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Full text of "A practical grammar of the Sanskrit language : arranged with reference to the classical languages of Europe, for the use of English students"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Cornell University Library 
PK 666.A2M74 1877 





Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023200748 



/?-f/. 



SANSKRIT GRAMMAR 



MONIEB WILLIAMS. 



EonDott : 
HENRY FROWDE, 




OXFQRD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 
7 PATERNOSTER ROW. 



SOLD ALBO BY 

W. H. ALLEN AND CO. 

WATERLOO PLACE, 

Publishers to the India Office. 



PRACTICAL GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



SANSKKIT LANGUAGE, 



ARRANGED WITH REFERENCE TO 



THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES OP EUEOPE, 



FOR THE USE OF 



ENGLISH STUDENTS. 



BY 

MONIER WILLIAMS, M.A., D.C.L., 

Hon. Doctor in Law of the University of Calcutta ; 

Hon. Member of the Bombay Asiatic Society ; 

Member oftJte Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Oriental Society of Germany; 

Bodett Professor of Sanscrit in the University of Oxford. 



FOURTH EDITION. 
ENLARGED AND IMPROVED. 



AT THE CLAEENDON PRESS. 

M.DCCC.LXXVII. 
[All rights reserved. ] 



PREFACE 

TO THE FOURTH EDITION. 

NOW that this Grammar has reached a fourth edition it 
may, perhaps, without presumption, be allowed to rest on 
its own merits. I have, therefore, dispensed with much 
of the prefatory matter which introduced the previous 
editions. 

Any one who compares the present Grammar with its 
predecessor will see at once the difference between the 
two, not indeed in its structure and arrangement, nor 
even in the numbering of the rules, but in the fuller and 
more complete explanation of points of detail. 

It may be well, however, to draw attention to some of 
the most noteworthy alterations and improvements. 

A table shewing the interchange of letters in the three 
sister languages, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, has been 
given at pages 18-20. 

The list of suffixes at pages 57-75 has been consider- 
ably enlarged, and arranged in alphabetical order under 
each declension. 

The subject of declension has been elucidated by a 
clearer method of synopsis. 

A more complete account of Sanskrit accentuation has 
been given at the end of the volume. 

The Beading Exercises have been slightly curtailed. 
The publication by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press 
of such a Class-book as the Nala, and quite recently of 
the &akuntal&, sufficiently supplies what is likely to be 
needed for the prosecution of the study of Sanskrit after 
the elements of Grammar have been acquired. 

a3 



VI PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION. 

Four indices instead of two have been appended. 

In order to bring the present edition into harmony 
with the Greek and Latin grammars now in use, some 
of the grammatical terms have been altered, e.g. suffix 
has been substituted for affix; stem for base; special 
and general tenses for conjugational and non-conjugational 
tenses respectively. 

Some errors which, notwithstanding all my efforts, 
crept into the last edition have been corrected, and a 
few other improvements effected. But I dare not even 
now hope to have attained the standard of perfection. 
Sanskrit is far too vast and intricate a subject to admit 
of such pretensions. I can, however, with truth affirm, 
that I have done what I could to bring the present 
work up to the level of the scholarship of the day; 
and my acknowledgments are due to Mr. E. L. Hogarth, 
M. A., of Brasenose College, for his aid in conducting 
the sheets through the Press. 

In conclusion I may, perhaps, be permitted to express 
a hope that my second visit to India will add to my 
powers of improving any future edition that may be 
required, as it certainly will increase my ability to pro- 
mote a more general knowledge of the Sanskrit language 
and literature among my own fellow-countrymen, to 
whose rule a vast Eastern Empire has been committed, 
and who cannot hope, except through Sanskrit, to gain 
a proper acquaintance with its spoken dialects, or to 
understand the mind, read the thoughts, and reach the 
very heart and soul of its vast populations. 

M. W. 

Oxfoed, October 1876. 



CONTENTS. 



Chap. I. — Letters 

Pronunciation ....... 

Classification ....... 

Interchange of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin 
Method of writing 

Chap. II. — Sandhi oe euphonic combination op letters 
Sect. I. Changes of vowels ..... 
Sect. II. Changes of consonants .... 

Chap. III. — Roots, and the formation of nominal stems 

Formation of the stems of nouns by suffixes 
Chap. IV. — Declension oe nouns. General observations 
Sect. I. Inflexion of nouns whose stems end in vowels 
Sect. II. Inflexion of nouns whose stems end in consonants 
Sect. III. Adjectives .... 
Sect. IV. Numerals ..... 

Chap. V. — Pronouns 

Chap. VI.— Verbs. General observations . 

Terminations ..... 

Summary of the ten conjugational classes 

The augment ..... 

Reduplication ..... 
Formation of the stem in the four Special tenses : 

Of group I. or verbs of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes 

Of groups II. and III. — Preliminary observations 

The new rules of Sandhi required for group II. 

Of group II. or verbs of the second, third, and seventh classes 

Of group LEI. or verbs of the fifth, eighth, and ninth classes 
Formation of the stem in the six General tenses 

Perfect ...... 

First and Second Future 

Rules for inserting or rejecting the vowel i 

Aorist 

Precative or Benedictive 

Conditional 

Infinitive • 

Passive verbs 

Causal verbs 

Desiderative verbs 

Frequentative or Intensive verbs . 

Nominal verbs .... 



PAGE 

1 

9 

14 

18 

20 

23 

24 

32 

51 

57 

76 

83 

95 

113 

118 

123 

133 

136 

144 

146 

147 

150 
155 
157 
160 
166 

168 
178 
180 
186 
193 
196 
196 
197 
203 
209 
213 
217 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Participles . ■ 219 

Participial nouns of agency ....... 234 

Examples of verbs inflected at full : 

Table of verbs of the ten conjugational classes inflected at full 235 
Table of passive verbs inflected at full ..... 244 

Auxiliary verbs conjugated ....... 249 

Group I. Verbs of the first class conjugated .... 250 

Verbs of the fourth class conjugated 266 

Verbs of the sixth class conjugated . . . . .271 

Verbs of the tenth class conjugated 276 

Group II. Verbs of the second class conjugated . . . .279 

Verbs of the third class conjugated ..... 287 

Verbs of the seventh class conjugated . . . .291 

Group III. Verbs of the fifth class conjugated .... 296 

Verbs of the eighth class conjugated ..... 301 

Verbs of the ninth class conjugated ..... 304 

Passive verbs conjugated ....... 309 

Causal verbs conjugated . . . . . . .311 

Desiderative verbs conjugated 312 ' 

Frequentative or Intensive verbs conjugated . . . .314 
Chap. VII. — Indeclinable words. 

Adverbs . . .317 

Conjunctions ......... 321 

Prepositions ......... 322 

Adverbs in government with nouns ..... 323 

Interjections ......... 324 

Chap. VIII. — Compound words. 

Sect. I. Compound nouns ........ 325 

Tat-purusha or dependent compounds ..... 327 

Dvandva or copulative (aggregative) compounds . . .330 
Karma-dharaya or descriptive (determinative) compounds . 333 
Dvigu or numeral (collective) compounds . . . .334 

Avyayi-bhava or adverbial (indeclinable) compounds . . 335 
Bahu-vrihi or relative compounds ...... 336 

Complex compounds . . . . . . . .341 

Changes of certain words in certain compounds . . . 344 

Sect. II. Compound verbs 347 

Sect. III. Compound adverbs 353 

Chap. IX. — Syntax 354 

Chap. X. — Exercises in translation and parsing . . .387 
Scheme op the more common Sanskrit metres .... 392 

Accentuation 397 

Indices 401 

List op compound or conjunct consonants . . . .415 



CHAPTER I. 

LETTERS. 
i. The Deva-nagari or Nagari character (or its modifications *), 
in which the Sanskrit language is usually written, is adapted to the 
expression of nearly every gradation of sound ; and almost every 
letter has a fixed and invariable pronunciation (see, however, 16). 

There are fourteen vowels (or without Iri thirteen, see 3. d) and 
thirty-three simple consonants. To these may be added a nasal sign, 
standing for either true or substitute Anusvdra (see 6), and a sign 
for a hard breathing, called Visarga (see 8). They are here first 
exhibited in the order followed in dictionaries. All the vowels, 
excepting a, have two forms ; the first is the initial, the second the 
medial or non-initial. 

'TOWELS. 

3T a, ^IT T d, \fi, f^ i, S o u , ^ ^u, "3JJ fc ri, ^ n> 
^ w In, H ^ M, TZ^e, $ ^ ai, #"t 0, #1 au. 

Nasal sign called true or proper Anusvdra, * n. Substitute 
Anusvdra, * m. 

Sign for a hard breathing, called Visarga, J h. 







CONSONANTS. 






Gutturals, 


^\k 


^kh 


*lg 


Vgh 


^ n 


Palatals, 


^6 


^6h 


5f j 


l^jh 


*T » 


Cerebrals, 


It 


'Zth 


^d 


<o dh 


T^n 


Dentals, 


lit 


*lth 


^d 


Vdh 


^ n 


Labials, 


*P 


T*ph 


^ b 


V{bh 


^ »i 


Semivowels, 


T\y 


Hr 


7%i 


^ V 




Sibilants, 


S?i 


^sh 


*s 






Aspirate, 


\h 










Two characters, 35 I, 55? ]h (often = T d, <? dh), are used in i 


he Veda. 



* Such as the Bengali, Gujarati, &c. In the South of India Sanskrit is gene- 
rally written, not in the Deva-nagari, but in the Telugu, Kanarese, and Malayalam 

B 



2 LETTERS. 

The characters are written from left to right, like the Roman. 

The compound or conjunct consonants (see 5) may be multi- 
plied to the extent of four or five hundred. The most common 
are given here. A more complete list will be found at the end of 
the volume. 



THE MORE COMMON CONJUNCT CONSONANTS. 

■$ kk, in kt, tR or jfi kr, fi kl, fj kv, ^ km, m khy, r* gn, 3 gr, 
•n gl, v ghr, ^ nk, ■% ng, *r 66, ^5 66h, ^q 6y, «r jj, "% jn, sj jv, 
*3 n6, sg fi6h, ^ nj, 1 ft, ^ ty, 1" dg, 35f dy, w nt, *& nth, J& v4, 
tS nn, 7PT ny, ^ tt, 7*1 tth r ~s tn. wr tm. W tv. ?or3 tr. 3 tv, W ts. 



§ nra, BI §», W 11, ^ «y, ^w, ^ $6, 5^ fy, ^r sr, ^r &, ^r &, F *Af, 
S sA<A, B!T shn, xq s%, Si s&, w skh, TO! st, m sth, ^f m, m sm, 
*T sy, VI sr, ^ sv, m ss, ,w hm, % hy, % hi, ^ kty, ^» ktr, ^ Ato, 
Sin kshn, •& kshm, ^t £s%, rxf gny', nq ^6%, :th gry, ^ »£/, f-j refy, 
«33 66hy, ■*% 66hr, j&{ ?%,' r^ tm, w tmy, *q try, rj %, 1" «r, 
^f ttt>, ?j <%, 3T ddhy, •% dbhy, ■& dry, -^ nty, *sa| mby, % rdr, *§ ryy, 
§ m, Y. shtr, ipj sMw, sm sty, ^ sfr, 75«l te»y, Taj refry, ^ rfey, 
?i§ rtsny. 



characters, as well as in the Grantha (or Grantham), which is a name for the character 
used for Sanskrit in the Tamil country, the Tamil alphabet being too defective to 
represent all the necessary sounds. In the second edition of this Grammar I gave 
a comparative table of old Inscription characters from Mr. Edward Thomas' 
edition of Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, which shows that the present form of 
Deva-nagari character is traceable to the inscriptions of As'oka, who is called 
Piyadasi for Priyadarsin — a well-known Buddhist king, grandson of Candra-gupta 
=Sandrakottos — and who must have reigned over nearly the whole of India, his 
capital being Patali-putra (=rPali-bothra, the modern Patna). These inscriptions 
are found on rocks at Giri-nagara (Girnar) in Gujarat on the Western coast, and 
at Dhauli in Kuttack on the Eastern coast (in the province of Orissa); and again 
at a place called Kapurdigiri, quite N. of the Panjab, a little to the E. of Purusha- 
pura (Peshawar). It is from the Girnar rock-inscriptions that the present Deva- 
nagari is most evidently derived, and these are not yet clearly traceable to a 
Phenician origin, those of Kapurdigiri being more so. 



LETTERS. 



Observe — In reading the following pages for the first time, the 
attention should be confined to the large type. 

Observe also — When reference is made to other parts of the 
Grammar, the numbers will denote the paragraphs, not the pages. 

The letters (except r, called Bepha, and except the nasal sign 
called Anusvdra and the sign for the hard breathing called Visarga) 
have no names (like the names in the Greek alphabet), but the 
consonants are enunciated with the vowel a. Native grammarians, 
in designating any letter, add the word gilt kdra ; thus, ^shr a-kdra, 
' the letter a ; ' ^3R ka-kdra, ' the letter ka.' 



NUMERICAL FIGURES. 



s 


* 


3 


8 


M 


% 


S> 


fc 


ft 


10 


<\<\ 


«* 


3^ 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


n 


12 


345 



THE VOWELS AND THE METHOD OP WRITING THEM. 

2. The short vowel ^T a is never written unless it begin a word, 
because it is supposed to be inherent in every consonant. Thus, 
ak is written "ST*, but ka is written ej ; so that in such words as 
«BrTcR kanaka, qirr, nagara, &c, no vowel has to be written. The 
mark s under the k of ^Tc£, called Virdma (see 9), indicates a con- 
sonantal stop, that is, the absence of any vowel, inherent or other- 
wise, after a final consonant. It is omitted in the first tables that 
the letters may be kept unencumbered by additional marks. 

a. The other vowels, if written after a consonant, take the place of 
the inherent a. They assume two forms, according as they are initial 
or not initial. Thus, WT^S dk, oRi kd; ^»F ik, f=B ki. 

b. Observe here, that the short vowel f i, when initial, is written 
in its right place, but when not initial, is always written before the 
letter after which it is pronounced. Hence, in order to write such 
a word as iti, the letters would have to be arranged thus, iit ^Tk'. 

c. Perhaps the true explanation of this peculiarity is that in the earliest alphabets 
the two i's were written over the consonant to which they belonged, short i 
inclining to the left, and long i to the right, a perpendicular stroke having been 
afterwards added. 

3. The long vowels T d and t i, not initial, take their proper place 
after a consonant. Also the non-initial and au (which are formed 
by placing ^ and ^ over T «), like T d, take their proper place after 

b 2 



4 LETTERS. 

their consonants ; thus, ^fit ko, ^ kau. The vowels u, tt, ri, ri, Iri, 
not initial, are written under the consonants after which they are 
pronounced ; as, ^ ku, «G ku, ^ kri, "Z6 kri, <£ klri. 

a. Except when u or u follows t r, in which case the method of 
writing is peculiar ; thus, ^ ru, ^ ru. 

b. When, however, the vowel ^ ri follows T r the vowel is written 
in its initial form and r in the crescent shape placed over it (see 5. a) ; 
thus, fVr^FcT nirriti, 'the goddess of destruction/ 

c. The vowels ri, ri, Iri and Iri are peculiar to Sanskrit (see 11. c). 
«£ Iri only occurs in the root •sp^klrip, 'to make/ and its derivatives. 

d. The long o£ Iri is only used in technical grammatical ex- 
planations ; strictly it has no existence, and is useless except as 
contributing to the completeness of the alphabetical system. 

e. The vowels e and ai, not initial, are written above the consonants 
after which they are pronounced ; thus, op ke, %f kai. 

f. In a few words initial vowels follow other vowels ; e. g. 'SJ^ftjJ^ a-rinin, 
' without debt ;' J U«I4I 30-agra, ' a number of cows j ' H^T pra-iiga, ' the pole of 
a chariot ; ' ("rind titaii, ' a sieve.' 

METHOD OF WRITING THE SIMPLE CONSONANTS. 

4. The consonants have only one form, whether initial or not 
initial. And here note that in every consonant, and in the initial 
vowels, there is a perpendicular stroke or the commencement of 
one, and that all have a horizontal line at the top; but in two 
of the letters, V dh and >T bh, this horizontal line is broken. In 
writing rapidly, the student will do well to form the perpendicular 
stroke first, then the distinctive parts of the letter, and lastly the 
horizontal line. The natives, however, sometimes form the horizontal 
line first. 

METHOD OF WEITING THE CONJUNCT CONSONANTS. 

5. The necessity for conjunct consonants is caused by the fact 
that every consonant is supposed to have the vowel ^ a inherent 
in it, so that it is never necessary to write this vowel, excepting at 
the beginning of a word or, in a few cases, of a syllable (see 3. /)• 
Hence when any simple consonants stand alone in any word, the 
short vowel ^l a must always be pronounced after them ; but when 
they appear in conjunction with any other vowel, this other vowel 
of course takes the place of short w a. Thus such a word as 



LETTERS. 5 

"iWIim would be pronounced kaldnatayd, where long Vrt d being 
written after I and y takes the place of the inherent vowel. But 
supposing that, instead of kaldnatayd, the word had to be pronounced 
kldntyd, how are we to know that kl and nty have to be uttered 
without the intervention of any vowel ? This occasions the necessity 
for conjunct or compound consonants. Kl and nty must then be 
combined together thus, ^, ^ and the word is written w*n- 
And here we have illustrated the two methods of compounding con- 
sonants; viz. ist 3 by writing them one above the other; andly, by 
placing them side by side, omitting in all, except the last, the per- 
pendicular line which lies to the right. 

a. Some letters, however, change their form entirely when combined 
with other consonants. Thus ^ r, when it is the first letter of a 
conjunct consonant, is written above in the form of a crescent, 
as in ^rt kurma, gin^ kdrtsnya ; and when the last, is written below 
in the form of a small stroke, as in the word sikw kramena. 

b. So again in tj* ksha and ^fjna the simple elements ^r ^ and 
»T sr are scarcely traceable. 

c. In some conjunct consonants the simple letters slightly change 
their form ; as, ^r ia becomes t in ^ S6a ; ^ d with i( ya becomes 
tS dya; ^ d with v dha becomes ^ ddha; 3. d with vf bha be- 
comes §■ dbha ; T[t with t ra becomes ^ tra or a tra ; c& k with rT ta 
becomes n kta. 

d. Observe, that when r comes in the middle of a conjunct consonant, it takes 
the same form as at the end ; thus, >7T grya, J\ gra. When conjunct consonants 
commencing with * are followed by the vowels i, i, e, at, 0, au, or by a nasal 
symbol (see 6), then c is for the convenience of typography written on the right 
of all; thus, TO rni, Off rm, «S rke, % rkau, «& rkam. 

anusvara and anunIsika. 
6. Anusvdra (• m), i. e. ' after-sound,' is a nasal sound which 
always belongs to a preceding vowel, and can never be used like ' 
a nasal consonant to begin a syllable (though like a consonant it 
imparts, in conjunction with a following consonant, prosodial length 
to the preceding short vowel). It is denoted by a simple dot, 

* Sometimes formed thus of, and pronounced kya in Bengali, 
t This compound is sometimes pronounced gya or nya, though it will be more ' 
convenient to represent it by its proper equivalent jnai 



6 LETTEJJS. 

which ought to come either immediately over the vowel after which 
the nasalization is sounded, or on the right of the vowel-mark ; thus, 
3! kam, ^ hum, fHf kirn, gff kirn. 

This dot serves two purposes. It marks, 1. the Anusvara 
proper or Trite Anusvara; i. a short substitute for the five nasal 
consonants ; in which latter case it may be called Substitute 
Anusvara. 

a. True Anusvara denotes the nasalization of the vowel which 
precedes it before w k, ^ sh, ^ s, and f h, in the body of words. 
It is then pronounced with the nose only (like n in the French 
mon, &c.), and will in this Grammar be represented in the Indo- 
Romanic type by n, as in ^i anka, ^fir anhati. 

But since the true Anusvara must take the place of a final H m 
when the three sibilants Jfl k, ^ sh, H s, and the aspirate 7 h (but see 
7. c) follow; and also generally when ^ r follows at the beginning 
of a word (see c. next page); it is then in this Grammar expressed 
by m; thus, na $131 is written IT JJI3H tarn katrum ; UH rMI>f« 
becomes i vm\H\ tarn rdjdnam; and WT with root <| is written 
>&% samhri. 

b. Substitute Anusvara is sometimes used, for shortness, as a 
substitute for any of the five nasal consonants 3? », T n, in n, Sf^ n, 
th m, which belong to the five classes of letters (see 15), when no 
vowel intervenes between these and a following consonant in the 
middle of the same word (thus the syllables ^j ink, ^sind, wig and, 
^JfT mt, %rqimp may for shortness be written ^3F, ^, <5?, ^ff, ^). 
In these cases ' Anusvara must be pronounced like the nasal con- 
sonant for which it has been substituted, and in this Grammar it 
will always be represented in Indo-Romanic type by these nasal 
consonants. 

But Anusvara is more usually substituted for these nasals when 
final and resulting from the euphonic adaptation of the final m of 
accus. cases sing., nom. cases neut., some adverbs and persons of 
the verb to a following word (see 60). It will then in this Grammar 
be represented in the Indo-Romanic type by m, as in the cases 
mentioned in 6. a. 

c. Anusvara is even used in some printed books, though less 
correctly, for the final ^ m of the words specified in the last 
paragraph when they stand in a pause (i. e. at the end of a 



LETTERS. 7 

sentence or clause, or when not followed by another word). In 
such cases, too, it should be represented by m. 

d. But Anusvara is never admitted as a substitute for the original 
final ^ n of a pada or inflected word (as in accus. cases plur., loc. 
cases of pronominals, the 3rd pers. plur. and pres. part, of verbs, &c, 
see 54), unless the next word begin with 6, t, t, or their aspirates, 
when, by 53, a sibilant is interposed before the initial letter. 

e. And in the case of roots ending in ^ n or jt m, these final 
nasals, if not dropped, pass into Anusvara before terminations or 
suffixes beginning with a sibilant or h, but are not changed before 
semivowels; thus ip^ + FTiT = >T51W mansyate, 'he will think 5' n^ + 
if = *RI manye, ' I think ' (617) ; ?& + ^trfji = ztefffi yansyati, ' he will 
restrain ;' »w -}- 1 = JUT gamy a, 'accessible' (602,); tT»T + ^=>TO 
namra, ' bent.' SW followed by TT3T is HH\i\ samrdj, ' a sovereign/ 

f. Hence it appears that the nasal sign Anusvara is peculiarly 
the nasal of the three sibilants 31 6, 3 sh, ^ s, and the aspirate ? h ; 
and that the true Anusvara always occurs before these letters. It 
is also to a certain degree the nasal of the semivowel x. r; so that 
these five consonants having a nasal sign of their own have no 
relationship to the corresponding nasal consonant of their respective 
classes. 

7. That Anusvara is less peculiarly the nasal of the semivowels 
is evident from e. above. Hence T m final in a word (not a root) 
may, before ^ y, c^ /, ^ v, either pass into Anusvara or be repre- 
sented by ^qf, Ot, ^f, or assimilate itself to these letters ; thus Tt* + tm 

= H*mor s#m, xpf+cTNi« = 4 cTtai'r or *rlrfaw. 

In the latter case the nasal character of ^ y and 75 I is 
denoted by a nasal symbol called Anundsika (i. e. ' through the 
nose,' sometimes called Uandra-vindu, 'the dot in the crescent'), 
which is also applied to mark the nasality of a final c5 I deduced 
from a final ^ n when followed by initial c? I, see 56. Of course 
the word OT*ra samyand, ' going conformably ' (formed from nfk + ^%), 
retains the m. 

a. And this Anundsika * is not only the sign of the nasality of 
tr y, <« /, and ^ v, in the preceding cases, but also marks the nasality 
of vowels, though in a less degree than Anusvara, see 11. f. 

b. In the Veda Anunasika is written for a final ^ n after a long vowel before 
another vowel; as, t&ft ^jJTfa for cHflT^fJTfa Rig-veda vm. 1, 6. 



8 LETTERS. 

c. Observe — A final *T m before 3^ km, j| hn, ^hy, ^ hi, 3[ Ac, may either bie 
changed to Anusvara or undergo assimilation with the second letter; thus TOT 
W?5*rfir or f«RH WeWfir, fa Jfff or f«R«J jgll, f% ?f: or f^^K, &c. (see 7). 

VISARGA, JIHVAMUXiYA, AND DPADHMANITA. 

8. The sign Visarga, 'emission of breath/ (sometimes said to 
derive its name from symbolizing the rejection of a letter in pro- 
nunciation,) usually written thus :, but more properly in the form 
of two small circles °, is used to represent a distinctly audible and 
harder aspiration than the letter f h. It is reckoned under the vdhya- 
prayatna, and is said, like the hard consonants, to be a-ghosha, without 
the soft articulation. This sign is never the representative of ? h. 
Although conveniently represented by h, it should be borne in mind 
that Visarga (h) is a harder aspirate than f h, and is in fact a kind 
of sibilant, being often a substitute for * and r preceded by vowels 
whenever the usual consonantal sound of these letters passes into an 
aspiration at the end of a sentence or through the influence of a 
k, kh, p, ph, or a sibilant commencing the next word. 

And since, according to native grammarians, H * ought not to be 
allowed at the end of a complete word, all those inflections of nouns 
and verbs which end in s and stand separate from other words are, 
in native Grammars, made to end in Visarga. 

But in this Grammar such inflections are allowed to retain their 
final ^ s. We have only to bear in mind that this s is liable at the 
end of a sentence, or when followed by certain consonants, to pass 
into an audible breathing more distinct than s in the French les or 
the English isle, viscount, when it is represented by # (:). 

In some parts of India Visarga has a slightly reverberating sound 
very difficult of imitation ; thus rjn: rdmafj, is almost like T3H^ rdmaha, 
wfnr: agnih like ^rfcrf? agnihi, f^l Hvaify like f^plfl sirai/ii. 

a. An Ardha-visarga, half- visarga,' or modification of the symbol Visarga, in 
the form of two semicircles £ , is sometimes employed before it, kh, and p, ph. 
Before the two former letters this symbol is properly called JihvdmuUya, and the 
organ of its enunciation said to be the root of the tongue (jihvd-mula). Before 
p and ph its proper name is Upadhmdniya, 'to be breathed upon,' and its organ 
of utterance is then the lips (oshfha). 

The Jihvamuliya and Upadhmaniya are therefore to be regarded as the sibilants 
of the guttural and labial classes respectively. (See Pan. 1. 1, 9.) 

b. The sign Ardha-visarga is now rarely seen in printed Sanskrit texts. In the 



LETTEES. 9 

Vedas the Upadhmaniya occurs, but only after an Anusvara or Anunasika; 
thus, •J£*nf^ or «JX ^f?, and in this case also the symbol Visarga may be 
used for it. 

VIRAMA, AVAGRAHA, &C. 

9. The Virdma, ' pause ' or ' stop/ placed under a consonant (thus 
^T k), indicates the absence of the inherent >3T a, by help of which the 
consonant is pronounced. 

Observe — Virama properly means the pause of the voice at the 
end of a sentence. In some MSS. it is employed like a mark of 
punctuation at the close of a sentence ending with a consonant, 
while the mark 1 is the proper means of denoting the close of a 
sentence ending in a vowel, all the preceding words being written 
without separation, because supposed to be pronounced without 
pause. 

10. The mark s {Avagraha, sometimes called Ardhdkdra, half the 
letter a), placed between two words, denotes the elision (lopa) or 
suppression {abhinidhdna) of an initial <sr a after 5 e or ^ft o final 
preceding. It corresponds to our apostrophe in some analogous 
cases. Thus, Ksfir te'pi for k ^rfxj te apt. 

a. In books printed in Calcutta the mark s is sometimes used to resolve a long 
d resulting from the blending of a final d with an initial a or d : thus THITSTr^j for 
iHJT ^TTpi, usually written TTSITT?*}. Sometimes a double mark ss denotes an 
initial long ^IT. The mark s is also used in the Veda as the sign of a hiatus between 
vowels, and in the pada text to separate the component parts of a compound or of 
other grammatical forms. 

b. The half pause I is a stop or mark of punctuation, usually placed at the end 
of the first line of a couplet or stanza. 

c. The whole pause II is placed at the end of a couplet, or is used like a full stop. 

d. The mark of repetition ° indicates that a word or sentence has to be repeated. 
It is also used to abbreviate a word, just as in English we use a full point ; thus H° 
stands for W, as chap, for chapter; so °*T for ^H. 

PRONUNCIATION OF SANSKRIT VOWELS. 

1 1. The vowels in Sanskrit are pronounced for the most part as 
in Italian or French, though occasional words in English may exem- 
plify their sound; but every vowel is supposed to be alpa-prdna, 
' pronounced with a slight breathing ' (see 14. a). 

a. Since ^t a is inherent in every consonant, the student should 
be careful to acquire the correct pronunciation of this letter. There 



10 LETTERS. 

are many words in English which afford examples of its sound, such 
as vocal, cedar, zebra, organ. But in English the vowel u in such 
words as/ura, bun, sun, more frequently represents this obscure sound 
of a ; and even the other vowels may occasionally be pronounced 
with this sound, as in her, sir, son. 

b. The long vowel ^n a is pronounced as a in the English father, 
far, cart; \ i as the * in pin, lily; §i as the i in marine, police; 
S u as the u in push ; f tias the u in rude. 

c. The vowel ^ ri, peculiar to Sanskrit, is pronounced as the H 
in merrily, where the i of ri is less perceptible than in the syllable 
ri, composed of the consonant r and the vowel i *■ ~%rt i g P r0 " 
nounced nearly as the ri in chagrin, being hardly distinguishable from 
the syllable 3; but in the case of the vowels ri and ri there is a mere 
vibration of the tongue in the direction of the upper gums, whereas in 
pronouncing the consonant r, the tongue should actually touch them 
(see 19, 20) : 5 e as the e in prey, there; ^ft o as in so ; ^ ai as ai 
in aisle; ^t au as au in the German ZZaus or as ou in the English 
house t. "5S l™ and c£ Iri differ little in sound from the letter <5 I 
with the vowels ri and ri annexed. 

d. Hence it appears that every simple vowel in Sanskrit has a 
short and a long form, and that each vowel has one invariable 
sound ; so that the beginner can never, as in other languages, be 
in doubt as to pronunciation or prosody. 

e. Note, however, that Sanskrit possesses no short e and in opposition to the 
long diphthongal sounds of e and 0. 

/. Although for all practical purposes it is sufficient to regard vowels as either 
short or long, it should he home in mind that native grammarians give eighteen 
different modifications of each of the vowels a, i, u, ri, and twelve of Iri, which are 
thus explained : — Each of the first four vowels is supposed to have three prosodial 
lengths or measures (mdtrd), viz. a short (hrasva), a long (dirgha), and a prolated 



* That there is not, practically, much difference between the pronunciation of 
the vowel ri and the syllable ft ri may be gathered from the fact that some words 
beginning with ^ are also found written with ft, and vice versa: thus, ftfif and 
■^fV, ftfa and ^|fa, ft*? and ^j"OI. Still the distinction between the definition 
of a vowel and consonant at 19 and 20 should he borne in mind. There is no doubt 
that in English the sound of ri in the words merrily and rich is different, and 
that the former approaches nearer to the sound of a vowel. 

t Colloquially in India ai is often pronounced rather like e and au like 0. 



LETTERS. 11 

(pluta); the long being equal to two, and the prolated to three short vowels. 
Each of these three modifications may be uttered with a high tone, or a low tone, 
or a tone between high and low ; or in other words, may have the acute, or the 
grave, or the circumflex accent. This gives nine modifications to a, i, u, ri; and 
each of these again may be regarded either as nasal or non-nasal, according as it 
is pronounced with the nose and mouth, or with the mouth alone. Hence result 
eighteen varieties of every vowel, excepting Iri, e, ai, o, mi, which have only 
twelve, because the first does not possess the long and the last four have not 
the short prosodial time. A prolated vowel is marked with three lines underneath 
or with ^ on one side, thus WT or ^IT^ (see Pan. i. 2, 27). 

PRONUNCIATION OF SANSKRIT CONSONANTS. 

13. cff k, »r j, \p, ^ b are pronounced as in English. 

a. Jiff has always the sound of g in gun, give, never of g in gin. 

1. ^ 6 is pronounced like ch in church, or as c in Italian. 
Observe that ^ 6 is a simple consonantal sound, although repre- 
sented in English words by ch. It is a modification or softening 
of A,' just as j is of g, the organ of utterance being in the palate, 
a little in advance of the throat. Hence, in Sanskrit and its cognate 
languages, the palatals 6 and j are often exchanged with the gutturals 
k and^. See 35. 

c. Jit, id are more dental than in English, t being something 
like t in stick, and d like th in this; thus veda ought to be pro- 
nounced rather like vet ha. But in real fact we have no sound 
exactly equivalent to the Indian dentals t and d. The sound of th 
in thin, this, is really dental, but, so to speak, over-dentalized, the 
tongue being forced through the teeth instead of against them. 
Few Englishmen acquire the correct pronunciation of the Indian 
dentals. They are said to be best pronounced by resting the end of 
the tongue against the inside of the front teeth and then suddenly 

removing it. 

13. z t, s d. The sound of these cerebral letters is in practice 
hardly to be distinguished from the sound of our English t and d. 
Properly, however, the Sanskrit cerebrals should be uttered with a 
duller and deeper intonation, produced by keeping the tongue as far 
back in the head (cerebrum) as possible, and slightly turning it 
upwards. A Hindu, however, would always write any English 
word or name containing t and d with the cerebral letters. Thus 
such words as trip, drip, London would be written fc^, fe^, c3^. 



12 LETTEES. 

In Bengal the cerebral 3 d and ^ dh have nearly the sound of a dull r; so 
that viddla, a cat,' is pronounced like virdla. 

In some words both Z t and ^ d seem interchangeable with ^ r and ^ ?>• so 
that "^khot, 'to be lame,' may be also written ^3, ^, 1ffc^..In Prakrit 
cerebral letters often stand for the Sanskrit dentals. Cerebrals rarely begin words 
in Sanskrit. 

14. ^ kh, ^ ffh, ^ 6h, m. jh, ^ th, ^ dh, ti th, V dh, ^ ph, 
in bh. These are merely aspirated forms of simple consonants. 
They are not double or compound letters ; h is only added to 
denote a distinct aspiration. Thus ^ is pronounced like kh in 
irikhorn, not like the Greek % > T as £A in anthill, not as in think ; 
t^ as ph in uphill, not as in physic, but colloquially ph is often 
pronounced like / (as phala is pronounced fald) ; H M as in 
cahhorse. Care must be taken not to interpolate a vowel before 
the aspirate. Indeed it is most important to acquire the habit 
of pronouncing the aspirated consonants distinctly. Da and 
dhd, prishta and prishtha, stamba and stambha, kara and khara 
have very different meanings, and are pronounced very differently. 
Few Englishmen pay sufficient attention to this, although the 
correct sound is easily attainable. The simple rule is to breathe 
hard while uttering the aspirated consonant, and then an aspirated 
sound will come out with the consonant before the succeeding 
vowel. 

a. With regard to aspiration we may note that according to Pan. 1. 1, 9, the 
letters are all either slightly aspirated (alpa-prdna) or more strongly aspirated 
(mahd-prdna). To the former belong vowels, semivowels, nasals, and *, g, 6, j, t, 
d, t, d, p, b, which are supposed to require a slight breathing in uttering them 
when they are initial. The mahd-prdna letters are kh, gh, dh, jh, th, dh, th, dh, ph, 
bh, 6, sh, s, h, Anusvara, Visarga, Jihvamuliya, and Upadhmaniya. 

15. ^ it, sr n, ^ n, ^ n, »? m. Each of the five classes of 
consonants in Sanskrit has its own nasal sound, represented by a 
separate nasal letter. In English and most other languages the 
same fivefold division of nasal sounds might be made, though we 
have only one nasal letter to express the guttural, palatal, cerebral, 
and dental nasal sounds. The truth is, that in all languages the 
nasal letters take their sound from the organ employed in uttering 
the consonant that follows them. Thus in English it will be found 
that guttural, palatal, cerebral, dental, and labial nasals are followed 
by consonants of the same classes, as in ink, sing, inch, under, plinth, 



LETTERS. 13 

imp. If such words existed in Sanskrit, the distinction of nasal 
sounds would be represented by distinct letters; thus, ^f, ftra, 
^, ^N!3^, fjrwr, ?w^. Compare 6. 

a. It should be observed, however, that the guttural nasal T n, which is rarely 
found by itself at the end of a word in Sanskrit, never at the beginning, probably 
has, when standing alone, the sound of ng in sing, where the sound of g is almost 
imperceptible. So that the English sing might be written ftt^. The palatal s^ n 
is only found in conjunction with palatal consonants, as in ^nd, ^nj, 3 in, and 
sj^'rc. This last may be pronounced like ny, or like gn in the French campagne. 
In Bengal, however, it always has the sound of gy : thus <ISM is pronounced rdgyd. 
The cerebral nasal AT n is generally the result of a preceding cerebral letter, as 
explained at 58. It is found in conjunction with cerebral consonants, but is not 
found at the beginning of pure Sanskrit words (except when used artificially as a 
substitute for roots beginning with «^b). It is pronounced, as the other cerebrals, 
by turning the tip of the tongue rather upwards. The dental and labial nasals 
«^ n and *T m are pronounced with the same organs as the class of letters to 
which they belong. See 21. 

16. V y, x. r, c5 /, ^ji are pronounced as in English. Their 
relationship to and interchangeableness with (samprasdrana) the 
vowels i, ri, Iri, u, respectively, should never be forgotten. See 
32. a. 

When ^ v is the last member of a conjunct consonant it is 
pronounced like w, as UTt is pronounced dwdra ; but not after r, as 
H% sarva. To prevent confusion, however, ^ will in all cases be 
represented by v, thus SK dvdra. See Preface to Sanskrit-English 
Dictionary, p. xix. 

a. The character Ep I is peculiar to the Veda. It appears to be a mixture of 
a i and t r, representing a liquid sound formed like the cerebrals by turning 
the tip of the tongue upwards ; and it is often in the Veda a substitute for the 
cerebral 3 d when between two vowels, as 33^ ]h is f° r ^ $*• 

b. The semivowels r and I are frequently interchanged, r being an old form of I. 
Cf. roots rabh, rip, with the later forms labh, lip. (See examples at 25.) 

17. 5T s §, \ sh, ^ s, I h. Of these, 5T i is a palatal sibilant, 
and is pronounced like sh or like s in sure ; (compounded with r it 
is sounded more like s in sun, but the pronunciation of § varies in 
different provinces and different words.) ^ sh is a cerebral, rather 
softer than our sh. That its pronunciation is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from that of the palatal is proved by the number of 
words written indiscriminately with ^T or ^; as, ^1 or ^ta. This * 



14 LETTEKS. 



is often corrupted into ^ in conversation, and W ksh is often pro- 
nounced like ^ 6h. The dental ^ * is pronounced as the common 
English s. Different sibilants, of course, exist in English, though 
represented by one character, as in the words sure, session, pressure, 
stick, sun. 

f h is pronounced as in English, and is guttural. 



CLASSIFICATION OP LETTERS. 



1 8. In the arrangement of the alphabet at page i, all the con- 
sonants, excepting the semivowels, sibilants, and h, were distributed 
under the five heads of gutturals (kanthya), palatals (tdlavya), cere- 
brals (murdhanya), dentals (dantya), and labials (oshthya). We are 
now to show that all the forty-seven letters, vowels, semivowels, 
and consonants, may be referred to one or other of these five grand 
classes, according to the organ principally concerned in their pro- 
nunciation, whether the throat, the palate, the upper part of the 
palate, the teeth, or the lips *. 

a. We have also to show that all the letters may be regarded 
according to another principle of division, and may be all arranged 
under the head of either hard or soft, according as the effort 
of utterance is attended with expansion (vivdra), or contraction 
(samvdraj, of the throat. 



* a. According to some native grammars the classes (varga) of consonants are 
distinguished thus : ka-varga the class of guttural letters beginning with k, in- 
cluding the nasal, 6a-varga the palatals, ta-varga the cerebrals, ta-varga the 
dentals, pa-varga the labials, ya-varga the semivowels, sa-varga the sibilants and 
the aspirate h. 

b. In the Sfiva-sutras of Panini the letters are arranged in fourteen groups : 
thus, a i u n — ri Iri k — e o « — at au 6 — h y v r t — I n — h m n n n m—jh bh h — gh 
dh dh sh — j b g d d £ — kh pk dhthth 6t t v — k p y — / sh s r — h I. By taking the 
first letter of any series and joining it to the last of any other series various classes 
of letters are designated ; thus al is the technical name for the whole alphabet ; 
hal for all the consonants ; ad the vowels j ak all the simple vowels ; an the vowels 
a, i, u, short or long ; ed the diphthongs ; yan the semivowels ; jaj the soft con- 
sonants g, j, d, d, b j jhad the same with their aspirates ; jhash the soft aspirates 
alone ; yar all the consonants except h ; jhal all the consonants except the nasals 
and semivowels; jhar all the consonants except the aspirate, nasals, and semi- 
vowels. 



LETTERS. 



15 



b. The following tables exhibit this twofold classification, the com- 
prehension of which is of the utmost importance to the study of 
Sanskrit grammar. 



Gutturals 


^a ^id 


off ka vtkha 


nga xr gha 


5M 


"%ha 




Palatals 


\i %i i[ e r> ai 


^ia ig.6ha 


*Ti a Mjha 


3fna 


Vya 


y 6a 


Cerebrals 


"%ri ^ ri 


Z ta Z tha 


? $a ~% dha 


Vina 


Xra 


"Ssha 


Dentals 


"vZlri T£lri 


W ta *r tha 


%da V dha 


ffna 


c5/a 


55 sa 


Labials 


^n ~mu *£\o ^au 


Vpa x(,pha 


"%ba « bha 


if ma 


^va 





The first two consonants in each of the above five classes and the 
sibilants, including Visarga, are hard ; all the other letters, including 
Anusvara, are soft, as in the following table : 



HARD OB SUED LETTERS. 


SOFT OE SONANT LETTERS. 


?ska* ^tkha* 




^ a 'md 


rig a* ft gha* 


~§na 


^ha 


**6a* -^6ha* 


yi 6a 


%i \i Jje^ai 


*ija* mjha* 


>fna 


nya 


?ta* ztha* 


Msha 


^ri "^ri 


■gda* z dha* 


tana 


Xra 


ilia* -Hi tha* 


^sa 


ojZn o|W 


^da* vdha* 


t\na 


ft la 


Vpa* i*pha* 




5« "SBm *£io *$au 


*T ba* » bha* 


Mma 


^va 



Note — Hindu grammarians begin with the letters pronounced by the organ 
furthest from the mouth, and so take the other organs in order, ending with the 
lfps. This as a technical arrangement is perhaps the best, but the order of creation 
would be that of the Hebrew alphabet ; ist, the labials ; 2nd, the gutturals ; 3rd, the 
dentals. 

c. Observe, that although Tl e, 5* ai, are more conveniently con- 
nected with the palatal class, and ^ft 0, *m au, with the labial, these 
letters are really diphthongal, being made up of a + i, d + i, a + u, 
d + u, respectively. Their first element is therefore gutturaL 
(In the Pratisakhyas the diphthongs e, ai, 0, au are called 
Sandhy-akshara. ) 

d. Note also, that it is most important to observe which hard 
letters have kindred soft letters, and vice versa. The kindred hard 
and soft are those in the same line marked with a star in the above 
table ; thus g, gh, are the corresponding soft letters to k, kh ; 
j, jh, to 6, 6h, and so with the others, 



16 LETTERS. 

In order that the foregoing classification may be clearly under- 
stood, it is necessary to note the proper meaning of the term 
vowel and consonant, and to define the relationship which the 
nasals, semivowels, and sibilants, bear to the other letters. 

19. A vowel is defined to be a sound (svara) or vocal emission 
of breath from the lungs, modified or modulated by the play of one 
or other of five organs, viz. the throat, the palate, the tongue, the 
teeth, or the lips, but not interrupted or stopped by the actual 
contact of any of these organs. 

a. Hence * a, 5 i, 3 u, ^ ri, 75 In, with their respective long 
forms, are simple vowels, belonging to the guttural, palatal, labial, 
cerebral, and dental classes respectively, according to the organ 
principally concerned in their modulation. But ^ e and ^ at are 
half guttural, half palatal ; *ft and ^ au half guttural, half labial. 
See 18. c. 

b. The vowels are, of course, held to be soft letters. 

30. A consonant is not the modulation, but the actual stoppage, 
of the vocal stream of breath by the contact of one or other of the 
five organs, and cannot be enunciated without a vowel. Hence 
the consonants from k to m in the table on p. 1 are often designated 
by the term sparsa or sprishta, 'resulting from contact;' while the 
semivowels y, r, I, v are called ishat-sprishta, ' resulting from slight 
contact.' By native grammarians they are sometimes said to be 
avidyamdna-vat, ' as if they did not exist,' because they have no 
svara (sound or accent). Another name for consonant is vyahjana, 
probably so called as 'distinguishing 7 sound. 

a. All the consonants, therefore, are arranged under the five heads 
of gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, and labials, according to the 
organ concerned in stopping the vocal sound. 

b. Again, the first two consonants in each of the five classes, and 
the sibilants, are called hard or surd, i. e. non-sonant (a-ffhosha), 
because the vocal stream is abruptly and completely interrupted, 
and no ghosha or sound allowed to escape ; while all the other 
letters are called soft or sonant (ghosha-vat, 'having sound'), 
because the vocal sound is less suddenly and completely arrested, 
and they are articulated with a soft sound or low murmur 
(ghosha). 

c. Observe, that the palatal stop is only a modification of the 



•LETTERS. 17 

guttural, the point of contact being moved more forward from the 
throat towards the palate *. 

In the same way the cerebral {murdhanya) stop is a modification 
of the dental. See 13. 

d. The cerebral letters have probably been introduced into 
Sanskrit through pre-existing dialects, such as the Dravidian, with 
which it came in contact (see 34). As these letters are pronounced 
chiefly with the help of the tongue, they are sometimes appro- 
priately called Unguals. 

3i. A nasal or narisonant letter is a soft letter, in the utterance 
of which the vocal stream of breath incompletely arrested, as in all 
soft letters, is forced through the nose instead of the lips. As the 
soft letters are of five kinds, according to the organ which interrupts 
the vocal breathing, so the nasal letters are five, viz. guttural, palatal, 
cerebral, dental, and labial. See 15. 

33. The semivowels y, r, I, v (called ^r.m antahstha or antah- 
stha because they stand between the other consonants and the 
sibilants) are formed by a vocal breathing, which is only half 
interrupted, the several organs being only slightly touched (iskat- 
sprishta) by the tongue. They are, therefore, soft or sonant 
consonants, approaching nearly to the character of vowels — in 
fact, half vowels, half consonants. See 16. 

a. Each class of soft letters (excepting the guttural) has its own 
kindred semivowel to which it is nearly related. Thus the palatal 
soft letters 3; i, ^ i, *l e, ^ at, itj, have ^ y for their kindred semi- 
vowel. Similarly xr is the kindred semivowel of the cerebral soft 
letters ^ ri, ^ ri, and ~s d; so also <^ I of the dentals 75 hi, "5£ hi, 
and ^ d j" ; and ^r v of 7 «, ^i u, ^sft 0, ^ au, and ^ b. 

b. The guttural soft letters have no kindred semivowel in Sanskrit, 
unless the aspirate 7 h be so regarded. 

* The relationship of the palatal to the guttural letters is proved by their fre- 
quent interchangeableness in Sanskrit and in other languages. See 24, 2g, and 176, 
and compare church with kirk, Sanskrit iatvdr with Latin guatuor, Sanskrit da with 
Latin que and Greek Kai, Sanskrit jdnu with English knee, Greek yovv, Latin genu. 
Some German scholars represent the palatals ^ and a^ by k and g . 

t That T% Z is a dental, and kindred to ^ d, is proved by its interchangeableness 
with d in cognate languages. Thus lacrima, la.Kpv(i.a. Compare also ^with 
XafJ.Tr. 



%8 LETTERS. 

33. The sibilants or hissing sounds (called 3WJJ ushman by native 
grammarians) are hard letters, which, nevertheless, strictly speaking, 
have in some measure the character of vowels. The organs of 
speech in uttering them, although not closed, are more contracted 
and less opened (ishad-vivrita) than in vowels, and the vocal stream 
of breath in passing through the teeth experiences a friction which 
causes sibilation. 

a. The aspirate f A, although a soft letter, is also called an ushman. 
b. The palatal, cerebral, and dental classes of letters have each their own sibilant 
(viz. 3J, ^, ^, respectively, see 17). The Ardha-visarga, called Jihvdmuliya (£(=%), 
was once the guttural sibilation, and that called Upadhmdniya (£=<f>) the labial sibila- 
tion (see 8. a) ; but these two latter, though called ushman, have now gone out of use. 
Yisarga ('.) is also sometimes, though less correctly, called an ushman. The exact 
labial sibilation denoted by/, and the soft sibilation z are unknown in Sanskrit. 

24. That some of the consonants did not exist in the original Sanskrit alphabet, 
but have been added at later periods, will be made clear by a reference to the ex- 
amples.below, exhibiting the interchange of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. 
The palatals 6, 6h, j, jh, A were probably developed out of the corresponding 
gutturals ; the cerebrals t, th, d, dh, n are thought to be of Dravidian origin ; 
the guttural nasal » is evidently for an original norm before a guttural letter; 
I is supposed to be a more modern form of r ; s belongs to the palatal class, and 
is generally for an original k ; sh is for an original s, cf. root ush, 'to burn,' with 
Lat. us-tu-s, from ur-o; h is for an original gh, sometimes for dh, and occasionally 
for bh (e. g. root grah, ' to seize,' for the Vedic grabh). 

Of the vowels probably only a, i, u were original; ri is not original, and seems 
to have been a weakened pronunciation of the syllable ar, and at a later period 
Iri of al. In Prakrit ri is represented by either i or a. The diphthongs are of 
course formed by the union of simple vowels (see 29). 

INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS IN SANSKRIT, GREEK, AND LATIN. 

25. The following is a list of examples exhibiting some of the commonest inter- 
changes of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. 

Sanskrit a = Greek a, e, 0, = Latin a, e, 0, i, u ; e. g. Sk. a/ra-s, ' a plain,' 
Gr. aypo-s, L. a^er.- Sk. jan-as, 'race,' Gr. ytv-of, L. yen-us,- Sk. janas-as, 
gen. c, Gr. yeve(i7)-os, yevovs, L. ^ener-is.- Sk. naea-s, 'new,' Gr. ve'o-j, 
L. novvi-s ; Sk. apas-as, ' of work,' L. qper-is. 

Sanskrit & — Gr. a, y, w, = L. d, (, 6; e. g. Sk. mk-tri (stem mdtar-), ' a mother,' 
Gr. pyTrjp (stem wrep-), Dor. ft.a.Tqp, Lat. miter; Sk. jni-ta-s, 'known,* Gr. 
yw-TQ-s, L. {g)n6-tu-s; Sk. sami-, 'half,' Gr. ijjuu-, L. s4mi-. 

Sanskrit i= Gr. /, = L. i, e; e.g. Sk. sami-, 'half,' Gr. Vj[xi-, L. semi-. 

Sanskrit { = Gr. /, = L. {; e. g. Sk.jiv-a-s, 'living,' Gr. /3/o-f, L. eit>-u-s. 

Sanskrit u = Gr. v, = L. «, 0; e. g. Sk. t«ru-s, ' broad,' Gr. evpv-g ; Sk. jdnu, 
' knee,' Gr. yovv, L. germ. 



INTERCHANGE OE LETTERS IN SANSKRIT, GREEK, AND LATIN. 10 

Sanskrit a" = Gr. u, = L. u ; e. g. Sk. m&sh, mash-a-s, &c, a mouse,' Gr. [Mif, 
L. mas. 

Sanskrit ri, i. e. ar = Gr. p with a short vowel, = L. r with a short vowel; e. g. 
Sk. mri-ta-s, ' dead,' Gr. fipo-ro-f (for ppo-ro-i or pop-TO-s), L. mor-tuu-sj Sk; 
mdtnbhyas, 'from mothers,' L. mafriSas; Sk. maYrisfta, 'in mothers,' Gr. fj.ffrpa.(7i. 

Sanskrit ri-=. Gr. p with a vowel, = L. r with a vowel ; e. g. Sk. ddtnn, ace. pi. 
of ddtri, ' a giver,' Gr. oo-TY/p-as , L. da-tov-esj Sk. mdtiis, L. mate*. 

Sanskrit e=Gr. a', «, o;, z= L. ai, £ oi, «, as, i, «y e.g. Sk. veti-as, an 
ahode,' Gr. (F)o<Afo-f, L. «ica-s; Sk. e-mi, ' I go,' Gr. «'-/** ; Sk. e»o-s, ' going,' 
a course, Gr. aJ-a>v, L. se»a-m. 

Sanskrit ai = Gr. a, JJ, a', = L. <e in certain inflexions ; e. g. Sk. devyai, ' to a 
goddess,' Gr. 6ea, L. dess. 

Sanskrit o = Gr. av, ev, ov, = L. au, o,u; e.g. Sk. gola-s, ' a ball,' Gr. yavko-g ; 
Sk. q/as, ' power,' L. aujreo. 

Sanskrit aa'= Gr. av, yv, = L. a«; e. g. Sk. aau-s, ' a ship,' Gr. vavg, vvjvf, 
L. navis, n&uta, ' a sailor.' 

Sanskrit k, kh, 6, 6, = Gr. K, = L. c, 5; e. g. Sk. krocw, kravya-m, 'raw flesh,' 
Gr. Kptag, KpeTov, L. cru-or, caro; Sk. khato-s, 'a granary,' sa'Za', a hall,' Gr. 
KuXia, L. ceZfe; Sk. <5a, 'and,' Gr. Ka«, L. -que. 

Sanskrit g, j, = Gr. 7 (13), = L. g (b); e. g. Sk. yug-a-m, ' a yoke,' Gr. tyy-o-v, 
L. jug-u-mj Sk. jana, ' knee,' Gr. 70'vt/, L. genu; Sk. ajra-s, 'a plain,' Gr. aypo-q, 
L. ager; Sk. gau-s, ' a cow,' Gr. jSou-f, L. bos,- Sk. gara-s, ' heavy,' Gr. fiapv-g, 
L. grav-i-s. 

Sanskrit gh = Gv. X> = L - g; e.g. Sk. rt. stigh, 'to ascend,' Gr ffte<%-w, 
<7T<%0-?, L. ve-stig-iumj Sk. fegha-s, 'light,' Gr. ekayv-g. 

Sanskrit 6h = Gr. ok, — L. sc; e. g. Sk. 6hdyd, ' shade,' G r - aKl ^ 5 Sk - rt - iilid ' 
' to cleave,' Gr. 0%%-®, <?%&-% L. scind-o. 

Sanskrit * (th) = Gr. t, = L. t; e. g. Sk. trayas, 'three,' Gr. Tpe/V, L. tres. 

Sanskrit d= Gr. S, = L. d; e. g. Sk. dam-a-s, 'a house,' Gr. lo^os, L. doma-s. 

Sanskrit dA = Gr. 0, = L. initial/, non-initial d, b; e. g. Sk. da-dho'-mi, 'I place, 
Gr. t'i-Qyi-[).i ; Sk. dh^-ma-s, ' smoke,' Gr. 6v-po-s, L. fa-ma-s; Sk. a'dh-ar, 
' udder,' Gr. ov8ap, L. uber; Sk. a»dh-as, ' food,' &c, Gr. av8-og, L. aA-or. 

Sanskrit p (ph) = Gr. it (0), = L. 27 (/); e. g. Sk. pifri, Gr. itaxr\p, L. pafer; 
Sk. phaZfa-m, ' a flower,' Gr. (pvkkc-v, L. foliu-m. 

Sanskrit i = Gr. /3 {it) , — L. 6 (/) ; e. g. Sk. rt. tomb, ' to hang down,' L. lab-i; 
Sk. badA-aa-s, 'ground,' Gr. itv8-^v, L. fanda-s; Sk. budh, 'to know,' Gr. 
irvvdavo[/.at (itvB-). 

Sanskrit bh = Gr. <f>, = L. initial /, non-initial b; e. g. Sk. rt. bhn, bhar-e'-mi, 
' I bear,' Gr. <pep-a, L. fer-oj Sk. aobh-as, ' vapour,' ' a cloud,' Gr. vecp-os , 
L. nttb-e-s. 

. Sanskrit », n, = Gr. 7 before gutturals, = L. a; e.g. Sk. an-fco-s, 'a, hook,' 
Gr. ayK-uv, oyx-o-;, L. anc-u-s, unc-u-s; Sk. pahian, 'five,' Gr. itart, L. 
quinque. 

D a 



20 INTERCHANGE OE LETTERS IN SANSKRIT, GREEK, AND LATIN. 

Sanskrit », n, = Gr. v, — L. n; e. g. Sk. nava-s, ' new,' Gr. veo-s, L. novu-s. 

Sanskrit m = Gr. //., = L. »; e. g. Sk. md-tri, ' a mother,' Gr. py-Typ, L. ma-ter. 

Sanskrit y = Gr. ', %,= li.j; e.g. Sk. jakrit, 'liver,' Gr. i]irap, h.jecur; 
Sk. jug-a-m, Gr. %vy-o-v, L. jagr-M-m. 

Sanskrit r = Gr. /J, X, = L. r, Z; e.g. Sk. raj an, 'king,' L. Tex (stem reg-); Sk. 
sam-s, 'whey,' Gr. O/Jfl-f, L. setu-m; Sk. rarfft-i-ra-s, 'blood-red,' Gr. epv8-pof, 
L. r«Ser, ng^M,- Sk. rt. sra, havas, sru-ta-s, Gr. /fXe-Of, k\v-to-{, L. m-cty-te-s. . 

Sanskrit Z=Gr. A, = L. /; e.g. Sk. rt. \4, lu-nd-mi, 'I cut,' Gr. ku-w, L. re-la-o, 
so-l»-o (for se-ht-o); Sk. HA (=riA), 'to lick,' Gr, Ae/%-a>, Xi-^-vo-i, L. linj-o, 
lio-ari-o. 

Sanskrit » = Gr. F (w), or disappears, = L. v (u) ; e. g. Sk. nava-s, new,' Gr. 
vefo-f, i.e. veo-f, L. novu-s j Sk. visA-a-s, 'poison,' Gr. <-o-f, L. vim; Sk. dvi, 
'two,' Gr. ovo, L. duo, 

Sanskrit s (for an original fc) = Gr. tf, = L. c, 7; e. g.Sk. daian, ' ten,' Gr. oe/caji 
L. decern; Sk. aivn-s, 'a horse,' Gr. itfJTO-f, tlCKO-f, L. eqau-s,- Sk. sW, 'a dog,' 
Gr. ku-wi/, L. can-is. 

Sanskrit s, sh, = Gr. c, , disappears between two vowels, = L. s, changes to r 
between two vowels; e.g. Sk. asti, he is,' Gr. eari, L. est; Sk. janas-as, 'of a 
race,' Gr. yevefjrf-o;, yevov;, L. gener-is; Sk. msh-as, 'poison,' Gr. i-o$, 
L. air-wsy Sk. sha<, ' six,' Gr. ef, L. sex. 

Sanskrit A (for an original gh, sometimes for dh, and occasionally for bh) = Gr. 
%, k (sometimes fl),==L. A, c, gy e.g. Sk. hi-ma-s, 'winter,' Gr. yi-wv, L. hiemsj 
Sk. hrid-aya-m, ' the heart,' Gr. Kapo-ia, L. cor (stem cord-) ; Sk. han for ghan 
and dhara (in ja-ghdn-a, 'he killed;' ni-dhan-a, death'), Gr. 8av-arof ; Sk. hita 
for dhita, 'placed' (fr. dAa", Gr. fy), Gr. fleroV. 

THE INDIAN METHOD OF WRITING. 

36. According to Hindu grammarians every syllable ought to 
end in a vowel *, except at the end of a clause or sentence, and 
every final consonant ought to be attracted to the beginning of 
the next syllable ; so that where a word ends in a consonant, that 
consonant ought to be pronounced with the initial letter of the 
next word. Hence in some Sanskrit MSS. all the syllables are 
separated by slight spaces, and in others all the words are joined 
together without any separation. Thus the two words ^rrafte n*n 
dsid rdjd would in some books be written , ?rr *ft ^T »TT and in others 
WUJIjiiir. There seems little reason for considering the mere spaces 
left between the words of a sentence to be incompatible with the 



* Unless it end in Anusvara or Visarga h, which in theory are the only conso- 
nantal sounds allowed to close a syllable until the end of a sentence. 



METHOD OP WRITING. 21 

operation of euphonic laws. Therefore in some Sanskrit books 
printed in Roman type every uncompounded word capable of separa- 
tion is separated, e. g. pitur dhanam ddatte ; which is even printed 
in Deva-nagari letters (by those scholars who allow an extension of 
the use of the mark called Virama) thus, fqijt >R*T ^JT^%, for 

The following words and passages in the Sanskrit and English 
character, are given that the Student, before proceeding further in 
the Grammar, may exercise himself in reading the letters and in 
transliteration. 

To be turned into English letters. 

^re;, ^rsr, 3hj, wq, ^n^j "£&> ^> i^j tt> 

^3, ^3% ^J, ^J, ^T5T, T&X, #^, ^!I, faff, 
^RR> 3R, fyR, WX, % <gq, ^, fi^, *TTf , 

»pr, >pf, n, ^r, ^, ^sm, ^, f^j\, fe, 
^t, wfar, >^, €far> t.» £ti, €Ni, ftR, fm:, 
TT3FT:, ^RT, ^TO, ^W, ^CTcm:. ^, 'qfw, 
*!*:, t?:, ?fte> %*?, ^fi^R*^ !^^> ^ : > ^N- 

To be turned into Sanskrit letters. 
Ada, asa, all, ddi, dkhu, dgas, iti, isafy, ihd, uddra, upanishad, 
uparodha, uru, usha, rishi, eka, kakud, katu, koshah, gaura, ghata, 
SaUya, let, ihalam, jetri, jhiri, tagara, damara, dhdla, nama, 
tatas, tathd, trina, tushdra, deha, daitya, dhavala, nanu, nayanam, 
niddnam, pitri, bhauma, bheshajam, marus, mahat, yuga, rush, rudhis, 
lauha, vivekas, katam, shodakan, sukhin, hridaya, tatra, adya, buddhi, 
arka, kratu, ansa, anka, anga, anSala, avjana., kantha, anda, anta, 
manda, sampurna. 



22 METHOD OF WRIT1KG. 

The following story has the Sanskrit and English letters 

interlined. 

srfar gfl sHi ji trow* *m t*p* i h*zt nt- 

usti hastindpwre vildsa ndma rajakah tasya garden 
flAo 'libhdravdhandd durbalo mumurshur abhavat tatas tena 

T^RTflt «q i l H^ < il ' l U^raTT^W^ STO^ 

rajakendsau vydghra6armand pra66hddydranyasamipe iasyakshetre 
moiitah tato durdd avalokya vydghrabuddhyd kshetrapa- 

tayqh satvaram paldyqnte atha kendpi hasyarakshakena dhusara- 

ka\mbmdkfyatanutrd\iena dhanuhkdndam sajjikrilydvanatakdyena 
ekdnte sthilam tatas tarn 6a dure drishtvd gardabhah pushtdngo 

gardabhiyamiti matvd sabdam kurvdnas tadabhimukham dhdvitah 
tatas tena Sasyarakshakena gardabho 'yamiti jndtvd lilayaiva 

The following story is to be turned into Sanskrit letters. 

Asti iriparvatamadhye brahmapurdkhyam nagaram. Tatra 6aila- 
Hkhare ghantdkarno ndma rdkshasah prativasatiti janapravddah &H- 
yate. Ekadd ghantdm dddya paldyamdnah kaS6i6 lauro vydqhrena 
vydpdditah. Tatpdnipatitd ghanfd vdnaraih prdptd. Te vdnards tarn 
ghanfdm anukshanam vddayanti. Tato nagarajanair manushyah khd- 
dito drishfah pratikshanam ghantdrdvMa toruyate. Anantaram 
ghantdkarnab kupito manushydn khddati ghantdm 6a vddayatUyu- 



SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS. 23 

ktvd jamah, sarve nagardt paldyitdh. Tatah kardlayd ndma kuttinyd 
vimrisya markatd ghantdm vddayanti svayam vijndya rdjd vijndpitah. 
Deva yadi kiyaddhanopakshayah kriyate taddham enam ghantdkarnam 
sddhaydmi. Tato rdjnd tushtena tasyai dhanam dattam. Kuttinyd 
6a mandalam kritvd tatra gane'sddigauravam darsayitvd svayam 
vdnarapriyaphaldnydddya vanam pravikya phaldnydkirndni. Tato 
ghantdm parityajya vdnardh phaldsaktd babhuvuh. Kuttini 6a 
ghantdm grihitvd nagaram dgatd sakalalokapujydbhavat. 



CHAPTEE II. 

SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION" OF LETTERS. 

We are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic 
changes of letters. Thus for the perfect passive participle of reg-o 
(stem reg-) we have (not reg-tu-s but) rec-tu-s, the soft g being changed 
to the hard c before the hard t (cf. rex for reg-s). In many words 
a final consonant assimilates with an initial ; thus crvv with yvw/j.tj 
becomes avyyvu>fji.tj ; iv with \d/j.Trw, eWafnrw. Suppressus is 
written for subpressus ; appellatus for adpellatus ; immensus for 
inmensus ; affinitas for adfinitas ; offero for obfero, but in perfect 
obtuli; colloquium for conloquium; irrogo for inrogo. In English, 
assimilations of the same kind take place in pronunciation, though 
they are not always recognized in writing; thus cupboard is pro- 
nounced as if written cub-board, and blackguard as if written blag- 
guard. These laws for the euphonic junction of letters are applied 
throughout the whole range of Sanskrit grammar ; and that, too, 
not only in the interior of words when a stem is united with its 
terminations and suffixes, but in combining words in the same 
sentence. Thus, if the sentence 'Bara avis in terris' were Sanskrit, 
it would require, by the laws of Sandhi or combination, to be written 
Bardvirinsterrih. The learner is recommended, after learning the 
most common rules of combination, printed in large type, to pass 
at once to the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs. 



24 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWELS. 

There are two classes of rules of Sandhi, viz. i. Those affecting 
the junction of final and initial letters of completely formed words 
in sentences as well as of the stems of words in compounds ; 
2. Those which take effect in the process of forming words by the 
junction of roots and of stems, whether nominal or verbal, with suffixes, 
and terminations (see 74. a). As the rules which apply to one class 
are generally applicable to the other, it will be convenient to consider 
them together ; but some of the rules which come into operation in 
the formation of verbs, are reserved till they are wanted (see 294). 

Sect. I.— EUPHONIC PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION 
OF VOWELS. 
37. The changes of vowels called Guna and Vriddhi should at once 
be impressed on the memory. When the vowels 5 i and ^ i become 
V. e, this is called a Guna change, or qualification (guna meaning 
' quality '). When i and i become 5? at, this is called a Vriddhi 
change, or increase. Similarly, "J u and gi u are often changed to 
their Guna ^ft 0, and Vriddhi W au ; sj ri and ^ ri to their Guna 
^rt ar, and Vriddhi ^nt dr; and ^j a, though it can have no corres- 
ponding Guna change, has a Vriddhi substitute in ?rr a. 

a. Native grammarians consider that a is already a Guna letter, and on that 
account can have no Guna substitute. Indeed they regard a, e, as the only 
Guna sounds, and a, ai, au as the only Vriddhi; a and d being the real Guna and 
Vriddhi representatives of the vowels^ and fl£. It is required, however, that r 
should always be connected with a and <£when these vowels are substituted for rib- 
and I, when they are substituted for hi. 

b. Observe — It will be convenient in describing the change of a vowel to its 
Guna or Vi-iddhi substitute, to speak of that vowel as gunated or vriddhied. 

28. In the formation of stems, whether nominal or verbal, the 
vowels of roots cannot be gunated or vriddhied, if they are followed 
by double consonants, i. e. if they are long by position ; nor can a 
vowel long by nature be so changed, unless it be final. The vowel 
^l a is, as we have seen, already a Guna letter. See 27. a. 

a. But in secondary derivatives long vowels are sometimes vriddhied : wS 
sthaula, robust,' from ^c3 stMlaj tm graiva, 'belonging to the neck,' from 
jjfaft grinds *uS5 mania, 'radical,' from ljf5 mula (see 80. B). 

29. The Guna sounds * e, ^ft are diphthongal, that is, composed 
of two simple vowel sounds. Thus, 5 e is made up of a and i ; 
Wt of a and u ; so that a final ^i a will naturally coalesce with an 



EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP VOWELS. 25: 

initial 3[ i into e; with an initial -j u into o. (Compare 18. c.) Again, 
W^ ar may be regarded as made up of a and ri; so that a final *r as 
will blend with an initial ^J n into ar. 

a. Similarly, the Vriddhi diphthong $ ai is made up of a and e, 
or (which is the same) d and i ; and W « of a and o, or (which is 
the same) d and u. Hence, a final a will naturally blend with an 
initial ^ e into ai; and with an initial ^rt o into au. (Compare 18. c; 
and see note to table in next page.) The simple vowels in their 
diphthongal unions are not very closely combined, so that e, o, ai, 
au are liable to be resolved into their constituent simple elements. 

6. If ai is composed of d and i, it may be asked, How is it that long a as well 
as short a blends with i into e (see 32), and not into ai? In answer to this some 
scholars have maintained that a long vowel at the end of a word naturally shortens 
itself before an initial vowel (see 38. i), and that the very meaning of Guna is the 
prefixing of short a, and the very meaning of Vriddhi, the prefixing of long d, to a 
simple vowel. Hence the Guna of i is originally a i, though the two simple vowels 
blend afterwards into e. Similarly, the original Guna of it is a u, blending after- 
wards into oj the original Guna of ri is a ri, blending into ar. 

c. The practice of gunating vowels is not peculiar to Sanskrit. The San- 
skrit a answers to the Greek e or (see 25), and Sanskrit ^fa emi, 'i go,' 
which in the 1st pers. plural becomes ^^ imas, 'we go,' is originally a i mi, 
corresponding to the Greek eifj.1 and t[A€V. Similarly in Greek, the root <f><jy 
(e-(f)vy-ov) is in the present <t>evy-(o. Compare also the Sanskrit veda (vaida), 
'he knows,' with Greek oifia; and compare \e-Kont-a, perfect of Aw, with the 
Sanskrit perfect. 

30. Again, let it be borne in mind that *J y is the kindred semi- 
vowel of i, i, e, and ai; ^v of u, u, 0, and au; ir of ri and ri; 
and c^ I of Iri and Iri. So that i, i, e, ai, at the end of words, when 
the next begins with a vowel, may often pass into y, y, ay, ay, 
respectively; u, u, 0, au, into v, v, av, dv; and ri, ri, into r. 
[Observe — Iri is not found as a final.] 

The interchange of vowels with their own semivowels is called 
by Sanskrit grammarians samprasdrana. 

In English we recognize the same interchangeableness, though 
not in the same way; thus we write holy, holier; easy, easily; and 
we use ow for ou in now, cow, &c. 

In order to impress the above rules on the mind, the substance 
of them is embodied in the following table : 



26 



EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWELS. 



Simple vowels, a or a iari 
Guna substitute, e 


u or u 




ri or r i 
ar 


Iri or Iri 


al 
i 


Vriddhi substitute, c 


I 

' ai 


1 
au 


1 
dr 


1 
dl 


Simple vowels, 


iori 


uoru 


ri or ri 


Iri or Iri 


Corresponding semivowel, 


1 V ' 

y 


V 


r 


I 


Guna, 


e 









Guna resolved, 


\ 
ct + i 


I 
a + u 






, With semivowel substitute, 


1 
ay 


1 
av 






Vriddhi, 


ai 
1 

r a + e 


au 

1 

a + o 






Vriddhi resolved, 


1 
a + a+i 

1 

. *d + i 


1 

a + a + u 

r I 
*d + u 






With semivowel substitute, 


1 
dy 


\ 
dv 







The following rules will now be easily understood. They apply 
generally to the junction (i) of separate words in sentences and 
compounds ; (a) of roots and stems with suffixes and terminations. 
To distinguish the second class of combinations the sign + will be 
used in the examples given. The object of most of the rules is to 
prevent a hiatus between vowels f. 

31. If any simple vowel (short or long) is followed by a similar 
simple vowel (short or long), the two vowels blend into one long 
similar vowel (Pan. vi. 1, 101) ; e. g. 

*T ^rfal 5? na asti iha becomes tfraft^ nusttlia, 'he is not here.' 

TTTT ^TC| «««: rdjd astu uttamah becomes CTMgWK rdjdstuttamah, 'kt the 

king be supreme.' 
SmT vwjfod onto, becomes SffaRT jivdnta, 'end of life.' 
ini. §*BT adhi thara becomes TOft^R adliihara, ' supreme lord.' 
^JjJ ««"■ f**» utsava becomes ^^rtW ritdtsava, ' festival of the season.' 
nT^ ^fepitri riddhi becomes ftn^fe pitriddhi, 'a father's prosperity.' 

* Since e=a+i and o=a+u, therefore a+e will equal a+a+i or d+ij and 
a+o will equal a+a+u or d+u. 
t In the Vedic hymns hiatus between vowels is not uncommon ; of. note to 66. 



EUPHONIC .COMBIKATIOK OP VOWELS. 27 

33. *st a or >sn a, followed by the dissimilar vowels \ i, S u, ^ ri 
(short or long), blends with i or i into the Guna * e; with u or u 
into the Guna ^ o*; with ri or ri into the Guna ^ ar (Pan. vi. 
i, 87); e.g. 

*n?T \*aKparama isvara becomes VXjfa^paramefaara, ' mighty lord.' 

t?W 3 4^f *i*a upadeia becomes fflft^^r Htopadeia, ' friendly instruction.' 

*ijji *<\<*gangd uddka becomes 'ljflqcs gangodaka, 'Ganges -water.' 

^ ^Hs tava riddhi becomes Traf§ tavarddhi, ' thy , growth.' 

H?T ^ftt mdhd rishi becomes Hljff maharshi, ' a great sage.' 

Similarly, K^ ~&W(t. tava Ipkdra becomes rH<s*K tavalkdra, 'thy letter Iri.' 

33. "5J a or ^tt a, followed by the diphthongs *J e, 'sft 0, $ ai, or 
W au, blends with e into the Vriddhi ai; with a« also into ai; with 
into the Vriddhi au; with au also into aw (Pan. vi. 1, 88); e.g. 

TfTtlHpara edhita becomes VXfail paraidhita, 'nourished by another.' 

T^ETT TT^ vidyd eva becomes fw^ vidyaiva, ' knowledge indeed.' 

^ kwm deva aisvarya becomes ^TO*? devaiharya, ' majesty of deity.' 

'3T3T >Jtl*t*^ alpa ojas becomes ^HsMM^ alpaujas, 'little energy.' 

'<»! , HTO gangd ogha becomes *IJfNj gangaugha, ' Ganges-current.' 

3a<^n^V jvara aus'hadha becomes sJTTTO jvaraushadha, 'fever-medicine.' 

34. 5 i, ^ u, ^ r i (short or long), followed by any dissimilar 
vowel or diphthong, pass into their kindred semivowels ; viz. i or i 
into y ; u or u into vf; ri or ri into r (Pan. vi. 1, 77); e.g. 

wftH ^^ o^to' dsfra becomes ^P^T^ST agny-astra, ' fire-arms.' 
Ufif 'Sm-q/jrflrfj umftte becomes Tt^V^ praty-uvdia, ' he spoke in reply.' 
g ^T«TtH *k iddnim, becomes fr^T'ft'T tv iddnim, ' but now.' 
11 ^i«1'^ meftri dnanda becomes JU^TT^ mdtr-dnanda, ' a mother's joy.' 
♦tl^ WHTW nu&rt autsukya becomes ♦uairg-w mdtr-autsukya, 'a mother's 
anxiety.' 

35. Final 5 e and ?ft 0, followed by an initial ^r a, if it begin 
another word, remain unchanged, and the initial ^t a is cut off 
(Pan. vi. 1. 109); e.g. 

IT Ssfa te api becomes ffsftj te 'pi, 'they indeed' (see 10). 
Hi ^ffa so api becomes InSftf so 'pi, 'he indeed.' 

* The blending of a and i into the sound e is recognized in English in such 
words as sail, nail, &c. ; and the blending of a and u into the sound o is exemplified 
by the French faute, baume, &c. 

t Illustrated by some English words; thus we pronounce a word like 
million as if written millyon; and we write evangelist (not euangelisi), saying, 
playing, &c, 

e a 



28 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWELS — PRAGRIHYA. 

a. In compounds the elision of initial a after a stem like go appears to be optional, 
e.g. go-'fodk or go-ahdh, ' oxen and horses' (Pan. vi. i, 122). See 38. e. 

b. But go may become gava in certain compounds, as go agram may become gavd- 
gram, see 38. ej so go indra becomes gavendra, ' lord of kine,' or gav-indrabj 36. 

36. But followed by d, i, i, u, it, ri, ri, e, 0, ai, au, if any one of 
these begin another word, final 5 e and ^ft are changed to ay and av 
respectively; and the y of ay, and more rarely the v of av, may be 
dropped, leaving the a uninfluenced by the following vowel (Pan. vi. 
1,78); e.g. 

H ^Ttnin; te dgatdh becomes nMl'lciTI tay dgatdh, and then TT -wi'lm! ta dgatdh, 

' they have come.' 
Similarly, f^XBu J[t[ vishno iha becomes fiTHOfo? vishnm iha, and then f^W ^ 
vishna iha, O Vishnu, here !' 

Observe — When go, 'a cow,' becomes gav in compounds, v is retained; e. g. 
'TT ^Hj'o Uvara becomes Milm*. gav-ihara, ' owner of kine. 5 
*n vita^o okas becomes H^fSKV^gav-okas, ' abode of cattle.' 

a. And in the case of u e and ^ft followed by any vowel or 
diphthong in the same word, even though the following vowel or 
diphthong be a or e or 0, then e must still be changed to ay, and 
o to av, but both y and v must be retained ; e. g. 

3f + ^ je+a becomes *IVjaya, the present stem of ji, ' to conquer ' (see 263). 

^T^fl + 5 agne+e becomes 9nm agnaye, ' to fire ' (dative case). 

*ft + ^T bho+a becomes »TC bhava, the present stem of bhi (see 263). 

37. ij ai and w au, followed by any vowel or diphthong, 
similar or dissimilar, are changed to dy and dv respectively (Pan. 
vi. 1, 78); e.g. 

«FW ^InJ kasmai api becomes ^Wrefa kasmdy api, ' to any one whatever.' 
T + *8^rai+as becomes <\M*{rdyas, 'riches ' (nom. plur.). 
^T visi* dadau annam becomes ^TC^H daddv annam, ' he gave food.' 
*TT + ^T nau+aw becomes «n^ ndvau, ' two ships ' (nom. du.). 
a. If both the words be complete words, the y and v are occasionally 
dro pped, but not so usually as in the case of e at 36; thus ^TOT «rfq kasmd api 
for diWlfit kasmdy api, and ^T ^RPJ dadd annam for ^TOn^datZcfo annam. 

PRAGRIHYA EXCEPTIONS. 

38. There are some exceptions (usually called pragrihya, 'to be 
taken or pronounced separately 3 ) caused by vowels which must, 
under all circumstances, remain unchanged. The most noticeable 
are the terminations of duals (whether of nouns, pronouns, or verbs) 



EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP VOWELS — PRAGRIHYA. 29 

in i, u, or e (Pan. i. i, n). These are not acted on by following 
vowels ; e. g. 

3!3T Cm kavi etau, 'these two poets;' ^^J^ 1 " bandhu imau, 'these two rela- 
tions;' ^ff^^rraiw 'these two sit down;' TT%ft JHT 'these two cook;' 
$ra? ^IT^lfl we two lie down.' 
Observe — The same applies to ^T»ft ami, nom. pi. masc. of the pronoun 'st^*^. 
o. The Vedic asme and yushme are also pragrihy a according to Pan. I. I, 13. 

b. Prolated vowels (11./) remain unchanged, as WtT53! ^THtt^^TijT 'Come, 
Krishna, here,' &c. (Pan.vi. 1, 125; vm. 2, 82). 

c. A vocative case in 0, when followed by the particle iti, may remain unchanged, 
as [quilt SfTiI vishno iti, or may follow 36. 

d. Particles, when simple vowels, and ^n 0, as the final of an interjection, remain 
unchanged, as ^ ^5 • indra, ' O, Indra J' 7 d*^ u wmeia, 'O, lord of Uma!' 
^T^t 5^5 aho indra, ' Ho, Indra!' (Pan. 1. 1, 14, 15.) 

Observe — This applies also to the exclamation ^TT d (but not to the d which 
native grammarians call "wi^ drt, and which is used as a preposition before verbs 
and before nouns with the meanings to,' up to,' as far as,' until,' a little'); 
e. g. ^IT «£=(« d mam, ' Ah, indeed ! ' (but d udakdt becomes odakdt, as far as 
water;' d ushna becomes oshna, slightly warm'). 

e. Before initial *3? a the ^n o of *TT go, 'a cow,' remains unchanged and 
optionally cuts off the aj e.g. m^K\go-agram, or mUft^go-gram, 'a multitude 
of cows' (cf. 35. a. b, 36. Obs.). 

Other Exceptions. 

f. The final a or d of a preposition blends with the initial ^ ri of a root into dr 
(not into or); e.g. U ^^ = JTT^ 'to go on;' ^T ^^ = ^7T^ 'to approach;' 
jj ^[Tt = 11x11 'to flow forth;' ^H ^JS£ = ^ir^ 'to obtain' (Pan. vi. 1, 91). 
Compare afe-s. 

g. The final a of a preposition is generally cut off before verbs beginning with 
JJ e or ^ft 0; see 783. ft. Obs. and 783. p. Obs. (Pan. vi. 1, 89, 94). 

Observe — The particle *J^ when it denotes uncertainty is said to have the same 
effect on a preceding final a. 

h. The <fi ■■& which takes the place of the ^T of ^ in the ace. pi. of such words 
as UB^Tf, 'a steer training for the plough,' requires Vriddhi after a, as WBT?^. 

i. The ^ u of fag may remain or be changed to ^v before a vowel, as fag ^TW 
or Hi^'tfi'*^ ' whether said.' 

j. According to S&kalya, a, i, u, ri (short or long), final in a word, may option- 
ally either remain unchanged (but, if long, must be shortened) before a word 
beginning with ^ or follow the usual rule, thus sI3! ^fa: (or even sTSTT ■%?*'. 
' a Brahman who is a Rishi ') may be either s^l ^fat or sraf&, but in no case 
can "930 ^fa: be allowed to remain unchanged. Similarly, T«n <%?* may be 
either Tryrft or W^jfM ' according to the Rishi.' 

So in the case of /or u or ri, final in a word, followed by dissimilar vowels, thus 



30 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWELS — EXCEPTIONS. 

^■gft W5C is either -4sNd or "*^ ^^ the discus armed here.' But com- 
pounded words follow the usual rule, as «T^t ^3i = H^<* ' river-water.' Except 
before words beginning with ri, as in the example '$«ii<l^<tt or gtiiR^q: 
(Benfey's larger Gram. p. 52), and in 'STfu^f^il ' made prosperous by (the power 
of) the sword,' Maha-bh. xvm. log. 

it. The words ^flij 'a cat' and ^ffaf 'the lip,' when used in compounds, may 
optionally cut off a preceding final a; e. g. ^5* "Sfhj is ^eftg or «*JrtuJ; ^TV* 
^ft? is ^IChsr or ^WCnf ' the lower lip ;' (see Pan. vi. i, 94. Vait.); and fiff , «1cb*( > 
may be either f<=fl«h^ or f^3i^ ' a deity.' 

I. So also the sacred syllable ^iw and the preposition ^Tf d may cut off a final a; 
e. g. f^raTT ^if ~HW. = f^rerif «Ftt ' Om ! reverence to Siva ;' f^m ^f^ (Le. WT with 
^f?) = f^ltf? * O S"iva, come ! ' 

m. The following words illustrate the same irregularity : 3('4 ^**| becomes 
5Iojrfg; cC% W^ becomes =*5i*«| 'jujube;' Wisp? ^T becomes rt I grain I 
'plough-handle;' (see Gana Sakandhv-adi to Pan. vi. 1, 94.) 

n. The following compounds are also irregular (see Pan. vi. 1, 89. Vart.): 

■vnsjiTif*^ akshauhini, ' a complete army ' (from aksha Hhinf for vdhint ). 

VT<£ praudha, ' grown up ' (from pra udha). 

JlnJ prauha, 'reflection ' (from pra uha). 

'WK svaira, wft»^ seairin, ' self-willed ' (from sva (ra). 

IJJsTTn sukhdrta, ' affected by joy ' (from sukhn rita). 

TTW prdrna, 'principal debt' (from pra rina). 

«*g«rajt kambaldrna, ' debt of a blanket ' (from kambala rina). 

^«»ni<5 vasmdrna, ' debt of a cloth ' (from vasana rina). 

■=(j«!jt«5 rindrna, ' debt of a debt ' (from rina rina). 

iN praisha, ' an invitation ;' iNl praishya, ' a servant ' (from pra esha). 

The annexed table exhibits the combinations of vowels at one 
view. Supposing a word to end in ■&, and the next word to begin 
with au, the student must carry his eye down the first column 
(headed ' final vowels ') till he comes to u, and then along the top 
horizontal line of 'initial vowels/ till he comes to au. At the 
junction of the perpendicular column under au and the horizontal 
line beginning w, will be the required combination, viz. v au. 



TABLE OF THE COMMONEST CHANGES OF VOWELS. 



81 



re 

B 

a 
re 



•3 



O 
cr 

00 

re 

3 






S 5 £ 

Cr o 

re. «j 

P. S3 



re o> 

8 e 

3 re 

& 3 



o 

B5 



re 
re 



Eh 

P 



re 






o 



p 

09 

™ re 
re pu 

S g. 



o 

3 



» o- 

3 re 
re 
p p 

re us 

I- " 

oo re 
►-. CVi 

"m, 
o >* 
% CR 

=- S3 

re sJ" 

" 8 



























FINAL TOWE 

a or a 


M 


8 

CO 


© 

CO 

S 1 


a. 

CO 


CO w 




■-5 

O 
"i 




8 
O 

8v 




o 




HI 
> 

< 


^* 


CO 


-a 


a 


Co 
















t* 




ON 




o\ 
















oa 


n 


B> 


o 


. a ^ 


a 


t6 




-4 




« 




«« 






« 


# 


VS 


<e. 




















!| 


■+ 




-+ 






OS 




Oi 




-fr- 




w> 


as 


a w 


a 


«* 


a 


a 


Va 




a 




a 




a 








as 


a 


Ov 


a 


a 




■s 




e 




<e 






« 


« 


«s 


«s 
























-+ 
















-|x 






as 


as w 


as 


8s 


8s 


8s 


a^ 




a^ 




a^ 




a^ 








5> 


a 


as 


a 


a 




>i 




« 










<s 


« 


<8 


«« 
































u> 




oa 




OJ 


«a\ 


Oi 


Cb 


N. CO 












•^ 




4^ 




H 




w 






ea. 


«a. 


■s>. 


«*. 


«e. 




m. 




ea* 












as 


a 


.as 


a 


a 




•^ 




« 










<S 


<s 


«cs 


<8 
































Oi 




(M 




OJ 


e*\ 


Oo 


re 


«»S It*- 












4^ 




■£■ 




Ht 




Is) 






**s 


«>s 


**\ 


**s 


«\ 




*»\ 




»*x 












»s 


a 


. a * 


a 


a 




•s 








«8 






« 


<s 


«s 


■as 
































o» 




OS 


s, 


OJ 




Oi 


o 


8 « 












-^ 




M 


-t- 




w 




8 


e 


8 


S 


8 




8 








8 








s>s 


a 


,8v 


a 


a 




~S 








<8 






<s 


e 


«8 


«s 
































Oa 




O0 


8s 


OS 




OS 


© 


8s °> 


; 










+. 




M 


4^ 




N 






s\ 


Ss 


8s 


Ss 


Ss 




Ss 








Ss 








a* 


a 


a» 


a 


a 








<s 




«e 






« 


<s 


«e 


«8 
































w 


•-s 


OS 




OJ 




OJ 


a 


'3.-* 














»*\ 


-1^ 




-IX 




»o 


-i 








•>3 


-5 


•3. 








■2. 




■3. 








a> 


a 


a\ 


.§ 


a 








« 




<« 






cs 


« 


«e 


«s 
































oa 


•■■» 


u> 




w 




OJ 


a 


"*s CO 












»-« 


«*x 


-1^ 




4- 




N 


•* 


»s °° 


"*s 


—J 


~» 


■3, 


■"4 








"» 




•■5 








**^ 


•»\ 


**\ 


««\ 








c«\ 




^>\ 








Rv 


a 


,B> 


.§ 


a 




-i 




<s 




«e 






« 


« 


<«s 


<8 




OS 




Oi 




Oi 




Oi 


a 


re to 












4- 




4- 




4x 




CM 


q«> 


Ct> 


re 


<* 


re 


Cb 




re 




n> 




«> 








S\ 


a 


as 


.§ 


a 




~i 




« 




<« 






§ 


<s 


«5 


«s 




Co 




OJ 




U) 




OJ 


a 


8.S 












-£. 




-IX 




4^ 




OJ 


e*. 




a 


a 


a 


8. 




a 




a 




a 
«?a. 








S\ 


a 


.8* 


.& 


a 




-i 




<s 




«« 






« 


■a 


«s 


«« 




Oi 
4- 




Oi 
4x 




OJ 
4^ 






1 


C 


© 


© 


o 


© 


© 




© 




© 




© 








a> 


a 


as 


.§' 


a 




-s 




<s 




«e 






> <a 


« 


«s 


<« 




OJ 




00 




OJ 




OO 


a 


a m 












4- 




4x 




4- 


a 

8 


Oo 


8 


8 00 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 




a 




a 










s 


s 


S 


s 


s 




8 




8 






1,, 


_- 



32 



EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP CONSONANTS. 



Sect. II.— EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF CONSONANTS. 
39. Before proceeding to the combination of consonants, let the 
letters be again regarded as divided into two grand classes of Hard 
and Soft, as explained at 20. b. 



HARD OB SURD. 


SOFT OB SONANT. 


k kh 






9 


gh 


n 


h 


a d 








6 6h 


J 




J 


Jh 


h 


y 


i i 


e 


ai 


n 


t th 


sh 


h 


4 


4h 


n 


r 


ri ri 






or 


t th 


8 




d 


dh 


n 


I 


Iri Iri 






m 


p ph 






b 


bh 


m 


V 


u u 





au 





40. The stems of nouns and the roots of verbs may end in almost any letter, 
and these final letters (whether single or conjunct) are allowed to remain when the 
crude words stand alone; but complete words, when they stand alone or at the 
end of a sentence, can only, according to the native system, end in one of nine 
consonants (or, including Visarga and the Anusvara substituted for final m, eleven), 
viz. «{f A, <T t, T^t, f(p, ^», II n, *[n, H m, f^ /, Visarga (t), and Anusvara (m); 
and even sterna of words not ending in one of the above eleven letters are liable to 
undergo changes which shall make them so end, before the process of their 
euphonic union with other suffixes and other words in sentences is commenced. 

Panini (vm. 4, 56), however, seems to allow a word ending in one of the soft 
consonants g, d, d, and b, optionally to stand at the end of a sentence or before a 
pause ; e. g. ^T«$ or ^PT, &c. 

41. In this Grammar the soft letters g, d, d, b, the sibilant H *, 
and the semivowel T r will be admitted as possible finals of com- 
plete words standing alone, as well as of stems preparing for 
euphonic combinations ; but the following five preliminary laws 
must be enforced under any circumstances, without reference to 
the initial letters of succeeding words. 



FIVE PRELIMINARY LAWS. 
I. A conjunct quiescent consonant (i. e. a conjunct consonant 
having no vowel after it) is not generally allowed to remain at the 
end of a word, but must be reduced, to a simple one. As a general 
rule this is done by dropping every consonant except the first; 
thus Sarants becomes daran, avets becomes avet, Siklrsh becomes 6ik(r 
(see 1 66. a). 



GENERAL BULES FOR COMBINING CONSONANTS. 33 

Observe, however, that ^ k, ^ t, \ t, \p, when preceded by \r, remain 
conjunct if both elements of these conjunct letters are either radical or substitutes 
for radical letters, e.g. ■Ark, nom. of 4rj, 'strength' (176. h); amdrt, 3rd sing. 
Impf. of rt. mrij (Pan. vm. 2, 24). But in abibhar for abibhart, t is rejected as 
not being radical (see the table at 383 ; cf. (tvtitov for ctwttovt). 

II. An aspirated quiescent consonant is not allowed to remain 
final, but is changed to its corresponding unaspirated letter; 
e. g. fqgf<5^ ditralikh becomes iitralik (see 43) ; ^E ih, however, 
usually becomes ^ t (see under IV. below). 

III. The aspirate ^ h is not allowed to remain final, but is usually 
changed to 7 t (thus lih becomes lit) ; sometimes to ^ i or i^/* 
(see 182, 305, 306). 

IV. Final palatals, as being of the nature of gutturals, are 
generally changed to gutturals ; thus ^r 6 is usually changed to 
3f k, e.g. v&6 becomes vdk (see 176); but ^ 6h becomes Z t (see 
1 7 6 ) J \j is changed to it g (or «(r k) and sometimes to ^ d (or <r t), 
(see 176) f. [Technical grammatical expressions are excepted ; cf. 
50. b.-] 

V. The sibilants ot 6, \sh, if final, are generally changed into 
^ t; sometimes, however, 5^^ becomes o(f k; and v^sh either c(j k or 
Visarga (see 181) J. 

a. The above changes must hold good before all suffixes and terminations of 
nouns and verbs beginning with strong consonants (i. e. all consonants except 
nasals and semivowels), and before Taddhita suffixes beginning with nasals. 

b. But before terminations of nouns and verbs beginning with vowels, and 
generally before weak consonants (i. e. nasals and semivowels), the finals of roots 
and stems remain unchanged (see vdi, 176; va(, 6go), even in opposition to the 
general rule which requires the softening of a hard letter when a soft letter follows. 

GENERAL RULES FOR COMBINATION OF CONSONANTS. 
42. If two hard or two soft unaspirated letters come in contact, 
there is generally no change ; thus 

r<Han IJqii^i vidyut prakdia remains f^^?M=ni^| vidyut-prakdda, ' the brilliance 
of lightning.' 

* So in Arabic s h becomes i t. 

t So in cognate languages ch is often pronounced as k or passes into k. Com 7 
pare archbishop, archangel, church, kirk, &c. Again, nature is pronounced nachure, 
and g in English is often pronounced as j. 

X Compare parochial with parish, and nation pronounced nashun. 



34 GENERAL RULES FOR COMBINING CONSONANTS. 

^3^ tW«m«i kumvd vikdsa remains ^f^chre kumud-vikdsa, ' the blossoming of 

the lotus.' 
'^H- ^JVtTfif drisad adhogati remains 4.^|<{ Vl'lfri drisad-adhogati, 'the descent 

of the rook.' 
fasti + ?J vidyut+su remains fiarg vidyutsu, ' in lightnings ' (loc. case plur.). 

43. If any hard letter (except a sibilant, see 64—66) ends a word 

when any soft initial letter follows, the hard (unless affected by 

some special rule) is changed to its own soft, which must always be 

in the unaspirated form by 41. II. (but see d. below) ; thus 

^fftcTTTT sarit raya becomes ^kjt sarid-raya, 'the current of a river.' 

r«tG|(rt* ir9 Ton titralik (for titralikh, 41. II.) likhita becomes f^^fsrfrrfeTT 

titralig-likhita, ' painted by a painter.' 
«rr* f(4t vdk (for vdi, 41. IV.) denri becomes <4l^<fl vdg-deoi, 'the goddess of 
eloquence;' similarly, ^1^ ^51 vdk isa becomes ^T»ft^r vdg-isa, 'the lord 
of speech.' 
faZ H^ vit (for vish, 41. V.) bhava becomes faSH^ vid-bhava, 'generated by 
filth.' 

a. An option is allowed before nasals, as follows : When two 
words come together, the initial of the second word being a nasal, 
then the final of the first word is usually (though not necessarily) 
changed to the nasal of its own class (see Pan. vm. 4, 45) ; thus 

1t\ "TcPr tat netram becomes rifjd*4 tan netram (or tad netram), ' that eye.' 
"H. tS^*\ "P mulam becomes ^IHHoJH am mulam (or ab mulam), ' water and 

roots.' 
^fo^lJ^Miri* mukha becomes tiRwjo sarin-mukha (or 41 ft. 41 tt sarid-mukha), 
the source of a stream.' 

b. Before maya and mdtra, the nasalization is not optional but 
compulsory; thus 

fai^TT tit maya becomes fH«mj tin-maya, ' formed of intellect.' 
II 1 * *HI vdk (for vd6, 41. IV.) maya becomes =U^f<M vdn-maya, ' full of words.' 
f^J »PI vit (for vish, 41. V.) maya becomes fmimi vin-maya, ' full of filth.' 
TTi^ «ii««i tat mdtram becomes ri «HI d*^ tan-mdtram, ' merely that,' ' an element.' 

c. In the case of roots followed by Krit suffixes there is not usually any change; 
e. g. ^ + W^ thad+man becomes 4i.H*{ ihadman, ' disguise.' 

d. It will be seen from 41. V. a. b. that the general rule 43 applies 
to case-endings of nouns beginning with consonants, but not to 
case-endings beginning with vowels. In the latter case, the final 
consonant attracts the initial vowel, so as to form with it a separate 



SPECIAL RULES FOR COMBINING CONSONANTS. 35 

syllable; thus vdk+bhis becomes vdg-bhis, 'by words;' but in vd6 
+ a, 6 attracts d, thus vd-6d, ' by a speech' (not vdj-a) : sarit + bhis 
= sarid-bhis, ' by rivers ; ' but in sarit + d, t attracts d , thus sari-td, 

'by a river" (not sarid-d). So also samidh + d becomes sami-dhd, 

' by fuel ' (not samid-d). 

e. Similarly, in the case of verbal terminations beginning with 

vowels or with m, v, y, attached to roots ending in hard letters (see 

pat, 597. c ; kship, 635 ; vu6, 650), rule 43 does not apply. 

/. ^ ' six ' (becoming ^ by 41. V.), when followed by the augment n before the 
case-ending <3Tt* dm, becomes 'RWW shan-n-dm, because the final ^ becomes ^ 
and cerebralizes also the inserted n coming in contact with it. Similarly, ^ ^^fif 
becomes •KaifrT shan-navati, ' ninety-six,' and ^ fP\^'. becomes Wt§: shan 
nagaryah, ' six cities. ? Compare 58. b. 

44. If a soft letter ends a word or stem, when any hard initial 
letter follows, the soft is changed to its own hard, which must 
always be in the unaspirated form by 41. II ; thus 
^5^ + ^J kumud-\-su becomes- If $rH kumutsu, loc. pi. of kumnd, a lotus.' 
1 fa^ + ^ samid (for samidh, 41. II.)+sm becomes *tf*TF!| samitsu, loc. pi. of 

samidh, 'fuel.' 
Note — Similarly in Latin, a soft guttural or labial passes into a hard before 
s and tj thus reg-\-si becomes (reksi) rexi, serib-\-si=scripsi, reg-\-tum=(rektum) 
rectum, &c. 

a. With regard to palatals see 41. IV. 

b. Soft letters, which have no corresponding hard, such as the nasals, semi- 
vowels, and ? h, are changed by special rules. 

c. If the final be an aspirated soft letter, and belong to a stem whose initial is 
»T ff or ^ d, ^ d or ^ b, then the aspiration, which is suppressed in the final, is 
transferred back to the initial letter of the stem; as ^ + *| budh+su becomes 
»jrg bhutsu, loc. pi. of budh, ' one who knows ' (177; cf. also duh, 182). Similarly 
^J + TI^ dadh+tas becomes *IW^ dhattas, 'they two place;' and see 306. a, 
299. a. b, 664. 

Note — Greek recognizes a similar principle in Tpe^a), 6p(%o[t.ai ', rpv^>, Bpvnria : 
cf. also 6p%, i. e.8pac-i from the stem t/mjj-. 

CLASSIFICATION OP SPECIAL RULES. 

It is stated at 40, 41, that complete words as wtell as stems 
preparing for combination can only end in certain consonants. Of 
these the most usually occurring final consonants are 1^ t and <* d, 
the nasals ^ n and h m, the dental sibilant ^ s (changed to Tisarga 
by native grammarians), and the semivowel ^ r (also by them changed 

F 3 



36 CHANGES OF FINAL ^ t AND ^ d. 

to Visarga). It will be sufficient, therefore, for all practical purposes 
to give special rules under four heads : 

ist, Changes of final c^and ^. 

and, Changes of the nasals, especially «^ and n. 

3rd, Changes of final q\ 

4th, Changes of final ^. 

CHANGES OF FINAL \ t AND 5 d. 

45. By the general rule (43), final ji t becomes ^ d before soft 
consonants, and before vowels ; as «HjTI gifit marut vdti becomes 
*T^STfir marud vdti, ' the wind blows/ 

a. Certain exceptions are provided for by 41. V. b, 43. d. Hence also stems 
ending in t followed by the suffixes vat, mat, vin, vala do not necessarily change ; 
e.g. vidyut-vat, 'possessed of lightning ;' garut-mat, 'possessed of wings.' 

46. And, by 44, final ^ d generally becomes H t before hard con- 
sonants; as ~%$R T nnT becomes "H^lrHiPT drikat-patana, 'the fall of 
a stone.' 

47. And, by 43. a, final ti t or 5 d may become *{n before n or m. 

Assimilation of final w t or 5 d. 

48. If i^ t or <» d ends a word, when an initial ^ 6, »T j, or e5 / 
follows, then 1^ t or ^ d assimilates with these letters ; thus 

Hmt^rttali^ bhaydt lobhdt 6a becomes >TOTWtaT^ bhaydl lobhdd 6a, 'from fear 

and avarice.' 
«T^ «T1 =1 n* tad jivanam becomes ri -nfl <H*^ taj jfoanam, 'that life.' 

a. A final T^t or ^ d also assimilates with a following ^ 6h or *Hjh, but by 
41. II. the result will then be 6 6h; j jh; thus «n^ fBRf^ becomes riP<s$«ff% ' he 
cuts that ;' T(\ WT> = WSSf^l ' the fish of him.' 

b. Final T{t or <^d assimilates in the same way with Z t, ^ d, and their aspirates; 
thus (T^ZfaiT becomes KjfNiT; U^ 3fcl«, ^1*^; iTt^S^r.:, di§C. 

Observe— The converse does not take place in the contact of complete words ; 
thus ^ K (not ^5) ' those six :' but ^3 + if = ^J ' he praises,' see 325. 
Final il t or <| d may also assimilate with initial T h and UT n. 

49. If T^ t or ^ d ends a word and the next begins with ^r 6 

immediately followed by a vowel, semivowel, or nasal, then t or d is 

changed to ^ 6, and the initial 5^^ is usually changed to ^ ch ; e. g. 

TTf^^f^T tat irutvd becomes ri*^r>fl tad 6hrutvd, ' having heard that ;' but rt^ilHI 
tad frutvd is allowable. 



CHANGES OF FINAL ^ t AND ^ d. 37 

a. Similarly, the change of initial 5T tf to *J dh is optional after a final ^T ; thus 
"Sf i <=«-^i n may either remain so or be written qi«rein ' a hundred speeches.' Again, 
after a final ^ t and \p this rule is said to be optional; but examples are not 
likely to occur: though in Rig-veda in. 33, 1, we have fim^g^ft for fq'lft^ 
51 J5I, the two rivers Vipas and Sfatudri in the Panjab. 

50. I£ jit ends a word, when initial f h follows, the final it t is 
changed to ^ d (by 43), and the initial f h optionally to V dh ; thus 

Krl ^tftr tat harati becomes TOtJK tad dharati, 'he seizes that;' but >T^ "%lfn 
tad harati is allowable. 

a. By a similar rule, and on the same principle, any consonant (except a nasal, 
semivowel, or sibilant) followed by ?, must be softened if hard, and its soft aspi- 
rate optionally substituted for the initial ? ; thus ^TT^i i-VrT vdk harati becomes 
TP^TCfil vdg gharati, ' speech captivates.' 

b. Similarly, ^1^ f^'. ad hrasvah becomes ^raj^t ajjhrasvah, ' a short vowel.' 

Insertion of H t changeable to ^ 6. 

51. When ^ 6h is between two vowels (long or short) in the body 
of a simple word, Tf t changeable by 48. a. to ^ 6 must be inserted 
before "^ 6h; thus root If^ pradh followed by a vowel must be 
written Trat pra66ha (as in xnrat papra66ha, tpaifir, &c. at 631); so 
also f^*+%^ becomes fa^ 'he has cut;' m * + fgRT^= *rf«*«f^ 
'he was cutting' (see Pan. vi. 1, 73, 75). 

Observe — In the case of root murdh there is no insertion of 6 in mitrdhana, &c, 
because dh is not between two vowels. 

a. This insertion of 6 is obligatory when 3 6h is initial, and when 
a previous syllable of any word, either separate or compounded, 
ends in a short vowel ; as, ^?5W ^HTT or fh3«3nn ' the shadow of a 
rock.' 

b. The same is obligatory after the preposition ^n d and the 
particle *TT ma; as 'SIT ^ST becomes ^r*S3 'covered;' so m t\^ 
becomes in fa^ma 66hidat, 'let him not cut' (Pan. vi. 1, 74). 

c. In all other cases after long vowels the insertion of ^ 6 is 
optional; as, ^O^ P TT or ^l!fcsmT 'the shade of a jujube tree;' 
ST fSRfw or ST fia*f% ' she cuts' (Pan. vi. 1, 76). 

d. An augment 7f t may optionally be inserted after final \ t before initial S^s.; 
as, *TZ3nr: or UTRFtT: 'being six' (Pan. vm. 4, 42; 3, 39). 



* t> di is the syllable of reduplication to form the perfect of f$^ dhid (252), and 
^T a the augment to form the imperfect of all verbs (251). 



38 CHANGES OF FINAL NASALS. 

CHANGES OF THE NASALS, ESPECIALLY ^ n. 

52. If the letter sj; n, preceded by a short vowel, ends a word, 
when the next begins with any vowel, the n is doubled ; thus 

^l««^ ^et dsan atra becomes 'SII+MgI dsann atra, ' they were here.' 

ilftH»^ 4H I »1 tasmin udydne becomes nfwgsni tasminn udydne, ' in that garden.* 

a. This applies equally to final T n and UT n; as TTiT^ *fif becomes HN^fn 'he 
goes towards the west ;' *J'H!I ^rftcT = *J'U8f*H ' he is a good calculator ' (see Pan. 
vlir. 3, 32); but these, especially the last, rarely occur as finals. 

b. Technical terms in grammar, such as Un-adi (i. e. a list of suffixes beginning 
with un'), are said to be exceptions to this rule. 

53. If «{ n ends a word, when an initial ^ 6 or yt t or 7 t (or their 
aspirates) follows, a sibilant is inserted between the final and initial 
letter, according to the class of the initial letter ; and the 5^ n then 
passes into the true Anusvara, see 6. d ; e. g. 

«Rfi*T«^+ "P^TT kasmin-\-6it becomes qi l*f* Pa n kasmins&t, 'in a certain person.' 
^iftHJ^ nsi'l asmin taddge becomes ^UttWSl'l asmins taddge, ' in this pool.' 
T^T^ 7|fJ mahdn tartkah becomes T^TTTfp mahdnsh tartkah, a large axe.' 
a. The same holds good before ^ ih (as, ni^ni^^Tn 'he covers them'), and 

before ^1 th, 7 th ; but the two latter are not likely to occur. 

6. If s immediately follows (in a conjunct consonant, as in the word WTfT ' a 

sword-hilt,' there is no change; thus tP^ W?»; remains +ItH^:. 

c. A similar euphonic * is inserted between the prepositions sam, ava, pari, 
prati, and certain words which begin with k, as 4t«SiK sans-kdra, W&ift sans-krita, 
^fkMi iKparish-kdra, nut »<*TXpratish-kdra, &c. (see 70); just as in Latin, between 
the preposition ab and c, &c., e. g. ab-s-condo. Also, between 'Vf ' a male,' and 
a word beginning with a hard consonant, as ewPqipj * a cuckoo,' thus Q^H+'pS: j 
also when 3TTt^ is repeated, e.g. cnnani, or 41 ^l^ 'whom?' 'whom?' 'which 
of them ?' (Pan. vm. 3, 12, but cf. Vopa-deva 11. 35.) 

d. «^« at the end of a root does not require an inserted s before terminations begin- 
ning with tj thus 5^ + fiT han + ti is jffiiT hanti, ' he kills' (but see 57, 57. u . b). 

e. Except, also, HW{ pratdn (nom. of praMm, 179. a); as, JltylnHtfiT 'the 
peaceful man spreads;' K^nf^pftfiT 'the peaceful man collects' (Pan. vm. 3, 7). 

54. The only cases in which «^ n, when originally the final of a word, can pass 
into Anusvara are given above at 53, 53. a; thus in classical Sanskrit combina- 
tions like HI*!, <*Ofrf or HT^ ^^ifif must not be written rri okOfir, iff «lfri . 

55. If ^ n ends a word, when the next begins with 51 &, then 
H n and SI J may be combined in either of the two following ways : 
1st, the final «j n may be changed to palatal s? «,- thus >^» sto 
mahdn Surah may be written H^I^SIU ' a great hero.' 

2ndly, the initial ^ & may be changed to ^ 6h; thus q^s *:. 
a. According to native authorities an augment t, changeable to c (51), may be 



CHANGE OF ^« (NOT FINAL) TO Tff n. 39 

inserted in both cases, thus JfiJT^JT: or TjfRSTC:, but this is rarely done; and in 
practice, both J^and 3^ are sometimes erroneously left unchanged against the rule 
(thus, *1T^ ^C). 

b. Final ^ n may optionally insert an augment «B k when any sibilant begins the 
next word or syllable. Hence TTRJ; W may be either HTf^nT (or HT^OT by 49. o) 
or may remain unchanged. 

c. Similarly, final 5T 11 may insert ^ t, and final 5^ n may insert 1(t before ^s; 
e.g. *J*TO, 'a good reckoner,' is in loc. pi. ^JTtRJ or *T*U!^; and ^ W,, 'he 
being,' may be TO! ; and some say the inserted letters may optionally be aspirated. 
The insertion of iT between a final i^ and initial H is common in the Veda; but 
in later Sanskrit these insertions are not usual. 

56. If !^ n ends a word, when the next begins with c5 I, the n assimilates with 
the I, and the Candra-vindu mark * is placed over the I, substituted for n, to 
denote its nasality ; thus TTSfT^ (^TTTK becomes HHJI^rufif or trgrrgy c5«nfil ' he 
clips the wings;' see 7. Similarly, ei» + Xau/nta = eWa.f/.irw ; con-\-ligo=zcolligo. 

a. Final «^m, before *tj or ^.jh, and ^1 n, is properly written in the palatal 
form »T, but in practice is often allowed to remain unchanged against the rule. 

b. Final *{n, before ^ d, ^ dh, and Vtn, should be written in the cerebral form 1ST. 

c. But final «^», before gutturals, labials, semivowels (except la), and the sibi- 
lants ^ s, tfsk, remains unchanged ; as, TTK^ TO ' those six.' 

57. ^ n as the final of nominal stems is rejected before termina- 
tions and suffixes beginning with consonants; thus vfa^+fa^ 
dhanin + bhis becomes Tifafaq dhanibhis, 'by rich people;' jp^-fr* 
yuvan + tva becomes g^ yuva-tva, ' youth.' Similarly svdmin + vat 
becomes sv&m-vat, 'like a master.' But xvsf^\rdjan-vat is excepted 
in the sense of * having a good king.' (Raghu-v. vi. 23 ; Pan. vin. 
2, 14; cf. also 3^n^ udan-vat, 'the ocean,' Raghu-v. x. 6.) 

a. «^» as the final of a root is rejected before those terminations beginning with 
consonants (excepting nasals and semivowels) which have no indicatory P (see 
307 and 323) ; thus 1^+rtP is ?fstT, but ^+*as is ^?P^, see 654. 

b. Also, when a word ending in «^» is the first (or any but the last) member of 
a compound word, even though the next member of the compound begins with a 
vowel ; e. g. tl^ ^F^ rdjan purusha becomes TT5Tg^ rdja-purusha, ' the king's 
servant;' XX*F{%*$rdjan indra becomes XI^J rdjendra, 'chief of kings;' WlT^ 
^T§H sodmin artham becomes ^nr^^svdmy-artham, 'on the master's account.' 

c. ^ n not final, immediately preceded by a palatal, is changed to the palatal 
form; e.g. VT%+ ^ = 1x51 'prayer,' ^+^ = ^1? 'a sacrifice;' similarly, 
tTsfr ' a queen,' fem. of TT^ ' a king.' 

Change of ^ n (not final) to nr n. 

58. If ^ n (not final, and having immediately after it any vowel, 
or one of the consonants ^ n, * m, A y, \ v) follows any one of the 



40 CHANGE OF ^ n (NOT FINAL) TO *B W. 

three cerebral letters ^ ri (short or long), ^ r, vsh, in the same 
word (samdna-pade), then q; n must be changed to the cerebral ^ n, 
even though any vowel or any of the guttural or labial consonants 
at page 15 (viz. k, kh, g, gh, n, h, and p, ph, b, bh, m, v), or y or 
Anusvdra, either singly or combined together or with any vowel, 
intervene; as in the following examples formed with suffixes or 
terminations: ftpnfcj (635); *fom (152); ^(107); j^ff c causing 
to grow fat ;' ^jf^B ' horned ;' l&m ' devout.' *M|5r1 dMrydni, 
'the wife of an ^carya,' is an exception (Pan. iv. 1, 49. Vart.)*. 

Obs. 1. ^ n final (i. e. followed by Virama) in a word is not so 
changed; e.g. ^TH^, not ^T^ (see 127). 

Obs. a,. In a word like ^tfa, 'they do,' t immediately after n 
prevents the change. Similarly, ^W^ {^7 1 )- 

Obs. 3. This change of a dental to a cerebral letter is called nati in the Prati- 
sakhyas. 

u. The intervention of any of the palatal, cerebral, or dental consonants at 
p. 15, except y (viz. i, th, j, jh, h, s, t, th, d, dh, n, t, th, d, dh, I, s), prevents the 
operation of this rule, as in *Mdl ' worship ;' TR^T ' abandoning ;' jftlsH 'playing;' 
^iihfa ' roads ' (nom. pi. of 3i&J); ig'iidn 'by a jackal' (149). 

The intervention of a labial, conjunct with «^ n, precludes any change in the 
conjugational forms of the verb ^.'to satisfy,' cl. 5. Cjpftfir &c, 618), and in 
those of ^'to shake,' cl. 9. (n«lfii &c, 694); see Pan. vm. 4, 39. In the Veda, 
however, riHUlfri is found. But the intervention of nasals, semivowels, or h, though 
conjunct with the «^, do not prevent cerebralization, as in ^nNJOTT (157); ■*f*-i=*«ui 
inst. c. of ^Ttra^ ' hostile ; ' -U I °*U C of ?TT^ * a stone.' 

Observe — According to Pan. vi. 1, 16, the past pass. part, of vraid, "to cut,' 
and ruj, ' to break,' should be ^S, ^VI. 

b. If two conjunct «^»s follow the letters causing the cerebralization, they each 
become *SJ, as in f%TO vishanna t (54°)- 

c. Even in compound words where ^J, ^£, ^, ^ are in the first member of the 
compound, and "^occurs in the second member, the change to ?!» may sometimes 
take place (especially when the separate ideas inherent in each word are lost sight 
of in a single object denoted), and sometimes is optional. When, however, the 



* The whole rule 58 is thus expressed in the first two Sutras of Panini vm. 4, 
C^Ptf lift T: WR^ I l «4«$ie||4;*JWHH)sfil. The vowel ri is supposed to be 
included in T. , 5? stands for the vowels, diphthongs, y, r, v, and h; T§ for the 
guttural class of consonants ; ij for the labial ; ^T^ for the preposition WT ; ^P* 
for Anusvara. 

t Except a word like HlfVuui^redup. aorist of W^ 'to breathe,' with TJ. 



CHANGE OF ^ n (NOT FINAL) TO ST n. 41 

words do not, so to speak, merge their individuality in a single object, no change 
is generally allowed, but even in these cases it is impossible to lay down a precise 
rule. The following are a few examples : qtHllft 'a village-chief,' ^T?^ 'foremost,' 
<iil«HU 'the Ramayana,' ^lijfara 'a Rhinoceros' ('leather-snouted animal'), 
<a*.*u*i 'having a sharp nose,' but ^3 HI ft) 41 * a whip,' and "^•TfH^ ' a pronoun,' 
««1<0 or *a«S<{l ' the river of heaven/ ^HHT^R ' a plant' (where «jmU1$H might 
be expected), f'l(V.n<{l or fhft'O^ ' a mountain-stream,' ^iq=Hl J[ 'a mango-grove,' 
««S*uH(acc. of ««S«0 'the killer of a Brahman.' Similarly, «[d gWT ace. c. of 
^VK 'the slayer of Vritra,' but ^&8 (where han becomes ghm); Htng; 'the 
whole day;' and in other similar compounds when the first member ends in 
short a, but TOg ' afternoon' (if from TO '3?^;). See Pan. vm. 4, 3, &c. 

d. In a compound, «^n is not generally changed to *!T n, if the first member ends 
in ~^sh, and the next word is formed with a Krit suffix containing ^n, as f«TWT, 
|^TR, ^HITCH (Pan. vm. 4, 35). 

e. If the second member of a compound contain a guttural or be monosyllabic, 
the change of r^n to *!T n is necessary, as in (S'lakifinOT, ?ft=KW!I (Pan. vm. 4, 13), 
te)Ky<U (Pan. vm. 4, 12); but not in compounds with agni, as Sjufrn. 

59. The prepositions ^Pi(\, fH$ (for fir^), trrj, qfc, U, and jj^ (for 
g^) require the change of ^ n to w n in most roots beginning with 
«^ (which in the Dhatu-patha are therefore written with cerebral tr) ; 
e. g. mjtHfit ' he bows,' ^renihlfff ' he leads inside/ f«n§?fo ' he drives 
out,' TCRg^fff ' he drives away,' JTOH ' guidance,' mnPTO ' a guide,' 
QftjOTiJ ' circumference.' 

a. But in the following roots the »^ is never changed, and these roots are there- 
fore written in the Dhatu-patha with dental H^»: «Jil ' to dance,' «T ; 5 'to rejoice,' 
•if 'to roar,' «TtS 'to kill,' H£ 'to dance*,' HIT 'to ask,' HPT'to ask,' H 'to lead.' 

6. In the case of TSI 'to destroy,' the change of «^ into ?!f only takes place, 
when 31 is not changed to H, as IHU^Jlfri, JTftsnprfif, but JTH?, HkHe (Pan. 
vm. 4, 36). 

c. In the case of ^5^ ' to kill,' the change of «^ to 51 takes place except when ^ 
is changed to tl, as in 14^414 ri, H^TH, but unfit (Pan. vm. 4, 24). An option is 
allowed when «^ is followed by * or ^, as in M£f"H or P?ft*T, &c. (Pan. vm. 4, 23). 

d. When the preposition TH intervenes between the above-mentioned prepositions 
and the root, the change of J^into 5T takes place in the following verbs, 1?, H^, 
tfij, V^, HI, H, $fl, jT^, HT, ^T, "?[T, 1 HI, ^,, ^, 3J*, fa, fif|. In most other 
verbs the change is optional, as BrfVffiTHfa or HftlfHHf% (Pan. vm. 4, 17, 18). 

e. After prepositions containing an r, the n of certain suffixes like ana is liable 
to be cerebralized, but in the case of causal stems, and in some other cases, the 

* According to Some the resistance of this root to cerebralization is only when 
it belongs to class 10, and means 'to drop or fall.' 

G 



42 CHANGES OP FJNAL * m. 

change is optional (see Pan. vm. 4, 39-31); e.g. «<*M or d<*l*UU, OTR^or 
JPITW. In TRTJ^T, SHff'iT, TRWT, Tm»PT, JWHT, &c, no change to n is 
allowed (P&n. vm. 4, 32, 34). In the case of root ^ ' to breathe,' the final 
becomes US in UHJT and TO*!I, making Jn%ffl ' he breathes/ and trrjftrfil (Pan. 
vm. 4, 19). The causal aorist allows two cerebral nasals, e. g. HlfrHflTi^; as does 
also the desid. of TO*^, e. g. mifiafiUMfrf. In this way final ^ may be changed 
to ^ at the end of a word, as in TTfl!I, TO*^, formed from rt. an. But this is only 
true of rt. ^. In no other case can final «^ become S^. When r is separated 
from the n of an by more than one letter, no change is allowed, as in VI Mid . 

Changes of final \ m. 

60. li ^ m ends a word, when any one of the consonants k, kh, 
g, gh; 6, th, j, jh ; t, th, d, dh; t, th, d, dh, n; p, ph, b, bh, m 
follows, then n m may pass into Anusvara, or may, before any one 
of those consonants, be changed to its own nasal ; thus ^n^ »imi»i 
griham jagama is written either i[£ »RTT or J^y'llH ' he has gone 
home ;' and nagaram prati either tfnt nfir or ^JKHlfri ' towards the 
city;' but in these cases Anusvara is generally used. So also Tfrf 
preceded by prep, sam becomes either ^Tfa or +H!ilH ' flight ;' *CT T«l 
either fan or *rera 'collection;' *m ^im either ^prra or ^5TPff 'abandon- 
ment;' but in these cases Anusvara is not so usual. 

a. The final H m of a root is changed to 5^ m or It y before suffixes beginning 
with any consonant except y, r, I, s; thus «igr* + fa = »ijy(wi (see 709). So also 
^8JH + ^r| = ^HJ<H* (see 58 ; and Pan. vm. 2, 6g). 

b. Before 31, M, ^, ?, a final H is represented by Anusvara; also generally 
before the semivowels, but see 6. e.f, 7. 

c. With regard to final ^before ? when followed by m, n, y, I, v, see 7. c. 

d. When the next word begins with a vowel, then w m must 
always be written; thus sj^*T ^rpnfk becomes t^H fulfil 'he comes 
home ' (not JJ5 ^mnfir). 

. e. Observe — When «^to or fl m not final is preceded by ^ 6h, the latter becomes 
SI s, as 1T^ + «T = WS ' a question ;' fa^ + «T = faw ' lustre ' (Pan. vi. 4, 19) ; 
tJTTT^ + fl = qnrfSH ' I ask frequently.' 

CHANGES OF FINAL ^ s. 

61. Many cases of nouns and many inflections of verbs end 
in ^ s, which is changeable to 31^ § and ^ sh, and is liable to be 
represented by Visarga (: , i. e. the sign for a hard breathing, see 8), 
or to pass into ^ r (regarded as the corresponding soft letter of the 



CHANGES OF PINAL ^ s. 43 

hard sibilants and Visarga). As these changes will constantly meet the 
student's eye, the following five rules must be carefully studied. 

Observe— In other grammars these rules are designated 'rules for the changes 
of Visarga,' a sibilant not being allowed at the end of a complete word standing 
alone (see 40). 

In the following pages, however, s is preserved as a final, both in declension and 
conjugation, for two reasons : 1st, because it is more easily pronounced than a 
mere breathing; 2ndly, because it keeps in view the resemblance between Sanskrit 
and Greek and Latin terminations. 

6a. Fiest Rule. When does the final sibilant remain un- 

r ejected? — Before \t,^6, and J t, and their aspirates, respectively; 

thus, final ^ s before t, th, remains unchanged ; before 6, 6h, passes 

into the palatal sibilant $r § ; and similarly, before t, th, passes into 

the cerebral sibilant ^ sh. 
\ 

a. Final ^ s is also allowed to remain unchanged before initial ^ s, and to assi- 
milate with initial 3{/ and ^ sh*. More commonly, however, it is in these cases 
represented by Visarga; see 63. 

b. So also, the final ^s of a root must always remain unchanged before the 
terminations si, se; thus 3IT^ + % = 5TIW ; ^ + ^ = g^r; see 304. a. 

c. When an initial J^t is compounded with a sibilant, a preceding final s, instead 
of remaining unchanged, may become Visarga as if before a sibilant ; e. g. ?fc 
W% 'j^iilfi ' Hari grasps the sword-belt.' 

d. For exceptions in as, is, us, see 69. 

63. Second Rule. When does final ^s pass into Visarga (:)? — 
Before gr k, \ p, and their aspirates, and generally (but see 63. a) 
before the three sibilants ^ s, jr k, and ^ sh f. 

a. Before a pause, i. e. at the end of a sentence. 

b. When an initial sibilant is compounded with another hard consonant, the 
preceding final s is often dropped in MSS. ; e. g. l[ft: ^S^fif or iftt oi^fii 
' Hari goes.' 

c. Nouns ending in is or us followed by verbs beginning with h, p, or their 
aspirates, and grammatically connected with these verbs, may optionally substitute 
sh for Visarga ; e. g. ^rfth^tffil or HfV 3vdfil 'he makes ghee ' (Pan. vm. 3, 44). 

* 64. Third Rule. When does final ^ as become o \ — Before all 
soft consonants. 

a. Similarly, before short *% a, which a is then cut off. 
This rule is more properly, but less simply, stated thus. When does final ^s 

* The assimilation of ^ with an initial ^ is rare; but a*) "if? is an example, 
t Examples before initial ^, like ?W^f?, are rare. 

G 2 



44 CHANGES OF FINAL ^ *. 

blend with a preceding a into the vowel o ? Before all soft consonants final ^ s is 
treated as if liquefied into u *. 

I. The names of the worlds (bhuvas, mahas, janas, tapas, &c.) change s to r 
before soft consonants ; e. g. bhuvar-loka, mahar-lota, &c. 
* 65. Fourth Rule. When does final \ s become X. r ? — When 
preceded by any other vowel but ^ « or n a, and before all soft 
letters, consonants or vowels. 

a. Unless t; r itself be the soft letter following, in which case, to 
avoid the conjunction of two r's, final ^ * is dropped, and the vowel 
preceding it (if short) is lengthened. 

The interchangeahleness of s, r, and Visarga is illustrated in some Greek and 
Latin words; e.g.jlos,floriss genus, generis ,• labor for labos ; sex = eg; suavis= 
ylivf, &c. 

v 66. Fifth Rule. When is final ^ s rejected ? — When preceded 
by short ^1 a, before any other vowel except short ^j at. NB. The 
^l a, which then becomes final, opens on the initial vowel without 
coalition f. 

a. When preceded by long "5n a, before any soft letter, consonant 
or vowel. NB. If the initial letter be a vowel, the ^n a, which then 
becomes final, opens on it without coalition. 

b. When preceded by any other vowel but ^ a or ?rr a, before 
the letter r, as noticed at 65. a. 

c. Native grammarians say that final s passes into Visarga, which is then 
changed to yj which y is rejected in accordance with 36, 37. 

The above five rules are illustrated in the following table, in 
which the nominative cases tn^ naras, ' a man ;' <Hiq nards, ' men f 
»rft^ haris, ' the god Vishnu ;' ft>p( ripus, ' an enemy ;' and ^r naus, 
' a ship' — are joined with verbs. 

* That is, it is first changed to r, as at 65, and r is then liquefied into a vowel ; 
just as I is often changed to u in French. The plural of animal is animaux. 

t That is, it blends with a into 0, as in 64 ; and becoming av before any vowel 
but a, the v is rejected by 36. Indian grammarians hold that final s or Visarga 
here becomes y, which would also be rejected by 36. 

J This is one of the three cases in which a hiatus of two vowels is admissible in 
Sanskrit. The three cases are, 1. when final s is rejected from as or as (66); a. when 
a complete word, ending in e, is followed by any other vowel but a (see 36); 
3. when certain dual terminations, ^ (, 'Si H, £ e, are followed by vowels (sec 38). 
In the middle of a word a hiatus is very rare (see 5. b). 



CHANGES OF FINAL ^ 8. 



45 




ST oi 
1 ^ 



63 * 




HI g 



§ s ^ 

Ob "5^ 6s 

1 I I 




<* I 

5 * 2 

■S 5 g» 

m |h 



H3 JS 

s° a. 



I! 
I 



& 



Q> £i> a> Or 




3 
5 

s « 
B S 

CO W 



i 



CT 1 



In 








e, I 4 §> 



a- o & b 






^ a a 



« ^ s 






a 




A 


fa. 


1 


1 


c 


"• 









tb 
a 



s 
a 

-S 




a i 
& 



3 

CD w 

o pi 

B « 

to l-i 



3 



h-« 






W 




cj 


<T> 








fD 




p. 





46 CHANGES OP FINAL ^S. 

$7. There is one common exception to 6%, 63, 64 : q^sas, ' he,' and 
^^ eshas, ' this/ the nominative case masc. of the pronouns tfc[ tad 
and urnr etad (aao, 233), drop the final * before any consonant, hard 
or soft; as, * cu^tfil sa karoti, 'he does;' *r iratfir sa ga66hati, 'he 
goes ;' *»q H^fn eska padati, ' this (man) cooks.' But rules 64. a, 66, 
and 63. a, are observed ; thus, ^tsftj so 'j«, ' he also f Tt am sa eshak, 
' he himself.' Sometimes (but only m<;guir to fill up a verse or suit 
the metre) sa may blend with a following vowel, as w. for fl TO. 

In poetry syas, ' he,' nom. masc. of tyad, may optionally follow the same rule 
(Pan. vi. i, 133). 

Compare Greek for of. Compare also Latin qui for jais, and iWe, iste, ipse, 
for iK«s, iste, ipsus. The reason why sa dispenses with the termination s may be 
that this termination is itself derived from the pronoun sa. 

68. The preceding rules are most frequently applicable to ^s, as 
the final of the cases of nouns and inflexions of verbs ; but they 
come equally into operation in substantives or adjectives, whose stem 
ends in , 3j^ as, ^ is, and ^ us ; thus, by 65, -<4a^ %!$t iakshus 
ikshate becomes ^aOnfri Sakshur ikshate, ' the eye sees ;' and *«ish^4- 
f*T^ iakshus + bhis = ^rf>t^ dakshurbhis, ' by eyes.' Similarly, by 64, 
*T»tH STHlftr manas jdndti becomes JRt aiHifir mano jdndti, ' the mind 
knows ;' and H^ + fn^ manas + bhis = *nftfir^ manobhis, ' by minds.' 

Exceptions in ^r^ as, ^ is, ^ us. 

69. ^T^ as at the end of the first member of a compound word retains its s 
before derivatives of the roots ^ and 3W, and before ^iH, ^Wj THeI, $$ll» =R!ff 
(see Pan. vm. 3, 46); e.g. n»i«stn. "causing light,' ^W4«<iK 'a blacksmith,' 
«(H*«fcTt 'adoration,' fiR4<Mt. ' disrespect *,' MHt*IH 'a lover of milk.' The s is 
also retained in some other compounds, generally when the second member begins 
with "^T, ^5 as, f^OTfif 'lord of day,' qi^wfn 'lord of speech;' similarly also, 
*TT^S<; ' the sun.' Also before the Taddhita suffixes ^H vat, f=P^etn, and ^FS vala; 
e. g. mi«an, W5Tf*s^ ' possessing light.' 

a. Words ending in 3^ is, ^ us, such as ?ftr^, ^ff^, V^, &c, and the 
prefixes fn*^, ^1^, ^TTR^, g^, Hlg*^, when compounded with words beginning 
with ^, Tff, \, IB, change their final ^ into ^ (Pan. vm. 3, 41, 45) ; e. g. ^fcfaM 
' performing a sacrifice,' TfftJWTR ' drinking ghee,' ^T'jKR'C ' a bow-maker,' {•T^H 

* In forms of fiTC^i the retention of ^s is considered optional (Piip. vm. 3, 42) ; 
c. g. frtV*^ or fiTt!«li|. 



CHANGES OP PINAL ^ s. 47 

'removed,' fanfipj 'fruitless,' ^f?r^H 'excluded,' tTlfaEffl 'made evident,' 
|WH ' difficult to be drunk,' Wf^f ff ' made manifest.' 

6. Nouns ending in S^s's, ^«s, before the Taddhita suffixes f^mat, ^\vat, 
fa^mn, ^fW»afa, change the final ^s to ^s/» according to 70; e.g. ^f't^TTT, 
3*H fn **i 1^ * possessing splendour,' V-J 1 *^' armed with a bow.' 

c. Similarly before Taddhita suffixes beginning with 7T t, as tva, tama, tara, 
taya, &c. (see 80), final s of is and us is changed to sh, but the initial t is then 
cerebralized ; thus ^ftfi^+r^ becomes jtftfrfg jyotish-tva, 'brightness.' So 
TUl In hh jy otisk-tama, ' most brilliant.' 

d. Similarly ^, liable to be changed to ^according to 70, is retained before the 
Buffixes ^i, ^f«*l, 'TT^T, and when compounded with the nominal verb cRTnjfiT," 
as, KSres ' splendid,' l^t^i ' glorious,' H^^R^T ' a little milk,' ^fit^^T ' a little 
ghee,' ^«J«««i»*)fTf 'he desires sacrifice' (Pan. vm. 3, 39). 

70. ^ s, not final, if followed by a vowel or by t, th, n, m, y, v, 
or by certain Taddhita suffixes, such as ka, kalpa, &c. (see 69. d), 
passes into ^ sh when preceded by any other vowel but ^T a or ^rc a, 
and when preceded by ejr k, or ^ r, or <5 1; thus ^tf>rj + ^ agni + su 
becomes ^rfaTfj agnishu, ' in fires ;' gr^t + fa karo + si = wiXfa karoshi, 
' thou doest ;' ^r%[ + *J vdk + su = gr^j vdkshu, ' in words ;' fa*rr_ + fa 
bibhar + si = fawft bibharshi, ' thou bearest.' See 69 and 69. a. 

a. An intervening Anusvara or Visarga or sibilant does not pre- 
vent this rule ; e. g. ^ft'ftt, ^^fa, i-fr.^ (or ffa*|), ^ra:*[. 

b. In accordance with this rule, certain roots and their derivatives beginning 
with ^ change their initials to 5 after the prepositions ^fa , 'Sfa, fa, fa, lift, 
JjfiT, ^rfK, 'srg, ^ifiT; thus, ^ifag from ^lf»T and f$, nftfaMfrom Tt\ and fasr, 
P<iUill from fa and ^T ; and the change may even be preserved though the augment 
^T a intervenes, as in ^ifa 3 ^ from fa^ with fa, ^TWren^ from WT with ^fa ; 
and though the reduplicated syllable of the perfect tense intervene, as ^rftljfBT 
(but not always in either case, as ?PTOI^, •wginemj. 

c. Hence roots beginning with s and followed by a vowel or a dental consonant 
are written in the Dhatu-patha as if beginning with sh; e.g. fau^ (for faw), 
g (for H$, ST (for WT), Wl (for ^T); and this applies also to the roots far, 

far^, ^, ^, ^p*., &c. 

d. Certain roots beginning with s resist all change to sit and are therefore always 
written with *; e. g. ^.» "ffi, ^, ^R, W, ^, ^, ?^. In certain roots the 
change is optional, as in W^!, 'S^', &c. 

e. The root 5TW changes its initial to ^ after ^R, as vtqgtfrflT. 

/. In a few roots the change is optional, as tjfTOi^flr or Tlfa^^fiT, f<l*«ji«.fiT 
or faHfitfir J and there are cases where s is retained quite exceptionally, e. g. 

irftstofa, ^fairfaaTT}, trft*ft<s»T. 

g. The root ^1^ as, ' to be,' when it drops initial a, leaves the s liable to be 



48 CHANGES OF PINAL ^ r. 

changed to sh if it be followed by y or a vowel ; e. g. ^fwmr^, 'Sifimfii, fVr^f«if , 
Hlgl^n^, Ul|:^fnT (Pan. viii. 3, 87). 

Even in compounds the initial s of the second member of the compound may be 
affected by rule 70, especially if a single object is denoted, as in the names ?uw 
hari-shena for hari-sena, ^fvfsil yudhi-shthira for yudhi-sthira ; and in ■sii'iB agni- 
shtha for agni-stha, ' a frying-pan.' So also in nf«>is)*i, fsq'qtj, gJ^T, &c 

h. In compounds formed with ?Tt? (rt. Ttf), the initial becomes ^ where ? is 
changed to a cerebral (^, ^, or ^). See 182. e. 

i. The ^ of the suffix WW is not changed, as -^if* «i*nr=p 'to consume by fire.' 

j. Observe — The preposition nis followed by the root tap does not become nish if 
repeated action is denoted; e. g. fn«H,'to melt (gold &c.) repeatedly' (Pan. viii. 
3, 102); otherwise ftfE^. 

CHANGES OF FINAL ^ r. 
71. For purposes of Sandhi nearly all words ending in ^ r may- 
be regarded as ending in ^ s. Most of the cases in which the 
changes of final ^ r differ from those of final ^ * will be found 
below in large type. 

a. Thus, by 63, Hfrt^. "%T& prdtar kdla becomes HTin oRTW prdtah-kdla, ' the time 
of morning;' ^PfTTC ^ antar pura becomes ^fttlfC antah-pura, ' the female apart- 
ments;' and prdtar sndna becomes VJHITBT^ prdtah-sndna, 'morning ablution.' 

b. But r as the final of a stem, or as a radical letter, remains 
unchanged before a sibilant; thus ^ + ^=^f (70); f%n^+fa = 
fwft; *rij^ + 'g = , qjj! (see 203, cf. 62. b); and sometimes before the 
hard letter \p in compounds; as, JrHftk gir-pati, 'lord of speech' 
(also written TfhirfiT, ifNfir); ^rafiT svar-pati, 'lord of heaven' (also 
written ^:tifrr). 

c. After the analogy of 62, HTH^ rj prdtar tu becomes Hlri*^ prdtas tu; and 
VXtt^. ^ prdtar (a becomes UTTO prdta4 6a. 

The transition of r into s before t is exemplified in Latin by gestum from gero, 
ustum from uro, &c. On the other hand, r in the middle of words is preserved 
before t in Sanskrit, as in kartum, &c. 

d. But in opposition to 64 and 66, final ^ ar, unlike ^th as, 
remains unchanged before any soft letter (consonant or vowel); thus 
Jffil^ 'STTSI prdtar dia remains imTO5iT prdtar-dsa, ' morning meal ;' 
g^ TTtfir punar ydti remains ipnfrfrT punar ydti, ' again he goes ;' 
g^ W^punar ukta remains rp^R punar-ukta, ' repeated' (cf. nir-ukta, 
' described/ for nis-ukta, by 65). 

e. After the analogy of 65. a, final or before initial r drops its own r, and 
lengthens the preceding a; as $q^ KQfit punar rakshati becomes ipi T^ftt puna 



CHANGES OF PINAL ^ r. 49 

rakshati, ' again he preserves.' Analogously, iftT^T g{-ratha (i. e. fl^ VH gir ratha), 
' epithet of Brihaspati.* 

/. Analogously to 69. c, ^Ti|^+ (T*T datur+taya becomes ^iJBTl datush-taya, 'the 
aggregate of four.' 

72. Prefixes such as nir and dur must he treated as originally ending in .1; see 
bis, dus, 69. a. 

73- ^ r preceded by a vowel may optionally double a consonant immediately 
following ; thus ftf^ t$H nir day a may be written either f^f nirdaya or ftl^T 
nirddaya, 'merciless;' except ? h and a sibilant followed by a vowel, as in ^§ 
11- b; but karshyate may be written karshshyate. In doubling an aspirated letter, 
the aspiration of the first is rejected, as ^gf (for "^TV). £ h is said to have the 
same effect in doubling a consonant immediately following ; thus brahman may be 
written brahmman; but for the sake of simplicity it is better to avoid doubling in 
both cases, and write always nirdaya and brahman, 

a. The doubling of consonants, when they come in contact with others, is con- 
stantly allowable in Sanskrit, though not usual in practice. Thus, in any con- 
junction of two (or even more) consonants preceded by any vowel, especially if a 
semivowel be the la3t letter in the compound, the first letter, provided it be not 
^ or 'ff, may be doubled (Pan. vm. 4, 47); thus ^J" may be written for *J?T, 133 
for HS^T, ^TfTfoRIT for ^iqiimi, but the more simple form is preferable. 

b. Again, any one of the first four consonants of any class may be doubled 
before the nasal of its own class, and if this takes place the middle consonant is 
called the yama of the preceding} thus in kkniti (Pan. 1. 1, 5) the second k is the 
yama or twin letter. 

c. It should be noted that by Pan. vm. 4, 65, there is an optional rejection of 
one of two homogeneous consonants after any consonant, so that <*Url may be 
written ^ftxH. 

The following table exhibits the more common combinations of 
consonants at one view. In the top line of initial letters the 
aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is a universal 
rule, that whatever change takes place before any consonant, the 
same holds good before its aspirate. 



H 



50 



TABLE OF THE COMMONEST CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 



/H 



CD CD 



1 

*• 



MM 



S 



a. 






-* 


8° 


a 


o 1 *- 


O Bx 


o\ o 




B 


a, 


V5 


^.t 




o\ 


-* 




S: 






M 






Cn 














a 




a 


a 


? a 


P - 




a 


a 


a 


r." 


8° 


s 


ex* 5 " 


onSx a s 


a a 


8 


3 
s 


a. a. 


<Q <Q 


o 


> 




CI 




OS 




* 






" a^ 




a^ 


& 


? ». a. 


«a. a N 


ea 


»x 


eo. ax 


co. a s 


•s>- 


8° 


s 


•a. 


a-. 


a 




S 


n. 


ft- 


^r 


•*• 


o\ -a " 


0\'&< 


CV5M 










►H 




w 


Cm 


Cu 










*• 




ft- 


ft- 


s* 


ft- 




ft- 


S- 


ft- 


■s 


8° 


a 


OS"* 


o\ ax 


o 




S 


a. 


«3 


-*» 




o\ 


o\ 










' IH 






CJ1 




*■ 










«5 




«a 


<Q 


a «q 


<Q 




«a 


<Q 


«a 


*H 


8? 


a 


•a. 


ax 


a 




IS 


CX 


s- 


*-» 


«x 


o\ "*• 


o\ 5x 


o\ »x 




»x 






M 












CO 




00 




<^ 




ex 


<^N 


«x 


o. 




«, 


ex 


<»N 


■*. 


8° 
p 


a 


*». 


o\ a x 


o 




»• 


x*>. 


<a 




i 


C/l 


o\ 






-+ 


4". 

oo 




*«,. 




xo. 


v». 


? «■». 


Va. 




^«. 


V*. 


v*. 


09 


8= 


a 


». 


»\ 






IS 


„. 






CQ 


o\ M 


ON » 




cn 














M 


w 


K» 


CO 








e»*. 




** 


«* 


«* 


"*■ 




e-t. 


** 


** 


-* 


8° 


a 


S' 


a v 


O 




S 


a 


«a 


&, 


• 


a. 


a, 


a* 


a, 




a, 


a 


a. 



8= § 



3 




8 


8 


s 


8 


8 




8 


8 


j> 


s 


8 




8? 
p 


45- 

•a 


C3>"SH 


OvjiJ 


c?J 


8 






•a 






ft- 


i 


8= 
a 


a 


pa. 
*9 


ax 


o 


8 






a 






«5 


o 




o 


O" 


o» 


ex 


C3" 






o 






O 


-S 


8= 

o 


a 


5" 


a> 


o 


S 


6 


a, s 


Co 


* 


§ 




§ 


3 


3 


3 


3 


a 


3 


3 


a 


3 


3 


-i 


8= 
o 


a 


-a 


ax 


o 


8 






a, 






«a 


«S 




vs 


<c£ 


«a 


«s 


<e 






<e 






•a 




8° 


ax 


o\ «*, 


8x 


o 


8 






a, 






va 




o 
























-5 




■** 


? -i 


1 


1 


■» 






-s 






•» 


1 


8° 
o 


a 


^ 


ax 


o 


"^i 




or 


«^ 






<«s 






*** 


*^ 


*•* 


«»^ 


e^j 






**- 






«>« 


■J 


8° 
a 


a 

i 


1 


ax 


o 


8 






a, 






<a 


« 




<3 


<s 


« 


« 


a 






« 






e 



R" -1 



os'S" 



Cm 



69 



ft- 



8° S 



Bx 



8 



° Is 



Cgx, 

a a- 



o > 



a £|~ 

ft-^l" 

a,^»l<» 
S/ 3|to 

3^E 



SANSKRIT ROOTS AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 51 



CHAPTER III. 

ON SANSKRIT ROOTS AND THE FORMATION OF 

NOMINAL STEMS. 

Before treating of the declension of Sanskrit nouns (ndman or 
sanjnd), it is necessary to point out the peculiar method of forming 
the stem from the root. 

74. Every Sanskrit noun (including substantives, adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and numerals) has at least two distinct states prior to the 
formation of the nominative case; viz. 1st, a root (dhdtu); andly, 
a stem (prdtipadika or anga*) formed directly from the root or from 
a modification of the root, generally by the addition of a suffix 
(pratyaya); which stem becomes a complete word (pada) by the 
addition of a case-ending (vibhakti) t. 

a. The root is of such importance in Sanskrit that it should be 
clearly defined before another step is taken. 

A root {dhdtu) is to language what the primitive elements are to 
chemistry ; it is that primitive part of a word which, being incapable 
of grammatical decomposition, is supposed to contain the primary 
meaning antecedent to any addition or modification. When a root 
has been developed in any way by the addition of letters or syllables 
or by internal change it becomes a stem, which again is subject to 
further development by the addition of letters or syllables called 
case-endings or inflexions (vibhakti), whether nominal or verbal. 
Thus ddna and dadd are stems (the former nominal, the latter verbal) 
developed out of the root dd, but ddna and dadd are not fully 



* According to Pan. 1. 4, 13, the term artga is used for the stem when speaking 
of some suffix (pratyaya) or termination which is required to he added to it, 
whereas prdtipadika is a general term for a stem without reference to its suffix. 

t The process of forming a complete word (pada), in the case of nouns, may he 
shewn, as it were algebraically, thus: Root (dhdtu) + Suffix (pratyaya) = Stem 
(prdtipadika); again, Stem (prdtipadika) + Case-ending (vibhakti) = a complete 
word (pada) ; e. g. in the word jan-a-s, a person,' jan is the root, a is the suffix, 
and s is the masculine termination for the nominative case. 

H 2, 



52 



SANSKRIT ROOTS 



developed until they have received terminations or inflexions, when 
they become complete words (pada) ; thus ddna-m, ' a gift ;' dadd-ti, 
'he gives' (cf. Lat. do-nu-m, Gr. Sl-Sco-a-i). 

b. There are in Sanskrit about 2000 roots, and every one of 
these conveys some simple idea, conveniently expressed in English 
by the sign of the infinitive ' to,' as in ad, ' to eat,' though it must 
be noted that the simple root ad only denotes the idea of ' eating,' 
which appears under different modifications in its derivatives (see 
76. a). The following are a few of the commonest roots, with the 
leading idea conveyed by each (omitting 'to'): 



^5 ad, ' eat.' 

?re ar6, 'honour.' 

%T^ as, ' be.' 

^TT^ dp, ' obtain.' 

5*/ go.' 

^ ish, ' wish.' 

oRH ham, ' love.' 

^ kri, ' do.' 

^3 krish, ' draw.' 

■g>»^ kram, ' go.' 

■^t kri, ' buy.' 

■?pr krudh, ' be angry.' 

ftj kshi, ' waste away.' 

ft^ kship, ' throw.' 

^TT khyd, ' relate.' 

t\H gam, 'go.' 

jff $raA, ' seize.' 

UT #fo-a, ' smell.' 

^ tar, ' go.' 

fa <5i, ' collect.' 

fa's dint, ' think.' 

•&$ Shad, ' cover.' 

^[r^jan, ' produce.' 

fsfji, 'conquer.' 

iffajiv, ' live.' 

^\jnd, 'know.' 

ijc( tan, * stretch.' 



K\ tap, ' warm.' 
3^ tac?, ' strike.' 

w^ tyv, ' q uit -' 

^f «?aA, 'burn.' 
^T dd, ' give.' 
fi*^ rfiv, ' shine.' 
f^3l dik, ' point out.' 
^fa^ dip, ' shine.' 
■^Sr^ rfnJ, ' see.' 
?ra rf^w^, ' shine.' 
■5 dru, ' run.' 
fgq dvish, ' hate.' 
VT dhd, 'place.' 
^PS mareo", ' rejoice.' 
tT3T nai, ' perish.' 
ftp? mwrf, ' blame.' 
•ft ni, ' lead .' 
tj^j9«<5, * cook.' 
trt^pat, ' fall.' 
^ pad, ' go.' 
in pd, ' drink.' 
in />a, ' protect.' 
\pu, ' purify.' 
Vftprath, ' ask.' 
7^ bandh, ' bind.' 
■qn^ JwrfA, ' know.' 
■^ Art*, ' speak.' 



»TC^ bhaksh, ' eat.' 
>n bhd, ' shine.' 
fi?^ AAi d, - split.' 
>ft Mi', ' fear.' 
>J^ bhuj, ' enjoy.' 
>J, bhu, ' become.' 
^ bhri, ' bear.' 
»T^ mad, * rejoice.' 
>^ mora, ' think.' 
*TT md, ' measure.' 
g^ mu6, ' liberate.' 
g| muh, ' be foolish.' 
i| mri, * die.' 
'^ y a J> ' sacrifice.' 
•q^ yat, ' strive.' 
*P^ yam, ' restrain.' 
ff[ yd, ' go.' 
3 yu, 'join.' 
f^yaj, 'join.' 
g^ yudh, ' fight.' 
t| rah, ' quit.' 
^ rwA, ' grow.' 
3« faAA, ' obtain.' 
^ vat, ' speak.' 
^ vad, ' speak.' 
^ vas, * dwell.' 
^ t>a/«, ' bear.' 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 



53 



f%^ vid, ' know/ 
f%W viS, ' enter.' 
^ vrit, ' be.' 
^f^ Sans, ' praise,' 
5I^P Sak, ' be able.'' 
$ft Si, 'lie down.' 
Sre Su6, ' grieve.' 
^J>T Subh, ' shine.' 
^J Sru, ' hear.' 
^ sah, ' bear.' 



^itV^sddh, ' complete.' 
1 s Vis ' go-' 
^»^ m}', ' create.' 
^ srip, ' creep.' 
^i^ skand, ' go.' 
*5 sfe, ' praise.' 
^TT sthd, ' stand.' 
^T snd, ' bathe.' 
^3T^ spriS, ' touch.' 
fg? smi, ' smile.' 



SR smri, * remember.' 
^f^ svap, ' sleep.' 
^ swt, ' sound.' 
^ han, ' kill.' 
^ Aas, ' laugh.' 
?T M, ' quit.' 
5 An, ' seize.' 
5^ An'sA, ' be glad.' 
gT^ AZarf, ' be glad.' 
ST hve, ' call.' 



75. A cursory glance at the above list of common roots will serve 
to shew that they are all monosyllabic. In other respects they 
differ. Some consist of a single vowel only ; some begin with one 
or two consonants, and end in a vowel, but none end in either ^r a 
or ^rf au; some begin with a vowel, and end in one or two conso- 
nants ; and some begin and end with one or two consonants, in- 
closing a medial vowel ; so that a root may sometimes consist of 
only one letter, as ^ i, 'to go;' and sometimes of four or more, as 
^B^ skand, ' to move.' Roots consisting of simple letters, such as 
^> $.> ^> fas 3f^» & c -> are probably primitive; and those which 
have compound consonants, such as ^£ &c, are in all likelihood 
developed out of more primitive forms*. Those with cerebral 
letters, such as ^ ' to roll,' have some of them been formed by 
adopting sounds from aboriginal dialects. 

u. The few polysyllabic words recognized as roots have probably resulted from 
a constant habit of joining some particular preposition with some particular mono- 
syllabic root till it has at length come to be regarded as part of the root; e. g. in 
"ifW sangrdm, 'to fight,' ^f^>T^ avadMr, 'to despise,' the prepositions ^\sam 
and ^ra ava have combined thus with the root. A few other polysyllabic roots are 
the result of the constant habit of reduplication; (as, ^ft^T daridrd, to be poor;' 
W[ jdgri, 'to be awake;' •<\<*\*{6akds, 'to shine;' ^^vevi, 'to go,' 'pervade;') 
and a few are derived from nouns ; as, ^TT^ ' to play,' from "^HT. kumdra, a boy.' 
Most of the latter are of the 10th class, and may be regarded as nominal verbs (see 
28S. b). 



* Thus ^Spl i&yut (also written siut), 'to drop,' beginning with three conso- 
nants, was probably merely developed out of rts. dyu, fyut, a sibilant and dental 
having been added (cf. 51, 53, 84. III). 



54 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

b. «^» and ^* at the beginning of a root are liable, according to 58 and 70, to 
be changed to V^n and ^sh. Hence these roots are generally represented in 
Native Grammars as beginning with B^and ^, because the Indian system exhibits 
that form which may occur under any circumstances (see 70. c. d). But in this 
Grammar, the real initials «^ n and ^ s will be retained. 

c. According to Indian grammarians, roots are either uddtta or anuddtta (see 
explanation of accentuation at end of Grammar)'. Uddtta roots take the inserted 
f i in certain tenses (see 391), anuddtta roots reject this inserted rowel (Pan. vn. 
2, 10). Native grammarians attach to roots (either at the beginning or end) 
certain symbolical letters or syllables indicative of peculiarities of conjugation, 
called anubandhas, ' appendages ' (or technically ^ it), which have the uddtta 
accent on the vowel used as an anubandha, to shew that the verb takes the 
Parasmai (243) terminations only (such verbs being then called uddttetdh); or the 
anuddtta, to shew that it takes the Atmane only (such verbs being anuddttetah); or 
the svarita, to shew that it takes both (such verbs being svaritetahy. See Panini 
1. 3, 12. 72. 78. 

The following is a list of Panini's anubandhas (with one or two added by Vopa- 
deva) : 

'3TT indicates that the past participle suffixes (530, 553, called rtishthd in native 
grammars) do not take the inserted i, vn. 2, 16. ^ that a nasal is inserted 

before the last letter of the root in all the tenses; thus nid-i shews that the 
present is ninddmi &c, vn. 1, 58. ^ that the Aorist (or 3rd Pret.) is 

formed in two ways, either with form I (418) or form II (435); thus ghush-ir 
shews that the Aor. is either aghoshisham &c. or aghusham &c, and dris-ir that 
the Aor. is either adrdksham or adarsam. ^ that the past participle (530, 

553) i* formed without i, vu. 3, 14. 7 that the indeclinable participle (555) 

may optionally reject i, while the past part, always rejects it, vu. 2, 56, 
15. ^ that i may optionally be inserted in the general tenses, vu. 2, 

15. ^ that in the Caus. Aor. the radical long vowel must not be shortened, 

vu. 4, 2. ^that the vowel may be either lengthened or shortened in 

the Caus. Aor. «£ that the Aor. takes form II (43s) in the Par., 

111.1,55. ^ that Vriddhi is not admitted in the Aor. Par., vu. 2, 5. W 

that the past pass. part, is formed with na instead of ta, vm. 2, 45. W that 

a root is anuddtta, i. e. that it rejects the inserted i. ^ that a root is inflected 

in the Atm., 1. 3, 12. 5^ that a root is inflected in the Par. and Atm., 

1. 3, 72. TH that the past part, has a present signification, in. 2, 187. 5 

that a noun with the suffix athu may be formed from the root; thus tu-kshu indi- 
cates that kshavathu may be formed from kshu, in. 3, 89. ^ that a noun 
with the suffix trima may be formed from the root ; thus du-kri shews that kri- 
trima may be formed from kri, in. 3, 88. >^that the vowel a must not be 
lengthened in forming the Causal, that in the 3rd sing. Aor. pass, (technically 
called din, 475) and indec. part, of repetition (567, technically named namul) the 
vowel can be optionally lengthened or shortened, and that nouns of agency in a 
(580) can be formed from Causal stems having short radical vowels, vi. 4, 92. 93. 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 55 

94- ^ that a noun may be formed from the root by adding the suffix d 

(80. 1), in. 3, 104. 

76. Since every word in Sanskrit, whether substantive, adjective, 
verb, or adverb, stands in close filial relationship to its root, the 
learner is recommended to commit to memory the commonest roots, 
as given at 74. b. He will thus become master of a large fonily of 
words, which are easily remembered when attention is directed to 
the leading radical idea running through them all. 

a. For example: let him take one of the foregoing roots, budh, 'to know;' 
out of it are developed, 1st, a set of simple substantives 5 2ndly, of simple 
adjectives ; 3rdly, of simple verbs : e. g. bodha or bodhana, ' knowledge ;' buddhi, 

intellect;' bodhaka, 'an informer;' bauddha, 'a Buddhist;' budha, 'wise;' 
buddhimat, 'intellectual;' and the following verbs, bodhati, 'he knows;' budhyate, 

it is known;' bodhayati, 'he informs;' bubhutsate or bubodhishati, 'he wishes to 
know;' bobudhyate, 'he knows well.' And the simple idea contained in the root 
may be endlessly extended by the prefixing of prepositions ; as, prabodha, ' vigi- 
lance ;' prabudhyate, ' he awakes,' &c. 

b. Similarly, from the root man, 'to think,' a vast number of derivatives are 
developed, throughout all of which the leading radical idea is traceable; e. g. 
ma-ta (i. e. man+ta), 'thought,' ' an opinion;' ma-ti (i. e. man+fi), 'mind;' mati- 
mat, mind-possessing ;' man-ana, ' thoughtful ;' man-as, ' mind ;' manas-vin, 
'intelligent;' mand, 'devotion;' mand-yu, 'zealous;' man-ishd, 'reflection;' man{- 
shita, desired;' manishin, wise;' man-u, man;' man-tu, 'an adviser;' man-tri, 

a thinker;' man-tra, a sacred text ;' rnantrin, 'a counsellor;' mantri-tva, 'office 

of a minister;' man-man, 'desire;' manyu, 'courage;' mdna, 'pride;' mdnana, 

honouring;' mdnana, belonging to man,' &c. ; mdnasa, 'mental;' mdnita, 

honoured;' mdnin, proud;' mdnusha, 'human;' mimdnsd (from the Desid. 

stem), investigation;' mimdnsya, 'to be investigated.' 

Similarly, after prefixing prepositions (such as arm, afyhi, ava, ni, prati, ni, sam, 
&c.) to the root, the meaning may be extended and a large number of derivatives 
formed; e.g. from ami-man, to assent:' — anu-mata, 'agreed to;' anu-mati, 
'assent;' anu-manana, f assenting.' From ana-man, • to despiset' — ana-mata, 'des- 
pised;' ana-mati, 'disrespect;' ana-mdna and ana-mdnana, 'dishonour;' ava- 
mdnin, ' holding in contempt ;' avamdnirtd, ' disrespectfulness.' 

77. It has been shewn at 74 that a stem (prdtipadika) is an 
intermediate state between the root and nominative case — the crude 
form of the noun, which serves as a kind of stock out of which its 
eight cases, beginning with the nominative, are made, as it were, to 
grow. In a Greek or Latin dictionary we look for the noun under 
the nominative case ; but in Sanskrit we look for it under its stem. 
Thus, bodha, bodhana, tat, panSan, bhavat are the stems under 



56 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

which the nominative cases bodhas, bodhanam, sas, panSa, bhavdn 
are to be sought. 

The stem is, in truth, no mere useless grammatical invention. 
It is that form of the noun which, with occasional modifications, is 
used in the formation of compound words, and in this respect may 
be regarded as the most general of cases. 4-nd since every Sanskrit 
sentence contains more compound words than simple^ it may even 
be said, that the stem is the form under which the noun most 
usually appears. 

Similarly, Greek and Latin grammarians might hare supposed a root Aey, from 
which was drawn out the nouns Aefi?, Aef/KoV, kiKTO?, KanaXoyvi, eMoyos, 
and the verbs keyai, leaTaKeyco, eWoyea ; so also, a root scrib, from which was 
derived the nouns scriptio, scriptum, scriptor, scjriptura; and the verbs scribo, 
perseribo, ascribo : or a root nau, from which would come nauta, navis, nauticus, 
navalis, navigo, &c. And a stem Aeif< and Aejf/K8 of Aefi-f and kegtKO-s, and 
nam of navi-s; which stem is, in fact, the form used in the formation of com- 
pound words, as in ke%iKO-ypdi(po-s and navi-ger, 

78. It will now be perceived that the consideration of Sanskrit 
nouns must divide itself into two heads ; 1st, the formation of the 
stem ; andly, the inflexion or declension of the. stem ; that is, the 
adaptation of the stem to a common scheme of case^terminations. 

a. In fact, the same system applies both to nouns and verbs. As in verbs 
(see 248) the formation of a verbal stem from a root precedes the subject of verbal 
inflexion or conjugation, so in nouns the method of forming the stem from the 
root precedes declension. 

b. Moreover, nouns, substantive and adjective, are classified into 
separate declensions, according to the finals of their stems, not 
according to the finals of their nominative cases. In Greek and 
Latin grammars a similar system of classification is now adopted. 

c. The final syllable of nominal stems may end in almost any 
letter of the alphabet except ^ n, s^ n, and ^ y. 

Those stems that end in vowels may be conveniently separated 
under four classes, each class containing masc, fem., and neuter 
nouns; the 1st ending in ^ a, ?rr a, and § *; the and in \i; the 
3rd in7«; and the 4th in ^ ri. 

Those that end in consonants may also be arranged under four 
classes ; the 1st, and, and 3rd, ending in ^ t and ^ d, ^ n, and ^ s, 
respectively (compare 44); and the 4th comprising all other final 
consonants. 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 57 

Primary and Secondary Derivatives. 
79. Nominal stems (prdtipadika), formed by means of suffixes 
(pratyaya), are of two kinds : 1. Primary derivatives formed imme- 
diately from a root, or from a modified form of it, by addition of 
a -KWtf-suffix (hence called Krid-anta, ' ending in a Krit-suffi.x,' the 
word Krit being an example of a primary derivative) ; under which 
head are included some participles formed with aniya, tavya, ya 
(which with elima are sometimes called Kritya suffixes); as also 
words formed with Un&di* suffixes. 2. Secondary derivatives, 
formed from the stems of primary derivatives by means of Taddhita 
suffixes, and therefore called secondary (for examples see 80, A. B). 
Observe — It is not intended that the student should commit the following lists 
of suffixes to memory, but he is recommended to note carefully the final letters of 
the stem under each of the eight classes. 

FORMATION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 

80. First Class.' — Stems ending tn^a (m. n,); in ^it a and \ 1 (f.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes — 

Observe — A list of adverbial suffixes will be found at 718-723, and the parti- 
cipial suffixes will be more fully explained 524-582. Feminine suffixes must be 
looked for under their corresponding masculine forms. In the examples which 
follow, the meaning of roots will not be given when they coincide with that of 
their derivatives. Thus when bhsda, 'division,' is said to come from bhid, it is 
implied that the root bhid means 'to divide.' In a few cases the meanings of 
roots are omitted when doubtful. From is written fr. ; Root, rt, 

I. ^T -a, forming, 1st, abstract nouns, generally masculine, after Vjiddhi of a 
medial radical a and Guna (with some exceptions) of a vowel capable of gunation ; 
a final palatal 6 or j being changed to its corresponding guttural i or ^t (cf. 
20. c, 24, 25)} e.g. bheda, m. division,' fr. bhid; veda, m. knowledge,' fr. vid; 

* A list of suffixes 'beginning with the suffix un' (i.e. u, with the indicatory 
letter n), so called from the words kdrit, vdyu, &c. in the first Sutra being formed 
with this suffix. The sense of Unadi derivatives frequently does not agree with 
the meaning of the root, and even when it does, usually receives a special signifi- 
cation ; e. g. kdru, though it involves the general idea of doing, means especially 
'an artizan.' 

f Forms like pada, varja, &c. (from pa6, vrij), generally found at the end of a 
compound, retain the palatal ; e. g. kim-pafa, rasa-varja, &c. 

1 



58 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

bhava, bhdva, m. 'existence,' fr. bhu; bhara, fthdra, m. a load,' fr. bhri, 'to 
bear;' bodha, m. 'knowledge,' fr. budh; jaya, m. 'conquest,' fr. ji; pdka, m. 
'cooking,' fr. pad; yoga, m. 'joining 3 &c, yitga, n, 'a yoke,' fr. yuj; ydga, m. a 
sacrifice,' fr. yaj. 

Forming, 2ndly, other nouns, substantive and adjective, especially nouns of 
-agency (fern, d, sometimes {); e.g. plana, 'what swims,' fr. phi; sarpa, what 
creeps,' fr. srip; deva, 'a god,' fr. die, 'to shine;' dara (fem. i), 'one who goes,? 
fr. 6ar; jana, 'a man/ fr. jan, 'to produce;' ivhha, beautiful,' fr. iubh; Jcara, 

doing,' fr. kri; jaya, 'conquering,' fr. ji; dama, 'subduing,' fr. dam. Cf. Gr. 
forms in o = Sk. a; e. g. Xvkq-s, Xoyo-i, <popp-g, <f>opo-s, "Cyyo-v, epyo-v, &c. : 
Lat. sonu-s, deu-s, vivu-s, &c. Words like lcara, iara, jaya, plava often occur at 
the end of such compounds ; as, bhayan-kara or bhaya-kara (fem. {), fear-causing' 
(see g8o); arin-tdama, 'foe-.taming;' (cf. miro-OafAOS, vefi-dieus, grandi-loquus, 
omni-vorus, &c.) When su, ' well,' and dus, ' ill,' are prefixed to such words, they 
take a Passive gense, as in Greek (576. a); e.g. su-kara (fem. generally i), easy 
to be done;' dush-kara (fem. generally i), ' difficult to be done,' &c. Cf. ev-<f>opo(, 
Ovs-(popoi, tlg-Topo;, &c. 

^TT -d, frequently without change of the radical vowel, forming feminine substan- 
tives (Pan. in. 3, 103-105); e.g. bhidd, 'splitting,' fr. bhid; kshudhd, 'hunger,' 
fr. kshudh; mud J, joy,' fr. wu.d, to rejoipej' spfihd, desire,' fr. sprih; lekhd, 

writing,' fr. likh ; jard, old age,' fr. jri, to grow old:' often added to the 
desiderative stem (Pan. in. 3, 102); e.g. pipdsd, 'thirst,' fr. Desid. of pa, 'to 
drink :' sometimes to the intensive stem ; e. g. lohiyd, determination to cut,' fr. 
Intens. of U, ' to cut.' Cf. Gr. forms in a, t\ ; e. g. <poprd, (pvy^Yj, to/x-ij, 
cnrovo-Yj : Lat. tog-a, mol-.a. 

^-£ forming a large class of feminine nouns, generally corresponding to mascu- 
lines in a (see 123); e. g. gopi, a herdsman's wife' (see Pan. iv. 1, 48); dem, 'a 
goddess;' nadi, a river;' vriki (nom. is), a she-wolf;' sinhi, a lioness;' putri, 

a daughter,' Many of such feminines in d and i are not strictly formed with 
Krit suffixes, being rather derived from masculines, or formed with Taddhita 
suffixes : some words like Indra, ' the god Indra,' have a fem. fprm for the 
goddess ; e. g. Indrdni, ' the wife of Indra.' 

II. ^J3i -,aka (hasting six technical names, ^«^ 5 ^»^, ^«^, H^> JHcf, '<M-«I), 
forming adjectives (fem. akd or ikd) and nouns of agency (see 582. b), after 
Vriddhi of a final vowel and generally of medial a, and Guna of any other vowel ; 
e. g. tdp-aka, ' inflammatory,' fr. tap, ' to burn ;' kdr-aka, ' a doer,' fr. kri ; ndy-aka, 

a leader,' fr. id; nart-aka, 'a dancer,' fr. nrit; sddh-aka (fem. akd or ikd), ' effec- 
tive,' fr. sddh; khan-aka, 'a digger,' fr. khan- 

Observe — The feminine of the agents is usually formed with ikd; e. g. kdrikd, 
ndyikd. 

III. ?Icf -a-tra. See -tra. 

IV. ^PT -ana (having nine technical names, ^J, ^^> 3^> 3"t> ^£> 'JR' 
*\!ft> "3^» 1^)» f 0Ifnlm &> Ist > a lar £ e class °f chiefly neuter substantives after 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 59 

Guna of the root; e. g. nay-ana, n. "the eye,' fr. n{, 'to guide;' Una, n. 'a gift,' 
fr. dds sthdna, n. 'place,' fr. stkd, 'to stand;' &^-«na, ' a mirror,' fr. drip, 'to 
make proud;' ^a^ „. 'collection,' fr. &. vad-ana, 'the mouth,' fr. vad, 'to 
speak;' day-ana, 'a couch,' fr. M, 'to lie down.' 

Forming, 3 ndly, nouns of agency (see 582. c) and adjectives (fem. and or an*); 
as, nart-ana, 'a dancer,' fr. nritj dobh-ana, 'bright,' fr. s'ubh. 
r Observe—The feminine of the agents is in anl Cf. opyavo-v, $pevavo-v, 
IKOMO-S, vi8aivo-t s &c. 

V. ^nfhl -aniyai forming future passive participles (see 570) after Guna of a 
radical vowel liable to gunation; e.g. day-aniya, 'to be collected,' fr. 6i, 'to col- 
lect.' According to Schleicher -aniya is for -ana+ya. 

VI. <3TT -rf. See page 58. 

VII. ^I* -dka (fem. dki), forming a few adjectives and nouns of agency ; e. g. 
jalp-dka, ' chattering,' fr. jalp ; bhiksh-dka, m:, bMksMdM, f. ' a beggar,' fr. bhiksh. 

VIII. ^sn?T -dna (^TTT^r, ^PT5T , ^IT^, ^J^0, forming, 1st, present partici- 
ples Atm. (see 526; cf. -mdna, XXVII); e. g. lih-dna, 'licking,' fr. UK; say-ana, 

lying down,' fr. Hi dinv-dna, 'collecting,' fr. ti-nu, present stem of 6i. 
Forming, 2ndly, perfect participles Atm. (see 554. d); e.g. bubhuj-dna, 'one 
who has bent,' fr. bu-bhuj, perfect stem of bhuj, 'to bend ;' dadrU-dna, ' one who 
has seen/ fr. da-drtf; perfect stem of dris. 

IX. ^T -i-ta, ^K^t -i-tavya. See -ta, -tatiya. 

X. ^* -j>a, ^j5 -«7a. See -ra, -la. 

XI. 3[ -*. See page 58. 

XII. ^ -uka (f 3T^, TsK^i 7^, ^^ST,- ^^), forming a few adjectives 
after Guna or Vriddhi of a radical vowel; e. g. varsh-wka, 'rainy,' fr. vrish; kdm- 
uka, amorous,' fr. kam. 

XIII. "3i3i -lika, fornfing adjectives and nouns of agency from intensive stems ; 
e.g. vdvad+uka, 'talkative,' fr. Intens. of vad, 'to Speak;' ydyaj-uka, 'constantly 
sacrificing,' fr. Intens. of yaj, "to sacrifice.' 

XIV. «;t*( -enya, forming a kind of future passive participle after either guna- 
tion or weakening of the root ; e. g. var-*enya, ' desirable,' fr. mi, ' to choose ;' 
us-enya, to be wished,' fr. vas, 'to wish.' 

XV. 1TC -era, forming a few adjectives and substantives ; e. g. pat-era, ' flying,' 
a bird,' fr. pat, ' to fly ;' muh-era, a fool,' fr. muK. 

XVI. ^ -ka, forming a few words ; e. g. dush-ka, dried up,' fr. sush (see 548); 
dhd-ka, m. 'a receptacle,' fr. dhd, 'to hold.' Cf. Gr. Bvj-kyjX Lat. lo-cu-s, 
pau-cu-s. For the Taddhita suffix -ka, see LVI. 

XVII. K -ta, -i-ta, forming past passive participles (see 530 &c); sometimes 
without change of the root; sometimes with weakening of the root; sometimes 
with rejection of the final nasal of a root ; frequently with insertion of i (which 
takes the place of ay a in Causals and verbs of the 10th class) ; e. g. sru-ta, heard,' 

I a 



60 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

fr. frit; jhd-ta, ' known,' iv.jnd; kri-ta, ' done,' ft. kri; sthi-ta, 'stood/ fr. tthd} 
ga-ta, 'gone,' fr. gam; ta-ta, 'stretched,' ft. tan; pat-i'ta, 'fallen,' ft. pat; grih- 
i-ta, 'seized,' fr. grah (inserted i lengthened); ved-i'ta, 'made known,' fr. Caus. 
of vid. Cf. Gr. k\v-to~$ , yvai-ro-e, ata-TO-; : Lat. da-tu-s, sta'tu-$, (g)no* 
tu-s, he. 

XVIII. iiaT -tavya, -i-tavya, forming future passive participles from the stem 
of the first future (see 569); e.g. kar'tavya, 'to be done,' fr. kri; dd-tavya, 'to 
be given,' fr. Ad; sto-tavya, 'to be praised,' fr. stu; 6het-tavya (for 6hed-tavya), 
'to be cut,' fr. dhid; yok-tavya, 'to be joined,' fr. yuj; pak-tavya, 'to be cooked,' 
fr. pa6; bhav-i'tavya, 'to be become,' fr. bhii; bodhay-i-tavya, "to be made 
known,' fr. Caus. of bhu; grah-4-tavya, 'to be seized,' fr. grah. Cf. Gr. partici- 
pials in -reo-( (for liF-yo-g), as Sg-t«-?, 5e-Teo-f« 

XIX. W 'tya, forming future passive participles after roots ending in short 
vowels (see 572)5 e.g. kri-tya, 'to be done,' fr. kri; i-tya, 'to be gone,' fr. i; 
stU'tya, ' to be praised/ ' laudable/ fr. stu ; bhri'tya, ' to be bome,' fr. bhri. These 
are occasionally used as substantives ; e. g. bhrityd, f. ' maintenance.' 

XX. of -tra ('tra), -a-tra, -i-tra (for the adverbial suffix tra see 720), forming 
{after Guna of a root capable of gunation) nouns denoting some instrument or 
organ, generally neuter ; e. g. sro-tra, n. organ of hearing/ ' ear/ fr. sru; pd-tra, 
n. a drinking-vessel/ fr. pd; vas'tra, n. ' a garment/ fr. vas, ' to Wear ;' 6hat-tra, 
n. 'an umbrella,' fr. {had, to cover;' gd-tra, n. a limb,' fr. gd, to go;' vak-tra, 
n. the mouth/ fr. vad, 'to speak;' ne-tra, n. 'an eye/ fr. ni, 'to lead.' 

A few are masculine and feminine ; e. g. dansh-tra, m. or dansh-trd, f. instru- 
ment of biting,' a tooth,' fr. dans' ; man-tra, m. a holy text,' 'prayer,' fr. man, 
"to reflect/ yd~trd, provisions (for a journey)/ fr, yd, 'to go/ vara*trd, f. in- 
strument of surrounding/ ' a strap/ fr. vri. 

Sometimes i is inserted between the root and suffix ; e.g. khan-i-tr'a, n. 'a spade/ 
fir* khan, 'to dig;' dar~i~tra, n. proceedings,' fr. 6ar, 'to go :' and sometimes tl|e 
present stem is used ; e. g. krinta-tra, n. ' a plough/ fr. krit, ' to cleave 3' pata-tra, 
n. a wing/ ft. pat, 'to fly;' vadha-tra, n. 'a weapon/ fr. vadh, "to kill.' Cf. 
similar Gr. forms in -rpo-v, -8po-v, &c. ; e. g. v/V-t/jo-v, apo-Tpo-v, /SaK-Tpo-v, 
(3a-6po-v, prj-rpa, <f>pa-Tpa, Kotfj.i]-Spa: Lat. ras^tru-m, ros'tru-m, ara~tTu-m, 
plec-tru-m, fulge-tra, &c. 

XXI. rW -tva (for secondary suffix -tva see LXVIII), forming a kind of future 
passive participle (probably an abbreviated form of -tvya, -tavya) after Guna of a 
radical vowel capable of gunation; e. g. kar-tva, 'to be done/ fr. kri; je-tva, 'to 
be conquered/ fr. ji; vak-tva, 'to be spoken,' fr. va6; snd-tva, 'fit for ablutions/ 
fr. snd. 

-tvd, forming indeclinable past participles (see 555), appears to be a kind of 
instrumental case of a suffix tva (see 555. a), and is either added to the root or to 
the same weakened form of the root as the -ta of the past passive participle (see 
XVII); e.g. kri-tvd, 'having done,' fr. kri; sthi-tvd, 'having stood,' fr. sthd; 
uk-tvd, 'having spoken,' fr. vad, 'to speak:' sometimes an » is inserted; e.g. 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. A 61 

vid-i-tvd, 'having known,' fr. vidj likh.4-tvd or lekh-i-tvd, 'having written,' fr. 
JiA/t; dorayi-tvd, 'having stolen,' fr. <<ar, 'to steal.' 

-tvi a Vedic form of -tvd (e.g. ip-ftrf, 'having done'), appears to be for tvyd 
(which is thought to be for tvayd). 

XXII. r3T-%a, a Vedic abbreviated form of -tavya (see XVIII); e. g. Jcri-tvya, 
'able to perform,' 'effectual,' fr. An. 

XXIII. 'q ^^a or -a-i/w, forming some nouns of either gender; e. g. yi-tha, n. 
a herd,' 'flock,' &c., fr. yu, 'to unite;' uk^thU) n. 'praise,' fr. ud, a form of vad, 
to speak ;' tfr-tha, m.n. 'a sacred bathing^pkce,' fr. tri, 'to cross over;' ni-tha, 

m.n. 'guiding,' fr. n{; gam-a-tha, m. 'a traveller,' fr. gam, 'to go;' also ud-atha, 
rav'dtha, 6ap-atha, has'athai 

XXIV. H -na, forming (in place of -ta, q. v.) litany past passive participles (see 
53°^54°); e.g. bhin-na, 'broken,' fr. bhidj bhagwa, 'broken,' fr. lhahj: an-na, 

eaten,' fr. ad; stir-na, ' spread/ fr. stri. 
Forming also a few nouns, generally masculine ; as, yaj-na (57. c), m. ' sacrifice,' 
fr. yajs yctt-na, m. 'effort,' fr. yat; svap-na, m. 'sleep/ fr. soaps ush^a t m.n. 
heat,' fr. ush, ' to burn.' 
Forming also a few feminine nouns in '■nds e.g. Ush-nd, 'heat;' trish-nd, 
thirst,' fr. trkhs ydd-hd($-j. c), ' a request,' fr. ydd. Cf. Gr. vtt-vo-s, aTvy-Vo-f, 
oei'VO-;, arep~vo"v: Lat. som'nws, mag-nu-s, ple-nit's, reg-nu-m, 

XXV. *f -ma (H^T, WJ^), forming adjectives and a few masculine and neuter 
substantives, generally without change of the radical vowel ; e. g, bhi-ma, ' terrible,' 
fr. bh{, 'to fear;' tig*ma, 'sharp,' fr. tij (cf. 80. I); idh-ma, m, 'fuel,' fr. indh, 
'to burn;' ghar-ma, m.'heat,' fr. ghri (after Gu-na) ; dhi-ma, m. ' smoke,' fr. dhus 
yug-ma, n. a pair/ fr. yuj, 'to join.' Cf. Gr. 6ep-ft,o*;, 6v*i*.(i»s, av*e-[AO-s '• 
Lat. fwmu-s, an-i-mu-s. 

XXVI. TC -*m<zra ('WC^), forming a few adjectives and substantives; e.g. 
ghas-mara, ' voracious,' fr. ghas, ' to devour ; ' ad*mara, ' gluttonous,' fr. ad, 
' to eat.' 

XXVII. ftxH -mdna (liable to become mdna), added to the stem of the present 
tense of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes of verbs Primitive, and of verbs 
Causal and Passive (see 526-528) to form present participles Atm., and to the 
stem of the second future tense to form future participles Atm. (see 578); e.g. 
bhara»mdna, bearing,' fr. bhrij kriya-mdna, being made,' fr. Pass, of kri; 
bodkaya^mdna, informing,' fr. Caus. of budh; ddsya-mdna, 'about to give,'fr. 
the stem of the second future of dd. In the Veda mdna is also added (instead of 
dna) to the stem of the perfect, to form perfect participles Atm. ; e. g. sasri-mdna. 
(for sasrdna), fr. sri, to go;' ija*mdna, fr. yaj, 'to sacrifice;' cf. suffix -dna. Cf. 
Gr. <pepo-(i.ivo-s, §i$o-pws, Swao-^ei/o-? : Lat. alu-mnu-s (for alo-meno-s), 
Vertu-mnu-s (for verto-meno-s). 

XXVIII. 1 -ya (^W(., fo^, *fil» 1, Wil), forming future passive participles 
(see 571-576), adjectives, and substantives, generally after Guna or Vriddhi, and 



62 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

sometimes other changes of the root (see 571); e.g..de-ya, to be gathered,' fr. di; 
stav-ya or stdv-ya, 'to be praised,' fr. stu; yog-ya and yoj-ya, 'to be joined,' fr, 
yujj guh-ya and goh-ya, 'to be concealed/ fr. guh. 

Forming also many neuter abstract substantives 3 e. g. vdk-ya, n. speech,' 
fr. vadj bhog-ya, n< 'wealth,' 'corn,' bhoj-ya, n. 'food,' both fr. bhvi, 'to 
enjoy.' 

Forming also feminine substantives in yd; e. g. vid-yd, f. ' knowledge,' fr. vid; 
vraj-yd, f. ' wandering about,' fr. vrajj day -yd, f. ' a couch' (for se-yd), fr. ii, 'to 
lie down ;' cf. jd-yd (i. e. jan-yd), ' a wife ;' 6hd-yd (i. e. dhad-yd), ' shade ;' md-yd 
(i. e. man-yd), 'illusion.' Cf. Gr. ay-10-s {aydj-ya-s), <JTvy~to*s : Lat. gen-iu-s, 
in-gen-iu-m, con-jug-iu-m. 

For the indeclinable participial suffix ya \vfF\j see 555. 

XXIX. T -ra (^r^, t3|f, X, X>\, f^), -a*ra, -i-ra (fifi*^), -u¥a, forming ad- 
jectives, nouns of agency, &c; e.g. dlp-ra, shining,' fr. dip: kship-ra, swift,* 
fr.kship, 'to throw;' vand-ra, ' worshipping,' fr. vandj dhid-ra, pierced,' a hole' 
(neut.), fr. 6hid, "to cut;' aj-ra, m. 'a plain,' aj-i-ra, active,' 'an area' (neut.), 
fr. aj; pat-a-ra, ' flying,' fr. pat : also with i or u inserted ; e. g. dhid-i-ra, m. an 
axe,' dhid-u-ra, 'cutting,' fr. 6hid, 'to cut;' rudh-i-ra, red;' bhid-u-rd, splitting,' 

fragile,' 'a thunderbolt' (neut.}; bhds-ura, 'shining' (=bhds-vara), fr. bhds. 
Cf. Gr. \afMt-po-s, epv6-po-s, ay-po*s, (pav-e-pog '. Lat. rub-er (stem rwbro), 
rubra, ag-er, gna-ru-s, pu-ru-s. 

XXX. 3 -la (ifl, c9w), -a-la, -i-la, -u-la, forming adjectives, &c. = -ra, &c. 
above; e.g. duk-la (=duk-ra), 'white,' fr. dud, 'to shine;' tar-a-la, 'tremulous,' 
ft.tri; an-i-la, wind,' fr. an, to blow;' harsh-u-la, delighted,' fr. hrish. Cf. 
Gr. fuy-dho-s, Sti-ko-g, rpo-^'aXo-g, <pv-Xo-v: Lat. sel-la (for sed4a), trem- 
ulu-s, &c. 

XXXI. ^ -va (iF^, ^«^, ^), forming participles, adjectives, and substantives ; 
e. g. pak-va, cooked,' fr. pad (regarded as a past ffassive participle, see 548) ; 
ad-va, 'a horse,' fr. an assumed rt. ad, 'to be quick;' e-va, 'going,' fr. i; pad-va, 
' a road,' fr. pad, ' to go.' Cf. Gr. lir-vo-s (for ik-F o-f) : Lat. eq-uu-s, ard-uu-s 
(= lirdh-va), ar-vu-m, a-wu-m. 

XXXII. 3T -vara {W^, ^X%, ^tt^, &c), forming adjectives, nouns of 
agency, &c. (fem. generally {); nad-vara (fem. {), perishing,' fr. nad, 'to perish;' 
U-vara, 'a ruler,' fr. id; sthd-vara, 'stationary,' fr. sthd, 'to stand.' After roots 
ending in Bhort vowels or a nasal, t is sometimes inserted; as, i-t-vara, 'going' 
(fem. i), fr. »,■ ji't-vara, 'conquering,' h.jij ga-t-vara, 'going,' fr. gam. 

XXXIII. ^ -sna (3fS), forming a few adjectives; e. g. Uk-slma, ' sharp,' fr. Hji 
dlak-shna, smooth' (said to be fr. dlish). 

XXXIV. Other uncommon suffixes (mostly Unadi, see 79. note) forming primary 
derivatives of this class are, -anga, e. g. tar-anga (according to some rather 
taran-ga), pat-anga; •anda, e.g. kar-an4a, tar-antfaj -ata, e.g. dard-ata, pad-ata, 
yaj-ata ; -anta, e. g. jay-anta, tar-anta, vas-anta ; -any a, e. g. tur-anya, nabh-anya, 
parj-anya ; -apa, e. g. ul-apa, ush-apa, man4-apa ; -abha, e. g. rish-abha, gard-abha, 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 63 

vrish-abha, sar-abha; -ama, e. g. kal-ama, rui-ama, sar-amd; -amba, e. g. kar- 
amba; -asa, e.g. 6am-asa, div-asa, man-asa, vad-asaj -asdna, 'being,' pres. part, 
of as, 'to be,' e.g. mand-asdna, vridh-asdnaj -dnaka, e.g. dhav-dnaka, lav-dnaka; 
-dnaka, e.g. bhay-dnaka, iay-dnaka; idyya, e.g. pan-dyya, panayrdyya, mah^dyya; 
-dra, e. g. ang-dra, tusk-draj -dla, e.g. kap-dla, kat-dla, dash-dlaj -ika, e.g. krish- 
ika, vris'-e-ika; -isha (i. e. itsa), e. g, dm-isha, tav-isha, apyath-ishaj 4ka, e. g. 
an4ka, drii-ika, dartarjka; -4ta, e,g, krip-ita; ira, e.g. gabh^ra, sar-ira, hins- 
ira; -tela, e. g. rij-isha, pur-isha, man-iskd; -utra, e. g. tar-utra, var-utraj -una, 
e. g. ar-una, arj-una, yam-und, varruna; -usha, e. g. nah-usha, pur-usha, man-usha; 
-ukha, e. g. may-tikhqj -utha, e. g. jar-ujha, var-uthaj -ura, e. g. may-ura; -41a, 
e. g. Idrpg-ula; relima, e. g. pa6-elirna, bhjd-elima (576. 6); -ora, e. g. kath-ora, sah- 
oraj -kara, e. g. push-kara, tas-kara; -trima, e. g. kri-trima, pak-trima (Pan. in. 
3, 88); -fhaka, e.g. gd-thaka (perhaps for gdtha-ka); -sa, e. g, drap-sa, vrik-sha, 
ghran-sa. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives. 

Preliminary Observations. 

a. The final vowels of the nominal stems of primary derivatives are liable to 
certain changes before Taddhita suffixes beginning with vowels or y; thus 
(1) a, d, i, { are rejected; e.g. £uS, pure;' iauia, 'purity:' (2) u, 4 are gunated 
into 0, which then becomes avj e. g. fr. Manu comes Mdnav-a, 'a descendant of 
Manu :' (3) and au become av and dv according to the general rules of Sandhi; 
e. g. from go, a cow,' comes gavya, 'relating to cows ;' from nau, ' a ship,' comes 
ndvika and ndvya, belonging to a ship.' 

b. A final n is generally rejected before Taddhita suffixes beginning with con- 
sonants ; and both n and its preceding vowel are sometimes rejected before vowels 
and y; e.g. yuvan, young,' yuva-td or yuvartva, youth;' dtman, self,' dtmya 
and atmiya, ' own,' personal.' There are, however, many exceptions to the latter 
part of this rule; e.g. yauvana, 'youth,' fr. yuvan; rdjanya, 'regal,' fr. rdjan; 
dtmanina fr. dtman. 

c. It wijl be found that Taddhita or secondary suffixes often require Vriddhi of 
the first syllable pf the wprds to which they are added, as in maula, 'radical,' fr. 
mala, 'a root;' sau6a, purity,' fr. £uM, pure.' Similarly, in the case of derivat- 
ives formed from compound words ; e. g. sauhrida, ' friendship,' fr, su-hrid, a 
friend :' sometimes a double Vriddhi takes place, as in sauhdrda, 'friendship,' fr. 
su-hrid j saubhdgya, 'good fortune,' fr. surbhaga, fortunate.' 

d. When the initial consonant of a word is compounded with y or v followed 
by a or d, as VYdghra, ' a tiger,' svara, ' sound,' the y and v are generally resolved 
into iy and uv, thus vndghra and suvara, and then vriddhied, e. g. vaiydghra, 
' relating to a tiger,' sawoara, ' relating to sound ;' so also sva, ' self,' makes sauna, 
* relating to self;' ivari, 'a dog,' sauvana, 'canine.' Similarly, svasti makes 
sauvastika; nydya, naiydyika; sv-aiva, sauvasvi, &c. 



64 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

XXXV. "31 -a (fem. i), after Vriddhi of the first syllable, forming abstract 
nouns, collectives, patronymics, and adjectives expressing some relationship to 
the primitive noun ; e. g. saut'a, n. ' purity,' fr. 4udi, pure ;' sauhrida, n. or sau- 
hdrda, n. 'friendship,' fr. su-hrid (see Preliminary Obs. c); paurusha, n. ' manliness,' 
fr. purusha, ' a man j' saiSava, n, ' childhood,' fr. siiu, ' a child j' kshaitra, n. ' a col- 
lection of fields,' fr. kshetra, 'a field;' Vdsishtha, 'a descendant of Vasishtha;' 
Mdnava, ' a descendant of Manu,' fr, Manu; Vaishnava, ' a worshipper of Vishnu,' 
fr. Vishnu j paurusha, 'manly,' fr. purusha, araanj' saikata, sandy,' fr. sikatd; 
ddrava, 'wooden,' fr. ddru, 'wood* (see Preliminary Obs. a); vaiydkarana, gram- 
matical,' fr. vydkarana, ' grammar ' (see Preliminary Obs. d). 

XXXVI. ^ ,aka (f\, <pF, ^, S^, f»T), generally after Vriddhi of the 
first syllable, forming adjectives (fem. generally/) and substantives (cf. -ika, -ka); 
e.g. aumaka, 'flaxen,' fr. umd, 'flax;' Angaka, 'coming from An-ga;* aushtraka, 

coming from camels,' 'a quantity of camels' (neut.), fr, ushtra, a camel;' 
vdtsaka, n. 'a number of calves,' fr. vatsa, a ca]f.' The fem. of this suffix is 
sometimes ilea, which, however, may be regarded as the fem. of ika. 

XXXVII. ^TT3 -dta, as vdddta, talkative,' fr. vdd, ' speech j' similarly, sringdta 
fr. iringa. 

XXXVIII. xiiifl -dni, forming feminines from maseuline nouns like Indra, 
see Indrdni under -{, page 58. (Observe — Agni, 'fire,' has a fem. form Agndyi, the 
goddess of fire,') 

XXXIX. ^WF[-dyana («fi, ^^R^, TR^T, ^fi^T, ^R 5 ?), forming patronymics, &c, 
after Vriddhi of the first syllable ; e. g. Ndrdyana, ' a name of Vishnu,' fr. nara. 

XL. ^TTcS -dla, as vdddla, ' talkative,' fr. vdd, ' speech.' 

XLI. 3<=B -ika (fem. iki), forming adjectives and a few collective nouns after 
Vriddhi of the first syllable; e.g. dMrmika, religious,' fr. dharma, 'religion;' 
vainavika, ' a flute-player,' fr. vena; Vaidika, ' Vedic,' fr. Veda; dhnika, ' daily,' fr. 
ahan, a day;' naiydyika, 'knowing the Nyaya philosophy,' fr. nydya; dauvdrika, 
a porter,' fr. dvdra; kaiddrika, n. ' a quantity of meadows,' fr. keddra. Cf. Gr. 
voP'.efx-iKO-;, f3a<riX-iK0-( : Lat. bell-im-s, naut-icu*s, &c. 

XLII. ^flf -ita, as phalita, 'having fruit,' fr. phala (the past passive part, of 
phal being phulla, 547. b); rathita, 'furnished with a chariot,' fr. ratha. Observe — 
This may be regarded as a past passive participle suffix added to the stems of 
nominal verbs, cf. -ina below. 

XLIII. ^T -ina {^^), as phalina, 'fruitful,' fr. phala; malma, 'dirty,' fr. 
inula; irmgvta, 'horned,' fr. s"ringa; rathina, 'having a carriage,' fr. ratha. 

XLIV. 3[^fa -ineya, forming a few patronymics after Vriddhi of the first syl- 
lable; e. g. saubhdgineya, the son of an honoured mother,' fr. su-bhagd. 

XLV. 3^1 -iya (fem. d), as agriya, 'foremost,' 'the best part' (neut.), fr. 
agra. 

XLVI. 3[X; -ira (fem. d), as medhira, 'intelligent,' fr. medhd, 'intelligence;' 
rathira, ' going in a carriage,' fr. ratha (cf. -ra, LXXVIII). 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 65 

XLVII. ^«5 -ila (fern, d), as phenila, 'foamy,' fr. plena, ' foam' (cf. -la, LXXX). 

XLVIII. ^B -ishtha (fern, a), forming superlatives, as alpishtha, 'least,' fir, 
alpa, little,' which also uses kanishtha fr. rt. kan (see 192-194). Observe — 
Perhaps this suffix is in most cases rather primary than secondary, being generally 
added to the root or modified root, as urn, 'wide,' forms varishtha fr. vri (see 
-{yas, 86. V). Cf. Gr. [t-ty-iGTo-s, >?&-<OTo-f : Lat. juxta for jug-{i)sta, lit. ' most 
joined.' 

XLIX. ^»T -ina (^T, ^Tj, forming adjectives and substantives, as gramma, 
rustic,' fr. grdma, a village;' kulina, 'of good family,' fr. kulas navina, 'new,' 
fr. nava; adhvanina, a traveller,' fr. adhvan, a road;' anupadind, f. a boot,' fr, 
anupadaj dhina, ' being a day's journey for a horse,' fr. aha. 

L. ^ -(ya, forming adjectives, sometimes after Vriddhi of the first syllable of 
the stem; e.g. svdsriya, a sister's son,' fr. svasri, 'a sister;' bhrdtriya, 'frater- 
nal,' fr. bhrdtri; pdrvatiya or parvatiya, 'mountainous,' fr. parvata; asoiya, 
relating to horses,' a number of horses' (neut.), fr. aha; paraMya (fem. a), 
belonging to another,' fr. para (in this the final of the stem apparently remains 
and k is inserted); saukhiya, pleasurable,' fr. sukha. 

Forming also possessive pronouns, as madiya, tvadiya, &c. (see 231). 

LI. ^ -ira, -ila, only lengthened forms oiira, ila, qq.vv. 

LII. ^T -ura, as dantura, 'having long teeth,' fr. danta. 

LIII. Tc5 -ula, as mdtula, a maternal uncle,' fr. mdtri. 

LIV. '35W -ila, as dantula, 'having teeth,' fr. danta; vdtula, 'rheumatic,' 'a 
whirlwind ' (masc), fr. vdta. 

LV. JUI -eya (fem. {), forming adjectives and substantives after Widdhrof the 
first syllable; e.g. paurusheya, manly,' fr. purusha; dgneya, fiery,' fr. agni; 
ddseya, 'born of a slave-girl,' fr. ddsij maheya, earthen,' fr. maM; jndteya, n. 
'relationship,' fr.jhdti. Cf. Gr. \eovruo-s, AeoWeo-?: Lat. igneu-s, &c. 

LVI. IT -ka, forming adjectives, collective nouns, and nouns expressing diminu- 
tion or depreciation; e.g. Sindhuka, 'belonging to Sindh,' fr. Sindhu; madhuka, 
' sweet,' fr. madhuj rdjaka, n. ' a number of kings ' or ' a petty king ' (m.), fr. 
rdjan; ahaka, 'a hack,' fr. aha, 'a horse.' Sometimes almost redundant, as 
madhyamaka (fem. ikd), 'middlemost,' fr. madhyamaj bhiru-ka, 'timid,' fr. bMru; 
putraka, ' a son ;' bdlaka (fem. ikd), ' young.' For the Krit suffix -ka, see 80. XVI. 

Observe — Some of these may equally be regarded as formed with the suffix 
•■oka, q.v. Cf. also -ika. 

LVII. «B^I kalpa (<*sH<0, regarded by native grammarians as a secondary 
suffix (see Pan. v. 3, 67. 68, &c), denoting ' similitude with inferiority,' or in the 
sense of 'nearly,' 'about;' as, kavi-kalpa, 'a sort of poet;' mrita-kalpa, 'nearly 
dead;' padati-kalpam, 'he cooks fairly well.' See Diet, kalpa. 

LVIII. iHT -tana (fem. /), forming adjectives from adverbs of time; e.g. has- 
tana, 'future,' fr. has, 'to-morrow;' hyas-tana, 'of yesterday,' fr. hyasj prdtas- 
tana, 'belonging to the early morning,' 'early morning' (neut.), fr. prdtar, 'at 

K 



66 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

day-break ;' 'prdk-tana, ' former,' fr. prdk, ' previously ;' other examples are prdhne- 
tana, pratana, nutana, dirantana. Cf. Gr. eir-vje-tavo-s : Lat. cras-tinu-s, diu-tinu-s. 

LIX. TUT -tama (fPTHj, (-tamdm), forming, ist, the superlative degree, &c. (see 
191, 195-197); e.g. puny a-tama, 'most holy' (see 191); u66ais-tama, very lofty,' 
fr. uddais. Sometimes added to pronominal stems (see 236). Cf. -tara, -ma .- Lat. 
op-timu-s, ul-timu-s, &c. 

Forming, 2ndly, ordinals (rCT?) ; e. g. viniati-tama (fem. {), ' twentieth,' fr. 
vinsati, 'twenty' (see 21 1-2 13). 

Tamdm, derived from the first, is added adverbially; e.g. uddais-tamdm, ex- 
ceedingly high ;' vadati-tamdm, ' he talks incessantly.' * 

LX. rfll -taya, forming adjectives (fem. {) and neuter substantives from nume- 
rals ; e. g. tri-taya, ' consisting of three,' ' a collection of three ' (neut.); catush- 
■taya, 'four-fold,' 'a collection of four,' &c. (neut.), fr. datur, four' (see 214). 

LXI. 7R -tara (TnTjJ, forming the comparative degree (see 191, 195-197, 236); 
e. g. punya-tara, more holy;' uddais-tara, higher,' fr. uddais, aloft.' Sometimes 
added to pronominal stems (see 236). Cf. -tama: Gr. yXvKv-repo-;, jtxeAav- 
Ttpo-s. 

Tardm, derived from -tara, is added adverbially ; e. g. uddais-tardm, ' in a higher 
degree' (cf. bahu-tardm); vadati-tardm, he speaks more (than he ought).' 

LXII. TfT -td (= -tva below), forming feminine abstract substantives from 
stems of nouns or adjectives ; e. g. bahu-td, ' multitude,' fr. bahu, many ;' 
prithu-td, breadth,' fr. prithu, broad;' yuva-td, youthfulness,' youth,' fr. 
yuvan, young;' purusha-td, manliness,' fr. purusha, 'a man;' deva-td, 'a 
divinity.' Cf. Lat. juven-ta, senec-ta, vindic-ta. 

LXIII. nTT -titha (fem. {), forming ordinal adjectives, &c. ; e. g. bahu-titha, 
manifold,' fr. bahu: tdvatitha, 'the so-manieth,' fr. tdvat. 

LXIV. fftl -tiya (fem. a), forming ordinals ; e. g. dvi-Hya, ' second ;' tri-tiya, 
'third' (see 208). 

LXV. (jf -tea, forming adjectives ; e.g. (ira-tna, 'old,' 'ancient,' fr. dira, long;' 
other examples are nutna, pratna. Cf. -tana above. 

LXVI. TT -tya (rf^, W^>), forming a few adjectives; e.g. tatra-tya, 'being 
there,' fr. tatra; iha-tya, being here,' fr. iha. Sometimes with Vriddhi of first 
syllable ; e. g. pdsddt-tya, ' subsequent,' fr. pas'ddt, ' behind.' Similarly, ddkshind- 
tya fr. dakshiijd; pauras-tya fr. puras. 

LXVII. JjfT -trd, forming a few feminine collective nouns ; e. g. go-trd, ' a herd 
of cattle,' fr. go. For the adverbial suffixes -tra, -trd, see 720. 

LXVIII. r? -tva (= -td above, q. v.), forming neuter abstract nouns ; e. g. 
bahu-tva, yuva-tva, prithu-tva, deva-tva, &c. 

LXIX. PT«T -tvana (= -tva), Vedic, forming neuter abstract nouns ; e. g. mahi- 
tvana, 'greatness,' fr. mahi or mahin, 'great' (Vedic); sakhi-tvana, 'friendship,' 
fr. sakhi, 'a friend;' vasu-tvana, wealth,' fr. vasu, 'rich.' 

LXX. ^ff daghna (^U^), regarded (like dvayasa and mdtra) as a secondary 



AND THE FOKMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 67 

suffix (Pan. v. 2, 37), denoting ' height,' ' measure,' &c. ; e. g. uru-daghna (fem. {), 
reaching to the thighs.' 

LXXI. %^fhT desiya (^fl<^), regarded (like kalpa, q. v.) as a secondary suffix 
(Pan. v. 3, 67), denoting 'about,' 'nearly;' e. g. patu-deMya, 'tolerably clever.' 

LXXII. -^m dvayasa (SUH-i), denoting 'height,' 'measure,' &e. (see daghna 
above); e. g. uru-dvayasa (fem. {), 'reaching to the thighs.' 

LXXIII. »T -na (rf, "T^), forming adjectives and substantives, sometimes after 
Vriddhi of the first syllable ; e. g. purd-na (fem. a or {), ' old,' fr. purd, ' formerly ;' 
pra-na, 'old,' fr. praj paunsna (fem. {), 'virile,' 'manhood' (neut.), fr. puns, 
'a man;' straina (fem. i), 'womanly,' 'womanhood' (neut.), fr. stri. 

LXXIV. M -ma (probably an old superlative suffix, cf. -tama, -ra), forming 
ordinals and other adjectives; e.g. panda-ma, 'fifth;' sapta-ma, 'seventh' (see 
209); madhya-ma, ' middlemost,' fr. madhya, 'middle;' ava-ma, 'undermost,' fr. 
am, 'away;' para-ma, 'furthest,.' fr. para, 'beyond.' Cf. Gr. {fibo-pos : Lat. 
septi-mu-s, pri-mu-s, infi-mu-s, sum-mu-s, &c. 

LXXV. *m -may a (*HI?), forming adjectives (fem. i) denoting ' made of,' 'con- 
sisting of;' e.g. loha-maya, 'made of metal,' 'iron,' fr. loha, 'metal;' tejo-maya, 
'full of light,' fr. tejas, 'lustre;' buddhi-maya, 'intellectual.' 

LXXVI. HT3 mdtra (*ITW^), added to words to denote 'measure,' 'height,' 
&c. (cf. daghna, dvayasa); e. g. yava-mdtra (fem. i), ' of the size of a barleycorn ;' 
uru-mdtra, 'up to the thighs.' See mdtra in Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 
' LXXVII. II -ya (rp{, V, 3^, V\, *^, TOT, 3SP&, Zjpff, HW, ^, 5?^, TPtiJ, 
1^> 1^, 5 ^), forming adjectives, patronymics, and neuter abstract substantives, 
generally after changes similar to those required by secondary suffixes beginning 
with vowels (see Prelim. Obs. a. b. at 80. B); e. g. dhanya, 'wealthy,' fr. dhana, 
wealth ;' rdhasya (fem. d), ' secret,' 'a secret' (neut.), fr. rahas, ' secrecy ;' pitrya, 
'fatherly,' fr.pitri; ritavya, seasonable,' fr. ritu; frequently after Vriddhi of the 
first syllable, e. g. saumya (fem. a or mi), 'lunar,' fr. soma, 'the moon;' mddhur- 
ya, n. sweetness,' fr. madhura, 'sweet;' iaur-ya, n. 'theft,' fr. 6ora, 'a thief;' 
sauhrid-ya, n. 'friendship,' fr. su-hrid, 'a friend;' saubhdg-ya, n. ' good fortune,' 
fr. su-bhaga (see Prelim. Obs. c); svdm-ya, lordship,' fr. svdminj vaiydghrya, n. 
' the state of a tiger,' fr. vydghra. Sometimes the nasal and preceding vowel are not 
rejected; e.g. brahman-ya (fem. d), relating to Brahman;' rdjaru-ya, 'regal,' fr. 
rdjan (see Prelim. Obs. b. d). Cf. Gr. "tdrp-io-g, irarp-la, o-torqp-io-s, auTVjp-iot: 
Lat. patr-iu-s, patr-ia, nefar-iu-s, &c. (cf. the primary suffix -ya, 80. XXVIII). 

LXXVIII. ^ -ra (probably an old comparative suffix, cf. -tara, -ma), forming a 
few adjectives (fem. d); e.g. madhu-ra, sweet,' fr. madhu; asma-ra, stony,' fr. 
asman; ava-ra, 'inferior,' fr. ava, down;' apa-ra, 'posterior,' fr. apa, away.' 
Cf. Lat. sup-eru-s, sup-erj inf-eru-s, inf-er. 

LXXIX. ^l rupa (hNHj, regarded as a secondary suffix giving the sense 
' composed of,' ' consisting of,' ' full of,' &c, and sometimes almost redundant ; 
e. g. jsatya-rupam vdkyam, ' a speech full of truth,' or simply ' a true speech ;' drya- 

K % 



68 SANSKRIT EOOTS 

rtipa, 'respectable.' Sometimes giving the sense 'good,' 'well,' and even used 
with verbs adverbially ; e. g. patu-rdpa, ' very clever ;' vaiydkarana-r4pa, a good 
grammarian;' padati-rdpam, he cooks well' (Pan. v. 3, 66). 

LXXX. <5 -la (fem. d), forming a few adjectives (cf. -i-la); e.g. iri-la, 'fortu- 
nate,' fr. iri; pdnfa-la, ' dusty,' fr. panfaj phena-la, ' foamy,' fr. phena. 

LXXXI. ^ -va (probably for -vat, 84. VII), as kefa-va, ' hairy,' fr. kefa. 

LXXXII. ^c3 -vala (^T?5^, ic8-«l), forming a few adjectives (fem. d) and sub- 
stantives; e. g. tirjas-vala, 'strong,' fr. urjas; iikhd-vala, crested,' a peacock' 
(masc), fr. iikhd, ' a crest ;' dantd-vala, m. ' an elephant,' fr. danta, a tooth.' 

LXXXIII. ^ -vya (*TiI> *l«0, as pitri-vya, 'a paternal uncle,' fr. pitri, a 
father.' Cf. Gr. itaip-vio-i : Lat. patr-uu-s. 

LXXXI V. ^T -fa, forming a few adjectives (fem. d) and substantives ; e. g. 
loma-fa, 'hairy,' 'a sheep' (masc), a fox' {d, fem.), fr. loman, 'hair.' 

LXXXV. T{ -sa, forming a few adjectives, sometimes with Vriddhi ; e. g. trina- 
sa, ' grassy,' fr. trina; trdpusha, ' made of tin,' fr. trapu, 'tin.' 

81. Second Class. — Stems ending in ^i (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes — 

I. ^ -i, forming abstract nouns, nouns of agency of all genders, and adjectives 
(With occasional Guna or Vriddhi of the radical vowel); e. g. kavi, m. 'a poet,' fr. 
ku; ahi, m. 'a snake' (e%'f, anguis), fr. anh; dhvani, m. 'sound,' fr. dhvan; 
yaj-i, m. a worshipper,' fr. yajj pesh-i, m. 'a thunderbolt,' fr. pish, 'to crush;' 
tvish-i, f. ' splendour,' fr. tvish, ' to shine ;' sad-i, f. ' friendship,' fr. sad; krish-i, f. 
'ploughing,' fr. krish; lip-i, f. a writing,' fr. lip, 'to smear;' dhid-i, f. 'an axe,' 
fr. dhid, 'to cut;' vdr-i, n. water,' fr. vri, 'to surround;' aksh-i, n. 'an eye,' 
fr. aksh ; fad-i, pure,' fr. fad, ' to be pure ; ' bodh-i, ' knowing,' fr. budh. 
Sometimes with reduplication; e.g. jagm-i, 'quick,' fr. gam, 'to go;' jaghn-i, 
' slaying,' fr. han. Cf. Gr. iro\t-{, §uvafu-f, Gravis, oipi-f, &c. : Lat. ovi-s, 
trudi-s, Sec. 

Often added to dhd, to hold,' after various prepositions and prefixes, to form 
masculine nouns, the final of the root being dropped; e. g. ni-dhi, m., vi-dhi, m., 
sati-dhi, m. ; one or two are exceptionally fem. (e. g. oshadhi). 

II. fit -ti (cf. -ni), forming feminine abstract nouns and a few masculines, and 
closely related to the -ta of the past pass. part, at 80. XVII, being added with 
Similar changes (except that i is rarely inserted); e.g. fru-ti, f. 'hearing,' fr. sni; 
bM-ti, f. 'existence,' fr. bM; sthi-ti, f. 'state,' fr. sthd; matt, f. 'mind,' fr. man; 
uk-ti, f. 'speech,' fr. vad, 'to speak;' pHr-ti, 'fulness,' fr. prt, 'to fill;' dat-ti, f. 
' a gift,' fr. dd: bhit-ti, f. ' a fragment,' fr. bhid, ' to split ' (but past part.- bhin-na) ; 
dhit-ti, f. 'splitting,' fr. dhid (but past part, dhin-na); vfid-dhi (i.e. vridh + ti), f. 
'increase,' fr. vridh; yati, m. 'a sage,' fr. yam, 'to restrain ;' jndti, m. 'a relation,' 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 69 

fr. jndj pati, m. ' a husband ' (for pdti), fr. pd, ' to protect.' Cf. Gr. u.vj-ti-; , 
4>a-n-(, <f>a.-ai-s, pdv-n-f, ito-ai-g: Lat. ves-ti-s, mes-si-s (for met-ti-s), mors 
(stem mor-ti), po-ti-s, com-pos (stem com-po-ti). 

III. T«T -ni, forming feminine abstract nouns (in many respects analogous to 
those formed with -ti, so that when the past passive participle ends in -na, q.v., a 
noun may generally be formed with -ni), also a few masculines and adjectives ; 
as, gld-ni, f. weariness,' fr. glai, ' to be languid ;' U-ni, f. ' cutting,' fr. U; jir-ni, 
f. ' old age,' fr. jri, ' to grow old ;' hd-ni, f. ' loss,' fr. hd (but past part. Una) ; 
agni, m. fire,' fr. ang or ahjj vah-ni, m. 'fire,' fr. vah, 'to bear;' vrish-ni, 

raining,' 'a ram' (m.), fr. vrish, Cf. Gr. [A.y-vt-f, and-vi-; : Lat. ig-ni-s (=Sk. 
ag-ni-s), pa-ni-s. 

IV. \k -mi, as bM-mi, f. 'the earth,' fr. bhu, 'to be;' dal-mi, m. 'Indra's 
thunderbolt,' fr. dal; ur-mi,m,f. a wave' (perhaps fr. vri); ras-mi, m. a ray' 
(perhaps fr. ras for las). Cf. Gr. (py-fti-i : Lat. ver-mi-s. 

V. ft -ri, as in a^/j-n, angh-ri, ai-ri, vank-ri, vadh-ri. Cf. Gr. i o-pi-$, 

VI. fa -j)j, as in ghrish-vi, j{r-vi, sir-vi, jdgri-vi, dddhri-vi. 

VII. TH -si, as in dhd-si, pluk-shi, duk-shi. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 

derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes. 

(See Prelim. Obs. at 80. B.) 

VIII. "afifi -aki, forming a few patronymics after Vriddhi of the first syllable ; 
e. g. Vaiydsaki, ' a descendant of Vyasa.' 

IX. ^mPtf -dyani, forming patronymics ; e. g. vdsindyani fr. vdsin (Pan. vi. 
4, 174)- 

X. ^ -i, forming patronymics after Vriddhi of the first syllable; e. g. Daushyanti, 
'the son of Dushyanta;' so Ddiarathi, 'a descendant of Das'a-ratha;' Sauvahi 
fr. Sv-asva. 

XI. TTTfiT -tdti (= -td), forming Vedic abstract substantives ; e. g. deva-tdti, f. 
'divinity,' fr. devas vasu-tdti, f. 'wealth,' fr. vasu; sarva-tdti, f. entirety,' fr. 
sarva, 'all.' Cf. Gr. <f>t\c-Tys (i.e. (piXo-Tyr-;), Kcrno-Tys (KaKO-TVjT-Of) : Lat. 
civi-tas (stem civi-tdt- or civi-tdti-), celeri-tas (stem celeri-tdti-), vetus-tas, &c. 

XII. fK -ti, as in yuva-ti, ' a young woman,' fern, of yuvan (Pan. iv. 1, 77). 

83. Third Class. — Sterns ending in 3 u (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes — 

I. ^SPJ -athu (tS'IJ'M), after Guna of a radical vowel; e. g. kshay-athu, m. ' con- 
sumption,' fr. kshi, ' to waste away ;' hay-athu, m. ' swelling,' fr. his also vep- 
athu, vam-athu. 

II. ^TTJl -dtu, as jiv-dtu; m. f. n. ' life,' &c, fr. jfe, ' to live.' 



70 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

III. ^n^ -dm, as iar-dru, 'hurtful,' fr. M, 'to injure;' vand-dru, 'polite,' fr. 
vand, 'to praise.' 

IV. 'OTcg -din (= -dru above), as i&y-dlu, ' sleepy,' fr. £i, ' to lie down;' sprihay- 
dlu, desirous,' fr. sprih (ioth class), to desire.' 

V. ^S( -itnu, forming adjectives &c. from verbal stems of the ioth class ; e. g. 
gaday-itnu, 'talkative,' fr. gad, 'to speak j' stanay-itnu, m. 'thunder,' fr. start, 
'to sound.' 

VI. ^HJJ -ishnu (i.e. i-snu) =snu, as ksay-ishnu, 'perishing,' fr. kshi; bhav- 
ishnu = bhu-shrj.il, becoming,' fr. bhu. 

VII. 7 -u (^f , ^, 7, 3^, ^W, SHIT ), forming adjectives (fem. us or vi) and a 
few nouns, the radical vowel generally undergoing change ; e. g. prith-u, broad,' 
fr. prath, 'to extend;' mrid-u, 'mild,' fr. mrid, 'to crush;' svdd-u, sweet,' fr. 
svad or svddj lagh-u, 'light,' fr. langh, 'to spring;' tan-u, 'thin,' fr. tan, 'to 
stretch;' ds'-u, 'swift;' bandh-u, m. 'a kinsman,' fr. bandh, to bind;' bhid-u, m. 
' a thunderbolt,' fr. bhid, ' to cleave ;' kdr-u, m. ' an artisan,' fr. kri, ' to make ;' 
tan-u, f. 'the body,' fr. tanj ddr-u, n. 'timber,' fr. drC, 'to split;' madh-u, n. 
'honey.' Cf. Gr. wk-v-(, vfi-v-s, ii\a,f-v-s : Lat. ac-u-s, id-u-s, sudv-i-s (for 

SMfldK-i-s). 

Forming also desiderative adjectives (sometimes governing an accusative, see 
824) from desiderative stems ; e. g. jigamish-u, ' desirous of going,' fr. jigamisha, 
desiderative stem of gam, 'to go:' similarly, didrikshu, 'anxious to see;' jigwhu, 
'striving to conquer.' 

VIII. ^ - tu (l> 3*0> forming nouns of agency &c, generally masculine; e. g. 
gan-tu, m. a wayfarer,' fr. gam, 'to go;' yd-tu, a goer,' &c, 'time,' fr. yd, to 
go;' bhd-tu, m. the sun,' fr. bhd, 'to shine' (cf. bhd-nu); jan-tu, m. a creature,' 
fr. jam ri-tu, m. a season,' fr. ri, to go ;' vas-tu, n. an object,' also vds-tu, m.n. 
' building-ground,' fr. vas, ' to dwell.' Cf. Gr. fioy-Tv-g, eftvj-TV-s, aa-rv (for 
Fav-rv) : Lat. sta-tu-s, vic-tu-s, cur-su-s (for cur-tu-s). 

Observe — The accusative of this suffix is used to form the infinitive; e.g. ydtum, 
'to go : ' and in the Rig- veda other cases, as the dative, genitive, are used as in- 
finitives ; e. g. ydtave, ydtavai, ydtos (see 458, 459). 

IX. «J -nu (35, t|), as gridh-nu, ' eager,' ' greedy,' fr. gridh, ' to covet ;' tras-nu, 
' timid,' fr. tras, to tremble ;' su-nu, m. a son,' su-nu or sti-mi, f. a daughter,' 
fr. su, 'to bring forth;' bhd-nu, m. 'the sun,' fr. bhd; dhe-nu, f. 'a milk-cow,' fr. 
dhe, 'to suck.' Cf. Gr. Opy-vv-s, \iy-vv-s. 

X. ^ ~y u ' as &Mdh-yu, 'bright,' 'fire' (m.), fr. sundh, 'to purify;' jan-yu, 'a 
creature,' fr. jam man-yu, 'wrath,' fr. man, 'to think;' also bhuj-yu, das-yu, 
mri-t-yu. 

XI. ^ -ru, as bhi-ru (nom. fem. rus or rus), ' timid,' fr. bh(, ' to fear ;' a$"-ru, ' a 
tear ' (said to be fr. 0* ). 

XII. ^ -snu (cf. -ishnu), as sthd-snu, 'firm,' fr. sthd, 'to stand;' ji-shnu, 'vic- 
torious,' fr. ji, 'to conquer;' bhu-shnu, being,' fr. bhu. 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 71 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes— 

XIII. ^ -yu, forming adjectives, frequently in the sense of ' wishing for,' and a 
few nouns ; e. g. ■tirnd-yu, 'woollen,' fr. urnd; svar-yu, ' desiring heaven,' fr. svar, 

heaven;' also iubham-yu, kam-yu, aham-yu, asma-yu. 

XIV. <«J -lu, as kripd-lu, dayd-lu, ' compassionate,' fr. kripd, dayd. 

Stems ending in \\ and ~m u (see 123). 

XV. ^ -i, forming numerous feminine nouns, which will be found under their 
corresponding masculine suffixes, see 80. I. &c, 123-126. Others, mostly mono- 
syllabic, and often formed by taking a naked root to serve as a noun, are, bhi, f. 

fear;' dM,i. understanding;' &H,f. prosperity;' strl, f. ' a woman ;' Lakshrrd, 
f. the goddess Lakshmi;' n(, m. f. 'a leader' (whence send-ni, m. 'a general;' 
grdma-ni, m. f. the chief of a village '). 

XVI. 'Si -u, forming feminine nouns, which will be found under their corres- 
ponding masculine forms, as sti-nu, bM-ru, 82. IX. XI. (see also 125, 126). Others, 
sometimes monosyllabic, and formed by taking a naked root to serve as a noun, 
are, 14, m. f. a reaper;' bhu, f. 'the earth;' Svayam-bhu, m. the Self-existent;' 
vadM, f. a wife.' 

83. Fourth Class. — Stems ending in ^ ri (m. f. n.) 
Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the Krit suffix — 

Tt -tri, forming, 1st, nouns of agency of three genders, and a kind of future par- 
ticiple, the same change of the root being required which takes place in the first 
future, and the same euphonic changes of t (see 386 and 581); thus kshep-tri, 'a 
thrower,' fr. kship; dd-tri, 'a giver,' fr. da; bhar-tri, 'a protector,' fr. bhri, 'to 
bear;' boddhri, 'aknower,' fr. budh; sodhri, 'patient,' fr. sah, 'to bear;' bhav-i-tri, 
' about to become ' (=fu-turu-s), fr. bhu, ' to become ' (Raghu-v. vi. 52). 

2ndly, nouns of relationship, masculine and feminine ; in these the vowel of the 
root is frequently modified; as, pi-tri, ' a father,' fr. pd, 'to protect;' md-tri, 'a 
mother,' fr. md, 'to form,' 'produce;' bhrd-tri, 'a brother,' fr. bhri, 'to support.' 
Cf. Gr. So-tw, Tta-TY)p, pj-T^f> : Lat. da-tor, da-turu-s, pa-ter, ma-ter, fra-ter. 

84. Fifth Class. — Stems ending in i^t and ^ d (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes — 

I. ^Trf -at, forming present and future participles Par. from the_ stems of the 
present and the second future tenses respectively (see 524, 325, 578) ; e. g. ad-at, 
'eating,' fr. ad; finv-at, 'collecting,' fr. &.; karishy-at, 'about to do,' fr. kri; 



72 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

dadh-at, 'placing,' fr. dhd. Cf. Gr. d>sp-a>v (stem (pep-ovr-), $$-ov-g (stem 
o^Sovt-), ri6-€i-g (stem TlS-eVT-) : Lat. veh-ens (stem veh-ent-), i-ens (stem e-«»i-). 

II. ?[il -if, forming a few nouns and adjectives; e.g. sar-it, a river,' fr. sri, 
to flow;' har-it, green.' 

III. Tl-t, frequently added to roots ending in a short vowel, to form nouns of 
agency, substantives, and adjectives (often used at the end of compounds) ; e. g. 
ji-t, 'conquering,' in sarva-jit, all-conquering,' fr. ji; kri-t, a doer,' in karma- 
krit, a doer of work/ fr. kri. 

Sometimes t is substituted for a final m of a root, generally at the end of a com- 
pound ; as, ga-t in adhva-gat, m. ' a traveller/ fr. gam, ' to go.' 

IV. This class, besides comprehending a few nouns already ending in d, as 
sarad, f. ' autumn ;' dris'ad, f. a stone 5' kumud, n. a lotus,' includes a number 
of monosyllabic nouns formed by taking roots ending in t at d, and using them 
in their unchanged state as substantives and nouns of agency, the technical suffix 
kvip (leaving v) being theoretically added, for which a blank is substituted (see 87) ; 
e.g. fit, f. 'the mind;' mud, f. joy;' vid, a knower' (in dharma-vid); ad, an 
eater' (in kravydd, 'a flesh-eater'); dyut, f. splendour;' pad, m. a step.' 

Some nouns falling under this class are formed by prefixing prepositions to 
roots ending in t or d, or in a short vowel ; e. g. sam-pad, f. ' success ;' sam-md, 
f. 'an agreement;' vi-dyut, f. 'lightning;' upa-ni-shad, *a philosophical treatise;' 
sam-i-t, 'conflict' (fr. sam-i, 'to go together'). 

The practice of using roots at the end of compounds prevails also in Greek and 
Latin; as in ytp-vity {-vi/3-), fiw-itkifc {-irXvjy-), &c, arti-fex {-fie-), earni-fex 
{-fie-), prases {-sid-), &c. And there is a very remarkable agreement between 
Sanskrit and Latin in the practice of adding t to roots ending in short vowels ; thus, 
cam-it- (comes), ' a goer with;' equ-it- {eques), a goer on horseback;' al-it- {ales), 
'a goer with wings;' super-stit- (superstes), a stander by,' &c. Greek adds a similar 
/ to roots with a long final vowel; as, ix-ywT- (ayvus), a-mai- (onrrwi), &c. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes — 

V. TITT^ -tdt, a Vedic suffix {=*tdti, 81. XI); e.g. deva-tdt, f. 'worship;' 
satya-tdt, truth.' 

VI. ifl^-mat (Tjp^, ^guj, forming adjectives (fern. aU) signifying 'possessed 
of,' 'full of,' &c.= -vat below; usually added to stems ending in i, {, or uj e.g. 
agni-mat, havingfire;' irl-mat, 'prosperous;' dhi-mat, 'wise;' an4u-mat, 'radiant;' 
yava-mat, 'abounding in barley;' madhu-mat, 'full of honey;' vidyun-mat=vidyut- 
vat, 'possessing lightning,' fr. vidyut; jyotish-mat, 'brilliant,' fr. jyotis, 'light;' 
dhanush-mat, armed with a bow ' (see 6a); arfish-mat, ' brilliant ' (69. b). 

VII. ^ -vat (^(.j «rfif), forming, ist, adjectives (fem. atf) signifying ' pos- 
sessed of,' &c. ; usually added to stems ending in a, d, or m, and in some other 
consonants; e.g. dhana-vat, 'possessed of wealth;' aha-vat, 'having horses;' 
vira-vat, 'abounding in heroes;' &khd-vat, 'crested,' fr. sikhd; vidyd-vat, 'learned,' 



AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 73 

fr. vidyd, 'knowledge;' rdja-vat or rdjan-vat (see 57), 'having a king,' fr. rdjanj 
agni-vat=agni-mat, ' having fire ;' kim-vat, ' possessed of what ;' pad-vat, ' having 
feet,' fr. pad, 'a foot;' vidyut-vat, 'possessing lightning,' fr. vidyut (see under -mat); 
tejas-vat, brilliant,' fr. tejas, 'splendour;' bhds-vat, 'shining,' 'the sun' (m.), fr. 
bhds, 'light;' srug-vat, 'having a ladle,' fr. srud. Cf. Gr. forms in -Fei; (i. e. for 
Fevr-s), -Feaaa (i. e. F^ya=vati for vatyd), -Fev (for Ftvr); as, yapl-ii( (stem 
yapi-FiVT-), haitpvo-eis (stem SaKpvo-Fevr-). 

Forming, 2ndly, past active participles (see 553); e.g. krita-vat, 'one who has 
done ;' bhagna-vat, ' one who has broken.' 

For the suffix -vat, in td-vat, so many,' yd-vat, &c., see 234; and for the 
adverbial suffix -vat, expressing 'similitude,' see 724. 

85. Sixth Class. — Stems ending in ^r^an and jp^in (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the 
following Krit suffixes — 

I. , «ii v -an, forming several nouns, chiefly masculine; e.g. rdjan, m. a king' 
(fern, rdjhi, a queen,' 57. c), fr. rdj, to govern;' taksh-an, m. a carpenter,' fr. 
taksh, ' to form by cutting ;' sneh-an, m. ' a friend,' fr. snih, to love ;' uksh-an, m. 
'a bull,' fr. uksh, 'to impregnate;' as'-an, m. a stone,' fr. as; ud-an, n. 'water,' 
fr. ud or und, 'to wet.' Cf. Gr. k\v$-o>v, tckt-qv (stem t€Kt-ov-), eiK-tav (stem 
tiK-ov-): Lat. hom-o (stem hom-in-), asperg-o (stem asperg-in-), pect-en (pec-tin-). 

II. 3[H -in, forming numerous substantives, adjectives, and nouns of agency 
(fern, ini); e.g. math-in, m. 'a churning-stick,' fr. math, 'to shake;' path-in, m. 
'a path,' fr. path, 'to go' (see 162); kdr-in, m. 'an agent,' fr. kri, to do;' dvesh-in, 
m. an enemy,' fr. dvish, 'to hate.' Cf. the secondary suffix -in at VI. 

III. i^»^ -tvan (fern, tvari), see under -van below. 

IV. >?H -man (Tfa«^, Hf«T, flfcP!^), -iman, forming neuter and a few masculine 
abstract substantives, and rarely adjectives, often after Guna of the radical vowel 
(those in iman being generally masc.) ; e. g. kar-man, n. a deed,' fr. kri t ' to do ;' 

jan-man or jan-iman, n. 'birth,' fr. jan, 'to beget;' ves-man, n. a house,' fr. vis, 
'to enter;' nd-man, n. (for jnd-man), a name,' fr. jnd, 'to know;' 6ar-man,n. 
'happiness,' probably fr. srij pre-man, m. n. affection,' fr. pri, "to please;' ush- 
man, m. 'heat,' fr. ush, "to burn:' also si-man, f. a boundary;' ai-man, m. a 
stone ;' h,sh-man, m. ' fire,' ' strength ' (neut.) ; pdp-man, m. sin.' 

Sometimes with insertion of i (and Vedic /), in which case the gender is generally 
masculine (cf. the secondary suffix -iman*) ; e. g. sar-iman or Ved. sar-iman, m. 
'going,' fr. sri, 'to go;' star-iman or Ved. star-iman, m. 'a couch,' fr. stri, 'to 
spread;' dhar-iman, m. 'form,' fr. dhri, 'to hold;' har-iman, m. 'time,' fr. hri, 
' to seize,' Cf. Gr. aK-paiv (stem aK-pov-), 71/W-/AW1/ (stem yvai-fxov-), wB-priv 
(stem irvd-pev-) : Lat. no-men (stem no-min-), stra-men (stem stra-min-), ag-men, 
teg-men, teg-i-men., 

V. ^ -van (ififrni., ^fa*0, forming, substantives, adjectives, and nouns of 

L 



74 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

agency (fem. generally vari; cf. suffix -vara, with which -van appears to be con- 
nected); e.g. pad-van, m. 'a way,' fr. pad, 'to go;' mad-van (fem. vari), 'in- 
toxicating,' fr. mad, 'to gladden ;' rik-van (fem. vari), 'praising,' fr. ar6 (or ri6); 
dris-van, ' one who has seen '. (generally at the end of a comp.), fr. dris"; yaj-van 
(fem. vari), sacrificing,' fr. yaj. 

When a root ends in a short vowel, t is inserted ; e. g. kri-t-van (fem. vari), 
'effecting,' fr. kri; ji-t-van, ' conquering,' fr. ji; i-t-van, going,' fr. i. 

B. Secondary DERiVATiVEs/formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 
derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes — 

VI. ^ -in, forming numerous adjectives of possession, &c. ; e. g. dhan-in, 
'wealthy,' fr. dhana, 'wealth;' bal-in, 'strong,' fr. bala, strength;' mdl-in, 

wearing a garland,' fr. mdld, 'a garland;' vrih-in, 'having rice,' fr. vrihi, rice;' 
kei-in, ' having hair,' fr. kesa, ' hair ;' padm-in, abounding in lotuses ' (padmini, f. 
a quantity of lotuses '),, fr. padma, ' a lotus.' 

VII. ^^ -iman (Sprf*!^, ^•t[*i«^), forming masculine abstract substantives, 
mostly from adjectival stems, the finals being generally rejected, and the same 
changes being frequently required as before the comparative and superlative 
suffixes -iyas, -ishtha (cf. the Krit suffix -man, 85. IV) ; e. g. kdl-iman, blackness,' 
iv.kdla, black;' lagh-iman, 'lightness,' fr. lag hu, nimble;' mah-iman, greatness,' 
fr. mahat; also gar-iman, drdgh-iman, prath-iman, &c. (cf. comparisons, 194). 

VIII. w^ -min, forming adjectives of possession (cf. the suffixes -in, -vin, -mat, 
-vat); e.g.vdg-min, eloquent,' fr. vdd, speech;' go-min, ' possessing herds,' fr. 
go, a cow;' svd-min, an owner,' fr. sva, ' self.' 

IX. 1^^ -vin, forming adjectives, generally from stems ending in a or as; e. g. 
medhd-vin, 'intellectual;' tejas-vin, splendid' (69); srag-vin, 'wearing a gar- 
land,' fr. sraj. 

86. Seventh Class. — Stems ending in w^ as, ^ is, 3^ us (m.f.n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the 
following Krit suffixes — 

I. ^TCJ -as, forming numerous nouns, mostly neuter, and a few adjectives, 
generally after Guna of the root; e. g. man-as, n. 'the mind,' fr. man, 'to think :' 
similarly formed are nam-as, n. ' adoration ;' tap-as, n. ' penance ;' tam-as, n. ' dark- 
ness ;' jan-as, ' a race ;' sar-as, n. 'water,' fr. sri, 'to go ;' 6et-as, n. ' mind,' fr. (it; 
srot-as, n. 'stream,' fr. sru, 'to flow' (in this case t is inserted); ush-as, f. (nom. 
ds), ' dawn,' fr. ush (=vas), 'to shine;' jar-as, f. 'old age,' fr. jri, 'to grow old' 
(171) ; vedh-as (nom. m. f. n. ds, ds, as), ' creating,' ' name of Brahman ' (m.) Cf. 
Gr. ytv-Oi, piv-os, ev-yev-Yjf (stem ev-yev-e?-), tv-fMV-yjg {=su-manas) : Lat. 
gen-us (stem gen-es- or gen-er-), scel-us. 

II. 3^-« (= -as above), as hav-is, n. 'ghee,' fr. hu, 'to offer;' also ard-is,jyot-is, 
dyot-is, ro(-is, so(-is, n. 'light,' 'lustre,' fr. ar(, jyut, dyut, rue", 4ui, 'to shine.' 



AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 75 

III. tf<^ -us (= -as, 86. I), as 6aksh-us, n. 'an eye,' fr. daksh, 'to see;' also 
vap-us, n. body ;' tanus, n. ' body ;' dhan-us, n. (m.) ' a bow ;' jan-us, a. ' birth ;' 
man-us, m. 'man.' 

IV. ^^-»as, -ivas (nom. m. f. n. vdn, usM, vat), forming perfect participles from 
the stem of the reduplicated perfect (see 554); e. g. vivid-vas, 'one who has known,' 
fr. vivid (cf. vidvas, 168. e); similarly, ten-ivas, jagm-ivas, &c. (see 168). 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 
derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes — 

V. ^*P9[ -iyas, forming the comparative degree (see 167, 193, 194) ; e. g. bal- 
{yas, stronger,' fr. bala for balin or bala-vat. Observe — Perhaps this suffix is in 
most cases rather primary than secondary, being generally added to the root or 
modified root ; as, uru, wide,' forms variyas fr. vri (cf. -ishtha, 80. XLVIII). 

VI. 1^ -yas (= -iyas above), as bM-yas, ' more,' comparative of bahu (see 194) : 
also jyd-yas (194); nav-yas, Ved. (comparative of nava, 'recent '). 

87. Eighth Class. — Stems ending in any Consonant, except 
Tit and ^ d, «^n, ^s (m. f. n.) 

Almost any root may be used alone in its naked unchanged state as a nominal 
stem, no suffix of any kind being apparently added, but as it is a rule of native 
grammarians that no word can be formed without a suffix, they suppose a suffix 
technically called kvip (leaving v), for which a blank is then substituted. Most 
naked roots so used, form nouns of agency, especially at the end of compounds. 

Those roots which end in t or d, or in a short vowel, having t affixed, have been 
already noticed as falling under the fifth class, see 84. III. IV. This eighth class 
is intended to comprise all other roots, ending in any consonant j e.g. bhvj (nom. 
bhuk), an eater ;' so, budh (nom. bhut), a knower ' (see 44. c) ; spris" (nom. sprik), 
one who touches ;' j»Y(nom. vit), 'one who enters,' aVais'ya'(m.), ahouse'(f.); 
lih (nom. lit), one who licks;' duh (nom. dhuk), one who milks.' 

a. Some require modifications; as, prd£h (nom. prdt), an asker,' fr. pradh. 
A desiderative stem is sometimes used alone in the same way; e. g. pipaksh (nom. 
pipak), one who wishes to cook.' 

b. Many roots are taken in this way to form substantives ; e. g. yudh, f. (nom. 
yut), ' battle ;' kshudh, f. (nom. kshut), hunger :' some requiring modifications of 
the radical vowel; e.g. vdd, f. (nom. vdk), speech,' fr. va6, 'to speak;' pur, f. 
(nom. pHr), ' a city,' probably fr. pri; gir, f. (nom. gfr), ' praise,' fr. gri. 

c. Many roots ending in nasals, when used in this way, especially at the end of 
compounds, either reject the nasal, or exchange it for t (see -t, 84. Ill) : gam, to 
go,' has ga or gat; jan hasja; han has ha or ghna. 

d. There are also a few dissyllabic nouns formed from roots which must be made 
to fall under this eighth class ; as, trishnaj (nom. trishnak), thirsty ;' asrij, n. 
(nom. asrik), 'blood:' also a few substantives formed by prefixing prepositions 
to roots; as, sam-idh (nom. samit), 'fuel.' 

L 3 



76 declension: or inflexion of the stems op nouns. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DECLENSION ; OR INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS, 
SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

88. Having explained how the stem of a noun is formed, we 
have now to shew how it is inflected. 

In the last chapter, nouns, Substantive and Adjective, were ar- 
ranged under eight classes, according to the final of their stems 
(the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last 
four those ending in consonants). In the present chapter their 
declension or inflexion will be exhibited under the same eight 
classes. Moreover, as every class comprises Adjectives as well as 
Substantives, so the example of masculine, feminine, and neuter 
Substantives given under each class will serve as a model for the 
declension of masculine, feminine, and neuter Adjectives coming 
under the same class. 

Gender of Nouns. 

89. The noun has three genders, and its gender is, in many * 
cases, determinable from the termination of its stem. Thus, nearly 
all stems in d, i, and those formed with the suffix ti (81. II), are 
feminine : most abstract nouns and those denoting an act or instru- 
ment, formed with the suffixes ana, tva (80. LXVIII), ya, tra (see 
under 80), as, is, us (86), and man (85. IV), are neuter; those 
formed with the suffixes na (80. XXIV) and iman (85. VII) are 
generally masculine; but those in a, i, u, and ri are not reducible 
to rule. The Nominative case is, however, in the first of these 
instances a guide to the gender ; as, deva-s, ' a deity,' is masculine ; 
but phala-m, 'fruit,' neuter. And in other cases the meaning of 
the word ; as, pitri, ' a father,' is masculine ; and mdtri, ' a mother,' 
feminine. 

It may be noted also that words denoting gods, mountains, seas, 
divisions of time, are generally masculine ; words denoting rivers, 
the earth, and night, are usually feminine; while adjectives and 



DECLENSION; OR INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 77 

participles, used as abstract nouns, the names of woods, flowers, 
fruits, towns, and water, are generally neuter. 

Cases of Nouns. 

90. In Sanskrit, nearly all the relations between words in a 
sentence are expressed by inflexions {vibhakti, Pan. 1. 4, 104). 
Many prepositions exist, but in Post-Vedic Sanskrit they are not 
often used alone in government with cases, their chief use being as 
prefixes to verbs and nouns. Hence the necessity for eight cases. 
These, as it were, grow out of the stem, and are called, 1. Nomina- 
tive (prathamd, scil. vibhakti, ' the first case ') ; 3. Accusative (dvitiyd, 
'the second'); 3. Instrumental (tritiyd, 'the third') ; 4. Dative (6a- 
turthi, 'the fourth 5 ); 5. Ablative (pandami, 'the fifth'); 6. Genitive 
(shashthi, 'the sixth') ; 7. Locative (saptami, ' the seventh') ; 8. Vo- 
cative (see 93). 1. The Nominative is the kartri or 'agent,' but the 
agent is not always in the N. case * ; thus in the sentences, ' he did 
that,' and ' that was done by me,' the agent in the last sentence is 
in the I. case. 3. The Accusative is the karman or 'that acted on,' 
but the karman is not always in the Ac. case ; as in ' that was done 
by me,' where ' that ' is the karman, and is in the N. case. 3. The 
Instrumental expresses karana, 'instrumentality,' i.e. it denotes the 
instrument or agent by which or by whom a thing is done ; as, tena 
kritam, ' done by him f-' 4- The Dative is used in the sense sam- 
praddna, ' giving,' ' delivering over,' &c. 5. The Ablative generally 
expresses apdddna, ' taking away,' and is usually translateable by 
' from,' and not as in Latin and Greek by ' with,' ' by,' ' in ' (see 
813). 6. The Genitive expresses sambandha, 'relationship,' 'con- 
nexion J.' 7. The Locative is used in the sense adhikarana, 'location,' 
and generally expresses the place or time in which anything is 
done; as, Ayodhydydm, 'in Ayodhya;' purva-kdle, 'in former time;' 
bhumau, ' on the ground t-' 8. The Vocative is used in the sense 
sambuddhi and sambodhana, ' addressing,' ' calling to.' 

* These cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus N. will 
denote Nominative ; I., Instrumental ; Ac, Accusative ; Ab., Ablative. 

t The Instrumental and the Locative cases denote various other relations. See 
Syntax, 805, 817. 

J The Genitive in Sanskrit generally denotes * possession,' but is of very exten- 
sive application. See Syntax, 815, 816. 



78 DECLENSION; OB INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 

91. According to the Indian system, each of these eight cases 
has three numbers, singular (eka-va6ana), dual (dvi-waiana), and 
plural (bahu-vaiana) ; and to each belongs a termination which is 
peculiarly its ow,n, serving alike for masculine [pum-linga), feminine 
(stri-linga), and neuter gender (kliva or napunsaka-linga). 

Again, according to the native system, some terminations are 
technically combined with servile or indicatory letters to indicate 
some peculiarity, or to distinguish one from the other, or to enable 
Pratyaharas to be formed (see note below). Thus the proper 
termination of the Nominative singular is ^ s (expressible by 
Visarga : before k, kh, p, ph, and before the sibilants, or at the 
end of a sentence, see 63) ; but the technical termination is su, 
the letter u being servile *. Similarly, the termination of the Nomi- 
native plural is really as, but technically jas, the j being servile. 
The two schemes of termination, with and without the servile 
letters, are here exhibited. The first, or merely technical scheme, 
is given in small type. 



Technical Terminations 


with the 


indicatory 


letters in cc 


ipitals. 


SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


N. ^sU* 


m au 


^f^Jas 


Ac. WTam 


^auT* 


■^S'as 


I. Z\ Td 


»TI»? bhydm 


fk^bhis 


D. VN-e 


bhydm 


«J^6%a« 


Ab. ^ftf N-asI 


bkydm 


bhyas 


G. ^N-as 


Wt^os 


^TPTrfm 


L. f§N-i 


OS 


^suP 



Real Terminations without 
the indicatory letters. 

SING. DUAL. PLUEAL. 

s au as 

am au as 

d bhydm bhis 
e bhydm bhyas 
as bhydm bhyas 
as os dm 

i os su 



* The servile u may possibly indicate that final s, in certain positions, is liable 
to be liquefied into u. The object of the ^ of ^^ in the Ac. du. is to enable a 
pratydhdra ^ to be formed, denoting the first five inflexions, i. e. the Strong 
cases of masculine and feminine nouns (see 135). The terminations for the D. 
Ab. G. and L. sing, are called by Panini nitah, ' having » as their it,' to indicate 
that they are applicable to the four cases, admitting occasional substitutions ; cf. 
the inflexion of mati, dhenu at 1 12, M, &c. at 123. The pratydhdra W{sup is used 
to denote all the cases from the N. sing, to the L. pi. Pratyaharas are generally 
formed by combining the first member of a series with <;he final consonant of the 
last member, as above (cf. page 14, note b). 



DECLENSION; OR INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 79 

9a. The Vocative is held to be a peculiar aspect of the Nomina- 
tive, and coincides with the Nom. in the dual and plural. Hence 
it is not supposed to have a separate termination of its own. In 
the singular it is sometimes identical with the stem, sometimes with 
the Nominative. Sometimes, however, it differs from both*. 

a. The terminations beginning with vowels will sometimes be 
called vowel-terminations; and those beginning with consonants, 
including the Nom. sing., consonantal terminations. 

Again, those cases which take the vowel-terminations will some- 
times be called vowel-cases ; and those which take the consonantal 
consonantal cases. 

See also the division into Strong, Middle, and Weak cases at 
135. a. 

Observe — The terminations should be read horizontally, i.e. for 
each case in all three numbers ; not perpendicularly, i. e. not for 
all the cases of the singular before passing to the dual. Hence 
the expression ' Sas and all the remaining cases ' must be taken to 
mean the Ac. pi. and all the other cases sing. du. and pi., and the 
* first five inflexions ' must be taken to denote s, au, as, am, au, or 
N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. 

93. Having propounded the above scheme as the general type 
of the several case-suffixes in the three numbers, Indian gram- 
marians proceed to adapt them to every Substantive and Adjective 
in the language, as well as to Pronouns, Numerals, and Participles, 
whether masculine, feminine, or neuter. 

In fact, their theory is, that there is but one declension in San- 
skrit, and that the stem of a noun being given, and the regular 
case-terminations being given, the stem is to be joined to those 
terminations according to the regular laws of euphonic combination, 
as in the following examples of the two stems, ^ nau, f. ' a ship ' 
{navi, vav), and ^ftj^ harit, m. f. ' green.' 



* In the first or commonest class of nouns the masculine stem stands alone in 
the Vocative, just as the termination is dropped from the 2nd pers. sing. Impera- 
tive Parasmai in the first group of classes in conjugation, see 246. 



80 DECLENSION; OE INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 
94. 



SINGULAR. 

Nom.Voc. tfl^ naus 
nau + s 


DUAL. 

»n^ ndvau 

nau + au. See 37. 


PLURAL. 

waw + as.. 37. 


Ace, «n=TH ndvam 
nau -yarn. 37. 


— ndvau 


— «a«a» 


InSt. ^TT^T ntivd 
nau 4- a. 37. 


vff«rrw naubhydm 
nau + bkydm 


■qTw^T naubhis 
nau + bhis 


■ Dat. iTI^ nave 

nau + e. 37. 


— naubhydm 


^V^m naubhyas 
nau + bhyas 


Abl. *n=T^ ndvas 
nau + as. 37. 


— naubhydm 


— naubhyas 


Gen. i<H^ ndvas 
nau + as. 37. 


^ 


HI'cNff ndvdm 
nau + dm. 37. 


*n=rlt^ navos 
nau + os. 37. 


Loc. «nfa raavi 

maw + i. 37. 


— navos 


W5 naushu 
nau + su. 70. 



95- 



SINGULAR. 

Nom.Voc. ^ftif harit 

harit + s. See 41. 1. 


DUAL. • 

^ftm haritau 
harit + au. 43. rf. 


PLURAL. 

sfftjl^ haritas 
harit + as. 43. rf. 


Ace. TffciPJ, haritam 
harit + am. 43. d. 


— haritau 


— haritas 


Inst. jTftjIT haritd 

harit + d. 43. rf. 


^ftSIW haridbhydm 
harit + bhydm. 43. 




■^TOS'^ nartdbJas 
harit + bhis. 43. 


Dat. jrfi^ harite 

harit + e. 43. rf. 


— haridbhydm 


tfftsr^ haridbhyas 
harit + bhyas. 43. 




— haridbhydm 


— haridbhyas 


Abl. ^KHt^ haritas 
harit + as. 43. <£. 


Gen. — haritas 


^ftjft^ haritos 
harit + os. 43. d. 


tfftiTH^ haritam 
harit + dm. 43. rf. 


Loc. ?WiT Affln^i 

Aan£ + «. 43. «?. 


— haritos 


Aari/ + sm. 42. 



DECLENSION; OR INFLEXION OE THE STEMS OP NOUNS. 81 

96. Unfortunately, however, ^ nau, ' a ship/ is nearly the only 
noun, ending in a vowel, that joins its stem thus regularly witb-case- 
endings ; and although nouns ending in consonants are numerous, 
and nearly as regulaV as harit, they are far less common than nouns 
m a, a, i, i, u, and ri, whose declension requires frequent changes 
in the finals, both of stem and terminations. 

97. Thus in cl. 1 of stems ending in a (comprising almost as 
many nouns as the other seven classes together ; compare 80 with 
81-87), n »t only is the final a of the stem liable to be lengthened 
and changed to e, but also the termination ina is substituted for a, 
the proper termination of the Inst, sing, masc. ; ya for e of the Dat. ; 
t for as of the Ab. ; sya for as of the Gen. ; n for as of the Ac. pi. ; 
ais for bhis of the Inst. pi. And in other nouns changes and sub- 
stitutions are required, some of which are determined by the gender. 
(Compare the first group of verbal stems at 257. a.) 

The annexed table repeats synoptically the terminations, with 
the most usual substitutions, throughout all the classes of nouns. 

SINGULAB. DUAL. PLUEAL. 

N. ^(m.f.), ** (n.) ^(m.f.),f (f .*„.) ^(m.f.), ; (n.) 

Ac.** (m.f.), if (m.f.n.) ^(m.f.),^(f*n.) *^(m.f.),;f (m.),*(n.) 

I. ^n (m.f.n.), 3^T* (m.n.) wtr (m.f.n.) f«^ (m.f.n.), $^* (m.n.) 

D. £ (m.f.n.), *t* (m.n.) WTTH (m.f.n.) «^ (m.f.n.) 

Ab.^(m.f.n.),^(m.f.),^*(m.n.) wrui (m.f.n.) vn^ (m.f.n.) 

G. ^(m.f.n.),^(m.f.),^r*(m.n.) ^frt^ (m.f.n.) sarpr (m.f.n.) 

L. ^ (m.f.n.), *n* (f.), ^ (m.f.) ^ (m.f.n.) g (m. f.n.) 

Obs. 1. Those substitutions marked * are mostly restricted to 
nouns ending in a, and are therefore especially noticeable. Femi- 
nines in a are peculiar in taking the neut. substitution i in du. N. 
Ac.V. 

Obs. 2. It will be perceived that the Accusative pi. of all masc. nouns in the 
first four declensions ends in n, whilst that of all fem. nouns ends in the regular 
termination s. 

a. Comparing the above terminations with those of Latin and Greek, we may 
remark that s enters into the Nom. sing, masc, and m or n into the neuter, in all 
three languages. In regard to the Sk. dual an, the original termination was d, as 
found in the Vedas ; and d equals the Greek a, «, and €. In Nom. pi. masc. 
the s appears in many Lat. and Gr. words. In Ac. sing., Sk. agrees with Lat., 
and even with Gr., final fJ. in Gr. being changed into v. S appears in all three 
languages in Ac. pi.; and when the Sanskrit ends in n, as in the first class of 

M 



82 DECLENSION ; OK INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OP NOUNS. 

iiouns, this n is probably for ns, since a preceding a is lengthened to compensate 
for tfe$ rejection of s. Cf. some Vedic Ac. plurals ; cf. also mnovg Ac. pi. in the 
Cretic dialect; and Gothic forms, such as balgins, sununs; cf. likewise the r added 
in the Veda after the Ac. pi., e. g. ^""fc*J ritunr arm (RigtV. I. 49, 3). In Inst. pi. 
bhis is preserved in the Lat. nobis, vobis, and Gr. <f>i{v) for <pi( (vav-tpiv = naubhis). 
The ais which belongs to Sk. nouns in a is probably a contraction of dbhis, since 
in the Vedas ebhis for dbhis is found for ais, as vrikebhis for vrikais, &c. &c. This 
ais probably answers to the Latin Dat. and Abl. plural in is, just as bhis and bhyas 
•answer to the Latin bus. In the<Jen. sing, all three languages have preserved 
the s (»JMt^, nav-is, vrj-oe for vaFog) ; and in the Gen. pi. <£m=Gr, tev and Lat. 
urn ,(n<;i«i = itooav, pedum). In Loc. sing. Sanskrit i is preserved in Lat. and Gr. 
in such words as oikoi, 'at home/ 1g8(ao7 } on the Isthmus;' humi, domi, &c. ; 
and in the Dative (fafijT = vvkti, «iii% .^znavi). In Loc. pi. sa = Gr. Of, e.g. 
tivpao-t(v), ' at the door,;' Spaoi(y), ' at the right time ' (^H^ = vavot). Sanskrit 
stems in a prefix i to:su; so that vrikaishu\{2g. b) = Xvkoioi. The Voc. sing, in 
Gr. is frequently identical with the stem, and the Voc. du. and pi. with the Nom., 
as in Sanskrit; e.g.vroXiTi]-(, stem and Voc. sroA/Ta; pyTup-, stem and Voc. pvjTop; 
evyevrj^ -stem and Voc. evyeves. 

98. In the following pages no attempt will be made to explain 
how or why particular nouns deviate from the general scheme of 
terminations. A division of nouns into eight classes, four ending 
in vowels, and four ending in consonants, will be made ; and under 
every one of the eight classes a model noun for the masculine, 
feminine, and neuter, serving for adjectives as well as substantives, 
will be declined in full. 

99. But the student must understand, that this division into 
eight classes is entirely arbitrary. It does not imply that there 
are eight separate declensions in Sanskrit. All that is meant is, 
that the final letters ,of the stems of nouns may be conveniently 
arranged under four general heads for vowels, and four for conso- 
nants. Indeed, according to native grammarians, there is only one 
declension in Sanskrit, all nouns, whatever may be the final of their 
stems, being forced to adapt themselves to one common scheme of 
nearly similar case-terminations. 

100. It is most important to remember, that the formation of 
every case in a Sanskrit noun supposes the application of a rule of 
Sandhi or 'junction ;' and that declension in Sanskrit is strictly 
'junction/ i. e. not a divergence from an upright line (rectus), but 
a joining together of a stem with its terminations. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 83 

ioi. Sometimes, however, before this joining together takes place, 
the original final of the stem has to be changed to its Guna or 
Vriddhi equivalent (see 27), or even to some other letter (see 41. 
II— V), so that it will often be necessary to point out in what 
manner the inflective stem (anga, see 135. c) varies from the original 
stem (prdtipadika) ; and sometimes the original termination of the 
scheme will have to be changed, as indicated at 97; thus, at 103, 
under the Gen. du. Sivayos, Sive + os denotes, that before the stem 
Siva is joined to the termination os, the final letter a is to be changed 
to e ; and the reference 36. a^. indicates the rule of Sandhi (explained 
at 36. a) which must come into operation in joining hive and os to- 
gether. Similarly, when the original termination has to be modified, 
the termination will be exhibited in its altered form; thus, at 103, 
under the Ac. sing., Siva + m denotes, that the stem is to he joined 
with m, substituted for the original termination am. See the table 
at 97. 

102. In declining the first model noun £va, the stem with the sign +, and 
after it the termination will he exhibited undeij each inflexion, and a reference 
will be given to the number of the r^ile of, Sandhi which must come into 
operation. * 

In the other nouns the process of Sandhi will be explained when necessary, 
along with the changes of the stem, immediately before the paradigms of declen- 
sion, and in the paradigms a transliteration in Italic type will be generally given 
immediately under the Sanskrit type. 



Section I.— FIRST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS. 

Inflexion of Nouns, Substantive and Adjective, whose stems end 

in vowels. 

First Class in ^l a, m a, and $ i. 

This large class corresponds to a common class of Latin and Greek words in 11s 
and Of, urn and ov, a and a, e.g. lupus, KvKO-s (=Sk. vrika-s, Norn, of vrika); 
donu-m, §S>pc-v, terra, yapa {=dhard); and to adjectives like bonus, aya8o(, 
e. g. Sk. nava-s, navd, nava-m, ' new,'=Lat. novu-s, nova, novu-m ; Gr. veo-( (for 
veFo-s), vea, vio-v. 

103. Masculine stems in a, like f$R Siva, m. 'the god S^iva,' or 
as an adjective, ' prosperous.' 

M % 



84 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

The final of the stem is lengthened in D. Ab. sing., I. D. Ab. du., Ac- G. pi.; 
and changed to e in G. L. du., D. Ab. L. pi. : n is euphonically affixed to the final 
in G. pi. Hence the four inflective stems £va, iivd, dive, £vdn. 



N [fW^M 

\_&va-{-s 

J f^C[ iivam 



sivau 
iiva-\-au. See 33. 



[ Uva-\-r, 



sivena 



ff^RT sit 
\siva-\-ina. 32. 

Jf^I^Pl Sivdya 
I &vd-\-ya 



Ab j%*n^ 

[siva+t 



fijreTWjr* Sivdbhydm 
sivd+bhydm 

— Sivdbhydm 

— sivdbhydm 



fi^HU^ hivds 
iiva+as. See 31. 
f^HT*^ Sivdn 
&ivd-\-n 
f?!^ Sivais 
Mva+ais. 33. 
fifl%«m Sivebhyas 
s'ive-\-bhyas 

— Sivebhyas 



fiH*nil^ Sivayos 
Mve+os. 36. a. 



J ^H*M Sivasya 
\&va+sya 

[fijt^ Sive 

l&oa+i. 32. 

[fi^ Siva 

\£iva{s dropped). 92. diva+au. 33. 



SJ^aw 



r^NHlT Sivdndm 
4mdn-\-dm 
f^l^ Siveshu 
Mve+su. 70. 

A'oB+as. 31. 

Obs. — The Vedic I. sing, may end in d, e.g. Hod for sivena; N. Ac. du. may 
end in d, e.g. &»<£ for £mm; N. pi. may end in dsas, e.g. s'ivdsas for £oos.; I. pi. 
may end in ebhis, e.g. swebhis for s'wais. Cf. eftAis, I. pi. of trfam, 224. 

104. Neuter stems in a, like fi{re Siva, n. ' prosperity,' or as an 
adjective, ' prosperous.' 

The final of the stem is lengthened and assumes n in N. Ac. V. pi. 

f^NH Sivam fifl^ hive f^Mlfa &«arai 

&»a-|-m. 97. /i»a+<'. 32. siW+n+t 

The Vocative is f^ra Siva, f$R Sive, f^RTftr Sivdni ; all the other 
cases are like the masculine. 

105. Feminine stems in d and i, like f$RT Sivd, f. ' the wife of 
Siva,' or as an adjective, 'prosperous,' and ?^\ nadi, f. 'a river.' 
Their declension is exhibited side by side that their analogy may 
be more easily perceived. 

In /withe final of the stem is changed to.e in I. sing., G. L. du.j yd is inserted 
in D. Ab. G. L. sing.; and n in G. pi. Hence the inflective stems 



N.Ac. 



we. In 

nad{ the final is changed to y before the vowel-terminations by 34; d is in- 
serted in D. Ab. G. L. sing. ; and n in G. pi. ; in V. sing, the final of the stem 
is shortened. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 85 



Junction of stem with termination: N. sing, s rejected; N. du. &vd+i=sive 
by 32; N. pi. w<£+as=:s7fl<£s by 31; I. sing. £ve + d=tivayd by 36.0,- D. sing. 
sivd+yd+e = £vdyai by 33; G. L. du^ £ve + os = £vayos by 36.0. D. sing, nadi 
+ d+e = na~ 



N. 



SING. 

fj[RT 



d by 34 and 33 ; L. pi. nadi + su = nadishu by 70. 

DUAL. PLURAL 



' \s"ivdm 
\sivayd 



sivas 



hive 

fsraTwn^ -fsnTTfa^ 

Mvdbhydm Sivdbhis 

— %snwre^ 

Sivdyai kivdbhydm Sivdbhyas 

Ab.f f !T^ . r ~ 

[siwayas Hvdbhydm Sivdbhyas 

G.I.T. ***** 
\kivdyds hivayos 

L rffcrawrm — 
[^wayam iivayos 



'•{ 



sivdndm 

Sivdsu 

sivds 



SING. 

nadi 



DUAL. 



nadyau 



nadim 



PLURAL. 

TO* 

nadyas 

nadis 



nadyau 

TOT tT^wjTJ^ fT^fiwj 

nadyd nadibhydm nadibhis 

TO — H^T*!^ 

nadyai nadibhydm nadibhyas 

toi^ — — 

nadyds nadibhydm nadibhyas 

toi^ ^t^ttr 

nadyds nadyos nadindm 
nadydm nadyos nadishu 

^ toI to*; 

warfi nadyau nadyas 



Obs. 1. The Vedic I. sing, may be &>a for sivaydj D. sing. &vat for Mvdyai; 
N. pi. iivdsas; G. pi. sivdm. 

Obs. 2. The Vedic N. pi. of nouns in i may end in is, e. g. nadis for nadyas. 

106. Monosyllabic nouns in ^ i, like ^ f. 'fortune,/^ f. 'fear/ &c, vary from 
nadi in the manner explained at 123. 

107. In accordance with 58, such words as »jJT mriga, m. 'a deer;' 
g^ purusha, m. 'a man;' HTOT bhdryd, f. 'a wife;' cgwtf kumdri, 
f. *a girl' — must be written, in the Inst. sing. m. and the Gen. pi. 
m. f., with the cerebral ntj; thus, ijJnu mrigena, g^TO, ijTTOTT, 
g*»WDTST, HrtroT^, ^ITtfanT. When n is final, as in the Ac. pi. m., 
it remains unchanged. 

108. When a feminine noun ending in d forms the last member of a compound 
adjective, it is declined like siva for the masc. and neut. Thus fr. vidyd, learning,' 
alpa-vidyas (m.), alpa-vidyd (f.), alpa-vidyam (n.), possessed of little learning.' 
Similarly, a masculine noun takes the fem. and neut. terminations ; and a neut. 
noun, the masc. and fem. 

• a. When roots ending in a, such as pd, ' to drink ' or ' to preserve,' form the 
last member of compound words, they assume the terminations at 91 regularly 



86 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

for their masculine and feminine, rejecting, however, the final of the stem in Ac. 
pi. and remaining Weak or vowel-cases ; thus, *u«im soma-pd, m.t. 'a drinker of 
Soma juice;' N. V. -^n^, -V, -VTQj Ac. -*?T*f, -*ft, -VR(; I. -TTT, -HTHTPT, &c; 
D. -T, &c. They form their neuter like that of fwa, e. g. neut. N. Ac. V. *il*m«f, 
-^T, -TTfir, &c. 
Similarly, ftr^PTT ' protector of the universe,' and ^njJWT ' a shell-blower.' 

b. Analogously in Rig-veda iv. 9, v^TT ' a woman ' is in N. sing. ^TI^. 

c. Masculine nouns in o, like £l^i hdhd, m. a Gandharva,' not derived from verbal 
roots, assume the terminations with the regular euphonic changes, but the Ac. pi. 
ends in «{; thus, N. V. 51*1*^, ?T^, 11?T^; A. ^TfTfl, s[Tt?j £^l^; I. ?T?T, 
^T^TWITT, ^T^Tftf^, &c; D. ?T?, &c; Ab. ?T?1^, &c; G. ?T?T^, ^1^!^, 
^T^; L. ?TTT, &c. 

d. The Voc. cases of ^TlfT ambd, ^1T akkd, and ?TWT alld, all signifying 'mother,' 
are ^T»J , ^ls|j, ^TW, ' O mother !' 

e. '^fft m. ' a tooth,' HTCT m. ' a month,' TI^ m. ' a foot,' ^5 m. n. ' soup,' -HUM 
n. 'the face,' £$M n. 'the heart,' «<<<* n. 'water,' ^fltn. 'the head,' fffa n. 'flesh,' 
TH^n f. 'night,' «iif*t^ii f. 'the nose,' "jnii f. 'an army,' are declined regularly, 
but may substitute 5^, *IT^, V^> *J^, ^ll*M,» ^, 3^, 3ft^> TO^ f^TSI, 
«W^, 1 JiI in the Ac. pi. and remaining cases (see 184). In the neut. nouns, the 
Nom. pi. does not admit the same substitute as Ac. pi. Thus, 7<f=5 will be Ac. 
pi. 4^<*|ftl or aqifti; I. sing, a^qin or '3'ST. Again, TTftnRT in I. du. will be 
HTfa'diTTm or *ft«n»^; and TRT, *rfaTWim or *nwn*T. 

109. To understand the importance of studying the declension 
of this first class of nouns, the student has only to turn back to 
pp. 57-68, where the formation of the stems of nouns, substantive 
and adjective, which follow this declension, is explained. All mascu- 
line and neuter substantives in this list are declined like 6iva, and 
all feminine either like iivd or nadi, all the adjectives following the 
same three examples for their three genders. 



Second Class in ^ i. Third Class in 7 u. 

The inflexion of the 2nd and 3rd classes of nouns (see 8i, 82) is exhibited side 
by side, that their analogy may be more readily perceived. 

The 2nd answers to Latin and Greek words like ignis, turri-s, iroki-$, itiari-i, 
mare, /*eA« ; the 3rd, to words like gradu-s, cornu, fiorpv-s, i$v-$, jjliSv. 

110. Masculine stems in ^ i and 7 u, like ^rfhf agni, m. {ignis), 
'fire;' «!•} bhdnu, m. 'the sun.' 

The final of the stem is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi. ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. V. du., Ac. G. pi. j dropped in L. sing., or, according to Panini, changed 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 87 



to a; n is inserted in I. sing., G. pi. Hence the inflective stems agni, agni, ague, agn; 
bhdnu, bhdnu, bhdno, bhdn; according to some the Locative of bhdnu was originally 
bhdnavi (such a form occurring in the Veda), and i "being dropped, bhdnav would 
become bhdndv (bhdnau). 

Junction of stem with termination : V. sing., N. Ac. V. du., case-termination 
rejected; N. pi. ague + as = agnayas by 36. a; D. sing. agne+e = agnaye, 36. a; 
G. L. du. agni-{-os = agnyos, 34; L. pi. agni-\-su = agnishu, 70. Similarly, N. pi. 
bhdno + as =zbhdnavas, 36.fi,- D. sing, bhdno + e = bhdnave, 36.0; G, L. du, 
bhdnu + os=bhdnvos, 34; L. pi. bhdnu-\-su=.bhdnushu, 70. 



N. 



Ac. 



SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


\agnis 


agni 


agnayas 


bhdnus 


bhdnu" 


bhanavas 


|_ agnim 


agni 


ugnin 


bhdnum 


bhdnu 


bhdnun 



[fl$«iraa agmbhydm agnibhis 
[«^«aye agmbhydm agnibhyas 
\agnes agmbhydm agnibhyas 
gnes agnyos agnindm 
\ agnau agnyos agnishu 
\_ agne agni agnayas 



D 



G 



bhdnund bhdnubhydm bhdnubhis 

WT^ — ^^ 

bhdnave bhdnubhydm bhdnubhyas 

«T^ — — 
bhdnos bhdnubhydm bhdnubhyas 

bhdnvos bhdnundm 



bhdnos 
bhdnau 
bhdno 



bhdnvos 
bhdnu 



"TO 

bhdnushu 

bhanavas 



in. The Vedic Gen. sing, may be bhdnvas, which form may also serve for the 
Nom. and Ac. pi. 

112. Feminine stems in 5 i and 7 w, like HfiT mfltfi, f. 'the mind,' 
and ifij dhenu, f. ' a milch cow/ 

The final of the stem is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi.; lengthened in 
N. Ac. V. du., Ac. G. pi. j dropped in L. sing, (unless the termination be Wf); 
n is inserted in G. pi. Hence the inflective stems mati, maU, mate, mat ; dhenu, 
dhend, dheno, dhen. 

The junction of stem with termination is generally the same as in the mascu- 
lines agni and bhdnu. Inst. sing. mati+d= matyd, 34 ; D. mate+e=mataye, 36. a; 
mati+d+e=matyai, 33. 



88 INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 



N. 

Ac. 

I. 

D. 

Ab. 

G. 

L. 

V. 



dhenus 
dhenum 



dhenu 



dhenavas 
dhenus 



dhenvd 



xpfe or tfc% — 



( motfis »»«££ matayas 

matim mati matis 

( matyd matibhydm matibhis 

I »nnl or *^ — »rfH«m 

( matayeoxHyai matibhydm matibhyas 

( »T^ or *i?n^ — — 

| mates or °tyds matibhydm matibhyas 

( mates or °<«/as matyos matindm 

( Hift or HWTT — »lfiP| 

( matau or°tydm matyos matishu. 70. 

(*Tff »nrt hhi^ 

( mate mati matayas 

With the optional forms in D. Ab. G. L. sing., compare similar forms in the same 
cases of nadC 

1 13. The Vedic Nom. pi. may be dhenvas. 

1 14. Neuter stems in 5 i and 7 u, like ^rft vdri, n. ' water,' and w$ 
madhu, n. 'honey' (ju.edv). 

The stem inserts n before the vowel-terminations, and the final is lengthened in N. Ac. 
V. and G. pi. Hence the inflective stems vdri, vdri; madhu, madM. 



dhenu 

^«r^ ^fir^ 

dhenubhydm dhenubhis 

dhenave or°nvai dhenubhydm dhenubhyas 
*Nta^ or tfcsn^ — — 

dhenos or °nvds dhenubhydm dhenubhyas 

dhenos or °nvds dhenvos 

vtwor v|«<W x — 
dhenau or °nvdm dhenvos 

dheno dhenu dhenavas 



dhenundm 

dhenushu. 70. 





SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


N. 
Ac 


. (van 


«anmi. 58. 


varmi 


madhu 


madhuni 


madhuni 


I. 


| vdrind 


vdribhydm 


vdribhis 


madhund 


madhubhydm madhubhis 


D. 


| vdrine 


— WTft»m 
vdribhydm vdribhyas 


madhune 


madhubhydm madhubhyas 


Ab 


* ( vdrinas 


vdribhydm vdribhyas 


madhunas 


madhubhydm madhubhyas 


G. 


( vdrinas 


wonwos 


vanndnj.58. 
vdrishu. 70. 


madhunas 
madhuni 

»^orwt 
madhu or ma 


madhunos 


madhundm 


L. 


( vdrini 


variwos 


madhunos 


madhushu. 70 


V. 


( vdri or vdre vdrini 




Wo madhuni 






115. The Vedic Ac.pl 


. may be madM. 









INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 89 

1 1 6. Neuter nouns in i and u follow the analogy of nouns in in at 139, except 
in G. plur. and V. sing. 

a. *IT>J n. ' summit,' ' ridge,' optionally substitutes ^ in all cases except the first 
five inflexions. 

117. There are not many substantives declined like agni and vdri (81), but 
nouns like mati are numerous (81. II). Moreover, adjectives like su6i, and com- 
pound adjectives in i, are declined like agni in masc, like mati in fem., and like 
vdri in neut. 

118. Again, there are few substantives declined like dhenu and madhu, yet many 
simple adjectives like tanu and pipdsu (82), all compound adjectives in u, are de- 
clined like bhdnu in the masc, like dhenu in the fem., and like madhu in the neut. 

a. Many adjectives in u, however, either optionally or necessarily follow nadi in 
fem.; as, tanu, 'thin,' makes Nom. fem. either tanus or tanvi; fj?, 'tender,' makes 
Nom. f. !pft mridvi; and TOT, 'heavy,' *I^f gwrvi ; and some optionally lengthen 
u in the fem. j as, bMru, 'timid,' makes fem. >ft?\ or *ffe, declinable like nouns 
in u, 125. 

1 19. When feminine nouns in i and u form the last member of a compound 
adjective, they must be declined like agni in masc, and vdri in neut. Thus alpa r 
mati, ' narrow-minded,' in the Ac. plur. masc. would be alpa-matin; fem. alpa- 
matis; neut. alpa-matmi. 

Similarly, a masc or neut. noun, at the end of a comp., may take a fem. form. 

a. Although adjectives in i and u are declined like vdri and madhu for the neut., 
yet in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., and in the G. L. du., they may optionally follow 
the masculine form ; thus sudi and tanu will be, in D. sing, neut., 5Jrfl«t or 9T^4, 
if H'n or tT»TW; and so with the other cases. 

120. **fiij sakhi, m. 'a friend,' has two stems, *H3T*Tfor the Strong cases (see 
135. a), and ^fe for the others ; thus, N. WJT, W^W, *twm^ ; Ac. W3TVT, 

**sn^, wfci;; 1. *wr, ^f^ur, sftrfa^; d. *&, *fer*nH, srftfwi^; 
Ab. *reg^, *fisi«n*T, ^fes^; g. ^5^, *^ftq;, wtar* ; l. *^, *^rtat;, 

■HpWti ■ V. TO?, W^TTr, 'tKsfl*!^. Hence it appears that sakhi in some cases 
assumes the terminations at 91 more regularly than agni. In the rest it follows 
agni. 

Obs. — The feminine TO^, ' a female friend,' is declined like «^K 

121. Vfd m. 'a master,' 'lord' (iroois), when not used in a compound word, 
follows sakhi at 120 in I. D. Ab. G. L. sing, (thus, I. 'tiTT, D. HW, Ab. G- ^^i 
L. W) ; in the other cases, agni. But pati is more usually found at the end of 
compounds, and then follows agni throughout (thus, *J.Tffl«u ' by the lord of the 
earth '). 

Obs. — The feminine of iftT is 'f^patni, declinable like T^t. 

122. A few neuter nouns, ^fel n. ' a bone ' (o'oreoii), ^lt%f n. ' an eye ' (oeulus, 
6K0(), *rfeRT n. 'a thigh,' ^fVn. 'coagulated milk,' drop their final i in I. sing, and 
remaining weak or vowel-cases, and are declined in those cases as if derived from 
obsolete forms in an, such as ^tW^, &c (cf. ndman at 152); thus, 

N 



90 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

^ifiOT ' a bone :' N. V. Ac. *%, ^rfepft, ^ftfiT J I. ^T, ^fawn*, &c. ; 
D. ^|, ^rfiOTHlT*, &c. ; Ab. ^f^, &c. ; G. ^^, ^ffy "^FU L. ^rffcf 
or ^TWftr, 'STOpJ, 'Jlf^. 

Hence, ^iftj, ' an eye,' will be in I. sing. 4liyiJIJ in D. ^^S, &c. (see 58). 



Nouns ending in \i and ~m u. 

123. Besides the feminines of adjectives and participles, &c, 
declined like nadi at 105 (cf. 80. XI), there are a few common 
monosyllabic words in long ^ i (generally roots used as substantives) 
'primitively feminine, i. e. not derived from masculine substantives 
(see 82. XV), whose declension must be noticed separately. They 
vary from the declension of rf^ (105) by forming the Nom. with ^, 
and using the same form for the Voc, and by changing the final i 
to iy before the vowel-terminations; thus, 

^ft f. 'prosperity:' N.V. ?ft^, fispn, ftsPI^; Ac. p4N*J, ftiPCT, f*SI*H^; 

I. ftnrr, ^rlwn*, ^rH>r^; d. ftp* or fore, ^ftwiw, ^sftwi^; Ab. fore^ or 
forera(, ^rfan^, sftwi^; g. fore^ or fount^, Hai *ilt^, forew or ^ftarpr; 
l. forfa. or forerw, foi^t^, ^ftw. 

a. Similarly, »tf f. 'fear,' ^ f. 'shame,' and >ft f. 'understanding;' thus, N.V. 
tffy fW, fire^; Ac. fiWH, &c. ; I. firei, &c. ; D. ftrq or fire, &c. 

b. Jgfl f., ' a woman ' (not being itself a root like the examples above), follows 
•Ti^ in N. V. sing., and varies also in other respects ; thus, N. ^, f^gpCT, f^cf-M*^; 
V. %, %^, %PW[; Ac. ^ta or %VT, %^, ^fK or fw&(; I. fWtl, 

*tf*n\, ^6*U d. %r, ^gW^, Wfrt^; Ab. %TTO[, ^WITH, wt*n{; 
g. %rrc^, %^, ^pfNrpR ; l. %renr, fi^iTi^, ^hr. 

As the last member of a compound adjective, it shortens its final, and in some of 
its cases follows agni and matij e. g. 

^rfw%fm.f. n. 'surpassing a woman:' N. masc. -%Pl> ~%P'T> ~WH > Ac. 
-fW{ or -%*»*, -%^» "^H or -ffo^; I. -%UIT, -%«TT»I, &c. ; D. -^, 
&c; Ab. -^, &c; G. -qfa, -(fc(^, -^fhm»Tj L. -*#, &c; V. -^, &c. 
The fem. form is like the masc, but Ac. pi. -^ffa^or -(^pf<^; I. - P^HI ; D. -f^l 
or -W*l Ab. -fi^n^ or -^(^, &c. For neut., see 126. j. 

124. A few primitively feminine words not monosyllabic, such as riHjfl 'the 
goddess of prosperity,' TT^t ' a lute-string,' Trf* 'a boat,' like ?ft, take s in the 
Nom. sing., but in other respects follow «Tc(t; thus, N. rtBjfl^ , rift,mt , c5^HTO; 
Ac. rtaffl'i) &o. ; V. t3fo|r. 

Obs.— Analogously in the Veda ^ft'a she-wolf (Rig-v.1. 117, 18), and (accord- 
ing to some authorities) ftflgt ' a lioness,' make N. sing, ^ft^, fifefa. 

ButnWf. 'the brilliant (goddess),' as a derivative fem. noun, is N. sing.^ft. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 91 

1 25. Feminine nouns in long 3i w, not monosyllabic, are declined 
like primitively feminine nouns of more than one syllable in ^ i, i. e. 
like 7$^¥t, they follow the analogy of nadi except in N. sing., where 
s is retained. In the other cases '5 u becomes v, wherever § i is 
changed to y (see 34) ; thus, 

^' a wife:' N. gig^, =t«fl, ^«ra[; Ac. g^r, lajl, 3^$; I. ^«n, 
«^wn«, ^ftt^; D. n*k, ^*rtjt, ^«^; Ab. msr\, tv$*n\, ^*i^; 
G. n&n^, ?*£[% ^ut; L. *?«rw, ^raffy ^5; V. ^r*j, ^sft, gssi^. 

Similarly, ^f. 'a host;' *5P* f. *a mother-in-law.' 

a. Again, monosyllabic words in u primitively feminine are de- 
clined analogously to ?ft f. at 133; u being changed to uv, wherever 
i is changed to iy ; thus, 

>J.f. 'the earth:' N. V. >J^, $$, >J^; Ac. >^«T, itf, ^^; I. »pn, 
>jwit^, $faq;; D. ^ or »jt, »j«nJi, ijyq^,- Ab. ^^ or »pmr, $wm, 
>$**; G. iprer or ^re, fl^W, ^^TWor $?n*; L. >jfa or ^T*i, ^(, >jt|. 

Observe that the V. is like the N. 

b. Similarly, ^f. 'the eye-brow' (6(ppv<;) : N.V. ^T, ff^, ^^, &c. 

126. Roots of one syllable ending in i and 4, used as masc. or fern, nouns, follow 
the declension of monosyllabic words in / and 4, such as ^ft at 123 and if. at 125.0.' 
but in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., G. pi., take only the first inflexion ; thus, 

■aft m. f., ' one who buys,' makes D. fstm only for m. and f., and ^t m. f., ' a 
reaper,' makes D. <gq only for m. and f. 

a. The same generally holds good if they have adjectives prefixed to them; 
thus, Tiwait m. f. ' the best buyer ' (N. V. -'afar, -fWw, -fal^f ; Ac. -f*aiH«, &c.) 

b. And when they are compounded with another noun as a dependent term they 
generally change their final i and 4toy and v, before vowel-terminations, and not 
to iy and uv (unless /and 4 are preceded by a double consonant, as in <<^s*T 'a buyer 
of barley'), thus conforming more to the declension of polysyllables ; e.g. 

»H3tft (for tfpJMI) m. f., ' a water-drinker,' makes N.V. ^rai^, -^j -~^J 
Ac. *TrfmH , -'B^, -T*mj I. '5R5TttT, -tfiwiTiT, &c.; D. W<5^, &c; Ab. SfcOTT, 
&c. ; G. HcJUJ*^, -WrtT , &c. ; L. alrtf»H (in opposition to 31), &c. 

So also, 5ETc5^m.f. 'a sweeper:' N.V. fW^, -w, -1^5 Ac. ««ki^, &cj 
I. WcfBCI, Sec; L. ^c5ft?, &c. : ^(5 'one who cuts well;' N.V. l^.-W, -^f. 

c. Similarly, ^T>J,m. f. 'a frog,' f»J.m. 'a thunderbolt,' cRT>J.m. 'a finger- 
nail,' ipj&m. f. 'born again ' (N.V. ffi|^; Ac. -*f*, &c. ; I. -vfT; D. -^f; Ab. 
G. -*t^( , -fi^t. But if the sense is limited to a distinct female object, as a virgin 
widow remarried,' the D. will be -^; Ab. G. -«h^; L. -*b»^, like ^). 

d. Similarly also* ^•TTTT' m. 'a general,' ITWBft m. f. 'the chief of a village;' 
but these, like «T^, take dm for the termination of the L. sing, even in masc. ; 

thus, n. v. %4i<iUi, -*»h -■*&(•, Ac. -^i*r, &c.j 1. -*n; l. &ttot^, tftRrfy 

n a 



92 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

*RT«fti|, &c. This applies also to the simple noun »ft m. f. 'a leader,' but the 
final becomes iy before vowel-terminations. 

e. But ^*l*£,and ^*J,m. 'self-existent,' as a name of Brahma, follow *J.at 
125. a, taking only the first inflexions; thus, D. -^', Ab. "^f^j &c. 

/. Masculine non-compounds in /and it of more than one syllable, like MSI m. 
'who drinks ' or 'cherishes,' 'the sun,' f[|[ m. 'a Gandharva,' follow *lc«»Ml and 
HJcS^at 126.I, except in Ac. sing, and pi.; thus, N. V. MMI^, W, trn^; Ac. 
Trt'Jj Ton, MMl«^; and in L. sing, the final i combines with the i of the termination 
into ^(31), not into yi; thus, L. sing. T<ft (but 'gfd? from ^^). Again, qiimil 
m. 'an antelope ' (surpassing the wind), as a compound, may follow jIc^HTJ but 
Vopadeva makes Ac. sing, and pi. follow tprt. When such nouns have a feminine, 
the Ac. pi. ends in s; thus ^THS m. f., tawny,' makes -«ii<si«^for the Ac. pi. fem. 

g. A word like inft f. ' superior understanding ' (formed from the compound 
verb TP*J), when used as a fem. noun, is treated as a polysyllable, and follows 
sTWTT, except in D. Ab., &c, where it takes the second inflexions (D. sing. TPA, 
&c.) But when used adjectively, in the sense ' having superior understanding,' 
it follows »lrt*fl throughout, both for masc. and fem., but may optionally for the 
fem. be declined like the fem. substantive. The Voc. fem. may be TD^( or irfv. 

Two rare nouns, ^^t ' one who loves pleasure ' and ?prt ' one who wishes for a 
son,' also follow *irtHl, but in Ab. G. sing, make ^JWj «J*J*(/ 

h. Monosyllabic nouns primitively feminine (like *ft f., ^\ f., ^f\ f., at 123, 
^f. the eye-brow '), forming the last member of a compound adjective, still follow 
the declension of monosyllables, but use the first inflexions only in the D. Ab. G. 
%>• cases and G. plur. for the masc, and may optionally use them for the fem.; 
thus, N. »TiJ»fl^ m. f., 'fearless,' is TJt6t^ only in D. sing, m., -iW^ or -fiw in 
D. sing. f. So also, ?J^ m. f. 'intelligent,' ^S^ m. f. 'having pure thoughts,' 
g>ff m. f. 'stupid,' 5J?ft m. f. 'having good fortune,' *J^m. f. 'having beautiful 
brows ;' thus, N. V. ^^, -^, -^\, Ac. *T$^, &c. According to Vopadeva, 
the Voc. f. may be *|*|, and this form occurs once in the Bhatti-kavya. 

i. Words necessarily feminine {nitya-str(-linga), such as hwradri, ' a girl,' Gaurt, 
'the goddess Gauri,' &c. (not like SJT'toT', which may be masc. and fem.), retain 
their nadi character (Pan. 1. 4, 3), even though they afterwards assume another 
sense which makes them masculine. This may happen in a compound, as in 

^|^tf?ft m. 'a man of many excellences :' N. «f^'*N*il, -W, -BTO J V. -ftt, 
&c. ; Ac. -*ft^, -*ft, -tffcj; I. --PJT, -tfwTOT, &c. ; D. -#, &c. ; Ab. G. -^T^, 
&c. ; L. -WW, &c. 

Or in words not compounded, as jn ^Wft 'a man who acts like a girl,' N. masc. 
^HT^. But these differ in Ac. sing, and pi. (^«?ni«T, f «mft^). Cf. the name 
Gopdla-sarasvaU in Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

Also like bahu-heyasi (but N. sing, will end in VQ, ^fririHjft m. f. ' one who has 
surpassed Lakshmi,' ^n^WESft m. f. ' deprived of fortune,' ^rfir^m. f. 'victorious 
over hosts ' (N. 'arfir^^, -isd, -*^; V. -g ; Ac. -^T, -*ft, -lj^, Ac. pi. f. -^; 
I. -*n, -^wil^, &c. ; D. -l|, &c. ; Ab. -T^, &c.) ; but these three may follow 
Vopadeva's declension of ^TTTIflft at 126,/. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 93 



j. Adjectives ending in i and 4 shorten the final vowel for the neuter, and follow 
vdri; but in the I. D. Ab. G. and L. cases they may optionally take the masc. 
terminations; thus, N. V. sing. neut. lirfW; I. JlrfiHHI or Tfff»Tm; D. *Tirf»1% 
or mrfH^, &c. N.V.Ac, sing, ^rafti; I. 'SJWftRT or - , nrr,&c. N.V.Ac.^?5g; 
I. -TpTT or -T^T. N. V. Ac. «r^<4i*lfa; I. -SpjftPTT or -'«1IWI; D. -<4WftM or 
-■W^, &c. N. V. Ac. KXH^H; I- -ftJTI or -Wfl. 

Fourth Class in ^ ri. 

This class answers to oorrip, iraTTjp, pater, &c. ; ri being equivalent to ar.- and 
it is remarkable, that ddtdram, ddtdras, Sec, bear the same relation to pitaram, 
pitaras, &c, that oorypa, fioTYjptf, SoTypi, &c, bear to irarepa, irenepef, icartpi, 
&c. Compare also the Latin datoris from dator with patris from pater. 

137. Masculine stems in ri, like ^TJ ddtri, m. ' a giver/ and ftrj 
pitri, m. 'a father.' The former is the model of nouns of agency 
(83) ; the latter, of nouns of relationship. 

In nouns of agency like ddtri the final ri is vriddhied (28), and in nouns of 
relationship like pitri (except naptri, ' a grandson,' and svasri, a sister ') gunated, in 
the Strong cases (see 135) ; but the r of dr and ar is dropped in N. sing., and to 
compensate in the last case a is lengthened. In both, the final ri is gunated in 
L. V. sing., and ur is substituted for final ri and the initial a of as in Ab. G. sing. 
In Ac. G. pi. final ri is lengthened, and assumes n in G. pi. Hence the inflective 
stems ddtri, ddtar, ddtar, ddtri, ddturj pitri, pitar, pitri, pitur. 

Junction of stem with terminations : s is elided at the end of a conjunct conso- 
nant after r; hence in Ab. G. ddturs and piturs become ddtur and pitur. See 41. 1. ' 



N. 

Ac, 

I. 

D. 

Ab. 

G. 

L. 

V. 



SING. 

[data 


DUAL. 

ddtdrau 


PLURAL. 

ddtdras 


SING. 

flTTT 
pita 


DUAL. 

Arc* 

pitarau 


PLURAL. 

pitaras 
pitrin 


[ddtdram ddtdrau 


ddtrin 


pitaram pitarau 


[ ddtrd 


ddtribhydm ddtribhis 


pitrd 


pitribhydn 


t pitribhis 


[ ddtre 


ddtribhydm ddtribhyas 


pitre 


pitribhydn 


6 pitribhyas 


\ ddtur 


ddtribhydm ddtribhyas 


pitur 


pitribhydn 


t pitribhyas 


\ ddtur 


ddtros 


ddtrindm. 58. 


pitur 


pitros 


pitrindm. 58 


| ddtari 


ddtros 


ddtrishu. 70. 


ftraft: 

pitari 


pitros 


pitrishu. 70. 


1 ddtar 


<WltJ 
ddtdrau 


ddtdras 


pitar 


fMrfO 
pitarau 


firing 
pitaras 



94 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

128. Pitri seems to be a weakened form oipdtri, 'a protector' (pd, to protect'). 
The cognate languages have preserved the root in nar^p, pater, father,' &c. 
The Latin Jupiter, however, is literally Dyu-pitar, or rather Dyaush-pitar, 'father 
of heaven.' It is clear that stems like ddtri, pitri, &c, originally ended in ar. 

a. «TJf naptri, ' a grandson ' (thought by some to be derived from na, not/ and 
pdtri, ' a protector '), is declined like ^T^ ddtri. 

b. There are a few nouns in ri expressing neither relationship nor agency. 

^ nri, m. ' a man,' is said to be declined like pitri; thus, N. "Hind, Ac. 1*.^, 
I. ^T, J). %, Ab. G. ^, &c. But the forms ^T, %, ^ are seldom, if ever, used . 
The following forms certainly occur : N. sing. «TT, Ac. »{CT ; N. Ac. du. «TOj 
I. D. Ab. 5JWITJ?, G. L. *rify N. pi. TO^, Ac. ^, D. Ab. ?J*J^, G. ^TI^ or 
WffTT, L. ^n. In the I. D. G. L. sing., the corresponding cases of «TC are gene- 
rally substituted. 

c. siitTr m., ' a jackal,' must form its Strong cases (except V. sing.) and may form 
its Weak cases (135) from rOtS . N. tStST, -FT^, -VW^; Ac. -?TC^, -CTCT, -f«t 
or -^qr; I. -'gT or -|^T, -fwrm, &c. ; D. -£ or -V§, &c. ; Ab. -f^or -ft^, &c; 
G. -^ or -Trt^, -If^or -f^, -\W\\ or -fTl*; L. -T?ft or -OT, &c; V. -OT. 

As the last member of a compound adjective, in the neuter, Tm% alone is used. 

d. Nouns like T!ra m. ' a charioteer,' ?TO m. ' a carpenter,' n^ m., ^t^ m., *IT^ 
m. ' different kinds of priests,' *u3 m. ' a warrior,' of course, follow ddtri. But 
«°M| m., 'a charioteer,' follows pitri. 

139. Feminine stems in ^ ri belong to nouns of relationship, 
like mdtri, 'a mother ' (from ma, 'to create,' 'the producer'); and 
only differ from pitri in Ac. pi., which ends in s instead of n; 
thus, JlTira. Compare fi-h^np, f-ITepa, Voc. MTep. 

a. ^W svasri, a sister,' exceptionally follows '^Til ddtri ; but the Ac. pi. is still 
13^l]H. The lengthening of the penultimate in the Strong cases is probably caused 
by the loss of the t from tri, preserved in the English sister. So soror for sostor. 

b. The feminine stem of nouns of agency is formed by adding ^ i 
to the final ^J ri ; thus, ^TiJ + f , ^Vift ddtri, f. ' a giver ;' and «R^ + ^, 
wrff f. 'a doer.' Their inflexion follows nadi at 105. 

130. The neuter stem is thus declined : N. Ac. «JT^, <}lrf*!lft, ^ITjfiU; V. ^TTTCor 
!J[T^. The rest may conform to vdri at 114, or resemble the masc. ; thus, I. t}I3TI 
or ^T^ROT, &c. But neuter stems in ^ ri belong generally to nouns of agency or 
of relationship, when used at the end of compound adjectives, such as ifg^lri bahu- 
ddtri, 'giving much,' or f^pnij divya-mdtri, agreeing with neuter words like 
^«, i. e. ' a family having a divine mother,' or f^TTI^ ' having two mothers ' 
(compare tifxvjTap). Their declension may resemble that of vdri at 114, or con- 
form to the masc. in all cases but the N.'V. Ac. ; thus, N. Ac. ^TiJ, ^Tipoft, ^Tiffin ; 
V.^or^nt^&c; I.^lftUTor^rar.&c; D.^T^or^T#, &o. ; Ab.G.^U^ 
or tfTjJ^, &c. ; L. ^ftf or ^TKft, &c. N. Ac. -Hl^, -Jffpft, -Jffijfrj ; V. -ITTrJ 
or ->ffiT^, &c; I. ->H^!IT or -fn^T, &c. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 95 

Nouns ending in 5* ai, ^ft o, ^ au. 
131. We may notice here a few monosyllabic nouns in $, <sft, 
and ^, not sufficiently numerous to form separate classes. 

132. T rai, m. f. ' substance,' ' wealth ' (Lat. res) : N. V. tl^, TI^, TT^; Ac. 

tt*w, &c. ; i. vm, TT»n^, tifi^ (rebus) ■, d. tj^, nan*, ttwi^; Ab. tnrei;, 
&c. ; g. tmq;, rnft^, TT*n*; l. *rftt, tuify tig. 

I 33- ^90, ra. f. 'a cow' or 'ox' (bos, jSouf), 'the earth:' N. V. »^W, »TT^, 

»rnrq;; Ac. m*, m^, *n^; i. v&t, ntwn^, jftfaq;; d.ji%,&c. ; Ab.nfy&c; 

G. lfa[, T^, ^H ; L. nf% (bovi), Vftt^, ntg. Compare nPJ with 7071/. 
a. Tsft rfyo, f. ' the sky,' follows nt ; thus, N. V. 3^, m$, STR^; Ac. STPT* 

srntf , srr^; i. snrr, ^ftwrnr, sftf>w(; d. g^, & c . The Vedic n. du. is smrr. 

134. «TT »<ra, f. 'a ship' (cf. natns, vain;), is declined at 94, taking the termina- 
tions with perfect regularity. With the N. pi. ndvas, compare naves, vaes (vyes). 
The gen. vyos for vou>s or vaF oj = ndvas. 

Similarly may be declined *Jf m. ' the moon :' N. glaus, gldvau, gldvas, &c. 

a. The above nouns sometimes occur at the end of compounds; as, ^?T'rich,' 
N. m. f. =f^U*l N , &c; ^?«ft 'having many ships,' N. m. f. 4|4lH, & c . The 
neuter is "^ftj ^RJ » °^ wmGn * ae I* 18 *- cases will be ^ffcHT, '"f^*" ; and so 
with the other cases : the masc. forms being equally allowable in =ITft throughout, 
except in N. Ac. V. sing. du. pi. ; e. g. ^fi3BT or =J?'OTT. 

b. In the case of go, a cow,' the compound seems always formed with gu; e.g. 
dvi-gu, us, us, u, worth two cows ;' paAda-gu, bought with five cows ;' s'ata-gu, 
'possessing a hundred cows.' 

Section II.— LAST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS. 

Inflexion of Nouns, Substantive and Adjective, whose stems end 

in consonants. 
135. The last four classes of nouns, though including substantives, 
consist chiefly of adjectives, participles, or roots at the end of adjective 
compounds. All masc. and fem. nouns under these remaining classes 
regularly take the terminations at 91. Neut. nouns take the substi- 
tutions at 97 in N. Ac. du. pi. 

a. The case-terminations are here repeated with Bopp's division 
into Strong, Weaker, and Weakest, as applicable especially to nouns 
ending in consonants (though not to all of these even). The Strong 
cases will be here denoted by the letter S ; the Weaker, sometimes 
called Middle, will be denoted by M ; and the Weakest by w. In 
those nouns which distinguish between Strong and Weak cases only, 
the Weak will be marked by both M and w. 



96 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

SINGULAR. M. F. N. DUAL. M. If. N. PLURAL. M. F. N. 

Nom.Voc.^(S),(Neut.M) ^aw(S), (Neut.w) ^as (S), (Neut. S) 

Ace. vi am (S), (Neut. M) —au (S), (Neut. w) — as (w), (Neut. S) 

Inst, m a (w) vwM^bhydm (M) fSfl^oAi* (M) 

Dat. *re(w) — • bhydm (M) vtf^bhyas (M) 

Abl. ^as (w) — bhydm (M) — Myas (M) 

Gen. — as (w) ^ft^ os (w) ^nT a» (w) 

Loc. ^ i (w) — o* (w) ^su (M) 

The Vocative, though identical with the Nom. in the dual and 
plural, has sometimes a peculiar form of its own in the singular 

(see 93). 

b. Panini always considers the Nom. sing. masc. as having the termination s, 
which is supposed to retain its effect, though it experiences lopa (cutting off); but 
in the N. Ac. Voc. sing. neut. there is Ink of the terminations s and am, i. e. these 
terminations disappear altogether (Pan. vn. 1, 23). 

c. The terms artga, pada, bha (the first two of which have also 
general meanings, see 74 with note) are applied in a restricted sense 
to different forms of the Pratipadika or stem as modified by the 
above terminations ■ or by suffixes ; thus, the stem is called artga 
before the terminations of the so-called Strong cases or Panini's 
sarva-ndma-sthdna (viz. the Nom. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing, and du. 
of masc. and fem. nouns, and the Nom. and Ac. pi. of neuter nouns, 
see the above table) ; pada * before the terminations of the Middle 
cases (viz. bhydm, bhis, bhyas, and su), as well as before Taddhita 
suffixes beginning with any consonant except y (Pan. 1. 4, 17) ; 
bha before the terminations of the Weak cases beginning with vowels 
(except of course the artga terminations mentioned above), as well 
as before Taddhita suffixes beginning with vowels and y (see Pan. 
1. 4, 18). 

d. A stem is made strong by lengthening the vowel of the last 
syllable, or by inserting a nasal, e.g. yuvan, yuvdn; dhanavat, dha- 
navant : and made weak by eliminating one or more letters, e.g. 
yuvan, yun; pratyafii, pratid. 

e. It should be noted that the Ac. pi., and in neuter nouns the 



* Probably so called because the laws of Sandhi which come into operation at 
the junction of separate words (pada) in a sentence generally hold good before 
the terminations of the Middle cases. 



INFLEXION" OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 9T 



Inst, sing:, is. generally the guide to the form assumed before the 
remaining vowel-terminations. 

f. This division of cases has not been noticed before, because it 
is of no real importance for stems ending in vowels. That it applies 
to stems ending in ri is accounted for by the fact that these originally 
ended in ar. 

Fifth Class in yi f and <r d. 

This class answers to Latin words like comes (stem comit-), eques (stem equit-), 
ferens (stem ferent-) ; and to Greek words like %a/»? (stem %aptT-), tcepaf (stem 
Kepar-), kkitU (stem eXict^-), yapius (stem yapi&n~). 

136. Masculine and feminine stems in jit and ? d, like ^fcr harit, 
m. f. ' green ' (declined at 95), and nfn^sarit, f. 'a river/ and the 
compound V*tfe^ dharma-vid, m. f. ' knowing one's duty' (see 84. IV). 
Observe — The Nom. sing, is properly harits, dharrna-vits, but s is rejected by 
41. I. The same applies to all nouns ending in consonants. So euotjfuev for 
a/SijjU.o»f. Latin and Greek, when the final of the stem refuses to combine with 
the s of the Nom., often prefer rejecting the final of the stem; thus, %«/"£ for 
yapng, comes for comitsj and in these languages the final consonant frequently 
combines with the s of the Nom., as in lex (for leks), ^Ao£.(for (pXoKf), 



N.V, 



Ac. 



I. 



D. 



Ab. 



I sarit saritau 
\saritam saritau 



PLVRAL. 

saritas 
saritas 



saridbhydm saridbhis 
saridbhydm saridbhyas 



\ saritd 
( sarite 

( saritas saridbhydm saridbhyas 
saritas saritos saritdm 



SING.. 

-vit 



DUAL. 

-vidau 



PLURAL. 

-vidas 



-vidam -vidau 



-vidbhydm -vidbhis 

-vide -vidbhydm -vidbhyas t 

-fif^ — — 

-vidas -vidbhydm -vidbhyas 

-vidas -vidos -viddm. 

-vidi -vidos 



saritos saritsu 

137. Neuter stems in i(t and ^ d, like ^ti^harit, n. 'green/ v*fif^ 
dharma-vid, n. ' knowing one's duty/ and ^ij^ kumud, n. ' a lotus/ 

These only differ from the masculine, and feminine in the N. du. pi., Ac. sing, 
du. and pi., the usual neuter terminations ^ 6 ^ i (see 97), being required, and, 
n being inserted before the final of the stem in N. Ac. pi. ; thus,, 

o 



98 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

N. Ac. V. ^ft^ harit, fftjfft hariti, ^fiftr harinti ; I. ^fcn hartttij 
f ftsn\ haridbhydm, &c, like masc. and fem. 

N. Ac. V. V#f^, tfRfaft, V*fafi?; I. ^f^T, &c 
Similarly, N. Ac.V. fg^, ^f£, fgft?; L 19^ & c - 

138. All nouns at 84. II-IV. follow ^ft^and vf ft^- 

139. ^ hrid, n. "the heart,' is said to be defective in the first fire inflexions,' 
these cases being supplied from hridaya (see 108. e). 

140. Possessive adjectives formed with the suffixes ^-ra/ (84. VII) 
and KT^-mat (84. VI), like V-T^ dhana-wat, 'rich,' and vtfll^ dhi-mat, 
' wise/ are declined like harit for the masculine ; but in the, Strong 
cases (see 135. a) n is inserted before the final of the stem. 

In N. sing, dhunavdn for tihanavants, ts is rejected by 41. 1, and the final vowel 
of the stem lengthened by way of compensation. 

N. vnm«^ dhanavdn VtHtft dhanavantau V«H»d^ dhanavanta* 

Ac. V«Hil*< dhanavantam — dhanavantau iHNri^ dhanavatas 
I. VT=nrr dhanavatd, VPTSTW dhanavadbhyam, &c, like Aarof. 
V. *|«H«^ dhanavan, &c. 

Similarly, TfbriT 'wise:' N. vfar^, tfl*t»dT, *flH»H^; Ac. vtoilH, 
"*TI»<»Hf, *fbnrc^, &c ; V. sjfaf^, &c. 

a. Like dhana-vat are declined Past Active Participles, such as ejinqn one who 
has done ' (533) ; thus, N. masc. ejflqi^, ejicHiii, "jitlfi^, &c. 

6. The feminine stems of adjectives like Vl^ti and vrnV, and Participles like 
cnnqn, are formed by adding ^ { to the Weak form of the masc. stem ; as, V«l*»»fl, 
*flHtfi, ^iHifi, declined like •T^t at 105 ; thus, N. V^Rfft, *M4i<ir, *M<li<l'4(, &c. 

c. The neuter is like the neut. of harit: N. Ac. V. V*Ni{, *|«Hrf% \|«Hf*ri. 

141. Present Participles (524) like r^mpcdat, 'cooking/ and 
Future Participles (578) like cRfi^r^ karishyat, 'about to do/ are 
declined after dhanavat (140), excepting in the N. sing, masc, where 
a is not lengthened before n ; thus, 

N. V. sing. H'lr^padan (for patents), and not 'iMyi^paddn .• X. du. pi. M-M-dl, 
IT^T^; Ac. «HftM, T^^, ^H^; I. TT^rtT, &c. Cf. Latin and Greek Par-> 
ticiples M\ieferens,ferent-is,ferent-em, &c. ; <j>epa>v, <f>cpovr-of, ^>e/»0VT-a, &c. 

a. Observe, however, that all reduplicated verbs of the 3rd class and Frequen- 
tatives (but not Desideratives) ; a few verbs from polysyllabic roots (75. a), and 
pome few other verbs— such as »T^' to eat,' ^TI^ ' to rule '—which reject the nasal 
in the 3rd pi. Pres. of the Parasmai-pada, reject it also in the declension of the 
Pres. Participle. Hence the Pres. Participle of such verbs is declined like harit, 
the N. sing, being identical with the stem ; thus, fr. dd, cl. 3, ' to give,' N. V. sing, 
du* pi. dadat, dadatau, dadatas; Ac. dadatam, &c. : fr. bhri, cl. 3, 'to bear,' N.V. 
sing. du. pi. bibhrat, bibhratnu, bibhratas. So also, jdgrai, ' watching ' (fr. jdgri), 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 99 

sdsat, ' ruling ' (fr. s"ds), jakshat, ' eating ' (fr. jaksh). The rejection of the nasal 
is doubtless owing to the encumbrance of the syllable of reduplication. 

Obs. i. Quasi-reduplicated verbs of cl. I and Desideratives do not reject the nasal; 
e.g. tishthat, fr. sthd, 'to stand,' makes N. sing. du. pi. tishthan, tishthantau, tishthan- 
tas, &c. Similarly^'i^Ara*, fr. ghrd, 'to smell ;' jighrikshat, Desid. oigrah, 'to take.' 

Qbs. 2. The reduplicated verbs of cl. 3, &c., mentioned above, optionally reject the 
nasal from the N.V. Ac. pi. neut. ; thus, dadati or dadanti, jakshati ovjakshanti. 

But jag at, n. 'the world,' is only jaganti in N. Ac. pi. 

b, In Present Participles derived from verbs of cl. 1, 4, 10, a nasal is inserted 
for the feminine stem; thus, H^fft fr. tj^, c l. 1 (declined like nadi&t 105); and 
this nasal is carried through all the inflexions, not merely, as in the masculine, 
through the first five. So ^Nt^ft fr. div, cl. 4 ; and ^ffaHFtft fr. 6ur, cl. 10. 

Similarly with quasi-reduplicated verbs of cl. 1 and Desideratives ; e. g. tishthanti, 
fr. sthd ; jighranti, fr. ghrd; jighrikshanti, fr. Desid. of grah (cf. Obs. 1. above). 

The same conjugational classes also insert a nasal in the N. V. Ac. du. neut. as 
well as the pi.; thus, V^fl, Vm^, tt^ftjf. 

In all verbs of cl. 6, in verbs ending in d of the 2nd, and in all Participles of 
the 2nd Fut. Parasmai, the insertion of the nasal in the feminine is optional ; thus, 
tudatt or tudanti, fr. lud, cl. 6 ; ydti or ydnM, fr. yd, cl. 2 ; karishyati or karishyanti, 
fr. kri. It is also optional in the N. V. Ac. du. neut., which will resemble the Nom. 
sing. fern. ; thus, tudanti or tudati, ydnti or ydti, karishyanU or karishyati. 

c. Verbs of cl. 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 follow 140. b. c, and insert no nasal for feminine 
nor for N. Ac. V. du. neut. ; although all but cl. 3 assume a nasal in the first five 
inflexions in the masculine ; thus, adat (fr. ad, cl. 2) ; N. V. masc. adan, adantau, 
adantas ; fem. adati: juhvat (fr. hu, cl. 3) ; N. V. masc. juhvat, juhvatau, juhvatas; 
fem.juhvati: rundhat (fr. rudh, cl. 7) ; N. V. masc. rundhan, rundhantau, rundhan- 
tas ; fem. rundhati. The neut. will be N. Ac. V. adat, adati, adanti ,■ juhvat, du. 
juhvaH, but pi. juhvanti or juhvati (see 141. a). 

142. The adjective H?TI, 'great,' is properly a Pres. Part. fr. JTfmaft, 'to increase;' 
but its masculine lengthens the a of at before n in the N. Ac. sing., N. V. Ac. du., 
N. V. pi., and neuter in N. V. Ac. pi. ; thus, N. masc. *Tfl»^, *l^lill, Kgra^J 
Ac. fl^TnTT, H^lfll, TiHl^; I. fl^TTT, &c. ; V. H$[^, H^Iill, &c. : N. fem. H^lft, 
&c, see 140. a. b .• N, V. Ac. neut. IsTn^ *nnft, H^lP^ri. 

a. ^?TT m. f. n. ' great,' *PTn^m. f. n. ' moving,' f^m. f. ' a deer,' follow Pres. 
Participles; e.g.N. V. masc. 1^, ^^^n , f?^. Fem.^tft. Neut.^?^, &c. 

143. The honorific pronoun H^ (said to be for HT3T^ bhd-vat) follows V»m^ 
(at 140), making the a of at long in the N. sing. ; thus, H=Tt«^'your honour,' and 
not H^. The V. is W^. The fem. is >T^ift, see 233. 

H^'being,' Pres. Part, of $.' to be,' follows of course l^at 141. 

144. *WTT n. ' the liver ' (fynaf, jecur), and ^(ofi^n. ' ordure,' may optionally be 
declined in Ac. pi. and remaining cases as if their stems were H«K«^ and 5I3i«U 
thus, N. V. Hefn;, *Tf ifi, V^f>n; Ac. *If^, iTfift, *Tf fa or VM&1 ; I. *Tf KT or 
W, I^STTH or qwnil, ^fg^or S3ifa^; D. tf^ft or ITS, &c. 

O 2 



100 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

a. A defective noun ^is optionally substituted for ^ in Ac. pi. and remaining 
cases (see 183), and is often used at the end of compounds ; e. g. su-dat, ' having 
good teeth,' making N. masc. fem. neut. stir-dan, su-dati, sw-dat. 

145- ^ j ' a foot,' at the end of compounds becomes T^ in Ac. pi. and remaining 
Weakest cases ; thus, *pTT^> ' having beautiful feet,' makes in masc. N. V. $mi$» 

$qr<^, *pin^ Ac. *pn^ yn$> *p^; i. %^i giraur, fpTTfe^ &c. 

The fem. is ^t, like nadi at 105. Neut. N. V. Ac. ^TI^, *J1^t, ^T^- 

a. Similarly, ftPTT^, but according to Pan. iv. 1, 9, the fem. is dvi-padd, if agreeing 
with rik, 'a verse J 1 dvi-padi, if agreeing with strt, ' a woman.' So also lam^t &c. 



Sixth Class in *SR{ an and ^ in. 

"This class answers to Lat. and Gr. words like sermo (stem sermon-), homb (stem 
homin-), ftaipcov (stem &JU/A0V"). Latin agrees with Sanskrit in suppressing the n 
in N. masc. and fem., but not in neut. ; thus homo is N. of masc. stem homin, the 
stronger vowel being substituted for i, just as i is substituted for i in Sanskrit; 
but nomen is N. of the neut. stem nomin. 

146V Masculine and feminine stems in ^m an, of two kinds, A 
and B. 

• A. If an be preceded by m or v at the end of a conjunct conso- 
nant, then the model is -flM^ dtman, m. ' soul/ ' self.' 

B. But if an be preceded by m or v not conjunct, as in +ft*^ 
siman, f. (sometimes m.) 'a border,' or by any other consonant, 
whether conjunct or not, than m or v, as in dHH, takshan, m. 'a 
carpenter,' <l»i«^ rdjan, m. ' a king,' then the a of a» is dropped 
in the Ac. pi. and before all the other woweMerminations, and the 
remaining n is compounded with the preceding consonant. 

Obs. — In the Loc. sing, this dropping of a is optional. 

All nouns ending in an, lengthen the a in the Strong cases (V. sing, excepted) ; 
and drop the n before all the consonantal terminations (see 57). The inflective 
Stem will be dtman, dtmdn, dtma ; Simon, siman, si'mn (see above), si'mu. 

Junction of stem with termination : N. sing, n final of stem, and s case-termina- 
tion rejected by 57 and 41. 1 ; V. sing, case-termination rejected. 

A. B. 



\dtmd dtmdnau 
' [dtmdnam dtmdnau 



) 

rLURAL. 

dtmdnas 
dtmanas 



\dtmand dtmabhydm dtmabhis 



SING 

simd 



PLURAL. 

slmdnas 



*flHI«(f 
slmdnau 

simdnam slmdnau simnas 

simnd simabhydm slmabhis 



D 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 101 



[dtmane dtmabhydmdtmdb,hya,s 

Ab {^ nw, 'H — — 

'\dtmanas dtmabhydm dtmabhyas 

\dtmancts dtmanos 

L f^Twftr ■— 

\dtmuni dtmanos 



dtmandm 
dtmasu 



wiwTTq; 



simne 
simnas 



simabhydm simabhyas 

simabhydm simabhyas 
5^ *fl«m 



simnas simnos 

*ftfa or titafo — 
simni or simani simnos 

siman simdnau 



simnam 
simasu 



■^r j - ^ "^i wi*fr 

[n'taaB dtmdnau 

147. Like ^ir«n are declined <M»^ yajvan, m. 'a sacrificer' (e.g. N. 15fT, 
T3fn#» JWW^S Ac. '<HI^ *5tr^ *nf^5 I. ISf^T, &c.) J m^^man, 
m. sin;' ?I^oAi(», m. 'a stone;' TQKf^ushman, m. 'the hot season;' $pm 
ifushman, m. 'fire;' j^Sf^ brahman, m. 'the god Brahman;' ^TC«|«1[ adhvan, in. 'a 
road;' £4y«^efnsi«m, m. 'a looker.' 

Like tfta^are declined >|V^m. 'head' (I.«pfr,&c; L.*ff& or «$?(%, &c); *TN^ 
m.'fat'(Ac.pl.tf}^); ^P^m.'aloom ; ' ejftm^m. 'lightness' (I. WftWTs&c.) 

I48. Similarly, like tffor^, are declined ire^m. "a carpenter' and 
TT*|r|; m 4 * a king.' 

Obs. — In the inflexion of words like takshan, rdjan (which follow the B form siman 
in combining m and n), the dental n of the stem being combined with a cerebral or 
palatal is changed to the cerebral or palatal nasal respectively* See 57. c, 58. 



SING. 

N (** , 
\takshd 


DUAL. 

takshdnau 
1 takshdnau 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


DUAL. 
, ..... fii 


PLURAL. 


takshdnas 
takshnas. 58. 


TTWT 
rdjd 


nyaraaw 
rdjdnau 


rdjdnas 


" \ takshdnan 


rdjnas. 57. ft 


a Jin^jT 7refwiT»T Tf^rftr^ 
\ takshnd. 58. takshabhydm takshabhis 


rrgr 
rdjhd* 57. 


;. rdjdbhydm rdjabhis 


[ takshne 


takshabhydm iakshabhyas 




rdjabhydm rdjabhyas 


[ takshnas 


takshabhydm iakshabhyas 




rdjabhydm rdjabhyas 


\ takshnas 


takshnos 


iakshndm 


rq/nas 


rdjnos 




fw%I* 
\takshtii 

[ takshan 


takshnos 
takshdnau 


7T^ 

takshasu 


trfipt 

ra/wi 


rdjnos 

<.MMT 
ra/araaw 


^11 
rdjasu 


takshdnas 




rdjdnas 


* Or rTCjftiT takshani 


t 


Or TT5ff»T riijani. 





102 ^FLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

149. Masculine stems in W^, like *fN^ ^^, T3I^, generally 
form their feminines in *ttf (Pan. iv. 1, 7) ; e. g. nt*tf , fatt, *Hltf , 
declined like nadi at 105. 

150. When a feminine stem in \i is formed from words like TJ^, it follows 
the rules at 146, A. B. for the rejection of the a of an; thus, U3* rdjhi, 'a queen.' 

151. When rdjan occurs at the end of a compound, it may be declined like diva 
(103); as, N. sing. masc. mahdrdjas; Ac. mahdrdjam, &c. (of. 778) : but not neces- 
sarily, as bahu-rdjan, m. f. n. ' having many kings.' The fern, stem of which may 
be bahu-rdjan or bahu-rdjd or bahu-rdjni. 

153. Neuter stems in ^ an, like SRSq; * an action 5 and ^m^ 'a 
name' (nomen, ovo/ia*). 

Obs.— The retention or rejection of a in an before the Inst. sing, and remaining 
vowel-terminations, as well as optionally before the Norn. Ace. do., is determined 
by the same rule as in masculines and feminines (146. A. B). They only differ 
from masculine nouns in Nom. Voc. and Ace. sing. du. pi. 

SING. DUAIi. PLDBA1. 

N. j«BH «F^nft <*AlftiI 

Ac. ( karma karmani karmdni 

' I karmand karmabhydm karmabhis 



D. S ?**' &C * ! like dtman. 146. 
( karmane, &c. ) 

( karma or karman,&c. ) 



SI>'G. DUAL. PLUEAL. 

TR 1TOfror«(IH«fl HIHlfn 
noma °mnioT°mani ndmdni 

ndmnd ndmabhydm ndmabhis 



, like siman. 146. 
narrme, &c. ) 

^or^.&c ) UkeNAc> 
nama or na?nan,&c. ) 

153. Like «R*?«^ n. are declined *fl«^ 'birth,' «u»i«^ 'house,' ^*N^ ' armour,' 
"HSjq; ' prayer,' 'the Supreme Spirit,' <twfy'road,' ^^'leather,' s^w^' pretext,' 
Mq«^ ' a joint.' 

Like HW«^n. are declined ^l«l«\' string,' H W*{ ' conciliation,' Vi^' mansion,' 
•^W^'sky,' CUi*^ (for <jw«t_ rohman, from ruh), 'hair,' h*i«\ (also m.) 'love.' 

154. When nouns in an, man, and can form the last member of adjective com. 
pounds, the feminine may be declined like the masc, or its stem may end in a, 
and be declined like s'wd; the neuter follows the declension of neuter nouns at 
152. Those in an, if they follow the declension of siman and rdjan, may also form 
their feminine in (, rejecting the a of an, and be declined like nadi (Pan. iv. 1, 28). 

155. There are a few anomalous nouns in an, as follow : 

a. ^R^m. 'adog'(can!S,/cuw): N.'OT, W*f, HIMt^; Ac. mw«, "Ww, ^P^} 
L ^pTT, WTPT, ^fa^; D. ^%, &c; Ab. ^p% &c.j G.^pT^(*cwoV), ^ft^» 

* Greek has a tendency to prefix vowels to words beginning with consonants 
in the cognate languages. Cf. also nakha, 'nail,' ovvf; lagku, 'light,' ekoefci-s ; 
^'brow,' o<ppv-$. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 103 

W**V L " ^> T*^' ^ ' V - ^' ^T^* &0 - See m- «■ Fem. Sjptf, &c. 
(like nodi at 105). 

6. ^ m. ' a youth,' 'young :' N. ^T, ppft, gWT^; Ac. ^PPT, pmd, 

'J***; 1. ^n, 3^wn»r, x^fi^j d.^,& . ; Ab.^;,&c.; 0.3*^,3^, 

^TTH ; L. ^ftT, ^jfy fs|*j ; V. f^, f^, &c. See 135. a. Fern. ^tf (like 
nadi) or f^fiT (like ma<i). Neut. ^T, *sfi, g^fa, &c. 

c JTO^m.'anameof Indra:' N. HTPTT, -^T^, -?R^ ; Ac. HlHH^ -'srrql,; 

mfbr^; L»nr^n,nTR»iiH,-'sr6ni;; D.nrft%,jm*im,&c.; Ab.inft^&c.; 

G. KMln^, HiflttH, mffcfl*; L. JTsftftr, JTOtift^, »T«R^; V. Hn^, &c. Fern. 
H*fl<ft or mRTft. 

The last may also be declined like a noun in ra* .• N. ITOT^, -=TW, &c. See 140. 

156. isi^n., ' a day,' forms its N. Ac. V. sing. fr. ^1^. ahar, and the consonantal 
middle cases ft. ^^ahasj in the other cases it is like ndman j thus, 

N. Ac. V. ^ (41. 1), ^ or *V#, ^Tf!T; I. *TgT, ^WTH, ^fi«(; 
D. *j|, *«fU*mT, ^WTC(; Ab. ^^, &c; G. ^^, *£fo(, ^T*; L. ^?% 
or ^ftl, ^tjffc(, ^H-^ or ^f? :*J. At the beginning of compounds the form is 
generally ^Tjf^, as in ahar-niiam, ' day and night.' At the end of compounds it? 
may be declined as a masc. ; thus, N. ^TQl^l^, -^T^, -?TO*(.' Ac. -fTOH, &c.}, 
V. - ts*^, &c, or sometimes becomes ^T? or ^?Jf. 

a. r^qt^m., 'a day,' lengthens the i in those cases where the a of an is rejected ; 
thus, Ac. pi. ^f^', I. ^;JT, &c. 

b. ifcflM^ n., ' the head,' is said to be defective in N. sing. du. and pi. and Ac. 
sing, du., these cases being supplied from f$Tt^ n., or $ft§ 108. e. 

c. *ra»^ n., ' the liver,' and ^i<*»^ ' ordure,' are said to be defective in the first 
five inflexions, these cases being supplied from yakrit and Sakrit respectively, 
see 144. 

157. flMi^m., 'the sun,' does not lengthen a of an in N. du. pi., Ac. sing, du.; 
thus, 

n. ^rihn, ^i*N^, ^hjd^;; Ac.^juhjTj^^r^,^^!^; i.^rihnT,&c. 

a. Similarly, ^pqr ' the sun :' N. tf^T, ^TOT, &c. ; Ac. ^]TO^, &c. ; but the 
Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest cases, may be optionally formed from a stem 55 ; 
thus, Ac. pi. ^H!l^ or $5^. 

b. Similarly, compounds having -^ as the last member, such as ddt^m. 'the 
slayer of a Brahman:' N. sISI^I, ri4£IUT, &c; but in Ac. pi. sT3TTTC(; I. d«Hr, 
fHI^ATPT, &c. (A becoming gh where the a of han is dropped). 

158. ?I^ni. 'a horse,' or m. f. n. 'low,' vile,' is declined like nouns in vat 
at 140, excepting in N. sing. ; thus, N. ^I%T, ^cjitt, ^l%*iW[,' Ac. ^HbtTH, &c; 
I. ^nblT, ^tsJTW, ^iffk^J V. ^t*(, &c. If the negative ^ precedes, ^%«^is 
regular; thus, N. ^f5T%, «il5l«Ul, &c; Ac. ^R^BH, &c; I. pi. ^m^f*TC[. 

159. Masculine stems in ^in, like Xff^^dhanin, m. 'rich.' 

In N. sing, dhani for dhanins, n and s are rejected (by 57 and 41. 1), and the 
vowel lengthened by way of compensation. 



104 INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

SINGOLAB. DUAL. PLUBAL. 

N. xpftdhani vfirft dhanimu vfal^dhaninas 

Ac. vfiPTW dhaninam — dhaninau — dhaninas 

J- vftRT dhanind nfwi* dhanibhydm, tf. vfttft^ dhanibhis. 5?. 
D. vftl% dhanine — dhanibhydm vf«f»*m dhanibhyas. 57. 

Ab. vfHH^ dhaninas — dhanibhydm — dhanibhyas 

G. — dhaninas i&THt^dhaninos •qfaz^dhanmdm, 

L. vfrrfiT dhanini — dhaninas ifa^dhanishu. 70. 

V. vfa^ dhanin. 93. vfa«lT dhaninau vfin^ dhaninas 

Obs. — Many adjectives of the forms explained at 85. "VI. VIII. 
IX. are declined in masc. like vfir«^; thus, JhnfMj, medhdvin, 'intel- 
lectual;' N. HVpft, -foft, -fa?TC(, &c. Also numerous nouns of 
agency, like gilft^ ' a doer,' at 85. II ; thus, N. ^nfr, '.Slfoo! (58), 

160. The feminine stem of such adjectives and nouns of agency 
is formed by adding ^ i to the masc. stem ; as, fr. vftr^, Mfirat f. ; 
fr. ^Rrfts^, ^TftJlft f. ; declined like nadi at 105 ; thus, N. uChhI , -'aft, 
-*TC(, &c. 

161. The neuter is regular, and is like vdri as far as the Gen. pi. j 
N. Ac. vftl r vfipft, V*ftfJT. But the G. pi. vftRPT, not vhI^; 
V. sing, nfil or vfiw^. 

162. lf*J«^ m. 'a road,' iftl^ m. 'a churning-stick,' and ^^Pbj^ m. 'a name 
of Indra,' are remarkable as exhibiting both suffixes, an and in, in the same word. 
They form their N. V. sing, from the stems M*"^, H»«l^, ^jT^; their other ; 
Strong cases, from the stems s« , «i*t - , •t"'^, ^g«(»^; their Ac. pi., and remaining 
Weak cases, from the stems T*I, W*{, ^RfST ; in their Middle cases they follow 
dhanin regularly ; thus, 

N. V. V**!^ (163), Tir*rrsft, TJWTR^; Ac. TrnrppT, M-Vffnt, r^H^; I. ir«n, 
XjftjWTI^, ^iftlfa^; D. *T«l, &c. Similarly, N. V. MrVJI^, &c; ^»J^TC[, &c. : 
I. W(\, &c. ; ^>PST, &c. Observe— The V. is the same as the N. 

o. The compound *prftl«^, 'having a good road,' is similarly declined for the 
masc; the N. fern. is ^M-ffl, -**CT, -*»W(, like narffat 105; the neut. isN.Ac.*pftr, 
-tpift, -M'tuf-I, &c; V. ^Tftl^or 'g^ffa; the rest as the masc. 

Seventh Class in ^ as, ^ is, and ^ us. 
This class answers to Gr. and Lat. words like irafle?, /xevof , genus, scelus, &c. 
163. Masculine and feminine stems in VR^as, like ^5*^ dandra- 
mas, m. 'the moon.' 

In N. sing. ai is lengthened to compensate for rejection of the termination s,- 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUN'S ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 105 

idndramas becomes dandramo. by 64 before the terminations bhydm, bhis, bhyas; 
in L. pi. 6andrajnas-\-su becomes candramahsu by 63, or dandramassu by 62. a. 

N. -i"^ i^ dandramds ^5»iW dandramasau -"KHU^ dandramasas 

Ac. ■«i»T;«iW(5ara«?ra»iasam — dandramasau — dandramasas 

I. ^5HW dandramasd ^^V(m dandramobhydm ''sp^Htf'i^dandramobhis 
C ^t5*h| dandramase — dandramobhydm -^Hlm^ dandramobjiyas 

Ab.^^rm^dandramasas — dandramobhydm — dandramobhyas 
G. — dandramasas ^F$nihR(dandramasos H^HWIH dandramasdm 
L. -^hTh dandramasi — dandramasas l *&%*K^dandramaksu or -^g 

V. ^^H^<5awdfra»reas. 92. ^5*?OT dandramasau -4^HH*\ dandramasas 

a. Similarly, ^rot;^«psfflras, f. 'a nymph:' N. »amo^ , &c. 
164. Neuter stems in ^ff[ as, like nm^ manas, n. 'mind' (fievos, 
mens). 

These differ from the masc. and fem. in the N. Ac. V. The a of as remains 
short in N. sing, after the rejection of the case-termination s, but is lengthened 
in N. Ac. V. pi. before inserted Anusvara. 

N. Ac. V. *nT*( manas mflft manasi *r?ffftr mdndnsi 

I. inrcrr manasd, jnft«nn manobhydm, &c., like the masc. and fem. 

a. Obs. — Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter like manas; but these 
neuters, when at the end of compound adjectives, are declinable also in masc. and 
fem. like iandramas. Thus mahd-manas, magnanimous,' makes in N. (m. f. sing, 
du. pi.) mahd-mands, mdhd-manasan, -mahd-manasas. Similarly, sumanas, well- 
intentioned ;'-<form<znas, 'evil-minded' (N. m. f. sumanas, durmands, &c): cf. eu- 
pevvjs, &i/c--jtA€!'ijr, m. f., but neut. and stem ev-[Aeveg, tvtr-fkevti, derived from 

fA€V0(. 

b. Where final as is part of a foot and not a suffix, the- declension will follow 
ftrc!5?P^' one who devours a mouthful;' thus, N.V. sing.m.f. Pm^S!^; Ac.-HWT. 
N. V. Ac. du. -J&fi, pi. -*W\; I. -Km, "SffHlTH, &c. N. V. Ac neut. -?^, 
-?7^ft, -?fftr. When a root ends in ds, s will be rejected before bh by 66. a j thus, 
^o(il<^, ' brilliant,' makes in I. du. ^"HImuH. 

■ c. But 5P^ (fr. ?N[) and SER^ (fr. S^), at the end of compounds, change final 
W to \ before the consonantal terminations, making N. sing. ST^and S3T^; e.g. 
Wifely, 1§KJi^(see Pan. in. 2, 76; vn. 1, 70; vm. 2, 72). 

165. Neuter stems in ^ is and ^^>ms are declined analogously to «i«l*^ manas 
at 164, i and u being substituted for a throughout, sh for s (70), ir or ur for (65) ; 
thus, 
■^f^havis, n. 'ghee:' N. Ac.V. jf^, "Zfoft, ^ftfa; I. ?fW, ^f^HT, 

a. ^fW^ iakshns, n. 'the eye:' N. Ac. V. ^EJ^, ^^% ^wft; I. ^WHl, 

p 



106 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

i sng^T»T,'srgf>ht; d.^^,^?w»5t>?,^*^; Ab. ^a^;, ^g**T*r, ^*%^i 
g. ^«%, ^w^, frepn*; l. *r^fe, ^f*ta(, *%:% or -w. 

166. Nouns formed with the suffixes is and us are generally neuter. In some 
nouns, however, the final sibilant is part of the root itself, and not of a suffix j 
such as 'SfTfifl^ Ms, f. ' a blessing ' (fr. rt. W*0> » nd *$*( m - f - ' an associate ' (fr. 
SJ^). These follow the analogy of masc. and fern, nouns in as (163) in the N. Ac. 
cases ; and, moreover, before the consonantal terminations, where the final sibilant 
is changed to r, unlike nouns formed with is and us, lengthen the* and » (compare 
nouns in r at 180) ; thus, 

n. sntftat, -f$pft, -fijpi^; Ac. -%««*, -f^nft, -f$m; i. -f$n»T, -*fi*5i^> 

"tflfih^ &c. ; L. pi. -$ft:$ or -^fag. 

N. U^, -»fd, -spra(; Ac. -»pm, Sec. ; I. -fST, -^TR, Sec. 

a. Nouns formed from Desiderative stems in ish (497), such as ftPTT^ (for 
jlgadish), ' desirous of speaking,' are similarly declined ; thus, 

N.V. m. f. ftPT^, -fi$, &c; I. du. -^>*PT. The N. V. Ac. neut. pi. is 
ftpifijfa, the nasal being omitted (cf. 181. d). 

So f^St\, ' desirous of doing,' makes N. V. m. f. Pm«»1^, -3iNt, &c. 

b. ^5^ 'well-sounding,' where us is radical, makes N. V. sing. m. f. «J^5 

Ac. gp*; n.v. Ac. du. $1^, P i. 33*^; I. $3*1, ^?^, 9{f^> &c - 

N. V. Ac. neut. *p£(, ^Tft, *Ji$fiT. 

c. Obs. — When neuter nouns in is or us are taken for the last member of com- 
pound adjectives, analogy would require them to be declined in masc. and fem. 
according to dandramas at 163 ; but, according to the best authorities, the N. sing, 
does not lengthen the vowel of the last syllable ; thus, Tihwi^ m. f. n. ' having 
lotus eyes,' N. masc. and fem. 'Srlrf^l BJty -^^tf, &c. ; and ^jfottf'^m. f. n. 
' having brilliant rays,' N. masc. and fem. Wf«lilP«(^, Wfa'OHW, &c 

d. Sp^ dps, m. 'an arm,' follows the declension of nouns in is and us ; but in 
Ac. pi., and remaining cases, optionally substitutes doshan for its stem (see 184) ; 
thus, N.V. ?m, -^, -^; Ao. ^fa>T, -^, -X^ or -'Hn^; I. ^T or ^B!IT, 
, ^t*§T*^ or <ft 1 WW, &e. As a neuter noun it makes in N. Ac. V. ijtaj, <fWt, tfffa. 

167. Comparatives formed with the suffix §1^ iyas (192), lengthen the a of as. 
and insert n, changeable to Anusvara before s, in N. sing. du. pi., V. du. pi., Ac. sing, 
du. masc. ; thus, ^o»1m^ m. f. n., ' more powerful,' makes N. masc. ^<*l *iX<\ (for 
"^J5hri^, s rejected by 41. A), -X[fw,-lhr^; Ac. -'ihw, -Trial, -TWC^; I.-TRIT, 
••<H«ii«^, &c, like candramas at 163. The V. sing, is *tri"N«^; du. and pi. hke 
the Nom. 

o. The fem. ^cilswl follows nadi at 105. The neut. TpsN^ is like mono*. 

168. Perfect Participles, formed with vas (see 554), are similarly declined in the 
Strong cases (133. 6). But in Ac. pi., and remaining Weak cases, vas becomes ti-sk, 
and in the Middle cases vat; so that there are three forms of the stem, via. in va'us, 
11 nli, and vat* ; thus, 



* Vat is evidently connected with the Greek or. Compare tutupvat (fr. rt. tup) 
with tztv<P-,(F)ot, and tutvpvatsu with t£tu<^-o(t)o-«. 



INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 107 
fafa**( (Perf. Part., fr. f^ ' to know ') : N. fafaST^, fafcrshd, fafa*N^ ; 

fa%U, &c; V. ftf^, fafa^hft, &c. 

The neuter is N. Ac. fatVSi^ -g*ft, -ifftf; for fem. see d below. 

o. When this Participle is formed with ivas instead of vas (see 554), the vowel i 
is rejected in the cases where vas becomes ush ; thus, 

3Tfnp«( ( fr - ^ to go ') : N. maso. ^Ontf l ^ , &c. ; Ac. wfarafa^, ^ fiiwifl , 
^g^(, &c. ; I. ST^ttt, &c. ; V. ^Tfh^, srfnpffal, tee. 

b. Similarly, ^ftR^(fr.'iRi;' to stretch'): N.^n^,fff?RftlT,&c.; Ac.*fV 
WW, Wfw^, fl-Ji^, &c. ; V. SfTR^, -^f^, &c. 

c. But not when the i is part of the root; thus, f^P«H^ (fr. f^), finft^ (fr. 
*ft) make in the Ac. pi. f*TOi% ftf^M^. H-J^ (fr. f ) makes, of course, 

d. The N. fem. of these Participles is formed from ushj and the N. Ac. neut. 
sing. du. pi. from vat, ush, and vas, respectively; thus, N. fem. f^fadifl, &c, 
declined like nad{ at 105. Similarly, from the root 5^ comes ijggiO (cf. Tervcf>vta). 
Those formed with ivas do not retain i in the feminine; thus, tenivas makes N. 
sing. masc. fem. neut. teniydn, tenusM*, tenivat. 

e. The root fa^, ' to know,' has an irregular Pres. Part, fol*[ vidvas, used 
commonly as an adjective ('learned'), and declined exactly like 'Nf%S^ above, 
leaving out the reduplicated vi; thus, N. masc. f^UT^fsrai^, F^^i*l^; V. fttS^, 
&c. With reference to 308. a, it may be observed, that as a contracted Perfect 
of vid is used as a Present tense, so a contracted Participle of the Perfect is used 
as a Present Participle. The fem. is fag^t, and the neut. f^ITJ. 

l( >9- ?*[ m -> ' a male,' forms its V. sing, from $W{, and its other Strong cases 
( I 35- 6) from g*i \*\i but Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest cases, from ^; and I. 
du., and remaining Middle cases, from y^; thus, 

N. yn^, yriflt, g«ri*rc[; Ac. yriwr, friwT, g^; i. fsi, ip«n*, ^f»R[; 
D.^,&c.j Ab.fR^,&c; G. 3*^,3^,3*1*; L.gftr,^ft^,^[j V.g**;, 

3*t*t, &c. 

170. ^5H^ m., a name of the regent of the planet Sfakra,' forms N. sing. 
*sjl«1l from a stem fliyi^ (147). Similarly, "jtj^i^ m. 'a name of Indra,' and 
iaHs5[ m. 'time.' The other cases are regular; thus, N. du. <J!}i«n*T. But 
■ajy«i*^ may be optionally in Voc. sing. d^H^ or 3^11 or 3$i«i«V 

171. »W( f., ' decay ' (yypai), supplies its consonantal cases (viz. N. V. sing., I. 
D. Ab. du. pi., L. pi.) from »TCT f. Its other cases may be either from »TT3( or STTT; 
thus, N. sing. *{T3; V. »ft; Ac. *[I3Wt or *!TIH; I. HT*T and STCST, »TO*n»T, 
»RTf>T^, &c. 

* There seems, however, difference of opinion as to the rejection of i; and 
some grammarians make the feminine tenyushi. 

t Since 5TWR certainly occurs, it may be inferred that the N. Ac. V. du. are 
*iuit or »ft ; N. Ac. V. pi. STT*^ or *TO^. These forms are given in the grammar 
of I's'vara-dandra Vidya-sagara, p. 51. 

P % 



108 INFLEXION OF, STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 
Eighth Class. — Stems ending in any consonant except 

173. This class consists principally of roots used as nouns, either 
alone or at the end of compounds, or preceded by prepositions and 
adverbial prefixes. Stems ending in T^ t or ? d, formed in this 
manner, are of common occurrence ; but their declension falls under 
the fifth class at 136. 

With regard to stems ending in other consonants which we place 
under the eighth class, the only difficulty in their declension arises 
from their euphonic combination with the consonantal terminations. 

173. Whatever change of the final consonant takes place in Nom. 
sing, is preserved before all the consonantal terminations ; provided 
only, that before such terminations the rules of Sandhi come into 
operation. 

174. Before the vowel-terminations the final consonant of the 
stem, whatever it may be, is generally preserved. If in some nouns 
there is any peculiarity in the formation of the Ac. pi., the same 
peculiarity runs through the remaining Weakest or vowel cases. 

The terminations themselves undergo no change, but the s of the 
Nom. sing, is of course cut off by 41. 1 (see, however, 135. b). There 
is generally but one form of declension for both masc. and fern.; the 
neuter follows the analogy of other nouns ending in consonants. 

- 175. Stems ending in ^ k, ^ kh, \g,\g declined. 

, ^J^f m. f. ' one who is able ' (in sarva-£ak, ' omnipotent '). 

N. V. 51^ Sak Tirs^ Sakau 51^ Sakas- 

Ac. m^st^Sakam — Sakau — Sakas 

I. SjraiT Sakd SRHITH Sagbhydm $|fon[ sagbhis 

D. $rar Sake — sagbhydm 3T*«rer ; 

Ab. 31*^ Sakas — Sagbhydm — 

G. — Sakas 3T^ Sakos fjRm Sakdm 

L. 3ifa Saki — Sakos ^ Sakshu 

The neuter is N. Ac. V. 3TW, $ptf, 5^, & c . ; the rest like the masc. 
a. Similarly, f<^* one who paints ' (in ditra-likh, ' one who paints a picture') : 
N.V. fr5^ (41. II, 41- 1), fo^ (174), fWS^; Ac. fowf, & . ; I. f^m, 
fHTOn^, fwfrw^, &c. ; L. pi. fe5^. 
The neuter is N. Ac. V. f^T, f«TO% f<*f$, & c . ; the rest like the masc. 



INFLEXION OP STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 109 

b. In the same way final I^^are changed to ^, and when final V, ^, V, H, W 
lose their aspirate form, the aspirate must be transferred to the initial, if that 
initial be ^, ?, ^, or ^ (see 44. c). 

c. ^r^Tm.f.,'jumpingwell,'makesN.V.^(^(4i.I),^r^,&e.; Ac.^^HT, 
&c.;I.^^in,^R»ITJT,&c.j D.*pn?*,&c.j Ab.G.^l^&c; L.*prfH*pn?i\^, 
*pP3J (see 70). Neut. N. Ac. V. ^^, *pn?ft, *prfc3T or (see 176. K) ^fct[. 

176. Stems ending in ^ 6, ^ 6h, 'StJ, n^jh declined. 

Final ^is changed to ^f or >^; final ^ is changed to SB, which becomes Z or ? 
before the consonantal terminations ; final STto^ (j[) or ^ (^) ; and final W, 
which is rare, to ^T or »T, before the consonantal terminations (41. IV, 92. a). 

^r«t f. ' speech' (fr. rt. g^) ; N. V. «TTc^ (for vdks, 41. 1 ; vox, ty), m^ (oWe), 
^^ (voces, aires) ; Ac. ^T^H (vocem), ^T^, ^T^^ (onag ) ; I. ^T^T, cHJtu i ^ , 

^Tfa^; d. ^, ^nrwrnr, ^rnm^; Ab. mqj, w m v \ , *m«^; g. ^rr^, 

«N^*t, ii-^ih; L. mf% (mi), siw'ty, SfTET. Compare Latin vox, and Greek 
Oip or 01c for F on throughout. 

Similarly, 1J^ ' a hberator :' N. V. Ip^ , JJ^, g^. 

^m.f. 'one who eats:' N.V. $*;, »pft, ^1^; Ac. »JSP?, &c; I. g*T, 
W*^ *&**,, &c. 

W^ m. f. ' an asker ' (fr. rt. V%) : N. V. HI7, VX0, ST^; Ac. UI^P», &c. ; 

i. ut^tt, inTwirr, &c. •, l. pi. htzsj. 

The root H»T becomes HT3T (just as vad becomes vd6) ; e. g. N.V. *TT«B m. f. n. 
' a sharer.' 

a. The neuters are thus formed : N. Ac. V. ^T^, 'MMl, ^TfNf, &c. (as in *fiT* 
'speaking well'); *pJT, »J»ft, »jfW, &c. ; JTT7, WT^ft, Mlf^, &c. 

J. The root 'Sl^ and, to go,' preceded by certain prepositions and adverbial 
prefixes, forms a few irregular nouns (such as Hl^ eastern'), and is found at 
the end of a few compounds after words ending in ay such as ^tRI^'tending 
downwards,' &c. These all reject the nasal in the .Ac. pi. and remaining cases 
masculine. In Nom. sing, the final ^d being changed to ^f k, causes the preceding 
nasal to take the guttural form, and the ^ is rejected by 41. 1. In the Ac. pi., 
and remaining Weakest cases, there is a further modification of the stem in the 
case of him 3 ^, &c. 

UT^m. 'eastern,' 'going before :' N.V. VX&, T(T%t, H\*a<\; Ac. U\H*\, W^t, 
HIM^; I. UT^T, RPMIIH, inf"^; D. TTT^, &c. ; L. pi. WW. Similarly, M)^|^ 
m. southern.' 

HW^ m. 'western :' N.V. HW^, TUfm, TtW^; Ac. Mi*N«, H<H^, Hcfl^; 
I. TnrNT, HW«*n^, JWfr*T^; D. VWt^, &c. Similarly, ««|^ 'going with,' 
'fit,' and even ^^ 'northern,' which make in Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest 
cases, WrN^, »<0 ■<««(. 

So also, fWfcM, going everywhere,' forms its Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest 
cases, fr. a stem fa*^» making faf^> &c 



110 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

Analogously, fn^*a 'going crookedly,' 'an animal,' forms its Weakest cases fir. 
& stem fn<^, making Ac. pi. PiKm^, &c. 

The feminine form and the neut. du. of these nouns follow the analogy of the 
Ac. pi. ; thus, N. fem. JTT^ &c, "ST^T^ &c, Hrlfat &c, T^tft &c, wil^l &c, 
fin.'sfi &c, deolined like «^. 

The neuter is N. Ac. V. HT«|f, HWl, PT^, &c. ; Ui4'«(i, HrfNI, Wrf%, See. 

a. H(=<s, when it signifies 'worshipping,' retains the nasal, which has become 
guttural, throughout ; but 6, which has become It, is rejected before the consonantal 
terminations; thus, 

N. V. VT^, OT^, &c. 5 Ac. HTOW, &c ; I. HWI, UT^IT^, &c. 

Similarly, ^^ 'a curlew:' N. V. ^T, ~^n, &c; Ac. *j***J» &c. ; I. ~^1, 
f^wn^.&c; L.pl.f^gor^(55.6). 

d. xitj^ n., 'blood,' is regular; thus, N. Ac. V. >Htj«(i, ^TCJ»ft, iSHjfy, &c; 
but it may optionally take its Ac. pi. and remaining inflexions from a defective 
stem, vi*m_asaM,- thus, N. V. pi. ^Rjf%; Ac. pi. 'fltjfy or THtufH; I. '■iHj'HI or 
VRI1, ^"TT^ or ?ra«lTH, &c. ; L. ^ftT or ^raftf or "S%, &c. 

e. Nouns formed with the roots T3I 'to worship,' ITW 'to shine,' 1»f 'to rub,' 
WS^'to shine,' S^'to fry,' WS^'to wander,' 1^'to create,' generally change 
the final »^to ^ or ^ before the consonantal terminations; thus, 

^*^ m. 'a worshipper of the gods' (*T3^ becoming ^Sf): N. V. sing. ^%^« 
Similarly, Tt^m. 'a ruler:' N. sing. TXZ; I. CTSfT, TT^wn^, &c. So also, *fi3J3^ 
'a cleanser:' N. sing. ijfi-^. So also, fa«l»^m. f. ' splendid :' N. sing. faST*. 
Similarly, hU.*ii*^ m. ' a religious mendicant ' (WS^ becoming sTTST) : N. sing. 
skfliZ. So also, f<im^a^ m. ' the creator of the world :' N. sing. few^. 

But iqia when it precedes XJ\, as in favSKI^m. ' a universal ruler,' becomes 
f^STT wherever ^becomes ^ or f ; thus, N. f^8TCI^, famMt, &c. 

^frt^m., ' a priest ' (^Jj| + ^for *T3j), is regular : N. V. ^rfr^f. 

/. ^iimi^ m. a kind of priest,' ' part of a sacrifice,' forms the consonantal 
cases from an obsolete stem, StRIt^: N. V. sing. du. pl.'S^n^, -iTTift, - << I » T M ; 
Ac. -*lT»T*t, &c. ; I. -TraT, -*ftwn»(, &c. ; L. pi. ^*TCg or SW*J:$. 

g. V^, 'one who fries,' may take iJS^for its stem, and make N. V. 1JT, WS&, 
*2*>I*V> Ac. 1*5^ &c. Similarly, ^^, 'one who cuts,' makes, according to some, 
^, &c, and not '&%, &c. ; but others allow vrat. 

h. '3i^f.,'strength,'makesN.V.'3i^(4i.I.Obs.),&c.; Ac'3^, &c; I.gi#r, 
WHlPJ, &c. At the end of a eomp. the neuter is N. Ac. V. urk, 6tj(, Unrji. But in 
these cases where a word ends in a conjunct consonant, the first member of which 
is r or I, the nasal may be optionally omitted in the plural, so that irji would be 
equally correct. 

»'. ^, 'lame,' makes N. «^, ^^, ^T^; I. pi. ^rft»W^ L. pi. *Pf . 
177. Stems endihg in i^th, ^dh declined. 

The final aspirate is changed to its unaspirated form before the consonantal 
terminations (41. II, 43), but not before the vowel (43. d). tg\ m. f. * one who 
tells :' N. V. *fy W, ^TOT^; Ac. **!*, &c. ; I. «S*n, TOl^, &c. 

So also, flVf. 'battle:' N.V.^.^.f^; Ac.gw.&c; I. gVT, gum, &c. 



INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. Ill 

In the case of 5H.m. f., ' one who knows, 5 the initial ^ b becomes *I bh wherever 
the final ^ dh becomes * or d, by 175. b. and 44. c ; thus, N. V. »JiJ, $$, f^J 
Ac.^W,&c; I.^n.^JTW, &c; L.pl. gig. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. V. ^, 3flft, ^fi*T, &c. ; ft^, fllft, $FV, &c. 

178. Stems ending in \p, r^ph, ^ j, it M declined. 

»P*m. f. ' one who defends :' N. V. »J^, »txft, JJ^; Ac. JJIIH, &c. ; I. ^IT, 
ns«nJT, *jfs*J^, &c. 

c5Hm.f.'one who obtains :' N.V. 3^, <5w, TW^; Ac. cWT, &c; I. EWT, 
WWTTfl, Wftflr^, &c. ; L. pi. (3^1 . 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. V. *T*^, Jjuft, ^f^T, &c. ; "&{, «5>tf , tSfr?, &c. 

6. ^T^f. 'water,' declined in the plural only, substitutes t (d) for its final before 
bh: thus, N.V. ^mrc^; Ac.^W(; I. ^tfg^; D.Ab.^Rf;; G.^HIT'T; L.^TO. 
In the Veda it is sometimes singular. 

179. Stems ending in i^m declined. 

The final m becomes n before the consonantal terminations. 3JH sam, m. f. ' one 
who pacifies :' N. V. ^P»(, Sjw, $P^ J Ac. SJT*, &c; I. 3JTT, ^P^nH, 3jfiW(, 
&c; L. pi. 3P*J. 

a. Similarly, TJ^TT^m.f., 'quiet,' makes N.V.H5n« , (,Il5nW,ll5IT'^; AdRjITH^, 
&c. ; I. TJ^ITTT, USJTWT, &c. ; L. pi. VfifTZQ or JTSJPif . Compare 53. e. 

6. The neuter is N. Ac. V. 3J*^, Sjtft, Sjfa, &c. ; «5II^, -'SJT'Tt, -SJTfiT, &c. 

180. Stems ending in tc r and \v declined. 

If the vowel that precedes final r be i or u, it is lengthened before the conso- 
nantal terminations (compare 166) ; and final r, being a radical letter, does not 
become Visarga before the s of the Loc. pi. (71. J). 

^m. f . ' one who goes :' N. V. ^, "^d, 5 TO»( ; Ac. ^H, &c. ; I. ^tT, ^*qTT, 
;*fi% &c; L.pl.^f. 

3T^ f. ' a door :' N. V. ST^, ST^, 3TT^, &c. 

fn^f. 'speech:' N.V. ift^, f*Tcl, fht^; Ac. ffttfT, &c; I. f»TO, Tfhs&T^, 
iftf»t^, &c.; L. pi. iftf. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. V. ^, 'Srtf, ^ft, &c. ; ift^, fltf, Olft, &c. 

So also, 3T^ n. ' water:* N. Ac. ^, ^T^s ^ift- 

6. One irregular noun ending in \v, viz, f^f. ' the sky,' forms its N. V. sing, 
from tgft (133. a), and becomes ST in the other consonantal cases; thus, 

N.v. srfy f^ft^rai;; Ac. f^w N , firct f^;; i. f^T, ^wmr, &c. 

Similarly, ^f^ m. f. ' having a good sky,' but the neuter is N. Ac. V. $Q, 

181. Stems ending in sr s and flsA declined. 
The difficulty in these is to determine which stems change their finals to ^ and 
which to * (see 41. V). In the roots f^ST, f 31, IJ3T, T?$S{, and ^(the last forming 



112 INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

rpf* ' impudent ') the final becomes «(!, and in «T3f optionally ^or^ (•T^; or 1^). 
Otherwise both 31 and ^at the end of stems pass into ^. 

f%31 m. f. ' one who enters,' op ' a man of the mercantile and agricultural class :' 
N.V.fit^Ui.V), f^, fom.> Ac. fsj^&c; I. %I, f^HTT^, &c. f^i x f. 
'a quarter of the sky:' N. V. f%* (41. V, 24), f^, fif^J Ac. f%&{, &c; 
I. fi^IT, f^wjUT, &c. ffc\m. f. 'one who hates:' N.V. f?^ (41. V), %*ft, 
fk 1 ^; Ac. fg^T, &c; I. fgVl, %3*ITT, &c. 1\m. f. 'one who endures:' 
N.V. q! (41. V), T^> T^J Ac. «pw, &c.j I. yn, ^»n»T, &c. SJ3( 'one 
who touches :' N. V. ?ToF, ^JW> *"J*m» &c. 

The neuters are N. Ac. V. fa*, ft^ft, Nf^T, &c.j f^, f^5ft, f^fifl, &c. ; fgS, 
%tf, f£fa, &c; f^, ffl, «jfa, &c. 

a. g0si5I ' a priest,' in the Veda, makes N. V. sing. gClsi*^, and forms its other 
consonantal cases from an obsolete stem, jjOs^. Compare 176./. 

b. tjfiih^ n>- f-» 'very injurious,' makes N.V. ?|^p^, *jf?*" j &c. ; Ac. *jf?Tn^, &c. ; 
I . ^f?W, ^fjtTPT, &c. But nouns ending in ^, preceded by vowels, fall under 163. 

c. ifttTST, ' a cow-keeper,' makes N. V. <|K«^ or J fk{, 'flUsH, &c. 

d. Similarly, nouns from Desiderative stems, like ftl<?T5J ' desirous of cooking,' 
and fmw ' desirous of saying,' make N. V. (smii, PlIM (4JT, &c. ; ("=(=(<*, fiRTJT, 
&c. (see 166. a). 

182. Stems ending in f h declined. 

In stems beginning with ^ d, the final aspirate generally becomes «£ k (*T g), in 
other stems ^ t \Sd), before the consonantal terminations ; and in stems whose 
initial is ^ d or i\g, the loss of the h, which disappears as a final, is compensated 
for by aspirating the initial, which becomes dh or gh wherever final h becomes it (g) 
or * (d). See 44. c, 175. b. fc?f m. f. 'one who licks:' N.V. fcSZ (41. Ill), 
fvF@, ff«s^; Ac. f«s«, &c. ; I. fc51T, ftjfwlTH, &c. ; L. pi. fc??*J or f<37Wr. 
|f m.f.' one who milks:' N.V.^,|^,p^; Ac.g?lT,&c.; I. §f?T, yn^, 
gfh^,&c.; L.pl.^Tg. 

The neuter is N. Ac. V. fc5^, f&gl, fifrfsf , &c. ; *pjj, g^t, gf?r, &c. 

a. But If m. f., 'injuring,' makes N. *J3T or VZ (44. c); I. "5^1, TJTWTR or 
W3Wt«,&c; L.pl.^or^T^. Similarly, ff m. f. ' infatuating :' N.Jprorfl?. 

The same option is allowed in f%f ' one who loves ' and ^f 'one who vomits.' 

b. 7fa!!f f., 'a kind of metre,' changes its final to h (g) before the consonantal 
terminations, like stems beginning with d : N. ^ftjIoF, Tfajjal, &c. 

c. ^Tf , 'bearing ' (fr. rt. ^f 'to bear'), changes ^T to ^5 u in Ac. pi. and re- 
maining Weakest cases (and before the $ f of the fem.) if the word that precedes 
it in the compound ends in a or d; this a or d combining with tt into ^ au (instead 
of w 0, by 32) ; thus, 

WK3Tf m. f. 'a burden-bearer:' N. V. masc. >TU3T^ H U fll ^ , WTtSffifF ; 

Ac. >ih.ii?^ Hitsn^, w!^; I. «t6?t, *tot^*i^, & c . n. fem. mt^t, &c. 

So UOTTf m. '"a steer ' and fa^Tf 'all-sustaining.' Under other circumstances 



ADJECTIVES. 113 

the change of vdh to tih is optional; thus, STlfe^, 'bearing rice/ makes in Ac. 
pi. 5ir^^ or ^ITfcRlf^. 

d. <Mif<*T^ m., ' Indra' ('borne by white horses'), may optionally retain ^T! in Ac. 
pi. &c.j and in consonantal cases is declined as if the stem were *5fira¥; thus, 

n. y-^n'O ^ireift, ^hnn?^; Ac. ^trnrr?*, ^nnirtt, w^ or wrr^; 
i. ^rm?Tor ^nnn?T, ^retem*, ^nrftfa^, & c . 

e. In (JT3Tn^, ' a name of Indra,' the ^ is changed to ^wherever f becomes <T 

01 \: n. prei^, 3*raT?T, g^n^rr^; Ac. 3*rer^, &c. ; I. s*toi?t, fa- 
nf^wrw, &c. 

/■ ^If m> » ' an ox ' (for 'Spffal^ fr. trr^ ' a cart ' and ^ ' bearing '), forms 
the N.V. sing, from ^Rf^; the other Strong cases from ^RfT|, and the Middle 
cases from ^RTt^; thus, N. «M$I*0 'SRfT^I, ^R|T^; Ac. ^Rf T^*T, ^I^Tfrfl, 
*H§SH; L ***%&> ^fpn^. ^R|fk^, &c.j L. pi. ^R$W; v. ^R|^. 
There is a feminine form ^RTfift, but at the end of compounds this word makes 
fem. N. sing. 'SRT^; neut. N. V. ^Rf^, ^R|^, "SR^f?. 

!83- *f 'binding,' 'tying,' at the end of compounds, changes the final to T^or 
^, instead of ^ or ^; thus, ^TR^ f., ' a shoe,' makes N. V. TTR?^, TTTW, 
^IR?^; Ac. ^HR?*, &c; I. TqRfT, 3HR3n»T, &c. ; L. pi. TRRiW. 
See 306. 6. 

Defective Nouns. 

184. The following nouns are said to be defective in the first five inflexions, in 
which cases they make use of other nouns (see Pan. vi. 1, 63): ^TOr^n. (176. d); 
"3JR^n. (io8.e); -S^n. (io8.e); ^m. (io8.e); ^R; n. m. (166. d); ^f. 
(lo8.e); R5If. (io8.e); T^ m .( I0 8.e); tjt^f. (io8.e); HT^n. (108. e); M\\m. 
(108. e); TRR^n. (144,156.0); ^^m. (io8.e); ^IcR^n. (144,156.0); $ft<R,n. 
(156.*); ^n. (n6.a); ^n.(ioS.e). 

185. Examples of nouns defective in other cases are ^M^ n. (156); Tffcw m. 
(128. c); 5R^f. (171). 

Section III.— ADJECTIVES. 
186. The declension of substantives includes that of adjectives ; 
and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under 
each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives 
falling under the same class. Adjectives may be grouped under 
three heads, A, B, C, as follow : 

A. Simple adjectives, coming immediately from roots, and not 
derived from substantives^ These belong chiefly to the first, second, 
and third classes of nouns (see 80. A, 81. A, 83. A, 103-115). 

B. Adjectives formed from substantives by secondary or Taddhita 

Q 



114 



ADJECTIVES. 



They belong chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixth classes 
of nouns (see 80. B, 84. B, 85. B, 103, 140, 159). 

C. Compound adjectives, formed by using roots and substantives 
at the end of compounds. These are common under every one of 
the eight classes. 

187. A. Examples of Simple Adjectives. 

3m hibha, ' beautiful/ ' good :' masc. and neut. stem sw htbha ; 
fem. stem wht Subhd. 

An example of an adjective of cl. 1 is here given in full, that the declension of 
the masc, fem., and neut. forms may be seen at once and compared with that of 
Latin adjectives in us, like bonus, ' good.' The fem. of some of these adjectives 
is in (, and then follows nad{ at log. In the succeeding examples only the Nom. 
cases sing, will be given. 



Singular. 

MASC. FEM. 



!!** 



Ac. ^W ^m« 

I. SJ»TT 3JW 

Ab. ^»rr^ ^j«tot^ ^jm^ 

G. *j*rsr — • ^j>to 



Dual. 

FEM. 



N.AcV. 
I. D. Ab. sjm«n^ ^jmwn^ 
G. L. ^jwfa^ spr*^ 



N. V. ^jm^ 
Ac. jjm^ 

D. Ab. 3jw*n^ 
G. ^rr^TH 
L -^3 



Plural. 

^3 



WTT»inT 



3. 



rfirq 'dear' 
l^p^l' beautiful' 
|^jf% 'pure' 

HT?!| ' pale ' 
ST\J 'good' 
ijrg ' tender ' 
wft^ 'timid' 



NOM. MASC. 
I " . 



furr 
f^Tor^^. 105. 






*rrg^ or m*4\. 105. 
vfas^ortft^W. 135. 



NOM. NEUT. 

1 "- \ 

ftnw 

N. 



Obs.— The neuter of adjectives in i and u may in D. Ab. G. L. sing, and G. L. 
du. optionally follow the masculine form; thus, D. sing. Mine or sudaye, mridune 
or mridave; Ab. G. sing, hdinas or fades, mridunas or mridos; L. sing, iutmi 
or Man, mpduni or mfidau; G. L. du. sudinos or fatyos, mridunos or ropdooj. 
See 119.0. 



ADJECTIVES. 115' 

188. B. Examples of Adjectives formed from Substantives. 



CLASS. 



I. 



J TPpr ' human ' 
I Vlfibli ' religious ' 
J - ^^' strong 5 
I ^sft*n^ ' prosperous ' 

-JV^' happy' 



NOM. MASC. 

1^ 



NOM. rai. 

vrfiNft 

"«N c*«M rfl . 105. 

^fonrt 105. 

*jfi[?rft. IO5. 



NOM. NETIT. 
' " ^ 



189. 



C. Examples of Compound Adjectives. 



STEM. NOM. MASC. NOM. FEM. 
_ , , . ^ , . , 

( ^|f^?T ' very learned ' ^|f^R|; ^r g fren 

{ft^T 'foolish' tffa gf^ 

{^t^TH^ 'small-bodied' ^T^nrg^ m^rfffi 

{ ^f^? ' verv ^eral ' ^J^T^T ^f ^Teft. X05. 

{ *%fsn^ * all-conquering ' *rtfsr^ B^ftn^ 

J *j*i«Mri ' well-born ' *J*P*fT $»pm 

7. [TOr^iT^ 'deprived of sense' JfiT^rn^ nri^cll^ 

8. J n*fe33T ' piercing the vitals ' 



""^ 



NOM. NEUT. 
t~ — * 1 



190. Examples of some other Compound Adjectives. 
$Tf«n 'a shell-blower' (108. a). 5T^«IT^; ^uji^ SHfUI'T 
TO^ft 'ruined' (12,6. h). TO^fi^ HFsftq; ?refisr 
•&&1 1 a sweeper' (126. b). ^«5^ ^c?^ m^ 
fjfaWfl 'having a divine mother' (130). f^apnin f^JITrn f%*nnx% 
srfV' rich' (134. a). ^^ ^^ "^fft 
*T|^ 'having many ships' (134. a). , *T§«^ ^f 7 ^ ^J3 

DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 

191. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways: 

1st, by adding to the stem TTt tar a ( = Gr. -repo-s) for the com- 
parative (see 80. LXI), and tth tama ( = Lat. -timu-s, Gr. -raro-s) for 
the superlative (see 80. LIX), both of which suffixes are declined in 
m. f. n. like 6ubha at 187; thus, 

■JUT punya, 'holy,' !J<!*liH punya-tara (Nom. m. f. n. as, a, am), more holy,' 
JpPliTfl punya-tama (Nom. m. f. n. as, d, am), ' most holy.' Similarly, V«i=ti^<fta- 

Q 2 



116 ADJECTIVES, 

navat, 'wealthy,' *H=IW<. dhanavat-tara, 'more wealthy,' VT^IPT dhanavat-tama, 
'most wealthy.' , 

a. A final n is rejected; as, vf^T»^ dhanm, 'rich,' vfcfK^dhani-tara, 
'more rich/ vf«m*T dhani-tama, 'most rich/ 

*• f^l^, 'wise,' makes faf^t, fal^T. Compare 168. e. 

19a. andly, by adding |tr^ tyo* (Nom. m. f. n. -iydn, -iyasi, -iyas, 
see declension below, cf. Gr. Iwv) for the comparative (see 86. V), and 
^1? ishtha (Nom. m. f. n. -ishthas, -ishtha, -dshtham, declined like kubha 
at 187, cf. Gr. -to-Toy) for the superlative (see 80. XLVIII). 

Obs. — The difference in the use of tara, tama, and iyas, ishtha, seems to be 
this— that iyas and ishtha, being of the nature of primary suffixes, are generally 
added to roots or to modifications of roots (the root being sometimes weakened,' 
sometimes gunated), while tara and tama are of more general application. 

a. Note, that while the Sanskrit comparative suffix ends in n and * (fyans) for 
the Strong cases, the Greek has adhered to the n throughout (N. {ydn=nov, 
Voc. fyan = iov); and the Latin has taken the s for its neuter {{yas=ius, neuter 
of iorj s being changed to r, in the masc. and oblique cases). Cf. Sk. garCyas with 
Lat. gravius. 

193. Before iyas and ishtha, the stem generally disburdens itself 
of a final vowel, or of the more weighty suffixes in, vin, vat, mat, 
and tri ; thus, ^fc!«i; ' strong,' ^fa^ ' more strong,' « f ["ci « ' strongest ;' 
tnfr^ 'wicked,' tjrcfaq; 'more wicked,' Trrfire 'most wicked;' 75^ 'light,' 
rt'vh^ ' lighter,' sjfw ' lightest ;' wnf^ ' intelligent,' *vfa^ ' more 
intelligent,' ^fire ' most intelligent.' Similarly, u^ ' great,' H^l"^ 
' greater,' qfeq ' greatest.' 

a. Compare lai<{]<4i^ (N. of svddiyas) from svddu, 'sweet,' with $-/av from 
$vs ; and *5llf(J8t( with yjS-kttos . 

The declension of "srFyfa^ masc. is here given in full (see 167). 

SINGULAR. DUAL. PLURAL. 

N. *(&\v^baliydn ^vft*t baliydnsau qvfatim^baMydnsas 

Ac. T^fanimbaliydmam — baliydnsau ^f^m^baliyasas 
I. ^hWT baliyasd ^tftiframjaliyobhydm ^Ffi-^f^baliyobhis 
P. •Wertufc baliyase — baliyobhydm •stftit^baMyobhyas 

Ah. nfc&Tm^baMyasas — baliyobhydm — baliyobhyas 

G. — baliyasas -^P^baliyasos ^tm^baliyasdm 
L. ^ifa baliyasi — baliyasos •^W^baliyahm 

V. ^^ballyan Ycfafeft baliydnsau -^^(^baliydnsas 

»n*hrcft fem. is like wieff (105), and ^h^neut. like manas (164). 



ADJECTIVES. 



117 



194. Besides the rejection of the final, the stem often 


undergoes 


change, as in Greek (cf. tyS'im, fx&o-roj, fr. e^Opo?); and its place is 


sometimes supplied by a 


substitute (cf. ^eXrlwv, /3e'XT«rroy, J 


fr. ayaOos). 


The following is a list of the substitutes : 






POSITIVE. 


SUBSTITUTE. 


COMPARATIVE. ! 


SUPERLATIVE. 


^f^ra antiha, ' near " 


fltj neda (rt. ftn<) 


Sfcfhi^ 


^f^S 


^7 alpa, ' little ' * 


3)»T kana (rt. cRi^) 


3i«ft1J^ 


sFfire 


<»*» uru, " large ' (ivpvg) 


«Rsjw (rt. ^) 


srrtaq: 


^fts 


%*£ riju, ' straight ' * 


^ST n)'a (rt. ^) 


^Jafl^ 


^fsre 


^5T krisa, ' thin,' ' lean ' 


■SB^tira/a (rt. ^51) 


■a^fhwi; 


?s%s 


TSfTl kshipra, ' quick ' 


■%T kshepa (rt. f^,) 


ispffa^ 


■BjfiB 


*jj£ kshudra, 'small,' 'mean' 


Tp^ kshoda (rt. TSTiJ) 


sfofN^ 


•sfrf^s 


'^ guru, 'heavy' (J3apv$) 


JTC^ara (rt. *T) 


»rchl^ 


ifrs 


ipf tripra, ' satisfied ' 


Wf trapa (rt. ^) 


crtf^ 


srfire 


ifTO (Mrgha, ' long ' 


^mrfr^k(rt. -^nr) 


^Ttf>^^ 


^LiTviw 


g^ Mra, ' distant ' 


<^ <ta)a (rt. |f) 


^^ 


^faST ; 


£ti dridha, ' firm ' 


"53" dradha (rt. "2T) 


4*1 <m 


■jfs^ 


^K^G parivridha, ' eminent ' 


■•IKstc parivradha 


^l Pi.il glu^ 


*tftsTfes 


ifilprithu, 'broad' (irXarvg) 


VFtpratha (rt. TPT) 


irsfN^ 


irftre 


U^l^T prasasya, good' 


r^Tt/ra(rt. , ?ft) 

l5^rrt7>'(rt. 3?n) 


^fa^ 






■wnnti 


a!!? 


TBFKpriya, 'dear' 


Hti>ra (rt. ift) 


JPTC( 


vrv 


'%? bah 11, much,' ' frequent ' 


*t&M(rt.£) 


»J?^ 


>jftnr 


^?<3 bahula, ' much ' 


^fe JasAa (rt. ^f ) 


sf?^ 


sff^ir 


1J3T lihrUa, ' excessive ' 


«5T bhrafa (rt. *[S() 


«^ft^ 


vrfsre 


1"? mridu, ' soft ' 


9^ mrada (rt. ^lif) 


vfftH 


nfipi 


ij^^yuvan, young' (juvenis) 


T^ya»fl! (rt. 5) 


V&faR^ 


tfro 


qTR? vddha, ' firm,' ' thick ' 


*TV sddha (rt. *rt{) 


wvta^ 


*rrf\rt 


^3 vriddha, ' old ' 


J^ varsha (rt. ^T) 

l^rrtiyrf(rt. wi) 


vmTn^ 


gfra 


Hniq, 


site 


*}"^\<.vrinddra, excellent' 


"|«^ vrinda 


T^ta* 


*tf*& 


f*?«« sthira, ' firm,' ' stable ' 


**T stta (rt. ^IT) 


wn*[ 


^it 


*«l(0 st hula, gross,' ' bulky ' 


W7 s<Aa»a (rt. ^T ) 


'PiTfa^ 


Wfzf* 


fSpR sphira, ' turgid ' 


Wi qp&a (rt. *WP^) 


vwq 


Wiff 


■g^ hrasva, ' short ' 


■g" hrasa (rt, 5!^) 


f*frl^ 


gftr? 



* ^TeR may be also regularly ^J<dtfl*J*(, ^f%W ; and ^»| may be ^»ft^, & c . 1 
t In the case of ^ and It the final vowel is not rejected, but combines with (yas 
and ishtha agreeably to Sandhi. In s^TT and >J,, yas is affixed in place of iyas. 



118 NUMERALS. 

195. Tara and tama may be added to substantives; as, fr. <.ii»^, a king,' 
tHTTTT, &c. ; fr. g'.Vt, 'pain,' g :*3HT, &c. If added to a word like «$*%, 'clarified 
butter,' the usual euphonic changes must take place; thus, ^fRWj &c. (70). 

These suffixes are also added to inseparable prepositions; as, '37^ up,' a*i<. 
higher,' 3^R 'highest' (cf. Lat. ex-timus, in-timus, &c); also to pronominal 
stems (236) ; and tama is added to numerals (209, 211). 

196. Tard and tamd may sometimes be added to feminine stems ending in { 
and ti (like Jjjft ' a woman,' Wift ' a faithful wife,' f^gft ' a wise woman '), which 
may optionally be retained or shortened ; e. g. ^IcRI, {dlriHI, or f^iRi, f^ppTTT ', 
*in)n«,i, 4J ffl rf*4 1, or «fiTiRT, WfinPTT ; f^^ftpn or f^PldHT (Pan. vi. 3, 44. 45). 

But if the feminine be the feminine of a masculine substantive, as «lS4<u) of 
3T3nif, the shortening is compulsory, as ^IdlftjJfKT (Pan. vi. 3, 42). 

197. Tara and tama may even be added, in conjunction with the syllable ^TtW dm, 
to the inflexions of verbs; as, »T3?filiRIH 'he talks more than he ought.' See 
80. LIX, LXI. 

a. Sometimes tyas and tara, ishtha and tama are combined together in the same 
word (just as in English we say lesser) ; thus, SPTCilT, £)ttiW; ji/SriH; Hf^SHH, 
&c. ; and tara may be even added to ishtha ; thus, j^BrH. 

Section IV. — NUMERALS. 

CARDINALS. 

198. The cardinals are, J^B m. f. n. 1, «i; % m. f. n. 2, ^; fg m. f. n. 
3>3; ^:m. f. n. 4, 8; tR![min. 5,4; ipi m. f. n. 6, % ; *ra^m. f.n. 
7,0; ^m,f,n. 8, fc; ^^9, <i; ^T^io, 10; ijcfcl^M, 11, <n; ^|<^ 
13,^; 3^1^13,^; ^rg|^i4,s8; m^i^ i^m; ^^16,^; 
vh^M, 17,1s; srer^iq;i8,st; «i^$i«i or g^ f^ifri 19, re; f^ifiif. 20,^0; 
ir*f%fir 31; STftsifir 32; ^fg^rfir 23; ^gf^rfiT 34; n^ fa'si ftr 35; 

^fprfir 26 ; *raf#$rfii 37 ; vNllf^lfd 38 ; H^r^lfri or 'giqf^n^ 29 ; 
f^f. 30; *«ftrail3i; iTfw5l^33; d*»r^!ji^ 33 ; ^1^51^34; 
^fd^ 35; M*fy$ii^ 36; ^nrf^r^ s7i me i te^ 3 8 ; ^f#$r^ or 
ainir<«iR^^39; ^rfqn^o; «*^r«*Tft^ 41 ; %*n*rft$n^ or st^st- 
ft^42; f^^r^TP^orgTnjRgr(T^43; ^^HlR^i^; vm-MiPifl i^ 
45; M^rtiri5i^46; ^tTi^RTft^47; 'flgHHlK^ or SMB-MlK,^ 48 ; 
T^^mfqn^or gRir^I^49; T ^n^5°; ^Rq^T^5i; fk^T^T^or 
3Hrar$r^52; f^^T^ or gn:irgr^ 53; ^g:^(T?t^54; ^RWiT^55; 
H^s«aiJ(if^56 ; *m4*ai^57; ^rer^n^ or TOTTOT3ITI58 ; ^xraT^or 
ifmfa 59 ; *lf? 60 ; s^rfe 61; fsifo or srefs 63 ; f^rf? or a^:^ft>* 
63; srg:xrfk*64; wrf*65; TOrf*66; «™rfa 67; wrffcormprf* 



* These may also be written ^T*qfe, ^nptffr. See 62. a. and 63. 



NUMEKALS. 119 

68 ; ?r*rafk or gRTHTrFTT 69 ; ^nrfii 70 ; ijeiramf»r 71 ; fa hu fi r or ^T^nrfrr 
72 ; fgrcrafiT or guiwrfk 73 ; ^tnifK 74 ; tRRrafa 1 75 ; Mitwf n 76 ; 
TOra-jrfir 77; 'srerorfK or 'srercrjrfir 78 ; ri^Hprf or jin i ^ i ir ? 79 ; ^ftfir 
80; infit^fifu 81; mftfa 83; ^ftfw 83; 'srgt^ftfir 84; i^rT^ftfii 85; 
TC$ftfiT 86 ; TOn^ftfiT 87 ; ^re^ftfn 88 ; ^T^rTfir or -gppprfir 89 ; Tprfir 
90; 5«M=iriT 91; %^flT or ^R^fir 92; fw^fn or ^xfrrr^fir 93; 
■snj^rfir 94; traffic 95; ^prfir 96 (43./); w^fir 97; ^re^fii or 
^reTrPffir 98 ; H4r|NfK or aH^lrf n. (m.) 99 ; ^nr n. (also m.*) or nOi ^Ksr 
too; UoR^nrn. ioij f|r$nTn. 102; ^^103; ^1^104; M^^iri 105; 
V^fK 106; ^TT^TT 107; <XWyR 108 ; ^IH 109; %%m no; few* 
(nom. sing, n.) or if 517 (nom. du. n.) or ^Tff (nom. du. n.) 200 ; fy $| dT 
(nom. sing, n.) or ^h% ^rrnfa (nom. pi. n.) 300 ; <5qj:$nt»T or ^ITft. ^ITTlftT 
(nom. pi. n.) 400 ; M^lrfHor T^f ^nrtftT 500 ; ^$nf^ or ^ $nnftT 600 ; 
and so on up to ^nr^r n. (also m.) 1000, which is also expressed by 
THfi W^s* or by s^r ^miftr or by $$$ ift f. ; if ^^ 2000 ; ^fijr 
^TgeTfist 3000 ; ^mf*. v^ntis 4000, &c.f 

199. The intervening numbers between 100 and 1000, those be- 
tween 1000 and 2000, and so on, may be expressed by compounding 
the adjective ^rfirai adhika (or occasionally g^c uttara), ' more/ ' plus,' 
with the cardinal numbers ; thus 101 is <j4^1dH (see above) or Jnnifipfi 
ynm (or occasionally ^<*t^r< 5TH^), i. e. ' a hundred plus one/ or com- 
pounded thus, UcBTftrar^niJ^. Similarly, SrfMi ^TW* or 3Tfv=^nnT 102 ; 

*?fo* $nw or 5afv<*5iiii« 103 ; wnfirar ^n* or wfritt ^rw 107 ; fg^fv- 
qi^npT 130 ; Trar^fv^nifl 150 (also expressed by nmqriT'T ' one hun- 
dred and a half') ; itf^tynfWiityiH^ 226 ; ^J^ftcUfW^TiP^ 383 ; tpfT- 
^FlfVJIF^:^^ 485 ; TO^HV3PPf5nr^ 596 ; ^TOlfiPRq^nT^ 666 ; 
MiM 1*14 43441? or Mty7K«^H N 1060 ; *fl:i^lrf« N or M^|rllfv^!«^yH 1600 ; 

* I have found ^TK ^TilTJ ' a hundred hundred ' and Wr^Tim ' seven hundred ' 
(agreeing with ^PUT!) in the Maha-bharata. 

t ^J^ITST* is used in Rig-veda V. 30, 15 for 4000; and on the same principle 
f^^^f*^ might stand for 3000, and fgU^P^ for 2000, &c. ; but it is a question 
whether these might not also stand for 1004, 1003, 1002 respectively. 

% Similarly 2130 may be expressed by f^T^fvtRif^i fn^i t(t( or -JfTinftT or by 
using *TC ; thus, TW$P*ftMi <*$| ri Ml ¥ ^5%. Other forms of expressing numerals 
are also found ; e.g. 21,870 ^UlipUfa'^rfir: $IITMhI *JtP3 Wfffif : ; 109,350 
^TTT^H "Pf W^yiftr ^l$l«irilf*( ctfftlT. According to Pan. vi. 3, 76, 53iP£ 
may be prefixed to a number in the sense ' by one not,' less by one ;' e. g. U^fiP*- 
f^rfif ' by one not twenty,' 'one less than twenty,' i. e. 19. 



120 NUMERALS. 

In the same way the adjective gin ' less/ ' minus,' is often placed 
before a cardinal number, to denote one less than that number, ^3 
'one' being either expressed or understood; thus, *Hf4^lfiT or v£ft- 
f%fil 'twenty minus one' or 'nineteen' (cf. Lat. undeviginti, i.e. unus 
de viffinti). And other cardinals, besides v& ' one,' are sometimes 
prefixed to Sirf, to denote that they are to be subtracted from a 
following number ; as 3 T^frj $ni* or M^^ld^ ' a hundred less five ' 
or 'ninety-five.' 

a. Again, the ordinals are sometimes joined to the cardinals to 
express 1 1 1 and upwards ; thus, «<*l<j$j ^TTP^ or «£«w<;^iii^ 1 1 1 ; M^iy 
$nr^n5; f^t sni* 120; fw^f ^nr^or fa$i $111^130; Trai^^ni^i5 o ; 
Mphni ^nm s 194 ; T ra^ff %$irf^ 315 ; f^r *%&\ or f%^f^ ioao. 

b. There are single words for the highest numbers ; thus, ^p! n. (also m.) ten 
thousand ;' 7JT5J n. or ri^SJI f. or f*f*pi n. (also m.) 'a lac,' ' one hundred thousand ' 
($|rl«^y); Tlpr n. (also m.) 'one million;' «Rffe f. 'a krore,' 'ten millions;' 
SHd^ m. n. ' one hundred millions ;' *n[T3<< m - n - or *f n - or ^f^T n. ' one thou- 
sand millions ;' *3% n. ' ten thousand millions ;' f»i«a3 n. ' one hundred thousand 
millions ;' *T?T'RI n. ' a billion ;' ^TW m. (or *l^l*a=l n.) 'ten billions ;' ^Hf m. n. or 
5H^['5 m. ' a hundred billions ;' T?T5F?jJ m . n. or viis ' a thousand billions ;' 5151 m. 
or »TMl ' ten thousand billions ;' *l?T?T?T m. or HtPf m. ' one hundred thousand 
billions j' *JT n. (>|p5) 'one million billions;' WtrTlpT n. (H^l*jri) "ten million 
billions;' ^TCJTfiJJlft' f- 'one hundred million billions;' HsMBftl\wyVone thousand 
million billions.' 

Note — Some variation occurs in some of the above names for high numbers, 
according to different authorities. 

DECLENSION OF CARDINALS. 

200. im i, fs % (duo, Svo), % 3 (tres, Tpeig, rpla), ^f|^ 4 (quatuor), 
are declined in three genders. 

ITS eka, 'one' (no dual), follows the declension of the pronominals 
at 237 : Nom. m. VM\ekas; Dat. m. JJ^R ekasmai ; Nom. f. jt^t eka ; 
Dat. f. ^F^ ekasyai ; Nom. n. 5^ ekam ; Nom. pi. m. *»iir eke, ' some.' 
It may take the suffixes tar a and tama ; thus, eka-tara, ' one of two ;' 
eka-tama, 'one of many ;' which also follow the declension of pro- 
nominals; see 336, 338. 

2,01. fg dvi, 'two' (dual only), is declined as if the stem were 
S dva, like Siva ; thus, N. Ac. V. m. ^ dvau, f. n. ^ dve; I. D. Ab. 
m. f. n. sr»n^; G. L. T$R(. 

20a. fmtri, 'three '(pi. only), is declined in the masculine like 



NUMERALS. 121 

the plural of nouns whose stems end in fi at no, except in Gen.; 
thus, N. V. masc. eR^; Ac. g^; I. fafti^; D. Ab. fawRj; G. wn- 
STI^ (Yed. ^Nrr* ) ; L. %i|. The feminine forms its cases from a 
stemfinj; thus,N.Ao.V,fem.fiie^J I. finjfaq;; D.Ab.firffll^; G. 
fapm) L. finjir. The N. Ac. V. nqut. is w^fm ; the rest like masc. 

3 °3- ^ £<*tw, 'four' (plural only), is thus declined : N. V. masc. 
"WTC^ (re-Trapes, rea-a-apei) < Ac. ^npi^; I. ^f^; D. Ab. <^g*^; 
G. ^srph^; L. ^g|. N. Ac. V. fem. srrcr^; I. ^ni^ft^j D. Ab. ^W|- 
«l^; G. ^HfBlT^j L. ^K^]|. N. Ac.V. neut. -gpnft; the rest like 
the masculine. 

a. In datur, shash, pan6an, &c, an augment n is inserted before dm, the termina» 
tion of Gen., by Pan. vn. I, 55. 

304. r^r^panfan, 'five' (plural only), is the same for masc, fem., 
and neut. It is declined in I. D. Ab. L. like nouns in an (146). 
The Gen. lengthens the penultimate ; thus, N. Ac. V. *F^ (TreWe) ; 
I. imfk^; D. Ab. ■q^r«l^; G. t^ottt^; L. vk§. 

Like n^ are declined, *ra^ " seven ' (septem, evra), 7(^ ' nine * 
(novem), ^rj^ 'ten' (decern, Sena), U^ri^i^ * eleven' (undecim), IT^T^ 
'twelve' (duodecim), and all other numerals ending in an, excepting 
'srtt^ ' eight.' 

305. w^ shash, ' six,' is the same for masc, fem., and neut., and 
is thus declined: N. Ac.V. v%; I. tT^faq;; D. Ab. ^»J^; G. totw 
shanndm (43./"); L. TC*j. 

a. Similarly without distinction of gender, ^re»^ ashtan, 'eight:' 
N. Ac.V. Wlor^r? (octo, oktw) ; I. 'sreifir^or ^refiwrj D. Ab. wrw«{ 
or *swre[; G. 'stftct^; L. ^rercj or 'srg^. 

b. The numerals from t^j^ ' five ' to «f=l<5l«i b ' nineteen ' have no 
distinction of gender, but agree in number and case with the nouns 
to which they are joined; thus, T^f«^; «ntffa: 'by five women.' 

206. All the remaining cardinal numbers, from ^i>Tf^rfK ' nineteen' 
to $riT ' a hundred,' n^& ' a thousand,' and upwards, may be declined 
in the singular, even when joined with masculine, feminine, or neuter 
nouns in the plural. Those ending in fir ti are feminine, and declined 
like *rfir mati at 112 ; and those in H / are also feminine, and declined 
like ^ftj^sarit at 136; thus, f4$li*ll g^: 'by twenty men;' fcfyfif 
ifKV^ ace. pi. 'twenty men}' fcRTTIT g^l: 'by thirty men;' f^sra 
tTO^ ace. pi. 'thirty men.' ^eT 'a hundred' and fl^r 'a thousand? 
and all the higher numbers are declined according to their final 



122 .NUMERALS. 

vowels, whether a, d, i, i, or u; thus, yi fmti ' a hundred ancestors ;' 
^niT^fn^Hi: 'from a hundred ancestors;' TJSRTfviiyif friTt: 'a hundred 
and one ancestors ;' W^HIT fq^fa: 'with a thousand ancestors ;' JTgH 
TO: 'a million men;' ^^p g^b 'with ten million men/ &c. 

207. Although these numerals, from ^TN^rfiT 'nineteen,' when joined with 
plural nouns, may be declined in the singular, yet they may take a dual or plural 
when used alone and in particular constructions ; as, fe^lflT 'two twenties ;' Tasini 
' two thirties ;' f^TTR^ ' many thirties ;' ^TiT ' two hundred ;' 3Tn7f«T ' hundreds ;' 
^©Tftl 'thousands ;' ' sixty thousand sons,' ^ffc: Hd^SfeNfar. 

The things numbered are often put in the genitive ; thus, W *T?0 <*ll1i*^ two 
thousand chariots;' UH^Irilf'T ll'llli*^' seven hundred elephants;' ^N^Tfin 
5T<(*U 1*^ ' twenty-one arrows.' See other examples in Syntax at 835. 

OEDINALS. 

208. The ordinals are, jr*W ' first ' * (cf. Trpwros, primus) ; fifiifa 
' second ' (Sevrepo-s) ; Tpftl ' third ' {t ertiu-s) ; which three are all 
declined like Hva and Subha at 187; but the first may optionally 
follow sarva at 337 in N. V. pi. m. (jr«W or umni^) ; and the other 
two the pronominals at 237, 338 in D. Ab. L. sing. m. f. n. ; thus, 
D. fsnftzwr or ffrfluni m. n., irrffarel or fsr;ft«n*l f. See also 239. 

209. ^jf§ ' fourth 'f (reTaproi) ; XRR 'fifth;' TO 'sixth;' PH 
' seventh' (septimus) ; ^re»r ' eighth ;' «re*j ' ninth' (nonus); ^r' tenth' 
[decimus) ; declined like Hva and iubha for masc. and neut., and 
like nodi at 105 for feminine ; thus, Nom. m. vcfgvj^, f, ^piT. (In 
Vftf{ &c. the old superlative suffix ma may be noted.) 

210. The ordinals from ' eleventh' to 'nineteenth' are formed from 
the cardinals by rejecting the final n ; thus, from U4I<$I^ ' eleven,' 
VM%$ ' eleventh' (Nom. m. f. n. irssT^r^, -^ft, -^, 103, 105, 104). 

211. 'Twentieth,' 'thirtieth,' 'fortieth,' and 'fiftieth' are formed 
either by adding the superlative suffix tama (195) to the cardinal, or 
by rejecting the final syllable or letter of the cardinal; as, from 
f^^rftt 'twenty/ N^rfiniH or f#$r 'twentieth' (Nom. m. f. n. -J^, -jft, 
-*t* ; -^;, -$ft, -^, 103, 105, 104). Similarly, ftf^isw or fg^r ' thir- 
tieth/ ^MJ^ItTH or Trgr^r 'fiftieth/ &c. The intermediate ordinals 
are formed by prefixing the numeral, as in the cardinals ; thus, 
g q rf q^l fi nw or JT»f% ' twenty-first/ &c. 

* Other adjectives may be used to express 'first ;' as, ^rT3R(, -WT, -SR ," Vnf^HVI , 
t Hii*tH, -TT, -^5 ^^, -XJT, -^ are also used for 'fourth.' 



PRONOUNS. 123 

212. The other ordinals, from 'sixtieth' to 'ninetieth,' are formed 
by adding taina; also by changing ti to ta in the case of another 
numeral preceding, but not otherwise ; thus, from trf? ' sixty,' nffciPT 
'sixtieth;' but TO for 'sixtieth' can only be used when another 
numeral precedes, as ^PTO or ^^WfFWT ' sixty-first,' f&m or f^fsTTR 
'sixty-third;' from H^ftr 'ninety,' A^AAH 'ninetieth;' but ^m for 
' ninetieth' can only be used when another numeral precedes (see 
Pan. v. 2, 58). 

213. 'Hundredth' and 'thousandth' are formed by adding tama 
to ^rn and •*%&, declinable in three genders ; thus, ^nnm ' hundredth' 
(Nom. m. f. n. ^tfflu^, -»ft, -1^). Similarly, W?OT^, -tf, -T^, 
' thousandth.' 

214. The aggregation of two or more numbers is expressed by modifications of 
the ordinal numbers; thus, ~S1P{ 'a duad,' ^TPT'a triad,' ^fip^'the aggregate 
of four.' 

215. There are a few adverbial numerals; as, ?J^ ' once,' fu^ ' twice, 5 fg*( 
'thrice,' ^ijft 'four times.' ^t^ may be added to cardinal numbers, with a 
similar signification ; as, ^^W^ ' five times.' The neuter of the ordinals may 
be used adverbially ; as, HV|H*^ ' m the first place.' 

For a table of the numerical symbols see page 3. 



CHAPTEE V. 

PKONOUNS. 

216. Pronouns (sarva-ndman) have no one stem equally appli-> 
cable to all the cases. In the 1st personal pronoun, the stem of 
the sing, is practically ^r ah in Nom., and in the oblique cases H ma. 
In the 2nd, the stem of the sing, is practically ^ tva or tj tu, while 
that of the dual and plural is g yu. The 3rd has *c sa for the stem 
of the Nom. sing., and ff ta for the other cases. 

317. Nevertheless the form of the pronoun used in derivative and 
compound words is regarded by grammarians as expressive of its 
most general and comprehensive state, and this in the pronouns of 
the first and second persons, corresponds with the Ablative cases, 
singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, with the Nominative 
and Accusative cases singular neuter. 

B 2 



124 PRONOUNS. 

DECLENSION OP THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

Obs. — In Sanskrit, as in other languages, the general and indefinite character 
of the first two personal pronouns is denoted by the fact that no distinction of 
gender is admitted. For the same reason, the termination of the Nom. case of 
some pronouns is made to resemble the neuter, as the most general state. This 
may also be the reason why the 3rd pronoun sa drops the s of the Nom. case 
before all consonants. There is no Vocative case. 

218. H? mad, sing. 'I,' »HWd asmad, pi. 'we.' 

N. ^Jiaham, ' I ' sum II dvdm, " we two ' ^Piw vayam, ' we ' 

Ac. «TT^ma»jorHT»»a,'me' — a»iw»or tff»«M,'ustwo' "WW^asmdn or ff^nas, 'us' 

I. qui may d WZPW^dvdbhydm WWlfxff asmdbhis 

D. **zmm,ahyam or *I me — dvdbhydm or «ft nau wm**\Hasmabhyam or tW nas 

Ab.mfmat* — dvdbhydm amn\ asmat 

G. »PT mama or ^ me ^TT^ft^ dvayos or t^ nau tStpht^w asmdkam or T&^nas 

L. *jfir mayi — dvayos 'SWHJ asmdsu 

219. H^ tvad, sing. ' thou,' y»Rf yushmad, pi. 'you.' 

N. r&^tvam, 'thou' g^T^ywwMM, 'you two' ifr&yuyam, 'you' or 'ye' 

Ac. r*T*^t>a»ra or ttfod — yuvdm or TO^wftn ^p*^ yushmdn or TO raw 

I. r&ntvayd ^f^m^yuvabhydm ^rTvt^yushmdbhis 

D. jjwpf/MMyamorfffe — yuvdbhydm or^j^vdm -^s^yushmabhy am or -^vas 

Ab. i^ ft>a£ * ■ — yuvdbhydm ^P^T yushmat 

G. iratavaor^fe g^ft^y«i)ayo« or ^«'m Trmft&yushmakam or T&[vas 

L. wfafoayi — yuvayos ^r^yushmdsu 

Obs. — The alternative forms md, me, nau, &c, have no accent, and cannot be 
used at the beginning of sentences, nor before the particles 6a, 'and;' vd, 'or;' 
eva, indeed,' &o. 

a:zo. ^ tad,' he," that.' 

MASCULINE. 

N. H^Sfl* (usually SMf), 'he' fitau, 'they two' ^fe,* they," those' 
Ac. u^ tarn — tau TTI^ fc£ tt 



* As the stems mad and tvad are generally used in compounds, mat-tas and 
*»af-f<w more commonly stand for the Ablative; see 719. Similarly, the Ablative 
plural may be yia!hmat-ta*, asmat-tat; but these very rarely occur. 

t By 67, R will be the usual form.. ^ usually etists as *>, see 64. o. 



PRONOUNS. 



125 



D. TTw tasmai 
Ab. TraTi^ tasmdt 

L. rfft*^ tasmin 



7nwJT»» tdbhydm 
— tdbhydm 



^wt^ tebhyas 

— tebhyas 

fftrp^ teshdm 



N. ST *«, ' she' 
Ac. »n*^/a»re 
I. inn taya 
D. irei tasyai 
Ab. KWT^ tasyds 
G. — tasyds 
L. iPETP^ tasydm 



FEMININE. 

^ fe, 'they two' (fern.) 

— te 

TTWT^ tdbhydm 

— tdbhydm 

— tdbhydm 
irq"ta( tayos 

— tayos 

NEUTER. 



«rre( ids, ' they ' (fem.) 
— tds 
ilTfa^ tdbhis 
HTWI^ tdbhyas 
— tdbhyas 
TnWV\ tdsdm 
FT*} ^«*« 



N. Ac. fl"tTfa£, if te, Tnf*(tdni; the rest Uke the masculine. 

a. Observe the resemblance of the Sanskrit personal pronouns to those of the dead 
and living cognate languages. Aham or ah is the Greek eyw (_<Eolic eycev), Latin 
ego, German ich, English ' I ;' mdm or md (the latter being the oldest form found 
in the Vedas) equals e/*e, me; mahyam=mihi ; mayi=zmei; the mat of the Abl. 
sing, and of asmat, yushmat, corresponds to the Latin met in memet, nosmet, &c. : 
vayam or va is the English 'we;' asmdn = v,s; nas=nos; tvam = tu, 'thou;' tvdm 
or tvd=te, "thee;' tubhyam = tibi ; tvayi=ztui; yuyam-=iV{/.ei(, English 'yovl\ 
vas = vos. The 3rd personal pronoun corresponds to the Greek article; thus, tau 
= T(tfj tam = T0V, tubhydmxTOiv, to.iv, &c. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

2ii. The third personal pronoun T(% tad, ' he/ declined above, is 
constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify 'that' or 'this.' 

a. It is sometimes used emphatically with other pronouns, like ille and ipse; 
thus, TTTSipT 'ille ego;' H 'K^'illi nos;' *t t^'ille tu; *TT WT 'ilia tu;' 
ff ^JfH ' Uli vos ,•' *t *mi ' ille ipse ;' TT<£ inn^' id ipsum.' 

222. It is also combined with the relative ya to form another demonstrative 
pronoun (rarely used except in the Veda), of which the stem is tyad .- N. 5Prt( (67), 
T$, W ; Ac. W«T, &c. Fem. WT, $, TTT^, &c. Neut. 71^, W, WTfa, &c. 

333. By prefixing ^ e to K%, another common pronoun is formed, 
more proximately demonstrative ; thus, 



126 



PRONOUNS. 



izkete 

mnnetan or ^.^\<\endn 
ijl^ etais 
THf*m etebhya* 
— etebhyas 



tf[% etad, ' this.' 

MASCULINE. 

N. %meshas(u&xi.^esha).Jo. i?fit etau 

AcHTP^etam or nyp^enam — etau or ^rft enau 

I. ^T etena or 5%«T enena <JiH**4I*^ etdbhydm 

D. ^ircl etasmai — etdbhydm 

Ab.Trff&n^etasmdt — etdbhydm 

G. wrm etasya irK^etayos oiw^^enayos J^nr^eteshdm 

L. Tnrfi?*^ etasmin — etayos or — enayos -^k^eteshu 

The feminine is N. t^t eshd, T& ete, un\ etas ; Ac. inn* or ^TTH, 
^ or 3^, VK\\ or ^TT^; I. SrPIT or *!W, *r»lT«IT*, ^CTTfW^; 
D. 5H^, &c. 

The neuter is N. ^irt[, ^k, JJiflfH ; Ac. ^iTi^ or toj^, ^or^, 
liitliV or ^nfir, &c. 

a. The alternative forms S«P^, *!^T, JiHIH, &c. are, Uke those of 
the ist and and person, enclitic, and ought not to be used at the 
beginning of a sentence. Moreover, they can only be used with 
reference to some one or something mentioned in a previous sen- 
tence (see Syntax 836). 

With etad cf. Lat. iste, ista, istudj etam = istum, etasya — istius, etat = istud. 

224- There is another common demonstrative pronoun, of which 
j^n idam, ' this/ the N. neuter, is supposed to represent the most 
general state (cf. Lat. is, ea, id), though there are really two stems— 
the vowels ^r a and ^ i (cf. a-tas, i-tas, 719). The latter serves also as 
the stem of certain pronominals, such as ^TR, ^CTT, ^>HI. See 234, 
234. b, and 236. 

MASCULINE. 

^ft imau, ' these two ' ^*t ime, ' these ' 

— imau %*!*{ imdn 

Wn^ dbhydm *rfi^ ^bhis* 

— dbhydm vy^ ebhyas 

— dbhydm — ebhyas 
WH«ft^ anayos w*m eshdm 

— anayos to eshu 



N. '?T*P* ay am, ' this ' 
Ac. ^*w imam 
I. wfo anena 
D. W&i asmai 
Ab. SHWIri asmdt 
G. ?w asyct 
L. ^iftfl^ asmin 



* This is an example of the old form for the Inst. pi. of masculine nouns of the 
first class, common in the Vedas. 





PRONOUNS. 






FEMININE, 




N. 3^1 iyam 


^H ime 


^*n^ imds 


Ac. ^rw imam 


— ime 


— imds 


I. WPIT anayd 


^TT«ni dbhydm 


"WlfH^ dbhis 


D, ^W asyai 


— dbhydm 


^TP>»^ dbhyas 


Ab. ^srpn^ asyas 


— dbhydm 


— dbhyas 


G. — asyds 


^•T^ft^ anayos 


WI4IIH <fo(&M 


L. ^WlTt asydm 


— anayos 

NEUTER. 


^inj a*« 


N. Ac. 53K irfam 


^»r ime 


^JJTfir M»arai 



127 



225. There is another demonstrative pronoun (rarely used, excepting in Nom. 
sing.), of which ^t(?^, ' this ' or that,' is supposed to represent the most general 
state, though the stem is ^HJ amu, and in N. sing. ^I*J asu. It is thus declined : 
Masc. N. '3IOT, ^n^, ^nft J Ac. ^flf*, ^, ^"1*1 5 I- ^pn> ^**n*> wftfi^; 
D. ^flpft, ^wnw, ^jftwffi[; Ab. ^njsHTij, ^npiT^, wft«i^; G. 'srgi, lyfta^, 

wftwi J L. ^P*!^, fl^ft^, wft^. Fem. N. ^tW, "SH^, ^n|*(; Ac. , W|$ ? , S^, 

^j(; 1. ^g'n, wj*n*r, ^"jfa^; d. ^nj^, ^wn^, ^wr(; Ab. ^gTrc^, 
&c; g. ^njTRi;, ^igtffy 'b'J^tt; l. ^prr*, ^npfy ^ngg. Neut. n. Ac. 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 
236. The relative is formed by substituting V y for the initial 
letter of the pronoun tad at 330 ; thus, 

Tft yad, ' who, 5 * which.' 

MASCULINE. 

tu yau 
— yau 
TTf«JT^ y dbhydm 

— y dbhydm. 

— ydbhydm 
V&H yayos 

— yayos 

The feminine and neuter follow the fem. and neut. of tad at 320. 
Fem. N. xn yd, V ye, *m[ yds; Ac. Tfp^ydm, &c. &c. Neut. N. Ac. 
HW yat, ^ ye, infa y<£»* ; the rest like the masculine. 

With yas, yd, yat, &c, cf. Gr. 0?, ij, e, &c, Sk. y corresponding to sptnfes asper 
in Gr. (see 25). 



N. ^yas 
Ac. ^ yaw 
I. ifa yena 
D. *rel yasmai 
Ab. T^RTi^ yasmdt 
G, *reu y«*y« 
L. nftR^ yasmin 



Si ye, 'who* or ' which' 
fU^ydn 
V^yais 
W^ yebhyas 
— yebhyas 
SfaT*^ yeshdm 



128 PRONOUNS. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 
337. The interrogative differs from the relative in substituting k 
instead of y for the initial letter of the pronoun tad at 220 ; and in 
making the N. Ac. sing. neut. f%K*^ instead of 3t^* ; thus, N. masc. 
^ kas, •$ kau, % ke, 'who?' 'which? 5 'what?' Ac. -*j[kam, ' whom?' 
&c. N. fem. *st kd, gr ke, ^ kas, &c. The N. Ac. neut. are faw 
kirn, % ke, swfir kdhi. Although the real stem of this pronoun is ka, 
yet Mm is taken to represent the most general state, and occurs in 
a few compounds; such as fair^'on what account?' 'why?' 

o. To the true stem ka may be affixed ti, to form ^ifif kati (quot), ' how many ?' 
The same suffix is added to ta and ya, the proper stems of the third personal 
and relative pronouns, to form tati, ' so many ' (tot), and yati, ' as many.' These 
are thus declined in pi. only : 

N. Ac. V. *fir; I. *Kfilf«^; Dat. Ab. *KfKW^; G. ^fan*; L. ^fiPJ. 

Note — The Latin quot and tot, which drop the final i, take it again in composi- 
tion; as, quotidie, totidem, &c. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 
228. The indeclinable suffixes 6id, api, and tana (718), affixed (in 
accordance with the rules of Sandhi) to the several cases of the 
interrogative pronouns, give them an indefinite signification ; as, 
cfiftj? kakiid, ' somebody,' * some one,' ' any one,' ' a certain one.' 

MASCULINE. 

N. «fcf^jil kai&t. 62. ^if""* Akaudit cRf^TI AeAV, ' some persons' 

Ac. <*fMi^ kaniHt. 59. — kautit «STfatt kdnMt. 53. 

I. "^*i[-*t{kena6it 4 1 m rPd d kdbhydhtit ^ftftffif kaiscit. 62. 

D. ^^faj^ kasmaifit — kdbhydhdt iffwrf^RI kebhyasiit 

Ab. «n «« 1 Pa (^ kasmditit. 48. kdbhydndit kebhyascit 

G. "^^jf^l^kasi/adit 3<*ftftiriJiayo&i7. 62. 5*1(1 ftji^jtesfcfii&r 

L. lfaifm[kasmw4tit. 53. — kayoidit W^f^keshuHt 

Similarly, Fem. Nom. ^rfti^, %f«nj, gBxftj^; Ac. saf^, &c. : and 
Neut. Nom. Ac. fafe^' something,' * anything,' ?*f^, ^srfcrfaTr, &c. 

229. So also by affixing ^tfil; as, Nom, masc. sftsfVx (64.0) 'some one/ 'a 
certain one/^Rf'J^sfTT (37, 35); Ac. *PTfa, &c. ; I.^RTfa, &c.(3i); D.TOH- 



* Kat (or kad), however (=Latin quod), was the old form, and is, like kim, found 
at the beginning of compounds j such as kattid, ' perhaps j ' kad-artha, ' useless ' 
(' of what use F ') ; kad-adhvan, ' a bad road ' (' what sort of a road ?'). 



PRONOUNS. 129 

*tfa, &c. (37); Ab. SSOT^fa, &c; G. *FWTf<T, &c; L. 3Rftff5rfil, &c. (52). 
Nora. fern. ^irfq, &c. ; Ac. ^Rf«T, &c. ; I. ^TCTfl, &c. &c. Norn. neut. fsprfq 
something,' 'anything,' &c. The suffix 6ana is rarely found, except in Nom. 
masc. 3!^R ' some one,' ' any one ;' and in Nom. neut. fa^T ' something.' 

230. In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite; thus, from 
kati, how many?' katidd, 'a few;' from kadd, 'when?' kaddcid or kuddcuna or 
kaddpi, ' at some time ;' from katham, 'how?' kathahtana, 'some how;' from kva, 
where ?' kvaiid or kvdpi, somewhere.' 

a. Whosoever,' 'whatsoever' are expressed by prefixing the relative to the in- 
definite; thus, i: ^iftjt^or T& oftsfil 'whosoever,' *Ti^ 'faiferi^' whatsoever :' or 
sometimes to the interrogative; as, tfH ^TT TUTOT 'by any means whatsoever:' 
or sometimes by repeating the relative ; as, *ft 1J, T^ TfiT. 

POSSESSIVE PEONOUNS. 
231. Possessive pronouns (Pan. iv. 3, 1—3) are mostly formed by- 
affixing iya (80. L) to those forms of the personal pronouns, ending 
in d, which are used as stems ; thus, fr. M% ' 1/ H^faf madiya, ' mine ;' 
fr. ^R^ ' we, 5 ^w^far asmadiya, ' our ;' fr. jg^ ' thou/ r^fa tvadiya, 
'thine;' fr. fl^ 'he,' tr(\ti tadiya, 'his/ Similarly, vr^fta ' yours' 
(Pan. iv. 2, 115) is formed from bhavad, and not from the regular 
stem bhavat (see 233). They are declined like §ubha at 187; e.g. 
Nom. m. »^ta*[, f. i^hrr, n. «^fapT. 

a. Other possessive pronouns differently formed are mdmaka (fem. ak%, but 
generally ikd) and mdmaMna (fem. d), mine;' tdvaka (fem. aki) and tdvakina 
(fem. d), 'thine;' dsmdka (fem. aki) and dsmdkma (fem. d), 'our;' yaushmdka 
(fem. dki) and yaushmdkma (fem. d), 'your.' Mdmaka and those formed with the 
suffix ina (80. XLIX) make their feminines in a, and are declined like subha at 
187; the others follow s'iva or gubha for masc. and neut., and nadi (105) for fem. 

Obs. — The genitive case of the personal pronouns is often used as a possessive ; 
thus, TW ^W> ' his son ;' »TH ^t ' my daughter.' 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 
233. The oblique cases sing, of ^rtm^ ateaw, ' soul," self (declined 
at 146), are used reflexively, in place of the three personal pronouns, 
like the Latin ipse. 

Thus, dtmdnam (me ipsum) andhdrena hanishydmi, ' I shall kill myself by fasting ;' 
dtmdnam (te ipsum) mritavad dariaya, ' show thyself as if dead ;' dtmdnam (se 
ipsum) nindati, 'he blames himself.' It is used in the singular, even when it 
refers to a plural ; as, dtmdnam pummahe, we (will) purify ourselves ;' abudhair 
dtmd paropakarantkritah, 'foolish people make themselves the tools of others.' 

a. The indeclinable pronoun ^[Tjt^svayam is sometimes joined, 

s 



130 PRONOUNS. 

in the sense of ' self/ to the three personal pronouns ; thus, *i ?nm 
' I myself/ &c. 

b. ^ sva {sum) is used reflexively, with respect to all three 
persons, and may stand for 'my own 5 {mens), 'thy own' (tow*), 'his 
own/ ' our own/ &c. (cf. a-cpos, (r$n, cr(pov). It often occupies the first 
place in a compound, e. g. ^PJ^ »rarfw 'he goes to his own house.' 

The Gen. case of ^ I rf^ dtman, or often the simple stem, is used 
with the same signification ; as, ^rn*nft JJTJ or «ui*«j$ *T33[fir. It is 
used in the singular even when it refers to more than one *. In 
the most modern Sanskrit, ft»T nija is often used in place of ^r and 
^rnw^, and from it transferred to Bengali. 

^, in the sense of ' own/ is declined like sarva at 237; as a pro- 
nominal the Ab. L. sing. masc. neut. and N. pi. masc. may optionally 
follow Subha at 187 ; thus, N. pi. m. sve or svds in the sense of 
'own;' but used substantively in the sense of 'kinsmen' or 'pro- 
perty/ sva can only follow Siva or Subha (N. pi. m. svds). 

c. ^ftn (f. d), w?RtV (f. d), and ^R (f. akd or ikd), declinable like Subha, 
sometimes take the place of ^ in the sense of ' own/ ' one's own.' 

HONORIFIC OR RESPECTFUL PRONOUN". 

233. HTfT bhavat, ' your Honour,' requiring the 3rd person of the 
verb, is declined like dhanavat at 140 ; thus, N. masc. vrt*{ bhavdn, 
*HtH bhavantau, »W»dtl bhavantas ; V. »T^ ; N. fem. H^jft bhavatl, 
tRW bhavatyau, M^q^ bhavatyas, &c. ; V. v&f&. It is constantly 
used to denote 'respect/ in place of the 2nd personal pronoun; thus, 
H^I^ *£% iratg ' let your Honour go home' for ' go thou home.' 

PRONOUNS OF QUANTITY AND SIMILITUDE. 

234. Modifications of the demonstrative, relative, and interroga- 
tive pronouns may take the suffix ^71 vat to express ' quantity/ and 
I^T driSa, -%q driksha or -^sidriS (Nom. masc. neut. drik, fem. driSi) to 
express ' similitude/ frequently used as correlative pronouns ; thus, 

K[m^tdvat, anmi^etdvat, 'so many,' 'so much' (tantus); VX^il (quantus) 'as 
many/'as much' (declined like dhanavat at 140); iTTpr tddrUa or HTT^ tddriksha 
or Kl~%5(tddri4, 'such like' {talis, tyjKi'kos); <Jrfl£$T etddris'a or *XT%S{etddris, 
' like this or that,' following subha (187) for masc. and neut. of those ending in 
fjsa and ^ ksha; and dti, at 181, for masc. and neut. of those in ST s" : and nadi, 

* Lassen cites an example (Ramayana II. 64, 28) in which dtman refers to the dual : 
Putram dtmanalj. sppsh(vd nipetatuh, ' they two fell down after touching their son.' 



PRONOUNS. 



131 



at 105, for the fem. of all three. Similarly, the correlatives IT 1 ?^ or i\\ rf'Bf or 
irfS^'as like,' 'how like' {qualis, ijXlKOi); $"7^ or ff^? or ^T" ' so hkej' 
<*l^^l or =fit'^' or =fihpl ' how like ? ' {qualis ?) 

a. Note, that "H^T is derived from the root in'/, ' to see,' ' appear,' and is in fact 
our English 'like,' d heing interchangeable with I, and 4 with k. 

b. NiMn 'how much,' and SJlif ' so much,' are declined like VrRTI (140). 

c. A few peculiar pronouns of quantity, some of which are of the nature of 
ordinals, are formed with the suffix tha (itha), thought by some to be an old 
superlative, or titha (80. LXIII) ; e. g. ydvatitha, as, (, am, ' to whatever stage or 
degree advanced,' 'how-manieth,' ' as-manieth ;' katitha, as, {, am, "to whatever 
degree,' ' how-manieth ;' katitho divasah, what day of the month is it ?' katipaya- 
tha, as, i, am, ' advanced to a certain degree.' 



PKONOMINALS. 
235. There are certain common adjectives, called pronominals, 
which partake of the nature of pronouns, and follow the declension 
of tad at 230 ; but may also take a vocative case. 

236. These are, 5[iTC ' other ' (but in Veda the neut. may be itaram as well as 
itarat, Pan. vii. 1, 26, cf. Latin iterum); WHt 'which of the two?' (irortpos for 
KOTepof); cRTTO 'which of many?' TfiTt'that one of two;' Kiffl'that one of many;' 
Tftffl 'who or which of two;' TiW 'who or which of many' (formed by adding 
the comparative and Superlative suffixes to the various pronominal stems, 195) ; 
<!rai ' other,' ' another ;' W*Trtt ' one of two ;' and *ttin*i ' one of many.' They 
are declined like TTC, and make the N. V. Ac. neut. sing, in at; thus, anyat, itarat, 
anyatarat, katarat, katamat, &c. ; but they have a vocative, viz. V. masc. anya, 
V. fem. anye, V. neut. anyat, &c. ; the V. du. and plural is like the Nom. 

a. With regard to itara, it loses its pronominal declension at the end of Dvandva 
compounds, but at the end of Dvandvas (748) it may optionally follow tad in the 
Nom. pi. ; e. g. varnds'rametards (or -re), ' classes, orders, and others.' 

237. There are other pronominals, which make am instead of at 
in the N. Ac. neuter. The model of these is *! sarva, ' all ;' thus, 



SINGULAB. 

N. "&\sarvas 
Ac. ^k^sarvam 
I. ^^fer sarvena 
D. ^%^ sarvasmai 
Ab. ^wT\sarvasmdt 
G. *tt^(T sarvasya 
L. Tl%f9^ sarvasmin 
V. *if sarva 



Masculine, 
dual. 

^rt? sarvau 

— sarvau 

IT%wru^ sarvdbhydm 

— sarvdbhydm 

— sarvdbhydm 
inhfft[ sarvayos 

— sarvayos 
*lt! sarvau 

s 3 



PLURAL. 

^ sarve 
^T^ sarvdn 
^^ sarvais 
^R«R[ sarvebhyas 
— sarvebhyas 
•%$?X\ sarveshdm 
W$*i sarveshu 
St%" sarve 



132 



PRONOUNS. 



SINGULAR. 

N. *t%T sarod 
Ac. ^i%T^ sarvdm 
I. *phn sarvayd 
D. *i%*s sarvasyai 
Ab. *HWI^ sarvasyds 
G. — sarvasyds 
L. T3^&l*{sa/rvasydin 
V. flW sarve 

N. Ac. ?T^ sarvam 
V. *i% sarra 



Feminine, 
dual. 

— sarve 

^%r«TT*^ sarvdbhydm 

— sarvdbhydm 

— sarvdbhydm 
44 <D^ sarvayos 

— sarvayos 

Neuter. 
— sarve 



PLURAL. 

*Hi^ sarvds 

— sarvds 
SPfrfa^ sarvdbhis 
+HM^ sarvdbhyas 

— sarvdbhyas 
*Mmi*i, sarvdsdm 
+NI*J sarvdsu 
5%I^ sarvds 

T&\f® sarvdni 

— sarvdni 



The other cases like the masculine. 

238. Like san>a are declined "SOT*! 'both' (properly only found in sing, and pi., 
a&ia being used in du. ; the fem. of ublwya is ubhayi, like matfe') ; T^T ' all ;' <i<*n< 
'one of two' (e^aTe^o?); ^MriH 'one of many;' *R meaning 'all,' but not when 
it signifies 'equal;' ftw 'the whole;' W 'other;' %T 'half.' The N. Ac. sing, 
neuter of these will end in am, but W is optionally r(t{. In N. V. pi. masc. ^fa is 

Obs. — "&X, 'both' (ambo, ap.<pw), is declined like sarva, but only in du. ; thus, 
N. Ac. V. masc. 7>ft, fem. and neut. S 1 *; I. D. Ab. 3«T»TPI; G. L. wft^. 

a. ^HTt 'inferior,' Ht 'other,' WTC 'other,' ^SRT 'posterior,' 'west,' T3^ 
' superior,' ' north,' ^ftps ' south,' ' right,' ^5 ' east,' ' prior,' ^PtT^ meaning 
either 'outer' or 'inner' (as applied to a garment), ^ 'own' (232), follow sarva, 
and optionally subha, at 187, in Abl. Loc. sing. masc. and neut., and Nom. Voc. pi. 
masc. ; as, ^PTOHTW or ^PKTiT, &c. They can only be declined like pronominal^ 
when they denote relative position ; hence dakshindh (not dakshine) kavayah, clever 
poets.' Moreover, the pronominal inflexion is optional in certain compounds. 

239. ^«B, 'one,' follows sarva, see 200; fsinll 'second,' TJfffa 'third,' follow 
subha (187), and optionally sarva in certain cases, see 208; they make their fem. 
in d. 

240. ^T5I "a few,' ^Kj or ^H^ ' half,' <*fiimi (fem. d or ' several,' ' few,' ' some,' 
TPn ' first,' ^T*T ' last,' ¥*T (fem. 0, %THI (fem. <) ' twofold,' TTZTTt (fem. f) ' five- 

'■>"'• fold,' and all in -ya and -taya, properly follow diva at 103 ; but may make their 
Nom. V. pi. masc. in e; as, , ST5T or ^ren^ 'few,' &c. (see Pan. 1. 1, 33). 

a. ^J3n"T, ^fltiflC, ' one another,' ' mutual,' make their Nom. Ac. sing. neut. 
in am, not at ; and V. in a. 

b. In some pronouns the syllable ka or ak is introduced, generally before the 
last vowel or syllable, to denote contempt, in the same way that ka is added to 
nominal stems; e.g. JHRiT for T»n 'by me,' gWKTfi*^ for ^Ttf^'by you.' 
Similarly, *T%%, fire^T, for W^f, foil ' all ' (see Pan. v. 3, 71). 



VERBS. — GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 133 



CHAPTER VI, 

VEEBS. 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

341. Although the Sanskrit verb (dkhydta, kriyd) offers many- 
striking and interesting analogies to the Greek, yet our explanations 
of its structure are not likely to fall in with the preconceived notions 
of the student of Greek grammar. 

There are ten tenses and moods (Jcdla). Seven of them are of 
common occurrence ; viz. 1. the Present (technically called 757 lat, 
which, with the other technical names, is applicable also to the 
terminations of each tense respectively) ; a. the Imperfect, some- 
times called the First Preterite (?5^ Ian) ; 3 . the Potential or Optative 
(fc3^ Un) ; 4. the Imperative (cficz lot) ; 5. the Perfect, sometimes called 
the Second Preterite (fo^ lit) ; 6. the First Future (tsz lut) ; 7. the 
Second Future (^r Irit). Three are not so commonly used ; viz. 
8. the Aorist, sometimes called the Third Preterite (3^ lun) ; 9. the 
Precative, also called the Benedictive (wifjrt fc5^ diir lin) ; 10. the 
Conditional («s^ Irin). There is also an Infinitive, and several Par- 
ticiples. Of these, the Present, the three Past tenses, and the two 
Futures belong to the Indicative mood. The Imperative, Potential, 
Precative, and Conditional (see 342) are moods susceptible of 
various times ; but, as there is only one form for each, it can lead 
to no embarrassment to call them tenses, and to arrange them indis- 
criminately with the tenses of the Indicative. 

The first four tenses, viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, and 
Imperative, are frequently called Special tenses*, because in these 
each of the ten classes of roots has a special structure of its own (as 
will be explained at 248). 

a. Obs. — The ancient Sanskrit of the Veda is more rich in grammatical forms 
than the later or classical Sanskrit. There is a Vedic Subjunctive mood, technically 
called m^ let, which comprises under it a Present, Imperfect, and Aorist ; moreover, 
the Vedic Potential and Imperative are thought to have distinct forms for various 
tenses, The Vedic Infinitive, too, has ten or eleven different forms (see 459. a). 

* In the previous editions of this Grammar these tenses were called ' Conjuga- 
tional.' I have thought it better to bring the present edition into harmony with 
other Grammars by adopting Bopp's designation of ' Special.' 



134 YEEBS. — GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

242. Although the three past tenses are used without much distinction, yet it 
should be observed, that they properly express different degrees of past time. 
The Imperfect {anadyatana-bh&ta) corresponds in form to the Imperfect of Greek 
verbs, and properly has reference to an event done at some time recently past, but 
before the current day. It may denote action past and continuing, or it may be 
used like the Greek Aorist. The Perfect (paroksla-bMta) is said to have reference 
to an event completely done before the present day at some remote period, unper- 
ceived by or out of sight of the narrator; it answers in form to the Greek Perfect, 
but may also be used like the Aorist. The Aorist refers to an event done and past 
at some indefinite period, whether before or during the current day ; it corresponds 
in form and sense to the Greek 1st and 2nd Aorist, and sometimes to the Pluper- 
fect *. Again, the two Futures properly express, the First, definite, the Second, 
indefinite futurity f: the Second, however, is the most used, and answers to the 
Greek Future. The Potential or Optative may generally be rendered in English 
by some one of the auxiliaries 'may,' 'can,' 'would,' 'should,' ought.' It is 
said to denote 'command,' 'direction,' 'expression of wish,' enquiry,' condition,' 
' supposition' (sambhdvana, Pan. in. 3, 161). See Syntax, 879. The Conditional (or 
Imperfect of the Future) is occasionally used after the conjunctions yadi and 6ed, 
' if :' it has an augment like the Imperfect and Aorist, and ought on that account 
to be classed with the tenses of the Indicative (see 891). The Precative or Bene- 
dictive is a tense sometimes used in praying and blessing (d£shi). It is a modifi- 
cation of the Potential. There is no tense exactly equivalent to the Pluperfect in 
Sanskrit, although the form of some Aorists (in a few primitive verbs, and in verbs 
of CI. 10 and Causals) resembles that of the Greek Pluperfect by taking both aug- 
ment and reduplication : the sense of this tense, however, may often be expressed 
by the Past Indeclinable Participle or by the Past Passive Participle ; as, tasminn 
apaJcrdnte, after he had departed.' See Syntax, 840, 899. a. 

a. According to some, the form of the Imperfect and Aorist, which remains after 
rejecting the augment of these tenses in the Indicative, and which is especially 
used after the particles TT md and HT Wind sma (see 884. Obs. and 889), ought to 
be called the Subjunctive Imperfect and Subjunctive Aorist. 

b. The Infinitive generally has an Active, but is capable of a Passive significa- 
tion (see Syntax, 867—872). 

* The fact is, that the three past tenses are not very commonly used to repre- 
sent the completeness of an action. This is generally done by employing the Past 
Passive Participle with an inst. case ; or by adding vat to the Past Pass. Part., and 
combining it with the Present tense of as, ' to be ;' as, uktavdn asmi, ' I have said.' 
See Syntax, 897. 

t The First Future (lut) is said to be an-adyatane, i. e. to be so far definite as to 
denote what will happen at a future period, not in the course of the current day ; 
as, ^ TtuIVf ' to-morrow I shall go ' (Pan. ni. 3, 15) ; whereas the Second Future 
may refer to immediate futurity ; as, ^ra wfaiT& ^ ^T nftillW ' this very evening 
or to-morrow I shall be going.' 



VERBS. — GENEEAL OBSERVATIONS. 135 

243. Every tense has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. 

To each tense belong two sets of Active terminations ; one for the 
Active voice (properly so called), the other for a kind of Middle or 
Reflexive voice. The former of these voices is called by Indian 
grammarians Parasmai-pada ('word* directed to another'), because 
the action is supposed to be Transitive, or to pass parasmai, ' to 
another (object) ;' the latter is called Atmane-pada ('word* directed 
to one's self), because the action is supposed to refer dtmane, ' to 
one's self.' This distinction, however, is not always observed, and we 
often find both Parasmai and Atmane employed indifferently for 
Transitive verbs. 

Some verbs, however, are conjugated only in the Atmane-pada, 
especially when they are Intransitive, or when the direct fruit of 
the action accrues to the agent (see the distinction of Uddttetafr and 
Anuddttetajj, at 75. c), or when particular prepositions are used; thus, 

Mud and ru6 meaning 'to be pleased,' 'please one's self;' bhuj meaning ' to eat' 
(not * to protect '); dd, ' to give,' with d prefixed, meaning ' to give to one's self,' ' to 
take,' are restricted to the Atmane-pada. Sometimes, when a verb takes both 
Fadas, the Atmane, without altering the idea expressed by the root, may be used 
to direct the action in some way towards the agent ; thus, padati means ' he cooks,' 
but paiate, 'he cooks for himself:' yajati, 'he sacrifices ;' yqjate, ' he sacrifices for 
himself:' namati, 'he bends;' namate, ' he bends himself :' darhyati (Causal), ' he 
shews;' dariayate, he shews himself,' 'appears :' hdrayati, 'he causes to make;' 
kdrayate, he causes to be made for himself :' and ydd, 'to ask,' although employing 
both Padas, is more commonly used in the Atmane, because the act of asking 
generally tends to the advantage of the asker. (See this subject more fully ex- 
plained at 786.) 

a. Passive verbs are conjugated in the Atmane-pada. Indeed, 
in all the tenses, excepting the first four, the Passive is generally 
undistinguishable from the Atmane-pada of the primitive verb. 
But in the four Special tenses, viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, 
and Imperative (unlike the Greek, which exhibits an identity between 
the Middle and Passive voices in those tenses), the Sanskrit Passive, 
although still employing the Atmane-pada terminations, has a special 

* Pada is an inflected word as distinguished from an uninflected root (Pan. 1. 
4, 14). The term pada has here reference to the scheme of terminations only; so 
that in this sense there are only two voices in Sanskrit, and they are often used 
indiscriminately. Although the Atmane-pada has occasionally a kind of Middle 
signification, yet it cannot be said to correspond entirely to the Greek Middle. 



136 VERBS. — GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

structure of its own, common to all verbs, and distinct from the 
conjugational form of the Atmane-pada in all but the fourth class*. 

Thus the Greek aKovtc makes for both the Middle and Passive of those four 
tenses, ist sing, axovopai, ynovGprrp), aicovoifMjv, ixkovov (2nd sing.) But the 
Sanskrit sru, ' to hear,' makes for the conjugational form of the Atmane, ^«r<, 
Vli j jftH , 'qpftT, ^jmt; while for the Passive it is W, ^T^, ^?hT, W^. 

244. As in nouns the formation of a nominal stem out of a root 
precedes declension, the root generally requiring some change or addi- 
tion before the case-terminations can be affixed, so in verbs the forma- 
tion of a verbal stem out of a root must precede conjugation. Again, 
as in nouns every case has its own proper termination, so in verbs 
each of the three persons, in the three numbers of every tense, has 
a termination (vibhakti), one for the Parasmai-pada, and one for the 
Atmane-pada, which is peculiarly its own. Moreover, as in nouns, 
so in verbs, some of the terminations may be combined with servile 
or indicatory letters, which serve to aid the memory, by indicating 
that where they occur peculiar changes are required in the root. 
Thus the three terminations which belong to the ist, and, and 3rd 
persons of the Present tense, Parasmai-pada, respectively, are mi, si, 
ti; and these are combined with the letter P (miP, siP, UP), to 
indicate that roots belonging to the second and third groups of 
classes (see 358, 259, and 290) must be modified in a particular way, 
before these terminations are affixed. 

The annexed tables exhibit, ist, the scheme of terminations for 
Parasmai and Atmane-pada, with the most useful indicatory letters 
(denoted by Roman capitals), in all the tenses, the four Special tenses 
being placed first ; 2ndly, the same scheme with the substitutions 
required by certain classes of roots (the numerical figures denoting 
the classes in which these substitutions occur, see 257). 

245- Terminations op Special Tenses. 





Parasmai-pada. 




Atmane-pada. 








Present tense. 






•ERS 


SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


I. 


ftp^miP 


^^vas 


Manias 


*e 


^%vahe 


^mahe 


2. 


fW^siP 


*R(thas 


Vtha 


^se 


TXTVdthe 


KI dhve 


3- 


frT^iP 


TR!{tas 


^ff% anti 


Ite 


^Tndte 


Wit ante 



* For this reason we prefer to regard the Passive, not as a Voice, but as a distinct 
derivative from the root. See 461. a. 



VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 



137 



Imperfect or First Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 



i.WT^aroAP ^va 


Mma 


\i "%f%vahi 


Tf^ maAi 


2. ftn^sIP THT tarn 


Kta 


TTP^thds "m^m^dtldm 


SSW dhvam 


3- f^dlP HT^fdm 


^(*{an 


IT ta ^rnrtT dtdm 


Witanta 




Potential 


or Optative. 




1 . 'TT*r yam ^TR ya«a 


iRHydma 


%Q{ya %%f^fvahi 


§nu; &iaii 


2 . Tl^ yds TTifT y of am 


THUyata 


$m(ithds iimifydthdm 


^KWfiicam 


3. IR^a* TTUTT yafa'm 


Tftyus 


^H (ta plMVifi/dtdm 


^C^/ran 




Imperative. 




i.^nfimrfntP 'STR^tfoaP 


wm\dmaP 


VV^aiP TXT^<{dvahaiP 


^Jf^^dmahaiP 


2. T^ fei 7R fam 


TTta 


^t sva ^ITOTH dthdm 


VS(H dhvam 


3.1^*»P TTPTfa'm 


^raarafe 


"RVRtdm ^W^dtdm 


•^iwyantdm 


Terminations oi 


f General Tenses. 




Perfect or Second Preterite 


• (requiring reduplication, 252). 


i.*!R.NaP ^»a 


tins 


^e V^vahe 


V^mahe 


2.^.fAaP ^T^a^us 


^ a 


^ se ^IT^ dthe 


53 dhve (£) 


3. JO^NaP ^np( atus 


^ttS 


Te ^Ttldte 


^t ire 




First Future or Definite Future. 




1 . BTft*? iasmi rll«9*^ tdsvas TW&1{tdsmas 


TTT^ take ifra^ tdsvahe 


rTIW^ tdsmahe 


2. inftt /asi AM^mjdsthas WI^T fr&ftia 


rIT« tdse rilUIV) tdsdthe 


m&l tddhve 


3. TtT td HTO *ar«tt 


UTt^ <aras 


HT td flTCT faraa 


'HtK^tdras 


Second Future c 


>r Indefinite Future. 




i.WrfTsyami wiq^syawas 


♦Mllt^syamas 


^T sye ^Trait sydvahe 


m\H£ sydmdhe 


2. ^tlfil syasi *m<h\ syatha* 


Wl syatha 


5PTO syase WI syeifte 


TQtA syadhve 


3. ^tjfff syati Wrl^ syatas 


*»\ti syanti 


^JK syate WrT syete 


*M*fl syante 


Aorist or Third Preterite ( 


requiring the augment a, 25 


0- 


i.WTsam ^roa 


l&sma 


fa si ^^ soahi 


WM5 smaAi 


2 . *rfa^ si's ^tTW stam 


HHsta 


^HT^sthds tiWlt^sdthdm 


S^rfApam(^T) 


3. ?ft il si - * ^TIH stdm 


^£t[sus 


H sta «\m*\sdtdm 


WTsaia 



1 . TTCPT ydsam TIT^T ydsva <(IW ydsma 
2.TfT^yds TRmHydstam mMydsta 
MlWIj/dstdm VT^ftydsus 



3.im(ydt 



Precative or Benedictive. 

Jlfa s^/o ■ ^faf^J s&aAi *il*l(\: sfmahi 

jftWl^sishthds *fN HW I H stydsthdm ifttispt sidhvam 
Tftn stshta lf\ i| ltd I T siydstdm «l <«^s£ra?j 



Conditional (requiring the augment a, 251). 



1 . ^tlT syam *m<l sya»a WTTsyrfma 


W sye ^HnJ sydvahi 


WIHr^syamaW 


2.5Pff(syas 5pnnT^a*am WK syata 


Wm\syathds tH^it^syethdm 


'BU^syarfAjiam 


S.W\syat wm^syatdm ^P^syan 


WH syata *Mm\syetdm 
T 


^ItT syanta 



138 



VEKBS. — TEKMINATIONS. 



• 346. The same terminations, with the substitutions required in certain classes. 
Terminations op Special Tenses. 
Pabasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present tense. 



I'ERS. SING. 

i. miP 



DUAL. PLURAL. 



vas mas 



se 



te 



2. sir thas tha 

{nti 1, 4, 6, 10. 
araft' 2,7; 5,8,9, 
ati 3 (2). 
An initial s, as in si, se, &c, is liable to become sh by 70. 

Imperfect or First Preterite (requiring the augment o, 251) 



\i 1,4,6,10. J 
»-ea,3,7j5 s 8,9. L 



PLURAL. 

mahe 



to 1,4,6,10. s dhve 

lathe 2,3,7; S»8,9. I 



{ite 1,4,6,10. jnte 1,4,6,10. 
ate 2, 3, 7; 5, 8, 9. I ate 2, 3,7; 5,8,9 



\m 1,4,6,10. r 
UmP2,3,7;5,8, 9 .l 



1 

3. «P 

3. tV 



va ma 
tarn ta 



mahi 



1. tyam 

2. is 

3. if 



ra 1, 4, 6, 10. 
*am ■ an 2, 7; 5,8,9. fo 

Potential or Optative. 
In 1, 4, 6, 10. 

to wwa 



a* ;^x,4,6,io. r m 

LfltfAam 2,3,7; 5,8,9. 1 



{itdm 1, 4, 6, 10. f nta 1, 4, 6, 10. / / 
«&om 2,3,7; 5> 8 ,9- l«^«2,3i7;S> 8 ,9- 



itdm iyus 

I* 2,3, 71 5,8,9- 

1. yam ydva ydma 

2. yd» ydtam ydta 

3. yaY ydtdm yus 

1. amP aVaP amaP 

—1, 4, 6, 10; 5,8. 

hi 2,3; 5>9- 
a"Ai ($Ai) 2, 3, 7. 
—after ana 9. 



2. 



/am fa 



1. lya 

2. e£Ms 

3. ita 



Imperative. 
aiP 



sva 



In all the classes. 
ivahi imahi 

iydthdm idhvam 

iydtdm iran 



3. tuV 



tdm 



ntu 1,4,6,10. 
antu 2,7; 5,8,9. 
\jxtu 3 (2). 



dvahaiP 

jithdm 1,4,6,10 
dthdm 



dmahaiP 



1 



,4,6,10. f 
,3,75 5,8,9-1- 



dhvam 



tdm 



f itdm 1 , 4, 6, 10. J" ntdm 1 , 4, 6, 10. 
l«ftc&» 2,3,7; 5.8,9- U^ma.3,7; 5,8,9. 



VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 



139 



In el. 9, hi is dropped after dna, substituted for the conjugations] ni of the 2nd 
sing. Impv., Parasmai, in the case of roots ending in consonants. A form TlTTl tdt 
(cf. Latin to, Greek tb) may be substituted for hi and tu, and even for ta, to imply 
benediction, chiefly used in the Vedas. 

Tebminations of General Tenses. 
Perfect or Second Preterite (requiring reduplication, 35a). 



1. aV *iva *ima 

2. itka or thaP athus a 

3. aP atus us 



*ivahe *imahe 
at he *idhveor*i4hve 
ate ire 



* Only eight roots, viz. sru, stu, dm, sru, hri, bhri, sri, vri, reject the initial 
» from the terminations marked with * ; and of these eight all but vri (meaning 
' to cover') necessarily reject it also in the 2nd sing. Parasmai. See 369—372- 

First Future or Definite Future. 



1. tdsmi 


tdsvas 


tdsmas 


take 


tdsvahe tdsmahe 


l.tdsi 


tdsthas 


tdstha 


tdse 


tdsdthe tddhve 


3.td 


tdrau 


tdras 


td 


tdrau tdras 



Many roots prefix i to the above terminations; thus, 1. itdsmi, 2. itdsi, &c. 
3J? lengthens this i ; ^ vri and all roots in long ri optionally do so. 

Second Future or Indefinite Future. 



1. sydmi 


sydvas 


sydmas 


sye 


sydvahe sydmahe 


2. syasi 


syathas 


syatha 


syase 


syethe syadhve 


3. syati 


syatas 


syanti 


syate 


syete syante 



Many roots prefix i to the above terminations; thus, 1. ishydmi (70), 2. ishyasi, 
&c. ITf lengthens this i; ^ and all roots in long ri optionally do so. 

Aorist or Third Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 
Fokm I. — Regular terminations of the scheme. 



i.sam sva sma 

2. sis stam or tarn staoxta 

$.sit ' stdm or tdm sus 



si svahi 

sthds or thds sdthdm dhvam 

sta or ta sdtdm sata 



"%* dhvam is used for dhvam after any other vowel but a or d, or after 3 d imme- 
diately preceding. 

The same terminations with i prefixed, except in 2nd and 3rd sing., 
where initial s is rejected. 



ishma 



ishthds 
ishta 



ishvahi ishmahi 
ishdthdm idhvam 
ishdtdm ishata 



i.isham ishva 

2. is ishtam 

3. it ishtdm 
?fH idhvam may be used for idhvam when a semivowel or h immediately precedes. 

?Jf lengthens the »' throughout ; \ and all roots in long ri optionally do so in Attn. 

T % 



140 VEfiBS. — TERMINATIONS. 

Foem II. — Terminations resembling those of the Imperfect. 



e or i dvahi dmahi 

athds ethdm or dthdm adhvam 
ata etdm or dtdm anta or ata 



i. syam 


syava 


syama 


2. syas 


syatam, 


syata 


3- s V at 


syatdm 


syan 



i. am ava or va ama or ma 
a. as or * atam or tarn ata or ta 
3. at or £ a&wra or tdm an or w« 

Precative or Benedictive. 
l.ydsam ydsva ydsma siya sivahi 

2. yds ydstam ydsta sishthds siydsthdm sidhvam 

$.ydt ydstam yarns sishta siydstdm siran 

Many roots prefix i to the Atmane, but not to the Parasmai, of the above ; thus, 
1. isMya, &c. ?ff lengthens the » in this tense also, but no other root can do so. 

tftew sidhvam is used for *ft«W sidhvam after any other vowel but a or d, and 
optionally after the prefixed i, when immediately preceded by a semivowel or ft 
(see 442). 

Conditional (requiring the augment a, 251). 

sye sydvahi sydmahi 

syathds syethdm syadhvam 

syata syetdm syanta 

Many roots prefix i to the above terminations throughout; thus, 1. ishyam, 2. 
ishyas, &c. VF[ lengthens this i; ^ and all roots in long ri optionally do so. 

247. Those terminations which are marked with P will be called 
the P terminations. They are technically designated Pit (i. e. having 
P for their it), and are as follow : 

Present, Parasmai, 1, 2, 3 sing. Impf., Par., 1, 2, 3 sing. Impv., Par., 1, 3 sing., 
1 du., 1 pi. ; Atm., 1 sing., 1 du., 1 pi. In these, however, the P is indicatory only 
with reference to certain classes of roots (see 244), but in Perf., Par., the indicatory 
P in 1, 2, 3 sing, applies to all the classes. 

Obs. — Instead of NaP, thaP, NoP (which are from Vopa-deva), Panini gives 
NaL, thah, NaL ; and this L, like the P, has reference to accent. 

a. Sometimes, however, it will be convenient to adopt Bopp's 
expression, ' Strong forms/ in speaking of the form assumed by the 
stem before the P terminations, these terminations being themselves 
called Weak. 

b. In fact the P or Pit terminations are an-uddtta, 'unaccented ;' and when these 
are added, the stem on which the accent falls is called Strong. In other cases the 
accent is on the terminations, and the stem is then Weak and unaccented. 

c. The terminations of the first four or Special tenses are called by Panini sdrva- 
dhdtuka, 'belonging to the full form of the verbal stem,' which name is also applied 
to suffixes like Mna6 (i. e. -dnd), iatri (i. e. -at), having an indicatory / (but not to 
Vikaranas like fap, &c.) The term drdhadhdtuka, ' belonging to the half or shorter 



VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 141 

form of the verbal stem,' is given to the terminations of the Perfect (lit), and Pre- 
cative (d£r lin), as well as to certain distinctive additions to the root before the 
terminations of the remaining four tenses (such as tds and sya in the Futures and 
Conditional, s in the Aorist, yds and s{y in the Precative), and therefore practically 
to the terminations of all the six General tenses. 

d. If we examine these terminations, we shall find that they are composed of 
two distinct elements, one marking person, number, and voice ; the other, mood 
and tense. The terminations in which the former element prevails may be called 
simple, and belong to the Present, Imperfect, Imperative, Perfect, and 2nd form 
of the Aorist ; those which include the second may be called compound, and are 
peculiar to the other tenses. Thus the terminations of the Potential consist of i 
or i or yd as characterizing the mood, and of am, s, t, va, tarn, tdm, &c, as marking 
person, number, and voice. So, also, in the 2nd Future the syllable sya prefixed 
to all the terminations, characterizes the Future tense, while the mi, si, ti, vas, thas, 
tas, &c, mark person, number, and voice. If, then, such initial parts of every 
termination as mark mood or tense were left out, an examination of the remaining 
parts would shew that the Present and Imperfect are the prototypes of the termina- 
tions of all the other tenses, that is to say, that the formation of the terminations 
of every other tense may be referred back to one or other of these two. The Present 
tense may in this way be connected with the two Futures. These three tenses agree 
in shewing a certain fulness of form, which is wanting in most of those connected 
with the Imperfect. The terminations of the Perfect, however, partake of the cha- 
racter of both the Present and Imperfect. In the Atmane-pada they very closely 
resemble the Present. Many of them exhibit the same fulness as that tense, while 
some of the other terminations of the Perfect shew even more lightness than those 
of the Imperfect *. It should be observed, too, that the terminations of the Im- 
perative, though evidently connected with the Imperfect, are in some instances 
even more full than those of the Present. 

e. Although comparative grammarians have bestowed much labour on investi- 
gating the origin of Sanskrit verbal terminations, the only point that may be 
asserted with probability is, that they stand in a certain relationship to the pro- 
nominal stems ma, tva, sa, ta. The m of the first persons is related to the stem ma 
(mad, 218); the *, th, sv, s, of the second persons, to the stem tva of the second 
personal pronoun (Gr. o-«) ; and the t, of the third person, to the stem ta. We may 
also observe a community of character between the termination nti of the 3rd pi. 
and the plural of neuter nouns like dhanavat (dhanavanti). But whether the v in 
the dual is related to a pronominal stem va occurring in d-vdm, va-yam; whether 
the s of the dual and plural terminations is the result of blending different pro- 
nominal stems (e. g. vas=va-si, mas=ma-si, I and thou ') ; whether the termi- 
nations of the Atmane-pada are formed from those of the Parasmai-pada by guna- 
tion or by composition of the latter with other stems, — these are questions which 



* Comparative grammar, however, has established that these terminations are 
to be referred to the same source as the fuller ones. 



1 42 VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 

cannot be determined with actual certainty. The subject, however, is fully and ably 
discussed in Schleicher's Compendium of Comparative Grammar, §§ 268-286. 

/. Whatever the exact state of the case may be, the student may aid his memory 
by noting that the letter m generally enters into the 1st sing. Par. ; s into the 2nd 
sing. Par. and Atm. ; and t into the 3rd sing. du. and pi. Par. and Atm. of all the 
tenses. Moreover, that the letter v occurs in the 1st du., m in the 1st pi. of all 
the tenses, and dhv in every 2nd pi. Atmane. In the Impf. and Pot. Atm., and in 
the Perf. Par., th. is admitted, instead of s, into the 2nd sing. ; and in the 2nd pi. 
of the last tense, th has been dropped, owing to the influence of the heavy redupli- 
cation. For the same reason the m and t are dropped in the 1st and 3rd sing. Perf. 
Observe also — When the 1st du. Par. is vas, the 2nd and 3rd end in as (except the 
3rd du. 1st Fut.), and the 1st pi. is mas. When the 1st du. Par. is va, the 2nd 
and 3rd end in tarn, tarn (except in the Perf.), and the 1st pi. in ma. When the 1st 
du. Atm. is vahe, the 1st pi. is make, and the last letter of the remaining termina- 
tions is generally e. When the xst du. Atm. is vahi, the 2nd and 3rd end in dm ; 
the 1st pi. is mahi, and the 2nd pi. is dhvam. 

g. The frequent occurrence of m in the 1st sing., of » in the 2nd, of t in the 3rd, 
of mas and mo in the 1st pi., of ta in the 2nd pi., and of ant in the 3rd pi., suggests 
a comparison with the Gr. and Lat. verb. We may remark, that m, the characteristic 
of the 1st per. sing., is suppressed in the Pres. Indie. Act. of all Gr. verbs except 
those in /£! (asmi=eifu, Dor. e[t.fu for evpi, daddmi=owu>fi.i), and also in Lat. 
verbs (except sum and inqnam) ; but w and answer to the Sk. d of bhardmi=(f>epw, 
fero. In the Gr. Middle and Passive, the [M, which originally belonged to all 
Active verbs, becomes [Aal ; while the Sanskrit, on the other hand, here suppresses 
the to, and has e for cu ; bhare (for bhara-me)=z<pepop,eu. In the Impf., Gr. has v 
for Sk. and Lat. mute m, because fJ. is not allowed to be final in Greek ; atarpam= 
erepitov, adaddm = eQiOUV, astrinavam=ecrT0pvvv ) avaham=zvehebam. Gr. has fJLi 
in the 1st sing. Opt. ; and in verbs in fit, v takes the place of the mute m of Sk. 
and Lat. ; thus, bharey am=(f>epoi[u, feram j dadydm=OlOoiviv,demj tishtheyam= 
laravtf), stem. In the Gr. First Aorist, m is suppressed, so that Sanskrit adiksham 
{AoT.)=ettet^a; but not in the 2nd Aor., so that addm=€$wv. In the Perf., Sk. a 
=Gr. «, tutopa=TtTV({>a. In the Gr. Middle and Passive Futures, m is retained, 
but not in the Active ; ddsydmi=. oaxrto, dekshydmi=$ei%w ) ddsye=.^<a<TOfJMi. As 
to the 1st per. pi., Sk. mas of the Pres. is /wev (for |«.eff) in Gr., and mus in Lat. ; 
tarpd-mas=Tepvo-ix.ei> ; sarpd-mas=6pno-[*.tv t serpi-mus; dad-mas=oioo-[/.ev, da- 
mns j tishthd-mas=sio'Ta-[J.ev } sta-mus. The Atmane make answers to Gr. j«.e9a; 
■dad-mahe=zSi00-l>.e6&. As to the other tenses, in Impf. 1st pi. abhard-ma=z(<f>€po- 
[Jt.ev, fereba'tnus j avdhd-ma = veheba-mus j orfad-ma = eo/oo-^.6v; abhard-mahi— 
efcpofltSa. In the Pot. 1 st pi. bhare-ma=4>epoi-fktv (-|"*«?)> fera-mus ; dadydma= 
••OJOo«ij|t*ei> (-/«?)> demuss dad{-mahi=Otooi-fJi.e6a. In 2nd Fut. ddsyd-mas=$v<ro- 
fiev, dekshyd-mas=$tu;o-p.ev. In 2nd pers. sing. Act., the characteristic s has been 
preserved in all three languages ; thus, in the Present, Sk. osi (for original assi)= 
eo-ffj, es; dadd-si=liif)i, das; bhara-si = (f>epei(, fers; vahaM=vehis. In the 
Atmane, Sk. se (for sat, by 32) answers exactly to Gr. eat of verbs in fit (tishtha- 



VEEBS. — TEKMINATIONS. 143 

*e=*ora-o-ai). In other Gr. verbs, a has been rejected, and e«< contracted into % 

something in the way of Sk. {riirry, for r^re-aai). In 2nd du. thas=Gv. tb», 

and in and pi. ««=« and to; bhara-thas=(pep€-TOV, tishtha-tha = "ara.-re, 

sta-tis; bhara-tJ l a=4>epe-r€,f er .ti s . In and pi. Atm. bhara-dhve=cf>ip£-a8e. As 

to the other tenses, in the 2nd sing. Impf. atarpas=€T€pwe(, avahas=vehebas, &c. 

So also, tam=Tov, adat-tam=® fto-rov, ta=T€, adat-ta=e$®o-re. In Atm. thds 

is found for sds in 2nd sing. Impf. and Pot.; henee abhara-thds=e(f)epe-ao, adat- 

thds=eUo-ao, dad4tMs=lti-oi{a)o. In 2nd sing. Pot. tislthes= 'uneuqe, stes; 

dadyds=Moiw,des; vahes=zvehas ; bhares=<l>epois,feras: in 2nd du. bhare-tam= 

fcpoi-rov: m2xi&. v Lti s htheta=i<rTaiy)re,stetisj dadydta=h$oii)Te,detis; bhareta 

=<pepoiTe,feratis. In 2nd sing. Impv. hi and dhi answer to Gr. St. DM was originally 

universal in Sk. (see 291), as in Gr. verbs in fu; e-dhi='i<r-8i, md-dhi='i<r-8i, 

de-hi = hfo-6t, 4ru-dhi=Kkv-6i. Many verbs drop the termination hi both in 

Gr. and Sk. j as, «^= (pipe, and compare le'iKvv with dinu, &c. In 2nd du. Impv. 

tam=Tov, and ta=T(. In Impv. Atm. wa=the old form (to ; bhara-sva=(p€pe-<ro 

(old form of <pepov); dat-sva=Yih-ao ; dthdm=ea8ov, &c. In Perf. the tha of 

the 2nd sing. = Latin sti; dad-itha — dedi-sti, tasthi-tha = steti-sti, tutodi-tha = 

tutudi-sii. In the Aor. adds=elas, avdksMs=vexisti. In the 3rd pers. sing. 

Active, Gr. has dropped the characteristic t (except in eo-T(' = Sk. asti, Lat. est); 

bharati=(pepe{T)t,fert; vahati=vehit. Verbs in [U have changed tto s; daddti = 

Mtiwai (for &/&»■»). In Atm. bharate^Qeperai. In Impf. avahat=vehebat, 

. abharata = t<pepeTO. In Pot. bharet=(pipoi, dadydt=$3oiy). In Impv. bhara-tu 

or bhara-tdt=<f>ep{-Ta,fer-to. In Perf. tutopa=T€TV(f>e. In Aor. avdksMt=vexit, 

adikshata=eoei^aTO. As to 3rd pi., in the above tenses, bharanti=<f)epovai,ferunts 

vahanti=vehunt j bharante=(pepovTai ; dadati=^tiovai ; tishthanti=$tant ; bha- 

reyus = <f>epotev; bharant%=.ferunto; abharan=€(f>epov; abharanta=l<f>epMTO ; 

dsan=7ia , a.v; atarpishus=CTep\pav ; ddsyante=§<t)<rovTou; 

248. The terminations exhibited in the preceding tables are sup- 
posed to be applicable to all verbs, whether Primitive or Derivative : 
and as in nouns, so in verbs, the theory of Indian grammarians is, 
that before these terminations can be affixed, a stem must be de- 
veloped out of a root, according to certain rules which vary for the 
first four tenses in ten different ways, according as a root belongs 
to one or other of ten classes. Accordingly, ten special rules are 
propounded for forming verbal stems out of roots in the first four 
tenses, which are therefore called the four Special tenses ; while all 
verbs are arranged under ten classes, according to the form of the 
stem required by one or other of these rules. In the other tenses 
there is one general rule for forming the stem, applicable to all verbs 
of whatever class, and these tenses are therefore called General. 



144 VERBS. — TEN CONJUGATION AL RULES FOR FORMING 

Hence the ten classes of roots are sometimes regarded as following 
one or other of ten conjugations; and the four tenses, which alone 
are affected by these conjugational rules (viz. the Present, Imperfect, 
Potential, and Imperative), are sometimes called the conjugational 
tenses. It is evident, however, that all Sanskrit roots, of whatever 
class, follow one general conjugation for the majority of the tenses 
of the Primitive verb, although they require a special formation of 
stem depending on the class of each root for four of the tenses. 

349. We begin by giving a brief summary of the ten rules for the 
forming the stem of the four Special tenses in the ten classes of roots, 
according to the Indian order of the ten classes. 

Obs.— Native grammarians distinguish the ten classes of verbs by the name of 
the first root in their lists ; e. g. cl. 1. Bhv-ddi, i. e. Bhu, &c, or the class of roots 
beginning with bM. Similarly, cl. 2. Ad-ddi ; cl. 3. Juhoty-ddi (i.e. the Hu class) ; 
cl. 4. Div-ddij cl. 5. Sv-ddi (i.e. the Su class); cl. 6. Tud-ddij cl. 7. Rudh-ddi; 
cl. 8. Tan-ddij cl. 9. Kry-ddi (i.e. the Kri class); cl. 10. Cur-ddi. 

Cl. i. Gunate the vowel of the root (unless it be "St a, or a long 
vowel not final, or a short vowel followed by a double consonant, 
38) before every termination of the four Special tenses, and affix 
^ a — lengthened to 'ST a before initial m* and v — to the root thus 

gunated. 

The accent is on the vowel of the root, unless it be thrown on the augment. 

Cl. 4. Gunate the vowel of the root (if capable of Guna, as in 
the last) before those terminations only which are marked with P 
in the scheme at 346. Before all the other terminations the original 
vowel of the root must be retained. 

The accent rests on the vowel of the root, but only when the P terminations are 
added. In other cases it rests on the first vowel of the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 3. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel (see 353) of 
the root, and gunate the radical but not the reduplicated vowel 
before the P terminations only, as in cl. 3. 

The accent rests on the first syllable of the stem before the Non-P terminations, 
and before the P terminations beginning with a vowel. 

Cl. 4. Affix *( ya — lengthened to *n yd before initial m* and v — 
to the root, the vowel of which is generally left unchanged. 
The accent is on the vowel of the root, not on the ya (cf. 461). 

* But not before m final, the termination of the 1st sing. Impf. Parasmai. 



THE STEM IN THE FOUR SPECIAL TENSES. 145 

CI. 5. Affix 3 nu to the root, and gunate this nu into no before 
the P terminations only. 

In this class, as well as in cl. 8 and 9, the accent is on the inserted Vikarana 
(250. b) before the P terminations, and in other cases it rests on the first vowel 
of the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 6. Affix ^r a — lengthened to *n a before initial m* and v — to 

the root, which in other respects generally remains unchanged. 

The absence of gunation of the radical vowel results from the accent being on 
the Vikarana a (250. b). 

Cl. 7. Insert tj na between the vowel and final consonant of 
the root before the P terminations, and t^ n before the other termi- 
nations. 

Observe the peculiarity of this conjugation— that the conjugational na or n is 
inserted into the middle of the root, and not affixed. 

The accent is on the inserted na before the P terminations ; in other cases it 
rests on the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 8. Affix ■$ uto the root, and gunate this u into before the 
P terminations only. 

Obs. — As nine out of the ten roots in this class end in n or n, cl. 8 will resemble 
cl.fi. 

Cl. 9. Affix »n nd to the root before the P terminations ; ^ft ni 
before all the others, except those beginning with vowels, where only 
«^ n is affixed. 

Cl. 10. Gunate the radical vowel (if capable of Guna) throughout 
all the persons of all the tenses, and affix wn ay a — lengthened to 
^nn ay a, before initial m* and v — to the root thus gunated. 
The accent rests on the first vowel of the inserted aya. 

350. It will appear, from a cursory examination of the above 
rules, that the object of nearly all of them is to insert either a 
vowel — sometimes alone, sometimes preceded by y or n — or a letter 
of some kind between the modified root and the terminations. The 
1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th agree in requiring that the vowel, which is 
immediately to precede the terminations, shall be a or a. The and, 
3rd, and 7th agree in inserting no vowel between the final of the 
root and the terminations. The 5th, 8th, and 9th agree in interposing 
either u, a, or i after the letter n. 

a. Any letters or _ syllables required to be inserted by the above 

* But not before m final, the termination of the 1st sing. Impf. Parasmai. 

U 



146 VBEBS. — THE AUGMENT. 

ten rules, are inserted only in the four Special tenses (except only 
in the case of cl. 10). In the other six tenses the stem is formed 
according to one general rule for all roots of whatever class, whence 
their name of General tenses. But in these also, some letter or 
syllable has to be inserted (the only exception being in the Perfect). 

b. This inserted conjugational vowel, consonant, or syllable is usually called the 
vikarana. Panini's technical names for the ten insertions between the modified root 
and terminations under each of the ten classes, in regular order, are £ap, Sapo luk, 
s"lu, Syan, 6nu, ia, s'nam, u, s'nd, nid: the last, however, does not strictly contain the 
vikarana, the real insertion in cl. 10 (and in Causals) being aya (represented by 
the i of nid). The above Vikaranas (with nid) hold good before Krit suffixes con- 
taining an indicatory s (s,uch as iatri or idnad, see 247. c). In Passives and Neuters 
the insertion is technically called yak (leaving yd), to distinguish it from the Vika- 
rana s"yan of cl. 4. With regard to the six General tenses, the Perfect has strictly 
no vikarana (the almost universally inserted i of it being called an augment). But 
in verbs belonging to cl. 10, in Derivative verbs (such as Causals), and in a few 
Primitive verbs like flesh, the syllable dm is added to the verbal stem. With regard 
to the other General tenses the Agama it (or inserted i) is by no means universally 
interposed, but certain letters or syllables are regarded as additions to the root 
distinct from the terminations; that in the 1st Future is technically called tdsi 
(=tds) ; that in the 2nd Future and Conditional is sya ; that in the Aorist is called 
6li (for which either sid or ksa or dan or are or din are always substituted) ; that 
in the Precative is ydsut (—yds) for Par., and siyut {=siy) for Atm.; that in the 
Vedic Let is called sip. 

THE AGAMA OB AUGMENT ^J a. 

251. In classical Sanskrit (but not always in Vedic) the augment 
^r a (called dgama, ' increase ') is prefixed to the stems of the Imper- 
fect, Aorist, and Conditional tenses, and when the stem begins with 
^ a or ^tt a, the augment blends with these vowels into ^n a by 31. 
(So in Gr. e and e become q in qytipov, &c.) 

a. But when the augment a is prefixed to stems beginning with 
the vowels 5 i, ? u, and ^ ri (short or long), it blends with them 
into $ ai, ^ff au, ^nr: dr (against 32, which would require the result 
to be e, 0, ar). 

Thus the stem ^^ iddha (fr. rt. ish, ' to wish') in 3rd sing. Impf. becomes JNSiH 
aiddhat; the stem ^i? 4ha becomes ^T^TT auhata (Impf. Atm.); the stem ^f|ft 
fidhno becomes Wnim^drdhnot ; the stem ^sftu okha becomes ^^H aukhat. 

b. When a root is compounded with one or more prepositions, 
the augment is placed between the preposition or prepositions and 



VERBS. — REDUPLICATION. 147 

the root, e. g. anv-atishtham (fr. anu-sthd), upa-sam-aharat (fr. upa- 
sam-hri). 

When ^ s is prefixed to the root of kri, after certain prepositions (see 53. c), the 
augment is placed before the s, e. g. sam-askarot. 

Obs. — The augment a is thought by some to have been originally a kind of 
demonstrative particle denoting past time (probably connected with the stem # of 
the demonstrative pronoun idam, see 224), while the separable particle sma (thought 
to be an abbreviation of another demonstrative pronominal stem sa-ma), also de- 
noting past time, and often discharging the function of the augment a (see 878), 
has remained a detached particle. 

REDUPLICATION. 

25a. After explaining the augment it will be convenient to specify 
the rules of reduplication (abhydsa), as these have to be applied in 
the Special tenses of Primitive verbs of cl. 3, in the Perfect tense of 
all Primitive verbs, in the Aorist of a few Primitive verbs, and of 
verbs of cl. 10, and of some Nominals (521), as well as in Desidera- 
tives and in Frequentatives. 

In reduplication the initial consonant and first vowel of a root 
are doubled, as in Klip fr. rt. lip, dadaridrd fr. daridrd. There are, 
however, special rules, as follow : 

1st, as to consonants, thus : 

a. A corresponding unaspirated letter is substituted for an aspirate, as ^ d for 
V dh, in dadhd fr. dhd. (So in Gr., t is repeated for 6, as 6vco, rkQvKa, &c.) 

b. The hard palatal ^<? is substituted for the hard gutturals «F k or 13 kh, as in 
dakhan fr. khan; and the soft palatal ST 7 for the soft gutturals V g,V gh, or ? h, 
as mjagam fr. gam, jag has fr. ghas, juhu fr. liu. 

Obs. — «!t^A<m, 'to kill,' and f? hi, 'to go,' substitute V gh for ? h when redu- 
plicated ; as, jaghan fr. han. 

c. If a root begin with a double consonant, the first consonant only or its sub- 
stitute is repeated ; as, ^ 6 for Tf5T ksh, in dikship fr. kship ; ^ s for W sy, in sasyand 
fr. syandj *[j for "? hr, in jahras fr. hras. 

But if with a double consonant whose first is a sibilant, and whose second is 
hard, the second or its substitute is reduplicated; as, ^f (5 for *5 sfc, as in daskand 
fr. sJcandj "fit for W sth, as in tasthd fr. sthd ; \p for W sp, as in paspris fr. spris. 

andly, as to vowels, thus: 

d. A short vowel is repeated for a long, and diphthongal sounds are represented 
by their second element ; e. g. ^T a is reduplicated for ^IT a; ^i for %i, ^J ri, "%r(, 
V. e, and T aij ~3 u for "3i u, ^U 0, and w au. 

Obs. — In certain cases ^ i is also repeated for a and d, as being a lighter vowel, 
and dyut, 'to shine,' makes didyut for dudyut. 

v % 



148 PRIMITIVE AND DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

- e. In fact it may be observed, that when a long vowel causes too great weight 
in the radical syllable, it is generally lightened in the reduplicated syllable. 

/. "When a form has once been reduplicated, it is never reduplicated again in 
forming other Derivatives from it (see 517. a) ; and when roots which have to be 
reduplicated have any changed form, this modified form is taken in the redupli- 
cation ; thus, W smri, ' to remember,' being changed to ^T^ in the Desiderative, 
the vowel of the root does not appear in the reduplication («jw^.). 

VERBS PRIMITIVE, PASSIVE, CAUSAL, DESIDERATIVE, &C. 

253. In conjugating a verb, then, two things have to be done : 
1st, to form the stem from the root according to ten rules for four 
of the tenses, and one general rule for the other six ; 2ndly, to join 
the stem so formed with the terminations, according to the regular 
rules of Sandhi or euphonic conjugation. As yet, however, we have 
only given a general explanation of the formation of the verbal stem 
of the Simple or Primitive verb under the ten classes of roots. 

There are four other kinds of verbs deducible from all roots, 
whatever be their class. 

354. In fact, every Sanskrit root serves as a kind of stock out 
of which the inflective stems of five kinds of verbs may be evolved : 
1. of a Primitive, Transitive or Intransitive ; a. of a Passive ; 3. of a 
Causal, having often a Causal and often merely a Transitive signifi- 
cation ; 4. of a Desiderative, giving a sense of wishing to the root ; 
and 5. of a Frequentative (or Intensive), implying repetition, or 
heightening the idea contained in, the root (see, however, 507). 

255. The first, or Primitive verb, is formed from the root, accord- 
ing to the ten different rules, already given, for the formation of the 
stem in the first four tenses. 

The second, or Passive, is formed according to the rule for the 
change of the root, required by the 4th class ; viz. the addition of 
ya in the first four tenses. 

The third, or Causal, is formed according to the rule for the 
change of the root required by the 10th class ; viz. the addition of 
aya to the root in all the tenses excepting the Aorist. 

The fourth, or Desiderative, is formed by the addition of sa or 
isha, the root also undergoing reduplication. 

The fifth, or Frequentative, is formed like the Passive, according 
to the rule required by cl. 4, and is, in fact, a reduplicated passive 
verb. It may also be formed analogously to the rule for cl. 3. 



FORMATION OP THE STEM OF PRIMITIVE VERBS. 149 

Thus, if we take the root '5J>^ subh, conveying the idea of ' shining ' — from this 
are developed, ist, the Primitive verbal stem, iobha, ' to shine ;' 2ndly, the Passive, 
tubhya,' to be bright;' 3rdly, the Causal, dobhay a,' to cause to shine' or 'illuminate;' 
4thly, the Desiderative, dusobhisha, ' to desire to shine ;' gthly, the Frequentative 
or Intensive, Mubhya or dosubh, " to shine very brightly.' 

a. And as every root is the source of five different kinds of Derivative verbs, so 
there are secondary Derivative verbs developed out of nouns called Nominal verbs. 
An explanation of these will be found after Frequentatives at 518. 

2,56. The subject of verbs, therefore, as of nouns, will divide itself 
into two heads : 

A. The formation of the stem ; ist of Primitive, andly of Passive, 
3rdly of Causal, 4thly of Desiderative, 5thly of Frequentative verbs ; 
with their respective Participles. 

B. The exhibition of the stem, united to its terminations, under 
each of the five forms of verbs consecutively. 

PRIMITIVE VERBS. 

FORMATION OF THE STEM OF THE FIRST FOUR TENSES, IN THE 

TEN CLASSES. 

A brief summary of the ten rules for the formation of the stem 
of the four Special tenses — viz.- the Present, Imperfect, Potential, 
and Imperative — in the ten classes of roots, has already been given 
at 249. These ten rules may be collected into three groups, which 
form three distinct general conjugations, as follow : 

357. Group I. Conjugation I. This (like the declension of the 
first class of nouns whose stems end in a and o) is by far the most 
important, as comprising roots of the ist, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes, 
which agree in making their stems end in a (liable to be lengthened 
to a). These also resemble each other in taking substitutions for 
some of the terminations, after the analogy of the stems of nouns 
ending in a and a at. 97. (See the substitutions indicated in the 
table at 246.) 

Note — Of about 2000 roots belonging to the Sanskrit language, nearly 1300 
belong to this ist conjugation. Besides which, every root in the language may 
take a Passive and Causal form, and so be conjugated as if it belonged to the 4th 
and 10th classes. 

358. Group II. Conjugation II. This comprises verbs of the and, 
3rd, and 7th classes, which agree in affixing the regular terminations 



150 VEEBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OF STEM. 

(at 246) to the final letter of the root, without the intervention of a 
vowel, after the analogy of the last four classes of nouns whose stems 
«nd in consonants. 

359. Group III, Conjugation III, comprising verbs of the 5th, 
8th, and 9th classes, also affixes the regular terminations (at 346) to 
the root ; but after the intervention of either u, a, or », preceded by 
the consonant n. 

260. In comparing Sanskrit verbs with Greek and Latin, it might be shewn 
that group I, comprising the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes, answers to the Gr. 
1st conjugation in to, the conjugational ^T a being represented in Gr. by or e 
(tarpdmas=Tepiro[t.ev, tarpatha=.TepTrere) ; and although the Gr. 1st conjugation 
contains more subdivisions than the first group in Sk., yet the inflexion of these 
subdivisions is similar. As to the Sk. 10th class, however, it appears to correspond 
to Gr. verbs in a£u> and i£ai, which, like the 10th, are generally found in company 
with other verbs from the same root; thus, natiapifa, 'l make pure' (icaBaipei), 
crreva^co,' I groan '(arevayj, where? corresponds to *J y, as in £ea and*R 'barley.' 
To this class also may be referred verbs in ate, ea>, oca ; thns pdraydmi = vepouo, 
where the y has been dropped, and the two a's combined. Lat. verbs in io, like 
audio &c, seem to be related to the Sk. 4th class, as well as to the 10th; thus 
cupio answers to kupydmi; and the i of audiebam answers to the ay a of the 10th, 
just as in Prakrit aya is contracted into IT e. The second and third groups of 
classes in Sk. (viz. the 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 5th, 8th, and 9th) answer to Gr. verbs in fj.i ; 
thus emi cl. 2=ei/«, daddmi cl. 3=0<oa>jU4. Class 7, however, has no exact parallel 
in Gr., but many Gr. and Lat. verbs resemble it in inserting a nasal into the middle 
of the root ; see 34 2 . a. The 5th and 8th classes answer to Gr. verbs like OeiK-vv-fu, 
%evy-vv-[At, which agree in inserting vv between the root and termination ; in Gr. 
the vowel v is lengthened before certain terminations, just as « is gunated into o 
in Sk. ; thus strinomi = CTOpvifAl, strmoshi = aropvvf, strinoti = atopvvai (for 
(TTOpvvTi), strinumas= CTTOpvifJiev (for aT0pvvft.e$), &c. The 9th class answers to 
Gr. verbs in va (vvj) ; thus krindmi = irepvatJ.1 (Trepvvj/jLi), krmfmas = ffepviwv. 
Cf. also Lat. forms in ni; thus sternimus=z Sk. strinimas, fr. stri, cl. 9. 

GROUP I. — FORMATION OF STEM IN ROOTS OF CLASSES I, 4, 6, IO. 

a6i. Class i (containing about 1000 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28) before 
every termination of all the four tenses, and affix the vowel ssr a to 
the root so gunated. Remember, that this ^r a is lengthened into 
■3TT a before the initial m and v of a termination, but not when m is 
final, as in the 1st sing. Impf. 
262. Thus, fr. root fV budh, 'to know,' is formed the stem ~%tvlbodha, lengthened 



VERBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OF STEM. 151 

into ^•mbodhd before m and v (Pres. I.* bodhd+mi=^mikbodhdmi, loiha+siz= 
■^ftftf bodhasi, bodha+ti=^\lf!( bodhatij Du. i.bodhd+vas=i , ^m^bodhdvas, 
&c; Atm.Vres. bodha+i=-^bodhe by 32,bndha+se='sft, , VK!tbodhase,&.a.) See 
table at 583. 

263. Similarly, fr. fifji, 'to conquer' (see 590), comes the stem «PT jay a (i.e. 
ie+flj see 36. a), liable to be lengthened into *FUjayd, as explained above ; fr. -ft 
mi 1 , to lead,' the stems nay a and »a«/a; fr. *£6M, 'to be' {<f>vw, Lat./m), the stems 
bhava (i.e. 6Ao+a, 36.0) and bhavd (Pres. 1. H^lfa bhavdmi; 2. H^ftr bhawasi, 
<pveif, &c, see 584) ; fr. ^^snp, ' to creep,' the stems *R sarpa and torpid (see 27); 
fr- 151. *¥•(»» to fashion,' the stems 3T3T iaZpa and kalpd. 

Obs. — Bfae, to be' or "to become,' is one of the commonest verbs in the language, 
and like as, 'to be,' at 584, 327, is sometimes used as an auxiliary. Bhu is conjugated 
in full at 585. 

364. The stem of the Imperfect has the augment ^r a prefixed by 
251 (Impf. 1. abodha + m = ^-^\ift^ abodham, 2. abodha + s = 'sNfa^ 
abodhas, &c.) 

265. In the Potential the final a of the stem blends with the initial 
i of the termination into e by 32 (Pot. 1. bodha + iyam = sftwf bo- 
dheyam). So also in the Pres. Ktm. (■sft^ &c.) See table at 583. 

266. In the Imperative the termination is rejected in the 2nd sing. 
(Impv. 1. bodha + dni = ^tmfH bodhdni, 2. "sfhl bodha, 3. bodha + tu 
= ^VQ bodhatu). 

267. Roots like H^'to cook,' fa^'to beg,' sffa'to live' (603), cannot change 
their radical vowels (see 27. a, 28), but, as before, affix ^T a, liable to be lengthened 
to ^JT d: (Pres. I. tpTrftr &c. ; Pres. Atm. 1. ftt% &c. ; Pres. 1. sfiTTfa &c.) 

268. Some roots ending in the Vriddhi If ai cannot be gunated, but suffer the 
usual change of Sandhi before ^ a and ^tT a by 37 ; as, from H ' to sing,' g ' to be 
weary,' ^Atm. 'to preserve f,' H( 'to meditate,' if 'to fade,' are formed the stems 
gdya, gldya, trdya, dhydya, mldya. See 595. a. b. 

269. Some roots of cl. 1 form their stems in the first four tenses by a change 
peculiar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other tenses ; 
thus, from ~&(\sthd,' to stand' (587), Tflghrd, ' to smell' (588), HT' to drink' (589), 
WTT 'to blow,' ^T 'to repeat' or 'think over,' come the bases fire tishtha, faTP 

jighra, \VR piva, VT dhama, T»T mana, the final a being, as before, liable to be 
lengthened. 

a. It should be noted that Wt sthd and HI ghrd are properly reduplicated verbs 
of cl. 3 at 330. The reduplicated stem, by 252, would be tasthd, jaghrd ; but as 
the reduplication is irregular, and the radical d gives way to the conjugational a, 

* 1. stands for 1st person singular; Du. 1. for 1st dual; PL 1. for 1st plural, &c. 
t A form <^Tfif , as well as gTTOW, is found in Epic poetry for the 2nd sing. 
Impv. of this root. 



152 VERBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OF STEM. 

grammarians place these roots under cl. i. The Greek iffT/ipi, on the other hand, 
has not shortened its radical vowel in the singular. 

270. Again, l£3l'to see/ TJH 'to go/ *IH 'to restrain,' ^J 'to go/ 3^ 'to sink,' 
31^ (Atm. in Special tenses, Par. in others) 'to fall,' 'to perish,' form their stems 
^^ paiya, *1«SC gaddha, *ra yaddha, ^5 riddha, Srt^ sida, ^jTfa My a: (Pres. r. 
VRVjfH pa&ydmi, &c.) 

a. According to Panini (vu. 3, 78), ^T 'to give ' may sometimes substitute the 
stem *ra yaddha 1 and ?J ' to go,' the stem VT? dhdva. 

b. ^Jf 'to conceal' forms *T^ J f&^' to spit/ FN; «|»^' to cleanse,' WI»T: (Pres.i. 
JJ^lfil &c.) 

c. ^TH 'to step,' IT* 'to tire/ ^H (with WF) 'to rinse the mouth/ lengthen their 
medial vowels, but the first only in Parasmai : (Pres. 1. 'aiTnfH &c, but Atm. JKH.) 

d. <|3I 'to bite/ *W'to colour/ *T3'to adhere/ ^^'to embrace/ drop then- 
nasals : (Pres. 1. <f5Ilftr &c, TZtxfa &c.) 

e. 5W Atm. * to yawn * makes its stem- ?TW, and even <W Atm. ' to receive ' 
sometimes becomes 75^ in Epic poetry. 

271. cRJ^Atm. 'to love' forms its stem after the analogy of cl. 10 (Pres. 1. <*wm 
&c), and some other roots add dya; thus, fr. *J^/ to protect/ '\im<*gopdya; fr. ^J^ 
' to fumigate/ ^jm ; fr. fa^ ' to go,' fa'tAN ', fr. VZ3 Atm. (meaning ' to praise,' 
not ' to wager '), VJSm ; fr. tfr^ Atm. ' to praise/ TTR. 

a. 'iJf Atm. 'to play/ like all roots containing ir and ur compounded with 
another consonant, lengthens the vowel (Pres. 1. Hcj &c.) 

27a. Class 4 (containing about 130 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Affix tj ya to the root. The vowel of the root is not gunated, 
and generally remains unchanged. Remember, that the inserted 
H ya is liable to become *n yd before an initial m and v of the 
terminations (but not before the m of the 1st sing. Impf. Par.), as 
in cl. 1 at 361. 

273. Thus, fr. filV sidh, ' to succeed,' is formed the stem fiTHl sidliya (Pres. 1. 
sidhyd+mi=ffWtT\i{ sidhydmi, 2. ftwra sidhyasi, &c; Impf. astdhya-\-m = ^nfa- 
Vff^asidhyam,&c; Pot. I. sidhya+iyam=ffPimi{sidhyeyam, 2. fiTliMH sidhyes, 
&c. ; Impv. 1. sidhya+dni = ?«>H\?*\ sidhydni, &c. Pres. Atm. 1. si'cW </<! + /— ftrai 
sidhye, sidhya+se=f«*M» sidhyase, Sec.) See 616. 

274. Similarly, fr. HT md, 'to measure,' the stem *TR mdya (Pres. 1. Atm. mdya 
+i=*Wmdye,&c.);bSip{lcsMp,'tothrow, , flF<tkshipyas fr.trHnrit, 'to dance/ 
^W nrityaj fr. Tt d{, ' to fly,' tffa diya (Pres. Atm. 1. T&). 

273. Roots ending in am and iv, and one in ad, lengthen the vowel; as, fr. f?^ 
div, 'to play,' cffal divya; fr. «H bhram (also cl. 1), 'to wander/ «T*q bhrdmya; 
fr. f^mad, 'to be mad,' TRT mddya. Similarly, TRR (also cl. 1) 'to step,' TS|*T 'to 
endure/ ^'to grow weary/ rt^'to be afflicted,' ?[« 'to be tamed/ but bhram 
may optionally form VWJ bhramya. 



YERBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OF STEM. 153 

276. If a root contain a nasal it is generally rejected; as, from \I3f 'to fall,' 
^3*? bhrafya ; from T^'to colour,' T5T; »T^'to be born' makes vfNjdya (Pres. 
1. Atm. ,»TTT), lengthening the vowel, to compensate for the loss of n. 

a. Roots ending in 'STt drop this o before the conjugational ya ; thus, W so, ' to 
end,' makes its stem sya. Similarly, "5^ 'to cut,' '$ft 'to sharpen,' ^1 'to divide.' 

277. The following are anomalous. From *T 'to grow old,' *ffaj{rya; fr. ^V 
'to pierce,' fk&( vidhya (of. 472); fr. f«T^ 'to be viscid,' URtmedya. 

Obs. — Although this class includes only 130 Primitive verbs (generally Intran- 
sitive in signification), yet every one of the 2000 roots in the language may have 
a Passive form which follows the Atmane-pada of this class, differing from it only 
in the position of the accent, see 461. 

278. Class 6 (containing about 140 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Affix the vowel *8 a to the root, wljich is not gunated, and in 
other respects generally remains unchanged. Remember, that the 
inserted ^l a becomes ^TT a before an initial m and v of the termina- 
tions of the four tenses (but not before the m of the 1st sing. Impf.), 
as in cl. 1 and 4 at 261 and 372. 

279. Thus, fr. f"Q\ksMp, 'to throw,' comes the stem ftipT kshipa (Pres. 1. kshipd 
+mi=fT5pnfil kshipdmi, 2. Ssfaip«+si=ft!iH?ftl kshipasis Pot. 1. kshipa+iyam= 
f«! M *l*i kshipeyam, &c. Atm. Pres. 1. kshipa J fi=f^ksJiipe; see 635). 

Similarly, fr. TJ? tud, 'to strike,' TJ^ tudaj fr. fiJS^iW, ' to point out,' f^SJ difa. 

280. Roots in ^ i, ^T u or 'ai 4, ^ ri and ^ r{, generally change those vowels 
into ^T iy, "Z^uv, ftj{jiy, and ^ir respectively; as, fr. ft, 'to go,' come3 the 
stem ft*T riya ; fr. "^j ' to praise,' ^ nuva j fr. ^' to agitate,' >|=T dhuva ; fr. "J ' to 
die,' fal mriya (626) ; fr. 9F kn, ' to scatter,' f^X. kira (627). 

a. *J ' to swallow ' makes either PTt or VT&. 

281. A considerable number of roots of the sixth class, ending in consonants, 
insert a nasal before the final consonant in the four tenses ; as, fr. *J^, 'to let go,' 
comes the stem g^T mania : fr. feV to anoint,' feR limpa ; fr. ^1^' to cut,' ^*ff 
krintaj fr. ftr^' to sprinkle,' f&%sih6a; fr. tg^,' to break,' "igmumpa; fr. f^ 
'to form,' fifa. Similarly, f^ 'to find,' fe| 'to trouble.' 

282. The following are anomalous. From ^, 'to wish,' comes the stem ^^ iddha ; 
fr. JT^ 'to ask,' Vp3i pri66ha; fr. »*5{/to fry,' *p5T bJifijja; fr. a^'to deceive,' 
fe^ vida ; fr. ~SC\ ' to cut,' ^J vriiia. Cf. 472. 

a. The roots ^ and ^ are sometimes regarded as falling under this class ; see 
their stems at 270. 

283. Class 10 (containing a few Primitive verbs, all Causals, and 
some Nominal verbs, see 521).--- Rule for forming the stem in the 
four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root throughout every person of all the 



154 VERBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OF STEM. 

four tenses (except when debarred by 28), and affix ^rc aya to the 
•root so gunated. This ^n aya becomes ^niT ay a before initial m and 
v of the terminations of the four tenses, but not before m of the 1st 
sing. Impf. 

284. Thus, from ^C 6ur, 'to steal,' is formed the stem -«lU<* ioraya (Pres. 1. 
6orayd + mi = ^"Hm ifl doraydmi, 2. ioraya + si =-*\<.<t\« dorayasi, &e. ; Impf. 1. 
acoraya + m=^^\V&t atorayam, &c, see 638; Pot. 1. 6oraya + iy am = -si «.m mH 
6orayeyam; Impv. 1. 6oraya + dni = ■fl «.«4 1 f<y doraydtii, &c, see 58). 

285. Roots ending in vowels generally take Vriddhi instead of Guna (481) ; as, fr. 
ift 'to please,' TTHPI prdyaya (cf. 485. a) ; fr. ^ ' to hold,' VTT?T dhdraya. But ^ ' to 
.choose' makes TTJl varaya. This last, however, is generally regarded as a Causal. 

286. Roots containing the vowel ^1 a before a single consonant generally lengthen 
this vowel; as, fr. JJ1{ to swallow,' XfWigrdsaya : but not before a conjunct con- 
sonant ; as, fr. ^Slf ' to mark,' 'SliJ'T J fr. <?*!? ' to punish,' <^£Xt. 

u. The following, however, do not lengthen the medial a; though followed by a 
single consonant : =B^' to say ' (<*>q*i) ; *T*ff ' to count ;' ^T^' to sin ;' ^^' to tie ;' 
^^ to arrange ;' ' t (Z Atm. in the sense of ' to surround ;' TjS'to scream ;' iOTI * to 
wound ;' 7*1*1 and '^T'^in the sense of ' to be lax or weak ;' 7T ' to quit ;' *I<I Atm. 
'to go;' *t? 'to sound;' 5SJ«^, W«^, *3R[, 'to sound;' Wc% 'to count' (also 
lengthened in Epic poetry) ; 3ra ' to spend ;' and others less common. 

287. cSW, 'to celebrate,' ' to praise,' makes ^ITI tertaya (Pres. <*lrNlfa). 

288. A few roots with a medial ^ ri retain that vowel unchanged ; as, from TO? 
to desire,' tM^M ; 1*1 'to search,' *j*Ul; f^ 'to bear,' fTO (more commonly 

*fa)> If ^tm. 'to take,' f|[1 (also »IT?*I); ^l/to pity,' ^fPI; but f^'to 
wipe' takes Viiddhi (lT»hl). Some of these may be regarded as nominals. 

a. The following also do not gunate their medial vowels : WlaT * to make happy,' 
$7 ' to bind,' ?3JZ ' to become manifest,' ^HT or ^T*FT ' to consult.' 

b. A few roots of more than one syllable (see 75. a) are said to belong to cl. 10, 
viz. WT»T ' to worship,' ^WTt^ ' to despise,' VRl&{ ' to fight,' "fU^ or cgHlcg ' to 
play,' *T^'to search,' fcrefT 'to imitate,' ftT^I^'to put on,' ff«RTT 'to invite,' 
<srr^tc3, ng«{to$ , ffWte^, H$le^, ' to swing,' ^[e^ or M«*Jc^ or =t«*Jc$> ' to cut off.' 
These and a few monosyllabic roots of cl. 10, such as ^3! ' to divide,' ^T§ ' to ask,' 
f»P^ ' to mix,' ^j? ' to mark,' ^[ ' to make water,' B^ ' to thread,' Tt^ ' to fan,' 
ftt5 *° perforate,' 3l*"£'to sound,' and others less common, can, according to 
some grammarians, form their stems optionally with dpaya ; thus, ^ISF may make 
in Pres. 1. ^$TPWTf»T or ^^HlTfiT. 

289. It has been shewn that every root may have a Causal form, 
which follows the rule of conjugation of cl. 10. Indeed, it may be 
owing to the fact that there are a number of Active Primitive verbs 
not Causal in their signification, but conjugated like Causals, that a 



VERBS. — GROUPS II AND III. FORMATION OF STEM* 155 

IOth class has arisen distinct from the Causal. In verbs of this class 
the Causal form will generally be identical with the Primitive. 

Again, as some verbs really Causal in their signification are re- 
garded as belonging to cl. 10, there will often be a difficulty in 
determining whether a verb be a Primitive verb of this class, or a 
Causal verb. Hence the consideration of cl. 10 must to a great 
extent be mixed up with that. of the Causal form of the root. See 
the special changes applicable to Causals at 483-488. 

a. Observe, that all verbs, whether Primitive or Causal, which 
belong to cl. 10, have this great peculiarity, viz. that the conjugational 
aya is carried throughout all the tenses of the verb, General as well 
as Special, except only the Aorist and the Precative, Parasmai-pada. 
For this reason the formation of the stem of the General tenses of 
verbs of cl. 10 will not be explained under the head of the General 
tenses (at 363), but will fall under Causal verbs. 

b. Many verbs of cl. 10 are also conjugated in other classes ; and many may be 
regarded as Nominal verbs. 

GROUPS II AND III. — FORMATION OF STEM IN ROOTS OF CLASSES 
2, 3, 7, AND CLASSES 5, 8, 9. 

Preliminary Observations. 

290. The formation of the stems of verbs of groups II and III 
presents more difficulties than that of group I, containing the 1st, 
4th, 6th, and 10th classes. In group I the verbal stem, although 
varying slightly in each class, preserves the form assumed in the 
singular before all the terminations of every Special tense ; but in 
the last two groups the stem is liable to variation in the various 
persons and numbers of most of the tenses, such variation being 
denoted by the letter P and other indicatory letters of the scheme 
at 346. 

«. The object of the P is to shew, that fulness or strength of form is imparted 
to the root before these weak terminations (see 247. V) ; thus ^ i, cl. 2, ' to go,' is 
in the Pres. sing, emi, eshi, etl; in du. was, ithas, itas; in pi. imas, &c. : just as 
in Gr. elpt, el, flat, hov, nov, 'i[i.ev, &c. : cf. also <pripi (for 0a/*<). $>K, 
<pv](ri, (f>aT0V, (poirov, (paph, (part, cpaci. So again, stri, 'to strew,' is in Pres. 
sing, strwiami, striiposhi, strinotii in du. strirjMvas, strirmthas, strinutas; in pi. 
stfinumas, &c. : just as in Gr. OTOpO/w, (TTOpvv;, axopviiui, VTOpvinw, trropwrov, 

x % 



156 VERBS. — GROUPS II AND III. FORMATION OF STEM. 

trropvvfitv, Sec. Similarly, iW, 'to buy,' is in Pres. sing, krindmi, krindsi, Mndti ; 
in du. &e. lerhrfvas, hrintthas, hrtnttas, krinimas, &c, the d being heavier than i. 
Cf. vepveyu (irepvrjfu), nipvag, irepvxri, irepvarov, irepvarov, &c. The P after 
the terminations of the first three persons of the Impv., Parasmai and Atmane, 
indicates that even before these heavy terminations the stem must be full. When 
a root ending in a consonant is long by nature or position, no additional strength 
is necessary, and no Guna is then possible (see 28) ; but in place of Guna, the 
stem sometimes remains unmutilated before the light terminations, while mutilation 
takes place before the heavy. The same holds good in roots ending in d; thus da 
and dhd suppress their final vowels before strong terminations, and preserve them 
before weak ; see 335, 336. Similarly, as, ' to be,' which by 28 cannot be gunated, 
drops its initial vowel before the strong terminations, retaining it before the weak ; 
see 327, and compare 324. 

291. Another source of difficulty is, that in group II (containing 
the and, 3rd, and 7th classes) the verbal stem generally ends in a 
consonant. This group of verbal stems, therefore, will resemble the 
last four classes of nominal stems ; and the combination of the final 
consonant of a stem with the initial t, th, dh, or s, of a termination 
in the Special tenses of these three classes requires a knowledge of 
the laws of Sandhi already given, as well as of others about to be 
explained. 

392. With regard to the terminations, a reference to the table at 
346 will shew that the last two groups take the regular terminations 
of the scheme, with few substitutions. But in the 3rd pi. Present 
and Imperative, A'tmane-pada, the nasal is rejected in all six classes ; 
and in the 3rd class, owing to the burden occasioned by reduplication, 
the nasal is also rejected in the 3rd pi. of the Parasmai-pada in these 
two tenses ; this class also takes us for an in the 3rd pi. Impf. 

293. Moreover, roots ending in consonants, of the 2nd and 3rd, and all roots of 
the 7th, and the root | hu of the 3rd class, take dhi (the Greek 61) for hi in the 
2nd sing. Impv.* (see 246) ; and roots ending in vowels, of the 5th, and all roots 

■ of the 8th, and roots ending in consonants of the 9th class, resemble the first 
group of classes at 257, in rejecting this termination hi altogether. 

294. Again, roots ending in consonants reject the terminations s and t of the 
2nd and 3rd sing. Impf. by 41 . 1, changing the final of the root, if a soft consonant, 
to an unaspirated hard; and in other respects changing a final consonant, as indi- 
cated at 41. 1-IV. In roots ending in \, ^, ^, ^, the 3rd person rejects the 



* Dhi was originally the only form. Hence in the Vedas ^fv (KkvSi) ; and in 
the Maha-bharata ^SPlTf fa. Dh i then passed into hi, as dhita passed into hita, 
and bhiimi into the Latin humus. 



VERBS. — RULES OF SANDHI. 157 

termination t regularly, and ends therefore in simple TI ; the 2nd person optionally 
rejects either the termination s, and ends therefore in t, or the final dental of the 
root, and ends then in $, see 308. 

295. The following new rules of Sandhi will also apply in forming the Special 
tenses of the Parasmai-Frequentative (see 514), and in forming the stem of the 
General tenses of all Primitive verbs (except those of cl. 10), and in some of the 
Participles ; for although in most roots ending in consonants the vowel ^ i (see 39 1 ) 
is inserted before the terminations of these teases, yet a large class of common 
roots reject this inserted vowel, leaving the final of the stem to coalesce with the 
initial consonant of the termination. It will be convenient, therefore, to introduce 
by anticipation examples from the General tenses and Participles. 

EUPHONIC JUNCTION OF CERTAIN VERBAL STEMS WITH 

TERMINATIONS AND SUFFIXES. 

Combination of final ^c, ^ eh, w j, «K. jh, with j[t, ^th, *r dh, ^ s. 

296. Final ^ <5 and »T j, before fl t, "*r th, V dh, and ^s, are changed 

to «s k (cf. 41. IV), the oS k blending with ^ s into to ksh by 70, and 

becoming it g before dh ; thus, vad + ti = vakti ; vat + thas = vakthas ; 

vat +m = vakshi ; mod + sydmi = mokshydmi ; mud + ta = mukta ; 

tyaj + ta = tyakta, ; tyaj + sydmi = tyakshydmi. The same applies to 

final ffl. jh, but this is not likely to occur. 

a. Similarly, final ^ 6h before s ; as, praSh + sydmi =prakshydmi. 

397. But a final ^f 6h and ifj sometimes become w sh before K t, 
^ th ; and i^ t, ^ th, then become \,\\ thus, *rr^ +ti = >nff ; «J»T v + 
thas=f[S^; ^3T+ta = ^; jr^ + M = im. 

«. Similarly, a final *{j may be changed to 3 d before t^ dh, which 
then becomes ^ dh. 

h. ^rar ' to fry,' VSS^ ' to be immersed,' and ^ ' to cut,' reject 
their last consonant, and the first two are treated as if ending in w, 
the last as if ending in 5T. See 633, 633, 630. 

Combination of final \ dh, « bh, with j^t, ^ th, ^ s. 

398. Final V dh and *r bh, before f^t and THjh, are changed, the one 
to <* d, the other to \b, and both t and th then become V dh; thus, 
rundh with tas or thas becomes equally ^f^ runddhas ; labh + tdhe 
= TSatT^ labdhdhe ,• bodh + tdhe — %gj%. 

A similar rule applies to final \gh, which must be changed to *r g, but this is 
not likely to occur. 

a. When final ^ dh is preceded by a conjunct ^ n, as in rundh, 
then the final dh, which has become d (before t and th changed to 



158 YERBS. — KULBS OP SANDHI. 

dh), may optionally be rejected; so that rundh + tas = ^^or ^fl^J 
rundh + tarn = ^sgfl or ^stm (Pan. vm. 4, 65). 

6. On the same principle >J4!<S*(i8 written for n«!SG^from ^ (674). 

c. Similarly roots ending in 7{t and ^ d may reject these letters before th, t, and 
dhi, when n immediately precedes, hence fa^ may be written for fa^, TH-n^for 

fa?^, fafoi for fafsg. 

299. Final ^dh and « bh, before ^s, are changed by 44, the one 
to tt t, the other to ^/j; thus, ^JV runadh + ftr si becomes ^Jjrfw 
runatsi; sedh + sydmi — setsydmi ; labh + sye = lapsye (cf. 41. II). 

a. If the initial of the syllable containing the final aspirate be g, 
d, b, or d, then the aspirate, which has been rejected in the final, is 
thrown back on the initial ; as, whl bodh +-msye = wtm bhotsye ; ^v 
dadh + sva = dhatsva : and in the case of cpf the same applies before 
t and th, against 298. See 44. c, 336, 664. Cf. Qptyw from rpicpa). 

b. The aspiration is also thrown back on the initial, when final dh 
is changed to d, before the terminations dhve and dhvam. See 336, 664. 

Combinations of final 31 s, ^sh, ^s, with H t, ^th, ^s, udh. 

300. Final sr s, before fl t and *i th, becomes ^tsh; and the jst, ^th, 
take the cerebral form z, z; thus, ^ST + te = ^; 5jsi + thds = ^wx^. 

301. Similarly, final ^ sh, before ftt and ^r th, requires the change 
of ti t, \th, to z, z^; thus, tr^+^ = %fe; and %^ + Mos = fg^. 

302. Final n i or ^ sh, before ^s, is changed to gr A by 41. V, the 
^ s then becoming n sh by 70; thus, ^31 + si = ^fB| ; 5^+si = irfef; 
■551 + sydmi = -JU^iTh. 

a. Final ^ ksh is also changed to "^ k ; as, ^Tff + ifr = ^r%. 

303. Final sr & or ^«A, before V «?A, is changed to ^ d, the v «?A 
becoming <| # by 51; thus, %tf + e?Ai = %^fe. Similarly, f£s + 
dhvam = ff^f^- A final i^j may also follow this rule ; see 632, 651. 

a. Final ~^ksh also becomes^, k being dropped; as.^ST + s| = ^air. 

304. Final ^s is changed to j^t before ^in the 3rd sing. Impf. 
(the termination t being rejected), and before ^ dh, is either dropped 
or changed to ^ d ; thus, Sakds + dhi = either ^rftl dakddhi or ^st% 
takdddhi ; $TT^ + dhi = snfa ; f?^+ dhi = f^f*i or f^fcgr, see 658, 673. 

a. Final ^ s before ^ s is changed to T^ t ; as, vas + sydmi = vat- 
sydmi. So optionally in 2nd sing. Impf. of $n^, aids + s = aM/s = 
a&fa (or a&fo). 

6. But not in the case of final s preceded by a or o before si and «e. 



VERBS. — RULES OF SANDHI. 159 

Combination of final \ h with f[t, ^th, ^s, ^dh. 

305. In roots beginning with ^ d, like gf duh, ' to milk/ final f h 
is treated as if it were ^tgh, and is changed to f\g before ji t and \th, 
and both / and th then become xt dh ; thus, g* duh + tas or thas 
becomes equally 5"^ dugdhas ; ^f dah + tdsmi = dagdhdsmi. 

But tt + ta = ^ dridha. 

Note — In root «Tf the final h is treated as if it were v dh, and 
becomes ^ d, after which t and M both become dh. See 644. 

a. But if a root begin with any other letter than 5 d or ^ ra, then 
its final f A is dropped, and both the fit and i^th of the termination 
become ts dh. Moreover, to compensate for the rejection of the final 
h, a radical vowel (except ri), if not gunated, is lengthened, and in the 
roots re sah and ^Tf vah, ' to bear/ changed to ; as, J|f + ta = *%£ ; 
^ + ta = ^? ; ^ + ti = wfe JerfAi ; Tlf + tfosmi = ttelffc? ; ^ + td = 
*fteT; ^ + td = i$im. 

Obs. — But g| + to = ■%%, and 1| 4- /a = ^ (Pan. vi. 3, 1 1 1). 

&. ■jjf ' to injure/ gf ' to be foolish/ f^f ' to love/ ^f ' to vomit/ 
optionally follow either 305 or 305. a, 

306. Final f h, before ^ s, follows the analogy of final 3^ I and 
V sh, and is changed to c(f k, which blends with ^ s into TS ksh ; 
thus, w? leh with si becomes wfej ; ^ + sydmi = tterrf»T. Similarly, 
in Latin, final h becomes k before s; as, veksit (vexit) from veho. 

a. And if the initial of the syllable ending in ^ h be ^ d, »t g, *tb, 
oVZd (the two latter, however, are not likely to occur), then the final 
f h is still changed to «([ k before s; but the initial <£ d and i{g are 
aspirated according to the analogy of 44. c ; thus, ^ doh +si = 
Vtftf ; ^ dah + sydmi = *re?rrfa ; ^n^ aguh + sam = 'Sips*. 

b. In root Tlf nah final f h is treated as if it were dh, and becomes 
h t before ^ s. Compare 183, and see 634. 

c. In roots beginning with ^ d, like §| duh and ^ dih, final ^ h 
becomes ti g before dh ; i. e. before the dhi of the 2nd sing. Impera- 
tive, and before the terminations dhve and dhvam (see 306. d) ; 
thus, gf duh + dhi=$fJV dugdhi. And in a root beginning with n, 
like iff nah, final A becomes d before these terminations. 

But if the root begin with any other letter than ? d or «^ n, then 
final f h is dropped, and the V dh of the termination becomes ^ dh, 
the radical vowel (except ^ ri) being lengthened ; thus, ft5| lih + dhi 



160 VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OF STEM. 

= Ffffe ; lih + dhvam = ctf f*. An option, however, is allowed in the 
case of the roots at 305. b. 

d. And 306. a. applies before dhve and dhvam, when final ^ h he- 
comes T\g or is dropped, although not before dhi of the Imperative; thus, 
duh + dhve = xpik dhugdhve ; and aguh + dhvam — ^rff|*r aghiuflivam. 

e. Obs.— If a root end in f h, this final h becomes gr k in the and 
and 3rd sing. Impf. of roots beginning with ^ d (the personal termina- 
tions s and t being dropped). In all other roots the final ^ h becomes 
Z t (41 . III). In both cases the changed ^ throws back an aspiration 
on the first consonant of the root in accordance with 306. a. 

GROUP II. CONJUGATION II. 

307. Class a (containing about 70 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28) in 
the strong forms, or before those terminations only which are marked 
with P in the scheme at 246. Before all the other terminations the 
original vowel of the root must be retained. No vowel is inter- 
posed between the root and the terminations. (Cf. Gr. verbs like 
et/xt, <pt]fj.!, &c. See 290. a.) 

308. Thus, from f^ vid, 'to know' (Gr. etoie, lOov, Lat. video), is formed the 
stem of the singular Present ved (1. ved+mi=^f& vedmi, &c), and the stem of 
the dual and plural vid (Du. 1. vid + vas=f^S^vidvas, &c. ; PI. 1. vid+mas=: 
f^'ttvidmas, &c.) So also the stem of the Impf. aved and avid (1. aved-\- am = 
avedam, 2. aved + s = avet or aves by 41. T. and 294); the stem of the Pot. rid 
(1. vid+ydm= (Vtflfl vidydm, &c); and the stem of the Impv. ved and vid (1. ved 
■\-dni—veddni, 2. vid+dhi^viddhi 293, ved-\°-tu=vettu ; Du. 1. ved-\-dva^veddva, 
&c. *) See the table at 583. 

a. A contracted form of the Perfect of vid (365) is sometimes used for the Pre- 
sent; thus. Sing, veda, vetiha, veda; Du. vidva, vidathus, vidatus ; PI. vidma, 
vida, vidus; see 168. e. Cf. Gr. otoa (for FoiSa) fr. rt. Fio (elow), also used with 
a Present signification; and Lat. vidi, vidisti, &c. Cf. also the Present vidmas 
with 'i^fjav (i<T[*.o), vittha with tare, and viddhi with kt6i. Cf. also old English 
'to wit.' 

309. Similarly, from fk^, 'to hate,' come the stems dvesh and dvish (Pres. 1. 
iff*?!; Du. 1. fk*^[, &c; see 637). 

* The Impv. of vid is optionally formed with the syllable dm and the auxiliary 
verb kfi (cf. 385); thus, Sing. 3. f^faittaj or f^THtftj (Pan. in. 1, 41). And 
this root may optionally insert r in the 3rd pi. Atm. of the Pres., Impf., and Impv. ; 
thus, f^fl or fa^, 'Hfaipl or 'SrferjTT, f^rTll^or ftl JHW. 



VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM. 161 

310. So also, from \i, 'to go,' come the stems e and i (Pres. 1. Ijfir emi (= elpi), 
2. T>fa by 70, 3. T»fir; PI. 1. 3^, 'i^v, see 645). 

a. HV[ 'to awake' makes, in the same wa,j,jdgar tend jdgri (Pres. 1. »TT*Tf>t, &c.; 

Du. i. ^nip^; pi. 3. smrft j impf. 2, 3. 'arenn^: or ^nnn: ; d u . 3. ^ruprw ; 
pi. 3. ^tott^; Pot. 1. 'sn^ur; impv. 3. smrf ; pi. 3. ^135). 

Obs.— Roots of cl. 2, having more than one syllable (such as »TT>J above, ^ft^T 
' to be poor,' *q&X\ ' to shine,' all formed by reduplication), as well as $ITC( ' to rule ' 
(perhaps contracted from a reduplicated ^T^), and *T^ 'to eat' (perhaps for 
»HI^), resemble the reduplicated verbs of cl. 3 in rejecting the nasal from the 
3rd pi. Pres. and Impv. Parasmai, and taking us for an in 3rd pi. Impf. Moreover, 
a few roots like f^* and fl^ above, as well as some in d, like t[T ' to go ' and TJT 
to protect,' optionally take us for an in Impf., before which a final a is dropped. 

311. The preposition ^rfv adhi, 'over,' prefixed to the root ^ i, 'to go,' gives 
the sense of to read' (Atmane-pada only) : ^ then becomes iy (compare 123) and 
blends with adhi into ^St^adMy before the vowel-terminations of the Pres., Impf., 
and Pot. Before the consonantal terminations it becomes "SUfi 1 adht. (Hence Pres. 

1. 'Snffo, 2. *wfik, 3. ^iftff; Du. 1. ^rvfat, &c ; PL 3. *>fhl^; Impf. 1. adhi+ 

a+iy+i=^ikfkbj2^i.a, 2. 'aruhn^, 3 .^rilbr; Du.i.^ruhrf?, 2.^rahrrsn»r, 

&C; Pot. I. ^Nfafhl, ^WWfan^, &c; Impv. 1. adhi + e + ai='%v3t by 36. a, 

2. ^Wh^, &c.) 

a. The preposition T 31T et is prefixed to the root ^ i, according to the usual rules 
of Sandhi, and gives the sense of ' to come ;' thus, Pres. $f*T, 7*fa, 5rfa ; TT^T , 
&c; Impf. ^ra»T, $^, &o. ; Pot. THITT, ^IT^, &c; Impv. "STOTftT, *f?, ihj, 
&c. Again, the prep. WH apa prefixed gives the sense of ' to go away ;' thus, Pres. 
^TmTJT, &c. : and the prep. W% gives the sense of 'to know;' as, Pres. ^S^fir. 

312. So also other roots in ^/and "3u or ^j* change these vowels to iy and uv 
(cf. 123, 125. a) before the vowel-terminations; as, fr. ^ft j)£ s 'to go,' come ve, v{, 
and viy (Pres. 1. ^ft, &c. ; Du. 1. ^fa^J PL 3. fa^fcr) *. Similarly, H, ' to bring 
forth ' (Atm. only), makes in Pres. Sing. Du. PL 3. ?|W, *J11if, ^K ; and in Impv. 
Sing. Du. PL 1. *J%, ?J^R? , ^^W^, Guna being suppressed. 

313. ?irj s*m and «J mm, ' to praise ;' ^ yu, ' to join,' ' to mix ;' and ^» ru, ' to sound,' 
follow 312, but take Vriddhi instead of Guna before the consonantal P termina- 
tions f. Hence the stems *3T stau, TQ stu, and ^R stuv ; see 648. Before the 
vowel P terminations both Vriddhi and Guna are generally (but not always) sup- 
pressed, and wo substituted, as in H at 312. Note, that these roots may optionally 
insert an ^ { before the consonantal P terminations ; and before this vowel Guna, 
not Vriddhi, is required. According to some authorities, however, i is inserted 
before all the consonantal terminations ; and, according to others, before all the 
consonants, except y, v, or m, not followed by an indicatory P. 

314. "St, 'to speak,' can never take Vriddhi, like the roots at 313; but inserts 

* According to some the 3rd pi. Impf. "of }f\ is ^Taj^as well as ^sif^M^. 
t That is, the terminations marked with P, which begin with consonants. 

Y 



162 VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM. 

an ^ { after Guna in the places where those roots optionally insert it, viz. before 
the consonantal P terminations. Hence the stems bravi, bru, brim. See 649. 

a. Before the vowel P terminations Guna is not suppressed, excepting in the 1st 
sing. Impf., which may be either vi stq^or -e)«c(IT. 

315. ^ft, 'to lie down' (Atm. only), gunates the radical vowel before all the 
terminations, and inserts r in the 3rd pi. Pres., Impf., and Impv., after the analogy 
of the 3rd pi. Pot. See 646. 

316. WO, 'to cover, 5 takes either Vriddhi or Guna of the final u before the 
consonantal P terminations, except before the 2nd and 3rd sing, of the Impf., 
where Guna only is admissible. Before the vowel-terminations it follows 312, but 
Guna is retained before the vowel P terminations, excepting in the 1st sing. Impf. 
Hence the stems drnau, urno, 4rnu, and 4rnwo (Pres. Par. 1. aHUiin or 'WJHm; 
Du.i.-gmN^; Pl. 3 .'3iOT^<Tr, see3io.Obs.; Impf. 1. ^rNhfHor^dN* by 251.0, 

2. ^innf^, &c. ; Pot. 1. *4j*ut{j impv. s. 1. ^aJNrfrr, 3. vMyiij or ■aairnj. 

Pres. Atm. 3. 3i^ir, *<lHlri, *<U=)^). 

317. Tt'to go,' 'TI 'to protect,' ^f^ 'to eat' (edo), ^TT^'to sit,' Atm., and other 
roots having a or a for their vowels, cannot be changed, but are themselves the 
inflective stems (Pres. 1. TT yd+mi=ydmi, see 644; ^f^ ad-\-mi=admi, 2. ad-\-si 
=atsi, 3. ad+ti=atti j Du. 3. ad-{-tas=attas, &c, see 652). With atti compare 
Lat. edit, 

a. ^n^'to sit' is similar; thus ds+e:=zdse, ds + se=dsse, ds + te=dste. The 
final of ds is dropped before dh, hence PI. 2. ^?TUI ddhve, &c. 

b. „^ to eat,' before the terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing. Imperfect, 
inserts the vowel ^T a by special rule, see 652 ; and some other roots of this class 
require peculiar changes, as follows : — 

318. cfftjJT daridrd, 'to be poor,' follows 310. Obs., making its stem daridri before 
the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, us, atu 
(Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. ^TJtfK, ^%B^, ^ft'jfif; Impf. 1. ^ficjTH ; PI. 3. ^R[- 

ft^; Pot. 3. ^ftf^trn^; impv. i.^fqjrfri; Du. i.^ft^ra; Pi. 3. ^53). 

319. <jfaft didht, ' to shine ' (Atm.), and ^5ft ' to go ' (Atm.), change their final to 
y, and not to iy, before the vowel-terminations (compare 312) ; but in the Potential 
the final { coalesces with the i of the terminations (Pres. Sing. 1 . <(HlI J "^H \ PI. 3. 
^Nm; %3R: Pot. 1. ^Nfa, &c.) 

320. ^^vad, to speak,' changes its final palatal to a guttural before all the 
hard consonantal terminations, in conformity with 176; but not before the soft 
(except dh). It is defective in the 3rd pi. Present and Imperative, where its place 
must be supplied by ^at 314, 649. Hence the stems vat and vak. See 6go. 

321. tp^mrij, 'to cleanse,' is vriddhied in strong forms, and optionally before 
the vowel-terminations having no P. Hence the stems mdrj and mrij. See 651. 

322. ^ rud, to weep,' besides the usual Guna change before the P terminations, 
inserts the vowel ^ i before all the consonantal terminations except y, and optionally 
a or { in the 2nd and 3rd sing. Impf. Hence rodi, ntdi, rud. See 653. 

a. ^,'to sleep,' VS^ and ^t*('to breathe,' and »P^'to eat,' are similar, but 



VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OF STEM. 163 

without Guna. The last conforms to 310. Obs. In the Epic poems, forms like 
*3TTT>T are found as well as ^ftlfir, while in the Veda other roots (besides the 
above five) insert i (as S/tfaftr, ^fafir, jjfoSfcT, T5fftfif, &c.) See Pan. vn. 2, 76. 34. 

3 2 3- ?*t h m > ' to kill,' makes its stem j? ha before t or th (by 57. a) ; T{ ghn 
before anti, an, antu; and »T ja before f^. The last change is to avoid the 
proximity of two aspirates. See 654, and compare 252. b. Obs. 

324. picas', 'to desire,' 'to choose,' suppresses the a, and changes v to u before 
the terminations which have no P (see 290. a) ; and 731 k/ becomes 'Z'Qush before 
t and th by 300. See 656. 

3 2 5- *^.^> ' to praise ' (Atm.), not gunated by 28, inserts the vowel ^ i between 
the root and the terminations of the 2nd person %, ^S, &t, and J«PT: Pres. 1. ^s» 

2. §fe%, 3. §| (see 48. b. Obs.) ; Du. 1. $^t ; PI. 2. ^ffS* ; Impf. 3. 5*5, &c. ; 
Pot. 1. §Tta, &c; Impv. 1. §f , 2. tf^, 3- $&*! PI. 2. ^feaiW. 

a. Similarly, ^3T U, 'to rule' (Atm. only) : Pres. 1. ^i), 2. $f3J^, 3. |? by 300 ; 
Impf. 3. JJ?, &c. ; Impv. 3. §STH, &c. 

326. ^TST iaksh, to speak ' (Atm.), drops the penultimate k before all consonantal 
terminations, except those beginning with m or v (Pres. 1. ^5J, 2. ^^+ « = """sji 

3. ^8, &c, see 302. a, 303. a ; Impf. 3. ^(^W ; Pot. 3. ^sfftT). Katyayana con- 
siders ^^TTthe original root, whence is formed WtJ the latter being substituted 
for ^T5T in the General tenses. 

327. *3I^ as, ' to be' (Parasmai only), a very useful auxiliary verb, follows 290. a, 
and rejects its initial a, except before the P terminations. The 2nd pers. sing. Pres. 
is 'Sfil for 'SrftjT. The Impf. has the character of an Aor., and retains the initial 
a throughout, and inserts ^before the s and t of the 2nd and 3rd sing. ; see 584. 
The 2nd sing. Impv. substitutes e for as, and takes the termination dhi. This root 
is found in the Atmane-pada, with the prepositions vi and ati, when the Present 

is Sing. 3*fii^, -%, -*r ; Du. -^, -ure, -irk, -mj, -s^, -^h; Pot. sifinfta, 

&c. (Pan. viii. 3, 87). See 584. 

328. TJT^ sds, ' to rule,' in Parasmai (but not in Atmane), changes its vowel to 
^ i before the consonantal terminations having no P, except that of the 2nd sing. 
Impv. Before that and all vowel-terminations, as well as in the strong forms, the 
vowel of the root remains unchanged ; and, after i, ^ becomes ^ by 70. Hence 
the stems TJT^ and f3[P* . See 658. 

329. ^T^, 'to shine,' is Pres. i.^^BTftR, 2. ^1%, 3.^^lfttT; Du.i.^^iT- 
^rq;; PI. 3. ^^rafil(3io.Obs.); Impf. i.^nTOR, 2. ^R^ or , 3T«C^r^(294), 

3. ^wri^; Du. 1. ^^rtct; pi. 3 . ^r<*i5p( ; p t. 1. ^i^itt; impv. 1. 

'SHRUnfa, 2. ^Blfv or 'snSTfe (304), 3. ^^%; Du. 1. ^UtT^, 2. -qdiltH*; 

pi. 3. ^=*rag. 

330. gf duh, 'to milk,' and f?5^ Uh, 'to lick,' form their stems as explained at 
305, 306. They are conjugated at 660, 661. 

331. Class 3 (containing about 30 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Y % 



164 VERBS. — GROUT II. FORMATION OP STEM. 

Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and 
gunate the vowel of the radical syllable before the P terminations 
only, as in cl. 2. 

Obs. — This class resembles the and in interposing no vowel be- 
tween the root and terminations. It is the only class that necessarily 
rejects the nasal in 3rd pi. Pres. and Impv. Parasmai (see 29a), and 
takes us for an in 3rd pi. Impf. Parasmai, before which us Guna is 
generally required. See 292—394. 

332. Thus, from W bhri, 'to bear' (<f>epu,fero), is formed the stem of the Present 
singular fa»T^ bibhar (1. &iMnr+mi=fwfff), and the stem of the dual and plural 
f^bibhri (Du. 1. bibhri+vas=iw^^^; PL i.bibhri+mas=f&fK^; PL 3. bibhri 
+ati=zf^>3fi( by 34 and 292). See the table at 583. 

a. Note, that bibharti bears the same relation to bibhrimas that fert does to 
ferimus, and vult to volumus. 

333. Similarly, from HT bh(, ' to fear,' come the two stems bibhe and bibhi; from 
? hu, to sacrifice,' the two stems juho and juhu. The former of these roots may 
optionally shorten the radical vowel before a consonant, when not gunated. See 
666. The latter may optionally reject its final before vas and mas, and is the only 
root ending in a vowel which takes dhi for hi in the 2nd sing. Impv. See 662. 

a. 'gt, 'to be ashamed,' is like H% but changes its final ^ to ^1 iy before the 
vowel-terminations, in conformity with 123. See 666. a. 

334- ^? T 1 ') ' *° S°>' is the only verb in this class that begins with a vowel. 
It substitutes iy for ri in the reduplication, and makes its stems ^IT iyar and 

Vi *yr» ( Pres - Sin g- Du - P1 - 3- V*fft' ¥p^> Vrf*> Im P f - *• ^^? 2 - '^j 
3. WT.; Du. 3. 3^riW ; Pot. 3.^01^; Impv. i.^rcrftr). 

335. <fT dd, ' to give ' (OtOtofu, do), drops its final d before all excepting the P 
terminations. Hence the stems dadd and dad. It becomes ^ de before the hi of 
the Impv. See 663. 

336. VI dhd, ' to place ' (ridrjfj.1), is similar. Hence the stems dadhd and dadh ; 
but dadh becomes ViT before t, th, and s; and dhad before dhve and dhi-am by 
299. a. b ; and dhe before the hi of the Impv. See 664. 

337. ?T hd, 'to abandon,' changes its final d to f i before the consonantal 
terminations not marked with P, and drops the final altogether before the vowel- 
terminations, and before y of the Potential. Hence the stems jahd, jahi, jah. 
Before hi of the Impv. the stem is optionally jahd, jahi, or jahi. According to 
some authorities, »T?^ may be shortened into »ff^ in Pres., Impf., and Impv. 
See 665. 

338. mmd, 'to measure' (Atm.), and ?T hd, "to go' (Atm.), make their stems 
f^ft mimt and fST^ jiM before the consonantal terminations not marked with P. 
Before the vowel-terminations their stems are mim tmijih (Sing. Du. PL 3. fH^ff , 
fH^llt, fit^k ; Impf. 3. ^fsrg'hT ; Impv. 3. fSTfhn* s ). See HT at 664. a. 

339- *&{jan, ' to produce ' (Parasmai-pada), rejects the final nasal (see 57. a), 



VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM. 165 

and lengthens the radical a before t and th and hi, and optionally before y. Before 
consonantal terminations beginning with m ore the radical jan remains, but before 
vowel-terminations not marked with P the medial a is dropped, and the nasal 
combining with j becomes palatal (compare the declension of rdjan at 148). 
Hence the three stems jajan,jajd, andjajn. See 666. b. 

340. >H^ bhas, ' to eat,' ' to shine,' like jan, rejects the radical a before the 
vowel-terminations not marked with P ; and bh coalescing with s becomes p by 
44 (Pres. S. Du. PL 3. ^fiST, *Win^, ^TOfiT). The same contraction takes 
place before terminations beginning with K, W, but the final s is then dropped, 
and the usual rules of Sandhi applied; thus, "W+ 711*1 = <q<*i|H by 298. 

341. f«T5T'to purify,' fasr'to shake,' fa'? 'to separate' (identified with vij), 
and f^B 'to pervade,' 'to penetrate,' gunate the reduplicated syllable before all 
the terminations, and forbid the usual Guna of the radical syllable before termina- 
tions beginning with vowels, as in the 1st sing. Impf. and the 1st sing. du. pi. 
Impv. (Pres. 1. ^hHiH, 2.^f^, 3.%^f^i; Du. i.%fR5g^, &c; PL 1. ^fasflty 
3. ^ftT^Tftf j Impf. 1. ^RfilSfT, 2. 'W^gr, &c; PL 3. ^l%ftT^, &c; Impv. 

1. ^fi^nfir; Du. i. ^ft^n^r; pi. i. ^ftmnr). 

343. Class 7 (containing about 24 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Insert »f na (changeable to *n na after ri &c. by 58) between the 
vowel and final consonant* of the root before the P terminations, 
and J^ n (changeable to 3?, st, Vt, n, or Anusvaraf, according to the 
consonant immediately succeeding) before all the other terminations. 

Obs. — This class resembles the and and 3rd in interposing no vowel 
between the final consonant of the root and the terminations. 

o. The insertion of nasals is common in other roots besides those of the 7th class 
(cf. 2jo.d, 281, 487. 6), and cf. certain Greek and Latin roots ; as, [xa6, fx.Mi8a.viii ; 
Xaf3, kafx.l3a.vco; 6iy, Biyyavw; scid, scindo; fid,findos tag, tango; liq, linquo, 
&c. See 260. 

343. Thus, from f>TS bhid, ' to divide,' ' to break/ is formed the 
stem of the Present tense singular f>T^ bhinad, and the stem of the 
dual and plural f>T^ bhind, changeable to bhinat and bhint by 46 
(1. bhinad + mi = fafa, 3. bhinad + ti = f»^f^C, Du. 1. bhind + vas = 
fcg*(, 3. bhind + tas = fw^ or fiftT^ (298. c) ; PI. 3. bhind + anti = 
fH^ftfr). See the table at 583. 

344. Similarly, from ^V rudh, ' to hinder,' the two stems ^tjpi 
runadh and ^w rundh, changeable to runat, runad, and rwnd (1. 

* All the roots in this class end in consonants. 

t The change to Anusvara will take place before sibilants and ?. See 6. a. 



166 VEEBS. — GROUP III. FORMATION OF STEM. 

runadh +mi = ^nirfw?, i. runadh + si = ?ji!lf»?r, 3- runadh + ti = ^mfg ; 
Du. 3. rundh + tas = ?FS*0 J see ^7 I - So also, from fir*, 'to grind,' 
the two stems ftrr^ and fifa (Pres. 3. fa'nr + fir = fWs ; Impv. 2. 
fij^ + fti = ftr^fe or fafrg) . 

345. Observe — Roots ending in 7[t and ? d may reject these letters before th, t, 
and dhi, when « immediately precedes ; see 298. a. 6. c. 

346. *j»T ' to eat,' ^ST ' to join,' fc\ ' to distinguish,' conform to 296. Hence, 
from bhuj come bhunaj and bliiihj, changeable to hhunak and bhuttk ; see 

668. a. 

347. HIT 'to break,' ^&W 'to anoint,' '3^5 'to moisten,' ^*I 'to kindle,' 
f?H ' to injure,' ftsl or TT1J ' to contract,' fall under this class ; but the nasal be- 
longing to the root takes the place of the conjugational nasal, and becomes «T na 
in the strong forms. Hence, from bhanj come the two stems bhanaj and bhanj, 
changeable to bhanak and bhank j from und come unad and und (Pres. 3. unatti, 
untas, undanti; Impf. 1. aim a dam, 2. aunas, 3. aunatj Du. 3. auntdm, &c.) See 

669, 668, 673. Similarly, from ^**?, Pres. 1. indhe, 2. intse, 3. inddhe ; PI. 3. in- 
dhate j Impf. 2. ainddhds, 3. aiuddha ; Impv. 1. inadhai, &c. 

348. 7fe, ' to strike,' 'to kill,' inserts *u instead of TJ before all the consonantal P 
terminations (Pan. vn. 3, 92), but not before those beginning with vowels. See 674. 

GROUP III. CONJUGATION III. 

349. Class 5 (containing about 30 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add r[ nu (changeable to *g by 58) to the root, which must be 
gunated into tft no (changeable to Tjjft) before the P terminations 
(290. a) *. Roots ending in consonants add nuv, instead of nu, to the 
root before the vowel-terminations. Roots ending in vowels may 
drop the u of nu before initial v and m (not marked with P), and 
always reject the termination hi of the Imperative. See 293. 

350. Thus, from fa di, ' to gather,' are formed the stems dino and dinu (Pres. 1. 
<Sno- r -iB« = f«««iTfij, <firao+si=f-«l«firM by 70; Du. i.<Jin»+flas=fa«reWorfa5TO; 
PI. 1. dinu+mas=f-*y\*n or fas^, 3. 6inu+anti=fn^fR( by 34 ; Impv. 1. dino 
-f a»i=fa5nrftr by 36. a, 2. fag dinu by 291). See the table at 583. 

351. Similarly, fr. g du, 'to burn,' come duno, dunu, and dunuv j fr. ^tT^op, ' to 
obtain,' come dpno, dpnu, and dpnuv, see 681; fr. ^.'to satisfy,' tripno, tripnu, 
and tripnuv, see 618. 



* The change of nu to no before the P terminations is represented in Gr. by the 
lengthening of v before certain terminations, as in £* vy-vv-fj.1, StMc-vu-/*/, but 
%cvy-w-jj.ev, StiK-vv-ptv. See 260. 



VERBS. — GROUP III. FORMATION OP STEM. 167 

352. ^[ sru, "to hear,' (sometimes placed under the 1st class), substitutes ^J ki 
for the root, and makes its stems irino and srinu. See 676. 

a. ^*»^'to deceive,' SfWand ^jTW'to support,' ^jp^'to stop,' and ^W'to 
astonish,' reject their nasals in favour of the conjugational nu; thus, dabhnu, 
Skabhnu, &c. 

353. Class 8 (containing 10 Primitive verbs). — Rule for forming 
the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add T u to the root, which must be gunated into ^ft before the 
P terminations (see 390. a). 

Note — Only ten roots are generally given in this class, and nine of these end 
in H n or T!I nj hence the addition of u and will have the same apparent effect 
as the addition of nu and no in cl. 5. 

354. Thus, from ffr^tan, 'to stretch,' are formed the stems tano and tanu (Pres. 
1. tano+mi= UfftfiT, 2. tano + si=r d »Tlfa by 70 ; Du. 1. tanu+vas=d^m^ or ti' 5 )*^; 
PI. 1. tanu + mas =H*T>^ or W^J Impv. 1. toio+a»i=7r«r^Tf«T by 36. a, 2. H«J 
tanu, see 293). Cf. Gr. ra,vv[Al, Ta.vvfi.iv. 

a. The root fl»^ san, ' to give,' optionally rejects its n, and lengthens the radical 
a before the y of the Potential ; thus, VZf[\sanydm or WITH sdydm, &c. 

b. When the vowel of a root is capable of Guna, it may optionally take it ; thus 
the stem of ^JCT ' to go ' may be either ^J or ^T§ (i. ^TOifa or ^Wtftl). 

355. One root in this class, ^ kri, 'to do,' 'to make, 5 is by far 
the most common and useful in the language. This root gunates 
the radical vowel ri, as well as the conjugational u, before the P 
terminations. Before the other terminations it changes the radical 
ri to ur. The rejection of the conjugational u before initial m (not 
marked with P) and v, which is allowable in the 5th class, is in this 
verb compulsory, and is, moreover, required before initial y. Hence 
the three stems karo, kuru, and kur. See 68a. 

356. Class 9 (containing about 5a Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add «TT nd to the root before the P terminations ; «ft ni before all 
the others, except those beginning with vowels, where only q; n is 
added (see 390. a). 

Obs. — ttt, fft, and ^ are changeable to mi, w\, and ^, by 58. 
357. Thus, from *J yu, 'to join,' are formed the three stems yund, yuni, and yun 
(Pres. 1. yund+mi=^rf^; Du. i.yuni+vas=:^(\^; PI. 1. yun{+mas=.?$ft- 
JRW, 3. yun-\-anti=Tplfa(. Pres. Atm. 1. yun+e^Tpf, Impv. 1. yund+dni= 
f^TfcT, 2. yun{-\-M=-$$h, Sec.) 

a Obs. — Roots ending in consonants substitute ana for their 



168 VERBS. — GROUP III. FORMATION OP STEM. 

conjugational sign in and sing. Impv., and reject the termination hi; 
e. g. WH ' eat thou/ from ^ ' to eat ;' ^m ' nourish thou,' from 
yr; ^JHTO 'shake thou/ from ^pr, &c. See 696, 698, 694. 

358. 6 'to go,' 3ft 'to go,' «c5^ 'to go,' 'to choose,' wt 'to choose,' pft 'to ad- 
here,' sft 'to fear,' 'to bear,' TJt 'to destroy,' ^'to shake,' Tf/to purify' (583), <£ 
"to cut' (691), ^'to go,' «| 'to hurt,' i^'to sound,' »T 'to grow old,' ^ 'to split,' 
^T.'to lead,' Vto fill,' >^'to bear,' 'to blame,' f 'to kill,' ^or ^'to choose,' S£ 
'to injure,' ^T 'to spread,' ^T or *«[ or *«f or « 'to hurt,' shorten the radical vowel 
in forming their stems ; thus, from ^'to purify* come the stems jmnd, punf, and 
pun ; see the table at 583. 

a. "aft 'to buy,' Tft 'to love,' ?ft 'to cook,' ^ or ^f t 'to sound,' "j^'to hurt,' do 
not shorten their vowels. See 689, 690. 

359. JJf , 'to take,' becomes ^f , and makes its stems 'jfeni, «i%i1, and ^^. 
See 699. 

a. aSTr, 'to grow old,' becomes ftj, and makes its stems jind, jini, and fin. 

360. WW, TF*t, T> ^r?T, ^T, and ^FIW reject the radical nasal in favour 
of the conjugational; thus, from bandh are formed the three stems badknd, badhni, 
and badhn. See 692, 693, 695. 

361. sTf 'to know,' in the same way, rejects its nasal in favour of the conjuga- 
tional, and makes its stems jdnd, jdnf, and jdn. See 688. 

362. ^?, 'to appear as a spectre,' is said to make its stems hhaund, lehanm, and 
khaun. 

PKIMITIVE YEKBS OF THE FIRST NINE CLASSES IN 
THE SIX GENEKAL TENSES. 

363. The general rules for the formation of the stem in the Per- 
fect, 1st and and Futures, Aorist, Precative, and Conditional, apply 
to all verbs of the first nine classes indiscriminately ; see 250. a. 
The 10th class alone carries its conjugational characteristic into most 
of the General tenses ; for this reason the consideration of its last 
tenses falls most conveniently under Causal verbs. See 389. a. 

Reduplicated Perfect (Second Preterite). 
Terminations repeated from 346. 

Parasmai. Atmaxe. 



a (au) 


*wa 


*ima 


e 


*ivahe 


*imahe 


it ha or tha 


at hits 


a 


*ishe 


tithe 


Hdhve or *idhve 


a (au) 


atus 


us 


e 


ate 


ire 



t «K, however, may optionally shorten it. 



VERBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 169 

364. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

In the first place, with regard to reduplication, if a root begin 
with a consonant, double the initial consonant, with its vowel, accord- 
ing to the rules given at 252 (but a is reduplicated for a radical a, 
a, ri, ri, Iri, and even for radical e, ai, 0, if final ; i for i, i, e ; u for 
u, 4, 0) ; e. g. 

From H^pad, ' to cook,' papa6; fr. VJ^ydd, ' to ask,' yayddj fr. ^ kri, ' to do,' 
fakri; fr. tp^nrit, 'to dance,' nanritj fr. H tri, 'to cross,' tatrij fr. ~3p^klrip,' to 
be able,' daklrip j fr. ^ me, ' to change,' mame j fr. M gai, ' to sing,' jagai ; fr. ^ so, 
" to finish,' saso j fr. fffW sidh, ' to accomplish,' sishidh (70) ; fr. *(\\j{v, ' to live,' 
jijfv; fr. W^sec, 'to serve,' sishevj fr. "Zdru, 'to run,' dudruj fr. \pti, 'to purify,' 
pupuj fr. ^V JarfA, 'to know,' bubudh; fr. c5t^ to*, 'to see,' Mo*; fr. fi-ff smi, 
'to smile,' sishmi; fr. WTs*Aa, 'to stand,' tasthd. 

a. And if it Se^m iot^A a vowel, double the initial vowel ; e. g. fr. 
^ra^ as, 'to be/ comes a as = ^n^ <fo by 31 ; fr. WF{ap, 'to obtain/ 
a dp = dp; fr. ^ ish, 'to wish/ i ish = ish (see 31). 

6. In the second place, with regard to changes of the radical 
vowel, if the root end in a consonant, gunate * the vowel of the 
radical syllable, if capable of Guna (see 28), in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
sing. Par. ; but leave the vowel unchanged before all other termina- 
tions, both Par. and i&m. 

c. If the root end in a simple consonant, preceded by short a, 
this a is lengthened optionally in 1st and necessarily in 3rd sing. ; 
and before the other terminations it is either left unchanged, or is 
liable to become e (see 375. «). 

d. If the root end in a vowel, vriddhi the vowel of the radical 
syllable in 1st and 3rd sing. Par.f, and gunate it in 2nd sing. 
(optionally in 1st sing.) Before all other terminations, Parasmai 
and i&mane, the root must revert to its original form, but the 
terminations must be affixed according to euphonic rules % . 

365. Thus, fr. ^ budh, cl. I, comes the stem of the sing. Parasmai •*<*\^bubodh, 

* The gunation of the vowel is indicated by the P of Vi\, '^, TDt^, in the 
singular terminations. See scheme at 245. 

f Vriddhi is indicated by the W of *U^naP. See scheme at 243. 

J Greek affords many examples of verbs which suffer a kind of Guna or Vriddhi 
change in the Perfect ; but this change is not confined to the singular, as in- " 
Sanskrit. Compare Xe\oma. (fr. Xei7ta>, eXmov), Ttkito&a. (fr. ireiQv, eirtOov^- 
Terpocpa, (fr. Tptyw), rideiKa (fr. Tt'Qyjfu), &c. 

z 



1 70 VERBS.— REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 

and the stem of the rest of the tense ^kM* (i.bubodh+a=bubodha, 2, bubodh 
+ itka=bubodhitha, 3. btibodh + a = bubodhaj Du. I. bubudh + iva=bubudhiva, 
2.bubudh + athus=bubudhathus,&c. Atm. 1. bubudh + e=bubudhe, &c.) 

Similarly, fr. f^ vid, ol. 2, 'to know,' come the two stems fa%^ pioed and 
fefacT wid (1. 3. vivedaj Du. 1. vividiva; PL 1. vividima, &c.*) 

From T^, 'to cook,' the two stems W» jjaparf and W9 papad (1. ^>ap(&a or 
papada,. 3. papdda, &c.) 

. 366. Again, fr. ^ kri, ' to do' (see 684), comes the stem of the 1st and 3rd sing. 
Par. ^ET^ 6ahdr (252. 6), the stem of the 2nd sing. 'SR^f dakar (which is optionally 
the stem of the rst sing, also), and the stem of the rest of the tense M^ dakri 
(1. dakdr+a=dakdra (or dakara), 2. dakar+tha=dakartha, 3. dakdr+a=dakdraj 
Du. 1. dakri+va=dakriva (369), 2. dakri+athus=dakrathus by 34. Atm. 1. dakri 
+e=dakre; PI. 2. dakri+dhve=^^. See 684). 

a. Observe — The roots enumerated at 390. a. reject Guna in the 
and sing. ; thus, f^ makes 1. 3. f^R3T, but a. fafafsrW. So ^ or ^r 
' to cry' makes 1. -^R or ^=ra, 3. -^fani. 

367. We have seen at 364. a. that if a root, ending in a single 
consonant* begin with a vowel, this vowel is repeated, and the two 
similar vowels blend into one long one by 31. But when an initial 
i or u is gunated in the sing. Par., then the reduplicated i becomes 
iy before e, and the reduplicated u becomes uv before ; thus, fr. 
^ ish, ' to wish,' come the two stems iyesh and ish (1. 3. ^5fa; Du. 
1. $fa^; see 637) ; and fr. z^ukh, 'to move,' uvokh and ukh (1. 3. 
^ft^j Du. i.'arfjire). 

a. The same holds good in the root j i, 'to go,' which makes 
the reduplicated syllable iy before the Vriddhi and Guna of the sing. 
Jn the remainder of the tense the stem becomes iy (cf. 375. e), which 
is reduplicated into iy (1, 3. ^TPI, a. ^Mfavj or J*W, Du. 1. ^ftra). 
But when the prep, adhi is prefixed, the Perf. is formed as if from 
gd, Ktm. only (Sing. Du. PI. 3. adbijage, -jagdte, -jagire). 

b. And if a root begin with m a, and end in a double consonant, 
or begin with ^ ri and end in a single consonant, the reduplicated 
syllable is ^sn«^ an ; thus, fr. <?H( ark, ' to worship,' comes the stem 
yrm^dnard (1. 3. W«rt) ; &• ^JV ridh, 'to flourish,' comes 'strv dnardh 
(1. 3. "3?rev; Du. 1. ^jftR, &c.) 

* One Greek root agrees very remarkably with the Sanskrit in restricting Guna 
to the singular, viz. Fio (cow), 'to know' (=Sk. vid above); thus, oiXat, ciaSa, 
c?8e j Jo-tow, /Vxov ; JV/abv, fare, waai. Rt. vid has a contracted Perf. used fop 
the Present, which agrees exactly with oioa ; thus, veda, vettha, &c. See 308. a. 



VERBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OP STEM. 171 

c. ^I^Atm. ' to pervade,' although ending in a single consonant ST, follows the 
last rule (i. 3. Wfi)). 

368. Obs. — In the Perfect the 1st and 3rd sing. Par. and Ktm. 
have the same termination, and are generally identical in form ; but 
when Vfiddhi of a final vowel is required in both, then there is 
optionally Guna in the first ; and when a medial a is lengthened, 
this a may optionally remain unchanged in the first ; thus e£ 'to do'- 
may be in 1st sing, either 'srart or **&&., and ii^'to cook' may be 
W^ or Trcre in 1 st sing. ; but in 3rd sing, they can only make 
^c5TC and innr. 

369. By referring back to the scheme at 363, 246, it will be seen 
that all the terminations of this tense (except optionally the and sing. 
Par.) begin with vowels. Those which begin with i are all (except 
the 3rd pi. Atm.) distinguished by the mark *, because eight roots 
only in the language (viz. ^ 'to dot,' ^ 'to bear,' ^ 'to go,' 1 'to 
surround,' ^ ' to hear,' ^ ' to praise,' ■$ ' to run,' er sru, ' to flow ') 
necessarily reject the i from these terminations. 

Some roots, however, optionally reject i from these terminations, see 'EJI 371. 

Rejection of i from itha [%nd sing. Perfect, Parasmai). 

370. The above eight roots (except 3 vri when it means 'to cover,' 
and except ^ kri, ' to do,' when compounded with the prep, sam t) 
also reject i from the and sing. Parasmai. 

a. Moreover, the and sing. Parasmai is formed with tha instead of 
itha after roots ending in ^r ri (except after the root ^ ri itself, and 
^ vri and »TTf jdffri, which only allow itha ; thus, dritAa, vav'aritha, 
jdgaritha ; and except ^ at 5) ; 

b. and optionally with tha or itha after the root ^wi, 'to sound'' 
{sasvartha or sasvaritha) ; 

C. and optionally with tha or itha after roots ending in ^n d, u e 
(except ^ vye, which allows only itha), arid after roots in 5* ai, ^ft o, 
^ i, \ i, ~3u, and the root >j/to shake' (except those indicated at 39a, 
as necessarily inserting i in the Futures &c. ; e. g. fa, which makes 
iisrayitha only, and so also most foots in gs itj ; 

d. and optionally with tha or itha after those roots enumerated at 

t But ^ ' to do,' if ^ is inserted after a preposition, as in H'sjij does not reject i, 
and follows 374. k ; thus, 2. thrift*? • 

z a 



172 VERBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 

400-414, which have a medial a, and which reject i either necessarily 
or optionally from the Futures &c. (e. g. ^T^, sekitha or kakaktha; 
■s^, dakshamitha or dakshantha, &c.) ; but not ^ and Tt^, which 
can only make dditha, jaghasitha ; 

e. and optionally with tha or itha after most of the roots enume- 
rated at 415, as optionally inserting i in the Futures &c. : 

/. but all other roots, which necessarily take i, and even most of 
those (having no medial a) at 400-414 which necessarily reject i in 
the Futures &c, must take itha only in the and sing, of the Perfect ; 
thus (j^r is Khnfa tottdsi in the 2nd sing. 1st Future, but gififi^ tuto- 
ditha in the 2nd sing. Perfect (Du. 1. tutudiva). Some few of these, 
however, are allowed the alternative of tha, as ^'to create' makes 
mrfi^j or ttb? ; ^31 ' to see,' ^fifN or ^5? ; both these roots requiring 
the radical ri to be changed to t: ra, instead of gunated, when tha 
is used. 

g. JT3^ 'to dip' and ^'to perish,' which belong to 370. d, insert 
a nasal when tha is used ; thus, hhPtiTVJ or H*i<vu, %f^TT or ?rs. 

h. 3V to be satisfied' and "^.'to be proud,' which belong to 
370. e, either gunate the radical ri or change it to ^ ra when tha 
is used (rnr§ or irgrsi or tnrfrhl). 

Obs. — When tha is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the 
rules of Sandhi (396—306) must be applied. 

Optional rejection of i, in certain cases, from the dual and remaining 
terminations (of the Perfect, Parasmai and Atmane, marked with *). 
371. The roots enumerated at 415, as optionally rejecting or in- 
serting i in the Futures &c, may optionally reject it also . from the 
dual and remaining terminations of the Perfect marked with * in 
the table at 363 ; thus T^ makes -msjfaN or MBf*M, s«j*l or ^^ffj^, 
^fJT?if or ^«|4H«I ; but the forms with the inserted i are the most 
usual, and all other roots, even those which necessarily reject i from 
the Futures &c. (except the eight enumerated at 369), must take i in 
the dual and remaining terminations of the Perfect marked with *. 

Observe — The i is never rejected from the 3rd pi. ^tmane, except 
in the Veda. 

Substitution of ^ for «t (2nd pi. Perfect, A'tmane). 
373. f dhoe is used instead of u* dhve by the eight roots at 369,: 



iVERBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 173 

also in certain cases by the roots mentioned at 371. The usual rules 
of Sandhi must then be observed, as in tfsliw from sn^. 

a. ^ for ^Stf may be optionally used by other roots when a semi- 
vowel or h immediately precedes, as ^Tgfas* or -fa| from <3,'f%fsKftiai 
or -fq| from ■pft. 

Anomalies informing the stem of the Perfect. 

373. Roots ending in ^IT d (as ^T da, 'to give ;' VT dhd, 'to place ;' VI yd, 'to go ;' 
VUl sthd, to stand ') drop the d before all the terminations except the tha of the 
2nd sing., and substitute ^IT au for the terminations of the 1st and 3rd sing. Parasmai. 
Hence, from ^T da comes the stem ^rfad (1.3.1^, 2.^f?^Ior<^[|VJ; Du.i.^fi^". 
Atm. 1. 3. ^, 2. tf^k, &c. See 663). 

a. ^fijJT 'to be poor' makes 1. 3. ^ft^T; Du. 3. ^fTjEp^; PI. 3. ^ftg^; 
or more properly takes the periphrastic form of Perfect. See 385. 

b. 3?n ' to grow old ' has a reduplicated stem fUrETT (1. 3. f»T5qT, 2. fsTSTTSJ or 
TWfaTTj Du. 1. f»Tf-Rr3j. Similarly, an uncommon root 35Tt Atm. 'to instruct' 
makes 1. 3. fsrar. 

c. TT 'to throw,' *ft 'to destroy,' 'to perish,' must be treated in the sing, as if 
they ended in d; and «T cl. 9, 'to obtain,' may optionally be so treated; thus, 
Sing. 1. W, 2. WVH or Hf*TO, 3. HW; Du. i. fafwj^. But f&t is 1. <9t^ or 
fdriW, 2. c5^TO or <?fc5^T or ft3WT or f c5Wf IN J Du. 1. f<4f«»H=f. 

d. Most roots ending in the diphthongs XT e (except 3f, \, ^T, ^, &c, see e.f), 
^ ai, ^3n 0, follow 373, and form their Perfect as if they ended in dj thus, ^ cl. 1, 
'to drink,' 1st and 3rd sing. <^*IT, 2. tjfV^ or ^n*T, Du. 1. ^ftra; H cl. 1, 'to sing,' 

1. 3. S! 7 ^ 2. "SffrVH or *rnr«J; |T cl. 1, 'to fade,' 1. 3. i^tf; ^ft cl. 4, 'to sharpen,' 

1. 3. $r$ft 

e. But 3^ ' to call' forms its stem as if from ?, see 595 (1. 3. *|£N, &c.) 

/. ^ Atm. 'to pity,' 'to protect,' makes its stem digi (1.3. T^T, 2. f^thpf, &c.) 
g. 3l'to cover' makes vivydy, vivyay, and vivy (1.3. fa^TPT, 2. H=qiq , q; Du. 1. 
fcfsprftr^ or f^fa^, &c.) 

h. ^ ' to weave ' forms its stems as if from vd or vav or vay (1.3. ^RT or ^TO,, 

2. ^f¥T or ^T*l or ^TftlT; Du. 1. ^f^ or ^fifa^ or ^ifl=r, &c. Atm. 1. 3. ^T 
or ^ or ■3&, &c.) 

i. ^ Atm. 'to be fat' makes regularly Vm, vfvfk, &c; but the root UlPI, 
meaning the same, and often identified with "t, makes flW, TTnt^, &c. 

374. If a root end in ^ i or ^ /, this vowel does not blend with the initial 4 of 
the terminations in du. pi. Parasmai, sing. du. pi. Atmane, but is changed to y, in 
opposition to 31; thus, from fa.di, cl. 5, 'to collect,' come the stems 6i6ai, £i£e, 
and 6i6i, changeable to &,idy, 6i6ay, and 6i6y (1. 3. Uddya, 2. 6it!ayitha oxiiietha; 
D,u. 1. f^rPaT^ tHdyiva, 2. didyathus by 34. Aim. 1. 3. didye. See the table at 583). 
Obs.— ff may also substitute f^BPT for f^^Pl and f^^T for faM. . 



174 VERBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 

a. Similarly, •ftra/,' to lead' (1.3. nindya; Du. 1. ninyiva. Atm. l.ninye, &C.); 
and "&tK(D\i. 1. lilywa; Atm. 1. Ulye). 

b. fifji, ' to conquer,' makes its stem f«rfT, as if from gi (1. 3. f»PTPI ; Du. 1. 
f*rfnj^, &c. See 590). 

c. f% hi, ' to go/ ' to send,' makes f*rfa, as if from ghi (1.3. f»i*ii«i). 

d.. ^T Attn, 'to sink,' 'to decay,' makes its stem f«n?*T throughout; thus, 1. 3. 
f^fa, 2. f^tfip*, &c. 

e. But roots ending in ^i or ^ i, and having a double initial consonant, change 
i or /to ^^iy before all terminations, except those of the sing. Parasmai; hence, 
from TCT cl. 1, 'to resort to,' come the three stems s"israi, iisre, and £driy (1. 3. 
f^rra, 2. f^I «« T*l vy ; Du. 1. fyPiiriH, &c.) So 'gft cl. 9, 'to buy' (1. 3. f^Wl, 
2. f<4ttfj|vr or r^*«t; Du. 1. fsfoRfiW, &c. See 689). 

/. fa hi, * to swell,' like 3T at 373. e, forms its stem as if from ^, but only op- 
tionally ; thus, i . 3. %^m or 9J^IN, 2. f$reN or f^PSftr*! or Spffa or ^JF^T«I- 

g. And all roots ending in 7 u or ^ 4 change u or u to '3^t a» before the termina- 
tions of the du. and pi. Parasmai and the whole Atmane (except of course ^, ^, 
^j ^> in the persons marked with * at 246; and except >J.'to be,' see i. below); 
thus, fr. ^dhu, ' to shake,' come the stems dudhau, dudho, and dudhuv (1.3. §VT^, 
2. fVf^TSl or gVfa; Du. 1. §^fo*. Atm. r. 3. fpi). Similarly, 7 u, Atm. 'to 
sound,' makes 1. 3. '3iq, 2. lifaw. 

h. But ^ makes 1. 3. ^JR, 2. ^JSlfar; Du. 1. ^J^> 2. SJ^3^. Atm. 1. 3. 
3J^> and similarly, *|, ~Z, and ^ sr«. 

i. £/to be ' is anomalous, and makes its stem ^>J5 throughout; see 585, 586. 
So H/ to bring forth ' makes in the Veda W+H. 

j. 3B!J to cover ' (although properly requiring the periphrastic form of Perfect, 
see 385) is reduplicated into '3TOriJ. In the 2nd sing, it may reject Guna; 
thus, •arcbrftrq or ^^f^nr, 3rd sing. •anihTTC ; Du. 1. gflGJ^fa^, 3. ^i^^^j^ ; 

h. Roots ending in ^ ri, preceded by a double consonant, and most roots in long 
*% ri, instead of retaining this vowel and changing it to r by 364. d, gunate it into 
ar in the 2nd sing., and throughout the whole tense, except the 1st and 3rd sing, 
(and even in the 1st there may be optionally Guna by 368) ; e. g. W smri, "to re- 
member,' 1. sasmdra or samara, 2. sasmartba, 3. sasmdraj Du. 1. sasmariva, &c. 
Atm. 1. 3. sasmare. 

I. But ^ dhri, 'to hold,' not being preceded by a double consonant, makes regu- 
larly 1. Sing. Du. PI. ?VTC, ^ftp*, ^ftdT. 

m. Tj'to fill,' 3» 'to injure,' and ^ ' to rend,' may optionally retain ri, changeable 
to r ; thus, Du. tPTft;^ or TflH. 

n. ^Tri, 'to go,' takes Vriddhi, and makes its stem ^rfr throughout; thus, 

1. 3. ^nr, 2. 'snft*; Du. i. ^nfts. 

0. ij Atm. 'to die,' although properly Atmane, is Parasmai in Perfect; thus, 
1. 3. TTTC, 2. w^. ■ 



VJERB9. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OP STEM. 175 

p. »TPJ 'to awake,' which properly takes the periphrastic form of Perfect 
(*TTTCr^ra>R, see 385), may also take the reduplicated form, and may optionally 
drop the reduplicated syllable; thus, 1. 3. *I*ITnn; or 5TTTIT, 2. WSTRft^ or 
STTlftT (370. a). 

q. *T 'to swallow' may optionally change Tto "e$', thus, »PTTCor *PTTW. 

r. «T 'to pass' follows 375.0, as if it were U^.; thus, 1. 3. TTitTT, 2. wft/T; 
Du. 1. Kfbl. 

s. '3T to grow old ' optionally follows 375. a (3. »T3TTC, 2. mft.il or flfofj ; 
Du. 3. ^si^or^Cp;). 

' 375- We have already seen, at 364, that roots beginning with any consonant 
and ending with a single consonant, and enclosing short ^T a, lengthen this vowel 
in the 3rd sing, and optionally in the 1st; as, fr. V^ s pad, 'to cook,' VMT*( papdd; 
fr. tyaj, 'to quit,' tatydj (1. 3. tatydja, 2. tatyajitha or tatyaktha; Du. 1. tatya- 
jiva, &c.) 

a. Moreover, before itha and in du. and pi. Parasmai, and all persons of the 
Atmane, if the initial as well as the final consonant of the root be single, and if 
the root does not begin with \v, and does not require a substituted consonant in 
the reduplication, the reduplication is suppressed, and, to compensate for this, the 
^T a is changed to IT e * ; thus, from pad come the stems ^m^ papdd, papad, and 
H^ped (l.papdda or papada, 2.pe6itha or papaktha by 296, Q.papdda; Du. i.pediva, 
Atm. 1. 3. pete, &c.) Similarly, from 7S*T labh, cl. 1, Atm. 'to obtain' (cf. Xafj.- 
fiavw, eXafiov), the stem c3»T lebh throughout (lebhe, lebhishe, lebhe, lebhivahe, &c.) 
So «T? nah, 'to bind,' makes 1. nandha or nanaha, 2. nehitha or nanaddha by 305, 
3. nandha; Du. 1. nehiva, &c. Atm. nehe, &c. 

Similarly, «T3I nai, 'to perish,' 1. nandia or nana sa, 2. neiitha or nananshtha 
(•T»fT?)> 3- nandsa, &c. : see 620, 370. g. 

b. Roots that require a substituted consonant in the reduplication are excepted 
from 375. a (but not Vt^Vhaj and *R^ phal, see g. below) ; thus, »TO 'to speak ' 
makes 1. 3. "WTO; Du. 1. "^ffi!!^. 

■ e. ^^'to speak,' ^'to say,' ^.'to sow,' ^JT'to wish,' ^'to dwell,' ^ 
'to carry,' beginning with v, are also excepted. These require that the redupli- 
cated syllable be "3u, or the corresponding vowel of the semivowel, and also change 
va of the root to <T u before every termination, except those of the sing. Parasmai, 
the two m's' blending into one long ^ A; thus, fr. "Z^vad, 'to speak,' come the 
two stems "Wm^luvdd and "3&tud(i.uvdda or uvada, 2. uvaditha or uvaktha, ^.uvdda; 
Du. 3. udatus ; PI. 3. udus). 

Obs. — This change of a semivowel to its corresponding vowel is called Sampra- 
sarana by native grammarians (Pan. 1. 1, 45). 

d. '%? vah, ' to carry,' changes the radical vowel towlo before tha (see 305. a), 
optionally substituted for itha (1. 3. T^I? , 2. y<*Qi*J or ^PS). Compare 424. 

Obs.— ^H vam, ' to vomit,' is excepted from 375. c (thus, 3. vavdma, vavamatus, 

* Bopp deduces forms like pediva, from papadiva, by supposing that the second 
p is suppressed, the two o's combined into d, and d weakened into e. 



176 VERBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 

vavamus, Pan. vi. 4, 126) ; it may also, according to Vopadeva, follow 375. a (3. va- 
vuma, vematus, vermis). 

e. T&{yaj, 'to sacrifice,' is excepted from 375. a, and follows the analogy of 
375- c ( r - 3- iytja i Du. 3. ijatus: PI. 3. (jus) : the 2nd sing, is ^»lftTV or Jflf by 
297; Atmane 1. 3. §$, 2. ^fcP*, see 597. Yej is allowed optionally in the weak 
forms, and optionally in 2nd sing., especially in the Veda. 

/. ^ 'to injure 5 and ^ Atm. 'to give' are excepted from 375. a (sUlWj 

g. *t\'to honour,' ^T^'to loosen,' 3^ 'to be ashamed,' ^ ' to bear fruit,' 
necessarily conform to 375. a, although properly excepted (thus, HT»TV, HT3IV, 
&c.) The following conform to 375.0. optionally: TflOT'to go,' T3^'to sound,' ' 
(according to some) *a«^' to sound,' 9^'to wander,' ^H 'to vomit,' and (accord- 
ing to some) *TH and W\' to sound,' E^ 'to tremble' (thus, THiftni or TfiftlV, 
TOftO^ or Tfiftre, &c.) 

h. The following also conform optionally to 375.0.- ?FV 'to tie,' ^SP^'to 
loosen,' ^W 'to deceive;' and, when they do so, drop their nasals (thus, sRJTTfT 

or df*re, sreng^ or d^rq;). 

i. The following, although their radical vowel is long, also conform optionally 
to 375. a: Tl*^, «I»^ Atm., VTI3T, and JfTST, all meaning 'to shine' (<.*jf»i=i or 
Vsf7, &c.) 

j. TTV, when it signifies 'to injure,' necessarily conforms to 375.0 (2. TTVV; 

Du. i.Vv*, 3.~t>m>; PI- 3-"*W)' 

k. Tt'to pass ' follows 375. a, and ȣ ' to grow old ' may do so. See 374. r. s. 

376. *W gam, 'to go,' *F[jan, 'to be born,' T^iAan, 'to dig,' and ll^Aon, 
'to kill' (which last forms its Perfect as if from V^ghan), drop the medial a 
before all the terminations, except those of the sing. Par. (cf. the declension of 
rdjan at 148). Hence, gam makes in sing. du. pi. 3. jagdma, jagmatus, jagmus; 
jan makeBJojdna,jajnatus, jajhus; khan makes dakhdna, dakhnatus, dakhnusj and 
han makes 1. 3. jaghdna, jaghnatus, jaghnus, 2.jaghanitha or jaghantha. 

377. TflSghas, to eat,' is analogous, making jaghdsa, jakshatus, jakshus ; Du. 1. 
jakshiva. See 44 and 70. And in the Veda some other roots follow this analogy ; 
thus, xn^* to fall' (HfilV&c.); il^' to stretch' (uf^&c); ^'toeat'C^f^&c.) 

378. TRT'to adhere,' ^^'to embrace,' and ^H 'to bite,' can optionally drop 
their nasals in du. pi. Parasmai and all the Atmane; thus, fl*i ("»!<* or ««ip5iq, 
TT5T% or T^T^. 

379. TV 'to perish' and 1W Atm. 'to yawn' may insert a nasal before vowel- 
terminations (tTtV, TTf^re or T*£; Du.i.TTf'*RortW > see37i : i.3.»nw). 

380. >J»T'to clean' makes its stem *WI^ in sing. Parasmai, and may do so be- 
fore the remaining terminations (1. 3.*wi*f, 2. HTrf*hl or >TOTt; Du. 1. Wlf^H 
or *P[f»T^' or Wj*3, see 651). 

381. V^pradh, 'to ask,' makes its stem mi^* (becoming TO^ before a vowel 

* This rests on Siddhanta-kaum. 134. Some grammarians make the stem in 
du. and pi. &c. I 1 }^' 



VERBS. — PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT. 177 

by 51) throughout; see 631. «tjT bhrajj, cl. 6, 'to fry,' makes either WW^ or 
Wti^ throughout. See 632. 

a. ^p^ 'to go' gunates the radical vowel throughout; thus, 1. 3. ^TT*T3f> 
2. W^fi[*l; Du. 1. <3TRfibt. 

382. ^\svap, ' to sleep,' makes its bases ^J^T^and *J5^. See 635. 

a. HT^ or ST^'to spit' may substitute K t forZt in the reduplication; thus, 

1. 3. f^ite or frnfcr, f<r*ta or firrte. 

383- ^^ ' to pierce,' 31^ ' to encompass,' ' to deceive,' 31T Atm, ' to be pained,' 
make their reduplicated syllable vij and the first two roots change vya to vi before 
all the terminations, except the sing. Parasmai; thus, from vyadh comes sing, 
du. pi. 3. fsratlV, fwftn*^, M^[; AW M^W, &c: from vyai, f*mV*, 
fafT3(J^, fsrf%^;: from vyath, faa^, f^RRT^, fW*lt. See 615 and 629. 

0. 3(i^cl. 1. Atm., ' to shine,' makes its reduplicated syllable di (1. 3. didyute). 

384. V^ grah, cl. 9, ' to take,' makes its stem »WI^ and *P[? (S. Du. PI. 3. 
' s WSj ^''Ifi*!;. ^If *0- But sing. 2. 5T?jf?*I. See 699. 

a. ^ ' to conceal ' lengthens its radical vowel instead of gunating it in the sing. 
Parasmai, »J*nj, ^rf^T, &c. 

b. ^T? ah, 'to say' (only used in Perf.), is defective in sing. du. pi. 1. and pi. 2, 
and forms 2nd sing, from 'SIT^ (2. Wr^T, 3. ^tTl[; Du. 2. ^TT?^, 3. ^Si^g*^; 

Pi. 3. m^Q. 

c. ^ to say' has no Perfect of its own, but substitutes either that of ^^(375- c ) 
or the above forms from ^T7. Again, ^J<f 'to eat' has a Perfect of its own, but 
may substitute that of '^ 377. Similarly, ^IW 'to drive' (ago) may substitute 
that of TK 

Periphrastic Perfect. 

385. Roots which begin with a vowel, long by nature or position 
(except the vowel WT, as in V{\\ ' to obtain,' 364. a, and in ^n^ ' to 
stretch;' and roots having an initial ^ before two consonants, 367.6), 
and all roots of more than one syllable (except w 'to cover,' 37 4. j; 
and except optionally »TPJ ' to awake,' 374. p, and ^frjET ' to be poor' 
373. a), form their Perfects by adding wm dm to the root or stem 
(which generally gunates its last vowel if ending in i, u, ri, short or 
long), and affixing the Perfect of one of the auxiliary verbs, ^ as, 
' to be ;' ȣ. bhu, ' to be ;' ^i kri, ' to do.' 

a. This dm may be regarded as the ace. case of a feminine abstract 
noun formed from the verbal stem. With ^ram it becomes ^n^rait 
or ^facRR by 59. Thus, § sr, ' to rule/ makes 1st and 3rd sing. 
$ STPttRT or ^Iig$5 or § $rra=filT ;• the 'last might be translated ' he 
made ruling, 5 and in the former cases the ace. may be taken ad- 
verbially. So also, ^cBi^, 'to shine,' makes ^TOM^itT c he made 

shining.' 

A a 



178 VERBS. — FIRST AND SECOND FUTURE. FORMATION OF STEM. 

Obs. — The stem with dm may sometimes be separated from the auxiliary verb f 
e.g. H iffinri JPWH ^TTO 'first he caused him to fall' (Raghu-v. ix. 61), and 
JW^nn 0\ 'Hvfi "S^RTC (Raghu-v. xm. 36). 

b. When the A'tmane inflexion has to be employed, ai only is 
used; thus, §3 Atm., 'to praise,' makes 1st and 3rd sing, fe l Wdi 
'he made praising or praised/ 

c. Roots of cl. 10 also form their Perfect in this way, the syllable 
dm blending with the final a of the stem ; thus, from ^ 6ur, cl. 10, 

' ' to steal/ Soraydmdsa, ' I have or he has stolen/ 
. d. Also all Derivative verbs, such as Causals, Desideratives, and 
Frequentatives. See 490, 504, 513, 516. 

e. Also the roots ^\ay, 'to go;' ^XT day, Atm. 'to pity;' ^U^ds, Atm. 'to 
sit;' 3il^ kds, 'to cough,' 'to shine' (^iTOT^fi &c); see Pan. m. 1, 37. 35. 

And optionally the roots >tf bM, cl. 3, ' to fear ' (f^Hfir or fe Mm^<*H :) ; ft hri, 
cl. 3, 'to be ashamed ' (ftTfTT or ftrprnggirc) ; ij fori, cl. 3, 'to bear' (TOR or 
fWCI^PSTC) ; I hu, cl. 3, ' to sacrifice ' (^fT^ or » ^W°KK ) ; fq^ vid, cl. 2, ' to 
know' (fij^ or fq^i^c*^) ; jn [ush, cl. 1, 'to burn' (^frr or W lm^^K ). 

/. The roots *W Atm., JJH., ^, ft|3, -q^, 1^, w hose peculiarity of conjuga- 
tional form is explained at 271, and ^ Atm. ' to blame,' may optionally employ a 
Periphrastic Perfect, not derived from the root, but from the conjugations! stem j 
thus, ^gd or <*lnHi^ai, SJTfUT or ifrjKINefcl*, g^tj or ^Mmi^^n; , ftrf^ai or 
faWTP^iTC, TO or TrcrraW<*U: (according to Vopa-deva m aniNtf), ^% or 
I^TTTf^RiTT, iWMS or ^TftiraiS. 

g. Observe— Stems ending in i, u, or H, short or long, are generally gunated 
before dmj but ^hft 'to shine' and ^1 'to go' make ^^1 ^ , % g »«j>ti , &c. 

3 86 First and Second Future. 

Terminations of First Future repeated from 246. 

tdsmi 

tdsi 

td 



Parasmai. 






Atmane. 




tdsvas 


tdsmas 


tdhe 


tdsvahe 


tdsmahe 


tdsthas 


tdstha 


tdse 


tdsdthe 


tddhve 


tdrau 


tdras 


td 


tdrau 


tdras 


minations 


of Second Future repeated from 246. 


sydvas 


sydmas 


sye 


sydvahe 


sydrnahe 


syathas 


syatha 


syase 


syethe 


syadhve 


syatas 


syanti 


syate 


syete 


syante 



syati 

Obs. -The First Future results from the union of the Nom. case of the noun 
of agency (formed with the suffix 3 tri, see 83) with the Present tense of the verb 
^ as, to be ;' thus, taking ^ ddtji, 'a giver' (declined at 127), and combining 



TERBS. — FIRST AND SECOND FUTURE. FORMATION OF STEM. 179 

its Nom. case with ^t% asmi and ? he, we have ddtdsmi and ddtdhe, 'lama giver,' 
identical with the ist pers. sing. Par. and Atm. of the ist Fut., 'I will give.' So 
also ddtdsi and ddtdse, ' thou art a giver,' or ' thou wilt give.' In the ist and 2nd 
persons du. and pi. the sing, of the noun is joined with the du. and pi. of the 
auxiliary. In the 3rd pers. the auxiliary is omitted, and the 3rd sing. du. and pi. 
of the ist Fut. in both voices is then identical with the Nom. case sing. du. and 
pi. of the noun of agency; thus, ddtd, ' a giver,' or ' he will give ;' ddtdrau, 'two 
givers,' or ' they two will give,' &c. * 

Hence this tense is sometimes called the Periphrastic Future. 

387. The terminations of the Second Future appear also to be derived from the 
verb ^W( joined, as in forming the Passive and 4th class, with the y of root IT ' to 
go,' just as in English we often express the Future tense by the phrase ' I am going.' 

388. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except as debarred at 28, and 
except in certain roots of cl. 6, noted at 390, 390. a) throughout 
all the persons of both First and Second Future ; and in all roots 
ending in consonants (except those enumerated at 400—414), and in 
a few ending in vowels (enumerated at 39a), insert the vowel ^ i 
between the root so gunated, and the terminations. 

389. Thus, from fifjt, cl. 1, 'to conquer,' comes the stem ^ je (ist Fut. ^6+ 
tdsmi =^Wtf^1, &c. ; Atm./e+<aAe=TjTfT?'. 2nd ¥u.t.je+sydmi=^^fif, &c. ; 
Atm._/e+sye = »rHT, by 70). Similarly, from W sra, cl. 5, to hear,' comes the stem 
^5JT fro (ist Fut. sro + tdsmi =^5ft if I fw , &c; 2nd Fut. sro+sydmi=^\f^\fk , &c.) 

a. So also, from =PI budh, cl. 1, 'to know,' comes the stem ^tfv bodhi (ist Fut. 
bodhi+ tdsmi =^ttVrilfw, &c. ; Atm. bodhi+tdhe=~^\f^J(X^. 2nd Fut. bodhi+ 
syami=:'^tfVont»T, &c. ; Atm. bodhi+sye=^\f>TBl). 

390. The roots ending inTu and ^i u" of cl. 6, forbidding Guna, are ^ or ^ to 
call out,' *T or T to void excrement,' V or 'H ' to be firm,' «J or ij^ to praise,' ^_ to 
shake.' These generally change their final it to mi; thus, ^f=rKTl &c. from ^T, 
but ^HT% &c. from ^ ; TjfarnfiST &c. from n, but ^TfTfgT &c. from ^J. 

a. The roots ending in consonants of cl. 6, not gunated, are "^\ to contract,' 
T3T 'to sound,' 353 'to make crooked,' ^7 'to resist,' ^3 or "SZ 'to cut,' HT 'to 
quarrel,' <J£ 'to break,' *|7 'to embrace,' g7 or $3 or ^ ' to pound,' **B7 ' to burst 
in pieces,' cg^ 'to roll,' ^T 'to play,' ?R3 or ^3 'to be immersed,' J|3, ^3, ^7, 

"Sf ' Sf ' If' ^f' *3f ' ^' *5f > a11 meanin £ ' to cover '' ^ ' t0 g uard >' If <t0 
hinder,' 5T7 ' to bind,' ^J3 ' to strike,' ^3 ' to emit,' c§7 ' to adhere,' ^7 ' to collect,' 
f^'to throw,' *T^ Atm. 'to make effort,' ^ 'to cut,' ^^.ot OTc5 'to vibrate,' 
VR 'to be firm,' 'to go,' *£\ 'to eat,' — nearly all uncommon as verbs. To these 
must be added fer*T cl. 7, 'to tremble.' 

* The future signification inherent in the noun of agency ddtd, seems implied 
in Latin by the relation of dator to daturus. 

A a 2 



180 YERBS. — FIEST AND SECOND FUTURE. FORMATION OF STEM7 

' b. J 3i^t ' to cover' may either gunate its final or change it to uv ( wj 1% n i fVi or 
^f^rnfijR, "3i?fff¥onftr or 3TO|f%«ITf»l). 

c\ ifhft Atm. 'to shine,' ^^ Atra. ' to go,' drop their finals before the inserted i 
(<5ftfVrTT? &c.) Similarly, ^ftJT 'to be poor' (^ftfijinfSH &c., ^ftf^ITftr &c.) 

d. Roots in 1J e, T ai, ^ft o, change their finals to d ; thus, ^ ' to call ' (<$ I n i Utf, 
4\*M lf*T). 

e. fa 'to throw,' >ft 'to perish,' and <^ Atm. 'to decay,' must change, and Hi 
' to obtain' may optionally change their finals to d (HTiUfw, *ii«<ufiT, &c. ; ^Ttfl?, 
&c. ; <5(TTftR or flTrflfW, &c. ; HHtTfa or rSIWlfH, &c.) Compare 373. c. 

/. Roots containing the vowel ri, as *J^ to creep,' «|OT 'to handle,' 5BJ3I 'to 
touch,' ^i^ ' to draw,' are generally gunated, but may optionally change the vowel 
ri to r. raj thus, *rihfw or fclNlftH &c, ?TO?hfa or ST^nfa &c. 

ff. Reversing this principle, ^RiT ' to fry ' may make either UBi(V*i or HlTtftiR &c 5 
Sre^TTfa or H^lfil &c. 

h. The alternative is not allowed when i is inserted; thus, ^.'to be satisfied' 
makes HTHfisR or gTTtflSR, but only TTfmnftw. Similarly, T 1 ^' to be proud.' 

i. '«J*r'to let go,' 'to create,' and "if ST 'to see,' necessarily change ri to ra; thus, 
HETfOT, yvyilftl, &c; "J^TftfT, '5^nf»T, &c. 

j. fS^'to rub,' 'to clean,' takes Vriddhi instead of Guna (Hlf»iiflfFT or TTSTfijR). 

k. flS^'to be immersed,' and «T5I 'to perish' when it rejects i, insert a nasal; 
thus, »f ^R[fw, *IS?nf»T, &c. ; «f ?Tftff, '^ITfiT, &c. ; but ^Tf^nnftR &c, ^fsjanfir &c. 

I. 3W Atm., JJ^, ^, fa^, W, ^, ^ at 385./, may optionally carry 
their peculiar conjugational form into the Futures (oBfinn? or ^nifilHT?, jflwftw 
or jftftfflTftlT or rftarftnnfw, fafeinftR or f^^SlftnnftR, ^TfrfrfT? or ^iftftl- 
ttt|, &c.) 

m. ^VS to conceal ' lengthens its vowel when i is inserted. See 415. m. 

n. ^\*\ to be,' ^and ^W 'to speak,' have no Futures of their own, and sub- 
stitute those of £,, ^^, and Wt respectively ; ^15 'to eat ' may optionally substitute 
the Futures of TR^, and ^ST >T ' to drive ' of ~%\ (^tflTcnftR or 4rilfcR &c.) Cf . 384. c. 

0. The rules at 296-306 must, of course, be applied to the two Futures ; thus, 
tf? ' to tie' makes «i««<lf*I &c. See 306. b. 

Observe — The above rules apply generally to the Aorist, Precative (Atmane), 
and Conditional, as well as to the two Futures. 

RULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OF ^ i IN THE LAST 
FIVE TENSES AND DESIDERATIVE. 

391. These rules do not apply to form II of the Aorist at 435, nor 
to the Parasmai of the Precative at 442, which can never insert t. 

a. The insertion of the vowel i (called an dgama or ' augment/ 
and technically styled if) before the terminations of the General 
tenses constitutes one of the most important and intricate subjects 



VERBS. — RULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OF ^i. 181 

of Sanskrit Grammar. The manifest object of this inserted i — which 
can never be gunated or vriddhied, but may occasionally be lengthened 
into I — is to take the place of the conjugational vowel, and prevent 
the coalition of consonants. Hence it is evident that roots ending 
in vowels do not properly require the inserted i. Nevertheless, even 
these roots often insert it ; and if it were always inserted after roots 
ending in consonants, there would be no difficulty in forming the 
last five tenses of the Sanskrit verb. 

Unfortunately, however, its insertion is forbidden in about one 
hundred roots ending in consonants, and the combination of the 
final radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations will 
require a knowledge of the rules already laid down at 396—306. 

We now proceed to enumerate, 1st, with regard to roots ending 
in vowels ; 2ndly, with regard to roots ending in consonants : A. those 
inserting i; B. those rejecting i; C. those optionally inserting or 
rejecting i. As, however, it is more important to direct attention 
to those roots (whether ending in vowels or consonants) which reject 
i, the paragraphs under B. will be printed in large type. 

Obs. — In the following lists of roots the 3rd sing, will sometimes be given 
between brackets, and the roots will be arranged generally in the order of their 
final vowels and consonants. 

Note that if the 1st Future reject ^ i, it is generally rejected in form I of Aorist, 
in Atmane-pada of Precative, in Conditional, Infinitive, Past Passive Participle, 
Indeclinable Past Participle, Future Participle formed with the suffix tavya, and 
noun of agency formed with the suffix tri; and often (though not invariably) 
decides the formation of the Desiderative form of the root by s instead of ish. 
So that the learner may always look to the 1st Future as his guide. For example, 
taking the root kship, 'to throw,' and finding the 1st Fut. to be ksheptdsmi, he 
knows that i is rejected. Therefore he understands why it is that the 2nd Fut. is 
ishepsydrnij Aor. akshaipsamj Atmane of Precative, ks hipsfya; Cond.akshepsyam; 
Infin. ksheptum; Past Pass. Part, kshipta; Indecl. Part, kshiptvdj Fut. Part. 
ksheptavyaj noun of agency, ksheptri; Desid. Hkshipsdmi. On the other hand, 
taking root yd(, 'to ask,' and finding the 1st Fut. to be ydiitd, he knows that i 
is inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be ydfishydmi, ayddi- 
sham, yd&shiya, ayddishyam, ydHtum, ydiita, ydditvd, ydditavya, ydiitri, yiyddishdmi, 
respectively. 

A. Boots ending in Vowels inserting ^i (except as indicated at 391). 
392. Five in ^i and $ i, viz. Ps 'to resort to' (^rftnTT, ^rfa^lfil), fa ' to swell/ 
Tf 'to fly,' ^ft 'to lie down,' fisH 'to smile' (in Desid. alone). 

a. Six in ^ u, viz. ^J 'to sneeze,' ^J 'to sharpen,' »| 'to praise,' ^ 'to join,' 



182 VERBS. — RULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION Of ^i; 

^ 'to sound,' ^snu, 'to drip ' (the last only when Parasmai ; when inflected in Atm.,' 
it may reject i). 

Obs. — W 'to praise,' and *J 'to pour out,' in the Aorist Parasmai. 

*. All in ^4, as £'to be' (wfaiTT, HfTBlfiT), except *j>nd^(which optionally 
reject i), and except in the Desiderative. See 395, 395. a. 

c. All in short ^J ri, in the 2nd Future and Conditional, &c, but not in the 
1st Future, as ^ 'to do' (^ftwfir, but ^iHl). 

d. Two in short ^J ri (viz. ^ ' to choose ' and *TPJ ' to awake ') also in 1st Future 

(wfwT, Trftwfn, snnf*«n, &c.) 

e. All in long ^JWj as IT 'to pass' (fTftUT, TTfTB|fTT). 

393. Observe — ^ ' to choose,' and all roots in long ^ ri, may optionally lengthen 
the inserted i, except in Aorist Parasmai and Precative Atmane (iUjii or °Klritf, 
^f<C«lfrr or 'm.1wrr?r, wftHT or TTChT, &c.) See 627, note * . 

B. Boots ending in Vowels rejecting ^ i. 
394. All in <ST d, as ^T ' to give' (^THT, ^T5lfir). 

a. Nearly all in ^ i and § i, as fir ' to conquer,' »ft ' to lead' (»fin, 
^tufir, &c.) 

b. Nearly all in short ~3u, as ^ 'to hear' (^ftiTT, ^ft^lfst). 

c. Those in long ■5 u generally in the Desiderative only. 

d. All in short ^ ri (except ^) in the 1st Future only, as ^ 'to 
do' (cpSt, but ^ifti«ifH). See 39a. c. 

e. All in u e, *r ai, ^ft 0. See 390. d. 

C. Roots ending in Vowels optionally inserting or rejecting ^ i, either 
in all the last Jive tenses and Desiderative, or in certain of these 
forms only. 

395. ^or "§ el. 2, 4, Atm. ' to bring forth ' (fftlTT or 'Hf^Trr, *ffrnf or 1ff«|VJij). 

a. 1^'to shake' (ifaiTT or V^ilT, Vlfattlfrf or Vfalfif, &c, but i must be inserted 
in Aor. Par., see 430), ^' to purify,' optionally in Desid. only (^^, fl«tf%« Atm.) 

b. ^t Atm. 'to grow fat ' ('OffilT and TBTtftlllT, uji^ii^ and miHiHUj} ; but neces- 
sarily inserts i in Desid.) 

c. ^ ' to go,' ^ or ^f ' to spread,' ' to cover,' and ^ ' to sound,' all in 1st Fut., 
and the latter two optionally in Desid. also (^lit, ^fTWT or (?) SSrTiTT; wfl, 

*rfbn or ^rtftn; ^t or ^rfbn ; firer^fir or firerfttfn' or firerrtafir ; ftrer- 

fvrfu or yt^fn"). 

■396. ^t%\ 'to be poor' optionally in Desid. (fi^fiC5ffl[ or f^ftfj*). 
' 397- A 11 roots in lo "g % T< optionally in Desid., as \ makes ffrfffr t rf w or 

398. 'ftr, g, *j, \, optionally in Desiderative. Compare 392. 



VERBS. — RULES EOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OE ^ l 183 

A. Boots ending in Consonants inserting ^ i. 

399. As a general rule, all roots ending in ^ hh, *T g, \gh, *fijh, Zt,J th, "3 d, 
<• 4K \n,\t, \fh, \ph, \b,\y,\r,-^l,\v; thus, feS^'to write' makes 
WfeUT, WfisPHfiT, &c; SR^'to leap' makes ^feTKT, ^f«JTOfn'. 

a. ?Tf 'to take' lengthens the inserted i in all the last five tenses, except Prec. 
Parasmai (iTS^T, JRrNfiT), see 699. It rejects i in Desid. 

B. Boots ending in Consonants rejecting ^ i. 

Ohs. — The rules at 296-306 must in all cases be applied. When a number is 
given after a root, it indicates that the root only rejects i if conjugated in the class 
to which the number refers. When a number is given between brackets, this refers 
to the rule under which the root is conjugated. 

400. One in ^ k. — 51^ 5. 'to be able' ($rrt, ^fa 679). 

401. Six in ^ 6. — ^ ' to cook > (*m, Wtfir) ; T«* ' to speak * (650) -; 
ft*» 7. 'to make empty' (\w, T^ffir) ; f^\ 7. 3. 'to separate ;' ftr* 
' to sprinkle ;' g^ ' to loosen' (6a 8). 

403. One in ^ 6h. — Tj^* 'to ask' (jr?T, Tr^lflT 631). 

403. Fifteen in s^j. — urs^'to quit' (596); «»t 'to honour;' Trsi 'to 
sacrifice' (597) ; s^f 6. 'to fry' (632,) ; ir^ 'to be immersed' (633) ; 
W^ ' to break ' (669) ; t^ ' to colour," to be attached ; ' ^ ' to adhere ' 
(597- a ) '> ^^ ' to embrace ;' fin^ 'to cleanse' (^m, %S?rfir) ; fa^J 3. 'to 
tremble' (W, &c.) ; ^6.'to bend,' 7. 'to enjoy' (668. a); g*i N 'to join' 
(670) ; ^ 'to break' (fmi, &c.) ; ^ ' to create,' 'to let go' (625). 

404. One in ^ t. — ^ ' to be,' ' to turn,' but only in and Fut. 
Par., Cond. Par., Aor. Par., Desid. Par. (This root is generally 
Atm. and inserts i, 598.) 

•405. Fourteen in ^ d. — ^ ' to eat' (65a) ; ^ ' to go ' (inn, tjSr) ; 
5R 'to perish;' v% 'to sink;' ^P? 1. Parasmai, 'to leap;' ^ 'to 
void excrement;' fe^r 'to be troubled' (^T, &c.) ; f^ 'to cut' 
(667) ; ftr^ 'to break' (583) ; f^ 7. 'to reason,' 4. 'to be,' 'to exist,' 
6. 'to find;' fere 4. 'to sweat;' ^ 'to pound' (^te*T, ^jwfir); jj^ 
'to strike' (634); ^ 'to impel.' 

406. Thirteen in ^ dh. — ^^ 'to bind' (69a) ; ajv 'to pierce' (615) ; 
TTV 'to accomplish' (ct^T, TTHJTfir) ; *nv 5. 'to accomplish ;' ftn^4. 'to be 
accomplished'(6i6); jjiv'to be angry' (wteTj^wfiO; ^'to be hungry;' 

* IT^T inserts i in the Desiderative. 

t 9n^ optionally ihserts i in the Desiderative. ; 

J When f%»^ belongs to cl. 7, it takes ij as, faftfilT, fefsfnifTT. See 390. a. 



184 VERBS. — RULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OP $i. 

■JJU4. Atm. 'to be aware' (614)*; gv Atm. 'to fight;' ^w 'to obstruct' 
(671) ; aw ' to be pure ;' ^ 'to increase,' only in and Fut. Par., Cond. 
Par., Aor. Par. ; ^jv ' to break wind,' only in 2nd Fut. Par., Cond. 
Par., Aor. Par. (both these last insert i throughout the Atmane). 

407. Two in T^n. — ^4. Atm. 'to think' (617); l^'to kil1 ' ( 6 54)» 
but the last takes i in and Fut. and Conditional. 

408. Eleven in \p. — in^'to burn'(?nrT, rP^tfir); ^J.' to sow;' 3^ 
'to curse;' w^'to sleep' (655); ^n^'to obtain' (681); ftgn'to throw' 
{ 6 35)l fit^^tm. 'to distil;' fo^'to anoint;' ^*to touch' (^TJT, 
^t^rfii) ; -%\6. 'to break' (FJhiT, csfrSTfir) ; ^'to creep' (390./). 

409. Three in « bh. — *p? ' to lie with carnally' (ttstt, Tp^q-fir) ; t?t 
Atm. 'to desire' (with ^[ 'to begin/ 601. a) ; fjw Atm. 'to obtain' 
(601). 

410. Five in ^ m. — v^ ' to go' (603), but takes i in and Fut. and 
Cond.; ^'to bend' (^t, TOrfir) ; Tj^'to restrain;' *« Atm. 'to 
sport;' ■gn^'to walk' in the Atmane (win, imrn). 

411. Ten in nj.— ^sr 'to bite' (fgr, fag?*); f^6. 'to point out' 
(5 8 3) J fol ' t0 ent er' (nm, ^ifir); ft^'to hurt;' ft^'to become 
small ;' ^31 ' to cry out' (jjto, istelfjr) ; ^sr 6. 'to hurt ;' -|3i 1. 'to 
see' (390. «, 604, yn, ^fir); ijsi/to handle' (390./); ^jsrV'to 
touch' (390./, 636, mh, sq^fir). ' . 

413. Eleven in vsh.— fa* 'to shine' (SlT, ^fff) ; fgv'to hate' 
(657); ^7. 'to pound;' f^' to pervade;' %* 7. 'to distinguish' 
(673) ; %^ 4 . 'to embrace' (301, 30a); 31* 4. 'to be satisfied' (wbr, 
W^lfff); g*4. 'to be sinful;' ^4. 'to be nourishedt'(ifoT,Trterfir); 
^4. 'to become dry' (^t, ^fterfw) ; <p x ' to draw' (390./, 606). '" 

413- Two in ^ s ._^'to eat' (w, wfr); to 1. 'to dwell' 
(607) J. 

414. Eight in ^ h.—i^ «to burn' (610) ; ^ 'to tie' (634); w 
' to carry' (611) ; . fl^ « to anoint' (659) ; ft| ' to make water' (JfcrT 
305. a, ihsfir) J fi*f 2. ' to lick' (661) ; ^ a. ' to milk' (660) || ; ^ 
'to ascend' (tter, tterfw). 



* When ^ belongs to cl. 1, it inserts i. 
t When g^ belongs to cl. 9, it takes i (qtftqjW, ^tf^irfir). 
J Except in the Past Pass, and Indecl. Participles Tfa if and gf^T (60-). TO 
cl. 2. Atm. 'to put on,' 'to wear,' inserts i (^f*nj^, ^rf%«!^). 
II ff cl. 1, ' to afflict,' inserts i (^tf^TtT, &c.) 



VERBS. — RULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OP ^i. 185 

C. Roots ending in Consonants optionally inserting or rejecting ^ i, 
either in all the last Jive tenses and Desiderdtive, or in certain 
of these forms only. 

Obs. — When no tenses or forms are specified, the option applies to all except 
to form II of the Aorist and the Precative Parasmai, which can never insert i. 
415. Two in "\6.— "H^or U^ 7. ' to contract ;' a^ ' to cut ' (630). 

a. Three in *{j. — ^51 7. 'to anoint' (668, but necessarily inserts i in Desid.); 
fST to clean' (390.,/, 651); *JT55^ e to fry' (optionally in Desid. only, necessarily 
rejects i in other forms). 

b. Four in TI t. — Tit 'to fall' (optionally in Desid. only; necessarily inserts i in 
Futures and Cond., and rejects it in Aor.) ; ^ifl 6. ' to cut' (optionally in 2nd Fut., 
Cond., and Desid.; necessarily inserts i in 1st Fut. and Aor.); ^Tf 'to kill' (op- 
tionally in 2nd Fut., Cond., and Desid. ; necessarily inserts i in 1st Fut. and Aor.) ; 
"jt^'to dance' (optionally in 2nd Fut. and Desid., necessarily inserts i in 1st Fut. 
and Aor.) 

c. Four in ^ d. — ?R ' to flow ' (optionally in all forms except 2nd Fut. and 
Cond. Par., and Desid. Par., where i is necessarily rejected); f^Ji? 'to be wet,' 
■3? to shine,' and TO 'to injure' (the last two optionally in all forms except 1st 
Fut., which necessarily inserts i). 

d. Three inVdft. — ^'to perish;' fa V 1. 'to restrain;' ^JV'to prosper' (the 
last optionally in Desid. only, necessarily inserts i in other forms, see 680). 

e. Two in «^ n. — K*[ ' to stretch ' and 5«^ ' to honour ' (both optionally in Desid. 
only, necessarily insert i in other forms, see 583). 

/. Five in^jj. — W^'to be ashamed;' *F{_i. 'to defend;' ^4. 'to be satisfied ' 
(618) ; "H^ 4. ' to be proud ;' =K^ ' to be capable ' (when it rejects i, it is Parasmai 
only). 

g. Two in *T bh. — 73W 4. 'to desire ' (optionally in 1st Fut., necessarily inserts i 
in other forms *) ; 3*W'to deceive' (optionally in Desid. only, f^f»TTfiT or fV^fir 
or VfatflT, necessarily inserts i in other forms). 

h. One in IT to.— ^»T i. 4. ' to bear' (^fatTX or ^tTT, ^fa^, -fir, or T^W^, -'fir). 

i. All in ^ iv (but only optionally in Desid.) ; as, t\^* to play,' fo^' to spit,' 
ftra ' to sew.' 

j. Two inly. — ^tl\' to honour;' TFI or *WP^' to be fat' (but both necessarily 
insert i in Desid., compare 395. 6). 

h. Three in SI d. — ^ISI 5. A'tm. ' to pervade t ' (but necessarily inserts i in Desid., 
see 681 . a) ; -TST^ 4. ' to perish ' (see 390. k, and 620) ; fliST^. ' to torment ' (697). 

I. Seven in \sh. — ^1^' to pervade;' ITB^' to form by cutting,' 'to carve' (ufaj lit 
or AST, tff^fiT or THStfif, &c); r^l'to create;' f* with f^ 'to extract' 
(otherwise necessarily inserts i) ; ^T6.'to wish' (637); ft'?' to injure;' ^i.'to 



* Except the Aorist, following form II at 435. 
t ^HfT cl. 9, ' to eat,' inserts i. 

Bb 



186 VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 

injure' (the last three optionally in ist Fut., but necessarily insert i in other 
forms). 

m. Twelve in f h.— *f AW ' to bear ' (optionally in ist Fut. only, necessarily 
inserts i in other forms, see 6n.a); ^Jf 'to gamble' (5[f?WT or *[T3T, &c); 'll^. 
'to penetrate;' »n^ 'to measure' (*nf?iN or HTCT, $c); fa^ snih, 'to love' 
faf^TTT or WVT or ^37, &c); ^ snuh, 'to love,' 'to vomit;' 5f' to be per- 
plexed' (612); ij| 'to conceal' Cjf?HT or W^T, >jf?«lfw or ^Bflfn, see 306.0, 
39cm); ^ 'to seek to injure' (623); ^ 6. 7. or ^ 6. 'to kill' (674); ^f or^f 
' to raise ;' %?^ or *jT? 6. ' to kill.' 

Aorist {Third Preterite). 

This complex and multiform tense, the most troublesome and 
intricate in the whole Sanskrit verb, but fortunately less used in 
classical Sanskrit than the other past tenses, is not so much one 
tense, as an aggregation of several, all more or less allied to each 
other, and all bearing a manifest resemblance to the Imperfect. 

416. Grammarians assert that there are seven different varieties 
of the Sanskrit Aorist, four of which correspond more or less to the 
Greek ist Aorist, and three to the 2nd Aorist, but we shall endeavour 
to shew that all these varieties may be included under two distinct 
forms of terminations given in the table at 246, and again below, 
and at 435. 

417. Form I is subdivided like the terminations of all the last 
five tenses into (A) those which reject i, and (B) those which assume 
it; A belongs to many of those roots at 394, 400—414, which 
reject i ; B to most of those at 392, 399, which insert it : but in the 
latter case the initial s becomes sh by 70, and in the 2nd and 3rd sing, 
the initial s is rejected, the i blending with the i, which then becomes 
the initial of those terminations. Moreover, in the case of roots 
which insert i the stem is formed according to rules different from 
those which apply in the case of roots which reject i. 

a. Form II at 435 resembles the terminations of the Imperfect, 
and belongs, in the first place, to some of those roots rejecting i, 
whose stems in the Imperfect present some important variation from 
the root (see 436) ; in the second, to certain of the roots rejecting i, 
which end in sjj, \sh, or ^ h, and which have i, u, or ri, for 
their radical vowel (see 439) ; in the third, to verbs of cl. 10 and 
Causals. 



VERBS. — AOEIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 187 

Form I. 
418. The terminations are here repeated from 246. 
A. Terminations without ^ i. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 



1. sam sva sma 

a. sis stam [tarn] sta [to] 
3. sit stam \tdm\ sus 



si svahi smahi 

sthds [thds] sdthdm dhvam or dhvam 

sta [to] sdtdm sata 

B. Terminations with jj i. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 

1. isham ishva ishma ishi ishvahi ishmahi 

2. is ishtam ishta ishthds ishdthdm idhvam or idhvam 

3. it ishtam ishus ishta ishdtdm is hat a 

419. Observe — The brackets in the A terminations indicate the rejection of initial 
s from those terminations in which it is compounded with t and th, if the stem ends 
in any consonant except a nasal or semivowel, or in any short vowel such as a, i, u, 
or ri. Observe also, that initial s is liable to become sh by 70, in which case a 
following t or th is cerebralized. The substitution • of dhvam for dhvam and 
idhvam for idhvam, in certain cases, is explained in the table at 246. 

420. General rule for forming the stem for those verbs of the 
first nine classes which reject 3[ i and so take the A terminations. 

Obs. 1. The augment ^T a must always be prefixed, as in the Imperfect; but it 
will be shewn in the Syntax at 889, that when the Aorist is used as a prohibitive 
Imperative, after the particle md or md sma, the augment is then rejected. See 
242. a. 

Obs. 2. When a root begins with the vowels ^ i, 3" u, or ^J ri, short or long, the 
augment is prefixed in accordance with 251. a. 

In Parasmai, if a root end in either a vowel or a consonant, 
vriddhi the radical vowel before all the terminations. 

In Atmane, if a root end in ^ i, \ i, "3 u, or '3i w, gunate the 
radical vowel ; if in ^j ri or any consonant, leave the vowel unchanged 
before all the terminations. Final consonants must be joined to the 
A terminations according to the rules propounded at 296—306. 

a. Thus, from «ft 'to lead' come the two stems anai for Parasmai and ane for 
Atmane (anai + sam =^N>Tby 70; Atm. ane+si=W^fa, ane+sthds=^l'\iu *^, 
&c.) 

b. Prom ^ cl. 8, ' to make,' come the two Btems dkdr for Parasmai and ahri for 
Atmane (alcdr+sam =^m^P[ by 70, &c; Atm. akri+si=^%f* by 70, dkri + 
thds=&&gWSl\>y 419, fl*n+ta=^TT, &c.) See 682. 

Similarly, ^ cl. 3, 'to bear.' See the table at 583. 

B b 2 



188 VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 

c. So, from giT ' to join' come the two stems ayauj for Parasmai and ayuj for 
Atmane (Par. ayauj +sam=^*R'$p{ by 296, ayauj +sva=^nTg, ayauj+tam= 
*SRT3r*T by 419; Atm. ayuj+si=^f^ by 296, ayM/+<Aas=:^WT^, ayuj+ta 

d. From Ij^cl. 7, 'to hinder,' the stems araudh and arudh (Par. araudh+sam= 
^ftTW^by 299, Du. araudh+sva=^XJr&, araudh + tarn = *a <i -3 \; Atm. araa%+ 
si=^T^fre , ) arudh+thds=^r^St^, &c.) 

e. Similarly, from T^'to cook' come the stems apdd and apad {apdd-\-sam — 
, 5I^l«j*i N by 2965 Atm. <zpa<f+jsi=^nifi3r, apa(?+ ^z^l^FTT^, &c.) 

/. From 3? to burn' (610), the stems addh and adah (addh-{-sam=i-«imvi*\bj 
306. a, addh + tarn =W^p\Sf^bj 305; Atm. adah+si =^IVfTBf by 306.0, adah+ 
thds=^3^n^, &c.) 

421. By referring to 391. 6. it will be easy to understand that most roots in i, /, 
short u, and short ri, take the A terminations. Most of those in d, e, ai, 0, do so 
in the A'tmane, and a few of those in d also in the Parasmai. 

a. ^ or ^ to spread ' takes either A or B ; and in Atmane when it takes A, 
changes rC to (r. See 678. 

b. ^or^ to choose,' to cover,' changes its vowel to Mr, under the same circum- 
stances. See 673. 

c. Roots in e, ai, 0, change these vowels to a as in the other General tenses ; 
thus, from ^l 'to cover,' ^ranfira^ &c. (see 433), 'ST^Tftr &c. Similarly, fi?, *ft, 
■5^, and optionally c?% see 390. e (^Wlfaw^&tc, ^WTftf &c.) 

d. r(1 'to give' (see 663), VT 'to place' (see 664), WT 'to stand' (see 587), ^ 
' to protect,' M ' to drink ' (if in Atm.), ^t or ^T ' to cut ' (if in Atm.), change then- 
finals in the Atmane to i (^rf^fa, ^^[^419, ^rf^T, ^ifip^fir; 2nd pi. ^f^dl). 
In Parasmai they follow 438. 

e. IT used for ^ 'to go,' with *3rfil prefixed, signifying 'to go over,' 'to read' 
(Atmane only), changes its final to £('JJUt*ftfa, -'flai^, -*fh?, &c.) 

/. ^ Atm. 'to cry out,' ^J 'to void excrement,' and ^ 'to be firm,' all cl. 6, 
preserve their vowels unchanged (^Jffa, &c. ; 'H^VIT^, *«$rf,&c; , ?mw, &c); 
lj may also make ^TCIT^, and H may also make ^ J jf=mJT, but the latter root is 
then generally regarded as ij. 

422. The following roots of those rejecting i, enumerated at 400-414, take the 
A terminations only, both for Par. or Atm,: T^; JT5; W3T, »T5T, VTS, WriT, 
*% ^ T%, *%, ^ Atm., ^, ^»T, ^; T^ Atm., ?5 Atm., ffcjf, ^, 
W$i ^ "Hfc OT x> *^> Tl 4- AW, gv; ^ 4. Atm. ; TTR., ^, ^, ^, 
ft^, fin. Atm., ^; *p^ t*, HH; «*sr; ^; ^, ?rf , ^. 

a. The following take in Par. either the A terminations of form I or optionally 
form II ; but in Atm. usually the A form of I, sometimes form II : ft^, f^l 3, 
f^., fa^3. *5^, ?*<$, $*%, ^» ^, J *{, ^31, BJSt, f^. 

b. The following take in Par. only form II ; but in Atm. the A form of I, or 
sometimes the B form of I : ^ (Atm. doubtful), ftj^, g^, fir? 6. 'to find ' (Atm . 
doubtful), 4. 7. (only Atm.), ^f, ^, f^, fm^ 4, *V, ftni^, ^, ^, f^ (see 



VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 189 

424. b; "^V with the B terminations is generally used for Par., hut 'JT^VfTT occurs 
in Epic poetry), ^?T*,, fo^, c§^, ^, TT\, X^. 

423- The following of those inserting or rejecting i, enumerated at 415, take either 
the A or B terminations : 7T^ or TT^, 3^, «{*^, ^EI^ generally Atm. only, ftjV, 
^.Atm., n^, <m_Atm., ^, "^(the last three in Par. take also form II), T^T 
generally Atm. (may also follow form II in Par.), 'OTTO (or *l) Atm., ^TSI, ^T, 

424. The rules at 296-306 must in all cases be applied, as well as the special 
rules applicable to certain roots in forming the Futures at 390 and 390. a-o; thus, 
s3T^ makes ^mT^fl by 297. b (see 630) ; T55^ makes ^Wl^H by 390. k (see 633) ; 
TfJI^ in Atm., 'iHf^ or ^rf$rfa; VTHT, ^*1S|« or WTr8J*r, ^jftj or ^wfif by 
39°- 9 : 1^> ^"n^l? by 390. j (also ^RTf^W ) ; ^, ^RTWB by 306. b. 

a. V^ Atm. 'to go,' ^^Atm. to awake,' »P^ Atm. 'to be born,' may form 
their 3rd sing, as if they were Passive verbs (see 475) ; thus, ^Pnfif , Du. 3. ^?tf- 
WltTR ; ^'Ttftr (or optionally ^TfSf), Du. 3. ^JWriTTT; WffiT (or optionally 

b. Roots ending in «^ and *T must change these letters to Anusvara before s, and 
* becomes «^ before SeJ ; thus, 1*^ makes ^nfftf , ^TOTI^, ^>rer (or if in cl. 8. 
^mfire, or by c. below ^THW) ; ^H makes ^I^ffa &c, Du. 2. WSSfHcIJT. 

St^ (generally Par.) drops its nasal before the Atmane terminations (^J*ffil, 
'«i5'm*( v , &c. ; initial s being rejected according to 419). 
T^does so optionally (^Rftf or 'SPTfa, ^iram or Wr^tl^, &c.) 
e. Roots in »^ and ^ of cl. 8, which properly take the B terminations, are allowed 
an option of dropping the nasal in 2nd and 3rd sing. Atm., in which case initial s 
is rejected (419) ; e. g. 71*^ makes 3. trnfie or ^TTiT (Pan. 11. 4, 79). 

d. Similarly, ^jTST makes 3. ^reffin? or ^TCHT 5 . and ^pTT , ^nfiofc or ^(tft . 

e. W^'to give' is allowed the option of lengthening the a, when n is dropped; 
thus, Sing. 2. ^rar^m or ^TUfain^, 3. ^SVHf or ^ifaE . Compare 3S4. a, 339 
(Pan. 11. 4, 79). 

/. The nasal of ^3^' to bite' becomes ^ before olj and W before ^; thus, 
^I^T, Du. 2. ^TS*T; Atm. 1. ^%j Du. 2. ^55*. See 303. 

425. ^f 'to carry' (see 611) changes its radical vowel to Wt before those 
terminations which reject an initial s by 305. aj thus, avdksham, avdksMs, avdksMt 
(Lat. vexit), avdkslwa, avodham, &c. ; Atm. avakshi (Lat. vexi), avodhds, avodha. 

a. Jf? Atm., ' to bear,' generally takes the B terminations (asahishi, &c), though 
the form ^Wt<? is also given for the 3rd sing. 

426. T? 'to tie,' 'to fasten,' makes andtsam, andtds, andtsit, andtsva, andddham, 
&c. j and Atm. anatsi, anaddhds, &c, by 306. b (compare 183). 

a. ^ ' to dwell' (see 607) makes avdtsam, &c, by 304. a. 
437. General rule for forming the stem for those verbs of the 
first nine classes which assume i, and so take the B terminations 
at 418. 



190 VBEBS. — AOBIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 

a. If a root end in the vowels \i,\ i, ^u,nH,^ ri, ^n, vriddhi 
those vowels in the Parasmai before all the terminations, and gunate 
them in the Atmane. 

Thus, from ^'to purify' come the two stems apau for Parasmai and apo for 
Atmane (apau+i+sam=^IVXfaW{by 37, apau+i+is=^l^\n^, apau+i+ft = 
W*V$H, &c; Atm. opo+i+si=wqfafa, &c, by 36), see 583. 

From iT cl. 1, 'to cross,' comes the stem atdr tat Parasmai (atdr + i + sam = 

^sinft.'m, &c.) 

So, from 3ft c to lie down' comes ^ftlfa, ^^rftrffl^, &c. ; but roots ending 
in any other vowel than 4 and long ri more frequently take the A terminations, as 
they generally reject i. 

b. If a root end in a single consonant, gunate the radical vowel 
in both Parasmai and Atmane (except as debarred at 28, and except 
in the roots enumerated at 390. a). 

Thus, "3V budh, cl. r, 'to know,' makes its stem abodh (abodhisham, &c.) See 583. 
^ISvrit, 'to be,' makes avart (avartishi, &c.) 
W edh, 'to increase,' makes aidh (aidhishi, &c, 251. b). See 600. 
438. A medial a in roots ending in T and «^ is lengthened in 
Parasmai, but not in Atmane. 

Thus, ^ 'to go' makes ^MlfotHj 3ft^ 'to blaze,' ^n?lfc5^*T. The roots 
■^ 'to speak' and sH^'to go' also lengthen the a in Parasmai (■*i=nf<;H«i s ; but 
not in Atmane ^T=rfijfa &c.) 

a. But those in *f, V, 'S never lengthen the a in Parasmai; thus, 5PTH 'to 
sound' makes 'S^ttftWT. The following roots also are debarred from lengthening 
the a : ^, ^rn, T7^, cOT, *>T, W1, ?n, ^T, cR7, TP^, ^, W{, ***{, *\, 
^?, ^V, ''3^, «•*(. One or two do so optionally; as, ^TTff and «T<J 'to sound.' 

439- Observe, that as the majority of Sanskrit verbs assume i, 
it follows that rule 427. a. b. will be more universally applicable than 
rule 420, especially as the former applies to the Aorist of Intensives, 
Desideratives, and Nominals, as well as to that of simple verbs. 

430. The special rules for the two Futures at 390. a-o will of course hold good 
for the Aorist ; thus the roots enumerated at 390 and 390. a (^\ &c.) forbid 
Guna ; and H, 1J_, 1£, t|^ generally change their finals to uv (»JI $("■«< H»^ &<»., 
Wjfa'V^&c.); but when ij^is written H it makes ^PT^W &c, see 421./, and ^ 
may also make ^Wfa^, and 5j^, ?J«TTf^^. 

a. '3P§ makes ^ti^rfVR^or ^n*!?fal»{or ^^fsR^&c, and in Atmane ml4>fa fa 

or ^tf^fafir. 

b. According to 390. c. ^Kft, wt, and ^ftTJT drop their finals (^"HVjfa, 
^ftfjf^, &c. ; see also 433). 

431. In the Atmane, ^ 'to choose,' 'to cover,' and all roots in long ^jY, such 



VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 191 

as ^T ' to spread,' may optionally lengthen the inserted i ; thus, W^fcfa or ^RTtfa 
&c, ^^ftfa or ^a^TCH^ ; but in Parasmai only ^TflOT^, ^Wnft^. 

432. fv$ ' to swell' and WPJ ' to awake' take Guna instead of Vriddhi (^TSTftTW 
&c, see also 440. ay ^jTPTftW &c.) 

a. ?H| according to 399. a. makes ^T^^j and by 390. m. *Tf makes ^Tlff W. 
The latter also conforms to 439 and 439. b. See 609. 

6. ?*^ ' to kill ' forms its Aorist from "=p^ (^T^ftlW &c), but see 422. b. 

433. Many roots in ^?T d,1[e,^\ 0, and 5* ai, with three in H m, viz. ff^yam, 
Tf^ram, rff^nam, assume i, but in the Parasmai insert s before it; final e, 0, and 
ai, being changed to ^IT dj thus, from *IT ' to go ' comes ^PHftw^, &c. (see 644) ; 
from $ft ' to sharpen,' ^r$llf«1*^, &c. ; from UF{ ' to restrain/ 'SnjftjW , &c. 

<fK5i ' to be poor ' makes adaridrisham or adaridrdsisham, &c. 

434. In the Atmane these roots reject the i and the s which precedes it, and 
follow 418 ; thus, from HT ' to measure' comes , «t«iifa, &c. (see 664. a) ; from ^ 
' to cover,' vicqifa (see 421. c) ; from T*{' to sport,' *3ncftr, ^itwi^, ^IM, &c. 

Form II. 
435. Resembling the Imperfect. 

Parasmai. 
1. am dva [va] dma [ma] 
a. as [s] atam [torn] ata [td] 
3. at [t] atam [tdm] an [us] 

436. No confusion arises from the similarity which this form bears to the Im- 
perfect, as in all cases where the above terminations are used for the Aorist, the 
Imperfect presents some difference in the form of its stem; thus, H^'to go 'makes 
agadiham for its Impf., agamam for its Aor. (see 602) ; TH? 'to break' makes abhi- 
nadam for its Impf., abhidam for its Aor. (see 583). So again, cl. 6, which alone 
can shew a perfect identity of root and stem, never makes use of this form for its 
Aorist, unless by some special rule the stem of its Imperfect is made to differ from 
the root; thus, fe^'to smear * (cf. aXeupw), which makes alipam in Aor., is 
alimpam in its Impf.; see 281. (So in Gr., cf. Impf. ektmov with 2nd Aor. 
ekntov ; ekdpfiavov with ekafiov ; e$dfJ.vY]v with tla.ti.ov, &c.) 

Obs. — This form of the Sanskrit Aorist corresponds to Gr. 2nd Aor. (cf. asthdm, 
asthds, asthdt, with eaTVjv, eaTvif, eo"nj), and the first form is more or less analo- 
gous to the 1st Aor. The substitution of i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, etdm, 
in Atm. of form II, is confined to a class of roots mentioned at 439. 

437. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 
Prefix the augment, and as a general rule attach the terminations 
directly to the root. 

Thus, in agamam &c, abhidam &c, see 436. So also, ^OT'to perish' makes 
^TtT31*I (also ^I^r»I, see 441, 424)- 

a. Observe, however, that most of the roots which follow this form in Par., 



e[i] 


dvahi 


dmahi 


athds 


ethdm [dthdm] 


adhvam 


ata 


etdm [dtdm] 


anta 



192 VERBS. — AOKIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 

follow form I at 418 in Atm.; thus, f»T^ 'to break' makes abhitsi, &c, in Atm.; 
see the table at 583 : similarly, fspj ' to cut,' see 667. And a few roots, which are 
properly restricted to Atm., have a Parasmai Aorist of this 2nd form; thus, "<{'* 
Atm. 'to shine,' 'to be pleasing,' makes Par. arudam, as well as Atm. arodishi. 

b. One or two roots in ^tT d, \ i, and ^ e reject their finals ; and one or two in 
^ ri and ^J rC gunate these vowels before the above terminations ; thus, ^TT ' to 
tell' makes 'SHapT&c., ^T^T &c; f*3 'to swell,' ^TOW; ^ 'to call' makes tSI^H 
(see 595); ^ 'to go,' ^STCRIj ^jf 'to go,' ^Tfl?^; 1^'to grow old,' ^»TC?T. 

c. 73^ 'to see' gunates its vowel (vn;^*^, see 604). 

d. Penultimate nasals are generally dropped ; thus, ^tT"* ' to stop' makes WW; 
!P[^ 'to distil,' ^tr^W; ^1^ 'to mount,' ***<J«; an' to fall,' ^S$t»T. 

e. A form »aKj«i occurs in the Veda, from TO^'to eat,' the medial a being dropped. 

438. In the Parasmai certain roots ending in long wr a and i* e con- 
form still more closely to the terminations of the Imperfect, rejecting 
the initial vowel, as indicated by the brackets in the table at 435. 
In the 3rd pi. they take us for an. 

Thus, ^T cl. 3, 'to give,' makes addm, adds, addt, addva, &c. ; 3rd pi. adus, see 
663. So also, VT cl. 3, ' to place,' makes adhdm, &c, 664 ; and WT cl. 1, ' to stand,' 
makes asthdm, &c, 587. 

a. Similarly, *J.cl. 1, to be,' except 1st sing, and 3rd pi. (^3*^, ^3?^> ^Jjf, 
13>$$, &c. ; but 3rd pi. ^>J3«^, see 585). 

b. Observe, however, that some roots in d, like yd, 'to go,' follow 433. 

c. And some roots in TJ e and 5n 0, which follow 433, optionally follow 438 ; in 
which case e and are changed as before to d; thus, If dhe, cl. 1, 'to drink,' makes 
either adhdsisham &c, or adhdm &c, also adadham, see 440. a ; ?ft so, cl. 4, ' to 
come to an end,' makes either asdsisham or asdm, see 613. 

d. In the Atmane-pada, roots like ^T, IT, WT, ^, X(, <^ follow 421. d. 

e. ^ 'to go' makes its Aorist from a root IT; thus, a gam, agds, &c. 

Note — Adaddm, Impf. of da, to give,' bears the same relation to its Aor. addm 
that ebihtov does to ehav. So also the relation of adhdm (Aor. of dhd, 'to place ') 
to adadhdm (Impf.) corresponds to that of (6vjv to (TtBvpi. Cf. also abhavas and 
abhus with ecj>ve{ and e<pi>s . 

439. Certain roots ending in 51 i, ^ sh, ^ h, enclosing a medial i, 
u, or ri, form their Aorists according to form II at 435; but 
whenever confusion is likely to arise between the Imperfect and 
Aorist, s is prefixed to the terminations, before which sibilant the 
final of the root becomes k by 303 and 306. 

Thus, f^SI^'to point out,' the Impf. of which is ^jf^fW, makes ^Stf^H &c. in 
Aor. (cf. Gr. 1st Aor. eh^ec). Similarly, fgf^ cl. a, 'to hate,' makes adviksham 
&c -> 6 57 5 |^ cl - 2 > ' to milk,' makes ^T5TS adhuksham &c, by 306. a. See 660. 

0. This class of roots substitutes i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, eta'm, in - 



VERBS. — PRECATIVE. FORMATION OF STEM. 198 

Atmane terminations ; thus, adikshi, adikshathds, adikshata, adikshdvahi, adikshd- 
thdm, &c. ; 3rd pi. adikshanta. 

b. A few roots in ? h (viz. f&¥, f?? 3 T? 5 5?) optionally in the Atmane reject 
the initial a from the terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing., 1st du., and 2nd pi. ; 
thus, f<5| may make ^tf(3fi^,^Ij9l^T^,^T«5te'; Du. i.^rfpS^ff J PI. 2. ^?<?ft^»T, 
661 : and §^ ' to milk,' ^f^, ^Ignn^, &o. See 661, 659, 609, 660. 

c. According to some authorities, a few roots (e. g. T^, ~%\, *J*0 which gene- 
rally follow form I, A, in Atmane, may optionally conform to form II, taking the 
terminations i, dthdm, dtdm, rejecting initial a and d from the other terminations, 
and taking ata for anta ; thus, atripi, atripthds, atripta, atripvahi, &c. 

440. Causal verbs and verbs of cl. 10 make use of form II, but 
the stem assumes both reduplication and augment (as in the Greek 
Pluperfect); thus, ^V cl. i, 'to know,' makes in the Causal Aorist 
^[jwr, &c. This will be explained at 49 a. 

a. A few Primitive verbs besides those of cl. 10 take a reduplicated 
stem, analogous to Causals (see 49a). 

Thus, foj * to resort to ' makes ^rf^lfoPCT &c. ; fsff ' to swell' makes wf^rfiw^ 
(also ^I^TH and ^raftwj, see 432, 437. b) ; ^ cl. 1, 'to run,' ->H^£=I»T; S| ' to flow,' 
'H^^STj Xf 'to drink,' ^*W; oRH ' to love,' ^^cRT, &c. This last is defective 
when it belongs to cl. 1, having no Special tenses ; but when it belongs to cl. 10 
(Pres. «RWl, &c.) its Aorist is *Rfaf*h 

441. The following Primitive verbs take a contracted form of reduplicated stem : 
=ra cl. 2, 'to speak,' makes ^H^NH avodam (from *!W-«H^for ^R^« 650); V^ 
cl. 1, ' to fall,' ^mrcr»? (from ^nTOTPT ; compare Gr. fittitTOv) ; $n^ cl. 2, ' to rule,' 
^ffifm'T (from 'SffijI^HW, but the Atmane follows 427; see 658); ^S^ cl. 4, 'to 
throw,' ^TresiT (from ^TOWr, contracted into WTWI for ^HlrHH 304.0, whence by 
transposition ^TW^) ; T^J cl. 4, ' to perish,' 3R5l*T (from ^R^^R for «iff«W^). 
See 620, 436. 

Precative or Benedictive. 
Terminations of Precative repeated from 246. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 

siya sivahi simahi 

sishthds siydsthdm sidhvam or sidhvam 

slshta siydstdm siran 

442. The terminations of this tense resemble those of the Potential in the scheme 
at 245. In 2nd and 3rd sing, they are identical. In the other persons of the 
Parasmai a sibilant is inserted, and in some of the Atmane, both prefixed and 
inserted. In 2nd pi. Atm. sidhvam is used for sidhvam when immediately preceded 
by any other vowel but a or a, and optionally ishidhvam for isMdhvam when imme- 
diately preceded by a semivowel or h. The only difference between the Potential 

c c 



yasam 


yasva 


yasma 


yds 


ydstam 


ydsta 


ydt 


ydstdm 


ydsus 



194 VERBS.— PEECATIVE. FORMATION OF STEM. 

and Precative of verbs of the 2nd and 3rd groups, at 290, will often be that the 
Potential will have the conjugational characteristic ; thus, bhid, cl. 7, to break,' 
will be bhindydt in Pot., and bhidydt in Prec. (Compare the Optative of the Gr. 
Aor. SoiV with Optative of the Present S<So»jv.) 

443. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

In Parasmai, as a general rule, either leave the root unchanged 
before the y of the terminations, or make such changes as are 
required in the Passive (see 465-472), or by the conjugational rule 
of the 4th class, and never insert i. 

In Ktva?L(\e, as a general rule, prefix i to the terminations in those 
roots ending in consonants or vowels which take i in the Futures 
(see 392, 399), and before this i gunate the radical vowel. Gunate it 
also in the Atmane in some roots ending in vowels which reject i : 
but if a root end in a consonant, and reject i, the radical vowel is 
generally left unchanged in the Atmane, as well as Parasmai. 

444. Thus, from *f.cl. 1, 'to be,' come the stem of the Parasmai bhu, and the 
stem of the Atmane bhavi, by 36. a (bhu -f- ydsam = *J?TO'l &c, bhavi + siyaz= 
wfirtfa by 70). 

445. Frequently, as already observed, before the y of the 
Parasmai terminations, the root is liable to changes analogous to 
those which take place before the y of cl. 4 at 272, and the y of 
Passive verbs at 465 ; and not unfrequently it undergoes changes 
similar to those of the Perfect at 373, &c, as follows : — 

446. A final WT d is changed to C e in Par., but remains unchanged in Atm., 
as before the s of the 2nd Future terminations; thus, (fT cl. 3, 'to give,' makes 
^tjraw &c. for Par., but ^TCftl &c. for Atm.; TI 'to drink' makes tfaUHfl &c. 

a. But i*n 'to become old' makes jrffaraT &c, and ^ft^T 'to be poor' drops 
its final even in Parasmai (<^fcsrni'T, ^UXjhI^, &c.) Compare 390. c. 

447. Final 3J i and ^ u are lengthened in Par., as before the y of Passives, and 
gunated in Atm., as before the s of the 2nd Future; thus, f^ 'to gather' makes 
^farWI &c, ^qfal &c. ; and ^ ' to sacrifice ' makes |-MIH*J &c, ^Wfa &c 

a. When ^ 'to go' is preceded by a preposition, it is not lengthened (imTW 
&c.j otherwise ^Trew). 

b. <ft>ft and ^^C\ drop their finals as at 390. c (rftfv^fal &c.) 

448. Final ^f r 4 ' s changed to VCri in Parasmai, but retained in Atmane; thus, 
*{i ' to do ' makes fiawra* &c, and ^i^fa &c. After a double consonant ri is 
gunated in Parasmai, as well as before inserted i ; thus, ^FT ' to spread ' makes 
H*?T*W &c, HVftn &c, or Hfoftl &c. 

a. It is also gunated in ^ ri, ' to go,' and »TPJ ' to awake' (^nhOT, 'TTn'tTOT, &c.) 

b. ^ 'to cover,' ' to choose,' makes f STOW or TttW s , ^N or ^fc*ffa or ^fa' 



VERBS. — PKECATIVE. FORMATION OF STEM. 195 

449. Final ^ ri is changed to ^T. ir in both voices, but is gunated before; 
inserted i in Atmane; thus, f[ cl. 1, 'to cross,' makes ifiirrai &c., ift^fH &c, or 
ufttfta &c, or WTfa'ta &c. 

a. One root, \ cl. 10, 'to fill,' makes ^ITOJT &c. Compare 448. a. 

450. Of roots in T e, V ' to drink' makes ^TFffH &c. (which is also the Precative 
of VI ' to hold') ; V to protect,' ^TITWT. 

a. But ^ 'to call' makes |Tqre>^ &c, and <^IWl-H &c. ; ^t 'to cover' makes 
^fanWT &c, and sqT^ftn & c . ; and ^ ' to weave ' makes 3Pn*W &c, and ^TCtN &c. 
Compare 465. c. 

451. Final 1J ai and 'Sn are often treated like final o at 446; thus n 'to sing' 
makes TTTCW &c. ; % 'to waste' and ^fft 'to destroy' make WtTW^; tft 'to cut,' 
like ^T 'to give ' and^ 1 'to protect,' makes ^IRW. But sometimes they are changed 
to dj thus, ?T 'to preserve' makes ^T^rfa &c. ; ^ 'to purify' makes <^T*rre*I; W 
' to think' either WTraT or iforai ; 3 ' to be weary ' either ^TO^or TCtraH. 

452. As already stated, if a root end in a consonant, there is no change in 
Parasmai, except the usual changes before y ; moreover, unlike the 2nd Future, 
there is no Guna in Atmane, unless the root take i : the other changes in Atmane 
are similar to those applicable before the s of the 2nd Future terminations (390. 0) ; 
thus, ^f 'to milk' makes |r?rrara &c, and >JT5Jfar &c, by 306. a; %T 'to hate' 
makes ffHTWT &c, and fl'TSftl &c, by 302 ; and ^^' to know' makes TUIWT 
&c, and "^tfWhET &c. See 443. 

a. Roots of the 10th class, however, retain Guna in Par., as well as in Atm., 
rejecting the conjugational aya in Par. only ; see under Causals (495). 

453. According to the usual changes in cl. 4 and in Passives, roots ending in a 
double consonant, of which the first member is a nasal, generally reject the nasal ; 
thus, H^J bhahj, cl. 7, makes bhajydsam, &c. Compare 469. 

a. So again, according to 472, Zff. ' to take' makes in Par. 3p5TWT &c. ; TT^ ' to 
ask,' ipSSTCm &c. ; VT35T ' to fry,' ^55^nW (632) ; sP!^ ' to cut,' ^STT^T (636) ; 
^HM 'to pierce,' fauiTfl'T ; «q^ 'to deceive,' f^qnW; ^TT^ 'to teach,' fSTHrTCm 
&c. In the Atmane they are regular. 

b. So again, ^i and "3T u before r and v are lengthened; thus, =f^'to sound' 
makes ^TWT ; and f^ ' to play,' ^NjTCH. Compare 466. 

454. ^T 'to speak,' ^ 'to say,' ^'to sow,' ^'to wish,' ^' to dwell,' ^ 
' to carry,' and ^R,' to sleep,' substitute "7 u for ^ va in Par., and *T3^' to sacrifice' 
substitutes i for ya ; thus, TaTTTl^, ^J^fPT, ^:*4itt«, &c. ; cf. 47 1 . In the Atmane 
they are regular ; as, "<i8fll from ^| ; *reffa from *T3T. 

a. if^, ^, and W^ conform to 470 ; thus, SPTTCUT or *TT*inm &c. ; cf. 424. e. 

Observe — In addition to these rules, the other special changes 
which take place before the s of the 2nd Future terminations, 
noted at 390 and 390. a-o, will apply to the Atmane of the Preca-. 
tive ; thus, ^ or ^ at 390 makes ^*ffa or ^fj^fa ; S^ at 390. g, 

c c 3 



196 VERBS. — INFINITIVE. FORMATION OF STEM. 

makes «7^T or w$n ; sm at 390. /. makes giPTftl^hr or 3lftpftil ; and 
W^ may be irarreH or 7ftiTrarrcw even in Parasmai. 

Conditional. 
Terminations of Conditional repeated from 246. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 



syam 


sydva 


sydma 


sye 


sydvahi 


sydmahi 


syas 


syatam 


syata 


syathds 


syethdm 


syadkvam 


syat 


syatdm 


syan 


syata 


syetdm 


syania 



455. Observe, that this tense bears the same relation to the 2nd Future that the 
Imperfect does to the Present. In its form it is half an Imperfect, half a 2nd 
Future. It resembles the Imperfect in prefixing the augment ^1 a to the stem 
(see 251), and in the latter part of its terminations : it resembles the 2nd Future 
in the first part of its terminations in gunating the radical vowel, in inserting 
^ i in exactly those roots in which the Future inserts i. and in the other changes 
of the stem. 

456. The Conditional is most easily formed from the 2nd Future 
(388— 4T5) by prefixing the augment a and changing sydmi (shydmi) 
into syam (shy am) ; e. g. Jcarishydmi, akarishyam. 

457. Thus, "ijy el. 1, 'to know,' makes ^T^tfirsp? Sec; gf 'to milk' makes 
■»si«il«ji« &c. (see 414 and 306. a); ff^'to hate,' ^QtyiH &c. (see 412); ^Jf ' to 
conceal,' 'ST'jftrnjH or ^nffasjPT (415. m); "Hj^'to be immersed,' »JW*yiH (390. k). 

a. The augment will be prefixed to roots beginning with vowels according to the 
rules given at 251 ; thus, ^OTT ' to cover' makes wwfaojH or ^TTOftr°PT, cf. 390. b. 

b. ^ 'to go,' with ^rfil prefixed (meaning 'to read'), may optionally form its 
Conditional from the root TT (^TUTO or ^rujifi'ni, see 421. e). 

Infinitive. 

458. The termination of the Infinitive is g»T turn ( = the turn of the 
Latin Supine). It is used as a verbal noun with the force of 
the accusative or dative case. 

Obs. — The suffix turn is probably the accusative of the suffix tu (see 82. VIII), 
of which other cases are used as Infinitives in the Veda. 

459. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the ten classes. 

The stem of the Infinitive is identical with the stem of the First 
Future, and where one inserts 5 i, the other does also ; thus, budh, 
cl. 1, 'to know,' makes ■sftfajpr bodhitum ; f^kship, cl. 6, 'to throw/ 
makes ^5^ ksheptum. Moreover, all the rules for the change of the 
root before the t of the Future terminations apply equally before the 



PASSIVE VERBS.— FORMATION OF STEM. 197 

t of the Infinitive. Hence, by substituting um for the final a of the 
3rd pers. sing, of the 1st Future, the Infinitive is at once obtained. 

Thus, 3RKT, ^Tf-JI ; TTOT, H|* ; tfteT, tft§^; ^i^nmT, ^FUftliJJT. So also, |i| 
makes ^*I ; ^, ^te* or ifag\ or ^f^T ; =pr, f fajJH. See 388-415- 

a. In the Veda, Infinitives are also formed by the suffixes cf^, (T%, ffar, ??T, 5T, 
■w*lj ^nfl, ^l*^, 7, 1?, ^TC^, which are really cases of verbal nouns (see 867. a. b). 

b. The following examples will shew how remarkably the Sanskrit Infinitive 
answers to the Latin Supine. S. **J nJT ' to stand,' L. statum ; S. (^TjJT ' to give,' 
L. datum; S. TrriJH 'to drink,' L. potum; S. ^ip^'to go,' L. Hum,; S. ^t|h 'to 
strew,' L. stratum; S. ^Np^ 'to anoint,' L. unctum; S. 3Tf»fi|T 'to beget,' 
L. gentium; S. 13mT1JI? 'to sound,' L. sonitum; S. HgT 'to go,' L. serptum; 
S. ^TTTO ' to vomit,' L. vomitum. 

DERIVATIVE VEKBS. 

460. Having explained the formation of the verbal stem in the ten 
classes of Primitive verbs, we come next to the four kinds of Deriva- 
tive verbs, viz. Passives, Causals, Desideratives, and Frequentatives. 

PASSIVE VERBS. 

461. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a Passive 
form, conjugated as an i^tmane-pada verb of cl. 4, the only difference 
being in the accent, which in Passives falls on the inserted ya, whereas 
in the T^tmane of Primitive verbs of cl. 4, it falls on the radical 
syllable. 

a. It has already been remarked, that the Passive may be regarded as a distinct 
derivative from the root, formed on one invariable principle, without any necessary 
community with the conjugational structure of the Active verb. Thus the root 
bhid, cl. 7, 'to divide,' makes bhinatti or bhintte, he divides;' dvish, cl: 2, 'to 
hate,' makes dveshti or dvishte, ' he hates ;' but the Passive of both is formed 
according to one invariable rule, by the simple insertion of ya, without reference 
to the conjugational form of the Active ; thus, bhidyate, he is divided ;' dvishyate, 
'he is hated.' See 243. a. 

b. In fact, a Passive verb is really nothing but a root conjugated according to 
the rule for cl. 4 restricted to the Atmane-pada : and to say that every root may 
take a Passive form, is to say that roots of classes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 
may all belong to cl. 4, when they receive a Passive sense : so that if a root be 
already of cl. 4, its Passive is frequently identical in form with its own Atmane- 
pada (the only difference being in the accent). 

c. It might even be suspected, that the occasional assumption of an Intransitive 
signification and a Parasmai-pada inflexion by a Passive yerb, was the cause which 
gave rise to a 4th class of Primitive verbs as distinct from the Passive. Instances 



198 PASSIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

are certainly found of Passive verbs taking Parasmai-pada terminations, and some 
Passive verbs (e. g.jdyate, 'he is born,' fr. rt.jan; puryate, 'he is filled,' tt.prt; 
and tapyate, ' he is heated,' fr. tap) are regarded by native grammarians as Atmane 
verbs of cl. 4 *. Again, many roots appear in class 4 as Intransitive verbs, which 
also appear in some one of the other nine as Transitive. For example, yuj, to 
join,' when used in a Transitive sense, is conjugated either in cl. 7, or in the 
Causal; when in an Intransitive, in cl. 4. So also, push, 'to nourish;' kshubh, 
'to agitate;' kits, 'to vex;' sidh, to accomplish f.' 

d. There are said to be three kinds of Passive verbs. 

I. The Passive, properly so called (karman); as, from 1|^, gan he is struck' 
(i.e. 'by another'), where the verb implies that the person or thing spoken of 
suffers some action from another person or thing ; c. g. Wit^iS 4«<n *im ' rice is 
cooked by me.' 

II. An Impersonal Passive (bhdva), generally formed from an Intransitive verb, 
and only occurring in the 3rd singular ; '\**tn ' it is gone ;' "TWiT ' it is danced ;' 
1 T^r n ' it is cooked ' or ' cooking goes on, ' where the verb itself implies neither person 
nor thing as either acting or suffering, but simply expresses a state or condition. 

III. A Reflexive Passive (karma-kartri, object-agent' or ' object-containing- 
agent'), where there is no object as distinct from the subject of the verb, or, in 
other words, where the subject is both agent and object, as in ^ntfK T^HI ' rice 
is cooked;' ^ sCPTiC 'he is born,' &c. In these latter, if a vowel immediately 
precedes the characteristic y, the accent may fall on the radical syllable, as in cl. 4. 
They may also, in some cases, make use of the Atmane-pada of the Active, and 
drop the y altogether; thus to express 'he is adorned by himself,' it would be 
right to use *J5h ' he adorns himself.' 

Obs. — According to Panini the Passive verb is merely an Atmane verb with the 
Vikarana yak in the four tenses, and karman merely expresses one idea of the 
Passive. The object is expressed by the termination of the Passive in such a case 
as 'the house is built by me,' where the object of the agent me, viz. house, is 
expressed by the terminations of the Passive. But no agent might be mentioned, 
as simply ' the house is built,' in which case it would be a bhdva, not a karman. 

46a. Passive verbs take the regular Atmane-pada terminations at 
346, making use of the substitutions required in cl. 4. 

In the Aorist they take either the A or B terminations of form I at 418, according 
as the root may admit the inserted ^ i or not ; but they require that in 3rd sing, 
of both forms the termination be ^ i in place of sta and ishta (see 475). 

* The Passive not unfrequently takes the terminations of the Parasmai-pada in 
Epic poetry ; e. g. ihidyet for dhidyeta, ' it may be cut ;' mokshyasi for mokshyase, 
thou shalt be liberated ;' adriiyat, ' he was seen.' 

t The forms given for the Aorists of such verbs as pad, ' to go,' budh, ' to 
know ' (which are said to be Atmane verbs of cl. 4), could only belong to Passive 
verbs. The forms given by Westergaard are, apddi, abodhi. See 475. 



PASSIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 199 

Special Tenses. 

463. Rule for the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses, 
A'tmane-pada, of roots of the first nine classes. 

Affix *r ya* — lengthened to tr yd before initial m and v — to the 
root, the vowel of which is not gunated, and often remains unchanged. 
(Compare the rule for cl. 4 at 349 and 373.) 

464. Thus, from >J.cl. 1, ' to be,' comes the stem >|?T bhilya (Pres. bMya+i=i^ t 
bhttya+se=*g&, &c; Impf. abMya+i='Wgil, &c; Pot. bhuya+{ya=.*gm, &c; 
Impv. bhuya+ai=>%p, &e.); from ^ cl. 6, 'to strike,' comes tudya (Pres. tudya 

-M=ijir, &c.) 

465. The root, however, often undergoes changes, which are generally analogous 
to those of cl. 4 and the Preeative Parasmai-pada (see 275 and 445); but a final d 
is not changed to e as in the Preeative. 

Six roots in ^IT a, and one or two in 7T e, J* ai, and Wt 0, change their final 
vowels to § {; thus, i»1 'to give,' ^ 'to protect,' and ^T 'to cut,' make Pres. ffk, 
tfVK, ^hlil, &c. So also, VT ' to place' (3rd sing, tffrfff) ; WT ' to stand,' m ' to 
measure,' HT 'to drink,' and ^T 'to quit;' ^ 'to drink' (3rd sing, vfa^, &c); 
ft 'to sing' (*fNw) ; Tfft 'to destroy' (•tfhrn'). 

Obs. 1. <^T cl. 2, 'to bind,' makes ^'RK, as it is not a ghu and does not come 
under Pan. vi. 4, 66. 

Obs. 2. ?T ' to go ' {oMn) make3 hay ate, though jft ' to quit ' (ohdk) makes My ate. 

a. But other roots in '3TT d remain unchanged ; and most others in ai and are 
changed to d; thus, ^ITT 'to tell' makes 3rd sing. JeMmW; and STT 'to know,' 
sTUTff ; tJT 'to protect,' TTTOK; ^ 'to meditate,' MITCH; ^ft 'to sharpen,' ^TRW. 

b. ^ftrjT, <faf\, and ^\ drop their final vowels as at 390. c (<jft.5[ff, tffafif, 
&c); and tITT 'to become old' makes 1. »ffan. Cf. 446. a. 

c. 3J 'to call,' % 'to weave,' ^l 'to cover,' make their stems 1T1, ^fl, and ^*T 
(3rd sing. f^if). -Compare 450. a. 

466. Final 5 * or ^ u are lengthened, as also a medial i or u before v or r ; thus, 
from fir, ?, ftfy ^, come >ffrT, |TO, ^T^T, ^i*t. See 447 and 453. b. 

a. But fist 'to swell' makes 3rd sing. STTiT; and ^ft 'to lie down,' $P2Tff. 

467. Final ^ ri becomes ft re, but if preceded by a double consonant is gunated ; 
-thus, «£ makes 3. fifi*Tff ; ^, fiTTiT ; but 9J, ^P?ff . Cf. 448. 

a. The roots ^ (3rd sing. ^JmW) and »TPJ are also gunated. Cf. 448. a. 

468. Final ^ ri becomes f^ir,- thus, W 'to scatter' makes 3. ^ffffift; but 'T'to 
fill,' ^TT. See 449 and 449. a. 

* This ya is probably derived from yd, 'to go,' just as the Causal ay a is derived 
from i, *to go.' It is certain that in Bengali and Hindi the Passive is formed 
with the root yd. Cf. Latin amatum iri, &c. See 481. 



200 PASSIVE VERBS. — FOBMATION OP STEM. 

469. Roots ending in a double consonant, of which the first is a nasal, usually 
reject the nasal; as, from ^**J, 5W, V^, come the stems ^UI, &c. (Wl, &c.) 

a. The roots at 390. 1, carry their peculiarities into the Passive («**«4n or <*1**|W, 
»pffi or jffm*«In", foapHT or f^atTOFrr, ^7df or ^rf1*Mil). 

470. *T«^ 'to produce,' ^P^ 'to dig,' fl!^ 'to stretch,' ^ 'to give,' optionally 
reject the final nasal, and lengthen the preceding a; thus, m*m or «PT«, &e. 

471. ^ 'to speak,' ^ 'to say,' ^_'to sow,' ^3^' to wish,' ^'to dwell,' ^ 
' to bear,' TS^' to sleep,' T»I ' to sacrifice,' change the semivowels ^, 1 into their 
corresponding vowels and accordingly make their stems B^T, T%[, »«M, »3«i, 
THf, 7?T, ?p», ^tSJ 1 respectively, (a^n, &c.) 

Obs. — This change of a semivowel into its corresponding vowel is technically 
called Samprasarana. 

472. Similarly, TfS 'to take,' IT^ ' to ask,' H^ 'to fry,' ai^' to deceive,' ^IV 'to 
pierce,' sP^' to cut,' make their stems f?T, 1*6.4, fST, f^T, f^t, ^T respec- 
tively, cr?nr, &c.) 

n. "3if to reason ' shortens its vowel after prepositions (q«iil ; otherwise '3i?tii/. 

b. ^T5^ forms its Passive from ^t; ^ from ^\; ^Sf^ from ȣ; ^from ^3 ; 
and ^T5T from 13TT. 

c. 5TI^ 'to rule ' makes its Passive stem fy**l. 

General Tenses. — Perfect of Passives. 

473. The stem of this tense in the Passive verb is identical with that of all 
Primitive verbs, in all ten classes. The stems, therefore, as formed at 364-384, 
will serve equally well for the Perfect of the Passive, provided only that they 
be restricted to the Atmane-pada inflexion ; thus, ^^M, Vft, &c. 

a. When the Periphrastic Perfect has to be employed (see 385) the auxiliaries 
^TO and ^.may be used in the Atmane, as well as «J. Compare 385. b. 

First and Second Future of Passives. 

474. In these and the remaining tenses no variation generally occurs from the 
stems of the same tenses in the Primitive, Atmane, unless the root end! in a rowel. 
In that case the insertion of ^ i may take place in the Passive, although prohibited 
in the Primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first vriddhied j thus, from 
fa <H, cl. 5, ' to gather,' may come the stem of the 1st and and Fut. Pass. tdyi 
(ddyitdhe &c, ddyishye &c), although the stem of the same tenses in the Primitive 
is 6e (detdhe &c, deshye &c.) Similarly, from ? hu and ^ kri may come hdvi and 
kdri (hdvitdhe, kdritdhe), although the stems in the Primitive are ho and kar. 

a. In like manner ^ i may be inserted when the root ends in long ^?T d, or in IT e, 
Hai, W^o, changeable to ^?Ta, provided that, instead of Vriddhi (which is impossible), 
y be interposed between the final d and inserted » ; thus, from ^T dd,' to give,' may 
come the stem of the Fut. Pass, ddyi (ddyitdhe &c), although the stem of the same 
tenses in the Primitive is dd (ddtdhe &c.) ; from 3§" hve, ' to call,' may come hvdyi 



PASSIVE. VERBS. — FORMATION OE STEM. 201 

(^infin? &c), although the stem in the Primitive is hvd. But in all these cases 
the stem of the Primitive may be taken for that of the Passive, so that detdhe or 
ddyitdhe may equally stand for the ist Fut. Pass. ; and similarly with the others. 

b. In the case of roots ending in consonants, the stem of the two Futures in the 
Passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the Primitive verb, the in- 
flexion being that of the Atmane. T5F 'to see,' however, in the Passive, may be 
^fin^, ^P*T, as well as "JST^, "5EJT; and ^' to kill' may be ^nftfiTRT , ITlftTO, 
as well as ?nTIf , ^frr&Tj and ?T^ 'to take' may be SH^tTT^, ?nff^, as well as 

c. In verbs of cl. 10 and Causals, deviation from the Atmane form of the Primi- 
tive may take place in these and the succeeding tenses. See 496. 

Aorist of Passives. 

475. In this tense, also, variation from the Primitive may occur when the root 
ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of ^ i may take place, although 
forbidden in the Primitive verb, provided the final of the root be vriddhied ; thus, 
from f^ 6i may come the stem of the Aor. Pass, addyi {addyishi &c, 427), although 
the stem in the Atmane of the Primitive is ade (adeshi &c, 420). So also, from 
? hu and ^ kri may come aJtdvi and akdri (ahdvishi, akdrishi, 427), although the 
stems in the Atmane of the Primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, 420). Again, 
i may be inserted when the root ends in long ^Tf d, or in *J e, If ai, Wt o, changeable 
. to W[ d, provided that y be interposed between final d and inserted ij thus, from tJT 
' to give,' ^ ' to protect,' ^ ' to purify,' <^ ' to cut,' may come addyi (addyishi &c), 
although the stems in the Atmane of the Primitives are different (as adishi &c.) 
But in all these cases it is permitted to take the stem of the Primitive for that of 
the Passive (so that the Passive of di may be either addyishi or adeshi), except in the 
3rd pers. sing., where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the stem, as 
formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must stand alone ; thus, addyi, it was 
gathered;' ahdvi, 'it was sacrificed;' akdri, 'it was done;' addyi, 'it was given,' 
'protected,' 'purified,' cut.' 

o. Sometimes the usual form of the Aorist Atmane is employed throughout (see 
461. III). This is the case whenever the sense is that of a Reflexive Passive, not of 
the real Passive ; thus, ^TT ' to tell' in the 3rd sing. Aor. Pass, is ««mfa, but in 
the sense of a Reflexive Passive ^TTT; f^T 'to resort to' makes ist sing. Aor. Pass. 
'Srerflfa, but Reflexive ^jfiflfopfr; and ^i^'to love' makes 3rd sing. Aor, Pass, 
^aram or^nElfir, but Reflexive 'ST^raiH. 

6. If the root end in a consonant, the stem of the Aorist Passive will always be 
identical with that of the Atmane of the Primitive, except in the 3rd sing., where; 
5 i being substituted for the terminations ishta and sta of form I at 418, generally 
requires before it the lengthening of a medial a (if not already long by position), 
and the Ouna of any other short medial vowel*. Hence, from tan, 'to stretch,' 



* A medial vowel, long by nature 'or position, remains unchanged (by 28), and 
in one or two cases even a short vowel; as, asami for a&dmi. 

Dd 



202 PASSIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

ist, 2nd, and 3rd sing, atanishi, atanishthds, atdni; from kship, 'to throw,' akshipsi, 
akshipthds, akshepi; from vid, 'to know,' avedishi, avedishthds, avedi, &c. 

c. The lengthening of a medial a, however, is by no means universal; and there 
are other exceptions in the 3rd sing., as follows : — 

Nearly all roots ending in am forbid the lengthening of the vowel in the 3rd sing.; 
thus, 'SISSfiT from H\-\ ' to walk ;' ^rejfa from W{ ' to bear ;' ^Tfa from ^ ' to 
be calm' (but in the sense of 'to observe,' ^Tlm). 

& Similarly, ^T^ftr from ^ and "^ from ^ The former ma y °P tionall y 
substitute 'MVlfifT from ?«^. 

e. »p^and JJf lengthen their vowels (^l*nf#, ^Plf?}. 

/. The roots at 390. I. will have two forms, ^Hif* or ^<*lfa, ^"fH^T or ^TifWrftl, 

^rfafeat or ^ffa^arftr, &c. 

9. OI 'to perish,' »T>T "to yawn,' *>» 'to desire,' insert nasals («tP*f, 'a*?!**, 
^Itf***). Similarly, (3*T 'to receive,' when it has a preposition (e.g. Hrat»J), 
and optionally when it has none (^I<3t*>T or ^WTfa, Pan. vn. 1, 69). 

h. H^ ' to break' may drop its nasal, in which case the medial a is lengthened 

faw% or ^rmfsr). 

i. ?3 ' to clothe ' may either retain the e or change it to { or » (^?T5 or wtjre 

j. \ 'to go' substitutes IT, and optionally does so when adhi is prefixed in the 
sense of 'to read' (^WTTftl or ^TMTTftl). 
k. ^rH 'to blame' makes Wiffftt or *J(ifS. 

Precative (or Benedictive) and Conditional of Passives. 

476. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending 
in vowels as in the Aorist ; that is, the insertion of ^ i is allowed, provided that, 
before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be 
interposed after final a; thus, from feci may come the stems 6dyi and addyi (ddyisMya, 
addyishye) ; from ? hu, hdvi and ahdvi; from ^ kri, kdri and akdrij from <ft da, 
ddyi and addyi. But deshiya, adeshye, hoshiya, ahoshye, &c, the forms belonging 
to the Atmane of the Primitive verb, are equally admissible in the Passive. 



v.. 



Passive Infinitive* 

477. There is no Passive Infinitive in Sanskrit distinct in form from the Active. 
The suffix turn, however, is capable of a Passive senBe, when joined with certain 
verbs, especially with the Passive of $T^ fak, ' to be able.' It is also used passively, 
in connection with the Participles drabdha, nirupita, yukta, &c. See Syntax, 869. 

Passive verbs from roots of the 10th class. 

478. In forming a Passive verb from roots of cl. 10, although the conjugations! 
^ffl is rejected in the first four tenses, yet the other conjugations! changes of the 
root are retained before the suffix ya; thus, from ^ cl. 10, 'to steal,' comes the 



CAUSAL VERBS.— FORMATION OP STEM. 203 

stem iorya (^faffi). In the Perfect 'SP? is retained (see 473. 0), and in the other 
General tenses the stem may deviate from the Atmane form of the Primitive by 
the optional rejection or assumption of ^TO, especially in the Aorist. See Causal 
Passives at 496. 

CAUSAL VERBS. 
479. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a Causal 
form, which is conjugated as a verb of the 10th class; and which is 
not only employed to give a Causal sense to a Primitive verb, but 
also a Transitive sense to an Intransitive verb; see 389. 

Thus, the Primitive verb bodhati, ' he knows' (from root budh, cl. 1), becomes in 
the Causal ^PlfiT bodhayati, ' he causes to know,' ' he informs ;' and the Intransi- 
tive verb kshubhyati, ' he shakes,' ' is shaken' (from kshubh, cl. 4), becomes Tffa'rf tT 
he shakes' (transitively). 

a. This form may sometimes imply other analogous senses. 

Thus, hdrayati, 'he allows to take;' ndfayati,' he suffers to perish;' abhisheda- 
yati, he permits himself to be inaugurated ;' kshamayati, ' he asks to be forgiven ;' 
^rfa^^I *il|rWH*^ ' allow yourself to be inaugurated.' 

Obs. — To say that every root may take a Causal form, is equivalent to saying 
that roots of the first nine classes may all belong to the 10th, when they take a 
Causal sense ; and that if a root be originally of the 10th class, no distinct form 
for its Causal is necessary, the Primitive verb and the Causal being in that case 
identical (see 289). Possibly the occasional employment of a Causal verb in a 
Transitive, rather than a Causal sense, was the reason for creating a 10th class of 
Primitive verbs. Certainly the subject of conjugation would be simplified if the 
addition of aya to the root were considered in all cases as the mark of a Causal 
verb ; especially as aya is not the sign of a separate conjugation, in the way of any 
other conjugational Vikarana (see 2go. b) ; for it is retained in most of the other 
tenses of the verb, not only in the first four, just as the Desiderative ish is retained. 

480. As to the terminations of Causal verbs, they are the same as 
those of the scheme at 246 ; and the same substitutions are required 
in the first four tenses as in classes 1, 4, 6, and 10. 

Special Tenses. 

481. General rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses 
of roots of the ten classes. 

If a root end in a vowel, vriddhi that vowel ; if in a consonant, 
gunate the radical vowel before all the terminations, and affix ^nr aya * 

* This may be derived from root ^ i, 'to go,' just as the Passive ya is supposed 
to be derived from root yd. See 463, note *. 

d d a 



204 CAUSAL VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

(changeable to ayd before initial m and v, but not before simple m) 
to the root so vriddhied or gunated. 

482. Thus, from "ft ' to lead' comes the stem •TPPT by 37 (Pres. ndyayd+mi = 
^TTTTftf, ndyaya + si = «l 1 <(«<ftf &c; Impf. andyaya + m = -si 1 1 «i *i«\ &c; Pot. 
ndyaya+iyam^wwM^ &c. ; Impv. ndyaya+dni=immY'\ &c. Atm. Pres. 
ndyaya-\-i=HW\ &c. In Epic poetry a doubtful form •TIlTmftf is found). Simi- 
larly, from ^ft 'to lie down' comes 3TT*11 say ay a (!JIN<Jlfa &c); from *J.JM, 'to 
be,' comes HT31 Ihdvaya (Wr^nfk &c); and from ^ 'to do' and ^ 'to scatter' 
the stem 'OTW Jcdraya. 

But from ^V ' to know 'comes the gunated ^ftUT bodhaya («Tl«i«iiftO ; and from 
SJ^cl. 1, ' to creep,' the gunated «im«i sarpaya. 

Obs. — WfC to celebrate,' and other verbs of the iotb class, will take the changes 
already explained at 285-289. 

483. Roots ending in ^TT d, or in U e, ? ai, w 0, changeable to ^3TT d, cannot be 
vriddhied, but frequently insert \p between the root and the suffix aya ; thus, <ft 
'to give,' ^" 'to love,' and ^ 'to cut,' all make ^wm?*? ddpaydmi, &c; S'to drink,' 
VmTlftT dhdpaydmi, &c. ; *t ' to sing,' IPPJTfH gdpaydmi, &c. See 484. 

o. So also other roots in d insert p, except 'TT cl. 1, to drink,' which inserts Vy 
(TITTlftl &c.) ; and VJ cl. 2, ' to preserve,' which inserts 7S I (Mlci u lfH &c.) ; and 
TT cl. 2, in the sense of 'to agitate,' which inserts »T (4ui*ti(*i &c.) 

6. So also other roots in ai insert p, but most others in e and o insert y; thus, 
2§" ' to call' makes STTTTrfaf &c. Similarly, q 1 ' to weave,' ^l ' to put on.' $Tt ' to 
sharpen ' makes ^rPWTfiT &°- Similarly, 'eft ' to cut,' *ft ' to destroy.' 

484. ITT ' to know,' 'Zn or ^ 'to stew,' ^T ' to bathe,' and g ' to languish/ may 
optionally shorten the d, the last two only when not joined with prepositions; 
thus, sTTiPTTfa &c, or sTHnfa &c. ; ym*Jlf»T &c., or {jmilftl &c. (but with ^ft 
only, tif*TjT^tnf*T). TJ ' to waste away ' makes only 'Epnnfi?. 

483. Some roots in i, {, ri, also insert p, after changing the final vowel to d; 
thus, f»T 'to conquer' makes *tm<4lftl &c. Similarly, ft? 'to throw,' >ft 'to 
perish,' JS\ ' to buy' (JfTtPTlftT, 3<HPlTfiT, &c.) 

a. ftjR ' to smile ' makes WTIITftf &c, and WPl &c. 

b. fa ' to collect ' has four forms ; 1 . ^TTTtftj &c, 2. -^milfN &c, 3. ^HHflfa 
&c, 4. ^Hlftl &c. 

c. HT cl. 3, ' to fear,' has three forms ; 1. ^iiMMlft? &c, 2. WR &c, Atm. only, 
3. >ffrPT &c, Atm. only. 

d. f cl. 2, 'to go,' makes ^TTOTrrftt &o., especially with the preposition ^tfil 
' over,' 'SHflnTCTfa ' I cause to go over,' ' I teach.' 

e. Three roots insert nj c^t cl. 4, ' to embrace,' 'to adhere,' making (with prep. 
fa in the sense of 'to dissolve') -^h^nftr &c, as well as -WPnTfftj, -oSPTTtftt, 
and -Wra'nf'T &c. ; in some senses, however, WTCPnftl only can be used : ift cl. 9, 
'to please,' makes tffaniTfa (also WHWftt) ; and \c\. 5 and 9, 'to shake,' TJrpnftj. 

486. {ft cl. 3, ' to be ashamed,' tf ' to flow,' j|t ' to choose,' and ^ cl. 1, ' to go,' 
insert p after gunation ; thus, jPHtlftt &c, ^Snftnftl &c. 



CAUSAL VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 205 

a. tfrft and ^ft and ^ft^T (see 390. c) drop their finals (^tmnfiT, sN*nfa, 
^ft^JJTftT, &c.) 

b. STTf 'to awake,' ^J in the sense of 'to long for,' »T cl. 4, 'to grow old,' Z in the 
sense of 'to fear,' «£ 'to lead,' take Guna (M NK qifr). But 2 'to tear,' ^TfTtfiT. 

c >I to swallow ' makes THl*nf*T or Ttwnftr. 

487. Roots ending in single consonants, enclosing a medial *3T a, generally 
lengthen the a; thus, H^cl. 1, ' to cook,' makes TTT^nfa &c. There are, however, 
many exceptions; thus, sf^ 'to be sick,' F^ 'to hasten,' &c, do not lengthen 
the vowel. In 5jT5£ ' to blaze, 5 and some others, the lengthening is optional. 

a. Roots in m generally do not lengthen the a; thus, *T^cl. 1, 'to go,' makes 
T^niTfiT &c. ; "pd^ 'to be weary,' ai*nuf>T &c. Some, however, optionally do so ; 
as, »P^ ' to bend,' &c. One or two always lengthen the a ; as, «R*^ ' to love ' makes 
^TH^TftT. 

b. The roots TV, »l>^, SpT, and c5*f (see 475.0) insert nasals (fnnfa &c.) 

488. Other anomalies. — ^ 'to grow' makes ^VipiTfiT or ^tPTtfa; Spi or IS 
'to sound,' ^wfa; f^'to be corrupt,' gmilfH ; ^'to kiU,"SffinrfftT ; ^ 
'to fall,' 'to perish,' STTrmifa; ^^ 'to quiver,' *qiTT*tTfiT or^fifoTlTfa; ^qiTO 
'to increase,' ^tfir^nftr; "W^ 'to shake' as the earth, H^mmlH &c; IJ»T 'to 
rub,' HTihnfiT (390.7) ; H^ ' to conceal,' JTjnnfH (390. m). 

a. The roots ^, fa^, ^, H*!r, ^, ^Ji^, at 390. 1, will have two forms 
CfhOrerf*! or jflMN^lfH &c, see 390. 1). 

b. fire 'to be finished' makes its Causal either ^rwnfiT or, with reference to 
sacred rites, %V*llf*t ; '>STSt ' to fry ' either yi»)'Ulf*r or H*hnfil j but the last form 
may be from *J»T. 

c. I[ T ' to clothe ' makes f^Tmfa ; T^ in the sense of ' to hunt,' T^Pnftr. 
Obs. — The Causal of verbs of cl. 10 will be identical with the Primitive ; see 289. 

The Causals of Causals will also be identical with the Causals themselves. 

General Tenses. 

489. The changes of the root required to form the stem of the 
Special tenses are continued in the General. Moreover, aya is re- 
tained in all these tenses, except the Aorist and except the Precative, 
Parasmai ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted ^ i, 
which is invariably assumed in all other General tenses. 

Perfect of Causals. 

490. This tense must be of the Periphrastic form, as explained at 
385 ; that is, ^[[ff dm added to the Causal stem is prefixed to the 
Perfect of one of the three auxiliary verbs, ^ ' to be/ >j/ to be, 5 or ^ 
'to do;' thus, w^'to know' makes in Causal Perfect ^NHM«RK or 



206' CAUSAL VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

sffaTPrra or 'sftvtnfrg?. ^ makes in Caus. Perf. 3rd pL tyWigfi: 
' they extinguished' (Raghu-v. vn. 45). 

First and Second Future of Causals. 
491. In these tenses the inserted \ i is invariably assumed between 
the stem, as formed in the Special tenses, and the usual termination's ; 
thus, ^v makes ^tvfttiTffw &c, ^tvftranfa &c. 

Aorist of Causals and verbs of cl. 10. 
49a. The terminations are those of form II at 435. In the 
formation of the stem of this tense, the suffix ay is rejected ; but any 
other change that may take place in the Special tenses, such as the 
insertion of p or y, is preserved. The stem is a reduplicated form 
of this change, and to this reduplication the augment ^r a is prefixed. 

Thus, taking the stems bodhay an&jdpay (Causal stems of budh, to know,' and 
ji, "to conquer'), and rejecting ay, we have bodh aaAjdp; and from these are 
formed the stems of the Aorist abubudh and ajijap (^Ti«f*i»^ abubudkam &c, 
TI^ a l>ub' u dhe &c, < «ia|)<m«^ ajyapam &c, ^TlftsHT ajtfape &c, cf. the Greek 
Pluperfect). 

493. The rule for this reduplication is as follows: — The initial 
consonant of the root, with its vowel, is reduplicated, and the redu- 
plicated consonant follows the rules given at 252 ; but the redupli- 
cation of the vowel is peculiar. 

"Reduplication of the vowel of the initial consonant in the Causal Aorist. 

a. Causal stems, after rejecting ay, will generally end in dy, dv, dr, or a consonant 
preceded hy a, d, e, 0, or ar. The usual reduplicated vowel for all these, except 0, 
is ^ i. But 7 u is reduplicated for 0, and sometimes also for dv. The rule is, that 
either the reduplicated or stem syllable must be long either by nature or position ; 
and in general the reduplicated vowel i or u is made long, and, to compensate for 
this, the long vowel of the Causal stem shortened, or, if it be Guna, changed to its 
corresponding short vowel ; thus, the Causal stem ndy (from «Tt, rejecting ay) makes 
the stem of the Aorist aninay ^^A^\ aninayam &c); the Causal stem bhdv 
(from >|J makes abibhav (^TTfa^ Sec); the Causal stem Mr (from of), aMarj 
gam (from V^), ajigam; pad (from V^), apipai; pal (from m), apipal; ved (from 
ft^), avfoid. But bodh (from "^V), abubudh; and wv (from *J), amishav. 

b. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel is only long by position before two conso- 
nants, the radical vowel being still made short; as, 4rdv (from ^) makes a&irav or 
aiuirav: drdv (from "^), adudrav or adidrav; >3T^, abibhraj (also ababhrdj). 

c. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel remains short, whilst the vowel of the 
Causal stem, which must be long either by nature or position, remains unohanged ; 



CAUSAL VEKBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 207 

thus, the Causal stem jfe (from *ffa) may make ^f*r»fh^ (also ^ »ftf»T? ) ; dmt, 
atidint; kalp, aiikalp. In such cases a is generally reduplicated for a or d; as, 
laksh makes alalaksh; ydi, ayayd6; vart (from vrit), avavart, &c. 

d. Obs. — If the stem has ar, dr, ir, al (from radical ri, rl, or Iri), these are either 
left unchanged or ar, dr, ir may be changed to ^ ri, and al to ^ Iri; thus, vart 
(from ^H ) may make avivrit as well as avavart j kirl (from Wit ) either atikirt or 
adkrit, &c. 

e. The following are other examples, some of which are anomalous : from pdy 
(Caus. of pd, ' to drink '), ^fl"^ &c. ; from sthdp (Caus. of sthd, ' to stand '), "Slfir- 
fel^&c; from^ftj-op (Caus. of ghrd, 'to smell'), 3lf*rftPT>^&c., and ^rftTU^&c; 
from adhydp (Caus. of i, ' to go,' with adhi), ^lq»fl'm+( &c. ; from tesht (Caus. of 
desht, ' to make effort : ), ^ra%8^ or ^rf^^S^; from hvdy (Caus. of hve, ' to call'), 
*^J?W^ or ^I? 1 ^) f rom tvar (Caus. of tear, 'to hasten'), ^nTHR*^; from stdr 
(Caus. of stri or stri, 'to spread'), ^H^It^ or ^tfiTCT^; from ddr (Caus. of dri, 
'to tear'). ^?^j from dyot (Caus, of dyut, 'to shine'), ^tf^TJ^J from My 
(Caus. of hi, 'to swell'), ^JSR^ or ^f^FtlM^; from smdr (Caus, of smri, 'tq 
remember'), 3>rarw*^; from svdp (Caus. of ^^.'to sleep'), ^WWJ^; from kath 
(cl. 10, 'to tell'), 'JW* 1 ^ or ^rfaT^; from *TO (cl. 10, 'to count'), ^PTO^ 
or 'STiTt T*!!^ ; from^raiA (Caus. of JT^'to spread'), 'SJWI^. 

Reduplication of an initial vowel in the Causal Aorist. 

494. Roots beginning with vowels, and ending with single consonants, form their 
Causal Aorists by a peculiar reduplication of the root (after rejecting ^PT). The 
rule is that not only the initial vowel, as in the Perfect at 364. a, but the final 
consonant also be reduplicated. In fact, the whole root is doubled, as it would 
be if it began with a consonant, and ended with a vowel ; the consonant is redu- 
plicated according to the rules at 252, but the second vowel is generally 3^ i. 
This * (which probably results from a weakening of a) takes the place of the stem 
vowel, which then becomes the initial of the reduplicated syllable, and combines 
with the augment ^T a, according to 251. 0; thus, ^f to infer' makes the stem of 
its Causal Aorist '^if'Tf fifth ; and with ^t prefixed, 'wifVts (wf*np^ ' I caused to 
infer '). So also, ^TP^ cl. 5, ' to obtain,' makes ^tlftpj^ ' I caused to obtain ;' $3 
cl. 2, 'to praise,' makes Tf?3^ 'I caused to praise.' Cf. Gr. 2nd Aor. yyayov 
from ayw, and copopov from opvv[M. 

a. If a root end in a conjunct consonant, the first member of which is a nasal 
or r, this nasal or r is rejected from the final,, but not from the reduplicated letter ; 
thus, ^rt 'to be worthy' makes *Juf»i^'I caused to be worthy,' 'I honoured;' 
so *%(§, Causal stem from ^^'to prosper,' makes ^tf^Vf^ ' I caused to prosper;' 
and ^T 'to moisten' makes wf>^^ 'I caused to moisten.' 

b. But when the first member of the compound is any other letter, then the cor- 
responding consonant to this first member of the compound is reduplicated by 
352. c; thus, ^W 'to see' makes ff%SJ^ aidiksham, ' I caused to see;' ^I\J 'to go' 
makes ^ITfaa^ ' I caused to go.' 



208 CAUSAL VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

c. Roots consisting of a single vowel, form their Causal Aorists from the Causal 
stem (after rejecting ay a); thus, the root ^ 'to go' makes its Causal stem arp, 'to 
deliver over ;' and its Causal Aorist ^rrfVJH ' I caused to deliver.' 

d. 'ang 'to cover' makes its Causal Aorist »SH *U«J=I*< ; ^T"J cl. 10, 'to be blind/ 
^?r^PT; and '3S«^cl. 10, 'to diminish,' "OTTfT. 

e. When the consonant which follows the initial vowel has another vowel after 
it, this vowel must appear in the reduplication ; thus, from ?raVT^ cl. 10, to des- 
pise,' comes the Aorist ^TR^tfftH. 

Precative (or Benedictive) and Conditional of Causals. 

495. The stem of the Causal Precative Atmane, and of the 
Causal Conditional in both voices, does not differ from that of the 
General tenses ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted 
^ i, which is always assumed. In the Precative Parasmai both 
aya and i are rejected, but any other change of the root is retained ; 
thus, ^ ' to know' makes in Caus. Prec. bodhydsam &c, bodha- 
yishiya &c. ; in Cond., abodhayishyam &c, abodhayishye &c. 

Infinitive of Causals. 
a. The Infinitive may be most easily formed from the 3rd sing. 
1st Future, as explained at 459 j thus, from ^j comes «Auf*lril ' he 
will cause to know,' TNftfiJ^ ' to cause to know.' 

Passive of Causals. 

496. In forming a Passive verb from a Causal stem, the Causal 
suffix ^ni is rejected, but the other Causal changes of the root are 
retained before the Passive suffix ya. 

Thus, from Caus. stem Hin4 pdtaya (from ^Ti^'to fall') comes the Pass. 1TW 
pdtya, making 1st sing, Tt^ ' I am made to fall,' 3rd sing. MIKIrf ' he is made to 
fall.' Similarly, WT 'to stand' makes Wmifrf 'he causes to stand,' ^TTOff 'he 
is caused to stand;' and sH 'to know' makes 'stmiiV 'he causes to know,' and 
St«4n 'he is caused to know,' 'he is informed.' 

a. In the General tenses, the stem of all the tenses, excepting the 
Perfect, may vary from the Atmane form by the optional rejection 
of the conjugational *tj. But in. the Perfect, the Atmane of the 
usual form with dm and the auxiliaries (490, 385) is admitted for 
the Passive. In the Aorist, the usual reduplicated form (49a) gives 
place to the Atmane form which belongs to those verbs of the first 
nine classes which assume i. 



DESIDERATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM, 209! 

Thus, from H^fl, the Causal stem of £. ' to be/ come the Passive Perfect 

m^n^i or wrawrfc or «nreig>j^ ; ist Fut. >rnrfjnn% or mfinnt ; 2nd Fut, 

HRftm or HlfV$; Adr. -3Wrefaf«l or ^mfafa, 3rd sing. *«rfa; Prec. «TC- 
ftrtft or mfaifita ; Cond. SSWTCfaBl or Sf M Tf V Sr. 

b. Similarly, from "^VW, Causal stem of "^1 ' to know,' come Passive Perfect 
'nVn^^i &c. ' I have been caused to know ;' ist Fut;. ^hlftfin^ or *ftiVtn? &c. 
'I shall be caused to know;' 2nd Fut. ^WfTHl or *ftft|«& &c; Aor. ^H^Nftrfa 
or ^tftlfa ' I have been caused to know,' 2. "a^VftrST^ or WftfVOT^, 
3. ^Vftl &c. 

c. So also, from $111, Causal stem of 31* 'to cease,' come the Passive Perfect 
SWirarai or ^l«i-Ml*lT% &c. ' I have been caused to cease,' &c. ; ist Fut. SPrfliH^ 
or 3frf»nn^; 2nd Fut. ^Wftrs? or ^rfT^; Aor. ^tyHfrlft or 'ST^rfafa, 3rd sing. 
I^Tfl; Prec. ^JrftjiftTT &c. : and the radical a may be optionally lengthened; 
thus, ist Fut. ^Rfiranr or ^rmfaint & c . 

d. So also, ^rejfa or V^lfiT, 3rd sing. Aor., from Causal of t|. 

Obs. — Even 13^, W^, W^, and some other roots which end in a double conso-. 
nant, may optionally lengthen the medial a.,- thus, Aor. 3rd sing. ^ftf^ or ^TClfSf. 

Desiderative of Causals. 

497. When Causals and verbs of cl. io take a Desiderative forro> 
(see 498), they retain ay, and are all formed with isha ; thus, ITTHlTfil 
'I cause to fall' makes fwnfiRTfH 'I desire to cause to fall;' 
yimnfa ' I cause to sleep * makes tj^nrftrerfa ' I desire to cause tp 
sleep ;* ^ cl. 10, ' to steal,' makes ^fHf^pnfif ' I wish to steal.' 

a. The Desiderative stem of the Causal of ^SX^t, ' to go over,' is either VHUIlfrj- 
Vfam or ^fvftpTTTjftru ; of the Causal of 3? ' to call,' SJ^TCfui? (as if from ?m) ; 
of the Causal of $(T ' to know,' $fN? (or regularly fifsJIUpire or fsnjfTftre); f the. 
Causal of fsjf ' to swell,' ^lT=rfn^ (or regularly fsraniftrej. 

DESIDERATIVE VERBS. 

498. Every root in the ten classes may take a Desiderative form* 

a. Although this form of the root is not often used, in classical composition, in 
its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the Desiderative stem 
are not uncommon (see 80. 1, and 82. VII). Moreover, there are certain Primitive 
roots which take a Desiderative form, without yielding a Desiderative sense ; and 
these, as equivalent to Primitive verbs (amongst which they are generally classed), 
may occur in classical Sanskrit; e.g.jugups, 'to blame,' from J^gup; Mkits, to» 
cure,' from ftfiH kits titiksh, 'to bear,' from ff[*T tijj 'rtTt^ mimdns, 'to reason» r 
from m^man; bibhats, 'to abhor,' from ^T^or ^. 

E e 



210 DESIDERATIVE VEKBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

499. Desideratives take the terminations at 246, with the substi- 
tutions required in classes 1, 4, 6, and 10; and their inflexion, 
either in Parasmai or iitmane, is generally determined by the practice 
of the Primitive verb. 

Thus, root ^ budh, cl. 1, ' to know,' taking both inflexions in the Primitive, 
may take both in the Desiderative (bubodhishdmi Sec, or bubodhishe &c, I desire 
to know')j and c5** labh, 'to obtain,' taking only the Atmane in the Primitive, 
may take only the Atmane in the Desiderative (lipse &c, I desire to obtain'). 

500. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and gene- 
rally, though not invariably, if the Primitive verb inserts ^ i (see 
393—415), affix 5^ ish or in a few roots ^ (see 393) ; if it rejects i, 
then simply ^ s, changeable to ^ sh (by 70 ; see, however, f), to the 
root so reduplicated. The vowel a is then added, as in classes 1, 4, 
6, and 10; and, agreeably to the rule in those classes, this a becomes a 
before terminations beginning with m and v (but not before simple m). 

a. Thus, from f^^kship, ' to throw,' comes the stem ciks/upsa (<%kshipsd-{-mi= 
PTn.pflTf'T tikshipsdmi Sic, 'I desire to throw'); but from fa? vid, 'to know,' 
taking inserted i, comes vividisha (vividisM+mi=i<t fi fi; m (ti vividishami &c. In 
Atm. the stem is vivitsa). 

b. Some roots, however, which reject the inserted * in other forms, 
assume it in the Desiderative, and vice versa. Some, again, allow an 
option; thus, ^'to be 5 makes fa«ffrf*i &c. or P«J<jrHlfa &c. See the 
lists at 393—415. 

c. The reduplication of the consonant is in conformity with the rules at 252 ; 
that of the vowel belonging to the initial consonant follows the analogy of Causal 
Aorists at 493 ; that is, the vowel ^i is reduplicated for a, d, i, i, ri, H, Iri, e, or ax; 
but the vowel "3 u for u, ■&, and 0; and also for the a of av or dv -preceded by any 
consonant except j, a labial or a semivowel ; thus, fr. ^ ' to cook ' comes Desid. 
stem pipaksha by 296; fr. ^t^ 'to ask,' yiyddisha; fr. »ft^ 'to live,' jijivisha; 
fr. f5^'to see,' didriksha: fr. %^ 'to serve,' siaeeisha ; fr. ^ 'to sing,' jigdsa ; 
fr. ?T 'to know,' jijndsa (yiyvu<7KW) : but fr. g^ 'to join' comes yuyuksha ; fr. 
fc 'to purify,' pupusha; fr. ^ cl. 4, 'to know,' ^>JTO bubhutsa, see 299. a; 
fr. *n^TO, Causal stem of ^ 'to praise,' nundvayisha; fir. mm, Causal stem of ^ 

to purify,' pipdvayisha. 

d. And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy 
ef the same tense at 494; thus, from TOI comes ^?%3T; and with isha added, 
*%f$Pf. Similarly, from >S^ comes arjihisha: from ^, tijihisha; from $W, 
itikshisha ; from T^, wncftdwfta ,• see 494. 



DESIDERATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 211 

Obs. — In reduplication the vowel i takes the place of a, as being lighter ; see 
252. d. Obs. It is probably the result of a weakening of a. 

e. In Desiderative stems formed from the Causals of ^J ' to fall,' ff ' to run,' Tf 
' to go,' 3T ' to leap,' *$ ' to hear,' ^ * to distil,' and ^ ' to flow,' aord may be repre^ 
sented by either u or i; thus, the Causal of ^ makes fq^IT^f'W or fairaftrc. 

/. Observe — When the inserted s becomes sh by 70, the initial ^ of a root will 
not be affected by the vowel of the reduplioated syllable ; thus, sid makes sisiksha, 
not sishiksha ; and sev makes sisevisha. Except, however, ^, which makes (J|^ ; 
and except the Desid. of Causals, as fathlfin* fr. Caus. of fare. 

501. When a root takes the inserted i or i (393), and forms its 
Desiderative with isha or isha, then the final ^ fi is gunated. 

Thus, TT ' to cross ' makes titarisha or titarisha (also tititsha, see 502). 
a. Moreover, initial and medial i, it, ri are often, but not always, 
gunated if followed by a single consonant. 

Thus, '3TJ 'to go' makes odikhisha; ^ 'to wish,' eshishisha; f^'to play,' 
didevishaj "Ji^'to dance,' ninartisha .- but ftt 'to know,' vividisha. 

b. An option, as to Guna, is however generally allowed to medial i and u; thus, 
^ to rejoice' makes either mumodisha or mumudisha; fpS 'to become moist' 
either diklidisha or dikledishaj but roots in iv (e.g. siv) are peculiar, see 502. b. 

c. ^ 'to go' and 7 'to sound/ having no consonant, reduplicate 
the characteristic letter of the Desiderative with i ; thus, ^fera (used 
with the prepositions adhi andprati), so ~3if<em. 

50a. When a root rejects i and forms its Desiderative with 
?T sa, this sa, if affixed to roots ending in vowels, has the effect of 
lengthening a final ^ i or ? a; of changing *T e, TJ ai, ^ft 0, to ^IT d ; 
^ ri or ^ ri to ^t ir, or after a labial to ^rc: ur. 

Thus, from T^ comes didisha; from "W, sus"rusha; from ^, dikirshaj from H, 
jigdsa; from If, t itirsha ; from ''I, pup&rsha ; from ^,bubhurshaj from IJ, mumursha. 

a. When it is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the radical 
vowel generally remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines 
with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules at 396. 

As, from ^V comes yuyutsa (299); from <£f comes didhaksha (306. a); from gf, 
dudhuksha ; from ^J»^, bubhuksha. 

b. A medial long ri becomes ir, and final w becomes yu or is gunated ; thus, 
from ^TT comes dikfrtayisha j from ftT7, susyiisha or sisevisha. 

c. Many of the special rules for forming the stem in the last five tenses at 
390. a-o apply to the Desiderative; thus the roots at 390. a. generally forbid 
Guna (dukudisha &o.) 

. d. So *JttT makes bibhraksha or bibharksha or bibhrajjisha or bibharjisha (390. g) ; 
T*5T and TSIj mimanksha and nmanksha (390. k); «Tf , ninatsa (390. 0); ?JU.£I , 

e e a 



212 DESIDERATIVE VEEBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

didaridrisha (390. c,but makes also didaridrdsa); 3U^, dikamisha or tikdmayisha; 
*T<{, jugopisha or jugopdyisha ovjugupsa (390. 1). 

503. The following is an alphabetical list of other Desiderative stems, some of 
them anomalous: WfefCT fr. ^TT 'to wander;' ^lfffc*l fr. ^IJ 'to transgress;' 
^iftftS fr. ^ 'to go;' f^ fr. ^JT^'to obtain;' $T# (or regularly ^ffiffini) fr. 
^V 'to prosper;' ^P§fW orff^fq^ fr. t«t'to envy;' ^J^J? or 3fflJHfa? or 
^afcjfirc (390. b) fr. 'SrS 'to cover;' f-«l<*TN (or regularly fa^fa) fr. fa 'to col- 
lect ;' f»pTra (or regularly ftPTTW) fr. 1^' to go;' fSTlfiW (or regularly fn'ikl) 
fr. H*to swallow' (cf. 375. ?); ftmfa fr. f»T ' to conquer ;' fsniWfr. XR^'to eat' 
(used as Desid. of ^); fsnTT* fr. ^'to kill;' ftnffa fr. f? 'to send;' f^W 
fr. ?T| 'to take;' »$|[1 fr. % 'to call;' finifa (or regularly fmrfint) fr. 71^ 'to 
stretch ;' f TCffl fr. ij^ ' to kill ;' f^HT fr. ^T ' to give,' ^ ' to love,' and $1 ' to cut ;' 
f?F?f^ fr. "£ ' to respect;' f^ft* or f^N or f^tt fr. \ 'to tear;' f^gfiPt or 
f^fimfr.^* to shine;' f^vfic* fr. >J ' to hold ;' f^t (or regularly f^feP*) fr. 
f^ ' to play ;' fvw fr. VI 'to place ' and V ' to drink ;' fw or vKr (or f^fw) 
fr. ^»T 'to deceive;' fqw (or foxfire) fr. T^'to fall' and TJ^ 'to go;' fl<Tf<*»4 
or ftjp fr. £ 'to purify;' ftnjf^tl fr. V& 'to ask;' T>»rfCT or ^>jt fr. ^ 'to 
hear ;' fJTRT fr. IT ' to measure,' f*T ' to throw,' *TT ' to perish,' and *J ' to change ;' 
f»PlTf»N or ftpjEJ fr. IJST ' to rub ;' >ft^J fr. I^J" 1 * ne sense ot ' desiring release 
from mundane existence,' otherwise gg«j); fTttfa^ or g^ fr. ^ 'to join ;' TTRT 
fr. TIV ' to accomplish ;' ftw fr. T?T ' to take ;' fcS^ fr. 55* ' to obtain ;' f^fm 
or ft^rN or <J^*I fr. ^ ' to choose ;' f^sT^ fr- "&\' to cut ;' f$TC| fr. 3P(j ' to be 
able;' fsrafip* (or fsi^rN) fr. fa 'to have recourse to;' ftrera (or fttaftr^) fr. 
W^ 'to obtain,' ' to give ;' ftrwftw fr. fijR ' to smile ;' fa^ft^ (or *J*5j§) fr. ^ 
"fa sound;' *jg*«J fr. ^l/to sleep.' 

General Tenses of Desideratives. 

504. The Perfect must be of the Periphrastic form as explained at 385 ; that is, 
WI dm added to the Desiderative stem, as already formed, with sa, isha, or (sha 
(500), is prefixed to the Perfect of one of the auxiliaries kri, as, or bhu (see 385) ; 
thus, from pipaksha (root pad, ' to cook') comes the Perfect pipakshdhdakdra, ' I 
wished to cook ;' from bubodhisha (root budh, to know') comes bubodhishdni'akdra, 
bubodhishdmdsa, bubodhishdmbabhuva, I wished to know.' 

a. In all the remaining tenses it is a universal rule, that inserted i be assumed 
after the Desiderative stem, whether formed by sa or isha, except in the Precative 
Parasmai ; thus, from pad comes 1st Fut. pipakshitdsmi &c. ; 2nd Fut. pipakshi- 
shydmi &c. ; Aor. apipakshisham &c. (form I, B, at 418) ; Prec. Par. pipakshydsam 
&c. ; Atm. pipakshisMya &c. ; Cond. apipakshishyam &c. So also, taking riridish 
(formed with isha from vid, 'to know'), the 1st Fut. is vividishitdsmi; 2nd Fut. 
vividishishydmi ; Aor. avividishisham &c. Similarly, from bubodhisha, 1st Fut. 
bubodhishitdsmi Sec; 2nd Fut. bubodhishishydmi ; Aor. abubodhishisham Sec. 



FREQUENTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 213 

b. The Infinitive may be formed regularly from the ist Future; thus, from 
bubodhishitd, 'he will wish to know,' comes bubodhishitum, 'to wish to know.' 

Passive of Desideratives. 

505. Desideratives may take a Passive form by adding ya to the Desiderative 
Stem after rejecting final a; thus, from bubodhisha comes bubodhishye, ' I am wished 
to know,' &c. The General tenses will not vary from the Active Atmane-pada 
form of Desiderative except in the Aor. 3rd sing., which will be abubodhishi instead 
of abubodhishishta. 

Causal of Desideratives. 

506. Desiderative verbs may take a Causal form ; thus, dudyushdmi, ' I desire to 
play' (from div), makes in Caus. dudy4shaydmi, I cause to desire to play,' &c, 

FREQUENTATIVE OR INTENSIVE VERBS. 

507. Most roots may take a Frequentative form, except poly- 
syllabic roots, and except those of cl. 10, and except certain roots 
beginning with vowels. 

Obs. — "3W| 'to cover,' however, has forms «i«ui«jJI and *<!jlf»J. Some few roots 
also beginning with vowels take the Atmane form of Frequentative ; see examples 
at 511. a. b, 681. a. 

a. The Frequentative form is even less common in classical composition than 
the Desiderative. In the Pres. Part., however, and in nouns, it not unfrequently 
appears (see 80. VI). It either expresses repetition or gives intensity to the radical 
idea; thus, ft. ^T^'to shine* comes the Frequent, stem dedipya (Pres. 3rd sing. 
dedipyate, 'it shines brightly'), and the Pres. Part, dedipyamdna, 'shining brightly :' 
so also, fr. ^PT 'to be beautiful,' hmbliya and dohbhyamdna; fr. Ts<J to weep,' 
rorudya and rorudyamdna. 

508. There are two kinds of Frequentative verb, the one a redu- 
plicated Xtmane-pada verb, with ya affixed, conforming, like Intran- 
sitive and Passive verbs, to the conjugation of cl. 4, and usually, 
though not always, yielding an Intransitive signification ; the other 
a reduplicated Parasmai-pada verb, following the conjugation of cl. 3. 
The latter is less common in classical Sanskrit than the former, and 
will therefore be considered last *. 

a. The terminations for the first form of Frequentative will be 
those of the Atmane at 246, with the usual substitutions required 
for the 4th class of verbs. For the second form they will be the 
regular Parasmai-pada terminations of the scheme at 246. 

* Intensive or Frequentative forms are found in Greek, such as waiiraWii, 
tai^aX^i), pcujj.d.%0} or jJ.ai[xcuo, irafucfjaiva, aXa\a^ie. 



214 FREQUENTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

JfTMANE-PADA FREQUENTATIVES, FORMED BY REDUPLICATION AND 

ADDING ya. 
509. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 
Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the Passive stem 
according to the rules for reduplicating consonants at 253, and 
gunate the reduplicated vowel (if capable of Guna), whether it be 
a long or short vowel. 

Thus, from the Passive stem ^fa (of dd, ' to give ') comes the Frequent, stem 
dediya (Pres. 1. ded{ya+i=^t^, 2. ded£ya+$e=%ffii&! &c); fr. l-fa (Pass, of 
hd, ' to quit ') comes jeMy a (jehiye &c.) ; fr. ^T^i (of W ' to spread ') comes tesHrya 
(also tdstarya); fr. tjp (of T£ 'to purify'), poptiya; fr. fair (of f%^ 'to know'), 
vevidyaj fr.fHt(of *JV'toknow'), bobudhya(Pres.^ft^fi,' ! ^VW,'$tWUfll,&c.) 
The conjugation of all four tenses corresponds exactly to that of the Passive. 

gio. As to the reduplication of the vowel, if the Passive stem contain a medial 
^T a, long d is substituted ; thus, papacy u from pady a ; sdsmarya from smarya. 

a. If it contain a medial ^Tt d, 1 e, or w 0, the same are reduplicated ; as, yd- 
ydiya from yd6ya; seshevya from sevya; lolo&ya from lodya. 

b. If it contain a medial ^ ri, then WCt ari* is substituted in the reduplication } 
as, ^fa*3*l from drtfyas m0*^$*4 from sprUya, &c. ; 3t^8T from "S^J ^hjrST 
from StjT. Similarly, aU is substituted for "& Iri, in efiTJ^making ^rtl «****. 

511. If a Passive stem has ft ri before ya, this ft ri becomes ^ ri in the Fre- 
quentative stem j as, -«i snl-4 from f^PT (Passive of ^ ' to do '). 

a. If the stem begin with ^? a, as in ^SlZef atya (from ^3Z 'to wander'), the initial 
at is repeated, and the radical a lengthened j thus, 4J4lde| atdtya (3rd sing. 
^il<Ja|Tr). Similarly, 'Sityi^t from ^T3T ' to pervade.' 

b. ^ri,' to go,' makes its stem ^tl§ ardrya. 

' 512. If the Passive stem contain a nasal after short a, this nasal generally appears 
in the reduplicated syllable, and is treated as final *{m; thus, fr. *W ' to go ' comes 
»1Sj-»«< ' to walk crookedly ;' fr. WT ' to wander,' ^*9Wf ; fr. T5P& ' to kill,' ^fjpt. 

a. The Passive stems aPT, *T**I, x^S, and some others formed from roots con- 
taining nasals (as ^'f, >TSI), may insert nasals, instead of lengthening the vowel 
in the reduplication ; thus, *i5)ui, *T5T**J, <T*<^> & 0, 

b. Anomalous forms. — ^ 'to go' (making 151) inserts ^ft ni; thus, ml 1(41. 
Similarly, ^'to fall,' ^ or 3F$t *to go,' tf^'to fan,' #^'to drop,' s4^*to 
fall,' 13TS8T 'to go,' ^ 'to deceive' (ipffrlW, ^nlohW, ^jfttf^, CTfteTCl, 
^apsff, ^it^ST, &c.) ^T; 'to go' makes ^f§. 

c. ^ 'to kill' makes SrafN; VI 'to smell,' #Sffa; wn 'to blow,' ^Wft* 
(^«rft &c.) ; »I ' to swallow,' %fn«iT. 

* This seems to support the idea that the original Guna of ri is art. See ap> b. 



FREQUENTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 215' 

General Tenses of Atmane-fada Frequentatives. 

513. In these tenses Frequentatives follow the analogy of Passives, and reject the 
suffix 1 ya. Since, however, the stem of the Perfect is formed by affixing ^TI*T dm (as 
usual in all polysyllabic forms, see 385), and since, in all the other tenses, inserted i 
is assumed, a coalition of vowels might arise were it not allowed to retain y in all 
cases in which a vowel immediately precedes that letter * ; thus, from ^<,fal is 
formed the Perfect 1st sing, ^^farraiii &c, rejecting ya; but from 5,^1 comes 
^M(«ja &c, retaining y. Similarly in the other tenses : 1st Fut. decKpitdhe, 
dediyitdhe, &c. ; 2nd Fut. dedipishye, dediyishye, &c. ; Aor. adedipishi, adediyishi, 
&c. ; Prec. dedlpishiya, dediyisMya, &c. ; Cond. adedlpishye, adedCyishye, &c. In 
the 3rd sing, of the Aor. ^ i is not allowed to take the place of the regular termina- 
tions, as in the Passive form. 

a. The Infinitive, as formed in the usual manner (459), will be dedipitum, &c. 

PAEASMAI-PADA FEEQUENTATIVES. 

514. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. The stem is here 
also formed by a reduplication similar to that of Atmane-pada Frequentatives j 
riot, however, from the Passive, but from the root ; thus, from root i^pai! comes 
pdpad; fr. f^ vid comes vevidj fr. 751^ comes daridrU; fr. ^ comes darikri. 

a. But in the Parasmai form of Frequentative, ^ift art and 5ft; ar as well as 'Sttf 
art may be reduplicated for the vowel ^J ri; so that "531 may make ^ft"?3l or 
^fijJSt or ^51 ; and <f, ^ft°£ or ^ft^ or ^j (Pan. vn. 4, 92). 

Similarly, eF^may make ^<3fcji^or ^fp5;|^or *»<;«* ^. 

b. Again, in roots ending in long ^T H, d is reduplicated for ^J rt, and this d is 
retained even when f{ becomes ir ; thus, TS kri, 'to scatter,' makes 1. ddkarmi; 
PI. 3. ddkirati. Similarly, from TT to cross' come tdtarmi and tdtirati. 

c. In the Special tenses Parasmai, these Frequentatives follow the conjugation of 
cl. 3, and in accordance with the rules for the 2nd and 3rd class (307, 331), the 
radical vowel is gunated before the P terminations of the scheme at 246. Hence, 
from vid come the two stems veved and vevid (Pres. vevedmi, vevetsi, vevetti; du. 
vevidvas, &c. ; Impf. avevedam, avevet, avevet, avevidva, &c. ; 3rd pi. avevidus; 
Pot. vevidydm, &c. j Impv. veveddni, veoiddki, vevettu, veoeddva, vevittam, &c) 

d. Again, the stem will vary in accordance with the rules of combination at 296- 
306, as in ^TV budh (Pres. bobodhmi, bobhotsi, boboddhi, bobudhvas, &c. ; see 298). 
So also, ^? vah makes in 3rd sing. Tt^fe vdvodhi (see 305. o) ; gT makes <^<j jfrv 
(305); 'f makes «TH% (305 note); pf makes ^jftfe or ^t^tfrv; andf^, 
it^nfe or iiwf"* (305. 6). 

e. And in further analogy to cl. 2 (313, 314) long i is often optionally inserted 

* In Passives -this coalition of vowels is avoided by the change of a final vowel 
to Vriddhi, as of 6i to idy, of hu to hdv, and of kri to Mr; and by the change of 
final d to dy, as of da to ddy ; see 474. 



216 FREQUENTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM, 

before the consonantal P terminations (Pres. vevedfaii, veoedhhi, vevedCti; du. 
vevidvas, &c. ; Impf. aveoedam, avevedh, avevedit, avevidva, &c. ; Impv. veveddni, 
veviddhi, veoedttu). 

513. Lastly, when the root ends in a vowel, the usual changes take place of t 
and /to y or iyj of u and 4 to uvj and of ft to r (see 312) : as in the roots *ft bhi, 
»J.iM, ^ hri (Pres. 1st sing, bebhemi, bobhomi, tarkarmi; 3rd pi. bebhyati, bobhu- 
vati, iarhrati). 

a. Observe — Many of the anomalous formations explained under A'tmane-pada 
Frequentatives must be understood as belonging also to the Parasmai-pada; thus, 
1^ (512. b) makes in Parasmai MllvPfl, lJ«TtafW', mlMfy, &c. ; and so with 
the other roots at 512. b. 

b. *!«^ 'to kill,' 'I 'to swallow' (512. c), and some others have a separate 
Parasmai-pada form (aiiyf"*, aii'i(<i; the last identical with Pres. of jIPJ). 



General Tenses of Parasmai-pada Frequentatives. ' 

516. The Perfect follows the usual rule for polysyllabic roots (385), and affixes 
SSTT dm with the auxiliaries; thus, from ^9 bttdh, 'to know,' comes bobudhdmdsa, 
bobudhdmbabhuva, bobudhdndakdra; from f%^ vid, 'to know,' comes veviddmdsa. 
Guna of a final and sometimes of a penultimate vowel is required before dm,; thus, 
bobhu (from *},) becomes bobhavdmdsa. So also, «fil makes vdvartdmdsa. In the 
other tenses, excepting the Precative, inserted i is invariably assumed ; and before 
this inserted 1 some roots are said to forbid the usual Guna change of the radical 
vowel in the 1st Fut. &c. ; thus, budh is said to make bobudhitdsmi ; bhi, 'to fear,' 
bebhyitdsmi, &c. (374) ; 2nd Fut. hobndhishydmi, bebhyishydmi, &c. ; Aor. abobu- 
dhisham, abebhdyisham, &c. ; Prec. bobudhydsam, bebhiydsam, &c. ; Cond. abobu- 
dhishyam, ttbebhyishyam, &c. The rejection of Guna from the radical syllable, 
however, admits of question; thus, bhu, 'to be,' makes, according to the best 
authorities, bobhavitdsmi, &c. 

a. The Infinitive will be formed in the usual way from the 1st Fut., see 513. a. 



Passive, Causal, Desiderative, and Desiderative Causal form 
of Frequentatives. 

517. Frequentatives are capable of all these forms. The Passive, when the root 
ends in a consonant, will be identical with the Atmane-pada Frequentative formed 
by reduplication and the suffix ya ; thus, fr. Frequent, stem totuda, 'to strike often,* 
comes totudye, ' I am struck often ;' but fr. loluya (U, 'to cut'), loluyye, &c. Again, 
fr. totuda comes totudaydmi, ' I cause to strike often ;' totudishdmi, ' I desire to 
strike often ;' totudayishdmi, I desire to cause to strike often.' 

a. The ya of the Atmane-pada Frequentative if preceded by a consonant is 
rejected; but not if preceded by a vowel; thus, loMya, Frequentative stem of hi, 
to cut,' makes loUyishdmi, I desire to cut often.' See 252./. 



NOMINAL VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 217 

, NOMINAL VERBS, OR VERBS DERIVED FROM NOUNS. 

518. These are formed by adding certain suffixes to the stem of 
nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, there 
is no limit to their formation. They might be classed according to 
their meaning; viz. 1st, Transitive Nominals, yielding the sense of 
performing, practising, making or using the thing or quality expressed 
by the noun ; and, Intransitive Nominals, giving a sense of behaving 
like, becoming like, acting like the person or thing expressed by the 
noun ; 3rd, Desiderative Nominals, yielding the sense of wishing 
for the thing expressed by the noun. It will be more convenient, 
however, to arrange them under five heads, according to the suffixes 
by which they are formed, as follows : — 

519. 1st, Those formed by affixing ^r a (changeable to o before 
a syllable beginning with m and v) to a nominal stem, after Guna 
of its final vowel (if capable of Guna). When the stem ends in a, this 
vowel takes the place of the suffix a. A final a absorbs the suffix. 

Obs. — The terminations of Nominals will be those of the scheme at 246, both for 
Par. and Xtm., requiring the substitutions of the ist, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes. 

«. Thus, from «pH!t ' Krishna,' Pres. 1. ^ranTfa ' I act like Krishna,' 2. ^BJlftt, 
3. ejftinftT, &c. So, from =Bfa ' a poet,' Pres. 1. eR^TfT ' I act the poet,' 2. ^i^lftr, 
&c. ; and from flij 'a father,' Pres. 1. ftlTRTfa ' I act like a father,' 2. ftpltfiff, 
3. ftrHTfir; Atm. Pres. 1. ftntT, &c. ; from HTcST 'a garland,' Pres. 1. »TIe?Tf»T, 

2. mpnftr, 3. JrraTfir; impf. 1. ^mian^, 2. 'srorai^, &c. ; Pot. ht&^, &c. ; 

from ?<f ' own,' Pres. 3. ^fil 'he acts like himself.' Sometimes a final i or u is 
not gunated ; as, from 3ifa ' a poet,' Pres. ^i^Tfa, 3?^lf%, &c. (Pan. vn. 4, 39). 
Words ending in nasals preserve the nasals, and lengthen the preceding vowels ; 
as, TT»n«Tffr 'he acts like a king,' trsjtqfTT 'it serves as a road,' ^tlfw 'he acts 
like this.' 

520. andly, Those formed by affixing n ya to a nominal stem. 

a. If a word end in a consonant, ya is generally affixed without change ; as, 
from m^ 'a word,' ^T^rfif 'he wishes for words;' from fi^' heaven,' H^uf 'he 
wishes for heaven' (or, according to some, ^Nrfu) ; from THW[ ' penance,' TT'WfiT 
'he does penance;' from T*T^ ' reverence,' «WPlfft ' he does reverence.' Final 
n is dropped, and the next rule then applied; thus, from ^M^'a king,' Pres. 
trafrlTfa, Pot. TTSfforci;; from Vft^'rich,' tRfatfH, &c. 

b. A final ^f a or "m a is generally changed to ^ i; final 3[ i or -3- u 
lengthened; final ^ ri changed to T\ri; ^fto to av; ^ au to dv. 

Thus, from $3 'a son,' Pres. 1. pffalfa 'I desire a son,' 2. 'pfNfa, &c; 
from vfrx ' a husband,' Pres. 1. mftflfa ' I desire a husband,' &c. So also, from. 
»TI^ 'a mother' comes HT^falfa, &c 

Ff 



218 NOMINAL VERBS.— FORMATION OP STEM. 

c. This form of Nominal has not always a Desiderative meaning. The following 
are examples of other meanings, some of which properly belong to the next form : 
Hren^fafTT 'he fancies himself in a palace;' <*<ft*(frf 'he acts likeapoet;' <*Hi!i1nr 
or -If 'he scratches;' TtPlfit or -K 'he sins' or 'he is angry;' f*lGll*in 'he acta 
the part of a friend ;' f ^tafif s*lf^ ' he treats the pupil as a son ;' fawnrfir ?sn\ 
' he treats the Brahman as if he were Vishnu ;' fTOSfif ' he vanishes ;' T^lfil ' he 
seeks cows' (from >n ' a cow'). 

d. In the sense of ' behaving like/ ' acting like/ ' doing like/ a final ^T a is 
generally lengthened, a final ^11 d retained, and a final «(?!, ^s, or c^* dropped; 
thus, from ttft^il ' a wise man/ Pres. I. ifiSJcTHJ ' I act the part of a wise man,' 
2. "jfijirfN^, 3. TTferniW, &c; from 1>T 'a tree/ Pres. I. ^*n^, &c; from 
31^ 'a noise,' Pres. ^T^TO ' I am noisy ;' from tt»T«^'a king/ Pres. 1. tmH* &c; 
from ^«HH^ ' sorrowful/ Pres. 4**Mlli, &c. ; from ^Ti^ ' great/ Pres. ^&*l, &c. 

«. This Nominal is sometimes found with a Transitive sense, especially when 
derived from nouns expressive of colour ; as, from ^H!t ' black/ <ji«!ii*io or -TS 'he 
blackens :' and sometimes in the Parasmai with an Intransitive sense; as, from Pnw 
' crooked/ fwsn^fif ' it is crooked ;' from ^TH ' a slave/ ^TOTTfil ' he is a slave.' 
It corresponds to Greek Desiderative Denominatives in taw, as OavaTiato &c. 

521. 3rdly, Those formed by affixing wx aya to a nominal stem. 
This form is similar to that of Causals and verbs of the 10th class, 
with which it is sometimes confounded. Like them it has generally 
an Active sense. A final vowel must be dropped before aya ; and if 
the nominal stem have more than one syllable, and end in a consonant, 
both the consonant and its preceding vowel must be dropped. 

a. Thus, from ^^ ' cloth/ Pres. 1. '^gpnfit ' I clothe/ 2. ^^iftt, 3. ^pftlfiT, 
&c. ; from =(5t^ ' armour/ Pres. 1. ^flTlfil 'I put on armour/ &c. ; from WTTO 
'authority/ XWTOITfT 'I propose as authority;' from €T3^'a garland/ B»pnfa 
' I crown ;' from '37 ' a jar,' qc<4ifa ' I make a jar ' or ' I call it a jar/ &c. 

b. In further analogy to Causals, \p is sometimes inserted between the stem 
and aya, especially if the noun be monosyllabic, and end in a. Before this \j>, 
Vriddhi is required ; thus, from *? ' own,' Pres. ^T'WTfl ' I make my own/ 
There are one or two examples of dissyllabic nouns; thus, from WK 'true,' 
WntPUfa, &c. ; and from ^T*T ' substance/ ^t$l*HufH, &c. 

c. If the stem be monosyllabic, and end in a consonant, Guna may take place ; 
as, from 'BJ^ ' hunger/ TSftvmfH. 

d. Whatever modifications adjectives undergo before the suffixes (yas and ishtha 
at 194, the same generally take place before aya; thus, from ^Hf 'long/ £|l|t|lfH 
' I lengthen ;' from ^rf»ir^i ' near,' H^nfa ' I make near,' &c. 

c. This form of Nominal is sometimes Intransitive, as f^tTfa 'he delays' (from 
fat 'long'). According to Bopp, Greek Denominatives in av, €», ow, *£w cor- 
respond to this form; as, woAe/a-ow, yvvatK^o). 



PRESENT PARTICIPLES; PARASMAI-PADA. 219 

533. 4thly, Those formed by affixing ^q sya or ^nsr asya to a 
nominal stem, giving it the form of a Future tense, generally with the 
sense of ' desiring/ ' lodging for/ 

a. Thus, fr. ■Brft'milk,' Pres. i. S^HOTfa ' I desire milk/ 2. ^fosqftr, &c; 
fr. f* 'a bull,* ^CTfrT '(the cow) desires the bull;' fr. ^fv 'curds,' ^retrffa 
' I desire curds,' &c. Cf. Greek Desideratives in crtta. 

533. 5thly, Those formed by affixing grtwi kdmya (derived from 
kam, 'to desire') to a nominal stem; as, from ■$& 'a son/ Pres. 1. 
3d=hl«(lftT ' I desire a son,' 3. S^Wffa, 3. pWffa, &c. ; from Tf^ 
' fame/ ^sranwrTfir ' I desire fame.' 

a. The General tenses of these Nominals will be formed analogously 
to those of other verbs ; thus, from ^rfir ' I act like self comes 
Perf. *r^; from cjiinT*nf>T 'I play like a boy' comes Aor. 'sr^TT^, 
&c. A long vowel in the stem generally remains unchanged, and is 
not shortened ; thus, TTjynffl (from nr&l ' a garland') makes WflHT55*r. 
So also, srfitfunn 'he will wish for fuel' (Guna being omitted), 
g^TfwnTT ' he will wish for a son.' 

b. Nominal verbs may take Passive, Causal, Desiderative, and 
Frequentative forms. The Causal of those formed with aya will be 
identical with the Primitive Nominal ; thus, ^H^lfa'I put on armour' 
or ' I cause to put on armour.' In reduplicating for the Desiderative 
or Frequentative, sometimes the last syllable is repeated, sometimes 
the first : thus, circsST ' to scratch' makes its Desiderative stem graKfn* 
far, and ipffal 'to treat as a son' makes y^dlftm or ijeftftlftre. Accord- 
ing to some, the middle syllable may be reduplicated ; thus, ijfjrfsrfire. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLES ; PARASMAI-PADA. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

534. Present Participles are the only Participles the formation of 
which is connected with the conjugational class of the verb. The 
stem in the Parasmai may be most easily formed by dropping the 
final i of the 3rd pers. pi. Pres. Par. and rejecting the nasal in certain 
cases (see 141. a, 84. 1); e. g. 

From T^far patanti, 'they cook ' (3rd pi. Pres. of Vft, cl. 1), comes V^i^padat, 
'cooking;' fr. Iff^T gbncmti, 'they kill' (3rd pi. of hm, cl. 2), comes Wf^ghnat, 
'killing;' fr. ^far santi, 'they are' (3rd pi. of as, cl. 2, 'to be'), comes WS^fat, 
'being;' fr. vfcfi yanti, 'they go' (3rd pi. of $, cl. 2), Hf^i/at, 'going;' fr. Wfa 

F f % 



220- PRESENT PARTICIPLES; a'tMANE-PADA. 



•i, 'they go' (3rd pi. of *IT, cl. 2), Vtf^ydt; fr. SJ^fa juhvati, 'they sacrifice' 
(3rd pi. of hu, cl. 3), »J3p^ juhvat; fr. rpqfa nrityanti, 'they dance,' cl. 4, 
tJWiT nrityat; fr. f^^f'iT dirwanti, ' they gather,' cl. 5, f-q^i^rfmca*; fr. ^n^fsff 
dpnuvanti, ' they obtain, ' cl. 5, ^TiH=in dpnuvat j fr. (jv^f tvdanti, ' they strike, ' cl. 6, 
tudat; fr. ^ajf% rundhanti, 'they hinder,' cl. 7, rundhat ; fr. $l("ir lcuroanti, 
'they do,' cl. 8, kurvat; fr. <j«lf»«i punanti, 'they purify,' cl. g,punat. 

535. The same holds good in Derivative and Nominal verhs ; e. g. 

From Caus. "^Vlf'fl' ' they cause to know ' (479) comes ^WTH ' causing to 
know;' fr. Desid. ^^tfv^fsjr (499) comes "«pftfV^' desiring to know;' fr. f^rtif"!! 
(503) comes r^wii' desiring to give ;' fr. Frequent, ^rftsprfir comes ^TBfmi 'throw- 
ing frequently;' from the Nominal «£«*>!!"•« 'they act like Krishna,' ^ajin 'acting 
like Krishna;' fr. THJ^rftir 'they do penance,' rt^ tun 'doing penance.' 

a. In corroboration of the remark made at 461. 0, that the Passive verb appears 
in a few rare instances to assume a Parasmai~pada inflexion, and that many of the 
Intransitive verbs placed under cl. 4 might be regarded (except for the accent) as 
examples of this form of the Passive, it is certain that a Parasmai-pada Present 
Participle derivable from a Passive stem is occasionally found ; thus, c^mii ' being 
seen,' from the Passive stem ~tt*t drUya; ^11^ 'being gathered,' from ^fal Hya 
(Passive stem of <S). 

h. The inflexion of Parasmai-pada Present Participles is explained 
at 141. The first five or strong inflexions (see 135. a) of this parti- 
ciple in nine conjugational classes retain the nasal, shewing that the 
stem in all the classes, except the third, and a few other verbs (141. a), 
ends in ant as well as in at. The Parasmai-pada Frequentative, as 
conforming to the conjugational rule for cl. 3, also rejects the nasal. 

Obs. — In the cognate languages the n is preserved throughout. Cf. Sk. bharan, 
bharantam (fr. bhri), with (ptptnv, (pepovTa, ferentem ; also, bharantau (Ved. bha- 
rantd) with (pepovre ; bharantas with <f>tpovT€£,ferentes; bharatas with (fttpovrtif ; 
Gen. sing, bharatas with (f>epovro(, ferentis. So also, Sk. vahan, vahantam, with 
Lat. vehens, vehentem ; and san, santam (fr. as, ' to be'), with Lat. -sens of ab-sens, 
prte-sens. Cf. also the strong stem strinvant- with (TTopvvvT-. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLES ; A'TMANE-PADA. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

526. The stem is formed by substituting *tr mdna for ^ nte, the 
termination of the 3rd pi. Pres. i&m. of verbs of the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 
10th classes, and Derivative verbs (see 537, 538, below); and by 
substituting ^srrr dna for ^ff ate, the termination of the 3rd pi. Pres. 
Jitm. of verbs of the other classes (see 346) ; e. g. * 

VromV^m pa6ante(c\.i) comes wiwpadamdna, 'cooking;' fr.firff^(sM</,cl.i), 
firffHR ' standing ;' fr. ^^t (cl. 4), ^WTO ; fr. frt« T^ (Up, c l. 6), f&WWR. 



PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 221 

a. But from sRK bruvate (\c\. 2), 7^*5 bruvdna (58); fr. fHflri (TR^ with f?T 
cl. 2), f»mR ; fr. ^ {dhd, cl. 3), ^TR ; fr. f'SRT^ (ol. S), fa^IR ; fr. f^ (cl. 7), 
g^R ; fr. ft^ (cl. 8), ft™ ; fr. tR^ (cl. 9), *JTR . Root ^ cl. 3, ' to sit,' 
makes ^TRR for ^TRR; and $ft cl. 2 is ^T^ in 3rd pi. (see 315), but 3PTR in 
Pres. Part. 

Obs. — The real suffix for the Pres. Part. Atm. is mdna, of which dna is probably 
an abbreviation. Cf. Gr. -fJLtvo- in (f)epo-fJi,evo-s=bhara-mdri,a (58). 

527. Verbs of class 10 and Causals substitute *TR mdna; as, fr. 
'"f|t|*4»rf bodhayante comes ^rirr bodhayamdna : but occasionally 
^TRaraa; as, fr. ^hT^, ^Nr ; fr. %%>&, ^crR ; 'fr. fsRnw, t>PintR ; 
fr. ssrw, tj[*PTR. 

528. Passives, Desideratives, Frequentatives, &c. substitute HR 
mdna for the Atmane ; thus, from fara - ^ ' they are made' comes 
faPRTO 'being made' (58); from sffara' 'they are given,' ^^HR 'being 
given ;* from the Desiderative f^W^ ' they desire to give,' f^WTR 
'desiring to give;' from fjRR'a' 'they desire to kill,' ftpjRTR 
' desiring to kill ;' from the Frequentative ^t^upff ' they know 
repeatedly,' ^rfaniHR 'knowing repeatedly.' 

529. The inflexion of Pres, Participles Atmane follows that of 
adjectives at 187 ; as, N. sing. m. f. n. thhm^, tj^rt, q-cfflR^. 

PAST PARTICIPLES. 

PAST PASSIVE PAETICIPLES. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

530. This is the most common and useful of all Participles. In 
general the stem is formed by adding it ta directly to roots ending 
in vowels, and to most roots ending in consonants ; as, fr. m yd, ' to 
go,' ifm ydta, 'gone;' fr. fir 'to conquer,' fsTTf 'conquered;' fr. ift 
' to lead,' tt'ttt ' led ;' fr. f^t^kship, ' to throw,' fopr kshipta, ' thrown ;' 
fr. f 'to do/ ofiT ' done' (see 80. XVII). 

a. But if the root end in ^ rl, by adding tT na, changeable to T!i na 
(58); as, fr. "sk kri, 'to scatter,' ^frisf kirna, 'scattered,' see 534. 

531. Some roots in ^1 a, § i, and ^i u, some in $ ai preceded by 
two consonants, with some of those in ^ d, ^ r, !{j, one in ^ g (c3*t), 
and one or two in ^ 6, S 6h (see 541, 544), also take na instead of 
ta ; see 80. XXIV, 532, 536, 540, &c. 

532. Roots ending in vowels do not generally admit inserted ^ i 
in this Participle, even when they admit it in the Futures (39 2 X 
395, &c), but attach ta or na directly to the root ; as, fr. tit ' to 



222 PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

protect,' mw ; fr. ftr 'to resort to/ fw; fr. BJ 'to hear,' ^7f; £'to 
become, 5 jjw; ^ 'to do/ fir; OT 'to smell/ UTO (58); ?r 'to fly/ 
Tt-T ; ^ ' to decay/ ?ffa ; ?ft ' to perish/ »rfcT ; c?ft ' to embrace/ ^TJT ; 
^ *to be ashamed/ ^Ni; ^ 'to cut/ <|»?r; g 'to be afflicted,' gsr; 
fsar ' to swell/ ^T. 

a. But when they do retain i, gunation of the final vowel is 
required as in the Future ; thus, $ft ' to lie down' makes ^rftlff ; and 
^ ' to purify/ Tjf%TT (also tjw); and jfTf ' to awake/ ^mfcl. 

533. In certain oases .the final vowel of the root is changed ; thus, some roots in 
^TT a change d to i before ta ; as, from WT sthd, ' to stand,' V&fH sthita ; from *TT 
' to measure,' ftfif ; from ^ft^T ' to be poor,' i^ftf £ rt • 

a. VT ' to place' becomes f%TT ; <JT 'to give,' (fW. 

Obs. — When prepositions are prefixed to datta, the initial da may be rejected ; 
thus, dtta for ddattn, ' taken ;' pratta for pradatta, bestowed ;' vydtta for vyddatta, 
expanded;' ntita for nidatta, given away;' partita for paridatta, 'delivered 
over;' stitta for sudatta, 'well given,' the i and u being lengthened. 

b. IT 'to drink' makes iffa; but |[T 'to quit,' ^TH; and Wl 'to grow old,' 
»TtT; ITT 'to go,' 1TR. 

c. Some roots in d take both na and ta ,• as, fr. ITT ' to smell,' UTO and UTtf ; fr. ^T 
'to blow,' with prep, TH^, f«HHU and f^TTT ; fr. ^IT (or €ty 'to cook,' 'WTO or f^tTT. 

534. Roots in ^ ri change r/to /r before na, which passes into JJT na by 58 ; as, 
from 71' to pass,' TTTw 'passed.' But when a labial precedes, rC becomes ur; as, 
from ^ or ^T, $# or ^j5 ' full,' ' filled.' 

535. The root Vf dhe, ' to suck,' forms >ifbT ; % hue, ' to call,' TgTt ; % re, ' to 
weave,' 3TT; ^T vye, ' to cover,' ^hl ; * 'to barter,' f»fiT. 

536. Roots in If ai generally change ai to d before na or ta j as, from *?? mlai, 
' to fade,' *WHT mldna ; from ^ ' to meditate,' HffiT (in the Veda VtiT) ; from ^ ' to 
purify,' ^TiT ; from §f ' to rescue,' ^TO or 3T«T ; from ^ ' to grow fat,' 'HUT, &c. 

a. But fr. ^ 'to sing,' iftn ; fr. ^ 'to waste,' tftK ; fr. ^ ' to waste,' T^TH, see 
548 ; fr. $ 'to coagulate,' fjftrt .or ^ifa or S^TR ; fr. iW 'to accumulate,' ^TT!T, 
(with U) ^ftlT or *tft»T. 

537- °f tne four or five roots in ^T 0, *ft 'to destroy' makes ftril (as also 
ftf 'to bind'); $fr 'to sharpen,' f^TC or $TTir; ^1 'to tie/ f^Tl ; ^ 'to cut,' 
•grir and fW J Wt ' to instruct,' Wtif . 

538. Those roots ending in consonants which take the inserted t 
in the last five tenses (399), generally take this vowel also in the 
Past Pass. Part., but not invariably (see 543) j and when i is assumed, 
ta is generally affixed, and not na; as, from VT^pat, 'to fall/ ijfirTf 
patita, 'fallen/ 

a. % i, 7 u, or ^ ri preceding the final consonant of a root may 



PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 223 

occasionally take Guna, especially if the Participle be used imper- 
sonally; as, fr. fer^ 'to sweat/ ^w or fi?R; fr. fm$ 'to be 
Unctuous/ ^f^r or fisrcj ; fr. a^ ' to shine,' sftfinr or srfirit ; fr. iju ' to 
bear/ nflil ; fr. iji* ' to sprinkle/ jjf. See Syntax, 895. 

b. !ff 'to take' lengthens the inserted i, making 'J^H. See 
399. a. 

539. Roots ending in consonants which reject the inserted i in 
the last five tenses (400-415), generally reject it in the Past Pass. 
Part. They must be combined with ta, agreeably to the rules 
of Sandhi at 396, &c. Whatever change, therefore, the final con- 
sonant undergoes before the termination ta of the 1st Put. (see 
400-415), the same will often be preserved before the ta of the 
Past Part. ; so that, in many cases, the form of this Participle 
resembles that of the 3rd sing. 1st Fut, provided the final a be 
shortened, and the vowel of the root preserved unaltered; thus, 
taking some of the roots at 400-415; ^r« (ym), W&\ ftw $m), 
ftrifi; g^(^T), gifi; TK^, Wlfi; pT, pi; ^, ^?; »pj; and ^3^, «|S; 
ftrtr,ftnr; J^,J»; 3^,3*; *^.^"; ^>W> W>W> f1,fw; 
<**, o5w; ^*, <5»; f%3i s , f^; f*r, ^f; far, ft; fs\, f*»; 5^, 
p; ^w, f?; ^, ^; i*|, ^v; *r^ 5 *te (415- m )i **%, HI (414); 

^Tf, nra (415- «); fef. tftej ^%, flpv; t^f. fwv; ^f, ^; ff, 

TO or 57V (415. m); |^, jni; >^, TO (415. »»). 

540. Most roots ending in ^ d, forbidding the inserted ^ i (405), take na instead 
of ta, and are combined with na, agreeably to 47 ; as, fr. TJ^ ' to go,' VR ; fr. f^Z 
'to find,' fa?T (also f^T); fr. ^rf 'to impel,' ^ (also ■%%); fr. fa^ 'to break,' f«W; 
fr. ^ 'to sit,' 'to sink,' *IW, with fa, f%TO (70, 58); fr. T|^ 'to pound,' "WQ; 
fr. 'BR ' to play,' ' to vomit,' 3W J fr. ^ ' to eat,' ^t^ (unless WV be substituted). 
|[T3 'to rejoice' makes |JW. 

541. Roots ending -in ? <? or »T j of course change these letters to A before ta; 
see examples at 539. Similarly, those which take na, change 6 and j to g before 
na; as, fr. ^T»T 'to be ashamed,' 'F'T 'naked;' fr. f^ 'to tremble,' for»T; fr. 
^t»T ' to break,' ^^ST ; fr. 'E^»T ' to thunder,' ^|7l!f ; fr. ^T ' to move ' (in some 
senses), 'STIR. So, fr. TtH 'to be immersed,' rejecting one,/, »!*«¥; from c355T 'to 
be ashamed,' W'T (as well as t5fWH). WT 'to adhere' also makes c5*?T. But 
?qra; 'to forget,' ^f^h ^ 'to be crooked,' ^T. 

542. Some roots which admit i necessarily or optionally in one or both of the 
Futures, reject it in this participle; thus, ^ 'to be bold' makes T|?. According 
to Pan. vii. 2. 24, ^ff ' to move ' makes , 3n5T arnna after the prepositions sam, ni, and 
fri, and in every other case ^tftpT ardita, so that after d prefixed, it becomes ^TTf^rT 



224 PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

falrf 'pained' is thought by some to be rita, fr. rt. ri, with prep, d prefixed, and, 
by others is regarded as an anomalous form of rt. ard; by native grammarians a 
form ^t# artta is referred to rt. ^<tQ ; "f^ ' to make firm,' ~^S ) ^ ' to extol,' ^ ', 
*% ' to be mad,' K3; ^H' to shine,' tfa ; TOFI ' to perish,' ^? ; ^ ' to faint,' ^ 
as well as ifSHJ jfat 'to speak barbarously,' %2 as well as S'f'Sil'j ^ to 
dance,' «JW,* Ti^'to strive,' VR. 

543. If in forming the Passive stem (471), the v or y contained in a root is 
changed to its semivowel u or i, the same change takes place in the Past Pass. 
Part.; as, fr. ^»o(f, 'to say,' T%ukta; fr. ^ 'to speak, '^W; fr. ^S ' to wish,' 
Tf^fT; fr. ^ 'to dwell,' TPtif ; fr. ^.'to sow,' TiT; fr. ^ 'to carry,' ^S (with 
H, WS, 38. n); fr. ^J.'to sleep,' *J7T; fr. TS^'to sacrifice,' Jt. 

Obs. — This change of a semivowel to its corresponding vowel is called Sampra- 
sarana by native grammarians (Pan. 1. 1, 45). 

a. Some roots change T with a preceding or following vowel into 'Si ', as, *a<- 
' to be feverish,' i|5§ J ?9^' to hasten,"^; fe^'to dry,' ^7f; 'ST^' to protect,' 
"3irr; H^ 'to bind,' ^H. 

b. Some roots ending in ^also substitute 'Si for ^; as, f^'to play,' ^TT and 
W5T(the former only in the sense of 'to gamble'); ftl^'to sew,' ^W; fef^or 
Tiffar 'to spit,' ^jfj fff^or '5^'to spit,' WjT. 

544. Some other changes which take place in forming the Passive stem (472) 
are preserved before ta; thus, fr. ^TR^'to rule,' fijl?; fr. ^IV 'to pierce,' f^3; 
fr.ar^ 'to deceive,' fafaiT; fr. «tjT 'to fry,' »J?; fr.'JJ^'to ask,' ^B; fr.sT^'to 
cut,' fTO (38). 

a. When a root ends in a conjunct consonant, of which the first is a nasal, this, 
nasal is generally rejected before ta; as, fr. ^fl to bind,' ^RJ; fr. ST3T to fall,' 
«E; fr. s4^'tofall,'sror; fr.^ra'tomove'and^t^'toanoint,'^i; fr.^C^'to 
adhere,' H1R; fr. T^'to colour,' ^H; fr. 3T*W'to kindle,' ^g \ fr.'3»^'to be wet,' 
3^ or TW J fr. W? ' to flow,' W3 ; fr. 5g^ ' to ascend,' ^iW ; fr. 13W ' to stop,' 
^TM; fr. 5TM 'to stop,' ^rai; fr. 3** ' to deceive,' ?WJ fr. H^'to break,' vmi; 
fr. ^51 'to bite,' ?F; fr. ft^'to contract,' Hlfi. 

b. But not if ^ i is inserted ; as, fr. ^!5 ' to break,' Isffi^ff ; fr. 'aW, 'gif^ir 
(except fl^'to churn,' making Hftrw; and VF*t 'to tie,' >jf*nT). 

54g. Many roots ending in "^ m, «^ n, or *ff n reject these nasals before ta if i is 
notinserted; as.l^jrom, to go,' TlUgata; t^yam, 'to restrain,' Vftyata; T^* to 
sport,' Tft; Tl^'to stretch,' TTiT ; ^'to kill,' ?TT; »^'to bend,' «TTT; H«^'to 
think.'HK; TSJTIT 'to hurt,' T^TT: but ^S^' to breathe' and W^' to go' make WiT 
(the latter also ^ffaiT) ; and S«^ 'to sound,' ^f>TH (also ^RT with prep.) 

a. »I^'to be born' makes IfW, and JsT^'to dig,' TsTTiT; *R^'to give,' Iffif; 
medial a being lengthened. 

546. Those roots ending in ^ m, of the 4th class, which lengthen a medial a 
before the conjugational suffix ya, also lengthen it before ta, changing m to n as 
in the Futures ; thus, fr. W\ ' to step,' "a*T»fT ; fr. «^ ' to wander,' ffPtT ; fr. ^T^ ' to 



PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 225 

be appeased,' STRT; fr. ^'to tame,' ^W (also ^faw); fr. ^'to be patient,' 
^PST; fr. fi^ 'to be sad,' W^- 

a. Similarly, ^ ' to vomit,' ^TtT ; SRJ^'to love,' SKPfl-; ^'to eat,' ^TnT. 
547- From Wil^'to swell' is formed *»#rf; fr. ^fT^' to shake,' ^TK; fr.f^'to 

be putrid,' JfC, from sfi^'to weave,' WrC, fr. nmTT 'to be fat,' tftq (with 'STT and 
W, -"OfR); fr. ^1 'to stink,' fiTT. 

a- ^or JTT1 'to make effort' forms >£§; ij^'to kill,' like RT 'to hasten,' inil; 
5\'to bind or tie' makes »|5§; *n^'to wash,' >TCiT. 

b. TBt^ ' to open ' makes ^ (Pan. vm. 2, 55) ; and ^ ' to eat,' 3PV (fr. »PS). 
Obs. — From the above examples it appears that sometimes several roots have 

the same form of Past Pass. Part. The following may also be noted : ^1 ' to stink ' 
and ^' to purify' make 'JH; IT 'to measure' and T' to barter,' faff ; fST'to wipe,' 
•J3I to touch,' and 1^'to sprinkle,' all make »J? (tp 'to bear' making TftCTf by 
Pan. 1. 2, 20) ; ^ ' to recite ' and ^ ' to kill,' ^RcT ; ^TTC^ ' to rule ' and f^I* ' to 
distinguish,' fffW; *ft 'to destroy' and ftr 'to tie,' ftlif. On the other hand, 
^p^'to enjoy' makes >jfi; but *J*T 'to bend,' $*«T. 

548. The following, though regarded as Participles by native grammarians, are 
more properly adjectives : V&b, fr. H^ pad, ' to cook ;' Wi^i, fr. ^^ ' to dry ;' ^ffa, 
fr. ^JT^'to be drunk;' of^T, fr. ^i3T 'to grow thin;' ^W, fr. ^ 'to waste.' 

549. In forming the Past Pass. Part, of Causals, the Causal suffix 
^R aya is rejected, but the inserted ^ i is always assumed ; as, fr. 
^m?t, Causal of ^ 'to make,' comes csrftn kdrita, 'caused to be made;' 
fr. WTXTT, Causal of WT 'to stand/ VJlffK sthdpita, 'placed ;' fr. WUITT 
(til with ^rr), ^TunftrrT ' increased,' ' refreshed.' 

550. In adding w ta to a Desiderative or Frequentative stem, the 
inserted ^ i is assumed, final a of the stem being dropped ; and in 
the case of roots ending in consonants, final ya being dropped ; as, 
fr. ftnTT^r ' to desire to drink' comes ftrtrcftnT ; fr. f^gftf ' to desire 
to do,' fa^ftft? 7f ; fr. ^r ' to desire to obtain,' ^fanr, &c. ; fr. csVcCT 
' to cut often,' ^Ypsftnr ; fr. %fV»sr ' to break frequently,' %6rf^7f . 

551. w ta with i is added to nominal stems, final a being dropped ; 
as, fr. f^lfsicS 'loose,' f^lftrfelf 'loosened;' fr. ftr^t 'crooked,' t%f%TtT 
' curved.' These may be regarded as Past Passive Participles of the 
Transitive Nominal verbs f^ifaamfiT, fsrsrafTf (521). So again, from 
•TH^o; 'to do reverence' comes iwfetrf or »PTffl7f. 

Obs. — Moreover, as na sometimes takes the place of ta, so ina is added to some 
nouns instead of ita; e.g. *Tfo?T 'soiled,' fr. Tt5 'dirt;' ^jf"W^ (5§) 'horned,' 
from ^pj ' a horn.' See 80. XLIII. 

a. Corresponding forms in Latin are barbatus, alatus, cordatus, turritus, &c. ; 
and in Greek, e^aAwTO?, KpoK(i)TO$, av\ct>T0f, See. 

G g 



226 PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLES. 

55 a. The inflexion of Past Passive Participles follows that of 
adjectives at 187; thus exhibiting a perfect similarity to the 
declension of Latin participles in tus ; thus, ^Tt krita, Nom. sing, 
masc. fem. neut. ^H^, ^ffT, ^*(- 

a. The resemblance between Sanskrit Past Passive Participles in ta, Latin Par- 
ticiples in tu-s, and Greek verbals in TO-f, may be seen in the following examples : 
Sk. >»<fta-s = Lat. (g)notu-s {ignotus), jvwro-s; Sk. datta-s=L&t. datus, Kotos', 
6rv,ta-s=cUtus,<(kvT0-g; bhiita-s=(f>VTO-g ; yukta-s=junctu-s,%evKTO-s ; labdha- 
=Krjicro-g; p{ta-s=TCOio-g; bhrita-s=<f>epTO-s; dishta-s=dictu-s,OeiKT0-(. And, 
like Sanskrit, Latin often inserts an i, as in domitu-s (=Sk. damita-s), monitu-s, &c. 
This is not the case in Greek, but f is inserted in forms like (Mvero-g, efrireTO-g. 
There are also examples of Latin and Greek formations in nu-s and vo-g, corres- 
ponding to the Sanskrit participle in naj thus, plenu-s (=pHrna-s), magnu-s (cf. Sk. 
rt. mah), dignu-s (cf. Sk. dti, dik, Gr. §uk) ; and (TTvyvo-g, oreyvs-?, eepvo-g, &c. 

PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLES. 

These are of two kinds : A. those derived from the Past Passive 
Participle; B. those belonging to the Reduplicated Perfect. The 
former frequently supply the place of a Perfect tense Active (see 897). 

553. A. The stem of these Participles is formed by adding ^vat 
to that of the Past Passive Participle ; e. g. 

Prom ^iiT 'made,' ^iTWTT ' having made,' 'who or what has made ;' fr. <£>"V 'burnt,' 
^nj^' having burnt ;' fr. ^i 'said,' ^i^'having said;' fr. f»T3 'broken,' fi^^ 
' having broken;' fr. WTftlrr ' placed,' ^nfttlT^' having placed,' &c. 
a. For the declension of these Participles see 140. a. b. c. 

554. B. In these Participles, either ^^»as or ^^ was is generally added to the 
stem of the Reduplicated Perfect, as formed in the dual and plural. Vas is added 
when the stem in the dual and plural (as it appears in its unchanged form before 
the terminations are added) consists of more than one syllable ; thus, from dakri 
(root kri, 'to do'), dakrivas; from did (374), didivas; from nanrit (364, compare 
45. a), nanritvasj from sasmar (374. k), sasmarvas. 

a. And ivus is added when the stem in the dual and plural consists of one 
syllable only; as, from ten (375. a), tenivas; from ghas (377), jakshivas. 

Obs. — Certain roots are said optionally to form this Perf. Part, with ivas or vas, 
whether the stem in dual and plural consists of one syllable or two (see Pan. vn. 
2, 68) ; e. g. fr. gam (376), jagmivas or jaganvasj fr. han, jaghnivas or jagkanvas; 
fr. vid, cl. 6, 'to find,' vividvas or vividivas; fr. biV, vivisvas or viviiivas; fr. dris", 
dadrisvas or dadrixieas. 

b. When vas is affixed, it will be necessary to restore to its original state the 
final of a root ending in i, {, u, 4, or ri, if changed before the terminations of the 
du. and pi. to y, v, r, iy, uv, or tiv; thus, ft* srt, changed by 374. e. to sxhiy, 
becomes fiflPsR^; fSt, changed to dikriy, becomes f«l rt\l < <l dikrivas ; ^, changed 



PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. 227 

by 374. g. to dudhuv, becomes 5^5^ dudhiivas; *J,, changed by 374. i. to babhuv, 
becomes ^*J3^ babhuvas. In declension, the 3rd pers. pi. with its termination us 
is the form of the stem in the weakest cases (135. a), and in the fern, final s becoming 
sh by 70 ; e. g. 3rd pi. jagmus, I. jagmushd; 3rd pi. tenus, I. tenushd, &c. See 168. 

c. Roots which take the Periphrastic Perfect (see 385) form the Participles of 
this tense by adding the Perfect Participles of kri, bhti, and as, to dm; thus, from 
dur, cl. 10, doraydm-babhuvas, doraydn-dakrivas, doraydm-dsivas. 

d. There is an Atmane-pada Participle of the Reduplicated Perfect most easily 
formed by changing ire, the termination of the 3rd pi., into dna; thus, vividdna, 
didydna, jagmdna. See 526. a; and cf. Greek Perf. Part, in /xevo (TeTVfip.€VO( = 
tutupdna). 

e. The Parasmai-pada form of these Participles is inflected at 168. Those of the 
Atmane-pada follow the inflexion of adjectives like subha at 187. 

PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. 
555. These are of the nature of Gerunds, as ' carrying on the 
action of the verb.' They fall under two heads : 1st, as formed by 
affixing j^t tvd to uncompounded roots ; as, fr. >j_ bhu, ' to be,' *jj^i 
bhutvd, 'having been' (see 80. XXI): andly, as formed by affixing 
*T ya to roots compounded with prepositions or other adverbial pre- 
fixes ; thus, fr. ^R>|. anubM, ' to perceive,' ^j>f5J anubhuya, ' having 
perceived ; ' fr. TeraftiJ. sajjibhu, ' to become ready,' *njft*J?T sajjibhuya, 
'having become ready.' The sense involved in them is generally 
expressed by the English 'when,' 'after,' 'having,' or 'by;' thus, 
H(l ^TJSTT tat kritvd, 'when he had done that,' 'after he had done 
that,' ' having done that,' ' by doing that.' See Syntax, 898. 

a. The suffix tvd of this participle is thought by some to be the instrumental 
case of a suffix tva (see 80. XXI). The Indeclinable Participle has certainly much 
of the character of an instrumental case (see Syntax, 901). 

Obs— In the Veda c^TT, HH^, Pffrp^or pft are sometimes used for r^T. 

Indeclinable Participles formed with tva from uncompounded roots. 
$$6. When the root stands alone and uncompounded, the Inde- 
clinable Participle is formed with i^T tvd. 

This suffix is closely allied to the u ta of the Past Passive Parti- 
ciple at 531, so that the rules for the affixing of w ta to the root 
generally apply also to the Indeclinable suffix r^T tvd, and the forma- 
tion of one Participle then involves that of the other. 

Thus, fofff kshipta, ' thrown/ f^'ST kshiptvd, ' having thrown ; ' ^K ' done ' (rt. f ), 
TJFH * having done ;' fOTfl (rt. WT), fel^T J fF (rt. fSI), ff T ; ^ (rt. ^T), ^T } 

G g 2 



228 PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. 

ifhrcrt.TTD.itorT; mm (rt. ■gi^), srtwt ; T?hr(rt.?if),i?twT; ^finr(rt.^), 
^fapn ; ?ifi (rt. t^), TiiT ; ^ (rt. «pi), fST ; -ms (rt. g^), •gnp; % (rt. vt), 
f?3r; *ru(rt. ^r^), stuit; n?r(rt. ^545), mrr. 

a. Where « is inserted, there is generally gunation of final i, i, u, 
u, and of final -%ri and of medial ^ ri; and optional gunation of 
medial i, u (except as debarred by 38). 

Thus,5ifi?RTfr.^ft; nftrRr(ako^n)fr.^; srftFnorsrcftgrfr.^; fefeST 

or WfisTr^T fr. f(5^J STfirrTT or hMVWI fr. SpIJ Hftlr*T or HfWT fr. »JW. 

6. But from f^, %f^F5T and 3TjTr; from ftra, irfgrTT and ^j^T. 
So fij^&c. The root STPJ makes »rmftr^T (532. a); and initial i, u, 
before single consonants, must be gunated ; as, ^ makes ufTOT. 

c. The roots in the list at 390. a. do not admit Guna ; thus, fa>T 
can make only f^ftn^T. 

d. When there are two forms of the Passive Participle, there is often only one of 
the Indeclinable ; thus, «JW makes "JW and rfflTW, but only ifflrqi ', c5t5T, "FSTH 
and ^fsSTff, but only pJPnMl ; and, vice versa, ^ (543) only ^faff, but afirqi 
and '3fT; *Tf, ^ffe, but ^iffr^T and *ft^l ; «f3^, f!?, but TlfWr^T and fffl . So, 
some roots in nasals optionally insert i; H»^, Tfi^T or if f»l rc| 1 ; T^, jsjmi or 
■^finr^T; 3i^, '•*lr^I or =Rfar^T; W{, '3iT^T or Tfm%\ or 3ififi^T; *f>^, Wlrtl 
or '^frlrtll. 

e. The penultimate nasal, which is rejected before ta (544. a ), is optionally so 
rejected before tvd in ^^, ?T^, ^^, Ufl or ira, and ^T5J; thus, from T^ comes 
XM, hut tw or T?fiT; from ^1^, ^tf%Tr^T, ^TW or ^W- 

/. T55^ and TS^ optionally insert nasals ; TUT or TUT, «TfT or «TfT, 390. *. 

g. Some few roots necessarily retain their nasals ; thus, we makes «ai«r««l 5 and 
W^, ^TO3T or ^tfcc^T. 

537. The only important variation from the Past Passive Participle occurs in 
those roots, at 531. a, which take na for ta. The change of ri to ir and ur (534) 
is preserved (unless i be inserted), but tvd never becomes nvd; thus, W, »tTl!!, 
but TffijcfT (or mti^T) ; from T£, cftrff, but irtrtl ," from ^, ^5, but ^T ; from 
f^, fs[W, but fs^T J from W^, >PT, but «W or ^W (556. e) ; from ^»T, ^HIT, 
but ^W, from iJT, ^'TT, but fsT?9T 'having quitted' (not distinguishable in form 
from \^n\ ' having placed,' root VT). 

558. Observe, moreover, that verbs of cl. 10 and Causals, which reject the 
characteristic ay a before the ita of the Past Pass. Part., retain ay before itvd; thus, 
WftTil 'made to stand' (fr. Caus. stem ?ST1*0, but ^TrcfajTT ' having made to stand ;' 
faftTn* 'thought' (fr.f^^T cl. io, 'to think'), but f^iTftngT 'having thought.' 

a. All Derivative verbs of course assume », and form their Indeclinable Participles 
analogously to Causals ; thus, "^TfvfaiTr (fr. Desid. of ^V), and ^fafVrTf (fr. 
Freq. of 1 «pi). In regard to the Atmane Frequentatives, WltJtPuRT is formed fr. 
(5T(jro, and ^sfrfaST fr.^t'Ol (ya in the latter being preceded by a consonant). 



PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. 229 

b. There are one or two instances of compounded roots formed with tvd; thus, 
'SPJunST (fr. W), Ramay. I. 2, 20; also SHUt^l, Ramay. 1. 74, 23. Especially in 
the case of Causals ; as, fiqitf^rqi. 

c. When ^t a, 'not,' is prefixed, tvd is always used; as, viopt'll 'not having 
done,' without having done ;' ^I^^T 'not having given.' 

Indeclinable Participles formed with ya from compounded roots. 

559- When a root is compounded with a preposition or any 
indeclinable prefix (except ^r a, ' not,' see 558. c), the Indeclinable 
Participle is formed by affixing ~n ya, and the rules for annexing it to 
the root are some of them analogous to those which prevail in other 
cases in which ya is affixed ; see the rules for forming the Special 
tenses in cl. 4 (272), for Passives (461), and for the Precative (443). 

560. But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of lengthening 
this vowel, fi t is interposed ; as, fr. ^nftsr dSri, ' to take refuge' (rt. for 
with ^rr), ^nfaw dSritya, ' having taken refuge ;' fr. f»T% (rt. fq with 
fJT^), firftsUT ; fr. -Srsr, Sr^m ; from ff^i (rt. ^ with •&(), tf^w ; fr. fa:^, 
ftfl^W. The lengthening of the radical vowel by coalition does not 
prevent this rule ; as, fr. ^nft ati (rt. ^ with ^ifa), ^nftw atitya. 

a. jlTf ' to awake' gunates its final as in y-rHI J l3 ; and ftj ' to 
destroy,' ' to waste,' lengthens its final as in TfEjfN, ^trgfta. 

561. If a root end in long ^n a, ^ i, or "3i Mj no change generally 
takes place ; as, fr. fsr^T, fa? HI ; fr. SVift, grrafhr ; fr. fai£, f^p. 

a. If it end in long ^ ri, this vowel becomes ir, and after labial 
letters ur ; thus, fr. ^rw«F, ^sft'i 'having scattered;' fr. ^rre (root 
■q ' to fill'), ^r£q (compare 534). 

562. Final diphthongs pass into ^TT d; as, fr. Hftai, ^fr^TTI (also nfi^hl); 

fr. ^ff«^&, ^rfmimr ; fr. ww\, ^rspi. 

a. But % with ^ST makes ^flfl. In Epic poetry, *ft with *& makes °qqt<4. 

b. f»T ' to throw,' >ft ' to kill,' HT ' to measure,' and 1 ' to harter,' all make -*ITT . 
Similarly, ^t 'to decay,' -^Pi; but <# 'to adhere,' -c3TO or -vftH (see 390. e). 
ffc and $ft conform to the rule for the Passive (-^JV, -3P*0, 3jftr$ra 'having 
reclined upon,' Kirat. 1, 38. 

563. A penultimate nasal is generally rejected, as in Passives (see 469) ; as, fr. 
"mV&^samdsanj, WTTfl**! samdsajya; fr. TJTWT, WW\ (used adverbially in the 
sense violently'). 

a. Some few 'roots retain the nasal; thus, ^TT^ makes ^WUf ; and ^nfeSf^, 

b. W* 'to acquire' may insert a nasal after the prepositions ^TT and Tl ; thus, 
^tl?ywt &c. (otherwise -Wf). 

564. If a root end in a consonant the general rule is, that no change takes place ; 



230 PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. 

as, from fafam nikship, fafapi nikshipya ; from W^(root ^11^ with IT), W"t; 
-from ^hS (root ^ with fa), ^fa?T. 

a. But roots in ^ or ^, preceded by * or u, lengthen these vowels, as in Wii<{iai 
from f^, f=l*+}i*i from **jr^. 

b. Four roots in ^PJ (*1^, T^, l^j T*() optionally reject the nasal, and interpose 
t between the final a and ya ; as, from fan^, ftPTW or fa^T- The roots ?^, 
W^, Ut^, ^, TSfCT, f^5I, ^p!T, ^PBT, ^jSJ, 1[Q always reject the nasal ; as, from 

e. *^, Sf^, and *J»^ optionally reject the »TJ but instead of interposing t, 
lengthen the final a, as in Passives (see 470) ; thus, from Tt^P^, TflsTni (or TrJsTT). 
■ 565. The changes which take place in certain roots before the ya of the Passive 
(471, 472) are preserved before ya; as, from f«i=«n> "jj"! j from fai*^, «»J«l ; from 
TT^jlftHi; from ^^'^, ■#*%& J from<fa?I^, fa^f; from ^nW*J, -H|ij«M ; from 
^TTaiV, ^irfawj; and so with all the roots at 471, 472. 

a. The roots at 390. 1, have two forms ; thus, from JJUcomes -'ilmOI and -TO? , &c. 

b. There are one or two instances in which an uncompounded root takes 1; as, 
'STBJ ' having reverenced,' Manu 1. 4 ; vn. 145 : Maha-bh. iii. 8017. 3^1 ' having 
resided,' Nala v. 41 (from ^^); f?I ' having taken,' Astra-s'iksha 21. 

566. In affixing ''I ya to the stems of Causal verhs of cl. io, and the 3rd class of 
Nominals (521), the characteristic ^HT is generally rejected; as, fr. H4\V*I prabo- 
dhaya,W%mprabodhya; fr.JTCm;*T,Trere; fr.OT^HsP^r; fr. fa^TTTT, fa=n*?. 

a. It is, however, retained when the root ends in a single consonant and encloses 
short a; thus, faTTSW 'having calculated' (TW with fa); ^14(4^4 'having 
imagined' (^ic^ with ^n); tt^xnq 'having narrated' («BT with WTj : and also 
sometimes in other cases; e. g. HIM") 'having conducted,' Raghu-v. xiv. 45. 

b. The final a of Frequentative stems is of course dropped, and the final ya of 
both Frequentatives and Nominals, if preceded by a consonant; as, from p5V«£1 
comes -rilc£*H ," from ^t^Hl, -'sffalfl ; from rlMW, -rTT^ET. 

Adverbial Indeclinable Participle. 

567. There is another Indeclinable Participle yielding the same sense as those 
formed with tvd and ya, but of rare occurrence. It is equivalent to the accusative 
case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding 
^S^ am to the root, before which suffix changes of the radical vowel take place, 
similar to those required before the Causal suffix ^(481) or before the 3rd sing. 
Aorist Passive (see 475); thus, from ?ft nf, 'to lead,' ^l^ndyam, 'having led;' 
from tn 'to drink,' TT^'having drunk;' from%, 3fR^; fromT^.^TT^^; from 
ftjT,, ^V{ ; from ?q; ' to kill,' tffirt{. It often occupies the last place in a com- 
pound ; as in the expression WJpJV I rl^ 'having totally exterminated ;' and in the 
following passage from Bhatti-k. ii. 11 : 

The descendant of Kakutstha, smiling softly, repeatedly bending down the 



FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 23l 

creepers, would pluck the blossoms ; descending to the streams, would sip (the 
waters); seating himself on some variegated rock, would recline in admiration (of 
,the scene).' Compare also Stakuntala, Act V, verse 131, ^TfTrBpi 'aifc<<i$ H^WT 
repeatedly throwing up her arms she began to weep.' Other examples are 
"TTTyi^M, ' mentioning by name,' and »f1=iyi^H ' taking alive.' 

u. These Participles generally imply repetition of the action, as above, and in this 
sense are themselves often repeated j as, ddyam, ddyam, ' having repeatedly given.' 

FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

568. These are gerundive in their character, and may be called 
verbal adjectives. They may be classed under three heads : 1st, as 
formed with the suffix K^t tavya (80. XVIII); andly, as formed with 
■snfta aniya (80. V); 3rdly, as formed with n ya (80. XXVIII). 
These suffixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin Fut. Pass. 
Part, in dus, and the English able and ible, and most commonly 
denote 'obligation* or 'propriety' and 'fitness.' 

a. In some of the Latin formations with tivus, the Passive sense is preserved, as 
in captivus, nativus, coctivus. Cf. Sk. ddtavya with dativus (dandus), ooreof ; 
yoktavya with (conjjunctivus (jungendus); janitavya with genitivus (gignendus); 
dhdtavya with 6eT€og, &c. 

Future Passive Participles formed with n*n (80. XVIII). 

569. These may be formed by substituting flar tavya for ftT td, 
the termination of the 3rd pers. sing, of the 1st Future; e.g. 

From TSpTT ksheptd, ' he will throw,' TSJTT^T Icsheptavya, ' to be thrown ;' eSHT ' he 
will do,' ^H 'to be done;' fr. KfVtTT 'he will be,' Hf^TTai 'about to be;' fr. 
f fsjTTT, f farl^r ( see 390. a); fr. f%flTrrr, f^ftnT^T. 

Obs. — In the case of those roots ending in consonants which 
reject i, whatever changes take place before td, the same take place 
before tavya, and the special rules at 390. a-o will equally apply to 
this suffix. 

Thus, Tim, W3&( {relinquendus); VET, W*H J "JST, T£2*f ; sftgT, '^t^l; 

%*vt, ^v^T ; *fteT, tfter ; tsfkm or ^raftnrr, ^fHT^r or ^Trfinnq ; ^fvKT, 

^tfattai J *tT#T or mf^HT, TtiN or HlfsTlT^J ; and from Causal ^rcfintT, ^falT^l ; 
from Desid. pftfVrfffiCT, «pTtfafacr*T J from Frequentative ^ffvin, 'sftf fVnP*l ; 
from ^NfaTTT, «ftafain»T. See the rules at 388, 390, 491, 505, 513, 516. 

Future Passive Participles formed with Hifta (80. V). 

570. This suffix is added directly to the root, and generally with- 
out other change than gunation (if Guna is admissible). 



232 FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

Thus, fr. fa 6i, ' to gather,' ^H«rta 6ayan{ya, ' to be gathered ;' fr. >Jj *T^rjhj ; 
fr. f , SFtufhl (58); fr. f<5^, WTsRta; fr. ^, sftiTflfN; fr. ^5r, Wsbfttr; 

fr. f i*, ^Jjfa ; fr. ^ (ci. 10), ^itxjftv : but qsi, jnstiiN ; n^, njbfat ; ^hft, 

^'faflTTfa ; «R^, eFHiffaT and "<*1HH^I J 'J'J,, *ft<Ttft*I and nfalUMlH, & c . See 

390. j. I. m. 

a. A final diphthong is changed to ^n a, which blends with the 
initial a of aniya ; as, from k>, untffal ; from ^, TTntfa. 

b. The roots at 390, 390. a. of course forbid Guna ; thus, ^rffaj 
from ^ ; JpHfa from xj, &c. 

c. As to Derivative verbs, aya is rejected from a Causal stem, and 
a from the stems of other Derivative verbs, and ya, if a consonant 
precedes. 

Thus, ^faRfa from the CauBal stem ^Nt; ^#tfvwfa from the Desid. 
W^tftlti; also Wt>J?r«fta, *ffispHlftl> fr. the Frequentatives «ft>J??, ^ft^fni; and 
tfTCTtfttr or tm««f|xf fr. the Nominal KW&. 

Future Passive Participles formed with t( (80. XXVIII). 
571. Before this suffix, as before all others beginning with y } 
certain changes of final vowels become necessary. 

a. If a root end in ^n d, or in ^ e, 5? ai, ^\ 0, changeable to ^tt a, 
this vowel becomes ^ e (compare 446) ; e. g. 

. From TT md, ' to measure,' WH meya, to be measured,' ' measurable ;' fr. 1JT hd 
"to quit,' ^1 heya; fr. 'Hi dhyai, 'to meditate,' *ini dhyeya ; fr. 5r 'to be weary,' 
JJT ; fr. ^T 'to give,' ^ ' to pity,' and ^1 'to cut,' ^TJ. 

b. If in ^ i, ^ i, ^ u, or '3fi 4, these vowels are gunated ; e. g. 
From fa <H, ^T ieya (in the Veda ^TO with TV); but ^ft with 75, -iffa. 

But the Guna ^ft is changed to av, and sometimes ^ e to ay, 
before ya (as if before a vowel) ; thus, from ^, h^i ; from fsr ' to 
conquer,' *m ; from jft ' to buy,' ism ; from f^ ' to destroy,' tj»t. 

And the Guna ^ft passes into av before y, especially when it is 
intended to lay emphasis on the meaning; as, from w, ^jto; from 
3J, 3TRI; from £,, *rq. But ^'to shake' makes ^5. 

c. If in ^nor^ ri, these vowels are vriddhied ; e. g. 

From ^ 'to do,' "*[§; from »J "to- support,' Hr5 (also HpH, see 572); fr. ^ 'to 
choose,' ^T*? (also ^W). 

d. The roots at 390. c. drop their finals faftm, ^ft^r). 

572. Sometimes if a root end in a short vowel no change takes place, but / is 
interposed, after the analogy of the Indeclinable Participle formed with ya at 360 ; 



FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 233 

so that the stem of the Future Participle is often not distinguishable from the 
Indeclinable; thus, from fsfji, 'to conquer/ f^jitya (also jeya), 'conquerable}' 
from ?| stu, 'to praise,' ^T stufya, 'laudable;' from ^1 kri, 'to do,' "spu kritya 
(as we.ll, as Wl), 'practicable;' from ^ 'to go,' fm 'to be gone;' from ^TIT 'to 
honour,' ^U£i<l 'to be honoured.' 

573. If a root end in a single consonant with a medial a, the latter may be 
vriddhied ; as, fr. JX% grah, ' to take,' JP^T grdhya ; fr. ^' to be ashamed,' 3T<q ; 
fr. ^ 'to love,' ^iTHT : but not always; as, fr. ^, ^W, fr. ^jf, fl^TJ fr. "^T, 
"^«t; fr. Vfi(, HW : and not if the final is a labial (except 3^, T^, WO; as, fr. 
*!*(, >mr; fr. ^n_, ^ra; fr. <5>» 'to receive,' c3«l (and cjwi). The root H^ 'to 
be mad' makes TRT after prepositions, but otherwise >ra. Similarly, VS. and ^T. 
The root *r»T ' to serve ' makes HrST and OT^I (see 574). 

a. If with a medial ^ i or ~3u, these are generally gunated; as, from »|»T, >ft»?r ; 
from Tc5^, W?f ; but SJ^, 5JHJ : and sometimes only optionally ; as, Hf makes ^T 
as well as *u?I ; and gf , gH and ($1T. 

b. If with a medial ^J ri, no change generally takes place ; as, fr. ?*|3(> ^5*1 J 
fr, "551, l^ 1 &• ^% ^T (after ^HT and W^, WTi) \ fr. «|*^, «J^r (also W$) '• 
but fr. ^\, ^T or ^W. 

c. The roots at 390, 390. a. are, as usual, debarred from Guna; thus, ^^T, &c. 

574. A final ^ i may sometimes be changed to «K k, and final »!,/ to V g, when 
the Past Passive Participle rejects ij as, from W pad, VJ'&tpdkya and TfYSf pddya ; 
from ^»T, Mpif or ^T. When the final is unchanged, as in pddya, the obligation 
implied is said to be more absolute; but the two forms may have distinct meanings; 
thus, bliojya (fr. bhujf) means to be eaten,' but bhogya, 'to be enjoyed;' vddya (fr. 
va,6) means 'proper to be said,' but vdkya, 'that which is actually to be said.' 

a. Again, Mii«( (fr. ffl$f) is used after the prepositions ftl and U, otherwise iM 1 J ** . 
Similarly, *fts?r (fr. lp{) after f«T and H 3 and Tfrl( or *IT53T (fr. ^) after the same 
prepositions. 

b. Other anomalous changes may take place, some of which are similar to those 
before the ya of Passives; thus, fr. K^, JJ^T as well as ZJT^t (472); fr. ^, ^ 
(47i,also*ra); fr. ^,3^(471); fr. ^11^ f^T (472-0); fr.^'to dig,' WH; fr. 
^ 'to praise,' ^^I or ^TW ; fr. W5{ ' to fry,' Xrjq or «rST ; fr. ^, Wf or Vm. 

c. The roots beginning with *Jtr_ a t 390. 1. have two forms ; thus, TTO or jfttTIT. 
573. Many of these Participles are used as substantives ; thus, ^TO n. ' speech ;' 

JJ1W n. 'food;' >ftnn f. 'a harlot;' J^TT f. ' sacrifice;' ^N n. 'a ditch;' HTOT f. 
' a wife,' fr. *J ' tp support,' &c. 

576. The suffix ya may be added to Desiderative, Frequentative, and Nominal 
stems in the same way as aniya (570); thus, <f*nftp«r, "^^T, ^fo^Of, HT9T. So 
also, from >J*J«5 ' a pestle,' g*T5T ' to be pounded with a pestle.' 

a, ^b added to a root after gunation (if Guna is possible) gives 
the sense of a Future Passive Participle when in composition with 

h h 



234 PARTICIPLES OP THE SECOND FUTURE. 

g, |^, and f^; as, *joR* 'easy to be done,' gtqrc 'difficult to be 
done,' pert ' difficult to be crossed.' See 8cx I. 

b. Again, a suffix ufisjH added to a few roots has the same force 
as the suffixes of the Future Passive Participle ; e. g. mfrfH ' fit to 
ripen' or ' to be cooked,' fa^fer ' to be broken.' 

577. The inflexion of Future Passive Participles follows that of 
adjectives at 187; thus, ^Sai 'to be done;' N. sing. m. f. n. karta- 
vyas, -a, -am. Similarly, karaniyas, -a, -am; and kdryas, -a, -am. 

PARTICIPLES OP THE SECOND FUTURE. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

578. These are not common. They are of two kinds, either Parasmai-pada or 
Atmane-pada ; and, like Present Participles, are most easily formed by changing 
^tfttT anti, the termination of the 3rd pi. of the 2nd Fut., into ^Til at, for the 
Par. ; and by changing ^PJT ante into ^Wl«T amdna, for the Atm. ; thus, from ^fft- 
■Hlf^r karishyanti and oRfc°T i ir karishy ante, 'they will do,' come «*IV.<m n karishyat 
and c|jf<U|HI4U karishyamdna (58), 'about to do;' from the Passive 2nd Fut. q«s»»i 
"they will be said' comes iaj4»ii<u 'about to be said' (see 84. 1, and 80. XXVII). 

a. In their inflexion (see 141), as well as in their formation, they resemble 
Present Participles j see 524 and 526. 

Obs. — Cf. Greek in Oa>ao-f*.tvo-s=ddsya-mdna-s. 

PARTICIPIAL NOUNS OF AGENCY. 

579. These have been already incidentally noticed at 80, 83, 84, 85, 
87. As, however, they partake of the nature of Participles, and are 
often used as Participles (see Syntax, 909—911), a fuller explanation 
of them is here given. They may be classed under three heads : 1st, 
as formed from the root ; 2ndly, as formed from the same stem as 
the 1st Future; 3rdly, as formed from the root by changes similar 
to those which form the Causal stem. 

580. The stem of the first class is often identical with the root 
itself; that is, the unchanged root is frequently used at the end of 
compounds as a noun of agency, t being added if it ends in a short 
vowel ; see examples at 84. III. and 87. 

a. Another common noun of agency is formed from the root by 
affixing 'si a (as in the first group of conjugational classes at 257), 
before which a, Guna, and rarely Vriddhi, of a final vowel is required ; 
as, from f^ji, ' t6 conquer,' .pi jay a, ' conquering.' Medial vowels 
are generally unchanged ; as, from ^ vad, ' to say,' ^ vada, * saying ;' 
from jj^ tud, ' to vex,' fj$ tuda, * vexing' (see 80. 1). 

b. And final ^n d, w^ am, or ^rq; an are dropped ; as, from ^ 



PARTICIPIAL NOUNS' OF AGENCY. 235 

da, 'to give,' i* da, 'giving;' from v^gam, 'to go,' *T ga, 'going;' 
from "s^jan, 'to be born,' n ja, 'being born.' Their declension 
follows that of adjectives at 187. 

581. The stem of the second class (see 83) may be always inferred 
from the 3rd pers. sing, of the 1st Fut. of Primitive verbs, the vowel 
^If ri being substituted for the final vowel a, the nominative case being 
therefore identical with the 3rd pers. sing, of that tense (see 386). 

Thus, >ftg!I bhoktd, 'he will eat,' H^ bhoktri, 'an eater;' *ftiJT 'he will fight/ 
lR| "a fighter;' TJlfadl 'he will ask," TTf^ 'an asker;' VtZT 'he will bear,' 
*u^ 'a bearer,' &c. They are inflected at 127. 

58a. The stem of the third class is formed in three ways. 

a. By adding ^ in to the root (see 85. II), before which suffix 
changes take place similar to those required before the Causal suffix 
cya (481, 482, 483); as, from^f, "mtfr^kdrin, 'a doer ;' from ?q; (488), 
trrfw^ ghdtin, ' a killer ;' from 3ft, $nfil^ ' a sleeper : ' y being inserted 
after roots in d (483); as, from in, *nftr«^ 'a drinker;' from ^T, 
^tfil^ day in, ' a giver.' They are inflected at 159. 

b. By adding <3T=R aha to the root (see 80. II), before which suffix 
changes take place analogous to those before the Causal aya (481, 
482, 483); as, fr. ^t, ^BTCSB kdraka, 'a doer,' 'doing;' fr. ^ft, ^mra 
ndyak'a, ' a leader,' ' leading ; ' fr. ?T? , ?JI^B grdhaka ; fr. fa V, *nV3i ; fr. 
J^, ^rnra; fr. gw, girai; fr. sfi^, jtfTSR; fr. ^, ^P^R; fr. WT, wnra. 

c. By adding ^m ana to some few roots ending in consonants 
(see 80. IV), after changes similar to those required in forming the 
Causal stem; as, fr. ^, fj^H nandana, 'rejoicing;' fr. g^, gw 
'vitiating;' fr. ^, ^itor 'cleansing.' 

The inflexion of the last two follows that of adjectives at 187. 

EXAMPLES OF INFLECTED VEEBS. 
583. The following tables give a synopsis of the inflexion of the 
Primitive forms of the ten roots: wbudh, cl. 1, 'to know;' ^nrit, 
cl. 4, ' to dance ;' ftpi dii, cl. 6, ' to point out ;' •$* yuj, cl. io, ' to 
unite ;' . fa% vid, cl. 2, ' to know ;' >J bhri, cl. 3, ' to bear ;' f*I^ bhid, 
cl. 7, ' to break ;' f* 6i, cl. 5, ' to gather ;' n^ tan, cl. 8, ' to stretch ;' 
j^pu, cl. 9, ' to purify :' classes 1, 4, 6, and 10 ; 2, 3, and 7 ; and 5, 
7, and 9, being grouped together as at 257-259. Then the Passive 
forms of these ten roots are given, followed by the Present tense of the 
Causal, Desiderative, and Frequentative forms, and the Participles. 

h h 2 



236 



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« 



CONJUGATION OF THE YEBB ^ as, ' TQ BE.' 949 



Parasmai-pada (see 3«7). 

584, Although this root belongs to cl. 2, its inflexion is exhibited here, both 
because it is sometimes used as an auxiliary and because it is desirable to study- 
its inflexion together with that of the other substantive verb ^bhu, 'to be' (585), 
which supplies many of the tenses in which ^^ is defective. Two other roots, are 
sometimes employed as substantive verbs, with the sense ' to be,' viz. 'WT cl. 1, 'to 
stand ' (see 269, 587), and ^11^ cl. 2, ' to sit' (see 317. a). Indeed, the root ^ as, 
here inflected, is probably only an abbreviation of ^TT^ as. 

The cognate languages have two roots similar to the Sanskrit for the substantive 
verb to be.' Cf. <f>v and €<x in Greek, es (sum) and/a (fui) in Latin ; and observe 
how the different parts of the Sanskrit verbs correspond to the Greek and Latin j 
thus, asmi, asi, asti; eppi, ear at, etrrt; sum, es, est. Cf. also santi with sunt; 
dstam, dstdm, with vjvtov, yo-rqv ; dsma, dsta, dsan, with ^ue!/, 5jJctt€, \trav, &c. 



Present, ' I am.' 



PEBS. SING. 


DUAL. 


PLUEAL. 


1st, ^Slfw asmi 


^?( svas 


WSsmas 


2nd,^rftt asi 


^1^ sthas 


T*T stha 


3rd, ^% asti 


^^stas 


^Jpff santi 



Imperfect, 'I was.' 
^W^dsam ^TT^ dsva ^IT9T dsma 
^l*il^ dsis NHI4ri>^ dstam ^TTCtT dsta 
^mfh^as# Wrm^ dstdm ^W^dsan 



Potential, ' I may be,' &c. 

SING. DUAL. PLUBAL. 

WI^ sydm ^RT7 sydva 3OT? sydma 
T®X*{syds **i\ri*\^sydtam *M\n sydta 
Wfi^sydt *Hiitl*\sydtdm T^^syus 

Imperative, ' Let me be.' 
^BHTtnT asdni ^TCTR asdva ^WW asdma 
Jjftl edhi 5f^ stam ^tT sta 

^Kit| astu 'STI^ stdm 



<H»iT santu 



Perfect *, ' I have been,' &c. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 



^TS dse ^1?«'i$.dsivahe^(Tffm%dsimahe 
^nftiMdsishe WOW (fsaiAe ^TrftTCSf dsidhve 



^nfHT <fe»re 



^TUT a'sa ^nftl^ o'si«a ^jfaftdsima 
^ifmtdsitha ^W^fdsathus ^THT <fsa 
^TlVdsa ^TTOiJ^ a'safes ^n^a'sKS 

Obs. — The root as, 'to be,' has no Derivative forms, and only two Participles, 
viz. Tftlsat, Pres. Par., JRIH sdna, Pres. Atm. (see 524, 526). The Special tenses 
have an Atmane-pada, which is not used unless the root is compounded with 
prepositions. In this Pada j? k is substituted for the root in 1st sing. Pres., and 
^ s is dropped before dh in 2nd pi. ; thus, Pres. he, se, stej svahe, sdthe, sate; 
smahe,dhve,sate: Impf. asi, dsthds, dsta; dsvahi, dsdthdm, dsdtdm ; dsmahi, ddhvam, 
dsata .- Pot. siya, siihds, sita; sivahi, siydthdm, siydtdm; simahi, stdhvam, siran: 
lmipv.asai,sva,stdm; asdvdhai, sdthdm, sdtdm ; asdmahai, dhvam, satdm : see 327. 



* The Perfect of as is not used by itself, but is employed in forming the Perfect 
of Causals and some other verbs, see 385, 490 ; in which ease the Atmane may be 
used. The other tenses of as are wanting, and are supplied from bM at 585. 

k k 



250 



INFLEXION OP THE STEM OF VERBS. 



- Group I. Class I. 

EXAMPLES OF PKIMITIVE VEKBS OF THE FIRST CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 261. 

585. Root $, bhu. Infin. wftg^ bhavitum, 'to be' or 'become.' 

Parasmai-pad a. Present Tense, * I am' or ' I become/ 

PBBS. SING. DUAL. PLUEAL. 

1st, Mm?n bhavdmi Mm^bhavdvas M<i\m^bhavdmas 

2nd, H^fftr bhavasi M<*H*\ bhavathas *?%H bhavatha 

3rd, *T^fif bhavati ^in*^ bhuvatas M^fnt bhavanti 



w»il^ abftavam 
^M^ abhavas 
xt*maabhavat 

M**i*{ bhavet/am 
*Ih^ b haves 
^Hl^bhavet 

H^TftT bhavdni 
*T^3 bhavatu 



Imperfect, 'I was.' 
«t«i>ll=l abhavdva 
wmn*{ abhuvatam 
^*\mt\\ abhavatdm 

Potential, ' I may be.' 
HH^ bhaveva 
Mmi*\^ bhavetam 
Hnn\*{ bhavetam 

Imperative, ' Let me be.' 

Hill bhavdva 
*t=in*i bhavatam 
*iini«^ bhavatdm 



^W^W abhavdma 
w*(in abhavata 
in*w\ abhavan 

*?H*7 bhavema 
*T3TT bhaveta 
H^p( bhaceyus 

*T^W bhavdma 
*T^it bhavatu 
H^*ff bhavantu 



Perfect, ' I have been,' ' I was.' 
1*33 babhuva 1>jf=r^ babhuvivu ^^fcf^ babhuvima 

1*jfH^l babhuvitha ^M$^ babhuvathus 1*J«t babhuva 

^>J=r babhuva ^*l?§^ iaiiifoaftw ^^J3^ babhuvus 

First Future, ' I shall or will be.' 
Hfaftlftn bhavitdsmi wfqflitg^ bhavitdsvas HfafllW^ bhavitdsmas 
Hf^inftr bhavitdsi «P<*int¥|^ bhavitdsthas M^&\W bhavitdstha 

»fkinbhavitd Hf^TTO bhavitdrau *U*U\ bhavitdras 

Second Future, ' I shall or will be.' 
wf^TTTfiT bhavishydmi ufaxqT^ bhavishydvas «faiqiH^ bhavishydmas 
Hf^lftt JAam'sAyosi wftrorq^ bhavishyathas wCmnvj 6Aaw%atf a 
*« f«i «h PlT bhavishyati nf*Wri^ bhavishyatas Hf&dftft bhavishyanti 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 



251 



Aorist, 'I was* or 'had been,' &c. 
^3P^ abhivam T*J? abMva 'STiJH abhuma 

^>J5^ abhus ^^H abhutam 'STJJH abMta 

^^abhiit ^^X^abhutdm ^K^^abMvan 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I be.' 
*J?Tra^ bhuydsam *J-Tra bktiydsva ^jTTTCH bhuydsma 

^([^bhuyds *$H I W*^ bMydstam HHW bMydsta 

*$$T!(bh4ydt *JMIWI*^ bhdydstdm, >f*)l^ bhuydsus 

Conditional, (If) ' I should be.' 
^Wic|«q«^ abhavishyam ^JHIq^itJ abhavishydva -HHfaiHW abhavishjdma 
^wfi"^ abhavishyas ^wf^<qn»^ abhavishyatam ^wfasfit abhavishyata 
^f>lf=l *HH abhavishyat ^Hf«i<mu»^ abhavishyatdm ?wf^5p^aiAaoisftf~ 

586. ^ltmane-pada. Present Tense, ' I am,' &c. 

**% Maw *TiN^ bhavdvahe W^l*(5 bhavdmahe 

>I^« bhavase H^*t bhavethe *T^WT bhavadhve 

*RW bhavate H^IT bhavete H^tT bhavante 



an 



Imperfect, ' I was.' 

^SM^ abhave ^ra^raf^ abhavdvahi ^M^M% abhavdmahi 

<3TH4VN4< abhavathds 'SR^^tTT abhavethdm ^TH^ttlH abhavadhvam 

^W^K abhavata ^WiTI*^ abhavetdm ^H^tt abhavanta 



H^TJ bhaveya 
**=cm*^ bhavethds 
WWff bhaveta 



>HI bhavai 
*T^^ bhavasva 
H^TTt^ bhavatdm 



Potential, 'I may be,' &c. 
H^f? bhavevahi >?<t*ii\j bhavemahi 

*R*TTOH bhaveydthdm HW«I^ bhavedhvam 

H^'mWP^ bhaveydtdm M<k<*( bhaveran 



Imperative, ' Let me be.' 



>T^T^5 bhavdvahai 
VTsfflt^ bhavethdm 
W^TTP^ bhavetdm 



»WT>fi| bhavdmahai 
vmism bhavadhvam 
*W»rilH bhavantdm 



Perfect, 'I have been,' 
■^J^ babhuve W£T=H^ babhuvivahe 

■^^f^k babhuvishe ^J^I^T babhuvdthe 

"Wg$ babhuve ^»J5TiT babhuvdte 

k k 2 



was, 



&c. 



^Ijf^inr babhuvimahe 
■^•»jfwJ4 (%) babMvidhve 



252 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. GBOTXP I. CLASS I. 

First Future, 'I shall or will be/ &c. 
>Tf%Tn| bhavitdhe > rfqH l *stg bhavitdsvahe *fmnW§ bhavitdsmahe 

Hfijri l tl bhavitdse vrfaiTTHl^ bhavitdsdthe vrfireT& bhavitddhve 

qfmilbhavitd vfamB bhavitdrav. »?4i\\K*{bhavitdras 

Second Future, 'I shall or will be/ &c. 
Wfaor bhavishye >lfN«MM<? bhavishydvahe *tfa*H\H%. bhavishydmahe 

>rf^«l% bhavishyase vfeFON bhavishyethe *&?*&& bhavishyadhve 

VffifW bhavishyate >TfV^K bhavishyete H^m* bUvishyante 

Aorist, 'I was' or 'had been/ &c. 
^Wfafa abhavishi ^wfiST^fil abhavishvahi ^fispwf? abhavishmahi 

^NfkVW^abkavishthds ^W P=( N I VJ 1*^ abhavishdthdm wfaSCT (^) ahhamdhvam 

^I»Tf%^ nbhavishta WfifTOTP^ abhavishdtdm IRXfaqR abhavishata 

Precative or Benedictive, ' I wish I may be.' 
Hfijtfl q bhavisMya *?fif*fNfi? bhavisUvahi wf^Nf? bhavisMmahi 

Vffe^VIUbhavish&hthds >rfWN I WW bhavishiydsthdm M U *fl J^(f^) bhaoishffihvam 
Vffafa bhavisMshta Hf=(«il JJltd 1*^ bhavisMydstdm * ?i h\ <*( bhavwhiran 

Conditional, (If) ' I should be/ &c. 
'SMf^ra abhavishye ^WfamMf? abhavishydvdhi *wf<i«lJWn$ abhatMydmahi 

Wifiwfltl abhavishyathds ^Hf^^Tf^ abhavishyethdm ^mfq»M!OT abhavishyadhvam 
WrfVoiK abhavishyata ^SH?<*'nn\*\ abhwishyetdm 'Swfeopa' abhavishyantq 

Passive (461), Pre*. $5, >j?nar, &c; ^4or. 3^ atngr. (475) ^wft. 
Causal (479), Pre*. «PPlTftT, *H*lftr, &c; -4<w. (492) *S^l»M^, &c. 
Desiderative form of Causal (497) fifwrefwftr, &c. Desiderative 
(498), Pre*. «|$5Tf»T, "^^H, &c. Frequentative (507), Pre*. *ft>J?, 
*n*ftfi? or sffrpflfa*. Participles, Pre*. snn^ {524) ; Pa** Paw*. ^31 
(531); P«** Iradec/. £i<n (556), -$* (559); **•*■ -?«**• *f^ (569). 
H^fhi (570), >TT3T or >rai (571). 

Obs. — The following examples are given in the order of their final letters. 

587. Root WT (special stem fire, 269, 269. o). /«/". mig*^ ' to 
stand.' Par. and Ktta.. Pres. fireTftr, firefiff, firefir ; fireraq;, Phhvj^ , 
firei^; firew^, finr«i, firefitr. Ktm. fire, fireit, fires; firerair, fire^, 
firen ; fif?T*»%, firesi, fire^r. imp/, ^ifire^, 'srfire^, &c ^tm. ^rfire, &c 
Porf. fire^, fireq;, firing; finhr, &c Kim. fireT, finNm, firew; finfafif , 
finhnrp^, &c Impv. fireTftr, fire, fireg ; firera, &c. iitm. fist, fire^ - , 
fireirni:; ftwr^l, &c Perf. ttwI (373), Kfisni or itm^i, nxfi; Hfisre, 

* These Derivative verbs will be inflected at full at 703, 705, 706, 707. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 253 

HW^, TOT^; *fm, cRS, TT^. Atm, ww, TTfpre, iTO; fff^rt, 

tot^, iron*. Kf^rol, irf^,^, ,f^. Is * p ut WTHT f W) ^n^ & c . 
Atm. wnnt, wrm%, &c 2nd Fut. wTwiftr, wmrftr, wn-trfir, &c. 
Atm. gin5, wrw%, ^reft, &c. Aor, (438) *T5jT^, srwi^, ^jn^ ; 
*wrcr, HHwirtH, *«ii«rn ; ^m, v^nr, **gqr. Atm. (438. tf, 4 ai. d) 
^^» «f^w^, «fimr; ^w^f^, *ft*raror^, -w^; *fwwf?, 
wft*f^, <sfismi. 2¥«r. ?&m^, £*t^, &c Atm. otA*, wraform;, 
&c Co«rf. tototi, *tot^, &c. Atm. sr^, ^sm-^, &c. 

Pass., Pres. *sfft (465) ; Aor. yd sing, ^iwifn. Caus., Pres. mm- 
*nfir, -*; ^or. -wfirfTr^, *firfire. Des. finminfir, &c. Freq. MS or 
ansfir or jmsTTfiT. Part., Pres. ^(141. Obs. 1); Past Pass, ffcnr; 
Pas/ Indecl. fwFtt, -wnr, -STC; *W. Pass, tsufh, wi*f, ■m. 

588. Root *T (special stem fire, 269). Inf. Tng^ * to smell.' 
Par. Pres. finnf*. ftnrft,, & c . I mp/m ^ fin ^ > ^ f3m ^ } &c Pof 

fsra^, fsr^, &c. 7mpw. ftrm% (58), ftra, &c. Per/, mft (373), 
srftro or 5nrro, *nr! ; srfire, mrj^, ^p; ; srfem, mr, ^. is* Fut. 
ininfa, Tmrrftr, &c. 2nd Fut. Trnqift, instf*, &c. ^©r. (438) <mtt^, 
«tht^, ^nni^; ^nrre, »Jrarrf*(, ^rernn^; srcn*, ^nrnr, *p;. Or by 433, 
■awftni^, WNMflq, srarcrfy ssinftpar, wftn% -ftreT^; ^rftro, -ftnr, 
-ftr^. Prec. *nm?^, tmn^, &c Or ^m-t^, &c. Cond. wrm^, 
wm^,'8cc. Pass., Pres. 1^(465. a); Aor. yd sing.^mfn. Caus., 
Pres. -smrmfiT; Jor. ^iftnni^ or ^ftrftfqj^. Des. fsRjreTfa. Freq. 
wft, >mnfH or sniff*. Part., Pres. ftrir^; Pas* Pass. Tmr or vm; 
Past Indecl. tttrt, -uto ; Fw/. Pass, m«<q , unrifa, ifrr. 

589. Root in (special stem fqw, 269). /»/ xmp[ * to drink.' Par. 
Pres. fimfa, firefa, &c. Imp/. <3rfir^, ^rflreq;, &c. Pof. fq%^, 
fq^, &c. Imjw. ftraTfa, fta, &c. Per/. (3J3) W, irfire or nnm, 
W ; trfi^, trxr^;, t^g^ ,- Trf^, mr, xjgq\ 1st Fut. vmrfm, imnftr, &c. 
2nd Fut. TTiwrfH, Tnw%, &c Aor. (438) ^rxn^, 3nm(, shtt^; sritnr, 
^nira^, wtmn^; *sum, w*, ^. Prec. W^, W^, &c €ond. 
^TTrej^, *mwq;, &c. Pass., Pres. rffa (465) ; Aor. yd sing, wnfir 
(475). Caus., Pres. iTT'TOTftr,-^; -4or. ^trh^ (493. e). Des. fw*rrftr. 
Freq. ^tjft, vjfa or inmfa. Part., Pres. ftr^; Past Pass, xfa (533. 4); 
Past Indecl. Tfhm, -in^; P«<f. Puss. im^T, xnTftJi, ^ti. 

590. Root fsr (special stem »nT, 263). Inf. ^g^ ' to conquer.' Par* 

* f»T is not generally used in the Atmane, excepting with the prepositions vi or 
para. See 786. 



254 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 

Pres. »RTf»T, wfo, sprfa; ■sTira^, wt*\, ~srm(^; ihii^, spto, 
mvfcr. Jjw^/. mni^, "snurct, ^nnr^; ^s^nmr, ^renm^, ^rcpnn^; ^shtr, 
^rspnr, «rani^. Pot. *&***( , spfy spft^; »r^, «t*ih^, *i*irfi^; ^pw, 
sn* 5 swg^- Impv. spnfrr, ^m, spnj ; srnrc, ^m^, *r«<rfi^; *r*rra, ^nnr, 
spr^g. Pe^.f3Tm^(368,374.6),fimf^orftjrr«r,ftnTni; ftffare(374)> 
f»rnrg^, f^jqfl^ ; ftifrtw, few, ftp^. i«* F*^- ^aifw, *mC«i, %ht ; 
%wra^, %<nw^, ^m^; $wich^, ^tmw, ^Hn^. 2wrf Fw*. ^futifn, 
^*tfa, ^ifir; ^oim^, 3«mq , ^m^; ^n»% $*cn, ^iftr. ^or. 
^^ (420), m^n1^ , ^mrl^; ^^, ^r^;, *3ei*(; ^», *r^*, 
«^3^. Prec. wkmm, *fami;, sfhn^; sffam, sfiirer^, sfarrerm; ^taror, 
*f l w , wnirpt. Cowrf. ^vp^, 4i^m^ , *3uii^; 44m*, i a^anr^, 
'■wmi^ ; Jiiim i H, TH^mri , ^t^aiq;. Pass., Pres. >fn), &c. ; Aor* 
3rd sing, ^nnftl. Caus., Pres. ^imillH : Aor. ^JjfhnT^. Des. ftpffanfir. 
Freq. ^hIv , ^%ftj or %»pftfa. Part., Pres. *pn^; Past Pass, ftnr; 
Past Indecl. f*rf*T, -fira; Put. Pass. $1FT, »PPfPJ, ^1 or fsnu or sps 

(57,1, 57*)- 

a. Like f*r may be conjugated »ft. J»/l Sfap^ ' to lead.' But the 

Causa} is ?n*Pnf»T; Caus., Aor. sh^wh^; Des. ftprfrnfa. In Epic 

poetry the Perfect is sometimes H'^miW for fHHI-M, and the 2nd Fut. 

^ r^m i f fr for ^mifn (especially when preceded by the prep. ^n). 

591. Root for (special stem w?). Inf. wjp^ 'to smile.' ^tm. 
Pres. m§, W*li\, &c. Impf. ^im§, flywil^, &c. Pot. w*4«, w*)vj|^, 
&c. Impv. ^r^, w^«, &c. Per/ 1 . (374. e) ftrf^ra*, ftrfarftpf, fttfaro ; 
ftrftufinri?, ftrftjnn^, fttfannw ; fttfsRfqut, ftrf^rfus^ or -fijf, ftrf^rf^. 
1st Fut. mm%, WriRI , &c 2nd Put. ^T, ^aj%, &c. Aor. wft, 
*warq , ?w?; ^nisrf?, ^tftimm , -^rm^; ^w ^fg, -jw$h, ^inr. 
Free, wtfht, &c. Gond. »nwu}, &c. Pass., Pres. ^rfHi ; -4or. 3rd siragf. 
^remftl. Caus., Pres. wnpnfa or wmmfH ; Aor. ^rftr^ni^ or ^fumt^. 
Des. ftnjfffini. Freq. ifafpi, ^4ffH or ipjpftfil. Part., Pres. m<WH ; 
Past Pass, ftmi ; Pastf Indecl. ftwril, -ftnw ; Fm£. Pass. Wrftq, 
*nprta, wr. 

593. Root "5 (special stem ^). Inf. $$*\ 'to run.' Par. Pres. 
•jgift, "5^ftr, ■jwfir; j=h=i^, ^<4vi<^, ^^nt^; 5^1^, "5^1, ^fii. Jm^/". 
■srj^, ?r$WH, &c Po^. "5^1^, '5^;, &c. Impv. -5^1% (58), -5^, &c. 
Perf. 55W, 515N, ^[^; 53* (369), 5^^ (374. ^), 55^; f^w, 
§■5^, Jp^- 1*' Fut. -jhnftR. awrf i^<. "jfNirftT, "jtaftr, &c. Aor* 

* When f? is prefixed, the Perfect is faftlftfR against 70. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — QKOUP I. CLASS I. 255 

*S!pl(44°-«), 'afpl^, , *$%*H} *$$n?, *gf"^> ^l 5 '^; *£f*W, 
^^K, , *J5^,. Prec. ~??m*{, fT^. &c - Cond. ^njta^. Pass., 
Pres. T&; Aor. yrd sing, ^njifa. Caus., Pres. ■jrarnfa ; Aor. ^jj^ 
or *jfift^.. Des. |^lfR. Freq. ^>|5t, ^fftfff or ^sftfa. Part., 
Pres. "5^; Past Pass. ^K ; Past Indecl. ^Sl, -^ ; Fut. Pass. ^rPT, 
^wta, ■JT^T or '5 a T- 

a. Like "£ may be conjugated (sometimes written ^). Inf. 
fell 41 ' to flow. 5 

593. Root 5 (special stem ^t). /«/". ^|^ ' to seize,' ' to take.' 
Par. and Xtm. Pres. ^rfir. A'tm. ■%$, ?rir, ?^ff ; ?TT^%, &c Imp/. 
31?**^, ^?^, ^t?^; ^r^TC, &c Atm. ^*, w^vn^, ^CT; ^CRf^, 
&c„ Pot. %m^- ^tm- ^tl, '^W^, &c. Impv. ^ifiil (58), ?t, &c. 
Atm. ^, ^sT, &c. Per/. *r%K, 5|^§ (370. a), s^R; ^f^, ^|^, 
iTfp;; *!%, ^?, ^|^- A'tm. ^, *ff%k, *r%; Wff^l, 3TF^, STfTW > 
STfl*nf, stff £ or *rf?f , srfft. IS * ^- 1§T%. Atm. ?flt|, ?^rij, &c. 
W Pm*. ^ftHtTfa. Atm. ^frtR, ?ft^%, &c Aor. ^tl^, ^nift(, 
%Sgltffi^ ; ^nl, ^lt^, ^n§T^; ^?nft, ^fll, ^?t|^. Atm. ^?$fa, 
^'? , 'n^;, ^5*; ^p^rf^, ^rf^mi^, vugmiu^; ^i^f?, ^5f^, *f*nr. 
Prec. f^HTO^. Atm. £itf*r, ftfST^, &c. Corad. ^ft^. Atm. 
^ifftw, ^?ftWTR(;, &c. Pass., Pres. f&t; Aor. yrd sing. <BfTft:. 
Caus., Pres. ^TCTTfir, -^ ; Aor. ^nft^. Des. ftr^tf Tftr, -W. Freq. 
^f^, srl^lfa or »rtf?;ftftl or *Tfr^ttf»T or SfftfffS or srft- or ^|f*. 
Part., Pres. T^} P^s. fjrTmTO ; Past Pass. gfl ; Past Indecl. ^t, 
r-^H ; Fut. Pass. ?fcr, ?*J!]far, ?T*I. 

594. Root ^T (special stem w^). Inf. wfjft ' to remember.' Par. 
and Atm. Pres. ^rafa. Atm. wt. Impf. ^WV{, ^sw;^, &c. 
Atm. 'ST^. Pot. wk.VJ{. Atm. w>tt, &c. Impv. w#I (58). Atm. 
sft, wt^T, &c Perf. *TOTC, *ijrt (370. a), BWK; *mft<r, «Wt*ft, 
WCRTg^; TOfft*, W5RT, *9T^- Atm. Wt, «Wf*%, *wft; TOfffalf , 

*sm$, nmtti ; wrft*?, *wfc£ or -fief , torAc*. ist Fut. wmfw. 
Atm. wht|. and Fut. wft«nfa. Atm. wfw. Aor. ^reHTt^, &c. 
(see f at 593). Kixa. ^fW, ^ref^ (see f at 593). Prec. *>tfra^. 
Atm. W^ or wfi;^hl. Cond. ^wftTtl^. Atm. ^resrfT;^. Pass., Pres. 
Wif ; Aor. yd sing. ^wnft:. Caus., Pres. WPP#, -^; ^or. 'gravR^. 
Des. ^5ffW. Freq. TO, wwfn or ^WH^ft. Part., Pre*, wr^; Pa*# 
Pass. JjRir ; Pas^ /w^ecZ. ^T, -9jm ; Pw^. Pass, mfaf, wcdhr, wn. 

595. Root ^ (special stem ^n). Inf. ^ITJ^ 'to call.' Par. and 
A'tm. Pres. ^mft. A'tm. 3^. Impf. ^3^^, &c. Atm. ^r^. 



256 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 

Pot. 3^n^. Atm. ;^7i. Impv. a^nfsT. Atm. s?t. Per/. (373. e) 
l?re, g^fspu or ^rn, ^rm ^ffire, g§^, qgift; g§fa*, lf^, 
gf^. Atm. ijj*. sg^ftm, gip; g?f^%, ^f^TTO, ^TIW; gfftTCS, 
^ffaw or -fint, ^Hft . i«£ Pm£. ^TflTfw. Atm. ^TTTl^. 2»rf P«*. 
SITWlfH. Atm. 3fT^. -4or. (438. c) ^R^, ^5^, ^^; ^Hd^M, *<^B^, 

^ht^ ; *a%m, **%*, ^r^. Atm. <%%, m^ix^, ^ii; *<^i qf^, ^4*"*!' 
^in^; ^wf?, *8%i#^, ^3pff- 0r "?TfH (434), «^i*«ii^, ^R|m; 
■S3|TWf?, M^r«r<n^, ^m i H 'l^; ^iwfij , ^^T&^, ^TOW. Free. 
f* n W{ . Atm. sgrcfa. Cowd. ^ i m^ . -^ tm « ^GfTW. Pass. fruft 
(465. c) ; Aor. yd sing. v^rfit or m^ i fye or ^fiT or ->.H<^IW. 2nd Fut. 
■^mft or ^iPuwi^ (474. a). Caus., Pres. ^m ur Fn (483. b) ; Aor. 4^^. 
Des. sjfnfa, »J|$. Freq. *fl|$, sft gtf fr or sft^ftf*. Part., Pre*. 
5^; Pass, gipn* ; Pa«^ Pas*, fif ; Pas* Indeel. |tht, -fil ; Fut. 
Pass. ^TH^r, 4W'\*i , %V. 

a. it (special stem JTTT, 368), Inf. xrnpr 'to sing/ follows the analogy 
of 3?", the final diphthong being changed to a before all terminations 
beginning with t or s. Pres. Jimifa. Imp/. 4H i m w, &c. Po/. »n*flPl. 
/mpv. jiniPh. P«/. (373. rf) »nft, sffrre or liJiiw, spft ; "rfns, m'iw^, 
li'i^; *rfJw, »pt, *pj^. is* Pwf. Tmrrfar. awo* Fw/. nTOnfa. .^or. 
(433) ^jmftra^, ^mtfi^, ^Pirnh^; ^mfti^, ^tmftrei\, «»nftreT*r v ; 
WTTftpw, ^rmftre, wnf*P|fl. Free. Jnmw (451). Oond. wm**\\. 
Pass. t(\t& (465) ; Aor. yd sing. <ermfil. Caus., Pres. Jlimnfq (483); 
Aor. wrflnM*. Des. ftprrcnf'T. Freq. ^»rfr, jJIJ i Th or snmfa. Part., 
Pres. »TPn^; Pass. iflWK ; Past Pass, nhr ; Pas* Indecl. ifftgr, -TO ; 
Pm£ Pass. innsT, nTHta, »PT. 

6. Like ^ may be conjugated 5 'to be weary ;' ^ ' to meditate ;' 
J 'to fade;' and all other roots in ai (see 268). 

c. Root t^ (special stem vh). Inf. trani ' to cook.' Par. and Atm. 
Pres. irerfa. Atm. t|*r. Iirypf. WT^, ^TO^, &c. Atm. ^n^. 
Pot. i^hPT, tj^, &c. Atm. q^q. Impv. Vrtffa, V&, &c. Atm. trt. 
Perf. w^ or itt^, Tra*I or ^f^si (370. d), utTR ; ^f^T, "H^H, 
^njq;; ^fw, V*, ^. A'tm. ^g, ^f^, ^ ; ^fq^%, ^to, ^nrr ; 
^f^t, ^f^, ^T. 1st Fut. TjgoftiT. A'tm. ■qg!t|. 2nd Fut. ir^nfa. 
Atm. tr^. ^4or. (430. e) ^hjt^»?, ^nmfl^;, ^nmrh^; ^^^, ^nur*, 
wxtt^tjt; «mi!H, 'Bingi, wn^. A'tm. ^jfty, ^n^wi^, ^m^; ^n^f? , 
^fj^rm^, ^htjtttt^; 'snr^rff , ^jtjtkiit, ^ni^ir. Prec. ^rsfWf. Atm. 
xj^n. Conrf. wr^iii. Atm. *R^. Pass., Pres. V^ ; Impf. ^v^t ; 
Aor. yd sing. *njrfa. Caus., Pres. TTwnfa, v^m ; Aor. vnftv^x. 



C0KJUGATI01T OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 257 

Des. fiHTrejrfa, faro?. Freq. tn^, vmf^t or unHtfir. Part., Pres. 
*^\; Ktm.Tcmm; Pass. tnqHH ; Past Pass, v&i (548) ; Past Indecl. 
*m, -irar ; Fut. Pass, miar, V^fft^, Tirar or *ira (574). 

d. Root *n^ (special stem *tr). Inf. *nfap[ ' to ask.* Par. and 
^Ltm. Pres. *n^TTfa. iitin. m^. J»»p/. ^mre^, ^t^, &c. iftm. 
^nn^. Pot. vx^(f{, it^, &c. j^tm. vj^n. Imp*, ^n^ifa, *n% &c. 
iftm. *n^. p«/. Tfm^, ^nf^^r, nw, TPnfre, Trersrg^, <w«^; 

w^ift; ^nnf^t, ^xjrf^s^, wf^. 1st Fut. ntfemfm. Jitm. 

Ttf^cn%. 2nd Fut. *nftmTfH. Ktm... ^nf^. Aor. (427) wm- 
f 5 ^^, ^nrr^ft^, w n ^ ; ^tnf^r, wnf*re^, -st^; ^unf'sp*, -fro, 
^f«P|^. iitm. **nfafa, sspnf*rerq;, ^unfsre ,- ^nnf^^ff , vmxf^mvn^;, 
-*nm*(; sHiiiP^'Hf?, ^srcrfw^, ^^nf^ir. Prec. irrerra^. ^tm. *nfa- 
ThJ. Cbwrf. >gnjTN^. Pass., Pres. nM. Caus., Pres. nmufa; 
Aor. ^nwnj. Des. fipnfatnfor, -^. Freq. TITCTO, TPnfar {yd sing. 
*mnfli). Part., Pres. TRt^; Ktm.. Tn^HR ; Past Pass., mP«irf ; Pastf 
/w«?ec/. Tnfsrt^T ,■ l*W. Pass, infant** , *n^nrta, nr^t. 

e. Root sre (special stem ^ita). Inf. ^ftf^g^ ' to grieve.' Par. 
(Ep. rarely j£tm.) Pres. sfNtfa. Impf. W^P{, ^ISf\<¥(, &c. Pot. 
$ft^q^, ^ft^, &c I»yji>. sftalfH, ^fN, &c Perf. ^fta, ^ftf*ra, 

^fa;. ^nr, W^> *jf*p;; ^m, ^jf*, ^5^. is* P«*. 
shf^nrTfsT. 2nd Fut. sftf^nnfa. ^4or. (437. b) ^ftforai, "wsitafai;, 
«r$Nfy ^ftfatsr, ^f^e^, ^sftfsrer^ ; ^r^ftf^^r, 'srsftfsre, v^ftfc*^. 
Prec. M jjm^ . Cowrf. ^nfftfrai^. Pass., Pres. ^pr ; Aor. 3rd sing. 
5i$ftf%^ Caus., Pres. siN^nfa; -4or. ^g^J^. Des. ^jfa*nf»T or 
ffiftf vm r fa . Freq. 5rhjp&, ^ftf^T {yd sing, J^ftffi)- Part., Pres. 
5rN^; Pass. n afflH ; P«s£ Pas*, ^jf^Ta and ^ftfq?; Past Indecl. 
SjfsrHTT or ^fsJ3T, -SpR ; Pw*. Pass. shfaipq, Sfrfarftl, SlNl. 

596. Root W*T. Inf. rep^ ' to abandon/ ' to quit.' Par. Pres. 

wsnfa. Impf. stw^, ^wsn^, &c. Pot. twi^. Impv. nmrftr, w»r, 
&c Perf. Tnm^r, inqftrsi or Tc?im (370. rf), Trwm ; irwfsFr, wrm^, 

^4or. (42a, 296) ^rares^, ^iwt^i;, ^run^^; ^Tn^, ^nqras^, ^Tfliai^; 
^iwra?l, ^rwrai^ ^srwr^. Prec. iHi*fi«^. Cond. wwon^, &c. Pass., 
Prey. K(^t ; Aor. yd sing, ^ninftr. Caus., Pres. WT»nnftr; Aor. sifrN 
WiT^. Des. fww^Tfil. Freq. HTi^, wnqft*! or WTmsftfir. Part., Pres. 
HHTHj P«»^ Poss. 7m; Past Indecl. THiiT, -W5T; Fut. Pass. TJWt, 

unnfrr, wti?t (573)- 

l1 



258 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS L 

597. Root H3{. Inf. VgH ' to sacrifice,' ' to worship.' Par. and 
Aim. Pres.-mfa. &tm.*vm. Impf.W^,***^,^ Jftm. «**. 
Pot. t&V{. JLtw. v^n. Impv. qwrfa, itm, &c. Ktva. ttI. Perf- 
(375. e) %>cfa, ^rfsrsi or ^ftr? or ^w (397), ^TCT ; $f*PT, f^HJ^r %.MV 

$**, H $W- ^ tm - t*. *M t^ tf* 1 *' *""*» ^ ; ^5i 
$fe), $ftft. 1st Fut. -mfm (403). iLtm. rank, znd Fut. wsrrf* 
(403). Ktm. Tvgt. Aor. (422) w^, *<u«fK, w*mtffy ^rossr, 
^rare^, ^m i ai^ ; w qi«*i , ^nire, ^wia^. j&m. ^rfi^, wi\i\,^w, 
^tit^f ^, >Hti«| i 'ii T^, ^^itf<Mi^ ; ^TT^rfw, ^"^f^r snr^ir. P»w. ^n*^- 

iftm. Tretf*. CW. ^<4^ . Xtm. WW. Pass., Pres. ^ (47 z ) 5 
Imp/. *# (251. a); Aor. 3rd sing. 'annf*. Caus., Pres. m=H*llfH, -* ; 
.dor. snffrriJJT. Des. fawfa, -if. Freq. im^, Trprfsn or TrPPrH*. 
Part., Pres. ^; iftm. JPWTO; Paw. ^piR ; Past Pass. %w; Past 
Indecl. jjp, -jrQ ; Fut. Pass. *re*r, I^Pfhf , TO or irsr. 

a. Root ^ (special stem *HT, 270. d). Jm/". a^V to adhere.' Par. 
Pres.icmf**. Impf.'**^- Pot.lMH*{. Impv.-mfa. Perf.**&, 

*rof^i or *nhw, ?to; «*rf5nr, ««yvjt(, ««*$*(.; ««fcjn, *^> *"1^- 
is* Pw?. HHifiw, &c 2»d Pa*, u^ i fr , &c. Aor. ^rerh^, -^, -#^; 
w*ter, wii*^ , -w^; crater, ^rafsi, ?raf^. Prec. ti^i^, &c 
0owd. ^, &c. Pass., Pres. «1^. Caus., Pres. «««lfa; ^or. 
w*a^. Des. ftrchsrftr, &c. Freq. *rcnw, *u«PsH . Part-, Pre*- 
«»nr ; Pas*. «tHHH ; Pa** Pass. Wli ; Pas* Indecl. VW or WW, -TT3T ; 
.Fm*. Pass. <j;MI, *iyH"hl, H"T or H»T. 

#. Root ^(special stem sftir). !»/. gtfirg^ ' to shine.' iftm.'(and 
Par. in Aor) Pres. sftff. I»wp/. W3rft. Po/. «f&T. 7iwp». 3^. Per/. 
fc^p* (383. a), -fire, -h; f^firal, -nr*t, -ink; f^jfiwt, -fiw. -fifc- 
1st Fut. sftfinmr. 2«d J?ta. tftfiTO. ^tor. 'sreftfirfa, ^PitHi^, ^reftfire; 
^srcftfipsrf?, - frimvi T ^ , -fiflron^; -fip*tf^ -fR«P{, -finnr. Par. *rapj, 
mtc(, -m^; -«n%, -mt^, irar^; -ttw, -thi, -h^. Prcc. iftfWhj. Cond. 
^reftfn^. Pass., Pres. ?rn; Jor. 3rd «i»iff. ^reftfil. Caus., Pres. 
g liHUfM ; ^or. ^rf^H^. Des. f^fil^ or f^alfri^. Freq. ^W, ^ftfw 
or ^Wfl l fH. Part., Pres. sftanmr ; Past Pass. ^fir» or ?rrtint ; Past 
Indecl. ^flBrn or ?flfin^T, -3JW ; Fut. Pass. wtftliRT, aliMlu, ?ftw. 

c. RootTiir. Jw/l tlfir^ ' to fall.' Par. Pres. xrTTftl. Iot/j/". wtr«m . 
Pof. Ai^jm. Irnpf. ^niTf^I. Per/. Tnmr or ^jmr (368), ^firvi, T^mi ; 

* The final j is sometimes incorrectly doubled (Pres. tixnifa, TTWftf, tcsuTn, 
&c.) ; but the root must not; therefore, be confounded with an uncommon root 
F3il or W, meaning 'to go,' 'to move,' also cl. 1, and making ti-wufnj &c. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — ©EOFP I. CLASS I. 259 

vfim, *to^j ^3^; ^tfim, *fiT, ^g^. ™t Fut. ifirarffci. 3m«* P«*. 

TfiTOTfH. Aor. WWH (441), "SPT^, 'BTOHtrj ^TOWT^, ^MHiiHj, '3TT>nn^; 
^hhijt, ^suran, ^rqrn^. Preo. xmrtH^. Cbwrf. ^rofiWt. Pass., Pre*, 
q^ ; Imp/, tot ; -4or. 3r«* sing, ^nrifw. Caus., Pres. vmnfa, *HPl 
and Tninrtfa, TffiPi ; Aor. whTBH. Des. ftfttfifinfa or fxranftr. Freq. 
ITNw, Tpffafiw or tpftqiftfa. Part., Pres. mr^; Pass. UflHM; Pas* 
Pa**, tjfwii; Pas* Indecl. TjfingT, -tlW; Pw*. Pass. xrfirffar, MrHlq , 
tnw or xim. 

598. Root ^ (special stem *f I). /«/". ^fffipT ' to be/ ' to exist/ 
Atm. (and optionally Par. in 2nd Fut., Aor., and Cond., when it 
rejects i). Pres. ^w. Imp/. W^W. Po£. Wrfa. Jmpv. ^f. Per/. 
^r, *^f>re, ^; ^fir^, ^in% ^wt^; ^firat, *rffira, '^fift. 
is* Pw*. gfKint- ««* Pw*. ^rfNr. -^or. *rcfKfa, ^rafBST^, "snrfff?; 
.^rafS^ff , -fStmrw, -fsTfrwTHj -fforf?, -f§«pr, -fw*ra. Par. ^pf, 
-tt^, -mjj -wm, -mr^, -hhtt; -ww, -hit, -ii^. Prec. srfHVhi. Corae?. 
^rwfii*«I or ^«J(*§^. Pass., Pres. ^w. Caus., Pres. qlimfr; -4or. 
^Nfcjn* or ^r^gf*r. Des. tWfs or ftppnfir. Freq. ^Xt^, ^ifafrw 
or ^TT^cTTftr. Part., Pres. gf m^T ; Past Pass. ^ ; Pas* Indecl. gfSsr 
or ^T, -^W ; Fid. Pass, wfifirar, ^TH«fcr, ^W. 

599. Root 35. J/j/". qfc^ju ' to speak.' Par. Pres. %STfa. Jrag/". 
^S^R, ^nr^, &c. Po*. ^TPT. irnpw. s^iftr. Per/. (375. c) 7^, 
"3^*1, T^T^ ; "^ft^, *>?^, ^(R ; ^T, "3^, "3>^- IS* Fut. qf^infSR, 

^inftr,. &c 2reo* Fut. gf^nft, trfipqfa, &c ^4o»\ (448) ^rrfttHr, 
=31^^, ^n^; ^nnf^r, *raTfir*w, ^Rif^TH; ^r^if^T, *nrrf^, ^m- 
f^Tj^. Free, TOTO*, TOT^, &c Cond. ^^*IH, ^raf^Hj^, &c. Pass., 
Pres. TO (471); -4or. 3«? siw^. ^rmf^. Caus., Pres. ^T^nftr; ^or. 
^rrta^. Des. 'fW^Tfa, -$. Freq. =TTTO, ^Rfsi or ^T^tftl. Part., 
Pres. Tftftj, Pass. TOHTO; Past Pass, grf^ir (543); F ast Indecl. ^f^PTT, 
-TO; Fut. Pass. t^W^, ^ftT, ^TW or TO. 

a. Rqot «^ (special stem wfy, 270). /m/1 TTf^'to sink.' , Par, 
Pres. tfr^Tf*!. /»wp/. ^ra^n . Po^.^vi, I»y?». Tft^TfH. Per/ srerr?;, 
^r (375- «) or "'Pf, ^rw^; ^?r, ^^ %?3^; ^f^» %?»:^p;' 
isf P«^. ^r^Tfw. 2nd Fut. gwrfa. -4or. ^re^H (436, 437), wa^, 
^h^; ^ra^T?, w^hr, g i q^rii^ ; *smn, ^^, ^m^. Prec. *&twr, 
Cond, w?Tf5r»T. Pass., Pres. mi; Aor. 3rd skiff,. ^Irrf^. Caus., Pres. 
■mzFlfo; Aor. 'israrr'^. Des. ftnmiTftl. Freq. mtt, WBfa or m*- 
tffa. Part., Pres. tfr^; Past Pass. W* (540); Past Indecl. *r^T, 
-^rsr; Fut. Pass. WS*t, ^«ft«r, FRT. 

l 1 2 



260 CONJUGATION OP VEEBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 

b. Root ^M (special stem g§). Inf. ^f§jp? 'to increase.' Ktva. 
(and Par. in Fut., Oond., and Aor.) Pres. ^. Imp/. ?&%, «=|5v<1*(, 
&c. Po*. ^TTT. Impv. ^1, MNr, &c P«/. spipj, ^fvl, ^i|; 
^fi^t, gfvr*r, snjvnr; gfftrot, s^fas*, ^fvfc. is* Fut. *rf*hn%. 
Par. ^rfihnffc?. and Fut. ^fiNi. Par. gjshfa. -<4o»\ ^nrfSfir, 'SMfSsi^, 
^raf%; ss^fv««cff, ^Rf*Nr«n*^, ^rafvmril*^; ^nf*Nrf\f, ^raf^s^, SN=lf§Mrt. 
Par. ^np^, w^m, ^vt^; ^n^r, ^vn^, 'a^vin^; "ar^nr, ^ra, 
^V*|;. Free, gfihfhl. Co»a*. ?Rfw. Par. 'srawh^, ^smmS^, &c. 
Pass., Pres. ^afr ; Imp/, ^tfl ; Aor. yd sing, "smfih Caus., Pres. 
^hrffH ; Aor. ■jh')'^ and ^^N(. Des. f^f^r, f^WTfir. Freq. 
srflfwr, ^rifaftt or gtf^ftfa. Part., Pres. ^Jijt^ ; Pass. ^uprrc ; Pa»« 
Pass, ^f ; Pa** fwrfecZ. ^fS^T, ^t, -^ai ; Pttf . Pass. giNN, ^fvil^T, ^aj. 

600. Root vw. Inf. Tjfaif^ 'to increase,' *to flourish.' ^itm. 
Pres. *$, ^v%, &c. Im?/. i& (351), ihr«m(, &c. Pot. SVT. Impv. 

**$, *nra, &c P«/. (385) ^vrais, jwraopi, uvra"5s; svra^^, 
^v^ranr, ^vNAiff ; ^ii^h^, ^ii*^', ^vngfafr. 1st Fut. ^ftnrt%. 
and Fut. JifvSt. Aor. ^fvfti (437. b, 351), JHvST^, i*fire; ^fv^f?, 
iHwnrp^, ijftpUril^; ^ftmif?, ijfiis^, irfviil. Prec. ijfijtffal. Oond. 
ijfirsr (351). Pass. Utt); Aor. yd sing. 5*fii. Caus., Pres. ^vxrrft; 
.^or. %fam (494)- Des. Trf^fV* (500. b). Part., Pres. sv»TR ; Past 
Pass, sfira ; Pa*/ Indecl. ufvsT, -irar ; Pm*. Pass. ^fvn^T, ^v«fN, uai. 
a. Root iPJ. /«/". crg^ ' to burn.' Par. and ^tm. Pres. ttmfn . 
^tm. (i^. Img/l ^TPT^. ^tm. ^snpfc. Po*. nvi^. iftm. iphl. I»i/w. 
TRTftr, TUT, &c. Atm. inh Per/, inrrq or HcPI, inp^l or wfirq, mrre ; 
-^f>TW, ri>l<^, ffTiJ*( ; flfTH, **T, H^. ^tm. fiif, ^ftpr, ^Tf ; 3ftH^, ^TW, 

•^Tff ; irfiro?, Trfaai, wftn;. 1st Fut. innfipt, &c. i&m. «nn%, &c. and 
Fut. imnifn (Ep. also (Tfiranfir). iftm. ir«^. Aor. ^Hft r ^ , ^ri i mlq , 
wrrtB^; snrr^r, shhih^, ^hihi*^; ^nrnw, wnr, wph^. A'tm. ^riPm , 

'flrii.VJl^, WJJ ; SHrii.wff, ^riHJI«II^, ^Trimiril*^ ; ysirlMHrf, ^THW^, \Url4Jri. 
Prec. riujltw. ^tm. «p?ft^. Cfawa". iHrfHitl^ . iitm. ^ri^ . Pass., 
Pres. tm ; Imp/, ^fm ; Aor. yd sing. ^nrrfT. Caus., Pres. rfmm fa, 
htiw; -4or. ^nfhrt^, ^nftn^. Des. frnn*rtf»T, finro. Freq. htb^, fmrf^i 
or "irnnrtftT- Part., Pres. WT^; i^tm. irqHR ; Paw. rimHK ; Pasf 
Pas*, hh; Pasf Jwrfeci hwt, -frat,' P«/. Pass, innq, inrsfhr, init. 

601. Root SflT (270. e). In/, w^ ' to take.' ^tm. Pres. <!W, 
iW^r, c5>nr; w>iT^t» ww, wfk; «5Hmt, <w«, cw^. Imp/. ^t?w, 
wrfMvji^, sie5vrii; "?n?w^rf^, *ra>r«n^, ^rw^in^; ^H«wf?, ^i^n^, 
^tcWnT. Pot. •&$?, c5H^, b^it; cJ^rf^, bwirth, cS^imn^; cS^rf?, 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 261 

<5^«l^, ?W^. Impv. c5^, W«^, <Win^; cOTR^, w«*n^, hwttt^; 
*cWTr|, cwsei^, c5>Rrm. Per/. a£ (375. a),&fiw, &«; Sfawt, &«to, 
W*l^ ; &6w%, $fa£, &f>ft 1st Fut. csant (409), cjanif, csarr, &c. 
2nd Fut. c5^ (a99)» cf-Wl , &c. .^or. ^srafa (430, 299), ^tc53m|; (298), 
^r <33l ; ^SSSW^f^, WW "Wiving ww^llrilH; WWWjRfsr, ^?WOTT, Wcimri . Pree. 
WWR, cytfBT^, Wtfte, &c. Cb«o". nwKjft , &c. Pass., Pres. iw : 
Aor. wwfar, ^e?an^, wwrfa (475) or ^iwf*>T, &c. Caus., Pres. w**- 
*rff{,&.c.~, Aor.w&&mp{. Des. fw^r (503). Freq. WTpW, WTW»flfH. 
Part., Pre*. <3OTR ; Past Pass. c53t ; Pa*tf Indecl. wajT, -W*l ; .FW. 
Pass. c!3i*r, <5*Rhl, ija?. 

a. Like w* is conjugated ^>r (with prep, ^n), ^ITT3p^ ' to begin.' 

60a. Root t\^ (special stem *rat, 270). Inf. iFSjft 'to go.' Par. 
Pres. irarrfir, i^tftt, >ratfk; ji^an^, ts*!^, Ji-oict^; *ratwe(, 1*5*1, 
•JT^fnT. Imp/. WToA^, wrai^, &c Pot. i\*&n*\, »T53i^, &c. Impv. 
^rairftr, >rac, &c. Per/. (376) jptth, sprfinj or ^ji-vj, »pith; sTfnre, 
sjnr^, sl'HiJ^; »rfbw, »T"I, »T'«J^. 1** Fut. Jlitlfct. amo" Pw£. 
JT fH «ii rn , nfiroftr, »rf»TBjfiT, &c. -4or. (436) ^pw^, ^n«% ^m*n^; 
^smrre, ^mKu^, wn*nn^; ^mmr, ^mir, 'smnq;. Prec. irwrra^. 
€ond. ^mf*^. Pass., Pre*, TO ; Aor. yd sing, ^nnfir. Caus., 
Pres. jpnrrft ; Aor. wsfin*^. Des. ftpTfiretfa. Freq. ^nfr, s^fo 
or »<^Hl ftr; see 709. Part., Pres. irat^; Po*2 Pass, tr; Pa*£ 
Irarfec?. TTWT, -nwf, -»n«l (563. a, 560) ; Fut. Pass. jt^, wflq, »TH?. 

a. Root tp^. irc/"- ^1 ' to bend.' Par. and Kim. (' to bow one's 
self'). Pres. ?pnftr. i&m. tp). I»rap/. ^PPPj;. Atm. ^Pp>. Pot. 
^^. Xtm. TpTO. Jwyw. *mfiT. iCtm. 7j|. Per/. (375. a) ?pn* 
or ?ppf, ?TTO or %firzi, ^RTH; 3tf»PT, 3prw^, 3pnpj; %fiw, 3pr, 3pjq;. 
iftm. 3p>, 3*fip>, 3ft; %flra%, 3?m$, 3jnr>; 3ffiro%, 3tf*£, 3pflt. 
1st Fut. ■^iTTffcT. iitni. ^Pint- 2w^ Fut. TOlfa. -^tm. tf^. ^or. 
^nfftt^, ^pfcfaj, *«Mi^ ; wfftw, wirftrs^, ^nrftrepj; ^Rftrw, 
^nrftre, ^ q fiH M^ - ^tm. ssrsrftr, ^R^n^, ^nrer; ^nr^f?, ^T^r«n^, 
'gHmifW j ^nfwf?, ^nr«i^, ^nroir. Prec. irmT^. ^tm. iWN. Cowrf. 
-g^^. Xtm. 'gpi^. Pass., Pre*. TO; J»wp/.^TO; Aor. yd sing. 
■gnrfa or ^TTftr. Caus. -^raifir or ^n»nnfH ; ^or. W**\H\ or ^nlHH^. 
Des. fJRWfH. Freq. ^T^, ^R»ftm or ^Rftn. Part., Pres. ^; 
Ani. -JTRm^; Pass. ^T«Pn^; P«sf Pa**. fHT; Past Indecl. ^3T, -^T«I 
or -TTW ; i^^. P««*. H*d»i4, HH«fll, TTHI or "HT. 

g. Root ^. Ira/, ^fegu 'to move.' Par. Pres. *rarfa. I?wp/. 
wqt5^. Pot. •*rara^. i»»pw. ^5lftT, ^c5, &c. Per/. 'q^TS or ^^75, 



262 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GBOUP I. CLASS Ii 

■^Trfvi, '^<?r<7 j ^rfi?q, Mc9^, ^rfj^; 3fw«, *r&, ^§R' lst FuL 
"^f<3infw. and Fut. HfdmfH. Aor. ^rarfcj?^, w^r??^, «^ic4l«^; 
^rmfes^, sH-^ i fa B^ , -st^; ^r^TfigTW, -fm, -fi?5^. Free. *3rra^. 
<Oond. ^rafigBTH. Pass., Pre*, ^rgr. Caus., Pres. MciH Tfo or ■"Hirfflifa. 
Pes. ftrafsjioftr. Freq. vn'^if, <*rn5rfgff. Part., Pres. "TOT^; Pfl«/ 
Pass. **ft?iT; Pastf JwrfecZ. Mfo'NT, -TBT; 23*/. Pass, ^frfri^ , qSffhi, 

603. Root wt\. Inf. ^W%iJ*' to live.' Par. Pres. sfNiftt. Imp/. 
sssrNs. Po/. sffoj*;. I«^»,^Tftr, sfhr, &c. Pa/, fsnffa, fsnftf^ 
finfNr; ftnftftrc, fsnffa^, r«f«n<i^; ftnftf^ra, f«i*i)<i, f*t«n^> is/ 
Pm/. ifir^rilf^f. 2nd Fut. iflPj atTfa. ^er. ^If^M^ , SRlfcft^, ?mhft^; 
Wttfaw, -flWWWsH* ^jftf^W^ ; W*T i r<W , -snftfa?, <ftflfagq . Prec. 
sfajRPJ. Cond. SNai)r<tn|'<^. Pass., Pres. *rt^ ; -4or. 3»*rf smff. *s»ftfa.. 
Caus., Pr«es. STfamftr ; -4or. wfifsffa^ or ^»ftfw^. Des. fsnftfw^lfti- 
Freq. 3«rt<*l. Part., Pres. »lNi^; Past Pass. *)1faci ; Pas/ IndecL 
sflfarll, -sfN; Pw/. Pass. sftfafTBT, sfarcfa, srN. 

o. Root vnr. /«/"• Wf^p; 'to run/ 'to wash/ Par. and ^itm. 
Pres. tjrerftr. -^tm. vj^. ijwjt/. ^wt^. iftm. *rei^. Po^. vra^[- 
Xtm. vi^. Impv. vmrftl. ^tm. tnt. Per/. <*str, ^Vlfavi, ^vra» 
?wf^, ^vtt^, -^nj^; ^vrfa*, ^VPI, ^VT^. is/ Fut. ^n farilfaf . 
Atm. vrf^TlT?. ara^ Pm£. VuV"nfH. Xtm. vifw. -^or. ^nnftre^, 
'SWT^, ^TVPrfy <SVTf%tg, -faf^, -fsm^; ^VT^TW, -fire, -f^m- -^tm. 
srwfafa, -f«HH^, -f^W; Winfa&(f% , &c. Prec. VT^to*^. Atm. vrfi^fa?. 
Cond. '^roifin^. iitm. ^rorfq*!. Pass., Pres. VT^. Caus., Pres, 
VTWITftT l Aor. ?T^V^. Des. fijVTfimf'T, -^. Freq. ^WP^. Part., 
Pres. VF^, VNHH; Pas/ Pass. wfifif, >^ir ('washed') ; Past Indecl. 
vrfwn or ^sn ; Fut. Pass, vrfinrai, m^fhi, vt*»t. 

604. Root pi (special stem q^t, 270). Iw/". ^|^ 'to see.' Par. 
Pres. n^nfa, vyrfit, q$qfir; q^wtq, q^ra^, n^nr^; m^mw^, vwi, 

q^fsiT. limp/. «n»3^, ^nr^-q^, ^R^TT^J ^I^TR', &c. Pot. q^TOJl, 
1*3^, qjf^j Tjpfa. &c. Impv. THRlftT, 1^, 1^1; l^ira, &c 4 
Per/, ^f , ^^fifN or ^ (370./), ^; T|f^» Tpl^, TpIR; 
^f^«r, ^pi, ^|^^. is^ Fut. jetfm. and Fut. j^nfa. Aor. 
(437. c) *^i»t, ^^, ^^; ^r, w<$i«(, «<??hi^; ^^m, *Mhr, 
«^. Or 'b^t^t (420, 390./), wgTerN;, ^rtBjh^; ^s^t^, ^re^, 
^jreTfT; ^J\W, ^Tf, ^pr^. Prec. "p*n^. Cond. wj^iw. 
Pass., Pres. j$ ; Aor. $rd smg. w^fip. Caus., Pres. ^Nifa ; Aor. 
*r^ppr or ^?^; see 703. Des. f^%. Freq. ^^, ^ff^. 



CONJUGATION OP TBfiBS. — GROUP I. CLASS L 263 

Part., Pres. T^; Past Pass, ^g ; Past Indecl. ^fT, --^ ; Fut. 
Pass. •$&*, ^Nfa, -p*. 

605. Root §tf. Inf. f ft^ir ' to see. 5 Xtm. Pres. $ejf. Imp/. 
F% (351). Pot. %$*. Impv. ^. P^/". §7&TCai, &c. (385, and 
compare^ at 600). 1st Fut. ff^rrt- araa" Pw*. §foj*L Aor.^fq 
(25 1 )* ^r«j«i^, ^?; ^ft^f?, g C i ajm qw,. sfspmnn; ^ft^r%, 
$ftj«n^, 5rft^T. Prec. ffspfal, &c. Gbnd. vf^pk. Pass. §^; 
Aor. yd sing. Jjfoj. Caus., Pres. f$*nfa ; Aor. $fg^ (494)- Desv 
^M"^ (500. b). Part., Pres. %WW> Past Pass. $fi^H; Past 
Indecl. fftji^T, r^s?t; Fut. Pass, ^feppar, f^jftn:,, ^r. 

606. Root spr* (special stem ^r§). Iw/". sb|t^ or gn|^ ' to draw/ 
' to drag. 5 Par. and Jitm. Pres. ^%fa. Xtm. •*$. Imp/. 9^, 
j&m. ^hbk. Pot. *B*fo(. ^Ltm. «i3fii. 'Jm^t>. grtTfrr. iftm. 3fi. 
Pe»/. <^it, 'xickflw, ^r| ; ^faw, -*i<jmg^, -McjiM^j ^fim, ^W, 
^f ^. Ktm. ^$, ^ftre, *&§§;. ^p.ftra%, ^fww, ^rfm^; ^ ftn%, 
^fiw, ^fifc. 1*/ Put. -smfm. . iLtm. ^sfit or surrl. a«£ P«*. 
•arcshfi? or 3ra?nfa. ^tm.'^org!^. Aor. ^sraraf^, 's^rte^, isnsn^; 
*J3«t#, ^nnf^, *rarfi»^;, 'srar^r,, ^nnt, mn|q . Or 9n;n^,,w9Kn|N(, 

&C. Or ^f^H, ^If ^, ^ ^; ^ojiBjn, ^W*, ^' fSHrt l H ; ^f^TH, 
^r^w, ^sicjiKjf^. iLtm. ^ftj, ^cfi^un^ or ^Bl^, iH=ji«|ri or ^r? ; 
^Bfl^P^ or ^^%, ,^Tf ^T^tTiT, sHejiBjirtlH; ^?eR^rof? or ^^iff , 
sn^at^ or ^Sf»T, Wji^iT or ^rajir. Prec. ^5mw. Xtm. ^fcr. 
Cond. THohsyiR or wgn^if. i&m. *?rarajf or ^rgre?r. Pass., Pre*. c^( ; 
Aor. yd sing. ^raft. Caus., Pres. Wlft ; Aor. 3M=rQt or ^-efl^mr. 
Bes. faf^rfr, -■%. Freq. ^JTlIf^, *rttef$ or ^rtfcfifa. Part., 
Pre*, Wi^; Past Pass. <$w; Past Indecl. ^T, -<jw?; P«£. Pass. 
«Kt3t or •gre^, «BtiD , hT, ^bj. 

a. Root ms. Inf. HTfolpT ' to speak. 5 Atm. Pre*. wr<*. iiwgf. 
WTT^. Pot. mkl. Tj»jw..>*r. Per/. <W^, -swifire, *WTO; •swrf^, 
•.trre, -*rm; swtfimir, -fa«r,- -f$:. «* Fut. wrftnnl. %nd\Fut. 
>nfa^. ^or« 'swrfiifa, -firei^, -fro; <srnifH«sjfs, -ftwjrt»T, -fn^nm; 
^imf^Tf?, -ftsa'T, -ft^r. Prec. HrfrpfN. Cond. ^wfk^. Pass., 
Pre*. w$; -4or. 3rrf siwy. ?wift. Cans. m^nf*r; Aor. ^rmrrw^ 
and ?Nhl^. Des. f^«Tft^. Freq. 'TMT^, •srwrfa (3rrf sing. ^THlf?). 
Part., Pres. Hnmra; Po*^ Pa**. mftK; Past Indecl. mft^T, -»imj 
Pt<^. Pass, wfm&t, httoI^t, JIW. 

* This root is also conjugated in cl. 6 : Pres. ^UTfn, &c. ; Pot. ^1^> &c. 



264 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 

b. Root ^. In/.xfi^R 'to preserve," to defend.' Par. Pres.TQjfa- 
Imp/. W3j»r. Pot. v$pp{. Impv. tKjlfiff (58), nq, &c. Per/. TX&, 
Ttftpn, txq; xxfem, TW^> uaj^; TTfapr, xxq, r&ap. jst Put. 
tftnnfw. and Put. tf^HTfa. -<4or. ^reftjtpr, ^ratf^, SHSfh^J mft?^, 
"OTfW^ wfgjg l * ; ^rChj'W, mfipr, ^SHJaiH^. Prec. *3?n*m. Cond. 
^nfsj^W. Pass., Pre«. TO?r. Caus., Pres. T^nfiT, &c. ; Aor. ^wqir. 
Des. fuft^Tfir, &c Freq. TTt^, *K% . Part., Pre*, x^j 
Past Pass, tf^ir; Pa** Indecl. tfsfRT, -T3?i; Pw*. Pa**, tft^raf, 

607. Root gq;. Ik/1 ^« ' to dwell.' Par. Pres. ^rrftr. I«ig£ 
«Htw. Pot. 4*)<W. Impv. "zmfst, ^r, &c. Per/. T^m (368), 44PuM 
or 44t?4, d<4IH; *ri<f, WjJ^, *MiJ^; JiPMH,'3re, *g*^- 1st Fut. qwiPw. 
and Fut. ^WITftT (304. a). Aor. «Hlrtl« (304. a, 426. a), ^SHlrtA^, 
STCTRffy ^^xm, *3NH , ^cji^i i m ; ^ciifW , ^nTW, miiti^ . Prec. TwnWT. 
Corea*. ^mw*| (304. a). Pass., Pre*. T^ (471) ; Aor. yd sing. ^jhiPh. 
Caus., Pres. grennra, -^ ; Aor. a^hra^. Des. Pr^rtHp H (304. a). 
Freq. *n^&, ^T^fw or qw a fl fa . Part., Pres. ^r^; Past Pass, ■zftrn 
(with fa, tb); Past Indecl. gfTOT, -^ (565); Fut. Pass. ^gp«T, 

608. Root ^. /wf. wP|g<^ 'to deserve.' Par. Pres. tm|iPh . 
Imp/. snf *^. Po*. <a^l^. Impv. afrfsBI (58). Per/. (367. b) w*%, 
winner, ^TRf ; SNi'tiPci, 1W^<(, Wlfjm; WfrffT, ^R#, 4Im|^. 
xst Fut. ^rffirrftR. and Fut. «Pje*ufir. ^4or. vrff^, ^TTfft[, sai^ ; 
wP&ur, ^nffs^, fllffw^;- ^Tft^R, *rrff*, *tTff*^. Prec. ^M # m^ . 
CoM<f. ^fftq^. Pass., Pre*, ^iff ; ^4or. 3ro* ringr. "wrff . Caus., Pre*. 
«rf lift, -^ ; Aor. ^rf%n (494). Des. ^rftfijmPH, &c. (500. d). Part., 
Pres. ^T^; Pa*£ Pas*, ^rff cr ; P«»^ Indecl. SHfjrM l, -a# ; Pw£ Pas*. 

609. Root n^ (special stem Jjfr, 470. 6). Im/I ijftggl or J|"td*j ' to 
hide.' Par. and Atm. Pres. nj&fa. Atm. i£Jr. Imp/. VH'j^;*^ 
Xtm. ^PT^r. Pof. JJ^P^. Atm. Jj^if. Impr. Jj^iftf. Atm. jt|. 
P«/- 31* (384- «0, 'g'Tf^I or ^nfc (305. a), gn^; ^jf^r or gip^ 
(37i)» 3W*. WFW> ¥$& or ^rva, ^, gjj|^. jftm. gij|, 
gg^ or »rfW, &c 1st Fut. (415. m) irf^inftR or ifl^ftR (305. a). 
Ktm. ^UT% or ntel%. and Fut. iTf^rrfH or ^tenfir. ^tm. ijf^ 
onfhs. Aor. ^njf?^, ^ijlt^, a^?^; ^Pjf^^, '^mf^, ^Pjf^n^ ; 

«ujf^*T, 'ssjf^, ^jrf?^. Or ^5^^(306.0), ^^, ^sw^; 'wfw^, 
^rg^Ti^, ^pT»(j n^qm, ^^r, 'w^h;. Atm. ^nf^N, ^njf^fi^, 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GEOUP I. CLASS I. 265 

^1^, &c. Or ^njfEj (439. b), <3npf«n^ or ^HJ5T^, ^ra^rT or 'sr'T^ ; 
*^nrf? or ^^§ff , ^jtot**;, ^rf^nn^; ^np?ro%, <snp5«T^ or ^ff*[, 
^S^tT. Prec. n^lTH^. ifrm. Jjf^ftTr or tji^tj (306. a). Cond. <5PTf?m^ 
or^rcfa^. Xtm. ^JTff ^ or ^nft?^. Pass., Pra>. ^ ; Aor. 3rd sing. 
^n%. Caus., Pres. Jj^fiT; ^or. *H<]^. Des. sji^rfa, -iHfr. Freq. 
*ftg#, sftntfw (3rd s%. .ftiftfe) or sf^fa. Part., Pres. 17?^; Past 
Pass, irz (305. a) ; Past Indecl. nf?pn or jjjt or irf^T, -^?r; P«f. 
Pass. »|f?(pq or iffe^, JT^fta, *£& or ifl^i (573. a). 

610. Root 3|. Inf. yip^ ' to burn/ Par. Pre*, ^ifa. imp/, 
^s^f^. Poif. ^rip^ &c. Impv. ^TftT, ^?, &c. Per/. ^Tf, ^f^q 
(375- «) or *fc»v (305), <^nr ; ^fipr, ^^, ^5^5 %f^r, ^g, ^. 
is£ Fut. ^rm%. 2rad Fw£. v^nfT (306. a). Aor. "anmq^ (422), 
^tot^;, ^ivrefiT^; ^rorer, ^Tni^, ^mn^; ^ronst, ^t*v, ^tvt^;. 
Prec. ^to^. Corad. *3ra^t^. Pass., Pres. ^ ; Aor. 3rd sing. ^tf?. 
Caus., Pres. ?T^nfa, -^; Jor. *s^l^. Des. f^v^Tftr (502.0). 
Freq. 3^?r, ^ftr or ^^ifa (3rd sm^. ^fnj or ^^fTffl). Part., 
Pre*, ^t^j Pa*; P«s«. ^ttj; Pas* Indecl. ^T«n, -^r; Pk*. Pass. 

611. Root 3f. Inf. w>f^ 'to carry.' Par. and Ktm. Pres. 
ggrftr. Ktm. g|. Imp/. ^R^. i&m. ^%. Pot. ^V^. Atm. 
g?*[. Impv. g^fa, 3g, &c. Am. g|. Perf. (375. c) ^n? (368), 
Tff?^ or ^fa, g^T?; ^ifi?^, , 3i?^, ^fT|^; '3ifg*, "3i?, "3i§^. -^tm. 
■git, 5%^, 'gil; '3if?gt, 3ifT*I, ^fl; ^if?*?, ^if^S3 or , 3if^-, 3if?T. 
1st Fut. ^Idifw. i^tm. ^Tf. znd Fut. tra?nfiT. Ktva.. ^. Aor. 
(425) ^rre^, ^nmq^, ^tc^; ^s^m, ^nfte^, ^Ntei^; ^me??, wfte, 

^iT^Tf^, '^f^, ^rrsp. Prec. T^rre^. j^tm. ^jfa. Cond. 'SR^i^. 
Atm. ^rg^. Pass., Pres. (471) "^r; Impf. ^ft^r (251.0); yior. 3rd 
sing, vacnfg. Caus., Pres. sngintH, -^; -4or. ^Nl*(. Des. fif^Tfa, 
-T5f. Freq. 3TC%, ^rT"^f%T (3rd sing. ^T^tfe; cf. 425). Part., Pres. 
^T?T^; Atm. ^hh; Pass.^mj^; Past Pass. ^xS ; Past Indecl. ^t, 
-■^r (565) j Pm*. Pass, fteaj, g??rta, ^ra. 

a. ^If, ///. ift^H or ¥f^R ' to bear,' is i^tm. only, and, like vah, makes 
?ftenr &c. in 1st Fut. : but in this tense optionally, and in the other 
General tenses necessarily inserts i; thus, 1st Fut. *lf^in?; znd Fut. 
■*f%n; Aor.^s^f^; Prec. vf^h; Corad. wrffxfc. The Perf. is ^ 
(375- a \ ^?^> &c - Part -> Fut. Pass. Ht&n or qf^rim , W&ffo, TRI (573). 
The other tenses are like the Xtm. of vah; thus, Pres. *Tjf, &c. 

m m 



266 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS IV. 



EXAMPLES OP PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE FOURTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 272. 

613. Root ijf muh. Infin. Htf^iJH mohitum, 'to be troubled' 
Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, ' I am troubled.' 
^(ifH muhydmi ^[[^muhydvas tftrm^muhydmas 

^ffotmuhyasi ^(yf^muhyathas «j«*i muhyatha 

g^ffil muhyati ^4lri^ muhyatas g«f*n muhyanti 

Imperfect, ' I was troubled. 5 

^!5?PT amuhyam tH^^I^ amuhydva *i«J«i«i amuhydma 

^H^amuhyas *^rt^ amuhyatam lagsin amuhyata 

WV%n\amuhyat vi^^i n i«^ amuhyatam ^g«*l, amuhyan 

Potential, ' I may be troubled.' 
J^rt^ muhyeyam 5^ muhyeoa $?N muhyema 

»j»jm muhyes y^'K*^ muhyetam g^if muhyeta 

^R^muhyet ^tm^muhyetdm «J«3«( v muhyeyus 



H?nf«f muhydni 



g*n^ mumoha 
*JHlf)JVJ mumohitha ' 
yTt? nrnmoAo 



Imperative, ' Let me be troubled.' 

g^rra muhydva g«ii muhydma 

tj^lri*^ muhyatam «J«n muhyata 

Q£A\*\ muhyatam g5i»g muhyantu 

Perfect, ' I have been troubled.' 

ggfir^ mumuhiva •J«jfi;»i mumuhima 

gg^^ mumuhathus $$? mumuha 

ljffii!ftmumuhatiis ffigH(mumuhiis 

First Future^, ' I shall or will be troubled.' 
>ftlVrflfffl mohitdsmi iftfijrutg^ mohitdsvas Vtf^JU^t^ mohitdsmas 

Htf^TTtftf mohitdsi H^f^rfHW^ mohitdsthas iftf^WTW mohitdstha 

•ftftpTT moftiirf Htf?WTO mohitdrau jftf^HTO^ mohitdras 

Second Future ■f, ' I shall or will be troubled.' 
fltfifrrfH mohishydmi »ftfi|<Hll^ mohishydvas *ftf?«Hi»«*^ mohishydmas 

jftf^qftj mohishyasi «ftf^ «H "i «^ mohishyathas Hifymm mohishyatha 

iftfjfTfit mohishyati mf^'knii^ mohishyatas m\<$'H?l\ mohishyanti 

■ * Or g»f^ (303. a) or ^«ftm (305). 

t The 1st and 2nd Futures may optionally reject the inserted i; see 415. m. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS IV. 267 

Aorist (435), 'I became troubled. 5 
^S^ amuham ^JUTO amuhdva ^p-TT amuhdma 

^njjT^ amuhas vtg^it*^ amuhatam ^H^^ri amuhata 

^q^amuhat W^A\*\amuhatdm ^^^amuhan 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I be troubled. 5 
gUTTT^ muhydsam <J3I*4 muhydwa QHHH muhydsma 

^n^muhyds %3TW{muhydstam g^n^T muhydsta 

^STUmuhydt ^SmV^muhydstdm ^SX^muhydsus 

Conditional, ' I should be troubled.' 
^UTTT^Bl^ amoMshyam Wfff^Bira amohishydva wftf^uni amohishydma 

■wui^Vf^ amohishyas ^nftf^^nP^ amohishyatam mftflxmT amohishyata 
*HH\ (5 «m ^ amohishyat ^^tf^m^amohishyatdm Wftf^ytF^amohishyan. 

Pass., Pre*, pfr; Jor. 3rd siraj'. ?wtf%. Caus., Pres. ift^JTfii; ^or. 
^y^H- Des - g»frff*ifa or ggf^nfa or gg^ifir. Freq. jfrg£, jfoftftr 
(3rrf % iftiftffc or Jftjftfrv, 305). Part., Pres. pr^; Past Pass. jj* 
(305. a) or giv; Pastf JwtfecZ. jfrf^PJT or gf^T or grun or *£T, -pr; 
Fw/. Pas*, *ftf?irsq or fam, H l%» f lq, *itsr. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OP CL. 4 IN THE , ORDER, OF THEIR PINAL LETTERS. 

613. Root ^ft (special stem ^tf, 376, a). Inf. *nj^ 'to finish* 
(with prepositions vi and ava, 'to determine,' 'to strive'). Par. 
Pres. ^nfa. Imp/, ^m^. Pot. ^PF{. Impv. ^tTfa. Per/. (373. d) 
*raft, *ftr*r or *rar*r, srcft; *ftra, *rcrg^, *rag^; *ftm, to, *gq;. 
1st Put. Trmffcr. awe? Pw£. ^ronfiT. -Aw. (438. c) "*rcn^, ^rcn^, 
wn^; ^rare, ^mm^, ^ram^; ^ram, *ranr, ^g^. Or ^raTftnpj; (433), 
^rcrrah^, ^rarefy ^r^Tfti^, ^rartftre^, ^twftreT^; ^tm i P-h «*f , vrcnftt?, 
^wrftrg^. Prec. ifarcffl[. Gond. ^tviw^. Pass., Pres. Ufa; Aor, 
$rd sing. wmfa. Caus., Pres. OTPrrftr J -4or. wtw^. Des. fatn- 

wf»T. Freq. irtffr, *n%fiT, «mrf»(. Part., Pre*, *n^; Past Pass, fm ; 

Past Indecl. ftn^T, -Tim ; Fut. Pass, wh^t, sn^ffal, ifa. 

614. Root ^v (special stem ^fl). Inf. ^te 1 ^ ' to perceive *.' Ktm. 

Pres. ^wr. Impf.wwai. Pot. «n*ftl. /wip?;. ^\tr. Per/1 ^^; see 

the tables at 583. 1st Fut. ^tST^. znd Fut. H^ir (299- «)• -<4or. 

(420, 299. a) ^>jfw, ^f5T^, ^Tf5 or wsftfn (434. a) ; ^$r^rf^, ^JrHI^I^, 

^W1HP(; ^»frwf?, ^$1^ (299. b), ^»jww. Prec. gurta. Oond. 

^pftigK For the other forms, see ^v at 583. 

* ^(is also conjugated in the ist class. See the tables at 583. 
M m 3 



268 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS IV. 

615. Root ^ (special stem ft«j, 277). Inf. *Rpt ' to pierce.' 
Par. Pres. faunfa. Imp/. ^rfa«PJ. Pot. fMfl^. Impv. faunfir. 

-Per/. (383) f^snv, fgarftrei or fimz, f^rm ; f^rftrf^, fgfwgq;, M*- 
vp;; ftfrfim, fafav, f*rfa^. 1st Fut. arsrfw (298). arerf Put 
^nsrrfa (399). ^on (420) 'aarraj^, ^am^t^, ^ram^; ^••MirS' 
^cui^^ (419, 398), **rram ; ww, ^*ns, «wiwm. Prec faurra^ 
Corco*. -M^itq^ . Pass., Pres. fgifl ; Aor. yd sing. ^ranfa. Caus. 
Pres.^\mfa\ Aor.*isfiFV&{. Des. r^^rHlfH . Freq. ^fw, ^Tarfur 
Part., Pres. faui^; Pasf Pass, fajT ; Past Indecl. f^|T , -fa«J ; Pw£ 
Pass, ^rer, ivqhr, TKI or anui. 

616. Root fav (special stem ftrw, 273). /»/• ifc|^ ' to succeed 
Par. Pres. firarfar. Impf. <xfwxp[. Pof.f&WPJ. Impv. fipfllf* 
Per/, ffcw, ftr^ftra or fires, ftrw; fVfMv^, ftrfav^, ftrfovg^ 
ftrftfvir, ftrfw, ftjft^. is< Pm*. ireifw (298)*. 2nd Fut. «i«Tfa 
(299)*. -4or. 'srftp*^*, ^fftiv^, ^rf*re^; ^rft«VR, ^rfavnn, ^rfiawr^ 
srftrauT, srftnm, ^i%*i^. Prec. ffcumPJ. Corao". ^Wl^. Pass., Pre* 
ftps; -4or. yrd sing. ^fv. Caus., Pres. thrarfc or tnumfif ; Aor 
TOrffiro^. Des. ftrfwRnf»T. Freq. irfasfr, Sftfw. Part., Pres. fsw^ 
Pas* Pass, ftis; Past Indecl. fa^T or irfvPIT or fafvpn, -ftw; Pttf. 
Pass. ^S^ff, ifrnrfa, iftg. 

617. Root *r^t (special stem ifar). J//. »Pg*^ 'to think,' 'to 
imagine.' Atm. Pres. *&. Imp/. -HH%. Pot. ifxtn. Jwpu. »n«r 
Per/. *% (375. a), *f*k, *ft ; Sf^I?, *TTO, *Tnr; *frpi%, flfw, 
^fWfc. 1st Fut. irai^. 2«d Pw*. w^cf. Aor. (424. 6) ^wftrf, ^TOl^, 
^wrer; ^w^rf?, ^w'wm ^, *m'«irfi*^; wrerf^, ^m«^, wren. Prec. 
iNhl. Cond. *smw. Pass., Pres. TO ; Aor. $rd sing. ^mrf^. Caus., 
Pres. hh*iiP h ; -4or. SH*fl*H^. Des. fipfii or *ft*ri% or fHufntr. Freq. 
m*pq, n*ffm. Part., Pres. >rapTR; Pas* Pass. »nr; Pas* Indecl. 
TOT, -TUT; Pw*. Pass. TOT, tH<A*l, irrar. 

a. ^, !«/". *rfaij^ 'to be born,' makes Pres. m^; Imp/. ^UTR, 
&c. ; Po*. ?TPta ; liwpt;. »n$. But these may be regarded as coming 
from Passive of jan, cl. 3. See 667. 

618. Root ^J (special stem ^>l). Iw/l n§^ or 3S^ or Trfrhj^ 

* When fa^ belongs to cl. 1, it optionally inserts ^i; tlsifw or flfVHTfW, 
jfWTTfa or %fV«nfH, ^t%fvr^ or ^WW^. 

t The root 1«^ is rarely conjugated in cl. 8, Atmane (see 684), when the Aorist 
is ^mftffa, ^TpTBT^ or WWIty ^SRfa? or ^«TrT, &c. See 424. b. 

X Also conjugated in cl. 5, Par. qwiflj &c. 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS IV. 269 

,' to be satisfied.' Par. Pres. ijmfa. Imp/, vh^uh^. Pot. fopi^- 
Jmpv. ^nftur. Per/. Trail, inrfiN or iti(*t or ti^i*i, innj ; iT^ftPr or tt^t*, 
^I^R* T*!R 5 i^W or W^rT, n^T, TT^J^. w* Pw*. (390./) irinfw or 
GTWrfsR or irfqirrftFl (390. h). 2nd Put. ir«#TfH or arsnftr or Tlffanf*, &c. 
Aor. (430) ^rar^h;, ^nrreffti;, 'stirreff^; ^mrc#, ^nnw^, ^ihtst^; ^nmw, 
■snot, ^nrpfq;. Or *swro^, ^raptflq;, ^giiml ^, &c. Or smffa^, 
wd^, ^rmffr^, &c Or w^vp^, ^rg^, ^(^(\; ^tr, ^itp^, ^r^iim^ ; 
«tijMi«t, ^IK, '"^'F^. Prec. ijuiiui^. Cond. suffM^ or ^"W^ or 
^nrf^'Hiin. Pass., Pre*. ipr; ^4or. yd sing. wftf. Caus., Pre*, inl- 
*nf»r; Aor. ^nftg^ or ^raro^. Des. fii^rrfworfKaTfnfRrorfinrf^iTfw. 
Freq. irfl^, wtflrf^ or wrffafor. Part., Pres. ipx^; Pasf Pa**, yp ; 
Pas* Indecl. Tprt, -^pq; Pw£. Pa**. Trjhl, iHKlfta, ^rm. 

619. Root 5t^ (special stem 5rn*T, 275). /«/. Slfaij^ 'to be 
appeased.' Par. Pres. snmTfa. Imp/. ^r $n«^ . Po*. $|i «^ . 
/mp». ^nwjrftT. Per/, si^rrar (368), ^rfjrq (375. a), 3TCJTH ; $ftnr, $1^;, 
5R^; $f»T»T, $ra, $g^. 1st Put. ^rfamfipr. awe? Fw*. si fauf i fa . 
Aor. ^r^, ^st3ei*t^, ^$»n^ ^$mnr, hh$i«ji(*^ ^i»nn*i;; ^^wth, ^tth, 
^jj^. Or ^ngfu^, ^tr^, ^r^jjfti^; ^^rfi^, &c Prec. siHjra^. 
Cond. ^r^[if»raj^. Pass., Pres. siht; Aor. yd sing, ^rfa or ^rfir. 

, Caus., Pres. SWUTfa; Aor. ^l^f^R^. Des. fijr^lf'nN'f'T. Freq. ^f^irtf, 
^Ulf«H (yd sing, ■$$&<). Part., Pre*. $TT«n^; Pa** Pa**. ^r^T ; Past 
Indecl. srraT or ^rfamT, -^T«J; Fw*. Pa**. 5if*nfar, ^pnfta, W*t- 

620. Root tTS^ (special stem t^tt). Ira/l Tf^TiJ^ or »rj^ ' to perish.' 
Par. Pres. ^xnfw. Iwi^/". ^PT5^. Potf. ^^n^. Impv. •R^mftT. 
Pe)/. (375* o) ^HT^I or rR^T, ^f^I or trb (375. a), q:qT$i; ^PT or 

%^r, %sr^, %$ns^; ^fw* or %^r, ^r, %^. 1st Fut. qf^nnfw or 

.virrfw (390. k).. 2nd Fut. ^rf^pqTfa or Tfenfa. Aor. (437) ^r^, 

.thhV'H,, ^*t^; ^H^rra, srip^, ^Tsnira; ; ^t^ith, ^r$nr, «r$i*i. Or 

,^%^, &c. (437, 441). Free. ^UTO^. Cond. ?R%«r^ &c. or snfer^. 
Pass., Pres. "H^; Aor. yd sing.^yfaf. Caus., Pres. TrtT^pnft; Aor. 
,^pfhT5l^. Des. f^f^rfa., faW^lfa. Freq. *n«T^, TRf^ (yd sing. 
■^T^tf? or ^TR*f?). Part., Pres. ^3^; Past Pass* f\v; Past Indecl. 
;qjT or Mjj, -TfW, Fut. Pass, ^fm^, ^pffa, TT^T. 

621. Root gq* (spepial stem g*j). ira/I ^T^ip^ c to be nourished/ 
' to grow fat.' Par. Pres. ipijfa. Im^/! ^xti^. Pot. ipfrpji:. 
Impi;. g^lTftr. Per/, yfa, yfifim, g^; |jf*w, •gy^, 33^; 
g^f^I, 3^, 3i^- 1*^ P«^. '"ftBTfgT. 2nd Fut. Tfrznfq. Aor. (436) 

* This root is also conjugated in the 9th class. See 698. 



270 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS IT. 

*S^» *3*% ^g*^; ^trre, *g*»tt^, ^nn^; ^vm, •agtnr, ^ag^* 
Prec. gttircp^. Cond. wfa&t^. Pass., Pre*, g^ ; Aor. yd sing. "fltftfa. 
Caus., Pre*, xftanfa; ^4or. ^g^. Des. Tptfamfa or ggfwftr or 
gg^Tfa. Freq. xftg«fr, TfhftPw. Part., Pres. Tp*\; Past Pass. gw ; 
Past Indecl. gfT, -gar ; Fut. Pass, tfteai, iforoflTT, Tfftg. 

623. Root ^ (special stem *%&). Inf. ^rftnj^ ' to throw.' Par. 
Pres. 'STOifir, &c. Iwig/". 'sror^. Pof.^ifa^. J»yw. ^ronfir. Per/. 
*ra, ^STftrq, ^rra ; wtftre, *i«^, 'srwg^; ^nftw, 'sra, "wnj^. i*< Pm*. 
^flHifw. 2nd Fut, ^rftrorrfir. ^or. (44 1 ) ^n^tp^, ^rrera(, ^n^n^; 'fl 1 *w H, 
^ngra^, ^reiinw; gn^rm, * i wrf, * i t*i^ . Prec.^rmrn*. Cond.-mfa***. 
Pass., Pre*. ^H^ ; Aor. yd sing. ^nftr. Caus., Pres. ^KNlfa ; Aor. 
^tTftrcro. Des. ^rftcftpnfa. Part., Pres. ^n^; Past Pass, ^rer; Pa*£ 
Indecl. ^rftfi^T or ^re^T, -^r^tr; Pm£. Pat**, ^ ftiri-q , Wltflil, '50^1. 

623. Root "5f (special stem to). Inf. ~fp^^ or "^If^jH ' to injure,' 
' to bear malice.' Par. Pres. 'ginf'T. Impf. ^rraJT. Pot. 5?Nw. 
Jug*. -pnftT. Per/ gft?, f^f?^ or $fm or gjte, gfl?; fff^, 

fl^> f^W §1^' IF' H!^- "' ^ ( 4I 5- m ) £"■»*» OT 
ijterfw or ■jtf^wrfw, &c. 2nd Fut. itosrrftr (306. a) or ^ir^«nftr. 

Aor. «§<<<, *%$*(, ff^; *§*'•*, *%%«*, *§«Mi*i; ^?w, *f|*w> 

^gg^ . Prec. '51mm, &c. Corad. ^nft^Pf (306. a) or ^rjftf^pr. Pass., 
Pre*. "5^; ^4or. yd sing, ^rjtf^f. Caus., Pre*. £t?<nPn ; Aor.^ttt&t. 
Des. gglfViM i fH or ggHgmfr or g^rf* (306. a). Freq. ^pfr, ^gtftl 
(3ra* smg'. ^hftfrv or ^jjtfe, 514. «J). Part., Pre*. "5?n^; Pa** Pa**, 
•jjm ; Pa*tf Indecl. "5*kit or "gflWT or "jt^rgT, -"5^1 ; Fut. Pass. ~$t*V*l, 

624. Root «lf (special stem ^rer). Inf. ^ot ' to tie,' ' to bind,' ' to 
fasten.' Par. and Xtra. Pres. q^nfir. Ktm. ^3. Impf. t!M<3H. 
Atm. cti$. Po£. H^JJH. Kim. trpt. Impv. «T?nfiT. A'tm. tj|K 
Perf. ?fu% or ^TH?, %f^I or isrs, ^^T? ; %f^ 3 ^?^, ^gt^J %f?*, 
%, ^3^. Ktm. %|, %f^, %|; %f^|, %^, ^?TW; ^r^ , ^J^ 
or -j, %fft. 1st Fut. fTSlfm. Atm. 'STglt. 2nd Fut. (306. b) HiW l fc . 
Atm. lliW. ^or. (426) ^RTW^, ^HH I rtft ^, ^t^T rt l l^ ; WHVrW , ^RT3^, 

^hhisi*^ ; «iiir«H, *Hra, ^nnrH^. Atm. ^nrfw, ^rst^, ^rs ; ^nrw%, 

WHrHIVIH^, ^HrHlril^J >N>frWf^, -flH^^, ^HrHri. Prec. ^t\W{. ^tm. 
^T?ft'». Cbwrf. ^TWJ^. i^tm. ^Riw. Pass., Pres. 7^ ; ^or. yd sing. 
^nrt%. Caus., Pre*. ^Tift; Aor. ■x<(\'i$t\. Des. ftRTRTftr, -1$. 
Freq. ^T^, ^TT^ftr (3ra* sing. ^Rfs). Part., Pre*, i^n^; Past Pass. 
?T3; Past Indecl. ^t, -^rpj Fut. Pass. W5*1, ■T^'fN, «nit. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS VI. 271 

EXAMPLES OF PEIMITIVE VEKBS OF THE SIXTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 278. 

625. Root ^ srij. Infin. enp( srashtum, 'to create/ ' to let go.' 
Parasmai-pada only. 
Present Tense, 'I create.' 
^TTfa srijdmi ^T^ srijdvas ^1^ srijdmas 

^»rfa srijasi ^*W$. srijathas ^H srijatha 

^5fflT srijati ^'*\ srijatas ^iff^T srijanti 

Imperfect, ' I was creating/ or ' I created/ 
^*T»^ asrijam ^«TT^ asrijdva ^nj>TTT asrijdma 

^*l*l\ asrijas Wjifri'^ asrijatam ?Nj*|ri asrijata 

wj»Ml*^ asrijatdm ^^5ft^ s^}' M 



Potential, ' I may create.' 
*£***(, *H;'es *J»tn*^ srijetam ^ifa srijeta 

Imperative, ' Let me create.' 
^STTfa srijdni l*n^ sryd»a ^SfTT m)'rfmo 

?j*T m;a ^''^ srijatam ^*fif srijata 

^»Tg sri/aiu ^"'t, srijatdm ^^ srijantu 

Perfect, ' I created/ or ' I have created.' 
*Rr»T sasarja Wjf»l=r sasrijiva TOTf*Pl sasrijima 

^Wrfsni sasarjitha or 'TO? * *iq»t^^ sasrijathus fpT sasrija 
TWT5T sasarja ««j»igt^ sasrijatus '*H£»J^ sasrijus 

First Future, " I shall or will create.' 
JEnnfijT srashtdsmi (399. i) «8l*a^ srashtdsvas 5TSI^R^ srashtdsmas 

tisifVt srashtdsi t*ei*m*{ srashtdsthas W2T&I srashtdstha 

BTTt srashtd W!W srashtdrau WSTtjS srashtdras 

Second Future, ' I shall or will create.' 
y VWlfa srakshydmi . fcl «<( 1 q *^ srakshydvas &v*{in*israkshydmas 

^r^rftf srakshyasi ««H"i^ srakshyathas ^TSJPl srakshyatha 

tJUJlfif srakshyati ««Hrt^ srakshyatas tia^ffi srakshyanti 

* As to sasrashtha, see 370./. 



272 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS VI. 

Aorist, ' I created. 5 

^WT8F( asrdksham ^JHl^ asrdkshva vi«ik}1 asrdkshma 

■w«mfl^ asrdkshis ^1«I8^ asrdshtam «I«I8 asrdshta 

vi« 1 8j^ il asrdksMt ^fcHBIH, asrdshtam <«« I «}*(, asrdkshus 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I create/ 
*Jj*|IW^ srijydsam f 'OT^' srijydsva ^j«<i«m srijydsma 

^fj^srijyds ^ si( I W *^ srijydstam *J*(Ufl srijydsta 

T£S(Tilsrijydt 1£im*s\l*\ srijydstdm «jTqi«j*^ srijydsus 

Conditional, 'I should create.' 
^TEr^n^ asrakshyam ^rereSTC asrakshydva ^SH^TW asrakshydma 

■«(««<)« asrakshyas ■sit*«^n*t v asrakshyatam vi««<iii asrakshyata 

Tittneanasrakshyat ^TtJttHfll*^ asrakshyatam ^tfclKfl*!, asrakshyan 

Pass., Pre*. ^T; -Aw. 3^ aiwy. ^rafsf. Caus., Pres. H^tllfa; 
^4or. ^titi^ or , sr«1q*<^. Des. ftHjsjlfa, -$. Freq. *T^5«r. Part., 
Pre*. ^»n^; Pa** Paw*. ^s ; P«*^ Indecl. ^£T, -^5T ; Pw*. Pa**. H^»l, 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 6 IN THE ORDER OF THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

626. Root ^ (special stem fan, 380). /«/". n|^ 'to die.' j&m. in 
Special tenses, also in -4or. and Prec; Par ..in others. Pre*. fa*i. Jm#/". 
^ifjj^. Pctf. faifrl. ImpD.fa^. Per/. JWIt, »W§, »WR ; ifor, »ra^, 
*reT$^; nfyn, »ro, "^- Atm. »w, *rfa^, 1%; »rf%^, »raT*r, *wrw; 
*rf%Tf, JTfas^or-^, »if^. 1** Put. JftrftR. 2«a" Pw*. »rfronfa. -4or. 
"anjfa, oym^ , ^n|"ir ; ^«prf?, ^^tot^, ^njmifi*^ ; ^nprf?, -^\^\ , ^npnr. 
Prec. iftfta. Cond. wrftm^. Pass., Pre*, fa^; -4or. 3ro" swigr. ^unft. 
Caus., Pres. H I Oil fa ; -4or. ^wfarc^. Des. g^fTftl (502). Freq. 
fo^, >»ft.- or *rrft- or *wf*. Part., Pre*. faiprTO; Po*£ Pass, tpt; 
Past Indecl. jj^t, -"JW ; Pw£. Pa**, if^r, HWfa, TT^. 

627. Root ?B (special stem fo^, 280). Inf. ^rfT|>T or cfcfljn 'to 
scatter.' Par. Pres. feRuftr. Imp/. ^rfcF**. Pot. fcR^H. Impt;. 
fcRTTftsr. Per/. (374. k) ^wr, ^pufcg, ^rr; ^fa, ! «raiTgqr, ^^rg^; 
^KftiT, ^HR*, ^<*<j^. i** Fut. (393) ^ftflTfat or grrhnfiw. znd Fut. 
(393) <*f<xqifiT or gtfrorrfa, &c. Aor. ^nstftw^, VN+lO^, ^Krfft^ *RiT- 
ftx^, ^rarfts^, ^rarftBT^; ^nsiftw, 'SHRlfts, WSRTft^. Prec. '<tf$ra^. 
Oorarf. "srsRftttr^ or ^tcUTi'N^. Pass., Pre*. siftn ; Aor. 3rd sing. ^nft. 
Caus., Pres. •sRTWTfir ; -4or. ^«rt^. Des. tasfonfa*. Freq. ^flif, 

* "With regard to 393, 501, W and *T are not allowed the option of Ma. 



CONJUGATION OP VEEBS. — GROUP I. CLASS VI. 273 

^rrafit. Part., Pres. farti^; Past Pass. aft# (530. a); Past Indecl. 
afbaT, -^ ; Put. Pass. -sbItcst^t or aitfaai, aiWta, ^m. 

638. Root g^ (special stem g^, 381). Inf. »fta/^ ' to loose/ ' to 
let go.' Par. and ifon. Pres. g^arf*. i^tm. g^. Imp/. ^sg^. 
Aim. , 3nj%. Pot. g%l^. Atm. g#a. Impv. g^TfJT. ^tm. g^. 

■Pa/, tffr*, g*tfa*i, g»fra; ggfaa, gg*^, gg^; ggfa*, gg^, 
ggfq;. iLtm. gg3, ggfaS, gg$ ; ggfa?r|, gg^, ggw ; ggfast, 
ggfo&, ggfa>. ist Fut. fmfm. Ktm. afcfii%. and Put. atenfa. 
i^tm. aft^. Aor. (436) isig-r^, ^np% ^npn^; m g^re , *g^<<^ , ^g^Hi^ ; 
^na, ^pnr, , ?fg^. iitm. sigftj, *g<*«ii^, -ag^i ; wjwf^, ^g^T^rr^, 
^WT^; ^g^rf?, , *gnaa N ,<s?gBpr. Prec. g^aia^. ifon. g^sjfri (453). 
Corarf. sspffe?^. j&m. ^»ft^. Pass., Pres. g^a ; Aor. yd sing, watfa. 
Caus., Pres. ataaTf*; -4or. ^tgg^;. Des. ggepfa, -^, *>% (503). 
Freq. afopa, afcftfar {yd sing. a"Wtfa>). Part., Pres. gg^; Pa** Pass. 
ga«; Pa»^ IradecZ. gw, -g^T; JW. Pa**, ata?a, afaata, *ftaf. 

639. Root *a^i (special stem fa'a, 383). J»/. tafajpt ' to deceive.* 
Par. Pres. faaifa. Imp/, srfira^. Potf. fa^a^- Imp». fa'arfa. 
Per/. (383) fcpara, fa^afaa, fa<at^r; fafafaa, fafafaa;, fafa*r§aj 
fafafaa, fafa% fafaa^. i*£ Pm*. arfaarffcT. and Fut. *afawrrfa. 
^or. (438) wrf^, ^lal^, &c, or ^anfaa^, &c. Prec. faa(TO^> 
Oond. wbtPctbp^. Pass., Pres. fa^T ; Aor. yd sing. ^*nfa. Caus., 
Pres. sqT^raifa ; Aor. ^P*<ti-<^. Des. faarfaaTfa. Freq. afasa, awfo? 
or aiaratfa. Part., Pres. faar^; Past Pass, fafaa; Pas£ Indecl. 
fafaiaT, -fa^T ; Pw*. Pa**, arfaflar, fa'aa'N, *aTO. 

630. Root a^ (special stem a/ST, 383). Inf. afigi}^ 'to cut.' Par. 
Pre*. a^jlfa. Impf. ^ia^r^. Po£. a/sjaa^. Impv. ^grf«T. Per/. Ma^I, 
aafssra or aa?, aa^; aafsa or aa^ (371), asraa^, aaijjj^; aafga 
or aa'sa, asra, aa^ft. 1** Pw*. (415) wf^rrfw or srerfsr. and Fut. 
wftsnarfa or a"a?nfa. Aor. ^taf 1 ^^, ^rercafai;, ^ra^fy ^a'fts^, &c., 
see 437. Or ->he)ikj*| (423), waiBft^, ^ar^i^; ^iaw, , ^srrea x (397), 
<srarern;; ^ar^r, ^rarc, ^rrep^. Prec. ajanaa^. Cond. ^afta^ or 
^ra^ffl[. Pass., Pres. asr (472); Aor. yd sing, ^afsa (475. b). 
Caus., Pres. s^arfa; ^lor. 'wfisra^. Des. flmfainfa or fta^lfti. 
Freq. aifrpsi, ^3^3^. Part., Pres. ^s\; Past Pass, ^ws (544, 
58) j Past Indecl. af^JiaT, -^T (565); Fut. Pass. 'afWT or a^^T, 

a. Root ftf^ (special stem ftn?, 381). I«f. ^"^ 'to sprinkle.' Par, 
and ^Ltm. Pres. ftpgrfa. iitm. fa#. /mp/. ^ftna*(. Ktm. ^ifm. 

n n 



274 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS "VI. 

Pot. ftraq^. Ktm. ftrehl. Impv. ftr^Tfrr. Ktm. ftt#. Per/, fvk^, 

<iftm.faf^, fafaf^fsfag; ftrfaf^, &c. is* Fut. %?firi%T, ihfiiftr, 
&c. i^tm. infill. 2nd Fut. itenfa. Atm. %^. Aor. ^ftr^, -^, 

-^tt; ^ ftM i qfg , -^n^, -^ht^; ^iftreraff, -^s^, ^«r, or ^iftcftj, 
saftnpn^^ftrai; *rfWf^, -^r«rp^, -ajirfi^; ^ftr^rf?, srftrog^, '^TftrsfTi. 
Prec. ftnrra^. Atm'.. ftntfhf. Cowd. ^re^. i&m. to. Pass., 
Pres. ftrafr. Caus., Pres. ^*rarfe; -4or. ^reftfa^. Des. ftrftrapfir, 
-$. Freq. %ftj^ 5 ^foj. Part, Pres. ftra^, f«^HM ; Past Pass. 
ftr^i; Pastf Indecl. fwm, -ftrar; 2^£. Pas*. i^ar, *N?fta, ina?. 

631. Root ir^ (special stem vp&, 282). /»$/". TTg^ 'to ask.' Par. 
Pres. ij^aifH (51). Jms/". W}^. Potf. faw^. Impv. fsaTftt. Per/. 
(381) xrarat, imf^ara or *nre, *nra;; toPh^t, iirar^, mm^a^ ; unfew, 
tnjrat, ^n^. 1st Fut. tmfw. 2nd Fut. mtjnfo . Aor. ^rirrc^, 'sht- 
y%fa{, ^rumOi^; ^hitc^, ^mre^, wmipi^; ^wrssr, ^vnv, ^mrsr^. Prec. 
1«33ra*J\ Cond. ^rcre?!^. Pass., Pres. tjiaa (47 a); Aor. yd sing. 
^iinfei. Caus., Pres. jrarHTfa; -4or. ^rtnrsac^. Des. fii^IWmfa. 
Freq. ircfrfBCT, mnf^»J. Part., Pres. 'J«3t^; Past Pass, ^s; Past 
Indecl. ijfT, -f33 (565); Fut. Pass. 1TS*T, H*eH"l *T, Traq. 

632. Root a^ or a*s^ (special stenup*). Inf. a^or H^'tofiy.* 
Par. and^tm. Pres. ip^rfa. j^tm. ij'sr. Jjwjo/1 ^nj^J. Ktm. ^P%^k. 
Po£ q-nN^ . Ktm. ^wa. Impv. ^snftT. iitm. *J^. Per/. (381) 
^asr, ^afsa*! or ^«J¥, *ra^; ■srafsre, wssrg^, sraars^; *raf^*, 
W5r, ^a^j^. Or wst, ^Hfj^T or wi, ispT^; WfinN, &c. Ktm. 

■stem, isfm^, &c Or ^rsf, ■wfsft, &c 1st Fut. a^tfe? or aiiftR. 
Ktm. aST? or afr^. 2wrf Fut. a^SITfa or vr^Tfif. Atm. as?l or a^f. 
Aor. ^arc?^, ^raTstftet, ^are^; ^ram, ^ars^, siam^; ^rerr^r, ^aare, 
siar^. Or ^rarefa;. Ktm. wafq, wra^, ^ra?; ^ra^f^, ^as?r«n*i;, 
wefTin^ ; *a^rf?, w^p^, ^ra^n. Or ^afit, *w§R(, , 8M# ; ^rerf?, 
wefTO^, wrejrirp^ ; wr^f^, w^^, ^m^it. Prec. »j*Hrra»T. iitm. 
asjta or a«ffo. Cowrf. ^ra^m or ^nn$<T. ^tm. ^i«Ta^ or ^mv^. 
Pass., Pres. *psi (472). Caus., Pres. awnfa; Aor. ^sr^>scmft or 
<sr>t^t. Des. faa*jrfa, -^, or fw^iftf, -■% ; or f^afwmftr, -^, or 
fwfsjNlfif, -^, &o. Freq. ^6^w^, 'TiafifrR (3rrf sing. ^Taff). Part., 
Pres. gsn^; Past Pass. i|? ; Past Indecl. ^f t, -^55«r; Fut. Pass. a?^» 
or aihn, *nt?fN or a^'fl'?, >Twt or a»sr. 

633. Root n^ or ith^ (special stem *rw). Inf. Jhr* ' to be 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS VI. 275 

immersed/ 'to sink.' Par. Pres. *ranfa. Imp/. ^nn-iPT. Pot. 
*T^PT. Impv. injJTftT. Per/, wrsr, JTOfsni or »pfcpr, mm ; HHf-nN , 
HH-nf^, HH-STi}^; HHfjjR, »W33T, fl^. is* Put. infiTftff. 2nd Fut. 
*TB?rrf*i. Aor. (424) ^raf^, ws^;, wt^; ^rafer, ^nrNnr, 'swidn; 
^TTSjr, ^wtffi, SH«ii^. Free. *hhjifh. Cond. ^»w^i«t. Pass., Pres. 
1155^. Caus., Pres. iRpift ; Aor.^mtrspf. Des. ftm^lftr. Freq. 
*m*i*h umftsR (3rd sing. Hl*ife). Part., Pres. JHSTi^; Pa*^ Pas*. H"T ; 
Pas* Indecl. vm, nm, -TrST; Pw*. Pass. »feiai, »rar«ffa, HiST. 

634. Root 5^. ira/". ift^JT 'to strike/ 'to hurt.' Par. and Atm. 
Pres. ij^Tfar. Atm. i^. Imp/. w$$n. Atm. ^nj^ 1 . Pot.TfcvR. Atm. 
$rt. Impv. 35^. Atm. $. Per/. 37^, frftf^l, 37ft?; ggfrpr, 33- 

^S^» 33^ ; 33^ 33?> 33|^- ^ tm - 33^> 33^ 33^; 33^?, 

d^'^>I3^ T ^5 13^% » I5f?*^> 33^- IS* Pwtf. TTfaTfOT.. Atm. rffanr. 
2nd Fut. ftmftt. Atm. rfosr. Aor. "snftwro, 'snfbefti;, ^ dirt il y ; ^nrb^r, 
^Tm^»T > WWi*; ^nftrOT, ^ht, ^rfli^. Atm. ^fijfw, <aijr«ll^, ^f^5 
^H3"r^f?, ^TjWTiniT, ^HgrHliflH ; WgrUffe, ^3^T, 'HiJrHrl. Prec. jj?n*ra. 
Atm. TJrtffa (45?). Cb»w?. ^nftwm. Atm. ^nftw. Pass., Pres. 1^ ; ^or. 
3rd 1 smgr. wtf^. Caus., Pres. T^TTf* ; Aor. ^nrg^R. Des. ggWTfir, 
-W. Freq. iftpr, iftlftftl (3^ si«^. cfhftfa). Part., Pres. g^; Past 
Pass. ipr; Past Indecl. f^T, -3?!; Fut. Pass, TJterai, cft^fiTI, ifter. 

635, Root f$p{. Inf. •zfwrf^' to throw.' Par. and Attn. Pres. f^xrTftr, 
A'tm. fsjxf. Imp/. ^fBjn^. Atm. ^rf^. Po*. fs^hifl. A'tm. f^fr. 
Impv. ftfinfiff. Atm. fisph Per/, f^xr, f^f«m, f*repr; f^fojfta, 
ffftsi'ii^, Nraf 13^ ; fafsjfar, f^fan?, f^rftyg^. Atm. fgfojTT, fqf^- 
fire, f^ftj^; f^ft|fq^f, fsrfajtrr^, fafojw; f*rf^f«ret, f^figfusr, 
fsrftjfift. 1st Fut. TspnfOT. Atm. ^jn|. 2nd Fut. ^xwiftr. Atm. 
^x^. Aor. -n^w, ^^^l^, ^r^fh^; ^rejt^, ^Hlsm, ^rejrjnJT ; ^rej^gr, 
^repr, ^t^'B^. Atm. ^rrssfPHr, ?rfBfwira[, ^ft^w ; ^ftp^t^, ^fgjmivjiH, 
^rf^mn'T; ^%tgrf^, ^if^3W, wf^wn. Prec. fopnw, &c Atm. 
fsjwfa. Cond.^i^m^. Atm. ^x^. Pass., Pres. fe^ ; Aor. 3rd 
sing, ^STBJfa. Caus., Pres. Tsppnfa; Aor. ^ff^fojTfJT, Des. fafsfsrrfa, 
-■$. Freq. ^f^, ^jfa (710, 43. e). Part., Pres. fojtn^; Past Pass. 
ftifW ; Past Indecl. fojTJT, -ft^T ; Fut. Pass. bjh<*i, , eirwta, ^jjni. 

a. Root f^3I. /w/". %g* ' to enter.' Par. Pres. f^nftl, f^^lfw, 
&c. /m^/1 ssrf^pr, ^if^I^, &c Po?. f^raw, fe^q;, &c Impv. f^^rrfVr, 
f^t, &c. Per/. f^t$t fk^fyrn, f^5f; fafafsrc, fgf^rq^;, ftrftr^i^; 
f^f?m, ftrf^r, f¥^r$jq\ 1st Fut. ^si%. awrf Fut. ^rrftr. ^4or. 
^jf^T, -^, -^\; ^if<T«H7, -'sp'T, -"bjkth ; , srf%Tp*r, - , sp,-T^. Prec. 

n n 2 



276 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS X. 

fa3*mw. Cond. ^t^pt. Pass., Pres. fsnpi; Aor. yd sing. ^f^f. 
Caus., Pres. ^pnfa; Aor. ^nrtfsrSPT. Des. f qPjBj ifcr. Freq. ^f^T, 
^fip (3rd sing: %%fe). Part., Pres. f^n^; Past Pass, fkv; Past 
Indecl. f^fT, -f^m Put. Pass, ^ai, ^Pfhl, ^1. 

636. Root wsj. Inf. w|r or *irg»? ' to touch.' Par. Pres. WSIlfH. 
I»«K/". ^W5I»t. Pot. ¥i$m\. Impv. w^nftr. Per/. mM§, Mwftyui, 
tiw^; TR^Tf, i4+^IW^, H«j?l^; "H^r^w, TR«pi, <J*«9J^. 1st Fut. 
wtrfworwrffer. awrf'jF'Mf.^iratTfiTor^nsnftr. ^or, ^retn^pr, **m«jfy, 
vrcirejT^; ^reqi^, ^rcqreir, ^jwrtrr; *w i «p , ^*m } s , ^wug^. Or 
*«(iHjH, ^ransfq;, &c Or w^qfl, ! sw^, , *re«f3^; w^qM, *w«|ri«, 
MiMVfifiH ; "HWBJTJT, , src*repT, ^«4BjH. Prec. wxmwt. Oond. tm^m or 
».H*M«*W . Pass., Pres. m$ii; Aor. yd sing. ^FTf^. Caus., Pres. 
WjHnfH ; Aor. ^nrw^H or -aCm^r^. Des. fm^q i fil . Freq. m!lw^ , 
*Rta*t(Vi or iHltltfyf. Part., Pres. V*^i(] Past Pass. Fre; P<w^ 
Indecl. f«J£T, -^5" J ^ M ^ -P««*. *Mthl or *ug<i|, w^ffa, 5^1. 

637. Root ^(special stem ^55, 383). Inf. ^ftnjTor £g»r'to wish.' 
Par. Pres. j^\fn. Impf. iha»T. Pot. $*&MH . Impv. ^srfa. Perf. 
(3 6 7) ^» ^f^J, ^ ; tjfcz, &R, f ^ ; $ far, $*> ^- IS * - fi</ - 
^ftnTTftRorireTffcT. zndFut.tfrcsflfR. Aor. ^firo*, ihrfy ^ffc^ £fa**, 
^fwr, JrfroT^; ^fwT, $Tm?, ^PiMt^. Prec. ^bjttw. Cforarf. ^firo»». 
Pass., Pre*. ^; ^or. yd sing. i*fa. Caus., Pres. ^mirf*?; Aor. 
^ft^R. Des. ufirfmnfa. Part., Pres. f^ii^; Pasf Pass, ^g ; Past 
Indecl. j$[ or ^ftfi^T, -f*i; .FW. Pass, n&n or JifMrt^, mu i flq , 5*1. 

EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE TENTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 283. 

638. Root ^r_ 6ur. Infin. ^kfifij* dorayitum, ' to steal.' 

Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada, 

Present Tense, ' I steal.' 



>«fttsTf»» MlmNq, 'srtorra^ 
^"kqfir ■'ftcM^ ^Jtoifcr 



^rfcinfr ^ffci^ ^frt^ 
^k^ ^k^r sjks£ 



Imperfect, 'I was stealing,' or 'I stole.' 



^"■fl^HH W^m^I 'W'fKllH 

witem ^wtoa^ ^^kTH 

^sNton^ sr^tacnn'T *i*fk«i^ 



^f^toro^ w^k^nH wjkw^ 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS X. 



277 



Potential, ' I may steal,' 



















Imperative, ' 
<*ftong 


Let me steal 








Perfect, ' I stole,' 


or ' I have stolen.' 










-▼g>ro 


-*ftft 




First Future, ' I shall or will steal.' 














Second Future, ' I 


shall or will steal.' 

, "Y ,ff > "> »» "*■ 












^uumii 


•«KUI«lil 






Aorist, 


' I stole.' 








•▼JOT 








Precative or Bened* 


dive, ' May 


[ steal.' 
-fWNffe 

-ftNfarcnq 










'■■ikUI'IW 



Conditional, ' I should steal.' 



wr tefqwi^ ^nrfaftrorra ^'sfaftroiH 
^hrftra^ ^"UfwiPj ^^firair 
^•cfkHm^ ^vtcfuujHi^ ^T^kfiror^ 









278 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS X. 

639. Pass., Pres. Wflf ; Aor. 3rd sing. <w^ft. Caus. same as the 
Primitive verb. Des.^fW*. Part., Pres. <*to^; Past Pass. !*» 
or ^for; Past Indecl HUfilH l; *W. Pa**, <gkftm*r, ^rfN, *M. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. IO IN THE OEDER OF THEIK FINAL LETTEES. 

640. Root n or £r_ (stem jjgi). Jtf. jyftR ' to fill V Par. Pres. 

irt *W. scfinnft*. 2nd Put. stfirunfa. -Air. Wjg^. Prcc.^T^. 
Cbnrf. ^^m^ - Pass., Pres. 35; ^«w. 3rd *%. ^pC or ^ft?. 
Caus. like the Primitive. Des. Sfrjwfa. Part., Pres. ypt^ Past 
Pass. ^§ or ^ftn or ^T ; Past Indecl. ^firsn or ^T#T, -^ ; Fut. Pass. 

641. Root f^ir (stem fvn). Inf f^rfo^ 'to think / Par . 
Pres. NnHlfn . }»np/. wNnTH^. Po*. frnfl<m - I«P». NimifH. 
Per/. f^iH I H W. i»* P«*. f««ilfail l fVw . 2rao" Fut. Nil ft unfa, ^<w- 
wP*f«raH. Prec. fwjra^. Oowrf. 'arfgirfiTOJT. Pass., Pre*. f^W. 
Caus. like the Primitive. Des. fitNilP wTfa. Part., Pres. f^tm^l 
Ktm.f^mrtn^(527); Past Pass, flfan; Past Indecl. fMif ftlrtT, -f^W ; 
Paf. Pa**. -NiTf«ni«T, fWiHl*!, f^W • 

64a. Root w^ (stem *afa). Inf. ^refug* (with prep, it, TTT§, HHJfag* ) 
'to ask," to seek.* Ktm. Pre*. '?r^. Imp/. OT*^. Po*. *r^J. 
Impv. ^f^. Per/ ^rturefc. 1st Fut. -?rfftnn%. a»«* P«'- ^fro. 
Aor: *nfn^, ssTffcnn^, &c Prec. ^rSfiprht. Gand. wrqftrui. Pass., 
Pre*. ^f. Caus. like the Primitive. Des. ^fffvrfwfa, -*. Part., 
Pres. mvj q re (537) ; Pa*f Pass, ^rfw ; Pa** IndecZ. vuiPuril, -^ ; 
Fut. Pass. ^Qf*lH*M, «r*Nta, ^**N 

643. Root qw (stem *WPl). !«/ ^WfTfJ* ' to say,' * to tell.' Par. 
Pres. ctum i fa . imp/. ***H» *- Po*. «w<>^ . Ji»jp». «*«l^lf^. Perf. 
dk i iimw . 1st Fut. ^rfTRTfw. 2nd Fut. <*mfa«U.|fa. -<4or. viic»m^ 
or ^rafarafl. Prec. cfcmnw . Go»rf. ^rarafirspr. Pass. ■*&, &c. Caus. 
like the Primitive. Des. frorfimfa. Part., Pres. WHH\; Past 
Pass.lfont; Past Indecl. cfcufaH l, -^rni (566. a) ; Fut. Pass. 4111(11 ri<<l, 

a. Root ip (stem ■qfapi). Ira/. TjtafaijV to proclaim.' Par. Pres. 
■qt^Trrfa. Impf. 'OTta*. Pot. vhyftv^ Impv, Tfonnftl (58). Perf. 

* This' root forms its stem t\*Mpdraya from ''J, and "J??! p&aya from ^J; but 
the meaning of MKHlfa is rather ' to fulfil,' ' to accomplish,' ' to get through.' 
The Caus. of *J pri, cl. 3, is also UTOTTfa ' to carry over,' ' to accomplish.' 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS II. 



279 



*rN*r™f~jt. is* Fut. TrNfinnffcT. 2nd Fut. Tfaftmrfa. Aor. ^^w\ - 
Prec. •qtunwr. Cond. ^rcjfaftpmr. Pass., Pres. "qfail ; Aor. yd sing. 
^srefiftf. Caus. like the Primitive. Des. sjiftttfamfa. Part., Pres. 
*fh-ft^; Pas* Pas*. Ttfka ; Past Indecl. vtffaFH, -rftm ; Fut. Pass. 

b. Root >TO (stem H_f*l). Inf, HPjfinjJT ' to eat/ ' to devour.' Par. 
Pres. *r_frnf*J. I»wp/. — «T!|~ff. Pot. vj-pfr™^. _mpi>. «^nftl. Per/. 
Hspmrra. is* Fut. vrejftnnf - (. and Fut. *_jf— onfa. Aor. — -jh_j-. 
Prec. h^t - w. Cond. ^W-jftra - \ Pass., Pres. «#. Des. fswT-ffiwfa. 
Part., Pres. *»-|*n^; Pas* Pass. «ftp ; Past Indecl. HT^ftirStT, -*-?l ; 
Fut. Pass. H_jftn— j, wr^JiiN, n^i. 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE SECOND CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 307. 



644. Root in yd. Infin. ~ fij^ ydtum, 
'to go.' 

Parasmai-pada only. 
Present, ' I go.' 
ITfftt ydmi ^iqt^ yaWs qtl*^ yamas 

Ttftt yasi ^im^ yaYAas ~ TC yaiAo 

Imperfect, ' I was going,' or I went.' 
^PTflJ as/am ~ TT~ f a^aW — ^TIT ayama 
«IHI^ ayds ~ ^Irf*-^ aydtam — XTfiT aydta 
■HWAaydt ^rHim^aydtdm tSUT^aydn* 

Potential, ' I may go.' 
TTPTP? ydydm WA ydydva TtTW ydydma 
~ (31^ yayas TRTH^ ydydtam ~RTTT ydt/ _._ 
*n~fi^ayaY ~ I - (flT^yayfftam tng^yayas 

Imperative, Let me go.' 
*nf«f ya»i ~ R ydva 1W yama 

*nf^ yrffo' •Mlit'^ yatam ITTT y<fta 



645. Root \i (310). Infin. *nj~ 
etum, ' to go.' 

For 5 with adhi, a, &c., see 311. 

Present, ' I go.' 
Jjfl emi t 3~ ^ was 3^T^ imas 

Tf^ eshi :^m l ** as ^ *'* a 

^?H eti ^K^itas ifal yanti{$$) 

Imperfect, ' I was going,' or ' I went.' 
WW[ ' dy am (37) V^,aiva(2^i. a) JJT aima 
'^ ais (33) «iP^ aiVam JJiT ait a 

-* -s ______ 

IH^ait VKF^aitam ~nt^ ayan J 

Potential, I may go.' 
^1~( ij«£m ^~ T - iydva $*IIM iyaroa 
fT - ^ij/as s^TTH - 4 iya'<am ^"TH'.yata 

^"Tt^aY ^~1 T rTTH iydtdm fOft iyus 

Imperative, ' Let me go.' 
— *nf«T aydni "fTR ayaca "I -- , aya'ma 
^H? ihi ^"*t it am ?f l ' a 

*!TJ eta $ n, 1. iVam ~»i| yanfa 



* Or •eig*( v ayus (see 310. Obs.) 

t This root is also of the 1st class, making ~nnfa, -wIVl, &c, in Pres. tense. 

% Foster gives ~ ~ <^. See Panini (vi. 4. 81), and compare Laghu-kaum. 608. 



280 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS II. 



Perft *pff (373), *Jir*T or *lftl1, Vm \ 

ifira, 11^, ""^^ '> ''ftw » ^j J *T^> 
1st Fut. n\ riifw , *rnnftf, ttwt, &o. a»rf 

Fa*. <IIWlfw, JJTSrffc, iretjfrT; TTJST- 
^,&c. ^or.'5IllTftra*((433),^niT^ J 

^nrrafy ^rirfu^, ^nnftre^, ^nn- 
ftrer^; ^nnftro, ^mi fti g , ^v\ fa g^. 

Prec. VXftW^, VTUT^, TftVTItj JJTTTC, 
&c. Cond. WWI( , 'gT^ltgl^, ^im^ , 
&o. Pass.j Pre*. TRj&c; Aor. 3rd sing. 
^nnftl. Caus., Pres. llimilfa, &c; 

^or. ^nftw?;, &c. Des. finmiTfa. 

Freq. HmTT, TPnfa or *J.T1T»T (3rd 
sing. qiHTfir or Ut^fiT). Part., Pres. 
TTT^IVbni. case HTH); Past Pass. TTTT; 
Past Indecl. TTST, -^TT; Pa*. Pass. 



Per/, ^mi (367. a), S^fa*! or S^fa, 

^mr; fftnr, ^^, fiR; ^ ftm » 

t*T,fp^ i**Fa*.5Wrfm,&c. 2nd Fut. 
TTOnfiT, &c. Aor. (438. e) WW\, wU^, 

vmjff, ^ft. Prec. ^Tra 1 ^} &c. (see 
447. a). Cond. U«MH. Pass., Pre*. 

^r; is* Fb*< jjtit? or ^nftnn? (474); 

2»i Fut. ^«t or ^rrfira ; Aor. yd sing. 
^TTTftl or ■4NII*)rf or ^HftTOT. Caus., 
Pres. >lHM\fH (from TT at 602) or ^IPl- 
TTfil or ^ITTTlf'?; Aor. ^I»i1'i»i« or 
^rrfirm or 4Hpl|M<4 (with arfAi prefixed, 
^HUHl'IM*^ 493. e). Des. 1*1' I ft Ml fa 
(from JOT at 602) or ffWTO, -*I. Part., 
Pres. T!^ (Nom. *l«TJ ; Past Pass, ^if ; 
Past Indecl. ^3T, - ^itj Fut. Pass. 



THI^T, ^nTJftT, ^W or JfJ. 

a. Like IT may be conjugated TT 'to shine :' Pres. *TTfa ; Perf. w; is* Fa*. 
HIHlfw; Aor. Wlftm^, &c. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 3 IN THE ORDER OF THEIE FINAL LETTERS. 

646. Root $ft (special stem $, 315). Inf. $(frgH 'to lie down,' 
« to sleep.' iftm. Pre*. ^ra, 3ft, fft (iceiTcu) ; $H%, ^nn^, 5PTTW ; 3W1 
(Kelfi.e6a), fw, $**. Imp/, SNjifii, ^^1^, 'ST^ff; ^faf?, ^5W1*(!H, 

^pithi* ; ^i*rf?, ^t«pt, *$U.rf. Pot. yqfci, ^nffarrer, ^pjtw ; ^pfNt?, 

Jftlfarr«n>T, ^^fNTBlH; ^Rfiqf^, ^pftuflT, ^WTtj^. I/wpv. ^, %^, ^ITTT; 

W«t,.JfHin»Ti», ^nmiTH; ^rnnrl, $«jh, ^km^. Per/, fi^i), f$rfipre, 
fijn^; t^rf^R? , t^mi, f^n^ ; t^rfym^, f^rf^i«* or -f^n^, fTjrfipj^. 
1*/ Fut. ^rftntTf. 2nd Fut. ^ifim. -4or. SHtyfrfa, say fa »m , ^Tj[rfire; 
^rftrat?, vt^r^Hi^i^, ^^rftmiKnr: ^ifir^rf?, ^ifts^r or -r^d«, ^r- 
fg^ir. Prec. $rWht. Cferarf. ^rfnx^. Pass., Pre*, ^pi; Aor. 3rd 
si«^. ^jTftl. Caus., Pres. srmifT ; ^4or. ^tft^PW. Des. f^rftlT. 
Freq. ^TT^T^, $flf*r or ^nftfl. Part., Pres. $r*rrc (526. a) ; Past Pass. 
^rfqn ; Past Indecl. jrflWT, -yv* ; Fut. Pass. ^rftnr*H, ^T'R't^, $1. 

647. Root J£ or ^ (special stems i^and ^, see 31a). In/, whpj 
or Ut>fH ' to bring forth.' i&m. Pres. ^, $, ^ ; »|^, jpr^, 

f™ ; i?i|, ^d, ^. Imp/. TOjfa, ^mi;, ^w ; ^^f? , wj^ i vn^ , 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS II; 281 

STCpnin^; ^»T% , *squp[ t ^pnr; Pot. jpftij. Impv. gt (Pan. vii. 3,88)^ 

$*>Sjn»U S^rnif > pro^, ^rai^j ^rot, Tg%\, ^m\. Perf.-^, 
%$&> 11^; Iff^t, $T"*, W™ 5 i^f , stfw or -faf i g^. 

ist Fut. iffon? or sfain!. 2nd Fat. *fH* or *fcpiT; Aor. *rafaff», weft- 1 
W[> 'srafag; ^wftjMf^, ssmr^mvii^, ^ref^TUT^; wifa^rf?, ^rafas^or 
-f^, *rafw. Or <swtf*r, ^ratare(, wife ; ^raft^rf?, ^ra^T^, vwrtrar^j 
swWlf?, *J*ft|^, ^raW. Free, *WN or sfrthl. Cbnd. *wt«il or wf- 
■fa*r. Pass., Prest ^; ^[on 3r«? amy. ^raifa. Caus., Pre*. ^irepnftr; 
-4or. Wg^^. Des. gqmfa, -^. Freq. ?f^, Klratfa or Trfanrtfrr. 
Part., Pres. ^TR ; Past Pass. *pr or ^rr or ^q ; Past Indecl. ^31 or 
fHT, -^5; i<W. Pass, ifam or flfafW, *Pnrta, *TO or **l. 

648. Root ^ (special stems *$ or w^, *$ and *p, see 313). Inf. 
Wftpj ' to praise.' Par. and ittm; Pre*, ^ftftr or «r<rtfr, ^fa or ^Ntf>i 
«ftfir or ^rttfrT ; *p^ or ^pfa^*, *pq; or sp 5 ^*, *pt( or ^pTn^* ; 
*p*( or *pfaq;* *pt or ^pta*, spfor. Kim. *pi ^p or *p^r*j *p 
or Sp^TT*; *p| or ^pfat*, *pr3r, *pifl ; *pt or ^rl»lt*i *p* or 
spter *, *pa . Imp/, ^rap^ or wsm^, WN, or ^s*cpfa(, ^*^ or ^r- 
<ftt^; ^^or^^*, ^n^or^^?p^^m^or^rcp ! fan^; ^rcp 
or ^repfa*, ^rcp or "srap^ir, w«p«j. ^tm. ^rejfa, TOprrc( or ^RpT^n^ , 
^rcp or ^rcptK ; ^repfs or srapfaf^ *, ^prer^, ssnsptinn ; ^rcpf? 6t 
WpW?*j ^TCpei*{ or TOpta^*, **plT. Pot. ^p^ or *phn^*. 
jftm. *pfa. Impv. *pTfa or w< f l fa j ^f^ or *ptf?*, 5^5 or ^pfhjj 
WW, *p»» or tpT'jfT, *tjrf|R or spfcnH ; *fT5Tl, tp or *pfar, sp^. 
Ktva. «rt, *ps or ^pT^*, *pPT or spiitTH ; *mw|, *pi*n^, Spiinw J 
snrrat , *pw x or ^kpt *, *pin*; Per/. (369) ^mr, jtfta, pre ; 3p, 

ijpnr; §f»i%, f|f (372), l^f^t- 1st Fut. ^ffonffcr. ^tm ; B^rnt.. 
2nd Futi WWiftr. Atm. sfl^. iiori (437. «) «wif=m^, ^ett^;, 
^rerrch^; «nsrrfir^,i 'srertfire'i, ^wif^cBi^; ^retTf^r, ^^nf%?, "siwifg^ 
Xtm. ^reftfa, ^refi^i^, ^recfts ,* ^*cft*>ing, ^«imvji^, «vA^iut»?; «reft- 
wff , ^reftfs, ^iwlHri. Prec. < ^» «H s . j^tm. ^ft^^; Corad. ^reft^ 
Xtnii ^cft^. Pass., Pre*. FPj ; Jor. 3rrf sing, ^renfa. Gaus., Pre*, 
^rra^nft; Aori^entt. Des. gf^lfti, -n< Freq. iftf^, Tft^fH^ Part., 
Pre*. ^5^; Pa*t Pass: *p; Pa*< Indecl. *p(T, -^WJ -f«^ Pa**, 
^ftnai, ^nprhi, ^w or ^nwj or ht. 

649. Root S (special steins sNt, ^ ^ N , see 314). Inf. g^ 



* Some authorities reject these forms. 
o o 



282 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS II; 

(borrowed from ?*. at 650) ' to say,' ' to speak.' Par. and Xtm. Prey. 
spflfa, -stftfti*, ■srrtf'ir*; ^, ' l«l*. ITC*; "3!% WW***. 
Atm. ^, ^, t^ ; ^|, ^n^, ^n* ; jw|, wa, f^. /»»#. , *ra^ or 
^1^(314. a), ^ra^;, wsnffy «^r, *»^> ««snin; ,!r ^ T ' 1?' 

saraa^, ^npnT. Po/. «un^, ^m(, &c iftm. ?pfa, ^<0vii^„ &c. 
Impix sRTftjr (58), ■sf^, snftaj; *renr, ■%&{, wrn^; *rcnr, ^k, "5^f- 
Ktm. t&, if**, sprr^; mrrat, amm^ , »nrnn^; *Pirat, ^&**(, -g«niiH- 
The other tenses and forms are borrowed from T*; as,- Pe?/. «qH, 
&c. ; j«/ Pm*. ^tK i Pw , &c. ; see ^ at 650. But the Pres. participles 

are "%%\ an( l ^TTO. 

650. Root ^(320). Inf. g^ ' to say," to speak.* Par. In the 
General tenses Xtm. also. Pres. <*(Vh, ^ftj, ^ffB ; «M*J, ^^T^, i*^[> 
4^H^, ^pq, (Nfif. (borrowed from «^ at 649). Impf. ^RW{, ^^ 
(294), 'snr^ (394); *nr«r, *sH<h^ , 'srewt; ^nr**, ^nras, ^nr^t- 
Pot. ^jt^, ^RTf^, «t^Hli^, &c. /mptr. ^flifJT, ^f»v, ^; ^rra, it»*t> 
<J*1*(; ^m, ^B, 1J3RT (borrowed from ^). Pei/. (375.C) <1<<M, J^favi 
or g^w, ^n^r; gjpsRT, wj^, ^*g^; ^Pw, ^ra, gi^q;. iftm. a«%, 
sKf^,^; , 3sf^t, , 3i^TO,gi , srra; ^ifwt, ^if*f«i, ^f«ffc. istFut.i^a-* 
ftff. Xtm. ^fii%. 2nd Put. «4\feHlf*l . iftm. g^. ./lor. (441) ^h^, 
wql^ , sh^W^ ; wW? , 'aJl^H^ , m<fNiii*i ; ^Nw, ^jfhnr, ^nta^. 
.^tm. qrrte, *<jW v rm , w &rn i ; 's^iTff , ^pft^rr^, snft^n^; «^^w^, 
SHcf l -^^ , tmJNiI . Prec. T^mt^. Xtm. 5T8jhr. Coratf. ^res?^. J&m. 
^t^. Pass., Pres. 7^(471); Aor.grd sing. ^rN. Caus., Pres. ^rr^- 
UTfa ; Aor. w4\W\ . Des. -ra^TftT, >-«f. Freq. <\\*^, m<ff^H. Part, 
Pres. "Sj^Hj Xtta. g^ro (borrowed from ^at 649); Past Pass, -^d; 
Past Indecl. 7W, -T^T ; Put. Pass. zraar, AM'-fa, ^Tar or ^TW. 

651. Root ^(special stems *rr^ and ^, 321). Inf. HT§*^ or mf^^ 
* to wipe,"to rub/ ' to clean.' Par. Pres. JTTftS,»nfit (296), mff (297); 
^pi^i ^^» ^^» 'J'^j "!*> TTwf'iT or i^arfftf. Jms/". \SHM^, ^8WT^ 
(394), wjt^ ; ^npf, ^8^, ^rpri^ ; ^JW, ^{8, ^shi^ or «i^5P^. Pof. 
35*1^ jprf^, &c. /fltpv. mwrfiT, ^^fe (303). *nf ; *n^R, >p^, ^1^; 
irwih, ^F, *n#*g or ^rg. Per/. »wi^, HHlT^vi or mirl (370. c), *wr# ; 
H^ftR or «wrfifo, »^T^ or »RT^'gi[, .IfSfiJ^ or »mr^|^; nqftm or 

* For these forms are sometimes substituted 2nd sing. NMUM, 3rd sing. ^?T^ ; 
2nd du. VHlg^p;, 3rd du. ^IT?P(; 3rd pi. ^IJ^; all from the Perfect of a 
defective root Tf , with a Present signification. 

t According to some, the 3rd pi. of the Imperfect is also wanting. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS.— GftOUP II. CLASS II. '283 

TWTfitH, n^r or mtH, h^ or mnsft. is* Fut. mlif*? or mf^inftR 
(415. a). 2nd Fut. HT^Tftr or inf^vnfc. -4or.^in^,^mTCffywnsffi^ 
■wn^, -annt^, ^mreT^; ^>n#, wr, wmsq;. Or 'wnf^n, w infft f , 
WiWTi^j ^mifSisr, &c. Free. f5*rw^. Oond. wm^ or s« m P^*<T^. 
Pass., Pres. ijsf ; Aor. 3rd sing. »amf$ . Caus., Pre*. m ^ m fr ; Aor. 
*&&m\ or wfojsi^. Des. fannfrfir or fafejrfa or famM'nfH. Freq. 
Jrfhp^,»^-or>Tft- or vmfm (3rd sing. -mfil). Part., Pres. WT%; Pas^ 
P««s. «|?; Past Indecl. Jjfi or mfiTOT, -tpn; Fut. Pass, mfaj or 
*fTF#ft^r, m^ffa, inni or ij^. 

653. Root ^ (317). Jw/. ^^ «to eat.' Par. Pres. *ftj, ^rfrcr, 
^ffej ^l¥^, ssn*iq;, *ra^ ; WWt.iw,^. Imp/. *rt^,wr^ (31 7. *)> 
^ ,T ^(3 I 7-*); *»ra,*iRPj,*rren^; ^nrcr,^rnr,'3n^. Pot.^m^. Impv. 
^Tfti, ^s, ssf ; <s^r, smw, ^rtth ; ^m, *ir 3 ss^. Per/. m%, ^nf^r, 
^ ; ^Tf^r, "sn^f^, ^t^ ; ^rf^r, «n^ , ^n§^. is/ Pw/. ^n%. 2nd 
Fut. ^i^iTh. -4or. ^nra»T (borrowed from root TR(;), ^nra^, ^nrtra ; ^nj- 
«re, ^t^?nm N) ^nrcnn* ; 'srcrciw, ^nraw, "srera^. Prec. 'sramm. Cbrao'. 
^IiW*^' Pass., Pres. ^r§ ; ^4or. 3>-«* sing. <mf%. Caus., Pres. 'StT^nfiT ; 
Aor. ^rrf^T. Des. ftnmnfi? (borrowed from tj^). Part., Pres. ^ti; 
Past Pass, >rv ; Past Indecl. ipun ; Fut. Pass. WW*, ^>ftq, ^rrer. 

653. Root ^ (special stems ^, ^, ^, ^, see 32a). Inf. 
Ttf^ij* ' to weep.' Par. Pres. ttf^fa, rtf^fu, rtf^frr ; *ft^. ^f^, 
^f^K^; ^l^, ^er, ^fcr. Iwigf. ^yt^, mfo^ or ^dtf q;, ^rd^or 
'si^h^ (Pan. vii. 3, 98, 99); ^f^r, ^f^;, ^f^Tn^; 'a^T, ss^- 
f^W, ^T^;. Pot. T^tT^. Impv. d^Tfa, ^f^, rtf^ij; tt^T, ^X*{, 
^HT*( ; t^TH, ^ir, ^55. Per/. -^, ^df^I, ^t^ ; ^f^ 1 , ^S^, 
<s<s<<!JH> 'FS^T, ^5, ^Sf^. 1st Fut. •ftfyjnfwt. and Fut. Ttf^nfir. 
^ior. ^3^, ^1^^, ^f^; sr^ra, ^r^tt^, ^r^m^; *n^m, ^^k, 
vr^. Or ^trfspp^ "*d^, ^refcrfy ^df^, *df5T^, ^rscl^vi^; 
^Tttft^JT, ^df^r, ^rtf^^.. Prec, ^B\W{. Cond. ^rdf^H*^ Pass.j 
Pres. ^rif ; Aor. 3rd sing, 'snftf^. Caus., Pres. tt^ITfiT ; Aor. ^^*(. 
Des. ^^rrfH. Freq. d^, drtftl (arrf %. , ddf%) or. T^WW. 
Part., Pres. ^r^; Past PQss. ^TT; Pa*/ Indecl. ^3T, -^ST; Pw^i 
Pas*. ^tf^Tiai, ^4'fjN, T^. 

654. Root ?^* (special stems ^, ?, ?r, and »r, see 323). !«/". V^ 
' to strike,' ' to kill.'. Par. Pres. ^fiw, f ftr, ffcC*; ??^, ^I^-, 1^; 

* It must be borne in mind (with reference to 323) that han only loses its nasal 
before t and th, if net marked with P. When the prep. 'SfT a is prefixed; this root 
may take the A'tmane, in which case the 3rd sing. Pres. will be ^tnrff. 

002 



.'284 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS II. 

?*% ^T, TTfTW. Imp/. *?*^, *S^, *I^ (394) I **"»» *f"^ **ni«; 

^^w, w^n, 'sh^. Pot. ??n*T, &*?■ Impv. i^Tfcr, *rf?, ?nj*> fn^> sw», 

1*1*5 ^m,^iI,Tr^. Per/. 5PTPI (37$), ^nrfiTT or ?PP*?, ^Pn ^T ; nfa g, 

*ni^;, whp; ; *ftm, *ir, soft. "' 1W. unfm. a«^ *W. ^fa^n* • 
yior. (43a. A) ^rftra^, ssnrefy ^rtfy ^rfaer, *?rfirew> ^rafaei*; 
.*r*fW,*rsrfin?,^fvsft. Preff. «raiTOH. Cbfflrf. wgfjrai*. Pass., Pre*. 
^ ; Per/. sr$ (473) ; Aor. 3rd sing, ^nrrfa (or ^rsrfv, borrowed from 
^); is* Fut. fsfftl qr nrfajnt; 2rad Fut. -&m or *nfH^. Cans., 
Pres. wurfa ; ^or. ^ WlVHH . Des. firSTOTfa. Freq. ^irft 9 r W > 
s»ff**or sfffarorwfftfa; see 708. Part* Pres. Uijj Past Pass. ■&; 
Past Indecl. ??*T, -5W ; Fut. Pa$s. fjTT, *«i •/)**, 'TTW. 

655. Root ^ (special stems ^^ and sfq, 322. a). Inf. ^*Jfl, ' to 
sleep.' Par. Pres. *<rftrf>T, srflfa, ^ftrfff; ^R^, ^TW(, Wfll«i; 
«f<ra?(, <HfT«T, ^rqfcr. Imp/. ^^PT^, ^TCPI^ or *«Mfy, ««H or 

srervfy ^rfor, &c (see ^ at 653). Pot. *<ron^. .%w. *rnfir, 
i^fqf?, .^fTg ; *srsrnr, ^fin^, ^Fmn^j iavm, ^f«w, usurer. P«/; 
^8a)^R,^f^ror^^r,^TtT; l^fo, 3!^, $WU 15 fin » 
gip, $f^. is* P«*. ^rmffcr. 3»mZ -FW. ^TOUf*. Apr. ^UsJIW^, 

Prec. ^ron*3R(. Corarf. ^rerts?^. Pass., Pres. ^(47 x ) 5 Aor. 3rd sing. 
*renfq. Caus.j Pres. *snwfa; ^or. -?ifg^, &c. Des. ^fflftr. 
Freq. *ft^, TOstf* or TOsPftfiT. Part., Pres. ^m^; Past Pass, gw ; 
Past Indecl. *J*T, -*rai ; Pw*. P««*. ^U^T, ^tvrffo, ^P«I. 

656. Root 33^ (special stems gsi and ^91, 324)* fyf- ^Vi*{ ' to 
wish.' Par. Pres. «rf9»T, ^ftj (30a),. gft (300); T^, ^S^, ^CT($ 
•T^, OT, 751%. I/Bg/". *nr^, *%3Z (294). *^5 ^t (25 1 - fl )i 
^CT[, ^CTT; ^$H, ^?, ^m. Pot. T^TIH, T^m^, &c Impv* 
WSflTftr, g^fe (303), *j; g^mc, 73*, tbth; ^ira, 7?, ^5ng. Perf. 
(375. c) T7I5T, Jffyvj, T^tqi ; '3if5ra > ^rg^, *V3^ 5 ^W» "3»^» ' B ^- 
j*/ Pm^. wfijimfg?. 2rad Pm<. srf^ranfir. Aor. ^r^rw, ^cgi^ft^, , brt- 
affy &c. ; or ^i^fin^, rljffy -5^, &c. ; see 427. Prec. T^iren. 
(7o«rf. w^f^roni, Pass., Pres. ^ (471); -<4o»". 3rd sing, ssmfy or 
^rafsit. Caus., Pres. ^RTft ; ^for. ^^^51^. Des. f^f^Tfn, Freq, 
Tl^, ^I^»J or tfi^Pl. Part., Pres. 7^; Pasi Pass, g'fijni; Past 
Jndecl, nfq&\, -TW, Fut. Pass, nfyrim , ^nrtu, ^T^l. 

41 It must be borne in mind (with reference to 323) that haa only loses its nasal 
before t and,<A, if not marked with P. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP n. CLASS II. 285 

, 657. Rqot %9 N (special stems fg^and %tt, 309). Inf. %v^ 'to hate. 5 
Par. and iftm. Pres. gfar, ^ft? (30a), gfe (301) ; fg^, %i^, flrs^J 

fg^, fire, f^ftr. ^Ltm. fg$, %%, fg%; flret, fk^T^, fgTnih ffe 1 *^, 
fesy, fes^. Jwy?/ *ire^, ssir^ (»94), ^irz ; ^%^, ^jfsre^, *r%si»j ; 
wfinw, ^r%?, ^f?re^ or ^rfg^. Ktm. vtfgfa, ^fgar^, ssfgs ; ^jfe^f?, 
yrfgrermq;, safeum^ ; ^fg^ff, ^fg?^;, ^fg^ir. Pot. fenn^. Atm. 
fgtihi. Z»wp». irerftr, fe^fe, gT* ; gtire, fgB^, feur^ ; g^ra, fgir, %^j. 
JSitm. |$, %t^, fgFPj; g^rat, fg*ir*n^, firming; Irew?, f^f^> fe^m^. 
Per/- fciri, f«fgftro, f^if^; fHfgfire, fsjfki^, f^fgMj'^J f^fffw, ft[fg*r, 
Rfeg^. ^tm. ftfsS, fgrfgfTre, f^fg^j f#B!, firfem^, f?r%mw; 
^fafw|, fiffeftd, f?^grf^.. is* Fm*. iteTftR. Atm. g*^. indFut. 
iftytTfa. Atm; g^. -dor. (439) «rfg^, -^, -TJ^; -T^TT, -^7W(, 
-^nn^; -^W, t^tt, -T^. ^itm. (439. a) ^rfifr^, -^n^, -tjtt ; -8fl'<rf?, 
*Tjmm, -^nn^; -^r»rf^, -tjki^, -^t. Prec.fgumrc{. Atm. fg^to. 
Oond. ^&scp{. Ktm. ^ttjf . Pass., Pres. fgift, &c; -4or. 3rd «t^>. 
wgfa. Caus., Pre*. gwnfJTj Aor. vf^fsraq[. Des. f^fg^frfiT, -t|. 
Freq. ^fa^, ^gNr or ^fgnftfiT. Part., Pres, fg^; Past Pass, fgs ; 
Past Indecl. fgyr, -fgm ; Fm? . Paw. g?si, giw'ta, g*i. 

e. Root g^. Jm/^ ^ffcip^ ' to wear/ ' to put on (as clothes, &c.)' 
Ktm. Pres. qir, ^# (63. b), ^ ; TOt, V&dt, ^flft ; «raf , ^ or ^ 
(304), to^. Imp/, ^niftr, iHtHJuiq,, ssnrer; < gnrer%, ssreajvn*(, mtm n ^s 
l^flf?, ^TSpj or ^rtj^, ^t^nr. Potf. wfa. Jmpt;. gt. Per/. *R%, 
?Rftt$, &c. ist Put. qfariM?. 2«a* Fw?. ^ftrai. Jor. ^sgftjft, ^ntftr- 
srq;, ^wftre ; 'anrftpsrff, ^ntftnn*iTH, srofcrennn, &c Prec gftnrta. 
Cond. ^ftr$. Pass., Pres. *re&. Caus., Pres. mwnfa or -3r. Des* 
fe^fttw. Freq. <*wj) , ^reffcr. Part., Pre*. ^n^T ; Pa*? P«r*«. ^ftw j 
Past Indecl. ^ftn^T, -^W; Pw?. Pass, ^ftrnstt, ^^nfhr, gTW. 

658. Root ^n^ (special stems 5n?[ and %^, see 338). Inf. $nftnp^ 
'to rule/ 'to punish.' Par. (With ^n 'to bless,' Xtm.) Pres. ytfm, 
5n%, ^nfttr; %«^ 5 f^re^, f^; f^i 1 ^;, f^re, ^mrfii (310.ODS.) Ktm. 
m^i,^m(62.b),mm; yri^,wn$,wstii WVfk,W^ or ^^(3°4), 
^rarfr. Impf. vh^iw^, ^?5n^ or ^r^n^ (394, 3°4- «). ^?n^ (304); 
^fijpzr, ^f^re»(, ^81%^; ^tf^r, ^tfqv, ^11^. i^tm. 'sr^tftr, &c 
Pot. fifpm^. ^tm. ^rwrtii. J»wp». ^rraTftr, ^nfv (3.04), ^ng ; srrer?, 
%g^, f^rfT^j Fraw> %^> WW- & tm - W^' Per f- ^rw, prftw, 

51^, 5T5iTftw, &c. is? i^?. ^rrftnnftR. Atm. 5?Tftjm^. 2wrf Pm?. 
^nft»snfn. A'tm. ?nftr^. -4or. (441) wf^r^;, wfifl*^, ^^; ^if^T^, 



2?86 CONJUGATION OP VBEBS. — GBOUP II. CLASS II. 

WtylftmbT. Prec. f^rami^. Atm. ^nffctfir. Cond. iHjiiftm^. Atm» 
Wjnfa€fr. . Pass., Pres. f$p& (47a. c) ; Aor. 3rd sing. sm^iiPh. Caus., 
Pre*, ^rranTftr; . -4or. ^tsttsp^. Des. f^nftraTftr. Freq. :$rf$r*r, 
Slltylfa or ^n^rraftf*.. Part., Pres. ^rra^ (141. a); Past Pass, f^re; 
Past Indecl. snftnrr or fi$rfT, -f^ra; -FW. Pas*, ^nftnr^j, siraWfa, fiflr. 

659. Root f^f (special stems fjra; and ^f). Inf. \ ri ^ ' to anoint,' 
* to smear.' Par. and Attn. Pres. ^fsr, ^ftj (306. a), \f*V (305) ; 
f^2p(, f^V^, f^ 7 ^; f<dl*^, f^V, f<^fM'. Atm. f^f, fl^, ftp*! ; f<;<33, 

f&w, ftr?n* ; f^sit, fv& (306. d), f^w. Jjwp/. ^V{, ^^ (a94)* 
■^w^rj ^f^, wf^n*n, ^rf^rvi^; SHf<a, wfipv, *rf«^«£. Atm. ,^rf^f?, 

ipr. Pot. fr{^II^, f^TT^, &c. Atm. f^hl. I?»pw. ^^ifff, ft^»V, ^J* 
?(l[TC, f^"*^, f^VPJ ; ^?TH, f^»V, f^FjJ- Atm. ^t, fro, ftpvr^ ; ^N^ 
f^^T^, f^?nn^; ^ra|, fvw*^, f^rn^. P«/. f^?, f$f*vi, f^ ; 

f¥¥^» fijfV*!^, r<r<^,- f^f^r, ftfew, f^m- -^tm. f^ftjt, 

f^f^t. 1st Fut. ^nnffcr. Atm. ^vit. awrf Put. iterrftr. Atm. 
tresr. .^or. (439) 'sCva^, '^rfVrem, ^rfv^; ^faajN, ^rfvafif^, ^fv- 
Bfril^; ^rfV^m> ^rf^Spfj Tfasj^. Kim.. (439. 6) ssfiffoj, ^fvsjrn^ or 
^r^'VIt^, ^rf*repr or 'srf'^ni; ^rfVn^wf^ or ^if^f^, ^ftJKflvn^, *?rfVf- 
Kjlril*^; lafmsjlHr?, ^rfVrojssp^ or ^rftpst»{, ^tfvrefir. Prec. f^3lti^. 
Atm. fv^ta. Coraa*. ^i^r^. Atm. ^rc£r. Pass., Pres. f^t; Aor. 
3rd sing, ssi^r^. Cans., Pre*. y^ifa ; Aor. ^^i*\ . Des. fffirepffr y 
-^f. Freq. ^f^, ^Hsr (3rd sira^. 5^f»v). Part., Pre*, f?^; Attn. 
fc^TT; Pa** Pa**, f^ni; Pa*£ Indecl. f^air, -ft^T ; -Fwtf. Pass.^npn y 

660, Root g|T (special stems |f and $f ). Inf. ft^p^ ' to milk.* 
Par. and Jitm. Pres. ^ftr, vtfrj (306. a), ^V (305) ; g^, f"^. 

5"*i; ; f^» f" 1 . |^- -& m - §%»?%» i 1 ^ ; |^%, p^, |^h ; ^, 

W$ (396. d), $&. Imp/. *r^, -wi^ (394), W^ ; ^5, *§n*i{, 
ygrw{; ^f3T, *§7V, ^1^. Atm. ^f^, ^|tvi^, ^|»v; x^f?, 
^f?T«n^, ^iiii^; ^|«f?, ^n*^, ^fcr. Pot. |?n^, pn^, &c* 
Ktxa. |^hj. Impv. ^pftr, |fhi (306. c), ^; ^?ig, gr^, 51^; 
^iw» §^» f^3- ^ tm - ^» W» r^; ?^l» |fT>^, f^THT^; 

SPW» S5*W; H^^' S5^» 3S1^- ^ tm - H^» JSS^, sst ; SS^it, 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS III. ' 282 

Sf^> SPT* ; fffl*?, §§f?£ or -|, §gfi*t ist Fut. ^talfiw. Ktm. 
^Wl%. and Fut. vrearfir. Ktm. vt^, Aor. (439) ^j^, ^J^,' 
^^; ^^nr, ^"jwt» ^gspn^j "si^jm, wgm, ^wt- ^ tm - 

(439- *) ^§M> ^T$^JT^ or ■a^MI^, ^*J»r or ^tv ; ^n|«jrnrf? or siprf?, 
^rg^TTI^> ^THT^; 'Hgsj'Rf?, ^nj^jt^ or wpwr, 'srcjsysjr. Tree. 
§?rrcm. ^itm. tpfN. Oond. «n?tagsT. Ktm. ^?vt^t. Pass., Pres, 
^t; Aor. yd sing. ^tf"^. Caus., Pres. cfernfa ; Aor. iHgtj^H. Des„ 
g^lfa, -t|. Freq. ^g^, ^ftr (3rrf s%. ^Ifm). Part., Pres. g?^,. 
g^TT; Pas* Pass, gnj; Pastf Indecl. ^un, -|^i; Pm£. Paw*. ^"*«H, 
?hpfa, «fcl or pr (573. a). 

661. Root f<5f (special stems fire and Wf). /w/". Hi^H 'to lick.' 
Par. and Ktm. Pres. (339) &ftr, £rf%? (306), &fe (305. a) ; ft*3^, 
c4l<J*^ (305. a), cilc!^; fiso^, cSte, firefcr. i^tm. ft?? , fc*$, cyfe; 
■feSft, fi5^R, fijfm ; ft5!l%, <7fe, fc5?ff . IwJH/". ^c5.^T, ^7 (394), 
VSrt7; ^rf?53J, ^IpSIb'T, NHrtldl'T; SMfriil, 'flrtld, Vfc*^. Xtm. mftjfjf, 

^i?5^3T^, ^Jc^ar; ^ifcssrfi?, ^rfpS^TTPT, ^fe^nnH j ^rfesrf?, ^i?ft^, 
^jftre^r. Pot. frf^v^, f<4'<ir^, &c iftm. fisi'ta. I»^w. rf^ifn, aftfe 

(306. 6), %S^\ &1TO, cSte^, c5T?m; ?5$nH, eSte, fri^M, ifon. ^f, 
foitW, -cfteT^; W^l^,fc5grai^, rirfi^lrtl^; c&^Wg, <y^^(3C-6.c), Priori l*\. 
P«/.ft5W?, fc5Wff^,fS5^; fi3fi?ff^, ft5f<5?^, fi?fc5?g^; ftrffrf^H,- 
frifot g , fiyfi5|^. $tm. fe5fc?|, fcSfcSf?^, &c. IS* Pm*. atTlftff. Mm, 
^T%. ararf Pk*. &s?nfT. Ktm. &v&. Aor. (439) SHfdBf^, -^, 
-tj^; -^rf, -s?tp^, -Bjrtr^; -Wf, -^Hf, -W{- Ktm. (439.6) wfef^r, 
^rfes^n^ or ^tcJ^t^, vafwipr or w&te; ^rc»«iH(V or ^rf&srf^, -^r«n^, 
-gfiwt^; ^rfcS^THff, ^rfi5^r«P( or Wtfl 1 ^, ^rfis^. Prec. f^rra^. 
Ktm. faaftq , &c Cond. -AdV^. Atm. *ds?r, &c. Pass., Pre*, 
•fair; -4oj\ 3rrf «%. ^f^. Caus., Pres. ^nrft; -^or. ^dlfw^. 
Des. fc5f<?EJTftT, -t#. Freq. &fc5?T, awfa {3rd sing. &&fe). Part.^ 
Pres. ft??^; -^tm. fig?!^ ; P«*f P««*. <tfte ; P««< Iwrfec/. <g^T, -fc5?l ; 
Pm^. Pass, rtd-^, ri£«ftlj t5^T- 

EXAMPLES OF PEIMITIVE VERBS OF THE THIRD CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 331. 

662. Root l hu (333). Infin. ^jpj hotum x ' to sacrifice/ 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, * I sacrifice/ 



288 ' CONJUGATION OF VEKBS. — GROUP II. CLASS IIIv 

Ivhperfect, 'I was sacrificing.' 
'BTSJITSP^ ajuhavam **J*<< ajuhum "^J^* 1 ajuhiMb 

*t*$1{qjukot W^AH(ajiihutdth ll^^qjuhaws (331. Obs.) ; 

Potential, ' I may sacrifice.' 
^tntjiihiij/dm ^«i\4 juKuydva *jgtt(H juhuytima 

^RVfflh'uhuyds »JS HI rt«i juhuy&fam ^mnjuhuydta 

^[J'ttHJuhiiydl ^f Mini *\juhuydidm *jg^juhuyus 

imperative, ' Let me sacrifice/ 
SJl^Tfa juhavdni ^li'ijuhavdva fa4\»i juhavdma 

SJffV juhudhi (293) *^n*\juhutam *£§i(juhuta 

*$$jithotu «JS fl wjuhutdm <fy£$juhvatu 

Perfi (374- 9) W^> Ifftra or g^» W; ^ff^> ^1^^' 
31^^; lfft"> ^» ^fl^- Or ^^P^lt, &c; see 385, e. is* 
J?W. fhnffcr. and Fut. ^Nrrfir . Aor. ^V{, 's^h'ta^ wgNfy v%te s 
^^Bi^, , a^8l^j w^T^i, is?Tv, «r^p(. Prcc. £4I*ih. CoM. yr^iHi: 
Pass., Pres. ^q ; Aor. 3rd sing. 4^1 fa. Caus., i¥es. ^NllfH ; ^eri 
\h^=IH . Des. sjfWfir. Freq. *ftf$, sfh?n% or »ft^1fa. Part., 
Pres. ^5T^; Past Pass, ipr ; Past Indecl. ^HT, -|w ; JW. Pas*. ^H^, 
^fht, ?*| or ?l*T. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 3 IN THE ORDER OF THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

66$. Root «{T (special stems ^T, ^, see 335). Inf. ^Tf* 'to give/ 
Par. and ii!tm. Pres. ^Tftr, ^iftf, <«rPrt > ^^, ?T«re[, ?^j ^J^„ 
^rq, ^fii. ^tmi ^, ^w, ^%; ^r|, ^r«r, ^fw; ^?it, %%, ^iK 
7mp/. *^*, *<5K(, ^^; w^, ^^pt, ^tut; «^r, *^r, *^ 
(331. Obs.) iitm. sj^, ^r*n^, ^n; ^sf?, w^toh, ^^ththj 
w^?rff , "W^H, *^iT. Pot. ^TIH. ^Ltm. ^N. I»»p«. ^Tfa, ^%, 
^13 ; s^re, ^h, ^trr* ; c^m, ^, ^jj. ifon. ^, ^r^r, ^n^j ^r^f, 
<^r*n*, ^tht« ; ^^m|, ^?, ^n^. Per/. (373) ^, ^u or <^r«r, 
^ ; ^n*» ^?R» ^ir; ^> ^, ^ ^tm. ^, ^t^, $■ ; sjf^, 
^r«r, ^fff; ^ftjH?, ^bI, ?[f^. 1st Fut. ^nrrfoR. ^tm. ^nrr|. 
and Fut. <jl«Tfa. -^tm. ^t^. ^or. (4J8) ^t«, ^T^, ^Ti^; w^, 
w^ih*^, 'fl^iin't; 'H^m, ^nr, if^ ^itm. (438. d) ^fifft, 'Hfi^n^, 
^rfinr; vHr^Nf^, ^r^«n«iiH, sHf^mfliH; mf^mf^, wHu^h, sjf^ira. Prec. 
^TITOH. j&m. ^RiN. Cowrf. ^t^^tiH. ^tm."S?[^i Pass., Pres. $ik ; 
^(or. 3rd sing. «^rfj|, see 700. Caus.j Pres. ^rwfa (483) ; ^ior. 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GKOUP II. CLASS III. 289 

ssnfaxm. Des. (503) f^WTfiT, f^W. Freq. ^fft, ^jfiT or <p^f»T. 
Part., Pres. ^(141. a); iftm. ^R; Past Pass, ^w; Pa** Tradec*. 
?*n, -^T1 ; Pw*. Pa**. ^TH*n, ^reta, ^. 

664. Root VT (special stems ^VT, ^, see 336). Inf. vrg^ ' to place.' 
Par. and i&m. Pres. ^rrfa, ^vrftr, ^vifw ; ^1^, VW^ (299. a), v^ 
(399. a); ^m, vw, <*vfir. Atm. ^ *rw, V%; ^, ^JTO, ^VTK; 
3«rt, vf (399. b), ^w. Imp/, ^mt^, *^vi^, ^n^; ^«r, ^rer^, 
^nmr^; ^ur, ssnre, w^ft. Atm. ssi^fu, ^vwr^, ^nrer; "e^srf?, 
^vnn^, ^tht^; ^«rff , sswf^ (399. b), ^\nr. Pof. ^wn^. -£tm. 
^Vffa. Zmpu. ^mfa, ^ff, ^vnj; ^VR, v^, tren^; ?VT»T, vn, ^>snj. 
Atm. ^, tn^r, v^m; ^vnrf, ^vjTzrr^, ^vtm^; ^rra|, v^;, ^rat^. 
-?«/• (373) Wt &* or ym, ^ ; ?ftra, ^v^, ^^ ; «*ftR, ^v, ^. 
A'tm. ^, ^ftre, &c. i*£ Pw*. unrrfw. Aim. *nmt, &c. wd Pwf.' 
trreiTfa. Atm. vt^. ^or. (438) ^sw{, ^ivt^, wrn^; <3rvrnr, ^tvra^, 
'sffvnn^; wwro, ^vm, ^^;. ifan. (438. d) 'ssftifa, ^rfireiq;, ^rftrct ; 
^ffin^f?, *3rfwn^, ^rfwin^; ^fir*t% ^rfaf ^, ^sfireiT. Prec. *Nra*j. 
Atm. vrafa. Como*. ^TVI^. ^tm. ^rerei. Pass., Pres. >jft; i** 
■FM. *TTftnn? or WT1* ; -4or. yd sing. ^TMTftl. Caus., Pre*. VHTOTfiT ; 
Aor. <s^hra*(- Des. fwrfa (5°3)- Freq. ^rft, ^wfa or ^nrfa. 
Part., Pre*. 3^(141. a); K.tnx. ^VH; Pa*^ Pa**, ffff; Pa*£ Indecl. 
f?r^T, -vre; i*W. Pa**. >niRl, wftl, W. 

a. Root HT (special stems fflirt, fa^, see 338). ira/ 1 . TfiJ^ 'to 
measure.' Atm. Pre*, fa^, faifl^, fiwfft; fwhr?, f«mr^, ftnrfff; 

'STftwui^, ^ifimnrp^ ; sifa*ftaf?, ^rfWter^, ^tft»?TT. Pot. firofaj, ftHlvi^, 
fiwfhr, &c. Impv. ft*?, ftuft^g, f)R»ftirT^; fHHrat, firamn^, fwivn^; 
ftHm|,f*J^i^, fiwnr^. Per/, w, nftw, h^; Hfn^l, >wt^, »wt^; 
Tf»mt, *fasr, *rf*iT. 1*^ Pm^. mKlt. 2nd Put. to ^or. (434) 

^IHIUri. Prec. qrcfo. Cowrf. ^HTO. Pass., Pre*, ift^; ^4or. 3rrf *my. 
■slRTfa. Caus., Pres. »nwfiT ; ^(or. ^qUm^. Des. firwrfiT, -1^ (503). 
Freq. H»rA, >nTlfH or nmftr. Part., Pres. (h«K; Pa*f Pa**. f»m; 
Pa*# Indecl. fiT^T, -HT1 ; P«^. Pa**, imrar, «n^ftl, fl*l. 

665. Root ^T (special stems »t^t, 5t?t, s!^, see 337). Inf. JTijft ' to 
quit.' Par. Pres. »H[TfiT, ^Tftr, »H-TfH J «J^^ (or »rf?^, see Pan. 
vi. 4, 116), »!ft^ (or STf? 1 ^), ^^ (or 31^1*0; ^h^r (or 5rf?»^), 
3T^hi-(or Slf?^), ^fiT. Impf. ^t^TfT^, ^W?!^, ^l^; ^^^ (or 
^iT%g), ^3T5hTR[(or ^r^rf^tT^), ^ST^Tn^^r ^tilf^HT^); "ST^JT (or ^m- 

pp 



290 CONJUGATION OF VERB?. — GKOUP II. CLASS III. 

fg*), iiwzta (or ^ntf?*), ^^^- Pot. wsn^, sren^, &c. Impv. sr^Tfa, 
*f$f% (or *rf?f?) or sj^Tf?, ST?TiJ ; srfra, sr?to*J, (or sff^X *$m{ ( or 
*rf?HT*0 ; *r?W, ^H (or ^f^if), 3T?i|. Per/, w^, *rf%*l or s^ni, ^ ; 
*tf&> ^W^, *W$R; ffiv*, ^?» ^Tf^.' i si P ut - fraifoi. 3»rf -Fw*. 
?retnf«r. ^or. (433) srgrfwt, ^n^ft^, "^refi^; ^iPhm, sr^Tftre^, 
^rgifire^; ^frftnw, ^n?Tftre, "ai^Tftj^. Prec.^m^. Cond.<x%mp{. 
Pass., Pres. ^tn; Aor. yd sing, ^rfxi. Caus,, Pres. ?TWf»T; Aor. 
^fet^. Des. fsr^TOlfir. Freq. $^fa, sn^rf* or sn^fir. Part., Pres. 
^f^ (141. a) ; Past Pass, ^hf ; Pas* Indecl. f^T,. -?HT ; ify*. Pass. 

666. Root tft (special stems fan, fa*ft, fafa, see 333). Ira/". Jfcpj ' to 
fear.' Par. Pres. f^nfir, fsjirfii, fsrefir; fwfaq; or firfira^, ftprtaq; 
or f^fa*^, fanfar^ or ftrf>m^; f%»ft*r^ or f%fa«l*^ fwfa or faftrq, 
f^wiftT (34). Imp/, vfircra^, ^rfaJh^, ^rf^»h^; ^rf^^flw or ^jf^fag, ^rfsr- 
tftat^ or ^t%f>firc(, ^fatfhrpj or ^ftrfiurr^; ^rfw>fl«T or ^rf^ftnr, ^rfsjWfci 
or 'wNfiJil, sjf^Hg^ (33 1 . Obs.) Pot. fswfalT^ or fafinn^, &c. Impv. 
fwmfa, fattftf^ or f^fWff , fadg; fsrsrore, f%*rhl^ or ftrf*iPj;, fwt- 
in^ or fafWm^; fwnH, fwhl or fsrfHff, fawfij (34). Per/. (3.74) 

6wr, fwfirif or frita, 1%*nv ; f^fwi^r, f^wrgn, fsr*nj^; f^rf«w, ftw, 
fin*^. Ox fgr Hq i mcfci t (385. e). is* JW. Htnfw- »»«* -F«A wnfn. 
^on vtai, ^Nh^^N}^; ^wtg, *$&&{, y^vn\i ^r>W, 'wW, ^|^- 
Prec. vfrmq. Cond. ^mwpt. Pass., Pres. >jft ; Aor. yd sing. ^Wlfa. 
Caus., Pres. HHWfa or -ifr, or mxft or *fhR ; -4or. ^tazw or ^hnpi or 
wftftra*. Des. fiNfonfa. Freq. ^ft or ^«ft or $H*ftftr. Part, 
Pres. f5|Sn^(i4i. a); Past Pass, tfhi; Past Indecl >fti^T, ->foc; Put. 
Pass. m*t, wnrhr, >ht. 

a. Root ]ft (special steins fWf, fifjff, fafg^, see 333. a). Inf. 
lg»i 'to be ashamed.' Par. Pres. fsntfa, fWgfl, fulfil; fagfa ^ , 
ftfg^T^, faigTrt^; f»nrta^, ftnffa. ftff^fif (133. a). Imp/. ^ DdgqH , 
^jftfi^j "fifih^; ^tfirgfa, ^rf*r^ta»j, tfitglii'i^; ^rftn^H, ^ftrg'tar, ^fti- 
ip; (331. Obs.) Po^.fti? , hnJT. 7?wpD.f3TgTrrft!r 5 f5if^.,fsitg; ft^^n^, 
f^n^, f«f^Tin*^; fsT^i*r, ftirhr, ftrf^rg. Per/, fnfiir, ftt g fi w 
or ftrg^, f«r?nr; fsrfffn^ (374. e), ftrf^^r^, ftrfFJ^; ftrffftw, 

f«Tf?T, ftrf^g^. i*< i^?. IinftR. 2nd Fut. jtanfJT. ^(or. 
^1^, ^IN^, ^|^t^; ^i|«^, -v*, -ht«?; 'hI^t, -?, -^f(. Prec. 
^hmi*(. Cond. ^f{. Pass., Pres. ?ft; Aor. yd sing. ^tfrf^. 
Caus., Pres, ^vpufy; Aor. srftrf^. Des. fir^WH. Freq, 
^^, ^IfiT or ^?4tf»T. Part., Pres. flfffTn^ (141. a); Past 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS.— GROUP II. CLASS VII. 



291 



Pass, tfw or jUt ; Past Indecl. ftzn; Put. Pass, ^m, ?*»- 

b. Root »n^ (special stems *t»th;, »nn, »T5r, see 339). Inf. Sffirgfl'to 
produce.' Par. Pres. smfwr, sniftr, 3T5lf^r ; sprsrq;, •strnvf^, ^fTH^; 
aTsrsrq;, ji»fivf, wsrfir. /ms/". lennRi^ *>H«i, (294), ^t»r^; *a»r»fH, 

'WWJTTrT^, "5t5T3miT^; ^nisrar, ^j»TOTfT, "STWirai;. Pot. »T»fTm*^ or M«flMI«. 

Impv. si*pnfa, snnf?, sppit; ihrtc, ^mur, wu w r , ^ntm,^mK, 
srgij. Per/. *nn^ or «j»r, ^nrftrr, shir ; ^Tfg?, »<^^ , ^?p[; ^5W, 

5T5, ?T^. is* 2*W. srf^wtfffl. 2nd Put. Sffa^nfif. Aor. ^iThm h, 
■snrrvft^, 'STSTPfl^; ^nnfcpsr, &c. Or surfing, &c. ; see 418. B. Prea 
spirrew or srnmr^. Oond. ^rwf^J^. Pass., Pres. sen* (cf. 617. a) or 
«r$; ^ior. 3rd amy. ^nrfa. Caus., Pm. snPTTftl; Jor. flnrhrT*. 
Des. fffirfa^. Freq. insTR or ST3^, srwf^T. Part., Pres. 1^(141. a) ; 
Past Pass. iTTK, »Tf«nT ; Past Indecl. »rf^TPIT, -»PT, -TPT ; Put. Pass. 



EXAMPLES OF PEIMITIVE VERBS OF THE SEVENTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 342. 

667. Root fg^ 6hid. Infin. iff^ dhettum, ' to cut/ 

Pabasmai-pada. Present Tense, ' I cut.' 
ftt»TRt dhinadmi f ! SrS^ dhindvas ftp^PS^ dhindmas 

i^n^m dhinatsi ftp^ dhinthas (345) ftik»«l dhintha (345) 

f^«Tfij dhinatti f^i)'^ dhintas (345) ns^fWf dhindanti 

Imperfect, ' I was cutting,' or ' I cut.' 
^TpoaW^ addhinadam (51) ^fr«a.»s addhindva ^-a&rH addhindma 



^ffhssiH addhinat (294) 
^rPoRn n addhinat (294) 

ftpSTP^ dhindydm 
(VyWI't^ dhindyds 
ra^TTiT dhindydt 



f^n^if*! dhinaddni 



^rtAni^ addhintam (345) ^?Paa»n addhinta (345) 

^tf^Si'fll^ addhintdm (343) ^((tsAh^ addhindan 

Potential, ' I may cut.' 

f^STfW dhindydva ftFSTW dhindydma 

fiSFUTi!^ dhindydtam f^<^llrf dhindydta 

\i&r&\n\*\ dhindydtdm fsi»s^ dhindyus 



f«i«i^iK dhinaddmd 
fsi.fi <$i»ta (345) 
ftp3(*3 dhindantu 



Imperative, ' Let me cut.' 
ftRcjre dhinaddva 
fijfisg dhinddhi (or dhindhi, 345) 1^11^ dhintam (345) 
ftfI^,dftM»oW» r«t»fii«^ dhintdm (345) 

P p 2 



292 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GBOUP II. CLASS VII. 

Per/, fq^ (51), fg^rf^r, f^ ; ftrfsrfinr, f^rfa^, f"»fi«?W; 
f^ftatf^,fgf«a^,f^fsa|^. istFut.wtnfm. 2nd Fut. •gwrrfti. ^or. 
wfta^»r, "srfta^, wf3^; ^fV^re , ^fs^TPT, wfa^irm; 'afa^TH, 
^rfa^ir, ^rfsa^. Or 'gr^wr, ^db^, ^4rtfl^; ^Para, «^" N , 
fl^dlH ; ^jm, ^rabr, ^r§^. Tree. fslill««. Corerf. *^*l«. 

i^TMANE-PADA. Present Tense, ' I cut.' 
ft[% rfAtiufe Prilrg^ dhindvahe fs^t^ thindmahe 

f^'rt) <tawise fSt^TT dhinddthe f^r^ thinddhve 

f*g?k dhinte (345) ftC^Iff dhinddte ft^n 6hindate 

Imperfect, ' I wa3 cutting,' or ' I cut.' 
^Podf^ a66hindi (51) *3|[\aaȣf? addhindvahi ^rfep^lf^ aSdhindmahi 

W ^*mi\a66hinthds (345) SHPai^l>i||^ atihinddthdm ^f^^adihinddhvam 
^ffepiT adthinta (345) ^tfwi^lHI*^ adihinddtdm ^(Va^n addhindata 

Potential, ' I may cut.' 

ftS^T 6hind{ya ftp^N'f? dhindhahi fsCrjfaf^ chindi'mahi 

f^itO V) I ^ (hindithds f%F$PQT*K*{6hind(ydtlidm H4n(ll^ dhindidhvam 

fg^H (hindita f^^l^ltH^ 6hindlydtdm fop^t*!^ (fiintftran 

Imperative, ' Let me cut.' 

I«^«i4 thinadai (smells- rhinaddvahai fs^JH^ ihinaddmahai 

re(rrta 6hintsoa Yvi*n\M\*\6hinddthdm ha«s*^ ihinddhvam 

f«l*ni^ Qwntdm (345) ftf^TiTP^ ihinddtdm len^nl*^ ihindatdm 

Per/. f*rPs^, f%fafi$, f^fsi^; folW<vi3, fafss^, Nf^ul ; 
frfWR^, faftatf^sfr, fsrfacf^ . i»f JFw/. •%^i%. 2nd Fut. w&. Aor. 

^rf^t^R, ^rfatwiT. Prec. fgfRrfar. Cfcrarf. ^rsash Pass., Pre*. fsfir; 
^Jor. 3^ s%. ^rf^. Caus., Pre*. %^qTfiT ; ^tor. ^rf^fta^T. Des. 
f^fsamrfir, -W. Freq. ^Pair, wftr. Part., Pres. fs^; i&m. 
f^r^M; Pas£ Pass. ft[^; Pas* Indecl. ftf^T, -ftrer; Pwf. Pass. %wai, 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 7 IN THE ORDER OP THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

668. Root ^ (special stems ^nn^, ^, see 347). !«/". ^r^ ' to 
anoint,' 'to make clear.' Par. Pres. ^r«rf*H, ^PTf^ (296). fTfe; 

*faa^, ^m, ^Hri;; ^wq;, ^*r, ^far. Imp/. w?hiit, stpt^ (394), 
^H^f; ^rfw, wfir^, ^jfww ; ^rfsi, 'srhs, ^?rsr^. Pot.^mm. Impv. 



CONJUGATION OP VEKBS. — GEOUP II. CLASS VII. 293 

'SRsnftr, "sHii*, ^nnfi; ^r5mt,^Hfr^,'*ifiT*; ^ntw,^n, wj. Per/. 
inra, ^rnrf^i or ^phpi, ^t«t^; ^rrcf^, ?iMy^, »hih^^; ^rRf^r, 
^TTTO, ^M^ . ist Fut. ^forfw or ^r^ri lfgr. 2nd Fut. ^nfa or 
^rf^TTftr. Aor. *n%*m v ,^rra ! ^,^ng ! h^ ! sni%Er,&c.,see 418. B. Free. 
W-Sim^ (453). Cond. 'Stf^lH or ^iT F^m n. Pass., Pres. ^n^ (469); 
Aor. yd sing. "srrf^. Caus., Pres. ^y^lfa ; ^4or. 'snfsMH. Des. ^r(%- 
f»I^Tf»T. Part., Pres. ^W(\l Past Pass, ^m; Past Indecl. ^rf^T or 
nkw or ^st^bt, -^rar ; Pw/. Pass. ^Wf or ^rf^iraj, ^wft*!, ^*T or ^far. 

a. Root ^ (special stems »J^, »g^, 346). - Inf. *f^r*{ 'to eat? 
'to enjoy.' Par. and A'tm. Pres. ^Tftn, »J^, >pfli; g^, >fra^» 
S^U *P^> $*"> S'Slftr- A'tm. >j^, w^, «ii; «3f|, »pn^, $5ni*; 
^sn|, ^w, >j^. Imp/, w&ttn, w$h^ (294), ^^ ; -sww, '^npir^;, 
*i»pm(; <sr>p>T, «rwgi, ^^;. Atm. ^jfg, ^w<*viiq;, ^»j^i; ^W3J%, 
^yivn^, ^^nn^; stipirf^, **r«r^, ^jw" • Pot. ^r%. A'tm. 
S^fa. Jwipw. ^snfir, »jfh|, »|jrf ; gw*, tf^> s?rt^; ^»im, ^, 
*j^t. A'tm. *p^, ^, *jiBT^; ^^n^|, *fgvn^, >yann«; g^nnl, 
ijiWR, ^mir. Per/. ^fcr, ^ftfire, ^w j l$ftnr, I5^> f^^rg^; 
!3f*m, I>pT, fg^. A'tm. *»pr, fgftft, y&; -fsnrt, -stro, -5tra; 
-ftpnr, -ftra, -fsft. is/ .FW. nhfiiffcr. AW *tefir|. 2nd Fut. «h?nfa. 
Atm. >rh^. Aor. wft^, -^ta{, -i$\\; wftm, w^ir^, -m^; 'xxfa, 
wrh«, wtiv^. Atm. ^f^, ^r»p*rra(, ^r>p5; , sr»js?rf£, ^j^ftr, 
^jajTHT'i; 'SiJ^rf?, ^psi*, ^t>j^ti. Free. *jxijT*m. Atm. grjfa. 
Cow«?. ^wfasm. Attn. ^wfasi. Pass., Pres. »|sir ; Aor. yd sing, ^wfrftr. 
Caus., Pres. uliHlfa, -*t; -4or. ^Rg»fT. Des. «[»J«?Tf>T, -t|. Freq. 
W^3^, - srt»rtf%»T. Part., Pres. >J^; A'tm. pR; Pas^ Pass. »pfi; 
Pas/ Indecl. tgm, -^jw ; Pfo/. Pass. *Tt^PT, h1«h1*1, *rter or vftor (574). 

669. Root >T^ (special stems H^, >ra, 347). Inf. 4^T ' to break.' 
Par. Pres. «Trf5R, wrfoj, H«rfe; *H^(, wptci;, >rw^; 'TsH^, *hw-, «^fj?r. 

Imjo/l 'SWHIW, ^!W«T«F (394), ^WTe(j ; ^M3J, ^M^T^, ^WlffR ; ^WW, "SH^i, 

awg^. Po/. h'j^i*^. Impv. wnnfiT, tffrv, H^nji ; *^nn^r, «^r»^, «^<in ; 

■SW^^, W>TWg^; ^>T%H, ^H^, ^>T^. J St Fut. HIRTftR. 2W<? Pw#. 

mgrfa. Aor. ^wh^, -"Sfl^, -^1i^; ^hto, ^nrfgr^, -^i^; ^wts?i, 
<gim^!, ^wf^[. Free. >T3irra^ (453). Oo«rf. ^TJngt^. Pass., Pres. vr^ 
(469) ; Aor. yd sing, ^wrfsr. Caus., Pres. n^xnftt ; -<4or. 4HH%4<1. 
Des. f^vf ^rftr. Freq. ■*(**$, "^fssj. Part., Pres. k^j Pas/ Pass. «x^ ; 
Pas/ Indecl. «w or KliT, -HtT ; Fut. Pass, vfapj, v&ifto, **%. 

670. Root g»i (special stems g^n^, gw, see 346). Ire/! ifcpr 'to 



294 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS VIL 

join/ 'to unite.' Par. and Ktm. Pres. frfm, %*fq, &c ; like >J^, 
668. a. Xtm. g#, g^, &c. Imp/. *$>***(, *g^ (394). *!**; 

wjw, &c. .£tm. ssgfsr, wprm., &c > Jf°^ i 5 ^- ■^ tm - 3^- 
Im^. g^nnfit, gfri, •pf; frara, &c. Atm. g^, $&, g>p»?, &c. 
Per/, gxfcr, jftfan, yi^T ; 33^* &e. ; like >pr, 668. a. ^tm. ggif. 
is* P«*. ^Tfer. ^tm. ^fr^nt- i nd Fut - "fasnfa- ^ tm - "ftw« 
Aor. ^P», -^, -"51^; -1^, -'fHW, -wm*; -3|W, -*m, -H^. Or 
*s^, -•stffy -t^; Wis, &c Atm.«gft|,«g*«i%<Hn?; tt^r?, 
&c. Free. gwra*. J&m. prN. Cond. Snftel^. £tm. ?nft^. 
Pass., Pres. gsr; -4or. 3ra" «%. wftftf, see 702. Caus., Pres.'jfcl- 
*nfN ; ^or. «fp!H. Des. gf«flfH, -if. Freq. Vt$$, nW«. Part., 
Pres. g^; iitm. faro; Pas* P«»*. g^<; P«»* iiwfecJ. ^m, -f»*n 
P«*. Pas*. *rfcfia», *ftspfhl, "Qtm or iJtm (574> 574- °)« 

67 1 . Root ^ir (special stems ^J0>(, ^«, 344). !«/. tfe* ' to hinder/ 
Par. and jftm. Pres. ^jftw, ^offcr, ^irfs J ^»^, ^B^*» F^* 5 
^«W(, ^*g *> ^w%. ^tm. ^, ^w, ^if * ; ^KI%, ^*rTO, ^«T^ ; 
^an%, ^, ^£. Imp/. WpIV^, 'S^n^ or ^D^ (394), «^0^ 
(294); *l^WiT, W^*, ^^=ST«*J w^wt, *J^S*, *^W{. Kim. 
wsfar, iw^ y gi ^ *, *^3*; "a^wsifl, ss^itopt, ^^hukth; ^wrfi, 
st^g H , ss^nr. Pot. h muh . Ktm. ^ffa. Impv. ^mvTftT, ^fcsr, 
^03; ^wm, ^g**, ^n***; ^srvm, ^s*, ^^3- ^tm. ^unl, 
^ws-j 5*8^*; ^ohrI. ^num, ^"ffinw; ^nvmt, tfs*, ^htth. 
Per/. ^6v, ^rtfw, *tta; s^fa*, ^*^(> **^; W^, ***> 
^g^. Ktm. 55^, ^ftn, ^^ ; 55ftrat, ^n$, ^nrr; ^fvit, 

^ftj£, ^ftfc. 1st Fut. Tterft*. Ktm. t&ST?. 2nd Fut. dwrftr. 
Atm. thw. Aor. *^pj, -x^, -^; -vra, -vh^, -vnn*{ ; ->m, -sw, -v^. 
Or 'srdw^, "a drtfl ^, ^rtfl^; ^a^fasT, ^3*(» 'w^ti^; «^rW, ^5, 
«sth*p(. ^tm. ^fw, ^yr*(> ^^T > 'H^rHnj, im^wiih^, ^winii, ; 
W5r9?f?,^3^,^Wr». Prec.^mVfl^. ^tm.^fhl, Cbwrf. ^cdfB^. 
j&m. ^rct^. Part., Pres. ^w ; ^Jor. 3r«? «m^. ^ftr. Caus., Pres. 
^>mnfa; ^(or. "3rs5^. Des - ^*i(h, -w. Freq. 6^, dttfi*. 
Part, Pres. ^J\; Kim. ^-mm ; Pasf Pass, ^f ; Past Indecl. ^ST, 
-^W; Fut. Pass. ttS^J, ^M^fN, thfl. 

672. Root fiflS (special stems %^, f^). JV. ^*^'to distinguish/ 
' to separate/ ' to leave remaining.' Par. Pres. f^PTP*T, f^RfiSf > f^Rfr » 
f^R[, ^t\, fJijf^J f*PTO(, fiSJTf , f^fiiT. Imp/. ^RtPJ, ^P^ (294), 

* ^R( may be written for ^«g^. Similarly, ^*q for 5^, &c. See 398. 0. 



CONJUGATION OF VERB& — OBOUP II. CLASS VII. 295 

*f$PT^ ; 'Wf^, *f$N^, ^rev^ ; ^fifr^, ^fjte, *f$n^. Pot. f^n^. 
I»wp«.%^Tfi!r,f3[r^feorf5rft!3 (303, compare 345), f^Rf; %?ptr*,f$t^, 
fsret^; f^Rtrm, f$e, f^hrer. Per/. %$N, f^Jftn?, %sN; %%for, 
fyr$m*jq;, f^rfsrepi;; f^rfw, fifrf$rn, f^rf^;. is* Pw*. steifoR. 
arao* Pm*. %??nfti. ^o/-. *f$p>T(, -v^, -fuj -im, -*rn^, -*nm(; -ht»t, 
-*nr, -*^. Prec. %tqro^. Oorafl*. ^fre?t^. 'Pass., Pres.f^m; Aor. 
yd sing. ^?$fa. Caus., Pres. ^hpnfa ; ^or. ^^ftf^l^. Des. %%SJTfir. 
Freq. $r%^r, $#*. Part., Pres. f^T^; P«*f Pas*. %B; P«»^ 
Iwa*ecJ. %fT, -f^r«l j Fut. Pass. %&%, ffrwlhr, $*I. 

673. Root fijq; (special stems f^T^, f&0- Inf. f?ftnpj 'to injure.' 
Par. Pres. f^rftpr, f^rfw*, f^rftcT; f^^, f$5^, f?H^; f?FW(, 
f^W, f^^ftr. /m^/l ^jf^r^, ^rf^TTi^ or ssf^tT^ (294, 304. a), ^f^r^; 
^rf^s, ^f?*r^, ^rf^m; ^rf?w, ^tf&tr, *fi*^. Po#. f^n^. /mpr. 
f^prarfa, f^fcsr or f^rfsv (304), ff*rc$ ; furore, f?^, f?sn^; f^ram, 
ff^r, f^srer. Per/, f*rf?*r, faff f*r«T, f»rf?¥ ; ftrffftnr, ftif? *r«j^, ftjf?*ij^; 
ftrffftm, fsrffw, ftrfip[. isi Fut. f^ftrmft*. area* Pw*. njfa w n fR. 
Aor. vsfijfaq^, 'sff^ft^, 'srffwfa^; ^rffffct^, ^rf^ftre^, ^(^fagT^; ^rff- 
ftro, ^rf^ftre, ^fffaq^. Free. ff^rra^. Conrf. ^rffftroi^. Pass., 
Pres. f%& ; Aor. yrd sing, ^rffffc. Caus., Pres. ft? ^prrfir; ^or. sjfaT- 
f^UT. Des. fwfrftr^TfH. Freq. ^f?w, ^fffw- Part., Pres. ftj^rr; 
Past Pass, f^ftnrj Past Indecl. ffftngr, -f^ES; Fut. Pass. ftjfJEnnj, 
f5>*fta, f?w. 

674. Root ^ (special stems ^75^, ^f , ^> see 348). Inf. TTftjJJT or 
TT^jt ' to injure/ ' to kill.' Par. Pres. tjiiffsr, ginf^ (306), tpsfe (305. e) ; 
g^, ip^, ^q; (398. 6); ■gsr^, 3^, g^ftr. /»»i/. ^nf»», ^npiFS 
(294), ^isrz; ^5, ^iJ<wh, ^bbth; ^rpr, ^rp^, ^51^. Po*. 
tprPT. /mp». ipfffTffT, ^fljs (see 306.0), 3^; ^aiTW, ps*, psT*; 
•pain*, ipss, 3^5. Per/ Krrf, inrff^i or «nrt, inrt ; fl^H, ri 4?!3H> 
Hij^ij^ ; irjf^H, ?^?, ngf^- i«* -^^ Trffwrfw or aiiAtf. %nd Fut. 
irf|«nf»T or ir^Tftl. ^or. ^5nrf|vi, -^, -^\; -flM, -ffvw, -f|^T*T; 

-ffw, -f|?, -ff m- ° r *%%%> ~^% ~^\> ~^> "^"1' -^n" x J -^w» 
-Tp, -^. Prec. fsrnw. Corerf. ^nfft^tfl or^nre#»T. Pass., Pre*. g#; 
^4or. 3rrf *m^. ^nrff. Caus., Pres. TT^mft ; ^4or. WWf * or SHiHiJ^>r. 
Des. finrff^Tftl or f^|T^r. Freq. mft^t, wflnfS (3rd sing, infhrft). 
Part., Pres. g^; Pas? Pass. (305. a) fgs ; Past Indecl. TrfiWT or ^|T-, 
-gif ; Pw?. Pass, irffinq or rifai, TTf»!I^, Tj?T. 

• * Final ?( s, preceded by a or d remains unchanged before the terminations si 
and sej see 62. b. 



296 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GBOUP 111. CLASS Y. 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE FIFTH CLASS, 

EXPLAINED AT 349. 
675. Root ^ vri. In fin. ^fTjJ>T varitum or ^tf ij« varitum, ' to cover/ 
'•to enclose,' 'to surround,' 'to choose*.' 

Note, that the conjugational rj nu becomes ijj nu after ^ vri by 58. 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, ' I cover.' 
SpBTlfa vrinomi ^^vrinuvasf I^J* 1 ^ v T inumas X 

^fStfa vrinoshi 73^ vrinuthas ^IgU vrinutha 

TOtfJr vpnoti 1WI vrinutas ^Ff»Jr vrinvanti 

Imperfect, ' I was covering,' or ' I covered.' 



■S^SR^ avrinavam 
'SRtn^ aminos 
avrinot 



'Sra^JH avrinuma |{ 
«i<}«Jfl avrinuta 
w*\ , H'\*\ avrinvan 



^SPn^ vrinuydm 
"}«i*(l*^ vrinuyds 
^pjni vrinuydt 

^5J vrtpte 



qtyqirt vrinuydt a 
Y8«J*^ v P ,nu y us 

va^\H vrinavdma 



Potential, ' I may cover.' 
^JJITO vrinuydva 
WITin^ vrinuydtam 
^jJTnTP^ vrinuydtdm 

Imperative, ' Let me cover.' 

■J^n*( vrinutam 
"J«JJHI*^ vrinutdm 

Per/. (369) ^RTt, ^Hl (Vedic) or ?prft«J (see 370), WT; ^W, <<d^, 
3*nj^; g^n, *rsr, ^^ or ^g^;l. 1st Fut. (392. d) vfrjnfm or 
^tJmfw (393). 2nd Fut. 3fiT«nfa or - <Hlm i fa (393). Aor. m=nPc « ffl , 
guilty 's^nfh^; ^miftN, ^i^fts*, ^Rrftsw ; ^raTftw, ^iiku, ^t- 
ft^. Prec. fk*ns«^ or ^WW (448. b). Cond. *4fu»W or 'sm'Nw. 

A'tmane-pada. Present Tense, ' I cover.' 
~\ -^ *\ 

^3 »™» e "J^=15 vrinwoahe * * >j<jj«15 crinuma Ae 1 1 

^^ vriiyushe ^jnv vrinvdthe TS^ »r*?«^* , ' e 

^>Jn vrinute ^<!«iin »rin»<fre ^P«J cripcate 

* In the sense of to choose,' this root generally follows cl. 9; thus, Pres. 
spOTfa, ^TDTftt, ^DTfir; ^(ft^, &o. See 686. 

t Or^P^»r»9»os. X Or ^18^ vrinmas. § Or ^T^FT avriQva. 

|| Or ^W a»r«nma. 
. IT ^ otj is sometimes written with long f(, in which case 374. it may be applied. 

** Or "J^S vrinvahe. ft Or ^PT? vfinmahe. 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS V. 



297 



Imperfect, ' I was covering,' or ' I covered.' 



^l^""^ avrinuthds 
^"j<[JiT amiituta 

^TFfa vrinvfya 
^Silfil^ 1>rii}vithds 



m^Hf? avrinumahi t 



"jfllTlf^ vriijieimdhi 
<j<l"ilW^ vrinvidhvam 



f VftpusAva 
"J«jni*^ vrinutdm 



vnwiQ vrinavdmahai 
^l**^ vrinudhvam 
"jU^ni*^ vrinvatdm 



^"j^f^ avrinuvahi * 
^J^FTOT^ avrinvdthdm 
^"jmirtl^ avrinvdtdm 

Potential, ' I may cover.' 

<j<fcfNl*n^ vrinviydthdm. 
I^iImicIT*^ vrirwfydfdm 

Imperative, ' Let me cover. 
^*0«II«I5 vrinavdvahai 
^ WTP^ vrinvdthdm 
<J«!=III1I^ vriyvdtdm 

Per/. ^ (369) or ^J, ^, ^ or ^; q^|, srard, ^TTff; 
^JH%, spj^, ^f^T. 1*/ 2<W. ^PnTT% or snftTnt- 3wd Pm*. gft^ or 
*rtf*i. .4or. ^ftfa, w^ftffn^, ^fcs; ^rafc^f?, ««fft,n r <nn , ^nrfbn- 
Tn^; wf^wrf^, ^nrftaj^ or -ftg^, *nrfw. Or 'snrtffa, ^mhrr^, &c 
Or ^njfir, ^n^, w^ir; *j^srf?, ^htst^, ^piin^; ^rprf^, ^f^, 
^pnr. Or ^raft, ^nnh^, ^n|t ; ^x%ff , 'grflT^, ^^rar^ ; 'afftr ^, 
^TfKP\, ^fff. Prec. ^fai or *pflxr or grflfa (448. i). Coraa*. ^nrfttfr 
or ^rarjt^. Pass., Pre*, fait ; Aor. yd sing, ^raxft. Caus., Pres. 
^CTTfJT or -it, or ^TiTnfiT or -it ; Aor. ^nfhj*^. Des. f^ftmfir or -^, 
forifarfa or -$, fftrfa or -^ (503). Freq. ^aft (511) or ^i, ^f*. 
Part., Pres. *$f&\; -^tm. tjiHW ; Past Pass, ^fl ; Pas* Indecl. ^t, 
-^W; Pw/. Pass, ^ftjnr or gtfjpJT, TOifai, *n*t. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 5 IN THE ORDER OF THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

676. Root ^§ (special stems tyvft, ^pj, see 35%). Inf. ^ftij^ 'to 
hear.' Par. Pres. ^piftfT, ipitfa, ipftflT ; qpp^ or ■$£&*(, 3J*J^, 
^1^5 W*l or ^F^ W> ^[<wftf- ^/-^^I^,^^,^^! 
^qj*pr or ^pjr, ^9]«i rt H' *3WU ^H" or *^pw, ^qpjTr, ^j?f^. 
Pot. ^JJ-pi^. Iwipt;. ^pt^nfTT, ^, spftjj; ^piRW, ^pp^, ^jjdin; 
^pnn*, ^pp, ^pF^. Per/. (369) ^psnr, ^pfta, ^pjnr; ^p, 9J^«l«3t(, 
^j^; iffl, ^pr, ^pfiq;- *** Fut. ^ftmftR. awe? P«£. ^frtrrfa. 
Aor. ^reffa*{, ^«u , fl^, ^^sfaftl^; ?ren^, <IWCT(, -BT^; ^iWr'U, "siw?, 

* Or -si"j<!<lf? avrinvahi. f Or ^TOf? avrinmahi. 

X ^ is sometimes written with long r/, in which case 374. k may be applied. . 

§ This root is placed by Indian grammarians under the 1st class. 



298 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS V. 

^re^q;. Tree. ^jtrro^. Oond. ?rata*(. Pass., Pres. wi; Aor. 
yd sing, ^retrfa. Caus., Pres. HCTnfr; Aor. "aif^rsra^ or 



Des. tj^. Freq. Tfft^, Tffteftfl or ^ftenrtfJT. Part., Pres. SJ?!^; 
Past Pass, vp; Past Indecl. ^pn, -^w; Put. Pass, ysfnm, W* vflv, 

677. Root ^* (special stems ^jft, ^3). ira/. vfag^ or Xftifl ' to 
shake,' 'to agitate. 5 Par. and Am. Pres. ^ftfa, ^ftfa, ^HtfiT; 
^^or^r^,^^,^H^; ^g^or^^;,^^l,^fi!T. Am.^3; 

13*. 13*; W* or *•**» *?"*» I?"*; W* or 13^' I3*> *?**• 
Im^/. v^n^, «i^ ^^; *f3* or «15* » *Wl' ^3*^; MSF 
or ^^n, ^3*, wjj^. Am. ^>|ft^, ^3j«rt^, ^3"; ^^3^? or 
*«t?*fe, *s?*rem, wj^iTm; ^g*f?, ^gm^, ^^tj- Pot. f*pw{. 
Am. jafa. Impv. jtraft, 33, ^ftg ; ipra*, fgim, ^3^5 fiw. 
iggir, fstnj. Am. ip*, fsp, *jgrrm v ; ipm^, <&m*, ^ran?; 
»pnmt, fgwr. ^rnn^. Per/. (374. #) |UR, §vftr«r or jvta, gvnr; 

s*ft*, si*^ tsw> h "' 5s*» sss* ^ tm - s^.-s^* §^ ; 

htPot or vtanfiw. Am. vftnii? or vtant . and Fut. ^faonfa or vtaifa. 
Am. vfaifr or vH«r. Aor* -^vrfai*, «ranft^; wrfru; ^nnfaKr, , a>n- 
f^B^, wnfircT* ; ^roifirw, innfas, ^vrfgw^. Or wjhn?, -*ft^, -*fr^; 
wta , ^nftew, -biw ; W^r, ^nfts, *nfr§^. Am. ^nrfafa, ^rcrfasi^, 

fw. Or snftfa, savta^, *vte ; wt^f?, <stvt^nmiT, -ttoiut ; ^vtarf^, 
^wt^T, ^Vtan. Free. ^ITWf. Am. trfa*rta or vtfffa. Cbrad. "^v- 
f^ow or vnftvpr. Am. ^nrfir«I or wft^. Pass., Pres. ^; Aor. 
yd sing, ^reifa. Caus., Pres. ^jmrftr or VRIlfa ; Aor. ^<^HH or 
«£1^. Des. gfjnfil, -*i. Freq. ^5, <^V*f»T or ^Hreftfa. Part., 
Pres. *g*\; Am. ijwira; Pa*^ Pa**. ^? or ^t; Past Indecl. >|j3T, 
-$5 ; JW. Pa**. *tf^irar or vhra, V^jN, V1T or VFt. 

a. Like ^may be conjugated g 'to press out Soma juice,' which 
in native grammars is the model of the 5th class ; thus, Pres. g»fH3, 
&c. The two Futures reject i; 1st Fut. trhrtfcl, &c. 

678. Root ^ or ^t (special stems *5»lft, *$>g). Inf. 'Rrftjp^ or 

* This root may also be Ipftfa &c, and also in the 9th class ; Pres. ^pnfiT, 
*prrftt , ^^Tfif ; ^«ft^l^, &c. ; see 686 : and in the 6th (^Tfa 280). In the 
latter case the Aor. is Sr^fqH^, &c. ; see 430. 

t This root may also be conjugated as a verb of the 9th class ; thus, Pres. 
fa[4(nrq, ^lllftt, WUlfH ; 4srf4jjl<(^, &c, See 686. 



CONJUGATION OF VEKBS. — GROUP III. CLASS V. 299 

^^9*1 or ^P{ 'to spread,' 'to cover. 5 Par. and Ktm. Pres. ^rciftfk, 
&c. ; like <| at 675. Ktm. *p&, *^p, &c. Imp/. tohri(, Ktm. 
W%. Pot. *^pn*{. Ktm. *pfor. JwifW. ^utRTfit. Ktm. *pr|. 

Per/ (352. c, 374. k) uhk, iwf, tot*; Trerfbr, inar^;, irertg^; 
Trerficr, to*, to^;. Ktm. tot, irerft$, tot ; TOfr=it, to*t^, toot*; 
TOfist , TOfe£ or -|, TOficr . is* 2<W. ^rfcnfiw or mWm or Hwrfiw. 
^tm. «rfbn% or *rtf7n% or ^rfi|. %nd Fut. Hfr^nfa or ^rchtnfa. 
Ktm. Hftw or *Pft^. Aor. 'TOTfT'PJ, -tfq;, -5&7(j STOTftsr, &c. ; see 
675. Or ^JT^, -tflfy -Tffj^; *TOT*t, -h{, -#T^; WF#, -t, -f^. 
Ktm. ^trirft or ^renftftr or ^isrfa or sraftft. Prec. ^ritra^ or ^ift^ra^. 
Ktm. ^tfhj or ^rftjihj or tffrffir. Cowd ^raft*^ or ^rerd^. Ktm. 
^rerftw or ^rerifar. Pass., Pres. (467) «rW; Aor. 3rd sing, ssrerift:. 
Caus., Pres. HTCSTfa; Aor. *srfTOT^ or tSTTOT^. Des. frrerftSTftl, -^; 
or frotWir, -*; or fro^Tfa, -W. Freq. wrenf or a*fffi, ararfis or 
TnTOf*. Part., Pres. «<Mc|j i&m. ^TTfr ; P«*# Pass. ^H or HhS 
(534); Past Indecl. ^t, -*ftt, -^W; Fut. Pass. ^rftiTO or ^r^H^T 
or ^rnai, ^rriafa, «n*t 

679. Root $rgr* (special stems ^r#, $Tf , STf^). /«/. $TfV to be 
able.' Par. Pres. ^fir, $r#fir, ^fir; ^Tf^[, Stf^, ^IfTT^; 

snpq;, ^rf^i, ^rf^r. I»np/. waR*{, *$rslq;, ^^im^; 'asrfw, ^5if- 
«m, «mfiifi^; ^rfr, ^frf iT, ^nsr§ ^- Pot. stfn^. imp». ^ra^TTftr, 
Siffe, sr^fjj; sni^re, 'S^ra^, snpm^; ^ra^m, si^tt, 313^. Pe»/. 
^T^rra, ^f^ror $r$pp!T, ^ttsr; ^fa^r, v*^, ffanjq;; ^fan, ^f, st^;. 
is* Pw*. 5fHTfw. 2nd Fut. $ra?rrfa. ^or. ^t«r^ -^, -gr^; -skpt, 
-^nt^, -?inrp^; -srpt, -^nr, -^;. Or ^rfgm^, -^^, -^rTt^; ^fer^, 
-fchs^, -ST^; ^r^ri^t^T, -f%B, -f^np^ Prec. $i<wm*^. Oond. ^tyu^. 
Pass., Pre*, ffist ; Aor. 3rd sing, wynfafi. Caus., Pres. ^Tfoirtrrfit; Aor. 
w^fl^'<*^. Des. f^rf^i^rfH or f$rqrfir, -%t (503)- Freq. ^r?!^, 
^TT^T%r or ^n^rsiflf'flr. Part., Pres. snp^HJ j^tm. ^r^nrj Pas/ Pass. 
$rai; Pas* Indecl. ^TUfT, -^HT; P«^. Pass. ^ra«aT, ^nR^f, ^PPT. 

680. Root ^l (special stems ^Wt, ^g, ^5^)- J»|f. ^rf§iJ^ e to 
prosper,' 'to flourish/ 'to increase.' Par. Pres. ^pftftr, ^?ftf^, 

Wftf*; WF^. W^' ^H"^ J ^y^» W' , B^ ftir ' ^Z- (*5^"«0 

* 5l«F is also conjugated in the 4th class, Parasmai and Atmane (Pres. ^i<wil*i 
&c, ^I^); bit ^ ma y then be regarded as a Passive verb. See 461. 5. 

t This form of the Des. generally means 'to learn,' and is said by some to come 
from a root fi^TST. 

q q a 



300 COffJUGATIOK OF VERBS. — GKOUP III. CLASS V. 

*mN^, ^tht^;, *nff^; *r§*r, ^mpr^, *xr}pn*[ ; sstt^t, "sip, flij}^. 
Pot. ^g*n^. Impv. ^w^rftr, ^yfe, Wfcj; ^nnnsr, ^r^, -in^; 
with, ^P» W^- ■ Pc ^- ,ST7T ^' ^ n7T ^ T > ^t^v ; ^jftnr, 'sflp^, 
«n^vp(; 'sr^fw, irspr, tpj^. ist Fut. isfibnfw. awrf Fut. ^rfv^- 
■Hnfir. ^or. ^nfN^, ^mflfy ^r*ffi^; ^nfih^, ^nf«^, -?t*(; wrfiW, 
mffo, ^nfv|^. Or ^sn*i^, -^, -^; -%*T, &c. Prec. ^uira^. 
Gond. ^nfvup^. Pass., Pre*. ^*k ; Aor. yd sing. ^nf§. Caus., Pres. 
*irihnf»T; -4or. ^rrff^. Des. ^fffvuTfa or ^wrf* (503). Part., Pre*. 
%g^; Past Pass, ^g; Past Indecl. ssfSfisn or ^T, -^ai ; Fut. Pass. 

681. Root ^n^ (special stems wnft, sirg, ^STTJra). -^j/. ^TS^ 'to 
obtain. 5 Par. Pre*, ^rrcftftr, ^STrfffa, ^ircftfir; ^nn^, 4j|jj«m, ?rrgfR(; 
* i mh^ , ^mrer, ^snaqlV . Imp/. «TM4i, -snrft^, wjfti^; ^rop, ^ivvi^, 
-m^; ^rmw, 'snrnr, qrrctq ^ . Pot. ^rnnrra(. Impv. ^nrnrTfcr, ^rnjf?, 
mfftg; shim 4 m , wn^, -ttt^; nnijmw, man, *iM=r«ii. Per/, *ni, 
^tAto, ^?rq; ^rrf«n, ^rnrg^;, ^nrg^; ^nftm, <snr, ^Tg^. 1** Pttf. 
wvnfw. 2nd Fut. wmf i fa . ^or. ^srre^, ^rra^, wn^; wniw, •awrf'j, 
-UT^; ^mrre, ^rnnr, , an^. Prec. wiira^. Gond. iMmu^. Pass., 
Pre*, ^tot; -4or. yd sing. ^ufa. Caus., Pre*. ^mnnf>? ; -4or. ^nftpj^. 
Des. (503) ^mifa. Part., Pres. ^na^; Pa*/ Pa**, ^mi ; Pa*f Indecl. 
wtwt, -w*r; Pw£. Pa**. snH*n, wr«Tfa, wi. 

a. Root "sr^r (special stems ^rcft, ^rsr, ^rsr?). Inf. ^rfgnp^ or ^rg^ 
'to obtain/ 'to enjoy,' 'to pervade.' Ktm. Pres. tr^, W9$, ssr^H; 
^rg^tt, sH^ ' mi) , 'arsprd; ^reni?, ^ra£, w^ik. I»»p/. ^rgf^, 'srrsnn^, 
^fr^H; wspf?, tni^ivjp^, w^Trn^; ^si^hT^, ^psum^, ^Jrjpir. Pot. 
^ra^ftr. Impv. w$, ^"gH, ^r?pn^; ^rawrw, ^"g^iiii^, ^rspnn^; 
<iwi^ , ^gai^, m%4i»^ . Per/. (367. c) 'str^t, ^rprf^ or 'smrBr, 
'ht^t; wrf^rat or ^h^ (371), ^rnqrre, «M9ii3 ; *rrcfi*p^ or 
^JTO$*lt, ^TJTf^ or ^TtT^f, ^lRf$ft. i*£ Fut. ^f^lKT^ or ^si%. 
srarf Fut: ssf^r^ or ^n^r. ^4or. »j)if«j, wtbt^, tt? ; ^Hnyf^, ^rn^r^in^, 
^?r^raT»i; vivirfV, ^tfuiir, ^tt^h. Or 'snf^rf^, xMir^isi^, ^Tf^re; 
^n%^ff , wiHhmiiiw, 'snf^rflnrR ; ^rrf^r^rf?, , 8nf^T*5*f, ^trfifr^ii. Prec. 
^rf^I^ft^ or ^r^t^i. Gond. ^rt%^ or ^rr^. Pass., Pres. ^c$b ; Aor. 
yd sing. wity. Caus., Pres. ^rr^r^ffir ; Aor. ^rrf^T^TW. Des. SHf^if^. 
Freq. ^rr?^ (511. «)• Part., Pres. WgTR; Past Pass. ^[f$* or 
^re ; Pa*< Indecl. wf^TFrT or ^rfT, -^r^i ; Fut. Pass, ^rf^fwai or ^re^I, 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS VIII. 



301 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE EIGHTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 353. 

68a. Root ^ kri. Infin. 3b|jt kartum, 'to do' (355). 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, ' I do/ 
IT&fk karomi ft^* kurvas fi^* kurmas 

^rafa karoshi ~^^!\ kuruthas ^W^f kurutha 

"^tffif karoti ij$A*{ kurutas $tfcr* kurvanti 



Imperfect, ' I was doing, 5 or ' I did. 5 



^TW^r^fT akarmiam 
*i««<l«( akaros 
^Wttf^akarot 

$^W* kurydm 
"%^\ kwryds 
"^MJIiknryat 

<*<.qi(Vi karavdni 
^f^ kuru 
•ftClg karotu 

•«I=*H. <feMra (368) 
■^o**! dakartha 
*t<>n\<. ddkdpa 

ctirilfVl kartdsmi 
<*nifa kartdsi 
«RSTT Aarfcf 

«sfcBnf>T karishydmi 
<*(VHjf¥ karishyasi 
«BfiC8lfil karishyati 



' ofanjo (73) ^f»T akurma (73) 

^j^iPT akurutam ^$M akunita 

^^^ITH akurutam T^^ akurvan 

Potential, ' I may do,' &c. 
^TOT^ kurydva ^ITH kurydma 

^ITrT* kurydtam ^nfl kurydta 

^MTiTW kurydtdm eggt^ kuryus 

Imperative, ' Let me do,' &c. 

^tt^R karavdva <n<qHT karavdma 

«g^n*i kurutam ^f>'H £»r«fa 

^^TTTTfanjfcfoi ^f^-tj* kurvantu 

Perfect, ' I did,' or ' I have done.' 

"M'-Jf dakriva ^^UT dakrima 

^W^ ddkrathus *3!R dakra 

•"(HHjt^ dakratus "**$*(, tdkrus 

First Future, ' I will do.' 
«SnT^^ kartdsvas *B!tTC?W( kartdsmas 

^irfnS^ kartdsthav 3iif TOI kartdstha 

«bn HJ kartdrau '«hnnS( kartdras 

Second Future, ' I shall do.' 

3ift«m=l<^ karishydvas ^ifVwji*^ karishydmas 

<*£<WH*\ karisfyyathas ^tftWT karishyatha 

«Sf<<Mnt( karishyatas cuKxiffi karishyanti 



W, &c, would be equally correct ; see 73. An obsolete form 
^tfflf for Wftfa- it found in Epic poetry. 



302 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS VIII. 



^raW^ akdrsham 
^Wflt^ akdrshis 
ti<WRAakdrsMt 



Aorist, ' I did. 5 
$I<*IM akdrshva 
lH«fcl8*{ akarshtam 
^JoKTST^ akarshtam 



Precative or Benedictive, ' May I 

fatm?!^ kriydsam fawns kriydsoa 

faTO^ kriyds faTTTCP^ kriydstam 

fjfHRIkriydt fst*M\m\*\ kriydstdm 



■a^lMl*^ akarishyam 
^mfiry&{ akarishyas 
W*?<VU{akarishyat 



Conditional, ' I should do. 

^rafCHTT^ akarishydva 
^raiftWH'^ akarishyotam 
^rafcwn^ okarishyatdm 



\ akdrshma 
WeRlf akdrshta 
yscmfaakdrshus 

do/ 

frti<4IW kriydsma 
PiMIW kriydsta 
faMig*^ kriydsus 

HH«tifV.<mN akarishydma 
W^iMid akarishyata 



683. Xtmane-pada. Present Tense, ' I do.' 

W^ itttroe (73) ^^? A«r»aJe ^**5 kurmahe 

^f> H kurushe ^tTT knrvdthe f^ 1 ^ kurudhve 

'<Q^A kurute '^Tw kurvdte gj=»n kurvate 

Imperfect, ' I was doing,' or ' I did.' 



f fli«r»e (73) 
'fl^^VHI^ ukvruthds 



fcffill^ kurvtihds 
^^fif kurvita 

Wt$ karavai 
gf^ni^i kurutdtn 

M^ iakfishe 
^3i (faitre 



^T^ff akurvahi 
^^mifl^ akurvdthdm 
vi^ini*^ akwrvdtdm 

Potential, ' I may do.' 

^TlTOl^ kurv{ydthdm 
^*limt\ kurv{ydtdm 

Imperative, ' Let me do.' 

^i<.lN5 karavdvahai 
^TOT^ kurvdthdm 
$<UiflH kurvdtdm 



^T^ftf^ akurmahi 
xi^f^teP^ akurudhvam 
vi^qn aknrvata 

^<flV»l > iurct'ran 

^iv*!*!*! karavdmahai 
^f^Uffl kurudhvam 
<5^ni* kurvatdm 



Perfect, ' I did,' or ' I have done.' 



^^T? iakrivahe 
^W*l iakrdthe 
TORTTT dakrdte 



^^5 takrimahe 
■«t«JS fakfitfhve 
^Xtiakrire 



CONJUGATION OP VEEBS. — GROUP III. CLASS VIII. 



303 



^irii^ kartdhe 
^iHTO Icartdse 
«*ni kartd 



<i>r«.«m( karishyast 
*KWn karishyate 



First Future, ' I will do.' 
^fflTS? kartdsvahe- cR^T^r^ kartdsmahe 

^irfraTC kartdsdthe 3ifT«l kartddhve 

^itro kartdrau •hrtK^ifcarta'ras 

Second Future, ' I shall do.' 

«»r*.«ii^ karishydvahe <*f<.m*^ karishydmahe 



^ft^r«l karisiiyethe 
««r<««tB karishyete 



■*r«.tqjcj karishyadhv 
mvnt( karishyante 



i akrishi 
^11^ akrithds 



^itffa krisMya 
^^fel^ krishishthds 
^W5? krisMshta 

^T«BTCT^ akarishye 



WJ"*)!^ akrishmahi 
■si^^H akridhvam 
W^^H akrishata 



Aorist, ' I did.' 
[ akrishvahi 
^m*IT»T akrishdthdm 
^f^TlTW akrishdtdm 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I do.' 

«f *rtafi[ krisMvahi ^*ft«ifir krisMmahi 

^^fWlT^krisMydsthdm c$n\um krisMdhvam 
^^fatTCTTH krisMydstdm ^tftajj krisMran 

Conditional, ' I should do.' 
■* qif*.«M I ^f? akarishydvahi ^raficWlf^[ akarishydmahi 
VH okP^m^n^ akarishyathds ^T3ifi.U| Viin^akarishyethdm ^nfift^KS* akarishyudhvam 
^3I«ti(V<Mil akarishyata ^^X.'^tfX^akarishyetdm SH'<*fm»ri akarishyanta 

Pass., Pre*, fgft; ^4or. 3rd siw^. ^snift; (7 OI X Caus., Pre*. 
gitT*TTfa; ^or. *rEfcFt?(. Des. f^iftfTf>T, -^ (503). Freq. ^tfft, 
^lift or ^rfOBfif or 'rcW? or 'sranftfa or w Fo iiftfk or ^^omctfl (Pan. 
vii. 4, 93). Part., Pre*. ^%^; Atm. f^TO; Pa** Pas*, ^ii ; Pa** 
Indecl. ^n, -^w ; Pw*. Pa**, 3R#ai, giwfa, ^sra. 

684. Only nine other roots are generally given in this class. Of these the 
commonest is H^'to stretch,' conjugated at 583. The others are, ^UT 'to go,' 
T^and fispff 'to kill' or 'to hurt,' ^n^'to shine,' ^"f 'to eat grass,' H«^ 'to 
imagine,' Atm.; ^*£ 'to ask,' W^ 'to give.' As these end in nasals, their 
conjugation resembles that of verbs of cl. 5 at 675 ; thus — 

685. Root Tqw (special stems Tpft, T!J?!j). Inf. KjfuiiJ^ ' to kill,' 
* to hurt.' Par. and Kim. Pres. TpJttJT, tmftfa, spftfir ; ^^, &c. , 
Atm. ^m, W$> &c - Im Pf- ^W^\, ^*9rl^, &c Atm. ^fin. 
Pot. KjJJJ*!!^. Atm. 'EifJFfa. Irnpi;. ^J?nNlf«T. Atm. ^dj%. Per/. 
^tjto, ^fftorc, ^^piu; 'sreiftre, ^rcpr^, ^^orp^; ^BffiBT, ^m, ^w- 

J!J^. Atm. ^T5ji$, ^^fijl^, ^prarj "^BjftUR?, ^VSf«JTq, -^H^lff; ^UfftllWIJ, 



304 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS IX. 



M^fun^ , ^rejfijfc. ist Fut. q flu h i for. Atm. qfturiuj. 2nd Fut. 

-si»tj ^rcjfapw, -ftmr, -for^. ^tm. srejftsriTi, ^^ftrei^ or ^qm^ 
(434. c), ^rejfijrr or ^srcp; 'sr^ftn^rf^, -furimq;, -ftumiii^ ; -« aj r<o >*i Hg, 
-fttitl^, -ftpnr. Free. v^m\H\. j^tm. tjfopfhl. Cond. ^fto^. 
A'tm. ^^ftuw. Pass., Pres. ^nj ; .4or. yd sing, ^rsfrftr. Caus., Pre*. 
HjHiWlfH; ^4<w. ^rf^lP^. Des. r^affiumfa, -*I. Freq. '#?}*&, ^SfftUT. 
Part., Pres. W&\'> A'tm. 7J?ot«J; Past Pass, y^a; Past Indecl.'^fsn 



ovmfimi, -T^W; Fut. Pass. Tjftraai, tpnfrl, Tjnpj. 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VEKBS OF THE NINTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 356. 

686. Root g yu. Infin. JffaiJH yavitum, ' to join/ ' to mix.' 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, ' I join.' 
g«1lf*l yundmi giTl^ yunwas Ipfiftf^yunfmas 

gilftt yundsi ^hIm^ yunithos ^«flvj yunttha 

gttiflT yundti g«tln^ yvnitas ytfil yananrt 



Imperfect, ' I was joining/ or ' I joined.' 



^stjjfl^ ayundm 
Wptf^ayunds 
WQ'ilAayundt 

J«l1»tl«l yuniydm 
^iTmi^ yuniyds 
il*r\*i\t{yuniydt 



'W^'ftin? ayimitam 
■^•(llU* ay unit dm 

Potential, ' I may join.' 
*J«tlM<1 yuniydva 
£«tl*<lll*f yuniydtam 
■gnl^llllH yuniydtam 



■«t«J«ll«1 ayunima 
^3^'' ayunita 
■wg«l«\ ayunan 

«J«l1«ll«l yuniydma 
%*(\H\A yuniydta 
^ff^yuntyus 



Imperative, ' Let me join.' 
^*rrf^T y«m<£«i gill yonffoajj ^HW yundma 

Ipftf^yunihi ^fhPTyanftam tj'tfl if ytmfla 

3«TTgy»»^a g-ftilTIyttnftiiBi Y^J"" 10 "'" 

Per/, gura, ITfiPf or gift*!, g^; ggfol, gp^, -^; g^n, 
3^» 331^- "' ^ ''f^Tfw or ifrrnf^R*. 2»«? -FW. *Tfa*nf*. -4or. 

<3niTfWT x , -^, -^5 wnftra, -f^re^, -fwrj *PJTf*rqr, -fas, -ftrg^. 

Prec. 4i||4lJ^. Conrf. WTf^rq^. 



* Some authorities give 'ftntfw &c. aslhe only form. See Laghu-kaum. 724. 



CONJUGATION OF VEEBS. — GROUP III. CLASS IX, 



305 



687. Atmane-pada. Present Tense, ' I join/ 

3^ V une ^ffcfk yunivahe fffat ! 

Vft* yuntihe gtn^ yundthe Ipft&l yunidhve 

fftrT yuntte g^ yundte g^fff ya^Hte 

Imperfect, ' I was joining/ or ' I joined.' 



^TjpfWtf ayunimahi 
^npftssp^ ayunidhvam 



^pTTW^ yun{dkeam 
!J*flT«^ yuniran 



^ff ayimi ^•fHrfsT ayunivalii 

^t'hn^ ayunitUs ^^T^T^ ayundthdm 

^^rhr a^u»^a ^f^TfTT^ ayundtdm 

Potential, ' I may join.' 

g^ffa ya»/ya ^^fNrff yunimhi 

^fhn^yunithds Jpft'Hm l*( yuniydthdm 

*}*l\tt yuntta ^H^lH^yun^ydtdm 

Imperative, ' Let me join.' 
3^ y««' 3"^? yundvahai *pfm% yundmahai 

ffl^ yunishva ^V^yundthdm $?ftz&{yun{dhvam 

TpflTIV^yunftdm ^HW^yundtdm T£W{yiinatdm 

Per/- m$> fi^. 33^; 33^, 33^> 33*"*; 33 f ^> 33^ 
or "f'ii^- 1*' ■#«*• ffaint. zndFut.-qfam. Aor. ^roW*?, -f^wx^, 
-fw?; ^mfspsrf^, ^nfinrrsn^, -itnn^; ^rf^pwf?, -faui^ or -f^{, -ftpnr. 
Prec. JT^Nfal. Cored!. wifr$. Pass., Pre*. ^; i*f Pwf. TTtftnn?; 
Aor. $rd sing. ^nnftr. Caus., Pres. HT^rnfa; Aor. ^fars?^. Des. 
fWTftl or fW^WlfiT. Freq. *ftqt>, ifoftfa or ifasrlfH. Part., Pres. 
ipT\} iitm. g^TTtT ; Past Pass. ^K ; Pas* Indecl. g7«TT, -^W ; Pw/. Pass. 
*rf^il*l, <H«flq , ITU or im. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 9 IN THE ORDER OF THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

688. Root $TT (special stems »n^T, »n«rt, stFJ, 361). Jra/". sug^'to 
know. 5 Par.and^tm. Pres. srnnfa, STT^TTfa, WRlfir; «i ' Hl<=l^ , STFfN^, 

<fMI<4, "*TMTrt ; *n»fN?, TPTfo*, 5fT»T^. Imp/. ^nn«fl^, ^TSnTfT^, ^HHIi^; 

^h r«rta, ^rarnrto^, ?raT«fftn^; ^^Tqli, ^mita, ^srw^. Atm. ^renfir, 
WHM'fai^;, ^ntrWhr; ^mT«fNf5, ^whwi*^ *ftn«nin*(; ^n^ftaf?, ^mi- 
Tfai^, ^ren^nr. Pot. nifrhn^. -^tm. srpffri. Im?w. sTr^Tfa, ^n^lf?; 
srRTjf; ■strt^t, siPfhpj;, snrftn^; ^rt*j, smfhr, sm^r. j&m. m^, 
srr«r^, »n»rhrni ; «imm^, ^titi"^, ^hiht^; srRraf, «n«ft«^,in»niT^. 

Per/". (373) »I$ft, STfsR or *|^iv|, 3iift ; »ffsnr, W^, *f¥ilR I *ff%*, ^, 

1*/ P«^. ^mnftfT. a»rf Fut, grwrfti. ^4or. (433) ^rgrftj^;, ^rrcfta^ 

b r 



306 COHJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS IX. 

wafy wfa^r, wftre^, -st^; ^riftw, -ftre, -f*HP(- ^tm. wfa, 
wwr^, *grer; *$uwf g, ^yiMivii^, -*mn^; '^wf?, w«*{, «*i«rf. 
Prec. wnw{ or ^TOT^. ^tm. ?rcfhl. Cbrarf. «tfrsi^. ^tm. *sM«. 
Pass., Pre*. (465. o) grc ; Per/. *gr (473) ; 1st Fut. gmt or yiftiril^ 
(474) ; and P«*. ^pot or sTTfa^ ; ^or. yd sing. ^fsTTfa. Caus., Pre*, 
imrerfa or ^Tirf* ; ^4or. 'sfs^rn^. Des. f»Rn% (-*nfa, Epic). Freq. 
snsnra, ^TT^rrfn or »ntrfa. Part., Pres. W^l -^tm. *nTTC ; Past Pass. 
sffiT; Pcsf Indecl. sfTsn, -stTO; Pm/. Pass. sUTHuj, gTHfa, $ni. 

689. Root sft (special stems jfitorr, -afiNft, ^hff, 358. a), in/. iffiJH ' to 
buy.' Par. and Ktva. Pres. ttftonfa, tlfanftr, sfanfir; whdt^, 'aSWNl^, 
■^liuld^; s^Nfto^, ^Wta, sfljnf'ii. Ktva. jlKm, ^hsfft, "gsNtfl; ^Nft^i, 
^hnra, •aStanw; ■gSNjfair, ^Nftur, jfl<yrf. Imp/. wsStun^, wgSNrr^, 
sraft'OTi^; <sr^NfH, ^raSNftiT*[, ^sr^Nfhn^; ^sflifftH, sw^fituftTT, «j*I«u«v 

ssishl*u1»?ff, ^sratafH**, ^^fanr. Pot. jfliifNm. Atm. ^hnfai. Impv. 
■aSNrrftr, sfitaftf?, j^hjt^ ; ^Shm^, ^SNftiPT, sKWfcn*; s*l*uin, ^taft»i, an«u«n. 
Xtm. ^hr, ssfasft^, ?ft<iflHiH s ; •stfNrisr?, , aO<!jivii«, ■aSNmrp^; *»l<ui»is, 
sstofteiH, ^hmnH. Per/. (374. c) fgisTxr, r-nhfavi or f^iro, f^nsm; 
fafafira, f^rfaw^, f^rfara^; fafoftm, fgfaw, fcCa^ . iftm. fafara, 
f^rthfuM, f^faw ; f^fafi^f^, f^fapn^i, -*ifft; f«*r*nw^, fsrfasftisfr or -^, 
fgftiftft. 1st Fut. ismftR. ^Ltm. ismr^. 2nd Fut. %vnf*. ^Ltm. 
WW. Aor. wkmt, -^, -*ify -a^, -CT, -OTT; ^Iw, -7, -^. 
^Ltm. wsfcfM, -Tra[, -e ; ^HGg, -^nira, -mnin ; ^rawff, oh^u, ^^mk. 
Prec. ^Starcm. Atm. ifctfN. Cond. ^i«i«. iitm. ^j*uf. Pass., 
Pres. -itfiv; Aor. 3rd sing, wffilfr. Caus., Pres. "anTTftr; Aor. ^P^sfiiw. 
Des. f^rtdmrH, -^. Freq. ^ft, ^jfcfa or ^anftft. Part., Pres. 
'shdfli^; ifon. aShtTR; Past Pass. sSfti; Past Indecl. ^foai, -T(!tn; 
Fut. Pass. ^W^r, ^raftil, ^Pl. 

690. Like ■& is ift 'to please.' Pres. riNrrfa; ^itm. ift^. Caus., 
Pres. jfaroTfa or unHnfir ; Aor. ^fumn^ or ^fqrfho^*. Des. ftnfNlfn. 
Freq. qrft^. 

691. ^f (special stems ^n, tgtfl, <g^, 358), ' to cut,' follows ^, 
'to purify,' at 583; thus, Pres. ^hiPh ; ^tm. <g^. Pot. Tg .ftm^ ; 
j^Ltm. cj^ftu. Per/. <J3T^; ^tm. cgcg^. isf 2^/. <?f^rnfw. and 
Pm<. wf^^nft. ^4or. VHrf l fa^ . 

69a. Root ^fw (special stems ^w, -^rt, ^) . Inf. fp&{ * to bind' 

* Forster gives ^ifaTPOH ; Westergaard, ^rfWhlR. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP III. CLASS IX. 30T 

Par. Pres. ^jnfti, ^nftr, THifn ; ^nfl^rq;, wtaq;, ■srtfhrq;; ^nft^-srafa, 

'sroihr, *nro?i;. Po^. *nfrn^. Impi>. sonfa, ^vn (357. a), «nrnj ,- *nmr, 
^nrhn^, -in^; ^wnr, ^»fhi, ^ing. Per/. sR-sy, ^far«i or ^sn-s or srspw 
(298. a), ^?«; ^fanr, ^t^i^;, ^yp;; srefaro, *i**i, "^"g^. 
1st Fut. ■srssrrfm. 2nd Fut. HVperrft? (399. a), ^or. ^w»fH*j; (399. a), 

^WT?Rfa{,^MT?Rffy WOTTO, 4*1^, fl^T^I^; ^WT?rSR,^nn^,^Wra^. 
Free. TOra*{. Cond. ^WRT^. Pass., Pres. (469) ^. Caus., Pre*. 
^tnnfiT; Aor.^r^^y^. Des. f^«?WTf*i(299.a). Freq. *rreu), T^rftwr, 
'^raftfa. Part., Pres. ^y^; Past Pass, "srs 5 Pa** Indecl. ifST, --spg; 

693. Root ?p*r (special stems ST^T. ?np, W%> 36°)- ^V- STf**^ 
'to string," to tie.' Par. Pres. q^fa, injTftt.lI^rfw; ?T^N^, W^f^, 

ir$<<\; ?r^N^, n^r, ?r^r. Imp/. **r$m, ***r*<*{, *?rgn^ *vr$?, 

^r^Jt^,-jn\; ^W^^Zf^,^^. Po/. ?r<jhiro. Impv.nyfif,zrm 
(257- «), ?I^Tg ; ?^nr, ^T^, -ht*; ^W, jj^it, Jf^. Per/. (375. /*) 
^^T^I*. ^Rlfwra or ^ftro, 3RF*!* ; *< (j fU(<< or ?}f«nr, srjwi^ or jfa^» 

^Rif^p; or ?fap{ ; ^rarf'^m or irfsm, srej^ or jfa, ^w^ or jj^. 

is/ .FW. JjfrTiWTftR. 2nd Fut. snfssranfiT. ^or. ^fopm, -wflr(, -Whr, 
&c. Prec. sparra*. Coraa*. ^I?lfwra*l. Pass., Pres. (469) ?jsjj. Caus., 
Pre*, ^wpnfa; -4or. 'srem^in. Des . ftwfarerfa. Freq. strisjJ, 
«i J Jr«ff«, sfepsftfir. Part., Pres. ?r^; Pas/ Pass, srfsnr; Pas/ Jwrfec/. 
STftn^T or JTfwfigr, -jtsjj ; Fut. Pass, jrfwnrai, Sfwpffal, ?7?ni. 
a. Like ?jwi is conjugated ^i«r ' to loosen,' *p*i ' to churn.' 
694. Root wxf (special stems ^r, "Bpjt, "srv). Ira/! ^faip^ 'to 
agitate.' Par. Pres. Tsrwfir, ^Vtftr, ^fflfil ; ^N^, TOttta^, wrfhl^; 

-m^; ^ratfta, ^ratfftr, ^repj^. Po/. sr«hn*(. Iropt;. ^rwfir, tj>»to 
(357- «> 58), iwg; Tgvre, ^M;, -111^; Tpnr, w*h, ts*^. Per/. 

is/ Pm/. ^tfainftR. 2nd Fut. ^fvpmfir. ^or. ^r^fnn^, -tfte(, -iffy &c. 
Or ^rsw, -«^, -vr^; ->mr, -wr, -wttw; -*itw, -«tt, -*^. Prec. ^wnOT. 
Coraa*. 'srcffrfirHiJT. Pass., Pres. 'S^; -^or. 3rd sing, sreftfa. Caus., 
Pres. '^vnnf'T ; Aor. ^ramr. Des. "g^fH^TftT or ^ajfireTfa. Freq. 

* Some authorities give the option of J\Km in the 1st and 3rd of the Perf. 
Compare 339. 
f Also cl. 4, Intransitive, 'to be agitated;' Pres. TSTHTlfa, 612. 

r r 2 



308 CONJUGATION OF VBKBS. — GROUP III. CLASS IX. 

*ftis^, <«frtftfw? (3rd sing. ^NNw). Part., Pres. wa\-, Past Pass, 
ypi or ^6tw ; Past Indecl. 'BJ3JT or wfapn, -TgH|; Put. Pass, ^ftfowq, 

uftwirN (58), ^at. 

695. Root *p*T* (special stems HOT, *rtft, «TV, 360). Ira/. wf*M(J>( 
'to stop," to support.' Par. Pres. wotSt; like tsth, 694, imp/, 
^rw^. Po*. wtftam- I»?2w. w«Tfti, *wro (357- «)» *wrg ; *n*ra, 
wwfct^, -wt^; www, Wtir, srvnj. Per/", irerw, irerfwr, irermj 
irerfare, Trew^q;, -**$$} irerfrw, irer»r, irer*^;. is* -Fw*- wfaraifw. 
ararf Put. wfwrrfa. -4or. ^rerfw^^, -wfa(, -*tft\, &c Or ^ihh^, 
->w[, ->r^; -«rc, -Hinn;, ->ikt^; -ww, -mi, -«^. Prcc. HHn?r^. Oonrf. 
'3rerf»roi^. Pass., Pres. ww. Caus., Pres. wwnfa ; Aor. 'snrciwj. 
Des. firerfVwTfa. Freq. irrew, TTT^ETwrf*r or ffreP&ftfa. Part., Pres. 
5TVi^; Past Pass, war; Past Indecl. wwt or wfawr; Put. Pass. 

696. Root U5it (special stems ^ren, w^t, ^TC^). !«/". ^fiSHS* ' to 
eat' Par. Pre*. CTSTfc, ^TWTftr, wwifir; ^i^^, wnfl«m, ^reftrWj 
yctft*W(, vsttn, wafa. Imp/, vrorit, wsrrq;, *nait^; wrtfta, ^rr^inf , 
-ht«t ; 'arsta , ^ratir, ws^. Po*. wtftai*. />»p«.'?i^TftT,^n^(357- a )» 
^rorg ; ^snsm, wdhi*, -hut ; otw, ^t^tt, wotj. Per/, ^rr$t, ^nf$r«t, 
m$; ^nf$pi, msr^, '^r^rg^; *Tf$w, ^T5i, ^}^- Is * ^. ^fsnnffci. 
awrf Put. ^ffjjratTft. ^4or. «rT%vf, ^njfftq;, ^rr^fh^; wfy**, ssTf$rsw, 
wifsreni; *Tfjpir, ^rrf^re, «Tfjrg^. ■ Prec - ^W^- Cond - wfytun. 
Pass., Pres. w^ir. Caus., Pres. WTSTCTf* ; -^or. ^rf^l«r. Des. ^tf^r- 
fSPrrfa; Freq. ^qn^ (511. a). Part., Pres. W\; Past Pass. ^rfijTtT; 
Past Indecl, "srfifrglT, -^l ; Fut. Pass, ^rf^ni^, 'sqpfta, ^T5T. 

697. Root fprsr (special stems ffPST, fpraft, %^). Inf- ^JN or 
|ig^ ' to harass.' Par. Pres. flPSTtfa ; like ^gi x , 696. Imp/. <afawi«, 
^firerT^, ^f^ran^; ^f^rwt^, ^rrsrtfhpr, -hi*; ^f^s^ftT, ^rffptfhr.^rfira^. 
Po*. fSPHNur. Impv. firenftr, n*$iM, &c. Per/, f^r, f^f^m or 
fsi|w, f^w; f*rf|Bfi[R or ffrfiw (371), f^fw^,, -WU f«rfsif$ro 
pr faf^W, f^fW. f'Ttfi^. i«t Fut. fif^rmfw or |iSTfw. 2nd Fut. 
Irfipnftr or IrejiTfa. Aor. ssr|if$PW v , -$ft^, -51*^; ^rirfjre, -f$W{, 
-f) i B iw; ^lif^t^r, -f^re, -%^. Or wf*'«i*r, -^, -^; -^re, -W*, 
-•^KTH ; -^T*r, -^ir, -^ (439). Prec. f^nw». Cond. «#^|«W s or 
^H ^i«^H . Pass., Pres. fipi*; Aor.ydsing.wgfiy;. Caus., Pres. |i^rTiTf*J; 
Aor. 'vNfs^fn. Des. f^fufip^nfir or f^|ifi[rmPR or M»«|irn. Freq. 

* This root also follows ol. 5 ; thus, Pres. WVfrtH. See 675. 
t This is a different root from ^S5I cl. 5. See 682. 



CONJUGATION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 309 

^f^J^lffipr. Part, Pres. fsra^; Past Pass, f^sorf^nt; Pastlndecl. 
ffifT or fnf^JWT, -fpstl ; Fut. Pass, tif^r* 9 ' or m*n, l^nftl, li5T. 

698. Root ip (special stems gctsiT, gaift, ^Sl)- Inf. tftfai} 5 ^ 'to 
nourish.' Par. Pres. gTmrfa, g^nftr, gWTftl; S^fhrq;, gai ft "ff ( , 
g^ritof.; g^cfhr^;, gwta, g^f^r. Imp/, ^gwr,, ^3*!iT^, ^psn^; 
^gsrifa, ^poita^, -rnr^i ^rgwfrr, ^g^ntir, ^jhsi^. Pot. guii l -ni * ^. 
/mpw. gmnfir, sing (357. a), gwrg ; gwre, g^ftH^, -HT^; JWU, ^BntiT, 
gnn^. For the rest, see g\cl. 4 at 621. 

699. Root !Tf (special stems jt-^t, Jj^ft, jj^j, 359 ; see 399. a). 
In f STC^R ' to take.' Par. and Atm. Pres. f^rSr, l^lfa, T^rfa; 
T^fa^> T^^. T^ft^ TS^' *[W$*> T^*- A ' tm - 1%?' T^> 

,3P T^ T ^' ^T^^J ^"Sfa, *l^rt'l' *T5ft«n*U ^iSnt*. T^fa> 
« , l*««i- A'tm. wjfiGf, wifalmKl, , 3Pj^TT; ^i^W^, ^^ni^, 
^PJ^Tin^; *llSiHiRs,«TBfts^WTBnr. Po/.>rsfan^. Atm.jr^hr. 

T^5- A ' tm - 1^> 1^**, J ^1«ii*l; J liin3, T^ T ^> WrfiH' 
TW^, TOft**^ TC 1 ^- Pc »"/. (3 8 4) «nns. infill, iwi ; itfi*, 
^f^. * J A«4H ; ^t^t, *»T?> fff ^- A ' tm - ^» T^ ^ ' ^?- 

*t> ^PI?^. »ft^ l ri ; Wjf^, spjffW or -£■, ^pjf^;. is/ Pw/. g^mfw 
(399. a). A'tm. ajftiffir. 2«d Fut. ij^lmfa. A'tm. Jj^luj. -4or. 
«W^w v , ^rarefy toj^; ^Rjfta, ^te*, ^taw ; Wfgto, *?r£te, 
^T^hf^. Atm. ^n^ft, ^r^OT^, w?rrte; ^uj^Nrf^, ^r>J?'tam* v 
^^tran^;^^^?,*^^,^^!*- Prec.-yGtW{. Atm.aj^Nhj. 
Cond.^i^P\. Atm.^Jj^i. Pass., Pres. ijfj; Perf.ipjz; 1st Fut. 
q&irik or JJlf^TtT?; 2nd Fut. ytf-% or »jTf?$; ^4or. 3^ sing. '3r?nf?, 
3rrf jo/, sa^^ril or 'sujrf^ir. Caus., Pres. sjT^anfH ; Aor. ^f»rcj^. 
Des. ftr^^TftT, -■% (503). Freq. STCbj^, sitJjftr {yd sing. ?mnfe) °r 
■STTJJ?tf* (711)- Part., Pres. Jf^; Atm. f^nr; Pas/ Pas*. jr^hr; 
Pas/ Indecl. f^T, -ir?r; Pw/. Pass. gffrrar, ST^rta, »nir. 

EXAMPLES OF PASSIVE VERBS, EXPLAINED AT 461. 

700. Root ^T da (465). Infin. ^rg»T datum, ' to be given.' 

Present Tense, ' I am given.' 
^ ^ ye ^fara% diydvdhe ^TI>^ diydmahe 

^mdiyase "^n diyethe ^mt&diyadhve 

$T& diyate ^IVJI diyete ^W rfij/anie 



310 



CONJUGATION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 
Imperfect, ' I was given.' 



^Itfta adfye 
VHtjInvjl^ adiyathds 
^falT adiyata, 

^tafl! diyeya 
tJNVIIt^ diyetkds 

t^faHS diyasva 
cfl-Mrtl*^ diyatdm 

5Jft darfe 
<jfil[5t dadishe 
<$ dade 



j" jJTiTl? ddtdhe or 
L <ftftfiTR; ddyitdhe 



f ^HST d<%e or 
L ^TfirT ddyuhye 



I" ^ifi^fa arfisH or 
l^lftlfa addyishi 
C ^rfiJ'Srn^ adithds or 



^tftlaiffyt, itwas given,' 



^njfarrfir adiy&mahi 
'wftTJUf^ adiyadhvarn 
■«f({l*|fn adiyanta 



ibk^IHmJ adiydvahi 
, 'STifl' <) "I I *^ adCyethdm 
H$\HM\ adiyetdm 

Potential, ' I may be given/ 

«^*lTfiS diyevahi ^^fflf% diyemdhi 

^hniWl^ diyeydthdm ^W*«W[ diyedhvam 
^\*iH\d\*{ diyeydtdm <{1*jl«^ dfyercm 

Imperative, ' Let me be given.' 

<^falT^ diydvahai ^<H«15 dCydmahai 

<1<<>i)l^ diyethdm ftVO^ diyadhvam 

<1<lril^ diyatdm ^hjnTT^ diyantdm 

Perfect, ' I have been given.' 

rffif^ dadivahe «ffi[*'? dadimahe 

^?[T1 daddthe ^f?** dadidhve 

^Tif daddte <^fiJT rfffrfire 

.Firstf Future, ' I shall be given.' 

^TifT^^ ddtdsvahe ^TUTWs ddtdsmahe, &c. 

'^ifVrtlW^ ddyitdsvahe ^ifUHIW? ddyitdsmahe, &c. 

Second Future, ' I shall be given.' 

V**U=I5 ddsydcahe •\\*M\n^ ddsydmahe, &c. 

^iftwra? ddyishydvahe ^TffTW? ddyishydmahe, &c. 

Aorist, ' I was given.' 

^Tfip^f^ adishvahi Qifym^ adishmaki 

^Tftl^f^ addyishvahi ^\fa*H?$ addyishmahi 
^r^miJH^ adishdthdm ^ifi^l adidhvam 
\ V^irilVl^ addyishthdi ^I^VW^Vf[addyishdthdm tK^'lfatitl*^ addyidhtam (-§*$ 

' -flf^mrtl^ adishdtdm ^rf^HK adishata 

. -X$tfnmA\*\addyishdtdm ^ifalrf addyishata 
Free, ^rcrN or ^rftrefaf, &c. Cored. %S^IW or ^iftu}. 



701. Root *£ An (467). Infin. ^i|^ kartum, ' to be made' or ' done.' 



Present Tense, ' I am made.' 
ftrai* ftw^ faras* 

fSTOW ftlPlft fHHIM 



Imperfect, ' I was made.' 
Vlfft'Ulim ^jfai'taT^ ^fiswj 



CONJUGATION OF CAUSAL VERBS. 



311 



Potential, ' I may be made.' 

Imperative, 'Let me be made.' 
fairer fanhn^ faro*^ 

f*lill*t fa^HT^ f^TRn^ 






Perfect. 



-*ftft 



.Fir*/ Future. 

j^ftrk ^SKT^t <*HI*H^, &c. 

1 or «Rifijn? wfcn^f ^rftinwf , &c 
Second Put, grft^ or ^Krftw, &c. 



ss^fa or ^nurfrfa 
^rcn^ or ^KCifon^ 
^Rlft; 'it was done' 



Aorist. 

DUAL. 



PLUEAL. 



^irf^ or ^nKiRtwf? 
^r*nr or ^cpiftmr 



^*gff or ^nKiftx^ 
^<jm"fi*^ or vH<*il\mvn*^ 
^sr^wr^ or "WoUTft^inT^ 
Prec. epfa or ssrfiTrta. Cond. ^cjfr^ or ** l ft. « tl . 

702. Example of a Passive from a root ending in a consonant : 
Root g»^ yuj. Infin. *ft^p^ yoktum, ' to be fitting.' 

Pres. pq, %m§, if*?*, &c. Imp/. *i[w, 'SfST'n^ ^W*, &c. 
Pot. gsSu. Impv. g^, qmia, fann^, &c Per/, ggir, ggf^, gg9r, 
&c. is/ .Fm*. ^t|, xftanr, *ftlBT, &c. 2«d FW. iftss, xft^, &c. ^or. 
sjgftf , iHgcHiim , -siftftT ; ^^f?, &c Prec. iprta. Cond. wfrgit. 

EXAMPLE OP CAUSAL VERBS, EXPLAINED AT 479. 

703. Root ^ bhu. Infin. HHfatJ*^ bhdvayitum, ' to cause to be.' 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present Tense, ' I cause to be.' 
Hra^tft >ii«rfli'«m «re*rre*[ 
m^jftf **i'=r*i«f*^ m^rc 
m^nrfir m^nii^ Hprefcr 



WT^ft 


HHVK*. 


HTW1% 


Hi^iir 


WTO^ 


m*Pi«> 


«m^H 


WJ^T 


«PW^ 



Imperfect, ' I was causing to be,' or ' I caused,' &c. 












WMtiU* 






WR^TO^ 'WTT^lTTT* WTTCIKIW 



Potential, ' I may cause to be.' 



«rnnre 

HH*(rt« 






WR*IR( HRW^ WTOKIH 



312 



CONJUGATION OF CAUSAL VERBS. 



HnTOTfiT OTTOR 


>TTWT 




♦TRJllI 


*TT^n| WRIiflH 


WTH^ 




"Perfect, 


HN4H4K HT4<lT«*cJi=l 


*JN*ll*!l<JH 



*n«l*n*d«fcl*. >TRllT^Jfij^ HTHT^f^ 
First Future, 
wifarnftR m^ftrara^ *Traftnrrer^ 
»mftnnftr JTRftnnwR^ nmfijinw 
m^ftnn vrrafinrTO wraPijrficn 



JTt^ftronfH MNHjtijN^ JTT^ftraw^ 
♦rrafmftr HNfiim'y^ urafwi 

JTRfWif >T HPumi m wgf^TPw 



Imperative, ' Let me cause to be. 5 

I caused to be.' 

I will cause to be.' 

Second Future, ' I shall or will cause to be.' 
*Tref*r«i »ri3fi*n^ 

Aorist, ' I caused to be.' 



^Rt*RR 












^Kt»R 









Prefiative or Benedictive, ' May I cause to be.' 









♦rreftpfru mgfirtjfcrf^ >?rqfmft»Tf^ 



Conditional, ' I should cause to be.' 



qwrefq'BjH WMDlHIM ^WNfuuilH 

^rwraftrBi'^ ^rarefipinnR ^MreftroT^ 



'sr^Nf^ujrf ^rHNfuuirii^ ^ wmrnm^r 

704. After this model, and after the model of Primitive verbs of 
cl. 10 at 63ft, may be conjugated all Causal verbs. 



EXAMPLES OF DESIDEEATIVE VERBS, EXPLAINED AT 498. 

705c Root *^bhu. Infin. ^faij^ bubhtishitum, 'to wish to be.' 

Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present Tense, ' I wish to be.' 



WITft 


T*^ 


3*^ 


T^ 


1**ra| 


TP" 1 ^ 


swrf« 


ygw^ 


JS7TO 


W^ 


1*^ 


T*-^ 


^pfrr 


y&*H 


I*?fcr 


1*J* 


w» 


tfP* 



CONJUGATION OF DESIDEBATIVE VERBS. 



313 



Imperfect, ' I was wishing to be,' or ' I wished,' &c. 



«J»JJH 


*TSJH 


^^n* 


«j>$ 


*JSJWfl 


*fS.m>rf? 


*1*?«t 


^fSW^ 


*I1?a 


^ra^tniT^ 


i^^n^ 


^»piwt 


*W3H 


^>JWrn^ 


^I*?"* 


«J*jnr 


vj^irr^ 


^S-W 




Potential, ' I may wish to be.' 






1^ 


W** 


SS*ra 


"W^ 


3*^ 




wM 


tf£" 


■wj^n^ 


^.wsr^ 


1^1 


WH 


IS-Wj 


tf&R 


tfifr 


f^nrn^ 


TJ^ 




Imperative, ' Let me wish to be.' 




^»j?nft!j 


WW 


ysw 


*£ 


tfjjrat 


JSJrat 


IS? 


TP™^ 


1ff» 


TP« 


*S^ 


ISW 


W?3 


I«P*T^ 


l«nj 


5ff»^ 


SSfciw 


fS*Ptn* 






Perfect, ' I wished to be 


» 




f^T^RK 


* S*'"^ 


tf£«*f»f 


1$.uraai 


W$WU^ 


^»j5raf*r| 


•^reraw 


tfJJWWJR 3«*TOI 


3«iwj* 


W»J5T^3T^ 


I^^fl 


^it^tt: 


^>j5ra^p; 


JStf**^ 


^SJWfc 


;r>3?rpg*Rrff 


wsjirafiw: 




.Firs/ Future, ' I will wish to be.' 




^ftHTftH 


3>if*trrra^ 


39frrran^ 


ISfw 


fSfuirrerl 


fSfaKW^ 


^jfimftr 


^ftinwn 


f^HTW 


J*fan& 


^jf^Kraro 


3$ftjm£ 


3«f™ 


fjfaHT^ 


^flran^ 


wg^m 


ytf**& 


3$fWT^ 




Second Future, ' I wil 


I or shall wish to be.' 




fijfwfiT 


W>jfMutN*(; 


■^(ft^irR^ 


jgft^ 


?tf*ip& 


^^fumm^ 


^jfTOftr 


^>jfflH|VJ^ 


^>jfwi 


l«fW% 


^wv 


3£fnnH* 


W>jfWrT 


^fin^ 


Aorist, ' I w 


ished to be.' 


*>jfw 


3*f**rar 


^ISf^ 


^gftpsi 


^$f*ra 


^$fafa 


^^frof^ 


^r^jfrof? 


*3**H 


*w»jfTOJ 


*tfjft* 


*rg»jfwrc[ 


"^jfaramH wj^frepT 


"I«^ 


^jfTOT^ 


«1*f*W 


«tfjfr» 


^nj>jjfamrn*{ 


^f$fw 




Preco/iwe 


or Benedicti 


ue,, ' May I wish to be.' 




TP 1 ™^ 


I^ra 


I9?nw 


tftfWN 


3«fWWfc 


l«fWWi 


T*?^ 


IS?*"^ 


tfjFTrar 


3$fWtel^ 


w>jfirofrrre«n'T 3$fipftar»{ 


fS ^ 


^rcn^ 


I«?TT^ 


T#*ft* 


^jjfWhirerTR ^jfwtej 



Conditional, ' I should wish to be.' 



^rtggfirmi ^^ftBrra wg^from 
^ra^fra^ w^>jfNutii*^ ^9$>jf^*nr 
=gj^»jfq-an^ ^re£finmn*( ^re^f™^ 



^rg^fnnr CTg^firannR ^f^rsra' 



* Or ^n^ra:. 



s s 



314 CONJUGATION OF FREQUENTATIVE OB INTENSIVE VEEBS. 

EXAMPLES OF FEEQUENTATIVE OE INTENSIVE VEKBS, 
EXPLAINED AT 507. 

706. Root ^bM. In fin. ?t>|f'nJH bobhuyitum, 'to be repeatedly.' 

i£rMANE-PADA FORM (509). 

Present Tense, 'I am repeatedly.' 

^t^J^t ?ft»J?TO "^"gus^ 

*ft$.^ 'Tt'i^Tr *togdt 

Imperfect, ' I was frequently.' 

^t>j?r«n^ ^ft^wj ^nft^juspj; 

Potential, ' I may be frequently.' 

^>37fon^ ^jSprmm ^ig5«j^ 

Imperative, ' Let me be frequently.' 

^i?^ *rt»j$Tn»j ^t^pRn^ 

Perfect, ' I was frequently.' 

q}g4||**<|ft ^>J?mg^T^ ?t %nm$ f 

*ft$?n^ ?t>jiii^*iH ?t %ni*jrtf t 

First Future, ' I will be frequently.' 
^*jftnn| ^fudi*^ sftjftnrml 

^jfmn ^^ftmrf} sft^ftnm^ 

Second Future, ' I will or sball be frequently.' 

wt>jftr«i% *fyjftr»ft ^$fir«w 

<rt$fW %fro* ^>sfin»w 

Aorist, ' I was frequently.' 
*%fttfa *^$ftT*rf? ^ftijfimf^ 

w^*jftren[ wrt>jf*T*iT*n^ ^Ptyfwj or -<pj 



CONJUGATION OF FREQUENTATIVE OR INTENSIVE VERBS. 315 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I be frequently.' 
«ft$.Mta %f«Nta1^ <^$f!nftHf^ 

■sfyjfinfor^ sftijftrtftamT^ ^jfipftspj or -^ 

Conditional, ' I should be frequently.' 

^r^^ftror«n^ ^ ^ ufiiT^ ^^ftr«i*^ 

^r^sfiraur ^nrfgftnfcn^ wft»gfTr"Pir 

707. Parasmai-pada form (514). 

Present Tense, 'I am frequently.' 
•sffaiiftfH or ^brtfiT ^^5^ ^$?"*. 

^ftosftfa or -^xtf* "sh^m, ^^ 

*fMtfir or wfrftfa Tfg?^; ^t^tftr 

Imperfect, ' I was frequently.' 
^nfN^ ^T3Tt>j^ ^r^t»JH 

, snrt»ig^or'3R ! tw ! l^ ^twfyjjr^ ^t^>jjt 

Potential, ' I may be frequently.' 
■sft$?n^ *ft>j?n* "sfcgvn 

•zfagnu *ft>j?nn^ *fa?»nr 

Imperative, ' May I be frequently.' 

^tarrfir sfterre sftowr 

*rt*nffcj or ^Vhj ^jjn^ "^hi^g 

Perfect, "I was frequently.' 
*fcpns$«r, &c. "^WiL^, &c. ^frF^Sf^ &c 

or or or 

^tanr or ^$=r ^ftjf^ or *ft$f*pr ^>jfaiT or "*t>jf?m 

^$f**I ^^or-sf^rg^ 5ft>fTor%<* 

sftarp? or ^r ■sftrnFC or •sfrjjnft -sf^Jl^ or i&Tj|fl 

First Future, ' I will be frequently.' 
■sftafinnfw *tof*nrran gtefawrei^ 

«fmfcr?rrftr ^W^n^re( sftafainw 

TMfcnn sftafaHrtl ■sftwfainT^ 

S S 2 



316 CONJUGATION OF FREQUENTATIVE OR INTENSIVE VERBS. 



. Second Future, ' I will or shall be frequently.' 
*rtafawrTf*r •sft>rfWwiM*| v •sfr«f=i«m»«t 

sftaf^rofiR ^•TfTHJ^ ^tnPc|HlV4 

^tWWh sfwfa*nr^ *rfafW*iT 

Aorist, ' I was frequently/ 

^rt^S ^ftgjPj 'wftgi 



or 



or 



or 



TB^tarfg^ ^T^rtarf^ ^rwiwrf^w 

^thr!^ ^Rtwfasn ^sRtmf^ 

"3t^»tt^t^ ^Rt*rrf=isi*( ^r^brrfa^ 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I be frequently.' 
^^n^ ^^?TT^ T(\>jTjxm 

Conditional, ' I should be frequently.' 
^TtHfVnin wqfar«i«m^ ^RTwf=itum 

^r^tefasre^ ^r^t>rf«(U4rf>^ ^nftafcuir 

^n^>rftrHn^ ^r^W=i«Mrii*^ 'sratofsrsp^ 

708. Root f?^ ' to kill' (323, 654). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive, ' to kill repeatedly.' Pres. »Tiffw or »i^Hlftl, *Hfftr or »nfvftfw, 
■*%fa or »i^ftftT ; 5Tf^(, *$*l*{, W^H^ ; ^Tf^;, ^Tf*I, ^^fri or 
snrfir. Impf. ^rnipi^, 'snrf^ or ^r»npfi^, ^w^; or ^nrf«ffc^; ^mip^, 
^Mij-ri*^, -ifl^ ; ^t*np*f, 'srsT^TT, ^M^-cj^or ^M§*^. Pot. Htpn*^ Impv. 
i^-iiCi, *Nf?, »ifj"tj or sqpftg; sTif^R, *HfiP^ -ifTH; j^HIH, sTfiT, 
sitfTTJ or »hnj. Per/. ^ «1l*r$? or »T^.fl=d<*rc, &c. &c. 

709. Root itt ' to go' (603, 470). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive, ' to go frequently.' Pres. *r%fc* or ^g- H l pH , »T#ftt or sffiftfM , 
iTW^T or *ntftfir; ^jfH^, srw^, WWK\; Htf-M^, •*%*, *&*?* or 
»T"Tf7f. Imp/. ^sn*w , *R3^ or 'air^fr^, *HT^ or ^nr^»ffy ^*W^, 
•*ii»fl*» -tit* ; ^U!"*t, ^nr^fr, wnjft^ or ^spi^. Pot. ^s-hjtt. 
/mpw. snfTTfa, ^f%, ^n^ or snp*tij ; st^rr, srwrm, ^mr ; sr^nro, 

STIffT, WW*§ or ^ 1 "3" •?«/• ^TWS!* or ^TWn^RiR, &C. &C. 

710. Root ftjn' to throw' (635). Parasmai form of Frequentative. 
Pres. ^rejjfi* or 3f*prtf>?, ^fa or ^ftjtffa, ^ftt or ^fsjiftt>; 
^%or^, ^fspu^, 3ftpi^; ^fej^, ^f^re«i, ^ftjnfw. Imp/.^^v^, 



INDECLINABLE WOEDS. ADVEEBS. 317 

^Bft or ^f^tft^, ^^ or ^ft^fft^; *Jwl* Vifvi, ^fispr^, -w^; 
^z&fwn, 'srafejn, ^fisfg^ . Pot. ^ fgfm i ^ , &c. Impv. ^qpnfis, 
^f^far, ^%g or ^ft^ftij ; ^jpire, ^ftjw^, -tn^ ; ^jrnw, ^w, ^fegirg. 
Per/. , %f^tng»55 or ^ fBj Vi ^di rT, &c. &c. 

711. Root 7j^ ' to take' (699, 359). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive. Pres. ■sn?rfa or sn^f*, smrfts (306. a) or ?mr?W*r, 5TT?nfe 
(305. a) or STRT^tfir; MNJ^r, *\H<i\, Hl^ ; STIf^, *&&, STPJ^fir. 
Imp/, ^remr?^, ^nrrciT (306. e) or *srin?J?fy ^remi^ or v^ng^; 
^n^R, ^stpje^, -37^; ^wpr, ^3Tpr?, ^snnfq; (331. Obs.) Pot. 

-<n^; smnrra, sttjs', ^rpj^, &c. &c. 



CHAPTER VII. 
INDECLINABLE WORDS. 

f ]\%. There are in Sanskrit a number of words used as nouns 
having only one inflexion, which may be classed among indeclinables ; 
e. g. ^rer*^ * setting/ ' decline ;' ^rf% ' what exists,' ' existence ;' ^ftw 
'the sacred syllable Om;' ^^'satisfaction," food;' ^tH^' reverence;' 
«nf% ' non-existence ;' ^fi» or gf^ ' the fortnight of the moon's wane ;' 
*pT£ ' sky ;' ^ ' earth ;' 51^ ' ease ;' j^'a year ;' gf^ or ffi ' the 
fortnight of the moon's increase;' ^vr an exclamation used on 
making oblations to the spirits of the dead ; ^x: ' heaven ;* ^f% 
' salutation' (see Gana Svarddi to Pan. 1. 1, 37). Others will be 
mentioned at 713—717. 

ADVERBS. 

a. Adverbs (nipdta), like nouns and verbs, may be divided into 
simple and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter 
on Compound Words. Simple adverbs may be classified under 
four heads : 1st, those formed from the cases of nouns and obsolete 
words ; 2ndly, other adverbs of less obvious derivation ; 3rdly, 
adverbial suffixes ; 4thly, adverbial prefixes. 

Formed from the Oases of Nouns and Obsolete Words. 
713. The Accusative neuter of many adjectives; 
As, HIW*{' truly;' srg'much;' 3Thj^,fojH^, 'quickly;' ^W^ 'fitly;' *<fi^ 



318 INDECLINABLE WOKDS. — ADVERBS. 

'near;' ~^p^ 'certainly;' pJ^ 'lightly;' fl»l^, *fl^^, m&{, *[W{, 'exceed- 
ingly;' 'H=IJ*-M*^ 'certainly;' frTOTJ 'constantly;' f^TJf{ 'for a long while;' 
^t33^' strongly;' ^Jil^ 'again,' 'repeatedly' (194); eff^^ 'only,' 'merely;' 
^fiP^ very well.' 

a. The Ace. neuter of certain pronouns ; as, TTH' therefore,' then;' TT^ where- 
fore,' ' when,' ' since ;' rtl=ri^' so long,' ' so soon ;' ■niqi^' as long as,' ' as soon as ;' 
■fa^'why?' 

b. The Ace. neuter of certain substantives and obsolete words 3 as, t??[ secretly;' 
«(il*t^ 'willingly;' ^HP{ ' of one's own accord,' 'of one's self,' 'spontaneously;' 
■5TW 'by name,' 'that is to say;' ^1T tl*.^ 'repeatedly;' f^JT^ 'long ago;' 
^3*^ 'pleasantly;' «l**J»l«t, 'now;' H*^ 'by night' (nocte); +11*1*^ 'in the 
evening' (this last may be an ind. part, of so, ' to finish'). 

714. The Instrumental of nouns, pronouns, and obsolete words ; 
As, tpHII 'virtuously;' <ftfjH!H 'to the right,' 'southwards;' fiTOH 'north- 
wards;' *TfiU<*<U 'without;' T^ 'above,' 'aloud;' «fl^h^'below;' ^ii^ or 
SH4S( 'slowly;' THT 'therefore;' *M 'wherefore;' ^PiiTT or ■«tK«u 'without,' 
' except ;' T5[in«T ' instantly ;' f-«mu ' for a long time ;' 'Hf i ^T'!J ' in a short time ;' 
^TSfTTO ' entirely ;' f^^T ' by day ;' fifPJT ' fortunately ;' WfOT, «n)«i, ' quickly ;' 
WpTT'now;' f^T'WtT'intheair;' ^TT 'formerly;' ^HT'ontheground'^"/* ")- 

a. The Dative case more rarely ; 

As, fTOI ' for a long time ;' f^TO^T'l ' for a period of many nights ;' ^Hh*T 
' for the sake of.' 

715. The Ablative case of nouns, pronouns, and obsolete words ; 
As, ^c3Tt^' forcibly;' ^§T?^ 'joyfully ;' g*Tt^ ' at a distance ;' TTWTi^ ' there- 
fore;' eh WTiI 'wherefore?' TM«n«nin 'without cause,' unexpectedly;' Oriun from 
the north;' f"TOTT 'for a long time;' TTOTH ' afterwards ;' Hrisf<yiii 'at that 
instant;' Win! Ill 'from all quarters.' 

716. The Locative case of nouns and obsolete words; 

As, TT^ 'at night;' gt 'far off;' Wnfr 'in the morning;' Ml\n 'in the 
forenoon;' *sh 'suitably;' ^% 'in front;' TJoR*?^ 'at once;' THlfi? 'instantly;' 
^$K 'except;' ^Ptlt 'within;' ^f^$ 'towards the south;' wfttf or^rwTO'near;' 
<io|ilii ' in private ;' OT^njT ' in the evening ;' ?tu ' by reason of.' 

Other Adverbs and Particles of less obvious Derivation. 

717. Of affirmation. — «j^,*^,f«WJ,ir^,^n?>' indeed;' WqfoTf^' certainly.' 
a. Of negation. — «T, •ft, «Tf*T, 'not.' TT, TT T<R are prohibitive; as, RT T$tj, 
AT «W^[, ' do not.' See 889. 
6. Of interrogation. — f«T!^, ftlrg, «lifarfy ^, «Tfj, fag, foKJpT, 'whether?' 



INDECLINABLE WORDS. — ADVERBS. 319 

c. Of comparison. — 5^ 'like;' T!^, V^P\, 'so;' f5R* : <pT ! C: 'how much rather;' 
ITO? (iT^IT + ^) ' in like manner.' 

d. Of quantity. — ^Tflfa 'exceedingly;' ^t^' a little' (cf. 726. b). 

e. Of manner. — ^HT, JJ^(, 'so,' 'thus;' t}«T^ 'again;' WHI^ 'for the most 
part;' «TT«n' variously;' TJ^ 'separately;' »pT, fasqT, 'falsely;' ^T, ipir, 
'in vain;' TStrt«\ 'enough;' *Rfefit, ^T$J (cf. i)Kvg), 'quickly ;' TTB!ft^ ' silently ;' 
(♦1 "M*^ ' reciprocaDy,' 'together.' 

/. Of time. — ^S 'to-day,' 'now;' *5TC^ 'to-morrow;' ^TC^ 'yesterday;' 
^JT^ 'the day after to-morrow;' *T*grfiT ' now ;' gtT 'formerly;' *pC^, iJtStTi^, 
UT^, 'before;' 3*T*J^ 'at once;' *Rt^ 'instantly;' HTJ 'after death' (lit. 
'having departed'); tn?^ 'afterwards;' »ITi| 'ever;' T atig 'never;' ^RTST^, 
M<«j^, 'another day,' 'next day;' 5^71 'once;' 'ST'B^rH, ]pTT 9 $?^, 'again 
and again,' repeatedly.' 

Obs. — *3R is used with a Present tense to denote past time. See 251. b, 878. 

g. Of place. ^ 'here;' H' where?' ^f^ ' without.' 

h. Of doubt. — fe^, fcfifer^, ^rftRm, sn, g-irnjt, ^n?> fe^, ^nft fisr^, 

perhaps,' &c. 
i. ^ifxi 'even,' TT^ 'indeed,' ? 'just,' are placed after words to modify their 
sense, or for emphatic affirmation. ^, ?*^, if are similarly used in the Veda. 
Observe — Some of the above are properly conjunctions; see 727. 

Adverbial Suffixes. 

718. f^5 did, ^rfa api, and ^«T tana may form indefinite adverbs 
of time and place, when affixed to interrogative adverbs ; 

As, from «fi^T 'when?' «F^Tf^5, ^TfT, and =fiqi*l»l, 'sometimes;' from ^^ 
and H 'where?' ^fa^, f^Tf 1 !, D^, liTfl, 'somewhere;' from ~^\ 
'whence?' ^ftff^ and "^(T^St'T 'from somewhere;' from ^frf 'how many?' 
ctfri P q^ ' a few ;' from 3fif? ' when ?' 3if^f^ ' at some time ;' from 3Wm( ' how ?' 
*fc*wfil, cR*RT»T, ' somehow or other,' ' with some difficulty.' Compare 228, 230. 

a. ^rftj following a word, generally signifies ' even,' but after numerals, all,' as 
^Ttsfxj ' all three ;' *f sfq ' all together.' 

719. HM tas may be added to the stem of any noun, and to some 
pronouns, to form adverbs ; 

As, from l^ 1 , J4«3'ri^ ' with effort ;' from ^Tlfif, ^rrf^K^ ' from the beginning ;' 
from K (the proper stem of the pronoun iT^), Kff^ 'thence,' 'then,' 'thereupon,' 
'therefore:' similarly, TtJ^ 'whence,' 'since,' 'because;' ^K^, ^^, ^tl^j 
'hence,' 'hereupon.' 

Obs. — In affixing tas to pronouns, the stem K is used for iT^, ^ for <tn^j ^ for 
^, ^ig for *%?&, 1 for V%, f for f^. 

a. This suffix usually gives the sense of the preposition ' from,' and is often 



320 INDECLINABLE WORDS. — ADVERBS. 

equivalent to the ablative case; as in *T^^ 'from me;' rttl^ 'from tbee*;' 
fl^rit^ 'from a father;' 3lc£ri*l 'from an enemy.' 

b. But it is sometimes vaguely employed to express other relations ; as, "j«n*^ 
' behind the back ;' ^«*lrf^ ' to another place,' ' elsewhere ;' HM*mt( ' in the first 
place;' ^TOTI^ ' here and there,' 'hither and thither;' TPP3U^'on all sides;' 
^WTTiTCJ ' in the neighbourhood ;' 3*"^> ^AM^, ' in front >' ^rf"W( ' near to ;' 
faw^iTC^ ' in pomp or state.' 

c. iTTrT is a suffix which generally denotes ' place' or ' direction ;' as, from ^nt^, 
iHMWIil ' downwards ;' from ^ift (which becomes <jm(V.*^), astVeii^' above' (cf. 
84. V). 

730. ^ tra, forming adverbs of place with a locative sense from 
stems of pronouns, adjectives, &c. ; 

As, ^Tcl ' here ;' HW ' there ;' ^( ' where ?' Vffi ' where ;' *mot ' everywhere ;' 
■«(»*Ig1 'in another place;' ¥W& 'in one place;' °i§& 'in many places;' ^P|^ 
' there,' ' in the next world.' 

a. tfttrd; as, i^9T ' among the gods;' *l j^dl 'among men' (Pan. v. 4, 56); 
<isqi amongst many.' 

721. *rt thd and ^p^ tham, forming adverbs of manner ; 

As, TTOT 'so,' 'in like manner;' V^ft 'as;' «^"m ' in every way,' ' by all means;' 
*4V1I ' otherwise ;' m*F{ ' how ?' ?r^ ' thus.' 

73a. ^T da, ft rhi, ?ft*i nim, forming adverbs of time from pro- 
nouns, &c. ; 

As, "iT^T 'then;' T^T'when;' ^T 'when?' «icfii(I 'once;' f«irMqi 'constantly;' 
*pfcr, *T^T, ' always;' ifff , W^Trffy 'then;' ^l-fl^'now.' 

723. VT dhd, forming adverbs of distribution from numerals ; 

As, 1T«IWT ' in one way ;' f^VT ' in two ways ;' WIT ' in six ways ;' JJfiPJT ' in a 
hundred ways ;' ^njSTVT ' in a thousand ways ;' "T?VT or ^pfaWT ' in many ways.' 

a. cprt^, signifying "times,' is added to 1^, five,' and other numerals, as 
explained at 2ig. V^f[, 'once,' may be a corruption of ^^i^ ('this time'); 
and only ^ is added to tif, tjjf, and dropped after -tg^ ' four times.' 

724. WTf vat (technically called vati) may be added to any nominal 
stem to form adverbs of comparison or similitude (see 922); 

As, from ^§, ^*N^ ' like the sun ;' from ^%, fjNif^ ' as before.' It may be 
used in connexion with a word in the Accusative case. 

a. This suffix often expresses ' according to ;' as, f<ifVi<iii ' according to rule ;* 
IpfTSprai^ " according to need.' It may also be added to adverbs ; as, qv||<jri 
'truly' (exactly as it took place). 

* These are the forms generally used for the Ablative case of the personal pro- 
nouns, the proper Ablative cases Ti^, Wil being rarely used. 



INDECLINABLE WOEDS. — CONJUNCTION'S. 321 

725- 31^ $ as , forming adverbs of quantity, &c. ; 

As, ^|$m 'abundantly;' ^1^1^ 'in small quantities;' *ts[l^ 'wholly;' 
^••Jy^' singly;' :*irt«5:«3iq; 'by hundreds and thousands ;' ^W^' by degrees;' 
5^151^ 'principally;' TlT^f ' foot by foot ;' f^^ 'two by two;' fa^'by 
threes;' ^Mqi;^ 'in great numbers ;' ^WBf C^ 'syllable by syllable ;' fll^a^'in 
so many ways ;' 4(1131^ ' how many at a time V 

a. *lli^is added to nouns in connexion with the roots of, ^P^, and £., to denote 
a complete change to the condition of the thing signified by the noun ; as, ^if* tf- 
Sffi^'to the state of fire.' See 789, and of. 70. i. 

Adverbial Prefixes. 
726. 'W a, prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a priva- 
tive or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, 
and the English in, im, un; as, from ^rw 'possible,' ^qi^i 
'impossible;' from **ffl\ 'touching' (pres. part.), iHW$|^ 'not 
touching ;' from s^i ' having done' (indecl. part.), ^ej^r ' not having 
done.' When a word begins with a vowel, ?iq; is euphonically 
substituted ; as, from ^&n ' end,' ^ t^r ' endless.' 

a. ?rfff ati, ' excessively,' ' very ;' as, ^{frfH^H ' very great.' 

b. ^it a, implying * diminution ;' as, tiron? ' somewhat pale.' 
^T^ is prefixed with the same sense ; as, ^?ran ' slightly warm.' 

c. oKT M or ^ Am, prefixed to words to imply 'disparagement;' 
as, sfiig^ 'a coward;' ^tj 'deformed.' 

d. a^ dus (or 3^ dur), prefixed to imply 'badly' or 'with difficulty;' 
as, g*°pr 'badly done' (see 72); gJfsr 'not easily broken.' It is 
opposed to ^, and corresponds to the Greek oW-. 

e. fi^ nis (or f«TC nir) and fa vi are prefixed to nouns like ^t a 
with a privative or negative sense; as, f«T#?5 'powerless;' ft^sifi3 
'without fruit' (see 72); U$H$ 'unarmed:' but not to participles. 

/. *J su, prefixed to imply 'well,' 'easily;' as, SJ^IT 'well done;' 
g>hr ' easily broken.' In this sense it is opposed to ^, and cor- 
responds to the Greek eu. It is also used for ^flf, to imply ' very,' 
' excessively ;' as, $>n[t^ ' very great.' 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Copulative. 
727. ^ 6a, 'and,' 'also,' corresponding to the Latin que and not 
to et. It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence, 
but follows the word of which it is the copulative. ^ (^ vM), ' also,' 
is a common combination. 

T t 



322 INDECLINABLE WORDS. — PREPOSITIONS. 

a. TTT ' and,' ' also/ is sometimes copulative. Sometimes it 
implies doubt or interrogation. 

b. »niT ' so/ ' thus/ ' in like manner' (see 721), is not unfrequently 
used for ^r, in the sense of 'also;' and like 1 is then generally 
placed after the word which it connects with another. 

c. ^nj ' now/ ' and/ *srv\ ' then/ are inceptive, being frequently 
used at the commencement of sentences or narratives. ^T*J is often 
opposed to ^fir, which marks the close of a story or chapter. 

d. f%, ' for/ is a causal conjunction ; like ^ it is always placed 
after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence. 

e. nf%, ^, both meaning ' if/ are conditional conjunctions. 

/. inra[ 'upon that/ 'then 5 (719), TTF^ 'then/ ^nqw, feftt, ^JTt^, 
*TC% flfm^, ' again/ ' moreover/ are all copulatives, used very com- 
monly in narration. 

Disjunctive. 

7 38. ^T vd, *or' (like -ve in Latin), is always placed after its word, 
being never admitted to the first place in a sentence. 
a. j|, fiF*ir, ' but ;' the former is placed after its word. 

b. TSTfl 'although;' ifmfa 'nevertheless,' 'yet,' sometimes used as a cor- 
relative to the last; WH<4I, f^i 7T, 'or else;' «T ^T 'or not;' *Tf^ 7T 'whether,' 
' whether or no.' 

c. vi <m may also be used to correct or qualify a previous thought, when it is 
equivalent to ' but no,' ' yet,' ' however.' 

d. *jR, "%., 3, W are expletives, often used in poetry to fill up the verse. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

739. There are about twenty prepositions (see 783), but in later 
Sanskrit they are generally prefixes, qualifying the sense of verbs 
(and then called upasarga) or of verbal derivatives (and then called 
gati). About ten may be used separately or detached in govern- 
ment with the cases of nouns (and then called karma-pravadantya); 
e. g. 'WT, vfn, ^PjJ, ^fir, ^rfv, ^rfW, trft, ^nr, ^rfa, and ttt ; but of these 
the first three only are commonly found as separable particles in 
classical Sanskrit. 

730. ^TC a, generally signifying ' as far as/ ' up to/ ' until/ with 
Abl. ; as, ^H ^rg^TT^ ' as far as the ocean ;' ^tt 1«f^ ' up to Manu ;* 
"SIT *lftU4*W!i1 i> ' as far as the wrist ;' ^tt qwt^ ' till death ;' <SIT ?ra^l 
*mrq Trr^ ' till the completion of his vow :' and rarely with Ace; as, 
^tit^ ^TT ^rnfte^ ' for a hundred births.' 



INDECLINABLE WORDS. PREPOSITIONS. 323 

a. ^n d may sometimes express 'from;' as, ^rr «JHTTI 'from the 
beginning;' ssrr U«IH<J§.TI^ ' from the first sight;' ^tt 5PTq^ 'from 
birth.' 

b. It may also be compounded with a word in the Accusative neuter 
forming with it an Avyayi-bhava (see 760); thus, ^n^ra^ 'as far 
as the girdle' (where Mi^tA\ is for Woi l HJ - 

c vfaprati, generally a postposition, signifying ' at,' 'with regard 
to,' ' to,' ' towards,' ' against/ with Ace. ; as, JTfT wfa ' at the Ganges ;' 
v5| Ufir ' with regard to justice ;' ^ vflt ' against an enemy ;' HT nfK 
' as far as regards me.' When denoting ' in the place of,' it governs 
the Ablative. 

d. ^ ' after,' with Ace, and rarely with Abl. or Gen. ; as, > l ft\m 
■srg ' along the Ganges ;' w^J or TnftsTj ' after that.' 

e. nfir, and more rarely ^ and ^rfW, may be used distributively to signify 
'each/ 'every;' thus, ^1»J 'tree by tree.' They may also be prefixed to form 
Avyayi-bhavas ; JTfffWW^ or Wg^W^ ' every year,' ' year by year.' See 760. 

/. ^tfif, ^ff>T, Ttfc are said to require the Accusative; ^sfv the Locative or 
Accusative; ^HT and ^ft, in the sense 'except,' the Ablative; "ST the Locative and 
Accusative : but examples of such syntax are not common in classical Sanskrit. 

g. Instances are common of prepositions united with the neuter form or 
Accusative of nouns, so as to form compounds (760. V); as, wfrt *«b»*I*^ 'upon the 
shoulders;' nfn«j«^ ' face to face ;' ^?fil^T5P^ ' upon the tree ;' ^'l;^ 'along 
the Ganges.' 

ADVEKBS IN GOVERNMENT WITH NOUNS. 
731. There are many adverbs used like the preceding prepositions 
in government with nouns, and often placed after the nouns which 
they govern (for examples see 917). 

These are, ^I?T. 'before,' 'in front of,' with Gen.; ^WWT 'under,' with Gen. or 
Ace; 'SIV^ or 'STCreTTi^ 'below,' with Gen. (^W^ is sometimes doubled; thus, 
^rtftstm) ; ^HfllT^ 'after,' 'afterwards,' with Gen. ; ^PiTT. ' within,' with Gen. or 
Loc; tH»iW,<U 'without,' 'except,' 'with regard to,' with Ace. ; ^tfii «k^ 'near,' with 
Gen. or Abl. ; ^rfWil^ 'on both sides of,' with Ace. ; ^fo|JI3*^ ' in front of,' with 
Gen. or Ace. ; WTfi^ 'near,' with Gen. ; ^1^ or ^HITO or WH ' on account of,' 
' for,' with Gen. ; ^J%T«^ ' after,' ' beyond,' with Abl. ; TatTi^' to the north,' with 
Gen. ; drl\<LI ' to the north,' with Gen. or Ace. ; ^tfft ' above,' ' over,' ' upon,' 
with Gen. or Ace. (sometimes doubled; thus, ^f^ftl); ^sl^ ' above,' 'over,' 
'upon,' with Gen. or Ace; 'after,' 'beyond,' with Abl.; ^W 'besides,' 'without,' 
'except,' with Ace., sometimes with Abl.; <*K<!IT^ or ^fl 'on account of,' 'for,' 
with Gen.; ^ftjTUTi^'to the south,' with Gen.; ^ftppT 'to the right,' 'to the 

T t 2 



324, INTERJECTIONS. — COMPOUND WORDS. 

south,' with Gen. or Ace; fifft^ 'for the sake of,' 'for,' with Gen.; TCHJ 
' behind,' with Gen. ; HT»^ or TOST ' after,' ' beyond,' with Abl. ; TOff^' after,' with 
Gen. or Abl. ; IK ' on the further side,' with Gen. ; $*H^ or ^T^ ' before,' ' in the 
presence of,' with Gen. ; ^=1*^ ' before,' with Abl., rarely with Gen. or Ace. ; Wjfff 
mde a,' 'from a particular time,' 'beginning with,' with Abl. ; Ufa? before,' with 
Abl., rarely with Gen. or Ace; TOJ 'in the middle,' with Gen.; t^\ 'out,' 
'outside of,' with Abl. or Gen.; •qiii^'up to,' 'as far as,' sometimes with Ace. ; 
T^TT ' without,' with Inst, or Ace. or sometimes with Abl. ; *t«m^i*^ ' near,' with 
Gen.; ti4i|tylff 'from,' with Gen. ; fN bj*^ ' before the eyes,' ' in the presence of,' 
with Gen.; *PP^ 'together with,' with Inst. ; *i*fl Mri*^ or *I»fl V*\ 'near,' with Gen. ; 
*Rf ' with,' ' along with,' with Inst. ; tue»^ ' with,' with Inst. ; BTTSJTi^ ' before the 
eyes,' 'in the presence of,' with Gen. ; TITV^ 'along with,' with Inst. ; 5fil«( or 
5rlT 'on account of,' 'for the sake of,' 'for,' with Gen. 

Obs.— -Many of the above, especially ^Hj*^* 5 SJ*f, cMMI^, cgtt, faf*^, Ifft^, 
?flT, &c, are more usually found at the end of a compound, after a nominal stem. 

a. The adverb *3fW^, ' enough,' is used with the Inst, (see 918). 

b. Some of the adverbs enumerated at 714, 713, may be used in government 
with the cases of nouns ; e. g. (fftniR, <J<R<!T above. StfiHcMU, 'without,' is 
generally placed after the stem of a noun. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

73a. *ft^, wt, 1 are vocative; \, ^ less respectfully vocative, 
or sometimes expressive of ' contempt.' fvejr expresses ' contempt,' 
* abhorrence,' ' fie !' ' shame !' (with Accusative case) ; ^JT^, , W?t, ^?» 
'surprise,' 'alarm;' fT, ?T?T, ^, "W^taff, ^H, 'grief;' *V$, *J|, 
' approbation ;' ^rf%, ' salutation.' 



CHAPTER VIII. 
COMPOUND WORDS. 



733. Compounds abound in Sanskrit to a degree wholly unequalled 
in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the prin- 
ciples on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to 

* tsiQ^ is generally found in composition with a nominal stem, and may be com- 
pounded adjectively to agree with another noun ; as, %»IT§: H^ 'broth for the 
Brahman ;' fr*n$ 1^ ' milk for the Brahman.' See 760. d.^ 



COMPOUND NOUNS. 325 

understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In 
the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, 
and simple adverbs. We have now to . treat of compound nouns, 
compound verbs, and compound adverbs. 

a. Observe, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the stem, of a substantive 
terminating a compound will be given ; and in the instance of an adjective forming 
the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc, fern., and neut. The 
examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopades'a, and sometimes the oblique cases 
in which they are there found have been retained. 

SECTION I. 

COMPOUND NOUNS. 

734. The student has now arrived at that portion of the grammar 
in which the use of the stem of the noun becomes most strikingly 
apparent. This use has been already noticed at 77 ; and its forma- 
tion explained at 80-87. 

a. Jn almost all compound nouns the last word alone admits of 
inflexion, and the preceding word or words require to be placed in 
the stem, to which a plural as well as singular signification may be 
attributed. Instances, however, will be given in which the charac- 
teristic signs of case and number are retained in the first member of 
the compound, but these are exceptional. 

b. It may here be noted, that while Sanskrit generally exhibits the first member 
or members of a compound in the stem with the final letter unchanged, except by 
the usual euphonic laws, Latin frequently and Greek less frequently change the 
final vowel of the stem into the light vowel i j and both Greek and Latin often 
make use of a vowel of conjunction, which in Greek is generally 0, but occasion- 
ally l; thus, cmli-cola for cxlu-cola or coelo-colas lani-ger for lana-ger; yaXKi- 
vaof, l")(6v-o-(f>ayo(, fmder-i-fragus. Both Greek and Latin, however, possess 
many compounds which are completely analogous to Sanskrit formations. In 
English we have occasional examples of the use of a conjunctive vowel, as in 
'handicraft' for 'hand-craft.' 

Obs. — A dot placed underneath words in Nagari type marks the division of the 
different members of a compound. 

735. Native grammarians class compound nouns under six heads : 
I. DvANDVA, or those formed by the aggregation into one com- 
pound of two or more nouns (the last word being, according to 
circumstances, either in the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the 
preceding word or words being in the stem), when, if uncompounded, 



326 COMPOUND NOUNS. 

they would all be in the same case, connected by a copulative 
conjunction; as, n^fijroft 'master and pupil' (for n^: f^ra); 
•flPB^nftrsflraiT: 'death, sickness, and sorrow' (for nm srrfv: sftarcj); 
U ltfym^ ' hand and foot' (for Tnfttr: trr^). 

II. Tat-PUEUSHA, or those composed of two nouns, the first of 
which (being in the stem) would be, if uncompounded, in a case 
different from, or dependent on, the last ; as, 'SPSTWT ' moon-light' 
(for ^5W WT ' the light of the moon'); $IW.$3ra:, -c5T, -c3^, ' skilled 
in arms' (for 5T^ $ $lc*:); *fi5r>jfinr:, -in, -1P{, ' adorned with gems' 
(for «rfrlf«^ »jfWcT:). 

III. Kaema-DHAEAYA, or those composed of an adjective or 
participle and substantive, the adjective or participle being placed 
first in its stem, when, if uncompounded, it would be in grammatical 
concord with the substantive ; as, Tcr^TFT: ' a good person' (for Ttrsf^ 
•Sfm) ; tH^ Tfa ' all things' (for fltTftu ^arfftcr). 

IV. DviGU, or those in which the stem of a numeral is compounded 
with a noun, either so as to form a singular collective noun, or an 
adjective; as, rVr;'j4U>( 'three qualities' (for gift ^qn:); fa.'JW, -JUT, 
-*!m, ' possessing the three qualities.' 

V. BAHU-VEIHI, or attributive compounds, generally epithets of 
other nouns. These, according to Panini (n. 2, 24), are formed by 
compounding two or more words to qualify the sense of another 
word ; thus, HIHI<4i wr. for hih^ ^^S V ?JW^ ' a village to which 
the water has come.' 

VI. AvYAYf-BHA'vA, or those resulting from the combination of a 
preposition or adverbial prefix with a noun. The latter, whatever 
may be its gender, always takes the form of an accusative neuter 
and becomes indeclinable. 

a. Observe — These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of com- 
pounds, or give some sort of definition of them ; thus, 3^5 (scil. wiiti!) is a 
definition of the 1st kind, meaning 'conjunction;' if i§^! , 'his servant,' is an 
example of the 2nd kind (for TT^T $^Wt); oF^nTlK is a somewhat obscure defi- 
nition of the 3rd kind, i. e. ' that which contains or comprehends (WPffir) the 
object' (^i^)> fe^J* la an exaro pl e of the 4th kind, meaning 'anything to the 
value of two cows ;' ^?«TJ^t i» an example of the 5th kind, meaning ' possessed 
of much rice.' The 6th class, ^^Hl^T^J avyayi-bhdvdh, means 'the indeclinable 
state' ('that which does not change,' na vyeti). 

736. It should be stated, however, that the above six kinds of 
compounds really form, according to the native theory, only four 



SIMPLY COMPOUNDED NOUNS. 327 

classes, as the 3rd and 4th (i. e. the Karma-dharaya and Dvigu) are 
regarded as subdivisions of the Tat-purusha class. 

Obs. — Panini (1. 2, 42) calls a Karma-dhdrayah a Tatpurushah samdnddhikaranah. 
As such a classification appears to lead to some confusion from 
the absence of sufficient distinctness and opposition between the 
several parts or members of the division, the subject will be dis- 
cussed according to a different method, although it has been thought 
desirable to preserve the Indian names and to keep the native 
arrangement in view. 

737. Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or 
complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of 
compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving 
two or three species of simple compounds under one head. 

SIMPLY COMPOUNDED NOUNS. 

738. These we will divide into, 1st, Dependent compounds or 
compounds dependent in case (corresponding to Tat-purusha); 2nd, 
Copulative (or Aggregative, Dvandva); 3rd, Descriptive* (or Deter- 
minative, Karma-dhdraya); 4th, Numeral (or Collective, Dvigu); 
5th, Adverbial (or Indeclinable, Avyayi-bhdva) ; 6th, Relative (Bahu- 
vrihi). This last consists of, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent 
compounds, terminated by substantives ; b. Relative form of Copu- 
lative or Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of Descriptive or 
Determinative compounds ; d. Relative form of Numeral or Collective 
compounds ; e. Relative form of Adverbial compounds. 

a. Observe — A list of the substitutions which take place in the 
final syllables of certain words in compounds is given at 778. 

DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS (TAT-PURUSHA). 
Accusatively Dependent. 

739. These comprehend all those compounds in which the relation 
of the first word (being in the stem) to the last is equivalent to that 
of an accusative case. They are generally composed of a noun in 
the first member, and a participle (but not a present or indeclinable 

* As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and 
always descriptive of the substantive. Bopp calls them ' Determinativa,' a word 
of similar import. 



328 DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS (TAT-PUBUSHA). 

participle), root, or noun of agency in the last ; as, yit.HIH:, -TIT, -Tl^, 
'one who has obtained heaven' (equivalent to ^tt HTh:); ftnr^Tafr 
'one who speaks kind words;' Hf??: 'one who gives much;' 
^^'god-praising;' ^3^ 'one who bears arms;' H^T™* """> 
"fPTj 'committed to a leaf,' 'committed to paper' (as 'writing'); 
fsraTTiK, -TfT, -TP\, ' committed to painting ;' ^sNtHHTHt, -fHHT, -fif , 
' thinking one's self handsome.' 

a. Hrf ' gone' (past pass. part, of HH^ ' to go') is used loosely at the end of com- 
pounds of this description to express relationship and connexion, without any 
necessary implication of motion. In HfPTrf, f^JHTI above, and in others 
(such as f^rwn^TTBT HfillJ 'a jewel lying in the cleft of a rock ;' ^w.nco.HrfJ, 
-HI, -TIH^, 'lying in the palm of the hand'), it has the sense of W ' staying :' but 
it may often have other senses ; as, <uv1.'in: , -HT, -!!*(, ' engaged in conversation ;* 
+Usfl,'lii f<*N ri ' something relating to a friend.' 

b. In theatrical language vtirtMiW^ and ^lrt*^ (lit. gone to one's self') mean 
' spoken to one's self,' aside.' 

c. Before nouns of agency and similar forms the accusative case is often retained, 
especially in poetry ; as, ^ft^H:, -HI, -HH^ ' enemy-subduing ;' <f^*ls?HJ, -HI, 
-HH^ ' heart-touching ;' H 4tjf <I , -'ft , -X*{, ' fear-inspiring ' (see 380. a) ; HTHT^H:, 
-HI, -*&{, ' going to the ocean ;' HfijIiPfrai:, -'an, -TH^, ' one who thinks himself 
learned ;' TTfif**P*i: ' one who thinks it night.' 

Instrumentality Dependent, 

740. Or those in which the relation of the first word (being in 
the stem) to the last is equivalent to that of an instrumental case. 
These are very common, and are, for the most part, composed of a 
substantive in the first member, and a past passive participle in the 
last ; as, c5forHTf?K: , -HI, -HH^, ' beguiled by avarice' (for cSTWH HtfrJW:) ; 
msf^fa rT:, -TIT, -HH^, 'covered with clothes;' trsrarfsrff:, -HI, -H^, 
'honoured by kings ;' f<iai^THJ, -HI, -<&{, ' deserted by (i. e. desti- 
tute of) learning;' "HfeT^n: , -HT, -TIH^, 'destitute of intelligence;' 
j(H3TrT:, -rh, -rf^, 'pained with grief;' ^rrffl^rf:, -HI, -rPT^, 'done by 
one's self;' ^nf^Hpn, -5ft, -^, 'like the sun' (for m i fi » iqtf w$$:, 
see 836); ^swgHlf^rf:, -HI, -TfH^, 'acquired by us.' 

a. Sometimes this kind of compound contains a substantive or noun of agency 
in the last member ; as, fsaiTT'!'^ ' money acquired by science ;' 5Hpjll»fl^t 'one 
who lives by arms.' 

Datively Dependent, 

741. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a dative ; as, qft ttH. ' ^^MH '^k for clothing ;' 



DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS (TAT-PURUSHA). 329 

tn^jR^ ' water for the feet ;' ^JI^T^ ' wood for a sacrificial post ;' 
^rfBIT*TtT: , -HI, -Tf^, 'come for protection' (for 31TOTI ^im?:). This 
kind of compound is not very common, and is generally supplied by 
the use of ^r§* (731); as, sriotoit 'srnnr:. 

a. Parasmai-pada^ and Atmane-pada (see 243) are instances of 
compounds in which the sign of the dative case is retained. 

Ablatively Dependent, 
743. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of an ablative ; as, f i| j ;mnt, -TIT, ->R, ' received 
from a father;' *T3*r^re:, -IT, -2*^, 'fallen from the kingdom' (for 
*JWT^ «?:); iKjI^dtArU.:, -tT, -W, * more changeable than a wave ;' 
H^ai: ' other than you' (for JT^ifts^:); ma<W v ' fear of you' (814. e); 
^rip^ro'T ' fear of a dog ;' fllfe t .mi'fR :, -*rt, -53PT, ' turning the face 
from books,' ' averse from study.' 

Genitively Dependent, 
743. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of 
all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a 
similar compound in English. They are for the most part com- 
posed of two substantives ; as, *pj^Tfti?T ' sea-shore' (for snjJ^H irfa^ 
* shore of the sea'). 

a. Other examples are, ^tl^H^'borse-hack;' V«J'1*uJ '"bow-string;' ^fir^iPT/^ 
'brick-house;' fnft/Tc(T ' mountain-torrent ;' sTSTTTT?^ ' water's edge;' 'aHSjJR: 
or ^VITMI^HT 'acquisition of wealth;' fes^ii 'state of misfortune;' *J^i|^: 
'separation of friends;' *n*jftr 'on whose brow' (locative); TCfS^l 'his words;' 
«r*r**n«T*r s or «T"T*jfT! 'birth-place;' ^^5IHJ 'with hundreds of fools' (inst. pi.); 
^fUguVa c0U P le of Slokas;' JJTTW^ ' the surface of the earth;' Tjfa^HrfiT.: 
'lord of the earth;' traft^ni 'for his support' (dative); "aiiHU^WT: 'the sons 
of a Brahman ;' ^T9fi*l?ns ' our sons ;' r^ijRH ' thy deed ;' ftfTJ^^f^ ' a father's 
speech;' JpjpNI^ ' the gate of death;' ^551^*^ 'fulfilment of wishes;' TT3T- 
•P^: ' a mother's joy ;' »T3T3Pi; ' a water-Teceptacle,' ' lake ;' f^aj^T ' knowledge- 
seeker/ 'a scholar;' ^gs4H!i*^ (for $§6e|4!«*0 'a hen's egg.' 

b. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupies 
the last place in the compound ; as, »R.*t8J or tJW^T: ' the best of men.' 

c. In occasional instances the genitive case is retained ; as, f^il^uT: ' lord of 
men ;' f^WfiT: ' lord of the sky.' 

d. Especially in terms of reproach; as, ^TOn:^: (or ^Rfl^O 'son of a slave 
girl.' 

u u 



330 COPULATIVE COMPOUNDS (DVANDVA). 

Locatively Dependent, 

744. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a locative case ; as, >i$HH:> _n TT, -"T^, ' sunk 
in the mud' (for x% qrif;) ; 7iimr;fa?n!t ' sporting in the sky;' »i<4.j(ilil 
'sport in the water;' jjT'TWUft' 'a dweller in a village;' «ra^TC 
' going in the water ;' STFJ^r: ' born in the water ;' Otlil.^dt ' gem 
on the head.' 

a. The sign of the locative case is retained in some cases, especially 
before nouns of agency ; as, ?pij ^ivf| * a villager ;' sra/TC ' going in 
the water;' grftr^faei:, -AT, -TU{, 'ornamented on the breast;' VHg;ir: 
or mj) «< : 'going in front;' f^fa^ (rt. *<[) 'abiding in the sky;' 
f^fereipjj (rt. BJ5l) 'touching the sky ;' gftrfro ' firm in war.' 

Dependent in more than one Case. 

745. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be 
composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the 
manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, •^hmRh*!]!!!- 
TSPi('., -»trT, -•jf^, 'passed beyond the range of the eye' (for ^^fr "fa^P^ 
^rfffWir:) ; <V,H«TW: * standing in the middle of the chariot ;' W^d,lftdl<U # 4- 
W4I rtwriUisn; ' skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger.' 

a. There is an anomalous form of Tat-purusha, which is really the result of the 
elision of the second or middle member (uttara-pada-lopa, madhyama-pada-lopa) 
of a complex compound ; e. g. $11* mf$H: for ^( I «*, fll H. M I TQ <=l : (see 775). 

b. Dependent compounds abound in all the cognate languages. The following 
are examples from Greek and Latin; oiva-6yjKfj, oiKCi-cpvka^, XtBo-aTptoTOg, 
yvvatKo-icripvKTOf, avSpuTro-bidoucTOs, 9eo'-8oToj, Beo-rpevros, yeipo-noiyjTos, 
awri-fodina, manu-pretium, parri-cida for patri-cida, parri-cidium, matri-cidium, 
marti-cultor, mus-cerda. English furnishes innumerable examples of dependent 
compounds ; e. g. ' ink-stand,' ' snow-drift,' ' moth-eaten,' ' priest-ridden,' ' door- 
mat,' 'writing-master,' &c. 

COPULATIVE (OR AGGREGATIVE) COMPOUNDS (DVANDVA). 

746. This class has no exact parallel in other languages. 

When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it 
is usual in Sanskrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to 
aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical depend- 
ence of one case upon another subsists between the members of 
Dvandva compounds, since they must always consist of words which, 
if uncompounded, would be in the same case. The only grammatical 
connexion between the members is that which would be expressed 



COPULATIVE COMPOUNDS (DVANDVA). 331 

by the copulative conjunction and in English, or ^ in Sanskrit. 
In fact, the difference between this class and the last turns upon 
this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other ; 
insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as 
deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by 
which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head 
or to the other; thus, n^fsrar^raiT: may either be a Dependent 
compound, and mean ' the servants of the pupils of the Guru/ or 
a Copulative, 'the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant.' And 
JlfarsftfjUiP^ may either be Dependent, { the blood of the flesh,' or 
Copulative, ' flesh and blood.' This ambiguity, however, can never 
occur in Dvandvas inflected in the dual, and rarely occasions any 
practical difficulty. 

747. There are three kinds of Copulative compounds: 1st, in-t 
fleeted in the plural ; 2nd, inflected in the dual ; 3rd, inflected in the 
singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the stem of the 
word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its 
gender the particular form of declension ; in the third case it seems 
to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless 
the last word ends in ^ a, or in a vowel changeable to ^t a, or in a 
consonant to which ^ a may be subjoined ,* and the gender is inva- 
riably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word. 

Inflected in the Plural. 

748. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the 
last is inflected in the plural, the declension following the gender of 
the last member of the compound ; as, 3»5TfVrc5;wliT: ' Indra, Anila, 
Yama, and Arka' (for ^^sffreft *Wtsf)ro); *m;c5t?fl!I?ron: 'Rama, 
Lakshmana, and Bharata ;' «jTjTqnr^5J«R^T: ' the deer, the hunter, 
the serpent, and the hog.' The learner will observe, that although 
the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, each 
of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plural 
signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words 
constituting the compound ; thus, ^ra^SjfWl^rS'r^T: ' Brahmans, 
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras;' fJTpf^T^hT;^^: 'friends, neutrals, 
and foes' (for f*?TT% ^ritai: ■%&<m) ; ^f^fv^fnf^jnftt ' sages, 
gods, ancestors, guests, and spirits ' (for ^*ft \%\: flffft s fa^pn £KTfiT ^) ; 
fWS^nr»T?k7TT: 'bons, tigers, and immense serpents;' ^ETTpnirij^ginBt- 

u u 2 



332 COPULATIVE COMPOUNDS (DVANDVA). 

rt,HW t 'fln i fl t ' «lW l!t ' dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and 
crows/ 

749. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enume- 
rated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, vfj^Ninnfr^ 
'virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude* (for >mfs^: sspft jfrersj); 
^juHH^RTffT 'sacrifice, study, and liberality' (for %*m ^WR 
^T»T ^t). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent ; 
as, i ju^rt Mirf lfir ' flowers, roots, and fruits ;' ^Mlri.qri.l&UUlu ' of the 
unborn, the dead, and the foolish* (for qWfiTRr fiTHf «J«HUi ^) ; 
^cT."*<^: t «HNT: ' eyes, mind, and disposition ;' J l,$n < t. | fft.rilM a 4'UH,*l- 
^rfrfftr ' sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afllictions ;' «M8 4 »ld.Mi- 
< *.1 , *. l *lf* f ' wo °d, water, fruit, roots, and honey.' 

750. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are 
enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is 
inflected in the plural ; as, ^TRVjwrr: ' gods and men ;' gcf.'iHdi: 
'sons and grandsons;' (llifWrU: 'falls and rises;' wranrTft'Srn 
'ramparts and trenches;' g^gr^nr 'in pleasures and pains' (for 
*f?h| g :«jh| f) ; m'M.^^Wlfcf ' sins and virtues.' 

Inflected in the Dual. 

751. When only two animate objects are enumerated, in each of 
which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the 
dual, the declension following the gender of the last member; as, 
rj*T<«i8JH!l1 ' Rama and Lakshmana' (for T^ft rf«H<i)3l ) ; ^ > % ffi ' moon 
and sun ;' q'i;?n«ft 'a deer and a crow ;' X T <ii;iirt1 ' wife and husband ;' 
*PJj;tf^ ' pea-hen and cock ;* ^a SH ^jl ' cock and pea-hen.' 

752. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in 
each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected 
in the dual ; as, ^rrrxH^i^ ' beginning and end' (for ^JTC»»ftsg*rR ^) ; 
^rgrjmWn 1 ' affection and enmity' (for ^njrjiftsiirjTra) ; giU*^m<fr 
'joy and sorrow.;' TgfVuqTO 'hunger and thirst' (for WH frnmn ^t); 
WjBrft 'hunger and sickness ;' WRUPnwn* 'by standing and sitting' 
(for wt^«T ^rra^T ^) ; H^Trflrrt ' honey and ghee ; ' ■qwjs:$ ' pleasure 
and pain;' 7^nrk4;*}M*5 'mortar and pestle;' HigrViH j frHmmw 'by 
rising and saluting ;' ijSTftwnw ' by earth and water.' 

Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 

753. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whether 



DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS (kARMA-DHA'kAYA). 333 

singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be inflected 
as above (748, 749, 750, 751), or in the singular number, neut. gender; 
as, Tpi^WTRcSS*! ' flowers, roots, and fruits ' (for lprrftir ^yrftr TRcSrfrr ^f) ; 
*N*ll^*)<«jiHl'*W 'grass, food, water, and fuel' (for T^^fts^* ^gjj? ^swf 
*)'> ^^J^T 'a day and night' (for ^ TTf^J- A form ^"fcra: 
masc. sing, also occurs); f^J^TH 'quarters and countries' (for f^ffr 
^mj) ; a'.ffJ^H or f^fa^* ' day and night ;' f^pcf ?rfaH ' head and 
neck ;' ^nfr^fvT»r * skin, flesh, and blood.' 

a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded ; as, S^JTeW 
sons and grandsons ;' ?wm*l/ elephants and horses :' especially inferior objects ; 
as, ^-^njsirt*^ ' a dog and an outcast.' 

7S4. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to 
form a Dvandva compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, 
and interposing the negative ^1 a,- as, ^*,|-««.^ 'moveable and immoveable' (for 
^T^ ^t ^) ; ^flT^«^'good and evil;' fiWTfift 'in agreeable and disagree- 
able' (for fni ^rfirq ^) ; £81 £«*^ ' seen and not seen ;' <$d|ojiinR ' done and not 
done;' 1"§f|R?T ' gentle and cruel.' 

a. In the Dvandvas which occur in the Vedas the first member of the com- 
pound, as well as the last, may sometimes take a dual termination ; thus, ftj^T^- 
^In (see 97. a), ^5rf^T, flfTOTTnro : and some of the anomalous Dvandvas 
used in more modern Sanskrit are probably Vedic in their character; thus, 
aNnjftl^t 'heaven and earth;' TTHrfHTO 'mother and father,' &c. 

b. It is a general rule, however, that if a compound consists of two stems in ri, 
the final of the first becomes ^9T, as in TTHTTmrTT above. This also happens if the 
last member of the compound be $?T, as fliTT^^T 'father and son.' 

c. Greek and Latin furnish examples of complex compounds involving Dvan- 
dvas; thus, ^aTpa^o-fJLVO-fMc^ia, 'frog-mouse war;' su-ovi-taurilia, ' pig-sheep- 
bull sacrifice ;' %a>o-<pVTOV, 'animal-plant.' Zoophyte is thus a kind of Dvandva. 
In English, compounds like 'plano-convex,' convexo-concave' are examples of 
the relative form of Dvandva explained at 765. 

DESCRIPTIVE (OR DETERMINATIVE) COMPOUNDS (KARMA-DHARAYA). 
755. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by means 
of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanskrit to compound 
the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the 
first member of the compound in its stem ; as, *n^*Pfi * a good man' 
(for *r^: sr:) ; f^faeT^ ' an old friend' (for fat ftr^) ; waipsN: ' a 
troubled ocean;' y^M,<*H 'a holy act;' "SRmTTOTT 'the infinite soul;' 
g *flri*)ra : ' polished speech ;' girqTir^Tftjr ' holy acts' (for ginrrfH «ir*tTfJ!r) ; 
g^fl/TO^n^ 'of the best men' (for TWTT«TT •TtT'ffT^); 'l^r'CTW^ ' a great 



334 NUMERAL COMPOUNDS (DVIGU). 

crime 5 (see 778); n^ncm: 'a great king 5 (see 778); ftPTTO: 'a dear 
friend' (778); ^HNl^ 'a long night' (778). 

a. The feminine stems of adjectives do not generally appear in 
compounds; thus, fni^TPlT 'a dear wife' (for firm HPft); TsfnTTCT 
'a great wife' (for Jnpft HliJT, see 778); feM^lSl 'a beautiful wife* 
(for ^tjwift «wt) ; qra*;^ ' a female cook' (for qif^+l ^t). 

b. There are, however, a few examples of feminine adjective stems 
in compounds ; e. g. ^Tjfte*T*h ' a wife with beautiful thighs ;" ^irfiT- 
•fHnTi 'an impassioned woman,' where =nftpft may be used sub- 
stantively (cf. 766. b). 

756. An indeclinable word or prefix may take the place of an adjective in this 
kind of compound ; thus, ^TTt * a good road ;' ^fijW*^ ' a fine day ;' ^pfjfinP^ 
'good speech;' g^rftjP^'bad conduct;' ^WJ^ 'not fear,' 'absence of danger;' 
Wp.^ifi*^ 'external cleanliness' (from vahis, 'externally,' and sauca, 'purity'); 
'JRTC^jN'^ ' internal purity ; ' V$£H^ ' a slight inspection ;' ^j.^M: ' a bad man.' 

757. Adjectives used as substantives sometimes occupy the last place in 
Descriptive compounds ; as, TOPHf'TOt ' a very just man ;' M^J^d*^ ' a very 
wonderful thing.' 

a. In the same manner, substantives, used adjectively, may occupy the first 
place ; as, «i«> # £=qTft!J 'impure substances ;' TTirftt ' a royal sage.' 

758. Descriptive compounds expressing 'excellence' or 'eminence' fall under 
this class, and are composed of two substantives, one of which is used as an adjec- 
tive to describe or define the other, and is placed last, being generally the name of 
an animal denoting 'superiority;' as, ^^ 1^1 lit 'man-tiger,' Tj^M JJjf^t 'man- 
bull,' $^f*Hf: ' man-lion,' ^^^N: ' man-bull,' i. e. ' an illustrious man.' 

Similarly, tPl\*~(fl*\ ' an excellent woman ' (gem of a woman) ; ^TRP^ ' face- 
lotus,' i. e. lotus-like face.' 

a. So other compounds expressive of 'comparison' or 'resemblance' are usually 
included in native grammars under the Karma-dharaya class. In these the adjec- 
tive is placed last ; as, ^[mr^cS:, -'PJT, -<^, 'fickle as a shadow ;' ^a ffi.^Wt , 
-IT, -JT^, ' dark as a cloud ;' *JJTC;F«r*tflijj:, -i§T, -5^, 'spread out like a mountain.' 

b. The following are examples of Greek and. Latin compounds falling under this 
class ; jJ.eyako-ixvJTVip, ItTO-irtSov, peyako-voia, y/Ai-Kvvv, sacri-portus, men-dies 
(for medi-dies), decem-viri, semi-deus. Parallel compounds in English are, ' good- 
will,' 'good-sense,' 'ill-nature,' 'holiday,' 'blackguard,' &c. 

NUMERAL (OR COLLECTIVE) COMPOUNDS (DVIGU). 
759. A numeral is often compounded with a substantive to form 
a collective noun, but the last member of the compound is generally 
in the neuter singular ; thus, ^gf v^ ' the four ages' (for M^Tft frnftr) ; 



ADVERBIAL COMPOUNDS (AVYAYI-BHA'VA). 335 

*njff$»^ ' the four quarters ;' fai^ ' three days' {triduum) ; ?&TIW{ 
' three nights' {xm being substituted for tT%, see 778); *rs^ ' three 
years' (triennium); r^njrq 'the five fires.' 

a. Rarely the stems of numerals are compounded with plural substantives ; as, 
^f^K 'the four castes;' IT^TOT: 'five arrows;' Wtthi: 'the seven stars of 
Ursa Major.' 

b. Sometimes the last member of the compound is in the feminine singular, with 
the termination $; as, fdril *t 'the three worlds.' 

c. Compare Greek and Latin compounds like TtTpao&ov, rpivvKTtov, ridonnrov, 
triduum, triennium, trinoctium, quadrivium, quinquertium. 

ADVERBIAL OR INDECLINABLE COMPOUNDS (AVYAYt-BHAVA). 

760. In this class of indeclinable (avyaya, i. e. na vyeti, ' what does 
not change') compounds the first member must be either a preposition 
(such as ^rfir, ^rfv, srg, ufir, &c., at 783) or an adverbial prefix (such 
as *r*n 'as,' ^rpr^'as far as/ ^r or ^ 'not,' ^ 'with,' &c.) The 
last member is a substantive which takes the form of an accusative 
case neuter, whatever may be the termination of its stem; thus, 
*|i|i;<}l¥*t 'according to faith' (from xr«rr and ^t); irfiTftT^ ' every 
night' (from Ttfit and f^T^n); nfirf^TH ' in every quarter' (from jjfTi 
and f^3i); ^rfirg 'beyond the ship' (from ^rfk and •$). 

a. Many of these compounds are formed with the adverbial prepo- 
sition *nr, generally contracted into *r; thus, ^rafar^ 'with anger ' 
(from * and ^Shr); HT^T^ ' with respect' (*t ^IT^?^); qT SM ffMIH^ * with 
prostration of eight parts of the body ;' ijfarftr (i. e. sa-upadhi) 
' fraudulently ;' *rrf"T ' with fire.' Panini (n. 1, 9, &c.) gives some 
unusual forms with postpositions ; as, SRirfiT ' a little sauce.' 

b. The following are examples of indeclinable compounds with other prefixes ; 
OdTtJH^ ' according to seniority ;' HtqjJ^ * over every limb ;' nfirHfB^ ' every 
month' (730. e); *T*irfafa 'according to rule;' xrqrjrfli or 'l||<JflJ*Ii( (49) 
' according to one's ability ;' *l«fl,g<a*t v ' happily ;' *TflT^[ ' suitably,' ' worthily ;' 
T*rteT*^ ' as described ;' W^SpO^ ' every moment ;' *WT5[^ ' before the eyes' (778) ; 
HfiraW{ 'upon the shoulders;' ^rfv^5f^' upon the tree;' <JMHlfr5^ftiftt^ 'near 
the banks of the Malini ;' ^W^PI^ 'without doubt ;' faff ffa^ ' without distinc- 
tion ;' *P*M;sJ*^ ' in the middle of the Ganges.' 

c. Analogous indeclinable compounds are found in Latin and Greek; such as 
admodum, obviam, affatim, avTifliriv, avriPtitv, iweppopw, 7rapa%pyfJ.ti. In these, 
however, the original gender is retained, whereas, according to the Sanskrit rule, 
obvium would be written for obviam, and affate for affatim. In Greek compounds 



336 RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VBfm). 

like a-yjfiepov, the feminine ij/uep« appends a neuter form, as in Sanskrit. In 
English ' uphill.' 

d. The neuter word 4IV|M 'for the sake of,' ' on account of (see 731. Obs.), is often 
used at the end of compounds; thus, «a*»j*i*^ for the sake of sleep;' *i«iig8l«ll , q*^ 

for the sake of the performance of business.' See, however, 731, note. 

e. There is a peculiar adverbial compound formed by doubling a nominal stem, 
the final of the first member of the compound being lengthened, and the final of 
the last changed to \i. It generally denotes mutual contact, reciprocity, or oppo- 
sition ; thus, «|?tlgfs 'fist to fist;' ^iKfty ' stick to stick' (fighting); ^iff^T 
' share by share ;' b^Hchf*!)! ' pulling each other's hair ;' •sia-iTsf ' body to body ;' 
•rigqigfa 'arm to arm ;' HWMfe 'scratching each other.' 

/. Something in the same manner, ^P*T and IT, another,' are doubled ; thus, 
VH^-H^, TTJPTC^, 'one another,' 'mutually,' 'together.' 

RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (MOSTLY EQUIVALENT TO BAHU-VRfHI). 

761. The compounds in the preceding four divisions are generally 
terminated by substantives, the sense of each being in that case 
absolute and complete in itself. Most of such compounds may be 
used relatively, that is, as epithets of other words, the final substan- 
tive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective (see 108, 
119, 130, 134. a). We have given the name relative to compounds 
when thus used, not only for the obvious reason of their being 
relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they 
usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated 
into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved 
by native commentators into their equivalent uncompounded words 
by the aid of the genitive case of the relative (i&&i). Thus, Hg i tHW 
is a Descriptive compound, meaning 'great wealth, 5 and may be 
used adjectively in relation to g^r:, thus *r?TOT: ^^: * a man who 
has great wealth ;' or to ^ft, thus n^TVRT ^gft ' a woman who has 
great wealth ;' and would be resolved by native commentators into 
5TOT or H^n 1f3 V»J*(. In English we have similar compounds, as 
'high-minded,' 'left-handed,' and the like, where the substantive 
terminating the compound is converted into an adjective. 

Relative form of Tat-purusha or Dependent Compounds. 

7 6%. Many Dependent compounds (especially those that are instru- 

mentally dependent at 740) are already in their own nature relative, 

and cannot be used except in connexion with some other word in 

the sentence. But, on the other hand, many others, and especially 



RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VEmi). 337 

those which are genitively dependent, constituting by far the largest 
number of this class of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and 
yield a sense complete in itself. These may be made relative by 
declining the final word after the manner of an adjective; thus, 
^•Sjcpfir:, -fir:, -fir, ' moon-shaped' (see 119), from the absolute com- 
pound ^xjTf fir: ' the shape of the moon/ 

a. Other examples are, ^^tj:, -TIT, -V^, 'whose form is godlike' (see 108); 
^JWre:, -^T, -^, 'splendid as the sun' (108); ^fer^:, -^T, -^*, 
'elephant-footed' (see 57); *TRTpir:, -fin, -nl^, 'ending at the sea;' JTOIpiT:, 
-nfT, -nT^, 'terminated by death ;' cITO^im:, -*JI, -*P^, or cR^g^!, -^T, -^, 
'headed by Karna;' fawysj^rlim, "*"» ~*> 'named Vishnus'arman ' (see 134); 
pstfaj^:, -T^T, -T^, 'lotus-eyed' (see 778); fTTCHUDTW, -^TT, -*U^, 'called 
Narayana;' VT^<5:, -c5T, -«5^, 'founded on wealth;' ri^tf^nfir (agreeing 
with VTTTtT), 'money to the amount of a lac;' T^T^cT:, -*jTT, -H^, 'having a 
club in the hand,' or ' club-in-hand ;' 3^3^11%:, -ftu:, -fiff, 'arms-in-hand;' 
iiw.SWJj -WT, -W{, 'net-in-hand;' y«j;f^m[:, -TTT, -*p^, ' on the subject of 
flowers,' 'relating to flowers;' un^TO, -TJ, -t^, 'having meditation for one's 
chief occupation;' Kf^W., -?TT, -?P(, 'having his knowledge.' These examples 
are not distinguishable from absolute dependent compounds, except by declension 
in three genders. 

6. Similar compounds are found in Greek ; e. g. mTto-ykotaaos , ' horse-tongued.' 

J63. Many of them, however, are not found, except as relatives ; 
and if used absolutely would yield a different sense ; thus, cin§ i|<siH 
means ' the face of Karna/ but when used relatively, as <*^gw UjTr:, 
' the kings headed by Karna/ So also vjk-^w: signifies ' the eye of 
the spy,' but when used relatively, as ^rc^^TTSTT, 'a king who sees 
by means of his spies.' See 166. c. 

764. The substantive Wfif,, 'a beginning,' when it occurs in the last member 
of a compound of this nature, is used relatively to some word expressed or under- 
stood, and yields a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is generally found either in 
the plural or neuter singular ; as, ^•^Tppft ' Indra and the others ' (agreeing with 
the nom. case ?ptn expressed or understood, ' the gods commencing with Indra'); 
W«tH<£l»U*l ' of Agni and the others' (agreeing with *J=dctiHi»i understood, ' of 
those above-named things of which Agni was the first'); ^TS^T^fa 'the eyes, 
&c.' (agreeing with ^r»rHllfiU 'the senses commencing with the eyes'). When 
used in the neut. sing, it either agrees with ^11**^, ' the aforesaid,' understood, or 



* HT? may be substituted for 1T^ in compounds of this kind, but not after 
fftcfi;. See 778. 

x x 



338 BELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VBIHl). 

with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iti * may be prefixed ; 
as, ^iftpiJTf^ ' the word dwdn, &c.' (agreeing with ^HW^ understood, ' the afore- 
said sentence of which demin is the first word'); TTTTfipTT 'by liberality, &&' 
(agreeing with some class, of things understood, ' by that class of things of which 
liberality is the first'). See also 772. 

a. It may occasionally be used in the masc. sing. ; as, flTWWTfift ' brooms, &c.' 
(agreeing with 4<44<H: 'furniture'). 

b. Sometimes ^ITf^=B is used for Wfif ; as, ^imG$<**</ gifts, &c. :' and some- 
times ^TOi as, ^nJTin: ^K 'the gods of whom Indra is the first.* 

c. The feminine substantive Jfljfn", 'beginning,' may be used in the same way; 
thus, frJTPJili: ^fCn 'the gods^ beginning with Indra;' n^f giHr>Hlfa,IPgfl1>li*l 

of those villagers, &c.' 

d. Observe — The neuter of ^TtfiiJ may optionally take the terminations of the 
masculine in all but the nom. and ace. cases; thus, ^twdi^tt 'of elephants, 
horses, &c.' (agreeing with Ac6iM gen. neut. of ^W ' an army'). 

Relative form of Dvandva or Copulative Compounds. 

765. Copulative (or Aggregative) compounds are sometimes used 
relatively ; especially in the case of adjectives or participles ; as, 
^rasr^jli:, -W, -W{, 'black and white' (cf. XevKo-fniXai); mit l ^frf w:, 
-WT, -TT^, 'bathed and anointed;' Mk ( iUHU^:, -^T, -%*{, 'belonging to 
town and country ;' ^rrri^TT., -TfT, -1P^ ' done and done badly ;' 
^pTT^T*:, -m, ->^, ' good and evil' (754) ; *F5£%*v:, -*VT, -np^, ' thick 
and unctuous;' fin$ra£t%fT7f:, -KT, -TC^, 'noiseless and motionless' 
(night) ; Jj^hnTfirg^rei? ' of him taken and let loose.' See other 
examples under Complex Compounds. 

Obs. — Many compounds of this kind are classed by native gram- 
marians under the head of Tat-purusha (Pan. 11. 1, 69), though the 
accent in many conforms to the rule for Bahu-vrihi (vi. 2, 3). 

Relative form of Karma-dlidraya or Descriptive Compounds. 

766. A greater number of compound words may be referred to 
this head than to any other. Every style of writing abounds with 
them; thus, ^rarpflC, -flK, -fa, * whose strength is small' (119). 

a. Other examples are, flfr^:, -<5I, -55^,' whose strength is great' (108, 
see also 778); WgT^Sn:, -»TT:, -»T:, 'whose glory is great' (164. o); <3^<nT«rc, 
-«TT, -•PI, 'whose wealth is small;' «TfTT*TT, -WT, -W, 'high-minded' (151); 
^Tt^ftiW:, -rTT, -if^, 'of noble demeanour;' ^TOtf, -RTT, -W^, 'having 

* Sometimes evam is prefixed ; as, CTOT^rtVr Tl?n*nf«T ' lamentations begin- 
ning thus.' 



RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VKIHl). 8B9 

many fish;' y^+lfcW:, -7JT, -pS»T, "having very little water;' iftBW^^f*' 
-fg:, -fg, 'of wise intellect' (119); f!Tl?Tr§5>-*iT, -^H, 'having a dear wife^ 
^SSPSITPVR:, -HT, -fV\, 'not to be reconciled;' S^TT^ni?:, agreeing with 
Kl^tl, a king who conceals what ought to be concealed.' 

b. Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound; as, 
^shfTO 'having a sixth wife.' Compare 755. b. 

767. Although a passive participle is not often prefixed to a 
noun in an absolute sense, this kind of combination prevails most 
extensively in the formation of relative compounds ; as, Tmr^ra:, 
-3T, -c5^, ' whose time has arrived.' 

a. Other examples are, ftfrifVilli, -TIT, -^, 'whose passions are subdued;' 
^riii^WTS, -TIT:, -It'., 'whose mind is composed;' flgBTPTTt, -«TT;-, -T!, 'whose 
mind is rejoiced' (see 164); >TnW$i:, — T?TT, • J 5P^, 'whose hopes are broken;' 
5<f,<iTi(!, -vUl, -iT^j 'whose kingdom is taken away;' ^rftRrHHTJ, -^TH, 
-»n, 'whose glory is boundless;' ^TtM^c*^, -Tgt, "fy 'whose death is near;' 
^H'^TT:, -m, -T*^, 'whose desire is accomplished,' i.e. 'successful;' ^TT^- 
WTJ, -«TI, -«1*^, 'one who has finished eating;' OTrfVplil^ll^:, -^5TT, -^pf^, <one 
by whom the Sastras have not been read;' fW^^*H, -*Tt, -VR, or ^'rt.S^'**!, 

whose heart is pierced;' fitTT^ig;, -<J:, -<?[> 'who has conquered his enemies;' 
fgfg^f^r:, -^IT, -^1*, 'having the hair cut;' f^TtT^PT:, -TT, -•I'T, 'eating 
sparingly;* 'JH^Ttt:, -iTf, -tPT, 'purified from sin.' 

b. The suffix ^ ka is often added; as, tJ(T?ft=BJ, -3&T, -=F^, 'reft of fortune;' 
SpTfr^^K, -T^a, ~'<^ x [, ' shorn of (his) beams.' Cf. 769. 0. 

c. Examples of Greek and Latin compounds of this kind are, fi.tyaXtj-ite<f>a.\os, 
ft.eya\o-[Ji.YjTis, tevKo-TTTepof, TtoXv-ypvaof, ^pv^eo-trre^avog, ifiv-yXtiiaaos, 
epy]fJio-7ro\i(, magn-animus, longi-manus, multi-comus, albi-comus, mutti-vius, atri- 
color. In English compounds of this kind abound ; e.g. blue-eyed,' narrow- 
minded,' ' good-tempered,' ' pale-faced,' &c. 

Relative form of Doigu or Numeral Compounds. 

768. Numeral or Dvigti compounds may be used relatively ; as, 
fk;w:, -*DT> -^» ' two-leaved ;' f^ffa^:, -^T or -7ft, -Tpr, ' tri-ocular.' 

a. Other examples are, fgr^v:, -VT, -VW, ' three-headed' CJJf being substituted 
for ^^, see 778); ^f^:, -^, -^, 'four-faced;' "Tip^i:, "*!IT, -W[, 
'quadrangular;' ^TiTSTt:, -*T, -J?{, 'hundred-gated;' ^gf#ST; s -3TT, -5PT, 'pos- 
sessed of the four sciences' (108); ^5TT^:, -^t, -^*, ' thousand-eyed' (see 778); 
qsf J|eTU«i:, ""^j "*T'!j 'having the wealth of five bullocks.' 

Relative form of Compounds with Adverbial Prefixes. 

769. The adverbial compounds most frequently employed rela- 
tively as adjectives are those formed with the adverbial preposition 

x x a 



340 RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VRl'Hl). 

3? 'with,' contracted into *; thus, *rsW, -VT, -V*, 'angry' (lit. 
' with-anger,' 'having anger'); *nR5j:, -«5T, -7i\, 'fruitful' (108); 
"^*S : > -^H', -"*%, 'possessed of kindred' (119); *nj<?i:, -<?T, -W{> 
'energetic;' *r»rta:, -^t, -^w, 'possessed of Ufe,' 'living;' «M><:, 
-^T, -^R, 'joyful ;' w*f^l, -"^T, -^, ' accompanied by ministers ;' 
*r»Tn?5 'accompanied by a wife,' 'having a wife;' *T5*n, -i*IT, -»^> 
' strung' (as a bow, lit. ' with-bowstring'). 

Oba.— When adverbial compounds like IVll^fiH (760. b) are used at the begin- 
ning of relative compounds, the final >T is dropped ; e. g. •q«liai 4 , =qi<<HJ, -tS, -Xff, 
' employed in the manner described.' 

a. The suffix «S ha (80. LVI) ia often added to this kind of compound ; as, *\*R<*'., 
-=RT, -«!5*I, 'possessed of fortune;' B^jjfhs:, -cRT, -«RS, 'accompanied by women.' 

b. In some compounds ?Tt[ remains ; as, *!?"=! 151; * with his army ;' tt^gat 
' along with his son.' 

c. ^ is also used for «wi«i ' same j' as, ?T»ft«|: , -^T, -W{, ' of the same family.' 

d. There are of course many examples of nouns combined with adverbial prefixes, 
so as to form relative compounds, which cannot be regarded as relative forms of 
Avyayi-bhava; thus, d^J^V:, -VT, -V*I, 'with uplifted weapon;' ♦llli.H'*!*.:, 
-TT, -T??, 'of various shapes;' HffilVra:, -?JT, -WT, 'where dwelling?' ai # »t«Hi, 
-■SJTT, -■*?, 'where born?' fatTOV:, -VT, -V*, 'without fault;' fiWTfTt:, -XI, 
-t»T, 'having no food;' ^Tjnf\'., -Wfc, -fw, 'fearless' (123. 5); iPTTfW, -VI, -VI, 
'of that kind, 5 'in such a state;' §"§%!, ~fSl, -f5, 'weak-minded;' ^"flopfii;, 
-fill, -fif, 'ill-natured;' ^JsT:, "^ or "^» ""^j 'handsome-faced;' ^f-s:, 
-fSl, -fS, 'of good understanding.' Some of the above may be regarded as 
relative forms of Descriptive compounds, formed with indeclinable prefixes ; see 
756. Similar compounds in Greek and Latin are, av-ypepos, ev-ovj\o( s in-imicus, 
in-felisc, dis-similis, semi-plenus. 

e. Observe—The adverbial prefixes g^ and ?J (726. d.f) impart a passive sense 
to participial nouns of agency, just as ov<r and eii in Greek ; thus, C**«. ' difficult 
to be done,' ^=m ' easy to be done ;' grt»T ' difficult to be obtained,' Wt&X 'easy 
to be attained ;' g^ETC ' difficult to be crossed.' Cf. tv(f>opos, 'easy to be borne ;' 
SiWo/jo?, ' difficult to be passed,' &c. 

/. ^T/ITO, -TT, -1P[j ' possessed of a master,' is used at the end of compounds 
to denote simply 'possessed of,' 'furnished with ;' thus, f<lriM.4M1li f$| rf'TO^^ 
''a stone-seat furnished with a canopy;' f3T<4IMg', J <MI , 'fl *W!51t 'an arbour having 
a marble-slab as its master,' i. e. ' furnished with,' ' provided with,' &c. Similarly, 
^^TtRT^ft V3^1^i: 'a fig-tree occupied by a number of cranes.' 

g. Observe — The relative form of a compound would be marked in Vedic San- 
skrit by the accent. , In the Karma-dharaya compound mahd-bdhu, ' great arm,' 
the accent would be on the last syllable, thus ♦f^Rljj ; but in the Relative mahd- 
bdhu, 'great-armed,' on the ante-penultimate, thus, H?fwt?. So, native com- 
mentators often quote as an example of the importance of right accentuation, the 



COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS. 341 

word Indra-htru, which, accented on the first syllable, would be Bahu-vrihi (see 
Pan. vi. 2, i, by which the first member retains its original accent); but accented 
on the penultimate would be Tat-purusha. The sense in the first case is ' having 
Indra for a conqueror or destroyer ;' in the second, ' the destroyer of Indra.' 

h. Note, that »Jiiw^i and ^tj (80. LXXIX) are used at the end of relative com- 
pounds to denote composed of,' 'consisting of;' but are more frequently found 
at the end of complex relatives ; see 774. 

COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS. 

770. We have now to speak of complex compound words, 
or compounds within compounds, which form a most remarkable 
feature in Sanskrit composition. Instances might be given of 
twenty or thirty words thus compounded together ; but these are 
the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and 
are only curious as shewing that the power of compounding words 
may often be extravagantly abused. But even in the best specimens 
of Sanskrit composition, and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, 
or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving 
two or three forms under one head. It will be easy, however, to 
determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules pro- 
pounded in the preceding pages. 

Instances of absolute complex compounds, whose sense is complete 
and unconnected, are not rare. 

a. The following are examples : <*i c>»| •««.;'} Wi3p*T9WTf*T ' good and evil 
(occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time,' the whole being a dependent, 
involving a dependent and* a copulative; %ni.Mfit 4 =icoj«l«!T 'the general of the 
army and the overseer of the forces,' the whole being a copulative, involving two 
dependents ; $fl <*l tjfir* M, d 1 *U*\ ' the protection from sorrow, enemies, and perils,' 
the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative ; ^t^ftftil^S^ 1 w^ 'the 
disregarded words of a friend,' the whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent ; 
3]|j!iyOTI<!*r<IH ' a white robe and a string of garlands,' the whole being a copu- 
lative, involving a descriptive and dependent ; f^^IT^IT^T: ' one who has gone 
to the opposite bank (para) of all the S&stras,' i. e. 'one who has read them through ;' 
IpTifl^T^fifJT ' the bones of a dead lion.' 

771. Complex compounds are generally used as adjectives, or 
relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; thus, 
JTfcSiT'rcrTnH:, -tft, -?F, 'whose nails and eyes were decayed,' the 
whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving a copulative ; 
■ETrWr «in!3: ' having a throat emaciated with hunger,' the whole being 
the relative form of descriptive, involving a dependent. 



342 COMPLEX COMPOUND NOTJNS. 

a. Other examples are, ^."Hr^ITgWJH:, -?TT, -H^, 'having a white garland 
and unguents,' the whole heing the relative form of copulative, involving a 
descriptive; 'ft^,'*«li»*ft<j , t 4Wt ' bToad-shouldered and strong-armed,' the whole 
being a copulative, involving two descriptives ; JjLI.I**'.^:, -ITT, -H*^ ' done in a 
former birth,' the whole being a dependent, involving a descriptive; Tqsh.q- 
jft"<ra; , -5T, -IFT, 'advanced in learning and age,' the whole being a dependent, 
involving a copulative; ^fajl^S?! ^fi^t^T: , -TTT, -»^, 'having fresh garlands, 
and being free from -dust,' the whole being the relative form of copulative, 
involving a descriptive and dependent; ^jfaqoiijj^r^n.it, -TJ', -Xi, 'whose head 
was moist with unction ;' TMfannp^:, -T^T or -79% -T^, ' having the face turned 
in any direction one likes;' i^rt,«js<. 4 S*lt, -WT, -^P^, ' spear and club in hand;' 
?oSrtr^f7J%TfVf«tttJ, -7rT,-TW, 'sufficient for support during one night ' (see 778); 
^p^jWips^^lTSr^rnrtfaslT; 'those who are acquainted with the meaning of 
the three Vedas, called Rig, Yajur, and Sama;' 4l^8^>ri'aA^,'iim < ndl* 'biting 
their lips and having red eyes ' (agreeing with <l»t!«tf); *H'ijl£J**l # 'ftj 'injuring 
another by action or by intention.' 

772. The substantive ^nflj, 'a beginning,' often occurs in complex relative 
compounds, with the force of et cetera, as in simple relatives at 764 ; thus, sm«ii # « i- 
r<4l<^Ji: 'parrots, starlings, &c.' (agreeing with Tftspfft 'birds beginning with 
parrots and starlings '), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving 
an aggregative ; ^ffai.rqttsjfif ' peace, war, &c.' (agreeing with g^iai*^ under- 
stood); 'J^ii'ii^lG^^B, "W, -W*^5 'possessed of houses, temples, &c. ;' 
^ft'j'l.'l.'+lM jf<J < MfV.'«A^;<J'Hi Mf ~fW, -UP^, ' possessed of property such as elephants, 
horses, treasure, &c.' 

a. Similarly, ^Ift in the example T^TJT'WOT: (agreeing with 0aT5 'garlands 
possessing the best odour and other qualities'). 

773. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the 
last word and proceeding regularly backwards, as in the following : H^TnjoFT^fjf- 
^Srg^TH»4;K..rHrrirt,'*lf%rtirt)M;*l^r1rf*y<?l]' : l^:, -«JT» "?*> 'causing pleasure 
by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the 
swarms of joyous bees.' 

774. ■siirH<* or ^H, at the end of a complex relative, denotes 'composed of;' 
thus, ^Wji« > <«l j M^irri t ch§«li<Jr«<* ~%c&{ ' a force consisting of elephants, horses, 
chariots, infantry, and servants ;' Mi'<t«H ( 4jafiien^Ni t «&s «k*i*u1 'the two actions 
consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.' 

775. Complex compounds may sometimes have their second or middle member 
omitted ; thus, ^fHsTPT^Pfira^ is really a complex compound, the whole being 
a descriptive, involving a dependent; but the middle member WK is elided. 
Similarly, Jiri+mfvH: 'the era-king' is for ^rn^ftT^tr^T. "the king (beloved) 
by the era ;' faspft^^ft for ftfliHHIKlttf ' Urvas'i gained by valour.' 

a. Complex compounds expressive of comparison are not uncommon; as, 
f «9fa 'J. w^^TTBS , -<5T, -c3^, 'unsteady and trembling as a drop of water;' 



ANOMALOUS COMPOUNDS. 343 

"^^jft^ifn^nw., -c3T, -<5*r, 'tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus;' 
the last two examples are complex. Compare 758. a. 

b. A peculiar compound of this kind is formed from Dvandvas by adding the 
Suffix {ya; thus, gngrTfTjyhi: , -ITT, -**, ' like the story of the crow and the palm- 
tree ;' ^TRiMl?:, -IT, -HW, 'like the story of the hawk and the pigeon.' 

c. The substantive verb must often be supplied in connexion with a relative com- 
pound ; as, JTTW^'pF^i: ' his success was proportionate to his undertakings ;' 
*flrfl«*ffa 'on his drinking water,' for 7R ^wfa ifld tffir . 

776. Complex compound adverbs, or indeclinable compounds, 
involving other compounds, are sometimes found ; as, ^rn^fitf^TO 
' not differently from one's own house ;» ^R^TOrT/Pinc^ ' after utter- 
ing a sound ;' «R^;fg?m?rar»^T^^ ' regardlessly of the curving 
of her waist bending under the weight of her bosom;' *rer??T!ntw 
' as seen and heard.' 

ANOMALOUS COMPOUNDS. 

777. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation 
to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. 

a. «ft«H, ^fTT,. <pi, ?TRf , ♦fiff, affixed to stems, form anomalous compounds ; 
see 80. LVII, LXX— LXXII, LXXVI. 

b. There is a common compound formed by placing W^ifX. after a nominal stem 
to express 'another,' 'other;' as, WRJ/inTr or ^TRTt*!' another place;' Ttsrpjrw 
Wjf along with another king ;' SpTPflTrfts ' other births.' 

c. Similarly, *nef is added to express ' mere ;' see 919. 

d. ^% or TJ?N or ^^:WC (meaning literally 'preceded by') may be added to 
nominal stems to denote the manner in which anything is done ; as, 'jJffartrtT ' with 
anger;' ^.ll.&l^i'f^IW i»<*T 'he gave food with reverence.' 

e. A peculiar compound is formed by the use of an ordinal number as the last 
member ; thus, *nT*T%iit*rc ' accompanied by the Sarasa ;' TftTTTTJiifai; (agreeing 
with TTTi) 'having Sita for his third (companion),' i.e. including Lakshmana; 
VKim.feiftirc («Tr5:) 'Nala made double by his shadow;' *<IiJ,NBT: (HH!33T!) 
'the Pandavas with their mother as the sixth;' ^^T '»ilH?HM'.M'=5lHTi 'the Vedas 
with the Akhyanas as a fifth;' ^W^iT^IT H'RJ "ten cows and one bull' (Manu 
xi. 129). 

/. The following are peculiar : WPHSfttVinnVT ' a fighter who abandons life ;' 
Wgifl.Wi:, -IT, -TJH, 'having no fear from any quarter;' W^B^^t, -%T, -%H, 
'never before seen;' *iM t <ieijft7f! 'one who has lodged seven nignts.' 

g. With regard" to compounds like T'tj^ii desirous of going,' see 871. 

h. The Veda has some peculiar compounds ; e. g. vidad-vasu, granting wealth;' 
ydvayad-dveshas, defending from enemies;' kshayad-vira, ruling over men.' 
These are a kind of inverted Tat-purusha. 



344 CHANGES OP CERTAIN WORDS IN CERTAIN COMPOUNDS. 

CHANGES OF CERTAIN WORDS IN CERTAIN COMPOUNDS. 

778. The following is an alphabetical list of the substitutions and 
changes which take place in the final syllables of certain words 
when used in certain compounds. They are called by native gram- 
marians Samasanta suffixes. They are properly only added to 
Tat-purusha compounds (which include Karma-dharaya). 

^n!J at end of various compounds for ^rffef n. 'the eye ;' e. g. n^TSJJ ' a bull's 
eye (window) ;' rtM^rtlSI '. , -*ft, -W\> ' red-eyed .' — tH *c4 for ^1 jffcj f . ' the finger ;' 
e. g. 3np35, -<3T, -e9^, ' measuring two fingers.' — iSiyrt for ^I^fe m. 'joining 
the hands in reverence.' — ^R3 for ^re=J«^ m. 'a road;' e.g. HH3*, -&3T, -WJ, 
' distant (as a road).' — 1155 in Dvandvas for , 5«T5? m. ' a bull ;' e. g. IJHHd^'l 
or -«TT ' cow and bull.' — ^t»IW in Karma-dharayas for tHH^ n. ' a cart,' ' a carriage ;' 
e. g. H% T^a^ ' a large cart ' (Pan. v. 4, 94). — WW in Karma-dharayas for ^PTC( n, 

' iron.' — ^npi in Karma-dharayas for 'Wi(*<«t > m. ' a stone.' ^TO for ^iftl f. ' an 

anglej' e.g. ig*.^:, -^IT, -W^, 'quadrangular.' — ^TH in Dvigus and relative 
compounds for ^re»^; e.g. ^JETTI^'a car drawn by eight oxen;' WET^im?*:, 
-W, -W^, 'having eight receptacles.' — ^nffain Dvandvas for wNlm. n. 'the 

knee ;' e. g. «i5«1h«^ ' thigh and knee.' — ^IW for ^rftsf 'a bone.' ^ or ^I?T 

for ^llli^n. 'a day;' e.g. U^ir?: 'the period of one day;' ipPITiHT ' a holy-day ;' 
STf tfiflr: 'the lord of day.' — ^g for ^T^n. 'a day ;' e. g. ^1^,: 'the forenoon.' 
— ^l for W{f. ' water ;' e. g. ifap? ' an island ;' iHiHIuh ' an island.' — ^l^for 
f^ 'a wound' (Pan. v. 4, 126). — T«J in Karma-dharayas for ~3%\ m. 'an ox;' 
e. g. W%tq: * a large ox.' — 7^ for 7^i n. ' water ;' e. g. '3^»f: ' a water-jar ;' 
T$rtti?[: 'the sea of milk.' — 7T3J in Karma-dharayas for 3T^ u. 'the breast;' 
e.g. ^ttH:, -*ft, -Wf, 'broad-chested as a horse.' — ^TOT an old dual form 
in Dvandvas for T^f. n. 'the dawn;' e. g. JMI«M{5« ' dawn and sun' (Pan. vi. 
3> 3 1 )- — Wl (f. '3ijft) for "3iV^n. 'an udder,' at end of Bahu-vrihis (Pan. iv. 
1. 25); e -g- T ft«fafl' 'having a full udder;' SHft 'having two udders;' ^Wltf 
having an exceedingly large udder.' — "3HI for ^Jtjf. 'water ;' e. g. ^JJT: , -TT, -tm, 
'near water,' 'watery.' — ^ for ^r; see 779. — cR^ for oR^ m . 'the top,' 
' head ;' e.g. fW^R^'three-peaked (mountain).' — ^ or ^KI or =RW for ^ express- 
ing inferiority or diminutions e.g. ^gm or SSNl r <*^U I| 'slightly warm;' 
WC» bad letter;' ^J^V. 'a coward.' — 3*1^ at end of Bahu-vrihis for 
SfiTcj^ m. 'the palate;' e.g. f^RiTf ^'having no palate.' — ?pf for «ffa? m. 'the 
belly.' — ^K for ITItt ; e. g. ^ Wprfl[ ' half a khari ' (a measure). — irfsv for V^V 
m. ' smell ;' e. g. ffiinf^:, -f*r:, -f*r, ' fetid.' — m in Dvigus for »ft m. f. ' an 
ox ;' e. g. ■q^n^H ' a collection of five cows.' — sip for ^ ' four ;' see 779. — 
3HJ for mm ' a wife ;' e. g. ^Wfift du. ' husband and wife.' — iW^ for SPH ' a 
tooth;' e.g. ^SWT, ->W, -*H, 'grass-toothed,' 'graminivorous.' — Snfir for 
*TTOT f. ' a wife ;' e. g. p^ftT'. ' having a young wife.'—? and ^ in Bahu-vrihis 



CHANGES OP CERTAIN WORDS IN CERTAIN COMPOUNDS. 345 

for ^ n. 'the knee;' e.g. w:, -|:, -^, r W:, -STT, -^, 'bandy-kneed.' — 
fr$( for n«sj^ m. ' a carpenter ;' e. g. ^JW^: ' a carpenter who works on his own 
account;' JJTWm'. 'the village carpenter.' — H»WT in Karma-dharayas (preceded 

by V*{, ^R, or ^8W) for 71^ n. * darkness ;' e. g. ^RflUS^ ' slight darkness.' 

F^T for FT*, see 779. — ^(f. ^jft) f or ^T m. ' a tooth ;' e. g. $ ^, -^ift, -^, 
' having beautiful teeth.' — ^ for STT1T ' a wife ;' e. g. 3«Trft ' husband and wife ' 
(according to some, ' the two lords of the dama or house '). — f^T at end and f^T at 
beginning forfi^m. 'the day;' e.g. 'SR^f^'night and days' %rfH3l^'day 
and night.' — f^$l at end for f^ST, see Gana S'arad-ddi to Pan. v. 4, 107. — gTJ at 
end for || 'yielding milk ;' e.g. 3iTHptT 'the cow of plenty.' — 3TRT an old dual 
form for f^f.' heaven;' SJT^lijf'STSql du. 'heaven and earth.' — V^^ at end of 

Bahu-vrihis for^^n. 'a bow;' e.g. I^V^TT, -**!, -7%, 'a strong archer.' 

VH^ at end for W m. ' virtue,' ' duty;' e. g. ^ictmjpaPRT, -HT, -4, ' virtuous.' — 
H* for ^ f- ' a load ;' e. g. TT^Jt: ' a royal load.' — 7J at the beginning of a few 
compounds for ^1 'not;' e.g. I^Wil 'a eunuch.' — ^ for *($ 'a river;' e.g. 
M=a«l^'the Panjab.' — ^ or ^ for ^TftnRT ' nose ;' e.g. ^rTO, -WV., -Wl, 
or ^TJira:, -ST, -W^, 'sharp-nosed.' — VTR for HTfi? f. 'the navel;' e. g. *Rr?TTvr: 
'lotus-naveled,' a name of Vishnu. — ^TT^ for ^ f. 'a ship;' but only in Dvigu 
compounds and after arctta (Pan. v. 4,99, 100); e.g. fk'TT^' two boats;' ^KhTTW 
' half of a boat.' — TQ for Tlftl^ m . ' a road ;' e. g. ^TO ' a good road.' — ^ and 
*IT^ (fem. V$) for VX^ m. ' the foot ;' e. g. T%»^ ' coldness of the feet ;' %TT^, 
-1^, -Vl{, 'a biped;' ^UCTlT^'a quadruped.' — V% for TT^ m. 'the foot;' e.g. 
*k;.'I'» -ttt > ~ 1 ^,' 'g° m g on foot.' — $% in Dvandvas for ^ m. ' a male ;' e. g. 
^pft^Wnom. du.'man and woman.' — tj^ for *J tRT f . 'an army.' — HSf^at end of 
Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^1, *J, orgSfJ for IPTT f. 'people,' 'progeny ;' e. g. ^?Tl- 
»TTJ, — "STTt, -W., 'having a numerous progeny.' — ~St& for «s«t v m. ' a Brahman ;' 
e.g. <$ftti'. ' a contemptible Brahman.' — >J?T for >jfa f. 'the earth;' e.g. ^*>J?T: 

* land towards the north.' — 1|W in Dvandvas for H f . ' the eye-brow ;' e.g. ^f^S^T 
' eye and brow.' — fPW in- Dvandvas for IT^ n. ' the mind ;' e. g. ^T^jPTO nom. 
du. n. 'speech and heart.' — JRT and 1?t (preceded by fmTT, WrTTj &c, 754. a) for 
T^TI 'great;' e.g. IMrtlH^t 'grandfather.' — »??T at beginning of Karma-dharayas 
and Bahu-vrihis for T^cf m. f. n. 'great ;' but in Tat-purusha or dependent com- 
pounds *nr?I is retained, as in *7^5T^T^It ' recourse to the great ;' also before *J1T 

* become,' and words of a similar import, as *nfjJ7TJ one who has become great ;' 
but *nfT*?.il*^ ' an element.' — ^V at end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by fl", f^, &c.) 

for JJ^m.' the head;' e.g. ff^:, "^T, -^(see Pan. v. 4, 115 ; vi. 2, 197). 

ipl^at end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^T, *J, ^, ^^T, fl^) for »TOT f. 'intellect ;' 
e. g. 'Sr^T^TT:, -W>, -V:- — t?* for ^, after VX%, ^HT, and **; e.g. "a^*: 
'solitary.' — tTT at end of Karma-dharayas and Tat-purushas for ^T^T^ m. a king * 
(see 151.0); e.g. ^WTTSH 'a supreme monarch;' ^^J»K 'the king of the gods,' 
But occasional instances occur of TR^at the end of Tat-purushas ; e.g. fa^H^Tsitt 



846 CHANGES OF CERTAIN WORDS IN CERTAIN COMPOUNDS. 

geii. 'of the king of Vidarbha' (Nate XI. 21). — tT& at end of Dvigus, Karma- 
flharayas, and Dvandvas, for TjfW t 'night;' ef.g. *?kr^ 'day and night;' 
fetra*t ' a period of two nights ;' mifTTW: ' midnight.' — cST* (after W% , ^HT , and 
TOftl) for c^fa^ n. 'hair;' e.g. fl^rfUi:, -»TT, -ifr{, 'with the hair.' — ^* in 
Tat-piirushas for 3^n. 'splendour;' e. g. ^r^ttf^ 'the power of a Brahman.' 
— ^PtB in Karma-dharayas and Bahu-vrihis for WI^ n. ' virtue,' ' felicity f e.g. 
fa'.^PW:, -*T, -%^, ' destitute of excellence or happiness.' — *3 or ''SIT for'^m. 
' a dog ;' e. g. ^rfira: , -v£t, -1&{, ' worse than a dbg ;' %<T^: ' a beast of prey ;' 

TST^Sif: ' a dog's tooth.' % at beginning of Avyayi-bbivas and Bahu-vrihis for 

^H? 'with;' e.g. *I<*IH»( 'with anger;' V^f'. 'accompanied by a Son' («i£ga> 
would be equally correct). — JI for TWR ' same;' e. g. 3lfcti£ ' one who eats the 
same cake.' — TI&I in Karma-dharayas and Bahu-vrihis for «i(Vn n. 'the thigh;' 
e. g. ^UToPi:, -«WT, -«PP^, 'having no thighs.'- — W3 in Tat-purushas and 

t)vigus for *tfi3 m. ' a friend ;' e. g. *T^W^t: ' the friend of the winds ' (Indra). 

JTtfc in Karma-dharayas for WC^n. ' a lake ;' e. g. Tfttkti^ ' a great lake.' OTt 

(after ^, ^, Tfftf) for TTI^n. 'conciliation;' e.g.^^«l*C,-'n, -*(*{,' friendly.' 
1 — ^c5 for ?f«3 m. 'a furrow;' e.g. tl^c?:, -e5T, -W{, ' unploughed.' — ^ for 
5^*t n . ' the heart ;' e. g. gtti^: ' sleeping in the heart ;' ^T^m. ' a friend.' 

779. It is evident from the above list that the most common substitution is that 
'of W a for the final vowel or final vowel and consonant of a word. Other Btems 
ending in ^, ^, 5^, *^ ?* ^, \, ^ may add a; as, W^ for 3^ in =n<^w«i*^ 
' voice and skin ; ' V%M for l^f^ in ^JJJaJMH ' the Rig and Yajur-veda.' Also *3TH 
for VK^, <*rg*I for ^Tf^, ^ft? for 3K3, &c. Also ^l for ^T in *W#: , -'t*, 
half a verse of the Veda ;' and TS^t ' one conversant with the Rig-veda.' 

a. Some words as the first member of a compound lengthen their finals (see 
Pan. vi. 3, 117; viii. 4, 4); e.g. <*!««. before ^»T («w««j,i«u't 'a wood full of 
hollow trees'); W^H before flft (^^Hiflfc 'name of a mountain'); fa^ 
before TTS^ and fag 1 (fV^TTtT^ 'a universal sovereign ;' f^li"*^: ' Visvamitra'). 
This is more common in the Veda. 

b. Some few shorten their finals, when they stand as the first member, especially 
nouns terminating in ^ u or ^ (; e. g. >J for ^ in WSgns; f. ' a frown ;' il IH fill for 
«ii«ut in ?TT»Tfi!jgw: 'the son of a harlot' (Pan. vi. 3, 61): so pSfajr^wre: for 
<?tt*ilti**i^ 'endowed with good fortune' (Ramay. 1. 19, 21). 

c. A few feminine words in ^H d (such as 'STPTT, WT, f«T5lT, $IIPJ'T, +A||) may 
be made neuter at the end of certain compounds ; e. g. ^T!n3tPPT ' the shade of 
sugar-canes' (Pan. 11. 4, 22); TratTT^ ' a shady place;' f^tTW^'an assembly of 
princes;' ^pftW^ 'an assembly of women;' TH^ftT^P^ (or -$T) 'a night when 
dogs howl.' 

d. A sibilant is sometimes inserted between two members of a compbund ; as, 
trmftg^ (for TH^fa^) ' expiation of sin;' HtSJTt^ 'mutually:' cf. vNIW^ 
* place.' 

780. Numerals, when preceded by particles, prepositions, or other numerals, 



COMPOUND VERBS. 34J 

may change their finals to ^ a ,• or if their final letter be a consonant, may either 
drop that consonant or add ^ a to it ; thus, f?& (nom. -3TC[, -31^, -cHfilF) 
"two or three;' Tj^ (nom. -^T^, "^Tlft. -^Tf%), 'five or six;' ^RiJ*. (nom. 
-Tf^) ' nearly four.' 

781. ^n*^ is found in the beginning of certain anomalous compounds (such as 
^?Tt, ^*^fWcRT, &c.) for H^'I.' 

SECTION II. 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

782. It might be supposed that 3,000 simple root? (74. b) would 
convey every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions 
and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root 
would be unnecessary. But in real fact there ^.re comparatively 
few Sanskrit roots in common use; and whilst those that are so 
appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or 
two or even three prepositions, the remainder are almost useless 
for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns. Hence 
it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than 
simple ones. 

They are formed in two ways : 1st, by combining roots with pre- 
positions or prefixes ; 2ndly, by combining the auxiliaries ?f ' to do' 
and ^ ' to be' with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions and Prefixes 

with roots. 

783. The -following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in 
combination with roots : 

a. ^Slftf ati, 'across,' 'beyond,' 'over;' as, ^rfinT, ^fift (pres. ^mfa, &c), 
^rfirai^, 'to pass by,' 'to pass along,' 'to transgress.' 

b. ^ifil adhi, 'above,' 'upon,' 'over;' as, 'SlfVOT 'to stand over,' 'to preside' 
(pres. ^iftlfireTfa) ; ^rfV^I ' to climb upon ;' ^fv^ft ' to lie upon ;' ^rfW^ ' to 
go over towards;' *8vf\ 'to go over,' in the sense of 'reading.' The initial ^t a 
is rarely rejected in Epic poetry; as, fafSiT for wfijfolT. 

c. ^anu, 'after;' as, ^T«J^ ' to follow ;' ^HJST 'to stand by,' 'to perform;' 
mtf<ff 'to imitate;' *3*H'to assent;' 'SOJ'j/to experience,' 'to enjoy.' 

d. ^JnTC antar, 'between,' 'within' (Gr. i»-T«V ; Lat. in-tus, inter); as, ^RtQt 
' to place within,' ' to conceal,' in pass. ' to vanish ;' ^PtT^.' to be within ;' wtiMi\ 
'to walk in the midst.' 

e. 'am apq., 'off,' 'away,' 'from' (awo); as, *W{, ^^» Wf (from ^SPT and 
?), 'to go away;' WUft ' to lead away ;' ^mf\' to abstract;' W*%\' to bear 
pway.'' It also implies ' detraction ;' Jis, WR^ ' to defame. ' 

Y y % 



348 COMPOUND VERBS. 

/. ^rfxi api, 'on,' 'over' (««), only used with VT and H^; as, ^lf<W 'to cover 
over;' ^lfa«Tf 'to bind on.' The initial ^T a is often rejected, leaving ftPCT, ftl^. 
' g. ^rfW abhi, ' to,' ' unto/ ' towards ;' as, wfWTT, wft, 'to go towards ;' ^rf»T- 
VI\'to run towards ;' ^fa^ST to behold ;' ^ifa^ or ^rf*VT (see VT at 664) 'to 
address,' 'to accost,' 'to speak to,' 'to salute.' 

h. ^R ava, 'down,' 'off;' as, »il=l^f, ^TOTT, 'to descend;' ^W'to look 
down;' ^%2R 'to throw down,' 'to scatter;' ^Jqcjii 'to cut off.' It also implies 
'disparagement;' as, -siqsjT **<> despise;' 'aiPsm 'to insult.' With ^T, 'to 
attend.' The initial ^T a may be optionally rejected from ^T^TH? ' bathing.' 

i. ^TT d, ' to,' ' towards,' ' near to ' (Latin ad) ; as, 41 1 1=1 51^' to enter ;' ■*imi*^ ' to 
go towards;' «ii<j'E 'to mount up.' When prefixed to T*{, IT, and ^, 'to go,' 
and ^1 to give,' it reverses the action; thus, Wl*^, WIT, T£, 'to come;' WI^T 
to take.' With *3T, ' to practise.' 

j. "W^ ud, 'up,' 'upwards,' 'out' (opposed to ftl); as, 3«^. (48), '3'fi?, 'to go 
up,' 'to rise;' 7|^ 'to fly up;' 44'i, 'to strike up' (3^ and ^, 50); T3C3^and 
5, 50) 'to extract;' Tf«HW and <jW)^ (47) 'to open the eyes;' arfti, ^Pad^, 
'to cut up;' TST75 'to root up;' 'jf^ ' to lift up' (^ and f^T, 49). 

When prefixed immediately to WT and *JT**T it causes the elision of s; as, ^r«II 
'to stand up;' TWf to prop up.' In some cases it reverses the action; as, 
from T^ 'to bend down,' 3fl*^ (47) 'to raise up ;' from V^ 'to keep down,' 4&*( 
'to lift up.' 

Jc. ~W*f upa (opposed to apa), 'to,' 'towards' (vto), 'near,' 'down,' 'under,' joined 
like ^TT and ^rfW to roots of motion; as, ^11T 'to approach;' 4M-44. 'to wait 
upon;' TTWT 'to stay near,' 'to be present,' 'to arrive.' With faST (cl. 6, 
sPTf^ffif). 'to sit down;' with ^TH^, " to sit near.' 

Obs. — TT with ^tfafir (from ?^) = tfMVlfa ' he burns ;' see 784. a. 

I. f«T ni (thought to be for primitive am; cf. Lat. in, Gr. evi,. ev, eh), 'in/ 'on/ 
' down/ ' downwards/ under' (opposed to 7?); as, fHMrt 'to fall down;' (VmH 
* to suppress ;' T«lfiw and (V|til3 ' to close the eyes ;' ftrfiipi^, f»TVT, «*W, ' to 
lay down/ ' to deposit ;' fil^SI 'to go within,' ' to encamp.' With ^7f , ' to return/ 
'to desist;' with ^P^, "to hear.' In some cases it does not alter, or simply 
intensifies the sense ; as, fi^ ' to kill outright.' 

m. film's, ' out ;' as, f^ai^ (69. a), (Vi*^, f«T:*[, ' to go out/ 'to come out ;' 
ffi'^'V ' to cut up ;' ■fa^ ' to come to an end/ ' to cease ;' fa fa ' to determine.' 

n. VXtpard, 'back/ ' backwards' {itapa), combined with ftl and >J.in the sense 
of 'defeat;' as, 1tTf»T 'to overcome' (cf. itapoatlKat)); *TO$.'to be defeated/ 
With ^, cl. 2, it signifies ' to retreat' (pres. ItfiT); with ^ or ^PI, cl. 1, Xtm., 'to 
ran away/ pard being changed to paid (pres. VcJI*l). 

o. irftpari, 'around/ 'about' (mpi, per); as, ift^, ^ft^, 'to surround;* 
^rft^t, lft»T^, 'to go round;' TJCT^'to look round/ 'to examine;' Xjft^'to 
turn round ;' xrfWT^' to run round.' When prefixed to «£ it signifies ' to adorn/ 
and ^ is inserted, TtY*f . With >J., "to despise/ and with f , "to avoid.' It 



•COMPOUND YBEBS. 349 

sometimes merely gives intensity or completeness to the action ; as, trftujj^ * to 
abandon altogether;' viVstl 'to ascertain completely.' 

p. H pra, 'before,' 'forward' (irpo, pro, prce); as, HT^, "^.j 'to proceed;' 
TWJ 'to set before," to present;' Uai^ ' to begin ;' JHp^' to proceed," to begin;' 
JWT^'to run forward;' Tl^TT 'to set out,' 'to advance;' U»J.'to be superior,' 'to 
prevail;' TT^SI 'to foresee.' With <3»T, 'to deceive.' 

• Obs. — Tt with ^JflStfit ' he goes,' makes nrafif (or HT^fil) ' he goes on quickly ' 
(38./); U with imH, causal stem of ^'to go,' makes ifaxiTfa ' I send.' Similarly, 
H + l^W = BSIff ' he trembles ;' and IT + ^WiT (from TS) = iffafff ' he burns.' 
See 784. a. 

The r bipra influences a following n by 58; as, T(W{ ' to bend before,' 'to salute.' 
Sometimes U does not alter the sense of a root, as in HT^'to obtain' (see 681). 

q. HTTT prati, 'against,' 'to,' 'towards,' 'near,' 'at,' 'back again' {irpog); as, 
nfiH|V 'to fight against;' Tfift 'to go towards' (pres. Wlfa) ; jrftT*P^ 'to go 
towards,' 'to return;' HfH^' to dwell near or at;' TlfiT^ ' to counteract ;' UfiT^ 
"to beat back,' 'to repel;' TjflTT«f 'to answer;' Uf(Tc3»T'to recover;' Tlfipft'to 
lead. back;' Hiif «i'«^ ' to re-salute.' With W, 'to promise;' with VR, 'to arrive at,' 
'to obtain;' with ^T5T, 'to wait for,' 'to expect.' 

r. fa vi, ' apart,' asunder,' implying ' separation,' ' distinction,' ' distribution,' 
' dispersion ' (Latin dis-) ; as, f=T^ ' to wander about' ;' f^p^ ' to vacillate ;' f=f^ 
'to roam for pleasure;' f^M 'to dissipate;' f%5 'to tear asunder;' fw»^ 'to 
divide ;' T=tf%^ ' to distinguish.' Sometimes it gives a privative signification ; as, 
f^ip^'to disunite;' f^WJ 'to forget ;' fa^ft 'to sell.' With «£, 'to change for 
the worse.' Sometimes it has little apparent influence on the root ; as, fa«T3? ' to 
perish,' or 'to perish entirely ;' fWP*l*rf 'to think.' 

s. Tf*{ sam, 'with,' 'together with' [ovv, eon); as, *lf%, tifj'^., 'to collect;' 
^g»T ' to join together ;' *ffP^ ' to meet together ;' «t*-H^ ' to happen ;' ?rf^,' to 
contract.' With ^ it signifies * to perfect,' and ^ is inserted, IT^i. It is often 
prefixed without altering the sense ; as, TsP^ ' to be produced.' 

• t. 3^[ das, 'badly,' and *| su, 'well,' are also prefixed to verbs or verbal deriva- 
tives ; see 726. d.f. 

u. Also other indeclinable prefixes ; thus, ■si«^ i ' decline ' is compounded with 
-^ in the sense of ' to go down,' ' to set ;' fm.<^ ' across,' with W in the sense of 
' to conceal,' with T^ ' to disappear,' with ^ ' to revile ;' ^Ti^ with Vi\ ' to believe.' 

784. Two prepositions are often combined with a root ; as, ^m^r 
(fa + ^n) 'to open;' ainr^ (cl. 10) 'to kill;' ^Wl^ (ttt+^t) 'to go 
under/ ' to undergo,' 'to arrive at ;' *^ (5^ + ^TT + rt. ^) ' to assemble ;' 
uftni^ (v + f«T, 58) ' to prostrate one's self;' jfte (n + ^ + rt. f) 'to 
raise up : ' and occasionally three ; as, U^rTf (u + fH + wt) ' to predict ■/ 
jnu^Tf (trfrl + T? 4- ^n) ' to answer.' Other combinations of three 
prepositions, occasionally prefixed to roots, are K + TT + IT ; ^rfW + 
fa + W, tf + ^fa + TC; ^T + H + U; *<J + H + t>. 



350 COMPOUND VERBS. 

a. Observe *— Final ^J a and STT d of a proposition combine with, the initial 
^riof a root into dr, and are rejected before initial C e and ^RT o (except in forme 
from the roots ^ i, 'to go,' and JT*^ 'to increase), see sS.f.g; and pee TT and 
^l aboye : but in other cases prepositions ending in voxels combine with roots 
beginning with, vowele according to the rules of Sandhi ; thus, WT with % 'to go' 
becomes TT (32), and in pres, $fa (^IT + ST* 33), &c; in impf, W\tp{, *n^ (645, 
33), &c. ; in pot. ^IT^ (^IT + ^*IT*{), &c. ; in impv. WraTfa (^TT + ITfir), &c. 
Similarly, ^IXJ with ?fa becomes ^ lf*T by 33. 

b. Observe also, a sibilant js generally inserted between the prepositions «nj, 
3T, tfft, vfa, OTT^, and the roots *£ 'to do' and ^ 'to scatter;' see above under 
Tift and B^. Similarly, from ^^ and ^ is formed Siw. ' excrement.' 

e. The final i of ^rfif, Tlfil, *tfc, fir, is optionally lengthened in forming certain 
nouns from compound verbs ; as, -wtTIUii, JlWfaiTt, 1^T?TO, «l1 *!<• 

785. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, 
neither the augment nor the reduplication change their position, 
but remain attached to the root* ; as, M5<m^, impf. of «fr, with ift; 
TUTfa^, impf. of fasr, with gru; ^^fira^, impf- of vn, with ^; 
"HtlMVR, perf. of ^, with nftr ; xft-ni^n., perf. of 5, with n and g^. 

a. In the Veda, as in Homer, prepositions may be separated from 
the root by other words ; as, *3iT PIT f4$lnf ' let them enter thee/ 

786. Grammarians restrict certain roots to either Parasmai-pada 
or Atmane-pada when in combination with particular prepositions 
or when peculiar meanings are involved f. Most of the examples 
specified by Panini (1. 3, 1—93) are here added. The 3rd sing, 
present wjll be given, the termination either in ti or te marking the 
Pada to which in each case the root is supposed to be limited, 

'30^ ' to throw ' is generally Parasmai, and '3i? ' to reason ' is generally 
Atmane, but combined with any preposition may take either Pada. — ^ 'to do;' 
anu-karoti, ' he imitates ;' adhi-kurute, he overcomes ;' ut-kwrute, he informs 
against,' 'reviles ;' ud-d-kurnte, 'he reviles;' upa-kurute, he worships ;' upa-s- 
kurute (784. 6), he prepares ;' upa-s-karoti, 'he polishes ;' pard-karotx, he rejects ; ', 
pra-kurute, 'he offers violence,' 'he recites (stories).'- — ^ 'to scatter ;' apa-s-kirate 
(784. b), he (the cock) throws up earth ;' but apa-kirati, 'he scatters (as flowers).' 
' — W{ 'to go ;' d-kramate, ' he (the sun) asqends ;' but d-krtfmqijt when not in the 

* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Maha-bharata ; as in , SHtl a d<.ri 
(Johnson's Selections, p. 33, 1. 14). 

t In Epic poetry, however, there is much laxity; e.g. TR^and TfTft, which 
are properly Atmane-pada verbs, are found in Parasmai. Instances of passive verbs 
taking Parasmai terminations have been given at 461. c. On the other hand, t&5 
' to rejoice,' which is properly Parasmai, is found in Atmane. 



COMPOUND VERBS. 351 

sense of the rising of a luminary, &o. ;' vi-kramate, 'he (the horse) steps out;' 
but vi-krdmati, ' it (the joint) splits in two ;' upa-kramate or pra-kramate, ' he is 
valiant ;' but upa-krdmati, ' he approaches ;' and pra-krdmati, ' he departs.' — 3fit 
'to buy •» ava-krfytie, pari-Mnfie, 'he buys;' vi-Mntie, 'he sells;' but kri alone 
takes either Pada.^~ gft^ 'to play;' d->Mdate or anu-kridate, 'he sports;' pari' 
kridate, 'he plays about ;' sati-krlddte, 'he plays ;' but sdn-Mdat i t ' it (the wheel) 
creaks.' f^t/to throw;' ati-kshipati, 'he throws beyond;' abhi-kshipati, 'he 
throws on ;' ptati-kshipati, ' he throws back or towards.' — BiGJ 'to sharpen ;' sart- 
kshquti, 'he sharpens.'— tX\ 'to go ;' d-gamayatet ' he delays or waits patiently ;' 
vy-ati^gaddhanti, 'they go against each other;' san-gaddhati when motion towards 
Anything is implied, as 'he goes towards (the village);' but Atm. in the sense of 

he goes with' or 'agrees with.' — n 'to swallow;' san^girate,'he promises,' 'he 
proclaims ;' but san-girati, 'he swallows ;' ava-girate, ' he swallows.' — ^ 'to go ;' 
«<?(for ud)-darate, 'he goes astray;' ud-darati, 'it (the tear) overflows ;' san-darate 
or sam-ud-d-daratef, he goes in a chariot.'-" — f»T ' to conquer ;' vi-jayate, pard-jayate, 

he conquers ;' with other prepositions ji is generally Parasmai. — IjtT 'to know ;' 
apa-jdhite, 'he denies (the debt);' prati-jdnite or san-jdntte) 'he acknowledges.' 
Without a prep; this root is restricted to either Pada if certain meanings are 
involved ; as, sarpisho (for sarpishd) jdnite, 'he engages (in sacrifice) by means of 
ghee ;' gdmjdntte, he knows (his own) cow ;' svdm gdmjdndti or jdntte, 'he knows 
his own cow.' — -tft 'to lead ;' un (for tad)-ftayaie, ' he lifts up ;' upa-nayate, ' he invests 
(with the sacred thread);' iii-nayate, 'he pays,' or 'he grants,' or 'he restrains;' vi- 
nayatii he takes away' (the anger of his master) ; vi-nayati, 'he turns away (his 
cheek).' Without a prep, this root is Ktm. if it means 'to excel,' or 'to ascertain.' — 
^ to praise;' d-nute, 'he praises.' — IT^' to burn;' ut-tapati at vi-tapati,' 'hswaxms;' 
ttt-tapdte or vi-tapate, 'it shines,' 'he warms (his own hand).' Without a prep, this root 
is Atm., d. 4, if it means to perform penance.' — ^T 'to give ;' d-datte, ' he receives ;' 
vy-d-daddti, he opens (his mouth) ;' vy-d'datte, 'he opens (the mouth of another) ;' 
sam-yaddhate, he gives ' (as ddsyd, to the female slave,' the instr. being used for 
the dative). — "HTSI to see ;' sam-pasyate-, he considers thoroughly.'— 1 —«n ,! I 'to ask 
for;' always Atm. if used with gen., as madhuno ndthate, 'he asks for honey.' — 
TT^'toask;' d-priddhate, he bids adieu to;' sam-priddhate, ' he interrogates.' — 
^S^'to eat' is Atm. if it means 'to eat,' 'to possess,' or 'to suffer ;' but Par. if it 

means to protect.' *$% 'to bear;' pari-mriskyati, 'he ehdures or forgives.' 

1^ to restrain;' d-yaddhate, (the tree) spreads ;' d-yaddhate, he stretches out (his 
hand) ;' but d-yaddhati, ' he draws up' (as a rope from a well); upa-yaddhate, ' he 
takes (a woman) to wife;' but upa-yaddhati, 'he takes the wife (of another);' 
d-yaddhate, 'he puts on (clothes);' ud-yaddhate, 'he takes up (a load);' but ud- 
yaddhati, he studies vigorously (the Veda, &c.);' sam-yaddhate, he collects' (or 
stacks as rice, &c.) — — ^*T to join;' ud-yunkte, he makes effort ;' anu-yunkte, he 
examines ;' ni-yunkie, he appoints ;' pra-yunkte, he applies ;' biit pra-yuhdkti, 
'he sets in order (sacrificial vessels).' — t^'to sport;' upa-ramati, he causes to 
refrain * ;' d-ramdli, ' he rests ;' v-i-ramati, ' he ceases.' — c£ ' to cut ;' vy-ati- 

* This is an instance of a simple verb involving the sense of a causal. 



352 COMPOUND VERBS. 

luntte, ' he performs cutting (of wood) which was the office of another.' ^ to 

speak;' anu-vadate, 'he speaks after or like' (with gen.); but anu-vadati, he 
imitates' (as giram, 'a voice,' ace); upa-vadate, he coaxes,' he advises ;' vi-pra- 
vadante or vi-pra-vadanti, 'they dispute ;' sam-pra-vadante, they speak together ;' 
but sam-pra-vadanti, ' they (the birds) sing together;' apa-vadate, he reviles im- 
properly ;' but apa-vadati, ' he speaks against.' Without prep, vad is Atm., to be 
learned in interpreting' (the Sastras), or 'to be earnest in the study of anything' 

(as agriculture, &c.) — tt 'to carry;' pra-vahati, 'it (the river) flows along.' 

f^ 'to know;' sam-vitte, 'he is conscious;' sam-vidate or sam-vMrate, 'they are 

conscious' (308). — f%3l' to enter;' ni-visate, 'he enters.' ^IH. to swear;' iapate, 

' he swears at ' (with dat.) — ^ ' to hear ;' sam-hinoti, ' he hears (the speech) ;' but 
sam-frimte, 'he hears well' (intransitively). — WT "to stand;' ava-tishthate, he 
waits patiently;' pra-tishthate, 'he sets out;' vi-tishthate, he stands apart ;' san- 
tishthate, he stays with ;' upa-tishthate, 'he worships,' he attends on.' Without 
prep, sthd takes the Atmane when it denotes ' adhering to,' * giving one's self up 
to shewing amatory feelings' (Pan. 1. 3, 23), as tishthate gop{ Krishndya, 'the 
shepherdess gives herself up to Krishna ;' but upa-tishthati, he waits on' (not in. 
a religious sense, and governing an ace); ut-tishthate, he aspires' (to salvation); 
but ut-tishthati, 'he rises' (from a seat). — ?»^'to strike;' d-hate (see 634), he or 
it strikes' (' himself or itself,' the object being omitted); but d-hanti vrishabham, 
'he strikes the bull.' — ^ 'to sound;' sam-svarate, 'it sounds clearly.' — e£'t° 
seize ;' anu-harate, 'he takes after' (the disposition of his father or mother), other- 
wise anu-harati. 3? * to call ;' vpa-hvayate or ni-lwayate or vi-hvayate or sam- 

hvayate, he calls,' he invokes ;' d-hvayate, he challenges ' (an enemy) ; but 
d-hoayati, he calls ' (his son). 

a. Some causals are also restricted to either Parasmai or Atmane, according to 
the preposition prefixed or the meaning involved ; thus the causal of ^? with Tft, 
meaning ' to bewitch,' is limited to Atm. So also, fV to be greedy,' when its 
causal means to deceive,' is restricted to Atm. : and the causal of ^^, meaning 
" to deceive,' takes Atm. ; meaning to avoid,' Par. Again, ^ in the causal, when 
joined with mithyd, and signifying ' to pronounce badly,' takes Par. ; but only in 
the sense of doing so once. In the sense of ' causing a false alarm ' it requires Atm. ; 
but the above specimens will suffice to shew the little profit likely to be derived 
from pursuing this part of the subject farther. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs with ^r and ^. 

787. These are of two kinds : 1st, those formed by combining 
adverbs with ^i 'to make' and *J.'to become;' 2ndly, those formed 
by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. 

a. Examples of the first kind are, ^r?5IJ ' to adorn ;' SHifquj ' to 
make manifest' (see 72) ; ^f^f ' to eject ;' ijTf ' to place in front,' 
'to follow;' fspTTf 'to deprive;' wsp 'to entertain as a guest;* 
•ITSi 'to revere;' *TS}T^, W|^j ' to become manifest,' &c. 



COMPOVftfl ADVERBS. £&3 

788. In forming the second kind, the final of a stem, being a or d, 
is changed to i; as, front *n#, 3nff<£ 'to make ready,' 'BWt^'to 
become ready;' from e^St, <%Wt<% ' to blacken j' from MfW l 'a ditch,' 
vf<<!*l«ji 'to convert into a ditch :' and sometimes a becomes a; as, 
nwi«Ji ' to piease,' from frrir- A final i or u is lengthened ; as, from 
^jf*#, ^fyj. ' to become pure ;' from <&g, <5^ ' to lighten* A final 
ri is changed to tfr ri; as, from MXf^, »ff5ff*f.'to become a mother.' 
A final as and an become i; as, from *J*Ht^, IpRT^. ' to be oi" good 
mind ;' from ti*P(, tt»ft$. ' to be a king.* 

a. But the greater number of compounds of this kind are formed from nominal 
stems in d. "the following sx6 other examples: '^'Efcjf 'to esteem as a straw;' 
WJlfNj 'td StifFenj' TJtjf'q^^'tofk the mind on one object;' ^"% 'to make or 
claim as one's own ;' H^ft^ ' to become friendly.' Substantives are sometimes 
formed from these; as, ijc3n*Tfa 'the state of being friendly,' 'friendship,' 

Obs. — This change of a final to i before kri and bhii is technically said to be 
caused by the suffix 6oi, and the change to a by dad. 

b. ttiese compounds often occur as passive participles ; thus, ^trtsn 'adorned ;* 
Slgifjl 'become manifest;' TBT^^JK ' made 1 ready ;' cy^JTi 'lightened;' ^rfait- 
JirfaT ' to be agreed to.' 

789. Sometimes ^TH, placed after a nominal stem, is used to form a compound 
verb of this kind; as, from *f?3 'wafer;' "SftWirJ 'to reduce jfeo liquid;' from 
W^q; ' ashes,' frWUrg {57 J ' to reduce to ashes.' Cf. 735- «> 

^EdTION III. 

CJOMPOtNfi ADVERBS, 

790. Compound adverbs are formed, ist, by combining adverbs, 
prepositions, and adverbial prefixes, -with nouns in the ace. singular 
neuter; andly, by placing adverbs, or adjectives used as adverbs, 
after nominal stems. 

a. The first kind are identical with indeclinable compounds (760). 

791. Most of the adverbs at 731 may be placed after the stems 
of nouns ; thus, ?T c 5^*i h 1 ^ ' near the child ;' TSJT^ ' for the sake 
of protection ;' tm^ 'for the sake of offspring;' fa»J^; ' on what 
account ?' !fl «<fl^tm i jHiH ^ ' after uttering a sound.' See also 777. d. 

792. The indeclinable participle ^TltHI, ' having begun,' is joined with *W, ' to- 
day' (^Hnt»I), in the sense of 'from this time forward;' and with the stems of 
words to express ' beginning from ;' see 925. flijfiT is used adverbially in the same 
sense; as, *P»HP|rfi» 'ff6m birth upwards;' H3ftfl|fiT 'from that time forward' 
(see 917). 

z z 



354 SYNTAX. 

CHAPTER IX. 

SYNTAX. 

793. Sanskrit syntax, unlike that of Greek and Latin, offers 
fewer difficulties than the other portions of the Grammar. In fact, 
the writer who has fully explained the formation of compounds has 
already more than half completed his exposition of the laws which 
regulate the order, arrangement, and collocation of the words in a 
sentence {vdkya-vinydsa, vdkya-viveka, paddnvaya). 

• 794. Observe — In the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made 
as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will 
not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be required by the laws of 
combination. When compounds are introduced, a dot will generally be placed 
underneath, to mark the division of the different members. Much vagueness 
and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, 
when it is remembered that Sanskrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, 
and that the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical 
composition. 

THE ARTICLE. 

795. There is no indefinite article in classical Sanskrit; but 
cFftSRI (228) and in modern Sanskrit jj=R (300) are sometimes used to 
supply the place of such an article j thus, ^fW't, JI^ ' in a certain 
country ;' tfffai^ SjpTTfS: ' a certain jackal/ The definite article may 
not unfrequently be expressed by the pronoun u^ (220) ; thus, *r ipni: 
may mean simply 'the man,' not necessarily 'that man.' It is, 
however, more commonly omitted, and w?[ when joined to a noun 
must generally be translated by i that.' 

CONCORD OF THE VERB WITH THE NOMINATIVE CASE. 

796. The verb must agree with the nominative case in number 
and person ; as, ^ ^H^lfr* ' I must perform.' 

a. Other examples are, 1^ ^H^ 'do thou attend ;' ST ^ifff 'he gives;* 
WPri ^r: ' we two say ;' ^fim gi*j: ' the pigeons said ;' ^ff fcptni?*^ ' do you 
two reflect ;' ^PJ 'STRTTT 'do ye come ;' **^PTT: $JT^' ' good men are honoured ;* 
^fTfn" t^R*. ' the wind blows j' ^fi* ^T^nfj: ' the moon rises ;' *$zfn irar^ ' tne 
flower blossoms.' 

Obs. — Of course, therefore, two nouns in the singular connected by ^ require 
the verb in the dualj as, *T»TT m%\ ^ W$. 'the king and minister went;' 
**T^[ ^•5]*m fnTHT '. ' as long as the moon and sun remain.' 



SYNTAX. 855 

6. The position of the verb is not always the same as in English. It may some- 
times come last in the sentence. 

797- When a participle takes the place of a finite verb, it must 
agree with the nominative in number and gender; as, *r rm: 'he 
went j ' *r niTT ' she'went ;' ^ri^f scra w l 'the two women spoke ;' *J3TT 
%?: 'the king was killed;' ^^nflf* f^TTfa 'the bonds were cut.' 

a. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees 
with one only ; as, T&yg U^fftVin pT?J 'his wife and son were awakened.' 

b. The following is noticeable : <.IjV^ ^TTiWT ^} ^nj^ Tffanfq TTOUT^ ' king- 
dom, self, we, and wife were brought (neut. pL) to the state of a stake (to be played 
for),' Kirat. xi. 47. See also 906. 

c. Very often the copula, or verb which connects the subject with the predicate, 
is omitted ; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the 
rules of concord in gender and number ; as, >pf gpiWH ' wealth is difficult of 
attainment ; r SSTRT epnjsTO ' we two have finished eating.' But if a substantive 
stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place ;• 
as, n**t%l Tj^ ^m^l*^ ' successes are the road to misfortune.' 

CONCORD OF THE ADJECTIVE WITH THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

798. An adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, qualifying a 
substantive, when not compounded with it, must agree with the 
substantive in gender, number, and case ; as, *n^j: g^t ' a good 
man;' q%^ g!*^ 'great pain;' Tj^g ^51^5 1^3 ' m these before- 
mentioned countries ;' ^ftr ft^lftl ' three friends.' 

CONCORD OF THE RELATIVE WITH THE ANTECEDENT. 

799. The relative must agree with the antecedent noun in gender, 
number, and person ; but in Sanskrit the relative pronoun generally 
precedes the noun to which it refers, this noun being put in the 
same case with the relative, and the pronoun K?f follows in the latter" 
clause ; as, ^ TR^tT irf^il « ^<3^T«J ' the man who has intellect is 
strong' (lit. ' of whatever man there is intellect, he is strong'). 

, a. The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with K^, as *W 
^fift tf TTt ^'cMI^J or may be omitted altogether, as Ti^ HfiTsflir TTi^ t|TeW 
'what you have promised, that abide by;' ~^m\ ^tlWlfiT TfTf^nfa i: (^ftffir: 
understood) fai si 1 41 1 tlHkJft 'by those (birds) whose young ones were devoured 
an inquiry was set on foot;' T: Wil^ family HIWHI^ TO JJiTI^ «4^ mft^ 
f^TPNpir: "SHII^ ' he who would obtain all objects of sense, and he who despises 
them, of the two the despiser is the best.' 
800. The relative sometimes stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun being-' 

Z Z 2 



356 SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

understood, from which, it takes its, gender and ijumbeiis as, ^7H f<& *TT »t v5«^ 
Wl-«U.H i ' Of what use is scriptural knowledge (t« one) who dees, not practice 
virtue,?' tf%»J f3i ?ft »f ^|fi( ' What is the, use of wealth (tp him) whp deep not 
give?' 

a. Sometimes, though rarely, the antecedent noun precedes the relative in the 
natural order; as, ft ST HPJT 1?li HUT «T jprfif 'she is not a wife in whom 
the husband does not take pleasure.' 

Soi. dHrf and WWW stand to each other in the relation of demonstrative and 
relative ; as, *JT3Tft«f Treil 3T7TOT ^ff"T rtl<tf"ff iaW"*^ dth)iMmfv| 'as many 
products as belong to that island, so many are to be brought to us.' See also 876. 

a. Similarly, rf I £SJ and 4)1 $51 J as, It^ST ^ ""£$ ffw <*f<¥iWiU 'as the 
event occurred, so they related it to him.' Cf. 920. a. 

SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES. 
802. Under this head it is proposed to explain the constructiqn. 
of substantives, without special reference to the, verbs which govern, 
them ; and for this purpose it will be desirable to exhibit examples; 
beginning with the nominative case. 

Nominative Case. 
8og. A sustentive simply and absolutely expressed must be> 
placed in the nominative case; as-, f^tj^^JC 'the Hitopadesa;' 
>lfg',<*l«H^ ' the ppem of Bha^i.* 

a. Two nominative cases in different numbers may bo. placed in apposition to 
each other; as, j*uif«i ^i*m 'grass as a bed.' 

Accusative Case. 

804. Substantives are not found hi the, accusative^ unconnected; 
with verba or participles, except as expressing ' duration, qf time' on 
*■ space.' See Sai. 

Instrumental Case. 

805. This case yields a variety of senses. The most usual is 
that of ''the agent* and ' the instrument' 1 or ' means' by which any- 
thing is done ; as, mn {3%m) 'by me it was said ;' *rnN (w^ft *ftf»T7(:) 
'by the fowler a snare was laid ;' ^ i m^«f ' by the study of the 
Vedas ;' ^^^WT ' with one's own eyel, , 

806. It alaq has the. force, of ' with' in, expressing other, collateral, 
ideas ; as, Wiqw W*h ' vying with the strong ;,' t)r^!j *rarro: • qgnr 
versation, with a friend j' ^|f*»: «IHI^ 'equality with beasts i' faf^ 



SYNTAX 0E SUBKFAKTIVH& 357 

*f^i!F -wifh the knowledge of (hi'a) father i' ^specially when ' aceom-r 
pmmmt' ia intended; as, f$wsr n^ 'the master vrith his pupil}* 
«lni«iT1^H: ' the fifth with myself,* i e; < myself and four others.' 

807. The other senses yielded by this case are, 'through, 1 'by reason 0/,' 'on 
HCBOtmt ofj' as, SgtptT 'through compassion;' fo Vltrifo 'on account of 
tha^ transgression :' especially in tb,e ease of abstract nqsuns formed with "iTT. 
(8.0., IXfl); »s,^TPn 'through infatuation.' 

a. 'Acpording to,' ' by;' as, faftjtTT 'according to- rule;' *W *l*n7l»f 'according 
to my opinion ;' STTTIT 'by birth.' 

b. The manner' in which anything is done, as denoted in English by the' 
adverbial affix 'ly,' or by the prepositions 'in,' 'at-;' as, «uj«:«4«t 'in abundance ;*• 
VnOT 'virtuously;' 4|3)«&1U or- ^3c*n 'at pleasure;' *|J§R 'at ease;' ^ % <f 
faftnTt'm this way;' H^rir 'S^«T (P«W*Ml) 'they both, dwell together in grea* 
intimacy H (^W Tt^JaJFTfiT ^ffiw^fB) 1581 ' a. kmg surpasses all beings. i» 
glory ;_' «in*ii («t Ha=H»^) ' s,ueh a deed must not even be imagined in the. mind ;' 
^n^^^'TO ' in human fotmj' llfil^ItT ' for a hindrance.' 

808. Substantives, expressive of 'wanfc' 'need,' may be joined with the instru- 
mental of the thing wanted ; as,, '^JJT «T JJ'il^l^ ' there is no occasion for inquiry;' 
*nrr JN^mT <r JPlw«n{; 'them is no need of me as a servant ;■' '^inPT «KPJ*{ Hhera 
is use for a straw.' 

809. ' The price ' for which anything is clone, may be in the instrumental ; as, 
*T3fH: gn^ (Tift; ^T*^) .' for, five ?ur£na$ ha becomes a slaye, ;' *g fa$ ^^ 
(g«Pff) 'they fight fo* great rewards.' Similarly^ WJ^TfiOTT' I.^^H (^ftr ^ 
Wnf), ' fortune is, not obtained at the pri,ce of the sacrifice of life.' 

a. So also difference between ' two things ; as, N*U *igs*U ^ T1RJ ^i«fl«.*^ 'there 
is great difference between you and the ocean.' 

b. '' Separation from,'' either with or without W?; as, *T5fT NmI'iJ separation 
from a husband ' (or «?fr *HT ffTfrTC). Similarly, f^BC^ ^ftsUT 8? ' separation 
from Hari.* 

c. The English expression 'under th^idea-that'-iSf expressed by the instrumental 
case of the substantive "^fil ; as, ^m^sil 'under the idea that he was a tiger.' 

Doublet Instrumental, 

810. Sometimes when- two substantives come together, expressing parts-' 'of & 
common idea, they are, both placed in the. instrumental, instead of one in the> 
genitive ; as, ^«t $ H '* ^T^flrff 'an odour is, emitted by. the Vakula-plants by 
their flowers ' (for ^fWCTf f^)- Similarly, cH^ 'STORnmnH ifanfaw "^^ 
«ft^%t ' he caused her to revive by her attendant? by sandal-water.' 

Dative Qa$£ f 
811. "yhis.qase is of v,ery limited applicability, and Us functions, 
irrespectively of the influence of verbs, are restricted to the expression 



358 SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES; 

of ' the object,' ' motive,' or ' cause' for which anything is done, or 
' the result' to which any act tends ; as, ^Turf^^ ' for self-aggran- 
dizement ;' VTOiinfhircra ' for the counteraction of calamity ;' ^l^jj 1 
$n^ ^ ufir'tra^ ' arms and books (lead) to renown/ 

a. When, as in the last example, 'the result' or ' end' to which 
anything leads is denoted by this case, the verb is seldom expressed, 
but appears to be involved in the case itself. The following are 
other examples: *ja ^T^ ftprshnffsipT H^fii ipu^ ' where there is 
admixture of poison, then even nectar (leads) to death;' >fM^H 
^Srof H<j?lm q «T ^tFire ' advice to fools (leads) to irritation, not to 
conciliation ;' * '■ } g;qfi^ TOm «lifNm T wm^ ' that old husband 
was not to her liking ;' m um WOT ^5^ ^ *nj5 ' that king was not 
to her liking ;* ftj^ TT53C 'g» for the accomplishment' (of this matter). 

6. It will be seen hereafter that certain verbs of giving and relating govern the 
dative. Substantives derived from such verbs exercise » similar influence; as, 
^rUt+l ^TH^ ' the giving to another ;' >H«WI «n«i«i^ ' the telling to another.' 

c. Words expressive of 'salutation' or reverence 'are joined with the dative; 
as, J|<Utyl4 "W. ' reverence to Ganes'a ;' <$3lt* H ' health to thee.' 

Ablative Case. 
812. The proper force of the ablative case is expressed by 'from;' 
as, «5tar^(^v: TM^fir) 'from avarice anger arises ;' fift: ^tiP^' falling 
from a mountain j' 'srtTTOT g^Tif 'from the mouth of the spies.' 

813. Hence this case passes to the expression of various correlative ideas ; as, 
^HT^TOil fctiBdrf ' a portion of (from) their food ■,' and like the instrumental it 
very commonly signifies 'because,' by reason of,' in consequence of;' as,. 
, n,H»JHHUf ^VTH 'on account of the slaughter of cows and men;' SH«H+KH<I- 
Wl (TJ^ ftimfir) 'he blames his son for entering inopportunely;' <;*ss/i<iin 
'thrpugh fear of punishment;' «i«*ifg<i«n^«in^'by reason of my good fortune ;'. 
HWinsfqiumn ' because (there is) no difference as to the result.' 

a. 'According to;' as, wm^^ti in 'according to the advice of the minister.' 
Abstract nouns in r3 are often found in this case to express some of these ideas ; 
as, ^R^fipfirf^lTOTT^'by reason of the unsteadiness of his- mind :' especially in' 
the writings of commentators ; as, «i««iitJEWTfl"' according to what will be said 
hereafter ;' ««jBHft*|^f^irpN<|n % ti < |'in?«jra , according to the division of touched, 
slightly touched, slightly open, open and contracted.' 

814. It also expresses 'through the means' or 'instrumentality of;' as, CT'lMIrt 
mty.^: ' caught in the toils through the instrumentality of the jackal;' «T W^- 
V.lflslW^ (fl|N): ^ilfm^ vbj) 'the alleviation of disease is not effected by the 
mere knowledge of the medicine.' 



SYNTAX OP SUBSTANTIVES. ' 359 

a. ' The manner ' in which anything is done is often expressed by the ablative ; 
it is then used adverbially (compare 715); as, *( (flirt with diligence,' or ' diligently ;' 
■^^Ti^' forcibly;' ^f^jjoili^'with wonder ;' 4<HKI ^'figuratively;' ^T^ d^<J!)*^ 

tearing up by the roots :' or by the ablative 'suffix TPS^', as, <3«&lin ' at one's own 
pleasure 9 (see 719. a.b). 

b. This case also denotes- ' afters' as, SlOcfaJIHIi^' after separation from the 
body;' Jj^KfiH'tMIi^ 'after the imprisonment of the chief 5' «TC?T VTWHTil 
' since his arrival.' 

c. So also, in native grammars the ablative case is used to express 'after;' 
thus, T?WI*^" after the letters ra and ha/ ^TTTl 'after the letter £a; *g<rarnf TTCT 
1T?3r HccM^'it should be stated that after the letters ri and fi the cerebral 7JF n is 
substituted in place of the dental t^».' 

d. In reference to time, ' within/ as, TdHViJijI ' within three fortnights.' 

e. Nouns expressive of fear ' are joined with the ablative of the thing feared ; 
as, IJWI^ H^ ' fear of death ;' ^hjft «^ ' fear of robbers.' 

Genitive Case. 

815. This and the locative case are of the most extensive applica- 
tion, and are often employed, in a vague and indeterminate manner, 
to express relations properly belonging to the other cases. 

a. The true force of the genitive is equivalent to ' 0/,' and this 
case appears most frequently when two substantives are to be con- 
nected, so as to present one idea ; as, fag^ti ^tT*( ' the speech of a 
friend ;' «BT TPfr; WCH ^TO^ ' the best ornament of a woman is her 
husband;' ^ tTTOT ^Ttt ^THT ^TO^ (J w^'man is not the slave of 
man, but the slave of wealth.' 

816. 'Possession' is frequently expressed by the genitive case alone, without a 
verb ; as, VRK WI^ 1TPJ TP^i Tf& WT*^ ' all riches belong to him who 
has a contented mind;' V^fts^ Tf^f %$$ft "^ na PP7 am I ™ possessing 
such a wife.' 

a. It often, however, has the force of ' to,' and is very generally used to supply 
the place of the dative; as, HTtOT ismwitSHTST: ' one's own life is dear to one's 
self;' IT *ft»M,$lif tft ^T?T*U^W q«!IMI " a hundred Yojanas is not far to one 
borne away by thirst (of gain) ;' f^i JTsTTWin^ 'Sfaf^rt^ ' What is unknown to the 
wise ?' f«R*T W<W (inRT^Rfil) V^\V. ' What does a lamp (shew) to a blind man ?' 
faR iniT ^T^itT TT§r: 'What offence have I committed towards the king;' fts^ 
^TO*T ^IWrai (=fii| SflHij) ' What can this man do to us ?' 

b. And not unfrequently of 'in' or 'on;' as, ^UffT f^W. 'confidence, in 
women;' W WHWM*^ ' dependence on me.' 

c. It is even equivalent occasionally to 'from ' or ' by,' as usually expressed by 
the ablative or instrumental; as, 1 g^lfa (^n*pf T^tlTflJ 'one ought not to 



360 SYNTAX OS 1 SUBSTANTIVES; 

accept a present from any one ',' "aiW^i (^*T fl\*HH) 'the wood is to be abandoned 
"by us;' 5H tplft *ra*T ^rf*hft if TUnfSfT f^g^tJ 'he is blessed from whom Sup>- 
pliants do not depart in disappointment ;' l«**« d'ttU^H Tfrp^* meat cooked by 
NaW 

d. 'Difference between two things' is expressed by the genitive; as, ««s',ti«i«»«il^ 
*Rf<« ■S »Ht*( 'there is great difference between the master and the servant ' (ef. §09. •a). 

e. In native grammars it expresses 'in place of ;' as, ^vu fit; 'an in place of 
ri is followed by ra.' 

Lbctitivb Case. 
8iy. The iScative, like the genitive, expresses the most diversified 
delations, and frequently usurps the functions of the other cases. 
Properly it has thfi force of ' in,' ' on,' or * at,' as expressive of many 
collateral and analogous ideas ; thus, tj&l ' in the night ;' ?n* ' in 
the village;' ^s *on the hack;' wfil fawffS 'confidence in you;' 
*? <?.<■»< cUi ^fe: ' rain on desert ground ;' HW^ Hfm i ^, ' at the first 
desire of eating;' ijftraii ttftfift ^J 'a tree planted in the earth.' 

818. Hence it passes into the sense towards j' as, TSfaT ^fiji 'g fifW^ 'leniency 
towards an enemy as Well as a friend;' t^*^^ t{*rf 'compassion towards all 
creatures;' *Jgrg i«f»iw: 'upright towards friends ;' ^jM.'tyril "W^ *T^'& 
hundred gbod offices are thrown away Upon the wicked;' tf««^tTnt 'love for 
Nala ;' WWl^ 1^<!i: ' affection for her/ 

819. Words signifying cause,' ' motive,' or need ' are joined with the locative ; 
as, fla'MM j[(Jt 'the cause of his modesty;' ^.MlrfW^ Hfilc >W^1«f fn^M*^ 
'your speech was the cause of the war between the two princes;' J||VJ4iWHt 
Vij^r? <UR^T ^W"TI ' the absence of a suitor is the cause of a woman's chastity ;' 
>ji'4raf fMi TPft*rT^ ' What need of a boat }' Also words signifying ' employment ' 
or ' dccupation ; as, ■wfllln fl^f%! ' engaging in the acquisition of wealth.' 

a. So words derived from the root ynj usually require the locative ; as, »W 
tJjJJ^KjUH^ ^H-MiTI ' I am of service in preserving the kingdom.' 

b. This case may yield other senses equivalent to ' by reason of,' '/of,' &t. ; as", 
^ ^5? 'through my faults ;' 'STC It^TfrtOT^ ^TOBNhI ' a spy is fof the sake 
Of examining tbe territory of one's enemies;' ^3 cSI?5ts^^ 'this is the time for 
battle ;' ^T^s^t! ' disregard for advice ;' *5T f-<ttrff TC»!I TST ' What anxiety 
about dying in battle !' '4T& Tar TTc^i^i ' I think the time has come for escaping ;' 
]|arW ^JHfl ' with the consent of a son.' 

c. It is alsO used in giving the meaning of a root ; as, 5fW d«Tl^r^ ' the root 
grah is in taking,' i. e. conveys the idea of ' taking.' 

■ d. In native grammars it expresses 'followed by ,•' thus fefif means ' when any- 
thing having an indicatory n follows.' So again, TFtnitT *li^lT WJyi'ft ?fi? ' in 
the room of m final in a wOrd followed by any consonant (W) there is Anusvara.' 
< e. The locative case is often used absolutely j see 840. 



NOUNS OP PLACE AND DISTANCE. 3Gi 

SYNTAX OF NOUNS OF TIME. 

820. When reference is made to any particular division of time, 
the instrumental case is usually required ; as, f^far; ^f: ' in three 
years;' sri^rfa^ mi: 'in twelve months;' sprR 'in an instant;' 
felHnn 39M'<T ' In how long time ?' gtr^nb ' in hundreds of years ;' 
<*ico H*?PTCr (or simply sfirFStT) 'in process of time;' mifrr 'in a 
month;' in*W5TO ' in the space of a month;' CilTCjiT ^Kl^r'in so 
much time.' 

831. When duration of time is implied, the accusative case is 
generally used; as, 7|in^ 'for a moment ;* ^r^frmc^ 'for a long 
time;' fssvfH <*I55*( 'for some time;' ^ inn^ 'for one month;' 
f^Slfir *JTBT^ ' for twenty months ;' ^ »n*fl ' for two months ;' gth^TiP^ 
'for a hundred years ;' 31 1 ^ (ft: *nu: ' to all eternity ;' $nr ^hfm ' for 
a hundred years ;' ^ffa ^T*!Tf«T ' for many days.' The instrumental, 
however, is sometimes used in this sense, and to express other 
relations of time ; as, ^^rfW^ if^ "^TfalSJf ^3T ' having traded for 
twelve years ;' cRfiniTrf^^fr: ' for a few days :' and even the genitive ; 
as, ferr^tf sura^T (or simply fcrsi) ' for a long time ;' ^ftrpiT^ 'after 
a few days.' 

83a. When any particular day or epoch is referred to, as the date 
on which any action has taken place or will take place, the locative 
may be employed ; as, ^ferfigrc f&& ' on a certain day ;' Tfirtq f%& 
'on the third day;' 7l^$sfg 'on the twelfth day;' ^rr: tiH^fs^fH 
' seventeen days from this time.' Or sometimes the accusative ; as, 
*ri Txf£ rt gin: Hfasifa w ipHf wf tif^.wtfo ^nft ^r. ' on the night 
when the ambassadors entered the city, on that night a dream was 
seen by Bharata.' 

a. The adverbs at 731 may often be found expressing relations of 
time; as, *to*ttot? 3K§^ or tjt^ 'after six months ;' TOtnhT-or TORI- 
Tr Wri\l\ ft^ ' six months ago ;' or (employing the locative absolute) 
fj5f ^t;^& ' after a thousand years.' 

NOUNS OF PLACE AND DISTANCE. 

823. Nouns expressive of ' distance or space between two places' 
(according to Carey) may be in the nominative ; as, ^iff ^ft^n: tttani^inj 
'•a hundred Kos from Somanath:' but they are more properly in' 
the accusative; as, *fcpT^ 'for a Yojana;' sfft^ 'for a Kos:' or. 

3^ 



862 SYNTAX OP ADJECTIVES. 

in the instrumental ; as, rtlJH n^TT ' having gone for a Kos.' ' The 
place ' in which anything is done is expressed by the locative ; as, 
f^*Tg * in Vidarbha.' 

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 
Accusative after the Adjective. 

824. Adjectives formed from desiderative stems will often be found 
governing an accusative in the same way as the verbs from which 
they are derived ; as, W$ ftprfag: ' desirous of going home ;' gw*J 
sf»Tfa: 'desirous of obtaining a son ;' <_MH f^rfw: 'desirous of seeing 
the king.' 

Instrumental after the Adjective. 

825. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 
'want' or 'possession ' require the instrumental case; as, ^sivjh ^stf 
' destitute of wealth ;' ^1: wng^K ' possessed of riches ;' ^rTftsn ^GIT 
Vz: ' a jar full of water. 5 

826. So also of 'likeness,' 'comparison,' or 'equality;' as, -a^H 
4) 4 $ft <3^if «f >|jft «T Hfa«lfit ' there never has been, nor will there ever 
be, any one like him in this world ;' dl$4H getl^ -4l*fld ' he reads 
like a Brahman ;' mw: ^Tff^r ~^V. ' his success was equal to his 
undertakings ;* irrah SPTt V^\ 'a wife as dear as life ;' ^nrt ^»vqfVi<*l 
^; ' more liberal than (other) kings ;' ^rf^WH ije^t ' equal to the 
sun.' These are sometimes joined with a genitive ; see 827. b. 

Genitive after the Adjective. 

827. Adjectives signifying 'dear to,' or the reverse, are joined 
with the genitive; as, trgf ftiPK 'dear to kings;' Ǥtt: jgfUai ftpm 
' husbands are dear to women ;' if ^ipMi^ ^rflilll^ ^fipi: 'women dislike 
nobody ;* "g^t H^fir lf*TOT*^ ' he is detestable to his ministers.' 

a. Adjectives expressive of 'fear 3 may govern the genitive or 
ablative ; as, 55^ >rftr: ' afraid of the sage.' 

6. Adjectives expressive of 'equality,' 'resemblance,' 'similitude,' sometimes 
require the genitive as well as the instrumental (826); thus, ?HNll W. 'equal to 
all;' Km *PJCT: 'like him;' ^5^1 ciraK 'rather like the moon;' ^ TO» f5T: 
wi 'nobody is equal to him.' 

c. So also other adjectives ; as, xjjjju^c ^rsfaf ^sRt: Wj^n I ^'giving advice to 
others is easy to all men ;' *[ttini*t. ^fowt ' worthy of happiness j* ^faff: j^lH I ^ 
' capable of toil ;' W<T ^TOWl 'unknown to Dhrite-rasutra;' vN«l W3T. 'com- 
petent for duty.' 



SYNTAX OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 363 

Locative after the Adjective. 

838. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 
'power' or ' ability,' are joined with a locative ; as, ^r&jfq 1 ^pn *aw. 
' horses able for the journey ;' Hjrfir ^r^T T$*Tt. tl»TT ' a king who is a 
match for a great enemy ;* ^T^l^iT 1?TW»!j ^F^RT 1??^% ' unable to 
build a house, but able to demolish one/ 

a. So also other adjectives ; as, St^gf^ ^5R^» ' skilled in arms ;' •susig UTsTI 
'wise in trifles;' Rfl.^njrSRT f^C^t Tt ^T»ft 'Is your master attached or adverse 
to you?' «ig*fHWg W5t£T^: 'neglectful of his dependants.' 

SYNTAX OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 

829. Adjectives in the comparative degree require the ablative 
case ; as, i^i TTTOWtsfir JTXt*reft ' a wife dearer even than one's life ;' 
■jd.^M^li^ *J*a*TTT: W^ff <5T^T »T f&Pt ' there is no pleasanter touch in 
this world than the touch of a son;' MhrTi^ IN I.USJ IT ^PT: 'the pro- 
tection of one's subjects is better than aggrandizement ;' «T wit(jig.a) 
5:fi^rnre: ipiT^ ^fftcT ' there is not a more wretched man than I ;' 
tffKK 4d lg W<7tT*rr ' mind is more powerful than strength.' 

830. Sometimes they govern the instrumental ; as, hto: ftnirTC: 
'dearer than life ;' * -atftj TOT ^tr^% ^T^mniKtl »jfa ' there is nobody 
upon earth more unfortunate than I.' 

a. When it is intended to express ' the better of two things' the genitive may 
he used ; as, ^*PJt^r. ^$pftj 3fit ^ft H^HTi: ' Of these two countries which is the 
better f ' 

831. The comparative in Sanskrit is often expressed by 'better 
and not' or 'but not;' as, ?& HUU.MlYrHuft ~H ^ $$% ^^ftu W^ 
' better abandon Hfe than (but not) engage in such an action ;' ^t 
ifa ^ffr§ *T ^ *r*R»J ^ 1^ TPJ ' ft is better that si^nce should be 
kept than a speech uttered which is untrue ;' fasPTT *? ^TOTtraR 
^t H^J ^ 1 sranp|Tfrnrf$pqT«l^ ^imPl Tiff TrfTnjT?^ ' a teacher 
of the Veda should rather die with his learning than commit 
it to an unworthy object, in the absence of a pupil worthy to be 
instructed in it.' 

83a. The superlative degree is usually joined with the genitive ; 
as, .ITSrcft fl^f WT »f^ ^rftST *f"l*m I ^ ntfTOT W. J8i *l$nrf 
.TO ' a Brahman is the best of all bipeds, a cow of quadrupeds, a 
Guru of venerable things, a son of things possessed of touch :' but 

3 a a 



364 NUMERALS. 

sometimes with the locative ; as, ttt'g ^fj^jt: ' the most powerful of 
men ;' and even with an ablative ; as, VMNI STj^- TSH', n\*i%$\\ 
* a store of grain is the best of all stores/ 

a. Rarely with an instrumental; as, «|3ffat $n<4l! VW$ ^STPT: 'a hero dearer 
than the life of Kunti.' Hence it appears that comparison may sometimes be 
expressed by a superlative suffix. Another example is ^T|!**li 4jf»"l»TI ^¥1! ' people 
well-read in books are better than ignorant people.' 

b. A superlative degree may even take a comparative suffix, and govern the 
genitive; as, TT^f aihfiTT: ' the eldest of them.' See 197. a. 

c. A comparative word may have a superlative sense ; as, ecnO ' very firm.' 

833. Comparison' is often expressed by an adjective in the positive degree, 
joined with a noun in the ablative or instrumental case ; as, nifta n«*iin g<wii»\ 
'there is not a happier than he;' ST T^ (719. a) H£l«^ 'he is greater than I.' 
Similarly, ^Pt^. fq^mx: ' more excellently than all.' 

a. In more modern Sanskrit 'comparison' is sometimes expressed by the use of 
^TTSJl 'regarding,' 'with reference to' (indecl. part, of root ^551 with *&t), which 
may take the place of 'than' in English; thus, «{$|")MTUH<U«^ 'ZtVfeU >H|-«1|Q 
'Sn^l3 t $ld*^ Wtel flHT JTnC31!I ^rfilt\^fr *T^fH ' an Acsrya ought to he higher 
in estimation than ten Upadhydyas, a father than a hundred Acaryas.' 

834. Many words have a kind of comparative influence, and require an ablative 
case, especially TOT^, ^R*{, ^P*T, ^nT^T, 'SfWeT, ^iTT, It, ^5, flfVofc, ^T, 
^f^Tt, TR8 ; as, H«JloJHIr^ M4'W 4ltM$H ^t*{ 'it is better not to touch mud 
than to wash it off;' ^Tft^f^ ^RT. •K.*U 1 ^'poverty is less desirable than death;' 
^t flf firar^ tH«*H( W% wHh 'Who is able to rescue me, other than a friend ?' 
f^ g:^ w: It^ ' What grief is greater than this ?' «T «Jrll^ ^P^ fasj^lrf 

one ought not to speak differently from what one has heard ;' rfrtloJK '-N^^l 'at 
another time than the present ;' iw «T ^ITi? Ht?!IT5 »T*I*r s ' there is no cause of 
fear to man from any other quarter than from death ;' <iJI«|J^lrf (731, 778) Tt'fi^ 
'on the day before that of the Sraddha;' TH^ri^mm ^ftjcfc^ 'more than a hundred 
Yojanas;' cni'fl)<;*fl: ^a 4 "^ f<*f^ 3^T: 'intelligence of a lover is something 
less than a meeting;' 'S^T^ vi v fy gl^ ' the remainder of the food ;' 'ijctlit M=d J HU*t 
. five times more than the value.' 



NUMERALS. 

835. The syntax of numerals is explained at 206, 207. The following examples 
may be added : «reKt «hj*UI^ * of ninety men ;' TC^ «RUlll*^ ' of sixty men ;' 
fe«W «Rmii»\ 'of a thousand men;' V%& fTiTC 'a thousand ancestors;' 
fgfi^ nfimr ?m^ ' one hundred multiplied by three ;' TRcS^rgir 5 1 ' two thousand 
fruits;' HIT 3*TOT »WT^ ^PTiTH: ' one of these three;' ^W HT ^ 'he gave 
ten thousand cows ;' tra$llT *JTT»^ "HHW ' he killed five hundred deer.' 



SYHTAX OF PKONOOTS. 365 

a. Sometimes the plural of the numerals from ^RfchfTfir upwards may be used ; 
as, TOItyfa^ TOJh 'with fifty arrows.' 

b. The aggregative numerals may he employed at the end of compounds for the 
cardinals ; thus, fN^TTO^ ' two armies ;' ftpTTS^iJSTO, ' four marriages. ' See 2 14. 

c. Numerals from nineteen (una-vins'ati) upwards may take the genitive after 
them of the things numbered; ae, *SCm*r W^HTftt 'a hundred thousand of 
horses;' ij^fcri UHtyrilfc "seven hundred foot-soldiers;' 51W^ ^TT^TPiTOFr 'a 
hundred preceptors ;' TVft n^Tinftr trfFB 'five hundred and sixty cows ;' ^JniTnT 
TC $nnf*T f¥$lfirej 'six hundred and twenty chapters;' fTCHirT f^T^ftloli^nT I 1 
"?« ^ 'two thousand one hundred and thirty men;' ^ ^ti ^g lfa 'five 
thousand chariots;' JJ^TiT TTO^ 'a hundred and one cows' (Manu xi. 129). 
They may be used at the end of genitively dependent compounds; as, Tf^T^ftfiT 
' eighty Tricas,' i. e. eighty of Tricas. 

Obs. — But the genitive is not admissible after numerals below nineteen ; e. g. 
^5F TTK ten men' (not ^$1 tTCIIDTTJ. 

d. When numerals are used comparatively they may take an ablative; as, 
fa^T^ fSipft ^1T: ' a fine the double of that in dispute.' 

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS. 

836. The chief peculiarities in the syntax of pronouns have 
already been noticed at 216-2,40, and at 799-801. 

With regard to the alternative of jj^, &c (see 223), it is properly 
only allowed in case of the re-employment (anvddeia) of this pronoun 
in the subsequent part of a sentence in which ^^ or CT5 has already 
been used ; thus, ^rtt an"«W^ ^retcl^ inf •g^suj^PT ' the grammar 
has been studied by him, now set him to study the Veda' (cf. Nala 
xii. 31, 32). It is an enclitic, and ought not to begin a sentence. 

a. In the use of the relative and interrogative pronouns a very peculiar attrac- 
tion is often to be observed; that is, when either a relative or interrogative 
pronoun has been used, and an indefinite pronoun would naturally be expected to 
follow, the relative or interrogative is repeated, as in the following examples : 
IT TOT (for ^i^Tf^) WT5K Wr^ 'whatever may be the disposition of whom (i. e. 
any one);' ^ XT^iT W 'whatever is pleasing to any one;' *n TOT HlUJf 
vi it 1 fif 'whoever eats the flesh of any animal;' TOT *I ^TOT! flf-fT 'whatever 
excellences belong to any one ;' 1^ TPT ^WR whatever corresponds with any- 
thing ;' ^f fqi STTTj^ ^THTTOfa^ ' What book is to be read by whom ?' 

837. The relative and interrogative are sometimes used together, in an indefinite 
distributive sense ; as, TTT»T <*lin (*ie*|i<u any friends whatever :' or more usually 
with f^? affixed to the interrogative ; as, TOT ^T wf^TT ' to any one whatever.' 

a. The neuter of the interrogative (f«IPTj is often joined with the instrumental 



366 SYNTAX OP VERBS. 

to signify 'What is the use of?' "there is no need of;' as, ?pHT f% *ft T V*J^ 
VHI^Xil I fifi^ 'UlrfHI 'it "H ftfwfTpn W^' Of what use is scriptural knowledge 
(to one) who does not practice virtue f Of what use is a soul (to one) whose 
passions are not kept in subjection ?' T3f tt ^T»PT JT?> «T ' What business have you 
to make this inquiry ?' f^i =l^«1l ' What need of more !' ' in short.' 

b. As already shewn at 761, a relative pronoun is sometimes rendered unne- 
cessary by the use of the relative compound; thus, H'lO ""'(•5 , iii > >Jin.51«*li is 
equivalent to «HlO 1^115^ ^fpFniTinf'T 5*5 1 (Vl ' a city whose palaces were 
silvered by the moon-beams.' 

c. The relative, when followed by a pluperfect tense in English, may be expressed 
' in Sanskrit by the indeclinable participle ; thus, fiERTT 3TTV t-rqi ' a lion having 

killed a hunter,' or a lion who had killed a hunter.' 

838. The following examples will illustrate the use of pronouns of quantity and 
pronominals : TRB: (or <lrtiJs4 , *l«t) 4Jl«lt, »f ?R fTT^tfC (or rirti^^l^) sqifn 
' as many mouthfuls as he eats, so many he gives away ;' ifij <JHM»(_ TfT r{\mi 
H^T THT^ »amm*4ir*i 'if so much is given to me, then I will give so much 
instruction;' TT<ri t^faf *THn^ ^3uW ' one out of all those.' See also 801. 

SYNTAX OF VERBS. 

839. Nothing is more common in Sanskrit syntax than for the 
verb to be omitted altogether, or supplied from the context. 

a. This is more especially the case with the copula, or substantive verb ; thus, 

TrRr^ Jt^fwrfi ^r nx^ tip «^Tr?5 1 ^5pKT *m% *rrai^ ht^ f^ir^w 

W*f*{ 'as long as the gods have existed in Meru, as long as the Ganges upon earth, 
as long as the sun and moon in the sky, so long have we (existed) in the family of 
Brahmans;' qfVtaq: mi (Vising ' discrimination (is) wisdom.' 

Locative and Genitive absolute. 

840. The locative case is very commonly used absolutely with 
participles ; as, jffm^ srfafiT srhnfa fW flfw^ f%^ ipr: 'he hving I 
live, he dying I die;' mm rai tT^ 'the night being ended;' ^% 
yiaft ^fiJST 'the elder brother being unmarried;' ^tiPff ^mq i tA; 
'there being no other expedient;' (TOT «fir ' it being so.' Sometimes 
the participle is omitted ; as, jj^HTJ 'the danger (being) distant' When 
the past passive participle is thus used absolutely with a noun in the 
locative, the present participle of ^, ' to be,' is often redundantly 
added ; as, inn ^rt ttfw or ttot ^rgfafl 'it being so done*.' 



* Possibly the object of adding the word sati may be to shew that the passive 
participle is here used as a participle, and not as a past tense. So also in com- 
mentaries *rf(f is placed after a word like WTSSfiT, to indicate the loc. sing, of 
the pres. part., as distinguished from the 3rd sing, of the pres. tense. 



SYNTAX OF VEEBS. 367 

' a. The genitive is less commonly used absolutely ; as, SSII^n^ wiirfirl«fi>^ 
'calamities impending;' T^TTf TrnOT^ 'the men looking on.' 

6. When the nominative appears to be thus used there are really two sentences } 
as . ^JSt * TRTift y«!«HI't, ^tftj? ' my friend having arrived, I am happy.' 

c. It is evident that the locative and genitive absolute may often take the place 
of the English particles 'when,' 'while,' since,' 'although;' and may supply the 
place of a pluperfect, tense „■ thus, flftR^ WHiRr 'when he had departed.' 

Nominative Case after the Verb. 

841. Verbs signifying 'to be, 5 'to become, 5 'to appear, 5 'to be 
called,' or ' to be esteemed, 5 and other passive verbs similarly used, 
may take a nominative after them ; as, ^nn JHI,'MI<44: Wl\ ' let a 
king be the protector of his subjects; 5 *n fHtl«f^T ufiwrfff 'she 
appears sorrowful; 5 nmfatipi TffiWTfil 'the village appears like a 
desert ; 5 xm\ V*f srfWfaft ' a king is called Justice. 5 

Accusative Case after the Verb. 

842. Transitive verbs generally govern an accusative ; as, f^| Tfras} 
*hn: ' Brahma created the universe ; 5 ipqTfijr fa«ftfir *{[& ' the woman 
gathers flowers ;' TimJ^ *(^ g^|: ' the dying man gave up the ghost ;* 
Wg ^V\ ' one should avoid wine f im ^f? ' speak the truth. 5 

a. Verbs of speaking to or addressing take an accusative; as, 
TPJ "sraThl 'he said to him; 5 ^fir ^r*c HJtVpf^ 'he thus addressed 
Arjuna. 5 

843. So also verbs of motion- ; as, TTTJif iffa «|f«T: 'the holy man goes to the 
place of pilgrimage;' «TSTi Wjj "J^ftr ' rivers run into the ocean;' Vffs *<^\*\ 
' he wanders over the earth.' 

844. Verbs of motion are not unfrequently used with substantives, to supply the 
place of other verbs ; as, JsHlfif *nfiT ' he goes to fame/ for ' he becomes famous ;* 
WnrT^ ifff ' he goes to equality,' for ' he becomes equal ;' TPft^ Piclfll«\ W*Tni*? 
fc he came to the friendship of those two,' for 'he became a friend of those two;' 
TJ^f# T7T. 'he went to death,' for 'he died;' ^Jlfff ijf£ "Hlf* 'he leads the 
king to satisfaction,' for 'he satisfies,' &c. 

a. The following are other examples : ^*faf itfST trft^ffr 'he avoids paining 
others;' ^ WW ^33tfk 'he desires what is unattainable;' faffl P* 11*11^ 'he 
should think on wisdom;' ^W\ Wtf?fil 'he mounts his horse;' "zM*$ ^Snfat, 
'they began the business;' nTTT^ *n ^'. 'grieve not for the departed^' ^/3*- - 
SSlfvitOT ^itfff 'he deserves the sovereignty of the universe;' ^JT*^^ 
WfV^H 'he lies down in a cave of the mountain;' nf ^tk-flRvft T ftf^T^ 
'one ought not to prevent a cow from drinking milk.' 



368 SYNTAX OF VERBS. 

845. There are certain verbs which take a redundant accusative case after them 
of a substantive derived from the same root; as, SIT*! ^PI 'he swore an oath/ 
^ffir ^re^ ' he dwells ;' ^(Jt ^f^ ' he conducts himself;' ^TOI ^fil 'he speaks 
a speech ;' *Of<l'*T sft^fif ' he lives a life ;' •Rffil ll^ ' he raises a cry ' (cf. the 
Greek expressions Xeyu Xoyov, yalpu ya.?a.v, &c.) 

Double Accusative after the Verb. 

846. Verbs of asking govern a double accusative ; as, ^? ^T llin ' he seeks 
a boon of the god ;' *PT uiitf HlMHrt ' he begs money from the king ;' ft *J«i« 
1 J53tfTI ' he asks whether he has had a good ablution.' Of speaking ; as, 4.1*1 if 
^ifil iHsHlri ' he addressed a speech to the king. ' Of leadings as, IT ^? T*lfit 
'he leads him home;' <M,*Jill TJjIJiH. ff"fT«T 'he led the princess to another 
king.' 

a. Other examples of the use of verbs of this kind are, IT ^ifrjl *PK ' he milks 
milk from the cow ;' <W^ vfW) 4^4 1 Ph 'they milked jewels out of the earth' (cf. 
895- *) 5 f'W »Tc5 *TT5*T*^ ' having won his kingdom from Nala,' i. e. ' having by 
play deprived Nala of his kingdom' (cf. 895. b); ^fTSTTfiT 33*11 fa ^Bfl^ ' she 
gathers blossoms from the trees;' TTTt^ Hlf^'nt^ <j*i,«il<;«l*l/he sent them to the 
abode of Yama >' tg^rffTnff" fT J j4jrf famlrfili WT f<lfii 'his own acts lead 
a man to eminence or the reverse ;' fi$P!pn*TT»J HTf^ is^ifVu ' he taught them the 
use of arms;' TT *JfT»lfiT*^ 'Hfilfafa^: 'they inaugurated him general,' more 
usually joined with an ace. and loc. ; ^ Hin msin ' she chooses a god for her> 
husband.' 

Obs. — When verbs which govern a double accusative are used in the passive, 
one accusative will remain (cf. 895. J); as, ^Tf^fafV^ ^T*J# ff»*i 'the ocean was 
churned for nectar' (Kirat. v. 30). 

847. Causal verbs; as, ^rfirW *fU«rfit ^*P{ 'he causes the guest to eat food' 
(see Pan. 1. 4, 52); RT "^TWrftr ^ W f^H*^ 'I cause you to know what is for 
your interest;' fift^i ^c[Tt\ "Wfil JJ^t <tne Gum tea( =hes bis pupil the 
Vedas;' TTT >J? IT^RfK 'he causes her to enter the house;' Miri.JJ'Ml^"* i|l^^l- 
•TTO "JMJrH»l*\ ' he presented the king's son with fruits, flowers, and water ;' S«T*T 
iSrfJ*^ SHKimifa 'she causes her son to sit on her lap' (literally, 'her hip'); f^Tt. 
fT «JT «jf*i«4:fii ' learning causes a man to have access to a king.' 

Instrumental Case after the Verb. 
848. Any verh may be joined with the instrumental, to express 
'the agent,' 'instrument ' or 'cause' or 'manner' of the action; as, 
jptf ^rhi gmfir ' the flower fades by reason of the wind ;' ^». Tfitefir 
' he plays with dice ;' Jhftsfnj 4§^ fa^lM^Pri ' the cloud puts out the 
fire with its rain ;' gTJTrf »fWiT ' he lives happily.' See 865. 
a. In this sense many causals take an instrumental; as, ITT f*TST%T hIjUITHIH 



SYNTAX OF VERBS. 369 

' he caused her to eat sweetmeats ;' Tlf^fW: fn?ST^ m^ffn ' he causes the pieces 
to he eaten by the birds.' Cf. 847. 

849. After verbs of motion this case is used in reference either to the vehicle by 
which, or the place on which, the motion takes place; as, **Nr HUlflT f he goes in 
a chariot;' ^frf *n3*fir 'he goes on horseback;' mifa Jl^fa 'he goes on the 
road;' SrcnSj^r Jratfff 'he goes through afield of corn;' 1J31% Wnt ~%fem 
'he navigated the ocean in a boat.' Similarly, *J5TF* «T^: *fp$c5^ ' tears flowed 
through the eyes.' 

a. After verbs of carrying, placing, &c, it is used in reference to 'the place' on 
which anything is carried ; as, ^fif JJJlT ^PT^ ' he bears fuel on his head;' ^C 
^R*V«T T5TW the dog is borne on the shoulders.' ^ is found with this case in the 
sense of placing; as, f^TWT $&{ ^Wft^ ' he placed his son on his head.' 

The following are other examples: f^T^TO *l«3lfw >J^: 'the master goes m 
company with the pupil;' H«d*IIHT« ifofWt ' he consulted with his ministers ;' but 
in this sense *Jf is usually placed after it. «HT whn +l#wifrT ' the husband 
meets the wife;' ^Ull'^lffT ^i ?fl: 'he harnesses the horses to the chariot;' gwffi 
^njW ' he fights his enemies,' or Sl^fW B?, &c. ; ^t ^T sMP'li^H? ^ITI 'one 
ought not to be at enmity with any one;' Hf ^fa*!I "*|fT5I'^JlT 'he suspects me of a 
crime.' 

850. Verbs of boasting, &c; as, fa €14 1 f^Rir^f 'you ions* of your learning;' 
^IT^f TSWT W*l« ' you glory in the fame of others. ' 

a. Of swearing ; as, V^^T ^TT ' he swore by his bow.' 

b. Of thinking, reflecting ; as, TrfllT f^f^TT ' thinking in his mind.' 

c. Of comparing ; as, »Ic<iT<**|t ^WWif HH^T ' a beautiful woman is compared 
to a leech.' 

851. Verbs denoting liberation, freedom from, sometimes take an instrumental 
after them ; as, TTCfTrro U^ptJK ' he is released from all sins ;' ^«T f^g^nf ' he is 
separated from the body ' (more usually with ablative). 

852. Verbs of buying and selling take the instrumental of the price ; as, flW^. 
^ifT IJlfrarP^ 1J=R 'ai'faft'^ sfVssn^ ' buy one wise man even for thousands of fools ;' 
Iqrf TT^fclJiT f|T fVafitiftn ' he sells his house for a thousand cows ;' 'aftllfi'^ H^ 
^5Tf>r: ^W: ' buy that for ten Suvarnas.' 

Dative after the Verb. 
853. All verbs in which a sense of imparting or communicating 
anything is inherent, may take an accusative of the thing imparted, 
and a dative of the person to whom it is imparted. (Frequently, 
however, they take a genitive or even a locative of the recipient ; 
see 857.) ^&m H^oRT<^ ^Tfir * he gives sweetmeats to his son ;' fawq 
if Tffil^ffrfir c he promises a cow to the Brahman ;* ^^m V«f VTTTTfir 
' he owes money to Devadatta ;' gwi jl^ wfinn^T ' consign the maiden 
to him/ more usually with the locative; see 861. 

3 b 



370 SYNTAX OF VERBS. 

a. Other examples of the dative are, fof f<MWI4 H$*in *T5T: 'he sets his 
mind on their destruction;' *W«TPJ Tfff <<VT 'he set his mind on departure,' or 
with the locative. TT^ T^I tNH * that is phasing tome;' f^Ow. hi««m(«i TTi^ 
' I will declare this to my pupils;' V% TX% flsjlM^fif 'he makes known all to the 
king,' these are also joined with the genitive of the person. ?fl|fi;^TT «*<34fl ' he 
is rendered fit for immortality ;' wMtT "TO ^*IT1 ' he has the powjer to kill me ;' 
in^ *rnjT "^*rre ^ra^^nr 'he incited them to the murder of their mother;' gall 
Spflfif ' he is angry with his son ;' ^T »rf*l,M3fl »ffin gW^ldPl ' this lump of flesh 
is produced for a hundred sons ;' Tr^TO fal*<IM ' I had no hopes 0/ success.' 

Ablative after the Verb. 
854. All verbs may take an ablative of the object from which 
anything proceeds, or arises, or is produced ; as, o^fjr *j«|li^ U^*^ 
' the leaf falls from the tree ;' *jf>ri B^fn Trail^ ' blood flows from the 
body ;' ^mnn^ afyafit ' he rises from his seat ;' ijfrjHSSTT: (719) ^SB#T 
$^W Vft^ iy&.fd ' from the lump of clay the artist makes whatever 
he wishes; 5 f=H*u^ ^nfir tH^TtT^ 'from education a person attains 
capacity ;' fi^iTR hjujh ' he went out from the city.' 

855. Verbs of fearing are joined with the ablative, and sometimes with the 
genitive; as, STT>|^ «T (T^Tf fi^ f*Wfif Iff vnjnu^'a good man does not fear 
death so much as falsehood;' TT 5I«<I5 fatfhr 'be not afraid of a noise;' 
^!3T^ efsilfl HitR 'the whole world stands in awe of punishment;' ^fajl!)^ K 
^TT^ra'raTTFr fwfk 'I fear thee, a cunning penitent;' see 859. 

856. Verbs which express superiority or comparison govern an 
ablative ; as, Uimuii^ ^imqt nftunnfr faf^I 1 ^ ' the abandonment of 
pleasure is superior to (better than) the possession.' 

a. Other examples of verbs followed by ablative cases are, m«i?i^ W^O^fri ' he 
descends from the palace ;' Hi ay! «a'll^ ^Nnni*. ' Vishnu descended from heaven ;' 
<*«!*, W^^^-l^ , *RHTWflT ' he takes off (causes to descend) the golden bracelet 
from his body ;' f«i=l«n iimii^ ' he ceases from wickedness ;' ^tflt} f^TJJH 
' he left off speaking ;' «U<*li^ f^Tlt ^TftT $Wf VTf*Ni: ' a virtuous son saves 
his father from hell;' ^nSR>T*mj|i^ WP^ ^rfirft^Iff 'truth is superior to a 
thousand sacrifices;' 49.(31111^ UHlilfrT 'he neglects his own interest;' (VldH 
1^5ST^ f«T^IClfir ' a friend guards one from evil.' 

Genitive after the Verb. 

857. The genitive in Sanskrit is constantly interchangeable with 
the dative, locative, or even instrumental and accusative*. It is 



* This vague use of the genitive to express ' various relations ' prevails also in 
early Greek. . 



SYNTAX OF VERBS. 371 

more especially, however, used to supply the place of the first of 
these cases, so that almost all verbs may take a genitive as well as 
dative of 'the recipient; 5 e.g. ^^ VH ^ifir 'he gives money to 
the poor; 5 ^^^ ^l^ 'he benefits others.' 

858. It may be used for the locative after verbs of consigning, as f*TBPT »TO 
Wnrofw ' he deposits a pledge with me ;' or of trusting, as * 'cRf^rT ^farf 
Tg^VT fcT no body puts trust in women :' and for the accusative in examples such 
m WpqfannfiT f:^Tf* ^mfrit %f&W{ 'unexpected ills come upon corporeal 
beings.' 

859. It is sometimes used after verbs of fearing; as, fl^T f^i «T *?*rfH "Why 
wilt thou not be afraid of him ? ' see 853. Also after verbs of longing for, desiring, 
envying: as, <4HHMW «|=M«j^'he should desire contempt;' *^nf»T $^mDT 
"^^n^ I envy men who possess eyes.' After verbs of remembering ; as, ft^l 
«T ¥Wif they do not remember heaven ' (Kirat. v. 28). 

a. Other examples of verbs followed by genitive cases are, ^n^TTIT^ ^^! 
^rm 3W ^rftr vrT§T ' tell us, who are ignorant of it, whose wife you are ;' 
^T (for ^liwn^) favqfii VlfH3T: 'Of whom are the righteous afraid?' TT3 
^nq^T Hfinn'ftH ^T ^ ^RTO ^Ti^ ' one should not give to one what one 
promises to another;' W *t ^yJjftffT ' he does not hear me' (cf. the Greek usage); 
T*T Wt: ' remember me,' or with an accusative. ^RT^i «JjT. W^fir ' death over- 
comes us;' 'Slf"^ «T ^Olf (T ^TORT^ ' fire is not satisfied with fuel;' fof TJ^IT: 
'forgive them ; ' f^i *HIT WPT ^RT^ ' What offence have I given him ? ' 

Locative after the Verb. 

860. This case is very widely applicable, but, as elsewhere re- 
marked, is frequently interchangeable with the dative and genitive. 
The first sense of the locative requires that it should be united with 
verbs in reference only to 'the place' or 'time' in which anything 
is done; as, tiff »rarfiT 'he sinks in the mud;' ijt ^^fir 'he dwells 
in the city;' TJSnjfS frreftT 'he stands in the front of the fight;' 
.fl*rf^J IRTflff e at sunrise he awakes.' 

861. The transition from ' the place' to the object ' or ' recipient ' of any action 
is natural ; and hence it is that verbs are found with the locative of ' the object ' 
■to which anything is imparted or communicated, as in the following examples : 
IT OT«5 ^"rt V^' bestow not money on the mighty;' iTfin'J ^1^1% fiff^- 
xjTfiT ' I entrust my affairs to him ;' $3 vtfi'0*4<i WTOfit 'he consigns a ring to 
his son ;' hI'M *jf%5T ^f^lfil tT3^*TTt?T v ' he entrusts the burden of the kingdom 
•to a capable minister ;' TI% or <M$W (nq^lfiT 'he informs the king ;' ?TJ5 ^ 
say to Nala.' 

a. iftf £?TT f^WHt^'one should place (bury) a dead man in the ground;' VI 
fft ^VTTIT ' he applies his mind to virtue.' In this sense ^ may be used ; as, 

3 b a 



372 INSTRUMENTAL CASE AFTER PASSIVE VERBS. 

*$ %**&{ *«RTh^' he placed the wood on his back ;' *rfff THl wftfit ' he applies 
his mind to sin.' 

86a. When ^T, 'to give,' is used for 'to put,' it follows the same analogy; as, 
TTOT %■&$ 1^ ^f? 'put your hand on the end of its tail;' WH.^fl ^ W 
' he placed his foot on a heap of ashes.' Similarly, mfli^cl ^Tn'ra he was 
held by the skirt of his garment.' So also verbs of seizing, striking; as, *V^ 
>JlSITfiT or 'Sn^fif 'he seizes or drags him by the hair;' ^fit Ut<fil 'he strikes 
a sleeping man ;' 'j^\i4l iT iffapi 1TCBT 'having taken hold of him by the right 
hand.' 

863. The locative is often put for the dative in sentences where the latter case 
stands for the infinitive ; thus, HijT. 'SH^W!! PTO3 ' hasten to seek thy spouse ;' 
Tt5W fll«f«l^ Vff& 'strive to bring Nala hither;' ^T $)$*(, TO! V^t K^S 
"they could not hold that bow;' »T ^RKfrsw^ fH^TTOT 'he was not able to 
prevent it.' 

a. Other examples are, ^7J Wlftl ^Ibt ' he is engaged in a very severe penance ;' 
■^■^infg *IT srpjrfV >£ 'do not busy yourself about other people's affairs;' 
fawg +I»*|H 'he is addicted to objects of sense;' ^%~ oil «*. H^W TfliT 'he delights 
in the good of all the world ;' 5*TTfv«liIT f«igTqn ' he is appointed to the com- 
mand of the fort;' ^T ^»tf >jft ftpftjT«lfir 'he yokes two bulls to the pole;' 
tHIMW 'Slfafa^r TI^ " anoint me to the generalship ;' 1TTW mV.f«H|^ ' he strives 
to suppress evil-doers;' qu<4ti iim*^ ^rcfi^ ^1 "they had anger against the 
king ;' l|0«fi ^^ ^J 5 '' ' make * na ^ o/Vahuka ;' ->MIV]I-H4 fgftf ^t*PT ' I will lay 
the blame on you ;' q<«t«s iT VJI w ' choose him for thy husband ;' ^T "a^n 
«!0l«ifiT ^J^J ' the gods exerted themselves for the nectar.' 

b. «T T%V ^sTfr ^iih*^ *"5^I^ ' such language is not suited to a person like 
me;' W$ft 3fl H^Tqn 'sovereignty is suited to you;' -eti*i«i ^mfc^d 'he 
reclined on a seat ;' >j«hi»^ flrtl^s* 'sit thou on a cushion ;' Sr«ff Pm sy Tw frt 'he 
confides in his enemies ;' ^XSpfk Mrtfff ' it falls at his feet ;' riifil «U^*I ' it roH* 
at the feet.' 

Change of Case after the same Verb. 

864. This sometimes occurs ; as, fV$M ^HtJgR ^rft ^ 'If<4ll3i: *nf «U<$<$- 
TO^ 'Vidhura and Kunti announced everything, the one to Dhrita-rashtra, the 
other to Gandhari ' (Astras'iksha 34), where the same verb governs a dative and 
genitive. Similarly, in the Hitopades'a, ^yffpsrf f<IW«h «T ^F^i: ^fa ^ 'con-' 
fidence is not to be placed in horned animals or women.' 

INSTRUMENTAL CASE AFTER PASSIVE VERBS. 
865. The prevalence of a passive construction is the most remark- 
able feature in the syntax of this language. Passive verbs are joined 



* WTO Epie form for W|«sf or ^TO. 



SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE. 373 

with ' the agent, instrument, or cause/ in the instrumental case *, 
and agree with 'the object 5 in number and person; as, ^ifcl V% 
Tgqif 'the dust is raised by the wind;' ^ *T^HTti!I aWl/rtqiMH 
' let all things be prepared by him ;' ^jfa^ *nfi*?fts^ortan- ' the sun 
was concealed by arrows.' 

866. But the past passive participle usually takes the place of the past tenses of the 
passive verb, and agrees with ' the object ' in gender and case as well as number ; 
as, l<ai(Vu WnSjmfTT Tlft^T '(their) eyes were suffused with tears j' ffH ^jfiTT 
(^^ being understood) ' it was said by him.' Cf. 895. 

a. This instrumental construction after passive verbs is a favourite idiom in 
Sanskrit prose composition, and the love for it is remarkably displayed in such 
phrases as the following : §J^T TOTff, 'he is gone to by misery,' for gis! JratfcT; 
and ^Timntf 5^T, 'let it be come by your majesty,' for ^rTTRaij \m; and 
again, ^TOTfa^ S^ WITHT^, ' let it be remained by us in one spot,' for ' let us 
remain in one spot;' Vft TnTO ^? AH TOlin^ ' by whatever road it is desired, by 
that let it be gone.' 

b. Active or causal verbs, which take a double accusative, will retain one accusa- 
tive when constructed passively ; but the other accusative passes into a nominative 
case ; thus, instead of ft *lf mvmftl g^T% ' he addressed me in harsh words,' 
may be written TPT ^1? *l^Tft!I T3K, ' by him I was addressed in harsh words.' 

SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE. 
867. The infinitive (formed with jp^ turn) in Sanskrit cannot be 
employed with the same latitude as in other languages. Its use is 
very limited, corresponding to that of the Latin Supines, as its 
termination turn indicates. 

a. Let the student, therefore, distinguish between the infinitive of Sanskrit 
and that of Latin and Greek. In these latter languages we have the infinitive 
made the subject of a proposition ; or, in other words, standing in the place of a 
nominative, and an accusative case often admissible before it. We have it also 
assuming different forms, to express present, past, or future time, and complete- 
ness or incompleteness in the progress of the action. The Sanskrit infinitive, on 
the other hand, can never be made the subject of a verb, admits of no accusative 
before it, and can only express indeterminate time and incomplete action. Wherever 
it occurs it must be considered as the object, and never the subject, of some verb 
expressed or understood. As the object of the verb, it may be regarded as equiva- 
lent to a verbal substantive, in which the force of two cases, an accusative and 
dative, is inherent, and which differs from other substantives in its power of 

* There are a few instances of the agent in the genitive case ; as, »PT ^fif inPT , 
' a crime committed by me,' for HIT. 



374 SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE. 

governing a case. Its use as a substantive, with, the force of the accusative case, 
corresponds to one use of the Latin infinitive; thus, Tn^JJW "sflg^ ^35Tfi? 'I desire 
to hear all that,' 'id audire cupio,' where Wlg*^ and audire are both equivalent to 
accusative cases, themselves also governing an accusative. Similarly, Ctnjg" *J"J«ii 
' she began to weep ;' and Hjf^ *ty\ ^tW* ' he began to conquer the earth,' where 
HfffcppT ^rrt*T,''he began the conquest of the earth,' would be equally correct. 

J. Bopp considers the termination of the infinitive to be the accusative of the 
suffix tu (458. Obs.), and it is certain that in the Veda other cases of nouns formed 
with this suffix in the sense of infinitives occur ; e. g. a dative in tave or tavai, as from 
han comes hantave, 'to kill ;' fr. anu-i, anvetave, 'to follow ;' fr. man, mantavai, to 
think :' there is also a form in tos, generally in the sense of an ablative ; e. g. fr. i 
comes etos, from going ;' fr. han, hantos, as in purd hantos, before killing :' and 
a form in tvi corresponding to the indeclinable participle in tvd of the classical 
language; e.g. fr. han, hatvi, 'killing;' fr. bhd, bhdtvi, being.' Infinitives may also 
be formed in the Veda by simply adding the usual case-terminations to the root ; 
e. g. in the sense of an accusative, fr. d-ruh may come druham, to ascend ;' fr. 
d-sad, dsadam, "to sit down :' of a dative, fr. d-dhrish, ddhrishe, 'to get at,' subdue ;' 
fr. san-daksh; san6akshe, 'to survey:' of an ablative, fr. ava-pad, avapadas, 'from 
falling down.' Infinitives are also formed by changing the final d of roots ending 
in this letter to ai; e. g. fr. pra-yd, prayai, 'to approach :' or by adding se (liable 
to be changed to she) to a root, as fr. ji comes jishe, "to conquer:' or by 
adding asej e.g. fr. jw, jivase, 'to live:' or adhyai; e.g. fr. bhri, bharadhyai, 'to 
bear ;' fr. yaj, yajadhyai, ' to sacrifice,' &c. 

868. But the Sanskrit infinitive most commonly involves a sense 
which belongs especially to the Sanskrit dative, viz. that of ' the end' 
or 'purpose' for which anything is done; thus, ^|N<*I^ KftSfdH 
^rprajfir ' he comes to devour the young ones ;' $1^ *fl^ fhtf u i f^ i flrf 
' he sent an army to fight the enemy.' 

a. In these cases it would be equally correct in Sanskrit to substitute for the 
infinitive the dative of the verbal noun, formed with the suffix ana ,■ thus, HHjlUHI, 
' for the eating,' for wfmg^ J *fl*MH, ' for the fighting,' for *ft¥^ I and in Latin 
the infinitive could not be used at all, but either the supine, devoratum, pugnatum, 
or, still more properly, the conjunction ut with the subjunctive mood, ' ut devoret,' 
' ut pugnarent.' The following are other examples in which the infinitive has a 
dative force in expressing ' the purpose' of the action : 1l»ft<j rm «1<^*T WIHH 
' he went to the river to drink water ;' TT 'W*W^ 4*1^ Tmntfir ' he comes to cut 
asunder my bonds ;' *TT eTTJ WTO 'he is able to rescue me ;' Ml^lf'J, 4hP4.iT tm^jl 
«T>J3 ' he busied himself about collecting together the snares.' 

5. The best Pandits think that the infinitive ought not to be used when the 
verb which is connected with it refers to a different person, or is not *PTRTfv<*U!J ; 
thus >T ^^ ^TTsjnro, 'command him to go,' would be better expressed by K 



USE AND CONNEXION OP THE TENSES. 375 

c. The infinitive cannot be used after an accusative to express ' that,' as in 
Latin; thus, 'having heard that Duryodhana was killed' would be expressed by 

869. The Sanskrit infinitive, therefore, has the character of a 
Supine, and in this character is susceptible of either an active or 
passive signification. In its passive character, however, like the 
Latin Supine in «, it is joined with certain words only, the most 
usual being the passive verbs 51^ * to be able' and ^ ' to be fitting,' 
and their derivatives ; thus, fff ^ SFRff ' it cannot be abandoned ;' 
T^fir ?r %^ 3P5TK ' the snare cannot be cut ;' tt $prt: «nrtITij ^ %*['. 
'those evils cannot be remedied;' ^ Tf jj^ 'it is not fitting to be 
heard ;' %^ WTtnj: ' unfit to be cut ; ' FPU H fSTf{ W H WH *SW lijfa 
'contempt is not proper to be shewn by thee for him ;' oR^ftjg^ *ft"i: 
* worthy to be celebrated.' 

a. The following are other instances: HUm'. eRRfqipj ^TRac 'the shed wa3 
begun to be built;' TTa^ ^lfW«l^ *T^n^ ftreftni: 'your Honour has been 
selected to be inaugurated to the kingdom ;' ^Il[frt «STT^ ' it deserves to be done ;' 
'(PI "^f'W^ 'improper to be done' (cf. factu indignum and noieiv aiayjiov); 
*tT *tfafV| *iraT 'she ought to be released;' ftpJ^ ^ TTlf^K «|jf*[ 'what is 
sought to be done.' The infinitive of neuter verbs, which have a passive sense, 
will of course be passive ; as, w| *I ^J?ftl ' deign not to be angry.' 

870. The root 'af' ' to deserve,' when used in combination with an infinitive, is 
usually equivalent to 'an entreaty' or 'respectful imperative;' as, VTT^ «H igi*^ 
^I^ftl ' deign (or simply ' be pleased') to tell us our duties.' It sometimes has the 
force of the Latin debet ; as, «T TT^ft rtJT^ ^rfHHTf^ ^iffiT ' such a person as I 
ought not to address you;' «T K wf'^'T ^*ftl 'you ought not to bewail him.' 

871. The infinitive is sometimes joined with the noun ^ITT, 'desire,' to form a 
kind of compound adjective, expressive of wishing to do anything, but the 
final m is then rejected; thus, "Jg^iTT:, -*TT, -1*^, 'desirous of seeing;' ^ipiW, 
-IT, -H^, ' wishing to conquer.' 

a. Sometimes the infinitive is joined in the same way with H^J thus, TI 
$b»(«h: ' he has a mind to see.' • 

872. When kirn follows the infinitive a peculiar transposition sometimes takes 
place, of which the 1st Act of S'akuntala furnishes an example; thus, 11*37 ff 
^Tipj; ^3flf»T f%*{ ^npn t^n«W *nT fi^firil^, ' I wish to know thy friend, 
whether this monastic vow is to be observed by her,' for sHip^ ^^ifa f^i *HstT fl 
&c. ' I wish to know whether-this vow is to be observed by thy friend.' 

USE AND CONNEXION, OF THE TENSES. 
873. PRESENT Tense. — This tense, besides its proper use, is often 
used for the future; as, 3 j Jraifa 'Whither shall I go?» <s^t wi 



876 USE AND CONNEXION OF THE TENSES. 

traTnfa 'When shall I see thee?* f% oRttfn 'What shall I do?* and 
sometimes for the imperative ; as, Tffi ^fH! ' let us do that/ 

874. In narration it is commonly used for the past tense; as, H >jftT «*|§l ^HBT 
W^Tfif "SjT ^ 'he, having touched the ground, touches his ears, and says.' 

873. It may denote 'habitual' or 'repeated' action; as, >J1T! HW^ TT& *TWT ^PW 
Wl^fiT ' the deer going there every day was in the habit of eating the corn ;' ^T 
* ^f 1 **^*^ ^J'ffifiT K^T QiXXiS HTOlfir ' whenever he heard the noise of the 
mouse, then he would feed the cat,' 

876. It is usually found after mtl^ and iTR!^; as, ^TM«^ H J^Xf «J J^Z^fcr 
iTt^if H^ IT^T (skiUi 'as long as my teeth do not break, so long will I gnaw 
asunder your fetters.' (Compare the use of the Latin dum.) 

877. The present tense of the root W^, 'to sit,' 'to remain,' is used with the 
present participle of another verb, to denote continuous ' or 'simultaneous ' action ; 
as, V^jj WV ^^ ^Trer * he keeps making a slaughter of the beasts;' *W TOT^ 
^TTS^ 3TTW ' he is in the act of coming after me.' 

878. The particle W, when used with the present, gives it the force of a perfect; 
as, Ufmifif W $fjfy 'they entered the city;' fiMflftrf W 'they dwelt.' See 
251. Obs. 

879. POTENTIAL. — The name of this tense is no guide to its 
numerous uses. Perhaps its most common force is that of 'fitness' 
in phrases, where in Latin we should expect to find oportet with the 
infinitive ; as, ^rrciT m 3ta?l TO ^§T^ Trofrfsni^ ' having beheld danger 
actually present, a man should act in a becoming manner.' 

880. It is also employed, as might be expected, in indefinite general expressions; 
as, I^T *ft *TTO ^Tfi^ ' whatever may be the disposition of any one ;' *1<JT ttlTT 
«sl<t ?{ ^*(1\ «Bl5 t <;^i»i*^ ' when the king may not himself make investigation of 
the case;' -whih, <*!«;* -*.i ^q; WrJJII^ *MHM^ 'by uttering unseasonable 
words one may meet with dishonour.' 

a. Especially in conditional sentences and suppositions; as, Tffij TT5IT ^!5 if 
mih^ ^THJ grfwftj^ ^ ^m^ «§.«liN<S faifa^ ' if the king were not to inflict 
punishment, ownership would remain with nobody, and all barriers would be 
broken down.' Sometimes the conjunction is omitted; as, »T H^il 'should it not 
be so ;' ^T S*ffi^ TOVfa: ' were he not subject to another.' 

881. The potential often occurs as a softened imperatme, the Sanskrit language, 
iu common with others in the East, being averse to the more abrupt form ; thus, 
»Tar:, 'do thou go,' for irat; and ^en^TRrflO, 'i e t him eat fruits,' for ^ra; 
V/T9, 'let there be,' for 'there must be' (in comment, to Pan.) 

88a. IMPERATIVE. — This tense yields the usual force of ' com- 
mand' or 'entreaty;' as, ^rofafis 'take courage;' *n^ ^*TCRT 
'remember me.' 

m, and not tt, must be used w prohibition ; as, *npr ht ffe ' do 



USE AND CONNEXION OF THE TENSES. 377 

not tell a falsehood;' m W^rer 'be not ashamed;' see 889. The 
first person is used to express * necessity' see example at 796. 

a. The 3rd pers. singular is sometimes used interjectionally ; thus, 
*raij 'Be it so!' 'Well!' TTTiJ 'Let it go!' 'Come along!' 'Come!' 

883. The imperative is sometimes used in conditional phrases to express ' contin- 
gency;' as, W«J»n«ftfi? HT ireaTfa 'permit me, (and) I will go,' i. e. 'if you will permit 
me, I will go ;' ^TTtTC ?far fTSR^' if you command me, I will kill the villain ;' 
^IW^R M «4«a. 'i^sliHT 'if you give me a promise of security, I will go.' 

884. IMPERFECT. — Although this tense (see 24a) properly has 
reference to 'past incomplete action,' and has been so rendered in 
the paradigms of verbs, yet it is commonly used to denote ' indefinite 
past time' without any necessary connexion with another action ; 
as, ^k( jffi^ V^f\ "srair.^ 'I made an effort to collect wealth,' not 
necessarily ' I was making.' 

Obs. — The augment may be cut off after m, as in the aorist ; thus, 
*TT W »T^ ' May he not become ?' See 24a. Obs. ; Pan. vi. 4, 74. 

885. PERFECT. — As explained at 34a, this tense is properly used 
to express 'an action done at some definite period of past time;' as, 
w5T3IT^TT ^ft ^IT^T ^'a>'?: ' Kausalya and the others bewailed king 
Dasaratha.' It is frequently, however, employed indeterminately. 

886. FlRST FUTURE. — This tense (see 24a) expresses 'definite 
but not immediate futurity ;' as, TTTCJ f^f «SWW "«Kc5 WWTftt 'in those 
regions thou shalt (one day) obtain the fruit of thy desire.' 

887. SECOND FUTURE.' — This tense, although properly indefinite, 
is employed to express ' all degrees and kinds of futurity,' immediate 
or remote, definite or indefinite; as, ^rg VW. vn&fa 'thou shalt 
drink sweet water;' irar ^3*T V^f ~^ftS 'there certainly he will 
see his wife ;' "3i?r *tfa*jftr 'this very day thou shalt go.' 

a. It is sometimes used for the imperative ; as, tt? <*t} ff^ ^retfa 
' whatever is to be given, that you will give,' (do thou give.) 

888. AORIST. — This tense (see 34a) properly expresses ' time in- 
definitely past ;' as, "sr^ htj: 'there lived (in former times) a king.' 

889. It is also employed to supply the place of the imperative, after the prohi- 
bitive particle TT or *TT W, the augment being omitted (see 242. Obs.) ; as, TT ^^T: 
' do not make ;' TT WIBJT: WW^' do not lose the opportunity ;' TT W ^«JTf ^T^t: 
' do not tell an untruth ;' HT 1JV: ' do not be angry ;' TT ^'. ' do not grieve ;' HI 
f&ft: ' do not injure ;' IT «TTTJ[IJ ' dd not destroy ;' «# ^fat ' do not speak so ;' 
HT »Wt: 'be not afraid ' (contracted into HT H: in Nala xiv. 3). 

3 C 



378 SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES. 

: 890. Pbecativb. — Only one example of this tense occurs in the Hitopades'a : 
ftrW %$1\ *ra33J^*rfw: 'May he constantly be the abode of all happiness !' 
It is chiefly used in pronouncing benedictions. Also in imprecations. 

a., In the latter case a noun formed with a suffix ani is frequently used; thus, 
WsfNfHt^ K Jg^ITf^ ' May there be loss of life to thee ! ' ' Mayst thou perish ! ' 

891. Conditional. — This tense (see 242) is even less frequent than the last. 
The following are examples : *jf^ tTSIT ^ «T iHPJi^fl^T ^J75 HitHl^ ^ iSMSHn. 
SH«i«l, •Hrt^rXi: ' if the king were not to inflict punishment, then the stronger 
would roast the weak like fish on a spit ;' or, according to the Scholiast, Uftii^ 
*r«*rc*M«{_ ' would cause injury ;' *J^fe3I ^ wf«imi^ rT^T ^jfaHJ^ ^wfamt^ ' if 
there should be abundant rain, then there would be abundance of food.' According 
to Panini (in. 3, 139) it is used fspnfinrar ' when the action is supposed to pass by 
unaccomplished ' (frfitll^l «t(V|«H<ii Schol.) 

a. Let. — The Vedic mood, called Let by native grammarians, corresponds to 
the subjunctive of the Greek language. In forming it a short a is inserted between 
the conjugational stem and the termination, or if the conjugational stem ends in a, 
this letter is lengthened ; at the same time the augment of the imperfect and aorist 
is dropped, e.g. from han comes pres. ind. han-ti; but subj. han-a-ti: from pat, 
pres. ind. pata-ti; subj. patd-ti: from as, impf. ind. dino-t ; subj. asnava-t, i.e. 
a$no-\-a+t. So also, from pat, impf. ind. apata-t ;- subj. patd-t : from trl, aor. ind. 
atdrit (for atdrish-t, cf. du. atdrish-va, &c); subj. tdrish-a-t. It may also be 
mentioned that in the Atmane the final e may optionally be changed to ai, e. g. 
mddayddhvai ; and that the subjunctive of the aorist sometimes takes the termina- 
tions of the present tense without lengthening a, e. g. from vai comes aor. ind. 
avoiat, subj. vodati. 

Observe — The characteristic of Let is the insertion of a. 

SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES. 
89 a. Participles in Sanskrit often discharge the functions of the 
tenses of verbs. They are constantly found occupying the place of 
past and future tenses, and more especially of passive verbs. 

893. Participles govern the cases of the verbs whence they are 
derived ; as, *jvi M!^ * seeing the fowler ;' ^ropi ^T«^ ' walking in 
the forest ;' m^ "flT^Tq; ' he did that ;' ^r^ ^n«B7W ' having heard a 
noise;* m<fl^ ^snftWT Tin 'he went away without drinking water. 5 

a. In the case of passive participles, as will presently appear, the 
agent is put in the instrumental case ; and the participle agrees with 
the object, like an adjective. 

Present Participles. 

894. These are not so commonly used in Sanskrit composition as 
past and future participles, but they are often idiomatically employed, 



SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES. 379 

especially where in English the word 'while' or 'whilst' is intro- 
duced; thus, -3H* tffQit^ *TOJ *VW{ 'whilst walking in the 
southern forest, I beheld,' &c. 

Past Passive Participle. 
895. This most useful participle is constantly used to supply the 
place of a perfect tense passive, sometimes in conjunction with the 
auxiliary verbs as and bM, ' to be ;' thus, wf^sfe ' I have been com- 
manded;' ?i ftrfwHT: m: 'we were astonished;' ^fxnftsfijr 'I have 
dwelt' (cf. 866). Of course the participle is made to agree adjec- 
tively with the object in gender, number, and case, as in Latin ; 
and the agent, which in English would probably be in the nomina- 
tive, and in Latin in the ablative, becomes in Sanskrit instrumental. 
Thus, in Sanskrit, the phrase 'I wrote a letter' would not be so 
idiomatically expressed by ^ r^f fo^sr, as by mn tiff fc5fi<ni^ ' by 
me a letter was written,' ' a me epistola scripta.' So again, fo T^Tfir 
fsatWTftr ' by him the bonds were cut ' is more idiomatic than * sr^Tfa 
fq^ ' he cut the bonds ;' and fcr 3HT^ ' by him it was said' is more 
usual than *r 7TR 'he said *.' 

a. This participle may often be used impersonally, when, if the 
verb belong to the first group of classes, it may optionally be 
gunated ; as, tjfinr^ or sftfira ^far ' it is shone by the sun.' The 
same holds good if the beginning of an action is denoted ; as, tfzi: 
JRjfcnr: or usftfinr: ' the sun has begun to shine.' 

b. When a verb governs a double accusative case (see 846), one accusative will 
be preserved after the past passive participle; as, f^STfaWJ <J3K*ft XS*{ TffoiU 
'DasWatha was asked for Rama by Vis'vamitra;' >T«f}farT %fte g>Tn 'the sky has 
been milked of your wish,' i. e. 'your wish has been milked out of the sky;' fsfift 
tTrEf 'J^T'l ^ ' deprived by defeat in play of his kingdom and property ' (cf. 846. 
Obs.) 

896. But frequently the past passive participle is used for the active past 
participle; in which case it may sometimes govern the accusative case, like a 
perfect tense active ; thus, ?J ^W^ ^V^S'. ' he ascended the tree ;' ?T "J? THI or 
SHIJTrf: 'he went home;' ^TW WtUS: 'having crossed the road;' ^nj T^rl^ 

* This instrumental or passive construction, which is so prevalent in Sanskrit, 
has been transferred from it to Hindi, Marathi, Gujarathi, and other dialects of 
India. The particle ne in Hindi and Hindustani corresponds to the Sanskrit «T na, 
the final letter of the commonest termination for the instrumental case, and can 
never occasion any difficulty if so regarded. y - 

3 c a 



380 SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES. 

'ST^lfiinfsftR ' I have descended to the road ;' "ST? W'lO^ WrJMIH: ' I reached 
the city;' 'SRPJ ^TPJW Ttf^W ^('. 'we two have entered the hermitage.' But 
observe, that its use for the active participle is generally, though not invariably, 
restricted to intransitive verbs which involve the idea of 'motion,' and to a few 
other neuter verbs. The following are other examples : lfJSf*3 ^wrimi! ' the 
bird3 flew away ;' *T «pi: ' he died ;' ^flVt f«!^K ' the fowler returned ;' *T *TO?finj 
Vffil 'he proceeded to eat;' V ^iftsiitt 'he had recourse to;' ^ U^"' 'he fell 
asleep;' K tWiTTI "they stood;' ^faiTJ 'he lodged.' 

a. This participle has sometimes a, present signification j thus, i*?qn stood' 
may occasionally be translated ' standing,' tffiT ' fearing,' ftRTT ' smiling,' tufas 
'embracing;' and all verbs characterized by the Anubandha m may optionally 
use this participle in the sense of the present. See 75. e. 

b. The neuter of the passive participle is sometimes used as a substantive ; thus, 
^T^ ' a gift ;' ttlif^ ' an excavation ;' •#•&*{ ' food ;' <pV*^ ' milk.' 

Active Past Participle. 

897. This participle is much used (especially in modern Sanskrit 
and the writings of commentators) to supply the place of a perfect 
tense active. It may govern the case of the verb ; as, ?rf vjiT4l«l ' he 
heard everything;' tt^ Trfw*T '■Hlfrir^-rHirfr 'the wife embraced her 
husband ;' tlsft ?€r H53 <{^^l«^ ' he gave the fruit into the hand of 
the king;' ini "JtMift 'she did that.' This participle may also be 
used with the auxiliaries as and bhu, ' to be,' to form a compound 
perfect tense ; thus, nil ^iriMli, ^rfttT 'he has done that;' Wtf <$iHI«^ 
HfaHrfir 'he will have done that.' 

Indeclinable Past Participles. 

898. The sparing use made in Sanskrit composition of relative 
pronouns, conjunctions, and connective particles, is mainly to be 
attributed to these participles or gerunds, by means of which the 
action of the verb is carried on, and sentence after sentence strung 
together without the aid of a single copulative. They occur in 
narration more commonly than any other kind of participle ; and 
some of the chief peculiarities of Sanskrit syntax are to be traced 
to the frequency of their occurrence. 

899. They are generally used for the past tense, as united with a 
copulative conjunction, and are usually translatable by the English 
' having,' ' when,' ' after,' * by,' see 555 ; thus, tt<t ^TSHPl firfqrn^ S^ 
^ni ^^ sjfir Hi^T ^ni r*W ^Ti^T ^j^ tti^ « having heard this, having 
thought to himself " this is certainly a dog," having left the goat, 



SYNTAX OF PABTICIPLES, 38i 

having bathed, he went to his own house/ In all these cases we 
should use in English the past tense with a conjunction; thus, 
' When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must cer- 
tainly be a dog." He then left the goat, and, when he had bathed, 
went to his own house.' 

a. It is evident from the above example that the indeclinable participles often stand 
in the place of a. pluperfect tense, a tense which does not really exist in Sanskrit. 

b. But although they always refer to something past, it should be observed that 
they are frequently rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth 
sentence of the story at 930. 

900. Another, though less frequent use of them is as gerunds in do j thus, «TCTi 
$ll^'U!M ^njftW* >T^f»fr Tfft^in: 'men become wise by reading the S'astras;' 
*TRT ^ifl ^^nnjnr ^r=TI Wa^n 'a wife is to be supported even by [or in] doing a 
hundred wrong things ;' f^t 1 Tr?}^ jTr^T «JH*\ ' What bravery is there in killing 
a sleeping man ? ' 

Observe — This participle is occasionally capable of a passive sense. 

901. Note — The termination rTF tvd is probably an instrumental case, and bears 
much of the character of an instrumental, as it is constantly found in grammatical 
connexion with the agent in this case ; thus, ^N? TSlfw^ ftffeWT ftr*ft f^Ffl ' by 
all the beasts having met together the lion was informed ;' *R^ jTIW^ ^rr^TTJ 
ydlHrilH ' by all having taken up the net let it be flown away.' 

a. Another and stronger proof of its instrumental character is, that the particle 
'SpOT, which governs an instrumental, is not unfrequently joined with the inde- 
clinable participle ; thus, ^IW JTtspfT, ' enough of eating,' is with equal correct- 
ness of idiom expressed by ^fc5 *jgilj see 918. a. 

Future Passive Participles. 
902. The usual sense yielded by this gerundive participle is that 
of 'fitness,' 'obligation,' 'necessity' (see 568); and the usual con- 
struction required is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity 
rests be in the instrumental, and the participle agree with the object ; 
as jgiT J^f^* 1 fatNl ' by you the attempt is not to be made.' 

a. Sometimes, however, the agent is in the genitive case; thus, ffSTTifbTT 
VJ^m ^(^ ' boiled rice is to be eaten by Brahmans.' Compare 865, note. 

903. Occasionally the future passive participle may yield a sense equivalent to 
'worthy of,' 'deserving;' as, WW 'deserving a whipping;' rTTTifN ' worthy of 
being beaten ;' gffcT ' deserving death by pounding ;' TO ' worthy of death.' 

904. If the verb govern two accusatives, one may be retained after the future 



* As the Latin gerund is connected with the future part, in dus, so the Sanskrit 
indeclinable part, in ya is probably connected with the future passive part, in aja. 



382 SYNTAX OP PARTICIPLES. 

passive participle; as, «T1»lTlfp5W 3*TT ^flftf nl^ 'the tear of the eye is to be 
brought to assuagement by thee.' 

905. Occasionally the neuter of this participle is used impersonally; in which 
case it does not agree with the object, but may govern it in the manner of the 
verb ; thus, 1TT JPH JpffaPJ, 'it is to be gone by me to the village/ for *PIT 41 ill 
J|t<4|: . So also, r«PTT WT h3b«M»^ ' by you it is to be entered into the assembly.' 

a. The neuter MlVri'M^ (from *j} is thus used, and, in accordance with 841, 
requires the instrumental after it, as well as before ; thus, <*«linl <«n,<!H *Ti<iii=q»^ 
by something it must become the cause,' i.e. there must be some cause;' 
yif*HI ufeSTTO Wfail^p^ 'a ruler ought to be possessed of discrimination;' 
*PIT iR ^«J-«H*!I HfNri«H'*( ' I must become your companion ;' ^n^TT *lis«ui«r 
cfTT HfaiRP^ ' the lady must be seated in the carriage.' 

906. Similarly, the neuter of ^TW may be adverbially used, and impart at the 
same time a passive sense to the infinitive ; thus, Mint ^iw^ ^nftsf^jg^ ^ifr* 
for T^i: 5f^ : &<>• " the breeze is able to be embraced by the limbs ' (S'akuntala, 
verse 60). Again, ^l«H'*^ SH^sl Tcifi?: THg ^TBT: 'the breezes are able to be drunk 
by the hollowed palms ;' f^»JTPT: jh>w*^ ^raTTr^ ' great successes are able to be 
obtained.' Observe a similar use of 3***^ in «T ^R »HI»^ qa«»^'his Highness is 
not proper to be addressed ' (Maha-bh. Adi-p. 27). 

907. It is not uncommon to find this participle standing merely in the place of 
a future tense, no propriety or obligation being implied, just as the past passive 
participle stands in the place of a past tense ; thus, «Jff*^ ill <g«*iqi«i «j'mii- 
Wftl«TT '(•n«q«^ ' in all probability this hunter will go in quest of the deer's flesh,' 
where J|»ri«=M^ is used impersonally; n*f "7^1 t£\~4>'. fafe? iwq^ 'when the 
people see you, they will utter some exclamation ;' ifi^ trsft Irlfk H^T ThT <aif<;n«lJ 

if the bird falls, then it shall be eaten by me.' See 930. xi. 

908. The neuter of this participle is sometimes used infinitively or substantively, 
as expressive merely of the indeterminate action ' of the verb, without implying 
'necessity' or 'fitness.' In such cases ^ftr may be added; thus, =l*dfilit=H*^ ^f*T 
' the being about to deceive,' ' deception ' (Hitop. line 416) ; ifNp^ ^Fh ' the being 
about to die,' ' dying :' but not always ; as, rffcridPl ' life.' 

Participial Nouns of Agency. 

909. The first of these nouns of agency (580) is constantly used in poetry as a 
substitute for the present participle; implying, however, 'habitual action,' and 
therefore something more than present time. It is sometimes found governing 
the same case as the present participle, but united with the word which it governs 
in one compound; thus, "%*S?K 'city-conquering;' fjl4^ 'speaking kind 
words;' jT&^C 'going in the water;' ^J^ftTST 'lake-born.' But the word 
governed is often in the stem; thus, MHiC, ' light-making ' (see 69), from tejas 
and krij *I*fI,?t, 'mind-captivating,' from manas and hji (64); ^/J, 'giving 
much,' from bahu and dd; Vilr*Cs)> ' self-knowing,' from dtman and jhd (57. 6). . 



SYNTAX OP CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, &c. 383 

910. The second (581) is sometimes, but rarely, found as a participle governing 
the case of the verb; thus, =TRff ^IT 'speaking a speech;' «KJHlfl f li ^fa?T 

bearing the Ganges.' 

911. The first and second species of the third (582. a.b), like the first, have 
often the sense of present participles, and are then always united with the stem 
of the word which they govern in one compound; thus, *i«i\^ifV.n, 'mind- 
captivating,' from manas and hris «KI*Nn>TOi, 'effective of the business,' from 
kdrya and sidh. They may sometimes govern the case of the verb whence they 
are derived, and may then be compounded, or not, with the word which they 
govern ; thus, 44i«i<iiFfP^ or TFR llf*^ ' dwelling in a village ;' «pjc3Tf«T ^^=BJ 
' kisser of the buds ' (Ratnavali, p. 7). 

SYNTAX OF CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, &c. 

Conjunctions. 

912. ^ 'and' (727) is always placed after the word which it connects with 
another, like que in Latin, and can never stand first in a sentence, or in the same 
place as ' and ' in English ; thus, TfVaiT viqco\>w ^ ' walking round and looking.' 
Unlike que, however, which must always follow the word of which it is the copu- 
lative, it may be admitted to any other part of the sentence, being only excluded 
from the first place; thus, iM*l*^ 'sf^Ii^ VJ^\ ^ '3t# H^T ^ UNH*^ 'and 
having after a short time given birth to a pure son, as the eastern quarter (gives 
birth to) the sun.' 

a. Sometimes two da's are used, when one may be redundant or equivalent to 
the English ' both ;' or the two da's may be employed antithetically or disjunc- 
tively, or to express the contemporaneousness of two events ; thus, ^t?^3 ^f^3T 
'both day and night;' Hi ?(U!J4Mi *ftfan" ^ ^flT^c? li ^ $TO^ ff 'Where 
on the one hand is the frail existence of fawns? Where on the other are thy 
arrows ?' "aif^jj ^ H^T ^pfl.H^M ^ i*jlfiic gfr^jo? lj«rf STIIT ' no sooner 
had she began to weep, than a shining apparition in female shape, having snatched 
her up, departed ' (S'akuntala, verse 131) ; W ^ WT^ <f«JHiT f|$ ^ Wlf^^: 'they 
reached the ocean and the Supreme Being awoke' (from his sleep), Raghu-v. x. 6. 

b. Observe — When Hi, 'where?' is used as in the above example, it implies 
' excessive incompatibility' or incongruity.' 

c. Sometimes ^ is used as an emphatic particle, and not as a copulative ; thus, 
fqi ^ J?xn trfTJIltir^T 'Was she indeed married by me formerly?' 

913. rT*n 'so,' 'likewise' (727. b), frequently supplies the place of ^; thus, 
^H I 'Iri. f^TnTT ^ JtWrl^Hfir^ rPIT ' both Anagata-vidhatri and Pratyutpanna- 
mati ' (names of the two fish in Hitop. Book IV). 

914. f? 'for,' § 'but,' ^T 'or' (727. d, 728. a), like % are excluded from the 
first place in a sentence; thus, fjtTWtftiT ^frft g:^ f? TTfCTfflT 'for happiness 
formerly scorned turns to misery;' fol*ft § 'but on the contrary;' TT»n W»T ^T 
ii'^IUj ^T ' either abandon her or take her.' 

.915. lfi< 'if' and ^J? 'if (727.fi) may govern the potential or conditional (see 



384 SYNTAX OF CONJUNCTIONS, PEBPOSITIONS, ADVEBBS, &C. 

891), but are also used with the indicative; thus, if^ Wfafrf M£lfig TJ^qfir 
'if he live, he will behold prosperity;' *H^ *PIT H*fl*H>^ ^jftrT 'if there is need 
of me ;' ^WI ^H ^ftj^rail «fit tjfcjp ' If avarice were abandoned, who would be 
poor?' 

Prepositions and Adverbs. 

916. Prepositions often govern cases of nouns. See 729, 73°- 

917. The following examples illustrate the use of adverbs in con- 
struction with cases of nouns, as explained at 731. 

TW W'ft 5 ?! firffeprH ' flesh thrown before the dog ;' H^OI^ ^PH ' under the 
trees;' «TT»Tt ^TOW I r^ ' below the navel ;' "JBJW miwit^' beneath the tree;' Hfal- 
IIWl^ 'after eating;' Vir4^ ^PflTO 'without fruit;' «|£ fl^JHpil^ ^SFfTVUt 
' without the consent of her husband ;' Vitm -wQ*^, or more usually VtiiM*^, 'for 
the sake of wealth ;' fiRT?!^ -H<i\* ' after marriage ;' ^I^T^T U^lHK 'Sl^jjl*^ 
' after collecting the bones :' TRft, with genitive, occurs rather frequently, and 
with some latitude of meaning; thus, TPTC 3m(V ' above the navel;' 1*16*^ TWT 
<Plft VRTK ' the lion fell upon him ;' *T»I TTft f=f<*lf\ri! ' changed in his feelings 
towards me;' K^ T»jft ^W^SM.^^lO 'not behaving properly towards thee;' 
$^9 '3'fft. sKg: ' angry with his son ;' «TM^ '3iS«N[ ' above the navel ;' it^V^ 
3il^ " after that period;' tinn.15 nmn*^' after a, year,' i.e. 'above a year having 
expired ;' «T ^^1^ ^K ^l^wl 3iff HTI^fefJnT?: ' the restraint of crime cannot be 
made without punishment;' TR <*H.JUIi^' on thy account;' JR3V. ^n or rtrjri 'for 
her sake;' qlf<i<*mi ^f^^^T '*o ffte rto^* o/the garden;' rffeifHrl 'on fAaf 
accounts' ^lfi< iiqti 1 H v 1 H*^' a/f er saluting;' %4t+)l4i M'SHl^'a/ier us;' ^Mlri *J4*1 
' Jefore bathing ;' (qqi^iti tr^ ' before marriage ;' '•J(=lc4l*H,!Jf<UTif Wjfir 'from 
the moment of seeing (him) ;' *T«*nPjfir 'from birth ;' KH'. W%fn 'from that time 
forward;' <ih«i«iiTi^ W^fiT 'from the time of investiture;' TTT^; f«H<}HIH 'before 
telling;' HPT d MH <H 1 1^ ' before investiture ;' Hi M *l 1 1(^ TTToli ' before eating : ' JfTZS 
may take an accusative ; as, HPT sk^I.**!)! ' before twelve years are over ;' ^TiT 
IwiiTn TRi^'/or a hundred births;' *|iJ # fV<H •MNi^'ap to the serpent's hole;' 
f^CI^ ^f?^ fa:^T«T 'creeping out of the hole;' ^TT f^TCT 'without cause;* 
"TO^PI f^TI 'without fault;' H l fVu.fTgVHl # «*|fil i«fc*U 'without injury to living 
beings ;' fqjj: B3RI^JT^ VT^ VHI<^ 'he receives money from his father ;' *TH KHH}*^ 
' in my presence ;' TT|C: TOTtl^ ' near the king ;' 1J5P!I ^ ' along with his son :' 
UTCJTi^ may take an instrumental ; as, ^W: TOSfTif/ before others ;' ^d.^ifU 'for 
the sake of a, son.' 

918. ^Tc5^, ' enough,' is used with the instrumental, with the force of a pro- 
hibitive particle ; as, SScJ $|^m ' away with fear,' ' do not fear.' 

a. It is also used with the indeclinable participle ; as, "He? {ttyril ' enough of 
weeping !' 'Hfj fa^lTs ' enough of consideration l' see also 901. a. 

Obs.— ^<J is used in the same way ; e. g. TJcg ^f r«n = ^c5 *Jr*T (Pan. in. 4, 18). 



SYNTAX OF CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, &C. 38§ 

b. It is sometimes followed by an infinitive; as, «f ^Ic^ ^H ^4 F r|V rfi qi ffi 
I am not able to turn back my heart.' 

919. HTW^ 'even,' 'merely,' at the end of a compound is declinable; as, 3"W- 
V T ^ ^T ^TfrT ' he does not even give an answer ;' »T ^l«<,MI3T!I ibl^m * one ought 
not to be afraid of mere noise ;' 5T^m?Nr ' by mere sound ;' ^W.Hlgfl!) ' by mere 
words;' fl»,»?ia' ^n 'immediately on the mere utterance of the speech.' 

920. iTOI and *TOT, w h en used as correlatives, are equivalent to the English ' so 
that,' and the Latin ita ut; thus, Vm ^tvft 5Tmf3 TPqi *TOT ^WT^ ' I must so 
act that my master awake,' i. e. 'I must do something to make my master awake.' 

So also, r# ^ STTTTftt W ^jTCBIT ^idftj ' Do not you know that I keep watch 
in the house?' 

«• ff3TH> ^Tf^l^j and T^l^ may be used in the same way; thus, ril ^i\ 
Wfl$*i T faf^ fWff TJTpf n^Trmm^ 'nothing is so opposed to length 
of life as intercourse with the wife of another.' 

b. 11^, as well as TFHT, is used for 'that;' thus, "Sltf tJjTift ^nxft TR ^TTf# 
?•*" ""rtTK fWt'ft ' this is a new doctrine, that having killed an enemy remorse 
should be felt.' 

921. T%*{, why?' may often be regarded as a mark of interrogation which is 
not to be translated, but affects only the tone of voice in which a sentence is 
uttered ; as, »TTfilTlT5P!r f^i Sjrf^ tjWff ' Is any one honoured for mere birth ?' 
(Cf. 837. a.) 

a. It sometimes has the force of 'whether ;' as, sH^ntf fcR^ 3'M^.rfi IHT^? 3ff«f 
'I feiinf ^Jh<J5|<I ^T 'let it be ascertained whether he ;s worthy to receive so 
large a salary, or whether he is unworthy ;' H^rt ^% f^i TOUTJ# tl*TI "H *TT 
the minister knows whether the king is meritorious or not.' 

922. ^i^ (technically vati) as a suffix of comparison or similitude (724) may be 
compounded with a nominal stem, which if uncompounded would be in the accusa- 
tive case ; thus, ^TTWrif ^Tf^ OT^i ' shewing himself as if dead ;' ^Jl<g5=re ^ 
^InT he regards it as a wonder.' Also in the locative or genitive case ; thus, 
*'3*- ,5 "1 v ^TT TTrarc;; 'a wall in Srughna like that in Mathura.' According to 
Panini \. 1, 115, it is used for the instrumental after adjectives of comparison, 
when some action is expressed ; thus, WTs.tlt'T ^^^ ^ift" (see 826) may be 
Tendered «fl<HU3^ ^tfiiT, but it would not be correct to say $3^ , ^5 5 ' f° r 

g^u l^r: ^5?:. 

923. The negative •T is sometimes repeated to give intensity to an affirmation ; 
thus, «T «T ^UrfiT 'he will not not say'=q««<rn JJ^ 'he will certainly say.' 

924. The indeclinable participle ^f^*T, ' having pointed out, 1 is sometimes used 
adverbially to express on account of,' with reference to,' towards,' and governs 
an accusative ; thus, fwi^ Tf^T ' On account of what ?' K*{ *f^H ' with refer- 
ence to him.' 

925. The indeclinable participle ^TIT?*!, ' having begun,' is used adverbially to 
express from,' 'beginning with,' and may either govern an ablative or be placed 

3 D 



886 ON THE USE OF THE PABTICLE ^fw. 

after a nominal stem; thus, fWxsMJT^ ^TW W 1T^ 'from the time of 
invitation to the time of the Skaddha.' f«W«d<UK*I would be equally correct. 

926. The interjections ftn^ and |!T require the accusative ; as, ftl^B hiimbU 
'Woe to the wretch!' and the vocative interjections the vocative case; as, Wt 
^TWf'O traveller!' 

a. Adverbs are sometimes used for adjectives in connexion with substantives ; 

as, m srrarxn^ for tott ^riwim^ ' in that hail ;' ^mra^ g^rp: for ^SPffiU* 

ysng 'among the principal ministers.' 

ON THE USE OF THE PARTICLE ^fir. 

927. In Sanskrit the obliqua oratio is rarely admitted ; and when 
any one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts of 
another, the relator generally represents him as speaking the actual 
words, or thinking the thoughts, in his own person. 

a. In such cases the particle ^fif (properly meaning 'so,' 'thus') is often placed 
after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted 
commas; thus, f^TTI 3^ <$rf > <$i«n ^1*^ ^fif 'the pupils said, "We have 
accomplished our object;'" not, according to tbe English or Latin idiom, 'the 
pupils said that they had accomplished their object.' So also, «nc>s t «wO ^fif ail 
Hot 'your husband calls you " quarrelsome," ' where qico^wO is in the nomina- 
tive case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself 
in his own person. So again, ^"Hl^ f"*HII*t,'»J?ni ^fif ^f tpESpot W% WJJ 
JTC^rfar 'all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, "He is an object of 
confidence,'" where the particle ^fa i s equivalent to 'saying,' and the word 
fiPBTCr^jJTO is not in the accusative, to agree with £'*il«l i , as might be expected, 
but in the nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the 
birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained 
before ^fk, as in the following example (Manu 11. 153) : ^TsT «flrt^ ^TH 41^: 
'they call an ignorant man "child." ' But in the latter part of the same line it 
passes into a nominative ; as, fTiTT ^fif ^ (J T3^ ' but (they call) a teacher of 
scripture father." ' 

928. In narratives and dialogues ^fif is often placed redundantly at the end of 
a speech. Again, it may have reference merely to what is passing in the mind 
either of another person or of one's self. When so employed, it is usually joined 
with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb signifying ' to 
think,' to suppose,' &c, and may be translated by the English conjunction " that,' 
to which, in fact, it may be regarded as equivalent ; thus, H^kZ\ tyJidi <4l^ u fif 
^fif hIVsiim 'having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell;' H«TT 
VH^rj: «<<lflll ^fif Hfir^ ^>J5 'his idea was that an increase of wealth ought 
again to be made ;' vfts? *TO <JiU£Hft >Tnh ^fif *Hftt ftTVHJ ' reflecting in 
his mind that I am happy in possessing such a wife.' The accusative is also 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 387 

retained before \fj( in this sense; as, IJTP^ 3[fn* *Jt3TT ' thinking that he was dead.' 
In all these examples the use of ^fiT indicates that a quotation is made of the 
thoughts of the person at the time when the event took place. 

929. Not unfrequently the participle 'saying,' 'thinking,' 'supposing,' &c, is 
omitted altogether, and ^ffT itself involves the sense of such a participle; as, 
"TratsftJ TT ^T^fTJirstft JTrJTH ^fa £fjm: ' a king, even though a child, is not to 
be despised, saying to one's self, "He is a mortal;" ' 5^?T^ *TT f%»Jt ^fcT ^T 
*TPT < 3T»j WSffi^ ' either through affection or through compassion towards me, 
saying to yourself, "What a wretched man he is !" ' ^TCT ^TTir: I ^nf ^TT|c5 ^fif 
•H.MllTg ^nf?T!35pT 'There's a boar! Yonder's a tiger! so crying out, it is 
wandered about (by us) in the paths of the woods.' 



CHAPTER X. 

EXEKCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PAESING. 

930. STORY OF THE SAGE AND THE MOUSE, FROM THE HITOPADESA, 
TRANSLATED AND PARSED. 

i. ^ftj *ftiTT|Fl ^TO fTCl^R HfTWtn TTO ijfa: I 

' There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a sage named 
Mahatapas (Great-devotion).' 



<j^fJ I ' By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young 
mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen.' 

* Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild 
rice it was reared.' 

iv. m^PrTt ijfofi ^f^ip* 3FjtITO^ f^TcTt 

Wf«T^T H^I I * Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage 
running after the mouse to devour it.' 

Tffa«jft "^fc^t f^SToyi «gfT* I 'Perceiving the mouse terrified, 
by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion, the mouse was 
changed into a very strong cat.' 

3 d a 



388 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 



VI. 



TFT *nm*{ *i^ vw*{ i H^^nn: h ^rm: ^tt: i 

' The cat fears the dog : upon that it was changed into a dog. Great 
is the dread of the dog for a tiger : then it was changed into a tiger/ 

* Now the sage regards even the tiger as not differing at all from 
the mouse/ 

viii. ^TH: *R TT^IT 3RTS? rT ^TO ^TJT ^ftiT I 

'Then all the persons residing in the neighbourhood, seeing the 

tiger, say.' 

ix. 3fr gf*m ijfirats* *n*wi *hr: i <Bythis 

sage this mouse has been brought to the condition of a tiger.' 

x. TjrT^T ^T ^ ^IT^T: ^^tsf^rRTJJ 'The tiger 

'overhearing this, being uneasy, reflected/ 

, xi. *n^ ^rtt *jfa?IT <ftfcrl«i WT^ ^ *m 

^^mj^rtt ^NSt^rc ?t ncnfiroft i « a s ion g as it 

shall be lived by this sage, so long this disgraceful story of my 
original condition will not die away.' 

Xii. Sfff fllTlcJM V$% fnT fl*J3lrT: I 'Thus reflecting, 
he prepared (was about) to kill the sage.' 

xiii. JjfrRT TO f^^tflrf ^Tr*T ^ Tjfost *m 

$*f ^fiT IJ^FK TJ^ ^5rT I ' The sage discovering his intention, 
saying, "Again become a mouse," he was reduced to (his former 
state of) a mouse.' 

r 931. Observe in this story : 1st, the simplicity of the style ; andly, 
the prevalence of compound-words; 3rdly, the scarcity of verbs; 
4thly, the prevalence of the past passive participle with the agent 
in the instrumental case for expressing indefinite past time, in lieu 
of the past tense active with the nominative : see 895, with note. 

• 932. i.—Asti, 'there is,' 3rd sing. pres. of rt. as, cl. 2 (584). Gautamasya, 'of 
Gautama,' gen. m. (103). Munes, ' of the sage,' gen. m. (1 10) : final s remains by 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 389 

62. Tapo-vane, in the sacred grove' (lit. 'in the penance-grove'), genitively 
dependent comp. (743); the first member formed by the stem tapas, 'penance,' 
as becoming by 64 ; the last member, by the loc. case of vana, ' grove,' neut. 
(104). Mahd-tapd, 'having great devotion' (164. a), relative form of descriptive 
comp. (766) ; the first member formed by mahd (substituted for mahat, 778), ' great ;' 
the last member, by the nom. case masc. of the neuter noun tapas, ' devotion ' 
(164.0): final s dropped by 66. a. Ndma, 'by name,' an adverb (713. b). Munih, 
a sage,' nom. masc. (no): final s passes into Visarga by 63. a. 
, ii. — Tena, by him,' instr. of pron. tad (220). Asrama-sannidhdne, 'in the 
neighbourhood of his hermitage,' genitively dependent comp. (743); the first 
member formed by the nominal stem dsrama, 'hermitage;' the last member, by 
the loc. case of sannidhdna, 'neighbourhood,' neut. (104). The final a of tena 
blends with the initial d of dirama by 31. M&sMka-idvakah, 'a young mouse,' or 
, the young of a mouse,' genitively dependent comp. (743); formed from the 
nominal stem mushika, a mouse,' and the nom. of sdvalca, ' the young of any 
animal' (103) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kdka-mukhdd, 'from the beak (or 
mouth) of a crow,' genitively dependent comp. ; formed from the nominal stem 
kdka, a crow,' and the abl. of mukha, ' mouth,' neut. (104) ; t being changed to d 
by 45. Bhrashto, fallen,' nom. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of rt. h/irans" 
(544. a) : as changed to by 64. Drishtah, ' seen,' nom. sing. masc. of the past 
pass. part, of rt. dris: final s becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

iii. — Tato, ' then,' adv. (719) : as changed to by 64. Dayd-yuktena, ' touched 
.with compassion,' instrumentally dependent comp. (740) ; formed from the nominal 
stem dayd, compassion,' and the instr. of yukta, ' endowed with,' past pass. part. 
,of rt. yuj (670). Tena, see ii. above. Munind, 'by the sage,' instr. m. (no). 
Ntodra-kanaih, with grains of wild rice,' genitively dependent comp. (743) ; formed 
from the nominal stem nivdra, wild rice,' and the instr. pi. of kana : final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. Samvardhitah, 'reared,' nom. sing, of past pass. part, of 
causal of vridh with sam (549) : final * becomes Visarga by 63. a. 
, iv. — Tad-anantaram, 'soon after this,' compound adverb; formed with the pro- 
nominal stem tad, 'this' (220), and the adverb anantaram, after' (731, 917). 
Mushikam, ace. m. (103). Khdditum, 'to eat,' infinitive of rt. khdd (458, 868). 
Anudhdvan, 'pursuing after,' 'running after,' nom. sing. masc. of the pres. part. 
, Par. of rt. dhdv, ' to run,' with anu, ' after ' (524). Viddlo, ' a cat,' nom. case masc. 
(103) : as changed to o by 64. Munind, see iii. above. Drishtah, see ii. 

v. — Tarn, ace. case masc. of pron. tad (220), used as a definite article, see 795. 
Mushikarn, see iv. BMtam, 'terrified,' ace. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of rt. 
bhi (532). Alokya, ' perceiving,' indec. part, of rt. 16k, with prep, a (559). Tapah- 
prabhdvdt, ' through the efficacy of his devotion' (814), genitively dependent comp. 
(743) ; formed by the nominal stem tapas, ' devotion,' s being changed to Visarga 
by 63, and the abl. case of prabhdva, noun of the first class, masc. (103). Tena, 
seeii. Munind, see iii. Mushiko, nom.m. (103) : as changed to by 64. BalisUho, 
' very strong,' nom. masc. of the superlative of balin, strong ' (see 193) : as 
changed to by 64. Viddlah, see iv ; final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, 



390 EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 

'changed,' 'made,' nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of rt. kri (682): final » 
becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

vi. — Sa, nom. case of tad (220), used as a definite article (795) : final s dropped 
by 67. Viddlah, see iv. Kukkurdd, ' the dog ' (103), abl. after a verb of 'fearing ' 
(855) : t changed to d by 45. Bibheti, ' fears,' 3rd sing. pres. of rt. bU, cl. 3 (666). 
Tatah, 'upon that/ adv. (719) : as changed to ah by 63. Kukkurah, 'the dog,' 
nom. m. (103) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, see v. Kukkurasya, of 
the dog,' gen. masc. (103). Vydghrdn, 'for the tiger' (103), abl. after a noun of 
'fear' (814. e): ( changed to n by 47. Mahad, 'great' (142), nom. case, sing, 
neut. : * changed to d by 45. Bhayam, 'fear,' nom. neut. (104). Tad-anantaram, 
see iv. Vydghrah, nom. case : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, see v. 

vii. — Atha, ' now,' inceptive particle (727. c). Vydghram, ace. case. Api, even,' 
adv. Mushika-nirvisesham, ' as not differing at all from the mouse,' relative form 
of dependent comp. (762) ; formed from the nominal stem mdshika, and the ace. 
of visesha, difference,' with nir prefixed : or it may be here taken adverbially, see 
776. Pasyati, 3rd sing. pres. of rt. dris', cl. 1 (604). Munih, see i. 

viii. — Atah, 'then,' adv. (719). Same, 'all,' pronominal adj., nom. plur. masc. 
(237). Tatra-sthd, 'residing in the neighbourhood,' comp. resembling a locatively 
dependent; formed from the adverb tatra (720), there,' in that place,' and the 
nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of rt. sthd, "to remain' (587) : 
final s dropped by 66. a. Jands, persons,' nom. pi. masc. (103) : final s remains 
by 62. Tarn, ace. of pron. tad (220), used as a definite article (795). Vydghram, 
' tiger,' ace. masc. (103). Drishtvd, ' having seen,' indec. past part, of rt. drii (556). 
Vadanti, 'they say,' 3rd pi. pres. of rt. vad, cl. 1 (599). 

ix. — Anena, 'by this,' instr. of pron. idam (224). Munind, see in. Mushiko, 
nom. masc. . as changed to by 64. a. Ay am, this,' nom. masc. (224) : the initial 
a cut off by 64. a. Vydghratdm, 'the condition of a tiger,' fem. abstract noun (105), 
ace. case, formed from vydghra', ' a tiger,' by the suffix td (80. LXII). Nttah, 
' brought,' nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of rt. ni (532). 
- x. — Eta6, * this,' ace. neut. of etad (223) : t charged to 6 by 49. Chrutvd, ' over- 
hearing,' indec. part, of rt. sru (676, 556) ; see 49. Vydghrah, nom. case : final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. Sa-vyatho, 'uneasy,' relative form of indeclinable comp., 
formed by prefixing sa to the fem. substantive vyathd (769) : as changed to by 
.64. a. Acintayat, 'reflected,' 3rd sing. impf. of Ant, cl. 10 (641) : the initial a cut 
off by 64. a. 

xi. — Ydvad, 'as long as,' adv. (713. a): t changed to d by 45. Anena, see ix. 
■Jfoitavyairi, ' to be lived,' nom. neut. of the fut. pass. part, of rt. jfo (569, 905. a, 
-907). Tdvad, so long,' adv. correlative to ydvat (713. o). Idam, 'this,' nom. neut. 
of the demonstrative pron. at 224. Mama, 'of me,' gen. of pron. aham, ' I ' (218). 
Svardpdkhydnam, story of my original condition,' genitively dependent comp. (743) ; 
formed from the nominal stem svardpa, ' natural form' (see 232. b), and the nom. 
of dkhydna, neut. (104) : m retained by 60. Akirttx-karam, ' disgraceful,' accusa- 
tively dependent comp. (739) ; formed from the nominal stem akirtti, ' disgrace,' 
and the nom. neut. of the participial noun of agency kara, ' causing,' from kri, ' to 



EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 391 

do' (380). Na, 'not,' adv. (717. a). Paldyishyate, 'will die away,' 3rd sing. 2nd 
fut. Atm. of the compound verb paldy, formed by combining rt. i or ay with prep. 
pard (783. n). 

xii. — Iti, thus,' adv. (717.6; see also 928). Samdloiya, 'reflecting,' indec. 
part, of the verb sam-d-lo6 (559), formed by combining rt. I06 with the preps, sam 
and d (784). Munim, ace. case. Hanturp, ' to kill,' infinitive of rt. han (458, 868, 
654). Samudyatafi, ' prepared,' nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of sam-ud-yam, 
formed by combining rt. yam with the preps, sam and ud (545). 

xiii. — Munis, nom. case : final s remains by 62. Tasya, ' of him,' gen. of tad 
(220). CiMrshitam, 'intention,' ace. neut. of past pass. part, of desid. of rt. kri, 
to do' (350, 502), used as a substantive (896. b). Jndtvd, discovering,' indec. 
part, of rt. jnd (556, 688). Punar, again,' adv. (717. e) : r remains by 71. d. 
Mushiko, nom. case : as changed to o by 64. Bhava, ' become,' 2nd sing. impv. 
of rt. bhii (585). Ity answers to inverted commas, see 927. a : the final i changed to 
y by 34. Uktvd, ' saying,' indec. part, of rt. va6 (556, 650). Mushika, nom. case : 
final s dropped by 66. Eva, 'indeed,' adv. (717). 



SENTENCES TO BE TRANSLATED AND PARSED. 

933. Note — The numbers over the words in the following sentences 
refer to the rules of the foregoing grammar. 

220 783.1,602 220 218 

220 r* 783. k ^\ 676 "y 676 218 • *V 687 ^ 

219 . *V 587 218 ^ 783. j, 687 220 *v 219 « - • 

«N r* 788.h,66l-S^ «v 663 219 • 

CSS 283 233 607 ^ 219 • 607 

3W I *RT* ^ I f^T H^TW ^RffiT I ^[5 ^T -3WH I 

•V646 »s «\ 646 655 ^> ^ -vT 655 

^tt *ii ^Tfir i *ptTfa: f%Nf| *ft§am N i ^r ^n^m 

311 .^n. 218 *«. 311,669 - V ^ 896. b • 

.668. a 218, 896. b . 668. a __££_ 22J>_I ,_*V 5 ! 9 JI --. ,. . . ^1~ —.—1. 

H^T I W*J >§5*lr!T^ I R*?T § *V TTfarTT^ I ^ 5T<* 

ano **. 714 655 « 106 *V 889 438. e . 882 855 ^ 66 6 ^ 

882 ♦ ^ 769. b ♦ 692 

TIT *T fatTO*! ^HR U 



392 SCHEME OP THE MOKE COMMON SANSKRIT METRES. 

783. j 

^Tft;^ fairNf ^i^ ^fw&^ 11 

?jf^ JJrTRT ^*T$ HlfTT f^T ^ Wg^RTOR II 

*^756 ^ • 752 *s 756 g» • »N ^ *\ 

^fftTin^ ^JlTRVinH ^RT:^t"^ TFI^TT^RnTH 
f&ft II 

717. f jv "\ 819 ^ 

-V • 471, 650 "\ 

3TCFTCI ^ *Jrqfa *ra^ TOH ^affi II 

730 —n «S r* ^ ■■ • 682 ^ 

f* WS-b ^ ^ 16* 728. a fs. ^ f». fs 

^farT WljfolT^T II 

SCHEME OF THE MOEE COMMON SANSKRIT METEES. 
934. Metres are divided into two grand classes : 1. Varna-vritta, 
2. Mdtrd-vritta. The first has two subdivisions, A and B. 

Class I. — Varna-vritta. 

A. Metres, consisting of two half-verses, determined by the number 

of syllables in tlie Pdda or quarter-verse. 

Note — It may be useful to prefix to the following schemes of metres a list of 
technical prosodial terms : TT<^ = the fourth part of a verse ; HIW = an instant or 
prosodial unit = a short syllable; iRI = four Matras; ifil = a pause ; *t^ or T 

= a long syllable (-) ; <9^ or <5 = a short syllable ( \j) ; IT = a spondee ( ) ; 

c5^ = apyrrhic(w w)j *TO = a trochee (- w) ; t&[ = an iambus (w — ) ; »T = a 

molossus( ); W = a dactyl (- wv->); «T= a tribrach (w w); TT=abacchic 

(^ ) ; t = a cretic (— w — ) ; *t = an anapaest (w w — ) ; ft = an anti- 

bacchic ( w); »T=an amphibrach (w — w). 

&loka or Anush{ubh (8 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 
935- The commonest of all the infinite variety of Sanskrit metres 
is the Sloka or Anushtubh. This is the metre which chiefly prevails 
in the great epic poems. 

It consists of four quarter- verses of 8 syllables each or two lines of 16 syllables, 



SCHEME OF THE MORE COMMON SANSKRIT METRES. 393 

but the rules which, regulate one line apply equally to the other; so that it is only 
necessary to give the scheme of one line, as follows :— 



5 o 7 8 jl o_ io ii 12 

w ♦ || . . . . 



1_ 8 jl 9 io ii 12 13 14 15 16 

w w w • I • - - 



Note — The mark . denotes either long or short. 

The 1 st, 2nd, 3rd, 4 th, oth, 10th, nth, and 12th syllables may be either long or 
short. The 8th, as ending the Pada r and the 16th, as ending the half-verse, are 
also common. Since the half-verse is considered as divided into two parts at the 
8th syllable, it is an almost universal rule that this syllable must end a word, 
whether simple or compound*. 

The 5th syllable ought always to be short The 6th and 7th should he long; 
but instances are not unusual in the Maha-bharata of the 6th being short, in which 
case the 7th should be short also. But occasional variations from these last rules 
occur. 

The last 4 syllables form two iambics ; the 13th being always short, the 14th 
always long, and the 15th always short. 

Every Sloka, or couplet of two lines, ought to form a complete sentence in 
itself, and contain both subject and predicate. Not unfrequently, however, in the 
Ramayana and Maha-bharata, three lines are united to form a triplet. 

935. In the remaining metres determined by the number of sylla- 
bles in the Pada, each Pada is exactly alike (soma); so that it is 
only necessary to give the scheme of one Pada or quarter-vers,e. 

In printed books each Pada, if it consist of more than 8 syllables, is often made 
to occupy a line. 

937. Trishtubh (11 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

Of this there, are 22 varieties. The commonest are — 

12345678 

938. Indra-vajrd, __ w — — w w — 

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939. Upendra-vajrd, w — w — — w w — 

There is generally a caesura at the 5th syllable. 
Note — The above 2 varieties are sometimes mixed in the same stanza ; in which 
case the metre is called Upajdti or AkhydnaM. 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 II 

940. Rathoddhatd, — w — www — w — w — II 

941. Jagati (12 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 
Of this there are 30 varieties. The commonest are — 

* There are, however, rare examples of compound words running through a 
whole line. 

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