medicine, dry and unmixed, a powder, 

Suf uf ' ' ' ■^ ^ 

. I . rags put in the bottom of an ink-stand 

to absorb the ink. 
Sngand I | Good smell, odour, perfume, fragrant, 

Sn-gandh j | sweet-smeUing. 

Snghar Elegant, accomplished, beautiful, virtuous. 

bhalai Currying favour, flattery. 

Su-gyan Wisdom, intelligence, sagacity. 

Suha Eed, crimson, name of a musical mode 

or rag. 
Snhag Such ornaments as are worn by married 

women, while their husbands are alive. 

ka itr A kind of perfume. 

A casket of jewels presented by the bride- 

-pitara ) groom to the bride, a paper of ingre- 

— -pura j ' dients for painting the head presented 

, by the bridegroom to the bride. 

: ntarna To become a widow. 

Snhagan A married woman whose husband ia alive 

because she then wears the snhag. 
«uhal j 

Sahali [ Bread or cakes fried in butter. 

Snhar ) 

Suhana...... Agreeable, pleasant, charming, to be 

agreeable, to please, to be liked or 
: approved of. 
Snhbat Companionship, society, an assembly, a 

fair, coition, discourse. 

bar-ar An acquaintance, 

bar-ar-i Acquaintance. 

-dar-I Keeping company with, associating, 


yafta Used to good society, of a society. 

Snhbat-I Companion, comrade. 

:Su'i A needle. 

ka senbal A bubble. 


8|i'i fee ii$Ke se klyijarl 

ko nikalna "To draw (anything large) through the 

eye of a needJe", a .phrase «xprfiseiag 

the perforn^nce of things appajrently 


Hidayat (a poet, whose name 

signifies in Arabic 'rightr 

eousness' — says Tha kam I ''This, O Almighty was thy woj-V, to 4raw 

yiji tera li? ShndSwand / the universe through the eye of a needj«,'^ 

ta'ala; la sn'i ke qi^ke 

se khnda-J ko joikalS'r 

Sgj . . . , Swelling. 

Svja, A borer, a gimlet. 

SflJJi .• Sight, 

Snji ff.J A tailor, 

Siaji (h.) , . Mpal, flour (grpund coarse). 

Spjna To swell, to rise. 

Sjik , The plaivet Venus, Friday. 

S9ka A quarter of a rupee piece, iawf auSs. . 

Snkas Leisure. 

Snkh Ease, tranquillity, easy oirAujpstances,. 

content, happiness, pleasure, delight, 

?lt>5s , . ■ Abode of happiness. 

chain Ease,, rest, leisure, tranquiUity. 

da'I Ease-affording, comforter, giver of ease, 

-darsan A shrub, the juice of which is given f<* 

the ^I'Taciie. 

-t: — rdbam Abode of happiness. 

-karna To live at ease. 

— r-rp^aa , To get ease, rest, leisuj-e, 

tala , , . A piece of leather placed on the sole- 
within th/e shoe. 

SBkha Dry, dry tobacco eaten w^h beteUeaf,. 

a coasumption, atrophy. 

dhan IRipe burnt up with the sun's rays. 

.-^awab , , A dry answer, a flat refusal. 

parna fo occur (a drought). 

Siikham Abstracted, 

Snkhan V. sakhnn. 

Snkhauii To dry, to evaporate. 


Sukh-i I I At ease, happy, tranquil, contented, com- 

Snkhiya j 1 fortable. 

Snkhit TranqBil. 

i^lkbua. To dry, dry up, evaporate, fall away, to 

pinp away, wither. 

8ukh-pal A kind of palki. 

Snkun , Quietude, peace, rest. 

Soknnat Residence, dwelling, habitation,tranquillity> 

■ — guzm A -riesident, an inhabitant. 

Saknt , „., , ., ^ 

Silence^ quietness, peace, silent. 


Siukr Ch.J ,. . See : SBk. 

Sukr Ca.J Ab intoxicating drink, wine, intoxication.- 

Sukwar Delicate, feeble. 

Sul ,...,.,. .Colic, the point of a spear, pike or tfidefli,, 

a thorn, icompassion, tenderness. 

Sa-lac)iffibiadi ) „ -, . , , 

„ ,,, ( Good sign or mark, beauty. 

Su-lakshan J ■ a > j 

Snlacbhni ,......., jFavouiable^ well-behaved. 

^nlagna To light, to be kindled, to be inflamed,. 

to burn without smoke or flame. 

Snlahi A game played with i 6 kauris. 

^ulaiman ...,..., Solomon, the son of David, 

Snlaiman-I Belonging to Solomon, an onyx. 

Snlajhna To be unravelled or disentangled. 

Snlana To cause .or put to sleep, to kill, tft 


i^iila deua To kill, to murder. 

Sulfa Little balls of tobacco, ganja or chara» 

sra^tked in a hukka, without the inter- 
vention of a tile. 

Sulflyai 1 

„ ,„ _, } Pertaining to a hukka. 

Snlflyah^ J o . . 

Sulgana To light, to inflame, to kindle. 

8ulh Peace, reconciliation, treaty, truce, concord. 

rii-kull Perfect reconciliation, definitive treaty. 

^-nama . . , An agreement of peace. 

SBli - An empaling stake, a name of Mahadeva. 

charhana | 

, 1 > To empale. 



iSnljhana To unravel, to disentangle. 

Snltan, pi. Salatin A prince, a sovereign, power. 

tinltana An empress. 

'Snltan-i Eegal, princely, belonging to a sovereign, 

a kind of broad cloth (prop, snltan-i 

rSnlnk Eoad, way, manner, mode, intercourse, 

usage, treatment, - civility, kindness, 


karna To treat, to proceed with, to treat with 


iSnlwana To cause to put to sleep, (cans : of sona, 

to sleep). 

Sum A hoof. 

Samba A sponge-staff, a ramrod. 

Sumbnl Spikenard (to which the locks of a mis- 
tress are compared), the hyacinth. 

-istan Hyacinth-bed. 

iSnmern A mountain in Hindu m.ythology the 

residence of the gods. The north pole. 

Sun Insensible, without sensation, palsied. 

Sunar A goldsmith. 

Sunar-T The trade of a goldsmith, a good, hand- 
some woman. 

Snnd . . . . • The proboscis of an elephant. 

SSnda A weevil or small insect in corn. 

Snngh Smell. 

Snngha Staunch (as a dog), a person employed 

in Maharatta armies, who was said to 
be able to detect hidden treasure or 
grain by the smell of the earth. 

Snnna To hear, a dot, a cipher. 

Sunnat Circumcision, the traditions of Muhainmad. 

karna To circumcise. 

Sunn-i Lawful, an orthodox Muhammadan, who 

reveres equally the four successors of 
Muhammad, and, hence, - called also 
char-yar-I (the Turks are Sunnis; the 
Persians are Slti'ahs, g.v.) 

Suus A porpoise. 


Suusan Still, silent, dreary. 

^"P^" I Betel-nut. 

Snpiyari J 

> Charge, keeping, care, trust, custody. 

bona To be consigned to one's care. 

karna To give in charge, to consign, to entrust. 

-knntnda The committing officer. 

-nama Assignment, delivery, trust or hypothe- 

Supurdagi Delivery, chargy, commitment. 

ka warant .... Warrant of commitment. 


„ _, , A dutiful, tractable son. 


Sur A god, deity, angel, tone, melody, accent, 

song, note. 

milana To sing in tune. 

Snr A hero, the sun, a horn, trumpet. 

SHra A chapter, or division of the Kur'an (there 

being 114 in number). 
gae The Yak of Tartary, or bushy tailed bull 

of Tibet. 

Suragh Search, inquiry, sign, mark, spying. 

laganal ^ , , i ^ 

t To search, to seek, to spy. 

lema J 

milna To get an inkling of. 

rasani Tracing, detection, discovery. 

SurShi A goblet, a long-neoked flask, a jar, a 

jug (In India, this utensil is generally 
made of earthenware, something in shape 
like an English water-bottle, but with 
a longer neck). 

bardar The carrier of the flask or goblet. 

dar Shaped in form of a surahl (a pearl). 

Suraj The sun. 

bansi The family or race of the sun, in con- 
tradistinction with the chandU orchan- 
dela, who claim descent from the moon. 

" I Eclipse of the sun. 

grahan J 


Suraj-mnkli-i Sun-flower, (Helianthns ammns), a kind 

of parasol. 

Siirakh A hole, orifice, passage. 

Snran^ A mine, subterraneous passage, (partica* 

larly dug by thieves), light-bay, red. 

lagana To mine, to plot. 

nraaa To explode, blow up. 

SHrat Form, face, countenance, appearance, por- 
trait, manner, condition, state. 

-ashna An acquaintance. 

gar A painter, limner, sculptor. 

-haram Plausible.specious, superficial,(fair without 

and foul within). 

-i-hal A statement. 

Snratan " In form, in shape, in appearance. 

SBrt Exterior, apparent. 

Surkh Jled, 

St. Anthony's fire. 

bed A kind of cane. 

lab-i Redness of the, lips. 

posh Dressed in red. 

rii Honourable — not pale with the con- 
sciousness of guilt). 

rn-i Honour, character, fame. 

Snrkh-i Eedness, blood, brick-dust. 

I^urma A collyrium (generally considered to be 

antimony, but what is used in India 
is an ore of lead), with which the eyelids 
are stained, especially those of women 
and children, partly from a notion that 
it adds to beauty, and partly, because 
it is considered to strengthen the sight. 

aluda Stained with snrma. 

(Ian 1 

J- - (■ A box for holding snrma. 

honS To be reduced to a fine powder. 

karna To reduce to powder. 

laganii To apply snrma to the eyelids. 

Snrsuri Titillation, an insect bred in grain. 



Surt Consideration, reflection, memory, atten- 
tion, caution, accuracy. 

Surta 1 j Mindful, considerate, prudent, intelligent, 

Surt-ila j ' I accurate. 

Surnp Good form or appearance, beautiful, 


Surur Pleasure, joy, cheerfulness. 

hona To get to the head, to be flushed with 


Sus (a.) Liquorice. 

SHs (i.) A porpoise. 

Snsa Gasping, panting. 

SSsi A kind of cloth. 

Su-sU Well-disposed, good-natured, of good man- 
ners, polite. 

Sust Kelaxed, lazy, negligent, slow, dilatory, 

languid, feeble, indolent. 

-paimau Unsteady to one's engagement. 

Sustana 1 _ 

_ _ \ To rest. 

Sustana J 

Snst-i Eelaxation, languor, laz-iness, negligence, 

dilatoriness, remissness. 

karna To relax, to work lazily. 

Snt A son. 

(Swati) Snt The issue of Arcturus, a pearl (from a 

popular belief that drops of rain, falling 
into shells in October, when the sun's 
longitude corresponds with that of Arc- 
turus, are converted into pearls). 

sat Thread, yarn, a silver thread, a stamen 

(in botany), a tendril. 

buuti A kind of needle- work. 

Suta A daughter. 

Satak ■ Uncleanuess or impurity contracted by 

the members of a family on the birth 
of a child or the death of a person. 

Sutal Hell, or a place three stages under the 

surface of the earth. Hunteb. 

Sutar A carpenter, time, opportunity. 

Sutarl An awl. 



„_,, _ Drawers. 


Snthra Good,well,excellent,neat,beautiful,elegaiit. 

Snthra-i Goodness, neatness, beauty. 

SatI Made of cotton thread. 

SStli String, twine. 

Su'ubat Difficulty, trouble. 

Sn'iid Ascent. 

Suwal Interrogation, questioning, question, pro- 
position, request, begging. 

karna To ask a question. 

Suwal-I A questioner, one who sings the marsiya. 

Swami Master, owner, lord, proprietor, a husband* 

an appellation of dandl fakirs. 

Swan A dog, a hound. 

Swang I 1-1 

g _ > Mimicry, acting, imitation, disguise, sham. 



, _ , To imitate. 


Swar Tone, voice, accent, note, a wowel. 

Swarg The sky, the first hearen of the Hindiis, 

heaven, V. lok. 



. _ Heavenly, celestial. 

Swargiya ' ■' 

Swarth Wordly aifairs, desire, object, end, aim, self- 
ishness, one's own purpose, self-interest. 

Swarth-i Selfish. 

Swati The star Arcturus, the fifteenth mansion 

of the moon. V. Sut. 


Syam Black or dark blue, an epithet of Krishna^ 

name of a musical mode or ragini, 
name of a bird, a black cuckoo. 

chirl Name of a bird. 

Syan Name of a bird. 

Syana 1 

!• Cunning, artful, clever, prudent, mature. 

Siyana j 

Syanap i 

Syan-pan \ Cunning, art. 

Syan-pana J 


T. T. T. 

Ta'addi Extortion, exorbitancy, oppression, wrong,. 

injury, tyranny, violence, cruelty. 

Ta'ahhnl Marriage, establishing a family. 

Ta^akknb Punishment, chastisement. 

Ta'akknl. Understanding, perceiving, informing. 

Ta'akub Pursuit, persecuting, alternate succession,. 


Ta'ala Most high. 

Ta'ala-llah The most high God. 

Ta'al aUah Good God! 

Ta'alli Exalting one's self, appearing conspicuous. 

Ta'allnk Relationship, connection, dependence, pro-i 

perty, possession, appertaining, consider- 
ation, reflection, commerce, correspon- 
dence, a manor, lordship. 

at-i-dnnyavi Worldly concerns. 

.dar Possessor of an estate, a lord of a manor,, 

landlord, feoffee. (Those holding this 
position under Government in Oudh and 
the N. W. P., are so called; in Bengal 
such are designated zamin-dar, which 
has the same signification). 

Ta'allul Procrastination, excuse, objection. 

Ta'allnm Learning, study, knowledge, being taught^ 

Ta'am Victuals, eating. 

bakhsh A large spoon to serve out food with. 

talash. A sponger. 

Ta'at Devotion, obedience, obsequiousness. 

Ta'b Labour, lassitude, weariness, toil, trouble. 

Tab Heat, light, splendour, power, endurance, 

brooking, rage, fury, twisting, contortion. 

dar Bright, luminous, twisted. 

dena To twist. 

lana To be able to bear. 

tilli Aifection of the spleen. 


'Tab Sweet, agreeable, good, pure, excellent. 

Tab' Nature, genius, temperament, quality, 


azma-I Trial cif genius. 

-zad Invention, production of genius. 

TabSbait The prii<etice of medicine. 

Tabah Ba(d, wicked, depraved, abject, spoiled, 

ruined, wretched^ 

Tabah^nr Profoundness in learning. 

Tabah^a Wickedness, depravity, ruin, perdition. 

Tkbak A cover, plate, dish,- leaf, disk, gold-leaf, 

tinfoil, one thing following another or 

consecutive, the story of a house, class, 

order, degree. 
Tabaka 1 | A story, floor, stage, degree, class, order, 

Tabka | ( rank, shelf. 

Tabakhtnr Strutting, walking with a haughty gait 

or a rolling motion. 

TabSn Respleadent, splendid, glittering, burning. 

Taban-T Splendour, light. 

Tabar ■. . A small lake. 

Tabar A hatchet, an axe. 

-bardar I . , , , 

> A.n axe-bearer, a wood-cutter. 

zan I 

-zTn A horseman's battle-axe. 

Tabar People, nation, race, tribe, family. 

Tabarak Be blessed, bless. 

-allah God be blessed. 

Tabarra Curse of a Shi'ah over a Snnni. 

Tabarruk Benediction, congratulation, a portion of 

presents (or what is left of food presented 
to great men), given to their dependents, 
sacred relics. 

Tabasbir The sugar of the bamboo. 

Tab-dan A lattice, a sky-light. 

TabdTI Change, alteration, difference, transpor- 
tation, migration. 

bona To be changed. 

karna To change, to alter. 

Tabdill Transfer. 


Tabi' Dependent, follower, subject. 

dar Dependent, follower. 

dar-i Allegiance, obedience, fidelity. 

dar-i karna To obey, to serve, to submit. 

hona To be subject, to be dependent. 

■ karna To control, to subject. 

Tab-'i Natural. 

Tabi'at Genius, nature, disposition, temperament, 

constitution, essence, property. 

ana To be attached to. 

bahal hona To recover from illness. 

bahalna To be amused. 

bhar jana To be satiated. 

bigarna To feel sick, to be excited. 

bimar hon5 To be ill. 

dar Clever, sharp. 

lagna To take interest or pleasure in, to be 

attached to. 

• larana To tackle a difficulty. 

larna To tackle a problem. 

na lagna To be disinclined towards, to feel un- 

-shinas A physician. 

nlajhna To be entangled in. 

Tabi'at Following, dependence. 

Tabib A physician. 

Tabib-i The business of a physician. 

Tabi'i Natural, of nature, innate, intrinsic. 

Tabi'in Followers, companions. 

Tabinda Shining. 

-gi Splendour, brightness. 

Ta'bir Explanation, interpretation. 

Tabl A drum. 

bajana To beat the drum (with the fingers). 

Tabla A small tambourin. 

Tablak A file or bundle of papers. 

Tablak A little drum. 

Tabl i jang Martial drums. 

Tabrid Cooling, refreshing, a cooling and refresh- 



ing drink, usually given after a (A,) 
jullab (a purge). 

Tabut A coffin, a bier, thq ark of the convenant, 

presented by God to Adafli, and which 
(according to Muhammadans) contained 
the portraits of all the prophets., (In 
the muharram, g.v., when the obsequies 
of Husain are annually commemorated 
by the sM'ah Cg.v.J sect, the tabut of 
the martyr is carried in procession). 

Tadarnk Reparation, remedy, precaution, provision, 

preparation (particularly, to obtain jus- 
tice), the instruments and means used 
to procure justice — as writings, lawyers,, 
witnesses, &c., chastisement, retaliation, 

karna To provide against, to prepare, to oppose,. 

to chastise. 

Tadawnl Tradition. 

Tadbir Deliberation, counsel, contrivance, opinion,. 

(pi. tadbirat). advice, government, regulation, arrange- 

ment, order, management. 

i-ghiza Eegimen of diet. 

i-saltanat Politics. 

Tadf in Burial, interment. 

Tadrq Gradation, scale. 

Tafakknd Searching for a thing lost, kindness. 

Tafakknh Admiring,penitence,enjoyment of any things 

Tafakkur 'Reflection.meditating, considering, anxiety.. 

Taf aruk Division, separation. 

Taf awnt Distance, difference, distinction, disparity, 

distant, separate, away, absent. 

bolna To prevaricate. 

Tafrih Eejoicing, exhilarating, amusement. 

-i-tab' Ease of mind, cheerfulness, hilarity. 

Tafrik Separation,division,partition,participation,. 

jealousy, misunderstanding, department.. 

karna To analyse. 

Tafrika Separation, dispersion. 

■■ — dena. To sow dissension. 

karna To separate. 


Tafsil Explanation, analysis, separation, division, 


-war Distinctly , in detail. 

Tafsir Explanation, commentary, paraphrase, an 

interpretation of the Kur'an. 

Tafta Hot, burning, melted, quick lime. 

-gi Heat, ardour, trouble of mind. 

Taftish Examination, inquiry, search, investigation, 


Tateih Disgrace, disrepute. 

Tafzll Excellence, preeminence. 

Tag Eunning. 

Ta^a 1 

\ A thread, a strand or thread of twist. 

Taggi ) 

Taga'i The price paid for quilting, the act of 


Tagana To cause to be quilted, to get stitched 


Tagarg Hail. 

Tag-dau | ( Fatigue, running about on business or in 

Tag"0-dau | 1 search of employment, great exertion. 

Taghaiyur Change, alteration, removal. 

TagMr Alternation, change, changed, discharged, 


. hona To be altered, removed or dismissed. 

■ karna To remove from an office, to dismiss, 

to alter. 

Taghir-i The state of alteration or change, revo- 
lution, discharge, dismission. 

Taghma A mark which artists put on their pro- 
ductions, device on a shield, a medal. 

Tagna. To quilt, to stitch together. 

Tag-o-pB. Search, inquiry, bustle. 

Tag-o-taz Eunning, course, gallop. 

Xah Eold, plait, the bottom, beneath, under, 

intent; meaning. 

^band A cloth worn round the waist, and pass- 
ing between the legs; (V. langot-i and 

ba-tah Plait by plait, every fold. 


Tah-ba-tah karna To pile one upon another. 

bazar-T Ground- rent of a stall in the market. 

dar Having foundaiion or meaning, rational. 

darz New. 

deg-i The scrapings of a pot, the burnt part 

of victuals that sticks to the bottom 
of a pot. 

- — -deha To tinge slightly. 

kar rakho Fold and laj' it by, i.e. keep it to your- 
self (is used, to express the speaker's 
independance, or his not . wanting the 
thing spoken of). 

khina A cavern, a cellar, a room under ground, 

a lower story, a vault. 

marna A disease of a horse, from excessive 

thirst, affecting the flanks. 

nishin bona To subside, to, settle. 

-o-bala Topsy-turvy, upside down . 

o-bala karnS To subvert, to overthrow. 

pahnnchna To get to the bottom, to find out. 

Taha'if (pi. of tnhfa 1 j Earities, varieties, curiosities, choice ar- 

Tnhfajat j ' ( tides, presents. 

Tahaiyur Amazement, wonder, astonishment. 

Tahajji Spelling, 

(Huruf-i ) The letters of the alphabet. 

Tahajjud A form of prayer said during the night, 

wakefulness, sleeping sound. 

T^lial Housewifery, housekeeping, duty, service, 

task, business, work, job, use, drudgery. 

karna To serve, to drudge. 

lagani To dance attendance. 

na To walk backwards and. . forwards, to 

take the air, to rove,, to -ramble. 

ni A maid-servant. 

takor Business, duty, work. 

wS A servant, attendant, menial. 

Tahammnl Patience, endurance, long-suffering, resig- 
nation, forbearance, truce, peace, meek- 
ness, humility. 

Ttthana To fold, to ply, to wrap. 


Taharat Purity, cleanliness, sanctity, ablution, 

ceremonial purification. 

karna To become pure, clean, to purify one's self. 

Taharati Pure, clean. 

Tahkik Ascertaining, investigation, trial, verifi- 
cation, exactness, precision, truth, cer- 
tainty, authentic, ascertained, actual, real, 
indubitable, apparent, truly, indeed. 

Tahkir Despising, scorn, neglect, disdain. 

Tahrik Movement, agitation, incitement, exciting 

desire, temptation, encouragement. 

dena To touch, to move, to, aifect, to encourage. 

karna To tempt. 

Tahrir Writing correctly, description, manumis- 
sion, vifritten, dated. 

i-uklidas Euclid's elements. 

-i-zohri A writing on the back. 

karua To write, describe, record. 

Tahsil Gain, acquisition, profit, attainment, 

learning, collection (particularly of 

dar A collector, tax-gatherer. 

-dar-i CoUectorship, tax-gathering. 

karna , To acquire, to gain, to collect. 

Tahsil-na To collect, to gather a tax, to oppress, 

to afflict. 

Taksin Approbation, applause, acclamation. 

i akhlak Good breeding, civilization, refinement. 

Taht The inferior part, belovr, under, subjec- 
tion, possession. 

i-farman Subjection, dominion. 

-lafzi Verbally, literal translation, interlinear 


meu lana To conquer, to subjugate. 

u-s-sara Under the earth. 

u-sh-shu'a' Change of the moon, conjunction with 

the sun. 

Tahwn Change, transfer, renovation, return, pass- 
ing of the sun, moon, or a planet from 
one sign to another. 


TahwHat (pi ) Trusts, charges, cash. 

Tahwil-dar A. cash-keeper, a treasurer. 

Tahwil-dar-i The ofiBce of cash-keeper. 

Tahzib Civilization, politeness. 

-i-akhlak Good breeding, civilization, refinement. 

^ yafta Civilized, educated, refined. 

Tai EoUing up, folding, travelling, passing 

or crossing over. 

karna To fold, to roll up, to constrain, to 

abridge, to travel, to pass over. 

Ta'i Paternal uncle's wife, an earthen fryingpot. 

Xa'ib Repenting, penitent. 

Ta'Td Aid, assistance, corroboration. 

. -irda^wa Support of a claim. 

-i-kalam Support of a statement. 

karna To help, assist, aid, support, take part 

within, strengthen. 

Ta'idat (pi.) Aids, helps. 

Ta'if Going round, making the circuit of 

anything, night-watches or patrols, name 
of a city in Arabia. 

Ta'ifa People, tribe, a troop, a band (particu- 
larly of musicians and dancing women), 
suit, equipage. 

Ta'in Appointing, deputation, appointment. 

Ta'Inat Appointments, appointment, business. 

karna To appoint, nominate, put in possession. 

Ta'mat-i The object or business of an appointment, 

appointment, tour of service, a guard, 
nominated for one's special duty. 

Tairak A swimmer. 

Tatrna To swim, to cross over. 

Tals At the same moment. 

Taish Levity, folly, anger, passion. 

Taiyar Flying quickly. 

Taiyar Heady, prepared, finished, complete, alert. 

hona To be ready. 

karna To get ready. 

Taiyar-i Eeadiness, preparation. 

Taj A crown, diadem, a cap crest, the comb. 


of a bird, name of a suit of cards. 

Daj-bakhsli A king,emperor,one who gives away crowns. 

'^^^ One who wears a crown, a king, prince, 


maliall A magnificent tomb constructed at Agra, 

according to the design of Austin de 
Bordeux, a Frenchman, by the emperor 
Shah Jahan, in memory of his queen 
Tfiir Jahan, "the light of the world". 

Taj The bay tree or its bark. (Lanrns cassia). 

Tajaddud ) 

„ .,-, > Kenewal. 

Tajdid ] 

Tajahnl Pretended ignorance, contrivance, apathy 


Tajallt Splendour, brilliancy, lustre, clearness. 

Tajalliyat (pi. of Tajalll), lustres, illuminations. 

Tajammnl Dignity, pomp, parade, retinue, furniture, 

(pi. tajammnlat). conveniences. 

Tajarrnd Living in solitude, solitude, celibacy. 

Tajassns Spying, exploring, search, inquiry, cu- 
riosity, inquisitiveness. 

karna To pry into, to search diligently, to explore. 

Tajawuz Departing, transgressing, offending, devi- 
ation, diversity. 

karna To err, to deviate, to stray. 

Tajhiz takfin Interment, burial. 

Tajhiz Burial, expediting, arranging, adorning. 

i-lashkar karna .... To raise an army. 

Taj-i-kharos The comb of a cock, the cockscomb flower 

(Amaranthns or Celo^ia). 

Tajlr A merchant. 

Tajiriha Experiment, trial, proof, experience, essay, 


Tajirlba-kar Expert, conversant in. 

--kar-i Experience. 

■ karna To experience. 

Tajna To abandon, desert, quit, leave. 

Tajnis Making of the same kind, resemblance, 

analogy, equivocation, punning to the 
eye, instead of to the ear. 


Tajnis-i-khatti Writing words alike which are pronounced 


Tajwif Hollowing, making concave. 

Tajwiz Approbation, permission, inquiring into,. 

examining, considering, investigation, con- 
trivance, sentence, judgment, trial, plan. 

hona To be examined, contrived, ascertained. 

karua To examine, investigate, inquire into, 

contrive, plan, prescribe, appoint, con- 

-l-saai Ee-trial, new trial, revision, review of 

order or judgment. 

Tak A scale, balance, aim. 

bandhna J 

la^ana | To gaze, to stare. 

rahna ' 

Tak (h.) A look, a glance, an aim, the act of 

aiming, pointing (of a dog). 

bandhna To covet, to point as a dog. 

rahua To aspire. 

Tak (p.) Vine, grasses. 

Tak Temper, nature, disposition. 

bandlina To stave. 

lagana To expect, to long for. 

Taka A copper coin equal to two paisa. 

Takabbur Arrogance, haughtiness, pride. 

Takabul Encountering, drawn up in mutual op- 

Takaddasa Pure, holy, purified. 

ta^ala (An epithet of the Deity). Holy, mosthigh. 

Takaddnr Muddiness, turbidness, dregs, dullness^ 

moroseness, disquietude of mind. 

Takaffnl Taking security, becoming security for 


T*l^*'i Tax, duty, collection, imposition. 

Takallnf Inconvenience, ceremony, taking much 

pains one's self in any matter, extrav-v 
agance, profusion, preparation. 

bar-taraf Waiving ceremony. 

miz^j Ceremonious. 


Takallnf at (pi.) 

i-darbar Expending much. 

i-majlis The ceremonies of society, etiquette. 

i-rasmi Ceremonious attention, empty compliments. 

Takallniii Conversation. 

Takan Motion, agitation, gesture. 

cliarhna To be fatigued, tired. 

Takarrnr Repetition, repeating, reiterating, per- 


Takassnl Sickness, being lazy or inactive. 

Takassur Being broken or shattered, spent or de- 

bliated, carrying figures (in arithmetic), 
folding the wings (a bird). 

Takatnr Distilling drop by drop, raining. 

Takawat T'iety, abstinence, continence. 

TakSwi Strengthening, assisting (particularly ten- 
ants engaged in agriculture, with ad- 
vances of money to buy seed), vying, 
contending with, money in advance. 

Taka^a Dunning, exacting, urgency, importunity. 

i-shadid Inexorable dunning. 

i-sinn The customs or habits of ditferent ages, 

as of childhood, youth, manhood. 

Takaza-i Importunate, urging, solicitous. 

TakMr Repeating the Musalman creed, or only 

saying, " God is great," upon particulai- 

Takdim Giving precedence, priority, precedence, 


karua To perform, to put before, to give pre- 
cedence to. 

Takdir Pate, destiny, predestination, lot. 

Takdis Sanctification, sanctity, purity, sanctifying, 


Takf In Putting on the winding-sheet, laying in 

the coffin, shrouding, sepulture. 

Takfir Covering, expiating a crime, doing penance 

or paying a mulct as atonement, hum- 
bling one's self before another (putting 
the hand upon the breast and inclining. 


the head), showing distant respect, accfls- 
ing one of impiety, callifi^ him infidel, 
making one an unbeliever, guiltiness. 

'TakhallBs Nom de plnme, especially of poets ; as 

Sanda was takhhallns of Mirza Mu- 
hammad Kafi'. 

'Takhfif Making light, alleviation, lifting up, de- 
spising, abbreviating, abatement, relief, 
remission, abridgment, decrease, dimi- 
nution, decay, softening the pronunciation 
of letters or changing one for another, 
for the sake of euphony. 

-i-tasdl' Banishing care, relieving pain or trouble. 

Takhir Delay, jirocrastination, impediment. 

karna To delay. 

Takhliya Evacuation, privacy, a private room, 

manumission of a slave, divorce of a 


Takhmina Guess, appraisement, conjecture, valuation. 

Takhminan By guess, by appraisement, nearly, about. 

Takhrib Devastation, destruction, razing. 

'Takhsis Particularity, pecularity, appropriating, 

reserving for one's self. 

Takht A throne. 

— bakht Throne and fortune, also ' v^edlock and 

wealth', as a form of benediction used 

by woman. 

ehllorna To abdicate a throne. 

-dar A king. 

i-rawan A travelling throne, a throne on which 

the king is carried. 

nlshan Seating on, or bestowing thrones. 

— nishln One sitting on a throne, a king, a sovereign. 

-nishin-i Accession to the throne, reign. 

— — — par baithua To reign. 

par baithalnl. . . . . To enthrone. 

-^^ — ya takhta Either a throne or a bier (spokeh on 

engaging in a desperate enterprise). 

'Takht Assault, attack, incursion, invasion. 

karna To assault. 


Takht-taraj Assault and plunder, depredation, de- 

tarSj karna To ruin, to depopulate. 

Takhta A plank, a board, a shelf, deck of a 

vessel, a stool, a bier, a sheet of paper, 
a bed of flowers. 

-band! Wainscot, boarding. 

gardau Thick, broad and straight-necked (a horse). 

-nard Backgammon. 

Takhti A small plank, a small rectangular piece 

of smooth wood, generally covered with 
fine sand, on which children write, a 
signet of stone, the breast. 

Taki Wall-eyed (a horse). 

Taki Stare, fixed look, aim. 

Taki So that, to the end that. (V. under Ta). 

Taki Pious, fearing God. 

Takid Confirmation, injunction, ascertaining, 

superinten dence. 

karna To enjoin stric'ly, to urge, to press, to 

insist on. 

Takidan Eeprovingly, emphatically. 

Takka A goat. 

rish Beard on the chin only, like a goat. 

rish-i The state of having beard on the chin 

only, like a goat. 
Takkar Shoving, pushing, shouldering, knocking 

against, striking a blow, butting, the 

knocking of head to head, equality. 

khana To stumble, to be dashed against anything, 

to meet with a loss or misfortune. 
marna To knock against, (met. from the sup- 
pliants striking their heads on the ground), 
to pray, to curse. 

pahar se lem. ... To enter the lists against an antagonist 

of greatly superior force. 

Takla A spindle. 

Takli A weaver's reel. 

TaMif (pi. Taklif at) Ceremony, imposition of a btirden, trouble, 

difficulty, molestation, distress, incon- 


venience, ailment, aifliction, annoyance^ 
Taklif dena To annoy. 

karna To take the trouble. 

men ana To be in straitened circumstances. 

nthana To suft'er. 

TakmH Comx)leting, finishing, perfection, excel- 

-i rihn Eoreclosure of mortgage. 

i tamassuk Execution of a bond. 

karna To execute, give authority, complete. 

parna To be completed, finished. 

Takmila Perfection, completion. 

Takna To be looked at, to be stared at, to look 

at, to observe, to aim at, to watch. 

Takna To be stitched. 

Takora A fillip, a tap, a very small unripe mango,, 

the sound of a drum. 

Takrana To knock together the heads of two peoj^le, 

to dash the head on something, to dash 
together, to grope in a dark place or 

Takrar Eepetition, tautology, altercation, conten- 
tion, dispute. 

karna To dispute, debate, wrangle, cavil, repeat. 

^-i Importuning, seizing, troublesome, fond. 

of argument. 

Taksal A mint. 

-Ibahar Uneducated, unpolished, rude, unclassical.. 

charhna To be educated. 

ka kkota Spoilt in education. 

Taksal-i zaban Pure language, good idiom. 


„ , _,. - , OfRcers of the mint. 


Taksim Dividing, distributing, division in arith- 

Taksim karna To distribute. 

Taksir (pi. takslrat) Fault, error, crime. 

war Bliimable, criminal, guilty. 

Tak-tak The sound of feet. 

TaktakI Staring, fixed look. 



Taktakl bandlina To look attentively, to gaze at. 

Takti' The cassava or pause in reading poetry. 

Taktir Distilling, dropping, strangury, 

Takn'a A spindle. 

Takwa Kety, abstinence, the fear of God. 

Takwahi • . . . Watching, overseeing, superintending, 

looking sharply after servants, workmen, 
(especially gold and silver smiths when 
employed to manufacture ornaments from 
the metals). 

Takya A pillow, a fakir's stand, the reserve of 

an army, reliance. 

-dar 1 

} A fakir, a dervis. 

nishin I 

dena To receive respectfully. 

karna To support, to encourage. 

-kalam'sukhan-takya A cant word, introduced into conver- 
sation, without meaning, an expletive. 

karua To depend upon. 

lag'ana To lean. 

Tal A pond, chime, time in music, beating 

time, striking the hands on the arms 
previous to fighting, the name of a 
musical instrument, name of fruit and 
tree of the palm. 

dena To chime, to strike the hands upon the 

body before fighting. 

marua 1 | To strike the hands against the arms 

thokn^ J ■ . • ■ { preparatory to wrestling. 

Tal Evasion, putting aside, putting oflF or out 

of the way, rejecting a request, a heap 
of wood, or grain, a stack, a rick, bald- 
ness from age, a turn or trick in wrestling. 

karna To put oflf, to heap, to prevaricate. 

marna To heap, to turn the scale fraudulently 

in weighing. 

matal Fraud, deceit. 

Tala A lock. 

Tala The bottom of anything, the sale of a 

shoe, protection. 


TMa V. Tal. 

A pond, tank, reservoir of water. 

Talal) Pay, wages, salary, desire, wish, inquiryj 

search, demand, request, application, 
sending for, seeking, seeker, requiring.' 

ana Daily pay to constables. 

— — bantna To distribute pay. 

bnjhana To satisfy one's desire or appetite for 

drinking or smoking. 

dar Desirous, asking, inquiring, one who 

receives pay. 

-dena To pay one his wages. 

-gar Desirous, a seeker. 

-gar-i Desiring, wishing, inquiring, seeking, 

bona To be called or summoned. 

karna To deinand, seek, ask for, call, summon. 

-nama A summons, citation. 

Talab-ana dakhil karna. . To pay witnesses. 

Talaf Ruin, destruction, loss, prodigality, con^ 

sumption, expense. 

bona To be unfortunate, to meet with a loss. 

karna To waste, to consume. 

u-l-mal khalafa-1- 

-'nmr The loss of riches is the prolongation 

of life. 

Talaffnz Utterance, expression, pronunciation. 

Talaiya A smaU. pond. 

I Till, to, up to, while. 

Tak J 

Talaf-i Compensation, recompense, amends. 

Talalf Meeting, interview, reunion. 

Tala]i:i Divorce, repudiation. 

Talamiz (pi. of Talmiz) . . Students, scholars, pupils, disciples. 

Talamtola karna To put off, procrastinate, parry, temporize. 

Talap A piece, a fragment. 

Talash Search. 

-i Seeker, searcher. 

Talashi Annihilation, dispersion. 


Tal'a sUnas 

.„,., , A fortune-teller 

■ i Fortune-telling. 

Tale Below, down, beneath, under. 

kl zamiu Spar honi Signifies great disturbance and confusion.. 

• tale dekhna To see clandestinely. 

-upar Upside down, confused. 

Tale Ibale batana To put oflf. 

Tall A key, clapping of the hands. 

bajana To clap the hands (generally by way of' 

censure and ridicule), to hoot. 

ek hath se hajni. ... Is used to express an impossibility. 

marua To hoot. 

Talii A sort of musical instrument. 

Tall' Eising (as the sun), arising, appearing,. 

fortune, prosperity, destiny, horoscope,, 
the dawn. 

-azma-i Trying one's fortune. 

■ maud Fortunate, wealthy. 

mand-i Fortune, prosperity, wealth. 

shinas Fortune-teller, astrologer. 

war Fortunate, wealthy. 

-war-i Good fortune. 

Talib Asking, demanding, interrogating, an in- 
quirer, a seeker, a lover. 

-1-dunya Wordly-minded, 

i-'Um Searching after knowledge, a student. 

. -i-'ilm-x Search of knowledge, study. 

TalTf Connecting, uniting in friendship, recon- 
ciling, bringing together, composition,., 
compiling of a book. 

Ta^ik A kind of writing used by Persians, and 

in India, suspension, delaying. 

. } . . An inventory, a catalogue. 
Talika (corrup. form) j 

Ta,'ia. Causing, occasioning one to make an 

excuse, (in grammar), changing one of 
the weak letters for another. 

Ta'lim Teaching, instruction, tuition, copying fine,, 

writing accurately, a copy to write from*- 


Ta'lTm karna To teach. 

"Taljana To get out of the way, to disappear, to 

vanish, to pass away. 

Talkh Bitter, acrimonious, rancid, malicious, 


-dana Darnel, tares. 

go Plain-spoken, harsh. 

karoa To embitter or make bitter, to aggravate. 

mizaj Ill-tempered. 

-rH Morose. 

Talkha Grain parched and pounded, then mixed 

with water into a paste, the gall-bladder. 

Talkh-i Bitterness, rancour. 

Talkm Instructing, informing, religious instruc- 
tion, prayer over the dead at the time 
of interment. 

karna To instruct, to inform, to teach. 

Tall A hillock, hill, heap. 

Tall The dew. 

Talle-navis-i 1 ^^ . , , , , . „ . 

_} Unproiitable employment, wasting oitime. 

nawis-i I 

'Tal-inakhana The name of a medicinal herb. (Barleria 


Talmalana To totter, to tantalize. 

Talmalana To be tantalized, perplexed, anxious. 

Talraalate phirna To walk about in restless expectation, 

to be uneasy. 
Talna To give way, to shrink from, to disappear, 

to pass away. 

Talna To fry. 

Talna To evade, prevaricate, put off, postpone, 

defer, to drive out of the way, to put 

aside, to move, to prevent. 

'Talpat Euined, destroyed. 

Tain The palate, the ridge or slit roof of the 

mouth, a disorder in horses, the lampreys. 

I Tlie sole of the foot. 

Talwa ] 

chatna j ^^ ^^^^^^ 

'Talwe tale hath dharna 


Talwe saMaue (Ui^To stroke the soles of the feet) 

„--• signifies excessive flattery, adulation. 

Talwou SB ag lagni {lit. burning in the soles of the feet) 

implies excessive anger. 

Talwar A sword. 

chalana To fight with swords. 

ka g'hao.' A sword-cut. 

khainchua To draw a sword. 

kl anch A flash of a sword. 

miyan men karna To sheathe the sword. 

Talwariya A swordsman. 

I Darkness, irascibility, promptitude to vin- 

' '. ,. i { dictive passions. Dark, irascible, vin- 

Tamas-i, Adi. » n. . 

' ■' \ dictive. 

Tama i _, 

J Copper. 

Tamba I ^^ 

Tama' Avarice, covetousness, greediness, avidity. 

karna To covet. 

dena To bait, bribe, exciting desire. 

Tainacha A pistol. 

Tamacha A slap, a blow. 

Tamak Vanity, arrogance, pride, growing red in 

the face. 

Tamaka 1 ,„ , 

_ / Tobacco. 

Tambakn | 

Tamam Entire, perfect, complete. 

i C^ontipletion, perfection, totality, brocade, 

cloth of gold tissue. 

hona To be finished, to die. 

karna To perfect, to complete, to finish. 

shud Knished, is finished. 

tar Wholely, completely, entirely. 

Tamancha 1 7^ r., - u 

\ V. Tamacba. 

Tapancha ] 

Tamaucha V. Tamaclia. 

Tam&niyat Eest, repose, tranquillity. 

(prop, tumamnat). 
Tamanna Eequest, wish, prayer, supplication, in- 
clination, petition, hope. 

-kash Desirous. 



Tamasha An enteitainment, show, spectacle, sight, 

amusement, frin. ,„ . 

-bin-i Luxury, libertinism. 

dekhna To see any sight or spectacle. 

-gall A place of show. 

■ karna To see, to take a walk, tO/exhibit a sight, 

to make fun, to jeer, to jest. 

ki Ibat Anything strange or fnuny. 

Tamasli-bia A spectator, a rake, an epicure, a whore- 

bin-i Luxury, libertinism, raking, whoring. 

Tamaskhnr Buffoonery, joking. 

Tamassuk A note of hand, bond, obligation, receipt. 

Tamassnl Imitating, resembling, applying allegories. 

Tamba A kind of drawers — very wide. 

Tambili Admonition, correction, punishment, 


Tambihan By way of admonition, by way of punish- 

Tambiya A pot. 

Tambol The betel leaf. 

Tamboll Name of a caste whose business is to 

sell betel leaf. 

Tambolin A woman who sells betel leaf, wife of a 

tamboll, name of a tree. 

Tambn A tent, a pavilion. 

tanua To pitch tents. 

Tambnr A Turkish guitar with six wires or strings 

a drum (in Hindustan). 

chT A drummer. 

Tamhid Disposition, arrangement, settlement, man- 
agement, confirmation, preliminary, pre- 
amble, preface, preparative, introduction. 

karna To dispose, to premise. 

-i Introductory 

Tami' Covetous, greedy. 

Ta'mll Performance, operation. 

I-hnkm karnli To execute, or carry out an order. 

karna To put into execution, to serve. 

Ta'mlr Building, structure, constructing, repair 


Ta'mir hona To be built. 

karna To build. 

at sigha Engineering Department. 

Tairuz Discernment, judgment, discretion, dis- 
tinction, sense. 
(harf-i ) ^^ j^j^gj.l3_ 

Tamjid ■pi^g glorification of God ; hence, the hymn 

or prayer that is pronounced from the 
minarets an hour and a half before dawn. 

T^^^^^^ A stroke of the sun. 

Tamkanat Dignity, pride. 

karna To distinguish, discern, perceive, appreciate. 

iainkin Majesty, dignity, authority, power. 

Tamr . . . ; A. date. 

i-hindi ^ tamarind. 

Tamra j^ gg^ Qf inferior value, of a copper 

colour, also, as tambra, a false stone 
resembling a ruby. 

Tamsll Comparison, similitude, allegory, parable, 

(pi. tamsilat). apologue, an example. 

lana 'Po allegorize. 

Taintamahat The state of growing red in the face. 

Tamtamana To grow red in the face, to glow, to 

sparkle, to twinkle, to flash. 

T^n Twang, pride, conceit, vanity. 

tan A. sound. 

Ta'n Blame, disapprobation, reproach, censure, 

chiding, striking with a spear. 

Tan A note in music, a tone. 

torna To crack a joke, to utter a word to 

excite a quarrel, or to induce conver- 
sation, to animadvert, to strike up a tune. 

Tan The body, person. 

chhipana To hide one's self. 

■ dena To pay attention. 

dih A person of application. 

- — -dih-i Application, exertion, attention. 

— ^-dnrust Healthy, vigorous. 

durust-i Healtli, vigour. 

-i-tanha Alone, solitary. 


Tan-o-man marua To restrain one's desires, and be silent, 

to suppress any feeling, to concentrate 
one's powers or attention. 

— -parwar Self-indulgent, luxurious, selfish. 

-parwar-I Self-indulgence, luxuriousness. 

Taiia To heat, to prove, to assay. 

Tana The warp, the threads that are extended 

lengthways upon a loom. 

Tana tariz Unfortunate. 

Ta'na Taunting, reproach, ignominy, disgrace, 


dena To taunt. 

marna To cast reproach, to gibe, to twit. 

zau A reproacher, taunter, aspersef . 

zan-i Taunting, reproaching. 

Tanab A tent rope. 

Tanadduin Penitence, bashfulness, modesty. 

Tanaf 1 Expelling, pursuing, persecuting, denial, 

that another person has performed some 
thing, as that he has paid a debt. 

Tanaffar Aversion, disgust. 

Tanaffus Respiration, breathing. 

Tanana ) m i i 

1 . To extend, to stretch. 

Tanua \ 

Tanasnb Uesembling, relation, proportion. 

Tauasukh Transmigration, metempsychosis. 

Tanasnl Uninerrupted descent through a series 

of generations. 

Tanazu' j . . . Wiangling. 

Tanaznl Descent, decline (falling of price, losing 

rank), leaping from a horse in order 

to fight. 
Tanba V. Tamba. 

Tanch I ,, i • 

" , _ Perverse, audacious, troublesome. 

Tanchra j 

Tanda A venture (of goods'), name of a place, 

the goods of a banjara, (a grain merchant). 

Tandlhl V. under Tan. 

karua To ajjply one's self, to take pains. 

Tang Strait, tight, narrow, confined, wanting, 


scarce, barren, distressed, dejected, sad, 
a horse- belt, a girth, a bap;, a sack, half 
a horse's, bullock's, or camel's load. 

Tang ana To be distressed, exhausted, dejected. 

ba-tang-liona To be in distress or difficulty, to be ex- 
hausted or tired. 

cliashtn Miserly, niggardly. 

-dast Poor, distressed, miserly. 

' -dast-i Parsimony, poverty, want, inability. 

-dil Narrow-hearted, miserly. 

-dil-i Narrow-heartedness, stinginess. 

-hal Poor, distressed, straitened in circum- 

hal-I Poverty, distress, narrow, circumstances. 

karna I 

> To straiten, tighten, contract. 

posh Tightly dressed, wearing tight clothes. 

posh-i. Tightness of dress. 

walft Emergency, critical moment. 

Tang' The leg. 

dena To hang up, to hang. 

lena To seize or bite the leg (as a dog), to 


tale se nikal jana. . To pass under one's legs, to submit, 

to yield. 

Tanga A small two-wheeled car without covering, 

and on which one person only can sit. 

sawar One who rides in a Tanga. 

Taiigar A bale (as of cotton). 

Tanghan A kind of horse, a highland pony. 

-nnmii Like a tanghan. 

Tangi A hatchet. 

Tang-i Straitness, tightness, poverty, want, a bag, 

a sack. 

karna To be parsimonious. 


„ _._ , A strait place or passage, a strait. 

Tang-na'ij' *^ i- 5 = 

Tangna To hang up, to dangle, to hang by a 

string (not on a peg). 

TangrT The leg. 


Tanlia Alone, solitary, singular, unique, private, 

apart, only, single. 

Tanha'i Loneliness, solitude. 

Tani A string with which garments are tied. 

Tani A daughter. 

TanI The warp, the price paid for weaving. , 

Tanin Buzzing. 

Taniya A kind of covering for the waist. 

Tank A weight equal to four mashas (V. under 


Tank An iron pin, a stitch. 

Tanks A stitch, a tub made of stones, solder. 

Tanke lagana To stitch, to solder. 

ndharna 1 , , • i 

!• To be opened or unripped. 

khulna | 

Tan-khwah Wages, an assignment on the revenue. 

bantna | 

. 1 > To distribute pay. 

flar One who receives salary, a holder of an 

order for wages. 

dar-I Receiving pay, service. 

zati Personal allowance. 

T^'*''^ A venereal chancre, a square piece cut 

out of a melon to examine its quality. 

T*"''! A chisel for stone-work. 

Tan^ih Cleaning, polishing, deciding disputes, 

investigation, search, ascertaining. 
Tankiya Purging (medicinally), winnowing grain, 

settlement, decision, clearness. 

Tankna To stitch. 

Tankna To be stitched. 

Tanna To extend, to stretcli, to expand, to pull, 

to knit ^the eyebrows). 

Tambu tanna To pitch tents. 

Tanna To stretch, to pull tight, to sit upright. 

Tansif Bisection. 

'''*''* Cat-gut, sinew, the string of a musical 


bajT aur rag bu.jhri. He understood from the first word. 

bandhna To put to silence an idle talker. 


Tant The crown of the head. 

Tanta A string of camels, horses, a drove, 

train, series. 

Tanta Wrangling, altercation, squabble. 

Tantaua Sound, fame, rumour, pomp, dignify, state. 

Tantana Show of authority, imperiousness, pride, 

childish passion. 

Tantanana To twang, to jingle. 

Tantha Powerful, strong, firm, solid. 

Tantha-i Solidity. 

Tantra Name of a Hindu scripture, (Shastr), 

charm, enchantment. 
Tantri A musician. 

^''"^l The body. 

Tanu J 

Tanur An oven, a stove. 

Tan win Nunation, doubling the vowel with the 

final letter of a word in writing, which 

in pronunciation gives such vowel the 

additional sound of n. 
Taiiz Mirth, joking, pleasantry, ridiculing, 

sneering, taunting. 

an Tauntingly, sneeringly. 

karna To taunt. 

Tanzih Itemoving or separating from all vice or 

impurity, holiness. 
ipanzil Revelation, the Kur'an, causing a traveller 

to alight, receiving him hospitably. 
Tanziui Ordering, arranging, composing verses, 

threading pearls. 

Tanzir Likening, resembling. 

Tanziva Inspiring with desire, desire, propensity. 

Ta'o (p.). Heat, passion, rage, strength, power, 

splendour, dignity, twist, coil, contortion. 
dena To twist, to stroke the whiskers, to heat 

(as iron). 

khana To be heated, to be angry. 

Ta'o (li ) A sheet of paper, proof, trial, assay, speed. 

/pgj.jjg To lieat, to raise heat by blowing with 

bellows, to prove, to assay, to twist. 


Xau Warmth, heat, fever. 

Tap fsj Warmth, prayer, adoration, devotion. 

Ta.v fpj -^ fever. 

charhna To come on (a fever). 

i-dikk A hectic fever. 

i-ghibb A tertian fever. 

ka'nint jana The brealiing out of an eruption on the 

lips after a fever. 

i-larza An ague. 

-i-muhrik An ardent fever. 

i-mnwazaba A quotidian fever. 

i-naubat A intermittent fever. 

ntarna To go oiF (a fever). 

Xai) Spring, leap, bound. 

Tap A stroke with the fore-foot of a horse, 

sound made by a horse's hoofs in tra- 
velling, a frame made of bamboo for 
catching fish. 

Taptap Without ceasing (the sound of falling 

drops or the pattering of rain drop 
after drop successively). 

Tapa A worshipper, an ascetic, a devotee. 

Tapa A hen-coop. 

to'i or -to'iya karna To trifle, to grope, to rummage. 

Tapak Friendship, the anguish of love, solicitude 

of friendship, aifection. 

Tapak Pain, throbbing, sound made by dropping. 

Tapak Affection, esteem, regard, love, zeal, ar- 
dour, also, apparent, cordiality, palpi- 
tation, consternation, affliction, uneasiness. 

Tapakua To throb, to palpitate. 

phoreka The throbbing of a boil, when coming 

to suppuration. 

Tapakua To drop when ripe, to drip, to distil, 

to throb, to palpitate. 

Tapan Heat, glow, fervour, the sun, the hot 


Tapana To heat, to cause to glow, to make another 

person warm himself at tlie fire, or in 
he sun. 


Tapana To pour a libation. 

Tap5s Sunshine, the sunbeams, toil, labour. 


„ , , A devotee, a performer of austere devotion. 

Tapashi ' ^ 

Tapassi machhli The mango-fish. (Polynemns paradisea). 

Tapisli Affliction, agitation, palpitation, heat, 

Tapka A drop of rain, fruit falling when ripe, 

(particularly mangos), a windfall. 

Tapkauii To cause to drip, to distil. 

Tapkao Distillation, dripping. 

Tapna.. To be glorified, to glow, to be heated, 

to frisk about. 
Tapna To paw with the fore feet (as a horse 

expecting his corn), to search in vain. 
Tapna To bask in the sun, or before a fire, to 

warm one's self at a fire, to warm, to heat. 

Tappa A division, district. 

Tappa The post-office, the name of a mode in 

music, the bound of a ball, a jump, 

a bo'.ind, a sort of hook. 

khaua To bound, or ricochet (a shot). 

-inarna To sew or stitch with intervals, to read 

in a desultory manner. 

Tapri A mound, a small height, an acclivity. 

Tapu An island. 

Tapua A plot of a field. 

Tar A thread, a wire, the string of a musical 

instrument, darkness, obscurity. 
baudhua To continue or repeat an action without 


barki The electric telegraph, a telegram. 

i-'ankabut Cobweb. 

kash A wire-drawer. 

kash-i Wire-drawing, a kind of needle-work. 

kai'ua To draw wires. 

tutua To be disjointed, to be separated. 

Tar (s.) The palm tree (Borassns flabelliformis). 

Tar (It.) Understanding. 

baz Intelligent, quick of apprehension. 


Tar-baz-I Quickness of apprehension. 

Tar Moist, wet, fresb, green, young, juicy, a. 

particle, which, added to Persian adjec- 
tives, forms the comparative degree. 

Tar Intoxicated. 

Tara A star, the apple of the eye, the name 

of the wife of Raja Bali. 

maudal The starry sphere. 

Tare ginna To count the stars, i.e., to get no sleep. 

Taraddad Irresolution, hesitation, fluctuating, sus- 
pension of judgment, anxious considera- 
tion, debating, rejecting, contrivance. 

at-i-dnnyavi. . . . Attention to wordly affairs. 

Taradnf Succession, uninterrupted, carrying double 

(a horse). 

Taraf 1 [ Side, margin, corner, quarter, extremity, 

Tarf J I towards, occasion, notice, approach. 

dar A partisan, a follower, a sectary, an 

assistant, partial. 

dar-i Following, partiality. 

i-sani A defendant, an enemy. 

SB On the part of. 

Tarh or tarah Manner, mode, position, establishment, 

ejection, throwing. 

dar Beautiful, graceful, well-shaped. 

dar-I Beauty, elegance, style, grace. 

dena To disregard, to turn a deaf ear to 

pass over. 

dikhaua To show off one's airs and graces, to 


kasli Sketching, imitating. 

Tara'i A marsh, mead, meadow. 

khewa Living in or near water, water-fowl. 

Taraj Plunder, devastation. 

'Tarak The crown of the head, a hill, heap, 

head, top, summit. 

Tarak A beam, a rafter. 

Tarakki Promotion, preferment, advancement, in- 
crease, making progress in learning, 


Tai-akoa To be cracked, to be split. 

TarakrT The beam of a balance. 

Taraknm Heaping together, the being thickly 

collected together. 

Taran The act of freeing, salvation, deliverance. 

Taran Revenue. 

Tarana ) 

. _ _ (■ To cause to pass over or swim, to save. 

Xiraua I 

Tarana Modulation, harmony, voice, song, melody, 

symphony, trill, shake, quaver, a kind 

of song. 

-pardaz Composing songs. 

Tarangr Wave, emotion, whim, conceit, fancy, 

caprice, becoming state and dignity. 
Taraninbm I f Manna (produced from the Hedysarum 

Taraneubin I 1 ^^'i^'sOj ''^'ith some, . honey mixed with 

I lime-juice. 
Tarap Haste, hurry, outrageousness, explosion 

fury, leap, jump. 

Taraph Agitation, tossing about, palpitation. 

_, _ , 1 f To flutter, to palpitate, to be very desirous 

'*apiiiia I I 

about anything, to be agitated, to vv'rithe. 


jump, spring, bound, wriggle, toss 

Taras 1 

^. _ ) Thirst, alarm, fear, terror. 

Tiras I 

ana 1 

_ } To be thirsty. 

-lagna j 

Tarash (In compos :). Cutting, n. cutting, paring, 

cut, shape, form, fashion. 

dalna To pare off or away. 

kharasli Shape (particularly good), neatness of form, 

elegance in dress, erasures, corrections. 

Tarashna To cut, clip, prune, to shape, to cut out. 

Tarashshuh Exuding, dropping (as sweat), dripping, 

distilling, a small rain, drizzling, man- 
ifest, evident. 

houa To drizzle, to appear, to seem. 

Tarash-wana To cause to cut or pare. 

Tarasna To long, to desire anxiously, to pity 

Tar-ba-tar Completely wet. 


Tar-ba-tar hona To drip with wet, to be covered with 

blood . 

Tarbi' Dividing into four, making a quadrangular 

or square figure, (in astronomy) a quad- 
rangular aspect of the stars, a quadrature. 

Tarblyat Education, instruction, tuition, breeding, 


karna To educate, to instruct. 

pazir Docile, tractable. 

yafta Well-trained, well-educated. 


, A water-melon (CucnrWfa citmllns). 

Tarbnz ' 

Tardid Refutation, rebutment, reversal, repelling, 


karua To refute, confute, disprove. 

Tarera The falling of water from a spout, or 

from any height. 

Tar-I Moisture, freshness, sugar. 

se By water. 

Tari (s.) The juice of the jialm tree, (corrupt. 


Tari (h ) Hilt of a dagger. 

Tari (s ) The clapping of hands, a key, abstraction, 

absence of mind, absorption in thought 

or devotion. 

Tar-I (p.) Darkness, obscurity. 

bona To prevail over, overcome, overshadow. 

Ta'rif Explanation, description, praise, praisina:, 


u-I-maj'hnl bi-I- 

maj'hul Explaining in terms as little understood 

as the thing intended to be explained. 

Ta'rif I Commendable, notable. 

Tarik Dark, obscure. 

cbasm Blind-dim-sighted. 

Tarik Leaving, a deserter. 

n-d-dunyii ... Abandoning the world, abstinent, sober, 

chaste, an anchorite, hermit. 
Ta"t Way, road, manner, custom, fashion, rite, 



Tarikat 1 [ ^^'^^' '^^^^' ™'''""^''' ''"stom, rite, religion, 

" _' [ } sect, the better sort of people (Tarikat, 

la peculiar order among the Snfls). 

batana To direct, show the way. 

baratna To work a system. 

i batwara Mode of partition. 

i darbar Eorm of state. 

-i hisab System of accounts. 

i innnasib The proper mode. 

Tarika The apple of the eye, a star. 

Tarikh Date, era, annals, history. 

u-l-hgra The era of the Hijra Cg.v.J 

war Daily, at stated periods. 

Tariiii Any building of a circular form with an 

arched or cupola roof, a wooden struc- 
ture in gardens, where a watchman sits. 

Tarji'-band A kind of stanza in which one line oc- 
curs at stated intervals. 

Tarjih Gaining a superiority, preference, excel- 
lence, pre-eminence. 

-i-bila mnrajjali. . . . Unreasonable preference. 

raklina To excel, to surpass. 

Tarjnma or tarjama Translation, interpretation. 

navis A translator. 

Tark fa.J Abandoning, leaving, deserting. 

i-adab Disrespect. 

Tark CsJ Logic, a proposition in logic. 

Tarka Dawn of day. 

Tarke In the morning early. 

Tarka The estate of a deceased person, a share 

of it. 

i-pidari The paternal estate. 

Tarkari Edible vegetables. 

Tarkash A quiver. 

-band Carrying a quiver. 

Tarke men ana To inherit, succeed, descend, come into 


Tarke men chhorua To leave, bequeath. 

Tarkib Composition, mixture, cement, make, 

form, mechanism. 


Tarkibat Mixtures, compositions. 

-dar Well-formed. 

i Composed, mixed, artful, artificial. 

karna To organize. 

Tarna To pass over, to be ferried, to be saved, 

Tarna To free, to rid, to exempt, to absolve 

from sin, to save. 
Tarna To understand, to conceive, to comprehend^ 

10 guess. 

Tarna ) . , . . „ 

,„■ > Punishment, admonition, reproof, penalty. 

Taran ) x x . 

Tarna karna To reprove. 

TarnI A ship, vessel, boat. 

Tar o taza New, fresh, cheerful, verdant. 

-gi Newness, freshness. 

Tarpan Satisfaction, gratification, an offering of 

three handfuls of water to ancestors. 

Tarpila Haste, hurrying. 

Tarra Wicked, vicious (particularly a horse), 


pan. Violence, roughness. 

Tarrana To chatter, murmur, grumble. 

Tarrar A pick-pocket, a cut-purse. 

Tarrara Sapidity. 

• bharua To gallop. 

Tarrara Quickness, expedition. 

bharna To stretch out, or bound (a horse at full 


--zaban Chattering ceaselessly. 

Tarrari Quickness, fluency of speech, eloquence. 

Tars C/iJ Compassion, mercy. 

khana To compassionate. 

Tars fpj Fear, terror. 

Tarsa A christian, also a guebre, a worshipper 

of fire, a pagan, an infidel. 

bachcha A young fire-worshipper. 

Tarsan Fearful, timid. 

Tarsana To cause, to long, to tantalize, to tease, 

Tars-nak Timid, cowardly. 

Tartars A kind of dish. 


Tartarabat Bluster, boast. 

Tartarana To bluster, to boast. 

Tartarata Very greasy, dripping with, moisture. 

Tar tar karna To tear to pieces. 

Tartib Arrangement, disposition, order, method. 

dena To order, to arrange, to put in order, 

to compose. 

dih One who arranges. 

i-daftar Putting the office paper in order. 

war Regular, methodical, regularly, method- 

Tar tntna. . To break off (V. tar). 

Tarz Form, manner. 

i 'ibarat Construction of a sentence, style. 

i jawab-dilii Line of defence. 

i kalam Diction, phraseology. 

Tasaddnk Giving alms (particularly from a religious 

motive), alms, sacrifice, sacrificing, 

hona To become a sacrifice. 

karna To devote, to sacrifice. 

Tasahul Pardoning, carelessness, apathy, slowness, 

tardy proceedings. 

karna To defer, delay, put ofi", retard. 

Tasalli Consolation, comfort, solace. 

dena To comfort, console, assure, secure, ani- 
mate, exhilarate. 

jbakhsh 1 

,., } Comforting. 

hona To be consoled or comforted. 

Tasalsul Connecting like a chain, association of 

ideas, infinite series, succession, flowing 

(as of water). 

Arguing in a circle, 

Tasamnh Reciprocal indulgence, mutual kindness 

and forgiveness, connivance, double 

Tasanif CplJ Compilations, books. 

Xasaiii'i™ The being, or becoming a Snnni. 


Tasar A. kind of coarse silk, the produce of a 

particular worm (Bomb^x paphia) that 
feeds on the asan (Terminalia alnta 

Tasarruf Possession, use, sway, expidenture, dis- 
posal, embezzlement, extravagance. 


To take or get possession of. 

— men lana I 

Tasarrufat CplJ The sum total of expenses, possessions. 

Tasarruf-i Common provisions given to dependants. 

(Ehassa, being what the master and 

his friends eat). 
Tasauwnf The theology of the Snfls or mystics of 

the east, mystery, contemplation. 
Tasauwnr Imaginining, imagination, contemplation, 

meditation, reflection, fancy, conception, 

preconception, apprehension. 

karna To imagine, to fancy. 

Tasauwurat {plj Ideas. 

Tasblh The act of praising God, a rosary, a 

chaplet of beads (not a Hindu rosary). 

-khana A chapel. 

khwan Saying prayers, a person hired to pray 

for another, a private chaplain. 

khwan-I The office of a chaplain. 

parkna To count the names of God on beads, 

to describe the holiness of God. 
Tasdi' The headache, trouble, perplexity, aflBiction, 

annoyance, vexation, toil. 
dena To incommode, trouble, vex, tease, harass, 

distress, annoy. 

karna To t<ike the trouble. 

Tasdik Verifying, attesting, acknowledging as 

true, appeal. 

i-bila tasauwnr . . . Presupposition. 

karna To testify, to attest, to certify, to verify. 

wala The person attesting, an auditor. 

Tasflya Purifying (particularly tlie mind from ill- 
will), reconciliation, adjustment, disposal. 
■ — karna To reconcile, adjust a dispute, settle. 



Tasghir. . . . : Diminution, a diminutive noun. 

Tashaddud Seizing and holding firmly or by force, 

strong, robust, corroborated, confirmed, 
aggravation, severity, hardship. 

Tashaffi Consolation, becoming calm (after anger), 


Tashblh A simile, comparison, allegory, metaphor 

(liarf-i-tashblh) Adverb of similitude. 

■ dena To assimilate, compare. 

Tashdid Consolidating, corroboration. The name 

of the orthographical mark (") placed 
over letters, which denotes that they 
should be doubled in pronunciation. 

Tashhir Proclaiming, publishing, marking a crim- 
inal, public exposure. 

bona To be publicly exposed in the streets. 

Tas'hif Making an error in writing, writing, 

changing the diacritical points so as to 
alter the pronunciation and meaning of 
a word. 

Tas'Iiih Eectification, correction, verifying, illus- 
trating, attestation. 

-^ karna To amend, correct, verify. 

Tashkhis Distinguishing perfectly, making a correct 

diagnosis valuation, assessment. 

karna To ascertain. 

Taslirif Honouring, exalting, investing with a 

splendid robe. 

arzani farmana ) 

> . . To go, or to come. 
farmana | ■ 

lana To come i _ , . , , 

5 To honour with one s presence, 
lejana To go J 

never said of one's self, except by a king. 

■ i Sharif Tour honour! your presence! 

TashrlU Illustration, explanation, exposition, dec- 
laration, anatomy, dissecting a body, 
skeleton, details. 

karna To enumerate, illustrate, explain, to 


— v/ar In detail, with full particulars. 



I A plattev, basin, ewer, cup, salver. 

Tasht I 1 . . . ' 1. 

Tashtari ■ A small salver, plate, a saucer. 

Tashwisli Confusion, distraction, anxiety, grief, alarm, 

disquietude, apprehension. 

Tasliwlshat (pi J \ rr ui ■ i- 

'^ \ i roubles, anxieties. 

Tashawish J 

Tasir (pi.) Tasirat The making an impression, an effect, 

impression, operation, penetration. 

karna To make an impression, to influence, 

prevail upon. 

Taskhir Imprisoning, taking a strong hold, sub- 
duing, captivating, imprisonment of an 
evil spirit, magic. 

i-knliib Captivating of hearts. 

Taskin Consolation, comfort, pacifying. 

bakhsh Assuasive, mitigating. 

dena.. . To appease, pacify, calm, soothe, assuage. 

hona To be satisfied, consoled. 

Xasla '^ culinary vessel used by Hindus. 

Tasllb Crucifixion. 

Taslim Cpl.J Taslimat .... Delivery, consignment, recommending to 

the care or protection of another, salu- 
tation, homage, health, security. 

karna To salute, to make obeisance, to do 

homage, to accept (most respectfully). 

Taslimat ba-ja lana To make obeisances. 

Tasma A thong, a strap of leather. 

kash A strangler, a mute. 

khainchua To strangle. 

Tasnif Invention, composition. 

Tasanif (pi.) 1 , -x 

!• Literary compositions. 

Tasnifat ) ^ 

Tasrif Conjugation, declension, inflection (in 

grammar), changing, turning, converting. 

Tasrih.... Evidence, manifestation. explanation, 

narration, description. 

Tassu An inch. 

Taswid Making black, the draft of a letter, a 

rough copy, a sketch, plan, delineation. 


Taswir A picture, an image. 

To draw, delineate, paint. 

Tat Father, warm, hot. 

Xat Canvass, sack-cloth, a coarse hemp cloth, 

a counter. 

-Ihaf A weaver of canvass, a maker of embroidery. 

baf-i Embroidery. 

Tata Hot, heating (food). 

Tatabl)u' Following, imitation, continuation. 

karna.. To search diligently, to explore, to examine, 

to follow, to imitate. 

Tata thai Beating time in music or dancing. 

Tatak Juggling. 

Ktal I Tj . 

\ Hot, warm. 

Tati J 

Tatank An ornament worn in the ear. 

Tath True, right. 

Tatha Power, ability, might. 

Tatihra A sand-piper (Tringa goensls). 

Tatimma An appendix, a supplement, continuation. 

i-khatt A postcript. 

Tatka Fresh, new, recent. 

Tatolna To feel for, to grope, to search for by 

feeling, to touch. 

Tatpai* Engaged, attentive, addicted to, adept. 

Tatparj The apprehension of an implied wish or 

thought, need. 

Tatpnnji A man of little means. 

Tatta Hot, warm, zealous, fiery, passionate, 

furious, outrageous, wrathful. 

Tatta A skreen. 

Tattar A matted shutter. 

TattI — I a skreen, placed at 

doors and windows, made of strips of 
bamboo, painted and letting in the light ; 
sometimes made of khas, (a grass, an- 
dropogon maricatnm), excluding light, 
and wetted to cool the hot air, passing into 
the room from the outside, a necessary. 


Tattu -A- pony, a small horse. 

Tatwani mare. 

Xaulta Penitence, conversion, promising to sin 

no more. 

karna To repent. 

dhar The sound of punishing. 

tauba Tush! fie! foh! 

torna To break one's vow. 

--shikan Unfaithful. 

-shikani Unfaithfulness. 

Tanbikh Reproach, speaking harshly, threatening. 

Tauf Surrounding, making the circuit, pil- 
grimage, the procession round the temple 
of Mecca. 

Taufik (pi. Tanf ikat) . . . The completion of one's wishes, the divine 

grace, the favour of God. 

bakhshna To grant a favour. 

Tanf ir Increasing, perfecting, increase, excess, 

perquisites, a supernumerary. 

Tauhid Unity, believing in the unity of God. 

Tanhin Enervating, relaxing, scoffing, disgrace, 


karna To insult, to dishonour. 

Taujlh Galling one's attention, explaining, ac- 
counting for, adjustment of accounts, 
assessment, a description roll. 

TaBJih navis A keeper of description rolls. 

Tauk A collar, yoke, necklace, chain for the 

neck, for ornament or punishment, a ring. 

i-zanjir Irons, manacles. 

zanjir karna To imprison, to put in irons. 

Taukir Honouring, respecting, treating with 


Taul or tol Weight, weighing. 

tal Weighing and measuring. 

Tanlnti or tolua To weigh, to balance, to confront (as 

two armies). 

Tan'am A twin. 

Tanus Thirst, great thirst. 

Tannsna To be affected or overcome with heat. 


Taur Mode, manner, way, condition, state. 

tarlka Ways, manners, deportment. 

Taiirit or tanret The pentateuch. 

Ta'ns A peacock. 

Tansau A horse, war-horse, a young unbroken 


Ta'ns-i Peacock-shaped. 

-i takht-i A peacock throne of the emperors of Delhi. 

Tausif ])escription, praise, commendation. 

Tanzili Manifestation, a statement, account, de- 
scriptive roll. 

Tawa The iron plate on which bread is baked, 

the part of the l^nkka in which the 
tobacco is placed, or the tobacco itself, 
an iron mirror. 

Tawaf (V. Tauf ). Turning, encompassing, pil- 
grimage, making the circuit of a pillar 
oftheKa'ba, or sacred temple of Mecca. 

Tawa'lf (pi. of Ta'ifa) . . . People, nations, troops, bands (particu- 
larly of dancing girls), 

Tawajjuh Turning towards, regarding, attending to, 

kindness, favour, obligingness, condesc- 

Tawajud Mutual ecstaoy, rapture. 

Tawakku' Expectation, hope, desire, wish, trust, 

reliance, request. 

Tawakknf Delay, pause, hesitation, tediousness, 


Tawakknl Trust in (lod, reliance, faith in or res- 
ignation to the divine will or destiny. 

karna To resign to God. 

Tawallnd Birth, born, generated. 

hona To be born. 

Tawan Eetaliation, recompense, debt, fine, loan 

(tawan is used in opposition to Klsas, 
and means the price paid for blood). 

-bandhna 1 

, _ \ To fine, to mulct, to amerce. 

lena J 

dena To pay a penalty or damages. 

dilana To adjudge damages. 


Tawan-1 Compensation, debt, fine, loan. 

Tawan Power, strength. 

Tawana Powerful. 

Tawan-gar Kich, opulent, powerful. 

Tawan-i Compensation, debt, fine, loan. 

Tawarikh (pi. of Tarikh). Dates, histories, annals. 

Tawarnd Unintentionally inserting the sense of 

another in one's own poems, correspond- 
ing by letter, when two persons think 
the same thing, succession of ideas. 

Tawassul Conjunction, introduction to another per- 
son, means, intervention. 

Tawassnt Mediation, introduction, an introducer, 

a mediator. 

Tawattun Fixing one's residence in a foreign country. 

Tawatnr Continuation, succession. 

Tawaju' Humility, attention, pretended kindness, 

empty compliments. 

1-sainarkandI False politeness, pretended kindness, 

empty compliment. 

i-shiraz Simple fare, homely diet. 

karna To entertain, receive, present, offer. 

Tawayjn Performing the ablution before prayer, 

arriving at the age of puberty when the 
ablution must be performed. 

Tawela A stable, stall. 

Tawil Explanation, elucidation, interpretation, 


Ta'wiz Having recourse to the deity, asking 

protection, a charm, an amulet. 

Ta'u or taya Paternal uncle. 

Tayakknn Ascertaining, ascertainment, certainty. 

Tayammum Purifying before prayer with sand or 

dust, when water cannot be had. 

Taza Fresh, new, young, green, tender, raw, 

fat, happy, pleased. 

ba-tiiza Fresh and blooming. 

dam Good spirits, hilarity, cheerfulness. 

liona To be in good case, to increase, to 



Taza-kar , Making fresh or anew, beginner, renewer. 

kar-i Presh or new work. 

-kJiiyal Imagining what is new or fresh, an 


warid A newcomer. 

Taza-g'i Freshness, plumpness, fatness, tenderness, 

greenness, pleasure. 
Tazallum Groaning under oppression, injustice, 


Tayarru' Supplication, lamenting. 

Taj'hik Mocking, derision, ridicule. 

Tazi Arabian or Arabic, Arabian (horse). 

khana A dog-kennel. 

-kntta A greyhound. 

Taji' Spoiling, wasting, idling away time. 

— ; — -i-ankat Idling away time, ennui, weariness. 

Tay'if Doubling. 

Tazik A horse of mixed breed. 

Ta'zil iiemoving or deposing from an office. 

Ta'zim Eeverence, respect, honour, treating with 

ceremony and respect, honouring, gen- 
tility, politeness. 

karnii To honour, to reverence, to show respect. 

Ta'zir Punishment, correction, reproof, censure, 


Ta'zirat (pi.) Reproofs, censures, punishments. 

i-Hind Indian Penal Code. 

Ta'ziya The representation of the tomb of Hasan 

and Hnsain, which is thrown into the 

river at the anniversary of the Mu- 

harram (q.v.) 

— ^ dar I f One who observes the mourning in the 

gir j I Muharram. 

dar-i The observance of Muharram. 

khana The place of ta'ziya. 

thanda karna .... To bury a . 

lena To observe the mourning during he 

Mnharram, to go into mourning. 

Ta'ziyana A whip, scourge. 

marna To apply the whip, to scourge. 


Ta'ziyat Condolence, lamentation, mourning. 

-nama A letter of condolence. 

liaKkir Masculine gender. 

Tazkira Mention. 

Tegh A scimitar. 

ba-katf Sword in band. 

zan A swordsman, a user of a scimitar. 

zatt-i Use of the scimitar. 

Tesha A short, broad scimitar. 

numa A sword like a scimitar. 

Tehar Name of an ornament of dress (perhaps 

a bracelet). 

Tej Splendour, glory, refulgence, strength, 


man Glorious. 

Tek A prop, pillar, reliance, promise, vow. 

rahna To lean upon. 

Tekan A prop, support. 

Tekna To support, to prop. 

Xpkai* I 

_[ A height, a rising ground. 

1.6Kxa I 

Tel Oil. 

Tell Name of a caste whose business is to 

sell oil, an oil-man. 

-tamboli Low caste people, the dregs of society. 

Telin Wife of an oilman. 

Teliya Name of a colour — dark bay. 

surang Light bay coloured. 

Telna To remove. 

Teln'a A beam. 

Tem Snuff of a candle, the flame of a candle 

or lamp. 

Tendu The name of a fruit (Diospyros ebennm). 

TeMu'a A leopard. 

T*ii A particular breed of fowls, tiny, small. 

T«»t The ripe fruit of Karil, (Cap]>ari8). a 

speck on the eye. 

T'^'^t^'* An imitative sound, an inarticulate sound. 

karna To screech like a parrot. 



Tentu'a The windpipe, the throat. 

Te'o Habit, custom. 

Te'ohar A holiday, a festival. 

1 Present made, at a festival. 

Te'oBa To sharpen. 

Te'orana To have a swimming in the head, to be 

faint, to stagger, to fall down sengeless 

from a blow. 
Te'oras The third year past or to come, year 

before last, year after the next. 

Te'orl Frown. 

bigarna To get displeased. 

charhana To frown. 

Tepchi A kind of stitch. 

Ter Tune, voice, sound, cry. 

Tera A curtain, squint-eyed. 

Tera The trunk of a tree, an instrument for 

twisting coarse thread or twine. 

liilana To be afflicted with the venereal disease. 

Tera Thy, thine. 

mera karna To dispute about property, to fight over 

Terah Thirteen. 

wan Thirteenth. 

win The thirteenth, the thirteenth day after 

death when the last oi the funeral rites 

is performed. 

Terha , Crooked, bent, uneven. 

bera Crooked. 

bona To be crooked, displeased, angry. 

karna To bend, crook. 

-pan Crookedness. 

Terbl Pride, vanity, haughtiness. 

-khir A difficult matter. 

snnana To give an impudent answer. 

Terna To bawl, to roar to, to call loudly, to 

shout, to tune. 
Tesu The blossoms of the palls tree. (Bntea 

frondosa), a kind of play. 
Tetak manjha Difficulty, embarrassment. 


Tewa Calculation of nativity, habit, custom. 

Tewar The forehead, look, shape. 

badalna To change colour or countenance, to turn 

away one's countenance. 
bigarna To change countenance when dying, to 

be in the agonies of death. 

Tewar Swimming or giddiness in the head. 

Tez Sharp, pungent, acute, hot, strong, 

impetuous, violent, swift. 
ab Nitrous acid, aqua fortis. 

'akl I 

fahm ) 

Intelligent, quick of apprehension. 

■liosh ) 

kadani 1 „.„.,. 

> bwitt, quick fast-gomg. 

gam-I • Swiftness. 

nakhnn Sharp-nailed. 

par High-flying, swift-flying. 

pat Name of an aromatic plant (Lanrns cassia). 

raftar ) v . ■ 

} J^ast-gomg. 

rau J 

-ran-I Rapidity, swiftness. 

tab' Quick of apprehension. 

Tezak Cress, cresses. (Lepidinm sativam). 

Tez-i Sharpness, strength, swiftness. 

T^a A sound made by striking one thing on 

Tliadda Standing, the beak, the back stick of a 

paper kite. 
T^S 1 f A robber, an assassin by strangling, a 

Thagiya J | cheat, swindler, imposter. 

bazi 1 

jjjj g f • ■ • Cunning, fraudulent, art, dexterity. 


, , To rob, to cheat. 

■lana ' 

lena To cheat. 

Thagana To be cheated. 

Thag-na To cheat, to deceive. 

Tliag-)u A female robber or cheat. 

Thag-ori Cheat, trick. 


Thah. . . Bottom, ford. 

Thaliaka A peal, a succession of land sounds, an 

M mulakat Meeting with great demonstrations of 

Thaharua To be stopped, to be fixed, to stop, to 

stay, to be settled, to be determined, 

to be proved. 
Tliahrana To fix, stop, determine, appropriate, 

settle, ascertain, appoint, fix on, prove, 

I'habra'o Settlement, fixture, permanency, appro- 
priation, proof. 

Thai Place, firm or dry ground. 

bera Place of abode, one's whereabouts. 

Thaila | 

Tiiaili > A purse tied round the waist, a bag. 

ThaUiya j 

\ Clot, lump (congealed). 

XiiaKKa j 

Thaka Tired, weary. 

Thakana To tire, harass, weary. 

Thakke ke thakke Conglomerated, stuck, congealed. 

Thakit Wearied, stopped, motionless, astonished. 

Thakna To be wearied, to tire, to fatigue. 

Thakna To fatigue, to be tired. 

Thak thak Sound, hard work, very wet, drenched. 

Thaknr A divinity, an idol, a lord, master, chief 

(among Bajputs), a title of respect, a 

landholder, a barber. 

— ■ dwara An idol temple. 

sewa Grant of revenue for maintaining the 

worship of an idol. 

Thaknra'i Divinity, lordship, chiefship, mastership. 

Thakurani A thakur's wife. 

Thakurayan A female divinity or idol. 

Thai A large flat dish. 

TJiala The place at the root of a tree for 

holding water, the excavation in which 

a tree is to be planted, a large flat dish. 


Thai thai Loose, hanging, shaking, flabby. 

Xham '■ A prop, a support, an obstacle. 

!( To support, prop, shield, protect, shelter, 
I prevent, withold, restrain, stop, pull up 
I (a horse), bear, assist, resist. 

Xhan A piece of cloth, a stall for cattle, a 

manger, a piece of coin. 

Than Udder. 

Thana A station, (as police), a guard, the inside 

of the lines of an army. 

..dar The head constable. 

Thana A heap of bamboos. 

Thand Coldness, a cold. 

'- a Cold. 

hona To become cold, to be extinguished, to 

be comforted or pacified, to rest, to 
lose virility. 

karna.. To make cold; to extinguish, comfort, 

assuage, pacify. 

parna To abate (anger, virility or wantonness). 

(Kaleja thanda hona). ... To be pleased, to be happy (by seeing 

a friend or relation), to have one's 
revenge gratified. 

Thanda-T Refrigerant medicine, the intoxicating 

drug made of bhang. 

Thandak Coldness. 

Thand-i Cold. 

sans bharni To sigh. 

Thande thande In the cool of the morning or evening, 

at dawn or dusk. 
Thand-i ganniyan Lukewarmnless, a show of love, pre- 
tended affection. 

Thang A den of thieves. 

-i A receiver of stolen goods. 

Thanna To resolve, determine, be intenton, intend, 

set one's heart on, settle, perform. 

Thanna To be fixed, to be ascertained. 

Thaiisna Tb stuff, to cram. 

Thanthan Dingdong, tingle. 

Thanthanana To jangle, rattle. 


Thauw I 

Tha'oii I Place, residence. 

Thaur J 

Thap A tap, pat, flap, a paw, the sound of a 

small drum. 

Tliap-a A mark of a paw. 

Thap-i The noise of tapping, the instrument 

with which potters beat their earth, or 
with which the earthen floors of rooms 
and terraces are beaten (made of wood). 

Tliapna To beat, tap (floors, walls, terraces), to 

patch (as a wall, floor, with cow-dung), 
a religious ceremony performed at a cer- 
tain season, at Agra and in its vicinity. 

Thappa An instrument for stamping leather with, 

a die, stamp. 

■ dena 1 

_ _ ? To coin, to stamp, to clap against a wall. 

ia^aua I 

Tharra A kind of wine or spirituous liquor, a 

kind of shoe worn by villagers. 

Tharrana ., To tremble, quiver. 

Thar thar Trembling. 


Tliartharahat , 

} Shaking, tremor. 


Thartharana To tremble, quiver, shiver, shake. 

Thas, this or thus An imitative sound, as of a musket ill 

charged, a flashing in the pan. 

Thasa thas Filled, crowded. 

Thasak State, dignity. 

Thasakna To break or chip off a piece of earthen- 
ware, without completely destroying the 

Thasna To stuff, cram, to ram down the charge 

of a gun. 

^ The frame of a roof on which the straw 

That 1 . , ., 

* IS laid, arrangement, admstment, thathri 

Thatthar > • • 

also means the shell of a house, a bier, 

a skeleton, a very thin person. 

Thath Throne;, crowd. 


Thath Slate, dignity, pomp, equipage, conven- 
ience, plenty. 

Thathakna 1 J To stop short, stand amazed, draw bock 

Thithakna j \ in surprise, shrink, stagnate. 

Thathana To strike, beat, beat one's own head (in 

token of vexation), to harass one's self. 

That badalua To change one's posture or attitude. 

Thathera A brazier, tinker. 

Thathere tliathere ki 

badla'i A bargain between two people, equally 

acute and knowing, diamond cut diamond. 

ThatI 1 A . . I. 

i A trust, charge. 

ThathT ) ^ 

Thathol I I Waggish, jocular, jocose, a jester, banterer, 

Thathor j | wag. 

Thatholi Fun, humour, sport, joking. 

Tliattha Pun, sport, joking, jest, name of a place. 

karna | _ . . , , . , ,.,.,., 

> To lest, loke, crack a joke, deride, ridicule. 

mama ) 

Tliattlie-baz A jester, a humorous person, a funny 

fellow, jocular. 

-baz-i Jesting, sporting, joking, fun. 

men urana To make a jest of, to ridicule. 

Tliawa'i A mason, bricklayer, architeet. 

Thek A support, prop, a large sack filled witli 

Tlieka A plug. 

Theka 1 

■ i Hire, fare, contract, a resting place. 

bajana To play an accompaniment. 

baud! A form or lease, held on lease. 

dena To give out by the job. 

i daimi A lease in perpetuity. 

lena To take, or enter into, a contract, to 

take out a license. 
pesligi A lease or form of which the rent is 

paid in advance. 

Tliel A hand cart. 

Thela A push, a shove. 

theli Shoving and shouldering. 


Thelam thela The pushing and shoving of a crowd. 

Thelna To push, to shove, to move forward by 


Thenth Pure, genuine, contentious. 

Thenthi A cork, a plug, a ball of ear-wax, a 

dhoti (q.v.) 

Thepi A cork, a plug. 

mniih men dena . . To be silent. 

Thes A knock, a blow, a shove, push, thrust, 

tripping against a stone. 

Thesna To pierce, knock against, stuff, cram, 

ram in, to eat ravenously. 

Thesra Sneer, innuendo, oblique reflection. 

Tliik Exact, even, accurate, complete, just, fit, 

proper, reasonable, true, regular, right, 

parsimonious, sum, addition, exactly. 

ana To fit, correspond, suit, answer. 

banana Tochastise, bring to one's senses or bearing. 

karna To put to right, to correct, to adjust. 

manna To receive, allow, admit the accuracy of, 


samajh Sound mind, sound. 

Thik thak I 

• _ > Exact, fit, accurate, properly, accurately. 

thik j 

wakt Point of time, the nick of time. 

Thikam thik Exactly, truly, rightly. 

Thikam thlka Abuse. 

Thikana Eesidence, place, station, abode, dwelling. 

dhnndhna To seek a residence or employment. 

karna To accouat, to search or trace an affair 

to its commencement. 
lagana To establish, to settle, to prove, to find 

out one's residence. 
Thikane lagana To put to death, to kill, to waylay, to 

make away with, to assassinate. 
lagna To be killed, to die, to be put an end 

to, to be terminated. 
Thikra An earthen vessel, a fragment of one (a 

shard), a vessel used by fakirs for 

carrying fire. 


Thiliya A water-pot, pitcher. 

Thinak 1 , , 

\ A sob. 

Thnnak J 

Thinakna ) „ 

\ To sob. 

Thunakna J 

Thingna Of small stature, middle-sized. 

Thirakna To dance with expressive action and 


Thirkana To cause to dance. 

Thirna To settle. 

Thithak The state of standing amazed. 

To stop short. 

Thithakna F. Thatliakna. 


Numbness, chilliness. 

Thithnrna 1 „ , , , , .„ 

' .'. . > io be numbed, chill. 

Thithirna J 

Thok Amount, heap, ready money, share, portion. 

dar A wholesale dealer. 

Thokar A blow, stroke, thump, clash, tripping, 

a stumble, a kick, a stumbling block, 
Thokar khana To trip, to stumble, to meet with a loss 

or misfortune. 

lagna To strike the foot against anything. 

Thola A cup for the food and drink of a bird 

in a cage, the knuckles. 

marna To strike with the knuckles. 

Thouk bajake After close examination, openly. 

lena To sound, to try, to examine coin. 

— " dena To hammer, or drive down, to knock. 

Thonkna To knock, to hammer, to drive (as a stake), 

to thrust with the finger, to drive, to 

beat, to thump, to punish. 
Thop An ornament at the end of the bamboo 

of a palkl, head, topping. 

Thopi Box, thump. 

Thopiyana To trickle. 

'•'''"P"" To support, to prop, to plaster, to pile, 

to heap. 


Thor ) I A little, small, scarce, seldom, some, less, 

Thora ) \ a few. 

balint More or less. 

thora A little, by degrees. 

hona To feel one's self small, to be ashamed, 

to shrink with shame. 

dinou se A short time ago. 

se thora Very little. 

Thorl \ n,. 1- 

• • \ The chin. 

Thorhi J 

Mieu hath dena. . . To chuck under the chin, to soften, to 


Thos Solid. 

Thosa The thumb presented in token of denial 

(peculiar to women). 

Thuk Spittle. 

chatna To break one's promise. 

lagakar chhorna. ... To treat with sovereign contempt. 

lagana To apply spittle. (A term of abuse and 

most indecent meaning.) 

Thukna To spit. 

Thiikrana To kick or strike with the toes. 

Thumak The act of waving or walking with a 

graceful easy air. 
"Chal A dignified pace, stately gait, graceful 

Thumakna To walk with grace and stateliness, to 

walk with dignity. 

Thnmka Short, of low stature. 

Thunikl Lazy, the playing or jerking of a paper 

kite to keep it up when the wind is light. 

Xhuni A post, pillar, column. 

Tidda A grasshopper. 

Tiddi A locust. 

Tidhar There, in that direction. 

Tidhara The name of a plant (Enphorbla anti- 

qnorum), the meeting of three streams. 

Xifl An infant, a child, a young animal. 

Tifl-i Infancy. 

Tighalna To be melted, to rarefy. 



TigUaua To melt, dissolve. 

Tisrnn A lone in music. 

Tignna Three-fold. 

Tiha'i • The third part. 

Tibayat A third person, a court of inquiry, three 

or four persons by whom any cause is 
arbitrated, an arbitrator. 

Tihi Empty, vain. 

Tihidast Empty-handed, poor. 

Tihldasti Poverty, penury. 

Tihi-dimagh Ignorant. 

TIj The third day of a lunar fortnight. 

Tija The third day after the death of a rela- 
tion, on which oblations are offered. 

Tijarat Trade, commerce, traffic. 

i bahrl Commerce. 

-i Mercantile, commercial, trade. 

Tijarl A tertian fever or ague. 

A commentary, inoculation, a mark made 

Tika 1 I on the forehead by Hindns, an ornament 

Tilak I worn on the forehead, the nuptial gifts 

or engagement. 

Tilak bhejna To send the nuptial gifts, which are 

presented by the relations of the bride 
to the bridegroom. 

lena To accept nuptial gifts. 

Tikana To retain, to fix in any place, to stop, 

to billet, to lodge, to station. 

Tikas 1 

' _ ( Tax, house-tax, income-tax, duty, toll. 

xaKa 1 I 

Tika'o Stability, residence. 

Tikat Stamp, ticket, pass, passport. 

cliaspan Paid, stamped. 

Tikha Pungent, angry, passionate, sharp, pene- 

Tikharna To confirm, to prove, to establish by 

argument, to question closely, ask 

searching questions, to plough three times. 

Tiki I 

^.. . - ! A small loaf of bread. 


Tikki lagana To form a connection, to make interest, 

to earn a scanty livelihood. . 
Tlkiya A small cake, a little cake of charcoal 

for the hnkka, a wafer, a holus. 

Tikkar A thick loaf of bread. 

Tikll A wafer, a small round cake, an ornament 

worn on the forehead. 
Tikna To stop, to remain . in any place, to be 

Til The seed of the sesamum, or name of 

the plant (Nesamnm orientale), a mole 

on the face, a moment, an instant, 

pupil of the eye. 

ka tel Sesamum oil. 

tU Little by little. 

Til A young hen, a woman (so named in 

TQa A rising ground, a small hill, a hillock, 

a ridge. 

Tila Gold, gold fringe. 

-baf-i Gold tissue. 

kar A gilder. 

kar-i Gilding. 

Tila An ointment, embrocation, a liniment. 

Tilak CsJ The mark which Hindus make on their, 

forehead, a commentary. 
Tilak CpJ A gown. 

dhari One who wears the tilak. 

Tilanga An inhabitant of Tailang, in which the 

first soldiers were clothed and disciplined 
in the European manner ; hence, a soldier. 

Ti-lara. An ornament of three strings worn round 

the neck. 

Tilawa 1 ^t. , , i ■ i , 

> Niarht-watch, rounds, picket. 

TUaya J a > > i- 

Tilawat 1 . ( Meditation, reading (particularly the 

Talawat | | Knr'an, as an act of religion). 

TUa-yana Golden. 


. _,,.-■- A talisman. 
Tilsam f^Z. Tilismat) 


Tilismat-i Talismanic. 

Tilla The golden border of a turban. 

-dan-i A housewife, or small bag for holding 

needles* and threat. 

Timar Care, attention, regimen of the sick, 

infirmity,sickness, indisposition,afflietion. 

Tiinsal Eesemblance, picture. 

Timtain Dressing. 

Timtiin A sound. 

Timtimahat A faint light, a twinkling. 

Timtimana To give a faint light. 

Tln-panch Three and five, contension, dispute, 


karna To quarrel. 

-terah Dispersed, scattered, ruined. 

karna To rout or scatter to the winds, to dissipate. 

Tinakna To flutter, palpitate, throb. 

Tinat Nature, disposition, tenor. 

nek Good-natured. 

Xinka A straw, a bit of the stalk of grass. 

dantoii men lena . . To make submission, confess inferiority, 

ask for quarter. 

na To be robbed of the smallest coin. 

Tinke chnnne {Lit. to pick straws), to be intoxicated. 

Tip A note of hand, a cheque, drawing a card, 

raising the voice in singing. 

lena To draw a card. 

tap Ornament. 

Tipna To press, compress, squeeze, grope, feel. 

TIr An arrow, the planet Mercury, the fourth 

solar month of the Persian year, cor- 
responding to the Hindi Sawan, a beam, 
an archer. 

-andaz An archer. 

-audaz-i Archery. 

baran A punishment in wliich the culprit is 

shot with arrows. 

chalana To shoot an arrow. 

gar A maker of arrows. 

gar-T The manufacture of arrows. 


TTr-kari The piercing of the body by an arrow. 

khaki A light, small-headed arrow. 

khm-da Wounded by an arrow. 

partab Within bow-shot. 

y*i An archer. 

i-nawak An arrow discharged through a tube. 

Tiras 1 

rpp^g r Thirst, alarm, fear, terror. 

ana 1 

lagna f ^° ^^ *''"-«*y- 

Tiri bin Dispersed. 

Tiriya ) 

ijipjyg j A woman, maid, female, wife. 

"^* The science ofwomen, knowledge of women. 

eharitr Female wiles. 

•"'y Petticoat government. 

T"'^"' A trident, a three-pointed pike or spear 

(especially that borne by Shiya, and 
placed at the top to temples to the god). 
Tirth i 

TTvatli I Pilgrimage, a sacred place, sacred water. 

jatra To go on a pilgrimage. 

jatri A pilgrim. 

karna To go on a pilgrimage. 

r^* The city of Ilahabad. 

Tiryak Treacle (in Hindustan, opium), an antidote 

to every disease. 

Tishna Thirst, temptation. 

lab One whose lips are dried on account of 


Tisi Flax. 

Tita Bitter, pungent, hot. 

Tltar A partridge. 

Titar bitar Scattered, out of order. (V. Tiri biri). 

Tith A lunar day. 

Titimba Obstacle, impediment, stratagem. 

Tiwari A sect of Brahmans entitled to read 

three Vedas. 

Toh Spying, watching, espionage. 

lagana To trace, to find out. 


Tok Hindrance, prevention, the influence of 

an evil eye. 

rok 1 

tak I 

Hindrance, prevention. 

Tokna To interrogate, to prevent, to challenge, 

to envy, to accost, to look at with an 
evil eye. 

Tokra A large basket (without a lid). 

Tokri A small basket (without a lid). 

Tol A company, society, hamlet. 

marua To dash one top against another- while 

in motion. 

Tol or taul Weight, weighing. 

Tanl-tal Weighing and measuring. 

Tola A denomination of weight, consisting of 

a number of mashas, which varies in 
different parts of India. The standard 
tola, or sicca weight of Calcutta is 
121/2 mashas as follows: 
4 Fanks.. 1 Dhan or Grain. 
4 Dhan... 1 Ratti Gr. Tr. 1,79666 

8 Kattl. . . 1 Masha 1 4,37333 

121/2 Mashas. 1 Tola 179,6666. 

Tolna I j To weigh, balance, to confront (as, two 

Tanlna J 1 armies). 

nazrou meii To estimate the work of any one. 

Toman A myriad, 10,000, a sum of money equal 

to 1 0,000 Arabic silver drachmas (which 
are about one third less than those of 
the Greeks), a sum of money equal to 
fifteen dollars and a half, districts into 
which a kingdom is divided, each being 
supposed to furnish 1 0,000 fighting men. 

Top A hat, cap, helmet, thimble, bait, stitch. 

Top-i A hat. 

wala One who wears a hat, or an animal with 

a comb, a term used to designate Per- 
sian, Moghal, and European troops, and 
still applied to the latter and to Euro- 
peans, generally in India. 


Top A cannon, gun. 

andaz A cannonier. 






khana A park of artillery, the place where cannon 

and artillery stores are kept. 

To cannonade. 

„ _ _ I To have buried, to cause to cover. 

Tupana ' 

Top-chI A conductor of artillery, a commissary 

of ordonnance. 

Topna To bury, to cover. 

Topra A fly, a kind of pigeon. 

Tor The breach made by a gun, the strength 

of a current, whey. 

dalna To break, destroy, pull down. 

dena To break, spoil. 

jor Catting out (as by a tailor), arranging 

a speech. 

karna To make a breach (as a ball). 

lena To gather, to pluck. 

phor Breaking, plain speaking. 

tar Breaking and destroying. 


A net thrown over a woman's palki. 
Tor ' 

Xora A. number of trays, containing various 

dishes of food, presented to others by 
great men, a nobleman, a minister, pride. 

-bandi The arrangement or sending out of trays 

of food as presents. 

posh A covering for dishes. 

Xora Scarcity, want, a purse, a bag containing 

one thousand rupees, the match of a 
. gun, a bank, bar, an island, a plough- 
share, a piece of rope, an ornament 
like a chain. 

Xor5 A ledge, projecting from a wall to keep 

ofC rain, eaves. 


Tore-dar A matchlock. 

Tori Mustard seed, till, up to. 

Tori 1 f The name of a vegetable, a kind of 

Tnra'i J | cucumber. (Cacnmis acntangnlns). 

Tori The name of a musical mode or ragini. 

Torna To break, to change (as, coin). 

(dam ) To be at the point of death. 

(roti ) To eat the bread of idleness. 

Torna jorna (To break and to join) expresses absolute 

power over anything. 

Tosha Provision (particularly of a traveller, or 

that which is carried with the funeral 
of a deceased person, to support him 
during his journey to the other world). 

khana A wardrobe, a place where furniture is 


Tota A parrot, the cock of a gun. 

chasm Parrot-eyed, faithless as a parrot. 

palna To nurse a sore, to conceal a foul disease. 

sa bolna To prattle, talk sweetly. 

Tota Loss, deficiency, a cartridge, a candle's end. 

Totka A charm, an amulet, a philter. 

Totla Lisper, stutterer, stammerer. 

Totlana 1 

Tutlana j P' ^° ^"^ imperfectly. 

Trah, trahi Mercy ! save ! 

or trahi kar Calling out for deliverance or mercy. 

or karna .... To complain, to repent of a sin, to cry 

out for mercy. 

Tran Safety, a coat of. mail. 

karna To free, to protect. 

karta A saviour, a deliverer 

Treta The name of the second Hindu jug, the 


Tri-beai {Lit. three tresses), the conflux of three 

sacred rivers, especially that of the 
Ganges, Jamnna, and supposed Saras- 
wati underground, at Ilahabad (the 
ancient Prag). 

Tribhanga Standing awry, an epithet of Krishna. 


Ti'ibhauga-1 Name of a species of partical measure. 

Tribhuwan The three worlds, viz., heaven, earth, and 

the infernal regions, the universe. 

ujagar Splendour of the three worlds. 

Trilochau Having, three eyes, an epithet of Shiva. 

Tri-iiiurti Trinity, the three principal Hindu deities. 

Trin Grass. 


ra 1 

A building with three doors or arches. 

Tripund Three marks made across the forehead 

as a religious sign. 

Trishna Thirst, desire, avarice. 

Trlya (V. tiriya). 

Tii'ar A. kind of pulse (Cytisus cajau). 

Tiiba The name of a tree in paradise, whose 

fruit is said to be most delicious, 
excellent, sweet. 

Tnbhak The sound of water dropping, sound of 


Tuchh Void, empty, contemptible, despicable, 


Tnchha A rake, a blackguard. 

Tnda or toda A mound, heap, stack, butt or mark at 

which arrows are shot. 

band! Marking of boundaries. 

e-tnfan Accusing, charging with crime, a calum- 

Tnfail A parasite, glutton, an uninvited guest, 

through the agency of. 

Tnf an An inundation or deluge, a storm, tem- 
pest, hurricane. 

ana To blow a hurricane, to come on (a deluge 

or flood). 

jorna To blame, to censure. 

khara karna To slander. 

-tiraz-I Deluge-making, a quarrelsome person. 

nthana To make a great noise. 

Tnfang A musket (properly any tube through 

which a thing is blown). 

Tuf an-I Quarrelsome, boisterous. 


Tuf ullyat Infancy, childhood. 

Tughyan Eebellion, sedition, perverseness, insolence. 

^-1 Excess, overflowing, inundation. 

Tuhf a A curiosity, a present, rare, uncommon, 

excellent, admirable, nice, choice, beau- 
tiful, wonderful, odd, singular. 

-gi Excellence, rarity, beauty. 

■i'^^^P^A Presents. 

tahaif ) 

Tuhmat Suspicion, accusation, charging one with 

a crime, suspicion of guilt, calumny, 

slander, aspersion. 

Tuhmat dena I r., , , , . 

(• To slander, calumniate. 

■ lagana ) 

Tnhmat-i Suspicious, ignominious. 

Tnhmtan Brave, an epithet of Rustam in tlie 


Tuhr Purification, purity, cleanliness. 

Tnjjar PI. of tajir, a merchant, used in the 

singular in Hindustan, 

Tuk One line of a poem, a rhyme, a moment. 

Tuk I j A piece, a little, a particle, a bit, an 

Tnka j | atom, a single beat of a drum. 

Tuklim Seed, an egg, sperm, a testicle. 

i-bad Low-bred. 

-i-balangn 1 f Seeds, which when infused, yield a cooling 

i-raihan J ") drink. 

i-kahu Seed of lettuce. 

-i-kaian Linseed. 

-rezi Scattering seed, sowing. 

Tukhma Indigestion. 

Tukka A sort of arrow blunt at the end, a 

small hill, an eminence. 

Tukma A button, loop, eye-loop. 

e-jaib-kholua To open the purse. 

Tukra 1 

,1 . '^ f A piece, bit, portion, division. 

Tukra or Tukra purza . Scraps, clippings, shavings. 

Tukr-gada A beggar for a scrap. 

Tukre tukre Piecemeal, in pieces. 


Tukre tukre karua...... To cut to pieces, smash, break, to parcel out. 

Tukur tnkur dekhna .... To stare, gaze. 

Tul Resembling. 

Tul Alike, like. 

— baithna To be weighed against valuable things, 

which are given in alms, to sit evenly 
in a boat. 

— rahna To stand front to front, opposed, ready 

for battle. 

Tul Length, prolixity, long, tall, extensive, 

lasting long. 

— dena. . To lengthen out. 

— i-liarf \ 

— i-kalam \ Prolixity, length of discourse, many words. 

— i-sakhau J 

. — pakarna To be prolonged. 

— tawil Lasting long. 

Tula A balance or scale, the sign Libra of 

the zodiac, the practice of being weighed 
against gold or any kind of valuable 
substance which is afterwards given to 
the priests. 

Tnlawa ftj An advanced guard, a patrol or recon- 
noitring party, a forlorn hope. 

Tulawa C^i.) Part of a Hindustani carriage which rests 

on the axle-tree arm and supports the 
body of the carriage. 

Tulna To be weighed or balanced. 

Tulsi The name of a plant (worshipped by the 

Hindus, and cultivated by the priest of 
the temples) (ocymum sanctum). It is 
said that Tulsi or Tnlasi was a nymph 
beloved by Krishna and by him turned 
into this plant. 

dana A gold ornament. 

rf j[ju Trifles, an ornament, a frame for pigeons 

to perch on. 

tarn -A. few trifles, an ornament. 

dena To push gently. 

Tuma'i The price of carding. 


Tnman Brotlierhood, connexion, caste, bevy, crowd, 

troop, squadron (prop, ten thousand). 

baudhua To collect a body of troops. 

dar The commander of a tnman. 

-dar-i The command of a tnman, 

Tumana To cause to be carded. 

Tnmar A book, volume, roll, an account book, 

a story. 

-navis An accountant. 

(Jam'i' — — ) The produce or collection of a land 

recorded in Government books. 

Tiimiya Thread made of carded coton, in oppo- 
sition to that made vi^hich has been only 
beaten (called Akra ra'i). 

Tumna To card or separate (wool or cotton) 

with the finger, preparatory to combing, 

Tnmtnrak Magnificence, grandeur, pomp, ostentation. 

-1 Pompous, ostentatious. 

Tnnn Name of a tree, the flower of the tree used 

for dyeing a yellow colour (Cedrela toona). 

Tunnk . 

Slight, weak, delicate, thin, efl^eminate. 


hawass Sensible. 

hawass-i Sense, sensibility. 

-maya Slight, or weak in substance. 

mizaj Whimsical, captious, peevish, fretful. 

■ -1 Weak-mindedness. 

Tnnil Active, quick, hot, spirited, sharp, severe, 


bona To be angry, to be displeased. 

klio Warm, passionate, fretful. 

-mizaj Hot-headed, passionate. 

raftar Fast-going. 

zaban Eloquent, talking rapidly. 

Tnud Hand or branch that has been cut off. 

Tnndar or tnndnr Thunder. 

Tnnd-i Fierceness, activity. 

Tnpak or topak A musket. 

Tnr A mountain, Sinai. 

Tnrab Earth, ground, dust. 


Tarab-I Earthen. 

Turan The country beyond the Oxus from Persia. 

Tnrana 1 j To cause to be broken or changed (as 

Toraua J | money). 

Tnrang A horse. 

Turanj A. citron, a lemon, an ornamental tissue 

or embroidered piece. 

Turant Instantly, quickly, directly. 

Tarapna To sew in a particular manner, to stitch. 

Turb A radish. 

Turbat A tomb, sepulchre. 

■■!. Sepulchral. 

Turk Cpl. tnrkan) A soldier, a Mnsalman (properly, a Turk, 

which in Persian takes many other 


chashm A murdering or captivating eye. 

mizaj Wicked, sly, depraved. 

sawar A horseman, cavalier. 

Turk-aii 1 a rn i ■ u 

> A Turkish woman. 

-1 ) 

1 Turkish, a kind of horse. 

tamam hn'i. . . . Spoilt, destroyed. 

I Inroad, depredation, attack, feigned anger 

I i of a lover, walking affectedly or with 

> I a tossing about of the body. 

Turpan A kind of stitch. 

Turpana To stitch, darn, hem. 

Turra An ornament worn in the turban, a ringlet, 

a curl. 

dar Crested. 

lagaua To be vain. 

Tnrsh Sour, harsh, ill-tempered, crabbed. 


Sour-tempered, harsh. 

-tab' I 

Yu Cynical, morose, surly, stern, hard-favoured, 


Tnrsha Wild sorrel. 

Tnrsha'i Sourness, harshness, acidity. 

Turshana To acidulate. 

Tursh-i Sourness, acidity, harshness. 


Instantly, quickly, directly, presently, 
immediately, fresh, new, recent, late. 

Tnrsh-i-badi Acid or flatulent (a medical term). 



Tnrt phnrt 

Tnsar Ice, frost, snow, fog, blight, crops that 

ripen after the rains. 

Tusi A bud. 

Tiisi A kind of purple colour. 

Tut , Fracture, breaking, misunderstanding or 

coolness between friends, harm, loss, 
deficiency, a passage omitted in the 
writing of a book and afterwards written 
in the margin. 

Tut jana To be broken, to become iU, to pine. 

parna To break in upon, to rush in, to be 

collected in crowds. 

ralina To be distressed, weary, reduced to poverty, 

to pine away, to be separated. 

Tut A mulberry. 

Tuta Broken, decayed, deficiency, scarcity. 

phnta Fragments, broken to pieces. 

parna To incur or suffer a loss, to lose, to fail. 

— — . uthana To suffer a loss, sustain damages, to 

make restitution. 

Tfiti A parrot. 

TStiya Blue vitriol. 

T^tnii To break, to be broken, to fail, to break 

forth upon, to assault, to be helpless. 
TSz The ornaments or embellishments of a 

bow, a saddle. 

Tuzuk Eetinue, pomp. 

o ihtisham Great pomp and glory. 

Tyag Abdication, abandonment. 


, _ I To leave, to abandon, desert. 

■ Kama 

patr A bill of divorcement. 

Tyag-i Leaving, relinquishing, abandoning. 

Tyagna To leave, abandon, desert, forsake, quit, 


TyondhS Dim-sighted, purblind. 



Ubal Boiling;, passion, rage, explosion. 

Ubal chalna . . To boil over, run over, fall over. 

Ubalna To boil, to boil up. 

Ubana To sow, to plant. 

Ubarna To set at liberty, to economize, to keep 

in reserve. 
XJbarna To be set at liberty, to remain over and 

above, to exceed. 

Ubasna To rot, putrefy. 

Ubh Oppressing heat, languor occasioned by 

Ubhar Swelling, prominence, acquiring fulness, 

Cbharna To swell, to rise up, to overflow, to 

unlade a cart or boat. 

Ubharna To excite, raise up, persuade. 

Ubharna To take away, to steal. 

Ubhna To be agitated or oppressed with heat, 

to be angry or dissatisfied. 

TJbhra Unladen (as a cart or boat). 

Ubhrana To fill a vessel till it run over. 

Ubka'i Nausea. 

TJblana To cause to boil by another, to boil over. 

Ubsana To cause to rot or spoil or become sticky. 

Ilbtan . 

Ubti f f A composition of flour and perfumes 

Uptan ( I used lo rub the body. 

Uptana ' 

malna To rub with ubtan. 

'Ubaid A servant, slave, a devotee. 

'Ubndiyat Servitude, devotion, subjection, reverence. 

<Ubur Passing, crossing (a river), a ford or pass. 

i darya i shor .... Transportation beyond the seas. 

karna To cross a river. 

Uchakka A thief, pickpocket. 

pan Theft, sharp practice. 


Uchakkl A female thief, pickpocket. 

Uchakna To rise, to be raised or lifted up, to 

leap, bound. 

Uchalna To separate, to be separated. 

TJchana To lift up a burden. 

Uchat Separated, broken off, alienated, estranged, 

Uchat hona To be tired, to be disgusted, to be 

broken (sleep). 

Uchat-i (f.) \ mu . f • J • <• 1 

• _ \ The act of vexing or rendering sorrowiul. 

Uchehatan [m.) j 

Uchatna To separate, to be separated (as plaster 

from a wall), to slip, slide, rebound, 
to be broken or interrupted (sleep). 

Uchatna (Caus. of nchatna). 

Uchhalna To throw up, to toss up a thing (as a 

ball) and catch it in the hand. 

Uchchar I „ • .■ ^^ 

\ Pronunciation, utterance. 

Uchcharan J 

Uchcharna To pronounce, to speak out, to utter, 

articulate, express. 

Uchchhah Joy, gladness. 

Uchchhist Food left or rejected, crumbs, fragments, 


Uchchn hona To be nearly choked in the act of swal- 
lowing, to go down the wrong way. 

Uchelna To separate one thing from another. 

Uchhalna ... . - To leap, or bound, to spring up (as wa- 
ter in a fountain), to spring or fly up. 

Uchhlana To order another to throw up anything. 

Uchit Proper, fit, suitable. 

Uchkana To lift or raise up. 


, An otter. 

— hilao 

'Ud Wood, timber, a staff, stick, the wood 

of aloes, a lute or harp. 

soz An utensil to burn wood of aloes in, or 

gum benzoin. 

Uda Brown, of a brown colour, a purple colour. 

Udaharau An example, simile, comparison. 



„ ,_ , Brownness, blue-red colour, purple colour. 

Udapau ' ' '^ 

TJdai The rising of the sun or of any of the 

heavenly bodies. 

ast From sunrise to sunset, from east to west. 

hona To rise (the sun, &c.). 

Udar The belly. 

Udar Liberal, generous, munificent. 

-ta Liberality, generosity, munificence. 

"Udas Unsettledness, retiredness, unsettled, 

dejected, sorrowful, sad. 
1 Solitude, loneliness, sadness, dejection, 

unsettled, solitary, lonely, a class of fakirs. 

chhana To be clouded with sorrow, to become dull. 

Uddim, udyaiu Strenuous and continued effort, exertion, 

endeavour, calling, employment, trade. 

TJdham Noise, disturbance, impudence, rebellion. 

■ jotua To make a great noise. 

IJdham-I Making noise, impudent, rebellious. 

I ... Credit, loan, rescue, deliverance, salvation. 

Ud-dliar ] ' ' ' 

dena To lend or give on credit, to put out 

at interest, to owe. 

khana To live on credit. 

lena To borrow or buy on credit. 

Udharna To liberate, to discharge. 

Udliarna To be unrolled, untwisted, unravelled or 

unwound, to be opened. 

Udherma To undo, unravel, strip ofl'. 

Udhra Opened, undone, unrolled, stripped off. 

Xjait Risen (as the sun), distinguished, con- 
spicuous for valour. 

■'Udnl • . • • Declining, refusing, receding, deserting, 

returning, deviation, refusal, disobedience. 

hukm One who is disobedient. 

i karna To disobey orders, to deviate from, dis- 
obey, refuse. 

Udya-pan A religious ceremony. 

XJf Fie ! poh ! for shame ! alas ! 

— karna To disapprove of, to lament. 



TJf na karua To hold one's tongue. 

Ufk The horizon, a tract, or region of the- 

(fl. afSk). earth, Cpoei.J, the world. 

Fallen, lying, waste. 

Uftada-gl Palling, fallen state, humility. 

Uftan o khezan Now falling, now rising, hardly, witlv 

Ugahi Usury, the trade of lending money on 

interest of one fourth, the payment of 

which is received by instalments. 

Ugahna To gather, collect, accumulate. 

XJgal Betel leaf, or other thing, when chewed 

and spitted out. 

-dan A spittoon. 

Ugaln^ To spit out, to refund stolen property. 

llgana To cause to grow. 

UghSri Uncovered, naked, bare. 

Ugharna To uncover, discover, unveil, open, pull ofll 

Ugharna To be uncovered, discovered, opened,. 

pulled oif. 

Ugua To grow, be produced, rise (as the moon), 

(Ugte hi jal jana) To be withered immediately on springing 

up (is applied to a hope or expectation 

nipped in the bud). 
'Ulida V commission, an obligation, agreement^ 

business, oflBce, post. 
bar-a Having performed an agreement or com- 
pleted an undertaking. 

bar-a-i Completionofanagreementorundertaking. 

dar Intrusted with a business, employed, 

holding a commission, an officer. 

Ujadd Inconsiderate, rash, ignorant, clownish. 

Ujagar Splendour, brightness. 


„.-,- I , -, light. 

bona To be lighted, to become light. 

TJjalna To cleanse, to polish (metals or Jewell). 

Ujar Desolate, ruined, demolished, deserted, 



TJjarna To become desolate. 

Ujarna To lay waste, desolate, injure. 

Ujarn Squandering, wasteful. 

Ujarwana To lay waste by the hands of another 

Ujjain A once celebrated city, the capital of 

king Tikramaditya. 
Ujjal) uJalS Clear, shining, bright, white. 

mnnh bona To clear one's good name. 

kapra Clean, white clothes. 

bona To shine, to be light, to be clean. 

-pan Whiteness, brightness. 

Ujlana To cause to cleanse, polish. 

TJjlat Rapidity. 

Ujra pnjra In ruins, desolate. 

njrat Eeward, wages, hire. 

Ujriya Moonlight. 

Uk Error, slip. 

'Ukab An eagle. 

Ukasua To be excited, to be moved, to try to 


Ukat Contrivances, invention. 

lena To discover, to iind out. 

Ukatna ._. To call names, to dig up slowly a thing 

buried in the ground, to artfully extract 
a secret, to pump. 

tjkh Sugar-cane (Saccharum offlciuarnm). 

Ukhar lena To bring over, buy off, entice away. 

pachhar Back-biting, evil speaking, slander. 

Ukharna To be rooted up, plucked up, raised up. 

pukharna To be plucked or rooted up. 

Ukharna To root up, eradicate, break or pluck up. 

XJkhli A wooden mortar. 

IJkhrana To pluck up, eradicate. 

XJkrii The posture of sitting on the hams with 

the soles of the feet on the ground^ 
this, and with tlie legs crossed under- 
neath the body, are the common sitting 
postures with natives of the East. 

Uksana To raise, to give a light motion. 



IJktana To fret, to be melanclioly or dejected, 

to be out of hnmour with, to be tired 
of, to tire. 

Ulak A kind of small boat. 

Ulalna To overset, to lay over to one side. 

'TJlama Cpl. of 'alim) .... The learned. 

Illatna To pervert, subvert, thwart, reverse, 

overturn, reply, to be reversed, turned 
over or turned back, to return. 

Ulat pnlat Higgledy piggledy, topsy, turvy, confu- 
sion, interchange. 

XJlfat Friendship, familiarity, intimacy, society, 

affection, attachment, kindness. 

. karna To be friendly, to be intimate. 

TJlfat-i Friendly, affectionate. 

riichna To throw up water. 

TJljhan ] 

Entanglement, complication, perplexity. 

Uljhana To entangle, to embroil. 

XJllfi An owl, a stupid fellow, blockhead, fool. 

pan Stupidity, folly. 

TJlta Keverse, opposite, contrary. 

dhara bandhua .... To bring a cross suit or counter action. 

jawab A crooked or impudent answer. 

parda The cut of an angarkha to the left hand 

side as worn by Hindns, theMusalmans 
wear theirs to the right. 

phirua To return. 

tawa Very black. 

mala pherua To count one's beads backwards. 

pulta Topsy turvy, higgledy piggledy. 

UltanS To overturn, overset, pervert, thwart, 


pultaua To reverse, to modify, to interchange. 

ijlu ^^ I'ii'l of grass used in thatching 

(Saccharniii cylindricum). 

<Ulnfa Stipend, salary, daily pay, subsistence 


^1"'''^^'^* ! The divinity, god-head. 

Ilahiyat | 


'TJlum (pi. of 'ilm) Sciences. 

i-iiiaglirabi European sciences. 

i-mastaraki Oriental sciences or arts. 

i-murawwaja Modem sciences. 

o-fnunn. . Arts and sciences. 

Umadna To overflow, to fall (as tears), to swell, 

increase or be poured out (as a river, 

clouds, an army, the heart). 

Umaug Excessive joy, transport, ambition. 

i Aspiring, ambitious. 

iia To greatly rejoice. 

Umara (pi. of amir).. . Nobles, grandees, a noble (generally).- 
'Umda Great, noble, a grandee, a support, a 

pillar, a prop, confidence, reliance, trust. 

Umi An ear of corn half ripe. 

Ummat People, sect, a people of the same religion. 

-i- ... A believer in, or follower of any religion, 

depth, profundity. 

Ummed | 

I j Hope, expectation, trust, dependence. 

Umlald 1 ' • I ^^" ^^"'^-^ pregnancy. 

Umined dena To give or inspire hope, promise. 

Mm Hope and fear, suspense. 

— rakhua To hope, expect. 

se hona To be pregnant. 

war Hopeful, an expectant, a candidate. 

hona To hope for, to be a candidate. 

-i Expectation, hope, dependence. 

Ummi Not knowing how to read or write, un- 

educated, illiterate, unacquainted, un- 

'Urar. . . Age, lifetime, period of life. 

bhar All the lifetime. 

daraz hona To be old. 

ka paimana The cup of life. 

katna To pass one's life. 

patta A lease for life. 

rasida One advanced in years, one superannuated. 

'Umud 1 ^ V ^ r t ^ 

_ \ . . . . ... A perpendicular (in geometry). 



'Umuk Depth, profundity. 

Umnr (pi. of amr) Things, affairs, business, matters, actions, 


Un Wool. 

Una A kind of sword, scimitar. 

Uncha High, tall, above, steep, loud. 

bol bolna To speak with pride. 

kan-i Deafness. 

sunna To be hard of hearing. 

TJncha-i Height, elevation, steepness. 

Unchana To raise, to take up. 

IJnche bol ka mnnh nicha The proud ones are degraded. 

sur se gana To sing in a high key. 

TJnch-nich Ups and downs of life, vicissitude, high 

and low, particulars — every detail, un- 

evenness, inequality. 
sochna To consider well, to debate, balance, 

Undelna To pour (out water, &c.). 

A finger, a finger's breadth. 

Ungli Nodding, sleepiness. 


Drowsiness, sleepiness, nodding, drooping. 

TJnghna To nod from sleepiness, to doze, to 


TJngll chatkaua To crack one's fingers. 

par machana To make a jest of. 

nthana To point one's finger at. 

-^ nthna To become notorious, (in a bad sense). 

Un-T Woolen. 

'TJnnab The jujube fruit. 

^1 Of the colour of the jujube, red like the 

TJtts Society, companionship, friendship, love, 


'Unsul or 'nusal A squill. 

'Uusur or 'uusar Origin, element. 

^ITiisur-i or 'imsar-i Elementary, original. 

TJnt A camel. 


Tint katara Name of a thistle of which camels are 

fond (Echlnops ecMiiatns). 

nl A she-camel. 

•^Unwan The ornamented title-page of a book, 

that whereby anything is known, or 

understood, mode, manner. 

Upa Near, by, by the side of, with, secondary to. 

Shastr .... Sciences connected with or derived from 

the Shastr. 

Ved The Pnrans. 

Upaban A grove, an artificially planted wood or 


Upach Produce, variation, invention. 

Upa-des Advice, counsel, exhortation, admonition, 


-i An adviser, a monitor. 

Upadh Violence, injury, injustice, tyranny. 

-i Violent, unjust. 

tfpa'e Expedient, plan, contrivance, scheme, 

preparation, redress, remedy, method, 


karna . . ... To plan, devise, contrive, provide against. 

XJpa'i Besorting to expedients, contriving, re- 
medying, contriver. 

jjpaj The burthen of a song, the chorus, vari- 
ations in music. 

Upajit Produced, propagated. 

Upajna To spring up, to grow, to be produced. 

Upar Above, on, up, upon, upwards, over, 

outside, past. 

ana To come up, rise, emerge. 

hi Apart, alone, on the surface. 

ka kam Miscellaneous duties, odd services. 

tale Successively, one over the other. 

wala The moon. 

wallan Fairies, evil spirits. 

Uparjan Earning, acquirement. 

Uparjit Acquired. 

Uparna To root up, to extirpate, to eradicate. 

Upas A fast, fasting. 


Upas-a Hungry, one who fasts. 

Upasaua To reverence, to worship. 

llpasna To become musty, to rot. 

Upbanua To boil over. 

Upjana To produce, make to grow, cultivate. 

TJpja'u Fertile. 

Upkar or npa-kar Assistance, benefit, kindness, favour. 

Upkarrl or npa-kar-i .... Assisting, helping, beneficent. 

TJpla or upli Cakes of dried cow-dung (used for fuel), 

Uprala karna To take one's parts to protect, to stickle for. 

Uprawari Quarrelsome, wrangling. 

ITptan I f A composition of perfumes and flour used 

Uptana J | to rub the body with. 

malna To apply, to rub. 

Ur The breast, bosom. 

- lana To embrace. 

Ura Dearth, scarcity. 

Uran Act of flying. 

Urana To cause to fly, to squander or spend 

extravagantly, to entice. 

pnrana To squander. 

Uranghai Imposition, artifice, trick, stratagem. 

batana To mislead, deceive. 

TJra'u A spendthrift, an extravagant person. 

Urdabegni A female armed attendant in the harem, 

Urddh High, on high, above. 

a bahn With arms aloft or raised up (a posture 

of Jogis). 

rrdb V kind of vetch. 

Urdu An army, a camp, a market. 

■ i-inu'alla The royal camp or army, a term applied 

to the city of Dihli or 8hahjabiinabad> 

•i-iun"alla ki zaban . The court language, which at first, when 

the Mubanimadans invaded India, was 
composed mainly of Persian and Arabic 
words ; but, in course of time, the lan- 
guage became mixed with that of the 
conquered country, and fashioned into 
what is called nrdu (rekhta) (mixed), 
or the modern Hiudustilul. 


*Urf Known (by the name), commonly called, 

alias, proper, equitable, goodness, merit, 

Urhaiya A weaver or putter on of a dress. 

Urhak karua . To seek or cry for an absent person 

(applied to a child only). 

Ui'hakna To overset. 

Urhana To cause to clothe. 

Urhangan Anything placed under a vessel to prevent 

its upsetting, a prop, a support. 

Urhna To put on clothes. 

Urna To fly. 

'Urs Oblations, offerings to a saint, a marriage 


'IJrHj Ascent, rising. 

'Ui'yan Naked. 

-i Nakedness. 

Usana To w.innow. 

Usanna To boil. 

Usar JBarren land. 

Usara A porch, portico, vestibule, a shed. 

Usarna To remove, put out of place. 

Usarna To retreat, recede, shrink from. 

Usas Breatli, breathing, hope. 

Usasna To breathe. 

Usevna To throw out the water from boiled rice. 

Uslub Manner, mode, method, order, arrangement, 


Uslub-dar Well-arranged, elegant. 

'Usrat Difficulty, distress. 

Usta A barber. 

Ustad Teacher, preceptor, master. 

Ustad-i Teaching, instruction, mastership, skill, 

masterly (as workmanship). 

Ustura A razor. 

Ustuwar Firm, strong, stable, powerful, brave, 

resolute, solid. 

karna To strengthen, support. 

TJstuwar-i Firmness, stability, strength, resolution, 



TJsSl (pi. of asl) Hoots, causes, a musical mode or tone. 

wa furn' Roots and branches, causes and effects. 

TJt One who dies without leaving issue, 

an unmarried man, (in Hindi), a stupid 
person, blockhead, dunce. 

Utakkarlais Precipitate, rash, acting without con- 

TJtakna To move, hop, jump, skip, caper. 

Utau or nt-tan Supine, lying on the back, shallow. 

Utangan Name of a river near Go'aliar, name of 

a plant. 

Uta'ola Snift, quick, speedy, precipitate, rash. 

Uta'oli Haste, speed, rashness, impatience. 

TJtar Descent. 

charhao Ascent and descent. 

dena To bring down, hence, to disgrace, to 


Utara A descent, an answer, cast off clothes, 

disgrace, degradation, ransom, self-devo- 
tion, trip of a boat, a propitiatory offering. 

ntarna To transfer the evil spirit to the utara. 

e ka mal Warehouse goods. 

TJtaran A fragment. 

'Utarid The planet Mercury, quicksilver. 

Utarna To descend, to alight,, to subside, to 

decrease, to pass over, to go off, to fall 
off, to decay, to be freed from debt, to 
become insipid, to fall in value or dignity. 

Utarna To cause to alight, to bring down, to 

degrade, to take off, to tear off, cutoff, 
or break off (a partion of anything), to 
make a return or recompence, to unload, 
disembark, discharge (goods). 

rtiire hil'e Engaged with a desperate resolution in 

any enterprise, (metaphor from cavalry 
dismounting to fight on foot). 

Utarn hona To embark, pursue, persecute, haunt. 

rtlia baithi Act of frequently rising up and sitting 

down, inconstancy. 

••''"5 To remove, abolish, abrogate, exterminate. 


Utha lejana To run away with, carry off, abduct. 

Utha'i gira A pilferer, purloiner, petty thief. 

Uthan An area or court. 

Uthan Act of appearing. 

Uthana To lift or raise up, take away, abolish, 

excite, support, bear, carry, remove, 
receive, suffer, exliibit, contract debts 
or purchase on credit, expend. 

Uthaug^au A prop or support. 

TTthanna Something set apart as an offering to 

a god or goddess. 

Uthau Extravagant, profuse, a prodigal. 

chulha A travelling kitchen, one who has no 

fixed abode or livelihood. 

TJtU baith Hestlessness, a kind of exercise. 

TJth baithna To get up, arise, wake up, sit up, revive, 

recover be made straight. 

khara. bona To stand up. 

Uthe baithe Standing or sifting gradually, slowly, 

every moment. 

Uthla Shallow, shelving. 

Uthna To rise up, be raised, spring up, to be 


TJtbi jawani The prime of youth. 

TJthwana To causae to lift or raise up, to remove. 

Utiran Worn, cast off (clothes, jewels, &c.). 

Utpanu . Produced, profits, proceeds, produce. 

Ut-pat A portent, phenomenon, violence, injustice, 


Ut-patti Birth, origin, creation, production. 

Utran A fragment, anything taken off the body, 

cast off clothes. 

TJtrana To cause to pull or take down. 

Uttam Best, principal, first. 

karm A- good, excellent work. 

pnrush A good, excellent man. 

XJt-tar The north, an answer, northern, latter, 

behind, superior, high. 

ardb The latter half. 

UUnYg^ Northward, northerly, northwind. 


Uttariiwan A place to which fish throng. 

Uttu Plaits of cloth. 

gar One who plaits cloth. 

karna To plait, to beat severely. 

Uzak tnzak Pomp, splendour, the habits or fashions 

of a king, the king's seal. 

Uzl)ak Name of a Tartar tribe or nation, a 


'Uzlat Eeiirement, retiring. 

-guzida A recluse, hermit. 

'Uzm Greatness, magnificence. 

'Uzr Excuse, apology. 

baki na rakhna .... To have no objection. 

-dar An objector, a claimant. 

dar-i Statement of objections, a cross demand. 

-i-'amm A general plea. 

i-beja A weak or bad plea, an improper objection. 

i-farcl) A jjlea of fraud. 

-i-ghalati A plea of error. . 

i-mndda'a 'alaihi ... A plea urged for the defence. 

-i-nabalighi A plea of minority. 

i-kaniin A plea in law, a legal objection. 

i-kawl A valid objection. 

i-wirasat A plea of heirship. 

karna To -apologize, to ask pardon. 

ke kabU Excusable, objectionable. 

khwah An apologist. 

kliwanl An apology, excuse. 

pesh karna To plead, object, take exception to. 

.pizir Excusable, admissible. 

taslTni karna To admit an objection. 


The Persian letter waw, and the Sanscrit letter va have sometimes 
the sound of the English letter V. 

Vadh or badh Killing, slaying, slaughter. 

Taidya or baid A physician. 

Vaish or bais AYaisyaorman of the third of the fourth 



Hindii castes, whose profession is mer- 
cantile or agricultural, age. 

Vaislmay or baislinay Of or relating to Vishnu, a worshipper 

of Vishnu. 

Var or bar A choice, boon, blessing, good, a bride- 
groom, an appointment. 

-da'i Giver of a choice or blessiner. 

Vasauii or hasna Desire, inclination, choice. 

Vastra or hastar Cloth, clothes. 

Ved or bed The name of the four Hindu scriptures, 

vi2., rik, saina, yajush, and atharva, 
certainty, faith. 

Vedant or bedant The name of a particular Hindu philo- 
sophical system. 

Vedant-i or bedant-i One who is conversant with the bedant 


Vesya or beswa A prostitute. 

Vidhan or bidhau Common practice, precept, direction. 

Vidhata or bidhata He who has predestined, i.e. the deity 


VidhI or bidh Rule, order, law, statute, precept, direc- 
tion, decree, manner, mode, way, name 
of Brahma, providence. 

Vidhu or bidhu The moon. 

Vidya or Mdya Science, knowledge, intellect. 

— -dhar A sort of demi-god or attendant in the 

celestial courts. 

Vidyarthi or bidyarthi.. . A student. 

Vidya-van or bidya-wan. . Scientific, learned. 

Vrik or brik A wolf. 

Vrikha or brikh A bull, Taurus (the sign of the zodiac). 

Vriksha or briksh A tree. 

Vrind or brind A demi-god. 

Vyasa or byas Name of a Muni or saint, who is esteemed 

the collector and arranger of the Vedas, 
and the author of the Mahabharat. 


"jYa Open, again, back, with. 


Wa-basta Bound, related, connected, depending on, 

an adherent, dependent. 
— -basta-gan (pi.) Connections, relations, adherents. 

— liona To becoine open, cheerful or relieved of 


— karna To open. 

— manda Tired, fatigued, remaining behind. 

— shndan Expanding, opening. 

Waba Plague, pestilence. 

pliailna To prevail (a plague). 

Wabal An unhealthy climate or atmosphere, a 

crime, fault, pest, plague, misfortune, 
ruin, vexation, painful, vexations. 

bona To be a plague to one. 

i-jan Burdensome to life. 

Wa'da A promise, a vow. 

Wa'da-khilaf A person who does not keep his promise. 

-khilafi Breach of promise. 

-talna To evade a promise or agreement. 

-wafS Punctual, true to one's word. 

karna To fulfil one's promise, to keep faith. 


,., Love, friendship. 

Wadd ' ^ 

Wadi , A valley. 

Wadi'at Deposit, trust. 

-i-hayat Death, depositing one's life. 

Wadiid Loving, an epithet of the deity. 

Waf a Performing a promise, observation of 

faith, sincerity, fidelity, sufficiency. 

begaua Faithless. 

-dar Faithful, sincere. 

-dar-I Sincerity, fidelity. 

\ Faithful. 

parast I 

pesha Faithful, practising good faith. 


Fidelity, sincerity. 

Wafat Death, decease. 

Wafl Sincere, honourable, entire, complete, 

plentiful, numerous. 


^aflr Abundant, plentiful, copious, much, many, 

opulent, ample. 

Wafk A sufficiency,concord,agreement,congruity. 

Wafr Full, complete, entire, numerous, copious, 


Wagha War, battle, tumult, clamour. 

Waghaira Et csetera, and so forth. 

Wah Bravo ! well done ! excellent ! alas ! fy ! 

karna To applaud, clap hands. 

wa or wah Bravo ! bravo ! how excellent ! also an 

exclamation to denote surprise, concern, 

sympathy, sorrow. 

Walib Giving, bestowing. 

Wahdaniyat Believing in the unity of the deiiy. 

Wahdat Unity, the being one. 

Wahi Divine revelation, inspiration. 

ntarna To be revealed. 

Wall! Weak, crazy, ill-founded (premises, ar- 
gument, conclusion). 

tabahi I 

Absurd, nonsense. 


yat .- Absurdities. 

Wahib A giver, liberal, generous, 

i-be-minnat . . . . Disinterestedly liberal (the deity). 

u-l-'ataya.. . . . The giver of all gifts (God). 

Wahid Alone, unique, singular. 

u-l-'asr The nonpareil of the age. 

Wahid One, sole, individual, single, singular. 

shahid.. . God is my witness, giving, bestowing. 

Wahim .... ... Thinking, imagining, being of opinion. 

Wahima Imagination, fancy. 

Wahla- An attack. 

Wahm Imagination, idea, conjucture, opinion, 

anxiety, apprehension. 

Wahm-i Imaginary, conjectural. 

Wahsh A wild beast. 

Wahshat Fright, fear, dread, horror, loneliness, a 

desert, solitude, dreary place, wildness, 

-angez Frightful. 


Wahshat-asar 1 . t ■ u^e ^ 

" > Impressing with horror irightiul. 

-zada Aghast, terrified. 

Wahsh-i Wild, savage, a wild beast. 

-yana Savage-like, rustic. 

Wa'id Threatening or predicting anything bad, 

promising anything good. 

Wail Calamity, reprisal, revenge. 

kash '..... Vindictive. 

Wairan or wiran Desolated, laid waste, depopulated, ruined. 

Wairan or wiran-a A solitude, a desolated or desolate place. 

-i Desolation, depopulation, destruction, 

desert places. 

Wa'iz A preacher. 

Waja' Disease, pain, affliction, complaint, 


i-mafasil Rheumatism. 

Wajd Ecstacy, rapture, excessive love, opulence, 

discovering, procuring, finding. 

"VVajh Cause, reason, mode, manner, way, face, 

visage, appearance, semblance, (in Pers. 
and Hind.) wages, salary, money. 

-i-hal Mode of living, state of circumstances. 

Wajha Allowance, pension, salary. 

Wajib Necessary, expedient, proper, worthy, 

convenient, just, reasonable. 

Cpl. Wajibat) Things necessary or expedient. 

Wajib bona To be necessary, whorthy, proper. 

u-l-ada Necessary to be discharged (duties). 

u-l-'arz Pit to be represented. 

katl Deserving death. 

t-taz'im Worthy of respect and attention. 

t-ta'zlr Punishable. 

1-wnjud God (whose existence is necessary). 

Wajih Pine looking, conspicuous. 

Waka'i' (pi. of waki'a*).. News, events. 

— iiavis ) 

. _ \ An intelligencer. 

-nigar J " 

nigar-i Tlie office of an intelligencer. 

Wakalat Embassy, agency, deputation, attorneysbip. 


Wakalat nama A power of attorney. 

Wakalatan By delegation. 

Wakf. Standing, stopping, understanding, tran- 
quillity, firmness, constancy, permanency, 
a legacy for pious uses, an endowment 
for public charity. 

Wakfa Delay, choking, stopping, retarding, 

respite, vacancy. 

dena To grant an extension of time, an ad- 

Wakfiyat . . The book in which legacies for pious 

uses are registered. 

Waki' Befalling, happening, occurring, arriving, 


{'pi. Waki'at) Accidents, events, occurrences, intelligence. 

men In fact, truly. 

Waki"a Event, intelligence, news, death. 

navis An intelligencer. 

Wakif Acquainted, experienced, intelligent, know- 
ing, learned, sensible. 

— i-hal 

, Experienced, intelligent, a connoisseur. 

— kar I 

-kar-i Experience, intelligence, knowledge. 

Wakif lyat Experience, knowledge, intelligence. 

Wakll An agent, ambassador, representative, 

pleader, attorney, deputy. 
i-mntlak A plenipotentiary, a vicegerent invested 

with full powers. 

karna To appoint an attorney. 

kharcha Fees of an attorney. 

"Wakr ])ignity, honour, character, mild, modest, 


Wakt (pi. ankat) Time, season, opportunity, adversity. 

ba-wakt Erom time to time. 

be-wakt In season or out of season, constantly. 

dekhna To look out or wait for an opportunity. 

gnziirna To kill time, 

i-nazak Critical, delicate, hard times. 

katna To pass away the time. 

k5 paband Punctual. 





Wakt par At the proper, exact time. 

parna To suffer misfortunes, to be distressed. 

-yab Finding an opportunity. 

Cin compj, agent, keeper, man, inhabitant, 
master, lord, possessor, (as DUli-wala^ 
inhabitant of Dilli: ghar-wala, master 
or keeper of a house; hone-wala, be- 
coming, about to be ; naw-wala, boatman. 

Wala Exalted in dignity, sublime, high. 

-jail Of exalted dignity. 

kadr Of high dignity. 

shan High in rank or dignity. 

Walad A son, offspring. 

— n-z-zina A. son of a whore, an earthwonn. 

Wall A prince, lord, master, friend, saint, a 

servant, a slave. 

-'alid An heir, a locum tenens, vicegerent. 

■ i Heritage. 

-khangar An assistant, protector. 

ni'inat A title of respect by which a father is 

addressed, patron, benefactor. 

Walid A father. 

a A mother. 

ain Parents. 

Walih Distracted, mad with love, stupefied, 


Walwala 1 f Howling, lamenting, a tumult, noise, 

Walwala ) 1 uproar, fervour, ardour, pining. 

Wam Debt, credit, lending, borrowing, colour. 

Wa-pas Behind, afterward, then, again, back, 


ana To come back, to be returned. 


na I 
irna J 

_ , To return, restore, give back. 

karr" ' "^ 

lena To take back. 

milna To get back. 

rakliua To detain, retard. 

Wa-pas-in Latter, last, hiudmost. 

War (h.) V blow, wound. 


Wiir (s.) A (lay, leisure, delay, waiting, patience, 

time, the near bank of a river, on this side. 

Wara Cheapness, thrift, a victim, cheap, (in 

compos.), doer, agent, like wala. 

Wara' Timidity, apprehension of doing wrong, 

fear of God, temperance, continence. 

Wa-rafta Wandered, lost. 

Warak A leaf of a bopk, a card, a slice. 

(lagh-i Written paper. 

daghi karua To page a book. 

tarashna To cut cards. 

u-l-khiyal An intoxicating drug (Cannabis sativa). 

ntarna To page and line a book. 

Warak-i Leaf-like. 

Waram A swelling, tumour, inflated, enraged. 

hona To be inilated, enraged. 

■ karna To swell (any part of the body). 

Waran Offerings, oblations, sacrifices. 

Warapar 1 ( On both sides, on this side and that, 

War-par J | through and through, bounds. 

Wa-rasta Delivered, saved. 

Ward A rose, a flower, the leaf of a flower, 

a petal. 

Wardi An ofKcial uniform. 

Ware On this side, near. 

girua To fall short. 

Warghalana To deceive, inveigle, decoy. 

!A termination denoting place, as sati- 
war, the place where sati (q.v.) is 
burned; phul-wari, a flowergarden. 

Warid Coming, arriving, being present. 

fpl. "WTiridat) Events, ocurrences. 

Warid hona To arrive, to come. 

sadir Guests. 

Wari-pheri-liona To be transported with joy. 

TflTaris An heir, master, lord, owner. 

i Heritage. 

War-kharch Profuse, prodigal, extravagant. 

-^y^j.^^ To surround, to offer sacrifice. 

Warrad A gardener. 



War-rahna To be victorious. 

Warsa Heritage, bequest. 

Warta A labyrinth, whirlpool, embarrassment, 

any situation of danger and difficulty. 
Warzish Abstinence, sobriety, custom, liabit, gain, 

labour, exertion, exercise. 

karna To go through athletic exercises. 

Wasalat Mediation, channel, medium, means. 

Wasat The middle, centre, middling, central, 

suitable, just, proper, excellent, great, 

1 Middling, neither long nor short pro- 

Was'at I ( Space, extent, power, means, leisure, 

Wns'at ) I convenience, opportunity, ease. 

Wasatat Means, mediadon, medium. 

Wasf Praise, encomium, merit, virtue, worth, 

description, description of qualities. 

karna To praise, describe. 

rakhna To possess any good quality. 

Wasi' Extensive, large, spacious. 

Was! An executor, administrator of a will, a 


yat A last will and testament, precept, man- 

date, making a will. 

IVasiyat-uama A last will or testament. 

Wasid. . . The threshold of a house. 

Waslk Firm, steady, strong, confident, binding, 

Wasikat Firmness, solidity, confidence, faith, a 

bond, obligation, written agreement. 
Waslla Affinity, propinquity, cause, conjecture, 

support, prop, means of effecting anything, 


--diiir A client, dependent. 

-T Clients hip, dependence. 

Wask Confidence, trusting in. 

Wasl. . Meeting, union, conjunction. 

karna To unite, paste, conjoin, annex. 

Wasl-i Copulative, conjunctive, paper or other 


material pasted together for the purpose 
of practising writing on. 

Wasma The leaves of woad or indigo (with an 

extract from which the natives stain 
their beards, cloth, &c.), a hairwash. 

dar Stained with vrasma. 

-\wh\i Dressed in cloths stained with wasma. 

Wasmat Reproach, disgrace, crime, sin, fault, 

torpor, languor. 

Wa-sokht An impassioned style in poetry. 

Wast V. Wasat. 

Wasta Account, sake, cause, reason. 

fprop. Trasita, a mediator, 
means, medium, motive). 

Wasta-dar Relation by Islood or marriage. 

rakhiia To bear upon, concern. 

Waste On account of, for the sake, in behalf. 

Wasti A reed of which pens are made. 

Waswas The temptation of the devil, distraction 

of mind, doubt, suspense, hesitation, 
apprehension, dread, perplexity, super- 
stition, scrupulousness. 

Waswasa Temptation, evil suggestion. 

Waswas-i Doubtful, causing suspense, distracting, 

apprehensive, scrupulous. 

Watad or watid A peg, pin. 

■^Vatan Native country, country residence, abode, 


(iQSt A patriot, a friend to one's country. 

— dushman A traitor, an enemy to one's country. 

(hubb-i-watan) Patriotism. 

Watan-I Belonging to one's country. 

■yY'atar A necessary thing, necessity, use. 

Wati Kicking, treading under foot. 

Watira A path, way, manner, habit, custom. 

Wa walla Lamentation, bewailing, alas ! 

karna To wail, cry out, make a noise. 

>Vaz Open. 

^ya'jj Admonition, advice, exhortation, preaching, 



^*'? ^^^""^ 1 To preach. 

karna J 

y^nY} Situation, state, condition, manner, mode, 

procedure, position, conduct. 

dar Stylish, elegant. 

i-hainl Abortion, miscarriage. 

karna To deduct, to subtract, to found. 

yfa'A' A.n inventor, founder. 

yynn' Ignoble, base, plebeian, low, a deposit, 

trust, anything committed to the earc 
of another. 

(Sliarif-o-waji') Nobles and plebeians. 

■Wazifa A pension, stipend, salaiy, stipulated 

allowance, a daily performance or task, 
anything agreed on, a daily lesson from 
the Knran. 

A pensioner, a holder of a scholarship. 

Wazih Evident, apparent, manifest, clear. 

hona To be known. 

karna To explain. 

Wazir (pi. Wuzara.) A minister of state. 

n-l-mamalik .... The grand wazir. 

Wazir-I The office of a minister of state. 

"jYazn Weight, weighing, measure, metre, rhyme, 

reputation, esteem, honour, examination. 

karna To weigh, measure. 

raklina To be weighty. 

Wazn-I Heavy, weighty. 

IVazu The ablution performed by Musaliuans 

(prop, ivnzii). before prayer and consisting in first 

washing the hands and inside the mouth, 
then throwing water on the forehead, 
afterwards washing the face, arms, and feet. 

"R^ida' farewell, adieu, bidding farewell. 

karna To bid farewell. 

Wif ak Concord, harmony, good understanding, 


Wika' Attack in battle, engagement. 

Wlla li'riendship, sway. 


Wiladat Nativity, birtli. 

Wilayat An inhabited country dominion, district, 

a foreign country, possession, being 
master of anything, friendship, union 
(especially with God), sanctity. 

-1 Foreign, European. 

'kkatt A kind of Persian writing called nasta'lik. 

Wiinan A celestial car. 

{same as biman and bewan). 


an 1 
ran ) 

Desolated, laid waste, depopulated, ruined. 
w aii*^ " 

WIraa-a A solitude, a desolated or desolate place. 

Wirasat Heritage. 

au By way of inheritance. 

Wird Daily use, practise, task. 

karna To repeat. 

wazlfa i)arlina To perform one's daily tasks of devotion. 

Wisal Meeting, interview, connection, death, 

society, confederacy. 

Wisatat V. wasatat. 

Wizr A crime, sin, fault, a burden, load, arms. 

Wizarat . . The dignity of Tvazir, the office of prime 

minister or grand vizir. 
Wufur A multitude, plenty, abundance, full, 

comjDlete, copious. 

Wujiib Necessity, obligation. 

TVnjud Invention, existence, essence, substance, 


ba Notwithstanding. 

-jud A liberal person. 

^""^^ PI. of wajh g.v. 

Wujnhat J 

■\Ynkn' A contingency, accident, event, occurrence, 

the happening. 

-^y^tiif Understanding, information, sense, ex- 
perience, wisdom, 

dar Experienced. 

palda karna To get sense. 

Wurud Arrival, coming, appearing, approaching, 

descending, alighting. 


Wnsiil Arrival, conjunction, acquisition or enjoy- 
ment (of anything desired). 

liona To gei, receive, to be arrived. 

karua To collect. 

pana To realize, to receive. 

Wnzara pi. of wazir, q.v. 

Wuzu V. wajn. 

Wiizuli Evidence, proof. 


Yab (in composj Finder, finding, getting. 

Tabanda A finder, finding. 

Yabn A pony. 

Tachak A beggar. 

Tad Memory, recollection. 

ana To come to mind, to recur. 

ash bakhaii* An expression referring to an absent friend. 

-awari JRemembrance. 

-bud A keepsake. 

dasht A memorandum. 

dill A putter in mind. 

dilana, To remind. 

faramosh Name of a game. 

gar A memorial, memento. 

gar-i A keepsake, token. 

Tad A hand, handle, aid, assistance, power,^ 

vigour, benefit, service. 

Yaft Perquisite, earnings, profit, income, fees. 

Yagan Singly. 

a Kindred, single, sole, singular, unique, 

incomparable, agreed, unanimous. 
gat Singularity, unity, concord, unanimity , 

conjunction, union. 

gi Singularity, excellence, concord, unamity. 

-iyat Solitariness, kindred. 

Yaglima | 

Yaghma Plunder, booty, spoil. 

Yaghinan ) 

Yagn A kind of Hindu sacrifice. 



All at OBce, immediately, once. 
Successively, all at once. 

,^ , _,. I A Jew, a Hebrew. 

Yahudi ' 

Yahndiya Judea. 

Yajnj-inajuj Gog and Magog. 

Yak One, a, an. 

adh A few. 



— ■ a 




-baggha A horse pressing on one rein. 

-chand Some little, some little time, some time. 

-chob-a One-poled (a tent). 

-dast Entire, uniform, even (clotli), altogetlier. 

-digar One another. 

dil Of one heart and mind. 

-ka Single, the ace at cards. 

-kalam Consistent (a writer), all, total, at once, 

entirely, altogether. 

-lakht All at once, altogether. 

lauta Single, solitary, a single child (without 

brother or sister). 

-loh-I A sword blade made of one piece of steel. 

-inau-I Unanimity, friendship. 

.innuh Talking consistently. 

moslit I 

-math (■ A handful, all at once, prompt payment. 

mntthi ' 

nafas One breathing, one moment. 

— -rah Going on the same road. 

-rang Of one colour, sincere, simple, uniform. 

i Sincerity, simplicity, uniformity. 

-rn Unanimous. 

1 Unanimity, friendship. 

san Equal, alike, the same, level, parallel, 


sar AH at once, altogether. 

taraf Aside. 


than Collected, assembled together. 

Tak-a'i Unit. 

Yakh Ice. 

Takhni Gravy, sauce, stew. 

pnla'o A kind of pnla'o (a dish of flesh and 

rice), prepared with gravy. 

Takin Certainty, truth. 

karua To ascertain. 

lana To believe. 

Takin-i Certainty, infallibility, truth, certain, 

Tak-la'i A veil, cloak or sheet, worn over the 

head and shoulders, of one breadth 

without a seam. 

Ta'knb Jacob. 

Takniu Tlie first day of the month. 

Taknt A ruby. 

i Of or relating to the ruby, name of a 


Tal A horse's mace. 

Yal A hero, a brave man, corpulent, robust. 

Yala phaila Unconfined, extended, spread, at ease. 

Yalda The longest night of the year. 

Yam Season, time, weather. 

ni Muharamadan dialect or words, night. 

The angel of death. 

Yaman (li.) Name of a rag:im or musical mode. 

Yaman (i.) Arabia Felix. 

Yaman-i Anything belonging to Arabia Felix, a 


Yamin An oath, the right hand. 

Yamln-o-yasar The right and left wings of an army. 

Ya'ni Videlicet, viz., namely, to wit. 

Yar A friend, a lover, paramour, an assistant, 

a companion. 

bauanli To make a friend of, to form a friendship. 

banna To be friendly with. 

-bash Voluptuous, sensual. 

basU-I Sensuality. 


Yar-i-ghiir A sincere friend. 

-i-wafadar A faithful friend, name of a river. 

Yara Power, strength. 

1 Might, ability, power. 

na Priendl}', like a friend. 

Yara A broad bracelet, the wrist, a wound, 

power, strengtli, a shrewd man, friend- 
ship, necessity, tax, toll, reyenue. 

Yarak.' Arms, apparatus, a dart. 

Yarglia An amble (pace of a horse). 

clialana To amble, name of a bird. 

Yarghamal A hostage. 

Yar-i Friendship, love, assistance, also, intri- 


deua . . To second, help, side with. 

-gai" A helper, an assistant. 

-gar-i Help, assistance. 

Y'ai'ni A female friend. 

Yarkan The yellow jaundice. (Tap-i-yarkan, 

yellow fever). 
Yas Despair, fear, terror. 

lioua To be despondent. 

Yasar (a.) Left, the left side, plenty, opulence, 

o-yamin Hight and left (dast-i-yasar) on the left 


Yasar (p.) An unlucky person. 

Yasawal A captain of the guard. 

Yashb 1 , 

\ xigate. 

Yashin J 

Yasmin 1 ,. 

\ Jasmine. 

Yasinin | 

Yatash-khana An antichamber, hall of audience. 

Yatim An orphan, pupil, ward, a valuable jewel 

(dnrr-i-yatim), a large aud precious 
pearl found only in the shell. 

1 The state of an orphan. 

Yanin A day. 

an fa yauman Day after day. 

u-1-hashr The day of resurrection. 


Yauiuu-l-hisab The day of judgment. 

Yaumiya Daily, the daily food. 

Yawa Absurd, vaiu, futile, lost, ruined. 

bakna To talk nonsense. 

go An absurd talker. 

-go-i Absurdity, talking nonsense, babble. 

Yawar An assistant, coadjutor, a friend, com- 

1 Aid, friendship, favour. 

Yazd Name of a city in Persia, God. 

Yazdau God. 

1 Divine. 

A hero, warrior, brave fellow. 

Yoddhau 1 „,..,, 

I Pightmff, battle. 

Jodhau I 

Ynkt Fit, proper, project, contrivance, art. 

Yiinan Ionia, Greece. 

1 A Grecian. 

-iyan The Greeks. 

YSnas Jonah. 

Ynrish Assault, storm, invasion. 

Yusnf The patriarch Joseph. 

• Yuva 1 

> loung. 

JuTa J 

Yuz V panther. 

Z. Z. Z. Z. Zh. 

Zabau 1 I The tongue, language, dialect, speech » 

Znbau j \ flame (of a candle, &c.). 

Zabau-awar Eloquent, voluble. 

-band karna To hush, silence. 

barhana To chatter, prattle. 

chalana To abuse. 

dilbke kahna To detract in whispers. 

dabna To hold one's tongue. 

-rtalna To ask, to put a question. 


yabiin-dan Skilled in language, a poet, a linguist. 

daraz Abusive. 

-i Abuse. 

karnS To give abuse. 

dena 1 

, _ _ J To promise. 

-hilaiia To speak. 

karna To speak foolishly or inconsiderately. 

katna. To interrupt. 

kholua To speak out. 

larkharana To stammer. 

pakarna To stop one, to criticize. 

-palatua To equivocate, to retract, to cat one's 


par lana To speak, to say, to mention. 

par rakhna To taste. 

SB uikalna To pronounce, utter, speak. 

se nikalna To be uttered. 

zad Public, on men's tongues. 

hona To become current, to pass into an idiom. 

Zabana Flame (particularly of a candle). 

-Zaban-T l^ansuase, words of the mouth, traditional, 

verbal, by the tongue. 

Zabar Above, superior, the vowel point (^) pro- 
nounced a. 

dast Vigorous, violent, oppressive. 

-dast-I Violence, oppression. 

karna To oppress, to force. 

hona To have the upper hand. 

karna To oppress. 

Zabli A sacrifice, slaughter. 

karna To sacrifice, to slaughter, to kill animals 

for food, agreeably to the Muliamma- 
dan law. 

Zabi A deer. 

Zablh Sacrificed, a sacrifice. 

u-l-lali A name of Isma"Il, the son of Ibrahim, 

who, and not Isaac, (according to Mu- 
salniaus) was offered as a sacrifice by 
his father. 


Zabih A sacrifioer, a butcher. 

ZaMt A governor, master, possessor. 

u-l-kuU Omnipotent (God), lord of all. 

ZSMta Canon, ordinance, law, rule, regulation. 

-i-faujdari Criminal procedure. 

i-diwani Civil procedure. 

Zabt Government, direction, discipline, regu- 
lation, check, control, possession. 

karna To take possession, to rule over, to watcli, 

preserve, restrain, control. 

Zabt-i Eegulation, management. 

Zabuu Bad, ill, unlucky, wicked. 

1 Vileness, wickedness. 

Zabur The psalms of David. 

{in composj Born, a son, a child. 
admi-zad, a man, born of man; 
pari-zad, born of an angel or fairy, a 

beautiful woman ; 
shah-zada, a prince; 

Zad, m. 
Zada. m. 
Zadi. /. 


' i, a princess. 

Zada Stricken, affected, smitten, arrayed (used 

in compos.) 

Zadau-i Fit or deserving to be stricken, killed. 

Zad-bniii Native land, birth-place. 

i-rah Provisions of travelling, way charges. 

Zad-o-kob Beating. 

Zaf Sudden death. 

Zafar Victory. 

iiiand Victorious. 

mand>i Victory. 

Za'farau Saffron. 

Za'faran-i '. Of saffron, saflfron-coloured, yellow, a 

yellow colour, a surname sometimes 
adopted by African and Portuguese Jews. 


. , Copperas, vitriol. 

Zaj ' *^ ' 

-i-sufald Alum. 

Zagh A crow. 

Zaghan A kite. 

Zaghaud Leapingorspringingup, sally, flight, levity. 


Zahab Gold. 

^S.hid A monk, hermit, recluse, zealot. 

"^ zealot ! religious, devout. 

(Persian ipl. zahidan). 

Zahi or zihi Excellent! bravo ! 

?ahik Satirist, mocker, name of a poet. 

Zahil Careless, forgetful. 

Zahin Sagacious, ingenious. 

Zahir An assistant, ally, associate, a poetical 

name of a Persian poet of Faryab. 

Zahir Eeduced by sickness, thin, sad, melancholy, 


Zahir Apparent, evident, open, the outside, 

external, appearance. 

-i External, apparent. 

men Openly, in public. 

Zahl Forgetting, leaving, carelessly abandoning. 

Zahinat Disquietude, pain, trouble. 

Zahmati Afflicted, sick. 

Zahr Poison. 

alnd Poisoned. 

-dar Poisonous. 

■i-halahal , ,, . 

Deadly poison. 


khana To take poison. 

Msi par To imitate an act unsuitable to one's 

state or condition, to ape. 

lag'na To be hateful like poison. 

muhra An antidote to poison, said to be the 


Zahra Bile, gall-bladder. 

ab hona To be much distressed or terrified. 

Za'i' Lost,destroyed, perished, fruitless, abortive. 

karna To lose, to destroy, waste, diminish, 

squander, frustrate, misapply. 

Za'icha Horosope, astronomical table. 

Zaid. . . Increasing, adding, augmentation, a fic- 

titious name. 

Za'id Eedundant, superfluous. 

2alf Hospitable, convivial, a stranger, a guest 


^Za'If Weak, infirm, impotent, emaciated, feebl 

frail, old. 

-I Weakness, emaciation. 

2aigkam Biting, a lion. 

Za,'\k Tasting. 

Xa'ika The sense of tasting, the palate, relish, 


-shinas Knowing in taste. 

^ail The skirt of a garment, tlie train of a 

robe, the last, hinder, or supplementary 
part of anything, train, retinue, the 
sequel, a list of particulars mentioned 
in a letter, that which follows or is 
annexed, an appendix. 

^ail-i Connected, related. 

kishtkar A sub-cultivator. 

7a'il Deficient, failing, perishing, vanishing. 

Zain Ornament, adorning. 

/a'ir A visitant, a pilgrim. 

/aitnn An olive. 

/aj V. zag. 

Zak or zik Injuring, deceiving, disappointing, injury, 

deua To put to shame. 

nthana To be ashamed, to suffer loss. 

Zaka Vivacity, acuteness of genius, penetration, 

(znka, the sun). 
Zakan The chin, the beard (chah-i-zakan), a 

dimple in the chin. 
Zakat Alms, a portion of a Mnsaliuan's property 

given in charity agreeably to the rules 

laid down in the Enr'an. 

/akawat Brightness of genius, acuteness. 

Zaka-wat Probity, purity, ingenuity. 

Zakha'ir Victuiils, provisions, treasures, stores. 

Zakhainat Thickness, bigness. 

'Zakhkhar Overflowing, raging (the sea). 

Zakhm A wound, sore, scar, cut. 

i-kiiri A mortal wound. 

kliana To be wounded. 


/akhin pakna To suppurate (a wound). 

parna To become a sore. 

—-rasa A deep wound. 

Zakhm-i Wounded, slain. 

ZakI Acute, ingenious, fiery, flaming. 

u-l-ma'I Of a splendid genius. 

Zaktim A thorny tree so called. 

Zal Old, decrepid, grey-haired (man or woman), 

the name of the father of Bustam, and 
son of Sam, son of Nariman, He was 
called zal-i-zar, because he was born 
with while hair like that of an old man, 
and a red (of golden hue) countenance. 

• _ \ Error, fault, vice, ruin, perdition. 

Zalalat | 

Zalal An error. 

Zalal Erring, blundering, stumbling, falling, 

deficiency, loss. 

Zalal Meanness, baseness, 

Zalalat Abjectness, obsequiousness. 

Zalam Darkness. 

— _ I The name of Potiphar's wife. 

Znlaikha | 

Zalll Shady. 

Zaia Abject, submissive, mean, contemptible, 

base, wretched. 

hona To be disgraced. 

karna • ■ To debase. 

Zalini -A- tyrant, tyrannical. 

i Tyranny, oppression. 

Xalk A prompt, ready, an eloquent tongue. 

2all An error, a vice. 

2aU Straying, a prevaricator. 

Zalu A. leech. 

Zaluin Gruel, most oppressive, tyrannical. 

Zalzala An earthquake. 

^a<in Tliinking,opinion,pie3uming,presumption, 

speaking from belief, vanity, arrogance. 
Zamad A. bandage or fillet for binding the head 

or a wound. 



Kaina'ir plur. of zamir, g.vl 

Zaman 1 ( Time, an age, the ' world, fortune, the- 

Zainana j 1 heavens, tense, 

dekhna To get experience. 

-Mnwaflk ........ I'ortunate. 

--sSz A turn-coat, time-server. 

— — — saz-i Turning with the tide. 

■ karna To turn with the tide, to temporize. 

Zamauat.; Bail, suretj'. 

Zamanat-nSma Security, bond. 

Zamh Cpl. zannb.) A crime, sin, fault. 

Zambak. . Name of a flower, the white jasmine, a 

lily or an iris. 

Zambil A basket, purse, wallet. 

Zambnr A hornet, bee, a vice, nippers, forceps. 

Zambnra A hornet, large bee, the point of a musical 

instrument called in Hindi EingrI (a 
sort of fiddle), a small gun. 

Zambnrak A small gun. 

Zambnr-chi A fusileer. 

Zambarlr Cold, intense cold. 

■ — ■ -1 Intensely cold. 

Zamiina Addition, thingincorporated.incorporationr 

an appendix, supplement, extra. 

Zamiu A surety, sponsor, security, bail. 

dena To give a surety. 

bona To become bail, to guarantee, engage for 


1 Surety, bail. 

kabal karna To admit as bail. 

Zamiu The earth, ground, soil, a region, country,- 

the ground of a picture. 

-bos bona To make a profound bow. 

--dar A landlord, one who holds ground subject 

to the payment of the Government reve- 
nue. (Practically, the Indian Government 
are the owners Or landlords of the soil, 
and they can confiscate the estates of 
such zamindars, who fail to pay the- 


Zamiu 1 Landed estate. 

darni The wife of a landholder or farmer. 

doz Level with the ground. 

giJ" Unable to walk, paralytic. ' 

i Earthy, terrestrial. 

men gar jana To be greatly ashamed. 

pakarni ; . . . ^ To persevere obstinately in any design, 

to insist. 

par 86 knehh para To be overjoyed at finding unexpectedly 

pana the object of one's wishes. 

Zamir The mind, heart, thought, reflection, sense, 

conscience, conception, idea, comprehen- 
sion, a personal pronoun. 

Zamistan Winter, wisdom. 

Zamm Contraction, conjunction, incorporation, 

the vowel point (') pronounced as the 
Italian short u or as the English u 
in full. 

Zamm Blame, reproach, accusation, detraction. 

Zamzam The name of a well at Mecca, called also 

Hagar's well. 

Zamzama Singing, modulation, a concert. 

-pardaz Singer, songster. 

Zan A woman, wife, 

karna , _ 

To marry. 


murid Hen-pecked (rah-zan, a highwayman). 

— _ I The chin, the pit in the chin. 

Zanakhdau J 

Zanan Striking, beating, striking up. 

Zanana Female, feminine, effeminate, womanly, 

female apartments, a seraglio. 

Zanan-i , Of the women, of the seraglio. 

Zang Name of a people in Africa, rust, a 

small bell. 

alnd fiusty, covered with rust. 

lagna To become rusty. 

Zangar Kust, verdigris. 

..\ , Rusty, of the colour of rust. 

2aiii fi'O' compos.) Striking, the act of striking. 

308 QI,PSS4inf op INDIAN TERMS. 

Zam A.n adulterer, a whoremonger. 

Zanlya A whore, strumpet, an adultress. 

Zanjabil Dry ginger. 

Zan-jalab A cuckold. 

1 Cuckoldom. 

Zanjir A chain. 

-1 Chained, in chains, a prisoner. 

Zanka A little woman. 

Zaun Suspicion, jealousy, opinion, impression, 

notion, conjecture. 

-bad Suspicious, sceptical. 

-I Supposed. 

Zann The knee, the lap, the hip. 

Zar Desire, wish, a groan, lamentation, afflicted, 

groaning, lamenting. 

-nail Lamentation. 

-o-nizar Emaciated, (in compos.) it implies place, 

multitude; as, gnl-zar, a garden of roses. 

Zar Gold, riches, wealth, money. 

andSd 1 />,■,, n .,, , 

!• (jrilt, plated with gold. 

andnda J 

baf Brocade, gold tissue. 

baf-i Woven in gold, embroidered. 

baft Brocade, cloth of gold. 

dar Wealthy. 

-dost Fond of money, covetous. 

doz Embroidered. 

-doz-i Embroidery. 

gar A goldsmith. 

-gar-i The business of a goldsmith, a kind oi 


i-gul Tlie yellow stamina of a rose. 

i-nakd Beady money. 

i-tahsll Collections, revenue. 

Purchased (as a slave). 


— -khez Hich (a country), producing gold and 


nigar Gilt, an electroplater. 

nigar-I Gilding. 


Zarafat Beauty, politeness, elegance, gallantry, 

wit, humour, jocularity. 

an By way of joke. 

?*'*'" Injury, damage, detriment, loss, ruin, 

affliction, anguish. 

dena To injure, hurt. 

i shadid Great injury. 

-rasani Causing injury, annoyance. 

?*i'l* • A blow, beating, violence, multiplication 

(in arithmetic), striking, stamping, 
coining (money), struck. 

dena To coin, multiply. 

i-masal 1 

, ■■ , i A proverb, a savinar. 

n-1-masal ) i > j o 

lagana To strike, to hammer. 

ntliaua To suffer loss or damage. 

(darn-z-zarb) The mint-office. 

Zar-baf V. under Zar. 

Zard Yellow, pale, livid. 

Zarda A kind of pula'o, dressed with saifron. 

Zai-dak A carrot. 

Zard-aln An apricot. 

Zai'dar Wealthy. 

Zard-chob Yellow wood, turmeric (Curcuma longa). 

Zard-grosh Hypocritical, malignant. 

Zard-i Yellowness, the yoke of an egg. 

pilak The name of a bird. 

-rang Yellow, bashful. 

-ru Bashful. 

— i Bashfulness. 

Zarf Ingenuity, elegance, politeness, a vase, 

fpl. znruf ) vessel, ingenious, (in grammar) an adverb. 

-i-makau Adverb of place. 

i-zaman Adverb of time. 

Zar-i Anything woven with gold thread. 

baf A manufacturer of gold thread. 

Zar-i Crying, sighing, groaning, lamentation, 

supplication, crying for help. 

Zarif Ingenious, polite, gallant, good, elegant, 

witty, jocose. 


Zarih A railing or lattice-work surrounding a 

temple or tomb. 
Zark Turning the eyes, (in Pars.), hypocrisy, 

fraud, detraction. 
bark Glare, glitter, show, splendid cloths, 


Zarna \ 

_ \ f- Arsenic, orpiment or (yellow suiphuret 

„ _, , I I of arsenic). 

Zamikh ) I ^ 

Zarra ) . , ,. , 

„ ) . . . An atom, a particle, a little. 

Zarri j 

^jot A little. 

sa A very little. 

Zar-rin - Golden. 

innrgh The name of a bird, the sun. 

Zarur Necessary, expedient, unavoidable, the 

necessary (thing). 

bona To be necessary. 

at Force, violence, compulsion, restraint, 

want, indigence, necessity. 

an Necessarily, of necessity. 

hona To have need of. 

Zarurl Necessary. 

yat (pi-J Necessaries. 

Zarzar Great lamentation. 

rona To weep bitterly. 

Zat A mistress, possessor, (in Sans., eiiuiva- 

lent to jat, caste, sect, tribe, class, race, 
the essence, nature, soul, substance). 

dena To give up one's caste or relinquish the 

benefits of one's religion by eating with 
a person of another caste, or not acting 
in conformity with certain rules, also 
to give caste or receive a person into caste. 

(To deprive another of caste by touching 
his food, even by allowing one's shadow 
to pass over the food. If a member of 

marua ) \ a caste be touched by a non-member, 

I the former should immediately divest 
\ himself of his clothing and bathe. 


^tu-l-jamb The pleurisy. 

2atal Chattering, talking much and foolishly, 

quibbling, tattle. 

Iiankna To quibble. 

marna To chattel-, to talk nonsense. 

Zat-I Essential, natural, innate. 

Ximj. A couple, a pair, alike, a spouse, husband. 

Tlanja A wife. 

Zanjiyat The married state. 

Zauk Taste, delight, joy, pleasure, voluptu- 

se With pleasure, willingly, with all my 


Zaur Going on a pilgrimage. 

ZauTrak A taster. 

Zauwar A visitor, visitant. 

Zawal Decline, wane, declination, setting of the 

sun, misery, wretchedness. 

^^-pazir Transitory, fading. 

Zawi Having, posessing, endowed with. 

Zawiya or Zaviya An angle (in geometry), a corner, retired 

: andarum Interior angle. 

beruni 1 -ni ■ i 

_ \ Exterior angle. , . 

kharija J 

hadda An acute angle. 

■ ka'inia A right angle. 

— munfarija An obtuse angle. 

nmsattah . . A plane rectilineal angle. 

inuta badila An alternate angle. 

mnta kabila The opposite angle. 

nasliin One who keeps himself in retirement. 

Zeb Ornament, elegance, beauty. 

dena To suit, become. 

Zeba Adorned, beautiful. 

Zeba-i Beauty, gracefulness. 

Zeba-ish Ornament, adorning, elegance. 

karna To adorn, to decorate. 

Zeba-ish-i Elegant, beautiful. 

Zebinda Adorning, ornamenting, adorned. 


Zer Under, below, inferior, lower, the vowel 

point (') sounded like the Italian i, 

-andaz The cloth or carpet spread under a hnkka. 

-band A martingale. 

bar hona To be indebted, to undergo a great expense. 

bari Expenses, burdens, liabilities. 

dast Powerless, under command, a subject, a 


hukin rahna To be in subjection. 

>i-lab Inarticulateness, mumbling. 

— — i-lab-i Inarticulate, slightly uttered (a word). 

-i-nagin Submissive, subject. 

-karna To overpower, to subdue. 

mashk Writing. 

-o-zabar Topsy turvy, overturned, ruined rom 

head to foot, from beginning to end. 

pai Slippers. 

tajwiz Under consideration, sending. 

Zewar (pi. zewarat.) Jewels, ornaments of gold, silver, &c. 

Zhala Dew, hoar-frost, bail. 

Zhazb Idle, trifling, or indecent speech, a kind 

of thistle. 

kha'e A trifler, one who speaks obscenely. 

Zhinda A patched garment. 

Zhiyan li'ormidable, rapacious, raging (sher-i- 

zbiyan), a fierce lion. 
Zhollda Intricate, entangled. 

niB Entangled hair. 

Zi A lord, master, (hi compos J possessed 

of, endowed with. 

— hayat Endowed with life, an animal. 

— hljja The last Mnbainmadan month of the year. 

— bosh Sensible. 

— khirad Endowed with wisdom. 

— rub A rational being. 

— sban Possessed of dignity. 

— sbu'ur Intelligent. 

Zibak Quicksilver. 

Zi-bas In plenty, sufficiently. 

Zi"bas-kl In as much as. 


Zich • Teasing, check-mated. 

?id(l The contrary, the opposite, contrariety, 


bona Tobebaffled,renderedhelpless,tobetiredof. 

karna To baffle, defeat, to persist, to persevere. 

rakhna To importune, press eagerly. 

Ziddain Contrary to each other. 

Zidd-I Perverse, contrary, unmanageable. 

Zifaf Leading the bride home, to her husband's 


Zili A bowstring, the border or edge of 

anything, the collar or facing of a gar- 
ment, excellent! bravo! throes of child- 

Zihar A bladder, the lower part of the belly. 

Ziliar A formula of repudiation, or saying what 

amounts to, and has the effect of a 
regular divorce; as, " You are my mother," 
or, "I sucked the same breast as you." 
A penance is requisite to do away with 
the effect of such a speech. 

Zihdaii The womb. 

Zlhi or zahi Excellent! bravo ! 

Zi-hijja The name of the last month of the 

Mnhanimadau year (on the 10th day is 
the festival of bakar-'id). 

Zihn Understanding, memory, genius, ability. 

— -i-dakik A subtile genius. 

nishin karna To impress, to fix on the mind. 

nishin hona To be impressed on the mind. 

ZIj Astronomical tables, a mason's rule. 

Zik Anguish, vexation, melancholy, affliction, 

anxiety, doubt, oppression of spirit, or 
any thing that tortures the mind. 

n-n-nafas Asthma. 

Zik V. zak. 

Zikr Remembrance, memory, commemoration, 

mention, praise, fame, recital, relation, 
reading of the Kur'an and recital of 
the praise and names of God. 


Zikr karnii To recite, mention. 

Zil'-. A side, part, district, division, a column 

in the page of a book, (in Hindustan), 
the art of speaking with double 

dar The officer in charge of a district. 

ZIl 1 (A fine soft sound, the smallest string of 

ZTr J I a lute, the treble in music. 

Zm Shadow. 

i-sub'hani \ c , ,. , , • 

, ,_ ' > Shadow of God, a king, an emperor. 

u-l-lah J 

(dama zillnhn or ziUnhnm) May his, or their, prosperity continue. 

ZUl Gentleness, ease. 

Zillat Baseness, meanness, dishonour. 

Zimad j ( A bandage or fillet for binding the head 

Ziinau | } or a wound, a plaster, liniment, an 

Zamad J y embrocation, ointment. 

Zimma Trust, charge, obligation, subjection, duty, 

service, fidelity, lineage. 

Zimmadar Responsible. 

hona To be responsible, to be careful. 

Zimmadar-i Eesponsibility, care, charge. 

Zinime karna To give in charge. 

lena To take in charge, to take care of. 

Ziuin The cover of a letter, the contents, 

anything comprehended, contained or 
inserted, subject, an idea, conception, 
suretyship, an obligation, aid, favour, 
clause, section. 

karna To include, take in. 

Zimnan Comprehensively, by the by. 

ZIn A saddle. 

— bandlina To saddle. 

-gar A saddler, 

posh A cloth fastened over the saddle, housing. 

Zina A ladder, stairs, steps. 

Zina Adultery, fornication. 

kar An adulterer, a fornicator. 

T Fornication, adultery. 

karna To commit adultery. 


Zinat Ornament, dress, decoration, beauty, 


Zinda A live, living. 

■dil Lively, joyful, happy. 

Life, living, existence, , 

gam 1 
gl J 

karua To bring to life. 

rahna To live, survive. 

Ziudan A prison. 

Zindan-i Imprisoned, a prisoner. 

(pi. Zindanian). 

ZInhar. Care, caution, protection defence, patron- 
age, (interj.) take care, beware, (adv.) 
by no means, soon, certainly. 

Zinjif or Zinjaf Fringe, border, edging. 

Zir V. za. 

Zira Cumin-seed (Cnminnm cyminnm). 

Zh'a' A yard, a cubit, two bright stars in the 

head of Gemini. 

Zira'at Agriculture, husbandry, sown field, land. 

i Agricultural. 

Zirab Fighting, fencing, conquering. 

Zirah (prop, zirih) Iron armour made with rings. 

-posli A man clad in armour. 

Zirak Ingenious, intelligent, sagacious, pene- 
trating, acute. 

1 Ingenuity, sagacity. 

Zir bam High and low notes. 

Zisht Defornaed, ugly, inhuman, hideous. 

-kho Of ugly habits or disposition. 

ru Ugly> ill-favoured. 

Zist Life, living, existence. 

Zijada More, too much, excessive. 

bona To exceed, surpass, to be increased. 

karna To increase, augment, use force, also, 

to take away the dinner and table-cloth. 

talab-i Extortion, imposition. 

Zivafat A- feast, banquet, convivial entertainment, 

hospitality, invitation. 

karna To entertain, feast, treat. 


Ziyan Loss, damage, deficiency, injury, hurt, 


kar Hurtful, injurious. 

-kar-I Injury, hurtfulness. 

-kai'na To cause harm, hurt, injury, to injure. 

Ziyarat Pilgrimage, visiting. 

karna To go on a pilgrimage. 

Ziyarat-i Relating to pilgrimage, 

Zor Force, strength, virtue, power, vigour, 

violence, effort, weight. 

awar Powerful, strong. 

-i Power, force. 

azma-i Trial of strength, wrestling. 

-azmaua To try one's strength, to contend. 

chalna To have authority or influence. 

dar Strong, vigorous. 

dena To aid, support, assist. 

dikhana To show off one's authority or power. 

karna To compel, to exercise, to use effort, to 

exert one's self. 

marna To endeavour, strive, toil, struggle. 

parna To be stretched, to be forced. 

ZH A lord, a master, Cin compos.) possessed 

of, or endowed with. 
— 1-fakar A sword possessed by Muhammad, and 

afterwards by 'All. 

1-jalal Possessed of glory, glorious. 

Zn'af Sudden death (by poison). 

Zu'af Deadly venom. 

Zuban V. zaban. 

Znbd , 

The best of anything, butter. 


Zud Quick, swift, soon, suddenly. 

-ranj Irascible, soon irritated. 

— -tar ilore speedily. 

tarin Will all speed. 

Zu'f or Za'f Infirmity, weakness, imbecility of mind 

or body. 

Zn'f ana To faint, to fall into a swoon. 

i-niasana Irritability of the bladder. 


Zu'f i-mi'da Weak digestion, dyspepsia. 

?ulia Breakfast time, the part of the day between 

sunrise, and the meridian ('idu-z-zulia, 
name of a festival celebrated on the 
10th of zi-hijja (q.v.), when an animal 
is sacrificed in commemoration of Abra- 
ham's offering up of (according to 
Musalmang) his son Isma'il. 

/ulid Continence, devotion, abstinence. 

-kesh Devout, continent. 

Zuhhad plur. of zahid, q.v. 

Zuhr y... Mid-day, or a little time after the sun 

has passed the meridian, when it is 
most sultry. 

/uhra The planet Venus. 

Zuhul Oblivion, forgetting. 

Zuliiir Appearing, vising, becoming visible. 

bona To arise, appear. 

mei ana To arise, to come in sight. 

meu lana To make apparent, to bring about. 

Zakam Eheum, catarrh, cold, defluxion. 

karna To take cold in the head. 


, _ , Treasure, provisions, victuals, stores. 

Zakhira J ' 

Zulal Pure, limpid, wholesome water. 

Znlain The colic. 

Zulf A curling lock, a ringlet, a whisker. 

i-'auibarin Perfumed (with ambergris) locks. 

i-tab-dar Curling locks. 

i-pareshan Dishevelled locks. 

Zalf-I A sword-knot, the chain by which a 

door is fastened. 

Zu-l-jalal V. under zu. 

Zulla A covering, anything shady, a cloud. 

Zulm Oppression, injustice, injury, extortion. 

bona To befal one (a misfortune). 

karna To oppress, tyrannize. 


Tyrannical, tyrant, oppressor. 

— shi'ar I 

■rasula Oppressed. 



Znlmat Darkness. 

pi. Znlmat A dark place where the water of immor- 
tality is said to be. 

Knlm-i Oppressive, tyrannical, unjust. 

-yat ... '. Oppression. 

Znmra A troop, group, crowd, multitude. 

Znnnb (pi. of zamb.) .... Crimes, sins, faults. 

Zanuar (Prom Gr. itovdgiov), a belt, the Brah- 

manical thread, a Hindn rosaiy. 

ZSr A lie, falsehood, adulteration, a false 

deity, an idol. 

Zurara Particles scattered from anything pounded. 

Znruf Vessels, adverb. 

Cpl. of Zarf. g.vj 

The following GLOSSAEY of TKRMS in constant use in Official 
District Work in the N. W. P. and Oudh is taken (with a few 
corrections) from a very useful work (which should be in the hands 
of all District officers) entitled, "A District Office in Northern India'' 
by C. W. Whish. B. Civil Service. We take this opportunity of 
mentioning that Mr. Whish is one of those officials who has done 
good service for the Government, and, at the some time, earned the 
respect and gratitude of all the Indians with whom his duties have 
brought him in contact. 


Name. Description. 

Xbadi Village site. 

Aiilmand or Ahl-l-kar . . . Departmental clerk. 

Almarl A chest or book case. 

Amin Official directing an inquiry. 

ina Sixteenth part of a rupee. 

Arz i irzal Notice of remittance. 

Asami Tenants, defendants in law-suits. 

AsamiTvar Held by tenants or asainis, document 

including all the names applied to revenue 
settlements made with the proprietors. 


Babul The accacia AraMca tree (of the Mimosa 


Balii-khata Ledger. 

Baniya Flour seller or petty shop-keeper. 

Ba^g^a^ Bundle of records (ZU. a cloth wrapper). 

Berun az siyalia Money not credited in the public accounts. 

Bhang -'^'^ intoxicating drug made from hemp 

(Cannabis sativa). 


Bhus Chaff, husk, bran. 

BIgha About two-thirds (|) of an acre. 

Biswa One-twentieth (^V) of a bigha = kattha. 

BiswSnsi One-twentieth f^) of a biswa. 


Chakbat Compact. 

bandi Defining or marking the boundaries of 

an estate. 

Chalan Notice of remittance, clearance. 

Chandn A preparation of opium for smoking. 

{^Ihaprasi Messenger, servant, peon. 

Charas An intoxicating drug made from hemp. 

Chankidar Village watchman. 

Chanpal Landed proprietor's office. 

Chik Bamboo blind. 

Chhatank One-sixteenth (^\) part of a seer or -Jth 

of a pound. 

Cooly Day labourer. 

C. Cr. P Code of Criminal Procedure. 


Dakliila Receipt. 

Dakhila bahl Receipt register. 

Darbar A public reception. 

Dastak Writ of demand. 

Deputy Inspector of Schools Departmental official in charge of district 


District Board Elected Committee for Local Government. 


Fasli (year) Agricultural year. 

Fasli sai The revenue year. 


tJanjii An intoxicating drug (the hemp plant). 

Gharii Earthenware water-pot. 

Chat A bathing or landing place. 


Handi An earthenware bowl. 

Hindi The indigenous vernacular of Upper India. 


Janiabandl Eent roll. 

Jaiiiadar Officer of peons or messengers. 

Jinswar See Khasra Jinswar. 


Kabiilif at Counter part of a lease. (A written 


Kabzu-1-wasSl Acquittance roll, receipt, ackowledgment. 

Kankar Nodular limestone. 

KarM Straw (the stalk of jo'ar of bajra (Horeus 

sorgum and spicatus). 

Kliarif. Autumn harvest. 

Kharij az siyaha Sums outside the public accounts. 

Khasra Field register, a village account. 

Khasra jinswar Crop outturn register. 

Khatinni Abstract of account. 

Khetbat ^ . . Sub-division of fields. 

Khewat Kegister of proprietors, record of village 


Kist Instalment. 

-band! Settlement of the revenues or taxes by 


Kos A measure of distance, about two miles. 

Knlliyat General, miscellaneous, total, universality. 


Lambardar Representative of revenue payers. (Lit. 


j^Q^^ Brass drinking pot; a pipkin. 




Madak A preparation of opium for smoking, 

(properly betel-ieaf mixed with opium). 

Malgnzar Land revenue payer. 

-1 Land revenue ; ground-rent. 

Mali Gardener, florist, adj. belonging to prop- 
erty, financial. 

Malkhana ... Store-room. 

Maand A measure of Weight containing (80) eighty 

(properly Man.) pounds. 

Mauya' (monza) Village. 

Milan Sum, correspondence, comparison, col- 

Misl A record. Lit. similitude. 

Misl band File, register. 

Mnharrir Clerk. 

Monsoon Bainy season. 

anglice fromniausim(season) 

Mua'fi An estate on which the land revenue is 


Mukhtarnama Power-of-attorney. 

Munsarlm Office superintendent, head clerkof a court. 

Mnnshikhana Vernacular office. 

Mntation Change of proprietor's name in register. 


Naib Assistant, deputy. 

diwan The deputy treasurer ov accountant- 

Nathis Separate bundles of records. 

(from uatlil, the string 

by which papers are 

strung to leather). 

Nazarat Office of Nazir. 

Nazir Office superintendent, in law, a court 

officer, sherifl'. 

Nuziil Lumovable property of Government (strictly 

in a political sense). 



Occupancy Exemption from liability to ejectment. 


Fakkii, packa or pucka . . Solid masonry, stone, or brick. 

Fanchayat Committee or Council of five. 

Parwana Official order, pass, warrant. 

Patwari Village accountant, land steward. 

Peon Messenger. 

Peshkiir A head vernacular writer or clerk, properiy, 

minister, manager, deputy or agent. 

Pie Twelfth (^) part of an anna. 

Panch Assessor (originally from one of fivB 



Rabi' Spring harvest. 

Bawana Pass, permit. 

Registrar Kannngo Keeper of pargana registers. 

Rozuamcha Diary. 


8adar (Sadr, or Sudder) . Head-quarters office. 

iSadar Eannngo Superintendent of kannugos. 

Sajra Keld map. 

Schedules Heads of account. 

Ser A measure of weight containing two 

pounds (2 lbs) or sixteen chhatanks. 

Sewai Miscellaneous items of income. 

Siyaha Sub-treasury account sheet. 

Siyaha naTis Sub-treasury vernacular accountant. 

Singhara ^^ edible water nut. 

Sir (Samhrit : a plough) Land in special cultivating possession of 

proprietor. Lit. husbrandry, agriculture. 
Superyisor Kanungo Superintendent of patwaris, an officer in 

each district, acquainted with its customs, 

the nature of the tenui'es of the land, &c. 



Xahsn A subdivision of a district (especially for 

revenue purposes). 

Tahsildar The officer in eharge of a Tahsil. 

Tahvildar Sub-treasurer. 

(Tahwll-dar) Cash-keeper. 

TakaTTi State loans for agricultural improvements 

(assisting particularly, tenants). 

Talabnania A summons. 

Talabani Process fees. 

Talabana dakhil karna. . . To pay witnesses fees. 

Tari (toddy) An intoxicating drink made from palm 

trees. *) 

Terai Low lying land. 

(properly tara'i, a marsh, 

or meadow.) 
Thana Police station. 


Urdu The vernacular of India subsequent to 

Urdu-i-mu'alla, the royal the Mnhammadan conquest, literally; 

camp or array, generally an army or camp, (a Turkish word). 

means the city of Dihli or 

Shahjahanabad, and nrdn- 

i-mn%lla ki zaban, the 

court language. 


Wasil baki Land revenue accountant. 

(hisab-navis) (collections and balance). 


Zamiudar Land-holder. 

*) The natives make an incision in the tree near the top, and fasten underneath 
earthen vessels into which the juice drops during the night. The liquor, thus 
obtained, having a slightly sub-acid flavour, is peculiarljr grateful and refreshing 
in the early morning. It acquires its intoxicating property when kept for some 
time and allowed to ferment. 


GLOSSARY of TERMS applied to Labourers, in the N. W. 
P. and Oudh revised from a very interesting pamphlet, entitled " Our 
Difficulties and Wants" by the late S. M. Hossain (a distinguished 
student at tlie Cirencester Agricultural College, who held an important 
post in the Agricultural Department of Northern India). 

Alnr Keeper of cows and seller of milk, butter,&c. 

;A.sanii Agricultural tenants. 

Atishbaz Firework maker. 

'Attar Drug-gist. 

Bakar or Buz Butcher dealing in mutton. (These words 

signifying bull goat are locally appliedj. 

Bauiya or Bakkal Shop keepers (also corn-grower). 

Bharbliunja, Bhnj, or 

Bhuja Keeper of an oven (bhar) for parching 

chabeua. *) 

Barhai. , Carpenter. 

Bar! Torch bearer (properly the name of a 

Hindu caste who sell torches, and leaves 
used as platters). 

Behua (Dlinnya, or Haddaf) One who prepares cotton for spinning 

and receives in exchange untwined thread. 

Bhatyara Baker, or innkeeper. 

Beldar A member of a wandering tribe that vend 

fuel carried on asses, also, a pioneer, 
a digger. 

Bhangi (Dom, or Mihtar) Sweepers and removers of ordure, they 

make baskets. Sup or chhaj for cleaning 
grain from dust, they play musical in- 
struments at weddings, their wives are 
employed as midwives. 

Chamar Tanners, they strip the skin from dead 

cattle (the flesh of which they eat). 

Chitera Carver (properly, a person who paints 


Chikwa ^ii^e. Bakar (a butcher who kills only 

goats, sheep, kids and lambs). 

*) Cbabena is the nnground grain parched in burning sand which alone is 
eaten by more than three-foni'ths of the villagers for breakfast. 


Chnriyar Makers of bracelets (chnriya) composed 

(from . cliuri, bangles or of sodium, carbonate and sand, 
rings made of glass, &c., 
and worn by women on 
the wrist.) 

Darzi Tailor. 

Dhirkal or Bansphor . . . . Basket, box and cliairmaker (of bamboo). 

Dhobi Washerman. 

Dhunya Vide Belina. 

Dom Fide Bhangi. 

Garariya Shepherd. 

Gosalii A kind of Hindu fakir. 

Ganra Bearer of the palanquin, they also keep 

ferry boats like kewats, and roast grain. 

Halwal Vendor of sweetmeats and tobacco. 

Jolaha jorya Weavers. 

(from joriiii, to join, to 

Kaliar A bearer (especially of a palaquin ; a caste). 

Khewat A ferry-man, (he also, in some parts, 

makes salt). 

Khatik Principally engaged in selling fruit, and 

vegetables making twine, &c., they also 
work like pasis, q.v., and serve as guards 
in the houses of zamindars. 

Kaclihi or Kurml Agriculturists (the former are properly 

(probably from Kapari). gardeners who cultivate and sell pot-herbs). 

Kabarya or Kunjra Greengrocer. 

Eassab Vide Bakar. 

Kasai Dealers in beef. 

Koll and Kori Vide Jolalia. 

Kasera Brazier. 

Knmhar Potter. 

Lobar Blacksmith. 

Loniya from loiil (salt)... In former times manufacturers of salt, 

they now work on the roada, &c. 
Manibar (from inani, a 

gem, a jewel) Vide C'liuriyiir. 

Maraii Vide KachbT. 

Mibtar Vide Bhangi. 


Mall . Gardener. 

Maliajau G rain and money lender (at very high 


Nai; hajjam Barbers. "Besides their particular pro- 
fession, the Nais also wait upon the 
zamindars upon extraordinary occasions, 
especially at marriage ceremonies, when 
their services as intermediators between 
the contracting parties are invariably 
employed. They are also appointed by 
their customers to wait upon their guests 
who have brought no servant with them, 
to bring water for them and otherwise 
attend upon them. The Nais are entrusted 
with letters and presents from respect- 
able people to their relations and friends, 
as well as with invitations." 

NanMi; rotiwala Baker. 

Naddaf ^ic^e Behna. 

Pjisi Men, who, in occupation, resemble chaniiir 

q.v. (both low caste Hindus). 

Patu'a or Pathar (local).. Lace-raaker; a man who strings pearls, 

a braider, a maker of fringe and tape. 

Rangrez (from rang, dye, 

colour) Dyer. 

Sunar Goldsmith. 

Tamoli or Tamtooli This caste sell lime or Pan (Betel leaves) 

which are chewed by Indians and con- 
sidered a luxury as well as a stomachic. 

ijgjj A presser of oil-seed and vendor of oil. 

Thathera ^«<^« Kasera (brasier, tinker). 


Muhammadan Calendar. 

The era from which Mnssalinans reckou corresponds with the 
date of their prophet's flight (called the Hijra) from Mecca to Medina. 
This is computed to have occui-red on Friday, the 16th of July, 
A.D. 622. Mnssalmaus count time by lunar months, of which there 
are twelve consisting of 354 day and nine hours, very nearly. Their 
New-year's Day will thus fall every year about eleven days earlier 
than in the preceding year. 

In order to find the Christian year corresponding to that of the 
Hijra, Forbes (vide Grammar p. 146) gives the following rule: — 
"From the given number of Mnsalman years, deduct i/tree per cent, 
and to the remainder add the number 621.54, the sum is the period 
of the Christian aera at which the given current Mnsalinan year 
ends — This very simple rule is founded on the fact that 100 lunar 
years are very nearly equal to 97 solar years, there being only about 
eight days of difference. A more accurate proportion would be 101 
lunar to 98 solar years, but this would lead to a less convenient 
rule for practical use. 

"When great accuracy is required, and when the year, month, and 
day of the Mnhainmadau aera are given, the precise period of the 
Christian aera may be found very nearly, as follows:— Rule. Express 
the Mnsalman date in years and decimals of a year; multiply by .97; 
to the product add 621 . 54, and the sum will be the period of the 
Christian aera. This rule is exact to within a few days, and if in 
the Masalman date the day of the week is given, as is generally the 
case, the veij day is easily determined. 

"The Mnhainmadan or lunar months are made to consist of thirty 
and twenty-nine days alternately, but in a period of thirty years, it 
is found necessary to intercalate the last month eleven times so as 
to be reckoned thirty days instead of twenty-nine. The mouths 
retain their Arabic names in all Mnkaminadan countries, as follows ' — 



Lunar Months. 

Mnharraiu .... 


BaM ul-awwal. 
Rabi' ul-akhir 
Jnmad al-awwal. 
Jumad-as-sanI ) 
- Jnmad-al-akhir j 

30 days. 
29 „ 



Bajab 30 days. 

Sha'ban 29 „ 

Bainazan. 30 „ 

Shawwal 29 

Zi, 1 ka'da 1 gp 

Zi ka'da j 

Zi, 1 hijja I 29 

Zi hijja 

Days of the Week. 










Somwar or pTr. 












Jniu'a rat. 











Shanba or Hafla. 

Hindu Calendar. 

"The Hindiis reckon by solar years, and Inni-solar months. Their 
iprincipal aera is that of the Kali-Tug, of which the year 4956 
.expired about the 11th of April, A.D. 1855, at which period their 
^new year generally commences. 

" The Hindu year is divided into twelve equal portions, which may 

■be called solar months; but all festivals and dates are reckoned, not 
iby these simple months, but by the duration of the moon which 

terminates in each. Hence, although the month Baisakli begins de 

jure about the 11th of April, it may have commenced de facto from 
• one day to twenty-eight days sooner. When two new moons occur 

during one solar month, which happens once in three years, there i», 
; an intercalary month, and the month so intercalated receives the name 
-of the one which preceded it, that is, of the solar month within 
'which the two new moons may happeii. 



" Beside the era of the Kall-¥ug, the Hindus in the northern iiair 
of India reckon from the time of a renowned prince, by name 
Vikraniadltya, who lived (or died) about 57 years before tbe com- 
mencement of our era. Another common era is that of a prince 
named Salavahaiia, which commences 78 years after the birtt of Christ. 
" Several other eras are in use in certain parts of the country, for a 
full account of which the reader may consult a profound work devoted 
entirely to the subject, entitled Eala Sankalita, 4to. Madras, 4825."" 

The Hindn Solar Months are as follows: — 

Baisakh April — May. 

Jeth May — June. 

Asarh June — July. 

Sawan or Sarawan July — Auc. 

Bhiidou -A^iig- — Sept. 

Asin or Knar .... Sept. — Oct. 

Katlk or Kartlk... Oct.— Nov. 

Agrhan Nov. — Dec. 

Pns Dec. — Jan. 

Magh Jan.^ — Feb. 

Fhagun, or Phaignn Feb.^^March. 
Chait March — April.. 

Monetary System of British India. 

Gold Mohnr. 

(Now seldom used) 





Calcutta i 





Madras and 

. . 1 














In former times, and still partially used, small shells, called cowries, 
had an exchange value for fractional payments. The Banyans, or 


Hindu shopkeepers, liave generally a heap of cowries (5. Kauri) 
principally for distribution to beggars. To these, the majority of 
whom are professional, who swarm in India the shopkeepers give a 
handful of these shells. When the mendicant has collected a suffi- 
■cieni number he can exchange them for a little rice, bajra, or othei- 
grain. Silver, being tlie standard medium of circulation in India, 
the rate of exchange of the rupee with gold standard countries is 
subject to considerable fluctuation. 

As the Indian Government have to make remittances to meet the 
heavy home charges to the Secretary of State in gold, the depreciation 
-of silver is a constant source of anxiety to India. 

Weights and Messures. 

Goods are sold by the ser (the Calcutta factory 

ser weighs 1 lb. 13 oz. 13.86 drs. Avoir; the 

bazar ser 2 lbs. 0—. 13.853 

A ser ii generally reckoned (in small quantities) as 2 lbs. Acoir. 
A Mann =z 40 ser. 

The tola is the denomination of a weight, consisting of a number 
-of uiashas, which varies in different parts of India. 

The standard tola, or sicca weight of Calcutta, is -12^ inashas, 
-agreeably to the following table. 

4 Fanks 1 Dhan or trrain. 

4 Dhau 1 Kattl. . Gr. Tr. 1 . 796G6 

8 Eatti 1 Masha 14.37333 

12^ Mashas 1 Tola 179.6666 

A gaz is used in measuring length; it is equivalent to a yard. 

Distances are reckoned by Kos = to about 2 miles. 

Forms of Address. 

In respect of forms of address, Indians, and, indeed all Oriental 
peoples, are very punctilious. Their use of flowery expressions is 
proverbial, and apt to excite ridicule among Western nations, espe- 
-cially tho?e in the north of Europe. Towards tiie south, in Italy, 
Spain, and Portugal, and even in France exaggerated terms of address 
-are noticeable. 


la India, Brahinaug are addressed as Maharaj !, Great King !, Pande I 
(which also signifies a schoolmaster,) Dobe, Tiwari or Chanbe (which 
signifies a Brahman acquainted with the four Yedas, and though this 
term, like Pandit, was originally applied to learned Brahmans, 
ignorant men of this caste are still addressed as Chanbes and Pandits. 
Mnsalmau Fakirs are adressed with Pir or Siifi or Shah; Hindu 
devotees, with Sa'in or (insa'in or Bhagat or Gnrn; Bajputs with 
Thaknr and Singh or Kae. The two latter terms are also used among 
Sikhs. Moguls are addressed as Mirza or Beg, or Jgha or Khwajah; 
Saiyids, with Mir; Shaikhs, with Shaikh; Pathans, with Khan; Doc-- 
tors with Mnlla or Manlari or Pandit; Merchants or Bankers, with 
Seth or Sah. The most common terms of respectful address are 
Xaharaj, Jahan Panah (Refuge of the world!). Your Majesty!, Great - 
King! Khndawand, Ji, Miyan or Sahib; Sir!, or Babn, Lala, or 
Thaknr; Sir!, Master!, Worship!. 

Mohammad Ibrahim of ]3ombay laid down the following rules- 
respecting the etiquette to be observed in the use of the pronouns. 

"1. When the speaker and the person whom he addresses are of 
the same rank, each should speak of himself in the singular number, 
and address the other in the second person plural. 

"2. A person of superior rank may speak himself in the singular 
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" 3. The pronouns of the third person may be used in the singular- 
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superior rank, when they ought to be spoken of in the plural. 

" 4. When one person of rank addresses another of the same or 
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or some respectful phrase, Khndawand, your honour; hnzrnt, honour, 
highness, etc,, and the like, with the third person plural (of the 
pronouns and verbs); and when an inferior addresses a superior he 
ought at all times to use similar expressions of respect, suitable to 
the rank of the person addressed." 

In writing letters, the person addressed is denoted, according to 
his rank, by some or other of the terms we have given above; but 
even, as a mark of respect, persons are addressed in expressiona 
which are quite incongruous with their position. 

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