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Full text of "Specimens of languages of India, including those of the aboriginial tribes of Bengal, the Central provinces, and the eastern frontier"

SPECIMENS 



LANGUAGES OF INDI 



iaC!LUX)I.'iC(«^taiSP'«»'lv-f^^^ 



ABORIGINAL TRIBES" OF BENGAL 



CENTRAL PROVINCES, AND THE EASTERN FRONTIER. 



PRINTED AT I'HE BENGAL SECEETAlJEVr PHESti 



.87L 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT 
FUND GIVEN IN 1891 BY 

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE 



Cornell University Library 
PK 1502.A1 1874 



Specimens of lang"XHiiiiiHiiMiiiiiiiiilim 





3 1924 023 063 799 »".««2 




II 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023063799 



SPECIMENS 



LANGUAGES OF INDIA, 



INCLUDING THOSE OF THH 



ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF BENGAL, 



CENTRAL PROVINCES, AND THE EASTERN FRONTIER. 



PRINTED AT THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS. 

1874. 



SPECIMENS OF LANGUAGES OF INDIA, 



IMClUDIHCf THOSE OP THE 



ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF BENGAL, 



CENTRAL PROVmCES, AND THE EASTERN FRONTIER. 



For this collection of language-specimens, I am chiefly indebted to the 
officers now serving under me, and to those whom I formerly engaged in such 
work when I administered the Central Provinces. I have also obtained, for the 
purposes of comparison, specimens of the principal languages of other provinces, 
for which I am indebted to the kindness of friends and fellow-workmen with 
whom I have served in different parts of India. The Hon'ble R. Egerton has 
procured for me a most interesting and important collection of Punjab 
languages prepared by Messrs. Udney, Gladstone, Tucker, Hawkins, and others ; 
and to the Hon'ble R. Dalyell I am indebted for a collection of the civilised 
Dravidian languages of Southern India. The Hon'ble A. Eden, Chief 
Commissioner of British Burmah, has been good enough to procure for me 
several of the languages of that country. The Political Agents in Khelat and 
Cashmere, Major Harrison and Mr. LePoer Wynne, have favoured me with the 
languages of those localities. The'Mahratta and Guzratee specimens have been 
procured by Mr. Redder, c.s., to whom my best thanks are due. 

Collected as these specimens chiefly have been by working officers, burdened 
with many duties, and without any prescribed system of transliteration or 
spelling, it is probable that most of them cannot pretend to scientific accuracy ; 
but I have sought to make up for this by the number and variety of specimens 
of the less known languages, by which the various dialects may be compared 
and the forms may be checked and ascertained. It has also been impossible- to 
examine them critically in passing through the press. My hope is that the 
abundant raw materials thus afforded will afford ample scope for the work of the 
scientific philologist, I trust that from the materials thus available, much 
scientific information and order may be educed by competent hands into whicb 
these language-specimens may find their way. 



( 2 ) 

Meantime, I believe that already, from a mere rough comparison, much 
practical work in regard to the classification of people and tribes has been 
done, and may be done, even without scientific philology. The words and 
phrases have been selected with a view to test radical afiinities, and already 
evident aflBnities may be traced, and the tribes may be classified better than has 
heretofore been possible. This was, in fact, the primary and official object of 
undertaking the work, and the justification of all the labour which it has 
involved. The many officers who have undertaken that labour so zealously and 
so well, may, then, be assured that from a practical as well as from a philological 
point of view their work is not without fruit. I tender to them my very 
best thanks. 

In these provinces I may especially distinguish among many good workers, 
as having taken a large share in this compilation — 

Colonel Dalton, Commissioner of the Chota Nagpore territories. 

,, Hopkinson, Commissioner of Assam. 
Mr. Metcalfe, Commissioner of Cooch Behar. 
,, Ravenshaw, Commissioner of Orissa. 
,, Edgar, Deputy Commissioner of Darjeeling. 
Major Clarke, Deputy Commissioner of Luckimpore. 
Lieutenant Trotter, Superintendent of Police, Durrung. 
Captain Lewin, Deputy Commissioner of Chittagong Hill Tracts. 

„ Butler, Political Agent, Naga Hills. 
Mr. Power, c.s.. Political Agent, Hill Tipperah. 
,, HaUiday, Magistrate of Tirhoot. 
'^ „ Alexander, Magistrate of Shahabad. 
Colonel Lamb, Deputy Commissioner of Kamroop. 
„ Bivar, Deputy Commissioner of Khasi Hills. 
,, Rowlatt, Deputy Commissioner of Manbhum. 
Revd. S. Endle. 
,, L. Skrefsend. 
„ A. Whitley. 

I do not purpose to attempt here any comparisons of the languages 
shown. I have neither the time nor the ability to do so. Fortunately the 
language-specimens were obtained before famine came upon us, and now 
that the printing is completed, I issue them with the briefest possible 
note. I will only mention one or two salient features in the classification 
of the non- Aryan tribes of these territories, which the specimens render 
self-evident. 



.( 3 ) 

It is very clear that most of the aboriginal tribes of the Central Provinces 
and several of those of Western Bengal (including in these latter the Dangars, 
Oraons of Chota Nagpore, Paharies of Rajmehal, and Khonds of Orissa) are radi- 
cally allied to the Dravidians. Intermixed with these tribes, but speaking a 
language quite without affinity to the Dra vidian^ tongues, are the tribes which I 
call Kolarian, forming a minority among the aborigines of the Central Pro- 
vinces, but a great majority among those of Western Bengal. Throughout the 
western borders of Bengal, and all over the Chota Nagpore country, these 
people are very numerous and prolific, and form large, settled, and civilised 
communities among the best of ijer Majesty's Indian subjects. Strange as it 
may seem, I believe that their very fully developed language has not yet been 
found to have any affinity with any other groups of language whatever, except 
with one now rapidly dying-out tongue, far away on the eastern side of the 
Bay of Bengal, the Mon or Talain of Pegu, with which some affinities are, I 
think, apparent. 

The specimens numbered 9 and 10 make it clear that all the non-Aryan 
languages of the Darjeeling, Bhootan, and Nepalese Hills are of the Thibetan 
type. 

In the border plains of Eastern Bengal, Assam, and Cachar, and the lower 
hills bounding these countries, we come on a group of tongues evidently very 
nearly allied to one another, and which show that a large number of tribes, 
extending, under very different conditions, over a wide extent of country, and 
known by different names, are in fact closely cognate. This fact is the more 
important, because a large part of the population of Eastern Bengal is universally 
recognised to be cognate to the tribes speaking these languages. This group 
comprises the Cooches and Meches of Cooch Behar the Sub-Himalayan Dooars 
and Goalpara, the Cacharees and Mekirs of Assam and Cachar, the Garos of the 
Garo Hills, and the Tipperahs of Hill Tipperah. Most of the civilized Cooches 
have lost their language, but all their traditions acknowledge their relationship 
to the Meches, who speak a language regarding which there can be no doubt. 
Under the name of Rajbunsees, Pullees, &c., people nearly allied to these 
form a large proportion of the population of the great districts of Rungpore 
and Dinagepore, as well as of Julpigoree, Goalpara, and parts of Assam. 
They are also found in the Dacca and Mymensing districts. Probably 
then these people form the main stock of the population of North-Eastem 
Bengal and Lower Assam, as well as of all the lower eastern hills. 

Beyond these lower hills we have a great variety of tribes whose languages 
are very distinct from that of the Cacharees Garos Tipperahs &c., though those 
of the Kookees and other tribes (see the Looshai dialect and the Khumi of 



( 4 ) 

Chittagong and Burmah, and also the Munipooree) are not without considerable 
traces of affinity to the above. 

Going farther on this eastern frontier, we become involved m many 
languages, the affinities of which I cannot now attempt to trace. 

We have several specimens of civilised Shan languages in Upper Assam. 
The tribes to the north-east of Assam speak a set of languages the affinities 
of which I know not, but of which specimens are given. There was question 
whether the various tribes known to us as Nagas were really identical, or might 
not be found to comprise many dissimilar tribes. The language-specimens 
obtained from several different quarters show that all the Nagas speak a 
language substantially identical. The language of the Khasi and Jynteah 
Hills is substantially one, and a very peculiar one, apart from all these others. 
Several dialects of this language are given. 

The comparison of languages of Burmah with several others enables us to 
trace the more or less remote connection of most of these with the languages of 
the south-eastern frontier of Bengal, and also the curious affinity between the 
old Pegu language and the Kolarian tongues of Western Bengal. 

Calcutta, G. CAMPBELL. 

The 20th February 1874. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
1.— AETAN LANGUAGES OF BENGAL, HINDUSTAN, AND THE 

BOMBAY TEEEITORIES 3 to 21 

2.— LANGUAGES OF THE PUNJAB AND NEIGHBOUEING 

COUNTEIES 24 to 41 

3.— DEAVIDIAN LANGUAGES OF SOUTHEEN AND CENTEAL 

INDIA ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 44 to 57 

4.— DIALECTS OF BEHAE 60 to 75 

6.— ABOEIGINAL LANGUAGES OF WESTEEN BENGAL 

(KOLAEIAN TYPE) 78 to 91 

6.— FUETHEE ABOEIGINAL LANGUAGES OF WESTEEN 

BENGAL (CHIEFLY DEAVIDIAN TYPE) 94 to 107 

7.— ABOEIGINAL LANGUAGES OF THE CENTEAL PEOVINOES 

(KOLAEIAN AND DEAVIDIAN) 110 to 123 

8.— FUETHEE ABOEIGINAL LANGUAGES OF THE CENTEAL 

PEOVINOES (DEAVIDIAN, CHIEFLY GOND) 126 to 139 

9.— THIBETAN AND BHOOTEA LANGUAGES 142 to 147 

10.— COOCH BEHAE, DAEJEELING (SIKHIM), AND NEPALESE 

LANGUAGES 150 to 163 

11.— ASSAM LANGUAGES ... 168 to 186 

12.— LANGUAGES OF THE TIPPEEAH, CHITTAGONG, AND 

CAOHAE FEONTIEE 188 to 201 

13.— FUETHEE lANGUAGES FEOM TIPPEEAH AND CACHAE... 204 to 217 

14.— LANGUAGES OF HILLS SUEEOUNDING ASSAM AND 

CACHAE 220 to 235 

15.— LANGUAGES OF THE NOETH-EAST OF ASSAM 238 to 251 

16.^DIALE0TS OF NAGA. TRIBES OF THE SEEBSAUGOE 

FEONTIEE .., 254to269 

17.— LANGUAGES OF THE KHASI AND JYNTEAH HILLS ... 272 to 283 

ia*-UfeS^KiiEPs. OF msmmM^' ©isMEA^a) with others . . . 286 to-303 



LIST OF WORDS ATO PHUASES 



SHOWING SOMK OI THB 



PRINCIPAL ARYAN LANGUAGES OF INDIA. 



2 



List of Words and Phrases showing some 



English. 



Hindee. 



Bengalee. 



One 

Two 
Three 
Four 
Five 
Six 
Seven 
Eight 
Nine 
Ten 
Twenty- 
Fifty 
. Hundred 
I 
Of me 

Mine 

We 

Of us 

Our 

Thou 

Of thee 

Thine 

You 

Of you 

Your 

He 

Of him 

His 

They 
Of them 
Their 



Ek, Ekgo, Ektho 

Do, Dogo, Do the 

Tin, Tingo, Tintho 

Ch&r, Chargo, Chirtho ... 

Panch Panehgo, Pantho 

Chha, Chhau, Chhago, Chhotho 

Sat, Satgo, S4ttho 

Ath, Athgo, Aththo 

Nau, Naugo, Nautho ... 

Das, Dasgo, Dastho 

Bis, Bisgo, Bistho 

Pachas, Pachasgo, Pachastho 

Sau, Sai, Saugo, Sautho 

Main, Ham 

Mer4, H4mar 

Mer&, H&mar 

Ham, Ham4ni 

HamS.ra, Ham4illk&, Hamsohinkaer 

Hamara, Ham4nika, Hamar&ni 

Tu,T6u 

.T^r&, Tohar, Tore 

Tera, Tohar, Teri 

Turn, Toh&ni 



Tumhar&, Tohanike, Tohar, Tohram- 
keir. 



Tumh4r&, Tuh&r, Toh4nike 

Wuh 

Uska, Okar ... 

TJska, O-kar 

W^, Ukani, Ohney 

Unka, TJnika, Onkar ... 

Okonik4, TJnk&nhinki, Onkoror, 
Onhinikair. 



In common use. 

Ek 

Dui 

Tin 

Ch4r 

Paneh 

Chhai ... 

S4t 

At 

Nai 

Das 

Bis, Euri... 

Panchas ... 

Ek sat, Sau 

Ami, Mui... 

Mor, Amar 

Same as ahove 

Mora, Amra 

Mod& ... 

Same as "of us" 

Tui, Tumi 

VTor, Tomar 

Tor&, Tomr4 



! 



Toder, Tom&der 

[t&t 

Tara 
(lAder ... 



In use among the edmcated class, 

Ek 

Dui 

Tin 

ChAri ... 

Panch 

Chhai 

sat 

At, Ashto... 

Nai 

Das 

Bis, Kuri... 

Panchas ... 

Ek sat, Sau 

Ami 

Am&r ... ,,. 



Same as above 

Amr4 

Am4der, Amidiger ... 

Same as "of us" 

Tumi, Apani 

Tom4r, Apan4r ... 

Tomra, Apanara 

Tomadiger, Apan&diger 

Tini 

T&h4r, Tahaiir 

T&h4r4, Tahaiira 
T4h4der, Tahauder .., 



1 
■I 



of the Principal Aryan Languages of India. 



Mahrattee. 



Guzerattee. 



Oorya. 



Blnglish. 



Ek 

Don 

Teen 

CMr 

PSnch 

SahS, 

sat 

Jttli 

Now 

Daha 

Vis 

Fannas 

Shambhar ... 

Mi 

M. P. N. 

Singular. — ^Majha, Majhi, Majhen 

P^araZ.— Majhay, Majhya, Majhin 

Amhi 

Singular. — Amcha, AmcH, Amshain 

Flwral. — Amoli^y, Amcheya, Amchin 

Tun 

Tdjha, Tnjhi, Tujhain ... 

Tnjhay, Ttijheya, Tujhin 

Tumhi ... ..; 

Tumcha, Tumchi, Tumohain ... 

Tumohay, Tumcheya, Tumcliiij ... 

To 

Te^eM, Teachi, Teachen 

Te4chey, T^4chaya, Teachm 

T^y, T&, O^n 

Te4noha, Te&nohi, Te4nchen , , 

Tedncliey, Te4nc]iay&, Te&nchin ... 



tran 



Ek 

Trina, 

Ch4r 

P4nch 

Chha 

S&t 

Ath 

Nav 

Das 

Vis 

PacMs 

So 

Hun 

}M4ru 
M4ru 
Am^ 
^ Am4ru 
) Amaru 
Tlin 

!T4ru 
T4ini 
Tame 
\ Tamdni 



i 



Tam&ni 

T^ 
^T^h^nti 

3 T^ he nu 

Te 6 ... 
•\ 1& hi manu 

) T^ h^ manii 



Ek ... 

Dui ... 

Tini ... 

CMri ... 

P&nolia... ;.. 

I 
Chhaa ... 

S&ta ... 

Atha ... 

NaaNa 

Dasa ... 

Eodie ... 

Panch^sa, Paoh4s ... 

Sata, Sae 

Ambhq, Ame, Muhi 

Amar, 



Ambh4ra, 
Mohar. 

Ambhara, 
Mohar. 



Amar, 



Ambbem&ne, Ame- 
mane. 

Ambhamanankar, 
Amam4nankar. 

Ambham4nankar 
Amamanankar. 

ABana, Tumbhe, 
Tume Tu. 

Apanankar, Tum- 
bhara, Tumar, Tor. 

Apanankar, Tum- 
bhara, Tumar, Tor. 

Apanam^neTumbhe- 
mane, Tumemane. 

Apauam4nankar, 
Tumbham&nankar, 
Tumam4uankar. 

Apanam&nankar, 
Tumbhamanankar, 
Tumamdnankar. 

Se 

T4hl,nkar, Tdnkar, 
T&h&ra, Tar. 

T&hankar Tdnkar, 
Tahara, Tar. 

Sem^ne... 

Sem4hankar 



Sem^nankar 



Ek 

Dui 

Tini 

Chiri, Sari 

PMch 

Chhai, Soi... 

Bit, Hit ... 

Ath, At ... 

Na 

Dah 

Euri 

Panch&s, Pansas 

Eksa, Ha ... 

Mai 

Mor 

Mor 

Ami 

Amalokar ... 

Amalokar ... 

Tumi, Tai, Apuni 

Tom4r, Teor 

Tomar, Apani,]; 

Tumi, TomoMk 

Tomar, Tomilokar 

Tomalokar, Tomar 

Se, Teo ... 
Teor, Tar ... 

Teor, Tar ... 

Teobilak, Seheta 
Teobilakar, Sihatar 

Teobilakar, Tahatar 



One. 

Two. 

Three. 

Four. 

Five. 

Six. 

Seven. 

Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Twenty. 

Fifty, 

Hundred. 

I 

Of me. 

Mine. 

We. 

Of us. 

Our. 

Thou. 

Of thee. 

Thine. 

You. 

Of you, 

Your. 

He. 
Of him. 

His. 

They. 
Of them. 

Their. 



List of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 


Hindee. 


■ 
Bengalee. 






In common use. 


In use among, the educated class. 


Hand 


H4t, Banah... 


H4t ... ... . 


Hasta 


Foot 


P&on, God ... 


P4 


P4, Pada ... 


Nose 


N&k, N&sika 


K4k 


Nak, N4sik4 


Eye 


Ankh, Nayana 


Chok 


Chokhu, Nayana 


Mouth 


Miih, Miikh, Muiih ... 


Miikh . . 


Badan, Mdkh 


Tooth 


D4nt, Dantan 


Dant 


Danta 


Ear 


K4n 


E4n 


Earna, Kan 


Hair 


B41, Kesha ... 


Chul 


Kesh, Chul 


Head 


Sir, Mantha, Mur 


M&tha ... 


Mastuek 


Tongue 


Jab&n, Jihh, Jiba 


Jib 


Jihba 


Belly 


Peth, Lod ... 


P^t 


Udar, P4t... 


Back 


Pith 


Pit 


Pristha, Pit 


Iron 


Loh4 


Lo4 


Loh4 


Gold 


Sona, Subarna 


Son4 


Suarna, Suburna 


Silver rr. 


Nophra, Ch&ndee 


Eup4 


Eoupya ... 


Father 


Bap, Pita ... 


Bap, Bab4 


Pit4 


Mother 


Ma, Maye, M4ta, Matari 


Ma 


M4t4 


Brother 


Bhai, Bharata 


Bh&i 


Bhr4t4 ... 


Sister 


Bahin 


Biin 


Bhogini ... 


Man 


M&nush, Admi 


M4nu3 


Manusya ... 


Woman 


Aurat, Meraru 


Meye in4nus 


StrUok ... 


Wife 


Aurat, Joru, Meraru, Stri 


M4g 


Potni, Stri 


Child 


Ler-ka, Piitni, Bachha ... 


Chhele ... 


Sant4n ... 


Son 


Beta, Put ... 


Beta 


Putra, Sut, Janau 


Daughter 


Lerki, Beti, Mayewan ... 


Meye 


Kanya, Duhita 


Slave 


Gu-14m, Naphar 


D4s 


D4S 


Cultivator 


Chasi, Kis4n 


Ch4s4- ... 


Krisak ... 


Shepherd 


Bherihara, Bagal, Gauri, Bhoredar... 


E&kh41 ... 


E4kh41, Meshp41ak ... 


God 


Bhaga-w4n ... 


Debt&, Ishuar 


Ishuar ... 


Devil 


Bhut,Asur... 


Bhut 


Bhut, Pish&ch 


Sun 


Siiriij 


Sujjee 


Surjya, Dib4kar 


Moon 


Ch4nd, Chandar-ma ... 


Chand ... 


Chandra ... 


Star 


T4r4 


T4r4 ... 


Nakhyatra 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



fl 



Mahrattee. 


Guzerattee, 


Oorya. 


Assamese. 


English. 


Hat 


Hdth, B^ju, Acshar, 
Daskat. 


Hasta, Hata 


Hat 


Hand. 


P4e 


Pag, Ek jata nu map 


P4da, PahulaPdhun- 
da, Khoja. 


Bhari 


Foot. 


N&k 


mk ... 


N&S&, N4ka 


N4k 


Nose. 


pola 


Ankha ... 


Chakhyu, Akhi 


Saku, Bhaku 


Eye. 


T6nd 


Moho ... 


Mukha, Miiha,uP4ti, 
Tunda. 


Mukh, Bet 


Mouth. 


Dant 


Dant ... 


Danta, Danta 


Dat, Daut 


Tooth. 


Kan 


K4n ... 


Kama, K&na 


K4n 


Ear. 


Kens 


B41, NimM4, V41 ... 


Kesa, Bala 


Suli, Chnli... 


Hair. 


Doken 


M4thu... 


Mastaka, Munda ... 


Mur 


Head. 


Jibh 


Jibha ... 


Jihw4, Jibha 


Jibh4,Jib4 


Tongue. 


P6t 


Pdt ... 


Udara, Peta 


Pet 


Belly. 


Path 


Pith, Baido, Vdnso... 


Prustha, Pithi 


Pithi 


Back. 


Lokhand ... 


Lohodhu 


Lonha, Luh4 


Lo 


Iron. 


Sonen 


Sonu ... 


Swarna, Suna 


Hon, Son ... 


Gold. 


Eupen 


Eiipu ... 


Eoupya, Eup4 


Riip 


Silver. 


B4p 


B4pa ... 


Pita, Bapa, B&ba ... 


Bopae 


Father. 


Ai 


m.k, Bk 


M4ta, M4 


Ai 


Mother. 


BMd 


Bhae, Bandu 


Blirat4, Bh4i 


Bhai, Kakai 


Brother. 


Bahin 


Behen ... 


Bhagini, Bhauni ... 


Bhaia 


Sister, 


Punish, Maaushya 


Maiias ... 


Manusya, Manisa 
Manasa, Purusa, 
Minipa. 


Manuh, Munih 


Man. 


Baeko, Stri... 


Bayadi, Strt 


Stri, StrUa, Tila, 
M4ikinia. 


Tirota, Maiki 


Woman. 


Baeko, Patni 




Bh4rjy4, Bharij4 
M4ipa. 


Ghaini, Tirota 


Wife. 


Miil 


Chhokro 


Balaka, Pil4 


Tara, Soali... 


ChUd. 


Mulga, Piittra 


Dikro, Chhokro ... 


Putra, Pua 


Po, Pitek 


Son. 


Mulgi, Kanya 


Dikri, Chhokri 


Kanya, Jhia, Jhna ... 


Ji or Jik ... 


Daughter. 


Gul4m, D4s... 


Giil4m ... 


D4sa, Poil4 


Golam, Tiger4bundi, 
Bahatia. 


Slave. (Mas.) 




Khedut... 


D4si, Poili, Poil4ni... 
Chasi, Chas4,^Tas4... 


' 

Khetiak ... 


Do.* (Fern.) 


Shetkari 


Cultivator. 


Dhangar 


Bharv4d, Eab&ri ... 


Chhelirakh4, Chhelia 


Gorakhia, Bakhia 


Shepherd. 


Dev 


Parme^var, Isvar ... 


Iswara, Prabhii. ... 


Ishwar, Gohai 


God. 


Bhiit, Saltan 


Bhiit, Pret, Pis4,ch... 


Bhuta ... 


Bhiit 


Devil. 


Siiraj ... 


Siiraj ... 


Stirjya 


Benli, Huruj 


Sun. 


Chandra, Chand 


Chandrma 


Chandra, Ch4nda, 
Jahna. 


Jou 


Moon. 


Chandni, Naksatra, Tara 


T4ro ... 


T4r4, Nakhyatra, 
Tara. 


Tara 


Star. 

1 



List of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 


Hindee. 


Bengalee. 






In common use. 


In use a/mong the educated class. 


Fire 


Ag 


Agun 


Agni 


Water 


P4ni 


Jal, P4ni... 


Jal 


House 


Ghar, Geh ... 


Ghar, B4ri 


Bati, Griha 


Horse 


Ghor4, Gharwa 


Ghor4 


Ghotak, Ghor4, Ashwa 


Cow 


G4e 


Gai-garu 


G&bhi ... 


Dog . ... 


Eut-ta 


Kukiir ... 


Eiikiir ... 


Cat 


Bil-H 


Ber41 ... 


Biral 


Cock 


Murug 


Eukura ... 


Kukura ... 


Duck 


PSti haus, Ohakwi 


H4nsh ... 


P4tihangsa 


Abb 


Gad-dha ... 


G&d4 


Gardhaba... 


Camel 


Unt 


Ut 


TJt, Ustra... 


Bird 


Panchhi, Pakheru 


P4khi ... 


P4khi, Pakhyi 


Go 


* 
Jan4, Jou ... 


J&on 


J4wa, Goman karau ... 


Eat 


Eh5,n&, Khou, Kh&, Khali 


Khaw6 ... 


Ah4r, Bhokyun karau 


Sit 


Baithn4, Baith 


Basa 


Basa karau 


Come 


AimS, A6' ... 


As4 


Asa, Agamun karan ... 


Beat 


Marna,M&r... 


Thengan ... 


M4r4 


Stand 


Khar4hon&, Khara 


Daran ... 


D4ran ... 


Die 


Mamn, Marjo, Mu4 


Mar4 


Mar4 


Give 


Dena, De ... 


Deo-a 


Deo-a 


Bun 


Daurna, Dour 


Douran ... 


Douran ... 


Up 


Upar 


Upar 


TJpar 


Near 


Nagich, bhir-lag 


Kdehh^ ... 


Nikate ... 


Down 


Nich, Henthe 


Talaye ... 


Nichfe, Nimne 


Far 


Dur,P&114 ... 


Ddr 


Diir 


Before 


Ag6 


Agfe 


Agra, Purbe 


Behind 


Piohhe, Pichu 


P4che 


Paseh4t ... 


Who 


Kion 


K& 


Efe 


What 


Eiya 


Ki 


Ki 


Why 


Kahe, Ki4ho 


Kfena 


Kijanya ... 


And 


Aiir 


Ar 


Ebang ... 


But 


Le-kin, Magar 


Kintti 


Eintu 


If 


Agar, Jaiin, Jo 


Jadi 


Jadyapi ... 


Yes 


Han 


Achh4 ... 


Han 


No 


Neh 


M 


N& 


Alas 


H&-e 


HA-e 


H4-e, Aha 


A father 


Ek-b6p, or ego bip 


Ekb4p ... 


Ekpit4 ,. 



Principal 4^ryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



Mahrattee. 


Guzerattee. 


Oorya. 


AsBamese. 


English. 


Vistu 


Devt4 ... 


Agni, Ni4h, Jui ... 


Jui 


Fire. 


Pani 


P4ni, Jal ... 


Jala, Pani 


Pani 


Water. 


Giar 


Ghar, Kholdu 


Gruha, Ghara 


Gbar 


House. 


Ghora 


Ghodo ... 


Aswa, Ghod4 


GborS 


Horse. 


G&e 


G4ya ... 


Gabi, Gki 


Garu 


Cow. 


Euttra 


Eutro ... 


Knkkura 


Eukur 


Dog. 


Manjar 


Bal4di, Mini 


BirSdi, Bil4i, Pusi ... 


Mekuri, Berali 


Cat. 


Kombarra (Komra) 


Murgo, Klikdo, Mar- 
gado. 


Kukkuta Eukud4 ... 


Eukur4 ... 


Cock. 


BadaTr 


Batak ... 


Bataka, Patihangsa, 
Enjihangsa. 


Patibah ... 


Duck. 


Gadhav 


Gadbedu 


Garddabha, Gadha. . . 


Gadba 


Ass. 


Tint 


Unt ... 


Ostra, Ota 


m 


Camel. 


Palfhnin ... 


Pakshi, Pankhi 


Pakhyi, Chad4i 


Sar4i 


Bird. 


Ja 


J4 


J4a, J4... 


Ja, J4o, Baul 


Go. 


ITM 


E]i4tu, Kh4, JamaTu 


EbAa, EM 


Eb4, Eh4o... 


Eat. 


Bais (Imperative Mood) 


Bes, Besvn 


Basa, Bas, Ba 


Bab, Boha... 


Sit. 


Te 


Ava 


Asa, A... 


Ab, Aba ... 


Come. 


M4r 


Marvu, M4r, Tipvn. 
Tliokvu. 


Mara, Pita 


Mar, Mara... 


Beat. 


Ubha-UbM-Ubhain, Eah& 


UbhareTU, Besui ... 


Pbi4Chhid4,Ub]i&... 


Tbe4da, Tbi4di4, Tbeoba 


Stand. 


Mar 


Marijavii 


Mara 


Mar 


Die. 


D4 


Apa, Apvii 


Dia, De 


De, Dia ... 


Give. 


DMon 


Doda, Dodvu, N4svu 


DQ4n Danda, Dbanda 


Lar, Lara ... 


Kun. 


Var 


TTpar ... 


Upara ... 


Fpar, Opao 


Up. 


Javal, Zawal 


P&s^ ... 


Nikata, Pakha Pisa 


Osar 


Near. 


Kh41in 


Nicbe, Hethal-hethe 


Tala ... 


Pal 


Down. 


Ddr 


Dlir.Agliu, Cbb^t^... 


Diira, DMra Antara 


Nilog durai 


Par. 


Purhen, Purvin, Samor... 


Ag4u, Mo]io4gal ... 


Purba, Aga 


Agui, agot, ag 


Before. 


Magain 


Pachliadi, Pacbhal... 


Pascbat, Pacbha .. 


Pissot, pasot, pisf41e ... 


Bebind. 


E6n, Jo ... 


Eon 


Ei, Eie (interroga- 
tive) Je (relative). 


Eori (interrogative), jee 
(relative). 


Wbo. 


Zay? 


Sd, or Cu 

8 


Eana, Ei, Eisa ... 


Ki (interrogative), ji 
(reltive). 


Wbat. 


K4u 


K^m, Sf4w4ste 


Eip4n, k&binki 


Eia, kelei ... 


Wby. 


Sni 


An^-tatli4 


Ebang, Au Auri, 


Aru 


And. 


Pan, Parantu 


Pan-parantti 


Eintu, M4tra,Puni... 


Eintu 


But. 


.lar 


Jo, To, Agar 


Jadi, Jebe 


Jadi 


K 


H6e 


H4 


H4n, Han, Hui ... 


Hai, or era 


Yes. 


N4hin 


Nahi ... 


JSI4, N4bin 


Wahai or ndi 


No. 


V 

Arrey, H4e-h4e 


Arere, H4e-hae 


Ah4, H4h4 


Hai-bai 


Alas. 


Bdp 


Ekb4p... 


Ekapit4, Ekab&pa,.. 


Ejon bopai, bopai eta ... 


A fatber. 



lAst of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 


Hindee. 


Bengalee. 








In common use. 


In use among the echtcated class. 




Of a father ... 


BS,pk4, or ki, or keir ... 


Ek b4per ... 


Ek pit4r ... 




To a father .., 


B&p-ko, or b4p kone 


B4pke 


Pit4ke ... 




From a father. 


B4p-se 


Ekb4pth41 


Pit4 haete 




Two fathers ... 


L)o-b4p 


Dui bap ... 


Uuipit4 ... 




Father^ 


B4p log, Bap&n 


B4b4r4 ... 


Fit4sakala 




Of fathers 


B 4b4 -logk &, Bapsabki, B &pankeir . . . 


B4pder ... 


Pit4der, Pitasakaler ... 




To fathers . . . 


B4ba sab k4, or ki, or ke 


B4pdigake 


Pita digak^, rit4sakalete 




From fathers... 


Bap-sab-se ... 


B4pderthai 


Pit4der haet6. Pita sakala haete . . . 




A daughter ... 


Eik-larki, beti, or chhokre 


Ekmey^ ... 


Ekkaiiy4... 




Of a daughter . 


Larki-kd, or keir 


Ek m^yer 


Ek kanyar ... ,..• 




To a daughter. 


Larkiko, orke 


Ek mey^te, or ke 


Ek kanyate, or ke 




From a daugh- 
ter. 


Larki se 


Ekm^ygrth4i 


Ek kanya hoite 




Two daughters . 


Do larki 


Dui m^ye... 


Dui kanya ... ... 




Daughters ... 


Larkiaii, Betisabo, Betin 


M^y^ra ... 


Kanyagan 




Of daughters ... 


Larkiotika, or Betin keir 


Mly^der ... 


Kanyader ,., ,„ ■ 




To daughters .. 


Larkioiiko, Beti sabko 


M^y6 subke 


M^yldigake, kanyadigake 




From daughters 


Larkioii se, Beti sub-se 


M^yMerth4I 


Kanyader haete ... „, 




A good man ... 


Eik bh414, or b^s, or achh4 manoosh 


Ek bh41a 16k ... .,. 


Ek uttum manusya ... 




Of a good man. 


Eik bh&l&, or bes, or achh& m&noosh- 
k4, or ki, or ker 


Ekbh41alok^r 


Ek nttum manusyer ... i 




To a good man. 


Eikbh414,orb^s, or aehhd m4nooshk4 
or ko 


Ek bh41a lok ke, or te 


Ek uttum manusya ke, or te ... • 




From a good 


Eik bh4i4 4dmi sen, or se 


Ek bh41a lok thai ... 


Ek uttum manusya haet^ 




man. 











8 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



9 



Mahrattee. 



Guzerattee. 



Oorya. 



AssameBe. 



English. 



B4p4 cha, cki, chain 
B4p4 chay, cteya, chin... 
Bapa-la 

Bapap&siin... 

Dow bap 

B&p 

.BopeJra— Cha-chi-chain ... 

Bwpdn — Chay-cheya-ehin 

Bdpan-la 

B&p4n pa sun 

Mulgi 

M&lgi — Cha, chi, chen 
Mulgi — Chay, cheya, chin 
Mulgi — La-sa-ten 

Mulgi p4 sun 

Don Mulgya 

Mi^lgy4 

Mvlgydn—Gha., chi, chen 
Mulgy&n — Chay, cheya, chin 

Mulgyan — La, sa, ten-na 
JJiilgyto pa sun 



Changla manushya 



Tsangaley ntanushya — Cha, chi, chen 

Tiangaley ■manushya— Che j, chay4, 
chin. 

Tsangaley manushya — La, sa, ten... 
Tsangaley manushya — La, sa, ten, na 

Tsangaley manushya — Pa, sun 



B&pno ,„ 

B&p p&se, Bap kane 

B&pn4 taraf thi 

B^ b&p ... 
B4p ... 

B4pno ... 



64p p4se, Bap kane, 
Bapne. 

6apn4 taraf thi 



Ek dikri 



Dikrinu 



Dikri p4se, dikri 
kane, dikri taraf. 

Dikri taraf thi, dikri 
pase thi, dikri kanC' 
thi. 

Be dikri 



Dikrio 



Dikrionii 



Dikrio ne, dikrio pa- 
se, dikrio taraf. 



Dikrio taraf thi 



Ek s4ru m4uas 



. S4r4 in4nas nu ... 



|S4ra 



m4na8ne-taraf- 
se. 



S4r4 m4ua8 taraf thi 



Ekpit4r, Ekab4p4r... 

Ekapit4ku, Ekab4- 
paku. 

Ekapit4th4ru, Ekba- 
path4ru. 

Duipil4, Duib4pa ... 

Pit4mane, Bap4nane 



Pitam4n4nkar, Bapa- 
m4nankar. 

Pit4m4nanku B4pa 
m4nanku. 

Pitam4nankath 4ru, 
B 4pam4nankath 4tu. 



Eka kany4, Gotie 
jhia, Jhiatie. 

Eka kany4r, Gotie 
jhiar, Jhiatira. 

Eka kany4ku, Gotie 
Jhiaku, Jhiatiku. 

Eka kany4th4ru, 
Gotie jhiath4ru. ' 



Dui kany4, Dui jhia. 
Jhia dioti. 

Kany4m4ne, Jhi- 
am4ne, Jhiagudie. 

Kany4m4nankar, Jhi- 
am4nankar, Jhiagu- 
dinkar. 

Eaiiy4m4naiiku, Jhi- 
aiu4nanku, Jhiagu- 
dinku. 

£any4manankath4- 
ru, Jhiam4nanka- 
tharn, Jhiagudin- 
katharn. 

Eka or jane uttam 
loka, Bhadroloku- 
tie, Bhalamanusia- 
tie. 



Eka or jane uttum 
lokar, Bhadrolokar, 
Bholamanusiar. 



Eka nttam lokaku, 
Bhadra lokutiku, 
Jane bhalamanusia- 
ku. 



Eka uttam lokath4ru, 
Eka bhadra loka- 
th4ru, Jane bhala 
manusiath4ru. 



Bop4ir-bopekar 
Bopai lai, bopekalai 
Bopair per4 

Duijon bopar, duta bopek 

Bopai bilok, bopekhat, 
bopai sakul. 

Bopai bilakar, bopekhater, 
bopai sakaler. 

Bopai bilakolai bopek 
hatalai, bopai sakalak lai 

Bopai bilakar pera, bo- 
pekhater pera, bopai 
sakaler pera. 

Ejaniji 

Ejanijir ... 

Ejani jilai ji, ejani lai ... 

Ejani jir hera 

Duijaniji... 
Jih4t, jihilak 
Jihatar, jibilaker 

Jihatalai ... 



Jehater pera, jibilaker 
pera. 



Ejon bhal manuh, haj 
manuh egraki, bhal 
manuha eta. 



Ejon bh41 m4nuher, ha 
manuh egrakir, bhal 
manuha eta. 



Bh41 m4nuh holai, haj 
manuh egrakilai, eta 
bhal m4nuhalai. 



Bh41 m4nuher pera, haj 
manuh egrakirpera, eta 
bh41 m4nuhar per4, 



Of a father. 

To a father. 

From a father. 

Two fathers. 
Fathers. 

Of fathers. 

To fathers. 

Prom fathers. 

A daughter. 
Of a daughter. 
To a daughter. 



From a daugh- 
ter. 



Two daughters. 
Daughters. 
Of daughters. 

To daughters. 



From daugh- 
ters. 



A good man. 



Of a good man. 



To a good man. 



From a good 
man. 



10 



List of Words and Phrases shmoing some of the 



English. 



Hindee. 



Bengalee. 



Two good men. 



Good men 



Of good men 



To good men ... 



From good men 



Do bhale m&noosh 



Bh&le m&noosh log, Bes log 



Bh&Ie minooshou k4, or ker 



Bh41e manooshou kti .., 



Bhale maaooshoii sen, or se 



In common ■. 
Dui bh&la lok 



Bhala lok sab 



BMla lok der 



Bh41a lok subke, or te 



Bh&la lok der thai 



A good woman Eik-bhala 4urat, Eik b€s merard 



A bad boy 
Good women ... 
A bad girl 
Good 
Better 

Best 
High 

Higher 
Highest 

A horse 
A mare 
Horses 

Mares 

A bull 



Eik-kharab-lark&, Eik dingar lark4... 
Bh41e &uratou, B^s mer&nin 
Eik-khar4b-larki, Ek dingar chokri 
Achh4, B4s, Kitnan, Suthra 
nsen-4chh4, Okra se b^s 

Ba-hut, or anek 4chh4, Sub se b€s ... 
Uch4 

Unsen-'ach4, Okr4se uch4 
Sab-3en-uch4, Sub se ucha 

Eik ghor4 ... 
Eik ghuri, or ghori 
Ghor4 sab, Ghorewan .., 

Ghuri sab, Ghorian 

Eik s4nr, Bail, Bulad ... 



Ek bh4Ia m4gi 



Ek kh4r4p chhokra 



Bh41a m4gira 



Ek kh4r4p chhuri 



Bh4la 



In 'Use among the educated class. 
Dui uttum manusya ... 



Uttum manusya sakal 



■I 



Uttum manusya sakaler 

Uttum manusya diga ke, or te ... 

Uttum manusya diger haete 

Ek uttum strilok 
Ek manda b41ak 



Uttum strilokera 



Manda balika 



Bh41a, Uttam 



■1 



The same with the noun with which comparison is made in the abla- ) 
tive case. 



The same with noun in ablative and all prefixed to it 



Ochu 



7 The 
i " 



The same as in " better" and 
best." 



Ek ghora... 
Ek ghuri ... 



Uchchya ... 



Ek ghor4, Ashwa 
Ek ghuri, Ghotokee 



The plurals are formed by prefixing numerals or adjectives of number, 
as, several, many, &c. 



Shaiirh 



Shaurh, Brisha 



10 



Principal Aryan Lcmguages of India. — (Continued.) 



11 



Mahrattee. 



Gnzerattee. 



Ooryah. 



English. 



Pou Tsangale manushya 
Tsangaley manfishya ... 



Tsangaley mamashyan—Chk, chi, 
chen. 

Tsangaley manuihyang—Chej, chaya 
chill. 



Tsangaley manushayang, pa, siin 

Ciangli b&eko 
Waetmulga 
Tshangalya b4eka 



Be s4r4 m4iias 



S4r& miiiaso 



■ S4ra m4uaso nu 



Duiuttam loka, Bha- 
dra lokajodie, £ha- 
la manusia duheu. 

Uttam lokamane, 
Bhalamanusiajodi. 



8ar4 maiiso-pase- 
taraf-ne. 



Skih. m^iiaso taraf thi 



Diiijon lah&l in4nah, Haj 
manuh dugaraki, duita 
bhal manuha. 

BMl miimh bilek, haj 
manuh bilak, bh&l ma- 
nuha bor. 



Waet mulgi 

Tsdng— La,, ]i,\eii 

Chang— lisj, leya, lin ... 

Tehsh&n... rtsangala, li, len 

H4n ...\ tsangaley, leya, lin 

SarvdnPehsa ... rtsangala, li, len 

Sarodn Eun ,. j tsangaley, leya, 
(. liii- 



1 



Unch 

PeJesha ..A 
E4n ...J 



Unch 



Sarvdn Peksha ") 

[ Unch 
Sarvan Hun ... ) 

Ghora 
Ghori 
Ghorey 

Ghodya 

Bail 



Sari bayadi 



Ek k]iar&b-nath4ro- 
khoto chhokaro. 



S4ri b4yadio 
Nath&ri chhokri , 
S4ru ... 
Vadh4re, S4ru 

S4r4man, S4ru 

Unchd ... 
Vadh4re Unchu , 

Unch4 man unchu , 
Ek ghodo 
Ghodi ... 
Ghoda ... 

Ghodio ... 

Akhlo-Sand 



Uttam lokankar.Bha- 
dra lokagudinkar, 
Bhalamanusiankar. 

Uttamlokanku, Bha- 
dralokanku, Bhala- 
manusianku. 

Uttam lokankath4ru, 
Bhadra lokankatha- 
ru, Bhalamunsian- 
katharu. 

Eka uttom atri, Bha- 
dra maipati, Bhala- 
m4ipatie. 

Eka manda balaka, 
Nakar4 pil4tie, N4- 
kar4 tok4tar. 

Uttam strim4ne,Bhala 
maipe, Achh4 maipi- 
gudie. 

Eka manda toki, 
I^4kar4 takit4e. 



Uttam, Bhala, Achh4 

Apekhyakrutanttam, 
F4th4ru bhala or 
Achh4. 

Atiuttam, Bese 
Uchcha, Uncha 



Apekhy4krutauchcha, 
T4th4ru uncha. 



Atiuchcha, Bh4ri- 
uucha. 

Eka as wa,Eka ghod4, 
6hod4tie. 

Eka ghodi, Ghoditie 



Aswa samuha, Ghod4- 
j4ka, Ghodipala 
Ghodigud4e, Ghodi- 
gud4ka. 

Ghodi samuha Ghodi- 
j4ka, Ghodipala 
Ghodigud4e, Gho- 
digud4ka. 

Eka saudha, iSandhu- 
t4e. 



Bh41 m4nuh bilaker, haj 
manuh bilaker, bhal 
m4nuha borar. 

Bh41 manuh bil4k41ai, 
haj manuh bilaklai. 



Bhal manuh bUakarpera, 
haj manuh bilakarpera. 



Ejini bhal tirata, haj 
tirota egaraki; ejini 
bhol maike. 

Ejon, or eta bia lor4 ... 



Bhal tirota bhil4k, haj 
tirota bUak, chikon 
m4ikibor. 

Ejani be4 so41i 
Bh41, Haj or Baru 



Bara bhal, Barut koi 
baru aru bh41. 



Uti bh41, uti baru bha- 
lat kai bh41. 

Okha 

Bar okha, aru okhar4 ... 

Uti okha, okhat kai okha 
Eta ghor4 
Ejajii ghuri 
Ghorabor, ghora bilak... 



Ghuribor, maiki ghora, 
Ghuribilak. 



Ek bhatara, H4r 



Two good men. 
Good men. 

Of good men. 
To good men. 
From good men. 

A good woman, 
A bad boy. 
Good women. 
A bad girl. 
Good. 
Better. 

Best. 

High. 
Higher. 

Highest. 
A horse. 
A mare. 
Horses. 

Mares. 

AbuU. 
__ 



List of Words and Phrases showing some of. the 



English. 



Hindee. 



Bengalee. 



A COW 
Bulls 

Cows 

A dog 
A bitch 

Dogs 

Sitches 

A he goat 

A female goat 

Goats 

A male deer ... 

A female deer 

Deer 
I am 

Thou art 

He is 
We are 

You are 

They are 
I was 
Thou wast 

12 



In common use. 



Eik gai 

Bhot sakal, Sab s&nr 

Gai sakal, Gaian 

Eik kutta ... 
Eik kutti ... 

Kutta sakal, Kutaun ... 

Kut-ti sakal, Kuttian ... 

Bak-ra 

Bakri 

Bakrisakal, Bakryaa 

Harin 

Harini 

Harin 
Ham-hun or he 

Tum-ho, or Tufihae 

Un-he-hoen, Wuhhae 
Ham-log-hen, Hamani hain 

Tum-log-ho, Tuhani hae 

Unlog-hen, TJkani hath 

Ham or maiii th&, or hali, or rahin 

Tum-tha, or Tun halen, or rahe ... 



G&i 



The plurals are formed as in 
"horse," "mare." 



Ek kukur 
Khenki .., 

Kukur guno 

Khenki guno 

Pantha, Chhagal 

P4nthi ... 

Chhagul guno 

Haring ... 

Medi haring 

Haring guno 
Ami &chhi 

Tui ichhis, Tumi &ohho 

Se achh^ ... 

Mora or 4mra achhi ... 

Tor4 or tomr& achho . . , 

T&raachh^ 
Ami chhil&m 
Tui or tumi chhile 



In use among the educated class. 
Gabhi ... 



Ek kukur 
Khenki, Kukuri 

Kukur sakal 

Khenki sakal 

P4nth4, Aja, Chhigal... 

P&fithi, Chh4gi , ... 

F4S.th& sakal, Chh4gal sakal 

Harin, Mriga 

Harini, Mrigee 

Harin sakal, Mriga sakal 
Ami 4chhi 

Tumi achho, apni 4chhen 

Tini 4chhen 
Amr& ichhi 

Tomra 4ohho, Apnai& dchhen 

T&h&r4 &chhe, Tah&r& &ohheu 

Ami chhilam 

Tumi chhil^, Apni chhilen 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



13 



Mahrattee. 


Guzerattee. 


Oorya. 


issiunese. 


English. 


Gae 


G&ya ... 


Ekag4i, G4itae ... 


Garu ejani, Ejani gai 
gara. 


A cow. 


Bail 


AkMl ... 


Sandha or sendha 
samuha, Sandha- 
pala Sandhagud^e 
Sandhagud4ka, 
Sandhaj4ka. 


Bhatara, bhatara, bha- 
tara gavubor bilak. 


BuUs. 


Gai 


G4yo ... 


G4i samuha, Gaigu 
d&e, Giigud4ka, 
Giipala, Gaij&ka. 


Garu bilak, gai garu 
bilak garu bor. 


Cows. 


Kuttra 


Kntro ... 


Eka bukkura, Kuk- 
kuratde. 


Etakukur... 


A dog. 


Kuttri 


Kutri ... 


Eka kukkuri, Eka 
m4ikukkura m4i- 
kukkurat4e. 


Ejani maiki kukur 
kukur j4ni. 


A bitch. 


Kuttrey 


Kuttra... 


Kukkura samuha, 
Kukkuragud4e kuk- 
kura gud4ka. 


Kukur bilak, kukur bor 


Dogs. 


Kuttrya 


Kuttrio... 


Kukuri samuha m4i- 
kukkuragudae,m4i- 
kukkuragud^ka. 


Maiki kukur, bor or bilak 


Bitches. 


Bakra 


Bakro ... 


Eka chh4ga, Eka 
bod4, Eka andira 
chheli bodatie. 


Eta Mat4 84gali 


A he goat. 


Shell 


Bakri ... 


Eka chh&gi, Eka 
chheli, Eka m&i- 
chheh m4iohhelit4e. 


Ejani maiki sagale, 
sagali egani. 


A female 


Bakarin 


Bakran 


Chheli samuha, Chhe- 
lipala, Chheligudae, 
Chheligudaka. 


S4gali bilak 


Goats. 


Haran 


Z41iar ... 


Eka mruga, Miriga- 
gut&e. 


Eta mata pahu, mat4 
p&hu eti. 


A male ,deer. 


Harani 


Hariii ... 


Eka mruguni, Mai- 
mirigagut4e. 


Ejani macki pahu, p&hu 
ejani. 


A female deer. 


Haran 


Harina ... 


Mrugagudae, Miriga- 
pala. 


Pahu bilak... 


Deer. 


M^4n hais, mi aheu 


Hun chhun 


Ambhe achhu, Ame 
acbhu, Mu achhi. 


Mui hai, or asa, mai 
achho. 


I am. 


Tuihes 


Tu chhe-u 


Tumbhe achha. Tume 
achha, Tu achhu. 


Tumi or te har or ha, 
apuni achho. 


Thou art. 


ToShey 


Te chlie 


Se achhauti Se achhi. 


Teo hae or 4se he achhe 


He is. 


Jmhi ahon ... 


Ame chhie 


Ambhem&ne achhu, 
Amemdne achhu. 


Ami h4e or ase, ami achho 


We are. 


Tmtihi4ha ... 


Tame chto 


Tumbhemtae achha, 
Tumem4ne achha. 


Tumlok hai or toh4t ho 
or tumlok ase, tumi 
achha. 


You are. 


Tey, tyatin,— & het 


Teo chhe 


Sem^ne achhanti ... 


Teolok or tehat hae or 
teuhilak ase or achhe. 


They are. 


Jfili— hotonhoti, hotej}... 


Hun hato 


Ambhe thilu, Ame 
thilu, Muthili ... 


Moi asilo, moi 4chhUo.,. 


I was. 


2V{m— hotas hotis hotens 


Tu hato 


Tumbhe thila, Tume 
thila, Tu thilu. 


Tumi or tei asil4 or asile, 
or tumi 4sila, apuni 
^chhili. 


Thou wast. 



13 



14 



List of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 



Hindee. 



Bengalee. 



He was 
We were 
You were 
They were 

Be 

To be 

Being 

Having been ... 

I may be 

I shall be 

I should be ... 

Beat 
To beat 
Beating 
Having beaten 

I beat 

Thou beatest ... 

He beats 
We beat 
You beat 
They beat ... 
I am beating ... 

I was beating... 

I had beaten ... 



Wuh-th4, or Unne-the, U halye, or 
rahe. 

Ham-log- the, halan or rahin 
Tum-log-the, Tohani hola, or rahi ... 
We-the, Ukani halan, or rahath ... 

Hoen, Ho, Hae 

Sen, Hany4, Hon4 

Hote, Hanyte, Harete ... 

Ho-kar, Hogale 

Main or ham-ho-sek-ta, Ham hun- 
hoti. 

Main or ham-hog4, Hamhun hoeb... 



Mer4-hona uchit, Hamr& howeke 
chahi. 



Mar, Pitn ... 
Mama, Fitna 
Mare, Pityte 
Mar-kar, Pitkar 



Main or ham maren, Ham pitahi, 
Ham m4rit h4n. 



Turn rakto, Tuva, pita halin, Turn 
maritha. 



Wuh mart4 hai, U pita hye, U marit 
hath. 

Ham log maren, Ham hani pitahi. 
Hamni marithain. 

Tum log miro, Tuh&ni pituhahak, 
Tun miritha. 

TJd log m arte, Ukani pit4 huth, Usub 
marit huih 

Main or ham m&rta hun. Ham pityt 
hi. 



Main or ham m4rta tha. Ham pitahali 
or rahin. 



Main or ham m&ra tha, Ham pitalial 
hul. Ham m4rli rahi. 



In common use. 
Sfe chhila ... 

Mor4 or 4mr4 chhil4m 

Tor4 or tomra chhile ... 

T&ra chhila 

Th4ka ... 
Haite 

Thakia ... 
Th4ki& ... 
Amihate-p4ri 

Ami ha-ba 
Ami hat&m 

M4r4 
M4rte 
Marte 
M^r^ 

Ami marl... 

Tui or tumi m4ro 

Se m4rohhe 

Mora mari 

Tor4 or tomr4 maro ... 

Ikrkm&rh 

Ami m4rohhi 

Ami marchhil4m 

Ami m^rdchinu 



In use among the educated class. 
Tini chhilen 

AmrA chhilam 

Tomra chhile, Apnar4 chhilen . 

T4h&r4 chhila, Tah4r4 chhilen . 

Hai 

Haite 

Hao-a 

Hai-4 

Ami haite pari 

Ami haiba 

Ami hait4m, Amar hao-4 uchit . 

Mdra 

M4ritfe ... 

MaritI, Marit^ch^ ... 

MarI4 

Ami m4ri 

Tumi maro 

Tini marit^chhen 

Amr4 mari 

Tomr4 m4ro, Apn4ra maren 

T4h&r4 m4ren 

Ami m4ritechhi 

Ami m4ritechhilam ... 

Ami m4ri4chhLl4m ... 



14 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



15 



Mahrattee. 


Guzerattee. 


Oorya. 


Assamese. 


English. 


Tohota 


T^ hato... 


Se thile, Se thilA ... 


Teo 4sila, se achili 


He was. 


Amhi hoton... 


Am6 hat4 


Ambhem4ne thilu, 
Amemane thilu. 


Ami ^silo, ami achilo ... 


We were. 


TSimhi — hota 


Tam^ hat4 


Tumbhem&ne thila, 
Tumemane thQa. 


Tomol4k 4sila or tohat 
asili, tumi achila 


Tou were. 


T^ hotey tya hotyatin hotin 


Te6 hat4 


Semanethile 


Teolok or tehat 4silo, or 
teobilak asila, teobilak 
achlila. 


They were. 


Ho, a« 


Th4 ... 


Hua 


Ho4, haba... 


Be. 


... 


Thav4nu 


Heb4ku 


Habaloi ... 


To be. 


Hot asat 


Th4ya chhe 


Heb4ra 


Hoat, hae, haipelai 


Being. 


Houn, asun... 


Th4yu chhe 


Hoikari 


Hoat, haigai, haipelai ... 


Having been. 


Miasen 


Hunth&u 


Ambhe hoip4ru, 
Ame hoiparu, Mu 
hoipare. 


Mai habaparu 


I may be. 


Mi hoin, miasen 


Hun tha M 


Ambbe hebu, Ame 
hebu, Mu hebi. 


Maihauni... 


I shall be. 


Mill whayen, miu asaven 


Hiin th4v4n6 


Ambhar heb4ra ucbi- 
ta, Amar hebara 
nchita Mohar heba- 
ku uchita. 


Mai haba pao, or lagibo 


I should be. 


Mar 


Tip mara 


Mara Pita 


Mar 


Beat. 


Maranen 


M4rvu ... 


MaribakuPitib4ku... 


Maribalai ... 


To beat. 


Marit 


Mara ... 


M4ruchhi, Pituchhi 


Mari, morat marichhe... 


Beating. 


Marun 


M4re lu 


M4rikari, Pitikari ... 


Marat mari etai, mara 
hai pelai. 


Having beaten. 


Mi — maritoyi maritei maraten 


Hiin maru chhiin . . . 


Ambhe or Ame maru 
or pitu, Mu m4re 
or pite. 


Moi m4ro or maricho ... 


I beat. 


ywra— maritos marites martens 


Tu m4re chhe 


Tumbhe or Tume 
rD4ra or pita, Tu 
m4ru or pitu. 


Tumi m4r4 or Tei mar4 
apuni marichho. 


Thou beatest. 


Tomarito ... 


Te mire chhe 


,Se m4ranti or pitanti, 
Se m4re or pite. 


Teo mare or m4richhe... 


He beats. 


Amhi mariton 


Hame m4rie chhie ... 


Ambhe or Amem4ne 
m4ru ox pitu. 


Ami maro, ami marichho 


We beat. 


Tumhi maritan 


Tame m&ro chho ... 


Tumbhe or Tume- 
m4ne m4ra or pite. 


Tomolake m4r4 or Toboti 
m4ra, tumi marichha. 


You beat. 


T^, tya, tin— maritat ... 


T^o mar^ chhe 


Sem4ne m4ranti or 
pitanti. 


Teobilak mare sibali 
m4richh6. 


They beat. 


Mi marit &hen 


Hun marii chhun ... 


Ambheor Amemaru- 
chhu or pituchhu, 
Mu maruchhi or 
pituchhi. 


Moi mari4so, moi mari- 
chho 


I am beating. 


Mi marit — ^hoton hotin hoten ... 


Hunm4rtohato ... 


Ambhe or Ame maru- 
thilu or pituthilu, 
Mu m4ruthilu or 
pitithili. 


Moi mariasUo, mai ni4ri- 
chilo. 

1 


I was beating. 


Mi — marila hota, marili hoti, mari- 
len hoten, marila hotay mari- 
lya iotya, marilin hotin. 


Me mdro hato 


Ambhe or Ame mari- 
thilu or pitithilu, 
Mu m4rithili or 
pitithili. 


Moi m4rilo or moi m4re 
4siluo, moi marielo. 


I had beaten. 



15 



lAst of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 



Hindee. 



Bengalee. 



I may beat ... 

I shall beat ... 
I should beat... 

I am beaten ... 
I was beaten ... 

I shall be beaten 

I go 

Thou goest ... 

He goes 

I went 

Thou wentest... 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 



What is your 
name? 



How old is this 
horse P 



How far is it 
from here to 
£ashmir P 



How many sons 
are there in 
your father's 
house P 



Main or ham m&rsektehe, Ham 
pitun, Ham m&rbo. 



Ham m4rega, Ham petbye, Ham 
mar4h. 



Mer4 or hamara mkvxyk uchit, Hamra 
pitaki chahi or m4rki chahi. 



Main or ham mar khay4he, Ham pital 
j&eb, Ham m4rel geli. 



Main or ham m4r khayathi, Ham 
pital gelihal, Ham m4relgel nihin. 



Main or ham mar khaenge, Ham 
pital jaeb, Ham m4rel gayali. 



Main or ham j4y, Ham jahi, Ham 
jaethe. 

Tum jao, Tun jahen, Tum jaethu . .. 



Wuh or un ne jate hen, U jahye, TJ 
j4et haith. 

Main or ham gi4 tha, Ham gili, Ham 
gali ha}. 

Tum gidthan, Tun gelen, Tun gila ... 

Wuh or un ne gaithe, U g^lye, U gaele 

J4 neka, Jo or chal ja . . . 

J& te hen, Jaite, Jaliber 

Gi4, Chal gelye, gel 

Tumh4ra ki& n4m, Tohar k4 naun hai 



Eah ghor4 ketna rojka or kituk din ke 
hai. 



r han se K^smir ketna dnr 



Tumh4r4 b4p k4 gharme ketne larke 
hein, Tura b4pki geh kee bet4 
hathu. 



In common use. 
Ami m4rte piri 

Ami m4rbo 
Ami m4rtem 

Amake merechhe 
Am4ke mdr^chhila ... 

Am4ke marbe 

Amij4i ... 

Tumi j4o, Tui j4, 

Sej4i 

Ami gichlem 

Tumi gichhO^ 

Se gichhila 

J4, J4o ... 

J4.e 

Geche 

Tom4r ii4m ki 

E ghoT4r bayash kata 

Ekh4n theke Kashmir kata dur . 



Tom4r b4p6r ghare ka jan chhele 
4chhe. 



In use among the educated class. 
Ami m4rite p4ri 

Ami m4ribo ■ 
Am4r m4r4 uchit 

Am4ke m4ri4chhe 
Am4ke m4ri4chhila ... 

Am4k^ m4rbe 

Ami jai ... 

Tumi j4o, Apni j4n 

Tini j4n ... 

Ami gi4ohhil4m 

Tumi gi4ohhile 

Tini gi4chhilen 

J4oa 

J4i4 

Gi4chhe ... 

Apan4r nam ki 

E ghor4ti ka butsorer 

Ekh4n haete ^Kashmir kata dnr 



Tom4r pit4r b4titte kaiti putra 
sant4n 4chhe. 



16 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



17 



Mahrattee. 



Guzerattee. 



Oorya. 



Englisb. 



MikadacUt marin, mala maranyas 
harkat n&hi. 



Mi marin ... 



In maraven 



Mi marila j^ton, mi marla gelon, mi 
marali geli. 



Mi marla ge Ion hoton, marali geU 
hoti, ,mi marila jat hoton m^ m&rli 
jat hoti. 



Mi maril4 jain, marali j4in, marilen 
jien. 



MMja — Ton, tin, ten 

Tuja — Tos, tais, tens 

Tojato 

Mi gelon, gelin, gelen 

Tdn gelas, gelis, gelens 

Ton gel4 

J4 

Jat 



Gelela, geleli, gelalen, gelale, gelelya, 
gelelin. 

Tdjhen nao kay 4hey ? 



Ha ghora kiti vrarshya clak &hey 



Ethnn K&shmir kiti ddr dhey ? 



Tujhe bapache gharant kiti] mtil age 
ahetP 



Htin m&ru 



Hun miris 



Hda m&ris 



Himmar4yo or mane 
maro. 



Hnn mar4yo hato ... 

Hun mar4is 

Hnnj4ncliliu 

Tuj4eclilid 

Tej&ecUi^ 

Hun gay 6 

Td gayo 

Te gayo 

Jajavu 

Jato 

Gayelo... 

Tam4ru n4ma sti P ... 



A gliodp ket 14 varas 
no chhe. 



Ahi y4nthi E4smir 
ket eu dur tli4e P 



Tam4r4 b4p n4 ghar, 
m4n ketea clihokr4 
chhe? 



Ambhe or Ame m4ri- 
p4ru or pitip4ru, 
Mui m4rip4re or 
pitip4re. 

Ambhe or Ame m4ri- 
b4 pitiba, Mu m4ri- 
bi or pitibi. 

Ambhar or Amar 
m4ribara or pitib4- 
ra uchita Mora m4- 
ribaku or pitibdku 
uchita, 

Ambhe or Ame m4da 
or pit4 kh4iclihu, 
Mu iuida or pit4- 
kh4ichhi. 

Ambhe or Ame m4da 
orpit4kh4ithilu, Mu 
m4da or pitakh4i- 
,thUL 

Ambhe or Ame m4da 
or pit4khibu, Mu 
m4da or pit4kh4ibi. 

Ambhe or Amej4n, 
Mu jae. 

Tumbhhe or Tume 
J4a Tu Jau. 

SeJ4ntiSeJ4e 



Ambhe or Ame j4i- 
thulu, Mu j4ithili. 

Tumbhe or Tume j4i- 
thUa, Tu j4ithilu. 

Se jaithile Se iaithiI4 



Jaa 

Jauchhi 

641a 



Tnmbha n4ma kana 
or ki, tuma n4ma ki 
To n4 kana. 

Eghod4 kete barsara. 



E4shmir eth4ru kete 
antara ? K4shmir 
eth4ru kete diir or 
dhura. 

Tumbha pitanka gru- 
hare kete putra 
achhanti, tu bapa 
ghare kete putra 
achanti P 



Moi m4rila para mae ma. 
sibaparo. 



Moimarim.. 



Moi m4rib4 p4o or lagibo 
maiimanla hate. 



Mok m4rile or m4re ... 



Mok m4rile, or marisila 
mae m4rishalo. 



Mok maorila, mae mara- 
ban. 



Moi jao 



Tumi bal4 or ja^, or t4i 
ja, apuni gaichhe, 

Teo jai, or gaisa 



Moi galo, mae gailo ... 

Tumi gala, apuni gaichili 

Teo gal 

Bal, ja 

Jao, gai, jain 

Gal 



Tumarnam kiP Tumar 
ki n4o F 



Eitb ghorrar kiman ba- 
sar hoise, Ei ghora 
kiman bars paichhe. 

I4r para E4smir oloi 
kiman duroi P lar para 
£!43mir lai kiman dur P 



Tumar baprar ghavat 
reita putck ase, or ki- 
man lora 4chhe P 



I may beat. 



I shall beat. 



I should beat. 



I am beaten. 



I was beaten. 



I shall be 
beaten. 



I go. 

Thou goest. 
He goes. 
I went. 
Thou wentest. 
He went. 
Go. 
Going. 
Gone. 



What is your 
nameP 



How old is this 
horse ? 



How far is it 
from here to 
Kashmir ? 



How many sons 
are there in 
your father's 
house ? 



17 



16 



List of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 



Hiiidee. 



Bengalee. 



I may beat ... 

I shall beat ... 
I should beat... 

I am beaten ... 
I was beaten ... 

I shall be beaten 

1 go 

Thou goest ... 

He goes 

I went 

Thou wentest... 

He went 

Go 

Groing 

Gone 



What is your 
nameP 



How old is this 
horse P 



How far is it 
from here to 
Kashmir P 



How many sons 
are there in 
your father's 
house P 



Main or ham m&rsektehe, Ham 
pitun, Ham m4rbo. 



Ham raktegk, Ham petbye, Ham 
mar4h. 



Mer& or ham4ra marnA uchit, Hamra 
pitaki chahi or m^rki chahi. 



Main or ham mar khay&he, Ham pital 
jaeb, Ham marel geli. 



Main or ham m4r kha.yath4, Ham 
pital gelihal, Ham m^relgel rtihin. 



Main or ham mar khaenge, Ham 
pital jaeb, Ham m&rel gayali. 



Main or ham j4y, Ham j4hi, Ham 
jaethe. 

Tum jao, Tun jahen, Tum j4ethu ... 



Wuh or un ne jite hen, U j4hye, U 
j4et haith. 

Main or ham gi4 tha. Ham gili, Ham 
gali ha}. 

Tum gi4th4n. Tun gelen, Tun gila ... 

Wuh or un n^ gaithe, U gelye, U gaele 

J4 neka, Jo or chal ja ... 

J4 te hen, Jaite, Jaliber 

Gi4, Chal gelye, gel 

Tumh4r4 ki4 n4m, Toh4r k4 naun hai 



Eah ghor4 ketn4 rojka or kituk din ke 
hai. 



r han se £4smir ketna dur 



Tumh4r4 b4p k4 gharme ketne larke 
hein, Tura b4pki geh kee bet4 
hathu. 



In common use. 
Ami m&rte p4ri 

Ami m4rbo 
Ami martem 

Amakd mdr^chhe .... 
Am4ke m^r^chhila ... 

Am4ke marbe 

Amij4i ... 

Tiimi jao, Tui j4, 

Sfej4i 

Ami gichlem 

Tumi gichhOd 

S& gichhila 

J4, J4o ... 

J4.e 

Geche 

Tom4r ii4m ki 

E ghorir bayash kata 

Ekh4n theke Kashmir kata dur . . 



Tom4r b4p&r ghare ka jan chhele 
achhe. 



In use among the educated class. 
Ami m4rite p4ri 

Ami maribo ■ 
Amar m4r4 uchit 

Am4ke m4ri4chhe 
Am4ke m4ri4chhila ... 

Am4kl marbe 

Ami j4i ... 

Tumij4o, Apnij4n ... 

Tini j4n ... 

Ami gi&ohhil4m 

Tumi gi4chhile 

Tini gi4chhilen 

J^oa 

J4i4 

Gi4chhe ... ... 

Apan4r n4m ki 

E ghor4ti ka butsorer 

Ekh4n haete Kashmir kata dur .. 



Tom4r pit4r bititte kaiti putrs 
sant4n achhe. 



16 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Continued.) 



17 



Mahrattee. 



Guzerattee. 



Oorya. 



Assamese. 



English. 



MikadacUt marin, mala maranyas 
harkat n&hi. 



Mi marin 



In marSveu 



Mi marila j&tou, mi maria geloD, mi 
marali geli. 



Mi marla ge Ion hoton, marali geli 
hoti, .mi marila jat hoton m^ m&rli 
jat Loti. 

Mi marila jain, marali j4in, marilen 
jaen. 

M&ja — Ton, tin, ten 

Tuja — Tos, tais, tens ... 

Tojato 

Mi gelon, gelin, gelen ... 

Tun gelas, gelis, gelens... 

Tongel4 

J4 

Jat 

Gelela, geleli, gelalen, gelale, gelel ja, 
geleUn. 

Tlijhen nao kay&hey ? 

Ha ghora kiti warshya cli4 4hey . . . 

Ethun E4shmir kiti dtir 4hey ? 



Tajhe bapache gharant kiti] miil age 
ahetP 



Hun m&ru 



Hun m&ris 



Hun m&ris 



Hunmar4yo or inane 
marc. 



Hun marayo hato 

Hun mardis 

Hun j4n chhu 

Tii jSechlid 

Te j&e child 

Hun gay6 

Tugayo 

Te gayo 

J& javu 

Jato 

Gayelo ... 

Tam4rn ndma su P , 



A ghodp ket Id varas 
no clihe. 



Ahi y4nthi TLh&ma 
ket eu dur th&e P 



Tam4r4 bip na ghar, 
m4n ketea chhokrd 
chhe? 



Ambhe or Ame m4ri- 
p4ru or pitip4ru, 
Mui m4rip4re or 

. pitip4re. 

Ambhe or Ame mari- 
b4 pitiba, Mu m4ri- 
bi or pitibi. 

Ambhar or Amar 
m4ribara or pitib4- 
ra uchita Mora m4- 
ribaku or pitib4ku 
uchita. 

Ambhe or Ame mada 
or pit4 khaichhu, 
Mu iu4da or pit4- 
kh4ichhi. 

Ambhe or Ame m4da 
orpit4kh4ithilu, Mu 
m4da or pitakh4i- 
.thilL 

Ambhe or Ame m4da 
or pit4khibu, Mu 
m4da or pit4kh4ibi. 

Ambhe or Amej4n, 
Mu jae. 

Tumbhhe or Tume 
J4a Tu Jau. 

Se J4nti Se J4e 



Ambhe or Ame j4i- 
thulu, Mu j4ithili. 

Tumbhe or Tume 34i- 
thila, Tu j4ithilu. 

Se j4ithile Se iaithil4 

J4a 

J4uchhi 

G41a 



Tumbha n4ma kana 
or ki, tuma n4ma ki 
To n4 kana. 

Eghod4 kete barsara. 



X4shmir eth4ru kete 
antara ? K4slimir 
eth4ru kete dur or 
dhura. 

Tumbha pitanka grn- 
hare kete putra 
achhanti, tu bapa 
ghare kete putra 
achanti P 



Moi m4rila para mae ma- 
sibaparo. 



Moimarim... 



Moi m4rib4p4o or lagibo 
maiimarila hate. 



Mok m4rile or m4re 



Mok m4rile, or marisila 
mae m4rishalo. 



Mok maoril4, mae mara- 
ban. 



Moijao 

Tumi bal4 or jae, or t4i 
ja, apuni gaichhe. 

Teo jai, or gaisa 

Moi galo, mae gailo ... 

Tumi gala, apuni gaichili 

Teo gal ... 

Bal, ja 

Jao, gai, jain 

Gal 



Tumarnam kiP Tumar 
ki u4o P 



Eitb ghorrar kiman ba- 
sar hoise, Ei ghora 
kiman bars paichhe. 

I4r para K4smir oloi 
kiman duroi P lar para 
E43mir lai kiman dur P 



Tumar baprar ghavat 
reita putok ase, or ki- 
man lora 4chhe P 



I may beat. 



I shall beat. 



I should beat. 



I am beaten. 



I was beaten. 



I shall be 
beaten. 



I go. 

Thou goest. 
He goes. 
I went. 
Thou wentest. 
He went. 
Go. 
Going. 
Gone. 



What is your 
nameP 



How old is this 
horse ? 



How far is it 
from here to 
Kashmir P 



How many sons 
are there in 
your father's 
house P 



17 



BO 



lAst of Words and Phrases showing some of the 



English. 



Hindee. 



Bengalee. 



Whose 



boy 
comes be- 
hind you ? 



From whom 
did you buy 
that? 



From a shop- 
keeper of the 
village. 



Kiske Iark4 tumh4ra pechheh aotihe, 
Eekar putru tor4 p&chhee lagal 
kna. han, or Eokei lark4 toh&r4 
pecha 4ho. 

Eiske nikut turn ottho mol M hai, or 
TJ kekr4 se ton mole lili hain. 



G4onke dok4^dar se, G4un ke ek 
dok&nd4r se. 



In common use. 

Tom4r pechhane k4r chh^l^ ase- 
chhep 



Eahar th4e tumi ih& kinechho P . . 



G&iier ek dok4nd&rer thae 



In tise among the educated class. 

Tomar paschit kah4r balak asi 
t^chhe ? 



Eah4r nikat haete tomi ih4 kine- 
4chh? 



Gramer ek dok4ndarer nikat^ 



20 



Principal Aryan Languages of India. — (Concluded.) 



21 



Mahrattee. 



Guzerattee. 



Oorya. 



English. 



Tdmche magun koiia cha miilgayet 
4 hey ? 



Tun kona p&sda ten vikat gh^t aleu P 



G4ona cb& eki dukand&ra pasun 



Tam&ri p&chhal ko 
DO ctmokro kve 
chhe P 



TamS p^lii koni pase- 
thi, vechi tu lidJaii P 



Te gamni diik4ndar 
p&se tbi. 



£&h4 pij& tumbha 
pacbbare asuachhi P 
Xa piI4 to pachbe 
asuchbi P 

Tab& tumbbe k&h&- 
tbdru kraya kala, 
T4 tu k4h4thu ki- 
nilup 

Egrimara jane dok&. 
nith&ru, Eg^nra 
jane dokanitbu. 



Tomar pasat kar Ior& 
abisiP Tor p4abb4t kar 
lora 4bicblie P 



Heito tumi kar pera 
kenila, k4r par^ seito 
kiui lali P 



G4ot pobar dia manub 
etar pera bik bon, gao 
dokaner pera, g&or eta 
beparir pera. 



Whose boy 

comes behind 
you? 

From whom did 

you buy that P 



From a shop- 
keeper of the 
village. 



21 



PUNJAB LANGUAGES. 



24 



( 2 ) 



English. 



Punjab 



Funjabee of Lahore. 



Fonjabee of Mooltan. 



Cashmeeree. 



Pushtoo of Eohat. 



Numerals. 



One 
Two 

Thiee 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 

Twenty 

Thirty 

Fifty 

Hundred 



Pronouns. 



I 

We 

Thou 
Tou 
He 
They 
Of me 
Of us 
Of thee 

Of you 

Of him 

Of them 

Mine 

Our 

Thine 

Tour 

His 

Their 

Hand 

Foot 



Ek 

Do 

Tin, Trai 

Char 

Panj 

Cheeh, chhe 

Sat 

Ath 

Naw 

Das 

Bis, bih 



Panjah 
Sdw 



Main 
Nam, assi 

Tu 

Tum, tusi 
Wah, oh 
We, ah 
Mara 



Tera iwada 

Tumrhara 

Oh da 

TJnhunda 

Mera 

Sada 

Tera 

Twada 

Ahda 

Unhanda 

Hath 

Pair 



Hik 
Du 

Trai 

Char 

Panj 

Chih 

Sat 

Ath 

Nau 

Dah' 

Bih 

Panja 
Sau 



Main 
Assan 

Tiin 

Tussan 

TT-h 

TJ'h^ 

M^dd-di di 

Assdda di di 

T6da-di-# 

Tussada di de 

Urida di de 

Unharidd-di de 

M^da di d6 

Assadd-di-de 

Teda-di-de 

Tussadd-di'd^ 

Unda di de 

Unhand^ M di 

Hath 

Per 



Ak 

Zeh 

Treh 

Tsor 

Pdnts 

Shih 

Sat 

Ath 

Nauh 

Dah 

Wiih 

Treuh 

Pantsah 

Hath 



Bil 

Assi (the last i hardly 
pronounced.) 



Tim 
Miiin 
Son 
Chon 

Tiihnn 

Timsun • 

Tihiin 

Minuni 

Soni 

Chdnui 

Tiihiindiii 

Timsundiij 

Tihiindiii 

Atha 

Kiir 



To 

Dwah 

Dhre 

Tslor 

Pindza 

Speg 

Awah 

Atah 

Anah 

Las 

SHI 

Pindzos 

sn 



Zah 

Mu (whattak mtig) ... 

Ta 

Tasii 

Agba* 

Agha* 

Ema (khatt-dema) ... 

Emu (khatt-demfi) ... 

Ta (or, less frequently, 
etd or deta.) 

Tasii (or detasu or 
etasu.) 

Aglia (or, in fuU, de 
agha.) 

Agho (or de agho) ... 



Las 
Ptfeha 




in'ong) 



althongh it may be at variance with the ordinary anthorities, whose spelling ia generally based on the pronunciation of the I'eshdwar and Ynsnfeu 
country. The same remark applies to what may appear to be inaccuracies in other respects, all of which, however, may be trusted as faithfully renre^^ 
thp local usage. ■ ^ preseBH»f 



Languages. 



( 3 ) 



2S 



FusMoo of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 


Brahui of Khelat. 


English. 


To 


* 

Asit 


Isit 


One. 


Dwah 


Irat 


Erut 


Two. 


Dre 


Musit 


Moosit 


Three. 


Chalor 


Chdr 


r 


Four. 


Pinzah 


Panch 


- 


Five. 


Spaj 


Shash 




Six. 


Awah 


Haft 


k 


Seven. 


Atah 
Nah 
Las 
Shil 


Hasht 

Noh 

Dd . 

BlBt 


In the Bhahni language , 
there are only the three ^ 
numerals given; from 
four upwards Persian is 
used. 


Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Twenty. 

Thirty. 


Panzas 


Panjah 




Fifty. 


Sil 


Sad 


^ 


Hundred. 


Zah 


I 


E . .. 


I. 


Muj 


Nan 


Nn 


We, 


Ta 


Ni 


Nee 


Thou. 


Tasii 


Ntim 


N m 


Tou. 


Hagljah-da 


E (this), hame (that) 





He. 


Haghah-doi 


Da, hame 


Af ilk 


They. 


Zma 


Kana 


Kiinnat 


Of me. 


Zmuj 


Nana 


Niinna 


Of us. 


Sta 


Na 


Na 


Of thee. 


Stdsu 


Numd 


Noomtaf 


Of you. 


Dahaghah 


Ena, hamena 


0,n3 


Of him. 


Da Jiagha 


Dana, hamena 


fta 


Of them. 




Kana 


K nns 


Mine. 




Nana 


Nnu a 


Our. 




Na 


Na§ 


Thine. 




Ntuna 


Nooms 


Tour, 




Ena, hamena 


Dana 


His, 




Ddn4, hamen^ . , 


Oaft5 


Their. 


Las 


Dii 


Doo 


Hand. 


Pohah 


Nath 


Niit 


Foot. 



t The Brahuis express "of me" with the word given, which however literally rendered means "mine." 
J " Ta" is used to express the genitive plural, " na" singular. 
§ Used also to express genitive singular. 



26 



( 4 ) 



English. 



Nose 

Eye 

Mouth 

Tooth 

Ear 

Hair 

Head 
Tongue 
BeUy 
Back 

Iron 

Gold 
Silver 

Father 

Mother 

Brother 
Sister 

Man 

Woman 

Wife 

Child 

Son 

Daughter 

Slave 

Cultivator 



Shepherd 

God 

Devil 

Sun 



Moon 



Ponjabee of Lahore. 



Nakh 

Ankh 

Munh 

Dand 

Kan 

Bal 

Sir 

Zahan jibh 
Peth 
Pith 

Loha 

Seona 
Chandi 

Pro 

Ma 

Bharar 
Bahin 

Manukh 

Tuni 

Bahti 

Munda-Bal 

Putr 

DM 

Palak 

Kastkar, Halwah 



Gudheria, charhwal 

Permasur 

Shaitan 



Sooraj 



Ohand 



FuBJabee of Mooltan. 



Nak 

Akh 

Munh 

Dand 

Kan 

Val 

Sir 

Zahan- jibh 
Dahad 
Kand 

Loha 

Sona 
Chandi, rupa 

Bap, bahu (Hindus 

— pia, bhan). 
Ma, amman (used by 

children) . 
Bhira, bhaya 

Bhaen, kaki (used 

by children). 
Mard, munas 

Trimat 

Trimat-zal, kanwar 

Ningar 

Piitr 

DM 

Ghulam, banah, golah 

Eahirah, rahak, valu 
vah. 



'Aydll ajri 

Khuda, Allah, Sacha, 
Eal. 

Shaitan (always 
with dam " the 
execrable" after it.) 

Sigh, suraj 



Caehmeeree. 



Ohandar, chan 



Nast 

Uchh 

A'as 

Dand 

Kan 

Mast 

Luk 
Zeo 
Yadd 
Tharr 

Shastur 

Son 
Eaf 

Mol or bab 

Maj 

Boi 
Biniah 

Mahini 

Zanana 

Kolai 

Shur 

Nichu 

Kur 

Tsowz 

Laganai wol 



Gabaroch (patrol, if 

the flock is large) . 

Dai ... 

Shaitan 



Aith 



Zun 



Fushtoo of Kohat. 



Peza 

Istarga ,.. 

Khula 

Ghatkh 

Ghweg 

Wekkhta 

Sar 
Zhiba 
Geda 
Sh 

Ospana 

Srazar 
Splnzax 

Plar 

Mor 

Wror 
Khor 

Sarai 

Kkhadza 

Kkhadza(khatt; artina) 

Bachai 

Dzwa-e 

Lur ... 

Mure-ai 

Sharik (i.e., if not him- 
self proprietor of the 
land he cultivates. A 
"khudkasht" is called 
Zamindar). 

Shpun 

Khuda-e 
Shaitan 



Nmerstarga (or, in 
connection with an 
unmistakeable con- 
text, simply Istarga; 
nmer, by itself, = sun- 
shine). 

Spogma-i (khatt-shpog- 
ma-i) a somewhat rare 
■word, for moon is 
" liugi." 



( 5 ) 



Languages. — (Continued. ) 



2f 



Pushtoo of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 


Brahai of Khelat. 


English. 


Sunclah pazah 


Bdmus 


Ba,niooz 


Nose. 




Stargah 


Khan 


Khun 


Bye. 




Khulah 


Mon 


Ba 


Mouth. 




GMsh 


Dandan 


Diintan 


Tooth. 




Ghwaj — ghwej 


Khaf 


Khuf 


Ear. 




Veshtah 
Sar 


Phuzha (sing.) , phuzhghak 

(plur.) 
Katum 


Peesh, koh, 
Ka, toom 


Hair. 
Head. 




Zibah, jibah 


Duvi 


Dooee 


Tongue. 




Nas 


Pid 


Fid 


Belly. 




Sha, chattah 
Aspana 


Baj 
Alun 


Biidge (sounded as the Eng- 
lish substantive). 
Aheen (corruption of Per 


Back. 
•Iron. 




Sara zar 


Khisun 


sian). 
Kbee,soom 


Gold. 




Spin zar 
PMr 


Chandi 
Eawa 


Seam (sounded like the 

English substantive) . 
Ba, wa 


SHver. 
Father. 




Mor 


Lutna 


Looma 


Mother. 




Wror 


Hum 


Bjtoom 


Brother. 




Khor 


Ir 


Eerr 


Sister. 




Merah, sarai 


Narina 


A, r6 


Man. 




Shazah, shajah, shidzah ... 


Taifa 


Za, e, fa 


Woman. 




Ditto ditto 


Arwat 


Ar,wat 


Wife. 




Zankai, warkachi, palak .,.- 


Chuna 


Choonuka 


Child. 




-Zae 


Mar ^ ... 


Mar 


Son. 




Liir 


Massir 


Mus,seer 


Daughter. 




Marujai 


Me 


May 


Slave. 




E4hak 


Langarvahok 


Zemindar 


Cultivator. 




Aju, rammewal 


Kurkbafok 


Ohopan or Shaoban 


Shepherd. 




Khuda, Allah 


"Kbud^ 


Khooda 


God. 




Shaitdn 


Shaitan 


Shaitan 


DevH. 




Nmar 


D^ 


De 


Sun. 




Spogmai 


Tuwe 


Too, be 


Moon. 


* 



28 



( 6 ) 



Punjab 



English. 


Punjabee of Lahore. 


Punjabee of Mooltan. 


Cashmeeree. 


Pushtoo of Kohat. 


Star 


Tara 


Tarah 


Tavak 


Istorai 


Fire 


Ag 


Bha, agh 


Nar, ziing 


Or 


Water 


Pani 


Pdni, jal 


Poui 


Oho (sometimes, hut 
rarely, "obe"). 


House 


Ghar 


Ghar, tuga, sahal 
(thatched house). 


Garh 

Shai 


Kor 


Horse 


Ghora 


Ghora 


Giir 


As (khatt — yas) 


Cow 
Dog 


Go 

Kutta 


Gan [Hindus. — gaii.) 
{Jat. — dahgi, va- 
harki.) 

Kutta 


oGd 
Hun 


Ghwa 
Spai 


Cat 


Billi 


Billi 


Bror 


Pisho 


Cat, female 






Breur {eu as in 
Erench.) 




Cock 


Kukur 


Kukar 


Kakfir 


Ohirg 


Hen 






Kokir 




Drake 






Batuk 




Duck 


Batakh 


Badak, batak 


Batick 


Battah, or hattaka ... 


Asa 


Kata 


Gadon, khotah . . 


Khar 


Khar 


Camel 


Uth 


Uth, mahra (riding 
camel). 


U'nt 


TJ'kkh • ... 


Bird 


Chiria 


Pakhi 


"Wiidawrm 


Murghai 


Go 


Ja 


Vanjh, Jul, ja 




Tlal 


To go 






Gatsiin 




Eat 


Kha 


Kha 




Khural 


To eat 






Khiiin 




Sit 
To sit 


Bith 


Bahi 


Bihun 


Kenastal, orKkklienas- 
tal. 


Come 


A 


A 





Eatlal, or raghlal ... 


To come 






Yun 




Beat 


Mar 


Mar, kut 




Wahal 


To beat 






Layun 




Stand 


Kliora (khala) ho. . 


Khara thi, khar 
vanjh. 




Wudredal 


To stand 






Wudani rozun 




Die 


Mar 


Mar 




Mral 


To die 






Mariin 




Give 


De 


Deh 




Werkawul 


To give 






Difin 




Run 


Daur Bhaj 


Druk vanjh 




Zghaledal 

(Po mundo tlal, or 
munda kawul are the 
expressions in gene- 
ral use.) 


To run 






Doriin 





( r ) 



Languages. — (Continued. ) 



29 



Fushtoo of Deia Ismail Khan. 



Brahai of Dera Gazee Khan, 



Brahui of Khelafc. 



English. 



Storai 

Or 

Otah 

Kor 

As 
Ghwd 

Spai 
Pishai 



Oharg 



Da obo diargah 
Khar 

U'sli 

Marghah 
Larsah 



Khorali 
Eshenah 



Raisah 
Wahah 
Wadrejali, tamsah 



Marsah 

Warkali 

Washirejah, tasMah 



Istdr 

Khakhar 

Dir 

Urd 

Hull 
Dagi 

Kuohak 
Pishl 



Bango 

Hanj 
Bish 
Huoh 

GinjisKk 
Hiningna 

Iragna 

Tulingna 



Banigna 

Khalingna 

Bashmarina 



Kaingna 
Thisuna 
Hilgharna 



Is, tara 
Kha, khilr 
Deer 

0,ora 

Niir, rean (Persian) 
Duggee 

Kooohnk 
Pishee 



Bangh, go 



Hiinj 

Beesh 

Hooch 

Qinjishk 
Hin, nuk 

Koon or Kooniik 

Thoolt 



Biir, riik 

Khiilt 

Sfd 

Kai, hissa 
Ete 

4 

Doding 



Star. 
Fire. 
Water. 

House. 

Horse. 
Oow. 

Dog. 

Cat. 

Cat, female. 

Cock. 
Hen. 
Drake. 
Duck. 

Ass. 
Camel. 

Bird. 
Go. 

Togo. 
Eat. 
To eat. 
Sit. 

To sit. 
Come. 
To come. 
Beat. 
To beat. 
Stand. 

To stand. 
Die, 
To die. 
Give. 
To give. 
Run. 



To run. 



30 



( 8 ) 



English. 


Punjabee of Lahore. 


Punjabee of Mooltan. 


Cashmeeree. 


Pushtoo of Kohat. 




Tip 


Uti 


D'te, lit&nhjupar... 


Peth 


Pas or porta. 




Near 


Nera 


N^r6, kolon 


Nahatal 


Nizhde 


... 


Who 
And 


Kown (who ? ) , gora 

(who.) 
Or 


Kaun 
Hor, biya 


Kus 
Bih 


Tsok 



:;. 


Yes 


Hau 


Ah, aih, dho 


Adah 


Ho, or hau 




Down 


Hethau 


Jhika, tale, hethaiih 


Bun 


Kiiz 


... 


Far 


Dur 


MokM, pare, dur . . . 


Diir 


T;ire 




What 


Ki 


Kihr^ 


Kiah 


Tsa 


■• * 


But 


Por 


Par 


Tan kanika 


Magar 


... 


No 


Nah 


Nahin, nah, nahin, 
nase, nimi (agree- 
ing with a singular 
subject) , nise (agree- 
ing with a plural 
subject.) 


Nah 


Nah 




Before 


Agu 


Age, aganh, agun... 


Barnoth 


Wrdnde 


•■ . 


Behind 


Pichhe magar 


Piehun 


Path 


Wrusto 


... 


Why 


Kyun 


Kiun 


KMazah 


Wele 




If 


JekuT 


Jekar, j^kadahan ... 


Tudwai 


Ka 


... 


Alas ! 


Amsos (dfsos) 


Afs6s,ArmanjHariani 


Hai 


Hai hai 


• a . 


A father 


Pro 


Bap 


Ak mol 


Plar 




Of a father 


Pro da 


Bap da di de 


Akis mil sfmd 


De plar 




To a father 


Pro nu 


Bap, kiin 


Akis malis 


Plar ta 




From a father 


Prote 


Bap, kannun 


Akis malis nishi . . 


De plar na 




Two fathers 


Do pro 


Du bap 


Zuh mal 






Fathers 


Pro 


Bapan 


Mali 


/ - 

Plaran, or Plariina 




Of fathers 


Pron da 


Bapan da di de ... 


Malin hiind 


De plariino 


... 


To fathers 


Pron nu 


Bapan kuii 


Sath4 malin 


Plaruno ta 




From fathers 


Pron te 


Bapan kannun 


Mdlin nishi 


De plaruno na 




A daughter 


DM 


Dhi 


Akkur 


Liir 




Of a daughter 


DM da 


Dhi da, di de 


Akis kiiri hund 


Deliir 




To a daughter 


DM nu 


Dhikiin 


Akis kdri 


Lur ta 




From a daughter . . 


Dhite 


Dhi kanniih 


Akis kiiri nishi 


De liir na 




Two daughters 


Do dheyau 


Du dhirin 


Ziih kuri 






Daughters 


Dheyau 


Dhirin 


Kiiri 


Liinra 




Of daughters 


Dheyau da 


Dhirin da dide ... 


Kiirin hiind 


De lunro 




To daughters 


Dheyau nu 


Dhirin kun 


Kurin 


Liinro ta 




From daughters . . 


Dheyau te 


Dhirin kannun 


Kiirin nishi 


De lunro na 




A good man 


Chunga manukh ... 


Changd admi 


Ak riit mahnii 


Kklja sarai 


... 



( 9 ) 



Languages. — (Continued. ) 



31 



Pushtoo of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 


Brahui of Khelat. 


English. 


Portah 


Burya 


BoorzS 


* 

Up. 


Nizde 


Khurk 


■Khoork 


Near. 


Tchok 


Derus 


Dare 


Who. 





(Wanting) 


Pain (pronounced like the 
English substantive pain.) 


And. 


Ho 


Han 


Ha 


Tes. 


Kshatah 


Shef 


Shaif {Shain shaip pro- 
nounced as sha in shade). 


Down. 


Lare 


Mur 


Moorr 


Far. 


Tchah 


Antse 


Unt 


What, 


Magar 


Lekin (rare) 


Walle 


But. 


Ta 


Kapar 


Aha 


No. 


Mukh ta, vrdnde 


MokaHl 


Mon^ 


Before. 


Shd ta 


Phazae 


Pfid 


Behind. 


Wale 


Ante 


TJnl^ 


Why. 


Ki, kah 


Ag^ (rare) 


Aga 


If. 


AM 


Hoe hoe 


HiHi or Ahhooee 


Alas! 


To plar 


Bawa 


Bawa 


A father 


Da plar 


Bawa na 


Bawana 


Of a father. 


PMr ta 


Baw^ 


Bawa e 


To a father. 


La plar dzakhah 


Bawaghan 


Bawa, an 


From a father. 


Dwa plaralx 


Irra tawa 


Eeera bawa ghak {Eerat 
used in adj. form Eera). 


Two fathers. 


Plarah 


Bawa 


Bawa ghak 


Fathers. 


Daplaro 


Bawaghata 


Bawa ghata (kin ghak 
dropped). 


Of fathers. 


Plaro ta 


Biwaghante 


Bawa ghatii (ditto) ... 


To fathers. 


Tia plaroh dzakh 


Bawaghantian 


Bawa ghate an (ditto) ... 


From fathers. 


Ldr 


Massir 


Mas, sSer 


A daughter. 


Da lur 


Massir na 


Musseerika 


Of a daughter. 


Liir ta 


Massir^ 


Museere 


To a daughter. 


La liir dzakhah 


Massiran 


Mus, seer an 


From a daughter. 


Dwe lurnah 


Irra massir (o)* 


Eera Milsseerik {Eera adj. 
form of erut.) 


Two daughters. 


Lurnah 


Massiro 


Musseerik 


Daughters. 


Da lurno 


Massinta 


Musseerikta 


Of daughters. 


Ldrno ta 


Massinte 


Musseerikt^ 


To daughters. 


La lumo dzakh 


Massintian 


Musseerik ti'an 


From daughters. 


To shah sarai 


Jawdn narina 


Jowano Arre 


A good man. 



* N,B, — When numerals to an; amount ate u^ed, it appears to be optional to add " o " or not to the noun, 
plural nominative, but it appears to be used everywhere irregularly. 



' " appears to be used to make the 



32 



( 10 ) 



Punjab 



English. 


Punjabee of Lahore. 


Punjabee of Mooltan. 


Cashmeeree. 


Pushtoo of Kohat. 


Two good men 


Do chunga manukh 


Du change admi . . 


Zeh rit mahneo . . . 




Good men 


Chunga manukh . . 


Change admi'an . . 


Eit mahneo 


Kkha sari 


Of a good man 


Chunga manukh da 


Change ddmi da, di, 
de. 


Akis ritis mahnu 
shnd. 


De kkha sari 


Of a good woman . . 








De kkhe kkhadze ... 


To a good man 


Chunga manukh me 


Change admi kuii. . 


Akis ritis mahnuis . . 


Kkha sari ta 


From a good man . . 


Chunga manukh te 


Change admi kannun 


Akis ritis mahnevis 
nishi. 


De kkha sarina 


Of good men 

Of good women . . 


Chunga manukhan 
da. 


Change admian da, 
di, de. 


Eitin mahneon hund 


De kkho sariyo 

De kkho kkhadzo ... 


To good men 


Chunga manukhun 
me. 


Change admiaa kun 


Eitin mahnevin ... 


Kiho sariyo ta 


From good men . . 


Chunga manukhun 

te. 


Change admian kan- 
nun. 


Eitin mahnevin ni- 
shi. 


De kkho sariyo na ... 


A good woman 


Chungi tuni 


Changi trimati 


Ak nits zandna . . . 


Kkh^kkhadza 


Good women 


Chungi tuniyan . . 


Changian trimatan 


Nitsah Zanana . . . 


Kkhe kkhadze 


A bad boy 


Bura munda 


Bhaga chohar 


Ak randah niched... 


Kharab urkai 


A bad girl 


Buri kaori 


Bhagi chohir 


Ak randah kur 


Kharaba lirki 


Good 


Chunga 


Changa 


Nit (or) jan {or) 
zahar. 


Kkha (fem: kkha) ... 


Better 


Bahut chunga 


Then changa (^.s the 
thing with which 
the comparison is 
made in the ab- 
lative case) and tin 
in kannun changa 
n^ (that is, "better 
than this.") 


Satha nit 


De agha nakkha (than 

that). 


Best 


Sarah nal chunga. . 


Sabh kannun changi, 
sabh de nal changa. 


Amoh rut 


Detolo nakkha 


High 


Ucha 


Hoha 


Thiid 


Dhing, uchat, Iwar 
(less common). 


Higher 


Bahut ucha 


(See "better") .. 


Tsfir, sathd, thiid ... 


(Same as "better") ... 


Highest 


Sarah nal ucha . . 


Sabh kannun ucha, 
sabh de nal ucha. 


Amoh thiid 


Ditto 


A horse 


Ghora 


Ghora 


Ak gurr 


As (khatt. y&) 


A mare 


Ghori 


Ghori 


Ak gur 


Aspau 


Horses 


Ghora 


Ghore 


Giirri 


Asiina 


Mares 


Ghoriyan 


Ghoridn 


Gfire 


Aspe ... 1 


A bull 


Gau ka sandh 


Dand 


Akdand orhakur... 


Ghutskai 


A cow 


Gow 


Vaharki 


Ak gaoorak haur... 


Ghwa 


Bulls 


Goka sandh 


D4nd 


Ddnd 


Ghutski {or) ghwa-e 


Cows 


Gaiyan 


Yaharkian 


Gao 


Ghwa 


A dog 


Kutta 


Kutta 


Ak hiin 


Ispai ,,. 


A bitch 


Kutti 


Kutti 


Akhuin 


Ispa-i 



( 11 ) 



Languages. — (Continued, ) 



33 



Pushtoo of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 


Brahui of Khelat. 


English. 


Dwa shah sari 


Jerajawau (o) narma 


Eeradowano Arreik {reik 
pro. like sub. rake.) 


Tw^o, good men. 


Shah sari 


Jawdno narino 


Jowano Arreik 


Grood mAi. 


Dasho sari 


Jawdn narina (se)* na ... 


Jowano Arrej na 


Of a good man. 
Of a good woman. 


Shah sari ta 


Jawan narina (se) 


Jowano Arr^ e 


To a good man. 


La shah sari dzakhah 


Jawan narindghan 


Jowano Arr^ an 


From a good man. 


Da sho saro 


Ja-nano narinaghan ta ... 


Jowano Arreikta 


Of good men. 
Of good women. 


Sho saro ta 


Jawanaghan narinaghan te 


Jowano Arreik,te 


To good men. 


La sho saro dzakhah 


Jawanaghan narinaghan tiar 


Jowano Arreik tean 


From good men. . 


Tawah shah shajah 


Jawano zaif 


Shiir, ro zaefa 


A good woman. 


She shaje 


Jawano zaifo 


Shfir, 10 zaefa ghab 


Good women. 


Bad halak 


Grandah mar 


Q-undo mar 


A bad boy. 


Badahjinkai 


Grandah massirf 


Grimdo mus, seer 


A bad girl. 


Shah 


JawanJ 


Jowau 


Good. 


Der shah 


Ditto 


Jowanj;eer 


Better. 


Tar waro shah 


Ditto 


Kootanjowu 


Best. 


Chig 


Burza 


Moor, ghoon 


High. 


Der chig 


Ditto 


Moorghoon teer 


Higher, 


Tar waro chig 


Ditto 


Grir,ran moorgkoon 


Highest. 


As . 


Niriyan 


Niirrean 


A horse. 


Aspahgh 


Madian 


Hoollee 


A mare. 


Asunah 


Niriyan 


Nurreank 


Horses, 


Aspe 


Madian 


HooUeek 


Mares, 


San, ghwaij'di (bull or ox) 


Kdrigar 


Kbras 


A bull. 


Ghwa 


Dagi 


Dnggee 


A cow. 


Ghwayi 


Kdrigaro 


Khrask 


Bulls, 


Ghwa 


Dagio 


Duggeek 


Cows. 


Spai 


Nardz 


Koochuk 


A dog. 


Spai 


Hand 


Mado k6oohuk§ 


A bitch. 



• No reason can be given for this {se) it does not occur in words of similar termination, 

t N.B. — The indefinite article is wanting. 

J None of the degrees of comparison by inflexion, like Urdu. 

§ No separate word for bitch ; mado, female, always prefixed. 



34 



( 12 ) 



Punjab 



English. 


Punjabee of Lahore. 


Fanjabee of Mooltan. 


Cashmeeree. 


Pushtoo of Eohat. 


Dogs 


Kutte 


Kutt^ 


Hun 


Ispl 


Bitches 


Kuttiyan 


Kuttian 


Hunieh 


Ispa-i 


A he-goat 


Bakora 


Bakra 


Ak tsawal 


Psa 


A female goat 


Bakri 


Bakri 


Ak tsawaj 


Bza 


Goats 


Bakriyan 


Bakre, bakrian . . 


Tsawajeh 




He- goats 


■ ■•••• 






Psuna 


She- goats 








Bze 


A male deer 


Heran 


Hajan 


Ak rils 


Lakka shiwai (a 
" buck" or leader of 
a herd, narkakkh ) 


A female deer 


Himi 


Harani 


Akruskat 


Lakka shiwa-i 


Deer 


Hiriiyan 


Haran, haranfaa . . 


Eds 


Lakkashiwi and a-i 
(masc. & fem.) 


I am 


Main hau 


Main ban or hun . . 


Bii chiis 


Zah yam 


Thou art 


Tuhai 


Tun h4 


Tsh chuk 


Tae 


He is 


Oh hai 


Uhh^ 


Sii chiik 


Agha da 


We are 


Assihau 


Assan hain or hisse 


As chih 


Mu yu 


You axe 


Tun ho 


Tussan ho 


Tuihchuh 


Tasu ya-i 


They are 


Ohhain 


TJhe bin 


Tim chih 


Aghadi (masc. & fem.) 


I was 


Main sau 


Main ham 


Bu asus 


Zah wum 


Thou wast 


Tusa 


Tun ban 


Tsuhasdk 


Ta we 


He was 


Ohsa 


IJh hai 


Sii as 


Agha wuh (fem. agha 
wa.) 

Mu wu , , 


We were 


Assi sa 


Assan base 


As as 


You were 


Tusi Ba 


Tussan have or h^vi 


Tuih asuah 


Tasu wa-i 


They were 
Be 


Ohsa 
Ho 


Uh^ hann 
Thi 


Tim as 
As 


Agha wu (masc.) agha 

(fem.) 
Wushaorkega* 


To be 


Hona ■ ... 


Thiond 


Asan 


Kedal 


Being 


Hata 


Thinda 


Asan asan 


Kedun (or more com- 
monly in the fem. 
form kedana). 


Having been 


Hoka 


Thind^ hoiji . . 


Asit 


Kedalai or shiwai* . . 


I may be 


Main howan 


Main thioan 


Bu hikiih asit 


(Wanting) t 


I shall be 


Main hanga 


Main hoFan or thioan 


Bu asak 


Za ba yam , . 


I should be 
Beat 


Main un chuhi da 
Mar 


Main thinda (rarely 

honda.) 
MAr 


Mi giitsah dsun ... 
Ldy^ 


Za ba wum 
Wu waya 


To beat 


Mama 


Maran 


Lay an 


Wayalt 


Beating 




Mar^nda 


La'yan 


Waydn or wayana . . 


Having beaten 


Marke 


Mar^nda boija . . 


LSyith 


Wayalai 


I beat 


Main mardan 


Main mar^nda han 


Bu layis 


Zah wayam . . 


Thou beatest 


Tu m^rda hai 


Tiin marenda M . . 


Tsuh layak 


Ta waye 


He beats 


Ob mdrda hai 


TJh marenda he . . 


Su M'yan 


Agba wayi 


We beat 


Assi marde hain ... 


Assan marende hain 


As layos 


Md wayu 



* These forms come directly from the verb "shwal," which, like "kedal,"=fo Secoma. There are no eqniTalents in the lanKnase for « be »« to be." 
" being, and "having been, in the sense of simple existence. ° ^ ' ' 

f Third person, he may be = agha ba wi. 
t This verb is properly " wahal," but in this district is pronounced (and has therefore been spelt) exactly the same as " way8l''=<o toy. 



( 13 ) 



Languages. — (Continued.) 



35 



Pushtoo of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 


Brahui of Khelat. 


English. 


Spl 


Narazo 


Kooohnk kak 


Dogs. 


Spal 


Hando 


Mado kooohnk kak 


Bitches. 


Vaz 


Math 


Dugghiir 


A he-goat. 


Vza 


Heth 


Hait 


A female goat. 


Vze 


Matho, Hetho 


Mailtll 


Groats. 
He-goats. 
She goats. 


Nukhtsir 


Narask 


Khuzziim 


A male deer. 


Nakhtsirah nakhs^runah . . . 


Mada asko 


Mado khuzzum 


A female deer. 


Nakhtsire 


Narasko, Mada dsko 


Khnzmak 


Deer. 


Zali yam 


'I uth 


Ar^it 


I am. 


Tab ye 


Ni us 


Ar^is 


Thou art. 


Haghali dai 


E^§ 


Are 

• •• 


He is. 


Muj yii 


Nan un 


Arein 


We are. 


Tasd, y^st, yastah 


Num ure 


Ar4 r6 


You are. 


Hagliahdi 


Dio% 


Areer 


They are. 


Zahwum 


I asut 


Us, soo, ta 


I was. 


Tall we 


Ni asus 


Us, soos 


Thou wast. 


! Haghali wuh (fern, wah) . . . 


E as 


Us 


He was. 


Muj wu 


Nan asun 


Us, soo, na 


We were. 


: Tasu, w^ast, wastah 


Nnm asun 


Us, soo, re 


Tou were. 


Haghahwu 


Da asur 


U, ssoorah 


They were. 


Sa 


Mabo 


1 
Mur, riick 


Be. 


Swal 


Maning 


Mfmningh 


To be. 


lEedun 


(Wanting) 


Murroke 


Being. 


Eedalai 


Mar^ 


Mils, soo, ne 


Having been. 


'Zahwusam 


'I mareu 


Mur, r^wurlT 


I may be. 


Zah ba sam 


I mareva 


Mitrrote 


I shall be. 


iZabwusam 


'I mar^v 


Mils, soonoot 


I should be. 


IWawabah. 


Khalbo 


Khiilt 


Beat. 


Wahal 


Khallingna 


Khiilling 


To beat. 


Wahah 


(Wanting) 


Khiiltissa 


Beating. 


Wahalai 


Khalkut 


Khulkoo, n^ 


Having beaten. 


Zah wawaham 


'I khaleva 


Khul, 1^ wut, ta 


I beat. 


Tahwawahe 


Ni kbalesa 


Khullinguttee, use 


Thou beatest. 


1 Haghah wawahi 


Ekhalek 


KhuUaiktur 


He beats. 


Muj wawahii 


Nan khalena 


Khullinguttee yoon 


We beat. 



§ Used as an affix. 
II Mail pronounced a 
^ " Wur" appears to 



s in English, with a terminal sound of t. 

be the best way of writing the termination of words ending in w or wh. 



36 



( 14 ) 



Punjab 



English. 



You beat 
They beat 
I am beating 
I was beating 
I had beaten 
I may beat 

I shall beat 
I should beat 

I am beaten 
I was beaten 
I shall be beaten ... 

I go 

Thou goest 

He goes 

I went ..; 

Thou went est 

He went 

Go 

Groing 

Gone 

What is your name ? 

How old is this 
horse ? 



How far is it from 
here to Kashmir ? 



How many sons are 
, there in your 
father's house ? 



I have walked a 
long way to-day. 



The son of my uncle 
is married to her 
sister. 



Punjabee of Lahore. 



Tusi marda ha 

Oh mdrda hain . . 

Main marde hau . . 

Main mdrda sa . . 

Main marchtik sa . . 

Main maran, main 

mara janda hun. 
Main maranga 

Main un mama . . 

Main nu mar pie . . 

Mainuo mar pie sa. 

Main un marpanaya 
chahi de. 

Maiu janda hau 

Tu janda hai 

Oh janda hai 

Main gaya si 

Tu gaya si 

Oh gaya se 

Ja 

Janda 

Gaya hua 

Twdja nam ki ? 

Ghora kinniyan bo- 
rayanda hai ? 



Bto Kashmir tani 
kinna purdah hai ? 
(kitna dur.) 



Tra prodeghar luch- 
kinna putr hai ? 



Main aj bara pain- 
dah kita. 



Mera chachi da put 
ohda bahin nal 
byahaya. 



Punjabee of Mooltan. 



Cashmeerce. 



Pushtoo of Kohat. 



Tussan marend^ ho 
Uhe mar^nda hin. . 
Main mar^nda han 
Main mar^nda ham 
Main maria he 
Main maran 

Main maresan 

Main marisan, main 
maria bais^n. 

Main maria bainda 

han. 
Main maria bainda 

hdm. 
Main marisan, main 

maria baisan. 

Main, ainda ban . . 

Tun vainda he 

Uh vaind4 he 

Main gia 

Tun gia 

Uh gia 

Vanjh 

Vainda 

Gia 

Ted^ nd keh h^ ? . . 

Kitti umar da ghora 
he? 



Kashmir ithaon kitte 
pandh he ? 



Tede bap de ghar 
kitte piitr hin ? 



Main aj bahii pandh 
kita he. 



Mede chdche d^ patr 
ne undi bhaen ndl 
parneid kita he. 



Tuih lay 03 

Tim layinas 

Bu layan chiis 

Bii Idyan dsas 

Mi layos 

Bii hikan, layifmdvit 

Bil laye 

Mi gntseh Idy h , . 

Bu tsiis lagimat . . 

Bu asiis Idinamat . . 

Bu galseh, lainamat 
mavah. 

Bu gatsah 

Ts h gatsah 

Su gutsan chuh . . 

Hii gos 

Tsfih gokh 

Sii gds 

Gats 

Gatsah 

Gas 

Tiiih kyah chuh nao ? 

Imis (of this) giiri- 
sauz (horse) waihs 
(age) kyah (what) 
chuh (is) ? 

Ite pitt (from this 
place). katsah 

(how) diir (far) 
chuh (is) ■ Kashir 
(Kashmir) ? 

Tiihnndio malis 
sand6 (in) gar6 
(house) katyah 
nichen chih ? 

Az (to-day) kiir 
(made) m6 (I) gathd 
(very) dur (far) tad 
(to) sair (journey). 

Mianis (my)pitrsand 
(uncle of) nichen 
(son) kur (made) 
tas (that) zanana 
(woman) hawze 
(of) binia (sister) 
suet (with) netharr 
(marriage). 



Tasu waya-i 
Agha wayi 
Zah wayam 
Ma wayalu 
Ma wayalai wuh 
Zah wu wayam 

Zah ba wu wayam , 
Zah ba wu wayam . 

Zah wayalai kegam . 

Zah wu wayalai shwam 

Zah ba wu wayalai 
sham. 

Zah dzam 

Ta dze 

Agha dzi 

Zah laram 

Ta lare 

Agha lam 

Dza orLarsha (imp.).., 

Tlana 

Tlalai 

Ta niim tsa da or Num 

de tsa da ? 
Da as de tso kalo da, 

oj ba wi=Urdu 

"hoga." 

Dalta na Kashmir 
tsomra lire da ? 



Ta plar kara tso 
dzdman di ? 



Md nan der maaal 
kirai da. 



De aghe khor de m^ 
trazwi kiri da. 



( 15 ) 



Languages. — ( Continued. ) 



37 



Pushtoo of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 


Brahai of Khelat. 


English. 


TSsii wawaliul 


Num khalere 


Khiillingiltteg aor^ 


Tou beat. 


Haghah wawaM 


.. 


Da khalera 


Kbullingiittee areer 


They beat. 


Zah waham 


.■ 


'I kbaligatiut 


KhuUe wutta 


I am beating. 


Mu wShah 


.. 


^I kbaligatiasut 


Khulk koota 


I was beating. 


Md wahalai wuh 


.. 


'Ikhalkuta 


Khulk soot 


I had beaten. 


Zah wawaham 


• • 


■"I khaleva 


Khnlewiir 


I may beat. 


Zah ba -wahain 


, , 


'I khaleva 


Khiilote 


I shall beat. 


Zah ba wabam 


•• 


'I khaleva* 


Khillk kootat 


I should beat. 


Zah wabalai kijam 






Kbiiloke murrewur 


I am beaten. 


Za,b wabalai kedam 






Khulke miis'soot 


I was beaten. 


Zah ba wabalai kejam 


... 




EhiHoke marote 


I shall be beaten. 


Zah dzam 




'I kawa 


Hinning, gnt,tee yoot 


I go. 


Tabdze 




Nikasa 


KassaJ 


Thou goest. 


Haghah dzl 




E kaik 


Hinning, guttu yeh 


He goes. 


Zah laram 




'Ihindf 


Hinnut 


I went. 


Tab lare 


.. . 


Ni binas 


Hinnas 


Thou wentest. 


Haghah larai 




B hina 


Hinna 


He went. 


Larsah wardzah 


... 


Hin 


Hinnk 


Go. 


. Talah 


... 


(Wanting) 


Hinnoke 


Going. 


Talalai 


... 


Hfnan 


Hinnan, ne 


Gone. 


Sta num tchahdai ? 


... 


Napinderi.P 


Na pin un,tus,su ? 


What is your name ? 


Daghah as tchomrah umr 
lari? 


Di hulina umar akhasi . . . 


Dah niirrean na akhas, 
oomur Sr6 ? 


How old is this horse ? 


La daghahdzi dzakhah 
Kashmir tchomrah lare 
dai? 


Da kd,. Kasmfr akham 
mure ? 


Dahka Cashmir akhiis 
moor^ ? 


How far is it from 
here to Kashmir ? 


Sta da plar pa kor kshitoho 
zaman di ? 


Na hdwand urati akham 
maro ? 


Na bawa, na, boratee akhus 
mako ? 


How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 


Zah nan der lare pale 
larama. 


I annoi piada baz pandh 
karen uth ? 


Ino, e> baz peada, hin, na 
noofc 


I have walked a long 
way to-day. 


Zmii da trab zoe da haghah 
la khor sarah wadah 
karai dai. 


Kana iln^ mar ena ima are 


Kiinna ill^, na mar ona, 
eer, to, brahm kfirre ne. 


The son of my ' uncle 
,is married to her 
sister. 



* Passive Voice wanting. , . j, t 

+ Same as " I was beating," and only distinguishable by the general meaning of the sentence. 

1 Hinning, guttee yoos might be used, but would not be understood. 



38 



( 16 ) 



Punjab 



Pui^jabee of Lahore. 



Punjiibee of Mooltan. 



Cashmeeree. 



Puehtoo of Kohat*. 



In tlie lioiise is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 



Put the saddle upon 
his back. 



I have beaten his 
son with many 
stripes. 



He is grazing 
cattle on the top 
of the hill. 



He is sitting on a 
horse under that 
tree. 



His brother is taller 
than his sister. 



The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 



My father lives in 
that small house. 



G-ive this rupee to 
him. 

Take those rupees 
from him. 



Beat hiffl well and 
bind him with 
ropes. 



Draw water from 
the well. 

Walk before me ... 



Ohitta ghora di 
kathi ghar bich 
paihui hai. 



Oh do pith uti kathi 
pa;o. 



Main ne ohde putr 
un kunihi kara- 
mara. 



Oh tibhi uti mal cha- 
randa paya hai. 



TJs boota de hitan 
oh ghora uti cha- 
rah hua hai. 



Oh da bharar ohdi 
bhain nalow bunha 
hai. 



Oh da mul dhai 
rupiya hai. 



Mera prous chhoto 
jeh ghar bichrahu- 
da. 



E rupiya un nu 
dede. 

Oh rupiya us to lile 



Un nu bura maro or 
russeyan nal ban- 
no. 



Kui bichho 
kadho. 



pani 



Mera age age chal 



Bagge ghore da 
sang ghar he. 



TJnd^ kand ute 
sanj rakh. 



Main linde piitr kiin 
bahu charian (kau 
nail) katia he. 



TJh pahari ute choak- 
har kun charinda 
he. 



TJh darakht tale 
ghore lite charia 
hoiya he. 



Unda bhird apni 
bhaen k a n n u n 
lamba he. 



Un da mol dhai 
rupiya he. 



Meda bdp choti 
jiig^ vich bahnda 
h^. 

Th rupiya lin kan 
dede. 

Uh riipiya un kan- 
nuh ghin ghin. 

Un kun ohangi 
tarah mar kardin 
rassi ndl badh. 



Khuh bichon pane 
chik. 

Mede age chal jul 



Garas (house) raauz 
(in) chuh (is) chi- 
this (white) giiri- 
siind (horse of) 
kath (saddle). 

Tas (of that) zih 
(his) tharr (back) 
peth (on) kath 
(saddle) lad (put). 

Mi 166 (stroke) tam- 
siindis (of that 
man's) nicheuis 
(son) satha (many) 
kamohih (stroke). 

Tami (that) balak- 
kis (of the hill) 
tangis (top) peth 
(on) chiih (is| sii 
(he) tiv (sheep) 
gopan (quadru- 
ped) gdsah (grass) 
khdwdn (feeding). 

Su chuh guris (horse) 
peth (on) tath 
(that) kulis (tree) 
tal (beneath) bi- 
hit (sitting). 

Tasand (his) ♦ boi 
(brother; chiih (is) 
tasauze (his) bi- 
niah (sister) handi 
(of) kothah (than) 
tud (high). 

Tamik (of that) mol 
(price) chiih (is) 
zah (two) riipiah 
tah (and) aith ana. 

Miiin mol chiih tali 
(that) garah (home) 
hane (little) maiiz 
rozdn (abiding). . 

Imah riipiah dih 
timis. 

Timah (those) riipi- 
ah hih (take) tas 
(from him). 

Tas (him) Ide warah 
(good) pdthin 

(manner) bih (and) 
gandii (bind) raze 
(ropes) suet (with) . 

Kr^re (well) miinz 
kad (draw) poin. 

Mi (me) bronth 
(before) harouth 
pakh (move). 



De ispin ds zin po kor 
kkkhe da. 



Agha po sha zin keda 



Ma de agha dzwa-e po 
dero guzariino 
wayalai da. * 



Agha de ghra po sir 
mal starawi or 
" piyayi". 



Agha po as swor de 
aghe wane lande 
wilar {lit., "stand- 
ing") da. 

De agha wror de agha 
khor na uchat da. 



De agha bai'a dwah 
nime rupa-i di. 



Ema plar po agha 
waruki kor kkkhe osi. 



D& rupa-i agha ta 
werka. 

Agha rupa-i de agha 
na wakhla. 

Agha kkha wu waya 
o puriyo sara wu 
tara. 



Kuhi na obo wu basa 

Ema po wrande wrdnde 
drdma(tJrdd«char'). 



* Note -The equivaleats of the English words and phrases noted in this column throughout are entered in the Roman character and trans- 
literated in the Jonesian method. """^ou ..uoittuier ana iraiiB 

The following transliteration has been used for the letters peculiar to the Pakkhta alphabet in accordance with Bellew- 

D2orTs = ^ G.= jj'^kh (pronounced by the Khattak8"8h") = O^^ and Nr = g o,> ( j - r, and is nearly the same as the Urdu J ) 



( 17- ) 



Languages. — (Continued.) 



3P 



Pushtoo of Sera Ismail Khan, 



Bvahui of Bera Gazee Khan, 



Brahui of Khelat. 



English. 



Pa kor kshi da spin as zin 
dai. 



Da haghat pa slid bandi zin 
kshejdah. 



Da haghali zoe padero satto 
sarah md wahalai dai. 



Da glirah pa sar bandi mal 
piai. 



Urati phihuna hulina zen. 



Zene namena bajae tighbo 



Hamena mare 'I baz kurat 
khalkunuth. 



Mashana zi liae kure ham^ 
khwahfera. 



Oora na, thurtee-pehoon 
niirrean, na, zeen are.t 



Nnrrean, na, biija-zeen 
shagh.J 



Ona, mare, e baz sheep, ank 
khiilkonoot. 



0-mushna, zeea, mal, khwaf- 
ing, giittee i. 



Tar haghe wune laude pa 
as bandi spor walur dai. 



Da haghah wror la khpule 
khor dzakhali cbig dai. 



Da haghali Mmat dwd nime 
nipai di. 



Zma pMr pa haghah kam 
kor kshi tamkaji. 



Daghah rupai haghah ta 
warkah. 

Haghah riipai la haghah 
dzakhah yosah. 

Daghah shah wawahah as 
pa pariyo sarah e watarah, 



La haghah kiihi dzafehah 
obahwakajah. 

Zma pa mukhah wa kwajah 



Hall na zehae soware ha- 
men darakhtana keraghan 



Hamenai ilum hamena irdn 
hurze. 



Hamena baha do nem rupi6 



Kan a hawa chunka urdti 
tulik. 



Handa rupaie hamo etibo 

Hamo rupi te hamoran 
halbo. 

Od baz khalbo, rezat tavbo 



Diindn dir kasheho 
Kana monati pidda maho. 



0, 6, durukht, na, keergut 
hiir, rea nathoo, soon6. 



0, na, etoom, ona eera His brother is taller 



In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 



Put the saddle upon 
his back, 



I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 



He is grazing cattle 
on the top of the 
hill. 



He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree. 



moorgoon, e. 



Ona, baha, eriit neem roo- 
pai ar^. 



Bawa kunna, e, choonnka 
oratee, thoolik. 



Dah, roopai, ode, ^te 
E-roopai, ^ran, hiilt 

Ode jowan, khnlt, raiz, totuf 

Doonan, deer, kush 
Kunna monuttee, khure . . 



than his sister. 



The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 



My father Kves in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 



Take those rupees from 
him. 



Beat him well and bind 
him with ropes. 



Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me. 



+ Thwi is meant to express Bound oipers-th. 

1 The Brahius always use the word sung, which includes all horse accoutrements. 



45 



( 18 ) 



English. 



Punjabee of Lahore. 



Punjabee of Mooltan. 



Cashmeeree. 



Pushtoo of Kohat. 



Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 



From whom did you 
buy that ? 



From a shop-keeper 
6i the village. 



Tera pichhe kida 
putr aunda hai ? 



Oh ki de kal mul 
leya hai ? 



TJs pind do hati wale 
kalow. 



Tede pich^ kainda 
bal anda h6 ? 



Uh kain kannuh 
mol ghida h6 ? 



Vast! de kirdr kan- 
nun. 



Kohund nichen 
chuh tiihe path 
(behind) ydan 
(coming) ? 

Kas (whom) nishi 
(from) h i t li 1 
(bought) tsih (you) 
su (that) ? 

Ak6 gamekis (of vil- 
lage) wanah (shop) 
walis (keeper) ni- 
shi (from). 



T^ po wrusto de cha 
urkai radzi ? 



Agha de cha na po 
bai'e akhistai da ? 



De kill diikandar na . . 



( 19 ) 



Languages. — (Concluded. ) 



41 



Pushtoo of Dera Ismail Ehan. 



Brahui of Dera Gazee Khan. 



Brahni of Khelat * 



English. 



Da chd zaukai pa td pise 
raizi? 



Ta la chd dzakhah haghali 



pirodai dai ? 



La JO hatuial da kali dza- 
kliali. 



Dind mdr nd randat barek ? 



Odera nal kus ? 



Tatti na philan bakhalan 
halkut. 



Na, pudduttee, dinna, mar 
bunninggfittee yeh ? 



Dher, an, e, girra, hul- 
koonoos ? 



E, wustee, na, dbookanda, 
an. (Bukhal, "buniah" 
is used, not dhookanda). 



Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 



From whom did you 
buy that ? 



From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



* The accentuation " in the words and phrases in this column throughout is almost entirely the same as in Latin. Short and long marks — , v, a 
final accented — is sounded "ar ;" e with acute accent as in French. 



DRAYIDIAN LANGUAGES 



OF 



SOTJTHEEN INDIA. 



44 



( 2 ) 



Dravidian Languages 



English. 


Tamil. 


Malayalum. . 


Telugu. 


Numerals. 










One 


On-ru 


Onua 


Ya-ka-ti 


••• 


Two 


I-ran-du 


Eanda 


E.en-du 


... 


Three 


Mun-ru 


Munna 


Mii-du 


... 


Four 


Nan-gu or Na-lu 


Nala 


Na-lu-gu 


... 


Five 


Ain-thu 


Anja 


Ai-thu 


... 


Six 


A-ru 


Ara 


A-ru 


... 


Seven 


E-lu 


Ezha 


E-du 


... 


Eight 


Ettu 


Etta 


E-ni-mi-thi 


... 


Nine 


On-ha-thu 


Onbadha 


Thom-mi-thi 


... 


Ten 


Path-thu 


Pattha 


Pa-thi 


... 


Twenty 


I-ru-pa-thu 


Iruvadha 


I-ru-vai 


... 


Fifty 


Aim-ha-thu 


Ambadha 


E-bhai 


... 


Hundred 


Nti-ru 


Ndra 


Nu-ru 


... 


Pronouns. 
I 


Ndn 


NySn 


Ne-nu 




Of me 


En-nu-dai-ya 


Ends 


Na-yok-ka 


• •• 


Mine 


En-na-thu 


EndMha 


Na-thi 


• ■• 


We 


Ndm 


Nyanngal ("ng" as in 
sing) . 


Ma-na-mu 


... 


Ofus 


Nain-mu-dai-ya 


NyangaludS 


Ma- na-yok-ka 


... 


Our 


Nam-ma-thu 


Nyangaludedha 


Ma-na-thi 


... 


Thou 


Ni 


Ni 


Ni-vu 


... 


Of thee 


Un-nu-dai-ya 


Nindg 


Ni-yok-ka 


... 


Thine 


Un-na-thu 


NindMha 


Ni-thi 


... 


You 


Nir 


Ninngal 


Mi-ru 


... 


Of you 


Um-mu-dai-ya 


Ningalude 


Mi-yok-ka 


... 


Your 


Um-ma-thu 


Ningaludedha 


Mi-thi 


... 


He 


A- van , 


Avan 


Yd-du 


... 


Of him 


A-va-nu-dai-ya 


Avande 


Yd-ni-yok-ka 


*•• 


His 


A-va-na-thu 


Avandedha 


Yd-ni-thi 


... 


They 


A-var-gal 


Avar (maso.), ava (neuter) 


Ya-ru 


... 


Of them 


A-var-ga-lu-dai-ya 


Avarude 


Ya-ri-yok-ka 


... 


Their 


A-var-ga-lu-thu 


Avarudedha 


Ya-ri-thi 


... 


Hand 


Kai 


Kei 


Che-yi 


... 


Foot 


A-di, (or) Pd,-tham 


KM 


Pd-tha-mu (or) 


A-du-gUi 


Nose 


Mdk-ku 


M{ikka 


Muk-ku 


... 


Eye 


Kan 


Kanna 


Kan-nu 


•1* 


Mouth 


Yay 


Y^y 


N6-ru 


... 



of Southern India. 



{ 3 ) 



45 



Canarese. 


Toda (Neilgherries.) 


Badaga (Neilgherries.) 


English. 


Ondu 


Vodd 


Vondu 


One. 




Eradu 


Ed 


Yeradu 


Two. 




Miiru 


Mudu 


Muru 


Three. 




Ndlku 


Nanku 


Nalku 


Four. 




Aidu 


Uj ("u" as in German) . . 


Eldu 


Five. 




Aru 


Ar 


Aru 


Six. ■ 




Elu 


Tteu 


Ylen 


Seven. 




Bntu 


Yett or ett 


Yettu 


Eight. 




Ombhattu 


Onpad ("d"=th) 


Vombhattu 


Nine. 




Hattu 


Pad 


Hattu 


Ten. 




Ippattu 


Eppad 


Ippattu 


Twenty. . 




Ai-vattu 


Eivad 


Eivattu 


Fifty. 




Nuru 


Vodd niir 


Nuru 


Hundred. 




N4nu 


An 


Na 


I. 




Nannannu 


Tenna 


Yenna 


Of me. 




Nannadu 


Yennadu 


Yennadu 


Mine. 




Navu 


* Em, am 


* Yengla, angla 


We. 




Namma 


* Yemma, namma 


*Yenga, anga 


Of us. 




Nammadu 






Our. 




Ninu 


Ni 


Ni 


Thou. 




Niana 


Ninna 


Ninna 


Of thee. 




Ninnadu 


Ninnadu 


Ninnadu 


Thine. 




NIvu 


Niv 


Ningla 


You. 




Nimma 


Nimma 


Ninga 


Of you. 




Nimmadu 






Your. 




Avanu 


Adiim, 


Ava 


He. 




Avanadu 


Adun 


Avana 


Of him. 




Avana 






His. 




Avaru 


Adum 


Avaka 


They. 




Avara 


Adun 


Avakara 


Of them. 




Avaradu 






Their. 




Kai 


Kei 


Kei 


Hand. 




Adi (or) Pada 


Kal 


Kalu 


Foot. 




Mligu 


Mituff 


Muku, mugu 


Nose. 




Kannu 


Kann 


Kannu 


Eye. 




Bayi 


Bai 


Bai 


Mouth. 




•■Rm TBmma ia used when the per 


son spoken to is not included ; dm if the 


person is included. The same is the c 


ase with yengla and angla in 


Badag 



( 4 ) 









Dravidian Languages 


English. 


Tamil. 


Malayalum. 


Telngu. 


Tooth 


Pal 


Palla 


Pal-lu 


Ear 


Ka-thu 


Cheni 


Che-vi 


Hair 


Ma-yir 


Eomam, talanara 


Ven-tru-ka 


Head 


Tha-lai 


Tala 


Tha-la 


Tongue 


Nak-ku 


NSva 


Na-lu-ka 


Belly 


Va-yi-ru 


Vayara 


Ka-du-pu 


Back 
Iron 


Mu-thu-gn, 
I-rum-bu 


Mudhuga 
Irumba 


"Vi-pu 
I-nu-mu 


Gold 


Pon 


Swarnam, pon 


Ban-ga-ru 


Silver 


Vel-H 


Velli 


Ven-di 


Father 


Tha-gap-pan 


Aohchan 


Than-dri 


Mother 


TUj 


Amma 


Thal-li 


Brother 
Elder brother 


Sa-go-tha-ran 


Udapirannavan 


Sa-ho-tha-ru-du 


Younger brother 


• • ■ ■ » • 






Sister 
Elder sister 


Sa-go-tha-ri 


Udapirannaval 


Sa-ho-tha-ri 


Younger sister 








Man 
Woman 


Ma-ni-than 
Stri 


Manushyan-^n 
Stri, pen 


Ma-ni-shi 
Stri 


Wife 
Child 


Pen-ddt-ti 
Ku-lan-dai 


ChSrya-kettiyval 
Eutti, kidS,wa 


Pen-dld-mu 
Bid-da 


Son 


Ma-gan 


Magan 


Ko-ma-ru-du 


Daughter 
Slave 


Ma-gal 
A-di-mai 


Magal 
Aidma 


Ko-mar-the 
B^-ni-se 


Cultivator 
Shepherd 


Pa-yir-i-du-ki-ra-van ... 
I-dai-yan 


Krishi-kharan 
Attukdran 


Vya-va-sd-ya-mu-che-yu- 
va-du. 

Gol-la-va-du 


God 


Ka-da-vul 


Deivam 


Th^-vu-du 


DevU 


Pi-sa-su 


PishS,cha 


Pi-sa-cha-mu 


Sun 
Moon 


Su-ri-yan 
San-thi-ran 


Sviryan 
Ohandran 


Sur-yu-du 
Chan-thru-du 


Star 
Fire 
Water 


Nat - chath-thi-ram 

Ne-rup-pu 

Than-mr 


Nakshatram 

Tl 

Vellam 


Nat-oha-thra-mu 

Nip-pu 

Nll-lu 


House 


Vi-du 


Vida 


Il-lu 


European house 








Horse 


Ku-thi-rai 


Kudhira 


Gur-ra-mu 


Cow 


Pa-su 


Pashu 


A-vu 



( 5 ) 



of Southern India.- — (Continued.) 



47 



Canarese. 


Toda (Neilgherries.) 


Badaga (Neilgherries.) 


English. 




Hallu 


Parzh 


Hallu 


Tooth. 




KiTi 


Kev 


Kivi 


Ear. 




Kudidu 


Mir 


Kudalu, meiru 


Hair. 




Tale 


Madd 


Mande, tale 


Head. 




Nalige 


Nav 


Nalange 


Tongue. 




Hotte 


Bir 


Hotte 


BeUy. 




Bennu 


U£ 


Bennu 


Back. 




Xapbhina 


Kabban 


Kabbuna 


Iron. 




Chinna (or) Honnu 


Chinna 


Chinna 


Gold. 




BeUi 


Bilti 


BeUi 


Silver. 




Tan-de 


Enin 


Appa, tande 


Father. 




Tdyi 


Av 


Ave, tai 


Mother. 




Sahodara 






Brother. 






Enon etud 


Anna 


Elder brother. 






Enonkinnud 


Tamma 


Younger brother. 




Sahodiri 






Sister. 






Akka 


Akka 


Elder sister. 






Enorvet kukh 


Tange 


Younger sister. 




Manusliya 


11 


Alu 


Man. 




Hengasu 


Kiikb 


Herniu 


Woman. 




Hendati 


Kattvodi kukh 


Hendaru 


Wife. 




Magu (or) Kiisu 


Popan 


Kusu 


Child. 




Maganu 


Makh, kin makh 


Maga 


Son. 




Magalu 


Tiij makh 


Magalu 


Daughter. 




Dasa (or) Ghilain 






Slave. 




Saguvalidara (or) Sedya- 


YokaU khan 


"Vokaliga 


Cultivator. 




gara. 










Kuruba 


Adukaran 


Adukara 


Shepherd. 




D6varu 


D^r 


Devaru 


God. 




Pisaohi (or) BMta 


Etud put (great Devil) . . . 


■Pishaohi 


Devil. 




Surya 


Birzh 


Hattu 


Sun. 




Chandra 


Tiggal 


Tingalu 


Moon. 




Nafeshatra (or) Ohuk-ke. 


Min 


Minu, nakisatra 


Star. 




Benki 


Didd, nerp 


Penki, kichchu nerpu ... 


Fire. 




isTiru 


Nir 


Niru 


Water. 




Mane 


Arzh 


Ale 


House. 






Koat (fortress) 


Bangale 


European house. 




Kudure 


Kadare 


Kudure 


Horse. 




G-ovu (or) Hasa (or) Akalu 


Danam 


Dana 


Cow. 





48 



( 6 ) 



Dravidian Languages 



English. 


Tamil. 


Malaj'alum. 


Telugu. 


Dog 


Ndy 


My 


Kuk-ka 


Cat 


Pu-nai 


Puoha 


Pil-li 


Cock 


S^-val 


P{lvankkorhi 


Pun-ju 


Duck 


Vath-thu 


Tarava 


Ba-thu 


Ass 


Ea-lu-thai 


Kanhudha 


Ga-di-the 


Camel 


Vot-tai 


Ottagam 


Von-te 


Bird 


Pat-chi 


Pa,kRhi 


Pat-chi 


Go 


P6 


Poga 


P6 


Eat 


Sdp-pi-du 


Tinnuga 


Thi-nu 


Sit 


Vut-ka-ru 


Irikkuga 


Kur-oho 


Come 


Yi 


Varuga 


Ed 


Beat 


A-di 


Adikkuga 


Kot-tu 


Stand 


Nil-lu 


Nilkkuga 


Ni-lu-vu 


Die 


S&-VU 


Ch^vuga 


Cha-vu 


Give 


Ko-du 


Kodukka, taruga 


Yiy-yi 


Eun 


O-du 


Oduga 


Pa-ru-geth-thu 


Up 


Ue-U 


Midhe 


Pai-na 


Down 


Ki-le 


Tazhg 


TCin-tha 


Before 


Mun-n^ 


Munhe 


Mun-thu 


Near 


Kit-ta 


Adukk^ 


Thag-gi-ra 


Far 


Thu-ram 


Agalg 


Thu-ra-mu 


Behind 


Pin-ne 


Pinbe 


Ve-nu-ka 


Who 


Ar 


Ara 


Ye-va-ru 


"What 


En-na 


Endha 


Te-mi 


Why 


En 


Endhakonda 


T^-la 


And 


Vnm 


Um-nm 


Nnu 


But 


A-nal 


Engn, ennai 


A-yi-tW 


If 


Al 


Engil 


The (or) Pat-cha-man-thu 


Tes 


Am 


AdhS uvva 


A-vu-nu 


No 


Il-lai, (or) Al-la 


Ilia, alia 


Ld-thu (or) ka-thu 


Alas 


Ai-yo 


Kashtam, ayyo 


Ay-yo 


A father 


Tha-gap-pan 


Achohan 


Than-dri 


Two fathers 


I-ran-du Tha-gap-pa-nar 




Ith-tha-ru Than-dru-lu . . . 


Father's 


Tha-gap-pan-mar 


Achohanm^r 


Than-dru-lu 


Of a father 


Tha-gap-pa-nu-dai-ya ... 


AchchandS 


Than-dxi-yok-ka 


Of fathers 


Tha-gap-pan-md-ru-dai-ya 


AchohanmElrud^ 


Than-dru-la-yok-ka 


To a father 


Tha-gap -pa-nuk-ku 


Aohchanna 


Than-dri-ki 


To fathers 


Tha-gap-pan-ma-ruk-ku, . . 


Achchanm&rkka 


Than-dru-la-ku 


From a father 


Tha-gap-pa-ni-li-run-thu 


Achchanilninna 


Than-dri-nun-chi 



( 7 ) 



of Southern India. — (Continued. ) 



^\y 



Canarese. 


Toda (Neilgherries.) 


Badoga (Neilgherries.) 


English. 


Nayi 


Nai 


Nai 


Dog. 


Bek-ku 


Kotti 


Kotti 


Oat. 


Hunja 


Huja 


Hunja, huva 


Cock. 


Bathu 


Bat 


Sime batu 


Duok. 


Eatte 


Klatte ' 


Klatte 


Ass. 


Onte 


Yotte 


Votte 


Camel. 


Pakshi (or) Hakki 


Belt 


Hakkilu 


Bird. 


Hogu 


Atfo, Atpo 


Hogu, po 


Go. 


Unnu 


Tinn 


Tinnu 


Eat. 


Kiitu-kollu 


Neshkir 


Kuli 


Sit. 


m 


'tva, itva 


Ba 


Come. 


Hodi 


Pui 


Hui 


Beat. 


Nfflu 


Nellu 


Nillu 


Stand. 


Sa-yu 


Kett fo 


Kett hogu 


Die. 


Kodu 


Ta, kodu 


Ta, ko du 


Give. 


Cdu 


Vodu 


Vodu 


;Sun. 


Mele 


Mok 


Mele 


Up. 


Kelige 


Erg, nerzhg 


Kelage, klia 


Down. 


Munde 


Muddk, mucliclie 


Munde, Munohe 


Before. 


Hattara (or) Samipa ... 


Kekhuri 


Sare, vottura 


Near. 


Dura 


Batkhi 


Dura 


Far. 


Hinde 


Pindalk 


Hinde 


Behind. 


Taru 


Alio 


Taru 


Who. 


tjXM 






What. 


Tatakke 


Et? 


Taa 


Why. 


Mattu 
Adare 


U affixed to the foregoing 

noun. 
Ale 


U 
Ale 


And. 
But. 


Ee (affix) 


Arzh or narzli 


Ee (annexed to the verb) 


If. 


Houdu 


TTa 


Haudu 


Yes. 


lUa 


A 


lUa 


No. 


Ayyo 
Tan-de 


Ah! 
Bnin 


Ayo ! 
Tande 


Alas. 
A father. 


Ibbaru tan-de-ga-lu 






Two fathers. 


Tan-de-ga-lu 




Tandeglo 


Fathers. 


Tandeya 


Enin 


Tandea 


Of a father. 


Tandegala 
Tandege 
Tandegalige 
Tandeyinda 


Ening 
Bninedd 


Tandega 
Tandeinda 


Of fathers. 
To a father. 
To fathers. 
From a father. 



( 8 ) 



Dravidian Language 



English, 


Tamil. 


Malayalam. 


Telugu. 


From fathers 


Tha-gap-pan-ma-ri-li-run 
thu. 


Achohanmarilninna 


Thun-dru-la-nun-chi ,.,'•■ 


A daughter 


Ku-ma rath-thi 


Magal 


Ko-mar-the 


Two daughters 


I-ran-du ku-ma-rath-thi- 
gal. 




Ith-tha-ru ko-mar-thei-lii| ' 


Daughters 


Ku-md-rath-thi-gal 


Magalugal 


Ko-mar-the-lu 


Of a daughter 


Ku-ma-rath-thi-yi-nu-dai- 
ya. 

Eu-ma-rath-thi-ga-lu- dai- 
ya. 

Ku-ma-rath- fhik-ku 


Magalude 


Ko-mar-the yok'ka 


Of daughters 


MagalugaludS 


Ko-mar-the-la yok-ka ... - 


To a daughter 


Magalkka 


Ko-mar-the-ku 


To daughters 


Ku-ma-rath-thi-ga-luk-ku 


Magalugalkka 


Ko-mar-the-la-ku 


Prom a daughter 


Ku-ma-rath-thi yi-li-run 
thu. 


Magalilninna 


Ko-mdr-the nun-chi 


From daughters 


Ku-ma-rath-thi-ga-U-li- 
run-thu. 


Magalugalilninna 


Ko-mar-the-la nun-chi ... 


A good man 


Nal-la ma-ni-than 


Nalla manushyan 


Man-chi ma-ni-shi 


Two good men 


I-ran-du nal-la ma-ni-thar- 
gal. 




Ith-tha-ru man-chi ma« 
nush-yu-lu. 


Goodman 


Nal-la ma-ni-thar-gal ... 


Nalla manushyar 


Man-chi ma-nush-yu-lu... 


Of a good man 


Nal-la ma-ni-tha-nu-dai- 
ya. 

Nal-la ma-ni-thar-ga-lu- 
dai-ya. 


NaUa manushyand^ 


Man-chi ma-ni-shi yok-ka 


Of good men 


NaUa manushyarudS 


Man-chi ma-mi Rh-yu-fa { 
yok-ka. j •" 


To a good man 


Nal-la ma-ni-tha-nuk-ku 


Nalla manushyann^ 


Man-chi ma-ni-shi-ki ... 


To good men 


Nal-la ma-nithar-ga-luk- 
ku. 


Nalla manushyarkka ... 


Man-chi ma-nush-yu-'- 
la-ku. 


From a good man 


Nal-la ma-ni-tha-ni-li- 
run-du. 


NaUa manushanilninna... 


Man-chi ma-ni-shi nun- 
chi. 


From good men 


Nal-la ma-ni-thar-ga-li- 
li-run-du. 


Nalla manushyarilninna 


Man-chi ma-nush-yu-Ia 
min-ehi. 


A good woman 


Nal-la stri 


Nalla stri 


Man-chi stri 


Good women 


Nal-la stri-gal 


Nalla strigal 


Man-chi stri-lu 


A bad boy 


Ket-ta pai-yan 


Chtttha kutti 


Ched-da pil-la-ka-ya ... 


A bad girl 


Ket-ta pen 


Chittha pen-kutti 


Ched-da pil-la 


Good 


Nal-la 


NaUa 


Man-chi 


Better 


A-thi-ka nal-la 


(«) 


Mik-ki-li man-chi 


Best 


Ma-ha nal-la 




Ma-ha man-chi 


High 


Vu-yarn-tha 


Uyamna 


Po-du-gai-na 


Higher 


A-thi-ka vu-yarn-tha ... 




Mik-ki-li po-du-gai-na \t*m 
Ma-ha po-du-gai-na ..-.f 


Highest 


Ma-ha vu-yarn-tha 




A horse 


Ku-thi-rai 


An-kudhira 


Gur-ra-mu ...; 


A mare 


Pet-tai ku-thi-rai 


Pen-kudhira 


A-da gur-ra-mu 



(a.) There ia no comparative and superlative in Malayalum. " This is better than that" is expressed by, " If you look at that this is good." 



( 9 ) 



of Southern India. — (Continued.) 



51 



Canarese. 


Xoda (Neilghervies.) 


Badaga (Neilgherries.) 


English. 


Tandegalinda 






From fatbers. 


Magalu (or) Kumdrte ... 


Kukb, tiij makb 


Hennu, magalu 


A daugbter. 


Ibbaru kumartegalu 






Two daugbters. 


Ktundrtegalu 


■ •*••• 


Hennu makkalu 


Daugbters. 


Kumarteya 






Of a daugbter. 


Kiimdrtegala 






Of daughters. 


Kumartege 






To a daugbter. 


Kumartegalige 






To daugbters. 


KiiTnarteyinda 






Prom a daugbter. 


Kumartegalinda 






From daugbters. 


Obba olle manushyanu ... 


UUeal 


VoUe al 


A good man. 


Ibbaru olle manusbyaru. 






Two good men. 


OUe manusbyaru 


Tbe same as in tbe singular. 


Voile aluglo 


Good men. 


011^ m anusbyana 






Of a good man. 


0116 mamisbyara 






Of good men. 


OU^ mamisbyanige 






To a good man. 


OUe manusbyarige 






To good men. 


.011^ manusbyaninda 






From a good man. 


011^ manusbyarinda 


....... 




From good men. 


Olle stri (or) Hengasu ... 


Ullekukb 


Voile bennu 


A good woman. 


OU^ striyaru (or) Henga- 


As in tbe singular 


Voile bengla 


Good women. 


sara. 








Ketta buduga 


Holaivi makb 


Ketta buduga 


A bad boy. 


Ketta budugi 


HoMvi kukb 


Eetta bennu 


A bad girl. 


OUe 


UUe 


Aduninda voile 


Good. 


Adakinta oU4 


Adunedd uUe 


Adnmuda voile 


Better. 


EUakintaolM 


EUaedd uUe 


Tellainda voUe 


Best. 


Yettaxa 


NUa 


TJdda 


Higb. 


Adakinta yettara 






Higber. 


EUakinta yettara 






Higbest. 


Xudure 


Kadare 


Gandu kudure 


A horse. 


HeriTiu kudure 


Caret 


H^nnu kudure 


A mare. 



53 



( 10 ■) 



Dravidian Lcmguagm 



English. 


Tamil. 


Malayalum. 


Telugu. 


Horses 


Ku-thi-rai-gal 


An-ku.dhiragal 


Gux-ra-mu-lu 


Mares 


Pet-tai ku-thi-rai- gal ... 


Pen-kudhiragal 


A-da-gur-ra-mu-lu 


AbuU 


Ei-sha-ba.m 


Kaia 


Vru-sha-bha-mu 


A cow 


Pa-su 


Pashu 


A-vu 


Bulls 


Ei-sha-ban-gal 


Kaiagal 


Vru-sha-bha-mu-lu 


Cows 


Pa-suk-kal 


Pashukkal 


A-vu-lu 


A dog 


Nay 


My 


Kuk-ka 


A bitch 


Pet-tai ndy 


Patti 


A-dakuk-ka 


Dogs 


Nay-gal 


N^ykkal 


Kuk-ka-lu 


Bitches 


Pet-tai nay-gal 


Pattigal 


A-da kuk-ka-lu 


A buffalo 








Male buffalo 








A he-goat 


An vel-ld-du 


An-ada 


Me-ka p6-thu 


A female goat 


Pen vel-la-du 


Penn-Ma 


A-da m^-ka 


Goats 


Vel-14du-gal 


Adugal 


Me-ka-lu 


A male deer 


An m^n 


An-man 


Mo-gajin-ka 


A female deer 


Pen man 


Pen-mdn 


A-da-jin-ka 


Deer 


Man-gal 


Mdngal 


Jin-ka-lu 


I am 


Nan I-ruk-ki-r^n 


Nyin i,gunnu 


Ne-nu-vun-na-nu 


Thou art 


Ni I-ruk-ki-rdy 


Nt 


Ni-vu vun-na-vu 


He is 


A- van I-ruk-ki-rdn 


Avan „ 


Va-du vun-na-du 


We are 


Nan-gal I-ruk-ki-rom ,.. 


Nyanugal „ 


Me-mu vun-na-mu 


You are 


Nin-gal I-ruk-ki-rir-gal... 


Ninggal „ 


Mi-ru vun-nd-ru 


They are 


A var-gal I-ruk-ki-rdr-gal 


Avar „ 


Vdnd-lu vun-na-ru 


I was 


Nan i-run-th^n 


Ny&.n ayirnnnu 


N^-nu vun-ti-ni 


Thou wast 


Ni i-run-th^y 


Ni 


Ni-vu vun-ti-vi 


He was 


A-van I-run-than 


Avan „ 


Va-du vun-de-nu 


We were 


Nan-gal I-run-thom 


Nyangal „ 


Me-mu vun-ti-mi 


Tou were 


Nin-gal I-run-thlr- gal ... 


Ningal „ 


Mi-ru vun-ti-ri 


They were 


A- var-gal I-run-thar-gal 


Avar 


Vand-lu vun-di-ri 


Be 


I-ru 


Aguga 


Vun-du 


To be 


I-ruk-ka 


Aguwd,n 


Vun-da 


Being 


I-ruth-thal 





Vun-du-ta 


Having been 


I-run-thu 




Vun-di 


I may be 


N4n I-ruk-ka- 1dm 




Ne-nu vun-da-vach-chu-nu 


I shall be 


Nan I-rup-pen 




Ne-nu vun-thu-nu 


I should be 


Nfo I-ruk-ka- v^-num . . . 




Ne-nu vun-da-va-la-si-na-J 

thi ...' 


Beat 


A-di 


Adikkuga 


Kot-tu ...1 



» Context is required—" being afraid " ; " this ieing the case " ; " my being present" ; " the state of being," &c., all require to be rendered differently. 



( 11 ) 



of Southern India. — (Continued.) 



53 



Canarese. 


Toda (Neilgherries.) 


Badaga (Neilgherries.) 


English. 




Kuduregalu 






Horses. 




Hennu kuduregalu 







Mares. 




Guli 


Danam 


Hori 


A bull. 




Easa (or) Akalu 


Hori 


Dana 


A cow. 




Giiligalu 






BuUs. 




Hasagalu 






Cows. 




Nayi 


Caret 


Nai 


A dog. 




Hnneu ndyi 


Nai 


Heiinu nai 


A bitch. 


• 


Nayigalu 







Dogs. 




Huueu nayigalu 


• •••-■• 




Bitches. 






Er 


Temme 


A buffalo. 






Esht 


Kona 


Male buffalo. 




Hota 






A he-goat. 




Mek^ 






A female goat. 




Hotagalu 






G-oats. 




Gandu hulle (or) Jinke 






A male deer. 




Hennu hulle 






A female deer. 




Hullegalu (or) Jinkegalu. 






Deer. 




Id-dh^ne 


An erzlikeni 


Na iddene 


I am. 




Id-dhI 


Ni erzlichi 


Ni iddare ^., 


Thou art. 




Id-dhane 


Adum erzhchi 


Ava iddane 


He is. 




Id-dheve 


Am (em) erzhkemi 


Tengla iddeneo 


We are. 




Id-dhiri 


Niv erzholii 


Ninglaiddari 


Tou are. 




Id-dhare 


Adum erzhohi 


Avaka iddara 


They are. 




Id-denu 


An erzhpini 


Na idde 


I was. 




Id-di 


Ni erzhclii 


Niiddi 


Thou wast. 




Id-danu 


Adum erzlichi 


Ava idda 


He was. 




Id-devu 


Am erzhkemi 


Tengla iddeo 


We were. 




Id-diri 


Niv erzhchi 


Ninglaiddi 


Tou were. 




Id-daru 


Adum erzhchi 


Avaka iddaru 


They were. 




Iru 


Eru 


Iru 


Be. 




Ira (or) Iralikke 


Era 


Ira 


To be. 




Iruvike (or) Irona 


Erzhaivi 


Iruva 


Being. 




Iddu 


Eddu 


Iddu 


Having been. 




Nanu ira bahudu 


Caret 


Na ira bahudu 


I may be. 




Lruvenu 


Caret {a) 




I shall be. 




Nanu iratakkadu 


Caret 


Caret 


I should be. 




Hodi (or) Badi 


Pui 


Hui 


Beat. 




/_ \ rni.».n ir, -nakWtaf in Tnrlft nni 


in Badaffa a future tense ; they use tl 


le present tense for it with adverbs of 


time. The Badagas hare 


the 2ad 



(a \ There is neither in Toda nor in jjaaaga a luiura i.ou»o ; "icj ^-^ ^^^ ^.^^ ■ - - 

person W.gHlarfutnres, which they nse for the and person singular and plural m a strong imperative sense. 



54 



( 12 ) 



Dravidian Languages^^ 



English, 


Tamil. 


Malayalam. 


Telugn. 


To beat 


A-dik-ka 


Adippdn 


Kot-ta 


Beating 


A-dith-thal 


Adichoha kondirikkunnu 


Kot-tu-ta 


Having beaten 


A-dith-thu 


Adiohohitta 


Kot-ti 


I beat 


Nan a-dik-ki-ren 


NyS,n adikkunnu 


Ne-nu kot-tu-thd-nu ... 


Thoubeatest 


Ni-a-dik-ki-ray 


Ni 


Ni-vu kot-tu-tha-vu 


He beats 


A- van a-dik-ki-ran 


Avan „ 


Va-du kot-tu-tha-du ... 


We beat 


N^n-gal a-dik-ki-rom ... 


Nyangal „ 


M^-mu kot-tu-tha-mu ... 


Tou beat ...' 


Nin-gal a-dik-ki-iir-gal. . . 


Ningal „ 


Mj-ru kot-tu-tha-ru 


They beat 


A-vax-gal a-dik-ki-rdr-gal 


Avar „ 


Va-ru kot-tu-tha-ru 


I am beating 


Nan a-dith-thuk-kon-di- 
ruk-ki-ren. 


Nyan adikkunnunda 


Ne-nu kot-tu-thun-na-nu 


I was beating 


Ndn a-dith-thuk kon-di- 
run-th^n. 


NySn adikkugayayirunnu 


Ne-nu kot-tu-thu-un-ti-ni 


I had beaten 


Nan a-dith-thi-run-th^n . . . 


Nyan adichchiniTinu 


Ne-nu kot-ti- vun-ti-ni ... 


I may beat 


Nan a-dik-ka-16m 


Inikka adikkugayum am 


N^-nu kot-ta vaeh-chu-nu 


I shall beat 


Nan a-dip-pen 


Ny^n adikkum 


Ne-nu kot-tu-thu-nu . . . 


I should beat 


Nan a-dik-ka-vet-mim, ... 


NySn adikkSndadhana ... 


Ne-nu kot-ta-va-la-si-na- 
thi. 


I am beaten 


Nan a-dik-ka-pa-du-ki • 
ren. 


Nyan adikkappednnnu ... 


Nd-nu kot-ta-ba-du-tha-ntt 


I was beaten 


Nan a-dik-ka-pat-ten ... 


Nyan adikkappettu 


Ne-nu kot-ta-ba-di-thi-ni 


I shall be beaten 


Nan a-dik-ka-pa-du-v^n 


NyS^n adikkappedum ... 


N^-nu kot-ta-ba-du-thu-nu 


I go 


Nin pogi-r^n 


Ny^npogunnu 


Ne-nu p6-tha-nu 


Thou goest 


Ni pogi-ray 


Ni 


Ni-vu po-thdi-vu 


He goes 


A- van p6-gi-ran 


Avan „ 


Vd,-du p6-tha-du 


We go 








Tou go 








They go 








I went 


Nan p6-n4n 


Nyan poyi 


Nd-nu p6-thi-ni 


Thou wentest 


Nl po-nay 


Nl „ 


Ni-vu p6-thi-vi 


He went 


A-van p6-nan 


Avan „ 


Va-du p6-yi-na-du 


We went 








You went 








They went 








Go 


P6 


Pp (Imperative.) 


P6 


Going 


P6-thal 


P6giniTiunda-p6yikondi- 
rikkunnu. 


Po-vu-ta 


Gone 


P6y 


Poyippoyi 


P6-yi 


W hat is your name ? ... 


Vun pe-yar en-na ? 


NindS per endha 


Nipd-ruye-mi? 


How old is this horse ? ... 


In-tha ku-thi-raik-ku eth- 
tha-nai varya-su ? 


I kudhirSbka etra vayass- 
ayi. 


I gur-rd-ni-ki va-ya-su-en*- 
tha? 



( 13 ) 



of Southern India. — (Continued.) 



55 



Canarese. 


Toda (Neilghenies.) 


Badaga (Neilgherries.) 


Englisli. 


Hodilikke 


Puiya, puiya 


Huiya 


To beat. 


Hodiyuvike 


PuiySivi 


Huiyuva 


Beating. 


Hodidu 


Puidu 


Huidu 


Having beaten. 


Hodiyutt^ne 


Pnikeni 


Huidene 


I beat. 


Hodiyutti 


Puichi 


Huidare 


Thou beatest. 


Hodiyuttane 


PuioM 


Huidana 


He beats. 


Hodiyutteve 


Puikemi 


Huideneo 


We beat. 


Hodiyuttiri 


PmoM 


Huidari 


Tou beat. 


Hodiyut-tare 


Puichi 


Huidara 


They beat. 


1 Hodiyut-tid-dhene 






I am beating. 


Hodiyut-tid-denu 






I was beating. 


Hodidu-id-denu 






I had beaten. 


Nanu hodiya baliudu . . . 


Caret 


Na huiya bahudu 


I may beat. 


Hodiyuvenu 






I shall beat. 


Nanu hodiyatakkadu ... 






I should beat. 


Hodiyal paduttene 


Caret 




I am beaten. 


Hodiyal-pattenu 


« ■ • •• M 




I was beaten. 


Hodiyal-paduvenu 






I shall be beaten. 


Hogut-tene 


An pokeni* 


Na hone 


I go. 


Hogutti 


Poki 


Ni hore 


Thou goest. 


Hoguttane 


Poki 


Ava bona 


He goes. 




Pokemi 


Tengla honeo 


We go. 




Poki 


Ningla hadari 


You go. 




Poki 


Avaka badara 


They go. 


Hodenu 


Pokifiolipini 


Avaka bode » . . 


I went. 


Hode (or) Hodi 


Pokifichi 


Avaka hodi 


Thou wentest. 


Hodanu 


Pokiflohi 


Avaka boda 


He went. 




Poki fichpimi 


Avaka bodeo 


We went. 




Pokifichi 


Avaka hodi 


Tou went. 




Pokifichi 


Avaka bodaru 


They went. 


Hogu 


Atfo 


Hogu 


Go. 


Hogutta 


Poaivi 


Hoguva 


Going. 


Hogi 


Poi 


Hogi 


Gone. 


Ninna hesaru enu 4.. 


Ninn per exna ? 


Ninna hesaru yenu 


What is your name 'i 


I kudurege yesMu varusha 


I ka,da,reg yett kvar udi. 


I kudurega yejavarija atu 


How old is this horse ? 



* This verb is irregular in Toda and Badaga 



56 



( 1* ) 



Dravidian Languages 



English. 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 



I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse. 

Put the saddle upon his 
back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 

He is sitting on a horse 
imder that tree. 



His brother is taller than 
his sister. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him ... 



Take those rupees from 
him. 



Beat him well and bind 
him with ropes. 

Draw water from the well 



Walk before me 

Whose boy comes behind 
you.P 

From whom did you buy 
that? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



Tamil. 



Iv - vi - dath - thirk - kimi- 
Eash-mi-rath-thirk-kum 
ev-va-la-vu thu-ram ? 

Vun-nu-dai-ya tha-gap- 
pa-nar vit-til eth-tha- 
nai ku-ma-rar-gal i-ruk- 
ki-rar-gal ? 

In-draik-ku ne-dun-thii- 
ram na-dan-then. 

En-nu-dai-ya ma-man ma- 
gan a-va-lu-dai-ya than- 
gai-yai vi-va-gam sey- 
thu-kon-dan. 

Vit-ti-le vel-lai ku-thi-rai 
se-nam i-ruk-ki-ra-thu. 

A-thin mel s^-nath-thai- 
kat-tu. 

A-va-nu-dai-ya ma-gan- 
nai a-n^-ga a-di a-dith- 
th^n. 

Ma-lai vueh-chi-yil a-van 
ma-du -meyth - thu-kon- 
di-ruk-ki-ran. 

A-van ku-thi-rai-mel vut- 
kan-thu-kon-du an-tha- 
ma-rath-thin kel i-ruk- 
ki-ran. 

A-va-nu-dai-ya sa-go -tha- 
ran a-va-nu-dai-ya sa-gd- 
tha-ri-yai vi-da vu-ya- 
ram. 

A-thin vi-lai i-ran-du-rai- 
ru-pay. 

En tha-gap-pa-nar an-tha 
sin-na vit-til va-sam- 
pan-nu-ki-rar. 

A-va-ruk-ku in-tha ru-pd- 
yai ko-du. 

A-va-ri- dath- thi - li-run- 
du an-tha ru-pay-ga-lai 
vdn-gik-kol. 

A-va-nai nan-dray a-dith- 
thu ka-yit-ral kat-tu. 

Ki-nat-ri-li-run-thu than- 
ni'r sen-thu. 

E-nak ku mun na-da , . 

Ta-ru-dai-ya v^-laik-ka- 
ran vun pin-nal va-ru- 
ki-ran. 

Ta-ri-dath-thi-li-run-thu 
a-thai van-gi-nay ! 

Vur ka-daik-ka-ra-ni-dath 
thi-le. 



Malnyalam. 



IvidS-ninna Kashmir-illek- 
ka etra dilram unda. 

Nindg achchande vtttil 
etra an-makkal unda. 



Telugn. 



Nyan inna adhigam vazhi 
nadannirikkunnu ("dh" 
aspirate). 

Ende ammamandS magan 
avalude udalpirannavale 
kalySnam kazhichchirik- 
kunnu. 

Vella kudhirayude jini 
vittil unda. 



avande-purattha 



Jiniye 
iduga. 

Ny£i,n avande magane 
valare adi adicchirik- 
kunnu. 

Kunninde mugalil avan 
kannagale meyikkunnu. 

A maratthinde chumattil 
avan oru kudhira purat- 
tha irikkunnu. 

Avande sahodaran avande 
pengalekkal uyaram- 
ullavan-agunnu. 

Adhinde vila randara 
uruppiga agunnu. 

Ende achchan a cheriya 
vittil parkkunnu. 

I uruppiga avanna koduk- 
ka. 

I uruppigagate avande- 
vakkal ninna edukka. 



Avane nallavannam adioh- 
cha kayaragai-kondu ket- 
tuga. 

Kinattn-ninna veUam 
kora. 

Ende-munbil nadakka ... 

Ninde-pinnil varunnadha 
arude chekkan agunnu. 

Adhine ni arude-vakkal- 
ninna vilakka v&ngi. 

Ordmatthile oru pidiga- 
karanil-ninna. 



Ik-ka-di-ki Xash-mi-ra-mu 
en-tha thii-ra-mu ? 

Ni than-dri intlo en-tha-ru 
ko-mal-lu vun-na-ru? 



Ne-du ba-hu thu-ra-mu 
na-di- chi-na-nu. 



Na ma-ma ko-ma-ru-du 
tha-ni sa-ho-tha-ri-ni 
pen-dla-de-nu. 

Int-16 thel-la gur-ra-pu ji- 
ni vun-na-thi. 

Thd-ni nu-tha ji-ni-ni kat- 
tu. 

Va-ni ko-du-ku-nu cha-la 
theb-ba-lu kot-ti-na-nu. 

Kon-da me-tha pa-su-vu- 
lu m^-pu-thun-na-du. 

Va-du a chet-tu-kin-tha 
gur-ra-mu mi-tha kur- 
chun-di vun-nd-du. 

Va-ni sa-ho-tha-ru-du vi- 
ni sa-ho-tha-ri kan-te po- 
du-gu-ga vun-na-du. 

Tha-ni kha-ri-thu ren-dun- 
na-ra rti pd-yi. 

Na than-dri i chin-na int- 
lo va-sa-mu ches-tha-du. 

I ru-pa-yi-ni a-tha-ni-ki 
im-mu. 

A-tha-ni-vath-tha-nun-cH 
d ru pa-yi-la-nu puch- 
chu-kom-mu. 

Van-ni ba-ga kot-ti thal- 
la-tho kat-tu. 

Bha-vi-16 nil-lu ch^-thu... 

Na-ku mun-thu na-du-vu 

E-va-ri pa-ni-vd-du ni 
vem-ba-di vas-tha-du ? 

Th^n-ni e-va-ri vath-tha 
kon-ti-vi ? 

Gra-ma an-ga-di-va-ni- 
vath-tha. 



( 15 ) 



of Southern India. — (Concluded.) 



57 



Canarese. 



Toda (Neilgherries.) 



Badoga (Neilghorries.) 



IllindaKashmirige yeshtu 
ddra. 

Nimma tandeya maneyalli 
yeshtu gandu makkalu 
iddare. 

I hottu bahala duranadade 



Nanna mavana maganu 
avala sahodiriya magal- 
annu maduve madi kon- 
danu. 

Bill kuduxeya jinu maney- 
alli ide. 

Adakke jlnu kattu 

Avana maganige bahala 
dabbe hodoale. 

Bettada mele dana-vannu 
meyisut-tid-dane. 

Amarada kelage kniduxe 
mele kutid-dhane. 



Avana sahodaranu avana 
sahodiriginta uddavdgid- 
dane. 

Adara kraya eraduvare 
Eupayi. 

Achikka maneyalli nanna 
tande vasa maduttdne. 



Avanige i mpayi kodu . 

Aru pdyigalanna avanin- 
da tegaduko. 

Avananna chennagi hoda- 
dn huggadinda kattu. 

Bhaviyinda niru sedu . . 
Nanna munde nadi 



Nanna hinde yara huduga 
baruttane. 

Adannu yarinda belege 
kondukonde ? 

Gramada an 



Ittedd Kashmirg upamai 
badkhiya. 

Atte nimmenin arzhulg 
yett makh udi. 



Ini badkhiedd naded 
verzhpini. 

Tenn enin perud makhadun 
enorvet kuMi kattehi. 



Bilti kadare jin koatulg 
udi. 

Jin adun uf mok idu. 

An adun makh upamadi 
puidpini. 

Ditt mok adum er katchi. 



Adum a men erk kadare 
mok ersbchi. 



Adun enon tann en or vet 
kukhedd ni-lamaiudi. 



Adun bele ed ada kas. 

Yenn enin a kinnud arzhulg 
udi. 

I kas adug kodu 

Akas adunedd yettu 



Adum upamai puidu hag- 
gaedd katu. 

Paedd (from the stream) 
nir yettu. 

Tenna muddk nade 



English. 



Aran makh yenn piiidalk 
or boddehya farzhchiya. 

Aredd adum yett farzhiya 
(or baddehya ?) 

Uru aggadi karaedd yett 
baddpini. 



Illinda Kashmirug a yeja 
duravo. 



Alii nimma appana maneo 
yeja makk alu. 



Indu durainda nadedu 
bande. 



Tenna doddappana maga 
avla henna kattiddane. 



Billi kudure jinumaneolge 
untu. 

Jinu aduna bennuna mele 
haku (idu). 

Na avana magana ghat- 
tiagi huidubitte- 

Dittuna mele ava yemme 
katina. 



Ava a morada kelage 
kudure mele kulidana. 



Avana anna tanna ak- 
kainda udda agiddane. 

Aduna bele yeradu are 
rupei. 

Yenna appa a kunna 
maneo iddane. 

I rupei avaniga kodu. . . . 

A rupei avaninda tegi . . 



Avana channagi huidu 
haggainda katu. 

Hallainda niru yettu 



Yenna munde nade 

Yara maga yenna hinde 
bannana vo ? 

Yarinda aduna yetti kon- 
dya. 

Uruna angadi karaninda 
kondu konde. 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 



I have walked a long way 
to-day. 



The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse. 

Put the saddle upon his 
back. 

I have beaten his son 
with ma^ay stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 

He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 



His brother is taller than 

his sister. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 



Take those rupees from 
him. 



Beat him well and bind 
him with ropes. 

Draw water from the well. 



Walk before me. 

Whose boy comes behind 
you? 

From whom did you buy 
that? 

F^om a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



DIALECTS OF BEHAR. 



El 



60 



( 2 ) 



Dialects of 



English. 


Vernacular of Patna. 


Vernacular of Gja. 


Vernacular of Champarun. 


Vernacular of 
Tiihoot. 


West 


Numerals. 












One 


Ek, ekgo, ektho ... 


Ek 


•Ek, ego, ^ktho ... 


Ek 


.. 


Two 


Do, dogo, dotho ... 


Du 


Dii, dugo, diitho ... 


Dii 


, , 


Three 


Tin, teen go, 
teentho. 


Tin 


Tin, tingo,tintho... 


Tin 


•• 


Four 


Char, ehargo, 
chartho. 


Chdr 


Char, ganda, 
chartho. 


Ohdr 


•• 


Five 


Panch, Pduehgo, 
Panchtho. 


Panch 


Panch, gahi 


Panch 


•• 


Six 


Chhah, chhago, 
chhatho. 


Ohhau 


Ohhau 


Chau 




Seven 


Sat, satgo, sattho 


Sat 


Sdt 


S£t 




Eight 


At, kigo, attho ... 


At 


Ath 


Ath 


■ • 


Nine • 


Nau, naugo, 
nautho. 


Nau 


Nau 


Nau 




Ten 


Das, dasgo, dastho 


Das 


Das 


Das 




Twenty 


Pis, hisgo, 
bistho. 


BisorKori 


Bis, kori 


Bis 


•• 


Fifty 


Pachd,s, pachasgo, 
paohastho. 


Pachas 


Pachas 


Pachas ' 




Hundred 


Sau, saugo, sautho 


Sau 


Sau 


Sau 


• • 


Pronouns. 












I 


Ham 


Ham 


Ham 


Ham 




We 


Hamne 


Hamdni 


Hamni 


Ham 




Thoa 


Tou - 


Tou 


Tun 


Ten 




Ton 


Tiihne 


Tohani 


Tohni 


Turn 




He 





u 


TJ, hau 


U' 




They 


Ohney or wahny 


TJkani 


Uheisabh 


TJ'sab 


• ■ 


Of me 


Hammar, hamar 
more. 


Hamar 


Hanmar 


Hamar 


• • 


Of us 
Of thee 


Homrohni kair ... 
Tore, tohar, tohar 


Hamani ke 
Tore ' 


Hamni k^ 
Tohar 


Hamar 
Tor 


•• 


Of you 


Tohrohnika^r, toh- 
lagnikair. 


Tohani ke 


Tohani ke 


Tohar 




Of him 


Okar 


Okar- 


Okar, unkar 


Okar 




Of them 


Onkar or wonhoni- 
tair. 


TJkanhin ke 


TJnhamk^, uhen 
sabh k^. 


IJ'nka 


• • 


Mine 


Hammar, hamar ... 


Hamar 


Hammar 


Hamra 




Our , 


Hamrohnika^r 


Hamani ke 


Hamni ke 


Hamra 


■' 


Thine 


Tere 


Tore 


Tohar 


Tohar 




Tour 


Tohar 


Tohani ke 


Tohanik^ 


Tohra 


• * 


His 


Okar 


Okar 


Okar, unkar 


IJnka 




Their 


Onkor, or onhini- 
kair. 


TJnkanhin ke 


(The same as " of 
them.") 


H'nka sab 


•• 



Befiar. 



( 3 ) 



61 



Vernacular of Eaat Tirhoot. 


Vernacular of Weat Purneah 
(Hiudee). 


Vernacular of East Purneah, 
(Bengali). 


English. 


Ek 


Ek 


Ek 


One. 


Da 


Du 


Dui 


Two. 


Tm 


Tin 


Tin 


Three. 

• 


Char 


Char 


Chdr 


Eour. 


Panch 


Panch 


Pdnoh 


Five. 


Gbhau 


Cha 


Cha 


Six. 


Sdt 


Sat 


Sat 


Seven. 


Ath 


Ath 


Ath 


Eight. 


Nau 


Nau 


Nau 


Nine. 


Das 


Das 


Das 


Ten. 


Bis 


Bis 


Bis 


Twenty. 


Pachas 


PachSs 


Pachas 


Fifty. 


Sa 




Sau 


Hundred. 


Ham 


Hamain 


Hami 


I. 


Ham 


Hamralog 


Hamra 


We. 


Tou 


Tohani 


Tui 


Thou. 


Tousali 


Tohrarke 


Tomra 


Tou. 


Hud, wall 


Uni 


Oha 


He. 


Hunkalokani 


Unsab 


Ora 


They. 


Hamra 


Mera 


Hamar 


Of me. 


Hamra 


Hamrasabhoke 


Hamsar 


Of us. 


Tohar 


Tohrai 


Tor 


Of thee. 


Tohrasah 


Tohrasabke 


Tomsar 


Of you. 


Hunka 


Okrake 


Okar 


Of him. 


Hunka sabhak 


Hemkasabhooke . ... 


Usar 


Of them. 


Hamra 


Mera 


Mor 


Mine. 


Hamra 


Hamrasabhooke 


Hamsar 


Our. 


Tohar 


Tohrarke 


Tor 


Thine. 


Tohrasah 


Tohar 


Tdir 


Tour. 


Hnnka, sah 


Okar 


Ohar 


His. 


Hunka sabhak 


Okarsabhuke 


Osar 


Their. 



62 



( 4 ) 



Dialects of 



English. 


Vernacular of Patna. 


Vernacular of Gya. 


Vernacular of Champarun. 


Vernacular of West 
Tirhoot. 


Hand 


Hat 


.. Hat 


Hat, kar* 


Hat 


Foot 


Gor 


.. Gor 


Gor, paon, pair ... 


Gor 


Nose 


Ndk 


.. Nak 


Nak 


Ndk 


Eye 


Nayan or ankh 


.. Ankh 


Ankh, nayan, netraf 


Ankh 


Mouth 


M<ih 


.. Munh 


Mdnh, mukh 


Mi'mh 


Tooth 


Dant 


.. Dant 


Dant 


Dant 


Ear 


Kan 


.. Kan 


Kan 


Kan 


Hair 


Barj or kes 


.. Kes 


Bal, kes, churke . . . 


Bal, bdr 


Head 


Murh, or kapar 


.. Matha 


Mdth, matha, miiri, 
kapar. 


Math, miir, sir 


Tongue 


Jihh, jeeh 


.. Jibh 


Jibh 


Jibh 


BeUy 


Pet, or lod 


.. Pet 


Pet 




Pet 


Back 


Pith 


.. Pith 


Pitti 




Pith 


Iron 


Lohd 


.. Loha 


Loha 




Loha 


Gold 


Sond 


.. Sona 


Sona, soharan 




Sona 


Silver 


Chandi, or rupa 


.. Oh^ndi 


Ohani, rupa 




Chandi 


Father 


Bappa, or bap 


.. Bap (in Nawada 
sub-division they 
say dada.) 


Bdpj pita 




Bdp 


Mother 


Mahtari, or mae 


.. Mae 


Mdi, ja, maiya, jawd, 
mahtare. 


Maye 


Brother 


Bhayia, or bhai 


.. Bhai 


Bhdi, sahodar 


Bhai 


Sister 


Bahin or bahni 


.. Bahin 


Bahin 


Bahin 


Man 


Admi 


.. Admi 


Adini, marad, 
manukh. 


Marad 


Woman 


Mehraru, or j 
nauri. 


e- "Mehraru 


Mehraru 


Mehraru 


Wife 


Mahar, kabila, me 
ram, jandna. 


b- Maug, joru, or bekti 
(in Nawada sub- 
division they say 
"janiouri.") 


Joni, kabila, ghar- 
k^log, gharni, 
janana. 


Jord 


Child 


Larika, butru, bac 
chd. 


b. Biitrd 


Larika, nanhkd ,,, 


Larik^ 


Son 


Betaj p{it, larika . 


.. Beta 


Beta, larika 


Beta 


Daughter 


Beti, ormayewan 


.. Beti 


Beti, larki, dhla ... 


Beti 


Slave 


Ponibhar 


., Nafar 


Ghulam, nafar J ... 


Gdldm 


Cultivator 


Girhast, kisan, jat 


a, Kisan 


Kisan, girhast, 
khetdeta. 


Girhast 


Shepherd 


Bhorihar 


.. Gauri 


Charwdh 


Churwaha 


God 


Parmeshar, or bha 
wan. 


»- Bhagwan 


Earn, isar, par- 
meshar, bhajoan. 


Bhagwan, purmeshar 


Devil 


Malechh, or paret. 


.. Bhtit 


Bhut, pdret 


Bhut 


Sun 


Saraj 


.. Suraj 


Siiraj 


Suraj 


Moon 


Chandya, chandr 
wan. 


a- Ohand 


Ghanarmdu, chdnd 


Chand 


Star 


Taragan 


. . Tdregan 


Tdra, tarigan, johni 


Tdregan 


* B 


orrowed from Sanaerit. 


t Borrowed from Sanscrit, 


t Both borrowed f 


rom 


Persian, 



( 5 ) 



Behar. — (Continued.) 



63 



Vernacular of East Tirhoot. 


Vernacular of Weat Purneah 
(Hindee). 


Vernacular of East Purneah 
(Bengali). 


English. 


Hat 


Hdt 


Hat 


Hand. 


Got 


Gor 


Paon 


Foot. 


Nak 


Nak 


N^k 


Nose. 


Anklii 


Ankh 


Ankh 


Eye. 


Munh 


Muh 


Mukh 


Mouth. 


Dant 


Ddnt 


Dant 


Tooth. 


Kan 


Kan 


Kan 


Bar. 


Kes 


Kesh 


Chul 


Hair. 


Math 


Matb 


Matha 


Head. 


Jibh 


Jiha 


Jibha 


Tongue. 


Pet 


Pet 


Pet 


Belly. 


Pitha 


Pith 


Pith 


Back. 


Loha 


Loho 


Luh^ 


Iron. 


Son4 


Sona 


Sona 


Gold. 


Eupa 


Eiipo 


Eupa 


Silver. 


Bap 


Bapau 


Bap 


Father. 


May, matari 


Maiyo 


Mdi 


Mother. 


Bhai 


Bhaya 


Bhai 


Brother. 


Bahin 


Bahin 


Bahin 


Sister. 


Marad 


Manukh 


Admi 


Man. 


Mehraru 


Jandnd 


MSgi 


Woman, 


Joru, bekat 


Kabila, joroo 


Mig 


Wife. 


Larika 


Bacha, nunu 


Betd 


Child. 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Son. 


Beti 


Beti, lerhki 


Ohua 


Daughter. 


Bahia 


Naphur 


GuMm 


Slave. 


Girhast 


Kisan 


Girhast 


Cultivator, 


Charb^ha 


Ohurwaha 


Eakhwal 


Shepherd. 


Parmesar 


Isar, Bhagwan 


Khoda 


God. 


Malechh 


Paret 


Saltan 


Devil. 


Suraj 


Suraj 


Suraj 


Sun. 


Cbanarma 


Chandarmd 


Ohand 


Moon. 


Taregan, Tdra 


Taringau 


T^ra 


Star. 



64 



( 6 ) 



Dialects of 



English, 


Vernacular of Patna. 


Vernacular of Gya. 


Vernacular of Champarun. 


Vernacular of West 
Tirhoot. 


Fire 


Aggin 


H 


Kg, agin 


Ag 


• • 


Water 


Jal 


Pani 


Pani, jal 


Pani 


• ■' 


House 


Ghar 


Ghar 


Ghar 


Ghar 


■ f 


Horse 


Ghora, or charwa... 


Ghora 


Ghora 


Ghora 


• t 


Cow 


Gow, goru, gya, 
gai. 


Gai 


Gai 


Gaye 


* t 


Dog 


Kutta, or kukkur 


Kukur, or kutta 


Kutta, kukiir 


Kutta 


■ • 


Cat 


Bilai 


Billi 


BUdyi 


Bilai 


• • 


Cock 


Murga 


Miirga 


Mt5nigd 


Mtorga 


• * 


Duck 


Hins 


Batak 


Batak 


Batak 


• ■ 


Ass 


Gadha 


Gadha 


Gadhd 


Gadha 


• * 


Camel 


Uat 


Unt 


Tint 


U'nt 


• • 


Bird 


Pa,kharu, or chiryu 


Chiryu 


Chiriya, paohhi, 
ohiraf. 


Ohirdi 


• » 


Go 


Ja, o** ja 


Ja 


J^h,jain,ja 


Jao 


t • 


Eat 


Kha, kha, khale ... 


Kha 


Khah, jenwah, 
bhojan. 


Khau 


• • 


Sit 


Bayath 


Baith 


Baithah, baithen, 
baithu. 


Baitha 


• • 


Come 


Ao 


Ao 


Awah, ^,in, aHjao . . . 


Au 


• • 


Beat 


Mar, pit, dangdo ... 


Mar pit 


Mara, maria, pito 


Maro 


, , 


Stand 


Khardho oh or 
poriho oh. 


K"hara ho 


Khararahe, tharh 
rahen, tharahoin. 


U'tho 


t • 


Die 


Marja, muwa, mar- 
gai. 


Mar 


Marah, marna, muh 


Maro 


■• 


Give 


Do, or de 


Tha 


Dah, d^na, den, 
d^nhin. 


Deo 


• • 


Eun 


Daur, dowg 


Daur 


Daur, daurn4 


Bhago, or daiiro 


, , 


T^P 


Upar 


Upre 


Upar 


U'par 


, , 


Near 


Nagich, or bhir ... 


Nagich, or Bhiri . . . 


Neari,' negche, lage, 
lagle, satalee. 


Bhir 


•• 


Who 


Kaun, or ki 


Kaun, or ke 


Ke, kasan 


Kaun 


.. 


And 


Aur 


Aiir 


Aur, d 


Aur 




Yes 


Achchha, bes, bhaMi, 
hdn. 


Han 


Han, hun 


Han 


• • 


Down 


Nichai, or haintha Henthe 


Niche, nichu, tar^ 


Nicha 




Far 


Dur, palla 


Diir, or palla 


Dur, tana, bare, tdn 


Ddr 


., 


What 


Ki 


Ka 


Kd, kyd 


Kya 


,: : 


But 


Magar, ki 


Muda 


Lekin,* magar ... 


Magar 


J , 


No . - . . 


Na, nai, nahi 


Na 


Na, nahin 


Na 


• • 


Before 


Pahle, orage 


Agd 


Pahili, age, peshtar 


Aga 


• • 


Behind 


Pichhu, pichhan ... 


Pichhu 


Pichhu paehhe 


Pichha 


• ■ 


Why .. ; 


Sahai, or k^hai Mg 


Kdhe 


Kah6 


Kahd 




If 


igar, or bhala ... 


Joun 


Jon, agar f 


Agar 


• • 



* Borrowed firom Feisian. 



t Persian. 



( 7 ) 



Behar. — (Continued.) 



65 



Vernacular of East Tirhoot. 


Vernacular of West Purneah 
(Hindee). 


Vernacular of East Purneah 
(Bengali.) 


English, 


Agi 


Ag 


Agin 


Fire. 


Pdni 


Jal 


P^ni 


Water. 


Ghar 


Girhee 


Gbar 


House. 


GhorS 


Ghord 


Gbord, 


Horse. 


Gdi 


Gou 


Gai 


Cow. 


Kunkur 


Kukiix 


Kuttd 


Dog. 


Bilai, bilari 


Bilai 


Billi 


Cat. 


Ghaxi 


Murag 


Murga 


Cock. 


Batak 


Chinya batak, bat 


Hans 


Duck. 


Gadaha 


Gadha 


Gadb4 


Ass. 


TJnt 


Unt 


Ot 


Camel. 


Chirai 


Chirbai 


Cbiriya 


Bird. 


Ja 


Jdo 


Ja 


Go. 


Kha 


Jainio 


Kbao 


Eat. 


Baitha 


Bais 


Baitb 


Sit. 


Aiba 


Ao 


Aei 


Come. ' 


Mara 


Marab 


Mdrb, Mdr 


Beat. 


■KTiiurahoi 


Tbark 


Kbara 


Stand. 


Mara 


Moral, murl 


Marei 


Die. 


Da 


De, diya 


Deo 


Give. 


Daura 


Dogal, doral 


DaTir 


Eun. 


Upar 


TJpar 


TJpar 


Up. 


Laga 


Ligioh 


Nagij 


Near, 


Ka 


Kai,ki 


Kaie - ... 


Wbo. 


Aui 


Aux 


Aur 


And. 


Bes 


Han 


Han 


Yes. 


Nieha 


Nieh 


Niebu 


Down. 


Dur 


Dur 


Diir 


Far. 


Ka 


Kitbik 


Ki 


Wbat. 


Takhun 


Mator 


Maj 


But. 


Na 


Nebi 


Nabi 


No. 


Pahila 


Agtain 


Agat 


Before. 


Pachha 


Paobbu 


Picbbu 


Bebind, 


Kaha 


Ketbelai 


Kiso 


Wby. 


Jakhan 


Agar 


Maj 


If. 



66 



( 8 ) 



Dialects of 



English. 


Vernacular of Patna. 


Vernacular of Gya. 


Vernacular of Champarun. 


Vernacular of West 
Tirhoot. 


Alas! 


Apsose 


Hde 


Hah, ahaha 


Hai 


A father 


Ego bap 


Ekbap 


Bdp, bapsi 


Ek bap 


Two fathers 


Do ^apan 


Dubdp 


Du bap, du bapsi . . 


Dii bap 


Fathers 


Bapan 


Bap sab 


Baplog 


Bdb sab 


Of a father 


Ego bdpkaer 


Ekbapk6 


Bapk^ 


Ekbapka 


Of fathers 


Bdpan kaer 


Bab sab ke 


Bdpank^ 


Bap sab ka 


To a father 


Ek bap kane 


Ekb^pke 


Ego bap se 


Ek bap ko 


To fathers 


Bapan ke 


B5,b sab ke 


Bap logi or bapan se 


Bap sab ko 


From a father 


Ek bap sa 


Ekbapke 


Bap kehan se, bap s^ 


Ek bap se 


From fathers 


Bapan se 


Bap sab ke 


Bapan se 


Bap sab se 


A daughter 


Chhokri, beti, kanya, 
chhonri. 


Ekbeti 


Ek larM, ego ehho- 
miri, ego chhokri, 
nauhk6. 


Ek beti 


Two daughters 


Do beti 


Du beti 


Dugo bitia, dugo 
chhaunrl. 


Dii beti 


Daughters 


Ohhokrain, betin . . . 


Beti sab 


Chanuri sa 


Beti sab 


Of a daughter 


Ek Betianker ... 


Ekbetike 


Chhaunrl k^ 


Ek beti ka 


Of daughters 


Betian ker 


Beti sab ke 


Chhanriuh ke 


Beti sab ka 


To a daughter 


Ekbetike 


Ekbetike 


Chhaunri k^ 


Ek beti ko 


To daughters 


Betian ka 


Beti sab ko 


Chhaunrl k^ 


Beti sab ko 


From a daughter , . 


Ek beti se 


Ek beti sa 


Chhaunri ka, orse 


Ek beti se 


From daughters . . 


Betian se 


Beti sab se 


Ohhaunrhu ka, or se 


Beti sab se 


A good man 


Ek bhala admi ... 


Ek bes admi (the 
word " murad" is 
also used for admi). 


Ek bhal manus, or 
ego bhala admi, 
ego neman admi. 


Ek achha admi 


Of a good man 


Ek bhala admi ker 




BhaM admi k^ 


Ek achha admika ... 


Of good men 


Bhala admi ker ... 




Bhala admin k6 . . 


Achha admi sab 


Two good men 


Do bhala ddmi ... 


Du bes admin 


Dii bhala admi, dii 
neman admi. 


Dii achha admi 


Grood men 


Bhala admi sab ... 


Besddmin 


Bhala manus, 
neman admi. 


Achha admi sabka... 


To a good man 


Ek bhala admi ka... 


Ek bes admin ke . . . 


Ek bhala admi ke . . 


Ek achha admiko ... 


To good men 


Bhala admi ke ... 


Bes admi ko 


Bhala admin ke . . 


Achha admi sab ko . . . 


From a good man. . 


Ek bhala admi se 


Ekbesddmise ... 


Bhala admi se 


Ek achho admi se ... 


From good men . . 


Bhala ddmi se 


Bes ddmi se 


Bhala admin se . . 


Achha admi sab se ... 


A good woman 


Ek achchha meh- 
raru. 


Ekbesnieharu ... 


Ek achha mehrarii, 
n^man mehrarii, 
bhali manus. 


Ek niman mehrarii ... 


Good women 


Bhala mehxaru 
sab. 


Besmerurun 


Achha mehrarii 
bhali manus. 


Nemun mehrarii sab 


A bad boy 


Ekjobanlarka ... 


Ek dingar larika ... 


Kharab* larika, challi 
larika bariia, larika 


Ek nikamd larika ... 


A bad girl 


Ek joban chakri ... 


Ek dingar chhokri 


Kharab larki, kharab 
chhaunri. 


Ek nikummi lariki ... 






* Borrowed. 







( 9 ) 



Behar. -^{Continued.) 



67 



Vernacular of East Tirhoot. 


Vernacular of West Purneah 
(Hindee). 


Vernacular of East Purneah 
(Bengali). 


English. 


Ha 


Haye 


Oe 


Alas'! 


Ekbap 


Ekbap 


Bap 


A father. 


Dugobap 


Do bap 


Bapgala 


Two fathers. 


Bapsab 


Bapsabhok 


B5pe saber 


Fathers. 


Ekbapak 


Bapok 


Baper 


Of a father. 


Unaaek bapak 


Sab bapok 


Bap saber 


Of fathers. .' " 


B^pkane 


Bapek log 


Bdpke 


To a father. 


Bapak, bap sabka hai ... 


Bap sabbok log 


Bap sabke 


To fathers. 


Ekbapse 


Ek papse 


Bdpase 


From a father. 


Bap sabse 


Bab sabse 


Bap sabse 


From fathers. 


Ek beti 


Ekbeti 


Chua 


A daughter. 


Dugo beti 


Duithor beti 


Dui larki 


Two daughters. 


: Beti sab 


Lerkisab 


Chiiar 


Daughters. 


Ekbetike 


Leikik 


Chuar 


Of a daughter. 


Sab beti ke 


Lerki sabke 


Chua sabke 


Of daughters. 


Ek beti kane 


Beti log 


Larkiko 


To a daughter. 


Sab beti kane 


Sab beti log 


Larki sabbki 


To daughters. 


Ekbeti se 


Ek beti se 


Chua se 


From a daughter. .^ , 


Sab beti se ... 


Beti sabse 


Cbua sabse 


From daughters. 


Ek nek loge 


Eknekadmi 


Bhala admi 


A good man. 


Eknekloguk 


Nek admike 


Nek admike 


Of a good man. 


N,ek loge sab . 


Acbba admi saber. 


Bhala manuser 


Of good men. 


Dunik loge 


Duigot nek admi 


Dui acha admi 


Two good men. 


Nek lognik ■ 


Sablog nek 


Bhala manus 


Good men. » ', ; 


Ekneklogeka 


Ek acbha admi ke 


Nik admi lag 


To a good man.' ' " 


Neklognika, 


Achha sab admi ke 


Bhala m amis ke lag 


To. good men. 


Ek nek loge sa 


Ek nek admi se 


Bhala ddmi se, bhala 
manus se. 


From a good man. 


Nek lognisa 


Acbba admi sabse. 


Nek ddmi sabse, bhala 
manus se. 


From good men. ,■, 


Ek nek mekraru, or mag -.. 


Eknikmaugi 


Ek bhala maugi, 


A good woman. 


Nek metrani sab, or mag 
sab. 

Ek adhlah larika 


Nik maugi sab ' 
Adlahabeta 


Achha maugi sab 
Bedhang beta 


Good women. 
A bad boy. 


Ek adblab lariki 


Ek adlahi beti 


Bkta bedhang beti 


A bad girl 



6B 



10 ) 



Dialects of 



English. 


Vernacular ot Patna. 


Vernacular of Gya. 


Vernacular of Champarun. 


Vernacular of West 
Tirhoot. 


Good 


Bhal, or bhala 


Bes, Bhala, Niman, 
suthar. 


Nik, achha, besho* 


Acha, nimun 


Better 


Nuinanbhala, nek, 
achchha. 


To express compa- 
rative degree the 
word "Okra se" 
is prefixed before 
the positive degree. 


Achha, nek, besh* 


Nimun se ninmn 


Best 


Bhalsa bhal, or nek 
sa nek. 


To express super- 
lative degree the 
word " sab se " is 
prefixed before the 
positive degree. 


Ditto* 


Sab se nimun 


High 


TJnch, or dhewo . . 


Uneh 


Unch 


U'ncha 


Higher 


Bor oonch 


This is expressed by 
prefixing "okrase" 


Dittot 


U'ncha se uncha 


Highest 


Burgo oonch, or 
dher oonch. 


This is expressed by 
prefixing "sabse'se" 


Dittot 


Sub se llncha 


A horse 


Ego charwa 


Ek ghora 


Ghora 


Ek ghora 


A mare 


Ekgo tatooani, or 
ghori. 


Ek ghori 


Ghori 


Ek ghori, 


Horses 


Dher ghora, or 
charwa. 


Ghorwan 


Ghord, ghordn 


Ghora sab 


Mares 


Dher ghori 


Ghorian 


Ghori 


Ghori sab 


Abull 


Ego sanr 


Sandh, byl, barad. . 


Sdndh 


Ek sanrh 


A cow 


Ekgo goru, or gau, 
or gai. 


Gdi 


Gdi, asar, gaii 


Ek gije 


Bnlls 


Dher sanr 


Sab sandh, or sab- 
bail, or sab-barud. 


Sandh 


Sanrh sab 


Cows 


Dher goru 


Gayan 


Gdi sabh, gae-lag, 
gau sabh, gaiyan. 


G ye sab 


A dog 


Ego kukur, or 
kutta. 


Kutta, or kukur . . 


Kutta, kiikui 


Ek kiltta 


A bitch 


Ego kutti 


Ek kutti 


Kutti, pllli 


Ek kutti 


Dogs 


Dhair kookoor, 
koottaw sab. 


Kutwon 


Kutwa sabh 


Kutta sub 


Bitches 


Dher kutti 


Kuttyan 


Kuttia 


Kutti sab 


A he-goat 


Ego patru, or 
khassi. 


Ek khasi, or botu. . 


Elasi, chhir 


Ek ba,kra 


A she-goat 


Ego bakri, or chheri 


Bakri, or pathi . . 


Bakri 


Ekbakrai 


Goats 


Dhair bakri, or 
patthi, or chheri. 


Bakaryan 


Pathru 


Bakrasab 


Female goats 








Bukrisub 


A male deer 


Ego hama 


Ek harna 


Harna 


Ek harin 


A female deer 


Ego harni 


Ek harni 


Harni 


Ek harni 


Deer 


Harin 


Harin 


Harin 


Harin sab 


I am 


Ham hi 


Ham hi 


Ham hani, ham hain 


Ham hain 


We are 


Hamrahni, orhamni 
he. 


Hamani hi 


Hamnihani 


Hamni hain 


Thou art 


Tou hay 


Tun han 


Tunhara, raiian hain 


Tii ha 



* There is no distinction of Degree, 



t No distinction of Degree. 



( 11 ) 



Behar. — (Continued.) 



e>?t 



Vemacalai of East Tirboot. 



Vernacular of West Purneali. 
(Hindee.) 



Vernacular of East Purneali, 
(Bengallefi.) 



Knglisli. 



Nek, or bes 
Nekose nek 

Tahu san nek 



TJnoh 
Ohuse unch 

Sab sau uncb 

Ek ghora 
Ek ghori 

Crbora sab 

Gbori sab 

Ekean 

Ekgai 

Sdndh. sab 

Gai sab 

EkknkTir 

Ek kutti 
Knkur sab 

Eutti sab 
Ek khassi 

Ek bakri 



Bukri sab 
Ek harin 
Ek haiini 
Harin sab 
Ham cbbi 
Ham sab cM 

Ton chbah 



Nek 
Bhalaso bbala 

Maba nek 



IJnoh 
Osse unch 

Sabse nncb 

Ek gbora 

Ek gbori, Bachari 

Grhora sab 

Ghori sab 

Ek shar, dhakur 

Ekgai 

DbakuT sab 

Gai sab 



... 


Ek kutta 


... 


Ek kutti, ek pilli 


... 


Kuta sab 




Kutti sab 


... 


Ek batu, ek patba 


• • • 


Ek bakri 




Bakra sab 


... 


Ekhama 


• • • 


Ek harni 


... 


Harna, harni 


... 


Hama che 


... 


Hamralok ohi 


... 


Tube cho 



Achhd 
Bhalaso bhala 

Sabse acha 



TJncb 
Osse unch 

Sabse unch 

Ghora 

Ghori, Bacheri 

Ghorala 

Ghorila 
Ako, ari^ 
Ekta gai 

Akooah 

Gaila 

Ekta kutta 

Ekti kuti, ekti pilli 
Eutala 

Xutila 
Bakra, patha 

Bakri 
Bakrala 



Ekta narharin 
Madi harin 
Harna, harni 
Hamichi 
Ohd che 

Tuhichis 



Good. 
Better. 

Best. 



High. 
Higher. 

Highest 

A horse, 
A mare. 

Horses. 

Mares. 
A bull. 
A cow. 

Bulls. 

Cows. 

A dog. 

A bitch. 
Dogs. 

Bitches. 
A he-goat. 

A she-goat. 
Goats. 

Female goats. 
A male deer. 
A female deer. 
Deer. 
I am. 
We are. 

Thou art. 



70 



( 12 ) 



JJialects of 



English. 


Vernacnlar of Patna. 


Vernacular of Gya. 


Vernacular of Champarun. 


Vernacular of West 
Tirhoot. 


Tou are 


Tou sab hay 


Tuhani ha 


Tohniharah 


Tohni hu 


He is 


hi 


TJ' hye 


TJ ha, uhan raharen 


TJ' hai 


They are 


Osab hat 


Akani hath 


TJnhani hare 


TJ' sub huth 


I was 


Horn rohi, hom 
hali, homhaloon... 


Ham hali 


Ham rahlin, ham 
rahen. 


Ham rahin 


Thou wast 


Toiu holin 


Tun halen 


Tun rala 


Tou rahe 


He was 


Ohal 


TJ halye 


U rahi 


TJ' rahe 


We were 


Hom rohni hoU, 
ham sab holi. 


Hamani haliin . . 


Hamni hane, hamun 
rahani. 


Humin robin 


Tou were 


Tohrohini hola . . . 


Tohani hala 


Tohni hara 


Tohin rohin 


They were 


sab holau 


U'kani halan 


U sabh rahas 


TJ' sub rahath 


Be 


Hay, ho, oh 


H6 


Eaha 


Hay 


To be 


Hoye ki 


Howya 


Eahna 


Hona hoet 


Being 


Hoet 


Howyte 


(No eq^uivalent ex- 
cept when applied 
to other sentences.) 


Hogah 


Having been 


Hoka 


HokuT, or bhelapur 


Ditto 




I may be 


Hom hooye 


Hamhun hoti 


Ham rahah 


Ham hosakUa 


I shall be 


Hom hoeb 


Hamhun hoeb 


Ham rahah 


Ham hoy ah 


I should be 


Hom hoeb 


Hamra how^ke chahi 


Hamra raha ke cha- 
hin. 


Hamea hoye ke chahi 


Beat 


Mara 


Pit.Theword'mdr'is 
also used for " pit." 


Maro, pitil 


Mara 


To beat 


Danga wangay, 
maroin, peta gain. 


Pite ke 


Mama 


Marna 


Beatiag 


Mar 


Pityte 


Mar 


Mareit hea 


Having beaten 


Mar ka 


Pit ke 


Marke 


Marke 


I beat 


Ham mara hay . . . 


Ham pita hi 


Ham marUi 


Ham marit hain 


Thou beatest 


Tain mara hain ... 


Tiin pita hahin . . 


Tun marila 


Tii marait ha 


He beats 


maroihay 


IT pita hye 


U marila 


TJ' marit hath 


"We beat 


Ham rohni marahy 


Hamhani pitahi . . 


Hamni marili 


Hamni marit haia ... 


Tou beat 


To sab mara hain... 


Tuhani pitu hahak 


Tdhnimdrila 


Tou marit ha 


They beat 


Oon kohni, or o sab 
marahat. 


Ukani pita huth . . 


TJ marili 


TJ' subh marit huth ... 


I am beating 


Ham marrohli hay 


Hum pityt hi 


Hammarathani ... 


Ham mareit hai 


I was beating 


Hom mara holi, 
hom mar rohli hoi. 


Hum pita hali 


Ham marati rahin 


Ham marti rahin ... 


I had beaten 


Hom marli hoi ... 


Ham pitalial hul . . 


Ham marli rahin ... 


Ham marli rahi 


I may beat 


Hom maray 


Ham pitun . 


Ham marin 


Ham marho 


I shall beat 


Ham marah, hom 
marbo. 


Ham pitbye 


Hammdrah 


Ham marah 


I should beat 


Hom mara-kay 
chahli hoi. 


Hamra pita ki 
chahi. 


Hamra mamd cha- 
, hfn. 


Hnmra mareke chahin 


I am beaten 


Ham mar khaili 
haye, ham pitoyli 
haye. 


Ham pital jahi . . 


Ham markhailin ... 


Ham maral gali ... 



( 13 ) 



Behar. — (Continued.) 



71 



Vernacular of East Tirhoot. 



Vernacular of West Purneah, 
(Hindee.) 



Vernacular of East Purneah, 
(Bengallee.) 



English. 



Auban ohM 

TJlohathi 

TJ sab cbhathi 

Ham cbhalahun 

Tou chhale 

TJ chM 

Ham sabh cbhalown 

ToTx sab chbalab 
TJ sab chhalab 
Ho 

Hohaka 
Hoit santa 



Ham hou 

Ham hoeb 

Hamra hamab cbabi 

Mara 

Marwa 

Marait santaj marik 



Ham-marai chbi 
Tou marait cbhai 
U maraitany 
Hamsabh maraicbhi 
Aian maraitobliiyik 
TJ sub marat chatbin 

Hamarait cbbiyik 
Hammarait cbbalon 

Hammarait cbhataik 

Sait-ham-marban 

Ham-marah 

Hamra marak cbabi 

Ham maral gelabun 



Toharab sab 
TJohot 
Usab obe 
Hama obi 

Tuba cbala 
Uobala ba 
Tora lok cbala 

Hamra sub obelo 

TJ sab cbalo 

Hoae 

Hoato 

Hoa obae 

Bbaelcbe 
Hama sakub 
Ham bobib 
Ham hoek jog obe 

Mdr 

Marba kurtai 

Marlok obe 

Mario 

Ham marul 

Tu marlo 

TJ marlok 

Hamra subbu marul 

Tobara sub marulcbo 

TJ sub mama cbe 

Hamra marlok 
Hamra mama obelo 

Ham marul cbul 
Ham mara saka cbi 
Ham marub 

Ham mara cbi 

Ham mar kbail obi 



Tora cbis 
Obai cbe 
Ora obe 
Hami cbinu 

Toe cbilo 
Oe cbula 
Tora cbile 

Hamra cbinu 
TJra cbilo 
Bbelab cbe 
Hamatane 
Hdobe 

Habar tane 
Hamipari 
Hdmi bamu 
Hami babo sakbe 

Mara 

Marbartane 

Mare cbe 
Markbate 
Hami marnu 
Tob mari cbis 
Oba mari obis 
Hamra marnu 
Tora mari cbis 
Ora mdricbe 



Tou are. 
He is. 
Tbey are. 
I was. 

Tbou wast. 
He was. 
We were. 

Tou were. 
They were. 
Be. 
To be. 
Being. 

Having been. 
I may be. 
I sball be. 
I sbould be. 

Beat. 

To beat. 

Beating 
Having beaten. 
I beat. 

Tbou beatest. 
He beats. 
We beat. 
Tou beat. 
Tbey beat. 



• •• 


Hami marecbi 


I am beating. 


... 


Hami maricbinu 


I was beating. 




Hami maria cbinu 


I bad beaten. 


... 


Hami marbar pari 


I may beat. 


... 


Hami marmu 


I sball beat. 


... 


Hami marmu 


I sbould beat. 


... 


Hami mar kba cbi 


I am beaten. 
1 



E 4 



72 



( 14 ) 



Dialects of 



Dnglish. 



I was beaten . . 

I shall be beaten . . 

I go 

Thou g'oest 

He goes 

I went 

Thou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 

How far is it from 
here to Eashmix ? 

How many sons 
are there in your 
father's house? 

I have walked a 
long way to-day. 

The son of my 
uncle is married 
to his sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle 
on the top of the 
hill. 

He is sitting on a 
horse under that 
tree. 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 

The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 



Vernacular of Patna. 



Vernacular of Gya. 



Hom mar khaili hoi 

Hom mar khaeh . . 

Hom jahi 

Tom ja hoy 

jahay 

Horn goyli hoi . . 

Tom gaylay hoi . . 

gail hoi 

Jo, ja 

Jagi 

Gail 

Tohor noo ka ho . . 

Te ghora koy boch- 
char ka- ho. 

Ej goon say or yaha^ 
say Kashmeri katok 
dur hay. 

Tohra bap ka ghar 
mao katok beta 
hotho. 

Hom aj dhair door 
phiral hyn. 

Homra chacha ka 
betaka upna bohin 
sa beahal gylhye. 

Ujjar ghorakakhogir 
ghar mai hye. 



Khogirya okra phit 
pa dadahuk. 

Hom okra beta ka 
bahut marU hay. 

Ooh pihar orparbat 
ka upar gohair 
chara rohal hay. 

Oh ghora par pair 
tolay boithal hay. 

Okra bhaye okra 
bahinsa bohut 
achcha lomba haik. 

Okar mole a:i;ahi 
rupayea haik. 



Ham pital geli hal 

Ham pital jaeb 

Ham jahi 

Tun jS hain 

TJ jdhye 

Ham geli 

Tun gelen 

TJ gelye 

Jo, or chal 

Jaite 

Chal gelye 

Tohar ka nawn hon 

Katek din ke i 
ghorwa hye. 

Hifc se Kasmir kute 
dur hai. 

Tura bap ke ghar 
kai beta hathu. 

Ham aj ban dur la 
phirli he. 

Hamar chachera 
bhai okar bahin 
se beahal haye, 

TJjarkd ghorwa ke 
khogiry a li ghar- 
wa men hye. 

Okra pith par kho- 
gir kas. 

Ham okar beta ke 
kora se bari mar 
marli hai. 

TJ apan gae goru 
pahdrwa par char- 
awa hye. 

TJ gh6ra par oharhol 
rukh tare hye. 

Okar bhai okar ba- 
hinise lamhar hye. 



Vernacniar of Champarnn. 



Vemacalar of West 
Tirhoot. 



Ham markhaili rahin 

Ham mar khaib ... 

Hamjaib, ham jam 

Tun gala 

TJjala 

Hamgail rahin 

Tun gail raha 

TJ gaele 

Jdh 

Jana, jat 

Gaile, chal gaile ... 

Tohar nam ka ha, 
raur nam ka how. 



Okar dam 
rupyd hye. 



arhai 



I' ghora ketna din 
ke hai. 

Ihan le Kashmir 
ketna {or ketek) 
dur hati. 

Tohra bap ka ghar 
men kae larika 
har6. 

Aj ham bahut phir- 
lin {or ghumhin) 
ban. 

Hamra chacha ke 
beta okra {or unh- 
ka) bahia s^ bia- 
hal ba. 

Ghar men, ejarka 
ghora ke tang 
(" tekeg" borrowed) 
hate. 

Tangakrapith par 
rakhah. 

Ham okra beta ke 
kank b^nt se 
marlihan. 

TJ mal jdl pahdr ka 
mathani par cha- 
rawat hate {or ha) . 

TJ gharapar charhal 
gachh ka nich6 ha 
{or hari) . 

Okar bhai okr^bahin 
se lamhd {or lam- 
har) ha. 

Okar dam arhdi 
rupaiya how {or 
du rupaiya ego 
adh^li haw). 



Ham maral gil rahin 

Ham maral jayah . . . 

Hamjaethe 

Toujaithu 

TJ'jaithath 

Ham gali 

Tou gela 

H' gale 

Ja 

Jati bir 

Gel 

Tohar nawn ka hai ... 

E ghora katek dia ki 
hai. 

Ehanse Kusmir ketek 
diir haik. 

Tohra bap ke ghar 
men kai larika haii. 

Ham aj buhut phirli 



Hamar chachera bhai 
okra bahin se behal 
hai. 

TJjar ghora ke tang 
torha ghar men hai. 



Tang okra pith pur 
rakha. 

Ham okra beta ke 
kora se marli hai. 

TJ pah^r pur goru 
churwait hai. 

TJ' ho pair tar ghora 
per cnarhul hai. 

Okar bhai okra bahia 
se lama hai 

Oker dam arhai ru- 
pyah hai. 



Behar. — (Continued.) 



( 15 ) 



Vernacular of East Tiihoot. 


Vernacular of West Purneah, 
(Hindee.) 


Vernacular of East Purneah, 
(Bengallee.) 


English. 


Ham maral gelchlialahuii 


Ha,Tnra marlok chol 


Hami mar khaya chinu ... 


I was beaten. 


Ham maral jayali 


Hamra marut 


.. 


Hami mar khaba pie 




I shall be beaten. 


Hamjait ohhi 




Ham jaw 


.. 


Hami jamu 




I go. 


Tojait cha 




Tuhaj^ 


.. 


Tui jie ohis 




Thou goest. 


Ojaitahi 




O'hojak 


■• 


Ohajache 




He goes. 


Hamgelahun 




Ham gael che 




Hami ganu 




I went. 


Tou gelai 




Tube gaelohu 


.. 


Tub gela 




Thou wentest. 


Ogel 




O'ho gael 


... 


Ohae gel 




He went. 


Jail 




Jo 


.. 


Ja 




Go. 


Jait sauta 




Jae che 




Jdche 




Going. 


Bhagel 




Gael 




Gael 




Gone. 


Tohar nam ki dihan, or 
aihauk ki nao acli. 


Tuhiix namki 


•• 


Tornam ki 




What is your name ? 
\ 


Te churlea katek dinak ahi 


Eau ghoraka katna umur 


Eh ghora kitna din ka 
chike. 


How old is this horse ? 


Etai se Kasmix katek duri 
cKhan. 


E thamsa Kashmir katna 
dur che. 


Ehan se Kashmir keta 
duj che. 


How far is it from here 
to Kashmere. 


Aihauk bapak gtarmen 
' katek larika aM. 


Tuhara bapuk ghurme 
katna larika chohu. 


Keta beta chuah tor bapar 
ghorut. 


How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 


Ai-ham bahut ghumlalmn 


Aj ham bohut durtuk 
bululohe. 


Aj hami bahutdur berailgel 
clulo. 


I have walked a long 
way to-day. 


. Hamar piti-auta-bbaik biab 
okra bahin sau ohhaik. 


Hamar chacha beta se 
okux bahin se beha bhel 
che. 


Hamar chachar beta se 
ohar bahin se beha bhol- 
chi. 


The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 


Ujux ghoraka timg turha 
ghur me achi. 


Ghorma ugra ghoruker jin 
awcho. 


Gharme ujra ghoraka char 
juma jin che. 


In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 


Ghorak tang tarhara okra 
pithpar raiha. 

Ham okra cbliawarik ka 
kora sau marlon. 


Okur pitpiu- jiQ dhuro . . . 

Ha,m okur betake korase 
bahoot marul ohi. 


Ojin ohar pitath rakh 

Hami ohar beta ke kora nia 
bahut maria ehi. 


Put the saddle upon 
bis back. 

I have beaten bis son 
with many stripes. 


U paharab math parwal 
sab charbaiy achi. 


Paharuk upore okar gai 
churao che. 


U paharer upore gow 
charai che. 


He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hUl. 




IT' gachoktor ghorapur 
baithul che. 


Ohai ugachertale ghorar 
par battia chi. 


He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 


Okar bhay'okra bahin sau 
bar chhaik. 


Okur bhay awpun bahin 
se uoh che. 


O'har bhay apnar bahins^ 
uchachi. 


His brother is taller 
than his sister. 


Okar dam arhai rupaia 
chhaik. 


O'kur dam araie rupaiea ... 


Ohar dam araie taka 


The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 



74 



( 16 ) 



Dialects of 



English. 



Vernacular of Patna. 



Vernacular of Gya. 



Vernacular of Champamn. 



Vernacular of West 
Tirhoot. 



My father lives in 
that small house. 

Give these rupees to 
him. 

Take those rupees 
from him. 

Beat him well and 
bind him with 
ropes. 

Draw water from the 
weU. 

Walk before me ... 

Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper 
of the village. 



Homar bap chote ka 
ghar mai rohahay. 

Teh rupea oonka 
dohun. 

Ooh rupeah onka 
sa lay loh. 

Mara okra achi tarah 
our russee sa 
bandh. 

Kooyeau sa pani 
bhoroh. 

Phiroh homra 

sojeh. 

Kokar larka tohra 
pecha aoho. 

Kekra saetun o mole 
lala hay. 

Gawa ka ekgo du- 
kan dar or dukan 
wala sa. 



Hamar bdp u chhot- 
ka gharwa men 
raha hath. 

I rupya okra dede 

TJ' sob rupya okra 
selele. 

Okrd khiib mar aiir 
jour se bandh. 

Kuyan se pani bhar. 

Hamra se agii chal 
yk bill. 

Kekar biitni tora 
pachhu lagal awa 
hon. 

U' kekra se ton mole 
lele hain. 

Gawn ke ek dokan- 
dar se. 



Hamar bap hohi 
chhotka ghar men 
rah lie. 

P rupaya unhka k6 
dah. 

Haii rupaewa unka 
se lelah. 

Okrdke khub* mar a 
rassi se bandh de. 



Inara se pani bhar 
Hamrd sojha chal... 



Tohrd piohhu kekar 
larika dwat ha. 



Hau kekra se kinla 
bawe. 

Ego gaon ka banian 
s4. 



Hamar bap ohi chhotka 
ghur me rahai huth. 

E rupaya okra deda... 

U riipya okra se lela 

Okra bari mar mara, 
aur rassi se bandho 

Indrd se pani bharo .. 

Hamra samna phiro... 

Tohra pichha kakar 
larika ahait hai. 

U' tiin kekra se mole 
lela hai. 

Gawn ke banydh se ... 



Behar. — (Continued.) 



( 17 ) 



75 



Vernacular of East Tirhoot. 



Vernacular of West Purneah, 
(Hindee.) 



Vernacular of East Purneah, 
(Bengallee.) 



English. 



Hamar bap clihotka ghor- 
men rahaiohhathi. 

Yi rupi^a unka daha 

rupaia okra sau laleya. . 

Okra khub maraho aur ras- 
ea men banbdaha. 

Inar sau p^ni bharah 

Hamra agu cbalah 

Tora pachhu kekur larika, 
or chhowra awai cbhaik. 

Okra ton kekra sau mol le- 
lahai- 

EM dahatak ek dokandar 
sau. 



Hamar bap u cboto ghorme 
rahaie cb^. 



E taka okra dabuk 

E sub rupaian okrase labo 

Okra rasi se badbike kboob 
mare marhuk. 

U' kuawse pani bhur 

Cbul bamar awgoo 



Kakur beta tubur piobu 
awbeb cbo. 



TJ' too kakra la kinul ohehi 



U' gawo ker dokani se 



Morbap u cboto gbarat cbe 

E taka obak dao 

E sub taka oba se lau 

Obak rasita bandiar kbup 
mare mar. 

U' kuansepani bbur 

Hamaragu cbul 

Kabar beta tor paobu asa- 
cbe. 

Tui u kabar Idgi kinlo . . . 

TJ'gair dokani s^ 



My father lives in that 
small bouse. 



Give this rupee to bim. 



Take those rupees from 
bim. 

Beat bim well and bind 
bim with rope. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes be^ 
hind you? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

Prom a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



£ 5 



ABORieiNAL LAN&UA6ES 



WESTEEN BENGAL, 





78 



( 2 ) 



Aboriginal Languages 



English. 


Sonthalee of Sonthal 
Pergimnalis. 


Sonthalee of Midnapore. 


Sonthalee of Bancoorah. 


Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. 


Numerals. 












One 


Mit' 


Mit 


Mid 


Mi 




Two 


Barea 


Barea 


•• 


Bariya 


Bareya 




Three 


Pe'a 


Pe'a 




Peia 


Peya 




Four 


Pn^a 


Ponea 




Pania 


Poneya 




Five 


Mor6 . 


Mane' 




Mord (gatang) 


More 




Sis 


Turui 


Turui 




Turui (do) 


Turui 




Seven 


Eae 


Ai 




Eyai 


Eyde 




Eight 


Iral 


E-ral 




Iral 


Iral 




Nine 


Ir^ 


Ar^ 




re 


Are 




Ten 


Gel 


Gale 




Gel 


Gel 




Twenty 


Mit'-isi 


Isi, bargale 




Bargel 


Mi isi 




Thirty 


• • • • 


.... 


Pe-gel 


■ ■ ■ ■ 




Forty 


■ . • • 


.... 


Tan-gal 


• • • • 




Fifty 


Bar-isi-gdl 


Bar-isi-gale, man^'- 
gale, yala sai. 


More-gel 


Baresi gel 


•• 


Hundred 

Pronouns. 


More-isi 


Sai, man&i, gale- 
gale. 


Mor^-ishi 


Mi sai 




I 


In 


Ing 


I 


Ing 




We 


A-le-a-hon, a-b . . 


Ali, ab, aban 


Ale 


Ale or aban 




Thou 


Am 


Am 


I-i 


Am 




Tou 


A-pe 


Ape 


Ape 


Ape 




He 


Aeh' (ai:) 


TJni, ini, nui, huni, 
hani nai, ni. 


Tlni-ena 


Uni 




They 


A-ko 


Unko, onko, n^ko, 
enko, hanko,nako, 
ako, noko. 


Unko 


Unko 




Of me 


In-ren, or' *reak'. . 


Ingres, inga, 
ingren ingreni, 
ingi. 


i-ya 


Ingya 




Of us 


Ale-ren, or rea . . 


Alrea, aMa, alriang, 
alren, alei. 


Ale-ya 


Aleya 




Our 


Ta-le 


Ditto ditto ... 


■ • • • 


Aleya 




Of thee 


Am-ren, or reak' . . 


Amrea, amah, 
amr^-ni, amren. 


Ima 


A ma 




Thine 


.... 


Ditto ditto ... 


B • • • 


Ama 




Of you 


Ape-ren, or rea . . 


Ipir^a, apeah, 
apdrd ang, ap^r^n 
ap^r&i, ap^i. 


Apea 


Apeya 




Tour 


Ta-pe 


Ditto ditto ... 


.... 


Apeya 




Of him 


Ach'-ren, or reak'. . 


Unirea, unia, uni- 
r^n, UTiir6ni, unie. 


Unia 


Uniya 




His 


Ta-e 


Ditto ditto ... 




Uniya 





( 3 ) 



of Western Bengal. 



1^ 



BUumij of Maunbhoom. 



Kol or Kor of Singbhoom. 



Juangs of Orissa Jungles. 



English. 



Moyon 

Bariyd 

Apiya 

Uponiya 

Moreya 

Turiya 

Aiya 

Iraliya 

Areya 

Greleya 

Mo hisi 



Barhisi geleya 
More hisi 



Ing 
Ale 
Am 
Ape 
Ini 

Ako 
Ingya 

Aleya 

Aleya 
Ama 

Ama 
Apeya 

Apeya 
Aie^ga 

Aiaga 



Miad 

Bdr-ea 

A-pia 

Upunia 

Moya 

Tur-ia 

lyd 

Irli^ 

A-v^ 

•Gel 

His-si 



Bar-his-si-gel 

Mi-sa 

Ingording ^ 
Al-le 
Am 
Ap-pe 
Ai or dyo 

Ako 

Inga or aingna 

AUe-a 

AUea' 
Am-a 

Am-a 
Ap-pe-a 

Ap-ped 
Ai-a 

Ini or ni 



Mi) niTii 
Ambar 
Sgota 
Gudami 



Aing, ain 
Ainje 
Am 

Apaii, Hain 
Ain 

Sadatside-kira 



Hiasibsa, Ara 



Ai, Ara 



One. 

Two. 

Three. 

Four. 

Five. 

Six. 

Seven. 

Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Twenty. 

Thirty. 

Forty. 

Fifty. 

Hundred. 



I. 

We. 
Thou. 
You. 
He. 

They. 
Of me. 

Of us. 

Our. 
Of thee. 

Thine. 
Of you. 

Tour. 
Of him. 



His. 



80 



( i ) 







« 


Aboriginal Languages 


English. 


Sonthalee of Sonthal 
Pergmnnahs. 


SonthaJee of Midnapore. 


Scnthalee of Bancoorah. 


Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. 


Of them 


Ako-ren, or reak'. . 


Unk6r^a, iinkoa 
unkoe, unkoreni. 


Ankoa 


Unkuya 


Their 


Ta-ko 


Ditto ditto ... 


• ■ • ■ 


Unkuya 


Mine 


Tin 


.... 


.... 


Isgya 


Thy 


Ta-m 


• ■ • • 


.... 





Hand 


Ti 


Ti 


Ti 


Ti 


Foot 


Janga 


Jang.kata 


Janga 


Subti 


Nose 


Mu 


Mu 


Niyada-mu 


Muh 


Eye 


Met' 


Met 


Me 


Men 


Mouth 


Mocha 


Macha 


Neocha 


Mocha 


Tooth 


Data 


Data 


Data 


Data 


Ear 


Lutur 


Lutur 


Lotur 


Lutur 


Hair 


Tip' 


Up 


Up 


Up 


Head 


Boho 


Baha 


Boho 


Boho 


Tongue 


Alan 


Alang 


Alang 


Alang 


Belly 


Lach' 


Laie 


Lai 


Laie 


Back 


Dea 


Dea 


D^ha 


Deya 


Iron 


Merhet' 


Min^hen 


Mehiri 


Merhen 


Gold 


Sona 


Shana 


Sonai 


Samanum 


Silver 


Eupa 


Rupa 


Eupa 


Eupa 


Father 


Apa, baha 


Baba, apa, ba 


Baha 


Apuing' urn, at 


Mother 


Engftj ayo 


Ekha aio 


Aio 


Aiyo, engat 


Brother 


Boiha, bokot 


Bak, baiha, dada ... 


Eokaia 


Boiha 


Sister 


Mis-:cra 


Mis^ra, daie, ajing 


Misrai 


Miseraing, am, at . . 


Man 


Herel 


Lar, mauti 


Herel 


Hor 


Woman 


Maejiu 


Maiju, aimai 


Ai-mai 


Kuri 


Wife 


Era, aimai 


, Bahu, era 


Ara-gumke 


Bahu 


Child 


Gidra 


Gidra, lidi letka, 
gedrang, hapan. 


Gidra 


Gidra 


Son 


Kora-hopon 


Korahapan, han, kare 


Hapani 


Hopon 


Daughter 


Kori-hopon 


Hapanera, klirigidra 
kurihapan. 


Hapanerai 


HdJ)onera 


Slave 


Guti 


Kabaj 


Kirienkadiai 


Guti 


Cultivator 


Siok'-ich' 


Chashi 


Chaskanay 


Ariyat 


Shepherd 


Gupi 


Verigoopie, mahara 


Merome gupakana 


Chirigupi 


God, a god 


Thakur, bonga . . 


Singbakhia, thakur, 
chandobakhia, isar. 


Sing-bunga 


Sing bonga 


Devil 


Maran-buru 


Marabuk, lita, bairi 


Bhut 


Bonga 


Sun 


Ber-sin-chando . . 


Singohando, bdra ... 


Sing-bunga 


Sing chando 


Moon 


(Ninda) chando . . 


Inda chando 


Ohando-bunga 


Chando 


St,ar 


Ipil 


IpU 


I-pil 


Ipil 


Fire 


Sengel 


Shekel, rutni 


Singal 


Singel 



( 5 



of Western Bengal. — (Continued.) 



Bhumij of Maunbhoom. 


Kol or Kor of Singbhoom. 


Juangs of Oriasa Jungles. 


English. 


Akoya 


Ako-d 


••*•■• 


Of them. 


ATfoya 


En-ko4 




Their. 


Ingya 


Inga 


Ainja 


Mine. 
Thy. 


Ti 


Ti 


Etiri, Alakti 


Hand. 


Talka 


Ka-ta 


Alag-ging, ipug 


Eoot. 


Muh 


Mii-ta 


Matai 


Nose. 


Men 


Met 


Emade, emar 


Bye. 


Mocha 


A 


Mukare, masare 


Mouth. 


Data 


Dan-td 


Gani 


Tooth. 


Lutur 


Lutur 


Sutude, sutur 


Ear. 


Tip 


Up 


Inuta 


Hair. 


Bo 


Bo 


Bokan 


Head. 


Alang 


Alang 




Tongue. 


Lai 


Lyi 




Belly. 


Deya 


Doi-a 




Back. 


Mere 


Med 


Arlahar 


Iron. 


Sammm 


Samom 




Gold. 


Eupa 


Rupd 




Silver. 


Aha 


Ap-pu 


Baare, ha 


Father. 


M4 


Eng-a 


Buinge, huin 


Mother. 


HagEi 


Bdo 




Brother. 


Misi 


Mis-si 




Sister. 


Horo 


Ho 




Man. 


Kuri 


Kui 




Woman, 




Era 




"Wife. 


Hon 


Siti-a 




ChUd. 


Hon 


Hon 




Son. 


Hon kuri 


Hon-era 




Daughter. 


Dhangar 


Das- si 




Slave. 


Chasd 


Sitdn-ho 


Pasar 


Cultivator. 


Medi gopi 


Gd-pi 




Shepherd. 


Sing honga 


Sing-Bong^ 




God. 


Bonga 


Bon-g^ 


Mesainke 


Devil. 


Sing honga 


Singi 




Sun. 


Chando 


Ghdn-du 




Moon. 


IpH 


I-pil 




Star. 


Sengel 


Sen-gel 


Selaide 


Fire. 



82 



( 6 ) 



Aboriginal Languages 



English. 


Sonthalee of Sonthal 
Pergunnahs. 


Sonthalee of Midnapore, 


Sonthalee of Banooorah. 


Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. 


Water 


Dak' 


Dah, rate, madam, 
badla. 


Da 


Da 


... 


House 


Ar-ak' 


Ara, kumba, ghari, 
kuria. 


Ora 


Ora 


... 


Horse 


.... 


Sadam 


Sadam 


Sadom 


■ •• 


Cow 


Gai 


Gaie 


Gai 


Dangri 


... 


Dog 


Setak' 


S^ta 


Seta 


Seta 


>•• 


Oat 


Pusi 


Pusi 


Pushi 


Pusi 


• •• 


Cock 


Sandi 


Sandi 


Sim-sari 


Sim 


-,, 


Duck 


Gede 


Gere 


Hans 


Gere 


>•• 


Ass 


Gadha 


Gadha 


Gadha 


Gadha 


• • • 


Camel 


Ut 


Unth 


Unt 


Unt 


. •. 


Bird 


Chere 


Chen6 


Cheure 


Chare 


• •1 


Go 


Sen, chala 


Chala, taram 


Ma-chalame 


Du 


• •• 


Eat 


Jom 


Jumme-ben-pe 


Ma-jamme 


Jome 


■ •■ 


Sit 


Damp' 


Durupm^-ben-p6 ... 


Madarum-m4 


Durupme 


• •■ 


Come 


Hejuk' 


Dela 


Mahejum-me 


Dela 


• •• 


Beat 


Dal 


Dalm^-ben pe 


Madalum-me 


Daleme 


• •• 


Stand 


Tiiigun 


Tokhon me benpe .. 


Ma-tengun-me 


Tigunme 


..■ 


Die 


Gujuk' 


Laham 


Coj-enna 


Gujugme 


■ •• 


Give 


Em 


Den, ema 


Den-e-mnm-me . . 


Denho 


• ■• 


Etm 


Nir, dar 


Ded, pid gau 


Ma-dam-me 


Daurame 


• ■• 


Up 


Chetan 


Chat, chetan 


Chat 


Chot 


,,, 


Near 


Sor 


Sh6r 


Sore 


Sur 


>• « 


Who ? 


Okae? ohele? .. 


Akay 


Okay 


Okai 


**■ 


And 


Ar, ado 


Ch^tna 


Ar 


At 


• t • 


Yes 


He 


Hoe, h^n 


He 


Hi 


>■• 


Down 


Latar 


Tatar, fed 


Latar 


Latar 


• •■ 


What? 


Chef? 


Chet 


Chat 


Ched 


>.. 


Far 


Sangin 


Shakhing, Farak... 


Sangina ' 


Sanginre 


..• 


But 


Men-khan 


Menkhan 


Kinta 


Mentuk 


... 


No 


Ban 


Banga, bang, enhen 


Bang 


Alo, bang 


• •• 


Before 


Laha, maran samaii 


Tahare, shamangre 


Samang 


Laha 


• •■ 


Behind 


Tayom 


Taghmare 


Taenam 


Tainam 


..a 


Why? 


Chedat' ? 


Ch^dang 


Cheday 


Cheya 


..* 


If 


Khan 


Hapen, khan 


Haping 


Khan 


... 


Alas ! 


Haere ! 


Hai 


Hay-hay 


Uh 


.■• 


A father 


Apa 


Baba 


Baha-tiny 


Mitang apdt 




Two fathers 


Apa-kin 


Barea baba, baba 
tekin. 





Apatikin 


• •• 


Fathers 


Apa-ko 


Babateko 


Baha-teko 


Apateko 


• •• 


Of a father 


Apa-ren 


Babarea 


Bahar-eya 


Apdt reya 


... 



( 7 ) 



of Western Bengal — (Continued.) 



83 



Bhumij of Maunbhoom. 



Kols or Kor of Singbhoom. 



Juangs of Orissa Jungles, 



English. 



Da 

Ora 

Sadom 

Gai 

Seta 

Pusi 

Sim 

Koro 

Gadha 

TJnt 

Ohere 

Ju 

Jomeme 

Dupme 

Ela 

Dalime 

Tegunme 

Gojome 

Da 

Daurime 

Chetan 

Nare 

Okoi 

Oro 

Hi 

Later 

Chikana 

Sanginre 

Mento 

Alo 

Aiya 

Taiyam 

Chiya 

Jodim 

Uh 

Moyonaba 

Abatakin 

Apomtako 
Apoteya 



m 

Oa 

Sa-dam 

Uri or gimdi 

Seta 

Bil-li 

Sim 

He-de-ge 

Gada 



0-6 

Sen-men 

Jum-men 

Diib men 

Hiiju-men 

T4m-men 

Tingiin-men 

Gajo-men 

Emi-men 

Nir-men 

Sir-ma 

Ja-par 

A-koi 

Au-da 

E-d 

Su-ba 

Chia 

Sang-ing 

Mendo 

Ka 

Airte 

Doi-^ 

Ohikan-mente 

Euredo 

He-guri 

Ap-pu 

Ap-pu-king 

Ap-pu- ko 
Ap-pu- a 



Dagude, dak 
Ingaree, inga 



Gaire, arei 
Bileire, billi 



Nona 
Dokana 

Pangana 
Nidinga 



Water. 

House. 

Horse 

Cow. 

Dog. 

Cat. 

Cock. 

Duck. 



Camel. 

Bird. 

Go. 

Eat. 

Sit. 

Come. 

Beat. 

Stand. 

Die. 

Give. 

Eun. 

Up. 

Near. 

Who. 

And. 

Yes. 

Down. 

What. 

Far. 

But. 

No. 

Before. 

Behind. 

Why. 

If. 

Alas. 

A father. 

Two fathers. 

Fathers. 
Of a father. 



84 



( 8 ) 



Aboriginal Languages 



English. 



Sonthalee of Sonthal 
Pergunnahs. 



Sohtbalee of Midnapore. 



Sonthalee of Bancoorah. 



Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. 



Of fathers 


Apako-ren 


Baba t^korea 


Baha-tekoya 


Apat reya 


To a father 


Apa-then 


Baba 


Baha-emaye 


Ap^te (thin) ;.. 


To fathers 


Apako-then 


Baba t^ko 


Bah a-teko-emakura 


Apat kothen 


Fi'Sm a father 


Apa-khon 


Baba kan 


Baha-tei-surna 


Ap^thin khon 


From fathers 


Apako-khon 


Baba t6ko khan ... 


Baha-teko-are 


Apat kothen khon ... 


A daughter 


Hoponera 


Hapanrera 


Mingotang 


Kuri 


Two daughters 


Hoponerakin 


Hapan-era-tekin ... 


.... 


Kuri kin 


Daughters 


Hoponerako 


Hapan-era-teko ... 


Dher-uteroko 


Kuri ko 


Of a daughter 


Hoponera-ren 


Hapan-era ia 


Hopon-aronya 


Kuri reya 


Of daughters 


Hoponerako-ren . . 


Hapan-era-teko r^a. 


Hopon-raeteko 


Kuri koreya 


To a daughter 


Hoponera- then' . . 


Hapan era 


Ming-gote-emae ... 


Kuri then 


To daughters 


Hoponerako-then. . 


Hapan era teko ... 


Jato -houre-emakura 


Kuri ko then 


From a daughter . . 


Hoponera-khon .. 


Hapan era khan ... 


Mitta-hopon-erai- 
teko. 


Kuri then khon 


From daughters . . 


Hoponergko-khon 


Hapan era t^ko rea 


Addi-uteriko-hopon- 
eraiteko. 


Kuri kothen khona ... 


A good man 


Bugi herel 


Bog^har 


"Wilta-bes-horkana 


Bes herel 


Two good men 


Bugi-herel-kin . . 


Bog^ harkin 


• . . • 


Bes herel kip 


Good men 


Bugi-herel-ko 


B6g6 harko 


Addi-bes-karkana 


Bes herel ko 


Of a good man 


Bugi herel-ren . . 


Bog^ har-rea 


Mittang-hogeher . . . 


Bes herel reya 


Of good men 


Bugi-herel-ko-ren. . 


B6g^ har tekorea ... 


Dhar-utar-hogeher 


Bes herel koreya 


To a good man 


Bugi herel-then . . 


Bog^har 


Oke-okay-minher . . . 


Bes herel then 


To good men 


Bugi-herel-ko-then 


Boge harteko 


Udi- uteriko-hogehor 


Bes herel ko then ... 


From a good man . , 


Bugi herel-khon . . 


Boge har-khan ... 


.... 


Bes herel then khona 


From good men . . 


Bugi-herel-ko-khon 


Boge har t^ko khan 


.... 


Bes herel ko khona ... 


A good woman 


Bugi maejiu 


Boge maiju 


Mintang-hoge-aimai 


Bes era 


Two good women . . 


Bugi maejiukin . . 


B6g6 maijukin 


.... 


.... 


Good women 


Bugi maejiuko . . 


Boge maijuko 


Dhe-utarako-aimai 


Bes era ko 


Of a good woman . . 


Bugi maejiu-ren . . 


.... 


.... 


• • . . 


To a good woman . . 


Bugi maejiu-then. . 


.... 


.... 


. . . 


From a good woman 


Bugi maejiu-khon. 


■ • • « 


.... 


.... 


A bad boy 


Barich' kora 


Bari-kora-hapan ... 


Mittang-karahapon- 
harigia. 


Bari kora 


A bad girl 





Bari kuri hapan ... 


Mittang-kuri-hapon- 
harriga. 

Bageay 


Bari kuri 


Good 


Bugi 


Boge 


Bugi 


Better 


Arho bugi 


TJnikhan boge 


Inekonda-hese-bagi- 
ya. 


Bugi geya 


Best 


Sanam-khon bugi or 
bugi. 


Jatakhan b6ge 


Khube-bagia 


Bugigeyai 


High 


TJsul 


Ushul 


TJsula 


TJsul 


Higher 

r 


Arho usul 


Unikhan ushul . . . 


Khub-usula 


Usui geya 



( 9 ) 



of Western Bengal. — (Continued.) 



8S 



Bhumij of Maunbhoom. 


KoU or Kor of Singbhoom, 


Juangs of Orissa Jungles. 


English. 


Abatakoya 


Ap-pu-ko-^ 




Of fathers. 


Apote 


Ap-pu-tar 




To a father. 


Apatetako 


Ap-pu-ko-tar 




To fathers. 


Abata 


Ap-pu-te 




From a father. 


Apomta kota 


Ap-pu-ko-te 


.,.-... 


From fathers. 


Kurihon 


Hon-erd 




A daughter. 


Kuri hon kin 


Hon-era-king 




Two daughters. 


Kurihon ko 


Honera-ko 




Daughters. 


Kuri hon reya 


Hon-era-a 




Of a daughter. 


Kurihx)nkoya 


Hon-era-kua 




Of daughters. 


Kuri hon thin 


Hon-era-tar 




To a daughter. 


Kurihon thin 


Hon-erd-ko-tar 




To daughters. 


Kurihon tate 


Hon-era-te 




From a daughter. 


Kurin hon ko tate 


Hon-erd-ko-te 




From daughters. 


Bugia separet 


Biigi-ho 




A good man. 


Bugin separet kin 


Bugi-ho-king 




Two good men. 


Bugin separet ko 


Biigi-ho-ko 




Good men. 


Bugin separet reya 


Bugi-ho-d 




Of a good man. 


Bugin separet koya 


Biigi-ho-kua 




Of good men. 


Bugin separet thin 


Bugi-ho-tar 




To a good man. 


Bugin separet ko thin 


Bugi-ho-ko-tar 




To good men. 


Bugin separet tate 


Biigi-ho-te 




From a good man. 


Bugin separet ko tate 


Biigi-ho-ko-te 




From good men. 


Bugin kuri 


Bdgi-ktii 




A good woman. 
Two good women. 


Bugin kuri ko 


Bugi-kui-ko 




Good women. 
Of a good woman. 
To a good woman. 
From a good woman. 


Etkankora 


Etkd-koa 




A good boy. 


Etkankuri 


Etka-kui 




A bad girl. 


Bugi 


Bugi 




Good. 


Orobugi 


End or aia-te-bugi 




Better. 


Marang bugi 


Sabe-te-bugi 




Best. 


Salangi • 


Sirma 




High. 


Oro salangi 


Ena-te-sirmd 




Higher. 



86 



( 10 ) 



Aboriginal Languagm 



English. 


Sonthalee of Sonthal 
Pergunnalis. 


Sonthalee of Midnapore. 


Sonthalee of Bancoorah. 


Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. ,' 


Highest 


Sanam-khon usal or 
usul uttar. 


Jatakhan ushul ... 


Adi-char 


Usui geyai 


Ahorse 


Andia sadom 


Sadam 


Mit-gote-sadam . . 


Sadom 


A mare 


Eiiga sadom 


Ekha sadam 


Mit-enga-sadam . . 


Sadom enga 


Horses 


Andia sadomko ... 


Sadam ko 


Dhar-uteroko-sadam 


Sadom ko 


Mares 


Enga sadomko ... 


Ekha sadamko ... 


Dhar-uteroko-enga- 
sadam. 


Sadom enga ko 


A bull 


Dangra 


Baiar 


Mitta-enra 


Sar 


A cow 


Gai 


Gaie 


Mitta-gai 


&ai 


Bulls 


Dangrako 


Baiarko 


Dhar-uteroko enra 


Sar ko 


Cows 


Gaiko 


Gaieko 


Dhar-utaroko-gai. . 


Gai ko 


A dog 


Setak' 


She'ta 


Mitta setta 


Seta 


A bitch 


Enga setak' 


Ekha sheta 


Mitta-enga-seta . . 


Seta enga 


Dogs 


Setak' ko 


Sh^tako 


Dher-uteroko-seta 


Seta ko 


Bitches 


Enga setak' ko ... 


Ekha shdtakd 


Dher-uteroko-enga- 
seta, 


Seta enga ko 


A he-goat 


Merom- andia 


Bada, kasi 


Mitta-gotan boda. . 


Meram boda 


A female goat 


Merom-enga 


Ekha m^ram 


Mit- gotang-enga- 
merom. 


Meram enga 


Goats 


Meromko 


M&amko 


Marom 


'Meram ko 


A male deer 


■ ■ ■ • 


Jhankar, ar^ 


Mittang-enra 


Jhankar jil 


A female deer 


• ■ ■ > 


Pasta 


Mit-gotang-posta. . 


Posta enga 


Deer 


• . . • 


Jelkd 


lel 


Jilko 


Jam 


Menana, or kanan . . . 


Menaing gea 


Ing-menaya 


Menaing or mena 
ingeya. 


Thou art 


Menama, or kanam 


Manama 


Am-menaya 


Menama 


He is 


Menaea, or kanae... 


M^naia 


TJni-menaya 


Mena iya 


We are 


• ■ ■ * 


M^nalea, baya ... 


Ana-menania 


Mena leya 


You are 


.... 


M^napeya 


Hape-menatia 


Mena peya 


They are 


. - . . 


M4nak6ya 


Unko-menaka 


Mena koya 


I was 


Tahekonan 


Tahdnkanaing ... 


Ing-topekana 


Tahen khaing 


Thou wast 


Tahekonam 


Tahen kanam 


Hapep-tahekana . . 


Tahen kanam 


He was 


Tahekanae 


Tah^nkanad 


Unko-tahekana . . 


Tahen kanai 


We were 





Tahen kanal^-ba- 
ban. 


Allele-tahekana . . 


Tahen kanale 


You were 


.... 


Tahen kanSp^ 


Amem-tahekana . . 


Tahen kanape 


They were 


.... 


Tahen kanaka ... 


Amen-tahekana . . 


Tahen kanako 


Be 


Hoyuk' m^ 


Houm^ 


Hona 


Heju me 


To be 


Hoyuk' 


H6-U 


Haea-kana 


Hoju te 


Being 


Hoyuk' 





Howu-kana 


Huikate 


Having been 


Hoeakan-khan 


HaiMn khan 


• • • • 


Huien khan 


I may be 


Hoyuk'-gi-chon ... 


H6ik aing 


Ing-haikoiy 


Heju choing ..;; 


I shall be 


Hoyuk'-an 


Houai 


Ing-hawniy 


Heju aing ...; 



( 11 ) 



of Western Bengal. — (Continued.) 



Bhumij of Mauubhoom. 


Kols or Kor of Singbhoom. 


Juange of Orissa Jungles. 


English. 


Marang salangi 


Sabe-te-sinna 




Highest. 


Sadom 


Sa-dam 




A horse. 


Bnga sadom 


Engd-sd,-dam 




A mare. 


Sadom ko 


Sa-dam-ko 




Horses. 


Enga sadom ko 


Enga-sa-dam-ko 




Mares. 


Ariya 


An-dia 




A bull. 


Gai 


Gundi 




A cow- 


Aiyako 


An-dia-ko 




Bulls. 


Gaiko 


Uri-ko or gundi-ko 




Cows. 


Seta 


Seta 




A dog. 


Bnga seta 


Bnga-se-t^ 




A bitch. 


Setako 


Seta-ko 




Dogs. 


Enga seta ko 


Bnga-set^-ko 




Bitches. 


Meram boda 


Ba-da-merom 




A he-goat.. 


Engameram 


Enga-merom 




A female goat. 


Meramko 


Merom-ko 




Goats. 


Sarijilu 


San-di-ji-lu 




A male deer. 


Enga jilu 


Enga-ji-lu 




A female deer. 


Jiluko 


Ji-lu-ko 




Deer. 


Menagiya 


Ing-min-n^ 




I am. 


Menameya 


Am-min-nd 




Thou art. 


Menagiya 


Aio-min-nd 




He is. 


Mena leya 


AUe-min-nS 




We are. 


Menapeya 


Appe-min-nd 




Tou are. 


Menakoya 


Ako-min-n4 




They are. 


Taikenaing 


Ing-tai-ken-nd, 




I was. 


Taikenam 


Am-tdi-ken-na 




Thou wast. 


Tai kenai 


Aio-tai-ken-na 




He was. 


Tai kenale 


A-l-le-tai-ken-n4 




We were. 


Taikenape 


Ap-pe-t^i-ken-na 




Tou were. 


Tai kena ko 


Ako-tai-ken-na 




They were. 


Howa ome 


Ha-bo-men 




Be. 


Howa ote 


Habo-ted 




To be. 


Howa kate 


Habo-tan-te 




Being. 




Habo-ked-te 




H9.ving been. 


Howa okaing 


Ing-habo-to-ran 




I may be. 


Howa oing 


Ing-ha-boa 




I shall be. 



88 



( 12 ) 



English. 


Southalee of Sonthal 
Pergunnahs. 


Sonthalee of Midnapore. 


Sonthalee of Bauooorah. 


Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. 


I should be 


Hoe-kok'-an 


Hoik aing 


Ing-asariga 


Hui ko aing 


Beat 


Dal-me 


Dalm^ 


Dalengowa 


Daleme 


To beat 


Dal 


Dal, dedal 


Dalanagowa 


Dalete 


Beating 


Dadal, dal-ket-khan 




.... 


Dal kate 


Having beaten ... 


.... 


Dalal^ khan 


.... 


Dalket khan 


I beat 


Dal et'-an 


Dalaing 


Ing-daleiya 


Dale kanaing 


Thou beatest 


Dal-et'-am 


Dalam 


Amgi-dalema 


Dale kanam 


He beats 


Dal-et'-ae 


Daleda^ 


Umdo-haredalea . . 


Dale kanai 


We two beat 


Dal-et'-a lin 


.... 


«... 


. . • ■ 


You two heat 


Dal-et'-aben 


. . . 


. * . • 


.... 


They two beat 


Dal-et'-akin 


.... 


.... 


.... 


We beat 


Dal-et'-ale 


Dalale, dalaba, or 
dalaban. 


Medalea 


Dale kanale 


You beat 


Dal-et'-ape 


Dale dape 


Apama-dalepa 


Dale kanape 


They beat 


Dal-et'-ako 


DaM-dako 


Unko-dalea 


Dale kanako 


I am beating 


Dal-et'-kan-an ... 




Ing-dalekadia 


Tahen dale aing 


I was beating 







Ing-dalekana 


Dalekan tahen kana- 
ing. 

Dale kade aing 


I had beaten 


• * ■ * 


Dalakad^aie 


.... 


We two are beating 


Dal-et'-kana-lin ... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


We are beating 


Dal et'-kan-ale .. 


.... 


.... 


.... 


I may beat 


Dal-gi-chon 


Dalke aie 


Ing-dareiy 


Dalo ehoing 


I shall beat 


Dal-an 


Dale aing 


Ing-dalea 


Ingging daleya 


I should beat 


Dal-ke-an 


Ditto 


Ing-dalakadiasangi 


Ingging dalkeya 


I am beaten 


Dal-ochok'-kan-an .. 


Dal hoch akanaing 


Ing-dalarigi-mena .. 


Dalocho kanaing 


I was beaten 


Dal-ocho-enan 


Dal hoch lenaing . . . 


Ing dalaregi-tahe- 
kana. 


Dalocho enaing 


I shall be beaten . . . 


Dal-ochok'-an 


Dal h6ch aing 


Ing-dagajri-y 


Dalocho ehoing 


I go 


Senok' konan 


Chala aing 


Ing-senkanai 


Ing chala kanaing ... 


Thou goest 


Senok' konam 


Chala kanam 


Am-doma-ehelame. 


Amen chala kanam ... 


He goes 


Senok' konae 


Chala kanai 


Uni-senpachay . . 


Uni chala kanai 


I went 


Senenan 


Senanieing 


Ing-selenai 


Ing chalamenaing ... 


Thou wentest 


Senenam 


Ohalan-enam 


Am-dasanena 


Amem chala menam 


He went 


Senenae 


Ohalan-^nai 


Cinida-sen-hena . . 


Uni chala menai 


Go 


Sen 


Ohalame-ben-pe . . . 


Chatakana 


Chala meya 


Going 


Senok' 


Chala kana 


Senkana 


Chalau kate 


Grone 


Sen, or Senakan . . . 


Chalan-ena 


Chata-ena 


Chalau en khan 


What is your name ? 


Chef nutum-tama? 


Oh^le ama 


Am intumchele-a,ma 


Apeya niutum ohe ... 


How old is this 
horse ? 


Noi sadom do tin 
sermaren konae. 


N u i-s a d a m-t i n- 
sh^ma haukna. 


Nue-sadnm terser- 
my-hujukana. 


Niu sadom reya umur 
tina 


How far is it from 
here to Kashmir ? 


Nondekhon Kash- 
mir-te tin sangina 


Naud^ khana- 
Kashmir-tins a k- 
h^an. 


Narakam-Kashmir 
tinsangi. 


Nore khona Kashmir 
tina sangaya. 



( 13 ) 



of Western Bengal. — (Continued.) 



89 



Bbumij of Maunbhoom. 


Eols or Eor of Singbhoom. 


Juangs of Orissa Jungles. 


English. 


Howakoaing 


Ing-hoto-honang 




I should be. 


Dalime 


Tam-men 




Beat. 


Dalte 


Tam-ted 




To beat. 


Daliete 


Tam-tan-le 




Beating. 


Dalkatkoya 


T^m-ked-te 




Having beaten. 


Daljadiing 


Ing-tdm-tanna 




I beat. 


Daljadiam 


Am-tam-t&nna 




Thou beatest. 


Daljadiya 


Ai-lam-tanna 




He beats. 
We two beat. 
Tou two beat. 
They two beat. 


Daljadiale 


Alle-tdm-tanna 




We beat. 


Daljadiape 


Appe-tdm-tanna 




You beat. 


Daljadiako 


Ako-tam-tanna 




They beat. 


Tising dalieng 


Ing-tdm-t^n-tanna 




I am beating. 


A iking daljatai kenaing ... 


Ing-tdm t^nna 




I was beating. 


Dalta diing 


Ihg-tam-kia 




I had beaten. 

We two are beating. 

We are beating. 


Dalja koing 


Ing-tam-daia 




I may beat. 


Inging dalmeya 


Ing-tam-ed 




I shall beat. 


Inging daltaing 


Ing-t^m-honang 




I should beat. 


Daleohiya kanaing 


Ing-tam-ing-tanna 




I am beaten. 


Dalichi jaing 


Ing-tam-ing-kid-da 




I was beaten. 


Dalichi naing 


Ing-tam-ing-ha-hona 




I shaU be beaten. 


lug senotanaing 


Ing-sen-tan-na 




I go. 


Amam senat anam 


Am-sen-tan-na 




Thou goest. 


In: senat anai 


Ai-sen-tanna 




He goes. 


Ing senojanaing 


Ing-sen-ked-da 




I went. 


Amsenojanam 


Am-sen-ked-da 




Thou wentest. 


Ini senojanai 


Ai-sen-ked-da 




He went. 


Senome 


Sen-men 




Go. 


Senojanate 


Sen-tan-te 




Going. 


Senojana 


Sen-ked-te 




Gone. 


Apeya niutum chikana ... 


Am-ohi-kan-na-tum 




What is your name ? 


Ni sadoma unur chiminang 


Ne-sa-dam-chi-min-den- 




How old is this horse ? 


mena. 


rea-mina. 




, 


Kashmir niyate chiminang 
sangaya. 


Ne-te-Kash-mir-chimin-san- 
ging-mind. 




How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 



90 



( 14 ) 



Aboriginal Languages 



English. 



Sonthalee of Sonthal 
Pergunnahs. 



SoDthalee of Midnapore. 



Sonthalee of Banooorah. 



Sonthalee of Maunbhoom. 



How many sons are 
there in your 
father's house ? 

I have walked a 
long way to-day. 

The son of my uncle 
is married to his 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his hack. 

I have beaten his 
son with many 
stripes. 

He is grazing 
cattle on the top 
of the hill. 

He is sitting on a 
horse iinder that 
tree. 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 

The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 

My father lives in 
that small house. 



Give this rupee to 
him. 

Take those rupees 
from him. 



Beat him well and 
bind him with 
ropes. 

Draw water from 
the well. 

Walk before me ... 



Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper 
of the village. 



Apum orak're tinak' 
hopon menakoa ? 

Tehen adi sangen in 
sentaramket'a. 

Mamonren hopon 
oniren miseratit' 
thene capla akana. 

Pond sadomreak' 
palan or ak're 
menak'a. 

Deare palan lade ae 
me. 

Hopontit' adi dal in 
dal akadea. 

Buru chot chotte 
gaie atin et'ko 
kana. 

Hana dare butare 
sadomre e dech' 
akana. 

Miseratit' khon, 
bokottit' e usula. 



Anareak' gonontet' 
do bartaka tala. 



Apundo hana hopon 
hopon orak're e 
tahen kana. 

Noa taka emae me. 



Ma noako taka oni 
then flion atan 
me. 

Bugite dalepue or 
' baberte tol kae me, 



Kui khon dak' lo 
agui me. 

In samaii samante 
(or laha la hate) 
chalak' me. 

Okoeren kora hopon 
am ta gomte e he 
juk'kana ? 

Ona do okoe then 
an kirin ket'a ? 

Atoren mit' tan 
dokan then. 



Apun arare tina 
kora-hapan-me n a 
koea. . 

Tihen g-a ri-s a k h i- 
hung-tar a m-a k a 
da. 

Uni-re n i-m i s e r a 
gogoing hapan 
bapla-akadiai. 

Ponda sad mar^a 
lagam-ar are-men a 
ia. 

IJni-diar^ lagam- 
hargam^. 

TJni reni-kora hapan 
badi-g^ing-da 1 k ^ 
dia. 

TJni-dukh i-c h e t a- 
nare-gaie- gupi 
kanai. 

Ana dar^-butare 
sadam chetanar^ 
uni dudu pakanai. 

IJ n i-r e n i-m i s ^ 
rakhana-bar^-teg e 
usulai. 

Anarea ganang bara 
taka tala. 

Ana hudingi adare 
apuing ne_tah6na. 

Nia taka uni- 
emai^m^. 

Unithen khan-ana 
takako hata ume. 

Achha dale m6 af 
bar^r te tal^ me. 

Kuin khana da lara 
kab m4. 

Ing tahal^ chal^ mi 



Akai rini gidra 

amtai mati darai 



Akai ten anam 
kiring akada. 

Ator^ni-balia th^n . . . 



Am-apum-arara-tin- 
gotekaragidra. 

Tehinda-ari-dara- 
ken-day. 

Ingkaka-hapan- 
herer raeing-hapa- 
nera-bahukhedia. 

Por-sadam-araepa- 
tam mena. 



TJnia- deiyara-patan- 
dahayine. 

TJning-gidra-ing-ad- 
ing hapadar-akadia. 

Bure-chetanre-gay 
gupikana. 

One-dare-tutari- 
sadam re-durube- 
kana. 

Uning-ajiterkhan 
bakter marranga. 

IJniradam-barataka- 
bar-sika. 

Ing-apui-ina-hird- 
ing-ara-re-tahena. 

Naiya-taka-uni-ema- 
yma. 

Uni-teikhan-taka- 
aguime. 

TJnida-khub-dalkate 
barbartatabe. 

Khuikhan-dalorak 
amme. 

Ing-nahartiaohur- 
re. 



Antai namte-gidra 
darai-kana. 



Unida-akaite-kiring 
akardia. 

Nowa-atarini-min- 
had dondarman- 
nendai. 



Ape apum teko orare 
tina gidar hena koya. 

Ing do tehenge adi 
sangiye chalau lena 
ingeya. 

Uni kuriren bokat 
kuri mamoing ha- 
pene bahuakadiyar. 

Orare punar sadom 
reya palan menaya. 

Palan imiya deyare? 
lademe. 

Ing do unirin hopon 
ading dalakadiya. 

Hnido buru chotre 
gupi kanai. 

Uni sadom chetaMe 
durup katedare hutare 
menaiya. 

Uniren bokat miserat 
khon hoi usulai. 

Uniriya dam bar tak^ 
bar sika. 

Ingrin apuing ona 
kuriyare menaiya. 

Nauya taka uni emai- 
me. 

Ona taka uni then kho- 
na aguime. 

Uni khup daleme ar 
taleme. 

Kui khona da aguime 

Ingya lahate chalame 



Okairin gidar ama tai 
omte heju kanai. 

Ona okaithen khona 
kiring kedam. | 

Atureya bariya then 
kiringle aing. 



( 15 ) 



o/ Western Bengal. — (Concluded.) 



91 



Bhumij of Maunbhoom. 



KoU or Kor of Singbhoom. 



Juangs of Orissa Jungles. 



English. 



Apeya aha. orare oliiinmang 
hanko mena. 



Tising aing esu during 
hanor ledaing. 

Ingya mama honte kora 
en kuriya misite arandi 
taiya. 

Puri sadoma palan orare 
mena. 

Palan aia deare ladime ... 

Aiya hon esoing daltya ing 

Ini burn chetanre gupitanai 



Sadom chetanre deya 
kanate daru subare 
menagya. 

Aiya misite bokate kore 
salangi menagya. 

Iniya dam bar takabar sika 



Ingya aba buring orare 
menagya. 

Ne taka aike amaime 

Ne taka aitate aguime ... 



Inike khup dalime bayar 
te tolime. 



Kuyate da aguime 
Ingya ayarte seneme 



Okoiya hon ingya taiomte 
biju tanai 

Enjinis okai tare kiring 
ledam. 

Hature bariya tare kiring 
le daing. 



Aina-^p-pua-o-a-re-ehi-min- 
kud-hon-ko-mina. 



Tising-sang-ing-hordho-nar- 
bd-kid-ing. 

Impossible 



O-a-re-pun-di-sa-dam-rea- 
palan mi-na. 

Pa-Mn-urui-men :. 



Inid-hon-ing-pura-dan-da- 
tdm-kid-da. 



Ai-buru-cbetan-r^e-uri-gupi- 
tdn-na. 

Ai-en-da-ru-suba-re-sd-dam 
tar-duhen-na. 

Inia-bao-inia-missite-sd-lan- 
gi-min^. 

Bna-gonam-bar-taka-ta-la- 
mi-na. 

Ing-ap-pu-en-bu-ring-oa-re- 
tain-tan-na. 

Ne-takd-ai-tdr-emi-men . . . 

En-ta-ka-ko-di-te-idi-men.. 



Ini-tam-men-bugi-auda-tol- 
men-bair to. 

Sud-te-da-taur-ondong-men 
Air-ing-men 

Okoia-kua-dma -doia-te-buj o- 
tan-n^. 

En-okoi-te-kiung-kid-£m ? 

Hdtu-re-a-do-kan-ddi-te ... 



How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to his sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 

He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree. 



His 'brother is taller 
than his sister. * 

The price of that is 
two rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 

Take those rupees from 
him. 

Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



FURTHER LANGUAGES OF ABORIGINES 



WESTERN BENGAL AND BEHAR. 



94 



( 2 ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 


Moondari of Lohardugga. 


Oorain of lohardugga. 


Bajmehalee of Bajmehal Hills. 




Numerals. 










One 


Miyad 


Onta 






Two 


Baria 


Enr 


>..>•• 




Three 


Apia 


Mund 






Four 


. Upunya 


Nakh 






Five 


Monian 


Panche 






Six 


Turdya 


Soe 






Seven 


Eya 


Satte 






Eight 


Iralya 


Athe 






Nine 


Areya 


Nane 






Ten 


Gelya 


Dase 






Twenty- 


Miyad hisi 


On bisol 








Thirty 











Forty 










Fifty 


. Bar hisi gelya 


Bis sur dase 






Sixty 










Seventy 










Eighty 




• • • • ■ • 






Ninety 










Hundred 


. Moni hisi 


Panche kuri 






Thousand 










Pronouns. 










I 


Ain or In 


En ; ; > 


Ayn 


,, 


We 


Ale 


Em 


Aym 


.. 


Thou 


. Am 


Nin 


NIn 


.. 


You 


. Ape 


Nim 


Nia 


.. 


He 


. Ini 


As 


Ah 




They 


. Ako 


Ar 


Ahaber 


..> 


Of me 


. Ainya 


Enghai 


Aynki 




Of us 


. Alea 


Emhai 


Emsubki 


•■t 


Of thee 


. Am^ 


Ninghai 


Ningkid 




Of you 


. Apea 


Nimhai 


Ningkid 


... 


Of him 


. Inid 


Asgahl 


Ahikid 


... 


Of them 


. Akoa 


Argahl 


Ahebkid 


... 


Mine 


Same as above 


Same as above 


Aynki 




Our 






Emsobki 


.•t 


Thine 






Ningkid 


•■• 


Your 






Ningkid 


... 


His 






Ahikid 


• •■ 


Their 






Ahebkid 


... 



( 3 ) 



of Western Bengal and Behar. 



95 



Khond of Orissa. 


Khond of Ganjam. 


Dhangav of Shahabad. 


Kharwar of Shahabad. 


English. 


Rande 


Ek, randa, randi ... 


Ek 


Ek 


One. 


Rindi 


Din, rendi 


Dooee 


Do 


Two. 


Munji 


Tini, munji 


Tini 


Teen 


Three. 


Ndlgi 


Chari, naligi 


Char 


Char 


Four. 


Pansu 


Pdnchu, sengi 


Panch 


Panch 


Five. 


Sa 


Sa, sdjigi 


Chhuh 


CJihuh 


Six. 


Sdtu 


Satu, adgi 


Sat 


Sat 


Seven. 


Athu 


Mi 


Ath 


Aoth 


Eight. 


Noun 


Naha 


Nou 


Nou 


Nine. 


Dasu 


Dasd 


Dus 


Dus 


Ten. 


Kodeka 


Kode 

Kodedasa 

Rikodi 


Bees 


Bees 


Twenty. 
Thirty.' 
Forty, 


Rikodi 


Rikodiddssa 

Tinikodi 

Tinikodidasa 


Puchas 


Puchas 


Fifty. 
Sixty. 
Seventy. 




Charikodi 




• . . • 


Eighty. 




Chari kodidasa 




.... 


Ninety. 


Pdnsnkodi 


Panch kodi 


Sou 


Sou 


Hundred. 






Hujar 


Hujar 


Thousand 


Ann 


Ann 


In 


Ma 


I. 


Amu 


Amu aju 


Ain 


Humunsubh . . 


We. 


Inn 


Inu 


Nain 


Tor 


Thou 


Iru 


Iru 


Umjateens 


Toohunlog . . 


You. 


Abdnju 


Eanju 


As 


Ac 


He. 


Abaru 


Earn 


Arhoormur 


Oologun 


They. 


mdi 


Ndnda 


Inga 


Mor 


Of me. 


Madi 


Mandd 


Inga 


Humun subhke 


Of us. 


Nidi 


Eri 


Ninga 


Tohar 


Of thee. 


Midi 


Hindi 


Ninga 


Tohar 


Of you. 


Ebdndi 


Tranidi, enidi 


Asgohee 


Oonkur 


Of him. 


Ebaridi 


Ewardi 


Arhoormus 


Oonlogke 


Of them. 


Nadi 


Nidi 


Inga 


Mor 


Mine. 


Madi 


Mandi 


Inga 


Humar 


Our. 


Nidi 


Nitara 


Ninga 


Tohar 


Thine. 


Midi 


Minda 


Ninga 


Tohra 


Your. 


Ebandi 


Yanidi 


Asgohee 


Oonkur 


His. 


Ebaridi 


Trandi 


Asgehee 


Oonkur 


Their. 



96 



( 4 ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 


Moondari of Lohardugga. 


Oovain of Lohardugga. 


Rajmehalee of Eajmehal 


Hills. 


Hand 


Ti 


Khekha 


Tetu 




Foot 


Kdtd 


Khed 


Kedu 


*•• 


Nose 


Mun 


Muni 


Muied 


.. . 


Eye 


Met 


Khan 


Kanu 


... 


Mouth 


Mocha 


Bai 


Toro- 


»•• 


Tooth 


mta 


Pal 


Palu 


>•■ 


Ear 


Lutur 


Khebda 


Kaiedbu 


... 


Hair 


Ub 


Ohuti 


T^li 


.. . 


Head 


Bo 


Kukk 


Kuku 


... 


Tongue 


Alan or lee 


Tatkh^ 


Tartay 


... 


Belly 


Lai 


Kul 


Kocho 


... 


Back 


Deya 


Khokhd 


Kokeh 


... 


Iron 


Mened 


Panna 


Loha 


.•• 


Gold 


Samarum 


Sona 


Sona 


••• 


Silver 


Rupa 


Rupa 


Ohandi 


... 


Father 


Apu 


Tambas 


Abbah 


... 


Mother 


Enga 


Tangio 


AIdh 


... 


Brother 


Haga 


Bhai 


Bdidh 


... 


Sister 


Misi 


Tangdi 


Bdi 


... 


Sister (younger) 










Sister (elder) 










Man 


Horo (generic), Kora 


Met, alas (generic) 


Malay 


... 


Woman 


Kun 


Mukka 


Peli 


... 


Wife 


Kiiri 


Mukka 


Dani 


... 


Child 


Hon 


Khadd 


Makkeh 


• .• 


Child (male) 










Child (female) 










Son 


Kora hon 


Tangdas; kukko khadd= 
boy. 


Tengddeh 


... 


Daughter 


Kuri hon 

• 


Tangdaj kukkoe khadd = 
girl. 


Tengddi 


... 


Slave 


Ddsi (hired) 


loiikh (hired) 


Keagapmolay 


... 


Cultivator 


Kisan 


Urbar 


Kichhaneh 


... 


Shepherd 


Mahra; gupitani 


Khapus 


Charatru 


... 


God 


Sing bouga=sun spirit ... 


Dharme 


Gosain 


... 


Devil 


Bon ga (all malicious spirits) 


Nad 


Dindeh 


... 


Sun 


Singi 


Biri 


Beru 


... 


Moon 


Chandu 


Chando 


Bilpu and chando 




Star 


Ipil 


Binko 


Blndkeh 


... 


Fire 


Sengel 


Chich 


Chichu 


... 


Water 


Daa 


Am 


Amu 


••• 



( 5 ) 



of WmUrn Bengal and Behar. — (Continued.) 



97 



£hond of Orissa, 


Ehond of Gaujam. 


Shangai of Shahabad. 


iharwar of Sbahabad. 


Englisli, 


Kaju 


Kaju, kagu 


Kikkha 


Hath 


Hand. 


P4ada 


Kadu 


Khid 


Gor 


Foot. 


Mungeli 


Mungeli 


Mooeen 


Nak 


Nose. 


K^unn 


Kanu 


Khun 


Ankh 


Eye. 


Munlm 


Sudd 


Bye 


Moonh 


Mouth. 


Pdlu 


Patka, panu 


Pull 


Dant 


Tooth. 


Eriu 


Kriu 


Khebda 


Kan 


Ear. 


Jendiri 


Meranga, tlamerka 


Chotee 


Bar 


Hair. 


Han 


Tlan 


Kookh 


Kapar, moor. . 


Head. 


Sandosi 


Uangasy 


Titkha 


Jeebh 


Tongue. 


Tutu 


Tutu 


Kool 


Pait 


Belly. 


Betta 


Gandi, murenji . . 


Maid 


Peeth 


Back. 


Laha 


Luba 


Funna 


Loha 


Iron. 


Suna 


Suna 


Sona 


Sona 


Gold. 


Rupa 


Rupa 


Chandee 


Chandee 


Silver. 


Abba 


Aba, tangi 


Imbus 


Bapoo 


Father. 


la 


Ayd 


Indeo 


Muhtaree, Myya 


Mother. 


Tambesa 


ls^Dada,2Midmbesd 
Bai tdngi 


Dodus 


Bhaee 


Brother. ' 
Sister. 






Ingree 


Baheenee 


Sister (younger.) 






Ingdye 


Didya, Deedee 


Sister (elder.) 


Loku 


Midenju, loku .. 


Metus 


Murd 


Man. 


Asa 


Asa, midd 


Mookkur 


Mehraroo 


Woman. 


Mendbali 


Kudua, midihali . . 


lugkhyne 


Mahur 


Wife. 


Mida 


Mida 






Child. 






Kookoo, khuddur . . 


Renga 


Child (male.) 






Kookee, khuddur . . 


Rengee 


Child (female.) 


Mrienju 


Mrienju 


Jokhus 


Bata 


Son. 


Mrau 


Api budi 


Pellar 


Betee 


Daughter, 


Takimidd 


Toki, mida 


Balposle khuposkuw 


Palpos 


Slave. 


Chasagdtanju 


Tasagatanju 


Nana, lugduw 


Girhut 


Cultivator. 


Mendhiadaka 


Adarndrai 


Gurrereeas 


Gurreree 


Shepherd. 


Penu 


Panu 


Dhurmeus 


Bhugwan, Pur- 
mesir, Ram. 


God. 


^alakara 


Piduru 


Nad 


Bhoot 


Devil. 


Belapenu 


Beld 


Beeree 


Soorooj 


Sun. 


DSnju 


Danju 


Chundo 


Chundurma . . 


Moon. 


Snkka 


Sukd, tard 


Beenko 


Turye 


Star. 


Ndni 


Nadi 


Chich 


Agee 


Fire. 


Sira 


Sidru 


Urw 


Panee 

• 


Water. 

I, 



9B 



( 6 ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 


Moondari of Lohardugga, 


Ooiain of Lohardugga. 


Bajmehalee of Bajmehal 


FiUfl. 


House 


Ora^ 


Erpd 


Addah 




Horse 


Sadom 


Ghoro 


Ghoro 


• • • 


Cow 


Gai 


Gundi 


Oyou 


• •■ 


Dog 


Setd 


AM 


Aleh 


• •• 


Cat 


Piisi 


Berkha 


Bergeh 


... 


Cock 


Sandi 


Kokoro 


Chayok keru 


... 


Duck 


Koro 


Gede 


Batekeh 


■ •• 


Ass 


Gadha 


Gadhd 


Gadagoro 


• •• 


Camel 


Unt 


Unt 


Unteh 


• •. 


Bird 


Chene 


Ord 


Puzu 


• • • 


Go 


Senomen (imp.) 


Kala (imp.) 


Kdia 


• •■ 


Eat 


lommen 


Ona 


Lapd 


... 


Sit 


Dubmen 


Okka 


Okah 


• •• 


Come 


Ela; hijumen 


Bar4 


Bdrdh 


• •■ 


Beat 


Dalmen (imp.) 


Laua 


Bdjia 


... 


Stand 


Tingunmen 


Ija-a 


Elah 


• •« 


Die 


Goi (root) 


Khea (imp.) 


Tddura 




Give 


Um „ 


Chia 


Kata 


... 


Run 


Nir „ 


Bongd 


Bongah 


• •■ 


Up 


Sirma=sky; chetan=upon 


Merkha=sky; minya=upon 


Mainieh 


• ■• 


Near 


Ndne 


Hedde 


Atgi 


• •a 


Who 


Okoi 


Ne 


Ikkeh 


• •■ 


And 


Oro 


Dara 


Adenteh 


■ •• 


Yes 


He 


Ha-i 


Anan 


... 


Down 


Latar 


Kiya 


Pichhi 


t •• 


Far 


Sanin 


Gechchha 


Gichay 


... 


What 


Chikan, chinaa 


Endra 


Indray 


... 


But 


Mendo, batkam 


Panhen 


Jay, ze 


... 


No 


Ka, bano 


Mal-d 


Mala 


... 


Before 


Aiar 


Mund 


Agdu 


... 


Behind 


Tdyom 


Khokha 


Kokbazeh 


• •• 


Why 


Chikand mente, chia 


Enderna 


Indrik 


■ «. 


If 


re or re do 


Je 


Ink en 


... 


Alas 


Helaiya, hae, oh 


Hae 


Aiareh, daienuzi 


• ■• 


A father 


Apu 


Tambas 


Orta abbah 


..* 


Two fathers 


Apukin 


No dual (Irib tambar — 2 
fathers.) 


Jorer dbbah 


... 


Fathers 


Apuko 


Tambar 


Abbassa eber 


... 


Of a father 


Apu* 


Tambas gahi 


Orta dbbaki 


... 


Of fathers 


Apukoa 


Tambar gahi 


Abbassebka 


... 



( 7 ) 



e/ Western Bengal and Behar. — (Continued,) 



99" 



Khond of Orisaa. 


Ehond of Ganjam. 


Dhangar of Shahabad, 


Kharwarof Shahabad. 


English. 


Iddu 


Idd 


Surpa 


Ghur 


House. 


Goda 


Goda 


Ghoro 


Ghora 


Horse. 


Gadikadi 


GMa 


Gaed 


Gae 


Cow. 


Nahuni 


Ndhudi 


Alia 


Kookoor 


Dog. 


Meo 


Mea 


Birkba 


Bilar 


Cat. 


Kaju 


Tadru 


Cookro 


Moorga 


Cock. 


Sitopattd, 


Pana koskd 


Gerwa 


Buttuck 


Duck. 


Gadu 


Gadha, goda 


Gudhed 


Gudha 


Ass. 


Otu 


Uta 


Oontood 


Oont 


Camel. 


Pata 


Pota 


Ora 


Chirya 


Bird. 


Salmun 


Saju 


Kula 


Jab 


Go. 


Tinmun 


Tunumu 


Ona 


Khah 


Eat. 


Kakumu 


Kakasu 


Okka 


Bytha 


Sit. 


Eamu 


Narnu 


Bura 


Awa 


Come. 


Pagamu 


Bemuj samu 


Luwa 


Marr 


Beat. 


Nilumu 


Nilumu 


Eja 


Thura bokbuh 


Staud. 


S^t^ 


Sata 


Kichchus 


Mooja 


Die. 


Simu 


Sidndrd 


Chiya 


De 


Give. 


Pinjamu 


Gepa 


Bonga 


Koodo 


Run. 


Sendata 


Send! 


Mlrkha 


Oopray 


Up. 


Sadi 


Ata 


Hidday 


Neara 


Near. 


Kimbai 


Imbe, esti 


Nay or Nidday 


Ka 


Who. 


Ate 


Atte 


Orye 


Aur 


And. 


An 


Ana ana 


Muno 


Haw 


Yes. 


Nedd 


Nede 


Kiya 


Hethay 


Down. 


Dura 


Dara 


Gichha 


Door 


Far. 


Anna • . 


Ina 


Indra 


Kahay, joy . . 


What. 


Ateka 


Ana 




Baki 


But. 


A, e 


Ae 


Mula 


Naheen 


No. 


Kahe 


Bele 


Moondbhuray 


Agaree 


Before. 


Daana 


Bia 


Khokha 


Puchharee . , 


Behind. 


Jnnadiki 


Inaki, inadiki 


Indur 


Kahay 


Why. 


Esseka 


Ehanga 


Nalukbnuna 


Saitke 


If. 


Aigo 1 


Narena 


Pustoodeenkura, chee- 
kha. 


Ha, soch 


Alas. 


Raabba 


Raaba 


Onta embus 


Ek bapoo 


A father. 


Bi^bba 


Ri abara 


Doee embus 


Doo bapoo . . 


Two fathers. 


AbbaDgdalbain 


Abaru 


Hurmur embus 


Subhker bapoo 


Fathers. 


Badbbatari 


Ra abatM 


Onta embus gehee . . 


Ek bapooke . . 


Of a father. 


Abbarutari 




Koormur embus gehee 


Subhkur bapoo '■ 
ke. 


Of fathers. 



100 



( 8 ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 


Moondari of lohardugga. 


Ooiaia of Lohardugga. 


Bajmehalee of Bajmehal Hills. 


To a father 


Apu te 


Tambas ge 


Orteh abbok 


To fathers 


Apu kote 


Tambar ge 


Abbassebko 


From a father 


Apu te 


Tambas gusti 


Orteh abbanteh 


From fathers 


Apu kote 


Tambar gusti 


Abbaseberinteh 


A daughter 


Kuri hon 


Tangdd 


Ortah tengdi 


Two daughters 


Kuri honkin 


No dual form 


Jorertingadih 


Daughters 


Kiiri honko 


Tangdar 


Tengadihseber 


Of a daughter 


Ktirlhona 


Tangd^ gahi 


Ort^h tengddiki 


Of daughters 


Kuri honkoa 


Tangdar gahi 


Tengadihseverki 


To a daughter 


Kuri honte 


Tangda ge 


Orteh tengadik 


To daughters 


Kiiri hon kote 


Tangdar ge 


Tengadihseverko 


From a daughter 


Kuri honte 


Tangda gusti 


Orteh tengadinteh 


From daughters 


Kuri hon kote 


Tandar gusti 


Tengadiseverinteh 


A good man 


Bugin horo 


Nagad dlas 


Ortah eru malay 


Two good men 


Bugin horo kin 


(Irib nagad alar) — No dual 


Jurer eru maler 


Goodman 


Bugin horoko 


Nagad alar 


Eru maler 


Of a good man 


Bugin horo^ 


Nagad alas gahi 


Ortah eru maleki 


Of good men 


Bugin horoko^ 


Nagad alar gahi 


Eru maler ki 


To a good man 


Bugin horo te 


Nagad alas ge 


Orteh eru malek 


To good men 


Bugin horo kote 


Nagad alar ge 


Eru malerko 


From a good man 


Bugin horo te 


Nagad dlas gusti 


Orteh eru malenteh 


From good men 


Bugin ho o kote 


Nagad dlar gusti 


Eru malerinteh 


A good woman 


Bugin kiiri 


Nagad mukka 


Ortah eru pele 


Good women 


Bugin kiiriko 


Nagad mukkar 


Eru paylair 


A bad boy 


Etkan kora 


Maldan kukkos 


Ortdh dograhd makay . . 


A bad girl 


Etkan kiiri 


Maldan kukkoe 


Ortah dograhah makki . . ; 


Good 


Bugin 


Nagad 


Eru 


Better 


te bugin 


Adinti nagad (more good) , 
ad hurminti nagad. 


Gara eru 


Best 


Sobente bugin, i.e., of all . . . 


No superl. form of the word 


Go tenteh eru 


High 


Sdlangi 


Minyd 


Mechge 


Higher 
Highest 


1 No comparative and 1 
1 superlative forms. | 


No comp. ( Add as above 
and superl. " adinti/' " ad 
forms. ( hurminti." 


\ Gara mechge 
1 Getenteh mechge 


A horse 


Sdndi sadom 


Ghoro 


Makond goro 


A mare 


Engd sadom 


Ghuri 


Makond pdti goro 



( 9 ) 



of Western Bmgal and Behar. — (Continued.) 



101 



Khond of Orisea. 


Khond of Ganjam. 


Dhangar of Shahabad. ] 


{harwar of Shahabad, 


English. 


Raabbaki 


AMriki 


Onta embus gebee . . 


Ek bapoo ke . . 


To a father. 


Abbarki 


Abariki 


Koormur embus gebee 


Subhkur bapoo 
ke. 


To fathers. 


Raabbabata 


Ababahata 


Onta embus nijknw . . 


Ek bapoose . . 


From a father. 


Abbdrubdhdta 


Abarubahata 


Koormur embus nij- 
kuw. 


Subhkur bapoose 


From fathers. * 


Ramran 


Ra budi api 


Onta kbuddur 


Ek betya 


A daughter. 


Riasamed^ 


Budi skatdra 


Dooee kbuddur 


Doo betya . . 


Two daughters. 


Mranska 


Budiska 


Hoormur kbuddur . . 


Subh betya . . 


Daughters, 


Ramrdutari 


Buditara 


Onta kbuddur gebee. . 


Ek betyeke . . 


Of a daughter. 


Mrdnskatari 


Budi skatdrd 


Hoormur khudder ge- 
bee. 


Subh betyake. . 


Of daughters. 


Ramranki 


Budini 


Onta kbuddur gebee. . 


Ek betyeke . . 


To a daughter. 


Mranskani 


Budiskauiki 


Hoormur khudder ge- 
bee. 


Subh betyake 


To daughters. 


Eamranhata 


Budinibahata 


Onta kbuddur nijkuw 


Ek betyasew. . 


From a daughter. 




Budiskanibabata ... 


Hoormur khudder nij- 
kuw. 


Subh betyunsew 


From daughters. 


Neggilokakurande , . 


Negigatanju 


Onta kuree metus . . 


Ek bes murd. . 


A good man. 


Rineggiloka 


NegigaMruriaru ... 


Dooee kooree metus. . 


Doobesmurd. . 


Two good men. 


Neggilokunga 


Negigdtaru 


Hoormur koree metus 


Subh bes murd 


Good men. 


Neggilokutari 


Negigatari 


Onta koree metus gebee 


Ek bes murdke 


Of a good man. 


Neggilokungatari . . 


Negigatdri 


Doee koree metus gebee 


Subh besmurdke 


Of good men. 


Neggiloku 


Negigataniki 


Onta koree metus gebee 


Ek besmurdke 


To a good man. 




Negigatariki 


Doee koree metus gebee 


Subh besmurdke 


To good men. 


• Raanjunegiloku ba- 
hata. 


Negigatanidai 


Onta koree metus nij- 
kuw. 


Ek besmurdse 


From a good man. 


Neggilokunga-bah ata 


Negigotariddi 


Hoormur koree metus 
nijkuw. 


Subh besmurdse 


From good men. 


Ranegiasd 


Negi asamidd 


Onta koree mokkar, . 


Ek neek mehra- 
roo. 


A good woman. 


Neggiasaskd 


Negi asamiddnga... 


Hoormur koree mok- 
kar. 


Sub neek meh- 
raroo. 


Good women. 


Kesaramida-rande . . 


Dui dpa 


Muba boorhus jokhus 


Ek unaees renga 


A bad boy. 


Kesaramrairande 


Duibudi 


Muha boorhus khuddur 


Unaees renga 


A bad girl. 


Negiri 


Negara 


Nebul 


Bes 


Good. 


Dehanegar 


Bala 


Adint koree 


Bes neemun . . 


Better. 


Negari 


Askadengi 


Adint bibi koree 


Subhunse neek 


Best, 


Denga 


Prisa 


Michha 


Oonch 


High. 


Debadeenga 




Adint michha 


Savae oonch. , 


Higher. 


Debani denga 


Prisatara 


Adint bibi michha . . 


Subhunse 


Highest. 


Gaddrande 


Ra goda 


Onta ghoro 


Gora 


A horse. 


Tallagadarande 


Ra taligboda 


Boorhid 


Ghorya 


A mare. 



102 



( 10 ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 


Moondari of Lohardugga, 


Oorain of Lohardugga. 


Eajmehalee of Eajmehal Hills. 


Horses 


Sandi s^dom ko 


Ghoro 


Goro gahindi 


Mares 


Engasadomko 


Ghuri 


Pati goro gahindi 


A bull 


Hada 


Sand 


Makond sandeh 


A cow 


Gai 


Gunde 


Makond oyou 


Bulls • 


Haddko ■ ... 


Sand 


Sand gahindi 


Cows 


Gai ko 


Gund6 


Oye gahindi 


A dog 


Sandi seta 


AIM 


Makond aleh 


A bitch 


Enga setd 


Kutti 


Makond pati aleh 


Dogs 


Sandi setd. ko 


AIM 


Aleh gahindi 


Bitches 


Engd seta ko 


Kutti 


Pdti aleh gahindi 


A he-goat 


Bakra 


Erd 


Makond bokra bedi 


A female goat 


Enga merom 


Budhiera 


Makond pati bedi 


Goats 


Merom ko (generic) 


Era 


Bedi gahindi 


A male deer 


Sdndijilu 


Andiyd, mak 


Makond bakra chitra 


A female deer 


Engajllu 


Budhi mdk 


Makond pati chitra 


Deer 


Jilu ko 


Mdk 


Chitra 


I am 


Ain menainya 


En raadan 


Ainoo 


Thou art 


Am menamed 


Ninraaddi 


Ninoo 


He is 


Ini menaiya 


As raas (tali=it is) 


Ahoo 


We are 


Ale menalea 


Nam raadat, em raadam ... 


Aim sebem 


You are 


Ape menapea 


Nim raadar 


Nin seber 


They are 


Ako menako^ 


Ar raanar ("ral" with other 
than men). 


A seber 


I was 


Ain tainkenain 


En rahachkan 


Ain bechken 


Thou wast 


Am tainkenam 


Nin rahachkai 


Nin bechkeh 


He was 


Ini tainkenai 


As rahachas 


A bechia 


We were 


Ale tainkenale 


Ndm rahachkat, em 
rahachkam. 


Aim bechkem 


You were 


Ape tainkenape 


Nim rahachkar 


Nin chheber luchker 


They were 


Ako tainkenako 


Arrahachar 


A chheber luchia 


Be 


Akanmen 


Mand 


Unun 


To be 




Manna 


Menoti 


Being 


Akan 


Mannd 


Menzah 


Having been 


Jan 


Manj kan 


Menz kacharon 


I may be 




En manna ongon (I am 
able to be) . 


Ayn menoti parin ... 


I shall be 


Ok 


En manon 


Ayn menen 


I should be 




En manna ongdan (I was 
able to be). 


Ayn menoti parien 


Beat 


Ddlmen (2 p.s. imp.) 


Laua 


BazM 


To beat 


Dalted 


Launa 


Bazoti 


Beating 


Daltan 


Laua 


Bazuria 



( 11 ) 



o/ Western Bengal and Behar. — (Continued,) 



103 



Khond of Orissa. 


Khond of Ganjam. 


Shangar of Shahabad. 


Khaiwar of Shahabad. 


English. 


Gadanga 


Godanga 


Dher ghoro 


Subh ghore , . 


Horses. 


Godatalinga 


Taligodanga 


Dher boorhid 


Subh ghorya 




Mares. 


Shandakadirande 


Eandakodi 


Addo 


Burud 




A bull. 


Gadakadirande 


Randdj gadukodi . . 


Gaed 


Gyea 




A cow. 


Shandakadinga 


Kodinga 


Dhir addo 


Subh burdha 




Bulls. 


Pandakadinga 


Gadunga 


Dhir gaed 


Subh gyeun 




Cows. 


Rand himdi 


Ranahudi 


Alia 


Kookoor 




A dog. 


Ranahuni 


Eatalinahudi 


Kootee alia 


Pilly 




A bitch. 


Nahumingd 


Nahakd 


Dher alia 


Subh kookoor 




Dogs. 


Nahunigan 


Taliudhaka 


Dher kootee alia 


Subh pilroo 




Bitches. 


Bakadiad^ 


Oda 


Bokka 


Khusee 




A he-goat. 


Talliadda 


Tali oda 


Enra 


Cher 




A female goat. 


Bakdiadanga 


Adanga 


Dher bokka 


Subh khussee 




Goats. 


Ramiriga 


Boda sitali 


Enrya 


Chowrenga 




A male deer. 


Rasitali 


Talli sitali 


Boorhee 


Bhoourlee 




A female deer. 


Miriga 


Sitdli 


Dher enrya 


Subh chowrenga 
subh bhoourlee. 


Deer. 


Amunai 


Anu, Main 


Inhoraduw 


Mahoon 


I am. 


Muitianji 


Irumanjeru 


Ninhoraday 


Too howwa . . 


Thou art. 


Ebanju manenju 


Anjumanenju 


Arhoraday 


Ao how wus . . 


He is. 


Anmnfianua 


Amumdnamu 


Enhoraduw 


Humun hyen .. 


We are. 


Irumassem 


Inu manji 


Ninhoraday 


Too howwa . . 


You are. 


Ebarugule 


Arnmaneru 


Arhoradaw 


Ao oubh how 
was. 


They are. 


Amimassi 


Anu masse 


Inhorum 


Maruhloow . . 


I was. 


Inumassi 


Inumanji 


Ninhorum 


Too ruhla 


Thou wast. 


Ebanjumasse 


Zanjunndsenju 


A.rmoorhoraday 


Aoruhla 


He was. 


Maingule massengu... 


Amumasamu 


Emhorum 


Humunke rub- 
leen. 


We were. 


Irumasseru 


Inu manji 


Ninhorum 


Toow ruhlu . , 


You were. 


Abdrumanera 


Yaru maseru 


Armoorhorum 


Assubh ruhlun. 


They were. 


Imu 


Manba ana 


Ho 


Hokhus 


Be. 


Abatangi 


Manbanda 


Munaluggay 


Hokheke 


To be. 




Manba ddi 


Nulukh 


Hoeke 


Being. 


Maseru 


Manbatekd 


Kula 


Hoke- 


Having been. 


Amuaba munamu ... 


Anumanbamui 


Inhomunnun 


Ma saed ruheen 


I may be. 


Amu anamu 
Maange dbasdnj ane . . . 


Anumaigiua 
Anumai 


Inhoround 

Juroor kurke munnun 


Maruhloow . . 

Majroor rahul 
hooch. 


I shall be 
I should be. 


Fagamu 
Fdg^t^gi 

..•■•• 


Samu Bemu . , 

Sdpdtengi 

Sahi 


Lowa 

Lowarcha 

Lowchake 


Murra 

Mareke 

Mareke 


Beat. 
To beat. 
Beating. 



104 



{ 12 ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 



Moondari of Lohardugga. 



Oorain of Lohardugga. 



Bajmehalee of Bajmehal Hills. 



Having beaten 
I beat 

Thou beatest 
He beats 
We beat 

You beat 

They beat 

I am beating 

I was beating 

I had beaten 

I may beat 

I shall beat 
I should beat 

I am beaten 

I was beaten 

I shall be beaten 

I go 

Than goest 

He goes 

I went 

Thou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

What is your name?... 

How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir. 

How many sons are 
there in your father^s 
house ... 



Dalkedte 
Ain ddli aiii 
Am ddli am 
Ini dali ai 
Ale dali ale 

Ape dali ape 

Ako dali ako 

Ain daltanain 

Ain daltan taikena 



Ain dal^ain 



(No passive form) 



Lauchkan . 
En laudan 
Nia laudai 
As laudas 
Em laudam 

Nam laudat 

Ar launar 

En lana lagdan 

En lana lakan 

En lauchkan rahachkan ... 

En lauongon (I am able 
to beat) . 

En lauon 

(No passive form) 



Ain senoain 

Am senoam 

I"ni senoai 

Ain senkenain ... 

Am senkenam 

Ini senkenai 

Senomen 

Senotan 

Senojan 

Ama nutum chikana ? ... 

Ne sadom chimin sinua 
hobdkana. 

Nea te Kashmir chiminan 
sanifia. 

Apumd orad re chimin kora 
houko menakoa. 



En ka lagdan 
Nin ka lagdai 
As ka lagdas 
En kerkan 
Nin kerkai 
As keras 
Kala 



K41ke 

Ninghai ender name 

I ghoro eyon chdnantd tali 



lyanti Kashmir guti eyon 
gechchha rai. 

Nimbas gahi erpami eyon 
jhan kukko kbaddar 
raanar. 



Bazur kachra 
Ain bazen 
Nin bazurkeh 
Ah bazur I a 
Aim bazem 

Nin bazah 

Achener bazer 

Ain bazeh behin 

Ain bazeh bichken 

Ain bazeh kochorken 

Ain bazoti parein 

Ain bazoti maden 
Ain bazoti marmezeken 

Ain bazurken 

Ain bazur kocharken 

Ain bazurenkoh 

Ain aiken 

Nin ekkeh 

Ah ekki 

Ain ekkeh kochorken 

Nin ekkeh kochorkeh 

Ah ekkeh kochoria 

Eala 

Ekkeh behi 

Ekkia 

Ningki indor nameh 

Yi goro iko paneh 



Yi nonteh Kashmireh iko 
chudi menid. 



Ning aboki addno ikond 
maker behener. 



( 13 ) 



•of Western Bengal and Behar. — (Continued.) 



105 



Kbond of Orissa, 


Khond of Ganjam. 


Dhangar of Sliahabad. 


Sharwar of Sliahabad 


Englisb. 


Pdgd 


Sahanenju 




Marke 


Having beaten. 


Amupagi 


Anusapimai 


In Iowa lugdun 


Ma marho . . 


I beat. 


Irupagite 


Inusapimanji 


Ninlowa lugday 


Too marut barra 


Thou beatest. 


Eb&njusabapima venju 


Anjusapimanenju . . 


Askolowa lugdus 


Ao marut ho. . 


He beats. 




Amii satd tdmu . . 


Emholowa lugdun . . 


Hamuw marut 
bareen. 


We beat. 




Inusatdti 


Ninlondur 


Toohun marut 
howwa. 


You beat. 




Arusatateru 


Arlonur 


Aosub marut 
baruw. 


They beat. 


Amupagimanuanu ... 


Anusdpimdi 


Inguw loncher 


Ma marilt ba- 
reew. 


I am beating. 


Amupdgimasamu . . . 


Anusapimase 


Inmar mokkuw 


Ma marut ruh- 
leew. 


I was beating. 


Amupagdmassamu ... 


Anu sdte 


Injuroor lawa lewur. . 


Mamarlayruh- 
leew. 


I had beaten. 




Anu sapamuij 


Inho luwuw 


Ma marsakeela 


I may beat. 


Amupagina 


Anusaigina 


Inlowunga 


Marmarho . . 


I shall beat. 


Mangepagasangite ... 




Injuroor lawunga . . 


Ma juroor mar- 
ho. 


I should beat. 


Amusabi 


Anusapapate 


Ingunlonchus 


Ma marul jat 
bareew. 


I am beaten. 


Amu maddatinjama- 
samu. 


Auusapapdnjamai. . 


Ingunlonchus moon- 
duw. 


Ma marul jat 
ruhleew. 


I was beaten. 


Amu maddatinjinamu 


Anumadatun 


Injuroor lawa mok- 
kuw. 


Ma juroor ma- 
rul jaib. 


I shall be beaten. 


Amu sabi anusaiu . . . 


Anu sain 


Inkalugdun 


Ma jaeebo . . 


I go. 


Iru sdju 


Inusaji 


Nunhokula 


Too jat barra 


Thou goest. 


Ebanju saji marenju. . 


lanjuadsenju 


Asaon ho kerus 


Ao jat batey. . 


He goes. 


Amumasse 


Anu sase 


Inhokurkuw 


Ma gyeleew . . 


I -went. 


luu masse 


Inusasi 


Ninhokurkuw 


Too gyela 


Thou wentest. 


Ebanju masse 


Ydnju sasenju 


Asoonhokerus 


Ao gyela 


He went. 


Sdju 


Sdju salamu 


Kula 


Jah 


Go. 


Sdjimaue 


Sajimane 


Kulugduw 


Jat bareew . . 


Going. 


Sasse 


S£se 


Kowun 


Jat ruhub 


Gone. 


Nipdddd ini 


Nipdddinipdda 


Indurneghi numay . . 


Ka tohur nao 
ha. 


What is your name ? 


Nigadagadidbaepe ... 


Igodas sabuddajd 
mane. 


Eyon olta oomur 
ghoro mano. 


Ketna oomar 
re ghora ke 
howay. 


How old is this 
horse ? 


Easmir imbatakd 
esedur^. 


K^smira desa imba 
tekas se duraane. 


Asle Keshmeer eyon 
gichhu mamo. 


Ehwaw se Kush- 
mir kateek 
door howay. 


How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 


Midbbaedutarse Meika 
maneru. 


Ni ihi iduta ese sri- 
kamaneru. 


Enluggay neembus 
kooeea kookoQ khud- 
dur. 


Kutna beta toh- 
ra bap ke ghur 
me baruw. 


How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 



106 



( w ) 



Further Languages of Aborigines 



English. 



Moondari of Loliardagga, 



Oorain of Lohardugga. 



Rajmehalee of Rajmehal Hills. 



I have walked a long 
way to-day 



The son of my uncle 
is married to her 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 



His brother is taller 
than his sister. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him 

Take those rupees from 
him. 

Beat him well and bind 
him withxope. 



Draw water from the 

well. 
Walk before me 



Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 

From whom did you 

buy that? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



Sisiii ain asu saiiiii4 tein 
hijulena. 



Kakainyaa hon te kora inia 
mise loo drandiakanai. 



Orad re pundi sadoma jin 
mend. 



Ni4 deya re jin doimen 



Ain inia hon kodra te isu 
hansakiya. 

Ini buru chetan re uri ko 
gupitanai. 



En daru subd re ini sadom 
re dubakanai. 



Inia haga te inia misiats 
salangiakanai. 



Ena rea gonon bdr taka 
adali mend. 

Apuin en hudiii oraa re 
taintanai. 

Ne taka umaimen 

En taka ko ini tate agiiimen 

Khiib dalimen oro baiar 
te tholimen. 

Kuan te daa urunemen . . . 
Ainya aiar re senomen ... 



Innd en dher gechchha ker- 
kan. 



Eng kakasgahi tangdas gahi 
binja adigahi tangdigane 
manjaki bii. 

Erpand pandru ghorogahi 
khughir rai. 

Adi gahl mednii khughir 
liiya. 

En asgahi tangdasin ko- 
dhem korrdti lauchkan 
beedan. 

As addo menta4 lagdas 
parta menya. 



As onta ghoronu ukkas 
beedas amannagahi 

miilinu. 



Okoia kord hon amd tay- 
omte hijutand ? 

End am okoi td tem kirinlad 



Hatu ren moyad dokanu 
td te. 



Asgahi tangris adigahi 
tangrinti mechchha raas. 



Adigahi mulli arhai rupiya 
rai. 

Embas hu sanni erpanii 
raadas. 



I rupiyan dsge chia 

Abrd rupiyan asgusti hod . . . 



Asin khob koda dard eptu- 
ru hea. 



Kubinti am otharaa 
Enghai mund gucha 



Nekhai tangdas nighai 
khokhanu bardas? 

Adin nim negusti khindkar 
(plural) ? 

Padantd orot baniyas gusti 



Ain inch ganri ganra haveh 
charach ken (or) Ain ineh 
d^garoh haveh choroch 
ken. 

Eng ddda tensadek adi tang 
baiguni pelved menza. 



Yi, addno zinporo goroki 
kokeno nanpo behi. 

Naviki kokeno kidpoa oza. 



Ayn ahiki tengaden peneth 
ganri gaiira bazken. 

Aha pahar kornoh saoazen 
charatri kend kundi. 



Ahmon kolorno goro meche 
oki. 



Ah adi tang bainteb mechga 



Nadike kimoteh adaitdka 
meneni. 

Na ada makono eng abbd 
doki. 

Yi takan, nahik chia 

Ahi guni nao nao takan 
ouka, 

Nahin ehene baza adente 
gatath echekeroza. 



Chuanteh ameh mulga 
Eng bahano choria 



Nek tengadeh ningi kokok 
beri. 

Nek guni nadin kekkeh ... 



Na kekki bahond doka nin- 
teh. 



( 15 ) 
of Western Bengal and Behar. — (Concluded.) 



107 



Khond of Orissa. 


Khond of Ganjam. 


' niiangar of Shahabad. 


Kharwar of Shahabad. 


English. 


Neamudebatre haginga 


Nenju anu deha pa- 


A betber gichhcba 


Ma burdoor se 


I have walked a long 


man^mu. 


hari takite. 


koododkunke buruch- 
kun. 


aj sail kyle 
byru. 


way, to-day. 


MainkSkumrienju tana 


Nai kok^ mrijenju 


Inka kusgay tungdus 


Mor kara ke 


The son of my "ncle is 


angunibhiangitenj u. 


eri tanginisedu 


asgay tungdye asgi- 


bete ke biyab 


married to her sister. 




dhatenju. 


nay ing karrye. 


oonkur bubine 
se bbyb ba. 




Mukdgada tari paldiu 


Su kdligodatdngin 


Surpa jeen rye aeka 


Grhur men kbo- 


In the house is the 


idumade tamanne. 


idutd mane. 


pudro gboro juhjeen. 


geer oojur 
gbora ke ba. 


saddle of the white 
horse. 


Gaddshamu 


I jini eanigandita 


Ekade munja jeen luda 


Kboogeer ke 


Put the saddle upon his 




itamu. 




obkur pith 
pur dhurra. 


beck. 


Tanami enjunianudeba 


Anu eanumrini kid- 


Tungdus koorkun kyk- 


Ma oonkur beta 


I have beaten his son 


pdgite. 


orudai deb£sa te. 


dunda. 


ke kyik gbos 
murlayhyew. 


with many stripes. 


Asarukuiti tajan unjan 


Eanjusoru, kuiti 


Purta myan gaed myna 


Ao mawasee 


He is grazing cattle on 


kapaimanenju. 


kodi gdni sold tis- 
pamanenju. 


lugay. 


toongur pur 
paharke cha- 
rawat ba. 


the top of the hill. 


Amrahammeda tagada 


Eanju dmrdnusditi 


Enurtus gboro rikkus 


Ao ghora pur 


He "is sitting on a horse 


kuitita manunju. 


goddta kaksdma- 
nenju. 


ras mun moolee ijkus. 


uswar bethe 
00 rookh ke 
ba. 


under that tree. 


Tanaarabe satana 


Eani dddd, eanitaugi 


Asgay tung dudus a 


Okur bhaee sa- 


His brother is taller 


baitaka denga. 


kebe pidsamdsenju. 


dinty nucbbcha. 


wae ooncb 
banisbut okra 
baheen ke ba. 


than his sister. 


Erikriusitakarisuka ... 


Eramotdj dosasuka 


Dam minjus arbaee 


Mol okur ar- 


The price of that is 




dre. 


rupya. 


baee rupya ba. 


two rupees and a half. 


Maiabbaakagii duma 


Naiaba kagari iduta 


Embus chotay surpa 


Mor bap oo ch- 


My father lives in that 


deta mauenju. 


mauenju. 


noradus. 


bot ghur men 
ruhela. 


small house. 


Itdkdrand^ebbani 


Itaka ednikisimu . . 


Edbebun asgechiya. 


Ee roopya ke 


Give this rupee to him. 


kisimu. 






okra keda. 




Atdkaibain baba tarn- 


AtdkangaeSni bdba- 


Adbebun asgoostay 


Ao roopya ke 


Take those rupees from 


un. 


tako daum. 


bowa. 


oonka se lela. 


him. 


Abanineggi gianai pagi, 


Eaniki, balladengi- 


Askboob luwa ipno 


Okra ke bhur 


Beat him well and bind 


dorutd tahamu. 


sabamu, ate, i dor- 
kdddi tamu. 


asin beya. 


jore mara our 
jorse okra ke 
banda. 


him with ropes. 


Kuantakasi druka dam- 


Kuatdsidue belanue 


Kobuntee amninda . . 


Indara se panee 


Draw water from the 


Till. 






bhar. 


well. 


Nain noki sallaum ... 


nake nokamu 


Inghay moond baharee 
gicbba bokha moond 
kula bura. 


Humra ugaree 
cbul phir. 


Walk before me. 


Embarimidami boati- 


Imberipaganju ndibi 


Neekhay khidday nin- 


Kehker larika 


Whose boy comes be- 


laimane. 


aydja manenju. 


gbay bokha tintay 
bura lugmur. 


tohra pichay 
awut ba. 


hind you ? 


Eri imberi bhaba kad- 


Inu imberita, drdkada 


Nesgoostay kbind ke 


Kekarase toow 


From whom did you 


diti. 


manji. 


raday. 


okra kemol 
lele how ha. 


buy that ? 


Jiiatar auju dokani- 
bdha. 


Nata bajariata kada 


Metus bunee angay 


Gano kebunya 


From a shop-keeper of 


manii. 


goostay boa. 


se lele byen. 


the village. 



SFECIMElSrS 



ABOEIGINAL LANGUAGES 



CENTRAL PROYINCES. 



115 



( 2 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 





TEIBES. 




EOOEKOOS. 


Mehto. 


Btgas or Binjwaes. 




Nimar. 


HoshuTigahad 


Bilaspur. 


Balaghat. 


Mandla. 


One 


Mia 


Mia 








Two 


Baria 


Baria 




Door 




Three ... 


Hapia 


Aphia 








Pour 


Oofoonia 


Oofoonia 








Five 


Monoya 


Monoya 




Puch 




Six 


Toorooya 


Toorai 




Chaie 




Seven ... 


Ayeeah 


Aie 








Eight ... 


Eelaria 


Eelar 










Nine 


Area 


Araie 








Ten 


Gel 


Gul 








Twenty... 


Esa , , 


Eesa 









Fifty ... 












One hundred 


Meeasuddie 


Su 








I 


Eeng 


Eeng 








Ofme ... 




Yen 






More 


Mine 


Eenja 


Yan 






More 


We 


Allay 


Alay 




Hame 




Ofus 




Yen 




Hamra 


More 


Our 


Allayja 


Allay 








Thou ... 




Urn 




Tu 





Of thee ... 




Um Khun 




Toor 




Thine 




Ama 










You 




Apay 




Toom 




Ofyou 




Um Khun 




Toomur 




Your 




Apay 








He 


Deeja 


Hoojay 




Oh 




Ofhim ... 




Deejun 




Okdr 




His 




Deeja 








They 


Arkon 


Hiikoonay 








Of them 




Deejun 








Their ... 





Deeja 








Hand 


Tee 


Tee 


Teeth 






Foot ... 


Nanga 


Nanga 


Kuttath 


Gode 




Nose 


Mon 


Moo 


Mooth 






Eye 


Med 


Met 


Maith 


Ayekh 




Mouth ... 


Chaboo 


Chaboo 


Thoteth 


Moo 




Tooth ... 


Teereen 


Tiring 


Tring 






Ear 


Lootoor 


Lootoor 


Lootoor 






Hair 


Op 


Hoob 


Oob 


Choondee 


Kesh 


Head 


Kupar 


Dooing 


Bho 








( 3 ) 



PROVINCES LANGUAGES. 



Ill 



TEIBES. 




Punka. 


Mehea. 


Katya. 


Eaj Gond. 


Maria Gond. 




Mandla. 


Mandla. 


Narsinghpur. 


Chanda. 


Chanda. 














One. 












Two. 















Three. 

Four. 

Five. 

Six. 

Seven. 

Eight. 









__ 




Nine. 

Ten. 

Twenty. 

Fifty. 

One Hundred. 






Mee 


IS una 


Nunna 


I. 


More 


More 


Maja, Majee 


Nawa 


Nawa 


Of me. 


More 


More 


Maja, Majee 


Nawa 


Naiva 


Mine. 








Amot 


Mummatoo 


We. 


More 


More 


Humche, Humchee 


Mawa 


Mawa 


Of us. 






Humche, Humchee 


Mawa 


Mawa 


Our. 






Too 


Nimme 


Mimma 


Thou. 






Toojha, Toojhee 


Neewa 


Neewa 


Of thee. 






Toojha, Toojhee 


Neewa 


Neewa 


Thine. 








Nimmet 


Nimmutoo 


You. 






Toomche, Toom- 
chee 


Meewa 


Meewa 


Of you. 






Toomche, Toom- 
chee 


Meewa 


Meewa 


Your. 






Te 


Wor, Wogoo 


Bogoo, Hogoo 


He. 






Tacha, Tachee 


Wana, Tana 


Wana, Tana 


Of him. 






Tacha, Tachee. 


Wona 


Wona 


His. 









Hor 


Woroo 


They. 








Hona 


Wora 


Of them. 









Hona 


Wora 


Their. 








Kin 


Einyoo 


Hand. 








Kal 


Kaloo 


Foot. 








Mosar 


Moshok 


Nose. 






Dor 


Euruk 


Konda 


Eye. 









Todee 


Toddee 


Mouth. 




. .. ■*> 




Pulk 


PuUoo 


Tooth. 








Kevee 


Eevoo 


Ear. 








Kelk 


Eelloo 


Hair. 








Tula 


TuUa 


Head. 



112 



( 4 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 



TEIBES. 



K.OOHKOOS. 



Nimar. 



Hoshungabad. 



Mehto. 



Bilaspur. 



BtGAS OB BiNJWAES. 



Balaghat. 



Mandla. 



Tongue ... 

Belly ... 

Back ... 

Iron 

Gold ... 

Silver 

Father ... 

Mother ... 

Brother . . . 

Sister . . . 

Man 

Woman ... 

Wife ... 

ChUd ... 

Son 

Daughter 

Slave 

Cultivator 

Shepherd 

God 
Devil ... 

Sun 
Moon 
Star 
Fire 

"Water ... 
House ... 
Horse ... 
Cow 

Dog ... 
Cat 

Cock ... 
Duck ... 
Ass 

Camel . . . 
Bird ... 
Go 
Eat 
Sit 
Come 
Beat 



Lang 

Lai 

Patta Bhoree 

Lokhondo 

Sona 

Eoopa 

Aba 

Mai 

Dada 

Baie 

Koro 

Jupaie 

Eanjupaie 

Taunee 

Dhoki Kond 

Heerkon Kond 



Kirsan 

Dhunkar 

Gowaj 

Bhooto 

Gomuj 

Chandniegoom ai 

Efil 

Singfl 

Da 

Oora 

Ghorgi 



Cheeta 

Meenoo 

Komba 

Budduck 

Gudderee 

Oont 

Teelit 

Chineba 

Jomma 

Soobangu 

Hedjiba 

Mondieja 



Lang 

Layee 

Bhaodee 

Loh 

Sona 

Chandi 

Awakur 

Mai 

Bhaya, Dada 

Misee 

Koru 

Jufye 

Jufye 

Tana 

Kon 

Koojye 



Keersan 

Gadanea 

Gomuj 

Bhoot 

Gomuj 

Chand 

Eefeel 

Singul 

Dar 

Oora 

Goorgie 



Seeta 

Meenoo 

Eooma 

Buduk 

Gudra 

Oont 

Chisroj 

Senaja 

Jomeeja 

Soobangija 

Hirjay 

Koomagai 



Alung 

Lai 

Tooteth 

Lohieh 

Souna 

Chandich 

Apoom 

Egung 

Wagum, 

Missim 

Munnai 

Eruth 

Erung 

Lahee 

Helurhun 

Erahun 



Soonna 
Chandee 



Dada 
Bai Nonee 



Hoorkoo 

Mehrum mohoriah 

Bhugwan 

Mara 

Baer 

Jone 

Ipeel 

Sengul 

Dab 

Ord 

Ghore 

Ooree 



He 

Sim 

Dabuk 

Gadhe 

Unthee 

Teetee 

Ibatum 

Jum 

Dooroop 

Dum 

Medai 



Donkee 
Dubkee 
Chawa 



Kissar 



Bhugwan 

Bhoot 

Din 

Chand 

Turaie 

Aig 



Ghur 



Kookoor 

Bilwa 

Kookdu 

Dubuk 

Gudha 

Got 



Donka 

Donkee 

Loogaee 



Jootha 



Churwah 

Naraindeo 

Bhoot 

Soorujdeo 

Joodhaiwa 

Taraiwa 



Eookoor, Kootah 
Beelar 
Morunga 
Dubuk 



( 5 ) 



PROVINCES LANGUAGES.— (Corefmzied) 



113 



TEIBES. 




Punka. 


Mehba. 


Katta. 


Eaj Gond. 


Maeia Gond. 




Mandla. 


Mandla. 


Narsinghpur. 


Chanda. 


Chanda. 










Wunjer 


Wunjag 


Tongue. 







Pot 


Peer 


Potta 


Belly. 








Perreka 


Mondko 


Back. 








Kuohee 


Kuchee 


Jron. 








Sono 


Sono 


Gold. 









Khooro 


Khooro 


Silver. 






Dada 


Babo 


Minmal 


Father. 


Mohtaree 


Mohtaree 


Buhoo 


Ava 


Minya 


Mother. 








Tumoor 


Tummogai 


Brother. 








Shelar 


Helagai 


Sister. 






Log 


Manial 


Munkal 


Man. 


Donkee 


Donkee 


Logaee 


Ear 


Anchurree 


Woman. 


Loogaee 


Logaee 


Bail 


Mootte 


Mootta 


Wife. 
Child. 






Lekhoor 


Murree, Meyar 


Murree, Mugai 


Son. 






Andoor 


Meeyar 


Muyoree 


Daughter. 


Eootha, Balpose 


Eootha, Balpose 








Slave. 








Kissan 


Kuburkewar 


Cultivator. 








Koormar 


Yeting-mehwah 


Shepherd. 








Pen 


Penos 


God. 








Dinya 


Dunjan 


Devil. 


' 






Pordoo 


Pordoo 


Sun. 








Nelenj 


Lenjoo 


Moon. 


Taraiwa 


Taraiwa 




Hokko 


Hookka 


Star. 






Istoo 


Kis 


Eissoo 


Fire. 









Yer 


Yagoo 


Water. 








Lon 


Lonoo 


House. 








Khora 


Kora 


Horse. 








Moora 


Moore 


Cow. 


Kookoor 


Eookoor 




Nui 


Neiyoo 


Dog. 








Bilial 


Pooshalee 


Cat. 






Komra 


Ghoogootee 


Gogooree 


Cock. 








Herema 


Herma 


Duck. 








Gardee 


Gardee 


Ass. 








Hootan 


Ootoomee 


Camel. 








Pitte 


Pitte 


Bird. 






Za, Zesin 


Hum 


Honnoo 


Go. 








Tin 


Tinnos 


Eat. 








Ooda 


Oodda 


Sit. 








Wura 


Wayu 


Come. 








Pam, Jeem 


Halsa, Pam 


Beat. 



114 



( 6 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 









TEIBES. 








KOOEKOOS. 


Mbhto. 


Btgas ok 


BiNJWAES. 




Nimar. 


Hoshungabad. 


Bilaspur. 


Balaghat. 


Mandla, 


Stand 


Tengneu 


Tiginay 


Ohurako 


Thadruh 


Thaira rohhy 


Die 


G ojuba 


Gouj 


Goiko 


Murney 




Give 


Hukerja 




Ewung 








Run 




Surubay 


Nineerka 


Bhugaoo 




Up 


Lee 


Leeun 


Einko 


Mey 





Down ... 


Otay 


Etan 


Dooroop 







Before ... 


Chova 


Sootoogun 


Aghere 






Near 


Meirja 


Merun 


Thaoen 




Jorey 


Far 


Lanka 


Utar 


Turarim 







Behind ... 


Tawun 


Tawun 




Pachey 




Who ... 




Yae 


Ame 






What ... 


Cho 


Choee 






« ..,,,. 


Why ... 




Chodeega 




Kuelay 




And 




Aor 


Aur 


Ar 




But 




Pun 




Pachoo 




If 












Yes 


Thaka 




Ho 


Ho 




jN'o 


Bung 


Haibung 


Bagin 


Nahi 




Alas 








Arrura 


Edaee 


A father 


... ... 


Meea Dao 




Baba 




Of a father 








Babako 




To a father 




Dao Khun 




Babaley 




From a father 




Dao Tuu 




Babatey 





Two fathers 












Fathers 








Baba 




Of fathers 








Babako 




To fathers 








Babaley 




From fathers "... 








Babatey 




A daughter 




Meea Eerkhoon 




Betty 




Of a daughter 









Bettyko 




To a daughter 




Koonjye Ehun 




Bettyley 




From a daughter 




Koon Jat 




Bettytey 




Two daughters ... 












Daughters 




Ghoonick Eer- 
khoon 




Betty 





Of daughters 








Bettyko 




To daughters 








Bettyley 




From daughters ... 








Bettytay 





A good man 


Awul Ja 


Nigut Kora 




Nik admi 




Of a good man ... 








Nik admiko 


Ek bhala ma- 
noosh 



( 7 ) 



PEOYINCES LANGUAGES.— (CoM^mwed) 



11.^ 



TEIBES. 




Punka. Mehra. 


Katta. 


Eaj Gond. 


Mabia Gond. 




Mandla. 


Mandla. 


Narsinghpnr. 


Chanda. 


Chanda. 




Tharrarowh 


Tharrarowh 




Nila 


NUla 


Stand. 








Sam 


Ham 


Die. 








Sheem 


Heem 


Give. 








Witta 


Witta 


£.un. 








Porro 


Pogonoo 


Up. 








Sheer 


Hirinoo 


Down. 








Moonne 


Moonne 


Before. 


Linglia 






Kuchool 


Here 


Near. 








Luk 


Jekoo 


Par, 








Puja 


Peakke, Pinya 


Behind. 








Bor 


Bogoo 


Who. 









Butee 


Beta 


What. 









Baree 


Barankoo 


Why. 








An 


Un 


And. 






....•« 


Muti 


Mutee 


But. 












If. 









Inge 


Eiye 


Yes. 








Hille 


Hille 
Aiyayo 


No. 
Alas. 






Dada 


Babo 


Minmal 


A father. 







Dada-chachee 


Babona 


Minmana 


Of a father. 






Dada-la 


Babonee 


Minmankoo 


To a father. 






Dada-lok 


Babon agatal 


Minman agatal 


From a father. 
Two fathers. 






Dade 


Babok 


Minmalor 


Fathers. 






Dada-chachee 


Babokna 


Minmalona 


Of fathers. 






Dade-la 


Baboknee 


Minmalorkoo 


To fathers. 






Dade-lok 


Babok agatal 


Minmaloo agatal 


From fathers. 






Andoor 


Meeyar 


Minyaree 


A daughter. ^ 






Andoor-chachee 


Meeyarna 


Minyareena 


Of a daughter. 






Andoor-la 


Meeyaroon 


Minyarkoo ' 


To a daughter. 






Andoor-lok 


Meeyart agatal 


Minyareen agatal 


From a daughter. 
Two daughters. 






Andoor 


Meeyarkoo 


Minyaskoo 


Daughters. 






Andoor-chachee 


Meeyarkna 


Minyaskoona 


Of daughters. 




•• ••• 


Andoor-la 


Meeyarkoon 


Minyaskoonkoo 


To daughters. 






Andoor-lok 


Meeyark agatal 


Minyaskoon aga- 
tal 


From daughters. 








Bes manial 


Nehna munkal 


A good man. 


-V 






Bes maniana 


Nehna munkana 


Of a good man. 



116 



{ 8 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 





TEIBES. 




EOOEKOOS. 


Mehto. 


Btgas Binjwaes.. 




Nimar. 


Hoshungabad. 


Bilaspur. 


Balaghat. 


Mandla. 


To a good man ... 








Nik admiley 




From a good man 









Nik admitay 




Two good men ... 












Good men 








Nik admi 


Kool manoosh 


Of good men 








Nik admiko 




To good men 








Nik admilay 




Prom good men ... 








Nik admitay 




A good woman ... 


Awul japaie 


Nigut jufye 




Nik doukee 




Good women 








Nik donkee 




A bad boy 


Anda kond innil 


Booro koon 


Lahaie uraon 


Kharah beta 




A bad girl 


Anda kottie innil 


Boorokoojye 




Kharah betty 




Good 


Awul 


Nigut 


Banne 


Nik 




Better 












Best 












High 






Munnarung 






Higher 












Highest 












Ahorse 


Ghorgie 


Ghoorgaie 








A mare 













Houses 




Ghoorgaie 








Mares 












AbuU 












A cow 













Bulls 


Doobla 


Doobla 








Cows 














A dog 


Cheeta 


Meea seeta 






Ek kookoor 


A bitch 




Meea seetee 




Eookree 


Ek sitie 


Dogs 




Seeta 




Eookar 


Mooktey kookoor 


Bitches 




Seetee 




Kookree 


Gulley sitie 


A he goat 




Bookra 


Merum 






A female goat 




Bookree 





Chini 




Goats 




Bookra 








A male deer 




Heerna 






Ek mriga 


A female deer 




Heemee 




Hirni 




Deer 




Heern 








lam 





Eenj ja 




Meyhoo 




Thou art 




Um ja 




Tiahas 





( 9 ) 



PEOVINCES 'LA.l^QrJJAQ-ES.—iConfmued.) 



117 



TEIBES. 




Punka. 


Mehea. 


Katta. 


E.AJ GOND. 


Maeia Gond. 




Mandla. 


Mandla. 


Narsinghpur. 


Chanda. 


Chanda. 










Bes manieta 


Nehna munkankoo 


To a good man. 








Bes maniat agatal 


Nehna munkal 
agatal 


From a good man. 
Two good men. 




••(... 




Bes manelor 


Nehenore mun- 
kalor 


Good men. 








Bes manena 


Nehnore munka- 
lora 


Of good men. 








Bes maneheta 


Nehnore munka- 
lorkoo 


To good men. 








Bes maniata 
agatal 


Nehna munkalor 
agatal 


From good men. 


Ek uchi mehureea 




Ek ucchi mehu- 
reea. 


Bes har 


Nehna ancharee 


A good woman. 








Bes hark 


Nehna anchkoo 


Good women. 






Boora lakhoor 


Aror pekah 


Lagorpedal 


A bad boy. 






Boree andoor 


Aror peree 


Lago peree 


A bad girl. 








Bes 


Nehna 


Good. 

Better. 

Best. 









Oonch 


Dunkoo 


High. 

Higher. 

Highest. 








Khora 


Potal kora 


A horse. 








Khoree 


Tullo kora 


A mare. 








Ehorang 


Korang 


Houses. 








Khoring 


Ehorang 


Mares. 




• 




Eoora 


Vejaboroom 


AbuU. 









Moore 


Moore 


A cow. 








Eoorang 


Borok 


Bulls. 








Moorang 


Mooreng 


Cows. 


Ek kookoor 






Niu 


Nuiyoo 


A dog. 








Totte 


Totte 


A bitch. 








Nnyek 


Niukoo 


Dogs. 








Totteng 


Totteng 


Bitches. 








Bokra 


Bokra 


A he goat. 


Ek chheree 




Ek chheree 


Hurre 


Yettee 


A female goat. 








Bokrang 


Bokrang 


Goats. 








Hurreng ^ 


Humalee 


A male deer. 









Kotra 


Tulloor humalee 


A female deer. 








Hurna 


Hurnaskoo 


Deer. 






Mee hoon 


Nuna muntona 


Nunna muntanoo 


I am. 






Too as 


Nime muntee 


Nimma muntinee 


Thou art. 



118 



( 10 ) 



SPECIMENS OE THE CENTEAL 





TEIBES. 




EOOEKOOS. 


Mehto. 


BtGAS OB BiNJWAES. 




Nimar. 


Hoshungabad. 


BUaspnr. 


Balaghat. 


Mandla: 


He is 




Deeja 




Oka ah 




We are 




Alayja 




Harney ah 




Tou are 




Umja 




Tiaha 




They are 




Deeja 




Okah 




I was 




Eeng dhan 




Muyruhoo 




Thou wast 




Um dhan 




Tirahas 




He was 




Dee dhan 




Okarah 




We were 




Alay dhan 




Humeyruhoo 




You were 




Apay dhan 




Tirahey 





They were 




Dee dhan 




Okruh 




Be 




Ja 




Ah 




To be 




Ja 




Aha 




Being 




Daboosye 








Having been 




Daeen 








I may be 












I shall be 








Meho 




I should be 












Beat 




Kooma khye 




Mar 




To beat 




Eooma khye 




Marna 




Beating 




£ookh maninee 








Having beaten ... 


• 










I beat 




Eeng kookh mao 


Eng nedai 


Mey mawhoo 




Thoubeatest 




Um koolsh mao 




Timarhus 




He beats 




Dee kookh mao 




Or marha 




We beat 




Alay kookh mao 




Hamay marut 




Tou beat 




TJm kookh mao 




Timarhu 




They beat 




Dee kookh mao 




Ok marha 




I am beating 








May marntah 




I was beating 




Eeng kookhma 
dhan 




Mey marha 




I had beaten 




Eeng kooma 
khuye 








I may beat 








May maroo 





I shall beat 








Mey marwo 




I should beat 








Mey marbo 




I am beaten 










Muley marhey 




I was beaten 








Muley marhus 




I shall be beaten... 














( 11 ) 



PROVINCES LANGUAGES.— (Gon^mMed) 



119 



TEIBES. 




Punka. 


Mehea. 


Katta. 


Eaj Gond. 


Maeia Gond. 




Mandla. 


Mandla. 


Narsinghpur. 


Chanda. 


Chanda. 








Teand 


Wor muntoor 


Wogoo muntogoo 


He is. 








Amoot muntorom 


Mummatoo mun- 
tomoo 


We are. 








Nimet muntil 


Nimmut muntiree 


You are. 








Hor mimtor 


Woroo muntoroo 


They are. 


• 




Mee hutta 


Nana mutan 


Nunna muntan 


I was. 






Too hutta 


Nime muttee 


Nimma muttenee 


Thou wast. 







Te hutta 


Wor mnttor 


Wagor muttor 


He was. 








Amot muttom 


Mummatoo mut- 
tom 


We were. 








Nimet mutteel 


Nimatoo mutteree 


Tou were. 









Hor mutter 


Woroo muttoroo 


They were. 






t>. ... 


Am 


Amoo 


Be. 
To be. 
Being. 








Asee 


Munjee 


Having been. 








Nuna ayana 




I may be. 








Wuna aykan 





I shall be. 
I should be. 









Jeem or Pam 


Pam or Halsa 


Beat. 








Jeeyana 


Halskan 


To beat. 
Beating. 








Jissee 


Halsee 


Having beaten. 








Nana jintona 


Nuna patan or 
Halskan 


I beat. 









Nime jintonee 


Nimma halstkin 


Thoubeatest. 








Wor jintor 


Wogoo halsintogoo 

Mummatoo hals- 
kom 


He beats. 
We beat. 




*••••' 




Nimet jintoneet 


Mummatoo halst- 
keer 


Tou beat. 








Hor jintor 


Woroo halsito 


They beat. 









Nunoojissore mun- 
tona 


Nunna halshere 
muntan 

Nunna halshere 
muntan 


I am beating. 
I was beating. 
I had beaten. 








N una jeeyana 




I may beat. 






Mee mare 


Nuna jikan 


Nunna halstkan 
Nunna halsantoroo 


I shall beat. 
I should beat. 
I am beaten. 
I was beaten. 






Mee mark jae 







I shall be beaten. 



12a 



( 12 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 



TEIBES. 



KoOBKOOS. 



Nimaj. 



Hoshnngabad. 



Mehto. 



Bilaspur. 



BtGAS OB BiNJWAES. 



Balaghat. 



Mandla. 



I go 

Thou goest 

He goes 

I went 

Tliou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

Wtat is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here to 
Kashmir ? 



How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 



I have walked a long way 
to-day 

The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse 



Put the saddle upon his 
back 



I have beaten his 
many stripes 



with 



He is grazing cattle on the 
top of the hiU 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree 



His brother 
his sister 



is taller than 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half 



joomoo 



toto 



Ama 
chodja 

Ghorgie 
orsoja 

Inia tain Kashmir 
toto khat chan- 
gain 

Ama aba kontey 
toto koja 



Tani koratain 
khoob chunda 
keen 

Inia kuka konc 
hundija koney 
ikene 



Oora talan 

poolum ghorgie 
khogir takha 

Inia ghorgie pa- 
than khogir 

dokey 

Inia kontey cha- 
buk ten khoob 
moonda kene 



Budla ten junwur 
chacharaba 



Kooddey sung 
ghorgie ten 

koro choodba 



Inia dada ten inia 
bai oonchahech- 
kun 



Dija kimuto udia 
roopia taka 



TJmajoomoochoee 



Dee ghorga oom- 
urchoee 

Endaton Kashmir 
choee to utar ja 



TJmadoo choee to 
kon koja 



Ten eeng umatum 
ghuna atar 

olunja 



Poolung ghorga 
khogir enee ora 
gun 

Deeja bhaoree 
khogir dokhin 

Deeja kon khin 
khoob bet koo- 
makhnay 

Hoojay kathree 
lyimohu churao 



Dee koru dee 
myaetun ghorgi 
lynn choojun 

Deeja miseetun 
deeja bhytaoon 
chaja 



Deeja mola adhye 
roopenja 



Eng batun 



Amchi nau 

Ghoro timun 
chur 



ba- 



Kashmir hin mare 
timmin koss 
apoom ora tim- 
min gota 



Timmora mar 
wy kyam 



Subbiaora kho- 
geer oraree 

bhitur 

To be tnrri toltah 
khogeer 

Bononum tanedai 



Oreeko charaya 
boroon 



May jathoo 

Tijathus 

Tijabey 

Mey jamhoo 

Tijaruhus 

Tijarahey 

Ja 



Tor nao kahae 



Oh ghoda kitna 
burikh ke haie 

Kashmir otey ku- 
tur door haie 



Tor babako ghud 
men kuttur beta 
haie 



Men aj atnr door 
aha 



More doodh bhaie 
okey bety biha 
kuris 



Ghur men pundri 
ghodaka khogir 
haie 

Wako pith men 
khogir d burro 

Okur beta la 
khoob lukdee se 
marun 



Dongur ke oopur 
gaie churut alia 



Eookh tuley ghoda 
men chudwut 
aha 

Okur bhaie okur 
bale se ooncha 
aha 



Okur mole adhaie 
rupia aha 



Tooh gootho 
Wuhgooruheh 



PEOymCES LANGUAGES.— ((7o«^mMe^.) 



( 13 ) 



121 



TEIBES. 



PUITKA. 



Mandla. 



Mehba. 



Mandla. 



Katta. 



Narsinghpur. 



Eaj Gond. 



Chan da. 



Maeia Gond. 



Chanda. 



Mai goyo 
Too gotho 
Wuh gotlio 



Maigoyo 
Too gotlio 
Wuh gotho 



Mee ^ata 
Too zatoos 
Te zata 
Mee gelow 
Too gelos 
Te gela 
Za, Zasen 



Toojha nam kai 
ai 



Toojhe dadachee- 
ghureech kitte 
ek lekhoor and 



Nuna hattan 
Nimme huttee 
Wor hattor 
Hun 



Hattor 

Nuva porol butee 
munta 

It korata win 
buchol munta 

Igdal Kashmir 
buchol luk 

munta 



Miwar babonalou 
buchol murk 
muntor 

Nend nunna welle 
luk suree toktan 

Nawa kakana 
murrin wuna 
shelartora mur- 
mee ata munta 

Pandree korata 
khogeer Ion 
munta 

Tana perka kho- 
geer wata 

Wuna murri 
wele bete nuna 
hulstan munta 



Wor mettaporro 
tala mehentor 



Wor khoratporro 
oottor murupoot 
muntor 

Kuna tummoor 
wuna sheelar 
puxee oochmun- 
tor 

Tana mol adai 
roopya munta 



Nunna hattan 
Nimma huttee 
Wogoo hatogoo 
Honnoo 



Hottoogoo 

Nuva porol batal 
munta 

Idoo kora bu- 
choroo matri ata 

Intahee Kashmir 
buchoroo jekoo 
munta 



Miwa minmana 
lonoo buchoroo 
murkoo mun- 
tooroo 

Nendoo nunna 
welleieekoo hur- 
ree taktanoo 

Nawa kakana 
murrinkoo tana 
helanoo murmee 
atoom 

Pandree korata 
kogree lonoo 
soppo munta 

Tana mondko 
porro kogree 
tasa 

Wona mugainoo 
nunna jootile 
laoo hulsta 

munta 

TJdoo kurgete tal- 
lawora kodang 
wogoomehe- 
cbere muntor 

Udoo murathedoo 
wogoo koraoo- 
chee munto 



Woono helankun- 
an wonoo tum- 
mogai dunkoo 
muntogai 

Tana mola ren- 
doon arda roo- 
pya munta 



I go. 

Thou goest. 

He goes. 

I went. 

Thou wentest. 

He went. 

Go. 

Going. 

Gone. 

What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 

How far is it from here to 
Kashmir P 



How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 



I have walked a long way 
to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse. 



Put the saddle upon his 
back. 



I have beaten his son with 
many stripes. 



He is grazing cattle on the 
top of the hill. 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 



His brother is taller than 
his sister. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and-a-half. 



FURTHER SPECIMENS 



ABORIGIML LANGUAGES OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



126 



( 2 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CBNTEAL 





TEIBES. 




Dhanqttk. 


GoND Teibbs. 




Bilaspur. 


Narsingpur. 


Chhindwarra. 


Nagpur. 


Balaghat. 


Bhandara. 


One 




Oondee 


Oondi 


Orah oondu 


Oondee 


Oondi 


Two 




Euud 


Eund 


Eund 


Eund 


Eund 


Three 




Moond 


Moond 


Moond 


Moond 


Moond 


I'our 




Laloo 


NaJoong 


Naloong 


Naloong 


Naloo 


Five 




Saiyo 


Seiyoong 


Suyoong 


Sayoong 


Sunyugun 


Six 




Sarhoo 


Saroong 


Saroong 


Sawa 


Sadoom 


Seven 




Eroo 


Yedoong 


Eroong 


Yeroo 


Edoom 


Eight 






TJrmoor 




Armoor 


Athum 


Nine 






Oonmah 




Nubey 


Nuoom 


Ten 






Pad 




Pud 


Dahoom 


Twenty 














Fifty 








Tunnas 




Punnasung 


One hxmdred 






Noor 


Noor 


Noor 


Noor 


I 




Nunna 


Anna 


Ana 


Nuna 


Nunna 


Of me 




Nawa 


Fawor, Nawa 


Mawur 




Na-visee 


Mine 




Nawa 


Nawor, Nawa 


Mawur 




Nawa 


We 





Ummut 


Ammot 


Amut 


Amoat 


Amote 


Of us 




Mawa 


Mawor, Mawa 


Mawa 


Mawa 


Ma-visee 


Our 




Mawa 


Mawor, Mawa 


Mawa 




Mawa 


Thou 




Eeina 


Imma 


Nee 


Ima 


Ime 


Of thee ... * ... 





Mwa 


Neewor, Neewa 


Neewa 


Neewa 


Ni-see 


Thine 




NiwS, 


Neewor, Neewa 


Neewa 




Nee Ore 


You 




Eemat 


Immat 


Emat 


Imat 


Imat 


Of you 




Miwa 


Miwor, Miwa 


Neewa 


Meewa 


Wulle vise 


Your 






Miwor, Miwa 


Neewa 




Mee ore 


He 




Wor 


Or 


Hore 


Oar 


Oru 


Ofhim 




Woni 


Onhor, Onha 


Hona 


Owa 


Ena visee 


His 




Wona 


Onhar, Onha 


Hona 




Hona 


They 




Wor 


Ork 


Hore 


Oruk 


Hudu 


Of them 




Wora 


Orknor, Orkna 


Hona 


Odukna 


Hona visee 


Their 




Wor a 


Orknor, Orkna 


Hona 






Hand 


Thekkha 


Kai 


Kei 


Kuee 


Kaie 


Kui 


Foot 


Khed 


K&l 


Kal 


Kalk 


Tal 


Kalku 


Nose 


Mooi 


Musurer 


Mussor 


Musoor 


Musore 


Musore 


Eye 


Khun 


Kun 


Kun 


Kiink 


Kunuk, Kuduk 


Kuduku 


Mouth 


Bae 


Toddee 


Toodee 


Todee 


Toddy 


Tondee 


Tooth 


Pul 


Pul 


Pul 


Pulk 


Pul 


Oondee, Puluk 


Ear 


Khebda 


Kou 


Kuwee 


Cawi 


Kubee, Kouk 


Kuvee 


Hair 


Choothee 


Choothee 


Chooting 


Chotee 


Choondee 


Chootee 


Head 


Kook 


Tnlla 




Tulla 


Tala 


Tula 


Tongue 


Tuthkha 


WuDJur 


Vunjur 


Wanjair 


Vunjur 


Bunjhur 


Belly 


Kool 


Peer 


Peer 


Peer 


Peer 


Peer 



PEOVINOES LANGTJAGES. 



( 3 ) 



127 



TEIBES. 




GOND TaiBES. 




Wardha. 


Hoshangabad. 


Seoni. 


Jabalpur. 


Mandla. 


Sagar. 




Oondee 


Oondee 


Oondi 




Oondee 


EykWan 


One. 


Eanda 


Bund 


Eund 




Eund 


Bu 


Two. 


Moonda 


Moond 


Moond 




Moond 


Truu 


Three. 


Nalunga 


Naloo 


Naloon 




Naloo 




Pour. 


Sayoong 


Suyoon 


Syoon 




Saiwoo, Segh 




Five. 


Saroong 


Saroon 


Saroon 




Saroo 


Chho 


Six. 


Yedoong 


Yaroo 


Airoon 




Eroo 





Seven. 


Yermood 


Urmoor 


Armoor 




Aumore 





Eight. 


Navo 


Oorma 


Pud 
Udai veesa 





Auma 
Pud 


Eekh 
Puehakh 


Nine. 
Ten. 
Twenty. 
Fifty. 


Noora 


* * 


Noor 






Eg 


One hundred. 


Nana 


Anna 


Mumote 


Ana, Nan 


Nunna, Nowa 


Hoon 


I. 


Nakoon 


Nakoon 


Masay 







Mahoon 


Of me. 


Nawa 


Nawa 


Mawa 


Nawal 


Nawa 


Maro 


Mine. 


Amoot 


Ammutt 


Nunah 


Mam 


Munna 


Hoon 


We. 


Makoon 


Nakoon 


Nasay 






'Marhoon 


Of us. 


Mawa 


Mawa 


Naw4h 


Ouna 


Nawa 


Markoon 


Our. 


Ema 


Eemm 


Eema 


Ima 


\mk 


To 


Thou. 


Woan 


Nilcoon 


Eemasay 






Ta roon 


Of thee. 


Newa 


Neewa 


Neeya 




Mowa 


Tara 


Thine. 


Walai 


Eemmut 


Eemat 


Ima 


Ima 


Too 


You. 


Nikoon 


Nikoon 


Eematsay 






Tarhoon 


Of you. 


Meewa 


Meewa 


Neewah 


..• >•• 





Tarhoon 


Your. 


Wora 


Wol 


Ore, Fdh 


Hoe 


Hore 


Ulo, Anrey 


He. 


Wana 


Oun 


Oansay 






Anho 


Of him. 


Wona 


Ona 


Oanah 


Adandai 


Hore 


Inha 


His. 


Tai 


Wol 




Hoe 


Hore 


Ula 


They. 


Wansu 


Oun 


Oansay 






Anhoon 


Of them. 





Ora 


Oonah 


Hukai 




TnVioon 


Their. 


Kaya 


Kyee 


Eye 


Eaik 


Eai 


Hath 


Hand. 


Kalk 


Kal 


Kal 


Eal 


Eal 


Godo 


Foot. 


Masoor 


Mussur 


Mussoorh 


Mussar 


Musur 


' 


Nose. 


Eadaka 


Eankh 


Kun 


Eank 


Eunk 


Dora 


Eye. 


Todee 


Toddee 


Tooddy 


Tuddi 


Toodee 


Bakon 


Mouth. 


Pulk 


Pulk 


Pulk 


Palk 


Puluk 




Tooth. 


Kawee 


Koukh 


Euvee 


Eouwi 


Eowee 




Ear. 


Chootee 


Clioottee 


Choontee 


Chundi 




Eekh 


Hair. 


Tala 


Tulla 


ThuUa 


Talla 


Tulla 




Head. 


Wanajira 


Bunjur 


Vunjur 


Vanjar 


Wunjur 




Tongue. 


Peera 


Peer 


Peer 


Pir 


Dliarr, Pir 


Dimuroon 


Belly. 



12B 



( 4 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 





TRIBES. 




Dhansub. 




Gone 


Teibes. 








Bilaspur. 


Narsingpur. 


Chhindwarra. 


Nagpur. 


Balaghat. 


Bhandara. 


Back 


Medh 


Mohto 


Moorchool 


Moorchool 


Purrekee 


Puraki 


Iron 


Purnoa 


Euohee 


Cuohi 


Kachee 


Kuchu 


Kuohchee 


Gold 


Souna 


Sonoo 


Sono 


Sono 


Soona 


Sono 


Silver 


Chandia 


Chandee 


Chandee 


Ehooro 


Khooro 


Khooro 


Father 


Bung 


Dadaharal 


Dhas 


Baho, Daoo 


Daoo 




Mother 


Yangio, Aio 


Ran 








Buya 


Brother „, 


Dada, Engris 


Tummoor 


Tumoor 


Tumboor 


Tummoor 


Tummoor 


Sister 


Engri, Didee 


Seelar 


Selar 


Sailad 


Salar 


Bai, Tuka 


Man 


Alur 


Mandrsal 


Manwal 


Manwal 


JManwal 


Manuwa 


Woman 


Mukka 


A'r, Maigoo 


A'r 


Myjoo 


Myjo 


Mayejo 


Wife 


Enghai 


A'r 


A'r 


Myjoo 


Nawa Myjo 


Nawa Maejo 


Child 


Khuddur 


Chhuwa 


Chonwa 


Chhuwa 


Chawa 


Suwa 


Son 


Engdus 


Pergal, Murri 


Murree 


Muree, Toodal 


Murree 


Nawa Suwa 


Daughter 


Engdo 


Perjee, Miar 


Meear 


Toodee 


Pedgu 


Toodiya 


Slave 


Jonkhur 


Lorha 


Burskalyal 






Harpose 


Cnltivator 


Oorba 


Eisan 






Kissan 


Titintore 


Shepherd 


Era Khapuldus 


Guderiya 


Gadree 


Sherkee 


Dhungur 


Sairkia, andore 


God 


Dhurmes 


Bhugwan, Bur- 
radeo. 


Ishwur 


Pen 


Kodopen 


Pain 


Devil 


Nadh 


Daito 


Deitoor 


Bhoot 


Meerchook 


Bhootu 


Sun 


Beeree 


Soorujpen 


Sooriyal 


Din 


Soorial 


Soorya 


Moon 


Chundoo 


Chundal 


Chundurmal 


Nulenj 


Chundal 


JSTulunj 


Star 


Binko 


Sookkoom 


Sookoo 


Sookoom 


Sookumand 


Channee 


Fire 


Chichi 


Kiss 


Kees 


Kis 


Kiss 


Kis 


Water 


Um 


Eer 


Yer 


Yeer 


Err 


Air 


House 


Erpa 


Eon 


Eon 


Roon 


Eone 


Eone 


Horse 


Ghoro 


Koda 


Eoda 


Koda 


Eodda 


Koda 


Cow 


Owe 


Talee 


Mooda 


Mooda 


Mooda 


Mooda 


Dog 


Alia 


Nai 


Nei 


JSTuee 


Naye 


Nue 


Cat 


Beerkhas 


Beelal 


Beelal 


Beelal 


Bilal 


Beelal 


Cock 


Khaer 


Gogotal, Gogoree 


Gogotee 


Ghogotee 


Gogodee 


Ghooghooti 


Duck 


Hunsagira 


Bhuttuk 




Buduk 


Buduk 


Buduck 


Ass 


Gadhe 


G4d41 


Gudhal 


Gudha 


Gudhal 


Gudhall 


Camel 


Unthee 


Oont 


Ootoom 


Hootoon^ 


Woot 


Hoot 


Bird 


Ora 


Pitte 


Pittee 


Pitti 


Pittay 


Pukahi 


Go 


Kalain 


Hun 


Hun 


Hun 


Hund 


H4n 


Eat 


Ona 


Tin 


Tin 


Tin 


Tin 


Teen - 


Sit 


Ookkubh 


Oodda 


Oodha 


Ooda 


Oodda 


Ooda 


Come 


Bara 


Wuree 


Wuda 


Wud^ 


Wudq, 


Buda 


Beat 


Kora 


Jim 


Jeem 


Jim 


Jeem 


Gim 


Stand 


E1&, Ej4 


Nihcheehun 


Nita 


Nila 


Neila 


T6da 



( 5 ) 



PROVINCES hANGVAQ^S.— {Continued.) 



129 







TEIBE8. 












GoND Teibes. 








Wardha. 


Hosliungabad. 


Seoni. 


Jubbulpur. 


Mandla. 


Sagar. 




Parakee 




Moorchool 


Murchur 


Moorohul 


Dondon 


Back. 


Eachee 




Euchee 


Eachchi 


Eunchi 


Lokhund 


Iron. 


Sonoli 


Sonna 


Sono 


Sunhe 


Sona 


Ehonoon 


Gold. 


Khooroh. 


Chandi 


Cbandee 


Chandi 


Chan dee 


Eoopon 


Silver. 


Babadala 


Daoo 


Daoo 




Babo 


Bao 


Father. 


Avadu 


Aabbul 








Agya 


Mother. 


Tamoodal 


Tummur 


Bhyal 


Bhayya 


Daoo, Tunmoor 




Brother. 


Shelada 


Sular 


Sylar 


Didi 


Silar 





Sister. 


Manwal 


Madoul 


Manrsa 


Mandsa 


Munnkb 


Baoree 


Man. 


My job 


Ma 


Myjoo 


Naiju 


Mai jo 


Marsee 


Woman. 


Madnuenah 


Ask 


Bungo 


Mai 


Yar 


Bawun 


Wife. 


Toodala 


Pedgul 


Chuva 


Chavva 


Chowa, Murree 


Cheeo 


Child. 




Murree 


Murree 


Marri 




Cheeo 


Son. 


Toodu 


Meeur 


Myar 


Miyar 


Meyar 
Jotha-Eootha 


Chhoree 
Dthor 


Daughter. 
Slave. 





Keersan 


Kissan 


Neli 


Eoeethoor 


Mand Eho 


Cultivator. 


Dhanakar 




Gadree 


Eopa 


Cherkal 


Dhunugur 


Shepherd. 


Pena 


Bbugwan 


Bbugwan 


Deo 


Bhugwan 


Bhugwan 


God. 


Bhootal 


Bhoot 


Dano 


Bhut 


Ruksa 


Bhoot 


Devil. 


Deina 


Sooraj 


Din 


Din 


Din 


Dinnoo Chandr 


Sun. 


Nalainj 


Chandrama 


Cbunda 


Chanda 


Chunda 


Katnoo Chandr 


Moon. 


Sookoom 


Tara 


Sookum 


Sukkum 


Thereya 


Taro 


Star. 


Kees 


Kis 


Eis 


Kis 


Eis 


Ag 


Fire. 


Yera 


Aer 


Air 


Yer 


Err 




Water. 


Kona 


Rone 


fioan 


Roun 


Rond 




House. 


Kodda 


Eora 


Eoodda 


Eor4 


Kora 


Ghoro 


Horse. 


Mooda 


Gai, Talee 


Talee 


Tali 


Moora, Talee 


Gao 


Cow. 


Nayee 


Nayee 


Nye 


Nai 


Nayek 


Kootreyo 


Dog. 


Beelal 


Bila 


Bilar 


BM 


BiUa 


Bularee 


Cat. 


Bhagotu 


Morgul, Eoor 


Gugoree 


Gagori 




Eookro 


Cock. 




Butuk 


Dubuk 


Dabak 


Iree 


Buduk 


Duck. 


Gadhal 


Gadha 


Gudhal 


Gadha 


Gadha 


Gudheyroo 


Ass. 


Hoottoo 


Oont 


Oontoom 


TJnti 


Aount 


Oont 


Camel. 


Peetai 


Pittay 


Peetee 


Pitte 


Peetai 


Chimuneyoo 


Bird. 


Hua 


Hun 


Hun 


Hani 


Hun 




Go. 


Teina 


Tin 


Thin 


Tin 


Tinda 


Ehaeylo 


Eat. 


Ooda 


Oodda 


Oodda 


Udd4 


Oodha 


Besh 


Sit. 


Wada 


Bura 


Vurra 


Wara 


Wura 


Aeoro 


Come. 


Jim 


Jim 


Jeem 


Jim 


Jeem 


Mareena 


Beat. 


Neela 


Leechheehun 


Lichay munsane 


Nilla 


Neelum, Nee- 
cheemun 


Oobbara 


Stand. 



130 



( 6 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 



. . . ,'!■ 


TRIBES 




Dhangtje. 


GoND Teibes. 




Bilaspur. 


Narsingpur. 


Chhindwara. 


Nagpur. 


Balaghat. 


Bhandara. 


Die 


Kechus 


Sum 


Saoee hun 


Satoor 


Sasu 


Satoo 


Give 


Chya 


Sim 


Seem 


Sim 


Seem 


Sim 


Eun 


Bonga 


Vitsee 


Vita 


Wita 


Duyoo 


So'did 


Up 


Choa 


Purro 


Purro 


Puro 


Purro 


Puro 


Down 


Ookka 


Turree 


Khalwa 


Nailee 


Khaley 


Ooda 


Before 


Herihar 


Moonne 


Moonee 


Moone 


Mooney 


Moonne 


Near 


Heeribara 


Dora 


Kurroom 


Euroom 


Kuchool 


Kuchool 


Far 


Hari 


Lukh 


Lukh 


Luk 


Luk 




Behind 





Hulse 


Pija 


Puja 


Puja 


Puza 


Who 


Naen 


Bor 


Bor 


Bore 


Bor 


Bore 


What 


Endra 


Bud 


Bang 


Buda 


Buttu 


Buteande 


Why 





Barreetre 


Baree 


Bahoom 


Badusaty 


Bulyan 


And 


Aurchra 


Ane 


Oonday 


Oh 


Oondry 


An, nu 


But 




Ugga 


Oonday 


Pur 


Pun 


Pur 


If 






Oonday 


Tub 


Imma 


Tu 


Yes 


Ho 


Inge 


Ingey 


Ingee 


Invgay 


Hinge 


No 


MuUa 


HiUe 


HuUe 


HiUe 


Hilley 


mile 


Alas 






Hai Hai 


Sos-lad-sos 


Aruray 


Hae 


A father 




Dada or Babo 


Dhaoo 


Babo 


Daoo 


Edoorbaba 


Of a father .., 




Dadata or Bab- 
bona 


M. Dhaoonor 
Fern. Dhaoona 


Babona 


Daoona 


Oondis Babana 


To a father ... 




Dadatoon or Bab- 
botoon 


Dhaoon 


Babone 


Daoon 


Babana 


From a father 




Dadate or Bab- 
bote 


Dhaoonseen 


Babo Sin 


Daoonsay 


Baba Nigdal 


Two fathers ... 




Eund Dada 




Eund Babo 




Rundoo Baba 


Fathers 




Dada 


Dhaoork 


Wulene Babo 


Daoong 


Wule Baba 


Of fathers ... 




Dadana 


M. Dhaoorknor 
F. Dhaoorkna 


Wulene Babona 


Daoongna 


Wule baba vise 


To fathers 




Dadanoon 


Dhaoorkoon 


Wulene Babone 


Daoongnaley 


Wule Babano 


From fathers ... 




Dadani 


Dhaoorkseen 


Wulene, Babo 
Kikedal 


Daoongnasey 


Wule baba nigdal 


A daughter ... 




Pergee 


Meear 


Meeyan 


Pedgee 


Oondee Toodi 


Of a daughter 





Pergeeta 


M. Meeanor 
P. Meeana 


Meeyana 


Pedgina 


Toodi Na 


To a daughter 




Pergeetoon 


Meean 


Meeyan 


Pedgitoon 


Toodinu 


From a daughter 




Pergeete 


Meeanseen 


Meeya Hikedal 


Pedgisay 


Toodeenigdal 


Two daughters 




Rund Peking 




Rund Meeyan 





Eundu Toodee 


Daughters 




Peking 


Meeark 


Wulene Meeyan 


Peking 


Wuli Toodi 


Of daughters 




Pekina 


M. Meeartnor 
F. Meearkna 


Wulene Meeyana 


Pekinga 


Wule Toodina 


To daughters 




Pekinoon 


Meearkoon 


Wuleoe Meeyan 


Pekingtool 


Wuli Toodi nu 


From daughters 




Pekine 


Meeark Seen 


Wulene Meeyan 
Hikedal 


Pekingsay 


Wuli Toodi Nig- 
dal 



( 7 ) 



PEOVINCES IjA.'NGV AGES.- f Continued.) 



131 



TEIBES. 




GoND Teibes. 




Wardha. 


Hoshangabad. 


Seoni. 


Jabalpur. 


Mandla. 


Sagar. 




Sama 


Sasut 


Huneegay 


Satur 


Sathur sosee 
hunthur 


Mareegyo 


Die. 


Shema 


Sim 


Seem 


Sim 


Situr, Seewur 


Du 


Give. 


Weitha 


Vichhiliun 


Soda 


Vitta 


Weetha 


Murenchhoot 


Eun. 


Porali 


Purro 


Purrote 


Parro 


Purroo 




Up. 


Nailee 


* 


Siddeen 




Pulla 


Heyt 


Down. 


Moonnai 


Moonnee 


Moonnay 


Munne 


Samoo 




Before. 


Eachool 


Kurroom 


Joray, Kurro 


Gori 


Mootus 


Kunha 


Near. 


Luk 


Luck 


Lukoom 


Valela 


Luk 




Far. 


Paraku 


Pijja 


Kjja 


Pachari 


Pudja 


Pacbhey 


Behind. 


Boar 


Bole 


Bore, Boan 


Boni 


Bor 




Who. 


Butee 


Buran 


Butliee 


V&ri 


Ka 


Eyyoon 


What. 




Banko 


Baran 


Baga Vati 


Bal 


Eyyoon 


Why. 


Nail 


Anee 


Un 


Tara 


Aorey, un 


Un 


And. 


Para 


Pun 




Tara 


Ath 




But. 
If. 






Yingay 


Va-i-kam 


En gey 


Han 


Yes. 


Heilai 


Hailay 


Hillay 


Hilliyan 


Jhvn 


Nuheen 


No. 


Aral 




Aray Aray 


Hay 


Bah 


Ureyrey 


Alas. 




Oondee VoUay 


Daoo 


Dada 


Babo 


Bao 


A father. 




Volluta 


Daoonay 


Dadana 


Babola 


Babanoon 


Of a father. 




VoUun 


Daoonay 


Dadau 


Babola 


Babanoon 


To a father. 




VoUutsay 


Daoonsay 


Dadanse 


Babota 


Baba Eunatboo 


From a father. 






Eund Daoo 


Do Dada 


Eund Babor 


Bu Baba 


Two fathers. 







Vullay Daoo 


Dada 


Wulley Babor 


Ghuna Baba 


Fathers. 






Vullay Daoonay 


Dadana 


-Wulley Baborla 


GhunaBabaNoon 


Of fathers. 






Vullay Daonay 


Dadan 


Wulley Baborla 


Ghuna Baba Noon 


To fathers. 




V 


Vullay Daoonsay 


Dadanse 


Wuelly Baborta 


Ghuna Baba Hu- 
nathoo 


From fathers. 




Oondie Pergie 


Pairgee 


Miyar 


Meyas 


Chhoree 


A daughter. 




Pergina 


Pairgeenay 


Miyar Na 


Meyasla 


Chhoreenoon 


Of a daughter. 




Pergin 


Pairgeenay 


Miyaran 


Meyasla , 


Chhoreenoon 


To a daughter. 




Pergisay 


Pairgeensay 


Miyaranse 


Meyasta 


Chhoree Euna- 
thoo 


From a daughter. 







Kund Pairgee 


Do Miyar 


Eund Meyas 


Bu Chhoree 


Ttco daughters. 


; 


Mootkee Pergie 


Vullay Pairgee 


Miyar 


Wulley Meyas 


Chhoree 


Daughters. 






Vullay Pairgee 


Miyarna 


Wulley Meyasla 


Chhoreenoon 


Of daughters. 






Vullay Pairgeenay 


Miyaran 


Wulley Meyasla 


Chhoreenoon 


To daughters. 






Vullay Pair- 
geensay 


Miyaranse 


Wulley Meyasta 


Choree Euna- 
thoo 


From daughters. 



132 



( 8 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE OENTEAL 





TRIBES. 


♦ 


Dhangtjr. 


Gone Teibes. 






Bilaspur. 


Narsingpur. 


Chhindwara. 


Nagpur. 


Balaghat. 


Bhandara. 


A good man ... 


Oruth Nagud 
Alus 


Choko maurdsal 


Chokho manwal 


Changlo manwal 


Beomanwal 


Dhokhut manwal 


Of a good man 




Choko maurd- 
sana 


Chokho man- 
wanor 


Changlo man- 
walna 


Besmanwalla 


Condi chokhut 
manwalna 


To a good man 




Choko maurd- 
sank 


Chokho manwaii 


Changlo man- 
walkoon 


Besmanwan 


Qondi chokhut 
manwalnu 


From a good man 




Choko maurd- 
sanal 


Chokho manwan 
seen 


Changlo manwal 
liikedal 


Besmanwalsey 


Oondi chokhut 
manwal nigdal 


Two good men 


Erib JSTagud 
Alus 


Eund choko 
manrdialor 




Rund changlo 
manwal 




Eundi chokhut 
manwal 


Good men 




Choko manrd- 
salor 


Chokho manwalk 


Wulene changlo 


Besmanwaloodk 


Wuli chokhut 
manwal 


Of good men... 




Choko manrd- 
salora 


Chokho manwalk- 
nor 


Wulene changlo 
mariwalna 


Besmanwalookta 


Wuli chokhut 
manwalna 


To good men ... 




Choko manrd- 
salork 


Chokho manwal- 
koon 


Wulene changlo 
manwal 


Besman waloodkn 


Wuli chokhut 
manwalnu 


From good men 




Choko manrd- 
saloral 


Chokho manwalk 
seen 


Wulene changlo 
manwal hikedal 


Besman wae- 
loodksey 


Wuh chokhut 
manwalnigdal 


A good woman 




Chokoar 


Chokhoar 


Changlo myjoo 


Besmyjo 


Chokhut maezo 


Good women ... 




Chokoar 


Chokho ask 


Wulene changlo 
myjoo 


Besmyjong 


Wuli chokhut 
maezo 


A bad boy 


Oruth khuddus 
munjus 


Boortor pergal 


Boortor pedgal 


Nadan toodal 


Booraohaba 


Chokhut todal 
hiledoo 


A bad girl 




Boorta pergee 


Boortal pedgee 


Nadan tooree 


Booro pedgie 


Oodi topdi cho- 
khut hiledoo 


Good 


Nagud 


Choko 


Chokho 


-Changlo 


Bes 


Chokhut 


Better 




Udte choko 


Tan seen chokho 


Feda changlo 


. 




Best 




Subrete 


Subrot seen 
chokho 


Peda changlo 






High 


Mechus 


Oonoho 


Dhongal 


Dhongul 


Kuddo 


Oonch 


Higher 




Udte ooncho 


Tan seen dhongal 


Feda dhongal 






Highest 




Subte ooncho 


Subrot seen dhon- 
gal 


Feda dhongal 






A horse 


Enoto ghoro 


Koda 


Koda 


Kodda 


Kodda 


Oondi koda 


A mare 




Ghooriya 




Sittee kodda 


Koddi 


Oodi koda 


Houses 







Kodang 


Wulene kodda 


Koddang 


Wule koda 


Mares 




Ghooriya 


Kodang 


Wulene sittu 
kodda 


Kodding 


WuUe koda 


A bull 


Enoto addo 


Sanrd 


Kooral 


Koora 


Korda 


Konda 


A cow 




Talee 


Mooda 


Mooda 


Mooda 


Moodda 


Bulls 




Sanrk 


Koorang 


Wulene koora 


Kodang 


Wule konda 


Cows 




Talee 


Moodang 


Wulene mooda 


Moodang 


Wule moodda 


A dog 


Antaulla 


Nai 


Nei 


Naee 


Nayee 


Oondi naee 


A bitch 




Sittee 


• •■ 1 • • 


Sittee naee 


Sitte 


Tote naee 


Dogs 




Naik 


Neik 


Wulene nai 


JVTaik 


Wule naee 


Bitches 




Sittee 





Wulene sittee 
naee 


Sitting 


Wule naee 


A he-goat 


Era 




Bukral 


Bokdal 


Bokdal 





( 9 ) 



PEOVINCES JjANQVAG^^.— (Continued.) 



133 







TEIBES. 








GOND Tbibbs. 




Wardha. 


Hoshangabad. 


Seoni. 


Jabalpur. 


Mandla. 


Sagar. 






Morrul kamonul 


Base munoos 


Asel manisa 


Nugd manukh 


Ushil manoosh 


A good man. 






Base munoosnay 


Asel maursana 


Nugd manukb la 


Ushil manoosh ni 


Of a good man. 






Base munoosnay 


Asel manrsa 


Nugd manukbla 


Ushil manoosh 
kaney 


To a good man. 






Base munoosay 


Asel manrsanse 


Nugd manukhta 


Ushil manoosh 
kunathoo 


From a good man. 






E,und bais munoos 


Do asel manrsa 


Eund nugd man- 
ukh 


Bu ushil ma- 
noosh 


Two good men. 






Vullay bais 
munoos 


Asel manrsa 


WnUey nugd 
manukh 


Ghuna ushel 
manoosh 


Good men. 






Vullay bais 
munoosnay 


Asel manrsana 


WuUey nugd 
manukh la 


Ushil manoosh ni 


Of good men. 







Vullay bais 
munoosnay 


Asel manrsan 


WuUey nugd 
manukh la 


Ushil manoosh 
kaney 


To good men. 






Vullay bais 
munoosay 


Asel manrsanse 


Wulley nugd 
manukhta 


Ushil manoosh 
kunathoo 


From good men. 




Kummool ma 


Base maejoo 


Asel maiju 


Nugd maejookh 


Ushil bawunee 


A good woman. 






Base vullay mae- 
joo 


Asel maiju 


WuUe ynugd mae- 
jookh 


Ushil ghun ba- 
wunee 


Good women. 




Boorotool pergul 


Boorutb, toora 


Buro perga 


Nindruk murree 


Khrab cheeo 


A bad boy. 


... ^.. 


Boorotool meeur 


Booruth tooree 


Buri turi 


Nindruk peergee 


Boree chhoree 


A bad girl. 


Chokhota 


Kamnah. 


Base 
Sajro 


Asel 


Nugd 


Ushil 
Thoo ushil 


Good. 
Better. 






Purssajro 


Bahut asel 




Sarey sey ushil 


Best. 




Pura 


Ooncho 
Oorkoon oonclio 


IJncli 


Dhanga 


Oonchee 
Thoo oonchee 


High. 
Higher. 






Puroor ooncbo 


Bura imch. 




Sarey sey oon- 
chee 


Highest. 


Wanda kodda 


Eora 


Eoodda 


Kora 


Koda 


Ghoro 


A horse. 


Wandukoddee 




Koodda 


Kora 


Ghoreea 


Ghoree 


A mare. 


Kodan 


Kora 


Vullay koodda 


Kora 


WuUey koda 


Ghuney ghorey 


Houses. 


Eodyan 




Vullay koodda 


Kora 


Wulley ghoreea 


Ghuna ghoree 


Mares. 


Wandu korrah 




Koanda 


Konda 


Konda 


Dhandho 


A bull. 


Wandu mooda 




TaUee 


Tali 


Moora 


Gaey 


A cow. 


Koorran 


Konda 


Vullay koanda 


Konda 


Wulley konda 


Ghuna dhandho 


Bulls. 


Moodan 


Puya 


Vullay tallee 


TaU 


Wulley moora 


Ghunee gaey 


Cows. 


Wandu nayu 


Naie 


Nye 


Nai 


Nyek 


Kooturye 


A dog^. 


Wandu kooteen 


Naie 


Sittee 


Siti 


Sitae 


Kootree 


A bitch. 


Nayuk 


Naye 


VuUay nye 


Nai 


Wulley nyek 


Ghuna kooturys 


Dogs. 


Kootuny 


Naye 


Vullay sittee 


Siti 


Wulley sitee 


Ghunee koo- 
turiyah 


Bitches. 


Bokral 


Bookra 


Bokral 


Bukrai 


Bukra 


Bokro 


A he-goat. 



134 



( 10 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTRAL 





TRIBES. 








Dhangue. 

— ^, 


GoND Teibes. 




Bilaspur. 


Narsingpur. 


Chhindwara. 


Nagpur. 


Balaghat. 


Bhandara. 


A female goat 


Boorhi eri 


Yetee 


Yetee 


Etee 


Yetti 




Groats 




Bukralor yeting 


Bukralk 


Wnlene etee 


Bokdaloodk 




A male deer ... 
A female deer 




Mirza 


Mas 
Maok 


Eodral 
Kodree 


Meergal 
Hirna 


Mirgal j 
Hurnee 1 


Deer 


Mak 


Mirgalor 


Maok 


Wulene kodree 


Mirgaloodk 


Wule hurna 


I am 




Nunna aiatona 


Anna and an 


Ana mantona 


Nuna andan 


Nuna muntona 


Thou art 




Eema aiatonee 


Iromaandee 


Ime mantinee 


Immay audi 


Imey muntona 


He is 




Wor aiator 


Orandoor 


To mantore 


Or anddoor 


Ohur muntore 1 


We are 


! 


Umat aiatoram 


Ammot andom 


Amut minda 


Amot andom 


Wule jhuna mun- 
tona 


You are 




Eemut aiatoreet 


Immat andeet 


Ime mantinee 


Imet andit 


1 
Wule muntuna ! 


They are 




Wor aiator 


Orkandoork 


Hore mantore 


Odk andoodk 


Wule muntore i 


I was 




Nunna huttan 


Anna muthona 


Ana mantore 


Nuna muttona 


Nuna muntona 


Thou wast 




Eema huttee 


Imma muthonee 


Eme mantona 


Ima muttoni 


Ime muntoni 


He was 




Wor huttor 


Or muthor 


Ore mantore 


Or muttor 


Hair muntore 


We were 





Amut hattam 


Ammot mutho- 
rum 


Amut muntore 


Amot muttom 


Wule jhuna muto- 
do 


Tou were 


( 


Eemut hutteet 


Immat muthoreet 


Eme mantona 


Imet mottonit 


i 

Wule jhum mim- i 

toda i 


They were 




Wor huttor 


Ork muthork 


Hore muntore 


Odk muttodk 


Wule muntona 


Be 




Am 


Am 


Munda 


Mun 


Mund 


To be 




Aialle 


Ayana 




Mundina 


jMundana ' 


Being 

Having been ... 





TJsse 
Usse koon 


Ayata 
Asse koon 




Muntton 


Muttun 


I may be 




Nunna aia para- 
tona 


Ayaka 


Ana mantona 


Nuna mundina 


Nuna muntoria 


I shall be 

I should be ... 




Nunna aika 

Nunna aia paran- 
dun 


Ayaka 

Ayata 




Nuna mundka 
Hadina munta 


Nuna hundaka 
Nuna daka 


Beat 
To beat 
Beating 




Jeem 

JeaUee 

Jisee 


Jeem 

Jeeana 

Jeeata 


Jim 


Jeeana 
Jitona 


Jim 

Jitun 

Jinake 


Haying beaten 
I beat 


En louskan 


Jisee koon 
Nunna jeealona 


Jeseekoon 
Anna jeeatona 


Anna jika 


Jehseekoon 
Nunajeeyatona 


Jiskun 
Nuna jitan 


Thou beatest .., 




Eema jeeatoni 


Immajeeatonee 




Imey jeeyatoni 


Ime jintoon 


He beats 
We beat 




Wor jeeator 
Jmat jeeatoram 


Or jeeator 
Ammot jeeatorum 


Amut jika 


Or jeeator 
Amot jeetoom 


Hor jiantore 
Amote jiantore 


You beat 
They beat ... 




Eemut jeeato- - 
reet 

Wor jeeator ( 


Cmmatjeeatoreet 
3rk jeeatork 

. s- 




Imet jiatonit 
Odk jeeatodk 


Wule jhun jian- 
tond 

ffore jiantore 



( 11 ) 



PEOVINCES JjANGcU A.Gm.—fContinued.J 



13S 



' TRIBES. 




OOJTD TbIBES. 




. , Wardha. 


Hoshangabad. 


Seoni. 


Jabalpur. 


Mandla. 


Sagar. 




Harrai 


Bookree 


Uttee 


Iti 


Cheerea 


Bokre 


A female goat. 


' Bakara loda 


Bookra 


VuUay bokral 


Iti 


Wulley Bukra 


Ghunee bokree 


Goats. 




Heerna 


Meergal 


Chhigra 


Kursal 


Akhurree 


A male deer. 




Heernee 


Heernal 


Chhigra 


Heronee 


Hureyn 


A female deer. 




Heern 


Vullay heernal 
meerga 


Chhigra 


Herona 


Gunee hum 


Deer. 


i Nana mantonah 


Anna hae 


Mamoteandoom 


Nan mandaka 


Muma mundal 


Hoon chhoon 


I am. 


1 Ema mantonee 


Oomma hai 


Eema aund 


lyar adur 


Eema mundal 


Too chhii 


Thou art. 


Wore mantore 


Olhai 


Ud andoor 


Had manda 


Haur mundal 


Ulo chhu 


He is. 


A moot mantode 


Ammut hai 


Nuna undoom 


Nan mandaka 


Wulley muma 
mundal 


Hoon chhoon 


We are. 


j Emat muntodee 


Oommut iai 


Eemat aund 


lyar adur 


Wulley eema 
mundal 


Too chhu 


You are. 


j Wora mantoda 


01 hai 


Vullay aund 


Hon manda 


Wulley haur mun- 
dal 


Ulo chhu 


They are. 




Una muttooua 


Mumote mutona 


Nana mandan 


Nunna muttonee 


Hoon huto 


I was. 


1 • 


Oomma muttoona 


Eema mutona 


Ima ore mattoni 


Ima muttonee 


Too huto 


Thou wast. 


1 


01 muttool 


Ud mutona 


Hor mattur 


Haur muttonee 


Ulo huto 


He was. 




TJmmut muttorum 


Nuna mutona 


Anave mandan 


Wulley nuna mut- 
tonee 


Hoon huto 


We were. 




OomTnut-muttool 


Eemat mutona 


Ima ore mattur 


Wulley ima mut- 
tonee 


Too huto 


You were. 




01 muttooi 


Vullay mutona 


Vale janamattur 


Wulley haur mut- 
tonee 


Ulo huto 


They were. 




Mundkee 






Asee hut 


Chhu 


Be. 




Mundkee 






Asee hun 


Hoon ulo huto 


To be. 




Awel 


lyar 









Being. 




Aseehut 


Bunay masee 
Mumote assee 

Mumote aeeka 
Makoon aee 




Seet 




Having been. 
I may be. 

I shall be. 
I should be. 


Jeem 


Jim 


Jeem 


Jeem 


Jeeond 


Mar 


Beat. 




ffisibata 


Jeeana 


Jeem 


Jeem 


Marno 


To beat. 




Jea manool 


Jeetakay 




Jeyakun 


Mar to jaeych 


Beating. 




Jisi 


Jeetay 


... . 




Maren 


Having beaten. 


Nuna Jemtonah 


Una jika 


Mumote jeea 
toorum 


Nana jiya tan 


Nunna jeem 


Hoon mareyt 


I beat. 


Eema jeemto 
nee 


Oomma jiatool 


Eema jeea thoonee 


Ima jiti 


1 


Too- mare chhoo 


Thou beatest. 




Oul jiatool 


Ud jheea thoor 


Hor jiyator 




Ulo mare chhu 


He beats. 


Amoot jeemtodo 


TJmmat jiatool 


Nuna jeea toorum 


Nana jeyatan 




Hoon maroon 
choon 


We beat. 


Emat jeemtodal 


Oommut jiatool 


Eemot jeea 
thonee 


Ima jiti 




Too mare chhoo 


You beat. 




Oul jiatool 


Vullay jeea thoor 


Hor jiyatur 




1 
Ulo mare cKhu 


They beat. 



136 



( 12 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CENTEAL 



I am beating . . 

I was beating 

I had beaten .. 

I may beat .. 

I shall beat .. 
I should beat , . 

I am beaten ... 

I was beaten 

I shall be beaten 

I go 

Thou goest ... 

He goes 
I went 

Thou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

What is your name ? . 

How old is this horse ?. 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 



How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 



I have walked a long 
way to-day 



The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister 



In the house is the sad- 
dle of the white horse 



TEIBES. 



DHANGrB. 



Bilaspur. 



En kala 



GoND Tbibes. 



Narsingpur^ 



Nighendur na- 
men 

Eunn chanto 
ghoro 

Istek Kashmir 
ai kosri 



Nimbus erpaun 
enjhun khuddur 
rahnur 



Inna niggeeha 
tooroo baruch 
kun 

Enkakus tring 
dus is ge tun 
grin binjarus 



Nunna jeeatona 
Nunna jokdan 



Nunna 
keitan 



jisee 



Nunna jeeapara- 
tona 

Nunna jeeaka 

Nunna 
parandan 

Nunna jesee 
aratona 

Nunna jesee 
matona 

Nunna jesee aika 

Nunna hunda- 
tona 

Eema hundato- 
nee 

Wor hundator 

Nunna hunji- 
tona 

Eema hunjitonee 

Wor hunjitor 

Hun 

Hunjee 

Hunjee koon 

Niwa buttee 
purol 

Ud koda ta but- 
tee oomr mun- 
data 

Yetal Kashmir 
bucho lukh 
mundar 

Niwa bubona 
rokhte bucho 
pekor munda- 
noor 

Nunna nend 
lukhtakee than 



Miwa kukka ta 
pergal yena 
selar te sung 
murming kiator 



Pandro ghorogi Panduree koda 
khogeer erpa- ta zeem rote 
noo raee mundar 



Chhindwara. 



Anna jeeatona 

Anna jeendan 

Anna jeetona 

Anna jeeka 

Anna jeeaka 
Anna jeeatona 

Anna mar tin- 
datona 

Anna martitan 

Anna martin daka 

Anna himdatona 

Imma hundatonee 

Or hundator 
Anna hutan 

Imma huteen 
Or hutoor 
Hun 
Hunjode 
Hunjee koon 



Nagpur. 



Anajika 



Ana jika 



Makoon jit 



Ona huntona 



Ana hunjee 



Hun 



Balaghat. 



Bhandara. 



Nuna jeeatona 

Nuna jiendan 

Nunajeeamuntono 

Nuna jeyka 

Nuna jeyka 
Nuna jeyka 

Nakoori jeetoor 

Nakoon jitoor 

jeea 

Nuna hadeetona 

Imay handitoni 



Nakoon 
noon 



Nuna jiantona 

Nuna jitar 

Nuna jisimunotona 

Nuna jeka 

Nuna jeka 
Nuna jeka 

Nakoon jiantore 

Nakoon jhittore 



pudol 



Meewa 
bang 

Id koda buchale 
wursan na andoo 



Iggatal Kashmir 
toon buchale 
lukh andoo 

Meewar dhaoon 
na rotte buchale 
murk andoork 



Nend anna lukh 
thaktona 



Nawor kaka nor 
mur ree tanha 
selan na mur- 
ming keetoor 

Pandree koda ta 
khogeer rotte 
andoo 



Niwa buttee pudol 
Hait koda buchale 



Kashmir igedal 
buchale lukh 
munda 

Niwur babona 
roon buchale 
toodal mantore 

Nend surde ana 
ajwule takta 



Mawa kakator 
toodanee hona 
seladeen sung 
mudmee auntoo 



Hud rot rupoo 
pandrial koda ta 
khogeer munda 



Or handatoor 
Nun hatan 

Imay hatoni 
Or hatoor 
Hund 
Handina 
Hatona sasuhud 

Niwo parole buti 
munda 

Id kodda buchor 
oomurta mundar 

Ikdal Kashmir 
buchore lumbore 
munda 

Niwa daoona 

rotey buchore 
chabang mudang 

Nunna naoo bul- 
ley lukkun dan 
batal 

Nawa kaka na 
murree wona 
se lang mudpee 
keetoor 



Pundrie koda ta 
khogeer rotey 
muha 



Nuna hundaka 

Ime hun 

Hore huntore 
Nuna hatan 

Ime hunti muntoo 
Hore huttoore 
Hun 

Takintore 
Huttoore 

Niwa nawa buti 
munda 

Buchkul wursu 
munda koda 

Buchul cose Kash- 
mir munda 

Niwa babona rone 
buchul saya 
munda 

Nain wuli taksee 
watang 

Kakano murree 
suwa mudming 
kittore 



Pandhra kodang 
khogeer rotropo 
munda 



( 13 ) 



PROVINCES 'LA.'NGiUA&'ES.— (Continued.) 



137 



TEIBES. 



GoND Teibbs. 



Wardha. 



Hoshangabad. 



Seoni. 



Jabalpur. 



Mandla. 



Sagar. 



Emat jeitoor 



Nakoon jeetoor 



Nakoonjeeyauoor 
Nanahantonah 
Bema hantonee 



Nana hattan 



Wore huttoor 
Hun 



Newa padodah 
buttee manda 

Eed koddah 
baclial warona 
manda 

Eegdul Kashmir 
baohal luk- 
manda 

Newa babadala 
neeya baohore 
toodalod man- 
todo 

Nana wamdwa- 
lai luknal tak- 
see watal 

Nawa kakadala 
tamoodal shela 
deema mad- 
meen keetoda 



Pandree kod- 
dana ronakho- 
geer mandaya 



Una jeenun 
Una jisi 



Neea purool biha 

Oul kora cLa- 
oomur buchon 

Eegitul Kashmir 
buchon lakon 
day 

Newa daoon rone 
bucho tooda loo- 
dhye 

Ned unna wuUey 
luk kalkey kal 
wulleeton 



Pandree korana 
khoogir ed- 
routh hai 



Mumote jeea 
toorum 

Mumote jeea 

mutona 

Mumote jesaytee 
Mumote jeydoom 

Mumote jeydan 

Makoon jeesee 
muttoor 

Mumote jesee 
vatoom 

Mumote jesee 
mutoorum 

Mumote maro 
daka 

Mumote hutlia 

Eema butha 

Ud hutha 
Mumote Luttoor 

Eema, huttoor 
Ud huttoor 
Hun 

Hundatay 
Huttoor 

Eemat buthee 
purool 

Er kodda bucha- 
lay burusta atha 

Ek datay Kusmeer 
buchalay lu- 
koom-aund 

Neeya daootay 
roanthay bucha- 
lay chowa aun- 
door 

Naind mumote 
purro lukoom 
taktoom 

Mawa kakanoor 
murreenay ta- 
noor sylanoor 
murmee kesee- 
thoor 

Eed roantay aund 
pundree kodda 
tay khogeer 



Nana jitan 



Inge anajiyaka 

Nana kede jeka 
Nana jevena 

Nak jitur 

Nana mare hatten 

Nana mare daka 

Nana ve daka 

Ima hattur 



Ima hattur 
Hor hattur 
Han 

Hada tue 
Hattur 

Niybatti puror 

Id korabaohale 
varsana manda 



Igra Kashmir 
buchalak kun 



Niy rutte dada 
chhavva bachale 
madanu 



Sarri takina valela 
hanne na 

Naur kaka marri 
selar maijee kitur 
marri 



Ad rot madan par- 
rikora paleoha 
mundal 



Nunna hun 

Ima hun 

Haur hun 
Nunna hunhunjee 

Eema hunhunjee 
Haur hunhunjee 
Hun 



Hoon mare ru- 
heeto 

Hoon mare ru- 
heeto 

Hoon mareeoh 
Hoon mareech 



Hoon maro guyo 
chho 

Hoon mare ru- 
heeto 



Hutur 



Nya wutee purol 
mundol 

Koda purro teal 
mundol 



Kituk luk mundal 
Kashmir 

Keetek murree 
ima babala rond 
mundanoor 



Nunna wuUey 
lukwurra a,tur 
nehr 

Nunna kakanur 
murree haursela 
adanoor moedo 



Pudree kodatul 
pulaycha roun 
la mundal 



Hoonjaoonohhoon 

Too jaey chhu 

Uloja iruho chho 
Hoon guyo 

Too guyo 
Ulo guyo 
Jao 

Jai ruho 
Guyo 

Toro nam seeoo 
chey 

Aghora kitna 
burukh noon 
chhu 

Anhuto Kashmir 
sheeo 

Tarabawun ghur 
men kitna 

chhiya chhey 

Aj ghuna door 

gya 

Mara kukanoo 
chhiyo inhee 
buhun ko dajo 
bhuya chhu 

Dwala ghoronee 
jeen ghur ma 
chhu 



I am beating. 

I was beating. 

I had beaten. 

I may beat. 

I shall beat. 
I should beat. 

I am beaten. 

I was beaten. 

I shall be beaten. 

I go. 

Thou goest. 

He goes. 
I went. 

Thou wentest. 
He went. 
Go. 

Going. 
Gone. 

What is your name P 

How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are there 
in your father's house P 



I have walked a long way 
to-day. 



The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse. 



13B 



( 14 ) 



SPECIMENS OF THE CBNTEAL 



TEIBES. 



Dhangue. 



Bilaspur. 



GoND Teibes. 



Narsingpur. 



Chhindwara. 



Nagpur. 



Ealaghat. 



Bliandara. 



Put the saddle upon Ms 
• back 



I have beaten his son 
with many stripes 



He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree 



His brother is taller than 
his sister 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half 



My father lives in that 
smaUliouse 



Give this rupee to him 



Tate those rupees from 
him 



Deat him well and bind 
him with ropes 



Draw water from the 
well 



Walk before me 



Whose boy comes behind 

you? 



From whom did you buy 
that? 



From a shop-keeper of 
the village 



Ghorohi men- 
dhun khogeer 
heriloya 

Assi khuddurin 
lanchkan 



Alus partaun 
owen minta 
alugdus 



Alus ghoronoo 
arik karadus 



Idioje moollee 
arhai rupae 
raee 

Embus erpaun 
sunnee radus 



Isguson rupae 
eron tun hoa 



Husin Iowa 
epturn hea 



Chaata amum 
natga 



Ghuoha engauen 
ekote 

Nekha khuddur 
bara engnur 
khon khanu 

Nagobste khin- 
dikai dadurkai 



Puddatee dokan- 
tee imbuggee 
tooroo ondur 
kan 



Wono mohchote 
zeen kussee 
keecheem 

Nunna wona 
pergal toon 
wuUee joktan 

Dongur purro 
wor dhoral 
toon meatoor 



Wor koda purra 
murra turree 
ooddatoor 

Wona tummoor 
woona selar te 
concha aiator 



Ud chuddorrote 
nawa dubbo 
mundatoor 



Wonk id kuldar 
seesee sim 

Wonal iokuldar 
woya 

Wonk wullee 
jeemane doree te 
doha 



Eooa te eer neeh- 
chee tulla 



Mawa moonne 
hun 

Mwahulse bona 
pergal wnnk tor 

Eema bon iga 
tulle molattee 



Nar ta dookan- 
dar te nunna 
molaltan 



Tonna moorchoot 
purro khogeer 
irra 

Anna onhor mur- 
reen wulle ko 
dang jeetan 



Or mutta ta 
chendit purro- 
kondang taling 
mehtatoor 

Or ad murrat 
khalwa kodat 
purro oodeetor 

Onhor turn moor 
onha selan seen 
dhongal andoor 

Tanha mola adhai- 
roopeeang andoo 

Nawor dhaoo 
adchoodor rot te 
mundator 

Id roopeea on 
seem 



Aon roopeeang on 
seem yena 

On wulle kodang 
jeeseekoon noo- 
nete dohat 



Kooa ta yer oomat 



Na moone thakat 

Meewa pija bon- 
hor chonwa 

wayator 

Immat tan bon 
seen molate 
yeteet 

Natenor undi 
buniyan seen 



Hono pet puro- 
khogeer wata 

Hona toadoo wul- 
ene gitoor 



Hoodkeet puro 
hore dhore meh 
teen ta 



Hore muda tule 
kodat puro 

oochee muta 

Hona seladeen 
sin honatumboor 
dhongal munda 

Hona kimut run 
roopa ath anna 

Mawa babohore 
choodoor rot 
rupo ruheeman- 
tore 

Her roopaya 

horekoom sim 



Hore seem roo- 
paye enut 

Hore koom khoop 
gim nodhe koon 
doh chinwato 



Koreetal err wule 
kim 



Mawa moonee dut 

Bona tooda wan- 
tore nipuzie 

Bone hinda etenee 



Nate tal dookan- 
dar puro 



Id khogiran id a 
ko dato parro 
disa 

Nuna or chabu- 
toor khoob lathi 
se jitan 

Ad koddo ta puro 
mooda mahettor 



Ad mudda khaley 



koddatey 
tor 



oody 



Ona tummooradi- 
na salarsay sojor 
mundah 

Adena malo adhaie 
rupia munda 

Naoor daoo chidor 
rone mundat 



Id rupee on sim 



Ona kuchoo dol 
waley rupeea 
cheha 

Oney nodaytey 
doda oondey 
khoob jeem 

Ad koowa tal yero 
thanda 



Nawa mooney da 

Bona chawa niwa 
pujah wytor 



Imen id honi sya 
asti 



Idna te doorwuni 
se 



Khogeer pnrakM 
mandi kikital 
tana kussi 

Suwa toonrun 
korda wule gi- 
tani dan 



Mundate dhore 
mehu sintore 



Mudat lihalwa 
koda nititore 



Ona tumboor ona 
tuekapur se fu- 
dore mundah 



Ona kimut adeech 
rupuya munda 



Niwa babo hud- 
chid rotropa 
munda 






Id rupuya oon 
sisiwata 



Aoon rupuya tur- 
uksitura 



Ehoop oon jim an 
dohochiroom 



Kooital viheer 
tunda olikim 

Nam oone da 



Niya puda bug- 
dore man tore - 



O nigdul as ti-an 



Hud gaonwa doo- 
kandar aseetut 



( 16 ) 



PROVINCES IjA.'NGrVAGm.-fContinued.J 



139 



TRIBES. 



GoND Teibes. 



Wardha. 



Hosliangabad. 



Seoni. 



Jabalpur. 



Mandla. 



Sagar. 



Kaddana pura- 
kee khogeer 
kem 

Wuna toodan 
nana walai 
badgeen jeetan 

Wore mattal 
parah kondan 
mebtantor 



Ad moda kbo lai 
wore koddatar 
ootoor 

Wuna toomoo- 
dal wana she- 
lad senoocbo 
manlore 

Wana keemat 
adeecb roopya- 
na mauda 

Nowababo cho- 
too roon man- 
tore 



Eed roopaya 
wana washu 
shim 

Wana eegdal 
roopaya yena 

Wona khoob 
jeein nah wona 
nodoitoor kboob 



Doha ad koohee 
yertanda 

Nawa moonaida 



Bona kareedal 
eema yettee 

Natainore wa- 
neegdal yettal 



Tana moorohool 
khogir dasa 

Tana pergan bet 
khoob jitool 



Ud puhar purro 
talee mehut toor 



Ud murra turree 
korat purro 

oottu 

Oona selar tun 
sipudul tum- 
moor 



Tana mola adhye 
roopea 

Naba vulley ood- 
rontee 



Eoopea si siwata 
tan 



Tan si roopea 
ench enut 



Kooata ervinja 



Na mooney ta- 
kee 

Onnol pergul 
takee toolnee 
pucharee. 



Thanay moor 
chootee khogeer 
doosay seem 

Mumote udteay 
toora toon buch- 
alay sooktee 
jeetoom • 

TJd dhqre mhai- 
latoor "phahartay 



Ore kodatay 

oochee antoor 
ore jharaysiree 

Thainoor bhyal 
purote aund 
thainoor sylatay 

Thana moal an- 
doorrundroopya 
urmoor aua 

Mawa daoo mun- 
datoor ud choo- 
door roantay 

Eed roopya ona 
seem 



Ud roopya oan- 
say aith 

Ona khoob jeem 
un ruseetay dho 
cheem 



Koonwa tay air- 
nay cheem 

Dang mawa moo- 
nay 

Bona chuwa vaya- 
noor neeya pijja 



Bonatay eema ore 
mole ay tuttee 

Nataytay oondee 
dookandar tay 



Ad palecha adan 
purro tachohhi 
kasi kam 



Unur marri 
nanna 



jitan 



Chunri parro dhor 
meita ja ri 



Tui di kora te 
uddile mara sri 



Onor bhai than- 
gal madano mao 
selar 



Adaina mol ran 
rupya our adha 
at 

Nava babo churur 
rote manda tour 



Yu rupya oun si- 
sun 



Yu rupya owne 
chhena 



Oun khub jim 
noune tain duha 



Er kuan tal tanda 



Nava samne taka 

Won nur chbavo 
na pijja vandur 

Ima vonna igral 
ate 

Nae dukandar 
tigral tattan nate 



Peet ta purro pul- 
eecha kuse seem 



Nunna haur mur- 
eela khoob 

jeetun 

Kurrote purro 
dhoreal meh 
mundal 



Murrate sinee 
kodate purro 
oodhtur 

Haur selate tun- 
murdhanga mun- 
dal 



Hourla mola rund 
rupaya 

Nunna babo 

chond rond la 
mudanoor 



Haur la rupea 
seem 



Haur ta rupaya 
it ka 



Haur la khoob 
jeetun un nunte 
dohohee 



Seem kowata erl 
jute tundal 

Nawa moonedah 



Oomur chowa 
mawa pudja- 
atur 

Haur boneta mole 
etur 



Narla dukandar 
ta 



Wa jeen chhuoO' 
pur churhee lu 

Tina chhiya nu 
ghuna koera 
marya 

Ulo doongur pur 
dhorakh churai 
ruho 



buhunee to 
oonchee budhu 
jo 

Tinoo dam chhu 
Tirhaie roopya 

Mara baba ulo 
nuno ghur men 
ruhhey ehhu 

Aroopya tino 
deyee du 

Ulo kuntho tyo 
roopya leyeelo 

Tina chunoo 
maro randho 
ko tina ban 



Dhee nakho koo- 
wa mutho panee 
churree to 

Mara aga chal 



Tara kiro akoo- 
noo ohiyo awee 
ruho tho 

Takown kuntho 
mol tiyo 

Ulo gam tho 
dookan tho mal 
liyo 



Put the saddle upon his 
back. 



I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 



He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hiU. 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 



Ulo ghoro pur 
baitho chhu 
jharwa heyt 

Inho bhai inhe His brother is taller than 



his sister. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 



My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 



Take those rupees from 
him. 



Beat him well and bind 
him with ropes. 



Draw water from the 
well. 



Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes behind 
you? 



Prom whom did yDubuv 

that ? 



From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



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COOCH BEHAR, DARJEELING, AND NEPALESE LANGUAGES. 



1^1 



150 



( 2 ) 



Cooch Behdr, Darjeeling, 



English. 



Meoli. 



Cooch. 



Lepcha. 



Numerals. 




One 


Monohe 


Two 


Mouneh 


Three 


Momthan 


Four 


Monbreh 


Five 


Monbah 


Six 


Mondoh 


Seven 


Monchinee 


Eight 




Nine 




Ten 




Tvrenty 


Thikon 


Fifty 




Hundred 


Bishabah socheh 


Pronouns. 




I 


Aug 


We 


Jong 


Thou 


Nooug 


You 


Noongcharo 


He 


Obehm anshee 


They 




Of me 




Of us 




Of thee 




Of you 




Of him 


• ••■•• 


Of them 




Mine 


Augnee 


Our 


Jongnee 


Thine 


Noongnee 


Your 


Noongchinee 


His 


Bissonee 


Their 




Hand 


Nakhai 


Foot 


Nathen 


Nose 


Koontoong 


Eye 


Mogon 


Mouth 


Khogah 


Tooth 


Hathai 



Gasak 

Dui 

Tin 

Chari 

Pdnch 

Chahf 

Sat 

At 

Nau 

Das 

Kori 

Panchas 

EkSau 



An 

Niin 

Ni 

Nirun 

Ua 

Ujaran 

Ani 

Nunni 

Nini 

Nirunni 

Uani 

Ujaranni 

Niinni 

Nini 

Nirunni 

Uani 

Ujaranni 

Ohak 

Jaten 

Nakun 

Mukun 

Kakham 

Pha 



Kot 

Gyet 

Sam 

Phulee 

Phungo 

Terok 

Ka kyo 

Ka kwo 

Ka kyot 

Kati 

Kha kot 

Kha abungsum 

Kha phungon 

Go 

Koyu 

Ho 

Hayu 

Hoo 

He yu 

Kasusa 

Kyu sa 

Adosa 

Hayusa 

Hu soe a 

Hayu song sa 

Kasensa 

Kayu pougsa 

Ho sa 

Hayu pongsa 

Heu su 

Hoyu pong sa 

Kahok 

Diang bok 
Tak nain 
Anuk 
A bong 
Apho 



{ 3 ) 



and Nepalese Languages. 



151 



Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


English. 


Ek 


Chhee 


Thik 


Kat 


One. 


Don 


Nusee, Gnee 


Neche 


Nis 


Two. 


Tin 


Song 


Soomse 


Soom 


Three, 


Char 


Pee 


Lise 


Booli 


Four. 


Panch 


Gnya 


Nase 


Banga 


Five. 


Chpo 


Khoo 


Tookse 


Chha 


Six. 


Sath 


Neh 


Noosee 


Sath 


Seven. 


Ath 


Ghya 


Ya-cbhe 


Ath 


Eight. 


Nao 


Goon 


Phangse 


Naw 


Nine. 


Das 


Sandho 


Thibong 


Das 


Ten. 


Bis 


Sung sandho 


Nebong 


Bis 


Twenty. 


Pachas 


Pee sandho 


Phangip 


Pachas 


Fifty. 


Sao 


Goon sandho 


Saw 


Saw 


Hundred. 


Mo or hami 


Jee 


Inga 


Gna 


I. 


Hame hero 


Jee-ping 


Anega 


Kan koorik ... 


We. 


Timi 


Ohha 


Khena 


Nang 


Thou. 


Timi hero 


Chha-ping 


Khenee 


Na koorik ... 


You. 


Teeyo (Tyo) 


"Wo 


Khoona, Nakhen ... 


Hos 


He. 


Une 


Wo-ping 


Khoonchhe 


Hos koorik ... 


They. 


Mero or homro 


Jee ta 






Of me. 


Hame hero ko 


Jee mee ta 






Of us. 


Tero or tomro 


Chhun ta 






Of thee. 


Timi hero ko 


Chhu mee ta 






Of you. 


Usko 


Wo-a-ta 






Of him. 


Uni 


Wo-mee ta 






Of them. 


Mero or homro 


Jee goo 


Inga-in 


Gnou 


Mine. 


Hame hero ko 


Jee mee goo 


Amga-in 


Kanoong 


Our. 


Tero or tomro 


Chhun goo 


Khena-iu 


Nawo 


Thine. 


Timi hero ko 


Chhu mee goo 


Khene-in 


Na koori koong 


Your. 


Teska 


Wo-a-goo 


Khoona-in 


Hos koong ... 


His. 


Une 


Wo-mee goo 


Khoon chhi in 


Hos koori 
koong. 


Their, 


Hatho 


Laha pah 


Hook taphe 


Mihoot, hoot 
piak. 


Hand. 


Paitallo 


Tooti palee 


Lang daphe 


Mihib 


Foot. 


Nak 


Nha 


Nebo 


Mina 


Nose. 


An kha 


Mee-kha 


Meek 


Mimik 


Eye. 


Mukh 


Mhoo too 


Moora 


Minger 


Mouth. 


Daat 


Wa 


Ha, heboo 


Misyak 


Tooth. 



152 



( 4 ) 



Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, 



English. 


Mech. 


Cooch. 


Lepcha. 


Ear 


Khoma 


Nakal 


Anyor 




Hair 


Khanai 


Khau 


Achom 


... 


Head 


Khoroh 


Dhakam 


At hiak 


..t 


Tongue 


Chhalai 


Thelai 


Ali 


... 


Belly 


Oodai 


Ok 


Tabak 


... 


Back 


Bikooug 


Kiinju 


Achang 


... 


Iron 


Shor 


Loa 


Panjuig 




Gold 


Shona 


Sona 


Zar 


... 


Silver 


Roopa 


Rupa 


Kam 


... 


Father 


Apha bipha 


Awa 


Abo 




Mother 


Aie, bima 


Ame 


Amo 


■■• 


Brother 




Dada, bhai 


Ing 


... 


Brother (elder) 


Ada 








Brother (younger) ... 


Phongbai 








Sister 




Janau 


Musing mo 


... 


Si tser (elder) 


Abo 








Sister (younger) 


Binanaw 








Man 


Manshee 


Murg 


Maro-tagri 


... 


Woman 


Hinjao 


Magja 


Thu 


... 


Wife 


Bihi 


Jugju, jiksai 


Ain 


■ .. 


Child 


Bisha 


Sasa 


Akup 


... 


Son 


Bisha hoowa 


Mawasasa 


Tagri kup 


. . . 


Daughter 


Bisha hinjao 


Maju sasa 


Tha u kup 


. . . 


Slave 


Leng 


Ghulam 


Vith 


... 


Cultivator 


Holwidan 


Gam loinimurg 


Khebu 


... 


Shepherd 


Bromah laokar 


Bhera rakwal 


Thamchen nogbo 


... 


God 


Batho modai 


Eashan 


Rem 


... 


Devil 


Bhoot gotheechaw 


Why 


Mung 


... 


Sun 


Shan 


Rashan 


Sechuk 


... 


Moon 


Nokhabor 


Ranrit, narek 


Lavo 




Star 


Hathoorklee , 


Ramphut 


Suhor 




Fire 


Wat 


War 


Mi 




Water 


Daee 


Tikati 


Ong 




House 


Naw 


Nok 


Li 




Horse 


Gorai 


Ghora 


On 




Cow 


Moshogai 


Machu 


Bik (biggu) 


... 


Dog 


Chhaima 


Koi 


Kazen (kazu) 


... 


Cat 


Maojee 


Miyau 


Aleu 




Cock 


Daw 


Thak 


Hickbu 




Duck 


Haugsho 


Hansii 


Dam byo 


... 


Ass 


Gada 


(Unknown) 


Pangbu 


... 



( 5 ) 



and Nepalese Languages. — (Continued.) 



153 





Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


English. 




Kan 


Nhaipon 


Nekho 


Menakap 


Ear. 




Kesh 


Sonh 


Thagek yea 


Misam 


Hair. 




Tanko 


Chhon 


Thagek 


Mitaloo 


Head. 




Jiboo 


Meh 


Lesoth 


Mekth 


Tongue. 




Bhunri or pet 


Pooa 


Sapok 


Mitook 


Belly. 




Pith 


Mha 


Ek, ekshima 


Mizang 


Back. 




Lohu 


Noh 


Phenje 


Phalam 


Iron. 




Sun 


Loon 


Samyang 


Gyo 


Gold. 




Chandi 


Wo-ho 


U-pah 


Chandee 


Silver. 




Babu 


Booba 


Ambah, pa / 


Boi 


Father. 




Ama 


Mang 


Ammah, ma 


Mai 


Mother. 




Daju or bhye 


Kijah 






Brother. 




Am, Phoo 


Daju 


Brother (elder). 




Didui or bahini 




Anoosha 
Anne 


Bhai 


Brother (younger). 






Sister. 




Tata 


Dai 


Sister (elder.) 




.... 


Kenhe 


Noosa 


Banai 


Sister (younger.) 




Manchhi 


Monoo 


Gna me, Ambechha . 


Bharmi 


Man. 




Aye mye 


Meesa 


Men chhama 


Mashto 


Woman. 




Sowas ni 


Koloh 


Ameith 


Miya 


Wife. 




Chhoro chhori 


Mochatha 


Henjah 


Lenjaja 


Child. 




Chhora 


Kai 


Asha, embechha 


Lenja mija ... 


Son. 




Chhoree 


Mha 


Asha Menchhema ... 


Mashto mija... 


Daughter. 




Kamara 


Cheo 


Aiyoke 


Myo 


Slave. 






Jamee 


Kameikejopa 


Hyami 


Cultivator. 






Phaijowa 


Bhera gogumba 


Gotala ... ' 


Shepherd. 




Bhugwan 


Bhugwan 


Bhagwan 


Bhagwan 


God. 




Banjhakri 


Bhooth 


Bhooth 


Bhooth 


Devil. 




Ghana 


Soorjoo 


Nam 


Namkhan 


Sun. 




Jun 


Too Mila 


Lab 


Gya hot 


Moon. 




Tar a 


Nugoo 


Khes mikpa 


Tooga 


Star. 




A go 


Mee 


Mee 


Mhe 


Fire. 




Pani 


Loh 


Chooa 


Dee 


Water. 




Gharo 


Chhen 


Him 


Yim 


House. 




Ghora 


Sonloh 


On 


Ghora 


Horse. 




Gye 


San 


Pith 


Gnet 


Cow. 




Kukur 


Khecha 


Kocho, khyaba 


Chu 


Dog. 




Biralo 


Bhon, bhocha 


Meongba, miong 


Sootoo 


Cat. 




Bhala 


Gongon 


Ing wa ba 


Gwa Ohala ... 


Cock. 




Batak 


Hai, hancha 


Chookpa bans 


Marchohans... 


Duck. 




Gadha 


Gadha 


Gadha 


Gadha 


Ass. 



B 2 



154 



( 6 ) 



Cooch Behar, Darjeeling^ and 



JSnglish. 


Mech. 


Cooch. 


Lepcha. 


Camel 


Oot 


(Unknown) 


Lamdong 




Bird 


Daosian 


Thak 


Pho 


... 


Go 


Thang 


Le 


Non 


«■. 


Eat 


Ja 


Sa 


Tha 


' 


Sit 


Jo 


Mosun 


Gn^n 


,,, 


Come 


Foil 


Rlanpai 


Di 




Beat 


Shooio 


Tok 


Buk 


* • . 


Stand 


Gosong 


Kharaton 


Lukding 




Die 


Thegar 


Tilai 


Mak 


• .. 


Give 


Hort 


Lahan 


Bole 


• ■• 


Bun 


Khalang 


Jar lei 


Deung 


• • • 


Up 


Gajaoo 


Khara 


Up long ka 


• -. 


Down 


Gahayas 


Kama 


Chil 


... 


Before 


Thoongjoong 


Age 


Han 


■ ■ . 


Near 


Khateh 


Kandik 


Athal 




Far 


Gajanas 


Janau 


Murum 


... 


Behind 


Unao 


Pase 


Loan 


... 


"Who 


Saro 


Chan 


To 


... 


What 


Mah 


Atawa 


Shu 




■Why 


Mano 


Atani 


Shumat 




And 






(La)ik 


( ■ . 


But 






Gorung 


• • ■ 


If 




Jodi 


Thendok 


... 


Yes 


Ongo 


Han 


Ak,Euk 




No 


Ongah 


Era 


Moin 




Alas' 


Hai hai 




Ha i u 




A father 


Bifa shacheh 


Awa gasak 


Abo kut 




Of a father 


Shacheh bifano 


Awani 


Abo so 


... 


To a father 


Aplano 


Awana 


Abo so 


... 


From a father 


Aphanefreh 


Awajikin 


Abonan 


... 


Two fathers 


Bifa shaneh 


Awa duita 


Abo nyet 




Fathers 


Rifa gohang 


Awa bren^ awa bujun 


Abo song 




Of fathers 




Awa bienni 


Abo song so 


... 


To fathers 




Awabrenna 


Abo songlo 




From fathers 




Awa brennijikin 


Abo songso 


... 


A daughter 


■ 


Magjusasa 


Ta u kup kath 


... 



( 7 ) 



Nepalese Languages. — (Continued.) 



155 



Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


English. 


Ut 


Oont • 


Oont 


Oont 


Camel. 


Chara 


Jhanga 


Poo 


Gwaja (small 
birds.) 


Bird. 


Heero 


Hoon 


Peg ma 


Gnoongna . . 


Go. 


Khao 


Nob 


Chama 


Jya ki 


, 


Eat. 


Basa 


Phatoo 


U gna 


Gnoo ki 


, 


Sit. 


Aija 


Wo ah 


Phara 


Rahni 


, , 


Come. 


Kuta 


Da 


Hipma 


Doong ki 


. . 


Beat. 


Ubho 


Dong 


Pima 


Soki 


. . 


Stand. 


Moro 


Seeta 


Sha 


Seki 


. , 


Die. 


Dey 


Bi-u 


Yea ba 


Yaki 


. , 


Give. 


Doogro 


Bwanhu 


Lokma 


Kher ki 


, , 


Run. 


Mathi 


Cho-a 


Tho 


Dhenam 


. • 


Up. 


Muni or tolo 


Ko-a 


Yo 


Mhaka 




Down. 


Astee or agher 


Nhapa 


Koodoo ma 


Aghyer 




Before. 


Nujeek 


Suttee 


Neetang 


Kherep 


. . 


Near. 


Tauro 


Tapa 


Nang kha 


Los 


. • 


Far. 


Puohke 


Lipa 


Egang 


Gnoongla 




Behind. 


Ko 


Soo 


Hatia 


Swale 


, . 


Who. 


Ke 


Chu 


Thebe 


Hyale 




What. 


Keno 


Chya 


Thyang sa 


Hyake 




Why. 


Ra 


Nang (Doubtful) ... 


Yang mo , . 


Ra (Doubtfu 




And. 


Purunto 


Puruntoo 


Sang ■» f 


Tara „ 
Dehreng „ . 




But. 
If. 


Auh 


Ho (Doubtful) ... 


Ah 


Hau 




Yes. 


Nahee or hoyna 


Moroo 


Na 


Mahla 




No. 


Aha or baby ne. 


Hai hai (Doubtful) 


Kajang sama 


Hai 




Alas. 


Egota babu. 


Chhomho booba ... 


Ambah or pa lopthik 


Kat bai 




A father; 


Egota babu ko 


Chhomho booba yia 


Lopthik palen 


Kat baiyo, bai- 
koong. 


Of a father. 


Egotu bubu ko 


Chhomho booba yia 
ta. 


Lopthik pailen 


Kat baiki 


To a father. 


Egota babu seteh ... 


Chhomho booba na- 


Lopthik payonoo 


Kat baile thing 


From a father. 


* 


pong. 








Daigota babu hero . . . 


Nemho booba 


Pa neche 


Nis bai puttoko 


Two fathers. 


Aabuhero 


Booba poong 


Paha 


Boi puttako , . 


Fathers. 


Babu hero ko 


Booba poong yia ... 


Paha len 


Boi puttoko 
koong. 


Of fathers. 


Babu hero ko 


Booba poong yia ta 


Pahailen 


Boi puttoko ki 


To fathers. 


Babu hero seteh 


Booba poong napong 


Paha yonoo 


Boi puttiko te- 
thing. 


From fathers. 


Egota chhoree 


Chhomho mha 


Lopthik menchema sa 


Kat mushto mi- 
ja. 


A daughter. 



156 



( 8 ) 



Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, and 



English. 


Mech. 


Cooch. 


Lepcha. 


Of a daughter 




Magjusasaln 


Ta u kup kath neu 


To a daughter 




Magjusasani 


Ta u kup kat ko 


From a daughter 




Magjusasa jikin 


Ta u ku]) kat so 


Two daughters 





Magjusasa duijon 


Ta u kuep neth 


Daughters 






Ta u kup song 


Of daughters 




Magjusasagatani 


Ta u kup song so 


To daughters 




Magjusasagatani 


Ta u kup songlo 


From daughters 




Magjusasagatani-jikin ... 


Ta u kup song so 


A good man 


Shacheh manshi mojang... 


Murg penim 


Moroaryumkath 


Of a good man 




Murg penimni 


Moroaryum kathso 


To a good man 




Murg penimni 


Mora aryum kuthka 


From a good man 




Murgpenimnijikin 


Moroaryum kathso 


Two good men 




Murgduij onpenim 


Moro aryum neth 


Good men 




Murg penim gata 


Moro aryum song 


Of good men 




Murg penim gatani 


Moro aryum songka 


To good men 




Murgpenimgatani 


Moro aryum songlo 


From good men 




Murgpenim gatani jiken .. 


Moro aryum song so 


A good woman 


Shacheh hinjao mojang ... 


Magju penim 


Ta u aryum kath 


Good women 




Magju penun gata 


Tau dryum song 


A bad boy 


Shacheh Oodiah Bisha ... 


Magju sasa gasak nagta ... 


Tadi kup ozyen 


A bad girl 


Shacheh bisha hinjas oodia 
shama. 


Sasa gasak nagta 


Tau kup dzyen 


Good 


Mojang 


Penim 


Aryum ryumbs 


Better 


Mojancho mojang 


Uj anichay ia penim 


Dub ryumbs 


Best 


Shubshin 


Sab se ia penim 


Nejak ryumbs 


High 


Gujao 


Chua punda 


Atho 


Higher 


Bineebojow shong 


Ujani chayia chau 


Dop thobo 



( 9 ) 



Nepalese Languages. — (Continued.) 



157 



Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


■ • 

English, 


Egota chhore ko 


Chhomho mha yia 


Lopthik mench ma-sa 
len. 


Kat mushto mi- 
ja koong. 


Of a daughter. 


Egota chhore ko 


Chhomho mha yia ta 


Mench ma sailen ... 


Mushto mijaki 


To a daughter. 


Egota chhore dekhi . . . 


Chhomho mha na- 
pong. 


Mench ma sa yonoo... 


Mushto mija 
lething. 


Prom a daughter. 


Duigota chhoree 


Gnee mha 


Menchma sa nechi ... 


Nis mushto mija 


Two daughters. 


Chhoree hero 


Mah poong 


Menchmasaha 


Mushto mija 
pattako. 


Daughters, 


Chhone hero ko 


Mah poong yia ... 


Menchma sa ha len... 


Mashto mija 
pottokoong. 


Of daughters. 


Chhore hero ko 


Mah poong ta 


Menchma sa hailen... 


Mashto mija 
pattakki. 


To daughters. 


Chhoree hero dekhi ., 


Mah poong napong 


Mench ma sa yonoo... 


Mushto mija 
palla lething. 


From daughters. 


Egota jathi manchi ... 


Chhomho bheng 
monoo. 


Lopthik noba gname . . . 


Kat jathe bhar- 
mi. 


A good man. 


Egota jothi manchi 
ko. 


Chhomho bheng 
monoo yia. 


Lopthik noba gname- 
len. 


Kat jathe bhar- 
mi koong. 


Of a good man. 


Egota jathi manchi 
ka. 


Chhomho bheng 
monoo yia ta. 


Lopthik noba gname-i- 
len. 


Kat jathe bhar- 
mi ki. 


To a good man. 


Egota jathi manchi 
songa. 


Chhomho bheng 
monoo napong. 


Lopthik noba gname 
yonoo. 


Kat jathe bhar- 
mi lething. 


From a good man. 


Duota jathi manchi ... 


Gnee mho bheng 
monoo. 


Nechi noba gname, ... 


Nis jathe bhar- 
mi. 


Two good men. 


Jathi manchi sabai ... 


Bheng monoo poong 


Noba gname ha 


Jathe bharmi 
pattaka. 


Good men. 


Jathi manchi hero ko. 


Bheng monoo poong 
yia. 


Noba gname ha len... 


Jathe bharmi 
patta koong. 


Of good men. 


Jathi manchi hero ka. 


Bheng monoo poong 
yia ta. 


Noba gname hailen... 


Jathi bharmi 
pattaki. 


To good men. 


Jathi manchi hero 
sanga. 


Bheng monoo poong 
napong. 


»Noba gname yonoo... 


Jathi bharmi 
patta lething. 


From good men. 


Egota jathi aimai ... 


Chhomho bheng 
meesa. 


Lopthik noba menchma 


Kat jathe mash- 
to bharmi. 


A good woman. 


Jathi aimai hero 


Bheng meesa ta ... 


Noba menchma ha ... 


Jathi mashto 
bharme potta- 
ko. 


Good women. 


Egota naramro chhora 


Ohhomho-mohemah- 
mocha. 


Lopthik men noba hen- 
ja. 


Kat masecho 
jaja. , 


A bad boy. 


Egota naramro chharee 


Chhomho mohemah 
mha. 


Lopthik men noba 
chook poosa keti. 


Ka masecho '' 
mashtoja. 


A bad girl. 


Jathi 


Bheng 


Noba 


Jathij secho . . 


Good. 


Kub jathi 


Sung bheng 


Konnoole noba 


Hos denang se- 
cho. 


Better. 




Khoob bheng, or 
Thakke sung 
bhing. 


Kakmandhe noba ... 


Patta denang 
secho. 


Best. 


Algo 


Cho-a 


Kaimba 


Ghang cho . . 


High. 




Sung cho-a 


Kon noole Kaimba ... 


Hos denang 
ghang cho. 


Higher. 



B 3 



158 



( 10 ) 



Cooch BeJiar, Darjeeling, and 



Engliah. 


Mech. 


Cooch. 


Lepcha. 




Highest 


Boinobojow shang 


Sab se ia chua 


Nyak thobo 




A horse 


Gorai macheh 


Ghora gasak 


Oon bu kath 




A mare 


Goraijo macheh 


Ghori magju 


Oon moth kath 




Horses 


Gorai gobang 


Ghora gata 


Oon song 




Mares 


Goraijo gobang 


Ghori magju gata 


Oon moth song 




AbuU 


Damrah macheh 


Damra machu gasak 


Long kath 




A cow 




Machu gai 


Beegu kath 




Bulls 




Machu damra gata 


Long song 




Cows 




Machu gai gata 


Beegu song 




A dog 


Chhaimah 


Kwai gasak 


Kuzu bu kath 




A bitch 


Chhaimahjo 


Kwai magju gasak 


Kuzu month kath 




Dogs 




Kwai gata 


Kuzu bu song 




Bitches - 




Kwai magju gata 


Kuzu moth song 




A he-goat 


Brama panta 


Purun panta gasak 


Sa ar bu kath 




A female goat 




Puran panti gasak 


Sa ar moth kath 




Goats 


Brama pantee also bramajo 


Purun gata 


Sa ar song 




A male deer 


Moi shingul jola 


Machuk panta 


Sako bu kath 




A female deer 


Moijo 


Machuk panti 


Sako moth katte 




Deer 






Sako 




I am 


Aug doug 


An donna 


Go gum 




Thou art 


Nooug dong 


Ni don 


Ho gum 




He is 


Obeh manshee dong 


Ua don 


Ha u gum 




We are 


Jong dong 


Nun donna 


Kougum 




You are 


Noong charo dong 


Nirun don 


Ha u pong gum 




They are 




Ujarun don 


Ho u gum 




I was 




An tonba 


Go nee 




Thou wast 




Ni tonba 


Ho nee 




He was 




Ua tonba 


Ha u nee 




We were 




Nun tonba 


Ka u pong nee 




You were 




Nirun tonba 


Ha u pong nee 




They were 




Jirun tonba 


Ho u pong nee 




Be 




Dona 


Khew 




To be 
Being 




Dona 
Done 


Khew man 
Chha bam mo 












l 



( 11 ) 



Nepakse Languages. — (Continued.) 



159 



Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


English. 


..•••• 


Thukke sung cho-a 


Kak mandhe kaimba 


Patta denang 
ghang cho. 


Highest. 


Egota ghora 


Chhomho sonla . . 


Onlopthik 


Kat ghora . . . 


A horse. 


Egota ghuri 


Chhomho meesa 
mah sonlo. 


Koomma on lopthik . . . 


Kat ghori 


A mare. 


Ghora sabai 


Sonlo ta 


On ha 


Patta ghora . . . 


Horses. 


Ghuri sabai 


Meesa mah soalota 


Koomma on ha 


Patta ghori ... 


Mares. 


Egota jura goru 


Chhomho donhon 


Bohor lopthik 


Kat tor 


A bull. 


Egota gai 


Chhomho sah 


Pima lopthik 


Kat gnet 


A cow. 


Jura goru sabai 


Donhon ta 


Bohor ha 


Patta tor 


Bulls. 


Gai sabai 


Sah ta 


Pima ha 


Patta gnet ... 


Cows. 


Egot kukur 


Chhomho khecha . . 


Khyaba lop thik 


Kat chu chaura 


A dog. 


Egota chhaori kukur... 


Chhomho meesa 
mah khecha. 


Koomma khya lopthik 


Kat chu chau- 
ree. 


A bitch. 


Kukur sabai 


Kecha ta 


Khya ba hp 


Patta chaura 


Dogs. 


Chhaori kukur sabai. , 


Meesa mah khecha 
ta. 


Koomma khya ha ... 


Patta chauree 


Bitches. 


Egota bokra 


Chhomho doogoo . . 


Mentak lop thik 


Kat rah 


A he-goat. 


Egota bokri 


Chhomho choleh . . 


Koomma mentak lop 
thik. 


Kat mima rah 


A female goat. 




Choleh poong 


Mentak ha 


Patta rah 


Goats. 


Egota harin 


Chhomho chunlleh 


Pengwa lopthik 


Kat kheshia ... 


A male deer. 


Egota harini 


Chhomho meesa 
mah-chunlleh 


Koomma pengwa lop- 
thik. 


Kat mima khe- 
shia. 


A female deer. 


Mirga 


Chunlleh poong . . 


Pengwa-ha 


Patta kheshia.. 


Deer. 


Mo chha 




Anga wa 


Gna le 


I am. 


Timi chha 




Kheneake wa 


Nang le 


Thou art. 


U chha 




Nakhen wa 


Hosle 


He is. 


Hami hero chha 




Ania wa 


Kankoorika le 


We are. 


Timi hero chha 




Kheneake wa 


Nakoorikale... 


You are. 


Oon hera chha 




Nakhen ha mewa ... 


Hos koorika na 
le. 


They are. 


Mo theo 


Jeedoo 


Anga weyang 


Gna le yia ... 


I was. 


Timi theo 


Chha-doo 


Kheneake weye 


Kankoorika le 


Thou wast. 


* 






yia. 




Thiathio 


Wo-doo 


Nakhen weye 


Hosle yia ... 


He was. 


Hami hero theo 


Jee poong doo 


Ania weye 


Kankoorika le 
yia. 


We were. 


Timi hero thio 


Chha poong doo . . 


Khenia ke weye 


Nakoorika le 
yia. 


You were. 


Theo hero thio 


Wo poong doo . . 


Nakhen ha meweye ... 


Hos koorika na 
le yia. 


They were. 


Hoa. 


Joo 


poge Vi^ r 


Chhana 


Be. 


Hunu 


Jooi-e 


Poungnia i- g;| ^ 


Chhanki 


To be. 




Joo-a-chona 


PokheyangJ "-^ (. 


Chhan nang ... 


Being. 



160 



( 12 ) 



Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, and 



English. 


Mech, 


Cooch. 


Lepcha. 


Haying been 




Douimon 




I may be 






Go khen mo 


I shall be 






Go ong mo 


I should be 






Go khew pu 


Beat 




Tok 


Bak 


To beat 




Tokni 


Bakka 


Beating 




Toke 


Bak bam mo 


Having beaten 




Tokemon 


Bak long 


I beat 




An toktu 


Go bak 


Thou beatest 




Nitoktu 


Ho bak to 


He beats 




Ua toktu 


Ha bak bam 


We beat 




Nun toktu 


Ka u pongbakto 


You beat 




Nirun toktu 


Ho bak ka 


They beat 




Ujarun toktu 


Ho u bak bam 


I am beating 




A\itokna 


Go bak bam 


I was beating 




An tokunba 


Gobak bum ma 


I had beaten 




An tokbamun 


Gonen bakma 


I may beat 




An tokniba toa 


Go bak kheu 


I shall beat 




Au tokna 


Go baa sho 


I should beat 




All toknamun 


Go nen baksho 


I am beaten 




A6 tokmausasi 


Kas am bak mo 


I was beaten 




Au tok masapaisi 


Kasam bak fat 


I shall be beaten 




Au tok mansana 


Kasam baklong 


I go 


Aug tbang aiseh 


Au laina 


Go no ong sho 


Thou goest 


Uoong thangdo 


Nllaiti 


Ho nong 


He goes 


Beathangaiseh 


Ua laitu 


Ha u nondat 


I went 


Aug thanaiseh 


An laisl 


Go no ong ma 


Thou wentest 


Nooug thanga 


Ni laisi 


Ho non nong 


He went 




Ualaisi 


Hu non nong .., 


Go 




Lai 


Non 


Going 




Lainiyai 


Non det. 


Gone 




Laimun 


Non thopa 


What is your name ?... 


Noonguee moonga mamoong 


Nini ata mun? 


Hado breang shologo 



( 13 ) 



Nepalese Languages. — (Continued.) 



161 



Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


English. 




Jooa dhoonkclo ... 


Pokhe yaiige 


Chhanno 


Having been. 


Mo hunu sakeo 


Jee doh then 


.... 


Gna chhanki 
higley. 


I may be. 


Mo hun chhu • 


Jeejooa 


Anga pongha 


Gna chhanni 


I shall be 




Jee jooa mah 


Anga pongla 


Gna ki chhanki 
pardele. 


I should be. 


Kutnu 


Dah 


Hiptia 


Doongo 


Beat. 


Herkanu 


Dai 


Hipma 


Doong ki 


To beat. 


Kutsa 


Dalatena 


Mi hiptooang 


Doong nang . . 


Beating. 


Kuti kanna 


Dai dhoonka 


Mi hiptoole 


Doongh no . . 


Having beaten. 


Mo kutsa 


Jeen daitena 


Anga Hiptoong 


Gna doong le 


I beat. 


Timi kutsa 


Chhan da 


Kheniaki hiptoo 


Nang doong le 


Thou beatest. 


Tesla kutsa 


Won da la 


Nakhen le hiptoo . . 


Hos doongle. . 


He beats. 


Hame hero kutsa ... 


Jee mee sung da ... 


Ania hipma 


Kan koorika 
doongle. 


We beat. 


Teme hero kutsa 


Chhamee sung da... 


Kheneaki hiptoong . . 


Na koorika 
doongle. 


You beat. 


Theo hero kutsa 


Womee sondala ... 


Nakhen hale mehiptoo. 


Hos koorika 
doongle. 


They beat. 


Mo kutdesa 


Jeen dia chona ... 


Anga hiptoong 


Gna doong le. . 


I am beating. 


Mo kut de theo 


Jeen dia tena 


Anga hiptoong lapa- 
chang. 


Gnaki doongle 


I was beating. 


Myla kuta ko theo ... 


Jeen dia thaka 


Anga hiptoong thang 


Gna doong nya 


I had beaten. 


My la kutna sekso ... 


Jeen dia phoo 





Gna doongi 
yeogle. 


I may beat. 


Mo kutsa 


Jeen dia 


Anga hipne 


Gna doong nya 


I shall beat. 


Mo kutula 


Jeen dia then 


Anga hipma pong . . 


Gna ki doong ki 
pardile. 


I should beat. 


Mo kutu kye 


Jeeta dalan 


Anga me hippa 


Gna doongo 
nyele. 


I am beaten. 


Mo kuta kye theo ... 


Jeeta dala 


Anga me hiptoong 
lapache. 


Gna doongo 
duma leya. 


I was beaten. 


Mo kuta khanso 





Anga me hiptoong pa. 


Gna doongo 
nyehe. 


I shall be beaten. 


Mojao 


Jee wona 


Anga peka 


Gna noong le. 


I go. 


Temijao 


Chha hoon 


Khenea ki peki 


Nangnoong le. 


Thou goest. 


Theojao 


Wo wonatena 


Nakhen pek 


Hos noong le. 


He goes. 


Mo gya ko theo 


Jee wona wa 


Anga pegang 


Gna noo wa . . 


I went. 


Temi gya ko theo ... 


Chha wona ana ... 


Khenea pege 


Nang noo wa. 


Thou wentest. 


The gyoko theo 


Wo wono 


Nakhen pege 


Hos noo wa . . 


He went. 


Ja 


Hoon 


Pege 


Noong ha 


Go. 


Janchha 


Woni 


Pekmayang 


Noong le 


G oing. 


Gyo 


Wona dhoncla 


Mepege 


Noong oho . . 


Gone. 


Tero nawkeho 


Chhan nam chhoo ? 

• 


Ke ming the ? 


Nakoong myer- 
min hyale ? 


What is your name ? 



B 4 



162 



( 1* ) 



Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, and 



English. 



Mech. 



How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle 
is married to her sis- 
ter. 



In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon his 
back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 



His brother is taller 
than his sister. 



The price of that is 
two rupees and a half 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him 

Take those rupees from 
him. 

Beat him well and bind 
him with ropes. 



Draw water from the 
well. 



Goraini boishah beseh thaug- 
bai? 



Beneefra Kashmira beseh 
gajan ? 

Nomphanee naw bisha 
besehbang dang ? 



Ang gajaneefrah thabaiba- 
dang. 

Augnee biftenee bisha 
binauoo baha khalan 
dang. 



Obeh naw gorai gooful jin 
dong. 

Gorai bekboong jin kha. 



Bin bishako raidong Jong 
shooha. 



Obeh manshee hajo gajo 
mosho goomdung. 



Obeh manshee tomg pang 
joodaihai gorai kanahu- 
eejoietha dong. 



Coooh. 



Ighoror koi bosorni ? 
Kashmir bisin jana ? 



Nini awani nogai koy join 
murg sasa ? 



Tini anpanais durnijikia la- 
jumpaisi. 

Anni uantini sasa wa mag- 
juni janau buja raksi. 



Nok bhiture ghara bokni- 
yani jiatoa. 

Uani kunjuai jin lakhau ... 

Uani sasawaa an banai toka 
suksi. 



Hakan karaway machu da- 
tautu. 



Uapanchunaighurawai don- 
gi tuntu. 



Lepcha. 



Oon ora nam suteh nong 
go? 



Abanun Kashmir suteh ru ? 



Hado bobka akup sulebth 
gni? 



Gomarum kor nong ma 



Kasak u tigri kup ora saing 
so bri thikpa. 



Oon a dum so go li araka 
ni. 

Ora changa plong ka gotho 

Gohu kupka agap bakma.. 



Tham chiaugzad bam hlo 
plong. 



Ho u oau plong ka ni 
kungsu gram ka. 



( 15 ) 



Nepdlese Languages. — ( Continued. ) 



163 



Nepalese. 



Newar. 



Limboo, 



MagUT. 



English. 



Kethi borkha au ghora 
kabhya? 

He a dekhi Kashmir 
kethi tarosa ? 



Tera babuka gharo 
kethe ehhora chha ? 



Aju mo taro duUa ... 



Mira kancha babu 
kochhora oska boini 
seta bia gorro. 



Gorma sito ghora ko 
jin chha. 



Jin uska pithu ma 
charadeo. 

Usko ehhora lyi dhur 
markyo. 

Telia goat bhirko tuppa 
ma charaain chha. 



Teo ghora mo basi ruk- 
kamoni baia ka chha. 



Tho sonlo gola data ? 



Kashmir Thanna 
naug goolee ta tapa? 

Chhame booba yia 
chheu-go mha mo- 
chata doo ? 

Thong-jee apa law- 
gua dhoo no. 

.Teemee kakayia-kai 
lesa waya kenhen 
beha yia ta. 



Too-u-mha sonlo 
yia zin posh-chhen- 
doo. 

Weh mha zin posh 
tee. 

Jeeng woa kai yiata 
kache kan dia 
dhoono. 

Woa purbat eho-a 
sah ma-joa chona. 



Sheema qua sonlo 
gya chono. 



Tata yia shemang 
khija torree. 



Weh mhoo-nirkatya 



Jeemee booba che- 
kee kha goo chhen 
chona. 

Taka wo-a-ta bu ... 



Thoogoo taka woa 
ka ka. 

Wo a ta koob pian 
da khiptan-chu. 



Toonthi loh sa 



Kon onin akhen barka 
pokhba ? 

Ka-u-noo Kashmir 
akhen yarik mengba ? 

Kembale kohemmo 
akhen sa muwabe ? 



Anga ain mankha 
pegong. 

Menchiala koonoo sa 
in noo ambhanga la 
koosanoo beha jogesi. 



Pho keloba onle jin 
himmo wa. 



Khenle kuekeyo jin 
phachhe. 

Anga khenle koosa 
yalik hiptoong. 

Nakhenle thigoo sam 
thang goru pit ha 
komosi. 



Nakhen singaile koo- 
bungo nakhen-on yo 
yung. 

Khunea noole-koo- 
noosa ken. 



Nakhenle-koomaltoong 
nosi mohor-waa. 



Ambuh nakhen-chook- 
pa himmo yong. 

Kau angain nakhen 
phirea. 

Na angaha nakhe 
yonoo phettee. 

Na khene in yarik 
hipte yong thak 
pale khekse. 

Kooa gonoo chua late 



Is ghora koo- 
rik baras 
chana ? 

Itai Kashmir 
sumni koorik 
los le ? 

Nakoong boi-o- 
imang lenja 
nuja koorika 
le? 

Gna chini los 
noo wa. 

Gnou kancha 
boio lenja 
nnja-hoskoong 
banai khata 
biya jata. 

Bocho ghoran 
jin imang le. 

Hocheo nuzang 
jin dao. 

Gnai hocheo 
mizaki saro 
doongle. 

Paharoong nan- 
gi yang hos 
gnet tor arch- 
hamne. 

Hos singho mer- 
toong gnaug 
bos ghora take 
gnoo moo ne 

Hocheo banai 
denang hocheo 
bhai ghang- 
cheo le. 

Hocheo mol 
banga mohar 
le. 



hos 
im- 



Gnau boi 
marcheo 
ang dale. 

Is rupia hoski 
ya nhi. 

Hos rupia hos 
lething la ni. 

Hos ki bes 
khatta doongo 
atio hoski 
dorie chhyakni 

Kooing di 

donni. 



How old is this 
horse ? 

How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 



How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 



I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon his 
back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 



He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree. 



His brother is taller 
than his sister. 



The price of that is 
two rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 

Take those rupees from 
him. 

Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 



Draw water from the 
well. 



164 



( 16 ) 



Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, and 



English. 


Mech. 


Cooch. 


Lepcha. 


Walk before me 




' 






Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 


^ 








From whom did you 
•buy that ? 










From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 








• 



( 17 ) 



Nepalese Languages. — (Concluded.) 



165 



Nepalese. 


Newar. 


Limboo. 


Magur. 


English. 




Jee ho na Iroo 
theroo joo. 


Anga adagayo lang- 
hege. 


Gnun aghyer 
hwani. 


"Walk before me. 




Soo mochata chung 
lena woala ? 


Hale koosa egang 
phembi ? 


Soowa mija 
gnoongle 
rachyo ? 


Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 




Soo lesa chung gne 
nah? 


Hale yonoo nakhen 
keingoo ? 


Soo lething 
nakoi hos 
Iowa ? 


From whom did you 
buy that ? 




gaon-yia chugoo 
pasleh-lesa. 


Pang pheyo thik modi 
yonoo. 


Bustyoo pasale 
lething. 


From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 




LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES 



SHAN AND CACHAREE DIALECTS OF ASSAM. 



168 



( 2 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their corresponding words 



English. 



Assamese. 



A horn. 



Rhampti. 



One 

Two 

Three 

Fom- 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 

Twenty 

Fifty 

Hundred 

I 

We 

Thou 

You 

He 

They 

Of me, mine 

Of us, our 

Of thee, thine 

Of you, your 

Of him, his 

Of them, their 

Mine 

Our 

Thine 

Youx 

His 

Their 

Hand 

Foot 

Nose 

Eye 

Mouth 

Tooth 

Ear 



Ek 

Dui 

Tini 

Chdri 

Panch 

Chay 

Sdt 

At 

Na 

Dah 

Kuri 

Paiichas 

Eksa 

May 

Ami 

Apuni 

Tumi 

Si 

Sihata 

Mor 

Amdlokar 

Teor 

Tomar 

T£r 

Sihatar 

Mor 

Amdlokar 

Apanar 

Tomar 

Tdr 

Tahatar 

Hat 

Bhari 

Ndk 

Chaku 

Mukh 

Dant 

Kan 



Leng 

Sang 

Sam 

Si 

Ha 

Euk 

Kit 

Pet 

Kdu 

Sip 

Sau 

Sang sau sip 

Pdk 

Kdu 

Eang rau 

Mou 

Moule 

Feu 

Feuluk 

Kaure 

Raure 

Moule 

Mou-se 

Feu-le 

Feu-lukle 

Kau-re 

Rau-re 

Mou-le 

Mou-se 

Feu-le 

Feu-lukle 

Mo 

Tin 

Dang 

Ta 

Sup 

Kheu 

Pik 



Langa 

Chhanga 

Chdm 

Si 

Hd 

Huk 

Yeo 

Peo 

Kan 

Chhip 

Chdno 

Haehhip 

Pak 

Kant 
Du 

Matang 
Man 
Khang 
Kdnld 
Hang kan 
Khdng luh 

Khdng khan 
Khang m^n 
Khang mdo 
Klidng pan 
Hang kan 
Khang luh 
Khdng man 
Khdng mdn 
Khdng cho 
Kidng pdn la 

Man 

KadU 

Huldng 

0yd 

Shungpa 

Khen 

Hu 



( 3 ) 

in Assamese, Ahom, Khampti, Alton, Cacharee, Hojai, and MiMr. 



169 





Alton. Cacharee. 


Hojai. 


Mikir. 


English. 


Lung 


... Moonsa 


Se 


Eci 


One. 


Chhayan 


g ... Thaniai 


Kini 


Hini 


Two. 


Chaum 


... Thaithum 


Katham 


Kethum 


Three. 


Chhi 


.. Thaileri 


Biri 


Phili 


Four. 


Han 


... Thaiba 


Poa 


Phungo 


Five. 


Hauk 


... Thairo 


To 


Thrak 


Six. 


Cket 


... Thaisini 


Sini 


Throkei 


Seven. 


Pet 


... Thaijat 


Tehai 


Nerkep 


Eight. 


Kau 


... Moonjee 


Soko 


Serkep 


Nine. 


Ohhipalu 


ng .. Manjat 


Je 


Kap 


Ten. 


Chhaului 


ig 


Bisosi 


Inkoi 


Twenty. 


Hachip 




Thodon 


Phungokap ... 


Fifty. 


Paklung 




Arjo£(ee 


Pharrow 


Hundred. 


Kau 


Anug 


Ang 


Nai 


I. 


Hau 


. . . Joongphur 


Jing 


Nali 


We. 


Mau 


Nong 


Nisi 


Nangli 


Thou. 


Ohhun 


. . . Nong 


Nisi 


Nangli 


Tou. 


Maun 


... Be 


Po 


Hala 


He. 


Mainkha 


a •■ Bisur 


Ponisi 


Halatum 


They. 


Hanghan 


L Augmi 


Oni 


Ni 


Of me, mine. 


Hanghau 


L tang lung . . Joongphurni or 
Joongoni. 


Jini 


Ni 


Of us, our. 


Chhutanj 


^lung .. Naugni 


Nini 


Naug 


Of thee, thine. 


Hangehu 


.. Naugni 


Nini 


Naug 


Of you, your. 


Hangsun 


. . Naugni 


Nini 


Naug 


Of him, hiR. 




Bisurni 


Ninisini 


Halatum 


Of them, their. 




... . . . • 


■ • > • 


• • ■ ■ 


Mine. 




... .... 


* • ■ • 


• • • • 


Our. 




... .... 


• . • 1 


.... 


Thine. 




... .... 


• ■ • ■ 


■ • ■ • 


Your. 




... .... 


■ • ■ • 


■ • • ■ 


His. 




.... 








Their, 


Mun 


... AnkHai 


Bao 


Ari 


Hand. 


Tin 


... Anthang 


Eka 


Akeng 


Foot. 


Lang 


... Youthong 


Gong 


Enokari 


Nose. 


Tan 


... Magun 


Moo 


Amak 


Eye. 


Chhap 


... Khooga 


Xhoo 


Inghoe 


Mouth. 


Kheu 


. . . Hathai 


Hethai 


Eso 


Tooth. 


Pinghun 


... Khoma 


Khamow 


Enno 


Ear. 



170 



( 4 ) 

List of English words and pJirases_ with thei/r corresponding 



English. 


Assamese. 


Ahom. 


Khampti. 


Hair 


ChuU 


Frum 


Earn 




Head 


Mur 


Eu 


Hun kao 


... 


Tongue 


Jibha 


Lin 


Lin 




Belly 


Pet 


Tang 


Onga 




Back 


Pithi 


Lang 


Lang 


* . . 


Iron 


Lo 


Lik 


Lek 


... 


Gold 


Son 


Kham 


Khdm 




Silver 


Eup 


Ndn 


Ngal 




Father 




Pa 


... 




Mother 




Me 


... 




Brother 




Nang 


■ . . 




Sister 




Nang ning 


. . . 




Man 




Kun 


• • • 




Woman 




Funing 


. . . 




Wife 




Mi 






CWd 




Lok 


. . . 




Son 




Luk-chai 


> . • 




Daughter 




Luk-ning 


• ■ ■ 




Slave 




Tukha 


• • • 




Cultivator 




Eecnd, 


... 




Shepherd 




Palic 






God 




Fur^ 






Devil 




Lung sut 


... 




Sun 




Bdn 






Moon 




Den 






Star 




Dau 






Fire 




Fie 






Water 




Nam 


, 




House 




Edn 






Horse 




Md 






Cow 




Hume 






Dog 




Sema 






Oat 




Meu 






Cock 




Ki 






Duck 




Pitnoy 






Ass 




Tnng 






Camel 




• • • • 






Bird 




Nuk 







Go 


Jd 


Kd 


Ka 




Eat 


Khd ■ 


Kin 


Kin 


... 



( 5 ) 

in Assamese, AAom, Khawfti, Aiton, Cdcharee, Hojai, and Mikir. 



171 



Alton, 


Cachaiee. 


Hojai. 


Mikir. 


English. 


Xaiim 


Xhanai 


Khanai 


Eechoo 


Hair. 


TTiTmrn 


Khorro 


Khoro 


Epboo 


Head. 


Tiin 


Salai 


Salai 


Eddai 


Tongue. 


Tattang 


Udai 


Pbo 


Eppuk 


Belly. 


Lang 


Bikhoong 


Sima 


Enong 


Back. 


T,ik 


Sur 


Ser 


Incbin 


Iron. 


Kham 


Durbi 


Oogow 


Sim 


Gold. 


Nu-eng-lip 


Thaka 


Kufoo 


Rup 


Silver. 


Ponu 


Affa 


Baba 


Po 


Father. 


Meu 


Ai 


Mama 


Pi 


Mother. 


Pilang 


Agai 


Angpbewng 


Emar 


Brother. 


Nangcbau 


Agoi 


Andow 


Ingjerpee 


Sister. 


Kona chai 


Hooasa 


Sibung 


Arling 


Man. 


Kunajing 


Hinjao 


Mosaijoo 


Arlosa 


Woman. 


Mi 


Beehi 


Bibi 


Peso 


Wife. 


Liiklang 


Phissa 


Arsa 


Osa-arlosa . . 


Child. 


Lukchai 


Gotho 


Pasa 


Aso 


Son. 


Lukohau 


Hinjaosa 


Pusu 


Asapi 


Daughter. 


Khaon 


Leng 


Leng 


Ban 


Slave. 


Hidaihirna 


Khetiak 


Dongiaba 


Sai-ketkee . . 


Cultivator. 


Chhauling-pe 


Moorkhia 


Gorokbia 


Chimung, kibi- 
abang. 

Amam 


Shepherd, 


Ohau-phro 


Issor 


Issor 


God. 


Phiphu 


Modai 


Soko 


Hie e 


Devil, 


Bhan 


San 


Sai 


Arni 


Sun, 


Neun 


Okhaphoo 


Dai 


Cbeklo 


Moon, 


Nao 


Hathorkee 


Hotbrai 


CheklolanBO . . 


■Star. 


Kai 


0th 


Oai 


Me 


Fire, 


Nam 


Dey 


Di 


Lang 


Water. 


Hun 


Nan 


Na 


Hem 


House, 


Man 


Gorai 


Goroi 


Lose 


Horse. 


Dau 


Moson 


MOBSU 


Chaino 


Cow. 


Ma-wan 


Cimma 


Cissa 


Methang 


Dog. 


Me-u-e 


Mousi 


AIu 


Meng 


Cat. 


Eai 


Dan 


Towno 


Bbogomi 


Cock. 


Peheta 


Hangse 


Taflanda 


Bhoka 


Duck. 


Ta 


Gorai 


Gada 


• . • ■ 


Ass. 




Ut 


. • > ■ 


.... 


Camel. 


Naokhan 


Dow 


Kow 


Bbo 


Bird. 


Paeka 


Thang 


Tbangbo 


Damai 


Go. 


KiUa 


Ja 


Chiba 


Cbanai 


Eat. 



B 



172 



( 6 ) 
List of English words and phrases with their corresponds 



English. 


Assamese. Ahom. 


Ehampti. 


Sit 


Bah 


. . . Nang 


Langa 


Come 




Male 


• • • • 


Beat 




Dheksi 


• • • • 


Stand 




Chan 


.... 


Die 




Ti 


.... 


Grive 




Hansi 


.... 


Run 




Len 


• • > • 


Up 


ITpar 


... Nu 


Kan Ian 


Near 


Ochar 


.. Khanpi 


Kan tah 


Who 


Kone 


Kanfreu 


mhikhixio 


And 


Aru 


Anbd 


Khun lang kao 


Yes 


Hai 


. . . Ghangnai 


Jdoh 


Down 




Teu 





Far 




Reu 


.... 


What 




Khamsang 


■ ■ • • 


But 









No 




Fang 


- '. . . 


Before 


' 


Nd 





Behind 




LangMng 


. . . - 


Why 




Khamfi 


• • • • 


If 




Fatta 


■ • • • 


Alas 




Mi-mi 





A father 


Bopai et^ 


... Lengpa 


Pan alang 


Two fathers 


Bopai duta 


... Sang-pa 


Chhanga pan 


Fathers 


Bopii sakal 


... Pa-bat 


Pdn khdn 


Of a father 


Eta bopair 


... Pa-se 


Hang pan khan 


Of fathers 


Bopdi sakala 


r ... Pa-sambat 


Hdng pan khan 


To a father 


Eta hopdi lai 


... Pa-mdn 


Hdng pan haon 


To fathers . 


Bopai sakala 


i lai ... Pa-saK 


Hang pan hdnt 


From a father 


Eta bopair p 


a.rd ... Pa-mdna 


Jd,n khd,n pena md 


From fathers 


Bopai sakala. 


r para . . . Pa-man bdte 


Jdu khdu pen ma 


A daughter 


Ji ejani 


.... Leng ning Ink 


Luk chdu 


Daughters 


Ji bilak 


... Luk-ning-bat 


Luk chdu 


Of a daughter 


Ji ejanir 


. . . Luk-ning leng 


Hang luk ch^undikhdu ... 


Of daughters 


Ji bilakar 


... Luk-ning-bat-se 


Hdng luk chau nai khdu ... 


To a daughter 


Ji ejani lai 


. . . Luk-ning leng-se 


Hdng kung luk chdu khdu 


Two daughters 


Dujani ji 


. . . Sang luk-ning 


Luk ying sangak 


From a daughter 


Ji ejanir para 


I ... Luk-ning leng-sewa 


Ndu luk chau ndi khdu . . . 


To daughters 




Luk-ning-bat-sed 




From daughters 


Ji biMkar pai 


'd ..". Luk nirig bat sewd 


Ndu luk chdu nil kh^u ... 



( 7- ) 
in Assamese, Ahom, Khampti, Aiton, Cackaree, Sojai, and MiJcir. 



173 





Aiton. 

1 


Caoharee. 


Hojai. 


Mikir. 


Englisli. 




Nangla 


Jo 


Khamba 


Minai 


Sit. 




Masa 


Phai 


Phaiba 


Bengnai 


Come. 




Pahaga 


Bubai 


Towba 


Chonnai 


Beat. 




Takuchan 


Grosongdong 


Songba. 


Thorn ai 


Stand. 




Tai 


Thaiba 


Thiba. 


Kithi 


Die. 




Hauma 


Ho 


Eiha. 


He 


Give. 




Lem 


Khatdong 


Khailong 


Karnai 


Eun. 




Liik la 


Sa 


Posow 


Atha 


Up. 




Kauoha 


Khathi 


Sampha. 


Adu 


Near. 




Kaune 


Shur 


Sen 


Mor 


Who. 




Khuncham 


Aru 


Aru 


Apar 


And. 




Chan 


Noonggo 


Gibi 


Ta . 


Tes. 




Keta-u 


Singgao 


Phokla 


Abel 


Down. 




Kaite 


Gojan 


Kejing 


Kehelo 


Far. 




Kechang 


Ma 


Sunang 


Pe 


What. 




Huncham 


Kintoo 


Pimifising 


Lahe 


But. 




Nangchau 


Noonga 


Nia 


Koli 


No. 




Ananna 


Siggongo 


Sugeeho kedoha 


Hafranghelong 


Before. 




Kallang 


Oonou 


Tanaha 


Nefi 


Behind. 




Kangchhang ne 


Mano 


Simune 


Kapee 


Why. 




. • ■ • 


Jodi 


Thikade 


Lahe 


If. 




Uiai uh pibaohangne . . . 


Hai hai 


Hai-hai 


Cheche 


Alas. 




Panlimg 


Khasi afa 


Baba sowse 


Enguro po . . 


A father. 




• ■ • • 


Khanoi afa 


Baba gini 


Dohoni po . . 


Two fathers. 




Patanglu 


Affa fore 


Baba row 


Aportu 


Fathefs. 


* 
J/ 


. . . • 


Affani 


Babani 


Apo 


Of a father. 




Affa foreni 


Baba rowni 


Apoato 


Of fathers. 




Hang-po-lung 


Affanen 


Bohantha 


Apale 


To a father. 




Hao-po-haon 


Affamono 


Boba rowtha 


Apo artule . . 


To fathers. 




Lai-po-lung 


Affaiya 


• Babani fereng 


Nepopeng . . 


From a father. 




Lai-po-hau 


Affa-forni-fry . . 


Babarow fereng 


Apo atumpen... 


From fathers. 




Chhau lung 


• • > • 




.... 


A daughter. 




Lukchhau nam 


• • ■ • 




.... 


Daughters. 




Lukohhau lung 


. . . ■ *• 




.... 


Of a daughter. 




LukoLhau kliau 


■ ■ ■ ■ 




.... 


Of daughters. 




Hang-luk-chau 


.... 





.... 


To a daughter. 




Hang luk chau tang 
lung 

Puluk chhau pulang . . . 


.... 





.... 


Two daughters. 




. . • • 





.... 


From a daughter. 










.... 


To daughters. 




T-ai puluk chau tang 


• • • • 







From daughters. 




lung. ' 











174 



( 8 ) 

List of English words and phrases with thei/r correspondmg words 



English. 



Assamese. 



Ahom. 



Ehampti. 



A good man 
Two good men 

Good men 
Of a good man 

Of good men 
To a good man 
To good men 

From a good man 

From good men 
A good woman 

Good women 

A bad boy 

A bad girl 

Good 

Better 

Best 

High 

Higher 

Highest 

A horse 
A mare 
Horses 
Mares 
A bull 

A cow 

Bulls 

Cows 

A dog 
A bitch 
Dogs 

Bitches 



Etd, bhal manuha 
Duta bhdl mSnuha 

Bhdl mdnuha bor 
Etd bhal mdnuhar 

Bhdl manuha borar 
Eta bhal mdnuhalai 
Bh£ manuha bUak lai .. . 

Eta bhal mdnuhar para . . . 

Bhal manuha bildkdr pard. 
Ejani bhal maiki 

Chikan mdiikibor 

Eta beyd lara 

Ejani bey4 choali 

Bhdl 
Am bhdl 
Bhalat kai bhal 

Okh 

Aru okhara 

Okhat kai okh 

Ghora et£ 
Ejani ghori 
GhordbiMk 
Ghori bildk 
Etd sdr garu 

Ejani gdi garu 

Bhdtara garubor 

Garu bor 

Kukur etd 

M aiki kukur ejani 

Kukur bor 

Maiki kukui bor 



Lang di kun 
Sang kun di 

Di kun bat 
Leng di kun-se 

Di kun-batse 
Leng di kun-sen 
Kun di batsen 

Leng di kun-sewa 

Di kun-batsea 
Funing di leng 

Di funing 

Luk leng chayd 

Luk ning leng chya 

Di 

Lung di 
Long sang di 

Ren 

Then ren 
Nuchyan 

Ma leng 

Mami 

Mabat 

Mami-bat 

Huba 

Mehn 

Hubd-bat 

Mehn-bat 

Sema 

Mesemd 

Semdbat 

Mesema-bat 



Kai aloni Mngo mdi 
Kalni chhang kang 

Phan ni khdu 
Kai aloni lango me 

Phanui khdu 
Hang kai ni mai 
Kang phanni khau mai 

Kai dloni nd,u 

Phanni hangui khau nd,n 
Meh kai ni piying 

An chen piying khau 

Todn mini lang 

Mini piying an lang 

Nioh 

Kiun kdngani 

Nile tUe te lang 

Chhongd 

Pha khun kdng chhonga 

Ohungna mdi chuag lang 
ma. 

Mah on lang 

Mdh dume langa 

Mah ne khdu 

Md,h dume khdu 

Ngd, pdi anlang 

Ngd dume lang 

Ngdn ndi khdu othang ... 

Dume lang khdu 

Mamdon 
Mah me lang 
Mdndi khdu 

Dume md nSi khdu 



( 9 ) 
in Assamese, Ahom, Khani^ti, Aiton, Cacharee, Hojai, and 



Alton. 


Caoharee. 


Hojai. 


Mikir. 


English. 


Khunnikulang 


Khanoi-goham . . 


Sowsi euhon hamhee. . 


Mesen arlung .. 


A good man. 





Gaham manse 


Hamha suhon row . . 


Banghini mesen 
arlung. 


Two good men. 


Khunni kau 


.... 


■ ■ • • 


Kadow kowa. . 


Good men. 


Khunni-kuli-kolang . . . 


Khase gohan mansein 


Hamha sikonsini . . 


Anut kemesen 
arlong. 


Of a good man. 


Khunni nena klia-um 


Gaham manseeni . . 


Hamba sihan rowsini 


Kemesen arlong 


Of good men. 


Hang khunni kulang 


Gaham manse lage 


• • • -• 


Anee mesent. . 


To a good man. 





Gaham manse ferra 





Lajukta mesen 
angoler. 


To good men. 


Hang khunni tang 
lung. 


Khase gaham ningas 





Kemiesen arlong 
pensy relong- 
ta. 


From a good man. 


Tiaipu khunni kulang 


.... 






From good men. 


Pijingane kolang . . . 


Gaham hurjao . . 




Anut kemesen 
apiso. 


A good woman. 


Miuni khao 


Khasihainagotho. . 




Tajukta mesen 
apiso. 


Good women. 


Lukhai kolang 


Lase haina gotho . . 




Aneet kahingo 
aosa. 


A had boy. 


Luk lau hau 


Lase hama jousa . . 




Anut kahigo 
krlosa. 


A bad girl. 


Ni uga 


Bar gaham 




Mesen 


Good. 


. . ■ « 


Be gaham 




Lame musut. . 


Better. 


Chhena-de 


Goozon 




Lame meeohat 
lang. 


Best. 


Chhau 


Bor goozon 




Kangtoi 


High. 


. . • • 


Be goozon 




Kangtaipar . . 


Higher. 


Chhong-te 


.... 




Bi kangtozpar 


Highest. 


Matu lang 


Khase ghorai 




Ajun losai ... 


A horse. 


Mame tulang 


Jo gorai 




Ajun losai api 


A mare. 


Mathuk nam 


Gorai fra 




Losai atum ... 


Horses. 


Mame nama 


Gorai hima 




Losai api atnm 


Mares. 


Buthuk lung 


Bolud musan 




Ajun . alowchi- 
nong. 


AbuU. 


Utme o-lang 


Gai-mosow 




Ajun chinong 
api. 


A cow. 


Utthok kung-lang ... 


Bhotora mosan . . 




Chinnung alow 
atum. 


Bulls. 


TJme kung lang 


Moosow hima. 




Chinnung api 
atum. 


Cows- 


IVTawan lung 


Saym jala 


.... 


Methan alow. . 


A dog. 


Mawan melung 


Sayma jo 




Methan api . . 


A bitch. 


Ma,wan kang lung ... 


Saytha fra 




Methan alow 
atum. 


Dogs. 


Mawan me kang lung 


Sayma jo fry 




Methan api 
atum. 


Bitches. 







178 



( 10 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their correspondinff words 



Engliiih. 


Assamese. 


Ahom. 


Ehampti. 


A he-goat 


Etd motd chhdgali 


Fupenga leng 


Beji dume lang 


A female goat 


Ejani mdiki chh^gali 


Mipengd, leng 


Beydthaklang 


Goats 


Chh%aUbil£k 


Penga-bat 


Beyd nan khdu 


A male deer 


Etd motd pahu 


Tungifii leng 


Naong thak lang 


A female deer 


Ejani pahu 


Tungimi leng 


Nang dume lang 


Deer 


Pahu bHdk 


Tungi-bat 


Nangndikhdu 


I am 


May achho 


Eau-e ju 


Kdnmai ydngoh 


Thou art 


Apuni aehha 


Mou-eju 


Mdnjaoh 


He is 


He achhe 


Feu-man ju 


Man khdn yangongke 


We are 


Ami achho 


Eang-rau ju 


Duong mdi ong 


You are 


Tumi dchha 


Moule juse 


Man yang ong 


They are 


Teo bildk dchhe 


Feu-luk rang ju 


Kdnta ydng than 


I was 


May dchhilo 


Kau-e ju-mang 


Kant md yan 


Thou wast 


Apuni dchlule 


Mou-e ju-koi 


Matangjaoh 


He was 


Si dchhile 


Feuja-se 


Khang md ydn 


W^ were 


Ami achhilo 


Rang rau juman 


Duong mdiong 


You were 


Tnmr dchhila 


Moule ju-sakoi 


Mdu mayan 


They were 


Teo bilak dchhile 


Feu-luk rang-juse 


Khdn kang yang ong 


Be 


Hay 


Ju 


Jdo 


To be 


Habole 


Ju-man-se 


Jaoya 


Being 


Hai peMi 


Ju-klang 


Jaoyaoah 


Having been 


Haipelai 


Ju khan tang 




I may be 


May habo paro 


Kau ju-toi 


Kau pen ong 


I shall be 


May ham 


Kau-e bai-ju 


Kau pen ong 


I should be 


Habalage 


Kau-e folaiju 




Beat 


Mare 


Dheksi 


Pangke 


To beat 


Maribalai 


Dhekpasi 


Mi pang ke 


Beating 


Marichhe 


Dheksi 


Pang nam 


Having beaten 


Mara haipelai 


Dhekpasi lung 




I beat 


May marichho 


Kau-e dhek 


Kau pang ka ... 


Thou beatest 


Apuni marichho 


Moue dheksi 


Matangpangma 


He beats 


Teo marichhe 


Feu kon dhek 


Maupang ma 


We beat 


Ami marichho 


Bang rau dhek 


Dupang nam 


Tou beat 


Tumimdiiohha 


Mouledhek 


Mau'pungke 


They beat 


Sihate marichhe 


Feu luk dhek 


Khan pang ma yau 


I am beating 


May marichhe 


Kau-e dheksi dheksi 


Kau mai pang ma 


I was beating 


May marichhilo 


Kau-e dheksi lung 




I had beaten 


May marilo 


Kau-e dheksile 


Kau mai pang ma yau ... 



( 11 ) 

tn Assamese, Akom, KAampfi, Alton, Cacharee, Hojai, and Mikir. 



177 



Alton. 


Cacharee. 


Hojai. 


Mikir. 


English. 


Pethuklung 


Bormafantha mase 


Bronjola mase 


Bailo eyan . . 


A he-goat. 


Pe me lung 


Burma bima manse 


Bronboojoo manse . . 


Biapi eyan . . 


A female goat. 


Phung-pe 


Borma fur 


Bronsi bangbie 


Biatum 


Goats. 


Nithuk-lmig 


Moifanthi mase . , 


Mijela masi 


Thiakals 


A male deer. 


Nime lung 


Moifanthi mase . . 


Mi boojoo 


Thoiapi 


A female deer. 


Kung ni 


Moifur 


Mi kabaug 


Thiokatnm . . 


Deer. 


Ka-ucha 


Aung noongo 


Ang jadoo 


Nephanjee . . 


I am. 


Mauna 


Noong moongo . . 


Noong jadoo 


Nangphanghon 


Thou art. 


Munacha 


Be noonga 


Boo jadoo 


Kali hala 


He is. 


Ha-uclia 


Jungphur noonga. , 





Netaplang- 
doonjiari. 


We are. 


GhHuna 


Noongee noonga . . 


Joong jadoo 


Nangtoplang- 
douon. 


You are. 


Mun khauna 


Aungh thathengmon 


Poonsi jadoo 


Kalonglo hala 


They are. 


Ka-u-jangcha 


Noong thathengmon 


Ang dangba 


Nedolo 


I was. 


.... 


Be thathengmon . . 


Namdi dangba 


Nang dol 


Thou wast. 


Munajam 


J ungphur thatheng- 
mon. 


Noong dangba 


Hala dolo . . 


He was. 


Hau tang lung jang . . . 


.... 


Joong dangba 


NelH dolo . . 


We were. 


Chhutang lung jang . . . 


Noongsur thatheng- 
mon. 


Namai rowdungba ! . 


Nangtnm dolo 


Tou were. 


Khau taka lung jang 


Besur thathengmon 


Poonisi doongbo 


Halatnm .dolo 


They were. 


.... 


Noomgo 


Jadoo 


Phanglo 


Be. 


.... 


Namais 


Jamah 


Eapo 


To be. 


.... 


.... 


Jakha 


Cee or see . . 


Being. 


.... 


.... 


Jakha 


Gee or see . . 


Having been. 


Kupi nuchang 


Aung jane hago . . 


Aug jafooree 


Netaplangton- 
gee. 

Ne-epo 


I may be. 

• 


.... 


Aung jagon 


Aug jamang 


I shall be. 


.... 


.... 


Aug jafooree 


Nedoijee 


I should be. 


.... 


Boo 


Doh 


Kochok 


Beat. 


. . • • 


Boono 


Toma 


Ghokjee 


To beat 


t 


Boonaiow 




Gho-pallo 


Beating. 




Boonaiow 




Gho-pallo 


Having beaten. 


Kau thuppa 


Aung hoonee 




Ne choknon . . 


I beat. 


Manpo 


Noong boo 




Nang choknon 


Thou beatest. 


Main-po 


Be hooro 




Halla choknon 


He beats. 


Hau thuppa 


Jung boonee 




Nellee choknon 


We beat. 


Ghliopama 


Noongsur boo 




Nangtum chok- 
non. 


Tou beat. 


Khau thopo 


Besur booro 




Hallatum chok- 
non. 


They beat. 


• • • a 


Aung boodung . . . 




Ne choklo . . 


I am beating. 


> • a • 


Aung boodungmon 




Ne chpktanglo 


I was beating. 





Aung boodungmon 




Ne choktanglo 


I had beaten^. 



178 



( 13 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their corresponding 



Assamese. 



Ahom. 



Ebampti. 



I may beat 

I have beaten 

I shall beat 

I should beat 

I am beaten 

I was beaten 

I shall be beaten 

I go 

Thou goest 

He goes 

I went 

Thou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

What is your name ?. . 

How old is this horse ? 

How far is it. from here 
to Kasmir ? 



How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle 
is married to her 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle 
on the top of the 
hill. 

He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree. 



His brother is taller 
than his sister. 



May mariba paro 

May marim 

May marila hate 

Mok marile 

May mara halo 

May mara ham 

May jao 

Apuni gaichhe 

Teo jae 

May gailo 

Apuni gaiohhile 

Teo gail 

Ja 

Jam 

Gal 

Tor ki nam 



Ei ghorar kiman bayas 
haichhe. 

lar para Kasmir lai kiman 
dur. 



Tor baperar gharat kiman 
lora aehhe. 



May aji bahu dur phuri 
ahilo. 



Tair chaniek more dadair 
puteke biya karichhe. 

Gharar bhitarat thakajin 
khanbaga ghorator hayne 

Jinkhan tar pithat de 



Tar putekak may bahut kob 
maricho. 



Si parbatar tingat garu 
charaichhe. 



Sei gachar talat si ghorat 
uthiohhe. 



Tar kakaek tar ohaniyk 
kai okh. 



Kau-e dheksiloi 

Kau-e dhek-boi 

Kau-e dhek-falai 

Kau-ke dheki 

Kau-ke dheksi-lung 

Kau-ke dheksipasi 

Kau-e ka 

Mou-e ka 

Feuka 

Kau-e paika 

Mou-e kase 

Feu ka-fai 

Ka 

Kafaile 

Ka-hau 

Moule su kham sang 

Ma tu pi le 



Tinai mung ban Kasmiri 
theureu. 



Moule paman ran luk 
chyang. 

Kau-e menai fai mung 
faiban. 



Kau-re du chau luk feu-le 
ning-nang ning kakan. 

Ma fak ankham ran khau 

Feu-le lang bai ankham 
khutsi. 



Fen doilung ru hukin nya 



Tun ten malang feu nang 



Feu-le nang-ning feu man 
ki lung nu. 



Kau pang pen ong 

« • • ■ 

Kau pang ma yahe 



Khau mai pang ma yau 
Kau mai pang ma yau 



Kau ka kao 

Mat jaumah 

Kang m^h 

K£u mah 

Matjankdi yao 

Mdukd yao 

Kd 

Kdld 

Kdydo 

Yang man kachang 



Anai mah ki achak thdn 
ong. 

Luksi nai Kasmir mai khan 
kdi. 

Hanpang mau mai luk an 
kha ratang. 

Kau mandaih tikai mai 
lechhi pang ka ma khun 
le pha. 

Nang chau man mai luk 
pang au kau au heo meh 
yau. 

Ong kana han mai naih 
anma phak naih yan ung 
ke. 

Au man oang kalang mau 
mai tah. 

Lukman ma ih kau jau 
thipa ya oh. 

Mau phang lang yik nae 
maih leng nga ong. 

Kanau hang nana man khi 
mah si ong yan. 

Piyai mdn lang chdu man 
mai kang chhong lang ma 
yan 



( 13 ) 

in Assamese, Ahom, Khampti, Alton, Cacharee, Hojai, and Mikir. 



179 



Alton. 



Cachaiee, 



Hojai. 



Mikir. 



Gngliah. 



Kaup tipiuo 



Kau ken khawan 



Kau thopai 

Mau pai ma 

Mun paiga 

Kapaima 

Ma paima 

Mun paika 

Paiga 

Faiuka 

Paigao 

Chiuma ohiucliang 



Achhak-ma khelau 
lung ? 

XJthai hau .thung Kas- 
mir khelai lung ? 

Hunapa mau luen 
imang khelau lung ? 

Kauka tang kaima 
teho. 

Ptinung chau mun luk 
chai au kau pin hun. 

Lau hun naima kuk 
an mun jangna. 

Nulang muna kupana 
mun. 

Hang luk mun kau 
thuk hau. 

Nulae mun pai ning 
bu. 



Kun bulang tautun 
maiuang nungma. 

Hang nang ohau mun, 
nang chaimun khen 
chhang. 



Aung boonahago . . . 

Aung boogun 

Aungtho booio 

Aungtho boobai . . . 

Aungtho boogun ... 

Aungthangni 

Noong thang 

Be thangtheng ... 

Aung thangbai ... 

Noong thangbai ... 

Be thangbai 

Thang 

Thangdoong 

Thangoai 

Noonghi nowama 
now. 

Be goraia bosur pisa 
jadoong. 

Bainifry Kashmere 
basa gojan. 

Noongni noompa ni 
noton gotho khapsa 
dongo. 

Diniang nama gojan 
thabai bai. 



Angni fodoini ficho- 
dla bini binoxnow- 
fo boba kulambai. 

Goorai goofootui juna 
bai no dong. 

Binibi khwang jima 
khooai. 

Augbini fisajala ko 
ghanimai boobai. 

Be hojani sai awha 
moosowgoonedong. 

Bi bongfang singon 
gorai uthibai tha- 
dong. 

Bini bifunga bini 
bina nanildio goo- 
jan. 



Ne chokaon . . 

Ne chokjee . . 
Ne ohoknangpo 
Ne kachok . . 
Ne choklo 
Ne chokpo . . 
Ne dampo . ^ 
Nang dammon 
Haladamtanglo 
Ne damtanglo 
Nang dampo. . 
La damtanglo 
Da 

Dambomlo . . 
Damtanglo . . 
Nangmankopoo 

La losai ning- 
kan kowanlo. 

Ladakpen Kash- 
mere koando 
kahila. 

Ahen koando 
nang somar. 

Pinine kahilopar 
kafooridom. 

Naponoo aso 
asopi ponang 
kedo. 

Losai aklok jin 
halahem sido. 

La amoi jin 
arboongum. 

Ne labangso 
aso jasemet 
chuklo. 

Englong apo 
chaimning 
kebi dam. 

Hala thaughi 
abin losai atha 
ingnisoo sido. 

La amoo ang 
jirpiafanamoo 
dingmoo. 



I may beat. 

I have beaten. 

I shall beat. 

I should beat. 

I am beaten. 

I was beaten. 

I shall be beaten. 

I go. 

Thou goest. 

He goes. 

I -went. 

Thou wentest. 

He went. 

Go. 

Going. 

Gone. 

What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 

How far is it from 
here to Kasmir ? 

How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle 
is married to her. 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle 
on the top of the hiU. 

He is sitting on a 
horse under ' that 
tree. 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 



D 



180 



( 14 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their correspondvng words 



English. 



Ahom in Roman character. 



Khampti. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 



My father lives in that 
small house. 

Give this rupee to 
him. 

Take those rupees from 
him. 

Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me 



Whose boy comes 
behind you? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



Tar dam du taka ek adhuli 
hay. 

Mor bopai seito saru 
gharete thake. 

Eirup taka tak dibi 

Tar para seir up khini 
anibi. 

Tak bhalkai maribi aru 
jarire bandhi thubi. 

Nadar para pani tol 

Mor agat phur 

Tor pachhat kar lara 
ahichhe. 

Ear para seito kini lali . . 
Gaor eta beparir para 



Feu khat sang tak faleng 

Kau-le pa ran noy ju-se ... 

Feu-man tak leng housi . . . 

Feu se tak -bat 

Feu-man di dheksi anba 
feu-man si khat. 

Khum pen nam au 

Kau-le na khanpai khanma 

Kanai lukman moule khen- 
lang mase. 

Kon feu-bat mou ansu 
ankhrai, 

Mung ban katram ansu ... 



Thang man chhangta thuH 
ydn yd,n. 

Pung kan yd jau kan hang 
la ana na. 

Nga na tra nai md,n mdi 
hdtang dah. 

Lukman ma ih nga nanai 
khau aong ma dah. 

Pang mini oah khun lang 
kau chai phuka oai tah. 

Nam mang mai nam oak 
tah. 

Na kau mai ledah 



Kalang mau mau Ink kau 
laima. 



Luk kau mai an mau 
chhang ma kaL 

Mau mai lai pang pang ka 
dn lang na ih. 



( 15 ) 

in Assamese, Ahom, Kkampti, Aiton, Cacha/ree, Hojai, and 



181 



Alton. 


Cacharee. 


Hojai. 


Mikii. 


English. 


Khan annai cKbang 
tahai thule. 


Binidama rupgotnai 
adlisa. 





Lahang son 
adur sika hini 
adobaug. 


The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 


Fukai nTmn annai ... 


Augni afaia binour 
udniow thaio. 





Nepo hahemso 
sido. 


My father lives in 
that small hoiise. 


Ingima ennai hau 
hang mun. 


Bathakakho binaha 


• • • • 


Ladhun lapinne 


Give this rupee to 
him. 


U-eng nnmu mu-ina 


Bathaka frookhanta 





Lapen dhun 


Take those rupees 


anga. 






anem. 


from him. 


Hang mun pani nila 
auohhai huk ninila. 


Bikhan ghaminoboo 
didoong jung kha. 





Lachuk mesen, 
armi le cog- 
num. 


Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 


Unam -mo-tak-ma . . . 


Hakhuxnifra deg 
dikhang. 





Langtook penla 
taug ohugnum. 


Draw water from the 
well. 


Kai pang na 


Aungin sigang an 
thabai. 





Nefraug damun 


Walk before me. 


Kallang mau lu-an 
kaulema? 


Noongni tinow than- 
gnaia eini gotho. 





Naugfee mot 
aooso sinan- 
kidoom. 


Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 


• • • fl 


Siaifra bai nai 





Tmbaugso mot 
pensa nanka- 
nam. 


From whom did you 
buy that? 


Lai-poka thai kalang 


J emini dokhani 
sasinifora bai nai. 


.... * 


Eong agulot- 
pensa nang 
kenam. 


From a shop-keeper 
of the village. 



183 



CACHAEI LANGUAGE. 

Numerals. 



One 


Sei. 


Two 


... Noi. 


Three 


... Tham 


Four 


... Bri. 


Five 


... bL 



Six 


Ban. 


Seven 


Sim. 


Eight 


Sikho 


Nine 


Zat. 


Ten 


Zi. 


Zan-khai-ba. 





Twenty 

N.B. — There are no distinct words to express numerals above ten. There is however a 
collective word, " zan khai" = four ; which, when followed by two other numbers, is to be mul- 
tiplied by the former, while the second is to be added to the product so obtained. In this 
way the Cacharies can enumerate up to forty ; beyond which they resort to the practice of 
counting objects into separate groups of fire. 

Zan-khai-tham = four x three := 12. 
Zan-khai-tham-(sa) — tham = four x three + three =15. 
Prepa-sa implies men, e.ff,, sa-tham = three (men). 
Ma, lower animals, ma-tham = (goats). 
Mun, lifeless objects, mun-tham := bamboos. 

The vowels in the above words are all pronounced with a short, sharp, clicking sound, 
not at all easy to catch or to imitate. 

Pkonouns. 

Singular. Plural. 



Ang 

Ang-ni 

Ang-nan 

Ang-kho 

Ang-ni- phorai 

Ang-ni-on ... 

Nung 

Nung-ni 

Bi 

Bini 



I. 

Of me. 

To me. 

Me. 

From me. 

In me. 

Thou. 

Of thee, &c., &c. 

He. 

Of him, &c., &c. 



Zung phoor 


We. 






ni 


Of us. 






nan 


To us. 






phoor pho... 


Us. 






niphorai ... 


From us. 






ni-an 


In us. 


Nung-soor 


... 


You. 


» 


)i 


ni 


Of you, &c., &c. 


Bi-soor 




... 


They. 


» » 


ni 


... 


Of them, &c., &c 



By means of these terminational affixes all personal pronouns, nouns, &c., are regularly 
declined in the genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative cases. 

The adjective, when combined with a noun, sometimes precedes, sometimes follows it ; 
but does not change its termination when declined, e.g. — 



A good man 


„„ Gaham-man 


-soi. 


Hair 


.. Khe-nai. 


Of a good 


man . 


.. Gaham-man- 


soi-ni. 


Mother 


.. Ai. 


To a good 


man . 


.. Gaham-man- 


soi-nan. 


Brother 


.. A-goi. 


Hand 




.. A-khai. 




Sister 


.. Bi-na-non. 


Foot 


. 


.. A-pha. 




Man 


.. Man-soi. 


Nose 




.. Gan-thung. 




Woman 


.. Uing zao. 


Eye 




.. Me gun. 




Head 


.. Khan-ran 


Mouth 




.. Kha-ga. 




Tongue 


.. Ta-lai. 


Tooth 




. Ha-thai. 




Belly 


.. Oo-doi. 


Ear 




.. Khoo-ma. 




Back 


.. Bi-khung. 



184 



( 3 ) 



Iron 


... Sir. 


Infant 




... Male — ho-a-sa. 


Gold 


... Hoo-na-der-lie. 


. 




Female — hing-za-sa. 


Silver 


... Ror-pha-(roop). 


Daughter 




... Phi-sa-zan. 


Sun 


... Shan. 


Slave 




... Banda (hindoo). 


Moon 


... A-kha-phur. 


Cultivator 




... Baiz-zen. 


Star 


... Ha-thant-khi. 


Shepherd 




... Go-ra-khezia, men-da- 
gooni-nan. 


Fire 


... Ant. 


God 




... Iswaree (hindoo), gan- 


Water 


... Doi. 






thai-ya. 


House 


... Nan. 


Devil 




... Mo-dai. 


Horse 


... Go-rai. 


Ass 




... Go-rai-gum-boo. 


Cow 


... Mo son. 


Camel 




... Goi. 


Dog 


... Soi-ma. 


Bird 




... Dao, 


Cat 


... Man zee. 


Egg 




... Dao-de. 


Cock 


... Don-la. 


Go 




... Thang-nan. 


Duck 


... Hang'Soopha-the. 


Eat 




... Za-nan. 


Father 


... A-pha. 


Sit 




... Zan-nan. 


Wife 


... Hing-zao. 


Come 




... Phai-nan. 


Child 


... Gan-than. 


Beat 




... Boo-nan. 


Son 


... Gan-than-ho-a-sa. 


Stand 




... Gan-sung-nan. 




Die 




Thoi- 


nan. 




Give 


... 


Han- 


nan. 




Run 


... 


Khat 


-nan. 



These verbs are given in the Infinitive mood, the terminational aflSx of which is " nan" 
pronounced very short. The root of the verb as in the other aggluhuative languages under- 
goes no change in conjugation, combination, &c. 



Up 


... Sa-o. 


Who 


... Sur. 


Down 


... Sing-ao. 


What 


... Ma. 


Before 


... Si-gang-ao. 


Why 


... Ma-noo. 


Near 


... Kha-the-ao. 


And* 


... A-ru. 


Far 


... Ga-zam. 


But* 


... Khinto (kintoo). 


Behind 


... Oo-nao. 


If* 


... Zo-di. 


Yes 


... Mungo. 


Alas* 


... Hai? hai! 


No 


... Mang-a. 

Decl] 


SNSIONS. 




A father 


... Bipha. 


A man 


... Man soi 


Fathers 


... Biphaphoor. 


Men 


... Mansoiphoor. 


Of a father 


... Biphani. 


Two men 


... Sa sei. 


Of fathers 


... Biphaphooni. 


Good 


... Gaham. 


To a father 


... Biphanan. 


Better 


... Gahamsin. 


From a father 


. . . Biphani phorai. 


Best 


... Boi nan sari gaham sin 


A good man 


... Ga-ham mansoi 


High 


... Ge-zon. 


A good woman 


... Gaham bing-zao-sa. 


Higher 


... Gezon sin. 



* Theae words aie obviously coTTuptions of the Assamese forms in common use ; the Cscharies often aspirate an initial 
consonant in such cases, e. g. as above Ehintoo-kintoo ! ' 



( 3 ) 



185 



Highest 
I am 

Thou wast 
He is 
"We 
You 
They 
I was 
Thou wast 
He was 
We were 
You were 
They were 
Be 

To be 
Being 

Having been 
I may be 
I shall be 
I should be 
To beat 
Beat 

Beating 
Having beaten 
I beat 
We beat 
Thou beatest 
You beat 
He beats 
They beat 
Horse 
Mare 
Hofses 
Mares 
Bull 



Dung. 



Dung 
man. 



. . Boi nan sari gezan sin. 

. . Ang, 

. . Nusy. 

.. Be. 

. . Zung phoor 

. . Nungsoor. 

. . Bisoor. 

. . Ang. 

. . Nung. 

.. Bi. 

. . Zung phoor. 

. . Nung soor. 

. . Bisoor. 

.. Za. 

. . Zanan. 

. . Zavanan. 

. . Zanan. 

. . Angza nan hagon. 

. . Ang za gun. 

.. Angza nan logiyazadung, 

. . Boo nan. 

. . Boo. 

. . Booni aio. 

. . Boo za nai. 

. . Ang boo dung. 

. . Zang phoor boo ding. 

. . Nung boo ding. 

. . Nung soor boo ding. 

. . Bi hooding. 

. . Bisoor hooding. 

. . Go rai. 

. . Cro rai bi ma, 

. . Go rai phoor. 

. . Go rai bi ma phoor. 

. . Mas son pa loo a. 



Cow 

Bulls 

Cows 

Dog 

Dogs 

Bitch 

Bitches 

He-goat 

He-goats 

She-goat 

She-goats 

A male dear 

A female dear 

Male deer 

Female deer 

I am beating 

I had beaten 

I shall beat 

I am beaten 

I shall be beaten. , 

I, was beating 

I may beat 

I should beat 

I was beaten 

Go 

Going i . 

Gone 

I go 

Thou goest 

He goes 

We go 

You go 
They go 



Mos son bi ma gai kindoo. 

Mas son ba loona phoor. 

Mas son gai phoor. 

Soi ma. 

Soi ma phoor. 

Bi ma. 

Soi ma bimaphoor. 

Boor ma sagla. 

Boor ma saglaphoor. 

Boor ma phanthi. 

Hoor ma phanthiphoor. 

Moi phan tha. 

Moi phan thi. 

Moi phan tha phoor. 

Mai phan thi phoor. 

Ang boo dung. 

Ang boo dung man. 

Ang boo gun. 

Ang boohoo dung. 

Ang boohoo nar za gun. 

Aug boo hi tha dung man. 

Ang boo nan ha gon. 

Ang boo nan logya dung 
man. 

Ang boo hoo dung man. 

Thang. 

Thang ni on nan. 

Thang bai. 

Ang thang ni dung. 

Bing thang dung. 

Bi thang dung. 

Zung phoor thang ni 
dung. 

Nung soor thang dung. 

Bi soor-thang dung. 



What is your name 

How old is this horse . . 

How far is it from here to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are there in your father^s 
house ? 

I have walked a long way to-day. . 

The son of my uncle is married to his sister 



Mung ni nao ma. 

Ber go-na ya bese boyas za dungo. 

Ber ni pherae Kashmir-ou be se. 

Nang ni mung nao ni non on be se bang phi 
saod-ta dung. 

Diniang gazan na ma tha bae bae. 

Ang nia-dae ni phi sad-tazabi nibi nanas-kho 
ba ba khan-na bae ta bae. 



186 



( 4 ) 



In the house is the saddle of the white horse 

Put the saddle upon his back 

I have beaten his son with many stripes 

He is grazing cattle on the top of the hill ... 
He is sitting on a horse under that tree 

His brother is taller than his sister 

The price of that is two rupees ... 

My father lives in that small house 

Give this rupee to him ... 

Take those rupees from him 

Beat him well and bind him with ropes 

Draw water from the well 

Walk before me 

Whose boy comes behind you ? ... 

From whom did you buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of the village... 



Bio tran on goo phootgo rae ni zim dang. 

Bini hi khang on zim ban. 

Ang bini phi sad-la kho gan bangor nan boo 
bai. 

Bi yan ha zor-sao moson gum dung. 

Bi yan bei bong phang sing as go rae ni- 
saouth-i-na noe tha-dung. 

Bini bigi ya bini bina-nao nan sangazan 
sindung. 

Bini da ma thae noe adlai sei. 

Ang in a pha ya bei un dae poe an thaio. 

Buthakha khobi-nau ban. 

Bei thakha phoor khobini phra eta. 

Biphoga bu-mai nau boi aru diding zung kha. 

Hakhor-ni phrae-dae kho di khang. 

Angni si gang on tha bai lang. 

Lurni gan than nung ni-oonoo phai gung. 

Nung bikho mao ni phrai bai na nyta dung. 

Garni nida khan ni phrae bai nai. 



MEMORANDA. 
The people known as Cacharies never speak of themselves under that name, but call 
themselves the "Boro," or more commonly " Boroni phisa/' «.e. children of the Boro ; but 
what idea may be conveyed by this term " Boro," I have never been able to ascertain. 

From long intercourse with the Assamese, the Cacharies have adopted many words of 
Sanskrit or Hindu origin ; but words so adopted always undergo certain changes in the 
mouth of a Caohari, e.g. — 

1. Simple consonants are generally aspirated — " taka^' (rupee) becomes tha-kha ; " kin- 
too" becomes khin-thoo. 

3. The sibilant letters, so common in Bengali, become very strong guttural aspirates, 
e.g., " sokol" (all) becomes hokhol. 

The prevalence of these gutturals becomes more marked in the neighbourhood of the 
mountains forming the northern boundary of Assam, the dooms lying at the foot of which are 
peopled mainly by Cacharies. The prevalence gutturaly among the people being near the 
mountains, or compared with the dwellers in the interior of the valley, is probably to be 
accounted for by the difference of climatic conditions, the same phenomenon being observed 
in other parts of the world, e.g. in the German of Hanover as contracted with that of Switzer- 
land. The limits within which the Oachari language is spoken have never been exactly 
determined ; but it is understood from a point west of Biznie (probably near Darjeeling) to 
the eastern extremity of the Assam valley. Eastwards of Sudze, throughout the whole of 
this district scattered Cachari communities exist. 



LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES 



DIALECTS OF THE TIPPERAH, CHITTAGONG, 



CACHAR FRONTIER. 



la 



18B 



( 2 ) 

List of words and phrases showing dialects of the 



Engliah. 


Cachari. 


Garo. 


Tipperah Hill. 


Numerals. 








One 


Thaisa 


Cha 


Kysa 


Two 


Thaina 


Gali 


Konye 


Three 


Thaitham 


Q-atham 


Ka-htam 


Four 


Thaihre 


Bri 


Baroy 


Eive 


Thaiha 


Bonga 


Ba . 


Six 


Thairo 


Dof 


Dok 


Seven 


Thaisna 


Suii 


Tscinni 


Eight 




Chet 


Tohyt 


Nine 




Sokhu 


Tehiku 


Ten 




Sakhong 


Tehi 


Twenty 




G-ang Chiklnng 


Khul 


Fifty 




Biehagri Sokhung 


Kornai tehee 


Hundred 




Eachhatta 


Ra-ja-ha 


Pronouns. 








I 


Aug 


Auga 


Aong 


We 


Jongforno 


Changa 


Tchung 


Thou 


Nong 


Na 


Nung 


Ton 


Nongsomo 


Nasma 


Narowk 


He 


Bi 


Sang Anga 


Oha 


They 


Bisor 


Oamang 


Obarowk 


Mine, or me 


Augni 


Augni 




Our, or of us 


Jongfoni 


Suigni 




Thine, or of thee 


Naugni 


Nangni 




Tour, or of you 


Nongsorforni 


Nosmangni 




His, or of him 


Bini 


Wani 




Their, or of them 


Bisorui 


Wamaugni 




Mine 






Ainoe 


Our 






Tchini 


Thine 






Ninui 


Tour 






Narowkni 


His 






Binni 


Their 






Obarowkni 


Hand 


Akhye 


Jake 


Tak 


Foot 


Atheng 


Jafa 


Tak-pha 


Nose 


Xanthom 


Gongtheng 


Rung htai 


Eye 


Mogon 


Mokrong 


Makoy 


Mouth 


Khuka 


Khusuke 


Baku 


Tooth 


Hatai 


Wagam 


Bu-a 


Ear 


Khama 


Nashel 


Kun-ju 


Hair 


Xhanai 


Khinni 


Ka-nai 



( 3 ) 



Tipperah, Chittagong, and Cachar Frontier. 



18P 



Lnshai (of Chittagong Hills 


). Khumi (of Chittagong HiUs). 


Mro (of Chittagong Hills). Mugh of Chittagong. 


English. 


Pakat 


Ha 


Leux 


a a Toi 


One. 


Pa-ni 


Nue 


Preh 


a a Nhoi 


TWOa 


Pa-tam 


Toom 


Choom 


a a SOOng 


Three. 


PaU 


Pellue 


Tullee 


a a Ley 


Four. 


Pa-nga 


Pang 


Tunga 


. . Grnah 


Five. 


Pa-rok 


Turro 


Turro 


Khrow 


Six. 


Pa-tsa-ri 


Sherrue 


Hvunne 


en . . TChonoi 


Seven. 


Pa-ri-ek 


Taiya 


Eiya 


a a Shu 


Eight. 


Pa-kwa 


Tnkkor 


Tiikkoo 


a a Eoh 


NinCa 


Tschom 


Ho 


HumoQ] 


a . Tchay 


Ten. 


Tsohom-ni 


Apoom 


Pirmee 


a . Nhoi tchay 


Twenty. 


Iscliom-nga 


Ooipang 


Ngakon 


1 . . Gna tchay 


Fifty. 


Ja 


Kioongwie 


Kom 


. . Ta-ra 


Hundred. 


Koyina 


Kai 


Ang 


a. Gna 


I. 


Koyma-ho 


Kai cliey 


Ang eei 


1 . . Gna (roh or dok) . , 


We. 


Nangma 


Nang ' 


En 


. a Sang 


Thou. 


Nangma-ho or ni . 


Nang cliey 


En een 


a . Nang 


You. 


Ama 


Hoo 


Paimee 


.. Soo 


He. 


Ajnani 


Hooni chey 


Haikub( 


Da a . Toh-soo-roh 
Gna-ay 


They. 
Mine, or me. 


• • a a 








Gna-roh-ay . 


Our, or of us. 


a a ■ a 








. . . . Sang-ay 


Thine, or of thee. 


a a a a 








Nangay 


Tour, or of youa 


a a a a 








Sooay 


His, or of him. 


a a a a 








Soo-doh-ay 


Their, or of them. 


Koyuia-ta 








Gna ay 


Mine. 


Koyma-lio-ta 








Qua-roh-ay 


Our. 


Nungma-ta 








Sangay 


Thine. 


Nowkma-lio-ta . . 








Nangay 


Tour. 


Ama-ta 








Soo-ay 


His. 


Mi-ta 








Soodohay 


Their. 


Kut 


Koo 


Rod 


a a Lak 


Hand. 


Ke 


Kow 


Kopa 


. . Khree 


Foot. 


Nak 


NotuiTung 


Nakong 


. a Nakhong 


NOSOa 


Mith 


Mey 


Meen 


a a Mea-tsee 


Eye. 


Mel 


Lubbong 


Nor 


a a Kha-nang 


Mouth. 


Ha 


Ho 


Teung 


. . Soa 


Tooth. 


Beng 


Kunnong 


Purram 


a . Nah 


Ear. 


Tscham 


Sham 


Cham 


. a Chien-bang 


Haix. 



190 



( 4 ) 

List of words and phrases shiwing dialects of iki 



English. 


Cachari. 


Garo. 


Hill Tippetah. 


Head 


Khoro 


Shokha 


Ba-kro 




Tongue 


Shalai 


Sra 


Tsalai 


..r 


Belly 


Udi 


Ok 


Baho 


... 


Back 


Bikhom 




Ba-kung 


... 


Iron 


Chor 


Chhil 


Tsur 


... 


Gold 


Hona 


Shona 


Rangaja 


... 


Silver 


Eupa 


Eupa 


Eupai 


... 


Father 


Apha 


Bapa 


Amon 


... 


Mother 


I 


I 


Apa 


... 


Brother 


Ada 


Ada 






Ditto (elder) 






(Elder) Ata 


... 


Ditto (younger) ... 






(Younger) Amphai 


yung .. 


Sister 


Binanao 


Ahi 


Aibi 


.•• 


Man 


Manshai 


Manda 


Bro 


• •« 


Woman 


Hinjao 


Jake 


Bruie 


..» 


Wife 


Augni Hinjao 


Jake 


Bihi 


..* 


Child 


Kotho 


Doh 


Ba-tsala 


r.> 


Son 


Phisa 


Manda Pisla 


Batsa 


• ■• 


Daughter 


Phisa Hinjao 


Miehik Bisha 


Ba-tsa-juk 


• *« 


Slave 


Golam 


Nokhol 


Isileng 


■ at 


Cultivator 


Choklam Naj ane 


Batal 






Shepherd 


Qxirkhia 


Eakhol 






God 


Ishar ' 


Ishor 


Matai 


■ ■> 


Devil 


Mudai 




Buraha matai 


• ■ t 


Sun 


Chand 


Chal 


Tsal 


... 


Moon 


Okhahor 


Jah 


lal 


... 


Star 


Atorki 


Aski 


Atukroi 


... 


Fire 


Ot 


Wol 


Hor 


• >* 


Water 


Dai 


Si 


Toey 


• t< 


House 


No 


Noke 


Nok 


• •■ 


Horse 


Tangna Ghorai 


Gura 


Eori 


... 


Cow 


Gai Mukhao 


Masha 


Masoo 


... 


Dog 


Chaina 


Achake 


Tsoey 


• ■• 


Cat 


Monji 


Mango 


BHlai 


..> 


Cock 


Toajla 





Tow-la 


• •■ 


Duck 


Hongso 


Dagop 


Tow-kom 


• •• 


Ass 


Gadha 


Salja 






Camel 


ut 


TJt 






Bird 


Dow 


Dow 


Toksa 


... 


Go 


Thang 


Oaugho 


Thangdee 


■ •• 


Eat 


Jab 


Chhaho 


Tchadee 


• •• 



( 5 ) 
Tipperah, Chittagong, and Cachar Frontier. — (Continued.) 



191 



Iiushai (of Ohittagong Hills). 


Khumi (of Chittagong Hills) . 


Mro (of Chittagong Hills). 


Mugh of Chittagong.. 


English. 


Lo 


Loo 


Loo 


Gong 


Head. 


Le 


Pellai 


Die 


Shea 


Tongue. 


Piim 


Kuyow 


Moong 


Wyn 


Belly. 


DnTn-le 


Neetoom 


Koom 


Nouwkoon 


Back. 


Thir 


Tamong 


Longha 


Syn 


Iron. 


Sona 


Miikkoo 


Koo 


Rhooe 


Gold. 


Tanka-boan 


Tunka 


Tunka 


Gnoay 


Silver. 


Ranu 


Ng-ai 


Apha 


Apha 


Father. 


Eapa 


Ng-oi 


A-oo 


Ahmee 


Mother. 


Tsapni . 


.... 


.... 


Ahpa 


Brother 


. . ■ • 


Yai 


A-tai 


.... 


Ditto (elder). 


. . . • 


Beux 


Now-ma 


Ahko 


Ditto (younger). 


Pha.mu 


Toieho 


Toama 


Nhama 


Sister. 


Mi 


Koomi 


Mro 


Do 


Man. 


Kraaitscier 


Nongpui 


Muchcheewa 


Mama 


Woman. 


Nowpui 


Ayoo 


Muohohee 


Mayah 


Wife. 


Nao 


Dongdee 


Ngiowa 


Soognay 


Child. 


Phapa 


Chennow 


TJngcha 


Sha 


Son. 


Sarini 


Ohennue 


Ungchumma 


Samee 


Daughter. 


Boi 


Mushong 


Nar 


Euen 


Slave. 


Nga-tok-mi 


Hlawo 


Ohairwa 


Ley-loop-sah 
Soh-gwn-sah 


Oultivator. 
Shepherd. 


Rawvang or patien 


.... 


.... 


Phovah 


God. 


■ ■ ■ ■ 


Na 


Na 


Nat tcho 


Devil. 


Ni 


Kunnee 


Oha 


Neeng 


Sun- 


Ha 


Hlo 


Ama 


T^a 


Moon. 


Axshey 


Kashee 


Kreh 


Kray 


Star. 


Moey 


Hmai 


Mai 


Mee 


Fire. 


Tui 


Tooi 


Tooi 


Eee 


Water. 


Een 


Eem 


Keem 


Eing 


House. 


Isakur 


Kong-o 


Kor-nga 


Mrang 


Horse. 


Isopey 


Shirar 


Chirma 


Noa 


Cow. 


Ui 


Ooi 


Kooi 


Khwee 


Dog. 


Jawtey 


Mingcheux 


Mar 


Krong 


Oat. 


At Eong 


A-looi 


Waklang 


Krakpa 


Oook. 


Varak 


EiiTTipie 


Oompie 


Bey 


Duck. 


.... 


.... 


.... 


Mrey 


Ass. 


.... 


.... 


.... 


Kolaoopa 


Oamel. 


Sava 


Tawoh 


Wah 


Gnhak 


Bird. 


Eul-rok 


Takoh 


Koimang 


Lalee 


Go. 


Oi-rok 


Cho 


Cha 


Tchah 


Eat. 



lb 



192 



( 6 ) 

List of words and phrases showing dialects of the 



English. 


Cachari. 


Garo. 


Hill Tipperah. 


Sit 


Job 


Asangbo 


Atsowkdi 




Come 


Phai 


Mri 


Phaidi 


• • 


Beat 


Bugone 




Budi 


. , 


Stand 


Kosong 


Ghhadeb 


Bachadi 


, , 


Die 


Haibai 


Shib 


Thoydi 


, , 


Give 


Ho 


Walob 


Eudi 


.. 


Run 


Khat Khat 


Chakhadobo 


Khaido 


.. 


Tip 


Sao 


Khasaf 


Tsaka 


.. 


Near 


Khathio 


Safang 


Tsampa 


, , 


Who 


Chorbilai 


Chaora 


Sabho 


.. 


And 


At 


Abong 


Tarey 


. . 


Yes 


Naugo 


Angbha 






Down 


Singao 


Nang 


Khama 


, . 


Ear 


Gojan 


Sola 


Hakchal 


, ^ 


Wliat 


Ma 


Mai khoto cham 


Toma 


, , 


But 


Bangai 


Kintu 


Asikley 


.. 


No 


Nanga 


Ougja 


Arey-pa 


, , 


Before 


Sagan 


Khamba 


Sikong 


• ■ 


Behind 






Yagul 


, , 


Why 


Mano 


Maina 


Tomana 


.. 


If 


Jodi 


Oda 






Alas 


Hai Eai 


Hani 






A father 


Afa Khasa 


Cha afa 


Apa 




Of a father 


Afanis 


Bapami 


Apa ni 


.. 


To a father 


Afano 


Bapaky 


Apa na 


.. 


From a father 


Afanefrai 


Baparoni 


Apa-ni-tinnee 


.. 


Two fathers 


Thama Afa 


Goli afa 


Krok-nyeapa 


.. 


Fathers 


Afa far 


Afa amna 


Apa-song 


.. 


Of fathers 


Afa manimi 


Afa amnani junoke 


Apa-song-ni 


.. 


To fathers 


Afa mamas 


Afa aumna abo 


Apa-8ong-na 


.. 


From fathers 


Afa fannifri 


Afa nitho abora 


Apa-song- ni-tini 




A daughter 


Khasa phisa hinjas 


Chamisik bisa 


Basajuk 




Of a daughter 


Phisa hinjas khasani 


Misik bisani 


Basajuk-ni 


.. 


To a daughter 


Phisa hinjaoni khasano . . 


Mishiky bisaniky 


Basajuk-na 


• • 


From a daughter 


Phisa hinjaoni fri 


Mishiky bisanikara 


Basajuk neetini 




Two daughters 


Haina phisa hinjas 


Gali mishik bisa 


Basajuk konye or krok- 


nye 


Daughters 


Phisa hinjas far 


Mishik bisamaugni 


Basajuk song 


..' 


Of daughters 


Phisa hinjas mansar 


Mishiky bisasidaugni 


Basajuk-song-nee 


.. 


To daughters 


Phisa hinjas manno 


Mishiky bisaniky maugni 


Basajuk-song-na 


4 


From daughters 


Phisa hinjas fanifri 


Mishiky bisamaugnara . . 


Basaj uk-song-ni-tini 




A good man 


Grhamansi khasa 


Mandanama 


Bro kaham 


1 



( 7 ) 

Tipper ah, Chittagong, and Cachar Frontier. — (Continued.) 



Lushai (of Chittagong Hills). 


Khumi (of Chittagong TTills). 


Mro (of Chittagong Hills). 


Mugh of Chittagong. 


English. 


Htu-rok 


Teux 


Chum 


Toing 


Sit. 


Horok 


Ngy-yow 


Wang 


La 


Come. 


Bedrok 


Pukkow 


Tep 


Syt bao 


Beat. 


Dmgrok 


TJndoh 


Young 


Eyt 


Stand. 


Ti-rok 


Deux 


Kung-kai 


See 


Die. 


Pey-rok 


Poeih 


Peh 


Pee 


Give. 


Tlandrok 


Lenx 


Peuf 


Bree 


Eun. 


Tsaka 


Hooling-bang 


Choot-koi 


Atak 


Up. 


Tlunga 


Kung-sha 


Athon 


Anee 


Near. 


Tu 


Meemo 


Miacheux 


Asoo 


Who. 


Dang 


Wai 


Awai 


Ley gong 


And. 


Ni 


Nain 


Na 


Hootaj 


Yes. 


Tiling lam 


Ka-hlong-wa 


Kuddiinr 


Owkma 


Down. 


Hla 


Kumlo-wa 


Alama 


Awee 


Fax. 


Engey 


Atee-mo 


Tong-cheux 


Jahley 


What. 


.... 


Nuhai 


Alowey 


Tho tbawley 


But. 


Ni-loh 


Na-eux 


Na-dcfii 


Mahoop 


No. 


Amasa 


Mowa 


Poorgoei 


Eheega 


Before. 


Miingloi 


Neytoon 


Koong-koeih 


Howk-a 


Behind. 


Enga 


Tenea-mo 


Tomboka 


Japrylo 


Why. 


.... 


Beleux 


Punneux 


Hliang 


If. 


Ajiley 


Ng-ayiex 


Apa-oh 




Alas. 


Eapa 


Ai-harey 


Apa-leux 


Apa tayouk 


A father. 


Kapa-ta 


Ai-meux 


Apa-ga 


A pa tayoukay 


Of a father. 


Kapa-vang 


Ai-do 


Apa-do 


Apa tayoukgo 


To a father. 


Kapa-hneyna 


Ai-bang-e 


Apa-heun 


Apa tayowkga 


From a father. 


Kapa-hni 


Ai-nurerey 


Apa-preya 


Apa nhoiyao 


Two fathers. 


Kapa-ni 


Ai-umpo 


Apa-komma 


Apa mea 


Fathers. 


Pa-ni-ta 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Apa mea ay 


Of fathers. 


Kapa-ho-Tang 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Apa-mea-go 


To fathers. 


Kapa-ho-hneyna . . 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Apa-mea-ga 


From fathers. 


Sarau. 


Chenneie-havey . . 


Obumma-leux 


Same-ta-yao 


A daughter. 


Sarnu-ta 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Same-ta-yas ay . . 


Of a daughter. 


Samu-vang 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Sametayas-go 


To a daughter. 


Samu-hneyna 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Sametayas-ga 


From a daughter. 


Sarnu-pahnit 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Same-nhoi-ya-o . . 


Two daughters. 


Sarnu-ho 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Samu-meah 


Daughters. 


Samu-ho-ta 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Samee-meahay . . 


Of daughters. 


Samu-ho-vang 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Samee-mean go . . 


To daughters. 


Samu-ho-hneyna. . 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Samee-meah-ga . . 


From daughters. 


Nu-hta 


Khumi-hoi 


Mro-yoong 


Loogongtayas 


A good man. 



194 



( 8 ) 

List of words and phrases showing dialects of the 



English. 


Caohari. 


Garo. 


Hill Tipperah. 


Of a good man 


Ghamansi khasani 


Mandanama ninoky 




To a good man 


Khasa ghamansano 


Mandanama namshong ... 




From a good man . . . 


Khasa ghamansi fri 


Mandanamani 




Two good men 


Thaina ghamansi 


Gali mandama 


Brokaham kroknyne 


Good men 


Ghaimansi far 


Mandanam lijat 


Brokaham rowk 


Of good men 


Ghamansi manni 


Manda namli gukhaky baw 


Brokaham rowkni 


To good men 


Ghamansi manno 


Manda nama gnniakho ... 


Brokaham rowkna 


From good men 


Ghamansi fanni fri 


Manda namli 


Brokaham rowkni tine ... 


A good woman 


Gham hinjai khasa 


Manda namni jaky 


Brine kaham 


A bad boy 


Khasa hama gotto 


Manda hisa namja 


Batsa hamya 


Grood women 


Ghani hinjas far 


Ani choknamah 


Brine raham rouk 


A bad girl 


Khasa haina phisa hirijo ... 


Manda bisha namja 


Shikla hamya 


Good 


Gham 


Nama 


Eaham 


Better 


j-Gham far ••• < 


Nama 


Tarey raham 


Best 


Nambia 


J ■ • • 


High 


Sao 


Chua 


Kachuk 


Higher 
Highest 


} Sao far - | 


Dano 
Changro bia 


Tarey kachuk 


Ahorse 


Masa ghorai sangua 


Gura 


Korai tchala 


A mare 


Masa ghorai sangui 


Gura bima 


Korai-bruie 


Horses 


Ghorai tangua far 


Gura sadaug 


Korai-rouk 


Mares 


Ghorai tangau far 


Khonong 


Korai-bruie rouk 


AbuU 


Masa damra mokhow 


Mashu 


Masuk tchala 


A cow 


Gai mokhow 


Mashu 


Masukma 


BuUs 


Damra mokhow far 


Khanang 


Masuk tchala rowk 


Cows 


Gai mokhow far 


Arbima 


Masukma rowk 


A dog 


Saima bangra 


Ashoky bima 


Tsoey-la 


A bitch 


Saima bangri 


Ashakybima 


Tsoeyma 


Dogs 


Bangra far 


Ashak bima, bang 


Tsoey-la-rowk 


Bitches 


Bangri far 


Ashay bima bikan jamakha 


Tsoey-ma-rowk 


A he-goat ,;. 


Masa borma ehhagla 


Daboky bifa 


Puin-jua 


A female goat 


Masa borma fanti 


Daboky bima 


Puin-ma 


Goats 


Borma ehhagla far 


Dabok rang 


Puin-rowk 


A male deer 


Masa mui fanti 


Mashoky bifa 


Matsoi-tchala 


A female deer 


Masa mui fanti 


Mashoky bima 


Matsoi-ma 


Deer 


Mui fanti 


Mashok rang 


Matsoi-rowk 


I am 


Aug domo 


Anga galong 


Aong-tongo 


Thou art 


Naug domo 


Nakho gilang 


Nung-tongo 


He is 


Bi domo 


Oa galang 


Oba-tonga 


We are 


Jang forni domo 


Singa galang 


Tchung-tongo 



( 9 ) 
Tipperah, Chittagong^ and Cachar Frontier. — (Continued.) 



19.^ 



Lushai (of Chittagong Hills). 


Khumi (of Chittagong HUls). 


Mro (of Chittagong Hills). 


Mugh of Cliittagong. 


English. 


• • ■ • 


■ • • • 






Of a good man. 


« ■ ■ • 


• • ■ • 


. . • • 


.... 


To a good man. 


— 


.... 


. • • • 


.... 


From a good man. 


Mi-pahnit-hta 


Long-nure-hoi ... 


Mro yoong preya .. 


Loogong nhoiyao . 


Two good men. 


M"i-hta-ho 


Khumi-boi 


Mro yoong 


Loogong meah . . . 


Good men. 


Mi -hta-ho-ta 


» • • • 


• • • ' q 


Loogong meahay . . . 


Of good men. 


Mi-hta-hb-vang . . . 


• ■ • • 


.... 


Loogong mea-go ... 


To good men. 


Mi-hta-ho-hneyna .. 


• ■ • ■ 


.... 


Loogong mea-ga ... 


From good men. 


Honaitsoier-hta , . . 


Nong-pui-hoi 


Muchchee yoongleux 


Meemagong-tayao 


A good woman. 


Nowpany-hta-lo ... 


Chennow-hoi-eux. . 


Ngia-woa yoon^ dcei 


Loobeasheay-tayao 


A bad boy. 


Hmaitsoier-ho-hta .. 


Nong-pui-hoi 


Muohohee yoongleux 


Meemagongmeah . . . 


Good women. 


Hmatsoier-tey-hta-lo 


Nong-piii-oheux- 


Ung ehumma 


Toho than meema 


A bad girl. 




hoi-eux 


yoong dcsi 


gneay tyao 




Ahta 


Ahoi 


Toong 


Akong 


Good. 


• • • • 


Noihoi 


Mummeela yoong. . . 


Salo akong 


r Better. 
LBest. 


■ • • ■ 


Hoi-nahoi 


Toong-ma 


Akong tohoon 


Atehoi 


Ashinag 


Akvo-ma 


Amrang 


High. 




Hoo-tlong-ashiang.. 


Mummeela akvo ma 


Salo Amrang 


e Higher. 
1 Highest. 




Hoo-ashiang-be ... 


Kong kong kro ... 


Amrang tohoon . . . 


Tsuk-kuT 


Kong-o 


Kor-nga 


Mrang-tagong 


A horse. 


Tsuk-kux-nu 


Kong-o-noo 


Kor-nga-ma 


Mrangniatagong ... 


A mare. 


Tsuk-kur-ho 


Kong-o-bang 


Kor-nga komma ... 


Mrang-meah 


Horses. 


• ■ • • 


Kong-o-bang 


Kor-nga komma ... 


Mrangma-meah ... 


Mares. 


Tohofey-tsal-ho ... 


Sheera puttai 


Chealla 


Noadee-tagong ... 


A bull. 


Tchofey-nu 


Noo 


Cheama 


Noama-tagong . . . 


A cow. 


Tchofey-tsal-ho ... 


Noo bang 


Cheama komma ... 


Noadee-meah 


Bulls. 


Tohofey-nu-ho 


Noo bang 


Cheama komma ... 


Khweedee tagong . . . 


Cows. 


TJitsal 


Ooi 


Kooi 


Khweema tagong. . . 


A dog. 


TJi-nu 


• • • • 


.... 


Khweema tagong... 


A bitch. 


Ui-tsal-ho 


.... 


.... 


Khwee meah 


Dogs. 


TJi-miho 


.... 


• • • • 


Khweema meah . . . 


Bitches. 


Kel-pa 


Me-e 


Eoala 


Teikbo tagong ... 


A he-goat. 


Kel-nu 


Me-e-noo 


Eoama 


Tseikma tagong ... 


A female goat. 


Kel-ho 


Me-e-bang 


Eoama komma ... 


Tseikmeah 


Goats. 


Tsaki-pa 


Takee 


Ng-kee 


Darey thee tagong.. 


A male deer. 


Tsaki-nu 


Takee noo 


Ng-keema 


Dareyma tagong . . . 


A female deer. 


Tsaki-ho 


Takee bang 


Ng-komma ' ... 


Darey 


Deer. 


Koyma-om 


Kai om 


Ang-wey 


Gnah heerey 


I am. 


Nangma-om 


Nang om 


En wey 


Sang heerey 


Thou art. 


Ama om 


Hoo om 


Mro wey 


Soo heeiTey 


He is. 


Roymanee-om 


Eaicheyom 


Angeen wey 


Ghnorok heerey ... 


We are. 



1 c 



196 


( 


10 ) 






lAst of words and phrases 


showing the dialects of the 


English. 


Cachari. 


Garo. '^ 


Hill Tipperah. 


You are 


Nongsorni domo 


Darongara galong 


Narowk tongo 


They are 


Bisor domo 


Mui galong 


Obarowk tongo 


I was 


Aug demon 


Singa yalang cham 


Aong-tong-kamo 


Thou wast 


Nong domon 


Galang cham 


Nung-tong kamo 


He was 


Bi domon 


Oa galang cham 


Oba-tong-kama 


We were 


Jonforui domon 


Galangcham 


Tcahung-tong kamo 


Ton were 


Nangsorui domon 


Naia galangcham 


Narowk-tong kamo 


They were 


Bisor domon 


Oabaha galangcham 


Obarowk tong kamo 


Be 


Nongo 


Hangaonga 


Una 


To be 


Jananong dong 


Hangaonga 


Ungnee 


Being 


Jananong dong 


Nang 


Ungo 


Having been 




Nang 


Ungotsey 


I may be 


Angnongo 


Siagaonguama 




I shall be 


Augjaghon 


Augaonguaumam 


Ungwano 


I should be 


Augjaghon 


Augaonguaumam 




Beat 


Bemi 


Dokop 


Bu 


To beat 


Bemi 


Dokop 


Bunani 


Beating 


Buidong 


Dokai 


Bu-o 


Having beaten 


Buidong 


Dokaoham 


Bu-ey 


I beat 


Aug buni 


Singadokna 


Aong-bu-o 


Thou beatest 


Nong buni 


Nadokor 


Nang-bu-o 


He beats 


Bibuni 


Oadoka 


Oba-bu-o 


We beat 


Jongfomo buni 


Singadoknahoi 


Tchung-bu-o 


You beat 


Nonsorno buni 


Nasomang dokob 


Narov^k bu o 


They beat 


Bisor buni 


Oamang doka 


Obarowk bu-o 


I am beating 


Augbunidong 


Singa dokai 




I was beating 


Augbunain 


Augadokaeham 


Aong bu kamo 


I had beaten 


Augbudong 






I may beat 


Augbuna Hogon 






I shall beat 


Augbugon 


• 
Augadokanom 


Aong bu ano 


I should beat 


Ditto 


Augadokanom 




I am beaten 


Augbujadong 


Auga jagenman 


Aong-bu-jak-o 


I was beaten 


Augbaja domon 


Augadoka khanacham . . 


Aong-bu-jakamo 


I shall be beaten 


Augbujaghon 


Auga jagen maulam 


Aong bu jakano 


I go 


Augthangna 


Singa Angloha 


Aong thangni hna 


Thou goest 


Naugthang 


Naiangho 


Nung thangni hna 


He goes 


Bithang 


Oaang chong 


Oba thangni hna 


I went 


Augthangdomon 


Singa aonghachem 


Aong thang kha 



( 11 ) 

Tipperah, Chittagong, and Cachar Frontier. — (Continued.) 



197 



Lushai (of Chittagong Hills). 


Khumi (of Chittagong Hills). 


Mro (of Chittagong Hills). 


Mugh of Chittagong. 


English. 


Nungmanee-om .. 


Nangohey om 


Euee wey 


Mangrok heerey . . 


You are. 


Amanee-om 


Hooniohey om 


Kubhoa wey 


Tosoorok heerey . . 


They are. 


Royina-om-don . . 


Kai kuchehey 


Aug wey beux 


G-nahee poorey . . 


I was. 


Nungma-om don . . 


Nang kuchehey . . 


Eu wey beux 


Sanghee poorey . . 


Thou wast. 


A ma om-don 


Hoonai kaoheboh . . 


Pamiee beux 


Soohee poorey 


He was. 


Roymanee on don 


Kaiohe kachehoh , . 


Aug-een beux 


Q-norokhee poorey.. 


We were. 


Nungmani om dom 


Nangche kachehoh.. 


En-een beux 


Nangrokhee poorey 


Tou were. 


Amanee om don . . 


Hboniche kachehoh 


Kuhboa beux 


Tosoorokhee poorey 


They were. 




Non-tramlatavee . . 


.... 


Prythey 


Be. ^ 




Om 


Wey 


Pryfo 


To be. 




Not tramlatavee . . 


.... 


Pry heerey 


Being. 


.... , 


Eux 


Wey boh 


Pry roay 


Having been. 




Kaibeleuxomeux. . 


Aug woy boh wey 


Gnapry Rong pry- 
mey. 


I may be. 




Kai om kuhhon . . 


Aug dumg 


Q-n prymey 


I shall be. 




Not translavee 


.... 


Grnapry po heerey .. 


I should be. 


Vel 


Pukkow 


Tep 


Bao 


Beat. 


Veltur 


Pukkow che 


Kuttep ba 


Baopo 


To beat. 


Avelta 


Pukkow hoh 


Te-tukkreux 


Baonerey 


Beating. 


Vel-in 


Pukkow hon 


Tep-tukkreux 


Baoroay 


Having beaten. 


Royma-vel 


■ ■ ■ • 


.... 


Q-nahao they 


I beat. 


Nungma-vel 














Sang bao they 


Thou beatest. 


A ma vel 














Soo bao they 


He beats 


Royina,ni-vel 














Gnorok bao they . . 


We beat. 


Nungmani vel . . 














Nang bao they . . 


Tou beat. 


Amanivel 














Soodo-bao-they . . 


They beat. 


Koyma velta 














Nga-bao-neerey . . 


I am beating. 


Koyma avel don-ta 














Nga-bao-neelerey . 


I was beating. 


.... 














Nga-baole-poorey . 


I had beaten. 





Kai pukkow piyow 


Aug-ya-tep 


Nga-bao-rong- 
baomey. 


I may beat. 


Royiua vel don . . 


Kai pukkow neuh . . 


Aug kuttep-beux . . 


Ngabaomey 


I shall beat. 


.... 


Non translatavee . . 


.... 


Nga baopp heerey . 


I should beat. 


• . . « 


Kai pukkow 


Aug kai tep tunkai 


Nga abaokhynrey . 


I am beaten. 


.... 


Kai pukkow 


Aug kai tep tunkai 


Nga abaokhynbrey 


I was beaten. 




Kai pukkow mo 
uma eux. 


Uttep ang beux . . 


Nga abaokhynra- 
eemey. 


I shall be beaten. 


-Koyma akul 


Kai ungyo kucho . . 


Ang wang beux . . 


Nga lah rey , 


I go. 


Nnngma rul 


Nang 


En wang beux 


Sanglahrey 


Thou goest. 


Am a akul 


Hooni 


Paunee wang beux 


Soolahrey 


He goes. 


Roymanilta 


Kai ungwe both . . 


Angkoikreux .. 


Gnalah Rheerey . . 


I went. 



198 



( 13 ) 

List of words and phrases showing the dialects of the 



jBngliBh. 



Cachari. 



Garo. 



Hill Tipperah. 



Thou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

What is your name? 

How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle 
is married to his 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 



I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 

He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 

The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 

My father lives in ihat 
small house. 

Give this rupee to him 

Take those rupees 
&om him. 



Nangthangdomon 

Bithangna 

Thang 

Thangnonangon 

Thangdon 

Nangninamama ? 



Baghoria basa boikho 
jodong ? 

Banafri Kashmir basa 
gojan ? 

Naugani nong fanninon fisa 
jala khapsadom P 

Augna bhini gobaugnama 
thahaidong. 

Augniodin fisa jala rabini- 
bina nokhon hoba khalam- 
dom. 

Nouno ghorai guformi jini 
dongo. 

Bini bikhoao jin hu 



Augnobini fisa jalaklon 
busa karbai. 



Bis hajo thinagho kumai- 
dong. 

Bishibangfang sinao ghorai 
chao jodong, 

Bini bina naona thora bida 
jousan. 

Bini dama thainai khassa 



Augna afara hino uda 
thaio. 



Bataka binahu 

Bataka frakon bini fri la . 



Na aongchama 

Soambo 

Eangbo 

Eangha 

Eangha 

Nangbimamai ? 

Eagura baita bolchi ? 



Ani inkhal baita chala 
Kashmir bunaba? 

Nangfa innoko baita 
golangdicha ? 

Anga bohut hoaman 



Adni maachadana dachhia 
Unjakho ahi. 

Noke gurain khochha fo 
jin golang Madangja. 

Jimkho gubainjang golga- 
thop. 

Oali miachba bishaks doks 
biha. 

Oa nabomo mash rakhia . . 

Oa bolnama khamo gura 
gokha daiong donga. 

Oni adathan nogpan ujan 
bata. 

Ani daina fo baina 



Oomoke biohas baba thua 



Oathang khako ona oangho 

Oa gamoke udugui unthang 
hareba. 



Nung thangkha 

Oba thangka 

Thangdee 

Thango 

Thangkha 

Nine ba nung toma ? 



Ba rorai bursi ba shuk 
unkha? 



Aroni by Kashmere bashuk 
tchal ? 



Napa nokwa batsatchala 
krok basuk tong ? 

Aong tini tchawha hak- 
tchal hinkha. 



Aini mamani batsala obin 
bibi juk na bihi lakha. 



Obani batsalana bacham 
bacham rujey-bu-kha. 



Bini bibi jukni salai ba 
phaiyung tchuwo. 

Bini baseng rang rowk nai 
matsa ong-o. 

Obanok shite apani rok 
tsey. 

Obana ba rang row ha rude 

Obani-tini rang jata tsey 
ladi. 



( 13 ) 
Tipperah, Chittagong, ana Cachar Frontier. — (Continued.) 



199 



Lusliai (of Cbittagoug Hills). 



Khumi (of Chittagong Hills). Mro (of Chittagong Hills). 



Mugh of Chittagong. 



English. 



NuDgma rulta 

Ama kulta 

Kuldrok 

Kul-don-ta 

Eulta 

Nungma eugmi 
"gey ? 

Hee sukkur rum 
engja ngeyani ? 

Heta-om-in Kash- 
mere enja ngey- 
hla? 

Nungma pa eem-a- 
fa pha-eng-ja ngey 
om? ( 

Voina Eoyma akul 
chuk-em kahata. 

Eoyma kapa-plia 
ama famu nopwi 
anei ta 



A ma pha royma vel 
tochyemtin. 

Flang pi-a tsalai 
alenta. 

Hting hpoya atuh 
reynta. 

Ama tsapwi samu 
ai tsow jowk. 

Ama mun takhaley 
ardali mun. 



Roymakapa tsaw 
een tey-a-om. 

Tanka ama pey rok 

Ama hneyna .tanka 
ho larok. 



Nang ungwe boh . . . 

Honi ungwe bqli ... 

Tukko 

Tukko 

We-boh 

Nang amcein mee 
mo? 

Hee kongo sbinnee 
maeye vimmon? 

Hee Kashmir keux 
rummang pullo- 
pie? 

Umpo eem ma 
cheimou ma yere 
omoh? 

Wai nee pullo pai 
kai puwai. 

Kai muprang chen- 
now ayoo la hooni 
e toicho. 

Eeru ma (no word 
for saddle) kang- 
loong kong-o. 

(No word for sad- 
dle) hack is 
neetoon. 

Hooni e chennow 
kai pukkow nung 
nung. 

Moi sheUoo tey-cha- 
pey paino. 

Hooni ungteux 
kong klunga hood- 
ing keng akooya. 

Hooni yai toicho 
klonga ashiang 
om. 

Hee nahai wang 
clap nurey aduUi 
om. 

Kai rig-ai hoo eem 
oho om. 

Hee tunka hoonai 
pceih. 

Hoonai tunka thoui 
tayeux lo. 



Eu koi kreux 

Paimee koi kreux... 

Kamang beux 

Kamang beux 

Kamang kreux . . . 

En meeng mia 
cheux ? 

Mummee kornga 
enning moonka 
cheux? 

Mahoom Kashmir 
moonkha cheuxla ? 



Enpah keem la koi 
moomia cheux ? 



TJnnee alia koeih 
unguUen. 

Ang turrang cha 
chong mushee 
paunee toa ma. 



Kum koi 
kornga. 



akan 



Back is koom (no 
word for saddle). 

Mro cha koi aug 
augtep kong kong. 

Ohoo-ke e pey uacha 

Mro chum kornga 
lookai pai shindaw 
e. 

Mro atai toa ma 
sharumkrow wey. 

Mummee choom 
prilap unqui wey. 

Ang pa paikeim 
chum cha pawey. 

Mummee tunka 
paunee keux peh. 

Paya tunkah mro 
tood e poh. 



Sanglah Rheerey 

Soolah Eheerey 

Lah 

Lah neerey 

Lah bea 

Nangnamey jaley ? 

Dey mrangasak mea 
loathee bea ley ? 

Deharoiga Kasmere 
go mea laowee 
reley ? 

Nangapa eingma 
sah meayao heerey 
ley? 

Nga go neing lien 
amea rao yaong 
lakheerey. 

Naaooree sahma soo 
nhoima go nee 
joirey. 

Mrangphrooma 
koongnee eingtey 
ma heerey. 

Koongnee go mrang 
takma tang. 



Q-qa soosah go 
akheak amea bao 
ley bea. 

Sootong takma no a 
keong neerey. 

Toh apang owma 
soo mrang tak-ka 
tieng neerey. 

Soo-oiko soo nhoima 
tak awi rheyrey. 

Toh ooehor apo- 
tienga nhoipra 
Ehoay. 

Toh eingsheay ma 
gna apa weing- 
rey. 

Soog-o-deh tienga 
peeloi. 

Toh teinga ahtee go 
soo baga yooloi. 



Thou wentest. 

He went. 

Go. 

Going. 

Gone. 

What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir P 



How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to his sister. 



In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 

Put the saddle upon 
his back. 



I have beaten his son ' 
with many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 

He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree, 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 

The price of that is 
two rupees and a half. 

My /father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 

Take those rupees from 
him. 



1 d 



200 



( 14 ) 
List of words and phrases showing the dialects of the 



English. 



Cachari. 



Garo. 



Hill TipperaU. 



Beat him -well and bind 
liim with ropes. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me 

Whose boy came be- 
' hind you ? 



From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



Bighon ghama bunana 
duruong jong khasna 
nadong. 

Bahakoni fridai thang . . . 

Augni khugao thabailong 

Nongui, nuao, chhorni fisa 
jala fidong ? 



Anni fri bikho ? 



Gamini dokani gori in 



Nama dokur bhagichaklah 



Sia kolsi khobs 

Augni mokhangha amih .. 

Nashmang jamanoo chanda 
habiba ? 



Banuikhababa nakna aba ? 



Chang chafsa briba 



Obana kamkey bu wey 
badu by khadee. 



Aini sikong a hindi 

Nini yagula sabhoni batsa- 
la phai ? 



Nung sabho ni tini pai ? 



Parani dukan ni tini pai 



( 15 ) 
Tipper ah, Chittagong, and Cachar Frontier. — (Concluded.) 



201 



Luahai (of Chittagong Hills). 



Ehnmi (of Chittagong Hills) 



Mro (of Chittagong Hills). 



Mugh of Chittagong. 



English. 



Amakha vel tschem 
rok-hnangin hny 
rok. 

Tui pin a (river) 
twi tschoyrok. 

Koyma nen kul dun 
drok. 

Nugnma hnunga tu 
now pang ngeyni ? 



Tu tangey lei ? 



Ama rua bejrpari 
ta alei. 



Hooni ai nung nung 
pukkow noomou 
koi akkom. 

Tooi angom adoon 
tang beux. 

Kai 6 mowa tukko. 

Nang 6 naitoo na 
tukko nai leux 
mee ee chennow 
nah ? 

Hoc nahai mee tay 
wann moh. ? 



He awaun dokan she 
waunahai. 



Paimi ke kong kong 
teba tomma leng 
hai. 

Tooi kwam nuttung 
tooi. 

Aug poor ke e mang 

En koonge amia cha 
cha mang mee ? 



Paya mee ke e amia 
tood e choh erana ? 



Kooa kcei ka dookain 
ke e arana. 



Soogo krakroi bao- 
bea kroma khieng. 

Eee dwangga ree- 
gnang. 

Gnarheega lah 



Nang naoka asso 
sah lareyley ? 



Toh oooha go nang 
asso baga woay rey 
ley? 

Roama tchoing say 
tayao baga. 



Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 

Draw water from the 
weU. 

Walk before me. 

Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 



From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 




LANGUAGES FROM TIPPERAH AND CACHAR. 



204 



( 2 ) 



Languages from 



English. 


Kukee of Cachar. 


Kukee of Tipperah. 


Hallamee of Tipperah. 


Hill Tipperah. 


I^umerals. 












One 


Khat 


Khat 


Aukhat 


Kdichha 


... 


Two 


Ni 


Ni 


Auni 


Kunui 


• •• 


Three 


Tdm 


Thiim 


Authiim 


Kathdm 


* *. 


Four 


Li 


LI 


Manli 


Brirni 


■ •• 


Five 


Nga 


Rauga 


Eauga 


Ba 


<.. 


Six 


Gup 


Eiik 


Aruk 


Dok 


■ a. 


Seven 


Sdgi 


Sharih 


Shan'h 


Chhini 




Eight 


Gid 


Eet 


Ariet 


Char 


■ »■ 


Nine 


Ku 


Kuo 


Akuo 


Chukuk 




Ten 


Som 


Som 


Som 


Chi 


, , 


Twenty 


Somini 


Somni 


Soman ni 


Khol 


,, 


Fifty 


Somuga 


Somranga 


Somranga 






Hundred 


Jakhat 


Ea^aka 


Eazakhat 


Eajsa 


•. 


Pronouns. 












I 


Kei 


Keima 


Keima 


Ang 




We 


Keiha 


Keimani 


Keima 


Chdng 




Thou 


Nangin 


Nangma 


Nangma 


Niing 




Tou 


Nangma 


Nangmani 


Nangma 


Norok 




He 


Ama 


Ma, Anni 


Ama, Sava 


Bo 


,, 


They 


Amao 


Aumani 


Ama or Sava 


Borok 


■ •) 


Of me 


Keiman 


Keima 


Keima 


Ani 




Of us 


Keiham 


Keimani 


Keima 


Chini 


• ■ * 


Of thee 


Nangman 


. Nangma 


Nangma 


Nini 


*.. 


Of you 


Nangmaha 


. Nangmani 


Nangma 


Norokni, orNoroni 


• •« 


Of him 


Amaha 


Auni 


Ama or Sava 


Bini 




Of them 


Amahao 


Anmani 


Ama or Sava 


Borongni 


... 


Mine 


Keimu 


Keima 


Keima 


Ani 


... 


Oux 


Keiha 


Keimani 


Keima 


Chini 


• •■ 


Thine 


Nangma 


Nangma 


Nangma 


Nini 


* ■ • 


Tour 


Nangha 


Nangmam 


Nangma 


Norokni or Noroni 


• •• 


His 


Ama 


lAuni 


Ama or Sava 


Bini 


• •fl 


Their 


Amao 


Aumani 


Ama or Sava 


Borongni 


>•• 


Hand 


Khut 


Kut 


Nakhut 


lyak 


... 


Foot 


Keng 


Pheypa 


Kakhey 


lydkting 


*•• 


Nose 


Na 


Ndr 


Guar 


Kung or Bukung 


■ •• 


Bye 


Mit 


Mith 


Mith 


Mokol 


... 


Mouth 


Mu 


Miir 


Mdr 


Khuk 




Tooth 


Ha 


H£ 


Ha 


Oya 




Ear 


Kul 


Kor, Beng 


Makur 


Khumjti 


... 



( 3 ) 



■Fippemh and Cachar. 



205 



Muneepooree. 


Mikii. 


Angamee ITaga. 


English. 


Aunnd 


I see 


Po 


One. 


Auni 


Hinee 


Kenna 


Two. 


Ahum 


Kethom 


S^ 


Three. 


Mari 


Phili 


Da 


Four. 


Manga 


Phunga 


Pengu 


Five. 


Tardk 


Thrak 


Surii 


Six. 


Tar^t 


Throree 


Thena 


Seven. 


Nipal 


Nerkep 


Th^thd 


Eight. 


Mapal 


Sirkep 


Th^kii 


Nine. 


Tara 


Kep 


Kerr 


Ten. 


Eul 


Inkoi 


M^kii 


Twenty. 


TAngkhe 


Plumgo-kep 


Lhi-pengu 


Fifty. 


Ch&ma 


Plear-isee 


Krd 


Hundred. 


TaH 


Nge 


A 


I. 


A,khoi 


Ngetum 


H^ko 


We. 


Nang 


Naug 


No 


Thou. 


Nakoi 


Nangli 


N^ko 


You. 


Mdsi 


HaldngK 


Po 


He. 


Mokhoi 


Halutum 


Luko 


They. 


TaH 


Nge-k4 


K 


Of me. 


Akhoigi 


Ngetmn-an 


K 


Of us. 


Nangi 


Nang k^ 


No 


Of thee. 


Nakhoigi 


Naugle-k4 


Neko 


Of you. 


Mahaki 


HaWtum 


Lu 


Of him. 


Mokhoigi 


Halatnm-k^ 


Lilko 


Of them. 


Yaki 


Ng^-ke-ma 


A 


Mine. 


Akhoigi 


Nge-timn 


Heko 


Our. 


Nangi 


Lakhe-nang 


No 


Thine. 


Nakhoigi 


Lakhe-nangli 


No 


Your. 


Mohaki 


Hala-hangpee 


Lu, po 


His. 


Mokhoigi 


Halatum-^n 


Luko 


Their. 


< THiut 


Ei 


Bi or bhi 


Hand. 


* * 

Khongpak 


K^ng 


Phi 


Foot. 


' Nathiion 


Nukan 


Nhitoh^ 


Nose. 


Mith 


Mik 


MM 


Eye. 


Chin 


Engho 


Td 


Mouth. 
1 


Ya 


So 


Hii 


Tooth. 


• Na,khong 


No 


Ni^ 


Ear. 



206 



( * ) 











Languages from 


English. 


Kukee of Cachar. 


Kukee of Tipperah. 


Hallamee of Tippeiah. 


Fill Tipperah. 




Hair 


Sam 


Cham or Tsdm . . 


Chham, Tsham . . 


Khanai 


• • 


Hair of man 












Hair of animal 












Head 


Lu 


Lu 


Lu 


Khorok 


■ ■ 


Tongue 


Lei 


L^y 


Miley 


ChheMi 


• ■ 


BeUy 


Oe 


Von 


Von or Phiing 


Ok 


■ • 


Back 


Tungtun 


Dar also ruong . . 


Ruong 


Phikung 


, , 


Iron 




Thir 


Thir 


Tshar 


■ ■ 


Gold 


Sana 


Rangachak 


Eangachak 


Rangchak 




Silver 


Danka 


Sum or tanka (cor- 
ruption of Persian 
tankwah) 


Slim 


Eufdi 


•• 


Father 


NsLp^ 


Pa 


Kapa 


Pha 




Mother 


Nanu 


Nuh 


Kamih 


Ma 




Brother 


TI' 


U'nao 


Kichdngpa 


Phdldng 


• • 


Elder brother 





U'pa 


Kaup^ 






Younger iDrother . . 




Naihung or kichang 


AmOai, or korkhem 






Sister 


A 


Famiih 


Famuh 


Hano 




Elder sister 




U'nuh 


Kaunuh 






Younger sister 




Farniih 


Kanainuh 






Man 


Pasal 


Mipa 


AmSnai, or savanai 


ChaM 




Woman 


Numai 


Nuhpang 


Nuhpang 


BuTui 


• • 


Wife 


Ji 


Nuhpui 


Kadongma 


Hik 


.. 


Child 


Ch^p5 


Nau or nai 


Naipang 


Chha 


• • 


Son 


Ch^pa 


Naipa 


Kan4i 


Chhajala 




Daughter 


Chanu 


Nainuhpang 


Kachamih 


Chh^juk 


.. 


Slave 


Su 


Boy, oheloh (Eajah's) 


Kasuokpa 


Chhelong 


t • 


Cultivator 


Loubala 










Shepherd 


Sil 










God 


Pathion 


Patiyan 


Patiyan 


Mdtdy 


• • 


Devn 


Thild 


Korih 


Korih 


Chhekal matay 


■ a 


Sun- 


Nisa 


Ni 


Mioha 


Sal 




Moon 


ThU 


ThM 


Thd 


Tdl 




Star 


Asi 


Archi 


Archi 


Athukuri 


• • 


Fire 


M^i 


M^y 


Mey 


Hor 




Water 


Tui 


Tui 


Tui 


Tiii 




House 


In 


Beng In 


In 


Nok 




Horse 


Sdkar 


Chakor 


Chakor 


Korai 




Cow 


Sirat 


Cherat 


Cherat 


Musuk 




Dog 


Ui 


TJi 


Ui 


HiH 


• • 



( 5 ) 



Tipperah and Cachar. — (Continued.) 



207 



Muneepooreo. 


Mikir. 


Angamee Naga. 


English, 


Chdm Tsam 


Chu 




Hair. 






Tha 


Hair of man. 






Ma 


Hair of animal. 


Kog 


T^hang 


Tsd 


Head. 


Uj 


De 


M^Ua 


Tongue. 


Puk 


Pok 


Yadi, Vaka 


BeUy. 


Nangan 


Nung 


Naku 


Back. 


Yot 


Ing chin 


Th6ze' 


Iron. 


Sana 


Ser 


Sona 


Gold. 


Lupa or tanga 


Eup 


Eakaje 


Silver. 


Ipd 


Pu 


Pii, Apu 


Father. 


Tma 


Pae 


Azo, Zo 


Mother. 


Zama 


Ne-ik 




Brother. 


Zamalial 




Zor4o 


Elder brother. 


Inas 




Sazeo 


Younger brother. 


lohal 


Neugzir 


AMpoo 


Sister. 


Ichem 






Elder sister. 


Ichal 






Younger sister. 


Nipd 


Pincho 


Theprom&j or Themma . . 


Man. 


Ndhpi 


Arioso 


TMnumd 


"Woman. 


IW 


Piso 


Kimi 


Wife. 


Icha 


Ohupo 


Niohuma 


Child. 


Tchanipa 


Chupi-nochu 


No 


Son. 


loMnupi 


Chupi 


Nopvii 


Daughter. 


Mai 


Bdn 


Tli^k^ 


Slave. 


Mdiba 


Katiki-drteng 


L6tima 


Cultivator. 


Zdo senba 


K4vi 


Thu-khw^-ma* 


Shepherd. 


Apokpa 


Amamk^the 


Terrbo-diu 


God. 


Tamuaba 


Arnam 


Terrho-kesbo or bMo . . 


Devil. 


NnTTiitli 


Arnee 


Naki 


Sun. 


TM 


Chiklow 


Khrr 


Moon. 


ThawdinlicM 


Ctika longu 


Th^mu 


Star. 


Mey 


Me 


Mi 


Fire. 


Ising 


Ldng 


Dzu 


Water. 


Yiim 


Hem 


Ki 


House. 


Chagol 


Losei 


Kwirr 


Horse. 


(Mel 


Ohainong 


Thdkr 


Cow. 


Siu 


Mdthan 


Tefoh 


Dog. 




« Cowhe 


rd. 





208 



( 6 ) 



Languages from 



English. 


Kukee of Cachar. 


Eukee of Tipperah. 


Hallamee of Tipperah. 


Hill Tipperah. 


Cat 


Mengte 


Meng 


Meng 


Aming 


Cock 


A 


Ar 


Ar 


Tdo 


Duck 


Vata 


BorakorBatak ... 


Botak 


Takhiim 


Ass 










Camel 




.... 






Bird 


Ya 


Sava 


Va 


Tdosa 


Go 


Chin 


Kalxo 


Phero 


Thang-di 


Eat 


Neu 


Pakro 


Nero 


Chddi 


Sit 


Touvin 


Tungro 


Auehuro, Thoiro ... 


Achukdi 


Come 


Hang-in 


Hongro 


Hongro 


Phaidi 


Beat 


Chdkin 


Hemro 


Jemro 


Budi 


Stand 


Ding-in 


Thauro, Nirro ... 


Anthuiro, Nirro ... 


Bachadi 


Die 


Thin 


Tiro 


Tiro 


Thiiidi 


Give 


Epin 


Pero 


Napiro 


Eudi 


Eun 


Klajin 


EangraugnikaLro ... 


Tnrangro 


Kaichikdi 


Tip 


Vanchang 


Chiingd 


Chiing 


Saka 


Near 


Ahinga 


Anaitha 


Anaitha 


Sam 


Who 


Kaiham 


Thumi 


Thd 


Sabo 


And 


Adang 


Adang 


Adang 


Tai 


Yes 


Uhm 


Chang 


Annih 


Ayo 


Down 


Nai 


Noya 


Noy 


Khdma 


Far 


Gam cheng 


Alia 


AhM 


Hak-chal 


What 


Jham 


Imo 


Imo 


Tamo 


But 


E6 




• • • ■ 




No 


^en Een 


Changmak 


Mimak 


Mang 


Before 


Machanga 


Mdncha 


Maton 


ChhSkdng 


Behind 


Nug chang 


Nunga 


Nunga 


Ulo 


Why 


Iding-ninem 


Idingmo, Ihangmo 


Ilohrangmo 


Tdngmoy Tamani .. 


If 


Chute 


• • • • 







Alas! 


Ah-dh-dh 


Augaithd 


Aug^itha 




A father 


Ndpdkhdt 


Pd 


Pdorkdpd 


Phakaichd 


Of a father 


N^pa 


.... 


• ■ • • 


Phakaichani 


To a father 


Napa-hinga 


.... 


• ■ • • 


Phakaich^nd 


From a father 


Napa-hingd,-pddin 


.... 


■ ■ • • 


Phdnithani 


Two fathers 


Nap4 ni 


PanI 


Pa anni 


Phdkunui 


Fathers 


Napa-ugai 


Pdthamka (many 
fathers). 





Pharok 


Of fathers 


Napa-ugai-si 


.... 


.... 


Pha-rokni 


To fathers 


Napd-ugai-hinga . . 


.... 


.... 


Phdrokna 


From fathers 


Napa-ugai-hinga- 
padin. 








Pharoknithani 


A daughter 


Cha nu kh£t 


Nainiikpdng 


Kachdnuh 


Chhdjuk khoroks^ .. 



C 7- ) 



Tipperah and Cachar. — (Continued.) 



209 



Muneepooree. 


Mikir. 


Angamee Naga. 


English. 


Haudong 


Ming 


Nunno 


Oat. 


Tel 


Vo 


Votzii 


Cook. 


Gndnu 


Bukak 


Topha 


Duck. 


Lold 




~ • 


Ass. 
Camel. 


U'ehek 


Engndni-d,ro 


Pera 


Bird. 


Chalu 


Ked^m 


Totiehe 


Go. 


Ohao 


Kiobu 


Ohi-che 


Eat. 


Phamum 


X^ngui 


Bale che 


Sit. 


Lao 


Vanguon 


VorcM 


Come. 


Z^yu 


Kiohok 


Vu.cbe 


Beat. 


Lebii 


Kdrjap 


TM-16 che 


Stand. 


Chaknu 


Kitho 


SaUobe 


Die. 


Pio 


Piji-are 


Cbd-che 


Give. 


Phao 


Kikdt 


Ta-sbicbe 


Eiiu. 


Matokta 


Etbdk 


Ker^kr^ 


Up 


Mamakta 


Nekingri 


Kdpeno 


Near. 


Ka.TiTiaiio 


Kbumat 




Who. 


Athai 


Tdnke 


Ei 


And. 


Hoi 


To 


U'w^ XT' 


Yes. 


Makhada 


Kangdei 


Pesii 


Down.- 


Lapna 


Kahilu 


Sba-cb^ 


Far. 


Karino 


Pi 


Keziki 


Wbat. 


Karigdmba 


Pensetba 


Kenno 


But. 


Nathe 


Kalee 


Mo 


No. 


Mamangda 


GMdbo-hedlo 


Mobzu 


Before. 


Matungda 


Ne'pi 


Sa 


Behind. 


Karidamak 


Pemd 


Keziu, Ki 


Why. 


Karigi 


Tauke 




If. 


Zdmnaware 


Po-ham 


Hab 


Alas! 


Mapa amma ,. 


Po 


Apti 


A father 


Mapa amagi, Mapa amadu 


Ne-po 




Of a father. 


Mapa amadagi 


N^-po-along 




To a father. 


Mapd adu-dagi 


Ne-po-alongpen 


Apu-kino 


From a father. 


Mapa anni 


Po-hinee 


Apu Kenna 


Two fathers. 


Mapa k^yano 


.... 


Apunoko 


Fathers. 


Mapi athaigi 


Po-atiiTTi-an 




Of fathers. 


Mapa atbai-dagi 


Po-ma-alonkhe 




To fathers. 


Mapakibigthagi 


Po-atum along pen 


Apiinoko kino 


From fathers. 


Icbanupi 


Nimobu 


Nopvu 


A daughter. 



210 



( 8 ) 



Languages from 



English. 


Kukee of Cachar. 


Kukee of Tipperah. 


Hallamee of Tipperah. 


TTi]] Tipperah. 


Of a daughter 


Chdnu 




* • * . 


Chhajukni 


To a daughter 


Cha-nu-hinga 


.... 


■ ■ . • 


Chhajuk khorok naini 


From a daughter . . 


Cha nu hingd padin 








Chhajuknithani 


Two daughters . . 


Oha nu ni 


Nai nuhpangni ... 


Kachanuh anni . . 


Ohhi,jiik, khoroknoi . . 


Daughters 


Cha nu ha 


Nai nuhpang 
thamka. 


Kacha Huh thamka 


Chhajuk rok 


Of daughters 


Cha nu ha 


• • ■ • 


.... 


Chhdjrik rokni 


To daughters 


Cha nu hinga 


■ . < • 


.... 


Chhajuk roknoini . . 


From daughters . . 


Cha nu hinga padin 








Chhajuk rokni thdni. . 


A good man 


Pasdl khat afa . . 


Mipa atthd 


Amdnai assa 


Borok kdhdm 


Two good men 


Pasal ni afa 


Mipa attha ni 


Amanai assdanni. . 


Borok khorok nui 
kaham. 


Good men 


Pasal ahoueen afa 


Mipa attha thamka 


Amaoai assd thamka 


Borok kaham rok . . 


Of a good man 


Pasdl khat afd pd 
chu. 








Borok kaham ni 


To a good man 


Pasdl kbit dfa pa 
hinga. 





.... 


Borok kaham no 


From a good man . . 


Pasdl khat 4fa pa 
hinga padin. 


• • 1 • 





Borok kdhamni thdni 


Of good men 


Abona pasal ^fa ha 


■ • • • 


.... 


Borok kaham rokni . . 


To good men 


Pasdl dbond hahing^ 


■ ■ • • 





Borok kaham rokno. . 


From good men . . 


Pasal dfa ha hinga 
padin. 








Borok kaham rokni 
thani. 


A good woman 


Numai khat afa .. 


Nuhpang attha . . . 


Nuhpdng assd 


Kaicha buriii kaham 


Good women 


Afa numai ha abo- 
neen. 


Ntihpang-attha tham- 
ka. 


Niihpang assa tham- 
ka. 


Biirdi kaham rok . . 


A bad hoy 


Chapangpa khStafa 
Ion. 





• ■ • • 





A bad girl 


Chapangnee khat 
afa Ion. 





■ ■ • ■ 


• ■ • • 


Good 


Afa 


Atthd 


Assd 


Edham 


Better 


Haii pddin afai . . 


Manek attha 


Manekia-assa 


• ■ ■ • 


Best 


Afa changnung pe-he 


Eengkdnek attha... 


Anreng kanekan 

assd. 





High 


Achdng 


U'lien (taU, great) 
anchang (high) ... 


TJlien 


Kuchiik 


Higher 


Aohanga 


Manek ulien 


Maneka lilien 


.... 


Highest 


Achang chungnung 
pene. 


Eengkanek ulien... 


Aurenkanekiilien. . 





A horse 


Sakar khat 


Chakor pachal 


Chakor a chSl 


Korai ohala ma chha 


A mare 


Sakar khat anu . . 


Chakor piii 


Chakor, aptii 


Kordi buriii ma chha 


Horses 


Sdkar aboneen 


Chakor pachal 
thamka. 


Chakor pachal tham- 
ka. 


Korai chala rok 


Mares 


Sdkar anu aboneen 


Chakor pui thamka 


Chdkor ap6i thamka 


Korai burui rok 



( 9 ) 



Tipperah and Cachar. — (Continued.) 



211 



Muneepooiee. 


Mirkii. 


Angamee Naga. 


English. 


Ichanupiamagi 


Nechupi 




Of a daughter. 


lohanupiamadagi or amadu 


Abd-alongpen 




To a daughter. 


lohanupi mahakidamak, or 
adddagi. 


Aohupi-alonp^n 


Nopvu kino 


From a daughter. 


Machdnupi anni 


Alochi-bangni 


Nopvti k^nnd 


Two daughters. 


lohanupi kdyano, or kya 
subage nupi. 


Arlasu-mdr 


Nopvu-noko 


Daughters. 


Nupigi damak 


Chupi-atum 




Of daughters. 


Nupigi maramgi 


Nimohu-atum-dlongpen ... 




To daughters. 


Nupi adudagi 


Nimchu-atum-akingri-pen 


Nopoo-noko-kino 


From daughters. 


Amft zamna paba mi 


Pinso-akm6 


Th^mmd k^vi or kevima . . 


A good man. 


Zamna paba mi anni 


Pia80-^kd-m§bangni 


Themmd, k^nna vi, or ma 
vi kenna. 


Two good men. 


Miapaba maigam 




Themma keviko 


Good men. 


Zamna paba mi amagi . . . 


Pinso-^kmesi 




Of a good man. 


Zdmna paba mi amagi damak 


Pinso-akme-si-dlom 




To a good man. 


Zamina paba adudagi ... 


Pinso-dkmesi alongpen . . . 


Kevima kino 


From a good man. 


Zamna paba migi maramgi 


Pinso-pumfir-dlongpen ... 




Of good men. 


Zamna paba mi adudagi-... 


Pinso-pumdr-^km esi-along 
pen. 




To good men. 


Zamna paba mi adusing 
dagi. 


Pinso-pumax-akme-atum . . 


Kevima kino 


From good men. 


Zamna paba nupi 


Axlosu akmesi 


Thenu k^vi 


A good woman. 


Anni ahung zamna paba 


Arlasu-atum-dkme 


Thenu keviko 


Good women. 


nupi. 








Naba aobbe zamna pbate . . . 


Usu ake-ning-u 


Nichd kesho 


A bad boy. 


Nupi macbba acbhe zamna 
pbate. 


Arioso ake-ning-u 


Thend k^sho 


A bad girl. 


Ph^y 


Akme 


Kevi, vi 


Good. 


Adudagi at^su py y 


Me-ong-lo 


Ki-kevi 


Better. 


Guamna maktagi phey . . . 


Akme-si-la-tal 


Kevi-tho or vishiv^ 


Best. 


Awangba 


Kangtoi 


B^kr6 


High. 


Adudagi hen awdngba ... 


Kangtoi-mucbat 


Ki-r^kri 


Higher. 


Gnamna maktagi ben 
awangba. 


T lapar-akungtoi-abeto . . . 


E^kreshiv^ 


Highest. 


Chagolamma 


Losaeisce 


Kwirr 


A horse. 


Ohagol amom amma 


Losae-ijon 


Kwirr-kee 


A mare. 


Chagol manga taruk 


Kadu kane-alosSe 


Kwirrko 


Horses. 


Chagol amom mauga taruk 


Losae d.pi-kddu kave 


Kwirrkrrko 


Mares. 



212 



( 10 ) 



Languages from 



English. 


Kufcee of Cachar. 


Kukee of Tipperah. 


Hallamee of Tipperah. 


HiU Tipperah. 


AbuU 


Sirdt ohal khat ... 


Cherdt pachal 


Cherat, achal or ate 


Mtisuk chala maohha 


A cow 


Sirat dnu khat ... 


Cheratpui 


Cherat nuhpang . . 


Musuk burui maohhd 


Bnlls 
Cows 


Sirat chdl dboneen 
Sirat dnu aboneen 


Cher&t pachdl 

thamka. 
Cherat piii thamka 


Cherat achal thamka 

Cherat nuhpang 
thamka. 


1, Musuk chala rok 
Musuk burui rok 


A dog 


U'ikhat 


U'i paohal 


U'iacdl 


Sinjala machha 


A bitch 


Uinu khat 


U'ipiii 


Uipui 


Suima machha 


Dogs 


Ui dboneen 


U'i pachal thamka. . . 


U'iachdl thamka . . 


Sliijala rok 


Bitches 


TJ'inu aboneen 


U'i piii thamka . . . 


U'ipiii thamka 


Sui marak 


A goat 










A he-goat 


Kelchalkhat ... 


Kei pachalj kei chal 


Kei chal 


Punjnoyd machha ... 


A female goat 


Kelanukhat 


Kei pui 


Kei pili 


Punjuk machha 


Goats 


Kelna aboneen ... 


Kei thamka 


Kei thamka 


Punjnoyd rok 


A male deer 


Sazu achal khat ... 


Saohal 


Aohal 


Musuim chdla ma 
chha. 


A male deer (large) 




Chdjiik 


Chajuk 




A male deer (small) 




Chakki 


Chakki 




A female deer 


Sazuanukhat 


Chdjiik pui, chakki 
pui 


Chajuk nuhpang, 
chakki nuhpang. 


Musui burui machhd 


Deer 


Sazu aboneen 


Chajuk th a m k a, 
Chakki thamka 


Chajuk t h a m k a, 
chakki thamka. 


Musiii rok 


I am 


Kei Kama nde ... 


Keima om 


(Much the same 
throughout as the 
Kukee) . 


Angong 


Thou art 


Ndngma ni ume ... 


Nangma ommo ... 




Niing ong 


He is 


Ama a-ume 


Anni ommo 




Bo-ong 


We are 


Keha K!aum nae ... 


Keimaniom 




Chiing ong 


Tou are 


Nangbanaume ... 


Nangmdni ommo 




Norok ong 


They are 


Amabd-a-ume 


Anmani ommo 




Borok ong 


I was 


Keijin ka umei 


Keima om 




Ong tonkha 


Thou wast 


Nang-na umin 


Nangma ommo ... 




Nung tonkhd 


He was 


Ama a umin 


Anni ommo 




Bo-tonkha 


We were 


Keha ka umei 


Keimani ommo ... 




Chung tonkhd 


You were 


Ndngha-na-umin ... 


Nangmani-ommo . . . 




Norok tankhd 


They were 


Amaha a-umin ... 


Anmdni ommo 




Borok tonkha 


Be 


Ahije 


Om 




Ong 


To be 


Ahite 


Omna 




Ong ndni 


Being 


Ahitde 


Omtha 




Ongoi 


Having been 


Ahijon tde 


Omtha 






I may be 


Kei hinange 






Ang ong ndni man ... 


I shall be 


Keima hingkdte ... 






Angong anu 


I should be. 


Kei hiding kahin ... 








Beat 


Chakin 


Hem 




Buyo 



( 11 ) 



Tipjperah and Cachar. — (Continued.) 



213 



Muneepoore. 


Mikir. 


Augamee Naga. 


English. 


Sandamba amma 


Chainong allu-dkte 


Thddo 


A bull. 


Salam6m amma 


Ohainong dpi-ijon 


Thukrr 


A cow. 


Sandamba anni hum, 


Chainong dllii-kddu-k^ve... 


Thiidoko 


Bulls. 


Salamom anni hum 


Chainong api-kadu kave . . , 


Thukrrko 


Cows. 


Hui amma 


Mathan ijon 


T^foh 


A dog. 


Hui amon amma 


Mathan api-ijon 


Fohkrr 


A bitch. 


Hui mayam-amma 


Mathan-^Uu kddu kave ... 


Tefohko 


Dogs. 


Hui am6m mayam amma. . 


Mathan api kadu kave ... 


Pohkrrko 


Bitches. 






Taneu 


A goat. 


Hameng labd amma 


Bi ijon 


N^ild6 


A he-goat. 


Hameng amom amma 


Bi-api-izan 


Neukrr 


A female goat. 


Hdmeng anni hum 


Bi-alu-kddu kave 


Taneuko 


Goats. 


Khorsa laba amma 


Thick allu izon 


Cha cha 


A male deer. 

A male deer (large). 
A male deer (small) . 


Xhorsa dmom dmma 


Thiok ^pi-izon 


Ch-krr 


A female deer. 


Khorsi 


Thiok-pi kadu kave 


Cha-chako 


Deer. 


Tahak ley 


Nge tado 


A ba 


I am. 


Nang Bu ley 


Nang tado 


No ba 


Thou art. 


Masu ley 


Abang diima 


Po ba 


He is. 


Akhoi kibig suley 


Nge turn tado 


Heko ba 


We are. 


Nokhoi kibig suley 


Nangee turn tado ma 


N^ko ba 


Tou are. 


Mokhoi kibig svl&y 


HaMtum-tado 


Liiko U 


They are. 


Tahak suM rammi 


NgSzoktado 


A ban- 


I was. 


Nahak sul6 rammi 


Nang zok tado m4 


No barr 


Thou wast. 


Mahak Bule rammi 


Halld bangpu zok tado ... 


Po bdrr 


He was. 


Okhoi kibig sule rammi . . 


Nge turn badu tado 


H^iobdrr 


We were. 


Nokhoi kibig sul^ rammi. . 


Nang turn zok tado mi ... 


N^ko barr 


You were. 


Mokhoi kibig suld rammi. . 


Halla bang.po-tado 


Luko bdrr 


They were. 


Oyu 


Chakpo 


Ba 


Be. 


Oyga damak 


Chdkji 


Ba 


To be. 


Oyra dana 


Thangpo 




Being. 


Oygraba matung da 


Chakt^nglo 


Bit4 


Having been. 


Oyri 


Nge thaukzi 


A chil^to 


I may be. 


Oybatari 


Nge chakzi-avi 


A chito 


I shall be. 


Oyre 


Nge-pdr-ake-thik ave lo- 
ng^-anhel. 


A chilotowel ... 


I should be. 


Teyua 


Kisoko 


Vd ch^ 


Beat. 



214 



( 12 ) 











Languages from 


English. 


Kukee of Cachar. 


Kukee of Tipperah. 


Hallamee of Tipperah. 


Hill Tipperah. 


To beat 


Achate 


Hemna 




Bunani 


Beating 


Aohakin 






Buoi 


>•• 


Having beaten 


Achanai 


Hemtha 




Bukha 


, , 


I beat 


Keijin kacha 


Keima nin hem ... 




Ong buyo 




Thou beatest 


Nangin chain 


Nangma nin hem... 




Nung buyo 


,, 


He beats 


Aman aohain 


Auni nin hem 




Bo buyo 


., 


We beat 


Ke-han kdoha-un 


Keimani nin hem . . . 




Chung biiyo 


, . 


Tou beat 


Nanghan nacha-im 


Nang mani nin-hem 




Norok buyo 


,, 


They beat 


Amahan aoha-un ... 


Anmani nin hem ... 




Borok biiyo 


,. 


I am beating 


Keijin kachaka ahije 


Keima, nin hem ... 






I was beating 


Keijin kachakal^ ... 








I had beaten 


Keijin kachaka ... 






Ong bukha 


I may beat 


Keijin chathai jinge 






Ong bunani man 


I shall beat 


Keijin cha inge ... 


Keima hem ding... 


Keima chem kati... 


Ang biiyano 


I should beat 


Keijin kachading 
ahain. 






Ang bunani chay ... 


I am beaten 


Keima ei ch&-ei ... 




Keima anni ohemtha 


Ang bdjag 


I was beaten 


Kei-ei-cha-in-ahin 




■ • • • ■ t 


Angbujagkha 


I shall be beaten ... 


Keima ei-chd-in tei 






Ang biijag ami 


I go 


Keima ehitange ... 


Keima nin kdl 




Ang thangyo 


Thou goest 


Nangma chitan . . . 


Nangma nin kdl ... 




TJ'mig thangyo 


He goes 


Kvak chin 


Anni nil kal 




Bo-thangyo 


I went 


Keimd kachin ahije 


Keima kinkaltha... 




Angthangkd 


Thou wentest 


Nangma naohin ahije 


Nangma kil kaltha 




Nung thang ka 


He went 


Ama achin ahije .. 


Anni nin kaltha ... 




Bo-thdng ka 


Go 


Achi 


Kalro 




Thango 


Going 


Achin ahije 


Kin kal 




Thangoi 


Gone 


Achi tei 


Kdltha 




Thdngka 


What is your name 'i 


Naminnam? 


Nang ma imo ming ? 


Nagnma nirhming 
im6? 


Nini mung tarn P ... 


How old is this 
horse ? 


Sdkar kum i-jat 
hijdm? 


Ha chakor chuokna 
kum izaka chang- 
tha? [let that 
horse's birth (being 
born) years now 
may (ago) happen- 
ed?] 


Ha chakor kilm jamo 
chu6kna ? 


I korai (chala) bisi 
busukni ? 


How far is it from 
here to Kashmir ? 


Hikama pddin Kash- 
mir i-ohan gam- 
lam? 


Hatha hin Kashmir 
zi-a. izakalam, [Let 
from here Kash- 
mir days how 
many journey ? ] 
or Hatha omhin 
Kashmir enthen- 
boni? 


Hethaka om hin 
Kashmir idormol 
allallha? 


Ami Kashmir musiik 
chal? 



( 13 ) 



fipperah and Cachar. — (Continued.) 



215 



Muneepooree. 


Mikir. 


Angamee Naga. 


English. 


Yeygadamak 


Kiohok-thik-dun-ma 


Vii 1^ 


To beat. 


Yeyna 


Ohok thanglo av^ 


yu 


Beating. 


Teyradana 




Viirr 


Having beaten. 


Tahak yeygedaure 


Nge thabokzi 


Avil 


I beat. 


Nang yeyga daurebra . . . 


Nang ohoknon 


No vd 


Thou beatest. 


Ma yeyge daurebra 


Kachi chok 


Povd 


He beats. 


Okhoi yeyge daure 


Nge turn badu sokzi 


H^ko vi 


We beat. 


Nokhoi su yeyge daurbra . . . 


Nanglitnm choknon 


N^ko vd 


You beat. 


Mokhoi na yeyge nairibra 


Hallatnni k^ohi chok 


Liikovu 


They beat. 


Yakboy^yni 


Nge ke choklo 


KtSl 


I am beating. 


Yakpo y eyiam gani 


Chllo chi chakzi 


Avdbago 


I was beating. 


Mabo yey rammi 


Nge chokzi dak-daklo . . 


K vuiago 


I had beaten. 


Mabo yeyba grammi yeyni 


Nge chok-hai-avi 


A vdl^to 


I may beat. 


Yahakyeyni 


Nge nang ohokzi 


A vdto 


I shall beat. 


Yahakpo yeyge dauri ... 


Pio-pio-nge-chokjn avi . . 


A Tushito 


I should beat. 


Yahak obey chare 


Nang-pan-nang kichok . . 


A vd ve 


I fl,m beaten. 


Yabak cheycbaredo 


Aku nge choklo 


A vd6 


I was beaten. 


Yahak chey ohage daba 
mall. 


Nge-dnm-dene chok dezi .. 


A vdtd 


I shall be beaten. 


Yahak chale 


Nge kedam 


A tot^ 


I go. 


Hang su challabra 


Nang dam non 


No tot^ 


Thou goe«t. 


Masu chale 


HaUa bangpo-nang thik 
ma. 


Potote 


He goes. 


Yahak chu chale 


Nge takeddm 


A tote'w^ 


I went- 


Nang STichal ammi 


Nang tang dama 


No tot^w^ 


Thou wentest. 


Ma suchal ammi 


Ealla bangpurdamlo-m^ . . 


Po tot^w6 


He went. 


Chalu 


Dam non 


Totd 


Go. 


ChasI 


Ddmlo 


Ketoki 


Going. 


Chakre 


D^m t&ng lo 


Toti 


Gone. 


Nangi naming karino ? ... 


Nang men konpnma P . . 


Unzasopo? 


What is your name? 


Ghagol asi chahi kaya sure P 


Ldbang bo a-lo sae koian 
aning-kh&ndo pnm^ P 


Kwirr hdo chi kiehu P ... 


How old is this horse P 


Asidagi £!ashmir kayj» 
thabe bage ? 


Ladak penh^ Kashmir kaU 
anduma-kdil P 


Hanunu Kashmir k^jithir 


How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 



216 



( 14 ) 



Languages from 



English. 



How many sons are 
there in your 
father's house ? 

I have valked a 
long way to-day. 



The son of my uncle 
is married to her 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 



Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his 
sons with many 
stripes. 

He is grazing 
cattle on the top 
of the hill. 

He is sitting on a 
horse imder that 
tree. 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 

The price of that is 
two rupees and a 
half. 

My father lives in 
that small house. 

Give this rupee to 
him. 

Take those rupees 
from him. 

Beat him well and 
bind ViiTn with 
ropes. 

Draw water from 
the well. 

Walk before me ... 

Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper 
of the village. 



Eukee of Cachar. 



Nangma napa i-na- 
i-jat chap^gpa 
umam? 

Keima tunin gam- 
cheng kaki choune. 



Eeimd kapanga 
chapa ama chanuta 
akhi chenge. 

Sakar angon jin ina 
a-um nae. 



Eukee of Tipperab. 



Amachanga jin 
kamin. 

Ama chapd chu kei 
mdn kacha in ting 
pumin. 

Aman chinglang 
chungd sirat acbin- 
gin. 

Ama hiohe thing 
bul noia sakar 
changa atowvin. 

Asu pina sangin asu- 
pipa achange. 

Ahimonhi cheng- 
uile ake mon 
ahije. 

Eapa hiche in ne 
ucha anme. 

Hiche dankahi ama 
chupin. 

Hiche danka abo- 
neen ama hinga Ian. 

Amahi phata in cha 
in chute khavin 
kanin. 

Teepuma tec thalin 

Keima machanga 
chida in. 

N4ngma nunga kai 
chapong hungam ? 

Nangin hichehi ko- 
hinga nacha hizam? 

Hiche koa dukanddr 
pahinga. 



Hallamee of Tipperah. 



Hill Tipperah. 



Nangma pa ina nai 
izaka om ? 



Keima hongna, von 
1dm allah chang- 
tha. [My coming 
today path-far has 
been] 

Ma nuhpang farndh 
keima panghank 
naipa nuhpiii nei- 
tha. 

Chakor-ngau chunga 
chunga tutmunina 
om [Horse white 
updn-to-sit-seat in 
the house is.] (No 
word in kuki or 
Hallami for saddle) . 

Maddr chunga tut- 
mun semro. 

Maha ndile keima 
thukmutin hem. 



Thung chunga ma 
cheerat hoi. 



Ma thing noya 
chdkor chdnga 
thung mai. 

Ma farniih nina ama 
unao manekdlien. 

Ma aman oheng ni 
le duli. 

Keima pd ma ina 
th6 ompui. 

Ma som amale pero 

Ma som anni khiitle 
jidaro. 

Mdle thatakin hemro 
homjoyin ruyin 
phirro. 

Tui kiii nienga tui 
jularo. 

Keima mdnoha kalro 

Nangma nunga thil 
nai mo hong ? 

Thii nienga ma nen 
chok ? 

Soma mudi nienga 
kin chok. 



Nipa ina nai ijamo 
a om? 



Avuon nakin hongna 
lam allah. 



Ma nuhpang famuh 
keima panghank 
nai dongma allak- 
tha. 

Chakor-angoi chun- 
ga chungna toimun 
ina om. 



Adar chunga tui- 
mun shinro. 

Ama naile keima 
thokmol ajem. 

Thung chunga (or 
thieng) keng ohe- 
rdt ahol. 

Ma thing noya cha- 
kor chunga athoi 
mai. 

Anni undi nekin 
ama famuh liHen. 

Ama man dar ni le 
aduli. 



Keima kapa ma ina 
the a ompui. 

Amd Slim dar khut 
amaM pero. 

Md sum ni khut in 
le jularo. 

Amale aohatakin 
jemro nijemjoile 
ruyin khitro. 

Tiii kuonganeng tui 
ju choiro. 

Keima m a t o n a 
pheng kiti. 

Nangma niinga ka 
thii nai mo hong ? 

Amaka thii kuonga 
nirchokmo ? 

Soma mudi kuonga 
nenun kiner chok. 



No pha ni nau aibohhfa 
khorok busiik ? 



Tini ang rumchha nim- 



Ani kakani bachha 
jola baha nau no 
kaijakha. 

Inog korai kufomi jin 
long-o (jin, Bengali, 
no word in Tipperah 
for saddle). 



Korai edkdy jin bok 
shadi. 

Ang bono chomsa 
bdkha. 



Bo musuk no hdchuk 
earn charu nani 
nang khd. 

TJ bufang khama o bo 
kordi sdkd o achug o 
tong-o. 

Baha nau ni eanai 
bofayung ham. 

TJ' moni dam khok niii 
mama. 

U' nau kiste o pha 
tong o. 

I rang bon riidi 

Bini thanini u rang 
tandngdi. 

Bon kaham khdndi oi 
biidi tai dug-hiii boi 
khadi. 

Kowani tui ti shddi... 

Ani sakang o himdi... 

Nini uno sdbdni 
bdchha kai ? 

Nung sdbani thani 
paikha ? 

Bari mudi ni thani 
pdikha. 



( 15 ) 



Tipperah and Cachar. — (Continued.) 



217 



Maneepooree. 



Mikir. 



Angamee Xaga. 



English. 



Nahakki napd may 6m da 
maoha kayano ? 

Asi yamna Mpna lakle ... 



Tahakki kuragi macha na 
mipi asagi mana nupi 
luhonggre. 

Ohagol angobagi sabal 
imda le bane. 



Nangpo a-hem asopinso 
bangkoan-ma ? 

Mini nge ke akahilo ddmlo 



Nepunn asopuke angzir pi- 
che-en. 



Lasae k^lls ajin hem-drlo 
sedo. 



Magi matukta sabal nabo 

Magi macha bo yamna 
yeyre. 

Ching matukta chhal cheli 



TJpalbegi makada chag61 
matukta ley. 

Magi mach^mdagi mapu- 
wana hena wangi. 

Magi mathauna ley badi 
llpd anni makai. 

Im changai maohad ipa 
phamdan 16y. 

Liipa ase mangoda pio . . 
Adudagi lupa lawo 



Mabo y4mna y^yraga pun- 
dana thamo. 



Kohadagi ising so-o 

Taki imangda ohalo 

Kanagi maeha no matangda 
la iba aside P 

Adu kanadagi ley bage ? 

Kulgi poy yomba dagi 
leyye. 



Tin pu ki nu nono kicburo ? 



A tba to sbwew^ 



A n6no nowe po lupoo 
penhuba. 



Kwirr kechdo chije kinu za 
we. 



Athak jin arthang non 



Labdngoho-achop-jongh nge 
ehokol. 



Juglong kangtoi hdna chai- 
nong birechd bap cbube. 

Thingpi drum hala bdnohu 
losae dtbak ingui kok sido. 

Angzirpi afan achik ktepo 
keding. 

Lavangso anam sika binee 
ra-aduU. 



Hemsu-ngepu si-kido 

Hala bangsu-asika-bSla 
bangpu-pidamnon. 

La vdngso asika hala bangpu 
aking ri-pu-non. 

Hdla bangpu chokme ohenrd 
ari pen kok non. 

Langtukso d]ang sok-non. . 

Ngephrang dam bom non. . 

Nangphimat-dnso nang ki- 
dunmd ? 

Mat dkdngre si-k^nam P . . 

Eang drlo dukandar akeng- 
risi. 



Chijeii po nakii gi shich^... 
Po no a vushweve 

Kazikhrugi po thu hokhotha 



Lu sikhr khro kwirr gi 
bdzo. 



Po sazeo po lupooki r^e. . 
Pomd raka kenndri duli po 

Apii ki kechi nii baia 
Hau rakd potsuche 
Baka hako lele 
Po vushw^di phaM ohe . . 

Dzu khii no dzu lule 
A mhozu tol^ 
So po nono unsa toga ? . . 
Hau kezi ki no khrleloi ? . . 



How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house P 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 



The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 



Put the saddle upon 
his back. 

I have beaten his son 
vrith many stripes. 

He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 

He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 

His brother is taller 
than his sister. 

The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 

Give this rupee to him 



Take those rupees from 
him. 

Beat him well and bind 
him with rope. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes be- 
hind you? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 



E^nd, po th^li-kechi-ma ki From a shop-keeper of 
nd khrlew^. the village. 



LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES SHOWING LANGUAGES 



HILLS SURROUNDING ASSAM AND CACHAR. 



220 



( 2 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their correi 



English. 


Manipuri. 


Kuki. 


Khasi. 


One 


Ama 


Khatka 


Uwei, kawei, or wei, -with- 
out the article. 


Two 


Ani 


Nika 


Ar 


Three 


Ahum 


Thumka 


Lai 


Four 


Mari 


Lika 


Saw 


Five . 


Manga 


Bangaka 


Saw 


Six 


Taruk 


Rukka, 


Hinriw, hynriw 


Seven 


Taret 


Sarika • 


Hiniew 


Eight 


Nipal 


Eiekka 


Phra 


Nine 


Mapal 


Kokka 


Xliyudai 


Ten 


Tara 


Somka 


Shiphew 


Twenty 


Kul 


Somnika 


Ajphew 


Fifty 


Jyankai 


Somrangaka 


San-phew 


Hundred 


Cha-ama 


Eiza 


Shi-spab 


I 


Ai 


Kaima 


Nga, or manga 


We 


Ikhoi 


Kaimani 


Ngi, orma-ngi 


Thou 


Nang 


Nangma 


Me, or ma-me 


You 


Nang 


Nangmani 


Phi, or ma-phi 


•He 


Mana 


Anmanihi 


U, or ma-u 


They 


Makhoina 


Anmanihe thamka 


Ki, or ma-ki 


Of me, mine 


Jyakbo 


.... 


Na nga (1). 
Shapang jong nga (2). 
Jong nga (3.) 


Of us, our 


Ikhoibo 


.... 


Na ngi (1) 

Shaphang jong ugi (2). 

Jong uqu (3). 


Of thee, thine 


Nang 





Name(l) 

Shaphang jong me jqngme. 


Of you, your 


Nakhoida 


.... 


Na phi (1) 

Shaphang jong phi (2). 

Jong phi (3). 


Of him, his 


Makhoida 


.... 


Na u (1) 
Shaphang jong u (2). 
Jong u (3). 


Of them, their 


Makhoida 


.... 


Na ki (1) 

Shaphang jong ki (2). 

Jong ki (3). 


Mine 


Jyaki 


Kaimatha 


Jong uga la ka jong. 


Our 


Tkhoiki 


Kaimanitha 


Jong ugi 


Thine 


Nangi 


Nangmatha 


Jong me 


Youj 


Nakhoigi 


Nangmanitha 


Jong phi 


His 


Mahaki 


Anmani-hi-tha 


Jong u 


Their 


Makhoigi 


Anmani-hi-thamka-tha ... 


Jong ki 



( 3 ) 



in Manipuri, KuM, Khasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



221 



Singpho. 



Ai 

Oukhahga 

Muohom 

Pili 

Pfinda 

Kro 

Sinit 

Maydt 

Tikhu 

Si 

Khon 

Mdngasi 

Ldyd 

Ndi 

Nang 

Lii 

Ldni 

Kbina 

Khini 

Nain^ 

Ghandna 

EMina 
Ndnd 

Khila 

Khilind 

Naina 

Ghdndna 

Nana 

Ldngala 

KHna 

MacMn^ 



Naga of Luokimpore. 



Oydn thek 

Oydni 

Oydn ram 

BeUi 

Bangd 

Irak 

Ingit 

lehhat 

Ikhu 

Ichhi 

Eangi 

Rak banga 

Sathe 

Mi 

La 

Ldnga 

Ldnga 

Nd,ngd 

Chemin 

Niya 

Hai hai 

Irepa 
Langa 

Irep 

Cliemin 

Niya 

Efii hdi 

Leng^ 

Ndnga 

Ire 

Chemin 



Naga of Seebsaugor. 



Etta 

Ani 
Ajam 

Am 

Aga 

Arak 

Andk 

Aset 

Apu 

Van 

Ghd 

Punihunai Khavan 

Poga 

Kuol 

Kukhi 

Nange 

Hazam 

Si 

Hukhi 

Kuku 

Kemku 

Nangpu 
Hazamku 

Ghiku 

Hamku 



Miri. 



Abakka 

Anyika 

And mak 

Appik 

Auka 

Aukek 

Kinitkang 

Pinibank 

Kanak 

Inkd 

TJin akhink 

Uin dnka 

Ing ink 

Nga 

Nga lu 

Aune 

Nabut 

Bye 

Kyen 

Ngabek 

Ngalubkd 



English, 



Byan bakd . . . 


Of thee, thine. 


Nabek 


Of you, your. 


TChubek 


Of him, his. 


Byalukhe ... 


Of them, their 


Ngabek 


Mine. 


Ngalubkd, ... 


Our. 


Byubek 


Thine. 


Nanke 


Tour. 


Biikke 


His. 


Pyaluk 


Their. 



One. 

Two. 

Three. 

Four. 

Five. 

Six. 

Seven. 

Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Twenty. 

Fifty. 

Hundred. 

I. 

We, 
Thou. 
You. 
He. 

They. . 
Of me, mine. 

Of us, our. 



222 



( 4 ) 

4 

List of English words and phrases with their corresponding words 



English. 


Maniputi. 


Kuki. 


Khasi. 


Hand 


Khut 


Nihan 


Ka,kti 


Foot 


Khang 


Pai 


Ka sla jat 


Nose 


Naton 


Nar 


Kakhmut 


Bye 


Mith 


Mith 


Kakhymat 


Mouth 


Chil 


Mur 


Ka shintur 


Tooth 


Jya 


Niha 


Ka byniat 


Ear 


Nakong 


NikuT 


Kashkor 


Hair 


Ohham 


Sam 


U shniuh 


Head 


Kok 


Looh 


Ka khlih 


Tongue 


Lei 


Lai 


Ka thyllied 


BeUy 


Puk 


Phoong 


Kakypoh 


Back 


Nangan 


Eoong 


Ka ing dong 


Iron 


Jyat 


Thhir 


U nar 


Gold 


Chhana 


Eangkachak 


Ka ksiar 


Silver 


Lopa 


Tangka 


Ka rupa (B) 


Father 


Pa 


Pa 


TJ kypa 


Mother 


Ma 


Noo 


Ka kaymi 


Brother 


lyama (elder), Inao 
(younger). 


Keoo, Kinaiboong (youn- 
ger). 


XJ hynmen (elder), u hyn- 
bew (younger), u para 
'in general.) 


Sister 


Ichim (elder) 


Kifarnoo 


Ka hynmen (elder), ka 
hynbew (youngerj , ka 
para (in general). 


Man 


Nipa 


Ipa 


U briw 


Woman 


Nupi 


Nupang 


Ka briw 


Wife 


Nupi 


Nupni 


Katynga, ka skaw 


Child 


Macha 


.... 


I khynnah 


Son 


Cha 


Ipathey 


Ukhun 


Daughter 


Ichanupi 


Nupangthey 


Ka khun 


Slave 


Minai 


Boy 


Uorkamraw 


Cultivator 


.... 


Karin-faennat 


TJ nongrep 


Shepherd 


Semba 


Eakhal 


TJ nongap langbrot. 


God 


Atliai-ba-lai 


Pathhiang 


TJ blei 


Devil 


Lamai-thambi 


Karhi 


U ksuid 


Sun 


Niimith 


Soom 


Ka sugi 


Moon 


Tha 


Thla 


TJ bynai 


Star 


Thaa macha 


Arsi 


U khlur 


Fire 


Mai 


Mai 


Ka ding 


Water 


Ichhing 


Thui 


Ka um 


House 


Jum 


In 


Ka ing 


Horse 


Sagol 


Sakar 


TJ kulai (B) 



( 5 ) 



in Manvpuri, Kuki, Khasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



Singpho. 


Ifaga of Luckimpore. 


NagB of Seebsaugor. 


Miri. 


English. 




Latah 


Dd,k 


Sdk 


Andng 


Hand. 




Longang 


J)i 


Sya 


Nepabyeng ... 


Foot. 




Nddi 


Khan 


Nako 


Inebyon 


Nose. 




Mih 


Mit 


Nik 


Amik 


Bye. 




Ningop 


Thun 


Bikha 


Ndpdn 


Mouth. 




Oya 


Pd 


m 


Ai 


Tooth. 




M 


Nd 


Na 


Eron 


Ear. 




■K&ri 


Khich chhu 


Kha 


Dumit 


Hair. 




Ngerang 


Khau 


Khang 


Mittop 


Head. 




Ghingleo 


Thelli 


Lay 


Aiya 


Tongue. 




Kin 


Oyak 


Wok 


Akheye 


BeUy. 




Sing mang 


Tdm 


Tak 


Amiri 


Back. 




Ikri 


Jdn 


Jan 


lyagire 


Iron. 




Jah 


Kam 


Sen 


Aine 


Gold. 




Komkrang 


Ngiin 


Nun 
Hopd 


Morkang 


SUver. 
Father. 








Hunu 


. . - 


Mother. 








Honao 


.... 


Brother. 








Sikau honao 


■ ■ • • 


Sister. 








Mi 




Man. 








Sikau ... 

Husenu 

Sisi 

Hosd 

Sikau hosa 

Dd 

Majrimi 

■ • ■ ■ 

Eanghao 

Bau rang 

Banghan 

Letnu 

Letsee 

Bau 

Ti 

Hdm 


• ■ • • 

• ■ ■ • 

J • ■ • 

• • •, • 


Woman. 

Wife. 

Child. 

Son. 

Daughter. 

Slave. 

Cultivator. 

Shepherd. 

God. 

Devil. 

Sun. 

Moon. 

Star. 

Fire. 

Water. 

House. 






.... 


Mdn 





Horse. 





224 



( 6 ) 

lAst of English words and phrases with their corresponding words 



English. 


Manipuri. 


Kuki. 


Khasi. 


Cow 


Sal-amiim 


Chherrad-jel 


Ka TTiassi 


Dog 


Hui 


Oohi 


U ksew 


Cat 


Handang 


Meng 


Ka miaw 


Cook 


En 


Arkhong 


XJ siar 


Duck 


Enganu-macha 


Varak 


Ka haw (B) 


Ass 


Lala 




Ka, gadda (B) 


Camel 


.... 




Uut(B) 5^^ 


Bird 


Uchek 


Bah 


Ka sim 


Go 


Chappar chala (in general.) 


Kah-o 


Leit 


Eat 


Chao 


Faro 


B am 


Sit 


Fama 


Thhungro 


Shong 


Come 


Lao 


Hungro 


Wan 


Beat 


Jyaio 


Varoh 


Shoh 


Stand 


Leha 


Nierroh 


(y) Jeng 


Die 


Ohhiha 


Jthie 


(y) Jap 


Give 


Pia 


Pero 


Ai 


Run 


Chela 


Thloiro 


Phet 


Up 


Mathakda 


Ohoongah 


Halor 


Near 


Na,kTia 


Eanihanga 


Hajan 


Who 


Eonanu 


Thumoh 


Mano 


And 




Eek 


Rub, bad, de 


Yes 


Hai 


Oh 


Haoid 


Down 


Mokha 


Nooaha 


Shat y bian 


Far 





Ahlah 


Jing nqai or Ji nqai 


What 


Kari 


Imoh 


Kaba, oraiuh? 


But 


Kariki 


■ . • • 


Hinrei, te 


No 


Mai 


Changmok 


Em-em 


Before 


Mathakda 


Mansaroh 


Shiwa 


Behind 


Itungda 


Noongthiang 


Shadin 


Why 


Karigi 


Imothoh 


Balei 


If 


.... 


Achang choon 


Lada 


Alas 


Hae 


Fih-eh 


Waw! orWa! 


A father 


Mapa-ma 


Khatka pa 


TJ kypa 


Two fathers 


Mapa-ni 


Nika pa 


Amgut ki hypa 


Fathers 


Napa-iamha 


Thhamka pa 


Ki hypa 


Of a father 


Mapa-ma-amagi ' 


.... 


Na u kypa (1), shaphangu 
typa (2)> Jong u kypa (3) . 


Of fathers 


Napa-iamagi 




Na ki kypa (1), shaphang 
ki kypa (2), jong ki 
kypa (3). 



( 7 ) 



in Manvpwi, Kuki, Khasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



225 



Singpho. 


Naga of Luokimpore. 


Naga of Secbsaugor. 


Miri. 


English. 








Mihu 




Cow. 










Hi 


.... 


Dog. 










Mesa 


.... 


Gat. 










TJpang 


.... 


Gook. 










TJpdk 

■ • • • 

Fauo 


• • ft « 


Duck. 
Ass. 
Camel. 
Bird. 


Glial 


Kdn 


Paula 


Gek^ng ka ... 


Go. 


Ch^h 


Chdon 


Lesa 


D^t 


Eat. 


Dungo 


TdDg 


Nahai 


Dutang 


Sit. 


• • • • 


.... 


Homanhu 


.... 


Gome. 










Maithan 


.... 


Beat. 










Ajanghai 


.... 


Stand. 











Jile 


...» 


Die. 


4«l •• 








Mko 


.... 


Give. 











Eikld 


. • • . 


Eun. 


Ling cMng 


Eankha 


Dingta 


Taleng 


Up. 


Nihd^i 


On thek 


Sonlay 


Anene 


Near. 


Jangining rdi hah ... 


Hdnnd 


Abe 


Chyekan 


Who. 


Gdldi 


Dakka 


Athasu 


Tapand 


And. 


Rdikon 


Idangele 


Changle 


Eddu 


Yes. 




.... 


Tang 


.... 


Down. 










Atai lay 


.... 


Far. 










Bole 


. • • ' 


What. 


• ■ • • 








Hafima 


.... 


But. 


■ ■ ■ • 








Manchang 


.... 


No. 


• • • • 








Thamd 


.... 


Before. 


.... 








Fima 


. . . • 


Behind. 


• . • > 








Bole-thaipu 


.... 


Why. 


• • • • 








Hebam^ 




If. 


• • • • 




... 




Nabang 





Alas. 


OQxiimi 


Oy^ntheibM 


Tdhopa 


Abakd, dbbut... 


A father. 


Onkhanga odh 


IbM oydni 


Ani hopa 


Anyika abbut 


Two fathers. 


Odhni 


Ibbd he 


Hopa-lai 


Abbubajek ... 


Fathers. 


O^hnin^ 


Oyd,nthe ibbaii' ... 


Hopaku 


Abak dbbut ... 


Of a father. 


Oahnin^ 


Ibb^ hendng 


Hopa-hdmku 


Abbu ^ajeke... 


Of fathers. 



226 



( 8 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their corresponding words 



English. 


Manipuri. 


Kuki. 


Eliasi. 


To a father 


Mapa-amada 


Khatkapa nihanga 


Ha u kypa 


To fathers 


Napa-iamada 




Ha ki kypa (1), sha ki 
kypa (2J. 


From a father 


Mapa-amadegi 





Na u kypa 


From fathers 


Napa iamadegi 





Na ki kypa 


A daughter 


Macha-nupi-ama 


Khatka nupangthey 


Ka khun 


Daughters 


Macha-nupi-iamaha 


Thamka nupangthey 


Ki khun kynthei 


Of a daughter 


Macha-nupi-amagi 





Jong ka khun 


Of daughters 


Napa-iamagi 





Jong ki khun kynthei (1), 
shaphang ki khun kyn- 
thei (2), na ki khun 
kynthei (3). 


To a daughter 


Macha-nupi- amad a 





Sha ka khun^ ha ka khun. . 


To daughters 


Macha-nupi-iamada 





Ha ki khun kynthei (1), 
sha ki khun kynthei (2). 


From a daughter 


Macha-nupi-amadegi 





Na ka khun 


Two daughters 


Machanupini 


Nika nupangthey 


Amgut ki khun 


From daughters 


Macha-nupi-iamadegi 


.... 


Na ki khun kynthei 


A good man 


Mi-afaba-ama 


TJ briw uba bha 


U briw uba bha 


Two good men 


Mi-afaha-ani 


Nika atah ipah 


Amgut kibriw kiba bha . . 


Good men 


Afaba-mi-khihik 


Thamka atah ipa 


Ki briw kiba bha 


Of a good man 


Mi-afaba-amagi 





Na u briw uba bha (1), 
shaphang u briw uba bha 
(2), jong u briw uba bha 
(3). 


Of good men 


Afaba-mi-khibikgi 


a • • • 


Na ki briw kiba bha (1), 
shaphang ki briw kiba bha 
(2), jong ki briw kiba 
bha (3). 


To a good man 


Mi-ama-afabada 





Sha u briw uba bha (1), 
ha u briw uba bha (2). 


To good men 


Afaba mikhibikda 





Sha ki briw kiba bha (1), 
ha ki briw kiba bha (2). 


From a good man 


Mi-ama-afabadegi 


.... 


Na u briw uba bha. 


From good men 


Afaba-mi-khibikdegi 




Na ki briw kiba bha. 


A good woman 


Afaba-nupi-ama 


Khatka atahnupang 


Ka briw kaba bha, 


Good women 


A faba-nupi-khibik 


Khamka atah nu pang . . . 


Ki hynthei kiba bha 



( 9 ) 



in Manipuri, KuM, Khasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



227 



Singpho. 



Naga of Luckimpore. 



Naga of Seebsangor. 



Miri. 



Sngliah. 



Oydh ni a jdi 

Odh nid gaila 

Oydh duo im gaild .. 

Ohiya cMni bak 

Ohlyi ohanibak 

CM oUiiyi mdng nind, 

Chd, cMyi mdnga ni 
theng djdi. 

Chd chliiyi mfegani. . . 



Oyd.ntlie ibbd kardng 

Ibbd hendng kak ... 

Oyanthe ibbd iyakbd 

Ibbd, bengerd 

Itchha oyantbe ... 
Obennd kdmin 
Itcbd oydnthe thim- 



Cba cbbiyi mdnganid 

Obidi mdng okhang... 

Cb^ cbbiyi mdngani 
■gdildn. 

Tomapbab gdjd &imd 
e^n. 

Ongkbangayomapbab 
To mapbab gdja 
Yomapbab gdjdbak . . . 



To mapbab gd,j4 



Tomapbab gdjd, ivni- 
jai. 

Tomapbab gdjd, baka 
jdi. 

To mapbab gaiMn ... 

Gdjd yo tbo md yo ma- 
pbab ningdi ndn. 

Lomcbd gajd dimd 
lorn obd. 

Gdjd lomobd baka . . . 



Cbbi ndngd 



Itcbbd oydntbe tber- 



Oydntbe itcbbd 

iyak-bd. 

Itcbbd oydni 

Itobbi ngabd 

Oydntbe micbben 

Oydni dobben 

Mi iydn cbben 

Oyantbe midn cben 

Mi iydn cbben 



Mioydn oben oydn 
tberdk. 

Midn cbenbi ndngd 

Itcbbi micbben ... 

Midn cbbenbi ngeo 
ydbd. 

Bdnia 
Dibidk cben 



Hopd-ku 

Hopd-kulai 

Hopam . 

Hopa-aupa 

Sikau 
Sikou bam 
Sikou-ku 

Sikau-bomenpa 

Sikou 

Sikau-bamku 

Sikou bosa 

Ani-sikou 
Sikau-bomenpani 

Etta mi my 

Mi my ni 

Mi my bam 



Mi my bamenpa 

Etta mi my bamku . 

Mi my bamenpa ku. 

Etta mi my anpd . 
Mi my bamenpa 

Etta cbya mi 

Cbya mi 



Abbuter nekd 
kdmdr. 

Abbu bane 
bajek. 

Abbak dbbut 
nengdng. 

Abbu bane 
kanek. 

Umme dbak ... 

TJmme bajek,. . 

Umme dbakka 

Umme kidindb- 
ka 



Umme dbkdn 



Abkd umme ke 
negdng. 

Anyek umme 

Umme gdnge 

Abkd aindmne 



Anyekcbim 
mdine amme. 

Mdine dmiki 
bicbi dibdd. 

Abkd ainamnek 



Mdine dmiki 
bicbi dibdd, 



Abkd dindm 
nend. 

Aine kin dingkd 

Ainamne gauge 
Aine ne ugdnge 

Abkd dine 

nenge. 

Nenge ibe kane 
kdng kene. 



To a fatber. 

To fatbers. 

From a fatber. 

From fatbers. 

A daugbter. 
Daugbters. 
Of a daugbter. 

Of daugbters. 

To a daugbter. 

To daugbters. 

From a daugbter. 

Two daugbters. 
From daugbters. 

A good man. 

Two good men. 

Good men. 

Of a good man. 

Of good men. 

To a good man. 

To good men. 

From a good man. 
From good men. 

A good woman. 

Grood women. 



228 



{ 10 ) 

List of English words and phrases with their correspondii 



English. 


Manipuri. 


Kuki. 


Khasi. 


A bad boy 


Pbattaba-angangama 


Kbatka talai ipatbey 


Ukbyn nab uba liymman, 
or U kbynnab liymman. 


A bad girl 


Angangmacba-ama 


Kbaka talai nupangtbey 


Kakbynnab kaba liymman, 
or Ka kbynnab liymman. 


Good 


Afaba 


Atab 


Babba 


Better 


lam-afaba 


Atab tbak tbak 


Bakbambba 


Best 


lam-afaba 


Atab tbak tbak biltbing 
iimok. 


Babba tam 


Higb 


Aange 


Ansang 


Halor jerong, Ba jerong . . 


Higber 


lamaange 


Ansang tbak tbak 


Ba kbam jerong 


Higbest 


lamaange 


Ansang tbak tbak bitbing 
nmok. 


Ba jerong tam 


Aborse 


Sagol-ama 


Kbatka sakor 


U kulai 


A mare 


Sagol-amii m -ama 


Kbatka sakar nupang . . . 


Ka kulai, or ka kulai kyntbei 


Horses 


Sagol-kbibik 


Tbamka sakor 


Ki kulai 


Mares 


Sagol-amum-kbibik 


Tbamka sakor nupang ... 


Ea kulai kyntbei 


AbuU 


Sal-laba-ama- 


Kbatka serrab til loiloi.... 


U massi kyrtong, or U massL 


A cow 


Sal-amum-ama 


Kbatka oberrad-jel 


Ka massi, or ka massi kyn- 
tbei. 


Bulls 


Sal-labo-kbibik 


Tbamka Serrab-tH loiloi . . . 


Ki massi kyrtong 


Cows 


Sal-amiim-kbibik 


Tbamka cberrad-jel 


Ki massi kyntbei 


A dog 


Hui-laba-ama 


Kbatka oobi 


Ksew 


A bitcb 


Hui-amiim-ama 


Kbatka oobi pool 


Ka ksew 


Dogs 


Hm-laba-kbibik 


Tbamka oobi 


Ki ksew 


Bitcbes 


Hui-amnm-kbibik 


Tbamka oobi pool 


Ki ksew kyntbei 


A be-goat 


Haeng-laba-ama 


Kbatka kel- cbal 


TJbtang sob mob 


A female goat 


Haeng-amum-ama 


Kbatka-kelpooino 


Ka blang . . 


Goats 


Haeng-kbibik 


Tbamka kel cbal 


Ki blang 


A male deer 


Saji-laba-ama 


Kbatka Sajook cbal 


U'kei rang 


A female deer 


Saji-amum-ama 


Kbatka Sajook pool 


Ka skei 


Deer 


Saji-kbibik 


Sajook 


Ki skei 


lam 


lyak-leiri 


Ken nooi 


TJgalong 


Tbouart 


Nang-leirilira 


Nen nooi 


Pba long (female), Me long 
(male.) 


He is 


Ma-leiri 


An nooi 


U long 



( 11 ) 



in Manipuri, Kuki, Ehasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



229 



Singpho. 


Naga of Luckimpore. 


Naga of Seebsangor. 


Miri. 


English. 


Aima mdng ongdi 
ddi. 


Bdng cbhi 


Etta misi newsa 


Abkd aimd ne 
kdvd. 


A bad boy. 


Ong g^j^lomoM iixak 


Dihidk oKhd phdng 
ohhi. 


Ettamisifavi 


Aimd ne neng 
dbakkd. 


A bad girl. 


Gdjd 


Aohben 


My 


Aiddk 


Good. 


Kh^^ngkliup g^j^... 


Dakmacbben 


Amy 


Anying dk ... 


Better. 


Gdjd dai ong lang gajd 
dai. 


Acthenchliennd ... 


Amypa 


Aidak anykig 
dk. 


Best. 


Jaddi 


Acbho yang 


Haha 


Aydbe 


High. 


Khaangkhup jadai... 


Dak dobhoeng 


Hdho 


Aydbek 


Higher. 


Tadai latliang yah dai 


Aobang lekechang 


Hafa 


Apping ken pe 
namdi ddbak. 


Highest. 


GomlDang 4ima 


Mak oyanthe 


Etta mdn 


Abakkd godee 


A horse. 


Gombang nnma 


Oyantbe mak 
ngiydng. 


Etta mdn bimu 


Abkd gobechi 
neng kd. 


-A mare. 


Gomb^ng 


Makkhi 


Inu man 


Gobeye bak ... 


Horses. 


GomlDaiig am 


Mak ngiydngbi . . . 


Inu-man hunu 


Gobechi neng 
bak. 


Mares. 


Konclio ctokang iimi 


Oyanthe mdn 
chham rekd. 


Horanpang 


Kh'kk bdtaru 
nagabimne. 


AbuU. 


Konolio go numd, 


Mdniydng oydnthe 


Myh-bunu 


Abkd unnek 
nengkd. 


A cow. 


Konclio clioang bak . . . 


Lang chan bak mdn 
pang. 


Inu-boranpang 


Bhatar nagar 
dbakka. 


Bulls. 


Numdbak 


Maniydnglang ... 


Inu myhu hunu 


Unnek nengkd 


Cows. 


Goi aima 


Oyanthe huld 


HHa 


Abbakd ikie ... 


A dog. 


Goigonuma 


Oydnthe huyang ... 


Hinu 


Abakd ikineng- 
kd. 


A bitch. 


GoiTiT kon 


Huh he 


Hirem 


Ekiye bajek . . . 


Dogs. 


Goye goi bak 


Huhniydnghe ... 


Hinu rem 


Pabkd bdng ne 
bajek. 


Bitches. 


Bdindm di dima 


Oydnthe keyen . . 


Ean-pang 


Abakkd chabene 


A he- goat. 


Bdindm di aimd, 


Oydnthe kenang ... 


Eannu 


Abakkd chaben 
nengkd. 


A female goat. 


Bdiadmbak 


Ken he 


Ean hurem 


Chaben bajek 


Goats. 


Chan oMnld dima , . . 


Oydnthe ngdm pang 


Mikbi pang 


Abakkd chibin 
minank. 


A male deer. 


Bdindm di aimd 


Oydnthe khebinang 


Mikbi hunu 


Abakkd chibin 
nengkd. 


A female deer. 


Chdnanibak 


Ngdm he 


Ohena mikbi 


Ohinine bajek 


Deer. 


Ngdilanggai 


Mi tangian 


Kutailay 


Ngd dunkd . . . 


I am. 


Nangddnkha 


Nang ne 


Nang lay 


Na dune 


Thou art. 


Khiaing ngd dkhdh ... 


Pbang tang mdtangd 


Si lay 


Bandue 


He is. 



230 



( 12 ) 

List of EngUsh words and phrases with their corresponding words 



English. 


Manipuri. 


Kuki. 


Ehasi, 


We are 


Tkhoi-leiri 


Kennin nooi 


Ugi long 


Tou axe 


Nang leixilira 


Nennin nooi 


Phi long 


They are 


Makhoi-leiri 


Annin nooi 


Ki long 


I was 


lyak-leirem-me 


Eehoom kennoi 


Uga la long 


Thou wast 


Nang-leirem-me 


Nehoom nennooi 


Me pha la long 


He was 


Ma-leire 


Anihom Armoi 


TJ la long 


We were 


Ikhoileirem-me 


Kennin nooi augarha 


Ugi la long 


Tou were 


Nakhoi-leirem-me 


Nennin ooni augarha 


Phi la long 


They were 


Makhoi-leire 


Amin nooi augarha 


Kilalong 


Be 


• . • • 


Thunin 


Long, don 


To be 


.... 


« • • • ^ 


Ba'n long, ban don 


Being 




Thunin changati, 


Da long (1), kaha long (2), 
kaha don (3). 


Having been 




Thiminachangka 


'Tudalalong 


I may be 


lyak-leirangami 


Kaihnni chongthaithennim 


Nga lah lean long, nga lah 
lean down. 


I shall be 


lyak-leini 


Eaiham Chongthaithennim 


Nga'n long, nga'n don ... 


I should be 


Tkhoina-laideaonatikae . . 


In khUloivalin changkaithie 


Ka da lea ngan long, ka du 
lea ng'an don. 


Beat 


leiba 


Varho 


Shoh 


To beat 




.... 


Ba'n shoh 


Beating 





Eeuokinning 


Kaba shoh (1), da shoh (2). 


Having beaten 


.... 


Eevokthk 


'Ynda la shoh 


I beat 


lyak ieige 


Vong kaithee 


Nga shoh 


Thou beatest 


Nangieio 


Nanghom varoh 


Me or pha shoh 


He beats 


Ma-eeire 


Anmani-hi varoh 


U shoh 


We beat 


Tkhoi ieige 


Kaimani varoh 


Ngi-ia-shoh 


Tou beat 


Nang ieio 


Naugmani varoh 


Ngi-ia-shoh, phi ia shoh . . 


They beat 


Makhoi-ieire 


Anmani-hi thamka varoh. 


Ki shoh, or ki ia-shoh ... 


I am beating 


lyak ieiri 


Kaima vokthing 


Nga dang shoh 


I was beating 


lyak-eiram-me 


Kaima ken-vok-ning 


Nga la dang shoh 


I had beaten 


lyakna ieirame 


Kaima ken-vok 


Nga la lah shoh 


I may beat 


lyak ieingami ^ ... 


Kaima homin-ningkeuon- 
gohm. 


Nga lah ba'n shoh 


I have beaten 




Nga dang lah shoh 


I shall beat 


lyak-ieini 


Kaima homin-nrngkeuon- 
gohm. 


Nga'n shoh 


I should beat 


lyakna-ieiba-matikoe 


Kaima vong keti 


Ka dei ba nga'n da shoh . . , 


I am beaten 


Ai-ieiba-fangale 


Kehom — anevok 


La dang shoh ia nga 


I was beaten 


Ai-ieiba-fangle 


Kehom- anevokthey 


La lah shoh ia nga 


I shall be beaten 


Ai-ieiba fangni 


Kaima-nen-voh — ning . . 


Tn sa shoh ia nga 


I go 


lyak-challe 


Kaioho kal kehti 


Nga leit 



( 13 ) 



in Manipuri, Kuki, Khasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



231 



Singpho. 


Naga of Lnokimpore. 


Naga of Seebsaugor. 


Miri. 


English. 


In^nggdid, dng dai ... 


Lahu thang 


Kem lay 


Ngd lu dungay^ 


We are. 


Nanga akha 


Ndng mahu thdne . 


Hazam lay 


Nd dungdi ... 


Tou are. 


Khini akha oah 


Chenin than 


Humtai lay 


Kyengdungd 


They are. 


Ngai oabin dai 


Mi mdtang taya . . . 


Ku nd lay 


Ngd dungdi . . . 


I was. 


Li ni aukha 


Langa neah 


Nang n& lay 


Aune dime ... 


Thou wast. 


Khini oabin dai 


Ire matang taya ... 


Sinaiay 


Bukke dingdi 


He was. 


Inang gaia ang dai . . . 


La huthang 


Kem n^ lay 


Ngalu dungdyd 


We were. 


Nang oabin dai 


Nang mahu thane .. 


Hazam na lay 


Nadungdi 


Tou were. 


Khini thing monga dai 


. Jeheme thangta . . . 


Ham nS, lay 


Byaluo dungane 


They were. 


Eaiah 


Madanga 


N& hay 


Gide 


Be. 


Eaidai 


Madangaleh 


A chang 


Gideha 


To be. 


Raidaia 


Madanga ta 


Usua 


Gidengd 


Being. 
Having been. 


Ndi tdi ngoa 


Ngdi ta dang 


Kuaohange 


Nga ippa eppe 


I may be. 


NdiUigd 


Ngai dang and . . . 


Kuachangai 
Kuachangtaibu 


Ngdi uppe 


I shall be. 
I should be. 


Ni 


Anang 


Mithan 


Pai 


Beat. 


Nai dup ii 


Mabdtikd 


Mia 


Pdkdp 


To beat. 


Dup ddi 


Oyat ikang 


Milay 
Midenpu 


Pddung 


Beating. 
Having beaten. 


Ngai dup ha 


Inga me batah ... 


Kumia 


Nga chung 
padung. 


I beat. 


Lu dup d^i 


Langa oyatikang ... 


Nange milay 


Aune paddk ... 


Thou beatest. 


Khi dup d^i 


Atana oyat ika ... 


Si-emilay 


Byu padak ... 


He beats. 


I dup hd 


Inga me bat ikong . 


Kerne mia 


Ngd lu padung 


We beat. 


Langi ni dup 


Langa maba ika . . . 


Hazam mia 


Nabub pakane 


Tou beat. 


Khni dupha dai 


Chennin maba ika . 


Ham mia 


Byulun pakane 


They beat. 


Ngai phe dupdai ... 


Inga nang batah . . . 


Kuamilay 


Ngam padung 


I am beating. 




Inga oya thenga . . . 


Kuafitlay 




I was beating. 


Ngaiphe dup ha dai,.. 


Inga la oat thang . 


Kuafitlay 


Ngam pat ... 


I had beaten. 


Ngai dup ngot oa .. 


Nga ma ita bibatang 

1 


Ku mitouke 


Nga pape eppe 


I may beat. 
I have beaten. 


Ngai duppe 


Inga thenga ah ... 


Kuamia 
Kuamaupa 


Nga pat ka ... 


I shall beat. 
I should beat. 


Ngai phe dup hadai. . . 


Ingala oat thang . . . 


Kuta atha milay 


Ngam pat ... 


I am beaten. 


Ngai phe dup hadai. . . 


Ingala oat thang . . . 


Kutufitlay 
Kutu mi ta 


Ngam pat . . . 


I was beaten. 
I shall be beaten. 


Ngai chang 


Kikang 


Ku pane 


Nga gip 


I go. 



23g 



( 1* ) 

List of English words and phrases with their corresponding won 



English. 



Manipuri. 



Kuki. 



Thou goest 
He goes 
I went 

Thou wentest 
He went 
Go 

Going 
Gone 

What is your name?, 



How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 

How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle 
is married to her 
sister. 

In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 



Put the saddle upon 
his back. 



I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 



He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 



He is sitting on ahorse 
imder that tree. 



His brother is taller 
thaa his sister. 



Khasi. 



Nang-chala 

Ma-chale 

lyak-chaUame 

Nang-chalabda 

Ma-chakre 

Chala 

Chappa 

Chalare 



Nangi-naming-karikauge ? 



Achhi chhogolgi chehi kaya 
sure ? 



Achhidegi-Kashmirleipak- 
kaya-labe ? 

Nangi-napagi-macha-kaya- 
poi? 

Achhi iyakna iom miang 
koyare. 

lyaki khuragimacha nipana 
may machem laure. 



Imn-achhida chhagol an- 
ganbagi chhaban. 



Iyakna mai macha nipab 
licheina ieire. 



Naugma kalro 

Anmanihi kalro 

Kai-kenhanga 

Nangma nehanga 

Anmani-hi-nehanga 

Kabo 

Kathing 

Kehanga 

Niriming-ee-mochang ? ... 
Ma-sakor-hi-kom jakamo ? 



Mathaka omin-Kashmir 
ithen-kamoalat ? 



Nangma-pa ija kamo ipa 
om ? 



Khirong kehang 



Kifang hak na-hen kifarnoo 
auai. 



Sakor-ongoi ke-ina ahom- 
they roh-homaoni. 



Sakor choongah they roh 
pierroh. 

Thunahn ina nabi nium- 
vokim kevok. 



Ohingi mathakta mana Pahar choongah cherrad-in 
chhal chhendenaleire. iuia fah. 



U-achhigi makhada chha- 
gol gi mathakda lei. 



Magi manaona machem 
degi ayange. 



Thiag-nuhuia sakor choon- 
gah atung then. 



Ania boongalier un-unekin 



Me leit 

TJleit 

Nga la leit 

Me la leit 

U la leit 

Khie leit 

Da leit (1), aba leit (2) ... 

Ba la leit, ba la lah leit ... 

Ka kyrteng jong phi ka 
long ainh ? 

XJne u kulai ula katno 
snem, or Une u ku-lai u 
la don katno snem. 

Naugne hadub ka shnong 
Kashmir ka jing ngaikat- 
no ? 

Ha ing utrypa jong phi 
don katnongut ki khun 
shinrang ? 

Nga la iaid nadub jing-ngai 
niyuta. 

U khun u kyn-gi jong nga 
u la shong kurim bad ka 
para jong ka. 

Haing don ka jin jong u 
kulai lib. 



Buh ka jui balor jong u 



Nga la sympatka u khun 
jong u da ki bun ki jing 
sympot. 

U pynbam phlang-ia ki 
jiag ri halor lum. 



XT shong halor u kulai 
hapoh kato ka ding. 



U para jong u, u kham 
jerong (or san) ia ka para 
jong u.* 



* (Literal and ambiguDoa.) But when the two " his '»" 



( 15 ) 



in Manipuri, Kuki, Khas% Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



233 



Singpho. 



Naga of Lnckimpore. 



Naga of Seebsaugor. 



Miri. 



English. 



Nii rang ddi 
Khin rSng ddi 
Ng^ odrdng ddi 
Nii ha ddi 
Khi cM M ddi ' 
Chal 
Chdkan 
CM ha dai 



Ndng4 ming mdkhii 



Idai gom rang oa pit 
khe deh duhd. 



Ndng gdi nan Kdsmir 
ge deh ydn. 

Na lang oah na ontd 
gaimang gedeh ngah 
dai. 



Nga dai nih 
dudam di oah rang 
dai dam hang dai. 

Khia ganau kenge oah 
dai na kachai khung 
ran ha. 

Aug tha tukhaih nga 
dai pak paa gomrang 
yikrang oaua raya 

Pang kap oa khina 
sing mangeh khrat 
dioh. 

Khi kacha pheh ngai 
siha khin dio ha. 



Khi hom bum ding 
ngai siyah remdai. 

t 

Sidai ong tah katah i 
goto rang jatang 
dinga dai 

Khina ko phu gah 
khina ganan ong lah 
yah ga tang. 



Lang tha 
Ire tha 
Aoang thang 
Lang thanta 
Atela thangta 
Kau 
Chhebka 
Thanta 

Mamin marva 



Bmak iye pa chhenta 
rang pa madanga. 

E Kasmira la pa 
chhet janga. 



Maba hu ma nanga 
neta chhenta. 



Nga theiya bala 
nang phang tak. 

Iremi an ire iyang 
teying didi chama 
kap ika. 

Humiyo khan oya 
jin mak papanang 
ma danga. 

Atmanang khakka 



Achanang iya ranga 
aoyatak. 



Haha nang mau ba- 
mika. 



Iman khanang mak- 
tam nang chang 
ika. 



Anang tei yang 
nama anang te 
achho yang. 



Nang paw la 
Si pawl a 
Ku jale 
Nang j ale 
Si jale 
Paula 
Jale 

Pau © na 

• 

Nang bule manpu 



Abi rang heman pu . . . 



Ete khange abe inlam 
Kasmiri kapang. 



Nang hanpama hamma 
abitaibu sisi neusa. 



Ku ani asule ham dawa 



Ku apali husa usua 
hunau toi zingle. 



Man tha 2dnhamma 
tai le. 



Siku takma zim khaley 



Ku-e fid deua asule 
sikuhosan. 



Mihu ni ele ha hutu. 



Sieman takma nale 
panu tangma rang 
khumna jakle. 

Chiku hanau fai chiku 
sikou hanas lale. 



Aoye gini^ 
Bye ginid 
Ng^ gini 
Aoye gikdp 
Bye gikdp 
Gikdng kd 
Giep 
Gikdp 



Nangd mindng- 
kd. 



Gro r^ije chabak 
ditdge eddek 
edung. 

Chdkke Kdsmire 
e anappa edi 
ke dung. 

Nanga bukke 
enchamla kaoe 
edikke dung. 

Nga chin ai rup 
gigatta. 

Byu gamma 
paike aomma 
midamat. 

Chide gaduchi 
gob ere pudak 
amirna tam 
lik namme. 

Gadu chimbik 
amirda tam 
likt. 

Byung ang de- 
mai rupa pat. 



Byu adi tanen 
inne gae bar 
dem kang su 
dung. 

Byu inne gae 
bar kei kau 
gore dem 
change dung. 

Byuk oh ache 
byung birme 
dem penam 
diare ddk. 



Thou goest 
He goes. 
I went. 
Thou wentest. 
He went. 
Go. 
Going. 
Gone. 

What is your name? 
How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from 
here to Kashmir ? 



How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 

I have walked a long 
way to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 



Put the saddle upon 
his back. 



I have beaten his- son 
with many stripes. 



He is grazing cattle 
on the top of the hill. 



He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree. 



His brother is taUer 
than his sister. 



the Bame'peraoa it will be — Ja la ka para kham tan a para jong u. 



234 



( 16 ) 

lAst of English words and phrases with their corresponding words 



English. 



Manipuii. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 



Take those rupees from 
him. 



Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

Erom a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



Achhigi maman lopani- 
makhae. 



lyaki pabna ium apichha- 
fada leire. 



Achhi lopa maba pia 

Achhi lopa khibik mangan 
degi looro. 

Maba iyam ieiro khaurina 
puUa 

Kua degi icching laura ... 

lyaki iyanagda kaero 



Kuki. 



Khasi. 



Matheio munnhi chengnika 
nindooli 



Khipa ma in the-asun a-om 

Thanka enaka pero 

Ma nihanga thanka tare . . . 

m 

Nieon thunkinthu kinla 
ruin pierroh. 

Thin thuka thui choiro . . . 

Kimo - kinna kalr a 



Achhi angang macha ko- Thunaimo niengahahung? 
nana nangi natung indna 
lai? 

Konadegid achchi hi rui ? . . . 



Kulgi dukandar degi 



Ma thero kathey thu 
nihangah ni chogmo ? 

Ke chogna kua maha 
jonina kencho. 



Kadorkato kalongartyng 
ka pia. 

TJ kypa jong uga u shong 
ha kato ka ing rit. 

Ai kane ka tyngka ia u ... 



Shine noh-ia kito ki tyng 
ka na u. 

'Tuda shoh eh ia u, teh 
da ki tyllai. 

Tongune naka pukri 

Jaid sha shin a jong nga ... 



TJ khynnah jong no ub a 
wan nashadinjong phi? 

Nangno phi la thied ia 
kato ?. 



Na u nong die jong die 
ha shnong. 



( 17 ) 



in Manipuri, Kulci, Khasi, Singpho, Naga, and Miri. 



23.^ 



Sin^plio. 



Naga of Luokimpore. 



Khina monu dala ong 
khang thuli reh. 

Nge oah sidai ong tab 
kiyi gai nga dai. 

Ong dai kom krang 
dala khiphe yan. 

Khi thang gai Ian 
kom phrang theng 
latang na. 

Aidi dupunah galai 
sing rii khang dau. 

Kiabang gailan i yin 
jah ong. 

Nge man idamo 



Nana ning dim iga- 
dai na mang cha dai 

Gkdai nan sidai oa 
miri laha dai. 

Mereng na pa ga oa 
aima gailan. 



Phani khath heh 
athapa. 

Iba pabuma cbane 
rang tanga. 

Un phatbepa kak... 



Angeya ngun bi 
ugaba kar. 



Jarang obad ate 
ruma kbdk obben. 



Ja nad kban ma 
jakban. 

Jma karang pbang 
kbama- 

Madinang ban cbao 
yang ira. 

Hange oya rita oya 
irepa. 

Haoya tba cbang te 
neoya. 



Naga of Seebsaugor 



Usna nun kbaomi atbati 



Ku apa usHa bam sama 
anokle. 



Ea nun kbau usua ang 
laka. 



Usu anpa nun pai jan 
hai. 

Usua maile maitben 
atbasu usua lunge 
kbadu. 

Takai anpa tikba hai 

Ku pam thoma abam 
hai. 



Nang faima obam pu 
Oma sapu 
Tinkba unpa bat 



Miri. 



Edak atang 
kange anyi 
kana tebakka. 

Nga ke dbbu 
Mave kamu 
dud. 

Cbimbarakang 
^bdr chim 
bum bibi takd. 

Bik kanak ede 

mbd rakang 

dembande koen. 

Byum air pdt 
rabike end,. 

Cbibond,k aobi 
getka. 

Nga ka ne dun- 
gig min nang 
ka. 

Nak nedung 
cbek kaoe 
gidang 

Chekka lak 
retang bibke 
nak. 

Dalung kabe 
mannanak na- 
•tang ni. 



English. 



The price of that is 
two rupees and a half. 

My father lives in that 
small bouse. 

Grive this rupee to him. 



Take those rupees from 
him. 



Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 

Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes 
behind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



LMGUAGES OF THE NORTH-EAST OF ASSAM. 



Dl 



23B 



( 2 ) 



Languages of the North- 



English. 


Aka. 


Dnffla. 


Miri. 




Numerak. 








One 


Un 


Akin 


Aka 




Two 


Guni 


Ani 


Anyeka 




Three 


Gethan 


Am 


Aunaka 


, , 


Four 


BH 


Apli 


Apika 


• 


Five 


Bufigu 


Ango 


Anaka 


. 


Six 


Re 


Akia 


Akanaka 


, 


Seven 


Mia 


Eanug 


Kinitaka 


. 


Eight 


Sige 


Plognug 


Painika 


. 


Nine 


Esthen 


Kyo 


Kananka 


. 


Ten 


Len 


Rungchung 


Eiinaka 


. 


Twenty 


Genelen 


Chamni 


Kuri 


. 


Fifty 


Bungolen 


Chamuo 


Araikuri 


. 


Hundred 


Boloiiun 


Cham-rungchung 


Eha 


■ 


Pronouns. 










I 


Niang 


Ngo 


Na 




We 


Ani 


Ngolu 


Na-lu 




Thou 


Pho 


Noh 


Na 




You 


Pho 


Noh 


Na-lu 




He 


Thang 


Asi 


Bi 




They 


Phoi 


Mige 


Bu-lu 




Of me 


Niang 


Ngokue 


Nak 




Of us 


Anithe 


Anga 


Na-lukke 




Of thee 


.... 


Asoko 


Na-kke 




Of you 


.... 


Asoko 


Na-lugike 




Of him 


Nunathai 


Alokoa 


Bi-kke 




Of them 


Numan-nathai 


Alopanga 


Bulukake 




Mine 


Niang 


Ngokue 


Nak 




Our 


Anithe 


Anga 


Na-lukake 


, , 


Thine 


Phoithai 


Asoko 


Na-kke 




Tour 


Phoithai 


Asoko 


Na-hikike 




His 


Nunathai 


Alokoa 


Bi-ki 


^ , 


Their 


Numan-nathai 


Alopanga 


Bu-lukike 


. , 


Hand 


Gi 


Lake 


Alak 


.. 


Foot 


Gle 


Leh 


Ale 


^ , 


Nose 


Nubiong 


Nyopom 


lebung 




Eye 


Mre 


Nyegh 


Amide 




Mouth 


Neug 


Gam 


Nappang 




Tooth 


Thu 


Fi 


Atreu 





( s ) 



239 



East of Assam. 








Abor. 


Sulikdti Mishmeea. 


Digarii Mishmees. 


English. 


Akka 


tkU 


Ekbing 


One. 


Anikka 


Kdni 


Kaeng 


Two. 


Aniuak 


Kdsh 


Kdcbang 


Tbree. 


Apio 


Kappi 


Kdpi 


Four. 


Pilanka 


Manga 


Manga 


Five. 


Akkeko 


Ahe 


Anbra 


Six. 


Kililak 


Job 


Ur^ 


Seven. 


Palifc 


Ilu 


Hum 


Eigbt. 


Kanengka 


KhHi 


Kaeling 


Nine. 


longka 


Husb 


Halang 


Ten. 


lengnic 


Anibush 


KacbUing 


Twenty. 


Fiingpilank 


Mangalon 


Mangabalang 


Fifty. 


Lingka 


MaW 


Malum 


Hundred. 


U'lii 


Ngialumbro 


Ning or Ha 


I. 


Milum 


Ehundna 


Taji 


We. 


Ngo 


Ngio 


Nga 


Tbou. 


Ngolo 


Ebund 


Nga 


You. 


Ngo-bolu 


Ngio-apu 


Ngoelang 


He. 


Milume 


He-aibu 


Ngoelang-tba 


Tbey. 


Ngolona 


Nge-ebunde 


Lomening 


Of me. 


TJlukke 


Ngaji-appo 


Ningoge 


Of us 


Buluke 


Newji 


TJag^ or nega ^ 


Of tbee. 


Buluke 


Newji 


Uag6 or nega 


Of you. 


Biikke 


Mimut or Mit 


Dege 


Of bim. 


Buluke-upek 


New-ipo-maya 


TJaga-lange 


Of tbem. 


Ngolo na 


New-ebunde 


Lomening 


Mine. 


Ngolo-apekap 


Ngialadu 


Ningoge 


Our. 


Nalnkke or buluke 


Ne'vfji 


Nega 


Tbine. 


Nalukke or buluke 


Newji 


Nega 


Your. 


Bukke 


Mimut or mit 


Dege 


His. 


Buldke-upek 


New-ipo-maya 


Uaga-Mnge 


Tbeir. 


Alage 


Akbmo 


Hattia 


Hand. 


Leppia 


Byapa 


U'groka 


Foot. 


Ngyabung 


Enabo 


Heliagom 


Nose. 


Amik 


Elaby^ 


Molom 


Eye. 


Nappang " 


Ekabe 


Takkay 


Moutb. 


Ipang 


Tambya 


T,a 


Tootb. 



240 



( 4 ) 



Languages of North- 



Englisb. 


Aka. 


Duffla. 


Miri. 


Ear 


Jho 


Nyorung 


Nerung 


Hair 


Hupshe 


Dnmpo 


Dumit 


Head. 


Tokiang 


Demeg 


Tukko 


Tongue 


Jakse 


Eo 


Taper 


Belly 


Lon 


Kopo 


Aki 


Back 


Gehang 


Lamko 


Tiamka 


Iron 


Sen 


Eogdur 


Yogir 


Gold 


Shen 


En 


Ain 


Silver 


Lemen 


Diimpin 


Mulkang 


Father 


Aboa 


Abo 


Abba 


Mother 


Ane 


Ane 


Anne 


Brother 


Nu 


Abung, Tete, Boro 


Burra 


Sister 


Nie 


Ame, Burme 


Birme 


Man 


Nu 


Bangui 


Amme 


"Woman 


Nimre 


Nyame 


Neng 


Wife 


Zi 


Nyafung 


Miang 


Child 


GuK 


Anga 


Koue 


Son 


Zu 


Kao 


Aua 


Daughter 


Zue 


Nyameka 


Omma 


Slave 


NuUo 


Nyara 


Pakba 


Cultivator 


Nimiang 


Kedeh 


Arigija 


Shepherd 


"Khen 


Eakhidono 


Eakhine 


God 


Nitchao 


Oiu 


Isor 


Devil 


Tehimu 


Kenoha-deo (evil spirit) . . 


Bhut 


Sun 


Jho 


Doni 


Daanid 


Moon 


Lu 


Polo 


Pala 


Star 


Litson 


Taker 


Tdkare 


Fire 


Meh 


Emeh 


TJniTne 


Water 


Vza 


Esi 


Atse 


House 


Nen 


Ou 


Akume 


Horse 


Gorra 


(No Duffla equivalent) . . 


Giire 


Cow 


Shufshe 


Hene 


Inne 


Dog 


Shazi 


Bki 


Ikia .^ 


Cat 


Khushu 


Ase 


Mendari 


Cock 


Dublang 


Porok 


Parak 


Duck 


Ngosa 


Han 


Pajap 


Hen 


Done 


■ • • • 


• • • • 


Ass 


Shubabu 


(No Duffla equivalent) ... 


Gadha 


Camel 





(Ditto ditto.) 


Ut 



( 5 ) 



East of Assam. — (Continued.) 



241 



Abor. 


Sulikdtd Mishmees. 


Degard Mislituees. 


English. 


Nyerung 


A.kuna 


Nakra 


Ear. 


Damude 


Thambya 


Thang 


Hair. 


Ugke-takku 


Eku-ekura 


Hamkuru 


Head. 


Ayah 


Lina 


Thalingna 


Tongue. 


Aki 


Khiapu 


Kitapung 


BeUy. 


Lamku 


Erambo 


Ipring 


Back. 


Ukdin 


Si 


Si 


Iron. 


Ebane 


Pidi 


Padi 


Gold. 


Murkang 


Pau 


Pa we 


Silver. 


Abo 


Naba 


Naba 


Father. 


Nal 


Nani 


Namd, 


Mother. 


Aniange 


AM 


Pamro 


Brother. 


Burme 


Athepoa 


Nabi 


Sister. 


Milange 


Meya 


Mdwd 


Man. 


Mienga 


Ikh. 


Miawa 


Woman. 


Ome mienga 


Aku 


Miawa (" Wife" not used) 


Wife, 


Anjineka 


Awu 


Ablay^ 


Child. 


Ounga 


Abro 


Ua 


Son. 


Papie 


Amyau 


Aya 


Daughter, 


Pakbo 


Eppo 


Ilmpo 


Slave. 


Agre-gerurau 


Ari 


Bayah 


Cultivator, 


Soben-kyane 


Maji-halu 


Babi-hosui 


Shepherd. 


' Dane-talenge 


Ini-huna 


Eing 


God. 


Ayu 


Daen 


Taliah 


Devil. 


Dani 


Ini 


Bingda 


Sun. 


Pala 


Ela 


Haluda 


Moon, 


Takar 


Adikro 


Kddiag 


■ Star. 


Emme 


Amihu 


Naming 


Fire. 


Ase 


Maji 


Maji 


Water. 


Ekum 


TJka 


Ang 


House. 


Gure 


Geera 


Gouri 


Horse. 


Anek 


Majookru 


Kru-majoo 


Cow. 


TH 


Iku 


Lookui 


Dog. 


Kadaii 


Majari 


Majari-da 


Cat. 


Porok 


Eto 


Mityo 


Cock. 


Pejabo 


Dekibu 


Krembd Oala 


Duck. 


• • a « 


• • ■ « 


• ■ • • 


Hen. 


(None in this District) ... 


(None in this District) ... 


(None in this District) ... 


Ass. 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Camel. 



D 2 



243 



( 6 ) 



Languages of the North- 



English. 



Aka. 



Duffla. 



Miri. 



Bird 
Go 

Eat 

Sit 

Come 

Beat 

Stand 

Die 

Give 

Erm 

Up 

Near 

Who 

And 

Yes 

Down 

Far 

What 

But 

No 

Before 

Behind 

Why 

If 

Alas! 

A father 

Of a father 

To a father 

From a father 

Two fathers 

Fathers 

Of fathers 

To fathers 

From fathers 

A daughter 

Of a daughter 

To a daughter 

From a daughter 

Two daughters 



Buzzu 

Phokhame {" you go,") 

Sune 

longme 

Hademe 

liuhrokheme 

Giume 

Thidamun ("to die") 

Bime 

Zongme 

Meliviang 

Mani 

fhiu 

Aio 

Mivi 

Melenen 

Maren 

Then 

Ngoa 

Nivia 

Manen 

Thurede 

Saio 

Aia! 

Aboa 



Guni ahoa 
Ani ahoa 



Pata 

Ngiku 

Dutto 

Dungto 

Ngtoku 

Jungto 

Dokto 

Siktaribo (" to die.") 

Keh 

Furrto 

Aopa 

Genekto 

Helo 

Angneha 

Eh 

Arungpa 

Adopo 

Hogue 

(No Duffla equivalent) 

Moh 

Atokto 

Koyungto 

Hogoho 

Hobolape 

Tah! 

Abo 



Abo ani 
Abo arukpa 



Nyameka 



Nyameka anigo 



Patang 

Gikapen 

Datta 

Dota 

Sapagala 

Pattaka 

Daktaka 

Si-a 

Bitpana 

Duktaka 

Tdleng 

Aninsa 

Sekan 

Aru 

Agi 

Amang 

Mateng 

Akkan 

Kintu 

Ma 

Ananna 

Ledda 

Akapa 

Jadi 

Ta ya 

Abatere 

Abbatere-loke 

Abba-kan-kepe 

Abha-kan-lakum 

Abba-anyeka 

Abbu-kading 

Abbu-kading-ke 

Abbu-kading-kepe 

Abbu-kading-lakke 

Omma-terak 

Omma-teroke 

Ommd-ter-dakkepe 

Omma-ter-kakke 

Omma-anyeka 



( 7 ) 



East of Assam. — (Continued.) 



S43 



Abor. 


Snlik&M Mishmees. 


Digarti Mishmeea. 


English. 


Peotdng 


Pya 


Om-pya 


Bird. 


GiU 


Bana 


Bun^ 


Go. 


Doyo 


Ha 


Thana 


Eat. 


Dootka 


Jiba 


Dind, 


Sit. 


Kajo 


Ebalibi 


Hanand 


Come. 


Ditka 


Hoop 


Hoo-ina 


Beat. 


Daktola-ddkot 


Deva 


De-dena 


Stand. 


Hikang 


Hiba 


Hina-hibo 


Die. 


Bito 


. Haba 


H£ngna 


Give. 


Dookang 


. Dobo 


Chou 


Eun. 


Texmg 


Etudii 


Taji 


Up. 


Mungia 


. Anoma 


Ungya 


Near. 


Uma 


A-aya 


Cha-kada 


Who. 


Biange 


. Ama-ma 


Oago 


And. 


Eda 


. Aya 


Oau 


Yes. 


Eoongkinge 


. Eipoma 


Hala 


Down. 


Motunge 


. Mralo 


Da 


Far. 


Ingkok 


. Esia 


Umja 


What. 


Byange 


. Kmi-mi 


Eoypinge 


But. 


Kamang 


■ Ngybo 


Aynm 


No. 


Napayd,po 


. Ahy^ 


Hioya 


Before. 


Melam 


. Epindolu 


Hamyo 


Behind. 


Dekeku 


. Ejap 


Uaja 


Why. 


Dem-ma-moolo 


. Bjamigo 


iloiping 


If. 


Ah! Ah! 


. Akh! akh! 


Eh! eh! 


Alas! 


Abo-ataluk 


. Ekke-naba 


Khinge-naba 


A father. 


Ataluk-abo kepd 


. Ekke-n^ba-juibo 


KJiinge-naba-Mnke 


Of a father. 


Ataluk-dbo-kepe 


. Bkke-nabd-ji 


Khingi-nababa 


To a father. 


Ataluk-dbo-lenne 


. Ekke-naba-kepowji 


Khingi-naba-egu lea 


From a father. 


Anikkadbo 


. Kani-ndba 


Kaeng-naba 


Two fathers. 


Abo-bdlu 


. Naba-ej^ 


Nabdlang-naba 


Fathers. 


Abo-blild.kepd 


. Ndbd-juibo 


Naba lanke 


Of fathers. 


Abo-bulu-kepe 


. Nabd-ji 


Nabdl^ng-omba 


To fathers. 


Abo-biilli-keluk 


. NabS.ga-juibo 


Nabalang-dima 


From fathers. 


Ataluk-ome or papie .. 


. Kepate-amyau or ayah ... 


Khinge-aya 


A daughter. 


Ome ataliik len 


. Aya pate ah 


Aya-egoge 


Of a daughter. 


Omekeataluk 


• Aya-ji 


Aya-uaba 


To a daughter. 


Ataluk ome labum 


. Patela-aya 


Khingi-aya 


From a daughter. 


Anikka ome 


. Eani-aya 


Kaeng-aya 


Two daughters. 



2H 



( 8 ) 



Languages of the North- 



English. 


Aka. 


Duffla. 


Miri. 


Daughters 




Nyame arukpa 


Omma-kading 


Of daughters 


.... 




Omma-kading-ke 


To daughters 


.... 




Omma-kading-kapa 


From daughters 


.... 




Omma-kading-lagane . . 


A good man 


Nu mevi 


Alepa 


Aka ine dmme 


Of a good man 


.... 




Aka ine ammi-ke 


To a good man 


.... 




Aka ine ammi-kapa 


From a good man 


.... 




Aka ine ammi dekke . 


Two good men 


.... 


Ani alepa 


Ine amme anyeka 


Good men 


Nu mevihan 


Alepa arukpa 


Amme ine kiding 


Of good men 


.... 




Amme ine kiding kakke. 


To good men 


.... 




Ine amme kiding-kapa . . 


From good men 







Ine amme kiding lagang. 


A good woman 


Nimre mevi 


Nyame anyapa 


Aka ine neng 


Good women 


Nimre mevihan 


Nyame pang alepa 


Ine neng-kiding 


A bad boy 


Nu meni 


Kao karu 


Aka imane kaua 


A bad girl 


Nimre meni 


Nyameka karu 


Aka imane kanauka 


Good 


Mevi 


Alepa 


Ine 


Better 


Honte mevi (Tha,n that 
good.) 


Humpe humpe alepa {i.e., 
More more good.) 


Eda-ine 


Best 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Eda-iru-dung 


High 


Miphiang 


Aopa 


O-dak 


Higher 


Honte miphiang (Than 
that high.) 


Humpe humpe aoiyopa, {i.e, 
More more high.) 


Oddur-dak 


Highest 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Od-bun-dak 


A horse 
A mare 
Horses 
Mares 


Gorra-mene 


No Duffla equivalent. ' 
"Horses" are called , 
ghoras, and " mares" j 
ghorifi or maiki ghor a. 


Gure-adarka 
Gxtre renaka 
(hue kiding 
Gxtre rene kiding 


Abull 


Mubze 


Hebo 


Garu ettum tuma namme 


A cow 


Mene 


Hene 


Garu-iane-Sdark 


Bulls 


Mubze-menou 


Hebo arukpa 


Ettum -tuma-namme kid- 
ing. 


Cows 


Mene-menou 


Hene arukpa 


Guru-inne-adark 


A dog 


Shazi 


Eki kibo {i.e., a male dog) 


Iki-adark 


A bitch 


Shazi-mene 


Eki kine {i.e., a female 
dog.) 


Iki-kine-adark 


Dogs 


Shazi-menou 


Eki kibo arukpa 


Iki-kiding 


Bitches 


.... 


Eki kine arukpa 


Iki kine-kiding 



( 9 ) 



East of Assam. — (Continued.) 



24 



Abor. 


Sulik&t& Mishmees. 


Digaru Mishmees. 


!Englisb. 


Ome-kiding 


Aya-dolumbro 


Ah-]ang 


Daughters. 


Ome kidinke 


Aya-jipo 


Ah lange 


Of daughters. 


Ome kidi-li;ikke 


Ay a Inmbro 


Ah lang-bage 


To daughters. 


Ome kidiluk 


Ah lumbro 


Ah lang dogo 


From daughters. 


Atalxik ayne amya 


Khenge premupo 


Khinge-prao-nd,me 


A good man. 


Ataluk ayne mil 


Ehenge premuji 


Khinge-prao-name uage. . 


Of a good man. 


Ataluk ayne-miem 


"Khenge premujia 


Khinge-prao-name gao . , 


To a good man. 


Kidiluk ayne dmya 


Khenge-premu-polumbro 


Khinge-prao ndmedogo. . 


Erom a good man. 


Anikka-ayne-dmya 


Kani-praya-premu 


Kaeng-prd-maeh 


Two good men. 


Amya-ayne-apoya 


Prd-lumbro 


Pra-maeh-oelang 


Good men. 


Ayne-amy-kidinge 


Pra-imo-dolumbro 


Pra-maeh-langure 


Of good men. 


Ayne-amy-kidilukke 


Prd-imo-dolumbroji 


Pra-maeh-langbd 


To good men. 


Ayneji-amya-kidilukke . . 


Pra-imola-pradoibu imo 
dolumbroji. 


Pra da pragomoh maeh 
roilangdo. 


Prom good men. 


Ataluk ayrunek mienga, . 


Khenge pradu-aya 


Khinge-pra-miawa 


A good woman. 


Ayru mimen-kidinge - . 


Pradu-aya 


Pra-mia 


Good women. 


Ataluk ay tdma ah 


Kepate (or, khenge) ndpa 
khi ah. 


Khinge praiim ah 


A bad boy. 


Ataluk ayma-mimek 


Khenge-mipathy aku . . 


Khinge-prayam-mia 


A bad girl. 


Ayrunek or aydo 


Pradu or praijah or athopra 


Prd 


Good. 


Aidak-edem pesin-aiadak 


La praibo pradaibo 


Pra uagra pra 


Better. 


Apung kempe aiadak . . 


Tapum praibo 


Jomme-oii tagre prd 


Best. 


Bodod 


Euendo 


TJaji 


High. 


IJwitdak apung kern pun 
nama bodoiadak. 


Euendo ji iruendo 


Uaji game uaji 


Higher. 


Apung kempune bodod . . 


Tapume ji ruendo 


Jomme uaji 


Highest. 


Ataluk giire 


Kepate geera 


Khinge gouri 


A horse. 

• 


Bele gure 


Kepate geera dpi 


Uapi gouri 


A mare. 


Ghire kidinge 


Q-eera pajaibon 


Gouri lange 


Horses. 


dure kidarde,or gure bodok 


Geera apidjr 


Gouri lang 


Mares. 


Ataluk me^kkut cbowoo. . 


Kepdte ahepra adeva maju 


Khinge liakobo maju . , 


A bull. 


Ataluk chownek chow . . 


Kepate majii kro 


Khinge maju kro 


A cow. 


Mepakuta chow bodok . . 


Maju ahe pela doi-eboni . 


Maju lang, or maju lange 


Bulls. 


Chow nek kidinge 


Maju dolombro 


Maju Mng-ba 


Cows. 


Ataluk ekki 


Kepate eku 


Khinge lukui 


A dog. 


Ataluk kinek ekki 


Kepate eku iro 


Khinge uapikro lukui . . 


A bitch. 


Ekki kidinge . . • 


Eku paja, or eku du 


Lukui lang 


Dogs. 


Ekki kinek kidare 


Api eku doi-ebon 


Uapikro lukui roilang . . 


Bitches. 



D 3 



( 10 ) 



Languages of the North 



English. 


Aka. 


Duffla. 


Miri. 


A he-goat 


Shubshen-mubze 


Sabin Binpo 


Saven-adurk-Benba 


A she-goat 


„ mene 


Sabin Bine 


Saven-benne-adark 


Goats 


Shubshen-mubro 


Sabin arukpa 


Saven-kiding 


A male deer 


Shu-mubze 


Sodum dombo 


Domsong-sabo-adark ... 


A female deer 


Shu-mene 


Sodimi domne 


Domsong-sone-adark . . . 


Deer 


Shu-mubro 


Sodum arukpa 


Domsong-kiding 


I am 






Na-dong 


Thou art 






Na done 


He is 






Bido 


We are 






NUu do 


Tou are 






Nalusin done 


They are 






Buludo 


I was 






Nalu doai 


Thou wast 






Nasin dongka 


He was 






Bisin dongai 


We were 






NS,lusin dongai 


Tou were 




• • • • • • 


NS,lusin dongai 


They were 






Bulusin dongai 


Be 






Ipane 


To be 






Kaiepa 


Being 








Having been 






Katidainap 


I may be 






Namolap 


I shall be 






Naipa 


I should be 






N^iparnne 


Beat 






Pattaka 


To beat 






Pakaso 


Beating 






Pagoiala 


Having beaten 






Panaka 


I beat 




Ngojungto 


N^pasa 


Thou beatest 






Napdta 


He beats 






Bipata 


We beat 






Nalupata 


Tou beat 






Nalupata 


They beat 






Belupalu 


I am beating 






Napatidungdo 


I was beating 






N^patidana 


I had beaten 






NSpatara 


I may beat 






Ndpalap 



( 11 ) 



East of Assam. — (Continued.) 



24 y 



Abor. 


Sulikdtd Misbmees. 


Degaree Mishmess. 


English. 


Ataluk olioben 


Kepate maji 


Kbinge mabi (or maji) . . 


A be-goat. 


Ataluk mime choben . . 


Kepate api akro maji . . 


Kbinge uapi mdbi kro . . 


A sbe-goat. 


Ohoben benne kidare . . 


Maji dolombro 


Mabi langbd, 


Q-oats. 


Ataluk abuk cbimone . . 


Kepate dron mdjo 


Kbinge kari maju 


A male deer. 


Ataluk obonne cbimone. . 


Kepate api majo 


Kbinge uapi mdju 


A female deer. 


Ohiinone 


Majo 


Maju 


Deer. 


Ulu dunede 


Ngia Inmbro la ji ji 


Ha majo or Ning majo . - 


I am. 


Ngo andra dunea 


Ngio muji ga 


Nga ja mago idi 


Tbou art. 


Ngo bolug dunede 


Ngio apuji 


Ngleelang mdjo 


He is. 


Milum dunede 


Ebundnajigd 


Toji mdj 


We are. 


Ngolo dunea 


Ebund jiji 


Nga idig^ 


You are. 


Mi-lu-m6 dunede 


He-aibu ia ji jiga 


Ngoe lang-tba idi mdj . . 


Tbey are. 


XJla duned n^ 


Ngia bimbro igapo 


Ning idi ma 


I was. 


Ngo dunea ne 


Ngio jigja 


Nga iappa or gna idi md. . 


Tbou wast. 


Ngo-bolu bomade ddnedb 


Ngio-dpu mujiji 


Ngoe lang iappa 


He was. 


Milum tena dungan^ . . 


Ebundnajiga 


Taji lang idima 


We were. 


Ngolo du ngan6 


Ebund mujiga 


Nga iappa 


You were. 


Milu ma bulu du ngdne. . 


He-aibu mujiga 


Ngoelangtba iappa 


Tbey were. 


Al rune d6p6 


Aibo ab apd 


Emago esabo 


Be. 


E derung 


Aji poyd 


Gbabon 


To be. 


Nga nd 


Nga-6 


Hacbadima 


Being. 


Bomjah 


Bja jipo mijab 


Muja mang cbabo 


Having been. 


Ulu ipebo 


Ngialumbro eyokacbna . . 


Ning cbanane 


I may be. 


Ulu ippe 


Ngialumbro kacbna 


Ning oboend^ 


I sball be. 


Ulu dejie 


Ngialumbro mumota apa 


Ning icbabo 


I sbould be. 


Pyepe, papebo or ditake. . 


Nupd abu pra wa 


Hui buiboing 


Beat. 


Pyepe papebor 


Nupd dbu pra wa 


Hui buiboing 


To beat. 


Ditala 


Abu lyab 


Huiab mo 


Beating. 


Ditala na 


Abi lyab 


Hui ama 


Having beaten. 


Ulu pyepe papebo 


Ngialumbro abi lyab . . 


Ning bui buiboing 


I beat. 


Ngo ditak^ 


Ngio abu lyab 


Nga buiab 


Tbou beatest. 


Ngo bolu ditane 


Ngio-apu abu lyab 


Ngoelang bui ama 


He beats. 


Milum padun6 


Ebundna apu prala 


Tajibind6 


We beat. 


Ngolo ditane 


Ebund abu lyab 


Nga buiab 


You beat. 


Milume bolu ditd 


He-aibu abulyab 


Ngoelang-tba buiab 


Tbey beat. 


Ulu ditala 


Ngialombro mujiji lyab 


Ning majo mo buiab . . 


I am beating. 


Ulu dita 


Ngialombro igapo muja 


Ning idimab nuiab 


I was beating. 


Ulu padulal dita 


Ngialombro abu muja lyab 


Ning buiab miag 


I bad beaten. 


Ulu haidup dita 


Ngialombro padua^pya 
abu. 


Ning buiab bdn^-ing . . 


I may beat. 



24R 



( 12 ) 



Langua'jes of the North- 



English. 



Aka. 



iJuffla. 



Miri. 



I ehall beat 
I should beat 
I am beaten 
I was beaten 
I shall be beaten 

I go 

Thou goest 

He goes 

I went 

Thou wentest 

He went 

Go 

Going 

Gone 

What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? 



How far is it from here to 
Kashmir? 

How old are you ? 

How far is it from Tezpore 
to your house ? 

How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 

I haye walked a long way 
to-day. 



The son of my untfle is 
married to his sister. 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse. 



Put the saddle upon his 
back. 

Put the saddle upon the 
horse's back. 

I have beaten his son with 
many stripes. 



Nimre za tenthene (Tour 
name what is called ?J 



Nidren k'unia (Your age 
what is ?) 



Ni aboaner kunia zu due ? 
(Your father how many 
sons has ?) 

Hungu meringi dene (To- 
day a long way have 
come-) 



Neme lonru mugrang gorra 
zimduene (In the house 
the white horse's) 
(saddle is) 



Zime gorra mugubang 
rome (The saddle the 
horse's back place on.) 

Ezu muno vegune (His son 
severely have beaten.) 



Ngo ngbo 



Ngo ngpane 



Ngniku 

Ngne Kobobo 

Ngne Koba 

Hogo mangmina (what 
name.) 



NS,papa 
NSpaperune 
Nam pata 
Nam paka 
N&m papa 

N§, gikape 

Na gifcala 

Bigia 

Ndgika 

Nagikan 

Bigikan 

Gikapen 

Gila 

Gikang 

Nakke amine akkon 



Ide gure detakpe idi-ka- 
idun 

Sakke kasmir bapa idika 
mate dang. 



Tezporiso noubo hodugo 
adopa (Prom Tezpore 
your home how far is.) 

Nao aboga kaoa akupa 
(Father's house sons how 
many.) 

Ngo adobo angena solo 
(I far have walked today) 



Ngo piega kao maga bor- 
mem sebedodona (My 
uncle's son his sister 
has married.) 



Nakke abbaterloke a-kum- 
nak ana idekan. 

Ni. sila abaka giga tai . . 



Nake paike ane bikke bir- 
mina midangem mola 
langka. 

Kampane gureke zim em- 
alsum arala dong. 



Bike lamkula zim emrag- 
lukta. 



Magq kaom ale jungpene 
(His son well I have 
beaten). 



Bikke anemna abaka pa- 
bita. 



( 13 ) 



249 



East of Assam. — (Continued.) 



Abor. 



Sulik&tfi Mishmees. 



Degaree Mishmees. 



English. 



Ulu ding kape dita 
TJlu dita pone 
Ulu padune dita 
Ulu mo padtdal dita 
Ulu mo di abo dita 

Ulu gikappe 

Ngo giappe 

Ngo bolu gieppo 

Ulu gikubo jigidrakane 

Ngo homade gikang 

Ngo bolu gikang 

Gipeji giep^ 

Aikabbo 

Aikang 

Nakke ingko a mune 

Bsigure adit ditakaji 



Sak kidi Kashmir bolop6 
edit dadi ? 



Nakk^ abo ekumel editke 
kud dule. 

Ng;a sil bajerengkagigay 
eka giku ji gigayeka. 

Bukke burme demukke 
paieke d,deya mane m^t. 



Ekku mardb dune gatad 
yasile gure delak pima 
myah. 

Gdtad dem langku put . . 



Bakke ad^ manga* bajek. 
ditto. 



Ngialombro ahu prawa . . . 
Ngialombro ahu proa jiva 
Ngialombro ahu lai 
Ngialombro ahu proa lyah 
Ngialombro na-ahu pra 



wa. 



Ngialombro bapra wayah 

Ngio banalah 

Ngio-apu balyah 

Ngialombro babyah 

Ngio banabah 

Ngio apu belaga edya 

Bala uji or baladra 

Bamiah 

Babya 

New siladrd amu 

Heya geerdmag phid,hd ... 



Ejaniba ba kashmir ajige 
mag fiaha ? 



New haba ah ji ji ga 



Nga etani mala guge 
mya la aghuha. 

Heya athi ebo ah yabi 
gyah. 



Nga kua andye lapna 
geera ayah jiji paya. 



Andaye lamra puru 



Newa nga midu hula pata 



Ning hui giji band^ 
Ning hui band6 
Ning hiwa huiah. 
Ning huiah mag 
Ning hui ing tia 

Ning hoende. 

Nga hay a 

Ngoelang habo 

Ning hoya 

Nga re habo 

Ngoelang mahabo 

Bonende or habo 

Bande 

Habo 

Na muja amang 

E gourikadening saba . . 

Eg kashmir kadego daeng 



Na naba ango kadago ah 
i ieng. 

Ha tahing dd daniaga 
khiep hana hada humobo. 

Umjage mathi hage naba 
you ige wa sabo. 



I shall beat. 
I should beat. 
I am beaten. 
I was beaten. 
I shall be beaten. 

I go. 

Thou goest. 

He goes. 

I went. 

Thou wentest. 

He went. 

Go. 

Going. 

Gone. 

What is your name. 

How old is this horse. 

How far is it from here to 
Kashmir ? 

How old are you ? 

How far is it from Tezpore 
to your house ? 

How many sons are there 
in your father's house ? 

I have walked a long way 
to-day. 

The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 



Nga tia ieh dipa la gouri 
g^ roi sag6. 



Dip takhengre umja um- 
pling h^ dana. 



Hujake ah ha da limbo. 



In the house is the saddle 
of the white horse. 



Put the saddle upon his 
back. 

Put the saddle upon the 
horse's back. 



I have beaten his son with 
many stripes. 

D 4 



250 



( 14 ) 



Languages of the North- 



Englisfa. 



Aka. 



Duffla. 



Miri. 



He is grazing cattle on the 
top of the hill. 



His brother is taller than 
his sister. 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 

He is sitting on a stone 
under that tree. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half 

The price of this is 2 or 3 
rupees. 

What is the price of that 
thing ? 

My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him ... 



Take this rupee from him 



Take those rupees from 

him. 
Beat him well and brad 

him with ropes. 
Tou beat him well and 

bind him well with ropes 



Draw water from the well. 
Draw water from this 
hoUow. 

Walk before me ... 



Whose boy comes behind 
you? 

From whom did you buy 
that? 

From a shop-keeper of the 
village. 



Shufshekhun (the cattle 
the keeper) phong (the 
hill) mud or (top on) 
khenru (is grazing). 

Enu (his brother) enie (his 
sister) mudome (is taller 
than). 



Thou (that) gunne (tree) 
molonrun (under) golong 
(a stone) nu (the man) 
unduru (is sitting on). 



Tankha-ruphu (rupees) 
guni (two) [or] gothen 
(three) jonkhane (is worth.) 

Hunso (that thing) khenia 
(how much) jonkhane ? 
(is worth). 

Nia (my) aboa (father) 
nen (a house) muzuru 
(small) dionru (is living 
in). 

Tankha-ruphu (the rupee) 
phon (his) igiru (hand 
in) bime (place). 

Thankha-ruphu (the rupee) 
phon (his) igiru (hand 
in) khalune (take). 



Thou (you) ero (him) 
mivi (well) vem (beat) 
oddu (with ropes) mivi 
(well) jome (bind). 



Vze (water) thong (the 

hollow) lubime (bring 

from^ 
So (go) niang (me) mivia 

deme (in front of [and] 

walk.) 
Theu (whose) zu (son) 

ni (you) nerun (behind) 

dehou (is walking?) 
Hunzo (that thing) khio 

lune (who from [you] 

have bought) ? 
Gibiang (the village) nu 

(a man) untsonru (a 

shop-keeper from) lune 

(have bought). 



AJo bangnia modi aoa seh 
rakido (That person the 
hill-top cattle is graz- 
ing on). 

Alo bormeam boroaaoiopa 
(His sister than his bro- 
ther is shorter) . 



Sengne lakinga elengava 
dungpa (That tree under 
stone top of he is sitting) . 

Aso kere baringola adoli- 
go (That thing^s price is 
two rupees and a half). 



Ngo abo alo oupenchun- 
galo dodona (My father 
that small house lives in) . 



Sotungka barsom alo 
bikto(This one rupee him 
give). 

Aloke tunga noto (From 
him the rupees take) . 



Amalebo jungto usolo 
nolo leto (Him well beat, 
rope bring and bind). 



Kal soke esilo tokto (From 
this hollow water draw) . 

Ngo atokbo oke (My front 

go)- 

Hygia kao nokoionga 
angdona (Whose boy 
behind you is going) ? 

Nao ejia hogolukko rae- 
pena (Your cloth where 
from did you buy) ? 

Hogoga gola aloko ren- 
gaena (The village a shop- 
keeper from I brought). 



Aditai ata bi garam menja- 
gam nesin domola dag- 
ane. 



Bikke birmeden penem 
bikke bir&de o-dak. 



EUu ising rumkingola 
gure taleda sala dung. 



Ellekem barnika adha- 
lika. 



Nake babubi amene ak- 
umala doda. 



Edemmurka abarsemlim 
bitaka. 

Bik kalukem markang ki- 
dingem lotak. 



Bim aipa pataka aru bim 
soriku 



Sirano: aralak asika tal- 



Nak karasa gidong gitak 
taka. 

Nak leduda sek ane gid- 
ang. 

Edem sekelak na rakan. 



Daulolak dokanloke. 



( 15 ) 



East of ^ssam .-^(Concluded.) 



251 



Abor. 



Sa1ikdt& Mishmees. 



Degaroe Mishmees. 



English. 



Ba aditeya tel chow uh. E heia ii ang gupu maju 
raki dung. halni 



Biikke dbung nge bukke 
hurm^ dem hodoya dung. 

Ah eching rung king elha 
gure la chd la dung. 



Bukke are bame hala abilik 
odeba. 



TJkke dbuge tat jk ja ( 
anjab ekum la dung. 



Sim abar sim bdmdeh 
bitakkka. 



Ah heia apia aheya athi a 
roind. 



Heia aganuah ddbo e heia 
geera ja jigya. 



Aheya aji geya e mu kani 
atig^ ay ho. 



Nga nala nd ah hi majia 



Eja pro preme ha ala 



Bukke teluk morkung temo 

latka. 
Ay rup^ pdtke ekung borne 

soruluk ya wdka. 



Seringla achi utka 



Ngake keral apune 

Nakke mela mal sekka ke 
kinge gidang ne. 

Sekkelak edem retanee . . 



Daluldk bakke kare bakke 
lak. 



Ahaia e hemahe pow ahu 

hoha agay. 
Pre agay hoop jibu eja al 

bion jiji abd. 



Eu poma ajia maji bogen 



Agu prage lama 



Nas mita asia ah iga yaba 



Esu ayga ne ayha isima 
loga lah. 

An ma kheng ge abiji 
ehenia. 



Eeja thiago maju hugura 



Eage napung rega mathe 
14ge mdja daring ohabo. 

Ee masang halag reja 
gouri choha. 



Roige taju pla kaeng ahali 
chamag. 



Ha geiidba nab4 ringya 
roija ligyago iah. 



E paring pla reba halang 



Umja dogo paring re che- 

nna. 
Pralon howina roigum roi 

ja kowrig gowri chona. 



Toingo maji ryna 



Hajed hemna 



Na umplig oha ah bana ha 



Eoida roiga chad brichia 



Mih matingo khing ge 
briadon brichia. 



He is grazing cattle on the 
top of the hill. 



His brother is taller than 
her sister, 



He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 

He is sitting on a stone 
under that tree. 



The price of that is two 
rupees and a half. 

The price of this is 2 or 3 
rupees. 

What is the price of that 
thing? 



My father lives in that 
small house. 



Give this rupee to him. 



Take this rupee from him 



Take those rupees from 

him. 
Beat him well and bind 

him with ropes. 
You ■ beat him well and 

bind him well with ropes 



Draw water from the well. 
Draw water from this 
hollow. 

Walk before me. 



Whose boy comes behind 
you? 

From whom did you buy 
that. . 

From a shop-keeper of the 
village. 



LIST OF WORDS AKD PHRASES 



iS THB 



<^^/^£L^^. 



LANGUAGE OF EACH OF THE/TRIBES 



rOUMD TTTTnTW TTTr /^>L-- 




DISTRICT OF SIBSAGAR, ASSAM. 



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60 g^ 
9 ^«« 

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rd 



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ft -53 



60 

d . 

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03 .r-l 
rd 

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r;i a 



d rt f^ 
o 9 03 

CO += 

EC 
03 02 'r-l 



03 

03 rd 
05 -4-9 



" 2^ 

rd r^ 



OQ i-d 



03 

Ah 



^ a 

03 rd 

S-g 

rd P 



03 03 

60° 
602 

rd 

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03 

d:S 
o 

u 

bO03 
Pl^ 

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w 



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en 



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ft 

e 

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03 



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o 



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EH 



la 



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IS 



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o 
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to -iH 



o 



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CO--! 



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pi 

a 

rid 



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03 

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03 

fl 

Pi 
sag 



a> &o 



a 



a p3 j^- 



O 



c3 

n 

03 

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a 

o 

a 

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pi 

a 

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a 

fl 



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a 



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Ph 
fl 

pi 

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C3 I 

2§ g 

■■^ "El, 

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60 



60 

«c8 60 

>4 o 



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-.- 60 m 



Ph 



60 
»c3 
60 

a 
o 

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60 Pi 
H ^=3 



6po 



CD 

to 



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60 

05 

a 

M 



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60 60 

i 1=1 



60 
Pi 
mS 



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I— I 



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a feo 

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a '^ 

oj j;^ 
60 



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a 

pi 

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03 



pi 

1=1 CJ 
03 



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rP 



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60 2 

el g 



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d 



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I 

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o 

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fj ..CO 



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rd 

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60 

d 

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d 

a 

60 

d 

sc3 



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rd 



pi 




rd 




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n. 


60 


n 


d 


M 


-s 


.n9 



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6C 

d 

60 

d 



o 



d 

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C3 
60 

a 

03 



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rd 



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60 

d 



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a 

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267 





DEKA HIMONG DIALECT (NAGA HILLS). 




Numerals. 


Silver 


. . Tareebee in. 


One 


. . Aka. 


Father 


. . Tob(v>. 


Two 


.. KnL 


Mother 


.. T^tteh^. 


Three 


. . Ashum. 


Brother 


. . Tenoo. 


Four 


.. Pojjo. 


Sister 


. . Tenn<Po. 


Five 


. . Pongo. 


Man 


. . Nishung. 


Six 


. . Torok. 


Woman 


.. T^toh^r 


Seven 


.. T6nn^tt. 


Wife 


. . Geejaungchu. 


Eight 


.. Tee. 


Child 


.. T^.ttcheer. 


Nine 


. . Toko. 


Son 


. . Cheer. 


Ten 


.. T^rr. 


Daughter 


.. Tennu. 


Twenty 


. . Muttcho. 


Slave 


.. Alar. 


Fifty 


. . T^n^m. 


Cultivator 


. . Allocveem^r 


Hundred 


. . Teleng, or nuklang. 


Shepherd 


. , M^r 4 cheeba 




Pronouns. 


God 


. . lioongkee-jeengba, 


I 


. . Nee. 


Devil 


., Sungrum. 


We 


. . Onook. 


Sun 


. , Anno. 


You 


.. N4. 


Moon 


.. Eta. 


He 


.. Pa. 


Star 


. . Petteenu. 


They 


. . Parenook. 


Fire 


.. Me, 


Of me 


. . Kou, or ko. 


Water 


.. Chu. 


Of us 


• • Ojjo- 


House 


. . Kee. 


Of you 


. . Nnoo. 


Horse 


. . Koorr. 


Of him 


.. Parr. 


Cow 


. . Nasee chula. 


Of them 


. . Parre nook. 


Dog 


.. Ajjo. 


Mine 


. . Kou. 


Cat 


. . Tannoo. 


Our 


.. Ojjo. 


Cock 


. . An tooboong. 


Your 


.. Nar. 


Duck 


.. Pattiik. 


His 


.. Par. 


Ass 


. . Have no such name in nga 


Their 


. . Parronook. 




language. 


Hand 


.. Teka. 


Camel 


.. Ditto ditto. 


Foot 


• . T^moo-boo. 


Bird 


.. Ujjo. 


Nose 


. . T^nee. 


Go 


.. Wang. 


Eye 


. . Tnok. 


Eat 


.. Jungang. 


Mouth 


• 
. . Tebang. 


Sit 


.. Ta^m^n. 


Tooth 


. . T^poo. 


Come 


. . Arung. 


Ear 


. . Tdnarung. 


Beat 


.. Tajjok. 


Hair 


.. Koo. 


Stand 


. . TiS-nuktak. 


Head 


. . Tukolak. 


Die 


.. Tasdr. 


Tongue 


.. Tdm^Iee. 


Give 


.. Agejang. 


Belly 


.. Tubok. 


Run 


.. Tas^m. 


Back 


. . Trungtung. 


Up 


. . Ajjoklen. 






Near 


. . Anasa. 


Iron 


.. In, 







268 



( 2 ) 



Who 


. Seeba. 


From a good man 


. Nishung atjung mmg-^. 


And 


. Anou. 


Good men 


. Nishung tajung nunger. 


Yes 


. An. 


Of good men 


. Nishung tajung nunger 


Down 


. T^lung. 




nong. 


Far 

What 

But 


. Ta]4ng. ■ 
. K^tehee. 
. Jookoo. 


To good men 
From good men .. 


. Nishung tajung nunger 
nong. 

. Nishung tajung nunger 
nung. 


No 


. Nunga. 


A good woman .. 


. T^ttcher tajung. 


Before 


. Tej^kl^n. 


Good women 


. Tettcher tajung t^se. 


Behind 


. T^s^l^n. 


A bad boy 


. Tanoor tam ajung. 


Whj 


. Kasa. 


A bad girl 


. Tettcher janoo tarn ajung. 


If 


. Aj angla. 


Good 


• Tajung. 


Alas 


. Ai-t^i. 


Better 


. Kanga Jung. 


A father 


. Toboo. 


Best 


. Tajung tuba. 


Of a father 


Toboo nong. 


High 


. T4lAng. 


To a father 


. Toboo nong. 


Higher 


. Talangbd. 


From a father 


Toboo nong-^. 


Highest 


. Talang teeba. 


Fathers 


. Toboo nong-^r. 


A horse 


. Koorr tooboongka. 


Of fathers 


Toboo nong^r nung. 


A mare 


. Koorr t^ttch^ka. 


To fathers 


Toboo nonger nung. 


Horses 


Koorr teluk. 


From fathers 


Toboo nonger nung^. 


Mares 


. Koor t^ttcheluk. 


A daughter 


T^nno. 


A bull 


. Nashee poongcheeka. 


Of a daughter . . 


Tennola nong. 


A cow 


Nashee chulaka. 


To a daughter 


Tennola nong. 


Bulls 


Nashee poongcheeluk. 


From a daughter.. 


Tennola nunge. 


Cows 


. Nashee chula luk. 


Daughters 


Tennoola nunger. 


A dog 


. Ajjoka 


Of daughters 


Tennoola nunger nong. 


A bitch 


. Ajjo tetcheka. 


To daughters 


Tennoola nunger nong. 


Dogs 


Ajjo luk. 


From daughters .. 


Tennoola nunger nunge. 


Bitches 


Ajjo tetcheluk. 


A good man 


Nishung tajung. 


A he-goat 


Naboongka. 


Of a good man .. 


Nishung tajung-nung. 


A female goat 


Naboong tetcheka. 


To a good man ... 


Nishung tajung-nong. 


Goats 


Naboong luk. 


Naga have not any name for deer, becai 


ise in the mountain have no such animal. 


I am 


Ne are. 


You were 


Nenook leeasho. 


You are 


Na are. 


Be 


Leea torn. 


We are 


Onook are, 


To be 


Leea tomcho. 


He is 


Pa are. 


Having been 


Leea tomasho. 


They are 


Par^nook are. 


I may be 


Ne leeatom laba. 


I was 


Ne leeasho. 


I shall be 


Ne leeatom -lar. 


We were 


Onook leeasho. 


I should be 


Ne leeatomlaba. 


You were 


Na leeasho. 


Beat 


T4jok. 


He was 


Pa leeasho 


To beat 


Tajokcho. 


They were 


Pas^nook leeasho. 


Having beaten . . 


Ajok. 



( 3 ) 



269 



I beat 


. . Ne ajok. 


I am beaten 


. Ne ajok. 


You beat 


.. Naajok. 


I was beaten 


, Ne joka leeasho. 


He beats 


. . Pa ajok. 


I shall be beaten , 


, Nejoklar. 


We beat 


. . Onook^ ajok. 


I go 


. Ne odee. 


You beat 


. . Nenook^ ajgk. 


Thou goest 


. Na odage. 


They beat 


. . Par^nook^ ajok. 


He goes 


. Pa autcher. 


I am beating 


. . Ne jodkage. 


I went 


. Ne orr. 


I was beating 


. . Ne jokeealee. 


You went 


. Nauka. 


I had beaten 


. . Ne joko leeasho. 


He went 


. Pa uka. 


I may beat 


. . Ne jokter. 


Go 


. Wang. 


I shall beat 


. . Ne jokla. 


Going 


. Odage. 


I should beat 


. . Ne joklaba. 


Gone 


. Ugo. 



What is your name ? 

How old is this horse ? ... 

How far is it from here to Kashmir ? 

I have walked a long way to-day 

How many sons are there in your father's 
house ? 

The son of my uncle is married to her sister 

In the house is the saddle of the white horse 

Put the saddle upon his back 

I have beaten his son with many stripes 

He is grazing cattle on the top of the hill 

He is sitting on a horse under that tree 

His brother is taller than his sister 

The price of that is two rupees and a half ... 

My father lives in that small house 

Give this rupee to him ... 

Take those rupees from him 

Beat him well and bind him with ropes 

Walk before me 

Whose boy comes behind you ? ... 
From whom did you buy that ? 
From a shop-keeper of the village 



Nenong seeba ? 

Koorr ya kam kooyee ? 

Yung neeng^ Kashmir koopeega ? 

Ne tanno apeega senogo., 

Noboor keedang^ t^tcheer kooyeega ale ? 

Ugalar cheere tenootu keye av, 

Koorr tamisung m^nd^n jee kee dang lur. 

Koorr rungtung nung mend^n al^n lakang 

Ne paro cheer dang aeeb^n jukok^hua. 

Attang kulak nung pa nasheet^luk jeeung. 
dak cho dagee. - 

Aba sungjungnungjeCj koorr rungtung nung 
suager pa m^na leer. 

Paro tenoo dang pa teno talangba. 

Aba alangjee tatchak ana s^r a dole^a. 

Obalabo otjee kee talaba nung leer. 

Tatchak ebai panong ag^jang. 

Pak6t nunge sun jee honarong. 

Padak jung junga tuper, leesho age s^nt^ka 
yuang chuboo nung chuda tetang. 

Kejak dang ja jang. 

N^s^l^n sire cheer aroodagee ? 

Na ajee seeba dang alee ? 

Kee a nung aleeba gula nunge alee. 



The above is a list of words and phrases translated into the language spoken by the 
Deka Himong Nagas, and has been compiled by a Native Christian teacher attached to the 
Baptist Mission at Seebsaugor. 



LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES 



LANGUAGE OE THE TEIBES 



HrHABITISa THB 



KHASI AND JYNTEAH HILLS. 



272 



( 2 ) 



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o 

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o 









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si 



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a, 

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n 


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13 


a 


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g [>> f^ f^ 

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bo 

fl l-H 

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12; 



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p 



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o 



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( 3 ) 



273 



O T-l 

o o 



a 








CD 


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b«) 


bn 


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be 

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tH CO . ,y &! 



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bo 

d 
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be 

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a fl d d 



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he >» ,i4 
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274 



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BURMESE LANGUAGES COMPARED WITH OTHERS. 



e 1 



286 



( 2 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmah. 


Mekir of Cachar. 


Muneepooree. 


Tonghtoo of Burmah. 


Numerals. 










One 


Neung 


Ichi 


Am4 


Ta-bah 


Two 


Hsaung 


Hiai 


Anee 


Nee-bah 


Three 


Hsam 


•Ketham 


Ahum 


Thom-bah 


Four 


Hsee 


Kli 


Maree 


Lit, or leet-bah . . 


Five 


Hah 


Kuno 


Monga 


Ngat-bah 


Six 


Hok 


Tharak 


Taru 


Thoo-bah 


Seven 


Sit 


Tharakachi 


Taret 


Noot-b^h 


Eight 


Pet 


Nerkeb 


Nipal 


Thaut-bah 


Nine 


Kow 


Chirkeb 


Mapol 


Koot-bah 


Ten 


Hseep 


Kep 


Tar^ 


Tah-tsee 


Eleven 










Twenty 


Hsow 


I kae 


Kul 


Nee-htsee 


Fifty 


Hah hseep 


Kuaekep 


Yenkai 


Ngat htsee 


Hundred 


Pak 


Unknown 


Chdmd 


Taryah, or ta-reah. . 


Pronouns. 










I 


Kow-khah 


Ne 


Ai 


Kh6ay 


We 


How-khah 


Ndngthu 


Ikha 


Nee-kho 


Thou 


Mul 




Nang 


Na 


You 


Hsoo 


Nangthum 


Nang khoi 


Tsee, or thee 


He 


Man 


Lake 


Ma 


Weh 


They 


Khow 


Halake 


M^khoi 


Weh-tsee 


Of me 


Kow-khah 


Ne 


Inganda 


Kho^y-akhrong . . 


Of us 


How-khah 


Nangthum 


Ikhoda 


Nee-akhrong 


Of thee 


Mul 




Nangonda 


N a-akhrong 


Of you 


Hsoo 


Nang 


Ndnghkoida 


Thee-akhrong 


Of him 


Man 


Bang 


Mangandd 


Weh-^khrong 


Of them 


Khow 




Makhoidd 


Weh- tsee-akhrong 


Mine 


Kow-khah 


Ne .. 


■^igi 


Kh6ay-t& 


Thy 










Our 


How-khah 


Ndngthum 


Ikhoigi 


Nee-ta, 


Thine 


Mul 




N^ngi 


Na-ta 


Your 


Hsoo 


Nang 


Nangkhoigi 


Thee-ta 


His 


Man 


Bang 


Maigi 


Weh-ta, 


Their 


Khow 




Makhoigi 


Weh-tsee-ta 


Hand 


Meu 


Ibi 


Khul 


Tsoo, or tsu 


Foot 


Teen 


Ikeng 


Khong 


Khang 


Nose 


Hkoo-lang 


Nakang 


Natol 


Nee-phoo 


Eye 


Tah, or mak-tah . . 


I mek 


Mit 


Mai 


Mouth 


Hsop 


Inghu 


Chil 


Phrong 



(.3 ) 



comp ared with others. 



287 



Poi of Buimah. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmah.) 


Sonthali of Sonthal Pergunnahs, 
Western Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Nagpore, Western 

Bengal. 


a • 

English. 


Pakar 


Moa 


Mit' 


Miyad 


One. 


Punnai 


Ba 


Barea 


Baria 


Two. 


Puttao 


Pe 


Pea 


Apia 


Three. 


PapuUe 


Paun 


Pnea 


Upunya 


Four. 


Papar 


P-sone, or m-sone 


Mor6 


Monian 


Five. 


Passeru 


K-rouj or t-reou . . 


Turui 


Tuniya 


Six. 


Passare 


K-pauh, or ht-pauh 


Eae 


Eyd 


Seven. 


Passarea 


K-cham, or t-cham 


Iral 


Iralya 


Eight. 


Passaku 


K-cheet or t-cheet 


Ar^ 


Areya 


Nine. 


Parrar 


Chauh 
Ghauh-moa 


Gel 


Gelya 


Ten. 
Eleven. 


Pakke 


Ba-cho 


Mit'-isi 


Miyad hisi . , 


Twenty. 


Sawpa 


P-sone-cho 


Bar-isi-g^l 


Bar hisi gelya 


Fifty- 


Yokor 


Klaun 


More-isi 


Moni hisi 


Hundred. 


Kama 


Oa 


In 


Ain or In 


I. 


Hse er se 


Pooey* 


A-le-a-bon, a-b 


Ale 




We. 


Nama 


M-neh* 


Am 


Am 




Thou. 


Numai 


M-neh-tau* 


A-pe 


Ape 




You. 


Amaya 


Nyeh* 


Ach' (ai:) 


Ini 




He. 


Mee er se 


Nyeh-tau* 


A-ko 


Ako 




They. 






In-ren, or'* reak' . . 


Ainya 




Of me. 






Ale-ren, or rea 


Alea 




Of us. 






Am-ren, or reak' 


Ama 




Of thee. 






Ape-ren, or rea 


ApeS 




Of you. 






Ach'-ren, or reak' . . 


Inig, 




Of him. 






Ako-ren, or reak' . . 


Akoa 




Of them. 






Tin 


Same as above 


Mine. 






Ta-m 




Thy. 






Ta-le 


• ■ • • • 9 


Our. 
Thine. 






Ta-pe 




Your. 






Ta-e 




His. 






Ta-ko 




Their. 


Ku 


Toa 


Ti 


Ti 




Hand. 


Ape 

Nan pussu 

Mhay 

Apakar 


Chung 
Moo 
Mote 
Paing 


Jahga 
Mu 
Met' 
Mocha 


Kdtd 
Mun 
Met 
Mochd, 




Foot. 
Nose. 
Eye. 
Mouth. 




inr Tinaition. — NomiDatire pre 


cedes Verb: Obieotiye follows Yei 


b J Possessive place 


daf 


tor the thing possessed. 



288 



( 4 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmali. 


Mekir of Cachar. 


Mimeepooree. 


Tonghtoo of Bunnah. 


Tooth 


Khyo 


Icho 


Y^ 


Ta-nga 




Ear 


Hoc 


Imo 


Nakong 


Na 


... 


Hair 


Khoon 


Ichhuu 


Sam 


Ta-loo 


... 


Head 


Ho 


Iku 


Kok 


Ka-too 


■•• 


Tongue 


Leen 


Ide 


Lei 


Plee 


, , , 


Belly 


Taung 


Ipak 


Puk 


H6 


... 


Back 


Lang 


Inung 


Namgan 


Ng^m 


... 


Iron 


Lik 


Ingchin 


Yot 


Pathee 


... 


Gold 


Kham 


Cher 


Sand 


Khdm 


... 


Silver 


Ngeun 


Rup 


Rupa 


Ron 


... 


Father 


Pau 


Po 


Pa 


Pha 


. . . 


Mother 


Me 


Pe 


Ma 


Moo, or mu 


... 


Brother 




Nekor 


Muchimanan 






Brother (elder) 


Pee-sai 






Wai-kho 


... 


Brother (youager) ... 


Naung-sai 






Poo 


... 


Sister 




Injurpi 


Machal 







Sister (elder) 


Pee-nang 






Wai-moo 


... 


Sister (younger) 


Naung-yeeng 






Poo-moo 


... 


Man 


Ko on, or koon-sai, 
or hpoo-sai. 


Pincho 


Nipd 


Log 


... 


Woman 


Koon-y e e n g , or 
or hpoo-yeeng, or 
me-yeeng. 


Arnocho 


Nupi 


Loe-moo 


... 


Wife 


May 


Nepicho 


Motu 


M^h 


... 


Child 


Look 


Uchhaydr 


Machd 


Loe-pai 


. • . 


Son 


Look-sai 


Uchho 


Nipa macha 


Pog 


■ •• 


Daughter 


Look-yeeng 


Nechhapi 


Nupi macha 


Poe-moo 


..• 


Slave 


Khah 


Bdn 


Mmdi 


Thon 


• •' 


Snake 












Cultivator 


Koon-hit-nah 


Chaigdtiki 


Lon-noa mi 






Shepherd 


Koon-layng-hso ... 


Bigabiyabang 


Shan silvd 






God 


Hprah 


Arnamgete 


Lai 


PMh 


... 


Devil 


Mah-nat 


Chelango 


Tamnaba 


Takie, or takye 


... 


Sun 


Kang-wan 


Ami 


Numit 


Mu, or moo 




Moon 


Leiin 


ChekeM 


Thd 






Star 


Low 


Tiklangcho 


Thdodlmichak ... 


Hts^ 


■ • * 


Fire 


Hpai 


Me 


Mdi 


Mai 


• •• 


Water 


Nam 


Lang 


Ising 


Htee 


... 


House 


Hefin 


Hem 


Tm 


Lam 


• •< 


Horse 


Ma 


Lochhai 


Sdgal 


Thai 





( 5 ) 



compared with others. — (Continued.) 



289 



Poi of Burmoh. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmali.) 


Sontliali of Sonthal Pergunnalis, 
Western Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Magpore, Western 

Bengal. 


English. 


Ahow 


Gna-uk 


Data 


Data 


Tooth. 


Nakaw 


K-to 


Lutur 


Lutur 


Ear. 


Asshur 


Soke 


Up' 


Ub 


Hair. 


Lu 


K-dou, or k-neep . 


Boho 


Bo 


Head. 


PuUai 


L-tike 


Alan 


Alan or lee ... 


Tongue. 


Re 


K-na-ou 


Lach' 


Lai 


Belly. 


Nowlir 


Cha 


Dea 


Deyd 


Back. 


Tewaie 


P-soa 


Merhet' 


Mened 


Iron. 


Noung 




Soua 


Samarum 


Gold. 




Saun 


Rupa 


Rupa 


Silver. 


Opar 


Ma, or ma-auk 


A pa, baba 


Apu 


Patber. 


Onor 


Me or yai 


Enga, ayo 


Engd 


Motber. 


Antar 


Kou 


Boiha, bokot 


Hagd 


Brotber. 
Brotber (elder). 




Ta 






Brotber (younger). 


! Shirtanoung 


Boa 
Ta-pra-ow 


Mis-era 


Misl 


Sister. 

Sister (elder). 
Sister (younger). 


Soirhar 


M-neeh, or m-neeh- 


Herel 


Horo (generic), 


Man. 




troo. 




Kord. 


> 


Sanoung 


M-neeh pra-ou 


Maejiu 


Kdri 


Woman. 


Alapenoung 


Pra-ou 


Era, aimai 


Kurl 


Wife. 


Trasenoung 


Knone 


Gidra 


Hon 


Cbild. 


Harsepa 


Kone-troo 


Kora-hopon 


Kora bon 


Son. 




Kone- pra-ou 


Kori-bopon 


Kiiri hon 


Daughter. 


Hshajr 


Deik 


Guti 


Dasi(bired) ... 


Slave. 


Purre 








Snake. 




Mneeh klone p-gnaer 


Siok'-icb' 


Kisan 


Cultivator. 




P-mong-soh 


Gupi 


Mabra; 
gupitani. 


Sbepberd. 




Kyike 


Thakur, bonga 


Sing bonga=: 
sun spirit. 


God. 




K-lok ma-er 


Maran-buru 


Bonga (all 
malicious 
spirits). 


Devil. 


Nai 


T-gnoa 


Ber-sin-cbando 


Singi 


Sun. 


Klapar 


K-to 


(Ninda) chando 


Cbandu 


Moon. 


Ase 


S-nong 


Ipil 


Ipil 


Star. 




K-mote 


Sengel 


Sengel 


Fire. 


Te 


Dike 


Dak' 


Dda 


Water. 


Aem 


S-gnee 


Ar-aF 


Oraa 


House. 


V 


Cheh 




Sadom 


Horse. 



290 



( 6 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmah. 


Mekir of Cachar. 


Muneepooree. 


Tonghtoo of Burmah. 


Cow 


Woom^ 


Chdinong 


SuUamon 


Po-moo 


Dog 


Mah 


Mdtan 


Whui 


Htwee 


Tiger 


% 








Cat 


Meow 


Meng 


H&udang 


Ngyoung 


Cock 


Kai-pau 




Y^t 


Khya-tee 


Hen 










Duck 


Pit 


Bukak 


Nganu 


Kam-piS 


Ass 


Lau 




Lala 




Camel 


Ka-la-ook 




Ut 




Bird 


Nok 


Bowo 


Uchok 


wah 


Eice 










Chillies 










Bamboo 










Plantain 










Elephant 










Go 


Kwah 


T)i 


Cholo 


Loay 


Eat 


Keen 


Chhanon 


Chao 


Am 


Sit 


Nang 


Ininan 


Phamo 


Ong-lSng 


Come 


Mah 


Bdngnun 


Laku or Lao 


Lon 


Beat 


Yen, or pau, or 
tayng. 


Bagnun 


Yeoi yu 


Tway 


Stand 


Sook 


Ar japman 


Lepu 


Ong-htong 


Die 


Tai 


Titanglo 


Shiro 


Thee 


Give 


Pan 


Ke 


Piu 


Phay 


Buy 










Kill 










Drink 










Eun 


Len 


Kachang chang ... 


Chelu 


Losing 


Sell 










Up 


Neft 


Thurnan 


Mathak 


0-kyee 


Down 


Tul 


Ininan 


Makha 


0-Ia 


Before 


Nah, or pah-nah ... 


Aphrang 


Mamang 


Tha-ngah 


Near 


Sam 


Idung 


Nak 


Ban, or baw 


Far 


Kai 


Akai hinapi 


Arapa 


Ngyah 


Behind 


Lang or pah-lang... 


Api 


TungdS 


Tha-khya 


Who 


Hpulj or hpoo-lul... 


Kamadama 


Kand 


P^mie 


What 


Kah-hsang, or hsang 


Kapima 


Kari 


Tamie 


Why 


Hit-heu-le, or hit- 
hsang-le. 


Kapima 


Karina 


Poe-pyee-miS 


And 


Tangj or 16 




Asumnd 


Tom 


But 


Payk-hsam, or kwai- 
kah. 




Tonva kumbashunag 


Nujin-htw&-pyee- 
now. 



( 7 ) 



compared with others. — (Continued.) 



291 





Poi of Burmah. 


ralain of Pegu (Boimah.) 


Sonthali of Sontlial Pergunnahs, 
Western Bengal. 


liloondaree of Cliota 

Nagpore, WeBtern 

Bengal. 


English. 








Kla-ou-booh 


Gai 


Gai 


Dow. 






E 


Klur 


Setak' 


SeU 


Dog. 






Hsugge 








Tiger. 








P-koa 


Pusi 


Piisi 


Cat. 






Akawbir 


Saing-k-mok 


Sandi 


S^ndi 


Cock. 






Anooar 








Hen. 








A-ta-er 


Gede 


Koro 


Duck. 








Mai 


Gadha 


Gadba 


Ass. 








Oot 


Ut 


Unt 


Camel. 






Pawar 


K-chame 


Chere 


Cbene 


Bird. 






Bow 








Rice. 






Irhay 








Chillies. 






Remun 








Bamboo. 






May-pe 








Plantain. 






Hsuppir 








Elephant. 






Zer 


A 


Sen, cbala 


Senomen (imp.) 


Go. 






Guyar 


Cheer 


Jom 


lommen 


Eat. 








K-cho 


Darup' 


Dubmen 


Sit. 






Wewor 


Kloong 


Hejuk' 


EM; bijumen... 


Come. 






Baw 


Tok, or boong 


Dal 


Dalmen (imp.) 


Beat. 








T-tou 


Tingun 


Tingunmen ... 


Stand. 






Adir 


Chot 


Gujuk' 


Goi (root) ... 


Die. 






Pay 


Ka 


Em 


Urn ,i 


Give. 






Hsilasay 








Buy. 
Kill. 






Baw 








Drink. 






Nietay 














Row 


Krape 


Nir, dar 


Nir (root) ... 


Run. 
Sell. 






Ye 
















L-toe 


Chetan 


Sirma=s k y ; 
cbeatan=upon. 


Up. 








A-hmau 


Latar 


Latar 


Down. 








K-ta 


Laba, maran saman... 


Aiar 


Before. 








Kraup 


Sor 


Nane 


Near. 








Gnoa 


Sangin 


Sanifi. 


Far. 








Lok-k-rou 


Tayom 


Tayom 


Behind. 








Nyeh-kawh-rou ... 


Okae, cbele 


Okoi 


Who. 








Moo-kaub-rou ... 


Chef 


Cbikan, cbinaa 


What. 








Moo-bat-rou 


Cbedat' 


Cbikana mente 
cbia. 


Why. 








Ka 


Ar, ado 


Oro 


And. 








Htoo-taub-sike-kaul 


1 Men-kban 


Mendojbatkan 


1 But. 








(Lit— If it be not so. 


) 




, 



















292 



C 8 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmab. 


Mekir of Cachar. 


Muneepooree, 


Tonghtoo of Burmah. 


If 


Pau, or hsang 




Badi 


Myin 


Yes 


Sul-yow 


Melo 


Hoe 


Moye, or moie 


No 


Am sul 


Bangri 


Nate 


Moye-tow 


Alas! 


Alo 


I-ing, hanang 


He 


Hein 


A father 


Pau (kau-neung) ... 


Pumaboli 


Pa 4m4 


Pha-taphra 


Of a father 


Pau (kau- 
neung) . 




Pa amagi 


Pha akhrong 


To a father 


Tee pau, or hang 
pau (kau-neung). 


Hapo nepan pilakota 


Pl-da 




From a father 


Kah-lee-pau (kau- 
neung). 


Hanne-pu-pen 


Pd-tagi . 


Pha-d6 


Two fathers 


Pau hsaung kau ... 




Pd-anee 


Pha-nee-phr^ 


Fathers 


Pau lul 




Pa-iambd 


Pha-ah 


Of fathers 


T)„,, 1,, 




Pa-iamgi 


Pha-4h-akhrong ... 




To fathers 


Tee pau lul, or 
hang pau lul. 


Nipo chhido 


Pa-pumnumakda... 




From fathers 


Kah tee pau lul ... 




Pa-pum numaktagi 


Pha-^h-dd 


A daughter 


Look yeeng (kau 
neung). 


Nechhapi innar ... 


Nupi machddma ... 


Poe-moo-ta-phr^ ... 


Of a daughter 


Look-yee n g 

(kau neung) . 




Nupimachagi 


PoS-moo-ah-akhrong 


To a daughter 


Lee look-yeeng, or 
hang look-yeeng 
(kau neung). 


Hope ponon 


Nupi machada 




From a daughter 


Kah tee look-yeeng 
(kau neung.) 


Hane chhapi penchi 
kelang. 


Nupi machadagi . . . 


Foe-moo- do 


Two daughters 


Look-yeeng hsaung 
kau. 




Nupi macha anee... 


Poe-moo-nee-phra. . 


Daughters 


Look-yeeng lul . . . 


Nechhapi Qs. aukapi 


Nupi macha-pum 
numak. 


Po^-moo-ah 


Of daughters 


Look-yee n g 

lul. 




Nupi macha pum 
numakgi. 




To daughters 


Lee look-yeeng lul, 
or hang look- 
yeeng lul. 


Hane chhapi abid- 
ing. 


Nupi machd pum 
numakda. 




Frbm daughters 


Kah tee look-yeeng 
lul. 




Nupi macha pum 
numakdagi. 


Poe-moo-dh-do ... 


A good man 


Koon lee (kau 
neung). 


Arlingethe 


Miafabdamd ... 


Loe-how-taphr& ... 


Of a good man 


Koon tee 

(kau neung). 




Mi afaba amagi ... 


Loe-how-akhr6ng... 


To a good man 


Tee koon lee, or 
hanji^ koon lee (kau 
neung). 


Arling ethepen ... 


Midf^badmadd ... 





( 9 ) 



compared with others. — (Continued.) 



293 



Poi of Burmah. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmah.) 


Sonthali of Sonthal Pergunnalis, 
Western Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Nagpoie, ■Western 

Bengal. 


English. 


' \>'' 


Yam 


Khan 


re or 

re do. 


If. 




Yuh 


He 


He 


Yes. 




Hoo-sa-ung (sit. — 
Not so.) 


Ban 


Kd, banc 


No. 




yai (sit.— Oh 
mother !) 


Haere 


Helaiya, hae, oh 


Alas! 





Ma or ma-auk 


Apa 


Apu 


A father. 






Apa-ren 


Apua 


Of a father. 






A pa- then 


Apu te 


To a father. 




Noo-ma 


Apa-khon 


Apu te 


From a father. 




Ma-ta 


Apa-kin 


Apukiii 


Two fathers. 




Ma-tau, or ma km- 
lung (sit. — All 
fathers.) 


Apa-ko 
Apako-ren 


Apuko 
Apuko4 


Fathers. 
Of fathers. 






Apako-then 


Apu kote 


To fathers. 




Noo ma km-lung 


Apako-khon 


Apu kote 


From fathers. 




Kone pra-pu 


Hoponera 


Kurl horn 


A daughter. 






Hoponera-ren 


Kuri bond ... 


Of a daughter. 






Hoponera-then 


Kuri honte ... 


To a daughter. 







Hoponera-khon 


Ktiri honte ... 


From a daughter. 




Kone pra-ou ba ... 


Hoponerakin 


Kuri honkiii ,. . 


Two daughters. 




Kone pra-ou km- 
lung. 


Hoponerako 
Hoponerako-ren 


Kuri honko ... 
Kuri honkod... 


Daughters. 
Of daughters. 


1 




Hoponerako-then ... 


Kuri hon kote 


To daughters. 


i 




Hoponerako-khon . . . 


Kuri hon kote 


From daughters. 


Sorrhar par 


M-neeh kah 


Bugi herel 


Bugin boro . . . 


A good man. 


; 




Bugi herel-ren 


Bugin bored,.. 


Of a good man. 






Bugi herel-then 


Bugin boro te 


To a good man. 




^ ' 






c 3 



294 



( 10 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmnh 


Mekir of Cachar. 


Muneepooree. 


Tonghtoo of Burmah. 


From a good mau 


Kah tee koon lee 
(kauneung). 


Arling ethe apdn .. 


Mi afdbd dmadagi... 


LoS-how-d6 


Two good men 


Koon- lee hsaung 
kau. 





Mi afaba anee 


LoS-how-nee-phra. . 


Good men 


Koon lee lul 




Mi afaba pum nu- 
mak. 


Log-how-ah 


Of good men 


koon lee lul 




Mi afaba pum nu- 
makgi. 


Lo^-how-ah-akhrong 


To good men 


Tee koon lee lul, or 
hang koon lee lul. 




Mi afabd pum nu- 
makta. 




From good men 


Kah tee koon lee lul. 




Mi afaba pum nu- 
maktagi. 


LoS-h6w-&h-d6 ... 


A good woman 


Koon-yeeng lee, or 
hpoo-yeeng lee, or 
me-yeeng lee (kau- 
neung.) 


Arling ikhe apicbho 


Nupi afabi ^md ... 


Loe-moo-how-taphra 


Two good women 








. i i i • , 


Good women 


Koon-yeeng lee lul, 
or hpoo-yeeng lee 
lul, or me-yeeng 
lee lul. 


Arling ekhe apichho 


Nupi afabi pum nu- 
mak. 


Lo^-moo-how-ah ... 


Of a good woman ... 










To a good woman ... 










From a good woman... 










A bad boy 


Look-sai-aun hai ... 


Uchulango 


Augongphataba ama 


Loe-ki^-pai^taphra 


A bad girl 


Look-yeeng-aun hai 


Aruchulango 


Phatabi nupi macha 
amd. 


Loe-moo-kiS-pai- 
taphra. 


Good 


Lee 


Meechen 


Afaba 


Ahow 


Better 


Khen tee, or lee 
hsay. 




Okhak faba 


Aling-how 


Best 


Lee hsay peun 


Meelo 


Ydm na fdbd 


Ahow-thoot 


High 


Hsoong 


Ingtinang 


Aoangba 


A-ht6 


Higher 


Khen hsoong, or 
hsoong hsay. 


...... 


Okhd,k doangba . . . 


Ating-hto 


Highest 


Hsoong hsay peun 


Akang tuipi 


Yamua aongba 


A-hto-thoot 


A horse 


Ma-pau (to neung) 


Lochai ejndd 


Sagalama 


Thai-tee-t£tbah ... 


A mare 


Ma-me (to neung) 


Lochai api ejnad ... 


Sdgal amom ama ... 


Thai-moo-tabah ... 


Horses 


Ma-pau lul 


Lochai akangpi ... 


Sagol i amba 


Thai-tee-ah 


Mares 


Ma-me lul 


Lochdi api dkangpi 


Sagalamom iamba 


Thai-moo-ah 


A bull 


Wo-pau (to neung) 


Chdinung animacho 


ShaM amd 


P6-tsam-deS-tabah 


A cow 


Wo-me (to neung) 


Chainang anim pa- 
nang ejndd. 


Shal amom kmi ... 


P6-moo-tabah 


Bulls 


Wo-pau lul 


Animehho akangpi 


Sballaba iamba ... 


P6-tsam-dee-ah . . . 



( 11 ) 



compared with others. — (Continued.) 



295 



Poi of BunnEih. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmah.) 


3onthali of Sonthal Pergunnahs, 
Western Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Nagpore, Western 

Bengal. 


Englieh. 




Noo m-neeh kah ... 


Bugi herel-khon 


Bugin hoio te 


Prom a good man. 




M-nee kah ba 


Bugi-herel-kin 


Bugin horo kin 


Two good men. 


\ 


M-neeh-kah km- 
lung. 


Bugl-herel-ko 


Bugin hofoko 


Good men. 






Bugi-herel-ko-ren . . . 


Bugin horokoa 


Of good men. 






Bugi-herel-ko-then ... 


Bugin horo kote 


To good men. 




Noo m-neeh kah 
km-lung. 


Bugi-herel-ko-khon . . . 


Bugin horo kote 


From good men. 


Sanoung parne {pro- 
nounced like the Hin- 


M-neeh pra-ou kah 


Bugi maejiu 


Bugin kuri . . . 


A good woman. 


dustani pani, for 
water.) 




Bugi maejiukin 




Two good women. 




M-neeh pra-ou kah 
km-lung. 




Bugi maejiuko 

Bugi maejiu-ren 
Bugi maejiu- then ... 


Bugin kiiriko... 


Good women. 

Of a good woman. 
To a good woman. 






Bugi maejiu-khon . . . 


• 


From a good womai). 




Kone-troo tm-ruh 


Barich' kora 


Etkan kora ... 


A bad boy. 




Kone-pra-ou tm-ruh 




Etkankiiri ... 


A bad girl. 




Kah 


Bugi 


Bugin 


Good. 




Kah lone 


Arho bugi 


te bugin 


Better. 




Kah at 


Sanam-khon bugi or 
bugi. 


Sobente bugin, 
i. e^ of all. 


Best. 




Hldong 


Usui 


Salangi 


High. 




Hloong lone 


Arho usul 


(No comparative 
and superlative 
forms.) 


Higher. 




Hloong at 


Sanam-khon usal or 
usul uttar. 


(No comparative 
and superla 
tive forms.) 


; Highest. 




Chehka-mok 


Andia sadom 


S&ndi sadom... 


A horse. 




Cheh booh 


Enga sadom 


Enga sadom ... 


A mare. 




Cheh km-lung ... 


Andia sadom ko 


Sandi sadom ko 


Horses. 




Cheh booh km-lung 


Enga sadomko 


Enga sadom ko 


Mares. 




Kla-ouk-mok ... 


Dangra 


Had4 


A bull. 




Kla-ou booh 


Gai 


Gai 


A cow. 




Kla-ou k-mok km- 


Dangrako 


Hadako 


Bulls. 




lung. 








- -■ — 











298 



( 12 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmah. 


Merkir of Cachar. 


Miineepooree. 


Tonghtoo of Burmah. 


Cows 


Wo-me lul 


Chinang dpi dkdngpi 


Shaldmom iambd... 


P6-moo-ah 


A dog 


Mahpau (to neung) 


Mathan ijon 


Whui »md 


Htwee-tee-tabah ... 


A bitch 


Mah-me (to neung) 


Math^n api ejnad . . . 


Whui amom dmd . . 


Htwee-moo-tabah . . 


Dogs 


Mah-paulul 


Mathan akdngpi ... 


Whui i amba 


Htwee-tee-ah 


Bitches 


Ma- me lul 


Mathan dpi ahurak 
akangpi. 


Whui amam i dmba 


Htwee-moo-ah 


A he-goat 


Pe-pau (to neung) 


Bianuijnad 


Hdmeng Idvd dmd 


Beh-tee-tabah 


A female goat 


Pe-me (to neung)... 


Biapi ejnad 


Hdmeng amom dmd 


Beh-moo-tabah . . . 


Goats 


Pelul 


Bi akangpi 


Hameng dmom i am- 
ba. 


Beh-ah 


A male deer 


Kwang-pau (to 
neung). 


Thiak dlu ejnad ... 


Shongdi Idiri dmd .. 


Aphraing-tee-tabah 


A female deer 


Kw5ng-me (to 
neung). 


Thiak dpi ejnad ... 


Shongdi amom amd 


Aphraing-moo-tabah 


Deer 


Kwang lul 


Thiak 


Shongai i ambd ... 


Aphraing-ah 


Guu 










Pig 










Koung (or drink from 

rice.) 
I am 


Kow-khah pin 


Netdm 


Ai o4 


Kh6ay-ow 


Thou art 


Mulpin 


Nangho 


Nang 0^ 


Na-ow 




He is 


Man pin 


Haldnang 


Maoe 


Weh-ow 




We are 


How-khah pin 


Ndng kido kdbe ... 


Ikhoi oe 


Nee-ow 




You are 


Hsoo-pin 




Nang khoi oe 


Thee-ow 




They are 


Khow pin 




Makhoio^ 


Weh-thee-ow 




I was 


Khow-khah pin you 




Ai o6 rammi 


Aree-khoay-ow 




Thou wast 


Mul pin you 




Nang oe rammi ... 


Aree- na-ow 




He was 


Man pin you 




Ma oe rammi 


Aree- weh-ow 




We were 


How-khah pin you 




Ikhoi o6 rammi ... 


Aree-nee-ow 




You were 


Hsoo pin yon 




Nang khoi oe rammi 


Aree- thee-ow 




They were 


Khow pin you 




Makhoi o^ rammi... 


Aree- weh-thee-ow 


Be 


Pin {to exist), or mee 
{to be in some place 
or belonging to.) 




O^ba 


Ow 


To be 
Being 


(No independent 

form.) 
Mee-yoo 




Oebada 
Oe ri 


Ow 


Having been 


Mee-yoo sang 




0^ ramli 


Ow-len-htoo 


I may be 
I can be 


(No independent 

form.) 
Kow-khah pin lai... 

Kow-khah talc me, 
or pin. 




Ai oe ydi 

Ai oegini, aioe gidaba 
matikoe. 


Khoay-ow-latam 


•• 


I shall be 


Khoay-ee-ow 




1 should be 


(No independent 
form.) 






Khoay-ow-thang ... 



( 13 ) 



compared with others. — (Continued.) 



291^ 



Foi of Burmah. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmah.) 


Southali of Sonthal Pergunnahs, 
Westem Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Nagpore, ■Western 

Bengal. 


English. 




Kla-ou booh km- 
lung. 


Gaiko 


Gai ko 


Cows. 




Klue ke-mok 


Setak' 


Sandi seta ... 


A dog. 




Klur booh 


Enga setak' 


Engd seta 


A bitch. 




Klur k-moh km- 

lung. 
Klur booh km-lung 


Setak' ko 
Enga setak' ko 


Sandi seta ko 
Engdsetako ... 


Dogs. 
Bitches. 




K-b^k-mok 


Merom-andia 


Bakra 


A he-goat. 




K-b^-booh 


Merom-enga 


Engd, merom... 


A female goat. 




K-bel-km-lung 


Meromko 


Merom ko (ge- 
neric) . 


Goats. 




Krai k-m-mok 


1 


Sdndijilu 


A male deer. 




Krai booh 




Engdjilu 


A female deer. 


Sar 


Krai km-lung 




Jilu ko 


Deer. 


Metay 








Gun. 


Wow 


' 






Pig. 


Fsamar 


Oa noom 


Menana, or kanan ... 


Ain menainyS 


Koung (or drink from 

rice.) 
I am. 




M-neh noom 


Menama^ or kanam ... 


Am menamed 


Thou art. 




Nyeh noom 


Meuaea, or kanae ... 


Ini menaiyd ... 


He is. 




Pooey noom 




Ale niienaled... 


We are. 




M-neh tau noom . . . 




Ape menaped 


You are. 




Kyneh tau noom . . . 




Ako menakod 


They are. 


....■• 




Tahekonan 


Aiii tainkenain 


I was. 






Tahekonam 


Am tainkenam 


Thou wast. 






Tahekanae 


Ini tainkenai... 
Ale tainkenale 
Ape tainkenape 
Ako tainkenako 


He was. 
We were. 
You were. 
They were. 






Hoyuk' m^ 


Akanmen 


Be. 






Hoyuk' 




To be. 






Hoyuk' 


Akan 


Being. 






Hoeakan-khan 


Jan 


Having been. 






Hoyuk'-gi-chon 




I may be. 
I can be. 






Hoyuk'-an 


Oa 


I shall be. 






Hoe-kok'-an 




I should be. 



c 4 



298 



( 14 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmah. 


Mekir of Caohar. 


Huneepooiee. 


Tonghtoo of Burmali. 


Beat 




Chak nun 


Ydiba 


Tway 


To beat 






Ydibdda 


Tway 


Beating 






Yairi 




Having beaten 






Yai rimi 


Tway-len-htoo 


I beat 


Kow-kah yen 


Ne-nang chhagi ... 


Ai yai 


Khoay-tway 


Thou beatest 
He beats 


Mul yen 
Man yen 


Pinang chhapabebe- 

dana. 
Hala chicha gadera 


Nang yai yu 
Ma yai 


Na-tway 
Weh-tway 


We two beat 










You two beat 










They two beat 










We beat 


How-khah yen ... 


Nechi-chaga-bereno 


Ikhoi yai 


Nee tway 


You beat 


Hsoo yen 


Kida kabe chhagelo 


Nang khoi yai ... 
Ma khoi ydi 




They beat 


Khow yen 


Hala turn chigi chak 


Weh-thee-tway ... 


I am beating 


Kow-khah yen yoo 




Ki yai ri 


Khaoy-ow-tway ... 


I was beating 






Ai yai ramli 


Khoay-ow-tway 
ngathai. 


I had beaten 

We two are beating ... 


Kow-khah yen yow 
yow. 




Ai yai khare 


Khoay-tway-len- 
htoo. 


We are beating 











I may beat 


[No independent form) 




Aiyaibayai 


Khoay-tway-nong 


I shall beat 


Kow-khah tak yen 




Aiyaigani 


Khoay-tway-now _,. 


I should beat 


{No independent form) 




Ai yai gidabaoe ... 


Kh oay-tway-thang 


I am beaten 


Kow-khah kham 
tang yen. 




Ai bu yai 


Khoay-kham-bah- 
len-atway. 


I was beaten 


Kow-khah lai kham 
tang yeng yow. 




Ai bu yai ri 


Khoay-kham-bah- 
len-atway. 


I shall be beaten 


Khow-khah tak lai 
kham tang yen. 




Aibuyaigani ... 


Khoay-ee-kham-bah- 
atway. 


I go 


Kow-khah kwah ... 


Nedam po 


Aichate 


Khoay loay 


Thou goest 


Mul kwah 


Nang dam nan ... 


Nang chate 


Ha-loay 


He goes 


Man kwah 


N4ng naam khunan 


Ma chate 


Weh-loay 


I went 


Kow-khah kwah you 


Nedam tang- pu ... 


Ai chalambu 


Khoay -loay-leu ... 


Thou wentest 


Mul kwah you 




Nang chalambu ... 


Na-loay-leu - ... 


He went 


Man kwah you ... 




Ma chalambu 


Weh-loay-leu' ... 


Go 


Kwah 




Chdlpd 


Loay 


Going 


Kwah yoon 




Chali 


A-loay-tong 


Gone 


Kwah you-you 




Chal khore 


Loay-len 


What is your name?... 


Seu mul haung sen 
hen ? {Lit, what 
do you call your 
name ?) 


Ndng men kapima ? 


Naming kari konS ? 


Na-myin pamie ? 



( 15 ) 



.compared with others. — (Continued.) 



299 



Poi of Baimah. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmai.) 


Sonthali of Sonthal Pergunnahs, 
■Western Bengal. 


Mondaroe of Chota 

Nagpore, Western 

Bengal. 


English. 


Baw 


Tok, or boong (pre- 
sent and infinitive ) 


Dal-m6 
Dal 


Ddlmen (2 p.s. 

imp.) 
Ddltei 


Beat, 
To beat. 




Tok-mong 


Dadal, dal-ket-khan... 


Dal tan 


Beating. 




Tok to-ey 




Dalkedte 


Having beaten. 




Oatok 


Dal et'-an 


Ain dali ain ... 


I beat. 




M-neh tok 


Dal-et'-am 


Am dali am ... 


Thou beatest. 




Nyeh tok 


Dal-et'-ae 


Ini dali ai ... 


He beats. 






Dal-et'a lin 
Dal-et'-aben 




"We too beat. 
You too beat. 






Dal-et'-akin 




They too beat. 




Pooly tok 


Dal-et'-ale 


Ale dali ale ... 


We beat. 




M-neh tan tok 


Dal-et'-ape 


Ape ddli ape... 


You beat. 




Nyeh tau tok 


Dal-et'ako 


Ako ddli ako... 


They beat. 




Oa tok mong 


Dal-et'-kan-an 


Ain daltanaiii 


I am beating. 




Oa tok mong 




Ain daltan tai- 
kena. 


I was beating. 




Oa tok to-ey 


Dal-et'-kana-lin 
Dal-et'-kan-ale 




I had beaten. 

We two are beating. 
We are beating. 




[No equivalent with- 
out circumlocution.) 


Dail-gi-chon 




I may beat. 




Oa tok rong 


Dal-an 


Ain daleaiii ... 


I shall beat. 




Oa krike ka tok (/ 

ought to beat.) 
Oa'toongtok 


Dal-ke-an 
Dal-ochok'-kan-an ... 


(No passive 
form.) 


I should beat. 
I am beaten. 




Oa toong tok to-ey 


Dal-ocho-enan 




I was beaten. 




Oa toong tok rong 
(I must be beaten.) 

Oaa 


Dal-ochok'-au 
SenoF konan 


Ain senoain ... 


I shall be beaten. 
I go. 




M-neh a 


SenoF konam 


Am senoam ... 


Thou goest. 




Nyeh a 


Senok' konae 


Ini senoai 


He goes. 




Oa a toey 


Senenan 


Ain senkenain 


I went. 




M-neh a toey 


Senenam 


Am senkenam 


Thou wentest. 


' 


Nyeh a 


Senenae 


Ini senkenai ... 


He went. 


Zer 


A 


Sen 


Senomeii 


Go. 




Among 
A toey ra 


Senok' 

Sen, or Senakan 


Senotan 
Senojan 


Going. 
Gone. 




Y-moo m-neh moo- 
kauh row ? 


Chet' nutum-tama ? ... 


Ama nutum 
chikana ? 


What is your name ? 



( 16 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 


Shan of Burmah. 


Mekir of Cachar. 


Muneepooiee. 


Tonghtoo of Bunnah. 


How old is this 
horse ? 


Ma to nai a-hsak 
lai lai pee ? 


Ldbang cho alochhi 
ning kan kowa 
nasa ? 


Sagal ashi chahi koid 
shurva ? 


Thai-yo-phr^-htoo 
khong-mie ? 


How far is it from here 
to Kashmir ? 


Look kah tee nai 
kwah tee me\lng 
Ka-sha-meera kai 
kah heu ? 


Dak pen ha Kashmir 
kawan hiloma ? 


Ashi digi Kashmir 
koia lapa ? 


Ow-y6-t6m Cash- 
mere Sngyah 
khong-mie ? 


How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 


Nul heun pau mul, 
mee look-sai lai 
kau? 


Nang pe atu ahem 
kawan athumar 
angma ? 


Nangi napagi macha 
koia shuva ? 


Na-ph^-Mm-p6-ow- 
khong-mi^-phra ? 


I have walked a long 
way to-day. 


Meu nai, kow-khah 
le kai te te. 


Ha akahi lopi pen- 
chi kibanglo. 


Ashi nimit yamna 
lapua chat liu. 


Ha-ni^-kh8ay-16ay- 
len-tEipoo-ngySh. 


The son of my uncle is 
married to her sister. 


Took-sai loong kow 
khah ownaung- 
yeeng koon-yeeng 
nan (that woman) 
lut may. 


Nepuno achho ang 
jin rapi bidkari 
tdnglo. 


Aigi khuragi macha 
na magi machal 
lour^. 


Kh6ay-phatan-p6-ie 
weh-poomoo. 


In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 


Nul heCin nai mee 
kaupma to pheAk 
nai eu. 


Hala bangsa ahem 
alo lochhai akelak 
jin dum4. 


Sagal angonbdgi 
sabal imdalai. 


Thai bwah-kop-ow- 
lam-ko. 


Put the saddle upon his 
back. 


Hsul kaup-ma neu 
lang man ta. 


Lochai athdk jin ar 
baknan. 


Sdgal sabal liaba ... 


Weh-ngS,ng-]6ng-on- 
dang kop. 


I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 


Kow-khah la yen 
look-sai man hwai 
nam nah t^ te an. 


Nehala bangs-o in- 
glang a kingri 
chainang kiri. 


Mdgi machabu aina 
yamnd yaire. 


"Weh-p6-kh6ay-tway 
ahtsang-ah. 


He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 


Mali layng wd lul 
ned pai kong an. 





Ma ching thak ta 
shan shete. 


Weh-ow-tee-p6-pS,na- 
kong-nei. 


He is sitting on a 
horse under that tree. 


Man naug yoo neu 
ma to neung tul 
toon mai nan au. 


Hala bang chho 
arleng theng pi 
arum lochai athak 
innichha. 


MSna ukhadd sagal 
tongdand lai. 


Weh-ow-on glang- 
thai-long-ow-o-tM- 
ing moohait. 


His brother is taller 
than his sister. 


Pee-sai man khen 
hsoong hsay pee 
nang man au. 


Hala bdngso arleng 
akling le te akibi 
ding munak. 


Machandagi moi ama 
udngi. 


Weh-wai-kh6-hto- 
len-weh-moo. 


The price of that is 
two rupees and a half. 


Kah an -nan tok 
■ teng-kah hsaung 

khep pai kheung 

neung. 


Ldbang chho am- 
mkv chika hinira 
ddhuli. 


Masigi mal tangd 
anuee makhai. 


Ta-thoo-^-ngoe- 
thambat. 


My father lives in that 
small house. 


Pau kow-khah mee 
yoo nul heun aun 
nan au. 


Nepo bald hem cho- 
chid. 


Aigi ipd im apisada 
lai. 


Khoay-pha-ow-Mm- 
pai-now-ko. 


Give this rupee to him. 

Take those rupees from 
him. 


Pan man teng-kah 
khep neung nai 
ta, or pau teng-kah 
khep neung ' nai 
hang man ta. 

Nook ow teng-kah 
sen nan-kah tee , 
man ta. 


Hdla dhan pinan ... 
Hald dhan panan . . . 


Tanga si maugdndd 
pio. 

Tdnga i amba ^man- 
gantagi lou. 


Tankjl-y6-tabee- 
phay-weh-thoo. 

Htoo-tank£t-ah-6- 
weh-thoo. 


Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 


Yen man tee tee le 
ow mat man tang 
seuk lul ta. 


FMK jaohhene cha- 
ganan ari kaga- 
dangnan. 


Mdbu zarana ydi yu 
shdmna thourina 
pulla. 


W eh-thoo-tway-how- 
tsong-tom-taplwee. 



( 17 ) 



compared with others. — (Continued.) 



301 



Poi of Burmah. 


Talaiu of Pegu (Burmah.) 


Bouthali of Sonthal Pergunnahs, 
■Western Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Nagpore, Western 

Bengal. 


English. 




Oheb woo ayook 
moo chee rou ? 


Noi sadom do tin 
sermaren konae ? 


Ne sadom chi- 
min sinua 
hobdkand, ? 


How old is this horse ? 




Nog enau tur ka 
reah Cashmere bot 
Im-gnore row? 


Nondekhon Kashmir- 
te tin sangina ? 


Nea te Kashmir 
chiminan sa- 
nina? 


How far is it from here 
to Kashmir? 




P-dore s-gnee ma 
m-neh kone-troo 
noom mo che rou ? 


Apum orak're tinak' 
hopon menakoa? 


Apuma ora& re 
chimin kora 
honko mena- 
kod? 


How many sons are 
there in your father's 
house ? 




T-gnore woo oa 
kwike gnore toey 
ra. 


Tehen adi sangen in 
sentaramket'a. 


Sisiii ain asu 
saniiia tein 
hijulena. 


I have walked a long 
way to-day. 






Mamonren hopon 
oniren miseratit^ 
thene capla akana. 


Kakainyaa hon 
te kora inia 
mis^ loo aran- 
diakanai. 


The son of ray uncle 
is married to her sis- 
ter. 




Peon cheh p-taing 
noom p-doa sngee. 


Pond sadomreak^ 
palan or ak're 
menak'a. 


Oraa re pundi 
sadoma jin 
mena. 


In the house is the 
saddle of the white 
horse. 




P-tou poon 1-too 
cha deh. 


Deare palan lade ae 
me. 


Nid deya re jin 
doimen. 


Put the saddle upon his 
back. 






Hopontit' adi dal in 
dal akadea. 


Ain inia hon 
kodra te isu 
hansakiya. 


I have beaten his son 
with many stripes. 




Nyeh ma-ung mong 
kla-ou 1-too tur. 


Buru chot chotte gaie 
atin et'ko kana. 


Ini burn chetan 
re uri ko gupi- 
tanai. 


He is grazing cattle on 
the top of the hill. 




Nyeh k-cho mong 
Itoo cheh a-hmau 
t-nome choo ta. 


Hana dare butare 
sadomre e dech' 
akana. 


En daru siibd re 
ini sadom re 
dubakanai. 


He is sitting on a horse 
under that tree. 




Kou nyeh hloong 
lone noo boa nyeh 
ra. 


Miseratit' khon, bo- 
kottit' e usula. 


Inia hagd te 
inia misiate 
sal-angiakanai. 


His brother is taller 
than his sister. 




Gnoo traup kauh 
tauhba t-ka k-pat. 


Anareak' gonon tet' 
do bartaka tala. 


End r^a gonon 
bdr taka adali 
mend. 


The price of that is 
two rupees and a half 




Ma oa mong p-doa 
sngee dote ta. 


Apundo hana hopon 
hopon orak^re e 
tahen kana. 


Apuiii en hudiii 
orad re taint- 
anai. 


My father lives in that 
small house. 




Saun moa k-ta kauh 
ka nyeh nye. 


Noa taka emae me. 


Ne taka umai 
men. 


Give this rupee to him 




Saun kauh kate noo 
nyeh. 


Ma noako taka oni 
then khon atan me. 


En taka ko ini 
tate aguimen. 


Take those rupees from 
him. 




Tok deh klung toey 
ta-uk ka chook. 


Bugite dalepue or ba- 
berte tol kae me. 


Khub dalimen 
oro baiar te 
tholimen. 


Beat him well and bind 
him with ropes. 



302 



{ 18 ) 



Burmese Languages 



English. 



Shan of Barmah. 



Mekir of CachaT. 



Muueepooree. 



Tonghtoo of Barmah. 



Draw water from the 
well. 

Walk before me 



"Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 

From whom did you 
buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



Tek nam kah tee 
nam man ta. 

Kwah le^ pah-nah 
kow-khah ta. 

Look hpul mah pah- 
lang mul '( 

Hseu an-nan kah 
tee hpul ? 

Kahtee koon khai- 
kho nul wan nai. 



Ldng tuk alldng 
nang chhaganun. 

Afrdng afrang ddm 
bamuun. 



Nangki kanad &ja- 
chho ndng klduna- 
ma? 

Mate penachi nang 
ke namnia ? 

Hala b4ngso dukan 
penaehiDang ke- 
ndm. 



Kuba dagi ising 
shak-u. 

Ai-mangda challa. 



Natungdd kanake 
angang lae. 

Kdoa dagi lai ? 

Khungi dukan dar- 
dagi. 



Bon-htee-ong 
Loay-khoay t^ngHh 



PSmie-pai Ion ni 

th^khya ? 



0-tS,-thoo-n4- phray- 
pami^-do ? 

D6ng-k6-htsai-thee- 
do. 



( 19 ) 



compared with others. — (Concluded.) 



303 



Poi of Buxmah. 


Talain of Pegu (Burmah.) 


Sonthali of Sonthal Pergunnahs, 
Western Bengal. 


Moondaree of Chota 

Nagpore, Western 

Bengal. 


English. 




Took dike noo dike 
p-ting. 


Kui khon dak' lo 
agui me. 


Kuan te daa 
urunemen. 


Draw water from the 
well. 




Kwike k-ta oa. 


In saman samante {or 
iaha la hate) chalak' 
me. 


Ainya aiar re 
senomeh. 


"Walk before me. 




Krone-troo m-kloong 
lek-a-row kauh tauh 
kone nyeh kaiih rou? 


Okoeren kora hopon 
am ta gomte e he 
juk'kana? 


Okoia kora hon 
ama tayomte 
hijutana ? 


Whose boy comes be- 
hind you ? 




Trope kauh m-neh 
ran nyeh kauh rou? 


Oua do okoe then an 
kirin ket'a ? 


End, am okai ta 
tern kirinlaa. 


From whom did you 
buy that ? 




Oa ran noo m-neeh 
p-neik p-doa quan. 


Atoreh mit' tan dokan 
then. 


Hatu reu moy- 
ad dokanii ta 
te. 


From a shop-keeper of 
the village. 



SPECIMENS 



LANGUAGES OF INDIA 



INCLtTDINa THOSE OF IHK 



ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF BENGAL, 



CENTRAL PROVINCES, AND THE EASTERN FRONTIER. 



PRINTED AT THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS. 

1874.