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i. Jii^oibBWjisaaai 


OJornell Hntnetaitg Hibratg 

Jftl^ra, N«to ^mrb 






CLASS OF 1876 



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The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

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Cornell University Library 
BL 1410.B36A2 

Abstract of four lectures on Buddhist ji 

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In the introduction to a work^ published in the year 1871 I 
called attention to the fact that we possessed at that time, in 
England at least, no complete set of the Buddhist Sacred 
Writings as they are known in China and Japan. These 
Sacred Writings, constituting what is called the Tripitaka, or 
three receptacles, had been printed at various times in China 
from wooden blocks, which were as often destroyed by fire or 
civil war. It is said that during the Sung and Yuan dynasties 
(a.d. 960—1330) as many as twenty different editions had 
been produced, but during the troubles occurring towards the 
end of the Yiian period all these perished. During the Ming 
dynasty (a.d. 1360— 1620) two editions, called the Southern 
and the Northern, were published, the latter of which was 
reproduced in 1586 by a priest called Mi-tsang, after twenty 
years' labour. This edition is known in Japan as the Ming 
tsong, or Tripitaka of the Ming dynasty. 

It is this copy of the Sacred Books that I rec[uested His 
Excellency Iwakura Tomomi to procure for the India Office 
Library, and which he so generously promised to do, in 1874. 
A similar request had been already made at Pekin, but the 
Chinese Government, jealously conservative, had declined to 
accede to it. We were fortunately able to look . elsewhere ; 
and in 1875 the entire Tripitaka was received at the India 
Office, in fulfilment of the promise made by the Japanese 

Lest these books should remain on the library shelves 
unexamined and uncared for, I thought they might provide 

' Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, from the Chinese. 


ine with material for a course of lectures I had undertaken to 
deliver at University College, London, on the subject of Bud- 
dhist literature in China> Accordingly, having prepared a 
catalogue of the books, imperfect indeed, but sufficient for 
practical purposes, I proceeded to examine S(5me of them more 
attentively. The result of my inquiries I embodied in the 
lectures I delivered during the years 1 879— 1 880, and I have in 
the following pages printed an abstract of these, with a view 
to call attention to the subject. 

I thought, first of all, it would be interesting to recount the 
names and the labours of those Indian, or at any rate foreign, 
Buddhist priests, who during 600 years and more after the 
beginning of the Christian era continued to arrive in China 
with books and manuscripts, which they subsequently trans- 
lated, or assisted to translate, into the language of that country. 
It is surely an interesting study to inquire how these foreign 
priests succeeded in converting China to Buddhism. If they had 
failed, yet the exhibition of this fresh energy in the world — 
this energy, I mean, of religious propagandism — would natu- 
rally excite some curiosity. We should be inclined to ask 
whether it was derived from the genius of the Buddhist religion, 
or whether it was but a widened circle of an energy excited 
from another centre. And if it could be shown that it was 
an independent movement, we should be led to inquire further 
how far it was confined in its direction, and why so. But, 
apart from this, we have in the fact of the rapid spread of the 
Buddhist belief throughout the eastern portion of Asia a study 
sufficient for the present at least. The mere record of names 
would be of itself useless if it did not convey the idea of 
earnest and persevering work. And it is for the purpose of 
calling attention to the reality of this work that I have recited 
the names' of some of the Buddhist priests who came to China 
and worked there, teaching and translating, during the first 
six centuries of our era. With respect to the character of 
their work, it would be surely enough to point to results. A 
new hterature was produced — a literature essentially Indian, 
and therefore Aryan; the Chinese were inspired with new 
thoughts and ideas about religion ; a rude blow was dealt to 


their national exclusiveness, another turn was given to their 
studies, and fresh comhinations of men and women formed 
into religious societies ; the country was covered with temples 
and pagodas; and thousands, stirred by this new impulse, 
sought to find out in the solitude.of the hermit's cell the secret 
of the unrest that had seized them. 

The Buddhists of India brought about all this, and much 
more than this; for what occurred in China happened also 
throughout the regions beyond ; and in due course Corea, Japan, 
on that side, and Mongolia and Tibet on the other, were con- 
verted and made obedient to the same faith, or whatever it 
was in Buddhism, that had conquered the Eastern world. 

But my task is not to exhibit the mode or even the char- 
acter of this change, but to call attention to the fact and the 
steps which led to it. 

No doubt one cause of the rapid spread of Buddhism 
northward from the valley of the Ganges is to be found in the 
existence of a Northern people, the Vajjis or Samvajjis, in 
the neighbourhood of Magadha, where this religion was first 
preached. It is a curious discovery to find that a republic, so 
to speak, of Northern invaders, the Yue-chi of Chinese history, 
were already settled in India when Buddha lived, and were 
converted to his doctrine by his own instrumentality. Yet 
such is the case. V/e arrive at it in this way. The Vajjians, 
who lived in Ves41i and some other neighbouring towns, are 
denoted in Chinese by tlie same symbols as are used to de- 
scribe the Yue-chi. Mr. Ehys Davids, in his Buddhist Suttas^ 
(chap. i. § 3), gives a translation relating to the Vajjians, which 
I had already translated as referring to the Yue-chi (Fa-kheu- 
pi-u, pp. 165 and 166); and M. Ldon F^er, in his translation of 
tlie Sutra of Forty-two Articles, had noticed that the Gets8 
(Yue-chi), in my translation of the same book, ought to be 
restored to Vrijjis. This was sufficient to show that the 
symbols employed by the Chinese to denote the Northern 
people, who are in fact the "White Huns or Viddhals of history, 
are also employed to denote the Vajjis of Ves^h. But the 

Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi. 


Vajjis are also called Litsavis or Litchavis, and these again 
Mr. Brian Hodgson (Essays, p. 17 n.) had identified with the 
Scyths. On turning again to Mr. Fergusson's "Tree and 
Serpent Worship" (pL xxviii. fig. i, and text), I was glad to 
be able to identify the people here drawn as the inhabitants 
of Vesali. For this worshipping of the Tope is, in fact, the 
dedication feast of the Vajjians after they had obtained a 
share of Buddha's relics. This will be plain from observing 
that all the scenes connected with it, viz., those on the inside 
of the right-hand pUlar of the Northern gateway, relate to 
events which happened at Vesali. The group given on pi. xvi. 
fig. 2 {op. cit.) is found immediately beneath it, and is a view 
of the monkeys bringing a pot of honey to Buddha near the 
Markatahrada at Vesali, as related in Hiouen Thsang (ii. 387). 
Beneath this again is the scene describing Mara's interview 
with Buddha, when he exhorted him to leave the world (Jul. 
ii. 391). This is plain from the marked presence of the 
women (his daughters), who take such a conspicuous part in 
the Buddhist temptatioli-scene. In the same group (pi. xxvi. 
fig. l) is the representation of the Kinnaras who followed 
Buddha when he was going to the scene of his death at 
Kusinagara, as related by Hiouen Thsang (Jul. ii. 390). The 
perfect agreement of these plates with Hiouen Thsang's 
account of what he heard (or what was believed) at Vesfi,li, 
seems to prove that this portion of the pillar was finished at 
the expense of the Vajjian Buddhists. Now Mr. Fergusson 
had already commented on the strange appearance of the 
worshippers in the upper group (pi. xxviii. fig. i). He says 
(p. 1 36), " These people are not Hindus, but an entirely different 
race, who are seen at Sanchi only in this bas-relief. Their 
hair is short and curly like a negro's, or as that of Buddha 
is represented to be in more modem times. . . . The Eoman 
double pipe replaces the flute. The trumpets are of a kind 
seen nowhere else in the sculptures, but are almost identical 
with those represented on the arch at Orange and elsewhere 
by the Eomans as belonging to the Celts or their barbarian' 
enemies, whoever they were. Their banner alone, with ' stars 
and stripes,' or rather stars and Union Jack combined, is like 


■what -we shall afterwards meet." I assume that Mr. Fergusson, 
in this last clause, refers to the same flag as we ^ee it pi. xxxviii. 
fig. I. Now this scene undoubtedly refers to the siege of 
Kusinagara by the allied troops, who represented the various 
states (seven) that demanded a share of Buddha's relics. This 
siege is fully narrated in Asvaghosha's Bwddhacharita, and also 
in the Lalita Vistara (Foucaux's translation, p. 424). The 
Vajjians took part in it ; this flag therefore is the Vajjian flag. 
Now all this is singular ; but there seems no reason to doubt 
that the people worshipping the Tope in the Sanchi group are 
Vajjis, and that these Vajjis, from their dress, &c., are a Northern 
people, or, in other words, the Yue-chi. If so, we understand 
how Buddhism was so easily and so heartily received by the 
Northern tribes of barbarians. Kanishka was one of the 
Yue-chi ; and he invaded Magadha and carried off Asvaghosha, 
the Buddhist patriarch, to Bactria.^ This alone would prove 
that the Yue-chi were already acquainted with Buddhism. 
Kanishka lived about a.d. 70. We may suppose, therefore, 
that the Vajjis of Ves&li had exerted an influence among their 
Northern brethren, at an early period, favourable to the Buddhist 
faith ; and when Kanishka and his tribe openly professed the 
faith, it was but the consequence of influences that had long 
been working. It would almost appear as if the name Kapisa 
(Cabul) were but another for Kapila. Anyhow, the early 
legends of Buddha's previous history seem to have been carried 
away to Cabul, as if he had lived there. This, again, seems to 
favour the Turanian origin of the Sakyas as a race. Their 
own legendary history relates that they were first settled at 
Potala' on the Indus, as if they had come down from the 
mountain region and had settled near the river mouth, whence 
they spread over the northern portion of India proper. This, 
combined with other indirect evidence, gives favour to the 
i4ea that Buddhism was not a purely indigenous religion of 
India, but derived from a fusion of Turanian and Aryan 
elements, and brought out in the teaching of one who was 
himself perhaps of mixed Aryan and Turanian origin. At 

Edkins' Chinese Buddhism, p. 75. 


least — and this is what concerns the present inquiry — we can 
now understand how the religion of Buddha spread so rapidly 
among the Northern tribes outside of India, and reached at an 
early period the ears of the Chinese monarch who introduced 
the first knowledge of this doctrine into his dominions. 

2. In my second lecture, I caU attention to the fact that 
the- books brought to China from India by the early Buddhist 
missionaries were written in various Indian dialects, and repre- 
sent the Buddhism of the districts from which they were 
brought It seems to me simply an error to suppose that the 
Buddhism of India after Aloka's time was the religion of 
Magadha only. Doubtless the books belonging to the Southern 
school, which are written in P&li, represent the purer faith of 
the Theravadi school of Buddhists ; but that is all. The here- 
tics of Ves^li were probably of non-Indian extraction, and 
they perverted much of pure Buddhism in their own way. 
And from them this form of mediaeval Buddhism spread north- 
wards and eastwards. The books brought to China were very 
many of them brought from this Vajjian centre (Ldon Ker, 
" Sutra of Forty-two Articles ") ; others were from Cabul, or 
Kophene, and Gandh^ra. Now these were books not written 
in Pali, not of the Theravadi school, but of a mixed kind, 
and probably of a perverted kind, but yet representing the 
Buddhism of that part of India whence they came. To take 
an instance : it is well known that in the Pan canon there is 
a remarkable book called Dhammapada. This book was evi- 
dently of great authority in the Buddhist Church. For that 
reason it was sought after and translated into various Prakrit 
dialects. Hence in China we have three if not four distinct 
works all called " Dhammapada." ^ I say distinct works, because 
they differ so widely as to make them so. But they are all 
derived from one common parent, or prototype (as Mr. Ehys 
Davids says) ; one of them, the Fa-lcheu-Ung, is, I believe, a 
good translation of the PS,li book known to us through several 
English versions of it. The Fa-Meu-pi-u, which I have trans- 

' Kepresentod in Chinese by the phonetic symbols tan-po; either Dhammapada 
or Dharmapada. 


lated, is a less faithful copy of the old work, and is accom- 
panied by tales or avadanas, of a grotesque but characteristic 
form.-' But there are also two other books in China bearing 
this same title of Dharmapada (rendered, as I have said, in 
Chiuese by the symbols Tan-po, explained by the symbols 
FoL-kheu). These books appear to differ as widely as the last, 
if not more so, from the P41i book; but yet they were all 
translated from Indian originals, at various times, and by 
various priests ; showing us as plainly as possible that there 
were in India many books bearing titles the same as those 
found in the South, but not agreeing with those books further 
than a common tradition would lead us to expect. This is 
what I have stated in these lectures. But yet there are trans- 
lations made directly, as it would seem, from P^li, in China. 
I have found several of these. The Pari-nibb^na, the Brahma- 
jala, the Sigalovada, the Dhamma chakka, the Kasibharadvdja, 
the Mahamangala Suttas ; all these I have found and com- 
pared with translations from the PMi, and find that in the 
main they, are identical I do not say literally the same ; 
they differ in minor points, but are identical in plot and all 
important details. And when the Vinaya and Agama 
collections are thoroughly examined, I can have little doubt 
we shall find most if not all the P41i Suttas in a Chinese 

3. In my third lecture I have called attention to the history 
and writings of Asvaghosha, the twelfth Buddhist patriarch 
(according to the Northern school). To this eminent scholar 
and poet the great change in Buddhist teaching known as the 
doctriae of the Great Vehicle is mainly due. The point in 
this development of a vital character is the belief in a force 
(spiritual force) called Bodhi, existing as the basis of all phe- 
nomena. The " heart of Bodhi " is now used to describe a 
converted or transformed mind. All thp converted are 

' One of. these tales, as I have recently discovered from another source (from 
a work, viz. , called KHig-lm-sevmg), is the story of Rahula when reproved for 
falsehood, as found in the book of Avadanas (a canonical work). This tale is 
referred to in one of the A^oka Edicts. 


Bodhisattvas. They are "sons." Altogether, having trans- 
lated the Buddhacharita throughout, and also the greater por- 
tion of Asvaghosha's sermons, I am impressed with the convic- 
tion that Christian teaching had reached his ears at the time 
when Asvaghosha was in Parthia, or at any rate in Bactria (viz., 
about A.D. 70), and that he was influenced by it so far as to 
iutroduce into Buddhism the changes we find beginning to 
take shape at this period. The doctrine of a universal sal- 
vation, and of Buddha's incarnation by the descenf of the 
Spirit, and of a power of Bodhi or wisdom by which we are 
made " sons," or converted disciples — these and other non- 
Buddhist ideas found in Asvaghosha's writings convince me 
that there was such an intercommunication at this time 
between East and West as shaped the later school of Buddhism 
into a pseudo- Christian form; and this accounts very much 
for some otherwise inexplicable similarities. 

It will be evident from this and the next lecture that I 
cannot believe that Buddhism (I mean as we find it in the 
Indian writers of the period of Asvaghosha and Deva 
Bodhisattva) was matured in the valley of the Ganges, or was 
independent of other movements occurring on the shores of 
the Mediterranean. 

4. In my last lecture I have directed notice to the character 
of the early myths found in Buddhism as to the cosmic 
arrangement of the universe. I have no doubt — I can have 
none — that the idea of a central mountain, and of the rivers 

flowing from it, and the abode of the gods on its summit 

that this is a primitive myth derived from the earliest traditions 
of our race. I have risked the opinion that "Sume" or 
" S'um " is a primitive and probably an interjectional sound to 
represent "the highest," and afterwards was attached to the 
idea of a high mountain ; at least we have " sam " in Chinese 
for "the heart," which is explained as the "atman," or "highest 
self," and the symbol representing this is the crescent of the 
moon and the three " yods " or " dots " above it denoting the 
highest region of the stars. This is identical with the Chandra 
vindu of Sanscrit; and the nasal 'm sound of the latter is 
simply that of the Chinese "s'am" deprived of the invocative 


sibilant.^ But whether this is so or not, I cannot doubt that 
the Buddhist myth about Sume or Sumeru is distinct from the 
later Brahmanical account of it, and allied with the universal 
belief in and adoration of " the highest." I have also traced 
in the cosmic theory of the Buddhists the early Homeric 
account of the gods of Olympus. It is singular that we have 
in the successive stages of the Buddhist Sumeru names so 
familiar to us as the strong-hoofed (buU), i.e., the sun, the 
ever-free (Dionysus, or Liber), the chaplet-holders (identified 
with Taradeva, the stars), the large-eyed (Juno, the fuU moon), 
the greatly celebrated (Hephaestus), the earthholder (Poseidon), 
the extremely fertile (Earth, dpovpa), and above all the strong 
Sakra {Zev<s KpdTiaTo<s). I say it is curious to find this agree- 
ment ; it can hardly be questioned that the Buddhist cosmic 
arrangement is allied with Greek tradition, as embodied in 

But I hasten to observe, lastly, that the later Buddhist lite- 
rature seems to have been affected by intercourse with Syria, 
and perhaps Samaria. I suppose it cannot be doubted that 
the intercourse between the Greek Bactrian kingdom and the 
people of Syria was of a close character. And it is also 
tolerably certain that there was an early Greek settlement near 
Samaria. Justin the Martyr belonged to a Greek family 
settled there, and his allusion to certain dirofivrjfiovevfMaTa tS>v 
d-TToaToXeov would indicate that there was a sacred college there 
of some sort, in which traditions and sayings of holy men were 
treasured. I hav6 ventured to think that there were Essenes 
located there, and that many of these were Hellenists. But 
the rules of the Essene community are almost identical with 
those of the Buddhists. The agreement is too close to be acci- 
dental. Were the Essenes, then, a congregation of lay people 
corresponding with the Buddhist Upasakas ? The Upasakas 
were under vows of chastity, &c., but not so completely as the 
Bhikshus. A Bhikshu or full Buddhist monk was forbidden 
to labour in the field, but the Upasaka was not ; the Bhikshu 

' The sibilant sound is still used before the names or in the presence of great 
personages in some ^arts of Japan, to demand silence and as a call for respect. 


again wore yellow robes, the Upasaka wore white garments ; the 
general name for eminent sages or saints (not Bhikshus) was 
isayo (FausboU, Sutta Nipata, p. 48), the plural form of isi. 
Another plural form was isi ; these two agree with the Greek 
variants 'Ecraaioi and 'Eaa-rjvol. Lastly, the three Buddhist 
stories I have met with relating to the Matangi or low-easts 
woman, of whom Ananda requested a drink of water (derived 
apparently from a perversion of the history of the Samaritan 
woman),: — all these considerations led me to believe that 
there was an early communication between the Hellenists 
settled near Samaria and the Parthian Buddhists, and, in fact, 
that much of the hatred of the Jews to the Samaritans was 
due to this. 

Whether right or wrong, to my mind it is no disparagement 
to the Gospel narrative to suppose such a connection. I have 
ventured, therefore, to hold to my opinion, and to accept this 
as a possible explanation of the difficulties which surround 
the study of Buddhism when regarded as an isolated move- 
ment in the religious history of the world. 


The plates here given are copied from those found in Jin ch'au's 
" History of Buddhism " (Fd-kiai-lih-fu). They are constructed 
from' details found in works of the highest authority, such as 
the Agama SMras, the Saddharma smriti upasth^na Siltra, and 

The figure of Mount Meru, with its terraced slopes, reminds us 
of the passage in Berosus quoted by Josephus : ical Kareaicevaae 
Tov KaXovjievov Kpefiaarov irapdBeia-ov, " because his (i.e., Nabu- 
chodonosor's) wife wished to have her native customs, having 
been brought up in the parts of Media" (Josephus, Antiq., 
X. II, i). This allusion to a hanging paradise suggests the 
correspondence between the Greek Kpip,dvvvfii and the Sanscrit 
ava-lamh, both signifying "hanging" or "hanging down;" and 
if this latter word (avalamha) be the root of Olympus, we have 
here a connection between Meru, as the paradise, and Olympus, 
as the abode of the gods.^ 

' If I understand the words of Strabo, the Idea was to ntake 
gardens ; this is peculiarly Buddhistic. 


1. The connection between the Homeric system of the gods 
of Olympus and the Buddhist mythology was first suggested 
by the evident agreement of the Horse, as the guardians of the 
gates of heaven, with the four heavenly kings or ZoJcapdlitas. 
The latter are described in Chinese Buddhist books as originally 
representing the four seasons, and are the fathers each one 
of ninety sons, i.e., the ninety days of the quarter. Here the 
identity is manifest. 

2. The fact of there having been a colony of Scyths or 
Cuthites around Samaria is plainly proved by the allusion of 
Polybius (Hist, v. 70). The Talmudist writers always speak 
of the Samaritans as Cutheans, and it is a question whether 
Simon Magus, in representing himself to be 6 TrpcoToi ©io'; 
(Just. Martyr, Apolog., i.),^ and also " the great power of God " 
and "some great one," was not merely using well-recognised 
Buddhist terms, viz. (i.) Adi Buddha (known as the first 
Buddha as early as the beginning of our era, under the form 
in Chinese of Yih-sin) ; (2.) Dasabala Buddha ; and (3.) Mahesi. 
His death, too, occurring from a faU when attempting to fly, 
is peculiarly applicable to his imposture as a Buddhist Eishi 
or id. 

1 S. Justini Martyris cum Tryphone Dialogue, p. 351, n. — Ed, Samuel Jebb. 


Page 3, note i. Ohu-fd-lan ia restored to Gobhinanda, or Gobananda, 
by the Thibetans. 

Page i,line &. For " King-hwong" read" Kin-hwang." 
Page 8, line 29. When I say " a translation of Dhammapada," I can- 
not be supposed to imply that it is translated 
from the Pali copy of that work, but simply that 
the symbols Fa-kheu are themselves said to be a 
translation of Tam-po, i.e., Dhammapada, or Dhar- 

Page 20, line 13. Dharmakshaya may also be restored to Dharm^k- 

shara, or Dharmaraksha. 
Page 3 1, line 25. For " Sakra " read " Sakra," and in all subsequent cases. 

Pagegs, line 2. For "Asvaghosba" read " A^vaghosha," and in all 
subsequent cases. 

[For many mistakes in accents the author requests his readers' 




The object of these Lectures will be to bring before you some 
notices respecting Buddhism and Buddhist books in China and 

The phrase " Chinese Buddhism," as it is sometimes used, 
is misleading. We might as well speak of " Chinese Chris- 
tianity." Buddhism and Buddhist books in China are the 
same as they were in India; and, with respect to the latter 
at least, the same as they now are in Ceylon. For I can have 
no doubt that the books belonging to the Buddhist Canon, as 
it is known in that country, will be found, with few excep- 
tions, to exist in China ; and to this I shall call your attention 
hereafter. The mere circumstance of these books being trans- 
lated into Chinese cannot alter their character, any more than 
the translation of our own Sacred Books from the Greek or 
Hebrew can alter theirs. 

It is still a question when Buddhism was introduced into 
China. There is a work (Fo-tse-lun, Catalogue,^ Case Ixxxvii. p. 
95), written by one Ea-lin, to confute the sceptical opinions of 
Fu-yi, in which the writer brings a mass of evidence to show 
that Buddhist books were known in China before the time of She 
Hwang-ti (B.C. 221). This monarch, as is well known, claimed 
to be the first universal emperor. This claim he put forth in 
the twenty-sixth year of his reign as Ch^ng Wang. He built 
the Great Wall and destroyed all the books ; and Fa-lin con- 

^ The Buddhist Tripitaka, as it is known in China and Japan. A Catalogue 
and Compendious Eeport. By Samuel Beal, 1876. 


tends that among these were the Buddhist Scriptures (k. i. p. lo). 
He also records the anecdote (which appears also in the great 
Encyclopffidia of Kang-hsi, sub " Shih-kia ") that in the time of 
She Hwang there was a foreign Buddhist priest, Li Fang, who, 
with seventeen companions, came to China with Buddhist books 
for the purpose of converting the "king. The emperor, however, 
shut them up in prison. In the evening six men (of super- 
human character) came and with their diamond maces opened 
the prison doors and brought the captives out. On this the 
emperor was filled with fear and worshipped them. 

This fable need not be accepted. Fa-lin contends that both 
Confucius and Laou Tseu spoke of Buddha ; he says that once 
Confucius was asked if he was a Holy man (shing), to which the 
sage replied that he was not. What, then, are the three kings 
(wang) Holy men ? To which he replied they were wise men, 
but not holy. What, then, are the five kings (ti) Holy men ? 
To which he replied they were virtuous and truthful, but not 
holy. What, then, were the three emperors (hwang) Holy men? 
To which he replied they were prudent, but not holy. And 
when he was asked. Who, then, is the Holy man ? then Fu-sze, 
greatly moved, said, " The western region has a Holy man — 
without striving he is self-governed (without confusion) ; he 
speaks not, and yet is the truth (or, sincere) ; he teaches not, 
and yet his own conduct how deep ! how deep ! " 

Then, with respect to Laou Tseu, he quotes various writers 
to show that he was identical with Buddha. One says, " The 
Master, transforming himself, went to India, and entered Nir- 
vana; " another says, " The Master of the Laou people {i.e., the 
Taouists) was SIkya Muni." 

Again, he contends that the falling rocks and stars in the 
reign of Chwang Wang, of the Chow dynasty, were the portents 
that occurred at Buddha's birth. 

But all these notices and contentions may be dismissed as 
more or less fabulous, and we may be content to place the intro- 
duction of Buddhism into China about the time of the first 
diffusion of the Christian doctrine in the West. Whether 
there be any connection between these two events is, I still 
think, an open question; one thing, at least, we know,' that it 
was just at the time when Buddhism was brought to China 


that the dispersion of Jews and Christians occurred consequent 
on the troubles in Judaea. Du Halde and the old writers may 
not be wrong, then, in supposing that some knowledge of great 
events, other than the teaching of Buddha, had reached China 
at this time, and led to the mission to India about which I now 
proceed to speak. 

The Vision of Ming Ti. 

During the after- Han dynasty of the family Liu, which reigned 
at Loyang (the eastern capital), there appeared to Ming Ti, 
the second emperor, in the third year of the Yung P'ing period 
{i.e., A.D. 60) [the cyclical characters being Kang Shin], in a 
dream, a golden flying figure, above his head the glory of the 
sun and moon, which hovered above the vestibule of the palace. 
On inquiry, the historiographer,. Fu-yih, said he had heard that 
there was a Divine Being (Shin} in the West, called Buddha, 
who had come down to earth, and that the dream had something 
to do with this. Accordingly, a.d. 64 [Shin tseu], the emperor 
selected from his officers Ts'ai Yin, Ts'in King (the rank 
Foh sse), Wang Tsun, and others, all numbering eighteen men, 
to go to the West to inquire about the religion of Buddha. 

Yin and the rest coming to the country of India invited Kas- 
yapa Matanga and Dharmananda^ to return with them, who, using 
a white horse for carriage, came back with books, pictures, and 
an image of S^kya Buddha, a.d. 6^, to Loyang. The emperor 
rejoiced at the event, erected a temple, ©aUed the White Horse 
Temple, which was finished on the first month of the fourteenth 
year of his reign, A.D. 71. On this occasion the Taouist priests 
of the Five Mountains,^ Shen Sin and others, being dissatisfied, 
sent a deputation to the emperor exhorting him to have their 
respective merits tried. On which occasion the emperor, having 
called an assembly before the southern gate of the White Horse 
Temple, the Taouist priests put their sacred books and religious 
paraphernalia (spiritual treasures) on the eastern altar; the 

^ So I restore Chu-fa-la/n. The prefix Chu (Indian) is not a component part of 
bis name. 

* Five high peaka, worshipped in China, viz., Tung-yoh, in Shantung ; Sai-yoh, 
in Shensi, south of the capital ; Nan yoh, in Hunan, near the centre ; Pih yoh, in 
the south-west of Ohihili ; Chung yoh, in the west of Honan, near the Yellow 


emperor placed the sacred books, relics, and images of Buddha 
above the hall of the seven gems, on the west. 

And now the Taouist priests, with tears, called on the Heavenly 
Lord, whilst they lay prostrate on the ground; then, placing 
sandal-wood on the altar and burning their books, they hoped, 
as in former times, that others would arise from the ashes and 
ascend into the air and exhibit wonderful changes. But no 
such event now occurred, nor could ' they recite their sacred 
incantations as they ought. On this the great officer, Chang 
Yen, addressing them, said, " Your trial has failed ; your preten- 
sions are false ; the religion of the western countries is the true 

Then the priests of the ISTan yoh, Shuh tsai and others, self- 
convicted, fell dead. After this the sariras of Buddha, emitting 
the five colours, ascending into the air, formed themselves, as it 
were, into a covering over the assembly, glorious as the disc of 
the sun. Matanga, the Doctor of the Law, having before this 
arrived at the condition of a Eahat, forthwith, by his miraculous 
power, ascended up into space and there exhibited himself, 
undergoing various spiritual changes, e.g., flying, walking, sit- 
ting, sleeping, and so on. 

Hereupon there was a rain of precious flowers, so that the 
feelings of the beholders were deeply moved, and they rejoiced 
exceedingly. On this, whilst Matanga was seated (in the 
air), Dharmananda preached a sermon, and multitudes of the 
people were converted. Amongst these, the royal ladies, 
the emperor's chief housekeeper (tsieh u), and others, 190 
persons, all became professed disciples (ch'uh kia); of the great 
officers of state, civil and military, 268 became disciples- 
of the Taouists belonging to the "four peaks," Lu-hwui-tun^ 
and others, 620 men became disciples; of the capital towi^ 
391 of the chief m'en and women became disciples. Of the 
royal famHy, those who had professed religion, with their heads 
shaved, ofi-ered gifts and presents to the Sacred Books for thirty 
days, after which they founded temples— seven outside the 
city, three within. In the seven the priests located themselves 
in the three the female disciples dwelt. All this is related in 
the annals of the Han dynasty under the heading, « Ming Ti 
;pen niu chouen." 


The Shaman Kia-yeh-mo-teng {Kasyapa Matanga). 

He was a man of Middle India, of the Brahman caste. When 
young he was distinguished for talent ; with ardent purpose he 
studied various treatises, and extracted from them new and 
hidden meanings. Moved by the Divine Spirit, he went into 
"Western India, where he was invited by a small country to come 
over and explain ' the King-Kwong-Ming-King (Suvarna pra- 
bhasa SMra) to them. Just at this time a neighbouring state 
attempted to march an army into the former country, but they 
were unable to advance over the frontiers. Suspecting some secret 
agency, they sent messengers to find out (by augury) the reason 
of the hindrance. Having entered the country they found the 
king with his ministers, &c., quietly listening to the Sutra of 
the Great Development, whilst a divine spirit was protect- 
ing the country. On 1;his they were converted, and it was 
just then that T'sai yin and the other emissaries from China 
met Matanga, and brought him to Loyang to the emperor, 
A.D. 6y. 

This priest, located in the White Horse Temple, translated 
" The Siitra of 42 Paragraphs," i vol, 

[This Siitra was copied from other foreign books. Ma- 
tanga, using his great insight, when he first taught the people, 
as their faith was little, put together these excellent sections, 
not giving the people at once full books, but only portions of 
books, to act as guides to them in their unenlightened condition. 
Matanga died afterwards in Loyang, — Ch Ed.'\ 

The Shaman Chu-fa-lan (JDharmananda). 

This priest was also of Middle India. At an early age he 
exhibited great talent and fondness for Buddhist books, 
especially the Vinaya. He could recite more than .a hundred 
myriad words from the Siitras. Although hospitality was 
freely offered him, he was not content to remain at home, but 
desired to travel to make known the true doctrine. Contrary 
to the wish of the ruler of the country, he secretly left with 
Matanga, and after travelling with him came to China, where 


during Kung Ti's reign he assistedin the translation of the "Sutra 
of 42 Paragraphs." After Matanga's death Nan'da, from the year 
A.D. 68 to A.D. 70, translated alone other Sutras. 
Of these the following is a list : — 

1. Fo-pen-hing-king, .... 5 kiouen. 

2. Shih-ti-twan-kie-king, . . . 4 „ 

3. Pa-hai-tsong-king, .... 3 « 

4. F6-pen-sing-king 2 „ 

5. 'Eh-pih-luh-shih-kiai-hoh-i, . . 2 „ 
Altogether 5 distinct works in 16 chapters. Of these No. i 

is the earliest translation known of the " Life of Buddha " — it 
is now lost. Uo. 4 is a book of J§,takas also lost. 

It is recorded of this priest that when the emperor Wu Ti 
(140 B.C.) had cleaned out ;(bored through) the Kwan-Ming 
lake and had discovered some black ashes among the excavated 
stuff, he asked Tung-fang So about it, whereupon So said, " You 
must ask the Tartars i(hu-jin) of the "Western world." When 
Nanda arrived, therefore, he was asked about it, and replied, 
"These are the ashes of the world burnt up in the Kalpa 

This priest, again, when he came to Loyang, caused a picture 
to be made from the sandal-wood image of Buddha done by 
King Ud§,yana, and reverence to be paid it. 

The Shaman Ghi'lo-Jcia-chin •{Shirffatchin). 

This priest was a Hun (White Hun). Moved by a desire to 
convert the world (mat, " things "), he came to China in the year 
147 A.D., and worked at translations till a.d. 187 in Loyang. 

In all he completed 21 distinct translations, comprising 6^ 
chapters, of which I will name the following : — 

I. A-kieu-Fo-kwo-king,. . . . 2 kiouen 

• 2. Pan-jo-tao-hing-p'hin, . . .10 

3. Shen-ling-yan-king, .... 2 „ 

4. Pao-tsih-king, I 

Of these, No. i is an account of the land of Akshobya— one of 
the Dhy^ni Buddhas. From this we gather that the develop- 
ment of these fanciful Buddhas had already taken a distinct 
form before the year 147 A.D. 


No. 2 is a section from the Pr^jaa Paramita Siitra, which 
shows that this work dates also before this period. 

No. 3 is a translation of the Sfttra commonly called Suran- 
^ama, though I think it should more properly be restored to 
Sringin, i.e., " the horned," referring to the highest rays of the 
sun, which are compared to horns, and so denoting the highest 
flight of doctrine. This horned figure is symbolised in various 
ways from the simple circle (of the sun) with its rays, as on 
the Buddha-Gaya rail (Bhilsa Topes, p. 333), advancing to the 
common Trisul figure at Sanchi, where, however, instead of the 
sun we have the Lotus flower. This highest flight of doctrine 
so symbolised thus became the "in excelsis" of the later 
Buddhists, under the form of " mani-padme." 1 The Siitra we 
refer to is in two chapters, the later one, translated in the Tang 
dynasty by Paramita and Meghasikhi, is in ten kiouen. This 
is accounted for by the usual process of development or 
expansion. We notice that Fa-hien, when he recited the Sfttra 
called by this name in the Vulture- Peak Mountain, must have 
used the shorter one, probably the one under present notice. 

No. 4 is the Eatnak^ta Sutra, but very short, being in one 

The Shaman 'An-tsing or Sai-kao. 

This missionary was a prince royal of Parthia (An-sih ; 
either of the country of the Arsacidse, or the Asskkas, or i-jnTaaioi, 
i.e., Parthians). When his father died he gave up the kingdom 
to his uncle and became a Buddhist recluse. He came to 
Chiua in the second year of the reign of Hwan-ti, the title being 
Kien-ho, i.e., a.d. 149, and soon distinguished himself by his 
knowledge of Chinese. He went to Kwangchau (Canton) to 
encounter an old associate of his who in former days (i.e., in a 
previous birth) had possessed a fiery and passionate temper. As 
he went along the road, a young man armed with a knife attacked 
and wounded him. Kao with a smile addressed him and said, 
"I have come here to see you." Afterwards with the same 
object he went again towards Canton ; on the way, in the Kung- 
pavilion in Hu-nan, he entered a temple where sailors were 

1 The gem, i.e., the trisul, in the Lotus; and so it is everywhere figured. 



wont to offer sacrifices and pray, in fear of a monster that dwelt 
in the river. Xao, fearing that this monster, whose days were 
now near at an end, would pollute the river when dead, 
caused him to be transported to a marsh (tseh ehung) in Shensi. 
Before this, however, he caused his head to appear, and he 
spoke to him in the Hu language, on which the monster shed 
tears. Afterwards, to prevent his birth in hell, Sai-ko 
devoted looo pieces of silk stuff and various gems to the 
building of a tower (pagoda). After the foundations had 
been dug and a year or so elapsed, suddenly some prayers 
(written forms of incantation) disappeared ; on which Kao said 
that the monster had escaped from his unhappy condition. 
Afterwards in the marsh at Shensi men discovered the head 
and tail of a large boa (mong), in length many li ; and now in 
the prefecture of Sin- Yang there is a hamlet called the Snake 
village {Shie ts'un). This is the place. 

Afterwards Sai-Kao went to Canton, where he was killed in 
a popular tumult in the market-place. 

Erom A.D. 149 to a.d. 171 he translated 176 distinct works 
in 197 chapters. Of these I will name the following : — 

1. Fa-kheu-king, 4kiouen 

2. Wou-liang-sheu-king, 

3. Sse-ti-king, . 

4. Pa-ching-to-king, 
S- Shih-i-in-lin-king, 

6. Chun-fa-lun-king, 

7. She-kia-lo-yue-king, 

8. Ku-mu-song-yih-tseu, 
No. I is a translation of Dhammapada. I have not yet been 

able to ascertain if this book is lost or not. If not, it would 
be very interesting to compare it with later editions of' the same 

No. 2. This is a translation of Amit^yus Siitra, or the Ami- 
tabha Siltra. Being of so early a date, it is interestincr. 

No. 3. This is the Sfitra of the "Four Great Truths" (cat- 
tdri ariyasaccdni), on which Buddha founded his system 

No. 4. This is the S<itra of the "Eight Correct or Orthodox 
Ways (Anyo atthangiko maggo), concerning which so much 
has been written. 


No. 5. This is the Sutra of the Twelve Nidinas or Corinec- 
tions, by which Buddha in a later period of his teaching tried 
to account for the origin and destruction of finite existence. 

Noi 6. This is the Siitra sometimes called the " Foundation of 
the Kingdom of Eighteousness," ot'herwiss " Turning the Wheel 
of the Law." It was the first sermon preached by Buddha. He 
had gone to Benares after his enlightenment, and there by this 
sermon converted five ascetics who had formerly been his com- 
panions. Both this and the former sermon are known in China. 
They differ in no material respect from the translations from 
the Pali of the same sermons (Fdli Suftas)} 

No. 7. This is the Sigalavada Sutra, which has been translated 
from PS,li by the late Professor Childers ^ and partly by myself 
from the Chinese.^ 

No. 8. I quote this merely because of its singular title, " The 
Widow Woman at the Funeral of her only Son." I do not 
know whether it is still extant. 

The Shaman Chu-fo-so, and others. 

(1) Chu-fo-so, a Shaman of India who came to China in the 
Hi P'ing year of the reign of Ling Ti, A.D. 172, and translated 
until A.D. 1 84 two works. 

(2) To-wei-'an-yilan, a Upasaka from Parthia, came to China 
A.D. 1 82, and translated at Loyang 2 works. 

(3) The Shaman Chi-yau, an Indian, came to China A.D. 1 86, 
and translated at Loyang 11 works in 13 chapters. Among 
these is the Siu-pen-k'i-king in 2 chapters, a primitive work, 
being a Life of Buddha. There is another translation also, the 
Sutra of MahS,maya, the mother of Buddha, which would be 
interesting if discovered. 

(4) The Shaman Hong-shin, a man of the western world, who 
travelled about in the work of converting men, and came to 
China A.D. 188, and translated at Loyang one work, viz., 
Wen-ti-yuh-sse-king {Questions Concerning Affairs in Hell). 

(5) A pious layman called Yan-Fo-Tiau of Lin-hwai trans- 

1 By Mr. Rhys Davis, in the Sacred Boolcs of the East. 

2 The Whole Duty of the Buddhist Laymam : Contemporary Eeview, February 

" Catalogue, Sec, p. 112. 


lated, A.D. 189, in conjunction with 'An-yuan, 7 works in 10 

(6) The Shaman Kong-mang-tsiang, a western man, of much 
erudition, came to China A.D. 194, and translated at Loyang, 
till A.D. 200, 6 works in 9 chapters, among which I obserre a 
copy of the Brahmaj^la Sutra (Fan-kong-king) in 2 chapters, 
and also a Life of Buddha with the title Ta-tseu-pen-k'i- 
sui-ying-king, in 2 chapters. This last work is still extant, 
and has been referred to in my Catalogue, &c.; p. 116. He 
also edited another translation of the Siitra of the "Four 

(7) The Shaman Ta-lih, a man of the west, came to China 
A.D. 199, and translated at Loyang, in conjunction with the last- 
named priest, a Life of Buddha called Shiu-hing-pen-k'i-king, 
in 2 chapters. This work is still extant, and has been referred 
to, J. B. A. S., vol. X., part iii., p. 356. 

(8) The Shaman Tan-kwo (Dharmaphala), a man of the west, 
brought to China a copy of a Life of Buddha, which he had 
procured at Kapilavastu (another account tells us he had got 
it from a descendant of Buddha's uncle), in the year 208 A.D. 
The work in question is called Chung-pen-k'i-king} It is said 
to be taken from the DirghS,gama collection ; it begins with 
the first sermon at Benares. 

Besides the above, during the Han dynasty there were made 
translations of 123 works in 148 chapters, the names of the 
translators being lost. 

[The names of these works are given in the Ku-kin~tsi- 

During the Wei Dynasty of the Family of Ts'au, 
A.D. 220-260. 

(1) The Shaman Dharmakala (Fan-ko-kia-lo), an Indian. 
When young he devoted himself to study; he could recite 
throughout the four Vedas, and was well acquainted with the 
five Vidya Shasters. Having become a Buddhist, he diligently 
studied the works of the Great and Little Vehicle and the 
different copies of the Vinaya. He came to China in the year 

It is to be found in the volume of SAtras, Mucdlaneous, Case 32. 


223 A.D., where lie flourished till a.d. 251. He laboured, 
translating principally works belonging to the Vinaya, at 
Loyang, among which I observe S&ng-chi-kiai-pen, that is, the 
original rules of the Mahasanghika school, in one chapter. 
This was the first book on the Vinaya rules translated in 

(2) The Shaman Kong-sang-k'ai, a man of India, of great 
erudition aid a deep searcher into the abstruse meaning of the 
Siitras, came to China a.d. 253, and resided in the White Horse 
Temple of Loyang; translated 2 works, the second of which 
is another version of the Wou-liang-sheu-king, i.e., the Sutra of 
Boundless Years. 

(3) The Shaman Tan-ti, a Parthian, well versed in the Vinaya 
literature, translated at Loyang in the year 254 A.D. the Kamma 
rules according to the Dharmagupta school (^Tan-wou-ti-Tcie-mi) 
hx 2 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman Pih-yen, a man of the western countries, 
very shrewd in the interpretation of the Yoga Shasters, came to 
China a.d. 259, and translated whilst dwelling in the White 
Horse Temple at Loyang six works in eight chapters, among 
which I notice a second version of the Surangama (Sringin) 
Sutra in two chapters. 

(5) The Shaman ' An-f&-Kien, who, after travelling through 
various countries, came to China (date not given, but it ijiust 
have been before a.d. 260), and translated Zo-mo-kia-king in 
3 chapters. This appears to be a history of Eama. Also, 
Ta-pan-ni-pwan-king, in 2 chapters. This is the Mahapari- 
nirvlna Sutra. 

During the Wu Dynasty of the Family of Sun, 
A.D. 222-264. 

(1) The Upasaka Chi-hien, his private name being Kung 
Ming, a Hun (White Hun), came to China towards the end of the 
Han dynasty, was remarkable for his thin lanky body and his 
yellowish eyes. In the second year of the period Hwang-wu 
(a.d. 224), till the second year of Kien-hing (a.d. 254), he 
laboured at translations, producing 129 distinct works in 152 
chapters. Among theae I observe another version of the 


Mahaparinirvana Sufcra in 2 chapters, also another copy of 
the Sui-ying-pen-k'i-king in 2 chapters; the 0-mi-to (Ami- 
tabha) Siitra, in 2 chapters ; the expanded {fang-tang) Suran- 
gama Sfttra, 2 chapters; the Fa-Tcheu (Dhammapada) in 2 chap- 
ters ; the Zung-shi-niu-Mng in i chapter (this is probably the 
history of Elapatra) ; and latterly another version of the SUtra 
of 42 Paragraphs, with several copies of the Agama Sutras (the 
Nik^yas of the South). 

(2) The Shaman Wei-chi-lan, an Indian, well versed in the 
Siitras and Agamas, travelled about teaching ; he came with an- 
other Shaman, Chii-liu-yen, from the western countries to Wu- 
chang (the capital of the Wu dynasty) in 225 A.D., and there 
translated the two works — 

1. A-cha-mo-Jcing, the Agama Sufcra, in 4 chapters. 

2. Fa-hheii-tsih-king (Dhammapada), 2 chapters. 

(3) The Shaman Chu-liu-yen, a fellow-traveller of the last, 
came to China in the year 231 a.d., and translated 3 works in 4 

(4) The Shaman Kong-sang-ui, a man of Samarcand, and the 
eldest son of the principal chief of the country, was taken to 
India at an early age, and having lost both his parents, he be- 
came a recluse. Coming to China in the year 242 A.D., he 
laboured in founding Pagodas till 248 A.D. He then procured 
some She-li (^artras, relics), brilliant as the heavens and of five 
colours, which the king being unable to destroy, he erected over 
them a Sarira pagoda, and founded a Buddhist temple. In 
A.D. 253 he translated 10 works in 29 chapters, among which I 
observe : — 

1. Taou-shii-Mng, the Sutra of the Tree of Knowledge (Bod- 
hidruma), with explanations. 

2. King-min-wang-king, the Siitra of the Bright-faced King, 
which I take to be the same as Sibir&ja (&vir§,ja). 

(5) The Shaman Chi-k'iang, a man of the west, came to China 
in the second year of the period Wu-fing, a.d. 256, and there 
he translated the following work in 6 chapters : — FH-hwa-san- 
mui-Mng (Pundarika SamMhi SMra). 

Besides the above, there were no works in 291 chapters 
translated during this dynasty, the names of the translators 
being lost. 


Among these I observe — 

1. Ts'a-pi-u-Mng, the Sutra of Mixed Comparisons (mis- 
cellaneous tales). 

2. Mo-ho-shing-hing (Mahiyana Sutra), in 14 chapters. 

^. Mo-ho-yen-yau-po-ti-she-Mng, the Mahayana Upade^a 
Sutra, S chapters. 

4. San-mui-wang-king, the Sam§,dhi E^ja Siitra, in 5 chapters. 

^. Shi-ti-hwan-in-sho-wen, the Questions of Sakradevendra, 
in 3 chapters. 

The Western Tsin Dynasty, a.d. 265-3 ^ 3- 

(1) The Shaman Dharmaraksha, a Hun, became a disciple at 
eight years of age, came to China a.d. 265, and worked at trans- 
lation till 313 A.D. He produced altogether 210 volumes in 394 
chapters. Among these I observe versions of the Wou-liang- 
sheu-king (the Siltra of. Boundless Years), in 2 chapters; of the 
Surangama SMra, in 2 chapters ; and of the Mah&parinirvlna 
Sutra, in 2 chapters. 

(2) The Shaman Kiang-liang-lu-chi (K§,laruchi, although the 
Chinese interpretation is said to be " true joy "), a man of the 
west, came to China A.D. 281, and residing in Canton, translated 
one Siitra in i chapter. 

(3) The Shaman 'An-fa-kin, a Parthian, a man of large read- 
ing, came to China about a.d. 302, and worked at translation till 
A.D. 306 in Loyang. He produced 5 books in 12 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman Wou-lo-yau-ch6, a man of Khoten, came to 
China A.D. 293, and translated the Light-giving Prajna Sfitra 
in 20 chapters. 

[It appears that Wou-lo had lost his original copy of this 
Siltra, on which he sent his disciple, Fo-u-tan, back to Khoten 
to get another. But on the way, before he arrived at Khoten, he 
gave up his faith and denounced the book before the king as 
contrary to Buddha's teaching. On this they tried to burn it, but 
it refused to be destroyed, and only emitted a bright and won- 
derful light; on which the king and his ministers were im- 
pressed with religious fear, and attributed the miracle to divine 

(5) The Shaman Chu-shuh-lan, a man of the west, had, on a 


former occasion, in the reign of Hwei-Ti, of the Western Tsin 
dynasty, travelled as far as China on his work of conversion. 
He translated in Loyang 2 volumes, 3 kiouen. 

Among these is a copy of the Surangama Siitra (Sringin) in 
2 kiouen. 

(6) The Shaman Pih-fd-tsu, of Kong-niu ("Within the Eiver"). 
His secular name was Wan-shi. He became a disciple at an 
early age. He was devoted to the study of the Sacred Books, 
and each day would recite from eight to nine thousand words. 
He thoroughly investigated the Vaipulya books, and built a 
YihivsL at Chang'an. He was well versed in Sanscrit (Fan) and 
the Tsin language (Chinese), and in the reign of Hwei-ti trans- 
lated 23 books in 25 chapters. 

Among these I observe — 

1. The Nirv§,na S<itra, in 2 chapters. [From its brevity; this 
would probably be the Southern copy.] 

2. The Parinirvana of MahS, Prajapati. [Ta-ngai-tao-pan-ni- 

(7) The Shaman CM-fH-to translated in the Yiing-ning year 
of Hwei-ti (301 a.d.) 4 works in 5 kiouen. 

(8) The Upasaka Shih-tao-chi translated in the Ta-7c'ang (for 
Yung-k'ang) year of Wu-ti (a.d. 300), to the end of the Yung- 
7aa year (312 A.D.) of Hwai-ti, some Sutras copied by Fa-hu 
(Dharmaraksha), but which he had left untranslated at his 
death. In all he thus translated 54 volumes iu 66 chapters. 

Among these I observe the following : — 
Kwan-shi-yin-shau-hi-hing, i.e., the Previous History of Kwan- 
yin, in i chapter. 

[The remainder relate principally to different Bodhisatwas.] 

(9) The Shaman Fd-lih, in the reign of Hwei-ti (290-300 A.D.), 
dwelt at Loyang with the Shaman F&-hu,, and there translated 
4 books in 1 3 chapters. Among these I notice — 

1. The Lau-tan-king, in 6 vols. This is the Pindadana 

2. Fd-k'eu-pen-mi-king (Beginnings and Endings of Dham- 

After Fa-lih's death, .F^-Aw translated alone 132 volumes in 

' Kef erred to in my Catalogue, p. 39. 


142 chapters. Among these I notice another copy of the Pinda- 
dana Sutra, in 8 chapters. 

3. The History of the Female Demon (Mo), who, after hearing 
Buddha preach, obtained a man's body, [i chapter.] [Mo-niu- 
wen-Fo-shwo-f&- teh-nan-shin.] 

4. The Story of the Marriage of Yu-ye, the Son of Videht. 
[ Wei-ti-M-tseu- Yue-y^weii-fu-yin-king.] 

5. The History of the Death of King Prasenajit's Mother. 

6. The Parinirvana of Suddhodana E§,ja {Tsing-fan-wang-pan- 

7. The Prophecy of Ajasat's Final Eelease. [A-cTu-si-wang- 

In the Catalogue of the Tripitaka published during the above 
dynasty (the Western Tsin), 8 other works are named, published 
duriiig the reign of Hwei-ti, in the Yuan K'ang year (29 1 A.D.) 

Besides the above, there are 8 books in 1 5 chapters, the names 
of the translators being lost. 

Tfie Eastern Tsin, of the Sze Ma Family. 
[Capital, Kien K'ang.] 

(1) The Shaman Pi-si-li-mih-to-lo, i.e., the Fortunate Friend 
(Srimitra), a man of the western countries, and the eldest son of 
a r§,ja, came in his travels to Kien K'ang and there founded the 
Kien-cho Temple (i.e., the first temple of Kien). He was com- 
monly called the Kao-tso-fa-sse (the High-throned Doctor). He 
translated (a.d. 322) 3 books in 11 chapters. Among these 
were : — 

1. The Sutra of Anointing a King (Abhishekha), in nine 

2. The DhS,rani of the Great Peacock King. 

3. Mixed Dh§,rani of the Great Peacock Eling., 

(2) The Shaman Che-to-lin having set out en his travels for 
the benefit of the world, came to China, and in the first year 
of Chlng-ti (326 A.D.) translated 2 works, viz. : — 

1. The Lotus of the Good Law Expanded (jPang-teng-fa-hww- 
king), 5 chapters. 

2. The section relating to th& conversion of the Bodhisatwas 


belonging to the land of Akshobya (A-chu-fo-t'sa-chu-pu-sa- 
hiohrcheng-pMn), in 2 chapters. 

(3) The Shaman Chu-tan-wou-lan, i.e., Integrity of the Law 
(Dharmananda), [observe that chu in this and other cases is an 
honorific expletive], a man of the western world, came to China 
(a.d. 382), and worked at translation till the twentieth year 
of the period Tai Yuan (A.D. 396), and translated altogether 
III books in 120 chapters. Among these are — 

1. Agreements and Differences as to the 260 Eules of the 
Three Schools, two chapters \i.e., of the Pratimoksha in the 
different schools]. 

2. The Names of the one Thousand Bnddhas of the Bhadra 

3. The S^ra of Yuh-ye. 

4. A^oka cherishes the Bodhi Tree [referring to the destruc- 
tion and revival of the tree]. 

(4) The Shaman Xiu-tan-s&ng-kia-ti-po, i.e., Gotamasangha 
Deva, a man of Cophene, came to China and translated altogether 
50 chapters (a.d. 344). Afterwards, in the year 392 A.D., he 
translated 3 other works in 7 chapters, and again 2 other works 
in 31 chapters. Altogether he translated 8 distinct works in 
167 chapters. 

Among these were several works of the Abhidharma class, 
as — 

1. The Abhidarma Hridaya. 

2. The Vibhasha Abhidharma. 
And again — 

3. The Middle Agama Sutra. 

4. The Add-bne Agama Sutra. 

(5) The Shaman Kia-lau-to-kia, that is, Kaludaka, a man of 
the west, who came to China a.d. 390, and translated i book 
in I chapter. 

(6) The Shaman K'ang Tao came to China A.D. 394, and 
translated one work in 3 chapters. ■ 

(7) The Shaman Fo-to-p'o-to-lo, i.e., Buddhabhadra, whose 
private name was Sakya, a man of Kapilavastu, and a descendant 
of Amritodana E^ja [the uncle of S^kya Muni]. He became a 
disciple at five years of age, and daily read a thousand words of 
the Scriptures. His fellow-student, Sanghadatta, while lost in 


meditation, once saw Bhadra appear suddenly, and asking him 
whence he came, he said he had been to the Tusita heaven to 
see Maitreya. [Other remarkable events are recorded of him, 
especially relating to his voyage with a priest, Che-yan.'\ He 
met Kumarajiva in China, and from A.D. 399 to A.D. 422 he 
worked at translation, partly in the capital, and partly in Mount 
Lu. Altogether, he translated 15 books in 125 chapters, among 
which I observe — 

1. Kwo-hu-in-Jcwo-king. A valuable Life of Buddha in 4 

2. A new Amit^yus Sfitra, in 2 chapters. 

3. The Vinaya of the Sangha (Mahlsangha) school, in 30 

(8) The Shaman Tan-Tna-pi (Virtue of the Law) came to 
China A.D. 406, and, ia compliance with the request of twenty 
priests, translated the Tsa-wen-lwi-sz iii 2 chapters. 

(9) The Shaman Fi-mo-lo-ch'a (Vimalaksha), a man of Co- 
phene (Cabul), remarkable for his blue eyes, and so called the 
blue-eyed Doctor, dwelt formerly in Kiu-sse (Karashar), crossed 
the sandy deserts with Kumarajiva, and arrived in China in the 
eighth year of the Hung-she period, 408 A.D. After the latter's 
death in the year 412 A.D., he translated many works belonging 
to the Vinaya, especially the ' Shih-song-liu, i.e., the Vinaya of 
the SarvS.stav§,dins. 

(10) The Shaman Fd,-hien, his family name Kung, a man of 
Wu-Yang, in the prefecture of Ping Yang, he became a disciple 
at three years of age. Being desirous to obtain religious books, 
especially the Vinaya, he vowed to go abroad to seek them, and 
so in the third year of the period Lung-ngan of the reign of 
IsTgan-ti (a.d. 400) [there is some little difficulty here, as Mayers 
gives the cyclic year 399 A.D.J he set out for India. He wor- 
shipped the sacred traces and learned the Fan language, and 
acquired a facility in writing that language with the greatest 
exactness. In a.d. 405 he set out on his return, and translated 
in the capital, in the Tao-Yang Temple, 5 works in 23 chapters. 

Among these are the — 

1. Mahi,parinirvana Siitra, in 5 chapters. 

2. The Expanded Parinirvana S^tra, in 2 chapters. 

(11) The Shaman Cfhi-ma-to, a western man, travelling so far 


as the Tsin country (China), translated 25 books in 46 chapters. 
One of these I observe to be the ^amanfamukha section of 
the Saddharma Pundarika Siitra. 

(12) The Householder called Nanda, a man of the west, came 
to China a.d. 319, and translated 2 works in 4 chapters. 

(13) The Shaman Chu-fd-Kh, a man of the west, came to 
China A.D. 319, and translated i work in i chapter. 

(14) The Shaman Kao-lmng translated 4 works in 6 chapters. 

(15) The Shaman Shih-lamg-Tcung translated i work. 

(16) The Shaman Shih-fa-yimg translated i book. 

Other books, the names of translators lost, 52 in number in 
56 chapters. 

(17) The Shaman Tan-mo-ehi (Sea of the Law) came to China 
A.D. 431, and with Fa-nien in Chang' an translated 2 works in 2 
chapters, one of which is the " Eules of the Bhikshunis accord- 
ing to the Sarv§,stav4dins." 

(18) The Shaman SMh-hwei-shang laboured with the former 
and Fa-nien, and in the year A.D. 432 translated the great Eules 
of the Bhikshunis, i chapter. 

(19) The Shaman Kiu-mo-lo-fo-te (KumSrabodhi), a western 
man, laboured with Fo-hu and others in the work^ of transla- 
tion down to the year 435 a.d. in Chang'an; he produced i 

(20) The Shaman Sang-hia-;po-ch'ing (Seen of All, or Univer- 
sally Seen), a Cophene (Cabul) man, translated, a.d. 445, in 
conjunction with Shah-tao-ngan and others, the Abhidharma 
Vibasha Shastra, i book, 14 chapters, and also the works of 
Vasumitra and of Sangha-raksha ; altogether 3 books in 17 

(21) The Shaman Tan-mo-ping (Love of the Law), an Indian, 
translated with Chu-fo-nien, a.d. 446, in Chang'an, and produced 
a copy of the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra from a MS., i book, 
5 chapters. 

(22) The Shaman Dharmananda, a Turk (Turkh^ra), travelled 
through many countries, and at last came to China A.D. 448, and 
translated 5 works in 116 chapters, among which are 

1. The Middle Agama, in 59 chapters. 

2. The Mixed Agama, in 5 1 chapters. 


The Taou Thsin Period. [Capital, Chang'an.] 

(1) The Shaman Chu-fo-nien, a Pi'ng-chau man, in A.D. 438 
translated 13 hooks in 82 chapters, among which are — 

1. Oh'uh-yau, the Dawn, or Coming forth of Light, being a copy 
of Dhammapada. 

2. The History of Dharmavarddhana, the King's son, losing 
his eyes. 

(2) The Shaman Tan-mo-ye-she (Dharmayasas), a Cophene 
man, translated in Canton, a.d. 399, i work in i chapter ; also, 
A.D. 413, at Chang'an, 2 other works in 45 chapters. 

(3) The Shaman Kumarajiva, originally a man of India, hut 
afterwards of Karashar, was brought to China, and in A.D. 401 
translated at Chang'an 98 books in 42 1 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman Fo-to-ye-she (Brightness of Wisdom), a Co- 
phene man, came to China and settled at Chang'an ; he was called 
the Eed-haired Vibasha (Barbarian), whilst his master, Kumara- 
jiva, was called the Great Vibasha (Barbarian) ; he translated 
from A.D. 402 to A.D. 412 altogether 4 works in 69 chapters. 

(5) The Shaman Fo-ye-to-lo (Punyatara), a Cophene man, 
resided in China a.d. 403, and translated the Vinaya according 
to the school of the Sarvastavadins, i book, 58 chapters. 

(6) The Shaman ^a- Am translated 14 books in 18 chapters. 

(7) The Shaman Shih-ian-hioh, otherwise called Hwei-hioh, 
obtained in Khoten an original of the work Kin-ti-hing (Sutra 
of the Wise and Foolish), and in the year A.D. 409 translated it 
in 15 chapters. 

(8) The Shaman Shih-tan-yen, a priest of the Tung-loh 
Temple at Hiuen-'an (in the Stony Grot) ; he became a disciple 
at an early age. The Emperor T'ai-wu-ti having persecuted the 
Buddhists, afterwards fell sick and became a convert,' and in 
A.D. 452, Wen ChSng having ascended the throne. Tan continued 
to translate books till A.D. 463, with some Indian priests located 
in Stony Grot Temple. He produced altogether 2 works in 5 

(9) The Shaman Kih-Tcia-ye (Kakaya), a man of the west, 
travelled about on the work of conversion ; he came to China in 
the second year of the period Yen-hing of the reign of Hiao- 
Wen-ti (A.D. 473), and translated 5 books in 25 chapters. 


The Northern Lian^ {in Kansuh), of the Family Tsil K'u. 
[Capital, Ku-tsang.] 

(1) The Shaman Shih-tao-kung came to Kansuh (North Liang) 
in Ho-si (Tangut) in the Yung-cho year of Wang-shin, and trans- 
lated in Chang-yeh for the sake of Mung-Sun, king of Ho-si, 2 
hooks in 12 chapters. 

(2) The Shaman Fd-chung, a man of the Kao-chang district 
(Turfan), came to Chang-yeh at the same time, and also trans- 
lated for Mung-Sun i hook in 4 chapters. 

(3) The Shaman S&ng-hia-to, a man of the west, also, at 
the same time and place, and for Mung-Sun, translated i book 
in 2 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman Tan-mo-tsien (Dharmakshaya), a man of 
Mid- India, became a disciple at six years of age, and daily recited 
10,000 words of Scripture. At first he belonged to the school of 
the Lesser Development, and was well acejuainted with all the 
discourses of the five Vidyas. Afterwards meeting with a con- 
templative priest (Shan-sse) named Pih-teou, he became, after 
ten' days' discussion with him, a follower of the Great Develop- 
ment school. He came to Ku-tsang (North Liang) in the year 
412 A.D., bringing with him a copy of 10 chapters of the first 
division of the NirvS,na Sutra, and also a copy of the Eules of 
the Bodhisatwas. The king (Siin) having heard of Dharmlk- 
shaya, invited him to come and translate books, on which from 
the year 414 A.D. down to 421 a.d. he engaged in the task, and 
produced translations of 23 books in 148 chapters. Among 
these were — 

1. Fo-pen-hing-king (a Life of Buddha by Asvaghosha Bod- 
hisatwa), in 5 chapters. 

2. Kin-kwong-ming-king (Suvarna Prabhisa Siitra), in 4 

3. Leng-kia-king (Lank§,vatara Sfltra), in 4 chapters. 
Afterwards he translated in the Hiao-kien year of Hiao-wu-ti 

of the Sung dynasty (house of Liu), A.D. 454, 35 books in 42 
chapters. Among these are — 

1. Kwan-si-yin-king, in i chapter. 

2. Fo-mu-pan-ni-pan-king, in i chapter (the Death of the 
Mother of Buddha, i,6., of Mahaprajapati). 


(5) The Shaman Buddhavarma, a man of the west, in the year 
459 A.D. translated for the son of the king of Ho-si the 
Vibhasha Shastra, i book, loo chapters. (Forty chapters were 
lost at the end of the Wei dynasty ; sixty only now remain.) 

(6) The Shaman Shi-chi-mang translated about the same time 
the Parinirvana Sutra in 20 chapters. 

Other books, translators' names lost, belonging to this 
dynasty, S in number, in 17 chapters. Among these are — 

1. Kin-kong-san-mui-king (the Vajra SamMhi). • 

2. Kien-kih-wu-pih-fo-meng (Names of 500 Buddhas of the 
Bhadra Kalpa), i chapter. 

The Sung Dynasty (Souse of Liu). [Capital, Kien K'ang.] 

(1) The Shaman Buddhajiva, a man of Cophene (Cabul), be- 
came a disciple at an early age, and devoted himself to the study 
of the Vinaya of the Mahisasaka school. He came to the capital, 
Yang, in A.D. 423, and there having found the Vinaya Pitaka of 
the Mahisasaka school, got by Fa-hien in Ceylon, the latter 
being now dead, the priests of the capital hearing that Jiva 
was well skilled in the Vinaya literature, begged him to trans- 
late this work. He therefore at the end of the year above 
named translated 34 chapters of it in the Lung Kwong Temple. 
He also translated one chapter of Eeligious Eules, and one 
chapter of Kamma Sangha rules,^ altogether 36 chapters. He 
was assisted in this work by the Shaman Chi-sheng of Khoten, 
who arranged, the words, and by the Shaman Chu-tao-sing and 
others, who transcribed the written copy. 

(2) The Shaman Tan-mo-mi-to {i.e., a Dharmamita), a Co- 
phene man ; having made a vow to travel everywhere on the 
work of conversion, he came to China in 424 A.D., and trans- 
lated 10 books in 14 chapters. [He painted a figure of 

(3) The Shaman Kalayasas, a Western, came to China in 424 
A.D., and translated 2 books in 2 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman I-yeh-po-lo (llvara), a man of the west; 
he was well versed in the four Agamas, and came to China in 

' Rules made by a committee of priests, convoked on special occasion?, vide 
ChEders, Pdli Diet., mb voc. "Kammam," p. 178, col. i. 


the middle of the Yudn-kia period of the reign of WSn-ti 
(about 438 A.D.), and translated the Samyuktabhidharmhridaya 
Siitra, in 1 1 chapters. 

(5) The Shaman Sheh-cM-yan of Liang-chau ; he translated, 
A.D. 428 — 

1. P'hu-yaou-king, in 8 chapters.^ In this he was assisted 
by Po-yun (Eatnamegha), one of Fa-hien's companions. This 
work was brought by Fa-hien from India, but he had not 
translated it. 

2. Book of J^takas, in 5 chapters [Sing-king]. 
Altogether he translated 14 books in 36 chapters. 

[It is related of this Shaman, that having broken one of the 
rules binding on a lay disciple, he was in doubt whether he 
could be ordained as a Shaman. In consequence he went by 
ship to India, and there consulted a Eahat. The Eahat, not 
being certain, consulted Maitreya (who was supposed to be in 
heaven). Maitreya having replied, " He may be ordained," Yan 
was greatly rejoiced.] 

(6) The Shaman Gunavarma, a man of Cophene, was a 
younger son of the king of that country ; he was deeply versed 
in the nine Angas,* in the four Agamas, and in various sections 
of the Vinaya. He could recite more than a hundred myriad 
words of Scripture. He came to China about 440 A.D., and 
translated 8 books in 39 chapters. 

(7) The Shaman Po-yun,^ a Liang-chau man; he became a 
disciple when a child. He travelled across the Eaksha desert to 
gaze on the sacred traces (a.d. 402). Whilst thus travelling 
he heard the sound of heavenly drums ; he paid reverence to the 
traces of SIkya ; received the words of a Eahat, and after travel- 
ling through various countries, and practising himself in the 
letters and sounds of the Fan language, he came to Chantr'an, 
and engaged with Chi-yan in the work of translation. After- 
wards by himself, about the year 440 a.d., he translated 

I. Fo-pen-hing-tsan-king, in five* chapters [Life of Buddha in 

' The second translation of the Lalita Vistara. 

2 The Navangam, vide Childers, sub " Angam.'' 

3 Vide swpra, under No. 5. He was a man of Western Lian^-oliau. 
* This work, as it is before me, is in seven chapters. ° 


2. "Wou-liang-sheu-king, 2 chapters [AmMyus SMra]. Alto- 
gether he translated 4 books in 22 chapters. 

(8) The Shaman Sanghavarma, a man of India ; he translated 
in 434 A.D., in China, in the Chang-tsin Temple, S books in 27 
chapters. Among them — 

1. The Abhidharma Vibha^a, in 14 chapters. 

2. The M§,trika rules of the Vinaya according to the Sar- 
v^stavMin school. 

3. The Verses of Nagarjuna exhorting the King, i vol. 

(9) The Shaman Gunabhadra, a man of Mid-India, at an 
early age was an adept in the five Vidyas and the four Vedas ; 
afterwards became a convert to Buddhism, and arrived in China 
in the year 436 A.D. He translated in the Chi-yuen (Jeta-vana) 
Temple of the capital till a.d. 444, altogether y8 books in 161 

[This priest being about to translate the Avatamsaka Sutra, 
and fearing he had not sufficient knowledge of Chinese, prayed 
to Kwan-yin, on which he had a dream. He saw a man in 
white clothing approach him with a drawn sword in one hand 
and a man's head in the other. Approaching to Bhadra he said, 
" What troubles you ! " On receiving his answer he added, 
" This need not concern you so much." On which, approaching 
him, he changed his head for the one in his hand, and said, 
" Have you experienced much pain ? " on which Bhadra replied, 
" Not much." He then awoke.] 

(10) The Shaman Dharmavira^ (Strength of the Law); his 
family name was Wai, a man of Hwang-Lung in Yu-chau; 
he became a Shami when young, and incited by the account of 
Fa-hien's personal travels, he vowed in the Yung-ch'u year of 
Wu-ti of the Sung dynasty, 420 A.D., to travel with some others 
of lilie mind, twenty-five men in all. After wandering through 
various countries for twenty years and more, he alone sur- 
vived, and returned to Cophene, whence, having got some 
Sanscrit texts, he returned to China, and in the last year of 
the Yuan-hia period (a.d. 453) he reached the capital, and 
there himself translated the Kwan-si-yen-shau-ki (Prophecy 
respecting Kwan Yin), in i chapter. 

^ In Chinese, Fd-yung. 


(11) The Shaman Shih-hwei-kan, in the year 457 A.D., trans- 
lated 25 books in 25 chapters. Among these are — 

1. The Story of the person in Sravasti who went mad on 
the death of his son. 

2. Pi-u-king (the Avad§,na Sutra). 

3. The Parinirvana of Buddha's Mother. 

4. Kiu-tan-ni-king (Gotamt Siitra). 

(12) The Shaman Kung-tih-chi (Gunasatya ?), a man of the 
west, came to King-chau in China ^ A.D. 463, and translated 2 
works in 7 chapters. 

(13) The Shaman Chu-fS^ch'.uen, an Indian, translated in 
Kwang-chau (Canton) in the T'ai-shih year of Ming-ti (465 
A.D. . . . 472 A.D.) 6 works in 29 chapters. 

(14) The Shaman Shih-shoh-kung translated at Nanhae i 
work in 2 chapters. 

(15) The Shaman SMh-tao-yau translated 2 works in 3 

(16) The Shaman Shih-yung-kung translated 4 hooks in 4 

(17) The Shaman Shih-fd-hae translated 2 works in 2 

(18) The. Shaman SMh-sien-kung translated i work (the 
Chandradipa Sam§,dhi) in i chapter. 

The Tsi Dynasty, the Family of Su. [Capital, Kien K'ang. J 

(1) The Shaman Tan-mo-kior-to-ye-she (Dharmaj^tayasas), a 
man of India, came to Canton in the third year of the period 
Kien Yuan (a.d. 482), and translated i work in i chapter, viz., 
the Won-liang-i-king. 

(2) The Shaman Mo-ho-shing (Mahay§,na) came to China 
from the west about 490 A.D., and translated in Canton i work 
in I chapter, viz., Wu-pih-pen-sing-king (the 500 JS,takas). 

(3) The Shaman Sanghabhadra came from the west, bent on 
the work of conversion, in a.d. 489, and with the Shaman 
Sang-i translated in Canton, in the Chuh-lin Temple, i work 
in 18 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman Dharmamati, a man of the west, came to 

' In Hv/peh. 


China 491 A.D., and translated in Yang-chau 2 -works in 13 
chapters, one of which is the Devadatta section of the Sad- 
dharma Pundarika. 

(5) The Shaman Gunavati, a man of Mid-India, came to 
Yang-chau, and translated in the year 493 a.d. 3 works in 1 2 
chapters. Of these — 

1. The Siitra of the Twelve Nid^nas. 

2. The Sutra of the Householder Sudatta. 

(6) The Shaman Shih-fd-to came to China and translated in 
Yang-chau 2 works in 2 chapters. 

(7) The Shaman SMh-tan-hing translated 2 works in 4 
chapters. Of these, Mo-Jio-ma-ye-hiTig (the Sutra of Maha- 

(8) The Shaman SMh-fa-ni translated i work in 2 chapters. 

The Dynasty of the Southern Wei, Family of Yuan. 
[Capital, Loyang.] 

(1) The Shaman Dharmaruchi, a man of South India, an adept 
in the interpretation of the Vinaya Pitaka. Well affected to 
the world, he came to Loyang on his travels A.D. 502, and 
translated one work in 5 chapters. Again, in the year 504 A.D., 
he translated one work in i chapter. 

(2) The Shaman Shihfa-ch'ang, a man of the Yuan-wei, 
translated one work in Loyang, i chapter. 

(3) The Shaman Bodhiruchi, a man of North India, an adept 
in the DhS.ranl Scriptures, and well versed in the three Pitakas, 
came to Loyang in 508 A.D., and there, in the Yung-ning Temple, 
with seven hundred other Indian priests, translated the 
Dasabhumi Siitra. Afterwards he translated 39 books in 127 
chapters. Among these — 

1. The Lank§,vatara Siitra, 10 chapters. 

2. Fa-tsah-king. 

3. The V^jra-pr^jna-paramita Sutra, i chapter. 

4. Kia-ye-shan-teng-king (Gay§,-sirsha Sutra). 

5. An index of Siitras and Shastras translated. 

(4) The Shaman Le-na-mo-ti (Eatnamati), also called Po-ti 
(Bodhi), a man of Mid-India, able to recite 100,000 gathas. 
Bent on teaching, he travelled here and there, and came to 


China in 508 A.D., and translated in Loyang 5 books in 23 

(5) The Shaman Buddhasanda, a man of North India, of pro- 
found intellect, came to China A.D. 5 2 5, and worked at translations 
till A.D. 538 in Loyang in the White Horse Temple, and also 
in Linchang (Meh To) in the Kin-fa (Golden Flower) Temple. 
In all, he translated 10 books in 1 1 chapters. 

The LiMTig Dynasty, Family of Su. [Capital, Kien K'ang.] 

(1) The Shaman Mandala (or Mand^ra), a man of Funan 
(Cambodia), came to China A.D. 504, and translated with Sangha- 
palita in the capital Yang, three works, 1 1 chapters. 

(2) The Shaman Sanghapalita or Sanghavarma, a man of 
Funan, came to China A.D. 502, and translated in three different 
places 1 1 books in 38 chapters. Among these are — 

1. Aiokar§,ja Siitra in 10 chapters. 

2. The Pr^jnaparamita Sfttra of Manjusri. 

(3) The Shaman Paramita, also called Gunarata (?), a man of 
Western India, of Ujjein, came to China a.d. 549, and translated, 
at the instigation of the king, till 555 a.d., in the Ching Kwan 
Temple and elsewhere, 10 books in 20 chapters. Between A.D. 
557 and a.d. 569 he translated in Canton, with the others, 50 
books in 149 chapters. 

The Eastern Wei Dynasty, the Family of Yuan. 
[Capital, K'ang Nieh.J 

The Upasaka Gotamaprajnaruchi, a man of South India, 
born in Benares, of the Brahman caste, applied himself when 
young to Buddhist studies, came to China a.d. 538, and till A.D. 
542 translated in the capital 14 books in 85 chapters. Among 
these are — 

1. Ching-fa-nien-chu-king in 70 vols. (Saddharma smriti 
upasth§,na Sutra). 

2. Kin-sih-wang-king (Suvarna E^ja Siitra). 

2%e Tsi Dynasty {Northern T'si), the Family of Kao. 
[Capital, Fieh.] 

The -Shaman Nalandayasas, a man of North India, of the 


country of Udy§,na. He became a disciple at an early age, and 
travelled as a pilgrim to the various sacred spots of his religion, 
and at last came to China, a.d. 558, and until a.d. 569 translated 
■with Dharmadana in the capital 7 books, 52 chapters. After- 
wards he translated 8 other books in 20 chapters. 

The Ch'in Dynasty, Family of Ch'in. [Same Capital.] 

The son of "the king of the country of Ujjein, named Upasena 
(or Upasunya), translated in China from a.d. 538 to A.D. 541, 
3 books, 7 chapters. He afterwards, a.d. 566, translated another 
work in 7 chapters. 

The Chow Dynasty. [Capital, Chang'an.] 

(1) The Shaman Jnanabhadra, a man of the Po - teou - mo 
(Paduma ?) country, came to Chang'an in the reign of Meng-ti 
(A.D. 557-561), and there translated the Panchavidya Shastra in 
I chapter. 

(2) The Shaman Jnanayasas, a man of Magadha (with his two 
disciples Yasa-kuta and Jnana-kilta), came to China a.d. 565, 
and till a.d. 572 translated at Chang'an 6 books in 17 

(3) The Shaman Yasa-kMa, a man of Udy§,na, with his com- 
panion Jnana-kiita, translated during the reign of Wu-t'i (a.d. 
561-578) in various temples 4 books in 9 chapters. 

(4) The Shaman Jnana-kiita, a man of Gandh§,ra in North 
India, of the Kshatriya caste, became a disciple when young, and 
travelled about teaching and converting, came to the borders of 
Ta-sse, and afterwards in the reign of Wu-ti translated 4 books 
in 5 chapters. Again, in the Sui dynasty, A.D. 588 till A.D. 
S96, he translated 33 books in 154 chapters. Among these, 
JFo-pen-hing-tsi-king, in 60 chapters.^ 

(5) DharmaprSjna, a Brahman, came to China in 583 A.D., 
translated i book in i chapter. 

(6) The Shaman Panitaruchi (or Vinataruchi), a man of Udy- 
ana, in North India, translated in 583 a.d. 2 books in 2 chapters. 

(7) The Shaman Dharmagupta, of South India, came to China 
591 A.D., and translated 18 books in 81 chapters. 

^ Partly translated into English, as the "Komantic History of Buddha." 


The Great Tang Dynasty, the Family of Wal 
[Capital, Chang'an.] 

(1) The Shaman Prabhakala or Prabha, of Mid-India, of the 
Kshatriya race, came to China, in pursuance of his vow to travel 
everywhere for the purpose of teaching, in the first year of the 
ChSng Kwan period, a.d. 627, and in the Ta-hing-shan Temple 
translated 3 books in 1 3 chapters. 

(2) The Shaman Hiouen Thsang, a man of Loyang, his family 
name Chen, travelled through India, and translated altogether 
75 works in 1235 chapters. 

(3) The Shaman Shih-i-tsing} a man of Ts'i-chan.^ His family 
name was -Chang, his private name was Wen. He became a 
disciple when very young, and at fifteen years of age resolved 
to visit the Western world, like the unpretending Fa-hien or 
the famous Hiouen Thsang; and so, in the second year of 
ffien Hing (a.d. 671-672), he came with thirty-seven others to 

' Kwang-f u (Canton), and out of these, ten embarked with him 
on his travels, but these all got away from the ship and left 
him alone. And so with earnest resolve and unattended he 
went on, and after many dangers and delays came to the borders 
of India. He studied the languages of all the countries he 
passed through. Deeply he reverenced the sacred spots on the 
Vulture Peak and the Cock-foot Mount; gladly he advanced 
to the Jetavana and the Deer Park, and then, taking a circuit, 
rested in the Nllanda College and worshipped at the Bo-Tree. 
He studied, under eminent masters, both the Little and Great 
Vehicle. After visiting more than thirty countries, he returned 
homewards, having been away some twenty years, and arriving 
at the Eiver Loh (in Honan, a tributary of the Yellow Kiver), 
[he disembarked]. He brought home with him nearly four 
hundred distinct volumes of original copies of the Sutra, Vinaya, 
and Abidharma (scriptures), comprising 500,000 verses. He 
also brought one picture of the Diamond Throne and three 
hundred fragments of sariras (body-relics). The Heavenly. 
Queen {Tin-hau or Wio-hau, the empress), in her reverence for 

' This is the celebrated priest, J-Tdng. 
^ A part of Shantung, east of T'ai-shan. 


religion (the law), accompanied ty her family friends, went 
forth from the eastern gate to meet him and his sacred trea- 
sure. His dark-clad companions bore flags ; music was heard 
on every side as he advanced to the Shan-ki Temple. Here he 
rested and began his work of translation. During the years 700- 
703 A.D. he translated, first with (a priest) of Khoten, and after- 
wards by himself, in the Fuh-sien Temple of the Eastern capital, 
or in the Sai-ming Temple of the Western capital, the following 
works (twenty in number) .^ Afterwards, in the first year of the 
ShSn Lung cycle (705), he translated at the Eastern capital in 
the inner precinct the following work in three chapters, " The 
Chant of the Peacock-r^ja " {Mayura raja dhdrani), and in the 
Ta-fuh-sien Temple three other works. 

Altogether, from the first year of the cycle Kin-she (under the 
rule of the Empress Wu) till the second year of the cycle King- 
Tiln (under the rule of the Emperor Jui Tsung) [700 a.d. to 
712 A.D.], he (with others co-operating) translated fifty-six 
distinct treatises {Fo), including altogether 230 chapters 

The JSTorth Indian priest Anijana and the priest Dharma- 
matma of Turkh^ra explained the original meaning of the Fan 
(Sanscrit or Prakrit) ; the priest Dharmananda of Cophene 
(Cabul) and the layman (grihapati) of East India, Sringishra (?), 
with others, explained the Fan letters ; the Shaman Hrimati 
and others read the Fan original; the layman Gotamavajra, 
of Eastern India, the Prince Arjun of Cashmere, and others, 
translated (from the words thus rendered); the Shaman 
Po-lun and others wrote down the translation, whilst, others 
revised what was written. Various dukes and officers received 
the translations when completed and presented them to the 

Besides the above, there were compUed, either before or 
after, the following : — 
■ .Tai-tang-si-u-Teiu-fdL-lcao-s&ng-ck'uen, i volume, 2. chapters, 

Tai-tang-nan-TMi-KirTcwei-niii-fcL-chu'en, i volume, 4 chapters, 
and 3 others, altogether 5 books, 9 chapters. 

He was engaged about an edition of the Sarvastivadinvastu 

'' Names omitted, 


when he attained Nirvana, having written out 70 or 80 chapters 
of the original. Besides all these there were others, such as 
the Makara-Fish Sutra, &c., amounting to 49 chapters, which 
were left unfinished. 

Eeferring to the foregoing records, I desire to call your notice 
to the earnest work of these Buddhist missionaries in China. 
By sheer dint of labour they produced a new literature in. 
that country. Not only so, but they covered the land with 
Temples and Pagodas, which exist to the present day. They 
invented a syllabic mode of spelling, which is still used and 
found of great value. More than this, they revolutionised the 
religious thought of the empire, and led the way for the diffu- 
sion of the knowledge of their books throughout Japan, Corea, 
and Mongolia. "What was tho secret of their success? One 
reason, at least, is to be found in the grandeur and simplicity 
of Buddha's teaching. Grand, because it grasped the idea, 
however imperfectly, of a universal Saviour; simple, because 
it laid the foundation in self-denial — self-denial without 
self in it. The term "wou wei" in Chinese — and this term 
is used as synoptic of the ethical teaching of Buddha — 
signifies "absence of self." In the first of the Forty-two 
Sections Buddha says that "he is rightly called a Shaman 
who is able to exhibit in his conduct this ' absence of self ' " 
(wou wei). M. Leon Feer translates this phrase " le principe de 
la noncomposition." Mr. Edkins renders it "non-action;" but 
its real meaning is only to be got at by careful comparison. 
For instance, we have the same term used in this sentence, 
" Wou wei i chi cM, hi Shun ye yu" i.e., " He who without 
thought of self yet governs (himself), he is indeed like Shun." 
And again, respecting Laou Tseu, it is said, " Shang teh wou 
wei i wou i wei" " The highest virtue is to act without thought 
of self, without knowing it;" on which the gloss is, " Wou 
yeou sin u teh" "They think not that they are virtuous," 
or, as M. Stas. Julien^ renders it, "They practise virtue, 
naturally." Again there is another sentence, " Ngai min chi 
kwoh neng wou wei" "Loving the people, governing the 

' Syntaxe Nouvelle Monographies, p. n2. 


country well, this man will attain freedom from self," i.e., will 
be able to act without any feeling of selfish desire. 

These passages from secular books confirm the sense of the 
phrase used in Buddhist works, and explain how this very phrase 
is employed as a synonym for Nirv§,na, that condition of 
freedom which, in fact, consists in a freedom from self. This 
is the highest bUss, and on this simple truth Buddhism is to a 
great extent founded. 

I will conclude this Lecture by the translation of a Jataka, or 
Birth-story ; it is known as the Sivi Jataka, and is frequently 
referred to as an example of the principle of self-sacrifice of 
which I have spoken. There is an allusion to it, PI. Ix. of Mr. 
Pergusson's " Tree and Serpent Worship." 

The Siti Jataka, 

As it is related in the Ta-chwang-yan-King-Lun,^ k. xii., fol. i-i r. 

Text or Subfed. 

Once more ; it is no easy thing to get to hear 
the law of Buddha. In old time when Tath%ata 
was a Bodhisatwa, he did not spare his own body (life) 
in seeking after the law (i.e., in seeking to fulfil the 
law). We ought therefore to use all diligence in listen- 
ing to the law. 

I heard in time past the following story (comparison or avad^na) 
of the Pigeon. There was a certain heretical teacher who 
recited for the instruction of S&kradevendra a religious code 
of instruction (law), subversive of the true law. Now, that 
heretical teacher, having no true knowledge, called himself the 
AU-wise, and he said there was no such thing as the condition 
called " Anuttara samyak sambhodi." At this time the Divine 
S^kra, having heard his words, was heavy at heart, and ill 
content. Whereupon, looking through all the world, he 

1 This work was written by Asvaghosha, and will be referred to hereafter. It 
may perhaps be restored to Mahdlamlcara SUtra ShaMm. 


examined the cases of those who were undergoing austerities, 
to see whether any of them had arrived at the condition at 
which they aimed, viz., complete wisdom. And so the Gatha 
says, in the " Sutra of the Questions of the Divine S&kra" — 

" My mind is now occupied in anxious search (inquiry), 
And I am unable to find a sufficient answer. 
Morning and night I am disturbed ^ with painful doubt, 
Not knowing whether this matter is so or not. 
And now I have come from far, 
Anxious and earnest in my wide-spreading search, 
Not knowing where at present dwells the man 
Who has accomplished the great experiment.'' 

Then Visvakarman addressed the divine S§,kra and said, " He 
who dwells in heaven above should not give way to grief and 
heaviness. There is in the country of Ku-shi a king named 
Shi-pi (&vi), persevering in his austerities, engaged in seeking 
supreme wisdom. According to the opinion of those who have 
investigated the case, this king will ere long arrive at the condi- 
tion of a Buddha. Let us go and observe for ourselves." The 
divine SS.kra answered, " Yes ! but he may give up his aim, 
may he not ? " And so the GItha says — 

" Jlven as the fish produces much spawn. 
Though little of it comes to perfection, 
Or as the Amra fruit 

When fully ripe is difficult to distinguish,^ 
So is it with the Bodhisatwa. 
Those who engage in high resolves are many, 
But few are those who accomplish their aim. 
If in the practice of painful austerities 
He allows not his mind to vacillate or change, 
He may be called 'one who has attained fixity.' 
Those who desire to know (or to be) a true Bodhisatwa 
Must test this unchangeable strength of heart." 

Visvakarman then said, " Let us go, then, and examine into 
this case, and see if there is any vacillation ; and if not then let 
us present our offerings in honour of the recluse." 

On this the divine S&kra, from a wish to investigate the 

^ Or, As it is difficult to find a ripe Amra fruit, &c. 


mind (heart) of the Bodhisatwa, transformed himself into a 
hawk, and bade Visvakarman change himself into a dove. 
Then Visvakarman, having assumed this form, its body blue as 
the ether, its eyes like vermilion gems, came flying down to the 
place where the divine S§,kra was. At this time the divine SIkra, 
conceiving much pity in his heart, addressed Visvakarman, and 
said, " How can we find it in our heart to add to the sorrow of 
Bodhisatwa ? Yet, though we do increase for a time the pain 
of this Sivir§,ja, yet it is but as the jeweller who tries the true 
gem by piercing it, and chipping it, holding it in the fire, and 
striking it. By these means he proves it to be a true gem." 
(So in the present case.) 

And now the dove, because it was pursued by the hawk, 
filled with fear in the presence of all beholders, sought refuge 
in the bosom of Sivir^ja (or under his shoulder), its colour blue 
as the lotus leaf (here the colour blue is uncertain), and its 
brilliancy like the white beam of pure light that darts from the 
black cloud. Then all people seeing it were fiUed with awe, 
and said — 

" He truly must have a loving heart, 
For all things living place entire confidence in him. 
As at the time of the sun's withdrawing her light, 
Every bird repairs to its own nest. 

But the hawk (transformed) addressed to him these words — 
' Oh, king ! I beg you give me back my food ! ' " 

At this time the king (MahSrlja), having heard the words of 
the hawk, and seeing once more the extreme fright and alarm 
of the dove, replied forthwith in the following verses — 

" Because the dove fears the hawk, 
With fluttering pennons it comes to seek my protection j 
Though it cannot speak with its mouth, 
Yet through fear its eyes are filled with moisture. 
I will now extend, therefore, (to this poor creature) 
My protection and defence." 

At this time the Maharlja, to compose and pacify the trem- 
bling dove, added these verses — 


"Fear not, give not way to alarm ; 
He shall not kill thee at the last. 
Safe under my protection, 
I will indeed defend thee from harm. 
And why should I not save and deliver thee ? 
I, who design to sav6 the world (all flesh), 
I who, for the sake of all that lives. 
Am now exerting such strength of purpose (ministering 

For even as those who receive the country's revenue. 
For every six send one to me, 
So now I, dwelling in the wofld 
As a guest, receive this one. 
Desiring to protect and defend it,- 
And not to suffer any calamity to befall it." 

At this time the hawk answered the king thus, " MahirSja, 
this dove is mine for food." The king replied, " But 1 have 
long conceived a loving heart towards all creatures, and there- 
fore I ought to save and protect it." The hawk then asked the 
king, and said, " What mean you by this ' long time ' ? " Then 
the Mah§,r§,ja replied in these verses — 

" When first I undertook to obtain wisdom (Bodhi), 
At this time also I took on me to defend (the weak) 
lAU living things of whatever sort. 
Draw forth my compassion and my pity." 

And then the hawk replied in these g§,thas — 

" If, then, your words be really true. 
You ought, by right, to return me the dove ; 
For if I die from starvation, 
How can you claim then ' a loving heart ' ! " 

The king having heard these words, forthwith began to 
reflect : " I find myself, indeed, at present in a strait. I must 
cast over in my mind for some device by which to justify my 
conduct." Having thought thus, he straightway addressed the 
hawk, and said, " Will other flesh but this one's preserve your 
life ? " He answered the king and said, " Yes ! Fresh flesh 
with blood can save me alive." At this time the MahMja 


reflected thus— "What shall be done?" and then he said in 
verse — 

" All living things, whatever sort they be, 
I must ever defend from harm and contrive to protect ; 
But as for this matter of warm blood and flesh, 
It cannot be had without some one's death." 

Having thought thus, it occurred to him that it would be 
easy to give the hawk some flesh from his own body, and so he 
uttered the following verses — 

" By cutting flesh from my own body, 
And using it for satisfying the hawk, 
I may thus let this one's body escape, 
And protect him, trembling for his life." 

At this time the Mahlraja, having repeated these verses, 
again addressed the hawk and said, "Will my flesh satisfy 
your hunger ? " To which he replied, " If the king will give me 
of his flesh as much as the pigeon (in weight), then I will eat 
it (and live)." Then the Mah§,r§,ja, having heard these words, 
was filled with gladness, and addressed his servant, " Haste 
thee ! bring the scales, and cut from my body flesh equal in 
weight to this dove. This is indeed a lucky day for me; how 
comes it that I am so fortunate ? " And then he added these 
verses — 

" (In this body of mine) dwell old age and disease, 
Ever exposed to death and fragile, filled with loathsome 

humours ■ 
Now for religion's sake 
I will cut off this poor and corrupting flesh." 

And then the servant of the king hastily brought the scales, 
whilst the Maharg,ja, seeing them, without change of colour 
forthwith offered for mutilation his thigh, the white flesh of 
which was soft and moist as the T^la leaf; and then calling his 
servant- man, he addressed him in these verses and said — 

" Come now, with your knife 
Cut off and take the flesh of my thigh. 


Obey my words simply and faithfully, 

And do not give way to anxious thought, 

For then I shall not accomplish my object in suffering this 

Then I shall not obtain that highest wisdom I seek. 
For of all kinds of wisdom 
In the three worlds, this is the most excellent. 
But this Bodhi by a single mischance 
May not after all be obtained, 
I am therefore now, on this account. 
Most anxious to be firm and resolute as iron." 

At this time the servant-man, his eyes filled with pitiful 
tears, with his hands clasped, addressed (the E^ja) thus : " Pity 
me, gracious lord! I cannot do this deed. I have always 
obeyed and executed the orders of the king, but I cannot endure 
to cut the flesh off the thigh of the king with a knife." And 
then he repeated these verses — 

" The king is he who saves and relieves (from unpleasant 
Were I to attempt to cut the king's flesh. 
Myself, with the knife in my hand. 
Would faint and fall down to earth." 

At this time the Mahdraja in his own hand took the knife to 
cut off the flesh from his thigh. Then his great minister 
besought him not to commit such a deed, in vain. All the 
men in the city, his friends and relatives, the Brahmans, the 
women of the palace, raising their voices, in tears entreated 
him ; the Devas, Nelgas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Kinnaras, 
Mahoragas, and so on, occupying space, cried one to another, 
" Such a thing as this was never heard of before ! " At this time 
the Maharaja encouraged himself in the following words — 

" Psha ! let my heart be established and fixed. 
How light and trivial a pain is this ! 
Why then is my heart oppressed and sad ] 
See how many there are in the world 
Entangled and held captive by innumerable sorrows, 
Without refuge, without protection or defence, 
With no covering (shelter), or support, 


And unable to experience (or arrive at) any self-reliance ! 

But this heart of mine is otherwise placed. 

There is deliverance and protection (for me) ; 

Why then not blame myself 

For thus entertaining the feeling of sorrow ? " 

Then Sakradevendra tiiought thus : " This Maharaja, will he 
be able to fix his heart or not in bearing the excessive pain ? " 
And then he said, " Now you feel how difficult it is to bear such 
pain; you have had enough; let the bird go." Then Bod- 
hisatwa, with a gentle smile on his face, replied, " Such pain is 
nothing. I swear that if I had to endure much greater pain, it 
should not prevent my purpose. And consider how small such 
pain as this is compared with that of hell. We ought to think of 
that, and raise a heartfelt love within, which may prompt us to 
deliver men from such misery." Having thought thus, he 
repeated the following verses — 

" I now endure the pain consequent on this wound, 
But how little this compared with that 
Which those endure in hell ! 
So great, so lasting, and severe, 
How can such pains as those be borne? 
Now therefore I, in pity for such wretched ones. 
Seek for a speedy rescue. 
In gaining supreme wisdom 
May I be able to save and deliver 
From all such miseries." 

Then the divine SS,kra thought with himself thus : " I ought 
to try whether the Mah§,raja's heart will fail him if I remind 
him of greater pain than this he has to bear." Tliinking thus, he 
still remained silent. Then the Mah§,r§,ja flung in the scales 
the one piece of flesh he had cut oflf, and in the other scale he 
placed the pigeon ; but the body of the dove weighed down the 
other. Then cutting off a second piece from his other thigh, he 
placed it in the scale, but yet it was outweighed — and so with 
different parts of his body. Then the king, in doubt and fear 
as to what could be the cause of such a circumstance, raised 
himself with a view to place his body in the scale, on which the 


hawk rejoined, " Why are you moving ? Do you repent of your 
purpose ? " The Mah§,raj§, answered, " I repent not at all, but 
I desire to cast my entire body into the scale as a ransom for 
the dove ! " At this time, when about thus to sacrifice his body, 
his face shone with joy, so that his friends on either side could 
not look at him, whilst others fled, not able to See him thus ; 
whereupon the king called on them to behold him, and then 
piece by piece he cut his body joint from joint, even as a painted 
figure when placed in the falling rain is destroyed and effaced, 
and difiicult to be recognised. 

At this time the Mah§,r^ja chanted forth these words — 
" I now sacrifice my body, not for wealth, not for precious 
gems, not for any joys of sense, not for wife or child, not for 
house or friends or kin, but in the search after supreme 
wisdom by which to save the world (all flesh)." And then hS 
repeated these lines — 

" The Devas and Asuras, 
The Gandharvas and Yakshas, 
The Nagas and Kwei-Shin (Spirits or Pretas), 
All living things that exist 
Who have seen this body of mine, 
All may know that I turn not back 
In my desire after the attainment of wisdom. 
Though my body is racked and cut to pieces, 
Those who seek to plant the seeds of knowledge 
Ought above all things to have a firm, loving heart. 
If they be not fixed and true to their purpose, 
Then they will lose the prize of wisdom they seek for." 

Then the MahMja, not sparing his own life, forthwith placed 
himself in the scales. Then the great earth shook six times, 
as when grass or leaves are driven here and there by the 
tempest ; and then in the midst of space the assembled Devas, 
murmuring their applause at such an unwonted sight, exclaimed, 
" Well done ! well done ! this is rightly called indomitable per- 
severance (virya), firm and unmoved in purpose indeed !" And 
then he added the words of the GS.thas — 

" Because I would protect that life, 
I myself have lacerated this flesh of mine ; 


With sincere purpose cultivating a pitiful and loving heart, 

Firm in my resolution and not to be shaken. 

All the assembled Devas 

Have experienced unusual thoughts." 

At this time the hawk (as he appeared) murmured forth his 
surprise at the unheard-of spectacle, and said, " Not long hence 
this man, so firm in his purpose, will arrive at perfect intelli- 
gence (Buddha), to whom all men will look as to their loving 
parents." Then S§,kra resumed his right appearance before the 
king, and, telling Visvakarman also to resume his, he added, "Now 
we both must present our offerings to this Bodhisatwa, so strong 
in his purpose ; even as Mount Sumeru, firmly fixed in the midst 
of the ocean, can never be shaken, so also is the heart of this 
Bodhisatwa." And then they added these g§,thas — 

" We ought indeed to present our offerings 
To this courageous and resolute one ; 
We ought now together to sing aloud 
His praises and extol him greatly. 
All those oppressed by fear of danger or trouble 
Ought to seek in him protection and be at rest, 
With him to form a close alliance, 
Who for so long has resolutely prepared himself, 
And laid the foundation of a great merciful heart. 
All the wise should seek shelter 
Beneath the branches and boughs which now appear 
Growing from this tree of perfect wisdom." 

Then Visvakarman, addressing the divine S§,kra, said : " Now, 
Mah§,rlja, we ought from pity to all that lives to restore his 
body as it was before, and express a strong desire that the 
wisdom-heart of all creatures may not change." Then divine 
S^kra inquired of the king and said, " And did you not repent 
of your purpose to give your life for the sake of that single 
dove ? " At this time the MS.h§,raja said in verses — 

" This body of mine must return to nothingness. 
Even as yonder piece of wood or stone, 
Devoured either by brute beasts. 
Burnt with fire, or rotting in the ground. 


But yet tliis body of. such little worth 

Is made the means of producing great advantage, 

And so my heart is filled with joy, 

And there is no repentance found with me. 

Who is there possessing wisdom 

But will greatly rejoice to feel 

That with this vile and stricken body 

Such universal benefit by firmness may accrue ? " 

Then divine S§,kra added this question, "These words are 
indeed difficult to believe." And then he added, " Is it true 
indeed as you say ? " On this the Maharaja made this vow 
(sacha kiriya), " If my heart felt no sorrow or regret " (i.e., in 
jjTOo/that it felt none), "let my body return to its perfect form 
and be as it was." And then the^ MahMja, having considered 
his body, mangled as it was, said as follows — 

" At the time when I cut the flesh off my body, 
My heart felt no sorrow or regret, 
No resentment and no disappointment; 
My heart had no feeling but joy. 
If this is true as I say. 
Then my body should return to its old state, 
And I soon shall attain the way of Bodhi, 
And save all living things from pain." 

Having uttered these words, the mangled body of the MahS,- 
r4ja was restored whole as at first, and then he uttered these 
words — 

" All the mountains and the great earth 
Were shaken and moved ; 
The trees and the great ocean 
Were disturbed and in commotion, unable to rest, 
As those who tremble with fear. 
Or those who join in battle are in turmoil. 
All the Devas sang their hymns, 
And from space there fell perfumes and flowers ; 
All sounds of music were heard, 
The host of Devas raised their voices, 
They sang in joyous strain 
And recited their tuneful verses. 


Then all creatures were greatly moved ; 

The great ocean uttered its voice, 

The heavens rained down the finest perfumed rice, 

And filled completely all the ways 

The flowers which fell from space ; 

Some descended fast and others slowly. 

All the Devas in the air 

Covered the earth with flowers of every kind 

And of every gaudy colour. 

Gold and jewels, ornaments and garments, 

Came down from heaven like rain. 

The garments of the Devas 

As they touched each other produced a sound. 

In all the abodes of men 

Precious vessels of themselves appeared ; 

And as they shone in the various chambers, 

Of themselves emitted sounds 

Like the music of the Apsaras. 

No clouds were spread above the world, 

But all the regions of space were clear and still ; 

A gentle breeze breathed perfumed air. 

The rivers flowed with quiet murmur ; 

The Yakshas all desired to act religiously. 

And to cause increase and benefit to men. 

Not long hence I shall accomplish perfect wisdom. 

And hence the songs and hence the praises. 

My heart is therefore filled with joy, 

Whilst all the Gandharvas 

Sound forth their hymns and music 

In light and sonorous strains, 

And this the burthen of their songs : 

' Not long hence he shall be a perfect Buddha, 

And by his mighty vow cross o'er the sea 

And bring deliverance to the distressed. 

Oh ! when he has obtained his aim 

May he remember to deliver us.' " 

Then divine S^kra and Visvakarman, having made their 
offerings, returned to their heavenly palaces. 

And now to conclude. I have stated that the majority of 
Buddhist Books known in the South may be found in China. 


Let us consider the statement. The Buddhist Books written in 
Pali and composing the Southern Canon were taken to Ceylon, 
at different periods, from Kalinga, Andhra, and the neighbour- 
hood {Oldenherg). Probably they were all so taken before the 
Christian era. These books were reproduced in Pali by Buddha- 
ghosha about A.D. 400. Now the same works must have been 
known throughout India at least as early as A^oka, for the 
Canon was supposed to be then in existence. Is it to be sup- 
posed that they were everywhere written or known in the 
Magadhi language (Pali) ? Such a supposition is improbable on 
the face of it. There were vernaculars (lashyas) everywhere, 
and there were Buddhists everywhere in India. We argue, 
therefore, that these books, when written, were written not in 
Ceylon only in Pali, but everywhere in that tongue where they 
were accepted, and from these tongues they were translated 
into Chinese. The Cophene priests were evidently the most 
diligent in translating their Scriptures in China ; they brought 
texts with them, but not Pali texts, yet texts of the same Scrip- 
tures. And therefore we doubt not the recognised books of the 
South will, with few exceptions, be found in the North (so far at 
least as they were Indian), and as far as we have yet searched, 
this fact has been established. 

But to show this the better I must ask your attention to my 
next Lecture. 

( 43 ) 



A CONSENSUS of opinion gathered from books recently pub- 
lished tends to show, without much room for question, that the 
translations of the Sacred Books of the Buddhists made in 
India, probably between the time of A^oka and the first century 
B.C., were written (if written at all^ and not merely handed down 
traditionally), not in the languages known as Sanscrit and Pali 
only, but in various dialects, according to the locality in which 
the books were first framed. This is an important step to 
have made in our knowledge of the subject, because it removes 
us at once from the arena of a controversy which formerly 
tied us to considerations of a preliminary character — I mean 
the controversy with regard to the comparative antiquity 
of the two supposed versions of the Canon, viz., that in 
Pali and that in Sanscrit. It is well known that Mr. Brian 
Hodgson, who may be rightly considered as the discoverer 
of Northern Buddhism, was, and we believe is, an advocate 
for the priority of the Sanscrit version of the Buddhist 
Sacred Scriptures. His language is very definite : " The philo- 
sophic founders of Buddhism used Sanscrit, and Sanscrit only, 
to expound, defend, and record the speculative principles of 
their religion " {Journ. As. Soe. of Bengal, vol. vi. p. 683). At 
the same time he allowed that in the actual propagandism of 
their religion the' teachers used popular idioms, but yet the 
philosophic ideas which formed, as it were, the basis of their 
teaching were preserved from the earliest period in Sanscrit. 
So, at least, I understand his words ; and in proof or confirma- 
tion of this opinion he refers to the absence of such works as 
the Prajna-paramita in the so-called Southern school, which 
adopted the Pali as its sacred language. Following Hodgson, 


we have a list of eminent writers on this subject who hold to 
the view of two canonical versions only. Lassen supposes that 
from the first Buddha addressed the Brahmans in Sanscrit, and 
the people in Magadhi or Pali, and he assumes that two versions 
of the Canon existed from the time of the first council, viz., 
one in Sanscrit and the other in Pali, whilst those Siitras which 
were not produced till a much later time, viz., about the period 
of Kanishka, were compiled in popular idioms in districts where 
Sanscrit was but ill understood, such as in Kashmir. Burnouf, 
also, admitting two versions or redactions of the Buddhist 
Scriptures, assumes that one was designed for the people and 
the other for the learned Brahmans ; but in the case of the Pali 
version he thinks that it was reduced to its present form later 
than the Sanscrit, as it was more and more affected by gram- 
matical influences from without. Mr. D'Alwis considers the 
Pali as the orthodox Buddhist language, whilst he regards the 
Nepalese Sanscrit Books as the product of an heretical move- 
ment, noticed in the Ceylonese Chronicles, and particularly the 
Bvpavwmm, The late Professor Childers, as is well known, 
upheld the sacred character of the Pali, as the language of 
the texts ; " he cannot conceive how any one can believe the 
Pali books to be translations from the Sanscrit ; " and he states 
his own view to be, " that the If orth Buddhist Sanscrit texts are 
founded on older Pali texts — the texts, in fact, of Southern 
Buddhism, of which they are in some cases in great part literal 

In opposition to this opinion of only two redactions of 
the Canon, Mr. Minayef, in his introduction to his Pali Gram- 
mar, has shown that there were probably various versions 
of Buddha's teaching, handed down orally in different locali- 
ties. His words are these: "It is difiScult not to conclude, 
from what has been said, that there were not originally only 
two redactions of Buddha's teaching, comprising one Canon 
only, but that the primitive literature transmitted orally was 
modified according to the language of each country." It is 
true that in forming this conclusion he rests very much on 
a text, which, according to Childers, he has misunderstood, 
and which would rather strengthen the views of the latter 
scholar as to the sacred character (and its exclusive use 


in Buddhist writings) of the Pali. Yet, omitting this, there 
are other considerations of considerable weight which seem to 
confirm his argument. Of these, the most important he derives 
from an examination of the Afoka rock-cut edicts, which furnish 
us with specimens of various dialects of India, all differing from 
the Pali: — i. The dialect of Western India, as embodied in t]ie 
Girnar inscription ; 2. the dialect of North- West India, as found 
in the Kapur de G-iri inscription ; 3. the dialect of Eastern 
India, as found in the inscriptions of Dhauli; and 4. the Lat 
inscriptions. All of these distinguish themselves from Pali, 
principally in their phonetical character, e.g., there are no 
consonantal reduplications, which occur in Pali, as in the word 
Sadhamme for saddhame, sute for suUa. It is curious again to 
observe that the word Samgha is used in the Bhabra inscription 
instead of the Pali Sangha; the letter I is substituted for r, as 
Idj'a for rdjd, dliya for driya; and again, we find the neuter 
singular in e instead of a; from all which Minayef concludes 
that the Pali is "clearly distinguished from ,all the dialects of 
these inscriptions." If this be so, it is questionable how far the 
assertion that the Sanscrit yersions of the Buddhist Books were 
made from Pali only can be sustained ; it would rather seem 
probable that there existed in India, after the use of writing 
became general, copies of these books in various dialects, and 
that the later Sanscrit versions were made not from one redaction 
only, but from such copies as happened to be in possession of the 
Pandits in Nepal, by whom these translations were made. 

This question of the origin and right place of the Pali lan- 
guage has been discussed lately in the valuable introduction to 
Dr. Oldenberg's edition of the Mah^vagga section of the Vinaya 
Pitaka. He asks (p. xlix), " To what part of India did the Pali 
originally belong, and from whence did it spread to Ceylon ? " 
The answer to this question, he adds, may be reached either from 
an historical investigation as to the road by which the sacred 
writings were carried to Ceylon, or, secondly, on the basis of the 
ancient inscriptions, by inquiry to what geographical limits the 
grammatical peculiarities which distinguish the Pali from other 
dialects of India are confined. With regard to the first. Dr. 
Oldenberg remarks that Westergaard and E. Kuhn have assumed 
that because Mahinda, the son of A^oka, lived at Ujjent till he 


was ten years old, that the language he made use of when he 
went as a missionary to Ceylon was that of Ujjenl (Udy§,na). 
This he regards as very improbable, in consideration of the fact 
that Mahinda resided at the court at P§,taliputra ten years 
before he joined the Buddhist Saflgha, and it is hardly probable 
tljat he studied the sacred books or learned the sacred traditions 
in the dialect of TJjjent when he lived in the district of its 
earliest development. And again he remarks, that though we 
are not acquainted with the exact character of the Ujjeni 
dialect from any inscription now existing, yet we must re- 
member that the language of the Bhilsa inscriptions is identical 
with that spoken at Vidisa, the home of Mahinda's mother, 
and this dialect differs in too many essential points from the 
Pali for us to regard it as its origin. On the whole, the editor 
discredits the supposition that Buddhism was introduced into 
Ceylon as a developed system by the Prince Mahinda and his 
sister Sanghamitta, and leans to the belief that it was imported 
by degrees and by distinct advances from the neighbouring coasts 
of the Deccan, with which the people of Ceylon had very early 
and constant intercourse, and that the language therefore of 
these districts will furnish us with the answer to the question 
he asks as to the cradle in which the Pali language was nurtured. 
He enforces this argument by some striking observations which 
ought to decide the question. The followers of the Sthavira 
school predominated in Ceylon, and were regarded as alone 
orthodox. Now this school existed nowhere in the North of 
India or in India proper (as we learn from Hiouen Thsang), 
except at Gayi in the neighbourhood of the Bodhi-tree, in the 
convent founded by a king of Ceylon, and in which Ceylonese 
priests always found entertainment, as we are told the Northern ■ 
priests were entertained at N§,landa. It was in this very 
convent that Buddhaghosha was resident, and from it he went 
directly to Ceylon, encouraged or instigated to do so doubtless 
by conversation with priests from that country. But again, the 
Sthavira school was located chiefly on the eastern shores of 
India, from the mouth of the Ganges southward through the 
dominion of the Kalinga and in the country of the Dr§,vida ; 
and further, on the west coast in those parts which stood in 
connection with Ceylon, in Bharukaccha and Sur§,shtra, and 


probably in the Malaya kingdom and in Andhra. Prom this 
fact, viz., of the popularity of the Sthavira school in these 
districts, and its decided supremacy in Ceylon, Dr. Oldenberg 
argues that the language of the one locality must be allied with, 
if it does not represent in all particulars, that of the other. 
He then compares with the Pali what we actually know of the 
language of the kingdoms of Kalinga and Andhra from ancient 
inscriptions, and from these he again argues that the Pali is 
much more likely to have had its home in districts to the south, 
rather than the north, of the Vindhya mountains. He refers ex- 
pressly to the inscription of the mother of S^takanni, king of 
the Andhra, found at N^sik, and to the important though as yet 
partially unintelligible rock-inscription of Aira M§,hameghav§,- 
hana, king of the Kalinga, discovered at Khandagiri, in Orissa. 
" It will be found," he says, " that the differences between the 
dialect of these inscriptions and the Pali are not greater than 
can readily be explained from casualties relating to the different 
manner in which the texts were handed down on both sides." 
Perhaps, also, the sculptures found in the Gane^a Gumpha and 
the ES,j E§,nl caves at Khandagiri refer to the conquest of the 
Eakshasis of Ceylon by Vijaya, in which case there is further 
evidence of the early connection between the two countries. 

We are so far, then, led to the conclusion that the Pali redac- 
tion of the Buddhist Canon, although an ancient one, and tradi- 
tionally preserved, probably in Magadha in the neighbourhood 
of the Bodhi-tree, was yet only one of many versions of the 
discourses and precepts of the great Master as they were at 
one time known throughout India, and that the Sanscrit 
versions known in Nepal were translations, not from these 
Pali Scriptures alone, but from works carried beyond the reach 
of persecution by Buddhist refugees from all parts of India. 
The character of the Chinese translations of the Sacred Books 
establishes this conclusion. We must bear in mind the historical 
connection of these books with the originals brought from India. 
Supposing that the first books were brought from that country 
no earlier than the time of Ming Ti, about the middle of the 
first century, yet this is a date early enough to give them a 
distinctly primitive character. And for six hundred years 
followino- this date there continued to flow eastward a stream 


of Indian merchants and Indian missionaries, who brought their 
books with them from every part of the country, and there- 
fore, as we argue, written in widely different idioms. Moreover^ 
the character of the Chinese versions of the same book, that is, 
of books having the same- title, proves beyond doubt that the 
originals from which the translations were made, although 
founded on one and the same traditional record, were reduced 
to writing in distinct dialects, and probably widely separated 
districts. Let us take, for example's sake, two of the versions 
of the Life of Buddha known in China, and commonly regarded 
as different translations of the same original, generally called 
the Lalita Vistara. There were, according to Julien, four 
versions of this work, although I have only met with the 
second and the third. Still these two afford good ground for 
comparison. The third, which is called Ta-chwang-yan-king, 
is identical in its divisions and general text with that made 
from the Thibetan by M. Poucaux, which is again confessedly 
the same as the Sanscrit version known to us through the pages 
of the " Bibliotheca Indica," and commonly received in Nepal as 
one of the Sacred Books. The second Chinese version, on the 
other hand, known as the Ph'A-yaou-king, or the " Sfitra of 
Universally Diffused Light " (Samanta Prabhi,sa),i is found to 
differ from the Sanscrit in most material points. The general 
thread of the story is the same, and in some passages there is 
an identity of expression, but yet in others the narratives 
differ in essential points, and the details are evidently of a 
different traditional school. How is this to be explained ? It 
appears to me that the reason is this : The translator of the PhU- 
yaou-king was an Indo-Scyth, or a White Hun, who lived at 
Tun-hwang, beyond the great wall of China; his name was 
Dharmaraksha, and he flourished just about the middle of the 
third century A.D. We read that he travelled through all the 
countries of the western world (i.e., India and its neighbourhood) 
and understood the dialects and could read the books of thirty- 
six kingdoms. On his return from India, he brought with him 
an immense store of Buddhist and Brahman literature, written 
in the Fan language — that is, one of the languages referred to 

1 This is the Sanscrit restoration of the title ; but it is by no means certain 
that the work is Sanscrit. 


above ; and bringing them to the imperial court of China, he 
took up his abode at Loyang, and there, for a period of forty- 
three years, devoted himself to the work of translation. He 
rendered in all 165 works into Chinese from various originals, 
and amongst these the Life of Buddha which is reported to be 
another version of the Lalita Vistara. The reason, then, of the 
wide differences between this work and the next version, which 
is in strict agreement with the Sanscrit, is this : That Dharma- 
raksha procured his MS. somewhere in the course of his travels, 
and that it was not written in Sanscrit, but some Prakrit dialect 
—one of the thirty-six dialects, in fact, which he is reported to 
have understood, and from this he rendered it into Chinese. 
Now what is true in this case is so in many others, and 
none more so than in the different versions of the Vinaya 
Pitaka which we have in the Chinese Canon, and to which I 
now wish to call your attention. 

I have observed in my Catalogue of the Buddhist Canon as 
known in China and Japan, p. no, that we have in those coun- 
tries copies of the Vinaya Pitaka as received in the different 
schools of Buddhism, which are elsewhere unknown. First, we 
have the Shi-song-liu, or the Vinaya of the Sarv§,staviidins ; 
then the Mo-ho-seng-cM-liu, i.e., the Vinaya according to the 
Mah§,sanghika school; next the Sse-fen-liu, or the Vinaya 
according to the Dharmaguptas ; • then the Ni-sha-sa-^po-vm- 
fen-liu, i.e., the Vinaya of the Mahisasikas ; then the Kan-pen- 
shwo-yih-tsai-ya'Urpo'jpi-ni-ye, i.e., the Vinaya of the MMasar- 
v§,stav§,dins, and corresponding works related to these. It 
would be impossible to enter on a detailed examination of all 
these books, although I believe that such a scrutiny would go to 
establish the dialectical differences of the originals, which differ- 
ences were to a great extent the cause of the schisms which 
occurred in the Buddhist Church, and so establish the existence 
of various Prakrit copies of the Canon. I shall therefore confine 
the few remarks I have to make to two copies of the Vinaya in 
the Chinese Tripitaka, viz., that made from the writings of the 
Mahasant^hika school, and the other from the Mahisasika school. 
The Vinaya of the Mahisasika school — this school being a 
branch of the early sect known as the Sarvastav^dins — is allied 
to the Mah^sthavira school, recognised as orthodox in Ceylon. 


This copy of the Vi^aya, therefore, is found to agree most 
closely with the Southern copy, as far as we yet know^ it 
through the edition being published of Dr. Oldenberg. 

The Mahasanghika school, on the other hand, was a school 
that split off from the Sthavira, or school of elders, and repre- 
sents the teaching of the body of priests as differing from the 
leaders. These two schools, in fact, represent as nearly as 
possible the aristocratic and democratic elements found in 
almost all religious communities. 

The Chinese version of the Mahisasikas was made by a priest 
called Buddhajiva, or it may be Buddhayasa, who Jived in 
Cophene, or the Cabul district of India, towards the end of the 
fourth century A.D. The Mahasanghika version was made by 
two priests, one a native of North India, viz., Kapilavastu, 
and called Buddhabhadra ; the other a Chinese priest well 
known to us as Fa-hien. Buddhabhadra was a direct descendant 
of Amritodana, the uncle of Buddha Gotama, and was induced 
to visit China by a priest, Tchi-yen, who had been one of Fa- 
hien's companions. 

The method of Buddha's teaching, as illustrated by these 
books, was this : — First surrounding himself with disciples who 
accepted the great principles of his system, he framed for their 
guidance certain directions as the occasion arose, and these 
directions became afterwards precedents for other cases of a 
similar kind. Thus we read at the beginning of the first 
section, or the P^rSjika division of the Mahisasilca school — 
" Buddha was residing in the Savatthi country with five hundred 
great Bhikshus ; from this country he proceeded to the town of 
Veranja, so called from the name of a Brahman whom King 
Prasenajita had placed there as governor. This nobleman, 
hearing that Buddha and his followers were residing outside the 
town in a wood sheltered by the trees — [for as yet there were 
no vih§,ras or convents built]— and understanding his character 
as the perfectly enlightened teacher of gods and men, the great 
discerner of all hearts, the preacher of the immaculate law, 
and that he in his travels had found his way there, was filled 
with joy, and exclaimed, ' I must go see this Buddha !' So with 
five hundred of his immediate friends, surrounded thus by them, 
he went to the place where Buddha was, to see him. And when 


he beheld him at a distance seated ia the grove under a tree, 
his body and members perfectly in repose, and surrounded by a 
halo of glory, he was filled with joy; and alighting from his 
chariot, he advanced towards the sage, and after saluting him 
respectfully, stood on one side. On this Buddha preached 
in his hearing the excellent law, showing its profit and its 
blessedness ; on heaving which Veranja was filled with joy and 
addressed Buddha as follows :— ' I pray my Lord Buddha and 
his followers to receive at my hands daily charity during ^ the 
three months of rest ' (Wass). To whom Buddha replied, ' My 
foUoiyers are numerous, and you are of a different belief, of dif- 
ferent views, of different persuasion (joy), of a different mode 
of worship.' To which Veranja answered, ' Although this be 
so, yet I pray you comply with my request.' And having 
repeated his invitation three times, Buddha consented; and 
then rising from his seat and circumambulating Buddha with 
his right hand towards him, he departed and returned home 
to make the necessary preparations for three months' enter- 
tainment. Now M^ra Pisuna at this time reflected with 
himself thus: 'This Brahman has invited Buddha and his 
followers to spend the three months of rest at his abode and 
receive his entertainment. I must cause him to forget his 
engagement by my bewitchments.' Having thought thus, he 
forthwith came, and by his delusive power caused him to forget 
his invitation. In consequence, the Brahman, having gone into 
his inner apartments to indulge in every kind of pleasure, gave 
orders to the gate-keepers thus : ' I am going to enjoy myself 
for three months within doors ; whatever business occurs, good 
or bad, let me not be troubled ; ' and so he forgot all about his 
invitation to Buddha and his followers. Now because this was 
an heretical country, there were no places of rest or preaching 
halls in any of the towns or villages. But to the north of the 
city there was a hiU covered with trees and free from impurities ; 
thither Buddha and his followers went to pass the three months of 
rest. And now came a season of much distress; for though they 
regularly begged through the streets of the city, but little was 
given to them, and the whole community was without food. 

■' Or it may perhaps be, after the three months. 


At this time there was a certain horse-dealer of the Porli 
country who was travelling with 500 horses, and, on account of 
the extreme summer heat, he looked round for a place of shelter, 
and seeing that the country round Veranja was cool and rich 
in grass, he halted there and fed his horses. At this time the 
Bhikshus, coming to the place where the horse merchant was 
encamped, silently stood before him and begged for alms. Then 
the merchant, from a principle of faith in Buddha, and filled 
with pity because the Bhikshus were unable to get food, spoke 
thus : ' I have some grain which I give to the horses ; if you are 
able to eat this, I can give you half a pint each for the purpose 
of strengthening you along the way.' Whereupon the Bhikshus 
thought thus : ' Buddha has given us no permission to eat such 
food as this.' Whereupon they came to their master and told 
him the circumstance. On this Buddha summoning the Samgha 
to a council, addressed them on the happiness of contentment 
and submission, and then added : ' Prom this time forward I 
permit you to eat food fit to be given to horses.' Then Ananda, 
taking Buddha's share of grain, the attendants making it into a 
cake, presented it to the world-honoured one. Then the Bhikshus, 
grinding theirs with a pestle, ate it (at the usual time)." 

Prom this opening incident of the PMjika section we observe 
the early practice of travelling from place to place adopted 
by Buddha. He seems to have been accompanied by his chief 
disciples, and have trusted to the charity of the people for his 
support. We see that his fame was spread wherever he went, 
and that even unbelievers were aware of his character. This 
story of Veranja offering Buddha and his followers hospitality 
during the three summer months exhibits the tolerance which 
at that time existed between the different sects. There is here 
no sign of hatred or malevolence between Brahman and Shaman, 
which afterwards marked the history of Buddhist develop- 
ment. Nor did Buddha decline the hospitality of an unbeliever. 
Again, we observe the decidedly Semitic idea of Satan bewitch- 
ing, and possessing the mind of men with a view to accomplish 
his end— that is, of resisting the advance of Buddha's king- 
dom — for of this we are repeatedly reminded through the his- 
tory of the Teacher, that he and M^ra were ever opposed, 
their aims and objects being different. We also see the 


method in which the rules that afterwards became the code of 
the Buddhist Church were first framed. They arose from dif- 
ferent circumstances affecting the immediate necessity of the 
Church. In this case, e.g., the disciples were in distress for food ; 
the authorised provision was that usually prepared in house- 
holds, viz., rice and mUk or rice and honey. But being unable 
to obtain this, the rule was relaxed, and oaten cake was allowed 
to be used for food. And throughout the Vibhangha section of 
the Vinaya this method is adopted ; the immediate circumstance 
being reported to Buddha, he convenes an assembly of priests, 
and the rule is framed by his permission and sanction, which 
afterwards remains in force as a part of their daily discipline. 

The next incident of the section before us is one that illus- 
trates the claim made by the chief of Buddha's followers to 
miraculous powers. " At this time the worshipful Mugalan^ (one 
of the aggasdvakas, or chief disciples, two in number), dwelling 
in retirement, thought thus with himself : ' It is difficult to beg 
food in this country, for none is given ; now then I will use , 
ray spiritual power and pass at once to the Uttara-kuru (the 
Northern continent), and partake of the naturally-produced 
rice that grows there.' Having thought thus, he forthwith 
arose and came to the place where Buddha was, and bowing 
at his feet, he stood on one side and addressed him thus : 
' World-honoured ! I have had the following thought : This 
country is hard to beg food in ; I will use my spiritual power 
and go to the Northern continent, and there partake of some of 
the rice that grows of itself.' To whom Buddha replied, 'You 
indeed have this power, but what will the other priests do ? ' 
To whom he answered, ' I will carry them also by my spiritual 
power to the same place.' To which Buddha answered, ' Nay ! 
nay ! although you have this power, and can use it when the 
occasion arises, yet you can by no means extend it to others, nor 
by your own action affect the rest of the priests.' Mugalan having 
been thus instructed, was silent, and remained on the spot." 

Here we see again the method of teaching common in the 
early Buddhist community. Whatever this power claimed by 
Mugalan might have been, he was checked in exerting it by 

^ I write the name of MaudgalyS,yana thus, because the- Chinese symbols are 


the express command of the Master, and its limits were defined. 
He was, moreover, reproved for the selfish aim he had in view, 
and was forbidden to use his supernatural energy for such a 
purpose as mere self-gratification. 

The next incident throws light on the origin of the code of 
rules, which gradually extended itself to the most minute cases 
of conscience. "At this time the worshippful Sariputra (the 
other of Buddha's chief supporters, aggasdvakas), whilst dwelling 
in retirement, thought thus with himself, ' "Which of the moral 
systems of all the ancient Buddhas did not last long, and which 
of these systems did endure ? ' Then rising from his seat, he 
forthwith came to the place where Buddha was, and bowing 
at his feet, again arose and stood on one side. He then addressed 
Buddha and said, 'I have just been thinking which of the 
moral systems of the ancient Buddhas did not, and which 
of them did endure.' At this time the world-honoured one 
much commended S&riputra and said, ' Well spoken ! well 
spoken ! Your thoughts are good and your words are good, S§,ri- 
putra ! Vipasyin Buddha, Sikhi Buddha, Visvabhu Buddha, the 
systems of these teachers did not endure long. But the systems 
of Krakuchanda Buddha, of Kanakamuni Buddha, and of K^^yapa 
Buddha did last long.' S&riputra then inquired, ' By what reason, 
world-honoured one, was this so. that the systems of three 
Buddhas endured not, and those of three Buddhas did endure V 
Then Buddha addressed Stlriputra, and said, ' The three 
Buddhas first named did not extensively declare their law for 
the sake of their followers, and did not lind ^ their rules as a 
code, — did not deliver the Pratimoksha; and so after their 
Nirvana, their disciples, through lack of discipline, were scat- 
tered and demoralised ; just as when a vessel is filled with loose 
flowers, as they are carried thus along the streets of a town, a 
mighty wind arises and scatters them in every direction 
because they are not bound together by bands ; so it is, Sari- 
putra, the doctrines of the three before-named Buddhas did 
not last, because they delivered no clearly expressed law, they 
did not connect their rules into a code, they did not frame 
a system like the Pratimoksha. But with reference to the 

1 Does this provide us with a probable derivation of Patimokham, as Childers 
suggests, sm6 voc. {lid. infra) ? 


other three, their systems did endure because they attended 
to these things. With respect to Visvabhu, ^ Buddha indeed, 
when he entered the grove called the awful — for in this grove 
those who had not yet given up the world were filled with fear 
and awe at the presence of the teacher — then he sat pondering 
in his mind a system for the direction of his followers, what 
they ought to reilect upon and what not, what to do and leave 
undone, what to practise and what to rely upon. Thinking 
thus, he yet spake nothing ; nevertheless, his disciples, divining 
his thoughts, were enabled to cast off all remnants of personal 
thought and to become Eahats. But in the case of Kana- 
kamuni Buddha and Ka^yapa Buddha, these two delivered 
at large their doctrines for the sake of their followers, so 
that there could be no forgetfulness on their part; and the 
law they thus- announced comprised Siitras, Geyas, Viyaka- 
ranas, Gath§,s, Udanas, Mdanas, Itiyuktas, Jatakas, Vaipulya, 
Abhutadharma, AvadS,nas, Upadesas ; and they, moreover, 
announced the system of the Pratimoksha, so that after their 
Nirvana their disciples were not scattered or demoralised, just 
as a wreath of flowers" securely bound together when carried 
through the streets cannot be scattered by the winds. And 
why ? Because they are tied together by a string. It was for 
these reasons that the code of rules established by these 
Buddhas endured for a long time.' S^riputra again addressed 
the Buddha, and said, ' Oh, world-honoured one ! if this is the 
reason of their non-endmrance, would that thou also wouldest 
enumerate a well-considered (expanded) system of doctrine, and 
also deliver a code of rules well secured as with a string, called 
Pratimoksha, for thjs is a favourable opportunity for doing so.' 
Then Buddha replied, ' Nay, S^riputra, I know my own time. 
My congregation of followers is not yet prepared to receive such 
an ample code of laws, but in time they will be prepared.' " 

I shall now direct you to the next paragraph in the Vin- 
aya, and afterwards proceed to a consideration of the two 

At this time, the narrative proceeds, after the three months' 
rest had expired, the world-honoured one addressed Ananda and 
said, " Let us go together, Ananda, to the dwelling of Veranja." 

' This seems to be a mistake for Krahuchanda Buddha. 


Having received this order, Ananda, arranging his clothes in the 
orthodox manner, followed Buddha and arrived at the door (of 
Veranja's house). At this time the Brahman was dwelling at 
the top of the tower of his abode, indulging himself in the 
practice of the five worldly pleasures. Seeing the world- 
honoured one at a distance coming towards his house, imme- 
diately recollecting his promise, he came downstairs in haste, 
and at once dusting and arranging a seat, he fell down on the 
ground before Buddha and did him homage, whilst he thus 
penitently expressed himself : " I am indeed a foolish and 
wicked man, to have asked my lord to an entertainment, 
and now, at the end of the season of rest, to have made no 
preparations. Oh, that my lord would accept nay regrets and 
repentance ! " Buddha replied, " You are indeed a foolish and 
ignorant man to have asked me and my followers to an enter- 
tainment, and yet at last to have provided nothing. You ought 
rightly to be sorry and to repent of such conduct ; but yet both 
I and my followers will accept your expression of regret. 
Moreover (Buddha added), according to my sacred law, those 
who repent of their sins should show it by increased attention 
to their religious duties." Then the Brahman replied and said, 
" I pray you then, my lord, to dwell with me one month, that I 
may bestow on you and your followers the charity of my oifer- 
ings." But Buddha declined to accept this offer, adding, " You, 
Brahman, are of a different faith and a different persuasion ! " 
And although he pressed his request three times, still -it was 
refused. At length the Brahman replied, " At least, my lord, 
condescend to accept my charitable offerings for one day, to- 
morrow." This offer Buddha accepted, signifying his acquies- 
cence by silence. On this the Brahman began to make all 
preparations, providing food, arranging seats ; whereupon, on the 
morrow early, Buddha and his followers arrived, on which the 
Brahman with his own hand handed to them their food, and 
afterwards water for washing themselves, and finally offered to 
them different-sized slippers as presents given after the time of 
rest. On this, the Bhikshus appealed to Buddha, saying that 
as yet they had no authority for receiving such gifts. On 
which the Master, speaking to them on the blessedness of con- 
tentment, and having commended them for attending to his 


rules, added, " For the sake of Veranja, Bliikshus ! from this 
time forth I permit you to receive presents at the time of the 
conclusion of Wass." 

From the above extracts we may gather an idea of the 
character of Buddha's teaching. I will now ask you to consider 
further the two Councils. 


Although the division of Buddhism into schools, viz., the 
Northern and Southern, has been generally accepted since the 
time of the publication of Eugene Burnouf's Introduction, yet, as 
I have observed in the previous section, we must hesitate 
before accepting the statement that the former school depends 
entirely upon Sanscrit- versions of the Buddhist Scriptures, as 
the latter does upon Pali. 

Undoubtedly the Nepalese Buddhist Books are in Sanscrit, 
but the greater part of the Chinese Scriptures are translated 
from various Indian Prakrits, and from these Chinese versions 
are derived, to a large extent, the Thibetan and Mongolian sacred 

Being translated into Chinese, these books bear the impress of 
their origin, principally in the form of the proper names, which 
are rendered phonetically into that language. 

Thus, for the Sanscrit Srdvasti, the early Chinese Buddhist 
books have the Prakrit form Savatthi ; for stupa we find tap, 
and so on, proving that the translations were made either from 
MSS. written in some non- Sanscrit dialect, or else rendered 
into Chinese by word of mouth from foreign priests who did 
not speak Sanscrit. 

We should expect, then, to find many of the books of the 
Southern Canon in China ; translated, not necessarily from Pali, 
but from dialects more or less resembling the Pali, into the 
language of that country. And this is so. For instance, I 
find that the first Sutta in the Chinese version of the Samyutta- 
nikaya is the same as the Kasibharadvaja Sutta of the Sutta 
Nipata, which last, however, is a portion of the Khuddaka 
Nikaya in the South and not of the Samyutta Nikaya. 

Without reprinting the English version of this Sutta (which 


forms part of the translation of the Sutta Mpata hy Sir M. 
Coomara Swamy, p. 20 seq.), I will produce my own version 
from the Chinese, and leave the comparison to those who are 
interested in the study and possess the little book above 

The Tsa-ho-hom-Mng (Samyuktdgama Sutta). 
Sutta i. 

I have heard thus:^On a certain occasion Buddha was 
residing in the Ku-sa (Kosala) country, accompanied by many 
Bhikshus. Thus accompanied, he was journeying through a 
certain district,^ and at length rested in the village called 
Ekanala,^ between some' cedar trees. At this time an agri- 
culturist (kasi) of the Brahman caste, whose name was Po-lu 
{Bhdra), had assembled outside the village of Ekanala some 
500 ploughmen, all of them about to receive their morning 
food. At this time Buddha reflected thus^^The day dawn is at 
hand; I will now go and pass in front of the dwellings in 
Ekanala (for the purpose of obtaining food}. At this time, then, 
these ploughmen were assembled to take their meal. Buddha 
arriving at the place where they were thus assembled, the 
agriculturist Bhara seeing Buddha thus approaching, when he 
had arrived addressed him as follows : — 

"I with my own hand plough and sow, and when I have 
thus ploughed and sown, I eat the fruits of my work ; you also, 
Gotam^charya, should plough and should sow, and having 
ploughed and sown, you also might eat." 

Buddha, replying to the agriculturist (has%), said, "I also 
plough and sow, and having ploughed and sown, I eat." 

The agriculturist answered Buddha thus, " Although Buddha 
says, 'I plough and sow, and having ploughed and sown, I 
eat,' yet, sir, I, see no instruments of agriculture (in your pos- 
session), neither ox, nor yoke, nor goad, nor ploughshare." 

And so again the agriculturist (Bhara) addressed (Buddha), 

' The Chinese version dates, at any rate, earlier thaii the Wu dynasty, for it 
appears in a catalogue of Buddhist books prepared during that period, which 
lasted from a.d. 222 to A.D. 264. 

2 Called, "the district of bamboos," or, perhaps, "the Nala district." 

* Literally, " the one bamboo." 


" I see not your instruments for sowing, and yet you say you 
sow ; cause me to know of your sowing." 

Buddha replied, " Faith is the seed, discipline is the rain, 
wisdom is my ox, modesty is my plough, mind is the string, 
thought is the golden (shear). My body guarded, my speech 
guarded, these are the ridges ; unceasing practice of entire truth 
and self-government, this is the end (aim) j^ perseverance with- 
out any relaxation is the yoke ; going on without stopping is 
the rest 2 (I enjoy) ; thus going on and not returning, I go to 
a place where there is no more sorrow. Thus it is, having sown, 
from thus sowing I enjoy the nectar (of life) ; by thus sowing 
I obtain final release from all sorrow." 

Then Bhara the agriculturist, filling a vessel full of food, 
standing in front of Buddha, said, " Of a truth, Buddha ! thou 
art able to till the ground ; verily, Buddha ! thou art a great 
tiller !, Accept then, I pray, my food." 

Then Buddha, compassionating him, replied thus : — " He who 
repeats the scriptures may not on that account accept food. 
This is the law for those disciples possessed of self-knowledge. 
Whenever Buddha has been thus asked (to preach), this has 
ever been the rule. By adding to the cause of religion, the only 
aim being to release the hearers from the bands of doubt, this 
is the food and drink I enjoy ; this is the sacrifice I offer for 
the good and religious merit of others." 

Then the Brahman replied, " To whom then shall I give this 

Buddha answered, " There is none in the world nor among 
the gods, whether M^ra, or Brahman, or Shaman, not one who, 
taking this food, would be able to derive from it nourishment 
(digest it). Only a Buddha or one who has obtained supreme 
wisdom can digest such food. Taking it, therefore, go to some 
place where there is water without insects, and put it on the 
, urface, or seek out a void space where there is no grass, and 
Dury it there." Then the Brahman having received these in- 
structions, wentto a spot where there was water without insects, 
and placed the food in it. Then when the food was thus placed. 

' Perhaps it might be rendered " the furrows.' 
' This appears to be an intentional antithesis. 


there came forth smoke and fiery buhbles, whilst a sound resem- 
bling the noise "chhuy the^"'^ proceeded from it. Just as a 
sheet of red iron (copper) which has been a whole day heated 
in the fire when placed in water hisses and causes fiery bubbles, 
and produces a similar sound (to that above named), so did this 
food when thus placed by the Brahman [as before]. 

Then the Brahman, terrified, his hair erect, prostrated himself 
at the feet of Buddha, and said, " May I be received by Buddha 
as a Shaman. I put away from me all evil, and take on me the 
religious rules and the practice of a religious life, according to 
Buddha's teaching." Buddha replied, " By leading a pure life, 
from this you may 'obtain supreme wisdom." 

Then the Brahman was admitted by Buddha as a professed 
disciple, and took upon him the rules of a religious life, and in 
the end, walking in the law of Buddha, obtained the • condition 
of perfect freedom (no impediment). 

Thus it was said by Buddha." 

It will be seen by comparing the above translation with that 
from the Sutta Nipata, that the two agree so far as to render it 
likely that they were both translations from one original docu- 
ment, or both derived from a common source (tradition). The 
Chinese may be somewhat corrupt, but yet the identity can 
scarcely be denied. 

It may be weU, perhaps, as a further test, to add some brief 
abstracts of one or two Suttas which follow the above in the 
SamyuktS,gama, as we know it in China. The Suttas are in 
themselves interesting as expositions of Buddhist doctrine, and 
will therefore repay the trouble of translation and perusal. 

Sutta 2. 

I have heard thus :— On one occasion Buddha was dwelling in 
the garden of Jeta the friend of orphans,in the country of She-wei 
(Srg,vasti). At this time a Brahman called Sing-wen (Birth-hear- 
ing2) came to the place whereBuddhawasfor the purpose of asking 
him a question. Having come and occupied a place, he sat down! 
Having sat down, he then addressed Buddha as follows:— 

1 The Pali gives " cJiit, chit." 2 Or Urth-renown. 


" I haye heard it reported that Buddha says, ' Charity ought 
to be bestowed on me alone, and not on strangers. The merit 
of bestowing charity on me is great, but when bestowed on 
strangers it is not great. Charity should be shown to my dis- 
ciples only ; the merit of such charity is great ; but when be- 
stowed on strangers (followers of others) the merit is not great.' 
Those persons who say thus, that your doctrine is that charity 
ought to be given to you and your disciples only, do they in so 
saying slander (the doctrine of) Buddha or not ? Is this the 
principle of Buddha's teaching ? Are these Buddha's words or 
not? Is this according to the Dharma or not? or is it a 
matter of indifference ? " 

Buddha replied thus to the Brahman : — " If people say that 
my doctrine is this, that charity should be given to me only 
and not to strangers, to my disciples only and not to others ; 
that the merit of so doing to me and my disciples is great, but 
not so in the other case, &c., such reports are not true, not accord- 
ing to my teaching, not according to the Dharma, for in truth 
I say no such thing. Such doctrine as this would overthrow 
the principle of charity and merit in the case of creatures 
not yet brought within the reach of my doctrine. But, in fact, 
my teaching is this, that the slightest act of charity, even in the 
lowest class of persons, such as saving the life of an insect from 
a principle of pity, that this act has such merit as to cause the 
performer of it consequent benefit. And so in all cases, what- 
ever the character of the person and whatever his position, 
whether black or white, red or yellow, even down to the very 
peacock, ox, or dove, that all these are benefited by acts of 
charity however bestowed, and according to their actions 
they must rise higher or fall lower in the scale of life. It is 
from these acts men rise and are born in heaven. It is from 
these actions also they sink and are born in the ' three 
evil ways.' ^ In this way, by their conduct in all conditions of 
being, creatures cause their own advantage or subsequent 

" The Brahman Sing- wen, hearing these words, rose from his 
seat, prostrated himself at the feet of Buddha, and from that 

1 I.e., as a beast, a demon, or in hell. 


time sought in him his refuge, and took upon him the precepts 
{i.e., became a disciple). 
" Buddha so declared." 


I have heard thus : — Buddha was at one time residing in the 
garden of Jeta, the friend of the orphans, at Sravasti. Whilst 
there, an aged Brahman (Thee-ho-ch^) came to the place where 
Buddha was, and having exchanged salutations, he stood on one 
side and sat down. Having seated himself, he questioned 
Buddha thus : — 

" To what resemblance may we liken the wicked man ? " 

Buddha replied, "We may liken the wicked man (in his 
course) to (that of) the moon." 

Again he asked Buddha, " And if one wished to distinguish 
the good man from others, to what might we compare him ? " 

(To whom he replied), " The good man may also be likened to 
the moon." 

Again he asked Buddha, "In what way does the unwise 
man resemble the moon ? " 

(Buddha answered), "Just. as the moon on the 29th day of 
the month diminishes in brightness, loses its colour, is deprived 
of its shape, becomes lost and perishes, and after midnight is 
no more seen, so is it with the foolish and ignorant man. He 
has listened to the Scriptures explained by the wise; he has 
been taught the precepts ; but though he has acquired know- 
ledge and gained an acquaintance with wisdom and truth, he 
has not walked accordingly ; he has not brought his heart to 
obey ; on the contrary, he has let go his knowledge, neglected 
his conduct, disregarded his duty, so his faith has perished; his 
uprightness has perished; his attention to instruction has 
perished ; his acts of charity have perished ; his wisdom has 
perished ; and at midnight he disappears, and is gone for ever. 
So it is, Brahman ! in one moment the wicked man entirely 
disappears, and is for ever lost as the moon on the 29th day. 
The wise man, again, may be compared to the moon on the isth 
day of the month, increasing in brightness, completing its 
shape, becoming fuller and more perfect. At a certain moment 
it becomes perfectly round, and so remains for the time ; thus 


also is it ■witli the wise man ; he shapes his life according to the 
words of his instructors ; acquires true faith ; adds to faith 
obedience ; regulates his thoughts, keeps fast to the precepts, 
and so increases his faith ; adds to his duty ; adds to his atten- 
tion to instruction ; adds to his charity ; adds to his wisdom ; 
adds to his. high endeavours ; and so at midnight (as it were) he 
is full and complete. At the appointed time, his wisdom, his 
conduct, his pure life, his perfect obedience become thus rounded 
like the moon on the igth day, and he shines out perfect 
and full for men to behold. And as the moon when it is full 
exceeds in glory and eclipses the light of all the lesser stars, so 
does the wise man shine out in the midst of his fellow-men. 
His wisdom, like the rain that waters the earth, is a blessing 
to those around him, causing increase and happiness, and finally 
(by his example and conduct) he brings many others to the 
happiness of a birth in heaven. 

" The Brahman having heard these words, bowed low at the 
feet of Buddha, and took refuge in the doctrine. 

" So Buddha declared." 

Without continuing these translations, perhaps enough has 
been written for the purpose of comparison. We may, however, 
remark that there is a peculiarity in all the Northern Siitras 
not known in the South. Buddha in the former works is never 
addressed as Gotama, whereas in the latter this is his common 
name. Whenever this title is used in the Northern books, it is 
put in the mouth of unbelievers, and is supposed to be employed 
in contempt. Thus, in the fifth Siitra of the Samyukt&gama, a 
Brahman unbeliever called Wou-sin-chung (No-faith-degree) goes 
to the place where Buddha is dwelling for the purpose of refut- 
ing his doctrine. Before going, he reflects thus, " This Gotama 
Shaman is dwelling in the bamboo grove near ES-jagriha ; I will 
now go to the place where this Gotama Shaman is, and con- 
tradict him to his face," &c. But on his conversion the Brahman 
falls at the feet not of Gotama, but of Buddha {the EnligMene3), 
and becomes a disciple. I have observed very few exceptions 
to this rule in the Northern books, and so far it may be useful 
as a slight guide in the examination of the origin of the division 
between the two schools. 


But undoubtedly the most interesting and useful document 
for comparison is one common to both North and South, and 
contained in the Vinaya Pifaka in either case. I mean the 
accounts given us of the two Buddhist Councils, the one supposed 
to have been held at E^jagriha, the second IDO years afterwards 
at Ves^li. 

We may state, although it is already well known, that in the 
Vinaya Pitaka we find mention made only of two Councils, the 
two above named. But in the Buddhist Church (North or 
South) there are two others mentioned, viz., the one at Patali- 
putra under A^oka dharma, which is the third according to 
Southern accounts, but is not recognised in the North ; and the 
fourth, held in Kashmir under the great king Kanishka ; this is 
ignored in the South, but accepted in Northern accounts. There 
is no need to enter into explanations regarding these last two 
Councils ; they are neither of them named in the Vinaya, and 
therefore are not within the field 6f the present inquiry. 

It will be necessary before considering the Councils to say a 
few words about the schools into which Buddhism separated 
during the first century or so of its existence. 

It is satisfactory to find that there is an agreement both in 
the Northern and Southern accounts respecting this matter. 
" Among the local traditions of the Mah9,vihlra in Ceylon there 
has been preserved an account of the eighteen sects which 
arose during the course of the second century after Buddha's 
death." So says Dr. Oldenberg.i In agreement with this there 
is a general consensus in the North that the old Buddhist 
Church spht iuto eighteen sects about the time of the first 

In the account given by I-tsing? a priest of the Tang dynasty, in 
the introduction to his work Nan-hae-hM-kwei-cKouen, it is stated: 
" The origin of the different schools is not the same ; the records 
of the western countries, however, only embrace four chief ones— 
I. The Arya mahasanghika nikaya, which in Chinese is the same 
as the school of the Great Congregation {Ta chungpou); from this 
proceeded seven minor schools. In this school the three Pitakas 
each contain 100,000 verses, making altogether 300,000 verses. 

1 Vinaya Pitakaip, Introd. xli., Oldenberg. 

2 A brief Life of I-tsing will be found at the end of the last Lecture. 


In Chinese these verses would perhaps fill 1000 kiouen (chapters). 
2. The Aryasthavira nikaya, which in Chinese is the same as 
Shing-chaiig-tso-fou {i.e., the Sacred School of the Elders) ; this 
divided itself into three minor sects. The number of verses in 
the Tripitaka in this school is the same as- in the former. 3. 
Aryam<ilasarv§,stivS,da nikaya, which in Chinese is rendered 
Shing-kan-pen-shwo-yih-tsai-yeou-^QU (i.e.,, the Sacred School 
which alSrms that all things exist) ; from this school separated 
four minor sects. ' The number of verses in the Tripitaka accepted 
by this school is just about the same as in the former cases. 4. 
The Samriti nikaya,^ which in Chinese is eq;uivalent to Shing- 
ehing-liang-pou (i.e., the Sacred School of Correct Proportion) 
(measure) ; this school separated into four minor sects. The 
Tripitaka adopted by these contains 200,000 gi,thas.,.the Vinaya 
containing 30,000 of these verses. This is what is generally 
accepted respecting the eighteen sects- in India. With reference 
to the fifth school ^ sometimes named, I heard nothing of this in 

The same author then proceeds to say that the various 
offshoots of these schools had different names and practices, 
but these could not be dwelt upon; su£Q.ce it to know that 
throughout the five Indies and in the sauthern maritime 
provinces, the "four Nikaya bodies" were always spoken of, 
and each treated with more or less respect according to the 
locality. In Magadha, the Sarvlstav§,dins were much hon- 
oured, but in the Mahratta country not so much, but there 
the Sammatiyas were particularly honoured In North India 
they were all SarvSstavMins ; occasionally, however, one meets 
with members of the Mahslsanghikas. In the south, the 
Mahasthavira school is universally honoured. In Eastern 
India, in different countries each of the four schools has its 
adherents. In Ceylon, all are members of the Mahlsthavira 
school, and the Mah^sanghikas are driven away. AH the mari- 
time provinces of the Southern Sea, including ten different 
countries, honour alike the Sarvlstav^dins and the Sammatiyas. 

' San-mih-Uh-ti-m-Ma-ye. This reading differs from that generally found, viz., 
san-mi-ti-pou, i.e., SarmMtyai, or, as it ought to be rendered, Samma%a3. Vide 
Jul. ii. 234, n. 

2 Is this the same as the KhvMdkamkayaJ 



From the atove remarks of the priest I-tsing it wUl he 
ohserved that the Tripitaka, as known in Ceylon, belongs to 
the Mah^sthavira school, and so his record is in perfect 
agreement with local tradition in that country, "According 
to the traditions of the Sinhalese, one of the schools possessed 
a claim to be considered as orthodox, on account of its having 
held fast to the original tradition of the Theras {MMatUra- 
vdda) ; of course, the Sinhalese Church considers itself as 
belonging to this party." ^ 

And if the conclusions of the same writer (Dr. Oldenberg) 
be correct, that "the Pali writings of Ceylon belonging to 
this school embody the Vinaya in its original form." we 
have here some foothold for examination and comparison. 

Let us then compare the account of the first Council 
held at E§,jagriha, or more correctly supposed to have 
been held in the Satapanni cave near E§,jagriha, as it 
is given in the closing chapter of the CuUavagga, in the 
Pali, with the history of the same council as it is known 
in the North. I will take first of all the account found in 
the Dharmagupta version of the Vinaya Pitaka. This school ' 
is an ofi"shoot of the SarvlstavMins, who, in their turn, 
divided from the school of the Aryasthaviras, the dominant 
one in Ceylon.^ We should, therefore, expect to find a 
marked agreement between the two accounts; and as the 
Dharmaguptas prevail' mostly in the North, and their writings 
are generally accepted in China, the comparison will be an 
interesting one. 

The Council of the Five Hundred. 

Translated from the 54ft Booh of the Vinaya Pitaka hnown as Sse-fen-liu, 
i.e., Dharmaguptas. 

At this time the world-honoured one (Lokan§,tha,^ i.e., 
Buddha) was residing in the city of Ku-si (Kusinagara) in 
the Malla garden between the Slla trees (or in the S§,la 
grove). Having here died (attained Nirvana), all the Malla- 

1 Oldenberg, op. cU. xli. 
" Jul. ii. 311, n. I-tsing, Nan Tide, fol. 8. 

^ Stas. JvUien always renders this title of Buddha by LdhadjyMiha, but the 
tiue restoration is probably either Lohanatha or LokanAyako. 


putras having -washed the body {iarira) of Buddha, had 
wrapped it in clean linen, and then swathed it in iive 
hundred folds of fine hair-cloth (like silk, fhee). Then 
having made an iron coffin, and filled it with perfumed oil, 
they placed the body (thus prepared) in the middle of it, 
whilst over it they placed a canopy for protection. Again 
having constructed a wooden bier, they placed the coffin upon 
it, and below this they collected a heap of every kind of scented 
wood. Then at a given signal, the chief of the MaUaputras, 
taking a flaming torch, attempted to set fire to the wood. 
But the Devas immediately extinguished the flames. Again 
the great MaUaputras, encircling the pyre, holding flaming 
torches, (attempted to) ignite it. Once more the Devas extin- 
guished the flames. Then Anuruddha addressed the MaUa- 
putras thus : — " Weary not yourselves in vain ; it is the Devas 
who extinguish the fire which you kindle." 

On this they inquired of Anuruddha saying, "Venerable 
priest ! {ta tih, Mah^bhadanta), why do the Devas extinguish 
the flames ? " Eeplying, he said, " Mahlka^yapa is now residing 
between P'o-po (Pava) and the city of Ku-si (Kusin^ra); he is 
proceeding along the road with his great disciples, five hundred in 
all, thinking thus, 'May I perhaps be able once more to behold 
the body of Buddha ere it is consumed.' The Devas, perfectly 
acquainted with the thoughts of K%apa, have on this account 
extinguished the flames." The MaUaputras replying said, 
" Venerable sir ! let us then, wait awhUe in agreement with 
the intention of the Devas in so doing." 

At this time then the great K§,lyapa, being, as before stated, 
on the road with five hundred of his great disciples (Bhikshus, i.e., 
mendicants), between the two countries of Pava and Kusinara, . 
there came along a stranger, a Nirgrantha-putra, holding 
in his hand a Mandara flower (which had fallen from 
space at the time of the death of the world-honoured one). 
KSiyapa seeing him thus coming, addressed him as follows : 
" Whence come you, friend ! and whither go you ? " Ee- 
plying, he said, " I come from the city of Ku-si (Kusinagara)." 
Again he inquired, " Did you know then our Lokayako (world- 
honoured), or not ? "^ He answered, " I knew him." Again he 

^ The Pali gives SattliA for the Ch. " world-honoured," 


asked, " Is he then still living or not ? " He answered, " He 
is no longer living ; seven days ago he died (attained Nirvana), 
and I am come straight from the place of his death with this 
flower in my hand." 

At this time K%apa hearing these tidings was grieved ; 
whilst those Bhikshus who were not yet free from passion ^ in 
his company, hearing that the world-honoured one was dead, fell 
down prostrate on the earth as a tree whose roots have heen 
severed falls. Moreover, these Bhikshus, not yet freed from 
human passion, with wild lamentations cried, " Too early has 
the illustrious (good) one passed away (attained Nirvana by 
death) ; too soon have the light-giving eyes of the world been 
put out; who now shall determine for us the right meaning 
of the law ? " And so there were some who roUed upon the 
earth as dying men or lay stiU as logs of wood. Thus it was 
these Bhikshus, not yet freed from human passion, lamented 
and cried with grievous accents, " The Holy One too soon has 
died and attained Nirvana ! Alas ! why is this ? " 

At this time there was a certain S&kyaputra called Balanda ^ 
dwelling with the others, who addressed the Bhikshus thus: 
" Venerable sirs ! stop your wailing. Grieve not thus, nor 
lament. "We are now free from that great Eabbin.* Whilst 
he dwelt in the world he had various rules for our conduct ; 
this thing you may do, this you may not do ; this thing is 
right, that is wrong. But now we are free from all this and 
independent. If we wish to do a thing, we may do it ; if we 
don't wish to do it, we need not do it." Then the great K^yapa 
hearing these words was much displeased, and forthwith ad- 
dressed the Bhikshus, saying, " Eise up quickly and take your 
robes and your begging-dishes. Even now, perhaps, there is 
time to behold the body of the world-honoured ere it be con- 
sumed." The Bhikshus hearing the words of K^iyapa, at once 
and without delay took their robes and their alms-dishes. And 
so the great KS,^yapa, with his 500 followers, went on towards 
the city Kusinagara. Having arrived and passed through the 

^ Ch. nU-li-yuh ; Pali cmta/rdgd. 
' Called SvNmdbra in the Southern version. 

^ Ch. Lopi'm. This may be a misprint for Lo-ham, i.e., Rahm, but this last 
symbql is differently written a few sentences down. 


city, they crossed the river Hiranyavati (Hi-lan-yo), and came to 
the Thien-kwan (God-beholding) Temple, to the place where 
Ananda was residing, whom he (K§,^yapa) thus addressed : " I 
desire, ere the hody of the world-honoured be burnt, to behold 
it once more." Ananda answered, " I also desire to behold the 
body (Sarira) of the world-honoured once again ere it be con- 
sumed, but the thing is difficult. Por why ? They have washed 
the body of the world- honoured and enwrapped it in new linen ; 
moreover,it is swathed infive hundred folds of hair-cloth, and thus 
prepared it is placed in an iron cof&n filled with perfumed oil, 
and being put on a wooden bier, it is placed over a fire of scented 
wood, ready and waiting to be burned. This is the difficulty." 

Then the great K^lyapa proceeded gradually to the spot 
(leading the way as he went) where the body of the world- 
honoured one was placed. Arriving there, lo ! the cof&n opened 
byitself, and the foot (or feet) of the world-honoured one appeared. 
Then the great KS,iyapa beholding that the characteristic wheel- 
works on the soles of the feet were soiled, as it were, with dirt, 
addressed Ananda thus : " The person of our Master was beau- 
tiful and comely beyond description, his body of a pleasant 
golden colour ; who then has caused this pollution on the wheel- 
signs on the bottom of his foot (or feet) ? " Ananda answering 
said, "A woman with a tender heart came in front of Buddha's 
person and worshipped him ; her tears rolling down fell upon 
her hands as she held his feet, and thus the marks were left as 
you now see them." 

The Great K§,^yapa, hearing these words, was displeased. 
But now he bowed down and worshipped the feet of the world- 
honoured, whilst the Bhikshus, Bhikshunis, Upasakas, Upasi- 
ksbS, Devas, and the whole multitude joined in the act of 
adoration ; after this the feet withdrew within the coffin, and 
were no more visible. Then the great K§,^yapa, fiUed with 
joy, passed round the pyre seven times, reciting a hymn as he 
went, and lo ! the wood, self-enkindled, flamed underneath the 
coffin and consumed it. After the cremation of the body, the 
great Ka^yapa, on consideration, assembled the body of priests 
together and addressed them thus : " When I was just now on 
the road travelling hither, I overheard Balanda speaking to the 
other Bhikshus and saying, ' Eeverend sirs ! stop your wailing,' 


&c. (as before). ' We therefore ought to assemble together and 
go over the Dharma Vinaya, and so prevent the heretics and 
others, moved by envy, from such remarks as these : " The 
Dharma "Vinaya rules of Gotama are like smoke; whilst he 
■was in the world all obeyed his religious rules, but now he is 
dead and gone, there are none to follow his precepts." Now, 
then, reverend sirs, let us select carefully such Bhikshus as are 
men of renown, filled with wisdom, and have arrived at the 
condition of Eahatship ! '" ^ 

Accordingly they selected 499 men, all of them Eahats, men 
of renown for their great wisdom. Then they said, " We should 
also include Ananda amongst our number.'"' But the great 
K^^yapa replied, "Ananda cannot be admitted among the 
selected assembly. Tor why ? Because Ananda is still sub- 
ject to the passions of lust, anger, and ignorance {rdga (or, 
chanda), dosa, moha) ; ^ subject to these, he cannot therefore be 
admitted into the selected assembly." Then the Bhikshus said, 
" This Ananda was the personal attendant of Buddha, always 
accompanying him, who received from the world-honoured, 
direct instruction in the Dharma in answer to all doubts that 
occurred. Surely he ought to be one of us." 

The Bhikshus then considered, " In what place ought we to 
assemble in order to recite the Dharma Vinaya ? It should be 
in a place where there is no lack of necessary food and drink, 
and a sufficient supply of sleeping materials (beds)." Then 
they agreed that the only place where such accommodation 
could be found was at E§,jagriha ; and it was in that place, 
therefore, that they ought to assemble to recite the Dharma 

Then the Great M^yapa said : " Ye venerable men, hear me ! 
Bhikshus ! ye are those selected by the Sangha. If the con- 
gregation (Sangha) is ready, let the congregation hear me with 
patience. Let the congregation now proceed to the city of 
E^jagriha, and assembled there, let them recite the Dharma 

^ Here the symbols for Arhat are O-h-ham i but in the former case, where I 
have used the. word BaVbin or Rabban, the symbols are Lo-pi'en. 

^ This, as I understand the Pali, " Kin c&pi sekho, abhabbo ckandd, dosd nwhd, 
hhayd agaUm," is opposed to the Southern version. 


Thus he spoke, and having spoken thus, they forthwith 
proceeded to Ves§,ll. 

Now Ananda, it happened, was upon this road going to a 
retired (pure) place (for the purpose of meditation), and whilst 
so going he thought thus within himself : "I am like a new- 
born calf, the only one who has to drink milk, whilst these 
five hundred Eahats are like full-grown oxen accompanying me." 

Thus these great Bhikshus went onwards to Ves&ll, where 
Ananda remained. Whilst he remained there all the Bhikshus, 
Bhikshunis, XJpasakas, Upasikas, the king of the country, the 
great ministers. Shamans of every calling, and heretics also, 
came in a body to pay their respects ^ to him — a vast concourse 
of people. At this time there was a Vajjiputra, a Bhikshu, 
possessed of great spiritual power (power to work miracles), 
who by the divine sight he possessed was able to read another's 
heart. Gifted thus, he reflected with himself: "Ananda is 
now residing in Ves§,ll, the Bhikshus, Bhikshunis, &c., have all 
gone to salute him, a vast multitude of people. I will now 
examine and see whether there are any remnants of evil desire 
or not cleaving to Ananda." Thus examining and weighing 
the case, he found that Ananda was still subject to the influ- 
ences of evil desire. Again he reflected : " I ought now to 
cause him to acquire a heart free from any such evil desire." 
With this purpose, therefore, he forthwith repeated the follow- 
ing verse : — 

" Pure, and dwelling apart beneath a tree, 
The heart fixed in thought upon Nirvana, 
Sitting thus in contemplation unrelaxed, 
The world inquires — ' What does he thus ? ' " 

At this time Ananda, hearing the words of the Vajjiputra 
Bhikshu, having acquired a mind free from worldly desire, 
immediately proceeded to a lonely place and exerted himself 
without intermission,^ perfectly quiet, without any mental dis- 
turbance : in this way Ananda exhibited in himself a miracu- 
lous power (of concentrated effort). At length, dwelling thus 
in the open space, he spread out his sleeping-mat, and at even- 

1 The Ch. iven-sun correaponds with the Pali abhivadeti, as in the phrase, 
Bhagavantam ahhioddetva. — Ma-ngala, SuUa. 

2 The same phrase is used in the Mahavamsa, p. 13, 1. i. 


time walked to and fro in thought. The evening past, the first 
streaks of dawn came on ; and now, his body wearied (and his 
mind worn out) with excessive thought, he said, "Now I am 
wearied and worn-out with thought ; I will sit down a while." 
Having so reflected, he sat down forthwith ; having sat down, 
a desire for sleep overcame him, but ere his head had reached 
its resting-place, in the very interval as he was lying down, lo ! 
his mind obtained perfect release.^ Thus, by a supernatural 
effort (miraculous power) Ananda obtained the condition of a 
Eahat; and having so attained to this dignity, he forthwith 
repeated this verse : — 

" Well kno'wii for my mucli speaking, 
Ever engaged in attending upon the honoured one, 
Now having snapped (the bonds of birth and death, 
The child of Gotama desires to sleep." 

At this time, the Bhikshus having gone from Ves^lt and arrived 
at the city of ESjagriha, spoke thus among themselves : " What 
is the first business to be attended to ? Shall we first arrange 
the dwelling-place and the sleeping materials (beds), or shall 
we at once proceed to recite the Dharmavinaya ? " They 
all said, " We ought first to arrange the dweUing-place and 
the beds for sleeping ; " and they at once proceeded so to do. 
Then the great Kyyapa having in this wise assembled the 
Bhikshus, (they elected) as the first president (Sthavira) To-hi-lo 
M^yapa (Tara M^yapa ?), as the second Po-p'o-na (Pavana ?), 
as the third the great K§,%apa, as the fourth the venerable 
Chau-na (Channa ?).^ 

Then the great M^yapa, at the right opportunity, forthwith 
addressed the assembly.: "Venerable sirs! let the congrega- 
tion attend ; if the congregation is ready, let it patiently listen. 
We are now assembled to recite the Dharmavinaya." Thus he 
spoke. At this time Ananda rising from his seat, baring his 
right shoulder and bending his right knee to the ground, with 
closed hands addressed the great Kg,lyapa thus : " I who am a 
relative, remember hearing Buddha speak thus, ' From this time 

1 Oh. won-lwu-Mai-tuh, corresponding, as it appears, with the condition of a 
Kahat. — Mahma/msa, ut swp. 

' This passage has the appearance of a late interpolation. There is nothmg 
corresponding with it in the Pali. 


forth, for the sake of the body of Bhikshus (I desire you to) 
except (exclude) from my code some miscellaneous offences ^ 
which have hitherto been binding upon them.' " 

Kl^yapa inquired of Ananda, " Did you ask the world-hon- 
oured one or not what these minor offences were ? " 

Ananda replied, " At the time I was so overcome with grief 
that it escaped me to ask the world-honoured one what these 
exceptions were." 

Then all the Bhikshus replied, " We then ought to d.ecide 
what offences are not included amongst those which were 
remitted. The four Fdrdjika rules were not included (but all 
others were excepted).* The thirteen Sanglmdisesa rules 
(others said) were not included, but all others were excepted. 
Again, others said, besides the four Parajika and the thirteen 
Sanghadisesa rules, the two AniyatA dhamma rules were not 
included amongst the number; others again said, besides the 
above, the thirty NissagiyA were not included in the number ; 
others said, besides the above, the ninety ^ Nissagiya jpdcittiyd 
rules were not included in the number. 

Mah^k§,lyapa then addressed all the Bhikshus, and said, 
" Venerable ones ! {aryasmanto, Ch. Chang lau) as the case 
stands at present, men may well say there is nothing certain, — 
there is no sure knowledge about these minor offences. Prom 
this time, therefore, henceforth we ought to make it a fixed 
rule : What Buddha in former times did not make binding we 
ought not to bind ; what he made binding we ought not to loose. 
In all cases we should be guided by his decision." To this rule, 
therefore, they all agreed. 

The great K§,^yapa then addressed Ananda and said, "Be- 
cause you first introduced women into the community of (those 
who profess) the Dharma of Buddha, you thereby became guilty 
of an offence (dukkata), and now you are called upon to confess 
and repent." 

Ananda replied, " Venerable sir ! this was not my doing 
(or done on my account), but because Mah^prajapatt bore such 
great affection to Buddha^ having so carefuUy cherished him 

' These, doubtless, are the KhudddnukhuddaMm siJcMdpaddni of the Pali text. 
" That is, as it seems, all others except the four. 
' The Pali gives ninety-two >''—-" — •■'•'"■^ 


after his mother's death. Venerable sir ! although I can see in 
myself no sinful conduct in this particular, yet, in submission 
to the judgment which you, venerable sir ! have formed, I con- 
fess and repent." 

The great K§,^yapa again said, " Tou caused the world- 
honoured to ask you three times to attend him as his personal 
follower, and then you replied it could not be. By thus doing 
you incurred guilt (dukkata), and must now confess and repent 
of your sin." 

Ananda answered K^^yapa and said, " It was not on my 
own account, but on account of the difficulty of rightly dis- 
charging such a duty that I declined. In so doing I do not see 
that I committed sin ; but in submission to the judgment which 
you, venerable sir ! have formed, I now confess and repent." 

K§,^yapa again said, "When you undertook to sew (mend) 
the Sanghati garment ^ for Buddha, you roughly put your foot 
upon it as you mended it. In so doing you were guilty of an 
offence (dukkata), and you should now confess and repent 
of it." 

Ananda replied, " Venerable K§,^yapa ! it was through no 
irreverence on my part that I did so, but to prevent any man 
seizing the robe. I do not recognise in myself any guilt in so 
doing. Nevertheless, in submission to your judgment, vene- 
rable sir ! I confess and repent." 

Ki,^yapa again spoke : "When the world-honoured one desired 
death (to attain Nirvana), three times he addressed you on the 
subject; but you neglected to request the world-honoured one 
to remain in life (the world), if it were only one kalpa, or more 
than one kalpa, for the benefit of countless mortals, for the 
display of his love and pity to the world, in obtaining for men 
and Devas the happiness of rest; in this you committed an 
offence (dukkata), for which you ought after confession to 

Ananda answered and said, " Venerable K^yapa ! it was not 
my fault indeed, but the devil got possession of my heart, and 
caused me not to ask Buddha to remain in the world. In this 
thing I am conscious of no sinful purpose of my own. Never- 

' The Pali gives " rain garment 


theless, venerable sir ! I submit to your judgment, and confess 
and repent." 

K^yapa again said, " The world-honoured one, when in the 
world, asked you to give him some water to drink, and you gave 
it not. In this you were guilty of an offence (dukkata), and 
you ought now to confess and repent of it." 

Ananda answered and said, " It was not on my own account 
that I refused; but just then five hundred travelling waggons 
(chariots) had passed through the water, so that it was muddy and 
foul, and I feared to grieve the world-honoured one by offering him 
such water to drink, and therefore I refused to give it to him." 

Kalyapa replied, " You ought in any case to have given it, 
since Buddha by his own spiritual power, or through the instru- 
mentality of the Devas, was well able to make the water pure 
and sweet." 

Ananda said, " In this conduct I cannot condemn myself of 
sin ; yet in submission to your judgment, venerable sir ! I con- 
fess and repent." 

K^yapa said again, " You did not ask the world-honoured 
one what were the minor offences he wished to have erased 
from his code (i.e., KhudddnuJchuddakdni sikkhdpadaniti, re- 
ferred to before), you have thereby incurred the guHt of a 
dukkata (offence), and you ought to confess and repent of it." 

Ananda replied, " It was not my own wilfulness, but 
because I was overpowered with grief, and so lost all self- 
possession, that I neglected to ask the world-honoured one the 
character of these faults. I see not that I thereby contracted 
guilt; nevertheless, in submission to your judgment, venerable 
sir ! I now confess and repent." 

K§,syapa said again, " Because you did not prevent the 
woman polluting the feet of Buddha you were guilty of a 
dukkata (offence), and you should now confess and repent 
of it." 

Ananda replied, " A woman with a tender heart worshipping 
at Buddha's feet, her tears falling fast upon her hands, soiled 
the (sacred) feet as she held them to her. In this I am con- 
scious of no crime ; nevertheless, venerable sir ! in submission 
to your judgment, I now confess and repent." 

And now the great K^yapa once more exclaimed, " Vener- 


able sirs ! let the assembly listen ; if this be a suitable time,^ 
let the assembly patiently attend. Is it the will of the assem- 
bly that I now question respecting the Dhammavinaya?" 

(The assembly replying) " It is," ^ then Up^U forthwith spoke, 
" Venerable sirs ! let the assembly listen ; if this be. a suitable 
time, let the assembly patiently attend. Let the assembly 
cause the Sthavira, the great K§,lyapa, to question me as to 
what is the case (respecting the Dhammavinaya)." 

Then the great K§,^yapa forthwith asked, saying, " The first 
Pardjika rule, in what place had it its origin ? and who was 
the first offender (on whose account the rule was enacted) ? " 

UpS-li replied and said, " It was at VesMi, on account of the 
offence of Sudinna Kalandaputra, who was the first to commit 
the sin." 

" In what place did the second rule come to be framed, and 
on whose account ? " 

" It was at ESjagriha, on account of the sin of the mendicant 
Dhanaka, the potter's son." 

Again he asked where and on whose account the third 
rule was framed ? 

In reply he said, "At Ves§,li, on account of the sin of 
Vaggumudatiriya ^ Bhikshu." 

Again he asked, " Where and on whose account the fourth 
Parajika rule was framed ? " 

He replied, " At Ves§,li, on account of the same." 

Again he asked, "Where was the first Samghadisesa rule 
framed ? " 

He replied, " In the country of Sr^vasti, on account of the sin 
of Kaludayi." 

And in this way he went through the whole of the Samgha- 
disesa rules, as the first. 

Again he asked, " Where and on whose account was the first 
Aniyatd dhammd enacted ? " 

He replied, " In the Sr§,vasti country, on account of Kalu- 
dayi's sin." [The second the same.] 

' Pali, Yadi scmgJiasia pattahaMam, 

2 This translation is doubtful ; it may be rendered " So that he may reply, 
It is so." 
' Chinese P'o-Jcm-ho-pim. 


Again he asked, " Where did the rules called Nissaggiyd take 
their origin ? " 

He replied, " In the country of Sr§,vasti, on account of the sin 
of the Sambahula^ Bhikshus." 

And in this way he went through all these rules. 

Again he asked, " Where and on whose account was the first 
Pdccittiya rule enacted ? ", 

He replied, " At Shih-chi (Sachi ?), on account of the Sakya- 
, putra Shau-siang-lih {Lean-elephant-strength)." 

And thus he went through all the Pacittiya rules. 

Again he asked as to the place where the Pratidesaniya rules 
were first enacted. 

In reply he said, " At ^r§,vasti, on account of the sin of the 
Bhikshuni Utpalavarna." [And so in reference to the three 
other rules under this section.] 

Again he asked as to the place where the first of the Sekkhiyd- 
dhammd rules were framed. 

In reply he said, " At Sr§,vasti, on account of the sin of the 
Sambahula priests." 

In this way he went through the whole of the rules, and 
those also relating to the Bhikshunis as they are detailed in the 
Book of Eules (the Vinaya ; probably the Vibhanga). 

Again he asked, " Who first of all accepted the great com- 
mandments (i.e., the five rules of the UpS,saka), what was the 
cause and the place ? " 

Eeplying, he said, " It was at Benares, and the persons were 
the five mendicants " (viz., the five who were first converted). 

Again he asked, " What was the occasion of the first enact- 
ment (repetition) of the rules (i.e., the ten rules of the SImanera), 
who were the persons and in what place ? " 

He replied, "At Eijagriha, on account of the mendicants of 
tender age." 

Again he asked, " Where did the ordinance respecting the 
' retreat during the rains,' take its rise ? " 

He replied, " At ^r§,vasti, on account of the conduct of the 
body of mendicants" (sambahute bhikkhii). 

1 The Chinese is Luh-hwcm, "six company," nearly corresponding to the Pali in 
the text. 


Again he asked, '' Where did the ordinance of the PavS,ranS, 
festival (Ch. fca' ts'z) take its rise ? " 

He replied, " At Srivasti, on account of the body of priests." 

Thus it was he went through the various questions relating to 
the Vinaya, even down to the different occasions on which the 
priests were assembled for adding other regulations to the exist- 
ing ordinances, detailing, moreover, the place where the assembly 
was made, whether for matters relating to the Bhikshus or 
Bhikshunis ; as, for example, after questioning him on the ap- 
pointment of the laws (Sikkhapadas) binding on the community, 
he proceeded to ask respecting the assembly held for enacting 
certain minor rules (hien-tOj i.e., Khandhaha rules) relating to 
this point. So also with reference to the Uposatho rules and 
the place where the minor regulations (Khandhakas) were en- 
acted ; so also with respect to the retreat during the rainy 
season, and the place where, &c. ; also respecting the Pav§.ran§, 
festival, &c. ; so also respecting the rules relating to " shoes and 
slippers," &c. (articles made of skins) ; also respecting the rules 
relating to mendicants, &c. ; also relating to the Kathina cere- 
monies, &c. Thus he went through the whole of the regulations 
and their minor divisions, adding, moreover, the " harmonising 
sections " {tui po ; probably the Farivdra-patha), until the whole 
of the Vinaya Pitaka was settled. 

And now the great K§,^yapa addressed the assembly of priests 
as follows : — " Venerable sirs ! let the assembly listen ; if this 
is a suitable occasion, let the assembly patiently attend whilst we 
question Ananda respecting the Dhammavinaya, that he may 
reply, ' It is so.' "^ .Ananda forthwith arose and said. Vener- 
able sirs ! let the assembly listen ; if this is a suitable occasion, 
let the assembly patiently attend. Let the assembly now direct 
the great Kalyapa to question me whilst I answer, ' It is so.' " 

The great K^lyapa forthwith questioned Ananda and said, 
"In what place was the Fan-tung^ (Brahmajala) Siitra deli- 
vered ? In what place was the ' adding one ' spoken ? in what 
place was the ' adding ten ' spoken ? (These two last Sfttras 
probably refer to the Anguttara nihaya, or Agama.) In what 
place was the Sfltra relating to ' the perfection and destruction 

^ Ch. Ju ski. The usual phrase beginning the Suttaa, " 27ms have I heard." 
^ Tung for Kong. 


of the world ' spoken ? Ip what place was the ' Seng-tchi-to ' 
Sutra spoken 1 (This may possibly be the Sangha-gdtha, cor- 
responding to the Thera-gdtha of the South.) In what place was 
the Mahanid§,na Siitra spoken ? In what place was the Siitra 
relating to ' questions asked by S§.kra-rS,ja ' spoken ? " 

To all these questions Ananda answered according to what is 
found in the Digha-nikaya. Prom his replies the long Siitras 
were collected into the ' Long Collection ' (Digha-nikaya). 
The middle-length Sutras were collected into the Majjhima- 
nikaya. The "from one to ten" subjects, and from "ten to 
eleven," and so on, were collected into the 'add one' (Anguttara) 
collection. Whilst the miscellaneous treatises relating to the 
Bhikshus, Bhikshunis, Up&sakas, Up^sikas, the Devas, ^akra, 
Brahma, Mara, and so on, were collected into the mixed volume 
of S'Cltras (Samyutta-nikaya). 

So also he replied concerning the Jataka Sutra, the " good " 
Nidana Siitra, the Vaipulya Sutras, the Adbhuta (dharma) 
Sutras, the Avad^na Siitras, the Upadesa Siitras, the Ku-i 
("meaning of sentences") Siitra, the Dharmapada S^tra, the 
Po-lo-yen ^ S^tra, the " concourse of dangers " Sutra, the verses 
of the Holy One (Muni g§,tha), aU these, composing the miscel- 
laneous collection of Sfttras (Khuddaka-nikaya ?) he spoke of ; 
so also of others, in which difficulties and no difficulties in 
meaning were discussed, aU these in their turns he spoke of, 
and so was collected the Abhidharma Pitaka. 

At this time the collection of the three baskets (Pitakas) 
being finished, the venerable Purana hearing that the Soo Arhats 
had assembled in convocation at E^jagriha (to arrange) the 
Dharmavinaya, immediately set out with 500 of his own 
followers (Bhikshus) for Ea,jagriha. Having reached the place 
where the great K§,lyapa was, he spoke as follows : — 

" I hear, great sir ! that you have assembled with 500 Arhats 
to arrange the Dharmavinaya. I also wish to hear the list of 
these, that I may also concur with you in the selection." 

Then the great K^yapa, on this request, again assembled the 

congregation of Bhikshus, and for the sake of this Bhikshu (i.e., 

• Purana) again questioned Upali, and so forth, until the whole 

1 This may possibly be the ParinMna SAtra. 


of the three Pitakas had been disQussed (as before detailed). 
Then he said, "Venerable Ki,lyapa! all this is right, and I 
confirm what has been said, only excepting the eight things 
which Buddha allowed. Venerable sir ! I, who am related to 
Buddha (or, my friends who are related to Buddha), heard from 
him and clearly remember that he allowed his followers to 
partake of such things as ripened of themselves, or were decay- 
ing (from ripeness), or were inwardly ripe, he allowed them to 
take such things themselves and eat them at the time of their 
rising in the morning, and from that time forth it has been usual 
to eat of various fruits, and that which ' can be gathered from 
water.' There should, then, be no exception made to this rule." 

The venerable Kllyapa in reply said, " It is true, as you say; 
the world-honoured one, during a scarcity of food among the 
people, when it was difficult to get food by begging, mercifully 
permitted the Bhikshus to eat things of this eightfold kind. 
But when the scarcity was over and a time of plenty returned, 
and there was abundance to eat and drink, then Buddha again 
withdrew his permission and forbade these things." 

Then Purana answered, " Venerable K^^yapa ! the world- 
honoured one, who was possessed of all knowledge, ought not, 
having once bound his disciples by law, to loosen the law ; nor 
having loosened, ought he again to have bound them." 

Then KS,iyapa replied, " It was because the world-honoured 
one was possessed of all knowledge that he was permitted to 
bind and loose as he desired." 

Purana replied, ""We also {i.e., my followers) make this our 
rule (binding) : that which Buddha did not bind, we do not 
bind; that which Bvddha bound, we also bind and dare not 
loose. The rules which Buddha enacted, these we must stand 
by and obey (learn)." 

" (The assembly of the five hundred Eahats at Eajagriha, for 
the purpose of settling the Dhammavinaya, commonly called 
the Assembly of the Five Hundred.)" 

Comparing this translation with the Pali text of the Culla- 
vagga, we find several points of divergence,^ but the two texts 

Oldenberg, Vinaya Pitaka, vol. ii. p. 284. 


are evidently either derived from a common source, or the 
one is a corrupt version of the other. It is more natural to 
suppose that both were reduced to a written form from a 
common tradition, at different periods, and in different places. 
This view would satisfy the requirements of the case, and is 
favoured by what we actually know about Buddhist books. 
It was with much difficulty that Fa-hien, in the fifth century 
of our era, could find written copies of the Vinaya in India. 
The substance of them was handed down by word of mouth. 
This fact alone is sufficient to account for differences, inde- 
pendent of the schools to which the texts belong. 

Comparing the two more closely, we observe that the brief 
account of the cremation of Buddha's body is wanting in the 
Pali, which opens with the words of K^^yapa himself relating 
his encounter during his journey from Pawa with the Nir- 
grantha (or, as he is called in the Pali, the " ajlvako " ) who 
had witnessed the death of Buddha. In the Sarvdstavadin 
version of the Vinaya the whole history of the cremation is 
given, with the division of the relics and the subsequent 
events relating to the erection of Stupas over them. In the 
version before us there is but a bare allusion to these matters, 
whilst in the Pali aU reference to them is absent. Are we 
to suppose then that the Parinibbana Sutta, in which these 
particulars are found, was incorporated into the body of the 
Sarvastavadin Vinaya at a late date, or that the particulars 
respecting the death of Buddha and the division of his relics 
formed a part of the original Vinaya, and were afterwards 
eliminated and formed into a separate work, viz., the " Pari- 
nibbana Sutta " ? The last hypothesis, although it would 
account for the gradual disappearance of the introductory 
matter found in the Northern version of the Vinaya, would 
not be satisfactory in the face of the early redaction of the 
Pali version, and the undoubted priority of the Sthavira 
school to the others. We must conclude, therefore, that the 
extraneous matter found in the Northern accounts of the 
council was incorporated with the Vinaya at the time of its 
redaction, whilst in the South it remained in the form we there 
find it, viz., as a separate and a primitive Sutta. 

The history of the woman who wept at Buddha's feet is 


curious, and as it is referred to in the Pali, it cannot be a late 
interpolation. The weeping at his feet indeed is not named in 
the Pali, but the statement respecting the tears soiling his 
person (sarira), evidently alludes to the circumstance named in 
the Chinese text.^ 

The curious title given to Buddha, "Lo-pi'en," which can 
only be restored to " Rabbin " or " Ptabbln " (unless indeed the 
symbol " pi'en " be a misprint for " han" which is most unlikely, 
as the compound 0-lo-han for Eahat occurs only a few lines 
down), would seem to point to a Syriac origin,^ and if so, would 
strengthen the supposition that there was intercourse between 
India and Syria at an early date, unless we accept the statement 
of a recent writer that Bah or Rabv, is a Babylonian title mean- 
ing " great." ^ At any rate, this .would simplify the matter, as 
the intercourse between India, especially North India, and the 
district bordering on Babylonia is undoubted, and has left its 
impress on Buddhist architecture and ornament still visible. 

We have only space to refer to one other peculiarity in the 
record here translated, and that is, the allusion to the division 
of the Buddhist Scriptures into angdni or classes. This division, 
it has been recently shown,* is by no means a modem invention. 
It is found in the Anguttara Nikaya, and is therefore as ancient 
as that collection. It also occurs in the Abidharma. Its appear- 
ance, therefore, in this Korthern. copy of the Vinaya may not 
be used as an argument to prove the late redaction of the 
Dharmagupta Scriptures; on the contrary, it confirms the 
opinion expressed by Mr. Morris that the divisioh referred to 
is more ancient than is generally supposed. 

We conclude by reminding our readers that the first Buddhist 
council is now believed to be fabulous. Dr. Oldenberg in his 
preface to his edition of the Vinaya Pitaka, has pretty well 
established this, but, at the same time, he shows that the 
account cannot be dated much later than 400 B.C. This date is 

1 Idam pi te^avuso Ananda dukkatam yam tvam matugamehi bhagavato sartram 
pathamam vandApesi, tasam rodantinarp bhagavato eartram assukena makkhitam 
(Oldenberg, p. 289). 

2 In the Sarvastavadin version, instead of Lo-pi'en {MlUn), we find " Sse "= 

5 The Angel Messias, by E. de Bunsen, p. 87. 
* Academy, August 21, 1880, p. 136. 


sufficiently remote to make the record iuteresting to all those 
who wish to search out the origin of Buddhist doctrine and 

I now proceed to give an account of the second Councilj 
which is without doubt historical ; the study will he thus 
more complete, and the comparison between the documents 
in the North and South more exact.. 

The Council of the. Seven Hundred. 
[School cm the Dhakmaguptas.] 

At this time, the world-honoured one having attained 
Nirvana a hundred years, the Vajjiputra Bhikshus of Vesali 
practised ten indulgences-,, saying they were in agreement with 
the pure laws of Buddha, to wit, two fingers measuring food ; 
between villages ; within the Temple ;: to make after-binding- 
laws ; to use agreeable (mixtures with food) ; to use salt during a 
night's rest ; to drink jalogi (che-lau-lo wine) ; of seats without 
fringes; of receiving gold and silver on the Uposatha days from 
patrons and afterwards dividing the proceeds. 

At this time there was (a disciple) called Yasa the son of 
Kana, who heard that the Vesali Bhikshus were acting in this 
way. On this he forthwith went to the place where dwelt the 
Vajjiputra Bhikshus, and witnessed their proceedings, to wit, the 
way in which they exhorted their patrons on Uposatha days to 
give to the Sangha silver and gold, and then the way in which 
they divided the contributions, and exclaimed "that a fair propor- 
tion should be given to Yasa the son of Kana." On this he cried 
out, " I win receive nothing of these contributions. For why ? 
No Shaman who is a Sakyaputra should ever accept either 
gold or silver. No Sakyaputra should ever adorn himself 
with pearl or precious stone. " 

And then, on another day, when they again offered him his 
proportion of the gifts, he said, " I formerly declared that no 
Shaman who was a Sakyaputra was' allowed to accept any 
precious thing for personal adornment." On this they replied, 
" The Upasaka disciples of Vesali are much annoyed with you ; 
you ought to go and instruct them and cause them joy." And 


further, they sent to him certain disciples who should accom- 
pany him to the place where the Upasakas dwelt. Arriving 
there, he addressed them as follows : " Are you really vexed 
with me because I said that no Shaman who was a ^akyaputra 
ought to accept gold or silver as a gift, or any precious • thing 
for personal adornment V And then he spake further on this 
wise, and said, "When the world-honoured was residing at 
Eajagriha, there were assembled in the king's palace all the 
great ministers, who spake thus and said, ' Is it lawful for the 
Shamans, disciples of Sakya (Sakyaputras), to accept gold and 
silver, and ought they to reject pearls and precious stones 
intended for personal adornmient ? " 

" And then in the midst of the assembly there was a certain 
noble called Manisulako, who addressed the assembled ministers 
as follows: 'Pray say not that the Shamans ^akyaputras may 
accept gold and silver, and also pearls and precious stones for 
personal adornment. For why? They oUght not indeed to 
accept these things.' 

"And then Manisulako continued his address on account of the 
assembled niinisters and said (as before), causing them to accept 
with joy and gladness his declaration. 

"After this ManisMako, the nobleman, went to the place where 
the world-honoured one was residing, and having saluted him 
(embraced his foot), took a seat on one side, and spoke thus ac- 
cording to the previous circumstances : ' I declared so and so to 
be in agreement with the sacred will of the honoured of the 

" Buddha replied, ' Noble sir t it is as you say; this is the will 
and commandment of the Holy One, to wit, that no disciple of mine 
should ever accept gold or' silver or precious things for personal 
adornment ; they who receive these things do indeed also accept 
(the permission to enjoy) the five (sensual) pleasures, and they 
can in no sense be my disciples. My only permission is, that 
they may procure bamboo shoots and wood by means of money, 
but not in any case by them to be received.' Therefore, 
Litchavis! according to this sentence the Shamans who are 
disciples ought not to accept gold or silver, &c. 
^ " And again at another time, when the world-honoured was re- 
siding in the Jetavana, he addressed his followers in this way : 


' There are four reasons, Bhikshus ! why the sun and the 
moon do not emit their splendour, and what are the four ? 
First, (the giant) Eahu, then the clouds, and then the mists, 
and afterwards the dust which arises from the earth. These 
are the four things which obscure the brightness of the sun and 
the moon; and so there are four things which obscure the life of 
Shaman and Brahman and defile it, viz., drinking wine, and a 
habit of it ; lust, and a habit of it ; love of pelf, and a habit of 
it ; fondness of strange doctrine, and a habit of it. These four 
things obscure the life and hide the lustre of the Brahman and 
Shaman.' . And then the world-honoured one added these verses 
and said — 

" ' The pollution of lust (covetousness and lust) 

Affecting the Shaman or Brahman, ' 

The clouds of ignorance which cover him. 

Love of external emblems of beauty, 

Fondness for wine, leading to confusion of mind — 

These are the incitements to evil desire. 

Accepting gold and silver and precious stones, 

This is the mark of an ignorant man — 

(Mark) of the Shaman or Brahman 

Who has joined himself to a system of false doctrine. 

Buddha says that these things 

Are as the clouds that obscure the sun's light, 

Which envelop it with darkness 

And hide its native purity ; 

These are the bonds of ignorance and blindness, 

This power of lust and desire, 

Constraining to evil ways and not to good, 

This delusion of sense which leads the steps 

Onward through the tangled way of sin. 

And causes the repetition of endless births. 

" ' By this, then, Litchavis ! and from this argument, you 
ouofht to know that no Shaman who is a Sakyaputra may 
accept either gold or silver, or anything calculated for personal 
adornment. Are you convinced by what I say that I am right 
or not ? ' 

" Then the Litchavis replied, ' Far be it from us to disbe- 
lieve what you say ; on the contrary, we rejoice to place re- 


liance in your teaching, and we pray you to remain in this (town 
of) Vesali, and we will provide you with food and drink, clothes 
and medicaments, and whatever other things you need.' " 

Then Kanaputra the Bhikshu having by his explanation 
of duty caused the Litchavis to rejoice, returned in company 
with the Bhikshu messengers to the Vajjiputra Bhikshus ; 
these,- perceiving the approach of Kanaputra Bhikshu, imme- 
diately addressed ~the messenger priests and said, " Have the 
Litchavi princes accepted the teaching of Kanaputra and put 
faith in it ? " Eeplying, they said, " Yea, they have believed, 
and Kanaputra has declared that we are no Shamans, sons 
of Sakya." " And in what way has he proved this ? " they 
inquired; and then the messengers related the previous por- 
tion of the narrative. On this those Vesa hikshus addressed 
Kanaputra Bhikshu and said, " You have committed an offence 
by your previous slander of the Sangha." To this he replied, 
" I have not slandered the assembly." They then having 
agreed to join together for the purpose of discussing the ques- 
tion and passing sentence against Kanaputra, he reflected, " This 
is a troublesome quarrel. I must secure the venerable Eevata 
to hold with me, that we may be able to suppress this schism." 
He asked, therefore, of some indifferent person, "Where is 
Eevata now living ? " Who replied, '' I hear he is living at 
P'o-ho-ho-pien." ^ Going there, Eevata was not in that place. 
Again he inquired, " Where does Eevata now dwell ? " Where- 
upon one answered, "He is dwelling in the Ki'a-na-wei-che 
(Kannakujja ?) country." Having gone there, he found Eevata 
had taken his departure. He inquired once more, " Where does 
Eevata now dwell ? " To whom one replied, " He is now living 
in the country called Ho-ki'a-lau-to (Aggalapura). Going there, 
he again found Eevata had departed, on which he once more 
inquired, " Where dwells Eevata at present ? " To which one 
answered, "He is in the Sang-ki'a-she (Samkassa) country." 
Going there, finding the followers of Eevata assembled together, 
on which he inquired of one of them, "Does your venerable 
master, Eevata, dwell with you or not ? " To whom he replied, 
" He has just gone." Now Eevata had gone that night to recite 

' Is this Ahogafiga, or is it Pupphxipwa ? — Vide Mahawanso, p. 17. 


the law (preach) in the midst of his followers, and having 
done so, just after ■ midnight he had gathered up his sitting-mat 
and returned home. On this, Yasa, having also gone to the 
assembly and heard the law preached, also gathered up his 
sitting-mat and went to the place where Eevata dwelt. Then 
Yasa reflected, "This is a good occasion for detailing the 
circumstances before related," and so he addressed Eevata as 
follows : — 

" Eeverend sir (Mah^bhadanta) Sthavira ! is it permitted or 
not with two fingers to take food?" He answered in reply 
and said, " What is this taking food with two fingers ? " In 
answer he said, "Having had sufficient food (if a priest), 
neglecting the rules relating to decorous conduct which forbid 
him to take other (remnants) food, with two fingers take frag- 
ments of food to eat (this is the case alluded to)." 1 Eevata 
replied, " It is unlawful." Yasa inquired, " In what place was 
the law made binding 1" He answered, "At Sr^vasti, when the 
rules respecting further (or remaining) food were enacted, this 
also was forbidden." 

Again he asked, "Most reverend and venerable sir! is 
between villages ' lawfuH " He answered in reply, " What is 
this 'between villages' ?" He answered, "Most reverend and 
venerable sir ! having obtained sufficient food (if a priest), 
neglecting the decorous rules which relate to not receiving 
other food, when between two villages take other food and 
eat it (this is the case alluded to)." Eevata replied, " It is not 
lawful" He then asked where the nule was enacted. Eevata 
replied, " At Srivasti, when the laws were framed which relate 
to receiving ' other food,' this was also made binding." 
■ Again he inquired, "Most reverend and venerable sir! is 
'within the temple' allowable?" He answered and said, "What 
is this ' within the Temple' permission?" He answered, "Most 
reverend and venerable sir ! this refers to the practice of con- 
vening within the Temple other Sanghakammas (than the 
regular ones)." Eevata replied, " It is not lawful . . . and the 
law was passed at Eaj&griha among the Upasotha khandhakas."^ 

' In the Sarvastavadina Vinaya it is said, " If a priest, rising from his seat, 
after having taken sufficient food, pick up with two fingers the fragments lying 
about," &c. 

^ Por Khandhaka vide Childers' Diet., sub. voc. Vinayo. 


Again he asked, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! is ' after 
permission' allowable or not?"i He replied, "What is this 
' after permission "I" He said, " Most reverend and vener- 
able sir ! whilst dwelling within the ' sacred precinct,' having 
assembled an irregular Sanghakamma, is it permissible to act on 
their decision?" Kevata answered, "It is not permissible, as 
was enacted (as before)." 

Again he asked, " Is it right to have ' ever-during laws ' ? " 
In reply Eevata inquired, "What is the meaning of 'ever- 
during laws*?" He answered, "Most reverend and vener- 
able sir! this refers to the case of those who, having done 
a thing, sanction their conduct by saying, ' So it was from the 
beginning.' " He replied, " Whatever is not found in the Siitras, 
the Vinaya, or the Eules of Prohibition (^m kiaufa liu), ought 
not to be done." ^ 

Again he asked, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! is ' sweet 
(mixture) ' right ? " He replied, " What is sweet (mixture) ? " 
He said, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! the priests having 
partaken of sufficient food, in contradiction to the rules respect- 
ing additional food, taking a mixture of butter and honey, or 
that which is produced from butter,^ or a mixture of candied 
honey (sugar-candy?) and milk, and so making an agreeable 
compound, drink it. This is the caBe alluded to." Eevata 
replied, "It is not allowable, as was determined at Srivasti 
among the rules relating to superfluous food." 

Again he asked, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! is salt- 
mixing for one night lawful ?" He replied, "What is salt-mixing 
for one night ? " He answered, " Most reverend and venerable 
sir! the use of salt for preserving food during a night, and 
afterwards eating it — this is the case alluded to." Eevata said, 
"It is not lawful, as was determined at Sr§,vasti among the 
Khandhaka rules relating to medicine." 

Again he asked, "Most reverend and venerable sir! is it 
lawful to drink che-lau-lo (jalogi) wine?" Eevata answered, 
" It is not lawful, as was determined at Kausambi in the case 
of the venerable Bhikshu Sha-hm-to (Sakata ?) " 

1 Does this correspond with " Bamana-sima " of the Pali ? 

" This is a mere explanation of the original, which is obscure. 

' I suppose, corresponds with the Pali " khirabhayam." 


, /' ; 

• He inquired again, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! is it 

allowable to obtain and keep untrimmed sitting cushions?" 
He answered, " It is not lawful, as was determined at Srivasti 
in the case of the six bodies of Bhikshus (or the body of Bhikshus 
six in number, samhahuld Ihikkh'A)." 

Again he asked, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! is it 
lawful to receive gold and silver or noti " He replied, "It is 
not lawful, as was determined at ES,jagriha, on account of 
Balandd^ Sakyaputra." 

He then said, " Most reverend and venerable sir ! the Vajji- 
putra Bhikshus of Vesali practise these ten indulgences, and 
say that they are admissible according to the law of Buddha. 
They moreover exhort their patrons (danapatis) on Uposatha 
days to bestow upon the Sangha gold and silver, and cause them 
to divide among them goods of different kinds (or ' that they 
may be able to divide,' i.e., that the money may purchase 
goods). After division they say, ' Tell no one what has been 
done, lest the Bhikshus who agree not with us cause discord.' " 

(Eevata said),^ " Go thou to Mount Ahdganga, and there you 
will find the Bhikshu Sambuto, who is my fellow-disciple, of 
the same spiritual-teacher * (Upadhyaya), with sixty Bhikshus, 
■sons of P'o-lo-li (Patheya ?) ; * all these are eminent for their 
advance in the Paramita of perseverance (virya), delivered from 
■ ■ fear ; for this reason, when you have addressed them, let them all 
assemble by the side of this river Po-ho, where I also will go." 

At which time, Yasa the son of Kana, the Bhikshu, proceeded 
forthwith to that mount, to the place where Sambuto was, and 
having spoken to him according to the above tenor, invited him 
to proceed to the banks of the river Po-ho to meet Eevata 

At this time the Vajjiputta Bhikshus of Vesali hearing that 
Yasa Bhikshu, the son of Kana, had gone out among men to 
look for associates (to co-operate with him), forthwith proceeded 
to the place where the disciple of Eevata dwelt, taking with 
them costly garments (made at) Vesali. Arriving there, they 

1 Po-man-to ; it may be Tfpananda. 

2 I supply this as it seems to be necessary. 

' I.e., of Ananda. * Vide, Mahawanso, p. 16. 


said, " We have brought these goodly clothes for the very re- 
verend Eevata for his acceptance ; pray receive them as we 
respectfully present them." He replied, " Stop ! stop ! I can- 
not receive them." But on their beseeching and urging him, 
he was induced to accept them. 

Having accepted them, they further addressed him as follows : 
" Reverend sir ! the Bhikshus of the two countries of Po-i- 
na and Po-li (P&cinakk va bbhikku PMheyyak^ \k 'ti) are con- 
tending together ; now the world-honoured Buddha whilst alive 
, dwelt (for some time) in the Po-i-na country. Well, reverend 
sir, we desire you to acquaint the venerable Sthavira (Eevata) 
of these things [repeating them], so that he may succour the 
Bhikshus of the Po-i-na country." 

The other immediately replied, saying, " The venerable and 
reverend Eevata forbids his disciples giving any opinion on 
doubtful matters." 

They pressed the question still, but without gaining their 
end, on which they went to the place where Eevata was and 
addressed him thus : " Eeverend sir! the Bhikshus of the Po-i-na 
country are at difference with those of the Po-li country. Now 
the world-honoured Buddha belonged to the Po-i-na country ; 
we pray you, ' therefore, reverend sir, to give your aid tp the 
Bhikshus of that country." 

Eevata immediately answered, saying, " You are ignorant 
men to think that I would hold with anything of an impure 
(erroneous) character in any school of teaching (or with any 
erroneous school). You may go ! I have no further need of 


Having thus received their dismissal, they went back to 
Vesali, to the place where dwelt the Vajjiputra Bhikshus, and 
one of them spoke thus to them : "Eeverend sirs! I said before- 
hand to you that the venerable (ta tih) Eevata was very diffi- 
cult to deal with, and we were unable to speak boldly before 
him. Now we greatly fear there is mischief in store for us." 

On this those Bhikshus replied, "Why do you think sol" 
They said, " Because he sent us away so alaruptly." 

They again said, "How many years have you been in the 
fraternity ? " ^ He said, " Twelve years." 

' Za for varsha. 


They answered, " And was it not a disgrace that you should 
thus be dismissed (or were you not ashamed to be so sent away) 
after being twelve years ordained ? " 

He answered, " But he would not receive our religious offer- 
ings ; how then could we help feeling afraid ? " 

And now Eevata and the Bhikshus who were with him spake 
thus together, " We ought now to go to the place where this 
contention has arisen." Embarking, therefore, in a boat on the 
Ganges, they set forth. At this time during the very great 
heat they drew the boat up near the shore and halted awhile 
in the shade. 

At this time there was a venerable person named Vasabhag§,- 
mika ^ going on the road, and as he went reflecting thus : " Now 
then, with respect to this contention about matters, I will just 
look at the Sutras and Vinaya to see who is right and who is 
wrong." Accordingly he looked into the Sutras and the Vinaya 
and the Prohibitory Eules, and then he saw that the Bhikshus 
of the Po-li country were right, and the Bhikshus of the Po-i-na 
country were wrong. At this time a Deva, whose form was 
invisible, uttered these laudatory stanzas, and said, " Well done, 
illustrious youth ! it is as you apprehend ; the Po-li Bhikshus 
are right, the Po-i-na Bhikshus are wrong." 

And now all the venerable ones proceeded onwards to Vesali. 
At this time there was at Vesali an eminent (chang lau) dis- 
ciple whose name was Tih-tsai-Kv, (Sabbak^mt); he was the 
principal Sthavira in all Jambudwipa. On this Sambuto thus 
addressed Eevata, saying, " Let us now go to the abode of the 
Sthavira and lodge for the night, that we may talk 
over these things together." On this the two went to the abode 
of S^bbak§,ml. On arriving there, they found him absorbed in 
night-contemplation. And now the night was passing by, 
when Eevata thought thus with himself, " This Sthavira, 
although old, and the power of his vital spirits (hi) waning, is 
able to sit for so long as this in contemplation. How much 
more ought I to do so, according to his example." Then Eevata 
forthwith sat himself down and occupied himself in severe 

1 Ch. Po-san-tsim. 


And so the niglit wore on, when Sabbak§,ml thought thus, 
" This stranger priest has come from far, and although worn and 
weary, still persists in ecstatic contemplation ; how much more 
ought I to persevere in mine ? " and so the venerable sage still 
sat on, engaged in deep thought. 

And now the night was passed, and they engaged in conversa- 
tion. Addressing Eevata, Sabbaklml said, "Venerable sir! 
what system of religion (fa) has engaged your mind during 
your contemplation to-night ? " 

Answering, he replied, " Formerly when I was a white-clothed 
(Up§,saka, a layman), I constantly cultivated a 'loving heart;' 
this night, during my moments of deep thought^ I entered the 
Sam§.dhi called love (tsz)." On this Sabbak^ml answered, "You 
have occupied yourself in a minor sort of Sam§,dhi (siu Ung) 
to-night, for such is this Samldhi of love." 

And now Eevata inquired, "And in what have you been 
engaged during your contemplation ? " 

He answered, " When I was formerly a white-clothed disciple, 
I engaged myself in investigating the ' Law of Emptiness,' and 
to-night I have been absorbed in the ' Samldhi of Emptiness.' " 

The other said, " You have been engaged in a Samldhi appro- 
priate to a great man." 

And then he thought, this is now a good opportunity for 
entering on the questions under consideration. He therefore 
addressed Sabbak§,ml and said, " Most reverend and venerable 
sir ! is it lawful to take two fingers or not ? " [Questions and 
answers just as before.] 

Sabbak§,mi was now the first Sthavira in the world, Sambuno 
(Sambuto ?) the second, Eevata the third, and Vasabhagamika 
the fourth. AU these were related alike to Ananda as their 

Forthwith the venerable Sabbaklml addressed (the assembled 
Sangha and) said, " Venerable priests, listen ! If the priests 
wUl now hear me, let them patiently attend ! The Sangha is 
now about to go over the Dhammavinaya and give its assent ; " 
(say, " So it is.") 

On this the Po-i-na Bhikshus addressed the Po-li Bhikshus 

' Teacher or preceptor. 


and said, " You ought to select a certain (equal) number of men 
(to represent you)." Forthwith they named the Sthavira Sabba- 
k§,mi, Eevata, Yasa, and Sumana. The Po-li Bhikshus then 
addressed the Po-i-na Bhikshus in the same way, on which 
they selected the venerable Sambuto, V^sabh§,gS,mika, the vener- 
able Salha, and Pacchesuma (Khujjasobhita ?). 

Now, amongst the number of assembled persons there was a 
certain Bhikshu called Ajita,^ who earnestly addressed the other 
Bhikshus in these words : " Keep these Bhikshus in our midst, 
my friends, for their business concerns us ; we ought therefore 
to be in one place together, and therefore I exhort you to do 

Then those Sthaviras reflected thus : " If we remain in the 
assembly, various questions will be asked and further strife 
stirred up ; " and therefore they thought, " To what spot shall 
we adjourn to settle these matters ? " and finally they moved 
that they should go to the Po-li grove (Valik^r^mo). 

Then the venerable Sabbak^ml spoke as follows : " Vener- 
able sirs ! listen ; with reference to this matter, if it is con- 
venient to the Sangha, let them patiently attend. We purpose 
to go over the Dhammavinaya in the V^lik§,r^mo grove, and 
in the absence of the rest to assent to what is recited (or 
the contrary), and having done so, then by the selection of 
the congregation, two or three of the Sangha may join them- 
selves with us in the VMikS,rimo grove (as a deputation ?) to 
join in the after consultation." Thus it was Sabbaklml ad- 
dressed the assembled Bhikshus. 

Then the Sthaviras afore named adjourned to the V§,li- 
k§,r4mo grove, and Sabbaklmt addressed them as follows : 
" Eeverend priests ! listen ; if it is now convenient, let the 
priests patiently attend. We will now go over the Dhamma- 
vinaya whilst the priests give their assent." 

Then Eevata spoke thus : " Eeverend brethren ! listen ; if 
the time is a suitable one, let the priests patiently attend, 
and whilst I ask Sabbak§,ml respecting the Dhammavinaya, 
let the priests give their assent." Then Sabbak^mi again 
spoke, " Eeverend sirs ! let the priests listen, &c. ; let Eevata 

1 0-i-tau. 


question me whilst I answer whether the Dhammavinaya is 
so or not." 

Then Eevata addressed SabbakS,ml saying, "Most reverend 
Sthavira !. is it lawful to take ' two fingers ' or not ? " He 
answered, " Explain the meaning of ' two fingers,' " [and so 
on as before]. (In reply to all which Sabbak§,ml replies that 
it is not lawful, nor according to the Dhammavinaya.) 

The Sthaviras having all agreed to the determination of 
Sabbak§,mi, they again adjourn to Vesali, and there, in the 
presence of the whole congregation, recite the law respecting 
the ten transgressions [as before], and according to the pro- 
visions of the Dhammavinaya each fault is exposed, and the 
contrary made binding on the community. 

(The Assembly of the Seven Hundred at Vesali, to deter- 
mine the provisions of the Dhammavinaya in relation to certain 

( 95 ) 



Amokg the distinguished Buddhists who lived about the time 
of Kanishka (the Indo-Skythian conqueror of North India), the 
twelfth Buddhist patriarch, Asvaghosha, was not the least so. 
It is now tolerably certain ^ that Kanishka's reign began about 
78 A.D. It is not strange, then, if we find in Asvaghosha's 
writings many allusions and illustrations derived apparently 
from foreign, and perhaps Christian, sources. To me, indeed, it 
appears, if the date above named be the true one, that much 
in the Buddhist development coming under the name of the 
Greater Vehicle may be explained on this ground. 

"With respect to Asvaghosha, we find from a notice in a 
biographical work (the Zai-tai-san-paou-ki, vol. i. p. 13), that 
he was a native of Eastern India and of the Brahman caste, 
and having been converted to Buddhism, he did his best to 
overthrow the system of the Brahmans. There is a brief 
memoir of him also in a Chinese work written by Kuma- 
rajiva. According to this author, he was a disciple of Parsva. 
The latter (who was president of the Council held under 
Kanishka), having gone from North India to Central India, 
found that the Buddhist clergy were afraid to sound the 
gong, that is, were unable to challenge their opponents to dis- 
cuss questions of difference. The cause of this humiliation 
was Asvaghosha, who belonged to the best instructed of the 
heretics (Tirtikas), and had by his superior skill silenced the 
Buddhists. Parsva ordered it to be sounded' and entered into 
dispute with Asvaghosha. In consequence the latter became a 
disciple of Parsva, who advised him to study Buddhism, and 

' Compare Fergusson'a SaJea, Samvat,,and Gupta Eras, with Dr. Oldenberg in 
the Zeitschrift fiir Numumatik, vol, viii. 


afterwards returned to his own country. Asvaghosha remained 
in Mid-India and rendered himself conspicuous for his superior 
talents. The king of the Little Yue-chi {i.e., Kanishka) having 
invaded Magadha, demanded from the people the cups (begging- 
dishes) of Buddha and Asvaghosha; the inhabitants murmured, 
thinking that the king valued the latter at too high a price. 
But the king, to show his right estimation of Asvaghosha's 
merit, selected seven horses, and after keeping them without 
food for six days, he took them to the place where Asvaghosha 
was preaching, and ordered forage to be given them ; but the 
horses, instead of eating, shed tears on hearing the words of 
the preacher and refused the food. Asvaghosha therefore became 
celebrated because the horses Understood his voice, and hence 
he was called " The voice of the horse " — Asvaghosha. 

This is the- account of Kumarajiva, translated probably 
from an original Life of the patriarchs Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, 
and Asvaghosha. We may remark, however, that the MahS,- 
yanists make Asvaghosha a disciple of Aryadeva and not of 
Parsva, the former being a convert of Naglrjuna and a native 
of Ceylon. But in any case, the date of Asvaghosha will not be 
affected much by this explanation, as Naglrjuna, if any reliable 
date can be given to him, lived not far from the time of 
Kanishka. We have some small additional information re- 
specting Asvaghosha in a communication made by the late 
Archimandrite Paladii; it is found in the second vol. (pp. 
156 ff.) of the Memoranda of the Eussian Mission at Pekin 
(quoted ^ by Weber). From this we find that Asvaghosha was 
an historical person who lived in the time of Kanishka; he 
was, with Nagarjuna, the founder of the Mah§,yana system of 
Buddhism, and afterwards, in conjunction with Bodhisatwa, i.e., 
Aryadeva, opened the way to the spread of the Yog§,ch^rya 
school. He flourished at Benares. He was renowned for his 
acquaintance with the Vedas and the six Shasters, which were 
used in the six schools of the Brahmans, and also with the 
Vyakaranas, or the treatises on the meaning of words. He 
was a renowned dialectician, so that no one could stand before 
him in argument. He was a Pantheist — that is, he maintained 

Die Vajrasfl^i des Ajvaghosha, p. 259. 


that a common principle of life was found in man, the inferior 
world of animals, and even in herbs and grass. He defeated 
the Buddhists in all disputations, and finally silenced them. 
He was finally converted by Parsva. 

We are told by the same writer that Asvaghosha was a poet 
and musician, and that he travelled about with a troup of music- 
men and women, and was successful by these means in bringing 
about the conversion of a Eajiputra and others. He finally 
took up his abode in Kashmir. His principal work was a Life 
of Buddha in verse, the Buddhacharita, which is still known to 
us through a Chinese version. 

The only other notice of Asyaghosha alluded to by Weber 
is a short extract from the Tandjur of Thibet, in which a 
mere list of his works is given. I need not name these ; 
they are eight in number. I will, however, briefly refer to 
one of them. This is the Life of Buddha, written in verse, 
called in Hodgson's list the " Suddhaoharita," and also the 
Mah§,k§,vya or Great Poem. According to Burnouf, p. 556 
(Int. £.), it is composed in verse, the metre being Anushtub 
and Indravajra, that is, verses of eight syllables and eleven 
syllables respectively. The style, Burnouf adds, if not very 
poetic, is at least correct and perfectly intelligible. It is a sub- 
stantive abridgment of the Lalita Vistara ; and this circum- 
stance deserves more notice, as there are not observable in the 
'work of Asvaghosha any peculiarities derived from Pali or 
the Prakrits. Hence, he says, we are sure that the Buddha- 
charita is a work posterior to the Lalita Vistara, as it is written 
in a language more grammatically correct. He adds that there 
. is no authority for supposing the author of this work to be 
the celebrated patriarch of the same name, and he conjectures 
that it may have been written by the author of the Vajrasuchi. 
But we have evidence (contrary to Burnouf's opinion) in 
the Chinese copy of this work that the patriarch Asvaghosha 
was the compiler of it, for it is expressly referred to him 
by the translator, Dharm§,kshaya, who was a native of Mid- 
India, and flourished in China about the beginning of the 
fifth century of our era. The title of the book as so 
translated is this — " Fo-sho-hing-tsan," i.e., laudatory verses 
embracing the life (conduct) of Buddha, compiled by the 



Bodhisatwa Maming, i.e., AsvagJiosM, and translated hj Tan- 
mo-tsich of the Nortli Liang dynasty, an Indian, and a master 
of the three Pitakas. In passing I may notice there is 
another Life of Buddha extant in China, which is also composed 
in stanzas. It is commonly called the Fo-pen-hing-hing, and 
also known as the Fo-pm-hing-tsan-hing. From internal evidence 
this work appears to be another version of Asvaghbsha's Buddha- 
charita, although in some material points it differs from it ; as, 
e.g., in the number and heading of the chapters. But, on the 
other hand, it is composed in verses of varying length, some of 
four, others of five, and some of seven syllables (symbols) to a 
line. This agrees with Bumouf's description of the Sanscrit 
copy of Asvaghosha's composition, and so far tends to show 
that the Chinese possess two versions of the work — the first 
(named before) translated by Dharmlkshaya in the early part 
of the fifth century, the second translated by Eatnamegha ^ of 
the Sung dynasty. 

I shaU now proceed to give a list of the chapters of the 
Buddhacharita, translated by Dharm§,kshaya, with a view to a 
comparison with any Sanscrit copy that may be available in 
India or Europe. 




§ r. Origin of race, 1-9 

§ 2. Occupies the palace 9-13 

§ 3. Filled with sorrow (on account of sufferings he 

witnessed), 13-18 

§4. Gives up a life of pleasure, 18-22 

§ 5. Leaves the city, 22-29 


§ 6. Eeturn of Tchandaka, 1-6 

§ 7. Enters the forest of suffering (Uravilva), . . 6-1 1 
§ 8. The grief when he (Tchandaka) enters the palace 

on his return, 11-17 

§ 9. Mission. dispatched to search for the royal prince, . 17-25 

' Ratnamegha (Gem-cloud) was a companion of Fa-hien in his travels, and a 
native of China. 




10. Bimbasarardja goes to visit the royal prince, 

1 1. The Prince's reply to Bimbasara, 

1 2. Interview with Eudra Kamaputta, 

13. Struggle with M4ra, 

14. Exercises Sambhodi, 

15. Turns the Wheel of the Law, 




§ 16. Bimbasararaja becomes a disciple, 

§ 17. The great disciple quits his home, 

§18. Conversion of Anathapindada, 

§ 19. Interview between father and son, 

§ 20. Accepts the Jeta(vana) Vihdra, 

§ 21. Escapes the drunken elephant of Devadatta, 

§ 22. Amra, the woman, sees Buddha, . 


7-1 1 


KlOUEN v. 




By divine energy fixes his years («. 

depart), .... 
The differences of the Litchavis, 

«., de 


nes to 




ParinirvSna .... 




Mah^parinirvSna, . 

Breathes the praises of Mrvtoa, 

Division of relics. 



By way of comparison I will also give the headings of the 
chapters of the Fo-pen-hing-king, which, as I have before stated, 
is written in verse of varied measures, but is not attributed to 
Asvaghosha. It was translated into Chinese, as I have just 
said, by Eatnamegha, who flourished shortly before the time of 
Dharmi,kshaya, i.e., the end of the fourth century a.d. 




1. Originating causes, 

2. Speaks the praises of Tathigata, 

3. Incarnation, . . ' 

4. Birth of Tath^gata, 

5. Casting the horoscope, 

6. Prediction of Asita, 

7. Enters school, 


§ 8. Associates with the women of the harem, 
§ 9. Observes Gotaml, 
§ 10. Under the shadow of the Jambu tree, 
§ II. Leaves his home, .... 

§ 12. Tchandaka, 

§ 13. BimbasararSja asks questions. 

§ 14- 

§ 16, 

§ 17. 
§ 18. 

§ 19' 

§ 20, 

§ 21. 

§ 22. 
§ 23- 
§ 24. 

§ 25- 

§ 26. 


Turns the Wheel of the Law, .... 

Converts Pao-tching (Yasada) 

Further work in converting, .... 

Manifests spiritual transformation, 


Ascends to the Trayastrinshas heaven to preach to 

his mother, 
Eecalls former (scenes). 
Proceeds to Vesdli, 
The prediction of Dipaiikara, 
Overpowers the elephant, 
Mt,ra entices him to give up life, 
















He declares the law for the sake of Bimbasara- 

r^ja, 1-7 

Not satisfied with the system of 0-Lan"(AMra), . 7-12 

Conquers M&ra, . 1 2-34 







6-1 1 







§ 27. Devadatta goes to hell, 1-14 

§ 28. Manifests his strength [U-po-lih], . . . 14-23 


§ 29. MahanirvSna (Ta-mih), 1-5 

§ 30. Praises of JFoit-wei (Nirvana), .... 9-17 
§31. The eight kings divide the relics 17-26 

Let me now allude to another work, which I have already 
named, written by Asvaghosha, viz., the Mahdlamkdra Siltra 
Shastra. This book was translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva 
about A.D. 410. Originally (as the Encyclopsedia Lai-tai-san- 
paou-Jci states) it was in ten kiouen, but the work before me is 
in thirteen kiouen. From, the eleventh to the thirteenth kiouen 
appear to have been added, at a later date. 

This work consists of a series of sermons or narratives sixty- 
six in number, of an instructive character. It is evidently the 
work of a partisan, opposed to Brahmanism, yet intimately 
acc[uainted with its literature ; and such a writer, according 
all accounts, was Asvaghosha. 

The following is a list of these sermons : — 


In illustration of which stories or traditional records are related, found in 
the thirteen Kiouen of the Ta-chwang-yan-king-lun, 

1. The three gems. 

2. Eight distinction of religious teaching. 

3. In affairs of -religion no differences of persons or ages to be 


4. The advantage of hearing the law explained is so great that the 

most sinful may be converted. 

5. The non-covetous are those who, although they possess great 

possessions, do not set their heart and affections on them. 


6. The disobedient are those who pretend to keep the law, but 

act from interested motives. 

7. In following erroneous doctrine there is much affliction, but in 

obeying the truth much gain. 

8. True independence results not from mere words or bodily 

discipline, but from right government of the thoughts. 

9. The truly wise man covets not wealth. 

10. The contented man, although poor, is counted ricL The 

discontented man, though rich, is counted poor. 

11. All men honour the professor of religion wjio scrupulously 

observes the rules of religious conduct. 

12. The man inwardly pure has great peace; all wise persons 

therefore cultivate inward purity. 

13. Escape from the sorrows of birth and death does not result from 

much hearing, but from an inward perception of the truth 
(traces of religion). 

14. On the inconstancy of all earthly possessions and dignities. 

15. It is impossible to carry our wealth into the next world; it is 

only by using our possessions in charity that poverty in the 
next world can be provided against. 

16. Our present condition as men is uncertain and chaiUgeable, the 

wise man, therefore, regards with reverence all persons who 
deserve reverence, without distinction of person. 

1 7. Fault is not to be found unnecessarily. 

18. Against carelessness. 

1 9. Those who are without faults of their own may reprove others 

but if a man guilty of the same crime reproves another for it, 
he only provokes laughter against himself. 

20. If a man, without any selfish love, is able to give away all he 

has in charity, then his name becomes great indeed. 

21. If a person in his charitable offerings acts from a supreme 

principle of faith, then two mites thus offered secures an 
incalculable reward. 

22. If a man living among his friends has one who is able to govern 

his heart and regulate his conduct aright, this is a true friend 

23. If a man, in consequence of his evil deeds, is ready to perish 

(fall into hell), if he has a friend who can correct the evil, he 
may, by his means, obtain birth in heaven. 

24. He who gives his possessions away in charity avoids the danger 

of the eight calamities (fire, disease, &c.); but he who heaps 

TEXTS. 103 

up his wealth is in constant danger of these. The wise man 
gives away in charity, and this is his stronghold. 

25. He who hears the truth declared, is able to escape the fetters 

(of error). 

26. When a person is sick, his words have but little force and are 

not attended to. 

27. A wise man never resents with passion the abuse of the 

28. The concerns of the body are like the illusive movements of an 

apparitional body. 

29. By discoursing on the duty of charity, the germ pf virtue is 

quickened, and then the deeper matters of religion may be 

30. Eeverence may be paid to that which deserves reverence, but 

it is the destruction of that which has no such claim. 

31. A man who has once made religious inquiries, though he fall 

away, may yet be recovered by the recollection of what he 
has heard. 

32. He who would lay up a virtuous reward for the future must 

now diligently practise virtue. 
33.^ All men seek their own profit; some find what they seek, 
others not; but the man whose purpose is a true one and 
not a selfish one obtains true profit. 

34. Evil desires (bonds) must be entirely eradicated, or else they 

will, when occasion offers, assert their power, even as ice will, 
when violently struck, emit fire. 

35. Charity must be practised not for reward, but for the purpose 
\ of final release. 

36. It is difl&cult to remove all the obstacles which prevent our 

possessing a human form; but even when born as a man, every 
effort ought to be used to remove all obstacles. 

37. It is difficult to learn to part with the least of one's wealth; 

the wise man despises not even the least exercise of a chari- 
table disposition. 

38. A man considering his actions in a right spirit, although he 

finds faults in his conduct (or suffers loss), yet afterwards 
reaps profit. 

39. Selfish charity (done for personal profit) is destructive of all 

religious progress (?). 

40. Shortcomings may be prevented by a mode of teaching intel- 

ligible to the person concerned. 


.41. The root of violence, though sometimes deadened, will revive 
again through the mercy of Tathdgata. 

42. A disciple should persevere in his religious duties, though he 

fail at first to see the truth. 

43. The words of Buddha are alone sufficient to heal diseases of 

mind and body j we ought, therefore, to persevere in listen- 
ing to the law. 

44. It is better to sacrifice life than transgress our convictions of 


45. A proud heart leads to a vicious life. 

46. He whd has once seen the truth cannot be induced to speak 

against it by all the temptations of MSra or the arguments of 

47. Unless the mind has acquired settled faith, there can be no 

composure at the end of life. 

48. Charity is always due to the true disciple. The wise man 

regards the obedient as a true disciple (whatever his caste). 

49. The instruction of Buddha is useless in the case of those whose 

minds are filled with angry passions. The wise man, 'there- 
fore, avoids anger. 

.50. Eight examination of food is necessary, and therefore Buddha 
enacted rules respecting food. 

51. Lustful desire is an ungovernable madness. 

53. Buddha perceiving that, after a time, a believing heart may be 
formed, therefore did nothing quickly. 

53. The advantage of reciting the praises of Buddha securing the 

reverence of men. 

54. The great advantage of charity on the part of those who have 

no pre-eminent position. 

55. The most unworthy who seeks for salvation is not to be for- 


56. When the root of virtue is properly matured, then salvation 

is at hand. We ought, therefore, to cultivate the root of 

57. As men sow they shall reap. 

58. If a seed produces fruit, it is not attributable to good luck ; 

how much less then is there any sound reason in taking 
lucky signs ? 

59. If a man of small wisdom is moved by the outward signs of 

Buddha's person to a religious life, how much more should 
the eminently wise be so moved by considering the same? 


60. A great man ' seeks not the charity of the indiflferent, but the 

reverence of those who offer charity. 

61. Better lay down one's life than break a commandment. 

62. The law of Buddha is difficult to hear. In old time Bod- 

hisatwa did not grudge his life in trying to fulfil the law ; we 
ought then diligently to listen to that law. 

63. A true friend is one who can deliver a man from (moral) 


64. The great profit of rendering worship to a Stiipa. 

65. Though a man has had a good foundation of religion laid, yet 

he may fall into hell by neglecting to hear the law. 

As a specimen of Asvaghosha's teaching, I will here produce 
a translation of the' introductory sermons of this series. 

The Ta-Chwang-Yan-King-Lun. 


Written by AsvaghoshaBodhisatwa {circ. 70 a.d.), and translated by Kumctra- 
jiva {circ. 400 A.D.), a Doctor of the three Pitakas. 

Peefatory Stai^zas. 

First I adore the supremely excellent Lord, 

Who has freed himself from lust and mounted above the three 

I also reverence the all-wise. 
Eternal, superlative Law, 
And with these the eightfold assembly. 
The spotless, incontaminate Church. 
The mendicants Punyayasas and Parsvika,"^ 
All the doctors of the Mahisasakas,^ 
The assembly of the Sarvastavadins,^ 

1 The original has simply "Punna and Hie, Bhikshus." I restore Purma to 
Punyayasas, and Hie to Parsvika. These two were the tenth and eleventh 
patriarchs of the Buddhist Church, Asvaghosha being the twelfth. Eitel, in his 
Mamdbooh (p. 98, u. 2), statesthat Punyayasas laboured in Benares and converted 

2 Chinese, Mi-chi. 

' Chinese, Sa-po-shih-po. 


True disciples of the King of Oxen,i 

All these true learned masters.^ 

I reverence and follow equally. 

Now I am going to declare in order 

The Sienrtsv/ng-chwang-y&n Shastra,^ 

That those hearing it may obtain in their fulness 

The good things resulting herefrom. 

Let all, whether professors of faith or not, 

Whether members of the congregation or not,* 

Whether excellent (good) or evil,^ 

Let them all distinguish what is said. 

It was reported long ago that some merchantmen of the 
country of Kien-to-lo (G4ndh§,ra) in their journeyings arrived 
at the country of Ma-tu (Mathura). Now there was in that 
country a Stiipa of Buddha. Among the merchants was 
one, a Up§,saka, who one day went to that sacred building 
to worship and adore. 'Now as he thus worshipped there 
passed along the road certain Brahmans, who, seeing the 
UpS.saka worshipping the tower of Buddha, all of them began 
to jeer and laugh at him. Again, on another day, when 
the weather was very hot, these Brahmans, after their daily 
meal, went forth to stroll, and were scattered here and 
there. Some loitered along the road, others sat beside the 
different gates, some were bathing, others anointing themselves, 
some walking, others sitting. Now at this time the Up§,saka 
happened to be returning after worshipping at the Pagoda. 
Then the Brahmans seeing him cried out and said, " Come here, 
Uplsaka ! come here and sit down." Having taken a seat, they 
spoke to him in these words : " How is it you know not of our 
Mahe^vara and Vishnu and our other gods, whom you ought to 
worship, and not trouble yourself about honouring this Tower 
of Buddha?" 

^ Nieou-wwng-ching-tao-cM ; the translation is difficult. I assume tliat the 
" King of the Oxen " is Gotama. It may, however, be simply rendered " leader " 
or "chief" {Gopati). 

* Masters of Treatises (lun). 

' If restored, these characters would stand for Prakarama sdaana alamk&ra 

* This and the preceding line may mean " whether cleric or laymen." 
° Or, " whether high or low." 


Then the Upisaka answered at once and said, "I know some 
small portion of the eminent merits of the Lord of the world 
(Buddha), and therefore I adore and reverence him in worship, 
but I know not as yet of any religious qualities in these 
gods of yours that you should desire me to worship them." 
The Brahmans, hearing these words, with angry scowl began to 
chide him as a foolish man, and said, " How is it you do not 
know what divine qualities belong to our gods ? " and saying 
this they forthwith recited the following verses, and said — 

" The city walls of the Asura 
Tower high, with threefold cireuk ; 
Suspended thus the city hangs in sp^ce : 
Full of inhabitants (youths and women). 
Our Deva, bending his bow 
From far, shooting within those city walls, 
Can burn it and destroy it in a moment, 
Like the dry grass burnt up with fire." 

Then the Up^saka having heard these words, with great 
laughter' exclaimed, "According to this I fancy it is of very 
little account that I do not worship such a being ; " and then he 
replied in a verse as follows — 

" Life is as a drop of dew upon the flower ; 
The concourse of all that lives will' die. 
Tell me, then, what sign of wisdom is it 
To kill with bow and arrow in addition ? " 

The Brahmans, having heard these lines, with one voice 
scolding the Up^saka, exclaimed, " You are a foolish man ! 
Our Divine Lord, by the power of his heavenly qualities, is 
able to kill and destroy that wicked Asura, endowed with 
mighty strength. How say you then he has no wisdom ? " 

Then the Uplsaka, after their chiding was over, with a deep 
sigh of sadness added these lines — 


" Distinguish well between the good and bad ; 
The wise man, preparing good works, 
Obtains the lasting fruits thereof, 
In future worlds receiving happiness. 


But tell me how, in sin and wickedness 
Living rebellious, can one acquire religious merit ? 
Evil purposed, ever-increasing evil, 
Flattering himself, ' My evil good accomplishes ! ' 
t Because of such seeds of wickedness 
Hereafter he shall reap his meed of sorrow." 

The Brahmans, having heard these words, first fixed their 
eyes and raised their hands to heaven, and then furiously 
shaking their fans at him (or trembling like winnowing fans), 
addressed the UpS,saka thus : " You are verily a fool and igno- 
rant ! Unlucky wretch ! not to know that these gods of ours 
are only descrying of worship, and none others." 

Then the TJp§:Saka, his mind and will unmoved, with gentle- 
ness replied, " Although I am alone in this honourable company, 
yet surely reason does not admit of force (or violence) amongst 
those who are connected in companionship; ". and then the UpS,- 
saka again added these lines, and said — 

" The gods you reverence and worship, . 

Inhumanly and wickedly love to destroy. 
But surely, if you sacrifice to these gods, 
Considering them deserving of such service, 
Then ought you to conceive reverence 
Towards the lion, tiger, and wolf. 
Who when vexed and angry destroy life. 
Evil demons, likewise, and Eakshas, 
Foolish men, because of fear, 
Ignorantly worship. 
But all those who have wisdom 
Ought to consider and ponder well. 
If towards those who do no harm (cause no pain) 
We are "naturally drawn with reverence, 
Then those are really good 
Who cause no harm. 
Whilst those who do evil deeds 

Cannot but cause harm to others (and so themselves are evil). 
If we cannot recognise the good, 
Nor separate merit from demerit. 
If merit may consist with an evil heart 
And demerit with a virtuous mind, 


Then murderers and felons 

May be well reverenced by the foolish, 

And the good and virtuous, 

On the other hand, be lightly valued. 

Then the world is upside down ; 

We cannot tell what should be reverenced. 

But those born in Gdndhdra 

Know well how to distinguish the good and bad. 

Therefore we believe in Tathagata, 

And pay no regard to Isvaradeva." 

When the Brahmans heard these words they rejoined, " Psha ! 
what sort of people come out of G§,ndh§,ra, and what religious 
merit has he you call Buddha ? " Then the Uptlsaka answered 
in these words and said-^ 

" Born in the Sakya palace, 
Endowed with all-wisdom, 
Dispersing evil as the clouds, 
His virtue universally difiused. 
Every creature born 
From the beginning blessed by him, 
Acquainted with the character of all truth, 
Thoroughly illuminated, 
This great Eishi of ours 
We on this account call Buddha." 

Then the Brahmans replied in verse and said — 

" You call Buddha a great Eishi. 
This is a very grievous matter ; 
For in this Jambudwipa, 
The land which YamarSja holds, 
Vasu (or Basa), Basita, 
Tai-shih-o-kie-ye (Destkya ?) 
Great Eishis like these 
Have spread their fame everywhere. 
Able to frame (put together) great spiritual charms, 
To destroy countries and lands. 
You call your Buddha a great Kishi ; 
He then can make such charms (incantations) ; 


Your famous Buddha also 
Should be able to do mighty things : 
If he cannot make destructive charms, 
How dare you call him a great Eishi J " 

At this time the Up§,saka, having no patience at hearing 
these abusive words, stopped his ears with both his hands, and 
repeated these g§,thas and said — 

" Psha ! utter not such wicked words, 
Such slanderous words as Buddha ' using charms.' 
Those who slander the Highest Lord 
Shall afterwards receive great affliction." 

At this time the Brahmans again replied iri verse — 

" If Buddha has no manual of charms 
He cannot be considered powerful. 
If he is a calamity-destroyer, 
How can he be a great Eishi ! 
We only utter true words ; 
I Why speak you then of slander 1 " 

And then the Brahmans, clapping their hands with much glee, 
said, "Now, then, you foolish fellow, surely you have fallen 
into a sore dilemma." 

At this time the Up§,saka, replying to the Brahmans, said, 
" Eestrain your laughter. You say Tath§,gata has no great 
power and no religious merit. This is false. Tath3,gata has 
indeed great merit and power. He has for ever sapped the 
root of charmed words, so that they can do no mischief. And 
now consider well and I will tell you more." Then he said in 
verse — 

" Because of lust and anger and ignorance, 
These wicked charms are used ; 
And when these harmful words are woven, 
Then the evil spirits catch the words 
And with them hurt the world, 
And do deeds of mischief everywhere. 
Buddha has cut asunder lust, ignorance, and anger ; 
His love brings profit and abundance ; 


Beaching the root of all such charms, 

He brings out virtuous deeds in alL 

And therefore Buddha, Lord of the world, 

Uses no charms to put down evil. 

But by the power of his great virtue 

Saves us from endless misery. 

How then say you Buddha has no great power of purpose 1 " 

Then the Brahmans having heard these verses, their angry 
mind subsided, and addressing the Uplsaka they said, " We will 
now ask you a few questions without any anger. Now then, 
UpS,saka, if Buddha uses no evil charms, why does he not 
blame those who pay him religious worship ? And again, if 
he cannot do good (by using charms), why is he called a great 

The UpSrSaka replied, " Tathagata, the great merciful, in short, 
iises no evil charms to hurt the world, nor does he only bless 
because of worship he receives, and for this reason we adore 
him ; " and then he recited the following verses — 

" The Great Merciful, who loves all things, 
Ever desires to save the world from ill ; 
Beholding those who suiFer, 
Their sins upon themselves have brought the ill : 
But say not he has used some evil charm, 
And so brings evil on the world : 
The body of all that lives suflFers by nature 
In the way of birth, disease, old age, and death, 
As the sore resulting from a burning cinder. 
How then can he increase the woe ? 
But rather by his pure and cooling law 
He causes all these fiery hurts to heal." 

All the Brahmans, hearing these words, immediately hung 
down their heads, and thought," These words are good;" and 
then their hearts tending to belief, they said, " You, GlndhS.ra, 
use right distinctions ; you seem to believe in things unusual, 
and therefore you are rightly called G^ndhS/ra — for what is 
G^ndha but ' to hold ? ' ^ — you hold good principles and let go 

' Here there seems to be a play on the word Gandhari, the wife of Dhri- 


the bad, and so you are rightly named." And then in verse 
they added this — 

" He who is ahle to hold this earth 
He is rightly called ' illustrious friend.' 
The first among all * illustrious friends ' 
Is truly this ' Gandhlra.' " 

Then the Uplsaka thinking, " The hearts of these Brahmans, 
tending to belief, may yet be made perfect in merit (or in 
religion). I will now, therefore, further dilate on this subject, 
and speak of the meritoriousness of Buddha." Then the 
Up^saka, with a pleasant countenance, spoke as follows: "I 
am overjoyed that you have any faith in Buddha ; listen, there- 
fore, I pray you, to me for a short time whilst I speak further 
on this subject of merit and demerit, and do you attend and 
discriminate." Then he spoke the following verses — 

' " Consider well the virtues of Buddha, 

In every view perfectly complete ; 

In observing the moral laws, in fixed composure and wisdom, 
There is no equal in any respect to Buddha. 
Sumeru is the most exalted of mountains, 
The ocean is chief amongst flowing streams, 
Amongst Devas and men 
There is none like Buddha. 
Able, for the sake of all that lives, 
To undergo every kind of suffering. 
So that he might obtain redemption, 
And finally not let any perish. 
Who is there has sought refuge in Buddha 
But has obtained overflowing advantage 1 
Who is there has taken refuge in Buddha 
But has obtained salvation ? 
Who is there that has followed Buddha's teaching 
But has got rid of sorrow ? 
Buddha by his miraculous power 
Has overcome all unbelief (heretics), 
His name, therefore, is ' universally spread,' 


Filling the universe (the ten regions of space). 

Let but Buddha utter his lion voice, 

Declare the unreality of all that exists (sanscdra), 

Speaking without partiality, 

Not leaning to either side, 

Then both men and gods 

Will all repeat ' It is so ' (sadhu). 

Those who cannot well distinguish the truth 

Are still bound in the consequences of their actions. 

After the Nirvana of Tathagata 

Every country made its tower-shrines, 

Richly adorned throughout the world, 

As the stars hanging in space. 

Let every one, therefore, acknowledge 

Buddha to be the highest lord." 

The Brahmans having heard these words, conceiving faith 
in their hearts, took the vows of the priesthood and obtained 

Seemon II. 

Again, " we must distinguish the true Scriptures from the 
false. Those who study well what they find in the law will 
understand this distinction." 

I heard in old times that there was a Brahman called 
Kusika, well acquainted with the S§,nkhya Shaster and the 
treatises of Vy^sa and the Jyotisha Shaster, able to explain 
and distinguish the points of these and other treatises. This 
Brahman dwelt in the city Kusumapura (P§,taliputra). Out- 
side this city there was a village. This Brahman having some 
business in this village went there, and when arrived he went 
to the house of a friend. At this time his friend having an 
engagement had gone out and had not returned. On this the 
Brahman Kusika addressed one of the household and said, "Have 
you any book in the house which I can read till the master 
comes back ? " On this the wife of his friend took a book which 
they had accidentally got, called the Twelve Nid§,nas, and this 
she gave to him. 


Having got the book, he went to a quiet spot in a grove of 
trees and began to read it. The book explained how that 
ignorance (avidyd) caused passion (sanscdra), sanscS,ra caused 
vijndna (incipient consciousness), from this ndmar'Apa (rudi- 
ments of body, name, and shape), from this the six dyatanas 
(seats of the senses), from this sparia (feeling) [experience of 
heat and cold, &c.], from this vedaTva (sensation), from this 
trishna (longing for renewal of pleasurable feeling, and desire 
to shun that which is painful), from this updddna (clinging to 
objects), from this ihava (existence), from this birth {jdti), 
from this disease and death. This aggregate of griefs (he read) 
is called the "great truth of accumulation." Ignorance being 
destroyed, then sanscdra is destroyed ; sanscdra destroyed, then 
vijndna is destroyed; vijndna destroyed, then ndmarilpa is 
destroyed; ndmarUpa destroyed, then the six dyatanas are 
destroyed ; these destroyed, then sparSa is destroyed ; this de- 
stroyed, then vedana is destroyed ; this destroyed, then bhava 
is destroyed ; this destroyed, then updddna is destroyed ; this 
destroyed, then jdti is destroyed ; this destroyed, then old age, 
disease and death, sorrow and trouble, pain and loss, the accumu- 
lation of pain, all these are destroyed. 

When he had read this over once, and did not comprehend 
it, he then read it a second time, and at once understood the 
unreality of individual existence. All the systems of the heretics 
hinge on these two points, that there is an I (individuality), 
and something beyond and distinct from the I, but now (he 
said) I know that all things, born and perishing, have no real 
principle of endurance. And thinking thus he said, " All other 
Shastras avoid the question of escaping birth and death, only in 
this SMra have I found the question of escaping birth and death 

Then hia heart was filled with joy, and raising both his 
hands, he said, " Now, then, for the first time I have found 
a true Shastra, I have found now for the first time a true 
Shastra." And then, sitting gravely as he considered the deep 
meaning of this principle, his face beamed with delight, as a 
flower first opening its petals. And then again he said, " Now, 
then, 1 begin to understand the way of unloosing the trammels 
of life and death, and of escaping from mundane existence. 


ISTow I see the folly of all the methods explained by unbelievers, 
that they are insufficient for escape from birth and death." 
And rejoicing thus, he said, " Oh, how supremely true is the 
law of Buddha ! how grandly real about cause and result ! 
The cause destroyed, then the fruit is destroyed. The asser- 
tions of unbelievers are altogether false and vain which say 
there is result but no cause for it, not understanding the con- 
nection of cause and effect, and therefore knowing no method 
of escape." Then, thinking of his own former state of igno- 
rance, he felt ashamed, and, smiling, said, " How could I expect 
to get across the river of birth and death by any such heretical 
system as that in which I formerly rested 1 As a man engulfed 
in the stream of the Ganges whilst bathing is in peril of losing 
his life, so was it with me when I formerly sought escape from 
the gulf of birth and death in the way taught by the heretics 
for in their method there is no way of escape from the world 
engulfed in the river of birth and death. I was on the point 
of perishing and my body falling into one of the three evil ways ; 
but now I see in this discourse if I follow the right path I may 
escape from further birth or death. The words of the Sutras 
and Shastras of the heretics are like the words of a fool or a 
madman ; the ninety-six heretical schools are all false and 
vain ; only the way of Buddha is supremely true, is supremely 
right. The disciples of the six masters, and the rest of the so- 
caUed sages, all these saying that they know perfectly all things, 
are false speakers. Only Buddha, the Lord of the world, is 
the all-wise ; he only is perfectly true, without error." 

At this time Kusika repeated the following verses and said — 

" The words of the heretical schools 
Are false and vain, without reality ; 
Like the play of a little child , 
Heaping up the earth to make a city with walls, 
The mad elephant treading on it with his foot 
Scatters and destroys it so that nothing remains. 
Buddha destroys the reasonings of the heretics, 
Just the same as in this matter." 

Now, then, Kusika the Brahman having conceived the greatest 
faith in the teaching of Buddha, and heartily reverencing it, 


cast from him the system of the unbelievers, and rejected all 
their false speculations, and from morning till evening he pon- 
dered and read over the Siitra of the twelve Nid^nas. 

And now his kinsman with some Brahmans having returned 
home, he forthwith asked his wife, saying, " I hear that Kusika 
has come here ; where is he now ? " His wife answered her 
lord and said, " That Brahman having asked me to lend him a 
hook, I gave him one, I know not what it was, and directly 
he got it, spreading it out ^ with both hands and poring over it, 
in a moment he cried out with joy, and his appearance has re- 
mained ever since like one filled with delight." , 

Then the husband, hearing these words, went forth to the 
place where Kusika was, and seeing him gravely seated in 
meditation, he forthwith questioned him and said, "What is 
it that now engages your thoughts ? " On which Kusika 
replied in the following verses, and said — 

" Oh, foolish and ignorant. 
Incessantly revolving through the three worlds 
Like the wheel of the potter, 
Whirling round without cessation, 
I am reflecting upon the twelve causes, 
And the way of escape from them." 

At this time his kinsman and friend addressed him thus, 
" Are you able in this book to find any such deep thoughts as 
these ? I got it, indeed, from one of those Sakya feUows, and 1 
was just going to wash it and erase those words, and use it 
to copy one of Vy§,sa's discourses on." The Brahman Kusika, 
hearing these words, greatly blamed his relative, and said, 
"You foolish man! how could you intend to wash out with 
water the words of this Siitra ? It is an excellent book (Sad- 
dharma) of religion ; its letters should be written on unalloyed 
gold and enclosed in a precious casket, and every kind of 

reverence be paid it ; " and then he said these verses 

" If I had gold and gems, 
And with the gold should build a StApa, 
Laying the foundation in the seven precious thino-s, 
Adorning it with gems and hanging curtains. 

1 It is plain from this and what follows that the book was a parchment roll 
and was unsigned to be converted into a palimpsest. ' 


So as to make it exceedingly magnificent, 
And if I used it for the worship of this Sfitra — 
Though I did all this, 
'Twere yet far short of my mind's desire." 

Then his kinsman, after hearing these words, becoming im- 
patient, addressed him thus : " "What wonderful thing, then, do 
you find in this religious book (SMra) that so far surpasses the 
writings of VyS,sa that you should wish to do it reverence with 
gold and all manner of precious stones?" 

Then Kusika hearing these words, grieved at heart, and 
with . changed expression of face answered, "Why, then, do 
you so lightly esteem this Buddhist Sutra? How can you 
compare the foolish and extremely vexatious treatises of Vy§,sa 
with these words of Buddha ? The writings of VyS,sa know 
nothing about the distinctions of the law ; they confuse cause 
and effect, and are exceedingly superficial, as in the comparison 
of the potter (and the clay) ; and if in these things there is no 
wisdom to be found in his writings, how much less can we 
find in them any explanation of cause and effect in relation to 
man's body and the seats of sensation in that body, and the 
subject of supreme wisdom ? " 

Then his friend answered, " If this is as you say, then there 
is no need of further trouble in speaking on the subject." But 
the Brahman friends who were present hearing this were 
grieved, and turning to Kusika they said, " If these words are 
true, then we cannot nowadays trust in anything Vyisa says. 
Is this so ? " 

Kusika said in reply, " The discourses of VyS,sa are not only 
nowadays unreliable, but in old times, long ago, those who 
exercised right discrimination could not long believe in him. 
And why ? In days before the ten-forced (dasab§,la) Buddha 
was born, then all living things were overshadowed with the 
cloud of ignorance, and, in consequeiice, were blind and without 
eyes, and so they thought there was light in these treatises of 
VySsa ; but the sun of Buddha having arisen and shed abroad 
his glorious rays of wisdom, then the words of Vy^sa became 
obscured and without any meaning, and were fit to be put away, 
just as the horned owl in tbe evening comes forth on its 


wanderings and has strength to exert itself, but when the light 
comes on, then it hides itself in its covert hole, without 
strength to serve it. So is it with this Vyisa; the light of 
the sun of Buddha having dawned, then his discourses lost 
their power." 

Then his kinsman said, " If it be as you say, and the dis- 
courses of Vy§,sEl cannot compare with the Siitras of Buddha, 
then suppose we compare these scriptures with the S§,nkhya 

Kusika said, " The S&nkhya S<itra says there are five divisions 
which exhaust the subjects of its discourse, and these five are 
(i.) authority; (2.) the cause of all; (3.) comparison; (4.) ana- 
logy; (S-) certainty; but there is no just comparison in the Siltra 
to give light to this argument ; for in fact your Seinkhya Siitra 
says that Pradhlna alone is not born, a being everywhere diffused 
and also emanating from every place ; but here the S§,nkhya 
Siitra is at fault, for if Pradh^na is not produced and is sub- 
stantially present everywhere, if it thus produces everything, 
it must proceed from some place to use this power of producing, 
and, therefore, cannot be everywhere substantially present. So 
that saying there is one thing which creates everything else, 
and that this one thing is everywhere, is an error. Again, to 
say that this one thing extending everywhere is able to go 
from place to place is evidently a contradiction, for if it be 
everywhere present, where is there for it to go ? If it comes 
and goes, then every place is not everywhere ; the two ideas 
contradict and destroy one another. So that the argument falls 
through, and it is evidently false to say that anything not pro- 
duced is able to produce everywhere in all places, able to come, 
able to go ; all this is contradictory." 

Then his Brahman friend, having heard these words, spoke to 
Kusika and said, " It is because you are fraternising with those 
Sakya fellows that you speak thus ; but in truth in the scriptures 
of Buddha there are also great errors, for they say that birth 
and death have no original distinction, and that in the midst 
of all laws (existence) there is no personality." 

Then Kusika, addressing his friend, said, "It is because I find 
in the scriptures of Buddha the statement that there is no original 
distinction between life and death, and no personal ' I ' (self) in 


the world, that I believe in him. For if a man speculate about 
the existence of ' 1/ he will find no release in the end. Por it 
is this knowledge of the ' not I ' that at once excludes covetous 
desire, and so produces deliverance ; but if a man speculate and 
assume the existence of ' I,' then there is a place for covetousness 
and lust ; and these being once formulated, then come in life and 
death, and what escape can there be then ? " 

On this the kinsman of Kusika addressed him thus : " There 
is binding, so there is loosing. (There is sin, there is salvation.) 
You say there is no ' I,' therefore there is nothing that can be 
bound and nothing to be loosed. Who, then, is it that obtains 
deliverance ? " - 

Kusika answered, " Although there is no ' I,' yet there is 
binding and there is loosing. For why ? Because of the over- 
clouding of sorrow there is a ground for binding. Cut away 
sorrow, then there is deliverance. So that though there is no 
' I,' yet is there something to be bound and something to be 

On this the Brahmans said, " If there is no ' I,' who is it 
comes into the next world ? " 

Then Kusika addressing the men said, " Listen, I pray you. 
In the past, sorrow wove the net of life, and the body we now 
have is the result of it; and from the deeds now done will 
result the body we shall have hereafter, and all its parts. 
Come, now, I will use a comparison to illustrate this argument. 
It is like a grain of corn ; when all concomitant circumstances 
are in suitable relation, then the blade is produced; but in 
truth it is not this grain which produces the blade, for the grain 
dies (in the ground) ; the new blade grows and increases, but 
the old grain perishes — because it dies the blade lives — the two 
cannot be separated. So it is Buddha speaks with respect to the 
future body. Although there is no ' I,' yet the fruit of works 
is not lost." 

Then the Brahmans, acquiescing in all that had been said, 
went forthwith to the priests' quarters, and there asked for 
permission to take the vows (become " homeless ones "). This 
having been done, they afterwards became Eahats.^ 

^ I have omitted some portion of the controversial portion of this Sermon. 
The whole is very remarkable. 


Sermon III. 

Again, " In the religious field we ought not to give preference 
to either young or old, but regard the character." 

I heard an old story of a certain rich patron (Danapati) who 
sent a friend of his, a religious man, to a SanghS,rania to ask the 
priests to a repast, but he was only to inquire for the old and 
important priests, and not to care for the young and inferior. 
The religious man having asked all the priests in order, then 
came to the Shamis (novices) and took no notice of them. The 
Shamis then said, "And why do you not take notice of us 
Shamis ? " In answer he said, " The Danapati does not require 
you. It is not my doing." And on remonstrating, the man 
said these verses — ■ 

" The aged possess the merit of years, 
White hair and wrinkled countenance, 
Bushy eyebrows, teeth falling out, 
Rounded shoulders, the limbs cramped. 
The D&napati delights in such. 
He cares not about the young." 

Now in this temple there was a Shami of distinction who was a 
Eahat, and as a lion is stirred to anger, so the Shamis provoked 
him by saying, " That D§,napati is a foolish man ; he has no 
delight in the truly virtuous, but only hankers after the com- 
pany of the old and infirm." And then they repeated these 
verses — 

" That which is rightly named venerable 
Is not necessarily white-haired, 
Wrinkled, or with teeth falling out, 
For such a person may be fooUsh and unwise ; 
But the illustrious man, able to practise a religious life, 
Putting away from him and destroying all sin, 
Living a pure life of chastity, 
This man is rightly called venerable.^ " 

' Reverend. 


Then all those Shamis immediately, by the power of Trrdhi, 
changed themselves into shape of aged men; white hair and 
wrinkled mien, bushy eyebrows, loosened teeth, round-shoul- 
dered, leaning on sticks, they went on to the D^napati's house. 
The DS,napati having seen them, his heart was filled with joy 
unspeakable ; he burnt his incense, scattered flowers, and 
quickly asked and forced them to be seated. This done, behold, 
quite suddenly they all resumed their youthful form as Shamis. 
Then the D^napati felt . bewildered as he saw the changed 
appearances, as if by drinking heavenly nectar they had become 
changed and beautiful so suddenly. 

And now the Shami who was a Eahat spoke as follows : " We 
are not Yakshas or Eakshas, but because you, D§,napati ! have 
chosen out from the Church the old, thus making a distinction 
of high and low, and so causing your own good root (i.e., reli- 
gious principles) to perish, we have caused this transformation 
to make you repent j" and then he repeated the following 
verses — 

" Just as if the gnat 
Desired to exhaust the ocean depths, 
So neither can the world fathom 
The merit of the priesthood. 
The human race could not 
By measurement compute its merits ; 
How much less should you alone 
Attempt such calculation ! " 

Again the Shami continued, "It is wrong to estimate the 
priesthood by their appearance, whether by age or youth ; for the 
really religious look not at any outward appearance, but only at 
the presence of wisdom. The body may be young, and yet it 
may be free from all entanglements and defects, and the pos- 
sessor of it arrived at the condition of holiness ; and though the 
body may be old, yet the owner of it may be careless and remiss. 
What you call young and unimportant is not so ; and if you 
think to find the sea of evil desire quite emptied, that is not so ; 
nor yet if you would think to fathom by your wisdom the field 
of religious merit and know the high and less deserving, can 
this be done. Have you not rather heard what Tathagata says 


in the Sutra (where he bids his followers) not to despise the 
little child called ' Snake-fire' ? So neither should we despise 
the young Shamis. And again, what Tathagata says in the Amra 
comparison, that such fruit may be unripe within but ripe in 
appearance outside, or ripe outside and unripe within ; so neither 
is it right to judge men's character by outward appearances. 
You, therefore, have done very wrong. And now, if you have 
any doubts upon the matter, you are permitted to ask any 
question ; for hereafter you may have no such opportunity of 
hearing right distinctions on this point;" and then he con- 
tinued in verse — 

" The sea of the meritorious qualities of the Church 
Cannot be fathomed or measured. 
In honour of Buddha's birth, in joyful adoration 
Arose from space (of themselves) a hundred hymns of praise. 
How much more ought incessant praise to sound 
On behalf of the great family of man ! 
Large and yast is the pleasant field of merit j 
Sowing little, we reap much. 
The accordant Sikya Congregation, 
This is the so-called third precious gem. 
Amongst the whole of this assembly 
We are not permitted to judge by appearances.' 
It is not possible to coneider any distinction of birth (tribe) 
As entitling the possessor to words of commendation. 
No one has yet measured his inward excellences ; 
It is only outward appearance that has produced the respect. 
The appearance, indeed, may be young and attractive ; 
It is wisdom alone that is the recommendation. 
Not knowing the inward qualities of heart. 
We may esteem a man meanly (who is deserving of much) ; 
As in a thick and bushy grove, 

Where grow together the Tavr-peih and the I-lan flowers, 
The grove, though full of different shrubs. 
Is still so called (i.e., called a grove) without distinction of parts; 
And so, though there be old and young among the priests, 
Yet ought we not to use distinctions. 
Kslsyapa, when about to become a recluse, 
Taking from his person his very valuable robe, 
Assumed the commonest to be found in the vestry, 


Valuing it at countless golden pieces 
Because of the meritorious character of the priesthood ; 
So it is in the matter under consideration. 
Paying religious offerings to the lowest, 
We receive as reward a body endued with tenfold strength. 
Just as the waters of the great sea 
Wni not endure the presence of a dead body, 
So is it with the sea of the priesthood ; 
It will not tolerate a wilful transgressor, 
But amongst all the mixed multitude of the priests 
Down to the lowest who keeps the first rules (of his ordi- 
Honouring this one, and adding religious offerings, 
Such an one will secure the reward of great fruit ; 
Wherefore towards all the priests, 
Old and young, 

With equal intention, charity should be shown. 
And there should arise no distinctions." 

At this time the D^napati, hearing these words, was moved by 
contrition to such an extent that the hairs of his body stood 
upright, and his limbs sank under him as he fell to the ground ; 
and as he sought pardon for his fault he exclaimed, " Oh, foolish 
transgressor that I am ! my faults are indeed many. Oh that 
you would accept my repentance and deign to explain my 
doubts ! " and then he said in verse — 

" You indeed possess great wisdom 
In dividing the tangled net of doubts. 
If I do not ask for explanation. 
Then wisdom will not come to me." 

At this time the Shami said, " Eest content; what you ask 
shall be answered." The D§,napati then inquired as follows : 
" Great sir ! which is the more excellent ? — to believe and honour 
Buddha or the Church ? " 

The Shami answering said; "Do you then not know that 
there are three Treasures ? " {i.e., Buddha, the Law, and the 

The Danapati said, " I know indeed that there are three, but 


yet, notwithstanding, I wish to know why there may not be 
amongst the three one greatest ? " 

The Shami answering said, " There is neither one greater or 
less than another, whether it be Buddha or the Church ; " and 
then he said these verses — 

" The Brahman of a noble family, 
Whose name was Tuh-lo-che (VarAja), 
Blaming and praising Buddha in the same breath, 
Presented Tathdgata with food as a religious offering. 
Tathigata declined to receive it ; 
No one in the three worlds could digest it. 
Throwing it straightway into the water, 
A steaming vapour rose at the same moment. 
Gotamt offering respectfully a robe, 
Buddha at once gave it to the priesthood. 
Thus he showed by these proceedings 
That the three ' Precious ones ' are equal and not different." 

At this time the D^napati, having listened to the words 
spoken, said thus, " With respect to the equality of Buddha and 
the priesthood, why then did he cast the food on the water and 
not give it to the priests ? " 

The Shami answered, " It was to show that Tathagata had no 
greedy desire for food, and to make the virtuous character of 
the priesthood manifest, that he so acted; and then Buddha 
perceiving that such food as this {i.e., offered and so consecrated) 
no one in the three worlds could partake of, it was therefore he 
ordered it to be cast into (pure) water, and the fiery vapour at 
once arosie. But with reference to the robe of Gotaml offered 
to Buddha, he passed it over to the priesthood, and they received 
it, to show that there is no difference. You should understand 
this, therefore, that the priesthood is highly honourable (bhad- 
anta), and that the Church and Buddha are equal and the 

The DInapati then spoke as follows: "From this time 
forwards, in honouring the priesthood, whether young or old, I 
will m^ke no difference, but will offer my gifts with equal aim." 

The Shami answered, " If you thus act, ere long you shall 
obtain the way of seeing truth ; " and then he added — 


" Much hearing and keeping the precepts, 
Dhydna and wisdom, 

The man running along the way of the Three Vehicles, 
All these bring the same reward. 
Like the streams of the Sindhu river, 
Flowing onwards, enter the sea. 
So these worthy ones and saints 
Together enter the sea of the priesthood. 
Like as in the midst of the snowy hills 
Grow all kinds of medicinal plants. 
Or as the good and generous earth 
Causes the seeds to grow and increase, 
So good and wise men all 
Come forth and grow in the iield of the Church." 

Having recited these g§,thas, he further addressed the D§,na- 
pati and said, " Have you not at least heard from the Sutras 
respecting Aniruddha, Nanda, and Kompira, how that a 
great spirit-warrior named Kia-fu addressed Buddha thus : 
' World-honoured ! if throughout the worlds a Deva, a man, or 
M§,ra, or Brahma, is able in his mind to recite the names of 
these three disciples, this shall bring great gain and rest ' ? But 
if to name three men does this, how much more the profit 
accruing from the whole Church ? " and then he added in 
verse — 

" Three men, who form but a part of the whole, 

Recollecting (naming) them brings profit, 

As that spirit- warrior said ; 

Not able to recite the entire priesthood, 

If only these, great gain shall follow. 

How much more reciting all the names ! 

Know this, then, and remember it. 

All good and meritorious things 

Come from the Church, 

Just as the rain from the great N4ga 

Can only be absorbed by ocean's depths. 

The priesthood is the same ; 

This only can absorb the great law's rain. 

Therefore you ought with single heart 

To recite the character of all the Church. 

And who are those that make the Church 


But the great band of good men, 

The body of the converted ? 

The priesthood, like a valiant host of warriors, 

Can overcome and vanquish Mftra the foe. 

Thus all this grand fraternity, 

This mighty forest invincible in wisdom. 

All righteous doers, 

Gathered together all in one, 

Saved and delivered, surpassing the Three Vehicles. 

Oh, what a grand victorious host is this ! " 

And now the Shami having concluded these laudatory stanzas, 
the D^napati and his companions, conceiving great joy of heart, 
obtained the fruit of SrotS.pannas. 

Sermon IV. 

Again, " By hearing the law there ensues great profit, and by 
increase of wisdom the heart is entirely composed and satisfied." 

I heard long ago this story about the Lion district (Ceylon). 
At one time there was a man who procured a Mani gem large 
as a man's fist. This gem was rare and costly, such as the 
world could hardly equal. This gem he presented to the king. 
The king, beholding it when in his possession, said in verse — 

" From ancient days the various kings 
Collecting gems have sought renown. 
And in the midst of tribute-bearers 

Have brought their gems to view for their own exaltation. 
But when these monarchs come to die, 
They have to leave their treasures and depart alone, 
With bodies clothed again — no possible escape — 
According to their deeds, if good or bad ; 
Just as the bee that gathers honey — 
Another reaps the gain, he gets nothing. 
So is it as regards wealth and jewels ; 
We profit others, nought get ourselves. 
From days of old the various kings. 
With respect to these deceitful gems. 
Have heaped up stones for others' use ; 


Not one of them to follow him (at death). 
Now will I for my own benefit 
Cause this gem to follow me. 
Only in the merit-field of Buddha 
Can future recompense be got." 

The king having recited these verses, forthwith went to the 
place where a Stiipa was built, and caused this jewel to be 
placed on the top of the surmounting pole. Its brilliancy 
was equal to that of a large star, so that the king's palace and 
the adjoining halls were all lit up with its brightness day by 
day. One day the light suddenly stopped. The king, alarmed 
on that account, forthwith sent a messenger to see why it was. 
Having come to the place, he could not see the gem, but only 
the fallen staff and blood flowing down on the ground. Following 
the blood traces towards a Kia-to-lo wood, on reaching it he 
found the gem-robber as a rat concealed between some trees. 
It appeared that whilst he was stealing the gem, the staff broke 
and fell to the ground, and hence the blood. Immediately 
seizing the man, he brought him to the king's presence. When 
the king first saw him he was extremely angry, but observing 
how he was bleeding and torn, his heart was touched with pity, 
and looking at him he said, " Psha ! man ! you are indeed a fool, 
to steal a gem belonging to Buddha ; for if .you had succeeded 
in escaping with it, still hereafter you would have fallen into 
misery ; " and then he said in verse — 

" For shame ! what folly this ! 
What want of wisdom doing such wickedness ! 
As if a man, fearing the stick, 
Subjected himself to death and torture, 
So, fearful of the pinch of poverty, 
You have conceived this wicked scheme ; 
Not able to endure a moment's want. 
You court a long unending wretchedness." 

Then a certain minister, having heard these verses, addressed 
the king and said, " What your majesty says is true and not 
vain ; " and then he added these lines — 

" A St<ipa is a precious thing with men ; 
Who robs a Stiipa, ignorant and foolish. 


For countless kalpas he 

Shall not meet with the three Precious Ones ; 

In years gone by there was a man, 

Who, for that his heart was full of joy, 

Took up a Sumana flower, 

And ofi'ered it before a Tower of Buddha. 

For this, a god or man, through endless kalpas 

He enjoyed the highest bliss. 

To rob a Stftpa of the Dasabala Lord, 

And take its jewels for one's private use, 

The fruit of such behaviour certainly 

Would show itself engulfed in hell." 

Again another minister, angry with the culprit, said, "As 
this fool of a man has committed such a crime, and it has been 
proved, he should be tortured (boiled) to death." 

The king, answering him, said, " Say not so ; for if he were 
put to death, what more could we do ? but having fallen to the 
ground, we may lift him up again ; " and then the king added 
these verses — 

" This man, having fallen so wofully. 
We ought with speed to try and rescue him. 
I will now give him gold and gems j 
Let him repent and get some merit ; 
Perhaps he may escape (his punishment). 
Being on the point of certain misery. 
I will give him money ; 
Let him offer gifts to Buddha, 
That as with disobedient heart 
He sinned, he may not perish ; 
For if a man by accident falls down, 
He may perhaps be raised again ; 
For as we sin, 'tis against Buddha, 
So he alone can remedy our sin." 

Then the king, giving the man money, bade him go offer it 
to Buddha, and wipe out his guilt and get religious merit. 

On which the thief thought thus, " Now, then, if this great ' 
king had not been humanised by the religion he professes, he 
would have caused me to be tortured to death on account of 
my crime, Now this king is in very truth a great man to 


counsel me thus in the face of my crime, and S§,kya Tatha- 
gata is a wonderful heing to be able to convert even an un- 
believer thus." Having said this, he went straightway to the 
Stupa, and falling on his hands and knees, he adored and said, 
" Great merciful lord of the world, the true saviour of men ! 
although thou hast reached Nirvana, yet you can cause your 
grace ta find out me. The world at large calls you its true 
deliverer; again they name you, 'known and acknowledged 
everywhere.' Let your favour visit me, for are you not a true 
deliverer? Oh, let not this name be vain and empty;" and 
then he said — 

" The world names you true saviour ; 
This name is true, not vain. 
Now let this salvation find me out. 
Let me know its true significance. 
The world is all on fire, 
Burnt up with sorrow thick as weeds ; 
Thy love, cool as the clear moon 
Shining abroad, heals every pain. 
When Tathdgata dwelt in the world. 
He saved the wealthy noble 
Held in the wilderness by an evil spirit ; 
This, indeed, was not a hard thing ! 
But now, after his Nirvana, 
By his bequeathed law to save from misery ; 
Yea, even me to save from woe ! 
This is indeed a most hard thing. 
What skilful artist he. 
Uniting skill with pious heart, 
Carved yonder figure, right hand raised, 
Which makes the guilty find repose ; 
The fearful, looking on it, 
Feel, as they look, their fears subside. 
How much more when in the world 
Was he a personal deliverer of many ! 
Now in my great affliction 
His sacred image rescues and delivers me." 


Sermon V. 

Again, " The man without desire, though he has riches and 
worldly goods, his heart not being engrossed by them, he is still 
called and known as a man without desires." , 

I heard a story long ago of this kind : There was a certain 
Up§.saka who had a friend that believed in the way of religion 
practised by Brahmans. At this time this friend of his was 
commending a certain Brahman, who, with worn-out clothes, 
was subjecting himself to endure the broiling of the five fires, 
eating nothing but vile food, sleeping on dirt ; and calling to the 
Up§,saka, he said, " WiU you come with me and see this 
Brahman? You have never yet seen so greatly mortified a 
body as his and a man so free from desire ; do you know him 
or not?" 

The UpSiSaka replied, " How this (man of) exceeding (high) 
suffering is deceiving you ! " and then going with his friend, he 
spoke to the Brahman thus, " What are you expecting to result 
from your mortification ? " 

The Brahman said, " I am enduring these torments with a 
view to becoming a king." 

At this time the Upasaka spoke to his friend and said, " This 
man, as it now appears, is seeking to obtain the treasures of the 
great earth, the jewels and gold, the killing and eating, palace 
servants, music amd women, and every kind of pleasing enter- 
tainment ; he is not contented with the wealth or the treasures 
of a minister or a nobleman, but he must needs have the jewels 
and treasures of the great earth. How can you call this man 
one of no desire ? You can only see the man's body that suffers 
torment, and on that account you caU him a man of 'few 
desires,' but you cannot, in knowledge of his insatiate purpose, 
call him a man of small desire." And then he spoke these 
verses — 

" He who is called a man of small desire 
Need not be badly clothed or fed, 
Or without the means of life's enjoyments, 


So as to be thought of small desire. 

For this man here before us, . 

His mind is like the great ocean-river : 

He covets more than he can tell. 

How can such a man have small desires ] 

He undergoes these painful sufferings 

Because he covets thoroughly the indulgence of the 

five desires. 
This man is false and hypocritical ; 
He ouly shows the outward marks of small desire; 
Because he covets much he suffers pain ; 
This is a false pretence to small desires." 

Having recited these verses, the Up^saka said again, " This 
man is full of covetous desire, anger, and delusion ; he has no 
share at all with those Eishi saints who suffered discipline. 
You ought to know that men of small desires are not always 
poor. They may be rich and possessed of every kind of 
treasure, and yet be truly men of small desire. For instance, 
Bimbas^ra E§,ja was rich, possessed of lands and elephants, 
horses, and the seven kinds of gems, and he was rightly called a 
man of small desires. And why ? Because, though he had wealth 
and treasure, still his heart was free from covetousness, and he 
rejoiced in holiness ; and therefore though so rich and possessed 
of every treasure, yet because his heart was free from longing, 
he was truly one of small desire. And so again, although a 
man possesses nothing, no wealth or jewels, yet if he have an 
insatiate longing, he cannot justly be called a man of small 
desire ; " and then again he said in verse — 

" If, without food or clothing, 
Your naked Nirgranthas and the rest 
Subject themselves to every torment 
In order to secure the name of Saint, 
Starved ghosts and cattle. 
Paupers, and those in tribulation^ 
These, and all who suffer from calamity, 
Would also rightly so be called, 
As much as those. 
Self-inflicted torture. 
May cause the body pain, 


But yet the heart may cherish covetous desire 

And long for unbounded gain : 

That man cannot be called ' of small desire.' 

And so, again, a man possessing all things, 

His heart polluted not with longing, 

But practising the love of holiness. 

He is rightly called ' of small desire.' 

Just as the ploughman 

Sows in his field all kinds of seed, 

But covets more when the grain ripens. 

He is not called a man ' of small desire j ' 

But he who regards the body as some evil sore 

That must be tended with all necessary care, 

Because he seeks through it to get true wisdom. 

This man is one ' of small desire.' 

He tends the soul to cure it, 

But has little thought about indulgences. 

The heart desiring nothing except this. 

This man, in truth, is one of ' small desire.' 

His mind's intention not being crooked, 

Not seeking personal fame or profit, 

Although he has provision for his comfort. 

Yet being true, and well reputed, 

Who acts and lives like this. 

He is indeed a man ' of small desire.' " 

Sermon VI. 

Again, " Although a man keep the precepts, if he does so with 
a view to obtain heavenly delights (or the pleasures of heaven), 
he does but break the precepts." 

I have heard an old story of this kind. There was a Shaman 
who dwelt in a certain deserted wood, observing the summer 
rest with a certain Brahman. On this occasion the Shaman 
kept continually going forward and backward past the place 
where the Brahman was, but in his behaviour to him he 
was neither too familiar nor too distant, but tried to observe 
the just medium. And why ? because undue familiarity 
would have bred rudeness, and too distant a line of conduct 


would have produced hatred. And he recited the following 
verses — 

" Place a stick in the sunlight, 
If it slope to one side, there will be no right shadow ; 
But fix it perfectly upright 
And the shadow then will be of proper length. 
With this man it is the same ; 
A right medium between familiarity and distance 
Will lead to a gradual acquaintance. 
And after this I may instruct him in religion." 

" This Brahman (he said) is without true wisdom ; he dis- 
tinguishes not between the offerings of the foolish or the 
worthy ; his extreme suffering is the cause thereof. I will 
neither be familiar nor distant with him, for this very inability 
through suffering to take notice of the offerings of others is in 
itself a suffering ; " and so gradually, by use of means, getting 
into conversation with him, he put this question, "Why are 
you now lifting up your hands towards the sun, sleeping on 
ashes, or sitting naked as you are now on the grass, or not 
sleeping day or night but standing with one foot raised ? 
What is it you are trying to get by all these austerities ? " 

The Brahman answered, " I seek to get a kingdom and to 
govern it as king." 

A short time afterwards this Brahman fell sick, and on 
going to get a doctor's prescription, he was told by the phy- 
sician that he must get some meat to eat. On this the Brahman 
spoke to the Bhikshu and said, " Can you go for me to the 
house of the Di,napati and beg a morsel of meat to heal my 
sickness ? " 

Then the Bhikshu thought thus with himself, " If I am to 
convert that man, now is my opportunity." 

Having thought thus, he caused to appear a sheep, which he 
brought, led by a tether, to the Brahman. 

On the Brahman asking where the piece of flesh was that he 
wanted, the Bhikshu replied, " This sheep is the flesh." Then 
the Brahman, greatly enraged, answered, " Would you have me 
kill the sheep to get the flesh to eat ? " On this the Bhikshu 
answered thus in verse — 


" Now you profess to pity a sheep, 

And declare you would not kill it, 

But hereafter, if you become a king. 

Both oxen, sheep, and pigs, 

With fowls and wild creatures, 

You will slay innumerable. 

Then you will sit upon your throne, 

And your attendants serving you with food 

Will, if you by chance get angry, 

Be forthwith decapitated ; 

Or you will say, ' Cut off their hands and feet,' 

Or at another time you'll say, 'Bore out their eyes.' 

But now, forsooth ! you pity a sheep, 
• But then you'll readily kill many things. 

If really you profess a pitiful heart, 

Then you'll forego this thought of royalty ; 

For as a man about to undergo the torture, 

Fearing the pain, will drink much wine 

[And so delude himself], 

Or as the flowery grove is very brilliant 

Which is about to be consumed with fire ; 

Or as a fetter made of gold, 

Though beautiful, is strong to bind, 

So is a king's estate. 

Filled with fear and anxious doubtings, 

He goes surrounded by his armed attendants, 

Glittering with jewels : 

He sees not the calamity about to happen. 

The foolish crowd, coveting such rank. 

Obtaining it, rush into wickedness. 

And then fall down to hell (three ways) ; 

Just as the moth loves the fire-glare. 

And rushing to the flame is burnt to death. 

But though men get the pleasure of the five indulgences, 

And though their fame be everywhere diff'used. 

They only reap incessant fear 

And sorrow's anguish deep as possible, 

Like treading on a poisonous snake, 

Or holding a burning torch before the wind, 

Or as one confined within a murderer's house. 

Or as one just going^to execution. 


A king, on going abroad, 

Wears his royal crown upon his head, 

Glittering with gems and gold ; 

His royal apparel shines with richness, 

His horse or costly chariot 

Carries him, as forth he goes 

With thousands attending him, 

Full of dignity and strength. 

But now a hostile band of robbers. 

At sight of him so richly dressed. 

Attack : if conquered, many slain ! 

If defeated he, then lost his life ! 

'Tis true his body is perfumed with richest scents, 

His clothes exhale delicious odours. 

His food is rare and rich in quality, 

A hundred dainty tastes delight his palate, 

Whate'er he wants is ready at his word. 

There's none to oppose or contradict his will ; 

Yet, going or coming, sitting or sleeping, 

His mind is moved by doubt or lurking fear : 

He trusts not friends or relatives ; 

His very kith and kin 

Are ever plotting evil. 

What pleasure can there be in such a state t 

'Tis like the fish that nibbles at the hook, 

Or like the honey covering up the knife, 

Or like the net or baited trap ; 

The fishes or the beasts desire to taste. 

But see not their impending suffering. 

The case is so with wealthy folk. 

Who now enjoy their luxuries, but in the end are born 

in hell. 
In hell, whose very walls 

And every corner, nay, the very earth, is molten fire. 
The sinner there lies writhing ; 
The fire bursts from out his body 
While he receives unmitigated torments. 
Consider, then, and weigh the matter. 
The joys to be partaken of, how few ! 
The pain and suffering, how great ! 
Ponder well and recollect the pain, 


And seek not rank or independence ; 
Let go your grasping covetous mind, 
And seek to find entire escape, 
Pain's final and complete destruction." 

The Brahman, having heard these verses, remained silent 
vyithout answering ; but then, with joined hands, turning to the 
Bhikshu, he said, " Honoured sir ! you are skilled in opening the 
understanding. My mind indeed was set on getting the royal 
state in the thirty-three heavens, and I cared nothing for 
eternal life (sweet dew);" and thin he repeated these gathas — 

" Illustrious art thou in devising means, 
Thy wisdom is able to discriminate justly. 
For my sake destroying in me false aims, 
Leading me on in the right road, 
A true friend indeed is this. 
Praised and honoured in the world. 
May such a friend be ever mine 
Without the pain of cavil or dispute. 
Leading my mind's thoughts in the true way 
Out of error into the right path of religion, 
Showing me the works of virtue and of vice, 
Causing me to attain salvation." 

Sermon XX.i 
The Text. 

Once more, "To give away in charity (our possessions), without 
any change of purpose, is the way to secure high renown in 
the present world and a full reward (hereafter) : we ought 
therefore to be liberal and not niggardly." 

I have heard that once on a time there was a certain painter 
(decorator) belonging to the country of Bactria (Fu-kie-lo), whose 
name was Kie-na (Kana ?), who had some business to transact 
at Takshasila. Having arrived there, he visited all the Stftpas 
(St^pa temples), and having decorated a certain vihS,ra, he 
received in return for his work thirty gold pieces, 

' I translate this short Sermon because it shows us that the Viharas in India 
were decorated by artists from Bactria (where Greek art prevailed) at an early 
period. It also shows us that Buddhism and Buddhist worship prevailed in 
Bactria at the same time. 


Having returned to his own country, he found all the people 
engaged in celebrating a five-yearly assembly (panchavarsha 

Having been brought to a state of faith (by what he 
witnessed), he asked the Bhikshu who was managing the 
affairs, who was going to provide the necessary entertainment 
(food, &c.) for the morrow ? In reply he said that no one had 
come forward to offer his services. 

He then inquired of the same Bhikshu how much one day's 
entertainment (for food, &c.) would cost ; and hearing that it 
would take thirty gold pieces, the painter immediately gave to 
the Bhikshu that sum, his own earnings at Takshasila. He 
then went home. 

And now his wife inquired of him, " What have you earned 
whilst on your travels abroad ? " The husband answered, " I 
got thirty gold pieces, but I have given them away in charity 
to the religious assembly." 

His wife, having heard this, was very angry, and sent to call 
all their relations, and addressed them thus : " This husband of 
mine, after he had got some gold pieces by his work abroad, 
has given it all away in charity to the assembly, and now 
there is nothing left for our domestic expenses." 

Then all the relations, seizing the man, took him to the magis- 
trate's office and said, " It cannot be allowed that this man, 
who is of poor estate, should not employ the earnings of his 
craft in supporting his family, but, in spite of his relations' 
means being exhausted, should give away (what he has earned) 
in charity (to entertain) the religious assembly." 

The magistrate having heard the complaint, asked the man, 
" Is this the case with you or not ? " He answered, "It is 
all true." At this time the magistrate, having listened to the 
statement and answer, was deeply moved, and immediately 
spoke as follows in commendation of the man's conduct : " Well 
done ! " And then having taken off his robes and all his jewels 
and saddled his horse, he placed the man thus clothed on the 
steed and repeated the following lines — 

" How difficult for one enduring the pain of poverty, 
Who has by his hard labour earned some scanty reward, 


To bestow it in charity (for some religious purpose), 

And not employ it for purposes of daily life ! 

Even though a man be rich and possess abundance, 

Though his means of livelihood increase exceedingly, 

Yet, unless he use due consideration and thought. 

He is not quickly led to devote any portion of it in charity ; 

But if, by consideration of his after state. 

He brings himself to feel that charity meets with its due 

And then with determination sets himself to charitable acts, 
Banishing all niggard and miserly inclinations, 
This man thus practising his religious duties 
Shall escape from the destruction which the earth-holder 

brings on the world." ^ 

At this time the painter, having heard the verses, was filled 
with joy, and exultingly he advanced, riding on the caparisoned 
horse and clothed in the robes (of the magistrate), towards his 
home. Then the members of his household, seeing one so 
gorgeously attired riding a horse and coming to the gate, ex- 
claimed, " Here comes a great personage !" and their hearts failing 
them for fear, they ran indoors and hid themselves from sight. 
On this the painter addressed them and said, " I am no stranger, 
but your husband and master." The wife then addressed him 
thus, "You are a poor man, how then have you got this 
caparisoned horse to ride and these clothes ? " Then the master 
repeated these lines — 

" Listen and attend, good wife ! 
Whilst I recite a true tale. 
Money given in religious charity, 
This charity, though not yet producing fruit, 
Is but like the seed sown in the earth. 
Which at first seems lost, but then shoots up. 
The field of religious merit is good beyond description; 
The fruit it produces comes afterwards. 
In this good field of priestly charity 
Who would not wish to sow ? 
When once the mind is so made up, 
Then all shall see the fruit produced." 

' Perhaps the same as Yama. 


Then the good wife, after listening, arrived at a pure and 
believing heart, and replied in these verses — 

" Even as Buddha declares, 
Eeligious charity is exceedingly productive. 
He who now gives in charity 
Shall surely reap where he has bestowed ; 
For whosoever piously gives a little water, 
He shall receive return like the great sea. 
Amongst all human associations 
The priesthood of Buddha is the chief. 
At time of death, wherever points the thought, 
The flower as it opens stands (or goes) before." 

[This last stanza seems to refer to the old idea that each 
dying saint is represented by a flower opening in Paradise.] 

I will conclude by calling your notice to some remarks made 
by I-tsing in the 32nd section of his work, " Nan-hae-k'i-kwei- 
ch'un," as to the character of the hymns used in Buddhist 
worship, some of which were composed by Aivaghosha. 

The land of China, he says, from ancient times, according to 
traditional teaching, has only known the worship of Buddha 
by setting forth his names. But in the Western countries 
the Chaityas which stand by the roadside are reverenced by 
passers-by. And every afternoon or evening the assembly 
coming from the gates (by the convent) three times circum- 
ambulate the St^lpas with incense and flowers; and then 
sitting down cross-legged, they cause some skilled brother 
to accompany himself with music as he sings with clear 
voice the praises of the Great Master ; and for this purpose 
they have hymns consisting of ten or even twenty ' £okas. 
They then return to the temple, and having taken their seats in 
the usual place, they cause a preacher to mount the pulpit (lion- 
seat), and there to read through some short sermon (Sutra). The 
pulpit is not far from the chief Sthavira's seat, and is not so 
high or so large. In reading the Sutra (or whilst reading), they 
generally recite (sing) from the Sangita (or threefold collection ^) 

1 This expression is afterwards explained to refer to the three sections or 
divisions of the compilation which A^vaghosha made. It may have been in the 
form of a triptych. 


(San-Jc'he) which A^vaghosha Ayusmat compiled, selecting ten 
^lokas or so, and as they catch the meaning of what is read, 
they recite the hymn of praise i to the three honoured names ; 
(the preacher then) sets forth the place where the several 
passages occur in the true S^tra spoken by Ananda.^ The hymn 
or psalm being ended, they then select ten other £okas to recite 
whilst they perform the usual votive procession (round the apse * 
[hwui hiang]). This is also composed in three parts or sections, 
and hence it is called San-k'he. All this being ended^ the 
congregation says " Svasti " (Be it even so) [Amen] ; this is a 
very favourite or choice exclamation of assent used during the 
recitation of the Scriptures. They also say " Vatthu," which is 
the same as ''It is well" (saddhu). The preacher after this 
descends (from his pulpit). The president then first rises and 
bows to the lion-throne (the pulpit), (in token of) the pre- 
paratory instruction (or, the service) being finished, and after- 
wards he bows to the holy assembly, and then returns to his 
place. The second priest then bows to the two places (viz., 
the pulpit and the assembly), and then salutes the president,, 
and then resumes his seat. The third priest then does likewise, 
and so on to the end of the assembled priests. If the number 
of priests is very great, then three or five, as they think proper, 
rise at the same time and salute as before. This done, they 

This is the rule of the priesthood throughout the holy land 
of the East from Tamralepti to Nalanda. In the latter monas- 
tery the number of priests and disciples is so great, amounting 
to about five thousand, that such an assembly in one place 
would be difficult. This great temple has eight halls, each able 
to hold about three hundred at a time; in these the various 
congregations are assembled. The rules here are (in consequence 
of the numbers) somewhat different from other places. They 

' Probably the Sa/randgamarui, oi " gloiioua hymn," as Buddhaghosha terms 
it, in honour of the Buddha, the Law, and the Church. Vide Childers, J.R.A.S., 
vol. iv. part ii. p. 325. 

^ So at least I understand the expression Fo-ta'm. 

* The Chinese expression kwui-Jiiang exactly corresponds to the Greek &\l/ or 
S,^ feral. The last portion of the Buddhist ritual in worship consists of a pro- 
cessional circuit round the spot where, in old times, the ddgaba or relic shrine stood, 
viz., in the chord of the apse. I am not suggesting that the word apse is derived 
from dif/, but simply pointing out the coincidence. 


select one singing-master (precentor), "who, every evening towards 
sundown, goes through the various halls where the priests are 
assembled accompanied by a, pure brother,''- a young man [acolyte], 
who precedes him, holding flowers and incense ; and as they 
pass through the assemblies the members of the congregation 
bow down, and at each bow with a loud voice they chant a 
hymn of three ^lokas or five, with the sound of drums and 
music. At sundown, when all is just over, the precentor 
receives from the temple property a certain allowance as an 
offering (offertory), after which he again takes his place opposite 
an incense-heap (a large censer), and singly recites with his 
heart (or heartily) a hymn of praise ; and thus until nightfall, 
when,, after the congregation have given three complete prostra- 
tions, the assembly is broken up. This is the traditional custom 
of worship in the West. The old and sick occupy small seats 
apart. ,, 

There were some ancient practices not exactly the same as 
the present Indian customs ; such, for instance, as the custom 
of chanting a hymn when at the time of worship the distinctive 
marks of Buddha were recited ; this was a grand chant of ten 
or twenty ^lokas : this was the rule. Again, the " Gathas of the 
Tathagatas " and others were originally intended to be laudatory 
hymns in praise of the virtues of Buddha, and were in long or 
short verses arranged harmoniously. And because the meaning 
of these verses was difficult to be got at, it became customary 
during the religious seasons, when the congregation was 
assembled in the evening, to call on some distinguished mem- 
ber to recite 150 to 400 stanzas in praise of Buddha (and 
explain them), with other hymns. 

There have been certain leading men of great talent who 
have contributed hymns of praise for use in the worship of 
Buddha — such as venerable Matrijdta, a man of great talent. 
Of him it is said that his birth was predicted by Buddha when 
a certain parrot saluted him as he passed through a grove. 
Having become a convert, he first composed 400 laudatory 
verses and afterwards 150, arranged according to the six para- 

1 A similar expression is used by Fa-Men (cap. 3). The Essenes also had pure 
hrotliers to wait on them. 


mitas, illustrating the most excellent qualities of the world- 
honoured Buddha, 

Other hymns were composed hy the Bodhisatwa Asangha, 
others by Vasabhanda. All who enter the ministry are 
supposed to learn these beforehand, whether they belong to 
the Great or Little Vehicle. There are also the hymns com- 
posed by Channa Bodhisatwa, by Sakyadeva of the Deer 
Park, and also by Nagarjuna, who composed the work called 
Suhrita. This he left to his old patron, the king of a great 
southern kingdom called Sadvaha. 

We cannot pass over the special notice of the Jdtahamala, 
which is also a book of this sort. If translated it would make 
about ten chapters in Chinese. The origin of the book was 
this : SilMitya ^ E§,ja was extremely fond of literature, and 
on one occasion issued an order that all the chief men of the 
kingdom who loved poetry should assemble the next day 
morning at the palace, and each bring a verse on paper. In 
consequence five hundred assembled, and on their papers being 
opened the verses were put together, and this is the J^taka- 
mala.^ Of all books of poetry known in India, this is the 
most refined. The islands of the Southern Sea and the ten 
countries all use these verses, but in China they have not yet 
been translated. 

Again, the venerable Alvaghosha composed a book of chants, 
and also the Alamk^ra Shastra, and also the Life of Buddha in 
verse. The whole book if translated might be included in 
about ten volumes. It describes the life of Tathagata from the 
period of his birth in the palace, to his death between the trees. 
This is used also throughout India and in the Southern Sea. 

' SiMditya diedgSO A.D. Jul. i. 215. 

2 Thia may be the copy of the J&tahamOila alluded to lately by Dr. Frankfurter 
(I think) in the Athenwum. 

( 143 ) 



It is curious that whilst Xenophanes, the founder of the Eleatic 
School in Greece, was being led " purely hy his own reflections 
to the profoundest doubts concerning the religion of the people," 
that a similar process of thought was taking place in the mind 
of the founder of Buddhism in India. Both these reformers 
were dissatisfied with the popular form of belief, and purely by 
their own reflections were led to one conclusion. The Grecian 
philosopher declared " that there could be but one God, the 
highest among gods and men, who is all eye and all thought, 
and who without effort rules all by the insight of his mind." 
Buddha announced himself to be " the highest among gods and 
men, who had attained supreme wisdom, and was possessed of 
an all-seeing eye (Samanta chaksu)." 

In the former case, the objective belief in God remained 
intact ; in the latter, the belief in God was identified with the 
consciousness of an indwelling enlightenment, attained by the 
removal of that which prevented its manifestation, by a process 
which had continued through ages of discipline. 

The movement adverse to the popular belief, as in Greece so 
in India, had been going on for many years before the time 
either of Xenophanes or Buddha. 

In Greece it had been aided by the expressed sentiments of a 
succession of poets and philosophers, Solon, Pindar, ^schylus, 
Sophocles, Socrates, and others ; in India there had been a 
succession of mystic philosophers from the time of the Vedas 
(corresponding to the Homeric period in Greece) down to the 
time when Buddha appeared, who had each attempted to attenu- 
ate, so to speak, the gross naturalism of the popular worship, 
by the invention of heaven above heaven, each less sensuous 


than the one underlying it, placed in order through successive 
tiers, till at last they had well-nigh done away with the possi- 
bility of any local character for the heavens they invented, or 
any conceivable existence for those who inhabited them. 

The difference between the movement in India and Greece 
was this — in the former country we see before us, in the very 
names of the heavens invented, the stages of thought that 
succeeded one another in successive periods of advance ; in the 
latter, the process was unmarked by any such steps, but was a 
purely intellectual one. 

We read that Buddha, when he left his home, hoping to solve 
the question of " the existence of sorrow," held parley with 
certain ascetic philosophers who were reputed to be in advance 
of the age with respect to the solution of this question, Arada 
and Udra E§,maputra had framed for themselves an idea of 
future life in which the existence of sorrow should be impos- 
sible, because they did away with any subject capable of it. 
They imagined a state of existence " without form" and " with- 
out thought;" this conception, however, did not satisfy the 
young prince, because there was still an individual existeiice, 
and therefore a possibility of re-birth in a lower form of life, 
and therefore of continued suffering. Buddha, therefore, sought 
out for himself the answer to his own question, " "What is that 
condition in which renewed birth and death is impossible ? " 

He found this in his theory of Nirvana. Among other terms 
used in explanation of this expression in Chinese Buddhist 
works is the one I referred to in my First Lecture, viz., the 
term wou-wei. In the thirtieth section of the Fo-pen-hing-king 
the phrase is used Tan-wou-wei, " praises of Nirv§,na." Wou- 
wei, whether it mean non-action or non-individuality, seems to 
point to "a breathless" or "non-creative" state of existence. 
When desire sprang up in this condition, then sorrow began. 
This desire led to production, and production is necessarily evil. 
Go back, therefore, "stem the flood," Buddha taught, destroy 
the root of desire, and you will arrive at a condition of original 
perfection. Whether the term Nirvana may not be explained 
etymologically as signifying a condition of " not breathing forth," 
i.e., passive and self-possessed existence, is a question I shall 
not attempt to answer. But on one point there is aoreement 


in all Buddhist works that have come before me, that Nirv§,na 
is a condition incapable of beginning or ending (without birth, 
■without death)>^ This conception developed finally into the 
worship of the eternal {Amitdyus), a worship still professed 
(though ignorantly) wherever this development has been allowed 
to progress on the lines of Buddha's original thought. 

There is an expression found in the Chinese as a synonym 
for the name of Buddha, I mean " Chin Yii " (the " true that" 
or, thus), which evidently points in the same direction. " The 
true That " is the state of existence, ineffable and unthinkable, 
to which the Buddha has returned. I need not remind you 
how this idea of non-breathing existence {i.e., passive and non- 
creative being) is exhibited in the direct efforts both of Buddhists 
and Brahmans to suppress their breath when in a state of pro- 
found religious thought or ecstasy, as indicating a brief return 
to the condition of perfect and unfettered being. And, in fact, 
the modes of thought and expression on this particular point 
(indicating agreement derived probably from a primitive origin), 
common both to Semitic and Aryan, and probably Turanian 
nations, is very remarkable. The act of creation is attributed 
in Semitic records to the "breath or Spirit of God moving 
upon the waters." If it be remembered that the "Spirit of 
God " may justly be rendered " a mighty wind " (although from 
our standpoint there is no need to adopt such a rendering), this 
offers a remarkable agreement with the " strong wind blowing 
on the waters" explained in Buddhist records, which I shall 
presently translate as the origin of the created world. 

The condition of " non-lreathing " or " not blowing," then, is 
the same as a condition of passive or non-creative existence, 
which is supposed to have been the original state of that, ere 
desire arose and multiplicity ensued. It is to this condition 
Buddha aimed to return when he taught us to extinguish desire, 
and so reach Nirvlna. 

But whilst we may regard Buddhism in the light of a 
reformation of the popular belief in India, we must bear in 
mind that the stream of tradition, which reappears in its 

Corresponding to the Egyptian description of Kneph, " t4 &yyeyrjT<«' k^i rb 




teaching and may be traced in its books, is independent and 
probably distinct from the Brahmanical traditions embodied in 
the PurSnas and elsewhere. At any rate, this is the case so 
■fax as the primitive questions of creation and of the kosmic 
system generally are concerned. Mr. Ehys Davids^ has 
already remarked " that the Buddhist archangel or god BrahmS, 
is different from anything known to the Brahmans, and is part 
of an entirely different system of thought." I am incUned to go 
further than this, and say that the traditions of the Buddhists are 
different from those of the Brahmans in almost every respect. 

First of all, it is siagular that the Buddhists, by a sort of 
a priori reasoning, should have arrived at the truth of an infinite 
number of worlds existing throughout space. "Worlds as 
numerous as the sands of the Ganges," is a phrase entirely their 
own; and by a higher enumeration, "worlds as many as all 
the sands of aU the Ganges rivers;" till at last they formulated 
the expression "worlds innumerable" {asamkheya). By an 
equally singular process of thought they conceived the exist- 
ence of a universally diffused vital or organic force, which they 
called Bodhi, or, to use the words of M. Leon Ffer,^ " Au prin- 
cipe de I'impuissance de I'instabilit^ universelle il {Bouddha) 
oppose I'existence d'iine force r^elle la seule chose qui subsiste, 
la Bodhi." It is into this force those who are enlightened (the 
Buddhas) pass when they die. And by this force all things 
are sustained and upheld. Hence the " heart of Bodhi " is a 
frequent term, used to indicate the power or the presence of 
this force in the heart, which in the later Buddhist speculation 
constitutes a Bodhisatwa. 

Both these deductions are purely Buddhistic and very sin- 
gular, as they anticipated what is now recognised as scienti- 
fically true. 

But let us look at the Buddhist kosmic system. This system 
postulates first of all the existence of a single world, which 
consists of a central mountain, Sumeru or Meru, round which 
there are a succession of rocky circles ; beyond the seventh of 
these circles is the great salt ocean, in which this earth of ours, 
divided into four quarters, is placed ; beyond the ocean is a wall 

1 Buddhist Suttas, p. l68 n. = Etudes Buddhiques, p. 78. 


of iron that embraces the whole ; above the central mountain are 
a succession of heavenly abodes or mansions Q)huvanas). The 
multiplication of these worlds and systems of worlds led to 
the idea of an infinity of systems, to which I have alluded. 
The definition of Sumeru or Sum^ in Buddhist works is "a 
mountain of wonderful height ; " it is also explained as a 
mountain of "good light." 1 It is plain that this idea of 
a lofty central primeval mountain belonged to the undivided 
human race. It is the Hard Berezaiti, or rather the heart 
{zaredhd) of these mountains, represented by Alborz^ of the 
present day: tarez or haresh (Ved. hrihas) also means high. 
So again we are told that " light rises up from Hara Berezaiti 
(Alborz) ; " * here we have the other idea, conveyed in the 
Chinese description of Sumeru — the mountain of " good light." 
It is on this mountain, again, that " the abode of the gods rests," 
according to the Zendavesta,* and so, also, as we shall see, the 
Buddhists place the abodes of their thirty-three gods on Sumeru. 
But in the case of Alborz it would seem as if it was a rest or 
support of the heavenly abodes, for so we read in Fargard xix.,* 
"She makes the soul of the righteous one go above the Hara 
Berezaiti j above the .^inva^ bridge she places it in the presence 
of the heavenly grfds themselves." Here the idea is that the 
gods reside above this mountain, which is, as it were, the sup- 
port of their dwellings. This brings to our mind the fable of 
Atlas supporting the heavens ; the same idea may probably be 
traced in the Greek " Olympus " (Sans, dlamha, a support).® 

This idea of " height " applying to the mountain that supports 
heaven may in the first instance have referred to the heavens 
themselves. In the "Odyssey," and in Sophocles also, the idea of 
Olympus has become generalised or idealised " to the conception 
of an exalted divine region, and approximates near to that 
of oipavo<!, so that ovpavb^ and SXvfj.-n-o'i interchange synony- 
mously; "^ and again the same writer says, " There is nothing in 

' Vide, inter alia, Eitel, Handbook, sub voc. " Haug, Parsis, 216 n. 

' Zendavesta, by Dannesteter, 225 n. * Op. oit., 213 n. 

» Op. oit., 213 (30, 98). 

° The old lexicographers, singularly enough, define 6\vii,T0i from 6'\i\aii'7ros, 
"the altogether shining," which corresponds with the explanation given above of 
Sumeru and Alborz. 

' Geddes, p. 262. 


the 'Odyssey' which obliges us to think of the Mount Olympus;"^ 
and Professor Campbell remarks, "Olympus, the seat of the gods, 
is in Sophocles a sort of unseen heaven, and has almost lost the 
association of place." This worship of height in the abstract 
is illustrated in a singular way by a consideration of 'the 
origin of a Chinese symbol signifying "the heart" (or more 
properly the " ^tman," or " universal self " of the Brahmans). 
This symbol is composed of the moon's crescent and three stars 
or points {tim) above it, and is pronounced " sam " or " sim " 
(EdkiTis). It corresponds with the chandra vindu in Sanscrit, 
and has a somewhat similar sound. Now this symbol of the 
moon's crescent with the dots above it is a primitive one, to 
denote that " which is highest," — ^the sun, moon, and stars being 
the regular ascending grade for the heavens. If, then, we may 
refer the old Chinese sound " sdm " to that which is the highest, 
there is no reason why this should not have been a primitive 
root, and denoting height, have been afterwards referred to the 
highest mountain round which the primitive race of man con- 
gregated. At any rate, in the Buddhist records the mountain 
is spoken of as Sum^, the high and resplendent. Whether the 
Latin summiis may be related to the same root is a question for 
further consideration.^ 

In any case, the idea of height enters into the Semitic term 
for heaven, and so we read in Goldziher,' " The idea of height in 
the Semitic religion, as applied to heaven, is shown in the root 
sdma and rdm, both of which express the idea of being high." 

Be this as it may; the Buddhist tradition makes the Sowings of 
ocean (the salt ocean) to surround the earth, which is divided into 
four large islands or quarters. To the south of Sumeru they place 
the island called Jambu or Jambudwipa. This is described as 
the " land of excellent gold." * We are here reminded of the 
land of Havilah, " where there is gold, and the gold of that land 
is good." Another tradition ^ is to the effect that there is a 
great tree in this land underneath which is " excellent gold," 

^ Page 263. 

'^ The prefix to, however, in Sum^ is generally regarded as a distinct particle, 
as ?i; in Greek. 

» Page 71. *CaWa,p. 35n. 

^ Hi-shl-king, " Book of Genesis " (origin of the world). 


and from the name of this tree the land derives its name. 
With reference to this land of Jambudwipa,^ the Buddhists 
say that in the midst of it is a centre (heart), called the lake 
A-nieou-to (Anavataptu) ; it lies to the south of the Fragrant 
Mountains and to the north of the great Snowy Mountains 
(Himavat). It is 800 li in circuit.^ In the midst of this lake 
is the abode of a N§,ga, who is, in fact, only the transformed 
appearance of Dasabhumi Bodhisatwa (or of the Bodhisatwas 
of the ten earths). From his dwelling proceed four refreshing 
rivers, which compass Jambudwipa. At the east side of the 
lake, from the mouth of a silver ox, flows out the Ganges river. 
After compassing the lake once, it enters' the sea towards the 
south-east. From the south side of the lake, from the mouth of 
a golden elephant, flows the Sindhu river. After compassing 
the lake once, it enters the sea on the south-west. On the west 
side of the lake, flowing from the mouth of a horse of lapis- 
lazuli (vaidurya), flows the river Foh-tsu (Vakshu, i.e., Oxus), 
which, after compassing the lake once, enters the sea on the 
north-west. On the north side of the lake, flowing from the 
mouth of a p6-chi (sph^tika, crystal) lion, flows the river Sid§,,^ ' 
which, after making one circuit, flows into .the sea on the north- 

We seem to have in this account a form of the ancient tradi- 
tion respecting the four rivers flowing out of Eden or paradise ; 
for we can hardly doubt that the mountain from which these 
rivers flowed was a later form of the Sumeru myth, and on the 
top of Sumeru is placed the paradise of the thirty-three gods. 
I will give a brief description of this paradise. It is situated 
on the central plateau of the mountain. In the middle is the 
golden city. This city has five hundred gates. Within the city 
are streets and palaces. Outside the city are beautiful parks. 
The abodes of the minor gods (Devas) are in the neighbour- 

^ " Si-yu-ohi," quoted by Jinohau, p. 4. 

^ Quoting from the "Hi-shi-king," Jinchau says, "At the top of the Snowy 
Mountains, composed of all precious substances, there are four golden peaks, and 
in the centre one very high peak (d/fporckTi/ K6pv(pri), in which there is a Dragon 
Lake, fifty yojanas round." 

' Concerning this river, mde Minayef, "Grammaire Palie," pp. viii., ix. 

^ This is the origin of the Yellow river; for the Sidd, after flowing under- 
ground, comes out beneath the Tsih rooks (on the western frontier of China), and 
gives rise to the Hoang-ho. — Ch. Ed. 


hood of these parks. These abodes are surrounded by walls, 
railings, and tinkling curtains and trees. On the north-east 
side of the city, but outside of it, is the Tree of Life [Vn-sUng, 
perfect life]. (The pdrijdta tree of later Brahmanism.) There 
is a Yaksha spirit, called Vajripani (strong, or diamond hand), 
■who keeps guard in the middle of the city, and five hundred 
who keep guard at each gate. We have in this description an 
instance of ilae pairi-daAza of the Zendavesta, a " circumvalla- 
tion " or " enclosure." 

With respect to the creation of the world and the heavens, 
the Buddhist legend is that there are periods '(kalpas, scBcula) of 
destruction, renovation, establishment, and decay. When the 
earth and the heavens are destroyed (the last destruction was 
by water, the next will be by fire), the whole face of nature is 
reduced to an abyss or chaos. From the face of the waters 
covering the wreck fresh forms are produced, and the world 
springs again into life, " another and the same." 

But this part of my subject is so interesting that I shall 
translate somewhat in detail particulars relating to it. 

Krst I will quote from the Avatamsaka Sutra : — " The uni- 
verse is not perfected by one influence or operation (fiat), but 
by many influences. For after the universe has been destroyed, 
and for a long time all has lain dark and void, there arises 
(through the force of the karma of all sentient existence) a 
wind which excites rain. The wind exciting the rain-, there is 
a great ocean produced which extends throughout the universe. 
On this various winds begin to move; by these the several 
parts of the universe are perfected." 

Next the Ili-shi Siitra (Book of Creation, or Genesis) 
says : — " An incalculable time having elapsed after the complete 
destruction of the world, there arises a vast cumulous cloud 
which spreads itself abroad and broods above the heavens. 
From this there falls a fruitful rain, the drops as large as a 
chariot wheel. Through a hundred thousand myriad years the 
water from this rain gradually accumulates, until up to the very 
heavens it is spread out a mighty ocean. The 'four winds' 
hold it thus collected.! At length, after the cessation of the 

^ Ezek. xxxvii. 9. 


rain, the waters having subsided countless yojanas in depth, 
a 'raighty wind' springs up, which, blowing on the face of the 
water, causes it to roll in tumultuous waves, from which a vast 
bubble is produced, which remains fixed, and from this the 
universe is framed." 

At the beginning of the Sutra known in China by the 
name Ghung-hu-mo-ho-ti, which is probably another form of 
the Mah§,vastu according to the Sammatiyas there is an ac- 
count of the origin of the world on this wise: — Buddha 
has been requested by his followers to give an account of 
his previous history, i.e., in former births, as to places, and 
circumstances, and family connections. To this he replies 
(K. :. fol. I 6), addressiag the congregation of Sakyas {i.e., dis- 
ciples), " In former days I did not desire to enter on these par- 
ticulars, lest the heretic followers of M^ra (or the M§,ras and 
the heretics) should slander me and say, This Shaman Gotama 
speaks of himself things agreeable and pleasant, but things 
disagreeable and unpleasant he speaks not ; what benefit is 
there in this?" 

At this time the Great Mogalan ^ being among the great con- 
gregation, rising from his seat, looking at the face of Buddha, 
withoit removing his eyes, so remained. Then the Lord 
addressed Mogalan, " Those SS,kyas would gladly hear my past 
historj, the places in which I have been born, of what family 
and ckn, and under what circumstances. Consider then with 
yourself whether you consent or not to declare these things for 
their sakes." 

At this time the Great Mogalan remained silently lost in 
thought. Then folding up his robe for a pillow, he lay down 
on his right side with his head supported by it, and thus lying 
as in sleep, he passed into a condition of trance^ (samS,dhi), 
and beheld passing before him the past history of the Lord, 
where he had been born, his family, clan, and circumstances of 
birth. Being thus enlightened as to every particular, he aroused 
himself from the trance and occupied his seat in the congrega- 
tion as before. Then the Great Mogalan addressed the congre- 

1 Mu-lin, Oh. 

2 Compare Hugh Miller's account of the Mosaic vision, " Old Bed Sandstone, 
p. 187. 


gation of Sakyas saying : " In my trance I beheld ^ the things 
that concern those Gotamas in times past. At the time of 
the destruction of the world, then the beings living in the 
world were born in the Suddha heaven, perfectly formed as to 
members, lovely to behold, without sorrow, with hearts full of 
happiness, every characteristic sign resplendent. with glory, able 
to transport themselves through space, self-sufficient, able by 
tasting heavenly nectar to extend their lives, so that there were 
none who died in mid-age or when young. At this time the 
great ocean on the earth reached high up into space as a 
wide-spreading sea. Then the wind blowing on the water, a 
thin and unctuous substance like cream ^ was formed, whici as 
it cooled became fit for the food of creatures hereafter t(^ be 
born, a pure and unearthly substance to taste." 

Again Mogalan, addressing the assembly, said: "At this 
time, during the age of destruction, ' all creatures ' were borb in 
the Subhakinho * heaven. Their term of years in this heiven 
coming to an end, .they were born on earth. Their b/)dies 
remained as they had been in heaven, glorious in appearance, 
all their members perfect, their colour excellent, their iorms 
ever resplendent, their years long in duration, their minds 
joyful and happy, perfectly self-sufficient, and able to move 
freely through space. At this time there was neither sun, 
nor moon, nor stars, nor periods of time, and no distinctions of 
sex. Born thus in the world, they desired to taste of the;earth. 
Descending, therefore, they touched it with a finger and tasted 
it. Having thus gained a knowledge of its taste, they jjeased 
not to partake of it till by degrees they lost their angelic leauty 
and splendour, and their spiritual faculty of instant locoriotion, 
and became gross and coarse as men. After this a grealj black 
wind* arose, which blew upon the face of the waters, and pro- 
duced the sun and the moon. These revolving round Mount 
Sumeru illuminated the earth (the four continents). On behold- 
ing them come forth men were filled with joy, but when they 

1 Kwan, hehdd in contemplation, or had reveaied to me. Compare as before! 
Hugh MiUer in the " Old Ked Sandstone." ^ 1 

" Compare this account with " Manual of Buddhism," p. 64 et sea. 

3 "Extended purity," corresponding to the SiibhakrUsna of Burnouf Introd 
p. 613, and apparently with the SublmUnko of ChUders' Dictionary, sa6 voce, j 
Compare "Manual of Buddhism," p. 32 n, • 

■* 'Ihat is, "a tempestuous wind." 


disappeared they were grieved. From this time forth began 
morning and evening, darkness and light, and the revolving 
seasons. Now at the time when the kalpa of renovation first 
began and men appeared (as we have described), there was no 
distinction of male or female, honourable or mean, but all were 
born alike in the world, and from this arose the expression ' all 
living things.' ^ But so it was, that those who tasted the earth 
frequently lost their personal beauty and became gross and 
dark-faced, whilst those who tasted it sparingly still retained 
their beauty and splendour of face. Hence sprang distinctions, 
such as excellence and inferiority, and from these came con- 
tentions about ' yes ' or ' no.' Gradually the taste of the earth 
was exhausted, and then men began to be angry and full of 
anxiety. ' Alas ! they said, what misery ! the earth no longer 
retains its taste ! ' Then was produced a surface to the earth 
like a thin cake ; after which, the surface being destroyed, there 
was produced a substance soft like flesh, which in its turn dis- 
appeared, and a rich loam was of itself generated, like the 
extract of the peach (or sugar-cane)." 

Again he said : " The unctuous character of the earth no 
longer: continuing, there was produced a d-ouble stem p'li-t'au 
plant,* whose taste was also sweet. For a long time eating this, 
the appearance of all (men) was pleasant and jovial. After- 
wards, when this disappeared, there was produced a sort of dry 
powder like bran, without any glutinous qualities, and incapable 
of being sweetened, after eating which the sexes were deve- 
loped. Moreover, there sprang up of itself an illicit sort of 
scented grain, which caused the bodies of those who ate it to 
become weak and degenerate, then the sexes were developed, 
and from this came the name of man and wife. Afterwards, 
when the lustful passion in different creatures continually 
increased, there was constituted the fixed relationship of mar- 
riage; and after this the Abh§,svara Devas came down and 
were born of women ; and thus the race continued to be pro- 
pagated. Then men began to build cities and towns, and the 

' This phrase, "chuiig sing," is the one commonly used in Buddhist books to 
denote "all sentient creatures," or "all things that have breath." — {Satta.) 

" The "p'u t'au," explained afterwards as being the same as the "lin t'ang," 
probably the " wild vine," or perhaps the "sugar-cane." 


fruits of the earth which were gathered in the morning ripened 
again of themselves before the evening, and those gathered in 
the evening ripened before the morning." 

Again he said : " The grain when four inches in length had 
no more reed ; ^ men used to gather then as much as they 
req[uired for the day ; after this, they came to gather as much 
as they wanted for five days ; then gradually the grain dete- 
riorated, and when reaped did not grow again, but there sprung 
up in its place briars and weeds. At this time men were filled 
with anxiety and grief, so that they shed tears. Each one forth- 
with began to appropriate a certain amount of land to himself, 
in order to a fair distribution of the earth's fruits. After this, 
when they had learned to gather in and store their fruits, they 
began to pillage and rob each other's land, so that there was no 
safety, on which they determined to appoint one man as judge, 
who should protect the people on virtuous principles — reward- 
ing the good, and punishing the bad, whom they agreed to 
support and enrich from the common stock. They therefore 
elected a man of commanding presence and conspicuous virtue, 
and this man they called their Lord. From this circumstance 
arose the title of people and king ; he indeed, walking in the 
line of perfect virtue, protected the people as a father and a 
mother protect their child, and the people venerated him as the 
child venerates its father ; the years of men were very many, 
and their happiness without bounds." 

We find a similar account in Jin-ch'au, extracted from the 
Dirgh§,gama. It runs as follows : " At the time of the renovation 
of the world, the Abh§,svara DSvas came down to the earth, 
each possessed of a shining body, flying as they went, and self- 
existent. Seeing the earth's crust was fragrant and sweet, they 
took it and ate it much. Then they lost their spiritual powers, 
their bodies became heavy and their brightness disappeared. 
The sun and the moon then began to be; and (because men 
coveted to eat) the richness of the earth came to an end. Then 
was produced the Po-lo plant ; when this disappeared, there was 
produced a sort of fragrant rice (kang mai), in length four 

1 The text is here defective. 

" Fa-leiai-'an-lih-t'u. Vide " Catena of Buddhist Scriptures." 


inches, which being cut down in the morning, grew again before 
night. Nourished by this, the distinctions between male and 
female began to be exhibited, and men began to do things con- 
trary to purity ; this caused them to collect in families, and to 
become idle and listless, so that they began to think thus : ' It 
is much labour to gather food for each day's supply, come ! let 
us gather enough for seven days, and store it up.' Then the 
grain, after being gathered in the morning, did not grow again. 
So men began to cultivate the ground and divide it in lots; 
whereupon they began to rob and pillage each other, and wars 
and fightings coinmenced. Then all men agreed to obey one 
man fuU of wisdom, called San-mo-to (Sammata), whom they 
made lord of the soil; all whom he blamed, they agreed to 
blame (or, whatever went wrong, they held him responsible), 
and whatever fruits the class of landowners obtained, they 
agreed to apportion a share of it to him as his right — hence 
sprang the caste of the Kshatriyas. Then, again, there were 
some men who left their homes and resorted to the mountains 
to seek wisdom, and to remove themselves from the influence 
of evil : these were called the caste of the Brahmans. Those 
who practised the arts of the artificer were called the caste of 
the Ku-sse (house lords), whilst those who laboured in the 
fields for their daily bread were called Sudras. From among 
these castes, men who used much consideration (quiet considera- 
tion), and, in view of the impurity of the world resulting from 
the sin of covetousness, resolved to forsake their home and 
become ascetics, these they called ' Shamans.' " 

These extracts will be sufBcient to show that in Buddhism 
we have preserved to us fragments of early traditions respecting 
the creation of the world and the origin of mankind, different 
from anything found in the Brahmanas. In fact, we are told ^ 
that " the Brahmanas presuppose a complete break in the primi- 
tive condition of the Aryan settlers in India. At the time when 
the law was laid down about the employment of certain hymns 
at certain parts of the sacrifice, the original meaning of these 
hymns, and the true conception of the gods to whom they were 

^ Ancient Sanscrit Literature, by Professor Max MUlIer, p. 429. 


addressed, had been lost." So again. Dr. Muir says:^ "When 
we descend from the hymns (i.e., of the Vedas) to the Brah- 
manas, although we discover perpetual allusions to the earliest 
conception of Vishnu as traversing the sky in three strides, yet 
he no longer appears exclusively under that character hut 
becomes invested with some new attributes, and forms the 
subject of various new legends which are quite foreign to the 
hymn ; at the same time that he is still very different from the 
deity of the same name who is described in the Puranas." So 
again, Weber ^ assures us of " the posteriority of Manu to the 
whole body of Vedic literature." 

We may regard, then, the fragments of truth we meet with 
in Buddhist records, as survivals from a primitive and inde- 
pendent stream of tradition. 

But another interesting study in this matter is connected 
with a comparison of some Buddhist legends relating to the gods 
or demigods who occupy the zones or stages of Mount Sumeru, 
with the Homeric system of Olympus. 

I have already pointed out that the " flowings of Ocean " 
which Homer names as surrounding the earth are known in 
the Buddhist myth as the " flowings of the Salt Sea " (Men shui) 
enveloping the four quarters of the world. 

Within this sea is another — the Fragrant Ocean. This seems 
to correspond with the Erythraean Sea of the Greeks, which 
extended from Ethiopia to Taprobane ; that is, from the coasts. 
bordering on the Indus to Ceylon. Its name, the "Fragrant 
Sea," may be connected with the Fragrant Mountains of GS,nd- 
h§,ra. G§,ndh§,ra was an ancient kingdom bordering on the 
Cabul river, and extending at one time from the spurs of 
the Hindu Kush to the lower streams of the Indus. The sea 
bordering on this region might well be called after its name, 
the "Fragrant Sea." There is a singular feature in this inquiry ; 
by referring to the Buddhist Kosmic system, it will be seen 
that the outside circle of rocks separating the Fragrant Sea 
from the Salt Sea is called "the earth-holding mountains" 
(chi-ti-shan), and in the second Sermon of Asvaghosha, trans- 

^ J. R. A. S., vol. XX. part i, p. 32. 

" Hist, of Indian Lit., p. 277 (English edition). 


lated in my third lecture, you will see that the Brahman dis- 
puters with the Upasaka connected G^ndh§,ra with some " earth- 
holding " power. It seems probable, therefore, that GandhS,ra 
was connected with these mountains, or a range of mountains so 
called, at an early date, and also with the Fragrant Sea, beyond 
which was the wide ocean surrounding the earth. 

And now, following the ascending zones of Sumeru, which, 
according to the Buddhists, are ruled over by successive demi- 
gods, we have a marked agreement with the Homeric system. 
At the bottom of all, nearest the sea, is the god " Strong-hand " 
(vrisha-pdni), which corresponds with the Greek Helios, the 
lowest of the minor deities in Homer. The word vrishan has 
been thoroughly explained by Professor Max Mliller ; ^ it un- 
doubtedly refers to the sun, as the lull or the hero. 

Above this zone comes the demigod called " Chaplet-holder," 
which Burnouf has identified ^ with SragdharS, or Aryatarl, that 
is, " the stars " (Sansc. tara ; Zend, stare ; GreeJc, daTrjp). 

Above him comes " The ever-free," that is, the " Moon," or 
" The "Wanderer ;" or, under another aspect, " Soma," or "Liber," 
or " Dionysus." 

At the crest and around the plateau of the Meru, we find 
four elemental gods, commonly known as the four kings, keep- 
ing the gates of heaven, and concerned in the affairs of men. 
These are, under one aspect, the Horse of Homer; under 
another, the four elements. On the south, Virudhaka, the 
productive Earth (dpovpa, called by Homer •iroXv^op^o'} ; as in 
the Chinese, chang tsang (the productive).) On the west is the 
large or distorted-eyed god (vir<ip§,ksha), corresponding with Air, 
represented under the form of the full moon, the queen of the 
night air. This title, vir'djodJcsha, is in Chinese rendered " large 
eye;" corresponding with the ox-eyed or large-eyed Juno. 
The large eye is, in fact, the full moon rising in the east, or the 
forehead of the bull as the sun sets, and so Moschus in his 
Idyl * describes the bull that carried off the maid, thus — 

1 The Sixth Hymn of the First Book of the Kig Veda, J. E. A. S., vol. iii 
part I, N. S. pp. 208, 209. ,, . , . 

a Introd. to Ind. Budd., p. S42, and compare the whole account. 
' Europa, 1. 84 ss. 


Kvk\o<s B' dpjv(f)io'i fiearm fiap/Mupe fieT&Trq). 

This is typical of the moon at the full. And so we say the hull's 
eye for the central white circle of the target. And the ox-head 
sandal- wood (gSsirsha chandana) is sandal- wood with a white 
circle in the middle. And it is probable that the horse of 
Alexander, " Bucephalus," was so Called from having a star or 
circle of white hair in his forehead, a mark, as Moschus tell us, 
contributing to the beauty of " the bull." We see, then, why 
Juno (IIoTvia 'Hpr/, Queen of the Night) was called Bo&ttii. 

On the north we have the element Fire, figured under the 
name Vaisravana, the son of Vi^ravas " the celebrated." Here 
is plainly the Hephsestus, the 7repiK\vTo<! of Homer. He is 
described as rich, hence the same as Kuvera, as lame (and 
sometimes drawn without legs), and as black. How well this 
last epithet (Mahakala) represents the Hack unwashed Vulcan, 
as he was when Thetis sought his company on account of 
Achilles, we need not remark. 

On the east is Dritafashtra, " he who holds his kingdom," i.e., 
all-embracing water, the <yai7]6'x^o<; Uoa-eiBav of Homer (Od., 
viii. 3So). 

Above all, and over all, is the Divine S^kra, " the powerful ; " 
the cloud-driver or cloud-compeller, or, as the Eastern writers 
put it, riding on his mighty elephant Airavata; this deity is 
described as having a palace on the very top of Meru (aKpoTarr) 
Kopv^rj), whilst the gods, 'OXvfnria SaifiaT ej^oi/re?, dwell 
around him. These gods are limited to thirty-three, which 
number, in all Northern Buddhist books, corresponds to "the 
year," " the four seasons," and the " twenty-eight days of the 
month." ^ The Brahmanas give another and distinct origin of 
the number. 

One thing is plain ; the system of the thirty-three gods and 
their heavens was known in the Vedic period ; of that we are 
sure, for they are distinctly named ; ^ and we also know that in 
Buddha's time the system of the Brahmalokas placed above the 
thirty-three heavens had been developed. We may reasonably 

^ Compare S'urangama, SUtra, K. vi. fol. 8. 

" Vide 3. R. A. S., New Series, vol. i. part i, pp. 6o, 6l. 


suppose, therefore, that the period known in Indian literature 
as the Brihmana period corresponds -with the time during 
which these superimposed heavens were invented : while the 
Vedic period embraces the period dating from the earliest 
worship of Helios or Savitri, up to the time of the settlement, 
so, to speak, of the thirty- three gods on Meru. Buddha again, 
by a fresh departure, starting frpm the latest development of 
the Br§,hmana period, returns by " stemming the flood " to what 
was possibly the most primitive of all worship, viz., that of the 
first uncreated and uncreating principle, the eternal That, 
which " breathed breathless." So that, as at the bottom of this 
ascending scale we find the " strong-hand," i.e., " the sun," 
worshipped, so at the very top we are brought back, by one 
who in himself embodies the characteristics of sun-worship, to 
supposed first principles, in themselves underlying all worship. 
Thus it is in this, as in all things human, the mind, baffled in 
the search after hidden truth, falls back upon itself and returns 
to its right position of confessed ignorance. 

I said above that Buddha, or the legend of Buddha, embodies 
in it the characteristics of sun-worship. This has been well 
shown by M. S^nart in his " Legende du Buddha." But it is 
manifestly the case if we only consider the ordinary representa- 
tions of Buddha's person. He is figured as in the diagram 
before you (vide fly-title of this lecture) in the character of 
the sun rising above the hills. His jewelled crest is called the 
rasmi cij,ldniani, that is, the ray-jewel-crest ; and the Ceylonese 
figures of him are generally provided with his crown of triple 
rays. And so under various forms these rays are drawn till 
we come down to the figure of the trisul or gudamani, placed 
above the lotus, the analogue of the sun "rising from the 
water." Strange that at last, under the form of these triple 
rays thrice repeated, we discover the debased worship of 
Buddha as " the Lord of aU that moves," in the Jagat-natha of 

The Ussenes. 

Whether the Essenes owed their rules of life to Buddhist 
influences in Palestine or not, the agreement of these rules 
with Buddhism is very remarkable. Nor is there any difficulty 


in supposing that a knowledge of Buddhism had reached so far 
as Judea, before Christ. It would be strange, considering the 
close intercourse between the Greek Bactrian kingdpm and 
Syria, if it had not. Buddhism in India undoubtedly owed 
much to Greek art in Bactria ; and the same workmen who 
were employed at Taxila, may have worked at Antioch. At 
least, there is no improbability in such a supposition. 

At any rate, when the Greek Bactrian kingdom was over- 
thrown, we may reasonably suppose that many of the colonists 
would return to lands nearer home, and seek intercourse with 
their brethren in Syria, and, perhaps, among, the Macedonian 
colonists in Samaria. 

The Greeks were supplanted by Parthians — and not only do 
we find Parthians Buddhists, but we read of Parthians among 
the Jews at Jerusalem keeping Pentecost. 

We know not, indeed, how soon Buddhism acquired influence 
amongst the Parthian people — we only know that Buddhist 
missionaries from the Arsacidee came to China at an early date 
after Christ ; and that Kanishka, who was a Scyth, and con- 
stantly embroiled with the Parthians, was a Buddhist, and he 
lived at the beginning of our era. 

But there is no need to urge this matter. JMEy aim is simply 
to show that the agreement between Essenes and Buddhists 
may be accounted for in this way, without any prior improba- 

The following summary of Essene customs will serve us for 
all purposes of the present inquiry. 

According to Josephus i — 

1. The Essenes are a society of men friendly towards each 
other, holding marriage in no esteem, but yet not absolutely 
against it. 

2. They hold riches in great contempt. Community of goods 
is maintained in a very admirable manner. No man can possess 
private property. 

3. They look on it as a disparagement to make use of oU, and 
they always go habited in white garments. 

4. They have stewards for the management of their affairs. 

^ Fddeaux, Connection, book v. part 2, p. 268, fol. ed. 


They give reception to all travellers of their sect. . . . They 
neither sell nor buy. 

S- They are ... in an especial manner religious. Before the 
sun be risen they speak of no common worldly matter, but till 
then offer up their prayers in ancient form, supplicating in them 
that he would make the sun to rise upon them. . . . They 
wash themselves, and being then purified they go into the 
refectory, . . . whercj being set in silence, the baker puts before 
every man his loaf of bread. . . . The priest then says grace, . . . 
and after dinner they say grace again. No noise or tumult 
ever disorders the house where they are. 

6. In offices of assistance and of mercy they are permitted to 
have free power. 

7. They are great curbers of their passion, . . . and every 
■ word with them is of greater force than an oath with other 


8. When any desire to enter their sect they are kept without 
a whole year, as novices, ... to make trial of their continence. 

9. Before they are admitted to eat at the common table, 
they solemnly bind themselves, &c. 

10. Such as are guilty of any enormous crime they expel out 
of their society. 

11. They are most exact and just in the administration of 
justice, never giving sentence but^ when there are at least a 
hundred present. 

12. They distinguish themselves from all other Jews by 
abstaining from all manner of work on the Sabbath-day. 

13. They are divided, according to the time they have been 
in their ascetic mode of life, into four classes. 

14. They are contemners of adversity, . . . and laughed while 
under torments, &c. 

15. They affirm, agreeable to the opinion of the Greeks, that 
for the souls of good men' there is ordained a state of life in a 
region beyond the ocean. 

16. There are some among the sect who take upon them to 
foretell things to come. 

17. They hold that fate governs all things. 

So far the testimony of Josephus. PhUo, who wrote before 
Josephus, makes the following remarks : — 



r. Among the Jews there are some whom they call Essseans ; 
they haye their name hy reason of their piety, from the Greek 
word od-tos. They do not sacrifice any living thing. They 
mostly live in country villages, and avoid cities. 

2. They do not treasure up either silver or gold. They make 
no arrows, darts, or swords, &c., or any other instruments what- 
ever that are made use of in war. 

3. Merchandising, trafficking, and navigation they never so 
much as dream of. They condemn the dominion of masters 
over servants as impious, and destructive of the laws of Nature. 

4. About ethics or moral philosophy they are much con- 
versant, . . , The seventh day is held holy by them, . . . and 
they go on that day to their synagogues, where they sit in order 
according to their seniority in the society. 

5. They live together in sodalities, eating and drinking at 
the same common table ; so they there provide entertainment 
for any of the fraternity who shall come thither to them from 
any other place. 

Again Philo, speaking of the Therapeutse, or contemplative 
sect of the Essseans, says : — 

1. There are both Therapeutse and Therapeutides (women), 
so called, not because they practise the art of physic, as is com- 
monly so called, but because they cure the souls of men. 

2. They divest themselves of all their worldly substance, . . . 
and flee from their homes, leaving their brothers, children, 
wives, parents, and all their kindred. 

3. They choose to make their abode without the walls of 
cities, in gardens, villages, and lone country places, seeking 
solitude, not out of an affected hatred of mankind, but for the 
avoiding and the mixing with men of different manners. 

4. Their houses are built in a very frugal and mean manner, 
being fitted only for two necessary things, to keep them from 
the heat of the sun in summer, and from the cold air in winter. 

5. Each of them hath in his cottage a little chapel, which 
they call Semneum or Monasterium. 

6. They pray twice in the day, that is, in the morning and in 
the evening ; at the rising of the sun and the setting of the same. 

7. They have among them the writings of some ancients. 
They compose songs and hymns in praise of God. 


8. On the seventh day they sit down according to their 
seniority.^ They eat only bread and drink only water. 

9. They have only two garments, and universally exercise 
themselves in modesty. 

And as a summary of their behaviour at their great festivals, 
we may observe from Philo — 

That they have no servants to wait, but brothers of their 
own society ; that they sit down in order and without noise ; 
that they have no wine or flesh, but only water and bread, salt 
and hyssop. 

Pliny's account of this sect is simply in confirmation of their 
temperance and chastity. 

Prideaux observes that these Essenes could not ie Christians, 
for they are spoken of as a sect of long standing in Egypt, and 
that they had hymns and writings of ancient date. 

But, secondly, he observes that as they regarded the seventh 
day so rigorously, they must have been Jews, or of the Jewish 

With respect, however, to this' we may remark that " the 
Buddhist Sabbath was a day of religious observance and cele- 
bration for laymen and priests, and occurred four times in every 
month. On these days religious laynien (i.e., white-clothed men) ^ 
dress in their best, and abstain from all trade and worldly 

There is no improbability in supposing that their name, 
which is either "Essenes" or "Essaioi," is derived from the 
word Isi, gen. isino, plural isi or isayo. The meaning of isi is 
a " saint " or " holy man," which meaning agrees with Philo's 
derivation from the Greek ocrto9, a word probably connected with 
the same root. 

The Magadhi or Prakrit Isi is the Sanscrit Bishi, and this, 
with the addition of Maha (inaking a compound Mahesi, i.e., the 
Great Saint), was a not infrequent epithet of Buddha. 

It is a mistake to suppose that because the name " Buddha " 

1 This they reckon according to the time of their admission into the society, 
and not according to their age. [This is strictly a rule of Buddhism.] 

^ In the Syrian monujnent discovered in China the Syrian Christian students 
are called white-dothed. 

' Vide Childers' Pali Diet., sub voce "Uposatho." 


is not met with in the West, that therefore the doctrines of 
Buddhism were not known. 

" Buddha " is a term descriptive of the great teacher's char- 
acter as " the enlightened one " (o Tre^eor la fievo<!), or " the 
awakened," and was no personal appellative. 

Even on the stone-cut edicts of A^oka this epithet occurs 
hut once. 

But as" the saint" or " great saint" he was not uncommonly 
known, and his followers were also described as "isayo" or 

Thus far for the general argument. We come now to consi- 
der particulars. 

Josephus remarks " that the Essenes hold marriage in no 
esteem, but yet do not absolutely oppose it." 

1. So the TJpasakas (Buddhist laymen) were not forbidden 
to marry, but yet marriage was allowed only as a degree of 
holiness next below " entire continency." 

2. "Eiches held in contempt; community of goods main- 
tained." This is a distinctive mark of the Buddhist lay-disciple. 
The great Aloka gave all his goods to the Church, and encour- 
aged the discipline of the Samgha, which required " all goods to 
be held in common." Besides which, there is no direction so 
frequently found in Buddhist writings as " the duty of self- 
sacrifice and charity." 

3. " They make no use of oil." This is a literal order found 
in the Buddhist community. 

4. "They go habited in white garments." The Upasakas 
throughout the Vinaya Pitaka are described as the "white- 
clad." 2 

5. They have stewards, &c. This is the duty of the Buddhist 
Karmaddna, who takes the general management of the secular 
affairs of the convent. 

1 Vide Oldenberg in his Vinaya Pitaka, in which this title is given to Buddha. 
Vide Index, CuUavagga, p. 339 ; and Childers states (Pali Diet., sub mce), that 
" Bnddhas and ArahSs are called iai." 

2 There is also a weU-knoWn image of a female, with a child on her knee com- 
mon among Chinese Buddhists, and also known in India, as it is mentioned by 
I-Tsing in his account of Indian temples, and which is described as the " white- 
clad Kwan-yin," because she grants the request of the female lay-disciples that 
they may have children. 


6. " They give reception to all travellers of their sect, and 
neither sell nor buy." This also is literally the case with Bud- 
dhists, even to the present day, insomuch that their monasteries 
are still used as " places for hospitality, where food is given 
without any charge." 

7. With respect to the prayers of the Essenes before sun- 
rising and at sunset, this is a rule of their order, as we are 
expressly told by I-Tsing. And in Mr. Dickson's translation 
of the Patimokkam, we have the words given us which the 
Buddhists use at grace. 

The rules of the Essenes respecting the age of the members, 
the existence of novices, and the cause of expulsion, are all per- 
fectly Buddhist. . 

But this question has been discussed with such learning and 
'candour elsewhere, that I should not presume to say a word 
upon it if were not for what follows.^ 

There are, scattered through Buddhist literature (of the 
Northern school, at least), several remarkable stories, or parables, 
parallel to some found in the Gospels. The woman offering 
the two mites, the parable of the tares in the field, the story 
of the Saniaritan woman, are instances of what I mean. 

If we accepted the theory that the Essenes were connected 
with Buddhism, this would be sufficient to account for the pre- 
sence of these parallel records or notices in the books of 
Northern Buddhism. The intercourse of Bactrian Greeks or 
Hellenists with Syria, and probably Samaria, where Alexander 
the Great hgd left a Macedonian colony, would be sufficient to 
account for it. ' To me, indeed, it appears most singular that 
the saying of Christ with respect to the woman who anointed 
him for his burying — if she be the same who wept at his feet, 
as is generally supposed^-^should be verified under a somewhat 
different form in the record of the tender woman who wept at 
Buddha's feet at the time of his death. It would seem as 

1 Vide Dr. Lightfoot (Bishop of Durham), Epistles of St. Paul, Colossians and 
jPhilemon, Excursus i., ii., iii. In note 2, p. 394 op. Ht, Dr. Lightfoot refers the 
name Xap/Mvoxny^^ to ^" Indian word Sramandlcarja, " teacher of the ascetics ;" 
the second member of this compound word should be written acJiarya; the German 
method of writing iurja for charya was doubtless the cause of the error. Sarma- 
ndcharya would not mean, however, "teacher of the ascetics," but simply "one 
practising or professing (the life of) a Sarmana." 


thougli the story were adopted and perverted by the Buddhists.^ 
So also with respect to the Samaritan woman ; there are now 
before me three versions of a story bearing marked likeness to this 
narrative, in the Chinese Tripitaka. These stories were brought 
to China by missionaries (Buddhist missionaries, I mean) from 
the West, and there translated. Now, it seems to me not an 
unreasonable surmise that those people of Sychar who were 
" clothed in white " were Essenes. And if the Essenes were 
connected with Buddhists, the story might well have been 
carried away by some traveller or brother from a distant clime, 
and so become known in Parthia and North India. The version 
of this story which I am about to put before you, was trans- 
lated into Chinese by a Parthian ('An-shi-ko) about the middle 
of the second century A.D. 

In the third version which was made by a TJpasaka (Buddhist' 
layman, white-clothed) called Chi Yau, the particulars of the 
woman asking Ananda how he could beg water of her, a 
M§,tangl woman (low-caste woman), and Ananda's reply, are 
much more detailed; they are very curious. This version, 
however, is too long to translate here, and as it is nearly the 
same as that given by Burnouf in his " Introduction to Indian 
Buddhism," there is less need to do so. 

After placing before you this translation, I will add two 
others relating to the woman offering her two mites, and so 

Mo-Taitg-Niu-King, the MItakgI Woman. 

Translated by 'An-shai-Ko, a Doctor of the Law, during the after Ean 

Thus I have heard. Buddha was residing at Sravastt (the 
country of She-wei), in the garden of the friend of the orphans. 
At this time Ananda, holding his alms-dish, went to beg some 
food. Having eaten, he went along the side of a stream, and 
seeing a woman on the water-side carrying (a pitcher) of water. 

1 This supposes, of course, that the copy of the Chinese Vinaya Pitaka in which 
the account of this woman is found, was put together after the Christian era. 
May we refer this, and other books, to the council held under Kanishka ? 


and going (homewards), Ananda begged some drink from her.^ 
Immediately she gave him some. The woman then followed 
Ananda to the place where he was dwelling. Eeturning home 
she told her mother, who was called M^tangt (what had hap- 
pened). Then she lay down on the ground to sleep, and as she 
so lay she wept aloud. The mother asked her daughter why 
she wept so, on which the girl said, " Mother ! you wish me to 
marry, but I will not have the man, I saw a man by the water- 
side, who asked me to give him to drink, and I followed him, 
and found his name was Ananda. I want to marry that man. 
If, mother, you do not get him to marry me, I will have no 

The mother going out asked respecting Ananda, and having 
found out that he was one of Buddha's principal disciples, she 
returned and told her daughter that Ananda was an attendant 
on Buddha, and could not be married to her. The girl, weeping, 
refused to eat or drink, " Mother ! " she said, " you understand 
sorcery ; go ask Ananda to come here to eat." Ananda coming 
back with 'the mother, the girl rejoiced exceedingly. 

Then the mother spake thus to Ananda: "My daughter 
desires to become your wife, my lord." Ananda said, "My 
religion (rules) forbids me to contract marriage." Again she 
said, " My daughter, if she obtains not my lord as a husband, 
will kill herself." Ananda replied, " My master, Buddha, per- 
mits not men and women to associate.'' The mother going 
within told her daughter. " Ananda is unwilling to make you 
his wife. He says his religious rules do not permit him to 
marry." The daughter, with tears, addressed her mother and 
said, '' Your power as a sorceress, can it do nothing ? " The 
mother answered, " No power (religious power) in the world can 
prevail against the way of Buddha, or the way of a Eahat." 

The M§.tangt girl said again, " Just shut the door fast, for my 
sake, so that he cannot get away. When the evening comes, 
he win accede to my request, and take me as his wife," The 
mother having closed the door by her sorcery enchanted 
Ananda, and as the evening came she spread out a sleeping-mat 
for him to lie upon. The girl then filled with joy began to 

1 In the other versions she asks here, " How is it you beg water of me, a 
MStangt (low-caste) woman. 


decorate herself. But Ananda declined to lie down to sleep, on 
which the mother (by her art) caused fire to come from the 
ground in the midst of the doorway, and as she drew Ananda 
by his robes she said, " Unless you consent to wed my daughter 
I will cast you into the fire." And now Ananda reproached 
himself for having degraded himself thus as a Shaman, a disciple 
of Buddha. 

Buddha, by his spiritual power, seeing the condition in which 
Ananda was placed (delivered him), Ananda, on returning to 
the presence of Buddha, said : " Yesterday, as I went a-begging 
by the roadside, I saw a woman, and asked of her a little water 
to drink, and then came back to this place. But this morning, 
a woman called M^tangt came and asked me to go with her 
and take my food at her house. Having gone, she bound me 
fast, and would have me wed her daughter. I said, I hold the 
rules of Buddha, and I am not allowed to marry." 

Meantime the girl, seeing Ananda abont to leave the house, 
wept bitterly ; her mother said, " They who belong to Buddha, 
cannot be captured by any art of mine ; did I not tell thee so 
from the beginning ?"i 

And now the girl desisted not from tears, her mind fast bound 
by thoughts of Ananda. The next day, early, she herself went 
forth to seek to draw Ananda. Again, she saw him going to 
beg, and following him as he advanced, she looked first at his 
feet, then glanced on his face. Ananda, filled with shame, 
avoided her, but still she followed him, and rested not. Ananda 
then returned to where Buddha was ; the woman stood beside 
the gate, and when Ananda came not forth again, she wept 
aloud, and went her way. Ananda, standing before Buddha, 
said, "To-day the MS,tangt woman once more followed me." 
Buddha made him call her to his presence. The girl facing 
him, he asked her, saying, " Why do you persist in following 
Ananda ? " She said, " I heard Ananda was unwed ; I too 
have no husband ; I would have Ananda take me as a wife." 
Buddha addressed the girl, "Ananda is a Shaman, closely 
shaved ; but you have comely locks upon your head ; if you 
are willing to be shorn, then I will cause Ananda to espouse 

' This paragraph appears to be out of order in the original. 


you." The womau said, " Let my hair be shorn." Buddha 
replied, " Go home and ask your mother to cut off your hair, 
and then come back." The girl, going home, spake thus to 
her mother, " Mother, the man you could not get to wed me, 
Buddha declares shall marry me if I consent to have my hair 
shorn from my head." The mother answered, " My child, 
whom I have borne, keep, for my sake at least, your hair ! Why 
would you marry this Shaman ? in the land there are great and 
rich men, of these I will get for you a husband." 

The girl said, " Living or dying, I must have Ananda, and 
his wife alone I'll be." The mother said, " Why bring such dis- 
grace upon my tribe ? " The girl replied, " The mother who 
loves me, ought to do that which would rejoice my heart." The 
mother, weeping the while, took down the shears (knife) and 
cut the hair from off her daughter's head. Then the girl re- 
turned to where Buddha was, and said, " I have shorn my 
head." Buddha replied, " You love Ananda, but what part of 
him ? " The girl said, " I love Ananda's eyes ! I 'love Ananda's 
nose ! I love Ananda's mouth ! I love Ananda's ears ! I love 
Ananda's voice ! I love Ananda's step ! " 

Buddha replied, "The eyes, how full of tears! the nose, 
how full of mucus ! the mouth, how full of spittle ! the ears, 
how full of defilement ! the body, filled with offensive fluids, 
impure the powers of generation — and when, perhaps, a child 
is born, it comes to die, and lies forgotten, and then what tears ! 
Is there much gain in this ? " 

The girl now stood, lost the while in thought. She thought 
of all the impurities that dwell within the body, and then her 
heart came right, and she attained the wisdom of a Rabat. 

Buddha knowing the change, addressed the girl forthwith: 
" Eise ! and go to Ananda, where he is." The girl, overcome 
with shame, hung down her head, and falling prostrate at Bud- 
dha's feet, she answered, " Truly, I am foolish and besotted, and 
being so, I followed after Ananda ; but now my heart has opened, 
and like a lamp shining amid the darkness, or a fire brightly 
burning dispels the gloom, so is it with me ; or like a shattered 
ship that reaches the shore, or like a blind man who obtains 
a guide, or like an old man who gets a staff, so has the power 
of Buddha's religion come to my help and opened my mind." 


Then all the Bhikslius asked Buddha, " The mother of this 
woman is a sorceress, how is it that she has reached the con- 
dition of a Eahat ? " Then Buddha answered, and said, " Are 
you wishful to hear the circumstances of this woman's history?" 
They said, " Gladly we would hear such instruction." Buddha 
said, " This Mltangl woman for five hundred generations has 
been Ananda's wife ; during aU this time they have together 
striven, together desired to learn my precepts, and now they 
are brought together, and enlightened together as brother and 

Buddha having explained this, the Bhikshus hearing it, were 
all filled with joy. 

The Story or the Woman and hee Two Mites. 

From Asvaghosha's Sermons, vol. iv. p. 15. 

An Extract. 


Again : " A man who bestows charity, if he is actuated by 
a supreme principle of faith in giving even two mites, shall 
receive a return beyond calculation." 

The Stofry. 

I heard that there was once a lone woman who, having 
gone to the mountain called Chaw-ngan (day-dull), beheld 
the men on the mountain holding a religious assembly called 
the Panchavarsha p^rishat.^ Then the woman, having begged 
some food in the crowd, beholding the priests, was filled with 
joy, and uttering her praises, said, " It is well, holy priests ! 
but whilst others give precious things such as the ocean caves 
produce, I a poor (woman) have nothing to give." Having 
spoken thus and searched herself in vain for something to give, 
she recollected that some' time before she had found in a dun<T- 
heap two mites (copper mites), so taking these forthwith she 
offered them as a gift to the priesthood in charity. At this 
time the president (Sthavira), who had arrived at the condition 
of a Rabat (the fruit of Eahatship), and so could read the 

^ That is, a quinqennial assembly. 


motives (heart) of men-, disregarding the rich gifts of others and 
beholding the deep principle of faith dwelling in the heart of 
this poor woman, and wishing the priesthood to esteem rightly 
her religious merit, not waiting to take up his vina (lute), with 
full voice hurst forth with the following lines (religious cantos), 
as he raised his right hand and said, " Eeverend priests, attend ! " 
and then he proceeded : — 

" The mighty earth and vast ocean, 
Whatever treasures they contain, 
According to this woman's intention 
Are all bestowed in charity on the priesthood. 
With careful mind and pious consideration. 
Practising herself in the discharge of good works, 
She has reached the goal of deliverance, 
And utterly put away all covetous and selfish aims." 

At this time the woman was mightily strengthened in her 
mind as she thought, " It is even as the Teacher says, what I 
, do is as difficult as for him who gives up all his treasures;" and 
then, exulting in the act ialthough sorrowing on account of her 
poverty, she prostrated herself before the priests and offered 
her two mites to the president, weeping as she did so and cast 
down in heart, and then she recited the following lines : — 

" May I through all successive births 
Escape such poverty as now afflicts me ! 
Enjoying for ever such happiness (as plenty brings), 
With friends and relations in equal condition. 
I now offer in charity priestly-fruit, 
May Buddha rightly discern (my aim) ; 
And as the result of this religious act, 
May I soon obtain answer to my prayer. 
The good and pious intention of my heart, 
May it result soon in outward prosperity." 

Then the woman having left the mountain, sat down beneath 
a tree, whilst a cloud canopy above her sheltered her without 
intermission from the sun. 

Now at this time the king of the country, having just per- 
formed the funeral obsequies of the queen, was walking abroad 
to see the country, when observing the cloud canopy, he went 


to the tree over which it rested, and there seeing the woman, 
his mind was filled with desire. [He takes her to his palace 
and bestows upon her gifts, and places her in authority as his 
chief wife.] 

Fo-shwo-A-che-sai-wang sheu-Mueh-Kiing. 
Bvddha utters a prediction-concerning Ajdtcisatru Bdja. 

I have heard thus. On one occasion Buddha was dwelling 
in the country of Eijagriha in the GhridraMta (Ki-che-kiu) 
mount. At this time Aj§,tasatru ES,ja asked Buddha to an 
entertainment (to dine). After the meal Buddha returned to 
the Jetavana.^ The king, being then in consultation with 
Chi-p6 (Jiva, i.e., Jivaica), said, " To-day I asked Buddha to an 
entertainment, and he having eaten has gone back to his abode. 
What more should I do ? " Jiva replied, " You should cause 
numberless lamps to be lighted." 

On this the king ordered a hundred measures of oil to be 
taken from the royal gate to the Jetavana Vihara. 

At this time there was an old woman who was very poor, 
but who had always entertained a supreme desire to make an 
offering to Buddha, but on account of her poverty had been 
unable to do so! And now observing what the king was doing, 
she was stirred up to eifort, and going a-begging she got two 
mites given her in charity. Then going to an oil-shop she desired 
to buy two mites' worth of fat. The oil-master then addressed 
her thus : " Old mother, you appear to be very poor, and you 
have got there two mites by begging, why do you not buy some 
food with them for your good ?".... The woman (mother) 
said, " I understand that it is difficult to meet with a Buddha 
when born, even once in a hundred kalpas; and now I have 
been fortunate enough to meet with a Buddha born in the world, 
and yet have been unable to make any offering to him. Now, 
to-day, I saw the king gaining vast merit by his religious offer- 
ings ; incited by this, a thought sprang up in my mind, although 

1 It would almost seem from this, that the inventor of this story thought that 
the Jetavana was close to Rajagriha. Perhaps, however, it ia a misprint for 


in truth I am poor, yet I desire to burn one lamp in honour of 
Buddha, and for the purpose of laying a foundation for a future 
birth (in happiness)." 

On this the oil-master, overjoyed, gave her the two mites' 
worth of oil, wishing that she might obtain her end, as he dealt 
out fivefold the quantity.^ 

Whereupon the old woman, going to the place where Buddha 
was, lit her lamp in his presence, thinking meanwhile this will 
not burn out half the night, and then she vowed this vow : "If 
in after-ages I am to obtain supreme wisdom, and to be born as 
a Buddha, then this oil wiQ burn all the night and not be ex- 
hausted." Then paying reverence to Buddha she departed. 

Now the lamps lighted by the king soon went out and expired, 
and although there were servants sent to feed them, still they 
would not revive ; but the lamp of the old woman, single as it 
was, exceeded in brilliancy the whole array of other lamps, and 
during the whole night the oil was not expended, nor did the 
lamp go out. At length, as morning came on, the old woman 
came back and made reverential worship, with her head pros- 
trate and her hands clasped. She then stood aside. And 
now Buddbe, addressed Mu-lin (Mogalin) thus : " The sky is 
now brightening, you may put out the lamps." Mogalin, in 
obedience to the order, went to put out the lights one after the 
other, when, lo ! he found them all extinguished, except this one 
lamp belonging to the old woman. After trying three times to 
put it out without success, he raised his Kashaya robe in order 
to use it as a fan to blow out the light. But the flame burnt 
brighter and brighter, and although he exercised his utmost 
power (spiritual power) to blow it out, burnt even more bril- 
liantly till it lit up the heaven of Brahma, and was visible 
throughout the whole universe. 

Then Buddha addressed Mogalin : " Stop ! stop ! this is the 
light of one who hereafter shall be a Buddha. No spiritual 
power of yours can extinguish it. ' This woman, during different 
births, extending through 180 myriads (kotis) of kalpas, has 
offered religious offerings to different Buddhas, and from a pre- 
vious Buddha received a prediction in reference to her future 

' This last clause is a doubtful translation. 


condition ; but having failed to offer up a sufficiency of religious 
offering to that Buddha, she now has been born poor and indi- 
gent. But now, after 3000 kalpas, her merit will be completed, 
and then she shall be born as a Buddha, and be called Su-me- 
tamg-hwbng-fu-lai (Sumeru pr§,bha dipa Tathelgata) ; and in the 
world where she is then born there shall be no sun or moon, but 
the bodies of the people shall be self-luminous, and in the 
houses the gems shall emit a perpetual brilliancy like the splen- 
dour of the Trayastrinshas heaven." 

The old woman, having heard this prediction, filled with joy, 
mounted into the air 180 fathoms from the earth, and then 
descending bowed her head before Buddha, and departed. 

The king hearing of this, asked Jiva, saying, " I made all 
these religious preparations with a view to secure merit, and 
yet Buddha gave me no assurance of future eminence, but this 
woman, who has only lighted one lamp, has yet received an 
assurance ? Why is this ? " 

Jiva answered and said, " Although the king has done much, 
yet your heart was not single as this woman's was, who fixed 
her mind on Buddha alone," 

Again the king went to ask Buddha to stop a while at the 
palace. On this occasion the king specially enjoined all the 
garden attendants to gather at early morn all the best fiowers, 
and to bring them in good time to the palace, to be given as an 
offering (to Buddha), 

And now at dawn, Buddha having left the Jetavana, pro- 
ceeding along the road gradually, and with a dignified mien, 
preached the law as he went for the good of the people, and so 
about midday arrived at the palace. Now it so happened that 
as he went a certain garden attendant, holding the flowers in 
his hand, came forth from - the garden enclosure into the street, 
and there met Buddha face to face ; and as he heard him preach 
the law in the midst of the high road his heart was entirely 
filled with joy, and forthwith -he cast the flowers he held in his 
hand above the head of Buddha, where they remained fixed in 
space, as a crown over the head. On this Buddha immediately 
uttered a predictive assurance and said, " You who have made 
your religious offerings to ninety myriads of Buddhas " (or during 
the same number of kalpas of Buddha, but most probably the 


symbol used is an interpolation), " after 140 kalpas, shall become 
a Buddha, under the name of Jcioh-fa Tath3,gata." Then the man, 
overjoyed, immediately raised his body in the air, and after- 
wards descending to the ground, made obeisance at the feet of 
Buddha, He then reflected thus : " The king is of a hasty 
temper, and last night he ordered us to observe religious absti- 
nence, and then take the flowers to him to offer to Buddha, and 
now I h^ve my own self thrown them into the air above the 
head of Buddha and they are gone ; of a surety the king, if I go 
to him empty-handed, will slay me." So going on he returned 
home, and forthwith arranged the empty flower-vases outside 
his door, and then entering he told his wife as follows : " This 
morning I left without my food (fasting), and now the king 
will order me ta be killed ; be quick, I pray, and get me some 
food (or prepare me some food)." His wife, hearing what he 
said, was greatly frightened and said, " Why, then, is the king 
going to kill you?" And then he told his wife the whole 
transaction from beginning to end. The wife immediately 
going out, went to beneath the tortoise^ for some food (or for 
something to prepare for food). Meanwhile the Divine S§,kra 
filled all the empty vases with heavenly flowers, and then when 
the good wife was returning with the food she beheld all the 
vases outside the door filled with flowers of such splendid hues 
as could not be equalled on earth. Forthwith she told her 
husband, who, going out and beholding them, knew at once 
that they were divine flowers. On this his heart was filled 
with joy, and without staying to eat he took the flowers and 
entered (the palace). Just then he met the king coming forth 
to escort Buddha on the road. The king, seeing the flowers so 
large and beautiful, such as are seldom seen in the world, 
immediately asked the gardener, saying, "There are in my 
garden, it appears, many such beautiful flowers as these, and 
you have never before brought them to me as offerings. You 
deserve to be killed for your wickedness, sirrah ! " 

The gardener said, " Your majesty, there are no such flowers 
as these in your garden ; but your servant, early this morning 

1 Does this refer to a cupboard shaped like a tortoise-shell, just as our own 
dish-covers ? 


taking some flowers from your garden in his hand, by 'chance 
encountered Buddha on the road, so unequalled in his appear- 
ance that my heart, overjoyed, led me to cast the flowers above 
him. Hereupon he uttered in my favour a predictive assurance, 
on which, knowing that you would kill me, I went home to get 
some food, when, after a moment or so, going out of my door, 
I saw all the empty flower- vases filled with these flowers. I 
knew they were of heavenly, and not of earthly growth. And 
now, king! although I am of lowly origin, and in my 
present condition only fit to keep the royal gardens, forbid- 
den even to pass the barrier which divides the palace pre- 
cincts from the road ; yet now having done so and received 
the predictive assurance, I know that hereafter I shall be 
born in heaven, and when in the presence of all the Buddhas 
(Buddhas of the ten quarters), then there will be no further 
hindrance, but I shall be able to roam along the road free and 
unforbidden. The king may kill me ; I fear nothing." 

The king, having heard that he had received a predictive y 
assurance, was filled with trepidation ; the very hair on his body 
stood erect; and he fell down prostrate and worshipped (the 
man ?) as a sign of his repentance. 

And now Buddha, having come to the palace and partaken j 
of food, after repeating some sacred sentences (incantations) ' 
went away. 

Again the king inquired of Jiva, " When I formerly invited 
Buddha to an entertainment the old woman received a pre- 
dictive assurance, and now to-day, after seeking, as I have, the 
merit of religious conduct, the garden-keeper has received a 
predictive assurance. Why should I only be forgotten ? my 
heart is indeed cast down, what more can I do to secure the 
reward of merit ? " 

Jiva replied, " Although your majesty has earnestly striven 
for days to obtain religious merit, yet you have only used for 
the purpose the wealth of the country, which has been exacted 
from the people by high-handed, cruel, and passionate tax- 
gatherers; you have therefore obtained hitherto no definite 
assurance. But now; only afflict yourself, offer up your own 
substance, take your own necklaces, and jewels, and costly 
gems, and with them make a ^'ewelled flower, and with your 


queen and heir- apparent, your hands closed in devout suppli- 
cation, unitedly and with earnest intention offer up the gift to 
Buddha, he will then cause his brightness to be shed on the 
king, and you will obtain a predictive assurance." 

Then the king, putting away from him all his savoury viands, 
from morning to night observed the rules of abstinence, and 
then, taking from his body costly jewels, he called together 
before daybreak his most cunning masters of art to make the 
jewelled flower. 

Then the king, and the queen, and the heir-apparent all lent 
their hands to the work, and after ninety days it was fully 
completed. He then made preparations to proceed in state to 
the place where Buddha was, when lo ! one of his ministers 
standing by said that he had heard that Buddha had gone be- 
fore to Kusinagara and there attained Parinirvlna {died). The 
king, on hearing the news, was overpowered by grief ; he wept 
piteously, and with broken accents exclaimed, " I have made 
with my own hands, and with the most earnest intention, this 
(jewelled) flower. Buddha, though he has attained Mrv§,na, 
will receive my offering, and I wiU go to the Gridhrakuta moun- 
tain and there offer it before the throne of Buddha ; the place 
will relieve (spread out and expand) my mind (thoughts)." 

Then Jiva said, " That which is called Buddha is without a 
body and without Nirvana, it is not eternally fixed, nor is it 
without destruction or without existence. He who is possessed 
of the highest self, he is able to see Buddha. Buddha, although 
he dwell in the world, can be seen by none but those possessed 
by this highest self. Mah§,r&ja ! most true is it, that though 
Buddha has attained NirvSiUa, yet may you behold him ! " 

Forthwith he proceeded to the Gridhrakuta mountain, and 
there he beheld the form of Buddha (revealed to him), whilst, 
half-saddened and half-rejoicing, he worshipped on his face 
restraining his tears. Then spreading the sevenfold-precious 
gem flower before him, he cast it before Buddha ; then the flower, 
fixing itself in the air, transformed itself into a perfect jewelled 
canopy and remained over Buddha. Then Buddha delivered to 
the king the following predictive assurance : — " After 80,000 
kalpas, during a kalpa named hi-kwan, the king shall be born as 
a Buddha called Tsing-hi-sho-pou Tathlgata, his domain (t'sa tu) 



shall be called F&-wang. Then human life shall reach forty- 
little kalpas." The king's eldest son, called Chandavali, was then 
eight years old. He, seeing his father receiving this predictive 
assurance, was filled with exceeding joy, and forthwith taking 
off his jewels he scattered them before Buddha and said, " Oh 
that I may be a golden- wheel king at the time when that Tsing- 
kirsho-pou is born as Buddha, and may be privileged to make 
to him religious offerings ; and, after his Nirv§,na, may I be 
privileged to offer above his relics garlands and canopies." 

Buddha answered, " It shall be even as you desire ; at the 
time of that Buddha you shall bfe a golden-wheel king, and 
after jout years are ended you shall be born in the Tusita 
heavens, and at the expiration of your term of life there you 
shall descend as a Buddha and dwell in the domain (fsa tu) 
called Luh-wong, and receive the name of Chandana. Then 
the years of man's life shall be the same as during the time of 
the Buddha called Tsing-hi-sho-pou." 

Having received these predictive assurances, the king and 
Chandavali, bowing before Buddha, lo ! he disappeared amidst 
a blaze of glory. 

The Sutra called Fo-shwo-a-che-sai-wang-sheu-hioue. 

[This is a specimen of the character of the later expanded 
class of Buddhist Sutras.] 



AbMsvara-Devas, 153, 154 
Abhidharma, 16, 19, 20, 27, 82 
Abhishekha, 19 
Abhutadharma, 58 
A-cha-mo-king (Sgama SAtra), 12 
Achilles, 158, 165 
Igama-Slitras, 12, 16, 20, 22, 25 
. Aggalapura, 80 
AhBganga, Mount, 89 
Ajatasatru, 172 
Ajasat (Ajatasatru), 15, 1 8 
A-kieu Fo-kwo-king, 6 
Akshobya, 6, 16, 19 
_lamba, 147 
Alborz, 147 
Alexander, 158 

AmlUyus-Slitra, 8, 20, 26, 145 
Amitabha Sfttra, 8, 10 
Amritddana, 16 
Ananda, 58, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76,. 77, 

166, 168, 169, 170 
Anavaataptu, 149 
Andhra, 50 
An-fa-hien, 11 
Anguttaia Ifik^ya, 82 
Anijana, 32 
Anieou-to, 149 
Anjyatd dhammsC, 76 
An-tsing or Sai-kao, 7 
An-sih, 7 

Anufctara samyak sambhodi, 35 
Archimandrite Paladii, 96 
Ariyo atthangiko-Maggo, 8 
Arsacidse' or the Aaeakas, 7 
Aryadeva, 96 
As6ka, 16, 46, 48, 67, 164 
Asura, 107 

Asvaghosha, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, loi 
Avaddjia Sfitra, 2/ 
Avatamaaka-Slltra, 26, 150 


Balanda, 72 

Benares, 9, 10, 30, 80, 96 

Bhilsa Topes, 7 

BhSdra, 16, 20, 27, 33, 34 

Bhikshus, S3, 55, 59, 71, 72, 73, 74, 

76, 83, 8s, 89 
Bhikshunls, 72, 74 
Bimbasarar^ja, 99, 100 
Birth hearing, 63 
Birth story, 34 
Bodhidruma, 12 
Bodhi Tree, 16, 19 
Bodhisatwas, 18, 34, 42, K)S 
Bodhiruchi, 29 
Bo-Tree, 16 
Bodhi, 39 

Bodhisatwa Maming, 98 
Books, Buddhist, 45, 48. Vaipulya, 17 
Brahmanism, loi 
Brahman, 30 
Brahmajila Slltra, 10 
Bright-faced king, 12 
Buddha, 2 
Buddha GayS, 7 
Buddha, Enlightened, 67 ; Life cf 

Buddha, 24, 26 
BuddhabhSdra, 20, S3 
Buddhasanda, 29 ' 
Buddhajiva, S3 
Buddhayassa, S3 
Buddhacharita, 97 
Buddhaghosha, 49 
Buddhavarma, 24 
Buddhism, i, 2, 26, 46; Northern, 46; 

Southern, 47 ; Sangha, 49 
Buddhist Scriptures, 82. Northern, 158 


Canton, 7, 8 
Catalogue, I, 10 



Cattdri ariyasacckni, 8 
Canon, 46, 47 

,, Buddhist, 52 

,, Southern, 60 

,, Chihese, 52 
Ceylon,!, 45, 49,50, S3. 69 
Campbell, Professor, 148 
Chang- Yen, 4 

Chang'an, 14, 17, 21, 26, 30 
Chandradipa, 27 
Chandavati, 178 
Chang-yeh, 23 
Chang-tsin Temple, 26 
Chau-ngan, 170 " 
Ch'en, 30 
Cheng-wang, i 
Che-to-lin, 15, ig 
Childers, Professor, 9, 47 
China, I, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 25, 26, 33, 4S, 

SI. S3 
Chi-hien, 11 
Chi-k'iang, 12 
Chi-fa,-to, 14, 17 
Chi-ma-to, 21 
Ching-kwan, zg 
Ching-fa-nien-ohu-king, 30 
Chin yu, 14s 
Chi Tan, 26, 166 
Chi-yuen, 26 
Chun-fa-lun-king, 8 
Chu-fo-Bo, g , 
Chung-pen-k'i-klng, lo 
Chu-fa-leh, 21 
Chu-fo-nien, 22 
Chu-fa-ch'uen, 27 
Chu-tan-wou-lan, 16, 19 
Chu-Uu-yen, 12 
Chu-shuh-lan, 13, 17 
Chuh-liu, 28 
Chwang-wang, 2 
Cook-foot Mount, 32 
Council of the Five Hundred, 69 
Council of the Seven Hundred, 81 
CophenS, 22, 25 
Corea, 33 
Confucius, 2 
Coomiira Swtoy, 61 
CuUavagga, 69 


D'Alwis, Mr., 47 

DSnapati, 120, 121, 123 

Devas, 41, 70 , 

Devadatta, loi 

Dharmananda, 3, 4, 5, 22, 32 (Qobhe- 

Dhammapada, 8 

Dharmaphala, 10, 12 
DharmakSla, 10 
Dharmaraksha, 13, 51, 52 
Dharmavarddhana, 22 (DharmaTiTai'd- 

Dharmayasas, 22 
Dharmavira, 27 
Dharmaj&tayasas, 28 
Dharmamati, 28 
Dharmaruchi, 28 
Dharmadana, 30 
Dharmapr4jna, 31 
Dharmagupta, 31, 69 
Dharma Vinaya, 73, 75, 94 
Dharm&kshaya, 8, 23, 24, g8 (DharmS- 

Dharmamita, 25 
Dhauli, 48 
Dhanaka, 79 
Dickson, 165 
DirghSgama, 10 
Dipaiikara, 100 
Dukkata, 76 


Eastern Tsin, 18 
Edkins, 33 
Elapatra, 12 
Emperor Wii Ti, 6 
Empress Wu, 32 
Essseans, 162 


F5-chung, 23 
Fa-hai-tsong-king, 6 
Fa-hien, 7, 21, 24, 25, 27, 53, 8i 
Fa-hu, 14, 18 

Pa-hwa-san-mui-king, 14, 18 
Fa-kheu-king, 8 
Fa-kin, 22 

Fa-k'eu-pen-mi-kiug, 14, 18 
Fa-lin, I 
Fa-lih, 14, 18 
Fa-wang, 17, 81 
Fan-kong-klng, 10 
Fa-kheurtsih-king, 12 
Pa-ku, 14, 18 
F^er Leon, 33, 146 
Fergusson, 34 
Five mountains, 3 
Fo-pen-hing-king, 6, 24, gS, 99 
Fo-pen-sing-king, 6 
Fo-to-p'o-to-lo, 16, 26 
Po-mu-pau-ni-pan-king, 24 
Fo-hu, 21 


i'o-to-ye-slie, 22 , 
Fo-ye-to-lo, 22 

Fo-peu-hing-tsau-king, 26, 98 
Fo-sho-hing-tsan, 97, 98 
Fo-shwo-a-che-sai-wang-Bheu-kioue, 1 78 
Foucaux, 51 
Forty-two Sections, 33 
Foundation of the Kingdom of Eight- 

eousness, 9 
Pu-Bze, 2 
Fu-yi, I 
Fu-yih, 3 

Fragrant Mountains, 156 
Fragrant Sea, 156, 157 


Qandhftra, 31, 109, iii 

Gtandharvas, 40 

Gan&a Gumpha, 50 

Ganges, 146 

GayS, sirsha Slitra, 29 

Ghfidraktita, 172, 177 

Girnar, 48 

Goldziher, 148 

Qotama, 15, 66 

Gotamasafigha Deva, 16, 19 

Great Congregation, 67 

Great Development (Sfitra of the) 5, 23 

Greece, 143, 144 

GuuabhMra, 26 

Gunasatya, 27 

Gunavati, 28 

Gunavarma, 25 


Han-dynasty, 3, 4, 10 
Hard-Berezaiti, 147 
Havilah, 148 
HeUos, 157, IS9 
Hiao-kien, 24 
Hiao-wu-ti, 24 
Hiao-Wen-ti, 23 "* 
Hi-lan-yo, 72 
Himavat, 149 
Hiranyavati, 72 
Hindu-kush, 156 
Hiouen Thsang, 49 
Hi-shi Sutra, 150 
Hodgson, 46, 97 
Holy One, 71, 84 
Homer, 157 
Homeric period, 143 
Honan, 32 
Hong-shin, 9 
Hun, II, 13 

Hung-she, 20 
Hu, 8 
Hunan, 7 
Hwan-ti, 7 
Hwei-Ti, 14, 15, 18 


Indus, 156 

Integrity of the Law, 16 
Is'varadeva, 109 
Is'vara, 25 
I-Tsing, 165 
I-yeh-po-lo, 25 

■Tambudwipa, 14 
JS,takaB, 6, 25, 34 
Jetavana, 172 
Jews, 161 
Jin-ch'au, 154 
Jiya, 172, 174, 176 
Jnafiayasas, 30 
Jnafia-kAta, 30, 31 
JnanabhSdra, 30 
Josephus, 160, 161 
JuUen Stans, 5 1 
Juno, 157 
Jivaka, 172 


KS.laruchi, 13 

Kalandaputra, 79 

Kalpa, 6 

Kalayasas, 25 

Kalinga, 45 

Kaludaka, 16, 20 

KalAdayi, 79 

Eamma, II 

Kana, 83, 136 

Kahaka-muni-Buddha, 57 

Kanaplitra Bhikshu, 86 

Kang-hsi; sub. "Shih-kia," 2 

Kang Shin, 3 

Kang-Tao, 16, 20 


Kanapfttra, 86 
Kansuh, 23 
Eao, 7, 8 
Kao-chang, ?3 
Kao-tso-fa-sse, 19 
Kao-kung, 21 
Kapilavasta, 10, 16, 20 
Kashmir, 69, 97 


Kaaibharadyaja, 60 
Kas'yapa Buddha, 57 
Kfe'yapa matanga, 35 
Khotan, 13, 17 
Ki'a-na-wei oW, 85 
Eiafu, 125 

Kia-lan-to-kia, 16, 20 
Kia-to-lo, 127 
Ki-ohe-kin, 172 
Kieu-cho, ig 
Kien-ho, 7 
Kien-hing, iz 
Kien-k'ang, 15, ig, 24 
Kien-na, 136 

Kien-kwong-ming-king, 5, 24 
King UdS.yana, 6 
Kin-she, 32 
King Yun, 32 
Kin-sih-wang-king, 30 
Kong-nui, 14, 17 
Kong-sang-k'ai, 11 
Kong-mang-tsiang, 10 
Kong-sang-ul, 12 
Krakuchanda Buddha, 57 
Kshatrlyas, 31, 155 
Kusa, 61 
Kushi, 3S 
Kuhn, E., 48 
Kusinagara, 6g, 71 
Klisi, 70 

Kumaraiiva, 20, g5, g6 
Kum^rabhodi, 21 
Kupg Ti, 6 
Kung, 7 , 

Ku-mu-song-yih-tseu, 8 
Ku-kin-tsi-king-t'u-ki, 10 
Kusika, 113 
Kwan-yin, 26 
Kwang-fu, 31 
Kwan-ming, 6 
Kwan-si-yiu-king, 24 
Kwan-ohau, 7 
Kwo-hu-in-kwo-king, 20 

Lanka^tara S<itra, 24, ag 
Lalita Vistarai, 51, 97 
Laii-lan-king, 14 ' 

Laou-Tseu, 2 
Leng-kia-king, 24 
Liang Dynasty, 23, 29 
Life of Buddha, 6, 9, 26, 5 1 
Li Pang, 2 
Ling'Ti, 9 
Lin-hwai, 9 
Lin-ohang, 29 
Litohavis, 85, 99 

Lotus, 7, IS, 19 , 
Lo-mo-kia king, 1 1 
Lo-pien, 82 

Loydyako, 70 

Loyang, 3, 5, 10, II, 17, 18, 28, 29, 31 

Luh-wonff. 177 

Luh-wong, 177 
Lu-hwui-tung, 4 
Lung-shi-nui-king, 12 


:a, II, 20, 52 
MahSparinirvSna Sutra, 13, 21 
Mah£ Praj^pati, 14 
Mahltpraj&a p&ramita S<itra, 22 
MahkySna, 28 
Mshkmkyk, 28 
MahSvagga, 48 
Mahavihara, 67 
MahSsthavira, 68, 6g 
Mahabhadanta, 70 
Mahakasyapa, 70 
MahakSvya, 97 
Mahtoirvana, lOi 
MahSvaatu, 151 
Mahinda, 48 
Mahisasika, 24, 52, 53 
Mahratta, 68 
Mahesvara, lod 
Maitreya, 20, 25 
Magadha, 68 
Mahes'vara, 106 
Mallaputras, 70 
Mani-padme, 7 
Mandala, 29 
Mand^ra, 29 
Manjusri, 29 
M^nisulako, 84 
M^ni, 126 
MS.ra, 62, 99, 151 
Matangi, 168 
MathurS, io6 
Matrika, 26 
Matu, 106 

Max Miiller, Professor, 157 
Meghasikhi, 7 
Middle India, 5, 26, 31 
Minayef, 48 
Ming-ti, 3, 50 
Mo-ho-shing-king, 13 
Mo, 15, 18 

Mo-ho-ma-ye-king, 28 
Mongolia, 33 
Mo-ho-seng-ohi-lui, 52 
Mount Sumeru, 42 
Mogalau, 151, 152, 173 
Moschus, 157 
Mo-ho-sing, 28 



Miilaaarv^taT^ns, 52 
Mu-lin, 173 
Muir, Dr., 156 

Nalandayasas, 30 

Nanda, 6, 21 

Nan-yoh, 4 

Nan-hae-khi-kwei-ch'ouen, 67 

Nikaya, 60 

NipatS, 60 

Nirvana Sutra, 17, 23 

Nirvana, 77, 99, 129, 144, 145, 177 

Nirgranthaa, 131 

Niesagiy^, 76 

Ni-sha-ga-pb-wu-fen-lui, 52 


Odyssey, 147, 148 
0-lo-han, 8z 
0-Ian, 100 

Oldenberg, 53, 67, 69, 82 
Olympus, 147, 148 
O-mi-to, 12 
Orissa, 50 
Oxus, 149 


Pagodas, 12, 33, 106 

Pali Suttas, 9 

Pali, 48, 54, 81 

Panchavarsha, 170 

Pan-jo-tao-king-p'hin, 6 

Panohavidya, 30 

Pantheist, 96 

Panitaruohi, 31 

Pao-tsifa-king, 6 

Paragraphs, (42) ; the stitra of, 56 

Paramita, 7 

Parajika, 55, 79 

Parinirvana, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 27, 

Parijata, 150 
Parthian, II, 13, 17, 160 
Parsva, 95 
Pataliputra, 113 
Pava, 70 
Pih-yen, 11 
Pih-fk-tsu, 14, 17 
Pi-sl-li-mih-to-lo, IJ, 18 
Pindadana, 18 
Pi-u-king, 27 
Pi-mo-lo-ch'a, 20 
Poh-sse, 3 

Po-lo, 154 
Po-li, 92 

P'o-ho-ho-pien, 86 
P'o-po, 70 
Po-taou-mo, 30 
Po-ti, 29 
Po-tse lun, I 
Po-i-na, 90, 91 
Po-yun, 26 
Prabhakala, 31 
Prabha, 31 
Prajapati, 14, 17 
Prajna Paramita Slitra, 7 
Pratimoksha, 19, 57 
Prasenajita, 53 
PuninaB, 156 


Questions concerning affairs in hell, 9 


Rabbin, 71, 82 

Rabat, 4,9, 25,26, 73, 119 

Rahu, 85 

Raja, 12, 15, 16 

Rajagraha, 67, 69, 70, 79, 89 

Rakshasts, 50 

EatnakAta Stitra, 7 

Kaksha, 26 

Revata, 87, 90 

Rishi, 109, no 

Rules of the Three Schools, 19 

Rules of Prohibition, 88 

Rudra-Ramaputra, 9 

gabbakami, 92 

Sacred Books, 4, 14 

Saddharma, 21, 116 

Saddharma Pundarika, 28 

Saddharma smriti upasthana S<itra, 30 

Sai-ko, 8 

Sai-mung, 32 

Sakradevendra, 13 

6akya-Muni, 2, zo 

Sakya-Buddha, 3 

Sakya, 11 6' 

Sakyaputra, 80, 83, 85 

Sala trees, 69 

Samaroand, 12 

Samadhi, 92 

Sama-dhi Raja Silltra, 13 

Samanta-mukha, 21 

Saingha, 55, 73 

Sammatiyas, 68 

1 84 


Samghadisesa, 79 

Samanera, 80 

Sambhcdi, 99 

gamam, 165 

Samyuktabhidharmhridaya sutra, 25 

Sanchi, 7 

Sang-kia-po-oh'ing, 21 

Sa&ghadatia, 20 

Safigha-raksha, 22 

SanghabbMra, 28 

Stag-i, 28 

Sanghapalita, or Sanghavarma, 26, 29 

Sanscrit, 32 

Sang-ki'a-she, 86 

Sanghakammas, 87 

SSriputra, 57 

Sariras of Buddha, 4 

Sarvastavadine, 20, 21, 68, 69, 8l 

Satapaui, 69 

Sea of the Law, 21 

S&art, 159 

Sha-kia-to, 88 

Shami, 27 

Shaman, 9, 10 

Shan-ki-Temple, 29 

Sheu-sin, 3 

Sheh-ohi-yan, 25 

She-Hwang-ti, i 

Shen-ting-yan-king, 6 

Shensi, 8 

She-kia-to-yue-king, S 

Sh^u-Lung, 32 

She-wei, 166 

Shi-chi-mang, 24 

Shie-ts'un 8 

Shih-te-twan-kie-king, 6 

Shin-tseu, 3 

Shih-tao-chi, 14, 17 

Shih-lang-kung, 21 

Shih-fa-yung, 2i 

Shih-hwei-shang, 21 

Shih-hwei-kan, 27 

Shih-shoh-kung, 27 

Shih-tao-kung, 23 

Shih-tao-yau, 27 

Shih-yung-tung, 27 

Shih-fa-hae, 27 

Shih-sien-kung, 27 

Shih-fa-to, 28 

Shih-tan king, 2$ 

Shih-tan-yen, 23 

Shih-fa-ni, 28 

Shih-fa-ch'ang, 28 

Shih-i-tslng, 31 

Shih-Bong-liu, 52 


Shing-ohing-liang-pou, 68 
Shu-tsai, 4 

Sin- Yang, 8 

Sivi-Jataka, 34 

Socrates, 143 

Sophocles, 143 

SravastJ, 27, 65, 79, 80, 88, 166 

Sringin, 14 

Srimitra, 15, 18 

Sthavira, 49, 87, 90, 93 

Stiipa, 116 

Sun-worship, 159 

^urajigama, 7 

Sui-ying-pen-k'i-king, 12 

Sudatta, 28 

Suddhddana, 18 

SfitTSL of anointing a king, 15, 19 

Sfjltra of Boundless Years, 13 

Stitra of the Bright-faced King, 12 

Sutra of the Eight Correct or Orthodox 

Sfttra of MahSmaya, 9 . 

Stitra of Mixed Comparisons, 13 

Sutra of the Tree of Knowledge, 12 

SAtra of the Four Truths, 10 

Sdtra of Yuh-ye, 16 

StttSL of the Questions of the Divine 

Sakra, 35 
Sumeru, 14, 148 
Surafihtra, 49 
Sutta Nipata, 63 
Sui dynasty, 31 
SuTarna-Frabhaaa sfttra, 24 


TOi-wu-ti, 23 

Ta-lih, 10 

Tangut, 23 

Tan-mo-chi, 21 

Tan-mo-ping, 22 

Tan-mo-tsien, 23 

Tan-mo-ye-she, 22 

Tan-mo-kea-to-ye-ahe, 28 

Tan-mo-mi-to, 25 

Tan-kwo, 10 

Tan-ko-kia-to, 10 

Tan-ti, 11 

Tan-won-wei, 144 

Tang dynasty, 7 

Ta-tseu-pen-k'i-sin-ying-king, 10 

Ta-pan-ni-pwan-king, 1 1 

Ta-ngai-tao-pan-ni-pan-king, 14 

Ta-ohwang-yan-king-Lun, 34, loi, 105 

TalhSgata, 34 

Ta-chwang-yan-king, 51 

Ta-ta, 39 

Tao-Yang Temple, 21 

Ta-fuh-sien Temple, 32 

T'ai-shih, 27 



Taouisfc priest, 3, 4 

Ta-kfCng, 14 

Ta'iYuan, 16 

Ta-mih, 10 1 

Taou-shu-king, 12 

Tehaudaka, g8 

Tehe-yen, 53 

Therapeutse, 162 

Thousand Buddhas, 1 6 

Tree and Serpent worship, 34 

Tripitaka, 15 

Trisul, 7 

Ts'ai Yin, 3, 5 

Ts'in king, 3 

Tsieh-u, 4 

Tsa-wen-lui-Bz', 20 

Tsi dynasty, 28 

Tsi-chan, 31 

Tung-loh, 23 

Tsing-ki-sho-pou, 178 

Tung-fang-so, 6 

Tun-hwang, 51 

Turning the wheel of the law, 9 

Turkhara, 22, 23 

Turfan, 23 


Udyana, 30 

UpM^na, 114 

Upali, 79 

UpSaaka, 17, 30, 85, 106, 108, no, 

112, 130 
Upasnnya, 30 
Ujjein, 29, 30 
Uttara kuru, 56 


Vaggumudatiriya Bhikshu, 79 

VajrapSnJ, 150 

Vajjiputra Bhikshus, 90 

Vajrasucht, 97 

Vajra-prajna-p^ramita sfltra, 29 

Vaiikaramo, 93 

VasabhaySmika, 92 

Vaisravana, 158 

Vedana, 114 

Vedas, 10 

Vedic, 156 

Vesait, 79, 83, 100 

Verailja, 55 

Vibhasha Abhidharraa, 16, 26 

Vibhanga, 80 

Vibasha, 22 

Videhi, 15, 18 

Vidya, lo 

Vimaiaksha, 20 

Vinataruchi, 31 

Vinaya, 10, 1 1, 20, 21, 52, 80, 81 

Vinaya Pitaka, 24, 52, 46, 48 

Vinaya of the SarvSiStavadius, 52 
,, ,, Mahisasikas, 52 
„ ,, Dharmaguptas, 52 
,, ,, M<UasarvastavMins, 52 

Vipasyin, 57 

Virtue of the law, 20 

Vishau, 156 

Visravas, 158 

Visvabhu Buddha, 57, 58 

Vulture-Peak-Mountains, 7, 32 

Vyasa, 113, 116, 117, n8 

Vyakaramas, 96 


Wang Ts'un, 3 

Wang-shin, 23 

Wen-ti-yuh-ss-king, 9 

Wen-ching, 23 

Wen-ti, 23, 25 

Wei dynasty, 10, 24 

Wei-ohi-lan, 12 

Western India, $ 

White Horse Temple, 3, 5 

White Huns, 6, 1 1 

Widow woman at funeral of her only 

son, 9 
Wou-liang-sheu-king, 8, 13, 26 
Wou-lo-yau-che', 13 
Wo-lo, 13 
Wu-Ti, 6 
Wu-fdng, 12 

Tang-chan, 28 
Yaou-Tbsin, 22 
Yasa ktita, 30 
Yellow Eiver, 32 
Yin, 3 

Yoga shasters, 1 1 
Yuan, 28, 30 
Yuan-wei, 28 
Yuan kia, 27 
Yung Ping, 3 
Yung-kia, 14 
Yung-ning, 17 




Mount Sumeru. 

PLATE 11. 

The Fotjk Kings. 


[WaM Jij^A=^ ,^it '^t # # m # 


^rWAjW'i^"^^^ '^_^ i&^m'tii "if; 

'^5^aAW^" "^^' ^4 

The Sakwala. 








m ' 



The Fotje Dvipas. 


The Thibit-threb Gods. 





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4 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

ASFLEI.—Tbe Complete French Couese. Part II. Containing all the Rules of 
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ASTON.— A Short Grammar of the Japanese Spoken tanguage. By W. G. Aston, 
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ASTON.— A Gbammar op the Japanese Wkitten Language. By TV. G. Aston, 
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BABA.— An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language, with easy progressive 
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BACON. — The Lipe and Times op Francis Bacon. Extracted froin the Edition of 
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BADEN-POWELL.— Protection and Bad Times, with Special Reference to the 
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BADER. — The Natural and Morbid Changes of the Human Eye, and thei^i 
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Published by Triibner & Co. 5 

BADLEY.— Indian Missionaby Record and Mbmoeial Volume. By the Rev. B. 
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BALFOUR.— Waifs and Strays from the Far East ; being a Series of Disconnected 
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BALFOtTR.— The DrviNE Classic op Nan-Htta ; being the Works of Chuang Tsze, 
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BALL. — The Diamonds, Coal, and Gold of India ; their Mode of Occurrence and 
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BALLAD SOCIET? — Subscriptions, small paper, one guinea; large paper, two guineas 
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BALLANTYNE.— Elements of Hindi and Bbaj Bhakha Gbammak. Compiled for 
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BALLANTYNE.— First Lessons in Sanskrit Grammar ; together with an Introduc- 
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BABANOWSKI.— Vadb Mecum de la Langue Fbansaise, rgdige d'aprds les Dic- 
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BARENTS' RELICS.- Recovered in t"he summer of 1876 by Charles L. W. Gardiner, 
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BARRI£RE and CAFENDU.- Les Faux Bonshommes, a Comedy. By Theodore 
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1877. 20s. 

BATTYE. — What is Vital Force? or, a Short and Comprehensive" Sketch, includ- 
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BAZLEY. — Notes on the Epicyclodial Cutting Frame of Messrs. Holtzapffel & 
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BEAIi. — Travels oh Pah-Hian and SnNa-Ynn, Buddhist Pilgrims, from China to 
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HEAL. — A Catena of.Buddhisi So&iptcbss fbou the Chinese. By S. Beal, B,A., 
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BEAL. — The JRomantio Legend op Sakya Bdddha. From the Chinese-Sanskrit. 
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SEAL. — Dhammafada. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

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BEAMES.— Outlines of Indian Philology. With a Map showing the Distribution 
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BEAMES. — A CouFARATivE Gkahmab of the Modern Aryan LANonASES of India, 
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BELLEW. — From the Indus to the Tigris. A Narrative of a Journey through the 
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BELLEW. — Kashmir and Kashohar ; a Narrative of the Journey of the Embassy 
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BELLEW.— The Races op Apghanistan. Being a Brief Account of the Principal 
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BELLOWS.— English Outline Vocabulary for the use of Students of the Chinese, 
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Writing of Chinese with Soman Letters, by Professor Summers, King's College, 
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BELLOWS.— Odtlihb DiOTioNiRY fob the use of Mibsionarieb, Explorers, and 
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Published hy Triibner & Go. 7 

BELLOWS. — Tons lbs VerbiiB. Conjugations of all tlie Verbis in the French and 
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BELLOWS.— Fkenoh and Ehglish Diotionakt for thk Pocket. By John Bellows. 
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BENEDIX.— Der Vettee. Comedy in Three Acts. By Boderich Benedix. With 
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Royal Institution School, Liverpool, and G. Zimmermann, .Teacher of Modern 
Languages. 12mo, pp. 128, cloth. 1863. 2s. 6d. 

BENFEY. — A Pkactioal Grammar of the Sanskrit Lahouaoe, for the use of Early 
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1868. 10s. 6d. 

BENTHAM. — Theort OF Leoislation. By Jeremy Bentham. Translated from the 
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and 472, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

BEVERIDGE.— The District of Bakarganj. Its History and Statistics. By H. 
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460, cloth. 1876. 21s. 

BICKNELL. See Hafiz. 

BIGANDET. — THE Life op Gaudama. See Triibner 's Oriental Series. 

BIRCH.— Fasti Monastioi Aevi Saxonici ; or, An Alphabetical List of the Heads of 
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BIRD. — Physiological Essays. Drink Craving, Differenees in-Men, Idiosyncrasy, and 
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SLACK. — Young JAPANi Tokohama and Yedo. A Narrative of the Settlement 
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1879; With a Glance at the Progress of Japan during a Period of Twenty-dne 
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" Japan Gazette." Editor of the "Far East." 2 vols, demy Svo, pp. xviii. and 
418 ; xiv. and 522, cloth. 1881. £2, 2s. 

BLADES. — Shakspere and Ttpooraphy. Being an Attempt to show Shakspere's 
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Remarks upon some common Typographical Errors, with especial reference to the 
Text of Shakspere. By William Blades. 8vo, pp. viii. and 78, with an Illustra- 
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8 A Qatalogue of Impwiant Works, 

BLADES.— The Biography and Tipogkaphy or William Caxton, England'8 First 
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demy 8vo, on hand-made paper, imitation old bevelled binding. 1877. £1, Is. 
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BLADES. — The Enemies of Books. By William Blades, Typograph. Crown Svo, 
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BLAEEY. — Hemoibs 01' Dr. Bobert Blaeey, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, 
Queen's College, Belfast, Author of "Historical Sketch of Moral Science," &c., 
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BLEEE. — EKYSiKD THE Pox IN SoDTH ApKloA ; Or, Hottentot Fables and Tales, 
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George Grey, K.C.B. By W. H. L Bleek, Ph.D. Post Svo, pp. xxvi and 94, 
cloth. 1864. 3s. 6d. 

BLEEE.— A Brief Account of Bushman Folk Lore, and other Texts. By W. H. 
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BOEHMER.— Spanish Eepormers of Two Centuries, from 1520, their Lives and 
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BOJESEN.— A GumE to the Danish Lanshaob. Designed for English Students. 
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BOLIA, — The German Caligraphist : Copies for German Handwriting. By C. 
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BOY ENGINEERS.— See under Lukin. 

BO'TO.— NIgXnanda ; or, the Joy of the Snake World. A Buddhist Drama in Five 
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BRAMSEN— Japanese Chronological Tables, showing the Date, according to 
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Introductory Essay on " Japanese Chronology and Calendars. ByW, Bramsen. 
Oblong fcap. 4to, pp. 50-84, cloth. 1880. 14b. 

BRAMSEN. — The Coins of Japan. By W. Bramsen. Part I. The Copper, Lead, 
and Iron Coins issued by the Central Government. 4to, pp. 10, with Plates of 74 
Coins, boards. 1880. 5s. 

BRAMSEN.— Japanese Weights, with their Equivalents in French and English 
Weights. Compiled by W. Bramsen, Fcap. folio sheet. 1877, Is. 

BRAMSEN.— Japanese Lineal Measures, with^heir Equivalents in French and 
English Measures. Compiled by W. Bramsen. fcap. folio sheet. 1877, Is. 

BRENTANO.— On the History and Development op Gilds, and the Origin of 
Trade-Unions. By Lujo Brentano, of Asohaffenburg, Bavaria, Doctor Juris 
XJtriusque et Philosophise. 1. The Origin of Gilds. 2. Eeligions (or Social) 
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Svo, pp. xvi. and 136, cloth. 1870. Ss. 6d. 

BRETSCHNEEDER.— Early European Eesbarches into the Flora of China. 
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Svo, pp. iv. and 194, sewed. 1881, 7s. 6d. 

Published hy^ TrUhner & Co. 9 

BRETTE.— Fbench Examination Papebs set at the Univbksitt op London fkom 
1839 TO 1871. Arranged and edited by the Rev. P. H. Ernest Brette, B.D. 
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BRITISH MUSEUM.— List of Publications of the Trustees of the Bkitish 
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BROWN.— The Debvishes ; oe, Oriental Spibitualism. By John P. Brown, 
Secretary and Dragoman of the Legation of the United States of America at Con- 
stantinople. Crown 8to, pp. viii. and 416, cloth, with 21 lUustrations. 1868. 14s. 

BROWN.— Sanskrit Pbosodt and Numerical Symbols Explained. By Charles 
Philip Brown, M.E.A.S., Author of aTelugu Dictionary, Grammar, &o.. Professor 
of Telugu in the Ifniversity of London. 8vo, pp. viii. and 56, cloth. 1869. 3s. 6d. 

BROWNE.— How to USE THE Ophthalmoscope; being Elementary Instruction in 
Ophthalmoscopy. An-anged for the use of Students. By Edgar A. Browne, Sur- 
geon to the Liverpool Eye and Ear Infirmary, &c. Crown 8vo, pp. xi. and 108, 
with 35 Figures, cloth. 1876. 3s. 6d. 

BROWNE.— A BangXli Primer, in Eoman Character. By J. F. Browne, B.C.S, 
Crown 8vo, pp. 32, cloth. 1881. 2s. 

BRHNTON.— Map op Japan. See under Japan. 

BiJCHNER.— Force and Matter : Empirico-PhUosophioal Studies intelligibly ren- 
dered. With an additional Introduction expressly written for the English edition. 
By Dr. Louis Buchner. Edited by J. Frederick Collingwood, F.E.S.L., F.G.S. 
Second English, completed from the Tenth German Edition, With a Portrait of 
the Author. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 284, cloth, 1881. 5s. 

BUDGE, — Archaic Classics. Assyrian Texts; being, Extracts from the Annals of 
Shalmaneserll., Sennacherib, and Assur-Bani-Pal, With Philological Notes, By 
Ernest A, Budge, M,B.A.S., Assyrian Exhibitioner, Christ's College, Cambridge, 
Small 4to, pp, viii, and 44, cloth, 1880. 7s. 6d, 

BUDGE. — History of Esabhaddon. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 



Kepobt of the First Season's Operations in the Belgam and Kaladi 
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Photographs and Lithographic Plates. Boyal 4to, pp, viii, and 45; half 
bound. 1875. £2,23. 

E.EPORT ON the Antiquities of KIthiAwId and Kaohh, being the result of 
the Second Season's Operations of the Archseological Survey of Western 
India, 1874-75. By James Burgess, F.E.G.S, Eoyal 4to, pp. x. and 242, 
with 74 Plates; half bound. 1876. £3, 3s. 

Report on the Antiquities in the Bidar and Aueangabad Districts, in 
the Territories of His Highness the Nizam of Haiderabad, being the result 
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India, 1875-76. By James Burgess, F.R.6.S., M.E.A.S., Arohseologioal Sur- 
veyor and Eeporter to Government, Western India. Eoyal 4to, pp. viii, and 
138, with 63 Photographic Plates ; half bound. 1878, £2, 2s, 

Report on the Buddhist Cave Temples and their Inscriptions ; contain- 
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4to, half-morocco, gilt top, with numerous Plates and Woodcuts. £3, 3s, 

[In preparation. 

ID A Catalogue of Important Works, 

BURMA.— The British Edema Gazetteeb. Compiled by Major H. E. Spearman, 
under the direction of the Government of India. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 764 and 878, 
with 11 Photographs, cloth. 1880. £2, 10s. 

BUSNELL. — Elements op Sodth Indian Palaeography, from the Fourth to the 
Seventeenth Century A.D., being an Introduction to this Study of South Indian 
Inscriptions and MSS. By A. C. Bumell. Second enlarged and improved 
Edition. 4to, pp. xiv. and 148, Map and 35 Plates, cloth. 1878. £2, 12s. 6d. 

BURNELL.— A Classified Index to the Sanbkbit MSS. in the Palace at 
Tanjorb. Prepared for the Madras Government. By A. 0. Burnell, Ph.D., &c., 
&e. 4to, stifle wrapper. Part I., pp. iv.-80, Vedio and Technical Literature. 
Part II., pp. iv.-80. Philosophy and Law. Part III., Drama, Epics, Puranas, aijd 
Zantras ; Indices. 1879. lOs. eiixsh. 

BURNEY.— The Bots' Manual op Seamanship and GrUNNKRr, compiled for the use 
of the Training-Ships of the Hoyal Navy. By Commander C. Burney, E.N., 
F.E.G.S., Superintendent of Greenwich Hospital School. Seventh Edition. Ap- 
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Ships of the Eoyal Navy. Crown 8vo, pp. xxii. and 352, with numerous Illus- 
trations, cloth. 1879. 6s^ 

BITRNEY.,-The Yodnq Seaman's Manual and Eigobe's Guide. By Commander 
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by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Crown 8vo. pp. xxxviii. and 592, 
cloth. With 200 Illustrations and 16 Sheets of Signals. 1878. 7s. 6d. 

BURTON.— Captain Eiohakd F. Bdrton's Handbook fob Overland Kxpebitions ; 
being an English Edition of the "' Prairie Traveller," a Handbook for Overland 
Expeditions. With Illustrations and Itineraries of the Principal Eoutes between 
the Mississippi and the Pacific, and a Map. By Captain Eandolph B. Marcy (now 
General and Chief of the Staff, Army of the Potomac). Edited, with Notes, by 
Captain Eichard F. Burton. Crown 8vo, pp. 270, numerous Woodcuts, Itinera- 
ries, and Map, cloth. 1863. 6s. 6d. 

BUTLER.— The Spanish Teacher and Colloquial Phease-Book. An easy and 
agreeable method of acquiring a Speaking Knowledge of the Spanish Language. 
By Francis Butler. Fcap. 8vo, pp. xviii. and 240, half-roan. 2s. 6d. 

BUTLER.— Hungarian Poems and Fables for English Eeadees. Selected and 
Translated by-E. D. Butler, of the British Museum ; with Illustrations by A. G. 
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GOETHE'S Faust.— See Scoones. 

GOETHE'S Minor Poems. See Selss. 

GW-DSTUCKEE.- A DiOTioHABT, Sanbkmt and Enslish, extended and improved 
from the Second Edition of the Dictionary of Professor H. H. Wilson, -with his 
sanction and concurrence. Together with a Supplement, Grammatical Appen- 
dices, and an Index, serving as a Sanskrit-English Vocabulary. By Theodore Gold- 
stucker. Parts I. to VI. 4to, pp. 400. 1856-63. 6s. each. 

GOLDSTirCKEK.— See AnoTORES Sanskkitt, Vol. I. 

GOOSOO SIMPLE. Strange Surprising Adventures of the Venerable G. S. and his 
Five Disciples, Noodle, Doodle, Wiseacre, Zany, and Foozle ; adorned with Fifty 
JHustrations, drawn on wood, by Alfred Crowquill. A companion Volume to 
"Miinchhauaen" and "Owlglass," based upon the famous Tamul tale of theGooroo 
Paramartan, and exhibiting, in the form of a skUfully-constructed consecutive 
narrative, some of the finest specimens of Eastern wit and humour. Elegantly 
printed on tinted paper, in crown 8vo, pp. 223, richly gilt ornamental cover, eilt 
edges. 1861. 10s. 6d. ^ 

GOVEE.— The Folk-Sonqs of Southekn India. By 0. E. Cover, Madras. Con- 
tents : Canarese Songs ; Badaga Songs ; Coorg Songs ; Tamil Songs ; The Cural; 
Malayalam Songs; Telugu Songs. 8vo, pp. xxviii. and 300, cloth. 1872. 
10s. 6d. 

GEAMMATOGEAFHY. A Manual of Eefebbnoe to the Alphabets op Anoieni 
AND MODHEN Lanouaoes. Based on the German Compilation of F. BaUhom. 
Eoyal 8vo, pp. 80, cloth. 1861. 7s. 6d. 

GEAV. — Darwiniana : Essays and Reviews pertaining to Darwinism. By Asa 
Gray. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 396, cloth. 1877. 10s. 

GEAY.— Natural Science and Eeligion: Two Lectures Delivered to the Theo- 
logical School of Tale College. By Asa Gray. Crown 8vo, pp. 112, cloth. 1880. 5s. 

GEEEN. — Shakespeare and the Emblem- Writers : An Exposition of their Simi- 
larities of Thought and Expression. Preceded by a View of the Emblem-Book 
Literature down to a.d. 1616. By Henry Green, M.A. In one volume, pp. xvi. 
572, profusely illustrated with Woodcuts and Photolith. Plates, elegantly bound 
in cloth gilt, 1870. Large medium 8vo, £1, lis. 6d. ; large imperial 8vo. £2, 12s. 6d. 

GBEEN. — Andrea Aloiati, and his Books of Emblems : A Biographical and Biblio- 
graphical Study. By Henry Green, M.A. With Ornamental Title, Portraits, 
and other Illustrations. Dedicated to Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Bart., Beotor 
of the University of Edinburgh. Only 250 copies printed. Demy 8vo, pp. 360, 
handsomely bound. 1872. £1, Is. 

26 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

GREENE.— A New Method of Leaeninq to Eead, Write, and Speak the 
Fhench Language ; or, First Lessons in French (Introductory to Ollendorff's 
Larger Grammar). By G. W. Greene, Instructor in Modern Languages in Brown 
University. Third Edition, enlarged and rewiltten. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 248, cloth. 
1869. 3s. 6d. • ' 

GEEG.— Truth versus Edieication. .By W. B. Greg. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 32, cloth. 
1869. Is. 

GEEG. — "Why ABB Women Bedundant! By W. B. Greg. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 40, cloth. 
1869. Is. 

considerably enlarged) 2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. 310 and 288, cloth. 1877- 15s. 

GREG.— Mistaken Aims and Attainable Ideals as the Artisan Class. By W. 
R. Greg. Crown 8vo, pp. vi and 332, cloth. 1876. 10s. 6d. 

GREG. — Enigmas of Life. By W. E.. Greg. Thirteenth Edition, with a postscript. 
Contents : Eealisable Ideals. Malthus Notwithstanding. Non-Surrival of the 
Fittest. Limits and Directions of Human Development. The Significance of Life. 
De Profundis. Elsewhere. Appendix. Crown 8to, pp. xxii. and 314, cloth. 
1879. 10s. 6d. 

GREG.— Political Problems foe our Age and Country. By W. E. Greg. Con- 
tents : I. Constitutional and Autocratic Statesmanship. II. England's Future 
Attitude and Mission. IJI. Disposal of the Criminal Classes. IV. Recent 
Change in the Character of English Crime. V. The Intrinsic Vice of Trade- 
Unions. VI. Industrial and Co-operative Partnerships. VII. The Economic 
Problem. VIII. Political Consistency. IX. The Parliamentary Career. X. The 
Price we pay for Self-government. XI. Vestryism. XII. Direct v. Indirect 
Taxation. XIII. The New E^gime, and how to mtet it. Demy 8vo, pp. 342, 
clotii. 1870. 10s. 6d. 

GREG.- The Great Duel : Its true Meaning and Issues. By W. E. Greg. Crown 
8vo, pp. 96, cloth. 1871. 2s. 6d. 

GREG. — The Creed of Christendom. See English and Foreign Philosophical 
Library, Vols. V. and VI. 

GREG.- EOCKS Ahead ; or, The Wai'nings of Cassandra, By W. E. Greg. Second 
Edition, with a Eeply to Objectors. Crown 8vo, pp. xliv. and 236, cloth. 1874. 

GREG.— Miscellaneous Essats. By W. E. Greg. Crown 8vo, pp. 260, cloth. 
1881. 7s. 6d. 
Contents :— Eocks Ahead and Harbours of Eefuge. Foreign Policy of Great 

• Britain. The Echo of the Antipodes. A Grave Perplexity before uB. Obli- 

gations of the Soil. The Eight Use of a Surplus. The Great Twin 
Brothers : Louis Napoleon and Benjamin Disraeli. Is the Popular Judgment 
in Politics more Just than that of the Higher Orders? Harriet Martinean. 
Verify your Compass. The Prophetic Element in the Gospels. Mr. Frederick 
Harrison on the Future Life. Can Truths be Apprehended which could 
not have been discovered? 

•GREG.— Interleaves in the Workday Prose of Twenty Tears. By Percy Greg. 
Fcap. 8vo, pp. 128, cloth. 1876. 2s. 6d. 

GREG.— The Devil's Advocate. By Percy Greg, Author of " Interleaves." 2vols. 
post 8vo, pp. iv., 340, and 352, cloth. 1878. £1, Is. 

PMisIied hy Truhner & Co. 27 

®^^®-T-^°?°^® ,™^ Zodiac: The Story of a Wrecked Record. Deciphered, 
Translated, and Ldited by Percy Greg, Author of " The Devil's Advocate," &o. 
In Z vols, crown 8vo, pp. vL-296, and vi.-288, cloth. 1880. 21s. 

GRITTIN^Thb Eajas of the Punjab. Being the History of the Principal States 
m the Punjab, and their Political Relations with the British Government. By 
Lepel H. Griffin, Bengal Civil Service, Acting Secretary to the Govempient of the 
Punjab, Author of "The Punjab Chiefs," &c. Second Edition. Royal 8vo, 
pp. XVI. and 630, cloth. 1873. £1, Is. 

GEIFFIN.— The World undek Glass. By Frederick Griffin, Author of "The 
Destiny of Man," "The Storm King," and other Poems. ' Fcap. 8vo, pp. 204 
cloth gUt. 1879. 3s. 6d. 

•S^I^IS.— The Mikado's Empire. Book I. History of Japan, from 660 B.C. to 
WJi A.D.— Book II. Personal Experiences, Observations, and Studies in Japan, 
1870-1874. By W. E. Griffis, A.M. 8vo, pp. 636, cloth. Illustrated. 1877. 

GRIFFITH.— The Bieth oe the War God. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

GRIFFITH.— Yustll' AND Zclaikha. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

GRIFFITH.— Scenes prom the Bamataua, Meghaduta, &o. Translated by Ralph 
T. H. Griffith, M.A., Principal of the Benares College. Second Edition. Crown 
8vo, pp. xviii and 244, cloth. 1370. 6s. 

COHTENTS — Preface— Ayodhya—Ravan Doomed^The Birth of Kama— The Heir-Apparent— 
Manthara's Guile — Dasaratha's Oath — The Step-mother— Mother and Son— The Triumph of 
Iiove— Farewell ?— The Hermit's Son— The Trial of Truth— The Forest— The Rape of Sita— 
Bama's Despair— The Messenger Cloud— Ehumbakarna— The Suppliant Dove— True Gloiv — 
Feed the Poor— The Wise Scholar. 

GRIFFITH.— The B/mItan OE ViLMfel. Translated into English Verse. By Ralph 
T. H. Griffith, M. A., Principal of the Benares College. Vol. I., containing Books 
I. and II., demy 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 440, cloth. 1870. 18s. — Vol. II., containing 
Book II., with additional Notes and Index of Names. Demy 8vo, pp. 504, cloth. 
1871. 18s.— Vol. III., demy 8vo, pp. 390, cloth. 1872. 15s.-p-Vol. IV., demy 
8vo, pp. viii. and 432, cloth. 1873. 18s.— Vol. V., demy 8vo, pp. viii. and 360, 
cloth. 1875. 15s. The complete work, 5 vols. £4, 4s. 

GROTE.— Review of the Work of Mr. John Stuart MUl entitled " Examination of 
Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy. " By George Grote, Author of the ' ' History 
of Ancient Greece," " Plato, and the other Companions of Socrates," &o. 12mo, 
pp. 112, cloth. 1868. 3s. 6d. 

GROtJT.— Zulu-Land ; or. Life among the Zulu-Kafirs of Natal and Zulu-Land, 
South Africa. By the Rev. Lewis Grout. Crown 8vo, pp. 352, cloth. With 
Map and Illustrations. 7s. 6d. 

CROWSE.- Mathuea : A District Memoir. By i". S. Growse, E.C.S., M.A., Oxon, 
CLE., Fellow of the Calcutta University. Second edition, illustrated, revised, 
and enlarged, 4to, pp. xxiv. and 520, boards. 1880. 42s. 

GUBERNATIS.— Zoological Mythology ; or. The Legends of Animals. By Angelo 
de Gubematis, Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Literature in the Institute 
di Studii Superorii e dl Ferfezionamento at Florence, &c, 2 vols. 8vo, pp. xxvi. 
and 432, and vii. and 442, cloth. 1872. £], 8s. 

This work is an important contribution to the study of t^e comparative mythology of th6 Indo- 
Germanic nations. The author introduces the denizens of the air, earth, and water in the vari- 
ous characters assigned to them in the myths and legends of all civilised nations, and traces the 
.migration of the mythological ideas from the times of the early Aryans to those of the Greeks, 
Homans, and Teutons. 

28 A Catalogue of Importaiat Works, 

6ULSHAN I. RAZ : The Mtstio Eose Garden of Sa'd ud dik MAHMnD Shabis- 
TARI. The Persian Text, with an English Translation and Notes, chiefly from the 
Commentary of Muhammed Bin Yahya Lahiji. By E. H. Whinfield, M.A,, Bar- 
rister-at-Law, late of H:.M.B.0.S. 4to, pp. xvi., 94, 60, cloth. 1880. 10s. 6d. 

GUMFACH. — Treaty Rights of the Foreign Merchant, and the Transit System 
in China. By Johannes von Gumpach. 8vo, pp. xviii. and 421, sewed. 10a. 6d. 

GUTHRIE.— On Mr. Spencer's Formula of Bvomtion as an BxHAUSTrvE State- 
MENT of the Changes of the Uhivbbsb. By Malcolm Guthrie. Post Svo, pp. 
xii. and 268, cloth. 1879. 6s. 6d. 

GUTHRIE.— On Mb. Spencer's Unification of Knowledge. By Malcolm 
Guthrie, Author of " On Mr. Spencer's Formula of Evolution as an Exhaustive 
Statement of the Changes of the TJniverse." Crown Svo. [In preparation. 

HAAS.— CatAiogde of Sanskrit and Pali Books in the British Musedm. By 
Dr. Ernst Haas. Printed lay permission of the Trustees of the British Museum, 
4to, pp. viii. and 188, iJaper boards. 1876. 2l3. 

HAFIZ OF SHIRAZ. — Seleoiions from his Poems. Translated from the Persian 
by Hermann Bioknell. With Preface by A. S. Bicknell. Demy 4to, pp. xx. and 
384, printed on fine stout plate-paper, with appropriate Oriental Bordering in gold 
and colour, and Illustrations by J. B. Herbert, E. A. 1875. £2, 23. 

HAFIZ.— See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

HAGEN.— NOKICA ; or, Tales from the Olden Time. Translated from the German of 
August Hagen. Fcap. 8vo, pp. xiv. and 374. 1850. 5s. 

HAHN.— TsUNl-IlGOAM, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi. By Theophilus 
Hahn, Ph.D., Custo(Uan of the Grey Collection, Cape Town, &o., &c. Post Svo, 
pp. xiv. and 154. 1SS2. 7s. 6d. 

HALDEMAN. — PENNSYLVANIA Dutch : A Dialect of South Germany with an Infusion 
of English. By S. S. Haldeman, A.M., Professor of Comparative Philology in the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Svo, pp. viii. and 70, cloth. 1872. 3b. 

HALL.- On English Adjectives in -Able, with Special Eefeebnoe to Eeliablb. 
By FitzEdward Hall, C.E., M.A., Hon. D.C.L. Oxon; formerly Professor of 
Sanskrit Language and Literature, and of Indian Jurisprudence in King's College, 
London. Crown Svo, pp. viii. and 238, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

HALL. — Modern English. ByFitzEdwardHall, M. A., Hon. D.C.L. Oxon. Crown 
Svo, pp. xvi. and 394, cloth. 1873. lOs. 6d. 

HALL.— Sun and Eabth as Great Forces in Chemistry. By T. W. Hall, M.D., 
L.E.C.S.E. Crown Svo, pp. xii. and 220, cloth. 1874. 3s. 

HALL. — Arctic Expedition. See Noursb. 

HALLOCK. — The Sportsman's Gazetteer and General Guide. The Game 
Animals, Birds, and Fishes of North America : their Habits and various methods 
of Capture, &o., &c. With a Directory to the principal Game Eesorts of the 
Country. JBy Charles Hallock. Foxirth Edition. Crown Svo, cloth. Maps and 
Portrait. 1878. 15s. 

HAM. — The Maid of Corinth. A Drama in Four Acts. By J. Panton Ham. 
Crown Svo, pp. 65, sewed. 2s. 6d. 

Published by Trubner & Co. 29 

HARDY.— Cheistianitt and Buddhism Compared. By the late Eev. E. Spenoe 
Hardy, Hon. Member Boyal Asiatic Society. 8to, pp. 138, sewed. 1875. 7b. 6d. 

HABLEY.— The Simpmpioation or English Spelling, specially adapted to the Ris- 
ing Generation. An Easy Way of Saving Time in Writing, Printing, and Reading. 
By Dr. George Harley, F.E.S., F.C.S. 8vo. pp. 128, cloth. 1877. 2s. 6d. 

HARBISON.— The Meaning op Histoht. Two Lectures delivered by Frederic 
Harrison, M.A. 8vo, pp. 80, sewed. 1862. Is. 

HARRISON.— Woman's Handiwoek in Modeen Homes. By Constance Gary 
Harrison. With numerous Illustrations and Five Coloured Plates, from designs 
by Samuel Colman, Rosina Emmet, George Gibson, and others. 8vo, pp. xii. and 
242, cloth. 1881. 10s. 

HARTINGc. — British Animals Extinct within Histoeio Times : with some Ac- 
count of British Wild White Cattle. By J. E. Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S. With 
Ulustrationa by Wolf, Whymper, Sherwin, and others. Demy 8vo, pp. 256, 
cloth. 1881. 14s. A few copies, large paper, 31s. 6d. 

HARTZENBUSCH and LEMMING.- Eco DE Mabeid. A Practical Guide to Spanish 
Conversation. By J. E. Hartzenbusch and H. Lemming. Second Edition. Post 
8vo, pp. 250, cloth. 1870. 5s. 

HASE.— MraACLE Plats and Saoeed Dramas : An Historical Survey. By Dr. 
Karl Hase. Translated from the German by A. W. Jackson, an* Edited by the 
Eev. W. W. Jackson, Fellow of Exeter OoUege, Oxford. Crown 8vo, pp. 288. 
1880. 9s. 

HATTG. — Glossary and Index of the Pahlavi Texts of the Book of Arda Viraf, 
the Tale of Gosht — J. Fryano, the Hadokht Nask, and to some extracts from the 
Dinkard and Nirangistan ; prepared from Destur Hoshangji Jamaspji Asa's 
Glossary to the Arda Viraf Namak, and from the Original Texts, with Notes on 
Pahlavi Grammar by E. W. West, Ph.D. Revised by M. Haug, Ph.D., &c. 
Published by order of the Bombay Government. 8vo, pp. viii. and 352, sewed. 
1874. 25b. 

HAUG.— The Saoeed Language, &c., of the Parsis. See Triibner's Oriental 

HAtJPT. — The London Aebiteageue; or. The English Money Market, in con- 
nection with Foreign Bourses. A Collection of Kotes and Formulae for the Arbi- 
tration of Bills, Stocks, Shares, Bullion, and Coins, with all the Important 
Foreign Countries. By Ottomar Haupt. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 196, cloth. 
1870. 7s. 6d. 

SAWEEN. — TJpa-Sastea : Comments, Linguistic, Doctrinal, on Sacred and Mythic 
Literature. By J. D. Hawken. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 288, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

HAZEN.— The School and the Army in Germany and France, with a Diary of Siege 
Life at Versailles. By Brevet Major-General W. B. Hazen, U.S.A., Col. 6th In- 
fantry. 8vo, pp. 408, cloth. 1872. 10s. 6d. 

HEATH.— Bdgae Quinet. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Vol. 

HEBREW LITERATURE SOCIETY. Subscription, one guinea per annum. List of 
publications on application. 

HEBREW MIGRATION FROM EGYPT (The). 8vo, pp. xiL and 440, cloth. 1879. 

30 A QaioHogvA of Important Works, 

HECKER. — The Epidemios or the Middle Ages. Translated by fe. B. Babington, 
M.D., F.E.S. . Third Edition, completed by the Author's Treatise on Child-Pil- 
grimages. By J. F. 0. Heoker. 8vo, pp. 384, cloth. 1859. 9s. 6d. 
CosTENTS.— The Black Death— The Dancing Mania— The Sweating Siclcness— Child Pil- 


HEDLEY. — Mastbkpieces ov German Pobtrt. Translated in the Measure of the 
Originals, by P. H. Hedley. With Illustration a by Louis Wanke. Crown 8vo, 
pp. viii. and 120, cloth. 1876. 6s. 

HEINE. — Wit, Wisdom, and Pathos from the Prose of Heinrich Heine. With a 
few pieces from the " Book of Songs." Selected and Translated by J. Snodgrass. 
With Portrait. Crown 8vo, pp. xx. and 340, cloth. 1879. 7s. 6d. 

HEINE. — PiOTlTBES OF Tbavel. Translated from the German of Henry Heine, by 
Charles G. Leland. 7th Kevised Edition. Crown 8yo, pp. 472, with Portrait, 
cloth. 1873. 7s. 6d. 

HEINE. — Heine's Book op Songs. Translated by Charles G. Leland. Fcap. Sto, 
pp. xiv. and 240, cloth, gUt edges. 1874. 7s. 6d. 

HENDKIK.— Memoirs op Hans Hendrik, the Akctio Traveller ; serving imder 
Kane, Hayes, Hall, and N4res, 1853-76. Written by Himself. Translated from 
the Eskimo Language, by Dr. Henry Kink. Edited by Prof. Dr. G. Stephens, 
F.S.A. Crown 8vo, pp. 100, Map, cloth. 1878. 3s. 6d. 

HENNELL. — PRESENT RELIGION: As a Faith owning Fellowship with Thought. 
Vol. I. Part L By Sara S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, pp. 570, cloth. 1865. 78. 6d. 

HENNELL.— Present Ebligion : As a Faith owning Fellowship with Thought. 
Part II. First Division. Intellectual Effect : shown as a Principle of Metaphy- 
sical Comparativism. By Sara S. Hennell. Grown Sto, pp. 618, cloth. 1873, 
7s. 6d. 

HENNELL. — CoMPABATiviSM shown as Furnishing a Eeligious Basis to Morality. 
(Present Beligion. Vol. III. Part II. Second Division: Practical Effect.) By 
Sara S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, pp. 220, stitched in wrapper. 1878. 3s. 6d. 

HENNELL. — Thoughts in Aid op Faith. Gathered chiefly from recent Works in 
Theology and Philosophy. By Sara S. HenneU. Post 8to, pp. 428, cloth. 1860. 6s. 

HENWOOD.— The Metallipbrous Deposits op Cornwall and Devon ; with Ap- 
pendices on Subterranean Temperature ; the Electricity of Bocks and Veins ; the 
Quantities of Water in the Cornish Mines ; and Mining Statistics. (Vol. V. of 
the Transactions of the Koyal Geographical Society of ComwalL ) By William 
JoryHenwood, F.E.S., F.G.S. 8vo, pp. x. and 515; with 113 Tables, and 12 
Plates, half bound. £2, 2s. 

HENWOOD.— Observations on Metallipeeous Deposits, and on Subterbanean 
Tempbbaturb. (Vol. VIII. of the Transactions of the Eoyal Geological Society 
of ComwaU.) By William Jory Henwood, F.K.S., F.G.S., President of the 
Koyal Institution of Cornwall. In 2 Parts. 8vo, pp. xxx., vii. and 916; with 
38 Tables, 31 Engravings on Wood, and 6 Plates. £1, 16s. 

HEFBUEN. — A Japanese and English Diotionaet. With an English and Japanese 
Index. By J. C. Hepburn, M.D., LL.D. Second Edition. Imperial 8vo, pp. 
xxxii., 632, and 201, cloth. £8, 8s. 

HEPBURN.— Japanese-English and English-Japanese Dictionary. By J. C. 
Hepburn, M.D., LL.D. Abridged by the Author. Square f cap., pp. vi. and 536, 
cloth. 1873. 18s. 

HERNISZ. — A Gdidb to Conversation in the English and Chinese Languages, 
for the Use of Americans and Chinese in California and elsewhere. By Stanisl&s 
Hemisz. Square 8vo, pp. 274, sewed. 1855. 10s. 6d. 

Published by Triibner & Go. 31 

HERSHON.— Talmudic Misoellant. See Triibner'a Oriental Series. 

HERZEN.— Dd Developpement des Id^es Eevolutionnaikes bnEussie. Par 
Alexander Herzen. 12uio, pp. xxiii. and 144, sewed. 1853. 23. 6d. 

HEKZEN. — ^A separate list of A. Herzen's works in Eussian may be had on 

HlLIi. — The Histoby of the Ebfoem Movement in the Dental Profession in Great 
Britain during the last twenty years. By Alfred Hill, Licentiate in Dental Sur- 
gery, &c. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi, and 400, cloth. 1877. 10s. 6d. 

TEENTH Cbntdrt. By Karl Hillebrand. Translated from the Third German 
Edition. Post 8to, pp. xx. and 262, cloth. 1881. 10s. 6d. 

HINDOO Mythology Populablt Treated. Being an Epitomised Description of 
the various Heathen Deities illustrated on the Silver Swami Tea Service pre- 
sented, as a memento of his visit to India, to H.E.H. the Prince of Wales, K.G., 
G.C.S.I., by His Highness the Gaekwar of Baroda. Small 4to, pp. 42, limp cloth. 
1875. 3s. 6d. 

HODGSON. — Essays on the Languages, Litehatueb, and Religion of NiPAL 
AND Tibet. Togethet with further Papers on the Geography, Ethnology, and 
Commerce of those Countries. By B. H. Hodgson, late British Minister at the 
Court of Nepal. Royal 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. and 276. 1874. 14s. 

HODGSON.— Essays on Indian Subjects. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

HODGSON.— The Education of Girls ; and the Employment of Women op 
THE Upper Classes Educationally considered. Two Lectures. By W. B. 
Hodgson, LL.D. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 114, cloth. 1869. 
33. 6d. 

HODGSON. — Turgot: His life, Times, and Opinions. Two Lectures. ByW. B. 
Hodgson, LL.D. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 83, sewed. 1870. 2s. 

HOERNLE. — A Comparative Grammar op the Gaudian Languages, with Special 
Reference to the Eastern Hindi. Accompanied by a Language Map, and a Table 
of Alphabets. By A. F. EudoU Hoemle. Demy 8vo, pp. 474^ cloth. 1880. 18s. 

HOLBEIN SOCIETY. — Subscription, one guinea per annum. List of publications, 
on application. 

HOLMES-FORBES. — The Science of Beauty. An Analytical Inquiry into the 
Laws of .fflsthetios. By Avary W. Holmes-Forbes, of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at- 
Law. Post 8vo, cloth, pp. vi. and 200. 1881. 6b. 

HOLST. — The Constitutional and Political History op the United States. 
By Dr. H. von Hoist. Translated by J. J. Lalor and A. B. Mason. Royal 8vd. 
VoL I. 1750-1833. State Sovereignty and Slavery. Pp. xvi. and 506. 1876. 18s. 
— Vol. II. 1828-1846. Jackon's Administration— Annexation of Texas. Pp. 
720. 1879. £1, 2s. 

HOLYOAEE. — THE HISTORY OF Co-operation in England : its Literature and its 
Advocates. By G. J. Holyoake. Vol. I. The Pioneer Period, 1812-44. Crown 
8vo, pp. xii. and 420, cloth. 1,875. 6s.— Vol. IL The Constructive Period, 1845- 
78. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 504, cloth. 1878. 8s. 

HOLYOAKE.— The Trial of Theism accused op Obsteucting Secular Life, By 
G. J. Holyoake. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 256, cloth. 1877. 4s. 

32 A Catalogue of Impdi'tant Works, 

HOLYOAEE. — Eeaboning fbom Facts : A Method of Everyday Loj^o. By G. J, 
Holyoake. Fcap., pp. xii. and 94, wrapper. 1877. Is. 6d. 

HOPKINS. — Elementary Grammab op the Turkish Language. With a few Easy 
Exercises. By F. L. Hopkins, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. Crown 8vo, pp. 48, cloth. 1877. 3s. 6d. 

HOWSE.— A Grammar op the Cree Language. With which is combined an 
Analysis of the Chippeway Dialect. By Joseph Howse, F.K.6.S. 8vo, pp. xx. 
and 324, cloth. 1865. 7s. 6d. 

HULME.— Mathbmatioai, Drawing Instruments, and How to Use Them. By 
F. Edward Hulme, F.L.S., J.S.A., Art-Master of. Marlborough College, Author of 
"Principles of Ornamental Art," "Familiar "Wild Flowers," "Suggestions on 
Floral Design," &c. With Illustrations. Second Edition, Imperial 16mo, pp. 
XTi. and 152, cloth. 1881. 3s. 6d. 

HUMBERT.— On "TENANT EIGHT." By C. F. Humbert. 8vo, pp. 20, sewed. 
1875. Is. 

HUMBOLDT.— The Sphere and Duties op Government. Translated from the 
German of Baron Wilhelm Von Humboldt by Joseph Coulthard, jun. Post 8vo, 
pp. XV. and 203, cloth. 1854. 5s. 

HUMBOLDT.— Letters op William Von Humboldt jo a Female Friend. A com- 
plete Edition. Translated from the Second German Edition by Catherine M. A. 
Couper, with a Biographical Notice of the Writer. 2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. xxviii. 
and 592, cloth. 1867. 10s. 

HUNT. — The Religion op the Heart. A Manual of Faith and Duty. By Leigh 
Hunt, Fcap. 8vo, pp. xxiv. and '259, cloth. 2s. 6d. 

HUNT.— Chemical and Geological Essays. By Professor T. Sterry Hunt. 
Second Edition. 8vo, pp. xxii. and 448, cloth. 1879. 123. 

HUNTER.- A Comparative Dictionary op the Non-Aryan Languages op India 
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36 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

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LEOPARDI.— See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Vol. XVII. 

Published by Trubner <& Co. 39 

-XEO.— Four Chapters of North's Plutarch, Containing the Lives of Caius Mar- 
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LEEMONTOFF.— The Demon. By Michael LennontofE. Translated from the 
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LESSING.— Letters on Bibliolatet. By Gotthold Ephraim Leasing. Translated 
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LESSIN6.— See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Extra Series, Vols. I. 
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LETTERS ON THE "War BETWEEN GERMANY AND Francr By Mommsen, Strauas, 
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LEWES.— Problems of Life and Mind. By George Henry Lewes. First Series : 
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: LEWES. — Problems of Life and Mind. By George Heniy Lewes. Third Series: 
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LEWIS.— See Juvenal and Flint. 

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ings of the Annual Meetings of the. Imperial Svo, cloth. First, held at 
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Oxford Union Society. Pp. viii. and 192. 1879. £1, 8s.— Second, held at Man- 
chester, September 23, 24, and 25, 1879. Edited by H. E. Tedder and E. 0. 
Thomas. Pp. x. and 184. 1880. £1, Is.— Third, held at Edinburgh, October 
5, 6, and 7, ISSO. Edited by E. C. Thomas and C. Welsh. Pp. x. and 202. 
ISSl. £1, Is. 

40 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

IILLIE.— Buddha and Eaklt Buddhism. By Arthur Lillie, late Regiment of 
Lucknow. With numerous Illustrations drawn on Wood by the Author. Post 
8to, pp. xiv. and 256, cloth. 1881* 78. 6d. 

UTTLE FRENCH READER (Thb). Extracted from " The Modem French Reader." 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. 112, cloth. 1872. 2s. 

LLOVS and Newton. — Prussia's Repeesentativb Man. By F. Lloyd of the 
Universities of Halle and Athens, and W. Newton, F.E.6.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 
648, cloth. 1875. 10s. 6d. 

LOBBCHEID. — Ohinebe and English Dictionaet, arranged according to the Radi- 
cals. By W. Lohscheid. 1 vol. imperial 8vo, pp. 600, cloth. £2, 8s. 

LOBSCHEID. — English and Chinese Dictionaet, with the Punti and Mandarin 
Pronunciation. By W. Lobsoheid. Four Parts. Folio, pp. viii. and 2016, boards. 
£8, 8s.- 

LONG.— Eastern Proverbs. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

LOVETT.— The Liee and Struggles of William Lovett in his pursuit of Bread, 
Knowledge, and Freedom ; with some short account of the different Associations 
he belonged to, and of the Opinions he entertained. 8vo, pp. vi. and 474, cloth. 
1876. 5s. 

LOVELY. — Where to go for Help : Being a Companion for Quick and Easy 
Reference of Police Stations, Fire-Engine Stations, Fire-Escape Stations, &c., 
&c., of London and the Suburbs. Compiled by W. Lovely, R.N. Second Edi- 
tion. 18mo, pp. 16, sewed. 1881. 3d. 

LOWELL. -pTHE BiGLOW PAPERS. By James Russell Lowell. Edited by Thomas 
Hughes, Q. 0. A Reprint of the Authorised Edition of 1859, together with the 
Second Series of 1862. First and Second Series in 1 vol. Foap., pp. lxviii.-140 
and MV.-190, cloth. 1880. 2s. 6d. 

LUCAS. — The Children's Pentateuch : With the Hephterahs or Portions from 
the Prophets. Arranged for Jewish Children. By MrSi Henry Lucas. Crown 
8vo, pp. viii. and 570, clotK 1878. 5s. 

LUDEWIG.— The Literature oe American Aboriginal IjAnguages. By Hermann 
E. Ludewig. With Additions and Corrections by Professor Wm. W. Turner. 
Edited by Nicolas Trubner. 8vo, pp. xiiv. and 258, cloth. 1858. 10s. 6d. 

LTTEIN. — ^Thb Boy Engineers : What they did, and how they did it. By the Rev. 
L. J. Lukin, Author of " The Young Mechanic," &c. A Book for Boys ; 30 En- 
gravings. Imperial 16mo, pp. viii and 344, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

LUX E TENEBRIS ; OR, The Testimont OP CONSCIOUSNESS. A Theoretic Essay. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 376, with Diagram, cloth. 1874. 10s. 6d. 

KACCORiyLAC.— The Conversation op a Soul with God : A Theodicy. By Henry 
MacCormac, M.D. 16mo, pp. xvi. and 144, cloth. 1877. 3s. 6d. 

KACEAY. — Gaelic Etymology op the English Language. By Charles Mackay, 
LL.D. Royal 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 604, cloth. 1878. 423. 

MADDEN.— Coins op the Jews. Being a History ofthe Jewish Coinage and Money 
in the Old and New Testaments. By Frederick W. Madden, M.R.A.S. Member 
of the Numismatic Society of London, Secretary of the Brighton College, &c., &c. 
With 279 Woodcuts and a Plate of Alphabets. Roval 4to, pp. xii and 330, cloth. 
1881. £2,26. 1 . 'ev 

PuUisJied by TrUbner &, Go. 41 

MADELUNG.— The Oauses and Operative Tbeatment of DnpuTiKEN's Finger 
Contraction. By Dr. Otto W. Madelung, Lecturer of Surgery at the Univer- 
1876 jg-^^^"*"** Surgeon at the University Hospital, Bonn. 8vo, pp. 24, sewed. 


BtAHA-VIRA-CHARITA; or. The Adventures of the Great Hero Eama. An Indian 
^rama in Seven Acts. Translated into English Prose from the Sanskrit of 
Bhavabhuti. By John Pickford, M.A. Crown Svo, cloth. 5s. 

MAiET.—lNCIDB)NTS IN THE BlOGSAPHT OF DusT. By H. P. Malet, Author of 
The Interior of the Earth," &o. Crown Svo, pp. 272, cloth. 1877. 6s. 

^'^^^—'^^^'^^G^^i^es. By H. P. Malet. Crown 8vo, pp. xix. and 124, cloth. 

1878. 4s. 6d. 
MALLESON.— EssATS and Lectures on Indian Historical Subjects. By Colonel 

G. B. Malleson, C.S.L Second Issue. Crown Svo, pp. 348, cloth. 1S76. 5s. 

MANDLEY.— "Woman Outside Christendom. An Exposition of the Influence 
exerted by Christianity on the Social Position and Happiness of "Women. By 
J. G. Mandley. Crown Svo, pp. viii. and 160, cloth. 1880. 5s. 

MANIFITLUS Vocabuloeum. A Rhyming Dictionary of the English Language. By 
Peter Levins (1570). Edited, with an Alphabetical Index, by Henry B. "Wheatley. 
Svo, pp. xvi. and 370, cloth. 1867. 14s. 

MANOEUVEES.— A. Retrospect op the Autumn Man(euvres, 1871. "With 5 Plans. 
By Si. Recluse. Svo, pp. xii. and 133, cloth. 1872. 5s. 

MARIETTE-BET.— The Monuments op Upper Egypt : a translation of the 
"Itineraire de la Haute Egypte" of Augusts Mariette-Bey. Translated by 
Alphonse Mariette. Crown Svo, pp. xvi. and 262, cloth. 1877. ,73. 6d. 

JHAEKEAM.— QuiOHXTA Grammar and Dictionary. Contributions towards a 
Grammar and Dictionary of Quichua, the Language of the Yncas of Peru. Col- 
lected by Clements R. Markham, F. S. A. Cro-wn Svo, pp. 223, cloth. £1, Us. 6d. 

MAEKHAM.— Ollanta : A Drama in the Quichua Language. Text, Translation, 
and Introduction. By Clements K. Markham, C.B. Crown Svo, pp. 128, cloth. 
1871. 7s. 6d. 

MAEKHAM.— A MEMOIR OF the Lady Ana de Osobio, Countess of Chinoon, and 
Vice-Queen of Peru, a.d. 1629-39. With a Plea for the correct spelling of the 
Chinchona Genus. By Clements R. Markham, C.B., Member of the Imperial Aca- 
demy Naturae Curiosorum, -with the Cognomen of Chinchon. Small 4to, pp. xii. and 
100. "With 2 Coloured Plates, Map, and Illustrations. Handsomely bound. 
1874. 2Ss. 

MAEKHAM. — A MEMOIR ON THE Indian Surveys. By Clements R. Markham, 
C.B., F.R.S., &C.,. &o. Published by Order of H. M. Secretary of State for India 
in ConnciL Illustrated with Maps, Second Edition. Imperial Svo, pp. xxx. 
and 481, boards. .1878. lOs. 6d. 

MAEKHAM.— Narratives op the Mission op George Bogie to Tibet, and of the 
Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. Edited with Notes, an Introduction, and 
lives of Mr. Bogle and Mr. Manning. By Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S. 
Second Edition. Svo, pp. clxv. and 362, cloth. "With Maps and Illustrations. 
1879. 21s. 

MAEMONTEL.— Belisaibe. Far Marmontel. NonveUe Edition. 12mo, pp. zii. 
and 123, cloth. 1867. 23. 6d. 

42 A Catalogue of Important Wm-hs, 

MARTIN AND Tbubnkb.— The Cdkbbnt Gold and Silvbk Coina of all Countbies, 
their Weight and Fineness, and their Intrinsic Value in English Money, with 
Facsimiles of the Coins. By Leopold C. Martin, of Her Hfeijest3r'3 Stationery 
Office, and Charles Triibner. In 1 voL medinm'Svo, 141 Plates, printed in Geld 
and Silver, and representing about 1000 Coins, with 160 pages of Text, hand- 
somely bound in embossed cloth, richly gilt, with Emblematical Designs on the 
Cover, and gUt edges. 1863. £2, 2s. 

MARTIN.— The Chinbbe : theik Education, Philosophy, and Letteks. By "W. 
A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D., President of the Tungwen College, Pekin. 8to. pp. 
320, cloth. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. iv. and 414 — x. and 430, cloth. 1876. £1, 4s. 

MARTINEAU. — Leitbks PROM IKBLAND. By Harriet Martineau. B.eprinted from 
the Daily News. Post 8vo, pp. viii. and 220, cloth. 1852. 6b. 6d. 

MATHEWS.— Abraham Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Canticles aetbb the 
First Recension. Edited from the MSS., with a translation, by H. J. Matllfews, 
B.A., Exeter CoUege, Oxford. Crown 8vo, pp. x., 34, and 24, limp cloth. 1874. 
2s. 6d. 

MAXWELL. — A MANUAL OP THE Malay Language. By W. E. Maxwell, of the 
Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law ; Assistant Eesident, Perak, Malay Peninsula. 
"With an Introductory Sketch of the Sanskrit Element in Malay. Crown 8vo, 
pp. viii. and 182, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

MAYER. — On the Aet op Pottery : with a History of its Rise and Progress in . 
Liverpool. By Joseph Mayer, F.S.A., F.E.S.N.A., &c. 8vo, pp. 100, boards. 
1873. 5s. 

MATERS. — Tehatibs Between the Empire op China and Foreign Powees, 
together with Regulatixjns for the conduct of Foreign Trade, &c. Edited by W. 
F. Mayers, Chinese Secretary to H.B.M.'s Legation at Peking. 8vo, pp. 246, 
cloth. 1877. 23s. 

MATERS. — The Chinese Government : a Manual of Chinese Titles, categorically 
arranged and explained, with an Appendix. By Wm. Fred. Mayers, Chinese 
Secretary to H.B.M.'s Legation at Peking, &c., &c. Royal 8vo, pp. viii. and 160, 
cloth. 1878. 30s. 

M'CRINDLE. — Ancient India, as Desokibed by Mb^asthenes and Aeeian; 
beiug a translation of the fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes collected by 
Dr. Schwambeck, and of the first part of the Indika of Arriam. By J. W. 
M'Crindle, M.A., Principal of the Government College, Patna, &c. With 
Introduction, Notes', and Map of Ancient India. Post 8vo, pp. xi. and 224, 
cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

M'CRINDLE. — The Commebcb and Navigation op the Ertthrjean Sea. Being 
A Translation of the Periplus Maris Brythrsei, by an Anonymous Writer, and of 
Arrian's Account of the Voyage of Nearkhos, from the Mouth of the Indus to the 
Head of the Persian Gulf. With Introduction, Commentary, Notes, and Index. 
By J. W. M'Crindle, M.A., Edinburgh, &c. Post 8vo,' pp. iv. and 238,'cloth. 
1879. 7b. 6d. 

MECHANIC (The Youwg). 'A Book for Boys, containing Dixections fot the use of 
all kinds of Tools, and for the construction of Steam Engines and 'Mechanical 
Models, including the Art of Turning in Wood and Metal. Fifth Edition. 
Imperial 16mo, pp. iv. and 346, and 70 Engravings, cloth. 1878. 6s. 

Published by Triibner & Co. 43 

MECHANIC'S 'WOKKSHOP (Amatbdr). a Treatise containing Plain and Concise 
Directions for the Manipulation of Wood and Metals, including Casting, Forging, 
Brazing, Soldering, and Carpentry. By the Author of " The Lathe and its Uses." 
Sixth Eation. Demy 8vo, pp. iv. and 148. Illustrated, cloth. 1880. 6s. 

UEDITATIONS on Death and Etbeottt. Translated from the German by Prederica 
Eowan. Published by Her Majesty's gracious permission. 8vo, pp. 386, cloth. 
1862. 10s. 6d. 

Ditto. Smaller Edition, crovra 8vo, printed on toned paper, pp. 352, cloth. 
1863. 68. 

MEDITATIONS ON LIFE AND ITS Rbligiobs Duties. Translated from the German 
by Frederica Eowan. Dedicated to H.E..H. Princess Louis of Hesse. Published 
by Her Majesty's gracious permission. Being the Companion Volume to "Medi- 
tations on Death and Eternity." 8vo, pp. vi and 370, cloth. 1863. 10s. 6d. 

Ditto, Smaller Edition, crown 8to, printed on toned paper, pp. 338. 1863. 

MEDLIOOTT. — A Manual op the Geology op India, chiefly compiled from the 
observations of the Geological Survey. By H. B. Medlicott, M. A. , Superintendent, 
Geological Survey of India, and W. T. Slanford, A.E.S.M., F.R.S,, Deputy Super- 
intendent. Published by order of the Government of India. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 
xviii.-lxxx.-818, with 21 Plates and large coloured Map mounted in case, uniform, 
cloth. 1879. 16s. 

ME6HA-DUTA (The). (Cloud-Messenger.) By Kalidasa. Translated from the 
Sanskrit into English Verse by the late H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.E.S. The Vocabu- 
lary by Francis Johnson. New Edition. 4to, pp. xi. and 180, cloth. 10s. 6d. 

MENEE. — Orbis Antiqui Desckiptio : An Atlas illustrating Ancient History and 
Geography, for the Use of Schools ; containing 18 Maps engraved on Steel and 
Coloured, with Descriptive Letterpress. By D. T. Menke. Fourth Edition. 
FoUo, half bound morocco. 1866. 5s. 

MEREDYTH.— Akca, a Ebpeetoiee op Obiginal Poems, Sacred and Secular. By 
F. Meredyth, M.A., Canon of Limerick Cathedral, Crown 8vo, pp. 124, cloth. 
1875. OS. 

METCALFE. — THE Englishman and the Scandinavian. By Frederick Met- 
calfe, M.A., Fellow of lincoln College, Oxford; Translator of "Gallus" and 
"Charicles;" and Author of "The Oxonian in Iceland." Post 8vo, pp. 512, 
cloth. 1880. aSs. 

MICHEL. — Les Ecossais en France, Les FnANgAls bn icossE. Par Francisque 
Michel, CorrespOndant de I'lnstitut de France, &c. In 2 vols. 8vo, pp. vii., 547, 
and 551, rich blue cloth, with emblematical designs. With upwards of 100 Coats 
of Aims, and other Ulusfcrations. Price, £1, 12s. — Also a Large-Paper Edition 
(limited to 100 Copies), printed on Thick Paper. 2 vols. 4to,,half morocpo, with 3 
additional Steel Engravings. 1862. £3, 3s. 

MILL. — ^AuGUSTB CoMTB AND POSITIVISM. By the late John Stuart MUl, M.P. 
Third Edition. 8vo, pp. 200, cloth. 1882. Ss. 6d. 

MnXHOlTSE. — Manual of Italian Conversation. For the Use of Schools. By 
John MUlhouse. 18mo, pp. 126, cloth. 1866. 2s. 

MILLHOnSE. — New English and Italian Pronouncing and Explanatory Dic- 
tionary. By John MUlhouse. Vol. I. English-Italian. Vol. II. Italian-English. 
Fourth Edition. 2 vols, square 8vo, pp. 654 and 740, cloth. 1867. 12s. 

44 A Oaicdogue of Important Works, 

MILNE.— Notes on Cbtstallography and Cktstallo-phtsios^ Being the Sub- 
stance of lectures delivered at Tedo during the yeaxs 1876-1877. By John 
MUne, F.G.S. 8to, pp. viii. and 70, cloth. 1879. Ss. 

MINOCHCHERJI.— Pahlavi, GujIeati, and English Diotionakt. By Jamashji 
Dastur Miuochoherji. Vol. I., with Photograph of Author. 8to, pp. clxxii. and 
168, cloth. 1877. 14s. 

MITEA.— Bddd^a Gata : The Hermitage of S4kya Muni. By Eajendralala Mitra, 
LL.D., C.I.B., &c. 4to, pp. xvi. and 258, with 51 Plates, cloth. 1879. £3. 

MOCATTA.— Moral Biblical Gleanings and Peaotical Teachings, Illustrated 
by Biographical Sketches Drawn from the Sacred Volume. By J. L. Mocatta. 
8vo, pp. viii. and 446, cloth. 1872. 7s. 

MODERN FEEHCH READER (The). Prose. Junior Course. Sixth Edition. Edited 
by Ch. Cassal, LL.D., and Theodore Karcher, LL.B. Crown 8to, pp. xiv. and 224, 
cloth. 1879. 2s. 6d. 
Senior Oouese. Third Edition. Crown 8to, pp. xiv. and 418, cloth. 1880. 4s. 

MODERN FRENCH READER.— A Glossakt of Idioms, Gallicisms, and other Diffi- 
culties contained in the Senior Course of the Modem French Reader ; with Short 
Notices of the most important French 'Writers "and Historical or Literary Charac- 
ters, and hints as to the works to be read or studied. By Charles Ca«sal, LL.D., 
&c. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 104, cloth. 1881. 2s. 6d. 

MODERN FRENCH READER. — Senioe Codbsb AND Glosbaet combined. 6s. 

MORELET.— Teavels in Centeal America, including Accounts of some Eegiona 
unexplored since the Conquest. Prom the French of A. Morelet, by Mrs. M. F. 
Squier. Edited by E. G. Squier. 8to, pp. 430, cloth. 1871. 8s. 6d. 

MORFIT. — A Practical Teeatise on the Manufactcee op Soaps. By Campbell 
Morfit, M.D., F.C.S., formerly Professor of Applied Chemistry in the University 
of Maryland. With Illustrations. Demy 8vo, pp. xii. and 270, cloth. 1871. 
£2, 123. 6d. 

MORFIT. — A Praoticai. Treatise on Pure Fertilizers, and the Chemical Con- 
version of Bock Guanos, Marlstones, CoproUtes, and the Crude Phosphates of 
Lime and Alumina generally into various valuable Products. By Campbell Morfit, 
M.D., F.C.S., formerly Professor of Applied Chemistry in the University of Mary- 
land. With 28 Plates. 8to, pp. xvi. and 547, cloth. 1873. £4, 4s. 

MORRIS. — A Descriptive and Historical Account oe the Gojiavery District, 
in the Presidency of Madras. By Henry Morris, formerly of the Madras Civil- 
Service, author of " A History of India, for use in Schools," and other works. 
With a Map. 8vo, pp. xii. and 390, cloth. 1878. 12s. 

MOSENTHAD.— Ostriches and Ostrich Farming. By J. de Mosenthal, late 
Member of the Legistive Council of the Cape of Good Hope, &c., and James E. 
Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologist's Union; &c. Second 
Edition. With 8 full-page illustrations and 20 woodcuts. Eoyal 8vo, pp. xxiv. 
and 246, cloth. 1879. lOs. 6d. , 

MOTLEY.— John Lothrop Motley : a Memoir. By Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
English Copyright Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 275, cloth. 1878. 6s. 

MUELLER.— The Organic Constitubnts of Plants and Vegetable Substanoes, 
and their Chemical Analysis. By Dr. G. C. Wittstein. Authorised Translation 
from the German Original, enlarged with numerous Additions, by Baron Ferd. 
von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., F.E.S. Crown 8vo, pp. xviii. and 332, 
wrapper. 1880. 148. 

PuUieh^d by Trvhn&r & Go. 45 

MUELLEE. — Select Extea-Teopioal Plants beadily elioible fob Industeial 
CULTUEE OB Natdbalisation. With Indicationa of their Native Countries and 
some of their TIaea. By F. Ton Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 8vo 
pp. X., 394, cloth. 1880. 8s. ' 

MUHAMMED.— The Life oe Mdhammbd. Based on Muhammed Ibn Ishak. By 
Abd El Malik Ibn Hisham. Edited by Dr. Ferdinand Wiistenfeld. One volume 
containing the Arabic Text. 8vo, pp. 1026, sewed. £1, Is. Another volume, con- 
taining Introduction, Notes, and Index in German. 8vo, pp. Ixxii. and 266, sewed. 
7s. 6d. Each part sold separately. 

MUIR.— ElTEACTS PEOM THB CoEAN. In the Original, with English rendering. 
Compiled by Sir 'William Muir, K.C.S.I., LL.D., Author of "The Life of 
Mahomet. " Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 64, cloth. 1880. 3s. 6d. 

UnilK.— Oeiginal Sanskeit Texts, on the Origin and History of the People of 
India, their Beligion and Institutions. Collected, Translated, and Illustrated by 
John Muir, D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., &c. &c. 

Vol. I. Mythical and Legendary Accounts of the Origin of Caste, with an Inquiry 
into its existence in the Vedic Age. Second Edition, rewritten and 
greatly enlarged. 8vo, pp. xx. and 532, cloth. 1868. £1, Is. 
VoL II. The Trans-Himalayan Origin of the Hindus, and their Affinity with the 
Western Branches of the Aryan Bace. Second Edition, revised, with 
Additions. 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 512, cloth. 1871. £1, la. 
Vol. III. The Vedas : Opinions of their Authors, and of later Indian Writers, on 
their Origin, Inspiration, and Authority. Second Edition, revised and 
enlarged. 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 312, cloth. 1868. 16s. 
VoL IV. Comparison of the Vedic with the later representation of the principal 
' Indian Deities. Second Edition, revised. . 8vo, pp. xvi. and 524, cloth. 
1873. £1, Is. 
Vol. V. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Cosmogony, Mythology, Eeligious 
Ideas, Life and Manners of the Indians in the Vedic Age. 8vo, pp. xvi. 
and 492, cloth. 1870. £1, la. 

MUIE. — Teanslations peom the Sanskeit. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

MULLER. — Outline Diotionaet, for the Use of Missionaries, Explorers, and 
Students of Language. With an Introduction on the proper Use of the Ordinary 
English Alphabet in transcribing Foreign Languages. By F. MaxMuller,M.A. The 
Vocabulary compiled by John Bellows. 12mo, pp. 368, morocco. 1867. 7s. 6d. 

MULLER.— LEOinEB ON Buddhist Nihilism. By F. Max MuUer, M.A. Fcap. 
8vo, sewed. 1869. Is. 

MULLER.— The Saobbd Hymns of the Beahmins, as preserved to us in the oldest 

collection of religious poetry, the Rig-Veda-Sanhita. Translated and explained, by 

F. Max MOUer, M. A . , Fellow of AH Souls' College, Professor of Comparative Philo- 

1 ' logy at Oxford, Foreign Member of the Institute of France, &c. , &c. Vol. I. Hymns 

' to the Marnts or the Storm-Gods. 8vo, pp. clii, and 264, cloth. 1869. 12a. 6d. 

miTLLER. —The Hymns of the Rio- Veda, in the Samhita and Pada Texts. Reprinted 
from the Editio Prinoeps. By F. Max Muller, M.A., &c. Second Edition, with 
the two Texts on Parallel Pages. In two vols. 8vo, pp. 1704, sewed. £1, 12s. 

MULLET.— Gbeman Gems in an English Setting. Translated by Jane Mulley. 
Fcap., pp. xu. and 180, cloth. 1877. 3s. 6d. 

nXgINANDA ; OE, The Joy of the Snake Wo^ld. A Buddhist Drama in Five 
Acts Translated into English Prose, with Explanatory Notes, from the Sanskrit 
of Sri-H»nha-Deva, by Palmer Boyd, B.A. With an Introduction ty Professor 
CoweU. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 100, cloth. 1872. 4s. 6d. 

46 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

NAPIER. — Folk Lobe ; or, Superstitious Beliefs in the West of Scotland within 
this Century. With an Appendix, showing the probable relation of the modem 
Festivals of phristmas. May Day, St. John's Day, and HalloT^e'en, to ancient Sun 
and Fire Worship. By James Napier, F.R.S.E., &c. Crown 8vo, pp. vii and 
190, cloth. 1878. 4s. 

KARAD!yA DHASMA-SASTBA ; OB, The Institutes of Nabada. Translated, for 
the first time, from the unpublished Sanskrit original. By Dr. Julius Jolly, 
'Uniyersity, Wurzburg. With a Preface, Notes, chiefly critical, an Index of 
Quotations from Narada in the principal Indian Digests, and' a general Index. 
Crown 8vo, pp. xxxv. and 144, cloth. 1876. 10a. 6d. 

NEVILL. — Hand List ov Mollusoa in the Indian Mdseum, CALoniTA. By 
Geoffrey Nevill, C.M.Z.S., &c., First Assistant to the Superintendent of th^ 
Indian Museum. Fart I. Gastropoda, Fulmonata, and Frosobranchia-Nearo- 
brauchia. 8to, pp. xvi. and 338, cloth. 1878. 15s. 

NEWMAN.— The Odes oe Hobacb. Translated into TJnrhymed Metres, with Intro- 
duction and Notes. By F. W. Newman. Second Edition. Post 8vo, pp. xxi. 
and 247, cloth. 1876. 43. 

NEWMAN.— Theism, Dootbinal and Pbaoticai. ; or. Didactic Keligious ntterances. , 
By F. W. Newman. 4to, pp. 184, cloth. 1858. 4s. 6d. 

NEWMAN.— HoMEKio Translation in Theory and Peactioe. A Reply to Matthew 
Arnold. By F. W. Newman. Crown 8vo, pp. 104, stiff covers. 1861, 2s. 6d. 

NEWMAN.— Hiawatha : Rendered into Latin. With Abridgment. By F. W. 
Newman. 12mo, pp. vii. and 110, sewed. 1862. 2s. 6d. 

NEWMAN.— A History of the Hebrew Monarchy from the Administration of 
Samuel to the Babylonish Captivity. By F. W. Newman. Third Edition. Crown 
8vo, pp. X. and 35^ cloth. 1865.- 8s. 6d. 

NEWMAN. — Phases of Faith ; or. Passages from the History of my Creed. New 
Edition; with Reply to Professor Henry Rogers, Author of the " Eclipse of Faith." 
Cro-wn 8vo, pp. viii. and 212, cloth. 1881. 3s. 6d. 

NEWMAN. — A 'Handbook of Modern Akabio, consisting of a Practical Grammar, 
with numerous Examples, Dialogues, and Newspaper Extracts, in European 
Type. By F. W. Newman. Post 8vo, pp. xx. and 192, cloth. 1866, 6s. 

NEWMAN.— Translations of English Poetry into Latin Vbbse. Designed as 
Part of a New Method of Instructing in Latin. By F. W. Newman. Crown 8vo, 
pp. xiv. and 202, cloth. 1868. 6s. 

NEWMAN. — The Soul : Her Sorrows and her Aspirations. An Essay towards the 
Natural History of the Soul, as the True Basis of Theology. By F. W. Newman. 
Ninth Edition. Post Svo/ pp. xi. and 162, cloth. 1874. 3s. 6d. 

NEWMAN.— Miscellanies ; chiefly Addresses, Academical and Historical. By F. 
W. Newman. 8vo, pp. iv. and 356, cloth. 1869. 7s. 6d. 

NEWMAN.— The Iliad of Homer, faithfully translated into TJnrhymed English 
Metre, by F. W. Newman. Royal 8vo, pp. xvi. and 384, cloth. 1871. 10s. 6d. 

NEWMAN.— A Dictionary of Modern Arabic. 1. Anglo- Arabic Dictionary. 2. 
Anglo-Arabic Vocabulary. 3 Arabo-English Dictionary. By F. W. Newman. 
In 2 vols, crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 376^64, cloth. 1871. £1, Is. 

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NEWMAN. — The Mobal Influence op ]jaw. A Lecture by T. W. Newman, May 
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PLUMPTRE. ^General Sketch of the History of Pantheism. By C. E. 
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52 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

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RATTON.— A Handbook op Common Salt. By J. J. L. Ratton, M.D., M.C., 
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54 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

BICE. — Mtsobe and Coobg. a Gazetteer compiled for the GoTemment of India. 
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tions, Laws, and Customs of the Australian Bace. SmalI,4to, pp. vi. and 172, cloth. 
1877. 10s. 6d. 

BIG-VEDA-SANHTTA. A Collection of Ancient Hindu Hymns. Constituting the Ist 
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gious and Social Institutions of the Hindus. Translated from the Original San- 
skrit. By the late H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.B.S., &o., &c. 
Vol, I. 8vo, pp, lii. and 348, cloth. 21s. 
Vol. II. Svo, pp. XXX. and 346, cloth. 1854. 21s. 
Vol. III. Svo, pp. xxiv. and 525, cloth, 1857. 21s. 
Vol. IV. Edited by E. B. CoweU, M.A. Svo, pp. 214, cloth. 1866. 14s. 
Vols. V. and VI. in the Press. 

BILET. — Mediaeval Cheonicles op the City of London. Chronicles of the Mayors 
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BIOLA. — How TO Leaen Russian : a Manual for Students of Russian, based upon 
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BIPLEY, — Sacked Rhetoeic ; or, Composition and Delivery of Sermons. By 
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Published hy Trupner ds Go. 65 

RODD.— The Birds of Cornwall and the Soillt Islands. By the late Edward 
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ROGERS. —The 'Wavbrlet Dictionary : An Alphabetical Arrangement of all the 
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ROSS.— Alphabetical Mandal oe Blowpipe Analysis; showing all known 
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ROSS.— Celebrities OF THE Yorkshire Wolds. By Frederick Boss, Fellow of the 
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ROSS.— Honour OR Shame? By E. S. Boss. 8vo, pp. 183. 1878. Cloth. 3s. 6d; 
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ROSS.-^Ebmoval op the Indian Troops to Malta. By B. S..Eoss. 8vo, pp. 77, 
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ROUSTAING.- The Four Gospels Explained by their 'Writers. With an 
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BOUTLEDGE.— English Eule and Native Opinion in India. From Notes taken 

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ROWLEY.— Ornithological Miscellany. By George Rowley Dawson, M. A., F.Z.S. 
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1863) Compiled and Published by the Boyal Society of London. Demy 4to, 
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56 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

EUNDAIL.— A Shokt and East Wat to Write English as Spoken. Methode- 
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RUTHERFORD. — THE Autobiogkapht OF Maek Ectheefoed, Dissenting Minister. 
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1881. 5s. 

sAMAVIDHANABRiHDIANA (The) (being the Third Br&hmana) of the SftmaYeda. 
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SAMUELSON. — HistOet OF Deine. A Review, Social, Scientific, and Political. By 
James Samuelson, of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law. Second Edition. 
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SAND. — MoLriiEE. A Drama in Prose. By George Sand. Edited, with Notes, by 
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SARTORIUS. — Mexico. Landscapes and Popular Sketches. By C. Sartoriua. 
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SATOW.— An English Japanese Diotionaet of the Spoken Language. By 
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Masalcata of the Imperis^ Japanese Foreign Office. Second Edition. Imperial 
32mo, pp. XV. and 416, cloth. 1879. 12s. 6d. 

SAVAGE. — The Moeals of Evolution. By M. J. Savage, Author of " The Eeli- 
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SAVAGE. — Belief in God ; an Examination of some Fundamental Theistic Pro- 
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of Faith. By W. H. Savage. 8vo, pp. 176, cloth. 1881. 5s. 

SAYCE.— An Assteian Grammak for Comparative Purposes. By A. H. Sayce, 
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188, cloth.' 1872. 7s. 6d. 

SAYCE.— The Peinciples of Compaeative Philology. By A. H. Sayce, M.A 
Crown 8vo, pp. 384, cloth. 1874. 10s. 6d. 

SCHAIBLE.— An Essay on the Systematic Training of the Body. By 0. H. 
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first Centenary Festival of Frederick L. Jahn, with an Etching by H. Eerkomer. 
Crown 8to, pp. xviii. and 124, cloth. 1878. 5s. 

SCHILLER.— The Bride op Messina. Translated from the German of Schiller in 
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SCHLA6INTWEIT.— Buddhism in Tibet : Illustrated by Literary Documents and 
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404. 1863. £2, 2s. 

SCHLEICHER.— A Compendium of the Compaeative Geammab of the Indo- 
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Translated from the Third German Edition, by Herbert Bendall, B.A., Chr. 
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PvMislied by Tiiibner <& Go. 57 

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SCHULTZ.— Untvebsal Intbkest and General Perobntaob Tables. On the- 
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SCHULTZ.— English German ExohanobTablbs. By 0. W. H. Schultz. "With a 
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SCHWENDLER. — Instkuotions FOE Testino Telegraph Lines, and the Technical 
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and 268, cloth. 1880; 9s. 

SCOONES.— Facst. a Tragedy. By Goethe. Translated into English Terse, by 
William Dalton Scoones. Fcap., pp. vi and 230, cloth. 1879. 5s. 

SCOTT. — The English Lite of Jesus. By Thomas Scott. Crown 8ro, pp. xxviii. 
and 350, cloth. 1879. 23. 6d. 

SCOTUS.— A Note on Mb. Gladstone's "The Peace to Come.'' By Sootus. 8to, 
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SELL.— The Faith op Islam. By the Rev. E. Sell, Fellow of the University of 
Madras. Demy 8vo, pp. xiv. and 270, cloth. 1881. 6a. 6d. 

SELSS. —Goethe's Minok Poems. Selected, Annotated , and Rearranged. By Albert 
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SERMONS NEVER PREACHED. By Philip Phosphor. Crown Svo, pp. vi. and 124, 
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SEWELL.— Report on the Amabavati Tope, and Excavations on its Site in 1877. 

By Robert Sewell, of the Madras C.S., &c. With four plates. Royal 4to, pp. 

70, boards. 1880. Ss. 
SHADWELL.— A Ststbm of Pohiical Economy-. By John Lancelot Shadwell. 

Svo, pp. 650, cloth. 1877. 18s. 
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SHAKESPEARE'S Centueib or Pratsb ; being Materials for a History of Opinion 

on Shakespeare and his Works, ouUed from Writers of the First Century after 

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±'1, is. Large paper, fcap. 4to, boards. £2, 2s. 
SHAKESPEARE.— Hbrmeneutics ; OB, The Still Lion. Being an Essay toward* 

the Restoration of Shakespeaxe's Text. By C. M. Ingleby, M.A., LL.D., of 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Small 4to, pp. 168, boards. 1875. bs. 
SHAKESPEARE.-THE Man and the Book. By 0. M. Ingleby, M.A., LL.D. 

Svo. Part I. 6s. 
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58 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

BHAKESPEAEE.— A New Vaeioeum Edition op Shakespeare. Edited by Horace 
Howaid Furness. Eoyal 8vo. Vol. I. Komeo and Juliet. Pp. xxiii. and 480, 
cloth. 1871. 18s,— Vol. II. Macbeth. Pp. xix. and 492. 1873. 18s.— Vols. 
III. and IV. Hamlet. 2 vols. pp. xx. and 474 and 430. 1877. 36s.— Vol. V. 
King Lear. Pp. vi. and 504. 1880. 18s. 

SHAKESPEARE.- CoNCOEDAHOB TO Shakespeare's Poems. By Mrs. H. H. Fur- 
ness. Boyal 8vo, cloth, ' ISs. 

SHAESPEKE SOCIETY (THE New).— Subs6ription, One Guinea' per annum. List of 
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SEEEBIN6. — The Sacbed Ciit of the Hindds. An Account of Benares in 
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Prefaced with an Introduction by FitzEdward HaU, D.C.L, "With Illustrations. 
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SHERKING. — Hindu Tbibes and Castes; together with an Account of the 
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4to. Vol. n. Pp. kviii. and 376, cloth. 1879, £2, Ss.- Vol. III., with Index of 
3 vols. Pp. xii. and 336, cloth. 1881. 328. 

SHEERING.— The Hindoo Pilgbims. By Rev. M. A. Sherring, M.A., LL.D. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 126, cloth. 1878. Ss. 

SHIELDS.— The Final Philosophy ; or. System of Perfectible Knowledge issuing 
from the Harmony, of Science and EeUgion. By Charles W. Shields, D.D., Pro- 
fessor in Princeton College. Koyal 8vo, pp. viii. and 610, cloth. 1878. 18s. 

3IBREE. — The Geeat Apeioan Island. Chapters on Madagascar. A Popular 
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Divisions, Customs and Language, Superstitions, Folk-lore, and Beligious Beliefs 
and Practices of the Different Tribes. Together with lUusttaitions of Scripture 
and Early Church History from Native Habits and Missionary Experience. By 
the Eev. James Sibree, jun., F.E.G.S., Author of "Madagascar and its People," 
&c. 8vo, pp. xii. and 272, with Physical and Ethnological Maps and Four Illus- 
trations, cloth. 1879. 123. 

SIBREE.— Fancy and othee Ehymes. By John Sibree,' M. A., London. Crown 
8vo, pp. iv. and 60, cloth. 1880. 2s. 

SIEDENTOPF.— The Geeman Caligraphist. Copies for German Handwriting. 
By E. Siedentopf. ObL fcap, 4to, sewed. 1869. Is. 

SIMCOX.— Natural Law. See English and Foreign Philosophical Libraxy, Vol. IV. 

SIME.— Lbssing. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Extra Series, 
Vols. I. and II. 

SIMPSON-BAIEIE.— The Deamatio Unities in the Peesent Day. By E. Simpson- 
Baikie. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo, pp. iv. and 108, cloth. 1878. 2s. 6d. 

SIMPSON -BAIKIE.— The International Dictionary for Naturalists and Sportsmen 
in English, French, and German. By Edwin Simpson-Baikie. 8vo, pp. iv. and 
284, cloth. 1880. 15s, ^ ' "" 

SINCLAIR.— The Messenger : A Poem, By Thomas Sinclair. M.A. Foolscap 
8vo, pp. 174, cloth. 1875. 5s. 

SINCLAIR.— LovEs's Teilogy : A Poem. By Thomas Sinclair, M.A. Crown 8vo, 
pp. 150, cloth. 1876. 5s. 

Published by Triibner & Co. 59 

SINNETT.— The Occult "World. By A. P, Sinnett. 8to, pp. 172, cloth. 1881. 5s. 
SINCLAIR.— The Mount : Speeoli from its English Heights. By Thomas Sinclair, 
M.A. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 302, cloth. 1877. 10s. 

SMITH.— The Divine Government. By S. Smith, M.D. Fifth Edition. Crown 
8vo, pp. xii. and 276, cloth. 1866. 6s. 

SMITH.— The Recent Depression of Trade. Its Nature, its Causes, and the 
Kemedies which have been suggested for it. By Walter E. Smith, B.A., New 
College. Being the Oxford Cobden Prize Essay for 1879. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 
108, cloth. 1880. 3s. 

SMYTH.— The Aborigines of Victoria. With Notes relating to the Habits of 
the Natives of other Parts of Australia and Tasmania. CompUed from various 
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&c., &c. 2 vols, royal 8vo, pp. lxxii.-484 and vi.-456. Maps, Plates, and Wood- 
cuts, cloth. 1878. £3. 3s. 

SNOW— A Theologico-Politioal Treatise. By G. D. Snow. Crown 8vo, pp. 180, 
cloth. 1874. 4s. 6d. 

SOLLING.— DIUTISKA : An Historical and Critical Survey of the Literature of Ger- 
many, from the Earliest Period to the Death of Goethe. By Gustav Soiling. 8vo, 
pp. xviii. and 368. 1863. 10s. 6d. 

SOLLING.— Select Passages from the Works of Shakespeare. Translated and 
Collected. German and English. By G. SoUing. 12mo, pp. 155, cloth. 1866. 
3s. 6d. 

SOLLING. — Macbeth. Rendered into Metrical German (with English Text ad- 
joined). By Gustav Soiling. Crown 8vo, pp. 160, wrapper. 1878. 3a. 6d. 

SONGS of THE Semitic nr. English Verse. By G. E. W. Crown 8vo, pp. iv. and 
134, cloth. 1877. 5s. 

SOUTHALL. — The Epoch op the Mammoth and the Apparition of Man upon 
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Illustrated. 1878. lOs. 6d. 

SOUTHALL. —The Recent Origin of Man, as illustrated by Geology and the 
Modem Science of Prehistoric Archseology, By James C. Southall. 8vo, pp. 
606, cloth. Illustrated. 1875. 30s. 

SPANISH BEFOBMERS OF Two Centuries from 1520 ; Their Lives and Writing, 
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Royal 8vo, pp. xvi. and 216, cloth. 1874. 12s. 6d. Roxburghe, ISs. 

SPEDDING.— The Life and Times of Francis Bacon. Extracted from the Edition 
of his Occasional Writings, by James Spedding. 2 vols, post 8vo, pp. xx.-710 and 
xiv.-708, cloth. 1878. 21s. 

SPINOZA — Benedict db Spinoza : his Life, Correspondence, and Ethics. By R. 
Willis, M.D. 8vo, pp. xliv. and 648, cloth. 1870. 21s. 

SPIRITUAL EVOLUTION, An Essay on, considered in its bearing upon Modern 

Spiritualism, Science, and Religion. By J. P. B. Crown 8vo, pp. 156, cloth. 

1879. 3s. 
SPRUNEB.— Dr. Earl Von Spruner's Historico-Geographical Haud-Atlas, 

containing 26 Coloured Maps. Obi. cloth. 1861. 153. 
SQUIEB. — Honduras ; Descriptive, Historical, and Statistical. By E. G. Squier, 

M.A., r.S.A. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii. and 278, cloth. 1870. Ss. 6d. 

60 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

STATIONERY OFFICE.— PtiBLicATioNS OF Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 
List on application. 

STEDMAN.— Oxford : Its Social and Intellectual Life. With Itemarks and Hints 
on Expenses, the Examinations, &c. By Algernon M. M. Stedman, B.A., Wad- 
ham College, Oxford. Crown 8to, pp. xvi. and 309, cloth. 1878. 7s. 6d. 

STEELE.— Air Eastern Love Stoby. Knsa Jatakaya; A Buddhistic Legendary 
Poem, with other Stories. By Th. Steele. Cr. 8vo, pp. xu. and 260, cl. 1871. 63. 

STENT.— The Jade Chaplbt. In TwentyJour Beads. A Collection of Songs, 
Ballads, &c. (from the Chinese). By G. C. Stent, M.N.O.B.R.A.S. Post 8to, pp. 
viii. and 168, cloth. 1874. 5b. 

STENZLER.— See AuCTOEES Sanskriti, Vol. II. 

STOKES.— Goidehga— Old and Early-Middle Irish Glosses: Prose and Verse. 
Edited by Whitley Stokes. 2d Edition. Med. 8vo, pp. 192, cloth. 1872. 18s. 

STOEES. — Beunans Meriasee. The Life of Saint Meriasek, Bishop and Confessor. 

A Cornish Drama. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by Whitley Stokes. 

Med. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 280, and Facsimile, cloth. 1872. 15s. 
STRANGE.— The Bible ; is it " The Word of God " ? By Thomas Lumisden Strange. 

Demy 8vo, pp. xii. and 384, cloth. 1871. 7s. 

STRANGE. — The Speaker's Commentary. Eeviewed bv T. L. Strange. Cr. 8vo, 

pp. viii. and 159, cloth. 1871. 2s. 6d. 
STRANGE. — The Development of Creation on the Earth. By T. L. Strange. 

Demy 8vo, pp. xii. and 110, cloth. 1874. 2s. 6d. 

STRANGE. — The Legends of the Old Testament. By T. L. Strange. Demy 8vo, 
pp. xii. and 244, cloth. 1874. 5s. 

STRANGE. — The Souboes and Development op Christianity. By Thomas 
Lnmisdeii Strange. Demy 8vo, pp. xx. and 256, cloth. 1875. 5s. 

STRANGE.— What is Christianity? An Historical Sketch. Illustrated with a 
Chart. By Thomas Lumisden Strange. Foolscap 8vo, pp. 72, cloth. 1880. 
2s. 6d. 

STRANGE.— Contributions to a Series op Controversial Writings, issued by 
the late Mr. Thomas Scott, of Upper Norwood, By Thomas Lumisden Strange. 
Fcap. 8vo, pp. Tiii. and 312, cloth. 1881. 2s. 6d. 


UPON Philologioal and Kindred Subjects. Edited by Viscountess Strangford. 
Post 8vo, pp. xxii. and 284, cloth. 1878. 12s. 6d. 

8TRATMANN. — THE Traoicall Historie op Hamlet, Prince of Denmabke. By 
William Shakespeare. Edited accordingto the first printed Copies, with the various 
Beadings and Critical Notes. By F. H. Stratmann. Svo, pp. vi. and 120, 
sewed. 3s. 6d. 

STRATMANN. — A DiCMONAEY OF THE Old English Language. Compiled from 
Writings of the Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Centuries. By 
F. H. Stratmann. Third Edition. 4to,, pp. x. and 662, sewed. 1878. 80s. 

STUDIES OP Man. By a Japanese. Crown 8vo, pp. 124, cloth. 1874. 28. 6d. 

SWEET. ^HiBTOEY OF English Sounds, from the Earliest Period, including an In- 
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Henry Sweet. Demy 8vo, pp. iv.-164, cloth. 1874. 4s. 6d. 

SYED AHMAD. — A Sbeies of Essays on the Life of Mohammed, and Subjects 
subsidiary thereto. By Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur, C.S.I. 8to, pp. 532, 
with 4 Tables, 2 Maps, and Plate, cloth. 1870. 30s. 

Published by Triibner & Co. 61 

TALBOT.— Analtbis op the Organisation oe the Pbdssian Abut. By lieuten- 
ant Gerald F. Talbot, 2d Prussian Dragoon Guards. Eoyal 8vo, pp. 78, cloth. 
1871. 3s. 

TAYLER.— A Rbtbospect of the Bbligiods Life of Estglanu; or, Church, 
Puritanism, and Free Inquiry. By J. J. Tayler, B.A. Second Edition. Re- 
issued, with an Introductory Chapter on Recent Development, by James Martineau, 
LLD., D.D. Post 8vo, pp. 380, cloth. 1876. 7s. 6d. 

TAYLOE. — ^Pbinob Deukalion : A Lyrical Drama. By Bayard Taylor. Small 4to, 
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TECHNOLOGICAL Dictionast of the Terms employed in the Arts and Sciences ; 
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THOMSON.— Evolution and Involution. By George Thomson, Author of " The 
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Essays on the Sacred LAUGnAOB, ■WEirmas, ' and Religion of 
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Texts eeom the Buddhist Cakon, commonly known as Dhamma- 
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The Birth op the War-God: A Poem. By Kffidasfi.. Translated 
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A Classicaii Dictionary of EtiNDn Mythology and History, Geo- 
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Hindu Philosophy. The Sankhya Karika of Iswara Krishna. An 
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