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Cornell University Library 
DS 765.E13 1897 

Heroic Japan :a history of the war betwe 

3 1924 023 145 190 



21 (ancien'^ 9 ) Rue Jac ob 



(Published by permission of the Imperial Household Department). 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

-^ 2, I. M, HiRU-KO, 

Of JAPAN, 2!^ 

Page 22.-Line 8 from the top, for " 24tli " read " 29tli." 
Page 68. -Line 5 from the top, for " horses " read " hours." 
Page 85.-Line 3 from the top, (and throughout on this page), foi 

" Ting Yuen " read " Ping Yuen" also on Page 102, line 3 

from the top. 
Page 209.- Lines 8 and 9 from the top, for "Yalu River" read 

" Hinglung-kaa." 
Page 232.-Line 6 from the bottom, for " Oshima " read " Osako." 
Page 282.-Line 3 from the top, for " Saka " read " Isaka." 
Page 305.-Line 16 from the top, for " Pashan-hao " read " Ku- 

slian-liao." Line 10 from the bottom, for " left " read 

" ri*vht." 
Page 311.-Line 17 from the bottom, the sentence begining 

" Some little," etc , should read "Before the Staff of the Second 

Army Corps entered Wei-hai-wei town, the gensdarmes 

belonging to this Corps at once began," etc. 
Page 325.-Line 2 from the top, for " Captain Ching " read 

" Admiral Ting." 
Page 388.-rirst line, for " Major General Nozn " read " Major 

Page 422. -Line 12 from the top, supply " and wounded " after 

" killed;" do. line 15 ; Also in line 15 for " 4 p. m." read 

" 3 a. m." 
Page 494. -Line 8 from the top, for " Taka-o " read " Commander 

of the Takao." 

St. IDunstan's Ifiousc 


iii'i V 







Principal of the Chahtauquan Association of Japan 



St. Sunstaii's lljouse 

fetter lane, fleet street, e.g. 



.1 J iH)!ti J 




The compilation of the present volume was begun shortly after the 
battle of Port Arthur, and the last word was written on September 2nd of 
the present year. The undertaking has been of great magnitude, and this 
for several reasons. In the first place, no precise, correct History of the War 
has as yet been published in any language. There are numerous Japanese 
compilations and one or two of foreign authorship. But all these were 
compiled when the actual facts were still, to a very great extent, unknown, 
and are therefore marred by serious errors in many particulars. But so 
far as the present work is concerned, it is absolutely authentic ; for not 
only have the Imperial Household, Foreign, War, and Navy Departments 
given the authors free access to all documents, but every word in the 
book has been thoroughly and repeatedly revised by the Authorities con- 
cerned, several chapters having thus been written and re-written six and 
even more times. More than this, the authors have had personal inter- 
views or communication with the Commanders of the various Regiments; 
with most of the officers and men whose deeds are enumerated ; with the 
highest officials of the Bank of Japan, Red Cross Society, Japan Mail 
Steamship Company, etc., etc., in fact, leaving no stone unturned to make 
the whole narrative thoroughly trustworthy and free from error even in 
minutiae. To do this Mr. Yamada has travelled literally thousands 
of miles throughout the length and breadth of Japan. And just here it 
would be well to state the manner of collaboration. Dr. Eastlake, the 
American author, who had, from the inception of the War, been rendering 
into English and compiling, for local publication, from Japanese 
periodicals of various kinds, narratives of the heroic deeds and exploits 


performed by the Army and Navy of Japan, conferred with Mr. Yamada, 
President of the Japan Chautauqnan Association, as to the advisability of 
bringing out these storiettes in book form. Mr. Yamada, who was greatly 
desirous that the Occident should learn the truth about the War and that 
the labours of his countrymen should be represented with fidelity and 
exactitude, at once proposed to publish a book on the War, working as 
co-author with Dr. Eastlake. But upon questioning the Naval and 
Military Authorities in the early part of 1895, it was found that the 
larger portion of the narratives taken from Japanese newspapers and 
magazines was either incorrect or else quite unfounded ; and, what was 
still more to the purpose, a vast quantity of fine material had never been 
published, some of the most touching or heroic stories being quite 
unknown even in Japan. And so it comes that most of the " Brave 
Deeds " published in the present volume are now made public for the first 
time. Immediately on learning the real situation, the test of rigid and 
impartial criticism was applied to what had already been laboriously com- 
piled — with the result that one-half had to be expunged and the other 
entirely re-written. The authors have often groaned in spirit on learning 
that what they considered their best " bits" were untrue or not borne out 
by the facts. And we must give the utmost honour to the Army and 
Navy Departments for their excellent conduct in this context. Time and 
again have they had the authors ruthlessly strike out stories that had 
found ready credence the Empire over and been quoted and requoted in 
the columns of the foreign press at home and abroad. Nothing has thus 
been published but actual fact : fact abundantly proved and amply sup- 
ported by many witnesses. 

It was soon found that the mere compilation of heroic anecdotes 
was insufficient. There must be some outline sketch of each battle, or 
else the narratives would be unintelligible. And so the next step was the 
concluding to compile a short History of the War as a whole, the " Brave 
Deeds" to come at the end of each chapter. In May, 1895, it was con- 
fidently expected that the work would be completed in September of the 
same year. And yet nearly every vi'ord written up to that time has since 
had to be re-written, while a very large portion has had to be struck out. 
Moreover, the troops were then returning from the seat of war, and each 
Regiment as it came back was put to the interrogatory, entailing further 
and vast changes. In March of the present year, 1896, it was positively 
expected to publish in May, and announcements publicly made in that 
sense ; yet from the various Departments, Societies, etc., manuscript 
kept pouring in : so that instead of being 400 pages long — as announced 


in April — our book numbers 526 pages, and even then we have been 
compelled to add five appendices. We have, however, kept to the main 
idea of showing the heroic side of this great conflict : and just here an ex- 
planatory word is necessar)'. We do not — let us state it emphatically — we 
do not for a moment contend that the many score of " Brave Deeds " 
narrated prove the superiority of Japan to any other land. We have 
written these simply to show that the qualities of martial heroism, implicit 
soldierly obedience, unflinching sense of duty, noble unselfishness and 
deathless courage are to be found in this Empire of Japan. Withal there 
is one phase of bravery which seemes peculiar to this country. It is this 
and this alone which we have tried to emphasize and thus bring to the 
notice of the world. Many of the anecdotes are simple and unassuming, 
nor do we claim for them great merit ; they are recorded to let the world 
see and know that the Japanese are, as a military people, the compeers of 
the most renowned nations of the Occident. 

The authors are, at the same time, fully aware of the defects in a 
work of this kind. The present volume is the outcome of two full years 
of unceasing, painstaking labour; yet it is compiled underpressure, and 
this may often be traced in the pages. Were we to begin to thank those 
who have been instrumental in assisting the compilation of this work, our 
list would be a long one. All that we can do here is express oiir profound 
gratitude to the five great Departments of Slate : the Imperial Household, 
Army, Navy, Communications, and Foreign Ofiice. 

A word in conclusion with regard to the names of places. We have 
given the Korean names as written by Koreans, the Chinese as pronounced 
by themselves. Where, however, a certain orthography has been widely 
adopted, though not representing the true sound of the ideographs, we 
have kept — in order to avoid confusion — to the received and popular form. 
In Chinese names we have hyphenated such terminal affixes as shan 
(mountain or hill) ; tse, Isuen, etc. (village) ; ching (or cheng, a walled city, 
a castle-town or bourg); ling (a mountain pass or iiamlet) ; ho (river or 
stream) ; id, do, or iao (island); /u (city); kau (or kow, mouth — a harbour, 
port); and many other similar terminations. It must finally be noted that 
such syllables as kia, kiao or Mao are generally rendered with the softer 
chia, chiao or cheao. We note that we have given personal names as they 
are written in Japan : the surname preceding the given name. It is our 
earnest hope that this book, unpretentious though it be, will redound 
to the fair fame of Japan the world over; that the West will now learn the 
true history of the great War, and give the victrix that credit which is 
so truly^her due. With patriotic ardour as with admiring devotion has 


this book been compiled. And as we write the final words and review in 
spirit the noble story of tlie War, to our lips also rises the, cheer that so 
often sounded from the field of battle, above the roar of cannon and the 
roll of musketry : Tennb Heika Banzai I Teikoku Banzai! 


September, 1896. 

^fABLE OF Contents. ^ 






The Naval Battle at Phungdo . . . . . . Page i 


The Battle of Songhwan . . . . . . . . ,, 13 


The Battle of Phyongyang . . . . . . . . ,, 26 


ThN Sea-FiGHT off HaI YANG .. .. .. .. ,, 75 


The Invasion of Manchuria .. .. .. .. ,, no 


The Taking of Kinchow .. .. .. .. ,, 126 


Port Arthur, THE Gibraltar OF China .. .. ,, 152 


The Defence of Kinchow . . . . . . . , ,, 182 


The Capture OF SuiYEN-cHiNG . . .. .. .. ,, 200 



Skirmish between Reconnoitring Parties and Battle 

OF TsAUHo-KAN Page 213 


The Taking OF ToMUH-cHiNG .. .. .. .. ,, 221 


The Capture of Haiching 

The Struggle at Funghwang-ching . . 

The Battle of Kangwasae 

The Battle and Capture op Kaiping . . 

The Chinese Attempts to Recapture Haiching 

The Taking of Wei-hai-wei 

The Battle of Taping-shan 

The Fighting at Kwanten-shwbn 

The Battle and Capture of Newchwang 

The Taking of Yingkow 

The Battle and Capture of Tienchwangtai . . 

The Capture of the Pescadores . . . . . . , , 400 


His Majesty the Imperor . . . . . . , , 407 


Head Quarters . . .. .. . .. .. ,, 412 













i i 












The Medical Staff AND ITS Work .. .. .. Page 418 


The Field Post . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, 427 


The Japan Steamship Company .. .. .. ,, 435 


The Bank OF Japan .. .. .. .. ,, 446 


The Red Cross . . .. .. .. ,,. 465 


Those at Home .. .. .. .. .. .. ,, 492 


Brief Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, 502 


The Treaty of Peace .. .. .. .. .. ,, 516 


The Text of the Treaty of Peace . . . . . . ,, 528 


Japanese Text op the War Songs . . . . . . ,, 535 


The Port Arthur Story .. .. .. .. ,, 541 


The Extraordinary Session of the Imperial Diet . . „ 544 

The Emperor's Home Coming 




kA-'E, by the Grace of Heaven, Emperor OF JAPAN, seated on 
a Throne occupied by the same dynasty from time im- 
memorial, do hereby make proclamation to all Our loyal and 
brave subjects as follows : — 

We hereby declare war against China, and We command each 
and all of Our competent authorities, in obedience to Our wish 
and with a view to the attainment of the national aim, to carry 
on hostilities by sea and by land against China, with all the 
means at their disposal, consistently with the Law of Nations. 

During the past three decades of Our reign, Our constant aim 
has been to further the peaceful progress of the country in 
civilization ; and being sensible of the evils inseparable from 
complications with foreign States, it has always been Our 
pleasure to instruct Our Ministers of State to labour for the 
promotion of friendly relations with Our Treaty Powers. We 
are gratified to know that the relations of Our Empire with those 
Powers have yearly increased in good-will and in friendship. 
Under the circumstances, We were unprepared for such a con- 
spicuous want of amity and of good faith as has been manifested 
by China in her conduct toward this country in connection with 
the Korean affair. 

Korea is an independent .State. She was first introduced into 
the family of nations by the advice and under the guidance ot 
Japan. It has, however, been China's habit to designate Korea 
as her dependency, and both openly and secretly to interfere 
with her domestic affairs. At the time of the recent civil insur- 
rection in Korea, China despatched troops thither, alleging that 
her purpose was to afford succour to her dependent State. We, 
in virtue of the Treaty concluded with Korea in 1882, and look- 
ing to possible emergencies, caused a military force to be sent 
to that country. 

Wishing to procure for Korea freedom from the calamity of 


perpetual disturbance, and thereby to maintain the peace of the 
East in general, Japan invited China's co-operation for the 
accomplishment of that object. But China, advancing various 
pretexts, declined Japan's proposal. Thereupon Japan advised 
Korea to reform her administration so that order and tranquillity- 
might be preserved at home, and so that the country might be 
able to discharge the responsibilities and duties of an indepen- 
dent State abroad. Korea has already consented to undertake 
the task. But China has secretly and insidiously^ endeavoured 
to circumvent and to thwart Japan's purpose. She has, further, 
procrastinated and endeavoured to make warlike preparations 
both on land and at sea. When those preparations were com- 
pleted, she not only sent large reinforcements to Korea, with a 
view to the forcible attainment of her ambitious designs, but 
even carried her arbitrariness and insolence to the extent of 
opening fire upon Our ships in Korean waters. China's plain 
object is to make it uncertain where the responsibility resides of 
preserving peace and order in Korea, and not only to weaken 
the position of that State in the family of nations, — a position 
obtained for Korea through Japan's efforts, — but also to obscure 
the significance of the treaties recognizing and confirming that 
position. Such conduct on the part of China is not only a direct 
injury to the rights and interests of this Empire, but also a men- 
ace to the permanent peace and tranquillity of the Orient. Judg- 
ing from her actions, it must be concluded that China, from the 
beginning, has been bent upon sacrificing peace to the attainment 
of her sinister object. In this situation, ardent as Our wish is to 
promote the prestige of the country abroad by strictly peaceful 
methods. We find it impossible to avoid a formal declaration of 
war against China. It is Our earnest wish that, by the loyalty 
and valour of Our faithful subjects, peace may soon be per- 
manently restored and the glory of the Empire be augmented 
and completed. 

Given this ist day of the eighth month of the 27th year of 

His Imperial Majesty's Sign-manual. 

Countersignatures of all the Ministers of State. 


The following are translations of the despatches laid by- 
Count Ito before the House of Peers. They clearly show the 
progress of events leading up to the war : — 

No. I. 

Chinese Legation, Tokyo, the 3rd day, the 5th month, the 20th year 0/ 
Kwang-sil. {The yth day, the 6th month, the 2']th year of Meiji.) 
Monsieur LE Ministre, — / have the honour to inform Your Excellency 
that I am in receipt of a telegram from His Excellency Li, Superintendent 
of Commerce of the Pei-yang, to the effect that in the Convention of the nth 
year of Kwang-sii (the iSth year of Meiji) between China and Japan it is 
provided that should- there arise in future the necessity on the part of China to 
despatch troops to Korea owing to the existence of any disturbance in l/iat 
country, the fact shall be previously communicated to fapan and that the troops 
shall be withdrawn at once on the cession of the disturbance and none shall 
be left behind, and the telegram adds that a communication has been received 
from the Korean Government containing the following statement : — 

The people in Chblla-do, who are vicious in habit, having, under the leaders 
of the Tong-Hali attacked and taken several towns and villages, proceeded 
northward, and took possession of Chhongju. The Government troops which 
were despatched to suppress the revolt, have not been successful. If this dis- 
turbance continues to spread and is allowed to exist for a long time, much 
trouble may be given to China. When in the years 1882 and 1884 we 
suffered from internal commotions, the uprisings were in each case suppressed 
by the troops of China on our behalf. In accordance with those precedents we 
hereby present an earnest application for despatch of some troops to speedily 
suppress the disturbance. As soon as the revolt is quelled, we will request the 
withdrawal of the troops and shall not ask for their longer detention so that 
they may not suffer the hardships of being abroad for a long period. 

The telegram further states that the application upon examination is found 
to be urgent both in words and in fact, and that it is in harmony with our con- 
stant practice to protect our tributary states by sending our troops to assist them. 
These circumstances were accordingly submitted to His Imperial Majesty, and 
in obedience to his will, General Yeh, Cominander of the troops in Chili, has been 
ordered to proceed at once to Cholla and Chhongju in Korea with selected 
troops, and to speedily suppress the disturbance in such manner as he may deem 
most convenient in order to restore the peace of our tributary state and to dispel 
the anxiety of the subjects of every nation residing in Korea for commercial 
purposes, and at the same time the General is commanded to return with the 
troops as soon as the desired object is attained. 


The telegram, finally declares that His Excellency the Minisier to yapan 
is required to make communicaiion in pursuance of the said Convention and is 
telegraphed to that effect and is accordingly instructed to at once comtnunicate 
ihe mailer to the Japanese Foreign Office. 

In making therefore the foregoing communication to Your Excellency, I 

avail myself of the opportunity to renew to you the assurances of my highest 


{Signed) Wang. 

His Excellency Alonsieur Mutsu, H.I.J.M.'s 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

No. 2. 

Department of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo, the "/Ih day, 
the 6th month, the 2jth year of Meiji. 

Monsieur le Ministre, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 
Your Excellency's note of to-day acquainting me, in accordance with the pro- 
vision of the Convention of the iSth day of the 4th month of the iSth year of 
Meiji between our two Governments that Your Government have despatched 
troops to Korea. 

In reply, I beg to declare that although the words ' ' tributary state " appear 

in your note, the Imperial Government, have never recognized Korea as a 

tributary state of China. 

I avail myself , &c., &c., &c., 

(Signed) MuTSU Munemitsu, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs, 

His Excellency Monsieur Wang, H.I.C.M.'s E.E. and 31. P. 

No. 3. 

Japanese Legation, Peking, the 'jth day, the 6th 
month, the z'jthyear of Meiji. 

Messieurs le Prince et les Ministres, — In pursuance of instructions 
which I have just received from His Imperial Majesty s Government, I have 
the honour, in accordance with the provision of the Treaty of the 1 8th day of 
the 4th month of the i8lh year of Meiji between our two Governments, to 
acquaint Your Highness and Your Excellencies that owing to the existence of a 
disturbance of a grave nature in Korea necessitating the presence of Japanese 
troops there, it is the intention of the Imperial Government to send a body of 
Japanese troops to that country. 

{Signed) Komura Jutaro, 

H.I.J.M.'s Charge d" Affaires. 
His Highness and Their Excellencies of the Tsung-li Yamen. 


No. 4. 

Tsung-li Yamen, the 6th day, the 5th month, the 20th year of Kwang-sii, 
(the gth day, the 6th month, the 2jthyear o/Meiji.) 

Monsieur lk Charge d'affaires, — We have the honour to acknowledge 
the receipt of your note under date of the 4th instant (the jth day, the 6th 
month of the Japanese Calender) informing us that you have been instructed 
hy your Government to acquaint us, in accordance with the provision of the 
Convention between the two countries, that, owing to the existence of a distur- 
bance of a grave nature in Korea, Japanese troops will be despatched to that 

Our country has despatched troops to Korea in compliance with an applica- 
tion from thai country, for the purpose of assisting her to suppress the insur- 
gents, and the measure is in accordance with the practice hitherto pursued by 
our country in protecting tributary states. Besides the sole object being the sup- 
pression of the insurgents in the interior, the troops are to be withdrawn as 
soon as that object is attained. Although the condition of finsen and Fusan is 
at present quiet and peaceful our vessels will be for a while stationed therefor 
■the protection of commerce carried on at these ports. 

The sole object of your country in sending troops is evidently to protect the 
Legation, Consulates, and commercial people in Korea, and consequently it 
may not be necessary on the part of your country to despatch a great number of 
troops and besides, as no application therefore has been made by Korea, it is 
requested that no troops shall proceed to the interior of Korea so that they may 
not cause alarm to the people. And moreover, since it is feared that in the 
event thai soldiers of the two nations should meet on the way, cases of un- 
expected accident might occur, owing to the difference of langauge and military 
etiquette, we beg to request in additon that you ivill be good enough io telegraph 
the purport of this communication io the Government of fapan. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances, &fc., ^c, 6fc., 

President and IVf embers of Tsung-li Yamen. 

KoMURA, Ksg., 

H.I. 7. Af. 's Charge d' Affaires. 

No. 5. 

Japanese Legation, Peking, the 12th day, 

the 6th month, the 21 th year of MeijL 

Messieurs le Prince et les Ministres, — Having received your tiote 

under date of the pth instant acquainting me thai the despatching of troops to 

Korea is in accordance with the practice hitherto pursued by China in protecting 


her tribulary stales and that no necessary exists on the part n/ Japan to send a 
large number 0/ troops there and requesting that those troops shall not he sent 
to the interior of Korea, T did not fail at once to communicate by telegram the 
purport of that note to my Government, and I have now the honour to inform 
Your Highness attd Excellencies that I am in receipt of a reply by telegraph to 
the following effect :— 

The Imperial Japanese Government have never recognized Korea as a tri- 
butary state of China. Japan dispatched her troops in virtue of the Chemulpho- 
Convention and in so doing she has followed the procedure laid down in the 
Treaty of Tientsin . As to the number nf troops, the Japanese Government 
are compelled to exercise their own judgment. Although no restriction is 
placed upon the movement of the Japanese troops in Korea, they will not be 
sent where their presence is not deemed necessary. The Japanese troops are 
under strict discipline, and the Japanese Government are confident that they 
will not precipitate a collision with the Chinese forces. It is hoped that China 
has adopted similar precautions. 

I avail myself , &fc., &'c., &fc , 

(Signed) Komura, 

H. I.J. M. 's Charge d Affaires. 

His Highness and Their Excellencies of the Tsung-li Yamen. 

No. 6. 

Department of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo, the lyth day, the 6th month, 2ytk 

year of Meiji. 
MoNsiEUK LE MiNiSTRE, — I have the honour to inform Your Excellency 
that the following is a resume of the proposals made in my interview with you 
yesterday to your Government on behalf of the Imperial Government in respect 
of the present events in Korea as well as with a view to the adjustment of her 
affairs in future: — 

As to the present events, Japan and China to unite their efforts for speedy 
suppression of the disturbance of her insurgent people. After the sup- 
pression of the disturbance, Japan and China, with a view to the im- 
provement of the internal administration of Korea, to respectively send 
a number of Commissioners charged with the duty of investigating 
measures of improvement, in the first place on the following general 
points : — 

fa. ) Examination of the financial administration, 
(b.) Selection of the Central and Local Officials, 
(c. ) Establishment of an army necessary for national defence in 
order to preserve the peace of the land. 


In making the foregoing communicaiion, I avail myself, (Sfc. , (Sfc., &fc. 

(Signed) Mutsu Munemitsu, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
His Excellency Monsieur Wang, H.I.C. M.'s E.E. and M. P. 

No. 7. 

Chinese Legation, Tokyo, the iSth day, the 5th vionth, the 20lh year of 

Kwang-sii, (the 22nd ddy, the 6th month of the 27th year ofMeiji). 
Monsieur le Ministre, — I have the honour to inform Your Excellency 
that I am in receipt of a telegram from my Government to the effect that having 
carefully considered the proposal made by your Governvient in respect to the 
events in Korea and the adjustment of her affairs in future, the Chinese 
Government would reply as follows: — 

As the disturbance in Korea has already been suppressed, it is no longer 
essential to trouble the Chinese forces on Korea's behalf, and therefore 
710 necessity exists to consider the proposition that our two countries 
shall co-operaie in suppressing the disturbance. 
In regard to the adjustment of Korean affairs in future, the idea may be 
excellent ; but the measures of improvement must be left to Korea her- 
self. Even China herself would not interfere with the internal 
administration of Korea, andfapan having from the very Jirst recogniz- 
ed the independence of Korea, can not have the right to interfere with 
the same. 
As to the withdrawal of troops from Korea after the suppression of the 
disturbance, provision on that subject exists in the Treaty of 1885, con- 
cluded between the two countries, and therefore it is not required to 
discuss the viatter over again on this occasion. 
The above has already been communicated to Your Excellency in our 
interview and in now repeating it for your further consideration, I avail myself, 
&-C., &fc., dfc. 

(Signed) Wang, 

H. I a M. 's E.E. and M. P. 
His Excellency Monsieur Mutsu, H. If .M.'s Minister for Foreign 

No. 8. 

Department of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo, the 22nd day, the 6th month, the 
iyth year of Meiji. 

Monsieur le Ministre, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 


Your Excellency's note of the 22nd instant, in which Your Excellency, in pur- 
suance of instructions from the Imperial Chinese Government, rejects the pro- 
posals advanced by His Imperial Majesty's Government for the iranquillization 
and amelioration of Korea. 

The Imperial Government, much to their regret, find it impossible to share 
the hopeful views entertained by Your Excellency's Government regarding the 
actual situation in Korea at the presext time. 

Sad experience teaches us that the Peninsular Kingdom is the theatre of 
political intrigues and civil revolts and disturbances of such frequent recurrence 
as to justify the conclusion that the Government of that country is lacking in 
some of the elements which are essential to responsible independence. 

The interests of Japan in Korea, arising from propinquity as well as 
commerce, are too important and far-reaching to allow her to view with indiffe- 
rence the deplorable condition of affairs in that Kingdom. 

In this situation an attitude (f unconcern on the part of Japan would not 
only be a denial of the sentiments 0/ friendship and good correspondence which 
the Imperial Gavernment entertain for Korea, but it would be a censurable 
disregard of the law of self-preservation. 

The necessity for the adoption of measures looking to the peace and tran- 
quillity of Korea is, for the reasons already given, a dema?id which the Imperial 
Government cannot permit to pass unheeded, for so long as those measures are 
delayed so long will the cause of the disorder exist. 

In the estimation of the Imperial Government therefore the withdrawal of 
their forces should be consequent upon the establishment of some understanding 
that will serve to guarantee the future peace, order, and good government of 
the countty. That course of action is, moreover, it seems to His Imperial 
Majesty's Government, not only in perfect harmony with the spirit of the 
Tientsin Convention, but it accords with the dictates of reasonable precaution. 

Should the Government of China continue to hold views antagonistic to 
those which I have frankly and in good faith presented to Your Excellency, it 
cannot be expected that the Imperial Government will, under the circumstances, 
feel at liberty to sanction the present retirement of their troops from Korea. 

I avail myself , <5fc., <5fc., <Sfc, 

{Signed) Mutsu Munemitsu, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

His Excellency Monsieur^ MUG, H.I. CM' s. E.E. and M.P- 


No. 9. 

Japanese Legation, Peking, the I4ih day, the 'jih month, the 2'jthyear of 

Messieurs le Prince et Ministres, — Having communicated to 
H.I.y.M.'s Minister for Foreign Affairs on the same day, the particulars of 
ike statement made by Your Highness and Excellencies in my interview with you 
at the Tsung-li Yamen on the gth day, the "jth, month, the 27/A year of Meiji,. 
I have the honour to inform you that 1 am just in receipt of a telegram from 
the Minister to the following effect : — 

The disturbances which are of frequent occurrence in Korea have their 
source in the derangement of internal administration of that conntry. Con- 
sequently, the Imperial Government believe it best to encourage the Korean 
Government to eradicate the causS of disturbance by introducing internal admi- 
nistrative reforms and the Imperial Government considered that for the purpose 
of enabling Korea to accomplish the desired reforms, nothing ivouldbe better 
than the conjoint assistance of the Governments of Japan and China which 
have in common a vital interest in that country. Accordingly the Imperial 
Government proposed to the Imperial Chinese Government that such assistance 
be given to Korea ; but, to their surprise, the Imperial Chinese ^ Government 
definitely rejected the proposal of Japan and limited themselves solely to a 
request for the withdrawal of the Japanese troops from Korea. Recently 
Her Britannic Majesty's Minister at Peking, anit/iated by friendship and 
goodwill towards Japan and China, tendered his good offices and endeavoured 
to reconcile the differences existing between the two countries, but the Imperial 
Chinese Government still c07ttinued solely to insist upon the retirement of the 
Japanese forces and manifested no disposition to acquiesce in the views of the 
Imperial Japanese Government. The only conclusion deducible from these 
circumstances is that the Chinese Government are disposed to precipitate 
complications ; and in this juncture the Imperial Japanese Government find 
themselves relieved of all responsibility for any eveniualitj/ that may, in future, 
arise out of the situation. 

In enclosing herewith the translation of the above telegram, I avail myself,. 
&fc., <Sfc., <2fc. 

{Signed) Komuka, 

H.I.J.M.'s Charge d' Affaires. 

His Highness and Their Excellencies of the Tsung-li Yamen. 




The position of the Korean Peninsula is of vital importance 
to both. Japan and China. The possession of Korea by a foreign 
power, carries with it the command of the Gulf of PeohiU, and 
therefore of the sea-route to the capital of China. Moreover it 
gives easy access to Manchuria, the cradle of the present Chinese 
dynasty. On the other hand, Tsushima, Japan's westernmost 
insular possession, is within a few hours' sailing of the Korean 
littoral, so that the retention or annexation of the Peninsula by 
either China or a European power, would be equivalent to 
Japan's having a possible foe and certain rival at her very gates. 
Under these circumstances, it was, and is, Japan's policy to 
recognize and encourage to the utmost Korean autonomy; as 
well as to ensure, by force of arms if need be, the independence 
of her weak and misgoverned neighbour. 

Without referring to the history of the remoter past, the first 
occasion on which Korea came prominently to the fore in modern 
times was in 1868, when the Shogunate was abolished in Japan 
and . the supreme rule of the whole country restored to its lawful 
chief, H. I. M. the Emperor. An embassy was despatched at 
this time to announce the fact of the Restoration to the Korean 
Government ; but the ambassador was refused an audience. This 
unwise act naturally gave great umbrage to the Japanese au- 
thorities, and there was much desire expressed to invade and 
humble the haughty Peninsular Kingdom. Happily, however, the 
views of the peace party finally prevailed, and Korea was left to 


do and think as slie pleased. Tet once again, in the summer of 
1873, the -vvar-spirit in Japan was fanned into vigour when Korea 
gratuitously insulted this Empire by declaring her scornful con- 
tempt for a nation which had discarded the majority of its 
national institutions and adopted, in their place, those of Europe 
and America. This speech cost Korea dear. Count (then Mr.) 
Soyejima was at once sent to China in order to ascertain the 
exact relations existing between the Chinese Empire and Korea ; 
and it was on this memorable occasion that the Pekin authorities, 
possibly in view of impending complications, positively denied 
that Korea was a tributary state or that China was Korea's 
suzerain. Two years later, in August 1875, a Japanese man-of- 
war engaged in surveying and taking soundings in Korean waters, 
anchored off a small island on the west coast, and was fired upon 
by the forts on the island. In consequence of this episode, an 
embassy was sent from Japan to demand satisfaction from the 
Korean Government. After many vexatious delays the Seoul 
authorities finally proferred an apology and, for the first time in 
the history of the Peninsula, a Treaty was concluded with Japan 
(February, 1876), wherein Korea assumed the attitude of a 
wholly independent power : thus confirming the statements made 
to Count Soyejima by the Chinese Government three years 
previously. The first article of this treaty explicitly states that 
"Choson (Korea), being an independent State, enjoys the same 
rights as does Japan ; " and these same words recur thereafter in 
the Treaties made with the United States (1882), Great Britain 
(1883), and other European Powers. " China did not, however, 
by any means intend that Korea should exercise the indepen- 
dence thus conventionally recognised. A Chinese Eesident was 
placed in Seoul, and system of steady but covert influence in Korea's 
domestic and foreign affairs was inaugurated. Japan chiefly 
suffered by these anomalous conditions. China had always 
entertained a rooted apprehension of Japanese aggression in the 
Peninsula, and that distrust tinged all the influence exerted by 
her agents there. It would be an endless task to recapitulate the 
occasions on which Japan was made sensible of the discrimina- 
tion thus exercised against her. Little by little this conscious- 
ness roused her umbrage, and although no single occasion con- 


stituted a sufficient ground for strong international protest, the 
Japanese people gradually acquired a sense of being perpetually 
thwarted, baffled, and humiliated by China's interference in the 
Peninsular Kingdom's affairs." * 

In 1882, the maladministration of the Mins or members of the 
Korean Queen's family, who had for nearly eight years filled the 
highest offices of state, resulted in a revolt, in which principally 
the members of the older Korean army took part. Without going 
into particulars, it is sufficient to state that the revolting soldiers 
seized the King and effected the restoration of their former pro- 
tector and commander, the Tai Won-kun — less well known under 
his real name of Prince Heung-son, father of the reigning King, 
and one-time Begent during the King's minority, — to power. The 
Japanese Minister at Seoul was compelled to make good his escape 
to Chemulpho, whence he sailed for Japan in a British man-of-war. 
On satisfaction being demanded for this outrage, the Tai Won-kun 
temporized, and for a time war was imminent between Japan and 
Korea. But the Queen had appealed to Li Hung-chang for aid ; 
so an army was sent by China into the Peninsula, the Tai Won-kun 
was dethroned and carried off to Tientsin, while the hated Mins were 
once again restored to power and the Queen returned to Seoul 
triumphant. Shortly thereafter a new compact was made with 
Japan, Korea therein consenting to Japanese troops being station- 
ed in Seoul, and further agreeing to pay an indemnity of 500,000 
yen — a sum which, by the way, Japan received later on in part 

Only two years later another great erfieute took place, and on 
this occasion as on the former, the partisans of the victors, regard- 
ing Japan as the head and front of progressive tendencies, attacked 
and this time destroyed the Japanese Legation in Seoul, compelling 
its inmates to leave the city. Many Japanese residents of the 
Korean capital were killed by the Chinese soldiers — three thousand 
strong — who had hastened to the Palace under the leadership of 
of the Chinese Eesident, Yiian, and practically taken possession of 
the King's person, although it was given out that he had volun- 
tarily placed himself under Chinese protection. The handful of 
Japanese soldiers, with the Minister and those Japanese residents 

* Japan MaU 


who, had escaped the massacre, fought their way to the sea: the 
story of their inarch through a hostile land and surrounded on all 
sides by watchful foes, being replete with striking incidents. 

In consequence of the entente and its fatal results, Count 
Inouye, then Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, was at once 
despatched to Korea, where he obtained a promise from the 
Government to rebuild the Japanese Legation at its own expense 
and send an embassy to Tokyo in order to apologise. Yet as the 
attacks made on Japanese life and property in Seoul had been 
committed principally by lawless Chinese troopers, it was felt that 
satisfaction was due Japan from China as well as Korea. Accord- 
ingly Counts Ito and Saigo, Ministers of the Imperial Household 
and Agricultural and Commercial Departments respectively, pro- 
ceded to China, negotiations being promptly opened at Tientsin- 
On April 18th, 1885, the famous Treaty of Tientsin was concluded, 
by which each Power pledged itself not to send troops to the 
Peninsula without notifying the other, or, in the words of the 
third clause of this convention, "should in future there be in 
Korea any disturbance or important political affair, and should it 
be necessary for both Japan and China, or either one of them, to 
despatch troops, they should first mutually communicate on the 
matter, and, on the subsidence of the trouble, the troops should 
be at once withdrawn and not be permanently stationed." It was 
thus clear that the two Empires were placed on an equal military 
footing, and that China had no more suzerain rights over Korea 
than had Japan. The Peninsula was definitely recognized as an 
Independent State. 

Things remained thus until the spring of 1894, when a serious 
insurrection broke out in Korea — a revolt directed against the 
notorious and tyrannical maladministration of the Mins, or mem- 
bers of the Queen's family. The insurgents, in a series of fights, 
proved themselves superior to the ill-disciplined and ill-equipped 
troops of the Government. Emboldened by success, the rebels 
marched into ChSUado and stormed its capital city, Chhongju, 
on June 1st. Alarmed at the failure of their troops, the Mins had 
finally recourse to a familiar expedient : an appeal to China for 
aid. But this appeal did not emanate from the Korean Govern- 
ment as such ; it was brought about by Min Ting-chong, the most 


powerful courtier of the moment, in concert -with the Chinese 
Eesident, Yiian. China had thus the opportunity for which she 
had long been waiting, and on June 8th despatched 1500 soldiers 
from Wei-hai-wei really to the help of the Mins, but nominally 
under the pretext of assisting to put down the insurrection. This 
was, however, in virtual defiance of one of the stipulations of the 
Treaty of Tientsin, although notice of this step was given by the 
Chinese Government to the Japanese Eepresentative in Peking, 
according to the above-named convention. 

During the interval immediately preceding these events, 
Japan had been rendered more than ever acutely sensible of 
China's arbitrary and unfriendly interference in the Peninsula. 
Twice the efforts of the Japanese Government to obtain redress 
for ruinous and unlawful tradal prohibitions issued by the Korean 
authorities, had been hampered by the action of the Chinese Re- 
presentative in Seoul ; and once an ultimatum addressed to the 
Seoul Government as the sequel of a long and vexatious delay, 
elicited from the Viceroy Li at Tientsin an insolent threat of 
Chinese armed opposition. Still more strikingly provocative of 
national indignation was China's procedure with regard to the 
murder of Kim Ok-kyiin, one of the leading spirits of the revolt 
against the pro-Chinese faction in 1884, and since then the protege 
of Japan. The assassination had been planned by Koreans in 
Japan, where Kim was a political refugee. The unfortunate man 
had been inveigled from Japan to Shanghai, accompanied thither 
by a fellow-countryman, and then treacherously shot in a Japan- 
ese hotel. China, instead of punishing the assassin as any civi- 
lized Power must have done, conveyed him, together with the 
corpse of his victim, in a war-ship of her own to Korea : the 
murderer to be publicly honoured, the body to be brutally muti- 
lated. From this incident alone might be truly inferred the 
hostile and uncivilized spirit of Chinese interference in Korea 
wherever Japan was concerned.* 

So soon as the news of the sending of troops was conveyed 
to Japan the Tokyo Government immediately concluded that in 
the interests, first of the Japanese Empire, and secondly of civili- 
zation in the Fa.r East, measures must be promptly taken to put 

*.Japan Mail. 


an end once for all to the barbarous corruption and misrule 
that rendered Korea a scene of perpetual disturbance and effec- 
tually checked the country's capacity for maintaining its indepen- 
dence. As -will be seen from the diplomatic correspondence pub- 
lished at the outset of this volume, Japan, never claiming on her 
own account rights or interests in the Peninsula superior to those 
possessed by China, was always prepared to work hand in hand 
with the Middle Kingdom in inaugurating and carrying out any 
efficient system of reform.* Japan knew only too well the weak- 
ness of the Korean Government and its inability to quell the 
insurrection. Necessitated by the circumstances, recognizing that 
the problem called for a practical solution, and that, as the pati- 
ence of the Japanese nation was exhausted, they could no longer 
afford to be the victims of Chinese dalliance and dilatoriness and 
must contrive a situation such as would not only place them 
beyond the reach of diplomatic obstacles but would also enable 
them to pursue their programme even in the event of China's re- 
fusal to co-operate, the Tokyo authorities despatched four thou- 
sand Japanese troops, who were landed at Inchhon on June 12th, 
with the immediate intent of protecting the Japanese Legation at 
Seoul and all Japanese residents in Korea. Due notice was, of 
course, given of this proceeding to China. 

The insurgents, or Tonghaks as they were called, Avere sim.ply 
a disorderly though desperate assembly of Koreans who had been 
compelled to take up arms by the heartless rapacity of their 
officials. They did not aim so much at a subversal of the Govern- 
ment as they strove to encompass the final downfall of the Mins. 
And as soon as the Japanese and Chinese troops were landed, the 
rebellion quieted down. This was effected not so much by actual 
force as by the timidity of the insurgents at the approach of the 
troops of the two Empires. 

China now demanded that the Japanese soldiers should be 
withdrawn, alleging that the rebellion was entirely over. This 
demand had, however, a meaning of a very different nature from 
that which it expressed, and Minister Otori, who had been des- 
patched to the Korean capital at the critical moment, positively 
refused to entertain the request, couched as it moreover was in 

* Japan Mail. 


language of an unmistakable nature. A report then reached 
Japan that China had again sent troops to Asan, which lies south 
of Seoul, on June 27th. Despatches of a similar tenor then came 
thick and fast : — the Chinese Government had determined to take 
up arms against Japan ; it was intended to take advantage of the 
situation by declaring a Chinese protectorate over Korea ; that 
preparations were being actively made for a sudden attack on 
Japan; that both before and after July 21st Chinese troops had 
been flocking in steadily increasing numbers to As^n and Wiju; that 
some eight thousand Chinese soldiers were preparing to attack the 
Japanese troops stationed in and about Seoul. These reports 
were indicative of movements of a most serious nature, and so the 
Japanese Army and Navy were swiftly prepared to meet the 
gathering storm. Vioe-Admiral Viscount Kabayama, Chief of the 
Admiralty Staff, at once repaired to the Admiralty Station at 
Saseho and set about the necessary arrangements.— And now for 
the story of the Naval Battle at Phungdo. 

Rescue of foreign officers from the sinking Kowshing, by 
H. J. M. Naniwa. 



On July 23rd, the following Japanese war-ships left Saseho 
for luchhon : — tlie Yoshino, Naniwa, AJdtsusJiima, Matsushima, Itsu- 
husMma, Hashidate, CJdyoda and Hiyei. Of these the first three led 
the van, steaming ahead at full speed. At about 7 a.m. on the 
25th they passed by Phungdo (lit. "Phung Island") and Shopiole 
Island, when they sighted two Chinese men-of-war coming from 
the direction of Namyang Bay. These were the Kwang-yi and 
Tsiyuen, which had been despatched to convoy certain transports, 
on board of which were large numbers of Chinese troops destined 
for Asan. China had, at the time, not yet declared war against 
Japan, and as no open rupture had taken place certain forms of 
naval etiquette had still to be observed. Now on the Japanese 
side the YosJiino was flying an Admiral's flag, Eear-Admiral Tsuboi 

being on board; yet as the 
Chinese war-ships drew near 
they not only did not salute but 
actually cleared for action, ran 
out their guns and beat to quar- 
ters. The Japanese ships were 
thus compelled to follow suit. 
The channel in which the Japa- 
nese vessels were being very nar- 
row, it was impossible to con- 
tinue steaming ahead ; so, with- 
out taking any notice of the lack 
of courtesy on the part of the 
Chinese, the Japanese ships 
steered south-west, in the direc- 
tion of the open water. Both 
fleets, however, were steadily 
approaching each other. Just 
at this moment the Chinese 
ships opened fire on the Japanese, to which the three Japanese 
men-of-war made prompt and deadly reply. A fierce encounter 
ensued, lasting for about one hour and a half. Convinced that 
their enemies were more than their match, the Chinese then fled 



in different directions: tlie Tsi-yuen to Olielung Bay, and the 
Kiuang-yi, at reduced speed, to the eastward Korean littoral. The 
TosJiino immediately started in pursuit of the Tsi-yuen and continued 
to fire at her waterline, thinking to sink her. Several shots struck 
the doomed vessel which, apparently in a sinking condition, made 
for shallow water. It being no longer necessary to pursue her, 
the YosJiino turned and steamed back to the scene of the late conflict. 
During the course of the encounter, two other steamers had ap- 
peared at a distance in the offing. They were now approached 
and it was discovered that the one was the Chinese war-ship Tsao- 
kiang, the other being the Koioshing, a transport-vessel flying the 
British flag. On the latter were large numbers of Chinese troops, 
destined for Asan. So soon as the Ahitsushima drew near, the 
Tsao-ldang hoisted a white flag in token of surrender : very pro- 
bably because, seeing the flight of the two other Chinese vessels, 
her commander was convinced of his inability to cope successfully 
with the Japanese men-of-war. The Ahitsushima hereupon took 
possession of the Tsao-ldang ; a prize-crew was sent on board, 
with orders to follow in the wake of the victor. 

In the meantime the Naniioa had signalled the transport to 
stop, which command was obeyed. The next thing was to make 
the Koivshing anchor, an order signalled from the Naniiva by firing 
two blank cartridges. The vessel was then instructed to follow the 
man-of-war to the main squadron, and Naval Lieutenant Hitomi 
lowered a boat and went on board the Koivshing to see this order 
enforced. He asked to be shown the ship's papers, and Captain 
Galsworthy, who was in command of the transport, made the fol- 
lowing statement : — " The name of this vessel is the Koivshing and 
she is under charter of the Chinese Government to convey troops 
from Taku to Asan. There are eleven hundred Chinese soldiers on 
board, besides a quantity of rifles and ammunition. We have 
enough coal for a week's steaming and sufficient water for two days 
more." Lieutenant , Hitomi then asked whether Captain Gals- 
worthy was take any course indicated by the Naniiva? 
On receiving a reply in the affirmative, the Japanese officer at once 
;returned to his own ship. Soon after this Captain Galsworthy 
signalled the Naniiva, requesting a boat to be sent. This request 
was at once complied with, and upon its reason being inquired 


into, the captain of the British transport stated that although he 
was personally willing to obey the commands of the Naniwa, the 
Chinese officers on board would not suffer him to do so, 
demanding that he should steer in the direction of Taku, whence 
they had come. He therefore begged permission to take this 
course. The Japanese lieutenant, who had come in response to 
his call, not being prepared to give an answer to this request, 
went back to the Naniiva. Meanwhile the Chinese soldiers on 
board the Koivshing had come upon deck and were clamoring 
vehemently, while angrily threatening Captain Galsworthy. This 
was sufficient to prove that it was out of the question to force the 
KoivsJdng to follow the Japanese fleet ; so the Naniiua signalled the 
British captain to leave his ship. He replied by again requesting 
a boat to be sent, but the only answer made to this was that Cap- 
tain Galsworthy and his officers should proceed at once to the 
Naniiva in one of their own boats. The captain signalled in reply 
that he was not allowed to come. By this time the tumult among 
the Chinese soldiers had assumed serious dimensions, the captain 
and his officers being threatened with instant death if they made 
any attempt to leave the vessel. Under the circumstances there 
was no help for it but to hoist the red flag at the foremast of the 
Naniiua, in token that firing was about to be commenced, while 
signals were once more made urging the captain to leave the Kow- 
sJiing at all hazards. Captain Galsworthy hereupon summoned all 
the foreigners on board to the main deck, and bade them prepare 
to plunge overboard. No less than four hours had been spent in 
these fruitless signals and negotiations, as it was the desire of the 
Japanese fleet to make the Chinese surrender without bloodshed 
and then guide the Kowsliing to a place of safety ; yet the Chinese 
were unable to understand the generosity of the Japanese, menaced 
their commander, and refused point-blank to obey the instructions 
of the Naniwa. These was nothing for it but to sink the trans- 
port, and so in another moment a shell was fired at her engine- 
room with fatal precision. The ship began at once to founder, and 
soon disappeared beneath the waves, leaving only a cloud of smoke 
behind to mark the spot of her last plunge. Just before the ship 
was struck, the Chinese officers on board threatened the captain 
and his European aides with their rifles, saying that they should 


be instantly shot if they made the least attempt to leave the ship. 
And so even after the Kowshing had been struck and while she was 
settling in the waves and all the Europeans had jumped overboard, 
the Chinese officers fired at them, wounding several. Boats were 
immediately launched from the Japanese men-of-war, and the cap- 
tain, engineers and pilot were thus rescued. Those who had been 
wounded by the Chinese at the time of their plunging overboard, 
were sent on to the Naval Hospital at Saseho, where they were 
treated with the greatest possible care, for which they were after- 
wards profuse in their expressions of gratitude.* 

Early in the morning of the 27th, or two days after the battle, 
the Naniwa and Maya, of the Japanese fleet, sent out boats to 
look for the Chinese war-ship Kwang-yi, which had, on the day 
of the battle, fled in the direction of a shallow inlet. The vessel 
was soon found west of Caroline Bay, and completely destroyed. 
It is supposed that after receiving a shot in some vital part, the 
vessel made all speed for shallow water and was beached. The 
powder-magazine may thereupon have intentionally been exploded; 
or some fatal shell may have burst in her engine-room ; or fire may 
finally have found its way to her magazine: — at all events not only 
did the greater part of the vessel show the ravages of fire but her 
back was broken, only about one-third of the upper deck — bearing 
traces of numerous hits — remaining above water. As to the Tsi- 
yven, it is true that she managed to reach Wei-hai-wei, but in a 
pitiable condition. Nearly every gun on board had been destroy- 
ed, the deck torn up in places, and the gun-carriages in her fore 
beaten out of shape, while blood marked many places. 

With regard to the Japanese men-of-war, the Naniwa received 
one shot in her side, as did also the YosJdno, but no material 
damage was done, neither was any one killed or even wounded. 

Thus ended the first conflict in the war between Japan and China. 
It may be justly claimed to be one of the most unparalleled and 
ill-matched naval encounters the Orient has ever seen ; for though 
the Japanese vessels were of a better type than the Chinese, the 
latter carried guns of much heavier calibre, so that there can be 
no doubt that the Chinese might have done serious damage to the 

* See the printed Btatements of Captain Galsworthy and others. 



Japanese fleet, had their ships been fought with equal skill and 

Captain Togo, H. J. M. Naniwa. 

The names of the three Japanese war-ships and their Com- 
manders, are as follow : — 

Name. Tonnage. Commander. 

TosJiino 4,150 Captain Kawabara. 

Naniwa 3,650 Captain Togo. 

AkitsusJiima 3,150 Commander TJemura. 


Yoshino 23 knots. 

Naniwa 18f knots. 

AJcitsusMnfia 19 knots. 

The captured gun-boat Tsao-kiang had eighty-two officers and 
men on board. 



TowAEDS the end of July, 1894, the Korean Government had 
so far acted upon the advice proferred by Japan as to consent to, 
and actually set about, certain vitally necessary reforms. The 
misleading counsels of the Chinese were disregarded at least in 
one serious point : the expulsion of the Mins or relatives of the 
Queen, the chief representatives of that fearful maladministration 
under which! the country had so long been groaning. The im- 
mediate cause of this step was the determined attitude assumed by 
Mr. Otori Keisuke, the Japanese Bepresentative at Seoul, who, 
on July 24th, had had literally to fight his way to an audience 
with the King, his escort having been fired upon by a crowd of 
Korean troopers stationed at the Palace Gate. A brief but de- 
cisive skirmish had ensued, seventeen Koreans being killed on the 
spot, while one Japanese horseman was fatally, and two foot- 
soldiers slightly, wounded. On finally meeting with Mr. Otori, 
the King repeatedly affirmed his desire to keep to the course 
mapped out by Japan, and it was on the following day, July 25th, 
that the order for the banishment of the Mins was given, all com- 
pacts with .China being simultaneously abrogated. The King 
moreover requested the Japanese Bepresentative to see that the 
Chinese forces stationed at Asan (Ashan or Gasan) should be 
compelled to return to their own country — a measure, which, 
under the circumstances, Japan was bound to take. She had 
from first to last treated with Korea as an independent kingdom, 
and it was nothing but China's unreasonable yet reiterated claim 
to the suzerainty of the Peninsula which had precipitated matters ; 
not to speak of. her positive refusal to cooperate with Japan in 



bringing about tlie so urgently needed administrative reforms. 
China's position being that Korea was strong enough to effect 
single-handed the necessary reforms — a palpable impossibility — 
it devolved upon Japan to see that these reforms were carried out 
in truth and deed. And to this effect it was her evident duty to 
assist her weak and vacillating neighbour with force, if need be. 
Finally, if, as China had represented to Japan, the Tonghak 
Rebellion was crushed and Korea was really strong enough to 
look after her own affairs without the aid of either Empire, how 
was it that China not only kept a large force on Korean ground 
but was also sending, as speedily as might be, reinforcements of 
picked troops ? "With justice indeed could Japan construe such 
an act into a casus belli, for only one interpretation could possibly 
be put iipon it : China's intention to settle by force the question 
of Korean proprietorship, and to make the wretched government- 
ridden people feel the full force of that tremendous sentence, 
subjedos tanquam suos ; viles tanquam alienos. 

So soon as the King had definitely requested the Japanese 
Representative to set about the expulsion of the Chinese, Mr. 
Otori immediately despatched a message in this sense to Major- 

General Oshima Toshimasa, who 
had been sent in command of the 
Combined Brigade, at Manlichang. 
Major-General Oshima had 
stationed one body of troops in 
Seoul (consisting of the Seoul 
Guard and the Inchchon Con- 
tingent), in order to prepare to 
receive the Chinese, who were 
marching overland to Phyong- 
yang ; and with another body he 
broke camp and marched across 
the Eiver Hangan at a place 
called Tongchanchin. After cover- 
ing four miles the troops reached 
Kwoohhon and encamped in the 
fields. Prior to this. Major Purushi Masatsuna, who had been 
stationed at Oruitong, midway between Seoul and Inchhon, in 

Majob-Gbnbkal Oshima Yoshimasa. 

80NGHWAN. 15 

command of the Advance Column, had pushed on to Suwon, where 
a juncture was made ; for at dawn on the 26th the Main Brigade 
left Kwochhon and marched on to Suwon, which was only four 
miles distant. This town is the most important stronghold in 
the vicinity of the Korean capital, being encircled by walls of 
massive masonry. A good dealof foraging was done during the 
day, horses and oxen being bought up in quantities, while num- 
bers of coolies were hired, liberal payment being made for their 
services. These same men had been cruelly treated by the 
Chinese, who had forced them to work without pay and had 
compelled many to take service under the Dragon Flag contrary 
to their inclination. The poor fellows were overjoyed at the 
considerate treatment accorded them by the Japanese, and worked 
with a will. 

At four o'clock in the morning of July 27th the forces left 
Suwon, and this time a march of twelve miles was made, Chinwi 
being reached at half-past one in the afternoon. Shortly before 
sunset tidings of the naval engagement off Phung Island came in, 
which naturally roused the men to a pitch of patriotic pride and 
enthusiasm. Three ringing cheers* of Banzai! were given, wliile 
every face beamed with joy. Between Suwon and Chinwi the 
road was narrow but offered no serious obstacle to an advance ; 
the surrounding country was flat and covered with paddy-fields. 
A thunderstorm coming up at 2 p. m. greatly lessened the heat 
and cleared the skies, much to the comfort of the marching 
troops. During this march each soldier carried provisions for 
three days, and one hundred and thirty rounds of ammunition. This 
was put in a specially constructed bag of novel shape, to which 
the name of gassai-buJcuro was given. The bag was made of light 
yet strong material, and offered no impediment to freedom of 
movement. The knapsacks and all else had been left behind at 
Yongsan, and it was for these reasons that the soldiers did not 
complain of fatigue, keeping fresh and bearing up so well in 
spite of the dusty marches, great heat, and the lack of proper drink- 
ing water. Camp was broken once again at 4 a. m. on the following 
morning. Passing through Chhilwonyok, the troops marched 

*The Japanese cheer of Banzai, literally " ten thousand years " is the national 
counterpart of Surra! or Vivat t It is perhaps best translated by the old ceremonial 
salutation " Live forever." 


on tintil they made a hill some six miles from Ohinwi, a little to the 
north of Sosachan. The place was promptly occupied, and while 
this was doing some mounted scouts brought in the news that the 
Chinese were in force on the hills at Songhwan ; that they had 
built forts and breastworks and were there encamped. " Flags 
are flying every where and cannons have been set up in various 
places. There seem to be about 2800 Chinese stationed hereabouts, 
and their tents line the hillsides," was the report. Other scouts, 
who had been sent on to Asan by way of Phyongtak, reported 
that the enemy had evacuated the former encampment there and 
gone eastward. It was thus manifest that the main portion of 
the Chinese forces had left Asan, but still kept the important 
post of Songhwan. Sosachang — a hamlet of some 20 or 30 houses 
— was then made the temporary Head-Quarters, and each body 
was told off to a special post, while strict watch was kept over 
the enemy's movements. 

Songhwan is a small bat important strong-hold, north-east of 
Asan and ten miles distant from this place. An irregular range 
of low hills runs from north to west back of the town, while 
paddy-fields lie to the northwards. The distance between the 
town and Sosachan is about three miles, the whole ground being 
cut up with paddy-fields, marshes and dikes. Through the broad 
open area above two miles in width, east and west run the 
bipartite Ansong and another nameless stream, both of which 
debouch in the Gulf of Asan. The Chinese had taken every 
advantage of the irregularity of the country, and had built forts 
at the four corners of their camp, these protecting their tents draped 
with blue and white, which were snugly set up under the pine-trees. 
Blue and red flags were flying everywhere ; trenches dug and earth-' 
works thrown up, the latter being evidently of quite recent construc- 
tion, as the earth was still dark and moist. About one mile from 
the smaller forts, there was, to the westward, a much larger one. 
It contained fourteen or fifteen tents over which many banners 
were floating, while one standard of unusual size was hoisted pro- 
minently in the centre. A narrow pathway led thence from the forts 
to Sosachang, crossing the rivers and paddy-fields ; while the road 
to Asan went around the base of the Songhwan hills, and was com- 
pletely commanded by forts erected on the hillsides at short 


intervals. The whole was, from every point of view, a most 
advantageous site for the Chinese, but without one factor in 
favour of their adversaries. Moreover, the enemy had erected a 
dam in the Ansong Eiver at a place called Kunmulpho causing 
the river to overflow at this point, so that the fields were com- 
pletely submerged on either side of the narrow road. Finally, the 
Chinese could easily watch every movement of the Japanese, 
while they, in the hills and behind their forts, were concealed 
from observation. Songhwan was thus indeed a place easily 
defended but difficult to storm. The' day, too, was oppressively 
hot, the thermometer reaching 97° ; yet on the Japanese side 
there was little or no shade : even Major-General Oshima could 
find no better protection from the burning rays of the sun than 
that afforded by two old pieces of matting. And after their rapid 
march the Japanese soldiers were suffering from thirst, yet no 
drinkable water could be procured ; the muddy, slimy fiuid in the 
fields scarcely served to do more than moisten their parched 
throats. Towards afternoon, however, a sudden shower came up, 
effecting an immediate fall in the temperature while it greatly 
helped to relieve the distress of the thirsty men. Nothing could, 
the participants say, have given greater or more welcome relief 
than this splashing, noisy shower, which seemed like a message 
of good-cheer from the mother-country. 

Upon mature consideration it was deemed inadvisable to 
begin the attack by daylight. Major-General Oshima divided his 
forces into two wings, the Eight and Left. The Beserve force was 
to follow after the Left Wing, the Advance Column of which should 
start at midnight. At this hour, the little army was quietly 
roused and ordered to advance in utter silence. The night was a 
very still one, and so noiseless was the approach of the devoted 
troops that they might well have been taken for the shades of 
those Japanese warriors who, nearly three centuries before, had 
traversed in triumph this very road. But with what a difference ! 
Then, clad in armor, carrying bows and quivers, and wielding 
trenchant blades ; now, robed in the clothes of the Once-despised 
West and bearing that most death-dealing invention of the 
century, the Murata rifle ! Then, proceeding on a raid to satisfy 
merely the vain-glory of Hideyoshi ; now, to fight for the pre- 



servation of peace, the tranquillizatiou of the Orient, and the 
salvation of Korea ! The Left "Wing— in reality the Main Body — 
set out under the personal command of Major-General Oshima, 
followed by Lieut. -Colonel Fukushima Tasumasa, Major Naga- 
oka Gaishi and other officers. The troops were marched to the 
leftward of Sosachang, in order to get at the rear of the 
enemy's flank. In this way they passed through the hostile line 
of pickets. The Eight Wing, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 
Taketa Shuzan, the Advance Column being formed by Captain 
Matsuzaki and his company, left the camp at Sosachang at 2 a. m. 
(July 29th). With the purpose of attacking the enemy in front, 
this body marched along the narrow road amidst the paddy-fields, 
and owing to the latter being submerged and the darkness of the 
night — not to speak of the ruts and broken places in the road it- 
self — the advance was attended with great difficulty. The Advance 
Column made its way across the first and second bridges spanning 
the Ansong, while the men under Lieut.-Colonel Taketa crossed 

the first bridge at 3.05 a. m. As 
they then reached a place quite 
different from the hill (Mt. Chu- 
palli) which had been selected 
as a land mark, the Lieut.-Colonel 
feared that the Advance Column 
had mistaken the road. At this 
moment the Column in question 
came into collision with the enemy 
at the village of Kehliuntong, 
about thirty metres distant from 
the Eight "Wing. Fierce and rapid 
firing being heard, the Lieut.- 
Colonel dismounted and loudly 
called on his men to charge. The 
Advance Column was ordered by 
Captain Matsuzaki to spread out 
in open order, and the men were kept firing rapid flank volleys. 
Some troopers under Lieutenant Tokiyama were sent to attack the 
enemy's rear, while other detachments were ordered to make a 
flank attack. After [a little while of furious fighting the enemy 




began to give way, and the field was won. The sub-company 
under Lieutenant Tokiyama, which had been told to work 
around to the enemy's rear by the riyer, got into difficulties. On 
attempting to ford the stream, they found the banks precipitous 
and the water deep, and the Lieutenant and a dozen or more of 
his men were drowned. 

At 4.10 a. m. the enemy's ranks were in utter confusion. 
They fled in the direction of the paddy-fields to the south and took 
the road to Songhwan. In the fight that took place here, Captain 
Matsuzaki, the leader of the Adyance Column, was struck down. 
The village was thus at the mercy of the Japanese ; there remained, 
however, the forts to be reckoned with. Leaving the village at 5.30 
a. m., the Eight "Wing advanced along the narrow road amidst the 
paddy-fields, directing their course towards a hill on the right. 
Shortly after they reached a hill as high as that of Songhwan, 
and halted for a moment. Just at this time the right-hand forts 
of the Chinese were furiously attacked by the Japanese Left Wing. 
The square fort on the farthest west side did not offer much 
resistance and soon fell into the hands of the attackers, who 
there captured three cannon, a quantity of small-arms, plenty of 
ammunition, and more than ninety tents. Leaving their dead and 
wounded behind them, the Chinese fled precipitately in the 
direction of Asan. This was at 
8 o'clock in the morning. The 
movements of the Japanese Left 
Wing, from the time the camp was 
left at midnight, had been as 
follow : — With Major - General 
Oshima in command and Lieut.- 
Colonel Nishijima, the reserve 
following, the Left Wing marched 
from Sosachang towards the forts 
on the enemy's right. Their 
objective was a hill to which they 
gave the name of Keshi-hbzu, or 
the " Poppy-priest," from a fan- 
cied resemblance of the summit to 
the fruit of the poppy. The real 



name of the liill is Toklip-san, or " Independent Mountain," and 
it is one of the range of hills back of the centre of the Chinese 
camp. Skirting round the pine-grove north-east of Songhwan, the 
troops finally reached a little plateau to the rear of the flank of 
those forts which had been erected on the " Poppy-priest." The 
cannon of the Artillery contingent were now brought into position 
and trained on the Chinese forts. While still on the march, the 
noise of the fusillade near the Ansong had been heard, and the 
Japanese knew that their Eight Wing had already engaged the 
enemy there. Despite the excitement of the moment, the utmost 
order prevailed and the work of bringing the guns up to the 
elevated ground and training them on the forts proceeded rapidly. 
This done, the firing began and shrapnel shells were dropped 
into Ports 1 and 2 on the Chinese right. At first the enemy 
replied, using percussion shells ; but their aim was defective and 
the gunners failed to get the proper range. At the same time the 
Japanese deployed their line of battle, a manoeuvre at once 
imitated by tlie Chinese, while the firing grew ever hotter and at 
closer quarters. The Chinese, to do them justice, fought well, 
but when the Japanese Left Wing and Reserve conjointly made a 
general attack, the fighting did not last longer than ten minutes. 
The two forts above-mentioned were captured at 7.20 a. m. 

The Japanese Left now advanced to the attack of the remaining 
forts, but found this a task of no small magnitude, as the Chinese 
fought desperately. But just then the other. Right, Wing came up 
from the Ansong and stormed the earthworks on the enemy's 
right. The battle now grew exceedingly fierce and the roar of the 
cannonade seemed to shake the very earth. What proved most 
deadly and surprising to the enemy was the Japanese shrapnel, 
for the guns were ably handled and every shot told. Before long, 
the five encampments, with the trenches, earthworks, forts and 
all, were taken by storm, and the enemy fled towards the hills to 
the west, leaving behind four cannon, and large quantities of stores, 
tents, arms, and ammunition. The large square fort fell at the 
same time, and thus the field of Songhwan was triumphantly won. 
The Chinese rapidly retreated towards Asan, General Cheong in 
particular being in such a hurry to have nothing more to do with 
shrapnel that he even left his military journal behind him. On the 


field were 110 Chinese dead, and over 500 wounded. The Japanese 
casualties amounted to 80 killed and wounded. 

Although these forts and the all-important Songhwan were 
now in the hands of the Japanese, the majority of the erstwhile 
defenders reached safety at Asan. It was therefore necessary to 
press on and capture this the enemy's Head-Quarters, where 
General Tang was in chief command. The Japanese troops had 
been marching or fighting for over eight hours and were sorely in 
need of rest ; but although it w4s expected that the Chinese would 
make a much more determined stand at Asan, no time was lost in 
marching thither, for the moral effect of the victory at Songhwan 
would surely be great. The defeated and fiying Chinese were 
thus immediately chased, and at 4 p. m. after an exhausting 
march at full speed the Japanese Eight Wing reached Asan. To 
their unbounded surprise, only a few stragglers were to be seen. 
The Chinese had instantly decamped on hearing what had taken 
place at Songhwan, leaving stores, baggage and all else at Asan. 
Even most of the vaunting banners were still flying. Asan was 
thus taken without firing single shot. 

At the same hour the Japanese Left reached a spot east of 
Komshungtong, where they encamped. Early in the morning of 
the 30th the march was resumed, and Asan soon reached, where 
they found their comrades in joyous possession of the Chinese 
Head-Quarters. It was believed that nearly all the Asan contingent 
had been sent on to Songhwan to stop the Japanese approach ; 
but when the news of the fall of that stronghold reached the 
Chinese Commander-in-Chief, he had no stomach for further 
fighting and fled southwards, toward Konchu by way of Shing- 
changhyon. The moral force of the battle of Songhwan had in- 
deed proved singularly effective. 

On July 31st the march back to Seoul was begun, the capital 
being entered on August 8th amidst enthusiastic demonstrations 
of joy. Japan's supremacy in arms . had been triumphantly 
proved, and the result of the war was now only a question of 
time. The next step was to Phyongyang which, if captured, 
would mean that China's misrale in Korea had ended forever. 



It was in the battle of Songhwan, the first encounter between 
the armies of the two Empires, that a trumpeter about whom 
much has been written died a death worthy of being immortalised 
in song and story. This was Kiguchi Kohei, a second-class 
private of the Twelfth Company of the 12st Regiment of Infantry. 
Kiguchi was a native of Nariha-mura, Kawakami-gori, Okayama 
Prefecture. On July 24th, 1894, the date of this memorable 
battle, he was one of the trumpeters in the company commanded 
by the ill-fated Captain Matsuzaki Nao-omi, who was attached to 
the van of the Eight Wing. 

On the morning of that day Captain Matsuzaki, leading the 
Advance Column, reached a village called Kehliungtong, about 
600 metres from Ansong. It was still very dark, it being about 
three o'clock, and Captain Matsuzaki feared that the connection 
between his column and the advance guard — a mere handful of 
ten men or thereabouts — might be lost or that they would miss 
the path. So he darted on to the rear of the advance-guard, 
followed only by Trumpeter Kiguchi as an orderly. No sooner 
had he reached the foremost file than the fighting began, the 
distance between them and the enemy being not more than twenty 
paces. None of their surroundings could be seen, owing to the 
intense darkness, yet the Japanese got occasional glimpses of the 
foe by reason of the flash of the cannon and the repeating rifles 
aimed at them from the houses in the village. With only twenty 
men about him. Captain Matsuzaki fought most valiantly, and 
finally, seeing that the combat was about to become general, 
ordered Kiguchi, who had not swerved from his side, to blow the 
charge. At a distance of ten paces from the foremost Chinese, 
Kiguchi raised his bugle to his lips and blew out clear and shrill 
the stern command to " Charge ! " In an instant he was the 
target for a score of rifles, and a comrade saw him suddenly falter 
and then fall. Captain Matsuzaki met his death at the same 

How the contest ended all the world knows. The Chinese 
were utterly defeated, leaving over thirty dead on the field. 


But must not tMs victory be in a measure attributed to Kiguchi's 
prompt obedience and unfaltering courage in the presence of 
certain death ? 

At dawn, when the sun again made things visible and shone 
redly on the carnage of the night, Kiguchi's body was found 
where he had fallen. His bosom had been shattered by a bullet 
and death must have been almost instantaneous. But even in death 

he still grasped the bugle that had sounded the note of victory. 

* # * 

Tfi' # -if ^ 

The above are the simple facts of this stbry, which has been 
much misunderstood and erroneously narrated. A paragraph 
appeared soon thereafter in the Japanese papers locating the 
scene of the narrative at Phyongyang, and giving the name of 
the bugler as Shirakami Genjiro. This was translated in the 
columns of the foreign press of Japan, and was thereafter copied 
the world over : Sir Edwin Arnold even writing one of his inimi- 
table poems on the subject. Shirakami Genjiro was, however, 
quite another man. Not even a trumpeter, but a second-class 
private of the First Eeserves, he was none the less a comrade of 
Kiguchi, and belonged to the Ninth Company, while Kiguchi 
was one of the Twelfth Company men. He also lost his life at 
Songhwan, being similarly killed by a breast wound. Most re- 
grettable is it that even the parents of Shirakami, who was also a 
native of Okayama Prefecture, were deceived in this matter ; and 
that they for a long time believed their son to be the hero of the 
story. Sir Edwin Arnold sent for documentary proof of what had 
occurred, but it was after the poem had been published and there- 
fore no answer of a satisfactory nature could be forwarded. But 
all this does not detract from the real actor's devoted heroism. 
Whether Kiguchi or Shirakami, the deed is no less worthy of the 
chant of a poet's muse. Yet let honour be given where it is due. 


"When the Seventh Company of the 128t Eegiment, belong- 
ing to the Eight "Wing of Major-General Oshima's Combined 

x±du±i\jx\y v.aL± x±xy. 

Brigade, reached the vicinity of Ans6ng-do, they — as has already 
been described — suddenly fell in with the enemy in the village by 
the river. It was then, it will be remembered, still quite an hour 
before dawn — 3 o'clock, to be precise — and the darkness intense. 
Considerable confusion resulted from this pitchy darkness, num- 
bers of men losing all connection with the files to which they 
belonged. Nasu Torafusa, a first-class private of this Seventh 
Company, by dint of repeated callings managed to get some 30 
men together ; and this little body he ordered to stop on the road 
to the village of Kehliungtong whence the Chinese were now run- 
ning out. Lieut.-Colonel Taketa then tried, with his aides, to get the 
scattered men together. Sending his voice out into the darkness, 
he asked if any officer were thereabouts. No one replied. Then 
the Lieut.-Colonel cried again, " Is there no non-commissioned 
officer or first-class private within hearing ?" This elicited a res- 
ponse from Nasu : — " Yes, here am I, Nasu Torafusa, a first- 
class private." Rejoiced at finding some one in whom he could 
trust, the Eegimental Commander told Nasu to use his men in 
bringing the Eight and Left Wings together, making them con- 
verge so as to deliver a combined attack on the enemy. Nasu at 
once set about this, acting rapidly and intelligently, until he 
came across Sergeant Amano, to whom he relinquished the task. 
Nasu was now called up to be an orderly and go with a message 
to the Commander of the Third Battalion. He was bidden say 
that an attack should be made all along the line at dawn. Just as 
he was about to start on this mission, a loud cry of " Charge ! " 
was heard, and the men of the other companies were dimly seen 
advancing at double-quick. Nasu joined these forces and charged 
with them into the enemy's earthworks, but not before he had 
managed to send on the message to Third Battalion. 

At dawn the whole Japanese line bore down on the enemy, 
and when the Chupalli high-ground was reached, the troops 
were exposed to a fierce fire from the enemy's entrenchments 
about Songhwan. Nasu led, encouraging his comrades to energetic 
action, giving them as he did so the proper range and telling 
them how to sight their weapons. Just at this critical moment, 
a comrade had some mishap with his gun ; Nasu lent his com- 
panion his own weapon, took the disabled gun himself and in this 


Tain of bullets calmly went to work to put tlie gun in order with 
the tools he carried. His skilled hands promptly repaired the 
the damage in the breach, and then he handed back the gun to 
its owner, reclaiming his own weapon and continuing to fire as 
•calmly and steadily as if at the butts. The men could not there- 
after say too much in praise of his hardihood and coolness under 



Whatevee may have originally been thought of the result of 
the opening warfare between the two great Empires of the Far 
East, the result was no longer doubtful after the Battle of 
Phyongyang. It was the decisive battle of the whole war ; for 
not only did it drive the Chinese from Korean territory but it 
also proved that they were in no one point the equals of the 
Japanese. Those who had thoughtfully followed the history of 
the modern development of Japan, knew from the outset that 
there could be but one result. But " China's millions " were 
numerically so superior to the population of the Island Empire ; 
China's resources so immeasurably greater ; her credit so vastly 
larger ; her territorial possessions so incomparably broader ; her 
pretensions so haughtily prouder — that the nations of Europe 
might well have expected to see China crush with ease her pygmy 
foes : to see, in the contemptuous language of the Imperial Edict 
the generals of the Middle Kingdom succeed in " rooting the 
W6Jen from their lairs." But to those acquainted with the real 
condition of the two Empires, such a contingency never appeared 
probable or even possible. China's inherent weakness had been 
demonstrated again and again ; Japan, the pioneer of civilisation 
in the Orient, was known to be a compact whole, her people the 
descendants of warriors, and as intensely patriotic as the most loyal 
of Western nations: reverencing the Emperor with an ardent 
fidelity, an adoring love, such as has never been and never can 
be found elsewhere. Moreover, Japan's soldiers, though com- 
paratively few in number, were admirably drilled and as admira- 
bly equi^Dped ; their officers not money-grubbers or place-seekers, 


but liard--working, conscientious men, who sought to win and 
had won the esteem and confidence of those they commanded. 
The Japanese have, finally, an inherent love for the battle-field 
and deem it an honour and glory to die for their country — facts 
which were incontestably proved hundreds of times during the 
course of the war, as this little book tries, however imperfectly, 
to show. With China, defeat meant simply a more complete ex- 
posure of national weakness, and the probability of her falling, in 
later years, an easy prey to a more warlike nation; with Japan 
defeat would have meant — and will ever mean — nothing less than 
annihilation, for her people will fight so long as there is left a man 
to hold a gun or wield a sword — or a woman to handle a halberd. 
Songhwan was the beginning of the end ; Phyongyang was the 
real end of the contest. After that, with but few exceptions, 
every battle was a foregone conclusion, even when the Japanese 
were outnumbered by their foes, ten to one. Here, once and for 
all time, it was proved that the Rising Sun of Japan was superior 
to the five-clawed Yellow Dragon : — the latter could scratch and 
snarl, but the rays of that glorious Sun might never be darkened 
by his spiteful fury. 

* 3f * 

* * * 

A movement towards Phyongyang was made by the Chinese 
early in July, some time before their crushing defeat at Songhwan. 
For Phyongyang is an important strongly walled castle-town in the 
province of Phyong-an-do, one of the most fertile and beautiful of 
the Korean provinces. The town lies on the right bank of the 
Taidong River, a broad stream flowing into the Gulf of Pechili, 
and thus easily accessible for purposes of transport. Here the 
Chinese established themselves in force, after passing over the 
Manchurian frontier and through Wiju. Co-operating with Asan, 
Phyongyang was made the base of supplies, and it was the 
evident intention of the Chinese, in case of the success of their 
plans, to march thence upon the devoted Korean capital like some 
tumultuous and destructive flood. The position was, from a 
Chinese standpoint, admirably selected and indeed all that could 
be desired. There was the river close at hand, with huge junks 
ready to do their bidding ; they were plentifully provisioned, yet 
could draw on the stores of the surrounding country in case of 



need ; finally, tlie city was so situated as to be extremely difficult 
of access to a hostile army, and the Koreans themselves, though 
treated with scant courtesy, were favourable to China's cause, 
being wilfully kept in ignorance of Japan's true labours in their 
behalf. On the other hand, to reach Phyongyang the Japanese 
forces had to climb precipitous mountain-ranges and traverse 
roads where the mud was often knee-deep, the conveyance of 
stores and all warlike material being thereby rendered exceed- 
ingly difficult. Besides the outspoken hostility of the Koreans 
and their absolute unwillingness to render aid even when well- 
paid, were most unpleasant factors. "With all this, perfect dis- 
cipline was maintained in the Japanese ranks ; the soldiers were, 
one and all, inspired by the same ardent spirit of loyal enthusiasm; 
so they made light of the difficulties of the march and bore their 
many privations and discomforts with unmurmuring cheerfulness. 

Toward the last days of 
August, the Fifth Army Divi- 
sion, under the chief command 
of Lieut.-General Nozu Michi- 
tsura, was divided into four 
bodies : — 

1. The Wonsan Column, com- 
manded by Colonel Sato Tada- 
shi. This Column left Wonsan 
on September 1st, and reached 
the upper part of the Taidong 
Eiver, by way of Yangdok and 
Songchhong ; 

2. The Sangnyong Column, 
under Major-General Tatsumi 
Naobumi. From Shinge this 
body passed through Shu-an 
and Samdung arriving finally at 
Kangtong ; 

under Major-General Oshima 
Yoshimasa. The Brigade advanced towards their objective along 
the road which passes through Hwangju and Chunghwa ; 
4. The Main Division, commanded by Lieut.-General Nozu 

Lieut.-Gbnekal Viscoust Nozu. 

3. The Combined Brigade, 



Colonel Uykda Ybtaku. Chief 

OF iStafp of the Fifth 


in person. The troops crossed the Taidong in its lower course at 
a place called Nokshapo, near Chholto, a small island lying in 

The general attack on Phyong- 
yang was, according to the plans of 
the Commander-in-Chief, to be made 
on September 15th, the idea being 
to storm the town from four sides 
simultaneously. The different Divi- 
sions were to act thus : — The Com- 
bined Brigade was to make a front- 
attack in order to direct the enemy's 
attention to that part and render it 
impossible to send troops to the aid 
of other points. The Sangnyong 
Column should then approach from 
the north and deliver a fierce 
assault ; while the Wonsan Column 
was to join the Sangnyong men on 
the right, assist in the attack, and intercept the enemy's retreat. 
in that direction. Finally, the Main Division was to attack the 
town from the soiTth-west. 

The Main Division started from Seoul on August 31st. The 
road was exceptionally fatiguing and great difficulties were ex- 
perienced; however the First Column reached Hwangju on the 
10th, while the Second made Pongshan on the same date. A 
report then came in from Major Baba Masao, of the Engineers^ 
that ferry-boats were to be had in numbers near Chholto Island, 
and that twenty-five junks were lying in the upper part of the 
Taidong. A party of Engineers was then sent on to Shipyipho, to 
make ready for the crossing of the stream, and on the next day, 
the 11th, the troops began to pass over the river. The stream at 
this point was over 2000 metres wide and very rapid, so that it 
took between two to four hours for the boats to go and come. 
For this reason only the men composing the First Column were 
sent across that day, the Artillery having perforce to wait until 
the 12th. When the Second Column came up on the following 
day (the 12th), it was found that some of the boats employed on 


the preceding day were so badly damaged as to be useless. As it 
was thus impossible to get everything promptly across, the rest of 
the Division, all the baggage, stores, beasts of burden, etc., were 
left at Hwangju, while the Artillery camped at the ferry. On 
September 13th, the task of crossing the stream was resumed, but 
not finished. Those who had reached the opposite bank, pressed 
on towards Poshanching. The road was in a fearful state, being 
everywhere intersected by rivulets and indescribably muddy. It 
was not until the 14th that the whole Division crossed the Taidong, 
and on the same day Shachon was reached, a place eight miles 
distant from Phongyang. 

The Combined Brigade, under Major-General Oshima, left 
Chunghwa on September 12th, and in the early forenoon reached 
an irregular range of hills north of Changtangtong, where the 
troops bivouacked for the night. The range here divides into 
two smaller chains, running north and south, the geographical 
features of the former being thenceforth of a different nature. 
The sloping road from Changtangtong leads on to Chimghwa 
and Phyongyang, across the centre of the hills, which lie north 
and south. From a point north-west of the hills, another minor 
range goes on to the southern bank of the Taidong, and these 
little irregular-shaped mountains face the hills south of Phyong- 
yang, the valley between them being not more than 3000 metres 
broad. Between Changtangtong to the west and Tokiteh there is 
a constant succession of hills. To the right of the highroad, near 
Tokiteh, there is a pine forest ; but this could afford little or no 
shelter to the Japanese troops, as shells from the cannon in the 
forts south of Phyongyang might easily reach the forest. And 
with this one exception there was nothing to conceal the approach 
of the Japanese. They had thus to march in the open, within 
ea,sy range of the Chinese guns. North of Tokiteh and built 
among the hills, were other Chinese earthworks, the site being 
admirably chosen to hold back a hostile army. 

Passing by Tokiteh, there is a highroad leading to Suwankyo, 
some 50 or 60 metres to the north. And to the north again of 
this little village, the Chinese had thrown up earthworks. From 
Suwankyo the road runs along the left bank of the Taidong, on to 
Sonkyori, which lies 1800-2000 metres farther to the north. In 


a small wooded .place, about 300 metres from the ferry, the 
Chinese had built two forts, which were again protected by 
earthworks guarding the approach. Farther on to the north 
there were other forts of the enemy, commanding the highroad 
and facing the river. At their northwest extremity was a pontoon- 
bridge connecting with the south-eastern portion of the town of 
Phyongyang. , 

Both on the 12th and 13th September the Japanese troops 
engaged in minor artillery " skirmishes ; " but on the 14th, 
though the enemy kept firing away at the Japanese, they made 
no reply, reserving their strength for the next day, which was to 
become so memorable in the history of the two Empires. 

But to return 'to the other Oolunms. The Sangnyong 
Column marched from Namcheonchom to Shinge, afterwards 
passing through Shu-an, Samdeung and Kangtong; and on 
September 12th they made good their crossing over the upper 
stream of the Taidong. On the following day they reached 
Kukchuhyon, when they bivouacked, awaiting impatiently the 
appointed date. 

The Wonsan Column took, on September 13th, a route 
different from that chosen by the Sangnyong Branch. At Sun- 
an, in the rear of Phyongyang, they came across the Chinese 
local Commissariat and a sharp skirmish ensued ; the enemy, some 
200 strong, consisting of Infantry and Cavalry, were posted on the 
Yon-u-ri hills, a little south of Sun-an. After dislodging them, 
the Japanese bivouacked on the spot for the night. On the 
following 14th, the Column marched southward, leaving one 
battalion of Infantry (less two companies) to guard the place 
occupied the night before. Shortly after noon they reached the 
hill and village called Kampuk, the latter being hardly more 
than two miles distant from Phyongyang. Here another, the 
last, halt was made, and everything put in readiness for the 
struggle of the ensuing day. 

The castle-town of Phyongyang, in the province of Phyong- 
an-do, is an excellent specimen of the massive walled towns of 
earlier centuries, being built so as to withstand a prolonged siege. 
On the eastern and southern sides flows the many hundred metres 
broad and rapid Taidong ; while on the right bank of the river, 


and on a line with the castle, are some precipitous cliffs. To 
the north lie other hills, the highest of which is called Moktan-tei, 
literally " Peony Hill, " and on this a temporary fortress had been 
erected, commanding the whole country round about. Taking 
due advantage of the natural features of the place, the Chinese 
had built redoubts, after a very solid and skilful fashion. Most of 
these were to the south-west of the castle, though several earth- 
works had also been thrown up on the Moktan-tei. In each fort 
there were field and mountain guns, besides gatlings. It was 
evident that the Chinese army resolved to take the offensive on 
this occasion ; for they had erected two bridge-head forts on the 
left bank of the river in order to protect the pontoon-bridge, while 
in the pine-woods on the opposite side of the stream they had 
thrown up earth- works, a mile apart, intended to drive back an 
intruding force and co-operate with the forts on the right bank, 
Finally each small camp had a redoubt to protect it, and every 
post about the town was thoroughly fortified. In all, the Chinese 
earthworks numbered twenty-seven. 

With regard to the ntimber of the Chinese troops on the ground^ 
there were four small armies, all composed of picked men and com- 
manded by supposedly able generals. The names of the forces, 
their leaders, and their numerical strength, were as follow : — 

Name of Teoops. 


No. OF MEN. 


Wei Jukwai 



Ma Tukwan 



Tso Paokwei 


Moukden Shengtse 

Nieh Kweilin 




To this total should be added the number of the fugitives 
from Songhwan and Asan, who must have been not less than 
2,000 strong. Fifteen thousand is therefore a fair estimate of 
the strength of the Chinese forces. 

At midnight of September Idth the Main Division left 
Shachon, arrivmg at 7 o'clock on the following morning at San- 
chontong, about two miles west of the town. It was now seen that 
each Chinese fort was surrounded by parallel trenches, the 
outermost being further encircled by a deep moat. On perceiving 


"the approach of the Japanese, the enemy immediately opened fire, 
which was as promptly replied to, and for a time the roar of cannon 
was tremendous. It was, however, soon evident that the enemy's 
■earthworks were not to be silenced in a summary fashion, and so 
a bayonet charge was resolved upon. But just as the order was 
about to be given, some five hundred Chinese Cavalry dashed 
forth out of the smoke. A fierce fight ensued, the Chinese being 
driven back after losing 235 men killed and wounded, and 270 
horses. At 9 a. m. another troop of Cavalry sallied forth from 
the Chhilson Gate, and galloped on towards Samcheontung. Like 
their predecessors, they were also driven back, after suffering the 
loss of more than half their 'number. No less than three times 
thereafter did bodies of the enemy's horse make sortees from the 
An Gate (An-mwn), intending to storm the high ground to the 
Tight of Samcheontung. In each case the attempt was frustrated 
by the quick firing and splendid markmanship of the Japanese. 
A general fire along the whole Japanese line of battle was now 
directed against the forts, but without dislodging the enemy. 
Shortly after midday the firing ceased for a time, and the Japanese 
took advantage of the lull to narrowly observe the condition of 
the enemy, who, while still in possession of the forts, were evident- 
ly much demoralized and no longer able to assume the offensive. 
Dusk fell before a general attack could be launched against the 
iorts, and in the meantime the Japanese had again and again to 
cross bayonets with bodies of Chinese soldiers, who sallied out of 
the town at intervals with the intent of breaking through the 
«lowly narrowing Japanese line. There was no possibility of 
making for the city itself. 

On the same day, September 15th, at 3 o'clock in the 
morning, the Combined Brigade silently marched on towards a 
place directly in front of the town-wall. Lieut. -Colonel Taketa 
;Shuzan, with the Main Division, crossed the Shuman bridge and 
advanced along the high-road ; Major Ichinohe Hyoe, in com- 
mand of the Eeserves attached to the Main Division, advanced 
from the right; Lieut.-Colonel Nishijima Sukeyoshi, who was 
commanding the Eight Wing, pushed on to Sonkyori, a little to 
ihe north of the pontoon-bridge; Major Okuyama Gisho, with 
the Left Wing, crossed the Taidong to the south of Yangdok 


Island, and readied the opposite bank in safety. Besides these 
forces, a Sub-company of the 1st Battalion, Eleventh Begiment 
of Infantry, took the road traversed by the Left "Wing, acting 
independently of the rest, while a company of Cavalry attached to 
the Brigade followed after them. These two independent bodies 
pressed forward along the Kwaehiinchom road to the right, in- 
tending afterwards to join the Sangnyong Column. At dawn the 
Main Division, Keserves and Eight Wing reached the enemy's 
tete-de-pont forts on the left bank of the Taidong. They met 
with a very warm reception, the Chinese firing a quick succession 
of volleys from their Mauser repeating-rifles. The Japanese being 
in the open and in plain view of their foes, there was no way to 
seek protection from the deadly missiles, which wrought great 
havoc in the attacking lines. The forts on the right bank of the 
river simultaneously opened fire on the assaulting troops, inflict- 
ing much damage. Unfortunately the Japanese Artillery, at this 
time, was far in the rear and the shells fired from their cannon fail- 
ed to carry so far. They shifted their ground in consequence to a 
millet-field somewhat nearer, but only to go from bad to worse, 
for the millet-stalks prevented the proper sighting of the guns, 
while the ground was low. Many men were killed here. A sec- 
tion of the Eight Wing now advanced, regardless of the storm of 
shot and shell, to a place midway between the enemy's earthworks, 
on the right side of the high-road and the outlying forts. With 
a cheer they charged the first or left-hand forts and, the Eeserves 
coming up in time, succeeded in capturing it. The whole fire of 
the Chinese forts was now directed against this spot, and so 
fierce was it that the bold captors determined to die where they 
stood. Sub-lieutenant Teranishi Hidetake, who carried the 
regimental colours, tried to plant the flag the wall of the redoubt, 
while Lieut.-Colonel Nishijima Sukeyoshi sprang on the wall and 
loudly gave his orders. Lieut.-Colonel Taketa also called upon 
the troops to hold their ground, his presence and example en- 
couraging them to renewed efforts. Despite the murderous fire to 
which they were exposed, the Japanese thus stood firm. A des- 
perate attempt was made to carry the larger fort at the point of 
the bayonet, but, being exposed to a raking flank-fire, the Japan- 
ese were not successful in this. And it was even deemed advisa- 


ble to evacuriie tlie captured earthwork, on account of the too 
exposed position and the attendant loss of life. 

The battle continued to rage till after midday, until in fine 
the attacking forces became weak because of thirst and hunger _ 
For most of the soldiers were fighting these many hours on an 
empty stomach, no food having passed their lips since three 
o'clock that morning. Moreover, their ammunition was beginning 
to give out. Bayonets were then hastily fixed and preparations 
made to receive the enemy's charge along the line. In the direc- 
tion whence the Wonsan and Sangnyong Columns as well as the 
Main Division were trying conclusions with the enemy, the fight 
was now abating, the cannonade having ceased entirely. Major- 
General Oshima Toshimasa therefore judged that, on that side, 
hostilities had stopped for the time being. There was thus no 
reason to charge along the front, and so the word was passed for 
the men to fall back on their camps. The wounded being cared 
for and the dead carried away from the scene, the Brigade slowly 
withdrew, the enemy making no attempt to pursue. The attack 
of the Left Wing had meanwhile been frustrated, but in an un- 
expected manner. After crossing the Taidong and reaching the 
right bank, the forces were about to make an attack on the 
castle when their aim was rendered ineffective by a fire which the 
enemy had started on that side of the river, and also by another 
fire which suddenly broke out in the village on the left bank. 
The flames rapidly assumed such proportions and the smoke was 
so blinding that all advance became quite impossible. Eelinquish- 
ing the intention of continuing the attack that day, the Left 
Wing fell back and awaited the morrow. 

Turning now to the Sangnyong Column and its story, it 
appears that camp was broken at midnight of September 14th. 
Crossing the little Hapchung, a highland facing the Chinese earth- 
works was made at 4.30 a. m (September 15th). At this moment a 
thunderous discharge of cannon was heard, coming from the 
Wonsan Column, the Artillery of which body had been ranged on 
slope of Mt. Kampuk. Before commencing to fire, Major- 
General Tatsumi Naobumi sent some men to the rear, only a 
few hundred metres from the enemy's forts. These forts were on 
Moktan-tei, or " Peony Hill," a very strong place to the north 



Maiob-Gknekal Tatsumi. 

of the castle and s]Dlendidly 
defended. On sighting the 
Japanese, the enemy at once 
opened a furious and well- 
sustained fire, causing many 
deaths among the advance 
section commanded by Major 
Tomita Harukabe. The Ja- 
panese were, of course, in the 
open and absolutely exposed 
to the hostile fire, so that it 
required dauntless courage 
and an iron will to press 
forward under such circum- 
stances. Just then the Ja- 
panese Artillery came 
dashing up, and quickly 
lining the guns back of the steadily advancing troop, opened a 
telling fire. By this time the Wonsan Column had arrived on 
the ground, and with the others delivered a general attack, the 
Wonsan men making for the earthworks on the enemy's left. A 
body of men under Major Tomita advanced towards the central 
forts ; while another, larger section, led by Major Yamaguchi 
Keizo, of the advance guard, charged the forts lying on the 
enemy's right. The Japanese batteries were placed far to the rear 
of the advancing columns, yet their aim was superb, — the great 
shrapnel shells dropping one after another with fatal precision 
into the central forts. Flesh and blood could not stand it ; after 
a short wavering the Chinese evacuated their forts, running any- 
where and everywhere to get out of the range of those death- 
dealing missiles. The only fort which remained unshaken was 
the one already referred to on the summit of the Moktan hill, and 
to capture this Major Yamaguchi was ordered to charge with his 
command. Major Tomita was now told to lead his men round to 
the back of the castle, a direction also taken by Colonel Sato 
Tadashi, with two battalions of Infantry, The castle was thus 
exposed simultaneously to an attack from three sides. Colonel 
Sato's men suffered severely, the Chinese pouring volley after 



volley from their Mauser rifles into the devoted ranks, killing or 
wounding more than 100 men. But hottest of all was the work 
that fell to the share of Major Yamaguchi's command. They 
were advancing from the front, in full view and easy range of the 
Chinese guns. The enemy's gatlings in particular wrought great 
damage at this point, the shot 
sweeping down the hill in iron 
streams, there being many more 
killed outright than wounded. 
But nothing could stop the on- 
coming Japanese. As the ranks 
thinned, the survivors closed up 
the gaps and finally drove the 
enemy from the foremost redoubts. 
Cannon were now hastily brought 
up from the rear and ranged on 
the earthworks which had just 
been captured, their fire being 
directed against the Hyonmu Gate 
(Gemhu-mcm). But when it was 
perceived how those who had 
gone to storm the redoubt on the 
Moktan-tei were suffering, the 

guns were instantly turned in that direction. A storm of shells 
soon battered the earthworks to pieces and effectually silenced 
the enemy's gatlings, to which they had attached such importance. 
After that, the work was easy. "With ringing cheers Major 
Yamaguchi and his brave men carried the redoubt, and soon 
the Japanese flag was waving over its shattered walls. 

Having by this time got close to the walls of the town, the 
Wonsan and Sangnyong Columns now exchanged volleys with the 
enemy posted on the walls and in the turrets. As the day wore 
on, the enemy showed signs of being eager to retreat. The body 
under Colonel Sato, which had attacked the castle from the rear, 
was fearfully cut up by the bullets which rained from the ram- 
parts and turrets of the Hyonmu Gate. Seeing this. Major 
Moji Wataro, who was serving under Colonel Sato, called to 
Captain Atarashi Yasumasa and proposed to force a way into a 

Majoe Yamagtjchi Keizo. 



corner of the castle, and thus keep the Chinese from firing at the 
troops on Moktan-tei. The Captain at once sent for Lieutenant 
Mimura Ikutaro and ordered him to lead the forlorn hope against 

the Hyonmu Gate. With a 
handful of men— just sixteen, 
all told— the Lieutenant dart- 
ed forward, scaled the walls, 
threw open the massive por- 
tals of the gate, and killed 
the Chinese in the ramparts 
above it. There were only 
140 or 150 metres between 
the Lieutenant and the 
Chinese forces, so that he 
and his men were dreadfully 
mauled; but the Japanese 
Artillery promptly followed 
up the advantage and kept 
the Chinese from re-taking 
the Gate. In a few minutes 
more a Sub-company under 
Lieutenant Morihisa and some soldiers belonging to the 10th 
Brigade came running up at full speed, and between them they 
held the Gate. Soon after the little troop was further joined by 
the Commanders of the 6th Company and 2nd Battalion, and the 
Second in Command of the Eighteenth Eegiment. 

At 4.45 p. m. the enemj^'s fire, which had hitherto been 
continuous, suddenly ceased, and a white flag was displayed 
above the walls. This did not, however, deceive Major-General 
Tastumi, for he was well acquainted with the frequent treachery 
in such signals ; he did not, therefore, at once advance with his 
forces into the town. As however the silence continued and 
there appeared to be no further attempt at resistance, the Major- 
General entered the conquered town through the Hyonmu Gate, 
accompanied by his adjutant, Captain Katsura Shincho, and two 
bodies of soldiers under the command of Majors Tomita and 
Yamaguchi — who had done such good service on this great day. 
The little party marched along the walls until they reached the 

Colonel Sato. 


gate of the inner castle. Had treachery been intended, it is 
evident that the Japanese would here have been shot down to a 
man, for beyond the gate there was a gentle slope, and on the 
left some precipitous cliffs overhanging the rapid Taidong ; while 
high walls shut in the whole on the right. Just then a shower came 
up, with heavy thunder, completely obscuring the surroundings. 
Some Chinese now came forward and said that though they 
yielded themselves prisoners, it would be impossible to call the 
role of the soldiers in the town, owing to the heavy rain. They 
requested, therefore, that all matters connected with the capitula- 
tion be postponed until the following day. Adjutant Katsura was 
ordered to talk with the Chinese, but no conclusion could be 
arrived at. However Major-General Tatsumi thought it better 
to accede to the request of his beaten foes, and said that he 
would postpone occupying the city until the following day ; they, 
the Chinese, should remain as they were and make no attempt at 
further resistance, or the walls should be shattered to the last 
stone. With all this, Major.-General Tatsumi put no confidence in 
the promises of the Chinese, feeling sure that they would attempt 
run off; and his suspicion was shortly more than justified : for at 
about 9 o'clock in the evening the Chinese began to fly along the 
"Wiju highway, trusting to luck and the darkness to effect their 
escape. But this step had been foreseen, and the wretched men 
found Colonel Sato and his Begiment prepared to intercept their 
retreat. Colonel Sato had posted bodies of his men on either side 
of the road, and these opened fire on the stream of Chinese 
fugitives, who fought with all the energy of despair. Despite 
the firing, batches of the enemy tried until dawn to break through 
that death-dealing line. When day broke the sight was a fearful 
one. The corpses were in literal heaps, and the whole place 
thereabouts strewn with dead and dying Chinese. In one place 
alone, back of Kichimyo on the outer line of pickets, there were 
over two hundred corpses counted, besides thirty dead horses. 
Elsewhere lay scores upon scores of dead. 

The glory of the capture of this formidable town thus falls to 
the Wonsan and Sangnyong Columns, although they would pro- 
bably not have been so promptly successful had it not been for 
the desperate courage exhibited on that memorable 15th Septem- 


ber by the troops composing the Main Division. Early in the 
morning of the following day, the two Yictorious Columns marched 
into and occupied the town, which presented an indescribable 
scene of confusion, dead bodies lying everywhere. At two o'clock 
in the morning of the same day the Main Division advanced to 
give what they intended should be the final attack ; but meeting 
with no resistance entered the town from the Western Gate — and 
found, to their unbounded joy, that it had already been taken by 
their triumphant comrades. Giving three echoing cheers for the 
Emperor, Lieut.-General Nozu Michitsura, with his men, enter- 
ed the inner castle at 7 o'clock. Before the Combined Brigade 
left their bivouac, a mounted messenger brought the great news 
that the city had fallen and the enemy fled ; so Major-General 
Oshima Yoshimasa marched into the town through the South Gate 
his troops being wildly jubilant and ever cheering for the Emperor 
as they marched through the fallen stronghold. It was a great 
day for the battle-worn soldiers. 

The news of the battle reached Japan on the same day on 
which H. M. the Emperor, Commander-in-Chief of both Army 
and Navy, moved the Principal Head-Quarters to Hiroshima — and 
there were many who held the coincidence to be one of special signi- 
ficance. On the same day Lieut.-General Nozu, Commander-in 
Chief of the Division, sent a body of soldiers to pursue the flee- 
ing Chinese, of whom hundreds were shot down before they could 
reach a place of safety. 


Peominent among the many brave men who fell at Sonkyori 
was Captain Machida Saneyoshi, of the First Company, 11th 
Eegiment. The southern tete-de-pont forts on the left bank of the 
Taidong, where such great carnage was noted, had a path leading to 
them for a distance 50 metres in front, with broader, slightlj' wood- 
ed, roads on either side. All else was a level plain. When the flght 


here was at its greatest height and the bullets raining in a continuous 
stream on the attacking forces, Captain Machida ordered his men 
to follow, and led the way to those death-dealing redoubts. Emerg- 
ing from the little wood already mentioned, the men boldly pressed 
forward until they were within fifty paces of the forts. The noise 
of the firing here was tremendous, so great indeed that even the 
loudest commands were inaudible ; so the Captain ran forwards 
and then along the whole scattered line of his company in order to 
keep the men's eyes on him and make them take their cue from his 
actions. But now a bullet pierced his abdomen, passing clean 
through him with a great gush of blood. Placing his left hand on 
the gaping wound, he still kept moving on, flourishing his good 
sword with his right. A second bullet then struck his thigh, and 
several men sprang forward, wishing to take him to the rear. This 
the Captain positively refused to consent to, and he still kept calling 
to his men to advance. A third cruel bullet now hit his right 
shoulder, and, in an agony he fell crying, " Cut off my head ! 
Never let my body be taken by the cruel enemy." His eyes still 
flamed with the fury of battle as he spoke, but these were his last 
words. Despite the storm of missiles some of his men lifted him 
from the ground and carried him back to where the Reserves were 
stationed. There he died of his dreadful wounds. 


Two days before the attack on Phyongyang, a Battalion be- 
longing to the lltli Regiment received orders to form a junction 
with the Main Body of the Division. Going on to Tongchinpho, 
on arriving at the bank of the river, no native crafts were found 
in which the Battalion might be ferried over. There was some 
perplexity at this, and Sub-Lieutenant Nakanishi Fukumatsu, 
with a few men, was sent out to reconnoitre and get a few boats if 
possible. After going a short distance they caught sight of some 
Koreans in two pretty large boats, rowing down stream and hug- 
ging the opposite bank. The clumsy craft were then about 2000 
metres off. The Japanese at once called loudly to the boatmen and 


beckoned for them to come at once ; the Koreans however paid no 
attention to their cries and gestures and kept going stolidly down- 
stream. The exasperated Japanese then threatened them with 
their rifles, which caused the Koreans to spring with surprising 
agility on shore and make off as fast as their legs could carry 
them, of course leaving their boats behind. On this Hayakawa 
Saisuke, a first-class private, and Kusube Matsuji, . a second-class 
soldier, earnestly begged the Sub-Lieutenant to let them swim the 
rapid stream and fetch the much-needed boots. This request was 
granted, both soldiers being known to be first-rate swimmers 
Quickly divesting themselves of their upper garments, the two men 
plunged into the river, which was very rapid and about 400 metres 
broad at this point. In a little while both succeeded in stemming the 
swift current and reaching the other side, where they clambered 
without much difficulty into the boats and brought them across. 
With these craft as an aid, several other boats were requisitioned 
and the Battalion was quickly ferried across, without accident. 
Joining the Main Body at just the proper time, the Battalion did 
yeoman's service on that memorable 15th of September. That 
they did so was in no small degree owing to the skill and prompt- 
ness of these two bold swimmers. 


OsHiTA Tatsuo, a First-Class Sergeant of the First Company, 
11th Eegiment, was also very conspicuous for cool bravery in 
the Sonkyori affair. Not only were the Chinese in the southern 
bridge-head forts far in excess in point of numbers, but they were 
also behind massive ramparts ; whereas the Japanese were in the 
open without so much as a tree or bush to shelter them. Sergeant 
Oshita was greatly vexed at this, and was, despite the hail of 
bullets, seeking for a better place for his men when a shot struck 
him in the right knee, causing him to fall. He determined in 
spite of his severe wound that he would not stay where he was ; 
so, crawling along, with great difficulty he reached his former 
station. There he made shift to bandage his leg himself, and 


after stopping the haemorrhage temporarily, hobbled back to where 
his men were fighting and resumed command, spurring his 
soldiers on to increased efforts. . Every man was surprised at 
his fortitude and coolness, and the example thus set did not fail 
to have the desired effect. 


Wakamiya Suetaeo, a second-class private, acted as orderly 
to the ill-fated Captain Machida Saneyoshi, whose death has 
already been described. Where the Captain went there went also 
his trusty orderly. He ran hither and thither with the Captain's 
commands, his prompt valour being remarkable in this scene of 
dread. "When the Captain fell, Wakamiya was the first to spring 
to his side. He tried tenderly to raise the fallen warrior to his 
feet, in order to carry him to the rear ; but as he did so a bullet 
struck him in the throat and he fell. Wakamiya was immediately 
taken to the field-lazaret, and given all possible attention. Yet 
ten days later he succumbed to his wound, thus following his be- 
loved officer into the world beyond the grave. 

5. — NO salute necessary. 

The Eighth Company of the 21st Regiment had been sent on 
to Naktong, to act as guards of the local military telegraphic 
station. Kohibara Matsutaro, a third-class private belonging to 
this company, was on one occasion ordered to repair to Teh-koo, 
on business connected with the local station. It was an oppres- 
sively hot day, and the road he had to traverse both long and 
difficult. Half-way to his destination, Kohibara suddenly met 
with Lieut. -General Nozu, Commander of the Fifth Division. In 
an instant the soldier wheeled and saluted with military precision. 
But Lieut. -General Nozu called the weary man to his side and 
began to talk familiarly with him. " You neet not," he began. 


" salute any officer whom you meet ou the road. It's too much 
trouble. And what a hot, tiring day you have for your walk ! " 
Grateful for such kindly words Kohibara replied, " No, General ; 
I'm not feeling fatigaed. Thank you. Sir." " Keep up a bold 
heart," the General concluded, " or you'll never be able to per- 
form any great deed. It will be an honour to me if you bear in 
mind what has been said." The simple-minded soldier was much 
moved by these friendly words, and went his way with cheerful- 
ness and alacrity, all his weariness forgotten. " The love of our 
superior officers for their followers," adds the narrator of this 
little episode, " and the alacrity with which our soldiers are ever 
ready to sacrifice even life itself in the service of our country, are 
two of the most real and fundamental characteristics of the 
warriors of Japan." 


The First 'Battalion of the 21st Regiment was, as has been 
stated, very greatly cut up at Sonkyori, the fatal casualties being 
numerous. The surgeons worked amidst scores of more or less 
severely wounded men, the whole place looking more like a shambles 
rather than a field lazaret. Gamo Kotaro, a second-class soldier 
of the Third Company of this Battalion, was brought in, a bullet 
having penetrated his left thigh. Just as the surgeon came to 
examine his wound, another soldier, dreadfully hurt and his face 
covered with blood, was carried in on a stretcher. Gamo, lying 
flat on the ground, had caught sight of his wounded comrade and, 
turning to the surgeon, said : " I am less severely wounded than 
the man who has just come in. I can wait ; please see to him 
first." The surgeon was touched by the man's fortitude and 
patience and did as he had been requested. — It is nothing much 
of a story ; yet when we remember how severely wounded Gamo 
was and in what great pain he must have been, we must acknow- 
ledge that he had a great and kindly heart. 


7. — the adventuees of wada shotabo. 

In the Seventli Company of the 21st Eegiment, which formed 
part of the Sangnyong Branch under Major-General Tatsumi in 
the advance on Phongyong, was Wada Shotaro, a first-class 
private. On September 9th the Column reached Nyongtong, from 
which place on to Kwanohangka in Phyong-an-do, which was 
made on September 11th, Wada and his company marched on the 
left of the Column as a guard. Lieutenant Kochi Nobuhiko, of the 
Pifth Company, was about sending in the report of his reconnais- 
sance in the neighbourhood of Namkang (on the upper Taidong), 
which he had made by order of the DiAdsion Commander; and on 
hearing this Wada requested that he might be selected as 
messenger, to carry the report. Chinese were everywhere, and 
the treacherous Koreans would be siire to do a solitary soldier 
some injury if possible ; but in the face of all such perils Wada 
cheerfully volunteered, and had the pleasure of being selected for 
this adventurous service. Just where the Staff was nobody knew, 
so it behoved the messenger to be extremely cautious and keep his 
eyes open. He first changed his dress for that of a Korean, and 
then started off with an interpreter, Koda Hyoji by name. There 
being no ferry-boat in the tributary of the Taidong, the two men 
swam across, carrying their clothing on their heads. Passing 
through several unknown (to them) districts, they traversed the 
opposite range of lofty hills, and the next morning at 2 a. m. (the 
12th) branched off from the main road to Chungwha, taking the 
direction of Shangwon. It was still pitch-dark and no one astir 
of whom they might make inquiries about the road. They turned 
into a millet-field for a brief sleep, and just then narrowly escaped 
being discovered by a number of Chinese horsemen passing 
by. At 7 a. m. they reached Shangwon and, avoiding as much as 
possible any conversation with the natives, pressed on towards 
Kantongpa. The interpreter now grew sick, and so bad did he 
appear that the two men had great difficulty in reaching Hwangju, 
where there was a Japanese commissariat-station. Here the sick 
man was left, Wada determining to press on alone. After getting 
all the information obtainable concerning the route to be taken, 


the brave fellow started off, walked all the night through, and at 
10 a. m. of the following day reached Shipyipho on the Taidong. 
It was now flood-tide, so Wada was compelled to wait until the 
ebb at 4 p. m., when he crossed the stream with the aid of some 
Engineers belonging to" the Japanese forces. The road then led 
to Wulkang, but was excessively miry and full of ruts, so that his 
progress was painfully slow. Being unacquainted with the 
language, he experienced much trouble in asking the route and 
was repeatedly led out of his way. At last at dawn of the 14th 
September he reached a village, where he inquired in writing the 
road to the Staff-Quarters. Unfortunately their replies were 
unintelligible ; all that he could learn was that the Quarters had 
been removed to Pongshan, whither he now shaped his course. 
Overcome with fatigue and his two nights without sleep, he was 
compelled to take a short rest in a glen of a hill he was crossing, 
and there he ate the last morsels of food he had with him. After 
a nap of two hours' duration, the weary man took the highway 
and by dint of following the track of the horses and vehicles that 
had passed, reached Pongshan at noon. There a new disappoint- 
ment awaited him, as he was told that the Staff had gone on to 
Shinhungtong. Once more resuming his journey, Wada at last 
had the delight of handing in the precious report at 6.30 p. m. of 
that day. The Staff officers praised him for what he had done 
and asked various questions about the condition of the Sangnyong 
Column, the transportation of provisions, etc. They told him to 
stay where he was until communication should be re-established 
with the Sangnyong Column ; but as the attack on Phyongyang 
was settled for the next day, "Wada refused this kindly proposal, 
stating that he was quite able to keep up with the rest. At 2 a. 
m. the following morning camp was broken. In spite of his neces- 
sarily great weariness, Wada marched with the van. The sound of 
heavy firing was now heard in the direction of Phyongyang : the 
great battle had evidently begun. At 8 a. m. the men with whom 
was Wada, reached Pehsan, about 2000 metres north-west of the 
castle. There he joined with the foremost bands and was a 
prominent figure in the storm of shot and shell. Between him- 
self and his comrades there was the river, separating them from 
the castle. Both banks of the stream were nothing more than 


swamps, through which no one might hope to pass. The Ja- 
panese here were moreover exposed to a fierce enfilade from the 
Kangshol and Chingsan roads. Staff-Major Semba Taro, who 
was in charge of the topographical survey, called for Wada, in 
whose fidelity and patient endurance he had great faith, and 
said : — " Take a boat and, keeping out of bullet-range, go along 
the stream to see if you can find any likely ford ; moreover, get 
near enough the castle on the south-west to find out whether the 
walls can be scaled." Wada went at once, and, having procured 
a boat, crossed over to the opposite side, taking accurate sound- 
ings of the depth of the stream. On getting close to the western 
part of the wall, he was suddenly espied by the Chinese and 
made the target of a score of rifles. The scout withdrew uninjur- 
ed, walked cautiously around to the south of the walls and 
reached a hill whence he enjoyed an unobstructed view of the 
enemy and their operations. He noticed that the shells of the 
Japanese guns were gradually breaking the walls and that 
on the south there was an open field flanked by Chinese earth- 
works. Retracing his steps he regained the river and his boat, 
and was shortly afterwards able to make a most interesting and 
valuable report. He had taken only one hour in reconnoitring 
the whole. 


The Fourth Company of the First Battalion of this same Regi- 
ment was fated to suffer most severely at Sonkyori. It redounds 
to the credit of the Company that even after a large portion of the 
men had been either killed or wounded the surviors made several 
charges. When the enemy began their furious enfilade at the 
Japanese Left Wing, Sergeant Kawakami and the men under his 
command replied most steadily to the fire, until the soldiers 
under the stout-hearted Sergeant were shot down to a man. Great 
as had been the carnage, Kawakami was by no means dismayed. 
"How fortunate am I," he exclaimed, " to have found so good a 
place in which to die for my country !" He then made, quite unaided 


and alone, a clash towards the enemy, firing again and again as 
he ran forwards. He had not got far before he was killed. 


In the attack on Sonkyori, Fujiuchi Totaro, a seeond-class 
private of the Tenth Company, 21st Eegiment, received a 
mortal wound in his breast. He called to a comrade and said, 
taking a blood-besmeared letter from beneath his coat, "Please 
see that this reaches my father. It is my most honorable destiny 
to die for my country; I knew before-hand what would befall me 
at Phyongyang and have so stated in this letter, which was 
written while we were staying at Jinsen." He would have said 
more, but the blood gushing from his wound stopped the power 
■of speech, and in a few moments he was dead. 


The greatest obstacle in the attack on Phyongyang was the 
«wift, deep and broad Taidong Eiver, which had to be passed 
over before the siege of the stronghold could begin. Before 
reaching the stream, the Japanese Left attacked the enemy on the 
right bank, while marching towards a village south of Phyong- 
jang. The place was about 1200 metres distant from the enemy's 
nearest redoubts. The plain thereabouts was very flat, and 
fields of millet, grown very high, prevented the Japanese from 
seeing what the enemy were about. The Chinese soldiers took 
full advantage of this, to them, favourable position, and drew 
nearer, firing as they came on. The Commander of the Eleventh 
Company, 21st Eegiment, was much vexed at this ; and noticing 
a tall tree near at hand, called for a volunteer to climb it and 
thence inspect the enemy's movements. Ishizaki Sashiro, a 
rsecond-class private, at once pressed forward, eagerly claiming 
permission to climb the tree, although he well knew that in so 


doing he would be the target for scores of bullets. Permission 
being accorded, Ishizaki unstrapped his knapsack and laid aside 
his gun, and then nimbly climbed upwards. There he had an 
uninterrupted view and closely inspected the oncoming enemy 
and their movements. He stayed quietly in the tree for some time 
until he had seen all that was necessary ; and in these ten minutes 
or thereabouts the tree was five times struck by bullets within 
two metres of where he was. Ishizaki paid no more heed to 
these deadly missiles than if they had been so many noisy wasps. 
Fortunately he received no hurt and descended in safety ; but his 
escape was little short of miraculous. 

11. — A FATAl EESCUE. 

The battle of Phyongyang showed the Chinese leaders out- 
generalled at every point, and this at once settled the fate of the 
war. On no other occasion — with perhaps one exception, the 
battle of Kangwasae — did the Chinese make anything like so 
determined a stand ; nor did they fight anywhere else with such 
dogged persistance. But with such craven Generals, such carpet- 
knights, as Wei and Yeh (the former of whom has since expiated 
his cowardice on the scaffold), the Chinese troops could hope 
for nothing better than the defeat which actually overtook them. 

Nothing could have been more sanguinary than the fighting 
about the bridge-head forts, especially the southernmost of the 
three. These were at the head of the pontoon-bridge spanning 
the Taidong. To suppress them was absolutely necessary, and 
here the Japanese, being few in number and fighting in the open, 
met with the most determined resistance. Particularly the Central 
Company of the 21st Eegiment, which had advanced to within 30 
metres of the forts, was exposed to a cross-fire which, added to 
the constant volleys from the enemy's magazine rifles, wrought 
great havoc in the Japanese ranks. The deep trench surrounding 
the forts as well as the massive nature of the walls made the 
place wellnigh impregnable, so that the Japanese, despite the 
utmost elan and dash, frequently fell back in confusion and 


disorder. At 9 a. m. the enemy sallied out and made a desperate 
counter-attack on the Japanese Eight, where was Sub-Lieutenant 
Tanabe Motojiro, with a small number of troopers. The conflict 
now grew exceedingly bitter. The invincible courage alone of 
the Lieutenant and his men succeeded in driving back the Chinese, 
but not until the young commander had received a severe wound 
in his right leg. There was no cover, no shelter ; the wounded 
officer had nowhere to go, Seeing this, a soldier ran forward, 
caught the falling man and lifted him on his back despite the 
fierce fire going on about them. The rescuer was Matsubara 
Tokusuke, a first-class private of the First Company, First 
Battalion, 21st Begiment of the line. With the wounded officer 
on his back Matsubara then made a bold dash for safety, but a 
bullet struck him in the head, killing him instantly. Lieutenant 
Tanabe was, however, saved, as others now rushed forward to his 

Matsubara lies on the field where he fought so well ; but his 
gallant deed lives after him. 


In the storming of the bridge-head forts Captain Hayashi 
Hisazane, Commander of the Second Company, First Battalion, 
21st Eegiment, was especially noticeable for his daring. The 
carnage on both sides was, at this point, very great, particularly 
in the vicinity of Sonkyori, where the corpses lay thick every- 
where and blood flowed like a river. One reason of this great 
bloodshed was that everything was in favour of the enemy ; the 
Japanese had nothing but their personal valour to fall back upon. 
Captain Hayashi charged with his men until just under the walls 
of the forts. Suddenly a bullet struck him, inflicting a fatal 
wound; the Captain staggered, then fell on the edge of the 
trench surrounding the death-dealing redoubts. His orderly, 
Shioaku Masutaro, was soon at his side, although he himself had 
also been badly hurt. Crawling painfully towards the dying 
officer, Shioaku crouched beside him. "Here am I," said the 


noble fellow, " your orderly Shioaku. As long as I live you shall 
not be touched by the enemy's swords." He tried to cheer the 
mortally wounded man, firing repeatedly until his last cartridge 
was exhausted. But his strength was rapidly ebbing away, and 

soon master and man lay dead beneath the shot-riddled ramparts. 

* * * 

* ■;:- * 

In Captain Hayashi's Company was one Funabashi Magoichi, 
a. second-class private. He too was mortally wounded in the hail 
of bullets. Knowing that death was at hand, the undaunted man 
called to some of his comrades beside him and with his last 
strength drew the still remaining cartridges from his pouch and 
distributed them among his companions. " Pray," said he faintly, 
" take these and avenge my death on the enemy !" He had hardly 
spoken the words before he expired. 


Shoetly after the outbreak of the war, Oshima Ginsaku, a 
second-class soldier of the Second Company, 21st Eegiment, was 
stationed at Naktong, in Kyongsan-do, there to guard the Telegraph 
Office connected with the military wire between Fusan and Seoul. 
Unfortunately while there he fell a victim to a prevalent disorder, 
and despite medical care rapidly grew worse. Just before the 
sick man relapsed into a final coma, he was asked by Sergeant 
Asahi Toichiro whether he had any word to send home ? adding 
that if he had, he, Asahi, would see that such a message reached 
its destination. " Thank you," faintly replied the dying man, " I 
have no message to send. What I most deplore is that I should 
have to die without encountering the enemy." Shortly afterwards 
the Messenger came. It was about dusk of September 3rd. 


In the march on Phyongyang, the 18th Regiment of the line, 
belonging to the Third Division, composed the Wonsan Column. 



The battle, it will be remembered, began on the dawn of the day 
on which the attack was made. After a most valorous struggle, 
the Eegiment succeeded in capturing all three redoubts north of 
the castle. The enemy retreated, entering within the castle- walls, 
whence they shot from loopholes or from the towers above the 
gates. Here the Japanese fire was of little or no avail, the enemy 
being perfectly protected by the massive ramparts, whence the 
their fire was very galling. This was particularly the case at 
the Hyonmu Gate ( Gembu-mon), on the brow of a very steep slope, 
which was most ably and fiercely defended. The troops under 
Colonel Sato seemed unable to do anything, and the casualties 

The Opening op the Hyonmu Gate (from a sketoli taken on the spot 
by Lieutenant Mimura), and poeteait op Haeada JCkichi (specially- 
taken for this book). 

P El ON G YANG. 53 

■were beginning to grow very numerous, not a little disheartening 
the attacking columns. Major Moji Wataro ■with his Battalion 
now began to approach the gate from the north side. If only a 
corner could be broken down, he thought, or some one breach be 
made in the wall, it would be comparatively easy to rush in, repel 
the defenders, and thus put a stop to the terrible loss of life in 
the Japanese ranks. Calling up Captain Atarashi Yasumasa, he 
proposed that a violent attack should be made at one corner of 
the gate, which, as will be seen from the illustration, formed the 
base of a hollow square, the adjoining walls being the sides. In 
some angle thereabouts a breach must be made, he declared. 
The order was passed on to Lieutenant Mimura Ikutaro, who 
accepted the task with alacrity. "With a handful of men he went 
forward, indifferent to the furious rain of bullets, and reached 
the base of the wall. Here he would at once have climbed up the 
solid stones forming the masonry of the wall, had not Harada 
Jukichi, a second-class private belonging to the Lieutenant's Sub- 
company, begged to be permitted to scale the wall first on account 
of the great personal danger of the enterprise. The Lieutenant's 
life, he urged, was of greater value than his own. All this passed 
more quickly than it takes time to write it down, and the next thing 
was the surprising sight of Harada scaling the wall, closely 
followed by the Lieutenant and a few others. In a minute the 
task was over and Harada atop the ramparts, the Chinese 
appearing to be paralysed by the reckless audacity of the feat. 
Taking advantage of their confusion, Harada leaped into the 
midst of the crowd of soldiers, using his bayonet with herculean 
force, he himself being a man of unusual strength and activity. 
Lieutenant Mimura followed hard after, fighting with his naked 
sword and cutting down all opposition. In an instant they were 
down on the other side of the gate, while some of Harada's com- 
rades were still fighting on the wall and others were coming up. 
The gate had been barricaded by logs and large stones, and these 
had to be removed before ingress or egress was possible. In 
consideration of his bravery. Lieutenant Mimura gave Harada 
the honour of flinging open the portals, and while the others kept 
up a steady fire on the enemy about them, or else fought hand to 
hand, Harada worked with a will, and shortly had the barricade 


removed. The next thing was to break the huge iron lock, and 
this he effected with a large stone. A wrench, a great pull, a 
push, — and the massive portals of the great gate were flung open, 
the impatient Japanese outside pouring through with irresistible 
force, like some swift mountain-torrent, 

" swollen high by weeks of ram." 
This was the beginning of the end ; the Japanese were within the 

walls ; the fortress fell and the great battle was decided. 


* * * * 

The deed has now become famous, the theme of a score of 
poems and ballads. It was soon noised abroad in Japan, publish- 
ed in the local foreign press and went thence on to Europe and 
America. But for many months most of the details given were 
inexact or downright mistaken. We have, however, made most 
minute investigations, and what has been written is based on 
Lieutenant Mimura's account as handed in to us, and the nar- 
ratives of those who took part in the storming of the gate. That 
Harada Jiikichi performed a most valorous deed is true ; but that 
the fifteen gallant men who followed the Lieutenant also merit the 
highest praise, is no less true. Two of these men were Sergeants, 
and were killed in the tower above the gate, fighting against 
overwhelming odds. The others had a most fierce combat with 
the foe, and it was little short of miraculous that they escaped 
being killed to a man. This can be attrituted only to the 
astonishment of the defending Chinese, who were unaccustomed 
to dashing gallantry of such a kind. Tet as they awoke to a 
realization of what had been done, they fought determinedly with 
the little handful of heroes, inflicting on most scars which the 
survivors will carry to their dying day. Fearing that the ever- 
increasing numbers of their foes might dishearten his men. 
Lieutenant Mimura cheered them on to stiU greater exertions. 
To Sergeant Kakishima Yataro he gave the order to bring up the 
rest of the Sub-company, for the men had not followed owing to the 
impossibility of hearing the Lieutenant's commands in the 
thunder of cannon and roll of musketry ; the young officer more- 
over told the Sergeant to inform Captain Atarashi that the gate 
had been carried by storm. All this was said and done while the 
fight went furiously on. Harada Jiikichi had the distinction of 


being selected to open the gate because the Lieutenant desired in 
some measure to reward him for his intrepid obedience; and 
while the bold man was doing this, the Lieutenant ordered 
the others to fire as rapidly and as steadily as possible on the 
closing-in Chinese, in order that Harada might do his work un- 
disturbed. The removal of the barricade was no light task, yet 
promptly and dextrously accomplished, and the key of the citadel 
thus in the hands of the victorious Japanese. 


In the attack on the town, Yamada Kinjiro, a third-class 
private of the Tenth Company, 18th Eegiment — the one forming 
the Wonsan Column — entered with his comrades the woods of 
Kijanyong. The first section of this Company was afterwards 
sent on to the front of Kijamio, where the men had some very 
hard fighting to do. During the course of the fight, Yamada was 
severely wounded in the neck and leg, so that he fell to the 
ground. On the skirmish coming to an end, Yamada was found 
on the ground and carried off on a stretcher to the field-lazaret. 
Passing his Captain on the road thither, the former cried out to 
the still conscious and intensely suffering man, " Be firm ! " To 
which Yamada replied, faintly yet audibly, " I am quite happy ! " 
The weak voice found a prompt echo in the hearts of his com- 
rades, stimulating them to renewed efforts. 

* * * 

■if * 

Uchiyama Umekichi and Kato Ki-ichiro, privates of second 
and third rank respectively, were in the thick of the hardest 
fight. So many fell that the party to which they belonged was 
ordered to retreat. To this the two men paid no heed, but 
stopped where they were, loading and firing with the precision 
of automata and thus covering the withdrawal of their comrades. 
It was not until they two had received a special command to come 
back that they slowly and calmly returned to their Company. 

Again, Imaizumi Takesaburo, a second-class soldier, was 


badly wounded in the back. He left the field to get his wound 
dressed for the time being, then returned and fought to the end, — 
even taking part in the subsequent night-attack. 

* * 

Attached to the First Company of the 18th Begiment with 
the Wonsan Column, was Kikuchi Tarokichi, a private of the 
first-class. On reaching the Regiment's appointed station north 
of Phyongyang, Kikuchi was noted for the bravery he exhibited 
in the battle that ensued. Implicitly obeying the instructions of 
his officer, he ran fearlessly hither and thither thi'ough the storm 
of bullets, gathering up and distributing the cartridges let fall by 
the wounded ; informing his Sergeant and Lieutenant what effect 
the men's fire was having ; and telling his comrades how to aim 
and what was the range. In the midst of all the noise and con- 
fusion Kikuchi was as calm as a summer-breeze, and materially 
heightened the effect of the men's fire by his careful and ex- 
perienced injunctions. The Lieutenant was delighted with his 
cool and steady work. 

* * * 

* * 

While the battle was raging to the north of Phyongyang, 
Oba Mampei, a private of the Second Class, belonging to the 
Sixth Company, 18th Eegiment, received a severe wound in his 
left eye. Exhibiting no sign of pain or distress, he turned com- 
posedly to his comrades and said, " Boys, do your best ! " and 
then walked off to get his wound treated. — Toyoda Saburo, a 
private of like rank in the same company, was at Kijanyong when 
a bullet shot through his larynx. The wounded was a mortal one, 
yet he clapped his hand to the gaping orifice and cried out as 
well as he could to an officer standing close by, " I don't intend 
to die yet, Sir! " This he did to keep his comrades from losing 
heart, and the words had an excellent effect. 


How hard the fighting in front of the two bridge-head forts 
at Sonkyori was, may be estimated from the fact that here the 


Japanese lost no less than twenty officers and sub-officers killed. 
As has already been stated the havoc wrought in the ranks in one of 
the Sub-companies of the 4th Company, 1st Battalion, was fearful. 
Time and again the Japanese dashed forward, only to recoil from 
the ramparts, which seemed a wall of death-dealing fire. Finally 
the 4th Company was compelled to fall back on the Japanese 
line, leaving the majority of the men on the field. After the last 
charge, Inaba Saikichi, a private of the first-class, was seen left 
standing alone among the heaps of dead and wounded. He had 
himself received an injury which incapacitated him from any rapid 
movement, and so had determined to die fighting, covering the 
retreat of his comrades. Again and again he discharged his gun, 
keeping his face resolutely towards the enemy. But his comrades 
had not gone far before they saw him fall. He had been cut 
down by a Chinese sword. 


Toshiba Zenshieo, a first-class private of the Fourth Com- 
pany, 1st Battalion, 21st Begiment, deserves recording in these 
pages, as an example of the soldier's love for his weapon. He 
had been sent, shortly after the battle opened, as one of a fight- 
ing body of scouts towards the enemy's line. After passing 
through a hail of bullets uninjured, several of his comrades drop- 
ping to rise no more, he made for the Japanese lines. But before 
he could reach comparative safety, he found that he should never 
be able to get back alive and make his report if he remained 
encumbered by his gun. Throwing this to the ground a distance 
of about 3 metres, he made a dash for the Japanese lines and had 
in a few moments the satisfaction of reporting all that had been 
seen and done. This over, without a word he began to run back 
towards the bullet-swept field where he had dropped his weapon. 
There were many other guns lying scattered over the field, but 
Yoshida, with true soldierly instinct, would have none but his 
own. He reached the spot, 'tis true, but was instantly killed by 
a bullet as he stooped to raise the precious weapon. ^ — This is an 


instance of the same stern martial spirit that held the Roman 
sentinel at his post before the Pompeiian gate, while Vesuvius 
rained sulphurous fire upon the doomed city ; that made Latour 
d'Auvergne carry the forty muskets out of the castle he had 
defended so heroically; that kept Nelson with his blazon of 
decorations on the quarter-deck of the Victory, despite the 
almost certainty of death. 

18. — LAST WOEDS. 

DuEiNGthe night of September 15th-16th, Otani Tamigoro, a 
first-class private of the First Company, 21st Eegiment, was one of 
the men engaged in hastily throwing up breast-works on the road 
leading to the Potong Gate, along which it was expected that the 
enemy might make an attempt to retreat. This, in fact, the Chinese 
did, and the night-combat here was fearful, the enemy fighting with 
desperation, knowing it was their last chance. The place where 
Otani was working was very much exposed, being within easy 
range of the hostile fire ; but the brave fellow made light of this, 
stimulated his mates to greater efforts, and was every where at 
once. Before long a bullet struck him in the abdomen, inflicting 
a mortal wound. Some comrades gathering about him sought 
to carry him to the rear, but to this Otani would by no means 
consent. Lying prone on the ground, he continued to call out 
orders to the workers, until his strength failed him. Then seeing 
that his end was at hand, he said : " The end of the war is yet far 
off, and to die here at this time is really a pity. Yet as it is my 
country that I die for, my hope in coming here is more than 
fulfilled. It is evident that we have won a great victory, so why 
should n't I die cheering for my Emperor?" And so speaking, 
he raised a great cry of Tennb Heika Banzai!* and then 


* * 

« * * 

Takahashi Usaku, a second-class reservist of the Third 
Company, same Regiment, was sent out to reconnoitre just at 
* "His Imperial Majesty lim forever!" 


dusk of September 15tli, when tlie firing of the combatants was 
gradually dropping off and a thunderstorm had come up. He 
set out with Nonami Heiji, a First Class Sergeant, in order to 
find out the disposition and intention of the enemy about the 
west gate. As they approached, some 200 Chinese suddenly 
rushed out of the gate and began firing rapidly at the scouts, who 
thought that the enemy might be coming to attack the Japanese 
outposts. The two men therefore turned and ran back to the 
Japanese lines, but not before Takahashi received a bullet in his 
left breast. With all his strength he continued to run towards 
the lines to carry his message, and when at last within hearing of 
his comrades cried aloud " The enemy come ! " He dropped dead 
as he shouted out the words. 


Aftee the taking of the Hyonmu Gate and while the battle 
was still being fiercely contested, Ota Masakichi, a private of the 
first-class, of the 18th Regiment, was told to look every now 
and then over the ramparts to see the condition of the enemy in 
the inner castle. Two men had already been picked off here, 
while doing this duty, by the enemy's sharpshooters ; but nothing 
loath Ota raised himself breast-high above the ramparts. An 
officer who saw him do this called out that he need out stay 
forever in that position : to take a quick look at intervals was all 
that was necessary. But to this well-meant advice Ota rejoined, 
" Whether I am shot or not is a matter of destiny ; I am not in 
the least afraid." This reckless boldness characterized his 
actions later on when he acted as orderly to the Commander of 
his Batallion. So bravely and successfully did he fulfil every 
duty that he won the praise of his superior, who said he felt safer 
with Ota his side than if surrounded by thirty ordinary men. 



Shimada Itaeo, Sergeant of the Second Class, and Takakura 
Heijiro, a private of the first-class, belonged to the Fifth 
Company, Second Battalion, of the 21st Eegiment ; but for the 
time being were serving with the Fourth Company (First Sub- 
company). At 4 a. m., September 15th, they marched with the 
others towards the enemy's forts, and after taking the outer 
trench were not more than 10 metres distant from the foe. The 
Sub-company was on the left of the Main Body, i. e. to the far- 
thest left of the whole line of attack, and cut off from immediate 
communication with the rest. At 9 a. m. the supply of ammuni- 
tion ran short, and before this could be brought them the men 
where attacked on three sides : front, right flank, and from the 
opposite bank of the Taidong. To make matters still worse, the 
enemy in the fort in front now rushed out to charge the harrassed 
troop's left, firing at short range and most effectively. Sergeant 
Shimoda's section was in the most dangerous position of all. 
This did not however intimidate the Sergeant, who, with the 
skilful assistance of Takakura, kept the men from wasting their 
few cartridges and made them aim carefully. But no amount of 
bravery could keep them from the deadly bullets, which simply 
mowed down the men. At last only four soldiers were left unwound- 
ed. Calling to four other isolated combatants at a little distance, 
the Sergeant kept this little band at their post for over three hours. 
Then a ball struck the Sergeant in the back, severing his leather 
belt, while another almost simultaneously shot through his 
mouth, cutting a hole in both cheeks. No longer able to give 
commands, the Sergeant turned around to Takakura and tried to 
speak, but could only make a moaning sound, his teeth and 
tongue having been fearfully cut. Yet Takakura understood, 
and seeing that the injury was a mortal one, he urged the Ser- 
geant to go to the rear. Instead of doing this, the brave man 
clapped his hands on his wounded cheeks and again essayed to 
speak. " Don't worry yourself about us", said Takakura quickly ; 
" I'll take command and see that everything is done well. Go at 
once to the field-lazaret." Eeassured by these words the Sergeant 


marched painf itUj off, receiviug two more wounds in his arms as 
he did so. 

Takakura kept his word and held the place manfully. "With 
his few troopers he successfully prevented the enemy from 
breaking into the Japanese line. 


The larger portion of the Third Battalion, 21st Regiment and 
the Eleventh and Twelfth Companies of the same Eegiment, 
formed a special detachment acting as the Left Wing of the 
Combined Brigade under Major-General Oshima. Shortly before 
the battle, this detachment had to cross the Taidong in order to 
reach the right bank and thence communicate with the Main 
Body of the Division. But they came to the very broadest part 
of the river, where the water was exceptionally deep, effectually 
checking any idea of fording the stream. The enemy had more- 
over with wise foresight collected all the available craft there- 
abouts on the opposite side, whence they kept firing incessant 
volleys at the Japanese as they came up. Under the circum- 
stances, the Japanese were temporarily non-plussed. Just before 
midnight of September lith. Major Okuyama Gisho, who was 
with the detachment, ordered First-Class Sergeant Kizane Shin- 
jiro to swim the river and bring over as many boats as possible. 
Calling for volunteers the Sergeant soon had ten bold men with 
him, who rapidly divested themselves of their clothing and 
sprang into the chilly waves. By diving and swimming under 
water the men managed to avoid the enemy's bullets, and soon 
came back with no less than twelve native boats. In these the 
detachment was promptly ferried over, and afterwards took a 
prominent part in the battle. 



Some days before the attack on the castle-town, when the 
principal forces of the Fifth Division were about to take the route, 
Major Baba Masao, Commander of the Fifteenth Battalion of 
Engineers, was ordered to reconnoitre along the Taidong River, 
find a place suitable for crossing, and procure the boats necessary 
for the purpose of ferrying the Army across. In order to accom- 
plish this by no means easy task Major Baba left the Main Body 
of the Division, taking with him as adjutant Lieutenant Takeda 
Makinosuke. Komshuyok was reached on September 5th. The 
Xiieutenant was thereupon despatched to Chholto in order to 
get the needed boats and send them on to Nokshapho. Major 
Baba meanwhile followed the highroad, four mounted troopers 
acting as his escort, two interpreters also being with the party. 
On the 8th the Major rode into Hwangju. After most vexatious 
waitings and many hairbreadth escapes — no proper maps or 
Korean guides being obtainable — the Major concluded that Ship- 
yipho was the place best suited for the crossing. This is where 
a tributary coming from Hwangju joins the main stream. Here 
the river is fully 2000 metres broad, with a difference of 5 metres 
in height at flood and ebb. The river moreover is very muddy 
and flows towards the sea at the rate of two metres a minute. But 
where the two streams meet the rush of the water along the low 
banks and in the centre of the river is very strong. Near the 
right bank there are numbers of water-worn boulders, quite 
hidden from view at flood-tide and forming a dangerous reef. 
Altogether the place is a highly unpropitious one ; yet it is here 
only, at Shipyipho, that the opposite bank is broad and low, 
while all other place are quite unsuited for the landing of troops. 
True, the opposite shore was very muddy, but if it did not rain 
heavily there was no reason why the crossing should not be 
promptly efiected. Finally the country on the other side was very 
bad and difficult to pass over, so that the Chinese had no idea 
that a crossing could here be attempted and therefore there were 



Majob Baba Masao. 

no scouts visible thereabouts and no provisions made to prevent 
the landing of the Japanese troops. And Major Baba rightly 
conceived that it was of great 
strategic value for the Army to 
approach Phyongyang unperceived 
until the last moment. He there- 
fore wired to the Division Com- 
mander that Shipyipho was, all 
things considered, the best place. 

Now that the locality had been 
selected, it devolved upon the Major 
to see that the troops crossed safely 
and without mishap, so that they 
might appear suddenly before the 
doomed stronghold on the appointed 
day. The following three things 
were causes of great anxiety on his 
part : — (1) The Second Company of 
Engineers, who had set out after 

the rest, had been selected for the work of looking after the 
crossing. He must now somehow contrive to bring up these men 
in a great hurry, so that they should be on the spot by September 
10th. (2) The crossing had to be effected between the llth-14th 
September, and during those days it was of the utmost importance 
that no rain should fall; else the left bank would become a 
veritable and impassable morass. Besides there was no shelter 
obtainable for the men or horses. (3) Somehow or other he must 
get enough boats to ferry the whole Army across. 

With regard to the first point, the soldiers might come up in 
time if they marched all day and night ; but the second was 
something beyond human control. "While as to boats, there were 
none to be had anywhere in the neighbourhood, the Chinese 
having taken, burnt or hidden every one. 

A detachment of telegraph-constructors now joined the 
Company of Engineers. The former took ship to Yougshan, 
there to meet with the Main Body of the Company. At the latest, 
they had to get to Pongshan on the 8th ; so again taking ship they 
left Yongshan and reached Tongpa. After many privations, 


and great discomforts — particularly the lack of food — the boat 
made Hwangju at 2. p. m. of September 10th. Without pause the 
men at once set out for Shipyipho, on arriving at which place, 
tired as they were, the order was given to assist the other En- 
gineers in preparing for the crossing of the river. A little before 
this the First Sub-company had gone on to Shukheipho, to 
the left of Sha-in-kwan; while the Third Sub-company had 
turned to the left of Hwangju and marched to Nokshapho. In 
both cases the men were instructed to get all the native craft 
they could find and bring them back to Shipyipho as quickly as 
possible. The First Sub-company, under Lieutenant Hirao Jiro, 
started for Shukheipho on Sept. 10th ; and on reaching that 
village, they despatched Koto Kisamatsu, a private of the first- 
class, accompanied by a Korean guide, on to Songlitom and 
Chhonoppho, where some native boats were found, requisitioned, 
and sent on to Nokshapho. In the meantime the Main Body of 
the Sub-company got seven boats which had been discovered at 
Shukheipho and, embarking in them, went on to Ohholto. This 
was at two o'clock in the morning of September 11th. At Ohholto 
the Infantry had already found eight boats, and of these seven were 
hitched to the rest. The eighth boat had, most unfortunately, got 
into a cleft among some boulders and could not been floated until 
high tide. So this was left behind in charge of three soldiers, 
who were instructed to bring it on with the turn of the tide. 
Leaving Ohholto at once, and being favoured by both wind and 
stream, the run to Shipyipho was made in rather less than two 
hours, that place being reached at 4 a. m. Here the tired men land- 
ed and made preparations for a much-needed breakfast. But just 
then a large junk was espied in the middle of the river, evidently 
bound northward. This was speedily boarded and found to be 
manned by Chinese, on one of whom was discovered the cipher 
used by the enemy in telegraphing. The junk, it appeared, was 
taking instructions and various necessary things up to the Chinese 
at Phyongyang, so it proved an exceedingly welcome capture. 
The crew were made prisoners and the ship seized. 

Turning back to the fortunes of the other sections of the 
Company, we find that they left Hwangju for Nokshapho at 
2 p. m. of September 10th. The Third Sub-company was left 


here, while the rest set out for Shipyipho overland. The road 
was not more than ten miles long, but exceedingly heavy and 
difficult to follow. After great exertions they came to a village 
east of Shipyipho at 10 p. m., and there made a brief halt, the 
men being quite worn-out with the march and their previous 
labour. After a few hours' sleep the troop again took the road, 
reaching Shipyipho at just four o'clock in the morning (September 
11th), or when the other Sub-company came up with the boats 
they had found. They were more than surprised at the scene the 
river and its banks presented : the swift stream, the muddy flat, 
the hidden boulders. But the men knew that, despite all, the 
place had been wisely chosen, and so determined to show the 
stuff they were made of. All hands now set to work to repair the 
boats. Some were found to be quite useless and burnt at once ; 
others were partially rotten and required extensive repairs. Yet 
all went on with the utmost despatch, and at 11 a. m., or less than 
seven hours after the work had begun, the impatient troops on the 
low, muddy bank began to be ferried across. The foremost body 
to cross the river was a Company of Infantry that had arrived the 
preceding night. As already described, these men belonged to 
the party of telegraph-constructors, so that the Company lacked 
a good many of its regular strength. Moreover the number of 
those falling sick was growing very large, some fifty men having 
been taken ill while on the road. The sixty soldiers of the 
Third Sub-company, who should have reached Shipyipho by 
midnight of the 10th, had not yet made their appearance owing 
to the late hour at which the tide became flood. The Division 
was now coming up rapidly, yet there were still ten old boats to 
be repaired : too leaky for use unless they received an extensive 
overhauling. To make things still worse, the delayed Third Sub- 
company did not get in until 7 o'clock in the evening (September 
11th). The confusion at that hour was tremendous ; but the sixty 
latest arrivals were soon at work effecting the necessary repairs 
and getting every thing in readiness for the crossing. 

Now flood-tide set in. The best rowers were carefully chosen 
and distributed among the cranky boats. "Does the boat leak?" 
or "Have you all the oars and poles?" or "Have you the neces- 
sary hawsers ?" were among the cries heard here and there. Each 


officer had been apprised of the exact number of men each of the 
boats would carry; and to the soldiers themselves orders were 
issued sach as "Don't stand up !" "Don't lean on one side of the 
boat!" or "If the boat tips, don't stir!" The current being 
rapid, they took advantage of this, letting the boats sweep 
several hundred metres up-stream with one current and as many 
again down-stream with another. In this way the boats slowly 
progressed towards the middle of the river, though here, owing 
to the fierce rush of water, the goal on the opposite bank was 
often lost sight of, the boats being swept down-stream. On such 
occasions the rowers had to exert their full strength in order to 
keep the craft from being carried too far away. Chilly as it was, 
the men were dripping with perspiration, and though they were 
parched with thirst there was no water for them to drink. Often, 
on reaching the opposite shore, far below the intended landing- 
place, the men were utterly exhausted ; yet they might not stop, 
but keeping in the shallows had to row up-stream to the appoint- 
ed place. Even this was not the end of their toil, for, after having 
landed their living freight, the rowers had to pull back to the 
opposite shore ; and although the boats were empty, this was a 
most arduous piece of business, owing to the rapid current. That 
it took more than two hours to ferry back and forth — one trip — 
shows how extremely difficult the task was. In some instances 
the tide carried the boats several thousand metres off and very 
nearly capsized them. Boats meeting with such a fate took fully 
six hours to make the trip, and some of them were so much 
damaged thereby that they had to be hauled up for repairs before 
taking another load. The oarsmen had no time to stop even for 
a hasty meal. 

The most troublesome passengers were the horses. To get 
them into the boats and then out on the other side was a heart- 
breaking business. Of course a temporary wharf had been erected 
on either bank, but the horses were startled by the sight and 
sound of the rushing stream, and therefore most difficult to 

The soldiers swarming on the near shore were now being 
ferried over steadily, yet their numbers seemed rather to increase 
than to decrease. The day appointed for the battle being near at 


hand, the Engineers worked with desperation. As the hours 
flew by, some might be seen shouldering others, or trying to make 
recalcitrant horses enter and swim the river, or carrying huge 
loads hither and thither — in a word, doiug everything they could 
think of to have the crossing go quickly. Their own lives were as 
nothing in comparison with the necessity for speed. 

According to the predetermined arrangement, the whole body 
of troops got safely across. But owing to the small number of 
available boats, the Cavalry and Artillery requested permission 
to embark apart from the Main Body, contrary to the original 
programme. This caused some confusion, which was intensified 
by such questions as the alternation of the rowers ; the draw- 
ing up of loads on the wharves and their subsequent discharge ; 
the length of time the boats should wait for a turn in the tide ; 
the exact number of men, horses, and stores to be ferried across ; 
in what way the boats should be repaired; where each load 
should be placed, etc., etc. All these problems were quickly and 
cleverly solved by the superintendence, encouragement and advice 
of the officers ; and yet the scarcity of men to do the work was 
sorely felt. Finally, provisions had perforce to be got for a certain 
detachment, and so in the midst of all this tremendous bustle 
and confusion a Commissariat body made its appearance and set 
to work. The heat in the daytime was most oppressive, the 
absence of anything like shade-trees being most painfully felt. 

Under these circumstances the indefatigable Engineers worked 
without stopping until midnight, when the tide ebbed and no 
boat could get beyond the rocky shoal near the opposite bank. 
Leaving a few men on guard, the others turned in and slept the 
sleep, of utter exhaustion. There was no time to go back to the 
village and rest under shelter ; the men had to sleep when they 
were — anywhere on the muddy shore. At 3 a. m. the guard in- 
formed the weary men of the turn of the tide, and in an instant 
all were on their feet ready to set to work again. Hundreds of 
men and horses once more entered the boats, which were slowly 
rowed across. The Main Body of this Company of Engineers 
were now almost at the limit of human endurance, the many calls 
upon the men's strength having completely exhausted them. Yet 
the great duty of getting this Main Body of the Division across 


in time to take honourable part in the battle, was so pressing and 
urgent that the men seemed to forget their mortal fatigue. And 
so at last the task was done, and well done. Seven thousand men 
and one thousand horses had they ferried across in less than 50 
horses, losing only one horse and his groom, the animal having 
plunged overboard in midstream and drowned with the groom 
before help could reach them. 

Nor must it be forgotten that the boats were of the clumsy 
and unwieldy native Korean make, urged forward by massive 
oars that had to be raised as high as the rower's head at every 
stroke. The oarsmen suffered very greatly from the use of these 
clumsy oars, whose weight and size tore the skin from their 
palms and made the blood flow. Yet not a man was heard to 
complain. With their bruised and bleeding hands they still kept 
at work. And so among the stories of Japanese pluck, energy 
and endurance cited in this book, surely the above particulars 
concerning this grand Company of Engineers desen-e to take a 
high rank. 


At nine o'clock in the evening of September 12th the greater 
part of the Division had been successfully ferried across the 
Taidong. There remained however one boat containing three 
horse and their grooms, four Engineers being also on board as 
oarsmen. When the boat had just about passed midstream, one 
of the horses was startled by the noise of the rushing current, 
and began to plunge and kick. The equilibrium of the boat was 
thereby suddenly disturbed, the stern going under water, so that 
the restive horse and groom both fell into the stream. The boat 
now sank still more, throwing all its occupants into the water. 
The grooms were in a fine fright and began calling aloud for help, 
grasping the while the horses' tails to keep themselves afloat. 
But no one heard their cries, and even had they been audible no 
one could have gone to their aid ; for the boat was far from land 
and the current very fierce where they were. Here however 


Kawahito Yokiohi, one of the Engineers on board, showed the 
value of presence of mind and good sense. " "What are you afraid 
of, you cowards ? " cried he ; " grasp the side of the boat or the 
hawser and keep yourselves afloat ! That is the way to help your- 
selves. The boat is full of water but still floats, and we can 
reach the bank if we keep on striking out with our arms and legs, 
no matter how fast the stream is or how distant the shore. If we 
desert the boat we shall be in a still worse plight." This authori- 
tative voice was enough to bring the men to their senses. They 
did just as he had told them and the sequel was as Kawahito had 
predicted. The grooms held the bridles of their charges in one 
hand while grasping the gunwale of the boat with the other, 
and the Engineers swam with one arm and held the boat with the 
other. In this way they slowly passed through the worst part of 
the river and finally made the opposite bank — but not until they 
had been swept fully four miles down-stream. 


No sketch of the movements of the Japanese forces in Korea 
up to the date of the battle of Phyongyang would be complete 
without reference to the excellent work done by the Etappe 
Department, in everything connected with the transportation of 
provisions, military equipment and all else of the kind. 

When Major-General Oshima Yoshimasa first landed his 
Combined Brigade at Inchhon, the state of affairs in Korea 
though troublous gave no indication of an immediate outbreak of 
hostilities. "While the Brigade was encamped at Manlichang, 
about two miles south-west of Seoul, the Commissariat was 
stationed at Inchhon, this place being in direct connection by sea 
with Shimonoseki. In transportation overland advantage was 
taken of the good road between Inchhon and Yongshan and the 
rapid current of the Hankang, which flows by the town of 
Kangwhafu. Thus things were kept going smoothly. 


In consequence of the events which occurred on July 23rd at 
Seoul, the difficulties attending the transhipment of material were 
increased ; but after the nayal conflict off Phungdo the Japanese 
were in undisputed possession of the northern seas and had 
nothing to fear from any opposition on the part of the Chinese. 
So the work of sending provisions and military necessaries from 
Shimonoseki to Inchhon went on undisturbed. 

The advance of the Combined Brigade on Asan being outside 
of the original programme, no proper commissariat organiza- 
tion had been made in this direction. But the Department made 
light of the distance of 40 miles, and the line was promptly laid 
open between Yongshan and Chinwi. This was very cleverly 
and rapidly executed. There was, it is true, a lack of hands, 
but this defect was more than made up for by the increased 
diligence of the workers, who contributed in this manner so 
largely to the success of the Japanese arms at Songhwan. Never, 
in this connection, can the bold spirit and ardent diligence of 
Lieut.-Colonel Takenouchi Shosaku, Chief of the Etappe, be 
forgotten. He and his men did wonders, despite the open ill-will 
and rebellious tumult of the local Koreans. 

AVhen the march to Phongyang began, the Combined Brigade 
had been increased to the size of a Division, and this, later on, 
became an Army. It was difficult to keep pace with this rapid 
increase in numbers, and so the development of the Commissariat 
and Transport Department was of necessity slow; indeed all was not 
in good working order imtil after the battle of Phyongyang. In a 
word, the Etappe which had been overburdened before was, when 
the forces began to start against this stronghold, compelled to 
do more than four times as much as before ; the ratio being as 40 
to 180, the increase in men and animals being as 5 to 1. 

The main lines were as follow : — The work along the road 
from Inchhon to Yongshan became vastly larger and more labori- 
ous, for from Yongshan to Phyongyang the highway was lined 
with unending files of soldiers, horses, oxen, and carts of every 
size. This was made the main road of communication. The 
highway leading from Sangnyong to Shanohong was the artery 
connecting with the Japanese Eight. As for water-routes there 
were two: the one the stream flowing to Yinchonchon from 


Hankang, the other the river running between Pyoknamto and 
Ohholpe. Still another route was opened from Inchhon to 
Kaisong, thence to Hwangju overland, where a special line of 
communication was established, connecting with the main route. 
Finally for the troops landed at Wonshan, the Songchon- 
Phyongyang road was made the etappe line ; while for the forces 
which entered Korea from Fusan, there was a special line 
betAveen Fusan and Hankang, which was quite distinct from the 
Phyongyang Commissariat. All the above routes were es- 
tablished only for the time being, and enormous difficulties had 
to be overcome in order to prevent the occurrence of any serious 
hitch. Koreans had to be engaged as bearers and workmen, 
much against their inclination, for they were wholly deceived as 
to the real intentions of China and therefore intensely pro-Chinese 
in their views. As fast as they were requisitioned they would 
escape or make the attempt, at all events, to run off — and this in 
spite of the wholly unaccustomed inducements of high wages and 
plentiful food. But, one after another, all difficulties were over- 
come, thanks to the untiring diligence, the sleepless nights and 
long days of toil on the part of the Commissariat Chief and his 
officers. So Phyongyang was besieged, and so Phyongyang, 
China's last hope in Korea, fell. 


While the Combined Brigade, after having landed at 
Inchhon, marched on to Manlichang, Yiian, the Chinese Resident 
at Seoul, was doing all in his power to have everything his 
own way. For some at the time inexplicable reason Yiian got 
the majority of the Chinese living in Seoul and Inchhon to 
return to their native country, great confusion thereby resulting 
among the shipping at Inchhon. It seemed as if a panic had 
broken out among the Chinese, and this feeling was not slow in 
having an effect on the Japanese residents as well. They, too, 
began to pack up and make ready for a hasty departure. But 



this was not in accordance with the views of Lieut.-Colonel Take- 
nouchi, Chief of the Commissariat at Inchhon, who immediately 
convened a meeting and addressed the Japanese residents there 
in a manner which will long be remembered. The substance of 
this great speech was shortly as follows : — " Dear Fellow- 
countrymen ! When you saw your Chinese neighbours, residents 
of this town, making all speed to return to their native land, some 
of you — and not without reason — concluded that it would be 
better to go back to Japan at once. But I cannot praise such 
conduct. Let me tell you what I think you should do. His 
Imperial Majesty, our most benevolent Emperor, has sent troops 
across the broad seas to this land chiefly because he fears that 
the rebellious Tonghaks may do some injury to your lives or pro- 
perty; and thus desires to 
protect you from all danger. 
Gentlemen, pray think more 
deeply of what you owe to 
Japan. We soldiers are here, 
in accordance with the 
Imperial Mandate, to shield 
your lives and property. 
The rebellion of the Tong- 
haks has already been well- 
nigh quelled, while the inter- 
course between our country 
and this Kingdom is going 
on peaceably and uninter- 
ruptedly. Under these cir- 
cumstances I think you 
would be acted very wrongly 
should you follow the 
example set by your Chinese neighbours, and, in consequence of 
baseless fears, start precipitately for Japan like any disorderly 
mob. This is decidedly not the way to show your obedience to 
the benevolent and merciful will of our Emperor. I hold that 
you should continue your ordinary daily work. This is certainly 
the best manner in which you, my countrymen, can testify your 
reverence for the Imperial will. Your actions at this juncture 

Lieut.-Colonel Takenouchi, 


must have an effect on tlie whole Japanese Empire. Therefore in 
all that you do take heed that you make no misstep, nor act 
rashly." These words moved many in the audience to tears, so 
powerfully were they delivered. The loyal and military orator 
then said : " Accidents cannot be foreseen. But even should 
there be a breech between the two great nations, no bullet can fly 
beyond a certain well-known limit. I firmly believe that should 
I we even come to blows and a great war ensue, Inchhon will not 
\disappear behind clouds of smoke. Remember, gentlemen, how 
jnany people of other nations are living here. No matter how 
Ignorant a certain government may be, they will not venture to 
nake enemies of all the world. Some years ago when England and 
Ji|rance fought as allies against China, Shanghai remained ab- 
solutely uninjured, reaping to the full the benefits of the law of 
naitrality." The speaker then quoted a number of pertinent 
pasages from standard works on International Law, all tending 
to issure the residents of their safety. " What I have just cited," 
he Continued, " will show you the law in the case, but if, despising 
suc\ laws, unforeseen accidents should arise, we, the soldiers of 
JapW, are ready to sacrifice our lives — ^long since devoted to the 
servhe of our Emperor — ^in the endeavour to protect your lives 
and possessions. Under such circumstances I pray you, gentle- 
men„stay quietly where you are. More than this, there is one 
thingwhich I hope and expect from you. His Majesty's troops 
now llnded in Korea will have even greater difficulties to contend 
with Is the days go by. Should such a contingency ensue, I 
trust iat you will ever be found ready to sacrifice you personal 
intereas for the sake of your Emperor and your native land. 
Brothe-countrymen, you may soon have an opportunity so show 
that vabur, loyalty and righteousness which I know to be in your 
hearts.! You are living in the promised time ; now be careful and 
mindfuJpf your great duties ! " 

Thi speech, of which the above is the merest outline sketch, 
lasted vc two hours, and was only occasionally interrupted by 
outburst! of enthusiastic applause. The words had the desired 
effect. The exodus of the Chinese continued, but not one 
Japaneseteitizen left his post. The little band of residents kept 
at their locations as quietly as if Korea and Japan were at 


peace with all the world. And when, later on, the Japanese 
forces pressed on to Phyongyang and the prompt establishment of 
the line of communication was a work of tremendous difficulty, 
the water-route between Inchhon and Kaisong was utilized and a 
commissariat statioii made at a place midway between Kaisong 
and Hwangju. At this moment, when every willing hand was of 
the utmost importance, the Japanese at Inchhon came forward 
in a body, offering their willing services. They pulled, dug, 
lifted and altogether worked like the meanest coolies. Thanks 
to their untiring loyalty, the line of communication was rapidlj 
put through, — a factor which contributed very greatly to tht 
subsequent victory at Phyongyang. Lieut.-Colonel Takenouchi'3 
inspiring appeal thus bore good fruit. 


The Commissariat line of 40 miles in length, openel in 
consequence of the march of the Combined Brigade under Mjor- 
General Oshima to Songwan and Asan, as well as the ISOoaile- 
line established for the troops going to Phyongyang were very 
imperfectly organized, the service being attended with enomous 
difficulties owing to the lack of men. The situation was reidered 
still niore complicated because of the daily escape of the levied 
coolies and horses. No matter how high the wage, the Eoreans 
were always most difficult to deal with, and wholly untrust'orthy. 
After a few preliminary arrangements at Inchhon, the Bta^pe, for 
example, hired a number of coolies for the transport of Enmuni- 
tion. Bach man's load was carefully made up and the tins for the 
start of the long line of bearers determined upon. But wherthe hour 
came a number of the men mutinied, declaring that they kew they 
should be decapitated if caught carrying ammunition for he Japa- 
nese. Their example was immediately followed by the ther coo- 
lies, so that, in a few moments, not a solitary Korean "as left on 
the field. The next day the Japanese officers mae another 
attempt to get the men to work, but they would listento no per- 
suasion, and the idea of sending the ammunitio overland 


in this manner had to be, though reluctantly, relinquished. 

Things were even worse during the march against Asan. 
Here the hired Koreans not only made oif at every opportunity, 
but even took their well-paid-for horses and oxen with them. It 
was not to be borne. The Japanese officers therefore requested 
the Korean authorities to levy the necessary number of men, and 
native constables and soldiers were at once despatched to collect the 
coolies. Numbers were indeed brought together and their half- 
hearted labours for a while superintended by Japanese belonging 
to the Commissariat; yet before Kwachhon was reached — six 
miles from Yongshan-^not one Korean was left. All had fled ! 

The same annoying experience was had with the Koreans 
engaged in the march against Phyongyang. Thousands of coolies 
had been levied afresh, and all were subjected to several days' 
drill and training before their work began. Eules for their 
guidance were laid down and provisions made for their families 
if they so desired. The Japanese residents of Inchhon " buckled 
to " with a will and set the recalcitrants the best of examples ; 
yet to the intense disappointment of the army ofScers, these 
Koreans followed the conduct of their predecessors in service and 
ran off whenever they got the chance. It was a heart-breaking 
business to work under such untoward circumstances. The 
amount of damage done by these cowardly men to the Japanese 
cause, was simply enormous, the subsequent privations of the Ja- 
panese forces being attributable solely to this factor. It is 
remarkable, not to say wonderful, that this did not deter the 
Army from going from victory to victory. The credit is in this 
instance ascribable to the superhuman efforts of the officers and 
men in charge of the Commissariat, ably seconded by Lieut. -Colonel 
Takenouchi's " recruits " from Inchhon. 


All through the war the Etappe had both hands full of 
arduous work ; but surely never was human endurance pushed to 
a greater length than in the days immediately preceding the 


battle of Phyongyang. As has already been explained, the 
Combined Brigade rapidly swelled, by reason of reinforcements 
coming in quick succession from Japan, to a Division and from a 
Division to an Army. There was, however, no similar increase 
made in the organization of the Commissariat. Pushed to the ut- 
most to make things run smoothly between Inchhon and Seoul — a 
distance of 23 miles — the same little body of officers and men now 
had to provide facilities of transport for provisions, ammunition, 
etc., the whole way to Phyongyang — 184 miles distant. Under 
these circumstances the organization could not well have been 
otherwise than incomplete ; and to keep things going at all the 
Etappe had really to do the work of giants. Among the routes 
established by them and the various undertakings successfully 
accomplished, the following may be mentioned as showing the 
vastness of the work : — 

1. Keeping up communication and transportation by land and 
water between Inchhon and Seoul ; 

2. Communication and transportation along the Phyongyang 
highway ; 

3. Maintenance of the Commissariat and supply depot between 
Kaisong and Hwangju ; 

4. The water-route between Kaisong and Hwangju ; 

5. Sending supplies to the troops landed at Wonsan ; 

6. Provisioning and otherwise assisting the southern depot 
between Fusan and Hankang ; 

7. Forwarding of supplies and provisions to the workmen 
engaged in constructing the telegraph between Fusan and Seoul ; 

8. Provisioning and otherwise assisting the troops stationed at 
Seoul and that neighbourhood ; and 

9. Erecting barracks in the vicinity of Manlichang. 

Of course the above by no means exhaust the list. The 
duties of each man, of each officer, were legion. That under 
such peculiarly trying circumstances no hitch occurred surely 
redounds to the credit of the energetic and loyal Chief, Lieut.- 
Colonel Takenouchi. Like Antseus, he appeared to increase 
tenfold in ability and ingenuity after each fresh demand made 
upon his strength and resources. 

Of course after the sending of thousands of coolies from 


Japan, things went mucli more smootlily. But tlie above brief 
description -will show how great were the odds against which the 
Japanese had to contend, until after they had won the memorable 
battle of Phyongyang and driven the Chinese from Korean 

Lieutenant MiMnKA, 
THE Heeo of the Htonmu Gate. 

H. J. M. Yoshino. 




The victories achicTed by the arms of Japan were very 
evenly divided between the two branches of the service. If the 
land-troops carried all before them at Phyongyang, Kangwasae, 
Newchwang and a dozen other places, the fleet was no less 
successful off Ehungdo, in the Yellow Sea, and at Wei-hai-wei. 
The naval engagement of the Yellow Sea, better known by the 
style of the Fight off Haiyang — an important island near the scene 
of the conflict — is unique in the annals of this century. For here, 
for the first time on record since the great change in naval 
construction, two fleets of the most modern and powerful type 
met in deadly warfare, the result being significant of the tremen- 
dous nature of the weapons now employed by " civilized " nations 
and the fury with which the battle was fought on both sides. It 



was a deadly grapple between two ancient foes, witli all the skill 
and one side and all tlie victory ; though the Chinese did not fall 
behind in point of bravery and determined pluck. According to 
naval experts in this part of the world, the Chinese were defeated 
primarily because of their execrable tactics, and secondarily 
because they had no ships so swift as one or two of those on the 
Japanese side. Moreover the Japanese vessels fought intelligent- 
ly, as a compact whole ; while the Chinese war-ships, with the 
exception perhaps of the two great iron-clads, failed to work in 
harmony and at no time brought their full strength to bear on 
the foe. Yet Admiral Ting, the Chinese Commander, was a 
good sailor and able officer, no whit less brave and energetic 
than his adversary and quondam friend Vice-Admiral ltd. Errors 
of judgment, the want of absolutely devoted crews, faulty gunnery 
— these were pregnant causes of the Chinese defeat. 

It was on September 
16th, 1894, that the Ja- 
panese fleet left the tem- 
porary anchorage at the 
mouth of the Taidong 
River. The next day, 
after a fruitless cruise 
near the Korean littoral, 
the fleet made for the 
island of Haiyang, an 
island of importance, as 
already pointed out, and 
one which commanded 
the approach to the 
Kinchow Peninsula. The 
YosMno, TakacMlio, A- 
kitsushima, and Naniwa, 
in the order named, 
forming the Eirst Flying 
Squadron, led the van, the 
flag of Bear-Admiral 
Tsuboi Kozo flying on 
the YosJiino. The foUow- 

Vicb-Admibal ViscotiNT Ito 

OP THE Combined Squadkons. 


ing, Principal, Squadron was composed of the Chiyoda, 
ItsukusJiima, HasMdate, Hiyei, and Fitsb, witla the Matsushima as 
flag-ship, Vice-Admiral Ito Sukehiro, Commander-in-Chief, being 
on board. Close behind followed the gun-boat AJcagi and the 
ex-merchant-steamer Saikyb Maru, transformed into a cruiser for 
the time being. At 6.30 a. m. the island was sighted, and the 
harbour — a fine one there — shortly afterwards reconnoitred. No 
signs of the enemy being visible, a course was shaped for Taku- 
shan, and the fleet proceded onwards after a short review, Talu 
Island being the objective. Steaming easily, the war-ships were 
enjoying the fine autumn day, when suddenly, at 10.50 a. m., 
thick smoke was seen on the port bow, low down on the horizon 
and north-east by east from the leading vessels. This was what 
the Admirals had long and impatiently been looking for; no 
doubt was entertained that the enemy were now close at hand. 
From the increasing volume of the smoke it was clear that the 
hostile war-vessels were numerous. Each ship therefore prompt- 
ly cleared for action and beat to quarters. 

The weather was exceptionally fine ; the sea smooth ' and 
glassy, with just a faint ripple where the light breeze touched the 
surface. At five minutes past noon the Matsushima signalled to 
prepare to close with the enemy. The AJcagi and Saikyb Maru, 
not being well protected, and the former a very slow boat, were 
ordered to go under the port bow of the Squadrons, thus getting 
out of the enemy's range. The First Flying Squadron steamed at 
full speed directly towards the enemy's centre, but gradually 
veered to port, so as to attack the Chinese left. Almost the same 
course was pursued by the Principal Squadron. The Chinese 
formation was an irregular wedge, the Ting Yuen and C/ien Yuen — 
the two great iron-olads — leading, with the Lai Yuen, GJiing Yuen, 
Yang Wei, and Chao Yang on the right and the King Yuen, Chili 
Yuen, Tsi Yuen and Kioang Chia on the left : ten men-of-war in all. 
Some distance off to the north, smoke was again visible, proceed- 
ing from the funnels of two or three Chinese war-ships kept in 
reserve. The distance between the fleets at this moment was 
5-6000 metres, yet the Japanese war-ships were at once so turned 
that their flanks were at right angles with the advancing foe. 

At 12.50 p. m. the Ting Yuen, though still 6000 metres off, 



opened fire from her large guns, the other members of the fleet 
speedily following suit. The shells fell near but did not strike the 
Japanese ships, the sea about them being beaten into wayes and 
fountains of angry water, so tremendous the impact of the missiles. 
This did not of course stop the steady, swift advance of the Ja- 
panese, who as yet had not fired a single shot. Five minutes 
later the distance between the two fleets was decreased to 3000 
metres, and the hitherto silent men-of-war now burst into a 
thunderous roar of shot and shell that seemed to rend the very 
heavens. All the big guns on 
the Japanese vessels were 
directed towards the upper 
decks of the Ting Ytien and 
GJien Yicen, the rest of the 
Chinese ships being fired at 
with guns of smaller calibre. 
The Flying Squadron had by 
this time steamed past the 
enemy's front and was getting 
round to their starboard side; 
and just as the four fleet men- 
of-war approached the Chinese 
rear, the Principal Squadron, 
then at a distance of 4000 
metres, rapidly assumed a 
wedge-shaped formation, thus 
sheltering the Alcagi and 
Saikyo Maru on the starboard 
and taking the whole of the 
enemy's heavy starboard fire. 
At 12.58 p. m., a shell from 

the MatsusJdTna's 32 centimetre gun crashed through the upper 
part of the Chinese flagship's — the Ting Yiien's — largest mast, so 
that the latter was no longer able to make signals to the rest of 
the fleet. Taking advantage of this accident, the Japanese Prin- 
cipal Squadron opened out and surrounded the Chinese ships, 
firing most fiercely the while. The enemy at a loss what to do, 
the flagship no longer directing them, sieamed confusedly hither 









Ml i^"^M 


\ i'^m 

f\\ ll ll 

II mrHSm 




, ?>\Tli 



Captain Kawabaka, Commandbe 
H. J. M. Yoshino. 


and thither, their formation being completely broken. Each 
acted independent of the rest, to the great loss of time and force. 
Some of the Chinese ships now caught sight of the Akagi and 
Saikyo Maru. Deeming these two an easy prey, they steamed to- 
wards them, entirely separating themselves from the rest. The 
Japanese vessels, on the other hand, maintained their original 
line and continued to fire at each ship with precision and terrible 
effect. Six of the ten Chinese ships had by this time caught fire, 
while the Ghao Yang and Yang Wei got quite apart from the 
others. Some of the enemy's vessels approached the Hiyei and 
Fusb — both small war-ships — in the rear of the Principal Squadron. 
The Hiyei' s position was, for a while, one of extreme peril, there 
being great danger of her getting rammed; yet with reckless bravery 
her commander thrust the ship directly between the powerful 
Ting Yuen and the CJien Yuen, this being the one possible chance 
of escaping destruction. The manoeuvre was successful, and 
discharging her broadsides as she steamed ahead at full speed, 
the Hiyei pressed through and got to the rear of the attacking 
vessels. She had been severely handled in this running fight : 
her fore was shattered and the whole ship ablaze. Hoisting 
signals announcing her desperate condition to the flagship, the 
Hiyei steamed off to the north-east in order to effect repairs. The 
Fuso, meanwhile, unavoidably deserted by the Hiyei, veered to 
port, and, fighting her best with the enemy as she steamed on, 
succeeded in getting back to the Principal Squadron. The Akagi, 
smallest of the Japanese warships — a gun-boat of only 600 
tons — had also fallen to the rear, owing to her low rate of speed. 
She now ported her helm and sought to get out of the melee 
by running the gauntlet of the Ting Yuen and CJien Ytten, it being 
the intention of her commander to join the Hiyei. This was 
perceived by the Lai Yuen, CM Yusn and Kwang Chia, who imme- 
diately bore down upon her, firing furiously as they came on. A 
shell struck the Akagi at this moment, instantly killing her 
captain, Lieut. -Commander Sakamoto Hachirota. Her main and 
lower decks were also much torn up and the steam-pipe fractured. 
Hasty repairs were made, and after having done the best to 
make good the damage the Akagi steamed southward as rapidly as 
possible. Other shells then struck her in several places, one 



carrying away the main-mast. Tlie Lai Yuen had now got within 
300 metres of the apparently doomed vessel and with one of her 
big guns struck the bridge-rail, severely wounding Lieutenant 
Sato Tetsutaro, who had taken 
command. Of the quick-firing 
guns, No. 1 was managed by a 
signalman, all the gunners there 
having been shot down. But the 
Akagi had her revenge by planting 
a shell on the rear-deck of the Lai 
Y^en, a conflagration at once 
breaking out in consequence. The 
other Chinese vessels now closed 
round the Lai Yuen to render 
assistance. The Saihyb Maru 
then steamed rapidly ahead to 
carry the news of the peril of the 
Hiyei and AJcagi to the Principal 
Squadron ; and when the message 
was made out through the clouds 
of smoke, the flagship at once 

ordered the First Flying Squadron to proceed to the aid of their 
comrades. The order was promptly obeyed, the four fine war- 
ships immediately steering westward. They steamed directly for 
the Lai Yven, CMh Yuen and Kioang Ghia, keeping the enemy on 
their port bow as they approached. The gunners stationed there 
fired rapidly and with magnificent precision, handling their huge 
weapons with skill and judgment. At a distance of 2800 metres 
the cannon of the Flying Squadron proved too much for the three 
hostile vessels, which slowly turned and attempted to get back to 
their Main Squadron. This however the Japanese hindered them 
from doing, keeping a middle course between the three ships and 
the rest of their fleet ; while the Principal Squadron, having come 
up to the rear, interposed between the Flying Squadron and the 
other Chinese vessels. The battle now reached its climax, the 
firing being stupendously heavy, the air dark with shot and shell, 
while the sun itself was obscured by the pall of smoke overhang- 
ing the whole dismal scene — man fighting to kill man ! Just 

Commander Sakamoto, 
H. J. M. Akagi. 


before this, when the Flying and then the Principal Squadrons 
had gone to the relief of the Hiyei and Akagi, the cruiser Saikyo 
Maru was left quite alone, despite which fact she kept up fighting 
with the enemy. At 2.20 p. m., a 30.5 centimetre shell from Thig 
Yuen struck and exploded back of the officers' ward on the Saikyo, 
causing great damage and cutting the steam-pipe controlling to the 
steering-gear. Signalling what had happened to the flagship, the 
Saikyo ran between the AkitsusJiima and Naniioa, getting on the 
port bow of the Chinese fleet, some vessels of which at once 
started to sink the injured cruiser, which did her best to get 
away from her opponents. About this time, moreover, the several 
men-of-war which the Japanese had believed to be the Chinese 
reserve, drew near. These were the Ping Yuen, Kivang Ping and 
two torpedo-boats. They could not come up with the Principal 
Squadron, on account of the Q.-F. guns, but noticing that the 
Saikyo was in great straits, the Ping Yuen, Kicang Ping and the 
two torpedo-boats started to sink her. Observing that Saikyo had 
very few guns, they approached her rapidly and began firing 
upon her, the Saikyo replying boldly with her Q.-F. guns. The 
torpedo-boats then sheered off towards the coast, while the 
Chinese men-of-war continued to approach until they got within 
500 metres of the vessel. A torpedo-boat, the Fuk-lung, now 
suddenly appeared directly in front of the Saikyo, at which she 
discharged her bow-torpedo just as the Saikyo was turning to 
port. Turning again the brave ex-merchantman made directly 
for the deadly explosive, missing it by not more than one metre 
by a sharp turn to the larboard. The attacking boat then dis- 
charged her port-bow torpedo, at almost right angles to the 
Saikyo. Here skilful manoeuvring could prove of no avail, and 
every one on board the cruiser expected to have the ship blown 
to atoms. But contrary to all expectation the torpedo passed 
harmlessly under the vessel, appearing a little later floating on the 
waves at a considerable distance to the east. Every body had 
been breathlessly awaiting the result of the torpedo-boat attack ; 
and when the Sailcyo was out of immediate danger the 
Chinese men-of-war sarrounding het found themselves at close 
quarters with several Japanese war-vessels. The Chao Yang, 
which had first taken fire, now went down stern-foremost ; while 


tlie Yang Wei, seeing that her case was hopeless, ran towards 
the shallow water and beach of Talu Island. 

A little before this, the Ting Yvj&n, which had failed to 
succeed inher attack in the Saikyb Maru, tried to get back to the 
rest of her comrades. Just as she was about passing in front of 
the Japanese Fleet, she suddenly changed her course and made 
as if she would either ram the MatsusJiima or else discharge a 
fish-torpedo at this the Japanese flagship. From doing either 
she was prevented by the violent iire poured from the MatsusJiima' s 
batteries. Sheering off to starboard, the Ting Yuen shaped her 
course at right angles to the Japanese line. On her port-bow 
becoming visible another broadside was poured into her from the 
MatsusJiima' s guns. As the Ting Yvsn was not more than 1500 
metres distant at the time, the effect of this broadside was tre- 
mendous, great holes being beaten into her side, whence volumes 
of smoke soon came pouring forth. A fire had started on board. 
In revenge, the Ting Yuen fired several rounds from her 26 
centimetre guns, one shell entering the MatsusJiima' s starboard 
quarter, plunging through the doctors' ward or surgery on the 
lower deck, severely shattering the steel fender, and after passing 
down the torpedo-tube finally destroying the barbette containing 
the 32 centimetre gun. Almost immediately afterwards a 47 
centimetre shell tore through the MatsusJiima into her central 
torpedo-room, striking the main-mast and causing numerous fatal 
and other injuries. None the less it was evident that great con- 
fusion reigned on board the Ting Yuen in consequence of her 
adversary's steady fire. 

The First Flying Squadron were now in hot pursuit of the 
Kiuang GJiia, Lai Yuen and King Yuen, which wer6 doing their 
best to get out of the fight. The Kwang CJiia ran to the north of 
Buclia Island, while the Lai Ytien headed for Talok : the King 
Yuen being thus left alone. The firing from the four vessels 
composing the Flying Squadron was then concentrated on the 
wretched King Yuen. She was already on fire, and now keeled 
over to port, turning completely over. The flagship then 
recalled the Flying Squadron from farther pursuit of the other 
two Chinese vessels, and the four swift men-of-war steamed 
obediently back to the Principal Squadron. 


In the meantime tlie latter Squadron liacl been waging a 
furious war with the Ting Yuen, Chen Yuen, Chili Yuen and 
Ping Yuen, the best ships the enemy still had afloat. The Chih 
Yuen, trusting to her powerful frame, bravely attempted to run 
down some of her persistent adversaries ; but the Flying Squadron 
coming up, the devoted vessel was made the object of a tremen- 
dous assault. Shot through and through, she listed to starboard 
and sank. This occurred at just 3.30 p. m. The Principal 
Squadron now concentrated their fire on the Ting Yuen and Chen 
Yven, the distruction of one or both of these battle battle-ships 
being the great ambition of every vessel in the Japanese Fleet. 
At 3.80 p. m., just as the Chih Yuen sank beneath the waves, 
two shots from the 30.5 centimetre gun of the Ting Yuen wrought 
great havoc aboard the Matsushima, the lower deck on the port 
side being dreadfully cut up. One of the great shells struck the 
rear of gun No. 4, then glancing off burst through the upper deck 
and broke through the starboard quarter; while the other 
shattered the same gun's massive steel shield, bending the gun 
itself quite out of shape. Nor was this all : it plunged into a 
heap of ammunition, exploding the cartridge-cases and inflicting 
tremendous damage over all that portion of the flagship. The 
loss of life, too, was enormous in consequence, more than fifty 
being killed or wounded by the disastrous effects of this one 
missile. A fire broke out on the sorely-tried Matsushima, which 
took quite half an hour to extinguish. The Ting Yuen, it was 
simultaneously observed, had again caught fire. 

From first to last Vice-Admiral Ito, Commander of the 
Combined Squadrons, kept his place on the bridge. Yet his 
ship, the Matsushima, suffered most ; the gunners were nearly all 
killed or wounded, their place being supplied by bandsmen. 

The result of the great sea-fight was that the Chao Yang, 
Chih Yuen and King Yuen were sunk ; the YaTig Wei stranded ; 
and the Kwang Chia and Tsi Yuen forced to run off to avoid 
sinking or capture. The remaining vessels, all more or less 
severely battered, steamed off in every direction, only the two 
great iron-clads continuing the combat. Yet the Ting Yuen was 
now wreathed in smoke from the fire on board and was thus in- 
capable of prompt manoeuvring ; while the Clien Yuen which stood 


by to assist her sister-sMp, had a very narrow escape, the Japa- 
nese ceasing to fire only as the light died out in the western 
sky, at which time the GJien Yuen was quite a distance from 
Admiral Ting's flagship. The First Flying Squadron was then 
ordered to give over chasing the fugitives, for it was now 5.30 
p. m. and growing very dark. 

Taking advantage of the gathering dusk, the Chinese fleet — 
or rather what there was left of it — turned southward for Wei- 
hai-wei. To offer to pursue them would only have brought 
confusion upon the Japanese vessels, for the enemy had half-a- 
dozen torpedo-boats and these might have inflicted serious damage 
in the night-time. Moreover the Matsushima was indeed in an evil 
plight, so large a portion of her crew being hors de combat and the 
vessel greatly cut up from stem to stern. It was under the circum- 
stances adjudged best to send the Matsushima back to Japan for re- 
pairs, and the flag of Vice-Admiral Ito was removed to the HasM- 
date. The Japanese Squadrons did what they could to keep a 
course parallel to that followed by the enemy, thinking to renew the 
engagement on the following day. At dawn nothing being visible 
of the Chinese fleet, the Combined Squadrons returned to the 
scene of the preceding day's conflict, passing by Wei-hai-wei en 
route. The Ahagi, which had suffered very serious damage, 
alone returned to the former temporary anchorage for repairs, and 
with the exception of this gun-boat and the Matsushima, which 
had already started for Ujina, the Japanese Fleet was not much 
the worse for the fight of September 17th and quite ready to begin 
again. On reaching the neighbourhood of Haiyang Island, a 
thin line of smoke was seen on the distant horizon ; but, chase 
being given, this shortly faded away and none of the enemy were 
to be seen anywhere. The Chiyoda was then commanded to 
destroy the Yang Wei, which had got into the shallows and was 
aground. This the Chiyoda did with an outrigger torpedo, shat- 
tering the vessel to atoms. The Kwang Chia had, on running off, 
made for Talien Bay, where she had struck a shoal. Being quite 
certain of capture if the vessel remained there, the. Chinese blew 
up their ship, leaving only a few melancholy fragments above 
After blowing the Yarig Wei up, the Chiyoda rejoined the rest 


at the temporary auchorage and naval station. Thither the 
Saikyo Maru and Akagi had already gone. The Hiyei which, it 
will be remembered, had had to steam off on account of the fire 
which raged on board, had come back here to extinguish the 
flames and effect a few most necessary repairs. This done the 
Hiyei had steamed back hoping once more to have a share in the 
fight. She arrived however too late to do this, much to the 
disappointment of her undaunted crew. 

And so the Japanese had not lost a single vessel ; even the 
unarmoured Saikyo was still afloat and ready to try conclusions 
with the enemy at any time. Concerning the great sea-fight most 
contrary reports appeared not only — as might have been expected 
— in the foreign press of China but even in some of the English 
papers published in Japan. The Japanese, it was confidently and 
frequently affirmed, had lost some of their best ships ; or else 
these had been so roughly handled as to be useless in future. 

Not one word of this was true. The narrative we have given 
is literally correct, and from this it will be seen that no one of the 
Japanese vessels was incapable of further fighting; true, the 
Matsushima went back to Ujina to effect repairs, but these were 
promptly finished and the flagship once again at sea. In the 
great attack on Wei-hai-wai, the Matsushima was very prominent. 
The victory of the Japanese was thus not only decisive but even 
overwhelming, the Chinese losing five out of the twelve vessels 
that had taken part in the conflict : three sunk, one blown up, 
and one abandoned by the Chinese themselves. The record is a 
great one for Japan. 



The MatsusJiima was the flagship of the Principal Squadron. 
An eye-witness of the damage done to the gallant ship in her 
desperate fight, reports as follows: — "As we approached the 
noble vessel, we observed a large rectangular hole on the port 
side forward, somewhat above the lower deck. On the upper 
deck on the starboard side, a 12 cent, gun was missing. It was said 
that a shell from one of the enemy's ships had struck the carriage 
and thrown the gun into the sea. Descending to the main deck 
we reached the hole already observed from a distance — a ragged 
tear, about fifteen feet by eight. Here a 12 cent, gun was lying 
bent and distorted, the carriage having been thrown forward a 
distance of at least 20 feet. It was at this place that the largest 
number of fatal casualties had occurred ; for the guns being of 
the quick-firing type, a quantity of ammunition had been stored 
in their immediate vicinity. One of the enemy shells struck here, 
but without exploding. It hit however the cartridge-cases of 
some shells, causing an immediate and terrific explosion. About 
100 officers and men were stationed here, and of these not one 
escaped uninjured, many being killed outright. At the same time 
the deck caught fire and the flames spread with such force and 
rapidity that the upper deck was completely burned through. 
Nevertheless the energy and heroic activity displayed by the 
crew were so great that the conflagration was extinguished in 
about 15 minutes after the outbreak. Most fortunate was it that 
the fire did not extend to the magazine, in close proximity, the 
escape of which is principally attributable to the heroism of the 
recruits who had joined the service in December 1893. One of 
these devoted men stripped himself of his clothing and with them 
kept the flames at bay ; while the other diligently removed all 
inflammable material with the greatest possible speed. The two 
men were repeatedly told to leave this post of deadly peril, as 
there was serious danger of suffocation, yet they refused to heed 
the admonition, declaring their intention to die where they were. 
It may here be stated that the recruits as a body behaved ex- 
ceedingly well. When the order to prepare for action was given, 


mauy of the men hurried down into their quarters. The officers 
feard that some were thus about to play the coward, but these 
apprehensions were speedily removed by the reappearance of the 
men, all arrayed in their best uniforms, thus showing that they 
were determined to conquer or die; for it is a tradition with the 
samurai of Japan that a knight or warrior should be clad in his 
finest raiment at the moment of death. The members of the band 
similarly displayed remarkable courage. When the terrible 
explosion, referred to above, occurred, these noncombatants 
volunteered to fi.ll up the vacancies occasioned among the marines, 
and discharged their unaccustomed duties with a determination 
and bravery that excited the admiration of all. It was indeed 
pleasant to hear the officers recount with pride and gratification 
the plucky behaviour of the men under them." 


The vessel carrying Vice-Admiral Viscount Kabayama on 
the occasion of the famous naval engagement in the Yellow Sea, 
was not originally intended for warlike purposes, being one of the 
mail-steamers belonging to the well-known Steamship Company 
of Japan, the Nippmi Yilsen KivaisJia. But owing to the scarcity 
of transport and despatch vessels in the Japanese navy, she was 
chartered by the Government and temporarily supphed with a 
few guns. The Saikyb Maru, for so she is called, is a sister ship 
of the Kobe Maru ; 387 h. p. and 2913 tons burthen. Although 
thus nothing more than a transport hastily fitted out with guns 
for emergency, the Saikyb played a part by no means inferior to 
that of any man-of-war in the great sea-fight. This fact alone, if 
indeed any proof be needed, is sufficient to show that the Ja- 
panese Navy is not wanting in officers of commanding ability and 
ripe experience. 

On the memorable day of the battle, when the contending 
squadrons of Asia's two greatest and oldest Empires drew within 



3000 metres of each other, the Matsusliima, at 0.23 p. m., 
signalled the Flying Squadron to open fire. For some time th6 
thunderous roar of the great guns seemed to rend the very 
heavens, while the broad surface 
of the sea was covered with rolling 
smoke-clouds. The Saikyo, which 
was then following in the wake of 
the Principal Squadron, was far 
from being an idle witness of the 
scene. Armed with four Q.-F. 
guns, she discharged shell upon 
shell, with deadly precision. At 
first some of her officers felt rather 
uneasy, for the majority of her 
crew were nothing but ordinary 
merchant-seamen. It soon be- 
came manifest, however, that no 
anxiety need be entertained on 
this score ; in fact from beginning 
to end of the battle these sailors 
worked with the intrepid valour 

of veterans. Moreover the Vice-Admiral took personal command 
of the ship and encouraged the men by his words and actions. 
Despite the shower of deady missiles and the deafening noise of 
the combat, not a man lost his presence of mind or left his post. 
The coolness with which each one went about his appointed task, 
the skill displayed by the engineers in their arduous duties, as 
well as the utter disregard of their own personal safety manifest- 
ed by all on board, were quite on a par with these qualities among 
men specially trained or educated for the navy. 

The contest gradually grew fiercer ; still the Saikyo kept on 
her course. Although at first in the rear of the Principal Squadron 
she now steered to port and advanced to attack the enemy. Just 
at this juncture it was noticed that one of the hostile vessels, the 
Chao Yang was on fire, and that three Chinese iron-clads were 
exerting their utmost strength to overpower the two smallest Ja- 
panese men-of-war, the Akagi and Hiyei. It was presently seen 
that the Flying Squadron was veering to the left while the 



Principal Squadron steamed on to the right. A 15 centimetre 
shell, fired from one of the enemy's ironclads, struck the Saikyb 
at this moment. It burst through her wood-work and exploded 
with a fearful crash in the saloon, not more than two yards from 
the engine-room. The saloon was completely wrecked, and very 
great damage done by the same shell to ether parts of the ship. 
iSome commotion was, of course, caused among the inmates of 
the ship by the entrance of this great projectile, but, to the out- 
spoken admiration of all, the Admiral did not exhibit the least 
surprise. Turning with an air of serene indifference to those 
about him he said, "It seems to me that a shell has just entered the 
ship somewhere." Other shots stuck the Saikyb in her hull, 
funnel, and elsewhere. One 15 cent, shell struck the poop, and 
then falling on the after-deck did heavy damage. But embolden- 
ed by the cool and intrepid bearing of the Admiral, the ofiicers 
and men, nothing daunted, redoubled their energy and fought 
with desperate valour. 

At 1.27 p. m. the Saikyb Maru found herself in the space 
between the Principal and Plying Squadrons. The enemy had 
by this time fallen into considerable disorder and continued the 
fight without any definite tactics. Now the Ting Yuen from 
behind, and another Chinese warship, the Kiua7ig Ping, from in 
front, suddenly made for the Saikyb. The reason why they thus 
singled her out for a crushing attack may have been owing 
to an erroneous supposition on their part that she was a transport 
and had actually, at the time, a number of soldiers on board. 
With extreme difficulty but with admirable skill the Saikyb was 
extricated from this imminent peril, and steamed off to the 
starboard of the Principal Squadron. 

Meanwhile the Matsusliima had signalled to the Plying 
Squadron to repair with all speed to the aid of the Hiyei and 
Akagi, both of which were in extremities. At this stage of the 
fight the Saikyb appeared directly in front of the enemy's fleet. 
This was at about 2.22 p. m. The hostile warships, eagerly seiz- 
ing the opportunity, fired their guns in the direction of the Saikyb 
Maru, a 30.5 centimetre shell soon striking her and penetrating 
the ofiicers' messroom, besides severing the steampipe connecting 
with the rudder. The steam steering-gear was thereby rendered 


quite useless. Having thus lost, for the time being, all free 
control of her moYements, the Saikyo became entirely separated 
from the combined Squadrons and, passing between the AJcitsu- 
shima and Nanhua, again neared the Chinese fleet. This once 
more exposed her to the full force of the enemy's fire. Believing 
tackle was used, but, proving very difficult to handle, the ship's 
course kept much the same. Recourse was finally had to the hand- 
wheel, when, obeying the rudder at last, the Saikyo steamed for- 
ward at her highest rate of speed. 

This was the culminating point of the battle, when it was at 
its fiercest. The Saikyo Maru continued to be a target for the 
enemy's big guns. The Fing Yuen and Kwang Ping, accompanied 
by several torpedo-boats, were now seen fast approaching. 
When at a distance of about 3000 metres from her port bow they 
sent forward a torpedo-boat, but before she succeeded in discharg- 
ing a torpedo the Saikyo fired several well-directed shells at her 
adversary, which was thus frightened off, turned about, and even- 
tually disappeared in the dense clouds of smoke enveloping the 
contending fleets. The two attacking war-vessels, however, kept 
steadily advancing until they were with 500 metres' distance of the 
Saikyo's port bow, when they began firing. Moreover, a torpedo- 
boat was again sighted, and this time jast ahead. On reaching a 
proper distance, a torpedo was discharged from the starboard bow 
tube. At the moment the Saikyo, being compelled to answer the 
enemy's fire, had veered to port. But as the torpedo was seen 
coming on, the Saikyo was turned with her bow pointing directly 
for it, at full speed. The recoil of the water from the bow was 
sufficient to make the torpedo deviate by a hair's-breadth ; in 
fact it missed the vessel by only one metre, or even less, passing 
harmlessly by to the starboard. It was the Saikyo s last chance 
and a desperate manoeuvre at best, but none the less successful. 
If it had struck her, she would have been blown to pieces in an 
instant. But another torpedo-boat was now discovered, stealing 
near. It was heading for the Saikyo's starboard quarter, and at a 
distance of not more than 30 metres when caught sight of. No 
possible movement of the helm could take the ship from the 
deadly weapon's path, and every one expected that the last mo- 
ment had come. Vice-Admiral Kabayama, who was standing on 


the bridge with six other officers, saw that nothing could be done. 
Aiter fixing his eyes for a moment on the dreaded boat, he looked 
around with a slight smile and made a humorous remark to his 
officers, as if wholly indifferent to the vessel's extreme peril. 
The second torpedo was then discharged at close range, and as it 
left on its work of death and destruction, the Chinese raised 
shout of triumph and clapped their hands with antioipative joy. 
But for the second time and contrary to all expectation, the 
torpedo failed to hit its mark. Passing under the keel, it re-ap- 
peared floating harmlessly on the waves far to starboard. As 
soon as the situation was realized, every one on the Saikyb raised 
a ringing and prolonged cheer, with a great waving of hats and 
clapping of hands. Four excellent photographic views were taken 
during the engagement. From first to last the Saikyb received her 
full share of the enemy's attentions, very great damage being in- 
flected by the hostile shells. Yet only 11 men were wounded, and 
no one killed. The wounded men moreover all recovered later on. 

How bitter the disappointment of the enemy at the failure of 
the torpedo-attack, is easily imagined. Utterly disconcerted by 
the cheers of the Saikyo's brave crew and her apparently miracul- 
ous invulnerability, thfe attacking Chinese withdrew from the 
unequal contest, and thereafter left their tiny foe unmolested. 
The Saikyo's last great escape occurred at 3.30 p. m. Shaping her 
course to the south, the Saikyb now moved out of the line of 
battle, at last reaching the temporary anchorage in safety, though 
sadly battered and bruised. 

During the hottest part of the engagement Vice-Admiral 
Kabayama, whose daring and bravery were unrivalled on that 
memorable day, stood with six of his officers on the bridge, giving 
orders and inspiring the men with his own invincible spirit. It 
seems that he had been fully prepared for the worst from the 
very outset, and, more than once, when no other course than 
that of dashing in desperation agaiqst the enemy seemed possible, 
the Admiral remained as composed as ever, now looking calmly 
at an approaching torpedo-boat and then turning to his staff to 
crack a joke at the enemy's expense. Although the uniform worn 
by him was begrimed with smoke and powder, yet the Admiral 
never flinched and remained steadfastly at his post of extreme 


danger. Especially admirable was the fact that he had some of 
his officers take photographic views of various phases of the sea- 
fight. Several pictures of unique merit were thus taken in all the 
bustle and excitement of the moment and despite the momentary 
expectation of being sent to the bottom. It should be finally added 
that the officers and men also preserved their usual cheerful 
equanimity- throughout. 

As already noted the " Saucy Saikyo," carried four guns of the 
quick-firing type, Ninety rounds were fired from each of these, or 
hundred and sixty in all. 


After the glorious death of Captain Sakamoto, the command 
of the Akagi fell to Navigating Officer Sato Tetsutaro. He filled 
his post ably and with invincible courage, and though wounded 
directed his ship with the cool skill of a veteran. 

It was not until a number of his comrades-in-arms. Captain 
Sakamoto among the rest, had fallen either killed or wounded, 
that Navigating Officer Sato assumed charge of the little war-ship. 
In the heat of the encounter, he himself was wounded by a shell 
fired from the Lai Yiien. Happily, however, the injury was not a 
mortal one, and after hastily having the wound dressed. Naviga- 
ting Offier Sato again mounted the bridge and actively continued 
giving the necessary orders. 

Endowed by nature with an adventurous and invincible spirit, 
it was ever the gallant officer's ambition to enter the service of 
the navy, and after having gone through the ordinary educational 
course, he matriculated at the Naval College. While here, his 
courage and dauntless bearing y^eie frequent themes for comment 
among his fellow-students. Indeed on more than one occasion 
his friends were compelled to remonstrate with him because of 
his recklessness where personal safety was concerned ; but he 
was not the man to shape his conduct in accordance with the 
opinions of other people. Upon graduating from the Naval 


College, he was ordered to a man-of-war and his first cruise was 
in the Indian Ocean. 

One day, the officers being assembled on deck and chat- 
ting freely with each other, one of them suddenly said : " Well, 
boys, we talk about bravery ; but I wonder if there is any one of 
us who would venture to jump overboard for a swim just now ?" 
As the words left his mouth a huge swell lifted the ship, and it 
seemed as if the dark outlines of a shark were visible. For a 
moment there was no reply, then Lieutenant Sato called out, "I'll 
try, at any rate !" So saying he hastily divested himself of his 
clothing and to the consternation of his fellow-officers, plunged 
over the side. "With ease and skill he swam here and there among 
the surges, then nearing the ship again seized a rope flung him 
and clambered on deck — without having met with any unpleasant 
experience. His reputation for dauntless courage was at once 
established and his comrades thereafter treated him with increas- 
ed respect. 

Endowed with a spirit so high, it is no wonder that Naviga- 
ting Officer Sato is spoken of as one of the heroes of the sea-fight 
of September 17th. 


The Akagi, as we have stated, was tremendously cut up by 
the hostile fire, Lieixt. -Commander Sakamoto being killed while 
on the bridge giving orders and many others either slain outright 
or seriously wounded. Just at the worst moment, the mainmast 
was broken in two by one of the enemy's shells, a number of 
flags being carried away with the mast. Instantly three petty 
officers, Iwano Namisuke foremost, followed by Ueda Jutaro and 
Ikemoto Nobuchika, ran forward with a small mast taken from, 
one of the ship's boats. Careless of the hail of shot and shell, ^ 
the three brave fellows fastened the spar to the stump of the 
broken mast, rigged up a tackle, and soon had a fresh banner 
flying in the breeze. This was done to encourage the men 
fighting so well, and to show the rest of the Fleet that, though 


sadly mauled, the Almgi still had plenty of fight and pluck in her. 
— The incident stands out in fine contrast to the action, or rather 
inaction, of the Tinxj Yuen's crew ; for, when her maintopmast had 
been shot away, so important for signalling purposes, no one 
made the least attempt to repair the damage, the resulting con- 
fusion among the other Chinese vessels being fatal to any hopes 
of victory. 

* » * 

* * * 

Isobe Ichijiro, a third-class engineer, was on the lower deck 
of the Akagi when a shell entered the engine-room and did much 
damage, four men being killed outright, while one other was 
severely wounded. Particularly the steam-pipe connecting with 
one of the boilers was severed, and hissing volumes of hot» 
blinding steam began to fill the room, hiding everything from 
view. Isobe, who was fortunately uninjured, ran at once for the 
Chief Engineer ; but meeting with Iwano Namisuke — already 
referred to — the two came back together. Breaking open a port, 
Isobe soon fetched a blanket, with which he sprang into the 
steam, expecting nothing else than death. Getting near the 
damaged pipe, he rapidly and skilfully fastened the blanket about 
it, stopping the escaping steam and preventing the speed of the 
vessel from lessening. Thanks to this timely act, the Akagi 
successfully ran the gauntlet of her enemies. 


At one moment a shell entered the officers' messroom on the 
Hiyei, temporarily converted into the surgeon's ward, and either 
killed or wounded the whole medical staff. Dead or horribly 
injured men were lying in every direction. Some of the wounded 
were calling for aid, but there was none left to treat their injuries 
intelligently and the situation was a desperate one. From among 
a number of corpses on one side a faint groan was now heard ; 
there was a movement, and then a horrible-looking man rose 
unsteadily to his feet. The hair of his head and eyebrows had 
been burnt off; his face so torn and bruised that it was no longer 


recognisable. Yet fearing that no one but himself was left alive 
to look after the wounded, the dreadfully injured man staggered 
to his feet, and began speaking in husky tones to those who had 
now come into the room. This was Miyashita Sukejiro, a medical 
attendant of the first-class. That medicine, he said, was over 
there ; of this not much was left, so please to be careful in using 
it, and so on. He was going on with his injunctions when Lieut. - 
Commander Sakamoto Toshiatsu, who had come into the ward, 
noticed the man's terrible condition. The latter continued 
speaking and even tried to render some assistance, when the 
Lieut. -Commander cried, " Sukejiro, your words and bearing show 
you to be a truly valiant man. I now know what a loyal subject 
you are of our Emperor. Even should you die I will see that 
every one shall remember your stor3^" On hearing these en- 
couraging words, the almost blinded hero replied with a sad 
smile, "Are you the Stafi'-Commander ? As you see, I have been 
badly wounded by that shell. I am not at all unwilling to die, 
but I am quite dissatisfied with the fact that my hands and feet 
refuse to do my bidding and that I cannot therefore do my 
duty." His clenched teeth and quick gasping showed plainly 
how much he must be suffering. Of course his Commander would 
not let the brave fellow attempt to do anything more, and he was 
at once removed. It is pleasant to narrate in conclusion that 
Miyashita thereafter fully recovered at the Saseho Naval Hospi- 
tal, and is now once again at his post. 


Chief Suegeon or Medical Inspector of the Combined Fleet, 
during the action, was Dr. Kawamura Hoshii. He was on board 
the Matsusldma, the flagship, and did yeoman's service on this 
great day. Together with his assistants Dr. Kawamura was 
tending the numerous wounded in the surgery, when, without a 
moment's warning, a shell from the CAere Yuen pierced the Matsu- 
sMma's bow and struck the 12 centimetre gun on the lower deck 
battery. A tremendous explosion ensued, with a thunderous 



crash of iron and steel, the gun being completely shattered. The 
floor of the surgery was crushed in, • and Dr. Kawamura thrown 
with fearful force against the ceiling. Losing consciousness for a 
while, the severely injured man gradually regained his senses to 
find that he could no longer stand, 
his whole body still trembling vio- 
lently from the wound and shock 
he had received. He made shift to 
crawl from out the wrecked surgery 
and then met .with a marine, who 
lifted him up and endeavoured to 
carry him to a place of compara- 
tive safety. After the marine had 
proceeded a few paces, the Doc- 
tor asked, "Aren't you a gunner?" 
" Yes, Sir," was the reply. "Then 
why are you not at your post?" 
was the unexpected rejoinder; 
" let me down at once and go to 
your post. There are bthers 
detailed for attendance on the 
wounded." "But, Sir," expostulat- 
ed the gunner, " the gun which I serve has been shattered by a 
shell from the Chen Yuen." "I thank you for your well-meant 
intentions," the Doctor now said firmly, "but you need not 
attend to the wounded without special orders to that effect. I do 
not need your help." The gunner thereupon placed the wounded 
man on the deck and went his way, while the Doctor tried to 
remove his own shoes, his legs being severely injured. He faint- 
ed again while attempting to do this. An attendant then came 
up, took off the Doctor's shoes and socks and carried him into 
the Captain's room, now become the surgery. Calling for a 
bucket of sea-water, the Doctor dipped his feet in it to stop the 
lisemorrhage and then, despite his great pain and loss of blood, 
continued directing the surgeons in attendance on the wounded. 

Medical Inspectoe Kawamura. 



As lias already been noted, the two most powerful vessels in 
the Chinese fleet engaged in the fight were the iron-clads Ting 
Yuen and Chen Yuen, far superior in tonnage and armature to any 
one ship in the Japanese Navy. These two iron-clads were there- 
fore the objects of general solicitude to both officers and men, the 
greatest efforts being made to render them liors de combat. One 
of them bore, after the battle was over, the marks of no less than 
three hundred missiles : proving how accurate had been the aim 
and how great the vigour of the attacking Japanese war-ships. 
In connection with this burning desire to either sink or cause the 
two iron-clads to surrender, the Commander of the 3Iatsushima, 
the flag-ship, reports that a marine who had received no 
less than ten wounds and whose face was a mass of horrible burns 
from the conflagration that had broken out on board, happened to 
arrest the attention of Captain Mukoyama. The man was evident- 
ly dying, yet seemed eager to speak to his Commander. Bending 
to catch the faintly whispered words, the Captain was surprised 
to hear the question, " Has the Ting Yuen sunk yet?" Stirred to 
noble pity and admiration, the officer replied : " Do not be con- 
cerned ; the Ting Yuen is disabled and we are now about to attack 
the C/tera Yuen." On hearing these words the dying hero smiled. 
" Be avenged on her !" cried he, and breathed his last. That is 

the spirit which wins battles ! 

* * * 

* * * 

A similar instance was recorded simultaneously on the 
Aleagi. Hashiguchi Tojuro, a seaman, had been mortally wounded 
and was at his last gasp. Turning with an effort to an officer 
standing near he put the question, "Has the Ting Yu&ii been 
sunk yet?" And on being told that the iron-clad was badly injured 
and on fire, the man exclaimed, " We have her at last !" and died. 

Among the many incidents recorded of heroism on the part of 


the Japanese seamen, liere is one of exceptional interest. It was 
at the hottest moment of the conflict that a petty officer belong- 
ing to one of the smaller Japanese ships of war, was struck in the 
chest by a fragment of an exploded shell. This occurred just as 
the officer had mounted the railing in order to carry out a com- 
mand, and the force of the blow was so great that he fell into the 
sea. In a few seconds thereafter the head of the desperately- 
wounded, man was seen to rise once more and for the last time 
above the waves, when, with all his fast-failing strength, the 
dying hero cried out "Nippon Banzai! Japan for ever!" and then 
sank, to be seen no more. 


While instances of individual heroism in this great fight are 
numerous, the subjoined is almost if not quite without parallel. 
The Itsukushima which was exposed to a very heavy fire 
throughout the engagement, was struck by a shell which burst 
between decks and fatally wounded one of the crew at work in the 
room where the torpedo-tubes were kept. A piece of shell struck 
him in the breast, piercing the lungs, whence a crimson flood im- 
mediately began to flow. Death was inevitable and at hand ; yet 
witJi calm courage the wounded man took a key from his pocket 
and while holding it in his left hand waved his right to attract the 
attention of his companions. On one of them coming to him, the 
dying man said, with distinct utterance, — " This is the key of the 
tool-chest. If, after I am gone, this key could not be found, 
great confusion would surely ensue. I beg therefore that you will 
give this key to the officer entrusted with the charge of the chest." 
His voice had grown gradually fainter during the delivery of this 
message, and he died as the last word fell from his lips, whence 
no sob or moan had come. 

The hero's name was Yanagiwara Kujiird, and he was a 
native of Funimitsu village. Wake District, Prefecture of Ehime. 
He was only 29 years of age, and served on board the Itsukushima 
in the capacity of an armorer of the third class. 



In her third direct, assault on the enemy, the Matsushima 
approached the Ting Yuen, the latter bearing down upon her at 
full speed. For this reason rapid preparations were made for the 
discharge of a torpedo from the Matsushima' s port quarter, and so 
all those having duty in this part of the vessel were quickly at 
their posts. Among the rest was Kitamura Tsunekichi, a sailor 
of the second-class. While waiting for the Ting Yuen to come 
within the proper distance, at 2.34 p. m., a 26 centimetre shell 
from the fore-turret of the Ting Yuen penetrated into the 3fatsu- 
sJiima's port torpedo- chamber, whence it glanced off, striking 
her barbette and giving the whole ship a tremendous shock. A 
most pestilent vapour, at the same time, exuded from the torpedo- 
room, and a cry of agony was audible. A marine crawled to the 
scene of the disaster and there found Kitamura, whose leg had 
been torn off by the shell. He did what he could to stop the 
haemorrhage, but the gush of blood was so great that the bandage 
slipped off. A surgical attendant was then summoned, who might 
treat the case intelligently ; but when he came Kitamura gasped 
out, — "Don't trouble yourself about me. Thrust your dirk into 
my body and throw me overboard ! This is the best thing you 
can do." His ,one idea was thus to let the medical assistant go 
to other men whose lives might still be saved : liis own death 
being unavoidable. Such spirit is deserving of laudatory record. 


Another instance of heroic devotion to duty ! Kimura Ku- 
mazo was the name of a bugler attached to the Fiiso. While 
in the very act of blowing, a fragment of an exploded shell struck 
him on the right side of the abdomen, inflicting a dangerous and 
most painful wound. Nothing daunted, Kumazo extracted the 
piece of jagged iron with his own hand and kept to his post. 
Presently a surgeon's assistant approached him, noticing his 


blood-stained uniform, and tried to bandage the wound, at the 
same time urging the injured man to go to the surgeon's ward. 
But the gallant bugler refused to do this ; he thanked the as- 
sistant for his kind attentions yet insisted that it was his duty to 
blow the various signals until his strength utterly fail him. 
Shortly afterwards, most unfortunately, another shell struck his 
head from behind, killing him on the spot. 


We have already told of the many hairbreadth escapes of the 
Saikyb Maru, as well as of the manner in which she was riddled 
by the shot of her infuriated foes. Strange to say, not one life 
was lost on board, despite the furious bombardment. Stay, — ^ 
there was one casualty. When the two great Chinese iron-clads 
were closing upon their pj'-gmy adversary, one of the 30 centi- 
metre guns of the Ting Yuen threw a shell into the Saihyos 
saloon. It burst there with a frightful din and crash, causing 
scores of terrified rats to scamper out of their holes and rush 
frantically in search of less noisy quarters. Sad to narrate, one 
of these rats was struck by a splinter of shell and thus killed in 
the full flush of his youthful vigour. This was the only loss of 
life recorded on board the Saikyb Maru, despite her having been 
so long exposed to the hottest fire of the enemy and the attacks 
of their torpedoes. Eather small game to bag with a gun of 30 
tons ! 


A most graphic and vivid description of the behaviour of the 
the MatsusMma in this notable sea-fight, is given by Naval Lieu- 
tenant Kimura Kokichi, to whose ready pen we are indebted for 
the following data. Lieutenant Kimura was, it should be stated, 
on board the Matsusliima at the time, so was an eye-witness as 


■well as partaker in the scenes he so excellently portrays : — "Even 
at the most critical moment of the conflict no one was at all dismay- 
ed or discouraged ; the gunners, despite such great loss of life in 
their ranks, stood without flinching by their great weapons, load- 
ing and firing without confusion and with all the steadiness of a 
parade. Some hold that there is always the temptation to overdo 
the firing with Q.-F. guns ; but the Japanese in this engagement 
surely did not do this, for they never fired at the enemy until the 
aim was certain, and this even when a hostile vessel was quite 
close. Moreover after firing the cartridges were, despite the 
great peril, carefully picked up in order to go afterwards to the 
smith. They were neatly piled in out-of-the-way places and 
never tossed overboard, much to the gratification of the officers. 
It is also claimed that we made too little use of the great 32 
centimetre guns ; but the men entrusted with their handling were 
the best and most skilful gunners we had on board. If therefore 
they did not use the guns very often, this is only owing to the 

lack of proper opportunities for their use." "Some 

minutes before the conflict actually began," continues Lieutenant 
Kimura, "the Second Captain, Commander Mukoyama Shinkichi, 
summoned all the officers into the principal wardroom and address- 
ed them in the following words : — ' I fear that, during the course 
of the fight, our men may lose heart at the sight of their comrades. 
You had therefore better see that all dead bodies are quickly 
taken to the bathrooms, where they will be out of sight.' To 
this proposition all present consented. But after the fight had 
well begun the shells came thick and fast, causing many deaths 
and more severe wounds. There were so many fatal casualties 
that the corpses could not be carried below. Instead of being 
at all intimidated by this, the survivors at once stepped into the 
places of the fallen, even before any command to this effect could 
be given. The firing was never for a moment permitted to 
slacken. Even the non-combatants were stirred by the noble 
ardour of the fighting men, and begged for permission to join 
them. One man who had been shot in the abdomen and whose 
intestines were protruding from the gaping wounds, refused to 
be carried to the surgeon's ward, because, he said, he did not 
want to take any of the fighters from their work in order to carry 


him below. Another, after having had his body burnt out of all 
recognition in attempting to extinguish a fire, stood by helping all he 
could till the flames were put out, when he died. A third, mortal- 
ly wounded, man, whose every gasp brought forth a gush of 
blood, would not close his eyes until he had told a comrade where 
the key of an important locker was and what the locker contain- 
ed. A chief gunner, whose under- jaw had been shot away and 
who could, of course, not utter a word, signed to a subordinate 
with a nod to take his place, and fell dead after he had placed 
the handle of the gun-lever in his subordinate's hand. But such 
instances of heroism were not confined to the Matsushima : they 
were repeated time and time agaia on every ship taking part in 
the conflict." 


It is a fact which certainly deserves to be recorded that, even 
while engaged in actual hostilities with the enemy, the most 
rigid discipline and perfect order were preserved on the war-ships 
of the Japanese Fleet. There was not the slightest difference in 
regard to the observance of the ordinary rules and regulations : 
every one did his appointed duty without hesitation and without 
blundering. Whether in bringing up powder and ammunition, in 
adjusting the gans, in caring for the wounded, or in effecting 
temporary and needed repairs, no disorder was apparent. Every- 
thing went like clock-work. Even in such minor matters as 
cleaning or flushing the decks, personal cleanliness, the taking 
of meals, changing of watches, etc., there was not the slightest 
deviation from the regulations of every day. In a word with the 
sole exception of the observance of a time for recreation — an im- 
possibility under the circumstances, — all proceeded as orderly as 
on occasions of ordinary drill. Whenever the seamen's time was 
not busily employed, some officer would read aloud to them the 
latest Imperial Rescript or exhort them to do their duty as loyal 
and patriotic sons of Japan. There was not a single instance of 


cowardice or insubordination. All strove with equal and unflag- 
ging ardor to do their duty at all times and under all circumstan- 
ces. What higher praise could be bestowed on these brave men ? 
The old battle-song of England might well be applied to these 
gallant sailors : — 

Hearts of oak are our ships, 

Hearts of oak are our men ! 

We always are ready — 

Steady, boys, steady ! — 

We'll fight and we'll conquer. 

Again and again. 

(,Trauslaied from a printed report.) 

If we compare the relative strength of the contending 
Squadrons "engaged in the great Battle of the Yellow Sea, we 
shall find that whereas the Chinese possessed twelve ships of 
war, besides four torpedo-boats — all of which belonged to the 
celebrated Northern or Peiyang Fleet — our two Squadrons 
were composed of only twelve men-of-war, including the SaiJcyo 
Maru — a mail-steamer and of course unarmored — without a single 
torpedo-boat. But not only in number of ships was the Chinese 
fleet far superior : even in the matters of tonnage and armament 
the advantage lay distinctly with tlie enemy. The Chinese had 
such iron-clads (barbette ships) as the Ting Yuen, C/ien Yuen, 
King Yuen and Lai Yuen and Ping Yuen, the two first-named 
having each more than 3,000 tons greater displacement than 
any of the Japanese vessels. With the exception of one iron- 
clad corvette, the .Fusu, whose speed (12 knots) was less than 
that of any of the Chinese war-ships, all the Japanese vessels 
were either cruisers, gunboats, or coast-defence ships. Despite 
this glaring disparity our ships fought with desperate valour for 
nearly five loog hours on that bright September day. During 
this time we sank three of the enemy : the Oliao Yang (cruiser, 
1,350 tons, 16f knots speed) ; the Kijig Yuen (iron-clad, 2,850 


tons, 16|- knots) ; and the CMh Yiten (cruiser, 2,300 tons, 18 knots). 
Three were set on fire : the Ting Ytien (iron-clad, 7,430 tons, 
14|^ knots): Lai Yven (iron-clad, 2,850 tons, 16|- knots, sister to 
the King Yuen); and the Kiuang Chia (cruiser, 1,296 tons, 14f 
knots). This ship stranded on a reef near Talien Bay and was 
destroyed by her own crew. The remaining vessels of the Chinese 
fleet took to flight and Avere driven from the yicinity of Haiyang 
Island into the Gulf of Peehili, where they sought refuge at Wei- 
hai-wei. We remained in possession of Haiyang and the neigh- 
bouring islands. And all this without losing a single ship of our 
own — not even the little wooden mail-steamer ! The MatsusJiimUj 
Hiyei and Akagi were much battered, yet well able to fight despite 
their injuries. 

Thus with a greatly inferior force we destroyed nearly the, 
whole Peiyang Squadron, once the terror of the Eastern Seas, 
and humbled the pride of the Chinese Colossus. 

The world-renowned battle of Trafalgar, where Lord Nelson 
won immortal fame, was fought before iron-clad's or steam-vessels ' 
were even dreamed of. AH th« ships that took part in that 
wonderful engagement were like the invincible Victory: wooden 
sailing-vessels. Since that day little le^s than a century has 
passed by. During this time the world has witnessed more than 
one desperate naval encounter ; but in none of these were fish- 
torpedoes used nor did so many as ten ships on each side take 
part in any action. The Naval Battle of Haiyang was thus on a 
gigantic scale : undoubtedly the greatest action since the inven- 
tion of modern pow;erful and deadly engines of war. The battle 
was conducted on strictly scientific principles, as formulated by 
the genius of science, and in accordance with the most modern 
rules of warfare. It took place in Asiatic waters, was waged between 
the two great Empires of the Orient — and that in this greatest of 
scientific encounters victory rested with the arms of Japan, sheds 
an undying lustre on the Japanese Navy, fighting against so 
great odds. Japan has thus shown herself by actual prowess to 
be a nation that can no longer be slighted, and fully entitled to 
take not only the foremost rank among the powers of the East 
but also to hold a superior position among the Great Powers of 
the West. 



After the battle was over and the enemy in full flight for 
Wei-hai-wei, the clouds of smoke soon disappeared, the sea once 
more grew calm and still, and despite the growing dusk the 
atmosphere was clear and pure. The officers of each vessel 
gathered on the quarter-decks, their hearts filled with joy, and 
congratulated their lion-hearted captains. Looking towards the 
eastern horizon, where Japan lay far away, the whole fleet burst 
into a joyous song, the sonorous strains of the nation-aj anthem, 
Kimi ga yo, resounding far and wide over the peaceful sea, 
while the band of the Matsusliima played the melody in unison 
with that glorious outburst of song. Suddenly in the still air was 
heard the sound of flapping wings, and, looking up, a fine falcon 
was . seen to alight on the right of the main-topsail yard-arm of 
the Takachiho. Nomoto Gunzayemon, a second-class petty 
officer, at once sprang up the rigging, hoping to catch the noble 
bird. Evincing not the least perturbation, the falcon allowed the 
sailor to approach and seize it ; and with the bird on his wrist 
Nomoto descended, greeted as he reached the deck with loud cries 
of " Heaven's Messenger !" The ship's carpenter at once made a 
roomy cage for the falcon, which seemed quite content with its 
surroundings and soon became tame. The cage was hung in the 
captain's cabin, and the propitious occupant treated daily to all 
sorts of dainties, rats being the food he particularly affected. 
On Naval Commander Saito, a Court Chamberlain, coming, a few 
days later, with the the Imperial thanks to the Fleet, the falcon 
was sent back in the Chamberlain's charge to Japan and pre- 
sented to H. M. the Emperor. His Majesty gave the bird the 
name of Takachiho, in remembrance of the good ship, and the 
falcon has since lived in the finest and roomiest of cages in the 
Imperial Aviary at Shinjuku, Tokyo. 

It must be noted, in conclusion, that the falcon has since 
ancient times been considered a messenger of good fortune in 
Japan. Baron Ito Miyoji later on wrote a most interesting essay 
on the subject. 




The total losses ou the Japanese vessels during this memora- 
ble sea-fight, were as follow: — 



Officers Men 












SaiJcyo 3Iaru 

Grand Total 







10 107 

Officers Men 

— 9 

— 2 

— 10 

— 56 

1 11 

— 9 

— 33 

2 8 
2 12 
1 10 

6 160 



Afteb their crushing defeat at Phyongyang, the Chinese 
hastened towards the borderland between Korea and Chinese 
Manchuria, intending, in the following month, to cross over into 
their own territory and there defend themselves as best they 
might, for it was no longer possible for them to assume an 
offensive attitude. On September 23rd Major-General Tatsumi 
was sent from the First Army Corps in command of the Combined 
(Tenth) Brigade, in order to ascertain the exact whereabouts of 
the enemy and drive them on to the Manchurian frontier if need 
be. On October 6th the Advance Column of this Brigade reached 
Wiju, 125 miles from Phyongyang, close to the Eiver Talu, 
which here forms a natural boundary between the Korean King- 
dom and its colossal would-be suzerain. Twelve days later the 
military telegraph and the commissariat transport line of com- 
munication were completed between Wiju and the fallen strong- 
hold. The Head Quarters of the Fifth Division, consisting of the 
Ninth Brigade (Eleventh and Twenty-first Begiments) under the 
command of Lieutenant-General Nozu, pushed on to Chonju 
(October 6th) and Kasan ; while the Third Division, under Lieut.- 
Oeneral Katsura, with the Fifth Brigade (Sixth and Eighteenth 
Eegiments) and Third Cavalry Battalion, encamped near Wiju, 
the Artillery Reserve halting at Chonju (58^ miles from Phyong- 
yang). The total forces rendezvoused at Wiju on October 24:th, 
Commander-in-Chief Marshal Yamagata having reached the town 
on the previous day. 



Kiulien-ching is a strongly fortified town situated on the right 
bank of the Yalu Biver — the stream being several hundred metres 
broad — and the whole ground thereabouts is admirably adapted 
for the repulsion of an invading foe. It is quite probable that the 
Chinese deemed the place impregnable, for they had established 
their Head Quarters in the town. The line of defence faced 
the Yalu, while on the right it had been carried on to Antung 
and on the left, to Hushan, literally " Tiger Mountain " — a 
hill close by Kiulien-ching — and Litseyuen. Between Hushan 
and Litseyuen flows the river Ngaeho, which is a tributary 
of the Yalu. Along the bank of the latter the line of defence 
stretched for a great dis- 
tance and was strength- 
ened by over one hun- 
dred redoubts and earth- 
works, which bristled 
with cannon. Moreover 
on the high ground and 
among the hills, moun- 
tain and field guns were 
posted in prominent posi- 
tions, commanding the 
approaches; .while in the 
lowland mines were sunk 
here and there. Large 
troops of Infantry and 
Cavalry were guard at 
Ohangtien-ching, and the 
Main Body of the Chinese 
Army was at Hushan, 
surrounded by eighteen 
posts or minor encamp- 
ments The whole was I^ield-Maeshal Count Yamagata, Commandeii- 
T , 1 T . I. , in-Chief or the Fiest Aemt. 

under the cmei command 

of General Sung Kiang, who had studied military science in 
Europe and was held in great esteem by his officers and the 
Chinese in general. His immediate" subordinates were Sieh Shi- 
(Shong, Liu Ping-yuan and Suen Shien-j'ing. The troops were of a 


better class and all had liad more or less training. The whole 
forces were divided into 49 camps or bodies, numbering about 
24,500 men. 

Field-Marshal Yamagata intended to storm Hushan first, 
and it was his idea to do this as quickly as possible in order to 
scatter the Chinese forces, upon whom a great defeat at this point 
would be sure to have tremendous influence. He sent an order to 
this effect to Colonel Sato Tadashi on the night of October 23rd ; 
and this gallant officer set out the same night, in the direction of 
Shuikau-ching, with six Companies of the 18th Regiment, a small 
body of Cavalry, and two cannon. It was the Colonel's plan to 
ford the Yalu at Litseyuen and thence reaching the rear of the 
enemy's left flank at Hushan, make a feint in front while delivering 
the real attack on the left — Napoleon's old successful tactics. 
The 25th was the day appointed for the attack. 

Other bodies of the Japanese army were then told off in 
various directions, the general orders being given to the officers 
on the 24th. At about an hour before noon of the same day. 
Colonel Sato's Column forded the Yalu, at a place about 3000 
metres from Shuikau-ching. The opposite bank was crowded 
with Wulung (Oula) Cavalry, but the Japanese easily settled 
with these. When the Column had reached midstream, the guns 
of the Kulo-tse forts opened fire on the intrepid men, as did also 
those placed at the mouth of the River Anping, another small 
tributary of the Yalu. This did not, however, in any way deter 
the steady advance of the Japanese; nor did the threatening 
attitude and fire of some 200 Chuntse soldiers and 60 Amoor 
cavalrymen, on the now near bank, strike excessive fear into the 
hears of Colonel Sato's men. On getting within 600 metres of the 
bold defenders of the stream, the latter promptly ran off, as if in 
a panic, leaving some 20 killed and wounded behind them in 
proof of the accuracy of Japanese markmanship. The whole 
Column had passed over the stream at 1.30 p. m., whereupon the 
capture of the redoubts at the mouth of the Anping was soon 
effected, the spoils consisting of two field-guns, a number of 
rifles, ammunition, tents, and a large quantity of most acceptable 
sheepskin coats, besides various other articles of clothing. Only 
one man was wounded on the Japanese side. News of the victory. 


was at once sent back to Head-Quarters, and Colonel Sato's 
Column then bivouacked near the foot of the hills some three miles 
distant from the Talu. 

In order now to proceed with the attack upon Hushan, it was 
necessary for the invaders to cross the stream at Wiju, where 
the Yalu may not be forded. For this reason the Fifth Engineer 
Battalion had, since the 12th of the month, been surveying the 
river and making preparations for bridging it. On October 24th 
everything was in readiness, and the engineers were ordered to 
have the pontoon thrown across the stream by 4 a. m. of the 
following day. This military bridge was made of small and light 
pine-wood boats built on the spot, as well as of other, iron, boats 
which had been brought up by the Third Division. The Engineer 
Corps began their arduous work at 9 p. m. on the 24th, complet- 
ing it, after encountering enormous difficulties, by six o'clock the 
next morning, or in just nine hours. The Yalu is here sub-divid- 
ed into three streams, the first and third being fordable while the 
second is a deep and rapid current. Major of Engineers Baba 
Masao had just begun building the 190 metres long bridge at 
this point, when an Infantry Battalion under Major Tomita Ha- 
rukabe came up to render assistance if necessary and protect the 
men at work should the enemy try to obstruct their operations. 
This reinforcement at once began to throw up earthworks on the 
islet in midstream — a muddy flat — as well as on the right bank. 
But the enemy remained in ignorance of what the Japanese were 
doing, and the pontoon was completed only two hours later than 
the appointed time — 4 a. m., for that was the hour at which 
general orders appointed that it should be finished, — the whole 
work being under the personal supervision and direction of 
Colonel Yabuki Shuichi. 

At 3.30 a. m. the difierent columns broke camp and advanced 
to their appointed place on the left bank, each Commander being 
exactly aware of what he was to do and where to go, so there was 
not the least confusion. Major-General Osako Naotoshi, with 
his Column, crossed the Yalu in boats at a place some little 
distance from the pontoon, and north of Hushan. Having done 
this, the Column marched on to a hill east of Hushan, whence 
it was intended to deliver a flank attack. A little after 6 a. m. 


(October 25th), Lieut-General Katsura crossed the pontoon 
with his men, who had been eagerly awaiting the completion of 
the bridge for nearly two hours. This was the Main Body, and 
their duty was to attack Hushan from the front. Some tentative 
shots were now fired by the Japanese field-guns in the direction 
of the Chinese encampment, but no reply was forthcoming. 
Clouds of powder-smoke were then seen rising from between 
the hills north of Hushan, the Osako Column having already 
begun the flank attack. Taken utterly by surprised, the Chinese 
swung around to meet the invaders on their flank, and it was 
for this reason that no reply was made to the artillery fire near 
the pontoon. As soon as this smoke was seen, the Main 
Column deployed, bringing its Eight Wing to the attack, the 
northern end of Hushan being the objective. Here the Japa- 
nese Artillery proved very effective, quite demoralising the 
enemy in fact, who were thus between two fierce fires. The 
assault growing more and more bitter, the Chinese began to 
retreat, despite their superiority of numbers, and the fugitives 
took the direction of Litseyuen. Seeing the discomfiture of their 
comrades, four Columns (about 3000 men) of the enemy, with 
eight cannon, now made a sortie from Kiulien-ching. In order to 
check the advance of this reinforcement, the Eight Wing of the 
Main Column tried to get around to the southern end of Hushan, 
but this was impossible owing to their numerical inferiority. 

The Brigade under Major-General Tatsumi, forming the 
Japanese Left Wing, had, in the meantime, crossed the pontoon 
at 7 a. m., and were marching at double-quick around to the left 
of Hushan, in order to render assistance to the Main Column, 
when they espied the approaching Chinese reinforcement. 
Swinging round to the left, they attacked the reinforcement in the 
flank, causing great havoc. A sharp but short struggle ensued, 
the enemy ultimately relinquishing all attempt to get near the 
hill and fleeing in disorder along the Litseyuen road. This 
troublesome reinforcement having thus been beaten back, Major- 
General Tatsumi's Brigade now advanced to storm the forts south 
of Hushan, and when the enemy showed signs of wavering the 
Katsura and Osako Columns simultaneously charged upon the 
disheartened Chinese. It was a case of sauve qui pent. The enemy 


first tried to get back to Kiulien-clung, but tlie pursuit being too 
hot finally struck off to the west, taking the hidden pass among 
the hills leading to Funghwang-ching. They had, however, not 
done with the disasters of the day, for Major-General Tatsumi 
followed on their heels and reached the Chinese camps only 2200 
metres from Litseyuen, where 10 guns and more than 400 tents 
fell into the hands of the victorious Column. It was now high 
noon and a halt was ordered, Major-General Tatsumi giving his 
men a well-earned rest. 

The Head-Quarters at Tungkungting, Wiju, were removed 
the same day, with the Staff of the Fifth Division, to the north- 
east of Hushan, the pontoon being crossed for the last time at 1 
p. m. The General Quarters of the Third Division were placed 
at Litseyuen, while the Advance Column of the Fifth Division 
bivouacked near the village. On October 26th the attack was to 
be continued. During the foregoing night the enemy had con- 
stantly fired at the Japanese camps, without, however, doing much 
damage and failing to elicit any response whatever from the in- 
vaders. Kiulien-ching though in imminent peril, was still in the 
hands of the Chinese, and it was of the first importance that this 
place should be captured. So at 4.30 a. m. (October 26th) the 
Third Division advanced towards Hushan from the right ; Major- 
Oeneral Tatsumi's Brigade went from the centre ; while that of 
Major-General Oshima marched from the left. Somewhat to the 
surprise of the Japanese, there was no firing from the massive 
walls of the town. The Eleventh Infantry Eegiment now scaled 
the walls and entered Kiulien-ching, but only to find the place com- 
pletely deserted. It was thus evident that the Chinese garrison, 
which might have infiicted great damage on the hostile army from 
behind those battlements of solid masonry, had silently decamped 
during the night in small bodies, keeping up a desultory fire in 
the meantime in order to encourage the belief that they intended 
to retain possession of the stronghold. The Fifth Division then 
marched into the town in force, while a body of Cavalry was des- 
patched towards Funghwang-ching and Tatung in order to ex- 
pedite the retreat of the enemy or rather cut them off from safety; 
but the latter had got too great a start and were able to elude the 
pursuing horsemen. 



At ten o'clock in the forenoon Marshal Tamagata, Com- 
mander-in-Chief, entered the bourg, followed by the Staff officers 
of the Divisions and Brigades. The former Custom House was 
converted into Head-Quarters and the national flag of Japan soon 
seen flying above it. But the victory had to be followed up, and 
that promptly. Funghwang-ching and Antung must be taken 
while the enemy were disheartened and in disorder. Marshal Ta- 
magata therefore despatched a flying Column southward, following 
the right bank of the Talu, which should surprise Antung and 
the surrounding forts. These kindly intentions were, however, 
frustrated by the discreet Chinese, who fled during the night, 
leaving Antung and the numerous redoubts thereabouts an easy 
prey for the invaders. As for Funghwang-ching — a very impor- 
tant walled town, about 24 miles distant from Kiulien-ching and 
on the Moukden highroad — the honour of its capture was delega- 
ted to the Tatsumi Brigade. After sundry necessary preparations 

the Column set out, but when 
the advance body of Cavalry 
reached the place they found 
that the larger part of the 
town had been reduced to 
ashes. This was on October 
29th. The following day the 
Cavalry Battalion attached 
to the Fifth Division entered 
the dismantled stronghold, 
while Major-General Tatsumi 
took up his quarters in the 
castle on the 31st. According 
to what was said by some 
prisoners taken near the 
town, the Chinese Army 
had fled towards Takushan. 
The total Japanese losses 
on Hushan and at Kiulien- 
ching amounted to 140 killed 
and wounded. On the other had the Japanese buried nearly 500 
Chinese corpses found on the field, while many others were seen 


(the Hero at the Kide acrpss Asia). 



floating among the cold ripples of the Ngaeho. The spoils taken 

were as follow : — 

Cannon 66 

Eifles 3300 

Shells 35,000 

Ground-torpedoes 450 

Small-arm Ammunition 3,700,000 rounds 
Cleaned Kice 1470 Icohu* 

UnhuUed Kice 245|^ hoku 

With regard to Antung, it must be noted that this town was 

later on made the head-quarters of the Civil Administrative 

Office of that part of Manchuria occupied by the Japanese Army. 

Mr. Komura, sometime Charge d' Affaires at Peking, was iastalled 

as Director, but was subsequently relieved by Lieut. -Colonel 


The Commissabiat Stapt of the First Abmt at the Quakteks in Wijit 

*One fcofcu is a little more than four bushels EngHsh. 



It was on October 25t]i that the First Expeditionary Army 
crossed the Yalu and entered Chinese territory. Among the men 
of the Third Company, 6th Regiment, was a private of the first- 
class, named Isobe Kiiclii. The Company crossed the river and 
then lay concealed in the shallows in midstream. Just at dawn 
the attack on Hushan was made, the enemy taking a position of 
advantage on the ridge of the hill. Firing at first scattered 
volleys, the Chinese at last began a continuous discharge of their 
rifles, in. spite of which the Japanese steadily crept nearer untU. 
not more than 100 metres separated them from the foe. The 
firing now rose to murderous intensity, thirty Japanese dropping 
either dead or severely wounded at this spot, and the men were 
not a little disheartened. Isobe, noticing this, cried out : " Their 
bullets are flying over our heads ! Don't be afraid, but aim low, 
at the feet of the enemy ! Aim low !" With the utmost coolness 
Isobe advanced, firing with admirable precision, his steady 
bearing having a most beneficial efliect on the rest. At last a well- 
aimed bullet from his rifle brought down the enemy's standard. 
A few minutes later the men were ordered to make a bayonet- 
charge, and Isobe ran ahead of the others shouting " Long live 
His Imperial Majesty ! " His gallantry was infectious and soon 
the enemy were swept from their ground. 

Some little time after this, when the conflict about Hushan 
was at its height, a body of the enemy came out of Litseyuen and 
Kiulien-ching. Advancing at full speed against the invaders, the 
Chinese were reinforced by detachments coming along the highroad 
and from an eastern hill. Being many times stronger than the Ja- 
panese in point of numbers, the enemy never doubted their 
ability to drive back their persistent assailants, and drew near 
with great noise and much flaunting of banners. Making the top 
of an adjacent hill the basis of their operations, the Chinese began 
a furious enfilade, causing many casualties in the Japanese ranks. 
There was but one thing to do : — carry the enemy's position at 


the bayonet's point. The command to " Charge !" rang out from a 
dozen bugles, and the serried ranks adranced at a sharp run. 
Isobe again led the whole charge. Disdaining the hail of bullets, 
he was the first to fight his way into the enemy's lines, where he 
cut down or shot one opponent after another, himself escaping 
all injury. His personal valour infiamed the troops to fury, and 
nothing could withstand their attack. In a few minutes the 
enemy were repulsed and the Japanese in possession of their 


DuEiNG the fording of the Yalu, Tachibana Minekichi, an 
orderly of Brigade-Commander Tatsumi, was commanded to act 
as a guard to the Commander of the first detachment, then about 
to cross over the river. Tachibana very willingly undertook the 
task, which he performed with signal bravery, being exposed 
time and again to the enemy's fire. Later in the same day he was 
sent with a despatch from his Commander to the Chief of Divi- 
sion. He had to pass ' through a district infested by the enemy 
and had several most narrow escapes. On reaching Shuikau- 
ching, he saw another soldier, also bearing despatches, just about 
crossing the river and rowing a dilapidated boat. The crazy craft 
had already gone far from the shore, but Tachibana made up his 
mind to utilize it in reaching the opposite bank ; so notwithstand- 
ing the force of the current, the width of the river and bitter chill 
of the water, he rapidly divested himself of his uniform, tied the 
precious despatch, in its oilpaper wrapping, above his head, and 
plunged boldly into ithe stream. He was successful in catching 
the boat in midstream, reached the opposite shore in safety, and 
finally handed in his letter to the Divisional Commander. 


In the assault on Kiulien-ching, Nishikawa Kimata, a 


private of the first-class, of the Tenth Company, 22nd Regiment, 
acted as despatch-bearer to the Brigade Staff-Quarters. In the 
battle of Phyongyang he had been sent with despatches to Colonel 
Sato, Commander of the 18th Regiment. It was just at the mo- 
ment of the storming of the Moktan-tei forts that Major-General 
Tatsumi called him up to bear a message, and Nishikawa, braving 
successfully the storm of shot and shell, had fulfilled his mission. 
Later on he was ordered to take a message to the Commander of 
the Regiment of Engineers. On his way thither he had to pass 
within 140-150 metres of the enemy's lines and was thus a target 
for their rifles. One man, posted on the ramparts, shot repeated- 
ly in his direction, missing each time by a hair's-breadth only. 
Nothing dismayed at this evidence of his prominence, Nishikawa 
passed along the whole front of the enemy's lines and again had 
the satisfaction of delivering his message. He served thereafter 
as despatch-bearer to the Brigade Staff-quarters, and, on one 
occasion, had to take a despatch to Colonel Tomoyasu. The road 
which he had to follow was literally plowed up by the enemy's 
shells, yet he never hesitated and passed through this fearful 
spot uninjured. Major-General Tatsumi thereafter singled him 
out for special praise for his daring and obedience. 


While on the road to Wiju from Phyongyang, the 21st 
Regiment reached and encamped at Shun-an, on October 14th. In 
the straw of his rough couch, a private of the first-class, Mura- 
kami Sakataro, found 30 discarded cartridges of the kiud used in 
the Murata rifle, with which the Japanese troops were armed. 
These he carefully gathered up and put . into his ammunition- 
pouch. On seeing this, his officer said, by way of testing the 
man's spirit: "L notice that you have 30 rounds of ammunition 
above the necessary number. But don't you think the extra weight 
will greatly fatigue you on the long march ?" To this, Murakami 
promptly replied, " Sir, we have now penetrated far into the 
enemy's territory and shall soon have to try conclusions with them 


again. If at such a time as this one's ammunition runs out, what 
is to be done ? The Chinese do not attach proper importance to 
their ammunition, and never even stop to pick a cartridge up if 
they let one fall on the road. I really think this is one of the 
reasons of their defeat." — Murakami had, later on, ample oppor- 
tunity to use his extra ammunition at Kiulien-ching and thereafter 
at Tsauho-kau. 


The Fifth Battalion of Engineers was entrusted with the 
duty of bridging the Yalu. With this intent, at 10 p. m., October 
13th, the night being a dark and windy one, an officer and several 
privates were sent to the stream in order to calculate the width of 
the waters to be bridged. On reaching a shallow in midriver 
they found that a Chinese junk lay at anchor in the upper part of 
the second stream. They boarded the junk and would gladly 
have made use of it for their purpose ; unfortunately however the 
vessel was a most clumsy one and roughly put together, rowing in 
it being quite out of the question. It was this second stream or 
branch of the Yalu which was so deep and swift, and as this had 
to be bridged the width of the current must needs be ascertained 
at once. There was but one way to do this, under the circum- 
stances. Some one must swim across with a measuring-tape! 
After a brief consultation, the choice fell upon Mihara Kunitaro, a 
a first-class private. The wind was blowing a gale by this time ; 
the water freezingly cold, and the current most fierce. Yet 
without a word and with the utmost calmness Mihara- prepared to 
obey the command. Removing his uniform and seizing the line 
with one hand, he sprang into the darkly seething waters. It was 
just midnight. Swimming vigorously Mihara disappeared, and 
ten fathoms of the line were slowly paid out. Then came a sharp 
pull on the cord. The soldier holding it began to draw in, and 
was surprised to see that grew lax as if it had parted or been 
dropped by the swimmer. In another moment a faint cry of 
"Boat! boat!" came over the rushing stream — evidently a call for 


help. But nothing could be done to save the drowning man : the 
line had actually parted, and launching a boat was out of the 
question. Absolute stillness had to be observed, for any loud cry 
might be heard by the enemy's pickets on the opposite bank. And 
if the Chinese once became aware of the invaders' intention, their 
whole plans might be upset. It was hard to bear, yet they were 
compelled to let the brave man sink helpless beneath the dark, 


The invasion of Chinese territory was marked by a good deal 
of sickness among the Japanese troops, a low, malarial fever with 
other complicating symptoms being particularly prevalent. On 
the day preceding the crossing of the Talu, November 24th, 
Sergeant Nakamura Koichiro and second-class privates Higaki 
Taichiro, Fujinaka Kintsui and Yamada Masaemon — four, all told 
— were taken down with fever and speedily grew very weak. The 
surgeon gave them medicine and warned them against over-exert- 
ing themselves ; but the four brave fellows thought it would be an 
eternal disgrace not to participate in the battle of the ensuing day. 
So when November 25th dawned it found them though ill still 
prepared to play their part manfully. With the rest of the 
troops they forded the ice-cold stream, the water beiag in many 
places breast-high. They fought bravely that day, and at night 
bivouacked with their comrades on the hard-fought field. The 
following day as well they did their duty like men ; but when the 
conflict was over the febrile symptoms returned and the disease, 
so long neglected, now took its revenge. Before long the crisis 
came and they died — yet not before having served their Emperor 
and country like true and faithful children of the Sun-land. 


H. I. H. Pkince Kan-in Noeihito was, in Ms capacity of 
Captain of Cavalry, attached to the First Expeditionary Army.' 


Following Lieut. -General Katsura, the Prince endured all the 
hardships of the march, yet was ever the cheeriest of commanders 
and indefatigable in the fulfilment of his duty. He was always 
the first to the fore, and the last to retire. After crossing the 
Yalu the Japanese forces had, it will be remembered, some fierce 
fighting to do about Hushan; and while the combat was yet 
undecided, though the Chinese gave signs of wavering, a powerful 
reinforcement was seen comiag to the enemy's aid from the direc- 
tion of Kiulien-ching. The fresh troops were making directly for 
the Japanese left flank, and on seeing this Lieut.-General Katsura 
thought that the Chinese advance should, if possible, be inter- 
rupted. The one thing to do was to hasten the movements of the 
Left Wing, the Column under Major.-General Tatsumi. The 
important duty of bringing up this Column at double-quick was 
entrusted to H. I. H. Prince Kan-in. Spurring at full speed 
across the bullet-swept field, the Prince soon reached the Major- 
General and delivered the order. This done he turned to retrace 
his steps, despite the fact that the enemy's fire had meanwhile 
grown heavier and the road back a most perilous one. But 
recking little of this, Prince Kan-in came back as he had gone, ventre 
d terre. Lieut. -Colonel Tomoyasu, of the Tatsumi Brigade, ventured 
to remonstrate with him against this exposure of himself, but 
His Imperial Highness would not listen to any proposition to wait 
till the firing slackened, urging that it was of the first importance 
for him to rejoin his command. The troops were filled with admi- 
ration for the Prince's valour, and endeavoured to emulate his 
brilliant example. It was their fierce flank-attack which kept the 
reinforcement from getting to Hushan and compelled it to retreat 
in disorder. 


Lieut. -General Viscount Toeio, .who was ordered by the 
Emperor to inspect the battle-fields and the condition of the First 
Army, afterwards came to Seoul, having fulfilled the task assigned 
to him by His Majesty. When he reached the Korean capital he 



at once called upon Count Inouye, for the two peers, being natives 
of the same proviace, were on intimate terms. An animated con- 
versation on the past and the present commenced, and in the 
course of it, a servant of the Legation brought in a bottle of 
wine and two glass on a tray. The Viscount, who had been in 
great spirits a moment before, became suddenly dejected and, 
without showing any inclina-tion to touch his glass, evinc- 
ed signs of considerable emo- 
tion. His host asked in some 
surprise whether anything 
had occurred. Viscount 

Torio replied that the more he 
thought of what he had lately 
seen, the more it became im- 
possible for him to touch his 
glass. He thereupon narrated 
the following story: — When 
he overtook the First Army 
and saw the Field-Marshal, 
the officers and the troops 
under his command, he found 
to his wonder and admiration 
that all those in the Army, 
from the Commander-in-chief down to the private soldiers, were 
not merely suffering the same privations but also enjoying the 
same comforts. They slept in the same maimer and ate the same 
coarse diet. The Viscount was deeply moved at the earnest and 
self-denying zeal shown by Field-Marshal Count Yamagata in his 
command of the Army. He observed, however, that the Field- 
Marshal was rather emaciated, and learning that he was not quite 
well, he could not but feel that he ought to take better care of 
himself. He advised him, therefore, in the sense that, as he was 
advanced in years and accustomed to lead a different kind of life 
from the younger officers and soldiers, he had better take a few 
glasses of wine every day. On hearing that, the Field-Marshal 
shook his head, and, while thanking the Viscount for his kind 
intentions, replied that, as he had undertaken this grave task 
with the firm resolution of sacrificing his body for the weal of the 

Count Inouie Kaoku. 


Empire, it was liis invincible resolution to establish the most 
cordial relations with his officers and soldiers by exposing himself 
to the same dangers and suffering the same privations as they. 
Hence to be without comforts was a source of pleasure rather 
than of pain to him. He was extremely solicitous to have the 
many soldiers wounded in battle restored as quickly as possible 
to health, but situated as they were in a strange land, much in- 
convenience was unavoidable and recovery was necessarily delay- 
ed. How, then, could he, who was only slightly indisposed, 
regale himself with wine which was beyond the reach of even a 
soldier suffering from a dangerous wound ? Such a proceeding 
would be entirely antagonistic to his original resolution. When 
the Viscount heard the Marshal speak in such a manner, he was 
deeply touched by his sincerity and patriotism, and thenceforth 
the very name of wine become associated in his mind with the 
hardships that Japan's officers and soldiers were experiencing in 
the discharge of their duties. The sight of the bottle had called 
up that reminiscence so vividly, and the thought of what hard- 
ships the Field-Marshal must be enduring had come over him, so 
strongly, that he had been unable to hide his emotion. The 
narrative moved Count Inouye in the same way, for he recalled 
the old days when he and the Field-Marshal had shared privations 
at the head of the troops that they led against the Shogun's army 
when it invaded the Choshu fief prior to the Eestoration. " Im- 
possible to touch the wine," muttered the two statesmen, wrapt in 
stirring reminiscences.* 

•Re-printed from the Japan Muil, by permission. 




KiNCHOW, the most important fortified town in the southern 
part of Shinking in general and the Liaotung Peninsula in 
particular, lies west of Mt. Tahoshang and directly north of the 
forts at Talien. From Talien the highroad leads to Port Arthur. 
Kinchow thus commands the neck of the peninsula and its posses- 
sion is of the first importance to the more southerly strongholds ; 
for with this castle-town in an enemy's hands no troops can be 
sent overland to the aid of Port Arthur, which in that case is 
rendered defenceless on its weakest side. Aware of all this, the 
Chinese had built a number of forts and waUs in the broad area 
stretching from the plateau in the neighborhood of Tongtun, 
northwest of Tahongshang-shan, to Mt. Potau, by way of 
Tangmen-tse. The forts were, almost without exception, facing 
towards Petsewo, so that they commanded the Kinchow highroad. 
Between this plain and Kinchow the distance is one of 2 miles 
only, and the road leading to the town indescribably laborious 
and strewn with boulders and stones. The narrowest portion of 
the pass is at Siem^n-tse : a sort of Chinese Thermopylae, where 
a handful of determind men might stay the advance of thousands. 
From none of these obstacles did the Japanese shrink ; though 
aware of the wellnigh insurmountable difficulties of the road, they 
pressed forward undismayed. 




On the arrival of the Japanese troops at Petsewo, reconnoi- 
tring bodies were speecjily 
sent out to ascertain the where- 
abouts of the enemy and 
report on the condition of the 
road. On November 2nd, 
Major Saito Tokumei, with 
a small force consisting of a 
Battalion of one Regiment, 
together with some Cavalry 
and Pioneers, started out to 
survey and make some 
repairs on the road along 
which the Main Body of the 
Division was to pass. Major 
Saito was also charged with 
the duty of obtaining information concerning the number and 
movements of the enemy. The following day — the Emperor's 
Birthday — Lieut.-General Yamaji with the Main Body of his Divi- 
sion, took the road to Kinchow, Major-General Nogi being in 
command of the van. 

On November 4th, just as Major Saito was about to leave the 
vicinity of Liangkiatien, some forty Chinese mounted troopers 
made their appearance on the elevated ground north-east of Shila- 
tsui, and at once began firing at the steadily advancing Japanese. 
The Chinese were, however, speedily put to flight by a few well- 
directed volleys. Later on about 100 Chinese soldiers and 70 or 
80 horsemen showed themselves on the slope south-west of Cheng- 
sha-teng, intending, of course, to stop the Japanese advance. This 
time the encounter was a sharp one, yet the enemy was driven back 
by one Company of , the Battalion, the advance guard and flank- 
guard; and at 11.50. a. m. the plateau of Liuhiatien was oc- 
cupied by the Japanese. On another reconnaissance being made, 
it was found that the Chinese had taken their stand on the high 
ground in the neighbourhood of Tongtun. Major Saito therefore 
encamped at Liuhiatien, sending messengers back to warn the 
Main Body, while scouts were despatched to learn all they could 
about the enemy's forces . as well as to interrupt telegraphic com- 


munication along the Foochow road. The Division under Lieute- 
nant-General Yamaji was then only thirteen miles distant from 
Major Saito's party. 

At early dawn of the following day Major Saito sent out 
several reconnoitring parties in order to the ascertain enemy's inten- 
tions. The little bands were constantly exposed to the fire of the 
watchful Chinese and suffered considerably in consequence. The 
Main Body of the Division left Hwanghiatien at 1 a. m., and 
resumed their march to Kinchow. The Bight "Wing, consistiug of 
one Company of Infantry and another of Cavalry, under Major 
Akiyama, Commander of the First Battalion of Cavalry, shortly 
reached the vicinity of Wushih-lipu on the Foochow road. Taking 
the direction of Foochow, in order to better guard the flank of the 
approaching Division, these two Companies left the encampment 
of the preceding night at 1 a. m. 

About one hour after the departure of the Main Body of the 
Division, the sound of cannon was heard in the direction of 
Kinchow. At 11 a. m. the Advance-Guard reached the outskirts of 
Liuhiatien. Here Lieut. -General Yamaji caused a halt and 
ascended Mt. Taching, east of Luihiatien, in order to per- 
sonally inspect the disposition of the enemy's forces. It was at 
this hour that the reports came in from Major Saito relative to the 
recent movements of the Chinese and the obstacles to be encoun- 
tered on the road. It had been discovered that the enemy had 
placed two cannon on the brow of a hill near Siemen-tse, while 
soldiers had been posted at important places on both sides of the 
hill. Still, nothing was positively known of the numerical strength 
of the enemy. Seeing that it would be disadvantageous for 
the Japanese, situated as they were, to attack just then the excels 
lently posted and strongly defended enemy, Lieut.-General Yamaji 
took his Division around to Sanshih-lipu, a village on the 
Foochow road, whence he intended to assault Kinchow in the 
rear. In pursuance of this scheme, the 15th Eegiment of Infantry, 
and one Company each of Cavalry and Artillery, with a section of 
Pioneers, were sent under Colonel Kono to silence the enemy in 
front and thus give the Chinese the impression that the whole 
Division intended advancing in that direction. Major.-General 
Nogi, with the 1st Eegiment of Infantry, was instructed to guard 



the left flank of the Division on its way to Sanshih-lipu. This 
Eegiment immediately took the Toochow highroad. The Division 
Commander, Lieut.-General Yamaji, now made a forced march 
with the remaining troops of the Division, and after traversing a 
most difficult and hilly road reached the Foochow highway and 
finally stopped at Kwanghia-tse. The Second-iu-Command, 
Major-General Nogi, had meanwhile engaged the enemy in the 
vicinity of Potau-shan and kept up the fight until nightfall, when 
Lieut.-General Yaniaji with his troops should arrive at his destina- 
tion. The forts of the enemy being on elevated ground, the Japa- 
nese were constantly exposed to the hostile fire while on the march, 
and so suffered greatly. Seeing this, Major.-General Nogi relinqui- 
shed his original intention of pressing forward to the Foochow 
road, and halted for the night in a field midway between the 
Kinchow and Foochow highways. 

All night long the distant thunder of cannon continued 
audible. Several skirmishes with the enemy's outposts occurred 
during the night, but the Japanese did not take the offensive 
until dawn. 

At 7 a. m. of November 6th, 
this day having been predetermined 
for the attack on Kinchow, the Main 
Body of the Division broke camp 
and marched along the Foochow 
road to Kinchow, which was at 
once assaulted. The Divison Com- 
mander ordered Major-General Nogi 
to co-operate with the Main Body, 
bringing up the First Infantry Regi- 
ment, thereafter joined by Colonel 
Kono's troops who had advanced 
along the Petsewo road. The Main 
Body was further reinforced by the 
Second Eegiment of Infantry and 
one Company of Artillery under 
Major-General Nishi. The brunt of 
the attack fell upon Major-General Nogi's command — the First 
Eegiment — who found the enemy prepared to stubbornly resist 



their passing over Mt. Potau, which lay in front. In the meantime 
the 15th Eegiment had started from Liuhiatien, at 4 a. m. The 
First Battalion of this Begiment, under the command of Major 
Saito, arrived soon afterwards in the enemy's vicinity, and 
began at, 6.05 a. m, shelling the forts on Ohongchia-shan, near 
Shau-pan. Major Saito's Column, as the Eight "Wing, there- 
upon stormed the enemy's right, and at 6.40 a. m. were in posses- 
sion of two of the forts. Shortly after 7 a. m. the First Eegiment 
siicceeded in driving the enemy from Mt. Potau and taking the 
fort on the brow of the hill, while the 15th Eegiment took posses- 
sion of the redoubts near Shaupan. 

Two hours later — at 9 a. m. — the whole Artillery force in the 
Division ranged their cannon at places varying from 1200 to 
2500 metres north-north-east of Kinchow. They at once opened 
fire on the north and east gates and forts and the north-east angle 
of the castle. In half an hour the Chinese cannon were silenced, 
and, ten minutes later, the enemy were seen in full flight towards 
the Talien and Port Arthur highroads. There were 36 cannon 
engaged in this short though tremendous bombardement, and the 
noise is described as having been something terrific. The whole 
face of the sky was darkened with the smoke. In less than an hour 
the beautiful and peaceful scene was entirely metamorphosed, 
the ground being plowed up by shells, and corpses strewn every- 
where. Lieut. -General Yamaji, who had been eagerly watching 
the progress of the artillery-attack, now ordered the whole force 
to charge: a command that was promptly and enthusiastically 
obeyed. Just before this event, the Battalion of Engineers — com- 
manded to efiect a breach in or destroy the North Gate — having 
pressed forward more rapidly than the Infantry, had reached 
their objective. Finding that the castle-walls at this place were 
30 feet high and impossible to scale, the Gate was blown up with 
gun-cotton. The Chinese still in Kinchow kept up a constant fire 
from the loop-holes in the walls, but paying no head to this the 
Engineers succeeded in demolishing both the first and second 
gates by 10.30 a. m. At this moment the Second Infantry Eegi- 
ment came up at double-quick and with a ringing cheer dashed 
through the gates and into the Castle. The North Gate, known 
as the Ying-an-men, was the most important of all and extremely 


dangerous to approacli, for • the ground Avas literally strewn with 
mines. None of these, however, -were exploded. The Third 
Begiment of Infantry now followed hard after the demoralized 
Chinese, passing through the north-west and western part of the 
fort, while one Batallion of the Eleventh Regiment stormed and 
flung open the East Gate, through which .the soldiers crowded 
into the castle on that side. 

While the Fifteenth Begiment was marching toward the 
elevated ground south-east of the Castle, the Main Body of the 
Chinese forces fled along the Port Arthur road and in the direc- 
tion of that stronghold. Lieut.-General Tamaji therefore ordered 
Major-General Nishi to pursue the fleeing Chinese, taking the 
Third Begiment and two Companies of Artillery with him. On 
reaching the Port Arthur road the enemy turned and offered 
resistance, but to no effect. Large numbers were killed or wound- 
ed, and many taken prisoness. At 2 p. m. the pursuing Column 
arrived at Nanhouling, where they halted and took a brief though 
much-needed rest. 

All the remaining troops belonging to the Division assembled 
south of the captured castle during the hours from noon to 2 p. 
m., for it was expected that the Chinese would make an attack in 
their turn. Indeed the Chinese forts at Shuichia-shan and 
Talien did shell the place where the Japanese had met, but noth- 
ing else was done and only very small damage inflicted. Major- 
General Nogi, with the First Infantry Begiment and some Cavalry 
and Engineers, was instructed to attack the forts on Hoshang-shan 
at dawn of the following day. Another branch, consisting of the 
Fifteenth Begiment and a small body of Cavalry and Engineers, 
was ordered to storm the Shuichia-shan forts at the same time. 
At 4 p. m. other smaller bodies were sent to occupy the villages 
near the castle. 

The space within and just without the castle-walls was filled 
with dead or wounded Chinese. Many prisoners had also been 

In this way the famous castle-town of Kinchow was taken, and 
the one great hope of the defenders of Port Arthur definitely lost. 
The Chinese flags — " the very dragons painted on which seemed 
to weep," to quote a Japanese account — were hauled down, and 



in tlieir stead the unconquered Sun-flag flung to the breeze. The 
Division Commander together with the two Brigade Generals, 
Nogi and Nishi, entered the Castle and made merry. Shortly 
afterwards Field Marshal Oyama came up with his troops and 
likewise encamped in the fallen burgh. 

On the next day, November 7th, Talien Bay was taken by 
the Japanese fleet and a detachment of Major-General Nogi's 
Brigade. The enemy fled towards Port Arthur. 


At the time of the attack on Kinchow, made in so gallant a 
style by the First Division, the enemy were stationed at various 
points in the chain of hills connecting Mt. Tahoshang north of the 
castle, with Mts. Chongchia and Hotou (Potau). Forts were built 
here and there on the left side of the highroad and on the slopes of 
Chongchia-shan, between which and the above-mentioned hills the 

road winds its devious course. 
The Chinese, who had made 
these forts the centre of their 
defences, expected beyond 
doubt to annihilate any Japa- 
nese Regiment atttempting to 
pass along the road. The 
country round about being 
undulating, with frequent hills 
and corresponding depres- 
sions, the Chinese had taken 
every advantage of these 
I geographical characteristics 
I and had chosen the positions 
for their forts with skill and 
excellent judgment. Every- 
thing was visible to them, or 
rather to some one or another of their forts, within a radius of 
6000 metres. 



Shortly before the Division began the attack, Lieutenant 
Awano Yojiro, commanding the Second Sub-company, First 
Company, First Battalion of the Fifteenth Eegiment, was sent 
out to reconnoitre in the vicinity of the castle. On the day before 
the battle (November 5th) he set out from Liuheatien with a 
maniple of 22 men. The approach to the enemy's lines was most 
difficult as well as perilous. Taking every advantage possible 
and always endeavouring to keep both out of sight and out of 
range, the Lieutenant and his men had none the less many hair- 
breadth escapes from the bullets of the enemy's pickets and 
sharpshooters. During the night — for the scouting-party was 
out for a number of hours — the men on one occasion had to 
passing over a stony slope, where every step dislodged some 
pebbles, making a loud, rattling sound. Yet under cover of the 
darkness the scouts advanced to the very foot of the walls of 
several forts. Beturning at midnight in safety with his command, 
Lieutenant Awano at once made an interesting and valuable 

At dawn of the next day the First Company started out 
ahead of the Division as Advance Guard. Lieutenant Awano with 
the Sub-company commanded by him marched in front as guide. 
It was now 4 a. m., and the first streaks of greyish light just 
visible in the eastern sky. Under the circumstances the trail 
would have been lost had it not been for the bits of white paper 
the Lieutenant had affixed to the trees along the chosen route. 
Without hesitating for an instant, the young officer conducted the 
Company to the hill he and his men had ascended a few hours 
before. The First Company now made preparations for actively 
engaging the enemy, while the Sub-company under Lieutenant 
Awano continued to forge ahead. Ordering his men to march in 
Indian file, the Lieutenant cautiously avoided the enemy's front 
and worked gradually around to their right flank. On reaching 
the hills among which the Chinese had built their forts, the 
daring little band came across the enemy's pickets, whom they 
endeavoured to take prisoners. As it was still dark however, the 
pickets had been warned by the sound of the approaching foot- 
steps and fled in safety. Recognising that he was now at close 
quarters with the enemy, the Lieutenant ordered his men to fix 


bayonets, and tlien, with admirable speed, they marched through 
the enemy's line and around to their right. By this time the re- 
mainder of the Company had come up, and "when this fact was 
ascertained the Lieutenant dashed on with his devoted followers 
into the nearest forts, utterly confounding the Chinese with the 
fierceness and impetuosity of- his charge. Lieutenant Awano 
was the first to get in the forts, where, sword in hand, he laid 
about him with reckless bravery. So sudden and unforeseen had 
the charge been that the 350 Chinese soldiers within the forts 
seemed quite bewildered, their few aimless volleys doing little or 
no harm at all. The Lieutenant now cried out to cease firing and 
use the bayonet only. This order the men obeyed promptlj", and 
with unexampled fury charged again and again into the terror- 
stricken ranks of the enemy. Other bodies of the First Division 
coming up, the Chinese at once relinquished all idea of defending 
their position and fled, leaving cannon, small arms, ammunition 
and their military standards behind them. One of the Chinese 
forts, in particular, Avas carried at the bayonet's point in less 
thaji one minute ! 

Housed by the firing, fresh bodies of the enemy now came on 
towards the highroad from the village in front and the forts on 
Chongchia-shan. Grouped on both sides of the road, they began 
a furious fire on the forts just taken by the Japanese. By this 
time it was morning : a clear, bright day ; so, seeing the Japanese 
steadily advancing, the 250 Chinese disputing the road began to 
fall back. The First Company was then commanded to take the 
Chongchia-shan forts, in which some Chinese were still remain- 
ing by the guns. In order to do this, the Japanese had to des- 
cend the hill on which were the captured forts, cross the high- 
road, and then clamber up some very precipitous rocks and clifi's, 
fully one hundred metres high. Trusting to the natural advantages 
of their location, the Chinese troops seemed to pluck up a little 
heart, for the firing from the forts on the rocks above grew more 
continuous and steadier. 

Two Sub-companies of the First Company then set out on 
their perilous mission, and after reaching the road began climb- 
ing up the cliffs from a point directly beneath the forts. Lieute- 
nant Awano and his men ascended the rocks a little to the left, in 

KINCHO W. 135 

order to reach the rear of their objective ; and regardless of the 
rain of bullets in their direction they toiled boldly upwards, 
reaching finally a place some 3000 metres distant from the forts 
in question. The Japanese advance was of necessity slow, as it 
was a steady climb the whole time. Just then another Sub- 
company, under Lieutenant Magaki Tomokichi, of the Second 
Company, came up to the rear of the Awano party. Thje latter 
officer called out to Lieutenant Magaki if he were willing to make 
a combined charge on the forts ; and, on receiving a prompt reply 
in the affirmative, Lieutenant Awano called on his men to charge, 
himself leading with bared sword. In a few minutes they were 
within the forts, sabreing the gunners where they stood and 
utterly defeating any hope of resistance. The enemy, at least 
300 strong, or more than twice the number of their attackers, 
were thrown into complete confusion, scattered and fled for dear 
life among the hills, leaving their weapons and standards behind 
them. Lieutenant Magaki's Sub-company did not enter the forts 
with the rest, but gave chase to the fugitive Chinese. The most 
important forts in the central portion of the enemy's linQ of 
defence having thus been taken, the rest of the work was com- 
paratively easy, Kinchow on the same daj' falling into the hands 
of the victorious Japanese. And it is not too much to say that 
success of the attack and the taking of that great castle-town were 
mainly attributable to courage, skill, and tireless activity of 
Lieutenant Awano Tojiro. 


During the march of the troops on Kinchow, Major 
Saito Tokumei with his Battalion — the First of the Fifteenth 
Kegiment — went on ahead as the Advance Column. On reaching 
Liuheatien, a place about 2 miles north-east of Chongchia-shan, 
Sub-Lieutenant Tsukui, with his Sub-company, was sent out to 
look for a mounted non-commissioned officer who was missing, and 
also to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy and their 
defences. When the Lieutenant and his men got as far as a little 


plateau north of Shaosdsai and to the east of Tahoshang-shan, 
suddenly one hundred or more Chinese foot-soldiers made their 
appearance, and at once advanced to attack the Japanese. The 
command of the Sub-company was then entrusted to Sergeant 
Akaiwa, who succeeded in making a strong counter-attack and 
in keeping the Chinese from advancing any farther in that direc- 
tion. In the meantime Sub-Lieutenant Tsukui, Sergeant Koba- 
yashi Kenkichi and 9 other men dashed through the hail of 
bullets, climbed the overhanging cliffs, and finally reached the 
summit of Tahoshang-shan, whence they enjoyed a splended view 
of the walled town and its environment. When the party started 
to descend, several white and red banners were descried on a 
high place some 400 metres to the right. About 50 Chinese 
unexpectedly came forth and immediately began firing at the 
Japanese, with the utmost fury. At the same time the Sub-com- 
pany lower down moved off, leaving the little party above in con- 
siderable perplexity. Should they retrace their steps ? Should 
they descend the mountain, exposing themselves to the Chinese 
fire, or should they stay where they were ? While they were still 
in doubt as to what course should be pursued. Sergeant Kobaya- 
shi proposed that he and one soldier, Fukayo Kinsaku, should 
stay and try a ruse, while the others retired. The Lieutenant 
was, he added, of more importance than himself and his comrade, 
for the result of the reconnaissance had yet to be made known to 
the Battalion Commander, and this duty was Sub-Lieutenant 
Tsukui's own. The officer agreed to try the plan and began to 
move off as secretly as possible with the rest of the men, while 
the Sergeant endeavored to conceal the fact of their departure from 
the observant Chinese. Sergeant Kobayashi began pacing slowly 
to and fro, in full view of the enemy, yet taking advantage of the 
shrubs and bushes to screen himself as much as possible. This 
he did in order to make the Chinese believe that the Japanese 
had there established an outpost and had no thought of retreating. 
Finally the enemy came within 100 metres of where he stood, and 
just then the Sergeant saw that the Sub-Lieutenant and the other 
soldiers had succeeded in regaining the Company. His work thus 
done, the Sergeant called to his comrade, and both disappeared in 
a little gulley just as the Chinese came up. Crouching among 



the bushes and winding through the stunted trees on the hill side, 
they shortly afterwards had the satisfaction of rejoining their 
comrades in safety. And so the Sergeant's clever ruse had saved 
them all. 


Noteworthy were the deeds done by the Engineers on the 
day of the capture of Kinchow. As the troops closed about the 
doomed castle, the First Company of the First Battalion of 
Engineers got within 2000 metres of the north of the town, in 
advance of the Artillery. Here the command was received to 
blow up the North Gate at at all hazards. The Engineers were 
delighted with the undertaking and advanced at double-quick, 
while the bullets of both the attacking and defending forces flew 
whizzing above their heads or fell close beside them. Captain 
Nakajima Hisanori ordered Sub- 
Lieutenant Yanome Magoichi to 
blow up the Gate, under cover of 
a few men with Sub-Lieutenant 
Takano Yoshimatsu, there being no 
Infantry thereabouts to protect the 
the brave men. The Captain gave 
his orders to his two aides in per- 
son, who, after a rough preliminary 
survey, started for the Gate with 
their men. 

On reaching a village directly 
in front of the Gate (November 6th, 
10 a. m.), a Battalion from the 2nd 
Begiment of Infantry came up with 
the intention of storming the Gate. 
The Engineers then got out the explosive material, which they car- 
ried in a small strong-box, and set out to make ready the mine in a 
small native house just beyond the Gate. This house had, however, 
been strongly barred and shut up ; so Sergeant Yoshida Minoru 



' ~~- 








Yanome Magoichi, 
Lieutenant of Engineebs. 



broke in the door with an axe and, entering with a number of 
Engineers, at once preceded to sever some twenty wires there 
discovered connecting -with as many sunken mines in the approach 
to the portals. In the mean time the Infantry again and again 
attempted to storm and scale the walls, but only to find them 
impregnable and inaccessible ; for they had been built of brick, 
eight metres thick, and quite perpendicularly, scaling therefore 
being out of the question. Moreover the defenders on the ramparts 
not only kept up a galling fire, but also threw large stones and tiles 
on the heads of those who approached the base of the walls. The 
Infantry retired, leaving the Gate to the Engineers. 

Preparfitions being completed, Sub-Lieutenant Tanome, follow- 
ed by Utagawa Toyokichi, a private of the third-class, carrying 

the box of explosives ; Sato Keizaburo, 
a Sergeant of the second-class ; Yo- 
shida, ditto ; and first-class private 
Onoguchi Tokuji, ran towards the 
Gate. The folding doors or leaves 
had, however, been covered with iron 
plates and had a most massive and 
ponderous look. Lieutenant Yanome 
therefore put no less than 11 kilogram- 
mes of gun-cotton at the base of the 
Gate, and, lighting the fuse, retired to 
a distance. In a few seconds there 
was a fierce explosion and the Gate 
completely destroyed, the lower part being thrown several metres 
away by the force of the powder. Bejoicing at their success the 
rest of the Sub-company rushed through the Gate over the smok- 
ing debris, but were greatly surprised and disappointed on 
finding a second inner barrier with another strongly barred door. 
Lieutenant Nishikawa Isamu soon came running up with other 10 
kilogrammes of gun-cotton. This was promptly exploded just 
below the door, and the last barrier thus blown away. As for 
the enemy, the majority had hastily left the ramparts after the 
first explosion ; yet some still held their ground stubbornly and 
fired on the Engineers in the recess of the second gate. Onogu- 
chi was thereby wounded in the shoulder, as was also Sergeant 

TTtaoa'wa Toyokichi. 

KINCHO W. 139 

Sato. This did not by any means caiase tlie Engineers to waver. 
Tliey rushed throught the second portal and at once began looking 
for hidden mines. Einding none they clambered up the walls, 
chased the retreating Chinese, and thus paved the way for the 
Division to enter Kinchow. 


DuEiNG the attack on Kinchow-ching, the Second Eegiment 
made a fierce assault on the North Gate of the castle. The gate 
itself was firmly closed and strongly barred, while the adjoining- 
walls were more than 20 feet high and apparently quite impos- 
sible to scale. Under these massive walls the troops surged in 
angry excitement, unable to get at the sheltered foe. Sub-Lieute- 
nant Yoshida with his command was, at the time, a little to the west 
of the great gate. Searching about he found some broken places 
among the bricks composing the north-west corner of the castle. 
These he used after the fashion of a ladder, and, mounting slowly 
succeeded in scaling the walls. With his drawn sword he drove 
back the enemy on guard there, and even succeeded in capturing 
a gun. Seizing a fiag that was hoisted near by, he sprang on the 
parapet and shouted Tenno Heika Banzai, " Hurrah for His Im- 
perial Majesty ! " Sergeant Noguchi and three privates, Yoshida, 
Hanazawa and Yamada, then reached the top of the wall. Seeing 
this welcome reinforcement and that other troopers were now 
clambering up the ladder of bricks, the Sub-Lieutenant ran east- 
ward on the wall, the men following close after. At this moment 
a tremendous discharge was heard at the North Gate. This was 
caused by the explosion of the mine placed at the Gate by Lieute- 
nant of Engineers Yanome, Infantrj^ Lieutenant Nishikawa, and 
several others. The massive portal was completely shattered by 
the explosion, and the impatient soldiers there gathered rushed 
through the gate into the town, where they were immediately 
joined by Sub-Lieutenant Yoshida and his devoted men. The 
fall of the castle followed soon, and Kinchow was taken. 



In the First Division, commanded by Lieut.-General Yamaji, 
there were three Japanese interpreters, all thoroughly conversant 
with the Chinese idiom. Kono Ken-ichi, one of these three, 
landed, at 11 a. m. of October 24th, on the eastern estuary of the 
Hwayang River, where he bought a Chinese outfit from the 
natives. He had been ordered to proceed to Pulantien from 
Petsewo, in order to ascertain the movements and number of 
the enemy at Foochow as accurately as might be. On parting 
with the Head of the Staff, Major-General Odera, he shook 
hands and the two patriots looked wistfully at each other, for 
both thought the meeting their last. With a few words of fare- 
well Kono left the camp, immediately changed his clothing and 
arranged his queue : for his head had been shaved « la GJdnoise in 
order to prevent detection. At 5 p. m. on the above-mentioned 
day he started out on his perilous journey : and he knew full well 
that detection meant certain death, and death in all the torments 
known to the refined cruelty of the Chinese. On his way into the 
enemy's country he was frequently accosted by Japanese camp- 
coolies or brought sternly to a halt by Japanese pickets. At 
last, however, he got safely beyond the Japanese lines. After 
walking for some two miles the sun set, and a very dark night 
ensued. A little farther on he came to a village where a small 
number of Japanese soldiers had been quartered, and from these 
he inquired the road to Petsewo. After a brief rest he walked on 
for four miles, and finally sought temporary shelter in a little glen 
among the hills. 

Early on foot the next morning, he came to the Pihliu River 
after a walk of five miles. Following the river's course upon 
fording it, he reached, two miles farther on, a little village. 
Here he entered a house where some six or seven peasants were 
sitting, and entered into conversation with them. From his 
peculiar accent the farmers concluded that he must be a Korean, 
and preferred him some friendly advice. " The soldiers of the 
Middle Kingdom," said they, " are coming hither from Petsewo. 
If you should meet with them, danger might befall. You had 

KINGHO W. 141 

better give up all idea of going -westward and choose the northern 
road, on which you will encounter no peril." These good-natured 
and wholly unsuspecting peasants then gave him some food, and 
pointed out the road he was to take. He did, in fact, walk on 
for a while to the north-west, intending to get to Petsewo. But 
after he had covered about eight miles he came to another village, 
where a painful experience awaited him. On being questioned 
as to his name and destination, Kono declared that he was called 
Wuh Wen-chang, a native of Panchwang, in Foochow-f u. Province 
of Fuhkien, and that he had been engaged in business at the 
port of Takushan since June of that year ; but hearing that the 
Japanese were coming he had made up his mind to sail from 
Petsewo to his home near Chefoo, whence he hoped to reach 
Shanghai and ultimately Fuhkien. All this was said with a 
perfect assumption of indifference to his surroundings and with 
extraordinary fluency. Yet while some of his hearers seemed in- 
clined to believe his statements, others did hot, and one man in 
particular declared that he believed him to be a Korean spy, as 
Kono's language had a decidedly Korean twang. His pack was 
then broken open and examined, and a compass was found, which 
greatly puzzled the inquisitors. But Kono explained that he had 
dealt in foreign goods while in Takushan, and that it was nothing 
unusual for him to carry knives, magnets, etc., about with him 
for sale. He was then asked whether he had a map, and declared 
that he had not. This somewhat allayed their suspicions and he 
was permitted to go on his way ; but he had hardly walked half 
a mile before he was again seized by some thirty villagers, who 
had followed him. He was this time examined from head to foot 
and ordered to give up at once any map that he might have con- 
cealed about his person. Kono strenuously protested that he 
possessed nothing of the kind. Still suspicious, the villagers 
compelled him to walk back to the village, where his clothes 
were stripped off and everything subjected to a most searching 
examination. It was quite true that he had no map, but in the 
lining of one of his- socks he had a sheet torn out of a Chinese 
novel, on which he had written the names of all the important 
places between Foochow and Pulantien. This, of course, would 
have seriously if not fatally compromised him, if discovered. So, 

142 HEROIC japan: 

with great presence of mind, Kono dipped his feet into a little 
rivulet on the way back, as if 'to refresh them, and thus managed 
to rub the tell-tale paper into a pulp, of course obliterating the 
characters written thereon. When his socks were later on exa- 
mined his ruse proved successful, as nothing of an incriminating 
nature was found. He was thus acquitted on this score. Among 
the villagers there was one who understood the idiom of Peking, 
and this man assured the rest that the suspect was not a Korean. 
Yet the rude villagers would not consent to liberating him, and 
at last some six or seven of them tied him with a rope to a bam- 
boo pole. Three men were then chosen to convey him to the 
Chinese garrison at Petsewo. This seemed fatal, for Kono hardly 
dared hope to come off scot-free if brought to the Chinese camp as 
a suspect. It was now half-past six in the afternoon, and the 
bold spy ilever believed he would live to see the light of another 
day. But his wits did not fail him at this crisis. Making a 
profound obeisance before his three guards, he said : " I am quite 
content that you should take me to Petsewo. I shall, by Heaven, 
make no attempt to escape. But as I am indeed an innocent man 
I pray you to loosen the rope that is twisted about my hands." 
His conductors granted this request. It was now getting very 
dark, and a man's face should no longer be distinguished at a dis- 
tance of more than 6 or 7 metres. Two of the guards followed a 
little in the rear, while the third held the rope by which Kono's 
hands were still bound. Turning to this man, the captive said : 
" I am in very truth a man of Foochow in Fuhkien Province, and 
my parents are still living there in the old homestead. Though 
innocent I am being treated as a criminal, and if once taken to 
the Chinese camp shall be starved to death. Release me, I pray 
you, guiltless man that I am, and I shall ever remember your 
kindness." He knelt in the road as he spoke and made as if he 
wept, saying that he offered ten silver mace for his liberty. 
Taking this sum from his waist-band he held it out to his captors, 
who refused, though with evident regret, to accept the money. 
Suddenly he gave a jump aside and began to run ! With the rope 
still tied to his hands and waist he ran like a deer, up hill and 
down, crossing brooks and rivulets without ever a pause. The 
Polar Star was his only guide, and keeping his eyes fixed on that 

KING HO TV. 143 

he pursued a westerly course. 

It was a moonless night and objects a few feet off quite 
invisible. After running for, as he supposed, some 2000 metres, 
he looked back and saw 50 or 60 lanterns hurrying through the 
darkness in the direction he had taken. The whole village had 
evidently been aroused and was in pursuit. He could hear the 
distant baying of dogs, roused by the cries of the villagers, and 
knew that if recaught his death would be instant. It was now or 
never ! Avoiding all houses where light could be seen, he struck 
into a recently harvested millet-field, the rough, stiff stubble of 
which tore off his shoes and socks, cutting his feet. After ex- 
traordinary exertions he reached a little hill, whence he looked 
back once more and was overjoyed to see that the lanterns of his 
pursuers were scarcely visible. He had outrun pursuit. After 
resting for a while, he rubbed his bonds against some sharp 
stones and was speedily a free man again. He continued his as- 
cent, and at height of 300 metres found that he was in a low 
wood. Here, worn-out and panting, he threw himself on a heap 
of leaves and was almost immediately asleep. When he awoke 
the east was already bright. All around him were sheer rocks, 
precipices and dangerous cliffs — a most dangerous spot to ascend 
even in broad daylight, and Kono shuddered to think of his 
narrow escape from a violent death. Climbing up through the 
bushes and thick undergrowth, he entered a lonely little valley. 
He had no food, but there was water from a clear spring. Near 
the spring was a narrow path, which he followed. This led him 
over the ridge of the mountain, where he caught sight of some 
houses about 100 metres off. No one came out to accost him, and 
he passed cautiously on, over hill and dale, suffering from hunger 
and fatigue. His feet were still very painful and hunger had 
weakened him greatly, yet he pressed on for about four miles, till 
he came to another brook. The surface being covered with duck- 
weed, he made shift to use his coat as a dipper and filter. The 
drink refreshed him and gave him fresh vigour. For eight miles 
he kept up his wearisome march, his fatigue being so great that 
he walked on mechanically, or like a man in a dream. After 
what seemed to him an age, he reached finally a few farm- 
houses. Here he halted and begged for a little food. Two 


women were in the house which he approached, and these, sym- 
pathising with his worn and haggard look and evident extreme 
exhaustion, gave him some coarse food. This seemed to supply 
him with renewed stimulus, for after a short halt and thanking 
the good Samaritans, he resumed his march and went on to 
Panlashang and through Shachiatien, where he met with a 
bullock-cart. The driver, nothing loath to have a companion, ask- 
ed him to get into the cart, which he very willingly did. In the 
course of the three-miles' drive, the carter told him of an inn not 
far off, where he might put up for the night. But being averse 
to the certain interrogation to which he would be subjected in 
case of entering the inn, he concluded to spend the night under a 
tree, as he had done the previous evening. It was now 6.30 p. 
m. As he had been deprived of his pack, hat and sundry articles 
of clothing, he had nothing to protect him from the autumn chill. 
Yet so great was his fatigue that he fell asleep at once. Afraid 
of being discovered by the inbabitants, Kono arose the following 
day before dawn. Keeping close to the mountains and following 
lonely or at best unfrequented paths, he came after midday to a 
hut on the mountain-side, where he begged for a little food and 
made inquiries about the roads. All day long he continued his 
march, suffering greatly from hunger and thirst. After travelling 
for some twenty miles he reached Muchiatien, and, passing 
on without stopping took refuge, after the sun was gone down, 
among some boulders on the hillside. The distance between this 
place and Foochow was about 15 miles. 

On October 28th, Kono resumed his journey at dawn. After 
covering two miles a heavy thunderstorm came up, forcing him 
to seek shelter under the eaves of a hut. Another two miles' 
travel brought him to the upper part of the Foochow River. 
As a good many people were to be seen on the banks, he 
followed the course of the stream at a little distance, and 
and came, one mile farther on, to a bridge, which he crossed. 
Striking now into the highroad, he followed the telegraph-wire 
for two miles again, during which time he was once more over- 
taken by a heavy shower and wet to the skin. Just then he saw, 
though still at a considerable distance, the walls of the fortified 
town Foochow : a sight which gladdened his heart and made him 


■wellnigli forget his fatigue. A strong north-east wind had now 
begun to blow, accompanied with showers of icy rain and hail. 
After walking for three miles more he reached Siaomiao, one 
of the suburbs of Foochow, just outside the East Gate. For a 
time he rested here, taking shelter under some trees from the 
still falling hail. In a little while he mustered up enough strength 
to enter the city from the East Gate. It was just ten o'clock in the 
forenoon as he walked into the town. No guards were posted at 
the gate and no one asked him any questions. He entered a 
small restaurant and called for a bowl of warm Termicelli, which 
was delicious to the half -famished man ; for, with the exception 
of an occasional bowl of rice, he had eaten nothing since leaving 
the Hwayang Eiver. Greatly refreshed he at once began his 
investigations about the town, and found that there was only a 
Tery small garrison present : one solitary horseman and two or 
three Companies of Infantry. There were no cannon to be seen on 
the walls of the town. He learned, however, that some 500 
Bannermen had been stationed there until a few days before, 
and that they had left to join the troops at Kinchow. At 5 p. m., 
his investigations being completed, he left Foochow for Kinchow. 
He lost his bearings while seeking for the Nyangnyankon highroad, 
and so shaped his course south-east, reaching a village named 
Hwangchih-tachai just at sunset. He asked here at several houses 
for a night's lodging, but was refused. The ground was sodden with 
the rain and hail, although the storm had now blown over, and 
it was impossible to sleep out in the open. So he looked around 
for a Taoist shrine, and, finding one, made shift to pass the 
night in the porch. At about midnight some one came with a 
a lantern, aroused him and said : " There is a high wind blowing 
to-night. You'll get sick if you sleep out here. My house is but 
small and poor, yet there is room for you to rest in. Come to 
my place and sleep in peace." These friendly words were inex- 
pressibly comforting to the poor, half-frozen scout. He joyfully 
followed his host, who took him to a little house in which there 
was a bright fire burning on the hearth to cheer the expected 
guest. For a while they chatted together and Kono learned that 
the good man was the village school-master, with some local 
reputation for his erudition. The old peedagogue got out some 


of his books and showed them to his guest, asking if he were 
able to read them ; anrf when Kono replied that he was thoroughly 
conversant with them all, the old man was greatly pleased. The 
scout then asked whether some 400 or 500 Foochow soldiers had 
quite recently passed through on their way to Kinchow, but was 
told that they had not.* The host added, however, that the gar- 
rison of Kaiping was going to Kinchow. Soothed by the warm 
fire, the scout soon fell into a dreamless sleep. On October 
29th he arose in the early morning, and was hospitably entertain- 
ed by his kind host. When about to start, the school-master 
approached and tried to make him take a few silver coins. 
Touched by the act, Kono heartily thanked the benevolent man, 
but of course refused the well-meant gift. 

After walking for two miles, Kono reached Sanshih-lipu, 
where he again struck the telegraph wire. Followed the course 
indicated by the wires he went southwards, through Paishui-ching, 
to Pucbia-tun. Towards noon he arrived at Lichiatien. The road 
led thence to Lankuchong, over some low-lying hills. Up to 
W:uhchiatien the road was very steep and hard, but from Uchia- 
tien onwards comparatively level and easy. Three more miles 
brought him to Chengchiatien. At Sankwan-miao the road 
united with that leading from Nyangnyankon to Pulantien. From 
this place it was easy to reach the coast of the Gulf of Pechili. 
Following this he arrived at sunset at Ta-enshang, and walking 
on for some 200 metres came to a lonely hollow or ravine in the 
hills, where he determined to pass the night. Only a few hundred 
metres farther on was Pulantien. The night was bitterly cold and 
a heavy frost soon covered the ground. 

Early in the morning of October 30th, the brave scout left 
his uncomfortable and chilly retreat and walked across a rivulet 
on towards Pulantien. This was a hamlet of not more than 20 
houses, and about 2 miles from the coast. It is midway between 
Fooohow, Kinchow and Kaiping, and an easy road goes thence on 
to Petsewo. Important as the post was, there was no Chinese 
soldier to be seen in the vicinity, nor were there any defences. 
From this place he went on, unchallenged, to Kinchow. Two 
mUes farther on, at Lichiatien, he fell in with a couple of Chinese 
troopers. For such an emergency he was quite prepared, and was 


not at all flustered when, on trying to pass, by them unconcerned- 
ly, the soldiers called to him to stop. They began by asking who 
he was, whence he had come and where he was going ? And then 
they wanted to know what his profession was, his age, and a 
number of other particulars. Kono told them, with appearance of 
utter frankness, that he was a pipe-malfer named Li PaoUn, a 
native of Panchwang, near Foochow, Province of Fuhkien ; that he 
had an elder brother trading within the walls of Kinchow, near the 
South Gate ; that he had intended joining his brother in a business 
venture, but, having heard of what was going, trade moreover 
being very dull, he intended to get his brother to leave Kinchow 
and return to Fuhkien. "lam," he added, "26 years old and 
came to Foochow here in June of this year. But as my stay has 
not been long I am not adept in the language current here. You 
may perhaps have noticed that I speak like a Southerner. It's 
very apt to make people suspicious." With these specious words 
he willingly allowed himself to be searched. Nothing of an in- 
criminating nature being found on him, the troopers concluded 
they had bagged the wrong bird, and let him go on. This was the 
most critical of all his adventures, for a tone or gesture could so 
easily have betrayed liim to his keen-eyed captors. It was his 
nonchalant bearing that saved him. The cavalry men were, it 
appeared, some of the Viceroy Chung-tang's own body-guard, Li 
Hung-chang's own troops, and hence disposed to be both suspi- 
cious and overbearing. 

Seeing the waters of the Gulf on his right, he went south- 
wards and kept about three miles from the coast-line. Pretty 
soon a cavalry officer accosted Mm, but was satisfied on learning his 
feigned name and address. Passing by Chingchiapu and Chang- 
linpu, he arrived at Tanho-i. Thence he went on to Wushih-lipu 
and Shishih-lipu, both of which are in direct connection with 
the Petsewo road. It was true that he had no orders to go on to 
Kinchow ; but thiuking that Ins two fellow-scouts might have lost 
their lives as he very nearly had his own, he deemed it his duty 
to press on. "It is true," thought he, "that all my toil hitherto 
may go for nothing if I lose my life at Kinchow. Yet man's fate 
rests with Heaven, and with Divine aid I may still accomplish this 
self-imposed task." Having thus definitely determined his course 


of action, Kono left the road lie had been following, and marched 
towards Kinchow direct. Shortly afterwards he reached Shang- 
holu, a village eight miles distant from where he had started. 
Here he met thirty carts travelling slowly northwards along the 
Foochow road. The carts were loaded with fodder for the Chinese 
cavalry, and were guarded by mandarins. Farther on he reached 
Sanshih-lipu, where he came across a troop of 20 Chinese cavalry- 
men. On ascending the next hill, he saw another train of carts, 
this time numbering more than forty. After passing through a 
cluster of villages of less importance, he finally crossed the slope 
of Kiulichwang, and got the first glimpse of his objective. The 
castle-town of Kinchow was all astir with armed life and presented 
a very striking appearance, flags and banners of all sorts being 
displayed above the walls. There being an evidently large gar- 
rison in the town, the scout thought it would be unwise to enter 
without observing further precautions, and as the day was now 
far spent, he concluded to pass the night on the slope. The wea- 
ther was very windy and cold again, while peals of thunder 
reverberated ever and anon in the midnight sky. The storm broke 
later on into an icy rain, but this did not, fortunately for the scout, 
continue long. Until late at night the noise of the soldiers and 
horses in the town kept him from sleeping. 

At dawn the next day — October 31st — he reached the North 
Gate, after two miles of circuitous and very cautious walking. 
Seeing numbers of peasants coming in with vegetables and fish for 
the troops, he mingled with the crowd and passed through the 
Gate unquestioned. The fortifications, he soon found, were very 
different from those he had seen at Foochow. The castle was 
filled with troops and the streets lined with their cattle and 
baggage. Coming to a shrine dedicated to Hwangti, he quietly 
rested there a while. The next thing was to find a money-changer. 
There was no difficulty about this, and he speedily exchanged 
some of his silver coins for copper cash. He then entered a 
restaurant and made good meal on beef and macaroni. Nearly 
every guest present was a soldier, and all were holding high 
carouse. Some were drinking wine, others eating to surfeit, and 
the talk was merry and incessant. Here he remained for two 
full hours, eating slowly, and carefully listening to what the 


troopers were saying. Some held that the Japanese had left 
Petsewo and gone eastward; others again declared' that the 
enemy were heading for Kinchow. To all that was said, the 
scout lent an attentive ear. After paying liis modest bill, the 
next thing was to examine into the condition and number of the 
troops massed outside the South Gate. Four cannon, he noticed, 
were posted above the East Gate ; while as for the garrison, it 
consisted of picked troops of the best men.* The soldiers were 
quartered in large houses ; either such as belonged to the weal-, 
thiest local merchants or were otherwise used by the Government. 
The forces numbered between six and seven thousand. At about 
2 p. m. he saw some notable personage drive in a carriage out of 
the East Gate. Twenty troopers acted as an escort. The people 
bowed as he passed and addressed him as Ta-jen, " Your Lord- 
ship." After buying a few indispensable articles of clothing and 
some honey-cakes, Kono left the town, at 5 p. m., by the North 
Gate. It was his intention to go to Petsewo by the eastern road, 
so he walked first to Siemen-tse at the foot of Mt. Tahoshang. 
Seeing a troop of Cavalry advancing, he concealed himself until 
all had gone by. A little farther on he met with a small body of 
foot-soldiers, and noted, at the same time, that mines had been 
laid in various place along the road. The sun was now setting, 
so he hastened through Liuhiatien and ensconced himself in a 
ravine, where he slept. 

The eastward march was continued shortly after dawn of the 
following morning. At one time he missed the way and got by 
mistake to Weichow, where he asked a villager to direct him to 
the Petsewo road. At a little distance from Hwangchia-tun, the 
next village he came to, he made a halt for rest. Not having as 
yet met with any signs of the Japanese advance, the scout was 
beginning to get very anxious. He was particularly desirous to 
learn the result of the engagement at Petsewo, and the excitement 
as well as the fatigue kept him awake for a long time. 

On November 2nd, shortly after sunrise, he took a road 
leading north-east. After walking for about four miles he met 
with a native who asked him what he was about and where 

*The original enumerates the various regiments. We omit the names. 


ho was going. " I have a younger brother at Petsewo," replied 
the wily scout, "and having heard that the Japanese have 
recently occupied this town, I am in great anxiety about my 
brother. I must find out what has become of him, and so I 
have come on from Kinchow without a halt." Hearing this, and 
of course crediting .the story, the native strongly urged him 
not to keep to the highroad, where he would infallibly come in 
contact with the Japanese, but to take a short cut over the hills. 
Crossing a brook and passing over a hill, he met with another 
villager, who told him that the Japanese were in great force at 
Petsewo. Secretly delighted with this bit of information, the 
scout redoubled his pace, forgetting in a moment all his fatigue 
and hunger. Just as he was about to enter the next village — 
Wanchia-tun — he saw a number of old women, children and 
others evidently fleeing from an approaching enemy. For of 
course they believed that the destruction of their lives as well as 
property was impending ; although the progress of the Japanese 
throughout the Liaotung Peninsula was marked by most kindly 
treatment of the natives. Kono then asked one of the frightened 
people if the Japanese were at hand, but before he could get an 
answer he saw a troop of Cavalry crossing the brow of an opposite 
hill. At first he thought these must be defeated Chinese soldiers, 
but he was reassured, on drawing nearer, by the sight of the 
yellow embroidery on their coats. It was a troop of Japanese 
horsemen, and the poor scout almost wept for joy on recognizing 

From the time he had left the Hwayang Kiver, he had not 
known what it was to be free from anxious care. He had been 
half-starved; had walked until his legs almost refused their 
office; and had constantly been in peril of his life. The first 
man with whom he met was Sub-Lieutenant Ozaki, of the First 
Section of the Second Company, and to him he immediately tried 
to tell about the condition of aff'airs in and about Kinchow. But 
Kono's joy was so extreme that he could not find words to ex- 
press himself. He then came up with Major Saito Takumei, to 
whom he related all he knew of the enemy's condition. It was 
his great desire to have a personal interview with Division Com- 
mander Yamaji, but the later being with his Staff at Petsewo, 


there were still eight miles to traverse before a meeting was 
possible. The sun now sinking behind the western hills, the tired 
and excited man passed the night where he was, enjoying a well- 
earned and refreshing repose. Early the next morning he once 
again took the road, intending to make Petsewo as quickly as 
possible. He was surprised to note the deserted nature of the 
villages through which he passed, the inhabitants having evident- 
ly fled on the approach of the invading forces. After covering 
about half the distance, K6n6 clambered up a hill in order to get, 
if he could, a glimpse of the Army on its southern march. On 
the brow of the hill he found a forlorn group of six or seven 
natives huddled together and evidently in the lowest of spirits. 
" The Japanese Army," they began to inform him, " has started 
for Kinchow." On this Kono volunteered the information that the 
Chinese garrison at Kinchow was 10,000 men strong ; there were, 
he continued, chatting volubly, some five or six thousand more 
" braves " at Port Arthur, with six men-of-war in the harbour, 
five of the war-ships having undergone repairs. Of course most 
of these frank statements were made up on the moment, and by 
no means encouraged his listeners. " And even if there are 10,000 
soldiers at Kinchow," they interpolated sadly, "how can they 
hope to stand against so powerful an Army as that one marching 
over there ? " With a profound sigh the little group separated, 
Kono going on to an adjacent village, where he joined the passing 
troops. While marching with the men, who were delighted with 
his outfit, he met Interpreter Sano. On the brow of another hill, 
a little later on, he came up with Brigade Commander Nishi and 
Interpreter Inouye, and from the latter he borrowed an over- 
coat concealing his costume. On reaching Shaho he learned that 
the Staff-Quarters were at Wanchia-tun, for which place he set out 
at once. On the road thither he met with Staff-Officers Uchiyama 
and Oka, who conducted him to Lieut.-General Tamaji, whom he 
now saw for the first time. Spreading out his maps Kono then 
went into details and made a most interesting and highly valuable 
report. It was quite five o'clock before the long story was told. 




Poet Aethue, or Byojun-kd as it is called in Japanese, is 
situated at the south-western extremity of the peninsula of Kin- 
chow, Province of Chekiang. The deep bay on which it lies faces 
the opposite stronghold of Wei-hai-wei, Province of Shantung, so 
that the two great fortresses practically command the entrance of 
the Gulf of Pechili. Port Arthur is thus often spoken of as the 
" Chinese Gibraltar." 

Port Arthur was the greatest of China's naval stations, and 
made as impregnable as modern science could contrive. The larger 
part of its defences was planned by Major von Hanneken, a 
German expert. No less than twenty great forts guard the place, 
which contains a vast iron-foundry and huge docks upon which ma- 
ny millions have been expended. It is thus not too mtich to say that 
the very existence of the Chinese Empire depends upon the keep- 
ing of this vitally important fortress. 

Up to the 20th of November success had invariably followed 
the arms of Japan. Her valiant generals and loyal soldiers 
had won repeated laurels both on land and sea. The Peiyang 
Squadron, or rather what was left of it,' had been driven into 
Wei-hai-wei and Port Arthur, without hope of escape ; the Chi- 
nese land-forces had been pushed across the Korean frontier and 
suffered two signal defeats on Manchurian territory. The time 



had now come for the Japanese to conquer the Liaotung Penin- 
sula, and to do this they must take the wellnigh impregnable 
fortress of Port Arthur. It was pretty generally believed that no 
European nation could master the place unless aided by at least 
three-score men-of-war of the most powerful description ; and it 
was consequently urged that Japan, however valiant, would prove 
unequal to the task. 

Siace November 8th the Second Army had been staying in 
the immediate vicinity of the castle-town of Kinchow, partly for 
the sake of a brief period of necessary rest and partly because of 
the expected arrival of the Mixed Twelfth Brigade from Hwa- 
yuan-kow (Ka-en-ko). On the llth, the Advance Guard under 
Major General Nishi reached Sanshih-li-pu (Sanju-ri-ho), a little 
hamlet some 10 miles from Kinchow ; and on the 13th the ex- 
pected Twelfth Brigade under Major-General Hasegawa made its 
appearance. For the next 
three days the whole Second 
Army was in bivouac about 
Kinchow, and the general 
plan and date of the attack 
determined. The following 
day the Army was divided 
into two bodies and the 
march on Port Arthur was 
begun. The highway along 
the northern coast of the 
Peninsula and a short cut 
discovered by the scouts, 
were followed, and thereafter 
another short cut which had 
been found out by the recon- 
noitring officers. After seve- 
ral skirmishes on the route, 
the Army finally reached the 
neighbourhood of the Port 
on the 20th, and it was 
decided to begin the attack the next morning. Field Marshal 
Oyama, the Commaader-in-Chief, summoned his officers to a 

Maeshaii Count Oyama, 
Commandee-in-Chief of the Second Aemt. 



small plateau north-west of Lihiatun, and there discussed the 
general plan of attack and gave his orders. At about 2 p. m. on 
the same day a body of more than 4000 Chinese coming from 
several directions approached the Japanese camp with the evident 
intention of an attack; but 
Lieut.-General Yamaji, who 
had been expecting some- 
thing of the sort, confronted 
them and drove them back 
after an artillery fire lasting 
for two hours. It being just 
about nightfall, no attempt 
was made to pursue the 
fleeing enemy. 

The day on which the 
storming of Port Arthur 
should commence had come. 
At 2 o'clock in the morning, 
just after moon-rise, the 
Japanese arose, each man 
putting o£f his knapsack and 
carrying only his rifle with 
its ammunition. The general 
order of the troops was thus-; 
— the First Division was to 
attack the Etse-shan forts; 
the Mixed Brigade was to 
storm the Erhlung-shan forts ; 

while the Independent Cavalry was to cover the right flank of the 
First Division. The Left Column received instructions to draw 
the enemy off towards the north-east, and the Siege Artillery was 
told to take up a position to the north of Shuitse-ying. All this 
was carried out quietly and with despatch, and the Japanese 
forces pressed quickly on towards their enemy in the still, moon- 
lit morning. 

The four batteries of Field Artillery attached to the 'First 
Division were posted on raised ground to the west of Shuitse- 
ying, where they awaited the dawn. The ground chosen being 

Libut.-Genbkal Viscount Yamaji, 

commanbek of the flkst 

Peovincial Division. 



quite precipitous and stony, one Company of Engineers together 
with the Second Infantry Eegiment were called to assist in get- 
ting the guns up the steep slope. Major-General Nishi with the 
Third Kegiment of Infantry, one Battalion of the Second Eegiment, 
half a Squadron of Cavalry, one Battalion of Mountain Artillery 
and a Company of Engineers, took a westward course and pressed 
to the north-west of the Etse-shan forts, leaving Lieut.-General 
Yamaji, Chief of Division, and his forces behind ; though these 
came up soon after. 

The night was clear and the moon shone with a placid, 
silvery radiance. There was not a breath of wind : all was silent. 
But as the day broke the field and siege guns burst into flame 
and with their thunderous cannonade roused the enemy from their 
sleep. The van of the Third Infantry Eegiment, under Major- 
General Nishi, suddenly made 
its appearance to the north-west 
of the western fort on Etse-shan. 
Mountain Artillery, siege guns 
and field guns, forty cannon in 
all, began pouring a continuous 
stream of iron into the three 
devoted forts on this hill — " Chair 
Hill," for that is the signification 
of Etse-slum. The Chinese defend- 
ed themselves stoutly. The forts 
on Songshu-shan as well as the 
coast-forts replied to the Japanese 
attack with reverberating volleys 
from their large guns. It seemed 
as if the tremendous uproar 
would rend the very heavens. 
The shells from the various forts 

moreover inflicted much damage on the besiegers, while every 
shot from the Japanese side told. After what seemed about an 
hour, the Chinese, fire slackened and then ceased altogether. 
The Third Eegiment men, who had continued to advance while the 
attack was going on, then scaled the hill from the right side and 
rushed with wild cheers on towards the forts, which they carried 


Commander of the Thikd 


at tlie bayonet's point. At 7.30 a. m. the First Battalion reached 
the left flank of the second fort, and carried the place by storm. 
Shortly afterwards the Second and Third Battalions followed the 
road taken by the First. While this was being done the forts on 
Peiyu-shan and Songshu-shan kept up an incessant fire on 
the advancing Japanese. But after the fall of the third fort, 
the first and second were easily taken. The three forts of Etse- 
shan thus fell into the hands of the Japanese. This was at 
about 8 o'clock in the morning. 

No sooner were the Etse-shan forts captured than the Mixed 
Brigade commenced to march forward at double-quick, while the 
Left Column simultaneously began to engage the enemy. Those of 
the Chinese who had survived the taking of Etse-shan, fled in the 
direction of Port Arthur. 

At this time Major-General Nogi, commanding the First 
Infantry Regiment, who had gone to assist the Third Eegiment, 
was in the neighbourhood of Fongohia-tung. While here he was 
attacked by some thousand Chinese. A sanguinary conflict, 
lasting for nearly 30 minutes, ensued, whereupon the Chinese 
were repulsed and driven back towards Ahkautse. At the same 
time the Japanese Fleet, which had been steaming about in the off- 
ing, sailed towards the west coast, whence they fired at the enemy 
retreating in that direction and entirely cut off all escape on this 
side. The northern exit being similarly rendered impossible, the 
enemy, in the utmost dismay and consternation, finally concealed 
themselves on Laoti-shan, a hill on the extreme end of the peninsula. 

The Japanese Field Artillery now advanced to the attack of 
the. Songshu-shan forts. The Chinese there, already greatly 
intimidated by the capture of the Etse-shan forts, were preparing 
to flee for dear life, leaving the forts undefended, when some 
shells from the field-guns hit the powder-magazine, causing a terrific 
explosion. The forts were at once silenced. This occured shortly 
after 11 a. m. 

The assault upon the forts on Erhlung-shan and Kikwang- 
shan had meanwhile been begun by -the Mixed Brigade under 
Major-General Hasegawa. The Brigade had no Field Artillery 
while their siege-guns failed to reach the forts : mountain-guns 
were therefore brought into requisition, which occasioned an 



immense amount of labor. The Etse-shan forts having been 
occupied by the First Division, the soldiers were now led around 
to the rear of the two hills. The Chinese were thus brought 
under a cross-fire, being attacked simultaneously in front and the 
rear, and therefore speedily gave over the contest : the seven great 
forts and these two hills be- 
ing silenced at about the 
same time. It was then a 
little after midday. 

All the inland forts 
having thus been success- 
fully captured in the 
forenoon, an advance was 
made upon the coast forts. 
Field Marshal Oyama com- 
manded the First Division 
to attack the Port itself, 
while the Mixed Brigade was 
partly to cover the flank of 
the First Division and 

Majok-Gbnekal Hasegawa. 





partly to intercept the retreat of the enemy to the north-east. /^/ • / 
The Left-GolurnnTnow rejoined the Mixed Brigade. <u~''^*'''^ -^ 

EKgh.est_ among the -eoa&t ferts stood- those on Hwangkin-shan. J*'-'* ^. '^' 

Thejj contained cannon of very heavy calibre, easily tiirned in «-~^ , -'^' 

any direction, whose range included not only the inland forts but ""{/i^ 
even those in the place occupied by the Japanese Artillery. There "^^ f'^ ^ 
was one gun in particular which had greatly annoyed the besiegers '' . v--' ' "^t 
at long range, throwing shells in the direction of the Etse-shan, "" ;, ''""'^ 
Erhlung-shan, and Sungshii-shan forts. It was thus absolutely- ' 
necessary to attack this high fort first of all, and in order to 
carry out this plan the Second Eegiment, which had been left to 
guard the field-guns, was ordered to advance to the assault. So 
soon as the order was given the Second Eegiment rushed into 
the town, shooting down all opposition and engaging in a hand-to- 
hand encounter. Veerirfg around the men then stormed the forts 
on Hwangkin-shan. These were one and all occupied shortly 
after 4 p. m. The Mixed Brigade had in the meanwhile carried 
Laolai-tse by assault. 


At this moment strains of military music were heard coming 
from the parade and drill ground of one of the Chinese Army 
Divisions inside the town. This was soon recognised as the music 
of the band belonging to the Staff of the Second Army. They 
were playing the grandly impressive national anthem of Japan : 
Kimi ga yo. As the triumphant music echoed over the hard-fought 
field, the Japanese troops gave vent to their loyal enthusiasm in 
cheer upon cheer. 

"With regard to the forts west of Hwangkin-shan, the attack 
was now suspended, the short autumn day being at an end. 
The First Division went into bivouac just north of the town of 
Port Arthur, while the Mixed Brigade took up a position on the 

The next day the Japanese troops advanced to attack the 
remaining forts, but found them deserted. The Chinese had 
decamped to the last man. More than twenty of the great forts 
on the Port Arthiir peninsula had thus been conquered in a single 
day, and the Sun Flag waved proudly over the well-won field. 

As evening drew on again the troops were assembled on the 
vast parade-ground inside of Port Arthur. A general feast was 
held by those who had fought so bravely, and the hill-sides gave 
back in sullen chorus the ringing cheers of their new masters, the 
unconquered Japanese. 


On the afternoon of November 23rd a great feast was held in 
honour of the fall of Port Arthur. The gathering took place in a 
large open space near one of the docks. Nearly six hundred 
celebrants were assembled, including officers of general rank and 
below, and the correspondents of foreign and Japanese news- 
papers. On the long tables were set out all the delicacies they had 
been able to muster, including Chinese rice-wine (samshu), tijmed 
and potted meats, dried cuttle-fish, pork, biscuits, etc., not much 
variety, it is true, but all that could be got together at the time. 
The officers shook hands irrespective of rank, cheered each 



favourite to the echo, and mutually congratulated each other ; 
while the military bands in attendance discoursed stirring martial 
music. At the instigation of Field-Marshal Oyama three great 
cheers were given for H. M. the Emperor. In the midst of the 
rejoicings, a proposition was made to chair the Field-Marshal. 
No sooner said than done ; he was hoisted on the shoulders of a 
score of enthusiasts, and carried with loud cheers around the 
field. The same honour was afterwards shown to Lieut.-General 
Yamaji, Major-General Hasegawa, and Major-General Nishi. It 
was a great day for Japan. 


The number of Chinese guarding Port Arthur, in a word its 
garrion, its estimated to have been over 20,000. Of these 7000 
were killed or wounded in the fight ; 2000 fied to Kinchow ; and 
the rest dispersed in every direction. The Japanese captured the 
nine coast-forts (60 + cannon) and eleven inland-forts (50 + can- 
non) ; two small steamers ; one foreign built dredging-vessel ; one 
iron ship, still on the stocks; several hundred steel rails, and 
30 -h fish-torpedoes. The total casualties on the Japanese side 
were 40 killed and more than 200 wounded. 



The Third Begiment of Infantry, to whose intrepidity the 
capture of the great Etse-shan forts is attributable, suffered heavy 
losses in the attack and subsequent capture. More than 100 
officers and men were either killed or wounded. The Advance 
Column, composed of the First Battalion— the First Company 
leading— broke camp at 1.30 a. m. As guide, Sub-Lieutenant Tawara 
kyujiro went ahead, for he was not only acquainted with the road, 
having thoroughly reconnoitred it beforehand, but was also in 


command of the outpost. As it was still long before dawn, the only 
things serving as guides were the dim outlines of the distant hills 
or the brightly shining stars ; yet when the day broke, it was found 
that the shortest possible route had been traversed. No Chinese 
were met on the road ; the defending forces were probably wrapped 
in peaceful slumbers. After an arduous march, the troops reached, 
at just 6 a. m., the rear of the left flank of Fort No. 1. The First 
Company, being foremost, made at full speed for the outer walls. 
They were soon made aware of the enemy's displeasure by a quick 
and heavy fire, which wrought sad havoc in their ranks. For all 
this, there was no faltering or disposition to Avithdraw. The men 
marched on with the cool courage of veterans and the precision of a 

To get at the forts themselves it was necessary to ascend a 
steep hill, fully 100 metres high ; 'and so great is the incline and 
so laborious the ascent that a halt has to be made two or three 
times before the summit can be reached. The men of the First 
Company halted about half-way up the hill. On attempting to 
resume the advance, it was found impossible to get the men off 
together ; for between the noise of the cannon above and the vol- 
leys fired by the Japanese, even the loudest command became 
inaudible. The buglers then blew the order " Cease firing ! " and 
in an instant the eyes of every soldier were directed towards the 
Captain. A word was now sufficient to begin the advance anew. 
As the troops drew near the walls, the enemy's fire increased in 
deadly intensity. Sub-Lieutenant Tawara, still foremost, clam- 
bered up the wall and then sprang down among the enemy, calling 
loudly on his men as he did so. Nor were they slow to obey so 
valiant an example. A number were soon at his side, and then 
poured volley upon volley into the retreating ranks of the dis- 
comfited foe. The Sub-Lieutenant and his men killed several tens 
of troopers on the spot and caused the fort to be entirely evacuated 
after a most fierce though short hand-to-hand conflict. 


The Etse-shan forts, commanding the rear approach to the 


Port, lie west of the Port Arthur highroad and on the brow of a 
hill 100 metres in height. There are three forts in all, built in a 
very massive style. Each is or was surrounded by a solid wall of 
masonry, and they contained six cannon of heavy calibre, two 
mountain guns, one gatling Q.-F. gun, and two mortars. About 
one thousand fresh soldiers held the forts, which were thus in every 
way prepared to repel an attack. The duty of taking or silencing 
these great forts fell to the Third Regiment, the First Battalion of 
which advanced steadily to the attack in the face of a murderous 
fire poured down upon the devoted men. At 8.30 a. m. the 
Battalion was within 200 metres of the rear of the forts. A re-in- 
forcement consisting of the Fourth Company, in compact order, 
now appeared, and thereafter acted as the Left Wing. Firing as 
they drew slowly nearer, they made for the projecting left-hand 
corner of the nearest fort. This was carried in most gallant style 
at the bayonet's point, the fire of the enemy in the other forts 
meanwhile increasing in intensity. Funayama Ichinosuke, a private 
of the first-class of this Fourth Company, was soon at the foot of 
the protecting wall, where, despite the 4 metres' height, he clam- 
bered up, using several bayonets to give himself a footing during 
his perilous ascent. Reaching the top, he sprang down amidst the 
defending Chinese, and had just killed three of them when Uchi- 
yama Tazaemon, a second-class private of the same Company, 
gained the top of the wall and sprang to his comrade's aid. The 
men were now pouring thick and fast over the wall, and the Chinese 
utterly disheartened by their fearless bearing. The enemy broke 
and fied ; and in a few minutes thereafter the two other forts were 
captured in much the same manner. There was no standing 
against the desperate valour of the attacking troops. 


The First Company of the First Battalion, 3rd Regiment, 
was in no wise behind the gallant Fourth in point of daring and 
dash. The van was led by this First Company, exposed thus 
to the full heat of the hostile fire. As the men drew nearer. 



it was seen that Lieutenant Viscount Matsura Hakaru and 
Lieutenant Viscount Takashima Tomotake liacl been severely 
wounded half-way up the hill. Many other soldiers received 
wounds of greater or less gravity. Without faltering, however, 
the Company advanced until the foot of the forts was reached, on 
the brow of the hill, the enemy's fire growing ever fiercer the 
while. Second-class private Cho- 
kai Makitaro, who had been with 
the Reserve, clambered up the 
wall by means of the fractures in 
the masonry. On reaching the 
top he let down a rope which he 
had for this reason carried with 
him, and with its aid helped up 
Major Maruyama Masatsugu, 
Commander of the First Battalion, 
Major Taniyama Takahide, com- 
manding the Second Battalion, 
Adjutant Lieutenant Chiba Tane- 
yasu, and about 20 non-commis- 
sioned officers and men. A few 
seconds after Chokai had reached 
the top the wall, First-Class 
Sergeant Uchida Yaroku, Second-Class Sergeant Enchi Shinzui, 
and Tange Tushichi, a second-class private, all of the First Com- 
pany, also gained the top, followed by many others who clambered 
up holding to the cracks and crevices in the masonry. Once on 
or over the wall, the First Company men made things unpleasantly 
warm for the defenders, who were speedily in full flight, their 
departure being accelerated by stinging volleys from the post just 
evacuated. It was hot work, but quickly and splendidly done. 

It must be remembered that this fort was of prodigious size 
and attacked by the Japanese on several sides at once. It is 
therefore impossible to determine who was actually the first on 
or over the walls. We have, however, given a list of the most 
prominent names, in this and the following paragraphs. 

Lieutenant Viscount 



In the storming of tlie Etse-shan forts, Special Sergeant Maeda 
Eishi was the first man of the Second Company, 3rd Eegimenfc, 
in the charge. In advance of all the rest, in the midst of that 
deadly hail of bullets and with the men falling in tens and twenties 
beside him dead or wounded, Maeda was undismayed and apparent- 
ly in his native element. He was one of the first to get into Fort 
No. 1, where, at the north-east corner, he rallied a few men about him 
and fought with conspicuous gallantry Still keeping the handful of 
brave followers about him, he dashed on to Fort No. 2, where seve- 
ral guns were captured by the undaunted men, as well as a large 
quantity of ammunition. In a few moments more, every gun had a 
man beside it as a guard. 

First-Class Sergeant Tanida Sosuke, of the same Company, 
was not much behind Maeda in gallant bearing. He followed the 
former into Fort No. 1, and got into Fort No. 2 almost simultane- 
ously with the foremost. With five or six men he succeeded in 
taking as many guns, and also in capturing much ammunition. 
The prompt taking of the Etse-shan forts was mainly owing to the 
magnificent valour of these two. And soon the senryoki (the flag 
announcing a capture) was waving over the defeated ramparts. It 
afterwards appeared that this Company had, in the certain expec- 
tation of taking the fort, taken the flag with them. 


At 9 a. m. of November 22nd, a rumour reached the Staff 
Quarters to the effect that a mob of the Chinese defeated at Fort 
Arthur would probably attempt an attack. The members of the 
Staff and the non-commissioned officers on duty made ready to 
defend themselves. Among the rest was Kawasaki Eisuke, a First- 
Class Sergeant of the Third Company, 3rd Eegiment. He had, on 
the 18th, been sent to Tuching-tse in order to act as a guard to 
the mounted scouting party. In the hot skirmish which ensued 


between the scouts and a large body of tlie enemy, Kawasaki was 
badly wounded, though not mortally. There he now was, confined 
to his bed, at the Staff Quarters ; but the thought of the peril to 
which the place would soon be exposed made him get to his feet 
again. Collecting a few other wounded men, who were able to 
walk, he made a reconnaisance in the direction whence the enemy 
were approaching. Drawing near the sea-coast, he fell in with 
hundreds of the fugitive, desperate Chinese, and kept up a brisk 
fire, killing or wounding many and effectually stopping the advance 
on the Staff Quarters. Hundreds of the enemy were thus beaten 
back by a mere handful of wounded but determined soldiers, led 
by a man of unusual courage and skill. 


iMMEDLiTELY after the capture of the Etse-shan forts, the 
Sixth Company of the 3rd Eegiment pressed on to take the forts on 
Songshu-shan, these being the next in order. Just then a first- 
class private in this Sixth Company, Suzuki Eeisuke by name, was 
hit in the breast by a bullet. The Commander of a Sub-company 
who was then standing just beside him, called out, thinking to en- 
courage the fainting man, " Tour wound is only a slight one ; don't 
mind it ! " The soldier tried to raise himself with the help of his 
rifle, but his efforts were in vain. In a rapidly weakening voice 
he repeatedly asked the Commander how the fight was going, on 
which the latter replied. " We have driven the enemy back, and 
the day is ours." On hearing this the dying man exclaimed, with a 
pleased smile on his ashen face, " So long as I have served my coun- 
try I have never had any reason to be dissatisfied. My wound, I 
know, is mortal ; I cannot hope to live. Be then so good as to cut 
off my head and free me from my great agony." The officer, deeply 
moved, gently chid him for making such a request, and the man 
grew calmer. He had no regret, and was williQg to die then and 
there — as indeed he did. 


7. — A BEGEET. 

When the Third Infantry Eegiment was about to storm the Etse- 
shan forts, the oflScers ordered the men to reserve their fire until 
close to the enemy. There was no tree or hillock to cover them in 
their impetuous charge. Kunning at full speed up the steep slope, 
the guns from the forts made great havoc in the ranks. Yet not 
a man offered to fire in return. At last they reached the brow of 
the slope, fired a sharp, ringing volley, and in a few minutes were 
masters of the position. 

During this perilous charge, one of the Japanese soldiers had 
his left arm shot off. When taken to the rear he exclaimed, " I 
only regret to have lost my arm before firing a single shot. " His 
Colonel, who was present, tried to comfort the wounded man, and 
said : " It is because I had such men as yourself in the regiment that 
we were able to take the forts. I am greatly moved by your words 
and your strict obedience to orders." But indeed the same spirit 
inspired all. 


FuKAZAWA Shikakichi, a second-class private of the Ninth 
Company, First Eegiment, fought well on the memorable day of 
the battle. When the day was well advanced, he received a severe 
wound in the abdomen. Seeing this, Sergeant Katabe, his 
immediate commander, ordered Fukuzawa to fall out and go to the 
rear. But the wounded man replied, with a wistful look, " The 
true warrior does not stop fighting till he dies !" and continued to 
press on with the rest. In a few minutes more he fell prostrate, 
and died the same night in the field-lazaret. 


Among those conspicuous for their gallantry in the storming 
of the Etse-shan Forts, was Special Sergeant Suzuki Kiyohiko, 


who belonged, to the Sixth Company of the Third Regiment. With 
only two men following him, he dashed into Fort No. 2, holding 
his ground until the others came up. Thence he went on to Fort 
No. 3, in the capture of which he was mainly instrumental. Later 
on, having joined with some scouts and the Commander of a Sub- 
company, Suzuki went around to the left of the Chengtse troops, 
when he ordered his men to make some sort of foot-hold preparatory 
to scaling the western wall. Mounting first, he fired into the brown 
of the enemy behind the wall, who were greatly alarmed by his 
action. His men following promptly, Suzuki ran on into the 
castle, where, together with the Sub-Lieutenant, he performed 
prodigies of valour, killing many Chinese who had been left behind 
in the castle by their fugitive comrades. At the same time the 
few Japanese here had to keep up a constant fire with one Com- 
pany of Chinese who were a bout 200 metres o£f, on the further end 
of a slightly elevated piece of ground. This Company was more 
over assisted by the heavy fire of their comrades on Songshii- 
shan and Peiyu-shan. The place captured by the Japanese was 
thus in imminent danger of being retaken ; yet Suzuki had no 
thought of retreating. Stimulating his men to yet greater efforts, 
he held the post for a full hour, until a reinforcement came up. 
On seeing Colonel Toyosaki Makoto fall, badly wounded, three 
of Suzuki's men — a Sergeant and two privates — went through the 
pitiless rain of bullets and rescued the Commander of their Regi- 
ment : a most gallant deed. When the Battalion come up, Suzuki 
and his followers hastened to dislodge the Chinese forces on the 
elevated ground just mentioned. This they did with a vigour that 
was astonishing for several had been wounded and all had done the 
work of brave men. 


One of the great lessons taught the Japanese soldiers is that he 
must be very careful in the use of ammunition and never fire unless 
so ordered or in actual peril of life. Moreover, he is told not to fire 
at a mob of men dimly seen in the distance after nightfall ; he is 
to wait until they come up or he gets near, so that not a shot is 


wasted. That such injunctions bear good fruit is proved by the 
action of Takei Fuku-ichiro. On the day following the capture of 
the supposed impregnable fortress, at early dawn, the Second 
Battalion of the Third Regiment received orders to pursue the 
flying Chinese and advance as far as Wanchia-tun, some 4 miles 
distant from Port Arthur. The march was an exceptionally trying 
one ; a bitter wind kept blowing about their ears, raising great clouds 
of dust, and the cold was very severe for that time of the year. 
On reaching Wanchia-tun after many hardships, the Sixth Company 
posted pickets outside the encampment, the men being duly 
warned to observe every precaution. Takei, a private of the third or 
lowest class, was one of the men selected for picket duty. At mid- 
night he heard some suspicious sounds, and soon discerned a 
batch of about ten Chinese soldiers trying to pass unnoticed by 
the picket line. Without going for aid, Takei quietly posted 
himself where he saw the enemy must pass, and, on their getting 
within 20 metres of his place of concealment, began firing as quick- 
ly as possible. Three Chinese fell, the rest flying in confusion. 
Takei moreover captured four muskets. But had he not been 
trained never to waste a shot, he would in all probability have 
fired at long range and thus done nothing more than startle the 
enemy without inflicting any damage on them. 


After the storming of the Laoti-shan forts — to the west of 
the Port — Takahashi Tokichi, a reserve second-class private of 
the Third Company, Second Regiment, followed Lieutenant Tera- 
da Keitaro around the foot of the hill on which the forts had just 
been taken. At 8.30 a. m., the Lieutenant descried a small 
steamer at anchor off the coast, and ordered Takahashi to go and 
capture it single-handed. Flinging off coat and shoes, Takahashi 
at once sprang into the water, though it was icily cold and 
apparently sure to stop him before getting far out. But the bold 
swimmer succeeded in reaching a small boat, in which he made 
his way to the steamer and captured it single-handed, despite the 



fact of there being a number of Chinese on board, 
name was the Gujungo.* 

The steamer's 


Feom a strategic standpoint, the position of Shwangtai-kau, 
north of Tuching-tse, is of critical importance to the Port Arthur 
Peninsula. From Yingching-tse on the coast line there is a gra- 
dual rise of ground southwards, until at Shwangtai-kau a height 
of no less than 2000 metres is attained. The passage to the left 
here is quite impracticable, owing to the huge boulders and 
precipitous cliffs ; while on the right hand roll the murmurous 
waters of the Gulf of Liaotong. Shwangtai-kau thus commands a 
view of the whole country roundabout,- — as far as Yingching-tse 
and some six miles to the north ; it was therefore evident that, 

should the Chinese occupy this im- 
portant eminence, great damage 
might be inflicted on the ap- 
proaching Japanese. On reaching 
Shwangtai-kau and successfully 
occupying this point, Major 
Akiyama Yoshifuru, who was in 
command of the Advance Cavalry 
Column, concluded that it would 
be advisable to press forward to 
Tuching-tse and keep the enemy 
back there until the Japanese 
Columns should come up. Al- 
though it did not fall within 
his province to take this decisive 
step, particularly as it was a task 
for Infantry rather than for horse- 
men. Major Akiyama saw that it 
was of vital importance. Acting on this resolution, he spread out 
his little squadron in open order and boldly attacked the Chinese 
•Japanese pronunciation. 

RPajok Akiyama. 



posted there, the latter numbering no less than two thousand, or 
ten times the strength of the Japanese. It seemed a piece of al- 
most incredible hardihood, but the Major relied upon the vigour 
and dash of the men he commanded : their utter fearlessness and 
indifference as to whether they lived or died in the struggle. 
While the fight was in progress, the Third Company of the Third 
Infantry Regiment came up and saw the full fury of the combat. 
Not an enemy had, until their arrival, been able to break through 
the little ring of horsemen, so desperate had been the valour of 
the Japanese Cavalry. Resolved to have their share of the fight- 
ing, the Infantry now ran forwards and engaged the enemy, this per- 
mitting the remaining horsemen 
to withdraw for a breathing spell. 
But as the number of the Chinese 
was constantly increased by 
reinforcements coming from the 
rear, the Japanese Infantry were 
very hard pressed. Major Aki- 
yama at this moment drew out of 
the melee, and, halting amidst a 
perfect rain of bullets, calmly 
observed the number of the 
oncoming foe and the direction 
taken by them. Commiserating 
the tremendous difficulties with 
which the foot-soldiers were en- 
countering — in the face of the 
over-whelming ■ numbers of the 

energy — the Major turned to one Kumagai Naosuke, an inter- 
preter, and remarked : " The Infantry are fighting our battle, but 
I shall not withdraw my horsemen until the safety of all is 
assured. " Despite the splendid dash of the Japanese the enemy 
gradually drew nearer, when Lieutenant Inagaki Saburo, an 
adjutant, came back and begged Major Akiyama to move away 
from the perilous place he occupied. Calling to Sergeant 
Watanabe Takematsu and a private of the second-class, Yama- 
moto Masagoro, he ordered them to lay about them and drive off 
the Chinese horsemen, now close at hand. This they did, and 

Lieutenant Inagaki. 



Major Akiyama was thus brought from the enemy's line. 
Japanese Infantry fell slowly back, but in good order. 


13. — MUTUAL AID. 

As noted above, the conflict between the reconnoitring 
Cavalry of the Second Column, while on the march to Port Arthur, 
and the large body of Chinese — ^certainly not less than 2300 — 
whom they encountered at Tuching-tse, was exceedingly fierce. 
By sheer force of numbers Chinese succeeded at one time in sur- 
rounding the Japanese on three sides, with very little hope of 
escape. At first Captain Asakawa with his Company of troopers 
led the van ; but on seeing that the fight had become general, he 
rode over to the right, in order to render assistance in this 
direction. Noting this the Chinese made a furious attack on 
that side: so rapidly and fiercely engaging the Japanese that 

those who had not yet mounted were 

rendered incapable of doing so ; and 

the cavalry-men had to fight on ioft 

like all the rest. 

The Brigade Com- 

mander now ordered Kimuka Gemmatsu. 

Captain Asakawa to 

disperse the rapidly increasing enemy, 

and, with only 40 or 50 troopers, the 

latter charged into the ranks of the Chinese. 

disabled his left arm, while his horse was killed beneath him. He 

was on the point of falling into the merciless hands of the enemy 

Seegeant Kobayashi. 

At this moment a shot 


wlien Kimura Gemmatsu — a third-grade trooper, — notwithstanding 
a severe wound he himself had received in the abdomen, caught 
sight of his Captain's peril and made through the press to his 
aid. Dismounting, he said : " Sir, as the head of my Company, 
please get on my horse ! " The Captain with the help of his sword 
and Kimura's arm was just barely able to mount, and, owing to 
his wound, incapable of managing the reins. Seeing this Kimu- 
ra grasped the bridle and despite the agony he was suffering ran 
the horse through the storm of bullets until he reached a little 
knoll some five or six hundred metres distant. Captain Asakawa 
was now so far restored that he could manage his mount, but 
Kimura, sick and faint, could no longer keep his feet. Just then 
Sergeant Kobayashi Shun-ichiro, a comrade of Kimura, rode up, 
dismounted, and helped the wounded officer on his own horse. 
Being still within the range of and exposed to the enemy's fire, 
Sergeant Kobayashi led his comrade four miles to the rear to a 
place called Shwangtai-kau, where there was no danger of meet- 
ing with Chinese. Here they halted, and the Sergeant temporari- 
ly bandaged Kimura's wound, thus ultimately saving the brave 
man's life. 

The above story is a simple one. It shows none the less 
the devotion of the Japanese soldiers to their officers, their own 
disregard of personal pain and discomfort, and the strong frater- 
nal feeling existing among the soldiers themselves. " Of these 
things," says Japanese journal, " we feel we have a right to be 


It was during the some severe skirmish at Tuching-tse that 
Ito Kinya, a cavalryman of the second class, met an honourable 
death. When Captain Asakawa Toshiyasu made his memorable 
charge, with a mere handful of men, into the ranks of the 
Chinese, lio Kinya was close behind him. lio made his horse 
plunge into the thickest of the fight and laid about him fiercely. 
He was seen surrounded by Chinese and fighting most gallantly, 


wlien a bullet struck him in the breast and another was sent 
through his horse's head. Eider and steed fell dead. 

lio's record was an exceptionally good one. Leaving Japan 
on October 17th, he landed with his Company in Shinking eleven 
days later. From that time he had been constantly engaged in 
hand-to-hand encounters with Chinese, and on all such occasions 
was to be found in the foremost rank. He was faithful, promptly 
obedient to command, fearless and intensely patriotic. 

After the skirmish was over, his remains were recovered by 
Major Akiyama and a military funeral accorded them at Shwan- 
tai-kau. Officers and simple soldiers alike gathered to do him. 
honour; while Lieutenant of Cavalry Inagaki, Major Akiyama's 
aide-de-camp, was requested to write an account of his death. 
This written narrative was afterwards forwarded to the family of 
the deceased, in token of respectful sympathy with their loss, 
lio while alive was fond of saying, "We should requite the 
favours received from Japan by dying for her." He died in ac- 
cordance with this patriotic precept. 

15. — A soldier's last moments. 

The First Kegiment, forming the Bight Column, did splendid 
work in the storming of the Port. After advancing for some dis- 
tance the troops came within 300 metres of a village, in which it 
was evident that a number of Chinese were concealed. Captain 
Kurahashi Aikitsu, in command of the Tenth Company, ordered 
first-class private Kojima Baisuke, with two others, to search the 
village in question. Kojima joyfully obeyed the order, exclaiming, 
" This is the time for me to show my gratitude to my country ! " 
With two privates of the second-class, Sumita Kamematsu and 
Ishikawa Sokichi, he ran forwards into the hamlet. Seeing this, 
the handful of Chinese ran out and upon a hill to the west of the 
village, where they prepared to make an unusually determined 
stand. Kojima, nothing daunted, drove all the Chinese from the 
place and drew near the spot where the defenders had made 
their last stand. The Company now came up and, forming in 


line of battle, began to fire in regular volleys, to wMcli the Chinese 
valiantly replied. The Japanese, being in the open, were ordered 
to fire from a recumbent position, and for a little while the 
bullets came pattering on all sides like rain. Suddenly Kojima, 
who had been standing, sat down with a loud cry of " Ugh, you 
Chinese wretches ! " Blood was seen trickling from a wound and 
reddening his tunic. The men beside him now first noticed that 
he. had been wounded, and probably quite severely. Kojima 
appeared unconscious of his danger and callous to the necessarily 
great pain. He laid his good rifie beside him and, unfastening 
the. buttons of his coat, made shift to bind up his wound. The 
bullet had however entered the abdomen and passed clean through 
him, so that he had little or no control over his hands and fingers, 
the injury having partially paralysed him. A comrade, 
Takura Heijiro, noting his plight, endeavoured to make a tem- 
porary bandage and so stop the gush of blood ; and while he did so 
Kojima said, " Ah, it is quite true that the soldier must expect to 
be shot by the enemy : this is nothing but his duty. But I have 
got this hurt before getting into the midst of the foe, and this 
gives me much sorrow. Bandage me as quickly as you can ; I 
shall be satisfied if I only can meet once with our foes hand-to- 
hand." He was so eager for the fight that he again and again tried 
to stagger to his feet. Takura endeavoured to keep him quiet, 
but the mortally wounded man would not consent to this. Just 
then the Company resumed their march,- and Kojima said, " Go 
you first and join the others ; I'll follow in a minute." But the 
poor fellow could no longer stand. A stretcher was brought and 
he placed on it — and in less than five minutes he was dead. 


The peninsula of Laoti was stormed by the Tenth Company 
of the First Eegiment, the troops succeeding in taking possession 
of the northern part of Yangshukeu. It appeared however that 
a number of Chinese were still concealed in a village to the south 
of the latter place, and Kojima Chojiro, a private of the first-class. 


was sent witli two other troopers to reconnoitre. They got into the 
village and there met with two Chinese horsemen, whom they shot 
down and deprived of the red banners they were carrying, conside- 
rably lessening the courage of the Chinese still in the village, who 
retreated to Laoti and there made a stand. Pickets were then 
posted in the village, facing the foe. Towards evening a gale be- 
gan to blow accompanied with heavy rain, which grew more vio- 
lent as night fell, with Cimmerian darkness. But Kojima had not 
yet completed his reconnaissance, for he had been told to learn as 
much as possible about the enemy thereabouts. In this pitchy 
darkness, how could he see ? The only thing, concluded Kojima, 
was to dash into the enemy's camp and bring them all out to repel 
a supposed attack in force. With his two comrades Kojima 
proceeded to carry out this daring plan, pressing through the hos- 
tile picket-line and learning all he wanted to know. The three 
men were frequently fired at but escaped without injury. An,d so 
that report was made in a wholly satisfactory manner. 


The Commander of the Ninth Company, Second Eegiment, 
was Captain Matsushita Tsunanari. The Company was ordered 
to silence and capture the Hwangkin-shan forts, in the rear of 
Port Arthur. These were the most dangerous of all the forts, so 
far as the attacking forces were concerned ; for their cannon com- 
manded not only the land-forts but even the positions where the 
Japanese Artillery had been ranged. The guns were thus of 
heavy calibre, and it was most necessary to silence them before 
proceeding to the capture of the coast forts. Captain Matsushita's 
Company was foremost in the attack. Fighting bravely, the officer 
led his men to and succeeded in capturing the left outpostsof the 
Chengtse troops there stationed. Just then the Japanese Artillery 
ceased firing. The Ninth Company was now exposed to a galling 
cross-fire, yet never wavered. On entering, first of all, the Song- 
shu-shan forts. Captain Matsushita was struck by some fragments 
of a shell come from a fort on the right, and wounded in the lower jaw 


and rear. Tlie injury was plainly a mortal one. Standing being 
impossible, the brave man sat down and, brandishing his sword, 
still continued to call out orders to his men, whose ardor increased 
each moment, so eager were they to avenge their Commander's 
wounds. Some men of the Ambulance Corps now came up to carry 
him from the field, but could not persuade him to leave the spot. 
A few moments later the face-wound caused his lower jaw to drop 
helpless, speech being no longer possible. Still he waited, until 
the ringing cheers announced the capture of the Songshu, Peiyu 
and Hwangkin-shan forts. A smile crossed his blood-covered 
face and now he consented to placed on a stretcher and carried 
away. But before the field-lazaret was reached, the bold spirit 
had fled. 


The wounds received by the Japanese soldiers on the fields of 
battle have, almost without exception, been found on the front part 
of their bodies. The killed were shot in front and fell on their 
faces. On the other hand, the Chinese were most frequently found 
shot or otherwise wounded in the back. The Japanese died hold- 
ing their rifles or swords ; the Chinese not only, as a rule, without 
their weapons, but often half unclothed, they having torn their 
uniforms off in order to be mistaken for ordinary non-combatant 

In the battle of Port Arthur the wounded Japanese behaved 
most manfully. Even those who had been seriously or mortally 
injured never complained of their hurts. While the surgeons 
were at work on them they would ask, " Is the Colonel safe?" 
"Has the Port fallen? " or ""Have we taken all the forts? "—An- 
other, at the point of death, gasped out : " Having helped to take 
Port Arthur, why should regret to die ? " None sent last mes- 
sage to their friends or relations in Japan, except when particu- 
larly urged to do so. Exhausted, wounded, or half-dead, the sol- 
diers had but one thought and put but one question — whether the 
proud citadel had surrendered to the Sun-flag. 



A Chinese officer, who was captured in the storming of Port 
Arthur, is reported to have said that there were two reasons why 
the Japanese had proved so decisively victorious. These were (1) 
that the Japanese employed shells (possibly meaning shrapnel) of a 
terrible nature, of a kind they, the Chinese, had never even heard 
of ; and (2) that the Japanese, when advancing to the charge, Avere 
not to be repulsed even by the fiercest fire. They seemed to the 
Chinese to be utterly reckless, storming on as they did under the 
iron hail from the forts. 


A few days after the capture of Port Arthur, a heavy rain 
set in, adding greatly to the discomfort of the soldiers and their 
Chinese captives. On November 27th there was a regular down- 
pour and everything was soaking. It was on the evening of this 
day that Field-Marshal Count Oyama, while passing by a disman- 
tled house, saw a number of Chinese prisoners standing huddled 
together and sliivering under the eaves, whence the rain fell drip, 
drip, on their cowering forms. Moved by the sight, the Field 
Marshal called one of his aides and said : " Those too are men. 
My horse, though he may die if exposed to this rain, is not worth 
those men's lives. Quick, lead them to my stables ; turn the horses 
out ; and see that the prisoners are warmly sheltered." When this 
act of kindness was interpreted to and understood by the Chinese, 
they shed tears of gratitude and repeatedly begged that their 
thanks should be conveyed to the Count. 


According to the unanimous concensus of the Japanese, both 
soldiers and non-combatants, Lieutenant-General Yamaji — the 


" One-eyed Dragon " * as he is admiringly dubbed — is the bravest 
of the brave. With all this he is singularly modest and unassu- 
ming, qualities that certainly become a warrior. After the fall of 
Port Arthur he made a point of saluting every naval officer he met, 
saying to each one : " We owe you great thanks for the capture of 
the Port. " This was his way of assuring Fleet of its importance. 
But only those who know how great were the difficulties attendant 
upon the land-attack and the part played therein by the brave 
Lieutenant-General, can appreciate his self-depreciatory modesty. 


On the occasion of Major-General Hasegawa's attack on the 
coast-line forts, the Commander ordered Fujino Kunimatsu, a se- 
cond-class private belonging to the Mixed Brigade, to act as scout 
and report on the condition of the enemy. On the road Fujino 
met with some 1500 Chinese, and received a mortal wound in the 
abdomen. His Corporal and Company Commander, perceiving 
the nature of the injury, ordered him to go to the rear and receive 
surgical attendance. After the battle was over, these two went to 
inquire aboiit Fujino, and were shocked to learn that the surgeons 
held out no hope of recovery : the man was, in fact, dying 
rapidly. The captain went to where Fujino lay and asked the poor 
fellow if he had nothing to say before dying. Opening his dim 
eyes, Fujino feebly replied ; " I owe my life to my country : to die 
for it is not hard." All those who heard these loyal words were 
deeply moved. "Yes ; " went on the corporal, " that is a good say- 
ing. We all honour you for such words, and shall tell your rela- 
tives, when we get back to Japan, how bravely you died. But have 
you no word to send to anybody?" His voice sinking to a 
whisper, Fujino uttered his last words : " My parents are still alive. 
Tell them, please, that I died for — my — country — and — was — 
praised — ^by — my — officers ! " And the brave heart was still. 

* Lieut.-General Yamaji lost an eye wMle yet a young man. The dragon in 
both Japan and China is a symbol of superior strength and intellect. 



On the day preceding the attack on the Port, i. e. Noyember 
20th, the Advance Guard of the Japanese forces came into collision 
with the Chinese. Wishing to know the exact distance separating 
them from the nearest of the enemy's forts, an Artillery officer of 
the First Eegiment sent Sergeant Tokoi Gorokuro to make the 
necessary calculations. Tokoi set off with alacrity in the direction 
of the Etse-shan forts, which were the first to be attacked. Tak- 
ing his stand on a little prominence, he drew out his watch and be- 
gan watching the flying shells with an unmoved countenance, al- 
though missiles of all sorts flew about him in murderous proximity. 
After repeatedly counting the interval of time between the flash of 
the guns and the striking of the shells, he was able to calculate 
the distance to a nicety. This done he walked slowly back to his 
post and made his report. It was an exhibition of daring cool- 
ness, and all were pleased to see the Sergeant return uninjured. 

24. — THE coolies' victoey. 

Although unarmed, the Japanese coolies attached to the 
various Army Divisions had, on several occasions during the course 
of the war, to fight for their lives, and in no single instance did 
they fail to rout the foe. The following is one of the most strik- 
ing examples of their naked valor. 

It was just two days after the fall of Port Arthur that a body 
of about 800 Chinese soldiers made an attack on the Commissariat 
Quarters. The camp was 30 li (Chinese miles) from the Port, and 
there were only 60 Japanese troopers guarding it. Despite the 
most valorous efforts, the Japanese found themselves in a position 
of imminent danger. Their ammiinition was almost expended and 
they had just made up their minds to die, when the commanding 
officer approached at the head of 700 transport coolies. These 
men were employed simply in the capacity of porters and camp- 
servants, so had no arms. A few only carried staves. Neverthe- 
less the headman of the coolies begged the Commander to permit 


them to engage in a hand-to-hand encounter with the Chinese. 
" Though we may not be able to beat them," said he, " we can do 
them much damage, and at all events we may keep them busy 
until re-inforcements come up. " To this the officer rather unwil- 
lingly consented. In a moment the coolies were off at a full run, 
yelling and hurrahing. They fell on the astonished enemy with 
their naked hands, wrenched the swords or guns away from many, 
and fought like so many demons. The Chinese broke their ranks 
and fled, the Cavalry leaving their horses and the foot-soldiers 
their guns in the hands of the victorious coolies. Of the enemy 
30 were killed and many others taken prisoners. On the part of 
the coolies, the total casualties were only five killed and wounded. 
This has — and with justice — been termed one of the most remark- 
able episodes of the war. 

(Adapted from the Japan Mail.') 

AccOEDiNG to the narrative of an officer in the Second Army, 
told to the correspondent of a Tokyd journal, it appears that on 
the night preceding the attack of the Port, the whole Army encamp- 
ed in the immediate vicinity, having had several skirmishes with 
the enemy on the two preceding days. The men were greatly 
exhausted, and the next day, after the battle was over, their tre- 
mendous fatigue was evident. To add to their discomfort, the 
weather suddenly changed on the evening of the 21st and a pier- 
cingly cold wind sprang up. Insufficiently protected against the 
cold, the soldiers slept in each other's arms in their endeavour to 
keep warm. The following instance shows how utterly exhausted 
the men were :— One of the soldiers, who had taken active part in 
the day's action, lay down close to the camp-fire and fell at once 
into a sound sleep. The fire, fanned by the strong wind, at last 
reached the clothes and then the body of the sleeping warrior, but 
so great was his fatigue that he received fatal burns before awake- 
ning to a sense of his danger. 

The reason why the victory was achieved by the Japanese is not 


because the Chinese failed to fight as well as they knew how, but 
because the intrepid valour of the Japanese was irresistible. This 
is proved by a foreign war-correspondent who was an eye-witness 
of the scenes of November 21st. He relates how the Mixed Bri- 
gade, under Major-General Hasegawa, stormed the Erhlung-shan 
forts without any assistance from the Artillery and in the face of 
a hail of shot and shell from the Chinese guns. The exploit is 
one characterised as being almost without parallel. The foreign 
correspondent censures the unnecessary slaughter of the Chinese 
found in or fleeing from the assaulted forts ; yet he avers that the 
Japanese troops were in all instances promptly obedient to the word 
of command and at all times ready to lay down their lives should 
the necessity arise. It is impossible to do otherwise than speak 
of such conduct in terms of the highest praise. The manner in 
which the men of the Mixed Brigade conducted themselves was 
valorous and loyal. When they attacked the forts, the mountain- 
guns of the Japanese Artillery were out of range, while the field- 
guns could not be brought up in time. So, without the cover of 
an artillery-fire on their side, the Japanese advanced boldly to the 
attack, so soon as Major-General Hasegawa had given the com- 
mand. This Mixed Brigade consisted mainly of troopers from 
Kyushu, noted for its fighters. Major-General Hasegawa took 
advantage of this fact when he gave the command to attack the 
forts, for he called out, "Charge! lads of Kyushu." The exhorta- 
tion was at once effective, and the soldiers proved that they were 
worthy of their fame. After the battle was over the Brigade Com- 
mander said that he had expected to see the majority of his men 
killed. Vice-Admiral Count Kawamura, who was a witness of 
the whole scene, told His Majesty the Emperor that the intrepid 
bearing and deeds of the Mixed Brigade were indeed marvelous. 
The attack on Port Arthur was witnessed by the Japanese fleet, 
just outside the Port, as well as by several foreign men-of-war ; 
and by all with breathless interest. As the forts fell, one after the 
other, into the hands of besiegers, the onlookers raised rapturous 
and repeated cheers. 


26. — A fobeignee's report of the battle.* 

The following in an e'sitraot from a letter written by a foreigner 
present at the taking of Port Arthur : — " You will no doubt have 
heard by this time eveything there is to be said about the attack 
on Port Arthur. As one of the officers here expressed it to me 
the other day, ' la faiblesse des GJiinois est irwroyable.' They cer- 
tainly did not fight it out to the end at Port Arthur, as the very 
small numbers of Chinese soldiers found dead at their posts most 
plainly showed. They kept up a heavy fire on the Japanese as the 
latter advanced to the attack — both east and west. But their fire 
was ineffective, and this must have had a somewhat demoralising 
effect on them. At any rate, from whatever cause, they did not <iwait 
the attacks, but left their positions before the Japanese reached 
them, except in the case of a very few men who remained in the 
most western fort and were killed at their post. The Japanese 
Artillery fire was good, but my impression is that the range was 
rather too long for their shrapnel shells to be properly effective ; 
and in the case of the western forts the Chinese position was so 
much higher than the Japanese that the defenders were able to 
get excellent cover. Of course, from the nature of the case, the 
Japanese Artillery had to be contented with a poor position — and 
if the Chinese gunners had been any good, the Japanese Field 
Artillery ought now to be non-existent. They were completely 
commanded by the Chinese, who were able not only to bring a 
frontal fire on them from the western forts, but also a flanking 
fire from at least one of the eastern forts, and from positions near 
the town. As it was, the Artillery duel went on for nearly an 
hour, and only a Japanese horse was wounded. The Chinese de- 
fence was a most disjointed one — there was evidently no guiding 
spirit — while the Japanese attack was well adapted to overcome 
such a defence. The Japanese evidently have a very small opinion 
of the Chinese soldiers, and this was exemplified again at Kin- 
chow, on the same day as the capture of Port Arthur, when about 
1,300 men defended a line of 2f miles against some 7,000 or 8,000 
Chinese, successfully driving them off, and pursuing them for 
some distance. 

* Taken from the Japan Mail. 


"We are very fairly comfortable here. All the Japanese 
officers are exceedingly attentive and kind, and we have just had 
the band playing to us in our own court-yard. 

I think I ought to add something more. First of all, the way 
every one worked on the march from Talien Bay was beyond all 
praise. All day and all night long the stores were being dragged 
forward, and there must have been very little sleep indeed for 
three nights; and especially was this the case with the Siege 
Artillery, who, with most inadequate means of draught (two, three, 
or four ponies for each carriage), over a bad road, managed by the 
most splendid efforts to get their guns into position by daylight 
on the 21st. We saw them start from Talien Bay on the 18th, 
and we passed them on the road on the 19th. My companions 
declared there was no chance of their being at the front in time ; but 
I was very much struck with the way they were working. Sure 
enough, at 5.30 p. m. on the 20th they began to pass Head Quar- 
ters. We were in the saddle at 2 a. m. on the 21st, and the guns 
were still on the road to the front ; yet at daylight they opened 
fire just after the Field Artillery had begun. It was first-class ! 

And I think one ought to say something of the Japanese In- 
fantry. It is all very well to say that the Chinese defence was 
weak, but that does not retract from the good work of the Japan- 
ese Infantry. It was a grand sight to see them advancing against 
the forts^and I have no doubt whatever that their steady, rapid, 
unhesitating approach had more effect than anything else in mak- 
ing the Chinese defence weak. To wait for close quarters in those 
circumstances requires better soldiers than the Chinese. A weak 
or hesitating advance mighb have proved disastrous." 



After Kinchow-ohing, or the walled castle-town of Kin- 
chow, had been captured by Lieut. -General Yamaji and his 
brave command, this place was made the gatheriag-ground of the 
Second Army, prior to their attack on Port Arthur. The latter 
great harbour was not only splendid situated from a military 
standpoint but also surrounded by so many admirably constructed 
fortresses and other defences that the Chinese deemed it well-nigh 
impregnable. Under the circumstances, therefore, the larger 
portion of the Second Expeditionary Army had to turn south- 
wards. In Kinchow as a garrison were left only the Fifteenth 
Begiment, less one Battalion, and one Sub-company of Cavalry 
belonging to the First Battalion. This little force was under 
the command of Infantry Colonel Kono Michiyoshi. The whole 
road between Port Arthur and Foochow had thus to be guard- 
ed ; and, when the Army set out for its great objective, nothing 
was known about the movements of the enemy coming from 
the north. 

On November 15th Colonel Kono distributed his forces as 
follows : — One Sub-company of Infantry near the arsenal of the 
Mingtse troops, just outside the north gate of the town. These 
men were to protect the Cavalry encampment and the Artillery 
ground on the south-west. Another Sub-company was sent to the 
forts on Shuiohia-shan ; a third stationed near the barracks below 
the hill; a fourth posted as a guard at Suchia-tun and Menchia-tun. 
One Company of Infantry and a Sub-company of Cavalry were 



placed at Shilisan-li-taitse on the Foochow road. One Sub-com- 
pany of Infantry was finally sent on to Siemen-tse, to guard tlie 
FoocIlow road, tlie Petsewo highway, and the commissariat or 
etappe line in that direction. In the castle itself was one Company 
of Infantry. Captain Okuda Masatada, of the Fifth Company 
and Commander of the force distributed along the Foochow road, 

was now ordered to make a 
reconnaissance . northwards. 
He kept every day mounted 
scouts patrolling the vicinity 
as far Wushihli-pu on the 
Foochow road, but without 
seeing or hearing of any 
movement of consequence. 
On November 18th, a Sub- 
company of Infantry and 
another of Cavalry went on 
towards Pulantien (or Port 
Adams), on the Foochow 
highway. On reaching this 
place they became aware of a 
number of Chinese advancing 
from the neighbourhood of Chingchia-pu. " The Chinese horsemen 
speedily caught sight of the Japanese scouting-party and at once 
advanced on the latter at full gallop ; the Japanese however with- 
drew without offering to fight, and, falling back on Sanshihli-pu, 
sent word of what they had seen to the Main Body (2 a.m., Nov. 
19th). Continuing to reconnoitre, they then found that the 
enemy had not dared advance beyond a certain point. Shortly af- 
ter noon of November 19th, a party consisting of one non-commis- 
sioned officer of cavalry, one first-class mounted trooper and three 
rank and file, were sent on from Shihsanli-taitse to Wushihli-pu. 
When these five men arrived at Sungkau on the Foochow road, 
about three hours later, they saw about one Eegiment of the 
enemy slowly advancing. A few moments later they were attack- 
ed by 50 Chinese horsemen. The non-commissioned officer and 
two of the men had the misfortune to have their horses shot 
under them, the animals dropping dead. It is supposed that they 

Captain Okuda. 

KINGHOW 11. 185 

at once committed suicide, preferring such a death to tlie disgrace 
and torture awaiting them had they been taken prisoners by the 
Chinese. The other two scouts concealed themselves successfully 
in the brush-covered hills eastward of the highway, and thereafter 
with great difficulty managed to get back to Liuhiatien on the 
Petsewo road. Thence they made their way to the regimental 
quarters west of Kinchow, where they reported what had occur- 
red. Colonel Kono moreover had received information of the 
approach of the enemy, 50 or 60 horsemen and foot-soldiers having 
made their appearance near the Petsewo and west of the Foochow 
road. No others were at the time visible, yet from the indications 
the Colonel judged that the Chinese must be in force, not far away on 
the Foochow highroad. Word to this effect, was sent on the outlying 
camps where earthworks and breastworks were hastily thrown up, 
the soldiers commencing their defensive operations at dawn of 
November 20th. Twenty minutes before noon of the same day, every- 
thing was in readiness, the Japanese being prepared to give the foe 
a vigorous welcome. The disposition of the defending troops was 
thus : — (1) The First Infantry Battalion, less the Third Company, 
in the village just beyond the west gate of Kinchow, and one 
Company especially told off to guard the approach to the high 
ground north-west of the castle, with a Sub-company on the 
lookout on the western littoral ; (2) The Second Infantry Bat- 
talion, less their Second Company, in the villages beyond the 
north gate, with pickets at Siementse and Sanli-pu, guard- 
ing the roads to Petsewo and Foochow ; (-"3) Colonel Kono with 
the remainder of the Regiment, in the camp beyond the north 
gate. The orders given were promptly and to the letter obeyed, 
so that, at 5 p. m., all preparations had been completed and 
the men allowed to retire to their respective camps. Nothing 
particular transpiring as to the movements of the enemy 
two hours later. Colonel Kono ordered that, as the Begiment 
would protect the town, each Battalion should be prepared 
to move at 6 o'clock the following morning; the men might, 
for the present, retire. Shortly before midnight, the Infantry 
Company and Cavalry Sub-company sent on to Shihsanli-taitse 
met with a large body of Chinese foot and horse, the majority 
taking the road across the hills west of Shisanli-taitse. Another 



body simultaneously appeared on the Foochow road, the enemy's 
idea evidently being to intercept communication between Shihsan- 
li-taitse and Kinchow. According to the orders they had receiv- 
ed, the Japanese at once fell back on Kinchow, word being at the 
same time forwarded to the watchful Colonel, who immediately 
warned the forces in the outlying villages. With dawn of the 
following day, each camp sent mounted scouts out, and most 
diligently endeavoured to ascertain the strength of the approach- 
ing enemy and their probable movements. At 11.20 a. m. a 
body of Chinese horse and foot was descried approaching the high 
ground south of Shihsanli-taitse. They displayed according to 
custom numerous flags and banners, and marched along in good 
order. The Japanese pickets on the Sanli-chwang plateau at 
once began firing at the enemy, who, after receiving several 
volleys, separated into two bodies, one going to the west of the 
Foochow road while the other went east. On the elevated ground 
to the north of Kinchow, or rather of the castle, the First, 

Fourth, Third and Second Com- 
panies were drawn up in the 
order named, the open sea being 
on their left. Not the full com- 
plement of these four Companies 
was present ; about two and one- 
half Sub-companies having been 
despatched to the defence of the 
Shuichia-shan forts, the actual 
number of men was a very little 
more than three Companies. The 
Eight Wing was formed by the 
Second Battalion, whose Fifth, 
Eighth and Second Companies, 
in this order, were stationed be- 
tween the highland north-east of 
Kinchow and the Foochow road. 
Three Companies only of this Battalion were thus prepared to 
receive the brunt of the enemy's attack, the Sixth Company being 
inside the walls for the immediate defence of the castle. The 
Japanese line of battle extended for a distance of 4000 metres. 

Majoe Saito Tako, Commandek 

OP THE 2nd Battalion, 

15th Regiment. 

KINGHOW 11. 187 

and because of it its small numbers was thus in deadly peril. 
Yet there were no re-inforcements to despatch to the aid of the 
devoted men : they could only stand and fight for their lives. 

Among the spoils captured with Kinchow there had, very 
fortunately, been four 8 centimetre Krupp field-guns at the east 
gate and on the north-east corner of the castle, two in each place. 
The castle garrison had since then been practising with these 
guns and had learned how to manage them. Now was the time to 
put their so recently acquired knowledge into practice. A little 
past midday the attack began in grim reality, and as the Chinese 
came within range the self-trained artillerists within the walls com- 
menced firing with telling eiFect. The enemy now, instead of stead- 
ily continuing their approach, divided into two bodies, of which 
one dashed on towards the highland to the north of the town, 
while the other made for the elevated ground to the north-east. 
The Chinese coming towards the Japanese Left {i.e. the First Bai- 
talion), consisted of three bodies, one of which had come from 
Shihsanli-taitse, the second across the hills from the east, and the 
third from the sea-coast, forming two large Columns altogether. 
Their arrangement was, however very disorderly and irregular, 
with smaller bodies of men scattered, here, there and everywhere. 
The front of this multitudinous body was about 6000 metres long, 
and reached back for 4000-5000 metres. 

The scene was a magnificent one, despite the apparent disord- 
erly discipline. Bodies of horsemen from 50 to 100 strong dashed 
hither and thither, while the whole Army came on with an 
activity and bold bearing that showed they felt certain of their 
prey. The Chinese marching against the Japanese Left were 4000 
in number ; those approaching the right, 3000 ; while there were 
at least 300 horsemen running about. 

Sub-Lieutenant Hirano Eiji who had been with the picket at 
Siemen-tse on the Japanese Bight, had, shortly before this, re- 
turned with one Sub-company of the Seventh Company. He was 
thereupon ordered to take his men to the ground where the Fifth 
Company stood and there assist in the defence. The enemy on 
that side, hovever, confident in their numbers, showed exceptional 
boldness, running to the charge without exhibiting any fear of the 
Japanese fire. Soon they began to clamber iip a hill to the right 


of the Japanese position, whence they intended delivering an over- 
Whelming attack on the town and its defenders. Sub-Lieutenant 
Hirano at this point fought heroically, and with his men succeeded 
in holding the enemy back: but the effort cost the life of the 
young officer. The Eighth Company, recognizing the extreme peril 
of the Fifth, now sent a Sub-company as a re-inforcement. At the 
same time the temporary cannoneers in the castle used their guns, 
mowing down great lanes in the ranks of the foe. Signs of weak- ■ 
ness and wavering were noticeable in the enemy's forces at 1. 20 
p. m., encouraging the defenders to renewed efforts. 

Supposing that the enemy would be sure to attempt to recov- 
er the Shuichia-shan forts, the Sixth Company, after leaving a few 
tens of soldiers on guard at each of the city gates, marched, two 
Sub-companies strong, against the Chinese on the high-ground to 
the right of the Japanese position. This spot was of the utmost 
importance, it being the key to the whole position. At 2.30 p. m. 
a rumour to the effect that Port Arthur had been captured, ran 
along the Japanese lines — to the wild delight of the harassed com- 
batants, who forgot both fatigue and their own great peril in the 
thought of the triumph of their comrades-in-arms. The Fifth, 
Seventh and Eighth Companies now sent each one Sub-company 
forwards, and this body was, while fiercely engaging the enemy, 
joined by the Sixth Company. Combined they forced back the 
Chinese hordes, overwhelmingly superior in number though they 
were. At 3.15 p. m. the Eighth Company sent one more Sub-com- 
pany to attack the rear flank of the retreating enemy, a task of 
which the men acquitted themselves well. 

The Chinese who had proceeded to attack the First Battalion, 
forming the Japanese Left Wing, had been more more leisurely in 
their movements. Each Company had had time to conceal some 
men in the inner glens along the mountain-slope, the enemy ap- 
proaching the while unconscious of the ambuscade. As the Chin- 
ese drew nearer the defenders began volley-firing, while the best 
marksmen were told to single out the leaders and pick them off 
one by one. When within 400 metres of the Japanese contingent, 
a simultaneous burst of fire along the whole line greatly discon- 
certed the enemy. Their progress was checked, then turned into a 
slow retreat, the Chinese trying to seek shelter behind the rocks 


and trees as they -withdrew. From the highland above, however, 
one volley after another was steadily poured into the retreating 
masses, accelerating their retrograde movement. Just then the 
attacking troops on the Japanese Bight began to retreat rapidly. 
This added to the general confusion, which was still further in- 
tensified by the Japanese quick-fire. At 3.30 p.m. the Chinese 
were running in all directions. The enemy coming from the Poo- 
chow road had likewise failed to get near ; and five Sub-companies 
were ordered to chase them for a distance of 2000-3000 metres, 
firing as they ran. This body of the enemy retreated to Shihsanli- 
pu. At 4 p. m. the battle was all over, the Japanese being com- 
pletely successful at every point. As for the more than 3000 strong 
force that had come up along the coast on the left, no attempt was 
made to retreat, although the sun was now about setting. The 
Japanese in this direction, being far too few in number to take the 
offensive, simply stood where they were, defending their post. 
About midnight these Chinese troops also gave over the attempt 
and retired. 

During the course of the day the Japanese losses were 8 
killed and 47 wounded. Of Chinese corpses alone no less than 
500 were counted on the field, so that the enemy's casualties must 
have been very heavy. The Sub-company of Cavalry, belonging 
to the Fifteenth Begiment, had been stationed throughout the day 
beyond the east gate of the town, where they kept strict watch over 
Japanese Bight and reconnoitred from time to time. Colonal Ko- 
no now ordered his troops to desist from pursuing the fleeing Chin- 
ese, and the tired men gradually come back to their quarters. The 
First Battalion bivouacked at their former camp, while the Second 
(less the Sixth Company) sent one Company on to Sanli-chwang, 
another to the post beyond the east gate, and a third to the north 
gate. The Sixth Company, formerly on guard within the walls, 
now returned to the castle. The Sub-company of Cavalry, after 
completing a reconnaissance of the Shuichia-shan forts and vicinity, 
encamped beyond the east gate, while Colonel Kono stopped at 
the camp outside the north gate. According to subsequent inves- 
tigations, the total number of Chinese engaged in this abortive 
attempt to recapture Kinchow, could not have been much less than 
7000. They were picked men and under the command of General 


Sung Kiang. Viceroy Li had especially instructed General Sung to 
co-operate with the forces at Port Arthur, thus getting the Japan- 
ese between two fires. This well-conceived plan was frustrated 
by the quick movements of the Second Army, who were engaged 
in their successful attack on the Port before General Sung managed 
to bring his troops up to Kinchow, It is moreover supposed that 
the large body of Chinese met with and dispersed by the First 
Battalion of the Third Regiment (the foremost body of the Divi- 
sion) at Shwangtai-kau, on November 18th, during the march to 
Port Arthur, was a detachment sent from the Port northwards to 
Kinchow in order to carry out the preconcerted scheme of attacking 
the Japanese both in front and in the rear. 

When the news of the peril of the little garrison at Kinchow 
reached the Japanese at Port Arthur, General Count Oyama, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Second Army, at once sent the Second Bat- 
talion of the First Begiment to the relief of the beleaguered town. 
The First Division also made ready to send thither a relieving 
party — consisting of the Third Battalion of the Fifteenth Begi- 
ment, half a Sub-company of Cavalry and the Sixth Company of 
Mountain Artillery, the whole being under the command of Major- 
General Nogi. But by the time the necessary preparations were 
made, it was 5 o'clock in the afternoon, and the men exhausted 
from the long fighting at the Port and their preceding sleepless 
night. Again there was a lack of ammunition and other necessa- 
ries, which might not be supplied until the next morning. At 
dawn of the 22nd this body set out, and on the 23rd reached San- 
shihli-pu, after having had several skirmishes with parties of the dis- 
persed enemy. Here they learned that Colonel Kono and his men 
had been more than able to hold their own, and that the attack- 
ing Army had been compelled to fall back on Foochow. Greatly 
reassured by this news, the men rested that day at Sanshihli-pu. 
On the 24th they resumed their march, entering Kinchow in the 
early afternoon. 



The Caeeiagb op the Wounded in fbont of the Miwtaby Hospitaii 
inside op the nokth gate op kinohow. 


We have already narrated how Colonel Kono Michiyoshi 
and his few hundred soldiers defended Kinchow successfully 
against the attack of seven thousand Chinese. Isolated instances 
of exceeding boldness and bravery were not wanting on those 
memorable days ; but perhaps most interesting of all is the story 
how Sergeant Fukuda, with a mere handful of men, held out at 
Suchia-tun againt truly overwhelming odds. 

It will be remembered that Colonel K5no, on November 18th, 
made an excellent disposition of the force under his command ; 
sending a few score of men to protect each vital point on the 
roads leading towards the castle. Among the rest, one Sub-com- 
pany was despatched to garrison Suchia-tun, a place two miles 
south of the town, on a hill. This is a very important if small 



village is bounded on the west by the Bay of Kinchow, on the east 
by the Yellow Sea ; while southward runs the road to Port Arthur 
and northward the routes to Kaiping, Newchwang and Moukden, 
by way of Foochow. The three highways meet at Suchia-tun, so 
that any one coming from Kinchow, Talien Bay, Wiju or Takushan, 
must pass by this place. Moreover there were several military 
depots here, beside a telegraph station and large supplies of 
ammunition and military stores, so that the successful occupation 
and retention of Suchia-tun were of vital importance to the 
Japanese forces in the Peninsula. Nine cannon, field and moun- 
tain guns, were here ready to repel attack, and everything had 
been done to make the place as secure as possible. 

On November 19th it became evident that a large body of 
Chinese were coming to attempt the re-capture of Kinohow, along 
the roads from Pulantien and Petsewo. The strengthening of 
the Kinchow garrison being therefore of immediate importance. 
Lieutenant Hineno Shuzo, Commander of the Company, at once 
sent a messenger to the little garrison at Suchia-tun. "It is 
reported," the message ran, " that the Chinese are approaching 
Kinchow in force, coming from Pulantien and Petsewo. You are 
to leave your post at once and come up here. One file only is to 

stay in the present garrison. 
Select whatever men you please 
for this purpose, and see that 
they observe every precaution." 
The officer commanding the Sub- 
company at once selected for this 
perilous purpose Second-Class 
Sergeant Fukuda, First-Class 
Privates Koyano Hisaburo and 
Kasukawa Utaro, and the follow- 
ing men from the ranks : — Yazaki 
Chukichi, Furuse Kanezo, Kono 
Hikoji, Suga Kinjuro, Otsuka 
Mosaku, Shiokawa Ichizo, Suzuki 
Harusaburo, Yamada Keijiro, Aikawa Saijiro, and Nakamnra 
Dengo — twelve in all, besides the Sergeant. Having thus arranged 
matters, the commanding officer returned to Kinchow with the 



other men of tlie Sub-company at 7 p. m. 

The attack on Kinchow was made, as we know, on Novem- 
ber 21st, and for several hours the battle raged about the hills 
around the town. At last, beaten off at all points, the enemy 
began to retreat. Sergeant Fukuda had been a deeply-interested 
spectator at times during the day, for on climbing a hill north- 
east of Suchia-tun he could overlook Kinchow and with his field- 
glasses observe all that was being done. " Ah," he exclaimed, 
" our men all successfully repelling the attack. How sorry I am 
not to be on the spot and taking part ! " At one time he thought 
of sending six of his men to aid the little garrison within the walls 
of Kinchow, but on second thoughts concluded that they might 
shortly be required at their present post. Every now and then he 
sent some one up the hill above-mentioned to see how the battle 
was going, and he and his men were in a fever of unrest. When 
the sun set and the battle seemed concluded in favour of the 
defenders of the town, Sergeant Fukuda turned his whole atten- 
tion to the defence of his own quarters. Besides, rations were 
getting short ; for the main depot at Kinchow was too busy to 
send provisions to the little garrison at Suchia-tun. Nor was 
there any well or stream of water near their quarters. Thinking 
it best to lay in a good supply of water, the Sergeant sent a few 
men to obtain the precious fluid from some wells on the Port 
Arthur road, about 600 metres away. The men began to do this 
at early dawn of the next day, and suceeded in filling several 
large casks. Among the spoils formerly taken there were several 
bags of Chinese rice. These were now opened and the rice boiled 
for the hungry soldiers. 

At 9.30 a. m. one of the soldiers, Yazaki Chukichi, who was 
doing sentinel-duty at the gate, reported that about 20 Chinese 
horsemen were approaching from Mengchia-ying, a village direct- 
ly in front. They were, he said, coming toward the garrison along 
the Port Arthur road, not more than 100 metres away, and they 
were followed by a large number of foot-soldiers. Deeming it 
impossible to dispute the road With so large a force, the Sergeant 
determined to let the enemy pass by unmolested. But it was 
soon apparent that the Chinese consisted of the troops defeated 
at Port Arthur, hundreds upon hundreds retreating sulkily from 


the scene of their late disaster. Knowing that they would cer- 
tainly attempt to recapture Suchia-tun, the" Sergeant gathered 
his men about him and exhorted them to fight to the last gasp in 
defence of their post. He then told each man what he should do, 
pointing out his station beneath the parapet, aboTe which the 
Sergeant had had a number of forage-caps placed, in order to 
deceive the enemy as to the real number of Japanese on the 
ground. The men were further enjoined to be every careful of their 
ammunition, and to refrain from firing except in case of absolute 
necessity. The Sergeant now had the gates of the enclosure shut 
and barricaded by some of the captured cannon. Should the 
enemy advance to the very gate, the men stationed there were to 
use one of the pieces of ordinance, reserving the bullets in their 
own cartridge-pouches till the very last, the ammunition on hand 
being scanty. 

Part of the Kinchow garrison were posted on a piece of 
elevated ground north of the castle, whence they were to signal 
the approach of any enemy on the Foochow road or thereabouts. 
During the course of the afternoon a military telegram came from 
Port Arthur, to the effect that the defeated Chinese were running 
northwards and would infallibly pass by Kinchow, the garrison 
of which might therefore expect to be subjected to a double attack. 
Every precaution was taken and a strict lookout kept, when, at 
10.30 a. m., the first bands of the fugitives came into sight. The 
numbers of the defeated enemy kept growing ever larger and 
frequent skirmishes took place, both sides fighting desperately. 
Scores of Chinese were either killed or wounded, and yet they 
came pressing on, for the road leading by the castle was the only 
one along which they might retreat. Great anxiety was felt for 
the safety of the little garrison at Suchia-tun, and the Second 
Sub-company of the Fourth Company was sent to its aid. At 
qiiarter past twelve in the afternoon the Sub-company set out, 
but before proceeding far they encountered such large numbers 
of the enemy that it was impossible to cut through. The 
relief of Suchia-tun was thus recognised as being out of the 
question, and the Sub-company returned re infedd to Kinchow. 
Shortly after this all communication between Suchia-tun and the 
garrison at Kinchow was cut off, and the Japanese defending the 

KIN CHOW 11. 195 

castle made no doubt that their comrades were killed. Yet 
though the object of a continual series of attacks, the devoted 
men at Suchia-tun never faltered for an instant nor did they lose 
heart. " It seems," said the Sergeant to his men, " that our lives 
cannot be long ours, and no help comes to us from Kinchow. 
Perhaps matters there are such that a reinforcement cannot be 
spared for us. But even in this case we must not think of leaving 
this place, for if it should fall into the enemy's hand they would 
get hold of all the ammunition, arms and other stores here. 
Boys, fight on ! " Stimulated by the enthusiastic spirit of their 
brave leader, the men did wonders and no one ever gave a second 
thought to the desperate nature of their situation. The foremost 
bands of the enemy were now thick in front of Kinchow, the 
entrance to which haven of safety was very strongly defended. 
Many of the Chinese fell to rise no more, yet their place was 
speedily taken by others as the defeated Port Arthur garrison 
came on in hundreds. The firing of the Japanese in and about 
Kinchow growing hotter and hotter, the bewildered, desperate 
fugitives began to seek shelter in the neighbouring villages, and 
so Suchia-tun was exposed to a fierce attack, the Chinese being 
evidently aware of the value of capturing the place. Fukuda and 
his men fought like giants. At 4 p. m., several — seven or eight 
— horsemen, apparently Japanese, were descried by the hard- 
pressed garrison, seeming to have come from the direction of 
Talien Bay. The Chinese fired at the group, on which the 
horsemen retreated. Seeing this Sergeant Fukuda permitted 
Koyano Kisaburo, Otsuka Mosaku, Yamada Keijiro and Furuse 
Kanezo, to run after the mounted soldiers, tell them of the 
extreme peril of the garrison and beg them to cut their way 
through to its aid. Unfortunately the messengers failed to catch 
up with the horsemen. On their way back however they came, to 
their great joy, across a number of armed sailors, landed from the 
Katsuragi — 23 all told. To the commander of these men, Master 
Demura, they related the sore straits in which the garrison was, 
and the seamen at once agreed to render aid. On entering the 
enclosure so well defended, Demura asked Fukuda if there was 
any food for his men, as all had marched a long distance and 
were very hungry. Sergeant Fukuda then pointed to the boiled 


rice, saying that lie had half-expected some occurrence of the 
sort. After a hasty repast, the seamen took four of the captured 
cannon, and, with much labour, succeeded in placing one in each 
corner of the enclosure. During all this time the Chinese had 
been firing irregularly into Suchia-tun, and now began a still 
stronger attack. But the garrison was better prepared this time, 
and used the cannon as well as their own rifles with great execu- 
tion, keepting the eager if disheartened fugitives at a respectful 

All this long day of hard fighting the Kinchow contigent had 
been greatly concerned about the fate of their comrades at 
Suchia-tun. Just before daybreak of the 23rd, the Second 
Sub-company once more tried to fight their way to the besieged 
garrison, but were again compelled to retire, owing to the large 
numbers of Chinese between them and their objective. At 3 a. m. 
however Naval Lieutenant Fukagawa Yoshibumi, with 100 men, 
reached Suchia-tun, where Sergeant Fukuda at once relinquished 
the command to his superior. Seeing that the garrison had thus 
been reinforced, the enemy grew less bold and dared no longer 
approach the enclosure. Everything now being safe, the first- 
class private Koyano, with four others — Shiokawa Ichizo, Aikawa 
Saijiro, Kano Hikoji and Suzuki Harusaburo — started off for 
Kinchow by a round-about route, in order to apprise Colonel 
Kono of all that had taken place. This was at 2 p. m. A little 
later on the Second Sub-company finally cut their way through 
all opposers and reached Suchia-tun, this being the third attempt 
they had made to relieve the besieged garrison. The next day, 
November 24th, Sergeant Fukuda and his 12 brave men reach- 
ed Kinchow in safety. In company with Koyano, the Sergeant 
went to report to Major Saitd Tokumei the story of the defence of 
Suchia-tun. On hearing it the Major was unstinted in his com- 
mendation. " You are both most stout-hearted soldiers," said he, 
" for it is owing to your exertions that that important spot was 
kept from falling into the enemy's hands. You fought well 
against great odds ! Take these in memory of your deed," and so 
speaking the Major wrenched the gold button from his left cuff 
and handed it to the Sergeant, while to Koyama he gave the 
tassel of his sword. There was nothing else to give the brave men, 



although it is gratifying to report that they have since received 
more tangible and valuable proofs of their country's gratitude. 


Reference has already been made to the part played by 
Koyano Kisaburo, a private of the first-class, in the memorable 
defence of Suchia-tun. It will be remembered that at 4 p. m., 
November 22nd, a body of some 7 or 8 Japanese horsemen was 
descried at a distance, coming apparently from the direction of 
Talien Bay. Koyano was the first to espy the mounted scouts — 
for such they seemed to be — and at once requested Sergeant 
Fukuda to let him go and call the horsemen to their aid. Per- 
mission being with some difficul- 
ty obtained — for Koyano would 
run a fearful risk in getting 
through the enemy outside of the 
enclosure — the brave soldier and 
three of his comrades (whose 
names are cited above) sprang, 
sabre in hand, into the thick of 
the Chinese, and after some rapid 
and brilliant sword-play succeed- 
ed in cutting their way through 
all opposers. Koyano now tried 
in vain to attract the attention of 
the distant horsemen; he waved 

his hat and made various gestures, but unfortunately without the 
desired result, the riders going off in just the opposite direction. 
By great good luck however the party of marines from the Katsu- 
ragi then came up, and, once again fighting their way through the 
Chinese, Koyano re-entered the garrison with his sea-faring 

On the following morning, just before dawn. Naval Lieute- 
nant Fukagawa came to the relief of the garrison, as has already 

Fiest-Class Pkivate 



been related. The Japanese then took matters into their own 
hands and delivered a counter-attack on the besiegers. At 2 p. m. of 
the same day Koyano and four others were ordered by the Sergeant 
to go and report to the Main Column in Kinchow all that had 
occurred. This they did, with splendid success, fighting up to 
the very walls of Kinchow. After making a preliminary report to 
Major Saito, Koyano and his comrades returned to Suchia-tun; 
once more encountering with and overcoming many Chinese on 
the way back. On the 24th the whole little garrison of Suchia- 
tun was safety housed in Kinchow. 

3. — HOW t6d6 tatsu died. 

Among those conspicuous for their military ardor and love 
of glory, was Todo Tatsu, a Sergeant in the First Battalion of 
Cavalry. When the Chinese General Sung attempted to recapture 
the castle of Kinchow, Sergeant Todo was one of the garrison in 
occupation. With several comrades he was, on November 19th, 
1894, sent to reconnoitre the enemy in the direction of Pulantien. 
On reaching Wushih-lipu he and his men were met by some 
sixty Chinese horsemen, to avoid a collision with whom he 
turned eastward. But, most unfortunately, the Sergeant got 
into a marsh, from which it seemed impossible to extricate 
his horse. Knowing that the Chinese were close behind and 
believing it impossible to avoid being captured by them, he 
called out to a cavalry-man, named Hori-uchi Iwao, who had not 
got into the marsh, to say that as he had no hope of life he 
would then and there commit suicide and thus foil his would-be 
captors. Hori-uchi should at once return and report what they 
had thus far seen and say that he, Todo, had died in the ex- 
ecution of his duty. Two more horsemen having got entangled in 
the swamp, Todo and they calmly cut each other's throats and 
died just as the Chinese came up, to wreak their vengeance on the 
senseless bodies of these brave men. 

The remarkable feature in this narrative is that Sergeant 
Todo did not, even in that supreme moment, forget the duty 


he owed to his superiors and the importance of acquainting them 
with what he had seen during lus reconnaissance up to that 
time. But this is the spirit that has ever inspired the warriors 
of Japan : it is the spirit that wins battles and makes a nation 
famous for all ages. 




It was on November 15th, 1894, tliat tlie First Expeditionary 
Army captured tlie walled town Siuyen-cMng, thanks to an ad- 
vance from the front made by the Osako Column and a flank 
attack executed by Major Mihara and his command. 

Siuyen is an important, strongly fortified town to the south of 
Moukden, the treasure-city of the Manchurian Emperors. To the 

west lies Kaiping, and thence the 
roads run to Liaoyang, by way of 
Haiching ; to Funghwang-ching in 
the east ; and to Takushan in the 
south. The town consists of 
about 3000 houses, and is sur- 
rounded by lofty hills on all sides, 
its shape being something like a 
parallelogram, with a perimetre 
of 2500 metres. The Chinese 
garrison was made up of about 
2500 foot soldiers and about 500 

At the time we speak of the 

Head Quarters of the Third 

Division of the First Army lay 

at Antung ; there was also a small body of men at the west side, 

and a Column under Major-General Osako, Commander of the 

Majob-Geneeal Usako Naotoshi. 


Pifth Brigade, at Takushan. It was this last-named force that 
received the order to take Siuyen-ching. The Fifth Division was en- 
camped between Funghwang-ching and Kiulien-ohing, the 22nd 
Eegiment of Infantry, under Major Mihara, being included. 
This Regiment, with one Battalion of foot-soldiers and a file of 
mounted scouts, left Fungwhang-ching, their purpose being to aid 
the Osako Column by making a flank attack upon the enemy 
from the north of Siuyen. 

On November 14th Major Mihara and his command left 
Funghwang-ching, reaching Shatse-kau. The file of scouts, under 
Cavalry Lieutenant Kanroji, stopped that night at another village 
some six miles nearer their objective. On leaving Funghwang, 
Sergeant Kawasaki, accompanied by one trooper, had been sent over 
anothe;r road to inform Major-General Osako of the intention and' 
route about-to be taken by the Mihara Column, — a difficult yet well- 
accomplished task, as the country was swarming with the enemy. 
On November 15th Major Mihara arrived at Laoye-shan, the 
mounted scouts going on to Hwanghwang-tien. At 5.40 a. m. the 
next morning (November 16th), 52 non-commissioned soldiers were 
selected out of the various Companies and sent forward under 
Lieutenant Machida Keiu towards Kwangchia-tien, in order to act 
as a guard for the mounted scouts and furthermore ascertain the 
disposition of the enemy's forces thereabouts. Less than an hour 
later, the Column broke camp and followed in the wake of Lieute- 
nant Machida and his men. Everything was quiet until 4. 50 p. m., 
when seven of the mounted scouts suddenly encountered ten Chin- 
ese horsemen near a place called Shutse-kau. A brisk scrimmage 
ensued, the enemy being speedily put to flight. That night the 
picket line was kept along the outskirts of Lingkau ; while the 
little Army bivouacked in North Lingkau. Bising with the dawn 
the next day (November 17th), Lieutenant Machida and his party 
set out at 5.30 a. m., the Main Column following half an hour 
later. Temporarily placing the chief command in the hands of 
Captain Wochi Michihiro, Major Mihara now hastened to catch 
up with Lieutenant Machida's party, as a collision with the enemy 
was momentarily expected. On reaching Hwangtsin-tse the 
Chinese were found busily engaged in throwing up earthworks and 
otherwise preparing to give the Japanese a warm reception. The 


Japanese forces were tlien drawn up on a hill opposite Hwangtsin- 
tse, at a distance of 700-1000 metres from the enemy, but the 
order to fire was not given. Each moment the number of the op- 
posing troops increased; their Left Wing deployed and they seemed 
desirous of occupying the highest peak of the range, perhaps with 
the idea of having a po^nt d'appui in case of a compulsory retreat. 
Their Eight Wing now swung around towards a hill near the Ja- 
panese Left, and as this was being done Captain Saikawa Noboru 
and his Company were ordered to intercept them. The Machida 
Party was simultaneously commanded to climb the opposite hill 
and thus frustrate the operations of the enemy's Left Wing, while a 
Company under Captain Maruyama Naohiro was directed to 
charge the enemy's centre. With all this, no word having as yet 
come from the Osako Column, the Japanese held back their fire. 
However shortly after 11 o'clock the sound of heavy cannonading 
was heard far to the south, and Major Mihara at once ordered his 
men to begin volley-firing. This was done promptly, the enemy 
replying with scattering and irregular volleys (zui-i shageM). Half 
an hour later the enemy showed signs of distress and appeared 
about to cede the field; so a general charge was made all along the 
line, the Chinese turing to fly as their foes approached. In a few 
minutes more Hwangtsin-tse was taken, and the enemy were in fuU 
flight, one body running along the north-western hills, another 
along those to the south-east, while a third hastened to occupy a 
hill north-east of Kohtse-shan. The Japanese horsemen followed 
the fugitives without loss of time, and cut or shot down many. 
The whole force then resumed the march towards Suiyen, while 
the enemy made for Hinglung-kau. 

Just at this moment a Chinese reserve came up, consisting of 
about 1000 Infantry, and 300 Cavalry, with two cannon. They 
succeeded in rallying numbers of the defeated troops, and made a 
determined stand. The enemy's field-pieces were ranged to the 
north of Hinglung-kau, at a distance of not more than 700 metres 
from the Japanese line ; but as they fired percussion shells only, no 
damage was inflicted. The Chinese Infantry now formed into line 
on either side of an adjacent hill and began a fierce fire in open or- 
der ; seeing this, Sub-Lieutenant Tamada, of the Twelfth Company, 
who was on the Japanese Left, started with his Sub-company up a 



hill to tlie north-east of Huiglung-kau. On reaching^ the top they 
opened a flank-fire on the enemy's Artillery, very mnch to the lat- 
ter's discomfiture. Another Sub-company, under Sub-Lieutenant 
Akizuki, was sent out from the Machida Party to the real" of the 
enemy's flank, and in doing so they had to clamber up and 
occupy a very precipitous hill. On the right a Company under 
Captain Sakuma Torazo was so deployed as to be stationed mid- 
way between the two Sub-Companies. And now all three bodies 
fired with tremendous effect on the Chinese artillery-men. At one 
time, the advance line of the attackers spread out for a distance 
of quite 1000 metres, and as the Japanese advance was steady 
and their aim most excellent, the enemy showed signs of wavering. 
Shortly before 1 o'clock p. m. the Chinese Cavalry seemed about to 
make a desperate charge in the hope retrieving the fortunes of the 
day ; but this charge was intercepted by Captain Wochi's Company 
deploying to the right of Captain 
Maruyama's command and oc- 
cupying the level ground in front. 
Moreover, Captain Saikawa and 
men had by this time reached a 
prominence east of Hinglung-kau, 
whence they fired death-dealing 
volleys at the enemy. Thirty 
minutes later the Chinese slowly 
retired, yet still keeping posses- 
sion of a hill on the left as a base 
of operations. The two field-guns 
with a draught-horse were aban- 
doned, thanks to the superb mark- 
manship of the Japanese Infantry, 
who had picked off every man near 
the guns. 

Major Mihara was all the time very eager to know what had 
been done by the Osako Column, Sergeant Kawakami and his com- 
rade having not yet returned with their report; besides the sound 
of cannon and small arms was constantly heard to the south, so it 
was evident that Major-General Osako had engaged the enemy. 
As for the Chinese, they were now endeavouring to make another 

Majob Mihaea. 


stand on the opposite bank of the small river, west of Hinglung-kau, 
having occupied the hill north-east of Kohtse-shan. The Japanese 
troops were eager to follow up their victory ; but, knowing that 
the enemy occupied a larger territory than that which was held by 
the Japanese forces, and fearing that any fresh movement for- 
wards might interfere with Major-General Osako's plans, Major 
Mihara reluctantly relinquished the idea of making another 
general charge. So only one Sub-company, under Lieutenant 
Sasaki Yoshisada was, sent forward to harass the foe, accompani- 
ed by a few horsemen. On reaching the village of Hinglung-kau 
they found themselves, however, unable to make any farther 
advance, the number of the enemy there being so greatly dispro- 
portionate. The Machida and Akizaki Troops were in the same 
predicament. The Japanese Advance Column thus branched off to 
the range of hills in echelon, and at dusk, falling in with the 
enemy's Left Wing, at last succeeded in driving the Chinese back. 
The Chinese posted along the river-bank west of Hinglung-kau 
did not, at the same time, show any disposition to retreat, despite 
the heavy losses they had suffered during the course of the day. 
And as it was now 8 o'clock in the evening, the remainder of 
Major Mihara's men bivouacked where they were between the high 
ground north-east of Kohtse-shan and the northern portion of the 
Hinglung-kau village. A strict watch was kept, and the picket- 
line advanced as far as possible towards the Chinese camp. No 
news having come from the Osako Column, Major Mihara, in 
considerable perplexity, despatched two special scouts during the 
night in the direction of Suiyen. These men found that the 
narrow northern road leading to the town was closed, and that the 
Chinese who had encamped on the river-bank were there merely 
to cover the retreat of their comrades. Major Mihara therefore 
concluded that if he should press forward the next morning and 
occupy the opposite open ground, he might be enabled to ascer- 
tain what or how much had been done by the Osako Column ; 
moreover, by taking this route, it would be possible to approach 
Suiyen through the ravine at the base of Kohtse-shan, which was 
the charge that had been given him at the outset. The scouts 
reporting that there was no Chinese garrison at Suiyen, the 
Column set out early in the morning of November 18th in that 


direction. The Cavalry led the way, followed by an Infantry 
reserve (one Sub-company). The Machida and Akizaki troops 
joined and set out shortly before the advance of the Mihara 
Column. At 6.20 a. m. the firing of small-arms was heard, 
coming from the main-road a little north of a hill to the north- 
east of Suiyen. This was subsequently discovered to have been 
caused by the Machida men, who had fallen in with and defeated 
a body of the enemy's Cavalry. A little later on, the soimd of 
firing was heard twice again, the first time being due to a brush 
between the Advance Guard and some Chinese foot-soldiers, and 
the second resulting from a sudden meeting with a number of 
Chinese fugitives. 

The Column kept steadily marching, at an accelerated pace, 
until they reached some elevated ground on the left bank of a 
stream flowing to the north of Suiyen-ching. At the same time the 
Machida detachment filed through the ravine above referred to 
and clambered up the hills to the west of the high-road, having 
shot down the Chinese posted there. They now turned their guns 
toward the Chinese Artillery stationed on the right bank of the 
stream, the elevation and their excellent aim making every shot 
tell. After marching through the ravine the Advance Guard had 
to avoid the fire of the Chinese cannon on the river-bank, so they 
wheeled about and took possession of a little plateau to the east 
of the road along which they had come, the Akizaki detachment 
meanwhile firing a succession of volleys at the Chinese gunners in 
order to cover the movements of their comrades. Lieutenant 
Machida and his men then descended the hill whence they had 
been firing and, fixing their bayonets, made straight at double- 
quick for the enemy's Artillery. But when they reached the 
middle of the stream the enemy broke and fled, leaving four can- 
non behind. A Company under Captain Wochi was then sent 
forward, together with a few horsemen, to take possession of the 
town Siuyen and to find out what had become of the Osako 
Column. The rest of the little Army passed through the stream 
in safety, while the enemy, still in full sight, fled along the hills 
west of Suiyen, having, for the time being, formed a more than 
sufficiently correct estimate of the deadliness of the Japanese aim. 
Some stragglers were met with running along the bank of the 


stream north-east of town, and these were pursued. The whole 
number of the Chinese who fled along the hills was not less than 
4000 ; indeed, it took them quite an hour and a half to pass a 
given point. The Japanese fired at them with the captured can- 
non, but as they were not artillerists they bungled the matter, 
and so the attempt to intercept the enemy's flight in this manner 
was speedily given up. 

Captain Wochi hereupon entered Suiyen with his Company, 
quite unmolested. The horsemen, under Cavalry Lieutenant 
Kanroji, after passing through the town, fell in with some 
troopers of the Osako Column at 7.45 a.m., the latter being then 
only 300 metres distant from Suiyen. Major-General Osako was 
soon afterwards on the ground, and, placing the command of his 
troops with Captain Maruyama, Major Mihara entered the town 
to join his chief and relate what had happened on the march 
thither. The Column under Major-General Osako was made up of 
the Sixth Eegiment of Infantry (less four Companies), the Second 
Battalion of the Eighteenth Eegiment, one Company of Cavalry 
a.nd one Company of Mountain Artillery. The Army had set out 
from Takushan-kan at dawn on November 16th. Before breaking 
camp one Battalion of Infantry had been sent forward to recon- 
noitre, but with strict orders not to begin hostilities until the 
remainder of the Column should come up. This Advance Battalion, 
which had set out on the 15th, bivouacked at Tomuntse on the night 
of the 16th, occupied Hwangchia-paotse shortly before noon on the 
17th, and had then fallen in with several large bodies of the enemy 
near Pachia-paotse, the Chinese having come from the south of Sui- 
yen. The enemy, about 1000 in number, had boldly attacked both 
wings of the Japanese Battalion, but without succeeding in stopping 
their steady advance. Again in a village south of Suiyen two cannon 
were placed, which began firing on the Japanese as they came up, 
but all in vain, as a few well-directed shots caused the gunners to 
scamper off, leaving the cannon behind. At 3 p.m. of the 17th, the 
Advance Body reached Shochia-paotse, when about 200 Chinese 
foot-soldiers made their appearance on a table-land south-west of 
Pachia-paotse. Two other Companies of Infantry were therefore 
sent on to take possession of the highland north-west of Hwang- 
chia-paotse, in order to drive back the enemy. At 7 p.m. this man- 

SIUYEN. 207 

ceuvre was accomplislied, tlie Chinese taking to flight. The 
Commander intended to press on and storm the town that day ; 
but night was now approaching and nothing had yet been heard 
from Major Mihara ; so this intention was relinquished. Bivou- 
acking in the hamlets south-west of Hwangchia-paotse, the final 
charge was set for the next day. During the night, however, re- 
ports came in that the enemy were giving way on all sides. A body 
of Cavalry was instantly despatched toward the Kohtse-shan ravine, 
in order to intercept the fugitives, while at 6.30 a.m. the foremost 
troops reached Pachia-paotse, where they heard the sound of can- 
non — these being the Chinese guns shortly afterwards captured 
by Lieutenant Machida's detachment. The whole Column came 
up and entered Suiyen at 9.30 a.m., meeting there with Major 
Mihara's victorious troops, as described above. 

With regard to the enemy, the majority fled on to Haiching 
from Kohtse-shan, the remainder taking the Kaiping road. In 
all the skirmishes and despite the Chinese cannon, the Japanese 
had only three men wounded, although the Chinese suffered 
heavily. Five cannon were taken, together with six train-horses, 
5000 rounds of ammunition, 53 tents, two large standards, and 
a vast quantity of lesser impedimenta. 


DuEiNG the night of November 16th-17th, Kato Kaname, a 
First-Class iSergeant of the Tenth Company, Mihara Battalion, 
was commanded to get as near as possible to Suiyen in order to 
ascertain the position of the enemy and the manner in which the 
defending forces were disposed. The night was a very dark one, 
so that it was a work of no small difficulty to follow the road. 
This very greatly impeded any rapidity of movement on Kato's 
part, particularly as he did not know the exact whereabouts of the 
enemy and therefore might at any moment find himself surrounded 


with foes. But the Sergeant had a name for great cool couragOj 
and so he and the little handful of men with him went quietly 
along without fear of consequences, the soldiers having perfect 
confidence in the skill and pluck of their leader. After great 
exertions they got near Suiyen and, observing every precaution, 
stole, unobserved, through the line of pickets. A little farther on 
they met with a solitary Chinese soldier, who fired at them at a 
distance of about 50 metres, but without wounding anybody. 
Nothing daunted, the Sergeant kept on and made a most thorough 
reconnaissance. On the way back the little band had again to 
pass through the hostile line of pickets, and again did so in safety, 
although several shots were fired in their direction. Sergeant 
Katd's subsequent report was of the greatest value and materially 
contributed to the successful issue of the next day's fight. 


On the day preceding the taking of Suiyen-ching, the Osako 
Column was advancing towards the doomed town. Among the 
men forming the Column was Special Sergeant Furusato Eikichi, 
of the Ninth Company, 6th Regiment. During the fierce skirmish 
fought that day near Hwangchia-paotse, the scouts under Lieute- 
nant Oya Kumekichi, commanding the First Sub-company, en- 
countered a fresh body of the enemy at a place a little to the north- 
west of Hwangchia-paotse. The scouts retreated to the high-ground 
south-west of the village, about 3000 metres from the Left Wing 
of the Third Battalion, and, halting there, made a determined 
resistance. The numbers of the enemy being constantly on 
the increase, the peril of the little body of Japanese was 
extreme, and so the Commander ordered Sergeant Furusato to 
bring up the rest of the Sub-company as a reinforcement. By 
this time the Chinese numbered between 500-600, and the situation 
of the scouting party was desperate. But Furusato ran at full 
speed through the storm of bullets, reached the rest of the Sub- 
company and brought the men up at double-quick just in time to 

8IUYEN. 209 

save the devoted party. A succession of well-directed volleys 
was sufficient to drive the enemy back, and the rescuing force did 
its work thoroughly and well, thanks to Furusato's coolness and 


"While the Mihara Column was advancing on the doomed 
castle. Lieutenant Machida's detachment received the command to 
occupy an elevated piece of ground to the north of the Talu 
Eiver : an order which was promptly carried out. Early the follow- 
ing morning (November 18th), the detachment moved forward 
covering the right of the Mihara Column. Among the men be- 
longing to this detachment was Isozaki Bunpachi, a first-class 
private of the Eleventh Company, 22nd Eegiment. The enemy 
had lined their artillery on the right bank of a nameless stream 
flowing north of Suiyen, while a force was despatched to the 
opposite bank to hold the elevated ground there, west of the high- 
road. The two bodies thereupon fired together on the Column 
now coming up along the narrow way, making things exceedingly 
warm for the Japanese, who were thus exposed to a double and 
most galling fire. Here Isozaki showed himself a most gallant 
and determined fighter, for while advancing he met with a 
mounted Chinese picket whom he attacked single-handed, capturing 
both weapons and horse. Later on he met with another picket, this 
time on foot, and again succeeded in conquering his man. Follow- 
ing closely Isozaki's lead were Sergeant-Major Mima Toshio ; 
First-Class Sergeants Morimoto Kotaro, Sosogie Kenjiro and 
Mori Kitaro ; Second-Class Sergeant Hirose Choya ; and finally 
four privates of the first-class : Takechi Togoro, Shiro-oka Kingo, 
Kanaya Mitsu-saburo, and Ozuka Kingoro. These men, in advance 
of all the rest, dashed in among the Chinese batteries and by their 
splendid bravery succeeded in capturing four Krupp field-guns 
and six battery horses. By silencing these weapons the ap- 
proach of the Column was greatly facilitated and the loss of 
life reduced to ia minimum. Later on the garrison of Suiyen 


was forced to decamp and retreat along the narrow road leading 
past Mt. Kolitse. 

4 — UP TO THE cannon's MOUTH. 

On the morning of November 18th a body of the Mihara 
Column dispersed a crowd of Chinese foot and horse on the left 
bank of a nameless stream not far from Suiyen. The day had not 
yet fully dawned when a body of Artillery was descried on the 
opposite bank. It was still too dark to tell whether the Artillery 
was part of the Osako Brigade or belonged to the enemy ; and in the 
latter case it would be death to go near. Yet reckless of conse- 
quences, a second-class private, Shirakata Tomo-ichi by name, 
ran forward as a scout, until he was no farther than 400 metres 
from the battery. Here, raising a great shout, he cried, " Are 
you men of our side ? Are you a part of the Japanese Army ? " 
No reply coming he ran still nearer, when suddenly the battery 
burst into flame and he saw that the gunners were Chinese. For- 
tunately uninjured, Shirakata rejoined his comrades, none the 
worse for his daring reconnaissance. 


It was on November 13th that the Third Battalion, 22nd 
Eegiment — ^Mihara's Column — prepared to attacked Suiyen-ching. 
A private of the first-class, Chikazawa Isakichi, with six other 
foot-soldiers received orders to stop on the way at Hwangwangtien, 
there to act as an outpost and signal station. On November 18th, 
Chikazawa and his men left Hwangwangtien in order to rejoin 
the Main Column ; and on nearing Kwangchiatien they fell in with 
above 100 Chinese soldiers, fugitives from the captured castle- 
town of Suiyen. The little handful of Japanese, completely 
surrounded by the enemy, expected nothing short of death, yet 
resolved to die fighting. Keeping close together they fired 

8UIYEN. 211 

round after round at the Cliinese horde, killing a number and 
irightening the rest off. No less than six of the enemy fell to 
Ohikazawa's unerring rifle alone. The skirmish though hot was 
soon over, and the seven Japanese went on their way to Fung- 
hwang-ching, not a man being more than slightly wounded- 
Well might the Chinese attribute the apparent invulnerability 
of their foes to magic power. 




In October, 1894, tlie First Army occupied the castle-towns 
of Kiulien, Antung and Funghwang; the Ninth Brigade under 
Major-General Oshima was stationed at Kiulien, Antung and 
elsewhere in the vicinity, while the Tenth Brigade commanded 
by Major-General Tatsumi was at Funghwang. On November 
10th, Major-General Tatsumi sent out scouts to learn the where- 
abouts and strength of the enemy, who had taken up positions on 
the highroad, not far from Liaoyang and Moukden. After the scouts 
came a Battalion of the First Infantry Eegiment, under Major 
Imada Tada-ichi. On the 11th, after having passed through 
Sielitien, Tsingchiaho, Hwangchiatai, Erhtaohwang, Tongyuanpao 
and Tsauho-kau, the mounted scouts reached Lienshankwan. 
Here the enemy showed fight and made on attempt to stop far- 
ther progress. The scouts dismounted and engaged them on foot, 
completely discomfiting the Chinese, who fled in disorder. There 
were no casualties on the part of the Japanese. The places that 
had been fortified on either side of the road were quickly taken 
possession of and Lienshankwan promptly occupied. One body 
of foot-soldiers under Major Imada pressed forward, but the 
enemy fled northwards without offering any resistance. 

Lienshankwan is a hamlet containing not more than forty 
houses. There are no fields about the place, everything being 
exceptionally bare and desolate. After taking possession of the 
place, an attempt was made to pursue the defeated Chinese, but 
the rapidly falling darkness put a stop to this. Here the little 

T8AUH0-KAV. 213 

force of Japanese encamped for the night. The advance body of 
scouts did succeed in occupying Motienling on the Liaoyang 
highway, but as this spot was commanded by a low range of hills 
to the north and would therefore have proved difficult to defend, 
it was ultimately abandoned. 

Shortly before this Major-General Tatsumi had sent Major 
Imada and Captain Adachi Takemasa forward with one Company 
of Infantry in the direction of Aiyang-pien-men, in order to 
ascertain the condition of the enemy at Kilin. Captain Adachi 
left Funghwang with his little band on November 9th. On the 
13th they marched some thirty miles and came to Aiyang, 
where they heard that over three thousand Chinese were stationed 
at a place near by, known as Saimatse. Despite the enormous 
disparity in numbers, Captain Adachi, with characteristic and 
reckless bravery, marched straight towards the foe, reaching the 
place in the afternoon of the same day. The Chinese were, as 
had been reported, in force, and when the distance between the 
combatants had been reduced to one thousand metres, the enemy 
made a dash in the direction of the Japanese. The Captain with 
his handful of men occupied a slightly elevated ground and fired 
stinging volleys at the approaching foe ; but the latter continued 
their attack until Captain Adachi deemed it advisable to with- 
draw. Night closed on the scene and effectually disposed of 
further action on the part of the Chinese. On the preceding day 
Captain Hirai Nobuyoshi, who was in command of the scouting 
party approaching Saimatse from the east, had left Funghwang 
with one Company of Infantry. He reached Tasie-kau in safety, 
being wholly ignorant of the straits in which Captain Adachi and 
his men were. When the day broke, Hirai and his command 
were surprised by the attack of some eight hundred Chinese 
Cavalry, and a very severe fight ensued. The Chinese horsemen 
dismounting and offering to continue the struggle afoot, the 
Japanese began to fall back. On seeing this, the enemy again 
mounted and chased the retreating Japanese. A stand was made 
and the Japanese small-arms repeatedly discharged with deadly 
precision, yet the enemy came as often again to the assaults 
Seeing that his handful of devoted men was on the point of 
being overwhelmed by the foe. Captain Hirai ordered them to 



scatter and retreat, and afterwards to reform the column at a safe 
distance. At this moment Lieutenant Yanagiwara, in command- 
of a section twenty-four men strong, was engaged in a fierce 
hand-to-hand conflict on the right. The Chinese dashed between 
them and the rest of the Japanese command, so that they were 
unable to rejoin their comrades. Lieutenant Yanagiwara then drew 
off his men and retreated in a different direction, still fighting. 
Captain Hirai fell back to Maluten-tse, where a precipitous slope 
prevented the farther approach of the Chinese horsemen, although 
the Japanese foot-soldiers found no difficulty in ascending the 
acclivity. The Chinese could only ride aimlessly to and fro at 
the foot of the slope. But Lieutenant Yanagiwara came back 
no more ! 

A Body of Infantry under Major Imada, which had gone 

forwards to Lienshankwan, now 
left Motienling and came once 
again to Lienshankwan, where 
they encamped. Deeming the 
force at Lienshankwan to be 
numerically insufficient, Major- 
General Tatsumi sent one Bat- 
talion thither under Major Yasu- 
mitsu, who was in command of 
the 2nd Battalion of the 22nd 
Eegiment of Infantry, whose C. O. 
was Lieut. -Colonel Tomioka San- 
z6. When news of Captain 
Adachi's desperate encounter with 
the Chinese reached Lienshan- 
kwan, Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka at 
once despatched Captain Kato 
Eentaro, with one Company of Infantry, in the indicated direction. 
Leaving Motienling on the 20th, Captain Kato fell in with the 
enemy in the neighbourhood of Tsauho-ching. The Chinese here 
were several thousand strong, and with them the little band of 
Japanese kept up an unequal combat for three long hours, dusk 
finally causing hostilities to be suspended. Captain Kato retired 
to Tongyuanpao, and there encamped for the night. The news of 

Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka. 


the skirmish being brought to Lieut. -Colonel Tomioka, he order- 
ed the Captain to maintain his position on the slope of Tsauho- 
ling. But when the report of what had passed reached Major- 
General Tatsumi, he intructed Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka to move on 
to Tsauho-kau on November 23rd, for the General was thoroughly 
posted in the topography of this place, and knew that it was 
situated in the narrow neck of a valley and shut in on three sides 
with mountain-ranges, the only exit being a mountain-road that 
led eastwards. It was therefore to be feared that Japanese might 
be taken in the rear. 

According to the orders he had received, Lieut.-Colonel 
Tomioka moved on to Tsauho-kau during the night of November 
23rd. Two days later the Chinese appeared to be desirous of 
making a general assault along the line, the enemy coming from 
Motien-ling in the west and eastwards from Tsauho-ching. The 
forces coming from the west of the Japanese position numbered 
about one thousand horsemen, with two cannon ; while the Tsauho- 
kau contingent was composed of 1000 cavalry, and 4000 infantry, 
with six cannon. Altogether the Chinese were numerically three 
times stronger than the Japanese. Moreover, the Chinese were 
picked troops under the leadership of the famous Tartar General 
E-ko-tang-d. In no wise disheartened, Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka 
began to make active preparations for defence. Major Imada was 
ordered to meet the enemy at Motienling, and make things 
unpleasant for them by holding the Tengshin-ling ridge, with two 
Companies of Infantry and two cannon. Major Yasumitsu was 
instructed to take up a position at Tsauho-ling, and defend it. He 
had one Battalion and four cannon with him. Two other Com- 
panies were kept at Tsauho-kau as a reserve. 

The contest at Tsauho-ling was most fierce and prolonged, 
firing continuing from elieven in the morning until sunset. Very 
fortunately the Chinese forces at Motienling did not press forward 
to aid in the attack, and seemed uncertain as to what they should 
do. In the meantime fighting was discontinued at Tsauho-ching, 
the loss in killed and wounded being exceptionally heavy on both 
sides. During the night the enemy quietly fell back, while the 
Motien-ling contingent encamped at Lichiapu, and did not offer 
to press on. 



After the capture of Kiulien, Marshal Tamagata had caused 
one separate body to march in the direction of Sutien-ching and 
Changtien-ching. This forced the enemy in that part of the 
country to retire to Kwangtien-ching. On November 24th, 
Colonel Nishijima Sukeyoshi, with two Infantry Battalions, was 
ordered to proceed in the direction of the Chinese camp. They 
did so, met and utterly defeated the foe, after which they went on 
towards Saimatse. Prior to this event, Major-General Tatsumi, 
who was persuaded that the enemy would make a stand in force 
at Saimatse, had repeatedly proposed to the Commander-in-Chief 
to drive the Chinese out of this place. It was at this time that 
the wished-for order came : he was to storm Saimatse in connec- 
tion with Colonel Nishijima's Party. The following General 
Order was then given : — Lieut. -Colonel Tomoyasu Harunobu, 

Commander of the 12th Infantry 
Begiment, with one Battalion of 
Infantry under • Major Tomita, 
one Battery of Artillery under 
Captain Yamana and one Squa- 
dron of Cavalry under Captain 
Toyobe, is take lead the van. 
Major-General Tatsumi, in Com- 
mand of the Main Body, will fol- 
low with one Battalion of Infantry 
under Major Okami, another un- 
der Major Handa, the Ambulance 
Corps, Commissariat, Train, etc. 
Lieut. -Colonel Tomioka was fur- 
ther ordered to make a flank at- 
tack on Saimatse, if possible, 
marching thither from Tsauho- 
kau. The day before the troops started on this expedition, the 
news of Tomioka's gallant fight at Tsauho-kau reached Head Quar- 
ters, and so the necessity of the proposed expedition was made more 
than ever apparent. 

All arrangements being completed, the little army left 
Funghwang at 7 a.m., November 26th; reaching Sanchia-tse 
at dusk, they encamped for the night. On the following day, 

Major Okami. 


tlie troops marched through a blinding snowstorm to Maluten-tse. 
The snow fell continuously and drifted, so that the march on 
November 28th, when Shwenyangliu-tse was reached, was excep- 
tionally severe. Many poor fellows dropped out of the line and 
died by the wayside. It was not until November 29th that the 
final start was made for Saimatse. On the van reaching their 
destination and just as Major-General Tatsumi was about entering 
in force, a mounted messenger came and reported that Lieut.- 
Colonel Tomioka had intended entering Saimatse with his little 
command after defeating the enemy at Tsauho-ching ; but when 
getting within four miles of the village his Bear Column had 
been attacked, and he had therefore been compelled to fall back 
Tsauho-kau. After this another horsemen came with the news 
that the enemy had vacated Saimatse; it was, he afi&rmed, a 
village of no special importance, containing not more than 200 
houses. A third cavalry-man then brought the welcome tidings 
that the Nishijima party had successfully entered and occupied the 
village. Leaving the place in the hands of its captor, Major- 
General Tatsumi at once resolved to make for Tsauho-kau, the 
scene of so many desperate encounters. The order of the march 
was changed as follows : — A Battalion of Infantry under Major 
Okami formed the van, another Battalion under Major Tomita, 
one Squadron of Cavalry and one Battery composing the Main 
Body. That day they marched twenty miles through the heavy snow 
and over fearful roads, entering Tsauho-ching at nightfall, where 
they were quartered in the houses of the villagers. A strict look- 
out was kept and pickets posted. Some officers were, after dusk, 
despatched to find out what had become of the Advance Column. 
They brought back the next morning the news that Lieut. -Colonel 
Tomioka's command, which had turned back from Saimatse to 
Tsauho-kau, as already described, not having suffered any great 
loss, had again gone on to Tsauho-ching, and that they were en- 
camped at a distance of some eight miles ; moreover the enemy 
were reported to be at a place called Peishui-chih, some 3|^ miles 
to the north. On hearing this Major-General Tatsumi despatched 
Lieut. -Colonel Tomoyasu and Major Okami, with the Advance 
column, to dislodge the foe. This they did very effectually, after- 
wards going to Tsaichia-hwan. Just at this moment the Battalion 


commanded by Major Yasumitsa, forming the Advance Column of 
the Tomioka Contingent, appeared to the left of Major Okami's 
Battalion. Thus reinforced, Lieut. -Colonel Tomioka was ordered 
to go back to Tsauho-kau with the remainder of his Begiment and 
warn the Japanese forces still there. The Main Body now pro- 
ceeded in the direction taken by the Advance Column, while 
Lieut. -Colonel Tomoyasu struck off to the left of Tsaichia-hwan 
and posted his men on a hill. The enemy, stationed on the highest 
hill to the north, then began to fire at the approaching Japanese, 
but without doing much harm. After a desultory fire of three 
hours' duration, the short winter's day came to an end and the 
attack was given over for the time being. At the time the Main 
Body had advanced close to Tsaichia-hwan. For some reason or 
other the enemy mistook some companies of their own for Japan- 
ese and began fighting among themselves, the troops stationed 
on the hill-tops firing on the advancing Columns below. Great 
confusion resulting and knowing that the Japanese were steadily 
progressing in their direction, the Chinese gave way and rapidly 
deserted their posts. In this encounter the Japanese had only 
six men wounded, while the Chinese left twenty-five dead behind 
them. On the morning of the following day, December 1st, a 
handful of Japanese Cavalry pursued the fleeing enemy north- 
wards for a distance of about eight miles, cutting down many 
stragglers. The Chinese finally fell back on Hongkinkung, where 
the Main Column of the enemy was reported to be at least five 
thousand strong. The troops who had fought on the hills formed 
the rear. 

Major-General Tatsumi hereupon returned to Funghwang with 
his victorious troops. The place was reached on December 5th. 


On November 20th, the Sixth Company (less one Sub-company) 
of the 22nd Eegiment, set out from Tsauho-chiag for Saimatse, 


in order to thoroughly reconnoitre the enemy's position. At 3.30 
p. m., while on the road Tsauho-ching, the detachment suddenly 
fell in with a large force of Chinese numbering over 1000 foot and 
200 horse. Meantime First-Class Sergeant Matsuda Makoto, with 
a few soldiers, had gone on to Tishong-shan, south-east of 
Tsauho-cliing. The Main Body of the Company deployed both 
wings very slowly, without coming to an attack; whereas the 
enemy, forming a semi-circle, appeared eager to surround the 
little band. At last about 200 Chinese troopers sprang forwards, 
with the evident intention of demolishing the detachment. They 
were, however, greeted with a steady and withering fire. So 
splendid and regular were the volleys that the enemy withdrew 
in disorder, leaving many dead or or wounded on the field. The 
attack intended for the rear of the Company's flank, as well as that 
directed against the Bight Wing, were similarly rendered abortive. 
From this hour — 3.30 p. m. — until 6.30 p. m., the mass of Chinese 
fronting the Main Body of the Japanese troops steadily drew 
nearer, but without offering to recommence hostilities. As eve- 
ning closed in the scouts slowly retreated, having very fully accom. 
plished their work, and with very small loss. 

It was on November 21st that the Sixth Company at Tsauho- 
ling received a warning that an attack in force might be expected 
from Tsauho-ching. At the same time the Second Company of the 
22nd Begiment marched into the village and united with the Sixth 
Company. On November 25th, when some 3000 of the enemy at- 
tacked Tsauho-ling, the Sixth Company, then doing picket-duty, 
had to receive the brunt of the attack and continue fighting until 
re-inforcements came up. At that time every file in the Third Sub- 
company of the Sixth Company was fighting independent of the 
others and for its own hand ; for the Company had spread out in 
open order on the elevated ground they held, in order to deceive 
the enemy as to their real strength. Here Sergeant Matsuda and 
his men fought with really admirable endurance and energy. 
With their fierce fire they stopped the approach of a multitudinous 
Chinese Column, made the enemy falter and finally deploy on both 
sides of the hill in a place and at a time when and where such a 
manoeuvre was exceedingly diflScult to execute and could not be 
promptly carried out, thus giving the defending Japanese ample 


opportunity to arrange themselves to the best advantage on the 
on the slope above. The enemy, however, steadily increased in 
numbers and finally surrounded the Third Sub-company on the 
elevated ground, leaving only one small outlet in the rear. The 
Chinese employed Krupp guns and by their use disabled many 
men in the devoted band. At last the Sub-company ran out of 
cartridges, and this at a time when 500 Chinese were within 200 
metres of their front and slowly closing down upon them. At this 
critical moment Sergeant Matsuda, with calm authority, so en- 
couraged the soldiers and directed the fire of their last bullets that 
the Chinese finally drew off discomfited and the Japanese were left 
unconquered in the position they had so well defended. 


At 10 a. m. of November 25th, the Eighth Company of the 
22nd Regiment was engaged in a fierce conflict with four or times 
their own number of Chinese, the latter being led. by the redoubt- 
able Tartar General E-ko-tang-a. The scene of the battle was 
Tsauho-ling, and in the line of pickets was Shiraishi, a private of 
the first-class. The Eighth Company was in the foremost line of de- 
fense, very greatly exposed to the enemy's fire, and without shel- 
ter of any kind whatever. Taking advantage of this, the Chinese 
gradually extended their forefront and poured volley after volley 
in the rapidly thinning ranks of the Japanese. Finding that the 
men were losing heart under these trying circumstances, Shirai- 
shi did all he could to rally them and help his Lieutenant and 
Sergeants keep them showing a bold front to the already triumph- 
ing foe. Just them a bullet hit him in the breast. Despite the 
severity of his injury, Shiraishi continued to load and fire his gun, 
until his superior officer noticed the blood trickling down his coat 
and ordered him to go to the rear. On being asked if the wound 
was a bad one, he gasped out " DaijShu," or " It's all right ! " 
But before noon had come, he had succumbed to the fatal bullet. 



During the occasion of the Sixth Company's reconnaissance 
about Saematse, Kadoda Ikichi, a private of the first-class, 
and Okabayashi Kumago, a second-class trooper, noticed that two 
or three wounded Japanese soldiers were still lying on the field 
near Tsauho-ching, where the Main Body of the Company had 
had fought so desperately with overwhelmingly superior numbers 
of Chinese, and whence they had retreated upon night-fall. Calling 
up three other privates, Kadoda and Okabayashi went back to the 
field to succonr the poor fellows if possible. The enemy, who 
still swarmed thereabouts, caught sight of the little group, and 
with characteristic Chinese disregard for the laws of humanity 
and civilised warfare — if indeed any warfare be worthy of this 
epithet — ^began firing on the rescuers, approaching as near as 50 or 
60 metres. The five Japanese expected nothing less than death, 
yet were loath to relinquish their task. Raising the wounded 
men to their shoulders they retired as rapidly as possible, the 
attacking Chinese several times getting within 20-30 metres of 
them, but no nearer. Three were wounded, but not severely. It 
was a gallant act. 

{A Sound Sleeper). 

Among those sent under Lieutenant Okubo on to Motien-ling 
in order to reconnoitre, was Otani Tamiji, a third-class 
private of the Third Company, First Battalion, 22nd Eegiment of 
the line. On October 16th he was one of the Advance Guard of 
the right flank. When his Sub-company met with the enemy in 
the lofty pass of Motien-ling — the " Heaven-scraping " Pass, as 
the name denotes — Otani was the first to advance against the foe, 
closely followed by 5 or 6 other determined men. The enemy 
were compelled to retreat. Again, during the hot conflict at 
Tsauho-ling, which lasted well on into the dark wintry hight, Otani 


was present and conspicuous for Ms bravery. After tlie battle 
■was over, the intense cold became very hard to bear, especially 
as snow was falling heavily. So the commanding officer had the 
men kindle a large fire, around which they tried to warm their 
half-frozen bodies. The enemy being still all around, wakefulness 
and a strict watch were of the utmost importance ; so every one 
was startled, a few minutes later, to hear a sonorous snore on 
one side. On turning around the men laughed heartily to find 
Otani leaning on his rifle in a snow-drift and sound asleep. Not 
all the Chinese in Manchuria could keep him from that one brief 
delicious nap ! 



Ai'TEE the capture of Suiyen on NoYember 18tli by the Co- 
lumns commanded by Major-General Osako of the Third Division 
and Major Mihara of the Fifth Division, the men of the Third 
Division went into camp at Antung, Tatung-kau and Taku-shan. It 
was, however, planned to advance on Tomuh-ching by the Suiyen 
road. On the night of December 8th, Lieut. -General Katsura, 
Commander of the Third Division, reached Suiyen, and there 
learned that the larger part of the enemy's forces was stationed at 
Tomuh-ching, though smaller bodies had been sent on to Tsinchia- 
hotse and Ertao-hotse. In all, the Chinese were reported to be 
about 5000 strong. 

The Japanese troops were now divided into three : the Main, 
and Eight and Left Columns. Of these the first was to follow the 
highroad to Tomuh-ching ; the third was to march eastwards and 
approach the bourg from the east ; while the second was to pro- 
ceed from Suiyen to Kaiping and there act as a protection to the 
left flank of the Main Body. Both Wings were enjoined to beat 
back the Chinese at Funghwang-ching on the right and Kaiping 
on the left, thus rendering the approach of the Main Column easier 
and facilitating the operations against Tomuh-ching. Shortly after 
noon of December 9th the Right Column, under Major-General 
Osako, set out on their cold and arduous march, just one day in 
advance of the Main Body : for this Column had to approach the 
objective by way of Tapeng-ling and the Niushin Mountains, 



thus making a considerable detour northwards along a road quite 
different from that to be taken by the Main Column. The Left 
Wing or Column set out at almost the same time, the intention 
being to reconnoitre the condition and number of the enemy at 
Kaiping, following the road past Sietang-wo-tse and Holu-kau to 
the little river Kanma. On December 10th, at 8. 30 a. m., the 
Main Column started, under the personal command of Lieut.- 
General Katsura and his Staff. The van was led by Major- 
General Oshima, who set out one hour and a half earlier. The 

day was bitterly cold and the snow 
deep, and to add to the discom- 
fort of the little army a fierce wind 
kept blowing right in their teeth. 
After a most fatiguing march, 
the forces crossed the snowy 
peak of Mt. Tapeng-ling at 5 p. m., 
just as the short winter day came 
to an end. The weather now be- 
came if anything worse, yet it 
was impossible to halt at such an 
altitude ; so the wearied men pres- 
sed forward to Wangchia-paotse, 
where they bivouacked for the 
night : the Advance Column stop- 
ping at Wanghwangtien, two miles 
farther on. At dawn of the 11th 
the Division left the hamlet, the 
van setting out from "Wanghwangtien at the same time. Both 
bodies took the direction of Siaoku-shan. Here the Cavalry detach- 
ment branched off in search of the short cut leading from Sanchen- 
hwang to Tomuh-ching, intending, if possible, to thereby com- 
municate with the Column under Major-General Osako. At 10 a. 
m., as the Oshima Column drew near Chiapongtien, some mount- 
ed scouts came back with the news that, while there were no 
Chinese soldiers to be seen at Brhtao-hotse, south of Tomuch-ching, 
there was a body of the enemy at Lung-fung-wang, near Ertao- 
hotse. This was evidently the enemy's picket-line, and as the 
Japanese scouts had come into sight a brisk exchange of rifle- 

Majok-Geneeaii Oshima 



shots had ensued. Major-General Oshima, on hearing of this, at 
once despatched two Companies of Infantry as Advance Column to 
the place in question, who shortly afterwards came up with 250 
Chinese foot-soldiers and horsemen at a place about 650 metres 
from Ertao-hotse. A large force, probably the enemy's Main 
Body, was visible on the side of a hill, 1500 metres distant from 
the Advance Column and west of Yingshu^kau. The enemy's two 
wings were composed of about 550 infantry each, the numbers 
gradually swelling as the Japanese drew near. Firing now began, 
and as it did the Japanese line spread out and answered with fatal 
effect. In a little while all was over, the enemy withdrawing to- 
wards Yingshu-kau, while the Japanese occupied Ertao-hotse 
without being further molested. The skirmish though brief was 
very hot, and ended at one o'clock in the afternoon. 

Prior to this engagement, a body of picked men under Lieute- 
nant Aoki Orinosuke had been sent out to report on the condition 
and direction of the roads near Yingshu-kau. The detachment 
branched off to the left after crossing the chilly summit of Siaoku- 
shan and reached Peitsu-ao-kau, this being the road to be followed 
thereafter by the Japanese Left. Here they saw a large body of 
the enemy, at least 3000 strong, composed of Infantry and Cavalry, 
who, with several guns, were making active preparations to dis- 
pute the pass. On reporting this fact, the Second Battalion of the 
Seventh Begiment was sent thither. This force went round to the 
left, taking the hidden road from Ertao-paotse, and thus outflanked 
the enemy. On opening a heavy fire at the foe they scattered in 
confusion, the attack coming to them, as usual, from a wholly 
unexpected quarter. Leaving many dead and wounded on the 
snowy field, the Chinese retreated towards Tomuh-ching. It had 
been, on this day, the intention of the Japanese vanguard to halt 
at Makau, but reports came in to the effect that the enemy had oc- 
cupied the highlands south of Tomuh-ching and south-west of Ying- 
shu-kau. It was therefore deemed advisable to deliver an attack 
against the enemy's Bight Wing, taking advantage of the formation 
of the ground. During the night the idea was to take the road on 
the left, beat back the Chinese line of outposts and carry Yingshu- 
kau by storm. At dawn of December 12th, however, it was re- 
ported that the enemy were in full retreat from Yingshu-kau and 


making for Tomuh-ching, being evidently persuaded of their 
inability to bold the former place. The Division therefore re- 
linquished the idea of going on to Tingshu-kau and determined to 
fbllow the highway to Tomuh-ohing and there and then deliver 
the attack intended for the former locality. The van now kept to 
the highroad, the Main Column following at a little distance. A 
detachment under Colonel Aibara Tsune, Commander of the Nine- 
teenth Eegiment of Infantry, had been sent to intercept the retreat 
of the enemy by marching from Makau to Yingshu-kau, which lay 
between the former village and Tomuh-ching. On their way 
thither they met with a mob of Chinese a little to the east of 
Peitsu-ao-kau, and a sharp skirmish ensued, with the usual re- 
sult. The Chinese were utterly demoralised and fled in all direc- 
tions, leaving two field-guns behind them. The Division there- 
upon entered and took possession of Tomuh-ching. 

With regard to the Japanese Right, under Major-General 
Osako, it had encountered the enemy in force at Hwahonglau, but 
after some hard fighting had defeated them. Thence to Tomuh- 
ching was but a step, and now the Column began to storm the 
bourg from the east, while other bodies of the Division attacked 
from the south. A Battalion commanded by Colonel Aibara also 
assaulted the castle from the south-west, so that Tomuh-ching was 
literally besieged on three sides simultaneously. As the Japanese 
drew near the Chinese prepared to fight hard, and fought well — 
be it said to their honour. But nothing could withstand the 
Japanese attack, coming as it did from three sides at once ; and, 
at 10 a. m., the Japanese were in undisputed possession of this 
important bourg. 

It is astonishing that the Japanese should have accomplished 
what they did in the face of the large numbers of the enemy — 2000 
at Yingshu-kau, 3000 at the place where the Osako Column had 
fought, and over 4,500 in the Main Body. It must also be re- 
membered that the weather was of the most uncompromising des- 
cription, the thermometer far below freezing-point, and the wind 
fierce and bitter. The moral effect of the signal victories hitherto 
achieved was, in fine, the prime factor in the problem, not to 
speak of the superb tactics of the Japanese generals, who nearly 
always succeeded in outflanking the enemy. The Chinese never 


seemed to know from what quarter the next attack would come. 

After endeavoring to pacify the alarmed inhabitants of 
Tomuh-ching and the vicinity, — whose idea of the Japanese seems 
to have been based on the lines of the man-eating ogre of our 
nursery days — two or three Companies were left as a guard 
at Tomuh-ching, the rest of the forces following hotly after the 
retreating enemy, towards Haiching. The van had several minor 
skirmishes with the fleeing Chinese who, every now and then, 
turned round to beat off their relentless pursuers. Yingching-tse 
was taken and thereafter the Division marched on to Yangchiatien, 
where it halted for the time being. 

In the engagement at Tomuh-ching the Japanese losses were 
only seven killed and wounded, while the enemy's losses were 
104, nearly all of these being killed. 


On December 11th, just at the time of the battle near Erhtao- 
hotse, the Eighth Company of the Seventh Eegiment, Third 
Division, was drawn up in readiness for a renewal of hostilities ; 
for though the enemy in front had fallen back on Tomuh-ching, 
yet there were numbers of Chinese soldiers still at Peihtsu-ao-kau, 
on the Japanese left. Among those despatched to reconnoitre 
the condition of the enemy, was Ueda Sakichiro, a private of the 
first-class, belonging to the Eighth Company just referred to. On 
reaching his destination, he with two other soldiers being in ad- 
vance of the remaining scouts, the snow covering the road was 
found here and there tinged with blood. Not at all deterred from 
further reconnaisance by this sinister sight, the three men still 
pressed on until they came in sight of a solitary farm-house, 
whence a gleam of light was visible. Climbing over the fence, 
Ueda forced his way into the dwelling, but only to find it deserted. 
Eurther search elicited the fact that the enemy had decamped to the 
last man. After a most exhaustive and exhausting reconnaissance, 
Ueda returned to make an interesting and valuable report. With 


a few men lie then went on to the next Tillage and took possession 
of it until the troops should come up. When it is remembered 
that all this was done in the dead of a bitter winter's night, the 
deed becomes the more noteworthy. 



As already narrated, after having effectually driven the 
enemy westwards from the neighbourhood of Tomuh-ching, the 
Third Division halted for the night of December 12th at Tang- 
chiatien, a village of minor importance. The cold was intense and 
the roads knee-deep with snow, rendering marching exceptionally 
wearisome. Yet the Japanese might not falter; without pause 
they must follow after the retreating foe. " General Winter," in 
whose prowess the Chinese had placed such hope, was proving 
incapable of keeping back the steady advance of the invading 
Army. And this was all the more remarkable as the men com- 
posing the First Army Corps were all natives of the central or 
southern provinces of Japan and therefore accustomed to mild 
winters, in which snow is the exception rather than the rule. 
These men were now called upon to brave the rigors of the Man- 
churian winter, fully as severe if not severer than that fatal season 
which proved so destructive to the boundless ambition of the 
great Napoleon and strewed miles of ground with the corpses of 
valiant Frenchmen. Among the Japanese there were, of course, 
many cases of frost-bite — hands, noses, or feet being destroyed 
by the bitter cold — and ma.nj a poor fellow found in the snow a 
vsdnding-sheet. But there was no idea of "going into winter- 
quarters"; each victory had to be followed up promptly by 
another, as each defeat of the Chinese meant their repulsion 
westwards and the nearer approach of that great goal of the Ja- 
panese Armies — Peking, the capital of China. 


And so, early in tlie morning of December 13th, tihe Division 
set out from Tangchiatien, having determined to capture Haiching 
on that day. A Battalion of mounted scouts left Tingching-tse 
at 7 a. m., taking the Haiching road. They were ordered to 
reconnoitre the enemy about Newchwang and Tingkow, as well as 
to cover the Division's left flank. At 9.40 a. m. the foremost 
ranks of the Advance Column reached Pochia-paotse, which is 
only two miles from Haiching. 

Situated south-west of Moukden, Haiching is a strongly 
walled castle-town or bourg on the road from Liangyang to Kai- 
ping. The castle itself is square, with a perimetre of 4000 metres, 
and protected by massive walls 20 feet high. At each corner 
there is a gate-way surmounted by battlements, though which 
the townspeople pass on their way into or from the town. The 
latter is level with the exception of a small hill in the south- 
eastern suburb, which rises to a height sufficient to command 
the surrounding scenery. Just beyond the castle are four isolated 
Mils, standing between 550 and 2000 metres' distance from the cas- 
tle. The one to the south-east is called Kiaomai-shan ; that on the 
west, Liangchia-shan ; the north-western one, Hwangshi-shan - 
whilethe north-eastern hill is known as Shwanglung-shan. South- 
west of the town, and quite near it, flows the Haichow Kiver, the 
left bank running along a vast plain. The bourg is thus 
naturally strongly protected by land and water ; and its capture 
moreover meant the cutting off of all communication with the 
Chinese forces at Kaiping. By taking this town, finally, the 
Japanese could readily communicate with the Second Army 
Corps, which was coming northward under Lieut.-General Tamaji, 
after taking Kinchow and Foochow. The enemy, when beaten, 
could only fly westwards, the southern, eastern, and northern 
roads being completely blocked by the Japanese. 

On the Japajiese van reaching Pochia-paotse, the enemy 
began preparing for a strong defense. About one thousand men 
were posted on Kiaomai-shan, while six hundred others took up 
their station on Liangchia-shan to the west. The Chinese Artil- 
lery was ranged along the north-western slope of Kiaomai-shan, 
and, at 10 a. m., opened fire, 20 minutes after the first Japanese 
had made their appearance. They had four field-guns at this 



spot, and evidently intended to " make things hot " for the in- 
vading forces. The Japanese also learned that there was a large 
body of the enemy due south of the bourg. From all this Major- 
General Oshima Hisanao concluded that the Chinese line of 
defence stretched from Haiching to Kiaomai-shan, and he deem- 
ed it necessary to break this up in the first place. The First 
Battalion of Infantry and the Second Battalion of Field- Artillery, 
from the Third Begiment, were now sent to deliver a front attack 
against the bourg and town, while Colonel Aibara, commanding 
the Nineteenth Regiment, was despatched to dislodge the enemy 
from Kiaomai-shan. Taking only the Second Battalion of his 
Begiment with him, Colonel Aibara proceeded towards the in- 
dicated hill at a rapid pace, 
while the detachment sent to 
attack Haiching passed across 
the hollow road before the 
bourg and got within 2000 
metres of the southern part of 
the town. At this moment, 
enormous numbers of the enemy 
appeared on the slopes of 
Kiaomai-shan and south of 
Haiching, directly in the path 
of the oncoming Japanese. 
Seeing this, Lieut.-General 
Katsura, who had now come 
up, determined to carry the 
bourg by storm. He therefore 

directed the Osalio Brigade to go around Kiaomai-shan and 
attack the enemy in the rear ; while he ordered the van to advance 
and fire upon the Chinese coming out of the southern portion of 
the town. Major-General Oshima, who was well on the road to 
the all-important hill, then ordered Colonel Miyoshi Nariyuki, 
Commander of the Seventh Begiment of Infantry, to seize a 
hamlet about 500 metres distant from the hollow road, and 
thence deliver a front attack on the Chinese. This order the 
Colonel passed on to Captain Yamaguchi Eiji of the Fourth 
Company, who, calling loudly on his men to follow, dashed for- 



ward and speedily captured the little village. Here a halt was 
commanded, much to the disappointment of the men, who were 
eager to press onward. Twelve mountain-guns belonging to the 
Japanese Artillery then began a deadly fire against the dark 
masses of the enemy on the snowy slopes of Kiaomai-shan, the 
Japanese gunners behaving as coolly and unconcernedly as if on 
parade, instead of being engaged in a hazardous artillery duel. 
Their fire was tremendously effective, each shell mowing down 
scores of Chinese. The enemy began to waver — then to retreat. 
Major-General Oshima now gave the command to " Charge ! " as 
did Captain Yamaguchi to his impatient Company. With loud 
cheers they rushed up the slope ; as they approached the Chinese 
melted away before them, and not a man remained but the dead 
and dying to receive that impetuous charge. 

Near the bourg, however, the Japanese met with greater 
resistance, the Chinese being fully aware of the importance at- 
taching tothe possession the of town. The First and Second Com- 
panies of the First Battalion, with Major Naito at their head, 
had been ordered to charge the enemy at the town-gate, at the 
same time as the First Battalion of the Nineteenth Regiment 
assaulted the castle. About 100 Chinese horse and foot at the 
south gate did what they could to repel the attack ; but when 
Colonel Miyoshi gave the word to charge the foe at the bayonet's 
point the enemy began to falter and then turned round to fly. 
The two Companies, flushed with victory, followed at full speed 
after the retreating foe and soon reached the northern end of the 
town, which they carried by storm. The Third and Fourth Com- 
panies, which had come up as a reinforcement, now drove the 
enemy from the slopes of Hwangshih-shan and Shwanglung-shan, 
2000 metres north of the town. The Division then entered the 
castle from the southern gate, despite the strong resistance of 
the Chinese at this point. A detachment under Colonel Aibara 
and the Oshima Brigade also forced their way through the 
eastern gate ; and so Haiching was taken. It was just eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon when the town fell. 

Several bodies of Cavalry and Infantry were at once sent in 
pursuit of the fugitive Chinese, one detachment taking the Liang- 
yang road, while another made for Newohwang. Pickets having 


been posted around the captured town, the Division at once took 
up its quarters in Haicliing, whicli, properly defended, ought to 
have been impregnable. 

The total number of the enemy in and about Haiching was 
estimated at 9000 ; of whom about 5500-6000 fled in the direction 
of Liangyang, the remainder taking the Newchwang road. The 
Japanese losses were only four men of the Sixth Brigade wounded; 
the Chinese had at least 100 killed and wounded, but the exact 
number was never ascertained. 


Lieut.-Geneeal Katsuka Tako showed himself, from first to 
last, eager to protect not only the lives and property of the 
foreign residents in the Chinese towns and cities, but also the 
welfare of the native Christians and all peaceably disposed citi- 
zens. Thus when Haiching had been definitely taken, outposts 
were stationed at various places in the neighbourhood, charged 
with the duty of reassuring the natives and maintaining good order 
among them. One detachment of the Advance Column was engag- 
ed in work of this description, and the men were specially enjoined 
to suffer no harm to come to any shrine or temple. In the town 
itself was a Christian (Roman Catholic) Church, and here Lieut.- 
General Katsura posted special sentinels. The officiating priest, 
a French missionary, was at the time in Newchwang, and to him 
Lieut.-General Katsura made Lieut. -Colonel Muraki Masayoshi 
write a letter in French, assuring him that the Japanese would 
accord special protection to the church and the native converts. 
A letter was also sent to Mr. J. Frederick Bandinel, Honorary 
Japanese Consul at Newchwang, couched in very much the same 
tone, and affirming the Japanese desire to protect the lives and 
property of foreigners. These letters were most gratefully replied 
to by the recipients, the missionary in especial thanking the 
Japanese General for his great kindness to the little flock in 



The cold during this middle part of the December month, is 
spoken of as having been intense, the winter being unusually 
severe even for Manchuria. The difficulties of the march were 
thereby enormously increased, sentiael and picket duty in such an 
arctic temperature being particularly trying. Yet the soldiers 
had to rise with the dawn and march long hours through the 
drifted snow, exposed to the bitter winds that howled sadly 
among the hills, and then, tired out as they were, combat with 
many times their own number of Chinese, on whom the cold 
seemed to weigh less heavily, they being for the most part to the 
manner born. The greatest cold was experienced at Wangchia- 
putse, a hundred miles farther north. Even at midday the surface- 
snow showed no signs of melting, and the tracks of gun-carriages 
or horses' hoofs remained visible for weeks. The long journey 
caused the Japanese Army to have a very wild appearance, with 
their begrimed, unshaven faces. Underneath their hoods the 
beard would freeze to the fur with the congealing breath, so that 
it was often impossible to move the head without tearing out the 
beard by the roots. Many had their ears and feet literally frozen 
o£f ; many others fell to rise no more. Scores of horses shared the 
same fate. But never was a soldier heard to complain. However 
cold without, the heart was warm with loyalty and enthusiasm, 
and this kept the men from succumbing to their privations and 
the, to them, wholly unknown severity of the climate. Thus 
they met and conquered the enemy's multitudes, despite obstacles 
from which, humanly speaking, even the bravest might well 


In the attack on the castle-town, the First Battalion of the 
Seventh Infantry Eegiment, led the assault from the south. The 
Third Sub-company formed the van at the time, and by dint of 


hard fighting made the enemy fly in a northerly direction. Ser- 
geant Morisugi, commanding the first file of this Sub-company, 
was foremost with his men. Although the majority of the Chinese 
had already taken to flight, there still remained a number, con- 
cealed in and about the walls, who kept up a galling fire on the 
Japanese. The attacking forces being scattered, the Sergeant had 
to collect and rally the men ; so, resorting to a ruse, he called out 
loudly, "Here is our Sub-Lieutenant: come quickly to his aid!" 
This was sufficient to bring the men together and on with a rush ; 
and in a few minutes later they were in possession of the northern 
gate and shooting down all opponents. 

Later on, it was discovered that numbers of the late garrison 
of Haiching were in a village not far off. Despite the fact of the 
enemy's being under cover while they were in the open, and not- 
withstanding the depth of the freshly fallen snow and the many 
drifts obstructing the path. Sergeant Morisugi and his men 
pressed forward and dislodged the foe, after a most gallant 


DuEiNG the march of the Sixth Company, 19th Eegiment, 
with their Battalion against the enemy at Kiaomai-shan, they came 
to a broad stream which appeared quite unfordable. This was 
a most perplexing piece of business ; and the Captain sent word 
on to the First Sub-company that some one should be despatched 
to find out, if possible, the depth of the stream, and whether it 
was reaUy fordable or not. But before this order reached the 
Sub-company in question, Kato Jutaro, a private of the second- 
class, had set off, quite unsolicited, at a quick pace for the river. 
Walking far out into the current in several places, he finally dis- 
covered a good ford, and came back to report the result of his 
most praiseworthy investigation. During his reconnaissance 
Kato had been constantly exprsed to the hostile fire, but fortuna- 
tely without receiving any injury. Surely, the deed was great ! 
We must remember that the snow was very deep, and the cold so 



intense tliat even those out of the water could scarcely endure the 
arctic temperature. When Kato finally emerged from the river, 
his clothes were frozen stiff, so that he seemed clad in an icy 
armor. His feet, too, had lost all sensation. That the Japanese 
were enabled to ford the stream and thereafter repulse the enemy, 
is due in the' first instance to Kato's courage and loyal endurance. 


Among the officers who followed the removal of the Staff 
Quarters of the Third Army Division from Antung to Haiching, 
was H. I. H. Prince Kan-in, Staff-Major of Cavalry. The road 

H. I. H. Kan-in. 

(The scene at the base depicts the Prince leading his horse 

across the mountains during a snow-storm). 


followed by the officers was mountainous and generally obscured 
by driving snowstorms. The cold was inexpressibly severe, and 
there were absolutely no conveniences even for officers of the 
highest rank, especially in the matter of lodging. Prince Kan-in 
none the less never exhibited the least sign of fatigue or distress, 
and roughed it with the other Staff-officers with the utmost good- 
will. The night of December 7th, His Imperial Highness passed 
at Kaulien-^, a wayside hamlet, in a hut with open windows. 
Prince Kan-in slept soundly on a few bundles of millet-straw, the 
best makeshift obtainable for a couch. The next day the road 
was, if anything, worse than before, precipitous and slippery, 
men and horses constantly falling to the ground in consequence. 
The officers were one and all compelled to dismount : an example 
cheerfully followed by the Prince, who trudged along over the icy 
drifts, leading his horse and apparently in the best of spirits. 
The Prince had only one thin rain-coat to protect him from the 
bitter Manchurian winter ; yet he kept perfectly well the whole 
time. His high spirits and manly endurance were infectious, 
filling the hearts of his brother officers with loyal enthusiasm. 



The early days of December, 1894, were bitterly cold, the 
severe Manchurian season being far beyond anything to which the 
Japanese had been accustomed in their own country. This fact 
the Chinese had all along hoped would serve them in good stead ; 
so now, after Major-General Tatsumi had returned in triumph from 
Tsaoho-kau, the enemy resolved upon making a counter-attack and 
repossessing themselves, if possible, of that important strategical 
stronghold, Funghwang (literally " Phoenix "). The struggle here 
was one of the fiercest in the war, and, being numerically far 
superior to the Japanese, the enemy for a time offered most 
stubborn opposition, although they did not, as they had expected, 
succeed in making the Japanese retrace their steps. 

Knowing that the Chinese in force were lurking on the out- 
skirts of the occupied territory, the Commander-in-Chief feared 
that the hostile troops might prove a serious obstacle to the west- 
ward progress of the Third Army Division. This was on the road 
to Haiohing, having come from Siuyen via Tomuh-ching. It was 
deemed expedient to dislodge the enemy from Motienling for this 
purpose, the attack upon Haiching being thereby rendered a much 
■easier undertaking. So, on December 9th, Major-General Tatsumi 
divided the troops under his command in two parts : the one to stay 
behind and act as garrison of Funghwang ; the other to proceed 
in the indicated direction. The latter body at once set out for 


Lienshankwan and Motien-ling. They made ten miles on this day, 
stopping for the night at a place called Sielitien. On the follow- 
ing day, Lieut. -Colonel Tomioka, in command of the Advance Co- 
lumn, marched on towards Seulitien. His forces were composed 
of one Squadron of Cavalry under Captain Toyobe Shinsaku, one 
Battalion of Infantry under Major Mihara Shigeo, and one Com- 
pany of Engineers commanded by Captain Ono Katon. At' nine 
o'clock in the forenoon, just as they had reached Hwangchiatai, 
they suddenly came across the enemy proceeding in force to the 
contemplated attack on Funghwang. But beyond desultory skir- 
mishing nothing of any serious note occurred, the Japanese wait- 
ing for the Main Body to come up before offering any degree of 
resistance to the oncoming Chinese. 

The scene was a tolerably wide mountain gorge, the peaks on 
either side rising to an altitude of 250 odd metres, the space 
between the hills ranging from 1300 up to 2000 metres. A small 
stream ran through this narrow valley, swampy fields being on 
either bank. Where the stream made a bend or curve the passage 
between the hills was broadest, but in no case was there any 
place where a battle might be fought out : at best, skirmishes were 
all that was possible. Belying upon the natural advantages of 
the situation, the enemy kept their position and formation intact. 
In the mean time the Japanese Advance Column took possession 
of the slopes on either side of the gorge, leaving only a small party 
in the valley itself. Shortly after mid-day the foremost part of the 
Main Body drew into sight. Quickly grasping the situation, 
Major-General Tatsumi ordered Major Mihara to occupy the 
heights on the right and make an attack on the Chinese Left 
Wing; while Major Tasumitsu was sent to take the hillside on the 
left and thence assault the other Chinese wing. At this moment 
the Japanese Artillery came up. The enemy had two cannon, which 
fired percussion shell only ; while the Japanese guns were time- 
fused shrapnel, and thus vastly superior. As the Chinese Right 
began to move. Major Yasumitsu's Battalion at once rushed down 
the slope toward the enemy's foremost line of battle, where the can- 
non were stationed. The second line of battle, however, seemed 
to have determined upon a decisive encounter, and here the fighting 
grew ever fiercer and hotter. Yasumitsu's men, seeing that the time 



had come for an impetuous charge, now made their way into the 
enemy's slowly yielding ranks, bayonetting a.11 opposers. In 
another moment the enemy's Left Wing began to give way, and 
Major-General Tatsumi at once ordered the Beserve Battalion un- 
der Major Imada to charge all along the wavering line. In a few 
minutes more the Chinese Main Body was in utter confusion, and 
the vanquished forces began to retreat slowly and sullenly, every 
now and then turning to confront their hotly pursuing victors, while 
seeking the elevated ground. Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka chased the 
enemy as far as Tongyuanpao, where the last stragglers disappear- 
ed. The conflict was over at half-past five in the afternoon. 

The number of Chinese who took part in this sharp engage" 
ment was not less than 3500. They had two cannon. Their dead 
and wounded amounted to about 430, while the Japanese losses 
were sixty-one in all, including three officers who were badly hurt. 
The enemy left behind them 107 guns, 10,000 rounds of ammuni- 
tion, five flags, one Japanese sword, any quantity of sheepskin 
coats, and a small number of captives. 

Soon after Major-General Ta- 
tsumi had left Funghwang-ching, 
the outposts of the little garrison 
left behind reported an unusual stir 
and the probability of an immediate 
attack being made by the Chinese. 
On December 12th Colonel Tomo- 
yasu Nobuharu formed a line of 
defence, — bodies of picked men 
being stationed all along it — some 
4000 metres long. This line ran 
from Haotse-kau on the right 
across the slopes of Mt. Tiencheng ; 
then over the Saimatse road on to 
Tienohia-paotse and the high 
ground to the north of this place. 
At Haotse-kau was the Battalion 

commanded by Major Okami Masayoshi, whose pickets could 
communicate with the Battalion under Major Tomita Harukabe. 
The Saematse road was guarded by the Handa Battalion. Warn- 


Colonel Tomotasu. 


ed by the reported approach of the foe, a Battalion of Infantry, 
commanded by Major Yamaguchi Keizo, came up from Tungshan- 
ching, and formed the Eeserve Poree. A body of the Okami 
Battalion was thence sent on to the Moukden road, in order to 
intercept the enemy if they should come from that direction. 
Mounted scouts under Sub-Lieutenant Hatano were despatched 
along the Kilin road ; others again to the highway leading to 
Saematse, Sub-Lieutenant Nozaki being here in command; 
while a picked body of mounted scouts under a Special Sergeant- 
Major took the hidden mountain-road leading to Seulitien. Cap- 
tain Watanabe, with one Company of Infantry, was finally sent 
towards the Kilin road, while Captain Adachi, with another 
Company, took that leading to Saematse. All these various 
bodies, so inferior in numbers to the oncoming foe, left Fung- 
hwang-ching at dawn of the above-mentioned day. 

On Sub-Lieutenant Nozaki's little party reaching Changling, 
they fell in with the foremost of the approaching Chinese. Dis- 
mounting, a short but bitter hand-to-hand conflict ensued, resulting 
in the disconifiture of the Chinese, who fled precipitately. But 
then the hostile Infantry coming up, Nozaki's horsemen fell back 
and joined with the Company under Captain Adachi. The 
battle now, began again, the Chinese being about one thous- 
and strong, with flfty horsemen. Fighting as he slowly retreated. 
Captain Adachi fell back on the Japanese line of defence. The 
noise of the battle was soon heard by Hatano's mounted scouts, 
who had by this time reached Homa-paotse. They turned at once 
and made for the enemy's rear ; but seeing that no more Chinese 
were approaching in that direction, they went aside to the left and 
joined the company under Captain Watanabe. After several 
minor skirmishes, this little force also slowly retreated. The 
fighting of this day was, owing to the glaring disparity in numbers, 
of not so very severe a nature ; yet the Chinese were badly punish- 
ed during the three hours that it lasted. In spite of all opposi- 
tion, however, they pushed forward, and finally occupied the slope 
of Yihmen-shan, about two miles north-east of Funghwang. 

The next day, the 13th, the Japanese forces kept quiet. Some 
ambuscades were made along the line of defence, but the bitter 
cold was unsuited to long waiting in the open. On January 14th, 


however, at dawn, the Japanese prepared to storm the Chinese camp. 
The two Battalions under Major Okami acting as the Eight Wing, 
the Japanese marched out in the cold, bright moonlight of the 
winter morning. Taking the Kilin road, they crossed the Ngaeho, 
and reached a hamlet near the enemy's picket-line, where a brief 
halt was made. The Chinese were evidently unprepared for any- 
thing of the kind, and appeared to know nothing of the Japanese 
approach. The latter then charged into the village and made a 
simultaneous attack on three sides of the Chinese, resulting in 
great confusion and uproar, for the still drowsy braves seemed at 
first completely bewildered. Yet they made an effort to defend 
their position and kept on fighting till fire broke out in the village, 
the fresh breeze soon fanning the flames into a general confla- 
gration. Utterly disheartened, the Chinese soon gave way on all 
sides and fled in disorder up the hillsides in their rear. 

Some time before this. Major Tamaguchi with his Battalion 
had crossed the Ngaeho, during the night, and had waited for two 
hours behind a dike on the opposite side of the river for the 
signal for assault. When the sound of cannon began at sunrise to 
awaken the echoes among the snow-clad hills. Major Yamaguchi's 
men eagerly dashed forward into the enemy's camp, to the music of 
the fierce and effective fire of the Japanese Artillery. On reaching 
the place at the base of the hill where the enemy's cannon were 
ranged. Major Tomita's Battalion appeared on the opposite side. 
The Chinese rear soon began to waver, the horsemen being the 
first to fly. Yamaguchi's Battalion then rode down the Chinese 
Artillery, capturing two field and two mountain-guns. The Chinese 
centre being thrown into confusion, their left also showed signs of 
distress and was completely defeated by Major Tomita's Force. The 
Chinese right alone kept the ground, for, being on elevated ground, 
they could fire down at the attacking Japanese, thus rendering an 
assault on their position both most arduous and most perilous, 
ly^ajor Handa's Battalion, which had been sent along the Saematse 
road to prevent an approach of the enemy from this quarter, now 
appeared on the scene, but was unable to make any headway 
against the serried ranks of the Chinese right, where, despite the 
defection and defeat of the centre and Left Wing, the battle still ra- 
ged. Majors Yamaguchi and Tomita now spread their men out and 


made a fierce onslaught on the left flank of the fighting Chinese. 
The attack was met with stubborn fortitude, and resistance kept 
up until the remaining Chinese had fled in safety. At last this 
encounter ceased by the enemy suddenly retreating farther up the 
hillside ; from a slow retrograde movement it soon grew into a 
sharp run, and the Chinese were finally fleeing in disorder in every 
direction. Yet even in their flight they would every now and then 
try to rally and form a front against the closely pursuing Japanese ; 
but each time they did so the shrapnel from the Japanese guns 
broke their order and spread consternation among their ranks. 
After a long chase the Chinese scaled the brow of Mt. Yihmen, 
passed through Changling-tse, and disappeared in the snowy 

Colonel Tomoyasu, who had been left behind in command 
of the Funghwang garrison, had meanwhile been attacked by the 
enemy. He at once instituted measures for defence, and fur- 
ther sent word to Major-General Tatsumi that General E-ko-Tang- 
k, with an Army several thousand strong, had arrived at Mt. Tsong- 
ling, north-east of Funghwang Castle. On learning this, Major- 
General Tatsumi immediately despatched Major Mihara towards 
Tsongling, — which was supposed to be the road the Chinese would 
take — in order to attack them as they passed. As had been ex- 
pected, the enemy were crushingly defeated in the sharp engage- 
ment of the 14th, and the next day the vanquished columns passed 
Tsongling, where Major Mihara and his men were lying in 
ambiish. Springing out upon the disheartened troops, they inflic- 
ted serious losses before the enemy perceived that farther progress 
in that direction was impossible. 

The Tatsumi force encamped at Tsaoho-kau, and afterwards 
returned to Funghwang-ching, where they awaited the opening of 
the new year, 1895. The Third Division, which had marched on 
to Haiching, carried out their programme with masterly success : 
the enemy were completely defeated and driven back, and the road 
to Pekin thrown open. 



Okabayashi Kumago, .1 private of the second-class, who, with 
Kadoda Ikichi, had already proved himself a gallant warrior at 
Tsauho-ching, was with the Second Battalion at Hwangchiatai, 
acting on this occasion as a bugler. The Battalion was simultane- 
ously exposed to an attack on three sides, and its position a very 
perilous one. Here Okabayashi encouraged the soldiers by repeat- 
edly sounding the shrill signal to close with the enemy. When 
the latter showed signs of indecision, Okabayashi, together with 
Sergeant Matsuda Makoto and a file of troopers, ran on ahead into 
the village where the Chinese had been ensconced. Seeing that 
some Chinese soldiers were stiU staying thereabouts, the Japanese 
drove them out and up the adjacent hillside at the bayonet's point. 
Then joining the Second Sub-company, Okabayashi climbed the 
precipitous hill, despite the fierce fire of the Chinese ; and finally 
had the satisfaction of assisting in driving the enemy from this 
post of vantage into the valley below: thus clearing the road for the 
oncoming Japanese forces. 


DuEiNG the heat of the conflict at Hwangchiatai, while both 
sides were firing fiercely, Kadoda Ikichi, who had already distin- 
guished himself at Tsauho-ching, was commanded to take four other 
troopers and get around to the enemy's lines to reconnoitre, fight- 
ing, if necessary, his way through. Without attracting the 
attention of the Chinese, the five men managed to go around the 
enemy's Eight Wing and reach the rear ; for at the time the Chin- 
ese were wholly absorbed in beating off the Japanese attack in 
front. Kadoda — who was, it will be remembered, a private of the 
first-class, — having learned all that was necessary, now resolved on 
a little stratagem of his own. With a shout, he and his four 
comrades suddenly rushed out against a detachment on the 


enemy's left, causing much consternation in tlieir ranks. Deem- 
ing the five men to be the precursors of an attack in force from 
that side, and never stopping to count the number of the attackers, 
the Chinese broke and scattered in disorder. The impetus here 
given was communicated to the lines fighting in front, and soon 
the rout became general. 


In the affair of Hwangchiatai the Chinese were under the 
command of General E-ko-tang-^ ; while the Japanese were led by 
Major General Tatsumi. Choosing Hwangchiatai as the base of 
operations of their Main Body, the Chinese arranged their Eight 
and Left Wings on either side of the village, and further brought two 
Q.-F. guns to bear on the advancing Japanese. The Commander 
of the 22nd Regiment then sent the Second Battalion, the Third 
Battalion forming the van, to deliver a front attack on the enemy's 
Main Body. Foremost went a file of the Second Sub-company of 
the Sixth Company, led by Sergeant Matsuda Makoto, of whom 
we have already had to speak highly. On the Second Battalion's 
successful occupation of Hwangchiatai, a body of the enemy took 
up a strong position on the brow of a high hill to the south-west 
of the village, and greatly obstructed the Japanese by UtiQiv ficluxnt 
fire. This had to be stopped, and as quickly as possible. So 
Sergeant Matsuda together with the Commander of the Second 
Sub-company, climbed the hill-side, despite the shot raining down 
on them, and, reaching the top, made the Chinese fall back, run 
hill-downwards, and finally disappear. 




On December 18th, 1894, a warning was sent to the Staff 
Quarters of the Third Division, First Expeditionary Army— then 
at Haiching — that about 200 Chinese had appeared that morning 
near the line of Japanese outposts on the Yingkow highway. 
On receipt of this intelligence, Captain Endo Shinjiro with one 
Company — the Third of the Sixth Eegiment, — was at once despatch- 
ed towards Kaichia-tuu in order to make a reconnaissance there- 
abouts. The party reached the plain west of Pochang at a little 
after 1 p. m., and then had a brisk skirmish at Kaichia-tun with 
about 300 Chinese, including upwards of 100 horsemen. . Par- 
ticulars concerning the number and condition of the enemy about 
Kaichia-tun having been ascertained, the Company returned to the 
Japanese picket-line and reported what had occurred. Captain 
Kojima Hachijiro was next sent from the Staif-Quarters to 
Liangchia-shan to observe the enemy's movement, and he returned 
with the announcement that a very large body of Chinese had, at 
2 p. m., been seen marching northward from the neighbourhood of 
Shangchie-hotse. At 3.30 p. m. the enemy had halted at Liukung- 
tun. The Advance Column, he continued, was composed of more 
than 1000 foot-soldiers and 100 horsemen; finally, the enemy 
were in great numbers about Kangwasae. In consequence of 
these two reports Lieutenant-General Katsura that night consult- 
ed with his Staff-officers ; and at midnight the order was given to 
break campi 


The following day, at dawn, Major-General Oshima Hisanao, 
with a number of his command set out from a place a little to the 
north of Liangchia-shan, while Major-General Osako Naotoshi 
did the same south of this hill. Lieut.-General Katsura, Com- 
mander of the Third Division, also began to adyance, having the 
remainder of the forces with him. He took a road lying about 
midway between the two wings. While on the road, at 7 a. m., 
Lieut.-General Katsura learned that the enemy had evacuated 
Liukung-tun. Judging therefrom that the Chinese might have 
withdrawn overnight, he shaped his course for Kaichiatun, where 
there were no enemies. It being now after 11. a. m., the Column 
halted for the noon-meal. No enemy being in sight, several 
bodies, which had accompanied the column, now turned back for 
Haiching. Five or six Chinese horsemen were then descried at a 
village called Shiakiaho, just in front. They were at once driven 
back and the place occupied by the Japanese troops. On asking 
the villagers where all the Chinese forces had got to, they replied 
that the Main Body was at Kangwasae. So soon as he had heard 
of this, Lieut.-General Katsura sent Major-General Osako with 
one detachment on to Kangwasae, ordering other troops to follow 
hard after. The Division Commander and his Staff then started 
themselves in the indicated direction. After passing through 
Shiakiaho increasing crowds of the enemy were seen at Kang- 
wasae, Makuen-tse, Hongshui-paotse and other neighbouring 
villages. The Japanese artillerists at once ranged their guns at 
the northwest extremity of the village, and began firing upon the 
enemy at Makuen-tse. The Infantry under Major-General Osako 
deployed and, forming line of battle, opened fire on the Chinese 
at Kangwasae and Hongshui-paotse. Just facing Kangwasae there 
was a grove of pines and evergreen oaks, and here a body of the 
enemy had been posted; but the fire of the Japanese was so 
steady, so true, that this position soon became untenable. The 
enemy retreated in disorder and the attackers occupied the wood. 
In the meantime Major Ishida Seichin, of the Eighteenth Eegi- 
ment, had, with his command, been having a very severe struggle 
with the enemy's troops at Makuen-tse. Never had the Chinese 
fought better or more desperately than at this point. They re- 
ceived volley after volley from the Ishida Battalion without 

248 HE BO 10 JAPAN. 

flincMng. In the end the attackers had to resort to the last 
means, — a bayonet charge. This was at 2. 10 p. m. The Japanese 
Cavalry was at the time at Tungliangwoh, west of Hongshui-paotse 
and in the fields east of Kangwasae. They endeavoured to warn 
their comrades of the large number of Chinese coming up from 
the rear, both wings on the Japanese side being in imminent 
danger. The Artillery, which had hitherto done good service at 
Shiakiaho, now came up to the east end of Makuen-tse and the 
open fields south-east of Shiakiaho, whence they concentrated the 
full force of their fire on Kangwasae. This cannonade was prompt- 
ly answered by the enemy, who had placed four quick-firing 
guns at the north end of Kangwasae. 

The Infantry under Major-General Osako were at this time 
engaged in a furious contest with the enemy both at Kangwasae and 
Hongshui-paotse. Lieut.-General Katsura, attended by Major 
Prince Kan-in, his Staff-officers and Adjutants, was watching the 
field from the foot of a hill about 1000 metres from the southern 
end of Shiakiaho. Hence he despatched his orderlies and issued 
his commands in quick succession. The scene of the battle was a 
tremendous and memorable one. The enemy were partially con- 
cealed behind fences and the houses in Kangwasae and Hongshui- 
paotse ; but the roads along which the Japanese had to approach 
and leading to these villages, were on a much lower level. The 
Japanese had nothing to shelter them and so were compelled to 
fight — as indeed was the case in nearly all the battles of the war 
— in the open fields, which were covered by two feet of hard snow; 
making all rapid advance an impossibility and greatly hindering 
freedom of movement. The enemy fired downhill upon the 
attacking forces, while the latter had to work slowly uphill, 
through the deep snow and in the face of a murderous fusillade. 
The enemy finally numbered fully 10,000, while the Japanese had 
hardly one-fourth that number of men on their side. Everything 
was thus disadvantageous to the Japanese. But here they showed 
the stuff they were made of : the result of the stern discipline to 
which they were accustomed and the habit of strict and prompt 
obedience to orders. No.t a man hesitated or seemed at all daunted 
by the dead and wounded hundreds of his comrades heaped up 


Major-General Oshima's forces then came up and joined those 
commanded by Major-General Osako. Together the men made 
one more fierce attack, but were as obstinately opposed by the 
enemy, who were acting under the supreme and intelligent com- 
mand of General Sung. The battle raged with unparalleled fury 
for three hours longer, when the gathering dusk caused the vigor 
of the enemy's fire to abate. The Chinese began to retreat, hotly 
pursued by the invaders, who at last carried both Kangwasae and 
Hongshui-paotse at the bayonet's point. Three ringing cheers were 
given for H. M. the Emperor and the Armies of Japan, 
while the excited, battle-worn men filed into the captured villages. 
It was just 5. 10 p. m. 

The retreating enemy were pursued by the Cavalry, and one 
detachment was left to guard Kangwasae. All the other troops 
returned, to Haiching the same evening. The losses were, as 
might be expected, very heavy : 15 officers killed or wounded, 
with 200 casualties among non-commissioned officers and the 
rank and file. The Chinese suffered far more heavily, though the 
exact figures could not be ascertained ; especially as the Chinese 
had the habit of carrying off with them as many of the corpses as 
possible. Nevertheless between 50-60 dead bodies were found in 
and about Kangwasae alone. This was perhaps the most fiercely 
and equally contested battle during the whole war. 



(Note: — In this paragraph we have, for the sake of economizing space, 
endeavoured to condense a nnmber of anecdotes, each of ■which is worthy of 
fuller treatment). 

During the course of this most hot engagement, Yamakami 
Kaiohiro, a Second-Class Sergeant of the Seventh Company, 
Seventh Eegiment, was foremost in storming the first of the 
Chinese earthworks. While fighting valiantly he received a 
severe wound. Stepping up to his immediate officer, he said : " I 
regret to tell you that I have been wounded. Permit me to with- 


draw for a moment, so that I can bandage myself." Permission 
was, of course, accorded ; and so soon as the Sergeant had made 
shift to adjust a temporary bandage, he returned and led the men 
on to the second redoubt, which was captured in most gallant 
style. It was not until the battle was quite over that the fainting 
man applied for medical treatment. — Similar was the action of 
Isobata Naotaro, Hokoki Kotaro, Inouye Zemmatsu and Yamada 
Ukichi, all second-class privates of the same Seventh Company. 
They were all wounded and one or tM'o severely ; yet bandaged 
themselves after a rough and ready fashion and then went again 
into the heat of the fight, doing great deeds in the ca.pture of the 
second redoubt. They, too, received no medical treatment until 
after the battle had come to an end. — Okamoto Kiyo-yoshi, a 
third-class private of this Company, was selected by his Captain 
to lead the van in the assault on the second redoubt. While 
fighting most bravely, Okamoto received a severe wound. Taking 
out a bandage which he had with him, the Captain called up an 
orderly and ordered him to assist in binding up Okamoto's heavy 
injury. But the latter pleaded that this should not be done. 
" Don't stop for me," he urged ; "pray let the Company press on." 
Thfise words were spoken in a loud tone, with no sign of the 
agony the brave man must have been suffering. Okamoto then 
took the remaining bullets out of his pouch and distributed among 
his comrades — who never again saw him alive. — Izumi Somatsu, a 
private of the same grade, was badly wounded in the foot. Izumi 
tore off a portion of his trousers and endeavored to stop the 
haemorrhage, which was great, and then reported the matter to 
his ofiicer. The latter ordered him to retire behind a hill in the 
rear, where he might have his foot bandaged while out of reach 
of the enemy's fire. But Izumi rejoined : " This wound is not at 
all dangerous. If I can only get along, I want to advance with the 
rest of the Company." No more was said just then; but when 
the order to charge was given, the officer once more turned in 
Izumi's direction and said, " Be careful what you do ! " To 
which the wounded man replied, in a tone of mingled grief and 
anger " I'm so sorry, but I find I can't stand any longer." — A 
member of the Ambulance Corps, Tsurudo Eisho, was devoting 
himself to the wounded men when he, too, received a bullet in the 

KAN0WA8AE 251 

neck. At first Tsurudo made light of the injury, adjusted the 
bandage himself, and went on with his work. But the injury was 
a mortal one, and pretty soon while yet working faithfully, he 
fell prostrate. 


Nakachiba Sadajieo, a second-class private of the Eighth 
Company, Seventh Eegiment, was wounded in the head by a 
bullet while about 600 metres distant from the hostile lines. The 
blood flowed in blinding streams over his face, yet he staggered on 
for 300 metres more, when a second bullet struck him in the 
loins, severing a artery and causing almost instant death. 

* * * 

No less courageous was the end of Ueda Sakichiro, a first- 
class private of the same (Eighth) Company. A.t a distance of 
400 metres from the enemy, a bullet struck him in the abdomen, 
inflicting a fatal wound. A comrade, seeing him fall, ran to his 
aid ; but Ueda called out, firmly, " I have expected nothing better 
than to die on the battle-field. The Chinese are wavering : why 
are you not at the front?" Taking his ammunition-pouch out, 
he tremblingly handed the remaining cartridges to a comrade 
near at hand, and then died without a sigh. 


Among the men composing the Wonsan Column, in the 
march on Phyongyang, was Shimoyama Genkichi, a private of the 
second-class, belonging to the First Company, Eighteenth Eegi- 
ment. Shimoyama repeatedly signalised himself by his daring 
and prompt obedience. Thereafter, acting as trumpeter, he took 
part, on December 19th, in the attack on Makuen-tse. Shimo- 
yama's Company was foremost, with him leading and sounding 
the stirring signal to charge. Suddenly a shot struck him in his 


head, and he fell apparently lifeless. A few minutes later, when 
he heard the shouts of triumph denoting the enemy's defeat, he 
raised his head once more and for the last time, and shouted 
" Heiica Banzai ! His Majesty live forever ! " The next moment 
he was dead. 

* # * 

Sub-Lieutenant Tanaka Jisai was, in the midst of this gallant 
fight in the snowy field, also shot in the head. Nothing daunted, 
he still staggered on and tried to lead his men. The sight of 
their officer's plight and his imquenchable ardor despite a mortal 
wound, roused the soldiers to an uncontrollable pitch of fury, so 
that they pressed forward with redoubled enemy and took the 
village like a whirlwind. Their charge was grand, even where 
all others were doing well. 


When about 200 metres distant from the hostile line, the 
Seventh Company (19th Regiment) assumed opened order, spread- 
ing out with the idea of avoiding as much as possible the terrible 
fire of their foes. As already related, the Company was here 
subjected to a cross-fire, and suffered tremendously, nearly one 
man out of every two being killed or badly wounded. Under the 
circumstances there was reason to apprehend that the devoted 
Company's fire would become irregular or too rapid. First-Class 
Sergeant Takenaka Kyozan now knelt on one knee and began 
firing, with great steadiness and precision, when he was struck in 
the rear by a bullet, the blood gushing in torrents from the wound. 
Some of his men drew near and urged him to get bandaged. To 
their words the Sergeant lent a deaf ear, and continued to fire 
wholly unmoved. On the men repeating their words, the bold man 
looked up and said : " It is quite hopless to think of repelling the 
enemy if you do not keep as calm as I am." His assured and 
firm demeanour, combined with the tone in which he spoke these 
words, made the soldiers very cautious of the manner in which 
they fired, each trying to make his shots tell. Captain Tsukamoto 


Yoshiro, not knowing that the Sergeant had been wounded, just 
then called him up to bandage Lieutenant Hiraoka, who had 
received a severe wound. The Sergeant promptly obeyed, con- 
cealing his own pain ; but while he was adjusting a temporary 
bandage, a second bullet struck him in the back, coming out just 
below the arm-pit. This made him reel and fall ; yet in a few 
seconds he staggered to his feet and continued to attend to the 
Lieutenant, a third bullet piercing the upper part of his right arm 
while he did so. This bullet lodged finally in the back of the 
hand. He had thus received three painful wounds in quick 
succession. Finishing the bandaging of his Lieutenant, he tried 
to rise and walk on, but his strength was gone. After the Com- 
pany had dashed on and into the ranks of the enemy, the Sergeant, 
necessarily left behind, did his best to cheer and comfort the many 
wounded lying on the field, regardless of his own pain. He was 
also mindful of the injunctions so often repeated by his com- 
mander, not to leave anything on the field. Mutually assisting 
each other, the forlorn little troop of wounded men staggered on 
to the Kari-liotai-jb, or place where wounds were temporarily 
treated ; and brought with their honourable scars a record to be 
proud of. 


From the inception of the battle of Kangwasae, the Chinese 
fired shrapnel from the field-guns ; while the Japanese were sadly 
handicapped by having only mountain-guns to use. The Japanese 
shells, therefore, failed, for the most part, to reach the Chinese 
lines ; while the enemy's fire was very destructive. Moreover the 
Chinese had made loop-holes in the walls and ramparts, through 
which they thrust their magazine-rifies and fired with excellent 
aim and steadiness. At one time a mob of Chinese collected in 
front of the Japanese Left and made as if about to advance 
firing. This was the boldest deed done by the enemy on that 
day. The Japanese, being absolutely without shelter and in the 
open, were subjected to a cross-fire, the Chinese shelling both the 


Japanese front and left flank. This caused a disproportionately 
large number of casualties on the Japanese side ; of the Seventh 
Company, 19th Eegiment, which went into the battle 143 men 
strong, no less than 69 were either killed or wounded : or nearly 
one-half. The conflict was indescribably bitter on both sides : the 
Chinese having the advantage of territory, field-pieces, great 
numbers, and walls to protect them. But there was one man in 
the sorely persecuted Seventh Company, who did magnificent 
service on this day. He was Ono Keijiro, then a private of the 
second-class, and was on this occasion following the Company 
Commander as an orderly. The Japanese line were then covered 
by a sulphurous canopy, almost obscuring them; while the 
evening sun, brilliantly refiected in the drifted snow, dazzled 
their eyes. Firing as they did either kneeling or in a recumbent 
position, it was impossible to observe clearly the movements of 
the enemy. Yet none might stand except Ono, who, as orderly, 
had to run hither and thither across the bullet-swept plain, carry- 
ing his officer's commands. The noise of the firing being very 
great, even the loudest-voiced orders failed to reach the ears of 
all ; and so Ono had again and again to go to the Commanders of 
the Sub-companies, the Sergeants, etc., with the Captain's be- 
hests. He told the men how to sight their guns, and eagerly 
encouraged the soldiers, who were not only suffering greatly from 
the enemy's fire but also could not see whom or what to fire at. 
Ono never for an instant lay down or attempted to avoid the 
enemy's bullets. He seemed to bear a charmed life. When his 
officer was wounded, Ono was the first at his side and prompt 
to bandage the injury. Afterwards, in the bayonet-charge, Ono 
led all the rest and was foremost in springing into the enemy's 
stronghold. When the battle was over, this brave men was 
singled out for special praise ; and surely did deserve the warm 
encomiums of his officers and mate's. 


A scouting party was, on December 18th, despatched in the 
■direction of Kangwasae, the enemy being very numerous along 


and about the chosen road. Among the scouts was Tanaka 
Iwataro, a private of the first class, on the roll of the Sixth 
Kegiment. At Kaichia-tun a large body of Cliinese was en- 
countered, the enemy opening a heavy fire from behind some walls 
as the reconnoitring party drew in sight. The ground was deeply 
covered with snow and there was absolutely no shelter for the 
Japanese. Instantly assuming a recumbent position, the scouts 
promptly returned the hostile fire, without offering to retreat. 
Meanwhile Tanaka, with a few non-commissioned officers, had 
been sent to reconnoitre the position of the enemy in a thickly- 
grown wood at the north-east end of the village. Despite the 
fierce fire to which he and his comrades were subjected, Tanaka 
ran on to a house standing apart, some 50 metres distant. After 
making what investigations he could under shelter of these walls, 
Tanaka and the others again began to advance, and this time 
along a ditch which led into the thick of the wood. Crouching, 
running, crawling on all-fours, they finally succeeded in reaching a 
grave-yard, where they discovered that large numbers of the foe 
were still lurking among the trees, evidently intending to take the 
Japanese in the rear of the right flank so soon as they should 
come near. On discovering this plan the scouts cast prudence to 
the winds and commenced a quick volley-fire, thinking to warn 
their comrades of the danger. The enemy then worked around 
to the skirt of the wood and began angrily firing at the marplot 
scouts. Tanaka received a severe wound at this moment, but did 
not let that keep him from continuing to fire, thereafter rendering 
great assistance to his immediate officer and others who were 
wounded. Nor would he consent to leave any of liis injured com- 
rades on the field, but saw that all were brought back in safety. 
At last the Chinese were repulsed, and the scouts enabled to 
return to their Company. 




The Third Division of the First Expeditionary Army having 
taken Haiching, the Chinese thereabouts promptly withdrew to 
Liaoyang, Tienchwangtai and Kaiping. Though defeated, their 
numbers were still so great that the Third Division had to do 

them battle at Kangwasae— that 
bloody field whereon the Japan- 
ese lost more in killed and wound- 
ed than in any other of the con- 
flicts during the war. Though 
here again compelled to retreat 
before the victorious arms of the 
Japanese, the enemy did not fly 
far, and even made repeated 
attempts to regain possession of 
Haiching. The Second Expe- 
ditionary Army was not, at the 
time, freely communicating with 
the Haiching garrison; and, as 
things stood, it was apparent that 
they could not hold out forever. 
There was nothing to be done 
but administer one more crushing defeat to the Chinese, disperse 
them from the immediate neighbourhood of Haiching, and ensure 
ease and readiness of communication with the First Army. 

Majok-GenebaIj Nooi. 


Kaiping is a city of about 30,000 inhabitants and is situated 
in the south-western portion of Shingking, facing the north- 
eastern part of the Liaotung Gulf. To the south lies Shunchiao- 
ching, while Yingkow is to the north, Kaiping being midway 
between the two, and so a place of no small importance. The 
castle — for Kaiping possesses a large one — is of the usual shape, 
say 540 metres long east and west by 760 north and south. The 
bourg is protected by massive walls 30 feet high, and the streets 
are well supplied with shops and dwellings of a better class of 
architecture. Kaiping is, on the whole, a flourishing town and 
one of the principal marts of this part of Manchuria. To the 
north lies a range of hills of very irregular height and formation, 
while east and south of the city stretches an undulating plain, 
through which the Haichow Eiver flows, emptying farther on in 
the Gulf. Upon reconnoitring the place, the Japanese scouts 
found that the garrison consisted of at least 5000 Infantry with 
500 horsemen and 10 guns. For defence the Chinese did not 
depend solely on the castle, having made fortifications along the 
northern bank of the river. 

On the first day of the new year, 1895, the First Provincial 
Division of the Second Expeditionary Army was composed of a 
Combined Brigade, made up of the FirSt Brigade of Infantry 
(consisting of the First and Fifteenth Regiments), the First 
Cavalry Battalion, the Second Battalion of Field Artillery, and 
the other minor detachments in Kinchow. The command of the 
Combined Brigade was given to Major-General Nogi Maresuke, 
with orders to march against Kaiping. The First Cavalry 
Battalion (less a little more than two Sub-companies), under 
Major Akiyama Yoshif uru, set out first as an independent body ; 
while the Advance Column was composed of the First Battalion 
of the Fifteenth Regiment — afterwards to do such grand work at 
Taping-shan — a Squadron of Cavalry, and the First Company of 
First Engineer Battalion, commanded by Major Saito Tokumei. 
The Right Flank Column, consisting of the First Regiment (less 
the Third Battalion) and one Sub-company of Cavalry, was led by 
Colonel Woki Shigeyoshi. The Main Body, under the personal 
command of Major-General Nogi, was made up of one Squadron 
of Cavalry, the Fifteenth Regiment (less the First Battalion), the 



Second Artillery Battalion, Third Battalion of the First Regi- 
ment, the Hospital and Ambulance Corps, and the train and com-; 
missariat sections. 

At 8 a. m. of January 3rd, 1895, the whole army set out from 
Pulantien, the Main and Right Columns separating at once, the 
latter thereupon taking the Haichow highway, while the former 
proceeded along the Foochow road. The Right Column reached 
Panla-shan on the 4th, averaging between 11-12 miles daily — a 
Yery quick pace considering the extreme hea-viness of the roads, 
the deep snow, and the low temperature. On the 7th, Mochiatien 
was made, and there the news came in that the Main Body had 
already reached Shunchiao-ching, which was the rendezvous 
agreed upon beforehand. While the Main Body halted at this 
place on January 8th, the Right Column marched four miles on 

to Szetai-tse, where they bivouack- 
ed. Signs of the close proximi- 
ty of the enemy were not wanting, 
as the mounted scouts of either 
side had daily collisions. The 
Japanese were anxious to meet the 
foe, and so, on January 9th, the 
Main Body left Shunchiao-ching 
in the early morning and marched 
along the highroad to Haichow; 
while the other Column, wheeling 
to the right, took the hidden 
mountain road, making some 10 
miles that day. By nightfall the 
Main Body had reached Yulinpao 
the Advance Column bivouacking 
at Erhtai-tse; while the Right 
Wing made Laoye-miao, its van halting a village about 1300 
metres farther on. The Japanese were now within 4000 metres 
of the enemy's line. 

During the night, the manner of attacking Kaiping was 
planned in the following manner, the attack to take place on the 
next day : — 
1. Colonel Kono Michiyoshi, with the Second and Third Batta- 




lions of the Fifteenth Regiment, to engage the enemy's Eight 

2. Colonel Woki Shigeyoshi, with the First and Second Battalions 
of the First Regiment and one Sub-company of Cavalry, to give 
battle to the enemy's Left Wing ; 

3. Major-General Nogi, with the Third Battalion of the First 
Regiment, the First Battlion of the Fifteenth Regiment, the Second 
Artillery Battalion and one Company of Engineers, to attack the 
foe in front. The three bodies were to advance simultaneously to 
the attack, thus involving the whole Chinese line. The Artillery 
Battalion in the centre was ordered so to fire as to give assistance 
to the Eight and Left Wings. The whole remaining forces were to 
keep as reserves in the neighbourhood of the villages of Luli, Erh- 
taitse, Tulinpao and Shiotai-pao, 

the troops enumerated being con- 
sidered fully able to cope success- 
fully with the enemy, despite the 
latter's great numerical superiori- 


At early dawn of January 10th 
everything was in readiness and the 
chosen troops set out on their peri- 
lous mission. Snow had fallen 
plentifully and the marching 
through the deep drifts was any 
thing but easy ; yet the Japanese 
made light of the task and advan- 
ced to the attack with admirable 
steadiness and precision. The cen- 
tre of the enemy's line burst into a 
furious fire as the Japanese drew nearer, the Third Battalion of the 
First Regiment being wholly exposed to this fusillade. Major Ima- 
mura, who was in command, immediately deployed his men in open 
order and fired volley after volley upon the enemy, the Japanese 
inflicting terrible injury on their opponents by reason of their 
superior marksmanship. The First and Second Battalions of 
the First Regiment, under Colonel Woki, now came into conflict, 
Major Kagawa, commanding the Second Battalion, performing 

Majob Imamxjba. 



prodigies of valour with his men. They did not march towards 
the enemy, but ran at full speed across the snowy fields, over- 
powering all opposition by their tremendous rush. On the upper 
slopes of Funghwang-shan, a mountain between 1300-1400 metres 
high to the east of the bourg a body of about 2000 Chinese 
foot-soldiers was just now discovered, evidently intending to 
charge down-hill and attack the Japanese beneath them. " If 
those men on the mountain begin to fire upon us," exclaimed 
Colonel Woki, " we shall have the enemy on t-vjro sides of us at the 
same time ; " so, turning to Major Takenaka Tasutaro, commander 
of the First Battalion, he ordered him to make a counter-attack 
upon the Chinese and disperse them from the slopes. It was now 
a few minutes before 8 o'clock in the morning, and the battle was 

raging on all sides, the roar of the 
Artillery being deadening. Major 
Takenaka was entirely successful- 
ly in dislodging the Chinese from 
Funghwang-shan, even storming 
and capturing all the earth-works 
there erected — a fact which great- 
ly disheartened the enemy on the 
right side, who, seeing the dis- 
comfiture of their comrades, began 
to retreat. Colonel Woki now 
ordered Major Kagawa, with the 
Second Battalion, to cross the 
stream fronting the enemy; and 
while this was doing the Colonel 
himself, with two Companies 
hitherto kept in reserve, dashed 
forward among the houses 
which served to give some sort of shelter to the enemy's Left Wing, 
and drove the Chinese out at the bayonet's point. The beaten 
troops turned and ran along the paths in the -vegetable-fields to 
the west, hotly pursued by Colonel Woki and his men, who 
chased them as far as the southern gate of the city, preventing 
them from entering there. Finding no other road of escape, these 
troops fled in disorder towards the west and north. At 8.15 a. m. 

Major Kaqawa. 


some men of the First Regiment succeeding in scaling the walls 
of the south gate, and fought desperately with the enemy posted 
there. The Third Battalion of the First Regiment, which had hi- 
therto acted as the forefront of the Japanese centre, as well as the 
Second Battalion of the same Regiment, which had been on the 
right, now drove the enemy before them like a flock of sheep and 
gained the river's bank. Colonel Kono, commanding the Japan- 
ese Left Wing, also succeeded in driving back the enemy and 
reaching the river. A little before this, Major Matsumoto Kanae, 
Commander of the Second Battalion of Field Artillery, had ranged 
a double row of cannon on either side of the principal road lead- 
ing to the town. Moving forwards in an oblique direction as the 
enemy retreated, the batteries poured shrapnel into the Chinese 
ranks, causing great havoc, shrapnel being always a most detesta- 
ble species of shell to the enemy. When however the Third 
Battalion of the Fifteenth Regiment had overpowered the foe 
and taken their entrenchments at Chiaochia-tun, the Artillery 
promptly veered around to the left and, lining up along the bank 
of the stream, fired at short and most effective range into the 
mass of discomfited Chinese. 

At this moment several large columns of Chinese made their 
appearance on the Yingkow highway, just in front of the Japanese 
Left Wing. Major-General Nogi at once ordered the men to close 
with the foe, and the troops sprang to the work, clambering over 
the ice-hummocks in the frozen stream. Here, however, the 
Chinese had performed a feat extolled by their tacticians and 
strategists of ancient times, viz. that of causing the water to 
freeze at an oblique angle, so that the stream was not only cover- 
ed with irregular icy protuberances but also frozen into a slippery 
slope, most difficult to pass over. The Japanese stumbled and 
fell by scores as they attempted to cross, being all the while 
exposed to a murderous fire from the enemy on the opposite bank. 
Yery many brave men here lost their lives or were helplessly 
maimed. But where one fell two or three sprang to take his 
place, and before long the devoted Battalions were in the redoubts 
and shooting down all opponents. The Chinese were now utterly 
demoralized, their last great hope, the perilous ice, having failed 
them. Hundreds ran off along the Yingkow road, gathering 


thereafter at Haishansai and Wanyuantien to the north. But 
Major-General Nogi was by no means willing that they should 
rejoin their comrades in the more northerly camps and garrisons; 
so he despatched Colonel Kono Michiyoshi to harrass and in- 
tercept the fugitives at Haishansaii This was done, and the 
troops under Colonel Kono halted in the village, keeping a sharp 
lookout for any possible re-inforcements coming southwards. 

The battle had indeed been exceedingly severe; for the 
Japanese had 53 officers and men killed outright, with no less 
than 296 wounded, many of the latter being desperately hurt. 
The losses of the Chinese were never accurately ascertained, but 
must have been enormous. More than 150 prisoners were taken, 
while among the spoil were 4 cannon, over 100 rifles, great 
quantities of ammunition, above 100 flags and military standards, 
and a host of other things. 

* * * 

In the taking of Kaiping the Japanese had had very few 
troops, comparatively speaking, to work with. In point of fact, 
it had been intended by Lieut.-General Katsura, Commander of 
the Third Division of the First Army, to have a share in the 
honour of the capture ; but his forces were a little too late in 
coming up. He had instructed, at all events, Major Mozu 
Wataro, commanding the Second Battalion of the Eighteenth 
Eegiment — at that time at Tomuh-ching — to drive back the 
enemy in the vicinity, in order to keep them from advancing to 
the relief of Kaiping. Sending forward one Company in advance. 
Major Mozu, with two other Companies, reached Wangho-tun on 
January 8th, the day following his departure from Tomuh-ching* 
There a report came in that the wounded scouts had, at 8 a. m. of 
that day, fallen in with a body of about 100 Chinese horsemen 
near Tsaishen-miao, these evidently being the precursors of a 
much larger body. At 8 a. m. of the following day scouts were 
sent to make a reconnaissance in the vicinity and villages of Tsai- 
sen-miao, Siao-san-ma-ling and Ta-san-ma-ling. The enemy had 
however probably taken the alarm, for none were to be meet with 
thereabouts. Three hours later the Major set out from Erhtao 
and marched on to Ta-san-ma-ling, where villagers informed him 
that the Main Body of Chinese was at Twan-ten, a little farther on 


to the west. The next day the Mozu Battalion made this place — 
the same day appointed for the siege of Kaiping. No Chinese 
soldiers were here to be seen, yet it was reported that a con- 
siderable number had gone to the south of Tapaling, a village a 
few thousand metres off. Advancing cautiously, the Battalion 
soon surrounded and as easily captured Tapaling, taking a number 
of prisoners. On asking one of them who had come from Kai- 
ping as to the condition of that bourg, the prisoner stated that it 
had been evacuated by the Chinese garrison. Some of the soldiers 
were now sent to the top of the nearest hill overlooking Kaiping 
in order to test the truth of this statement ; and they confirmed it 
fully. So the Battalion at once set out in the direction of the 
town, entering it at 1.30 p. m. of the same day, overjoyed to find 
this important place in the possession of their comrades. The 
Mozu Battalion had thus little or no fighting to do. 

The battle of Kaiping is instructive particularly as it gives 
an insight into the methods of warfare still esteemed by the 
Chinese. Their method of rendering the river wellnigh im- 
passable was really excellent ; but in these days of long range 
guns and easily manoeuvred regiments, the experiment did not 
meet with the hoped-for success. The Chinese certainly had 
everything in their favour at Kaiping ; and yet it fell, as did 
every castle-town the invading armies sought to take. 


To the east of Kaiping-ching lies a small though steep hill known 
as Funghwang-shan, or " Mt. Phoenix." The Chinese posted on 
the summit of this little mountain directed their fire against 
the attacking forces, and inflicted many injuries on them. This 
did not, however, deter the Japanese from pressing steadily on- 
wards ; and this despite the additional drawback of hard-frozen 
snow and icy roads, where one slipped back one foot for every two 
feet of advance. Marching on in unbroken regularity, the Jap- 


anese finally began crossing the frozen Kaiping Eiver, the 
Chinese fire — now at closer quarters — growing still heavier as they 
did so. It seemed as if the defenders had concentrated their fire 
on this spot, almost, but not quite, beating the harrassed Japanese 
back. The order to suppress the enemy on Mt. Phoenix then 
being given. Lieutenant Yamada Masanobu and Namba Kicliiji, 
a second-class private of the Third Company, First Regiment, 
outran all the rest and were the first to climb up the steep slope 
of the perilous hill. When only a few feet distant from the 
enemy's line along the ridge, a number of their comrades came 
running up, and combined they broke through and scattered the 
Chinese ranks. This was done with fixed bayonets and after a 
very fierce hand-to-hand encounter. Ten minutes fighting of this 
description was sufficient to persuade the Chinese that their pre- 
sence was required elsewhere. They wavered, then broke and 
fled in the direction of Chanchia-yuan-tse, followed by the jubilant 
Japanese. The taking of the town thereafter was considerably 
easier, and fell to the share of the First Battalion, First Regi- 

Sergeant Koike Yasu-saburo also did splendid service in the 
taking of Mt. Phoenix. He was next to Lieutenant Yamada and 
Private Namba, urged on the Sub-company and finally led in the 
subsequent bayonet charge. 


Bugler Watanabe Motojiro was a second-class private of 
the Fourth Company, First Regiment. After the Chinese had 
been dislodged from Funghwang-shan, the tide of battle swept on 
to Kaiping, where a number of the enemy, being behind earth- 
works, defended the town as well as they knew how. Another 
bayonet-charge was resolved upon, and Watanabe, raising his 
bugle to his lips, sounded the " Charge ! " So sweet and clear was 
the sound, distinctly audible above the din and roar of the battle, 
that the Japanese fought as if inspired by a fresh access of 


courage. After capturing Chingcliia-tuii it was noticed that the 
bugle had suddenly ceased to blow. On searching for the cause, 
Watanabe was found shot dead through the heart, but with the 
bugle still at his lips. 

3. — A EEGEET. 

During the crossing of the Kaiping Kiver, the Japanese were 
exposed to a galling fire from three sides, yet reached the left 
bank of the stream in good order. The Chinese posted on the 
ridge of Funghwang-shan then began to fire at the advancing 
troops from the front and left, cousing many casualties among 
the ranks. The Second Sub-company of the First Regiment 
being told off to suppress the enemy on the hill, Yoshihama 
Takejiro, a second-class private of this Sub-company, led all the 
rest. After ascending some distance np the hill-side, a bullet 
struck him in the -side, rending all further movement impossible. 
" Oh, how deeply I regret having received this wound before en- 
joying the honour of being foremost in the attack ! " cried he. 
Turning his eyes in the direction whither his comrades were now 
storming, Yoshihama gazed eagerly at the progress of the fray, 
regardless of his fast-ebbing life-blood. To the last his face was 
turned to the scene of the combat, where he so longed to be ; and 
he died in this position. 


After the First Battalion of the First Eegiment had taken 
Funghwang-shan, the enemy Avithdrew behind their earth-works 
at Chingchia-tun, where they kept up an incessant fire on the 
Japanese, doing much damage. Here Second-Class Sergeant 
Nunokawa Gyoku-son, of the Fourth Sub-company, drew nearer 
the enemy's defences, fighting gallantly the while. Just as he 
reached the first line of breast-works, he received a severe though 


not necessarily fatal •wound in the head. Thinking that his injury 
was a mortal one, he took out his remaining cartridges and hastily 
handed them to the men beside him. Some comrades then came 
forward to aid him, but as they did so he cried out : " Why 
don't you charge on? Never mind me!" Hardly had the words 
left his lips when another bullet struck him, this time piercing 
the breast : and he fell dead on the spot. 


The reason why the losses on the Japanese side were so 
great in the taking of Kaiping, was because the enemy were not 
only very numerous but also well entrenched and in every way 
prepared to beat off any but the strongest and most persistent 
attack. On the day of the storming of this castle-town, Arai 
Eitaro, a second-class private of the First Sub-company, First 
Eegiment, was serving as an orderly, flying hither and thither 
through the iron rain. Finally the Eegimental Commander 
ordered him to fetch the regimental colours, then in charge of an 
ensign some distance off. This command Arai obeyed in gallant 
style, running through the most dangerous places at full speed 
and at last bringing back the colours in safety, despite the torrent 
of shot and shell through which he had to pass. And in a little 
while longer the same flag was flying proudly over the captured 


It was during the assault on the castle-town that the Eleventh 
Company of the First Eegiment got, at 8 a. m, of January 
10th, into a densely grown wood on the left bank of the river. 
They were then chasing the enemy who had fled in the direction 
of Siaochia-tun. The distance between the combatants was not 
more than 200 metres, and the contest very severe at this point, 


the Chinese retreating with SYident reluctance. Just then Oiks 
Shizuma, a First Class Sergeant, received a bullet in his left leg, 
rendering him quite unable to advance. His Captain ordered 
him to move out of the line of battle. But he, eager to rejoin his 
comrades, set to work to extract the bullet with his bayonet. He 
had just succeeded in doing this, when the contest came to an 


* * * 

* * 

In the same conflict, Shibata Matsuzo, a private in the same 
Eleventh Company, was shot in the abdomen. With a regretful 
exclamation he sank to the ground, yet continued to load and fire 
until he lost consciousness. On coming to his senses the next 
day in the field-lazaret, his first question was whether his Com- 
pany had held the field. On being assured as to its success, he 
smiled triumphantly, and bore a subsequent painful operation 

without a murmur. 

* * * 

* * 

Tada Kurakichi, a second-class private of this Company, was 
badly wounded in the left shoulder and ordered to go to the rear. 
But when he had about reached his destination he noticed that 
there were still some cartridges left in his pouch. Staggering 
back to his fighting comrades, he distributed his cartridges among 
them, and then once more set out for the lazaret. 

* * * 
Another second-class private in this Company, Hagiwara 

Tokujiro by name, received a bullet in his left thigh. On being 

commanded to go to the rear, he begged to be let stay where he 

was and fire his rifle till death overtook him. In a little while 

the great haemorrhage robbed him of his strength, and he fell 

back crying to his comrades to revenge his death on the foe. 

* * * 

* * 

linuma Ichitaro, a third-class private of this gallant Com- 
pany, received severe wounds in the left arm and shoulder, being 
thereby incapacitated from fighting. Later on, noticing his own 
Section passing the stretcher whereon he lay, he cried out 
piteously, " Oh, take me with you ! " This intense desire to fight 
once again beside his comrades moved many of them almost to 

268 HER 010 JAPAN. 


It will be remembered that during the attack the Japanese 
were forced to cross the frozen Haichow River. They came 
through the woods on the left bank, crossed over and dispersed 
the enemy on the opposite side. Shimura Takajiro, a private of 
the first class, Eleventh Company, First Regiment, who was 
unable to keep up with his comrades on account of a wound in 
the thigh, managed to crawl out t d a boat frozen firmly in mid- 
stream, whence he fired repeatedly at the enemy. — Morita Chozo, 
a second-class private, was wounded during the crossing in his 
left leg, and could no longer walk. This did not, however, 
prevent him from crawling after his comrades on all-fours. Final- 
ly he attracted the attention of his Commander and was promptly 
ordered to the rear. — Kobayashi Tunezo received a wounded in 
the groin while crossing the frozen stream. Unable to press 
forward any longer, he hastily distributed his cartridges among 
his companions, and was then borne to the rear. 


While the fight was raging at Chingchia-tun, the Eleventh 
Company, advancing diagonally across the plain, fought in open 
order. Just then Sakai Iwakichi, a second-class (reserve) private, 
was heard to call out : " It would be shameful to stop for a 
wound ! " It seems that he had received a bullet in the head, a 
painful but not mortal injury being inflicted. Sakai roughly 
bandaged the wound himself, and pressed on apparently with 
greater vigour than ever. On reaching the woods on the left 
bank of the Haichow River — which formed the enemy's first line 
of defense — the combat grew exceedingly severe. Here Sakai was 
conspicuous for his courage. His bandage had slipped and the 
red blood was trickling down his face ; yet he fought with super- 
human ardour, his encarnadined visage making him appear like 
the very Spirit of War. After the fighting was over and the 


enemy dislodged, Sakai grew weak and had to be taken to the 
field-lazaret. But he had indeed shown that he cared nothing 
for the bullets of the foe. 


In the attack on Kaiping (January 10th), the Twelfth Com- 
pany of the First Eegiment marched as the Yan of the Combined 
Brigade under Major-General Nogi. At 6.40 a. m., the Chinese 
in and about Chiaochia-tun suddenly began firing vehemently on 
this Twelfth Company, causing the men to falter and apparently 
desire to halt. This aroused the anger of Ichikawa Dozo, a 
Second-Class Sergeant, who loudly called out " Advance in open 
order ! " accompanying his words with emphatic gestures. At 
this instant a bullet struck him in the abdomen. This did not 
prevent him from staggering on, until a second shot hit him in 
the breast, inflicting a painful and dangerous wound. No longer 
able to advance himself, he called out repeatedly to the others, 
" Go on ! Go on ! " When afterwards removed by the hospital 
attendants he gasped out, "It has happened as I hoped." After 
the battle was over, he cried several times, like the immortal 
Lord Nelson^ " I have done my duty." He died at 9 p. m. of the 
same day. 


DuEiNG the hot conflict in the woods on the left bank of the 
Haichow Eiver, Ono Matajiro, a second-class private of the 
Eleventh Company, was sent by Lieutenant Toshida to carry the 
follow message to Captain Miyahara, Commander of the Eleventh 
Company : — " Our Sub-company will join the Company on the 
opposite bank, going straight across, with making any detour." 
Ono ran off with the message, which he delivered as he had been 
commanded. On the way back a bullet struck him in the ab- 


domen, inflicting a most severe wound. Painfully the brave 
fellow crawled on till he met with his Lieutenant. Words being 
impossible, he gave his officer to understand, by means of ges^ 
tures, that the Captain had understood and agreed, and would 
await the Sub-company on the opposite bank. 


The Japanese were, during the course of the advance on 
Kaiping, one day at dawn quite unexpectedly fired at by a 
number of Chinese. At this time Tada Harukichi, a second-class 
private, was serving Lieutenant Yagi, Commander of a Sub- 
company of the Ninth Company, in the capacity of an orderly. 
After ordering the men to lie down at once, in order to avoid 
the hostile fire. Lieutenant Tagi walked to where his Captain 
was, Tada being in the meanwhile in a fever of unrest and 
anxiety. At last the order to advance was given and the Japanese 
deployed in front of the enemy, despite the terrible rain of bullets. 
Here Tada made himself conspicuous by fighting in a most deter- 
mined manner. When his own cartridges ran out, he collected all 
he could find in the pouches of the dead or dying, and distributed 
a quantity thus obtained among his comrades. On finally break- 
ing through the enemy's line, when the hand-to-hand conflict was 
of a .most fierce description, Tada was foremost, leading all the 
rest. It is remarkable that despite his careless exposure of him- 
self to the deadliest peril, he came off scatheless. 


When the bourg itself was attacked on January 10th, the 
Japanese found the defending forces at least 10,000 strong. The 
Chinese had, moreover, entrenched and otherwise fortified their 
position in a skilful manner, particularly erecting a massive wall 
or high earthwork along the north bank of the Haichow Eiver.- 


After the figlit had lasted for some hours, the Japanese began to 
run short of ammunition, their fire having been both fierce and 
quick. Just then Lieutenant Sagara Yorimi, of the Tenth Com- 
pany, Eirst Regiment, called up Marumo Wazo, one of his soldiers, 
and told him to go at full speed to the Commander of the Tenth 
Company and ask for a fresh supply of cartridges. The battle 
had by this time reached its climax and the losses on the Japanese 
side were very many. Eye-witnesses state that the field present- 
ed an indescribably sanguinary sight, both sides having suffered 
so greatly in the conflict. So soon as he had received the command, 
Marumo set off at a rapid pace for the Captain of the Tenth 
Company. He had not gone far however before his legs were 
simultaneously wounded by two hostile bullets. Marumo fell at 
once, but as he did so cried out with a loud voice to those stand- 
ing near to . hasten on with the urgent order. A hospital atten- 
dant, seeing him fall, ran to his aid and began binding up the 
wounds, Marumo continuing to talk loudly the while about the 
importance of transmitting the message promptly. As he was 
lifted on a stretcher, Marumo caught sight of a Sergeant, and 
begged to be told whether the order had been passed on. And on 
the way to the field-lazaret, the poor fellow kept whispering to 
himself in an excited way, — not about his wounds, but wondering 
whether the so urgently needed ammunition would come up in 

45- * # 

* * 

The order was carried on, thanks to Marumo's insistence. 
Four privates — Sugita Tamio, Tamaguchi Takematsu, Ando Yasu- 
taro and Koyama Haruji — were told off to run back to the am- 
munition wagons in the rear and bring all the cartridges they 
could carry. They ran like deer across the bullet-swept field, 
got the cartridges, which were in some carts about 500 metres off, 
and then carried them to the men fighting so desperately in the 
forefront of the battle. Thanks to this timely supply, the troops 
were able to cope successfully with the vastly more numerous 
forces of the enemy, and so won the field. 



After the successful occupation of tlie bourg, there was 
every reason to suppose that the Chinese General Sung would 
try to regain possession of it ; for he halted with his forces not 
far away on the Yingkow highroad. It was thus necessary for 
the Japanese to take measures to prevent any counter-attack. On 
January 14th a scouting party consisting of several officers and 
soldiers, was sent towards Laoye-miao. Among these scouts were 
Toshida Kinjiro, a private of the second-class, belonging to the 
Fourth Company, First Eegiment, and Takahashi Tokichi, a 
trooper of like grade in the reserve of the same Company. Under 
the guidance of Lieutenant Terada Keitaro, the party left Kaiping- 
ching at 3.30 p. m. of the above-mentioned day, carrying with 
them provisions for 24 hours only. That night was spent at 
Chingchiatien-tse on the road leading to Tasie-chiao. On foot 
again at 7.30 a. m. the next day, they passed through Kiaochia- 
hwan and reached Tangchia-paotse. Suddenly they were fired at 
from behind a wall in the village, but succeeding in unearthing 
and driving off their foes. The day was bitterly cold and the 
snow very deep, progress over the frozen roads being therefore 
most difficult. As the short winter's day came to an end, it grew 
impossible to distinguish the road, and the tired scouts had a 
most perilous time in getting to Taiping-shan, which they reached 
some time after sunset. It was impossible to halt, for the 
enemy were thick thereabouts. They tried to get a guide but 
were unsuccessful ; and so the wearied men had to push on alone, 
their provisions gone and their fatigue indescribably great. Late 
at night they reached Songchia-tun, after walking for several 
miles through the moonless dark, the faint reflection of the snow 
alone guiding their footsteps. Suddenly there was a shout and 
then a number of bullets whistled about their ears, the shots com- 
ing from a mob of soldiers and peasants collected on both sides of 
the road. It seemed hopeless to think of going on, yet Yoshida, 
with daring courage, rushed into the mob, striking down several, 
capturing a number of weapons and dispersing the whole opposing 
body — for the Chinese did not and could not know how many 



Japanese were attacking them, and Yoshida fought with the 
strength of a dozen men. Pressing on they made Chinsie-linpu 
about an hour later, and finally got back to Kaiping at 3.30 a. ra. 
of January 16th, exhausted and half-starved. Yoshida had, dur- 
ing the march, done wonders : encouraging his weary comrades, 
carrying the guns of several who were hardly able to walk, and 
behaving after a very gallant fashion. Nor was Takahashi less 
conspicuous for his daring. It was he who drove the enemy from 
behind the wall ; it was he who dispersed another hostile crowd 
when nearing Kaiping ; and it was he who took the chief of their 
opposers a prisoner. 


After the successful capture of Port Arthur, the Second 
Expeditionary Army assembled at Pulantien, where they made 
a halt and awaited an opportunity to march northwards. This 
was in December, 1894. In the mean- 
time, the forces composing the First 
Expeditionary Army were in the neigh- 
bourhood of Haiching, surrounded by 
tens of thousands of vigilant foes. 
They had many pitched battles to 
fight and suffered heavy losses ; but 
no intelligence of this sort did or 
could reach the Second Army Corps. 
And so when the latter was about to 
take Kaiping-ching, the necessity of 
communicating and working in union 
with the Pirst Army, was severely felt. 
And to this end a number of officers and men were chosen to find 
some way in which a juncture could be made. 

Major-General Nogi, commanding the Pirst Brigade, asked 
for volunteers from the Pirst Eegiment. On the other hand the 
Battalion and Company Commanders were instructed to pick out 



some suitable men for the purpose. The command of the scouting 
party was entrusted to Lieutenant Ota Yonemuia, who was an Ad- 
jutant of the First Battalion. Those who promptly volunteered 
were Special Sergeant Tanaka Minoru ; First-class Sergeants To- 
shino Yagoro, Tanaka Tsurukichi and Nakahara Isamu ; Second- 
class Sergeant Noguchi Atsumi ; and 68 rank and file. Thus was 
the necessary number selected by Major-General Nogi, and 
the reconnoitring band speedily ready to set out. 

What these men had to do was as follows : — They had, first 
of all, to travel along wholly unknown roads until they reached 
Haiching, passing through districts infested with the enemy ; they 
had, in the second place, to thoroughly reconnoitre the condition 
and disposition of the hostile forces in and about Shunchoh-ching 
and Kaiping. Could they succeed in doing this, a juncture might 
be made with the First Army Corps. On December 20th, at 8 
a. m., the men formed ranks for a final inspection. Major Take- 
naka Yasutaro, of the First Battalion, First Regiment, then 
addressed them in these words : " You have been selected for the 
fulfilment of an honourable and important duty, and you are now 
about to set out. But before you start I have just one thing to 
say. It is in accordance with the national spirit of Japan that, 
under such circumstances, you should surmount all the many 
difficulties you will encounter by dint of valour and a courage 
that knows no faltering. Inspired by such a spirit, I feel sure that 
you will bring back the intelligence of your complete success." 
As he finished speaking the men swore by the eternal gods that 
they would do their duty so long as the breath should be in their 
bodies. All were impressed with the idea that the time had at 
last come for them to die for their country ; and this determina- 
tion as expressed in their words and bearing added to the tragic 
nature of the scene. During the brief silence that followed the 
Major's speech, the stern, set faces of the men showed the manly 
hearts within them : they would do, or die. Each man then re- 
ceived a sufficient quantity of domyoji-JiosJiii (a kind of dried boiled 
rice) to last, with care, for three days. A few silver coins were 
also given to every one. What else they might need in the way 
of food, they expected to buy in the villages through which they 
would pass. One hour later, i. e. at 9 a. m., the devoted little 



band began to march, the Major and a few men going a little 
distance with them along the road. 

A bitterly cold wind was blowing that morning over the 
snowy plains. The sleet, hard-frozen, cut like a knife where it 
touched the skin. Eoads and everything else were indistingui- 
shably covered by the white pall of winter, and so their only 
guide was the magnetic needle. Keeping a strict lookout, the 
scouts walked on steadily, no one faltering or falling out of line — 
for all were picked men. On December 23rd, at 9 a. m., they 
reached Lungmen-yang where they caught sight of a number of 
Chinese horsemen, about 700 metres away to the north-east. 
The enemy, did not, however, sight the 
Japanese. Taking advantage of this, the 
scouts went around and passed through a 
little hollow, getting on the right flank of 
the horsemen, then suddenly dashing for- 
ward with a wild cheer, they ran towards 
the foe. The Chinese did not wait for 
then to come up. Wholly taken by sur- 
prise, they clapped their spurs into their 
horses and fled in dismay. One man, how- 
ever, fell from his horse. Instead of 
yielding at once, he drew his sword and 
attempted a brave though futile resistance. Ho was promptly 
taken prisoner, and then subjected to a fire of questions. What 
he replied was palpably false, and as he shortly afterwards made 
a bold dash for safety, he was shot dead. In the afternoon of 
the same day Shunchoh-ching was reached. There were evident- 
ly no Chinese soldiers thereabouts. The inhabitants soon gather- 
ed around the Japanese and grew loquacious. From them it was 
learned that the Chinese troops had, some days before, retired in 
the direction of Tingkow, though mounted scouts were frequently 
seen coming from the direction of Kaichow. Some men under a 
sergeant were then sent to search in and around the castle, while 
the rest tore down the telegraph wires. Quantities of military 
stores and provisions were discovered, but nothing was taken. 
However, what was much more to the purpose, a rude map of the 
neighbourhood was discovered among some papers left behind by 


YosHiNO Yagoeo 


a Chinese ofScer. Incomplete as it was, this map proved of great 
value to the party. When they were about ten miles from Kai- 
ping, they learned that close at hand was a force of Chinese, 
under General Ma San-nyan, numbering about five thousand all 
told and comprising Cavalry, Infantry and Artillery. Much else 
was learned concerming the number of field-guns, etc., in the 
enemy's hands. From this time on the Japanese scouts were 
continually surrounded by Chinese horsemen or foot-soldiers, who 
often fired upon or gave chase to the devoted little band. The 
danger of their position was so great and imminent that the Ja- 
panese were not able to advance at all. By day they lay conceal- 
ed amid the snow-drifts in the ravines ; at night they slipped out 
unperceived and tried to get a little farther forwards. During 
these trying hours many of the men ran great risk of being frozen 
to death ; while all were on the point of starvation. On December 
26th Sergeant Tanaka captured a native in one of the outlying 
villages, and from him learned of the close proximity of the First 
Army men. Their duty was thus almost accomplished. Two 
days later some mounted scouts belonging to the First Army were 
descried. Worming their way through the opposing Chinese, the 
little band at length came up with the their countrymen, raising, 
as they did so, a glorious shout of " Tenno Heika Banzai ! " That 
night they reached the Divisional Quarters at Shoko-shan. On 
the following day (December 29th) they marched to the Head 
Quarters of the First Army and made a detailed report of all that 
had occurred. But they must return to their expectant comrades; 
and so, without rest, they set out on their way back, passing 
through the enemy's territory, and once again exposed to hunger 
and the severest cold. At last, on January 4th, they rejoined the 
Main Body at Shonpei-chih, a little east of Shunchoh-ching. 
Here they made a report of the success of their mission, thereby 
greatly facilitating the movements of the Army. It only remains 
to be said that these brave men had covered 184 miles during 
their perilous march. 




The importance of holding Haicliing could hardly be over- 
rated, and this was keenly felt by the Chinese as well as their 
conquerors ; for not only is this one of the best fortified and 
strategically best-chosen sites in Shinking, but it commands 
several most vital highroads : one, leading to China proper : the 
route to Peking overland ; another, 
leading into the Kinchow Penin- 
sula and the long line of walled 
cities and towns in that fertile 
region; and still a third going 
direct to Moukden, the much- 
vaunted treasure-city of the 
reigning Manchu Dynasty. How 
the bourg was taken, with what 
comparative ease in the face of 
its prime importance, has already 
been narrated. But General 
Sung-kiang, with his European 
training and miKtary instinct, 
was not the man to let this 
castle-town pass entirely out of 
China's hands without making a 
desperate attempt to regain possession of the ground. In point 
of fact no less than four such attempts were made, proving on at 


Chief of Staff of the Third Divisioii. 


least two occasions that the Chinese could fight well even when 
not behind massive walls ; proving, moreover, that the Japanese 
were determind to fight to the last gasp in the face of overwhel- 
ming odds ; proving finally the incontestable superiority of Ja- 
panese arms and tactics over those of China's best men and most 
skilful commanders. 

To the south-east of the bourg, as already described, at a 
distance of from 550-2000 metres, stands the tall hill Kiaomai- 
shan, from whose summit a magnificent panorama of hills and 
undulating territory is visible. West, north-west and north-east 
of the town are still three other prominent hills (see p. 230), so 
that the place is completely surrounded by these massive natural 
walls. At a much greater distance southwards is another range 
of high hills, behind Pali-hotse, ending in a mountain known as 
Tangwang-shan. Along this range were the outposts of the 
enemy encamped at Tienchwangtai and Yingkow ; while the out- 
posts of the Chinese garrison at Liaoyang were on Hwangshih- 
shan and Shwanglung-shan. 

After the capture of Haiching on December 13th, 1894, by 
the Third Division, Major-General Osako Naotoshi, with his, the 
Sixth, Brigade, took up a position to the south-west of the 
bourg, a step followed by Major-General Oshima Hisanao with 
his Brigade in the north-east. From the Companies imder 
Colonels Tsukamoto and Sat5, pickets were sent towards Lianchia- 
slian and Tangwang-shan ; the outposts for Shwanglung-shan, 
were chosen from Colonel Miyoshi's men ; wliile those stationed 
along Hwangshih-shan were sent from the detachment under 
Colonel Aibara Tokoyo. The cold being intense, the men had to 
be relieved at frequent intervals ; and even then this picket-duty 
was of a most hazardous nature, the soldiers having to stand 
knee-deep in the snow, exposed to the chill blasts that kept sweep- 
ing through the hills, during the long hours of their watch. 
Mounted and other scouts were moreover constantly scouring the 
country just beyond the line of outposts, so that every movement 
of the enemy was regularly watched and known, and the whole 
Army kept thereby on the alert. It was thus discovered that the 
Chinese at Nganshan-tien were drawing nearer the Japanese lines, 
and after January 11th collisions between their pickets and the 


Japanese scouts were of daily occurrence. On January 15th the 
news was brought in that an army of 20000 Chinese had collected 
at Pulai-tun, Shwangmiao-tse and Kanshien-pao, and that there 
were indications of this large force preparing to march south- 
wards. On this, Lieut.-General Katsura at once sent Staff 
Captain Ikata Tokuzo towards Hwangshih-shan, in order to 
obtain more precise information as to the enemy's movements. 
On reaching the summit of the hill the Captain failed to see any- 
thing of the approaching army, although it was then two o'clock 
in the afternoon and the day bright and clear. The same day 
scouts were sent by Colonel Aibara in the direction of Shwang- 
miao-tse, with orders to climb the hill at West Tuching-tse and 
there make a reconnaissance. Here the enemy were plainly 
visible, though not in force. Three columns were seen marching 
out of Saoniu-chen, two of which took the road to Ping-erh-hwang, 
while the third marched towards Chenglin-hotse, and these seemed 
eager for a brush with the Japanese scouts. Major-General 
Oshima, on receiving this report, sent to warn the Division that a 
body of some 2000 Chinese was advancing from Chenglin-hotse 
in their direction. Other mounted officers, who had been acting 
as scouts, moreover told that a body of about 550 Chinese was 
marching towards Tafu-tun. It was finally learned that the 
major portion of the Chinese Army had advanced to a place 
only a few miles distant from the Japanese line of outposts. 

Certain that this meant an attack in force on Haiching, 
everything was made ready to defend the place to the utmost, 
despite the fact that the oncoming multitudes outnumbered the 
Japanese garrison five or six to one. Scouts were again sent up 
Hwangshih-shan, enjoined to keep a sharp lookout, but the view 
was unfortunately obscured by a heavy mist; and at 10 p. m. no 
sign was visible of the approaching foe. Shortly afterwards, 
however, a large body of Chinese was discovered, evidently going 
towards Shaho-ying from Chang-hotai ; moreover, certain of- 
ficers reported that the enemy had entered Siaowang-tun and that 
they, the officers, had seen the Chinese throwing up breastworks 
in the villages near Shaho-ing. At 1 p. m. a body of about 500 
Chinese came round from Hwangehia-tai. Four hours later Lieut.- 
General Nozu, Commander in Chief, arrived from Siuyen with his 


Staff. At dawn of January 17tli, a great multitude of the enemy- 
appeared on the Liaoyang highroad, where, spreading out, they 
occupied the surrounding ground and established their temporary 
camp at the rear of Changhotai. The enemy's line of battle made 
a huge semicircle, at least six miles long, the Left Wing being at 
Tohopao on the Liaoyang road, while the Eight was at Ertai-tse : 
Their total number was computed at 13,000, and their Generals 
were the famous Tartar B-ko-tang-a and Chiao of Kilin. 

Making Hwangshih-shan the centre of the line of defence, 
the Japanese Commander sent the Yamakami Battalion of 
Artillery, belonging to the Third Begiment, to the fore. In the 
village known as Chiaoching-chwan, at the base of this hill, was 
stationed the First Battalion of the Nineteenth Begiment of In- 
fantry, commanded by Major Fujimoto Taro. These troops 
formed a sort of ambuscade, being ordered to lie concealed until 
the enemy drew near. They also threw up earthworks and 
moreover utilised the walls of the village houses for defensive 
purposes. A detachment (the Bight Wing), under Colonel ]Miyo- 
shi, was sent to the top of Shwanglung-shan, there to await the 
approach of the enemy's Wing on the Liaoyang road. Another 
detachment of Artillery was stationed along the brow of this 
hill, where the fire was sure to have tremendous effect. On the 
other hand, the Japanese Left at Chaochang and Shuichiayuan- 
tse was protected by a Battalion under Colonel Aibara, Command- 
ing Of&cer of the Nineteenth Begiment : while one Artillery Com- 
pany ranged their guns north-east of Shiuchiayuan-tse. The 
remaining Japanese troops formed a reserve and collected just 
outside the north and west gates of Haiching, where they were to 
guard the ammunition and train. Besides all this, one Squadron 
of Cavalry was sent along the Liaoyang road to warn the Japanese 
Bight; while scouts were despatched at full speed over the 
frozen ground to convey the tidings to the garrison at Tomuh- 
ching and the troops westwards on the Newchwang road. 

The reconnoiting officers who had gone on to the Liaoyang 
road, leaving the van of the Miyoshi Begiment at 6 a. m., Jan. 
17th, reached Toho-pao three hours later. At 10 a. m. they 
returned with following report : — The van of the enemy consists 
of a body of 400 Infantry and 40 horsemen ; they are making for 


Toho-pao on the Liaoyang higliway and are the precursors of a 
much large force moving steadily southwards. On hearing this, 
Major Tominaga Masatoshi, in command of the Advance Battalion, 
ascended Shwanglung-shan, whence he enjoyed a distinct view of 
the enemy and their operations. On descending, he reported to 
Colonel Miyoshi that, at 10.40 a. m., he had seen that the enemy's 
van had reached Santai-tse, the Main Body following at a little 
distance, with flying banners. Word was now sent to the out- 
posts to prepare for engaging the enemy ; the Eighth Company, 
under Captain Asamura Tasumasa, was sent forward to assist the 
picket-line, while the Fifth Company, commanded by Captain 
Mizoguchi Tonoshin, prepared to dispute the passage with the 
oncoming Chinese. In the meantime, the Battalion commanded 
by Colonel Miyoshi, in accordance with an order received from 
Major-General Oshima, drew up in battle formation inside the 
north gate of Haiching, for here was where the brunt of the 
attack must fall. Another orderly now coming up with a fresh 
command, the Battalion slowly proceeded northward, led by their 
Colonel in person, until they reached the hamlet Pienshui-kao. 
It was now 1.05 p. m., and the day bitterly cold. Major Ohara 
Yoshijiro, commanding the Advance Column of the Aibara troops, 
had, the previous night, bivouacked at the foot of Hwangshih- 
shan, keeping a strict lookout. At 8 a. m. they saw the long 
line of the approaching Army nearing their outposts. The Colonel 
at once sent some Artillery and foot-soldiers to the Japanese outer 
line, with orders to reserve their fire until the Chinese should 
come within easy range, and then not waste a shot. Still keeping 
their semicircular formation, the enemy then spread out in their 
centre, the right and left segment of the semicircle, from where 
they stood, opening fire on Colonel Miyoshi's men at Shwanglung- 
shan and Colonel Aibara's Battalion at Hwangshih-shan. The 
Chinese at Poloh-paotse now also marched southwards, but did 
not attempt to break up the Japanese line of defence. At last 
the enemy west and south-west of Hwangshih-shan moved off a 
little distance, but continued firing as they did so. To this the 
Japanese did not deign to reply. For the time being, the Chinese 
made no attempt to draw nearer. 

Half an hour after midday. Colonel Miyoshi ordered Captain 


Asamura's Company (the Seventh) to march to the foot of 
Shwanglung-shan, where they were speedily joined by the Sixth 
Company under Captain Saka. At 1.20 p. m. the Eighth Com- 
pany deployed to the left of the Artillery on Shwanglung-shan, 
the Sixth Company keeping on their right. Just at this time 
1000 Chinese foot-soldiers with 160 horsemen came on from 
Erhtai-tse and occupied the southern portion of the village of 
Sie-ai-ta-paotse. The enemy now began a brisk artillery fire, the 
shells going clean over Shwanglung-shan and falling on the 
southern slope where Captain Mizuhara and his company were 
stationed. The shells fell in the midst of the men, causing many 
casualties. A little before this time, just as Colonel Miyoshi was 
about to order the First Company on to Shwangshan-tse, east of 
the important Shwanglung-shan, an order came from Major- 
General Oshima which materially altered the Colonel's plans. It 
was to the effect that he, the Colonel, should make prompt use of 
the Artillery in repelling the Chinese advance. Captain Mizuha- 
ra 's Company (the Second) was now commanded to leave the 
dangerous place in which it was and to move onwards in open 
order ; while the Third Company, under Captain Yamamoto Jiita- 
ro, and the Fourth, led by Captain Yamaguchi Eiji, were told to take 
up their post at Pienshui-kao as a Eeserve Force. At 2.25 p. m., the 
Japanese Battery reached the slope of Shwanglung-shan and, 
promptly unlimbering the guns, made ready to fire. Movements of 
this kind, particularly dragging of the heavy guns through the deep 
snow, were exceedingly difficult ; yet everything was done with pre- 
cision and despatch, the men working with a will. At first the ene- 
my, waving a couple of dozen banners, slowly approached the Japa- 
nese line to within about 500 metres. This they did very cautiously, 
notwithstanding their numbers. Still the Japanese with held their 
fire. Grown bolder, the Chinese — who could hardly see their foe, 
so deep was the snow, — made a dash forwards, and as they got 
within less than 500 metres distance the Japanese Artillery and 
Infantry simultaneously opened fire. The Chinese were wholly 
surprised at this sudden volley, after so long a silence, and hastily 
retreated along the hollow road, which, in some degree, afforded 
them a shelter. The Japanese however did not offer to give 
chase, for the position of the ground was such that if the Chinese 

HAIGHING 11. 283 

had afterwards brought their Main Body round the base of the 
hill — which slopes down to BTaiching — the Japanese would have 
been in considerable difficulty. It was deemed sufficient therefore, 
to keep the foe at a respectful distance. 

Eeturning now to Colonel Aibara, who, as has been stated, 
was waiting with his men at the foot of Hwangshih-shan, we find 
that up till noon nothing of importance had occurred. Shortly 
after midday the enemy began a desultory fire from a distance of 
more than 2000 metres, doing little or no harm at all. At one 
time they came with 800 metres of the Column's Left Wing, but, 
before a shot could be fired, scampered off again to nearly twice 
that distance. At 2.45 p. m. an order came from the Brigade 
Commander to the effect that Colonel Aibara should disperse the 
enemy before him by a front attack, and drive back the Chinese 
Eight Wing from Shiuchiayuan-tse. In order to accomplish this, 
the command ran on, he should take the First Battalion of his 
own Regiment, the Third Battalion of the Eighteenth Eegiment — 
which was stationed before the north gate of the bourg — and one 
Battery of Artillery. At 3.30 p. m., the Third Battalion, com- 
manded by Major Ushijima, reached Shuichiayuan-tse. The 
Battery had, shortly before, arrived at the north-east extremity 
of the village, and, as the Infantry came up, was engaged in an 
artillery duel with the enemy at Poloh-paotse. Four minutes later, 
the Fifth Company of the Nineteenth Eegiment, which had stolen 
round to the rear of the Chinese artillery, opened a murderous 
fire on the enemy's gunners, thus attacked from two sides. There 
could be but one result. The Chinese artillery was speedily 
silenced, and the guns captured. 

All this time the large body of Chinese between An-tsuen- 
paotse and Poloh-paotse kept 1500 metres between themselves 
and the Japanese line, not offering to come any nearer. These 
men had to be driven back, so Colonel Aibara sent Major Ushi- 
jima with the Third Battalion towards An-tsuen-paotse, ordering 
him to attack the enemy's right. As the Battalion approached 
the Chinese drew back. On this, the Fifth Company (Captain 
Imamura Gishin), the Sixth Company (Captain Izaka Gei), and 
the Second Battalion of the Nineteenth Eegiment, under Major 
Ohara Yoshijiro, were sent off to dislodge the enemy from 



Poloh-paotse ; while the Eighth Company (Captain Tagami Ta- 
jiro) of the same Regiment, was told to charge the enemy's right 
at the bayont's point. Colonel Aibara moreover called up the 
Second Battalion of the Sixth Regiment— which, though not 
subject to his command, was now placed at his disposal — and told 
the Commander, Major Onodera, to act as a reinforcement for the 
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Regiments in their occupation of 
Poloh-paotse. The Artillery accompanied these forces, as a matter 
of course. The Japanese were now ranged as follows : — The 
Eighteenth Regiment was at the western end of the line of attack, 
the Nineteenth being at the eastern extremity, while the Second 
Battalion of the Sixth Regiment, together with the Artillery, form- 
ed the centre. Two Sub-companies 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, 
which had hitherto been stationed 
at Chaoohang, also made haste to- 
wai^ds Poloh-paotse. 

On the Chinese becoming 
aware of the Japanese approach, 
they fell back on Tafu-tun and 
Siaofu-tun, about 1300 metres 
distant. The Japanese followed 
after them as quickly as the heavy 
snow would permit, but without 
firing. The detachment at the 
base of Hwangshih-shan then 
began to move also, in order to 
deliver a fire at right angles ; and 
while this was doing Major- 
General Oshima came up and assumed command in person. The 
Chinese were now running for dear life, and they were so agile 
and expert at the business that the Japanese could not decrease 
the distance separating them from the foe. In a pinewood about 
1000 metres north of Poloh-paotse the Japanese paused to take 
breath, and while they were here the Artillery came lumbering up 
and began shelling Tafu-tun, which village the Chinese as prompt- 
ly evacuated. On reaching this village at 5 p. m. Major-General 
Oshima commanded a halt and ordered the forces to return to 

Matob TJshuima. 


their former stations. The enemy, meanwhile, continiied their 
run, never stopping till within the walls of Tulai-tun and Liao- 
yang. During this long day of skirmishing and desultory war- 
fare the Japanese had only 40 killed and wounded, the casualties 
on the Chinese side being vastly more numerous. They left over 
200 dead on the field. Among the spoils taken were five field- 
guns, three breech-loading cannon of an obsolete type, and quan- 
tities of small arms and ammunition. 


Although the first attempt to recover Haiching had proved 
so eminently abortive— ending in a mere fizzle — the Chinese 
generals were by no means dissuaded from their intention. On 
January 22nd they again set out, this time probably from Kan- 
shen-pao, not far from Liaoyang, the attacking forces being 
joined by several other columns coming from other neighbouring 
towns and villages. At early dawn of the 22nd, they appeared in 
front of the Japanese line of defence, but not to find the invading 
Army either unprepared or at all concerned at their approach. 
The majority of the enemy marched toward Siaof u-tun and Tafu- 
tun ; others came from the direction of Changho-tai and Ho-sanli- 
chiao, their intention being to get at Haiching through the ravine 
lying between the two hills Shwanglung-shan and Hwangshih- 
shan. Avoiding the Japanese Artillery stationed on Hwangsliih- 
shan, they made a detour and, passing by Shaho-ying to the 
north, advanced on Poloh-paotse. Another Column, stretched out 
to a great length, made for Ertai-tse, the village fronting Shwang- 
lung-shan, themselves coming from the neighbourhood of Toho- 

This time the Japanese had resolved to defeat the enemy 
with one crushing blow, and to that effect the following arrange- 
ments were made: — Lieut.-General Katsura, deeming the enemy's 
main strength to be in the Bight Wing, ordered Colonel Sato to 
proceed in that direction. The Colonel's forces consisted of the 
Third Battalion, the Seventh Company of the Eighteenth Begi- 


ment, the First Battalion of the Sixth Regiment, and the Second 
Battalion of Artillery. The Japanese outposts were also fully 
prepared to receive the enemy ; the Eight Wing stretching, under 
the command of Colonel Miyoshi, from the base of Shwanglung- 
shan to a point east of Hwangshih-shan ; another body holding the 
ground from the base of Hwangshih-shan to the Newchwang 
highroad — commanded by Colonel Aibara and under the personal 
supervision of Major-General Oshima ; a third posted from the 
Newchwang road to the base of Liukung-shan, and under the 
control of Colonel Tsukamoto ; a fourth line from the base of the 
last-named mountain to the foot of Tangwang-shan, commanded 
by Colonel Sato and under the control of Major-General Osako ; 
finally a fifth line reaching from Shuichiayuan-tse, midway between 
Tafu-tun, and Poloh-paotse, to Haiching. It being also necessary 
to defend the slopes and defiles of Hwangshih-shan, Colonel 
Aibara ascended this hill, taking the Ohara Battalion with him. 

At Shuichiayuan-tse was the Battalion of Major Fujimoto 
Taro, prepared to defend the hamlet to the last man. 

A large number of the enemy now drew near Shwanglung- 
shan, and it was evidently their intention to make a breach in the 
Japanese lines, and thus cut up the whole defense into smaller 
bodies, thereby rendering the attack much easier. Still, even 
though the Chinese attempted this, the various bodies of the de- 
fenders could not possibly leave the posts to which they had been 
appointed ; for any movement of this sort would leave a gap through 
which other Columns of the enemy might enter. There was, none 
the less, one body that might resist in repelling the Chinese. 
This was the force under Colonel Sato, which extended far to the 
south-west, and from that quarter little danger was to be ap- 
prehended, — unless indeed the Yingkow garrison should attempt 
a sortie. Under the circumstances, therefore, Lieut.-General 
Katsura ordered the Colonel to come back and help in making a 
counter-attack on the steadily advancing enemy. The enemy now 
fully perceived that the Japanese were aware of their intention of 
making a strong attack from the right ; yet they continued to 
mass troops in that quarter, and finally, breaking up their forma- 
tion into a number of lesser bodies, they began to move against 
Siechiayuan-tse. At 1.15 a. m. they had come within 1000 metres 


of the Japanese lines, and as they did so they began a heavy 
fusillade. Continuing to fire they slowly advanced, yet without 
eliciting any response from the defenders of the place.- The 
Fujimoto Battalion, stationed a little north of Shuichiayuan-tse 
and on the western side of the village, now concealed themselves 
behind the earth-works which had there been thrown up. The 
place thus fortified had originally been a hillock, but this had 
afterwards been leveled and on the resulting ground a row of 
redoubts erected. In the midst of these defences the men of the 
First Battalion of the Sixth Eegiment — commanded for the time 
being by Captain Tokuda Tei-ichi, — concealed themselves as 
effectually as possible. Their example was followed by the 
Ushijima Battalion (Eighteenth Begiment) and the Seventh 
Company of the same Begiment, under Captain Terata Shakurui. 
This body faced westwards, while the former Battalion turned to 
the north. Major Heito Masayo, with one Battalion of Artillery, 
then ranged his guns just behind the village of Sie-chia-yuan-tse, 
and by a constant, intentionally careless, fire, led the Chinese to 
believe that the idea was to keep them from dashing towards the 
village. The ruse was successful, the enemy coming on as eagerly 
as possible. Their line was one of great extent, for the western end 
of their flank touched the Newchwang road, while the eastern 
portion reached the other Column marching southward from 
Poloh-paotse. Firing as they drew ever nearer, the Chinese come 
gallantly on, until they had approached the ambuscade within 200- 
300 metres. It was now 1.30 p. m., and Colonel Sato at this mo- 
ment gave the signal for the counter-attack. Springing to their 
feet the hitherto concealed troops began to fire fiercely at short 
range, causing fearful damage among the enemy and taking them 
entirely by surprise. They faltered, then began to retreat. On 
this the order to " Charge ! " was given, and with ringing cheers 
the Japanese rushed on the dismayed foe. Colonel Tsukamoto 
who, with the Second Battalion of his Eegiment and the First 
Battalion (less two Companies) of the Eighteenth Eegiment, had 
seen the successful repulse of the Chinese, now descended the hill 
with his troops and assisted in chasing the fugitive Columns. 

Major-General Oshima had meanwhile been viewing the 
whole scene from the top of Hwangshih-shan. Assured that there 


were now no Chinese hidden in the villages north of the hill, he 
sent Colonel Aibara with the Ohara Battalion on towards 
Sie-chia-yuan-tse. But before this officer could reached his objec- 
tive, the enemy on the western side were in full retreat. Infected 
by the panic of their comrades, the Chinese who had been advan- 
cing southwards from Poloh-paotse, soon began to retire also. 
Their retrograde movement was accelerated by the splendid fire 
of the two Battalions of Artillery stationed atop of Hwangshih- 
shan, the gunners here moreover succeeding in silencing the 
Chinese Artillery at Shaho-ying. Not content with this, the Ja- 
panese artillerists kept dropping shells at long range among the 
enemy about the hamlet of Lochia-paotse and caused many deaths 
among the troops fleeing from Poloh-paotse as well. The 
whole Chinese line was by this time in a state of great disorder. 
Some attempted to escape by running to the west of Poloh-paotse, 
hoping there to find the ground unguarded. But here, as will be 
remembered, were other Japanese troops, who fired so steadily 
and with such fatal accuracy of aim that the Chinese, in utter 
consternation, made for the direction of Tafu-tun. Several 
bodies of the enemy, who had been separated from the Main 
Column, were now hunted by Colonel Tsukamoto and his men, 
the Chinese suffering greatly and finally retreating northwards at 
full speed. At 2 p. m. the Ushijima Battalion was in possession 
of Tafu-tun, having driven the enemy thence at the bayonet's 

Returning to Colonel Miyoshi, who was posted with his 
troops on Shwanglung-shan, we find that the Chinese stood 
facing this body for several hours without offering to come nearer 
than 1500 metres. They were probably awaiting for the success 
of the attack on Shui-chia-yuan-tse, in order to advance. But when 
they found that their right had been repulsed with such a heavy 
loss, they also began to withdraw, retreating until they came to 
a village two miles northwards. Colonel Aibara, however, was 
not to be baulked of his prey in this manner, and, after hastily 
asking and receiving Major-General Oshima's permission to chase 
the foe, made after the Chinese at full speed. In the meantime 
the Miyoshi forces had taken matters into their own hand and 
had got within less than 600 metres of the fleeing hordes. 


Steady Tolley& being fired into the disordered mass, the Chinese 
were thrown into still greater confusion and began running north- 
wards in little bodies of ten or twenty. The second attack on 
Haiching was thus, like the former, not only unsuccessful but also 
productive of great loss to the enemy ; for whereas the Japanese 
had only 27 killed and wounded, the Chinese left more than 100 
corpses behind them. Among the spoils taken were two guns, 
70 rifles, 4500 rounds of ammunition, 4 banners, swords, a war- 
drum, trumpets, and 15 fur-lined great-coats. 


Fob more than three weeks after this last futile attempt to 
regain possession of their one-time stronghold, the Chinese remain- 
ed tolerably quiescent. Yet it was evident that they had not 
entirely given iip the hope of getting the bourg back into their 
hands, for they did not retreat very far and frequently made their 
appearance on the Liaoyang highway and near Toho-paotse. 
Again, having a camp on the Pulai-tun road, they showed up in 
small bodies on two or three occasions at Pih-erh-hwang and 
Changhoh-tai. Collisions between their scouts and the Japanese 
outposts were frequent at Ertai-tse and Santai-tse on the New- 
chwang highroad. At all events, it was evident that they were 
fully prepared not only to dispute any farther advance westwards 
and northwards, but also to drive back the Japanese whenever a 
favourable opportunity should present itself. 

At dawn of February 16th, there were indications of another 
attack on the part of the enemy. Warnings were sent in from the 
outpost line, and in the Division everything was made ready to 
add another to the long list of victories. It was now ascertained 
that the Main Body of the besiegers was coming on from Changhoh- 
tai, and that they were shaping their course for Hwangshih-shan. 
According to subsequent estimates, the Chinese forces actually 
taking part in this third attempt numbered not less than 10,000, 
their commander being the redoubtable Tartar General E. The ene- 
my's centre, consisting of an Army 10,000 strong, made for Hwang- 


sliih-slian ; their Left Wing, comprising 2000 troops led by General 
Chang of the Kilin Army, set out from Toho-pao and appeared to 
be contemplating an assault on the Japanese at Shwanglung-shan. 
Their Eight Wing, composed of 10,000 recruits from Shanghai- wang 
kwan and the former garrison of Kaiping, came along the Newch 
road. A Reserve force was moreover stationed in the rear of the 
Szetu-ching highland. Besides this large host, another Column, 
3000 strong, set out from Liukung-tun and advanced as far as the 
Yingkow road. The van of this Column — at least 1000 — occupied 
the elevated ground 700-800 metres from Tangwang-shan, where 
a formidable battery of guns was placed. Several other smaller 
bodies came, later on, from the direction of Liukung-tun. The 
length of the enemy's line, from the Liaoyang highway east to the 
Yingkow road west, was fully six miles. A few minutes after 8 
o'clock this same morning (Feb. 16th), a report came in that the 
enemy had got quite close to the outposts on Shwanglung-shan. 
A detachment under Colonel Miyoshi was therefore instantly des- 
patched in this direction, where lay the Bight Wing of the 
Japanese forces. Major Naito Shinichiro, commanding the First 
Battalion, Seventh Eegiment, called up all the men and sent the 
Second Company as a reserve on to Pienshui-kao. At 10 a. m. 
a body of about 1000 Chinese approached the Japanese line from 
Utao-kao and Brhtai-tse. They set up a battery of field-guns on 
the hill known as Sietoh-shan, a little to the north of Sanli-chiao- 
tse, and began firing on the Japanese on the opposite hills. Major 
Naito then sent one Company to the hills east of Shwanglung- 
shan, another being despatched towards the southern base of the 
latter — a hand-to-hand conflict with the foe being momentarily 
expected. An hour later, the enemy showing no disposition to 
come to closer quarters. Colonel Miyoshi sent two Companies of 
the Tominaga Battalion to the aid of Major Naito's little command, 
ordering these as well as the Naito troops to keep themselves out 
of sight between the forces stationed on the two hills. Probably 
supposing that the Japanese Army was much less than it had been 
in point of numbers, the Chinese now marched to the southern 
end of Aitao-paotse. Here and again at Erhtai-tse they placed 
two guns, and began firing rapidly. It was now 11 o'clock in the 
forenoon. An hour later the enemy, grown bolder, had increased 


to about 3000 men at these points, and now they come on finely, 
blowing their bugles and firing volleys as they advanced. Still the 
Japanese preserved their ominous silence. Gradually the distance 
between the two Armies lessened until it was not more than 400 
metres, when a body of 1000 horsemen came at full gallop from 
Tashin-tun and, running within almost a stone's throw of the Jap- 
•anese outpost-line, opened fire preparatory to making a charge. 
At this instant the Japanese troops in ambuscade suddenly sprang 
from their hiding-place and a flame of fire spread along the whole line. 
The enemy were, however, not taken wholly by surprise, having 
apparently suspected something of the kind. Taking advantage 
■of every stone or tree, they obstinately drew nearer, until hardly 
'200 metres separated them from the Japanese : presumably hoping 
to overwhelm the defenders by sheer force of numbers. But now 
the cannon on the hill-top began to roar out their messages of 
death, mowing great lanes through the Chinese Columns. It was 
too much. The enemy faltered, and then began to retreat, break- 
ing finally into a run towards Ertai-tse. The thousand horsemen 
lost no time in following this example, and were pursued by 
two Companies of the defenders, who finally entered and took 
possession of Aitao-paotse. 

On Hwangshih-shan, the centre of the Japanese line, similar 
«teps had been taken to repel the Chinese advance ; for Major- 
General Oshima had not only had a number of cannon posted on 
the brow of the liill but had also prepared an ambuscade, the other 
two Companies of the Tominaga Battalion being concealed in the 
hamlet of Chiaching-ching, at the western base of the hill. 

The central attack of the enemy had thus been promptly 
Tepulsed; yet there were thousands of Chinese elsewhere, and 
these had to be accounted for. The Chinese who had started from 
Changhoh-tai had, in the meanwhile, faced south-west, stationed 
outposts here and there opposite the Japanese pickets, and put 2 
cannon at Poloh-pao as well as several guns (using smokeless 
powder) at Chingchin-pao, not more than 1200-3000 metres from 
the Japanese troops there collected for defense. A brisk artillery 
duel ensued, the result being that the enemy was kept from draw- 
ing any nearer. The probable intention of the Chinese had been 
■io throw the Japanese Eight and Left Wings into confusion with 


their batteries, tlie real attack being reserved for the Japanese 
centre. Nothing of the kind ensued, however, and, at 3 p. m., 
seeing the hopeless nature of the contest, the enemy began to 
retreat, their movements being considerably hastened by three 
Japanese Companies who chased them as far as Poloh-pao, which 
fell into the pursuers' hands. 

On Liukung-shan, the centre of the Japanese Left ,was Major- 
General Osako, with his Brigade ; while the Ishida Battalion of 
the Eighteenth Eegiment was on Taugwang-shan. On the brow 
of both hills cannon had been placed. At 10 a. m. a force of 5000 
Chinese approached Tangwang-shan from the west and Luikung- 
shan from the north. Their line was subsequently extended for 
about 300 metres west of the former hill. This Tangwang-shan is 
too precipitous to climb on either the northern or western side ; 
but to the south-east there is a ravine giving easy access to the 
summit. Here, it was supposed, the enemy would attempt 
the ascent; and in fact they did so — but only to be met 
by a tremendous artillery fire from the summit, then not more 
than 700 metres away. A retreat speedily followed. One 
smaller body did, however, succeed in getting close to Pali-hotse, 
the outpost just north of this hill, and there met with a detach- 
ment of Major Ishida's men, who kept them at bay with a well- 
directed fusillade. In a little while they retreated along the 
Newchwang and Yingkow roads ; and thus the attack was beaten 
back at every point. 

It seems almost incredible that so large a force should have 
accomplished so little ; particularly that they should have inflicted 
so small an amount of damage on the little Army of defenders. 
For the Japanese had, on this day, only 13 killed and wounded ; 
while the Chinese left nearly 200 killed to mark the site of their 
third failure. 


The last attempt to recover the castle-town of Haiching was 
probably the best planned of all ; and indeed the Chinese would 


undoubtedly hare had things all their own way this time, had it 
not been for the pluck and dash of the Japanese, not to speak of 
the admirable defensive measures taken by their leaders. The 
Chinese losses on this occasion Avere exceptionally severe. The 
whole number of killed and wounded was never ascertained, 
but in front of Tangwang-shan alone more than one hundred 
corpses were counted. The probability is that the enemy must 
have lost several hundred men. 

It was only five days after the third attempt that the fourth 
was begun, for at 8 a. m. of February 21st a number of Chinese 
were suddenly descried emerging from behind the village of 
Shaho-ying. Later on it was reported that the enemy's line reached 
Ying-ching-pao and a place a little to the east of Poloh-pao, while 
several bodies were seen gathering at Siaofu-tun and Tafu-tun, a 
battery finally being placed on the slope of Sietoh-shan, where the 
gunners at once began firing at the Japanese outposts. Staff-officer 
Ikata was sent to Hwangshih-shan in order to observe and report on 
the number of the enemy in sight, while the local command of the 
Division went on to Lochia-paotse in order to superintend the 
fighting. At 9.80 a. m. the larger portion of the attacking force, 
about 3000 strong, appeared intending to occupy Kiao-mai-shan, 
the troops moving with unusual celerity in that direction. Two 
of the Companies on guard at Chaoching-ching now set out to 
intercept the enemy's approach, exposing themselves at once to 
the fire of the Chinese battery on the above-named hill. Very 
little damage was done, none the less. Twenty minutes later a body 
of Chinese came from Shaho-ying towards Pienshui-kao, while 
another moved in the direction of Sie-ai-ta-paotse — the ultimate 
object of both evidently being Shwanglung-shan. At 10.10 
a. m. the enemy were within 2000 metres of the Japanese line, and 
were marching on Pienshui-kao to the right of Shwanglung-shan. 
The distance between the two Armies steadily decreased to 1500 
metres, when Major-General Oshima ordered the Artillery to began 
firing, the men behind the concealed breastworks simultaneously 
commencing a warm fusillade. The enemy south of Sanli-chiao- 
tse now attempted to overwhelm the Japanese outpost at Litse, 
but were driven back by the firing of a Company stationed there. 
The mass of Chinese, who had collected on the road between 


Santai-tse and Erhtai-tse, further attempted to drive the Japanese 
from Pali-hotse, but unluckily for themselves happened to encounter 
at this point a detachment under Colonel Sato, on his way from 
Tashih-kiao to Haiching. Colonel Sato had, on the preceding day, 
sent out for Kaiping, as it was thought that the enemy intended to 
attempt the recapture of this bourg ; but hearing that the First 
Division had already proceeded to the aid of the threatened 
garrison, he was retracing his steps towards Haiching when he 
fell in with the enemy. Quickly grasping the situation Colonel 
Sato went to reinforce Major Ishida around to the west of Pali- 
hotse, in order to have the Chinese between two fires ; but the 
enemy did not wait to observe the neatness of this manoeuvre. 
After a short skirmish they fell back, followed by shrapnel sent 
after them from the Japanese batteries on Tangwang-shan and 
Liukung-shan, the spherical shells causing fearful havoc in their 
ranks. At 11.30 a. m. the last attempt to recapture Haiching was 
at an end, and everywhere the ground was strewn with Chinese 
corpses — the losses of the enemy being very great at every point. 
On the other hand the Japanese lost only six in killed and 

The Chinese never had the chance to make another attempt 
to recapture Haiching, their armies being effectually cowed and 
forced back by the battle of Newchwang and the taking of Ting- 
kow, their great base of supplies. The road to Peking was get- 
ting easier every day, for nothing that the enemy's most skilful 
generals could do sufficed to stop the advance of the invincible 


On the occasion of the third Chinese attack on Haiching, Feb- 
ruary 16th, 1895, the Third Company of the Third Eegiment deploy- 
ed in the foremost line to the west of Shwanglung-shan. The 
earthworks and log-forts thereabouts were still covered with the 

HAIGHING 11. 295 

heavy snow that had fallen the previous day. All that the Com- 
pany could do was to build with speed a snow-redoubt — a poor 
protection, doubtless, yet the best that could be had at the time. 
While the men were throwing up the rampart, the enemy 
continued to rain bullets in their direction. Here Nakamura 
Sanjiro, a first-class private, worked with conspicuous gallantry, 
his exertions nerving all the others to wellnigh superhuman 
exertions. In a very brief space of time the rampart was done, 
and the Japanese sheltered from the enemy's fire. 


The First Company of the Seventh Regiment was, on January 
22nd, ordered to give chase to some Chinese in Hosan-li-chiao- 
tse and to capture, if possible, Mt. Sietoh. On this occasion 
the van was composed of the Third Sub-company, whose tem- 
porary Commander was First-class Sergeant Morisugi Tsunezo : he 
who had been so conspicuous for his gallantry in the storming of 
Haiching. In front of all the rest marched the Sergeant, closaly 
followed by three privates. On pressing into Hosan-li-chiao-tse, 
he caught sight of 2 or 3 Chinese horsemen on one side of Sietoh- 
shan, where they appeared to be stationed as lookouts. It was of 
course not known whether any other Chinese were near at hand 
or on the other flank of the hill ; yet Morisugi and his immediate 
followers ran on towards the horsemen, hoping to capture 
them. Mounted though they were, the Chinese did not wait for 
their adversaries to come up, but fled headlong. Going still 
farther up the hill the Sergeant espied a body of hostile horse 
and foot, perhaps 1500 or 1600 strong. This body was about 400 
metres to the north of the hill at the time, and opened fire so soon 
as the four Japanese were caught sight of. "With truly splendid 
courage the Sergeant halted, and with his men began firing on the 
enemy, reckless of his own imminent peril. The brisk exchange 
of shots gave notice to the advancing Sub-company that the enemy 
had been encountered ; and so time was gained for the men to 
deploy and come on in open order. 



The Seventh Eegiment was on guard at Haiching in January, 
1895 ; and to the Second Company of this Eegiment did Tsujino 
Iwamatsu, a Second-class Sergeant, belong. In pursuit of his 
manifold duties he had, on one occasion, to go on to Shwanglung- 
shan, when the temperature was very low and the snow so deep 
that he sank in it to his knees at every step. To add to his 
discomfort it was night, and the wind blowing a gale, icy particles 
filling the keen air. Fire-wood was much needed for the troops, 
and the Sergeant had applied to his Lieutenant for permission 
to go out beyond the picket-line and collect the necessary fuel. 
The enemy had advanced their outposts to Erhtai-tse beyond 
Shihyen-tai: not more than 2000 metres distant from the Japanese 
outermost pickets. The undertaking was a most perilous one 
under any circumstances. Yet, after receiving permission to go, 
he and 2 or 3 privates walked on until well within the enemy's 
line, collected a large quantity of fuel, and came back without ' 
having aroused the attention of their adversaries. 

Again, when the Japanese attacked Sietoh-shan, north-west of 
Haiching, during the night of February 28th, the Company to 
which Sergeant Tsujino belonged, formed the van. On reaching 
the base of the hill, being then about 5-600 metres distant from 
the enemy, the Japanese were suddenly fired upon by them. 
Sergeant Tsujino however kept his men from falling into disorder 
and replied with a withering volley. A few minutes later he 
proceeded towards the enemy and then, on the command to 
charge being given by his Commander, he was the first man to 
spring up and the first to dash into the enemy's lines, where he 
laid about him with reckless bravery. His excellent example 
stimulated the men to renewed efforts, and the Chinese were 
speedily dislodged and driven back. at a sharp run. 




The taking of Wei-hai-wei, the second greatest of China's 
maritime fortresses, was remarkable for several reasons. In the 
first place the port was defended as seldom any port has been : 
encircled by massive forts filled with guns of the best make and 
heavy calibre ; the sea-approaches strewn with sub-marine tor- 
pedoes ; the water-ways barred with booms of prodigious strength; 
the finest vessels of the once great Peiyang Squadron afloat in the 
harbour and ready to fight till they sank, the whole fleet being 
under the command of that brave man and gallant officer. Admiral 
Ting. Besides all this, it was where the Chinese made their last 
great stand : the culminating point of the conflict. If Wei-hai-wei 
held out, there was always some hope left for China : her battle- 
ships might still prevent the landing of troops anywhere near 
Pekin. And to do them naught but justice, the Chinese themselves 
recognised these facts and fought with the utmost valour — at least, 
their fleet did. Nothing could be better than the record of this 
last great fight of the once-renowned Northern Squadron. But 
the leaders were out-generalled and the bravery of their men out- 
bid by the Japanese, who, in the flush of victory, the consciousness 
of power, and the magnifi.cent maimer in which they were led on 
to conquer, were invincible. Everything, humanly speaking, was 
done to prevent the fall of Wei-hai-wei into Japan's hands ; the 
very elements seemed to have espoused the cause of China, for a 
storm which will long be remembered raged for three days, with 


bitter cold and heavy snow, forcing the Japanese vessels back into 
the open sea and away from the threatened fortress. Moreover, it 
must be conceded that the Chinese seamen fought gallantly even 
when their defeat was a foregone conclusion ; the garrisons on Liu- 
kung and Zhih Islands leaving a most enviable record behind them. 
But the port was lost, first of all, from the land side. The coast- 
forts were not defended as they might have been. It is easy to talk 
ex post facto ; yet it is undeniable that if the coast-forts had made 
a better showing, the desperate valour of the imprisoned fleet 
might have postponed the day of defeat, if not turned the tide 
of fortune for once in China's favour. And both nations had 
cause to bemourn the battle. China, because she lost all, 
including her best and bravest naval commander; Japan, because 
of the death of Major-General Odera, renowned alike for his 
personal courage and talents as a leader. If but half of what 
is said and written be true, Major-General Odera was a very 
Paladin, a Bayard of the 19th Century. 

Although Port Arthur had fallen, the Japanese could not be 
said to be the masters of the Gulf of Pechili unless Wei-hai-wei 
was reduced; nor could they act freely on the sea until the 
Peiyang Squadron definitely became a thing of the past. One 
leaf of the portal guarding the water-road to Pekin, had been 
wrenched away ; it now remained to tear down the other. And 
it order to efiect this plan, it was necessary for the Japanese Army 
to co-operate with the Navy, so that Wei-hai-wei might be attack- 
ed from two sides at once. 

The land attack fell to the share of the Second Army. This 
was — or at least the contingent landed in Shantung was — -composed 
of the Second and Sixth Divisions (less the Mixed Brigade under 
Major-General Hasegawa), the whole being commanded by 
Marshal Count Oyama. The Second Division exchanged a 
Battalion of Field Artillery and an Ammunition Column with the 
First Division, the hilly nature of the province of Shantung not 
permitting the use of field-guns. The Eleventh Brigade was 
under Lieut.-General Kuroki Tamesada, Commander of the Sixth 

In consequence of Marshal Oyama's order, the Second Division 
left Talien Bay on January 19th, 1895, sailing for Shantung, the 


province in wliicli "Wei-hai-wei is situated. Prior to the departure 
of the troops, some Japanese men-of-war were sent out to ascertain, 
if possible, the condition and intention of the enemy ; for it was 
not yet known whether the remaining vessels of the Peiyang 
Squadron were at "Wei-hai-wei or not. On January 18th, the 
YosJiino, Aldtsushima and Naniiva, composing the Pirst Plying 
Squadron, steamed oif in the direction of Tangehow, which 
they subjected to a desultory bombardment as a cover to the real 
movements of the Japanese forces. They succeeded in distracting 
the enemy's attention and concealing the fact that a landing was 
about to be made on the Shantung coast. On January 20th these 
three war- vessels steamed off and rejoined the Main Pleet oiF the 
Shantung promontory. The Combined Squadrons then proceeded, 
at dawn of January 20th, to Yingching Bay, the Second Army 
troops being of course on board. The Yaeyama, Atago, 31aya and 
Iwaki led the van. A boat was, on making the bay, lowered from 
each of the four ships ; the officers and men in the boats being en- 
trusted with the cutting of the telegraph wires and the making of 
as thorough a reconnaissance as possible. In the first boat were 
three military officers; in the second, Naval Lieutenant Osawa 
had several telegraph operators ; in the third, a Naval Sub- 
Lieutenant and some more telegraph men. The four boats were 
under the command of Lieutenant Osawa, who was just the man 
for this delicate yet most necessary undertaking. Bach boat 
further carried several seamen, while all were armed with rifles. 
Boat No. 2 had moreover a 47 mm. Q.-P. gun. The total number 
of combatants and non-combatants composing the little party, 
was 37. 

The first thing to be done was to find some convenient land- 
ing, — by no means an easy task, for it was only 5.20 o'clock in 
the morning and snowing heavily. The thick weather kept the 
boats from entering Yingching Bay, so they made for a smaller 
harbour to the east. Here the boats cast anchor, and, as they 
did so, roused some 30 native Chinese craft there to a conscious- 
ness of what was going on. The Chinese mariners speedily made 
preparations for flight, but not before one junk was captured by 
the Japanese. On questioning the crew, the scouts learned that 
17 Chinese soldiers from Wei-hai-wei had recently been seen in 


the vicinity. The boats then turned back and finally entered the 
bay proper at 6. a. m., or just at day break. There they concluded 
to land and cut the wires, although this was not the place originally 
determined upon. When the first boat drew near the beach, the 
faint outlines of some five or six men were seen at a nttle 
distance ; and on landing a number of Chinese were found scatter- 
ed here and there. Boat No. 1 therefore turned back, and as she 
did so a shot was fired in the crew's direction. This would seem 
to have been a signal, for immediately afterwards the Chinese 
concealed behind the junks on the beach fired a volley, the 
distance between the two parties being not more than 300 metres. 
A mob of Chinese now appeared descending the -slope of a hill to 
the north-east. The boats then sent up a rocket to acquaint the 
war-vessels of their danger ; and after the Yaeyama had signalled 
for the scouting party return, she as well as the Atago, Maya and 
the other ships of the Fourth Flying Squadron, commenced firing 
on the Chinese. On the boats' return, without any casualty to 
report, the Japanese vessels slowly steamed into the Bay, the 
bow of each ship being close to the stem of the one preceding. 
The Chinese, of course, broke and fied precipitately. The third boat, 
in which were Commander Niino Tokisuke and Fujiyama Haru- 
kazu, a professor of the Imperial Naval College, had been instruct- 
ed to capture the light-house on the promontory. The two 
officers, followed by 8 seamen and some telegraph men, first saw 
that the telegraph-wires were severed. Commander Niino then 
went on to the cape and took possession of the light-house. 

The Bay of Yingching is on the easternmost extremity of the 
Province of Shantung, China. The seaward approach to the bay 
is covered by the promontory : a rocky cliff against which the 
waves of the Gulf are forever breaking. Back of the cape there 
is an excellent anchorage. So soon, therefore, as the Chinese 
thereabouts had been driven back, the transports began to dis- 
charge their living freight. With material already prepared, 7 or 
8 gang-planks were constructed ; and in some instances the trans- 
ports came close to the beach and had the soldiers walk ashore 
without using their boats. In all the transports came and went 
four times, and in five days from January 20th succeeded in 
landing the whole Army. 



The town of Yingohing lies inland about eight miles from 
bay, and as the enemy there withdrew before the Japanese came 
up, the place was easily taken possession of. On January 23rd 
Marshal Count Oyama landed and, at noon of the 25th, divided 
the Army into two Columns, Right and Left, a Branch Column 
for Shintang-kau and another marching direct. The Right 
Column was put under the command of Lieut. -General Kuroki ; 
the Left, under that of Lieut.-General Sakuma. The plan was to 
march from the south towards Paichi-yai-chiu, and the order to 
begin the advance was given on January 26th. At 3 p. m. of the 
following day the Advance Guard reached the vicinity cf Szechia- 
ho and Shihchia-ho, while the Sixth Cavalry Battalion, which form- 
ed a part of the Advance Guard, 
came close to Pao-chia. The Bat- 
tahon went on thence to the httle 
village of Hotong. On the slope of 
the Pushan-hao hiU a fort and sev- 
veral earthworks were descried, 
and over a hundred Chinese foot- 
soldiers. The Japanese then fell 
back on Paochia, without offering 
to fight, about fifty of the enemy fol- 
lowing on their heels. That night 
the camp was guarded by the Cava- 
lry. The enemy lay at Chiukau- 
tang, while the Advance and Main 
Bodies on the Japanese side pass- 
ed the night at Peisao-tse, out- 
posts being established in a wester- 
ly direction towards Szechia-ho. At 7 a. m. of January 28th the 
Advance and Main Columns again took the road. One hour before 
this, at 6 a. m., the Cavalry Battahon had started out from Chiukau- 
tang, intending to get to Tsienchia-chwang and around to the 
enemy's right, where they were to reconnoitre the condition and 
position at Pushan-hao and Chiukau-tang. At 1 p. m. the Advance 
Guard again came to, Pao-chia. On sending a detachment of In- 
fantry on to Liuchia-chwang, the Japanese received the fire of 
some large cannon in a fort on the coast ; in consequence of which 

Lieut.-Genekal Sakuma. 


a reconnoitring party, composed principally of non-commissioned 
officers, was sent out to discover what road should be followed, as 
well as what the condition and position of the nearest Chinese forces 
might be. The scouts very thoroughly succeeded in reconnoitring 
the neighbourhood between Chuiyai-tsuen and Pushan-hao, upon 
which the Advance Guard bivouacked at Paochia, pickets being 
placed along and over the hills in a westerly direction. In the 
meantime the Main Body had advanced, in open order, towards 
the south of Chiukau-tang, reaching their immediate destination 
at noon of this day. They resolved to pass the night at Toughao- 
tsuen and Chiukau-tang. The First Battalion of the 13th Regiment, 
which had gone on to Tsoitse-tung as the Main Guard, was so 
distributed as to connect with the right of the picket-line of the 
Advance Guard. This was done in order to carry warning, if 
so necessary, to the troops on the northern littoral. 

On January 29th both Columns (Sixth Division) came to a 
halt, the arrangement of the troops being the same as before. 
The following day was to witness the attack of the whole Army, so 
this was spent in ascertaining the exact position of the enemy and 
what road should be followed. Naval Commander Mine, under 
orders from the Admiral, attended to the transmittal of messages 
between the land and sea forces. He had a station on a hill close 
by the sea, where everything could be seen and his messages 
easily communicated to the expectant Fleet in the offing. Lieut.- 
General Kuroki, in company with Chief of Staff Matsumura 
Muhon and Major Otani Kikuzo, greatly desired to get to Marshal 
Count Oyama on this day, but was prevented from reaching 
the Mwan-chia-chwa hiU, on which the Marshal had taken his 
station, by the heavy snow, which obliterated all the roads and 
rendered everything but the nearest objects invisible. Chief of 
Staff Matsumura did, however, force his way through the blind- 
ing snow, and so reached the Marshal's post and consulted with 
him about the movements of the ensuing day. 

The forces of the enemy, during this day, divided into two 
parts. One of these, advancing from the ravine near the village 
ofLing-hau, south of Motien-ling, pressed onwards in the direction 
of the Japanese Right Column picket-line ; while the other reach- 
ed Chiu-yai-tsuen and Chienchia-ohwang, near Siechia-chwang. 



This body was repulsed and compelled to cross tlie little Wuchiu 
Eiver and withdraw behind the earthworks at Siechia-chwang ; 
for the hostile troops had been fiercely attacked by the Japanese 
advance outposts and were therefore unable to go on as they had 
intended. The Chinese did not retire from the contest until after 
4 p. m. Judging from the number of banners they displayed, the 
enemy here must have been about two troops strong. 

To return to the Left Column, we find that Major-General 
Sakuma left Yingching-shien, according to a command to that 
effect, on January 26th — in fact on the same day on which the Eight 
Column set out. While on the road this Left Column fell in with 
the Chinese who had been at Chiaoton-shih, and drove them back to 
Wentong. On the 29th the 
Column passed through a 
number of lesser villages, in- 
cluding Hao-teitse-sai, Mwan- 
chia-chwang, and Paoshin. 
On the day on which Ying- 
ching was left, one Battalion 
of the Fifth Regiment (less 
two Companies) and one body 
of the Second Battalion of 
Cavarly belonging to the 
Shintao-kau Branch, had been 
sent to Santao-kau, south of 
Yingching. This detachment 
was ordered to patrol the 
Chai-wo-cho highroad and 
prevent any Chinese forces 
from coming up from the 

south. When the Eight and Left Columns reached their destina- 
tion, the order was to advance slowly against the enemy, yet to avoid 
the beginning of hostilities until a command to that effect should 
come from Marshal Oyama. At 9 p. m. of the same day, the ex- 
pected order to prepare for battle arrived. In obedience to this 
order the Army was divided into (1) the Eight Wing, under Major- 
General Yamaguchi ; (2) the Left Wing, commanded by Major- 
General Prince Fushimi Sadanaru; (3) the Eeserve, under the 

H. I. H. Majoe-Genbbal 
Pkince Fushimi. 


personal command of Division-Commander Sakuma ; (4) tlie Pao- 
shin Detachment, led by Major Ishiwara Eyo ; (5) the Main Body 
(7th Begiment, less one Battalion, and half a Sub-company of the 
Second Cavalry Battalion), under Field-Marshal Oyama himself. 
The Eight Wing by the Second Division broke camp at 6 a. 
m. of January 30th, and marched on in a northerly direction. 
The Left Wing set out half an hour earlier, and made for Hoshan 
(" Tiger Mountain "). The Keserve, starting at 6 a. m., took 
the road midway between Wenchwang-ten and Hao-teitse-sai, 
advancing in open order. At seven o'clock the Left Wing came 
upon some cannon posted by the Chinese a little to the east 
of Hoshan. The enemy promptly opened fire and did what they 
could to keep the Japanese from advancing. But Major-General 
Prince Fushimi commanded his veterans to charge, and so fierce 
was the assault thereupon that the Chinese could not stand 
against it and fled, leaving their cannon in the hands of the 
victorious Japanese. This occurred at 7.30 a. m., or perhaps 10 
minuter later. The fugitive Chinese were chased as far as Pien- 
chia-wo. Almost simultaneously the Eight Wing began to be 
cannonaded by the enemy, and at 7. 50 a. m. a body of Chinese 
foot-soldiers made their appearance on an elevated piece of ground 
to the left. Major-General Yamaguchi at once ordered his men to 
advance in open order, and a hot conflict ensued, the Chinese being 
finally repulsed. The First Battalion of the 16th Eegiment, under 
Major Eda, immediately started in pursuit, keeping it up until the 
shore was reached, where the Chinese fleet in the harbour of Wei- 
hai-wei opened fire on them, using their heaviest guns. The losses 
on the Japanese side being very numerous, the Battalion withdrew, 
reached the outskirts of FimgMn-shih at 9.50 a. m. The other bodies 
composing the Eight Wing at first collected on a hill just fronting 
Funglin-shih, and then advanced northward, the elevated ground 
near Motienling being their objective. Here they captured two 
barracks, near the coast, south of Lungmiao-tsai. During this time 
Division Commander Sakuma had been on a little hillock south-east 
of Funglin-shih. From this point of vantage he had been able to 
view the whole scene and convey intelligence of the movements of 
the forces to Field Marshal Oyama. In the meantime the Left 
Wing, facing Pienchia-wo, continued to fire at the enemy. 



At 11.55 p. m. of January 29th, the Eight Column (Sixth 
Division) was encamped at Tonghao village. Division Comman- 
der Kuroki, on receiving the order to begin active hostilities, 
divided his forces into three bodies : the Bight and Left Wings, 
and Eeserve Contingent. The Eight Wing was put under the 
command of Major Watanabe Yuki, while the Left was led by 
Major-General Odera Yasu-zumi. The Eeserve Contingent was 
united with the Naval Detachment and both combined were to 
attack the enemy, attempting, at the same time, to communicate 
with the Second Division. The command was issued that the 
Left Wing should advance to the attack of the hostile stronghold, 
while the Eight should seek to make the enemy move towards the 
right. The van of the Left Wing 
broke camp at 3.30 a. m. of 
January 30th, and at 5.20 a. m. 
the Infantry reached Pushan-hao. 
A number of Chinese troopers 
being descried to the south of the 
village of Linghao, one Battalion 
of the Advance Column was sent 
in that direction. Passing around 
to the south of Chiukau, they 
advanced to the attack of the 
Yangfung-ling forts, north of this 
village. Two other Battalions 
swung around to the left, and 
made for the lofty Motien-ling 
forts, which were situated on the 
extreme Chinese left. At 7.40 

a. m. the Japanese Mountain Artillery lined up on Yientoi-shan, 
north-west of Chiukau village, and promptly opened fire. The 
EightWing, at this moment, had occupied an elevated piece of 
ground north of Chui-yai village, and was preparing to attack. 
One Company of Infantry, taking advantage of the confusion in 
the Chinese ranks, crossed the frozen Wuchiu Eiver and dashed 
with a cheer into the village of Sie-chia. A Sub-company (battery) 
of Artillery then lined up on some high ground in Chiu-yai-tsuen, 
and began firing on the already wavering foe. Division Command- 

Lieut.-Geneeal Kueoki. 


er Kuroki was, at this time, near the village of Hotong, where 
he was personally directing the movements of the Reserve Con- 
tingent. The battle now grew more hotly contested than before, 
for the enemy in and about Motienling and Tangfung-ling fired 
heavily on the foremost files of the advancing Japanese, the bullets 
falling among the ranks like a murderous rain. 

The Motien-ling forts lie close to the coast east of Wei-hai- 
wei, facing Liukung Island. The latter is the larger of the two 
strongly fortified islets guarding the approach to the harbour, the 
smaller one being known as Jih or Zhih Island. From this 
place, following the curve of the shore and built along the ridge 
of the MUs commanding the harbour, there are — or were — no less 
than 12 massive forts, containing 64 Krupp and Armstrong guns, 
many being of 24 c. m. calibre. The length of the ridge thus 
defended is, say, 640-650 metres. In the harbour lay more than 
ten men-of-war, all eager to wipe out the memory of the engage- 
ment off Haiyang. These ships acted in excellent concert with 
the^ land-forts, and did most praiseworthy deeds. The Motien- 
ling forts were taken by dint of sheer courage and dash on the 
part of the Japanese Infantry. Armed with single-fire Murata 
rifies, the foot-soldiers stormed up the steep slopes and took 
possession of the first fort in the most gallant fashion. It was a 
splendid deed, for not only were the great guns above roaring out 
death and defiance to the attacking forces, but also the blockaded 
fleet in the harbour below fired broadsides at the Japanese. 
Though sadly cut up, the storming troops went on, with unfalter- 
ing courage, from one fort to the next, so that by 11 o'clock in the 
forenoon 11 out of the 12 forts were flying the victorious Sun-flag. 
The one fort still unreduced was that on extreme left of the line 
of defence. In a little while longer the Japanese advanced to the 
capture of this last stronghold, aud while they did so the war- 
ships in the placid bay below made furious efforts to stop the 
onrush of the invaders. The garrison of the port moreover fought 
with conspicuous bravery. But all effort at resistance was futile, 
and soon this last fort was carried by a bayonet charge and its 
late defenders sent flying in every direction across the snow-olad 
steeps. jBeing now in undisputed possession of the land-forts to 
the east of Wei-hai-wei, the Japanese directed the cannon found 



there — nearly all of whicli were serviceable — against the Chinese 
war-ships, and so excellent their aim and heavy their fire that the 
men-of-war had sullenly to withdraw under the lee of Liukung 
Island. During this brilliant engagement, Major-General Odera, 
popularly believed to be the bravest man in the armies of Japan 
and a universal favourite, was struck by a fragment of shell and 
died shortly afterwards in the camp at Pushan-hao. His place 
was taken by Colonel Okihara Mitsumasa, on whom the command 
of the Brigade henceforth devolved. 

It was at 9 a. m. that Division Commander Kuroki reached a 
somewhat high piece of 
ground north of Pushan-hao. 
On doing so he at once 
ordered his Reserve Column 
to advance in open order, 
sending one Battalion under 
Colonel Okamura Shizu-hiko 
to render aid to the Odera 
Brigade. A part of the 
Ambulance Corps was, at 
the same time, sent to the 
village of Chiukau and there 
a temporary lazaret establi- 
shed. Word was moreover 
sent to the Field Lazaret 
Contingent and the Infantry 
and Artillery Ammunition 
Corps to make all speed to 
Pushan-hao. On the am- 
munition being brought up, 
the Artillery opened fire on 

the Yangfung-ling forts, which were making the most obstinate 
resistance. One Battalion of Infantry then advanced to within 
100 metres of the fort; but the Chinese there fighting in 
gallant style, a front attack was deemed inadvisable. So the 
Battalion wheeled to the right, just as Major Watanabe was 
leading the Eight Wing around to the fort from the direction of 
Siechia-chwang. The Chinese, exposed to a triple fire, could no 

Majoe-Gbnekal Odeba. 


longer hold their position and evacuated the place, running along 
the shore back of the Luchoh-tsai fort and finally retreating within 
one of the shore-forts known as Lungmiao-tsai. 

The Motien-ling fort had, shortly before this, been entered by 
Lieutenant Ide Iwasuke, who was in command of the Mountain 
Artillery. Taking 20 gunners with him, he captured eight 
8. e. m. Krupp cannon, two of which were at once trained on the 
Yangfung-ling forts. So fierce was the cannonade that a fire soon 
broke out in the bombarded fort, which had indeed been exposed 
to an attack of unexampled fury. The marines sent from the Jap- 
anese war-ships then entered, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Tejima 
Yozo, the Motien-ling fort. Staff-Captain Arita Jo, who repre- 
sent the Staff in the absence of the Divisional Commander, there- 
upon assumed command of the naval land-forces, and led them to 
the nearest forts on the right side — Luchoh-tsai — and others on the 
shore. This was done in order to better attack the Chinese fleet 
and shell the forts still imsubdued. The plan was promptly and 
well executed. After capturing, at 12.20 p. m., the Luchoh-tsai 
forts, where it was found that the Chinese had prepared to start a 
fire, the Naval Contingent immediately trained the guns on the 
fortresses on Liukung and Zhih Island, besides engaging in an 
artillery duel with the Chinese war-ships. Later on, the Chaipei- 
tsai forts on the coast fell to these bold seamen. It was then 
just 3.30 p. m. Smaller detachments were sent to guard and keep 
the various captured forts on . the ridge and coast, while the 
remaining forces bivouacked in the villages thereabouts. The 
Division Head Quarters were temporarily established in Kushan 

All the forts south-east of Wei-hai-wei were thus in the 
possession of the Japanese, yet those in the immediate vicioity of 
the town {i. e. the western coast-forts) were still unconquered. 
Particularly the massive forts on Liukung and Zhih remained 
untaken, for it was impossible to get at them without crossing 
that part of the bay. 

Field Marshal Oyama had been a most interested spectator of 
the movements of the troops on this day. Everything had gone like 
clock-work, his plans having been carried out with admirable preci- 
sion. But as the forts in the immediate proximity of "Wei-hai-wei 


still remained to be reduced, lie resolved that they should be 
attacked on the following day. To this end the Sixth Division 
received orders to march from Changhong-sai and Chiu-tao to- 
wards the town ; while the Second Division, marching around to 
Ai-siang-chwang and Tien-tsuen, — the road which the enemy 
would infallibly take after their defeat^was to blockade this way 
and further prevent any Chinese reinforcements from coming up. 
On February 1st the Second Division, which had spent the previous 
night in the camps at Peiho-kau, Wenchwan-tao, Chuifoh and 
Pingchia-wo, set out from Yangtei-shih and Shuichia-hokan-tse. 
On the preceding day the 17th Eegiment had advanced — being 
the van of the troops — through Pingchia-wo and Changhong-sai to 
Chiu-tao. But on finding no enemy at the last-named village, the 
Begiment had stopped there and bivouacked for the night. The 
following morning this Regiment, together with the Third 
Battalion of the Second Eegiment of Artillery ; a Company of 
Engineers and half a Sub-company of Cavalry, went on from 
Yangtei-shih to Ai-siang-chwang, reaching the latter place at 
11.30 a. m. The Second Division — the Fifth Regiment leading — 
made Yangtei-shih about half an hour earlier. Captain Okuma 
Jun-ichi, with two Companies from the Fifth Eegiment, marched 
on to Shwenchia-tun, intending to sever the local telegraph wires. 
The enemy thereabouts had made numerous preparations for their 
defence, and were collected to the number of 1500, with four 
field-pieces. These troops were gathered south-east of the 
Shwenchia-tun plain ; yet although the Japanese passed close by 
them, they did not notice the hostile forces, owing to the excep- 
tional severity of the storm then raging. When the Chinese did 
become aware of the dangerous proximity of the Japanese, they 
found themselves outflanked, the invaders having taken up a 
most advantageous position on the Chinese left. But the Japa- 
nese might not halt here ; they had to press on. Just as they 
were leaving the outskirts of Shwenchia-tun and taking the road 
for Liutao-kau, the Chinese began firing at their flank. Believing 
themselves to be engaging the Chinese Eight Wing, the Japanese 
wheeled and conmenced fighting very fiercely with the enemy. 

The van of the Second Division was simultaneously moving 
towards Wei-hai-wei ; but on hearing the sound of cannon and 


rifles in the direction of Shwenchia-tun, a halt was made and 
Captain Onogi Shiro, with a Company of Mountain Artillery, 
directed to line up his guns on an elevkted piece of ground north- 
west of Yangtei-shih. This was done with all despatch, and at 
12.15 p. m. six mountain-guns began to shell the enemy. At 
this moment the Chinese who had fallen in with the Japanese 
Advance Guard were fighting most stubbornly ; but the shrapnel 
fired from the mountain-guns made them falter, although it did 
not altogether stop the fight, owing to the blinding snow-storm. 
Meanwhile the three Companies forming the Main Body of the 
Advance Guard — commanded by Major Doi Toshitoshi — pushed 
on towards the enemy's front, regardless of the heavy snow. The 
Chinese were not only firing down-hill, being on the summit of a 
broad mound, but were further protected by a stream frozen so 
firmly and smoothly that walking across it was next to impossible. 
When the Japanese forces deployed at a distance of about 300 
metres from the enemy's front, the First Battalion of the Fifth 
Begiment had almost reached the ej^iemy's Left Wing. The 
Battalion was commanded by Major Watanabe, and had come 
hither from Tongyang. Seeing that the Japanese would, despite 
all obstacles, soon be charging up the slope, the enemy broke and 
fled to the rear. The engagement at this point lasted altogether 
for quite two hours, and the losses in killed and wounded on the 
Japanese side amounted to fifty — owing to the blinding storm and 
the disavantageous nature of the ground. 

A detachment of the 13th Begiment (Sixth Division) there- 
after passed through Kiuma-chiu, and, on February 2nd, acting 
as a flank reconnoitring body, entered the town of Wei-hai-wei, to , 
find it absolutely deserted by the garrison. There were only 2 or 
3 fofts left, facing Liukung Island, and these were well-covered 
by the Chinese war-ships in the harbour. At about the same time 
the First Battalion of the 17th Begiment, the Second Battalion of 
the 16th Begiment, and the Second Battalion of the Fourth Begi- 
ment^ — all belonging to the Second Division — came up and 
entered the town. The forces were not, however, destined to 
rest ; for the command was at once given to proceed to the cap- 
ture of the northern coast-forts. No time was lost in getting on 
the move, the Battalions advancing swiftly towards the doomed 


strongholds. Noticing this movement on the part of the Japanese, 
the Chinese men-of-war began firing their large guns at them, 
using shrapnel, and thus kept the troops from approaching the 
forts, three of which — the Chih-sze, Hwang-ni-yai and Shwuilei- 
ying forts — were exceptionally strong. At last the Fifth Company 
of the 17th Regiment, regardless of the murderous shrapnel, dashed 
forward and into the Chih-sze fort, passing through a hail of shot 
and shell in Mato-chieh. This was at just 11 a. m. One other 
body succeeded crossing Peh-shan, but on endeavouring to reach 
the Peh-shan-tsai fort, the shrapnel from the Chinese war-ships 
again proved a hindrance. The Japanese thereupon went around 
Mt. (or hill, rather) Takau, and, at 2 p. m. forced their way into 
the Peh-shan-tsai fort. On entering they found the place 
entirely deserted. Noting that the fort was taken, the ships 
below at once began bombarding the place, to the no small peril 
of the Japanese. Some hours later the Eighth Company of the 
16th Begiment and a detachment from the Fourth Eegiment 
dashed into the Shwuilei-ying and Hwang-ni-yai forts, and with 
this the whole range of northern forts was captured. Towards 
evening of this day the Second Division reached the occupied dis- 
trict and there halted, no command to advance having come from 
Field Marshal Oyama. Some little time before this the Staff of the 
Second Army Corps had entered Wei-hai-wei, were Staff Quarters 
were selected. The gensdarmes belonging to this Corps at once 
begun to pacify the townspeople and do everything to preserve law 
and order. Such houses as were vacant were carefully sealed, and 
the people thus given to understand that promiscuous looting was 
not included in the Japanese programme. With this the town itself 
and all the many and great forts radiating from it were in Japanese 
possession. Fighting was, of course, still going on among the men- 
of-war and on Liukung and Zhih Islands ; but there was no more 
work for the land forces to perform. The solution of the problem 
now lay with the Japanese Fleet outside the harbour. The forts 
might be employed in co-operating with the Fleet, but that was 
all. But this much was done most effectually. The Japanese 
Army made splendid use of the guns in the forts behind "Wei-hai- 
wei, and materially assisted the Fleet in accomplishing its object — 
the capture of the harbour and the destruction or capitulation of 


the crippled Peiyang Squadron. Finally, on February 12th, as 
we shall presently see, the Chinese war-ships still above water 
surrendered. On February 18th the Head-Quarters of the Army 
were established at Wei-hai-wai, and a great banquet was held on 
the following day in honour of this signal victory. The captured 
forts were thereafter completely dismantled; the victorious 
troops returning to the Kinchow Peninsula. 

The Paoshin Detachment, which had been sent on to Wentong 
and the vicinity, succeeded in getting into the bourg, although 
the garrison made considerable resistance. Among the spoils 
taken by this Detachment here and elsewhere were 
4 Krupp 8 c. m. field-guns ; 
57 rifles ; 
100 shells ; 
50,000 rounds of ammunition. 
The roads thereabouts being very steep and difficult to 
traverse, the Japanese were unable to bring the guns back with 
them, so contented themselves with removing the breeches. On 
February 8th the troops begun tp retrace their steps. On the road 
they encountered, at 3.30 a. m., about 200 Chinese foot-soldiers 
coming from the direction of Wentong. Taking a short cut known 
to them, the enemy suddenly attacked the Japanese scouts, who 
were then in Chwangli-chia-chwang. For some time the fighting 
was quite severe at these points, but the Chinese were at last re- 
pulsed in disorder. The Independent Cavalry Contingent of the 
Second Division occupied Nien-hai-ehuh on February 10th, the 
Chinese there offering no resistance. 

In the land-battles about Wei-hai-wei the Japanese lost 300 
in killed and wounded, against 900 on the Chinese side. The 
spoils included, — 

80 rifles ; 
63 cannon ; 
540,000 rounds of ammunition ; 
110 bags of powder for cannon ; 
77 cases of rifle-powder ; 
3,900 shells ; 
320 bayonets ; 
2 banners ; 


2,100 bags of rice, 
and an innumerable quantity of other miscellaneous things. 


We have already shown how strong and numerous were the 
land-defences of Wei-hai-wei. Properly defended, the place 
should have been impregnable ; for outside of the cincture of land- 
forts, armed with cannon of the best make and heavy calibre, 
there were the two strongly fortified islands of Liukung and Zhih 
just at the entrance of the harbour. Moreover Luchoh-tsai on the 
east and Lungwang on the west were supplied with fortresses 
intended primarily to defend the entrance, the great guns being 
trained on the channel running towards the anchorage. And from 
the former promontory to the latter were stretched booms com- 
posed of heavy timbers and steel hawsers, the waters about the 
boom being finally strewn with torpedoes. Humanly speaking, 
it seemed impossible to get beyond that boom ; and even should 
one succeed in breaking through this ponderous sea-wall, there 
were the torpedoes just beyond and, last but not least, the remain- 
ing vessels of the once-formidable Peiyang Squadron. The fleet 
in the harbour comprised the Ting Yuen, Glien Yuen, Lai Yuen, 
Ping Yuen, Ching Yuen, Tsi Yven, Wei Yuen, Kwang Tsi, Kivang 
Ping, GJien Nan, Chen Peli, Chen Sze, Glien Tung, Chen Chung and 
Chen Peen, in all fifteen men-of-war. There were, besides these, 
thirteen torpedo-boats. All this shows how gigantic was the 
undertaking to reduce this place, even had the defenders been — 
what they were not — mere " men of straw." 

On the Japanese side the fleet was much stronger numerically, 
consisting as it did of the Flagship Matsushima and 24 men- 
of-war, with 16 torpedo-boats, the latter including the famous 
Kotaka. Despite all this the odds were in favour of the besieged, 
owing to the numerous and superb land-defences and the for- 
tresses on the two harbour-mouth islands. In order to reduce the 
place it was necessary to attack it simultaneously by land and sea ; 
or, at all events, silence the land-forts before beginning active 


hostilities against the blockaded fleet. 

The Japanese war-ships were divided in the following manner : 

I. The Main Squadron, consisting of the Flagship Matsushima 
(with Vice- Admiral ltd on board) ; the Chiyoda, Itsukushima, and 
II. The First Flying Squadron, composed of the YosJiino (leader), 
TakacMIm, AkitsusMma, and Nanitua. 

III. The Second Flying Squadron, whose ships were the Fuso 
(leader), Hiyei, Kongo, and Talmo. 

IV. The Third Flying Squadron, comprising the Katsuragi 
(leader), Tamato, MusasJii, Kaimon, and Tenryu. 

V. The Fourth Flying Squadron, the TsukusM being the leader, 
followed by the Maya, Chokai, Atago, Osliima, Akagi, and Iwahi. 

The torpedo-boats were divided into three flotillas, as 
follow : — 

1. First Flotilla, under Commander Mochihara Heiji : Nos. 23, 

13, 12, 7, 11 and the Kotaka (" Little Falcon ") ; 

2. Second Flotilla, under Commander Fujita Ko-emon : Nos. 21, 

8, 9, 14, 19 and 18 ; 

3. Third Flotilla, under Commander (Captain) Imai Kanemasa : 

Nos, 22. 5, 6 and 10. 
The First Flying Squadron was, it will be remembered, sent 
to made a feint at Tangchow on January 19th, in order to draw 
the attention of the enemy in that direction and conceal the real 
advance on Wei-hai-wei. The other vessels of the Fleet conveyed 
the troops composing the Second Expeditionary Army from Talien 
Bay to Yingching Bay, and superintended their landing. From 
January 21st to 29th, the Japanese Fleet was making active pre- 
parations for the coming final struggle, patrolling the waters out- 
side the great harbour and in the entrance to the Gulf, keeping a 
vigilant look-out for the Army and communicating with the leaders 
as it came on, and generally lending all assistance possible to the 
land-forces. On the evening of January 29th, Commander Koku- 
ra, second in command of the MatsusJiima, assembled all the men 
of the Flagship under the poop and addressed them in the follow- 
ing words : " At dawn to-morrow the Japanese Army will attack 
from Paichih-yai-ohiu, on the eastern littoral of "Wei-hai-wei. You 
must therefore lie down at your posts, near the guns, using mats 


for beds and not slinging your hammocks." Leaving the Tenryu, 
Kaimon and IwaJci to guard the transports, the rest of the Japan- 
ese fleet steamed, at 2 a. m., out of Yingohing Bay, reaching the 
offing of Wei-hai-wei at about 6.30 a. m. Two hours after the men- 
of-war had set sail, the torpedo flotillas took the same derection. 

On this day it was the intention of the Army to storm the 
forts south-east of "Wei-hai-wei, while it was the duty of the Meet 
in part to entice, if possible, the Chinese war-ships out of the 
harbour, and partly to render what aid might be given to the land- 
forces in the capture of the forts. A little before 6.30 a. m., as the 
Third and Fourth Flying Squadrons were passing Paichih-yai, 
an order was signalled to them to assist the movements of the 
Army by bombarding the forts at the eastern entrance of the 
harbour. The Main and Second Flying Squadron at the east 
entrance, and the First Flying Squadron at the west, then began 
steaming to and fro, hoping to draw the attention of the Chinese 
men-of-war to themselves, the while narrowly observing the move- 
ments of the enemy on sea and land. The dull roar of cannon was 
now heard, like a continuous peal of thunder, so that the Fleet 
knew that the land-forces had begun the storming of the eastern 
c6ast-forts. It was a most exciting moment; all the more so, 
perhaps, as the Fleet, debarred from entering the harbour and 
making short work of the Chinese war-vessels, could do practically 
nothing. At 10 a. m. the noise of the battle had swelled to an 
almost deafening roar. At noon, the Third and Fourth Flying 
Squadrons, off Paichih-yai-chiu, had their first opportunity to 
assist the land forces, and began shelling the forts at long range. 
Meanwhile the Ting Yuen, Tsi Yixn and Ping Yuen, with four or 
five gunboats, were assisting the defence of the coast forts, steam- 
ing for this purpose slowly to and fro between the two islands of 
Liukung and Zhih. Just then the Yoshino, the flagship of the 
First Flying Squadron, signalled the MatsusJiima that the Tin<f 
Yuen had come to the eastern entrance of the Bay. Forming a 
column, the Fleet at once went back to the offing and there steam- 
ed again to and fro, in expectation of an attack. But none of 
the enemy's ships came forth to give them battle. A violent explo- 
sion was then heard among the forts on the east coast, and a huge 
column of white smoke was seen curling up from the spot. One 


of the enemy's powder-magazines had, it appeared, been exploded. 
The Chinese yfexe thereafter seen scampering out of the forts, 
which were promptly taken possession of by the Japanese and the 
guns in them directed towards the hostile fleet in the bay below. 
It was just 3 p. m. The First Flying Squadron, which had been 
watching the western entrance, and the Main and Second Flying 
Squadrons, which had been steaming about the eastern entrance, 
now combined, forming one long line of war-ships. The Matsu- 
sJiirna leading, followed by the Chiyoda, Hashidate and 12 other 
men-of-war, were sailing hither and thither in the offing when the 
Third and Fourth Flying Squadrons, which had been lying off 
Paiehih-yai-chiu, drew near. The Tsuhushi led the van, followed 
closely by the Akagi, Cholcai, Maya and Atago. They reconnoitred 
Liukung and tried to get near the eastern entrance of the harbour ; 
but on recognising the Fleet's intention the forts on Liukung 
began firing heavily at the Third and Fourth Flying Squadron, 
the fort on Zhih Island soon following suit. The Squadron then 
shaped a different course, steaming towards the western entrance, 
while the MatsusMma signalled the Second Flying Squadron to 
cannonade Zhih. In consequence of this order, the Squadron — 
the Fuso leading, then the Kongo, Hiyei and Tahao, in the order 
named — passed by the Paichih-yai-chiu promontory, working 
slowly towards the eastern entrance, and receiving as they did so 
the concentrated fire of the forts on the two islands. The sun was 
setting and shone directly in the eyes of the Japanese gunners, 
rendering it impossible to take accurate aim ; so the course of the 
Squadron was changed. On the Main and First Flying Squadrons 
approaching the mouth of the harbour, they too were fired at by 
the forts on Liukung but without receiving any damage, as the 
shells fell short. At 6 p. m. the First Flying Squadron took up its 
station near the eastern entrance and Aichi Island, and there once 
again began steaming slowly to and fro, not going farther away 
than this Aichi Island. The Main and Second Flying Squadrons 
lay in the offing of Chihming Island, steaming in a circle with a 
periphery of 30 nautical miles, and preserving a north to south 
course. The Third and Fourth Flying Squadrons anchored near 
Chihming Island. As for the torpedo-boats, the First and Second 
Flotillas lay just outside the harbour of Wei-hai-wei. The Third 


Flotilla, under Commander Imai, made a bold attempt to break 
through the boom and reach the inner harbour. In this, however, 
they were unsuccessful, the boom being so massive and powerful 
a structure. 

On January 31st, at 5 a. m., the Main and Second Flying 
Squadrons steered towards the eastern entrance, while the First 
Flying Squadron made for that on the western side of the 
harbour. At 8 a. m, the three Squadrons were again sailing to 
and fro before the barred ingresses, longing to get at closer quar- 
ters with the foe. The Third and Fourth Flying Squadrons, 
lying about 5 nautical miles off the coast, in vain endeavoured to 
bring the enemy's notice to themselves. The Chinese war-vessels 
made no attempt to reply to the challenge of the Japanese Fleet ; 
but with the fort on Zhih Island only kept up a desultory fire at 
the eastern coast-forts which were now in Japanese possession, 
while the strong-holds on Liukung and the forts near the west 
entrance sent occasional shells in the direction of the Squadrons 
in the offing. At 11 a. m. the weather had a very ugly look. A 
thick snow began falling, while the wind rose momentarily. At 
3 p. m. the storm was exceedingly severe, and the sea outside the 
harbour quite mountainous. Withal it was so cold that the ther- 
mometer fell 25° below freezing point. The side, decks, armor, 
masts and rigging were soon covered an inch thick with snow and 
ice, the roll of the vessels measuring no less than 34°. It was 
impossible to stay so near this perilous coast ; so leaving the work 
of patrolling the entrances to the harbour to the First Flying 
Squadron only, the other war-ships made haste for Yingching 
Bay. All that day and the next the storm continued to rage with 
unabated fury. In the afternoon of February 2nd, the wind 
having gone down a little, the Main Squadron steamed out of 
Yingching Bay at 2 p. m., and anchored, five hours later, near Chih- 
ming Island. At dawn of February 3rd the First and Second, 
Flying Squadrons rejoined the Main, and all once again began 
sailing in the offing, keeping in single file. By this time the 
Japanese land-forces had entered the town of Wei-hai-wei and 
captured all the forts thereabouts. The enemy, it was reported, 
had fled in large numbers in the direction of Chefoo, but the 
Chinese men-of-war in the harbour still kept up hostilities, backed 


by the forts on Liukung and Zhih. The Third and Fourth 
riying Squadrons were now steaming near Ting-shan-kau, while 
the Second, at 10 a. m., drew near the eastern entrance. The 
Fuso fired at Liukung, eliciting a prompt reply. The Second 
Plying Squadron then suddenly veered and came on, in single file, 
to the entrance of the bay, firing simultaneously at the forts on 
Liukung and Zhih and the Chinese Fleet. The engagement lasted 
for about two hours, the Chinese war-ships, together with the 
forts, replying vigorously to the Japanese fire. At noon the Flag- 
ship signalled to cease firing, after which the Tsukushi and the 
other vessels composing the Fourth Flying Squadron steamed to 
the mouth of the harbour to reconnoitre, but soon returned. 
Subsequently the Yamato, Katsuragi and Musashi, of the Third 
Flying Squadron, went to the bombarded entrance. Yet as the sun 
was now setting and the snow again falling heavily, the Japanese 
Fleet could do nothing but return to the anchorage at Ying-shan- 

The next day, February 4th, the Main and First Flying 
Squadrons steamed toward the offing of Wei-hai-wei. Again 
they offered to do battle with the Chinese Fleet, and again the 
latter refused to accept the challenge. Admiral ltd and his 
officers then held a consultation, during the course of which 
they came to the following conclusion: — "The reason why 
the Chinese Fleet continiie their stout defence despite the 
capture of Wei-hai-wei and all the forts on shore, is either be- 
cause they intend to risk their fortunes in one more decisive 
battle, or because they hope to slip off unobserved if opportuni- 
ty serves. There is no doubt, however, that their courage is 
greatly daunted by the situation. We must therefore adopt the 
offensive more vigorously than heretofore, and begin with 
torpedo-boat attacks by night." A part of the boom at the 
eastern entrance had .already been broken away by the torpedo- 
boat No 6. So that night, while the First Flotilla patrolled the 
western entrance, the Second and Third Flotillas prepared to 
force their way to the doomed war-ships. At 2 a. m. of February 
5th, the moon having gone down, these two flotillas slipped unper- 
ceived through the breach in the boom. Torpedo-boat No. 9, of 
the Second Flotilla, got within good range of the Ting Yuen and 



The Ting Yuen after the torpedo-boat attack. 

discharged an effective torpedo at her huge adversary. This done, 
the little boat turned at once, but on her way back to the breach in 
the boom was subjected to a storm of missiles from the now tho- 
roughly awakened Chinese Fleet. Her engines were destroyed and 
four men in that part of the boat killed outright. No. 19 at once 
came to her aid, and fortunately succeeded in rescuing the re- 
mainder of the crew. No. 22, of the Third Flotilla, struck 
against a sunken rock and was wrecked. The enemy were now 
fully aware of their imminent peril and fired furiously at the 
other torpedo-boats, disabling them from coming to closer quar- 
ters. They therefore returned, left the harbour through the 
breach, and reached in safety the anchorage at Ying-shan-kau. 

Another attack was planned for the following night ; so at 
2.45 a. m. of February 6th, Commander Machibara, with the 
First Flotilla, left the anchorage. No. 23 was leading, followed 
by KotaJca and Nos. 13 and 11. At 4.30 a. m. they reached the 
eastern entrance of the harbour, when, hearing the sound of a 
violent cannonading in the vicinity of Liukung Island, they 


supposed this was being done to obviate any possibility of an 
attack as on the previous night. The water was plowed up by 
shells and the larger vessels kept rockets going up every now and 
then; yet, despite the tremendous risk, the tiny craft crept 
through the broken boom, and approached the Chinese Fleet at 
full speed. At 5 a. m., the cannonading having subsided, the boats 
separated and continued to search here and there for their 
adversaries. It was, of course, pitchdark as yet. The next 
thing was that some of the boats struck the enemy's search-light, 
their position being thus completely exposed. Ten minutes later 
one of the watchful vessels sent up a signal-rocket, upon which 
all the men-of-war in the harbour began to fire at random. The 
Kotalca had, by this time, singled out three of the hostile vessels, 
and now discharged a fish-torpedo at the largest, which lay mid- 
way between the other two. The torpedo was sent on its errand 
at a distance of 400 metres, but failed to strike its objective. 
The Kotalca then crept within 25 metres of the fated ship and 
discharged another torpedo. This hit the vessel and a fearful 
explosion ensued. Knowing that she had sunk at least one of 
the enemy's war-ships, the Kotalca then wheeled, passed through 
the boom unscathed, and reached Ting-shan-kau in safety. This 
was at just 6.30 a. m. Torpedo-boats Nos. 23 and 11 also sank 
one ship each. No. 18 did not succeed in attacking the enemy, 
while No 7 had to retire without getting within the harbour, 
having struck against the boom in attempting to steam through 
the breach. Despite the furious fire to which the First Flotilla 
had been exposed, none of the torpedo-boats received any injury 
whatever. The vessels which they had succeeded in sinking were 
the Lai Yuen,- — which had played a conspicuous and gallant 
part in the long days of fighting — the Wei Yuen, and the 
Pao Hwa. 

On February 7th the Combined Squadrons made an attack 
in force on Zhih and Liukung Islands, advantage being taken of 
the enemy's enfeebled condition. Leaving the torpedo fiotillas at 
the western entrance in order to prevent any escape in that 
direction, the Fuso, leading the Second, Third and Fourth Flying 
Squadrons, — 14 men-of-war all told — steamed, at 7.22 a. m., in 
the direction of Zhih Island, upon the signal of the Matmshima. 


The Main and First Flying Squadrons headed for Liukung, and 
at 7.34 the Chiyoda began firing, followed by the ItsukusJiima, the 
Hashidate, and the rest. The forts on either island replied boldly 
and at once. The Main Squadron, led by the Matsushima, got 
within 2000 metres of the enemy and steered, still firing, around 
to port. The First Flying Squadron also advanced, firing inces- 
santly. When the engagement had reached its height, the 13 
Chinese torpedo-boats suddenly made a dash for the western exit. 
This was at once espied by the watchful Japanese, who promptly 
sieamed in their direction, the Yoshino firing two or three shots 
after the fugitive boats. The latter then fied westwards at full 
speed, while the First Flying Squadron, and, a little later on, the 
Main Squadron, gave chase. With the exception of two, all the 
rest of the torpedo-boats ran aground and were either destroyed 
or captured by the Japanese. The two that escaped reached 
Chefoo in safety, though not without scars to testify of the 
imminence of their peril. During this attack the Matsushima's 
funnel was struck and three men wounded ; the Naniwa received 
a shell in her coal-bunkers, but no one saw injured. The fort on 
Zhih Island was this day entirely destroyed. 

On February 8th every vessel in the Japanese Fleet was 
vigilantly guarding the exits of the harbour. In order to better 
attack the few ships still afloat in the bay, it was decided to des- 
troy the boom at the entrance. So, at 11 p. m., a tender and a boat 
were sent from each of the four men-of-war composing the Main 
Squadron, and these made for the eastern entrance. The officers 
in the torpedo-boats attached to the Yoshino, Naniwa and AMtsu- 
sJiima, destroyed the boom with electric cable, while the seamen 
of the Tahachiho cut the timbers asunder. In all about 400 
metres of the boom here were broken up. 

At 8 a. m. of the 9th, the Third Flying Squadron, the 
Tenryu leading and the Katsuragi bringing up the rear, opened 
fire on Liukung, steaming around to the eastern entrance. The 
Yoshino, Tahachiho and Akitsushima of the First Squadron, with 
the Chiyoda from the Main Squadron, meanwhile guarded the 
eastern entrance, At 10 a. m. the Second Flying Squadron join- 
ed with them, and after a short bombardment of the island forts 
and ships, went back to the ofiing. During the engagement, two 


shells from the captured fort at Lukentsoi struck the Ching Yuen 
between wind and water, the ship sinking quickly. Thus only 
four men-of-war — the CJien Yuen, Tsi Yuen, Ping Yuen, and 
Kwang Ping, with six smaller gunboats, were left afloat in the 
harbour. At 4.45 p. m. the Third Flying Squadron withdrew to 
the Ying-shan-kau anchorage ; and 11 p. m. the Japanese Fleet 
attempted to destroy the remaining portions of the boom. From 
this they were prevented by the tremendous fire from the forts on 
Liukung and the devoted ships still above water. 

Nothing of importance occurred on February 10th. The 
Itsukushima stayed close to the entrance on guard, where, after 
the sun had set, she was joined by the Matsushima, Chiyoda and 
HasJiidate, the four vessels bewildering the sorely-harrassed foe by 
their broadsides. 

The following day, February 11th, being the Kigen-setsu, or 
festival in honour of the foundation of the Japanese Empire and 
the enthronement of the Emperor Jimmu, the ships celebrated 
this national holiday, each vessel being gaily dressed with bunting. 
None the less, at 9 a. m., the Third Flying Squadron again 
advanced to bombard the fort on the south-eastern extremity of 
Liukung Island, while one or two of the captured land-forts 
assisted in the cannonade. The Tenryu lost Captain Nakano 
Shinyo, and four seamen (all killed) while Takano Yasukichi, an 
engineer, and four seamen were wounded, the vessel's bridge 
being completely shot away by a well-aimed shell. The Yoshino 
had four wounded, including her Second Engineer. The Katsuragi 
had a 24 c. m. shell strike her larboard quarter, one man being 
killed outright while six others — among them Captain Kurita 
Nobuki — were wounded. Her bow-chaser was also destroyed. 
Of the marines sent from the ItvaJci and Katsuragi to aid the 
landforces, several were wounded, one chief gunner quite severely. 
At 11 a. m. the Second Flying Squadron came to the aid of the 
combatants, and the firing was kept up continuously until 1.30 
p. m. As night fell the First Flying Squadron, just outside the 
western entrance, maintained a brisk fire on Liukung and the 
ships still floating in the harbour. This was done in order to 
distract the attention of the Chinese from the eastern entrance, 
where great efforts were being made to destroy the boom com- 


pletely. Yet these efforts failed, owing to the high wind and 
heavy sea. 

The Chinese had long since known that their fate was sealed; 
nevertheless the poor remnants of the Peiyang Squadron kept 
fighting till the very last, and this in a manner well worthy of 
that Squadron's fame. Admiral Ting and his ofificers had done 
all that men could do; escape was impossible; it was either 
capitulation or total annihilation. And so, on the next day 
(February 12th), the gallant Admiral surrendered, with all the 
war-ships in the harbour and the still unconquered forts on 
Liukung Island. And that same day he and two other high 
officers committed suicide. 


At dawn of February 12th, 1895, the once great Peiyang 
Squadron was almost a thing of past. Four men-of-war and six 
gunboats still floated in the harbour of Wei-hai-wei, and of these 
several were so greatly mauled as to be almost incapable of fight- 
ing any longer. The Zhih fort had been silenced, the magazine 
there having been exploded by a shell; the forts on Liukung, 
though still bidding defiance to the Japanese, had reached the 
limit of endurance. And so, at 8 a. m., one of the smaller gun- 
boats, the Glien Pe, came steaming out of the harbour, flying a 
white flag. She made directly for the Matsuskima, and as she 
did torpedo-boats Nos. 5, 6 and 13 at once ranged alongside the 
Flagship to render assistance, if necessary. Staff-Commander 
Shimamura Haya-o, who, in full uniform, was on board No. 5, 
then hailed the Glien Pe and asked why the gunboat had left the 
harbour and what their business with the Matsushima might be. 
He was answered that Commander Ching Peih-kwang of the 
Kwang Ping was aboard, bringing a letter from Admiral Ting to 
the Commander of the Japanese Fleet. A boat was lowered from 
the Chen Pe, and the messenger rowed swiftly to the Matsushima, 
where he handed the long-expected missive to Vice- Admiral ltd 
in person. The text ran as follows: — "I, Ting, Commander-in- 



chief of the Peiyang Squadron, acknowledge having previously 
received a letter from Vice-Admiral ltd, Commander of the Port 
of Saseho. This letter I have not answered until to-day, owing 
to the hostilities going on between our fleets. It had been my in- 
tention to continue fighting until every one of my men-of-war was 
sunk and the last seaman killed; but I have reconsidered the 
matter and now request a truce, hoping thereby to save many 
lives. I beseech you most earnestly to refrain from further hurt- 
ing the Chinese and Westerners in the service of the Army and 
Navy of China as well as the townspeople of Wei-hai-wei ; in 
return for which I offer to stirrender all my war-ships, the forts 

on Liukung and all material of 
war in and about Wei-hai-wei to 
the Empire of Japan." The 
writer further added that if Vice- 
Admiral ltd acceded to these 
terms, he desired to have the 
Commander-in-chief of the British 
war-ships in the offing become the 
guarantor of the contract ; finally, 
an answer was required by the 
next day. The letter was dated, 
in accordance with the Chinese 
calender, "18th day, 1st month, 
21st year of Kwanghsii." 

On the receipt of this letter a 
council was hastily assembled on 
board the Matsushima, those 
present, besides Vice-Admiral Ito, 
being Commander Samejima Kazunori (First Flying Squadron), 
Commander Ai-ura (Second Flying Squadron), H. I. H. Captain 
Prince Arisugawa Takehito, in command of the Matsushima, and 
Captain Dewa Shigeto, Chief of Staff. Captain Muraoka Tsuneto- 
shi, Chief Gunnery Ofiicer, was further sent at once to Field Mar- 
shal Oyama, then at Hoshan, in order to obtain his advice in the 
matter. Before, however. Captain Muraoka could return, Vice- 
Admiral Ito and his Staff Officers concluded to accept Admiral 
Ting's proposal with the exception of asking the British Admiral 

H. I. H. Captain Pbincb 
Akisuqawa Takehito. 


to guarantee the contract. A dozen each of beer and champagne 
was sent to Captain Ching, with a box of kusJd-gaki, or dried 
persimmons, Yice-Admiral Ito's reply accompanying the little 
gift. Soon after Ching had returned, Lieut.-Colonel Ichiji 
Kosuke, Adjutant of the Chief of the Second Army Staff, ac- 
companied by Captain Ishii, came from Field Marshal Oyama ; 
and all began to discuss what future arrangements should be made. 
Admiral Ito's reply ran thus : — 

" I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
esteemed favour and to accept the proposal therein contained. 
Accordingly I shall receive all the men-of-war, the forts, and all 
warlike material from your hands. As to the time when the 
surrender is to take place, I* shall consult with you again on re- 
ceiving your reply to this. My idea is, after taking delivery of 
everything, to escort you and the others referred to your letter on 
board of one of our war-ships to same safe place, where your 
convenience may be suited. If I be permitted to speak quite 
frankly, I advise you, for your own and your country's sake, to 
remain in Japan until the war is over. Should you decide to 
come to my country, I assure you that you will be treated with 
distinguished consideration. But if you desire to return to your 
native land, I shall, of course, puf no obstacles in your path. 
As for any British guarantee, I think it quite unnecessary, and 
trust fully in your honour as an officer and a gallant man. 
Bequesting your reply to this by 10 a. m. to-morrow, I have the 
honour to remain, etc." 

At 8.25 a. m. the next day, Commander Ching came once 
more, but this time in the CJwn Chung gunboat, the Chinese flag 
flying at half-mast. On handing his superior's reply to Vice- 
Admiral ltd, he stated that when Admiral Ting had read the 
Japanese Admiral's letter, he had said that there was nothing 
left for him to desire, Vice-Admiral ltd having acceded to his 
request. He had immediately afterwards calmly taken his own 
life, an example promptly followed by Liu Pu-chen, Captain of 
the sunken Ting Yuen, and Chang Wang-sen, Commander of the 
Liukung forts. Vice-Admiral Ito and his Staif were much 
shocked at this news, all the more so as the dead Admiral had, 
* The term used in the original is Sholcan, or "petty officer." 



until the outbreak of the war, been on intimate terms with Yice- 
Admiral ltd. Admiral Ting's last letter was as follows : — " I am 
delighted to learn that you are in the enjoyment of good health.* 
I thank you heartily for your kind reply and the assurance that 
the lives of those under me will be spared. You have kindly for- 
warded me certain gifts, but these, while I thank you for them, I 
can not accept, our two nations being at war. You write that you 
desire me to surrender everything into your hands to-morrow. 

This is too short a period in 
which to make the neceessary 
preparations, and I fear that 
the troops will not be able to 
evacuate the place by the time 
specified. I therefore pray 
you to wait until the 22nd day 
of the 1st month (Chinese 
calender = February 16th). You 
need not fear that I shall go 
back on my word." This was 
dated "18th day, 1st month", 
or February 12th. On this, 
Vice- Admiral conferred with the 
Officers of his Staff, and finally 
sent the following reply : — 

" To the Officer in Command of the Chinese Fleet. 

H. I. J. M. Matsusliima, 
Feb. 13th, 28th Meiji. 
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Admiral Ting's 
letter under date of the 18th day, 1st month (February 12th). As 
to the request therein contained that I shall consent to the post- 
ponement of the date of the transfer of the war-ships, etc., I 
consent on the following condition, that a plenipotentiary Chinese 
Official shall come this day at 6 p. m. on board mj Flagship, the 
Matsusliima, to arrange the manner in which the men-of-war and 
and all other things shall be surrendered to Japan ; the liberation 
of the Chinese combatants and their foreign employes in and 
* A much-used formula at the beginning of Chinese letters. 

Admikal Ting. 


about "Wei-hai-wei. In my last communication to the late Admi- 
ral Ting, I expressed my desire to confer with him personally 
concerning the time and other details of the surrender. But as 
the Admiral is now deceased, I desire that some one shall be sent 
hither in his place. Moreover would I spe(3ially emphasize the fact 
that the Officer who will come to the Matsushima to make the final 
arrangements, must be a Chinese and not on Occidental. I shall 
welcome a Chinese. I have the honour to be, etc." 

Commander Ching left the Flagship at 10.40 a. m., on which 
the Matsushima signalled the sad news of Admiral Ting's death to 
the rest of the Japanese men-of-war, prohibiting, at the same 
time, any other music to be played by the bands than dirges, in 
honour of the deceased Admiral. At 5.20 p, m., Mu Chang-pin 
Commander of the Liukung Island garrison, accompanied by 
Commander Ching and armed with plenipotentiary powers, came 
to the Matsushima, the Chen Peen being the gunboat which carried 
them. After negotiations lasting several hours, the two Chinese 
officers left the Flagship, the time of their departure being an hour 
before midnight. Despite what had occured, the Japanese Fleet 
still maintained a watchful attitude, the torpedo-boats being all 
night on the alert ; for sad experience had taught the Japanese 
that a Chinese promise was not necessarily trustworthy. 

On the following day, February 14th, Lieut.-Colonel Ichiji 
Kosuke returned to Hoshan in order to prepare to escort the 
Chinese troops beyond the Japanese lines. At 3.30 p. m. of this 
day the two Chinese Plenipotentiaries came again to the Matsu- 
shima, this time bringing a Kst of the Chinese and foreign officers 
in the Chinese Army and Navy thereabouts, together with the 
number of soldiers still withiu the forts, the amount of warlike 
material, etc. They moreover gave the names of those officers 
charged with handing over the men-of-war, forts, etc., to their new 
masters. The remaining articles of the agreement were not com- 
pletely decided, for Vice-Admiral Ito had to refuse, and very 
positively at that, several requests preferred by the Chinese. 
The Japanese Admiral told one of the Plenipotentiaries, Niu 
Chang-pin, that it was impossible to criticize Admiral Ting's 
death in an adverse sense. There seemed to be nothing else for 
the kindly, gallant Chinese Admiral to do : he had no choice but 


die. But so deeply did he, Vice-Admiral, feel the loss of this 
brave seaman and former friend that he would voluntarily return 
one of the gunboats, the Kwang Tsi, to the Chinese, in order to 
have the body conveyed in state to China. He added, most 
courteously, that he would let them choose whatever destination 
or port they might desire ; that, if they so wished, the officers of 
the Chinese land and sea forces might depart on the same ship 
carrying the corpse of the late Admiral. The two Plenipoten- 
tiaries were profoundly grateful for this kindness and thanked the 
Admiral repeatedly for his words, rising to their feet in order to 
make low obeisance. Undoubtedly the forbearance and courtesy 
displayed by Vice-Admiral Ito on this occasion mainly contributed 
to the rapidity with which the terms of the surrender were agreed 
upon. The document contained eleven articles in all, and was 
signed by the Plenipotentiaries on both sides, each receiving a 
copy. The articles were as follow : — 

Art. I. — The names of the Chinese military and naval officers shall 
be given to the Japanese in the order of their rank. With regard to 
the foreign employes, their respective countries shall be stated. 
Only the number of the soldiers, seamen and Chinese employe's 
need be given. 

Art. II. — The officers of the Army and Navy shall give their 
written parole not to take part again in the war. 
Art. III. — All the munition of war, the weapons, etc., shall be 
collected in a certain fixed place, the name of which place shall 
thereupon be told to the Japanese Admiral. The land-force shall 
land on Chiu Island, whence they shall be escorted beyond the 
Japanese lines at Wei-hai-wei. The landing of the troops shall 
take place between the hours of 5 p. m., February 14th, and 12 m. 
February 15th. 

Art. IV. — Niu Chang-pin, acting as Plenipotentiary for the Chi- 
nese Army and Navy at "Wei-hai-wei, shall nominate a Committee 
to attend to the delivery of the men-of-war, forts, etc., to the 
Japanese. The Committee shall supply the Japanese with full 
particulars concerning the war-ships, forts, etc., the number of 
large and small cannon, tonnage of the ships, the number of 
weapons other than cannon, etc., by noon of February 15th. 
Art. V. — The Chinese naval and military officers, of native or 


foreign birth, as well as the seamen, shall, in accordance with 
Article V. of this agreement, be permitted to leave Wei-hai-wei 
in the Kwang Tsi at noon of February 16th. 

Art. YI. — The Chinese naval and military officers, of native or 
foreign birth, shall be permitted to take with them only their 
private and personal property, but not their weapons. And eveii 
this property shall, if deemed necessary, be examined and may be 

Art. VII. — The inhabitants of Liukung Island shall be told to 
stay on the Island as heretofore. 

Art. VIII. — The landing of Japanese officers and soldiers on 
Liukung Island, in order to take over the forts and material of 
war, shall begin at 9 a. m. of February 16th. However, on this 
agreement being signed, the Japanese war-ships may freely enter 
the harbour of Wei-hai-wei, should such entrance be deemed 
necessary. The Chinese seamen, either of native or foreign, birth, 
may stay on board their respective vessels until 9 a. m. of Feb- 
ruary 16th. Those seamen who desire to leave Wei-hai-wei over- 
land, shall land at the same time and place with the Chinese 
Army, and shall be escorted beyond the Japanese lines in like 
manner. The landing of such seamen shall begin at noon of Feb- 
ruary 16th, i. e. after the Army has completed its landing. 
Art. IX. — Old and young men, women and other non-combat- 
ants may, if they so desire, leave Liukung Island by either of 
the two exits in native Chinese craft. But such craft shall be 
examined by the Japanese torpedo-boats and other war-ships 
lying o£f either entrance to the bay. And this examination shall 
further extend to the persons and baggage of the passengers. 
Art. X. — The coffins of Admiral Ting and those of the officers 
next in rank, shall be sent out of the harbour at any time between 
noon of February 16th and noon of February 23rd, the Kiuang Tsi 
acting as transport. 

The Kivang Tsi which, out of respect for the spirit of the late 
Admiral Ting, (who did his duty manfully by his country), Vice- 
Admiral Ito has given back to the Chinese, shall be used at the 
will of Niu Chang-pin, now acting as Plenipotentiary Agent of 
the Chinese Army and Navy in Wei-hai-wei. 



The Escorting of the Chinese Troops beyond the Japanese Lines. 

The Kwang Tsi shall, on February 15th, be examined by 
Japanese naval officers in order to see that the ship's armament 
has entirely been removed. 

Art. XI. — The Chinese naval and military officers in Wei-hai-wei 
shall make no further attempt to oppose the Japanese land and 
naval forces. Should there be any such attempt, this contract 
shall at once lose its force and the Japanese will at once re-com- 
mence hostilities. 

Signed this 14th day of February, 28th year of Meiji and 21st 
of Kanghsii, on board H. I. J. M. Matsusliima. 
[L. S.] Mu Chang-pin. 

[L. S.] Vice-Admiral Ito. 

The following morning the Kwang Tsi should have reported 
for examination but did not, the weather being very stormy. 
But early on February 16th the gunboat put in her appearance 
and was thoroughly examined and disarmed. On board were 
found 3 torpedoes, 30 rifles and 4 small cannon of an obsolete 
type. The torpedes and rifles were removed, but the cannon were 
left so that a salute might be fired when the coffin containing the 
late Admiral Ting should be taken aboard. All the foreign 


employes were sent on board the MatsusJiima for examination, and 
their written parole tested if penned by themselves or not. 
Thirteen were liberated, the rest being detained. The Chinese 
liberated, were as follow : — 

Naval Officers 183 

Cadets 30 

"Warrant Officers and Seamen 2841 

Military Officers 40 

Non-commissioned Officers ) 2040 
and Rank and File ' 

Total 5134. 

More than 3,000 of the whole number were sent under escort 
beyond the Japanese lines, the remainder being taken to Chefoo 
in the Kwang Tsi, which made several trips for that purpose. 
The captured war-ships, including gun-boats, were the Given Yuen, 
Ping Yuen, Tsi Yuen, Ktoang Pin^g, Chen Tung, Chen Hai, Chen 
Nan, Clien Pe, Chen Chun^, and Chen Peen. Prize crews were 
sent on board of these, and the ships despatched to their destina- 
tion. And thus the Peiyang Squadron ceased to exist. 

1. — H. J. M. Y08HIN0. 

The Yoshino, one of the finest vessels in the Japanese Fleet, 
was built in England in 1893. Her displacement is 4216 tons, and 
she is fitted out with 15,968 horse-power engines and carries 34 
guns. The ship is built throughout of steel. The chief officers of 
the Yoshino, during the war, were Captain Kawahara Yo-ichi, Com- 
mander Tamada Hikohachi, and First Lieutenant Kato Tomo- 
saburd, the latter being in charge of the battery. On the out- 
break of the Tonghak Eebellion in Korea, the Yoshino, Takachiho, 
Akitsushima and Naniioa, forming the First Flying Squadron, 
left Chemulpho on July 23rd, leaving the other vessels of the 
Fleet off Phungdo. On the 25th of the same month the 
Squadron returned to this island, there encountering with the 



Chinese war-ships Tsi Yuen and Kwang Yi. The "war began de 
facto, if not de jure, at this spot, for the Chinese vessels opened 
fire on the Japanese Squadron. The YosJiino instantly took up the 
challenge and gave chase to the Tsi Yuen, a running fight ensuing. 
Again, on September 17th, in the great sea-fight of the 
Yellow Sea, off Haiyang, the Yoshino was the leader of the First 
Flying Squadron, and so in front of all the rest. The Chinese 
war-vessels, it will be remembered, began firing so soon as the 
interval between them the Japanese Fleet had decreased to one of 
6000 metres ; but the Japanese reserved their fire until not more 
than 3000 metres separated them from their antagonists. At this 
instant Captain Kawahara gave the order to fire, and thence- 
forth the guns were served with admirable precision and steadiness 

of aim, not a shell being wasted. 
The result of the great battle 
we have narrated at length in 
another chapter. 

Now here, in Wei-hai-wei, 
the YosJiino's duties were mani- 
fold, and her crew were tireless 
in their endeavours to get at 
the Chinese Fleet in the har- 
bour. When the enemy's 13 
torpedo-boats stole, on Fe- 
bruary 7th, out of the harbour, 
the YosJiino was the first to 
give chase, and so succeeded 
that 11 out of the 13 boats 
were either captured or des- 
troyed. Two only, steaming at 
the rate of 24 knots, managed 
to make good their escape to Chefoo. They did not get to 
Chefoo directly, because of the YosJiino's hot pursuit, but conceal- 
ed themselves in an inlet not far from that port, where they 
remained until the worst danger was over. 

And so the YosJiino, owing to her powerful frame, engines 
and splendid guns, was conspicuous throughout the war : whether 
at Chemulpho, in the Yellow Sea, Talien Bay, at Port Arthur or 

Chief Gunneb Kato, 
H. I. M. Yonkino. 

WEI-HAI-WEl. 333 

Wei-hai-wei : tlie Chinese coming finally to regard her as the 
fiercest and most-to-be-feared war-ship in the Japanese Fleet. 

2. — THAT baby! 

The assault of the Chaopei-tsai fort was a comparatively 
easy task for the Japanese, for the Chinese garrison was soon 
vanquished and the fort readily seized by the attacking forces- 
After all was over, a fine-looking Chinese woman was seen ap- 
proaching the Japanese lines, having evidently lost her way. 
The woman was, in all probability, nothing more than the con- 
cubine of one of the Chinese officers in the fort before its capture ; 
yet the Japanese took pity on her for the sake of her sex, and Lieut.- 
Colonel Kawamura Masanao, who was commanding a Battalion of 
Engineers in the Sixth Division, showed her what road to take 
and saw that she reached in safety a house in the nearest village. 
A few minutes later on some of the soldiers found a well-nourish- 
ed Chinese baby boy lying on the ground, and it was supposed 
that the child belonged to the woman who had just been sent be- 
yond the lines. Pitying the little fellow, who was crying bitterly. 
Captain Higuchi Seizaburo, of the Sixth Division, picked him up 
and did his best to console the baby. But as the young China- 
man refused to be comforted. Captain Higuchi called up one of 
the prisoners and told him that he, the Captain, would give him 
his liberty if he took that baby to its parents. To this the 
Chinese captive, a stalwart fellow who looked as if he might have 
children himself, joyfully consented ; but the baby refused to be 
separated from its Japanese friend, and cried harder than ever 
when the Chinese tried to take it in his arms. So, holding the 
baby in his left arm while he grasped his sabre with the right. 
Captain Higuchi marched to the capture of the next fort, re- 
ceiving at one time a bullet through his cap. The fort was taken 
in gallant style, the baby meanwhile looking on in wondering 
surprise at the din and uproat of the battle, perfectly content to 
rest on the kind-hearted Captain's shoulder. When all was over 



this gallant officer gave his tiny charge to some of his troopers, 
who bore the child in safety to a Chinese house in a village hard 


Befoee proceeding to the assault of Wei-hai-wei, it was 
necessary to find a suitable landing-place for the troops; and 
to this effect, as already narrated, the YosJiino, TakacJiiho, 
Naniiua and ATcitsusliima made search in the vicinity of the 

Shantung promontory. 
The actual condition 
and plans of the enemy 
the Fleet could not re- 
connoitre ; for the war- 
ships might not approach 
during the day-time as 
they would instantly be 
sighted. Getting at last 
near Yingching Bay, the 
TaJcacJiiho lowered a boat 
for purposes of recon- 
naissance, and in it was 
Captain Nomura, with 
three or four marines. 
In the scouting that 
ensued Captain Nomura 
was foremost and utterly 
reckless of himself. He returned to report that the enemy had 
failed to defend the all-important Bay as it should have been defend- 
ed, and that a landing was practicable. Acting on his representa- 
tions, the transports were speedily brought in and the whole 
landing of the Army accomplished in two days. 

Captadi NoMtiKA, Commander 
H. J. M. Takachiho. 

WEI-HAI- WEI. 335 


It being impossible to lure tHe Chinese war-ships out of the 
safe waters of the harbour — safe in so far as they were protected 
by the boom, the forts on Liukung and the numerous gun-boats, — it 
was resolved to attempt a torpedo-boat attack at night, the little 
craft to enter the harbour through the breach in the boom effect- 
ed by No. 6. Vice.-Admiral ltd therefore sent for Captain Imai, 
who was in command of the Third Torpedo Flotilla, and address- 
ed him as follows : — " It will not do for us to continue any longer 
in the present way. To-night, immediately after the moon has 
set, an attack must be made by our torpedo-boats on the Chinese 
men-of-war in the harbour." " We shall do our best. Sir," 
replied Captain Imai with manly promptitude ; " yet as the 
breach in the boom is very narrow, the torpedo-boats which do 
get through may very well be unable to return. If you do not 
object to this. Sir, I am quite ready for the attack." This was 
said with an unmoved countenance, but the Admiral was struck 
with the words and dauntless spirit that prompted them. Dash- 
ing away a tear that he had in vain endeavoured to conceal, the 
Admiral replied, a little huskily, " All right, then. If the worst 
happens, there is no help for it. I should be deeply grieved to 
lose you, but this deed must be done for our country's sake. Do 
the best you can, and inscribe you name high up on the walls of 
the Temple of Fame ! The Second Torpedo Flotilla must also 
make a dash for the inner harbour to-night, so tell Commander 
Fujita what I have just said." There was a quick stern glance ; 
a warm clasp of the hands ; and the two heroes parted without the 
hope of seeing each other once more. But Captain Imai succeed- 
ed in his perilous mission and, after sinking the enemy's most 
powerful war-ships, regained the Fleet and won for himself 
undying fame. 

5. — A NOBLE ACT, 

On February 11th, it will be remembered, the Katsuragi and 


several other Japanese war-ships had a severe fight with the 
island forts. In the heat of the action, a hostile shell struck the 
breech of one of the Katsuragi's larger guns. As quick as 
thought, Takada Tomikichi, seaman of the third class and then 
employed in serving powder to the gunners, seized a large bag 
of powder close by the gun and sprang backwards with it, at the 
same time receiving an ugly wound in his right arm from a 
fragment of the shell. It was a most gallant act, for if he had 
not removed the powder a fatal explosion might have occurred, if 
not the loss of the ship. 


KoZAKi Tatsujiro a warrant-officer of the first-class, was 
present at the fighting at Talien, Port Arthur and Wei-hai-wei ; 
further taking part in the protecting landing of the forces at 

Kozaki was attached to torpedo-boat No. 6, and a favourite 
with all because of his activity and fearlessness. This No. 6 was 
struck no less than 17 times in various places, either by the 
hostile men-of-war or torpedo-boats, and ran several times the 
gauntlet of the enemy's guard-boats, being time and again ex- 
posed to the utmost peril. In the worst moments the duty of 
steering this gallant No. 6, fell to Kozaki, who was ever calmest 
when the danger was extreme. On several occasions he kept at 
the wheel day and night continuously. During the attack on 
Port Arthur he never left the wheel for twenty-eight hours, yet 
gave no sign of fatigue nor offered to relinquish his post to an- 
other. But his great personal merit was never so apparent as in 
the destruction of the boom at the eastern entrance to "Wei-hai-wei 

It was during the night of February 3rd, after the moon had 
gone down, that No. 6 stole noiselessly through the murky water 
to the harbour-mouth. After a prolonged search, a narrow 
passage was discovered between the eastern extremity of the 
boom and Lungmiao-tsai. With infinite caution the torpedo-boat 


was steered through the narrow road, and into the harbour be- 
yond ; for it was necessary to begin the destruction of the boom 
from the inside or not at all. At a distance of less than 1500 
metres were the dim outlines of seven of the enemy's torpedo-boats, 
all in a line and apparently doing picket-duty, and quite conscious 
of the entrance of the intrepid No. 6, as, for the last 80 minutes, 
they had been keeping up a steady fire in the direction of the 
massive steel and wooden boom. The fort on Zhih Island now 
also began firing, using a 12 c. m. Q.-F. gun. Shells flew every- 
where above and about No. 6, but the darkness being intense and 
the boat lying low in the water not one struck her, though several 
shells flew whizzing close past her sides. 

The night was bitterly cold, a thin film of ice covering the 
sea and preventing rapid movement. The only knowledge of the 
whereabouts of the gallant vessel that the Chinese could have, 
was when she moved forward, the crackling of the ice betraying 
her. Tt seemed utterly impossible to escape destruction, yet the 
crew of No. 6 behaved like the heroes they were. With infinite 
difficulty a heavy charge of blasting powder was fastened to the 
boom ; but, most unluckily, a fluke of No. 6's anchor cut through 
the wire connectiag the explosive with the battery, and all the 
work was rendered useless. Then Kozaki sprang from the wheel- 
room where he had been, aud, with an encouraging word to the 
others, speedily repaired the damage with a bit of copper wire 
and some packing. But either the powder itself was faulty or 
wet or something the matter with the wire, at all events the 
charge failed to be exploded. There was nothing left but to try 
hand-charges. To make these take effect was a most difficult and 
perilous piece of business at any time, and doubly so now in the 
darkness of the night, while the enemy's shells and bullets were 
flying about the men or ricocheting over the heaving sea. Yet 
Kozaki, walking out to the bow of No. 6 and getting on the 
boom in this way, succeeded in fastening three heavy charges 
to the timber. Clambering back to the boat, the lanyard 
was pulled taut and all three charges burst into flame, with 
tremendous effect, a great piece of the boom being torn away. 
Every ship in the harbour was now awake to what was going on, 
and the forts on Liukung and Zhih Islands roared out their anger. 


while the Chao-pei-tsai fort, in possession of the Japanese, was not 
slow to reply to the thunder below. The great shells came crash, 
crash, striking the water on both sides of No. 6, or flying with a sin- 
ister scream just above her deck. Yet in all this turmoil and confu- 
sion Kozaki steered the devoted vessel back to the narrow entrance, 
past the furiously picket-boats, unscathed and without iajury. 
In a few minutes more the heroic men were beyond the reach of 
shot and shell and steaming at full speed for the anchoring- 
ground. ■ It had been hot work, but grandly conceived and super- 
bly accomplished, thanks chiefly to Kozaki. Through this breach, 
a little later on, the torpedo-boat flotillas entered to destroy to 
finest of the Chinese fleet and thus secure the downfall and surren- 
der of Wei-hai-wei. 


On February 4th some members of the crew of the Itsukushima 
were sent to garrison the eastern coast-fort. Among these men 
were Taguchi Koto, a seaman of the first-class, and Kayano Iha- 
chi. All were placed under the orders of Captain Nakashima, 
then commanding the fort. On the 7th of the same month, 
Sub-Lieutenant Kawahara, who was in charge of the Chao-pei- 
tsai fort, ordered the men to aim the 24 c. m. cannon at Zhih 
Island in the roadway below. The huge gun was fired and the 
projectile struck the powder-magazine on that island, causing an 
instant and fearful explosion. This at once placed the key of the 
eastern entrance to Wei-hai-wei in the hands of the Japanese, 
The subsequent surrender of the imprisoned fleet and the 
fortresses on the harbour-mouth islands, was directly attributable 
to this fatal shot. And that the great cannon which sent the 
shell on its message was serviceable, is due to the meritorious 
labour of the above-mentioned two men. In the attack on the 
Chao-pei-tsai fort, they had taken active part. But when the 
Chinese in the fort had become convinced of the futility of defence, 
they voluntarily fired the powder-magazine, resolved that the 
guns in the fort should not fall into the hands of the Japanese. 


The five cannon there were overthrown, or driven deep into the 
ground by the tremendous force of the explosion, and all the in- 
struments used Iby the gunners were scattered to the four winds. 
So thorough had been the work of destruction that the Chinese 
doubtless considered the cannon utterly useless thenceforth. But 
so soon as Taguchi and Kayano got into the fort, they set to 
dig out and train the 24 c. m. gun on the Zhih Island fortifications. 
It was a heavy piece of work, the cannon being imbedded in the 
icy gravel, but finally the untiring efforts of the two men were 
crowned with merited success, and at the fourth shot they explod- 
ed the Zhih Island powder-magazine. 

Not content with this, Kayano got a 28 c. m. cannon into 
position, and, after a prolonged search, found the missing gas- 
check of this gun quite 80 metres from the fort. As this had 
been damaged he repaired it with such rude tools as he could 
find, and finally had the gun in working-order. The process of 
repairing the gas-check and certain parts of the gun was done 
solely by the light of the moon ; for by day he could not leave the 
fort without exposing himself to a storm of missiles from the 
Chinese war-ships in the harbour, nor might he, for the same 
reason, use a light by night. Yet despite all difficulties he got 
the bursting charge into order as well as the much-injured breech 
of the gun. When the moon failed him, he worked on by the 
pale reflection of the snow. With the thus refitted cannon, 
Kayano did much damage to the enemy's fleet and the forts on 
the two harbour-mouth islands. Later on, some men from the 
YaTnato coming into the fort, this gun was trained on the Liukung 
strongholds, and by a shell destroyed a large cannon in one of 


The names of the Japanese war-ships taking part in the 
capture of Wei-hai-wei and the Chinese Fleet, as well as of the 
officers in command, are as follow : — 




Commanding Officee. 



Kawahara YoicM 



Nomura TadasH 



H. I. H. Arisugawa Takeliito Captain. 


Arima Shin-iclii 



Uchida Masatoshi 



Kamimura Hikonojo 



Togo Heihachiro 



Arai Aritsura 



Kataoka Shichiro 



Sakura Kikunosuke 



Sawa Eyokan 



Miyoshi Katsumi 



Serada Tasuku 



Yabe Okikatsu 



ltd Tsunesaku Brevet-Commander. 


Inoue Yoshitomo 



Oda Toru 



Hashimoto Masa-akira 



Hosoya Suke-uji 



Uemura Shonojo 



Hagazaki Gengo 



Hirayama Tojiro 



Nashiha Toki-oki 



Kashiwahara Nagashige 



Mukai Atsutada 
Tkanspoets and Ceuisees. 


Yamashiro Maru* Captain Geki Yasumasa. 

Omi Maru* 

Captain Ogata 


*Ex-mercliant steamers. 




Aptek the successful siege of Kaiping by the Mixed Eirst 
Brigade under Major-General Nogi, the immediate plan of the 
Japanese commanders was to overwhelm the enemy in the vicinity 
of Yingkow, by using Kaiping as a base of operations. 

The Chinese troops around the former city steadily increased 
in number; indeed, according to the reports brought in by 
Japanese scouts, there were not less than 40,000 fighting men in 
the neighbourhood of Tingkow and Tienchwangtai. So con- 
fident did the enemy appear in their own strength, that it became 
evident that a strong assault would shortly be made on the Mixed 
Brigade. In order to reinforce this body, therefore, the Eirst 
Division, hitherto stationed at Kinchow, started over the snowy 
roads northwards on January 18th, reaching Kaiping just four 
days later. 

A glance at Taping-shan — most erroneously thus named, for 
the Chinese style means " Mountain of Great Peace " — and its 
neighbourhood will make clear the subsequent movements of the 
Japanese forces. The plain of Yingkow covers about 20-28 miles 
north to south by 6-8 miles east to west. On the south it is bound- 
ed by the mountains, or rather lofty hills, running just north of 
Eaiping ; on the east lie the hills of Tashihkiao ; while the Liao 
Eiver and Gulf of Pechihli enclose the plain on the south and 
south-west. In spring the whole plain is, as a rule, a great 
swampy morass, the excessive moisture being due to the snow 
melting on the surrounding hills. In the midst of this marsh 


stands the Mil known as Taping-shan, — of not great height, 70 or 
80 metres at most, but commanding the plain as well as the 
Yingkow roads. From Kaiping two roads lead to Yingkow, the 
one following the coast-line and passing through Haishan-chai, 
Langchih-chang and Hongchia-chang ; while the other is a rounda- 
bout highway touching Pohtai-tse, Senchia-kautse and Laoying- 
miao. But while the latter route is longer, it passes through a 
much greater number of villages, and thus has more attractions 
and conveniences. Taping-shan lies midway between these two 
roads. In the Yingkow plain itself there are a good many 
hamlets, but none large enough to serve as a halting-place for 
passing troops. From the eastern portion of the plain the broad 
expanse of the Gulf is visible. Yet in February the sea freezes 
over all along the coast, so firmly indeed that heavy weights can 
pass over the frozen surface; while the whole expanse of the 
plain, during the winter months, is covered with deep drifts of 
snow, the roads thereby being rendered quite indistinguishable. 

Beginning with January 24th, the Mixed Brigade had several 
skirmishes with the enemy, but all of a minor nature. In con- 
sequence of this, however, one detachment was sent to hold the 
important places on Taping-shan. On February 21st a force of 
about 6000-6000 Chinese entered the villages of East and "West 
Shihlikow, north of the hill, and shortly afterwards the Japanese 
pickets were attacked by a number of these men, the Japanese 
being compelled to relinquish their posts, knowing that it would 
be madness for them to contend with so overwhelming a force. 
The Main Body of the Brigade was then at Pohtai-tse, while the 
other troops were stationed in the neighbourhood of Kaiping. 
The Brigade Commander, Lieut. -General Yamaji, at once re- 
cognized the fact that it would be extremely unwise to leave 
Taping-shan in the hands of the enemy ; and so he determined to 
attack the Chinese in the vicinity of the hill on February 24th. 
To this effect he collected the whole Japanese force, on the 23rd, 
at Pohtai-tse, and made the following arrangements : — Major- 
General Mshi, with the Second Begiment of Infantry, one Sub- 
company of Cavalry and one Battalion of Artillery, to proceed to 
the left of the hill — the western side ; Major-General Nogi, with 
the First Brigade of Infantry and two Battalions of Artillery, to 



go around to the right or eastern side of Taping-shan. Both of 
these bodies were ordered to set out at 7 a. m. of the following 
day. Moreover, one Battalion of Cavalry was to keep on the right 
flank of the Japanese forces as a cover, for that was the most ex- 
posed part. Camp was broken at midnight in consequence of 
these directions, the Brigade Commander with the Third Kegi- 
ment leaving the place at 2 a. m. At 6.30 a. m. the Japanese Left, 
under Major-General Mshi, began firing on the enemy in a small 
village west of Taping-shan ; and in a little over an hour later 
they were in unquestioned possession of this and the adjoining 
hamlet, the beaten enemy flying north and westwards under a 
heavy artillery fire. The Chinese troops in these two villages 
numbered in all 2700. At 7.30 a. m. the Japanese Bight, under 
Major-General Nogi, began ac- 
tive hostilities, and, at 8.30 a. m. 
marched into North Taping-shan 
village. In the meantime the 
First Eegiment of Infantry, to the 
right, assisting the Fifteenth Eegi- 
ment, did good work in driving 
the Chinese out. Taping-shan 
was thus completely in the oc- 
cupation of the Japanese by nine 
o'clock in the forenoon. None the 
less, East and West Shihlikow, 
villages about 5000-6000 metres 
distant from the northern spur 
of the hill, were still strongly de- 
fended by the Chinese, who show- 
ed no disposition to budge. 
Major-General Nogi now des- 
patched the Fifteenth Eegiment to the capture of East Shihlikow, 
an undertaking in which they were entirely successful. But the 
enemy at West Shihlikow were much more obstinate in their 
defence of the place. No less than 20,000 Chinese were gathered 
here shortly after 10 a. m. They had ten cannon and a number of 
machine-guns, using smokeless powder. These pieces kept up a 
constant fire at the approaching Japanese, the aim being excep- 

Majob-GenebaIi Kishi. 


tionally good. Seeing the many casualties caused in the Japanese 
ranks, the enemy spread out on either side, keeping the village in 
their centre, and acting as if they thought to completely surround 
the attacking troops. The Chinese front, composed of not less than 
5000 men, swung around to meet the First Regiment, then a little 
south of Laoying-miao, but halted in the snow as they came face 
to face with the Japanese. Towards the Japanese Left came 
another body of 8000 troops, advancing steadily but very slowly. 
Now the Japanese had already made themselves masters of Tap- 
ing-shan, the prime object of the movement ; but, under the 
circumstances, the fighting had to be continued, though at such 
enormous odds. It was absolutely necessary to dislodge the 
enemy and break up their camp ; yet so strong was their position 
and so great their numbers that Lieut.-General Yamaji desired, if 
possible, to avoid a pitched battle. But the Chinese, conscious 
of their own strength, seemed not in the least disposed to retire. 
The conflict was inevitable. At 11 a. m. two Battalions, with a 
battery, were sent to East Shihlikow with the command to open 
fire on the enemy, and thus precipitate matters. The Japanese 
Artillery dashed boldly over the plain, in full view and easy range 
of the enemy, who were not slow to take advantage of the situa- 
tion. Halting on a level space uf ground a little to the north- 
west of the village, the Japanese gunners at once began firing 
heavily upon the enemy crowded in West Shihlikow. The 
Chinese Artillery replied to the challenge and the roar of the guns 
was kept up for three hours, at the end of which time the enemy, 
though greatly galled by the Japanese fire, still showed no dis- 
position to evacuate West Shihlikow. This would not do : nothing 
would serve but the total suppression of the foe at this important 
point. The Brigade Commander therefore resolved upon attack- 
ing the enemy's centre, and to this end Major-General Nogi was 
ordered to storm, with the Fifteenth Regiment, the village shelter- 
ing the Chinese Army. At the same time the First Regiment, on 
the Japanese right, menaced a body of the enemy, about 6000 
strong, south of Laoying-miao, and kept them from communicat- 
ing with the forces in West Shihlikow. Major-General Nishi was 
instructed to march his men around to the west of Taping-shan, 
to prevent any reinforcement from coming up in that direction, 


and, in case of need, to act as an aid to tlie devoted Fifteenth 
Eegiment — now about to engage in a struggle to the death. Just 
as these orders were about to be carried out, the Chinese Right 
boldly advanced in order to attack the Japanese Left. Their 
approach was, however, prevented by the Artillery there station- 
ed, whose splendid fire not only kept the foe at a distance but 
even compelled them to withdraw within their own lines. Shortly 
after 3 p. m. the Fifteenth Eegiment set out on their perilous 
mission, the attention of the Chinese meanwhile being entirely 
absorbed by the operations of the First Regiment and the troops 
under Major-General Nishi. It was a grand sight to see the 
brave Fifteenth march through the deep snow to the attack. 
With all the drill and precision of a parade they pressed steadily 
nearer the foe, the serried lines as regular and trim as if it had 
been a field-day instead of a duel of doubtful issue. Lieut.- 
General Yamaji, deeming the task well nigh beyond their powers, 
now sent to the Regiment's aid the First Battalion of the First 
Regiment and two Battalions from the Third Regiment. While 
this reinforcement rapidly followed after the advancing troops, 
the enemy, who had been fallen back before the Japanese Left, sud- 
denly veered around and pressed against the Left Wing of the 
approaching Fifteenth. At the same time the Chinese hitherto 
engaged with the First Regiment turned and attacked the Fif- 
teenth's Right Wing. A tremendous hand-to-hand conflict ensued, 
the Chinese fighting for all they were worth ; but nothing could with- 
stand the desperate valour of the Fifteenth. At 4.30 p. m. the 
redoubts of West Shihlikow were captured, and in a few minutes 
more the vast multitudes of Chinese were in full flight along the 
Yingkow road. 

The carnage had been fearful. At the back of Taping-shan 
the Brigade now began burying the dead, but although they 
worked the entire night, this sad duty was not ended when the 
next day dawned. During the night the First Regiment under 
Major-General Nogi bivouacked in East Shihlikow, keeping a 
sharp lookout for any return on the part of the Chinese. But the 
enemy had been too thoroughly cowed to dream of making an 
attempt to regain the villages — where the dismantled farm-houses, 
corpse-strewn streets and general desolation eloquently spoke of 


the horrors of war. 

Id this battle the Japanese lost 280 killed and wounded, 
including many officers. The Chinese losses were considerably 
over two thousand, the village of West Shihlikow in particular 
presenting a fearful and ghastly spectacle. It was not until noon 
of the following day that the Japanese succeeded in burying all 
the Chinese dead. 


The cold was intense when the Fifth Company of the Third 
Eegiment began the wearisome march north-wards. And yet, 
despite the unusual amount of impedimenta with which each 
soldier was burdened, the men managed to cover between 18-19 
miles daily. Many of the poor fellows suffered severely from frost- 
bitten or wounded feet. Niyama Tomekichi, a second-class reser- 
vist private in this Company, had dreadfully injured feet, so that he 
was able to wear neither shoes nor straw-sandals, and the surgeon 
advised him to give and go to hospital. But this advice gave him 
intense disappointment, and he said: — " I can not refuse to go if 
you order me to do so. Yet it would be dreadful to be put on 
the sick list for such slight injuries. I want to die in the smoke 
and din of battle, even if both my feet have to be cut off. Pray, 
Sir, permit me to keep up with the Company." Moved by the brave 
man's words, the surgeon consented, though reluctantly, for he 
well knew that every step must give the man agony. So Niyama 
was able to take part in the battle of Taping-shan, where he 
acquitted himself most manfully, although his sufferings before 
and after the struggle must have been dreadful. 


A THiED- CLASS private of the Sixth Company, Third Eegi- 
ment, Orihara Tamekichi, distinguished himself at Taping-shan 


by kindness and devotion to his wounded comrades. On March 
24th, on the way back to the camp, after the battle was over, one 
of the men dropped out and fell down by the roadside. But as it 
was very late and a dark night, no one knew of this occurrence 
until the Company came to a halt at midnight, in order to bivouac 
where they were. A Sergeant at once offered to go in search of 
the missing man, but Orihara, hearing of the matter, called out : 
" I am not yet so very tired. Please let me go and search." 
Permission being granted, Orihara set out at once, without re- 
moving either knapsack or anything else. After retracing his 
steps for about 1000 metres, Orihara discovered the injured 
man — for he had fallen out because of a wound — lying senseless. 
Orihara tried his best to arouse him, but without avail. Strip- 
ping thp injured man of his accoutrements, but without laying 
aside his own, Orihara raised his unconscious comrade on his 
back and staggered off. The night was a blustering, rainy one, 
so that Orihara lost his way ; yet he never faltered, and finally 
regained the bivouac shortly before three o'clock in the morning. 
It is gratifying to narrate in conclusion that the rescued man 
thereafter recovered. 


When the First Division of the Second Expeditionary Army 
advanced to the attack of Kinchow-ching, the larger part of the 
Division was obliged to make for Sanshih-lipu, branching off the 
Petsewo highway, and reconnoitre the adjacent territory with 
unusual care and precaution. This had to be done on account of 
the imperfect nature of the maps with which the leaders were 
supplied. At this time Sergeant Ogawa Ikutaro of the First 
Cavalry Battalion, in company with his Captain, was conspicuous 
for the skill and address he displayed, guiding finally the Divi- 
sion with celerity and in safety to Sanshih-lipu. The road taken 
by the Sergeant was so deep in the hills and apparently so 
devious that it was at first surmised that some mistake had been 
made. Yet it afterwards appeared that the Sergeant had dis- 


covered and selected the best and shortest possible route. 

Again, after the capture of Kaiping-ching in January, 1895, 
Sergeant Ogawa was active in scouting the enemy, his Battalion 
being at the time stationed at Chiu-chia-ten-tse. Later on, ac- 
companied by only three mounted troopers, he went towards Peh- 
miao-tse on a reconnaissance. On getting near the place, they 
were surprised by being suddenly fired upon by the enemy, a 
random bullet striking the bold Sergeant in the breast and in- 
flicting a mortal wound. But, nothing daunted, he turned to his 
comrades and said that, the main part of their reconnaissance 
having been achieved, they might not draw rein until their report 
was handed in. He, for one, was determined not to die until this 
duty should have been accomplished. The enemy were then in 
hot pursuit of the four cavalry-men and chased them for quite 5 
kilometres, when the Japanese gave them the slip. Sergeant 
Ogawa was now suffering almost mortal agony and could hadly 
keep in the saddle, yet bravely pressed on. At last, after a; 
long and most painful ride, the four men regained their Company, 
and Sergeant Ogawa, standing erect, minutely reported all that 
had occurred or had been seen. One seeing that his Captain 
fully understood what had been said, the dying man smiled and 
gasped out, " I have done my duty." These were his last words. 
It is astonishing to learn that he had ridden fully 26 kilometres 
after receiving his mortal wound. Nothing but the most unbend- 
ing and determined will kept him alive until he had accomplished 
his duty. 


Haibara. Kaoeu, a private of the second-class in the Twelfth 
Company, First Regiment, acted as a despatch-bearer during the 
battle of Kaiping. When this Company crossed the frozen 
Kaichow they were subjected for a time to so fierce a fire that 
they were obliged to come to a halt. His rifle slung on his back, 
Haibara paid no heed to the bullets of the enemy, though they 
buzzed all about him, and passed unconcernedly through the line 

TAPIN0-8HAN. 349 

of battle in order to deliver a message. The strap of Ms gim was 
shot away while he marched on, but he received no injury and at 
last had the satisfaction of doing as he had been ordered. 

Later on he was, at the attack on West Shihli-kow, fighting 
most gallantly under Lieutenant Odagiri Seijun. He was par- 
ticularly exposed to an incessant fire, the enemy using smokeless 
powder, from a large and strongly built house in the village ; the 
building being well-defended and half-hidden in the deep snow. 
At this point many Japanese were killed or wounded. "When at 
a distance of 400 metres from the enemy, a bullet struck his 
head, grazing but not fracturing the skull. Badly as the wound 
bled and painful though it must have been, Haibara kept on 
fighting till he could fight no more, and was borne on a stretcher 
to the rear. During the contest he had never once assumed a 
recumbent position like the rest, but had fired kneeling or on his 

5. — A seegeant's peesence of mind. 

When, at 7 a. m. of February 24th, the Second Begiment 
advanced to the attack of the southern part of Taping-shan, the 
enemy in the villages west of the mountain-base were strongly 
entrenched and defended. A line of skirmishers was thrown out, 
and the men began fighting severely with the foe; while the 
Eighth Company of this Begiment advanced at a distance of 
about 300 metres behind the foremost line of battle. An order to 
this effect being given, the Company wheeled and, passing to the 
left of the skirmishers, made for the western end of the village, 
where was the enemy's Bight Wing. Before advancing far they 
were subjected to a fierce cross-fire. The ground here was most 
disadvantageous for the Japanese, being a dead level without any 
shelter whatever. Moreover the snow was so deep that any 
advance was attended with great difiiculty. There was only one 
thing to do : charge the enemy at double-quick ; for any loitering 
meant that the losses in the ranks would be very great. So the 
Japanese charged on, at an accelerated pace, the enemy's fire 


redoubling in intensity as they came on. The roar of the firing 
was so tremendous that all orders became inaudible. Nagara 
Tamekichi, a First-class Sergeant and then engaged on special 
duty, was sent by his Captain to with an urgent message to the 
commander of a Sub-company a little to the rear. As he hastened 
along he shouted out words of encouragement to his sorely-tried 
comrades, and finally delivered his message. On the way back 
a bullet transfixed his breast, the wotind being of course a fatal 
one. With unmoved countenance he sank to his knees and after 
three great shouts of "Teikohu Banzai! "* rolled over dead. 

' " Long live tlio Empiio ! ' 




At 7. 30 a. m. of February 15tli the Twelfth Company of the 
Eleventh Eegiment set out from Shanlu-kau-ling, and, advancing 
towards Kwanten-shwen, proceeded to reconnoitre the condition 
of the enemy. After a toilsome and chilly march of 14 miles 
through the deep snow-drifts, they reached Santao-kau, where 
they halted for the night. The next day at the same hour camp 
was broken, and the Eegiment had advanced to about 1500 
metres south-west of Kwanten-shwen when, at 4.02 p. m., the 
sound of a heavy fusillade was heard westwards of the village. 
Special Sergeant Nakatsu was then ordered to reconnoitre, and, 
taking two small bodies of foot-soldiers with him, he went along 
the brow of a hill towards the western gate of Kwanten-shwen. 
Nakatsu and his men did all they could to discover the where- 
abouts and intentions of the enemy, and in the meantime the 
Cavalry composing the Advance Column found that the Chinese 
had actually been in the castle. At 4.20 p. m. the Japanese horse 
were sighted and fired upon by the enemy, and, 5 minutes later, 
Lieutenant Kutsunoya, with his two detachments, made a charge 
with fixed bayonets and entered the bourg from the southern gate. 
The enemy retreated in disorder and fled to the north-west. 
Placing one detachment on guard at the captured gate, the 
Lieutenant ordered the other to charge through the streets in 
search of any lingering foes. At 4.40 p. m. Lieutenant Kimata, 
also with two detachments, took the western gate and the men 
then advanced into the town. Ten minutes or thereabouts before 


tMs, desultory firing had been heard toward the rear of the 
Japanese forces. To ascertain the reason of this, one detachment 
was sent in the indicated direction. They found that about 80 
Chinese had attacked the Japanese train, which was guarded by 
Sergeant Kishi and six privates. The little reinforcement soon 
drove the enemy off, and shortly afterwards re-entered the bourg 
through the southern gate, which was then guarded or rather 
held by Lieutenant Kutsunoya with his Sub-company. At 4.45 p. 
m. Special Sergeant Nakatsu returned with the news that about 
300 Chinese soldiers were ensconced in a place some 1200 metres 
west of Kwanten-shwen, and it was resolved to beat them back. 
Shortly before half-past five a mob of 200 Chinese foot came 
around to the Japanese rear. Deploying in a village 800 metres 
south of the bourg, they advanced, slowly in open order. At the 
same moment, on an elevated piece of ground south-west of the 
castle, about 400 Chinese were seen approaching in two columns, 
and, as they did so, the enemy directly in front of the Japanese 
forces approached to within 1500 metres. 

The Company thereupon resolved to press against the Chinese 
Eright Wing and then to withdraw to Shin-ling, south-wards. To 
this intent the Company subalterns rallied the men at the various 
gates, while Lieutenant Kutsunoya drew up his Sub-company on the 
wall by the south gate. As the enemy marched on the Japanese 
fired never a shot, though the Chinese kept shooting irregularly. 
But when the attacking forces were no more than 400 metres off, 
Kutsunoya's men opened a fierce and well-sustained fire, which 
not only made the enemy waver but even caused them to retreat 
to a forest in the rear. And as Kutsunoya's Sub-company began 
their so effective volleys, Lieutenant Kimata dashed forward with 
his men into the plain and spread out in open order before the 
south gate, at the same time firing rapidly and thus acting as a 
cover for another detachment now pouring out through the gate. 
None the less did the Chinese keep up a rapid and well-directed 
fire, the bullets falling among the Japanese ranks in a continual 
shower. Moreover the drifted snow was fully two feet deep, 
rendering all swift evolutions very difficult if not quite impos- 
sible. A Sub-company under Lieutenant Tasaka, under cover of 
the fire of Kimata's command, now moved forward and deployed 


' towards the left of the Kimata Sub-company. Kutsunoya's men 
also dashed forwards and, occupying a building standing some 
what apart, on the left, served as a shield to the Japanese Eight 
Wing, which now withdrew. After this each Sub-company 
successively took up their station in this building and did their 
best to discomfit the Chinese. But the latter, at a distance of 
not more than 300 metres, responded readily to the heavy fire, 
for once being quite secure of keeping their ground. Moreover 
the enemy on the hill above referred to had not only been keeping 
up a brisk fire but had also got much closer to the Japanese lines, 
until finally they were not more than 500 metres off. The Ja- 
panese fire was, however, so well-directed and so galling that it 
caused the Chinese Bight to waver ; and taking advantage of this 
moment the Company began to retreat along the Shin-ling road. 
Evening now setting in, the Japanese were enabled to avoid a 
collision with any other foes, and reached Shin-ling at 9.30 
p. m., where a part of the Tenth Company had already succeeded 
in establishing communication with the Main Body. Collecting 
the scattered men, the little handful of Japanese continued to fall 
back, — the Chinese fire and pursuit not being over-heavy — and 
finally succeeded in reaching Changten-ching at 1 p. m. of the 27th. 
The above battle — for it is quite worthy of this name — was 
fought after the Japanese had made a most difficult and toilsome 
march through the deep snow. Moreover the cold was intense 
throughout, acting as an efficient aid to the assaulting Chinese. 
The Japanese losses were, after all, only 32 in killed and wound- 
ed. The enemy were quite 1000 strong, whereas the Japanese 
had only 156 men in the field, including the commanders of the 


1. — A soldiee's devotion. 

While the scouts were fighting fiercely with the enemy, 
Koga Hikoshiro, a second-class private, acted as orderly to Sub- 


Lieutenant Tasaka Kaya. As the men slowly retreated, fighting as 
they fell back, the young officer received a severe bullet-wound. 
Some of the soldiers at once sprang to his side and begged to 
help him to the rear ; but knowing that he would never be able to 
get there, the Sub-Lieutenant decided to commit suicide in order 
to avoid falling while still living into the merciless hands of the 
Chinese. To this, however, the soldiers would by no means 
consent, Koga, in particular, out of his great love for his officer, 
positively refusing to let the deed be done. Starting up, Koga 
went alone in order to seek for his Commander. The night was 
dark and Koga soon lost his way, yet kept on till he reached the 
base of the Shin-ling hill. There he met with the commanding 
officer he sought, and learned that the Sub-Lieutenant had been 
brought back to the rear by Private Osu Kajumaru. On this 
Koga set off once again for Kwanten-shwen, hoping to see the 
young officer once more. On his way back he met with scattered 
bands of soldiers, whom he questioned as to the whereabouts of 
the Sub-Lieutenant. After marching through the dark for about 
three li, he was still unable to find his beloved officer. Pressing 
on, though well-nigh exhausted, he came to the place where the 
Sub-Lieutenant had been wounded. Here he saw many Chinese 
horsemen, riding to and fro with lighted torches in their hands. 
They were evidently on the lookout for any Japanese wounded. 
Not at all intimidated by this but in despair at not finding the 
object of his search, Koga went back, yet not until he had picked 
up four rifles and one sword from among the Japanese dead. 
These weapons he brought back with him. 


DuEiNG the reconnaissance of Kwanten-shwen by the Twelfth 
Company, a fresh body of Chinese was at one time encountered. 
These at once went around the Japanese, and the two parties 
began fighting with great fury. In this contest, which was ex- 
ceptionally bitter, First-class Sergeant Serikawa Kunihiko led 
his men on with the utmost skill, his command evincing great 


eagerness to get at close quarters with the foe. Afterwards, when 
the Japanese met their impetuous charge from the south gate of 
Kwanten-shwen and pressed on the Chinese Bight Wing, the 
enemy's bullets fell among the ranks like rain, inflicting much 
damage. Sergeant Serikawa was shot in the breast, and fell with 
a cry of "I regret this!" The wound was a mortal one and 
caused him fearful pain ; yet in a little while he raised his head 
and was heard to say faintly, — the more echo of a cheer — " His 
Imperial Majesty live forever ! " After he had uttered these words, 
he closed his eyes and slept. 




On March 4th, 1895, was fought the greatest battle of the 
war after Phyongyang. Kwangwasae was fully as fiercely contend- 
ed, the fighting at Taiping-shan as sanguinary ; yet at Newchwang 
the number of the combatants was very large, and both sides 
fought with embittered fury. This was the last great conflict in 

The distribution of the Eirst Expeditionary Army — the Third 

and Fifth Divisions being here 
engaged — w-as simple. The idea 
was that the castle should be as- 
saulted simultaneously on the 
north-west and north-east. To 
that end the command of the 
Fifth Division was, on Feb. 17th, 
removed from Kiulien-ching to 
Funghwang-ching. On February 
23rd all the forces left Fung- 
hwang-ching and Suiyen. Lieut.- 
General Oku Tasukata, command- 
ing the Fifth Division, collected 
his troops at Hwanghwa-ten. At 
1 a. m. of Feb. 24th the Division 
set out from this place, marching 
westwards ; the Advance Column 
being composed of two Battalions of Infantry from the 21st. 

Libtjt.-Geneeal Oku. 


Eegiment, and one Battalion of Artillery. This Column was led 
by Colonel Taketa Shuzan. On reaching Lungtao-sai the fore- 
most Battalion of Cavalry came into collision with the enemy, but 
soon defeated them and rode on to Sanchia-tse, while the re- 
mainder of the Division encamped that night at the village in 
which the enemy had been encountered. The next day, February 
25th, the Semba Battalion (under Major Semba Namitaro), which 
had hitherto kept in the rear, took the place of the Advance 
Column. They met with some small bodies of Chinese at Motien- 
ling, and these they soon defeated and dispersed. The follow- 
ing day the van once again encountered with the enemy in the 
neighbourhood of Panchia-paotse, with the usual result. The 
BattaUon of Cavalry and the Advance Guard stopped that night at 
Shinlo-kau, while the other troops stayed at Liutse-ku and Heiku 
on the Tomuh-ching road. On February 27 the Advance Column 
passed through Chihtung-ku, in front of which village outposts 
were placed. The Division encamped that night at Peisai-ling 
and Chihtung-ku. February 28th, the Division and Advance 
Column both bivouacked at Chingchang-li. On March 1st, at 
7.30 a. m., the Advance Column left Chingehang-li and, after 
passing through Pahoi-sai, met and defeated a body of Chinese 
soldiers. That day Shiashih-chao-tse was made. An order was 
received on March 2nd to the effect that, as the Third Division, 
which had been staying at Haiching, had been ordered to act as 
the Second Column and was intending to attack the enemy at 
Anshan-tan on that day, the Fifth Division should act as the 
first or foremost Column and also march towards Anshan-tan. 
This is a large village between Haiching and Liaoyang, the centre 
of the Chinese forces coming from Liaoyang. But before the 
Japanese could reach the village, it was evacuated by the enemy. 
That night the Divisional Staff Quarters were established at 
Tangkau-tse, and the Fifth Division also lodged near the village. 
Suddenly, at midnight, an order came to the effect that the 
First Army should break camp at dawn and march on New- 
chwang. This was done ; while the Third Division, which had 
arrived at Chan-chun-tun by way of Anshan-tan, passed through 
and similarly advanced towards Newchwang. The Fifth Division 
inarched along to the left ; its Advance Column was composed of 


the First and Third Battalions, 21st Eegiment, one Sub-company 
of Cavalry and one Company of Mountain Artillery : the whole 
being under the command of Major-General Oshima Yoshimasa. 
One Independent Battalion of Cavalry went ahead, being charged 
with the duty of reconnoitring the road to be followed. The Main 
Body of the Division was made up of the First and Second 
Battalions of the 22nd Eegiment ; the Second Battalion of the 
21st Eegiment ; the First Battalion of the 11th Eegiment ; one 
Battalion of Mountain Artillery ; one Company of Field Artillery; 
and one Company of Engineers : Lieut. -General Oku Yasukata in 
command. At 7 a. m. the Main Body broke camp, reaching 
Tsaichia-chwan, 6 miles from Newchwang, that night. 

The Third Division, or other half of the First Army, which 
had had little to do since the capture of Haiching on December 
13th, left its quarters on February 27th. Some few days before 
this date, Lieut.-General Katsuro Taro, Commander of this 
Division, had had a meeting with the Commander-in-chief, 
Lieut.-General Nozu, and Lieut.-General Oku. The Commander- 
in-chief was now at Haiching. In order to attack the enemy, 
who were at a place between the Liaoyang and Kaiping highway, 
Lieut.-General Katsura submitted the following scheme : — To 
storm the village called Shaho-yen, midway between the New- 
chwang and Liaoyang roads, thus cutting the enemy's forces into 
two bodies. In order to carry out this idea, which was adopted 
as excellent, the majority of the Division was made the principal 
body for the attack, while Major Okamoto Tadayoshi, Commander 
of the First Battalion, Sixth Eegiment, with one Company of 
Artillery, was selected to lead the Shuichia-yuen branch. His 
duty was to cover the road pursued by the Main Body. The Third 
Eegiment, with one Sub-company of Cavalry and a Company of 
Field- Artillery, belonging to the First Division, was ordered to 
leave two mountain-guns at Haiching and guard the town from 
Tangwang-shan, Liangchia-shan, and the Yingkow and New- 
chwang Eoads. 

From statements made by prisoners it was learned that the 
enemy were fully 40,000 strong, and that their line extended 
from the Liaoyang road east to the Yingkow highway west, and 
up to the immediate vicinity of Newchwang — the whole line being 


above 6 miles in length. At 3 a. m. of February 28th, the Naito 
Battalion attacked the high ground known as Sietoh-slian, about 
3000 metres to the north-east of Hwangshih-shau. The enemy 
here defended themselves stoutly, yet the Japanese, without firing 
a shot, took possession of the place, thanks to a fierce and most 
effective bayonet charge. Major-General Oshima's attack on 
Shaho-yen was greatly facilitated hereby. Lieut.-General Katsura, 
on the summit of Hwaiigshih-shan, had a clear view of what was 
going on and thence issued his orders. 

At 4.20 a. m. Major-General Oshima Hisanao had set out 
with the Sixth Brigade and a Battalion of Field Artillery. Mar- 
ching towards Shaho-yen, he encountered the first Chinese about 
40 minutes after starting. They fired at the Japanese flank, from 
the village of Ta Shaho-yen, to which attack the Japanese prompt- 
ly replied. A little later on the eastern sky grew bright and the 
marching became correspondingly easier. The Company of 
Mountain Artillery, under Major Naito Shinichiro, which had 
been on the Japanese Eight, took up a position on Sietoh-shan, 
and there awaited the break of day. Now the time had come for 
action, and the cannon began to pour their deadly messengers 
into the ranks of the enemy at East Shaho-yen. Major-General 
Osako Naotoshi, the Brigade Commander, left Haiching through 
the west gate at 4 a. m., and reached Chao-chiin-ohang without 
mishap. Passing on through Yienchui-chan the brigade arrived 
at a place south of both Ta Shaho-yen and Siao Shaho-yen.* The 
enemy fired at the Japanese, from behind fences and palisades in 
the two villages, but without eliciting any response from the in- 
vaders. The Field Artillery now came up, yet before the cannon 
opened fire the enemy, evidently believing discretion the better 
part of valour and having learned to appreciate the Japanese 
shrapnel at its full value, hastily evacuated the villages and fled 
north-east and north-west. Lieut.-General Katsura, seeing that 
all had been successfully accomplished now descended from 
Hwangshih-shan, and proceeded northwards to Yienchiuchan, 
where the reserve Eegiment of Artillery and the Battalion of 
Engineers had already arrived. The enemy at Shaho-yen having 
thus been effectually repulsed, Major-General Osako was ordered 
* Literally " Greater Shaho-yen " and ■' Lesser Shaho-yen." 


to press on to Tafu-tun, the Division Commander sending botli 
the Field and the Eeserve Artillery to his aid. The Second 
Battalion, 18th Eegiment, commanded by Colonel Sato, which 
formed, as already stated, the Main Body of the Division, took the 
same direction, the Sixth Eegiment following. The detachment 
under Major-General Oshima Hisanao thereupon defeated the 
enemy at Peimiao-tse, and then captured Changhotai, to the 
north of the former place. Following np their advantage, the 
troops occupied the elevated ground to the east of the villages 
about North Changho-tai. Lieut.-General Katsura, who was at 
Changho-tai, now received word from Major-General Osako that 
Tafu-tun had been captured. In consequence of this intelligence, 
Major-General Oshima was ordered to capture East and West 
Yientai, on the Liaoyang liighway. Meanwhile Division Com- 
mander Katsura, after passing through Shaho-yen and by Sietoh- 
shan, reached Wutao-hotse, where he and his men made a brief 
halt. Then another report came in that the troops under Major- 
General Oshima Hisanao had taken both East and West Yientai. 
At dusk therefore the Division marched to Toho-paotse and West 
Yientai, where camp was made. The local Chief Command of the 
Army and Third Division was then removed to West Endai. The 
Advance Column under Major-General Oshima Hisanao stopped 
that night at the same village, while the Osako Brigade bivouack- 
ed at Wuchia-hotse. 

At 6 a. m. of March 1st, Lieut.-General Katsura set out to 
get more accurate information concerning the enemy's disposition. 
A very heavy snow was falling, yet despite the fury of the storm 
Lieut.-General Katsura went on to East Yientai, where he met 
with Major-General Oshima. A little while later the latter de- 
parted for Kanshien-pao. On getting within 1000 metres of a 
village somewhat farther on, the party fell in with a mob of the 
enemy and a brief but hot fight ensued. Major Naito's Battalion 
swung around so as to get at the enemy's left, while the Hayashi 
Battalion made another flank attack on the Chinese in Kanshien- 
pao, and before long the hostile troops were in full retreat, making 
directly for Anshan-tan. Lieut.-General Katsura then moved on 
to the north end of Kanshien-pao, keeping a sharp look-out for 
any signs of the foe. But the Chinese, having ranged a number 


of cannon on Tehsie-shan and Laoho-shan, intended luring the 
invaders on to Chungsong-tun and Tangkau-tse, where they 
hoped to annihilate them. The Advance Column proceeded as far 
as Shintai-tse ; the rest of the Division however, could press no 
farther on, the firing there being exceptionally heavy. The Ohara 
Battalion was thereupon entrusted with the placing of outposts, the 
other bodies bivouacking at Tangho-tse with the exception of the 
Osako Brigade, which pushed on to Haoliu-hotse and To-cheong- 
tse, intending to reconnoitre in the vicinity of Kwanfuen-chi and 
Pulai-tun. The Main Division bivouacked at Kanshien-pao in 
order to send on warning, when necessary, to Kwanfuen-chi and 

At 7 a. m. of March 2nd Lieut. -General Katsura broke camp. 
Shortly after setting out, the Commander received the intelli- 
gence that the enemy had evacuated Laoho-shan and Tehsie-shan 
over night. During the forenoon the Advance Column passed 
through Anshan-tan and marched on without stopping, no signs 
of the enemy being visible. The Osako Brigade, on the left, 
reached Shiacheong-tun without meeting with any resistance. 
Evidently the Chinese troops had fallen back on Newchwang. 
The Third Battalion of the 19th Regiment, which had separated 
from the Main Body at Kanshien-pao, desired to occupy the 
elevated ground north of Kwanfuen-chi, and at 7.30 a. m. passed 
by the centre of the Osako Brigade and the Main Body. No 
enemy were to be seen. On this day, while the Main Body was 
marching from Shintai-tse to Tangkao-tse, they fell in with some 
officers of the Fifth Division, communication being thus establi- 
shed between the Third and Fifth Divisions. The 7th Eegiment 
now halted ; yet only the Staff of the Division entered Anshan-tan^ 
the Advance Column, under Major-General Oshima Hisanao, 
going to a village some two miles farther off. This Anshan-tan is 
a village of some importance on the Liaoyang highway, surround- 
ed by hills on the east and west. The space between the hills is only 
about 300-400 metres broad, and in this valley is the castle or bourg 
defending the village, the walls of the bourg being 7 metres in height. 
The original plan had been to carry the village — or rather town 
- — by the united force of the Third and Fifth Divisions ; but the 
enemy evacuating the place without resistance, the Third Division 


occupied it at noon of this day (Marcli 2nd). The Fifth Division 
soon reached Tangkau-tse, while the Third Division encamped at 
Changchwen-tun, a village on the Newchwang road running 
through Pulai-tun. The Staff Head Quarters were temporarily 
established at Tangkau-tse. Lieut.-General Nozu, Commander- 
in-chief, intended having the Third Division pass through Ken- 
chwang-tse, while the Fifth Division .should go by Pehlung-sai : 
both thus marching westwards simultaneously, so that the attack 
on Newchwang might be made on March 4th. The ordre du jour 
was thereupon changed:— The detachment under Major-General 
Osako, which had reached Chingchia-tai and had acted as the 
Left Flank Column, was sent on to Kucheong-tse, as the Advance 
Column; while Major-General Oshima's troops made the Main 
Body of the Division. The Hayashi Battalion became the Bight 
Flank, marching together with the Fifth Division — the Tominaga 
Battalion of the 7th Regiment was made the Anshan-tan Column — 
the Ohara Battalion (19th Regiment) formed the Zo-shan-tse 
Column. The last two Battalions were specially instructed to 
watch the roads and approaches to Liaoyang. At 7 a. m. of 
March 3rd the Main Body left Changchwen-tun, reaching Ken- 
chwang-tse in the afternoon. Here a halt was made and a brief 
rest taken, preparatory to the next day's attack on Newchwang. 

Though styled Newchwang-ching, the last syllable being 
applied to castle or walled towns only, this city has no outer 
massive walls. In the absence of these there were ramparts or 
breast-works around the principal buildings and gate-ways. Par- 
ticularly at the entrance to the city, walls 30 centimetres thick had 
been built. These formed the first line of defence. The larger 
buildings were turned into small fortresses, loop-holes having been 
made in the brick walls, and gatlings placed at the corners. The 
number of the enemy in and about the city had been reported to 
be very large ; in reality however there were not more than 10,000: — 
about 5000 soldiers commanded hy General Li Kwang-chu; 3000 
under Wei Kwang-tao ; and above 2000 under a certain Commander 
Yo. This may be variously accounted for. A good many had pro- 
bably retreated as far as Yingkow, unwilling to stand the brunt of the 
Japanese attack ; or they may have intended to attempt once more 
the re-capture of Haiching, possibly believing that the Japanese 


garrison had withdrawn and gone towards Liaoyang. At all 
events these 10,000 men formed the whole defence. 

March 4th, the eventful day, dawned. Lieut. -General Nozu 
had concluded to send the Third Division along the road to the 
north of the Newchang highway, so as to reach the north-western 
portion of the city; while the Fifth Division was to begin the assault 
from the north-east. The Advance Column of the Fifth Division re- 
mained unchanged, but the Yamaguchi Battalion — from the Main 
Body — became the Left Flank, together with one Sub-company 
of Cavalry and one Company of Artillery. Making a detour, they 
marched toward the Yingkow road, along which it was expect- 
ed the enemy would attempt to retreat. Lieut.-General Oku, 
commanding the Fifth Division, advanced from the western 
end of Tsefang-tun, as did Major-General Oshima Yoshimasa, with 
the Advance Column : both intending to make a front attack. 
A Battery of Mountain Artillery took up a position at the 
north-west end of Tsefang, whence they fired at the concave, 
portion of the Chinese defences, which here formed an arc. The 
troops in the van advanced to protect the Artillery, the Bat- 
talion under Major Okuyama Yoshiaki taking the foremost 
line. For 800 metres in front of Tsefang-tun there was an open 
plain, without any shelter whatever. This the enemy had 
taken advantage of, throwing up earthworks in various places, 
loop-holes being further made in all the redoubts so that the 
defenders might fight under cover. From these earth-works and 
the above mentioned concave point, the Chinese now began to 
fire, using their excellent quick-firing guns. Instead of continuing 
the artillery duel the Japanese at once made a charge, the foremost 
columns being closely followed by the Battalion under Major Mori 
Gikei. Major-General Oshima Yoshimasa, Colonel Taketa 
Shuzan and other officers of rank did everything to stimulate the 
ardor of the troops, riding rapidly from one place to another 
despite the fierce rain of bullets. Other batteries of Mountain 
and Field Artillery now reached Tsefang-tun, on the south- 
western outskirts of which village the guns were speedily ranged. 
Major Watanabe Jutsu's Battalion, a Company of Engineers under 
Captain Taketa and the Battalion commanded by Major Semba 
Taro — these forming the whole reserve forces of the Division — 


advanced to the western end of Tsefang-tun. The battle gra- 
dually grew hotter and more fiercely contested, the last-arrived 
troops on the Japanese side pressing to the fore and thus relieving 
those who had made the first charge. Turning to the right, there 
was Lieut. -Colonel Tomioka Sanzo, with the Battalion which had 
been under Major Imada Tadaichi's command, starting out 
from Tsefang-tun, intending to press on to the Mutoh Bridge 
in the Newchwang suburbs. The troops marched through the 
hail of deadly missiles, the Lieut.-Colonel doing all he could to 
urge the men on; and on arriving at the Mutoh Bridge the 
Battalion at once joined hands with the other forces there and 
steadily drew nearer the enemy's double line of breastworks and 
the gates of the city. The Main Body of the Division now got 
well within the outlying houses, and occupied a large building 
that had been fortified by the Chinese, making this the temporary 
Staff Quarters. 

After tw;o hours of the most fierce and incessant fighting, the 
Battalions commanded by Major Okuda Toshi-aki and Major 
Imada captured the enemy's first line of defence, at the eastern 
end of the town. The enemy hidden within the fortified buildings 
were, however, by no means defeated yet, keeping up a most 
obstinate resistance. They fired from loop-holes and coigns of 
vantage at the completely exposed Japanese, thereby causing 
numerous deaths or inflicting severe wounds. Charge after charge 
was made through the streets, the houses falling one after another 
into the Japanese hands. Some soldiers hidden in a liquor-store east 
of the Taping Bridge and near the city gates, were exceedingly stub- 
born in their defence, fighting with really desperate valour. A 
charge here would have been accompanied with too great a loss of 
life ; so Lieut. -General Oku ordered the attacking troops to cease 
firing, while the Engineers under Major Baba Masao proceeded to 
break the walls down. Major Baba ordered Captain Taketa, of 
the First Company, to take 15 kilograms of dynamite and a 
quantity of gun-cotton and therewith destroy the first wall. 
This was gallantly and quickly done, two breaches being made, 
the one 1.5 metres broad at the base, the other 3 metres wide at 
the top. The successful Engineers now pushed through this 
breach to the second wall, at the base of which they exploded 25 


kilograms of dynamite, this time making a very much larger hole. 
Again passing through, the Engineers placed 40 kilograms of 
gun-cotton at the base of one of the large out-lying buildings — 
temporarily serving as a fortress — -when the enemy, recognizing 
that further resistance would be of no avail, hung out a white 
flag in token of surrender. Two hundred and ten Chinese soldiers 
then came forward and surrendered unconditionally. A little far- 
ther on the enemy in a large wine-store, which had walls of double 
thickness, still kept up their hopeless defence. Paying no heed 
to this, three bodies of Japanese Infantry — from the 18th, 21st, and 
22nd Regiments — now entered the city through the breaches made 
by the Engineers. Many prisoners were taken, particularly by 
the Third and Fourth Companies of the 22nd Eegiment. Half of 
a battalion belonging to the same Eegiment stopped at the Mutoh 
Bridge, the men fighting with the enemy defending the city-gate 
in that direction. This conflict continued until night fell. The 
line of outposts or pickets stretched along the left bank of the 
river, while the 21st Eegiment patrolled the space between the 
Taping Bridge on the right and the Mutoh Bridge on the left ; the 
22nd Eegiment keeping guard between the Mutoh and the 
Liutun bridges. 

The intention of the Third Division had been, it will be remem- 
bered, to besiege the city from the north-west. Colonel Sato's Ee- 
giment, which had that day marched north-wards as the Advance 
Column of the Division, was taken command of by Major-General 
Osako Naotoshi. Setting out from Kucheong-tse at 7 a. m., they 
went on to Shin-chia-wo-fang, acting as cover to the Main Body 
of the Division. Lieut.-General Katsura then gave minute orders 
as to the manner of attack : the Osako Brigade to go around to 
northern part of the town, while the Oshima Brigade should begin 
operations from the west. It was just 10 a. m. when Major- 
General Osako sent Colonel Sato to advance against the northern 
portion of the town. Taking two Battalions with him, the Colonel 
set off at once. The Artillery under Colonel Shibano ranged their 
guns at a place about 200 metres in front of Shin-chia-wo-fang, 
whence they opened fire in order to cover the advance of Colonel 
Sato's contingent. The latter marched rapidly, firing as they 
advanced, until only 800 metres separated them from the enemy, 


wlao made no reply, having evidently taking a leaf out of the 
book of Japanese tactics. On getting within 200 metres, the 
enemy suddenly opened fire with their small arms. The Chinese 
were concealed behind the strong walls of the houses thereabouts 
and had evidently made up their minds to defend the place for 
all they were worth ; but their fire was scattering and not effec- 
tive, the Japanese advancing rather more rapidly than before in 
the teeth of the iron storm. A Battalion under Major Ishida 
now came up as a reinforcement, having been sent hither by 
Major-General Osako, who thought the van was having far too 
hot a time of it. The was the Reserve Battalion of the Brigade. 
At this moment Colonel Sato had ordered his men to fix bayonets 
and charge. Catchiag sight of the reinforcement, the men dashed 
forward with renewed vigour, running in between the walls of the 
fortified dwellings and crossing bayonets, with the defenders. 
The Chinese could not stand much of this and so began sullenly to 
retreat, followed closely by the besieging troops who forced or 
fought their way from street to street. 

Major-General Oshima Hisanao, leading the Eegiment of 
Colonel Miyoshi Nariyuki,- — with Major Naito's Battalion on the 
right and that of Major Suzuki Tsunetake on the left — made a 
detour from the vicinity of Siao-niang-miao, in order to get at the 
only road left along which the enemy might hope to retreat. The 
order being to attack from the south-west, they approached the 
city from this direction. The enemy in the farm-houses in the 
suburbs fired on the steadily advancing troops, but soon after 
began to retreat in a south-westerly direction. Colonel Miyoshi, 
noticing this, at once commanded his Eegiment to march towards 
and occupy a row of strongly-built and large houses in the north- 
west portion of the city ; while the Battalion under Major Naito 
gave chase to the fieeing Chinese and marched at full speed 
southwards. Major Suzuki's Battalion in the meantime made a 
telling charge on the north-west side. With Major Hayashi 
Taichiro's Battalion, Major-General Oshima Hisanao followed the 
first line of battle, and then, making a long detour to the north-west, 
reached the south-west side of the city. A little before this Major- 
General Oshima's immediate troops had entered the town with 
fixed bayonets, simultaneously with the men on the northern side. 


A part of these troops had turned back and again gone northwards; 
but the other — the Naito Battalion — forced their way deeper into 
the town. Joining with the men going southward, they en- 
countered a body of the enemy, who were completely defeated by 
the soldiers of the First Company. In fighting through the 
streets a large number of Chinese soldiers was discovered con- 
cealed in a strong and big building, all the approaches to which 
had been shut and barricaded, except one on the north-west side. 
Sonie troops from Colonel Sato's Eegiment attacked the building 
from this quarter, while others belonging to the Tomioka Eegi- 
ment besieged the place from the north-east, yet without getting 
very near, it being found that the enemy had no hope of escape in 
that direction. Colonel Miyoshi thereupon ordered the Naito 
Battalion to storm the building from the south-east, breaking 
down the gate there. The gate was however very strongly made and 
most ably defended, for the Chinese fought with the energy born 
of utter despair. A fire now broke out on the west side, followed 
by another near the Naito Battalion. The Japanese instantly dart- 
ed forward and clambered over the outer wall — for there were two 
strong walls of defence about the great building. The enemy 
inside the second wall however still continued their resistance. 
But the fire that had broken out was steadily increasing in volume, 
and its terrible effects were emphasized by shells thrown into the 
building from two mountain guns which had been hastily up. 
The fire reached the powder-magazine, which blew up with 
terrific violence, and then and not till then did the truly heroic 
defenders open the great north-western gate in order to let their 
messengers go forth and sue for peace. It was just 10 o'clock at 
night. During the course of the night the Division which had 
started from the camp in the north, entered the city. The Osako 
Brigade bivouacked in the open space north of the city, while the 
Oshima Brigade did the same at the south. Some men from the 
latter Brigade were sent along the highway leading to Tien- 
chwangtai and Yingkow, to the south ; while a detachment of the 
Osako Brigade went northwards. The causalties on the Japanese 
side were, as might be expected from the desperate nature of the 
defence, very heavy, there being no less than 242 killed and 
wounded. The Chiaese losses were, as nearly as could be 


ascertained, 1884 in all. Seven hundred prisoners were taken, 
while among the spoils were 2138 rifles; 1,518,000 rounds of 
ammunition ; 21 field and mountain guns ; 216 banners and flags ; 
42 spears ; 1648 cases of powder ; 1120 koku of clean rice ; 150 
hoku of barley ; 110 Tcohu of millet* ; 89 tents ; 213 sycees of silver ; 
with numberless uniforms, fur-coats, etc., etc. The captured 
horses in especial were so numerous that they could have carried 
more than twice the baggage of the whole Army. 


FiEST-CLASS private Takase Tsunematsu, of the Seventh 
Begiment, was conspicuous for his bravery in the battle of New- 
chwang. Under Lieutenant Shishimichi Shozo he was, on 
February 4th, sent out to reconnoitre the disposition of the 
hostile forces in or about Tientai and Liuhotse. The detachment 
with which Takase was, occupied a hill close by West Tientai, and 
there kept up brisk fire on the enemy, who were not more than 600 
metres distant. On the latter's retreat, it was seen that a Chinese 
picket had been left behind and that he was trying to get into a 
little hollow lying about midway between the combatants. The 
order for the picket's capture being given, Takase ran out, regard- 
less of the hail of bullets about him, and took the man prisoner. 

During the fighting inside the town, Takase acted as a picket 
of the Shishimichi detachment. Here he met with a Chinese who 
had fallen behind his fugitive comrades and was making a very 
stout resistance. Takase gave chase, came up with and killed 
him after a long fight. On entering the town he had discovered 
a large building in which quite 300 of the enemy were concealed. 
On a breach being made in the wall by the Japanese gunners, 
Takase was the first to spring through and into the midst of the 
foe. His comrades were greatly excited by his gallantry, and 
promptly followed in his footsteps. 

* Talca-kiH in Japanese, or Kao-Uang in Chinese. 


2. — A RESCUE. 

It was on February 28tli, while the Third Division marched 
along the frozen roads to Newchwang. After the capture of 
Ohao-che-tai, one Company, in attempting to get around the 
rear of the Column's flank, was suddenly exposed to a heavy fire 
from the enemy. Oiie of the soldiers fell, having received a 
wound in the foot. After going on a little further the wounded 
man was missed, on which the Captain called out for volunteers 
to go back through the shower of bullets and save him. He had 
hardly spoken the words when first-class private Shidaka Bikichi 
and second-class reserve private Nogami Toyotaro sprang from 
the ranks and ran at full speed to where their comrade had fallen. 
Shidaka. picked up the fallen man's rifle and accoutrements, 
while Nogami raised him to his back. This done, the two men 
walked slowly back, all three reaching safety. 


Second-class reserve private Nakada Chonosuke, of the 
Eighth Company, Seventh Eegiment, was a participant in the 
fierce fight which ensued after the capture of Chao-che-tai 
During the engagement he was struck in the groin by a ball, 
which remained imbedded in his body. At first he told no one 
that he had been wounded, and continued to fight with great 
gallantry; but finally his weakness betrayed him and they 
attempted to carry him to the Mtai-jo, or place where the wounded 
were temporarily bandaged. Tet Nakada begged to be let stay, 
and did remain until the fight was over. Hereupon his Captain 
ordered that he should be carried to the rear, but Nakada stout- 
heartedly insisted that he could walk and needed no assistance. 
To reach the field-lazaret, fully 1000 metres in the rear, Nakada 
had to pass one place where the hostile bullets were still raining. 
To this he gave no concern whatever, and walked slowly the 
whole long distance, despite his necessarily great pain. He 


reached the lazaret in safety, and there received prompt and 
skilled medical treatment. 

4. — BOLD MEN. 

At the storming of Newchang, the Tenth Company of the 
18th Begiment forced their way, with fixed bayonets, to the 
northern extremity of the town. Lieutenant Kawaguohi Kinno- 
suke, with about 20 men, was leading at the time, the bulk of 
the Company being about 100 metres farther back. Suddenly 
they came upon a Chinese ambuscade, whence a fierce volley was 
fired, and 14 men dropped either killed or wounded, the Lieutenant 
himself being severely injured. Seeing his officer fall, Tachibana 
Minekichi, a second-class private, who had just succeeded in 
driving the Chinese back at the bayonet's point, came running up 
at full speed. At the imminent risk of his own life he raised the 

the Lieutenant to his back and bore him to safety. 

* * * 

* * 

Almost simultaneously with the above occurrence, second- 
class private Kikuma Umekichi, of the same Company, was 
struck in the back of his head by a fragment of a shell. He fell in 
great agony, but as he fell he called out to his Lieutenant, " Sir ! 
I have received an honourable wound. There are still some 
cartridges left in my ammunition-case. Please distribute them 

among my comrades." These were his last words. 

* * * 

* * 

While this Tenth Company was forcing its way through the 
streets, Suzuki Sampei, a second-class private, being then about 
50 metres distant from the nearest Chinese, received a bullet in 
his left shoulder. The shock made him reel, but he immediately 
cried out, in a loud, distinct voice, "I have been struck by a 
bullet, but I don't need anything done ! " So saying, he shouted 
encouragement to his comrades, who, rendering mutual assistance, 
pressed on with unabated ardor and soon dashed into the Chinese 
lines. It was not until after the battle was quite over that 
Suzuki had his rather severe wound bandaged. 



The Commander of tJie First Sub-company, Second Company 
of the 22nd Eegiment, was Lieutenant Tanabe Moricliika, and 
he had a great name for energy and pluck. If there was a fight on, 
he was sure to be well to the fore, and his men followed him with 
the devotion which such spirit never fails to inspire. At the 
outset, at Phyongyang, he showed of what stuff he was made, and 
in the many subsequent battles in which the Company took part 
Lieutenant Tanabe did great deeds. And now, when the Japanese 
forces were about to attack Newchwang, the Second Company was 
ordered to seize the villages and earth- works to the east of the 
town. The Company had already set out and Lieutenant Tanabe 
was, as always, well to the fore, when another order came to the 
effect that the young ofiicer and his men should join the Right 
"Wing of the First Company. This command was promptly obey- 
ed; the men wheeled, joined the Bight Wing, and, led by Lieut- 
enant Tanabe, were soon in the heart of the villages and in 
possession of all the forts. This measure prevented the Chinese 
from making any movement eastward. But the work was not 
yet over, for all the Chinese soldiers thereabouts had to be ac- 
counted for ; so, running along the main road, the Japanese chased 
those fugitives who were making for the camp in the town itself. 
After crossing the Mutoh Bridge — across which the highway ran 
— the First and Second Company men made a vigorous assault on 
the Chinese camp. Bullets were whizzing everywhere, and for a 
time the work was very hot. Lieutenant Tanabe fought like a 
lambent flame over the ground, his men following hard after their 
heroic leader. Getting finally within the precincts of the camp, 
the young officer captured a mountain-gun, cutting down those 
who endeavoured to oppose him. Unfortunately at this moment 
a bullet struck his head, inflicting a severe though not fatal 
wound. To this the Lieutenant paid no heed whatever, and con- 
tinued to fight most bravely until the battle was definitely over 
and Newchwang in the hands of the Japanese. 

No less brave was Lieutenant Nakaya Sokutetsu, in com- 
mand of the Second Sub-company of this same Company. Ever 


since landing in Korea lie had proved himself a man of mighty 
prowess. Among the soldiers he was a great favourite, and there 
was not one in his command but who would wilHngly have gone to 
the death for his sake. In the capture of Newchwang he was among 
the foremost from first to last, leading on his men with the utmost 
gallantry. In the taking of the eastern villages and forts he 
fought side by side with Lieutenant Tanabe, nor was he at all 
inferior to the latter. With Tanabe he crossed the bridge leading 
to the centre of the town and the Chinese camp, and in the fierce 
fighting thereupon ensuing he was very conspicuous. Like Tana- 
be he was, before long, struck by a bullet, the wound being of 
such a nature that he could no longer walk or stand erect. Yet 
even this failed to quench his dauntless spirit. Sitting cross-leg- 
ged on the bullet-swept field, he tried to stanch the blood while he 
continued to encourage his men and direct their efforts. When 
the battle had come to an end, it was found that his Sub-company 
had done marvels and succeeded in everything they had under- 
taken. — We have, from the beginning of this book, laid more 
stress on the deeds of common soldiers: for of an officer one 
naturally expects great things. But these two young Lieutenants 
were of too noted bravery to let pass unnoticed ; and so we here 
give this very hasty and inadequate record of their deeds. 


BuGLEE Moriwaki Eitaro was a private of the second-class in 
the Tenth Company of the 21st Eegiment of Infantry. Although 
ardently patriotic he had not been permitted to show to any great 
advantage, having been taken ill and thus debarred from fighting 
a few days before the great battle of Phyongyang. Yet he had 
kept up with the Begiment in its wanderings over the snowy 
Manchurian hills and, though weak, had always fought boldly. 
In the storming of Newchwang Moriwaki was found in the fore- 
most line of battle. Singing a war-song, he dashed on, cheering ' 
his comrades by word or deed. But in the charge he met his 
death, a bullet killing him instantly. It seems, strange to say, that 


Moriwaki had known he would meet his doom this day. The 
whole preceding night he had spent in writting a letter to his 
parents, at home. One of his comrades had expressed surprise at 
this and asked Moriwaki why he spent his hours of rest in this 
fashion. " What's the use of being in such a hurry with your 
home-letter?" said he; "there's no need for such haste: any 
other day will do as well." But Moriwaki quietly replied, with a 
mournful shake of his head : " No, I am of quite a different 
opinion. Our country has had many burdens to shoulder be- 
cause of this war. And I am a soldier, though of the lowest. 
This, I think, is honorable for me, as it is the duty of every 
patriot to fight for his country. Moreover, since I joined the 
Army last year, H. M. our Emperor has sent us frequent messages 
of encouragement and thanks, and shown himself ever mindful of 
our well-being. Being an ignorant man, I have not until this day 
been able to win any merit or show the depth of my feelings for 
our country. This has given me much anxiety. Now I feel 
quite sure that I am to die to-morrow, and, by my death, I hope 
to repay a small portion of the grateful debt we all owe His 
Majesty the Emperor. Therefore am I writing this letter to my 
parents. I am only taking farewell of the world. I have not yet 
shown myself a particularly filial son, or assisted my parents as I 
should. Yet, though I am to die in battle, fate is unavoidable, 
and then again it is for my country. So I have no regrets 
whatever. With regard to my parents and their love for me, they 
will not be, I trust, too greatly afHicted. And I am now offering 
my condolences on my own death and telling them that my mind 
is made up and that I shall die for my country." On hearing 
these wordSj the former speaker was abashed and had nothing 
to say in reply. And, as Moriwaki had foreseen, so it fell out ; 
for he was shot dead on the field of honour. 




Nothing, it seemed, could stop the victorious advance of the 
invading armies. Neither cold nor all the horrors of war could 
force back that iron line ; yet the Chinese, as has already been 
seen, again and again made desperate stands or tried to recover 
the lost ground. But Japanese pluck, Japanese determination, 
Japanese endurance were factors on which the most strategic of 
the Chinese generals had not reckoned. There was no pause at 
all ; one battle followed another in quick succession, without 
giving the enemy time to breathe. And herein lay one of the 
reasons of the continued success attending the Japanese arms. 
The First and Second Army Corps never permitted their opponents 
to rally their shattered forces : their prime object being to keep 
the Chinese constantly on the move and, as far as possible, in a 
disorganized and demorafized state. 

After the defeat inflected on the enemy in the neighbourhood 
of Taping-shan, on February 24th, the First Division rendered 
their position at Taping-shan and Tashih-kiao as strong as possi- 
ble, facing the enemy's posts and strongholds at Liaoyang-pu, 
Chian-chia-hwan, Yingkow and elsewhere. This was done in 
consequence of the agreement with the First Army to join arms at 
these places after the enemy should have been driven back from 
and defeated at Anshan-tan and Newchang, the united force of 
both bodies being necessary in order to cope successfully wiih the 
foe at Yingkow. 

Probably of all the Shinking cities, Yingkow is the most 
flourishing. It lies close to the River Liao, on the left bank of 

YIN GROW. 375 

that stream, and has a population of close upon 35,000 inhabitants. 
The occupation of such a place, therefore, meant much to both 
combatants. The only places thereabouts still in the hands of the 
Chinese were Liaoyeh-miao and Chian-ohia-hwan, and after their 
great discomfiture at Taping-shan the enemy kept quiescent. On 
March ith, however, a body of the enemy, about 2000 strong, sud" 
denly appeared about East and West Shihlikow, two hamlets some 
8500 metres distant from Taping-shan. This body, which con- 
sisted of Infantry and Cavalry, with one or two batteries of field- 
guns, seemed disposed to march southward ; so Major Imamura 
Shinkei, commanding the Third Battalion of the First Regiment, 
took up a position on Taping-shan, on the north-eastern slope of 
which a battery was placed by the Artillery of the Fourth Com- 
pany. No sooner was this done than a galling fire was directed 
at the Chinese Infantry, much to their discomfort. Other bodies 
of the Japanese forces now came up, prepared to dispute the 
passage at all hazards, while one other Battalion of Infantry and 
one Company of Artillery were sent from the Division to the 
advanced line. But the fire of the Japanese troops and guns on 
Taping-shan was so destructive that the Chinese soon broke into 
a run and retreated rapidly, passing through Liaoyang-pu and 
making for Lao-pien. It afterwards appeared that the Chinese 
Generals Sung-kiang and Son Ta-ye had come in person to direct 
the forces at Liaoyeh-miao, but, despite their tactics, had been 
compelled to retreat to Tienchwangtai. 

On the following day, March 5th, Lieut.-General Yamaji left 
the Advance Column under Major-General Nogi in their former 
quarters at Taping-shan, and, in company with the Main Body of 
the Division, stationed in the vicinity of Sanchia-tse and Hotai- 
tse, marched off in the direction of Tashih-kiao. This was done 
because the astute Lieut.-General intended to attack the Chinese 
about Laoyeh-miao — supposing this to be in the enemy's line of 
outposts — on the 6th or 7th, thereafter uniting his forces with 
those of the First Army, and then delivering a combined assault on 
Yingkow. The scouts reported, however, that the enemy had, on 
the previous night, removed their outposts from the villages about 
Yingkow, and that the Main Body had fallen back on Tienchwang- 
tai. Major-General Nogi therefore ordered the First Battalion of 


the First Eegiment to make a reconnaissance about Laoyeh-miao. 
On the van of this body reaching the village in question, it was 
found to be quite deserted ; so the Japanese quietly occupied it. 
The remaining Infantry of the First Eegiment were now sent to 
the neighbourhood of Siao-ping-shan, so called in distinction from 
the larger Taping-shan. In this way the disposition of the enemy 
about Yingkow had undergone a complete change. 

Towards night of the same day, March 5th, the Commander 
of the Division sent word to Major-Generals Nogi and Nishi 
Kwanjiro to have everything in readiness to attack Yingkow on 
the following morning. At 5 a. m., March 6th, the whole Army 
set out. Major-General Nishi, commanning the Infantry of the 
Second Brigade, left the bivouac at Tashih-kiao, and, passing 
through several villages of minor importance, inculding Lao-pien, 
reached Hao-chia-yu-hwan, four miles to the east of the doomed 
town. This Brigade formed the Japanese Eight Wing, as on its 
right again was the Battalion of Cavalry, acting as an independent 
body. Major-General Nogi, with the Infantry of the First 
Brigade (less one Battalion), and one Battalion of Artillery, set 
out from Sonchia-paotse, taking the road leading through the 
villages of Chiang-chia-hwan, Chien-tan-chia-ya-tse and Kanchia- 
ya-tse. This body formed the Japanese Left "Wing. Finally, 
Lieut.-General Yamaji, with all the remaining troops, took the 
road lying midway between the two wing. The Advance Column 
was under the leadership of Colonel Woki, and was composed of 
the First and Second Battalions of Infantry, one Company of 
Engineers, and the First Company of field-guns belonging to the 
Artillery of the First Eegiment. This Column proceeded the 
Left Wing, and, keeping a strict lookout the while, advanced as 
far as Kanchia-shio-hwan, where it was found that the enemy 
were firing from the coast-forts in the direction of the invading 
forces. These forts lay to the west of Yingkow. It was not 
clear, however, what steps the enemy had taken or would take 
to defend their position at Yingkow ; so Colonel Woki ordered a 
halt and then sent on an officer to the east of the town to recon- 
noitre. After proceding for about 1500 or 1600 metres, the scout 
suddenly fell in with a handful of Chinese horsemen, who, proba- 
bly believing him to be the forerunner of a vast host, made off at 


tlie top of their speed, without so much as firing a shot. The 
scout entered into the spirit of the thing and gave chase, 
following close on their heels until both he and they had passed 
through the eastern gate of the bourg. By this time Colonel 
Woki, with the rest of the Advance Column under Major Takena- 
ka Yasutaro, and the van of the Main Body, commanded by 
Major Kagawa Tomitaro, had come up and reached the town- 
walls. Captain Hongo Toshiro was then ordered to take posses- 
sion of the city gate and the telegraph-station, while the other 
troops were deployed just outside the eastern gate, thus effectual- 
ly blocking the line of retreat. The enemy within the walls now 
made an attempt to cross, from the central portion of the northern 
suburb, the frozen Liao, hoping in this way to steal off unperceiv- 
ed in the direction of Tienchwangtai. But this little plan was 
frustrated by Major Takenaka, who sent the Third and Fourth 
Companies to intercept their flight. These two Companies cross- 
ed the upper part of the stream and fired about fifty volleys, at a 
distance of 500-1000 metres, at the fugitives. By midday the 
number of fleeing Chinese who had reached the north-west bank 
of the river, had grown very large ; and despite the constant fire 
of the Takenaka Battalion their flight could no longer be stopped. 
The Company of Cavalry commanded by Captain Nishibata Gaku 
then appeared, and to them the chase after the fugitives was 
entrusted, but with no greater degree of success. 

At this point. Major Kagawa Tomitaro, Commander of the 
Second Division, First Regiment (forming the Main Body of the 
Left Wing's Advance Guard), was ordered to capture one of the 
west-coast forts, lying about 1500 metres from the east gate of 
Yingkow. Lieutenant Nagabori Hitoshi, with a picked Sub- 
company, led the van, followed by Major Kagawa with the 
Seventh and Eighth Companies, and one Sub-company of Engi- 
neers, the latter marching ahead of the rest. Captain Kawaguchi 
Kiyotoshi, of the Eighth Company, was commanded to proceed 
to the southern bourg. On reaching the place, he found that the 
Chinese had fled. Kawaguchi's detachment then went on to the 
northern castle, the gate of which was discovered to be barred and 
barricaded in a very secure fashion. Without stopping to force 
an entrance, the men clambered over the wall, and, entering the 


castle, discovered it entirely deserted. Just about this time Ser- 
geant Sugimoto and his pioneers reached a small bridge some 1500 
metre distant from the fort. While searching abont they came 
upon four mines sunk in the foundations of the bridge. These 
exploded, killing or wounding two of the pioneers. Thereafter 
a number of other mines, in the immediate vicinity, exploded in 
rapid succession, so that the Pioneer Sub-company was quite en- 
veloped in the powder-smoke. Meanwhile the coast-forts kept 
firing heavily, the shells dropping among the devoted little band of 
Engineers, yet without inflicting much damage. None the less it 
was a most perilous time and situation. The Kagawa Battalion 
formed into single file and, coming to a little hollow, stopped there 
for shelter. The Pioneers, however, continued actively searching 
for other mines, and found very many wires leading to sunken 
explosives in front of the forts and castle. Despite the galling 
fire of the Chinese, the work of severing the wires went on un- 
disturbed. At one time seven mines were exploded, yet there 
were no casualties to report on the part of the intrepid seekers. 
Deeming it most unwise to attempt an attack of the Chinese 
under the circumstances. Major Kagawa drew off his men and re- 
tired to a village in the rear. 

In the meantime. Colonel "Woki, with the Fifth and Sixth 
Companies of the Second Battalion, had got opposite the East 
Gate, and thence saw the Takenaka Battalion pursuing the fugi- 
tive enemy ; he also recognized the difficulty of capturing the 
western coast-forts, against which the Kagawa Battalion had been 
sent. Calling up two Companies of the Beserve, and taking with 
him a battery of field-artillery, the Colonel marched to the spot 
where the Kagawa Battalion had been and had the guns unlimber- 
ed, preparatory to opening a heavy fire on the forts. But the 
short spring day was now at an end, and nothing could be done 
after night-fall. Posting a line of pickets along the littoral, the 
Colonel therefore commanded his forces to bivouac where they 

At early dawn of the next day (March 7th), the Kagawa 
Battalion and a battery were ordered to storm the fortress ; 
no reply however being made to the Japanese fire, the 
troops entered the forts unmolested, to learn that the enemy 


had decamped during the night. Several cannon and a large 
quantity of ammunition were here taken. Thus the strong town 
of Yingkow was seized without any fighting worthy of the name, 
if we except the desultory efforts of the coast-forts. Among the 
spoils taken were 45 cannon, 180 rifles, 58 cases of powder, 15 
cases of canister, 4 boxes of leaden bullets, 500 military uniforms, 
hundreds of hats and caps, more than 500 bags of rice, the Meh 
Ying (a small Chinese man-of-war), two small steamboats and a 
host of other things. There being foreigners resident in the town, 
Lieut.-General Nozu sent two of his Lieut.-Colonels, Fukushima 
Tasumasa and Muraki Masayoshi, to Yingkow to inform the con- 
sular representatives of the United States and Great Britain, of 
the condition of affains, as well as to ask if any foreigners or their 
property had received harm. He sent moreover three Companies 
from the First Division in order to act as a special guard for the 
foreign community, lawless acts on the part of the dispersed and 
desperate Chinese soldiery being apprehended. Thus everything 
was done to ensure the safety and well-being of Yingkow's foreign 


On the Advance Column, then commanded by Major-General 
Nogi, reaching the ground just in front of the eastern gate of 
Yingkow, about 1000 Chinese, who had collected in the immediate 
vicinity of the gate, promptly took to their heels. 

On the coast-line west of Yingkow were two forts, and, to 
all appearance, their garrisons seemed to have fled on the ap- 
proach of the victorious Army. The task of capturing these 
strongholds, was entrusted to the Second Batallion of the First 
Begiment, one Sub-company of the First Engineer Company be- 
ing sent to join the foot-soldiers. Promptly obeying the com- 
mand to advance, the Engineers placed themselves in front of the 
Infantry, delighted with the task set before them. On the way to 
the forts. Lieutenant of Engineers Hirai Yasuhei ordered Sergeant 
Sugimoto to take a few men and make a reconnaissance about the 


Hwangten-chan encampment. There the scouts found and 
captured two bronze cannon and a quantity of gunpowder. The 
Sergeant's party was then sent on to the south-eastern encamp- 
ment. At 1.50 p. m. they reached a small bridge about 1500 
metres due east of the coast-forts. Here they found two wires 
connecting with mines sunk in the foundations of either end of 
the bridge, a portion of the mines being laid bare in consequence 
of the recent thaw. Sergeant Kaneko was at once told to sever 
the wires. Taking four second-class privates — Saito Seijiro, Shi- 
mizu Nasokichi, Asano Washiro and Shimada Kakuji — ^with him, 
the Sergeant succeeded in cutting one of the wires. One of the 
mines was thus rendered harmless. It seems that the enemy in 
the supposedly evacuated fort must have noticed what had been 
done, for a flag was at once hoisted above the ramparts and the 
hitherto silent fort burst into flame, two heavy and several 
smaller cannon flring into the thick of the Japanese troops. The 
other large wire leading to the second mine in the bridge, was 
connected with a number of mines : three to the west and one to 
the east of the bridge, the latter exploding and killing two sol- 
diers ; two sunk in a small mound about 40 metres to the rear 
and three others in a second mound some 200 metres to the left. 
Every one of these exploded, the Company of Engineers being at 
once hidden by a sulphurous cloud. Taking advantage of this 
apparent success, the Chinese in the nearest fort rained shells 
and bullets among the attacking forces. The Japanese were 
literally surrounded by sunken mines and in the utmost peril. 
The Chinese used for the purpose of exploding the mines a steel 
cable with seven strands, the whole being so strong that the 
Engineers were unable to cut it with their hatchets. The Japa- 
nese Infantry therefore fell back and took up a station back of 
the camp of the Kan troops. The Chinese in the forts then turned 
the guns in their direction, and began to cannonade the foot-sol- 
diers at comparatively close range. Just at this moment it was dis- 
covered that some mines had been sunk under the powder-magazine 
in this camp. Unless the wire here was instantly severed, the 
Japanese troops were almost sure of being decimated. Sergeant 
Sugimoto again sallied forth to cut the wires, despite the tremen- 
dous cannonade to which he and the others were exposed. Taking 

YIN GEO W. 381 

second-class privates Ito Yasuzo, Yaguclii Hatsutaro, Tanohara 
Sakutaro and third-class private Mukogasa Tsunejiro with him, he 
succeeded in severing the thick cable. With this, however, the 
work was not yet at an end. Again the gallant Sergean sallied 
forth, this time in company with second-class privates Nakazawa 
Mohei and Kawashima Kakuzo, and third-class private Udagawa 
Toyokichi. Assisted by these men. Sergeant Sugimoto rendered 
powerless seven mines wMch had been sunk in the front part of 
the west wall of this fort. While this was being done, seven 
other mines near at hand were exploded by the watchful Chinese. 
So great was the force of the explosion that the men almost fell to 
the ground. And in the meantime, of course, they were still 
exposed to the galling fire of the coast-fort. With all this not a 
soldier oiFered to withdraw, and, strange to relate, not one was 
injured. Their escape was marvelous. 

Under the circumstances it was deemed inadvisable for the 
BattaKon of Infantry to take active part in what was going on. 
So, at 5.40 p. m., the forces withdrew to the south of the town 
and there bivouacked, well-knowing that the evacuation or capture 
of the coast-forts was a matter of a few hours only. 


YiNGKOW is the northwesternmost treaty port in the Chinese 
Empire, and lies on the Kiver Liao at a distance of about 10 miles 
from where it flows into the Gulf of Pechili. The town is better 
known to Europeans and Americans under the name of New- 
chwang, yet, in reality, the latter is the style of a larger town 17 
miles farther north. Yingkow is thus the port of Newchwang. 
The port lies on the eastern estuary of the Liao, has a population 
of about 35,000, and carries on a brisk trade, principally in bean- 
cake and bean-oil. Yingkow is thus unquestionably the most 
important tradal centre of the Liaotung Province and Shinking in 
general. The staple products of the country round about find 
their way to the store-houses in this prosperous treaty port, into 
which also are imported those various articles of which the Man- 


churians have need. In the northernmost portion of the town lies 
the small settlement of " Newchwang ", the one place in that 
thickly inhabited country where one may breathe in a purer, 
wholesome atmosphere. 

During the War the town was defended by a number of forts, 
erected in the suburbs at a distance of about three mUes in a 
southerly direction ; while the Taotai or Mayor had some 10,000 
braves under his immediate command, all well-armed and supplied 
with plentiful ammunition. Under the circumstances there seem- 
ed no likelihood of the port's being disturbed. But when, on 
March 4th, the older city of Newchwang fell before the victorious 
arms of the invading troops, the intelligence of this fresh Chinese 
disaster speedily reached Yingkow, hundreds of beaten soldiers 
streaming into the port with various versions of the city's "fall. 
This news so greatly intimiddted the Taotai that he immediately 
retreated to Tienchwangtai, leaving everything in the town nicely 
prepared for the immediate use of the Japanese Armies. As it 
happened this was about the best fate that could have befallen 
Yingkow, and to the prudence of the Japanese forces and the 
cowardice of the Taobai the preservation of the port is undoubted- 
ly attributable. For, had there been any hitch, Yingkow with all 
its wealth and inhabitants would have fallen a victim to fire and 
the sword, as Tienchwangtai later on actually did fall. 

As soon as the Taotai left, the criminal portion of the town 
began to give great trouble, and the streets presented a horrible 
sight : all sorts of crimes, robbery and burglary being committed 
by the unrestrained rabble. Most fortunately, however, the U. S. 
man-of-war Petrd, Captain Emory, was in port, and it is due to 
the prompt and noble exertions of this officer that the rioters were 
kept within bounds and foreign property unmolested, to the great 
gratitude and satisfaction of the residents. When the Japanese 
troops entered the town they were surprised to find the people 
peacefully occupied as usual and all traces of the riots gone. 

The taking of Yingkow necessitated the appointment of a man 
of ability and experience in order to manage municipal matters ; 
which were all the more complicated as they had intimate connec- 
tion with the welfare of the foreign residents and the maintenance 
•of peaceful relations between these foreigners and the native 



inhabitants. To this important post the Head Quarters at 
Hiroshima appointed Mr. Sannomiya Yoshitane, then Vice-Grand 
Master of Ceremonies. This gentleman reached Hiroshima on 
March 15th, 1895, and, two days later, embarked with his suite 
from Ujina. The Eiver Liao being still blocked with ice and the 
port still under the thraldom of King Winter, the party had to 
stay at Kinchow and Port Arthur until the ice melted and naviga- 
tion once more became possible. So, after a long and vexatious 
delay the party reached Yingkow on board the Japanese man-of- 
war GhSkai. Mr. Sannomiya was cordially welcomed by the 
British and American Consuls, 
the representatives of the local 
foreign firms, and the Captains 
and officers of H. B. M. Firebrand 
and the U. S. Petrel, both of which 
had been stationed in the harbour 
to protect the lives and interests 
of foreign residents. 

Mr. Sannomiya, as Special 
Commissioner to the Port of 
Yingkow, at once held a meeting 
with the Consuls, in which vari- 
ous diplomatic and consular ques- 
tions were raised and thoroughly 
discussed. At first it appeared 
difficult to come to an agreement, 
but findly everything was settled 

in an amicable manner, satisfactory both to the Japanese Govern- 
ment and the representatives of the Treaty Powers. This was the 
first occasion since the occupation of Yingkow that Japanese 
officials had met with the Consular Body. Friendly regulations 
were enacted with the cordial co-operation of all parties, and Mr. 
Sannomiya's mission and office — not to speak of his amiability 
and tact — will surely long be remembered by the European and 
American residents of Yingkow. That the Special Commissioner 
was so successful and acquitted himself of his manifold duties in 
so praiseworthy a manner, is, as he himself states, largely owing 
to the good-will shown and assistance rendered by the Consuls of 

H. E. Mk. Sannomiya. 


Europe and America, and Captain Emory. 

Wliile busily engaged in the solution of important interna- 
tional questions, Mr. Sannomiya liad to give much attention to 
the business of the Customs, -which was a complicated and 
arduous task. The delicate question of deciding upon a new 
tariff had to be determined, as well as the making of new harbour 
regulations and the organizing of a new Customs' staff. There 
was not only no suitable official building in which to carry on the 
new administration, but the Commissioner was also greatly 
hampered by the scanty number of subordinates who composed 
his suite and had to do the multifarious work connected with 
the occupation. All difficulties were, none the less, got over with 
extreme adroitness, and by April 12th the Japanese Customs 
were, for the first time, inaugurated and in working order in 
Yingkow, only nine days after the arrival of Mr. Sannomiya. The 
new Custom House was styled "Office of the Special Commis- 
sioner to Yingkow," and the building used was the Kwantien, or 
" Mandarins' Waiting House". It was decided that the Customs 
duties, fees, etc., to be levied by the new Japanese Custom House, 
should be the same as those formerly imposed by the Chinese 
Government. The first ship to clear the harbour was the British 
steamer Dukay, with passengers and a full cargo. Thereafter 
many vessels both entered and cleared, and thus the commerce of 
Yingkow prospered and grew apace, the total amount of duties 
levied reaching nearly 650,000 yen. For the better protection of 
the people and the maintenance of peace and order, the Japanese 
warships Atago and Chokai were stationed in the port, to the 
gratification of all. On land, at the same time, one Battalion of 
Infantry under Major Ishida, afterwards commanded by Major 
Watanabe, guarded the town, and so the joint land and sea 
forces kept everything and every body in good order during Mr. 
Sannomiya's beneficent sojourn in Yingkow. Fifteen days after 
his arrival everything was settled and the whole official business 
in good working order : imperfect, it may well have been, yet best 
suited to the requirements of the time and place. Mr. Sannomiya's 
stay had originally been determined for one calendar month. But 
it was found impossible during this very short period to settle satis- 
factorily all international questions and institute thorough-going 

YIN GROW. 385 

reforms in those departments where Chinese mismanagement had 
been most glaring. Mr. Sanuomiya therefore requested that his 
term of oflS.ce be prolonged for one month more, which request 
was granted. After the expiration of the second month Mr. 
Mitsuhashi Nobukata, until then Secretary of Kanagawa Prefecture, 
took the place of the Commissioner, having been appointed Chief of 
the Sub-administrative Division of Yingkow. On May 3rd, after 
bidding farewell to his new friends, who parted from him with many 
sincere expressions of regret, Mr. Sannomiya left Yingkow for 
Japan, leaving behind him a most enviable record. 

We must add, in conclusion that Mr. Alexander Hosie filled 
the post of Acting British Consul, and Mr. J. J. Frederic Bandi- 
nell that of Vice-Consul for the United States, during Mr. San- 
nomiya's sojourn. Mr. Bandinell had, moreover, until then acted 
as Honorary Consul for Japan. 




YiNGKOW fell into the hands of the First Division of the 
Second Army a very easy prey. The First Army had come up, 
and on March 7, 1895, it was intended to inflict another crushing 
blow on the foe. Yet the Chinese did not offer to make a stand 
here, but fled towards Tienchwangtai, as we have seen already. 
The combined Japanese forces therefore resolved upon attacking 
the latter place. 

A few days before the taking of Yingkow, Lieut.-General 
Katsura, in command of the Third Division, had instructed Major 
Hyodo, Commander of the Second Battalion of Field Artillery, 
Third Regiment, to reconnoitre about Newchwang, the Shihsan- 
shan-tan highroad, and the Biver Liao. The detachment, with 
one Company of Cavalry, left Newchwang at 3 p. m. of March 4th 
— the very day of the town's capture — and after a toilsome march 
of 10 miles reached the Liao-ho, in front of the village of Sia-kan- 
tse, about the same hour on the following afternoon. After testing 
the thickness of the ice on the river, reconnoitring the neighbour- 
hood thereabouts and many minor skirmishes with the Chinese 
who were numerous about the village, they rega,ined Newchwang 
in safety early the next morning. Lieut.-General Katsura, how- 
ever, did not take his troops along the route followed by Major 
Hyodo's detachment, but chose another, rather more direct, road. 
At high noon of March 5th, the Division left Newchang for 
Tienchwangtai. Two days later the van reached Li-chia-ten, while 


the Main Body of the Division halted at Niu-chien-tse. In order 
to ascertain the number and disposition of the enemy's forces, 
Major-General Oshima, who was in command of the Advance 
Column, had set out on foot shortly before dawn of March 2nd, with 
a number of scouts armed to the teeth. This little body succeded 
in quietly ranging more than a dozen field-guns along the bank of 
the Liao Biver, whence they opened fire on Tienchwangtai. No- 
thing intimidated, the enemy collected a force of at least 6000 men 
on the opposite bantj with batteries numbering more than thirty 
guns, and appeared to be quite willing not only to reply to the 
Japanese attack but even to make a sortie on their own account. 
Kecognising the great strength of their opponents, Major-General 
Oshima and his men quietly withdrew, taking their guns with 
them. On this affair being reported to Lieut.-General Katsura, 
he concluded that the enemy could not be well less than 10,000 
strong in and about Tienchwangtai, and that therefore a larger 
force of Japanese would be necessary in order to cope success- 
fully with them. At 3 p. m. of the same day Lieut.-General Nozu, 
commander of the First Army, arrived at Chang-chia-kau, where 
the discoveries made by Lieut.-General Katsura's reconnoitring 
parties were told him. On hearing what had happened, he at 
once despatched an aide to Lieut.-General Tamaji, commanding 
the First Division, who was at Niu-chia-tun. After consulting 
with this noted tactician, the Third Division, with some 50 guns 
in their centre, was told to set out for Tienchwangtai ; the Fifth 
Division, acting as the Eight Wing, was instructed to intercept the 
line of eventual retreat at Siang-chui-tai ; while the First Division, 
as the Left Wing, was ordered to attack the rear of the enemy's 
right flank. These three bodies set out for their respective 
destinations at the same time : 7 a. m. of March 9th. 

On the 5th of March Lieut.-General Katsura had left the First 
Battalion! of the Nineteenth Eegiment in garrison at Newchwang, 
and, after the capitulation of that town, had made the following 
iarrangements : 

1. Major-General Oshima to lead the Advance Column, compo- 
sed of two Battalions of Infantry and a battery from the Miyoshi 
Eegiment ; 

2. Major-Gfeneral Osako with the Sato Eegiment (now command- 


ed by Major-General Nozu, in consequence of Colonel Sato's severe 
wound) and the Shibano Artillery Eegiment to form the Main Body; 
3. The Suzuki Battalion of the Miyoshi Eegiment to march 
southward along the Biver Liao, as the Japanese Eight Wing, 
and to protect the right flank of the Main Body. 

There were no special provisions made for a Left Wing, as 
the Fifth Division was to march on that side of the troops. The 
Independent Battalion of Cavalry was further instructed to keep 
a sharp lookout about Yingkow and Tienchwangtai, keeping as 
near the enemy's lines as possible. Starting at noon of March 
5th, after a brief halt at Lan-chi-pao, they reached another village; 
on the following day the Main Body halted at Kei-nan-pu and the 
Advance Column at Peh-tsao-ya ; finally on March 7th the whole 
force reached Niu-chien-tse. It was on the next day, March 8th, 
that Major-General Oshima made his bold reconnaisance, with 
some men of the Miyoshi Eegiment, as already recorded. The 
Sato and Aibara Eegiments took up a position somewhat to the 
west of Niu-chien-tse, but did not attempt to make a farther 

Going back to the Fifth Division, we find that this body 
left Newchwang on March 5th, halting for the night at Tatai-tse. 
At dawn of March 6th camp was broken and the march began to- 
wards the south-east of Kao-kan ; while the larger portion of the 
Division, taking the direction of Tashih-kiao, advanced towards the 
southern part of Laoyeh-miao. At two o'clock in the afternoon 
the Staff reached Kao-kan; and, on March 8th, Chin-toi-tse was 
made, where the troops bivouacked in battle-array. The First 
Division, on the other hand, after taking Yingkow on the 7th, left 
the First Eegiment in garrison there, while, at 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon, the remaining forces set out for Tienchwangtai. Their vari- 
ous halts were made at Ta-hwang-shien, San-chia-tse and Lin-shu- 
kau. At this time the Third Division was east of Niu-shien-tse, to 
the right of the village in which the First Division had put up. 
To the right of the Third Division again was the Fifth, at or rather 
in the neighbourhood of Chin-toi-tse. The three Divisions were 
thus near each other and all prepared to work in unison for the 
reduction of Tienchwangtai. 

The town of Tienchwangtai stands on the right bank of the 


Eiver Liao, and is a port whence boats proceed to Tingkow and 
Newchwang. The town itself is about 10 miles to the north of 
Yingkow, the river — here 600-700 metres broad — flowing by the 
southern suburb. Surrounding the town is a wide, irregularly 
shaped plain, dotted with villages generally lying within about 
1000 metres of each other. The river had been selected by the 
enemy as their line of defence, and earth-works ran all along the 
opposite bank, each bristling with cannon. Though well on in 
March, the river still was completely frozen over, the ice being of a 
thickness sufiicient to bear the weight of men, horses, and am- 
munitio n- wagons. 

At dawn of March 9th the three Divisions began to move. 
The van and Main Body of the Third Division were to keep to the 
main road on the east bank of the Liao. The Miyoshi Regiment 
of the Advance Column and the Suzuki Battalion, under Major 
Suzuki Tokoyo, advanced in open order from the right side of the 
main road. The Fujimoto Battalion, under Major Fujimoto Taro 
of the Aibara Regiment, advanced from the left side of the road, 
taking the direction of La-koh, a hamlet which lay just in front. 
Here the Artillery, which came up from both sides of the road, 
halted. The Independent Cavalry Battalion, taking an oblique 
course in front of the Miyoshi Regiment, was to commimicate with 
the Fifth Division. Far to the left of the Fujimoto Battalion, 
forming the Left Wing, two other Regiments of the First Division 
were advancing. At 8 a. m. the Japanese Infantry and Artillery 
in the village of La-koh were perceived by the enemy and sub- 
jected to a rain of shot and shell. The battery of mountain-guns 
attached to the Third Division now unlimbered at the north end of 
the village and, together with 7 mortars and a battery of field- 
guns belonging to the Artillery on the opposite (night) side, began 
replying steadily to the Chinese fire. The Mountain Artillery of 
the Third Artillery Regiment, belouging to the Nishi Brigade of the 
First Division, — which had set out tliat morning at 3.30 a. m. — 
now came up on the left side and joined in the furious cannonade. 
Then the Field and Mountain Artillery of the First and Third 
Divisions also drew near and began firing rapidly, At this spot 
there were no less than 97 pieces of ordinance firing at one time, 
the whole being under the able command of Major-General 


Kuroda Hisataka, of the Artillery. On the other, Chinese, side, 
there were only 20 cannon in all, and after two hours of this tre- 
mendous firing the enemy's cannon were wholly silenced. The 
Japanese batteries had however not only had the enemy's cannon 
to silence but also to drive back the troops from the right bank of 
the river, by the town. This was splendidly managed, the enemy 
being thrown into great confusion. So soon as this was apparent, 
three Battalions of the Seventh and Ninth Begiments advanced in 
open order, and on reaching the dike on the eastern bank, about 
1000 metres distant, they poured volley after volley into the 
wavering ranks of the enemy, who replied as well as they could 
with their magazine rifles. Firing was now ordered all along the 
Japanese line, upon which the Chinese, who had evidently intend- 
ed to withdraw in a northerly direction, ran in every direction 
helter-skelter, like a flock of sheep. A few score of the bravest 
only stuck to the redoubts and still ofi'ered resistance. Seeing 
this, the Japanese batteries threw shrapnel among them, and 
when these tremendous missiles began to explode in their midst 
even the most courageous lost heart and turned to fly. The 
Suzuki Battalion now sprang into the ranks of the disheartened 
foe, jumping down from the dike whence they had been firing. 
At the same time the Fujimoto Battalion, hitherto on the left, 
ran at full speed across the frozen river and dashed into the 
enemy's camp. The day was won, and victory once again smiled 
on the Japanese. 

In the meantime Lieut.-General Yamaji had not been idle. 
According to his orders, Major-General Nishi Kanjiro, with the 
Second Brigade of Infantry, and one battery of Mountain Artillery 
attached to the Third Division, left Ta-hwang-shien at 3 a. m. of 
this day and, passing by Hei-ying-kau, crossed the Liao Eiver. 
Following the bank these troops were instructed to advance on 
Tienchwangtai in a north-westerly direction, in order to intercept 
the ultimate retreat of the foe. Moreover, a Eegiment of Artillery 
was to set out from the above-named Ta-hwang-shien at 3.30 a. 
m., and reached the ferry or ford known as Pai, whence the guns 
were to open fire. With the Fifteenth Eegiment and a Battalion 
of Engineers, Lieut.-General Yamaji followed hard after the 
Artillery, taking up a station just back of the Left Wing of this 



Kegiment. Major-General Nishi, intending to form a juncture 
witli the Fifth Division, crossed the river in an oblique direction^ 
and, thirty minutes later, or at about 7 a. m., reached a spot two 
miles or thereabouts south-west of the doomed town. Day had 
already dawned, but still there was no noise nor any sign of life 
in the enemy's camps ; indeed for a moment it was supposed that 
the Chinese had fled, so great was the stillness. Half an hour 
later, far off to the north-east, the sound of heavy firing became 
audible, yet the heavy mist kept the combatants shrouded so that 
it was impossible to discern which side had commenced hostilities. 
At 8 a. m. the Brigade reached a place within 2000 metres of the 
north-western portion of the 
town, and now for the first time 
the Chinese appeared to wake 
up to the nearness of the attack- 
ing forces. They began firing, 
but after a disorderly fashion. 
The Commander of the Second 
Kegiment on this deployed his 
men, while steadily advancing, 
and the Artillery ranged their 
guns west of Tienchwangtai 
and began firing with admirable 
precision and deadly effect. At 
8.40 a. m. the Chinese guns 
were Iwrs de combat, and their 
foot-soldiers began to fall back. 
The Second Regiment promptly 
gave chase, while the Third 

Eegiment cut off the road of retreat. The enemy were now at 
their wit's end, having no road left open for retreat. Scattering in 
all directions, the enemy fled in little bands, some going north 
while others ran north-west. Two Companies were at once singled 
out by Major-General Nishi to chase the fugitives, who tried to 
press through the space lying between the Second and Third 
Eegiments. Nothing could have been greater or more wretched 
that the confusion of the beaten garrison. At 9.50 a. m. Major- 
General Nishi marched into the town ; but twenty-five minutes 

Colonel Matsunaga. 


later he began to make way towards Shin-tun. 

The movements of the Fifth Division on this memorable 
morning were as follow : — The Twenty-second Begiment formed 
the van, marching in battle array. Just as they reached the left 
bant of the Liao, the battle broke out fiercely in the direction of 
the First and Third Divisions. Over 100 cannons being fired 
on both sides, the roar was deafening, the very ground seem- 
ing to shake with the terrible noise. Lieut. -General Oku, the 
Division Commander, went ahead and, after a brief survey of the 
scene, ordered the Twenty-second to cross the upperpart of the 
stream, for the purpose of attacking the enemy's left and cut 
off eventual retreat in that direction. For, contrary to the usual 
plan, there was this time left no road open for retreat. The 
defeat was intended to be — as indeed it was — overwhelming, 
entirely destroying the strength of the Chinese Army there- 
abouts. The field and mountain-guns of the Division Artillery 
were then ranged to the east of the town, and promptly 
opened a heavy fire ; to which the Chinese bravely replied — 
wounding four Japanese artillerists at the very first discharge. 
While the tremendous cannonade was going on, the Infantry 
steadily crept nearer the Chinese line, engaging in repeated 
hand-to-hand encounters. As the Twenty-second Regiment broke 
through the enemy's' outer line of defence, the Chinese began to 
waver, being greatly cut up by the shrapnel fired into their ranks 
by the gunners of the Third Division. Once more the First 
Division charged the foe, this time in the rear. When the tortured 
Chinese turned to run, the Twenty-second instantly advanced at 
double-quick, followed hard by the Artillery. The icy surface of 
the stream presented a striking sight, covered, as far as the eye 
could see, with Japanese soldiers advancing in open order and 
firing rapidly at the bewildered foe. Reinforcements under 
Major-General Oshima, Commander of the Ninth Brigade, now 
came up. The Twenty-second Begiment continued their volley- 
fire until their front ranks had occupied the disputed roadways, 
while the enemy, in terror-stricken despair, ran hither and thither 
over the trackless snow. The Fifteenth Begiment, which had 
formed the reserve of the First Division, hereupon crossed the 
Liao, started from the left of the Artillery ground and reached 


the southern portion of the town. Tienchwangtai was wholly 
taken just a little after 10 a. m., or after nearly four hours of 
hard and sanguinary combat. A column of smoke was now seen 
rising ominously in the northern part of the town. A fire had, 
most unfortunately, broken out and the fresh breeze fanned the 
flames to fury. The fire sprang from one quarter to another and 
soon all Tienchwangtai was ablaze. Frequent tremendous ex- 
plosions announced that the flames had reached the powder-maga- 
zines or piles of ammunition. The Japanese could not, under the 
circumstances, get into the heart of the town, while the Chinese 
who had concealed themselves in the houses were forced to fly by 
the dreadful heat, many losing their lives in the flames. 
The casualities on the Japanese side were, 


First Division 


Third Division 


Fifth Division 


Total 126 

The Chinese losses must have exceeded two thousand. Before 
the conflagration occurred the Japanese had captured 20 cannon, 
6000 rifles, 34,000 rounds of ammunition and 400 shells, but nearly 
all was lost in the flames. Twelve cannon and a number of small 
arms were all that were saved from the fire. 

On the news of this victory reaching Hiroshima, T. I. M. the 
Emperor and Empress at once sent congratulatory messages to 
the First and Second Armies. These were respectfully replied to 
by Lieut. -General Nozu, on behalf of the First Expeditionary 
Army, and Marshal Oyama in the name of the Second. 

The reason why the enemy had so frequently attempted to 
re-possess themselves of Haiching may have been owing to the 
fact that Tienchwangtai formed their basis of supplies ; for after 
the fall of this town the Chinese no longer thought of regaining 
that important citadel. The advance westwards would, after this 
signal victory, have been a very easy matter. 



KoSHizAKi TojiEo, a ¥irst-class Sergeant of the Seventli 
Eegiment, had been sent out on December 14t]i, 1894, with a 
scouting-party under Sub-Lieutenant Hosono Tatsu-o. When the 
scouts were about entering Santai-tse on the Newchwang road, 
west of Haiching, Koshizaki was leading. A number of Chinese 
Cavalry was said to be in the village, yet the bold scout made 
nothing of this and dashed in and among the houses, where he 
and his comrades made a thorough if perilous reconnaissance. 
When the invading Army attacked Tienchwangtai, Koshizaki 
acted as the leader of a small detachment, and was foremost in the 
first line of battle, the men marching in open order. Despite the 
exceptionally heavy fire of the enemy, he led his men through the 
hail of bullets and entered Tienchwangtai, giving chase to the 
defeated foe outside. Koshizaki and his men forced their way into 
many of the larger buildings in the search for concealed Chinese, 
and everywhere the Sergeant was the first to enter. Numbers of 
Chinese were unearthed in this way, and either shot down or driven 
away. In this fashion the Sergeat and his little maniple managed 
to take secure possession of the whole northern part of the town : 
a notable feat in consideration of their numbers and the despera- 
tion of the Chinese. 


FoEEMOST in breaking into dwellings, in Newchwang, where 
the enemy still lurked, was Hori Juntaro, a second-class private 
of the Seventh Eegiment, Third Division. Hori had already 
frequently distinguished himself by many acts of daring. The 
day before the storming of Tienchwangtai (March 8th), Hori was 
with Kawamura Ikutaro, a first-class private, the two being engag- 
ed as scouts. When they approached the houses to the west of 


La-koli, Hori was attached as scout to the Left Wing and, parting 
from the Main Body, had to traverse an open plain. After his 
reconnaissance was over and on the way back, he was suddenly 
fired at by numerous enemies, until then unobserved. Not daunt- 
ed in the least, Hori made haste to ascertain the number of these 
fresh foes, and finally returned, uninjured, to make a most valua- 
ble report. "When Tienchwangtai was stormed, the Japanese 
troops had, had it will be remembered, to cross the frozen River 
Liao. Near the opposite bank Hori found, being naturally ahead 
of all the rest, a place some two metres broad where the ice had 
been broken through. Leaping briskly across the hole and 
reckless of the enemy, now at close quarters, he rushed to a 
fence on the bank and wrenched off a large plank. This he then 
laid across the aperture in the ice, and over this all the troops 
thereafter crossed. 


FujiKi IcHiTAEo, second-class private of the Third Company, 
Seventh Regiment, distinguished himself as a scout at Kan-chien- 
pao, on the Liaoyang highway and in the street-fighting in New- 
chwang. In the assault of Tienchwangtai he rendered special 
aid to the Commander of his immediate Sub-company, thereby 
winning fame both for his officer and himself. The Chinese, 
duringt he attack on Tienchwangtai, made a most stubborn defence, 
their lines completely surrounding the town. On the other hand 
the Japanese had to fight over the frozen Liao and under a 
a murderous fire, without any shelter whatever. Nevertheless 
they had, despite the many casualties, to advance steadily, and 
it was here that Fujiki, by marching boldly in advance of all the 
rest, set his comrades an excellent example. When about 300 
metres from the enemy. Lieutenant Nagai Masamoto, the Com- 
mander of Fujiki's Sub-company, received a bullet in his left 
elbow. The blood gushed forth in torrents and, seeing that he 
was rapidly losing strength, the Lieutenant despairingly called 
out, " Is there no one who will help me on to Tienchwangtai ? " 


The words were hardly spoken before Fujiki sprang to his side. 
Making the wounded officer rest on his own sturdy shoulder, 
Fujiki supported the Lieutenant across the river and so aided him 
that he could still give commands. Both officer and private 
thereafter took part in the final charge. 


One of the formost to reach the opposite bank of the frozen 
Biver Liao was Uchida Sakuhei, a Second-class Beservist Ser- 
geant of the 18th Begiment, Third Division. On the bank was a 
strong building in which some 15 or 16 Chinese soldiers were 
concealed and firing on the approaching Japanese. There was 
only one entrance to the house and the men inside seemed deter- 
mind to defend it to the uttermost. Sergeant Uchida wanted to 
shoot the defenders from the outside, but so strong was the place 
and the enemy so well hidden that this was impossible. Still 
it would not do to let the place go undisturbed : the hidden 
Chinese must be silenced or captured at all hazards. Noticing 
that his men showed some signs of hesitation, the Sergeant sud- 
denly called out, " Follow me ! " and ran towards the door. In 
an instant more this was battered down and the Sergeant and his 
men within the house. The Chinese were captured to a man, and 
this without any loss on the part of the captors. 

5. — A sergeant's death. 

Very gallant was the conduct of Suzuki Bunsaku, a Beserve 
First-class Sergeant of the 12th Company, Second Begiment, 
First Division, during the storming of Tienchwangtai ; especially 
in such places where the enemy outnumbered the Japanese forces 
by five or six to one. Suzuki led his men from victory to victory. 
On two occasions he had them fire at a distance of only 45 metres 
from the foe, and on each occasion the volleys had a grand effect, 


drmng the hostile artillerists from their guns. Hearing the sound 
of heavy firing on the left wing of his Company's right flank, 
Suzuki wheeled his men and marched in that direction. He had 
the men load and aim — but the order to fire was not forthcoming 
to their surprise. The fact was that Suzuki had, just at that 
supreme moment, been struck by a bullet in the breast. Suzuki 
called out for his officer, Captain Obata Tamaki, who hastened 
to his side. Putting his hand to his mouth to check the flow of 
blood and render his broken speech audible, the dying man 
said, "Sir, I have died in the discharge of my duty!" The 

words had hardly left his lips before he was dead. 

* * * 

* * 

On this same memorable day, First-class Sergeant Okazaki 
Aikichi was conspicuous for his excellent command and strict 
discharge of duty. Every now and then he would run forward to 
reconnoitre the condition of the enemy, and this reckless of the 
bullets which showered about him. Particularly skilful was he 
in telling the men when and how to shoot, their fire invariably 
doing great damage to the enemy. Sergeant Okazaki's men were 
always well to the fore, and he himself the first of all. When 
pushing into the enemy's lines, the Sergeant showed excellent 
judgment in keeping the men well together and concentrating 
their fire. The fight was most stubborn and hotly contested, the 
distance between the two forces decreasing to 40 or 50 metres. 
At this moment a bullet hit the Sergeant in the throat. Crying 
louldly three times the stirring words " Tennb Heika Banzai ! " he 
fell dead. 


Nakazawa Ki-ichi, a third-class private of the 12th Company, 
Third Begiment, had been suffering severely from frost-bitten feet 
and, on the day before the assault of Tienchwangtai, was ordered 
to go into hospital. But as every one was very busy at the time, 
Nakazawa stopped at the transport train and did not go the whole 
way to the field lazaret. Meeting here with an officer, he began 


excitedly, " It is only for the convenience of this poor body of 
mine if I enter hospital. But on joining the Army of course I 
did not expect to survive. I cannot grudge my hand or feet to 
my country." These words bore the stamp of truth and were 
not spoken for effect. By dint of constant pleading, Nakazawa 
got permission to rejoin his Company, though against the better 
judgment of the surgeons. The forces broke camp at 1 a. m. of 
March 9th, and the road followed was covered with snow. From 
that hour ti!l 8.30 a. m. no halt was made, and the suffering of 
such men as Nakazawa can be better imagined than described. 
Utterly exhausted he stumbled and fell at least a score of times, 
and there were many who expected to seen him fall out of line. 
Yet his iron will brought his as often to his feet 'again. Not only 
did he manage to keep up with the rest, but he even fought with 
distinguished bravery in that day's fight, killing many of the 
enemy. After the battle was over his feet were seen to be in a 
shocking state, the blood oozing from his shoes. 


Yamazaki Yoshimatsu was one of the commissariat attached 
to the Third Battalion of the Second Eegiment, First Division. 
He was engaged in handling the smaller articles of the train. On 
several occasions he had to fight most fiercely with the enemy, 
who often directed their attacks against the commissariat wagoiis. 
On one occasion a sudden assault on the part of the Chinese 
caiised much confusion, the bullets coming in a continuous stream. 
Yamazaki none the less stood by the horse he was leading, when 
a bullet suddenly struck his thigh, causing great haemorrhage. 
The horse he held grew restive and began to plunge, preparatory 
to running away. Careless of his wound, Yamazaki held firmly 
to the bit. Another soldier then came lip and, seeing the con- 
dition of affairs, severed the gtliding rein and led the horse else- 
where. Yamazaki could no longer stand and fell to the ground. 
After a little while the Ctinese were repulsed,- on which the 
wounded man, hearing the shouts, asked faintly whether the 


foe were vanquislied. or not ; but not a word did he say of his 
own desperate plight. The wound was a mortal one and he died 
shortly afterwards in the field lazaret. 




Aftee the surrender of the last vessels of the once-formidable 
Peiyang Squadron, the Japanese were supreme in the northeirn 
seas. This Squadron, long China's pride and boast, was the best 
part of her Navy. Yet there remained the Southern or Nanyang 
Squadron, and the Fuhkien and Kwangtung coast-defence fleets. 
None of these were at all to be feared, for they were composed 
principally of gunboats — the so-called "Alphabetical Fleet" — 
intend for river defence or working in shallow waters. Combined 
they could at best offer only a weak defence ; but until Japan 
obtained some stronghold in the southern seas, she could not be 
considered the mistress of these waters. For these reasons the 
capture of the Pescadores, or Fisher Islands, was resolved upon : 
a tiny archipelago of not much value, but lying in the fairway 
between the Chinese mainland and Formosa and commanding the 
approaches to the latter rich and fertile island : now Japanese 
territory. The Fisher Islands, which take their name from the 
principal islet of the group, lie between 119° and 120° East 
Longitude and 23°-24° North Latitude. Murch trepang or 
beche-de-mer — -that holothurian bonne boiic]te of the people of both 
Empires — is there collected, while shells of great beauty are 
abundant. The sea thereabouts is moreover very rich in a 
variety of fish. In earlier days the Pescadores were notorious for 
their piratical haunts. 

PE8CAD0BES. 401 

At 2 p. m. of March 6th a Mixed Detachment embarked on 
board the Kagoshima Maru and several other transports. Leaving 
Ujina almost simultaneously, the transports reached the Saseho 
Naval Station on the 9th of the same month. At 9 a. m. of March 
15th, led by the MatsusJiima, the Japanese Fleet took the van, the 
ex-merchant steamer Saikib Maru leading the transports. On the 
20th, at 2.45 p. m., the JFleet and the transports reached the 
southern shore of Pa-ohao Island, where the ships temporarily 
cast anchor. The idea had been to steam to the Pescadores at 
dawn of the following day, but this plan had to be abandoned, 
owing to the roughness of the weather. However the YosJiino and 
Naniiva, being excellent sea-boats, were sent towards the islands 
in question in order to reconnoitre. The storm continued in full 
force until the 22nd. On the 23rd the wind somewhat abated, and 
at 7 a. m. the ships were steaming at full speed towards the Pes- 
cadores, leaving the offing of Pa-chao-tao. Having got so far 
south, it was necessary to steer a northerly course in order to 
reach their destination. During this last day's steaming, the 
First Flying Squadron, which had fallen out of the line, drew 
near, at 9.30 a. m., the Kon-peh-tai fort, which was situat- 
ed on some elevated ground north-east of Hao-chiao. This fort 
the Flying Squadron subjected to a fierce bombardment, the 
Chinese garrison stoutly replying. The engagement was quite 
a warm one for some time. In less than an hour, however, the 
Chinese guns were silenced ; so the First Flying Squadron stop- 
ped firing and returned to their station. At about 11.30 a. m. 
the Japanese vessels drew near the coast-line of the port of Wen- 
liang, in the bay of Li-chon-chiao. Here they cast anchor. At 
noon the Flagship signalled to "begin the disembarkation of the 
troops, and the officers charged with the superintendence of the 
landing (Commander Togo Masaji, Captain of the Saikyo Maru, 
being the leader,) ordered the vessels to lower their steam-pinnaces. 
Each pinnace carried a small cannon and tugged after it several 
cutters, on which the troops were to be ferried across to the 
landing. The launches collected, in the first instance, about 
the Kagoshima Maru, on which were the men of the First 
Battalion of the First Eegiment of Reserves, thereafter to act as 
Advance Guard. The boats of the other transports now drawing 


near, the men were promptly taken to the shore : the First, 
Second, Third and Fourth Companies landing in the order named. 
Colonel Hishijima Yoshiteru, in command of the detachment, 
landed at the same time. The entire force was, by dint of 
zeal and activity, set ashore by about 2 p. m., or in less than 
two hours. Shortly before the accomplishment of this task, 
the Akitsushima had anchored off the place chosen for the 
landing, and had been cannonading the Kon-peh-tai fort for 
about an hour. But when it was seen that the troops were 
rapidly approaching the shore, the hitherto silent fort sud- 
denly burst into vigorous action and began to rain shells among 
the steam-pinnaces and transports, fortunately without doing 
any harm. 

So soon as the First Battalion had made the shore, scouts 
were sent on to the port of Wen-liang and the villages in the 
neighbourhood. On questioning the natives, it was ascertained 
that there were no Chinese soldiers thereabouts. Commander 
Hishijima then ordered the First Battalion men to occupy an 
elevated site facing the village of Chien-shan, about 870 metres 
from the point where the landing had been effected. Major 
Iwasaki Shiki, who was in command of the First Battalion, told 
off Captains Yamagachi Masaji and Nakajima Yukimasa, of the 
First and Second Companies, ordering then to seize the elevated 
ground pointed out. This was rapidly done, no enemies being 
found in the vicinity. So another advance was made, and this 
time to a second knoll about 2000 metres away. Some 300 
Chinese then came running on, intending to occupy the knoll 
before the Japanese could reach the place. They were, however, 
soon dispersed by a rapid and steady fire on the part of the 
attacking forces. The Chinese soldiery replied to this with 
similar volleys, the distance between the combating forces being 
barely 200 metres at the time. Suddenly a reinforcement, about 
150 strong, came out of a village in front and advanced at double- 
quick to the aid of their dispersing comrades. On seeing this, 
Captain Nakajima promptly made two detachments of his Com- 
pany conceal themselves in a sunken or hollow road, where the 
Chinese would be sure to pass. As the reinforcement drew near, 
the ambuscaded Japanese fired one volley. This greatly in- 

PE8CAD0BES. 403 

timidated the Chinese, who began at once to fall back on all sides, 
though still keeping up an irregular fire. Major Iwazaki, who 
was then leading the Third and Fourth Companies, felt some 
anxiety about the fighting in front, so ordered Captains Matsu- 
zaka and Sakuma, of the Third and Fourth Companies, to 
advance to the aid of the First and Second. Captain Sakuma 
gave the command to fix bayonets, and, after firing a few volleys, 
the men made a bayonet-charge. This example was immediately 
followed by the other Companies, so that the Chinese broke their 
ground and fled precipitately. At 4 p. m. the First Battalion 
occupied the second knoll, nearly 3000 metres from the place 
where the landing had been effected. In the mean-time the 
Second Battalion had landed and stayed near the place where 
they had first gained the shore, guarding the regimental colours. 
When the First Battalion succeeded in repelling the Chinese, the 
Second began to advance, and, on seeing that the enemy were 
ialling back on all sides, marched to the right flank of the First 
Battalion and gave chase to the foe. In this way they entered 
the village facing the second knoll and went thence on to the sea- 
coast. Later they returned to the knoll where the two Battalions 
had separated and there encamped, while the Staff Quarters of 
the detachment were established in the village of Chien-shan. 

On the 24th, the detachment was. to take the Kon-peh-tai fort 
Tiorth-east of Hao-chiao. It was then determined to resume the 
march inland and occupy Ma-kon-ching, and to this effect orders 
were giving for all to assemble at the encampment of the two 
Battalions by 4 o'clock the next morning. At 2.30 a. m. the 
Staff Quarters moved out of the village above-named. The first 
±0 take the route was the temporary Company of Mountain 
Artillery, under Captain Arai Nobu-o, and the Naval Contingent, 
■with Q.-F. guns, under Naval Lieutenant Tajima Koretaka, 
■Chief Gunner of the Matsushima. The night was very dark, yet 
the troops moved steadily on: at first over a wide plain much 
■cut up with ditches in every direction, which materially hindered 
rapidity of movement. There was no road worthy of the name, 
and the dragging of the gun-carriages was a heart-breaking piece 
of business under the circumstances. In fact, only two miles 
■were made after three hours of the most arduous toil. The 


other bodies succeeded in reaching the rallying-ground at 4 a. m., 
and, 30 minutes later, all began to move forwards. The Second 
Battalion of the Twelfth Eegiment of Eeserves led the van, the Eight 
"Wing being formed by the Second Battalion of the First Eegiment 
of Eeserves. The first objective was the Kon-peh-tai fort. Fore- 
most in the van marched Captain Kinoshita Shozen, who was in 
command of the Fifth Company. As soon as he came near the 
fort he encouraged his men to advance rapidly. At about 6 a. 
m. it was noticed that some 200 Chinese had collected between 
the fort and the elevated ground occupied by the First Eegiment 
on the previous day. The enemy seemed determined to dispute 
the road with the invading forces. On this. Lieutenant Ishii 
Tashiro, commanding the First Sub-company of this Fifth Com- 
pany, fought most gallantly, his men sweeping down on the 
Chinese with the utmost fury and speedily dispersing them. At 
last, at 6.30 a. m., Lieutenant Ishii and his veterans dashed into 
the fort, whence most of the garrison had fled. And so the 
Kon-peh fortress, the chief stronghold of the Pescadores, was 
taken in something less than 30 minutes. At about the same 
time as the Second Battalion of the Twelfth Eegiment reached 
the fort, the Second Battalion of the First Eegiment also came 
dashing up. The Temporary Battery of Mountain Artillery had, 
prior to the approach of the victorious Fifth Company, lined up 
in a vegetable-field between the forts and the already mentioned 
elevated ground. But the range was too great for the guns, and 
so their cannonade did nothing more than give the Chinese 
garrison a wholesome fright, thus paving the way for the sub- 
sequent capture of Kon-peh-tai. The Naval Contingent had ranged 
two Q.-F. guns to the left of this battery on some high ground 
connected with the fort. These guns did much execution among 
the Chinese, their gunners being driven away and their cannon 
thereupon captured. While this was being done, the Fourth 
Company of the First Eegiment of Eeserves marched to a 
village south of Kon-peh-tai. The Company was further ordered 
to act as a cover to the Naval Contingent until such time as the 
seamen should have finished landing. At 6.30 a. m. the Company 
began to move, and on the road encountered with the fugitive 
Chinese, with whom they had several minor skirmishes. After 


a Avhile they captured the village, driving the foe out at the 
bayonet's point. This village had been the camping ground of 
the Ching-hai Eight and Left Contingents, the local garrison 
being about 500 strong. Landing close by the village, a portion 
of the Naval Contingent then entered the Kon-peh fort. 

So soon as the Kon-peh fort had definitely fallen, the scat- 
tered Japanese forces re-assembled and began marching towards 
Ma-kon. The Second Company of the First Regiment of Reserves 
led the van. While on the road the troops were fired at by a 
fort on Yui-wang Island, but no damage was done, and Ma- 
kon-ching reached in safety. Delivering a fropt attack, the First 
Company stormed the encampment of the Chinese Island Infantry 
Contingent. At 11.10 a. m. the Second Company dashed through 
the gate of the fort, intending thereupon to divide into three 
sections and to attack the enemy from three sides at once. But 
the Chinese had already fled, only some thirty men remaining on 
the right-hand roadside. It speaks well for their courage that 
these thirty foot-soldiers made some show of resistance, despite 
the numerical superiority of the attacking forces. Yet this resis- 
tance lasted for only a few minutes, a bayonet-charge easily 
dispersing the little mob. Still farther on the Company fell in 
with another band of Chinese, perhaps 20 altogether, near a 
broad place known as Shui-leh-yong. These were likewise 
speedily driven back. The Chinese then retreated in the direc- 
tion of the north gate, or sea-coast forts. The Third Company 
occupied Shui-leh-ying and the Fourth the north-western end of 
the castle. By 11.50 a. m. the whole bourg of Ma-kon was in 
the imdisputed possession of the Japanese. 

On the same day the Naval Contingent, under Naval Com- 
mander Tanji Hiro-o, stormed a fort in the Yuan-ching peninsula, 
the Chinese making no effort whatever to defend themselves. 
About 500 of the enemy surrendered here. Two days later 
(March 26th), the seamen entered the forts on Yui-wang Island, 
where they found nothing but a letter which a native brought to 
them. The entire garrison had fled, and the letter stated that 
the forts were surrendered in to the hands of the Japanese. 

During the course of the fighting, the Japanese captured 8 
Chinese of either civil or military official rank, and took 47 


soldiers prisoners. The privates were afterwards given their 
liberty, but the presumptive officials were detained. 

The spoils taken by the Japanese were almost incomputably 
great. The first rough list gave the following result : — 
18 cannon ; 
2663 rifles ; 
1,043,190 rounds of ammunition ; 
797 casks of gunpowder ; 
3173 bags of explosive powder ; 
911 bags of rice, etc., etc. 
A Government Office and a Military Post Office were speedily 
built by the victorious troops, and Eear-Admiral Tanaka Tsuna- 
tsune was selected as Governor of the islands. He did many 
things in behalf of the natives, and soon succeeded in winning 
their respect and confidence. 

With the capture of the Pescadores Japan held the key to 
Southern China. She was undisputed mistress of the Chinese 
waters, and the whole great eastern littoral of the Empire was at 
her mercy. 



In our enumeration of the heroic deeds and valiant bearing of 
the Japanese, in their late great war with China, we are constrain- 
ed to make respectful reference to the noble part played by H. M. 
the Emperor of Japan. 

It was in September, 1894, that His Majesty left Tokyo for 
Hiroshima, that city becoming Head Quarters. There was no 
attempt at making even so much as a suitable temporary residence. 
One room, of about twenty mats in size, was hastily selected in 
one of the local barracks : unfurnished, save for a table and a 
chair, without any pretension to ease or comfort. In this 
cheerless and narrow apartment His Majesty lived for several 
months, working with tireless indefatigability and a spirit that 
was as unselfish as it was noble. Bising early in the morning. 
His Majesty would don the uniform of the Commander-in-Chief, 
nor was this uniform removed until late at night, the whole day 
being spent in the perusal of despatches, giving of orders, and 
general arrangement of the movements of the troops afield. There 
being an absolute lack of the ordinary conveniences of life, some 
Chamberlains one day proposed that a gallery should be built up 
beside the Chamber used by His Majesty. The Emperor w-xs 
offended at the mere, proposal. " Oar soldiers afield," observed 
His Majesty, " have to live in tents or are exposed to the elements 
and the buffets of wind and rain. Knowing this We find noth- 
ing to complain of in the smallness of these quarters." The plan 
was thus relinquished, and the Chamberlains were deeply moved 
by His Majesty's forbearance. 


Each morning, immediately upon rising, officials came who 
reported on the condition of the soldiers, and who had to 
reply to many eager and searching questions, all of which showed 
the profound interest taken by His Majesty in the welfare of the 
troops. After a hasty glance at the papers, His Majesty proced- 
ed to Head Quarters, there to receive reports and consult on all 
matters appertaining to the war : a task of tremendous magnitude 
and importance. Fearing that such continued assiduity might 
injure His Majesty's health, some Court attendants once begged 
the Emperor to go out and take a little exercise, but were met with 
the reply : " Thinking how great are the sufferings and privations 
are of Our soldiers in China, Our discomfort should be no cause 
for complaint." Indeed so tireless was His Majesty that meals 
were often curtailed or altogether neglected. Each night the 
midnight hour still found the Emperor at his desk, and from 
early morning till after noon the work Avas resumed. After a 
hasty repast at one p. m. work invariably continued till nightfall. 
No one in or out of the Army and Navy worked harder or more 
incessantly than did the Emperor of Japan. 

Nor could such labour fail to arouse enthusiastic devotion 
among all classes of the people. Every soldier, every sailor knew 
well that the Emperor was aware of everything that was going on; 
that His Majesty sympathised with his sufferings and priva- 
tions, and constantly endeavoured to alleviate his discomforts 
as far and as quickly as possible. And so all were inflamed by a 
spirit of exalted loyalty and courage : an intrepidity that knew 
no obstacle in its path : a spirit that passed with a cheer for 
His Majesty from the lips of the dying, — that made Japan 

invincible and supreme in the East. 

* * * 

* * 

Though for so many centuries a friend of Japan, the war at 
once severed all treaties and compacts of friendship between China 
and this Empire. The quondam good friends could meet nowhere 
except on the battle-field, amidst the roar of cannon and the iron 
hail of deadly missiles. Yet despite the declaration of war with 
China, His Majesty the Emperor of Japan felt no enmity for his 
foe. On the contrary, he pitied China's misfortunes and sympa- 
thised with the grief of her monarch throughout the war. One 


day, on receipt of despatches announcing a fresh victory and the 
fall of an important Chinese stronghold, the Emperor's first 
words were : " How great miist be the anxiety of the Chinese 
Sovereign ! " In all the exultation of triumph, His Majesty could 
thus feel for his one-time ally and friend. Greater magnanimity 
than this could not be shown. And witness again His Majesty's 
prompt consent to an armistice — until that time refused except 
upon large concessions on . the part of China — -as soon as the 
attempt on Ambassador Li's life was known: the profound 
sympathy expressed in many ways for the sufferer, the Imperial 
messengers constantly coming and going to inquire after the 
wounded man's progress towards recovery. AH these and a 
thousand other instances prove that the Imperial heart felt no 
rancor toward China ; that the Imperial desire was not for the 
aggrandisement of Japan, but for the restoration and preservation 
of peace in the Orient, and the planting of the standard of 
civilization on the shores of conservatism and irreconcilable 

.;f .;{. Jf 

■JJ- "Jf 

One of the branches of science in which His Majesty is 
peculiarly well versed is that of geography, and throughout the 
campaign the Emperor showed a surprisingly minute and accurate 
knowledge of the conformation of the territory through which the 
Japanese troops were so triumphantly passing. The large charts 
of the War Department were ever at his side, and whenever the 
news came of a fresh victory by land or sea. His Majesty would 
point • out the exact spot on the map long before his attendants 
could manage to " get their bearings." In this way His Majesty 
was acquainted with the exact disposition of the troops, the 
roads they might or should take, and the ease or difficulty of the 
march before them. Thanks, too, to this remarkably accurate 
knowledge, the Emperor would put searching and astute ques- 
tions to his officers concerning the details of every proposed 
movement with a skill and ready judgment that were the admira- 
tion of his Staff. 

# ^ -:f 

* » 

Most deeply appreciated by all classes of His Majesty's 
subjects, and particularly by the brave men of the Army and 


Navy, was the profound and abiding interest shown by the 
Emperor in the welfare and personal comfort of the troops 
engaged in the war. Each day minute inquiries were made, and 
everything humanly possible done, and done promptly, to assure 
the soldiers and sailors of Japan that their August Emperor was 
taking the liveliest interest in, and felt the deepest concern for, 
their wellbeing. Whenever a great victory was announced, both 
Emperor and Empress sent at once congratulatory and cheering 
telegrams to the victors ; or Imperial messengers were dispatched 
to assure the wearied men of the Imperial praise and satisfaction. 
But more than this : — From the very inception of the war, 
Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress were constantly 
devising plans to add to the welface and insure the content of the 
troops, particularly by sending generous and repeated gifts of 
the little home-comforts which mean so much to those afield 
and far from friends and relatives. Tens of thousands of packages 
of cigarettes were paid for out of the Privy Purse ; hundreds of 
tubs of sake — that ardent, sweet rice-spirit of which the Japanese 
are so fond — and thousands of boxes of biscuits, prepared by the 
best confectioners in the metropolis. Her Majesty the Empress, 
with the Ladies of her Court, was night and day employed in 
making bandages ; in putting up native delicacies, and despatch- 
ing them to the grateful troops afield. And when the wounded 
began to be brought to Hiroshima, the first to visit them was 
the Emperor, followed by his Imperial Spouse. He spoke 

directly to the wounded, in defiance of the pre-conceived and 
efiiete rules of Court etiquette ; cheered and consoled those whose 
sufferings were great : while the Empress shed tears of noble 
grief over those whose injuries were mortal and whose life was 
fast ebbing away. To the convalescents H. M. the Emperor sent 
the Imperial Band, to wile away the weary hours with strains of 
sweet or martial music. Those of general rank always had the 
honour of an Imperial audience prior to their departure for the -seat 
of war, during the course of which words of heartfelt encourage 
ment and lofty admonition always were addressed to them. 
Banquets were spread for the officers about to take ship, and all 
above the rank of Sub-lieutenant were allowed to sit and eat in 
the august presence of their revered Sovereign. When the war- 


ships-returned to Ujina bringing back officers and soldiers from 
the seat of war, His Majesty invariably sent messengers to convey 
the Imperial thanks for their services, and often these messengers 
bore gifts of value. 

And so it came that one and all, officers as well as men, were 
profoundly touched by, and inexpressibly grateful for, the 
Imperial benevolence. Here was, indeed, a Sovereign for whom 
it was not hard to die ! So each one was ever ready to sacrifice 
even life itself in the service of his Emperor and his country. 
It had been expected that the severe Manchurian winter would 
efiectually check the movements of the Jappanese troops : that 
their physique would not stand exposure to the rigour of a 
semi-arctic climate, after the mild winters and soft breezes of 
their own sweet land. But, imbued with such a spirit and 
knowing themselves fighting for such a lord and in such a cause, 
the men never faltered. The enthusiasm of grateful loyalty, of 
ardent patriotism, defied the bitter cold, the drifting snow and 
icy storms. The words "Por the Emperor!" "For our Country!" 
ever gave new strength, obliterated fatigue and made the warriors 
invincible. On one occasion, in January (1895), a reconnoitring- 
party had had a long march and been for hours in the snow, 
while a piercing wind seemed to freeze the very marrow in their 
bones. Fainting with fatigue and numb and drowsy with cold, 
some one began to call out "For the Emperor! " The words acted 
like an elixir : cold and fatigue, hunger and exposure, were at 
once and completely forgotten. With renewed vigour they re- 
sumed their toilsome march, acquitted themselves of their task, 
and rejoined their comrades in safety. 

Instances of like nature occurred every day. The dying 
whispered with their last breath : " Long live the Emperor ! " 
The wounded rejoiced in their honourable scars, won in so august 
a cause, for so dear, so great a Lord. And thus it was that the 
soldiers and sailors of Japan carried all before them. So well 
may Japanese essayists and poets claim that " all these triumphs 
are due to the virtues, the exalted spirit, of His Majesty the 




Immediately after the declaration of war ■with China, the 
Imperial Head Quarters {Dai Hon-ei) of both services were 
established within the Imperial Palace at Tokyo. H. M. the 
Emperor, as Commander-in-chief of both Army and Navy, was 

daily present at the delibera- 
tions of the Chiefs of Depart- 
ment, and personally attended 
to the administration of every- 
thing connected with the pro- 
secution of the War. 

With regard to the official 
management at Head Quarters, 
the highest officer was the 
Chief or President of the Gener- 
al Staff, H. I. H. Marshal Prince 
Arisugawa Taruhito, under 
whom was a large and complete 
staff of military and naval men. 
Most unfortunately His Im- 
perial Highness died before the 
War was over, on January 24th, 
1895. The place of the late 
Prince was then taken by H. I. 
H. Marshal Prince Komatsu 
Akihito. The Staff Officers at Head Quarters were Lieut- 
General Kawakami Soroku, for the Army; and Vice-Admiral 

H. I. H. Pbince Akistjoa-wa, 
CniEr op THE General Staff. 



Kabayama Sukeki, for the Navy. Under those two chiefs were 
a number of officers of lesser rank, ranging from Colonel to Sub- 
Lieutenant. Head Quarters moreover included the Bureau of 
Superintendence of tlie Commissariat ; the Bureau of Communica- 
tions ; the Chief Bureau of Military and Naval Sanitation ; and 
the Chief Bureau of Field Superintendence. The Heads of these 
various Bureaux were, — 

(1) Major-General Tera-uchi, Chief of Transport and Com- 
munications ; 

(2) Chief Army Inspector Noda, Chief of Field Superin- 
tendence ; 

(3) Chief Surgeon General Ishiguro, Chief of Military and 
Naval Sanitation ; 

(4) Lieut.-General Kawakami, Chief of the Bureau of 
Superintendence of the Commissariat (in addition to his other 

Besides the Heads of the Bureaux there were a number of 
Military and Naval Chamberlains and officers engaged in the 
Military and Naval Secret Service Bureau. Major-General Oka- 
zawa Sei was the Chief of both services. The Chief of all the 
officers at Head Quarters (at first 
H. I. H. Arisugawa Taruhito and 
thereafter H. I. H. Komatsu Aki- 
hito) also controlled the Adjutants' 
Department and the Department 
or Bureau of General Superinten- 
dence. The former Department 
discharged, with the exception of 
the conduct of the War, all mat- 
ters connected with the adminis- 
tration of Staff Officers ; while the 
latter was entrusted with the 
management of the gensdarmerie, 
the troops connected with the 
transport service, the Sanitary 
Corps, the preparation of encamp- 
ments and bivouacs, and the business supplying all things neces- 
sary to make the great work run on smoothly. 

Admibal Count Saigo. 


Marshal Count Oyama Iwao, Minister of State for War, was 
frequently present at the deliberations and councils of the various 
Heads. After the Marshal had gone to . the seat of the War, as 
Commander-in-chief of the Second Expeditionary Army, his place 
was, for a short time, taken by Admiral Count Saigo Tsugamichi, 
Minister of State for the Navy. Admiral Saigo was, in his turn, 
succeeded by Marshal Yamagata Aritomo. While the Marshal 
was still in Japan, he frequently attended the council in company 
with Admiral Saigo. 

But as the number of troops was constantly on the increase, 
all of these passing through Hiroshima on their way to Ujina, 
where they embarked, it was deemed advisable to remove Head 
Quarters to the southern city. This was done about the middle 
of September, 1894, the organisation of Head Quarters remaining 
the same. 

Towards the beginning of April, when peace was definitely 
restored between the two belligerent Empires, Head Quarters 
were removed to Kyoto. When the troops began to return from 
the front, Head Quarters were once again established in the 
Imperial Palace in Tokyo. On April 1st, Head Quarters were 
finally disestablished. 

l^Gerteralissimo' s Department.) 

The growth of the Armies in China kept steady pace with 
the development of the War, and, upon the close of the first term, 
— the Kinchow Peninsula, all Eastern and Central Manchuria, 
and Wei-hai-wei being in possession of the Japanese — a Genera- 
lissimo's Department was established, in March, 1895. This 
Department had immediate control of the whole Army and Navy 
in active service. As Generalissimo was selected H. I. H. 
Komatsu Akihito, then Chief of Staff of Head Quarters at Hiro- 
shima and President of the Council. His Imperial Highness was 
instructed to take one part of the whole Head Quarters organisa- 



tioii at Hiroshima and establish a similar Department in the 

occupied territorj. Leaving 

Ujina in the middle of April, 

the Generalissimo established 

himself at Port Arthur, there 

assuming chief command of 

the whole Army and Navy. 

The principal officers in these 

second Head Quarters were, 

(1) Lieut. -General 
Kawakami, Chief of Stafl; 
of the Army and Incum- 
bent of other offices ; 

(2) Vice-Admiral Ka- 
bayama, Chief of Staff of 
the Navy ; 

(3) Major-General Te- 
ra-uohi. Chief Superinten- 
dent of Communications 
and Transport ; 

(4) Surgeon General 
Ishiguro, Chief of Military 
Sanitation ; 

(5) Noda, Chief of Field Superintendence. 

It will be seen from the above that the organisation was the same 
with that of Principal Head Quarters at the first establishment. 
The Generalissimo's Department was afterwards abolished on 
May 18tli, all returning to the Principal Head Quarters at Kyoto. 
The officers composing the Generalissimo's Department left 
Hiroshima on April 13th. On this day, at 2.30 p.m., H. I. H. 
Marshal Prince Akihito, accompanied by Lieut. -General Kawa- 
Kami and Colonel Ofu, started from Hiroshima and shortly after- 
wards reached the temporary garrison at Ujina, where they were 
to embark. H, M. the Emperor, Commander-in-Chief, being con- 
cerned for the welfare of the Prince and the success of the expedi- 
tion, sent Chamberlain Hirobata with a farewell message and to 
make inquiries. A little while before the Prince's arrival at 
Ujina, the Chiefs of Departments and Bureaux and other high 

H. I. H. Pkince Komatsu, 
Chief op the Geneeal Staff. 


military and naval officers, — including Marshal Yamagata; Admiral 
Saigo ; Count Matsukata, Minister of State for Finance ; Major- 
General Kodama ; Division Commander Tamazawa ; Marquis 
Nabeshima ; the Governor of Hiroshima — as well as many civili- 
ans of high rank, went to the Ujina barracks to welcome the 
distinguished and imperial officer. Military bands, drawn up 
along the beach, discoursed stirring martial music, and the whole 
seaport was in gala. A cold collation was served on the Prince's 
reaching the barracks, and rousing cheers given for H. M. the 
Emperor, the Empire, and the success of the expedition. A 
launch was waiting for the Prince at the jetty, on the right side 
of which were arranged those who had come to bid the Generalis- 
simo farewell. More than ten transports, with the Ikai Maru, on 
board of which His Imperial Highness was to travel, carried the 
personale of the expedition, and these vessels Avere convoyed by the 
Chiyoda, Izumi and Tatsuta, all the transports and men-of-war 
being gaily decorated with bunting. It was a splendid sight. 
His Imperial Highness had permitted the Staff Officers of high 
rank to travel with him on the same vessel ; and when the Prince 
and his immediate followers left the jetty an imperial salute was 
fired by all the men-of-war in the port. The Generalissimo and 
officers belonging to the new Head Quarters started for the Ikai 
Maru. the Dai-ni * Kitre Maru taking them from the jetty at just 
4.40 p. m. As the Prince and his suite boarded the Ikai Maru 
another imperial salute was fired, while those officers who had 
already gone on board the Ikai Maru respectfully welcomed the 
Generalissimo. The Commander of every man-of-war in the 
harbour then paid a farewell visit to His Imperial Highness ; and 
at 5 p. m., the Prince, after giving his final messages to Marshal 
Yamagata and Admiral Saigo, ordered the fleet to start. 

The officers in the suite of the Prince were all such as hard 
connection with the new Department. These were Vice-Admiral 
Kabayama ; Lieut. -General Kawakami ; Major-Generals Tera-uchi 
and Tsuchiya ; Colonel Ofu ; Naval Captains Kakuda and Ishu-in; 
Lieut. -Colonel of Artillery Murata ; Infantry Lieu. -Colonel Tojo ; 
Engineer Lieut. -Colonel Watanabe ; Lieut.-Colonel Shiba, of the 

* Dai-ni means " Second." 


Artillery ; Engineer Major Fukuhara ; Lieut.-Commander Nakao ; 
Captains Yamagata, Yosliimura, Utsunonaiya, Oba, Osawa and 
Kurozawa ; Naval Captains Matsumoto, Saegi and Suzuki ; Chief 
Surgeon General Ishiguro ; Chief of Field Superintendence Noda ; 
First-class Surgeon Ochi-ai ; Military Eecord Compiler Yokoi ; 
and Secretary Yugawa of the Communications Bureau. As the 
fleet left the harbour, the GJiiyoda led, followed by the Ikai Maru. 
Then came the Izumi and Tatsuta. At 7 o'clock the next morning 
they arrived at Bakan (Shimonoseki). Mr. Suematsu Kencho, 
President of the Legislative Bureau, was already at Shimonoseki, 
and, on the arrival of the fleet, went with Vice-Admiral Kabayama 
on board the Ikai Maru and thereafter remained in the suite of 
His Imperial Highness. Port Arthur was reached early in the 
morning of April 18tli. 




So soon as the Tonghak Rebellion in Korea had reached 
such proportions that apprehensions were entertained for the 

safety of Japanese citizens and 
their property in the Peninsula, 
the Government resolved, on June 
4th, to send thither a Mixed Bri- 
gade in order to supply the need- 
ed protection. On June 5th Head 
Quarters were established, and 
these included a Chief Field Medi- 
cal Department, to which Dr. 
Ishiouro Chu-toku was appointed 
as Chief Military Surgeon. The 
Department or Bureau included one 
surgeon, one medical officer, and 
one clerk. On this same day, the 
Ninth Brigade of Infantry, which 
was to be included in the Mixed 
Brigade, set out, a competent medical staff following. The 
Sanitary Corps was also brought into order, and all things apper- 
taining to the health of the soldiers promptly put into working 
action. The Medical and Sanitary Corps had, before setting out, 
an address delivered them by Chief Surgeon Ishiguro, wherein 
their manifold duties were ably explained and emphasized. 


Chief Sukgeon General 
De. Ishigtjeo. 


•" Wheu a military expedition is sent abroad," said he, " the 
medical staff is charged with a duty far more important than 
ordinary. The troops also look to us with a much greater sense of 
our necessity. So now you, gentlemen, Avho have devoted your 
lives to this profession, ought to have a thorough appreciation of 
your responsibility and its glory. You have had practical 
•experience in the South-western Rebellion and the Formosan 
War ; you have had careful training for ten years ; now let us put 
the result of our accumulated experience into practice. In treating 
the sick and wounded new and most dextrous curative methods 
have been discovered. It now remains for you to leave a model 
record for the next generation, while you are in service abroad : 
whether it be during the transporting of the troops across the seas 
or while our brave soldiers are in actual conflict. Let the medical 
military record of 1894-1895 shine to all future time ! " Besides 
this the Surgeon General gave minute instructions with regard to 
diet, clothing, lodging, sickness, what each one should take, and 
some dozen other matters. A Medical Corps was added to the 
surgeons belonging to the Brigade, then about to start. In com- 
mand of this Corps was a Captain, one Lieutenant and one Sub- 
Lieutenant. The Corps itself consisted of 8 surgeons, one medical 
officer, one paymaster, 39 now-commissioned officers and sanitary 
men, 71 privates, 290 stretcher bearers, these having 51 horses, 2 
chests of medicals and 2 tents. An Ambulance Corps was also 
included, consisting of one Chief Director (a military surgeon of 
the second class), and the following Staff : — 

Surgeons 5 

Medical Officer 1 

Paymaster 1 

Non-commissioned officers and rank and file 50 
Other soldiers 50 

This Corps took with them, 

Horses 44 

Medicine chests 12 

Tents 4 

Altogether the Ambulance Corps was able to accomodate a 
maximum of 200 patients at one time. Included with the actual 
£ghting body were the Medical Corps and a Field Lazaret belong- 


ing to it. In the Commissariat were the Beserve Medical Corps, 
a Corps whose duty was to look after the transport of sick men, 
and a Beserve Medical Department. The Medical Corps of each 
Division thereafter sent to the scene of the war, was constituted 
in the above explained manner. The hospital attached to each 
Division, the staff of which invariably set out with the Division it- 
self, was made a garrison or military hospital, to which patients were 
sent in from the field lazaret. The chief military hospital was rear 
the Commissariat Head-quarters at Hiroshima. Sick or wounded 
mere sent back from Korea or China were first received here and 
after sent on to some other Divisional Hospital for final convales- 
cence. The number of patients admitted to the Hiroshima 
Hospital from July 8th, 1894 to September 9th, 1 896, twenty-two 
months in all, reached the great total of 73,000. During this 
period H. M. the Empress once paid a special visit to the Hospital, 
and personally inquired of the patients as to their condition, to 
the latter's unbounded gratification. Upon every divisional hos- 
pital becoming exceedingly busy, Surgeon-General Ishiguro asked 
the Japan Bed Cross Society to send a number of workers 
to these places. The Bed Cross was not slow in replying to this 
appeal and sent forward the following large body : 







Male Nurses 


Female Nurses 


Total 442 

Besides doing this, the Bed Cross Society sent out directly, to 
the scene of the war, 97 physicians and 290 nurses, these being 
particularly engaged in looking after the sick and wounded during 
transportation from one place to another or back to Japan. The 
Bed Cross therefore supplied altogether 829 skilled doctors and 
nurses : an excellent record. 

In the carrying of the wounded from the battle-field back to 
Japan, ordinary transports or other special vessels were employed, 
in accordance with the severity of the injuries sustained by the 
sufferers. Certain vessels were supplied with special surgeons 


and medical attendants. Of actual " hospital-ships " there were 
five or six only. On each of these were — 

1 Director, 

2-6 Physicians, 

1 Medical Officer, 

and a varying number of non-commissioned officers and privates 
belonging to the Sanitary Corps. The ships were further sup- 
plied with all sorts of surgical instruments and medical materials; 
so that they not only served as transports but as actual hospitals. 
In case of necessity any patient could receive proper treatment on 
board, and for this propose the vessels could go to any port what- 
ever. In each harbour visited by these ships there were temporary 
hospitals to receive patients sent from the front and waiting to be 
conveyed elsewhere. Here they occasionally waited for some time 
and received skilful medical treatment before going on to any of 
the larger garrison hospitals. These were, therefore, sanitary 
stations midway between the hospital ships and the garrison 
hospitals, and were under the control of the surgeons belonging 
to the harbour staff. 

The Commissariat line in Korea extended for 294 miles, viz. 
from the landing-place of the troops on Korean soil to the confines 
of Manchuria proper. At several points along this long line were 
hospital stations for those whose wounds were of such a nature as 
to forbid their conveyance to a distance. The principal of these 
stations were at Wiju, Yongchun, Chang-jam, Phyong-yang, 
Yongshan, Tehku, Chemulpho, Fusan and Kuinpho in Korea ; and 
Punghwang-ching (Antung Province), Haiching, Taku-shan, and 
Siuyen-ching in China. The roads in both Korea and China being 
very bad and traversing an irregular and mountainous country, carts 
o]' wagons could be used in exceptional cases only, so that the 
conveying of sick and wounded from one place to another was a 
most difficult task. Moreover, during the campaign in Korea the 
heat was excessive. There were neither shade-trees nor springs 
along the road-sides, and owing to the lazy, in active nature of 
the Korean coolies it was next to impossible to bring up those 
who had fallen behind. For these reasons so many hospitals or 
sanitary stations had to be established along the line of the Com- 
missariat : a vast and most arduous undertaking. 


The Japanese Armies remained from first to lost for fully two 
years in unhealthy, often fever-ridden, regions. Yet those who 
fell victims to epidemics or endemic diseases, were unexpectedly 
few in number. Among the chief disorders were dysentery, of 
which 5381 men sickened ; cholera, with 1592 victims ; and ab- 
dominal typhus, with 1118 cases. Cholera raged particularly in 
and about Kinchow, while dysentery was prevalent in Korea. 
Abdominal typhus was more or less prevalent everywhere. 

With regard to the number of those killed or wounded in 
battle, or of those who subsequently died of their injuries, statis- 
tics are still being compiled. At all events there were no less 
than ten battles in which the Japanese lost above 100 in killed. 
The most sanguinary field was that of Phyongyang. Here the 
battle raged for 22 hours, i. e. from 5 a.m. of September 15th to 
4 p. m. of the 16th. The total loss in killed was 698. Then come 
the fiercely-contested fields of Kangwasae and Newchwang. The 
former lasted four hours only : from 1.30 p.m. to 4 p.m. of Decem- 
16th. Yet there were no less than 409 killed or wounded in this 
short space of timci. At Newchwang, including the street-fighting, 
the battle continued from 10.55 a.m. of March 4th to 8 a.m. of 
the following day. Here 384 were either killed or wounded. 

The Chinese used fully ten different kinds of rifles. Some 
were old fire-locks, relics of the last century ; while others were 
light Mauser rifles of recent and excellent construction. Between 
these two limits were to be found eight or more different types, 
presenting a panorama of the history of fire-arms for the last two 
centuries. "What kind of wounds the bullets of these clumsy 
weapons inflicted, is better imagiued than described. 

Throughout the War there was no battle or engagement iti 
which the Japanese failed to render assistance to the Chinese 
wounded. This was most striking at Phyongyang and New- 
chwang. In the former battle only two of the Japanese field 
lazarets were able to come up in time, as their progress had been 
obstructed by the overflow of the river. These two were thus 
exceptionally busy and seemed crowded to the utmost, yet they 
made room for the hundreds of Chinese wounded. And in treat- 
ing the enemy's injured, both here and elsewhere, the strictest 
impartiality was observed. Chinese officers were, in accordance 



with their rank, ^\6n the same treatment as that accorded to 
Japanese officers of like rank. The broad humanitarian rules 
laid down by the famous Geneva Convention were followed 
throughout by the Japanese ; so a passing mention of the fact is 
all that is necessary. The Chinese, on the other hand, exhibited 
the crassest ignorance of civilised warfare, and were supremely 
ungrateful for the kindness shown them. Knowing little or 
nothing of the real intentions of their conquerors, they frequently 
refused to be medically treated, and were not only discourteous in 

Scene in the Couetyabd of a Commissabiat (Gaekison) Hospital attached 
TO THE Second Aemy Cokps. 

their behaviour but even made freqiient attacks on the tTapanese 
Sanitary Corps and field lazarets. The Chinese wounded sent 
over to Japan and treated in the hospitals there were visited by 
H. M. the Empress, questioned as to their condition by this great 
lady, and nursed by the highest ladies in the land. After peace 
had been restored, the Chinese convalescents were sent back, 
together with the other Chinese prisoners, to their native land, 
two Japanese surgeons attending them until the last moment. 
Still more : when H. M. the Empress made gifts of artificial limbs 


to those Japanese who had had arms, legs or feet amputated in 
consequence of their wounds, similar presents were given to nine 

Throughout the campaign the Japanese troops acted with the 
utmost kindness and honesty to the natives of the occupied or 
conquered territory. There was never any looting nor the least 
suspicion of tyrannical or overbearing conduct. The troops 
always paid the full market-price of whatever they bought. And 
so it not strange that the natives not only speedily became recon- 
ciled to the new regime but even loudly expressed their regret 
when the troops were ultimately withdrawn. The Japanese 
surgeons, with true philanthropy, did not limit their ministrations 
to the forces, but in both Korea and Manchuria treated sick 
natives in their own homes and without thought of reward. Se- 
veral hospitals were established for this purposes, and everywhere 
medical service was cheerfully rendered for the sake of sweet 
charity. A little couplet that was heard everywhere during the 
war-months, gives an insight into the popular feeling : — 

" The most fearful thing under Heaven is the yellow cap ; 

The most venerable thing under Heaven is the green cap " — 
in allusion to the fact that the soldiers wore two broad yellow 
stripes about their forage caps, while the members of the Medical 
Corps had green stripes. 

Towards the latter third of the month of October, 1894, the 
Japanese were in possession of both sides of the Kiver Yalu, the 
enemy having been driven back of the Manchurian frontier. The 
season now began to grow intensely cold, quite beyond any- 
thing to wliich the Japanese had hitherto been accustomed. From 
this time on the troops had to do all their work and fighting in 
the deep snow, while they marched along often precipitous and 
always icy roads. Before the winter season fairly set .in, Chief 
Surgeon General Ishiguro gave minute directions regarding the 
preservation of the health of the forces during the cold months. 
Each surgeon or member of the Sanitary Corps was provided with 
written instructions relating to the treatment of frost-bite, the way 
in which frozen liquid medicines should be made serviceable, the 
style of clothing to be adopted, and the rescue of those on the 
point of freezing to death. Those who went through the Man- 


cliurian campaign say that the cold was beyond description by 
either pen or tongue. Foreign correspondents who followed the 
march of the victorious Armies narrate that the ink would freeze 
in their pens as they wrote. The report of the Chief Surgeon of 
the Third Division, writing from Haiching in January, 1895, is very 
interesting reading in this connection. He says that the average 
temperature at Haiching during this midwinter month was 8.3° 
below freezing-point (25.7° Fahrenheit). The lowest point reached 
was +2° Fahrenheit, or 30° below freezing. In Kangwasae, for 
example, the numerous deaths among the Japanese troops were 
caused quite as much by the intense cold as the bullets of the 
enemy. Altogether the troops suffered the utmost hardships in 
Manchuria ; and that despite all this they went on, without falter- 
ing, from victory to victory, is greatly to their honour and to the 
unending credit of the Medical Corps. 

AVe cannot close this brief record without reference to the 
general health of the victorious Armies. In January of 1895 
cholera broke out at Talien and on board the transports. For this 
reason, strict investigations were made into the sanitary condition 
of the forces. Saintary Committees were established at Talien, 
Port Arthur and Yingkow, and these made stringent rules for the 
two services, disinfection being everywhere insisted upon. A 
temporary Sanitary Department was specially established for the 
soldiers afield ; while in Japan besides the ordinary disinfecting 
stations other stations were opened in all important harbours. 
The principal disinfecting station was on M Island. Here an 
average of 6000 men were disinfected daily. ij^ltogether 
150,000 men were subjected to disinfection, including soldiers and 
coolies. Everything coming from the infected ports \yas treated 
in like fashion : instruments, ships and all, particularly clothing 
and baggage. Every soldier's kit was covered with disinfectants 
or subjected to so great a degree of heat as to kill the disease- 
germs. And so, despite the prevalence of epidemics abroad, the 
diseases did not find their way to Japan. 



We have already narrated the excellent manner in which the 
Japanese residents in Chemulpho aided the military operations of 
their country's troops in Korea. It was not, however, the men 
only who lent their willing aid ; the Japanese ladies in the port 
also did good service as volunteer nurses, winning golden opinions 
for themselves. At first three ladies — Mesdames Mitsui Taka, 
Kawabara Asa and Uchiyama Ishi — enrolled themselves as nurses 
in the Garrison Hospital at Manlichang, close by the capital 
Seoul. The need of such nurses was very greatly felt at the time; 
and these three ladies were indefatigable in administering to the 
wants of the wounded. On September 3rd, 1894, they went on to 
the Garrison Hospital in Chemulpho, taking a number of wounded 
men with them. And there they continued to work until the 25th 
of the same month, to the outspoken gratitude of the sufferers. 

Mesdames Sato Kotobuki, Kojima Hama, Takahashi Ken and 
Shimada Fuji also served in the Manlichang Garrison Hospital, — 
from August 25th to September 25th. At the time of the fighting 
at Songhwan and Asan the hospital was filled with patients, so 
that there was no room to receive new-comers. So these brave 
ladies marched to the field lazarets at the above-named places and 
there continued to work with matchless fidelity ; nursing the sick 
and wounded ; preparing medicines and cooking food ; mending 
clothing ; even acting as washerwomen, and in all quite regard- 
less of their own personal discomfort and fatigue. It is largely 
owing to their excellent nursing that so large a percentage of the 
wounded promptly became convalescent. 




Immediately after the outbreak, of the War, a Field Postal 
and Savings Bank Service was established under the supervision 
of the £tappe or Commissariat Department. The manner in 
which the service was established and carried on to a successful 
issue, is unique in the history of the Orient, and for this reason, 
if for no other, the service deserves a special chapter. The terri- 
tory covered by the service was of ever-increasing magnitude ; yet 
the number of men engaged in the work was very limited, owing 
to the rules affecting the work done in the rear or wake of the 
victorious armies. Everything was done in the most methodical 
and yet diligent manner. There was no hitch throughout, and the 
service proved an inestimable born to the military and naval 
forces, keeping them in constant touch with their friends and 
relatives in the homeland. 


With the establishment of the Field Post, the first necessity 
was to bring about a connection with the Domestic Postal Service, 
in order that everything might run smoothly. The next step was 
to inaugurate a Field Parcel Post, which should be as simple and 



convenient as possible. And so at length the Official Field Postal 
Service Department was established, under the direct supervision 
of the Staif at Head-Quarters. The Head of the new office was 
Secretary Yugawa Kwankichi, of the Department of Communica- 
tions. After drawing up regulations for the keeping of good 
working order in both services, the Field Post was made depend- 
ent upon the orders of the Department of Communications. 

As direct despatching offices, 
the post offices of Hiroshima and 
Shimonoseki were selected in the 
first instance, all parcels intended 
for the front having to pass 
through one of these two. After 
the Japanese had occupied the 
Pescadores, the Saseho post office 
was added to the list. On the 
other hand, there was no definite 
terminus for either letters or 
parcels : the Army and Navy being 
constantly on the move. The 
choice of stations on the field was 
therefore left to the Head of the 
Department. The work was 
specially difficult in the case of 
the Navy, for the men-of-war were ever on the move, here to-day 
and there to-morrow. At the time, moreover, the waters about 
Korea and Northern China were not yet free from the presence of 
the liostile fleet. For the sake of safety, therefore, parcels had to 
be sent first to Fnsan and thence over-laud in a roundabout 
fashion. The anxiety and many duties of the postal agents can be 
better imagined than described. At the beginning of hostilities, 
letters and parcels sent from Hiroshima and Shimonoseki were 
forwarded to Chemulpho and Fusan. After the taking of Phyong- 
yang and the repulse of the Chinese by the first Expeditionary 
Army, as well as the great victory at sea off Haiyang Island, much 
of the elements of risk and difficulty was removed. Postal matter 
for the troops between Seoul and Fusan was sent chiefly via 
Fusan ; while that intended for the forces in Chemulpho, Seoul 

Mr. Yugawa Kwankichi. 


andPhyongyang possed througli Chemulpho and Ul-6n-toiig safely 
and expeditiously. After taking possession of Kiulien-cliing, 
Fiingliwang-ching and Antung, a new direction for the transmittal 
of postal matter had to been decided upon. Had all letters, etc., 
intended for the region between Phyongyang and the Yalu been 
forwarded via Ul-6n-tong, much inconvenience would have been 
experienced with the overland transport Kuinpho was therefore 
selected as the office for the collection and transmission of all 
postal matter. But now the winter season set in and the harbours 
of Kuimpho and Ul-6n-tong began to freeze over ; and so, though 
there was no longer anything to be apprehended from the enemy, 
the Field Postal Service was greatly hindered by this severe 
weather and everything had once again to be sent overland from 
Chemulpho, until the days grew milder. Long before that time 
came around the Second Army had landed in the Kinchow Penin- 
sula, Port Arthur had fallen and the Japanese Fleet was riding in 
the deep waters of that great harbour. Then Talien was made 
the chief despatching and distributing office, close by the place 
where the Second Expeditionary Army had landed. By this time 
the First Army Corps had already crossed the Motien Pass. The 
line of the Field Post was therefore one of great length, and com- 
munications with the extreme front were almost entirely cut off, 
owing to the extreme cold and frozen roads. Letters and parcels 
where collected at Hwayang-kau, but nothing could be forwarded 
to the First Army men from this point. Finally, when the route 
between Taku-shan and Talien was opened and the ice in the 
harboury of Ul-6n-toug melted, the line of postal communication 
was completed in its entirety. 

When in January and Feburuary of 1895, the Second Army 
in combination with the Fleet made the memorable attack on 
Wei-hai-wei, all postal matter intended for that Army went direct 
to Tingching Bay; while that for the Fleet was transmitted in the 
first instance to Talien and thence forwarded direct, as at the time 
there was no regular service to or from Port Arthur. In the mean- 
while the First Army had taken Siuyen-ching, Tomuh-ching and 
Haiching, the latter victory being followed immediately by the 
capture of Wei-hai-wei and the surrender of the Peiyang Squadron. 

The gate to the Gulf of Pechili was herewith in Japanese 


possession ; yet the enemy at Newchwang and Tingkow still kept 
up a stubborn fight. And for this reason all postal matter for the 
First Army in or about Haiching and Kaiping, had to be sent the 
long distance overland from Talien and Port Arthur. So soon, how- 
ever, as the 'longshore ice had melted, the Japanese mail steamers 
were able to enter any port on the Korean littoral or that of the 
Liaotung Peninsula ; and at each port a postal receiving office was 
established. All letters, etc., going to the first Army were 
forwarded via Talien and Takushan. Communication became 
much easier and more rapid, and from this time on everything 
went very smoothly. The full strength of the Japanese Armies 
being concentrated at Newchwang, Yingkow and Tienchwangtai, 
letters and parcels for these regions were forwarded to Tingkow 
via Port Arthur and Talien. 

On the removal of the Head Quarters of the forces in China to 
Port Arthur, the Chief Bureau of the Field Postal Service went 
thither. The connection between the Field Post and the Imperial 
Japanese Post at home became henceforth more regular and better 
cared for. And this was very necessary at the time, for the Field 
Postal Service had never been so busy nor had so many demands 
made upon it. 

After the Treaty of Peace was concluded, and Head 
Quarters disestablished at Port Arthur, a part of the Japanese 
Armies (including the Imperial Body-guard), went to Formosa, 
which China had ceded to Japan. The Chief Office of the Field 
Postal Service was thereupon opened at Keelung, the line after- 
wards running to Tamsui and Takow. 

Although in consequence of certain provisions in the Treaty 
of Peace the larger portion of the troops was withdrawn from 
Liaotong and Korea, only small local garrisons being left, the 
territory covered by the Field Postal Service remained much the 
same as before : connecting the home offices with Wonsan, Fusan, 
Chemulpho, Ul-6n-tong, Takushan, Talien- wan, Port Arthur, "Wei- 
hai-wei, and Yingkow. The service was kept up until the last 
garrison had been withdrawn from Shinking (Manchuria) and the 
Kinchow or Liaotong Peninsula. The Wei-hai-wei line, however, 
remained much longer in activity, and is still in operation at the 
time of writing. 



The first tMng to be done in establisHng the Field Postal 
Service, was to unite it with the Home Post and see that the com- 
munication with the Central Department was kept up. The 
regulations bearing upon this connection of the two Services were 
drawn up by Mr. Yugawa, Chief of the Field Postal Bureau; 
while their enforcement was looked after by the Chief of the 
Military Post. As Chief Secretaries of the Military Post were 
installed Mr. Hagiwara YosHnori (for the First Army), a Secreta- 
ry Qcbtb-han) of the Department of Communications, and 
Professor Tanaka Sadakichi (for the Second Army), one of the 
instructors of the Postal and Telegraphic School at Tokyo. The 
post office clerks, etc., 129 in number, were selected from among 
the Imnnin (third grade) officials of the Department of Com- 
munications ; while 194 postmen or carriers were chosen from 
among those on duty at home. After the cession of Formosa, one 
Chief Director ; 2 Inspectors ; 128 postal clerks ; and 235 carriers 
were sent to that island. 

Thus the total personale of the Field Post Service during the 
War and the tranquillization of Formosa, was : — 

First Director of Posts 1 

Chief Directors 3 

Inspectors 12 

Postal Clerks 257 

Carriers 429 

Total 702 


The number of miles traversed or covered by the postal lines 
connected with the Field Postal Service, were : — 

In Korea 610 miles ; 

In the Liaotung Peninsula 708 miles ; 


In Formosa 264 miles; 

In Formosa (by rail) 37 miles ; 

Total 1619 miles. 


Of post-offices there were 74 in all, distributed as follow : — 

In Korea 9 

In the Liaotung Peninsula 35 

In Formosa and the Pescadores 30 

Total 74 

During the transportation of the Second Army, an unprecedented 
step was taken in opening a floating post-office on board the Nippon 
Yusen Kwaisha's s. s. Nagato Maru. 

The carrying of postal matter was done principally by quali- 
fied postmen, but when^ — as often happened — there was a lack of 
trained men, coolies were made do this important duty. Where 
the roads were good or at all convenient, carts piilled by either 
horses or oxen were employed. But as most of the roads in 
Korea, China and Formosa were mere paths and unfit for vehicles, 
this mode of conveyance was rarely possible. The post-offices on 
the Korean and Liaotung littorals kept up communication with 
each other by means of mail steamers. In Formosa only was 
there a short railway line of 37 miles. 

The utmost skill was employed in simplifing and hastening the 
methods of collecting and distributing postal matter, letters, etc.; 
those forwarded to or from one detachment being always brought 
together in the same place. Yet as the Armies were constantly on 
the move, great inconvenience was frequently experienced. 

The total amount of postal matter received or sent out by the 
various post-offices, was as follows — 
Eeceived 5,332,686 

Distributed 7,066,852 

The number of letters, parcels, etc., passing through the hands of 
each postal official, averaged 48,247. 


With regard to the ex-change and postal savings bank 
services, the amount of money exchanged was 6,053,987 yen and 
71 sen ; while the amount deposited in the savings banks was no 
less than 672,064 yen, 16 sen and 7 rin. These figures show how 
great a convenience the two services proved to the Armies afield- 
Being moreover entrusted with the handling of the funds used for 
the Armies and Fleet, we find that the Field Postal Service handl- 
ed altogether six million yen in this way. There is no need to 
further emphasize the importance and excellence of the Field 
Post, or the skill with which the Service was conducted. It 
proved in every direction a boon. 




No history of the War could be called complete or even 
satisfactory without reference to the great part played in this 
memorable conflict by the Nippon Yusen KabusJdki Kaislia or 
"Japan Mail Steamship Company." This remarkable Company 
originated in an amalgamation of the older Mitsubishi Kaislia 
and Kybdb Unyu Kaisha. The former was established by the 
late Mr. Iwasaki Yataro, one of Japan's wealthiest and most 
progressive citizens, and did good service in the Formosan Expedi- 
tion of 1874 and the Satsuma or South-western Rebellion (1877), 
The business of the Company rapidly growing, from short voyages 
between the principal Japanese ports the steamers began to ply as 
far south as Shanghai, or north as Vladivostock. Success follow- 
ed the new ventures, prosperity attending the Company with the 
steadily growing trade of Japan. Soon it was seen that the 
Company's fleet, though numerous, could not keep pace with the 
country's commercial needs ; and so, in 1882, another Companj- 
was founded, under the style of the Ki/odo Unyu Kaislia 
(" Union Steam Navigation Company"). Under subsidy from the 
Government, the Kybdb Unyu grew apace, the ships being con- 
structed with a view to serve as cruisers or jnilitary transports in 
case of need. 

The two Companies were now rivals, each doing everything 
possible to attract the good will of the public. New ships were 
built abroad, rates cut do^wn to a minimum, especiallj' in the 
passenger-traffic, and the number of ports visited gradually 


increased until, in 1885, the disadvantages of this ruinous 
competition grew too apparent, and a combination was, after 
much discussion, determined upon. The capitals of the two 
Companies were made a joint concern, and in October, 1885, 
the Nippon Yuseh Kaisha was established under most favour- 
ble anguries for future success. 

The beneficial results accruing from this combination were at 
once apparent. The carrying-trade increased rather than fell off, 
and the Company's vessels were sent regularly to Hongkong, 
Manila, then to Bombay, and finally the 7000 miles' voyage to 
Australia. We may note, in passing, that a regular monthly service 
to Great Britain, by way of the Canal, was begun in March of the 
present year and a trans-Pacific monthly service, to Seattle, in July. 
The Bombay route was opened in 1893, when the Company entered 
the lists in competition with the Peninsular and Oriental Company. 
The results have been eminently satisfactory. In 1894 when the 
Tonghak Rebellion broke out in Korea and it became necessary to 
send troops to the " still- vexed " Peninsula, the then President, the 
late Mr. Yoshikawa Taijiro, in the Company and Mr. Kondo Bem- 
pei, then Vice President, did much to encourage the work, and the 
Company supplied the Government with all the necessary transports 
and still managed to keep up the coast-wise voyages. With the 
outbreak of the war between the two Empires, the Company found 
that its large fleet was still too small. Ships were bought up, 
some of the most famous clippers of the China tea-fleet enter- 
ing the Company's service ; while others well known for their speed 
and carrying capacity, were chartered. In this way the shipping 
of the tens of thousands of soldiers to Korea and Manchuria was 
a,ccomplished without hitch and without loss of time, the regular 
services being still kept up, continuously. This is certainly a 
most creditable showing, and high testimony in behalf of the 
Company's patriotic ardor. 

According to statistics under date of September 30th, 1895, 
the Company possessed sixty-six steamships and other vessels, 
with a tonnage of 135,755 tons.* Of these eleven, of 34,558* tons in 
all, were the vessels entrusted to the Company for management by 
the Government. Besides the above, there were 24 smaller 
• Fractions of a ton omitted. 



vessels, amounting to 655 tons,* and four store-ships of a total 
tonnage of 1079.* In the Company's offices on shore there were 
379 employes, while 757 others were afloat. Since June, 1894, 
the Company had purchased 22 steamers, 21 of which were above 
2000 tons register. From these facts can be understood how 
greatly the Company's trade was expanded during and imme- 
diately after the War. 

The names of the chief officials of this truly great concern 
are as follow : — 

President and Managing Director, Kondo Kempei; Vice- 
President and Managing Director, Kato Masayoshi. 


Sonoda Kokichi Shoda Higoro 
Nakamigawa Hikojiro 
Shibusawa Ei-ichi 
Asada Masabumi 
Morioka Masazumi. 


Abe Taizo Arishima Takeshi 

To those unacquainted with 
names in Japan, it may be in- 
teresting to note that the above 
list includes some of the largest 
capitalists and wealthiest business- 
men in the Empire. 
Me. Kondo Eempei 


It was on June 4th, 1894, or more than seven weeks before 
the actual outbreak of hostilities, that the Government directed 
the Company to furnish, without loss of time, ten ships for trans- 
port duty. The Directors of the Company received the order and 
immediately set to work, with prudence as well as enthusiasm. 
The necessary ships should, they affirmed, be at the port of Ujina 
* Fractions of a ton omitted. 


by the specified date. It was decided that five steamers should 
be withdrawn from those plying along the eastern coast ; three 
from those visiting ports on the western littoral ; and the remain- 
ing two taken from the extra vessels. Telegrams were at once 
despatched to the captains of the steamers in question, with orders 
to land passengers and discharge freight at the nearest port ; to 
take in sufficient coal and provisions for ten days ; and then to 
rendezvous at the appointed port of Ujina. Some of the vessels 
called for were more than 1000 miles away from Ujina at the time 
the messages were despatched; yet not only Avere the orders 
carried out to the letter but the vessels foregathered in Ujina as 
many as three days before the appointed time. This was the 
first step towards sending an Army to Korea. The troops which 
landed at and practically took possession of Inchhon, the gate of 
ths Korean Capital, were borne across the Sea of Japan in these 
vessels. The whole transportation of troops, stores, warlike 
material, etc., occupied one fortnight only. That this was done 
promptly and without mishap is proof of the excellent organiza- 
tion of the Company and its splendid discipline. Without these 
two factors, things would not have on gone so smoothly. Im- 
mediately upon the conclusion of the War, Mr. Yoshikawa Taijiro. 
President of the Company, died, greatly regretted by all. Mr, 
Kendo Eempei succeeded to the presidency, and the business was 
thenceforth carried on in a still more comprehensive manner, 
arrangements being made to open regular services between Japan 
and Great Britain and Japan and the United States. 


So soon as war was definitely declared between the two Empires 
(August 1st, 1894), the necessity for prompt transportation of 
troops, animals and all war-material was very great. For Japan, 
though an Island Empire and thus accessible on all sides, was at 
no time in danger of a Chinese invasion. The enemy had more 
than enough to do at home. And now any mistake, however 
trivial, might seriously effect the fortunes of Japan. In these 


critical and exciting days the Company worked with wonderful 
skill, ardent patriotism and untiring energy. Not only did it 
keep up the regular service along the coasts, but it managed or 
controlled almost the whole of the transport service. To do this 
the steamers plying between the various ports of Japan were 
requisitioned for Government service, while other foreign vessels 
were hastily chartered for the regular duties in home waters. 
The employes of the Company both on land and afloat in these 
days truly laboured with giant strength and unselfish devotion to 
the cause. And so it came that each of the countless tasks was 
not only done but well and speedily done. 

At the time there were in the Company's employ about 800 
Japanese officials, and over 200 foreigners; if the total of the 
other employes be added to this — the tallymen, carpenters, 
sailors, and stokers, — the number of men was 4000 ; and if we 
finally add the coolies employed in loading and unloading, the 
whole number comes to more than 10,000. 

As the Army increased and the territory occupied or subdued 
grew larger, still greater claims were made on the Company's 
energy, skill and patriotism. All ships above 1000 tons burden 
were now engaged in Government work, yet the number of vessels 
was still found insufficient, and steamers of less than 1000 ton- 
nage had to be requisitioned. The Company then owned 44 
vessels (of 69,256 tons) and two others which had been contracted 
for, of 5789 and 3224 tons respectively. Nearly every one of 
these ships was now doing Government work. Even this num- 
ber, the Company feared, might be less than necessary, so 
nine other ships, of a total of 22,926 tons, were at once bought, 
and, without exception, put to Government use. Justly sup- 
posing, however, that other vessels would shortly be required, the 
War Department desired to "have 25,000 tons and the Navy 
Department 18,000 tons in addition to the fleet of transports then 
employed. The new vessels were required of the Company, 
under certain stipulations, within the course of one or two 
months. This was a matter of the first importance and admitted 
of no delay ; so the wires were set in motion and telegrams sent 
to all parts of the world for the purchase of the necessary vessels. 
Money was of no consideration where the reputation if not the 


fate of the Empire was at stake. The cables carried swift re- 
plies, and the ships were brought out and handed over to the 
authorities well within the stipulated limit of the time. Thus 
14 ships of 41,334 tons were now added to the transport service. 
These the Company did all possible to man promptly, but as the 
supply of native-born sea-faring men was far below the limit at 
this time, the decks and engine-rooms were filled with foreigners, 
while the forecastles and stoke-holes were manned by sailors and 
fire-men brought forward by the Nippon Kai-in Eki-sei Kivai, or 
Japan, Sailors Home ; and so the difficulty was tided over. 

As will be seen from the above data, the total number of 
vessels supplied to the Government, was 59, of 134,243 tons. 
From other sources the authorities obtained 112,618 tons. 
Compared with these figures, it is clear that the Nippon Yusen 
Kivaisha did six-tenths of the whole carrying. If, however, we 
consider the speed of the Company's fleet and the actual number 
of troops sent across the waters in their vessels, we find that no 
less than eight-tenths of the whole work devolved on the Japan 
Mail Steamship Company. In other words, 160,000 out of 
200,000 men went to Korea and China in the Company's steamers. 
Moreover, four of the finest steamers — the Saikyo Maru, Sagami 
Maru, YamasJiiro Maru and Omi Maru — were fitted out as cruisers, 
being well armed with Q.-F. guns. These ships took actual part 
in the war. The story of the Saikyo Maru has already been 
narrated, and need not be more than mentioned here. 


Upon the outbreak of the Tonghak Eebellion in Korea, the 
first idea of the Japanese Government was to protect the 
subjects of this Empire in the Peninsula. To this end the 
Combined Brigade had to be sent across the Sea of Japan as 
quickly as possible, Inchhon being selected as the port at 
which to land the troops. The original intention of the au- 
thorities was to have the Navy work conjointly with the Army 



Landing of the Fiest Akmy at Inchhon, Koeea. 

and attend to the transportation of the Brigade ; but many in- 
conTeniences arose and the Army authorities were considerably 
embarrassed. Under the circumstances the work was entrusted 
to the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, and the^ whole undertaking 
accomplished promptly and in a few days, though experts had 
declared that full a week would be necessary to effect the trans- 
portation. The landing of the troops on the other side was done 
so quietly, so expeditiously and without mishap, that the Army 
authorities expressed themselves — as indeed they might — highly 
pleased with the Company's discipline and zeal. To the Koreans 
the whole business was a revelation. 


A VERY clever reconnaissance was made by the Genkai 3Iaru, 
one of the Company's crack vessels, at Wei-hai-wei during the 
month of November, 1894. The enemy's famous Northern Fleet 


— or what was left of it — was patrolling the harbour and its ap- 
proaches, while the sea outside was exceptionally rough and bois- 
terous. Despite all this the Genkai Maru managed to elude the 
vigilance of the Chinese vessels, stealing into the liarbour 
successfully. After making a thorough reconnaissance the Genkai 
got out again in safety. It was both a plucky and hazardous 
thing to do. 


A GOOD deal has been said and witten on the subject of the 
foreign employes of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha and their bearing 
during the War. There are those who hold that it is not right 
for nationals of neutral countries to serve in the vessels or other 
employ of one or both of the belligerents ; it is moreover in ac- 
cordance with the dictates of International Law for a neutral to 
keep its nationals from leaving to take service in belligerent 
employ ; but if — in spite of the fact that subjects of a neutral 
country who persist in remaining in the employ of a belligerent, 
lose all hope of or right to protection on the part of their native 
land — the employes chose to remain in belligerent service, the 
neutral power has no means to compel them to withdraw from 
such belligerent employ. Whether the Japanese are or are not 
at home on the sea, was satisfactorily demonstrated during the 
course of the war. Nor did the Company in any way endeavour 
to make the foreign employes remain in their service ; those that 
stayed did so of their own free-will, as will be seen from 
our narrative. The majority of those entrusted with the manage- 
ment of the Company's ships were Japanese ; and as for the 
foreigners it, was for a time a moot point whether they were to 
leave the service or not. Many of the Japanese employes were 
thoroughly acquainted with the coasts of Japan, Korea and the 
Gulf of Pechili, and these officers could have readily taken the 
place of the foreign commanders. But the Directors were far too 


generous to make, at this critical moment, any distinction between 
their own and the nationals of any Western land.. . He who had 
served the Company faithfully and well, who had been diligent in 
the discharge of his duties, must, the Company held, still be 
employed without distinction of nationality. So all were employed 
without partiality whether on long or short voyages, whether in 
large or small ships. At the same time the Directors told their 
foreign employes that they might choose for themselves: stay 
with the Company or resign their posts. Some felt, under the 
circumstances and being citizens of neutral nations, that they had 
better resign; or because the insurance effected on their lives 
would be invalidated by taking active part in the War. But 
Captains G. W. Conner (American), E. W. Has well, P. H. Going 
(British) and J. W. Ekstrand (Dutch) positively declined to leave 
the service. Thereafter they worked well and were most meritori- 
ous in the discharge of their duties, to the great satisfaction not 
only of the Company but also of the Government. Their conduct 
excited many others to emulation, so much so that several of the 
Company's vessels were later on in charge of foreign Captains. 
The Directors warmly admired the indefatigable industry of 
these faithful men, and desire all to know that they are this day 
deeply recognisant of the zeal and fidelity displayed by them. It 
is gratifying to us to be able to make these statements. 


When the Government requisitioned the best ships in the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha's fleet, there was cargo awaiting transpor- 
tation in every Japanese port, and vessels were urgently needed. 
Of the ten steamers engaged in the coast trade, no less than eight 
were put into Government service, and these were just the boats 
plying between Yokohama and Otaru in the Eastern and the 
Western routes. Even in times of peace these steamships carried 
full cargoes and hardly met the requirements of the trade ; so that 
this sudden withdrawal of eight vessels was very hard felt. 
While the Company were trying to make the deficiency good by 


rapidly supplying other vessels, the GoYernment desired to have 
four more ships. Then everywhere ships were at a premium ; 
traffic and communication almost stopped between certain ports ; 
the local merchants became greatly embarrassed and a panic threat- 
ened, a great disturbance of the country's finances being ap- 
prehended. Shares of all sorts went down with a I'ush, and the 
circulation of money was much impeded. 

To relieve the situation was the imperative duty of the Japan 
Mail Steamship Company. They had done, humanly speaking, 
everything possible towards assisting the military and naval 
operations of the ai;thorities ; the next thing was to re-open 
communication and carry the long-delayed cargoes to their 
destinations. And there was no time to be lost: the necessity 
was of an urgent nature. The Company at once began buying or 
chartering foreign vessels right and left, irrespective of price or 
amount of charter-money. Telegrams were sent to Australia, 
Singapore, Honkong and elsewhere to buy boats promptly and 
send them on with all possible despatch to Japan. But as many 
of the chartered vessels thus obtained were flying foreign flags* 
they could not be taken into any except treaty ports. At first 
only this was done ; but greater inconvenience resulting from this 
system, the Government, on September 22nd, 1894, ordered all 
local and provincial governors to permit these chartered foreign 
ships to enter any port whatever during the space of six months 
or thereabouts. This act gave much relief to the Company, who 
could now act with a free hand. The necessities of each port 
were then taken into consideration, and ships sent first to those 
where the need was greatest, afterwards to the others. A panic 
was thus averted and the sudden tremendous rise in freight was 
done away with, to the great satisfaction of all parties. Trade 
went on as before, without friction. 

As the "War continued the necessity for ships grew ever 
greater. As fast as the Company bought vessels they were taken 
over by the Government, so that by March, 1895, all ships above 
1000 tons burthen were being employed by the authorities. The 
Kobe and Otaru services, the principal coast-routes, as well as the 
service to Yokkaichi, the Byukyii (Loochoo) Islands, Shanghai 
and Korea, even the extra service to Fushiki and Hokkaido, were 


all looked after by chartered foreign steamers, 33 in all, of 76,000 
tons, wliicli was just 6,000 tons more than the tonnage of the 
whole fleet owned by the Company. The pressing necessity for 
coast-wise transportation thus compelled the Corapany to charter 
foreign bottoms, and as this had to be done with the utmost 
despatch anything like a thorough examination of the ships, prior 
to their being chartered, was out of the question. Owing to this 
fact, the Company suffered no small amount of inconvenience 
from the in suitability of many of the ships they were compelled to 
to employ. Some were of an obsolete type, slow sailers and 
requiring enormous quantities of coal ; others had no side hatches, 
so important in the loading and unloading of the Japanese freight, 
their absence laecessitating much increased labour ; the crews 
were, in several cases, unaccustomed to the handling of the freight, 
many mistakes occurring there from, not to speak of breakages 
and other damages, for all of which the Company had to pay. 
The rate of charter also went up by leaps and bounds. As first 
the price was 8 shillings 3 pence per ton weight; but from 
September the figures increased daily. Up to the end of Septem- 
ber the Company had to pay out 2,600,000 yen in chartering. 

From the above data may be understood the tremendous 
weight of responsibility devolving on the Directors of the 
Company, as well as the enormous outlay of money in keeping the 
Government operations moving while still continuing the home 
traffic. This could never have been effected had not the organiza- 
tion of the Company been of exceptional excellence, and the 
Directors men of ardent patriotism and tireless energy. 


We have already stated that the Government's demands for 
transports came just at the busiest season of the year. Cargo 
was everywhere awaiting shipment and stored in quantities in the 
Company's and other godowns. Worse than this, the cargoes 
carried by eight of the most important steamers had, at a mo- 
ment's notice, to be discharged at the nearest port, the passengers 


being also required to land, no matter whether their ultimate 
destination was far or near. It was feared, under these most 
untoward circumstances, that bankruptcies would ensue or a 
panic arise. On the contrary, however, the merchants most 
affected raised no outcry and made no complaint whatever, 
however serious their immediate loss. They simply wished the 
Government and Company godspeed and made light of their own 
misfortunes. This surely was patriotism of a very practical and 
noble kind. 

The New Fhemisbs of the Bank of Japan 
(from a photograph taken on the day of opening). 




The first news of the growing strength of the Tbnghak 
Bebellion and the defeat of the Korean Government troops — ^a 
most inefficient body at that time — reached Japan towards the 
latter part of May, 1894 In early June China sent the first batch 
of soldiers to the Peninsula : an example speedily followed by 
Japan. This step the Chinese Government viewed with ill- 
concealed displeasure, and repeatedly urged the Japanese au- 
thorities to withdraw their forces. Negotiations grew daily more 
difficult and, as we have already narrated at length, the relations 
of the two Empires more strained; while the policy of China 
iowards Korea assumed a most sinister aspect. This condition 


of affairs speedily affected the money-market in Japan. Mar- 
chants grew timid and manufacturers less pushing. War seemed 
inevitable and everywhere were political debaters heard discuss- 
ing the management of the national finances and the pecuniary 
preparations for the expected campaign. The uphot of these 
discussions was, to put it briefly, an outspoken desire to see the 
Bank of Japan (Nippon Qinho) adopt some measures to relieve 
the tension of the market. Never was the importance of the 
Bank more clearly apparent; and never was its reponsibility 
greater. Matters speedily reached a climax between the two 
Empires : a collision was no longer evitable. In a few days more 
came the engagement off Phungdo and the news of the Chinese 

On learning privately from the authorities what was going on 
and the probable ultimate result of the situation, Mr. Kawada Ko- 
ichiro, the Governor of the Bank of Japan and perhaps the ablest of 
Japanese financiers, did not hesitate to declare himself ready for 
any eventuality. For nearly ten years the Bank had been storing 
bullion and coins in its vaults ; it was at once agreed that the 
Bank should become responsible for the larger portion of the 
war-expense. At the time, the sum total of convertible notes— 
i. e. exchangeable for silver — issued was not much less than 
140,000,000 yen (Japanese silver dollars). Against this there was 
a specie reserve of 80,000,000 yen in the Bank, or -^t^- of the 
whole amount of notes in circulation. Therefore should it even 
become necessary to make a fresh issue of five or six million yen 
of bank-notes, there was no reason to apprehend any disturbance 
in the system of specie payment. Moreover there were easy me- 
thods of transportation, and all necessary provisions and military 
equipment for the troops in Korea and China could be purchased 
at home and thence shipped. Therefore the funds which had 
to be sent the front, represented merely the wages of the coolies 
and money for incidentals of the regular forces, which was only a 
small fraction of what the "War would and did cost. At any rate, 
there was no urgent call to export a large amount of specie, nor 
was it thought necessary to increase the specie reserve in order 
to make a fresh issue of convertible notes. 

Under the circumstances, therefore, the Governor of the 


Bank of Japan readily assented to the proposals of the Govern- 
ment. From this time on the Bank was busy in providing the 
sinews of war and paying the bills sent in by Government order. 
Finding, however, that the War would last some time and the 
expenses incurred would be very heavy, it was plain that some 
other method would have to be resorted to. And so a War Loan 
was resolved upon. 

In order to understand just how and why this loan was raised, 
we must hark back to the time when the necessity for such a 
loan had not yet become apparent. When the dispute between 
the two Empires reached a crisis and the War was openly declar- 
ed by Imperial Ordinance, after the first engagements both on 
land and at sea the Japanese became greatly excited and volunteer- 
ed in many ways their services to the Government, willing either 
to enlist or to contribute funds to the cause. Patriots every- 
where held meetings, and the Hb-hoku Gi Kivai, or " Patriotie 
Association", was established, amidst the greatest enthusiasm. 
Thousands of loyal citizens speedily had themselves enrolled as its 
members ; and it soon became apparent that the prime intention 
of the " Patriotic Association " was to appeal to the people for 
subscription of funds wherewith to vigorously prosecute the War. 
The ideas of this Association met with instant and universal 
approval. This gives an insight into the character of the Japan- 
ese, among whom the qualities of fidelity and loyalty often replace 
the, religious sentiment so predominant in Western nations. 
With the average Japanese, " Emperor and country " form a 
whole religion. He knows no higher quality than that of unbend- 
ing loyalty : loyalty that makes light, nay, a duty of death in the 
right cause. And this sentiment of the people it was wise to 
foster ; for in case of a protracted war the heat of loyal fervour 
might suffer some abatement, though it could never wholly pass 

Mr. Kawada was, just at this time, recuperating at Osaka, his 
health having been affected by over-work. However, on hearing 
of the establishment of the Ho-koku Gi Kivai, he deemed it 
advisable to return at once to his post ; for although the loyalty 
of the people was at a white heat, he did not believe that this 
sentiment could be so far depended upon as to expect that the 


Association could or would be able to defray, by private contri- 
butions, the vast expenses of a great war. He thought that, even 
under the most favorable circumstances, the founders of the 
Association Avould not be able to bring together a sum larger 
than five or six million yew, and besides this would be a most 
uncertain source of revenue in defraying the war-expenses. Con- 
sequently while he admired and applauded the spirit of these 
patriots and even excited them to greater exertions, he was paving 
the way towards the issue of War Loan Bonds. And while 
consenting to the raising of such a loan, he was in frequent 
consultation with other eminent Japanese bankers, endeavoring to 
obtain the promise of large loans from themselves. On August 
15th, 1894, the Regulations concerning the issue of the War 
Loan Bonds, were promulgated. This was promptly followed by 
the dissolution of the Ho-kohu Gi Ktvai : for the Association had 
no more work to do. 

What the Bank now had to do was to manage the loan in 
such a way that the economic condition of the country should not 
receive too severe a shock by the withdrawal of so large a sum 
of money from circulation. To avoid commercial distress or any 
undue tightness in the money-market, it was necessary, for the 
time being, to discourage any fresh commercial or industrial 
enterprises ; for if such undertakings were started at random or 
without proper precautions, it was obvious that a still greater 
drain of money would set in, to the discomfort of the whole nation. 
Therefore the first step taken by the Bank of Japan was to 
obviate the need of capital and hinder, as far as possible, the for- 
mation of new trading companies or industrial firms. The 
months of June and July are, in Japan, the great season for the 
production of raw silk; moreover in this period payments were to 
be made to the capital stock of all sorts of concerns started in the 
previous year (1893). These two months were thus a time when 
the need of ready money was most pressingly felt. But as the 
Bank of Japan promptly raised the rate of interest, this caused 
merchants and manufacturers to fall back on their own resources 
and do their best to get along without having recourse to loans. 
So by these varied means no great want of money was experienced, 
and things went along quite smoothly. Yet there was one other 


matter to be considered. The issue of the "War Bands being 
effected, a very large sum of money would thereby be withdrawn 
from circulation. It would have been most rash to demand the 
payment of the bonds in full at. once. And so the bonds were 
made payable in several instalments. The first instalment was 
made only so large as to cover the first purchases of war-material 
in the open market. And thereafter, whenever a payment became 
due, the authorities first made heavy purchases in the market : 
everything necessary for the prosecution of the War being bought, 
almost exclusively, within the borders of the Empire. In this 
way the people got much of their money back, trade was kept 
from stagnation, and an easier feeling prevailed in the money- 
market. As the times when money for war-expenses would 
be needed were pretty clearly determinable beforehand, the 
last instalment for the first issue of War Bonds was made 
payable in June, 1895. The dates of other instalments were also 
settled, in accordance with the time in which the Government 
would have to make large disbursements for war-material. 

Mr. Kawada, himself heartily approving the issue of the War 
Loan, then got a number of prominent bankers to promise as- 
sistance in the sale of the bonds. But at the outset the public, 
not being acquainted with the above-described methods of issue 
and seeing that the first issue called for 50,000,000 yen, the bonds 
bearing an interest of between 5 and 6 per cent., — the public, we 
repeat, experienced no little anxiety, and the fear was expressed 
that the money-market would suffer greatly. For these reasons a 
panic ensued in certain quarters, the value of all kinds of bonds 
and stocks, with very few exceptions, falling below par. Every 
concern in the country had to experience this, to the no small 
disorder of the money-market. When, however, the manner of 
paying for the bonds, the long period of payment and the way in 
which the loan was to be raised were fully advertised in the 
columns of the press, people learned that the first call would be 
for only 30,000,000 yen ; that there would be no pressure about 
the payment ; that the temporary receipt for whatever had been 
paid on the bonds applied for, could be deposited as security, or 
be mortgaged, or even sold to another: at once a beneficial 
change took place in public opinion, and the money-market grew 


easier and gradually regained its normal tone. 

Hereupon the Minister of State for Finance summoned the 
managers of the leading banks throughout the Empire, and 
explained to them the manner in which the War Loan was to be 
floated. Without a dissentient voice the plan proposed by the 
Minister was approved ; and this at once caused a wide-spread 
feeling of relief. Later on, when the bonds were definitely 
issued, the number of applications was very far in excess of the 
stipulated amount : more than 77,000,000 yen being applied for. 
This excellent showing was, of course, primarily attributable to 
-the patriotic ardour of the nation ; yet it was also greatly owing 
to the astute arrangements of Mr. Kawada, his colleagues and 
other bankers ; to the division of the payment into small instal- 
ment ; and finally to the fact that receipts for meney paid in 
might be used as security or sold to other people. 

Thus the first issue of the War Loan Bonds was a thorough- 
going sucess. Simultaneously came the reports of the victories at 
Phyongyang and in the Yellow Sea, Japan's arms having every- 
where proved triumphant. These great victories aroused much 
•euthusiasm, promptly followed by a still easier feeling in the 
money-market. But in the middle of September, 1864, the War 
was carried across the Manchurian frontier and the Second 
Expeditionary Army had to be sent out ; and there were many 
who then advocated a foreign loan, knowing that thenceforth the 
war-expenditure would be on a steadily increasing scale. Mr. 
Kawada, however, firmly opposed the raising of a foreign loan. 
He did not wish the nation to trust to its credit abroad, and was 
<3onvinced that any load of the kind would prove distinctly disad- 
vantageous. So there came the necessity to raise a Second War 
Loan. On November 22nd, 1894, the Second War Loan of 
50,000,000 yen was floated. Again at the request of the Finance 
Minister, Mr. Kawada met with prominent bankers and fully 
discussed the matter with them. Some hesitation being visible 
among the assembled bankers, the Governor arose and gave 
utterance to the following well-chosen words: — "You have, 
gentlemen, undoubtedly, some reasons for opposing the second 
loan. But this is a critical time for our Empire. We have a 
large number of brave soldiers in the field and the War is being 

452 HER 010 JAPAN. 

vigorously carried on with the full consent and approval of the 
nation. It is therefore the nation's duty to make provision for 
whatever expenses may be incurred, so that the War may be 
brought to a glorious end. Much more is it your duty, gentlemen, 
who bear such well-known names and have so large a command 
of money. Those who stand on the highest rung of the social 
ladder owe a greater and higher duty to the nation than do other 
less favoured mortals. Such people should lead the rest with 
■ oifers of money to the Government." 

After this there was no hesitation whatever, all the bankers 
present readily consenting to sell bonds of 100 yen face value at 
95. Yet even after the bankers had largely sent in tenders, the 
sum received was still found insufficient. At this Mr. Kawada 
sent out the Chief Cashier of the Bank, Mr. Yamamoto Tatsu-o, 
to urge the Imperial Court, the nobles and provincial bankers to 
take up the bonds. Thanks to the indefatigability of the great 
Bank, when the time came a sum of more than 90,000,000 yen 
was applied for. Patriotism had, once again, much to do with this 
gratifying result. 


Aftee the first issue of the War Loan Bonds had been fully 
paid up, the territory covered by the First Expeditionary Army 
began to rapidly increase in extent. Passing through Korea, 
driving the Chinese Army before them, the Japanese crossed the 
Manchurian border and waged war with the enemy in their own 
land. The Second Expeditionary Armj- was now preparing to 
set out, and many things had to be purchased in this connection. 
Under the circumstances, the selhng of a large amount of bonds, 
as a second loan, was unavoidable. On October 15th an Ex- 
traordinary Session of the Imperial Diet was convened, in 
accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. Prior to this^ 
on September 1st, a general election had taken place, and the 



Principal Headquarters had gone on to Hiroshima. The popular 
belief was that the Diet had been convened in order to discuss 
the question of the war-expenditure, and considerable eagerness 
was expressed to know just how much the War was going to cost 
and what extraordinary outlay would be agreed to by the two 
Houses of the Diet. This uncertainty was at once apparent in 
the fesling of apprehensive hesitancy noticeable in the money- 
market. At this juncture there were those who very strenuously 
insisted on the advisability of a foreign loan, and this for three 
reasons : — (1) There was no doubt, they claimed, that the arena 
of the War would steadily grow larger ; in this case the need of 
specie-exportation would be 
severely felt, and the specie 
reserve in the Bank would be 
diminished, so there might be 
many difficulties in maintaining 
the system of specie payment at 
home. In order to avoid this 
eventuality, a foreign loan 
should be floated. (2) The 
War had advanced so far that 
an immense amount of ready 
money would be imperatively 
needed, in order to defray 
current expenses. To avoid 
ruinous pressure on the money- 
rnarket at home, recourse 
should be had to a foreign loan. 
(3) Although the Empire was 
not yet in straits and still quite 
able to defray all expenditure 
connected with the War, yet 

should the War prove a protracted one, the country would be, 
sooner or later, drained of its resources. In that case, it might 
be impossible to raise a foreign loan, no matter how greatly the 
authorities should desire so to do. These ojnnions represented 
pretty fairly the general consensus of a few wealthy business-men, 
the members of the Stock Exchange, and a large clientele of 



general merchants. Moreover, in the Government itself there 
were a number of politicians who professed the same opinions, 
and, as the advocates of a foreign loan grew daily more numerous, 
there was a rumour that the question would be brought before the 
ensuing Extraordinary Session of the Imperial Diet, either by the 
Government or some member of the House itself. 

Mr. Kawada, then suffering from heart-disease and over- 
excitement, threw himself heart and soul into the business, regard- 
less of the injunctions of his physician. In opposition to the 
above views, he made the following strong appeal : — 

" (1) A foreign loan is not always inadvisable. There are times 
when the raising of such a loan might be productive of good : as for 
example, when capital is sorely wanted for the development of 
profitable industries in the country. But the money we now stand 
in need of, is for the war, and not for production. Therefore should 
we have recourse to a foreign loan and leave the country free to 
rashly use funds in commercial ventures, there is no doubt that 
the rate of interest would fall, commodities grow dearer, the 
balance between imports and exports be disturbed and, in a word, 
the funds raised abroad be dissipated before we could use them 
for the legitimate purpose of the War. All that would be left us 
in that case would be a heavy debt to face. 

(2) The attention of the whole world is now centered on the 
War between our country and China. Not only our military 
strength but also our financial standing affect the dignity of the 
Empire. Our arms by sea and laud are going from victory to 
victory. If we cannot at once cheerfully shoulder the expenses of 
this glorious war or choose to wait till aid comes from abroad, our 
national prestige will be sure to suffer. Finally, though the tri- 
umph of our arms is primarily due to the exalted virtues of His 
Imperial Majesty the Emperor and to the bravery of our Army 
and Navy, still the fact that all the money spent in prosecuting 
the War comes from home and not from abroad, cannot fail to 
have a stirring effect on the spirit of those afield. Indeed, I fear 
that the knowledge of a foreign loan having been raised would 
have a most prejudicial effect on the mind of our forces. 

(3) For the above-enumerated reasons I hold that a foreign 
loan for the purpose of defraying the war expenditure is eminent- 


ly inadvisable at the present juncture. But should, through some 
unfortunate, unforeseen train of circumstances, financial distress 
be felt at home, then would it be inevitable to have recourse to a 
foreign loan, &ven if by such a course our forces should feel dis- 
couraged. Yet at present we are by no means in such financial 
distress. Our finances are on the solid basis of specie payment. 
So long as we maintain this system, there ought to be no difficulty 
in raising a loan as large as 100,000,000 yen, provided of course 
that the loan is managed in a proper way. Our banking system 
has the power of elasticity, increasing the amount in circulation, 
as the demand for money arises, and diminishing it when the de- 
mand therefor disappears. In the case of an extraordinary demand 
for money we can issue taxable notes beyond the legal limit stated 
in the Currency Act, which is fixed at 85,000,000 yen. Con- 
sequently we need have no apprehension should the demand for 
money become greater. My only anxiety is this : whether the 
specie reserve be sufficiently large or not. The Bank of Japan has, 
therefore, in anticipation of possible future emergency, always 
devoted its energies to the accumulation of specie. The actual 
specie reserve at present in the Band amounts to no less than 
80,000,000 yen, which came together not only as a result of the 
balance of trade but of which a part has been actually purchased. 
In the face by this fact, should the volume of convertible notes be 
increased for the purj^ose of covering the war expenditure, there 
is no cause for alarm concerning the possibility of the suspension 
of specie payment. I would call special attention to the fact that 
the greater portion of the domestic loan will be at once spent 
at home in the purchase of the necessary war-material ; only a 
very small fraction of the whole sum finding its way abroad. 
And so, if we gather money with the one hand as a loan and pay 
out promptly with the other in purchasing, there is no reason why 
any distress should be felt in the money-market, even if several 
loaiis have successively to be floated. And although during this 
period the debt incurred by the Government will largely increase 
and the duty of paj'ing the interest on the loans grew a steadily 
heavier burden, yet it is far better to have to pay this interest at 
home than to any foreign syndicate." 

In this way Governor Kawada set forth his views emphati- 


cally and clearly; and these arguments were publislied in and 
discussed by the Japanese press ; while influential men were 
persuaded to share the same ideas. At last, about the time of the 
opening of the Extraordinary Session of the Imperial Diet, the 
Government and most of the leading politicians came to the conclu- 
sion that a foreign loan had better be avoided. When the Extra- 
ordinary Session met at Hiroshima the War Budget of 150,000,000 
yen was promptly passed and a Domestic Loan to the extent of 
100,000,000 yen sanctioned, without one dissentient voice. The 
manner in which the loan should be raised was left to the discre- 
tion of the Minister of State for Finance. Thereafter there was 
no more talk of borrowing money abroad. The once-powerful 
faction supporting a foreign loan, now had nothing more to say in 
favour of such a measure. 


The issue of both the First and Second Domestic War Loans 
was attended with excellent results, due in a very great measure 
to the. patriotism and careful financial measures taken by the 
Bank of Japan. There was no longer any need for apprehension 
with regard to the funds necessary to carry the War to a success- 
ful issue; yet, in reality, in view of the complicated circumstances 
at the time, there was much danger of disturbing the state of 
money-market if the bonds were not floated in an appropriate 
manner. In order to avoid all tightness or strain in the market, 
the Bank advised the Government to make the bonds payable in 
several small instalments, as already set forth. In this way, the 
market was saved from any serious strain ; but the Government, 
on the other hand, could not at any one time get a large sum of 
money. Consequently when the demand for money to carry on 
the War, grew large, the Government sometimes found itself 
nnable to meet actual running expenses. Under the circumstances, 
the Bank of Japan had to make good the deficit, and loaned the 
Government whatever sums were needed. Moreover, whenever 
the funds required exceeded the income of the revenue set apart 


for the purpose of making war ; in each case the great Bank filled 
the breach, there being nothing else feasible. In this way the 
various sums loaned the Government, from the beginning of 
October, 1894, to the end of December, 1895, reached the large 
total of 37,000,000 yen. 

Such is briefly what the Bank did in defraying the war expen- 
diture. It remains to recite the meritorious services of the Bank 
in regulating the money-market of the country during the 

At the outset of the War, Japan's foreign trade was un- 
favorable, imports being greatly in excess of exports ; and at the 
same time the need of capital for many new industrial enterprises, 
which had just been started, was very urgent. Therefore the 
outlook was by no means a pleasant one. The silk and tea 
season had set in and the lack of ready money to carry on this 
important business began to be severely felt. It is the settled 
policy of the Bank to give the staple products of Japan the 
fullest possible accommodation and loan to producers on easy 
terms. Yet with the growing and seemingly unlimited expenses 
attendant upon the prosecution of the War, the Bank of Japan 
was compelled to call in, as far as possible, whatever loans had 
already been made, in order to keep a proper specie reserve and 
to be able to meet the demands of the Government as they came 
in. Thereupon the Bank, despite the usual policy, twice raised 
its rate of interest and laboured to make business-men cautious 
in their operations. The result was that business-men became 
very conservative, and every other bank, both national and private, 
became very reluctant in the matter of making cash advances, 
even on the strength of good security. This again had effect 
throughout the Empire, causing a most conservative feeling in 
trade. Thereafter, there were constant fluctuations in the stock- 
market due to the ramours of a domestic or foreign loan or the 
news of fresh victories; yet, on the whole, the business world 
suffered no violent shock and the state of the money-market was 
a tolerably tranquil one. 

In April of 1S95, the Treaty of Peace was concluded between 
the Plenipotentiaries of Japan and China at Shimonoseki (Bakan) 
— a place of historical interest in the development of New Japan. 



The exchange of ratifications was shortly afterwards effected at 
Chef 00. It was a matter of course that the condition of trade and 
industry should speedily return to the state in which they had 
been previous to the outbreak of hostilities. And yet, strange to 
say, no appreciable change was noted in the public sentiment. 
The same prudence continued to be exercised, and bankers were 
as averse as ever to the making of cash advances. Merchants and 
manufacturers were thus unable to undertake operations that 
should have followed the conclusion of the "War. The silk and 
tea season was again at hand, and once more the need of money 
began to be felt with increasing severity. It was patent that if 
these two industries were not given the fullest accommodation and 
encouragement, the balance of foreign trade would be heavily 
against Japan ; and all financial operations after the war would re- 
ceive a serious check. Here again the Bank adopted the policy of 
freely supplying productive capital, 
and this despite the fact that the 
issue of bank-notes had almost 
reached the legal limit, us the 
Bank had already advanced the 
Government a large sun of money. 
On June 27th, 1895, Mr. Yama- 
moto, the Chief Cashier of the 
Bank, called a meeting of the 
managers of every bank in the 
metropolis, including those of the 
Tokyo agencies of provincial bank- 
ing houses. These gentlemen he 
addressed, in accordance with Mr. 
Kawada's desire, on the subject 
of the future policy to be adopted 
by the Bank in view of the 
immediate needs of the national 
economy and finances. The 

speech ran as follows : — " The condition of the national finances 
at the close of the "War and its consequences are matters of 
prime importance for our consideration. "When the Treaty of 
Peace was signed, every body doubtless anticipated that the price 

Mk. Yamamoto Tatsu-o. 


of commodities would go up, the money-market grow easy, 
new enterprises appear in rapid succession, and prosperity crown 
the labours of our industrial community. But just the contrary 
has been noted There may possibly be several reasons for this- 
abnormal state of things. In the first place, there is the retroces- 
sion of the Liaotung Peninsula; the difficulty, whether great or small^ 
of tranquillizing Formosa ; and the discouragement consequent 
upon the unsettled state of affairs in Korea. These have, no doubt, 
produced the present dull state of trade. Yet these are temporary 
causes, and not lasting grievances. Now let me put before you 
briefly, the real situation of the present money-market. Since 
the beginning of the War, vast sums of money have been required 
to meet the necessary expenses. Financiers were, as you all 
know, so dismayed by this fact that there were many who insisted 
upon the aivisability of borrowing in the foreign market. But 
public opinion was gradually shaped in favour of domestic loans, 
and thus altogether the sum of 80,000,000 yen was successfully 
raised : 30,000,000 at first, and thereafter 50,000,000. It is easy 
to speak of such sums ; the figures come glibly from tlie tongue r 
but in reality they represent an immense amount of wealth in 
consideration of the economic condition of our land. These 
bonds were made payable in several small instalments, the last 
instalment of the Second Domestic Loan falling due at the end of 
the present month. The Government has thus actually received, 
or to speak correctly will shortly receive, 80,000,000 yen from the 
nation. This has withdrawn notes from circulation and has 
produced as a natural sequence the present contraction in the 
market. Moreover capital has everywhere begun to be wanted. 
The silk season is close at hand. Those merchants who remained 
inactive or made no new venture during the course of the War, 
are, with the return of peace, gradually seeking to enlarge the 
sphere of their transactions. These may be mentioned as the 
reasons for the present brisker circulation of money. In the 
present situation, the first question, gentlemen, for us to solve is 
whether we are to be conservative in advancing money or to 
supply capital without hesitation as the demand arises. In order 
to arrive at a satisfactory solution, we must endeavour to ascertain 
what has brought about the immediate demand for money. It 


seems to me that if the present strained , condition in the money- 
market has grown out of the fact that, the rate of interest having 
been abnormally low, capitalists have frieely invested in speculative 
undertakings, and that in consequence trade and industry have 
been expanded and the demand for money is abnormally increas- 
ed, then we bankers must observe every precaution in making 
advances. But the present situation is a wholly different one. 
As I have just stated, the briskness of the market at present must be 
regarded as due to the fact that the War Bonds have been actually 
paid up ; that the busy silk season is at hand ; and that the season 
has come for the purchase of goods for sale. The War Bonds can- 
not, it is true, be used like money, yet they are most trustworthy 
certificates and the money invested in them is certain to be refund- 
ed with interest in future. Again, capital invested in the produc- 
tion of silk or in the purchase of goods for sale, is an investment 
of short duration and cannot be regarded as fixed capital. Money 
loaned for such purposes will return to the banker's hand within 
a short while. Therefore even from the standpoint of us bankersj 
it will be a source of large profit to freely advance money for 
such purposes. And from the standpoint of the nation's economic 
condition, the present is the time to expand our foreign and 
domestic trade, to open up every profitable source of industry 
and thereby hold in our own hands the ruling power in commerce. 
So, from every point of view, it is our prime duty to give liberal 
assistance to our industries at present. But there is once more 
point to which I wish to call your attention. There is an appre- 
hension in certain quarters that in spite of the tendency at present 
to an over-circulation of money and despite the price of every article 
going up, if we still increase the supply of money and stimulate 
our trade, then it will encourage speculation, bubble companies 
will be promoted, and our whole economic society consequently 
suffer serious disturbance. But I do not share this opinion. 
According to our investigations, the sum tolal of paper money in 
circulation at the end of June of last year (1894), was 139,000,000 
yen. To-day the amount has been ascertained to be 159,000,000 
yen. There is thus an increase in paper currency of about 
20,000,000 yen. From this sum, however, we should subtract the 
total Japanese curr^'sncy circulating in Korea and the occupied 


territories, which have not yet been absorbed into our actual 
business-circle. As a proof of this fact let us examine the total 
amount of deposite in the banks of Tokyo and the Postal Saving 
Office. This was 62,660,000 yen at the end of May, 1894, of which 
sum 25,100,000 yen was held by the Postal Saving Office and 
37,560,000 yen by the associated banks in Tokyo. On May 30th 
of the present year (1895), the figures were 64,500,000 yen, made 
up of 40,000,000 yen in the banks and 24,500,000 yen in postal 
savings. During the whole twelve months the increase has been 
one of only 2,800,000 yen, which shows most indubitably that 
there is very little money in circulation. For, if the market were 
inflated with circulating notes this would at once be followed by a 
notable iiierease in the amount of deposits. This is, however, 
not the case. Again there is talk of the increased price of com- 
modities. It is true, there is a slight advance noticeable, but this 
is not so much owing to an actual increase in price as it is to the 
great change in the relative values of gold and silver. For in- 
stance, in the 25th year of Meiji (1892), when the difference 
between gold and silver was not so striking as it is now, the 
average market-price of raw-silk — our chief and most valuable 
product — was 671 yen per picul;* whereas up to May in the 
present year the average was 769 yen. But these values are in 
silver. If computed in gold, according to the rates current in the 
respective years, 671 silver make 476 gold yen, while the latter 
769 yen come to only 379 gold yen. The same argument holds 
good with every other kind of commodities. Moreover, the rate 
of interest (now 10 per cent, or thereabouts) being so high, there 
is no need to fear that goods will advance in price ; nor need we 
apprehend any speculative movement. Under such circumstances, 
even if we increase the present amount of issue to a much larger 
quantity for the time being, we need not fear that we shall impede 
the system, of specie payment. The total amount of convertible 
notes now in circulation is 135,610,000 yen, against which tlie 
Bank of Japan has, in reserve, 65,000,000 yen in specie. This 
reserve will not be reduced to any. great extent hereafter ; so that 
although 20,000,000 or. 30,000,000 yen of taxable notes should bo 
issued in excess of the legal limit, there will be no possibility of 
* 1 Picul = 11.10 eatties ; 1 catty = abotit 1 J lbs. 


injury to the present system of currency. And, more than all 
this, 80,000,000 yen — the first instalment of China's indemnity- ■ 
will reach this country in November of the present year. It is 
therefore highly advisable, at this moment, to enlarge the sphere 
of our banking operations. For the reasons thus set forth, I 
hold that we business-men must, now that peace is definitely 
restored, seek to take the initiative in making orderly progress. 

We bankers will not incur more than a slight loss if we freely 
make loans to various industries on generous terms ; nor will the 
system of our currency be impaired if ts'e increase the notes in 
circulation. Again, with the high rate of interest now prevailing, 
there is no danger of fostering speculation. It is thus, from 
•every point of view, beneficial to the nation and to ourselves that 
we should keep to the principle of steady progress and give aid 
io commercial enterprises, thus keeping things in smooth running 
order. If you, gentlemen, adopt this principle, money will 
•circulate with still more gratifying regularity, the rate of interest 
will fall to what it was before the War, and business will grow 
brisker. And then, iii a few months, or perhaps a few years, the 
necessity may arise to stop too careless commercial undertakings, 
or such as are not based on sound commercial principles. This 
difficulty can, however, be readily met when it arises. There are 
those who have warned us, urging us to be on our guard and quo- 
ting in illustration the financial condition of Germany after the con- 
clusion of the war with France. But the present situation of our 
country is quite different. Germany received the huge sum of 
5,000,000,000 francs from France within the space of only three 
years, 1871 to 1873. The national debt was hastily paid off, the 
money in circulation suddenly increased to an extravagant figure, 
and consequently speculative enterprises were supported rather 
than discouraged. In this way, even before the three years of 
plenty were over, great financial distress ensued. In our own 
case, however, the indemnity money we are to receive amounts to 
not more than 270,000,000 or 280,000,000 yen, and even this 
comparatively modest sum will not be paid up until the long 
interval of seven years is over. Moreover as a large portion of 
the indemnity will be absorbed in the extension of the Army and 
Navy, the Government will not rashly pay its debts at the risk of 


disturbiug the money-market. Yet I dare not add that, when 
the indemnity comes in, there will be no fear of imprudent com- 
mercial enterprises as the result of an easy money-market. 
Sooner or later a time will perhaps come when we shall have to 
\yarn capitalists. But this will come as a phase of the successive 
changes in the money-market. That is to say, if a large amount of 
indemnity flows in, this will gradually find its way into general 
circulation and, easing the money-market, will help to tempt our 
business-men to dangerous speculation. But in its present condi- 
tions the money-market is far from being easy, for even profitable 
industries are cramped through lack of capital. The question 
demanding our urgent attention at this juncture, is how to give 
cash accommodation on easy terms and how to open the way for 
the gradual improvement of business. If, from fear of probable 
consequences, we now refuse to give aid to sound undertakings, 
it is like letting a hungry man go without food, for fear of his 
contracting some gastric disease. On the whole, the Bank of 
Japan has determined to help business run smoothly by making 
advances where the necessity for money is apparent and the 
lending justifiable. In pursuance of this policy we have recently 
established a branch in Hokkaido and a sub-branch at Sapporo, 
where discounts and loans are effected. If what I have said 
hitherto were only upon my own authority as the Cashier of this 
Bank, I might be accused of having said too much. But there is 
nothing in the foregoing not directly inspired by Governor 
Kawada. During the progress of the War, Mr. Kawada, devoting 
himself to the supply of the war funds, could not, contrary to his 
own desire, give liberal assistance to business-men, fearing that 
the financial world of Japan might suffer in the case of a protract- 
ed war. Now his desire is to further the development of trade, 
commerce, and industry as far as possible, and thereby strengthen 
and increase the financial power of the Empire. This, I repeat, 
is Governor Kawada's most sincere wish." 

Having in this explicit way set forth the Bank's aim and 
intentions, the rate of interest was lowered on July 12th, 1895. 
This example was soon followed by other banks. The market 
speedily resumed its former activity, and the spirit of progress 
made itself manifest in commercial and industrial circles. But as 


the Bank had advanced a large sum of money to the Government — 
still needed for the war expenditure, — and on the other hand as it 
had given liberal assistance to the extension of various industries, 
it was inevitable that the volume of bank notes in circulation 
should be largely increased. 

To the diligence and extraordinarily adroit management of 
the Bank of Japan is it due that the Commissariat was plentifully 
supplied and the money-market well regulated during the War. 
The chief reason for this success of the Bank's management lies 
in the fact that the Bank had laboured during more than ten years 
to accumulate a substantial specie reserve. Besides, the fact that 
the Government promptly spent in the open market a large 
portion of the money coming in from the sale of the War Bonds, 
may be adduced as another reason. These causes combined to 
produce a successful result. Compared with South-western or 
Satsuma Rebellion, of some 18 years ago, there was marked 
evidence of increased skill. In the earlier war, the national 
finances were rudely disturbed by the issue of a large quantity 
of fiat money without a proper specie reserve — and this in 
spite of the whole expenses attendant upon quelling the 
Eebellion being not more than 40,000,000 yen. What grand 
progress had been made since that time in Japanese financial 
operations, the history of the recent War most clearly shows. 
And the excellent management of the Bank and indirectly of the 
national finances is attributable to the wise administration of 
Governor Kawada, with the zealous labour and aid of the Chief 
Cashier, Mr. Yamamoto, and Directors Minomura Kisuke, Yokura 
Morito, Kawakami Sashichiro ; Auditors Yasuda Zenjiro, Mori- 
mura Ichizayemon and Hirose Saihei ; Managers Usui Yoshihisa, 
Kawakami Kin-ichi and Tsuruhara Sadakichi ; Vice-Manager 
Sudo Eyo, and others. 




It was in the year 1886 that Japan first adopted the principles 
of the famous Geneva Convention, Marqiiis Hachisuka Mochi-aki 
being sent to Berne, Switzerland, as Special Ambassador, on 
June 5th of tliis year. From this time forth the principles of the 
Bed Cross Society met with universal approval in Japan. 

Yet this was not the first organisation of a similar Society in 
the Empire. Historians trace back the inception of such relief work 
to the reign of the Empress Jingo, during the subjugation of 
Korea by that great Sovereign. A code of martial law was drawn 
up on this occasion, containing provisions like the following : — 
" Suffer not a traitor to live. Kill not one who has called for 
quarter (shizen)." Henceforth no Japanese could kill any one, 
albeit an enemy, who refused to fight. Again, not many years 
ago, some of the Formosan islanders, belonging to an aboriginal 
tribe, determined upon a policy of foreign exclusion, murdered a 
number of foreigners, and plundered ships whenever they were 
wrecked on that inhospitable coast. The skulls obtained from 
slaughtering the unhappy shipwrecked mariners, were afterwards 
exhibited as trophies in their mountain homes. A number of 
inhabitants of Okinawa Prefecture, — ^otherwise the Byukyii or 
Loochoo Islands — also fell victims to the barbarous ferocity of the 
tribe. In fine, the Japanese Government determined to give 
these savages a salutary and much-needed lesson. In April, 1874, 
a Japanese man-of-war was despatched to the Island. On the 



vessel were Yice- Admiral Saigo, in command, Staff Major-General 
Tani and Bear- Admiral Akamatsu. On May 2nd of the same 
year, the Japanese troops gave battle to the Botangs, — for so the 
worst tribe was called — at a place called Siemen. The savages 
were utterly defeated and thereupon sued for pardon, giving up 
their chief as hostage. On this occasion Vice-Admiral Saigo had 
his surgeons attend with strict impartiality to the wounded on 
both sides. This kindly deed having been noised among the 
defeated tribe, many thereafter came unhesitatingly to the Japanese 
troops and received treatment in the military hospital. The deed 
was afterwards discovered by foreigners, and highly spoken of. 

During the Satsuma Eebellion, no less than 8569 wounded 
Imperialists received medical treatment in the temporary Military 
Hospital at Osaka. On March 
31st of this year (1877), H. M. 
the Emperor, accompanied by 
Cabinet Adviser Kido, paid a 
special visit to the hospital. 
Many of the wounded burst into 
tears of gratitude at this unex- 
pected evidence of the Imperial 
solicitude. Then T. M. the 
Empress and Empress Dowager, 
out of kindly sympathy with 
the sufferers, busied themselves 
in making lint at the Palace. 
This lint was distributed among 
the wounded at the Osaka and 
other hospitals. The example 
thus set was speedily followed by 
many ladies of rank. Viscounts 

Sano Tsunetami and Ogyu Uzuru, members of the Senate,* impa- 
tient of inaction on hearing of the sufferings of the wounded, 
established a EeHef Society. The members desired to proceed to 
the seat of the war and give aid to the wounded both among the 
Government troops and the rebel forces. Permission to do this 
was begged of and at once granted by the Commander-in-chief, 

* Since disestablished. 

ViscotiNT Sano. 



H. I. H. Prince Arisugawa Taruliito. On receiving the desired per- 
mission, the good work, with H. I. H. Prince Komatsu as Pre- 
sident, began on May 1st. The Society was known as the Haku-ai 
SJia, or " Philanthropic Association"; and it was the origin of the 
future Eed Cross Society. Japan joined this noble body, as 
already related, in 1886 ; and this step was enjoined and con- 
firmed by an Imperial Ordinance on November 15tli of this year. 
The system of relieving the wounded become organised and was 
based on the most advanced European ideas. But, as we have 
.seen, the Bed Cross Society in Japan was by no means the out- 
•come of a single day. Humanitarian ideas of this kind had been 

practised for centuries in the 

After the definite establish- 
ment of the Eed Cross, the So- 
ciety enjoyed Imperial favour and 
was highly esteemed by all. H.- 
M. the Empress made a point of 
being present whenever a General 
Meeting was convened. It finally 
became customary for some mem- 
ber of the Imperial House to be 
present whenever any local Branch 
of the Society held a meeting. 
In October, 1888, the sum of 
100,000 yen was contributed to 
the Society's funds out of the 
Privy Purse. A Eed Cross 
Hospital was subsequently established in the capital, where sick 
and wounded were ably treated in times of peace as well as of 
war. The scope of the Society growing larger, the sufferers from 
any natural catastrophe were thenceforth made the recipients of 
the Society's noble charity. By engaging in such work, the Eed 
■Cro3s members not only extended the principles of charity and 
philanthropy, but also kept themselves in constant practice and 
instant readiness for work in actual warfare. 

Viscount Ogto Uzuktj. 


Two years after the establishment of the Society, its utility 
was put to the test. In July, 1888, occurred the fatal eruption of 
the volcano Mt. Bandai. H. M. the Empress at once had a band 
of workers from the Ked Cross sent to the scene of the disaster ; 
and these nursed and finally cured 41 of the sufferers. When the 
Turkish war-ship Ertougrmil, which had been despatched to 
Japan with a message from the Sultan, foundered off the coast 
(September, 1890) of Kishii, 69 of the unfortunate crew were 
rescued by a German man-of-war. Five hundred were drowned, 
including the Captain. The rescued men were treated by the 
Bed Cross Society at Hyogo, remaining there for 40 or 50 days. 
The hospital had been used for this purpose by express order of H. 
M. the Empress. Upon their restoration to health, the survivors 
were taken back to Turkey in the Japanese war-ships Kongo and 
Hiyei. Again, on October 28th, 1891, a most destructive earth- 
quake did fearful damage in Mino and Owari, two thickly populat- 
ed provinces. Land-slips occurred, rivers overflowed, and the 
destruction was widespread. On the news of the catastrophe 
reaching the Imperial Palace, H. M. the Empress at once had a 
number of physicians, women nurses, medicines and all needful 
medical instrument sent from the Red Cross Society to the 
devastated towns and villages. The Kyoto Branch of the Bed 
Cross likewise despatched a certain number of medical men to the 
spot. In this tremendous earthquake 18,836 people were more or 
less severely wounded ; while 7341 were killed outright. Most of 
the wounded were treated by the Ked Cross, and it redounds 
greatly to the skill of the physicians in the Society that, out of 
4600 sufferers medical treated, only 11 died of their injuries. 

During the ten months of the War between Japan and China, 
the services rendered by the Red Cross Society were most 
honourably great. Nor did the work end with the conclusion of 
War, for there followed the campaign resulting in the subjugation 
of Formosa. The Bed Cross physicians, medical assistants and 
nurses were everywhere, and everywhere indefatigable. They 
devoted themselves to tender nursing of the wounded, and made 
a most enviable record for the Society. So soon as the War broke 
out, all the Branches of the Bed Cross made preparations to 
despatch, under the direction of the War Department, physicians. 


nurses and medicaments to where ver they might be needed. 
They worked in no less than ten hospitals in Japan alone. More- 
over, they nursed the Chinese wounded captives in the hospitals at 
Tokyo, Nagoya, Toyohashi and Osaka. "With regard to the work 
beyond the borders of the Empire, three different bodies were 
sent out by the Red Cross, the first detachment leaving Japan on 
September 2nd, 1894, or within a month after the inception of 
hostilities. They served both in the hospitals and on the field of 
battle. They were at Chemulpho, Phyongyang, Nampho, Ul-6n- 
tong, Wiju, Yongchon, Ki-shan and Kuinpho, in Korea ; and at 
Liushu-tun, To-cliing-tse, Port Arthur, Kinchow, Taku-shan, 
Chintoi-tse, etc., in China. Moreover, twice — in October, 1894, 
and March, 1895 — some five or six hundred people in the Society's 
service were sent on board the transport-ships attached to the 
Army, and there worked. 

After the restoration of Formosa to a condition of compara- 
tive tranquillity, a body of workers was sent to the Island. There 
they did excellent work in the Commissariat Hospitals at Keelung 
and Taipeh. Beginning simultaneously with the War, the work 
of the Red Cross in this connection did not come to an end until 
February 6th of the present year (1896). 

When the Relief Section of the Army and the Bureau of 
Accounts in the Navy advertised their willingness to receive con- 
tributions of all descriptions for the benefit of the troops afloat 
and ashore, the Society undertook to collect and transmit all 
offerings and contributions, through the various local Branches — 
and without charge — to their destination. This gave great 
convenience to the thousands of eager contributors, and not only 
strengthened the official standing of the Society, but also received 
aid from every Railroad and Steamship Company. It was every- 
where apparent that the troops were regarded with the utmost 
gratitude and devotion : indeed this spirit was significant of the 
whole nation. But foremost in encouraging the good work by 
word and deed, was the Red Cross Society. On the return of the 
triumphant Regiments as on their starting for the seat of war, 
the members of the Society assembled at the various railway 
stations to thank in person the brave defenders of their country ; 
while other leading members were sent to the recent seat of War 


for the same purpose. The President of the Society frequently 
visited the wounded, including the Chinese in hospital, and made 
gifts of money or various little luxuries. The Ladies' Benevolent 
Society, under the presidency of H. I. H. Princess Komatsu, was 
indefatigable in making bandages and lint. Many lady members 
served in the hospitals. A large number of pecuniary contribu- 
tions and gifts were received from both foreigners and natives ; 
and all those were handled by the Society. And now for a short 
sketch of the Society's work during the War. 


Immediately after the definite outbreak of the War, the 
Ked Cross Society held a council of its members to determine upon 
the regulations to be observed during the continuation of hostili- 
ties. These regulations affected the establishment of an extra 
Bureau of Accounts, the Management of Nurses, and many 
other matters. The direction of the rescue service during the 
War, of the manner in which the wounded should be treated, of 
the constitution of each body of nurses, etc., were discussed and 
many improvements made. Four bodies of nurses, each capable 
of dealing with 200 patients, were speedily brought in order. 
Besides the Central Council at Tokyo, the three Branches of 
Kyoto, Osaka and Nagoya got each one such band in readiness ; 
while the Branches in Hokkaido, Hyogo, Nagasaki, Niigata, 
Gumma, Miyagi, Ehime and Kumamoto made ready each a corps 
of physicians and nurses capable of looking after 100 patients. At 
the time every Branch was training between 20-30 women for 
nurses, intending to set them to hospital-work later on. Between 
the end of 1894 and the first part of 1895, no less than 668 
qualified nurses were, in this way, brought into service. 

In October, 1894, a temporary hospital was run up beside the 
original Ked Cross Hospital in Tokyo ; and this was intended to 
receive sick and wounded soldiers. Por the first time, the 
Society despatched a band of splendidly trained nurses to Hiro- 
shima, and they went at once to work in the Reserve Military 


Hospital. Physicians, pharmacists, managers, clerks, nurses and 
coolies Avere twice sent across the sea. Afterwards, at the request 
of the authorities, similar bodies were sent either to inland hos- 
pitals or across the sea whenever a request came in to that effect. 
These nurses were of three kinds : (1) Those trained in the Main or 
some Branch Society; (2) volunteers; (3) members of other 
charitable organisations. For work aboard ship, both members 
and trained nurses served together, assembling from aU Branches 
throughout the country. 

The organisation of a hospital capable of dealing with a 
maximum of 200 patients at once, consisted of : — 

Chief Physician 1 

Assistant Physicians 4 

Druggists 2 

Matron 1 

Nurses 40 

Instrument-sharpener 1 

Superintendent 1 

Accountant 1 

Clerk 1 

Male Servants 2 

Coolies or porters 6 

Total 60 

The materials required were, 

6 hand-ambulances 

4 tents 

12 stretchers 

210 sick-robes 

220 beds 

220 wadded coats 

250 lined garments 

210 single-thickness garments 

210 shirts 

250 girdles 

800 sets of blankets 

210 mattrasses 

210 pillows 


210 pillow-cases 

500 sets of bedding 

50 mosquito-nets* 

All the above were for the use of patients only. For the staff 
were further required, — 

180 sets of blankets 

60 mattrasses 

60 pillows 

60 pillow-cases 

20 sets of bedding 

15 mosquito-nets* 


Feom the inception of the War, the Bed Cross Society was 
most active- in rendering relief to the sick and wounded ; nor did 
this noble service come to an end until the tranquillization of 
Formosa was definitely assured. The work undertaken in this 
direction was of such vast magnitude and so complex, that we are 
unable to treat of it under any one heading. This section, there- 
fore, miist be divided into the following five sub-divisions, each of 
which will receive special treatment: — 

(1) Work at the Inland Reserve Military Hospitals ; 

(2) Eelief of Wounded Chinese ; 

(3) Work at the Over-sea Commissariat Hospitals ; 

(4) Eelief on Shipboard ; 

(5) Relief of the Wounded in Formosa. 


It was on