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Cornell University Library 
E 715.N39 

Exciting experiences in our wars wit 

3 1924 023 250 206 

Cornell University 

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AND •'-■^ :.,,„ ,_,,. 

All the Fascinating Stories of Our Late Wars Told by the * 
Commanding Heroes Themselves. 

The Story of the mMaine," The Srofey of Dewey at Manila, The Story 


Victory, The Story of the Rough Riders, The Story of- 

Shafter at Santiago, Story of Aguinaldo and 

The Life of Admiral George Devi^ey, 


The History of Each of Our New Possessions and the 
History of American Expansion. 



The Songs of the War and the Cartoons of the War Explained 

and a 



Copyrighted, 1899, by F. I. Scheet^. 

Chicago^ III. 


What more fitting introduction could be given to any history of 
oup wars with Spain and the Filipinos than the words of our war Presi- 
dent, William McKiii^ey, who sounded the true sentiments of this 
mighty nation, rejoicing in her new-found strength?^— Editor. 

"Our flag has been planted in two hemispheres, and there it re- 
mains, the symbol of liberty and law, of peace and progress. Who will 
withdraw from the people over whom it floats its protecting folds? 
Who will haul it down? -" 

"The peace we have won is not a selflsh truce of arms, but one 
whose conditions presage good to humanity. The domains secured 
under the treaty come to us not as the result of a crusade of conquest, 
but as< the reward of temperate, faithful and fearless response to the 
call of conscience, which could not be disregarded by a liberty-loving 
and Christian people. 

"We Love peace. We are not a military nation, but whenever the 
time of peril comes the bulwark of this people rests in the patriotism 
of its citizens, and this nation will be safe for all time, because seventy- 
five millions of people love it and will give up their lives to sustain and 
uphold it. 

"The war brought us together ; its settlement will keep us together. 

"Reunited! Glorious realization! It expresses the thought of my 
mind and the long-deferred consummation of my heart's desire as I 
stand in this presence. It interprets the hearty demonstration here 
witnessed and is the patriotic refrain of all sections and of all lovers 
of the republic. 

"Reunited! One country again and one country forever! Proclaim 
it from the press and pulpit! Teach it in the schools! Write it across 
the skies! The world sees and feels it! It cheers every heart, north 
and south, and brightens the life of every American home. Let nothing 
ever strain it again. At peace with all the world and with each other, 
what can stand in the pathway of our progress and prosperity?" 


: Page 

Introduction ; 5 

Our Calendar of Glory ; . . . 9 


History of the War and Lessons of the War 16 


Story of Cuba's Struggle for Freedom 40 


The Story of the Maine Disaster 45 


Dewey's Naval Victory at Manila . 51 


, The Story of the Sinking of the Merrimac fiO 


Story of the Rough Riders 75 


Naval Victory off Santiago 82 


Shaffer's Santiago Campaign 92 


-General Shaffer's Own Story of Santiago 102 


Statistics Applied to the Strain of Battle 112 


Graduated for the Grave and Glory 114 


Incidents of the Blockade 115 


Sharpshooting by Experts 125 


Planted Rough Riders' Guidon on San Juan's Ran;ipart 130 


Brave Work of American Women 132 


Battle of Manzanillo 140 


Porto I^ican Campaign 144 


Once Fighter, Now Governor 158 


The Story of Private Joe Ertz ; Ifi2 

Battle of Malate 108 


Merritt's Victory at Manila. 1^2 

An Illustrative Story -, 183 

Flag Floats Where no Blood Was Spilled. 184 

Perseverance of a Woman 187 

One of the Brave Boys 189 

Three Historical First Events 191 

The Treaty of Peace With Spain '. 196 


The Reg'lar Army Man 211 

The Warship Dixie 211 

A Toast to Commodore Dewey 212 

Yankee Dewey '■ 212 

Camp Calls 213 

The Flag Goes By 213 

Wheeler at Santiago 214 

Birth of the Flag..... 214 

Hoi' Dem Philuppines 215 

The Bravest Sailor of All 215 

Our Soldier's Song . . .• 216 

The Disintegration of a Mule 216 

The Oregon 217 

Bight Long Miles to Sihoney 217 

The Old Flag Forever 217 

Victor Blue 218 

M'ilrath of Malate ., 219 

The Missing.One 220 

The New Alabama 221 

A Toast to Our Ships '. 221 

The Hero Down Below 221 

Mister Sojer Man 222 

ToAdmiral Schley 222 

"Private Jones" 222 

Hobson and His Chosen Seven 223 

The Negro Soldier 223 

Taps 223 

The Coward 224 

Reveille '..'. 224 

"Do not Cheer" , . 224 

In Memoriam 225 

The Torpedo-Boat 226 

A Stirrup Cup 226 

Hozannah and Huzzah 227 

The Marines at Caimanera 227 

Jim" 228 

Rough Riders' Roundelay 228 

Helen Gould 229 

Mighty Fine 229 

His Blood 230 

Guam .y. 231 

A Song of the Fight 232 

Army Diet 232 

The Youngest Boy in Blue 232 


President William McKinley 233 

Admiral George Dewey 234 

Admiral William T. Sampson '. . 235 

Rear-Admiral Winfield Scott Schley 236 

Major-General W. R. Shafter ; 23T 

Majbr-Gieneral Wesley Merritt 238 

Major-General Nelson A. Miles 239 

Major-General Joseph Wheeler 240 

Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. 241 

Lieutenant Richard Pearson Hobson 242 


Ex-Secretary William R, Day, Peace Commissioner 243 

Senator Ou«liman K. Davis, Peade Commissioner ^. . . 244 

Senator W. P. Frye, Peac6 Commissioner '. . . 245 

Senator George Gray, Peace (Commissioner 246 

"Whitelaw Reid, P-eace Commissioner 247 

Adjutant-General Henry C. Corbin 248 

Major-General Fitzhugh Lee 249 

General Russell A. Alger '. 250 

John D. Long 251 

Captain Charles E. Qark 252 

- Captain J. W. Philip , ". 253 

Captain Francis John Higginson 254 

Captain Robley D, Evans ' 255 

Captain Charles D. Sigsbee 256 

Lieutehant-Colonel John Jacob Astor 257 

Lieutenant Andrew S. Rowan / 258 

Helen Miller Gould .' 259 

Clara Barton. 260 

General Stewart L. Woodford 261 

Admiral Cervera 262 

Captain-General Ramon Blanfco 263 

Rear* Admiral Montgomery Sicard ^ 264 


Story of the Oregon ^65 

The Nicaragua Canal . : - 273 

Cuba, the "Pearl (Jf the Antilles" .278 


Bull Fights -in Spain 297 

Beautiful Porto Rico , 300 

The Hawaiian Islands ,,,,,,, , 32T 

The Philippine Islands ,....,. 35Q 

History of American Expansion §SS 


Life of Admiral George Dewey 896 


; Fighting the Filipinos 403 

Fighting the Filipinos 411 


















OLLOWING are the most important events of 
the Spanish-American war, told chronologically, 
from the sending of the Maine to Havana to the 
close of the year 1898: 


24— The battleship Maine ordered to Havana, 

9 — Spanish Minister de Lome resigns because of the publication of 
his letter to Canalejas. 

14 — Louis Polo y Bernabe appointed Sjmnish Minister to the United 

15 — The battleship -Maine blown up in Havana harbor; 266 lives 


4-^Informal requests of Spain for^recall of Consul General Lee and ' 
against shipment of Cuban relief supplies in warships refused by 
President McKinley. 

8 — The House passes the $50,000,000 national defense bill; passed 
by the Senate and becomes a law next day. 

10— Minister Polo arrives in Washington. 

24 — ^The report of the Maine court of inquiry reaches Washington. 


28 — Several resolutions declaring war with Spain introduced in 

31 — Spain's reply, rejecting the demands of the United States, re- 
ceived by the President. 


7 — A collective peace note of the powers presented to President 

9 — Consul General Lee and other United States represehtg,tives 
leave Cuba. 

11 — The President's Cuban intervention message submitted to 

13 — The House passes the Cuban intervention resolutions. 

16 — The Senate amends and passes the Cuban resolutions. 

19 — Congress passes finally the Cuban resolutions after an all-night 
session; signed by the President next day. 

20 — The American ultimatum wired to Madrid; the volunteer bill 
passed by the House; Minister Polo leaves Washington. 

21^United States Minister Woodford given his passports. The 
Senate passes the volunteer bill. 

22 — The President proclaims the Cuban blockade; the Key West 
squadron sails for Havana; the gunboat Nashville fires the first shot 
of the war in'capturing the Spanish merchantman Buena Ventura; the 
volunteer bill signed. 

23 — The President issues a call for 125,000 volunteers; the House 
passes the Hull army reorganization bill. 

25 — Declaration of war passed by both houses of Congress and 
signed by the President. 

26 — The Senate passes the army reorganization bill. 

27 — Matanzas fortifications bombarded. 

29 — The House passes the war revenue bill; Cabanas batteries 


1 — Commodore Dewey destroys the Spanish fleet in Manila bay; 
takes Cavite next day. 

2— Army deficiency appropriation bill passed by both houses. 

6 — French Atlantic Liner Lafayette captured by blockading squad- 
ron off Havana, but released by orders from Washington. 


7 — Dewey's report of the battle of Manila Bay received by Navy 
Department; the President promotes him to be Acting Admiral. 

9-Mi;ongress votes thanks to Dewey, who is promoted to the rank 
of Rear Admiral. . - 

10 — The immune volunteer bill finally passed. 

11 — The torpedo-boat Winslow disabled in a fight with shore bat- 
teries at Cardenas; the battle of Cienfuegos caused by American ships 
cutting cables. 

12 — San Juan, Porto Rico, bombarded by Admiral Sampson's 
squadron. "^- 

18 — The battleship Alabama privately launched from Cramp's ship- 

21 — iThe cruiser Charleston sails for Manila and the monitor Mon- 
terey also ordered thither. 

23 — Admiral Cervera's Spanish squadron "bottled up" in Santiago 

25 — The President issues his second call for volunteers, asking for 
75,000; the first installment sail from San Francisco for Manila. 

31-^First bombardment of Santiago forts takes place. 


3 — Lieutenant Hobson and seven other heroes si^k the Merrimac in 
Santiago harbor. 

4 — The Senate parses the war revenue bill; Lieutenant Carrahza's 
stolen letter published. 

5 — The army of invasion embarks at Tampa for Santiago; the 
Spanish cruiser Reina Mercedes hit during the bombardment of San- 
tiago forts. 

6 — Carranza and Du Bosc, heads of the Spanish spy system; ar- 
rested in Montreal. 

7— Caimanero bombarded. 

10 — United States marines land in force at Crest Hill, Guantanamo 

11 — Marines at Crest Hill repulse a Spanish attempt to dislodge 

13^The war revenue bill signed by the President; Vesuvius dyna- 
mite guns tested on Santiago fortifications. 

14 — Americans and Cubans at Guantanamo bay surprise and cap- 
ture the Spanish guerrilla camp. 


20 — Transports with General Shafter's army on board arrive off 

22 — Americans capture Guam, one of the Ladrone islands; the St. 
Paul disables the Spanish torpedo-boat Terror at San Juan. 

24 — ^The battle of Guasimas won by United States cavalry and 
Rough Rid«rs. , 

27 — President McKinley recommends to Congress rewards for 
Lieutenant Hobson, Lieutenant Newcomb, and Naval Oadfet PowelL 

28 — The blockade extended on the southern coast of Cuba and to 
San Juan, Porto Bico. 

29 — General Merritt sails for Manila. 

30 — The first American expedition to the Philippine islands arrives 
at Cavite. 


1-^The two days' battle before Santiago begins; Spaniards driven 
from outer works into the city. 

3 — Cervera's fleet destroyed while attempting to escape from San- 
tiago hiarbor. 

4 — The second Philippine expedition rediscovers Wake island. 

6— Spanish prisoners of war mutiny on the Harvard; six of them 
killed. President McKinley issues a war thanksgiving proclamation. 

7 — Merrimac heroes released by exchange; German interference 
against insurgents in Subig bay causes Dewey to capture Grande island. 

13 — Du Bosc leaves Canada for Spain at the urgent request of the 
Canadian government. 

14 — General Toral consents to surrender Santiago and Eastern 
Cuba; surrender effected on the 17th. 

17— American fleet destroys ten Spanish vessels in Manzanillo 

18 — General Miles sails from Siboney with the vanguard of the 
Porto Rico invasion. 

20— The contract for deporting Spanish prisoners of war to Spain 
awarded the Spanish Trans- Atlantic Company. 

21— The American fleet captures Nipe harbor and destroys the 
Spanish cruiser Jorge Juan. 

■ 23— The United States transport Wanderer repulsed in an attempt 
to land men and munitions for insurgents at Bahia Honda, 


25 — The first Porto Eico expedition, under General Miles, lands at 
Guanica; General Merritt lands at Cavite. 

26 — Spain sues for peace through the French Ambassador at 

28 — Ponce surrenders. 

30— ^McKinley's terms of peace forwarded to Madrid by French 
Ambassador Oambon. 


4^Shafter's army at Santiago ordered to Montauk Point, L. I. . 

5— Americians take Guayama, Porto Eico, after a sharp fight. 

6 — The Porto Eican section of the Cuban Eevolutionary party in 
New York dissolved and superseded by the Patriotic League of Porto 

6 — Americans victorious at Coama, Porto Eico; Spaniards repulsed 
in their attempt to retake the lighthouse at Cape San Juan. 

lO^The peace protocol drawn up. 

13— The protocol signed by Secretary Day and M. Cambon, the 
French Ambassador, acting for Spain; suspension of hostilities ordered 
and blockades lifted; Manzanillo bombarded; a Spanish battery si- 
lenced at Assonianta, Porto Eico; Manila stormed and captured by the 
Americans; natives massacred by Spaniards at Ciales, Porto Eico. -' 

16 — Evacuation commissions for Cuba and Porto Pico named. 

25 — General Shafter leaves Santiago, remainder of his army em- 
barks next day; United States peace commissioners selected. 

31 — Orders received at Annapolis looking to release of Spanish 
naval prisoners. 


1*-General Shafter arrives at Montauk Point. 
3 — President McKinley visits Camp Wikoff. 
5— The Spanish Cortes assembles. 
7 — General Miles lands in New York from Porto Eico. 
9 — The President orders an investigation of the War Department. 
10 — The Spanish Senate approves the peace protocol. 
12^ Admiral Cervera and other Spanish naval prisoners sail for 

13 — The Spanish Chamber approves the peace protocol. 

14 — The Queen Eegent signs the protocol, Cortes. prorogued. 


17 — United States peace commissioners sail for Paris. 
20 — Spanish troops begin to evacuate Porto Eico. 


1 — American and Spanish peace commissioners hold their first joint 

10 — Americans take full possession of Manzanillo. 

13-^Chaplain Mclntyre of the Oregon convicted by court-martial of 
offenses against naval discipline; work of the Porto Kican evacuation 
commissioners completed. 

18 — The United States assumes sovereignty over the entire island 
of Porto Eico. 

24 — Spanish evacuation of Porto. Eico complete. 

30 — The former Spanish cruiser Maria Teresa sails for Hampton 

31 — The United States peace commissioners demand cession of the 
entire Philippine group. 


4 — The cruiser Maria Teresa abandoned as a derelict during a storm 
on her voyage northvi^ard. 

14 — The mutiny of Orden Publico, the Spanish force in Havana, 
results in the dissolution of that body. 

17 — The evacuation of Camp Meade completed. 

21 — The American ultimatum presented to the Spanish peace com- 

25 — First United States troops land in Havana province. 

28 — Spain agrees to the American ultimatum for the cession of the 

30 — Blanco leaves Havana for Spain. 


3— The American flag hoisted over Sancti Spiritus and Trinidad, 

10 — The peace treaty signed. 

11— Three Cubans killed and eleven wounded in a riot with Span- 
iards in Havana, 


14— General Lee arrives in Havana; the Philippine Island De- 
velopment Association of American Volunteers formed by Astor bat- 
tery men at Manila. 

24 — The American peace commissioners submit the treaty ^o the 

27 — The American evacuation commissioners Issue a proclamation 
to the inhabitants of Cuba. 

31— Last day of Spanish sovereignty in the w^estern hemisphere. 




President of the United States. 

OR a righteous cause and under a common flag 
military service has strengthened the national 
spirit and served to cement more closely than 
ever the fraternal bonds between every section of 
the country. 

In my annual message very full consideration 
was giveji to the question of the duty of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States toward Spain 
and the Cuban insurrection as being by far 
the, most important problem with which we were 
then called upon to deal. The considerations then advanced, and the 
exposition of the views then expressed, disclosed my sense of the ex- 
treme gravity of the situation. 

Setting aside, as logically unfounded or practically inadmissible, 
the recognition of the Cuban insurgents as belligerents, the recognition 
of the independence of Cuba, neutral intervention to end the war by 
imposing a rational comprom,ise between the contestants, intervention 
in favor of one or the other party, and fotcible annexation of the 
islands, I concluded it was honestly due to our friendly relations with 
Spain* that she should be given a reasonable chance to realize her ex- 
pectations of reform, to which she had become irrevocably committed. 
Within a few weeks previously she had announced comprehensive 
plans, which it was confldently asserted would be efficacious to remedy 
the evils so deeply affecting our own country, so injurious to the true 
interests of the mother country as well as ta those of Cuba, and so 
repugnant to the universal sentiment of humanity. 

The ensuing month brought little sign of real progress toward the 
pacification of Cuba. The autonomous administration set up in the 
capital and some of the principal cities appeared not to gain Xhe favor of 
the inhabitants nor to be able to extend their influence to the large 



extent of territory held by the insurgents, while the military arm, 
obviously unable to cope with the still active rebellion, continued many 
of the most objectionable, and offensive policies of the government that 
had preceded it. 

No tangible relief was afforded the vast numbers of unhappy 
reconcentrados, despite the reiterated professions made in that regard 
and the amount appro'^riated by Spain to that end. The proffered ex- 
pedient of zones of cultivation proved illusory. Indeed, no less prac- 
tical nor more delusive promises of succor could well have been ten- 
dered to the exhausted and destitute people, stripped of all that made 
life and home dear and herded in a strange region among unsympa- 
thetic strangers hardly less necessitous than themselves. 

By the end of December the mortality, among them had frightfully 
increased. Conservative estimates from Spanish sources placed the 
deaths among these distressed people at over 40 per. cent, from the time 
General Weyler's decree of reconcentration was enforced. With the 
acquiescence of the Spanish authorities a scheme was adopted for re 
lief by charitable contributions raised in this country and distributed, 
under the direction of the Consul General and the several Consuls, by 
noble and earnest individual effort through the organized agencies of 
the American Red Cross, Thousands of lives were jthus saved, but many 
thousands more were inaccessible to such forms of aid. 

The war continued on the old footing, without comprehensive plan, 
developing only the same spasmodic encounters, barren of strategic re- 
sult, that had marked the course of the earlier Ten Years' rebellion as 
well as the present insurrection from its start. No alternative save 
physical exhaustion of either combatant, and therewithal the practical 
ruin of the island, lay in sight, but how far distant no one could venture 
to conjecture. 


At this juncture, on the 15th of February last, occurred the destruc- 
tion of the battleship Maine, while rightfully lying in the Harbor of 
Havana on a mission of international courtfesy and good will — a catas- 
trophe the suspicious nature and horror of which stirred the nation's 
heart profoundly. 

It is a striking evidence of the poise and sturdy good sense dis- 
tinguishing our national character that this shocking blow, falling 
upon a generous people, already deeply touched by preceding events in 


Cuba, did not move them to an instant, desperate resolve to tolerate 
no longer the existence of a condition of danger and disorder at our 
doors that made possible such a deed by whomsoever wrought. Yet the 
instinct of justice prevailed and the nation anxiously awaited the result 
of the searching investigation at once set on foot. 

The finding of the naval board of inquiry established that the origin 
of the explosion was external by a submarine mine, and only halted 
through lack of positive testimony to fix the responsibility of its au- 

All these things carried conviction to the most thoughtful, even 
before the finding of the naval court, that a crisis in our relations 
with Spain and toward Cuba was at hand. So strong was this belief 
that it needed but a brief executive suggestion to the Congress to re- 
ceive immediate answer to the duty of making insta,nt provision for the 
possible and perhaps speedy probable emergency of war, and the re- 
markable, almost unique, spectacle was presented of a unanimous 
vote of both houses on the 9th of March, appropriating |50,000,000 
for the national defense and for each and every purpose connected there- 
with, to be expended at the direction of the President. 

That this act of provision came none too soon was disclosed when 
the application of the fund was undertaken. Our forts were practically 
undefended. Our navy needed large provision for increased ammuni- 
tion and supplies and even numbers to cope with any sudden attack 
from the navy of Spain, which comprised modern vessels of the highest 
type of continental perfection. Our army also required enlargement of 
men and munitions. * 

The details of the hurried preparation for the dreaded contingency 
are told in the reports of the Secretaries of War and of the Navy, and 
need not be repeated here. It is suflflcient to say that the outbreak 
of war, when it did come, found our nation not unprepared to meet the 

Nor was the apprehension of coming strife confined to our own 
country. It was felt by the Continental powers, which, on April 6, 
through their Ambassadors and Envoys, addressed to the Executive 
an expression of hope that humanity and moderation might mark the 
course of this government and people, and that further negotiations 
would lead to an agreement which, while securing the maintenance of 
peace, would affirm all necessary guarantees for the re-establishment 
of order in Cuba. 


in responding to that representation I also shared the hope that the 
Envoys had expressed that peace might be preserved in a manner to 
terminate the chronic condition of disturbance in CJuba so injurious 
and menacing to oar interests and tranquillity, as well as shocking to 
our sentiments of humanity; and, while appreciating the humanitarian 
and disinterested character of the communication they had made, on 
behalf of the powers, I stated the confidence of this government, for its 
part, that equal appreciation would be shown for its own earnest and 
unselfish *endeavors to fulfill a duty to humanity by ending a situation 
the indefinite prolongation of which had become insufferable. 


Still animated by the hope of a peaceful solution and obeying the 
dictates of duty, no effort was relaxed to bring about a sj)eedy ending 
of the Cuban struggle. Negotiations to this object continued actively 
with the Government of Spain, looking to the immediate conclusion of 
a six months' armistice in Cuba with a view to effecting the recog- 
nition of her people's rights to independence. Besides this^ the instant 
revocation of the order of reconcentration was asked, so that the suffer- 
ers, returning to their homes and aided by united American and Spanish 
effort, might be put in a way to support themselves and, by orderly 
resumption of the well-nigh destroyed productive energies of the island, 
contribute to the restoration of its tranquillity and well being. 

Negotiations continued for some little time at Ma,drid, resulting in 
offers by the; Spanish Government which could not but be regarded as 
inadequate. It was proposed to confide the preparation of peace to the 
insular parliament, yet to be convened under the autonomous decrees 
of November, 1897, but without impairment in any wise to the consti- 
tutional powers of the Madrid government, which, to that end, would 
grant an armistice, if -solicited by the insurgents, for such time as the 
General-in-Chief might see fit to fix. 

How and with what scope of discretionary powers the insular par 
liament was expected to set about the "preparation" of peace did not 
appear. If it were to be by negotiation with the insurgents, the issue 
seemed to rest on the one side with a body chosen by a fraction of the 
electors in the districts under Spanish control and on the other with 
the insurgent population holding the interior country, unrepresented 
in the so-called parliament, and defiant at the suggestion of suing for 


Grieved and disappointed at this barren outcome of my sincere en- 
deavors to reach a practicable solution, I felt it my duty to remit the 
whole question to the Congress. In the message of April 1, 1898, I 
announced that with this last overture in the direction of immediate 
peace in Cuba, and its disappointing reception by Spain, the effort of 
the Executive was brought to an end. 

I again reviewed the alternative course of action which I had pro- 
posed, concluding that the only one consonant with international policy 
and compatible with our firm-set historical traditions was infervention 
as a neutral to stop the war and check the hopeless sacrifice of life, even 
though that resort involved "hostile constraint upon both the parties to 
the contest, as well to enforce a truce as to guide the eventual settle- 

The grounds justifying that step were : The interests of humanity, 
the duty to protect life and property of our citizens in Cuba, the right 
to check injury to our commerce and people through the devastation of 
the island, and, most important, the need of removing at once and for- 
ever the constant menace and the burdens entailed upon our govern- 
ment by the uncertainties and perils of the situation caused by the 
unendurable disturbance in Cuba. I said: 

"The long trial has proved that the object for which Spain has 
waged the war cannot be attained. The fire of insurrection may flame 
or may smoulder with varying seasons, but it has not been, and it is 
plain that it cannot be, extinguished by present methods. The only 
hope of relief and repose from a condition which can no longer be en- 
dured is the enforced pacification of Cuba. In the name of humanity, 
in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests, 
which give us the right and the duty to speak, the existing war in Cuba 
must stop." 

In view of all this the Congress was asked to authorize and em- 
power the President to take measures to secure a full and final termi- 
nation of hostilities between Spain and the people of Cuba and to secure 
in the island the establishment of a stable government, capable of main- 
taining order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace 
and tranquillity, and the security of its citizens as well as our own. 
and for the accomplishment of those ends to use the military and naval 
forces of the United States as might be necessary, with added authority 
to continue generous relief to the starving people of Cuba. 



The response of the Congress, after nine days of earnest deliberation, 
during which the almost unanimous sentiment of that body was de- 
veloped on every point save as to the expediency of coupling the pro- 
posed action with a formal recognition of the republic of Cuba as the 
true and lawful government of that island^a proposition which failed 
of adoption — the Congress, after conference, on the 19th of April, by a 
vote of 42 to'35 in the Senate and 311 to 6 in the House of Representa- 
tives, passed the memorable joint resolution, declaring: 

"1. That the people of the Island of Cuba are, and of right ought 
to be, free and independent. 

"2. That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the 
: Government of the United States does hereby demand, that the Govern- 
ment of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the 
Island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from^ Cuba and 
Cuban waters. 

"3. That the President of the United States be and he hefreby is 
directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the 
United States, and to call into the actual service of the United States 
the militia of the several States to such extent as may be necessary, to 
carry these resolutions into effect. 

"4. That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or 
intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said isl- 
and, except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, 
when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the 
island to its people." 

This resolution was approved by, the Executive on the next day, 
April 20. A copy was at once communicated to the Spanish, Minister 
at this capital, who forthwith announced that his continuance in Wash- 
ington had thereby become impossible, and asked for his passports, 
which were given him. He thereupon withdrew from Washington, leav- 
ing the protection of Spanish interests in the United States to the 
•French Ambassador and the Austro-Hungarian Minister. 

Simultaneously with its communication to the ^Spanish Minister, 
General Woodford, the American Minister at Madrid, was telegraphed, 
confirmation of the text of the joint resolution, and directed to com- 
municate it to the Government of Spain, with the formal demand that 


it at once relinquish its anthority and government in the Island of 
Cuba, and withdraw its forces therefrom, coupling this demand with 
announcements of the intentions of this government as to the future 
of the island, in conformity with the fourth clause of the resolution, and 
giving ^pain until noon of April 23d to reply. 

The demand, although, as above shown, officially made known to 
the Spanish Envoy here, was not delivered at Madrid. After the in- 
struction reached General Woodford on the morning of April 21st, but 
before he could present it, the Spanish Minister of State notified him 
that upon the President's approval of the joint resolution the Madrid 
Government, regarding the act as "equivalent to an evident declaration 
of war," had ordered its Minister in Washington to withdraw, thereby 
breaking off diplomatic relations between the two countries, and ceas- 
ing all official communication between their .respective representatives. 
General Woodford thereupon demanded his passports and quitted 
Madrid the same day. 


Spain having thus denied the demand of the United States and 
initiated that complete form of rupture of relations which attends a 
state of war, the executive powers authorized by the resolution were 
at once used by me to meet the enlarged contingency of actual war 
between Spain and the United States. 

On April 22d I proclaimed a blockade of the northern coast of 
Cul)a, including ports on said coast between Cardenas and Bahia Honda, 
and the port of Cienfuegos on the south coast of Cuba, and on the 23d 
I called for volunteers to execute the purpose of the resolution. 

By my message of April 25th the Congress was informed of the situ- 
ation, and I recommended formal declaration of the existence of a 
state of war between the United States and Spain. The Congress ac- 
cordingly voted on the same day the act approved April 25, 1898, de- 
claring the existence of such war, from and including the 21st day of 
April, and re-enacted the provisions of the resolution of April 20th, di- 
recting the President to use all the armed forces of the nation to carry 
that act into effect. 

Due notification of the existence of war as aforesaid was given 
April 25th by telegraph to all the governments with which the United 
States maintain relations, in order that their neutrality might be as- 
sured during the war. 

msroRV OF the war. 23 

The various governments responded with proclamations of neutral- 
ity, each after, its own methods. It is not among the least gratifying 
incidents of the struggle that the obligations of neutrality were im- 
partially discharged by all, often under delicate and difficult circum- 

In further fulfillment of international duty, I issued, April 26th, a 
proclamation announcing the treatment proposed to be accorded to 
vessels and their cargoes as to blockades, contraband, the exercise of 
the right of subjects and the immunity of neutral flags and neutral 
goods under the enemy's flag. A similar procla:mation was made by the 
Spanish Government. In the conduct of hostilities the rules of the 
declaration of Paris, including abstention, from resort to privateering, 
have accordingly been observed by ,both belligerents, although neither 
was a party to that declaration. 


Our country thus, after an interval of half a century of peace with 
.all nations, found itself engaged in deadly conflict with a foreign enemy. 
Every nerve was strained to meet the emergency. 

The response to the initial call for 125,000 volunteers was instant 
and complete, as was also the result of the second call of May 25th for 
75,000 additional volunteers. The ranks of the regular army were in- 
creased to the limits provided by the act of April 26th. 

The enlisted force of the navy on the 15th of August, when it 
reached its maximum, numbered 24,123 men and apprentices. One hun- 
dred and three vessels were added to the navy by purchase, one was 
presented to the government, one leased and the four vessels of the 
International Navigation Company — ^the St. Paul, St. Louis, New York 
and Paris — were chartered. In addition to these the revenue' cutters 
and lighthouse tenders were turned over to the Navy Department and 
became temporarily a part of the auxiliary navy. 

The maximum effective fighting force of the navy during the war, 
separated into classes, was as follows: 

REGULAR — Four battleships of the first class> one battleship of 
the second class, two armored cruisers, six coast defense monitors, one 
armored ram, twelve protected cruisers, three unprotected cruisers, 
eighteen gunboats, one dynamite cruiser, eleven torpedo boats, four- 
teen old vessels of the old navy, including monitors. 

AUXILIARY NAVY — Sixteen auxiliary cruisersj twenty-eight 


converted yachts, twenty-seven converted tugs, nineteen converted 
colliers, fifteen revenue cutters, four lighthouse tenders and nineteen 
miscellaneous vessels. 

Much alarm was felt along our entire Atlantic seaboard lest some 
attack might be made by the enemy. Every precaution was t^ken to 
prevent possible injury to our great cities lying along the coast. Tempo- 
rary garrisons were provided, drawn from the State militia. Infantrj- 
and light batteries were drawn from the volunteer force. About 12,000 ' 
troops were thus employed. The coast signal service was established for 
observing the approach of an enemy's ships to th~e coast of the United- 
States, and the life-saving and lighthouse services co-oi)erated, which 
enabled the Navy Department to have all portions of the Atlantic coast, 
from Maine to Texas, under observation. 

The auxiliary navy was created under the authority of Congress 
and was officered and manned by the Naval Militia of the several States. 
This organization patrolled the coast and performed the duty of a 
second arm of defense. 

Under the direction of the Chief of Engineers submarine mines 
were placed at the most exposed points. Before the outbreak of the 
war permanent mining casements and cable galleries had been con- 
structed at all important harbors. Most of the torpedo material was 
not to be found in the market and had to be specially manufactured. 
Under date of April 19th district officers were directed to take all 
preliminary measures, short of the actual attaching of the loaded mines 
to the cables, and on April 22d telegraphic orders were issued to place 
the loaded mines in position. 

The aggregate number of mines placed was 1,535 at the principal 
harbors from Maine to California. Preparations were also made for 
the planting of mines at certain other harbors, but owing to the early 
destruction of the Spanish fleet these mines were not placed. 

The signal corps was promptly organized and performed service 
of most difficult and important character. Its operations during the 
war covered the electrical connection of all coast fortifications and the 
establishment of telephonic and telegraphic facilities for the camps at 
Manila, Santiago and in Porto Rico. 

There were constructed 300 miles of line at ten great C3,mps, thus 
facilitating military movements from those points in a manner here- 
tofore unknown in military administration. Field telegraph lines were 
established and maintained under the enemy's fire at Manila, and later 




the Manila-Hongkong cable was reopened. In Porto Rico cable com- 
munications were opened over a discontinued route, and on land the 
headquarters of the commanding officer were kept in telegraphic or 
telephonic communication with the division commanders _of four differ- 
ent lines of operation. 

There was placed in Cuban waters a completely outfitted cable 
ship, with war cables and cable gear suitable both for the destruction 
of communications belonging to the enemy and the establishment of 
our own. Two ocean cables were destroyed under the enemy's batteries 
at Santiago. The day previous to the landing of General Shafter's corps 
at Caiinanera, within twenty miles of the landing place, cable communi- 
cations were established and cable stations opened, giving direct com- 
munication with the Government at Washington. This service was in- 
valuable to the Executive in directing the operations of the army and 

With a total force of over 1,300 the loss was by disease and field, 
officers and* men included, only five. ' 


The national defense under the $50,000,000 fund was expended in 
large part by the army and navy, and the objects for which it was used 
are fully shown in the reports of the several Secretaries. It was a most 
timely appropriation, enabling the Government to strengthen its de- 
fense and making preparations greatly needed in case of war. 

This fund being inadequate to the requirements of equipment and 
for the conduct of the war, the patriotism of the Congress provided 
the means in the war revenue act of June 13th, by authorizing a 3 per 
cent, popular loan, not to exceed $400,000,000, and by levying additional 
imposts and taxes. Of the authorized loan, $200,000,000 were offered 
and promptly taken, the subscriptions so far exceeding the call as to 
cover it many times over, while, preference being given to the smaller 
bids, no single allotment exceeded $5,000. 

This was a most ehcouraging and signifi'cant result, showing the 
vast resources of the nation and the determination of the people to 
uphold their country's honor. 


The first encounter of the war in point of date took place April 
27th, when a detachment of the blockading squadron made a recon- 


naissance in force at Matanzas, shelled the harbor forts and demolished 
several new works in construction. 

The next engagement was destined to mark a memorable epoch 
in maritime warfare. The Pacific fleet, under Cbmmodore Dewey, ha,d 
lain for some weeks at Hongkong. Upon the colonial proclamation of 
neutrality being issued and the customary twenty-four hours' notice 
being given, it repaired to Mirs Bay, near Hongkong, whence it pro- 
ceeded to the Philippine Islands under telegraphed orders to capture 
or destroy the formidable Spanish fleet then assembled at Manila, 

At daybreak on the 1st of May the American force entered Manila 
Bay, and after a few hours' engagement effected the total destruction 
of the Spanish fleet, consisting of ten warships and a transport, be- 
sides capturing the naval station and forts at Cavite, thus annihilating 
-the Spanish naval power in the Paciflc Ocean and completely controlling 
the Bay of Manila, with the ability to take the city at will. Not a life 
was lost on our ships, the wounded only numbering seven, while not a 
vessel was materially injured. > 

For this gallant achievement the Congress, upon my recommenda- 
tion, fitly bestowed upon the actors preferment and substantial reward. 

The effect of this remarkable victory upon the spirit of our people 
and upon the fortunes of the war was instant. A prestige of invinci- 
bility thereby attached to our arms, which continued throughout the 
struggle. Ee-enforcements were hurried to Manila under the com- 
mand of Major-General Merritt and firmly established within sight of 
the capital, which lay helpless before our guns. 

On the 7th day of May the Government was advised officially of 
the victory at Manila, and at once inquired of the commander of our 
fl£et what troops would be required. The information was received 
on the 15th day of May, and the first army expedition sailed May 25th 
and arrived off Manila June 30. Other expeditions soon followed, the 
total force consisting of 641 officers and 15,058 men. 

Only reluctance to cause needless loss of life and property prevented 
the early storming and capture of the city, and therewith the abso- 
lute military occupancy of the whole group. The insurgents mean- 
while had resumed the active hostilities suspended by the uncompleted 
truce of December, 1897. Their forces invested Manila from the north- 
ern and eastern side, but were constrained by Admiral Dewey and 
General Merritt from attempting an assault. 

It was fitting that whatever was to be done in the way of decisive 


operations in tliat quarter shiould be accomplished by the strong arm of 
the United States alone. Obeying the stern precept of war, which en- 
joins the overcoming of the adversary and the extinction of his power 
wherever assailable as the speedy and sure means to win a peace, di- 
vided victory was not permissible, for no partition of the rights and re- 
sponsibilities attending the enforcement of a just and advantageous 
peace could be thought of. 


Following the comprehensive scheme of general attack, powerful 
forces were assembled at various points on our coast to invade Cuba 
and Porto Rico. Meanwhile naval demonstrations were made at several 
exposed points. On May 11th the cruiser Wilmington and torpedo boat 
Winslow were unsuccessful in an attempt to silence the batteries at 
Cardenas, against Matanzas, Worth Bagley and four seamen falling. 

These grievous fatalities were, strangely enough, among the very 
few which occurred during our naval operations in this extraordinary 

Meanwhile the Spanish naval preparations had been pushed with 
great vigor. A powerful squadron under Admiral Cervera, which had 
assembled at the Cape Verde Islands before the outbreak of hostilities, 
had crossed the ocean, and by its erratic movements in the Caribbean 
Sea delayed our military operations while baffling the pursuit of our 
fleets. For a time fears were felt lest the Oregon and Marietta, then 
nearing home after their long voyage from San Francisco of over 15,000 
miles, might be surprised by Admiral Cervera's fleet, but their fortunate 
arrival dispelled these apprehensions and lent much needed re-enforce- 

Not until Admiral Cervera took refuge in the Harbor of Santiago 
de Cuba about May 9th was it practicable to plan a systematic military 
attack upon the Antillean possessions of Spain. Several demonstra- 
tions occurred on the coasts of Cuba and Porto Rico in preparation for 
th|e larger event. On May 13th the North Atlantic squadron shelled 
San Juan de Porto Rico. On May 30th Commodore Schley's squadron 
bombarded the forts guarding the mouth of Santiago Harbor. Neither 
attack had any material result. It was evident that well-ordered land 
operations were indispensable to achieve a decisive advantage. 

The next act in the war thrilled not alone the hearts of our coun- 
trymen but the world by its exceptional heroism. 


On the night of June 3d Lieutenant Hobson, aided by seven de- 
voted volunteers, blocked the narrow outlet from Santiago Harbor by 
sinking the collier Merrimac in the channel, under a fierce fire from 
the shore batteries, escaping with their lives as by a miracle, but falling 
into the hands of the Spaniards. 

It is a most gratifying incident of the war that the bravery of 
this little band of heroes was cordially appreciated by the Spaniards, 
who sent a flag of truce to notify Admiral Sampson of their safety 
and to compliment them upon their daring act. They were subse- 
quently exchanged July 7th. 

By June 7th the cutting of the last CJuban cable isolated the island. 
Thereafter the invasion was vigorously prosecuted. On June 10th, un- 
der a heavy protecting fire, a landing of 600 marines from the Oregon, 
Marblehead and Yankee was effected in Guantanamo Bay, where it had 
been determined to establish a naval station. This important and es- 
sential port was taken, from the enemy after severe fighting by the 
marines, who were the first organized force of the United States to land 
in Cuba. The position so won was held despite desperate attempts to 
dislodge our forces. 

By June 16th additional forces were landed and strongly in- 
trenched. On June 22d the advance of the invading army under Major- 
General Shafter landed at Baiquiri, about fifteen miles east of Santiago. 
This was accomplished under great difficulties, but with marvelous 
dispatch. On June 23d the movement against Santiago was begun. 

On the 24th the first serious engagement took place, in which the 
First and Tenth Cavalry and the First United States Volunteer Cavalry, 
General Young's brigade of General Wheeler's division, participated, 
losing heavily. By nightfall, however, ground within five miles of 
Santiago was won. 

The advantage was steadily increased. On July 1st a severe battle 
took place, our forces gaining the outworks of Santiago. On the 2d El 
Caney and San Juan were taken after a desperate charge, and the in- 
vestment of the city was completed. The navy co-operated by shelling 
the town and the coast forts. 


On the day following this brilliant achievement of our land forces,^ 
July 3d, occurred the decisive naval combat of the war. The Spanish 
fleet, attempting to leave the harbor, was met by the American squad- 


ron under comriiand of Commodore Sampson. In less than three hours 
ail the Spanish ships were destroyed, the two torpedo boats being sunk, 
and the Maria Teresaj Almira,nte Oquendo, Vizcaya and Cristobal Colon 
driven ashore. The Spanish Admiral and over 1,300 men were taken 
prisoners, w-hile the enemy's loss of life was deplorably large, some 600 

On our side but one man .was kiUed, on the Brooklyn, and one man 
seriously wounded. Although our ships were repeatedly struck, not 
one was seriously injured. 

Where all so conspicuously distinguished themselves, from the 
commanders to the gunners and the unnamed heroes in the boiler- 
rooms, each and all contributing toward the achievement of this as- 
tounding victory, for which neither ancient nor modern history affords 
a parallel in the completeness of the event and the marvelous dispropor- 
tion of casualties, it would be invidious to single out any for especial 

Deserved promotion has rewarded the more conspicuous actors — 
the nation's profoundest gratitude is due to all of those brave men who 
by their skill and devotion in a few short hours crushed the sea power 
of Spain and wrought a triumph whose decisiveness and far-reaching 
consequences can scarcely be measured. Nor can we be unmindful of 
the achievements of our builders, mechanics and artisans for their 
skill in the construction of our warships. 

With the catastrophe of Santiago Spain's effort upon the ocean 
virtually ceased. A spasmodic effort toward the end of June to send 
her Mediterranean fleet under Admiral Camara to relieve Manila was 
abandoned, the expedition being recalled after it had passed through 
the Suez Canal. 

The capitulation of Santiago followed. The city was closely be- 
sieged by land, while the entrance of our ships into the harbor cut off 
all relief on that side. After a truce to allow of the removal of non- 
combatants protracted negotiations continued from July 3d to July 15th, 
when, under menace of immediate assault, the preliminaries of sur- 
render were agreed upon. On the 17th General Shafter occupied the 

The capitulation embraced the entire eastern end of Cuba. The 
number of Spanish soldiers surrendered was 22,000, all of whom were 
subsequently conveyed to Spain at the charge of the United States. 

The story of this successful campaign is told in the report of the 


Secretary of War, which will be laid before you. The indiTidual valor 
of officers and soldiers was never more strikingly shown than in the 
several engagements leading to the surrender of Santiago, while the 
prompt movements and successive victories won instant and universal' 

To those who gained this complete triumph, which established the 
ascendancy of the United States upon land as the fight off Santiago had 
fixed our supremacy on the seas, the earnest and lasting gratitude of 
the nation is unsparingly due. 

Nor should we alone remember the gallantry of the living; the 
dead claim our tears, and our losses by battle 'and disease must cloud 
any exultation at the result and teach us to weigh the awful cost of war, 
however rightful the cause or signal the victory.- 


With the fall of Santiago, the occupation of Porto Rico became the 
next strategic necessity. General Miles had previously been assigned 
to organize an expedition for that purpose. Fortunately he was already 
at Santiago, where he had arrived on the 11th of July, with re-enforce^ 
ments for General Shafter's army. 

With these troops, consisting of 3,415 infantry and artillery, two 
companies of engineers, and one company of the signal corps. General 
Miles left Guantanamo on July 21st, having nine transports convoyed 
by the fleet under Captain Higginson, with the Massachusetts (flagship), 
Dixi§, Gloucester, Columbia and Yale, the two latter carrying troops. 
The expedition landed at Guanica July 25th, which port was entered 
with little opposition. Here the fleet was joined by the Annapolis and 
the Wasp, while the Puritan and Amphitrite went to San Juan and 
jbined the New Orleans, which was engaged in blockading that port. 

The Major-General commanding was subsequently re-enforced by 
General Schwann's brigade of the Thifd Army Corps, by General Wil- 
son, with a part of his division, and also by General Brooke, with a part 
of his corps, numbering in all 16,973 officers and men. On July 27 he 
entered Ponce, one of the most important ports in the island, from which 
he thereafter directed operations for the capture of the island. 

With the exception of encounters with the enemy at Guayama, 
Hormigueres, Coamo and Yauco, and an attack on a force landed at 
Cape San Juan, there was no serious resistance. The campaign was 
prosecuted with great vigor, and by the 12th of August much of the 


island was in our possession, and the acquisition of the remainder was 
only a matter of a short time. 

At most of the points in the island our troops were enthusiastically 
welcomed. Protestations of loyalty to the flag and gratitude for de- 
livery from Spanish rule met our commanders at every stage. 

As a potent influence toward peace, the outcome of the Porto Ricap 
expedition was of great consequence, and generous commendation is 
due to ^those who participated in it. 


The last scene of the war was enacted at Manila, its starting place. 
On August 15th, after a brief assault upon the works by the land forces, 
in which the squadron assisted, the capital surrendered uncondition- 
ally. The casualties were comparatively few. 

By this the conquest of the Philippine Islands, virtually ac- 
complished when the Spanish capacity for resistance was destroyed by 
Admiral Dewey's victory of the 1st of May, was formally sealed. 

To General Merritt, his officers and men, for their uncomplaining 
and devoted services, for their gallantry in action, the nation is sincerely 
grateful. Their long voyage was made with singular success, and the 
soldierly conduct of the men, most of whom were without previous 
experience in the military service, deserves unmeasured praise. 


The total casualties in killed and wounded during the war were as 



Officers killed 23 

Enlisted men killed ... 257 

Total 280 

Officers wounded 113 

Enlisted men wounded 1,464 

Total 1,577 


Killed 17 

Wounded 67 

Died as result of wounds 1 

Invalided from service 6 

Total , 91 


It will .be observed that while our navy was engaged in two great 
battles and in numerous perilous undertakings in the blockades and 
bombardment, and more than 50,000 of our troops were transported 
to distant lands and engaged in assault and siege and battle and many 
skirmishes in unfamiliar territory, we lost in both arms of the service 
a total of 1,948 killed and wounded; and in the entire campaign by land 
and sea we did not lose a gun or a flag or a transport or a ship, and 
with the exception of the crew of the Merrimac not a soldier or sailor 
was taken prisoner. 

On August 7th, forty-six days from the date of the landing of 
General Shafter's army in Cuba and twenty-one days from the sur- 
render of Santiago, the United States troops commenced embarkation 
for home, and our entire force was returned to the United States as 
early as August 24th. They were absent from the United States only 
two months. 

It is fitting that I should bear testimony to the patriotism and 
devotion of that large portion of our army which, although eager to be' 
ordered to the post of greatest exposure, fortunately was not required 
outside of the United States. They did their whole duty, and, like their 
comrades at the front, have earned the gratitude of the nation. 

In like manner, the officers and men of the army and of the navy 
who remained in their departments and stations of the navy, perform- 
ing most important duties connected with the war, and whose requests 
for assignment in the field and at sea I was compelled to refuse because 
their services were indispensable here, are entitled to the highest com- 
mendation. It is my regret that there seems to be no provision for 
their suitable recognition. 

In this connection it is a pleasure for me to mention in terms of 
cordial appreciation the timely and useful work of the American Na- 
tional Ked Cross, both in relief measures preparatory to the cam- 
paign, in sanitary assistance at several of the camps and assemblage, 
and later, under the able and experienced leadership of the president of 
the society. Miss Clara Barton, on the fields of battle and in the hos- 
pitals at the front in Cuba. Working in conjunction with the govern . 
mental authorities and under their sanction and approval and with the 
enthusiastic co-operation of many patriotic women and societies in the 
various States, the Ked Cross has fully maintained its already high 
reputation for intense earnestness and ability to exercise the noble pur- 
poses of its international orgaijiization, thus justifying the confidence 


and support which it has received at the hands of the American people. 

To the members and officers of this society and all who aided them 
in their philanthropic work, the sincere and lasting gratitude of the 
soldiers and the public is due and is freely accorded. 

In tracing these events we are constantly reminded of our obliga- 
tions to the Divine Master for His -watchful care over us and His safe 
guidance, for which the nation makes reverent acknowledgment and 
offers humble prayer for the continuance of His favor. 


The annihilation of Admiral Cervera's fleet, followed by the capitu- 
lation of Santiago, having brought to the Spanish Government a realiz- 
ing sense of the hopelessness of continuing a struggle now becoming 
wholly unequal, it made overtures of peace through the French Am- 
bassador, who, with the assent of his government, had acted as the 
friendly representative of Spanisli interests during the war. 

On the 26th of July M. Oambon presented a communication signed 
by the Duke of Almodovar, the Spanish Minister of State, inviting the 
United States to state the terms upon which it would be willing to 
make peace. 

On July 30th, by a communication addressed to the Duke of 
Almodovar and handed to M. Cambon, the ternas of this government 
-were announced, substantially as in the protocol afterward signed. 

On August 10th the Spanish reply, dated August 7th, was handed 
by M. Cambon to the Secretary of State. It accepted unconditionally 
the terms imposed as to Cuba, Porto Rico and an island of the 
Ladrones group, but appeared to seek to introduce inadmissible reserva- 
tions in regard to our demand as to the Philippines. 

Conceiving that discussion on this point could neither be prac- 
ticable or profitable, I directed that in order to avoid misunderstanding 
the matter should be forthwith closed by proposing the embodiment in 
a formal protocol of the terms on which the negotiations for peace 
were to be undertaken. 

The vague an^d inexplicit suggestions of the Spanish note could not 
be accepted, the only reply being to present as a virtual ultimatum a 
draft of a protocol embodying the precise terms tendered to Spain in 
our note of July 30th, with added stipulations of detail as to the ap- 
pointment of commissioners to arrange for the evacuation of the Span- 
ish Antilles. 


On August 12 th M. Cambon announced his receipt of full power to 
sign the protocol so submitted. Accordingly, on the afternoon of Au- 
gust 12th, M. Cambon, as the plenipotentiary of Spain, and the Secretary 
of State, as the plenipotentiary of the United States, signed a protocol, 

"Article 1. Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba. 

"Article 2. Spain will cede to the United States the Island of Porto 
Eico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West 
Indies, and also an island in the Ladrones to be selected by the United 

"Article 3. The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay 
and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which 
shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Phil- 

The fourth article provided for the appointment of joint commis- 
sions on the part of the United States and Spain, to meet in Havana 
and San Juan, respectively, for the purpose of arranging and carrying 
out the details of the stipulated evacuation of Cuba, Porto Rico and 
other Spanish islands in the West Indies. 

The fifth article provided for the appointment of not more than 
five commissioners on each side to meet at Paris not later than October 
1st and to proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, 
subject to ratification according to the respective constitutional forms 
of the two countries. 

The sixth and last article provided that upon the signature of the 
protocol, hostilities between the two countries should be suspended, 
and that notice to that effect should be given as soon as possible by each 
government to the commanders of its military and naval forces, 


Immediately upon the conclusion of the protocol I issued, a procla- 
mation on August 12th, suspending hostilities on the part of the United 
States. The necessary orders to that end were at once given by tele- 
graph. The blockade of the ports of Cuba and San Juan de Porto Rico 
was in like manner raised. 

On August 18th the muster out of 100,000 volunteers, or as near 
that number as was found to be practicable, was ordered. On Decem- 
ber 1st, 101,165 officers and men had been mustered out and discharged 


from the service; 9,002 more will be mustered out by the 10th of the 
month. Also a corresponding number of Generals and general staff 
officers have been honorably discharged from the service. 

The military committees to superintend the evacuation of Cuba, 
Porto Eico and the adjacent islands w^ere forthwith appointed — for 
Cuba, Major-General James F. Wade, Rear Admiral William T. Samp- 
son and Major-General Matthew C. Butler; for Porto Rico, Major-Gen- 
eral John C. Brooke, Rear Admiral Winfield S. Schley and Brigadier- 
General W. W. Gordon, who soon afterward met the Spanish commis- 
sioners at Havana and San Juan respectively. 


The Porto Rican joint commissions speedily accomplished its task, 
and by October 18th the evacuation of the island was completed. The 
United States flag was raised over the island at noon on that day. 

As-soon as we are in possession of Cuba and have pacified the island 
it will be necessary to give aid and direction to its people to form a 
government for themselves. This should be undertaken at the earliest 
moment consistent with safety and assured success. 

It is important that our relations with these people shall be of the 
most friendly character and our commercial relations close and recipro- 
cal. It should be our duty to assist in every proper way to build up 
the waste places of the island, encourage the industry of the people and 
assist them to form a government which shall be free and independent, 
tTius realizing the best aspirations of the Cuban people. 

Spanish rule must be replaced by a just, benevolent and humane 
government, created by the people of Cuba, capable of performing all 
international obligations, and which shall encourage thrift, industry 
and prosperity, and promote peace and good will among all of the in- 
habitants, whatever may -^have been their relations in the past. Neither 
revenge nor passion should have a place in the new government. 

President of the United States. 

s6 lessons of the war. 

lesso:ns of the war 


President of the United States. 

Under hostile fire on a foreign soil, fiighting in a common cause, 
the memory of old disagreements has faded into history. Erom camp 
and campaign there comes the magic healing which has closed ancient 
wounds and effaced their scars. For this result every American patriot 
will forever rejoice. It is no small indemnity for the cost of war. 

This government has proved itself invincible in the recent war and 
out of it has come a nation which will remain indivisible forever more. 
No worthier contributions have been made in patriotism and in men 
than by the people of Southern States. When at last the oppdrtunity 
came they were eager to meet it and with promptness responded to the 
call of the country. Intrusted with the able leadership of men dear to 
them, who had marched with their fathers under another flag, now 
fighting under the old flag again, they have gloriously helped to defend 
its spotless folds and added new luster to its shining stars. 

That flag has been planted in two hemispheres, and there it re- 
mains, the symbol of liberty and law, of peace and progress. Who will 
withdraw from the i)eople over whom it floats its protecting folds? 
Who will haul it down? 

The victory is not that of a ruler, a President or a Congress, but of 
the people. The army whose valor we admire and the navy whose 
achievements we applaud were not assembled by draft or conscription, 
but from voluntary enlistment. The heroes came from civil as well as 
military life. Trained and untrained soldiers wrought our triumphs. 

The peace we have won is not a selfish truce of arms, but one whose 
conditions presage good to humanity. The domains secured under the 
treaty yet to be acted upon by the Senate came to us not as the result 
of a crusade of conquest, but as the reward of temperate, faithful and 
fearless response to the call of conscience, which could not be disre- 
garded by a liberty loving and Christian people. 

We have so borne ourselves in the conflict and in our intercourse 
with the powers of the world as to escape complaint of complication 
and give universal confidence of our high purpose and unselfish sacri- 
fices for struggling peoples. 


''New occasions teach new duties." To this nation and to every na- 
tion there come formative periods in its life and history. New condi- 
tions can be met only by new methods. Meeting these conditions hope- 
fully and facing them bravely and wisely is to be the mightiest test of 
American virtue and capacity. Without abandoning past limitations, 
traditions and principles, but by meeting present opportunities and obli- 
gations, we shall show ourselves worthy of the great trust which civil- ■ 
ization has imposed upon us. 

At Bunker Hill liberty was at stake, at Gettysburg the Union was 
the issue, before Manila and Santiago our armies fought not for gain 
or revenge, but for human rights. They contended for the freedorp of 
the oppressed, for whose welfare the United States has never failed to 
lend a helping hand to establish and uphold, and I believe never will. 
The glories of the war cannot be dimmed, but the result will be incom- 
plete and unworthy of us unless supplemented by civil victories, harder 
possibly to win, in their way no less indispensable. 

We will have our difficulties and our embarrassments. They follow 
all victories and accompany all great responsibilities. They are insep- 
arable from every great movement or reform. But American capacity 
has triumphed over all in the past. Doubts have in the end vanished. 
Apparent dangers have been averted or avoided, and our own history 
shows that progress has come so naturally and steadily on the heels of 
new and grave responsibilities that as we look back upon the acquisi- 
tions of territory by our fathers we are filled with wonder that any 
doubt could have existed or any apprehension could have been felt of 
the wisdom of their -action or their capacity to grapple with the then 
untried and mighty problems. 

The rep'ublic is to-day larger, stronger and better prepared than 
ever before for wise and profitable developments in new directions and 
along new lines. Even if the minds of some of our own people are still 
disturbed by perplexing and anxious doubts, in which all of us Jiave 
shsCred and still share, the genius of American civilization will, I be- 
lieve, be found both original and creative and capable of subserving all 
the great interests which shall be confided to our keeping. 

Forever in the right, following the best impulses and clinging to 
high purposes, using properly and within right limits our power and 
opportunities, honorable reward must inevitably follow. The outcome 
cannot be in doubt. 

We could have avoided all the difficulties that lie across the path- 


way of the nation if we had coldly ignored the piteous appeals of th 
starving and oppressed inhabitants of Cuba. If we had blinded oui 
selves to the conditions so near our shores and turned a deaf ear to ou 
suffering neighbors the issue of territorial expansion in the Antilles an( 
the East Indies would not have been raised. 

But could we have justified such a course? Is there any one wh^ 
would now declare another to have been the better course? Witl 
less humanity and less courage on our part, the Spanish flag, instea( 
of the Stars and Stripes, would still be floating at Oavite, at Pone 
and at Santiago, and a "chance in the race of life" would be wanting t' 
millions of human beings who to-day call this nation noble, and who 
I trust, will live to call it blessed. 

Thus far we have done our supreme duty. Shall we now, when th 
victory won in war is written in the treaty of peace and the civilize 
world applauds and waits in expectation, turn timidly away from th 
duties imposed upon the country by its own great deeds? 

And when the mists fade and we see with clearer vision, may w 
not go forth rejoicing in a strength which has been employed solel; 
for humanity and always been tempered with justice and mercy, cor 
fident of our ability to meet the exigencies which await us, becaus 
confident that our course is one of duty and our cause that of right? 

Never has American valor been more brilliantly illustrated in th 
battle line on shore and on the^ battleships at sea than by the soldier 
and sailors of the United States. 

Everybody is talking of Hobson, and justly so, but I want to than 
Mother Hobson. Everybody is talking about General Wheeler, one c 
the bravest of the brave, but I want to speak of that sweet littl 
daughter that followed him to Santiago and ministered to the sick a 

I have spoken in many places and at many times of the heroisi 
of the American army and the American navy, but in our recent coi 
flict the whole people were patriots. Two hundred thousand men wer 
called for and a million rushed to get a place in the ranks. And million 
more stood ready if need be. 

I like the feeling of the American people that we ought not to hav 
a large standing army, but it has been demonstrated that we nee 
the standing army large enough to do all the work required while w 
are at peace and only rely on the great body of the people in a 
emergency to help us fight our battles. 


We love peace. We are not a military nation, but whenever the 
time of peril comes the bulwark of this people rests in the patriotism 
of its citizens, and this nation will be safe for all time, because 75,000,000 
of people love it and will give up their lives to sustain and uphold it. 

The war brought us together; its settlement will keep us together. 

Reunited! Glorious realization! It expresses the thought of my 

mind and the long-deferred consummation of my heart's desire as I 

stand in this presence. It interprets the hearty demonstration here 

'witnessed and is the patriotic refrain of all sections and of all lovers 

of the republic. 

Eeunited! One country again and one country forever! Proclaim 
it from the press and pulpit! Teach it in the schools! Write it across 
the skies! The world sees and feels it! It cheers every heart, north 
and south, and brightens the life of every American home. Let nothing 
ever strain it again. At peace with all the world and with each other, 
what can stand in the pathway of our progress and prosperity? 

President of the United States. 




^EFORE entering upon tiie historie incidents and 
events of the Spanish- American war it is im- 
portant that the reader should know something 
of the long struggle of Cuba for independence and 
the causes of the inany revolutions in the "Pearl 
of the Antilles" from the time it came under 
Spanish rule. 

The Cubans are not a warlike people. ' On the 
contrary, they are peaceable, amiable and pleas- 
"No people are so easy to govern as the Cubans," said, General 
Vargas. "Treat them courteously and kindly, let themgo unmolested 
about their business, do not interfere with their amusements and you 
can do with them almost anything you like." 

Yet these patient, peace-loving people have either been in revolt 
or have been fomenting a- revolution since 1823. In fact, they knew 
neither peace nor security from the time they came under Spanish rule 
until by the powerful intervention of the United States the shiackles 
were broken from their limbs and the galling yoke of Spain lifted from 
their weary necks. 

The history of Cuba for the last century has been written in the 
blood of her brave sons. It has been a century of dishonor for Spain, 
but she has paid dearly in blood and treasure and territory for the 
oppressions she has visited upon her American colonies. Once she was 
the ruler of more than half the North American continent, all of Central 
and South America and the islands of the southern coasts.' To-day she 
is one of the smallest of European powers, without owning or exer- 
cising authority over a foot of land in the Western Hemisphere. 

During the first three centuries of Spanish sovereignty in the New 
World, Cuba was neglected most of the time and wholly ignored a part 
of the time by the mother country. Near the end of the eighteenth 




Century she began to take a lively interest in her island colony and a 
system of injustice and oppression was practiced which kindled the 
fires of revolujtion and has kept them burning intermittently ever since. 

There was a Cuban revoltition in 1823, another in 1826, another in 
1830, another in 1848, and others in 1850, 1851 and 1855. Then came 
a brief lull in open hostilities, while the Cuban patriots prepared for 
the "Teh Years' War," beginning in 1868 and ending in 1878, Follow- 
ing this came an uprising in 1879 and another in 1885. 

As there had been ten years of war, there were ten years of com- 
parative peace until February 24, 1895, when the revolution began 
which culminated in the Spanish-American war, the outcome of which 
gave to Cuba Freedom and Independence, for which she had fought so 

What were the causes that led the peace-loving Cubans to wage 
an almost continuous war against Spain for nearly a century? 

The answer is to be found in the history of every Central and South 
American republic which has thrown off the yoke of Spain. Instead of 
seeking to develop the resources of her American colonies and to pro- 
mote the welfare of the colonists, Spain has used them merely to swell 
the income of the homfe treasury and to enrich the fortunes of the dis- 
honest officials she sent to rule over them. Every industry has been 
extortionately taxed. 

One of the first products of Cuban soil to acquire importance at 
the beginning of the last century was tobacco. The government at once 
monopolized its cultivation, sale and manufacture to such an extent that 
the planters several times rose in armed rebellion, and many times de- 
stroyed their fields rather than submit to being robbed of all their 
profits and a part of their labor. A better idea of the extent of the 
extortion and imposition practiced is shown by the fact that a Cuban 
could not hold a reception at his house until he had first obtained a 
license and paid for it. 

In the levying of taxes and the distribution of revenue the Cubans 
have had no voice nor vote. That was all done by the mother country. 
Every year they were compelled to pg^y from |26,000,000 to $30,000,000 
in taxation. Of this enormous sum only |700,000 was expended in 
Cuba for internal improvements, and not one cent for education. The 
balance of it was disbursed as follows: To pay interest on Spanish 
debt, 112,000,000; army and navy of Spain, |7,000,000; salaries of Span- 
ish officials in and out of the island, |8,000,000. 


In reality, the Cubans paid nearer $50,000,000 than 130,000,000 i 
taxes, for it is estimated that about 40 per cent, of the revenue wa 
stolen by dishonest Spanish officials in the islands. These frauds hav 
been exposed on numerous occasions, particularly in 1887 and 189] 
In the latter year 350 employes, high and low, were convicted of fraiic 
but none of them ever was punished. Even ministers at the Cour 
of Madrid had a hand in these frauds. 

The tariff laws of the island were such that Cuba was compelled 
to buy of Spain about |28,000,000 of merchandise per annum which sh 
could have obtained elsewhere for about |20,000,000 under just laws o 

Cuba was compelled to submit to this taxation without repre 
sentation in the Spanish Cortes, although she never ceased her effort 
to secure the right to send delegates to that body. In 1810 the Spanis] 
Junta, organized for the purpose of defending the country against th 
invasion of Napoleon's army, authorized the election of two delegate 
from Cuba. The Spanish constitution of 1812 also authorized repre 
sentation from the colonies, but in 1814, when Ferdinand VII. ascende< 
the throne, the constitution was revoked. In 1820 he was compelle< 
to accept it, but in 1823 it was again overthrown. In 1833, after Ferdi 
nand's death, a new constitution was adopted, but was dead almost a 
soon as born. In 1836 the old constitution of 1812 was revived, unde 
which Cuba elected and sent four delegates to the Spanish Cortes, bu 
they were refused adinittance, and the Cortes adopted a resolution de 
daring that "in futiire the American and Asiatic provinces should b' 
governed by special laws, and that their deputies should not be ad 
mitted into the Cortes." 

When the "Ten Years' War" was brewing, Spain foresaw it, an< 
in 1865 authorized the election of a Cuban commission to act wit! 
commissioners appointed by the Crown to recommend reforms in th^ 
government of the island. The commission met in Madrid, was elosel; 
questioned by the government, a report was made, handed in, and th^ 
commissioners sent home. No action was ever taken on the report, bu 
the next year taxes in Cuba were increased so much that many propert; 
owners asked to have their property confiscated, as they could not pa; 
the tax. 

Nothing more was done until the administration of Martinos Cam 
pos as Captain-General, when an agreement was made that Cuba shouh 
have a limited self-government and representation in the Cortes. Thi 


Cortes then devised a plan whereby the Cubans, with a population of 
1,400,000, would have two representatives in the local council of ad- 
ministration, and the Spaniards, numbering 160,000, would have twenty- 
eight representatives, the Captain-General to be president of the coun- 
cil, with full veto power and also power to suspend any number of 
representatives not exceeding a majority. 

The so-called "local self-government" was therefore but a trans- 
parent fraud, and Spain's object was equally plain. She was then try- 
ing to float a loan of $300,000,000 to redeem a bond issue of |200,000,000, 
the interest of which she had pledged Cuban revenues to pay, leaving 
$100,000,000 of the new loan for her own uses. The plan was to have this 
loan approved by the Cuban Council, and thus fasten the debt forever 
upon the island, but the Cubans rejected the scheme, and hence emerged 
from the late revolution free of any debt contracted by Spain. 

From the beginning of her rule as a colonial power in the New 
World, Spain has practiced the grossest deception and hypocrisy to- 
ward her colonies. This is best shown by the fact that whenever ac- 
cused of injustice toward them she has always pointed to the celebrated 
code of ^^Laws of the Indies," the first thirty-nine ordinances of which 
were signed by Charles I. in 1542. But she has never called attention 
to the fact that these laws never were enforced and never were intended 
for enforcement. They were practically revoked by a royal decree is- 
sued at Madrid on March 28, 1825, which reads as follows: 

"His Majesty the King, our lord, desiring to obviate the incon- 
veniences which might result in extraordinary cases from a division of 
command, and from the interference of powers and prerogatives of the 
respective officers; for the important end of preserving in that precious 
island his legitimate sovereign authority and public tranquillity through 
proper means, has resolved, in accordance with the opinion of his coun- 
cil of Ministers, to give to your Excellency the fullest authority, be- 
stowing upon you all the powers which by the royal ordinances are 
granted to the governors of besieged cities. In consequence of this, 
his Majesty gives to your Excellency the most complete and unbounded 
power, not only to send away from the island any person in office, 
whatever be their rank, class or condition, whose conduct, public or 
private, may alarm you, replacing them with persons faithful to his 
Majesty and deserving bf all the confidence of your Excellency; but 
also to suspend the execution of any order whatsoever, or any general 


provision made concerning any branch of the administration as you 
Excellency may think most suitable to the royal service." 

That decree is in effect to-day. The only law there has been ii 
Cuba since it was issued has been the will of the Captain-General, am 
these ofllcials, with the exception of Martinos Campos, have been tyrai 
nical and bloodthirsty. 

Neither life nor property was safe from Spanish malignity an( 
rapacity. In times of peace Cubans were arrested without process o 
law and cast into prison or deported to penal colonies. Those suspecte< 
of revolutionary sentiments were shot. During the "Ten Years' War 
over 13,000 Cuban estates were confiscated, 1,000 of which belonged t 
ladies who were supposed to sympathize with the revolutionists. 

Thousands of prisoners were captured in that war and many ii 
the last revolution, who were neyer heard of afterward. There wa 
no liberty for individuals nor* for the press. Extortion, robbery an( 
bloodshed were the methods of the rulers. There was no redress, and n( 
appeal to the "mother country" was of any avail. 

Is it strange that even such peaceable and kindly disposed peopL 
as the Cubans should have appealed to the arbitrament of gun am 
sword? Nor is it strange that their struggle should have enlisted th( 
sympathy and assistance of the Great Eepublic whose watchword ii 





RESIDENT McKINLEY has often been quoted as 
saying that had it not been for the destruction 
of the American second-class battleship Maine in 
Havana Harbor on the night of February 15, 1898, 
that war with Spain would have been averted. 

That act of treachery aroused the fighting 
spirit of the American people and every subse- 
quent move of the Government was greeted by the 
popular cry of "Remember the Maine." It was 
shouted by the crews on Dewey's ships at the battle of Manila, by the 
men who sunk Cervera's fleet off Santiago and was also adapted as the 
battle-cry of the land forces when they went into action. 

Technically speaking, the blowing up of the Maine was an ante 
bellum incident never officially charged against the Spanish Govern- 
ment, but, unofficially speaking, it was the direct cause of the war. 

The facts connected with this dastardly act of Spanish treachery are 
as follows: The action of the United States Government in protesting 
against acts of injustice, cruelty and brutality that Spain was visiting 
upon the Cubans precipitated anti-American riots in Havana, and the 
United States second-class battleship Maine, Captain Charles D. Sigs- 
bee commanding, was ordered to make a friendly visit to the port of 
Havana, and, if necessary, afford protection to the lives and property of 
American residents. 

The Maine arrived outside the harbor Tuesday, January 25, 1898, 
and was taken in by a Spanish pilot and moored over what was known 
on the official chart as Buoy No. 4. Captain Sigsbee observed all the 
forms of naval etiquette in making calls upon the Spanish officials, and 
they in turn were punctilious in showing him every outward courtesy, 
but it was apparent, nevertheless, in the manner of the Spanish officials 
and populace that they resented the visit of the American man-of-war. 


This resentment finally found its most violent expression in the de- 
struction of the beautiful battleship, presumably by a submarine mine 
or torpedo. The explosion which wrecked the Maine occurred at 9:40 
P. M. on the night of February 15th. The night was dark and the 
air moist and sultry. The Maine was lying in a position where all of 
her batteries could have been opened on the shore fortifications, and 
Spanish distrust and fear may have had as much to do with springing 
the fatal mine as Spanish hatred. 

Twenty-one of the twenty-six of&cers and the entire crew of 328 
men were aboard. The latter had not been allowed to go ashore, as 
Captain Sigsbee feared their presence in the streets might precipitate 
local conflicts with Spanish soldiers and sailors. 

At ten minutes after 9 o'clock the bugler sounded "taps" and the 
doomed crew turned in to quarters, many of them to their last sleep. 
Thirty minutes later, when the explosion occurred. Captain Sigsbee was 
sitting at a table in his cabin enclosing a letter in an envelope; other 
officers were on deck, from which they could see the steamer City of 
Washington, just astern, and the Spanish cruiser Alfonso XII., and 
the Spanish dispatch-boat Legazpi, close by on the starboard. 

According to the witnesses who testified before the court of in- 
quiry there were two explosions. The first seemed to lift the bow of the 
great ship from the water and the second to rend it into a mass of 
wreckage. For a moment all was intense darkness, and the roar of 
water rushing into the sinking ship was mingled with the groans and 
screams of the mangled and drowning crew. 

As Captain Sigsbee was groping his way on deck he ran into a 
sailor, who proved to be Private William Anthony. 

"Sir," said Anthony, "I have the honor to report that the ship has 
been blown up and is sinking." 

This was a splendid illustration of the coolness and self-possession 
which prevailed among officers and men who survived. 

Boat crews from the Ward Line steamer City of Washington and 
from the Spanish cruiser Alfonso XII. hurried to the scene and per- 
formed gallant and heroic service in rescuing the maimed and injured 
struggling in the black waters of the harbor. Two officers and 264 men 
met death either by being crushed or drowned. Many of the bodies 
were rescued by divers and were interred in the cemetery in Havana. 
The wounded were cared for aboard the City of Washington, on the 
Alfonso XII, and in Havana Hospital, 


A court of inquiry found that the Maine was blown up by a sub- 
marine explosion, but failed to charge responsibility upon anyone. 


Captain Sigsbee's conduct in such a catastrophe has been highly 
commended. His coolness and self-possession are attested by the cable- 
gram he sent to the Nayy Department, as soon as he had learned the 
nature of the daniage done his beautiful ship: 
Secnav (Secretary of the Navy), Washington, D. C. 

Maine blown up in Havana Harbor at 9 :40 to-night and destroyed. 
Many wounded aod doubtless more killed or drowned. Wounded and 
•others on board Spanish man-of-war and Ward Line steamers. Send 
lighthouse tenders from Key West for crew and the few pieces of 
equipment above water. None has clothing other than that upon him. 
REPORT. All officers believed to be saved. Jenkins and Merritt not 
yet accounted for. , , 

Many Spanish officers, including representative of General Blanco, 
now with me to express sympathy. ^ SIGSBEE. 


The following description of the blowing up of the Maine was given 
by Captain Sigsbee to the naval court of inquiry: 

"I was just closing a letter to my family when I felt the crash of 
the explosion. It was a bursting, rending and crashing sound, or roar 
of immense volume, largely metallic in its character. It was suc- 
ceeded by a metallic sound — probably of falling debris — a trembling 
and lurching motion of the vessel, then an impression of subsidence, at- 
tended by an eclipse of the electric lights and intense darkness within 
the cabin. I knew immediately that the Maine had been blown up and 
that she was sinking. I hurried to the starboard cabin ports, thinking 
it might be necessary for me to make my exit in that way. Upon look- 
ing out I decided that I could go by the passage leading to the super- 
structure. I therefore took the latter route, feeling my way along and 
steadying myself by the bulkheads. The superstructure was filled with 
smoke, and it was dark. Nearing the outer entrance I met Private 
Anthony, the orderly at the cabin door at the time. He ran into me 


and, as I remember, apologized in some fashion, and reported to me 
that the ship had been blown up and was sinking. 

"I reached the upper deck, asked a few questions of those stand- 
ing about me — Lieutenant-Commander Wainwright, I think, for one — 
then I asked the orderly for the time. He said that the exact time of the 
explosion was 9:40 P. M. I proceeded to the poop deck, stood on the 
guard rail and held on to the main rigging in order to see over the poop 
awning, which was baggy and covered with debris; also, in order that 
I might observe details in the black mass ahead. I directed the exec- 
utive offtcer to post sentries all around the ship, but soon saw that 
there were no marines available, and no place forward to post them. 

"Not being quite clear as to the condition of things forward, I next 
directed the forward magazine to be flooded, if practicable, and about 
the same time shouted out myself for perfect silence everywhere. This 
was, I think, repeated by the executive officer. The surviving officers 
were about me at" the time on the poop. I was informed that the for- 
ward magazine was already under water, and after inquiring about the 
after magazine was told that it was also under water, as shown by the 
condition below, reported by those coming from the ward room and 

"About this time fire broke out in the mass forward, over the cen- 
tral superstructure, and I inquired as to the spare ammunition in the 
Captain's pantry. That region was found to be subsiding very fast. At 
this time I observed, among the shouts or noises apparently on shore, 
that faint cries were coming from the water, and I could see dimly 
white, floating bodies, which gave me a better knowledge of the real 
situation than anything else. ' I at once ordered all boats to be low- 
ered, when it was reported that there were only two boats available, 
namely, the gig and whaleboat. Both were lowered and manned 
by officers and men, and by my direction they left the ship and assisted 
in saving the wounded jointly with, other boats that had arrived on 
the scene from the Spanish man-of-war, from the steamer City of Wash- 
ington and from other sources. Later — I cannot state precisely how 
long — these two boats of the Maine returned to the starboard quarter 
alongside and reported that they had gathered in from the wreck all 
the wounded that could be found, and had transferred them to the 
other boats — to the Alfonso XII. or to the City of Washington. 

"The poop deck of the Maine, the highest point, was by that time 
level with the gig's gunwale while she was afloat in the water along- 


side. The fire amidships was burning fiercely, and the spare ammuni- 
tion in the pilot house was exploding in detail. We had done every- 
thing that could be done so far as I could see. 

"Lieutenant-Commander Wainwright whispered to me that 
he thought the 10-inch magazine forward had been thrown up into the 
burning mass, and might explode in time. I directed him then to get 
everything into the boats over the stern, and this was done, although 
there was some little delay in curbing the extreme politeness of the 
officers, who wanted to help me into the boat. I directed them to go 
first, as a matter of course, and I followed and got into the gig. 

'We proceeded to the steamer City of Washington, and on the way 
I shouted to the boats to leave the vicinity of the wreck, and that there 
might be an explosion. I got Mr. Sylvester Scovel to translate my de- 
sire to one or two boats which were at that time somewhat nearer the 
fire that we ourselves were. Haying succeeded in this, I went on board 
of the City of Washington, where I found our wounded all below in the 
■ dining saloon on mattresses, covered up, and being carefully attended 
by the officers and crew of that vessel. Every attention that the re- 
sources of the vessel admitted was being, rapidly brought into use. I 
then went on deck and observed the wreck for a few minutes, and gave 
directions to have a muster taken on board the City of Washington and 
other vessels, and. sat down in the Captain's cabin and dictated a tele- 
gram to the Navy Department, At this time various Spanish officers — 
civil, military and naval — appeared on board, in their own behalf and in 
the representative capacity, expressing sympathy and sorrow for the 
accident. The representatives of General Blanco and of the Admiral of 
the station came on bodrd and the civil engineer of the province was on 
board in person. I asked them to excuse me for a few minutes, until 
I completed my telegram to the Navy Department. 

"After finisbing the telegram and putting it in the hand of a mes- 
senger to be taken on shore, I conversed for a few mintites with the 
various Spanish gentlemen around me, thanking them foi* the visit and 
their sympathy. I was asked by many of them the cause of the ex- 
plosion, and I invariably answered th&t I must await further investi- 
gation. For a long time the rapid-fire ammunition continued to ex- 
plode in the deck. The number of the wounded was reported to me 
later. I have some difficulty in remembering figures. I think we found 
about eighty-four or eighty-five men that night who survived. It was 
also reported to me that the wounded on board Spanish vessels had 



been taken to the hospitals on shore, as were also the survivors who had 
reached the machina, in the neighborhood of the Shears on shore. To 
keep a clear head for the emergency, I turned in about 2 o'clock, getting 
little sleep that night, owing to the distressing groans of the wounded. 

The following officers constituted the najal court of inquiry which 
investigated the cause of the Maine disaster: Captain W. T. Sampson, 
of the Iowa; Captain F. E. Chadwick, of the New York; Lieutenant- 
Commander W. P. Potter, of the New York, and Lieutenant-Commander 
Adolf Marix, of the Vermont. Captain Sampson acted as president, and 
Lieutenant-Commander Marix as judge advocate. 



'^^HE NAVAL BATTLE of Manila on May 1, 1898, 
is without a parallel in naval history, and re- 
sulted in placing the name of Dewey on the roll 
with great naval heroes like Nelson, Farragut and 

On that May mornjng Commodore (now Ad- 
miral) George Dewey, commander-in-chief of the 
American Asiatic squadron, met the Spanish Asi- 
atic fleet, commanded pj Rear Admiral Patricio 
Montojo y Pasaron, and completely destroyed it, 
with great loss of life to the Spaniards and without the loss of a man 
or ship on the American side. 

Dewey's only orders from the Navy Department were as follows : 

"Find the Spanish fleet, capture or destroy it, 

Secretary of the Navy." 

This message was received in Mirs Bay after the Commodore had 
left Hong Kong, where the American Asiatic squadron had been as- 
sembled in anticiiJation of war with Spain. Commodore Dewey's squad- 
ron consisted of the following vessels: The Olympia (flagship), Raleigh, 
Boston, Baltimore, protected cruisers; the Concord and Petrel, gun- 
boats; the Nanshan and Zafiro, supply transports, and the revenue cut- 
ter McCulloch, used as a dispatch boat. 

The squadron was ordered out of Hong Kong harbor Sunday, April 
24th, by Joseph Chamberlain, the English Colonial Secretary, in order to 
comply with the neutrality laws. It assembled in Mirs Bay, thirty 
miles distant, where it remained until Wednesday, April 27th, when 
Commodore Dewey received his orders through the American Consul 



and weighed anchor at 2 P. M. to find the Spanish fleet and capture or 
destroy it. 

The squadron arrived off Point Bolinao, island of Luzon, the largest 
of the Philippine group, at daybreak Saturday, August 30th. At this 
point the Commodore sent the Concord and Boston to reconnoiter Subig 
Bay, the entire squadron arriving in the bay at 5 P. M. As no signs of 
the Spanish fleet were to be seen in Subig, the Admiral steamed for 
Manila Bay, where his most trustworthy advices informed him that the 
Spanish fleet had taken refuge. Speed was reduced to six knots an 
hour in order to pass the Corregidor forts, which guard the entrance to 
the bay, at midnight. 

All lights were put out except one hooded light on the stern of 
each vessel to guide the following ships. At 11 o'clock the crews were 
called to quarters and at midnight the silent and grim procession of 
fighting ships began to steal by the frowning forts through a channel 
planted with mines and torpedoes. 

Corregidor is thirty miles from Manila, and entrance to the bay is 
had through two channels, one a mile and the other five miles in width. 
Commodore Dewey chose the wider passage, and all six of his fighting 
ships had passed the fort before his presence was discovered by the 
Spaniards. Just as the McCulloch was opposite the Corregidor fort on. 
the mai-nland, a rocket was sent up by the Spaniards and one of the 
big guns of the land battery sent a shot dangerously near the little 
revenue cutter. The McCulloch fired three shots in return, while the 
Concord and Boston sent two in the same direction, and then the 
squadron steamed silently on for Cavite, in Manila Bay, where the 
Spanish Government had an arsenal and naval depot, and where the 
Spanish Admiral had chosen his fighting ground under the protection 
of the formidable land batteries. 

In the gray dawn Commodore Dewey sighted the Spanish fleet. The 
fighting ships of Admiral Montojo were anchored in a line across the 
mouth of Canacoa Bay, the eastern end of the line reaching well beyond 
the Cavite arsenal and guarding the mouth of Bakor Bay. The ships 
were arranged in the following formation: The Don Juan de Austria 
lay in close to Sangley Point, the Don Antonia de UUoa came next, the 
big white-hulled Castilla next, then the Eeina Cristina, and finally on 
the extreme right lay the protected cruisers Isla de Cuba and Isla de 
Luzon. The Duero is supposed to have had no fixed station in the 
line, and merely acted as a free lance. These were the only ships in 


ite line of battle. Behind the arsenal were the Velasco, Argos, General 
Lezo and the transport Manila, none of' which engaged in the firing 
during the fight. Some distance out beyond the right end of the line 
of fighting ships was the big mail steamer Isla de Mindanao, which had 
only recently arrived from Spain with ammunition and supplies. The 
UUoa was anchored, her boilers were in the shipyard being repaired, 
and consequently she was stationary. This was also true of the Castilla. 

Dewey's squadron was still seven miles distant, but the forts at 
Cavite opened fire, their shells all falling short. 

The American ships made no reply, but steamed straight ahead 
towards Manila, turned and came back on the Cavite side and then 
made straight for the -forts and the Spanish fleet, the Olympia, with 
Diewey on the bridge, leading the way. 

The Spanish forts and ships kept up a perfect fusillade, but no gun 
was fired from an American ship until the Olympia was opposite the 
fort. It was exactly 5:35 o'clock when Commodore Dewey spoke the 
memorable words which inaugurated the destruction of the Spanish 
fieet: "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley." Then the forward 
eight-inch rifies spoke, and the Olympia swung round and poured 
broadside after broadside from her five-inch batteries. The other ship^ 
followed in order and each did execution upon the Spanish ships and 
forts, "after passing which they turned a half-circle and went slowly 
back, working their starboard batteries. Five times the American 
squadron executed this maneuver, and then withdrew out of range, 
although the Spaniards kept up an incessant fire. The auxiliary ves- 
sels were not entirely out of range, but the occasional shots which fell 
near theni were ignored by men whose eyes were strained toward the 
fighting fleet. Dewey's ships were seen to be almost Constantly en- 
veloped in the smoke of their own guns, while around them the enemy's 
shots were falling thick and fast. The splashes of water were so close 
to our ships that it seemed impossible they could escape great damage. 
• The Spanish iorces were fighting with desperate courage, but they 
were poor inarksmen, and recklessly wasted their ammunition. They 
ought to have had an exact range on the American ships with their 10- 
inch Krupp guns on the shore batteries, where one gun is calculated to 
be worth three on shipboard. They ought to have planted a disastrous 
shot on-onet)f Dewey's six ships, even if by accident, but they did not. 

When the engagement began the Spanish fleet was at anchor, and 
some of the ten fighting ships did not get into action for effective work 


before they were destroyed. Admiral Montojo got up steam on the 
Reina Cristina, his flagship, and at 7 o'clock steamed out boldly for 
a duel with the Olympia. It was a brave but disastrous act. The Reina 
Cristina was a ship of at>out 3,500 tons, while the Olympia is about 
5,800 tons, nearly twice the size, and carrying much heavier guns and 
more of them. Admiral Montojo's only hope must have been to have 
engaged the Olympia at such short range that both ships would go down 
together, but he was met by such a deMly fire from the American fleet 
that advance was impossible. When he attempted to escape, an 8-inch 
shell from the Olympia entered the stern of the Reina Cristina, and 
raked her fore and aft, killing Captain Cadarso and from sixty to ninety 
men, and setting her afire. Admiral Montojo, though wounded, trans- 
ferred hi^ flag to the Isla de Cuba, but did not have any better success. 
Several of his ships were already on flre. 

One thrilling incident of the early part of the engagement was 
when two torpedo-boats darted out from the shore straight toward the 
Olympia. The big guns of the cruiser could not find such small targets, 
but when they came within range they were riddled by shots from the 
secondary battery. The foremost blew up and sunk with all hands 
on board; the hindmost succeeded in reaching the shore,, but was 
beached in a sinking condition. 

Dewey's fleet opened fire at 5:35, and at 7:35 ceased firing for 
breakfast. The Commodote had passed five times alongside the Spanish 
fleet, and had not lost a man or received a material injury to a ship. 
On the other side the slaughter had been terrible, and the two largest 
ships, the Reina Cristina and the Castilla, were on fire and sinking. 

Commodore Dewey knew that except for some further disagree- 
able details the battle was over. It was a stifling hot day, his men 
were tired, hungry and choked with powder smoke, so the fleet coolly 
ceased firing and put oui; toward the McCulloch and transports, for 
breakfast, while the anxious watchers on these auxiliary vessels won- 
dered if the unexpected move meant Dewey's defeat. 

There were brave men in that battle, and the Americans in their 
strength were not less brave than the Spaniards, desperate in their 
weakness. ' Throughout the storm of shot and shell Commodore Dewey 
and his staff were on the bridge of the flagship, and gave no heed when 
the deck was ploughed up at their feet, or the rigging cut above their 
heads. On all the ships the commanding officers scorned the conning 
towers, and, as Captain Wildes said, they were "lucky." When Cap- 


tain Wildes said it he was on the bridge of the Boston with a sun hel- 
met, a palm-leaf fan and a cigar, and the reason he said it was because 
a shell went through the foremast three feet above his head, and burst 
about ten feet over the side. - 

It is like the Yankees to win a battle as coolly and comfortably 
as possible, so, after breakfast, Dewey waited until about 11 o'clock, 
when a cool breeze sprung up, which would blow away the smoke, and 
make fighting much more agreeable. 

The second round began at 11 :16, when the Baltimore, to save the 
Olympia's ammunition, went in ahead, and engaged the Cavite batte'ries, 
which, at close range, were soon silenced. That left the remainder of 
the Spanish fleet at Dewey's mercy, but the plucky Dons would not 
surrender, and, under the combined fire of the attacking fleet, the Don 
Antonio de UUoa went down with all her flags flying. 

At 12:30 the squadron ceased flring, the batteries being silenced, 
and most of the ships being sunk, burned and deserted. Then the 
squadron returned to an anchorage off Manila, leaving the little Petrel 
to go into the shallows and finish the smaller Spanish gunboats. The 
Petrel blazed away at close quarters with such cooliiess that she was 
dubbed "the baby battleship" by the crews of the other ships, and at 
1:05 the last Spanish flag, that on the Cavite arsenal, was hauled down, 
and a white one raised in its place. 

Dewey had obeyed his orders, and flnished tfie Spanish fleet with 
neatness and dispatch. He had sunk the Eeina Cristina, Oastilla and 
Don Antonio de UUoa, burned the Don Juan de Austria, Isla de Luzon, 
Isla de Cuba, General Lezo, Marques del Diiero, El Correo, Velasco and 
the transport Isla de Mindanao, and captured the transport Manila, 
laden with supplies, the tugs Rapido and Hercules, and several launches. 
Over 200 Spaniards were killed, and h-om 500 "to 700 wounded, while 
Dewey's squadron did not lose a man and had only seven wounded, and 
these slightly. The few shots that struck the American ships did no 
material damage, while Spain'/S loss mounted into the millions. 

Among the many incidents of the battle it is worth remembering 
that the American squadron was flred on by three Manila batteries, one 
at the Mole Head on the Pasig Elver, another on the south bastion of the 
walled city of Manila and a third at Malate, half a mile further south. 
The fire of these batteries was not returned on account of the hurt 
that might come to non-combatants, but Commodore Dewey sent word 
to Governor-General Augustin that if these batteries did not cease 


firing the fleet would open fire on the city, and this message had the 
desired eilect. 

It was also a memorable fact that the Americans buried many of 
the Spanish dead and moved hundreds of their wounded to a place of 

It was the next day, May 2d, that the Zaflro, acting under Dewey's 
orders, cut the cable, after the Spanish authorities had refused to allow 
him to use it to communicate with his government. During the early 
part of that week the Commodore removed the mines from the harbor, 
destroyed the land batteries and sent the McCuUoch to Hong Kong to 
report the splendid victory. Dewey's work had only begun, and it was 
nearly three months later that the city of Manila finally surrendered, 
but the battle of Manila Bay, the greatest of the war, had been fought 
and won in less than half a day. 

The commanders of the American vessels in the battle of Manila 
were as follows: Olympia, Captain C. V. Gridley; Boston, Captain 
Frank Wildes; Ealeigh, Captain J. B. Coghlan; Baltimore, Captain 
N. M. Dyer; Concord, Commander Asa Walker; Petrel, Commander 
E. P. Wood; McCuUoch, Captain D. B, Hodgson, 

The Spanish commanders were: Eeina Oristina, Captain Luis Ga- 
darso; Castilla, Captain Alonzo Mordadoy Pita de Viega; Don Juan de 
Austria, Captain Juan de la Concha; Don Antonio de Ulloa, Jose 
Itarnalde; Isla de Cuba, Captain Jose Sidrach; Isla de Luzon, Lieuten- 
ant-Commander Miguel Perez Moreno; Marques del Duero, Lieutenant- 
Commander Salvador Morena de Guerra. 

Probably no description of the famous battle can have a greater 
interest and value for the American people than Admiral Dewey's of- 
ficial report of the engagement, which is as follows: 

"Flagship Olympia, Cavite, May 4, 1898. 
"The squadron left Mirs Bay April 27th, arrived off Bolinao on the 
morning of April 30th, and, finding no vessels there, proceeded down the 
coast and arrived off the entrance to Manila Bay on the same afternoon. 
The Boston and the Concord were sent to reconnoitre Port Subig. A 
thorough search was made of the port by the Boston and the Concord, 
but the Spanish fleet was not found. Entered the south channel at 
half-past 11 P. M., steaming in column at eight knots. After half the 
squadron had passed a battery on the south side of the channel opened 
fire, none of the shots taking effect. The Boston and McOulloch re- 


turned'tlie fire. The squadron proceeded across the bay at slow speed 
and arrived off Majiila at daybreak, and was fired upon at a quarter past 
five A. M. by three batteries at Manila and two near Oavite, and by 
the Spanish fleet anchored in an approximately east and west line- 
across the mouth of Bakor Bay, with their left in shoal water in 
Ganacao Bay. 

"The squadron then proceeded to the attack, the flagship Olymgia, 
under my personal direction, leading, followed at a distance by the 
Baltimore, Ealeigh, Petrel, Concord and Boston, in the order named, 
which formation was maintained throughout the action. The squadron 
opened fire at nineteen minutes to 6 A. M, While advancing to the 
attack two mines were exploded ahead of the flagship, too far to be 
effective. The squadron, maintained a continuous and precise fire at 
ranges varying from '5,000 to 2,000 yards, counter-marching in a line 
approximately parallel to that of the Spanish "fleet. The enemy's firp 
was vigorous, but generally ineffective. 'Early in the engagement two 
launches put out toward the Olympia with the apparent intention of 
u«ing torpedoes. One was sunk and the other disabled by our fire and 
beached before they were able to fire their torpedoes. 

"At 7 A. M. the Spanish flagship Keina Cristina made a desperate 
attempt to leave the line and come out to engage at short range, 
but was received with such a galling fire, the entire battery of the 
Olympia being concentrated upon her, that she was barely able to 
return to the shelter of the point. The fires started in her by our shell 
at the time were not extinguished until she sank. The three batteries at 
Ma:nila had kept up a continuous fire from the beginning of the engage- 
ment, which fire was not returned by my squadron. The first of these 
batteries was situated on the south niole head at the entrance of the 
Pasig Eiver, the second on the south position of the walled city of 
Manila, and the third at Malate, about one-half mile farther south. At 
this point I sent a message to the Governor-General to the effect that 
if the batteries did not cease firing the city -would be shelled. This had 
the effect of silencing them. 

"At twenty-five minutes to 8 A. M. I ceased firing and with- 
drew the squadron for breakfast. At sixteen minutes after 11 I re- 
turned to the attack. By this time the Spanish fiagship and almost all 
the Spanish fleet were in flames. At half-past 12 the sqaudron ceased 
firing, the batteries being silenced and the ships sunk, burned and 


"At twenty minutes to 1 the squadron returned and anchored off 
Manila, the Petrel being left behind to complete the destruction of the 
smaller gunboats, which were behind the point of Cavite, This duty 
was performed by Ckvmmander E. P. Wood in the most expeditious and 
complete manner possible. The Spanish lost the following vessels: 
Sunk, Eeina Cristina, Castilla, Don Antonio de Ulloa; burned, Don 
Juan de Austria, Isla de Luzon', Isla de Cuba, General Lezo, Marques 
del Duero, El Correo, Velasco and Isla de Mindanao (transport); cap- 
tured, Kapido and Hercules (tugs) and several small launches. 

"I am unable to obtain complete accounts of the enemy's killed 
and wounded, but believe their losses to be very heavy. The Eeina 
Cristina alone had one hundred and fifty killed, including the Captain, 
and ninety wounded. I am happy to report that the damage done to 
the squadron under my command was inconsiderable. There was none 
killed and only seven meoa in the squadron were slightly wounded. Sev- 
eral of the vessels were struck and even penetrated, but the damage was 
of the slightest, and the squadron is in as good condition now as before 
the battle. 

"I beg to state to the department that I doubt if any commander-in- 
chief was ever served by more loyal, efficient and gallant Captains than 
those of the squadron under my command. Captain Frank Wildes, com- 
manding the Boston, volunteered to remain in command of his vessel, 
although his relief arrived before leaving Hong Kong. Assistant Surgeon 
Kindelberger, of the Olympia, and Gunner J. C. Evans, of the Boston, 
also volunteered to remain after orders detaching them had arrived, 

"The conduct of my personal staff was excellent. Commander B. 
P. Lamberton, chief of staff, was a volunteer for that position, and gave 
me most efficient aid. Lieutenaht Brumby, Flag Lieutenant, and En- 
sign E. P. Scott, aid, performed their duties as signal officers in a highly 
creditable manner. Caldwell, Flag Secretary, volunteered for and was 
assigned to a subdivision of the 5-inch battery. Mr. J. L. Stickney, 
formerly an officer in the United States Navy, and now correspondent 
for the New York Herald, volunteered for duty as my aid, and ren- 
dered Valuable services. I desire especially to mention the coolness of 
Lieutenant C. G. Calkins, the navigator of the Olympia, who came under 
my personal observation, being on the bridge with me throughout the 
entire fight and giving the ranges of the guns with an accuracy that 
was proven by the excellence of the firing. 

"On May 2d, the day following the engagement, the squadron again 


■jvent to Cavite, .where it remains. On the 3d the military forces evacu- 
ated the Cavite arsenal, which was taken possession of by a landing- 
party. On the same day the Ealeigh and Baltimore secured the sur- 
render of the batteries on Corregidor Island, parolling the garrison, and 
May 4th the transport Manila, which had been around in Bakor Bay, was 
towed and made a prize. 

"Commodore Commanding the Asiatic Squadron, U. S. N." 


N A WAE so surprisingly short as that between Spain 
and the United States more heroes appeared in 
the hours than usually develop in the days of longer 
'contests, and no incident will be longer remem- 
bered than the sinking of the Merrimac in the har- 
bor of Santiago in the hope of "bottling up" Cer- 
vera's fleet. The songsters shall sing the praise 
of the sailors' daring, while the historians shall 
regard the pages devoted to the oflflcer and the men 
of the Merrimac as among the most intensely thrill- 
ing in their accounts of the men whose fear of death vanished in the 
glory of their daring for flag and country. 

In the school-houses where the Stars and Stripes are daily, saluted 
by the children, sturdy lads in speaking their pieces will forget em- 
barrassment in the enthusiasm of their theme and blushing lassies 
pay tribute to Hobson and his sailors in" high "pitch heroics. "The Gal- 
lant Four Hundred"' will be laid on the shelf and the "cannon to left of 
them, cannon to right of them, cannon in front of them" shall be those 
that "volleyed and thundered" at the Merrimac from the Morro, the 
western battery. Smith Cay and the Eeina Mercedes. 

As the historian must deal with the personalities of his heroes and 
delve into old volumes, newspapers and records for characteristics," the 
story that Hobson on his return was kissed by crowds of admiring wo- 
men will be retold, but not in the spirit of an excitable journalism which 
made much of little and a hero seem small, but witli the vivid truth that 
he was a brave, devoted son of loving parents and that when the narrow 
entrance of the harbor of Santiago was ablaze with light fi'om the 
flashes of the Spaniards' guns Hobson thought of the patient, devoted 
mother and brave old father, and it will further be remembered that 
out of his small salary as a lieutenant in the United States Navy he, 
sent half for the pressing needs of his home, and men will rightly 
reason that the ofl&cer who. led the gallant crew of the Merrimac on 
her desperate errand was a man true to country, to ihqse he loved and 



, the traditions of liis uniform, and tliat his kissing the girls was but the 
gallantry of a true tar with warm Southern blood in his veins, and 
many shall approvingly remark "that to' the brave belong the fair." 

The glory of Hobson and his men of the Merrimac is a bright page 
in American history, where, written in' letters of gold, appear the 
names of 

Lieutenant Kichmond Pearson Hobson, 

First-class Gunner's Mate George Charette, 

Chief Boatswain Osborn W. Deignan, 

Coxswain Randolph Clausen, 

Master of Arms Daniel Montague, 

Machinist George F. Phillips, 

Francis Kelley, 

John Murphy. 

It will be remembered to the everlasting credit of the American 
navy that to the jfflrtunate few who entered into the valley of death 
and came forth from the scream of mighty missiles, the deep roar of 
exploding mines and a dreadful hail of Mauser bullets to place 
their names on the gloriotis lists of the Nation's heroic sons, must be 
added the crews of every blockading ship at Santiago de Cuba, for 
when the nature of the Merrimac's desperate mission was told to the 
tars, officers and men were unanimous in^volunteering their services. 

No fanatical Moslem belief that death in battle meant salvation 
of the soul and everlasting happiness nerved the men to volunteer for 
so desperate a task. It was the spirit of the American navy, that has 
made us invincible on the seas, which took possession of the crews, and 
those who were finally chosen were greatly envied, though it was evi- 
dent that they were about to offer up their lives as patriotic sacrifices 
with no other reward in sight than the seeming certainty of the sailors' 
heroic death. Though many were sick with disappointment, yet it was 
plain to them that few wer.e needed or could be spared for the sacrifice, 
and after the first keen grief had passed, the brave hearts of the navy 
went out in hope to the little band ready and eager to seek death and 
surrender the life that was strong within them as the proud blood in 
young veins beat strongly because it was about to be shed for country. 

Oervera was with his fleet in the harbor of but a single narrow 
entrance and with banks that bristled in big guns, manned by a fierce 
enemy, and the wisest plan seemed to be to hold him there captive, to 
starve him into submission — for it is a rule of war that the enemy seek- 


ing fortified shelter must defend kimself not only against assault, but 
from the ravages of starvation and disease. 

It was, of course, perfectly understood thiat Cervera, at the first 
opportunity, would seek to escape, or suddenly, on some dark night, 
when the rays of the search-light had lost their power to penetrate 
the torrents of the tropics, or the low lying mists of the shores, to send 
out his dreaded swift destroyers to discharge their torpedoes against the 
helpless battleships, rending and destroying them. 

Lieutenant Hobson, a naval constructpr, and therefore regarded 
by the men of the sea, rather than of the drawing board, as scarcely 
fitted for fighting, realized with his commanders the importance of 
keeping the enemy from possible escape or night-time offensiveness, and 
presented a plan for sinking a collier across the channel well within 
the bordering walls of the harbor. He fully appreciated the danger 
of those who should attempt the fulfillment of his plans, and as a man 
sought that duty for himself. 

He plead for his right. Having conceived, it was he who should 
conclude the undertaking. He convinced the Admtral and his oflacers 
of the feasibility of the scheme and his personal privilege to superintend 
its performance. ' They felt assured that it would mean the loss of at 
least seven brave men, and Hobson himself had estimated the cost of 
the enterprise and was not fearful. He had his way and the Merrimac 
was chosen. 

She had been a tramp steamer and had aboard some five thousand 
tons of coal for the use of the blockading squadron. She was a two- 
masted iron steamship of five thousand tons register and had been 
purchased by the Government. Her captain was James Miller, who 
was credited, a particularly brave and skillful seaman, and when he 
learned that he was not to be of the little crew that was to take her 
on her great errand, it is related that in his chagrin he wept and 
would not be comforted. Disappointed, he did not forget his cox- 
swain and other men who had begged him to use his influence to have 
them sent on the Merrimac's expedition. 

When the Merrimac wa's chosen she was lying alongside the Massa- 
chusetts, which was taking on coal. The men at work were hurried in 
the discharge of the fuel, as it had been intended to start within twenty- 
four hours. Everything of any value on the Merrimac was taken from 
her to the other ships and while this was being done a, crew of gunners' 
mates fixed about the ship, under the water line, seven mines which 


were intended to blow out her bottom when she was just in the right' ' 
position. Two large, heavy anchors were placed forward and aft to 
hold the Merrimac across the channel preliminary to sinking her. The 
captain's gig was tied aft to float adrift, so that when the Merrimac 
sunk the crew were to jump and swim to her. 

Hobson's instructions to the crew were as follows : "After you are 
all in the. boat row out one-half ship's length from the ship to avoid the 
suction and wait a reasonable length of time for me. I will stay on the 
bridge and explode the mines. If you do not see me after waiting a 
reasonable length of time, make for the fleet.". 

After Lieutenant Hobson had expressed himself as satisfied with 
every preparation, early in the evening of June 1, he announced the 
selection of his crew. ,.They had just said farewell to their envious- 
comrades on the several ships, but there was not an anxious face among 
them, for they were inspired to the supreme duty. Diegnan^ through 
his acquaintance with the Merrimac's peculiarities in responding to 
her rudder, for she was cranky at times, was chosen to be the helms- 
man. The electric batteries that were to tear out the ship's bottom 
when sjie had been steered so as to lie across the channel, were put in 
charge of George Charette, first-class gunner's mate on the New York. 
Boatswain Mullen of the New York was responsible for the forward 
anchor. The assignment for duty in the fire-room was given to Francis 
Kelley, a water-tender on' the Merrimac. He was to keep up stekm until 
ordered to desert by the commander of the expedition. The engineer 
was selected in the person of Geofge F. Phillips, a niachinist on the 

• It was a gallant crew that Lieutenant Hobson drilled in their sev- 
eral duties, so that there should be no mistake at the critical time. With 
the exception of the helmsman, stationed by Hobson's side on the 
bridge, ropes were tied to the wrists of the several men, so that the 
comniander could signal them. Of the perfection of the plan Diegnan 
says: "Lieutenant Hobson arranged all details in a precise and care- 
ful manner, and I, in common with all the crew, felt willing to obey his 
commands and follow him anywhere, so great was our confidence in 
his ability and bravery." 

Then came a night that the men of the Merrimac can never forget, 
for it was filled with uncertainty and grave dangers. It was pitch dark 
and to the imaginative every shadow seemed a spectre and the 
gurgle of the waters, separated by the black hull, was a constant alarm. 


'suggestive of stealthily approaching destroyers. But the gallant crew 
had other things to think of as they stood at the threshold of Death 
within the portals of undying Fame. It had been arranged, for strategy 
is largely the science of war, that the New York was to chase the Mer- 
rimac and blaze away at her with blank cartridges, that the Spaniards 
might be led to believe that the Americans were after a blockade run- 
ner and the Merrimac might get close in and accomplish her purpose 
before her design was understood. 

In the darkness the vessels lost sight of one another. This was 
disconcerting and seemed like a preliminary omen of bad luck. The 
minutes seemed hours, as they will do to men delayed in a desperate 
undertaking. Dawn broke unwelcome to those who had anticipated 
■ having met their fate before the sun had risen^ just as the -New 
York sighted the Merrimac, which, reassured by the presence of the 
great warship, turned her nose to the harbor entrance. 

The torpedo-boat Porter, however, overtook Hobson and his men 
with instructions to postpone the attempt to bottle Up Oervera. This 
was a desperate disappointment to those who had passed the long 
night with their nerves strung to the high tension of braving unknown 
dangers, whose natural solution seemed to be annihilation. Lieutenant 
Hobson's plea that daylight could not prevent him from entering the . 
harbor was futile and his request for permission to continue on his en- 
terprise was very properly refused. 

The enterprise was hazardous enough under cover of night — in 
broad daylight 'the purpose would have been immediately understood 
and would have led to the utter destruction of the Merrimac and her 
crew. No useful purpose could have been served, though to the over- 
wrought nerves of the Lieutenant and his men, the postponement was a 
shock and seeming shame and the delay more painful than immediate 
action. It is unofficially related that Hobson berated his superior for 
the order to return and claimed that men could not stand such strains 
and that the enterprise should have been continued to its completion, 
and it is further unofficially stated that Admiral Sampson made allow- 
ance for the insubordination, and that, appreciative of the heroic char- 
acter of the undertaking and the suppressed excitement attendant on it, 
he saw no breach of naval etiquette. At any rate he advised the worn- 
out officer and men to take a rest and refresh themselves for the ordeal 
that was to come with the night. 

While the men slept, for healthy men will soon fall to sleep even if 


their nerves are vibrating with excitement, several changes were made 
in the plans. John Murphy, coxswain of the Iowa, was substituted for 
Boatswain Mullen, and there was no more heartsick and dejected sailor 
in the fleet than Mullen, who was to lose the laurels after the awful 
night that ended in .a postponement. 

rt was decided that the lifeboat was not a sufficient safeguard for 
the men who Were staking their lives, with the odds a thousand to 
one against them. There was an idea, that proved to be the saving one, 
that the addition of a catamaran might lessen the odds. This made 
the futility of the night that went for nothing seem providential. Lieu- 
tenant Hobson's plans were further changed, the mines being re- 
arranged so that each man could touch off one -after he had performed 
his duties. 

The helmsman, Diegnan, who had been on duty all the previous 
night, was utterly worn out and asked for relief that he might rest until 
evening. The coxswain of the New York, Kandolph 6iausen, was sent 
to the Merrimac, and this was that young man's opportunity to be 
with those whose names shall last with history. Clausen had a per- 
suasive tongue in his head as well as a brave heart in his breast, and 
he made the most of his accomplishments. 

He showed to Lieutenant Hobson the absolute necessity of his re- 
maining with the Merrimac, urging that should one or more of the crew 
be killed before the boat was sunk, particularly should the other helms- 
man be struck, his services would be needed. The Lieutenant asked 
Clausen if he was a good oarsman. There were none better, according 
to Clausen, and that settled it. Hobson agreed with the indulgent, 
sad smile of one who allpws another to go with him to death, through 
the feeling of kinship in daring desire and out^of very admiration of 

Not to be again disappointed by the too sudden coming of the 
dawn, Hobson decided to start earlier than on the previous night, and 
the Merrimac began her last journey a little before 2 A. M. Guided by 
th& outlines of the mountains, she cruised up and down in front of the 
harbor entrance. Ensign Joseph Powell of the New York followed in 
her wake, ready to rescue at the risk of his own life those that might 
be spared from the death-trap. 

There had been a number of men assisting on the Merrimac and at 
3 o'clock they were all ordered off. They had to be accounted for, as 
there was a grave fear of stowaways, such was the spirit of the Navy and 


so great the desire to go. A last grasp of the hand and fervently 
spoken farewell and the crew were left to the fate that awaited them 
, in the narrow channel of the harbor. 

The men stripped off all clothing except trunks and stockings, 
though Hobson had on underwear ^nd shoes. ' Each man wore a cork 
life-preserver and had strapped about his waist a pistol and cartridge 
belt with thirty-two rounds of ammunition. Such was the armament 
of a vessel about to stand the fire of Krupp guns, Howitzers and 

They were a sturdy lot, as they stood at their several posts, broad- 
shouldered, deep-chested, strong-limbed American sailors, men among 
men, destined for a splendid future and the plaudits not only of their 
own nation, but of all men through all time. Friend and foe could but 
alike admire and hope to emulate them. 

Francis Kelley was down at the hot grates, working like a demon, 
as Tie did a dozen men's work. Close to the torpedoes, under the water- 
line, the sweat pouring off him to sizzle among the hot embers falling to 
the grating-floor as he stirred up the fires, his face aglow with heat and 
heroic purpose, he fulfilled his duties in the brave way of the men b^low 
without the chance to see what is going on, but to suffer with over- 
heated air, and never lose heart, no matter what the sounds of crashing, 
tearing metal may be and never to leave until the signal to cease is 
given. He was all alone with the blazing fires and throbbing boilers, 
but his heart was stout. 

George F. Phillips, machinist, was acting engineer down where 
the machinery moved with dizzy rapidity, as the great pistons pushed 
forward and backward under the steam power of the cylinders, and 
cranks and wheels and elbows played their many parts in perfect har- 
mony, that would become demoniacal discord and destruction with the 
arrival of the first big shell, piercing the thin sides of the unprotected 
merchantman. Oil-can and cotton waste in hand, he was here and 
there and everywhere, but ever near the throttle valve, with ears 
strained for the signals — ^less exposed, but in perhaps greater danger, 
than the gallant Lieutenant on the bridge. , He had too much to do to 
be afraid even if he had been that sort of man, which he was not. 

George Charette, first-class gunner's mate on the New York, hav- 
ing reported in perfect order the electric batteries to be used in ex- 
ploding the mines, that, barnacle-like, clung to the hull, was to get a 
closer view of the fortifications and their guns than he had ever seen in 


sighting the great weapons of the flagship and was prepared to be sent 
skyward by the explosion he should make when he touched the electric 
wires together, or to die with his comrades if Spanish marksmanship 
should prove superior at short range to what he had seen it to be at 
great distances. His was a ^'aiting and therefore a dreadful duty, but 
he had no fear in him and was ready and eager for his time to come. 

John Murphy, coxswain of the Iowa, stood at the bow anchor, pre- 
pared to drop it the moment he should get the signal from Lieutenant 
Hobson, and his was a trying place, for he stood a splendid and the first 
mark for Spanish shots, and his duty was equal in importance to that 
of any of the men on the Merrimac. He wag a Murphy, and therefore 
a descendant of a long line of fighting stock, and enjoyed his situation 
more than he feared it. That he did his duty when the time came goes 
without saying. 

Daniel Montague, chief-master-of-arms on the New York, stood aft 
to let go at the proper time the other anchor and was at a disadvantage, 
compared to the position of his comrade Murphy, for he could not get 
the lay of the land, or see as the other could, but he had the blood and 
sinew of a hero and was at his post to the end. 

Osborn W. Diegnan, coxswain of the Merrimac, was at the helm 
on the bridge amidships, with instructions that as soon as they got to 
the most narrow part of the channel his commander Would Order him 
to put the helm hard-aport and lash it there. In every way the young 
sailor acquitted himself so splendidly that he won for himself the ad- 
miration of a nation and made particularly proud the people of his 
native State, Iowa, and his fellow-townsmen of Stuart. He did his 
work with the calm ease he would have shown in the dog watches of 
the night, when steering the eccentric Merrimac over smooth seas in 
calm weather. 

Close to him on the bridge stood Lieutenant Eichmond Pearson 
Hobson, his firm jaw set in resolution and his keen eye taking in every 
detail of the harbor he was approaching, the ship he was directing and 
the countenances of the men he was commanding. In his perfect poise 
and well-balanced, graceful body, erect and yet elastic, he was just as 
ideal a naval officer in his underclothes as he would have been had he 
been attired in the full glittering regalia of his rank. 

The Merrimac was headed for the harbor entrance. Lieutenant 
Ilobson, by the binnacle light at the compasSj looked at his watch 
and remarked: "It is jugt 3:20." There was a roar and vivid flash on 


the port bow- and the yell of a great shell, Diegnan's cap was carried 
away by the accompanying rushing wind. The gallant crew were now 
looking death straight in t£e face and not one cowered. Calmly, the 
Lieutenant said to the steersman: "Keep her straight in .the chan- 
nel." "Aye, aye, sir." Equally cool was the man at the wheel, fearless 
and faithful to his great trust. 

The crash of the first gun was chorused by all the guns bearing on 
the boat and they w^re many and mighty. No thunder could rival the 
tumult of the close-at-hand monsters, belching out their flames in a 
glare of light that illuminated the ship as in the sunshine, and the 
shriek of the shells was a hideous din, accompanied by the regular 
rattle of the rapid-fire pieces, like the snare-drums of a Titanic orchestra 
rendering a Wagnerian finale of frenzied, mad musicians. 

Hobson said afterward in praise of his men : 

"Projectiles were coming more as a continuous stream than as 
separate shots. But, through the whole storm, Jacky lay thel'e ready 
to do his duty as he had been instructed to do it. There was not only 
the plunging fire from the forts on both sides, but a terrific horizontal 
fire from the fleet in the harbor, and it seemed as if the next projectile 
would wipe all the sailors out of life at once. If ever a feeling of 'each 
man for himself,' a feeling of 'get away from this,' 'get out of this any- 
way, anyhow' was to be justified it was justified then. Not a man so 
much as turned his head. 

"Then, later, when we were on the catamaran and the enemy's 
picket boats came crawling up out of the darkness with their lanterns, 
the impulse was just as strong to slip off the raft and swim for the 
shore, or for the entrance of the harbor. The simple order was given: 
'No man move until further orders.' And not a man moved or stirred for 
nearly an hour." 

The fireman worked below like a demon. The engineer held the 
throttle to obey every signal, the man who had made certain of the 
batteries did not regret the cunning tongue that had gained him the 
opportunity to listen to this deafening salute to American valor, the 
one at the bow anchor and the one with the anchor aft quietly waited 
the tug of the rope at the wrist that should signal them that their 
work was at hand. 

Hobson wisely judged the ship's position and then at the right 
moment shouted to the helmsman, ^'Hard aport." Diegnan did as he was 
bid and lashed the wheel. The Merrimac did not obey the helm at the 


critical moment. Cliarette was sent to see what was the matter and 
reported one rudder chain shot away. The engineer stopped his throb- 
bing machinery and each man hurried to explode the mine assigned 
to him. 

Diegnan says that on going below he met Clausen and that they, 
having joined the wires together, were knocked off their feet by the ex- 
plosion below them, and then he says : "After we had exploded the 
mine we went to the starboard side amidships, where it was' arranged 
we were to meet after performing our duties. We were only there about 
a minute when Montague joined us, and in another minute or two we 
were joined by Charette, Murphy, Phillips and Lieutenant Hobson. 

"We thought everybody was there, but in an instant a man's form 
appeared coming around the corner of the deck-house. Lieutenant Hob- 
son drew his revolver and covered him, for a moment not realizing who 
it might be.. The man proved to be Kelley. 

"Kelley shouted, in his broad-Scotch way: 'How^ long has this been 
going on? I thought it was the New York firing blank cartridges at us.' 

"While he was approaching us he received a wound from a piece 
of an exploded shell, which injured him slightly on his lip and cheek. 

"We all lay on the deck, packed like sardines in a box, with shots 
flying about our heads, expecting every minute to be killed. Under 
these trying circumstances Lieutenant Hobson ordered us to remain 
where we were, instead of carrying out the original plan of taking to the 
boat, because exposure at this moment above the rail would have meant 
certain death, the lights from the shore batteries making us easy tar- 

The Merrimac and her men had been under fire from great guns 
but a ship's length away with but one man woiinded, and he but slightly. 
The mysterious Providence that had made the Spanish artillery marks- 
manship wretched at long and short distances had so far spared the 
eight heroes. Suddenly the big ship, wounded to death, but chiefly by 
her own naines, lurched suddenly to starboard. Hobson, realizing that 
the boat would soon sink, said to his men: "Very good; they are help- 
ing us out. They are doing it for us. They will probably cease firing 
when she goes down." 

Torrents of water commenced pouring in and the men grabbed the 
rail to keep from being washed into the "hold. The ship listed to the 
other side and all scrambled over the rail, jumped overboard and swam 
to the catamaran. The firing ceased, to be followed by wild cheering, 


for they believed that they had sunk a battleship, won their first vic- 
tory and avenged Montojo's fleet destroyed by Dewey. 

Though disappointed, they were nevertheless shouting with pro- 
priety, for the splendid courage of the American seamen had been made 
unavailing by one lucky shot from their batteries, which had torn away 
an anchor chain and made it impossible to swing the ship across the 
channel, there to sink her as an obstruction, which Cervera; could not 
pass by if he should attempt to escape at the first chance of a bad night. 

The men and their officer succeeded in reaching the catamaran, 
though they were drawn down by the suction of the sinking ship. They' 
did not climb on it, as Hobson pointed out to the men that they.would 
be picked off by the riflemen who were within easy range. A Spanish' 
picket boat was between them and escape to the fleet and the tide was 
running in, carrying with it the wreckage of the Merrimac. The cata- 
maran was not cut loose fi*om the sunken vessel, for Hobsop was wise 
enough to know that close to the ship and in a confusipn of floating 
parts of the destroyed collier there was safety. 

The Spanish fire ceased, but the danger was far^from over. Hold- 
ing to the catamaran the Americans, had only their heads above the 
water. Capture was certain, though they knew that Ensign Joseph Pow- 
ell was prowling about in a launch seeking to save them, for every now 
and then there were reports from the Spanish guns that had spied him 
on his daring effort to rescue any one who might be left from the Mer- 

It is but proper and just in this connection -to say of the Ensign 
that he continually exposed his launch to seeming destruction in his 
search, and that he did not leave the vicinity of the wreck until day- 
light, and there was no sigll of friend. The certainty of capture through 
further delay made it necessary to return to the fleet with the dismal 
tidings that were expected. Hobson and his crew were not to be found, 
and while others who had been equally eager to enlist with Hobson 
mourned their comrades as dead they were very much alive to the perils 
that surrounded them. 

They knew froiji what they had seen with their own eyes that the 
waters were populated with, sharks, and when one of the men, to pass 
the time, perhaps, in lively conversation and add to the interest of a 
dramatic situation, mentioned the ugly monsters, it is related that 
Kelley remarked in his oWn dry way that the concussion of the ex- 
ploding mines had killed all the sharks in the vicinity and that those 


who might be expected to scent of the drop of blood trickling froni his 
cheek had been seared away by the Spaniards' heavy fire or destroyed 
out at sea by the shells that had flown above the Merrimac. Indeed, he. 
was much afraid that tho^e shells might have done serious harm to the 
fleej; four miles away. 

The gay laugh that followed Kelley's disposition of the sharks 
welcomed the break of day and amazed the Si)aniards in a launch who 
had come out to take a look at the sunken "battleship." 

"Madre de Dios," cried a Castilian officer, as he exclaimed that the 
American "pigs" laughed at death and perhaps laughed when they were 
dead. The men knew they were discovered and from what they had 
heard of Spanish hospitality to captives were not sure but that they 
were sorry the sharks had not first found them. Eight rifles covered 
them and they felt that their time was closer at hand than it had been 
when the great guns guarding the harbor were bellowing at them. 
Hobson shouted in Spanish: "Is there an officer on board?" Receiving 
an affirmative answer he announced that they would surrender as pris- 
oners of war and was told that they would have to swim to the launch 
one at a time and hand over their weapons. 

Then occurred the only, surrender of an arm in the war between 
Spain and America and it was the pistol of Lieutenant Hobson, hero of 
the Merrimac. Swimming to the launch he gave up his revolver and 
was hauled aboard. His* comrades, less sensitive to the etiquette of 
war and with a better opportunity to avoid giving up their arms, un- 
loosened their belts to let the pistols and cartridges sink to rest with 
the remains of the Merrimac. 

The launch took her prisoners to the Reina Mercedes, where they 
were looked upon with the greatest curiosity. They were black as 
negroes, for they were covered with coal dust and oil that floated up to 
them from the sunken steamer. They were given baths and food and 
treated with consideration, though the men were kept from their Lieu- 
tenant, as the Spaniards believed in dividing the heroes. They scarcely 
knew "what to expect from such dare-devils. 

Diegnan, the helmsman, tells a most interesting story of Hobson's 
behavior. It seems that he first "demanded" a bath and when a Spanish 
officer repeated the word "demand" in an interrogative way, he changed 
it to "request." This is repeated, not in criticism of a brave man, but 
as an incident showing that one who had gone through what Hobson 
had would have at his tongue's end stern words and the change to "re- 


quest" was not a humiliating submission, but the quick recognition of a 
gentleman that he had not been thoroughly polite to one whom the for- 
tunes of war made his host. 

' The men are unanimous in their statement that they were treated 
kindly by Admiral Cervera, his officers and crew. Lieutenant Hobson 
was taken in the cabin and given a suit of officer's clothing, and while 
he was in there the executive officer questioned the men as to how 
many guns they had on their ship, complimenting them on their marks- 
manship. When told that the Merrimac was a collier, the Spaniards 
would not believe it at first, as they had suffered severely in the cross- 
fire of their own batteries. Convinced of the truth by personal inspec- 
tion of the sunken ship the officers of the Reina Mercedes were terribly 
discomfited, though they did take comfort in the fact that the channel 
was not completely blocked, though it was considerably narrowed. 

Hobson and his men in Spanish hands and cast into prison were 
not to suffer only the ordinary experiences of tedious lingering, for 
there was an abundance of excitement still in store for them. The men 
were confined in a small cell, their officer being separated from them in 
another part of Morro prison. Their food was stinted, but they could not 
complain, as the Spaniards themselves were not living in luxury. 

It was then that Americans- learned that the Spaniard was really 
not so black as he had been painted and that the bombastic declarar 
tions of the honor of Spanish arms and CastiliSn chivalry were not alto- 
gether idle boasts, but that there were , Spanisji soldiers of high in- 
stincts and noble sentiments. Admiral Cervera, under a flag of truce, 
honored his country and won the hearts of his enemies by sending out 
word to Admiral Sampson that his men were safe and in need of dry 
clothing, knowing when he did so that the glad news would go to the 
homes of the heroes and that instead of mourning there would be great 
rejoicing among his foes and their friends. The published suspicion- 
that he acted handsomely as he did because he realized his own great 
peril and, sought to make easy the event of his own capture is un- 
worthy tolerance among a brave nation, whose soldiers and sailors love 
an en^my worthy of their metal. 

It is also good to note that the British Consul sent the prisoners 
coffee, tobacco and bread, though these were luxuries and almost worth 
their weight in gold in the besieged city, and that when, against Oer- 
vera's protest, the nden were kept in Morro to save the fort from Amer- 
ican bombardment, the same consul exercised his authority in the in- 


terests of. humanity and persuaded the Spaniards to remove their pris- 
oners to safer quarters in the Reina Mercedes military hospital. He 
was not strong enough, however, to save Lieutenant Hobson from the 
perils of the guns of his own fleet. 

Hobson says of his men when they were being questioned by the 
Spanish authorities: . « • 

"When it seemed uncertain whether or not a remnant of the In- 
quisition "was to be revived, when the enemy did not know whether it 
was his fault or ours that a ship had been sunk, and rather inclined 
to the belief that he had sunk an American battleship and that we 
were the only survivors out of several hundred, the men were taken 
before the Spanish authorities and serious and impertinent questions 
put to them. Eemember, they did not know what it might cost them 
to refuse to answer, Spanish soldiers. of the guard standing before them, 
making significant gestures with their hands edgewise across their 
throats. Our seamen laughed in their faces. '^^ 

"Then a Sjpanish major questioned Charette, because he spoke 
Fi-ench, and asked him this question: 'What was your object in com- 
ing here?' 

"And so long as I live I shall never forget the way -Charette threw 
back his shoulders, proudly lifted his head and looked him in the eye as 
he said: 

"'In the United States Navy, sir, it is not the custom for the sea- 
men to know, or to desire to know, the object of an action of his superior 

Coxswain Diegnan tells a remarkable story of an experience with a 
wounded Spanish cayalryman in the hospital prison, though it sounds 
improbable and much like a sailor's easily spun yarn, yet it must be re- 
membered that men of the Merrimac stamp are not apt to be given te 
overtelling their tales, or reckless, though unintentional, mixing of truth 
with fiction. Diegnan says the cavalryman "dashed up to the door of 
our cell reeling in his saddle, grabbed his carbine and pointing it at us, 
cnrsed the Americans. He was just in the act of firing on us when one 
of the hospital attendants disarmed him and threw the cartridges 
out of his gun. The trooper expired from his wounds a few minutes 
later. After this incident we were ordered to keep out of sight as much 
as possible, and not to expose ourselves to armed Spaniards, who were 
passing to and fro all the time." 

Locked in their cell the men heard heavy firing from the fleet and 


the musketry fire of the army was quite distinct. The boys now and 
then heard bullets tear through the roof with more gladness than 
alarm, for they were on familiar terms with danger and knew that 
help was not far off, especially when they saw from their grating a 
scared sentry drop his Mauser that had been split by a roving Krag- 
Jorgensen ball. 

Their joy when they heard on July 6th that they were to be released 
in exchange for Spanish prisoners was almost unbounded and might 
have broken out into cheering had it not been that caution is not foreign 
to valor, and that the timid have no monopoly of common sense. 

Lieutenant Hobson was brought to his men. Blindfolded they 
were taken to meet Colonel John Jacob Astor, the American officer 
bringing Spanish prisoners for exchange. Eeaching the American lines 
after their marvelous encounter and victory over death the Merrimaq 
boys had collapsed from weakness, but with the bugles among the 
trenchers sounding the National anthem, the naval heroes revived, 
while the heroes of the army sang in mighty chorus, waved their hats 
and made the hills echo with their wild cheering. Out of the Valley of 
Death to the hill-tops, impregnable with its guardian • thin lines of 
American troops, the men of the Merrimac were again under the shelter 
of the Stars and Stripes, the dear flag for which they had dared and had 
not died. 

That same day they were taken to the coast and carried out to the 
New York, sailors of every ship welcoming them back to glory over 
and with them and to exchange experiences, for the men of the Mer- 
rimac had missed the superb spectacle of the dreadful destruction of 
the fleet of their good friend. Admiral Cervera. 




N THE ofllcial records the regiment commanded 
by Colonel (afterward General) Leonard Wood 
and Lieutenant-Colonel (afterward Colonel) Theo- 
dore Roosevelt is known as the First United 
States Volunteer Cavalry, but the name by which 
it is known to fame is the Rough Riders. 

It was the most unique organization ever 
known in military annals. The Colonel, Dr. Leon- 
ard Wood, had served with General Miles in cam- 
paigns against the Apache Indians in Arizona, 
and although attached to General Miles' command as a surgeon, he 
was one of the best scouts and fighters in the army, and won the medal 
of honor for courage. At the breaking out of the war he was the 
medical adviser of President McKinley and Secretary of War Alger. 
Colonel Roosevelt, who originated the idea of raising a regiment among 
the rough riders and riflemen of the Rocky Mountains and the Great 
Plains, was at the time Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Both men had 
that strong love of adventtire and contempt for danger that made them 
the natural leaders of such a body of fighters. Both were crack shots, 
splendid horsemeji, and experienced in the hardships and dangers of 
frontier life. 

The result was that they oi:ganized a regiment composed of cow- 
boys, hunters, prospectors, ex-sheriffs and marshals, Indians, gamblers, 
ex-preachers and other fearless characters of the West. Then, finding 
that the regiment had not obtained its full quota, they filled the ranks 
with college men arid "dudes." There were half-backs and quarter- 
backs, tennis champions and crack oarsmen, high jumpers, steeple- 
chase rid«rs, polo players and fashionable club men. It was a strange 


?6 STORV OP mn rouch riders. 

gathering, and each and every man was subjected to a severe examina- 
tion and physical test. The "dudes," so-called, rivalled the men from 
the "wild and woolly West" in feats of horsemanship and marksmanship, 
and in the entire regiment not one man ever shirked his duty or flinched 
in the face of danger. > - ' 

Some of the most conspicuous members of the Kough Riders were 
Captain Bucky O'Neill (killed at the battle of San Juan Hill), famous 
throughout the West as a sheriff and Indian fighter, and at the time of 
entering the regiment was mayor of Prescott, Arizona; Captains 
Llewellyn and Curry, famous New Mexican sheriffs; Captain AUyn 
Capron (killed at La Guasimas), an ideal soldier; Cherokee Bill; Smoky 
Moore; Rattlesnake Pete; Pollock, a Pawnee Indian; Colbert, a Chicka- 
saw Indian; Holderman, a Cherokee Indian; Sherman Bell, deputy 
marshal from Cripple Creek; McGinty, champion bronco boster of 
Oklahoma; Smith, a bear hunter from Wyoming; Dudley Dean, a 
famous Harvard quarter-back; Bob Wrenn, champion tennis player of 
America; Craig Wadsworth, celebrated as a steeple-chase rider; Joe 
Stevens, crack polo player; Hamilton Fish (killed at La Gruasirnas), 
ex-captain of the Columbia crew; Mason Mitchell, ex-chief of scouts in 
the Riel Rebellion; and Woodbury Kane, famgus yachtsman. To 
enumerate all who were conspicuous for some act of bravery or physical , 
prowess would be to call the regimental role. 

The Rough Riders were mustered at San Antonio, and were with 
the first troops sent to Cuba. It fell to their lot to lead the advance ou. 
Santiago, and they had the honor of fighting the first land battle of the 
war, if we except the fight of the marines at Guantanamo. The Rough 
Riders' first engagement is known as the battle of La Guasimas, and 
while it lasted but little more than an hour it was one of the fiercest 
conflicts of the war. 

The advance on Santiago began on June 24tli. The Rough Riders had 
camped the previous night at Siboney, whence they had marched from 
Baquiri. After three hours' sleep, they broke camp at 5 o'clock in 
the morning and began to climb the trail along the high ridge above 
Siboney. While descending on the other side, at a point near Sevilla, 
called La Guasimas, they were met by a galling flre from Spaniards 
concealed in the tangled undergrowth and tall bushes. It was first 
supposed that the Rough Riders had run into an ambush, but the best 
authorities — eye witnesses of the fight — men like Richard Harding 
Davis, the famous correspondent, have shown that this was only true 


in the sense that the regiment had met a concealed foe — but had not 
expected to meet him in the open. In fact, the Epugh Eiders were 
prepared for just such a reception and had marched with scouts in ad- 
vance and a skirmish line well thrown out. Before the battle C5olonel 
Wood had halted his column, had reconnoitered and discovered the 
enemy. His troops were in position before the firing began, but it 
began suddenly and at short range. If the Eough Eiders were dis- 
concerted it was because they could not see the enemy. In fighting 
their way through the brush they lost sight of each other, and it was 
some time before a line was formed connecting with the Tenth Cavalry 
On the right. In the meantime the Eough Eiders had 6ome out into the 
open, and kneeling on one knee they returned the fire from the thicket 
where the enemy lay. At the begihning of the fight they had thrown 
away their blankets and all surplus articles, some were stripped to 
shirt, trousers, canteen and cartridge belt. Every move they made was 
a forward one, and foot by foot they drove the enemy back. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Eoosevelt was commanding the left of the line, part of the time 
giving orders and occasionally firing a carbine which he had picked up. 

Colonel Wood finally decided upon a charge. It is now commonly 
referred to as "Wood's bluff," for the enemy outnumbered him greatly, 
but when the Spaniards saw that thin blue line coming steadily toward 
them, they imagined that the entire American army was behind it, and 
they fell back in disorder upon Santiago. 

The Americans lost fifteen killed and fifty wounded, while the 
enemy's loss ran into the hundreds. Among the killed were Hamilton 
Fish and Captain AUyn Capron of the Eough Eiders. 

In the taking of San Juan July 1st the unmounted cavalry, the First 
and Tenth Eegulars, and Eoosevelt's Eough Eiders bore the brunt of the 
fighting, again distinguishing themselves and adding fresh laurels to 
those already won at Las Guasimas. Our losses in these two engage- 
ments were twenty-two ofiicers and two hundred and eiglit men killed, 
and eighty-one officers and 1,203 men wounded. These figui'es are from 
General Shafter's report. 

The plan of our forces in both engagements was to drive the Span- 
iards back trench by trench. This feat was rendiered all the mote, dif- 
ficult because the Spaniards were using smokeless powder. That it was 
finally accomplished is a lasting tribute to the courage of the American 
soldier, both regular and volunteer. 

The battle of San Juan and the subsequent operations of the Eough 


Eiders are graphically described in the following official report made 
by Colonel Koosevelt: 

' Trenches Outside of Santiago, July 4th. 

Colonel Leonard Wood. 

Sir: On July 1st the regiment, with myself in command, was moved 
out by your orders directly following the First Brigade. Before leaving 
the camping ground several of our men were wounded by shrapnel. 
After crossing the river at the ford we were moved along and up the 
right bank under fire and were held in reserve at a sunk road. Here 
we lost a good many men, including Captain O'Neill, killed, and Lieu- 
tenant Haskell, wounded. We then received your order to advance and 
support the regular cavalry in the attack on the intrenchments and 
block houses on the hills to the left. 

The regiment was deployed on both sides of the road and moved 
forward until we came to the rearmost lines of the regulars. We con- 
tinued to move forward until I ordered a charge and the men rushed 
the block house and rifle pits on the hill to the right of our advance. 
They did the work in fine shape, although suffering severely; the 
guidons of Troops E and G were first planted on the summit, though 
the first men up were some of A and B Troopers who were with me. 
We then opened fire on the intrenchments on a hill to our left, which 
some of the other regiments were assailing and which they carried a 
few minutes later. 

Meanwhile we were under a heavy rifle fire from the intrenchments 
along the hills to our front, from whence they also shelled with a piece 
of field artillery until some of our marksmen silenced it. When the men 
got their wind we charged again and carried the second line of in- 
trenchments with a rush. Swinging to the left we then drove the Span- 
iards over the brow of the chain of hills fronting on Santiago. By 
this time the regiments were much mixed and we were under a heavy 
fire both of shrapnel and from rifies, from the batteries, intrenchments 
and forts immediately in front of the city. 

On the extreme front I now find myself in command with frag- 
ments of the Sixth Cavalry Regiment and two batteries under me. The 
Spaniards made one or two efforts to retake the line, but were promptly 
driven back. Both General Sumner and you sent me word to hold the 
line at all hazards and that night we dug a line of intrenchments across 
our front, using the captured Spanish intrenchment tools. We had 


nothing to eat except what we captured from the Spaniards; but their 
dinners had fortunately been cooked and we ate them with relish, hav- 
ing .been fighting all day. 

We had no blankets or coats and lay by the trenches all night. 
The Spaniards attacked us once in the night and at dawn they opened 
a heavy artillery and rifle fire. Very great assistance was rendered us 
by Lieutenant Parker's Gatling Battery at critical moments; he fought 
his guns at the extreme front of the firing line in a way that repeatedly 
called forth the cheers of my men. One of the Spanish batteries which 
was used against us was directly in front of the hospital, So that the 
Red Cross flag flew over the battery, saving it from our fire for a con- 
siderable period. ^, 

The Spanish Mauser bullets made clean wounds, but they also used 
a copper jacketed or brass jacketed bullet which exploded, making very 
bad wounds indeed. Since then we have continued to hold the ground; 
the food has been short, and until to-day we could not get our blankets, 
coats or shelter tents, while the men lay all day under the fire of the 
Spanish batteries, intrenchments and guerrillas in trees, and worked 
all night in the trenches, never even taking off their shoes, but they are 
in excellent spirits and ready and anxious to carry out any orders they 

We went into the fight about 490 strong, S6 were killed or wounded 
and there are half a dozen missing. The great heat prostrated nearly 
forty men, some among the best in the regiment. Besides Captain 
O'Neill and Lieutenant Haskell, Lieutenants Leahy, Deveraux and Case 
were wounded. All behaved with great gallantry. As for Captain 
O'Neill, his loss is one of the severest that could have fallen on the 
regiment. He was a man of cool head, great executive ability and 
literally dauntless courage. 

The guerrillas in trees not only fired at our troops, but seemgd to 
devote themselves especially to shooting at the surgeons, the hospital 
assistants with Red Cross badges on their arms, the wounded who were 
T)eing carried in litters and the burying parties. Many of these guer- 
rillas were dressed in green uniforms. We sent out a detail of sharp- 
shooters among those in our rear, also along the line where they had 
been shooting the wounded, and killed thirteen. 

To attempt to give a list of the men who showed signal valor would 
necessitate sending in an almost complete roster of the regiment. Many 
of the cases which I mention stand merely as examples of the rest, not 


as exceptions. Captain Jenkins acted as major and showed such con- 
spicuous gallanti-y and efficiency that I earnestly hope h^ may be pro- 
moted to major as soon as a vacancy occurs. Captain^ Llewellyn, Muller 
and Luna! led their troops throughout the charges, handling them ad- 
mirably. At the end of the battle, Lieutenants Kane, Greenwood and 
Goodrich were in charge of their troops immediately under my eye and 
I wish particularly to commend their conduct throughout. 

Corporals Waller and Fortesque and Trooper McKinley, of Troop 
E; Corporal Ehoades, of Troop D; Troopers Albertson, Winter, Mac- 
Gregor and Kay Clark, of Troop F ; Troopers Bugbee, Jackson and Wal- 
ler, of Troop A; Trumpeter MacDonald, of Troop L; Sergeant Hughesj 
of Troop B, and Trooper, GeireUj of Troop G, all continued to fight after 
being wounded, some very severely; most of them fought until the 
end of the day. Tr'ooper Oliver B. Norton, of B, who, with his brother, 
was by my side throughout the charging, was killed while fighting with 
marked gallantry. Sergeant ]?'erguson. Corporal Lee and Troopers Bell 
and Carroll, of Troop K ; Sergeant Dame, of Troop E ; Troopers Good- 
win, Campbell and Dudley Dean, Trumpeter Foster, of B, and Troopers 
Greenwold and Bardehan, of A, are all worthy of special mention for 
coolness and gallantry, and they all merit promotion when the time 
comes. , _ 

, But the most conspicuous gallantry was shown by Trooper Eow- 
land. He was wounded in the side in our first fight, but kept in the 
firing line; he was sent to the hospital the next day, but left it and 
marched out to us, overtaking us and fought all through this battle 
with such indifference to danger that I was forced again and again 
to rate and threaten him for running needless risks. 

Great gallantry was also shown by four troopers- whom I cannot 
identify and by Trooper Winslow Clark, of G. It was after taking the 
hill I had called to rush the second, and having by that time lost my 
horse, climbed a wire fence and started toward it. After going a couple 
of hundred yards under a heavy fire, I found that no one else had come. 
As I discovered later, it was simply because in the confusion with men 
shooting and being shot they had not noticed me start. I told the five 
men to wait a moment as it might be misunderstood if we all ran back, 
while I ran back and started the regiment, and as soon as I did so 
the regiment came with a rush. But meanwhile the five men cbolly.lay 
down in the open, returning the fire from the trenches. It is to be 
wondered at that only Clark was seriously wounded, and he called out 


as we passed again to lay his canteen where he could reach it, but to. 
continue the charge and leave him where he was. All the wounded 
had to be left until after the fight, for we could spare no men from the 
firing line. 

jfAjB^€rU&^ /^^?«4e«-&4^ 

Colonel Wood, of the Eough Eiders, was promoted to be brigadier- 
general and placed in control of Santiago, where he added to his splen- 
did record by transforming a filthy, unhealthy city into a clean and 
healthy one by putting in operation rigid sanitary measures. 

The Kough Eiders were given a great reception upon their return, 
and Colonel Eoosevelt, who had succeeded Colonel Wood in command, 
was elected Governor of New York. 


NAVAL Victory off Santiago. 



''HE SECOND naval battle of importance, and in 
some respects tlie most decisive conflict of the v^ar, 
was fought off Santiago de Cuba and resulted in 
the complete destruction of Admiral Cervera's 
fleet by the North Atlantic and Flying squadrons, 
under command of Acting Rear-Admiral W. T. 
Sampson and Commodore W. S. Schley. 

This great naval flght was almost a parallel 

forr Dewey's victory at Manila, as but one man was 

killed on the American side, while the Spaniards 

suffered great loss of life and the complete destruction of all their ships. 

The Spanish squadron sailed from Cape Verde for the West Indies 

on April 29th, and it was known that at that time Cervera had a clear 

ocean before him. 

Commodore Schley's flying squadron did not start south until May 
13th, which was the day after the Spanish squadron was reported off 
Martinique. The day after Schley left, the Spanish fleet was sighted off 
Curacoa, then off Puerto Rico, and a dodging match continued until 
Admiral Cervera, short of coal and needing supplies and repairs, put 
into Santiago de Cuba to recoup before measuring arms with the strong 
blockading fleet off Havana. 

On May 19th it was reported that Cervera was in Santiago harbor, 
but it was several days later before this report was officially confirmed, 
and the blockade established which effectually bottled him up. Strat- 
egists may differ as to the necessity or wisdom of Cervera's move, but it 
is generally conceded that it would have been better for the United 
States if he could have been caught in the open aild forced to a fair, 
stand-up fight, before he had intrenched himself behind the guns at the 
mouth of the bottle. 



It is certain that the free movement of the navy was hampered by 
the demands of blockade and defehse, and that with more available 
ships the Cape Verde fleet could at once have been destroyed or captured 
upon the high seas. On the other hand, it is maintained by some of the 
best authorities that the ships under Admiral Sampson and Commodore 
Schley could have done the trick had they been put upon the search more 
wisely, promptly and boldly. It is certain that each of these command- 
ers had his opportunity and neither succeeded in taking advantage of it. 

It is possible that Schley was overcautious when he strained his 
guns to bombard the bottled fleet at an excessive range before they had 
completely hidden themselves in the harbor. It is equally possible, to 
question Sampson's wisdom in authorizing the sinking of the Merrimac 
in the channel, although" the heroism of Hobson's vain attempt be con- 
ceded. The Merrimac was sunk June 4th, and proved to be as useless a 
demonstration as the various bombardments which broke the monotony 

of the blockade. 



I 2 a. 


\mMarilehead. / 

\ / 



V IVew Or/eant. k ' 


AfewYorA. ^/ 

This drawing shows the position held by our several battleships 
during the blockade of the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. All night in 
watches of two hours each two ships at a time played their searchlights 
on the entrance to the harbor and kept it light as day. 

In spite of the magnificent fleet concentrated at the mouth of the 
harbor, and in spite of the spectacular assaults of the Vesuvius, the navy 
was compelled to call up9n the army for a land attack upon Santiago, 


a city that under other conditions" would have had comparatively little 
strategic importance. 

Whatever may have been the American army's condition on July 3d, 
its'presenc^ resulted in Blanco's order and Cervera's desperate dash for 
liberty, just as the destruction of the fleet resulted in Toral's surrender 
and the practical conclusion of the war. With Cprvera's fleet out of the 
way, the defense of the Atlantic seaboard was no longer necessary, the 
blockade of Cuba could be made complete, Havana must eventually- 
yield, the capture of Porto Eico was a mere matter of time, and a naval 
demonstration against Spain itself was not impossible. 

Great as were the results of this battle, and terrible as was the 
Spanish loss in ships and men, it was won without any great danger to 
the American fleet or any doubt as to the result. Admiral Sampson had 
the pick of the navy on that blockade, which was wise and proper; he 
maintained the blockade with patience and vigilance, which was his 
duty, and he had given general orders: "Should the enemy come out, 
close in and head him off," which merely authorized the commanders of 
ships to do what any man with reasonable common sense would do 
of his own accord. 

On that bright, tropical Sunday morning, the blockading fleet lay in 
a half circle from shore to shore, all facing the narrow entrance, which 
was guarded by Morro's guns on the right and Socapa battery upon 
the left, both in commanding positions on high headlands. 

During the previous night the blockading fleet had included the four 
first-class battleships Iowa, Indiana, Oregon and Massachusetts, the 
second-class battleship Texas, and the armored cruisers New York and 
Brooklyn, which in their aggregate tonnage and armament were nearly 
three times as strong as Cervera's fleet. 

But at 4 o'clock on the morning of July 3d, the battleship Massachu- 
setts had been sent to Guantanamo for coal, and at 8:55 Admiral Samp- 
son's flagship, the New York, had signalled to the fleet to disregard her 
movements and had started for Siboney, in company with the torpedo 
boat Ericsson. Admiral Sampson's mission to Siboney was to visit 
General Shafter, who was suffering from heat prostration, and to confer 
with him regarding the critical position of the troops about Santiago. 

Yet, after the departure of the Massachusetts and New York, the 
blockading fleet far outclassed that of Cervera. One of the best naval 
authorities in the world puts the Iowa, Indiana and Oregon in class A of 
fighting ships, the Texas in class 0, and the Brooklyn in class F. The 

'^AVAL Victory opp Santiago. ss 

Same authority puts the four armored cruisers of Cervera's fleet, the 
Almirante Oquendo, Viscaya, Infanta Maria Teresa and Cristobal Colon, 
in class F. The aggregate tonnage of the five American ships was 
47,000, against 27,000, the aggregate for the four Spanish ships. In 
speed the Spanish ships would, on their record, exceed all the American 
ships except the Brooklyn, but owing to various circumstances, none of 
the ships involved, with the exception of the Oregon, approached their 
maximum speed capacity. In armament the American had more than 
double the strength of the Spanish fleet. Spain's largest guns were 
11-inch, of which three ships had two each. The United States, on the 
other hand, had 13-inch guns, four each on the Indiana and Oregon, and 
of 12-inch guns, four on the Iowa and two on the Texas. 

In guns 8-inch or larger, the Spanish fleet had eight, while the 
American fleet had. 46. Of 5-inch or larger, the Spanish fleet had 28, 
to the American fleet's 72. 

This overwhelming superiority of armament, together with the 
great superiority of American gunnery, explains many things that oc- 
curred on that day before the "Fourth." 

The curved line of the American ships on guard was about eight 
miles long, and the distances of these ships from the entrance of Santiago 
harbor varied from two and one-half to four miles. The converted yacht 
Gloudester was on the extreme right, near shore, then came the Indiana, 
Oregon, Iowa, Texas, Brooklyn, Commodore Schley's flagship, and over 
toward the west shore the converted yacht Vixen. The men on the 
various ships had been called to quarters for inspection, when behind 
the hills the smoke of Cervera's fleet was seen moving toward the en- 
trance of the harbor, and at 9 :30 the lookout on the Iowa sighted the 
leading Spanish ship, the Maria Teresa, coming out. 

The Iowa hoisted signal, "Enemy coming out," and fired a gun to 
call the attention of the rest of the fleet to the signal. Only a few min- 
utes later the longed-for coming of the enemy was observed on the 
Brooklyn, and Commodore Schley signalled the fleet to clear for action, 

Cervera's ships began flring as soon as they came in range, and as 
they appeared in the gap of the hills were wreathed in their own pow- 
der smoke. They had steam up, and were coming with a running start, 
which would naturally give them an advantage over a stationary fleet. 
Had the Yankee captains banked their fires, had they failed to keep 
up steam, had they grown so careless as the circumstances had seemed 
to warrant, they would have had a long stern chase ahead of them. 


But the theory of the American navy, and the practice of the 
American navy, demands that its ships shall always be prepared. The 
enemy's attempt to escape was totally unexpected at that time; some 
of the ships had steam for only five or six knots, some of the ships were 
badly in need of docking, the Brooklyn had her forward engines uncou- 
pled, and yet the five ships-— the six ships, including, the plucky little 
Gloucester — sprung toward the enemy with such a rush of speed, and 
with such a tempest of fire, that the battle was won in the first fifteen 
minutes. The Spaniards had the range of the American vessels from the 
entrance of the harbor, and the minute they came in sight they began 
firing at that range. The Yankees advanced to close quarters, and 
opened such a savage fire that many of the Spanish gunners never low- 
ered their guns, but kept firing them at the former elevation, sending 
shells harmlessly over the American fieet. After the Spanish ships were 
burned, guns were found at the extreme elevation, which helped to 
explain why only one man was killed on the American ships. 

The Infanta Maria Teresa, Admiral Cervera's flagship, was followed 
out of the harbor by the Viscaya, Cristobal Ck)lon and Almirante 
Oquendo, each maintaining a regular distance of 800 yards and steaming 
at Speed of about nine knots. They were followed at a distance of about 
1200 yards by the torpedo boat destroyers Pluton and Furor. 

Admiral Cervera led his fleet along the coast to the westward, and 
the Yankee ships, closing in for the attack, came in ra,nge of the bat- 
■ teries at Morro and Socapa, which were attempting by a vigorous fire to 
cover the escape. The four battleships headed almost straight for the 
escaping vessels, firing as they went, and ready if the opportunity offered 
to ram the Spaniards to death. But the Spaniards had too much initial 
speed and the battleships veered to the westward on a course parallel 
to the enemy's ships, which were between the fleet and the shore. This 
made it a chase in which Commodore Schley, on the Brooklyn, and 
Captain Philip, on the Texas, had the advantage from their positions 
on the west end of the blockading line. 

But in the first evolution the torrent of American shells had done 
terrible work on the leading Spanish ship, the Maria Teresa. One of the 
first shots that struck her had cut the fire mains, and at 10 :15 she sur- 
rendered and was beached in the surf at Nunanima, about six miles from 
the harbor. 

The Oquendo, the fourth ship in the Spanish line, got out of the 
harbor just in time to receive the fire of the battleships at close range. 


She was repeatedly ou fire, h,er men were driven from the guns, and she 
was beached about half a mile from the Maria Teresa, at Juan Gonzales, 
about 10:30. 

The Viscaya, the second in the line, was kept alive a little longer, 
probably by her vigorous response to the American fire. Captain Eu- 
iate fought his ship well, and at one time made a dash for the Brooklyn 
as if to ram her, but was driven back toward the shore by the force of 
the American fire. The Viscaya got by several of the battleships, but 
was being hammered Ijy the Brooklyn, Texas and Iowa, and then by the 
Oregon, which came down the line like a race horse. At 10:50 she was 
seen to be on fire fore and aft, and after striking her colors she was 
beached at 11:15, near Acerraderos, aboUt fifteen miles from Santiago. 

The Colon, which was third in the Spanish line, escaped immediate 
destruction by keeping behind the other vessels. When the American 
attack developed into a chase the Colon, showing splendid speed, shot so 
far ahead of even the Brooklyn that she was practically out of range. 
By these tactics the Colon had escaped injury, and Captain Moreu hoped 
for speed enough to get away. The two nearest American ships were the 
Brooklyn and Texas, but Captain Clark of the Oregon was rapidly 
gaining on the pursuers and the pursued. Commodore Schley decided 
to steer the Brooklyn on a straight course for Cape Cruz, ^o head off the 
Colon, while the Oregon, which soon passed the Texas, could prevent 
Captain Moreu from doubling on his tracks. 

The Colon gained a lead of six miles, but her spurt was finished, 
and she was gradually being overhauled by the Brooklyn and Oregon, 
and behind them by the Texas, Vixen and, finally, the New York, 
which had joined the chase. 

About 1 o'clock the Oregon began firing at long range and dropped 
a couple of 13-inch shells close to the Spanish ship, and about the same 
time the Brooklyn began firing with her 8-inch guns, and dropped a 
shell ahead of the flying Spanish cruiser. 

The jig was up, and at 1:15, a little tiiore than three hours from the 
time she left the entrance, the last surviving vessel of Cervera's fleet 
hauled down the Spanish flag, and, firing a lee gun, went ashore at Rio 
Torquine, about fifty miles west of Santiago. 

Captain Cook of the Brooklyn, Commodore Schley's chief of staff, 
went aboard to receive Captain Moreu's surrender, and while he was 
aboard Admiral Sampson came up in the New York and received his 


At this time the Cristobal Colon was practically uninjured, but as 
she worked off into deep water the sea valves were broken by Spanish" 
treachery, and it was found that she could not be kept afloat. When 
this fact was manifest on board the New York, Captain Chadwick put 
the flagship's stem against the Colon and pushed her bodily into shoal 
water, where she lay upon her beam ends. 

The two torpedo boat destroyers, Pluton and Furor, were the last 
of the Spanish fleet to leave the harbor, and the first to meet destruction 
in an encounter with the Gloucester, which might almost be called^ a 
separate battle. 

The Gloucester was the converted yacht Corsair armed with 6- 
pounder guns, and commande4"by Lieutenant-Commander Wainwrigiit, 
formerly of the battleship Maine. The position of the Gloucester before 
the fight was close inshore on the extreme east of the blockading line. 
When the Spanish fleet was sighted, the little, unprotected craft started 
into the fight at full speed, right under Morro's guns, and attacked the 
Oquendo as bravely as a battleship. The Oquendo evidently feared a 
torpedo, and turned her secondary battery on the, Gloucester, but about 
this time Commander Wainwright sighted the Pluton and Furor, which 
seemed to be "his meat." 

The torpedo boat destroyers were long, loW vessels, of about 400 
tons, and with a speed record of from 27 to 30 knots. Their armament 
was two 14:-pounder, two 6-pounder quick-fire guns, and two 1-pounders. 
Either of these boats outclassed the Gloucester in speed and armament, 
but the Gloucester's gunners were the best marksmen. 

The destroyers were supported by the guns of the Oquendo and 
Maria Teresa, and the shore batteries, while the Gloucester was sup- 
ported by the secondary batteries of the Iowa, Indiana, Oregon, and 
later the New York. It was a deluge of shot on both sides, but under- 
neath it the converted yacht and the crack destroyers were peppeting 
away at each other for all they were worth, with the difference that the 
yacht was not being hit, while the destroyers were being punched out 
like nutmeg graters. It was quick death for the Pluton and Furor, 
which tried in vain to reach the lee of the Oquendo. Before they had 
been out of the harbor twenty minutes, they were out of the fight, the 
Pluton being sunk in deep water by a shell, probably from the Indiana, 
while the Furor was beached and sunk in the surf. Admiral Sampson, 
who was on the spot at the finish, pays a high tribute to the skillful 
handling and gallant fighting of the Gloucester, and says that her accu- 


rate, deadly fire at close range was a considerable lactor in their 
Speedy destruction. 

Fully two-thirds of the men on the destroyers were killed. The few 
survivors were rescued by the Gloucester, which then assisted in the 
work of picking up the crews of the other Spanish vessels. When Ad- 
miral Cervera, painfully wounded, had been compelled to jump over- 
board from his burning flagship, he was picked up and taken aboard 
the Gloucester and received with kindness and consideration. Com- 
mander Wainwright congratulated the Spanish Admiral on his bravery, 
and placed his own cabin and wardrobe at his disposal. The Gloucester 
deserved and has received high honors, and yet her escape from injury, 
or, indeed, destruction, was due only to signal good fortune. One well 
pla«ed shell from the Spanish batteries or the Spanish fleet would have 
sent her to the bot;tom, and the risk she ran was greater than good naval 
tactics justified. 

But the battle was not one in which tactics counted. The Spanish 
fleet was knocked out by main strength, and the commander of each 
ship did his share of the work in his own way. 

When the Spanish ships showed their noses. Admiral Sampson, 
the commander-in-chief, had gone as far eastward as Altares, seven 
miles from the entrance to Santiago harbor. The New York was turned 
about and steamed for the escaping fleet, flying the signal: "Close in 
toward harbor entrance and attack vessels." This signal was a mere 
matter of form, and probably was not seen by the ships already hot upon 
the chase from six to twelve miles away. 

Of his flagship, Admiral Sampson himself says: "She was not at 
any time within the range of the heavy Spanish ships, and her only part 
in the firing was to receive the undivided fire of the forts in passing the 
harbor entrance, and to fire a few shots at one of the destroyers, thought 
at the moment to be attempting to escape from the Gloucester." 

Admiral Sampson's absence was entirely justified, in the light of his 
information and orders. The New York skirted the line of burning 
ships, and was ready to take part in the chase of the Colon, had anything 
happened to the Brooklyn or Oregon. The New York was a ship in 

Commodore Schley, the acting commander-in-chief, did good work 
with his flagship, the Brooklyn, which was hit more times than any 
Qther American ship. Commodore Schley fought his ship as the other 
commanding officers fought theirs, and deserves equal credit with them. 


Beyond his own ship, it does not appear that the acting commander-in- 
chief had any influence upon the result of the battle. 

The Oregon did especially good service on account of the speed she 
was able to develop, and for the condition and handling of his ship 
Captain Clark is ujiiversally accorded great credit. Captain Evans, 
on the Iowa, and Captain Taylor, on the Indiana, pounded the enemy 
at close quarters, and fought with the grim determination of bull- 
dogs until ordered to cease, when they turned to and worked like 
beavers to rescue the surviving Spaniards. Both these Captains — 
"Fighting Bob," with his bluff ways, and Captain Taylor, with his polite 
manner — are recognized in the navy as joyful fighters, and they lived up 
to their reputation. 

The Texas, a second-class battleship, made a new record for her- 
self under the command of Captain Philip, and did her full share of the 
day's work. It is believed to have been a shell from the Texas that 
exploded one of the Vizcaya's torpedoes and put that dangerous ship 
out of commission. The Texas also showed good speed, and was gaining 
on the Colon in the last hour of the chase. 

The converted yacht Vixen, on the extreme left of the blockading 
line, was almost directly in the course of the Spanish fleet, and had to 
get out of the way or be between two fires. Beyond a few shots with her 
6-pounders at the Vizcaya, she did not take any active part in the 

The torpedo boat Ericsson, which in the beginning was off Altares 
with the New York, steamed back at full speed, and was able to do 
good work in rescuing the shipwrecked Spaniards and carrying dis- 

The auxiliary cruiser Eesolute was lying eastward of the Indiana 
at the beginning of the fight, and was utilized to take charge of about 
five hundred of the Spanish prisoners. The converted yacht Hist and 
the auxiliary cruiser Harvard were in the vicinity, and assisted in the 
work of caring for the Spanish prisoners. 

In this battle Admiral Cervera lost the four Spanish cruisers and 
two torpedo boat destroyers, and about 600 men killed, while he and 
some 1,500 of his officers and men were taken prisoners. 

On the American side one man. Yeoman George H, Ellis, of the 
Brooklyn, was killed, and only two or three were wounded. Several 
of the American ships were hit, but no material damage was done. As 
the Spanish ships lay burning upon the shore, frequent explosions oc- 



curred on board of them, and although the work of rescue was attended 
with muchjlanger, the American seamen freely risked their lives to save 
their defeated enemies. Many of the Spaniards who succeeded in swim- 
ming ashore were attacked by the Cuban allies, who shot at them in 
the water and inflicted machete wounds when they reached dry land. 
This cold-blooded slaughter was noticeable near the Vizcaya, and was 
checked by the men from the Iowa, Harvard and Ericsson. There were 
terrible sights to be seen on that hot July Sunday, for war is of neces- 
sity cruel, but the greatest dangers that the Yankee sailors faced were 
not in fighting, but in rescuing their Spanish brethren. 

Many controversies, technical and otherwise, have grown out of 
this battle, but there can be no dispute when it is said that the victory 
depended upon two factors — men and guns. From the American guns 
it is estimated that 6,'500 shots were fired, and about 190,000 pounds 
of m«tal were hurled against the enemy. And the men of the United 
States Navy, whether on the bridge, in the firerooms or behind the 
guns, did their whole duty. 

iiiiH' ' iri^T^fi^M 

Map showing Entrance to Santiago Harbor and Position of 
the Sunken Merrimac. 




' HE FIRST expedition of the land campaign against 
Santiago was a failure. This was the unsuccess- 
ful attempt in May, 1898, to land men and arms 
on Cuban soil from the Morgan Line steamer Gus- 
sifej'the expedition being under command of Cap- 
tain Joseph H. Dorst, of the Fourth Cavalry. 

The first formidable movement, however, was 
not made until Major-General William R. Shatter 
was given comniand of the Fifth Army Corps, and 
ordered to sail for Cuba and attack the city of San- 
tiago by land. The order was issued on May 30, as soon as it was 
learned that Cervera's fleet had been bottled up in Santiago Harbor, 
but owing to the delay in assembling the thirty transports needed to 
carry so large a force, the start was not made from Tampa until June 
14, under convoy of a strong fleet sent by Acting Rear- Admiral Samp- 

The expedition thus dispatched to Cuba comprised 773 officers and 
14,564 enlisted men. The infantry force consisted of the First, Second, 
Third, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Six- 
teenth, Seventeenth, Twentieth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second and 
Twenty-fourth Regulars, the Seventy-first New York Volunteers and the 
Second Massachusetts Volunteers. The cavalry force consisted of two 
dismounted squadrons of four troops each from the First, Third, Sixth, 
Ninth and Tenth Regular Cavalry and two dismounted squadrons from 
the First Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood, 
with Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore .Roosevelt second in command. 

This TvnH thp nrcaniKatiOTi know^ri as thp "Rnnspvpit Rnnch ■Rirlp-pa " 


■There was also one squadron of the Second Eegular Cavalry, which took 
its horses with it. The artillery force consisted of light batteries E and 
K of the First Artillery, light batteries A and F of the Second Artillery 
and siege batteries G and H of the Fourth Artillery. There were also 
two companies of engineers and fifteen staff officers, beside some fifty 
newspaper correspondents and representatives of the armies 9.nd 
navies of Europe. 

The voyage from Tampa was made almost without incident, save 
such slight mishaps as the loss of a watjer barge which one of the ves- 
sels had in tow, and on Monday, June 20th, the. transports arrived off 
Santiago. Admiral Sampson, advised by swift scouts of the approach 
of the expedition, at once sent Captain Chadwick, of the flagship New 
York, to receive General Shafter. Captain Chadwick, acting under 
direction of his chief, advised General Shafter that the transports be 
kept out of sight of land until the point at which the troops were to 
go ashore had been finally selected. General Shafter promptly ac- 
cepted this suggestion and the troopships were ordered to remain 
twenty miles out at sea. 

Coincident with the arrival of the Fifth Corps off Santiago, General 
Calixto Garcia appeared at Accerraderos, some fifteen miles to the 
west, a;t the head of 4,000 Cubans, and arrangefments were at once made 
for a conference between the insurgent leader, General Shafter and 
Admiral Sampson. 

This conference took place ih General Garcia's camp, on a hill 
near Accerraderos, on the afternoon of June 20, and when it was ended 
it had been decided that General Shafter should disembark his troops 
at Baiquiri, an irqn pier used by a railroad company for unloading iron 
ore and a wharf in fairly good condition. Moreover, the beach at that 
point, while having considerable surf, was still not too rough to permit 
of the landing of horses and mules by swimming ashore. On June 21 
plans for the landing, were made out and transmitted to the several 
commanders, and early on the morning of June 22d Admiral Sampson 
made a feint of bombarding the batteries of Juragua to draw off the 
attention of the Spaniards while the New Orleans and some of the other 
vessels of the fleet shelled the hills around Baiquiri to rout any Spanish 
troops that might be in ambush there. Then the landing began and 
soon the sea was alive with flotillas of small boats, towed by launches, 
speeding for the dock at Baiquiri. 

The Eighth Infantry was the first regiment to land. It was fol- 


lowed by tHe First, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-secondj Fifteenth, Seventeenth 
and Twelfth Eegulars, the Second Massachusetts Volunteers and a part 
of the cavalry. General Shafter remained aboard the transport Segu- 
ranca directing the disembarkation, while Major-General Joseph 
Wheeler, commanding the cavalry division, conducted the movements 
of the troops ashore. As soon as landed the troops formed and moved 
inland, taking up positions along the banks of the Baiquiri River and 
extending to a distance of about three miles westward toward San- 
tiago. A number of Cubans that had been landed the night previous 
at a point east of Baiquiri ruarched westward and entered the village 
from the land side at about the same time that the first American 
troops were landed. Under the conditions prevailing the landing was 
necessarily slow. No horses were landed on the first day, and less than 
6,000 soldiers succeeded in getting ashore. The landing of troops con- 
tinued on June 23d, and the advance, under Brigadier-General Henry 
W. Lawton, pushed on to Siboney, a coast village nine miles west of 
Baiquiri. Horses and mules were landed by swimming, and in the after- 
noon General Shafter.began to land troops at Siboney, where the beach 
was much smoother than at Baiquiri. The landing of troops was prac- 
tically concluded on June 24th, and early in the morning of that day 
the American advance reached La Guasimas, about four miles west of 
Siboney, where a skirmish had occurred the day before between Cubans 
and Spaniards, in which one Cuban was killed and eight wounded. 
Here the American advance for the first time encountered the enemy- 
in force and here took place what has since been called the action of 
La Guasimas, which is described in another chapter. 


On June 25 the American advance occupied the high ridge of Sa- 
villa, six miles -distant from but in full view of. the City of Santiago. 
Lawton's division, the Second, was in advance; Wheeler's dismounted 
cavalry occupied a position some distance behind Lawton, and Brig- 
adier-General J, Ford Kent's First Division lay in the rear of Wheeler. 
The advance continued on Juije 27, the outposts reaching points within 
three or four miles of Santiago. The light batteries as they came up 
passed through Kent's division into camp near Wheeler's division, and 
the mounted squadron of the Second Cavalry took up a position near 
the lierht batterv. Reinforcements were landed June 28 and went into 


camp near Siboney. On June 29 General Shafter went ashore and es- 
tablished his headquarters beside those of General Lawton. 

On June 30 General Lawton, accompanied by his brigade com- 
manders, made a careful reconnoissance of the country about El Caney, 
a village three miles northeast of Santiago, and after a council held 
later at General Shafter's headquarters orders were issued for an at- 
tack, to take place July 1, on El Caney. The object of the attack was, 
by a turning" movement, swinging well to the American right and pass- 
ing through the village of El Caney, to break the left flank of the 
enemy and thus reach the northern side of Santiago. 

At early dawn of July 1 the troops of Lawton's division moved 
into the position they had been ordered^ to occupy. The light battery 
commanded by Captain AUyn K. Capron, whose son and namesake had 
fallen at La Guasimas, occupied a position overlooking the village of 
El Caney, ^,400 yards distant. The brigade of Brigadier-General Adna 
E. Chaffee took up a position east of the village, ready to carry the town 
as soon as it should have been bombarded by the artillery. The 
brigade of General William Ludlow moved to a position west of El 
Caney. in order to cut off the Spaniards when they should be driven 
out and attempt to retreat to Santiago. The brigade of Colonel Evan 
Miles was held in reserve south of the village. 

The position of the Spaniards at El Caney was a strong one. Their 
troops were located in a block-house or stone fort, in a stone church, 
wooden block-houses and well-protected trenches. 

Capron's battery opened fire shortly before 7 o'clock at what ap- 
peared to be a column of cavalry, then fired a few shots at the block- 
houses and others at hedges where the infantry seemed to be located, 
and finally sent some shrapnel in the direction of the village. At about 
11 o'clock the battery ceased firing. During all this time a continuous 
fire of musketry was kept up in all parts of the American lines, which 
were steadily drawing closer toward the village. Ludlow had moved 
forward from the west and the reserves under Miles had been brought 
up on the line, while early in the afternoon the independent brigade 
of Brigadier-General John C. Bates came up and went into the line, 
all closing in toward the village. • 

The brunt of the fighting fell at first on General Chaffee's brigade, 
composed of the Seventh, Twelfth and Seventeenth Infantry. General 
Chaffee seemed omnipresent. He was everywhere on the fighting line, 
by word and example urging his men forward. General Ludlow's task 


was, with the troops of his brigade, to watch for and cut off the enemy's 
expected retreat toward Santiago, but early in the action he closed in 
upon the defenders of the Tillage and his white sailor hat became a tar- 
get for the enemy during the hours that he hugged the blockhouses on 
his flank of the well-defended village.' The Americans had only 100 
rounds for each man, and their oiflcers, well out on the firing lines, 
watching the movements of thfe enemy with field glasses, saw to it that 
none of the shots was wasted. 

Between 1 and 2 o'clock General Lawton ordered Oapron to con- 
centrate the fire of his battery upon the stone fort or blockhouse situated 
on the highest point in El CaHey. This fort, built of brick, with walls 
about a foot thick, was the kej point to the village. From it since early 
morning had come a galling and deadly fire, unobstructed save by a 
few bushes. The practice of the artillery against the fort was very 
effective, knocking great holes into it and rendering it untenable. Then 
the brigades of Chaffee, Bates and Miles made an assault upon the work 
and carried it. The charge was such as is made only by American 
soldiers, and when it was ended every Spaniard in the fort had been 
killed, wounded or captured. A prisoner stated after the battle that 
when the fighting ended there were only two men in the building who 
had escaped being struck by the American bullets. 

There were a number of small blockhouses on the other side of 
the village from which a strong fire was kept up for some time after 
the stone fort had fallen. Word was sent to Gapron to bring his bat- 
tery forward and take these blockhouses, but by the time the battery 
arrived the fire had ceased. However, there was one blockhouse still 
held by the Spaniards and at this the battery fired four shots, com- 
pletely wrecking it and killing or wounding most of its occupants. 
This ended the fighting and the Americans had complete possession of 
El Ganey. Night fell with the troops who had fought so bravely and 
won so gloriously at El Ganey marching back through the mud to sup- 
port General Kent's division in the movement on San Juan. 


At dawn July 1st Wheeler's division of dismounted cavalry was 
camped on the eminence of El Poso, the name of a ruined plantation 
about three miles from Santiago. Kent's division lay near the road 


back of El Poso. It had been^ arranged the previous night that while 
Lawton turned northward to attack El Caney, there should be a gen- 
eral movement of the rest of the army toward Santiago. The cavalry 
division was to cross the Aguadores River and deploy to the right to 
the Santiago side of San Juan Hill, where the enemy was strongly in- 
trenched, while the troops under General Kent deployed to the left of 
the Spanish position. 

Soon after sunrise Grimes' battery went into position a little way 
west of the ruined buildings of El Poso, prepared gun pits and opened 
fire on San Juan Hill. Firing, promptly answered by the enemy with 
shrapnel, continued for an 'hour or more and then Wheeler's division 
was put in march toward Santiago. Under the direction of General 
Sumner, who held temporary command, owing to General Wheeler's 
illness, it crossed the Aguadores, turned to the right in the. face of a 
galling volley fire from the enemy and went into position. Kent's divi- 
sion followed Wheeler's across the stream, advanced in close order under 
a severe enfilading fire, turned off to the left and formed for an attack. 

Kent's advance, though skillfully directed, was not accomplished 
without heavy loss. The enemy's' infantry fire, steadily increasing in 
intensity, came from all directions, not only from the front and the 
dense tropical thickets on the American flanks, but from sharpshooters, 
thickly ported in trees in the rear. While the Third Brigade, con- 
sisting of the Ninth, Thirteenth and Twenty-fourth Infantry, was de- 
ploying into position, its commander, Colonel WikpfE, was killed. Com- 
mand of the brigade then devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Worth, 
who immediately fell, severely wounded, and then upon Lieutenant- 
Colonel Liscum. Five minutes later Liscum also fell, under the eneniy's 
withering fire, and Lieutenant-Colonel Evers was left in command of 
the brigade. 

Meanwhile, General Kent had sent an aid to hurry forward the 
Second Brigade, under Colonel Pearson, which was bringing up the 
rear. The Tenth and Second Infantry of this brigade, coming forward 
in good order, were directed to follow the Third Brigade, while the 
'twenty-first Infantry, the remaining i*egiment of the brigade, was sent 
to join the First Brigade, consisting of the Sixth and Sixteenth In- 
fantry and the Seventy-first New York Volunteers, under Brigadier- 
(jeneral Hawkins, who had formed in the right of the division. These 
movements were successfully executed and Colonel Pearson, forming 
in the left of the division, passed over a knoll in his front, ascended 


a high ridge beyond and drove the Spaniards back in the direction of 
their trenches. « 

Before this movement was executed the Third Brigade, connecting 
with Hawkins' on the right, had begun and carrifed out the most des- 
perate and heroic charge of the war. The object of this charge was a 
blockhouse on the top of San Juan Hill,^ guarded by trenches and other 
defenses a mile and a half long. In arranging these defenses the Span- ^ 
iards had made generous use of barbed wire fencing, which proved 
most effective as a stop to the American advance. It was used in two 
ways. Wire was stretched near the ground to trip up our men when 
on the run. Beyond them were fences in parallel lines, some too high 
to be vaulted over. The wires were placed so close together that they 
had to be separated before an ordinary wire-cutter could be forced 
between them. These defenses were laid in cultivated valleys and 
other open spaces which lay under the fire of the intreflchments. 
Every fence compelled a momentary halt on the part of our men, and 
during those moments they were exposed to a pitiless fire from all sides. 

The most effective defenses of San Juan, however, were the steep 
sides of the hill and the rifle pits surmounting them. It seems almost 
incredible that the Americans, could have scaled those heights under 
fire from rapid loading magazine guns. But they did. General Haw- 
kins, placing himself between the two regiments leading his brigade, 
the Sixth and Sixteenth Infantry, urged and led them by voice and 
bugle call through a zone of most destructive fire and up the steep 
and difficult hill. The Thirteenthj Sixteenth and Twenty-fourth In- 
fantry also shared in the charge. It, was one thing to give orders in 
the jungle between El Poso and San Juan; it was another thing to 
make them known and get them executed. To many an officer who 
took part in the charge the memory of his experiences is vague and 
baffling. He only knows that he moved forward, forward, ever for- 
ward, through labyrinth and hail of bullets; that he lost sight of his 
brother officers and ultimately found himself on San Juan, with per- 
haps half his own company and some men of another. In the excite- 
ment of the moment each, company commander was oblivious of what 
others were doing and yet there was unanimity of action. 

The regiments that suffered the heaviest losses were the Thirteenth 
and Twenty-fourth. It was a detachment of seventy-five men from 
the latter regiment, under Captain Ducat and Lieutenant Lyon, that 
captured the blockhouse in the final charge. Of the seventy-five men 


who started up^ the hill more than one-half were killed or wounded. 
The blockhouse stood at the top of the hill, fa.cing the pathway leading 
up to it. Ducat's troopers, firing as they ran, rushed up the hill in a 
storm of bullets. Neither Ducat nor Lyon reached the blockhouse, 
both falling wounded on the slope; but their fall did not stay the on- 
ward rush of their men for a moment. The Spaniards, dismayed by the 
daring of the Americans, retreated from the blockhouse, leaving it to 
Ducat's men, and thus opening up the way for the carrying of the posi 
tion by assault. 

Coincident with the movements just described Wheeler's dis 
mounted cavalry, with the Tenth and the Kough Riders in the van 
had charged San Juan on the right and. reached the crest of the hill 
at about the same time as did the infantry. Lieutenant ^Colonel Eoose 
velt rode at the head of the Kough Riders, mounted high on horseback 
and charging the rifle pits at a gallop. He wore on his sombrero a 
blue polka dot handkerchief, which, as he advanced, floated out straight 
behind his head, like a guidon. Afterward, the men of his regiment 
adopted a polka dot handkerchief as the badge of the Rough Riders. 

Hawkins and Roosevelt were the two officers most conspicuous in 
the taking of San, Juan, but it is folly, to claim that any two men, or 
any one man, was more brave or daring, or Showed greater courage in 
that slow, stubborn advance than did any of the others. Some one 
asked an officer if he had any difficulty in raaking his men follow him. 
"No," he answered, "I had some difficulty in keeping up with them. 
Indeed, we had as little to do as the referee at a prize fight. We called 
'Tim*' and the men did the fighting." 


The night of July 1st found the Americans holding both San Juan 
and El Caney, and General Shafter was able to telegraph that he had 
carried all the outworks and was within three-quarters of a mile of the 
city. The enemy's lines were broken in the principal places, but he 
yielded no more than was forced from him, and fighting was resumed on 
July 2d. Close of that day found our left flank resting on the bay and 
our lines drawn around the city within easy gun fire. Fears were 
entertained that the enemy would evacuate the plade, and the right 
flank was pushed around to the north and eventually to the northwest 
of the city. 


These operations extended the lines so much that the need of more 
troops to hold them wa^ instantly felt. Accordingly, General Shatter 
telegraphed for reinforcements, which were hurried forward — 6,000 
men reaching him within eight days after the battle. With these the 
city was completely invested from Caimanes on the northwest to the 
bay south of Santiago. Siege guns were brought up and pl9,ced in posi- 
tion, reinforcements of field artillery arrived, entrenchments were 
thrown up and every preparation made for a quick reduction of the 
place by bombardment. ' On Sunday, July 3d, Admiral Cervera tried to 
run past the American ^eet, but lost all his vessels, and was taken 
prisoner, and on the same day General Shafter demanded the surrender 
of Santiago, on pain of bombardment. 

This demand was refused by General Jose Toral, commanding in 
the city, and the foreign consuls in Santiago then requested that the 
bombardment should be delayed until the foreign' residents had been 
removed to places of safety, in and beyond the American lines. This 
request was granted and a truce was allowed, which continued until 
July 9, when General Shafter renewed his demand fo,r surrender, again 
threatening to bombard. General Toral offered to evacuate the city 
provided he were allowed to do so with men and arms. This was re- 
fused by General Shafter, and on July 11, the army and fleet opened 
fire on the city; Some little damage was done by the heavy shots of 
the warships, but the Spaniards kept well within their trenches, and 
the only casualties were three Americans wounded. 

General Miles arrived in front of Santiago on July 12th, having 
left Tampa four days before, and as a result of his urging, a meeting 
was held between the lines, at which General Toral and Generals 
Shafter and Wheeler discussed the terms of capitulation. Further 
negotiations followed and on July 16th these terms were reached: 
Twenty thousand refugees to go back to Santiago; an American in- 
fantry patrol on roads surrounding the city; our hospital corps to give 
attention to sick and wounded Spanish soldiers; all Spanish troops in 
the province of Santiago, except 10,000 at Holguin, to come to the city 
to surrender; the guns and defenses of Santiago to be turned over to 
the Americans in good condition; Spanish troops to surrender their 
arms; all Spaniards to be conveyed to Spain and to take portable 
church property, and Spaniards to co-operate with Americans in de- 
stroying harbor mines. 

This surrender covered one-tenth of the island of Cuba and the 


surrender of more than 20,000 Spanish troops. It was formally com- 
pleted on July 17th and the American troops took possession of San- 
tiago. "Upon coming into the city," telegraphed General Shafter, "I 
discovered a perfect entanglement of defenses. Fighting as the Span- 
iards did the first day, it would have cost 5,000 lives to have taken it." 
As it was, this important victory, with its substantial fruits of conquest, 
was won by a loss of 1,593 men .killed, wounded and missing. Lawton, 
in the severe fighting around El Caney, lost 410 men, Kent lost 859 men 
in the still more severe assault on San Juan and the other conflicts 
'of the center. The cavalry lost 285 men, many of whom fell at San 
Juan. In a military sense, our victory had not been dearly bought. 
Combined with the loss of the Spam,sh fleet, it had led to an important 
capitulation, and, as events proved, materially hastened the end of the 



T WAS NOT UNTIL nearly two weeks after the 
army landed that it was possible to place on shore 
three days' supplies in excess of those required for 
the daily consumption. On June 30th I recoh- 
noitered the country about Santiago and made 
my plan- of attack. From a high hill, from which 
the city was in plain view, I could see the San 
Juan Hill and the country about El Caney. The 
roads were very poor, and indeed little better 
than bridle paths until the San Juan River and 
El Caney were reached. 

Lawton's division, assisted by Capron's light battery, .was ordered 
to move out during the afternoon toward El Caney, to begin the at- 
tack there early the next morning. After carrying El Caney, Lawton 
was to move by the Caney road toward Santiago and take position on 
the right of the line. Wheeler's division of dismounted cavalry and 
Kent's division of infantry were directed on the Santiago road, the head 
of the column resting near El Poso, toward which heights Grimes' 
battery moved on the afternoon of the 30th, with orders to take posi- 
tion there early on the next morning, and at the proper time prepare 
the way for the advance of Wheeler and Kent on San Juan Hill. The 
attack at this point was to be delayed until Lawton's guns were heard 
at El Caney and until his infantry fire showed he had become well en- 

The preparations were far from what I desired them to be, but we 
were in a sickly climate; our supplies had to be brought forward by a 
narrow wagon road, which the rains might at any time render im- 
passable; fear was also entertained that a storm might drive the ves- 


sels containing our stores to sea, thus separating us from our base of 

Lastly, it was reported that General Pando, with 8,000 le-enforce- 
mients for the enemy, was en route from Manzanillo and might be ex- 
pected in a few days. Under these conditions I determined to give bat- 
tle without delay. 

Early on the morning of July 1st Lawton was in position around 
El Caney^ Chaffee's brigade on the right, across the Guantanamo road; 
Miles' brigade in the center, and Ludlow's on the left. The duty of cut- 
ting off the enemy's retreat along the Santiago road was assigned to 
the latter brigade. 

The artillery opened on the town at 6:15 A. M. The battle here 
soon became general, and was hotly contested. The enemy's position 
was naturally strong and was rendered more so by blockhouses, a stone 
fort and intrenchments cut in solid rock and the loopholing of a solidly 
built stone church. The opposition offered by the enemy was greater 
than had been anticipated and prevented Lawton from joining the right 
of the main line during the day, as had been intended. 

After the battle had continued for some time Bates' brigade of 
two regiments reached my headquarters from Siboney. I directed him 
to move near El Caney, to giye assistance, if necessary. He did so and 
was put in position between Miles and Chaffee. The battle continued 
with varying intensity during most of the day and until the place was 
carried by assault about 4:30 P. M. As the Spaniards endeavored to 
retreat along the Santiago road Ludlow's position enabled him to do 
very effective work and practically to cut off all retreat in that direction. 

After the battle at El Caney was well opened and the sound of the 
small arm fire caused us to believe that Lawton was driving the enemy 
before him, I directed Grimes' battery to open fire from the heights 
of El Poso on the San Juan blockhouse, which could be seen situated 
in the enemy's intrenchments extending along the crest of San Juan 
Hill. This fire was effective and the enemy could be seen running away 
from the vicinity of the blockhouse. 

The artillery fire from El Poso was soon returned by the enemy's 
artillery. They evidently had the range of this hill and their first shells 
killed and wounded several men. As the Spaniards used smokeless 
powder it was very difficult to locate the position of their pieces, while, 
on the contrary, the smoke caijsed by our black powder plainly indi- 
cated the position of our battery. 


At this time the cavalry, under General Sumner, which was lying 
concealed in the general vicinity of El Poso, was ordered forward, with 
directions to cross the San Juan Kiver and deploy to the right on the 
Santiago side^, while Kent's division was to follow closely in its 
rear and deploy to the left. These troops moved forward in com- 
pliance with orders, but the road was so narrow as to render it im- 
practicable to retain the column of-fours formation at all points, while 
the undergrowth on either side was so dense as to preclude the possi- 
bility of deploying skirmishers. It naturally resulted that the progress 
made was slow, and the long-range rifles of the enemy's infantry killed 
and wounded! a number of our men while marching along this road, 
and before there was any opportunity to return this fire. At this time 
Generals Kent and Sumner were ordered to push forward with all pos- 
sible haste and place their troops in position to engage the enemy. 
General Kent, with this end in view, forced the head of his column 
alongside of the cavalry column as far as the narrow trail permitted^ 
and thus hurried his arrival at the San Juan and the formation beyond 
that stream. 

A few hundred yards before reaching the San Juan the road forks, 
a fact that was discovered by Lieutenant-Colonel Derby of my staff, 
who had approached well to the front in a war balloon. This informa- 
tion he furnished to the troOps, resulting in Sumner moving on the 
right-hand road, while Kent was enabled to utilize the road to the left. 

General Wheeler, the permanent commander of the cavalry di- 
vision, who had been ill, came forward during the morning and later 
returned to duty and rendered most gallant and efficient service during 
the remainder of the day. 

After crossing the stream, the cavalry moved to the right with a 
view of connecting with Lawton's left when he could come up, and with 
their left resting near the Santiago road. In the meantime, Kent's 
division, with the exception of two regiments of Hawkins' brigade, 
being thus uncovered, moved rapidly to the front from the forks previ- 
ously mentioned, in the road, utilizing both trails, but more especially 
the one to the left, and, crossing the creek, formed for attack in the front 
of San Juan Hill. During this formation the Second brigade suffered 
severely. While personally superintending this movement, its gallant 
commander. Colonel Wikoff, was killed. The command of the brigade 
then devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Worth, Thirteenth Infantry, 
who was soon severely wounded, and next upon Lieutenant-Colonel Lis- 


cum, Twenty-fourth Infantry, who, five minutes later, also fell under 
the terrible fire of the enemy, and the command of the brigade then 
devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Ewers, Ninth Infantry. 

While the formation just described was taking place, Kent took 
measures to hurry forward his rear brigade. The Tenth and Second 
Infantry were ordered to follow Wikoff's brigade, while the Twenty- 
first was sent on the right hand road to support the First Brigade, 
under General Hawkins, who had crossed the stream and formed on 
the right of the division. The Second and Tenth Infantry, Colonel E, P. 
Pearson commanding, moved forward in good order on the left of the 
division, passed over a green knoll and drove the enemy back toward 
his trenches. 

After completing the formation under a destructive fire and ad- 
vancing a short distance, both divisions found in their front a wide 
bottom in which had been placed a barbed wire entanglement, and 
beyond which there was a high hill, along the crest of which the enemy 
was strongly posted. Nothing daunted, these gallant men pushed on 
-to drive the enemy from this chosen position, both divisions losing 
heavily. In this assault Colonel Hamilton and Lieutenants Smith and 
Shipp were killed, and Colonel CarroU, Lieutenants Thayer and Myer, 
all in the cavalry, were wcmnded. 

Great credit is due to Brigadier-General H. S. Hawkins, who, plac- 
ing himself between his regiments, urged them on by voice and bugle 
calls to the attack so brilliantly executed. 

In this fierce encounter words fail to do justice to the gallant regi- 
. mental commanders and heroic men, for while the Generals indicated 
the formations and the points of attack, it was after all the intrepid 
bravery of officers and men that planted our colors on the crest of San 
Juan Hill and drove the enemy from his trenches and blockhouses, thus 
gaining a position which sealed the fate of Santiago. 

In this action on this part of the field most efficient service was 
rendered by Lieutenant John H. Parker, Thirteenth Infantry, and the 
Catling gun detachment under his command. The fighting continued at 
intervals until nightfall, but our men held resolutely to the positions 
gained at the cost of so much blood and toil. 

I am greatly indebted to General Wheeler, who, as previously 
stated, returned from the sick list to duty during the afternoon. His 
cheerfulness and aggressiveness made itself felt on this part of the 


battlefield and the information he furnished to me at various stages of 
the battle proved to be most useful. 

My own health was impaired by. overexertion in. the sun and in- 
tense heat of tlie day before, which prevented me from participating 
as actively in the battle as I desired ; but from a high hill near my iiead- 
quarters I had a general view of the battlefielij, extending from El 
Caney on the right to the left of our lines on San Juan Hill. 

General Duffleld, with the Thirty-third Michigan, attacked 
Aguadores, as ordered, but was unable to accomplish more than to 
detain the Spaniards in that vicinity. On the night of July 1st I ordered 
General Duffield at Siboney to send forward the Thirty-fourth Michigan 
and the Ninth Massachusetts, both of which had just arrived from the 
United States. These regiments reached the front the next morning. 

All day on the 2d the battle raged with more or less fury, but such 
of our trtfops as were in position at daylight held their ground and 
Lawton gained a strong and commanding position on the right About 
10 P. M. the enemy made a vigorous assault to break through my lines, 
but he was repulsed at all points. 


On the morning of the 3d the battle was renewed, but the enemy 
seemed to have expended his energy in the assault of the previous night 
and the firing along the lines was desultory until stopped by my sending 
a letter within the Spanish lines demanding the surrender of the city. 

I was of the opinion that the Spaniards would surrender if given 
a little time, and I thought this result would be hastened if the men of 
their army could be made to understand they would be well treated as 
prisoners of war. Acting upon this presumption, I determined to offer 
to return all the wounded Spanish ofiicers at El Caney who were able 
to bear transportation and who were willing to give their paroles not 
to serve against the forces of the United States until regularly ex- 
changed. This offer was made and accepted. These officers, as well 
as several of the wounded Spanish privates, twenty-seven in all, were 
sent to their lines under the escort of some of our mounted cavalry. 
Our troops were received with honors, and I have every reason to be- 
lieve the return of the Spanish prisoners produced a good impression 
on their comrades. 



The cessation of firing about noon on the 3d practically terminated 
the battle of Santiago; all that occurred after this time may properly 
be treated under the head of the siege which followed. After deducting 
the detachments retained at Siboney and Baquiri to render those de- 
pots secure from attack, organisjations held to protect our flanks, others 
acting as escorts and guards to light batteries, the members of the hos- 
pital corps, guards left in charge of blanket rolls which the intense heat 
caused the men to cast aside before entering battle, orderlies, etc., it 
is doubtful if we had more than 12,000 men on the firing line on July 
1st, when the battle was fiercest and when the important and strong 
positions of El Caney and San Juan were captured. 

A few Cubans assisted in the attack at El Caney and fought 
valiantly, but, their numbers were too small materially to change the 
' strength, as indicated above. The enemy confronted us with numbers 
about equal to our own; they fought obstinately in strong and in- 
trenched positions, and the results obtained clearly indicate the in- 
trepid gallantry of the company pfflcei^s and men, and the benefits de- 
rived from the careful training and instruction given in the company 
in recent years in rifle pra.ctice and other battle exercises. Our losses 
in these battles were twenty-two officers and 208 men killed, and 
eighty-one officers and 1,203 men wounded; missing, seventy-nine. The 
missing, with few exceptions, reported later — eleven. 

General Garcia, with between 4,000 and 5,000 Cubans, was in- 
trusted with the duty of watching for and intercepting the re-enforce- 
ments expected. This, however, he failed to do, and Escario passed into 
the city on my extreme right and near the bay. 

After the. destruction of Cervera's fleet I informed Admiral Samp- 
son that if he would force his way into the harbor the city would sur- 
render without any further sacrifice of life. Commodore Watson replied 
that Admiral Sampson was temporarily absent, but that in his (Wat- 
son's) opinion the navy should not enter the harbor. The strength of 
the enemy's position was such I did not wish to assault if it could be 
avoided. An examination of the enemy's works, made after the sur- 
render, fully justifies the wisdom of the course adopted. The intrench- 
ments could only have been carried with very great loss of life. 

The engagement was reopened on the 10th, and on the 11th the 


surrender of the city was again demanded. By this date the sickness 
in the army was increasing very rapidly, as a result of exposure in the 
trenches to the inteng^e heat of the sun and the heavy rains. Moreover, 
the dews in Cuba are almost equal to rains. The weakness' of the 
troops was becoming so apparent I was anxious to bring the siege to an 
end, but in common with most of the officers of the army I did not 
think an assault would be justifiable, especially as the enemy seemed 
to be acting in good faith in the preliminary propositions to surrender. 
* * * July 12th I informed the Spanish commander that Major- 
General Miles, Clommander-in-Chief of the Anierican Army, had just 
arrived in my camp, and requested him to grant us a personal inter- 
view on the following day. He replied he would be pleased to m^t 
us. The interview took place on the 13th, and I informed him his sur- 
render only could be considered, and that as he was without hope of 
escape he had no right to continue the fight. 

On July 14th General Toral agreed tp surrender, and on July 16th 
I notified the Adjutant-General at Washington of the terms of capitu-' 

On July 17th the occupation of Santiago was announced in the 
following telegram: 

"Santiago de Cuba, July 17th. 
"Adjutant-General U. S. A., Washington: " 

"I have the honor to announce that the American flag has been this 
instant, 12 o'clock noon, hoisted over the house of the civil government 
in the city of Santiago. An immense concourse of people prtesent. A 
squadron of cavalry and a regiment of infantry presenting arms and 
band playing national airs. Light battery fired salute twenty-one guns. 
Perfect order is being maintained by municipal government. Distress 
is very great, but little sickness in town. Scarcely any yellow fever. A 
small gunboat and about two hundred seamen left by Oervera have 
surrendered to me. Obstructions are being removed from the mouth 
of harbor. Upon "coming into the city I discovered a perfect entangle- 
ment of defence. Fighting as the Spaniards did the first day it would 
have cost 5,000 lives to have taken it. Battalion of Spanish troops de- 
positing arms since daylight in armory, over which I have a guard. Gen- 
eral Toral formally surrendered the Plaza and all stores at 9 A. M. 

"W. R. SHAFTER, Major-General." 

Before closing I wish to dwell upon the natural obstacles I had to 
encounter and which no foresight could have overcome or obviated. 


The rocky and precipitous coast afeorded no sheltered landing places, 
the roads were mere bridle paths, the effect of the tropical' sun and rains 
upon unacclimated troops was deadly, and a dread of strange and un- 
known diseases had its effect on the army. At Baquiri the landing of 
the troops and stores was made at a small wooden wharf, which the 
Spaniards tried to burn, but unsuccessfully, and the animals were 
push(id into the water and guided to a sandy beach about 200 yards in 
extent. At Siboney the landing was made on the beach and at a small 
wharf erected by the engineers. 

I had neither the time nor the men to spare to construct perma- 
nent wharves. In spite of the fact that I had nearly 1,000 men continu- 
ously at work on the roads, they were at times impassable for wagons. 
The San Juan and Aguadores Rivers would often suddenly rise so as 
to prevent the passage of wagons, and then the eight pack trains with 
the command had to be depended upon for the victualing of my army, 
as well as the 20,000 refugees who could not in the interests of humanity 
be left to starve while we had rations. Often for days nothing could 
be moved except on pack trains. After the great physical strain and 
exposure of July 1st and 2d, the malarial and other fevers began to 
rapidly advance throughout the command, and on July 4th the yellow 
fever appeared at Siboney. Though efforts were made to keep this 
fact from the army, it soon became known. 

The supply of quartermaster and commissary stores during the cam- 
paign was abundant, and notwithstanding the difficulties in landing 
and transporting the rations the troops on the firing line were at all 
times supplied with its coarser components, namely^ of bread, meat, 
sugar and coffee. There was no lack of transportation, for at no time up 
to the surrender could all the wagons I had be used. 

In reference to the sick and wounded I have to say that they re- 
ceived every attention that it was possible to give them. The medical 
officers without exception worked night and day to alleviate the suffer- 
ing, which was no greater than invariably accompanies a campaign. It 
would have been better if we had had more ambulances, but as many 
were taken as was thought necessary, judging from previous campaigns. 

The discipline of the command was superb, and I wish to invite at- 
tention to the fact that not an officer was brought to trial by court- 
martial, and, as far as I know, no enlisted man. This speaks volumes 
for an army of this size and in a campaign of such duration. 

In conclusion, I desire to express to the members of my staff my 


thanks for their efficient performance of all the duties required of them, 
and the good judgment and bravery displayed on all occasions when, 


General Shafter, on August 22d, cabled to Washington a" docu- 
ment entirely unique in the annals of warfare. It is in the form of a 
congratulatpry farewell address issued to the soldiers of the American 
Army by Pedro Lopez de Castillo, a private Spanish soldier, on behalf 
of 11,000 Spanish soldiers. No similar document perhaps was ever be- 
fore issued to a victorious army by a vanquished enemy. 

The President was much impressed by the address, and after read- 
ing it carefully authorized its publication. 


Following is the text of the address as cabled by General Shafter: 

"SANTIAGO, August 22d.^H. C. Corbin, Adjutant-General U. S. 
Army, Washington: The following letter has just been received from 
the soldiers now embarking for Spain: 

« 'To MAJOR-GENERAL SHAFTER, Commanding the American 
Army in Cuba, Sir: The Spanish soldiers who capitulated in this 
place on the 16th of July last, recognizing your high and just position, 
pray that through you, all the courageous and noble soldiers under your 
command may receive our good wishes and farewell, which we send 
them on embarking for our beloved Spain. For this favor, which we 
have no doubt you will grant, you will gain the everlasting gratitude and 
consideration of 11,000 Spanish soldiers vpho are your most humble 

" 'Private of Infantry.' 

"Also the following letter addressed to the soldiers of the American 

"'Soldiers of the American Army: We would not be fulfilling 


our duty as well-born men, in whose breasts there live gratitude and 
courtesy, should we embark for our beloved Spain without sending to 
you our most cordial and good wishes and farewell. We fought you 
with ardor, with all our strength, endeavoring to gain the victory, but 
without the slightest rancor or hate towaxd the American nation. We 
have been vanquished by you (so our Generals and chiefs judged in 
signing the capitulation), but our surrender and the bloody battles pre- 
ceding it have left in our hearts no place for resentment against the 
men who fought us nobly and valiantly. You fought and acted in com- 
pliance with the same call of duty as we, for we all but represent the 
power of our respective states. 

" 'You fought us as men, face to face, and with great courage, as 
before stated, a quality which we had not met with during the three 
years we have carried on this war against a people without religion, 
without morals, without conscience, and of doubtful origin, who could 
not confront the enemy, but, hidden, shot their noble victims from 
ambush and then immediately fled. This was the kind of warfare we 
had to sustain in this unfortunate land. You have complied exactly 
with all the laws and usages of war as recognized by the armies of 
the most civilized nations of the world; have given honorable burial 
to the dead of the vanquished; have cured their wounded with great 
humanity; have respected and cared for your prisoners and their com- 
fort, and, lastly, to us, whose condition was terrible, you have given 
freely of food, of your stock of medicines, and you have honored us 
with distinction and courtesy, for after the fighting the two armies 
mingled with the utmost harmony. 

" 'With this high sentiment of appreciation from us all, there re- 
mains but to express our farewell, and with the greatest sincerity we 
wish you all happiness and health in this land, which will no longer 
belong to our dear Spain, but will be yours, who have conquered it by 
force and watered it with your blood, as your conscience called for, un- 
der the demand of civilization and humanity, but the descendants of the 
Congo and of Guinea, mingled with the blood of unscrupulous Span- 
iards and of. traitors and of adventurers, these people are not able to 
exercise or enjoy their liberty, for they will a burden to comply 
with the laws which govern civilized communities. 

"'From 11,000 Spanish soldiers. 

" 'Soldier of Infantry, Santiago de Cuba, August 21, 1898.' " 


LOSE ^statistical calculation of the amount of 
metal used in the civil war between our States 
led to the belief that though the casualties on 
both sides were appalling, yet it had taken about 
a ton of lead to kill each man. The same sort Of 
figuring of the missiles used and their results in 
the battles among the hills of Santiago would 
undoubtedly show that the amount of ammunition 
expended for each man killed was far in excess of the old estimate. 
A careful calculator has put it in a new light, figuring that the 
strain required in firing 100 rounds of Krag-Jorgensen cartridges is 
equal to a day's work with pick and shovel. This is undoubtedly far- 
fetched, but must be considered in an estimate of the terrific labors of 
the United States soldiers fighting at Santiago, Porto Hico and in the 

Shafter's men were not only under the excitement of battle, when 
one saw his chum fall back torn with a Mauser and could not but feel 
that his turn was. close at hand, but in digging the trenches they were 
nauseated by the odor of the decaying vegetation of the tropical soil, 
and were alternately soaked in cloud-bursts, followed by intense h^at 
and cold, until the strain was far beyond what one who was not there 
can imagine or will readily believe. 

The problem of keeping the troops supplied with ammunition, when 
it was being used as the small boy does in the early part of the Fourth of 
July, was a tremendous one and necessitated the expenditure of every 
effort to get it to the front in preference to rations or anything else. 
The soldiers could eat later. For the time being they must fight, and 
ammunition was the essential rather than food. This fact in itself led 
to frightful hardships, which, added to the horrors of the "rainy season," 
made the work greater than ordinary soldiers could stand, but the 
American troops were not ordinary. They amazed the vetera'n ob- 
servers of Europe, who have since gone home properly informed and 



well-disposed to our nation. One of the wonderful things to them, 
which they have not ceased talking about, is that the percentage of loss, 
including those who died in the camps and on the ifield, the loss of 
Americans officers and men out of a total of 274,717 was but 2,910, or 
the small percentage of 1.59-1,000. 

A German officer, who had watched the fighting with the greatest 
interest, while loud in his praise of the troops, was especially impressed 
with the wonderful nerve of the army packers and the splendid- stay- 
ing qualities of the army mule. The men brought the ammunition cases 
right up to the trenches and were in even greater danger than the 
soldiers. Throughout the fighting they were as cool as expressmen de- 
livering parcels at fashionable residences, and though a number of them 
were struck, yet the rest were in no way disturbed. There was no glory 
in it for them. They were simply doing their duty. ' 

The soldier of the Kaiser went home impressed with the soldiers 
and packers and with very serious ideas as to the value of the army 
mule. He had seen and estimated his eccentricities, but he had also 
seen and appreciated the mule's capacity as a pack animal and in the 
wagon train, his ability to do heavy work with little or nothing to eat 
or drink. The likelihood is that the Southern mule will see service on 
the Continent. Whether he will Appreciate hi^ trip abroad or be ordi- 
narily docile in foreign land's remains to be seen, for there is a belief 
in this country that it takes a Southern negro, or an easy-going South- 
westerner, to get the best work out of a mule. 


abundantly proven on the battlefields of Cuba, 
Porto Rico and the Philippines., The martial spirit 
born in the nation's great military school made 
splendid soldiers of the officers, whose personal 
courage was backed and made irresistible by their 
learning in the arts of warfare. In few wars has 
the percentage in loss of officers been so great, 
for in many of the engagements it was necessary 
that they should be outside the trenches to prop- 
erly direct the fire of the men, note results and the enemy's movements 
and by their own exposure and courage inspire the soldiers to the utmost 
bravery. Then, too, the Spanish sharpshooters made a point of directing 
their fire against the officers. In the charges the bearers of Government 
commissions, the graduates ,of West Point, led the way and many of 
them fell to add their names to the glorious list of their Alma Mater, 
that tells of her sons who died that their country might live. 

Lieutenant Edward N. Benchley was one of the class hurriedly 
graduated in the spring of the declaration of hostilities, that the lack 
of regular officers might be filled. About the time he would have grad- 
uated he was in a soldier's grave. It is gratifying to know that the 
memory of this gallant soldier is to be honored in his native city of 
Worcester, Massachusetts, by a bust which is to occupy a conspicuous 
place in one of the public buildings of Worcester. The bust is an ex- 
cellent likeness and reflects great credit upon its sculptor, Timothy J. 
McAuliffe, of Worcester. 

Lieutenant Benchley was graduated from West Point last spring 
and immediately joined Company E, Sixth Infantry. He won the 
confidence of his superior officers, and when struck by the fatal bullet 
was engaged upon an important mission, which carried him where the 
fire was most relentless. His conduct was heroic; if he had lived he 
would have been brevetted for gallantry in action, 




^LOCKADING was not as stupid a form of duty as 
might be carelessly supposed. There were thrill- 
ing moments on the ships assigned to see that the 
Spaniards in Cuba did not receive aid from the 
outside. There was in addition the chance of 
large pecuniary reward, not forgotten by the look- 
out, and in the uncertainty as to the whereabouts 
of the Spanish navy with its "phantom" fleets 
there was excitement enough to render blockade 
duty most interesting. 

As an instance, on August 2d, the United States steamship Ban- 
croft sighted a schooner inside a bay, about four miles distant; lowered 
the steam launch with a 1-ponnder gun and armed crew, in charge of 
Ensign W. W. Phelps, who captured and brought her out. She was 
quite small and named the Nipe. Another vessel was seen farther in 
and the Maple boat pursued her, but was unable to follow on account 
of darkness, though Lieutenant Southerland ran boldly, until he was in 
.fourteen feet of water. During the night heavy storms were experi- 
enced and the Bancroft dragged off the shoal ledge. 

The fpllowing morning, the sea being too rough to sound out a 
deep passage in, the Bancroft, with prize in tow and Eagle in com- 
pany, proceeded to the westward to communicate with a Cuban camp, 
and when opposite to Cortes Bay sent her prize into anchorage with two 
armed men, so that the Nipe should not have information of the loca- 
tion of the Ouba,ns; but from later information as to the methods of 
campaigning between Spaniards in the towns and the Cubans outside, 
this was found to have been an unnecessary precaution. On arriving 
off the Cuban camp the sea was too heavy to communicate, so in com- 
pany with the Maple, which had come out to meet the Bancroft, she pro- 
ceeded into Cortes Bay for a conference. 

On approaching anchorage the commander was surprised to see 
his prize well inshore flying Spanish colors, and two boats approach- 
ing her, and a few minutes later two men, John Nevis, gunner's mate, 
third class, and Valdemar Holmgren, seaman, were seen at the stern of 



the vessel and the Spaniards forward. The Maple, which drew but 
eight feet of water, went to the rescue. On her return it was found that 
the two Americans had captured six prisoners, the Spanish flag haiv- 
ing been used to draw them within range of, their rifles. 

This incident, cabled to Spain, struck the Castilians as being out- 
rageous. Indeed> it was the constant protest of the Spaniards that the 
Americans did not fight "fair." They had evidently never heard that 
"all is fair in love and war," The outraged feelings of the Spaniards 
was expressed in the caricatures of the Spanish papers. They were in 
a state of mind and had to portray their enemy as a pig, a form pf sar- 
casm they thought cutting. 


The national bravery of the American seaman and willingness, to 
tackle a battleship with even so frail a vessel as a tug was well shown 
on more than one occasion. The lighthouse tender Mangrove, selected 
as useful in cable-cutting, was lying off Havana on April 15th. There 
was nothing formidable about her with the exception of her crew, un- 
der Lieutenant-Commander W. H. Everett. It was an inky night, when 
suddenly there appeared the lights of a steamer. No one knew what 
she might be, but that made no difference. She might prove the much- 
looked for Panama, laden with ammunition, provisions and Spaniards. 
She had sailed from New York just before the war broke out. Every 
vessel in the navy had been looking for her. 

The little Mangrove fired twi,ce from her two 6-pounders across 
the stranger's bow, bringing her to. She proved to be the Panama, as 
had been hoped, and Ensign Dayton, having borrowed a pistol from one 
of the crew, boardedher. The prize did not prove to be anywhere near 
the value imagined and sold for but |41,000, This was divided with 
the Indiana, she having supplied a prize crew. 

The cruiser Nashville, one of the old pattern of the new navy, light 
armored and moderately armed and of no especial speed, was at her 
assigned station in the blockade, leisurely patrolling her beat, when out 
of the early morning haze a big warship suddenly loomed up on the 
horizon. She carried no flag and the men of the Nashville were cer- 
tain that she must be a Spaniard attempting to run the blockade. The 
disparity in power of the boats did not bother officers or crew. They 
were far enough away to have swung about and chased for the powerful 


and swift New York. Instead of that, under full steam and with every 
man at his post, ammunition ready and gunners eagerly looking out 
along the sights, the Nashville headed for the stranger. 

She proved to be the Talbot, a British cruiser, four times as big as 
the Yankee, and when the Queen's men saw the little American making 
for them with her battleflags ablaze in the first rays of the sun, they ran 
up the English flag and then cheered their -plucky assailants, who re- 
sponded with equal heartiness, though the chorus came from fewer 
throats. One of the British tars, in commenting on the nerve of the 
Yankees, remarked to his shipmate: "Bloyme me eyes! She would 
have had a David's try at Goliath if she met H, M. S. Eesolute, flying 
Spanish colors," while a gunner on the Nashville endangered his soul 
in expressing his disappointment that so flue a boat had not proven to 
be a Spaniard. Such was the American man aboard tug boEtt, yacht, 
cruiser or battleship. 

Lieutenant-Oonimander Adolph Marix, with the converted yacht 
Scorpion, afterward met the Talbot. Though the Scorpion carried but 
four 5-inch guns she ran at the Britisher just as the Nashville had done. 
Officers and men of the Talbot have been profuse in their praise of the 
Americans, for they have measured what sort of men they are. ' 

Another and more thrilling incident was when the tug Osceola, 
carrying a 6-pounder and machine gun, was conveying the transport 
Florida on the northern coast of Cuba. The Florida was loaded with 
ammunition for the Cubans and a number of the insurgents. It was one 
of those beautiful clear mornings, when the tropical seas are purple 
and the line of the horizon is as markedly distinct as a black line on 
white paper. It was where sky met ocean that two puffs of smoke 
rapidly growing into large jet-black columns were seen. Lieutenant J. 
L. Purcell was in command of the Jittle Osceola and he showed the 
courage of a Gushing. It was evident in a moment that the stranger 
was a powerful cruiser and of a type which as Purcell puts it, "I had 
never seen before and took for an enemy." He signalled the Florida 
'to make a run for the beach to unload ammunition, arms and men, 
while he would go back, stand off and give battle. As well might a 
sparrow attack an eagle as the Osceola fight this big warship with her 
lohg^ guns fairly bristling from her sides and turrets. Purcell was a 
graduate of Annapolis and knew that his task was almost absurdly 
hopeless, but it was his duty to successfully carry out the purpose of 
the expedition and there was but one thing to do. As he attempted to 


divert the attention of the enemy from the transport, raising to the 
masthead the largest flag, the crew recognized their Captain's heroic en- 
deavor and there vv^as not one that quailed, or objected to the coming 
foolhardy fight. They took their positions, remarking to one another: 
"Purcell is a daisy — hot stuff," and other expressions of admiration. 
Indeed, they forgot in their approval of him that they were just as 
brave and just as willing.. To their surprise the Stars and Stripes went 
up on the stranger. She proved to be the New Orleans, recently pur- 
chased from Great Britain. 


Commodore George W. Melville, Engineer-in-Chief of the United 
States Navy, is an authority the world over. He naturally and very 
properly believes that the engineers and firemen are deserving of the 
highest praise. Commodore Melville knows of the sufferings and hard- 
ships of the "black watch," the men who fed the fires under the boilers 
in an ^.tmosphere intolerable, and the officers who handled the great 
machines unjier the protective deck, whose operation meant life or death 
to all' hands. 

Speed as a factor in the modern warship he speaks of with no un- 
certain approval, and Commodore Melville.makes the interesting asser- 
tion that the control of the world's supply of coal will do more toward 
universal peace than any other one thing. He praises the performances 
of the Oregon with much feeling, of which the officers and men get 
their share. He has good words for the men in the turrets, and the 
credit for victories is shared with them. 

In discussing technical affairs the Commodore pleads for a uni- 
formity of design in all boats of a class as a means of quick repairs 
during a war through the providing of spare parts. He advocates re- 
pair ships like the Vulcan. He is a believer in water tube boilers, both 
for their quick steaming powers and their small component parts, which 
permits new boilers being put into a ship without tearing huge holes in 
its decks, as is necessary with the bulky marine boilers. In an article 
which appeared in the Stevens Institute Indicator and was entitled 
"The War's Teaching in Engineering," he says: 

"Naval science is, in its application to warship construction, pe- 
culiarly tentative. Keen minds the world over are turned to its study. 
There is a vast volume of theory and, comparatively, but a mere trifle of 


experience with which to check its reasoning. This is true as Well of 
the whole art of nayal war. The ironclad in action against a foe afloat 
has figured, but infrequently, on the pages of history. The brief but 
terrible experience of Lissa, of the South American wars, the Yalu, and 
the race of death at Santiago have each in turn taught something; but 
it would seem that only sea-fighting between opponents not only power- 
ful but fairly equal in strength, courage and intelligence will solve fully 
many of the problems which confront the designer of the warship and 
those who handle it in battle. 

"A distinguished strategical authority has described the naval 
tactician as 'floundering in. his bog of uncertainty,' not only with regard 
to the composition of his fleet, but as to its most effective formation in 
action. The rivalry of warship types is ceaseless. For a generation the 
relative values, in displacement, of armor, armament, and the machin- 
ery which gives speed, have been discussed. In the struggle for su- 
premacy armor and the gun have, time and again, conquered each other. 
The gun itself has had to wage a contest with its rivals, the ram and the 
torpedo; and the battleship, the backbone of the fleet, has met, in the 
proposed torpedo ram of surpassing speed, a foeman which, high naval 
authorities have* contended, is its master, if the attack be made in force. 


"Coal is the life blood of the modern warship. Without it, it lies 
inert and harmless; with it, it is a swift engine of destruction. The 
brain of the conning tower, the nerves which radiate therefrom, the 
muscle and keen intelligence of the battery and engine-room are futile 
and powerless if coal be lacking for the furnaces. The control of the 
world's greatest coal fields by two or three powerful and allied nations 
is a possible and would be a most powerful factor in seeuring that uni- 
versal peace which, at this time, it seems visionary to consider. 

"The war with Spain gave striking examples of the helplessness 
which insufficient coal supply entails. The foresight of the Navy De- 
partment placed large stocks of fuel at the disposal of our naval com- 
manders, in accessible ports, before war was declared; but the need of 
an adequate force of colliers for every battle fleet was shown to be im- 
perative. The prolonged service of our ships in the tropics, both before 
and during hostilities, made conspicuous the need of keeping^ a large 
supply of fresh water available for them. 


"Speed is one of the primary factors of warship design. In torpedo 
craft it takes paramount precedence of all other qualities; in commerce 
destroyers of the Columbia class it is given a chief place; in cruisers, 
armored or protected, it should be, as a general rule, proportional to 
the displacement; in battleships of the fighting line, which must carry 
the heaviest practicable armor and armament, its standing hitherto has 
been somewhat uncertain, especially in, the United States, where the 
contention has been made that our shallow harbors require vessels of 
light draft and that to reduce displacement while still carrying formid- 
able and well protected batteries the space allotted to machinery must 
be lessened, with a corresponding decrease- in speed. 


"Our victories on the sea were won through the efficient handling 
of ordnance and of motive machinery, The gun Captains who aimed our 
batteries, had, as a rule, passed through years of training on gunnery 
ships, and, later, in the frequent target practice which naval regula- 
tions prescribe. The schooling of eye, and nerve, and hand which the 
system gave these men was invaluable and foreshadowed the superb 
record which our guns have made. 

"With the engineers' force the case was far different. In engine 
and fireroom compartments, the strain is fully as severe as any met at 
the guns. The sight and sound of swiftly moving machinery, the 
cyclonic swirl of rushing blowersj^ the heat of roaring fires, tell heavily 
on all but well seasoned nerves and trained physiques. The necessity , 
of preliminary schooling to meet these conditions had long been fore- 
seen, and my annual reports contain recommendations that there be 
provided, as one of the essentials of a modern fleet, suitable practice 
ships for the engineers' force. 

"I venture to say that in the history of the republic there has been 
no more shining example of unwearying devotion to the flag than, in 
their ceaseless toil, in their grim endurance of suffering, these men of 
the engineer corps have shown. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine human 
beings existing in a more intolerable environment than that which pre- 
vailed in the torrid engine-rooms and stifling fire-rooms of our ships as 
they lay off the coasts of Cuba and Porto Rico and in Manila Bay, under 
the blazing sun of West Indian and South Asian seas. 



"It was amid such surroundings that the engineer personnel of 
the Oregon displayed as magnificent manhood as has ever been seen 
upon the sea in the run of that vessel from Puget Sound to Jupiter Inlet, 
a journey of over 14,500. miles, lasting seventy-nine days, during which 
there were no stops excepting for coal, and not one hour's delay through 
derangement of machinery. This record is wholly without parallel; 
it is, far and away, the most remarkable ever made by any warship of 
any navy in the world. The long run of the Oregon was not made under 
the conditions which prevail in battle. Despite the undeniable suffer- 
ing of this memorable journey, the environment of the engineers' force 
inL action was much worse. 

"It should be remembered, too, that these results were achieved 
with a force of regular engineer officers wholly inadequate for the 
work. It gives me pleasure to say that the personnel bill now pending 
in Congress, which has my strong approval, will, if enacted into law and 
honestly administered, remedy this evil." 


There was a boilermaker named Huntley on the gunboat Oastine, 
who ma!y be properly rated as a liero. The Castine on an urgent errand 
with forced draft was tearing' through rough waters, when a bolt in 
one of the boilers broke loose, filling thie furnaces with steam. There 
was imminent danger of an explosion that would make a Worse wreck 
than^the ill-fated Maine, and if this did not happen the likelihood was 
alarming that the fires would soon be put out and the Gastine, without 
headway, go down in a rough sea. The forced draft was turned off and 
the fire banked. A board was thrown over the coals and Huntley, 
hammer and monkey-wrench in hand, without a second's hesitation, 
qrawled into the cloud of steam in the red-hot^furnace. It took him 
some time to finish his^'ob and then he fainted. He was pulled out, half 
asphyxiated by the gases and overcome with the stealn and heat. 
Next day he was the most modest man at the mess and evidently em- 
barrassed by his shipmates' rough attentions. Th^ tried to kill him 
with kindness, stuffing him with the choice bits of their own fare and 
at the same time slapping him on the back in approval. " His willing- 


ness to fight stopped the crew's demonstrations, but he was a marked 
man. Officers and men looked upon him as one of distinction. 


James J. F. Archibald, the special war correspondent of Leslie's 
Weekly, says that one day when the fighting was going on fiercely and 
it was very dangerous to put up one's head to take a shot, a train 
came up to the line with a load of ammunition, and after the boxes had 
been dumped and the men were knocking off the tops and distributing 
the contents, one of the packers walked calmly up to the trenches and 
drawled : "I ain't had a crack at a greaser since we left the reservation, 
so here goes;" and with that he stepped out on the embankment and 
emptied his six-shooter at the enemy's trenches, fully a quarter of a mile 

"Well, I reckon I must uv got four out of that six," he drawled, as 
he commenced to reload. 

"You had better get down into the trench or one of them will get 
you," called a soldier. 

"Get me," he, said, contemptuously; "I never see a greaser yet thet 
could hit a bunch of cattle in a corral." 

He was becoming the target for the entire Spanish forces opposite, 
and was drawing the entire fire, so an of&cer called to him to get down, 
and at the same time told him that if he wanted to shoot he could have 
a rifle. 

"No," he said, "I ain't got time to monkey around here, for I got to 
get some grub up or you all don't eat." And off he went, telling the 
other packers how he had "done up" several of the enemy. , 

When the wounded were making their way back over the long road 
to Siboney, where their wounds might have some attention, the packers 
would allow those that were able to hold on, to ride the animals back to 
the rear, and thus save them many hours of suffering. One day I was 
riding back and overtook a train going very slowly, with a wounded man 
on every mule. When we got to the top of the "hill, almost in sight of 
the headquarters, the chief packer in charge of the train stopped and 
told the men who were riding to get off. 

"You see, I am supposed to come back like beatin' tan-bark to 

get another load, but I jus' can't go back empty, with them poor devils 
walkin'," he explained, apologetically. In a moment he was going over 


the top of the hill and down into Siboney at a gallop, yelling at the top 
of his lungs for the drivers in the rear to close up the train, and as he 
came to a stop at the quartermaster's headquarters every animal in 
the pack was puffing from the short run down the hill. Then he called 
out to one of his assistants: "Well, that's the quickest run that we 
have made in some time," which prevented any reprimand for slowness 
from the officer in conimand. Although there was not an officer in the 
Fifth Army Corps that would- reprimand the packers for assisting the 
wounded under ordinary circumstances, yet during these days, when 
transportation was scarce, it was a matter of life and death to lose even 
a little time, and the wounded were compelled to look out for them- 


Honor and the enthusiasm of battle, the exalted feeling of patriot- 
ism fill the heart of the recruit. He sees its dreadful side in battle and 
is a witness to the trials and the horrors of deadly struggles. Then there 
is the pathos that makes the bold heart shudder, the firm mouth quiver 
and fills the stern eye with tears that will not be restrained. In its 
stories of the war Leslie's Weekly tells of an incident that must bef re- 
peated in an account of the thrilling incidents of the war, for no recital 
would be true that did not represent the shadows that were cast in the 
sunshine of the Nation's glory. 

One day the pack-trai?n came up the slope that approaches the mili- 
tary crest commanding the enemy^s position, bringing a load of ammuni- 
tion to the firing-line. The fight was at its height, and as the- chief 
packer was about to ride away, after having distributed the boxes, he 
asked for one of the officers and handed him half a dozen letters, the 
first for him that had reached the front from home. The happy man 
crawled back into the trench and waved the letters to some fellow- 
officers, and jokingly taunted them on their bad luck. Then, as there 
was the serious duty of command on hand, he placed the welcome let- 
ters from home in his pocket without reading them and devoted himself 
to his duties. In less than half an hour he was dead, by a shrapnel shell 
that burst over the trench. He dropped without a sound. That night, 
when his fellow-officers prepared his body for burial by wrapping it in 
a blanket, they took the packet of letters from his pocket to send home. 

The next day one of the officers was preparing the package of the 
contents of the dead officer's pockets to send home, and as he picked up 


that little bundle of letters, still unopened, tears came to his eyes as he 
said: "Those are fi:om his wifCj and it was only yesterday morning 
that our mail came up and none came for him, and he was all broken 
up about it, and now they have arrived, but he did not see them, nor 
receive a single message from home." 

He was about to inclose them in the package wheh he was asked 
if he knew whom they were froiti, and he said that they were from his 
wife and children — ^that he knew the writing well. It was suggested by 
James A. Archibald, a thoughtful correspondent, that in this case a 
little deception would not be wrong, as it was rather hard for the fam- 
ily to have the letters go back unopened, and for them always to feel 
that he had never received any wor^i from them, so we. broke the seal 
and took out the letters and crumpled the paper a bit. In one from 
his wife there was a faded rose, the petals of which were already com- 
mencing to drop, but the fragrance was still there., 

Little did that fond wife think that this sweet token of love would 
be the only floral tribute at her loved one's burial. A message from' 
his daughter was wrapped in a small silken flag, the flag for^ which 
her father had given his life, and inside was a little package, a couple 
of inches square, daintily tied with red, white and blue ribbons, con- 
taining a four-leaf clover, but it had conie too late! 

In another envelope, all by itself, was a little half-sheet of paper 
on which there was printed in pencil, in rough, childish letters: "Dere 
papa hurry up and come home Im lonsom." And that night when the 
trumpeter sounded "laps," it had a double meaning — sl short sleep for 
the living and a long sleep for the; dead. 


^HERE has been so much said and written about 
the accuracy of the Spanish sharpshooters and 
their personal bravery jn hiding in the tree-tops 
within the American lines, notwithstanding the 
knowledge that death would follow their discov- 
ery, and that there was no hope for them, unless 
the Americans w^e defeated and driven back, 
that it is fitting to tell something of the courage 
and accuracy of the American sharpshooters. 

Whenever a Spaniard up a tree was becoming 
too deadly with his Mauser there would be volunteer and assigned hunt- 
ing parties, who, leaving the ranks, stalked for Spaniards. The tiger 
hunts of India are tame sport to the man hunt at Santiago, and it took 
a stouter heart to steal from bush to bush and through the long grass, 
where the waving tops were as signals to the foe, than it does with dirk 
in hand to face a wounded grizzly or with rifle to the shoulder to stop the 
long leap of the panther. 

It is related- that at San Juan there was being much damage done 
by a Spanish sharpshooter and that it seemed utterly impossible to de- 
stroy him, unless ammunition was to be wasted in firing at long range 
at every tree-top in sight. Private George Washington Brown, of Afri- 
can descent and crap-playing proclivities, was "shakin' de bones? in 
his tin cup with his "bunkie," Alfred Johnson, of the same ancestry 
and passion for the dice, when just as the former had thrown "seven" 
a Mauser scattered the cubes. That was too much for George Wash- 
ington. Grabbing his rifle, he begged of his Captain that he be allowed 
to hunt the Spaniard and the officer was not opposed. 

The soldier made a detour of many miles, coming up on the rear 
of where he felt certain that Spaniard was, and then, with the cunning 
he had learned as a boy seeking game in the South and had perfected 
in the Northwest as an Indian fighter, he moved, making no sound and 
scarcely breathing, though in his heart he was cursing the sharpshooter 
who had spoilt his throw of "seven" and would have done the same had 



it been "eleven." There was blood in his eye and caution in his foot- 
steps. His hunter's instinct had not failed him, for, perched high in a 
tree not fifty yards from him, was a "sho' 'nough Spaniard, 'bout to kill 
frien' Johnson," as he said to himself. 

It does not make any material difference who it was the Spaniard 
sought, for a Krag-Jorgensen bullet tore through his head and he fell 
to be counted among the missing of Spanish soldiers. Brown, too, fell, 
for a Mauser had caught him in the thigh, and it was then that his ex- 
perience with the Indians helped him. Close to him was a fallen log 
and he quickly rolled to it, dragging his gun with him and praying 
fervently that he might live long, enough to spot "dat odah one." Long 
he lay, thinking out a plan, when his quick ear caught the sound of 
rustling underbrush, and, as he afterward told the story: 

"Dat bullet jus' hurt jus' liTre de crack ob a moole-whip or a 'black- 
snake,' an' den while I was laying dah huggin' de log it burned like a 
hot pokah an' mah leg were gettin' mighty stiff like, an' afe heard de 
brush crackle agin an' ah knowed dat Spaniard wah aftah me foah cer- 
tain, an' forgot de misery in mah leg and wondahed which side de- log 
he goin' come lookin' foah a dead nigger, an' me" an' de gun wah ready 
foah him ' an' he come de right way, and we bof shot sudden, but he 
didn' shoot no moah. To be sho' indeed I knocked hiin in de head, an' 
ah snook back painful to dah lines whah de fool sentry come nigh sendin' 
me to Kingdom Come to jine dose Spaniards, an' blame if de sentry 
wahn't Jonsin." 

On another occasion a detail of six men were sent out to find an 
unusually troublesome sharpshooter. They were positive he was in a 
certain tree, which they gradually surrounded. Their instructions were 
to run no risks, but as soon as they were in fair shooting distance they 
were to blaze away at the high foliage. A Spaniard fell from the tree 
unwounded. He had lost his balance through fright. He was within 
the American lines and had killed one and wounded seven American 
soldiers. There was no mercy for him, and there is no necessity of de- 
scribing his death. He had a chance to say his prayers and he felt no 

Another scouting party was less fortunate, for two soldiers were 
killed outright and four badly wounded in ridding their fellows of one 
Spanish sharpshooter. A Lieutenant, whose men were badly bothered 
by the enemy's splendid aim and constant alertness, detailed six men 
to hunt one Spaniard. Some hours later he saw the Corporal, John 


Kelley, who had been in charge of the squad, taking his place in the 
trenches, the right side of his head smeared with blood, (roing up to 
him he' ordered the wounded man to the rear and asked him about the 
sharpshooter, to hear a pitiful tale. The Corporal's tale follows: 

"Lieutenant," he said, "we could not tell where he was, but sus- 
pected that he was in a certain bunch of trees, and as we were care- 
fully looking for him 'Biff Jones fell dead, shot between the eyes. We 
knew we were Igoking in the wrong direction, for from where he stood 
no one could have hit 'Biff' as he was shot, from those trees, and then 
Keilly fell, shot just above the ear. He, too, was dead. Then we got 
down on our bellies and crawled for some other, trees, and, sooner than 
I could tell it, both Eobinson and Hunt were stretched out badly hurt. 
Quinn and I were feeling queer, and poor Quinn he got one in the hip. 

"It wouldn't do for six of us to get licked by one Spaniard, and I 
was mad and reckless, and stood up and got it through the ear, but 
I saw Jiim, when he must have been reloading. I could not see much, 
but what I did see I, filled full of lead and he dropped. I made sure he 
was dead and came back and got help and the wounded boys are now 
at Siboney." 

Kelley, with his head bandaged, was on the firing line the next 
morning and his Gomrades swear that the way he fought proved that he 
was still thinking of his comrades, Jones and Eeilly, and the others 
in the hospital. 

It is interesting to note that not only the men of our regulars are 
scientific in handling the rifle, but that the officers whl) wear the sword- 
as a symbol of power rather than as an offensive aid, are competent 
and clever with the gun. Indeed, it is a point of particular pride with 
the officers to be, able to shoot well; nothing gives them quite the same 
hold on their men or -more quickly wins their admiration and trust. 
, At many army posts shooting matches between the officers has been a 
regular practice and a means of passing time off duty. When our few 
regulars were widely scattered over broad territories and there were 
not many officers and men in one place, there were necessarily handi- 
caps, spurring on the superior to greater perfection and encouraging 
the less skilled to trials leading to real improvement. The Government 
has not been stingy with ammunition. 

Inspector General Reade reports that First Lieutenant Charles 
Muir, Second Infantry, is of "the class of distinguished sharpshooters," 
known for ten years for his honorable identification with target prac- 


tice. He is a man who mixes brains with gunpowder and has ability be 
yond that of neatly and correctly judging "the effects of wind, light and 
shade on a projectile, also of ability to have eye and finger muscles act 
simultaneously in pulling trigger." 

While in the trenches in the battles, of Fprt San Juan he saw a 
guard of the Spanish at a range of 1,100 yards, adjusted his sights, 
United States rifle, model 92, fired twice, called his shot instantly and 
each time brought down an enemy. Members of his squad, with equal 
success, same time and range, potted a third Spaniard. 

"This is in direct line," says General Eeade, "with what I have, 
during many years past, advocated and repeatedly officially recom- 
mended. Some of our distinguished marksmen have earned all of the 
medals that orders allow and are disqualified from entering further 
small-arm competitions, but ask that each year they may be* permitted 
to compete with those of their own class, the prizes to be rifles or car- 
bines of especial manufacture, range-finders, binocular glasses, or other 
paraphernalia proper for the outfit of a marksman who is also a prac- 
tical hunter. 

"Captain George Morgan, Third Cavalry, and who is also a 
distinguished marksman. United States Army, an officer of ripened ex- 
perience in Indian warfare in Arizona, and who is, like-Lieutenant Muir, 
a very cool-headed man, of good judgment amid surroundings of excite- 
ment, says that he would have had some interesting data to furnish sup- 
porting my conviction that individual marksmanship, properly supple- 
mented, counts in battle, if he had had a proper range-finder. He says 
that in trench work, having no glass, he could not locate the point of 
impact of the bullets, even when his troops fired volleys. 

"Lieutenant Hugh D. Wise, Ninth United States Infantry, alleges 
that during the battle of July 1st he and a sharpshooter named Mcll- 
haney had their attention attracted by a Spanish officer who was con- 
spicuous because riding a white horse. Guessing at the range, 1,100 
yards, Mcllhaney opened fire upon and hit the Spaniard. Lieutenant 
Wise says that he subsequently learned that General Linares, the com- 
mander of the Santiago Spanish forces, rode a horse of that color when 
wounded, and he believes that Mcllhaney did it. Our trenches in places 
were not over 500 or 600 yards from the trenches of the enemy during 
the fusillades of the 2d and 3d of July. 

"One of our Lieutenants of artillery told me that at a period when 
the Spanish guerrillas were especially pestiferous and annoying, a Sec- 


ond. Lieutenant, name unknown, went under a tree in whose dense 
foliage he thought a sharpshooter might be concealed, and fired at ran- 
dom several revolver shots into the tree-top. After the fourth or fifth 
shot a Mauser or Kemington rifle was dropped from overhead, followed 
a few seconds later by a frightened Spaniard, who was clad in a dark- 
blue United States Army blouse. My informant went on to say that 
he must decline giving me names, because the incident closed without 
aid from any priest or clergyman. 


^ISTORY records that some of our greatest Gen- 
erals say the best soldiers are the very young 
men or boys. They exhibit a dash and disregard 
of danger that is not as a rule the spirit of their 
elders. This was splendidly shown in the case of 
Sergeant Rolla A. Fullinwider, of the First Vol- 
unteer Cavalry, popularly known as Roosevelt's 
Rough Riders. Fullinwider comes from Raton, 
New Mexico. He was a member of G troop: 
His twentieth birthday occurred on the 20th of 
June, 1898, and he celebrated the anniversary in royal style. It was 
better than an old-time Fourth of July, for he spent the day in firing 
at the Spaniards in the battles of Las Guasimas. 

Cannon boomed and rifles cracked, while shells screamed and burst 
on every side, but the young soldier received not a scratch, and seven 
days later at San Juan was in the desperate charge up through the 
cactus-covered hillside, and planted the first American guidon on the 
Spanish works at the top, bringing glory and praise to himself and honor 
to his home. 

Fullinwider was an acting First Sergeant during most of the cam- 
paign in Cuba. It was in this capacity that he climbed the Spanish 
works at San Juan and planted the company guidon thereon, the first 
symbol of American authority to be raised over the Spanish position; 

Sergeant Fullinwider was seen by a reporter of the Kansas City 
Journal and talked very modestly of his own share in the work of that 
bloody day, though he has received high compliments in the reports 
by his superior officers and in his discharge papers. 

He describes the fight as a day of great excitement and hard work, 
and says that though the Rough Riders were without food there for 
forty-eight hours, they scarcely noticed it, so eager were they to fight 
and so constant was the excitement, owing to the continuous fusillade 
kept up by the Spaniards. 

For himself, he escaped without a scratch, though once a fragment 



from a bursting Spani«h shell grazed his chest and another threw mud 
all over him. 

After the San Juan fight the men stood in trenches up to their 
waists- in water a good deal of the time, and kept up the fighting for 
nearly ten days. They did not have much time for cooking nor eating 
had they been so disposed or had plenty of provisions. Sergeant FuUin- 
wider was one of the eight men who carried Hamilton Fish off of the 
field, and he saw much of the horrors of the terrible fights in which the 
Rough Eiders were engaged. 

Like all brave men, the Sergeant doesn't take up any time complain- 
ing. He was not sick a day himself while in Cuba, though his bunk- 
mate died of yellow fever in his presence. While the Spaniards fought 
well and bravely in a set engagement, they seeii^ed panic stricken and 
fied whenever the Americans advanced or charged. So the army was 
obliged to keep moving. The Sergeant also says that much of the 
scarcity of food was due to the thieving Cubans, for whom he has no 

When advancing to the fight the soldiers left their provisions and 
knapsacks in the rear because the luggage was too heavy to carry,, and 
when they returned for the food it had been stolen. 

Sergeant FuUinwider says the stories of Montauk Point are mostly 
newspaper fabrications. He was there just thirty days and he thought 
it a lovely Spot and says they had fine provisions. He thinks the sick- 
ness was due to the boys coming from the hot dampness of Cuba to the 
cooler latitude while their systems were full of disease germs from the 
rank rotting vegetation of that unhealthy climate. 

The Sergeant is not one of those who think the Americans might 
have been beaten had the Spaniards refused to surrender. He thinks 
they could almost have been whipped alone with the dynamite field gun 
the Rough. Riders had with them, the only one with the land forces. 
He says this gun would have demolished everything within a hundred 
feet of where a bomb fell, and tells of a big ten-inph Spanish gun which 
looked like it had been picked up and twisted all out of shape by some 
giant. A dynamite bomb had struck ten feet from the gun and did this 

Sergeant Fullinwider's soldier instincts seem to be a family trait. 
His brother, who is Doctor Gaines' son-in-law, is an Ensign in the navy, 
now on board the Mohican in Pacific waters, and the Sergeant himself 
wants to go into the regular army if he can secure a commission. 




'HE heroism of Army and Navy is a legacy from 
brave sires and equal to it is the splendid work 
of the women whose daring of hardships and 
dangers in their tender works of mercy was inspired 
iwith the spirit of the pioneer mothers, whose splen- . 
did devotion made possible the subjugation of sav- 
ages and turning the wilderness into the home- 
steads of a mighty nation. With the first call to 
arms and the ready response of the men came the 
proffered servicesi. of the women. It seemed that 
every girl who had a brother or a lover enlisted was ready to give her 
services to th6 sick and the wounded, and so eager were the applicants 
that it was a delicate and difficult task to select those who were fitted 
through health and understanding of the duties to act as nurses. 

All over the land schools of instruction were formed to give prac- 
tical lessons in the gentle art of nursing, that often reclaims from death , 
when the surgeon and physician have done^all they could and acknowl- 
edged failure. The men of medicine and the clinic, the authorities in 
the great hospitals volunteered their services to teach the would-be 
nurses, and it is a satisfaction to refiect that though the majority of the 
young women volunteers never got near the front or to the camps and 
the army hospitals, yet the knowledge they.gathered is wealth accumu- 
lated in homes where sickness must enter to be driven away by skilled 
as well as sympathetic care. 

It was not only the girls accustomed to more or less privation and 
the good nuns, whose lives are those of self-sacrifice, who volunteered, 
but there were scores of wealthy women, leaders in fashion, and so ac- 
customed to the life of the rich that luxuries had become but simple 
necessities, who were eager and glad to proffer their services. It was 



not a fad with them, but a call to duty, proof of their splendid Amer- 

The patriotism of the colonial ladies who went without their dearly 
loved tea was emulated by tlie young women accustomed to French 
dresses and bonnets, and the ugly temper exhibited in Paris towards 
America was resented in a way that made it necessary for store-keepers 
to take off the tags from French makes, and as even this did not satisfy 
the disdainful ladies, the gold-loving people of Omnia Galia soon learned 
that a better show of neutrality and increased control over vicious 
tongues was to them a national busineiss necessity. 

It was this patriotic impulse that went into' even the details of 
dress that made good students in the schools of nursing and splendid 
nurses, when the time came _f or their work -and help in the camps, 
where the wounded needed greatest care, and the fever patients should 
cease thieir ravings at the touch of a gentle hand and fall into saving 
slumbers. '^ America is proud of both daughters and sons. Scattered 
over the great country in the homes they left to fight in the ranks of 
the brave -are boys who, when they are gray-haired veterans, rightful 
successors to the Grand Army of the Republic, shall remember and 
bless the girls who saved them for long lives of usefulness. 

The Red Cross, in all its different branches and several organiza- 
tions, did untold good work and has been recognized by the President 
and the National Legislature, and its insignia is and aJways shall be a 
badge of honor and glory. The Senate passed a Iresolution tendering 
the thanks of Congress to Miss Clara Barton and the Red Cross Society 
for their services in behalf of humanity during the late war, and several 
similar organizations for the relief of the soldiers think they are entitled 
to the same distinction. 

The Red Cross Society is not a monopoly, any organization for the 
relief of suffering being entitled to bear that name and to protection in 
foreign lands under the Geneva convention. There were several inde- 
pendent branches of the Red Cross at work during the war, but Miss 
Barton is so well known over the world that her society comes to mind 
when the name is mentioned and she and her noble lieutenants thor- 
, oughly did the work in which they were honorably acquainted. 

The next most prominent was the Woman's Relief Association of 
New York, of which Miss Helen Gould was the moving, spirit. Bishop 
Potter was President of the National Relief Association. The Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Aid Society had its headquarters at Boston, and 


there were societies m nearly every city and in many towns for the aid 
of sick and needy soldiers, which did great good, and have been remem- 
bered not only by Congress and State Legislatures, but are not for- 
gotten by the soldiers themselves. Bills have also been passed tender- 
ing the thanks of Congress to several individual philanthropists and 
nurses, including Miss Gould, Miss Annie Wheeler, daughter of Gen- 
eral Wheeler; Miss Chanler, Miss Anna Bouli,gny and others whose 
work deserved the reward of recognition. Miss Barton had the unusual 
distinction of being mentioned in the President's message. 

Miss Gould has received formal thanks of the Common Council of 
the city of New York and the Legislature of New York, and the Legis- 
latures of other States whose sons she cared for in the hours of their 
helplessness and misery. Bills have been passed in the House of Eepre- 
sentatives authorizing the Director of the Mint to strike a gold medal to 
commemorate the services of that modest little woman in behalf of 
the American Army. All the rival associations admit her claims. She 
did everything for the sick, wounded and homeless soldiers and spent 
as much for their relief from her own purse as was raised by the Bed 
Cross societies. 

It is not forgotten and will be always on the records that Miss 
Gould was the first of our citizens of great wealth to open her purse 
to aid her country and that, like Eobert Morris of Kevolutionary days, 
her wealth was small in comparison to her patriotism. As a first move 
and proof of her love of country she sent the President a check for 
$100,000 for the use of the Government, with the request that there be 
no publicity, but this proved impossible in a system of national busi- 
ness where all is accounted for and accredited, and then, too, her ex- 
ample was inspiring, and it was right that the people should know. 

Miss Gould's patriotism was not limited by the fortune she so 
promptly gave to her country, but her time and means were devoted to 
the care of the soldiers, those in the camps and the heroes from the 
battlefields, who came back sick unto death with the fevers and dis- 
eases of the tropics. She carried from Camp WikofE to her own beau- 
tiful home on the Hudson soldiers enough to fill it, turning the mansion 
into a hospital, where the ample grounds gave occupation and exercise 


to the convalescent, and the very sick could see the wide sweep of the 
great river and the glory of the clouds and cliffs in sunlight and shadow, 
and the heart faint from exhaustion took courage, and the eyes weary 
with watching the white walls of the tent were rested and made glad. 

Her goodness did not cease with the home-sending of her brave 
boys, for she was mother and sister to them. She consulted and coun- 
seled with them as to their future plans. It was possible for a woman 
of her vast wealth and connection with big enterprises to find employ- 
ment for those without it and she did. There is^too, more than one 
youthful veteran, whftse ambition was in the professions, receiving the 
requisite training through her aid, and the farmer's boy from the plains, 
whose longing was for a chance and who dropped his labor at the call 
to arms, awoke from the fever that followed the fighting to the realiza- 
tion that the path had been made clear for the future he might make 
for himself under advantageous conditions. A Nation honors Helen 


Miss Annie Wheeler, daughter of Major-General Joseph Wheeler, 
can count as her admirers'" some 80,000,000 people, for in every 
State of the Union they have h«ard of her and her great goodness. She » 
has the additional honor attached to her career as a volunteer nurse in 
the fact that her heroic devotion was not alone shown in the homo 
camps, but at Santiago, where the wounded andthose with deadly and 
contagious fevers needed the care of woAaen. 

Lack of experience had kept her from the Eed Cross, but through 
pluck and perseverance she went with the troops to Santiago. Her 
woman's intuition to do the right thing at the right time, and natural 
aptitude and courage quickly won the confidence of those whose fear 
was that she could not succeed, and it was not long before she was noted 
as among the best of tlie brave women whose mission was one of 
highest humanity. 
. Born and bred in the refinepient of a Southern home, unaccustomed 
, to other than the gentle associations there, she faced in the field the 
hardships of an active campaign and the dangers, and gave her strength 
and aid among scenes of suffering and mutilation, such as strong a.nd 
brave men turned their eyes from. The wounds and the blood and the 
dreadful horror steadied her nerves, for these but testified to the heed 


of her services. The dying blessed, and the wounded and sick wor- 
shipped this little' nurse whose eyes never flinched and were filled with' 
a world of sympathy and hope for her charges. 

When at last it was possible to send the sick to the recuperative 
campS at Montauk Point, named Wikoff in honor of the gallant Colonel 
who fell leading his troops. Miss Wheeler returned with the soldiers. 
Though it might have seemed reasonable to expect that, worn out with 
the work at Santiago, she would have gone to her home to rest and 
recuperate, yet this soldier's daughter felt that her duty was still with 
the troops. She had not lost her good health, or'her buoyant, hopeful 
spirit, and was of inestimable help and inspiration in the days that 
were dark, though the sun shone over the white tented camp where- the 
life-giving breezes swept through the company streets and canvas hos- 
pitals. ' 

Troopship followed transport in rapid succession. Haggard, yel- 
low-faced, lack-lustre-eyed, stoop-shouldered remnants of regiments 
wearily took up the march to their allotted camps, while back of them 
were the laden ambulances with men too weak to walk, too brave to 
groan. From the fever-frenzied men there was every now and then a 
jarring laugh, a bold order to charge, or strange, savage cry to "Keep 
steady, there," "Fill them full of lead," or a feeble request for "pie," the 
deadly stuff the soldiers singularly craved and sometimes having se- 
cured by stealth or through the mistaken charity of the unthinking, it 
worked untold harm and added to the wooden crosses of the cemetery, 
sentinels on the hill-tops standing guard over the resting brave. 

Like an angel of mercy the little woman in the gray nurse's dress 
and white apron went from cot to cot with a word of cheer for those too 
weary to fight disease longer or too sick to ' care whether death 
came or not. And as she moved, the eyes of the boys followed 
her, their comfort, with an adoration well deserved. Washing the 
hot faces and hands, soothing the delirium-contorted brow, 
patting out a pillow to make it soft for a tired head, straightening the 
bed-clothes of the fretful and peevish, doing all those little things that 
only a woman can do so well, she fought and won many a life battle, and 
sent home to those they loved scores of thankful soldiersf whose rever- 
ent, low-spoken good-byes and outstretched, feeble hands were safScient 
recompense where no reward was expected other than the consciousness 
of having done good. i 

On her kneles, holding an emaciated hand that had been so strong 


for the glory of the Nation, smoothing back the tangled, fever-scorched 
hair,-she looked into the eyes of the soldier, giving him hope and com- 
fort and trust, and the courage to fight for life and patience to rest for 
strength. Bending over his couch she! tempted the sick one to but taste 
of refreshment, or ^persuaded him to take medicine when through 
weakness and weariness he would, like a peevish child, refuse it. She 
was here, there and everywhere and in all places with her ready help 
and inspiring courage. The hours were never too long or the drudgery 
too exacting. 

And then came the terrible tragedy, when one who had done so 
much for others lost her own, and the "reveille" sounded over the hills 
just as the minister read in the burial service, "I am the resurrection 
and the life," and gray-headed General Wheeler bowed over the Stars 
and Stripes covering his boy's remains, and his daughter and her sis- 
ters grieved by his side. Miss Wheeler, in the midst of her heroic 
labors, had been stricken with the death of her brother, an officer in 
the Navy, who was drowned in the surf. In fulfillment of her other 
duties she had seen many die, and the aaiguished faces of parents who 
had come to their sons only^ to witness them die, and she must ha,ve 
remembered how many had sternly controlled themselves for the sate 
of the comrades lying in the same ward. The bravery came back in her 
heart and she returned to the living, so greatly in need of her minis- 

There was one whose loved ^Idier boy was saved by Miss Wheeler's 
devotion, brought back from the shadow of death, out of the dangerous 
indifference to life so often bringing the end, and he had seen her when 
that boy was carried from the ward where he had been given up by the 
doctors, taken in<his iron bed by comrades to a tent where he might 
die without the others seeing him. The man had seen her place over 
the soldier's face his battered campaign hat to shield the weak eyes 
from the sun, and then he had seen her, knowing as she did that there 
was little hope but Jiers left, kneel by the cot and breathe words of hope 
and the desire to live in the soldier's heart. The battle had been won. 
As a slight testimonial of his great regard and respect that man brought 
a few roses to the nurse, trusting that they might with their fresh beauty 
gratify one wh,o had looked so long on suffering and the horrors of the 
hospital. What she said, in the 30ft dialect of the South, is worth re- 
peating, as showing the spirit in which she worked: 

"These are very beautiful, I shall give one each to some of my boys; 


not the officers, though I am detailed to them, but to the privates — ^the 
regulars — for they have no Mends near." 

The man, passing by the wards hours later, saw more than one poor 
boy asleep with the flower where it would greet him on waking, and 
others tenderly holding it, prizing it, for Miss Wheeler had handed it to 
hina with a pretty, cheering word. The red rose was to the soldier a sym- 
bol of her love and sympathy. Miss Wheeler is brevetted in the hearts of 
a nation, while the one she saved with the others at Camp WikbfE 
learned that he had been brevetted for gallantry in action while on the 
way to Manila for further service under the flag. 

Miss Chanler is another young woman of great wealth, a member 
of the Astor family, who, with Miss Anna Bouligny, established a hos- 
pital for officers at Ponce and another afterward at San Juan at her 
own expense. She supported them after she had returned home and 
left them in charge of the army surgeons. 

Belonging to one of the old and very wealthy families of New York 
city, Miss Chanler was one of the first to voluntee|r her services and 
spend liberally of her means for the welfare of the soldiers. Her brother 
distinguished himself, not only by his gallantry in action, but for his 
liberality in fitting out and equipping soldiers. . These two are splendid 
types of a class too often misunderstood, because sometimes misrepre- 
sented through unfortunate specimens. Miss Chanler exhibited all the 
splendid qualities, bravery and patience of the Ked Cross women. 


There were many other volunteer nurses who, with equal devotion, 
served their country in nursing back to health her soldiers. The daugh- 
ter of Secretary Long and three of her fellow-students at Johns Hopkins 
Medical College, spent their vacations in nursing the sick and wounded. 

Mrs. Ennis, a colored women from the Freedman's hospital at 
Washington, went to Santiago with the army and has been there 
ever since nursing the colored soldiers. She is one of the humble 
heroines of the war, but will be remembered with the rest by a grateful 

Mrs. Lesser, Mrs. Trumbull White, correspondent of the Chicago 
Record on the Red Cross ship, and Miss Janet Jennings, another news- 
paper correspondent, did valuable work. Mrs Howland came all the 


Way from Los Angeles and paid her own expenses for the sake of Uncle 
Sam's soldiers. 


There were two nurses who died for their country and will be held 
in the same esteem as the soldiers who fell on the battlefield. Mrs. 
Ellen Hardin Walworth, of New York, not only faced disease and death 
in the hospitals of Fort Monroe and Montauk Point all summer, but 
gave her only daughter, a beautiful girl of nineteen. The National So- 
ciety of the Daughters of the Revolution will erect a monument to com- 
memorate the heroism and sacrifice of Rubina Walworth. Her mother 
was one of the three founders of that order and she was the grandchild 
of the late Chancellor Walworth of New York. 

Sister Mary Larkiji,'a nun from Emmitsburg, Md., died of yellow 
fever .while nursing the soldiers with the patience and skill of the good 
Sisters of Charity. 

Fifteen hundred contract nurses were employed by the medical 
corps during the war and there were about 150 volunteers. The exact 
number is not known, because their names were not upon the rolls. 
Twelve of the contract nurses and three volunteers sacrificed their 
lives. This is a remarkably small percentage, only fifteen out of a total 
of 1,650 who endured the climate, the hardships and exposure to con- 
tagious diseases, but among the living as well as the dead are many 
whose services deserve special recognition, though they did not come 
into the prominence of those mentioned. 

In many a distant home a mother's thankful prayer does not for- 
get to call down blessings on such women, for the sons who returned, 
have not confined their talks to the experiences of the Santiago bat- 
_ ties, for, as they recounted the days of their sickness, their faces have 
' lightened up with glad memories of the good women who saved them. 
There is surely a great reward in this love of those they have never 
seen, and -the women nurses share the glory of the soldiers and sailors 
of the United States. ' 





•HE BATTLE OF MANZANILLO ranks third in 
importance among the various naval engagements, 
but it occurred so late in the war and followed 
so closely upon the heels of more important events 
that it did hot receive the notice it deserved. 

The story of this battle is the story of how 
seven light-draught American gunboats went 
into a hostile harbor and in less than four hours 
destroyed ten Spanish vessels. Ma,nzanillo is on 
the south coast of Cuba, at the east end of a sort 
of inland sea, enclosed by a line of cays extending from Cape Cruz to 
Tunas de Zaza. 

Manzanillo was a headquarters for blockade runners, and the 
rendezvous for a lot of small Spanish gunboats of 250 tons and under, 
which were built expressly for Cuban work. Altogether Manzanillo 
became a very troublesome place, and was very hard to get at on 
account of an inner line of .cays runiiing across the mouth of the harbor. 
At different times two attempts at reconnoissance had been made, 
one by the Scorpion and Osceola, and one by the Hist, Hornet and 
Wompatuck, but they had been driven out under a heavy fire, all of 
them being struck, and one of them temporarily disabled. From their 
reports it was learned that there were three shore batteries and a 
number of gunboats in the harbor, but no information could be obtained 
as to whether the harbor was mined or as to the strength of its de- 

It was finally decided that a combined attack be made by the 
Wilmington, Helena, Scorpion, Osceola, Hist, Hornet and Wompatuck 
on the morning of July 18th. The Wilmington and Helena were 
twin gunboats of light draught and high military masts, which were 



designed for work in Chinese waters. The Osceola and Wompatuck 
were armed tugs and the Scorpion, Hist and Hornet converted yachts. 
The two bigger gunboats, although they looked so formidable that the 
Spaniards took them for battleships, really drew but ten feet of water 
and were particularly well adapted for work in shallow harbors. 

Commander C. 0. Todd, of the Wilmington, the senior officer in 
command, had received orders to destroy the enemy's ships, but to 
avoid, if possible, an engagement with the shore batteries. The fate 
of the Winslow was still remembered, and the folly of taking such 
small vessels within reach of heavy guns mounted on land had been 
impressed upon the minds of commanding officers, especially when there 
were no landing forces available. 

Commander Todd divided his fleet into three divisions, to feel their 
way into the harbor by three different passages through the line of 
cays, and thus prevent the enemy's escape. The Wilmington and Helena 
took a northern channel on the extreme left, the Scorpion and Osceola 
found a channel for themselves directly opposite the town, while the 
Hist, Hornet and Wompatuck took a channel still farther south and 
to the extreme right ^f the line of attack. 

It was a bright, sunshiny morning, with a gentle easterly breeze 
blowing in the faces' of the men, as the ships stood in for Manzanillo at 
6:50 o'clock. Commander W. P. Swinburne, of the Helena, followed 
the course set by the Wilmington, and at 7 o'clock, when distant abgut 
400 yards on her starboard quarter, hoisted his colors and battle flag. 

The flve ships were strung along inside the islands and cays from 
north to south in the order already named, and at 7:04 one shore bat- 
tery opened fire, the shots falling short. Commander Swinburne or- 
dered the signal rockets kept in the military mast to be thrown over- 
board, and gradually closed up the gap between himself and the 
Osceola and Scorpion, which first opened fire on the shore batteries 
at 7:18. A little later the Wilmington opened fire toward the town, 
and at 7:52 the Helena, which had made out several of the enemy's 
ships in the inner harbor, opened fire with her port battery. 

Several of the Spanish gunboats started out to do battle with the 
attacking fleet, but the cool, deliberate firing of the Yankee sailors 
drove them back, and at 8:07 a steamer at the north entrance to the 
harbor was observed to be on fire. 

In addition to the three batteries along the line of the water front, 
a blockhouse on a hill behind the town opened fire at 8:20, but its 


shots fell short of the American ships, which were off 3,000 or 4,000 
yards, advancing obliquely. It was not an easy advance, as the larger 
gunboats found barely water enough to float them, and had to be 
guided by the two men on the sounding platforms, who were heaving 
the lead constantly. When the soundings approached two fathoms it 
was necessary to feel about for deeper water. As they worked up 
into a range of 3,000 yards the enemy's shots began to drop close to 
the Helena, many of them passing over the bridge and one shrapnel 
bursting over the forecastle. The bullets spattered about and per- 
forated the navigator's trousers, but nobody paid any attention, because 
nobody was injured. The men oh the sounding platforms continued to 
sing out the story of the lead, and if one of them dodged a close shell 
he did not for a minute neglect his work. 

Officers and men fought in that businesslike fashion that has 
characterized the navy throughout the war. A little to the south of 
the town was the pontoon Maria, a hulk used as a receiving and supply 
ship. This pontoon had mounted some 6-inch guns, which were likely 
to be annoying. Commander Todd knew it must be destroyed, but saw 
no reason for a waste of ammunition, so signaled the Helena, "Fire on 
gunboats, we are firing at hulk.^' At 9 :20 not only the hulk, but several 
of the gunboats and transports were seen to be in flames. 

At 9:56 the Helena was ordered to devote its attention to the gun- 
boats on the right of the vessels already aflre, and stood close inshore, 
firing her starboard battery at a range of 2,100 yards. One by one 
the hostile gunboats were set pn fire, two of them exploding like fire- 
crackers, and the others drifting helplessly ashore. But at this time 
the Helena and some of the other vessels were within easy range of 
the shore batteries and of a blockhouse on the hillside above Gua 
Point. The plunging fall of some of the close shots showed that the 
Spaniards were using mortar batteries or smooth-bore guns with a 
high trajectory. 

As all the enemy's ships were seen to be destroyed or sunk, the 
Wilmington, at 10:22, gave a general signal to cease firing, and the 
American fleet put out into the bay. The Helena continued firing a 
few minutes longer to cover her withdrawal, and that of the Wompa- 
tuck, which was on her port quarter and was being spattered with 
the water thrown up by the shells from the batteries. At 10:35 the fir- 
ing had ceased. In this action the Helena, which had a chance to do a 
generous share of the work, fired 203 common shells from her 4-iucb 


guns, 129 from her 6-pounders, 84 from her l-pounders, and 430 from 
the 6-millimetre Colt's machine gun. 

Not a ship was materially injured or a man lost on the American 
side, and the fleet easily picked up the small boats and other movables 
which during the action had been left at one of the Cuban head- 
quarters on the coast. 

The Spanish lost soinething near 200 men, six gunboats, three 
transports and a pontoon. Among the gunboats were the Guardian, 
EsteLla, Cuba Espanola and Guantanamo. The destroyed transports 
were the El Gloria, the Jose Garcia, as well as the Purissima Concep- 
cion, which had been chased into port by the blockading fleet. This de- 
struction wias wrought under the fire of at least four shore batteries 
and two blockhouses or small forts. Great care was taken to do as 
little damage as possible to the town itself, and as far as has been 
learned, little, if any, was done. 

The American fleet put into Manzanillo Harbor to transact a little 
business with the Spanish ships, and when that business was promptly 
and successfully finished, the vessels of the fieet returned to their sta- 
tions, excepting the Wompatuck, which was sent to Guantanamo to re- 
port to the Admiral the result of the fight. 



T THE END of a campaign lasting but nineteen days 
Porto Rico fell into the hands of American troops, com- 
manded in person by General Nelson A. Miles, the 
ranking Major-General of the United States 

General Miles left Guantananio Bay on Thurs- 
day evening, July 21st, after having assisted in 
arranging for the surrender of Santiago. His 
destination was supposed to be San Juan, a 
strongly fortified fort on the north coast. The 
Spaniards, having knowledge of his coming, hur- 
ried all available troops to San Juan Point to assist in repelling the 
invader, but they were not called upon to meet the American Army 
at that point, for General Miles had made a strategic move and in- 
vaded the harbor of Guanica on the South coast, one of the only three 
safe harbors in Porto Rico. 

On July 26th he sent the following cable to the Secretary of War at 
Washington : 

"Circumstances were such that I deemed it advisable to take the 
Harbor of Guanica first, fifteen miles west of Ponce, which was suc- 
cessfully accomplished between daylight and 11 o'clock. Spaniards 
surprised. The Gloucester, Commander Wainwright, first entered the 
harbor; met with slight resistance; fired a few shots. All the trans- 
ports are now in the harbor, and infantry and artillery rapidly going 
ashore. This is a well-protected harbor; water sufficiently deep for 
all transports; the heavy vessels can anchor within a few hundred 
feet of shore. The Spanish flag was lowered and the American flag 



raisedi at 11 o'clock to-day. • Captain Higginson, with his fleet, has 
rendered able and earnest assistance. Troops in good health and best 
spirits. No casualties. 

"Major-General 'Commanding Army." 

The fighting vessels in the fleet commanded by Captain Higginson 
were the Massachusetts, Columbia, Cincinnati, Wasp, Gloucester, Dixie 
and Annapolis. 

Referring to the change of destination. General Miles, -in a later 
report, says that he had been anxiously looking, for several days before 
starting, for the arrival of tugs, launches and lighters that had been 
ordered, but none arrived. He still hoped to meet them in the Wind- 
ward Passage, en route to Porto Rico. He knew his cablegrams had 
passed over foreign cables, and regarded: it as necessary to deceive the 
enemy as to his destination. , Therefore, in the absence of his landing 
launches and lighters, he considered the advisability of flnding a safe 
harbor and capturing the necessary appliances from the enemy. 

He conferred by letter and signal with Captain Higginson, in com- 
mand of the naval convoy, and decided to land at Guanica, as the 
enemy had doubtless become aware of the original destination, and 
then to move on Ponce. 

Captain Higginson accepted the change of plan, and a vessel was 
sent off Cape San Juan to give word of the change of base to the ap- 
proaching re-enforcements. The little Gloucester went ahead and 
forced the entrance into Guanica, and soon the entire expedition was 
landed in Porto Eico and began its successful campaign. 

Lieutenant Hughes and a detail of bluejackets landed and drove 
the Guardia Civile out of the town and the occupation of Guanica by 
the troops was carried out as comfortably as if they had been landing 
in an American city. 

Three days later General Guy V. Henry moved on Juaco and 
General Miles went down the coast to the port of Ponce. Two miles 
back of the port is the city of Ponce, and its surrender to the Amer- 
ican forces constitutes one of the many humorous incidents of the Porto 


Rican campaign. According to official -records the town first sur- 
rendered to Commander diaries H. Davis, of the Dixie, and later to 
General Miles, but according to Eighard Harding Davis, the famous war 
correspondent, who was an eye witness, the city first surrendered- to 
Ensign Curtin, of the Wasp, who had the military commander called 
up by telephone and compelled him to drive on a gallop from the City 
of Ponce to the port in order to tender the formal surrender of the city. 

General Miles' entry into Guanica, Yauco, Ponce and Juan Diaz 
was characterized by scenes rarely witnessed in war. The Porto Bicans 
were wild with delight. They shouted, "Viva los Americanos" until 
they were hoarse; they crowded around -the soldiers, tendering fruits 
and cigars; they strewed flowers in the pathway of the victorious army 
and everything that could be utilized in the wiay of symbolizing the 
national colors was waved or floated from housetops and treetops. 

At Yauco, on the road to Ponce, the army was met by the Mayor 
and half the population, and greeted with the following proclamation: 

"Citizens: To-day the citizens of Porto Rico assist in one of her 
most beautiful festivals. The sun of America shines jipbn our moun- 
tains and valleys this day of July, 1898. It is a, day of 'glorious remem- 
brance for each son of this beloved isle, because for the fir^t time there 
waves over it the flag of the Stars, planted in the name of the Governi 
ment of the United States of America by the Major-General of the 
American Army, General Miles. 

"Porto Ricans, we are by the miraculous intervention of the God 
of the Just, given back to the bosom of our mother America, in whose 
waters nature placed us as a people of America. To her we are given 
back in the n^me of her Government by General Miles, and we must 
send her our most expressive salutation of generous affection through 
our conduct toward the valiant troops represented by distinguished 
officers and commanded by the illustrious General Miles. 

"Citizens: Long live the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica! Hail to their valiant troops! Hail Porto Rico, always American! 

"Yauco, Porto Rico, United States of America. 


At Juan Diaz a brass band playing "Yankee Doodle" came out, to 
meet the Americans, while natives who had assembled on the out- 
gkirtg of the town gave tbem a jubilant reception, Many of them fell 


on their knees, embracing the legs of the American troopers. The 
Mayor made a speech of welcome in the plaza, and the crowd shouted, 
"Death to the Spaniards." The people decorated their homes with 
American flags and received the soldiers as their guests. 

While these events were taking plape Major-General John R. 
Brooke, with General P. O. Hains' brigade, effected a landing at Arroyo, 
on the south coast, almost opposite San Juan on the north coast, and 
began a forward movement on Guayama. The first real fight on 
Porto Eico soil was at this place. Enough ammunition was used by both 
the Spaniards and the Americans to annihilate each other, yet only 
three Americans were wounded and only one Spaniard killed and 
three wounded. 

The Spaniards showed the degree of civilization to which they have 
attained by throwing the body of their dead soldier into a well from 
which a part of the town gets its water, evidently hoping to poison it. 

Guayama is a city of 16,000 inhabitants, and next to Ponce is the 
most important town on the south Side of the island. It is thirty-six 
miles east of Ponce. Arroyo is the seaport of the city, which is five miles 

General Brooke's troops had landed at Arroyo, and he wanted 
Guayama as. a base of operations, it being the only town of large im- 
portance on the main road leading to the military road running from 
Ponce to San Juan. General Brooke ordered General Hains to occupy 
the town, and at 7 o'clock on the morning of August 5th the Fourth 
Ohio and Third Illinois Regiments were ordered out, the Ohio regiment 
being in the van. 

It was known that there were some Spanish cavalry in the neiarh- 
borhood, and so the troops proceeded cautiously along the road from 
Arroyo to within a mile of the city. The road is level to that point;, and 
there were no signs of Spaniards anywhere along the route. 

The last mile of the road runs through a cut in the mountain and 
up a steep hill. Before this point was reached the Third Illinois 
stopped, and Colonel Bennett was ordered to guard the crossroads lead- 
ing to the rear of the city. 

The advance guard of the Ohio regiment then entered the cut and 
had proceeded less than 100 yards when a hail of Spanish bullets on 
both sides from the mountain whistled over their heads. The guards 
being in very small force, fell back, firing as they retreated and the main 
body at once hurried forward, firing at a lively rate up the hillsides as 


they advanced. A hundred yards further, just beyond a sharp turn in 
the road, they suddenly came upon a barricade that had been thrown 
across the road. The barricade had been made of sectional iron work, 
which had been filled in with sand. The Spaniards behind this defense 
were^shooting at the rate of 100 shots a minute, but every shot was 
aimed too high, though the American troops were within hailing dis- 

General Hains orderea aeploying parties sent up the hills to flank 
the enemy. The road was lined on each side with barbed wire entangle- 
ments such as the Spaniards used at Santiago, but many of the troops 
carried machetes, with which they attacked the fences, disregarding 
the bullets, and in a few minutes cut their way through, and then 100 
men made their way up the mountains on both sides of the road. 

The firing line of our troops held its position and poured bullets into 
the barricade. The Spanish firing did not last long. . In fact, it stopped 
in less time that it takes to tell of it, but what became of the Spaniards 
behind the barricade is a mystery; They disappeared as though they 
had been swallowed up. Not a single one of them was seen during the 
skedaddling act. The Ohio men kept peppering away for half an hour. 

In the meantime the deployed force reached the hilltops on both 
sides of the road and began pouring a rattling fire down the mountain 
sides and ahead of their position on the hill. Our men then all ad- 
vanced, firing as they went. For a half hour there was very little return. 
Then the Spaniards rallied and made a stand, but they were still un- 
seen. It was in this rally that three of our men were wounded. 

The stand made by the Spaniards was of very short duration. The 
deployers drove the enemy along the hills and the main body cleared the 

At 11 A. M. the troops entered the town. For the last half mile 
there was very little shooting, but just as the town was reached there 
was a resumption of desultory firing, and at the same time an occasional 
shot came from the town itself. Every Spanish shot was answered by 
a volley from our men. This was kept up for a half hour, when our men 
on the hill saw a man on a roof in the upper part of the town waving a 
white shirt. A minute later a flag of truce came down the road, and 
its bearer said that the town surrendered unconditionally. 

General Hains and his staff rode forward through the streets of 
the city. All of the houses were closed,- and ihe place looked like a 
deserted town. Not a person was in sight. General Hains rode to the 

Porto rican campaign. 149 

public building, and by the time he got there the houses began to open. 
Everywhere heads were poked out of doors and quickly withdrawn. 

They "were poked out again in a mpment and again withdrawn, but 
this time the withdrawal was much slower. The third time the heads 
stayed out, and were followed by shoulders and then bodies. Some one 
yelled in a stentorian voice: "Vivan los Americanos!" (Live the Amer- 

Then, as if by magic, the people came out and rushed toward the 
General and his staff, shouting the same words. Some prostrated them- 
selves in the road and grabbed the Americans around the knees, while 
others threw their arms around the necks of the soldiers and kissed 
them, all the time shouting, "Vivan los Aniericanos." Their enthusiasm 
seemed unbounded, and the scene at the surrender of Ponce was 

As soon as the Americans recovered from this attack General Hains 
ordered the Stars and Stripes to be hoisted over the public building, 
whereat there was great cheering and shouting. General Hains col- 
lected men and stationed them in every street entering the town and 
then sent companies out scouting. 

They had hardly got started when a bombardment of the town was 
begun by the Spaniards, who had returned to the hills and poured shot 
down into the city regardless of whether their own people or the soldiers 
were hit. Luckily their aim was bad^ and only one man was hit. The 
houses interfered with our men firing for some time, but they finally 
got where they could shoot, and gave the Spaniards a volley for every 

This lasted half an hour, with no sign of its diminishing, when 
General Hains ordered up two dynamite guns belonging to the Ohio 
men. These were aimed at the hills and each fired three ^hots. That 
settled the Spaniards. There wasn't a shot from them after the third 
shot from the dynamite guns. 

It was then nearly 3 o'clock. The skirmish had lasted five hours 
and was a record breaker for scarcity of casualties. 

While the Spaniards were shooting into their own town. Colonel 
Coit's Illinois men discovered some firing from a house on the outskirts. 
The place w»s surrounded and lead was poured into the house. 

The fight was lively, but at last the Spaniards raised a white flag 
just as our men were about storming the house. Our men found six 


Spanish regulars inside and took them off to the town jail and locked 
then! up. 

All the afternoon and night the demonstration of the people of the 
city and their welcome of our troops were continued^ The citizens were 
mostly Spaniards, but they said they were glad the Spanish troops had 
gone and the Americans had come. The Spanish soldiers numbered 
about 500. 

They had been preparing defenses for two weeks. General Hains 
remained in the town and sent out guards on all sides. There were no 
signs that the Spaniards had returned and all was quiet. The city band 
was playing "Yankee Doodle" and "Star Spangled Banner." Everybody 
was on the streets, and it was a time of jubilation. 

General Miles' plan of campaign was to have four columns traverse 
the island from four different directions, driving all the Spanish forces 
into San Juan. Then, with his own army surrounding the city on three 
sides and the navy in the harbor, he would have the capital and the 
island of Porto Rico at his mercy. 

The capture of Guayama by General Brooke's column was a part of 
this plan. He was then to swing around back of Cayey and Aibonito,. 
while the column under General Wilson attacked these towns from 
the south. General Henry was sent to take Arecibo in the north, while 
General Schwan, on the extreme left, with a column of regulars, was 
sent to take Mayaguez and then join Henry at Arecibo. The com- 
mand under General Roy Stone was used for reconnoitering. 

Military critics have pronounced this a perfect plan of campaign, 
and its complete consummation was only prevented by receipt of the 
news that peace had been proclaimed. 

In the whole war there has not been as pretty a fight as that which 
preceded the taking Of Coamo by General Wilson. It was the only bat- 
tle. Every move of an orthodox military combination was carried out 
without a hitch. Even the enemy, with the singular disposition to be 
accommodating which they have evinced throughout the war, played 
the losing end of the game to perfection. 

General Wilson's plan was simple enough. It was an ordinary 
flank movement, such as Grant and Sherman used so successfully to 
slowly push back Lee and Johnston, '^ov a week our scouting parties 
had ventured deep into the foothills where Coamo nestles, tracing roads 
and mountain paths. It was known that the strength of the Spanish 
garrison did not exceed 300,' Wilson had 3,500, a troop of cavalry and 


two full batteries. There was no doubt that the town could be taken 
easily by attack, but such an attack would leave the garrison, which 
was too strongly pressed, free -to retreat to swell the force General 
Otego had been gathering to defend the pass through the mountains to 

Wilson wanted to capture the garrison. He moved his headquarters 
suddenly from Ponce to Descalabrado River, where the Sixteenth Penn- 
sylvania was encamped. Next day he personally reconnoitered the 
country between the Descalabrado River and Coamo. That afternoon 
he sent for Colonel Hulings. 

"How are your men for mountain climbing?" he said. 

"I guess they're all right," replied Hulings. 

"Then strike camp to-night. Turn the enemy's right flank with the 
view of obtaining a position in his rear if possible." 

At 5 o'clock Monday afternoon, August 15th, the Sixteenth quietly 
broke camp. The men carried only their rifles, ammunition belts, can- 
teens and ponchos. Just as darkness fell the regiment left the military 
road and struck at a right angle into the hills to the northward. When 
well away from the main road Hulings halted, waiting for the moon to 
rise. The men, wrapped in their ponchos, threw themselves down to 
obtain a few hours' sleep. 

Shortly after midnight the moon peeped over the chain of rugged 
peaks which obstructed the path of the army, and the order to march 
was given. Porto Rican guides led the way over paths so rough and 
narrow that the men could move only in single file. It was toilsome. 
Absolute silence was enjoined; no smoking was permitted lest the fitful 
flash of a match should betray the movement to the watchful Spanish 
outposts on the hills. 

For hours the men toiled on. The oflftcers were compelled to walk 
and led their horses. Creeks and rivulets were waded, lofty hills were 
climbed or skirted, yawning ravines were crossed. The men dripped 
with perspiration, although the night air was chilling. 

Hulings had expected to reach the military road in the rear of 
Coamo by dawn, but the sun discovered him with several miles still to 
go. Fear of being too late acted as a spur to th^ men, and the thin col- 
umn moved faster in the growing light. 

Coamo awoke in peace. At dawn both General Wilson and General 
Oswald H. Ernst were in the saddle, and long before the shadows lifted 


from the valleys the main body of the army was in motion to drive the 
enemy out of the town and into Hulings' net. 

Two and a half miles from Ooamo the troops were ordered to leave 
the main road, there being a possibility that it might be covered by a 
battery. The second division took the right, moving as if to flank the 
enemy's position from that side, while the Third Wisconsin pushed 
straight ahead parallel to the road. Each regiment deployed beauti- 

General Ernst and his staff climbed a high hill overlooking the en- 
tire valley. From there Coamo could be distinctly seen — a pretty ham- 
let, its colored tiled roofs forming a delightful contrast to the varying 
foliage of mango and flamboyan trees. A church, almost always the 
most prominent structure in a Spanish town, raised its white towers 
and yellow roof above a fringe of green leaves. 

To the right and left the lines of the Second and Third Wisconsin 
crossed along through waving fields. First they scattered a line of 
skirmishers, their hats and blue shirts showing above the tall sugar 

Nearer than the village and off to the right was the blockhouse of 
Llamo de Coamo, situated on the road from Coamo to St. Isabel, and 
protected from assault by a deep ravine cut by the Coamo Eiver. This 
blockhouse was the first place attacked. 

There was a heavy, jarring rumble over the macadam of the mili- 
tary road. Anderson's battery came along at a sharp trot. At a turn 
in the road where the blockhouse came into view it halted. A passage- 
way was cut through the hedges and the barbed wire, and the guns, 
leaving the road, wheeled into position on a knoll to the right. Two 
minutes later the fight opened. 

A shell hummed its way across plantations, ravine and river and 
exploded a hundred, yards short of the blockhouse. 

"Make the range 1,650 yards," commanded Captain Anderson. 

The second shell threw up a cloud of dust directly in front of the 
blockhouse. This established the range, and the battery began to fire 
rapidly, alternating impact shell with shrapnel. For a few minutes the 
Spanish returned the fire with Mausers, but as shell after shell crashed 
•through the blockhouse they abandoned it and fell back toward Ooamo. 
Soon flames leaped up from the roofs, and an hour later the fort was. 
but a smoldering ruin. 

The infantry was pressing rapidly forward meanwhile, the regi- 


ments filing their way through fields and woods with heavy skirmish 
lines. The battery limbered up and galloped forward to another knoll, 
whence could be seen Coamo. General Wilson was wondering what 
had become ofHulings. Not a warlike sound came from the village, 
a mile and a half away. Had the garrison escaped? Wagers were 
made among officers that it had decamped during the night. 

Suddenly from beyond the town came the rattle of musketry, 
"That's Hulings," exclaimed General Ernst, exultantly, 
A moment later the battery opened on the town. Shrapnel burst 
over the village. On pressed the Wisconsin regiments through barbed 
wire fences and across the deep bed of the Coamo River, Beyond the 
town the rifle fire continued steadily. Evidently Hulings was having 
a warm time. 

At this juncture a party of war correspondents, managing with 
great difficulty to *get their horses through the fences and across the 
river, the bridge having been destroyed, passed the troops and began 
a mad dash toward the village. Without thinking or caring what 
chances they took they spurred their horses forward at full speed. The 
road was crowded for some distance with troops, several of whom Vere 
overturned by the horses. Captain Breckinridge of the commissary 
department and the headquarters quartermaster, who should have been 
miles in the rear attending to the camp equipage, joined the newspaper 
light brigade, as did Captain Paget, of the British Army, 


At the entrance to the town trenches had been dug across the 
road, and the streets were filled with trenches and bairicades. 

The streets were deserted except by a few people, who cried "Viva 
Americanos" in tremulous tones, and the shops were closed. Some 
frantically waved improvised flags, evidently under the impression they 
were in danger of immediate execution. Men nervously came with 
beer and wine as peace offerings, 

' It was learned the Spanish garrison had left only half an hour 
before, moving out along the main road. By this time the firing off in 
the direction where Hulings was supposed to be had ceased, and on the 
hilltop 500 yards away appeared a dozen soldiers of the Sixteenth 
Pennsylvania. Lieutenant Titus hastily manufactured a signal flag 
and wig-wagged that the few Spaniards in town had surrendered and 


that the Americans had entered. Fifteen minutes later Company I of 
the Sixteenth marched into town from the north and took possession. 
The garrison, foiled in its attempt to escape, had surrendered. 

In the military road over which Colonel Hulings and Major Wind- 
sor entered the city lay the body of Major Don Kafael Martinez, com- 
mander of the garrison, and three of his principal officers. They had 
been carried there by the Spanish Red Cross corps, which worked ardu- 
ously to discover and relieve the wounded. Standing along the road 
looking disconsolately at the bodies of their officers were some 200 
Spanish soldiers, guarded by tws> companies of Hulings' regiment. 
Near by "Oamenra," a roadhouse, was pi^ssed into service as a tempo- 
rary hospital, and there the Spanish wounded were carried, corps from 
both companies doing the work. 

The fight had been won. Success, thanks to the pluck of Major 
Martinez in remaining in the town so long, was complete. Hulings' 
flank movement came near failing to reach the town in time, owing to 
the obstructions on the night march. Had not General Martinez 
abandoned the town when he did he would have escaped. 

It was well known in Coamo that the town was to be £i.ttacked on 
Tuesday by a largely superior force. AH the citizens knew it and there 
is no reason to think that the commandant was more ignorant than 
they. He had 300; the Americans had more than ten times that number 
of better equipped troops, supported by twelve pieces of modern field 
artillery. Resistance could have but one result. There was no military 
justification for attempting to hold Coamo under the circumstances. 
Yet he did so. 

Martinez knew that resistance was utterly hopeless. But Colonel 
San Martin had been particularly disgraced by Governor-General 
Macias for evacuating Ponce, and the several commanders of garrisons 
in the path of the American army were ordered to fight. 

So Major Martinez kissed his young wife and children good-by and 
sent them into San Juan for safety. Then he called his officers to- 
gether and told them that Spain required them to die defending Coamo. 
The officers did not flinch. Two of them. Captain Santo Lopez and 
Captain Jose Sancha Escante, shared the fate of Martinez and the 
glory of his death. 

Martinez saw the blockhouse which defended the river destroyed 
by artillery to which he could not reply. Then his scouts brought word 
that an American column of double the garrison's strength was slowly 


,/' ■ 

creeping around to his rear. Then Martinez knew that he was trapped 
and decided to go out and meet the enemy. 

It is not indulging in heroics to say that Martinez committed mili- 
tary suicide. He rode in advance of his slender column until he sighted 
Hulings' men, who were immediately apprised of the enemy's presence 
by a volley. Soon bullets were flying like hail. Martinez, mounted upon 
a gray horse, rode up and down in front of Jiis troops uttering encour- 
aging words. He courted death. 

Dozens of men of the Sixteenth made. the daring officer, clad in 
full uniform, their target. The soldier's death, which Martinez sought, 
was not long coming. For a while he reeled in his saddle, maintaining 
his seat with evident difficulty. Then his horse went to his knees 
and Martinez slowly slid from the saddle a lifeless form. 

Soon after he fell a white flag fluttered from a hedge, behind which 
the Spanish soldiers had concealed themselves, and the fight was ended. 
When Maljor Martinez was found five wounds, three of which were mor- 
tal, were discovered. His horSe was shot in four places. 

- Cbamo, which Martinez had defended at such cost, was taken. The 
Third Wisconsin niet the Pennsylvania troops in the plaza and ex- 
, changed congratulations. 

Inside the town all was confusion. The inhabitants were uncer- 
tain and nervous and the soldiers jubilant. Florence Santiago, the 
Alcalde, hastened to deliver the city government to General Ernst. 

General Wilson arrived and a provost guard began to bring order 
out of chaos. Within an hour the troops had moved on through the 
town and encamped a mile beyond, near where Hulings had consum- 
mated his successful fiank movement. Reassured, the citizens assembled 
in the streets and cheered the Americans. General Wilson congratu- 
lated Colonel Hulings and the Sixteenth. 

The volunteer regiments behaved splendidly. They showed the 
steadiness and coolness of veterans. Our loss of seven wounded, all in 
the Sixteenth Pennsylvania, illustrates the luck of the Americans in 
this war. \ 

Among the trophies of this engagement was a royal Spanish flag 
which was sent to President McKinley. 


The Eleventh Infantry, of General Schwan's regulars, found the 
Spaniards intrenched at Las Marias, and after a sharp skirmish drove 


them back and out of the city of Mayaguez, with a loss of two privates 
killed and one officer and fourteen men wounded. The Spanish loss 
was thirty killed and wounded and fifty prisoners, among the latter 
the Spanish commander, Colonel De Soto. 

Notification of the signing of the protocol reached Porto Eico just 
in time to prevent several battles which might have resulted in driving 
the Spaniards from the island. 

A battle was narrowly averted at Aibonito. General Wilson suc- 
ceeded in communicating with General Otego, the commander of the 
Spanish forces there. It was arranged that neither side should ad,- 
vance, and flags of truce fluttered from both the American and Spanish 
picket lines. 

General Brooke eventually pursued the same plan at Guayama, 
which he had invested. Had it not been for the timely arrival of 
Lieutenant McLaughlin, of the signal corps, there would have been a 
battle at Guayama which would have given a different turn to the war 
in Porto Eico. Had the young signal officer arrived three minutes 
later shells from the field guns would have been screaming across 
Cavitas Valley. They would have been answered, too, for the indica- 
tions were that the enemy was in strong force. 

With his artillery General Brooke had taken the extreme advance. 
He had personally examined every position, and when the proper place 
was gained he had brought up his guns near the valley which lay be- 
tween our men and the enemy. High ridges of roCks made natural 
fortifications, and here and there were open spaces which gave free play 
for the guns. 

"We have him now," said General Brooke, "and the ball will be 
opened in just three minutes." 

He had hardly finished speaking when there was a clattering of 
hoofs and a telegram was given to the cqmmander. General Brooke 
read it and raised his hand as a signal to cease action. 

"Stop the guns," he said. 

Everyone standing near him was amazed. 

The word to stop hostilities passed down the line. Some of the 
men howled with rage and disappointment. They had narrowly missed 
the fight of their lives. 

Many were of the opinion that General Brooke should have im- 
mediately sent a flag of truce to the enemy and apprised him of the 
fact that peace had been declared. General Brooke grimly remarked 


that the enemy could find it out himself. He was prepared to give a 
warm reception to the Spanish if they advanced. 

The General decided later, however, to give the enemy the benefit 
of the dispatches which he had received from General Miles. Colonel 
Richards was sent from the American side under a fiag of truce. Be- 
tween "the hostile lines he met Colonel Cervera, whom he notified of 
the signing of the protocol. The Spaniards seemed to have an inkling 
of the peace negotiations, for an armistice was immediately agreed upon, 
and the troops went into camp to await the formal action of the govern- 
ment, which culminated in the peace treaty and the cession of the 
island to the United States. - 

The formal occupation of San Juan and the raising of the Amer- 
ican flag in place of the Spanish emblem took place in October. 



T IS NOT wonderful when we look at our army 
and navy men that the war with Spain was so 
short and the victories successive and without an 
interruption. As an example, it is interesting to 
look into the record of such a man as Major-Gen- 
eral Guy V. Henry, "Fighting Guy V.," as his 
men love to call him. He is now the military and 
civil Governor of Porto Rico, a slight, spare, one- 
eyed man, with a face honorably marked with 
many scars. As a Porto Rican puts it: "He is a 
small man, poof! small like my son, but his one eye, Madre de Dios! 
it is like a Mauser bullet when it strikes you." 

A writer in the Chicago Inter Ocean says of him: 
"Several months ago, while in Ponce, Porto Rico, I saw the General 
stand up in the quaint old plaza of the city and address, through an 
interpreter, a number of natives on the subject of good government 
and on the value of becoming honest. God-fearing citizens of the great 
republic. I also saw him hold a Sunday-school service in the same plaza, 
and, as he stood upon the steps of the kiosk in the center, with a Bible 
in his crippled hand, and told in simple words the story of the Christ, 
I noticed a number of American soldiers, roughly uniformed, stop and 
listen with wondering interest. As the crowd dispersed after the affair 
was over I heard one old bearded Sergeant, who also bore marks of long 
service in the army, turn to a comrade, and, with a slap of his, brawny 
hand, exclaim: 

" 'I fought under that man out in the Black Hills in '74. He's a 
scrapper, every inch of him, and he's the best officer that ever drew a 
saber, bar none. And he knows when a good word is better than a 
good bullet, too. He ain't much to look at, but you can bet every scar 
he's got has a story.' 


"And the Sergeant was right. The stories of those scars are writ- 
ten not only in the records of the United States, but also in the hearts of 



every man, officer or private, that served with Guy V. Henry in the 
Indian campaigns of the '70s. This is the story of the crippled hand that 
held the Bible that day in Ponce: 

"In the fall of 1874, vs^hen the Cheyenjie Indians were setting the 
frontier ablaze in the northern part of Dakota, Colonel Henry, then in 
command of several troops of cavalry, came upon a village of the enemy 
nestled among the hills. There was a brief but decisive fight, and the 
Indians fled toward the Canadian boundary, almost one hundred miles 

"Forty-eight hours after the start a fierce sleet and hail-storm sprang 
up, the wind sweefting across the plains with the fury of a hurricane. It 
finally became so violent that the trail was lost, and the troops rode 
blindly through the blizzard. Presently one of the subordinate of- 
ficers ventured to ask if it would not be well to camp in the shelter of a 
rise of ground until the inclement weather had abated. 

"Colonel Henry shook his head. *No,' he replied firmly, 'we will 
keep on until we capture the Indians or run them to the boundary line.' 
Drawing down his rough fur cap, he urged his horse steadily onward 
at the head of the straggling troops. Finally a brief rest was called, 
and, after many failures, a fire was started and coffee made. When 
orders were given to resume the march, the surgeon accompanying the 
expedition went to Colonel Henry and reported that five of the troopers 
were suffering with badly frozen feet. 

" 'Help me off with this glove,' replied the intrepid cavalry leader, 
extending his left hand. The surgeon wonderingly obeyed, and, as he 
touched the flesh under the gauntlet, he cried: 'It is stiff. Your hand is 
frozen, sir.' 

« 'Mount, men,' ordered Colonel Henry, calmly. And as the caval- 
cade prepared to obey the command it was found necessary to assist 
him to his saddle. On through the snow and sleet, on until the wintry 
sun rising over the eastern hills, proclaiming the coming of day, rode the 
little party of soldiers. There were many stragglers, many who lurched 
in their saddles, many who rested benumbed and almost unconscious 
upon the necks of their mounts, but none failed to follow that stern 
figure riding in advance. When day finally broke a number of black 
specks were seen moving over the crest of a ridge a mile in advance. 

" 'They are the Cheyennes,' exclaimed Colonel Henry. 'And that 
ridge marks the boundary line bet-W^een Canada and the United States. 
We can go no farther.' 


"The memory of the retreat back to shelter will be as a blank page 
to most of the party. Several days later the troops stumbled painfully 
into the welcome gates of a fort, bearing with them twenty-one of 
theii? number frozen almost to death. Colonel Henry kept command 
until he saw his men in safety again, then he took to his bed and 
hovered between life and death for many weary weeks, finally arising 
with his left hand crippled, and his constitution so broken that he was 
reported as unfit for further duty. But he was in harness again after a 
brief rest. 


"When the committee of Porto Ricans met General Henry in the 
palace at San Juan, the members saw that the face of their new Gover- 
nor bore many scars. Therewas a bullet hole through each cheek, the 
bridge of the nose was broken, and the left eye seemed dull and colorless. 
To them it was possibly a disfigurement, but to the men who served 
with Henry in '76 each scaj spoke eloquently of a thrilling episode in 
that famous expedition against the Sioux in the Big Horn and Yellow- 
stone country, . when the 'troopers of the yellow stripes' taught the 
hostiles a lasting lesson. 

"In that expedition Colonel Guy V. Henry was in charge of the Sec- 
ond Battalion of the Third Cavalry, which formed part of General 
Crook's command. One June morning, while the troops were camping 
for breakfast in a little ravine, the out pickets rushed back with the 
startling announcement that the Sioux were coming in force. There was 
barely time to sound 'Boots and saddles' when the heights about the 
valley swarmed with the savages. Within twenty minutes a regular 
pitched battle was in progress, the Indiaiis, of whom there were several 
thousand, coming down from the ridge in a series of desperate charges. 

"During the height of the combat one portion of the Anierican line 
under Captain Vroom was pushed out beyond its support, and was be- 
ing punished severely, the hostiles getting between it and the main 
body. Colonel Henry, seeing the peril threatening his brother ofiBcer, 
sent his command pell-mell to the rescue. Just as they swept upon the 
Indians with uplifted sabers, a flying bullet struck Colonel Henry in 
the face, tearing through both cheeks, breaking the bridge of the nose, 
and completely severing the left optic nerve. 

"The force of the wild rush carried him on, but he was seen to sway 
in the saddle. A trooper near him called out hoarsely, 'Are you struck, 
sir?' Gripping the pommel tightly with one hand Colonel Henry tried 


to wave his sword. 'On, on!' he gasped, 'Charge .' Down under 

the galloping hoofs of the combatants he lurched, and in an instant he 
was lost to sight in the swirling dust. 

"The loss of their leader caused 9, temporary panic among the sol- 
diers, but they soon rallied, and, after driving off the Indians, they 
searched for their Colonel. He was found at last, covered with blood, 
but a.s. they tenderly picked him up they saw that life still remained in 
the bruised body. He wias placed upon' a blanket in the shade and 
everything possible done to aid him. It was then that one of the other 
officers condoled with him, saying: 'Colonel, this is too bad. It is too 
bad!' And it was then that the gallant Henry, suffering untold agony 
and barely able to articulate, whispered simply: 
" 'It's nothing, Jack. It's what we are here for.' 
"It was long before he recovered, but when he finally returned to 
active service he carried with him the indelible proofs of gallantry and 
daring in actual battle. The same quiet heroism carried him through 
weeks of weary battling with the torturing pangs of a Porto Kican fever, 
a Struggle yhich sapped his strength and wrung his soul: — after which 
he quietly and calmly replied to his physician's orders to leave at once : 
'No. Here I stay, where I have been sent.' 


"It seems peculiarly fitting that the Indian fighter and soldier 
should have as his birthplace an army post in the very heart of the 
Western frontier. Fort Smith, Indian Territory, and that his father. 
Major William Seaton Henry, of the Third United States Infantry, 
should be engaged in a war with the savages- at that time, March 9, 1839; 
and it, is also appropriate that a man who was destined to become the 
military and civil Governor of a foreign territory won by the sword 
should be the grandson of one who was Vice-President of the United 
States and twice Governor of New York State, Daniel D. Tompkins, and 
also grandson of a former Secretary of the Navy and Judge of the Su 
preme Court, Smith Thompson. 

"He was fortunate enough to graduate from West Point at the very 
outbreak of the Civil War. He was assigned as a Second Lieutenant to 
the First United States Artillery, and served with distinction in that 
regiment until he was made Colonel of the Fortieth Massachusetts In- 
fantry in the fall of 1863. He continued throughout the war with that 
command, being present at many of the most important battles." 


OSEPH ERTZ, private in tlie Eleventh United 
States regulars, is a typical American soldier, full 
of pluck and modesty. His story is that of a 
man in one of the humble walks of life who is as 
proud of his country as the greatest General in 
her service. When the call came he answered, 
went to the war, and, Teturning, has gone back to 
work just as if his neighbors did not look upon him 
as a hero. Joe was given up for dead after the 
troops came back from Porto Rico. There was no 
trace of him other than that he was numbered among the missing. His 
comrades said that he had been killed by a Spaniard. Some of them 
had seen him die. None had witnessed his burial, for they hurried away 
from his corpse in the fighting. The days- passed and there were no 
tidings of Joe. Summer faded into Fall and the chill Winter came. 
Thanksgiving and Christmas had passed and Joe's family mourned him 
as dead. Often they thought of him, but were proud in their grief that 
he had died for his country. 

It was a bleak afternoon in Januarj^, the snow was flying and the 
Ertz family were seated at dinner, that is, Joe's sisters, for he is an 
orphan. They live in West Springfield, Mass. A sister was speaking 
of her loved bi;other: "Oh, that Joe could be here," she said, when the 
door opened and in stepped a soldier. Thinner and, paler than when 
he left and yet with the same light in his eyes, there stood Joe. God 
had given him back from the dead. He was in his sisters' arms, while 
they cried and laughed and cried again for joy. The holiday merry- 
making native to the Germans was but postponed after all, and there 
was feasting and dancing and the neighbors came with their congratu- 
lations, but best of all is Joe's own story of his experiences. 


"You see," said Joe, in talking it over, "I am not a great hand- to 
write, but I did send a letter home after the fight and I had got out of 

-- 163 


the hospital^ but as things were, in some way or other they didn't get it, 
and so it was quite a surprise to my folks when I walked in upon them. 

"Born in Albany, N, Y. My father was a soldier for the Kaiser and 
sang 'Der Wacht am Ehein' with the soldiers of the Crown Prince in 
the Franco-Prussian War; fought all through it, and then came to this 
country. He lived in Albany when I was born. We came to West 
Springfield in '90. 

"Now, you see, that was just it. I was set thinking about this war 
by the remembrance of what my father did, and I wanted to go. Many 
a night I have sat on the brake, atop a box car, thinking it over. That's 
been my work always, braking on the railroad. I was a little while 
down in Arkansas, but after that I came back to Massachusetts and 
worked in the New York, New Haven & Hartford Yard, and then I 
came here and was running on the Pittsfield freight from Springfield 
west, when this war broke out. 

"But I amafraid that Spaniard has given me something that will 
knock me out from any freight braking hereafter. I don't suppose I 
could jump a car now." 


Joe puffed away silently for a few minutes, and then resumed: 
"You understand that I hadn't made up my mind; till all of a sudden 
my chum, here. Burton Smith, started for New York City w'ith the pur- 
pose of enlisting in the regulars. That settled it. I had this hand." 

Here Joe held up his right, presenting a curious foreshortening 
of palm and back, evidence of an old injury. He nodded to my inquiring ' 

"Got that shackling cars," he said, "when the jaws came together. 
I thought that maybe it would shut me out, and so I went down to 
Boston to see Captain Quinton, Major he is now, I understand. 

"Well, the Captain just laughed at me when I showed him the 

"'Crook your finger all right, can't you?' he said. I showed I 
could. 'Got a good pull on it?' 'Sure,' said I. Then he punched me 
two or three times in the body and back. 'You'll do,' he said. That 
made me happy. I was accepted, went to Albany, New York, and there 
was enlisted with about 400 recruits for the Eleventh United States 
Infantry. We were sent South to Tampa, Florida, where we joined the 


"It is one of the oldest commands in the service. Colonel De Bus- 
sey was in command, and it was said that it was the first time in more 
than fourteen years that the whole regiment had been together. There 
Avere four or five companies from Arizona; some had been down in 
Arkansas and others were scattered from post to post, some in New 
Mexico. I was assigned to Company F, Captain Emery. He was a fine 
man. What I liked especially was the way in whict he looked after 
his men. ' 

"Why, the company that I joined had |1,600 in its company fund. 
We bought whatever we wanted in the way of supplies. 


"On the start we were with the Third United States Artillery 
and the Fifth Cavalry. I got to Tampa about the 17th of July and 
was there for two weeks. Our regiment sailed about the 29th or 30th 
and we went to Porto Eico. 

"I was in three skirmishes, at Yauco, near Ponce, on the way to 
Annasco, and at Homoguayras. 

"There are just two Generals that I believe in above everybody 
else," said Joe Ertz with emphasis. "One is General Miles. He was a 
soldier. I wouldn't allow any man to call that man down when I was 
present. I believe we owe everything to him, the way he looked after 
us. He was a man, if there ever was one, and we all loved him; and 
the other was General Schwan, who commanded the brigade I was in 
after we landed in Porto Kico. He was all right and we boys liked 
him. I liked the way the regular officers talked to us. Our Captain, he 
put everything just as it was and advised us for what was our own 
good. He told us what we had to expect, and put it that way, that it 
made no difference to him, but if we didn't observe the regulations we 
would be punished, and there was no need of it if a man looked after 

"Well, after we landed in Porto Kico we were ordered to make 
an advance under General Schwan, and we went ahead. Troop A of 
the Third Cavalry led the way; then Companies A and C of the Eleventh 
as advance guard. We had our flankers out. F was in the main col- 
umn, while G of the Eleventh had the wagon train. The first troops 
we encountered were the Spanish volunteers. We struck them between 
midnight and dawn. They did not bother us much and we soon 
drove them, following up rapidly, but next we ran up against the 


Alfonso XIII. Regiment of Spanish regulars, and they gave us a stiff 
fi-ght, I can tell you. It lasted for fully five hours and it was no child's 

^ "That was at Homoguayras, and wheniwe finally drove them they 
retired slowly, giving us a steady running fire all the way. Of course, 
as they gave back they uncovered their dead and wounded, and very 
soon our line passed over them so that they were in our possession. 
Those wounded Spaniards were singing out all over the field, 'Aqua, 
much aqua,' in a way you couldn't resist. 


"I didn't know anything about Spanish, but our Captain told- us 
that it was water they wanted. Pretty soon Colonel De Russey sent 
down an order for a detail from the companies to look after the Spanish 
wonnded, and Captain Emery of my company ordered First Sergeant 
Ruby and Sergeant Jennings to take a squad of men with full canteens 
to go to their relief. I was one of the detail. My canteen was full and 
I started for a fellow who was sitting up against a brace for his back. 
He was shot through the body, but he had strength enough to swing 
his rifle, as I very soon learned. He was not a very large man, about 
130 pounds, apparently. All Spaniards looked the same to us, but I 
wasn't looking for trouble. He was hollering for water and I wanted 
to give him some from my canteen. 

"Now, I can't talk Spanish, and I didn't know how to make him 
understand me, but I did what I thought was the next best thing. I 
took the stopper- out of my canteen and shook it. So that the contents 
were spilled, and he could see what I intended. I had only the best 
wishes to make him comfortable, but just as soon as I came up to him, 
before it was possible to realize his intention, he clubbed that rifle of 
his and swung it with all his force at me. ■ . 

"It crashed, against my abdoinen. I fell back like a log, with the 
senses completely- knocked out of me. I knew no more after that until 
I came to consciousness hours after and found myself in an old deserted 
sugar mill, in our rear, which had been converted into a field hospital." 


"What became of the Spaniard?" said I. 

"Oh," said Joe, "our First Sergeant, Ruby, was a veteran. He had 


seen twenty-five years in the service. He spoke to the boys. They fin- 
ished him." 

"The Spaniard?" I interpolated. 

Joe gravely nodded. 

"They thought I was dead, when- they came for me, but I was picked 
up and taken back to the hospital, where, seeing some signs of life still 
left, I was taken care of, and later came to a realization where I was. 
Erom there after the fighting was ended I was put in division hospital, 
and for weeks I lay there unable to move. 

"As soon as I was able I sent notice to the folks at home, but it 
seems they didn't get it, and by and by I suppose the story was 
sent home how I was struck down and believed to have been picked up 
for dead. I began to get better in the hospital, and I didn't want to go 
home then. I had enlisted for three years and I liked the service and 
I liked my regiment. I wanted to see it through. If it hadn't been for 
Dr. Wilcox, our Surgeon-Major, I do not believe I would be here talking 
to you. Ah, he was a man; no contract surgeon about him. He was a 
regular, brought up in the army, and as long as I live I can never forget 
him or his kindness to me. If I can ever serve that man I want to be 
able to do it," he said with striking earnestness. 

. "Well," continued Joe, "I wanted to get back to the boys. I was 
feeling first rate and so they discharged me from the hospital and let 
me go back to the company, but I had to go to the doctor to be trussed 
up. I was floing my duty regularly, however, and as a matter of fact 
I had been off for thirty-six hours on provost guard with my company. 
I had just come off when I got word that the doctor wanted to see me. 
I went at orrce to his quarters, and he said: *Ertz, I have got your 
discharge here.' Well, sir, you could have knocked me down with a 

" 'Major,' says I, 'I don't want to be discharged. I am all right, I 
am doing duty. I had rather stay here.' 'But how can you?' said he. 'I 
cannot always be here to strap you up, and who will do it for you? 
You will have to give up all further service,' said he. I saw it then, 
and I tell you, sir, that there never was a sorrier day to me than when 
I had to leave the old regiment. 


"I was discharged at Mayaguez, January 1, 1899, as you can see." 
Joe went down into the recesses of his inner consciousness and 


produced his United States pocket army regulations. There at the end 
was his record clear: 

"Joseph G. Ertz.— Enlisted July 1, 1890, for three years, first 
enlistment. In the engagement near Homguraras, Porto Eico, August 
10, 1898. The Porto Eican. expedition from July 23, 1898, to January 
1, 1899, serving during the Spanish-American War of 1898. Dis- 
charged at.Mayaguez, Porto Eico, on certificate of disability, January 
1, 1899." 

"I never applied for that," he said sadly. "It was in the doctor's 
hands three days before he gave it to me. He knew. ^ 


"So then I came home, and then when I walked in upon them all 
here I surprised them, as I say. They had heard nothing from me for 
so long. My father is dead, and I have been making my home with my 
sisters here in West Springfield. They believed that I must have died 
in the service. You see that there was no report from me, and I went 
directly from the hospital back to duty with my company." 





MERICAN troops in the Philippines received their first 
baptism of fire in the trenches at Malate on the night of 
July 31, 1898. 

From the time of landing and the establish- 
ment of Camp Dewey, the brigade commanded 
by General Francis V. Greene was the focus of 
the active land campaign. On Friday morning, 
July 29th, a battalion consisting of the First 
Colorado, under Lieutenani-Colonel McCoy, with 
four guns of the Utah Battery, commanded by 
Captain Young, grandson of the Mormon prophet, occupied, the line 
fifty yards in advance of the insurgents between the beach and Oamino 
Real, and 1,300 yards from a formidable earthwork situated at the 
southern end of Malate, the foreign residential quarter of Manila. After 
sixteen hours of continuous labor the work of intrenchment was com- 
pleted, the enemy not firing a shot until the Americans indulged- in , 

The American trenches were thrown forward to displace the in- 
surgents, who were considered untrustworthy. They extended from 
the beach half a mile toward Pasay, where General Norial's headquar- 
ters were located. All was quiet on Saturday and on Sunday, until 
late at night, when the Spaniards attacked the American intrench- 
ments with a severe enfilading fire. 

Between the American extreme right and the insurgent barracks 
at Pasay was about half a mile of bamboo swamp interspersed with 
mango trees, which the insurgents were supposed to cover, and had 
covered theretofore. 

There had been some desultory firing from the insurgent guns, to 



which the Spaniards replied at intervals, the insurgents then retiring 
to Pasay, leaving the American right uncovered. 

Colonel Hawkins, of the Pennsylvanians, had thrown three com- 
panies — D, E, and K- — outside the trenches to cover the right of Com- 
panies A, H. G and E, which held the trenches down to the beach, 
with Utah's Company B lying as a reserve back along Camino Real to- 
ward Camp Dewey. 

A tropical storni was raging at the time, the lightning flashing, the 
thunder roaring and the rain falling in torrents. Intense darkness 
reigned, which concealed the movements of the enemy, while the 
noise of the elements prevented them from being heard and even 
drowned the sounds of the firing later on. 

At 11:30 o'clock the Spanish front opened fire on the American 
right, drawing the Pennsylvanians' fire outside the trenches, thus get- 
ting their position. Thence from the dense bamboo thicket, 250 yards 
to the American right, there blazed the fire of 2,000 Mausers, while 
the Malate batteries sent shrapnel shrieking in upon the American 
works, and from the front came the galling fire of Nordenf elds. 

While the Spaniards swept Camino Real the insurgent batteries on 
the Pasay side remained ominously silent, protected by the thickets and 
covered by darkness. 

The Spaniards attempted to rush on the American right. The plan 
apparently was to double troops up on the beach and sweep across the 
flats onto the camp. 

Company D, of the Tenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, cut off from 
the main body, fought its way back. The Spaniards repeatedly ad- 
vanced within sixty yards of the American intrenchments, but fell back 
before the steady flre of the volunteers. 

A shell from Malate burst one of the Utah guns, and the volunteer 
battery's position rapidly was becoming untenable when Colonel Haw- 
kins dispatched a messenger to the camp for re-enforcements. He struck 
the Third Artillery. 

Major O'Hart, without awaiting orders, hurried two batteries into 
action as infantry to the trenches. The Pennsylvania troops had four 
rounds per man when succored. Major O'Hart sent information to 

General Greene. 

General Greene called Camp Dewey to arms and dispatched the 
California and Colorado regiments to the assistance of those under fire. 

By this time the firing, heavy and continuous, vastly different from 

1?0 ^" BATTlM op MALAtn. 

the usual qutpost shooting of the Spaniards and nativei, tad aroused 
the camp, and the call to arms was founded diX midnight. 

The Firsit Battalion of the First California Yol^nteers, closely fol- 
Ipwed: by the remaining battalions, marqhed to the front ch^ping. They 
crossed the mud^y fields in the pitiless rain. Going down Camino Heal 
they inet insurgents running away, firing as they ran. The Oalifojsnia 
First Battalion was thrown immediately forward in the trenches, and 
the Krag-Jorgensen rifles of the regulars began their deadly work. 

The Second California Battalion deployed to the right, holding the 
line to Pasay, the Third being in reserve, with the Colorado men in the 

Not one insurgent was found in the toenches. 

For three hours the Spaniards maintained a galling enfilading fire, 
but they shot high, making a veritable hell of the second line of in 
trenchments, held by the Second California Battalion. 

The Spanish fire gradually slackened toward morning. At day 
light the garrison retired behind sandbag intrenchments at Malate. 
Only the sha"rp bark of the rifles of the American sharpshooters picking 
off the Spaniards was heard occasionally. That ceased after sunrise, 
when the weary troops were relieved and the recovery of the dead began, 

The Spaniards carried off their dead as they retreated. None was 
found on the field, but their loss was 300 killed and 1,000 wounded, 
while the Americans lost but 10 killed and 38 wounded. The ground 
over which the Spaniards charged was clotted with Spanish blood. The 
attacking force numbered 3,000 men. 

The Astor Battery did not go into action, as its gun cartridges 
were damaged in transfer from transports to the beach. The men were 
compelled to lie in camp and fume while the fighting proceeded. 

The insurgents rendered no assistance, but retreated on the first 
shot. It is believed that General Aguinaldo, aware of the Sipanish in- 
tentions, moved his men away. 

On August 1st the Spaniards made two weak attacks, but were 
easily repulsed. On August 2d they made another attack, when one 
was killed and eleven wounded^ 

Following these engagements efforts were made to seciye the ms- 
render of Manila without further bloodshed. Knowing that the ipfl^- 
ence of the Archbishop of Manila was paramount. Father Willjam D. 
McKinnon, Chaplain of the First Calif or^iia, sought an interview with 


him through the medium of the Belgian Consul, and in keeping his ap- 
pointment displayed the qualities of a hero. 

Several ^engagements m^de with the Consul to carry Father Mc- 
Kinnon across the bay in a launch were not kepf, and finally the Con- 
sul intimated that he would meet the father on the Malate lines, show- 
ing the Belgian flag to indicate where to cross. 

Father McKinnon was on hand, but the flag was not shown. He 
went forward, however, and as he walked along the beach th^e Spaniards 
opened fire on him, but he was uninjured, although one bullet passed 
through his clothes. 

The priest walked bravely forward and was met by two Captains, 
who escorted him to Malate fortress. Father McKinnpn, not speaking 
Spanish, communicated with them in Latin, and was escorted to Arch- 
bishop Mozaleda's palace, where he was received cordially. 

The Archbishop stated that he was and always had been anxious 
for the restoration of peace and would do all in his power to secure a 
cessation of hostilities. He did not think Manila would be surrendered 
-without a fight. The Spaniards in the city were starving, but never- 
theless he expected General Jaudenes to make a last despera,te effort. 

The Archbishop denied most emphatically the authorship of a cir- 
cular ascribed to him exhorting Spaniards to resist the Yankee invaders 
to the last drop of blood. As a man of God he said he could not have 
given utterance to such sentiments, and that he always had been an 
apostle of peace. 

He said the Spanish flag still flew, and if the Americans wanted the 
city they must capture it. 

After this interview Father McKinnon, in his carriage, was driven 
along LHUeta and escorted across the lines by Spanish officers. This 
incident closed all attempts to secure peace without further bloodshed, 
and General Merritt and Admiral Dewey prepared to take Manila by 




EWSPAPERS of Manila on August 5th published 
news that Captain-General Augusti had been 
superseded by Segundo Cabo don Fermin Jaude- 
nes Alvarez, and referred in terms of contempt 
to the Yankees. 

On August 7th Admiral Dewey and General 
Merritt, acting jointly, notified General Jaudenes 
that they might attack the city forty-eight hours 
after the receipt of their note to him, and gave 
him an opportunity to remove all noncom- 
batants. This joint notification was carried by 
Lieutenant Armitage, of Her Majesty's ship Immortalite. 

Following is a copy of the letter sent by General Merritt and Ad- 
miral Dewey to General Jaudenes: 
"To the General-in-Chief Commanding the Spanish forces at Manila: 

"Sir: We have the honor to notify Your Excellency that opera- 
tions of the land and naval forces of the United States against the de- 
fenses of Manila may begin at any time after th.e expiration of forty- 
eight hours from the receipt by you of this communication, or sooner 
if made necessary by attack on your. part. 

"This notice is given to afford you an opportunity to remove all 
noncombatants from the city. Yours respectfully, 

"Major-General U. S. A., Commanding. 


"Bear Admiral U. S. N., Commanding.^ 



To tbis letter General Jaudenes replied as follows: 

"Manila, August 7th.— Gentlemen: I have the honor to inform jour 
excellencies that at 12:30 to-day I received the notice vrith which you 
favored me, that after forty-eight hours have elapsed you may begin 
operations against this fortified city, or at an earlier hour if the forces 
under your command are attacked by mine. 

"As your notice was sent for the purpose of providing safety for 
noncombatants, I give thanks to your excellencies for the humane 
sentiments you show, and state that finding myself surrounded by in- 
surrectionary forces, I am without a place of refuge for the increased 
number of wounded, sick, women and children now lodged within these 
walls. EespectfuUy, and kissing the hands of your excellencies, 


Foreign warships with'refugees were moved out of the harbor on 
the morning of August 9th. A small party of foreigners, chiefiy British, 
remained in the suburban port. 

The Concord and Petrel lay off the mouth of the Pasig so as to 
prevent any vessels escaping, but no action occurred until August 13th, 
the delay being to allow the American troops to extend their front 
on the right of the line. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Spanish made a serious resist- 
ance against the advance of the right wing of the American force, it 
could not have been difficult to foresee that a surrender would follow 
a display by the land forces to satisfy Spanish honor, nor has it been 
a well-kept secret that the Captain-General practically suggested the 
manner in which the American-troops should advance to prevent loss 
of life on both sides. At first it was not intended to attack the 
trencheSj but quietly to advance after the bombardment had ceased. 

At the last moment, however, the programtae was changed and 
orders were issued for the land battery to open fire simultaneously 
with the fleet, and for an advance to be made as soon as it was con- 
sidered practicable to assault the Spanish trenches. The reason for 
this change of plan is not yet apparent, but considerable loss of life 

General Anderson placed liis division, according to directions from 
General Merritt. There were eight battalions of the First Brigade 
under General McArthur in the fighting line on the right, with three 


battalions in reserve, while seveti battalions of the Second Brigade, un- 
der General Greene, were in the trenches across the Calle road to the 
seashore, three others forming a reserve. 

The troops left the camp at 6:30 in a heavy thunderstorm. They 
carried 300 rounds of ammunition per man, and two days' cooked 

Shortly after 8:45 the fleet got under way with flags mastheaded. 
At 9 o'clock the Olympia led the way, attended by the Baleigh and the 
Petrel,- while the Calloa, under Lientenant Tappan, and the launch 
Barcolo crept close inshore in the heavy breakers. 

Perfect quiet prevailed iu the lines on both sides as the great ships 
cleared for action, silently advanced, sometimes hidden by rain squalls. 
The Monterey, with the Baltimore, Charleston and Boston, formed the 

At 9:35 a sudden cloud of smoke, grgen and white against the 
storiny sky, completely hid the Olympia, a shell screamed across two. 
miles of turbulent water and burst near the Spanish foJt at Malate Sah 
Antonio de Abad. Then the Petrel and Ealeigh and the active little 
Calloa opened a rapid fire directed toward the shore end of the in- 
trehchnients. In the heavy rain it was difficult to judge the range, and 
the shots at first fell; short, but the fire soon becaine accurate and shells 
rendered the fort untenable, while the four guns of the Utah battety 
made excellent practice, of the earthworks and swamp to the east of 
the fort. The Spaniards replied with a few shells. 

Less than half an hour after the bombardment began Geheral 
Greene decided that it was possible to advance, although the signals to 
cease firing were disregarded by the fleet, being probably invisible on 
account of the i*ain. Thereupon six companies of the Colorado regiment 
leaped over their breastworks, dashed into the swamp and began volley 
firing from the partial shelter of low hedges within 300 yards of the. 
Spanish lines. A few "moments later the remaining six companies 
moved alohg the seashore, somewhat covered by a sand ridge formed 
by an inlet under the outworks of the fort, and at 11 o'clock occupied 
this formidable stronghold Without loss. 

McCoy hauled down the Spanish flag and raised the Stars and 
Stripes amid wild cheers along the line. 

Meanwhile the fleet, observing the movement of the troops along 
the beach, withheld its flre. The bombardment had lasted exactly an 
hour and a half. An hour later General Greene and his staff proceeded 


along thfe beach, still under a liot infantry fire from the rightj where 
the Eighteenth Kegulars and the Third Eegular Artillery were en- 
gaging the enemy, and directed the movement for an advance into 
Malate. The vicinity of the fort was uncomfortable on account of 
numbers of sharpshooters in the buildings on both sides, 200 yards 
distant. The forward movement was therefore hastened, and in a few 
minutes the outskirts of the suburb were well occupied and the sharp- 
shooters were driven away. 

As the Californians under Colonel Smith came up the beach their 
band played the national air, accompanied by the whistling of Mauser 
bullets, and during the sharpshooting continued to encourage the men 
with inspiring music. Each regiment carried its colors into action. 
There was considerable street fighting in the suburbs of Malate and 
Efmita, but the battalion of Californians pushed into the Luneta, a 
ipopular promenade within two hundred yards of the moat of the cita- 
del. Then the white flag was hoisted at the southwest corner of the 
walled town. General Greene, with a few members of his staff, galloped 
along the Luneta, und^r a sharp scattering fire from the houses near 
the beach and parleyed with an officer, who directed him along to the 
gate, further east. 

At this moment the Spanish forces^ retreating from Santa Ana, 
came into view, fully 2,000 strong, followed by insurgents who had 
eluded General McArthur's troops, and now opened fire for a brief 
period. The situation was awkward if not critical, both sides being 
slightly suspicious of treachery. The Spanish troops lining the citadel 
ramparts, observing the insurgents' action, opened fire on the Cali- 
fornians, killing one and wounding three. The confusion, however, 
soon ceased by the advance of the retreating Spaniards to the espla- 
nade, when General Greene ordered them to enter the citadel. 

Soon a letter was brought from the Captain-General requesting the 
commander of the troops to meet him for consultation. 

' General Greene immediately entered with Adjutant-General Bates. 
Meanwhile, according to arrangement, the moment the white flag was 
shown General Merritt, who occupied the steamer Zafiro as temporary 
corps headquarters, sent General Whittier, with Flag Lieutenant 
Brumby, ashore to meet the Captain-General and discuss first a plan 
of capitulation. General Whittier found the officials much startled by 
the news that the attack was still vigorously continuing along the 
whole line, the American troops even threatening the citadel. 


All available Spanish troops were immediately massed in the vicin- 
ity of the palace, awaiting the succession of events, concerning which 
a certain degree of anxiety was evident. 

General Merritt entered with his staff at 3 o'clock. The situation 
was then better understood, and a conference with General Jaudenes 
was held. The terms agreed on may be outlined; as follows: 

"An agreement for the capitulation of the Philippines. 

"A provision for disarming the men who remain organized under 
the command of their officers, no parole being exacted. 

"Necessary supplies to be furnished from the captured treasury 
funds, any possible deficiency being made good by the Americans. 

"The safety of life and property of the Spanish soldiers and citizens 
to be guaranteed as far as possible. 

"The question of transporting the troops to Spain to be referred 
to the decision of the Washington government, and that of returning 
their arms to the soldiers to be left to the discretion of General Merritt. 
. "Banks and similar institutions to continue operations under exist- 
ing regulations, unless these are changed by the United States authori- 

The terms of capitulation were formally signed by the American 
commanders, General Greene, Colonel Whitti^r, Colonel Crowder and 
Captain Lawbecton, and the Spanish commanders. Colonels San Jose 
Maria Laguen, Felin Don Carlos Eeye and General Don Nicholas de la 
Pena y Cuellas. 

Lieutenant Brumby, of the flagship Olympia, immediately after the 
terms of capitulation had been signed, hurried off to lower the Spanish 
flag — in reality to lower all Spain's flags in the Philippines by taking 
down one. He was accompanied by two signal men from the Olympia. 

This little party found its way after great difficulty into Fort San- 
tiago in the northern portion of the walled city. 

There a large Spanish flag was flying. Grouped about it were many ' 
Spanish officers. Brumby's presence there in the victorious uniform 
attracted a crowd from the streets. 

.They hissed as he approached to haul down the flag. Then the 
Stars and Stripes rose in place of the other. 

Many of those present wept bitterly as the flag of the victorious 
stranger climbed into place above the fort. 

Fearing that the crowd might lower "Old Glory," Lieutenant 


Brumby asked an American infantry officer to move up a detachment 
to guard it. Fortunately, he met a company coming up with a band. 

The infantrymen presented arms and the band played "The Star- 
Spangled Banner," which lent some eclat to the ceremony. 

The conduct of the Spaniards was disgraceful after the capitulation. 
The gunboat Cebu was brought down the river, with the Spanish flag 
flying, and was set on flre at the mouth of the passage. A party of 
Americans boarded and hoisted the Stars and Stripes. They tried fruit- 
lessly to save three launches and several boats, which were also de- 

Our troops quietly occupied the city on both sides of the Pasig, 
sleeping in the streets throughout the night of August 13th, which was 
a wet one and made the strange conditions doubly disagreeable. 

Yet the conduct of the American troops was beyond praise. It 
was simply admirable. They fraternized good-humoredly with the 
Spaniards and natives. 

A group of regulars squatted- in Escolta street, one of the prin- 
cipal thoroughfares, edifying the great crowd which had formed about 
them with tuneful plantation ditties. 

Our ships which were engaged cruised freely at dead low water 
inside a line which, on a British admiralty chart, is marked "three 
fathoms," although the Olympia was drawing twenty-four feet. As a 
matter of-fact, her navigator. Lieutenant Calkins, during her stay here, 
carefully surveyed the water along the city front. 

The Oallao-went within rifle range while covering the flank of the 
troops as they advanced. The services of Lieutenant Tappan, who is 
her commander, will doubtless receive special mefltion in future. 

The Monterey was not called upon to try her guns, hut undoubt- 
edly her presence and the boldness with which she was navigated 
within easy ran^e of the city, had considerable influence on the Span- 
iards in their decision to capitulate. 

As the fleet had raked the position at Malate, the Colorados, sup- 
ported by the Eighteenth Regiment and the Utah Battery, swept it with 
the deadliest of flres. 

General Greene, with the left wing, swept along upon the trenches 
before Malate. General McArthur led the right wing, with the Astor 
Battery, which took up a position on the right of the Pasig, and did 
gallant work. 

An instance of this was when a Spanish blockhouse was carried 


by men using their revolvers. The only rapid-fire gun in the line was 
silenced by this gallant advance. 

Three men of the Astor Battery were killed. 

The hardest fighting of the day was done at a point on the right 
wing where the guns of the fleet under Dewey could give no assistance. 

The Spaniards fell back before the charging Coloradoans, who fol- 
lowed them closely, giving them no rest" until the position was ours and 
the American flag was raised by the Californians, Who had been 
charging with the Coloradoans. 

The Californians, who. were subjected to a galling fire from Span- 
ish sharpshooters in houses on the right, moved past the Coloradoans 
into the suburb of Ermita, where Company L, which was leading, en- 
gaged in a hot fight along Calle Keal, where the Spaniards had erected 

Once Calle Real was cleared, the attack was virtually over. About 
noon a white flag was floating over the City walls. The Californians 
advanced at a double quick across Luneta as General Greene and his 
staff arrived to receive the surrender. 

By some error, while the troops were standing at rest, Spaniards 
in the walled city fired, fatally wounding Privates Dunsoupe and Lamer- 
son, of the Californians. 

Our casualties were eight killed and forty wounded. 

The Spanish loss is estimated at 120 to 600 killed and wounded. 

The Americans took 11,000 prisoners, 7,000 being Spanish regulars; 
20,000 Mauser rifles, 3,000 Remingtons, eighteen modern cannon and 
many of the obsolete pattern. 

Following the victory General Merritt issued the following bulle- 
tin to his troops. It was also translated into Spanish and posted where 
the Spaniards and natives could see it: 

"In view of the extraordinary conditions under which this army 
is operating, its commanding General desires to acquaint the officers 
and men with the expectations he entertains as to their conduct. 

"You are assembled on a foreign soil, situated within the western 
confines of a vast ocean, separating you frojn your native land. You 
have come not as despoilers or oppressors, but simply as the instrument 
of a strong, free government, whose purposes are beneficent, and which 
declared itself in this war champion of those opjjressed by Spanish mis- 

"It is therefore the intentioli of this order to appeal directly to your 


pride in your position as representatives of the high civilization, in 
the hope and with the firm conviction that you wifl so conduct your- 
selves in your relations with the inhabitants of these islands as to 
convince them of the lofty nature of the mission you have come to 

"It is not believed any acts of pillage, rapine or violence will be 
committed by soldiers or others in the employ of the United States, 
but should there be persons with this command who prove themselves 
unworthy of this confldence^ their acts will be considered not only as 
crimes against the sufferers, but as direct insults to the United States 
flag and be punished on the spot with the maximum penalty known to 
military law." 

The American troops observed thoroughly the spirit of this docu- 


General Wesley Merritt tells of the fall of Manila in the following 
report to the War Department. It is dated on board the trans- 
port China, August 31st. After giving briefly the story of his em- 
barkation and arrival at Manila and the disposition of the troops there 
he says: 

"As General Aguinaldo did not visit me on my arrival nor offer 
his services as a subordinate military leader, and as my instructions 
from the President fully contem'^lated the occupation of the islands 
by the Alnerican land forces, and stated that 'the powers of the mili- 
tary occupaht are absolute and supreme and immediately operate 
upon the political condition of the inhabitants,' I did not consider it 
wise to hold any direct communication with the insurgent leader until 
I should be in possession of the City of Manila, especially as I would 
not until then be in a position to issue a proclamation and enforce my 
authority, in the event that his pretensions should clash with my 

"For these reasons the preparations for the attack on the city were 
pressed and military operations conducted without reference to the 
situation of the insurgent forces. The wisdom of this course was 
subsequently ftilly established by the fact that when the troops of my 
command carried the Spanish intrenchments, extending from the sea 
to the Pasay road on the extrenle Spanish right, we were under no 
obligations, by prearranged plans of mutual attack, to turn to the 


right and clear the front still held against the insurgents, but were able 
to move forward at once and occupy the city and suburbs. 

"The difficulty in gaining an avenue of approach to the Spanish 
line lay in the fact of my disinclination to ask General Aguinaldd to 
withdraw from the beach and the 'Calle Real,' so that General Greene 
could move forward. This was overcome by instructions to General 
Greene to arrange, if possible, with the insurgent brigade commander in 
his immediate vicinity to move to the right and allow the American 
forces unobstructed control of the roads in their immediate front. No 
objection was made, and accordingly General Greene's brigade threw 
forward a heavy outpost line on the 'Calle Eeal' and the beach and con- 
structed a trench, in which a portion of the guns of the Utah Batteries 
was placed. 

"The Spanish, observing this activity on our part, made" a very 
sharp attack with infantry and artillery on the night of July 31. The 
behavior of our troops during this night attack was all that could be 
desired, and I have, in cablegrams to the War Department, taken oc- 
casion to commend by name those who deserve special mention for 
good conduct in the affair. Our position was extended and strength- 
ened after this and resisted successfully repeated night attacks, our 
forces suffering, however, considerable loss in wounded and killed, while 
the losses of the enemy, owing to the darkness, could not be ascertained. 

"Upon the assembly of MacArthur's brigade in support of Greene's 
I had about 8,500 men in position to attack, and I deemed the time had 
come for final action. Under date of August 6th Admiral Dewey agreed 
to my suggestion that we should send a joint letter to the Captain- 
General notifying him that he should remove from the city all non- 
combatants within forty-eight hours, and that operations against the de- 
fenses of Manila might begin at any time after the expiration of that 
period. This letter was sent August 7th, and a reply was received the 
same date to the effect that the Spanish were without places of refuge 
for the increased numbers of wounded, sick, women and children now 
lodged within the walls. 

"On the 9th a formal joint demand for the surrender of the city 
was sent in. The Captain-General's reply, of same date, stated that the 
council of defense had declared the demand could not be granted, but 
the Captain-General offered to consult his government if we would 
allow him the time strictly necessary for the communications by way 
of Hongkong. This was declined on our part, because the necessity 


was apparent and very urgent that decisive action should be taken at 
once to compel the enemy to give up the tovpn, in order to relieve our 
troops from the trenches and from the great exposure to unhealthy 
conditions, vrhich were unavoidable in a bivouac during the rainy sea- 
son. It was then agreed between Admiral Dewey and myself that an 
attempt should be made to carry the extreme right of the Spanish 
line of intrenchments in front of the positions at that time occupied 
by our troops, which, with its flank on the seashore, was entirely open 
to the fire of the navy. 

"It was not my intention to press the assault at this point, in case 
the enemy should hold it in strong force, until after the navy had made 
practicable breaches in the works and shaken the troops holding them, 
which could not be done by the army alone, owing to the absence of 
siege guns. It was believed, however, that the attempt should be 
made to drive the enemy out of his intrenchments before resorting to 
the bombardment of the city. In anticipation of the attack General 
Anderson assumed direct command in the field," and all the troops 
were in position on the 13th at an early hour in the morning. 

"About 10 A. M. on that day our fleet opened a hot and accurate 
fire of heavy shells and rapid-fire projectiles on the sea flank of the 
Spanish entrenchments at the powder magazine fort, and at the same 
time the Utah Batteries, in position in our trenches near the 'Calle 
Keal,' began firing with great accuracy. At 10:25 A. M., on a pre- 
arranged signal from our trenches that it was believed our troops 
could advance, the navy ceased firing and immediately a light line of 
skirmishers from the Colorado regiment of Greene's brigade passed 
over our trenches and deployed rapidly forward, another line from 
the same regiment from the left flank of our earthworks advancing 
swiftly up the beach in open order. Both these lines found the powder 
magazine fort and the trenches flanking it deserted, but as they passed 
over the Spanish works they were met by a sharp flre from a second 
line, situated in the streets of Malate, by which a number of men 
were killed and wounded, among others the soldier who pulled down 
the Spanish colors still flying on the fort and raised our own. 

"The works of the second line soon gave way to the determined 
advance of Greene's troops, and that officer pushed his brigade rapidly 
through Malate and over the bridges, to occupy Binondo and San 
Miguel. In the meantime the brigade of General MacArthur, ad- 
vancing simultaneously on the Pasay road, encountered a very sharp 


fire, coining from the blockhouses, trenches ^nd woods in his front. 
With muqh gallantry and with a minimum loss MacArthiir adyanced 
and held the bridges and the town of Malate. 

"The City of Manila was now in our possessipn, excepting the 
walled town, but shortly after the entry of our troops into Malate a 
white flag was displayed on the walls. After a conversation with the 
Spanish authorities at the palace of the Governor-General a preliminary 
agreement of the terms of capitulation was signed by the Captain- 
General and myself. This agreement was subsequently incorporated 
into the formal terms of capitulation, as arranged by the officers repre- 
senting the two forces. 

"I submit that for troops to enter under fire a town covering a 
wide area; to rapidly deploy and guard all principaL points in the ex- 
tensive subu^rbs; to keep out the insurgent forces pressing for admis- 
sion; to quietly disarm an army of Spaniards more than equal in num- 
bers to the American troops, and finally by all this to prevent entirely 
all rapine, pillage -and disorder, and gain complete possession of a 
city of 300,000 people, filled with natives hostile to European interest^, 
was an act which only the law-abiding, temperate, resolute American 
soldier, well and skillfully handled by his regimental and brigade com- 
manders, could accomplish. 


"Major-General U. S. A." 



*ERY much has been written about the Philippine 
Islands, yet it seems impossible to satiate the 
American people with information of the Fili- 
pinos. Our new Asiatic empire is of intense in- 
terest. There is a sort of glamour and romance 
about it and then, too, it was bought with Amer- 
ican blood and treasure. It is surely appropriate 
in a volume dealing with the heroism of our 
soldiers to tell a story illustrative of how much 
the Filipinos have still to learn. 
They have a beautiful custom of kneeling at Vespers before their 
patron saint to say their prayers. The whole faniily kneel together and 
then the children kiss the hands of their parents and wish them good 
evening. Dean C. Worcester, who has spent much time among these 
people, tells of an incident that is amusing and instructive. He had 
received in his mail from America some copies of Judge, which at the 
time was printing caricatures of Grover Cleveland in the garb of a 
friar with a tin halo supported by an upright from the back of his . 

"After reading my papers," says the Dean, "I used them for wrap- 
pijig bird skins, and when one day I was tearing up some old copies of 
judge for this ptirpose I came across a particularly villainous full page 
cartoon of our then chief magistrate in the garb just described. He was 
represented in an attitude of devotion, with hands clasped and very 
large tears rolling down his cheeks. 

"The owner of the house begged for the picture and I gave it to 
him, little suspecting the use to which he intended putting it. I was 
called away to catch a python and when I returned, after an absence of 
a few days, was surprised to see the cartoon of Mr. Cleveland hanging 
at one end of the hut in a neat bamboo frame. 

"Even then I failed to appreciate the full beauty of the situation 
until 6 o'clock, when father, mother and children fell on their knees 
before the preposterous thing and offered to it their evening petitions. 
So far as I know, Mr. Cleveland is the first American President to have 
been canonized." isa 


; HERE is but one island in our new territory that 
was captured without the shedding of the blood 
of either American or Spaniard. The Stars and 
Stripes float over Guam, in the Ladrones. The 
little island captured by Uncle Sam's sailors as a 
diversion, while on their way to Manila, is an ideal 
spot, geographically irdportant as a nayal station. " 
It is a veritable Garden of Eden and is a favorite 
with officers who, having fought the good fight, 
are eager to be stationed there until there is more 
fighting to be done. 
In a story of the heroism of our soldiers and the bloody battles 
they waged to free an empire from Spanish tyranny and misrule it 
would be singularly inappropriate to omit the bloodless capture of 
Guam. An officer who was one of the remarkable expedition gives the 
best account of the event so unusual in the history of the jealousy 
among natives of their territory and the wars they have waged in de- 
fense or offense. The officer's story is as follows: 

"Soon after the transports Peking, Sydney and Australia, convoyed 
by the Charleston, left Honolulu, the news was wig-wagged that we 
were to make- for Guam, to capture the Mariannes group. There was 
intense excitement on board, and every man sought information re- 
garding this hitherto almost unknown group of islands. The charts 
in the Captain's cabin indicated that the main town of the island of 
Guam, Aganya, was situated on a bay of the same name; that the Bay 
of San Luis de Apra was the principal port of the Ladrones, and that 
it was defended by two batteries; one, situated on a veritable Gibraltar, 
at the entrance to the bay, was called Fort San Yago. The other de- 
fense, Fort Santa Cruz, was placed in the middle of the coral reefs that 
fill the landward side of the port of San Luis de Apra. 

"At 5 o'clock on the morning of June 20th the beautiful shores of 
Guam could be faintly seen through a misty rain. From the deck we 



saw that the island was mountainous, that its shores were green, and 
that it was heavily timbered. The Charleston, at 9:30 A. M., turned 
her nose to the land to explore the Bay of Aganya. Every eye was 
strained and expectation was on tiptoe, as the vessel that was to bring 
a message of war to this dependency of Spain advanced slowly into 
the fog. 

"Soon the Charleston could be seen scurrying southward, following 
the fringe of coast-line reef. She was making for the Bay of San Luis 
de Apra, and entered at the southern end, steaming cautiously along un- 
der the guns of San Yago. 'What a daring thing to do !' was the universal 
thought. Had we known that this hole in the ground, charted as Fort 
San Yago, boasted only a dismounted small brass cannon, surrounded by 
the bright flowers that drew sustenance from the decaying wood sup- 
ports, we should have been less nervous as to the possible consequences 
to the Charleston. 

"The cruiser fired two shots. Long before the sound reached us we 
saw jets of flame from her side and responding columns of water rise 
from the sea about the fort. The firing ceased; we descried two 
Whitehall boats making" for the warship, and soon the Captain of the 
port, Jose Garcia y Guttierez, of the navy, and the port physician. Dr. 
Jose Eomero, were presenting their compliments and the regrets of 
Colonel Marina to the American naval commandant that they had no 
ammunition with which to answer the 'courteous salute.' 

"In the next few minutes niany matters were disclosed, and the 
emissaries of the Spanish Government were given to understiand that a 
formal surrender of the Ladrone group must be made on the morrow. 
Several hours after the time fixed upon Lieutenant-Colonel Jose Marina 
y Vega and his aids appeared in a boat and surrendered the Ladrones 
to the United States, turning over to Captain Glass fifty-four Keming- 
tons and 7,000 rounds of ammunition. The next morning 110 men 
marched along the red, dusty road from Aganya to Piti, and these gave 
themselves over to Lieutenant Braunersreuther. To his resourceful tact 
is due the fact that the Ladrones were secured to the United States 
without shedding one drop of blood. An immense American flag was 
raised over Fort Santa Cruz; the Charleston fired the national salute; 
the prisoners were hustled on board the Sydney; the bands played, and 
the Mariannes were American property." 

When one has acquired something it is always well to know what 
it is. Guam is a tropical paradise without the tropical pestilences. That 


describes it, and the character of the people can be told in the follow- 
ing anecdote of one of the American conquerors : 

"The natives are a gentle race, hospitable to a degree, and not over 
intelligent. The Mayor of Sumai is a native who speaks English. He 
invited us to his house, where we met his really pretty daughters, and 
where we enjoyed some good wine. This house boasted an American 
cottage organ, and, upon my request, one of the comely girls decided 
to give us some music. The girl, with a quaint, embarrassed smile, 
plunged into 'After the Ball.' We had not recovered when she struck 
into 'The New Bully.' Guam is a resort for whalers of all nations, and 
some musical sons of the sea had wooed the dusky daughters of the 
Ladrones with the songs of the Bowery." 


"^HE wife of Brigadier-General C. McCormick Reeve, 
Provost General of Manila, will have her name 
connected with the American military operations 
in the Philippines. General Reeve was the Col- 
onel of the Thirteenth Wisconsin when that regi- 
ment started on the Asiatic expedition. His wife^ 
to whom he was .dearly attached, could not bear 
his going on the long and hazardous journey. She 
did everything in her power to gain permission 
from the Government to acconipany her hus- 
band, but the rule was inviolable. Women were not allowed on the 
transports and there could be no exception. Baflfled Mrs. Reeve was not 
beaten, and with a, woman's perseverance, inspired by the love of her 
husband, she determined that she would go with him despite the Gov- 
ernment or its guards, with their i)right bayonets. 

The old adage that where a woman wills she will was quite true. 
Mrs. Reeve went aboard the transport shortly before it sailed, ostensibly 
to see that her husband's quarters were comfortable and to say good- 
bye to him. When the time of parting came she begged the Colonel not 
to accompany her to the side of the boat. They had said good-bye and 
she did not want it to be any harder than it was. Then, too, it was 
bad luck to see one bound on a long journey out of sight. The Colonel 
left his wife and she slipped down below, where she hid herself in a 
dark corner among the cargo. Of course, with a woman's foresight, she 
had taken with her something to eat and drink. 

Great was the excitement of the officers, amazement of the Colonel 
and mirth of the men, when, on the second day out, the lady appeared 
on deck and with mock terror asked if they were going to, throw her 
into the sea. There she was and there she stayed while the big transport 
plowed its furrow over the Pacific, and there were many happy days 
with her husband until the .boat arrived at Honolulu. 

Army regulations are not to be trifled with, even by a charming 
woman. The orders were that none but men should go and they had to 


be obeyed. Mrs. Reeve was not allowed to re-embark at Honolulu. 
There were guards to see to that. Some women might have been dis- 
couraged. The Colonel's vpife was not. She secured passage to Hong- 
Kong and from there went to Manila. It is but fair to state of the of- 
ficers who had been forced to seem harsh to her at Honolulu, that they 
gave her a royal welcome. They admired her pluck and the love that 
would make her so daring and so successful in her avowed purpose. 


OOTS" McDERMOTT, of Pittsburg, is not particu- 
larly big for his thirteen years, or more imposing 
than most boys of his age, and yet he has a 
record of which any soldier might be proud and 
is a veteran who has faced the enemy's fire and 
rendered valuable service in action. "Boots" made 
his living shining shoes and heard men talking of 
the war until he could stand it no longer. When 
the Tenth Pennsylvania Regiment, United States 
Volunteers, were in the cars at Pittsburg ready to 
start for San Francisco, "Boots" slipped aboard, was hidden by the 
soldiers and went with them on their long trip. The boys in blue made 
him their pet and mascot and he was taken along when the troops^ 
started for Manila. 

In the assault that won a new empire for America the Pennsyl- 
vania troops were in a particularly dangerous position and the Mauser 
bullets ripped through the air with a sound like that along a telegraph 
line when a storm hisses and sings through the vibrating wires and 
there was death and suffering in the air. The ammunition of the Penn- 
sylvanians was running short and many a brave heart was beating 
anxiously. Suddenly little "Boots'' scurried out of the trenches to run 
over a wide and exposed stretch, where the bullets flew like scud from 
the sea, driven over the marshes by a northeaster, and the men in 
the trenches forgot their own grave peril as they thought of the little 
lad and were not ashamed of him, but sorry in the belief that, terror- 
stricken, he had fled at the awful sounds of battle. 

It was not long before "Boots," laden down with all the am- 
munition, came staggering across the same fleld, facing the leaden hail, 
and there was a mighty cheer as he fell into the trenches with his 
precious burden, it was not much, but the men knew that it would 
mean more. The regiinent was proud of its mascot and boy hero. It 
was not many minutes before a plentiful supply of ammunition had 
been given to the Pennsylvanians, and a position that was weak had 
been made strong and impregnable by one little bootblack, " 



While the fighting continued, "Boots" was not idle. At the greatest 
risk of his life he .hurried along the trenches distributing the needed 
cartridges and again he was bearing water to the wounded and the 
dying and to those who, exhausted in the terrific heat of the conflict, 
were wild for a sup of the precious water. When the battle was over 
"Boots" McDermott was the hero in a regiment of heroes and the proud 
Pennsylvanians were loud in their praises and untiring in their efforts 
to do honor to a thirteen-year-old boy. 

Admiral Dewey heard of the youngster and sent for him.. He 
wanted to know that sort of a boy. So pleased was the gr,eat sea-cap- 
tain with the modesty that went with the record of this boy who had 
been baptized by fire, that he ordered a beautiful sailor's suit made for 
him. The Admiral wanted to appropriate him for the Navy. The two 
became great friends. Dewey wisely wanted the boy to get an educa- 
tion that his manly courage might be used to good purpose. He sent 
the boy home. 

The Pittsburg newspapers and public greeted him with an en- 
thusiasm such as Caesar may have aroused when he returned from the 
Gallic wars. "Boots" was the guest of honor at the Bijou Theatre in 
Pittsburg the night after he came to town, and made a bigger hit than 
the performance. 

"Boots" marched into a box with the dignity befitting a veteran and 
a friend of Dewey. Ovation followed ovation until at last "Boots" found 
the bright light of fame beating upon the box too strong for him, and 
he sought seclusion among his friends in the gallery. One result of the 
enthusiasm for the boy veteran is a poem by Harry 0. Bums> a Pitts- 
burg dealer in books and periodicals. Following are a couple of stanzas: 

There were forty -nine reporters; all the girls were out; 
I tipped a copper with a toby, and asked, "What's all this about?" 
Said he: "Are you a stranger? If not, well, you're a clown, 
For every one in'Pittsie' knows that 'Boots' is back in town." 

The greeting of our city we give to "Boots' " fame, ^ 

And to every other lad that dares to win a name. 

Just home from old Manila, "Boots" wears a hero's crown, 

That's why the people rise en masse when "Boots" comes back to town. 




^O THE guaboat Nashville belongs the honor of 
firing the first gun of the war. Although she did 
gallant service throughout the ^ar, most of the 
time guarding her post as a part of the blockad- 
ing squadron off Cienf uegos and Havana, her chief 
distinction will be that mentioned above and that 
of taking the first prize of the war. 

It was on the morning that Sampson's fleet first 
left Key West to take up its position in front of 
Havana. The Nashville, Commander Washburn 
Maynard, was moving along with the fleet when across the water in 
the distance one of her jackies descried a trail of smoke. She was off in 
pursuit as soon as permission could be obtained from Admiral Samp- 
son, entering into the emprise with as much spirit and dash as though, 
it were a daily experience instead of the first hostile act done by our 
navy in something like a quarter century. 

The Nashville was soon in position to gain a good view of the ship 
whose smoke had started her on the chase and she made out not only 
the Spanish flag flying impudently at her stern, but that she was the 
Buena Ventura, a Spanish lumber craft. The gunboat's deck had been 
hastily cleared for action and the men all sent to general quarters, 
where, in a high state of excitement, they awaited the issue of this 
warlike adventure. When the/creeping lumber craft was in hailing 
distance and had refused to stop at signals from the warship, a shot 
ripped out from the deck of the gunboat and ricochetted along th6 
water in front of the Spaniards. It was fired from the 4-inch rapid- 
fire gun on the deck of the Nashville and it brought the Buena Ventura 
to a sudden stop. The Spanish vessel was taken in charge and sent 
to Key West, the first prize of the war. 




The first battle of the war was the engagement between. American 
ships and Spanish batteries at Matanzas on April 27, two days after 
the formal declaration of war. 

Now that the war is over bombardment of Matanzas is seen to haye 
been an incident of merely chronological importance. Many people had 
refused to take the war seriously, and bets were freely offered that not 
a life would be lost, unless by accident. The Matanzas affair showed 
that there were real guns on the American warships and that the sailors 
were not afraid to fire them. It als,o showed the navy the popularity 
of "pounding sand," providing that the process of pounding was properly 

Matanzas Bay is about forty miles east of Havana, on the north 
Cuban coast. The town is at the head of the bay, which is three miles 
wide at the entrance, and was protected by batteries on both the west- 
ern and eastern points. Duringthe first days of the blockade the Span- 
iards were noticed to be vigorously fortifying the low, sandy points, 
Point Rubal Cava on the west and Point Maya on the east. The bat- 
teries had also fired on the torpedo boat Foote while on patrol duty, and 
it was thought that Matanzas might soon be needed as a base for the 
issue of supplies to Cuban allies and reconcentrados, and as a landing 
place for the army of invasion. Altogether there seemed to be a 
multiplicity of reasons for the silencing of the batteries and destroying 
the fortifications. The double-turreted monitor Puritan and the cruiser 
Cincinnati were joined on their blockading station near Matanzas by 
Admiral Sampson in his fiagship, the New York, on the forenoon of 
AJ)ril 27. At noon a reconnoissance was undertaken, the New York 
standing in toward the entrance of the bay, followed by the Puritan 
and Cincinnati. 

The New York drew the fire of the batteries at about 1 o'clock, 
the 8-inch shells from Rubal Cava falling short. The New York replied 
with an 8-inch gun," and then as both shore batteries opened, the New 
York took a position between them, firing both broadsides, one to the 
west and the other to the east. The Puritan pushed in close behind 
her, and engaged the forts with her 12 and 64nch guns, and a few 
minutes later the Cincinnati was given permission to engage the shore 

After the engagement had lasted about fifteen minutes the batteries 


at Point Eubal Cava and Point Maya seemed to be silenced, and Ad- 
miral Sampson gave .the order to cease firing. As the cruisers stood 
out of the bay the eastern battery took a last shot at the Puritan, which 
was answered with a 12-inch shell, which burst inside the fortifications, 
and sent a fountain of sand fifty feet into the air. The official reports 
said that the forts were bombarded, destroyed and silenced, but as no 
movement was made upon the town, and no landing attempted, noth- 
ing was accurately learned as to the extent of the damage. It was 
assumed that the enemy suffered some loss of life, but no definite in- 
formation was obtainable. The one positive fact was that the American 
shells had ploughed down the earthworks which the Spaniards had been 
so busily engaged in building. 


The Cardenas affair scarcely attained to the dignity of a naval 
battle, but it showed the country that there could be two sides to a 
naval fight. Three of the smaller American vessels engaged three 
Spanish gunboats protected by masked shore batteries, and during the 
hour that the firing lasted the torpedo boat was disabled and lost five 

Oardenas is a port on the north coast of Cuba, just east of Matanzas 
Bay. Very little was known about its strength, except that the main 
channel was protected with submarine mines, and that gunboats were 
accustomed to run out of this port and threaten the smaller patrol 
boats of the blockading fieet. 

When the gunboats Machias and Wilmington, the torpedo boat 
Winslow and the armed revenue cutter Hudson met off Cardenas on 
the morning of May 12th, it was decided to make a reconnoissance of the 
harbor, and destroy, if possible, the spiteful little Spanish boats which 
had been worrying the patrol. As the main channel was mined, it was 
necessary to find another entrance, and for this purpose a detour to 
the eastward was made. The Machias drew too much water to get over 
the bar, and so Commander Merry, the senior commanding ofiflcer, re- 
mained outside, about 2,000 yards off Diana Cay. 

The gunboat Wilmington, in spite of her high bow and formidable 
military mast, which gave her the nickname of the "giraffe," drew but 
ten feet, and yet with this light draught it was necessary to make 
constant soundings, which sometimes showed only six inches of water 
under her bottom. The torpedo boat Winslow drew but five feet, while 


the revenue cutter Hudson, which is built like a tugboat, drew but.little 

Feeling their way with the lead, the three vessels proceeded into 
the harbor by an entrance inside Cayo Cupey, the Winslow on the east 
shore, the Wilmington and the Hudson over toward the west shore. 
While they were standing in toward the town, the Spanish launch 
Lijena retreated up a small stream without firing a shot. 

At the head of the harbor were some wharves and shipping, par- 
tially concealed by barges anchored in the stream, but no gunboats 
could be made out with any certainty. The three vessels opened fire at 
1:40 upon the shore batteries at a range of about 3,500 yards. The firing 
was necessarily slow on account of the powder smoke which settled 
down upon the ships, and, as the Spaniards were using smokeless 
powder, the masked shore batteries were hard to locate. 

When about 2,000 yalds from the shore the Wilmington was^pre- 
vented from farther advance by shallow water. From appearances 
there were two Spanish gunboats hidden among the wharves, one 
showing her bow and one her stem. Commander Todd asked Lieutenant 
J. B. Bemadou, the commanding officer of the Winslow, to run in 
closer and locate the gunboats. At this time the two vessels were so 
near together that this order was given orally through the megaphone. 

The Winslow darted ahead at high speed, and had gone about 700 
yards from the Wilmington, when she seemed to be made a target for 
all the Spanish guns, both ashore and afloat. She was in the trap which 
the Spaniards had cleverly planned in anticipation of an attack on 
this port. When near enough to make out the gunboats at the wharves. 
Lieutenant Bernadou found himself among a lot of white buoys, which 
he at once guessed were range buoys. It was certain that the enemy's 
gunners had the exact range of the little torpedo boat, and were pepper- 
ing her mercilessly. 

Early in the engagement Lieutenant Bernadou was wounded in 
the thigh, but twisting a handkerchief around his leg as a makeshift 
tourniquet, he continued fighting. One of the first shots that struck 
the Winslow disabled the steering gear and one of her boilers. Accord- 
ing to the report of Commander Todd, it was fifteen or twenty minutes 
after the Winslo^ went in before the officers on the Wilmington saw 
that she was unmanageable. In this time Lieutenant Bernadou may or 
may not have had a chance to withdraw from his perilous position, but 
having been ordered in, it is natural he should hesitate to retreat. 


By this time the Hudson had got into action not far away, and her 
commanding oJEScer, Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, was able to hear 
the megaphone message from the Winslow: "We are disabled, come 
and tow us off." J- 

It was a dangerous undertaking, but the risk of danger is a matter 
of course in the revenue cutter service, and Lieutenant Newcomb proved 
himself as brave as any of his comrades in the regular navy. The 
Winslow was pitching wildly in a seething shower of shot and shell, 
but Lieutenant Newcomb manoeuvred his boat so as to heave her a 
line. Under all the conditions, this was not an easy thi^ig to do, and 
there was some unavoidable delay before the line could be actually 

Ensign Worth Bagley, who was second in command of the Winslow, 
had half a dozen men ready to receive the line. "Heave her! heave her!" 
he shouted over to the Hudson. "Be sure you catch it," replied an 
officer of the ctitter. "All right," said Bagley with a smile, "this is get- 
ting rather too hot for comfort." 

Just at this time a Spanish shell burst on the deck of the Winslow, 
killing Ensign Bagley and two other men outright, and fatally wound- 
ing two others, who died within a few hours. These other men were 
John Vavares, oiler; Elijah B. Tunnell, cabin cook; J, Denfee and 
George B. Meek, firemen. The shell that did such damage was the last 
effective shot that the Spaniards fired, as their two gunboats and some 
of their shore batteries had been silenced. 

The Hudson finally got a line aboard the Winslow, but before she 
had towed the torpedo boat out qf range, the line parted^ Again thgre 
was some delay in getting a line aboard, but the Spaniards did not have 
an accurate range and the shots went wild or passed over the two little 

When the outer anchorage was reached the dead and dying were 
transferred to the Wilmington, and Lieutenant Bemadou, with two 
other slightly wounded men, were given surgical attention. 

After some temporary repairs, the Winslow was able to proceed to 
Key West under her own steam. She had been struck eighteen times, 
mostly by 2^ and 3-inch projectiles. A smokestack and ventilator had 
been knocked over and her after conning tower had been hit repeatedly 
and disabled. 

Neither the Wilmington nor the Hudson had received any damage, 
although sfiots had been dropped all around them. 






VERTURES for peace with the United States were first 
made by Spain, Julj 26, 1898, through M. Jules 
Cambon, the French Ambassador at Washington. 
In a brief note a request was made for terms 
under which the United States would be willing 
to end the war. 

At that time Santiago, the second city of im- 
portance in Cuba, was in the hands of the Amer- 
icans, General Miles had invaded Porto Rico and 
had met with but slight resistance from the Span- 
isi troops, while the natives welcomed him with open arms; General 
Merritt had arrived at Manila for the purpose of capturing the city, 
all of Spain's ships except one squadron at home had been sunk or 
captured and a flying squadron of American warships had been or- 
ganized under Commodore Watson for the purpose of crossing the At- 
lantic and laying waste the coast cities of the Spanish peninsula. 

President McKinley jreplied to Spain's peace overtures on July 
29th, and demanded the independence of Cuba, cession of Porto Rico 
and the Island of Guam and the retention of Manila pending the final 
disposition of the Philippine Islands by a joint commission. 

The Queen Regent approved the American peace conditions on 
August 6th. M. Cambon was officially advised on August 11th of her 
action and on the following day, August 12th, at exactly 4:23 o'clock 
P. M., his signature and that of Secretary of State Day were officially 
affixed to a peace protocol. 

The President at once issued a proclamation declaring a suspen- 
sion of hostilities, and messages to that effect were dispatched to Gen- 
eral Miles, in Porto Rico; to General Merritt, in the Philippines, and to 
General Shafter, at Santiago. Similar advices were cabled to Ad- 



mirals Dewey and Sampson, and to Commodore Howell, commanding 
the Northern Cuban blockading squadron. 

The day of the signing of the protocol was an eventful one. One 
hour before ^the document was signed a bombardment of Manzanillo, 
Province of Santiago de Cuba, was begun by the Newark, Hist, Su- 
wanee, Osceola and Alvarado. It was not until early the next morn- 
ing (August 13th) that the message reached Captain Goodrich, of the 

In Porto Kico news of peace stopped a battle at Pablo Vasques 
just in the nick of time. General Brockets command was formed in line 
of battle to the northwest of Guayamo and the guns were being trained- 
on the enemy when a mounted courier came galloping up with the peace 
orders, much to the disgust of the rank and file. 

The message sent to the Philippines did not reach its destination 
until August 16th. 

On September 9th President McKinley nBmed the following Amer- 
ican members of the Peace Commission: William K. Day, ex-Secre- 
tary of State; Cushman K. Davis, U. S. Senator from Minnesota; Will- 
iam P. Frye, U. S. Senator from Maine; George Gray, U. S. Senator 
from Delaware, and Whitelaw Eeid, editor of the New York Tribune. 

The Spanish commissioners, were Eugenio Montero Rios, B. de 
Abarazuza, J. de Garnica, W. R. de Villi-Urrutia and Rafael Cerero. 

The commissioners left New York September 17th and arrived in 
Paris ten days later. The French Foreign Office put at the disposal of 
the visiting commi^ions the sumptuous and historic Salon des Am- 
bassadeurs, in which all the joint sessions were held. 

The first joint session of the conunissions was held October 1st. 
For nearly a month discussions and negotiations were continued over 
the Cuban article of the protocol. All the terms of that article had 
been accepted by the Spanish commissioners by October 18th, except 
that of the Cuban debt. 

One point for which the Spanish Commissioners contended long 
and earnestly was the attempt to induce the United States to assume 
sovereignty over Cuba and become responsible for th? debt. But the 
American Commissioners steadily declined to assume any part of it, 
holding firmly to the terms of the intervention resolutions passed by 

When, in the discussions, the American Commissioners officially 
rejected the idea of accepting sovereignty over Cuba, the Spaniards 


urged that, since Spain had been compelled to relinquish sovereignty 
and the United States had refused to accept it for herself, Cuba was 
therefore de facto in a state of 'anarchy. To this the Americans rejoined 
that, without accepting sovereignty, the United States considered them- 
selves bound to maintain security for all the inhabitants. They affirmed 
that the war was waged not for conquest but for liberation and order, 
and that this country could not allow the prolongation at its very doors 
of a state of things which would be inimical to the cause of humanity 
and civilization. By the intervention resolution the war was declared 
not one of conquest, but, by agreeing to be invested with the sovereignty 
of Cuba, the United States would give the impression of having con- 
quered the island for territorial aggrandizement. It positively refused 
to accept the capacity of sovereignty, which would be inconsistent with 
the character of humanitarian disinterestedness essential to the honor 
of America. Further, it was urged that, since the United States had 
declared that the people of Cuba are by right and ought to be free and 
independent, good faith requires the carrying out of this declaration, 
it being plain that, if Cuba were annexed to the United States, while 
she might be free, she would not be independent. At last, on October 
27th, the Spanish Government, through its commissioners, accepted the 
view of the American Commissioners in the matter of the debt, that it 
is no concern of this country, and agreed that the Cuban articles of the 
protocol should, without conditions, have a place in the* final treaty of 

On October 31st the formulated demands of the United States re- 
garding the Philippines were presented. They comprised the cession 
of the entire archipelago, this government to reimburse Spain to the 
extent of, her permanent and pacific expenditures in the Philippines; in 
other words, the United States offered to be responsible to Spain for 
her actual outlay in these islands for the advantage of the inhabitants, 
for permanent betterments and improvements. 

On November 4th the Spanish Government fiatly refused to a:ccept 
the proposition, claiming that M. Cambon had been instructed to re- 
serve sovereignty over the entire group before signing the protocol, and 
that the United States had made no protest or objection at the time to 
this reservation. They maintained that the capitulation of Manila had 
occurred on the day following the signing of the protocol, and was 
therefore invalid. They claimed that the United States had wrongfully 
appropriated public moneys belonging to Spain by seizing the tariff 


duties at. Manila to the extent of nearly f 1,000,000, and that the United 
States held as prisoners the Spanish troops at Manila in violation of 
international law, becfiuse it was done after the suspension of hostilities 
under the.protocol, and that by the imprisonment of these troops Spain 
had been prevented from quelling the insurrection, and the United 
States had thus contributed to the violence against Spain after the 
cessation of hostilities. Moreover, they denied that the United States 
had any ultimate rights in the Philippine archipelago, and could have 
none save by the consent of Spain in the present negotiations, and upon 
terms satisfactory to her. 

In reply to these contentions of the Spanish Commissioners the 
Amei'ican (Commissioners made a general denial. 

In doing so they rehearsed the facts of the case regarding the 
negotiation of the terms of the protocol in dispute. The progress of 
the preliminary negotiations was as follows: On July 26th the Wash- 
ington Government received from Spain an inquiry as to the basis on 
which the war might be terminated. Four days later the information 
was forthcoming in a response embodying the terms of the protocol, 
save for the use in the Philippine paragraph of the word "possession," 
Before the response was formally presented to M. Cambon, Spain's rep- 
resentative in Washington, he suggested the substitution of the word 
"disposition." The United States Government acquiesced, the substi- 
tution was made, the formal response was delivered to M. Cambon, who 
forwarded it to Madrid, and on August 7th Spain forwarded her reply, 
which, as affecting the Philippine questioUj was as follows: 

"The terms relating to the Philippines seem, to our understanding, 
quite indefinite. On the other hand, the ground on which the United 
States believes itself entitled to occupy the bay, harbor and city of 
Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace, cannot be that of 
conquest, since, in spite of the blockade maintained on the sea by the 
American fleet, and in spite of the siege established on land by a native, 
supported and provided for by an American Admiral, Manila still holds 
its own and the Spanish standard still waves over the city. Further- 
more, the whole archipelago of the Philippines is in the power and 
under the sovereignty of Spain. 

"Therefore, the Government of Spain thinks that the temporary 
occupation of Manila should constitute a guarantee. It is asserted that 
the treaty of peace shall determine the control, disposition and govern- 
ment of the Philippines, but, as the intentions of the federal govern- 


ment remain veiled, the Spanish Government must therefore declare 
that, while accepting the third condition, it does not renounce the 
sovereignty of Spain over the archipelago, leaving it to the negotiators 
to agree as to such reforms as the condition of these possessions and 
the level of the culture of their natives may render desirable. The 
Government of Her Majesty accepts the third condition, with the above 
mentioned declarations." 

The United States authorities on August 10th addressed to M. 
Cambon a communication pointing out that, while the foregoing utter- 
ances from Madrid were understood by him to convey Spain's accept- 
ance of the terms of peace, the acceptance was not entirely explicit, and 
that the most direct and certain way of avoiding misunderstandings 
was to embody in a protocol the terms on which the negotiations for 
peace were to be undertaken. 

Along with this note was sent to M. Cambon a protocol embody- 
ing the precise terms tendered to Spain in the American communication 
of about July 30th. Immediately ujron receiving them M. Oambon 
transmitted the protocol to Madrid, accdmpanied by a message frbm 
himself, clearly showing that the Trench Ambassador knew the United 
States Government did not regard Spain's response to the peace terms 
as satisfactory or acceptable. 

M. Cambon's message to Spain was as follows: 

"The Federal Government has decided to state precisely in a 
protocol the basis upon which the peace negotiations must, in their 
judgment, be entered upon. I herewith send this document." 

This message went to Spain about August 10th. Two days later 
M. Gambon notified Judge Day that he had just received a telegram 
dated at Madrid, August 12th, in which Duke Almodovar del Rio, the 
Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, announced that the Spanish Gov- 
ernment, by order of the Queen Regent, had conferred upon him (M. 
Cambon) full xK>wers to sign without other formality the protocol 
drawn between M. Cambon and Judge Day. 

That Philippine sovereignty was understood by this government 
to be involved in the basis of peace is shown by the fact that suspension 
of hostilities was deferred until the protocol was signed. It was plain 
that Secretary Day saw in the Duke of Almodovar's'note of August 7th 
an attepapted reservation of sovereignty, and it was only when the 
United States regarded Spain as having made- an unqualified compact 
to leave Philippine sovereignty to a commission by signing the protocol 


that hostilities were suspended. It was not the intention of the United 
States to prejudge Spain's rights, but to have them determined under 
the protocol by the peace conference. Having presented the proofs 
that the United States had, under the protocol, the right to consider 
Spain's Philippine sovereignty, if it cared to exercise it, the American 
Commissioners presented the instructions of the home government, 
said to be of a positive character, to the effect that no further dis- 
cussion as to the right to the islands should be admitted, and that the 
only matter remaining for discussion was the manner of giving over 
the islands. November 16th the Spanish Commissioners reaffirmed their 
position as to a discussion of sovereignty of the islands. They insisted 
that the words "shall determine the control, disposition and govern- 
ment of the Philippines" in the protocol did not warrant any reference 
to Spain's withdrawal from the Philippines except on her own terms. 
They therefore proposed arbitration of the words of the protocol. The 
American Commissioners contended that the words were plain enough 
and declined to consider arbitration. 

On November 21st at a joint session of the commissions, the repre- 
sentatives of the United States presented a final proposition. They 
maintained that this country could not modify their proposal for the 
cession of the entire Philippine archipelago, but were authorized to offer 
to Spain,- in case Spain should agree to cede the territory in question, 
the sum of |20,000,000 as a lump sum to cover all expenditures for 
betterments. It was also stated in this proposition by the American 
Commissioners that they were prepared to insert in the treaty a stipula- 
tion to the effect that for a term of twelve years Spanish ships and 
merchandise should be admitted into Philippine ports on the same terms 
as American ships and merchandise, provided the Philippines are ceded 
to the United States. It was also declared the policy of the United 
States to maintain in the Philippines an open door to the world's com- 

The American Commissioners also offered to insert in the proposed 
treaty, in connection with the cession of territory by Spain to the 
United States, a provision for the mutual" relinquishment of all claims 
for indemnity, national and individual, of every kind, of the United 
States against Spain and of Spain against the United States, that may 
have arisen since the beginning of the late Cuban insurrection and prior 
■to the conclusion of the treaty of peace. 

This last proposition was in effect an ultimatum to Spain, although 


it was expressed in the form of a request rather than a demand. The 
American Commissioners expressed the hope that they might receive 
from the Spanish Commissioners on or before Monday, November 28th, 
definite and final acceptance of the proposals made as to the Philippines, 
together with a final acceptance of the stipulations as to Cuba, Porto 
Eico and the other Spanish islands of the West Indies, and Guam, in 
the form in which those demands had been provisionally agreed to. In 
the event of their acceptance the American Commissioners said that it 
would be possible for the joint commission to continue its sessions and 
proceed to the adjustment of subsidiary and incidental provisions that 
should form a, part of the treaty of peace. 

On November 28th the Spanish Peace Commission delivered to 
the American Commissioners the acceptance by Spain of the terms of 
t^e United States, This acceptance was accompanied by a memoran- 
dum setting forth that Spain yielded only to superior force. 

Following is the Spanish official note summarizing the answer: 

"The Spanish Commissioners, in view of the American terms sub- 
mitted for their acceptance at the last session of the peace conference, 
have held consultations in order to give a prompt answer thereto. In- 
structed of their government they reassert the justice of their rights, 
which they have maintained in the past and will ever maintain. They 
recall the several attempts they have previously made with the view 
to finding in a compromise a common basis for discussion, and the fact 
that they have on two material points, where their view disagreed, sug- 
gested arbitration. These have been steadily rejected by the American 
Commissioners and a prompt answer made a condition of the continua- 
tion of negotiations. . Recognizing the impossibility of further resisting 
their powerful antagonist and to save greater loss and hurt to Spain, the 
Commissioners, acting on the advice and instructions of the Madrid 
Government, now feel that no other course is open to them but to 
accept the victor's terms, however harsh, and to proceed to their accept- 
ance as embodied in the last proposition relative to the Philippines, in 
order to have peace and to not break the Washington protocol." 

On November 30th the joint peace commission discussed the first 
eight articles of the treaty of peace. These included the restitution of 
the archives of the surrendered territories, the liberation of prisoners, 
the mutual surrender of all claims arising prior to and after the sign- 
ing of the protocol, including the American claim for the loss of the 
Maine, and the evacuation of the Philippines by the Spanish troops. 


The treaty was finally "drawn up and engrossed on the afternoon 
of December 10th. That evening the two peace commissions held a 
joint session and in the presence of the minor attache^ of each board 
formally s^igned the paper ys^hich restored peace between, the United 
States and Spain. 

treaty of peace between the united states and 


The treaty of peace between the United States and Spain was at 
first comprised in eight articles containing the essential features of the 
agreement. These were afterwards subdivided into seventeen' articles 
as follows: 

The United States of America and her Majesty the Queen Regent 
of Spain, in the name of her august son, Don Alfonso XIII., desiring 
to end the state of war now existing between the two countries, have 
for that purposfe appointed as plenipotentiaries: 

The Prefsident of the United States, William R. D,ay, Cushman K. 
Davis, William P. Frye, George Gray and Whitelaw Reid, citizens of 
the United States; and, her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, Don 
Eugenio Montero Rios, President of the Senate; Don Buenaventura de 
Abarauza, Senator of the Kingdom and ex-Minister of the Crown; Don 
Josede Garnic^ Deputy to the Cortes and Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court; Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa- Urrutia, Envoy Ex- 
.traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Brussels, and Don RafaeJ 
Cerero, General Division. 

Who, having assembled in Paris, and having exchanged their full 
powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have, after 
discussion of the matters before them, agreed upon the following 
articles : 

Article I. Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba. 

And as the island is, upon its evacuation by Spain, to be occupied 
by the United States, the United States will, so Ipng as such occupa- 
tion shall last, assume and discharge the obligations that may under 
international law result from the fact of its occupation, for the protec- 
tion of life and property. 


Article II, Spain cedes to the United States the Island of Porto 
Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West 
Indies and the Island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones. 

Article III. Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago 
known as the Philippine Islands^ and comprehending the islands lying 
within the following line: 

A line running from west to east along or near the twentieth paral- 
lel of north latitude, and through the middle of the navigable channel of 
Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) to the one hundred 
and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Green- 
wich, thence along the one hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree 
meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the parallel of four degrees 
and forty-five minutes (4° 45') north latitude, thence along the parallel 
of four degrees and forty-five minutes (4° 45')~ north latitude to its 
intersection with the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen 
degrees and thirty-five minutes (119° 35') east of Greenwich, thence 
along the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and 
thirty-five minutes (119° 35') east of Greenwich, to the parallel of lati- 
tude seven degrees and forty minutes (7° 40') north, thence along the 
parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7° 40') north to its 
intersection with the one hundred and sixteenth (116th) degree nieridian 
of longitude east of Greenwich, thence by' a direct line to the intersec- 
tion of the tenth (10th) degree parallel of north latitude with the one 
hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of 
Greenwich, and thence along the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) 
degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the point of be- 

The United States will pay to Spain the sum of twenty million 
dollars (120,000,000) within three months after the exchange of the rati- 
fications of the present treaty. 

Article IV. The United States will, for the term of ten years from 
the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, ad- 
mit Spanish ships and merchandise to the ports of the Philippine Isl- 
ands on the same terms as ships and merchandise of the United States. 

Article V. The United Sta,tes will, upon the signature of the pres- 
ent treaty, send back to Spain, at its own cost, the Spanish soldiers 
taken as prisoners of war on the capture of Manila by the American 


forces. The arms of the soldiers in question shall be restored to them. 

Spain will, upon the exchange of the ratifications of the present 
treaty, proceed to evacuate the Philippines, as well as the island of 
Guam, on terms similar to those agreed upon by the commissioners 
appointed to arrange for the evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands 
in the West Indies under the protocol of August 12, 1898, which is to 
continue in fprce till its - provisions are completely executed. 

The time within which the evacuation of the Philippine Islands 
and Guam shall be completed shall be fixed by the two Governments. 
Stands of colors, uncaptured war vessels, small arms, guns of all 
calibres, with their carriages and accessories, powder, ammunition, live 
stock, and materials and supplies of all kinds, belonging to the land 
and naval forces of Spain in the Philippines and Guam, remain the 
property of Spain. Pieces of heavy ordnance, exclusive of field artillery, 
in the fortifications and coast defenses, shall remain in their emplace- 
ments for the term of six months, to be reckoned from the exchange 
of ratifications of the treaty; and the United States may^ in the mean- 
time, purchase such material from Spain, if a satisfactory agreement 
between the two Governments on the subject shall be reached. 

Article VI. Spain will, upon the signature of the present treaty, 
release all prisoners of war, and all persons detained or imprisoned for 
political offenses, in connection with the insurrections in Cuba and the 
Philippines and the war with the United States. 

Reciprocally the United States will release all persons made prison- 
ers of- war by the American forces, and will undertake to obtain the 
release of all Spanish prisoners in the hands of the insurgents in Cuba 
and the Philippines. 

The Government of the United States will at its own cost return to 
Spain, and thie Government of Spain will at its ovrn cost return to 
the United States, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, according 
to the situation of their respective homes, prisoners released or caused 
to be released by them, respectively, under this article. 

Article VII. The United States and Spain mutually relinquish all 
claims for indemnity, national and individual, of every kind, of either 
Government, or of its citizens or subjects, against the other Govern- 
ment, that may have arisen since the beginning of the late insurrection 
in Cuba, and prior to the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty, 
including all claims for indemnity for the cost of the war, 


The United States will adjudicate and settle the claims of its cit- 
izens against Spain relinquished in this article. 

Article VIII. In conformity with the provisions of Artiijles I, II 
and III of this treaty, Spain relinquishes in Cuba, and cedes in Porto 
Rico and other islands in the West Indies; in the Island of Guam, and in 
the Philippine archipelago, all the buildings, wharves, barracksy forts, 
structures, public highways and other immovable ^property which, in 
conformity with law, belong to the public domain, and as such belong 
to the Crown of Spain. 

And it is hereby declared that the relinquishment or cession, as the 
case may be, to which the preceding paragraph refers, cannot in any 
respect impair the property or rights which by law belong to the peace- 
ful possession of property of all kinds, of provinces, municipalities, 
public or private establishments, ecclesiastical or civic bodies, or any 
other associations having legal capacity to acquire and possess property 
•in the aforesaid territories renounced or ceded, or of private individuals, 
of whatsoever nationality such individuals may be. 

The aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, in-', 
eludes all documents exclusively referring to the sovereignty re- 
linquished or ceded that may exist in the archives of the peninsula. 
Where any document in such archives only in part relates to said sov- 
ereignty, a copy of such part will be furnished whenever it shall be re- 
quested. Like rules shall be reciprocally observed in favor of Spain 
in respect of documents in the archives of the islands above referred to. 

In the aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, are 
also included such rights as the Crown of Spain and its authorities 
possess in respect of the official archives and records, executive as well 
as judicial, in the islands above referred to, which relate to said islands 
or the rights and property of their inhabitants. Such archives and 
records shall be carefully preserved, and private persons shall without 
. distinction have the right to require, in accordance with law, authenti- 
cated copies of the contracts, wills and other instruments forming part 
of notarial protocols or files, or which may be contained in the executive 
or judicial archives, be; the latter in Spain or in the islands aforesaid. 

Article IX. Spanish subjects, natives of the peninsula, residing i^ 
the territory over which Spain by the present treaty reilinquishes or 
cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such territory or may remove 
therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, includ- 


ing the right to sell or dispose of such property or of its proceeds; and 
they shall also have the right to carry on their industry, commerce 
and professiops, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are 
applicable to other foreigners. In case they remain in the territory they 
may preserve their allegiance to the Grown of Spain by making, before 
a court of record, within a year from the date of the exchange of rati- 
fications of this treaty, a declaration, of their decision to preserve such 
allegiance; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have 
renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory in 
which they may reside. 

The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the 
territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by 
the Congress. 

Article X. The inhabitants of the territories over which Spain 
relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be secured in the free exer- 
cise of their religion. 

, Article XI. The Spaniards residing in the territories over which 
Spain by this treaty cedes or relinquishes her sovereignty shall be sub- 
ject in matters civil as well as criminal to the jurisdiction of the courts 
of the country wherein they reside, pursuant to the ordinary laws gov- 
erning the same; and they shall have the right to appear before such 
courts and to pursue the same course as citizens of the country to which 
the courts belong. 

Article XII. Judicial proceedings pending the time of the ex- 
change of ratifications of this treaty in the territories over which Spain 
relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be determined according to 
the following rules: 

1. Judgments rendered either in civil suits between private in- 
dividuals, or in criminal matters, before the date mentioned and with 
respect to which there is no recourse, or right of review under the 
Spanish law, shall be deemed to be final, and shall be executed in due 
form by competent authority in the territory within which such judg- 
ments should be carried out. 

2. Civil suits between private individuals which may on the date 
mentioned be undetermined shall be prosecuted to judgment before 
the court in which they may then be pending, or in the court that may 
be substituted therefor. 


3. Criminal actions pending on the date mentioned before the 
Supreme Court of Spain against citizens of the territory, which by this 
treaty ceases to be Spanish shall continue under its jurisdiction until 
final judgment; but, such judgment having been rendered, the execu- 
tion thereof shall be committed to the competent authority of the 
place in which the case arose. 

Article XIIL The rights of property secured by copyrights and 
patents acquired by Spaniards in the Island de Cuba, and in Porto Eico, 
the Philippines and other ceded territories, at the time of the exchange 
of the ratification of this treaty, shall continue to be respected. Spanish 
scientific, literary and artistic works, not subversive of public order in 
the territories in question, shall continue to be admitted free of duty 
into such territories for the period of ten years, to be reckoned from 
the date of the exchange of the ratification of this treaty. 

Article XIV. Spain shall have the power to establish consular 
offices in the ports and places of the territories, the sovereignty over 
which has been either relinquished or ceded by the present treaty. 

Article XV. The Government of each country will, for the term of 
ten years, accord to the merchant vessels of the other country the same 
treatment in respect of all port charges, including entrance and ckar- 
ance dues, light dues and tonnage duties, a^ it accords to its own 
merchant vessels, not engaged in the coastwise trade. 

This article may at any time be terminated on six months' notice 
given by either Government to the other. 

Article XVI. It is understood that any obligations assumed in this 
treaty by the United States with respect to Cuba are limited to the 
time of its occupancy thereof; but it will, upon the termination of such 
occupancy, advise any Government established in the island to assume 
the same obligations. 

Article XVII. The present treaty shall be ratified by the President 
of the United States, by and with th& advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate thereof, and by Her Majesty the Queen Eegent of Spain; and the 
ratification shall be exchanged at Washington within six months from 
the date hereof, or earlier if possible. 

In faith whereof we, the respective plenipotentiaries, have signed 
this treaty and hereunto affixed our seals. 



Done in duplicate at Paris, the tenth day of December, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight. 






The treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on February 
6th by a vote of 57 to 27, or one vote more than the necessary two- 
thirds. The vote in detail was as follows: 

Yeas — Aldrich, Allen, Allison, Baker, Burrows,, Butler, Carter, 
Chandler, Cl^rk, Clay, CuUom, Davis, Deboe, Elkins, Fairbanks, Faulk 
ner, Foraker, Frye, Gallinger, Gear, Gray, Hanna, Hansbrough, Har 
ris,. Hawley, Jones, Nev.; Kenney, Kyle, Lindsay, Lodge, McBride, Me 
Enery, McLaurin,, McMillan, Mantle, Mason, Morgan, Nelson, Penrose, 
Perkins, Pettus, Piatt, Conn.; Piatt, N. Y.; Pritchard, Quay, Ross 
Sewell, Shoup, Simon, Spooner, Stewart, Sullivan, Teller, Thurston, 
Warren, Wellington, Wolcott — 57. 

Nays — Bacon, Bate, Berry, Caffery, Chilton, Cockrell, Daniel, Gor 


man, Hale, Heitfeld, Hoar, Jones, Ark.; Mallory, Martin, Mills, Mitchell, 
Money, Murphy, Pasco, Piettigrew, Kawlins, Koach, Smith, Tillma% 
Turley, Turner, Vest — ^27. 

Absent and paired---Messrs. Cannon and Wilson for, with White 
against, and Messrs. Proctor and Wetmore for, with Mr. Turpie against. 

Politically analyzed the .vote was as follows: Yeas — Eepublica,ns 
43, Democrats 9, Populists and silverites 5. Nays— Eepublicans 2, 
Democrats 21, Populists and silverites 4, - 

The peace treaty was signed by President McKinley on February 

Public sentiment throughout the country was greatly divided on 
the treaty and at one time its opponents felt sure of preventing ratifica- 
tion. One important factor in securing votes in favor of ratification 
was the news of the beginning of hostilities with the Filipinos on the 
previous day. 

The treaty was presented to the Spanish Cortes, but was not ratified 
by that body. It was claimed that the Queen Regent and Sagasta 
had attempted to inject politics into the matter, hence the refusal of the 
Cortes to ratify. 

Anticipating that it would be extremely doubtful to get the treaty 
ratified by the Cortes the American Commission required the insertion 
in the treaty of Article 17, that "the present treaty shall be ratified 
by the President of the United States by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate thereof, and by her Majesty, the Queen Regent 
of Spain," 

On March 16th the Queen Regent signed the decree dissolving the 
Cortes and on March 17, 1899, affixed her signature to the treaty of 



nr HE Spanish war was a great inspiration to the poets of the country and 
^ many stirring poems were the result. While many volumes would be 
required to publish them, some oif the best and most .appropriate are herewith 


HE AIN'T no goH-laced "Belvi- 
Ter sparkle in the sun; 
He don't parade with gay cockade, 

And posies in his giin ; 
He ain't no "pretty soldier boy," 

So lovely, spick and span ; 
He wears a crust of tan and dust. 
The Rfeg'lar Army man; 
The marchin', parchin'. 
Pipe-clay starchin', 
R-eg'lar Army. man. 

He ain't at home in Sunday-school, 

Nor yet a social tea; 
And on the day he gets his pay 

He's apt ter spend it free ; 
He ain't no temp 'ranee advocate; 

He likes ter fill the can ; 
He's kinder rough an', maybe, tough, 

The Reg'lar Army man; 
The rarin', tarin'. 
Sometimes swearin', 

Reg'lar Army man. 

No State'll call him "noble son!" 

He ain't no ladies' pet. 
But let a row start anyhow. 

They'll send for him, you bet! 
He don't cut any ice at all 

In f^sh'n's social plan-; 
He gits the job ter face a mob^ 

The Reg'lar Army man ; 
The millin', drillin'j 
Made for killin', 

Ree'lar Army man. 

They ain't no tears shed over him 
, When he goes off ter war; 
He gits no speech nor prayerful 
From Mayor or Governor; 
He packs his little knapsack up 

And trots off in the van, 
'Ter start the fight and start it right. 
The, Reg'lar Army man; 
The rattlin', battlin', 
Colt or Gatlin', 
Reg'lar Army man. 

He makes no -fuss about the job. 

He don't talk big or brave. 
He knows he's in ter fight and win 

Or help fill up a grave ; 
He ain't no "mamma's darlin'," but 

He does the best he can; 
And he's the chap that wins the scrap, 
The R,eg'lar Army man; 
The dandy, handy. 
Cool and sandy, 
Reg'lar Army man. 

— ^Joe Lincoln. 


THEY'VE named a cruiser "Dixie" 
— that's what the papers say — 
An' I hears they're goin' to man her 
with the boys that wore the 
Good news! It sorter thrills me and 

makes me want ter be ' 
Whir' the ban' is playing "Dixie," 
and the "Dixie" puts ter sea! 



They've named a cruiser "Dixie." 

An' fellers, I'll, be boun' 
You're goin' ter see some fightin' 

when the "Dixie" swings 

Ef any o' them Spanish ships shall 

strike her. East or West, 
Just let the ban' play "Dixie," an' the 

boys'U do the rest! 

I want ter see that "Dixie" — I want 

ter take my stan' 
On the deck of her and holler, "Three 

cheers fer 'Dixie Ian'!" 
She means we're all united — the war 

hurts healed away. 
An' " 'Way Down South in Dixie" is 

national to-day! 

I bet you she's a gobd un! I'll stake 

my last red cent 
Thar ain't no better timber in the 

whole blame settlement! 
An' all their shiny battleships beside 

thatoship are tame, 
Fer when it comes to "Dixie" thar's 

something in a name! 

Here's three cheers and a tiger — as 

hearty as kin be; 
An' let the ban' play "Dixie" when 

the "Dixie" puts ter sea! 
She'll make her way an' win the day 

from shinin' East ter West — 
Jest let the ban' play "Dixie," and 

the boys'll do the rest! 

— Frank L. Staiiton. 


At a dinner given to Commodore 
George Dewey at- the Metropolitan 
Club, Washington, Noverriber 27, 
1897, just before he started for the 
Asiatic station, the following pro- 

phetic toast was offered, and received 
with enthusiasm: 

FILL all your glasses full to-night; 
The wind is off the shore; 
And be it feast or be it fight, 
We pledge the Commodore. 

Through days of storm, through days 
of calm. 

On broad Pacific seas. 
At anchor off the Isles of Palm. 

Or with the Japanese; 

Ashore, afloat, on deck, below. 
Or where our bull dogs roar. 

To back a friend or breast a foe 
We pledge the Commodore. 

We know our honor'U be. unstained, 
Where'er his pennant flies ; 

Our rights respected and maintained, 
.Whatever power defies. 

And when he takes the homeward 
Beneath an admiral's flag, 
We'll hail the day that brings him 
And have another jag. 


Y ANKEE DEWEY went to sea, 
1 Sailing on a cruiser. 
He took along for company, 
Of men and guns, a few, sir. 

Yankee Dewey ; Ha ! Ha ! Ha! 

Dewey, you're a dandy; 
With men and guns and cruisers, too, 

You're certainly quite handy. " 

He sailed away to the Philippines, 
With orders for to snatch thfem. 

And thrash the Spaniards right and 
Wherever he could catch them, 

pdEfkf OP mn war. 


And Yankee IDewey did it, too, 
He did it so complete, sir, 

That not a blooming ship is left. 
Of all that Spanisli. fleet, sir. 

Oh, Yankee Dewey, you're a peach, 

A noble, gallant tar, sir; 
You're "out of sight," you're out of 

We hail you from afar, sir. 

We greet you with three rousing 
For you and your brave crews, sir; 
For the deeds you've done and the 
victory won. 
For Yankee Doodle Doo, sir. 

Yankee Dewey, keep it up. 

You certainly are handy, 
With men arid guns and cruisers, too. 

Oh, Dewey, you*fe a dandy. 

—6. H. Cole". 

And give your horses some corn. 
For if you don't do it. 
The captain will know it, 
And. give you the devil 

As sure as you're born! 

Oh, wheire has that cook gone. 

Cook gone, 

Cook gone; 
Where has that cook gone? 
Where the aitch is he-e-e? 

Twenty years till dinner time. 

Dinner time, 

Dinner time. 
Twenty years till dinner time. 
So it seems to me-e-e! 

Come and git your quinine. 
Quinine, quinine, quinine! 
Come and git your quinine. 
And your pills ! 


To the various camp bugle calls 
soldiers attach words that reflect this 
"soldier's privilege" of grumbling tQ_ 
the rhythm of the calls. The follow- 
ing are sample jingles: 

T CAN'T git 'em up! 
*. I can't git 'em, up! 
I can't git 'em up in the morning. 
I can't git 'em up, 
I can't git 'em up, 
I can't git 'em up at all! 
The corporal's worse than the. ser- 
The sergeant's worse than lieutenant. 
And the captain's the worst of all ! 

Go to the stable. 
All ye that are able, 

Soupy, soupy, soup — 
Without any beans ! 

An' cofiee, coffee, coffee — 
The meanest ever seen! 


HATS off! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums, 
A flash of color beneath the sky : 

Hats off! 
The flag is passing by! 
Blue and crimson and white it shines 
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines. 

Hats off! 
The colors before us fly! 
But more than the flag is passing by. 
Sea-fights and land-fights grim and 

Fought to make and to save the state; 
Cheers of victory ,on dying lips; 



Weary marches and sinking ships; 
Days of plenty and years of peace 
March of a strong land's swift in- 

Equal justice, right and law, 
Stately honor and reverend awe; 
Sign of a nation great and strong, 
To ward her people from foreign 

wrong ; 
Pride and glory and honor, all 
Live in the colors to stand or fall. 
Hats ofT! ' 


T NTO the thick of the fight he went, 
1 pallid and sick and wan. 

Borne in an ambulance to the front, 

a ghostly wisp of a man ; 
But the fighting soul of a fighting 

man, approved in the long ago. 
Went to the front in that ambulance, 

and the body of. Fighting Joe. 

Out from the front they were coming 

back, smitten of Spanish 

shells — 
Wounded boys from the Vermont 

hills and the Alabama dells; 
"Put them into this ambulance; I'll 

ride to the front," he said. 
And he climbed to the saddle and 

rode right on, that little old 


From end to end of the long blue - 

ranks rose up the ringing 

And many a powder-blackened face 

was furrowed with sudden 

As with flashing eyes and gleaming 

sword, and hair and beard of 

Into the hell of shot and shell rode 

little old Fighting Joe! 

Sick, with fever and racked with pain, 
he could not stay away. 

For he heard the song of the yester- 
years in the deep^moutjied can- 
non's bay — 

He heard in the calling song of the 
guns there was work for him 
to do. 

Where his country's best blood- 
splashed and flowed 'round the 
old Red, White and Blue. 

Fevered body and hero heart! This 
Union's heart to you 

Beats out in love and reverence — and 
to each dear boy in blue 

Who stood or fell 'mid the shot and 
shell, and cheered in the face of 
the -foe. 

As, wan and white, to the heart of 
the fight rode little old Fight- 
ing Joe! 
— James Lindsay Gordon. 


IN THE camp where the lieroes had 
gathered 'round Liberty's altar 

The Spirit of Freedom in anguish 

abode through the perilous 

And the joy that is only a mother's, 

filled her heart at the burst of 

the morn: — 
Encradled in war's red manger — a 

child among nations was born. 
Clasped in the arms that shall shield 

him, the suckling waxed lusty 

and fair. 
Safe as the cub of a grizzly when the 

dam guards the mouth of the 

Grew in his strength and his beauty, 

grew in his pride and his 

worth — 
Pride of the mother that bore him, 

peer of the prides of the earth. 



For sign -that all others may know 

him, for sign that his people 

are free. 
For his camps a,nd his courts and his 

tenjples, for epblem on land 

and on sea. 
This gift from the spirit that bore him, 

that brought him from dark- 
ness to light: 
"Alike to thine honor unsullied, keep 

ever these ribbons of white; 
To cherish the . valor of freemen, in 

token of blood they have shed, 
To herald thy wrath and thy power, 

are given these streamers of 

From the skies that shall smile on thy 

fortunes, I have taken this 

union of blue ^ 
And decked it with stars that shall 

guide thee, for the stars in their 

courses are true." 

To honor that banner uplifted, his 
people anear and afar. 

The faithful who serve him in coun- 
sel, the fearless who serve him 
in war, 

The strong ones who sweat o'er their 
labor, the rugged ones 'fresh 
from the soil,. 

The stout ones who buy, sell, and bar- 
ter the bountiful fruitage of toil, 

Cattle from their homes and their har- 
vests, came from their marts 
and their hivea. 

And, proving the love that they bore 
it, gave pledge of their fortunes 
and lives 

That it should be refuge from tyrants ; 
it has been and ever shall be. 

Arid the slave that shall seek it for 
shelter, shall* rise without 
chains and be free. 

— Richard Linthicufti, 


MISTAH DEWEY, yo's all right. 
Hoi' dem Philuppines! 
Made yo' point an' won yo' fight. 

Hoi' dem Philuppines! 
If dem natives get too gay 
Make dem walk de Spanish way. 
Show dem dat yo's come to stay, 
Hoi' dem Philuppines! 

Doctah Dewey, doan' yo' care. 
Hoi' dem Philuppines! 

Let dat German ge'man swear, 
HiA' dem Philuppines! 

Reckon dat yo' saw dem first. 

Jus' yo' say to wienerwurst: 

"Come en take dem if yo' durst!" 
Hoi' dem Philuppines! 

'Fesser Dewey, yo' is wa'am. 
Hoi' dem Philuppiues! 
Reckon yo' can ride de storm. 

Hoi' dem Philuppinesj 
Tell him dat yo' will not grieve 
If old Diederichs should leave — 
Keep dat razzar up yo' sleeve. 
Hoi' dem.Philuppines ! 

A'm'al Dewey, watch yo' kyards,. 

Hoi' dem Philuppines! ' 

Folks all sen' yo' best regyards, 
Hoi' dem Philuppines! 

Make dem fo'iners lay low. 

If dey 'sist to pester so. 

Make dem take dah clothes en' go. 
Hoi' dem Philuppines! 

— George V. Hobart. 


I KNOW a naval officer, the bravest 
fighting man; 
He wears a jaunty sailor suit, his cap 
says "Puritan." 



And all day long he sails a ship be- 
tween our land and Spain, 

And he avenges, every hour, the mar- 
tyrs of the "Maine." 

His warship is six inches square, a 

washtub serves for ocean; 
But never yet, on any coast, was seen 

such dire commotion. 
With one skilled move his boat is sent 

from Cuba to rriidsea; 
And just as quickly back it comes to 

set Havana free. 

He fights with Dewey; plants his flag 

upon each island's shore. 
Then off with Sampson's fleet he goes 

to shed the Spanish gore. 
He comes to guard New England's 

coast, but ere his anchor falls. 
He hurries off in frightful speed, to 

shell Manila's walls. 

The Philippines so frequently have 

yielded to his power^ 
There's very little left of them, I'm 

certain, at this hour; 
And when at last he falls asleep, it is 

, to wake again 
And hasten into troubled seas and go 
and conquer Spain. 

— Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 


"When the destruction of Cervera's 
fleet became known before Santiago 
the soldiers cheered wildly, and, with 
one accord, through miles of trenches, 
began singing The Star Spangled 
Banner.' " 

SINGING "The Star Spangled 
• Banner" 
In the very jaws of death! 
Singing our glorious anthem. 
Some with their latest breath! 

The strains of that solemn music 
Through the spirit will ever roll, 

Thrilling with martial ardor 
The depths of each patriot soul. 

Hearing the hum of the bullets! ^ 

Eager to charge the foe! 
Biding the call to battle. 

Where crimson heart streams flow! 
Thinking of horne and dear ones. 

Of mother,, of child, of wife, 
They sang "The Star Spangled Ban- 

On that field of deadly strife. 

They sang with the voices of heroes, 

In the face of the Spanish guns. 
As they leaned on their loaded rifles. 

With the courage that never runs. 
They sang to our glorious emblem. 

Upraised on that war worn sod. 
As the saints in the old arena 

Sang a song of praise to God. 
— David Graham Adee. 


"Our fleet engaged the enemy in a 
brilliant combat. The battle is a bril- 
liant page in Spanish history. The 
Spanish Minister of Marine said that 
it was difficult for him to restrain his 
joyful emotions." — Spanish Dis- 

ALL HAIL' the sailors brave and . 
Of Dewey's bold flotilla; 
For Spain has lost another mule 
Away off in Manila. 

A piece of shell took off his tail. 
He grinned the shattered bomb at. 

"It is our fleet," he said, "that meet 
The foe in brilliant combat." 



A solid shot took off his ears ; 

He smiled a smile of mystery. 
And said, "This will turn out a 

Brilliant page in Spanish history." 

His larboard legs were shot away, 
. Yet still with smile sarcastic, 

"I am not mad," he said, "or sad; 
I'm just enthusiastic." 

Another shot! What fragments those 
That littered up the bay so?. 

That mule so coy just died of joy— 
The Spanish papers say so.. 

— Harry B. Smith. 


TURN back thy prow, O Oregon, 
Toward thy Western home; 
No foeinan's ship will bar thy way. 

Or cross thy track of foam. 
By day, by night, like hbunds in leash 

No more thy engines strain 
To reach the sepu'lchi-e where sleeps 
Thy sister ship, the Maine. 

. Oh, nobly hagt thou played thy part — 

Though half the world away, 
Like arrow to its mark ye sped, 

To join and win the fray. 
Go back, O Oregon, in peace; 

'Mid wondrous deeds, and bold. 
Thy rush of fourteen thousand miles 
Shall evermore be told, 

— 'Ninette M. Lowater. 

The carts that's jolting by — ^good 
Packed full of battered men. 
And I guess their girls won't know 
them , ^. 

If they see them home again. 

It's eight long miles to Siboney — 

Arid the road ain't of the best. 
That's far enough, God knows, be- 
, A strong man and his rest! 
But when yoii've fought through hell 
all day. 
And your wounds is stiff and sore, 
Why, you've had your fill of hard' 
And you don't want any more. 

We're human ammunition, 

And we're spent like shot or shell — 
But we're winning for the Govern- 

And they'd ought to treat us well. 
But maybe they get reckless, , 

And they goes it kind of blind, 
For they knows there's plentjj more 
like us 

That's pressing up behind. 

Oh, Uncle Sam! we take our pay. 

And we'd better work than talk — ■ 
But it's eight long miles to Siboney, 

And wounded has to walk. 
You needn't spare us fighting, 
, For we ain't afraid to die — 
But take care of those that's hurted 
And they'll serve you by and by. 
— Caroline Duer. 


IT'S eight long miles to Siboney — 
You've got to walk or lie; 
For there's them that's wounded 
worse'n you 
In the carts that's jolting by— 


SHE'S up there— Old ciory— where 
lightnings are sped; 
She dazzles the nations with ripples 
of red ; 



And she'll wave for us living, or drooj) 

o'er us dead — 
The flag of our country forever! 

She's up there — Old Glory — how 
bright the stars stream! 

And the stripes like red signals of lib' 
erty gleam! 

And we dare for her, living, or dream 
the last dream 

'Neath the flag of our country forever! 

She's up there— Old Glory — no ty 

rant-dealt scars 
Nor blur on her brightness, no stain 

on her stars! 
The brave blood of heroes "hath crirtl' 

soned her bars — 
She's the flag of our country forever! 
— Frank L. Stanton in Atlanta Con- 


"Mole St. Nicholas, June 13.— 
Lieutenant Blue just returned after a 
detour of seventy statute miles' obser- 
vation of, the harbor of Santiago de 
Cuba. . He reports Spanish fleet is all 
there." — Sampson. 

VICTOR BLUE! What a name it is 
For a deed of old renown — 
How it stirs the blood, how the fancy 
And brushes the cobwebs down ! 

Why, you see the flag, its stars and 
You hear the bugles play. 
And you know some' deed of desperate 
Has come to blaze the way ! 

Admiral Sampson paced his deck, 
With troubled brow and eye, 

While the lights of Santiago flared 
Afar against the sky! 

He knew that there, in the inner bay, 

In a fancied safe retreat. 
The Spanish admiral, close and snug. 

Had taken his hunted fleet. 

But which were the ships and where 
they swung 

Far back in the winding strait, 
Was a little point he wanted to fix 

For the pending joint debate! 

A light came into the Admiral's eye — 
His clouded brow grew free 

As he said to his orderly waiting 
there — 
"Send Lieutenant Blue to me!" 

In the shadow that night a little craft 
Slipped off from th« flagship's side. 

And, turning, steered for the Cuban 
Borne in on the Cafib tide — 

And Victor Blue was there alone. 
Serene and well content — 

Rejoiced at heart to be ofif again 
On the Spanish fox's scent. 

He cut the brush — he forged the 
In a trackless, wide detour — 
But the hills, to the rear of the 'feaj;- 
uered town, 
Were his box and compass sure. 

He heard the sudden clatter of 
He crouched in the tropic grassy- 
Then he saw two sabred and booted 
With a strange oath, come and 
pass ! , 

On through the rank, thick under- 
He cut and burrowed his way 
Till he caught, thfo' the tall palmetto 
A glea'ni of the distant bay; 



Higher he climbed — and higher still 
He crept to the towering knoll — 

When, lo! beneath him the harbor lay 
Like a long, indented bowl! 

Need I tell the rest? — how the news 

came back 

To Sampson and gallant Schley; 

How Blue had focused Cervera's fleet 

With his own — and his good 

friend's — eye?' 

How he came through the, perils of 
instant death — , 
The death of the hangman's 
noose — 
Unravelling quite, - with his double 
The Spanish ajlmiral's ruse? 

How he told the names of the- hiding 

, . ships" 

In the cays of the winding strait. 
And settled a doubtful point or two 

For the pending joint debate! 

— ^John Jerome Rooney. 


Acting Sergeant J. A. Mcllrath, 
Battery H, Third Artillery (Regulars) ; 
enlisted from New York ; fifteen years' 


YES, yes, my boy, there's no mis- 
You put the contract through ! 
, You lads with Shafter, I'll allow, 
Were heroes, tried and true; 

But don't forget the men who fought 

About Manila Bay, 
And don't forget brave Mcllrath, 

Who died at Malate. 

There was an act to sing about — 

An eighteen-carat deed. 
To shine beside the sister gem 

Of Switzer Winkelried ! 

Yes, I was with him, saw him — well, 
' You want to hear it all — 
It is a braver story than 
A mighty city's fall! 

The night was black, save where the 
Of tropic lightning ran. 
When, with a long, deep thunder- 
The typhoon storm began. 

Then, suddenly above the din, 

We heard the steady bay 
Of volleys from the trenches where 

The Pennsylvanians lay. 

The Tenth, we thought, could hold 
their own 

Against the .feigned attack. 
And, if the Spaniards dared advance. 

Would pay them doubly back. 

But soon we mark'd the volleys sink 

Into a scatter'd fire— 
And, now we heard the Spanish gun 

Boom nigher yet and nigher! 

Then,- like a ghost, a courier 
Seemed past our picket toss'd 

With wild hair streaming in his face — 
"We're lost — we're lost-^we're 

"Front, front — in God's name — 
front!" he cried: 

"Our ammunition's gone!" 
He turned a face of dazed dismay — 

And thro' the night sped on! 

"Men, follow me!" cried Mcllrath, 
Our acting Sergeant then ; 

And when he gave the word he knew 
He gave the word to men! 



Twenty there — not one man more — 
But down the sunken road 

We dragged the guns of Battery H, 
Nor even stopped to load! 

Sudden, from out the darkness poured 
A storm of Mausef hail — • 

But not a man there thought to pause, 
Nor any man to quail! 

Ahead, the Pennsylvanians' guns 

In scatter'd firing broke; 
The Spanish trenches, red with flame, 

In fiercer volleys spoke! 

Down with a rush our twenty came — 
The open field we pass'd — 

And in among the hard-press'd Tenth 
We set our feet at last! 

Up, with a leap, sprang Mcllrath, 
Mud-spatter' d, worn and wet, 

And, in an instant, there he stood 
High on the parapet! 

"Steady, boys! we've got 'em now — 

Only a minute late ! 
It's all right, lads — we've got 'em 

Just give 'em volleys straight!" 

Then, up and down the parapet 

With head erect he went, 
As cool as when he sat with us 

Beside our evening tent! 

Not one of us, close shelter'd there 
Down in the trench's pen, 

But felt that he would rather die 
Than shame or grieve him then ! , 

The fire, so close to being quench'd 

In panic and defeat, 
Leap'd forth, by rapid volleys sped, 

In one, long deadly sheet! 

A cheer went up along the line 
As breaks the thunder call — 
'But, as it rose, great God! we saw 
Our gallant Sergeant fall! 

He sank into our outstretch'd arms 
Dead— but imrnortal grown; 

And Glorybrighten'd where he fell, 
And valor claim'd her own! 

— ^John Jerome Rooney. 


T DON'T thinK I'll go into town to 
1 see the boys come back; 

My bein' there would do no good ia 

all that jam and pack; 
There'll be enough to welcome them 

— r-to cheer therh when they 

-A-marchin' bravely to the time that's 

beat upon the drum — 
They'll never miss me in the crowd-— 

not one of 'em will care 
If, when the cheers are ringin' loud, 

I'm not among them there. . 

I went to see them march away-;— I 
hollered with the rest. 

And didn't they look fine, that day, 
a-marchin' four abreast. 

With my. boy James up near the front, 
as handsome as could be. 

And wavin' back a fond farewell tb 
mother and to me! 

I vow my old knees trimbled so, when 
they had all got by, 

I had to jist set down upon the curb- 
stone there and cry. 

And now,they're comin' home again! 

The record that they won 
Was sich as shows we still have men, 

when men's work's to be done! 
There wasn't one of 'em that flinched, 

each feller stood the test — 
Wherever they were' sent they sailed 

J right in and done their best! 
They didn't go away to play — they 

knowed what was in store — 
But there's a grave somewhere to-day, 

down on the Cuban shore 1 



I guess that I'll not go to town to see 

the boys come in; 
I don't jist feel like mixin' up in all 

that Crush and din! 
There'll be enough to welcome them 

— to. cheer them when they 

A-marchin' bravely to the time that's 

beat upon the, drum, 
And the boys'll never notice — not a 

one of 'em will care. 
For the soldier that would miss me 

ain't a-goin' to be there ! 

— S. E. Kiser. 


THAR'S a bran' new "Alabama" 
that they're fittin' out for sea. 
An' them that's seen her tell me she's 

as lively as kin be; 
An' them big Havana gin'ruls better 

open wide their gates 
Ef she's any like her namesake of the 
old Confed'rit States! 

A bran' new "Alabama!" She orter 

be the best 
That ever plowed a furrow in the 

ocean — east or we^t! 
An' I'm shore that she'll be heard 

from — ^jest open wide your 

Ef she's any like her namesake of the 

did Confed'rit States! 

I bet she's full o' sperrit! I 1?et her 
guns'U keep., , , 

The Spanish cruisers huntin' fer a har- 
bor on the deep! 

She'll storm the forts an' take 'em — 
she'll batter down the gates 

Ef she's any like her namesake of the 
old Confed'rit States! 


WHY do our battleships scour the 
What need of big cruisers to thrash 

9ld Spain 
When we have a surplus of Yankee 

And the Hist, the Hornet and Wam- 

The Spaniards scofifed at our navy of 

Manned by ignorant sailors and 

thugs; • 
But a different tune is sung since they 

The Hist, the Hornet and Wampa- 


They blockade, cut cables, pass forts 

and fight'; 
They are in it at all times, day or 

And Hidalgoes flee when these three 

run amuck,- 
The Hist, the Hornet and Wampa- 


A toast to brave Jungen, Helm and 

Young, I 
May their praises loud and long be 

One foot on the table, boys, "Here's 

To the Hist, the Hornet and Wam- 



IN THE awful heat and torture 
Of the fires that leap and dance 
In and out the furnace doors that 
never close. 
On in silence he must work. 
For with him there's ne'er a chance 
On his brow to feel the outer breeze 
that blows. 



For they've locked him in a room, 

Down below, 
In a burning, blazing tombj 

Down below. 
Where he cannot see the sky, 
Cannot learn in time to fly, 
When destruction stalketh nigh, 

Down below. 

Though his name is never mentioned, 

Though we see or know him not. 
Though his deeds may never bring 
him worldly fame. 
He's a man above the others — 
And the bravest of the lot — 
And the hero of the battle, just the 
• same. 

• He's the man who does the work, 

Down below, 
From the labor does not shirk, 

Down below. 
He is shoveling day and night. 
Feeding flames a-blazing bright. 
Keeping up a killing fight, 

Down below. 


1 AIN'T got time ter fool wid you. 
Mister Sojer Man; 
Never did look good in blue. 

Mister Sojer Man. 
'Sides dat, I got my wuk ter do — 
Feed myse'f en' fambly, too; 
Ain't got time ter fool wid you, 
Mister Sojer Man! 

Go 'long now en' fight yo' fight. 

Mister Sojer Man; 
Fling dem bombshells lef en' right, 

Mister Sojer Man. 
Got ter hoe dat cotton white, 
Keep dat nutgrass out er sight; 
Go 'long now, en' fight yo' fight, 

Mister Sojer Man! 


HAIL! Hero of our Southern bat- 
tle seas! 
No wreath of crumbling laurel 
leaves thy brow entwines; 
America would mete thee more endur- 
ing fame. 
And in her heart thy name and deed 


I USED to boss him in the store 
And oversee his work. 
For I had charge of one whole floor 

And he was just a clerk. 
To-day it's different, if you please; 
We've changed respective pegs, 
I'm private in the ranks— and he's 
Got stripes 
- Down 

The girls," whose smiles were once for 
Now scarce vouchsafe a glance. 
Such great attraction can they see 

In decorated pants. 
The erstwhile clerk no longer my 

Indulgence humble begs. 
I'm down below. He's up on high. 
With stripes 

It's "Private Jones, do this and that." ' 

In haste I must bestir — ^ 
To Jenkins, on whom oft I've sat, 

I'm told to answer "Sir!" 
One born to rule, it's come to pass 

Of woe I drink_the dregs — 
I'm in the army with, alas! 
No stripes 

— Edwin L. Sabin. 





"^ OME, kings and queens the 

■^ world around, 

/hose power and fame all climes re- 

ome, sailors bold and soldiers brave, 

/hose names shall live beyond the 
grave ! 

ome, men an.d women, come, boys 
and girls, 

/herever our flag to the breeze un- 

ome one, come all, let none stand 

ome, praise the men of the Merri- 

•ut from the water, out from- the fire, 

lut from the jaws of death most dire! 

ar up in the fame and light of 

ee Hobson with his chosen seven! 


VE USED to think the negro 
didn't count for very rriuch — 
ight-fingered in the melon patch, 

and chicken yard," and such; 
[uch mixed in point of morals and 

absurd in point of dress, 
he butt of droll cartoonists' and tar- 
get of the press ; 
ut we've got to reconstruct our 
views on color, more or less. 
Now we know about the Tenth 
at La Guasima ! 

/hen a rain of shot was falling, with 

a song upon his lips, 
1 the horror where such gallant lives 

went out in death's eclipse, 
ace to face with Spanish bullets, on 

the slope: of San Juan, 

The negro soldier showed himself an- 
other type of man; 
Read the story of his courage, coldly, 
carelessly, who can — 
The .story of the Tenth at La 

We have heaped the Cuban soil above 

their bodies, black and white; — 

The strangely sorted comrades of that 

grand and glorious fight — 
And many a fair-skinned volunteer 

goes whole and sound to-day 
For the succor of the colored troops, 

the battle records say. 
And the feud is done forever, of the 
blue coat and the gray — 
All honor to the Tenth at La 
Guasima ! 

— B. M. Channing. 


TAPS — for the day is finished, 
And the moon, in her silvery 
Whips up from the low horizon 
To the star-flecked clouds of night. 

Taps — and the day's hard duty 
Is o'er, and the time for rest 

Sounds forth in its pointed cadence, 
And the blowing bugler's blest. 

Taps — their duty is ended. 

The dead lie side by side. 
"Lights out" the bugler's sounding 

As they start on their lon"g last ride. 

Such is their journey homeward — 

To "taps" o'er the broken sod, 
To wake on the morn with souls new 
At the "reveille" of God. 

— Henry Edward Wallace, Jr. 


POETRY OF The war. 


HIT? Yes, I wuz hit, but then 
So wuz lots of other men. 
Don't feel much like braggin', fer 
All the rest wuz braver, sir. , 
When the fierun' begun, 
Somethin' whispered, "Cut an' run!" 
Chances wuz that either I 
Would have to skip, or stay an' die. 
Then the thought of mother came. 
An' I didn't feel the same — 
Seemed to starch me up a bit. 
An' — in a minit I wuz hit. 
Mother she wuz brave, you see — 
Father died when I wuz three — 
Worked, she did, both day an' night 
To keep the boy he left fixed right. 
'Member when I wuzn't well. 
How she watched an' dosed me, tel 
I wuz up an' 'round "again. 
Medicine wuz bitter then, 
An' mother'd say, "You, Willie, stan' 
An' take your pellet like a man !" 
When the shots wuz thick that day. 
An' Jimmie Brewer by me lay 
Limp an' bleedin' in the sand. 
An' I heered the Cap's command — 
"Steady, boys, an' fire low!" — 
Seemed to feel my courage go; 
Almost wisht I hadn't come; 
Almost wisht I wuz to hum; 
Then — an' Lord, it sounded queer! — ■ 
In the din I seemed to hear 
Mother, sayin', "Willie, stan' 
An' take your bullet like a man!" 
— Richard R. Wightman. 

Though the east is flushing with crim- 
son dyes. 
Awake! awake! awake!- ■ 
O'er field and wood and brake, ' 
With glories newly born. 
Comes on the blushing niorn. - 
Awake! awake! 

You have dreamed of your homes and 

your friends all night; 
You have basked in your sweetHearts' 

smiles so bright ; 
Come, part with them all for awhile 

Be lovers in dreams; when awake, be 
Turn out! turn out! turn out! 
You have dreamed full long I 
Turn out! turn out! turn put! 
The east is all aglow. 
Turn out! turn out! 

From every valley and hill there come 
The clamoring voices of fife and 

And out on the fresh, cool, morning 

The soldiers are swarming every- 
Fall in! fall in! fall in! 

Every man in his place. 
Fall in! fall in! fall in! 
Each with a cheerful face. 
Fall in! fall in! 
* —Michael O'Connor. 


THE morning is cheery, my boys,, 
arouse ! 
The dew shines bright on the chestnut 

And the sleepy mist on the river lies, 


After the Spanish fleet had struck 
its colors ofif the harbor of Santiago 
on July 3d, Captain Philip, of the bat- 
tleship Texas, ordered his crew not 
to cheer. He assembled his men and 
gave thanks to God for the victory 
which we had that day gained. 



THE smoke hangs heavy o'er the 
Beyond the storm-s\vept battle Hne, 
Where floats the flag of Stripes and 

Triumphant o'er the shattered foe. 
The walls of Morro thunder still their 

Helpless, a inass of flame, the foeman 

And o'er her decks the flag of white. 
Hushed voices pass the word from lip 

to lip, 
And grimy sailors silent stand beside 

the guns, 
"Cease firing. -An enemy is dying. 

Do not cheer." 

"An enemy is dying. Do not cheer." 
Thy servants' glorious tribute to Thy 

Christ, Lord, who rules the battle 

Who, watching, guards our destinies, 
And seeth e'en the sparrows fall.. 
Redly, through " drifting smoke, the 

sun looks down 
On . silent guns and shot-pierced 

bloody wreck. 
Long lines of weary men. With heads 

bowed low, 
Give thanks, in presence of Thy 

reaper grim. 
Thy will be done, O Lord, Thou 

rulest all. 

— ^J. Herbert Stevens. 


It was a strange coincidence, and 
a fitting end for a noble, old seaman 
who had given his life to the service 
of his country, that Rear Admiral 
W. A. Kirkland, U.'S. N., and late 
commandant at Mare Island, Cal., 

should die the day peace was de- 

CEASE firing!" Lo, the bugles 
"Cease!" and the red flame dies 

The thunders sleep ; along the gray 
Smoke-shrouded hills the echoes fall. 

"Cease firing!" Close the columns, 
- fold- 
Their shattered wings; the weary 

Now stand at ease; the ensign 
droops ; 
The heated chargers' flanks turn 

"Cease firing!" Down, with point re- 
The reeking, crimson saber drips; 
Cool grow the fevered cannon's 
lips — 
Their wreathing vapors far dispersed. 

"Cease firing!" From the sponson's 
The mute, black muzzles frown 

The sea, where swelling surges toss 
The armored squadrons, silent, grim. 

"Cease firing!". Look, white banners 
Along the graves where heroes 

Above the graves where men lie 
deep — 
In pure soft flutterings of snow. 

"Cease firing!" Glorious and sweet 
For country 'tis to die — and comes 
The Peace — and bugles blow and 

Are sounding out the Last Retreat. 
—Thomas R. 'Gregory, U. S. N. 



SHE'S a floating boiler crammed 
with fire and steam; 
A toy, with dainty works Uke any 
A working, weaving basketful of 
■tricks — 
Eccentric, cam and lever, cog and 
She's a dashing, lashing, tumbling 
shell of steel, 
A headstrong, kicking, nervous,, 
plunging beast; 
A long, lean ocean liner — trimmed 
down small; , 
A bucking broncho harnessed for 
the East. 
She can rear and toss and roll 
Your body from your soul, 
And she's most unpleasant wet — ^to 
say the least! 

But see her slip in, sneaking down, at 
All a-tremble, deadly, silent — 
Watch her gather for the rush, and 
catch her breath ! 
See her dodge the wakeful cruiser's 
sweeping eye. 
Hear the humming! , Hear her com- 
ing! Coming fast! 
(That's the sound might make men 
wish they were at home, 
Hear the rattling Maxim, barking 
rapid fire), 
See her loom out through the fog 
with bows afoam! 
Then some will wish for land — 
They'd be sand fleas in the sand 
Or yellow grubs reposing in the 

— James Barnes. 


A Song for the War Correspondent. 

A HEALTH all round ere the last 
bell rings. 
Ere the signals shift and the whistle 

There's a momeiit yet while the trains 

We've turned life loose on the world 
On an unknown quest for East or 
East or West on the uriknown way. 

For some went South when the 

Cuban rose. 
And some turned North to the Yukon 

By sledge or steamer, by mail or 

From the Kobrd Kabul to the Golden 

We've gone the rounds of the 

world-wide bounds. 
From the Hoang-Ho to Magellan 


We stood by the guns when the impi 

And the field glass strained through 

the whirling smoke; 
We scrawled the dispatch by the 

thorn-bush fire, 
Then a hundred miles to the telegraph 

A ride by night, from the field or 

A rattling scoop pr an Angel Choir! 

When the bucks broke loose from the 

tribe reserve. 
We sketched the scalping, and saw 

them swerve 
When the pistols cracked and the 

rush was stayed 



By the crackling line of the News 
Up the Teace with the Plains Po- 
lice — 
In the Alkali hell our bones are laid. 

But if o'er our hearth stone hovers 

The glory of sacrifice— 
We will make to the East no moan- 

We will make, to the West no cries. 

The hjig gong clangs from the depot 

The whistles shriek and the signals 

Around the curve and along the bay — 
We're out once more on .the open 

East or West, or cursed or blessed, 
We've turned life loose on the world 


— Frank L. Pollock. 

The fires of conquest kindle; 

The clang of our sword sounds far; 
The lion purrs as he watches 
■ His whelp at the game of war. 
But ere we forget in our triumph, 
And lest we grow faint in our 
We will cry to the East Hosannahs, 
We will shout to the West Huzzahs. 
— Grace Duifie Boylan. 


ERE ever the guns are silenced; 
Ere ever the mandate^ Peace! 
Shall fall on the raging nations, 

Shall bid all their warfare cease; 
Ere ever the lamb in slumber 

Lies safe 'neath the lion's paw, 
We will cry to the East: Hosannah! 
We will call to the West: Huzzah! 

A hymn to the God of Battles, 

Who giveth the conq'ring sword. 
Who harks to the cry for justice. 
Who bends for the weak one's 
word ; 
Abymn for the grandest triumph. 

E'er given the world to cheer. 
We will lift that the East may 
We will sing that the West may 
hear. • 

Far over the waving banners 
The foundry's flame-plUmes swirl; 

And over the stoker blazons 
The flag which we helped unfurl, 


YOURS to brunt the ambush'd foe- 
man; yours the vanguard, as 
of yore ; 
Yours to hoist and hold the standard 
'mid the death hail on the" shore; 
Yours to sceiit the flume of venom 

borne upon the breath of hate, 
While the spectred bush re-echoed, as 
the bullets sought their fate: 
"Well done, marines! well done!'-' 

Well done, marines ! 
With Manila's hardy fighters — serried 

monsters' mighty play — 
.With the gory girdled heroes block- 
ing Santiago Bay — 
Place the gallant soldier-sailors, first 

the bayonets to breast; 
Blaze the chaparral forever over Cai- 
man era's crest: 
"Well done, marines! well done!" 

Well done, marines! 
Blazon this upon the 'scutcheon of the 

soldiers of the sea; 
On the scroll of fame inscribe it ; write 

it bold in history,^ 



When the coming generations read 

the story of to-day 
Let the burning words impel them, in 

their gratitude, to say: 
"Well done, marines! well done!" 

Well done, marines! 
When the pearls of Carib's waters 

freedom's diadem adorn; 
When the eagle drives the vulture." 

forth to face his fated scorn; 
When the flag of "Cuba Libre" greets 

its natal dawning sky, 
Loud above the acclaims ringing shall 
the chorus'd Nation cry: 
"Well done, marines! well done!" 
— ^James Pym. 


I HEAR the drum roll, rub-a-dub, 
And the piccolo's shrill refrain; 
The boys in blue with hearts so true 

Are marching home again. 
I hear the drum, but it beats- for roe 

Despair and grief's tattoo; 
I'd be so glad if our only lad — 
Our Jim — poor Jim — marched, too! 

I hear the tramp, the tramp, tramp, 

Of the army marching by; 
Brave soldiers all, at their country s 

- call. 

They went to fight and die. 
Their task is done; with heads erect 

They pass there in review; 
Instead of tears I'd give them cheers 

If Jim — poor Jim — marched,' too! 

I hear the clank, the clank, clank, 
clank, - ■ 

Of the swords of captains gay; 

But my worn eyes rest on the blood- 
stained crest 

Of a hill, far, far away. 
They left him there where the weep- 
ing winds 
Sing cjirges faint and f ew— 
They're home — God's light! How 
grand the sight 
If Jim-^poor Jim — marched, too! 
— George Hobart, 


Following is, in part, the favorite 
inarching song of Roosevelt's rough 
riders. It is sung to the tune of the 
"Irish Fusileers," a well-known Brit- 
ish army song. These words were 
written by Private Edwin Emerson, 
Jr., Troop K, rough riders: 

ROUGH riders were we from the 
Gallant gentlemen the rest, 
Of volunteers the best; 
Rallied to the flag at Roosevelt's be- 
To carve our way to glory. 

When the Spanish shells and shrapnel 
Our losses were the worst — 
The chaplain even cursed. 
"Charge!" cried Colonel Roosevelt, 
and charged the first 
To carve our way to glory. 

Our rapid lire tore 'the Spanish line 
to bits. 
And scared them into fits ; 
Their leaders lost their wits; 
Up the hill we went and stormed their 
rifle pits 
To carve our way to glory. 

Intretiched within the pits long we lay. 
By night as well as day. 
Sore at the delay; 



In our rear the yellow fever raged at 
To cheat us out of glory. 

When no bloody Spaniards are left to 

Cuba will be Won, 

Our duty will be done ; 
Dead and living every single one 

Has carved his way to glory. 


NOBLE is the work you're doing, 
Helen Gould, 
Mercy's methods e'er pursuing, Helen 

Gould — 
■ Plucking from the fairest bower 
Many a beauteous full - blown 
And, where bleeding feet press, strew- 
ing, Helen Gould. 

Gold with you is more than booty, 

Helen Gould, 
Blessed power and grateful duty, Hel- 
en Gould; 
And, with gentleness and grace 
You have toiled, until your face 
Glows with rich angelic beauty, Helen 

Ah, the soldier boys, returning, Helen 

Gould,. , 
Of your goodness fast are learning, 
Helen Gould, 
And the deeds of your fair hand 
Have the praise throughout the 
And a fame unique are earning, Helen 

There are cheers for you and praying, 

Helen Gould; 
For the friends of your arraying, 

Helen Gould, ' 

Reach from ocean unto ocean 
And in praises or devotion. 
Blessings on your head are laying, 
, Helen Gould. 

"Angel of the camp" they name you, 

Helen Gould, 
As in kindly thoughts th^y frame you, 
Helen Gould; 
And, in camp or social whirl. 
As a patriotic girl 
All America will claim you, Helen 


JEFF lived jes' off the ol' plank 
On a farm that wus two b- four. 
He didn't hev much t' say t' folks 
Becuz he wus humble an' pore; 
But whenever anythin' pleased his eye 

His withered ol' face 'd shine. 
An' we'd hear him say in his quiet 
"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

Once a Senator came t' the County 
An' he talked t' th' G. A. R., 
How they fpught in th' war o' Sixty- 
Th' Army man an' the tar ; 
An' when he'll cracked up Lincoln 
Es a man almos' divine, 
We 'heard Jefif say in his quiet way: 
"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

An' when las' spring th' President said 
He'd do up ol' haughty Spain 

Fer doin' a villainous, treacherous 

, Like th' bloWin' up o' th' Maine, 

or Jeff he threw his paper aside, 
In a pleased way, I opine, 

An' we heard him say in his quiet way : 
"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 



An' when th' President called fer men 

An' a million answered th' call, 
An' th' warn't 'nough guns t' go 
- eround, 

or Jeflf growd suddenly tall, 
"I'm proud o' my country, boys," said 

Es he chawed at th' end of a twine; 
An' we heard him add in accents glad : 

"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

or Jeff hed a boy o' twenty-three. 

An' .a strappin' good feller, too, 
An' when he heard th' wus goin' t' 
be war 

He put on a suit o' blue; 
An' when he started off t' th' train 

or Jeff never made a sign. 
But he turned t' th' crowd an' said 

"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

An' when he read o' th' Manila fight. 

How Dewey had smashed a fleet, 
An' all the village went rippin' mad 

An' hollerin' in th' street, 
or Jeff came down through his gar- 
den plot 

An' he leant on th' harbor vine. 
An' we heard him say in his quiet 

"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

He never hollered ner shouted 
That sort, y' see, wa'nt ol' Jeff's 
But he felt, you bet, in his good ol' 
Thet th' navy was come t' stay! 
Thar wus po'ti^y, too, in them gentle 
A po'try we couldn't define, 
When he'd turn an' say, in his quiet 
"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

He'd borrer th' papers o' neighbors 
An' he'd read 'em all through at 

An' then drop in at th' grocery stof e 
An' tell what he thought o' th' fight 

When Hobson went iiit' th' mouth o' 
An' laughed at th' Spanish mine. 

We heard Jeff say in his quiet way: 
"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

An' when th' report came over th' 

How they'd stormed San Joo'n hill. 
An' many a man wus dead an' gone 

An' many a heart- wus still, 
or Jeff, though he knowd thet hisbdy 

Wus one thet made th' incline. 
He wus heard t' say in his quiet way: 

"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 

An' when they brought th' pore lad 
In a narrer box o' pine. 
An' th' village' band played th' grim 
dead march. 
An' th' hull town got in line. 
An' th' minister said how brave he 
An' every eye filled with brine, 
We heard Jeff say in a chokin' way: 
"Say, boys, thet wus mighty fine!" 
—Harold MacGrath. 


Colonel Roosevelt is by descent 
French, Scotch, Dutch and Trish. — 
Current Newspaper Infofmation. 

ZEES TAYODORE, ze "Ridaire 
Who led ze charge at Caney, 
Possess a coorazh verra good, 

Mon Dieu! He's von of many! 
Ze papaires talk ze man upon 
And praise hees hero-eesm ; 
Zey like zees new Napoleon, 

Nor ees eet strange he please zetn, 
Pourquoi? He ees a Frenchman! 



I ken nae mon sae fU' o' fire 

An' weel renoon deservin' 
As he that fought mid reek an' mire, 

Wi' nae retreat, nae swervin,' 
When Spanish shell an' Spanish gun 

Besmeared the groun' sae redlie; 
But his was nae the race to shun 

Tho' sword an' shot be deadlie, 
For, trulie, he's ae Scotchman! 

It vas not gueer dis Roosevelt 

Vas sodch a prave gommander; 
I dells you I mineself haf felt 

As pold as Alexander; ^, 

It vas der ploot, mine friends, der 

Dot mages der vearless soldtier; 
An' dere vas none von ha'f so goot — 

Remember vot I toldt you — 
As his, vor he's von Dutchman! 

Av course our Teddy's bould and 
How ilse could he be other? 
No foiner lad, Oi well belave, i 

E'er woman had for mother. ~7'; 

Av coorse he drubbed thim Spanyards '' 
Down there at Santiago; 
He's not the spalpeen to be scared 
At any div'lish Dago, 

Because, bejgob, he's Oirish! 

Vraiment! Zees Tayodore ees grand! 
Parceque he ees a Frenchman; 

But dinna reck ae Scot is bond- 
To serve- as any's henchman; 

Dere vas no nation on der earth 
So bold as vSs der Deutscher; 

An' ivery mon av anny worth 
Is Oirifeh in the future, 
As Teddy is this prisent! 

— W. D. Fox. 


AN AGE of wonders dawned on 
Beneath the touch of Uncle Sam ! ' 
A time of restlessness and light 

To take the place. of peace and night! 
Ah, Guam, asleep upon the ocean's 

Lulled by the soft Pacific into rest, 
Unending as the sea is, and as still. 
Why need you wake to wonders and 

to ill? 

You are so very little, Guam, that you 
Are but a Jtnisty speck upon the blue 
Infinity of earth, and Guam, 
Although 'tis well to be of Uncle Sam, 

That is not all of peacefulness nor 

As you have known them on the gen- 
tle breast 

Of your Pacific, where through all the 

You never knew our world of hopes 
and fears. 

Ah, dear, delicious, distant, doleless 

Asleep for ages where those soft skies 

How rude would your awakening be 
Roused by a new world's energy! 

Ah, gentle. Guam, keep shut those 

eyes of yours, 
Care not for what is not upon your 

shores ; 
You are so little, Guam, away so far. 
The busy world might leave you as 

you are. 

An age of wonders, sorrows, cares. 
In which each state and nation shares ! 
They call it dawn. Guam, is such light 
A greater blessing than your night? 

It may be^ Guam ; or if it be or not. 
What harm can be, if only one small 

On all the earth is left still unop- 

Where man may stop and breathe and 


— W. J. Lampton. 




OTHE glory and the story of the 
The dashing -of the . war-steeds in 
the strife— 
The charge, and the retreat, 
And the flag the winding-sheet 

Of faces staring starward from the 

Lost to life — 
And the wailing of the mother and 
the wife! 

O the glory and the story of the fight! 
The leaving for the battleground of 
With glory for the goal. 
Where the cannon-thunders roll, 
And kisses for the woman at the 
Who shall wait 
For the unreturning footsteps, long 
and late! 

O the glory and the story of thefi^ht! 
~ Blow, bugles, o'er the flowering 

meadows — blow ! 
But when the fight is done — 
Wake ye each trampled one 

That sought to see the sun of glory 

Bugles blow! 
But the dead beneath the drooped 
' flags shall not know! 


MY father says 'at sojers is 
The braves' mens 'at ever was ; 
'At when they hears the shots go 
They don't mind it a bit, bekuz 
The whiz means 'at you ain't got hit. 
An' so they ist don't keer a bit. 

Pa says 'at sojers knows a lot. 
An' they can walk "ist Uke one 

An' aim so well 'at every shot 
Will hit a sneakin' Spaniard, an' 

He says they have to eat "hard tacks" 

An' carry "raccoons" on their backs. 

But when I ast him why they do 
He ist busts out a-laughin,' nen 

He says, "You know a thing or two, 
My son!" an' laughs an' laughs 

An' says, " 'At's ist the very thing — 

The sojers eats the tax, 'i jing!" 


When the Second Naval Bat- 
talion of Brooklyn occupied the old 
Thirteenth regiment armory, the boys 
vied with each other in contributing 
books, pictures,, flags, etc., to help 
brighten the old company rooms. 

Pinned on the bulletin board one 
night, among a lot of warlike orders, 
were found these unsigned verses: 

OLD Uncle Sam has a fine, new 
The youngest of all in blue; 
He's the Naval -Reserve, with lots of 
And plenty of courage, too. 
So give him a place , in the family, 
We've, plenty for him to do. 

At sea he chaffs the sailor men. 
And joins iii their daily work 

With all his might (though he'd rath- 
er fight), 
For he never was built for a shirk. 

So sHng his hammock up for'ard, lads, 
And teach him to use tlie dirk. 

On land-he elbows and jostles about. 
Or marches all day in the sun. 

With a cheery smile for every mile. 
And a froHc when day is done; 

But when you get in a skirmish, men. 
He doesn't know how to run. 

Then fill your mugs to the young'un, 
Who mixes with every crew; 
On land or sea, wherever he be. 

We'll always find him true. 
And we'll give him a place in the 
family, lads, 
For there's plenty for him to do. 



William McKinley, War President of the United States, was born in 
Niles, Ohio, January 29, 1843. He enlisted as a private in the Civil War 
and was mustered out as a Brevet Major. His entrance into national politics 
was in 1876, when he was first elected to Congress. As Chairman of the 
Ways and Means Committee he later shaped the tariff legislation of his party. 
In 1891 he was elected Governor of Ohio and in 1896 was elected to the 
Presidency. He employed every means consistent with the honor and dignity 
of the Nation to avert the war with Spain, but when war became inevitable 
he prosecuted it vigorously. Congress voted him |50,000,000 as a personal 
war fund. 



George Dewey, the y{^ third to hold the rauk of /'Admiral in 
the United States Navy, / is a Vermonter by birth and /"^ is in his 
sixty-first year. He graduated from Annapolis before the Civil war, served 
under Farragut and was specially commended for gallantry at the battle of 
Mobile Bay. At the beginning of the vSpauish-Americau War he was a Com- 
modore commanding the Asiatic squadron. His victory at the battle of Manila 
is unparalleled in naval history. Congress created the rank of full Admiral 
for him, to which he was at once appointed. 



Bear Admiral William T. Sampson, who commanded the blockading and 
North Atlantic squadrons, was born at Palmyra, N. Y., in 1840. He gradu- 
ated at the Naval Academy in 1861. Sampson was executive officer and stood 
on the bridge of the Patapsco when she was blown up by a torpedo in 
Charleston harbor January 16, 1865. Since the formation of the new navy 
he has commanded the Iowa and San Francisco. On account of his knowl- 
edge of mines and torpedoes he was appointed President of the Maine Court 
of Inquiry. When Cervera's fleet attempted to escape from Santiago bay 
Admiral Sampson was absent on his flagship New York. 




,. / / ■' 



■■ ■-■' " \rM/-i.^ 


;; :1|- .'•■ .-.^ 

'■'■ .: ■ "■"- ■ ,' .■"■ ' ■ 


Rear Admiral Winlield Weott Schley, f' who was Commodore command- 
ing the second division of Sampson's fleet during the war, was born iu 
Frederick, Md., October i), 1839. After the Civil War he distinguished him- 
self as the leader of the Greely relief expedition, which found and rescued 
the daring Arctic explorer. At the beginning of the war with Spain Admiral 
Schley was placed in command of the flying squadron, later attached to 
Sampson's fleet. At the battle off Santiago, in which Cervera's fleet was 
destroyed, he was in command during the absence of Admiral Sampson. His 
flagship, the Brooklyn, led the chase after the Cristobal Colon and was hit 
oftener than uny American ship in the great battle. 



Major-General William Rufus Shatter, who commanded the American 
forces in Cuba, is not a West Pointer, but served in the Civil War, winning 
the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General. He then entered the regular army 
and later saw much service on the frontier. For eighteen years he was 
Colonel of the First Infantry. He is a severe disciplinarian and believes in 
militarism. His command in Cuba consisted of the Fifth Army Corps and 
participated in all the battles of the Santiago campaign from La Guasimas 
until Toral's surrender. General Shaffer was born in Michigan in 1835. 



Major-General Wesley Merritt commanded the American military forces 
in the Philippines, and, in co-operation with Admiral Dewey's fleet, won the 
battle of Malate and captured the city of Manila. After the signing of the 
Peace Protocol he was ordered to Paris to give information and advice to 
the American I'eace Commissioners. General Merritt was born in ISIew York 
in 1830 and graduated from West I'oint in l.S(iO. In the Civil War he rose 
to the brevet rank of Major-General, having been successively promoted for 
gallantry. Wliile in the Philippines he was virtually the military governor 
of the territory held by the American forces. He was succeeded by Major- 
General Elwell H. Otis previous to the Filipino outbreak. 



Nelson A. Miles, the ranking Major-General of the United States Army, 
in the early stages of the Spanish war acted as an adviser to President Mc- 
Kinley and later led the expedition to Porto Rico and conducted the cam- 
paign in that island in person. He has a splendid record in the Civil War, 
as well as the late one, and is noted for his successful campaigns against the 
Indians. General Miles was born in Massachusetts, August 8, 1839. 



Majoi'-(Teueral Joseph Wheeler, who won the title of "Fighting Joe" in 
the Civil War, left his seat in Congress to go with the Fifth Army Corps 
in the Santiago campaign, receiving his commission at the same time as 
Fitzhugh Lee. The gallant ex-Confederate cavalry leader was given command 
of the cavalry division and distinguished himself at San Juan Hill by going 
to the front, during an illness, in an ambulance. General Wheeler was born 
in Augusta, Ga., September 10, 1836. He was a member of the Forty-seventh, 
Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, Fifty-second, Fifty-third and Fifty-fourth' 
Congresses and was re-elected in November 1898, to the Fifty-fifth Cono-ress. 



Colonel Theodore Koosevelt, who with Colonel Leonard Wood organized 
and commanded the First United States Volunteer Cavalry, known as the 
"Rough Riders," was born in New York, October 2!), 1858. His line goes back 
to mediaeval times in Dutch history. He has served as Assemblyman from 
New York, National Civil Service Commissioner, Police Commissioner for 
New York City, and at the breaking out cf the war was Assistant Secretary 
of the Navy. In the latter office he won high praise for vigorous administra- 
tion and his insistence upon target practice. Colonel Roosevelt is the author 
of several historical works and is celebrated as a sportsman and ranchman. 
In November. 1898. he was elected Governor of New York. 




Lieutenant Kiclimond Tearson Hobson, who sunk the collier Merrimao 
in the channel to Santiago harboi", was born in Greensboro, Ala., August 17, 
1870. At the Naval Academy he stood at the head of his class and was gradu- 
ated in 1(S8!). He studied in the shipyards of England and France for several 
years and was then attached to the Bureau of Construction in the Navy 
Department. After the battle of Santiago he succeeded in raising the sunken 
Spanish cruiser JIaria Teresa, which was afterwards lost in a storm. For 
his heroic feat with the Merrimac he was promoted to full rank in the 
construction dei)artnient and was afterwards sent to Manila to raise the 
Spanish vessels sunk by Admiral Uewey. 



William K. Day resigned the oflfice of Secretary of State to become Presi- 
dent of the American Peace Commission, in which capacity he was the 
personal representative of President McKinley. He drew and signed the 
peace protocol jointly with M. Cambon, who represented Spain. Before the 
war Judge Day was scarcely known outside of Ohio. His father was a 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of that State and both father and son 
took high nank for legal and judicial ability. Next to the President, Judge 
Day carried all the burden of the affair with Spain from the beginning, 
first as assistant to Secretary of State John Sherman, then as Secretary and 
lastly as President of the American Peace Commission. 




United States Senator Cushman K. Davis, next to ex-Secretary Day, was 
the most conspicuous member of the American Teace Commission. He is 
aggressive but conservative and was a strong advocate of national expansion. 
Senator Davis was born in Henderson, New Yorli, June 16, 1838, and is a 
lawyer by profession. He served as a First Lieutenant in the Civil War. He 
has been Attorney-General and Governor of Minnesota, and was elected to 
the Senate in 1886 and at the time of his appointment as Peace Commissioner 
was Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. He is an 
eloquent orator and in personal appearance bears a strong resemblance to 
the late Benjamin F. Butler. 



United States Senator William P. Frye, of Maine, member of the Amer- 
ican Peace Commission, has been in public life continuously since 1861. He 
served three terms in the Maine Legislature, three terms as Attorney-General 
of the State and eighteen years in the lower house of Congress. In 1889 
he was elected Senator to succeed James G. Blaine and has been re-elected 
since without opposition. Senator Frye comes of Revolutionary stock, be- 
ing a grandson of General Joseph Frye, and is intensely American. He is an 
orator, and was an eloquent advocate of the war with Spain, being in 
thorough sympathy with the administration from the time war was declared. 



United States Senator George Gmy, of Delaware, was the only Demo- 
cratic member of the American Peace Commission, and while he was per- 
sonally opposed to the acquisition of the Philippines, he yielded to the 
wishes of his government. Senator Gray succeeded the late Thomas F. 
Bayard in the Senate when Mr. Bayard was made Secretary of State, and 
was re-elected in 1887 and 1893. He is a graduate of Princeton, served two 
terms as Attorney-General of Delaware and has been prominent in national 
Democratic politics. Senator Gray is in his fifty-ninth year. His term as 
United States Senator expired March .5, 1899. 



Whitelaw Reid, one of the Commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of 
Peace with Spain, has been editor and chief owner of the New York Tribune 
for a number of years, succeeding Horace Greeley. He was born near Xenia, 
Ohio, October 27, 1837, and began a public career by making speeches for 
John C. Fremont. In the Civil War he was aid-de-camp to General Rosecrans 
and was present at the battles of Shiloh and Gettysburg. He declined the 
post of Minister to Germany from both Presidents Hayes and Garfield, but 
accepted appointment as Ambassador to France under President Harrison. 
He is the author of a number of books, notably "The Scholar in Politics." 



/T^^^ ^<^^^-»-^^^£_. 

Adjustant-General Henry G. Corbin, who administered the affairs of the 
Adjutant-General's office, entered the service as an Ohio volunteer when but 
18 years of age. He has served on the staffs of Generals Hunt, Schofield, 
Terry, Cook and Miles and has been through two Indian campaigns. His 
office is the repository for the records of the War Department which relate 
to the personnel of the regular army and the militia and to the military 
history of every commissioned officer and soldier. It also has charge of the 
recruiting service. General Corbin was with President Garfield when the 
latter was assassinated and has led every inaugural x>aimde beginning with 
President Garfield's. 



Major-General / / Fitz- / / hugh Lee is a nephew of General Rob- 
ert E. Lee and a^/ grand- \^ son of Colonel Henry Lee ("Light 
Horse Harry") of Revolu- tionary fame. He was born at Cler- 

mont, Fairfax County, Va., on November 19, 1835, and was graduated at West 
Point in 1856. He was one of the most noted Confederate cavalry commanders 
in the Civil War. In 1885 he was elected Governor of Virginia. President 
('leveland appointed him Consul-General at Havana in IS'Jtj. It was to sup- 
port him that the Maine was sent to Havana. 



General Russell A. Alger, Secretary of War in President McKinley's 
cabinet, was born in Lafayette townsbij), Ohio, February 27, 1836. His grand- 
father served in the Revolutionary War. In early manhood he was a lawyer, 
but soon abandoned it for the lumber business, looating in Michigan. He 
served as a cavalry commander during the war, part of the time as a member 
of the famous Custer P>rigade. General Alger was elected Governor of Michi- 
gan in 1884, and in 1888 was a prominent candidate for the Presidential nomi- 
nation. He served one term as Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army. 



John D. Long, whose administration of // the Navy Department during 
the Spanish war has been wholly free from criticism, has been a country 
school-teacher, a poet, translator, Tillage lawyer, singer in a church choir, 
member of the Legislature, Congressman, and has also been Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor and Governor of Massachusetts. He was born in Buckfield, Me., Octo- 
ber 27, 1838, and graduated from Harvard in 1857. Although a member in 
good standing of the Massachusetts Peace Society, he favored a vigorous 
prosecution of the war as soon as hostilities were declared, and relying upon 
the skill of the naval commanders, he gave them wide discretionary powers. 



Captain Charles E. Clark, who commanded "the bulldog of the Amer- 
ican Navy" — the battleship Oregon — is a native of Admiral Dewey's State- 
Vermont. He is 50 years old. The marvelous voyage of the Oregon around 
the Horn and the splendid seamanship of Captain Clark won the admiration 
of the world, which was only increased by the splendid work of ship and com- 
mander in the destruction of Cervera's fleet off Santiago and the thrilling 
chase of the big battleship after the Spanish cruiser Cristobal Colon. Cap- 
tain Clark also has the honor of having first landed United States forces on 
Cuban soil — on the shore of Guantanamo Bay. 



Captain John W. Philip, who commanded tlie battleship Texas— sister 
ship to the Maine— was born in New Yorlc in 1840 and entered the Naval 
Academy at the age of sixteen. He served with the Gulf and iSouth Atlantic 
squadrons in the Civil War. He has commanded the Tuscarora, the Atlanta 
and was the first Captain of the New York. Under Captain Philip the 
Texas played a brilliant part in the blockading squadron and in the de- 
struction of Cervera's fleet. Captain Philip's character is illustrated by an 
order to his men in the moment of victory: "Don't cheer, boys, the poor 
devils are drowning." 



Captain Francis John Higginson, by a singular coincidence, is a native 
of the State for which the ship lie commanded during the war was named. 
He graduated from Annapolis in 18C1, just in time to go into the civil war. 
He fought in the bombardments of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, of the 
Chalmette batteries, in the capture of the Judith and the taking of New 
Orleans. In the Spanish war he and the Massachusetts were with the Nortli 
Atlantic blockading squadron and later led the naval expedition to Porto 
Rico. In his report on the Porto Rican campaign. General Miles acknowl- 
edges the able assistance rendered by Captain Higginson. 





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Captain Eobley D. Evans, who is known by the sobriquet of "Fifthting 
Bob," commanded the big battk^ship Iowa during the late war and distin- 
guished himself in the battle of Santiago. He won his title of Fighting 
Bob at Valj^araiso, Chile, at a time when relations between that country and 
the United States were strained. His ship, the Yorktown, had been used 
as a point of attack by Chilean torpedo-boats in practice. Captain Evans 
cleared for action and demanded of the Chilean authorities that the harbor 
he cleared of torpedo-boats, which was done. He was born in Virginia and 
graduated from the Xaval Academy in 180.'?. He was wounded three times 
in the Civil War. 



Captain Charles D. Sigsbee, who com- y manded the battleship Maine 
at the time of her destruction in Havana harbor, was appointed to the Naval 
Academy from New York, his native State, and graduated in 1863, in time 
to participate in the battle of Mobile bay and the attack on Fort Fisher. He 
has served at the Naval Academy, on the flagships Severn and Worcester, at 
the North Atlantic Station, in the hydrographic office, the coast survey, on 
the Dale and the old Kearsarge. His coolness and self-command when the 
Maine was blown up were highly commended. After the loss of the Maine 
he commanded the scout ship St. Paul until the end of the war. 




Colonel John Jacob Astor, the multi-millionaire descendant of the first 
John Jacob Astor who helped to make Western American history, displayed 
his patriotism both in unique and conventional ways — conventional in accept- 
ing a commission as Inspector-General, and unique in presenting the Govern- 
ment with a 1100,000 mountain battery, which did splendid service in the 
Philippines. Colonel Astor was born July 13, 1804, at Ferncliff-on-the-Hudson. 
He graduated from Harvard in 1888. He wrote a book entitled "A Journey 
Through Other Worlds." His military experience had been gained as an 
aide on Governor Morton's staff. His wealth is estimated at $80,000,000, but 
he was one of the first to assist the Government with his means and services. 




Lieutenant Andrew S. Rowan, of the Nineteenth Infantry, distinguished 
himself as a secret agent of the War Department in collecting information 
concerning (Juba and the insurgents. In various disguises he penetrated the 
island to the headquarters of General Garcia and delivered a message to 
the Cuban leader from General Miles. At the same time he collected much 
valuable information concerning the country and means of communication. 
He successfully dodged Spanish spies and pickets. In recognition of his 
services he was promoted to be Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixth United States 
Volunteers. He is a native of Virginia, and graduated from West Point in 
1881. He knows the Spanish language and the Spanish people. 



Helen Miller Gould, the eldest daughter of the late multi-millionaire, 
Jay Gould, was one of the conspicuous heroines of the war. Through her 
liberality the Women's War Eelief Association secured funds to make 
itself effective. Besides heavy contributions to the National Eelief fund and 
many private donations. Miss Gould gave the government a check for |100,000 
to be expended in luxuries and delicacies for sick soldiers. In addition to 
these benefactions she gave her personal services by frequent visits to men 
in the hospitals, and established several hospitals of her own. Miss Gould 
is about thirty years of age, and while not radiantly beautiful, is a wholesome 
looking woman. She has dark hair and eyes and a petite figure. 




Clara Barton, whose work among the reconcentrados of Cuba prior to 
and during the war, and whose labors with the Red Cross Society have made 
her famous the world over, was born in Oxford, Mass., in 1830. When the 
Civil War broke out she went to the front of her volition and nursed the 
wounded soldiers, and was later given an important position by President 
Lincoln. In the Franco-Prussian war she assisted the Grand Duchess of 
Baden in the preparations of military hospitals and aided the Red Cross 
Society. When that society was organized in the United States she became 
its first President. She did more than any other to relieve suffering in Cuba, 
both among natives and Americans. 




General Stewart L, Woodford has been soldier, statesman and jurist. 
His ancestors serred in the Revolution and he served with distinction in the 
Civil War, both in the field and as Military Governor of Charleston and Sa- 
vannah. Later he held many political and several judicial offices. As Min- 
ister to Spain he made every possible effort to avert war. Before he could 
present the President's ultimatum he was notified by the Spanish Premier 
that diplomatic negotiations had been ended and was given his passports. 
He left Madrid the next day. General Woodford was born in New York 
City, September 3, 1835, was educated at Yale and was admitted to the bar 
in 1857. He was prominent in Lincoln's first campaign. 




Admiral Pascual de Cervera y Torpete, Conde de Jeres, Marquis de 
Santa Ana, is tlie full name and title of the commander of the Spanish fleet 
destroyed off Santiago harbor. He was born in 1833. His father was a 
man of wealth, his mother being a daughter of Count Porpete y Velle, of 
the royal family of Spain. In his youth he was naval attache of the Spanish 
legation at Washington. He saw service in Cuba in the "Ten Years' War," 
and has held the naval portfolio in the Spanish cabinet. He was Adjutant 
to the Queen Regent for several years, and at the time his fleet was destroyed 
he was considered the foremost naval commander in his countrv. 




Captain-General Ramon Blanco j Arenas succeeded Valeriano Weyler 
as Govemor-Greneral of Cuba just previous to the beginning of the war. In 
1894 he was made Governor-General of the Philippines and was raised to the 
rank of Marshal in 1895. His methods were not considered severe enough 
and he resigned. Later he became chief of the military household of the 
Queen Regent. He was not more successful in pacifying the Cuban in- 
surgents than he had been in conciliating the Filipinos. While he was 
quick to sympathize with Captain Sigsbee over the destruction of the Maine, 
he was guilty of gross discourtesy to Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee when the 
latter took leave of the island upon severance of diplomatic relations. 




Rear Admiral Montgomery Sicard was in command of tlie North Atlantic 
squadron at the time tlie Maine was sent to Havana. When the war began 
he was relieved of active command on account of age and served only in 
an advisory capacity, having been succeeded by Acting Rear Admiral 
William T. Sampson. He has been in the navy for forty-eight years and served 
with distinction under Farragut during the Civil War. He has been Chief 
of the Ordnance Bureau, President of the Steel Board, and in command of 
the navy yards at Boston and Brooklyn. When the monitor Miantonomah 
was the most formidable vessel in the American navy she was commanded 
by Rear Admiral (then Captain) Montgomerv Sicard. 








RIDE of the Navy! Queen of the Navy! Bull-dog 
of the Navy! Terror of the Navy! These and sim- 
ilar are the endearing titles applied to the first- 
class battleship Oregon, whose achievements in 
the Spanish War have no parallel in the annals of 
any navy. 

The record-breaking voyage of the magnificent 
fighting ship from San Francisco to Key West 
vv^as vratched by 70,000,000 people in this country 
and by many millions more abroad, with an inter- 
est more intense than ever before was felt in a war vessel. At its com- 
pletion the watchers, with the exception of^Spaih and her sympathizers, 
experienced profound admiration, while the enemy was filled with con- 

In 81 days the Oregon covered a distance of 14,511 knots or 16,764 

The longest voyage ever made by a battleship is one of the records 
she made. 

A continuous run without a single stop of 4,500 knots, the distance 
between San Francisco and Callao, is another, never equalled by any 
other battleship, the nearest approach being the run of a British flag- 
ship from England to China, a distance of 2,600 miles. 

Covering a distance of 2,844 knots at an average speed of thirteen 
knots is still another new record. 

A run of 155 knots in ten hours is another still hithei^to un- 



After the longest trip ever made by a battleship the Oregon's 
engines were in as perfect condition as when she left Puget Sound. 

Following this marvelous achievement the Oregon established a 
record as a fighting ship in the battle off Santiago, which increased 
the universal pride felt for her by the American nation. Her guns shot 
true and did fearful execution, and her great speed made it possible for 
her to overhaul and sink the fastest cruiser of Cervera's fleet. 

The wonderful performances of the unrivalled battleship did not 
end with the end of the Spanish war. The fame of the greatest ship in 
the American navy had reached the ears of the greatest of living Amer- 
ican Admirals, George Dewey. Complications with the Filipinos had 
arisen and with the diplomatic foresight characteristic of Admiral 
Dewey he foresaw the possibilitjr of serious complications with other 
nations. He cabled a request to the Secretary of War to send the 
Oregon to Manila. Such was the popularity of Admiral Dewey and 
so thoroughly did he possess the confidence of the administration that 
a request from him was equal to a command, and the wonderful battle- 
ship already on her way as far as Honolulu was hurried to the Philip- 
pines. How well she sustained her reputation is told in Admiral 
Dewey's cable of March 18, 1899, announcing her arrival at Manila : 

Secretary of Navy: Oregon and Iris arrived this morning. The 
Oregon is fit for any duty. " DEWEY. 

All over this broad land there was a feeling of exultation, mingled 
with a sense of relief, that with the invincible Admiral and invincible 
ship American interests were safe in the Philippines. 

The destruction of the Maine and the intense war feeling, both 
in the United States and Spain, made it desirable that the govern- 
ment should be prepared to defend the Atlantic seaboard with the 
strongest possible fleet in the event of hostilities, and accordingly the 
Oregon was ordered from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. 


The Oregon left Bremerton, Puget Sound, where she had been in 
dry dock, on March 6th and arrived in San Francisco on March 9th. 
There she coaled, and left on the morning of March 19th for a run of 
4,500 knots to Callao, reaching the latter point on April 4th. 

From San Francisco to Callao the run was easy — seventyfive revo- 


lutions of the propeller every minute, giving a speed of eleven knots an 
hour— in order to economize fuel, the run being about four knots to a 
ton of coal. At Oallao more coal was in readiness to put aboard, and 
the vpork of storing it was rushed. The engineers and coal-passers 
worked thirty hours without rest, and April 7th the Oregon proceeded 
on her journey. 

Before reaching Callao, at exactly noon on March 31st, the Oregon 
crossed the equator, being the first American battleship to have the 
distinction of crossing the line. 

The event was attended by all the ceremonies prescribed by ancient 
custom. The evening before Father Neptune hailed the ship and an- 
nounced his visit for the following day. The next day at high noon he 
came over the bow, followed by his retinue. Two hundred of the ship's 
company had never "crossed the line," and each landlubber was show- 
ered with a mixture of eggs, molasses, salt water, flour, and rope yarn, 
all except the offtcers, who bought Neptune off with plenty of refresh- 
ments for his retinue, and even these were made to shoot the chutes 
into a tank of salt water. 

Each initiate was presented with a diploma bearing the seal of 
Neptune, of which the following is a copy: 


;-_/.- , < 

• : .,; To all whom these present shall come, greeting: 

' V , " Know ye that has this day been enrolled as 

a loyal subject of His Most Gracious Majesty, Nep- 
tunus Eex, monarch of all the seas, and in virtue there- 
of is entitled to all due respect from the common land- 
lubbers of the earth. By royal command, therefore, 
it is decreed that all good sailormen, mermaids, sharks, 
whales, sea serpents and other faithful subjects of His 
Eoyal Nibs shall abstain from maltreating or slander- 
ing the holder of this certificate. 

i Done at our royal court, on the equator, this 31st 
day of March, 1898, according to earthly computation. 
(Signed) , BY THE KING. 


Leaving Callao April 7th, the Oregon, steaming with four boilers 
and natural draught, made twelve and a half to thirteen knots, with 


heavy seas and strong currents against her, the revolutions being 
90 to 100 to the minute. The Straits of Magellan, with their tcSrtuous 
crooks and turns and hampering currents, and the wind blowing the 
worst gale any o.f the Oregon's officers ever experienced, were entered 
April 16th, and the two anchors were cast at the head of the straits. 
Captain Clark, in his report to Washington, said the sea and wind were 
the worst he ever experienced. 

On the day following one of the memorable runs of the voyage was 
made, the destination being Punta Arenas, in the southernmost part of 
Chile. For ten hours the ship ran at a speed of fifteen and one-half 
knots natural draught. Punta Arenas was reached on the evening of 
April 17th, the distance of 155 miles having been covered in ten hours. 

Passing through Magellan Straits, the men of the Oregon expressed 
the first warlike fears of the voyage. Although not then informed that 
war had been declared, the officers had their suspicions, and were led 
to believe that a Spanish torpedo-boat destroyer was lying in wait to 
make an attack. A sharp lookout was kept as the Oregon rushed 
through the sea at almost railroad speed. 

The current was now with her, and at some times she covered 
twenty knots, aided by the current. All the light guns were kept loaded, 
and the men were constantly at them on the lookout for the sly craft. 
But not a sign of the Spaniard was seen. 

That night at Punta Arenas the Oregon was joined by the gunboat 
Marietta, and there was a great feeling of relief to find that she, too, 
had escaped a surreptitious attack from the Spanish destroyer. 

On the morning of April 20th she was ready to leave Punta Arenas, 
but waited until early next morning for the Marietta„ 

On the morning of April 30th, in order to put into the Harbor of 
Rio de Janeiro before nightfall, the Oregon left the Marietta and made 
a forced run, .again breaking her record. The weather was scorching 
hot. The sun beat down with terrific force, making life on deck far 
from comfortable, while down in the fire and engine rooms the tem- 
perature reached 150 degree Fahrenheit The Oregon plunged ahead 
at a speed of fourteen and a half knots, with only natural draught. 
For ten hours she. ran at this speed. In this forced run James Mc- 
Garagle, first fireman, was prostrated by heat, but in a few minutes 
recovered and insisted on being taken back to his post. At no time 


during the entire voyage was the temperature in the engine-room ever 
below 125 degrees. 

At Bahia came tha expected news that war had been declared. It 
was received with cheers by the men, and the volunteer band struck up 
"Yankee Doodle" and "Hail Columbia." 

At Kio a bare bulletin of Dewey's victory was received, and that set 
the Oregon's crew crazy with enthusiasm. Every "jackie" was wearing 
on his cap, in addition to the' regular ship's ribbon, a ribbon inscribed 
in ink, "Remember the Maine." These supplementary ribbons had been 
made on shipboard, and when the news of actual war and the victory 
of Manila was received every cap came off and nearly 500 throats gave 
utterance tb the slogan attached thereto. 

The coal bunkers were replenished at Rio and anchor was weighed 
there on the morning of May 4th for a run up the coast as far as Cape 
Trio. There the Oregon left the Marietta and returned to Rio to get the 
Mctheroy, the cruiser bought from the Brazilian Government. But 
here the neutrality laws offered interference. The Brazilian Govern- 
ment feared complications if the Nictheroy left at the same time as the 
Oregon, and the latter was forced to depart without her. She went 
back to Cape Trio, picked up the Marietta and sent the latter back to 
wait for the former Brazilian ship. On the evening of May 5th both 
the Marietta and the Nictheroy came along, the Nictheroy having been 
allowed to leave port twenty-four hours after the departure of the bat- 

Now again a sharp lookout was kept for the enemy, and every 
officer and man firmly expected to see some Spanish ships and have an 
engagement. Whatever the odds might have been, the Oregon was 
ready, even anxious, for the fray. The three ships were steaming north- 
ward. At midnight on May 5th the Marietta and Nictheroy were or- 
dered to Bahia to report to the government at Washington, and the 
Oregon steamed north alone. 

"The Oregon expected to see the Temerario in spite of having been 
told, in Rio that as soon as the Spanish gunboat learned the Oregon 
was coming along she had put hurriedly into a creek. Late on the 
evening of May 8th the Oregon put into Bahia, and when the population 
there gazed on the battleship the next morning their eyes bulged 
with surprise. Rumors had arrived there that the Oregon had been 



While in Bahia tlie ship was changed from Vhite to the regulation . 
war colors. It was feared this even might be considered in' violation 
of neutrality regulations, so a ruse was adopted. One hundred men 
were lowered over the off shore side in the darkness of the 'night and 
soon finished painting that side. Then, when the ship swung around 
with the tide, the other side was painted in similar manner. 

While in Bahia orders were received from Washington respecting 
'the Spanish fleet. It was reported by Washington that seven vessels 
of the Gape Verde fleet had sailed westward. The evening the news 
was received Captain Clark called his officers around him for consulta- 
tion. He hesitated about telling the crew, fearing they would be 
alarmed by the apparent presence in the vicinity of such a formidable 
fleet, but the next morning he decided it best to take the men into his 
confidence, and all hands were summoned to general muster. Captain 
Clark then said: 

"It is our duty in time of war to avoid so superior a force, but if 
we do meet them we will impair their fighting efficiency." 

The cheers that came from the crew in reply to these few words 
showed the spirit of the jackies. They were more eager than ever. 
Captain Clark said to them they were the finest crew he ever com- 

Then an even more i'igid lookoat, if that were possible, was or- 
dered, but the journey to Sand Key proved to be uneventful. 

The Oregon reached Jupiter Inlet on May 24th, Key West on May 
26th, and three days later left to join the fleet off Cuba. The part she 
bore in the destruction of Cervera's fleet off Santiago makes the most 
brilliant page in the history of that great battle. Only her great speed 
and the tactics of the Brooklyn prevented the escape of the Spanish 
Admiral in his fast flagship. 

To the Oregon belongs the credit of practically ending the war 
with Spain, so far as the navy was concerned, for it was a 13-inch shell 
from her guns that forced the Cristobal Colon to surrender. 

But the work of the Oregon was not finished. Her record as a sea- 
goer was yet to be crowned by another long and lonely trip. During 
the peace negotiations it seemed not improbable that international 
complications might arise in the Philippines and it was generally under- 


stood that the Oregon and possibly the Iowa would be sent to reinforce 
Admiral Dewey's fleet. 

It was only necessary to put the Oregon in dry-dock at the Brooklyn 
Navy Yard for a few days to make her ready for the voyage back to the 
Pacific. In company with the Iowa and attended by the collier Scindia, 
the distilling ship Iris, and refrigerator ship Celtic, she sailed from New 
York October 12, 1898. 

The vessels on the way to the Pacific reached Bahia, Brazil^ on 
October 30th, completing the first leg of the voyage. Thence a quick 
and easy run took them to Rio Janeiro. Sailing from Rio at the 200 
knots a day rate ordered by the Navy Department, Cape Horn was 
rounded without a mishap, and the Oregon halted again at Oallao, Peru. 
January 11th the special squadron left Callao for the Galapagos Isl- 
ands. The Justin was detached on the same day, and three days later 
the Iowa and Celtic were detached, the Oregon, Scindia and Iris pro- 
ceeding to Honolulu via the Galapagos Islands. The diminished 
squadron arrived at Charles Island, the southernmost of the Galapagos 
group, on January 16th, and on the 18th the Oregon steamed out alone 
for Honolulu, thence to Manila. On February 4th she sighted the tall 
peaks of Hawaii, Mauna Loa and Maui, and in the evening of that day 
Iky outside of Pearl Harbor. The Scindia and Iris arrived on the 11th. 
At Honolulu the Oregon's officers and crew learned of the fighting at 
Manila, which increased their desire to be off to Manila. 

On February 24, 1899, came Dewey's famous message to the Secre- 
tary of the Navy: "For political reasons the Oregon should be sent 
here at once." Fit as a ship could be, it left Honolulu on February 27th 
to cover the 4,000 knots to the Philippines, with but one stop at the 
Island of Guam. 

Just at sunset, March 18, 1899^ while the band on shore was play- 
ing "The Star Spangled Banner," with the troops at parade and the 
warships in ihe harbor drooping their colors, the great battleship 
Oregon steamed into Manila Bay at full speed. 

She rushed ahead until abreast of the flagship Olympia, where she 
saluted Admiral Dewey, and dropped anchor anud the cheers of steam- 
ers afloat and soldiers ashore. 

The Oregon made the voyage from Honolulu without incident, and 
arrived in as perfect condition as when she made her famous trip 
around the Horn to help smash the Spanish fleet off Santiago, 


The Oregon is a steel battleship, 348 feet long and 69J -feet broad, 
with a mean normal draught of 24 feet; she is of 10,250 tons displace- 
ment; horse-power over 11,000. She carries four 13-inch and eight 8- 
inch guns in turrets, and four 6-inch guns en barbette. Her secondary 
battery consists of twenty 6-pounders, eight 1-pounders ^nd four Gat- 
lings. She also has six torpedo tubes. She was launched in 1893 and 
had her trial trip in 1896. The contract speed was 15 knots and a bonus 
of |25,000 was, stipulated for each quarter-knot excess. 

The men who brought the gallant ship from the Pacific t6 the At- 
lantic and then took her upon the long journey to the Philippines, Cap- 
tain Charles E, Clark and Chief Engineer Robert W. Milligan, were 
members of the trial board, the other member being Rear Admiral 
L. A. Beardslee. On the trial trip the Oregon developed and maintained 
a speed of 16.791 knots, and her builders, Messrs. Irving M. and Henry 
Scott, of the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, received a bonus of 
$175,000. On her great trip from San Francisco to Key West she aver- 
aged over 11 knots for 1,300 hours. 







HE most liberal education the American public 
bas bad concerning tbe Nicaragua Canal was 
supplied by tbe trip of tbe battleship Oregon 
around tbe horn. That iamous voyage did more 
to familiarize tbe reading public with the pro- 
jected waterway to connect tbe Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans than all tbe articles, official re- 
ports, prospectuses and maps relating to it that 
biave been published. Previous to that voyage 
few knew and only a small per cent of those who knew oared anything 
about a canal in Central America. Many regarded it as simply a 
scheme to secure rich contracts or subsidies from the government. 
Some who knew of it were opposed to its -construction because they 
were unable to determine whether it should be a government or private 
enterprise, aud still others because of tbe specious arguments advanced 
against it by tbe transcontinental railroads with which it would be- 
come a competing commercial highway. 

But tbe trip of the Oregon presented the whole matter in an en- 
tirely new light. Tbe eyes of tbe nation were upon the great battleship 
as she made that record-breaking voyage of 17,000 miles. People got 
out -their atlases and marked her couTt-se down tbe western coast of 
North, Central and South America and up the eastern coast until she 
reached her destination. Before her arrival war had been declared, and 
a Spanish squadron of seven vessels was heading for American waters. 
When or where it would strike no one knew. It was among tbe possi- 
bilities that it might intercept tbe lone American warship and engage it 
in unequalconflict. 



Attention was also directed to tlie fact that the withdrawal of the 
Oregon' from the Pacific deprived the western coast of its greatest de- 
fender, and it was plainly apparent that if the Spanish Asiatic squadron 
should appear off the Pacific coast that a fleet could not be dispatched 
from the Atlantic in time to prevent the bombardment of Western coast 

All of these conditions drew special attention to the little narrow 
strip of land in Nicaragua between the Pacific Ocean and Lake Nica- 
ragua and another narrow strip between the lake and the Atlantic. It 
was plain to be seen that if the oceans were connected with this lake 
by canal that the Oregon's trip of 17,000 miles could have been short- 
ened to a little more than 4,000 miles, and that the entire strength of the 
American navy could be easily and quickly concentrated on either ceast. 

Aside from the commercial importance of such a waterway, the 
fact which most impressed the people was that the construction of the 
Nicaragua Canal was a naval necessity, and it was this fact which re- 
vived interest in the great project and crystallized public sentiment in 
favor of it. The Nicaragua Canal therefore became one of the important 
problems of the war, and engaged the attention of the people as mi mere 
commercial problem could do. 

The construction of a trans-isthmian canal is not a new proposition. 
It may be said to date from the time that Balbao, the Spanish conquista- 
dore, crossed the Isthmus of Darien and first viewed the narrow neck of 
land in the South Pacific, September 25, 1513. But it was not until 
1522, when Gil Gonzales Davila discovered the lake country of Nicara- 
gua, that the Nioaraguan Canal project had birth. Davila was exploring 
the western coast at the time of the discovery. All the lake tribes of 
Indians at that time were ruled by a chieftain called Nicarao. It was 
from these Indians that the Spanish explorer learned that the lake was 
connected with the Atlantic Ocean (North Sea) by a river (the Rio San 
Juan). As was the custom in those days when taking possession of 
newly discovered countries, Davila rode his horse into the waters and 
took possession of Lake Nicaragua in the King's name. He gave it the 
name Nicarao-agua (Nicarao's water) in honor of the aboriginal ruler.' 
A large trade sprung up between Granada, the chief city of the lakes, 
and Spanish ports, notably Nombre de Dios and Cadiz, by way of Lake 
Nicaragua and the Eio San Juan. It was the richly-laden Spanish ships 
on this route that suffered «it the hands of Sir Francis Drake when he 


sailed through the Straits of Magellan in 1579 and harried Spanish com- 
merce in the Pacific. 

In the next century tlie buccaneers of the Spanish Main attacked 
the fort (San Carlos) at the lake entrance and burned the town of Leon. 
As a result the river was rendered unnavigable by the Spaniards, who 
threw rocks and other obstructions in the rapids, and opened the mouth 
of the Brazo Colorado, the southern branch of the Rio San Juan. Large 
volumes of volcanic sand silted up and destroyed what was the finest 
harbor on the Caribbean coast, San Juan del Norte, which according to 
the adopted survey of the canal is the eastern end of the projected 

It was not until 1825 that the United States took the initial step 
looking to a water connection between the oceans. In that year Henry 
Clay, Secretary of State, ordered that an examination be 'made as to 
the feasibility of constructing such a maritime highway, and ten years 
later President Andrew Jackson appointed a commissioner to examine 
the proposed route and negotiate a concession. That and other efforts 
of the United States government failed of any practical result In 
1876J however, the United States government obtained a survey and 
report which in all essential details correspond to the route finally 

The eastern terminus is at the City of America (so named by the 
Nicaraguan government), about two miles above San Juan del Norte. 
From there to a junction with the San Juan river at a navigable point 
is thirty-five miles. From this point to Lake Nicaragua the river be- 
comes a part of the canal, the distance between the junction and the 
lake being 64| miles. The lake is then utilized for a distance of 54^ 
miles. This leaves but 15i miles of actual canal construction upon the 
western end between Lake Nicaragua and Brito, the western terminus, 
which is 8 miles north of San Juan del Sur. The entire distance is com- 
puted at 169i English or statute miles, and 147 geographical or nautical 
miles. The estimated cost of the canal varies from |60,000,000 to flOO,- 
000,000, the latter sum probably being the closer estimate, as it is impos-- 
sible to foresee all the difficulties and obstructions in the way of the 
completion of this great work. 

Probably no similar undertaking has ever been subjected to such 
an exhaustive preliminary examination and such thorough investiga- 
tioii. More than 4,000 miles of country have been surveyed under the 


greatest difficulties. Swamps and jungles have been penetrated where 
vegetation was so luxuriant that progress could only be made by cut- 
ting a path with a machete or an axe, and quite frequently members of 
the engineering party were mired breast deep in the marshes along 
the line of survey. But American engineering skill surmounted every 
obstacle and overcame every difficulty, and the government was at last 
furnished with a complete survey of a direct route to connect the oceans 
at a minimum distance and a minimum cost. 

In estimating the cost of the canal three great engineering prob- 
lems had to be considered. One was the reclamation of the harbor at 
the eastern terminus, another was the construction of a dam at Ochoa 
where the canal unites with the San Juan river, and the third to cut 
through the Great Divide on the western end. At the point where the 
canal intersects the San Juan river there are dangerous rapids, but the 
proposed dam raises the river to the lake level and gives a depth of 34 
feet of water above them. The deep cut in the Cordilleras varies froni 
140 to 330 feet in depth, but nature has provided a clay soil instead of 
shifting sands, which greatly facilitates the work. 

Another significant item of expense is the flooding of valleys and 
closing their outlets, thus utilizing the deep basins nature has provided 
and making them commercially valuable in times of peace and strategi- 
cally valuable in time of war. 

For the purpose of constructing this great waterway a company 
known as the Maritime Canal Company was organized in October, 1886, 
and in February, 1899, received a charter from the United States gov- 
ernment. On June 8, 1890, the work of construction was commenced, 
headquarters being established at America, but the financial panic of 
1893 brought about a cessation of the work so auspiciously begun. 

During the three years of work, however, much progress was made. 
Wharves, warehouses, workshops and dwellings were constructed, 
eleven miles of railway and sixty miles of telegraph were built. An 
exclusive franchise for the navigation of the San Juan river was ob- 
tained, and a large dredging plant purchased and put in operation. 
Twenty miles of right of way was cleared and one mile of actual excava- 
tion made. 

The advantages to be derived from the Nicaragua Canal by the 
United States, both from a naval and commercial standpoint, are almost 


In 1780 England's great Admiral Nelson (then a captain) said: "I 
intend to possess the great Lake of Nicaragua, which I regard as the 
inland Gibraltar of Spanish America." The application of that term 
is apparent when it is considered that Lake Nicaragua, the largest be- 
tween Lake Michigan and Lake Titicaca, Peru, is 110 miles in length, 
with an average width of 40 miles, large enough to shelter all the navies 
of the world, and capable of being made a stronghold and an unassail- 
able base of supplies. As a naval station between the Atlantic and 
Pacific fleets it gives the United States command of two oceans and 
makes both coasts secure against naval surprises from either European 
or Asiatic nations. The new possessions of the United States in the 
Pacific gives increased importance to American naval operations in 
western waters, and the Nicaragua Canal is the naval key to the Pacific. 

But "peace hath her victories no less renowned than war," and the 
growth of American commerce in Asia makes the canal as much of a 
commercial necessity as the growth of colonial power in the Pacific 
makes it a naval necessity. . It has been shown that the demand for raw 
and manufactured cotton in Asia alone is equal to the entire cotton pro- 
duction of the Southern States, and shipments of this product through 
the Nicaragua Canal would give American cotton an advantage in price 
over cotton from any other part of the world. But it is not only the 
Southern States to be benefited, for the Nicaragua Canal gives the 
Western States an advantage in European markets now denied them by 
reason of the long trans-continental haul. It also brings the Northern 
States of the western coast into close contact with the Southern States 
of the eastern coast. For instance, the distance from San Francisco to 
Liverpool by way of Cape Horn is 15,620 nautical miles; by way of the 
Nicaragua Canal is only 7,627 miles. From San Francisco to New 
York around the horn is 15,660 nautical miles; via the Nicaragua Canal 
it is but 4,907. From San Francisco to New Orleans around the horn is 
16,000 miles; via the Nicaragua Canal it is 4,147 miles. The advantages 
of water transportation over rail where large shipments are made make 
these figures of wonderful significance. 

Not since the inception of the canal project has there been such 
interest in the undertaking as marked the end of the Spanish-American 
war, and, indeed, there never before was a time in the history of the 
country, when the United States had more at stake in that enterprise. 



HILE Cuba did not come into possession of the 
United States as a result of the Spanish- Amer- 
ican War, the United States Government, 
through it& war declarations, became responsible 
for the establishment of a safe and stable gov- 
ernment in that island, thus standing in the re- 
lation of a foster parent to a child. 

This relationship and the fact of its proxim- 
ity to the United States creates as much^ interest 
among Americans concerning its affairs as 
if it were a colony of the great republic. Then, too, strictly speak- 
ing, Cuba was the casus belli of the Spanish- American war. It is our 
nearest neighbor and its people, climate and physical characteristics 
are much the same as those of our newly acquired possessions. 

The Island of Cuba, the largest of the Antilles, is situated at the 
entrance of the Gulf of Mexico, between 20 and 23 degrees north lati- 
tude and 74 and 85 degrees west longitude from Greenwich. It is dis- 
tant from Yucatan, Mexico, 114 miles, and from Florida 130 miles, and 
its location gave rise to its being called "The Key to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico." On the coat of arms of Havana there appears a key as one of 
the most conspicuous objects, as if the intention were to express the 
idea that possession of the island, and especially of its capital city, 
implied the ability to open or close at any moment the Gulf of Mexico 
to the commerce of the world. The coast line of Cuba is extensive, 
and it possesses a number of large and safe harbors. The northern 
coast, the greater part of which is free from shoals, keys, and other 
obstacles, has a length of about 918 miles, with 32 harbors, of which 



10 are of the first class. First in importance is the Harbor of Havana, 
followed by those of Mariel, Cabanas, Bahia Honda, Matanzas, Car- 
denas, Sagua, Caibarien, Nuevitas, Jibara, etc. The southern coast has 
a length of 972 miles, with 12 important harbors. Of these, Guanta- 
namo, which figured in the military and naval operations, is spacious 
and at easy access, affdrding shelter to vessels drawing 26 feet. The 
harbors of Santiago de Cuba and Cienfuegos are also of considerable 

The area of the Island of Cuba has not been exactly determined. 
The estimates vary from about 35,000 to 72,000 square miles. Taking 
the lowest estimate (35,000 square miles), the island would be aearly 
equal in size to the State of Indiana (36,350) and nearly three times the 
size of the State of Maryland (12,210). It is slightly larger than the 
State of Maine (33,040). The island is traversed by a chain of moun- 
tains, extending from east-southeast to north-northwest. The highest 
mountains are found in the southeastern part of the island. The great- 
est elevation is about 8,000 feet. The soil of Cuba is watered by more 
than 200 rivers, among which figure the Cauto, in the province of San- 
tiago de Cuba, 150 miles long, about 50 of which are navigable for small 
craft, and the Sagua, in the province of Santa Clara, of the length of 
111 miles, 21 of which are navigable. 


With the exception of localities where malarial fevers prevail, the 
climate of Cuba is healthful, especially in the rural districts in the 
east and center of the island. There are only two marked seasons in 
Cuba, the dry and the rainy. The first lasts from November to May and 
the second from May to October, but during the dry season sufficient 
rain falls to give the soil the necessary humidity. The mean temper- 
ature in Havana is about 78| degJ?ees F. In the interior, the average 
temperature does not exceed 73.4 degrees F. In ordinary years the tem- 
perature never rises above 86 degrees F. in August, and in exceptional 
years the maximum temperature in the hottest months is 88 degrees F. 
In winter the temperature rarely goes below 54 degrees F. Snow is un- 
known even on the mountains, and frost has formed only on some of 
the highest summits. The great drawback for unacclimated persons 
'in Cuba is the prevalence of yellow fever, but this is confined mainly to 
towns where the sanitary conditions have been b|ad. 


According to an official census of 1890, the population of Cuba was 
then 1,631,687. For three years Cuba has been the theater of war, and 
great mortality and devastation have occurred. It may b'e assumed 
that the present population is not in excess of the figures of 1890, 
and it may be considerably lower. It has been estiinated that, taking 
as a basis the proportion of population to area in the Kingdom of 
Belgium (482 inhabitants to the square mile) Cuba, could support 24,000,- 
000 people. Of the population in 1890, the percentages according to 
race were: White, 65; colored and Chinese, 35. The actual number of 
white Cubans was given as 950,000; colored Cubans, 500,000, and Span- 
iards, 160,000, 


Under the Spanish administration Cuba was divided into three 
regions— the western, central and eastern. Each region comprises two 
provinces, divided into several judicial districts, and these again sub- 
divided into municipal sections. The western region embraces the 
provinces of Pinar del Rio and Havana; the central coniprises the 
provinces of Matanzas and Santa Clara, and the eastern provinces are 
made up of Puerto Principe and Santiago de Cuba. The capital of the 
island is the city of Havana. 

Prior to 1898 the island was governed by a Governor and Captain- 
General, appointed by the Spanish Crown, who was the superior polit- 
ical, military and economic chief. Bach of the six provinces was ad: 
ministered by a Governor. On January 1, 1898, the Spanish Govern- 
ment adopted a system of autonomous government for the island, pro- 
viding for popular representation, in the administration of affairs, but 
it was not accepted by the insurgents and had no practical effect. Un- 
der the terms of the suspension of hostilities between the United States 
and Spain, the affairs of the island were to be administered by the 
military commanders of the United States forces until such time as the 
native government proves stable. 


Havana, capital of the province of the same name and of the island, 
is situated on the northern coast, and has a harbor which has long 
been famous for its commerce. The city has about 200,000 inhabitants. 
It is the residence of the Captain-General and other authorities of the 

(JUNE 3rd), 

WHEEL (JUNE 3rd). 

"The wind from this shot carried away my cap." 




;^ ^ 
f^ til 


a s 

o s 

o o 

M 3 













■" "^afi^vv .;jte-?*S*r ... 




Soldiers Cheering Lieutenant Hobson on his Safe Return to the American Lines. 



How We Made the Spaniard.s Form Line of Battle. 



■ --■ •--'•■- - - ■^-•''•^-—'-^' -^ siMttHMf-^'FHf*!-'^' 

And now came the Bull-fighters, dancing lightly with all sorts of graceful and 
fantastic antics, each man moving his two darts, crossing them above his head, 
gesticulating with them as if they were magical instruments and finallj' running 
up lightly in front of the bull, planting one dextrously at each side of his neck 
in tlie very moment of his lowering his head to toss his new enemy. 







island. It is defended by eight forts, one of which is the famous Morro 
Castle; has a fine navy yard, arsenal, gun manufacturing and repair 
shops, barracks and hospitals, three large markets, twenty-four 
churches, six theaters, a university, a school of fine arts, several public 
libraries and many educational institutions. There are several manu- 
factories, and the city is traversed by tramways and omnibus lines. It 
has communication with the rest of the island by means of railroad 
lines. It is lighted by gas and electricity. About eighty newspapers 
and other pe'riodicals are published in Havana. 

Pinar del Rio, capital of the province of Pinar del Rio, has a popu- 
lation of about 30,000. It is situated about 135 miles from Havana, 
and is noted for the fine quality of the tobacco grown in its neighbor- 

Matanzas, capital of the province of Matanzas, 66 miles from Ha- 
vana, has a population of 56,000. In its vicinity are the fine Bellamar 
Caves and the noted valley of the Yumuri. 

Cardenas,, a commercial port of the northern coast, about 90 miles 
from Havana, has a population of 23,000. 

Santa Clara, 216 miles from Havana, has a population of 32,000. 

Sagua la Grande, province of Santa Clara, situated on the River 
Sagua la Grande, seven miles from its mouth, has a population of 18,000. 

Cienfuegos, province of Santa Clara, has a pojpulation of 40,000. 
It is situated on the fine port of Jagua and is a thriving center of trade. 
Besides the foregoing towns in the province of Santa Clara, there are 
Trinidad, 29,000 inhabitants; Santi Espiritus, 29,000 inhabitants; and 
San Juan de los Reniedios, 15,000 inhabitants. 

Puerto Principe, capital of the province of Puerto Principe, has a 
population of 49,000. 

Santiago de Cuba, capital of the province of Santiago de Cuba, has 
a population of 50,000. Santiago has a fine harbor and a number of 
important public buildings, including a famous cathedral. 

Among the other towns of importance in the province of Santiago 
de Cuba are Manzanillo, Bayamo, Jiguani, Holguin, Jibara, Guanta- 
namo and Baracoa. 


Early in its history Cuba was famous for the quantity and quality 
of its gold, and gold mines are still in operation in the central and 


eastern parts of the island. Silver mines are also found in several lo- 
calities. The greatest mineral wealth of the island lies in its abundant, 
mines of fine copper. Deposits of this metal, believed to be almost in- 
exhaustible, are located chiefly in the eastern portion of the island, in 
the mountains, which, by reason of this circumstance, are known as 
Sierra del Oobre (Copper Mountains). In 1891, in the district of San- 
tiago de Cuba alone, 296 mining grants were issued, including iron and 
manganese mines. The iron ore of Cuba is of superior quality, and 
with improved facilities for communication and development, it is be- 
lieved there will be an immense output of this metal. The iron mines 
of Juragua, in the province of Santiago de Cuba, have been worked 
by United States capital. The ore was exported, to Philadelphia, where 
it was utilized to the extent of 15,000 tons per month. Asphalt and 
mineral oil deposits are found in several parts of the island. There are 
several asphalt deposits in the provinces of Havana, Pinar del Rio and 
Santa Clara. The Cuban asphalt is said to rival that of Trinidad as 
regards its adaptability for street paving, gas making and other in- 
dustrial uses. 

The great wealth of Cuba, however, lies in the wonderful fertility 
of its soil. The island has 35,000,000 acres of land, but in 1868, accord- 
ing to official statistics, only 2,689,400 were under cultivation; 9,974,134 
acres were utilized in cattle raising, and nearly 16,000,000 were still vir- 
gin forest. Ten years later, after the end of the long insurrection, 
considerable land was cleared, and the production of sugar assumed 
large proportions. On the other hand, old lands were abandoned, and 
the acreage was not greatly increased. It may be assumed, therefore, 
that only a small fraction of the agricultural wealth of Cuba has been 
developed, and that at least 20,000,000 acres of land awaited the appli- 
cation of industry and capital at the conclusion of the late war. 

The principal industry of Cuba has been for many years the culti- 
vation of sugar cane and the making of sugar, but this industry suffered 
by the competition of European beet sugar and the internal disorders 
of the island. With the occupation of the island by the United States 
the sugar industry again revived, and became remunerative. The great 
advantage of sugar growing in Cuba is found in the fact that the cane 
reproduces itself without the necessity of resowing for ten, fifteen, or 
twenty years, according to the nature of the soil. The sugar is of su- 
perior quality, and the proximity of the island to the United States of 


America is a favoring condition. The production of sugar from 1894 to 
1895 aggregated over 1,000,000 tons. From 1895 to 1896 it was only 
225,000 tons. 

Cuba has long been famous for the superiority of its tobacco. Ef- 
forts have been made to rival the Cuban tobacco in different parts of 
the world, but it seems to hold its own as excelling all others. The 
plant is grown in greatest abundance in the western par^of the island, 
Vuelta Abajo, and in som^ localities in the provinces of Santa Clara 
and Santiago de Cuba. Next in rank in quality and quantity is the 
product of the district of Manicaragua, in the province of Santa Clara. 
The Vuelta Abajo region, where the best tobacco oii the island is raised, 
suffered considerably from the insurrection, and the crop for 1897 did 
not exceed 30,000 bales of 110 pounds — a tenth part, approximately, of 
the ordinary yield. Nearly all the leaf tobacco and about half .the 
twist of Cuba is exported to the United States. 

Coffee for a long time constituted one of the principal products of 
Cuba, but since 184^ the development of the coffee product of Brazil 
and other Countries, together with economic conTlitions in Cuba, caused 
*the cultivation to decline, and since then coffee has been raised almost 
exclusively for local consumption. 

Besides sugar, tobacco and coffee Cuba produces all the different 
classes of fruits known to the Tropics, and many of those belonging 
to the temperate zone. Among them are the pineapple, the banana, 
the orange, the mango and the guava. The cocoanut is also an im- 
portant product. The forest wealth of Cuba is very great and but 
slightly developed. The island is rich in cabinet wood, among which 
the most important are mahogany and cedar. Among the trees the one 
most characteristic of a Cuban landscape is the palm, of which there 
are 32 spepies. Its wood and leaves are employed in the manufacture 
of several articles of trade, including hats and baskets. The soil of the' 
island is well adapted to the production of all kinds of vegetables, 
Bie Cuban potato is as good as that of Bermuda or Peru, and the sweet 
potatoes are of superior quality. 

Many efforts have been made in the Island of Cuba to attract to 
its shore the beneficial currents of foreign immigration. They have 
succeeded fully in so -far as securing the settlement in the country of a 
large number of citiziens of the United States and of German subjects, 
who, by engaging in agriculture and commercial business, have con- 


tributed largely to the development of the wealth of the island. As 
there are no public lands in Cuba to any considerable extent, no 
measure of colonization, properly so called, has been accompanied with 

The uncleared forests of the Island of Cuba cover an' area of 
15,544,367 acres, according to official statistics taken before the outbreak 
of the war in 1868. There were 2,689,400 acres under cultivation in the 
shape of sugar estates, coffee plantations, tobacco farms and minor 
agricultural establishments of all kinds; 9,974,134 acres were entirely 
set apart for the cattle-raising industry. 

From 1511 to 1719 grants of public land were made by the munic- 
ipalities of the island. The grants consisted of tracts of land set apart 
in a circular form. There were two classes: one called "hato," which 
was»a circular piece of land having a radius of two leagues and intended 
for the raising of black cattle, and the "corral," having a radius of one 
league and supposed to be devoted to minor cattle and industries. The 
granting of this public land was discontinued in 1719. 

There can be pointed out three different sections in the island, 
each distinctly characterized by its adaptability to a certain kind of 
industry. Pinar del Rio, the westernmost province of the island, is dis- 
tinguished for its excellent and unsurpassed tobacco. Havana, Ma- 
tanzas and Santa Clara provinces are devoted almost entirely to the 
cultivation of sugar c^ne and to the sugar industry. Puerto Principe 
(which occupies the center of the island) is the cattle-raising province, 
and Santiago de Cuba the mining, fruit, and coffee section of Cuba, 


The industries and commerce of Cuba were greatly diminished by 
the state of insurrection and war which existed in the island for more 
than three years. The imports of the island during the fiscal year ended 
April, 1896, amounted to |66,166,754, and the exports to $94,395,536. 
In 1893 the trade of Cuba with the United States alone showed the 
following figures: Imports, |78,706,506; exports, |24,157,698. The trade 
had fallen off during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897, to imports, 
118,406,815; exports, |8,259,776. During the years- 1891-1896, inclusive, 
the commerce of Cuba with Spain amounted to about |30,000,000 per 
annum, but in 1892 it rose to as much as |37,600,000, and in 1895 to 


about $33,500,000. The imports of Cuba from Spain were usually about 
three times the exports of Cuba to Spain, the latter being, about $4,250,- 
000 in 1896 and $9,570,000 in 1892. The imports from Spain ranged 
, during the six years between $22,000,000 in 1891 and $28,000,000 in 1892. 
In normal years Cuba exports the greater part of its products to 
the United States, the principal articles being sugar, molasses and to- 
bacco, but by reason of the operation of the former Spanish tariff, dis- 
criminating in favor of Spanish products, the island imported from 
the United States a relatively small proportion of what it consumed. 
Spain and Great Britain furnished the greater part of the imports of 


This rich and fertile soil with its wealth of agricultural and mineral 
resources, where droughts, floods, and frosts are unknown, was prac- 
tically undeveloped, owing to the total absence of transportation fa- 
cilities either' by rail or by roads. 

In the whole province of Santiago de Cuba there were 80 miles of 
railroad at the time of American occupatioij and not a mile of road 
deserving the name between any two towns or villages, excepting nar- 
row paths scarce allowing a horse or a mule to pass,' through the 
woods, ' across streams and over the mountains. 

Telegraphic communication exists between the different interior 
towns and principal villages, over Spanish Government lines put up 
in the rudest fashion, many wires resting on trees without the vestige 
of an insulator. The dependence that can be placed on such lines is 
obvious. It would be natural to expect Santiago de Cuba and Havana 
to be communicated by land wires; but as. a fact, the only telegraphic 
communication between the eastern and western capitals is over an 
English cable between Santiago and Cienfuegos, where the message is 
transmitted to or from Havana by land. 

There are 10 railway companies in Cuba, the most important being 
the Ferrocarriles Unidos; upward of 1,000 miles of main line belong 
to these companies, and there are, besides, private branch lines to all the 
important sugar estates. The Ferrocarriles Unidos has four lines, con- 
necting Havana with Matanzas, Batabano, Union, and Guanajay. The 
roads pass througli the most populous part of thfe country and connect 
Havana with other lines. 


The Western Eailway was begun in 1859, and in 1891, when it was 
acquired by an English company, had reached Puerto de Golpe, 96 miles 
from Havana and 10 miles from Pinar del Eio, the capital of the pro- 
vince of that name and the center of the tobaccg-growing district. The 
line has been completed to Pinar del Kio, and improvements have been 
made in the old part, many of the bridges having been replaced by new 
steel ones, the rails renewed, modem cars put on, etc. 

The other companies are: Ferrocarriles Cardenas- Jacaro, the main 
line of which joins the towns of Cardenas and Santa Clara; Ferrocarril 
de Matanzas, having lines between Matanzas and Murga, and also be- 
tween Matanzas and Guareiras; Ferrocarril de Sagua la Grande, run- 
ning between Concha and Cruces; Ferrocarril Ciehfuegos-Santa Clara, 
connecting those towns; Ferrocarriles Unidps de Caibarien, from 
Caibarien to Placetas; Ferrocarril de Porto Principe-Nuevitas; Ferro- 
carril de Guantanamo. 

The Marianao Eailway also belongs to an English company, with 
headquarters in London. The original line, belonging to Cubans, was 
opened in 1863. The line, only 8^ miles in length, runs from Havana to 
Marianao, with a branch line to a small village on the coast. During 
1894, over 750,000 passengers were carried, this being the chief source of 
revenue. The carriages are of the American type and are fitttd, as well 
as the locomotives, with the Westinghouse automatic brake j the rails 
are of steel, weighing 60 pounds per yard. 

The national carriage is the volante, and no other is used in the 
country. It consists of a two-seated carriage, slung low down by 
leather straps from the axle of two large wheels, and has shafts 15 feet 
long. The horse in the shaft is led by a postilion, whose horse is also 
harnessed to the carriage with traces. In case of a long and rough jour- 
ney, a third horse is harnessed on the other side of the shafts in the 
same manner. The carriage is extremely comfortable to travel in, and 
the height of the wheels and their distance apart prevent all danger 
of turning over, although the roads in the country are, for the most part, 
mere tracks through fields and open land. 

Ox carts and pack mules are used for conveying goods in the inte- 
rior of the island, outside of the railway lines. 

There are four cable lines connected with Cuba.: The International 
Ocean Telegraph Company has a cable from Havana to Florida; the 
Cuban Submarine Company has a cable connecting Havana with Santi- 


ago de Cuba and Cienfuegos; the West India and Panama Company 
has a cable connecting Havana with Santiago de Cuba, Jamaica, Porto 
Eico, the Lesser Antilles, and the Isthmus of Panama; the Oompagnie 
Francaise de Cables Sous-Marins has a line connecting Havana with 
Santiago de Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingo, Venezuela and BraziL 

The only three towns in Cuba having cable connections are Havana, 
Cienfuegos, and Santiago de Cuba. 

The telegraph and telephone systems in Cuba belong to the Gov- 
ernment, but the latter is farmed out for a limited number of years to 
a company called the Red Telefonica de la Habana. Nearly all the 
public and private buildings in the city and suburbs are connected by 
telephone. The Stateman's Year Book, 1898, says that there are 2,300 
miles of telegraph line, with 153 offices. 

Havana is connected by regular lines of steamers with United 
States and Spanish ports. Lines of steamboats connect at Tampa and 
Pensacola, Fla., with the Florida railroads, and by means of them with 
the various railroad systems of the United States. 

The metric system of weights and measures is in use in Cuba. The 
ones most commonly employed are: Kilogram (2.2046 pounds); hec- 
toliter (26.418 gallons); meter (39.37 inches); kilometer (0.62137 mile); 
hectare (2.471 acres). Other weights and measures in occasional use are 
the arroba (dry), which is equal to 25.3664 pounds; arroba (liquid), 4.263 
gallons; fanega, 1.599 bushels; libra. 1.0161 pounds; and vara, 33.384 


Cuba was discovered by Columbus, October 28, 1492. He named 
the island Juana in honor of Prince Juan; later the name was changed 
to Fernandina, in honor of the deceased Ferdinand, again changed to 
Santiago and lastly to Ave Maria, but the Indian name Cuba clung and 
still clings to it. 

Cuba is not less beautiful than it was when Columbus first saw it, 
and this is his own description given to the Court of Spain: 

"When I reached Juana, I followed its coast to the westward, and 
found it so large that I thought it must be mainland, the province of 
Cathay; and as I found neither towns nor villages on the sea coast, but 
only some hamlets, with the inhabitants of which I could not hold con- 
versation, because they all immediately fled, I kept on the same route, 


thinking tliat I could not fail to light upon some large cities or towns. 
At length, after the proceeding of many leagues, a,nd finding that noth- 
ing new presented itself, and that the coast was leading me nqrthwards 
(which I wished to avoid, because the winter had already set in, and, 
it was my intention to nlove southwards; and because moreover the 
winds were contraiy), I resolved not to wait for a change in the weather, 
but to return to a certain harbor which I had remarked, and from which 
I sent two men ashore to ascertain whether there was any king or large 
cities in that part. They journeyed for three days, and found countless 
small hamlets, with numberless inhabitants, but with nothing like 
Order; they therefore returned. In the meantime I had learned from 
some other Indians, whom I had seized, that this land'was certainly an 
island; accordingly, I followed the coast eastward for, a distance of 107 
leagues, where it ended in a cape. From this cape I saw another island 
to the eastward, at a distance of eighteen leagues from the former, to 
which I gave the name of La Espanola. Thither I went ahd followed 
its northern coast (just the same as I had done with the coast of Juana), 
118 full miles due east. This island, like all others, is extraordinarily 
large, and this one extremely so. In it are many seaports, with which 
none that I know in Christendom can bear comparisoji, so good and 
capacious that it is a wonder to see. The lands are high, and there are 
many lofty mountains, with which the islands of Teneriffe cannot be 
compared. They are all most beautiful, of a thousand different shapes, 
accessible, and covered with trees of a thousand kinds, of such great 
height that they seem to react the skies. I am told that the trees never 
lose their foliage, and I can well understand it, for I observed that they 
were as green and luxuriant as in Spain in the month of May. Some 
were in bloom, others bearing fruit, and others otherwise, according 
to their nature. The nightingale was singing, as well as other little 
birds of a thousand different kinds, and that in November, the month in 
which I was roaming amongst them. There are palm trees of six or 
eight kinds, wonderful in their beautiful variety; but this is the case 
with all other trees and fruits and grasses. It contains extraordinary 
pine groves and very extensive plains. There is also honey and a great 
variety of birds, and many different kinds of fruits. In the interior 
there are many mines of metals, and a population innumerable." 

The first attempt to colonize Cuba was made by Diego Columbus 
(son of the discoverer) and Diego Velasquez. They made thfeir first 


settlement at Boracoa, which became the capital. In 1522 the capital 
was moved to Santiago de Cuba and in 1589 to Havana. 

In 1538 a French privateer bombarded Havana and reduced the city 
to ashes, which led the Governor General, Fernando de Soto, to erect 
the Castillo de la Fuerza (strong fortress), which still stands. When De 
Soto left Cuba for Florida he placed the government in the hands of 
Dona Isabel de Boabdillo. 

In 1547 Don Antonio de Chavez became Govertior, and inaugurated 
many improvements. Among them he gave the city of Havana a water 
supply system for the first time in its history. 

The removal of the capital from Santiago to Havana was due 
largely to the fact that Gonzales Perez de Angulo, who was appointed 
Governor General of the island in 1549, took up his residence in Havana 
instead of Santiago, and this precedent being followed by some of his 
successors the change was naturally brought about. 

For a year Cuba was British property. This was from July, 1762, 
to July, 1763. With a fleet of 37 ships under Admiral Pococke, and 150 
transports with 10,000 men under Lord Albemarle, reinforced by 4,000 
regulars from New York, the city was captured after a stubborn defense 
in which heat and disease fought on the side of the Spaniards. Five 
thousand soldiers and 3,000 sailors were ill at one time. By the terms 
of the treaty of peace the island was restored to Spain on July 7, 1763, 

The frequent insurrections in the islands were no doubt aided by 
filibustering expeditions from the United States, which the government 
was unable to suppress. This caused constant irritation between the 
two governments, and in 1873 almost led to war. 

• On October 31 of that year, the Virginius, an American ship, was 
captured near Jamaica by the Spanish Steamer Tornado. . She was 
apprehended as a filibusterer, and Captain Frye and fifty-two of the 
crew were stood against a wall and shot. A British ship of war, the 
Niobe, appeared opportunely upon the scene and prevented the mas- 
sacre of the remaining 130 of the crew. 

Although the affair was settled through the channels of diplomacy, 
a bitter sentiment was created against Spain, which continued with 
more or less intensity until it found vent in the recent hostilities. 

It is a peculiar coincidence that the invasion of Cuba and place of 
ultimate surrender of the islands to Americans should have been at the 
exact place where the Virginius' crew was massacred — Santiago. 




ULL fighting is a form of entertainment that would 

^seem to have little to do with the subject of war, 

'and yet bull fights were a feature of the late war 

between the United States and Spain, and probably 

the only war of which they properly constitute a 

part of its history. 

Spain was practically a bankrupt nation at 
j^the beginning of the war, and as hostilities 
progressed she was put to desperate straits to 
raise money to carry on the combat. The people 
were taxed to their utmost limit. So it was useless to expect any 
considerable revenue from increased taxation. 

Then some patriotic Spaniard suggested that special bull fights be 
given and the proceeds be turned over to the government to prosecute 
the war with the United States. Accordingly several such events were 
held and netted a considerable sum. 

Madrid, the Spanish capital, presents no gayer scene than on the 
occasion of a bull fight. The exhibitions are held in an immense cir- 
cular arena, and are witnessed by all classes, from the Queen Regent to 
the beggar upon the street corner. Royalty, the nobility, wealth and 
fashion have their private boxes just as rich Americans do at the the- 
ater, while the rabble sits upon tiers of seats arranged one above the 
other as they are at a circus. The arena, or bull ring, is enclosed by a 
fence about six feet high, leaving a sort of alley-way between it and a 
yet higher fence in front of the space reserved for spectators. It often 
happens that the bull in his furious charges after his tormentor leaps 
the first fence, in which case he can be driven back into the ring through 
any one of the numerous gates built therein. The fence more often is 
used by the torero, who, when hard pressed, leaps over it for safety. 



At any bull fight one may see all the principal officials, from 
Cabinet Ministers down to officers of the municipality and men promi- 
nent in every walk of life. But the women make the fairest and gayest 
picture, for they are arrayed in their best finery of many colors, and 
the excitement lends additional vivacity to their conduct. 

The Alguazils, or police officers, enter and clear the ring of fruit- 
venders and stragglers. A trumpet is blown, and the vast audience 
which has gathered in groups chatting and displaying impatience for 
the exhibition to begin, becomes seated. Opposite the royal box a door 
flies open and the procession of toreros enter. In the lead march the 
espadas or matadores, the men who kill the bull after he has been 
goaded to frenzy. They are the real bull fighters and the others are 
thefir assistants. 

The profession of matador is an enviable one from a Spanish stand- 
point, for the successful matador wins both fame and fortune. All the 
ladies are supposed to be in love with him, and most of them really are, 
while his profits from a single fight vary from |10,000 to |20,000. His 
fame spreads throughout Spain, and he is the object of every courtesy 
and attention. Many Spanish matadores have accumulated immense 
fortunes. Behind the matadores march the banderilleros. These are 
armed with steel darts tipped with a barb. The darts are gaily decor- 
ated with bits of ribljon, colored paper and tinsel. When the dart 
pierces the flesh of the bull the barb on the point prevents it from falling 
or being pulled out, and with every motion of the animal it tears the 
flesh andmakes an aggravating wound. If the barb fails to exasperate 
the animal sufficiently a fulminating material is sometimes attached to 
the point. This explodes when it strikes the bull and burns him to the 

The capadores come next, each with a large capa (cape or cloak) 
These are used to blind the bull, thus assisting the banderillero to 
escape after he has thrown his darts. 

Last of all are the picadores. They are mounted lancers, and the 
horses they ride are blindfolded so that they may not be terrorized by 
the bull and may be the better controlled when the picador endeavors 
to pierce the ajiimal with his lance. The breeches they wear are lined 
with thin strips of iron to protect the legs of the rider against the horns 
of the bull should he succeed in goring the horse, which he does as often 
as not. 


Directly behind the espadas or inatadores march their servants, for 
each of these celebrities has his own valet who attends him in the ring 
as well as out of it. The servants carry their master's cloaks, in which 
the bull fighter wraps himself until it comes his turn to despatch the 

The procession marches across the arena and halts before the royal 
box. In the adjoining box sits the Alcalde, the master of ceremonies, 
and to him a request is made for the key with which to unlock the cells 
containing the bellowing bulls already goaded to anger by being tor- 
mented by attendants. The Alcalde tosses down the key and the 
official who has caught it proceeds to the door of one of the cells and 
throws it wide open. 

There is a grand flourish of trumpets and the angry bull comes 
bounding into the arena, his eyes red with anger and his head shaking 
with wrath. He stops and glares at the toreros and paws the ground," 
throwing the tan bark high in the air. It is a peculiarity of these bulls 
that they either select the horsemen as the special objects of their 
hatred and pursue them throughout the- fight, or else they will ignore 
the horsemen entirely and concentrate all their maddened energy upon 
the banderilleros. : 

In a recent fight graphically described it happened that the bull 
charged upon a picador. The picador plunged his lance into the ani- 
mal's shoulders, but was unable to hold him at bay. The bull buried his 
horns in the horse's barrel and disemboweled hiiii, bringing horse and 
rider to the ground. The capadores quickly threw their cloaks over the 
bull's head and tantalized him until he was completely disconcerted, 
and charged aimlessly about the ring. Then came the most disgusting 
and brutal part of the exhibition. The horse had not been killed, al- 
though mortally wounded. The wound was plugged up and another 
picador put upon his back. 

Sometimes it happens that the horses, scenting- the bulls, although 
they cannot see them, will be so terror-stricken that they will rear upon 
their hind legs. This is the bull's opportunity, and he is quick to take 
advantage of it. Plunging his horns into the horse he lifts him clear 
from the ground, carries him a moment and tosses him to the earth — 
dead, or too badly crippled to rise. Sometimes as many as a dozen 
horses are slain in an encounter with one bull. 


When the picadores have finished their part of the work, the ban- 
derilleros engage the animal. Theirs is the most skillful part of the 
work of torturing the poor beast. The dart must be thrown to strike 
on the upper side of the bull's neck. In order to do this the banderillero 
must approach the bull directly from the front; in fact,he must almost 
place his arm between the bull's horns in order to strike in the proper 
place. It is the most dangerous part of the work and requires great 
courage and agility. It sometimes happens that a banderillero is 
caught upon the horns of the animal and tossed into the air, but such 
fatalities are rare. When they do, happen, however, the spectators 
shout and howl their approval. 

When the banderillero has completed his work the espada or mata- 
dor comes forward to put the fatal finishing touches upon the affair. He 
has been an interested spectator of all that has passed and has had an 
opportunity to estimate the courage and intelligence of the animal he is 
to despatch. 

Gra<:efully removing his cloak he hands it to his valet and then ap- 
proaches the royal box. Eemoving his cap, he bows and 'asks permis- 
sion to slay the bull. This is granted, and he then approaches the en- 
raged animal for the final scene in the gory spectacle. In one hand he 
carries a little flag attached to a stick, called a muleta. This he uses to 
divert the attention of the bull. In the other he carries his two-edged 
SAYOfd. As man and beast confront each other, one is reminded of the 
American prize fight, where the antagonists study each other, looking 
for a weak point to attack. 

The espada waves his muleta in front of the bull's eyes and the ^ni- 
mal charges straight upon him. It seems as if there were no escape, 
but he steps nimbly aside and smiles at the spectators, who applaud his 
agility. Again and q,gain this is repeated, but presently the sought-for 
opportunity arrives, and as the bull passes him the espada buries his 
sword to the hilt in the animal's neck at the base of the skull, and the 
poor beast, covered with blood and foam, sinks down and expires, 

A great shout goes up and the espada smilingly bows his acknowl- 
edgment of the spectators' approval. 

The closing scene of the sjfectacle is given when a team of gaily 
caparisoned mules is brought into the arena, and the bull is dragged 
out at a gallop. 




ORTO RICO, the most beautiful island of the 
Antilles, which was ceded to the United States by 
the Spanish- American treaty at Paris, 1898, is situ- 
ated at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico, east of 
Haiti, from which it is separated by the Mona. 
Passage. Haiti lies between it and Cuba. Porto 
Rico is 95 miles long and 35 broad, with an area' 
of about 3,600 square miles, or nearly three-fourths 
the size of the State of Connecticut (4,990 square 
miles), and considerably larger than that of the 
States of Delaware and Rhode Island, which aggregate 3,300 square 
miles. The island has always been noted for its mineral and agricul- 
tural wealth; hence the Spanish name, which, in English, means "rich 

Porto Rico, or Puerto Rico (the Spanish name), was discovered by 
Columbus on his second voyage, November 16, 1493. The discoverer 
first sighted land near Cape San Juan and for three days sailed along 
the northern coast, landing at Aguadilla. The richness and fertility 
of the island caused him to name it Puerto Rico or "rich port." He 
saw little or nothing of the natives, who fled at his approach, believing 
that they were about to be attacked. 

The actual conquest of the island was made in 1510, two years 
after his first visit, by Juan Ponce De Leon, Governor of the Island of 
Haiti, then known as Hispaniola. He won the confidence of the natives 
and landed an expedition to subjugate them. The Spanish conquest 
of Porto Rico was marked by the bloodshed and cruelty that has 
characterized Spanish conquest in all parts of the Western world. 
Natives were slaughtered, or condemned to slavery. The colonizatioD 



of Porto Riqo by Spaniards then followed, and to-day there is scarcely 
a trace of aboriginal blood in the islands. 

The aboriginal population numbered about 600,000^ they were 
copper-colored, though somewhat darker than the Indians of the North 
American continent. The aborigines called the island Boringuen and 
themselves Boringuenans. ' 

Physically, Porto Rico is a continuation of the emerged lands of 
Haiti. It is very mountainous, the altitudes ranging from 1,500 to 
3,600 feet, and among the rocks coralligenous limestones predominate. 
All lands exposed to the northeast trade winds have abundant rains. 
The mean temperature at the city of San Juan is 80.7 degrees F. In 
January and February it is 76.5 degrees, and in July and August, 83^2 
degrees. The island is known as the most healthful of the Antilles. 
There are no reptiles and no wild animals, except rats, which are numer- 
ous. The hills are covered with tropical forests and the lands are very 
productive. The streams are numerous and some of them are navigable 
to the foothills. 


The most flourishing plantations of Porto Rico are situated on the 
littoral plains and in the valleys of rivers which, says Longman's 
Gazetteer, are "intensely cultivated." The principal products are 
sugar, molasses, coffee, tobacco ; then maize, rice, cotton, tobacco, hides, 
dyewoods, timber, and rice. Coffee is produced to tihe extent of over 
16,000 tons per annum, and the annual sugar production averages 67,000 

The forests abound in mahogany, cedar, ebony, dyewoods, and a 
great variety of medicinal and industrial plants. All kinds of tropical 
fruits are found. An average of 190,000,000 bananas, 6,500,000 oranges, 
2,500,000 cocoanuts, and 7,000,000 pounds of tobacco is produced an- 

Sugar cane is cultivated on 61^000 acres, the districts in which it 
is produced on the largest scale being Ponce,^ 6,500 acres; Juan Diaz, 
4,000 acres; Vieques, 3,000; Arecibo, 3,fl00; San German, 2,500. Coffee 
is cultivated on about 122,000 acres, two-thirds of the whole being in 
the following districts: Utuado, Las Marias, Adjuntas, Maricao, Ponce, 
Lares, Mayaguez, Yauco, San Sebastian, Ciales, Barros, and Juan Diaz. 


Ponce, Mayaguez, and Arecibo are the provinces which pi;oduce more 
largely than any others in the island. It is estimated that every acre 
of coffee plantations averages in production 330 pounds. Tobacco is 
cultivated on over 2,000 acres, and over 1,100,000 acres are devoted to 
pastures. As these figures change from year to year, they can be given 
only approximately. The total quantity of "declared lands" in 1894 
amounted to 3,171 square miles, and as the total extent of the Island of 
Porto Rico is some 3,668 square miles, the difference between the rural 
property and the total area is 497 square miles, which are taken up 
by the towns, roads, rivers, bays, etc. 

The sugar industry was the most important, but, owing to the 
excessive land tax assessed by the Spanish officials and the growing use 
of beet sugar, it suffered a marked decline. Then, too, the mills used 
are equipped with machinery of an obsolete character. All the natural 
conditions — soil, climate, and labor —are favorable to the culture of 
this product. 

Coffee is also a staple product. The greater part of it was formerly 
shipped to New York, where it commanded a good price. Much of the 
coffee produced is grown by planters of small capital, who make use 
of the wild and waste lands of the hillsides to grow the berry. They 
prefer to cultivate coffee on account of the ease with which it can be 
produced, requiring but little expenditure as compared with the manu- 
facture of sugar and molasses. 

Tobacco, which ranks second in quality to that of Cuba, can be 
produced in great*quantities,' but the natives are generally careless in 
guarding against destructive insects and in drying and porting the 
leaves. A considerable quantity, both in the form of I6af and manu- 
factured cigars, is exported each year to the United States, England, 
France, Cuba and Spain. Three qualities are produced: "Capa," which 
is the leaf of first quality, used for wrappers; "tripa," also a wrapper of 
medium grade; and "beliche," or ordinary leaf. Tobacco culture is 
capable of enormous development under favorable circumstances. 

A small quantity of cocoa is produced each year. Maize is grown 
on considerable areas only at times when high prices promise to pre- 
vail. Some cotton is also produced. Grass grows luxuriantly and 
affords pasturage for numerous herds of cattle, nearly all of which are 
exported. The hides of those consumed on the island are sent to other 























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The mineral resources are not very extensive. Gold is found in 
limited quantities. Some copper, lead, iron and coal are obtained. 
Lignite and yellow amber are found at Utuado and Moca. There are 
undeveloped resources of marble, liinestone, and other building stone. 
The salt works at Guanica, Salinas, and Cape Eojo are under govern- 
mental control. Hot springs and mineral waters are found at Coamo, 
Juan Diaz, San Sebastian, San Lorenzo, and Ponce. The former is the 
most noted. 

There is no public land in the Island of Porto Rico; therefore 
colonization must be undertaken, there, as in Cuba, by private enter- 
prise. The population of Porto Rico is very dense, and all the land has 
been taken. The royal ordinance of colonization and the "Ley de Ex^ 
tranjeria" (statute on aliens) do not grant concessions of land or offer 
any material inducement to immigration. Cuba and Porto Rico have 
not, therefore, any law tending to encourage foreign immigration, as 
is the case in most of the American countries; and, although foreigners 
are welcomed and their rights protected by law, no especial privileges 
are granted for settlement in those islands. The mining law in force in 
Porto Rico is the same as that of Cuba. After the mineral is found, 
titles may be obtained by applying to the civil government where the 
mine is located. In cas6 the mine is situated on private land, forcible 
expropriation may be obtained, the Corresponding indemnity having 
been paid.. But little ^manufacturing was carried on under Spanish rule. 

The island is divided into seven districts, and under Spanish sov- 
ereignty, its affairs were ^.dministered by a Captain-General, who was 
the civil as well as the military executive, appointed by the Crown, 
with representation in the Si>anislL Cortes or Parliament. In 1897, 
through a royal decree, the island was granted autonomous govern- 
ment, with a colonial parliament, the executive power being vested in 
a Governor-General, with department secretaries. Under the agree- 
ment with Spain for the conclusion of peace, Porto Rico was ceded to 
the United States, and was governed by the military commanders un- 
der the instructions of the United States War Department. 


Harbors are numerous along the coa!st of Porto Rico, but they are 
mostly unprotected from the trade winds on the northern side or filled 


with sand on the western side. Nearly the whole of the north coast 
is lined with navigable lagoons, some of which are nearly tSn miles in 
length. Of the 21 rivers, some are quite small, but there are several 
each of which is navigable for 5 or 6 miles ^rom its mouth. A number 
of the bays and creeks are deep enough for vessels of considerable bur- 
den, but the north coast is subject to tremendous ground seas, which 
beat against the cliffs with great violence. The exporting ports are 
Mayaguez (San German) and Aguadilla on the west, and Guanica, 
Guayanilla and Puerto Ponce on the south. The eastern part of the 
island is, commercially, less' important. The chief cities and towns are 
as follows: 

San Juan, the capital of the island, is situated on a long and narrow 
island, separated from the main island at one end by a shallow arm of 
the sea, over which is a bridge connecting it with the mainland, which 
runs out at this point in a long sand spit, some nine miles in length, 
apparently to meet the smaller island; at the other end, the island 
ends in a rugged bluff or promontory, some hundred feet high and 
three-fourths of a mile distant from the main island. This promontory 
is crowned by Morro Castle, the principal fortification of the town. 
After rounding the bluff, one finds a broad and beautiful bay, land- 
locked and with a good depth of water, which is being increased by 
dredging. It is by far the best harbor in Porto Eico, and pi-obably as 
good a one as can be found in the West Indies. 

San Juan is a perfect specimen of a walled town, with portcullis, 
moat, gates and battlements. Built over two hundred and fifty years 
ago, it is still in good condition and repair. The waUs are picturesque 
and represent a stupendous work and cost in themselves. Inside the 
walls, the city is laid off in regular squares, six parallel streets running 
in the direction of the length of the island and seven at right angles. 
There is no running water in the town. The entire population depends 
upon rain water, caught upon the flat roofs of the building and con- 
ducted to the cistern, which occupies the greater part of the inner 
courtyard that is an essential part of Spanish houses the world over, 
but tliat here, on account of the crowded conditions, is very small. 
There is no sewerage, except for surface water and sinks, while vaults 
are in every house and occupy whatever remaining space there may be 
in the patios not taken up by the cisterns. The risk of contaminating 
the water is very great, and in dry seasons the supply is entirely eX- 


hausted. Epidemics are frequent, and the town is alive with vermin, 
fleas, cockroaches, mosquitoes and dogs. The streets are wider' than 
in the older part of Havana, and will admit two carriages abreast. 
The sidewalks are narrow, and in places will accommodate but one 
person. The pavements are of a composition manufactured in England 
from slag, pleasant and even, and durable when no heavy strain is 
brought to bear upon them, but easily broken and unfit for heavy traffic. 
The streets are swept once a day by hand and are kept very clean. With 
proper sanitary conditions, the town would doubtless be healthful. 
Population within the walls, about 20,000. 

Besides the town within the walls, there are small portions just 
outside, called the Marina and Porta de Tierra, containing 2,000 or 
3,000 inhabitants each. There are also two suburbs — one, San Turce, 
approached by the only road leading out of the city, and the other, 
Oatano, across the bay, reached by ferry. The Marina and the ^wo 
suburbs are situated on sandy points or spits, and the latter are sur- 
rounded by mangrove swamps. The entire population of the city and 
suburbs, according to the census of 1887, was 27,000. It is now esti- 
mated at 30,000. One-half of the population consists of negroes and 
mixed races. There is but little manufacturing, and that is of small 

The city of Ponce is situated on the south coast of the island, on a 
plain about two miles from the seaboard and seventy miles from San 
Juan. It is regularly built — the central part almost exclusively of 
brick houses and the suburbs of wood. It is the residence of the military 
commander and the seat of an official cliamber of commerce. There is 
an appellate criminal court, besides other courts ; two^ churches — one 
Protestant, said to be the only one in the Spanish West Indies — ^two 
hospitals besides the military hospitals, a home of refuge for the 
old and poor, a perfectly equipped fire department, a bank, a theater, 
three first-class hotels and gas works. The city has an ice machine 
and there are 115 vehicles for public conveyance. The inhabitants, 
who number about 15,000, are principally occupied in mercantile pur 
suits; but carpenters, bricklayers, joiners, tailors, shoemakers and bar- 
bers find good employment. The department of Ponce counts about 
40,000 inhabitants. The chief occupations of the people are the culti- 
vation of sugar, cocoa, tobacco, and oranges, and the breeding of cat- 
tle. Commercially, Ponceis th^ second city of importance on the island. 


A fine road leads to the port (Playa), where air the import and export 
trade is transacted. Playa has about 5,000 inhabitants, and here are 
situated the custom-house, the office of the captain of the port, and 
all the consular offices. The port is spacious and will hold vessels of 25 
feet draft. The climate, on account of the sea breezes during the day 
and land breezes at night, is not oppressive, though warm; and as 
water for all purposes, including the fire department, is amply supplied 
by an aqueduct, it may be said that the city of Ponce is perhaps the 
healthiest place in the whole island. 

Mayaguez, the third city in importance of the island, is situated 
in the west part, 102 miles from San Juan, facing what is generally 
known as the "Mona Channel." Of industries, there is little to be said, 
except that there are three manufactories of chocolate, which is for 
local consumption. Sugar, coffee, oranges, pineapples, and cocoanuts 
are exported largely, all except coffee principally to the United States, 
Of sugar, the muscovado goes to the United States and the centrifugal 
to Spain. Mayaguez is the second port for coffee, the average annual 
export being 170,000 hundredweight. . The quality is of the best, rang- 
ing in price with Java and other first-rate brands. The lower grades are 
sent to Cuba. About 50,000 bags of flour are imported into this port 
every year from the United States, out of the 180,000 bags that are 
consumed in the whole island. The population is nearly 20,000, the 
majority white. The climate is excellent, the temperature never ex- 
ceeding 90 degrees F. The city is connected by tram with the neigh- 
boring town of Aguadilla, and a railroad connects it with Lares, one 
of the large interior towns. 

The city of Aguadilla, which is the principal town and the port 
of Aguadilla district, in the northwest portion of the island, has 5,000 
inhabitants. It is 81 miles distant from San Juan. Industries in the 
vicinity consist of the cultivation of sugar cane, coffee, -tobacco and 
cocoanuts and the distillation of rum from molasses. In the town are 
three establishments for preparing coffee for exportation. The climate 
is hot, but healthy. There is hardly ever yellow fever. 

The town of Arecibo, from 6,000 to 7,000 inhabitants, is situated 
on the north coast of Porto Rico, facing the Atlantic Ocean, and some 
50 miles distant by rail from San Juan. It is similar to all Spanish 
towns, with a plaza, surrounded by the church and other public build- 
ings, in the center, and streets running from it in right angles, form- 


ing regular squares. The buildings are constructed of wood and brick. 
The harbor is poor, being nothing more than an open roadstead exposed 
to the full force of the ocean, in whicbu vessels during northerly winds 
can hardly lie in safety. Close in shore, on one side, dangerous reefs 
stretch, a constant menace to vessels if the anchor does not hold. Into 
this harbor empties a narrow and shallow stream called the Kio Grande 
de Arecibo. Gopds are conveyed on this river to and from the town in 
flat-bottomed boats,^ with the aid of long poles and by dint of much 
pushing and patience. At the bar of the river everything is again trans- 
ferred into lighters, and thence to vessels. It is a tedious and ex- 
pensive process. However, Arecibo is quite an important port, and has 
tributary to it a large district of some 30,000 inhabitants. The want of 
good roads in the island makes such a place as Arecibo far more import- 
ant that it would naturally be. 

The town of Fajardo, on the east coast of the island, 36 miles from 
San Juan, has a population of 8,779. The port is handsome, with a 
third-class light-house at the entrance at the point called Cabezas de 
San Juan, and a custom-house open to universal commerce. The town 
is about a mile and a quarter from the bay. The only important in- 
dustry of the district is the manufacture of mUscovado sugar, to which 
most of the planters devote themselves. Shooks, hickory hoops, pine 
boards, and provisions come from the United States in considerable 
quantities. Sugar and molasses are exported, and occasionally tortoise 
shell. The climate is temperate and healthy. 

Naguabo (on the east side) is a small town of only about 2,000 in- 
habitants, and in the harbor there is another smaller place called Playa 
de Naguabo, or Ucares, with about 1,500. The capital of the depart- 
ment, Humacao, is 9 miles from Naguabo and has 4,000 inhabitants, 
the district comprising more than 15,000. 

Arroyo, in the district of Guayama (southeast portion), is a small 
seaport of about 1,200 inhabitants. The annual exports to the United 
States average 7,000 to 10,000 heads of sugar, 2,000 to 5,000 casks of 
molasses, and 50 to 150 casks and barrels of bay rum. 


The Estadistica General del Comercio Exterior, Porto Eico, 1897, 
giveg the following figures (the latest published) in regard to the trade 
of the island in 1895; 



Articles. Value.* Articles. Value.* 

Coal - $119,403 Flour $982,222 

Iron 224,206 Vegetables 192,918 

Soap 238,525 Olive oil 327,801 

Meat and lard 1,223,104 Wine 305,656, 

Jerked teef 133,616 Cheese 324,137 

Fish 1,591,418 Other provisions .^. 171,322 

Rice •■ ■• 2,180,004 Tobacco (manufactured).'..'., 663,464 

* United States'.currency. 


Articles. Value.* Articles. Value.* 

Coffee $8,789,788 Sugar .".... $3,747,891 

Tobacco 646,556 Honey 517,746 

* United States currency. 

The value of the total imports was 16,155,056, against |18,316,971 
for the preceding year. The exports were valued at |14,629,494, against 
116,015,665 in 1894. The principal increases in imports, as compared 
with the preceding year, were in meats, fish, olive oil, and tobacco. 
Decreases were noted in flour, vegetables and wine. The exportation of 
coffee diminished, and that of sugar and honey increased. 

The trade of the United States with Porto Rico during the last 
seven years, as given by the United States Treasury figures, was: 

Description. 189J. " 1892. , 1893. 1894 1895. 1896. 1897. 


Free $1,866,955 $3,236,337 $3,994,673 

Dutiable .... 1,307,155 11,670 13,950 

Total $3,164,110 $3,248,007 $4,008,623 


Domestic ... $2,112,334 $2,808,631 $2,502,788 

Foreign 42,900 47,372 7,819- 













Total $2,155,234 $2,856,003 

$2,510,607 $2,720,508 $1,833,544 ' $2,102,094 $1,988,883 

The commerce of Spain 

with Porto Rico from 1891 to 1896 was: 

Description 1891. 

1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 

Imports from Porto Rico. $3,260,650 
Exports to Porto Rico.... 3,305,243 

$4,428,891 $4,108,654 $4,164,964 $5,824,694 $5,423,760 
3,929,186 4,653,023 5,535,027 8,572,549 7,828,880 


The trade of Porto Kico with oth^r countries of importance in 1895 
(according to the Estadistiea General delComercio Exterior) was: 

Country. , Imports. Exports. 

Cuba $808,283 $3,610,936 

England 1,765,574 1,144,555 

Prance 251,984 1,376,087 

Germa^y 1,368,595 1,181,396 

Italy 19,619 589,045 

Holland 325,301 3,246 

iDenmark 26,565 236,418 

British West Indies 1,709,117 521,649 

Danish West Indies 60O 40,434 

French W^st Indies , 55 62,927 

The United States, by the terms of the Spanish cession, also ac- 
quires a number of smaller islands belonging geographically to Porto 

The Island of Vieque, or Crab Island, is the largest of these and is 
situated 13 miles east of Porto Rico, is 21 miles long and 6 
miles wide; Its land is very fertile and adapted to the cultiva,tion of 
almost all the fruits and vegetables that grow in the West Indies. Cat- 
tle are raised and sugar cultivated. 

It has a population of some 6,000. The town of Isabel Segunda is 
on the north and the port is unsafe in times of northerly wind, like all 
the anchorages on that side; the few ports on the south are better, 
the best being Pijnta Arenas. Not long ago there were two importing 
and exporting houses on the island of Vieque, but on account of the 
long period of drought and the high duties on foreign imported goods, 
trade has decreased 'to local consumption only. All supplies are 
brought from San Juan, the majority being of American origin. 

The other islands are Culebra, eight miles north of Vieques, and 
Polominos, on the east, and Cafa de Muerto, Mona and Monita on the 
south. Culebra is.eight. miles long by three and a half miles wide, and 
has a beautiful harbor. Mona is of volcanic origin and is inhabited by 
fishermen. Wild cattle, goats and swine are to be found there. 

The population of Porto Eico is 814,000, of which 300,000 are 
negroes, 150,000 natives of Spain, and 15,000 French, German, English 
and Italians. The native population is about two-thirds whites, de-' 
scendants of Spaniards, and one-third negroes, mixed blood and half- 

They made two attempts to gain their independence from Spain, 


first in 1820 and again in 1868. - The revolutionary spirit was again 
abroad during tlie last Cuban insurrection, but the revolt did not get 
beyond the secret stages. 

Slavery was abolished in Porto Eico in 1873 and the day is observed 
by a national celebration. 

The Porto Ricans are a polite, mild-mannered, affable people, but 
are of frail constitutions. They are among the most desirable of the 
peoples added to the population of the United States by the late war, 
and are rapidly adopting American manners and customs. 






"HE annexation of the Hawaiian Islands was a war 
measure. At the moment of Admiral Dewey's 
victory in Manila Bay, the United States became 
an activef'power in the Pacific, and every consider- 
ation, naval and commercial, made it desirable 
that the American flag should float over this fertile 
group. Figuratively speaking, Hawaii was sitting 
on Uncle Sam's doorstep waiting to come in. The 
islands had offered themselves to the United States 
Government. It was not necessary to wage a war 
of conquest or open peaceful negotiations. All that was necessary 
was to pass a resolution of annexation. 

Accordingly, on June 15th, the Newlands annexation resolution 
was passed by the House of Representatives by a vote of 209 to 91. 
The Senate passed the same resolution by a vote of 42 to 21, and 
President McKinley approved it July 7, 1898. The resolution is as fol- 


Joint resolution to provide for annexing the Hawaiian Islands to 
the United States. 

Whereas, The Government of the Republic of Hawaii having, in 
due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitu- 
tion, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of 
America all. rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind" in and over the 
Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer * 
to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, 
GrDTernment, or Crown lands^ public buildings or edifices, ports, har- 



bors, military equipment, and all other public property of every kind 
and description belongii;ig to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands, 
together with every -right and appurtenarifce thereto appertaining: 

Eesolved by the Senate and House of Eepresentatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That said cession is accepted, 
ratified, and coufirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and. their 
dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the terri- 
tory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion 
thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore 
mentioned are vested in the United States of America. 

The existing of the United States relative tp public lands shall 
not apply to such lands i;ii the Hawaiian Islands; but the Congress of 
the United States shall enact special laws for their management and 
disposition: Provided, That all revenue from or proceeds of the same, 
except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the 
civil, mijitary, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be as- 
signed for the use of the local government, shall be used solely for the 
benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawai,ian Islands, for educational and 
othef public purposes. ' : 

Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands all 
the civil, judicial a/ud military powers exercised by the ofl&cers of the ex- 
isting government in said islands shall be vested in such person or per- 
sons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the 
United States shall direct; and the President shall have power to re- 
move said officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned. 

The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations 
shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties 
as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United 
States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Ha- 
waiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaties so ex- 
tinguished, and not inconsistent with this joint resolution nor contrary 
to the Constitution of the United States nor to any existing treaty of 
the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United 
States shall otherwise determine. 

Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States cus-- 
toms laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands the existing cus- 


toms relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other 
countries shall remaifl unchanged. 

The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the 
date of the passage of this joint resolution, including the amounts due 
to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed 
by the Government of the United States; but the liability of the United 
States in this regard shall in no case exceed four million dollars. So 
long, however, as the existing Government and the present commercial 
relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued as hereinbefore pro- 
vided said Government shall continue to pay the interest on- said debt. j. „• 

There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian 
Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter be 
allowed by the laws of the United States; and no Chinese, by reason 
of anything herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United States 
from the Hawaiian Islands. 

The President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom 
shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reason- 
ably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning 
the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem necessary or proper. 

Sec. 2. That the commissioners hereinbefore provided for shall be 
appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the 

Sec. 3. That the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much' 
thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any money 
in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and to be immediately 
available, to be expended at the discretion of the President of the United 
States of America, for the purpose of carrying this joint resolution into 
effect. , 

Appj-oved, July 7, 1898. 

Under Section 2, the President appointed" as commissioners Hon. 
Shelby M. Cullom, Hon. John T. Morgan and Hon. Robert R. Hitt, rep- 
resenting the United States; President Sanford B. Dole and Hon, Wal- 
ter F. Frearj representing Hawaii. 


The Hawaiian Islands, formerly known as the Sandwich Islands, 
are situated in the North Pacific Ocean, and lie betweei;i longitude 154 


degrees 40 minutes and 160 degrees 30 minutes west from Greenwich, 
and latitude 22 degrees 16 minutes and 18 degrees 55 minutes north. 
They are thus on the very edge of the tropics, but their position in mid- 
ocean and the prevalence of the northeast trade winds give them a 
climate of perpetual summer without enervating heat. The group occu- 
pies a central position in the North Pacific, 2,089 nautical miles south- 
west of San Francisco; 4,640 from Panama; 3,800 from Auckland, New 
Zealand ; 4,950 from Hongkong, and 3,440 from Yokohama. Its location 
gives it great importance from a military as well as from a commercial 
point of view. 

Broadly speaking, Hawaii may be said to lie about one-third of 
the distance on the accustomed routes from San Francisco to Japanese 
and Chinese ports; from San Francisco to Australia; from ports of 
British Columbia to Australia and British India^ and about halfway 
from the Isthmus of Panama to Yokohama and Hongkong. The con- 
struction of a ship canal across the isthmus would extend this geogra:ph- 
ical relation to the ports of the Gulf of Mexico and of the Atlantic Sea- 
board of North and South America. No other point in the North Pacific 
has such a dominating relation to the trade between America and Asia, 
as a place of call, and depot of supplies for vessels. 

From a naval standpoint, Hawaii is the great strategic base of the 
Pacific. Under the present conditions of naval warfare, created by the 
use of steam as a motive power, Hawaii secures to the maritime nation 
possessing it an immense advantage as a depot for the supply of coal. 
Modem battleships, depending absolutely upon coal, are enabled to 
avail themselves of their full capiacity of speed and energy only by 
having some halfway station in the Pacific where they can replenish 
their stores of fuel and refit. A battleship or cruiser starting from an 
Asiatic or Australian port, with the view of operating along the coast 
of either North America or South America, is unable to act effectively 
for any length of time at the end of so long a voyage unless she is able to 
refill her bunkers at some point on the way. On the other hand, the 
United States, possessing Hawaii, is able to advance its line of de- 
fense 2,000 miles from the Pacific coast, and, with a fortified harbor and 
a strong fleet at Honolulu, is in a position to conduct either de- 
fensive or offensive operations in the North Pacific to greater advantage 
than any other power. 



Tor practical purposes, there are eight islands in the Hawaiian 
group. The others are mere rocks, of no value at present. These eight 
islands, beginning from the northwest, are named Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, 
Holokai, Lanai, Kahqolawe, Maui and Hawaii. The areas of the islands 

Square Miles. 

Niihau 97 

Kauai 590 

Oahu 600 

Molokai 270 

Maui 760 

. Lanai 150 

Kahoolawe 63 

Hawaii , 4,210 

Total 6,740 

As compared with States of the Union, the total area of the group 
approximates most nearly to that of the State of New Jersey — 7,185 
square miles. It is more than three times that of Delaware — 2,050 
square miles. 

The islands that interest an intending immigrant are Hawaii, Maui, 
Oahu and Kauai. It is on these islands that coffee, fruits, potatoes, 
corn and Vegetables can be raised by the small investor. 

The island of Hawaii is the largest in the group, and presents great 
varieties of soil and climate. The windward side, which includes the 
districts of North Kohala, Hamakua, Hilo and Puna is copiously wa- 
tered by rains, and in the Hilo district the streams rush impetuously 
down every gulch or ravine. The leeward side of the island, including 
South Kohala, North and South Kona, and Kau, is not exposed to such 
strong rains, but an ample supply of water falls in the rain belt. The 
Kona district has given the coffee product a name in the markets of 
the world. On this island are now situated numerous sugar planta- 
tions. Coffee employs the industry of several hundred owners. There 
are thousands of acres uncultivated and only awaiting the enterprise 
of the temperate zone to develop them. 

Maui is also a very fine island. Besides its sugar plantations it 


has numerous coffee lands, especially in the eastern part, which are 
just now being opened up. The western slopes of Haleakala, the main 
mountain of Maui, are covered with small farms, where are raised po- 
tatoes, corn, beans and pigs. Again, here, thousands of acres are lying 
fallow. , 

The Island of Oahu presents excellent opportunities for the in.- 
vestor. Many acres of land remain undeveloped among its fertile val- 
leys, the energies of the population having been devoted to the develop- 
ment of the sugar lands on the larger islands. A line" of railroad runs 
along the coast to a distance of 30 miles from the city. This railroad 
opens up rich cofEee and farming lands and affords ready means of trans- 
port for the produce and an expeditious method for obtaining the neces- 
sary supplies from the capital. 

Kauai is called the "Garden Island," it is so well watered and so 
luxuriant in vegetation. The island is largely devpted to the cultiva- 
tion of sugar. Eice also cuts a considerable figure in the agricultural 
production of Kauai. That it can produce coffee is undoubted. Some 
forty years ago, the experiment of a coffee plantation was tried, and, 
owing to misjudgment of location and soil, failed. Since then, the culti- 
vation of coffee has come to be more thoroughly understood. 


On Oahu is the capital, Honolulu. It is a city numbering 30,000 
inhabitants, and is pleasantly situated on the souuh side of the Island. 
The city extends a considerable distance up Nuuanu Valley, and has 
wings extending northwest and southeast. Except in the business 
blocks, every house stands in its own garden, and some of the houses 
are very handsome. 

The city is lighted with electric light, there is a complete telephone 
system, and tramcars run at short intervals along the principal streets 
and continue out to a sea-bathing resort and public park, four miles from 
the city. There are numerous stores where all kinds of goods can be 
obtained. The public buildings are attractive and commodious. There 
are numerous churches, schools, a public library of over 10,000 volumes 
Y. M. 0. A. Hall, Masonic Temple, Odd Fellows' Hall and theatre. There 
is frequent steam communication with San Francisco, once a month with 
.Victoria (British Columbia), and twice a month with New Zealand and, 


the Australian Colonies. Steamers also connect Honolulu with China 
and Japan. There are three evening daily papers published in English, 
one daily morning paper and two weeklies. Besides these, there are pa- 
pers published in the Hawaiian, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese 
languages, and also monthly magazines in various tongues. 

CENSUS OF 1897. 

United States Consul-General Mills, of Honolulu, under date of 
February 8, 1897, transmitted to the Department of State the official 
figures showing the result of the census of the Hawaiian Islands, which 
had just been completed. The Hawaiians head the list -with a total of 
31,019. The Japanese colonization comes next, with the Chinese a close 
third. The official table, as prepared at the census office, is : 

Nationality. Males. Females. Total. 

Hawaiian 16,399 14,620 31,019 

Part Hawaiian 4,249 4,236 8,485 

^ American 1,975 1,111 3,086 

British 1,406 844 2,250 

German 866 566 1,432 

French 56 45 101 

Norwegian 216 162 378 

. Portuguese 8,202 6,989 15,191 

Japanese 19,212 5,195 24,407 

Chinese 19,167 2,449 21,616 

South Sea Islanders ... 321 134 455 

Other nationalities 448 152 600 

Total 72,517 ' 36,503 109,020 


The Hawaiian Islands are of volcanic formation, and there are two 
active volcanoes on Hawaii,— Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The altitude of 
Mauna Kea, the highest point on Hawaii, is 13,805 feet. The mountains 
on other islands range from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. The topography is 
broken and diversified, with many valleys and streams. The moun- 
tain sides abound in forests, containing an abundance of ship timber 
and many ornamental woods. Among the minerals that have been 
noticed are sulphur, pyrites, common salt, sal ammoniac, limonite, 


quartz, augite, chrysolite, garnet, labradorite, feldspar, gypsum, soda 
alum, copperas, glauber salts, niter and calcite. 

"In the Hawaiian Islands," says a pamphlet of the Hawaiian Gov- 
ernment, "Americans and Europeans can and do work in the open air 
at all seasons of the year, as they can not in countries lying in the same 
latitudes elsewhere. To note an instance, Ca.lcutta lies a little to the 
north of the latitude of Kauai, our most northerly island, and in Cal- 
cutta the American and European can only work with his brain; hard 
physical labor he can not do and live. On the Hawaiian Islands, he 
can work and thrive." 

The rainfall varies, b^ing greater on the windward side of the isl- 
ands, audi increasing up to a certain elevation. Thus, at Olaa, On the 
Island of Hawaii, windward side and elevation of about 2,000 feet, the 
rainfall from, July 1, 1894, to June 30, 1895, was 176.82 inches, while 
at Kailua, on the leeward side, at a low level, it was only 51.21 inches 
during the same period. 

The temperature also varies according to elevation and position.. 
On the Island of Hawaii, one can get any clinaate froin the heat of sum- 
mer to actual winter at the summits of the two great mountains. A 
meteorological record, kept carefully for a period of twelve years, gives 
89 degrees as the highest and 54 degrees as the lowest temperature re- 
corded, or a mean temperature of 71.5 degrees for the year. A case of 
sunstroke has never been known. People take no special precautions 
• against the sun, wearing straw and soft felt hats similar to those worn 
in the United States during the summer months. 

The prevailing winds are the northeast trades. These blow ,for 
about nine months of the year. The remainder of the period the winds 
are variable and chiefly from the south. The islands are outside the 
cyclone belt, and severe storms accompanied by thunder and lightning 
are of rare occurrence. 

The islands possess a healthful climate. There are no virulent 
fevers such as are encountered on the coast of Africa or in the West 
India Islands, Epidemics seldom visit the islands, and when they do 
they are generally light. A careful system of quarantine guards the 
islands now from epidemics from abroad. 







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THE RED CROSS DOCK AT SANTIAGO. Soldiers Waiting for Distribution of Rations— Governor's Palace on 

the Hill in the Background. 




"The Spaniards never do know wliere I am — and when they do know I am gone. 





The pamphlet entitled "The Republic of 'Hawaii," issued by the 
Department of Foreign Affairs of the islands in 1896, gives a full ac- 
count of the agricultural resources of the country, with interesting de- 
tails as to the coffee industry, from which the following matter is ex- 
tracted: The raainstay of the islands, it says, has for the last thirty- 
five years been the sugar industry. From this source a large amount 
of wealth has been accumulated. But the sugar industry requires 
large capital for expensive machinery, and has never proved remuner- 
ative to small investors. An attempt has been made at profit-sharing, 
and has met with some success, the small farmer cultivating and the 
capitalist grinding at a central mill. The small fa,rmer has been stea,dily 
developing in the Hawaiian Islands, and attention has been given to 
other products than sugar. 

Rice neither the European nor the American can cultivate as labor- 
ers. It requires working in marshy land, and though on the islands it 
yields twocrops a year, none but the Chinaman can raise it successfully. 
A dry-land or mountain rice has been introduced. 

The main staple, after sugar and rice, is coffee. Of this, hundreds 
of thousands of trees have been plahted out within the last five years. 
This is essentially the crop' of the future, and bids fair to become as 
important a staple as sugar. Coffee does, not require the amount of 
capital that sugar does, and it can be worked remuneratively upon a 
small area. It is estimated that at the end of the fourth year the return 
from a 75-acre coffee plantation will much more than pay the running 
expenses, while from that time on a return of from $8,000 to |10,000 per 
annum may be realized. 

Fruits can also be cultivated to advantage. At present, the banana 
trade of the islands amounts to over 100,000 bunches per annum, valued 
at over $100,000, and "the quantity riiight be very easily quadrupled. 
The banana industry may be regarded as in its infancy. The export of 
the fruit is only from the Island of Oahu, but there are thousands of 
acres on the other islands of the group which could be profitably used 
for this cultivation and for nothing else. The whole question of the 
banana industry hinges on the, market. 

Limes and oranges can be cultivated and the fruit can be easily 


packed for export. The fruits can be raised to perfection. The Hawaiian 
orange has a fine flavor, and thfe Hawaiian lime is of superior quality. 
In the uplands of Hawaii and Maui potatoes are raised. Their quality- 
is good. Corn is also raised. In these industries many Portuguese, 
Norwegians and others have embarked. Both these products find an 
ample local market. The corn is used largely for feed on the planta- 
tions. The corn is ground with the cob, and makes an excellent feed 
for working cattle, horses, and mules. 

In the uplands where the climate is temperate, as at Waimea, 
Hawaii, vegetables of all kinds can be raised; excellent cauliflowers, 
cabbages, and every product of the temperate zone can be grown to per- 

Cattle raising in so small a place as the Hawaiian Islands does not 
present great opportunities except for local consumption. Pigs are 
profitable to the small farmer. In the Kula district of Maui, pi'gs are 
fattened upon the corn and potatoes raised in the district. The price of 
pork, dressed, is 25 cents per pound in Honolulu and about 15 cents 
per pound in the outside districts. The Chinese, of whom there are 
some 20,000 resident on the various islands, are extremely fond of pork, 
so that there is a large local market, which has to be supplemented by 
importations from California. 

Attention has lately been given to fiber plants, for which there are 
many suitable locations. Ramie grows luxuriantly, but the lack of 
proper decorticating and cleaning machinery has prevented any ad- 
vance in this cultivation. 

Sisal hemp and sanseveira have been experimented with, but with- 
out any distinct influence upon the trade output. 

The cultivation of pineapples is a growing industry. In 1895, 
"pines" were exported from the islands to San Francisco to the value of 
nearly |9,000. 

The guava, which grows wild, can also be put to profit for the manu- 
facture of guava jelly. It has never been entered upon on a large scale, 
but to the thrifty farmer it would add a convenient addition to his in- 
come, just as the juice of the maple adds an increase to the farmer of 
the Eastern States. Well-made guava jelly will find a market any- 
where. In England it is regarded as a great delicacy, being imported 
from the West India Islands. 

In the Hawaiian Islands a simple life can be lived, and entering 


gradually upon tlie col"ee industry, a good competence can be obtained 
long before such could be realized by the agriculturalist in less favored 

There is no finer coffee in the world, it is asserted, than that of 
the Hawaiian Islands. The trees require care and do not produce a 
crop until the third year;, but they remain till the fifth year to make a 
proper realization upon the investment. In the Hawaiian Islands coffee 
grows best between 500 and 2,600 feet above the sea level, though there 
are cases in which it has done well j^lose to the sea. It requires a loose, 
porous soil, and does not thrive well in heavy clayey ground which 
holds much water. Of such heavy land there is very little in the Ha- 
waiian Islands. The soil is generally very porous. 

It is very evident that coffee will thrive and give good results in 
varying conditions of soil and degrees of heat. In these islands it grows 
and produces from very nearly at the sea level to the elevation of 2,600 
feet. The highest elevation of bearing coffee known in the islands is 
twenty-five miles from the town of Hilo and in the celebrated Olaa 

For years it was thought that coffee would grow to advantage only 
in the Kona district of Hawaii. Practical experiment has shown that it 
can be grown with success in almost any part of the islands. 


The United States practically monopolizes the trade of Hawaii. 
The following tables show the exports and imports for 1894 and 


Whither exported. 1894. 1895. 

United States |8,997,069.27 |8,392,189.54 

Australia and New Zealand. 5,201.52 6,124.75 

Islands of the Pacific 17,018.87 10,332.29 

Japan and China 10,729.51 42,221.50 

Canada 109,298.61 23,270.07 

All others 1,476.78 

Total 19,140,794.56 |8,474,138.15 



Whence imported. 1894 1895. 

United States |i,354,290.42 |4,516,319.38 

Great Britain 465,479.72 471,122.98 

Germany 140,233.07 110,751.61 

China 230,270.41 223,701.56 

Japan 183,867.52 207,125.59 

Australia and New Zealand. 186,518.75 122^804.60 

Canada 118,198.57 30,731.21 

Islands of the Pacific 21,570.24 1,192.51 

France 8,786.31 7,849.90 

Other countries 3,466.42 21,793.20 

Whale ships 500.00 625.00 

Total 15,713,181.43 |5,714,017.54 


Seven steamship lines ply between Honolulu and the United States, 
one of them plying between Sidney, New South Wales, and Vancouver, 
British Columbia. The time consumed by the steamers between Hono- 
lulu and San Francisco is from six to seven days. 

A large number of sailing vessels ply regularly between Honolulu 
and San Francisco, and also others coal laden from British Columbia 
and Australia which proceed to the United States either in ballast or 
with cargoes of sugar. Vessels arrive at Honolulu from European 
ports at comparatively rare intervals. 

There are three railroads on the islands. The Oahu Railroad and 
Land Company, on Oahu, is about 30 miles in length; the Kahului Rail- 
road, on the island of Maui, has 13 miles of road; and the Hawaiian 
Railroad, on the island of Hawaii, is about 20 miles in length. 

There is a regular postal system in the Hawaiian Islands, and on 
the arrival of a steamer at any main point mail carriers at once start 
out to distribute the mail through the district. The Hawaiian Islands 
belong to the Postal Union, a,nd money orders can be obtained to the 
United States, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Norway, Sweden, 



Denmark, the Netherlands, Portugal, Hongkong and Colony of Victoria, 
as well as local orders between the islands. 

The Hawaiian Islands were discovered by Captain James Cook, 
January 18, 1778, and by him given the name of Sandwich Islands in 
honor of his patron, the Earl of Sandwich, at that time first lord of 
the British Admiralty. 

Formal possession was taken by the United States on August 12, 
1898. At noon on that day the Hawaiian flag, with its eight stripes, 
alternate -white, red and blue, with the crosses of St. George and St. 
Andrew in the corner, was hauled down and Old Glory flung to the 
breeze. The band played the "Star Spangled Banner" and the "cross- 
roads of the Pacific" was American territory. 

'SiDElng KhoOI Bl the lillle red K\iW)\ymxK.— Chicago 7>iAhw. 



J^HE most important of the possessions ceded to the 
United States "in the Spanish peace treaty is the 
group of islands known as the Philippine archi- 
pelago, the westernmost of the four great trop- 
ical groups of the Pacific. To be exact, the Philip- 
pines are situated between 4 and 20 degrees north 
latitude and 161 and 127 degrees east longitude, 
in front of China and Cochin China. The archi- 
pela,go is composed of islands variously estimated 
in number from 600 to 2,000, with an approximate 
area of 114,000 square miles. 

The principal islands are Luzon (Batanes, Babuyanes, Polillo, 
Calanduanes, Mindoro, Marinduque, Burias, Masbate, etc., lying ad- 
jacent) on the north; the Visayas (Tablas, Panay, Negros, Oebu, Bohol, 
Leyte, Samar,"etc.), prolonged southwest by the Oalamaines, Palawan, 
and Balabac ; Mindanao and the adjacent islands Dinagat, Surigao, Basi- 
lan, etc., and on the extreme south, the Sulu archipelago. The Island af 
Luzon, on which the capital is situated, is larger than New York and 
Massachusetts, and Mindanao is nearly as large. An idea of the extent 
of the Philippines may be formed when it is stated that the six New 
England States and New York, New Jersey, Maryland and Delaware 
have 10 per cent less area. 

The approximate area of the larger islands is as follows: Luzon, 
41,000; Mindanao, 37,500 ;. Samar, 5,300; Panay, 4,600; Palawan, 4,150; 
Mindoro, 4,050; Leyte, 3,090; Negros, 2,300; Cebu, 1,650; Masbate, 
1,315; Bohol, -925; Catanduanes. 

Islands having an area of from 100 to 250 square miles are as 



fallows: Bosilan, Busuanga, Oulion, Marinduqtie, Tablas, Dinagat, 
Sulu, Guimaras, Tawi Tawi, Signijor, Balabac, Sibliyan, Panaon, 
Cainiguin, Romblon, Tlcao, Burias, Biliran, Siargao and Polillo. 

The length of the archipelago from north to south is 1,300 miles, 
while the extreme width is about 600 miles. 

The principal international ports are Manila, Albay, and Sual (on 
Luzon); Oebu, Leyfe and Iloilo (on the Visayas); and Zamboanga (on 
Mindanao). The coasts are high, and coral reefs are numerous. There 
are reasons for the hypothesis that the Philippines are peaks, mountain 
ridges, and table lands of a submerged continent, which in a very early 
geological period extended to Australia. Lines of volcanoes, extinct 
and active (the number of the latter being small) run approximately east 
and west. The general direction of the chain of mountains is north 
and south, the highest, Apo, in Mindanao, reaching 10,000 feet. The 
rivers and streams are countless, and traverse the islands in a,ll direc- 
tions. There are many hot springs of iron and sulphur waters, with ex- 
cellent medicinal properties. 


The climate varies little from that of other pliaces in the same 
latitude. The archipelago is under the isotherm of 79 degrees, and the 
thermometer ranges during the year from 60 to 90 degrees. The sea- 
sons vary according to the aspect of the country, the months from 
March to May being the hottest, and November to February the coldest. 
During the rainy season, which lasts frem June until November, inun- 
dations of rivers are frequent. There are occasional monsoons, but the 
climate as a whole is considered healthful) for the tropics. The endemic 
coniplaints of the country are swamp fever, diarrhoea, beri-beri, and a 
few others. Yellow fg^ver is 'practically unknown, and the rate of mor- 
tality is very low. 

The population has been estimated at from 8,000,000 to 10,000,000, 
of which number about 25,000 are Europeans, about half of the latter 
residing in the ^ city of Manila. The present American population is 
not included^ in these figures. 

The Philippines, under the Spanish administration, were divided 
into three governments — ^Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The Governor- 


General resided at Manila, to which belonged, for administrative pur- 
poses, the Caroline, Ladrone and Pelew Islands. In many of the Philip- 
pine Islands, especially in the interior of Mindanao, the natives were 
independent. The provinces were subdivided into districts, and these 
again into communes or parishes. 


Manila, the capital of the entire archipelago, is situated in the Isl- 
and of Luzon, at the mouth of the Ei?er Pasig, which empties into the 
Bay of Manila. The city has 300,000 inhabitants, of whom 15,000 are 
Europeans and 100,000 Chinese, who are largely engaged in industry. 
It is the seat of a yearly increasing commerce. The houses are built 
with reference to earthquakes, and although large', possess few preten- 
sions to architectural beauty. The city proper within the walls is small, 
little more than two miles in circumference. Here are grouped the 
government buildings and religious institutions. The suburbs, of which 
Binondo ranks first in order of importance, are the centers of trade. 
The police of the city were under military discipline and composed of 
natives. A force of watchmen, paid by the .tradesmen, patrolled the 
more populous part of the city from 10 o'clock at night until 5 in the 
morning. A very low average of crime is said to exist, though the native 
classes are much addicted to gambling, cock-fighting, etc. At the time of 
American occupation there were six daily papers: "El Diario de 
Manila," "La Oceania E'spanola," published in the morning, and "El 
Comercio," "La Voz Espanola,'^ "El Bspanol," and "El Noticero," which 
appear in the evening. 

Manila has a cathedral of the seventeenth century, an Archbishop's 
palace, a university school of art, an observatory, a large government 
cigar factory, and many educational and charitable institutions. 

At the beginning of the war there was not one United States firm 
located in the Philippine Islands. The harbor has been greatly im- 
proved since Admiral Dewey's victory. A new patent slipway, 820 feet 
long, with 2,000 tons lifting power, was built, and a new fort was con- 
structed at Malate. 

Tramways run in the principal streets, and the city is lighted by 
electricity and has a telephone system. Drinking water is brought in 


pipes from Santalan, on the River Pasig. The mean temperature is 
80.2 F. 

There are some 4,000 horses in the city, used for carriages and street 
ears. Buffaloes are employed for dray and other heavy work. 

On February 6, 1898, Manila suffered from a severe fire, and it is 
interesting to note that the city would have been lost had it not been 
for the excellent service of a fire engine which had been imported from 
the United States. 

Iloilo, the chief town of the populous province of the same name, 
in the Island of Panay, is situated in latitude 10 degrees 48 minutes W., 
near the southeastern extremity of the island, and 250 miles from Ma- 
nila. The harbor is well protected and the anchorage good. At spring 
tides, the whole town is covered with water, but notwithstanding this 
it is a very healthy place, there being always a breeze. It is much 
cooler in Iloilo than in Manila. The means of communication with the 
interior are very inadequate, and retard the development of the port. 
The principal manufacture is pineapple cloth. The country around Ilo- 
ilo is very fertile and is extensively cultivated, sugar, tobacco, and rice 
being grown, and there are many towns in the vicinity that are larger 
than the port. , < ■ 

Cebu, the capital of the island of this name, was at one time the seat 
of. the administration of revenue for the whole of the Visayas. It is 
well-built and possesses fine roads. The trade is principally in hemp 
and sugar. 

Other towns are Laog, with a population (1887) of 30,642; Banang, 
35,598; Batangas, 35,587, and Lipa, 43,408. 


The principal mineral productions are gold, galena, copper, iron, 
mercury and coal. Extensive auriferous ore deposits have been opened 
up, and they are known to exist in many of the islands, chiefly in Luzon, 
Bengues, Vicols and Mindanao. Very little exploration or systematic 
mining has been attempted, but it is said that there is no brook that 
empties into the Pacific Ocean, whose sand and gravel does not at least 
pan the color of gold. Heavy ^luggets are sometimes brought down 
from the sierras. 

Galena (50 per cent of pure metal) is found in veins in Luzon and 


Oebu. Copper has been discovered in many parts of tlie Philippines. 
Iron (75 to 80 per cent of pure metal) is known to exist in Luzon. The 
coal found up to the present time is not true coal, but lignite. It is 
probable, however, that true coal will be found, for it is worked in 
Japan, whose geological formation has much in common with that of 
the Philippines. No systematic search has been made in the islands for 
coal. A local steamship owner draws his supplies from a bed in the 
Island of Masbate, and the carboniferous formation extends over the 
greater part of the Island of Cebu. On the small Island of Batan, south- 
east of Luzon, are extensive deposits, said to be of good quality. Rubies 
were accidentally found in a sample of alluvial gold brought down from 
one of the upper valleys of the sierras. 

Agriculturally, the land of the Philippines is wonderfully produc- 
tive — hemp, cotton, rice, maize, tobacco, sugar, coffee and cacao grow- 
ing in abundance. Only one-fifth of the area is under cultivation. So 
wasteful have been the native agricultural methods, that the harvests 
have in some places diminished. This is especially true of maize in Cebu 
and sugar in the province of Pangasinan, where new plantations must 
be made every year; while at Negros, the land yields many years in 
succession. The rice production, formerly very large, has now so fallen 
off that importations have been found necessary. For the same reasons, 
the production of cotton is also diminishing. The quality Of the cotton 
is fine and silky, and this would easily become a valuable product if 
attention were given to its cultivation. The province of Hocus (North 
and South) are especially adapted to the growth of this plant, the rainy 
season being here Well defined. 

Hemp (abaca), the most important product of the arehipelago, is 
■ the fiber of a species of banana. It is produced by scraping the leaves 
with a peculiar knife, which requires expert handling. Many con-* 
trivances to supersede this process have been tried, but without suc- 
cess. Thread is spun from the fiber and <51oth woven that exceeds the 
best Tussore silk. 

The production of sugar is gradually developing, the principal cen- 
ters of production being the provinces of Batangas, Pampanga, Hocus, 
Pangasinan, and Bulacan. It also grows in Iloilo and the Islands of 
Cebu and Negros. The plantations so far have been small and the 
machinery antiquated. 

Tobacco would be an important source of wealth to the Philippines, 


with proper management. The qjiality has been allowed to deteriorate. 
A large number of companies are engaged in this industry. The two most 
important are the Oompagnie G^n^rale des Tabacs des Philippines (the 
capital of which, |14,500,000 gold, is principally in the hands of French 
bondholders) and the Insular. Each of these establishments employs 
from 5,000 to 6,000 workmen. 

Coffee, though not equal to Mocha or Bourbon, has a fine aroma. 
It grows in the provinces of Batangas, Cavite, and Zamboanga, and is 
exported chiefly to Spain. The cocoanut tree is found everywhere, and 
' cocoanut oil is used for lighting the houses and streets of certain 
provinces where electricity or petroleum is as yet unknown. The native 
Indigo is famous for its excellent quality. Several years ago the prov- 
inces of Hocus, Pangasinan, Pampanga and Camarines produced enor- 
mously. Unfortunately, the faulty preparation, and the adulteration 
to which the powder was subjected by Chinese traders have greatly 
reduced its market value. It is now exported chiefly to Japan. 

The -wealth of timber in the Philippines is incalculable, yielding 
resins, gums, dye products, flne-grained ornamental wood, and also 
heavy timber suitable for building purposes. Teak, ebony, and sandal- 
wood are found; also ilang-ilang, camphor, pepper, cinnamon, tea and 
all tropical fruits. Sweet potatoes grow readily. 


The commerce of the Philippine Islands has been calculated at 
$10,000,000 imports, and $20,000,000 exports for 1896 and 1897, although 
the average value of the trade is probably greater, having suffered in 
the past few years on account of political conditions. Nearly one-third 
of the exports go to Great Britain, and over one-fourth of the imports 
come from that country. The trade of Spain with the Philippines has 
been about the same for imports and exports, each class amounting to 
nearly $5,000,000 in value. The United States, France and Germany 
follow in the order of importance of trade. The principal articles of 
import are flour, wines, clothing, petroleum, coal, rice, arms, machinery, 
and iron. The exports consist chiefly of sugar, hemp, tobacco, and copra. 
. Details of trade with the United States for 1896-7 are given by the 
United States Treasury as follows: 



Articles. • 

Hemp, manila tons. 

Cane sugar (not above No. 16).., pounds. 

Fiber, vegetable, not hemp tons. 

Fiber, vegetable, manufactures of 




. 142,075,344 






26,428 . 












Tobacco pounds. 














Oils, mineral, refined gallons. 

Varnish ^ do. 




All other 





It should be noted that our trade is really much larger (especially 
in the item of exports to the islands) than is indicated by the above 
figures. Large quantities of provisions (flour, canned goods, etc.) are 
sent to Hongkong or other ports for transshipment, and are credited to 
those ports instead of to Manila. 

Besides the numerous tobacco establishments to which reference 
has been made, there are rice factories, sugar mills, distilleries, fac- 
tories of rope, soap, aerated waters, brickyards, sawmills, etc. The 
purely native industries consist of work in bamboo and cotton, engrav- 
ing, making straw hats, etc. Very exquisite embroidery is done on 
silk and pineapple cloth, and there is, also wood carving and work in 
gold and silver. The manufacture of cotton goods often, forms the 
occupation of an entire village, and this industry is far from being of 
insignificant proportions. 


At the time of the war there was but one railway in the islands— 
from Manila to Dagupin — ^a distance of 123 miles. It is single track 
and well built, with steel rails its entire length; the bridges are of 
stone or iron, and the station buildings substantial. English engines 
are used, which make 45 miles per hour. The government assisted in 
the construction of the road by making valuable concessions of land 


with right of way its entire length, and by guaranteeing 8 per cent 
per year upon the stock of the road for a period of ninety-nine years, 
when it is to become State property. Up to date of the report (1895) the 
road paid more than 10 per cent per annum to shareholders. Merchan- 
dise amounting to 214,100 tons was carried in 1898. Dagupin ia 
about a mile from the Gulf of Lugayan, on a branch of the Eiver Agno. 

There are about 720 miles of telegraph in the islands. A cable 
connects Manila with Hongkong, and there is one from Manila to the 
Visayas Islands, and a new one is being laid to C5ape Bolinao. 

There is one steamship line from Manila to Liverpool, known as the 
Compania Transatlantica, which maintains a monthly service to Europe, 
calling at Singapore, Colombo, Aden, Suez, Port Said and Barcelona 
en route. The Spanish Royal Mail Line from Barcelona to Manila leaves 
every twenty-eight days. Four lines of steamers are in the service to 
Hongkong. The local mail steamers from Manila to the provinces leave 
the capital every alternate Saturday. 

The North Luzon line is from Manila to Subig, Olangapo, Bolinao, 
San Fernando, Oroayan, Currimas (all these on the west coast of Luzon 
and Appari, entrance to Rio Grande, in the extreme north of Luzon). 
The South Luzon line runs from Manila to Batangas, Calapan, Lagui- 
manos, Passacao, Donsol, Sorsogon, Legaspi and Tabaco. 

The Southeast line runs from Manila to Romolon, Cebu, Oabolian, 
Surigao, Camiguin, Oagayan de Misamis, Iligan,'Harihohoe, Bais, Iloilo. 
The Southwest line runs from Manila to Iloilo, Zamboanga, Isabela de 
Basilan, lolo (Sula) Siassi, Tataan, Bongao, Parang Parang, Cottabato, 
Glan, Sarangani, Dayas, Matti Lebak, St. Maria. 

The native population may be classifled as Negritos, Mohammedan 
Malays, pagan Malays and civilized Malays, and these are divided 
into eighty or more different tribes. The first named were the original 
inhabitants 'and are confined to Mindanao and Negros and some parts 
of Luzon. They are rapidly disappearing and have degenerated into an 
.undersized, sickly race. 

The Mohammedan Malays, or Moros, as they are called, are prin- 
cipally found in Mindanao, Palawan, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi Tawi and 
Mindoro. They are a warlike race and have never been wholly sub- 
jugated by the Spaniards. Originally they came from Borneo and 
maintained almost constant warfare with the Spanish. They are ruled 
by a Sultan and still practice piracy and slavery. 



The chief Philippine slave market and port for their export is 
Maibun, the old capital of Sulu. Harun Narrasid, the Mohammedan 
Sultan of Sulu — now a United States subject— is the central factor of 
the slave-holding and slave-selling business of the entire group. The 
Moros continue, though upon a somewhat limited scale, the practices 
of their ancestors, the bloodthirsty Malay pirates who reddened Phil- 
ippine waters for several centuries. No admixture of blood could be 
more favorable to slave-holding than that of Malay and Mohammedan, 
according to Professor Otis Mason, the noted ethnologist. Among their 
slaves are found Malays captured from Sumatra, Papuans from New 
Guiana, Siamese, Javanese and Timorese. By collecting them within 
their dominion the Sulu masters have aided greatly in producing the 
peculiar mixture of stocks which now bothers anthropologists. 

At the time of American occupation piratical expeditions were still 
gathering as many captives as they could safely attack in neighboring 
islands. The warlike Moros of Sulu and the islands thereabout, more- 
over, adhere to the ancient barbarous custom of casting into slavery 
such of their captives of war as do not suffer death. Their most ready 
customers for able-bodied male slaves for many years were the Dutch 
planters in the Island of Borneo, to the southwest. 

I^ore criminal even than this piratical slave-gathering is the Cus- 
tom of selling innocent children into bondage, generally practiced by 
the Mohammedan Malays. The parent who is in need of money lends, 
or, rather, gives his child as security for the loan, and the little one is 
condemned to labor until the debt is paid, which seldom, if ever, occurs. 
Very few children thus sold into slavery ever regain their freedom. 

Moro warriors try the edges of their weapons by striking down 
their slaves, according to Professor Worcester. Morb slaves in Sulu 
represent all phases of slavery practiced in ancient or modern times — 
slaves by birth, slaves by capture in war or by piracy, bonded children, 
and insolvent debtors. 

Few, if any, white slaves were found in the Philippines. The rea- 
son is simple. All whites are regarded as Christians by the Moros, and 
Christians must pay a penalty more serious than slavery — or perhaps- 
less serious — death. The Moro believes that he increases his pleasure 
in the next world directly as the square of the number of Christian 


lives dispatched by bis hand. If be dies slaughtering Christians he 
insures himself a cozy corner in the Mohammedan seventh heaven. 
Eather than commit suicide, a More wearied of life prefers to sneak to 
some Oiristian settlement and massacre as many unsuspecting men, 
women or children as he can reach before being shot. All of this sounds 
like a fairy tale, but it is the testimony of an American Philippine 

Colonel Hilder, of the United States Bureau of Ethnology, said of 
the Moros at the time of the Aguinaldo insurrection: 

"We will probably kave more serious times with them than we 
are now having with Aguinaldo's followers. Spain failed to conquer 
them because she feared the general hatred of the Moslem for the 
Christian. Our soldiers will find them to be fierce foes at close quar- 
ters. They take great care of their arms. On making an attack they 
make hideous faces to scare their opponents. They protect their heads 
and bodies with immense shields, below which their legs are kept 
vibrating to resist missiles. When bayoneted they seize the barrels of 
the soldiers' muskets and drive the steel further into them, that they 
may get close enough to kill their adversaries before falling. 

"They behead their enemies by a peculiar continuation of the same 
movement with which they draw their huge knives. Just previous to 
our war with Spain the resident Governor of Sulu protected the lives of 
himself and staff by establishing picket lines about the capital and 
ordering all Moros to disarm under the aim of Spanish soldiers before 
crossing them. A Governor who neglected to secure himself thus had 
his skull split to the teeth by Sultan Harun, whose warriors massacred 
the citizens of the town. The Spanish home government, knowing the 
danger of the post, was in the habit of appointi^ig officials suspected 
of republican ideas to the governorship of Sulu." 

Slavery in the Philippines was just as illegal under Spanish con- 
trol as it is under ours to-day. By an ancient decree made by King 
Philip II., 300 years ago, all slaves in the islands were set free and no 
more were to be taken in the future, either by Spaniards or natives. 
Child slaves were to be free upon becoming 20 years old, and those 
above 20 at the time of the decree were to serve five years longter before 
gaining freedom. Any slave before reaching the limit prescribed could 
purchase his liberty by paying a price determined by the Governor or 
the Bishop. 


In spite of this prohibition, slavery has ever sinc^i exi'sted in the 
islandsr The Spanish Governor of Sulu just previous-to the war allowed 
his Moro scout a home within the Spanish capital and permitted him to 
keep there several wives and forty slaves. 

According to the ancient historian, Juan de la Ooncepcion, writing 
in 1788, there were, at the time the Spaniards conquered the Philip- 
pines, headsmen who owned as many as 300 slaves apiece. As property 
they were ranked second only to gold in value. Thus it will be seen that 
the introduction of slavery in her Asiatic possessions was not the work 
of Spain, although she never took pains to wipe it "out. As elsewhere in 
the Orient, it is of Mohammedan origin. 

Commissioner Worcester also found that white slavery still existed 
among the enlightened Mohammedans, but white slaves as a rule were 
humanely treated. The blacks, however, suffered allkinds of atrocities. 
The interior of Africa even to-day is a hunting ground for negro slaves, 
caught mostly by Arabs, who sell them to Mohammedans. In 1890 an 
agreement was formally drawn up between Uncle Sam, the European 
powers, and several Oriental governments, to put a stop to African 
slave capture. These nations also agreed to forbid the importation 
or exportation of slaves. Turkey was a party to this agreement, and 
although the Sultan is the head of the Mohammedan Church, he is not 
likely to aid the Moslems in a holy war against the Yankee Christians. 

Mohammedan war junks ravaged every coast of the Philippines 
before the Spaniards succeeded in reducing their piracy. Thousands of 
colonists have been murdered by these, villages have been sacked, 
churches looted, and Spanish subjects driven far inland. As one his- 
torian remarks, the Spaniards probably would never have penetrated 
these islands further than the coast line had these bloodthirsty pirates 
not scared them into the highlands. 

At one time her Philippine -colonists became so absolutely penni- 
less and miserable as a result of this slave-hunting among them that 
the crown had to remit the payment of the regularly collected tribute 
for four years. Natives whom the Spanish friars had Christianized 
were carried off ^ith the Spanish Christians, while the, priests them- 
selves were looked u.pon as the richest prizes whom the Moros could 
capture. Once the Sultans of Sulu and Mindanao formed an alliance to 
further piracy and slave-hunting, which previously had been confined 
mostly to the waters of their neighborhood. They spread the business 






From a photograph furnished by Felipe Aguincillo, Aguinaldo's Envoy- 
Plenipotentiary to the United States. 













This photograph shows a room in the fortress where forty Spanish soldiers were 
killed by the explosion of an American shell. 









I— I 




I— I 







over the entire group, and organized fleets of junks, armed almost as 
strongly as the Spanish vessels, did the work. 

The Spaniards failed to eradicate this wholesale piracy until a large 
fleet of gunboats was placed in the Philippine waters. Mindoro, the 
nearest island to Manila Bay, is still called "White Man's Grave." 

In this Island of Mindoro dwells a tribe of primitive savages known 
as the Mangyans. Americans proved that they did not merit the bad 
reputation Ihey had received as head-hunters and cannibals. They 
were found to be harmless people, of child-like simplicity, dwelling in 
crude huts, wearing little or no clothing, and subsisting upon grain, 
vegetables, roots, tubers, birds, civet-cats, rats, monkeys, snakes, lizards, 
flsh and crocodiles. Professor Worcester found them to be moral and 

In the same island, however, is a tribe known as Tusilones, who 
are bandits and bushrangers of the worst type, and their frequent rob- 
beries and murders have given a generally bad reputation to all the in- 
habitants of Mindoro. 

Among other wild tribes of the Philippines are the Gaddanes, 
Altasanes and Apayaos. They are generally known as Igorrotes, once 
the name of a head-hunting tribe, but now generally applied to all wild 


It is with the so-called civilized tribes, however, that the United 
States flrst experienced trouble in the Philippines. They number in 
all about 5,000,000 people and their tribal names are Tagallos, Ilocanos 
and ' Visayans. It is of these three tribes we speak when referring 
generally to the Filipinos. 

Physically, the Filipino is small, though athletic. The men range 
in height between flve feet and flve feet six inches, with occasional ex- 
ceptions both above and below those extremes, the women ranging 
about three inches lower. The man has a deep chest and good lung de- 
velopment. He is -strong for his size and capable of considerable 
physical effort, yet much indisposed to nlake it, and not possessing a 
disposition for prolonged exertion, being utterly devoid of the faculty of 
steady, persistent pegging away at things, so characteristic of the 
Anglo-Saxon. This proved a serious weakness in him as a soldier. 

The American faculty of fighting all night and all the next day has 


both surprised and demoralized them. It was the eustom of Aguinaldo^s 
army, when fighting the Spaniards, to make night attacks, resting in 
the daytime. Night after night, while the Americans were encamped 
at Cavity waiting for enough troops to arrive to render the advance 
upon Manila advisable, the sounds of conflict were borne to their ears 
across the water some six miles from t^ie scene of fighting. The in- 
cessant rattle of the Filipinp fire at will was punctuated every few 
minutes by a volley from the Spaniards ahd the heavy booni of the guns 
on Fort Malate. At first the Americans took these battles seriously, 
and supposed that gory fields werp being strewn with the dead of both 
armies; but no wounded came back to the hospital, nor were there any 
other evidences of an actual battle. They soon learned the nature of 
these conflicts, and they were the subject of much joking among the 
men. It was found that the Filipinos kept few men in the trenches in 
the daytime, the heat of the day being their hours for the tropical 
siesta, but as night drew on their soldiers straggled back to the trenches 
in ones and twos, to be ready for the night's work. 

Neither side could see the other, and both fired high, owing to the 
fact that neither ventured to put their heads above the edgfe of their 
entrenchments. For an hour or two this fusillade would be kept up, 
and then the' fire would gradually die down and peace would reign un- 
til the next night. It was amusing to see the Filipinos swaggering about 
and telling how many Spaniards they had killed, how valiant they were, 
and how they were going to capture the city next Sunday. Even boys 
ten to twelve years of age strutted around with knives strapped to their 
waists, and declared their intentions of cutting the throats of all Span- 

This was the style of fighting the Filipinos were accustomed to, 
and when the Americans advanced against them and rushed them time 
after time, and kept it up all day long, they were unable to stand it, and 
broke ground hastily whenever the American lines advanced. De- 
prived of his siesta, and compelled to fight or run, the Filipino was out- 
fought, and showied clearly his lack of staying qualities. 

Physically, also, there is a taint of disease in the Filipino blood 
that renders it undesirable for mixture with the American. Go where 
you will, in country or city, evidence of this may be seen on every side. 
Scars, blotches, white spots, scabs and running sores can be seen on 
young and old; not on all, but upon so many that it gives one the im- 


"pression of being general. This is more noticeable in the children, 
whose bare limbs and bodies, covered by but a single cotton garment 
depending from the shoulders, present a sickening "sight. Fully half of 
them appear to be afflicted in this way. The ravages of smallpox are 
also observable in thousands of faces. 

Treachery is a universal trait. Even in battle this assassin's in- 
stinct governs them. One instance that shows this trait in their char- 
acter vividly, is that of the Ermita Hospital. This was situated in the 
southern portion of the city and more than a mile from the American 
lines; yet bushwhackers in trees nearby fired into it continually, killing 
a Sergeant. At last they were located, and two of them were brought 
to the ground by well-directed shots from the hospital guards. Upon 
examination, one of these proved to be a man who had been a driver of 
the hospital ambulance. 

There was no way of telling bushwhackers from non-combatants. 
AH were dressed alike in innocent white clothing, and all possessed a 
tiny white flag as a sign of peace. 

The Filipino has been given some credit for bravery in battle. This 
in a measure is true, but it is not the bravery of the Caucasian. He is 
pugnacious and quick to fight when angered, but his valor is that of 
passion, not the courage of the soldier who coolly and steadily advances 
all day in the face of a murderous fire. So long as he could remain un- 
der cover and shoot he stayed there, even when his comrades were 
being killed around him, but when his enemy rushed upon him he could 
not face the conflict, and hastily retreated. As to imitating the Amer- 
icans and advancing across the open against an entrenched foe, it would 
be impossible for him even to attempt it. 

Cruelty is another characteristic of the Filipino. He abuses his 
animals, and has the Indian's pleasure in the mutilation of his enemy. 
The insurgents took delight in telling before Manila was captured that 
they w^re going to kill all the Spaniards in the city, and always accom- 
panied the remark with a significant drawing of the hand across the 

Mentally the Filipinos are very deceptive. They give a first im- 
pression of intellectuality. They are very alert and quick of apprehen- 
sion, even precocious in their childhood and youth. The young Filipinos 
of both sexes are very quick to understand, but they are not cap- 
able of deep cogitation or continued logical thought. They have the 


imitative faculty, but not the inventive. Of an extremely mercurial 
temperament, quick of temper and rash of impulse, their mental pro- 
cesses are interfered with and warped by their varying sentiments, until 
such a thing as acting upon settled conclusions from logical deductions 
is not possible with them. 

No better example of this could be given than that of their foolish 
attack on the Americans. Everything was going their way. The Presi- 
dent had declared that he had taken the islands from Spain for the 
welfare of the people of the islands themselves, who were to be aided 
and taught to maintain a government of their own. They had adopted 
a constitution, and a commission had already been appointed to visit 
the Philippines and examine into their form of government and their 
success in administering it. Sentiment in the United States was crystal- 
lizing in favor of permitting them to attempt self-government, under 
American tutelage and protection. They were assured of all these 
things, but they were not able to grasp the situation nor to restrain 
themselves. Puffed up with their grossly exaggerated opinion of their 
ability as fighters, contemptuous of the fighting qualities of the Amer- 
icans, who for half a year had remained quietly in Manila and permitted 
them to gather a large^ army, supply themselves with munitions of war, 
and collect taxes within a stone's throw of the Military Governor's 
headquarters, they would not brook delay, but undertook, by a sud- 
den attack, not preceded by notice of hostilities, to drive the Americans 
into the sea, with results most unexpected and disastrous. Thus, by 
their own folly, in one day they sealed the fate of the constitution they 
had labored upon for three months. 

There were no wiseheads among them to give- them pause. "Old 
men for counsel and young men for war" is a saw they were not familiar 
with. There was among them no gray-haired statesmen, no "grand old 
man," no influential adviser rendered conservative by a long life as 
jurist, legislator, or executive. All the leaders in the movement for 
independence were young men, many of them scarcely past their ma- 
jority, while the army was made up of boys and men mostly without 
family ties. Scores of their so-called soldiers were no taller than the 
guns they carried. Aguinaldo himself, the President and putative head 
of the revolutionary movement, was under thirty years of age. Most 
of his Generals and lesser officers were still younger. 

The National Assembly which framed and adopted the constitution 


and elected the President — for neither of these propositions was sub- 
mitted to a vote of the people — was composed of men equally imma- 
ture. When men of unripe judgment, swayed by the passions and im- 
pulses of youth, and untutored in the broad philosophy of history, both 
command the army and sit in the council -chamber, no better result than 
what has been seen could be expected. 







ROM the time the American Colonists wrested the 
thirteen original States from Great Britain the 
history of the United States has been a continued 
Story of national expansion. The annexation of 
the Hawaiian Islands and the cession of the Phil- 
ippines, Porto Rico and Guam by Spain consti- 
tute the latest but possibly not the last chapters 
in that history of national growth. 

By the treaty of Sept. 3, 1783, between Great 
Britain and the United States, the area in square miles of the latter 
was fixed at 827,844. By the charters of these States their nominal 
boundaries extended' to the Pacific Ocean, but in reality they ceased at 
the Mississippi, for west of "the father of waters" sovereignty was vested 
in Spain by reason of discovery and settlement. 

Emigi;ants soon crossed the AUeghanies and began to fill up the 
Mississippi Valley. It then became apparent that the United States 
must have more territory in order to make proper provision for her 
growing population. It was the fixed policy of Spain to exclude all for- 
eign commerce from the Mississippi, and in 1780-2 she refused to enter 
into a treaty with the United States because Minister Joy demanded 
free navigation of the Mississippi. It was a vexatious question how 
easy means of communication should be afforded between the older 
States and the pioneer settlements, and Spain's refusal to concede free 
navigation led Washington to devise a canal scheme, which, however, 
became unnecessary, for in 1795 the coveted treaty was negotiated. 
Spain having exhausted herself in wars with ■ the French Republic 

388 ' 


_ alarmed concerning hostile expeditions directed against New Orleans, 
and not unmindful of the demands of the large and growing population 
of the Mississippi Valley, entered into a treaty of friendship, boundaries 
and navigation with the United States. The important articles of that 
treaty were as follows: 

"Article 4. His Catholic majesty has likewise agreed that the navi- 
gation of the said river, (Mississippi) in its whole breadth, from its 
source to the ocean, shall be free only to his subjects and the citizens of 
the United States, unless he should extend this privilege to the subjects 
of other powers by special convention." 

"Article 22. And in consequence of the stipulations contained in 
the fourth article, his Catholic majesty will permit the citizens of the 
United States, for the space of three years from this time, to deposit 
their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export 
them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for 
the hire of the stores; and his majesty promises, either to continue this 
permission, if he finds during that time that it is not prejudicial to the 
interests of Spain, or, if he should agree not to continue it there, he will 
assign to them, on another part of the banks of the Mississippi, an 
equivalent establishment." 

The next move toward national expansion was when Spain by the 
third article of the secret treaty of St. Ildefonso, Oct, 1, 1800, retroceded 
to France the great province of Louisiana, which then covered that vast 
area from the source to the mouth of the Mississippi, and thence west to* 
the Pacific Ocean. It had been ceded to Spain in 1763 as war indemnity. 

President Jefferson was not pleased with the retrocession. On 
April 18, 1802, he wrote Robert R. Livingston, Minister to France, as 

"The cession of Louisiana and the Floridas by Spain to France 
works most sorely on the United States. It completely reverses all the 
political relations of the U^nited States, and will form g, new epoch in 
our political course. There is on the globe one single spot the possessor 
of which is our natural and habitual enemy. It is New Orleans, through 
which the produce of three-eighths of our territory must pass to market. 
France, placing herself in that door, assumes i.6 us the attitude of. de- 
fiance and seals the union of two nations who, in conjunction, can main- 
tain exclusive possession of the ocean. From that moment we must 
marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation, and make the first can- 


non which shall be fired in Europe the signal for tearing up any settle- 
ment she may have made." 

As a result of the retrocession, Spain abrogated that portion of the 
treaty with the United States giving the latter right of deposit at New 
Orleans, and did not name any other place. 

This aroused the National Congress, and James Ross, Senator from 
Pennsylvania, introduced a resolution authorizing the President to call 
out 50,000 militia and take possession of New Orleans. Ross' resolution 
failed of passage, but in its stead Congress appropriated |2,OOO,O0O for 
the purchase of New Orleans. On Jan. 10, 1803, the President sent 
James Monroe as minister extraordinary, with discretionary powers, to 
co-operate with Minister Livingston in the work of negotiating a cession. 

Fortunately for the United States, a war was brewing between 
England and France, which if it once began would make Louisiana a 
worthless possession to France by reason of the superiority of the Brit- 
ish navy. Napoleon could foresee this as quickly and clearly as anyone, 
and he was prompt to take advantage of the situation. Accordingly, 
when Minister Livingston made him an offer for New Orleans alone, he 
invited our minister to make an offer for the entire territory of Louis- 
iana. This was on April 11, 1803. The next day Monroe arrived in 
Paris and held a consultation with Livingston. 

They decided to offer $10,000,000, which offer was accordingly 
_^made, and after some negotiation the price was fixed at |15,000,000. 
Three-fourths of this amount was to be paid in cash and the remainder 
to be discharged by the United States assuming claims of American citi- 
zens against France. 

The treaty was signed April 30, 1803, by Livingston and Monroe on 
behalf of the United States^ and by Barbe-Marbois on behalf of France. 

The important articles of the treaty are as follows; - 

"Article 1. Whereas, by article the third of the treaty concluded 
at St. Udefonso, the 9th Vende'miaire, An 9 (Oct. 1, 1800), between the 
First Consul of the French Republic and his Catholic majesty, it was 
agreed as follows: His Catholic majesty promises and engages on his 
part, to retrocede to the French Republic, six months after the^full and 
entire execution of the conditions and stipulations herein relative to his 
Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, the colony or province of Louisiana, 
with the same extent that it now has in the hands of Spain, and that 
it had when France possessed it; and such as it should be after the 


treaties subsequently entered into between Spain and other States; and 
Whereas, in pursuance of the treaty, and particularly of the third article, 
the French Kepublic has an incontestable title to the domain and to the 
possession of the said territory: The First Consul of the French Repub- 
lic, desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friendship, 
doth hereby cede to the said United States, in the name of the French 
Republic, forever and in full sovereignty, the said territory, with all its 
rights and appurtenances, as fully and in the same manner as they have 
been acquired by the French Republic in virtue of the above mentioned 
treaty concluded with his Catholic majesty." 

"Article 3. The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incor- 
porated in the union of the United States, and admitted as soon as pos- 
sible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the en- 
joyment of all the rights, advantages and immunities of citizens of the 
United States; and in the meantime they shall be maintained and pro- 
tected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property and the religion 
which they profess." 

This treaty gave rise to a bitter political controversy in the United 
States. The Federalists attacked its constitutionality. Jefferson of- 
fered no public defense, but statesmen were not lacking to perform that 
task. Probably the best explanation Jefferson ever made of the matter 
is contained in one of his private letters, in which he says : 

"The constitution has made no provision for our holding foreign ter- 
ritory, still less for incorporating foreign nations into our union. The 
Executive, in seizing the fugitive occurrence which so much advances 
the good of their country, have done an act beyond the constitution. 
The legislature, in casting behind them metaphysical subtleties, and 
risking themselves like faithful servants, must ratify and pay for it, 
and throw themselves on their country for doing for them, unauthorized, 
what we know they would have done for themselves had they been in a 
situation to do it. It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of 
his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory, and saying to 
him when of age, 'I did this for your good; I pretend to no right to bind 
you; you may disavow me and I must get out of the scrape as I can; I 
thought it my duty to risk myself for you." 

But the controversy in the United States was as nothing to the con- 
sternation the treaty created in Spain. The Spanish cabinet perceived 
that it had committed an irreparable fault in sacrificing the safety of 


Mexico. Florida was inclosed on both sides by the United States and 
separated from the other Spanish possessions. It was certain that it 
would easily fall into the hands of the United States on the first occa- 

It is supposed that the treaty of St. Udefonso had a secret clause 
that France should not alienate Louisiana, and that Napoleon with 
characteristic contempt for treaty observance had broken it. Spain 
filed a protest against the treaty and became so offensive in her attitude 
as to justify a declaration of war, which, however, was not made. It 
was agreed that ratifications should be exchanged before October 30, 
1808. Congress convened October 17, and the treaty was confirmed by 
the Senate on October 19. A resolution to give effectiveness to the 
treaty was passed in the House October 25, by a vote of 90 to 25, after 
an acrimonious debate, and after the Federalists had exhausted their 
powers of opposition. 

By the acquisition of Louisiana the United States gained 1,171,931 
square miles of territory, comprising Alabama and Mississippi sonth of 
parallel 31 degrees; all of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Ne- 
braska and Oregon ; the entire territories of Dakota, Washington, Idaho 
and Montana; the State of Minnesota west of the Mississippi, and Kan- 
sas except the southwest part south of the Arkansas; Colorado and the 
territory of Wyoming east of the Eocky Mountains and Indian territory. 

While Oregon and the Pacific coast territory is generally included 
in the accounts of the Louisiana purchase, they really came into the pos- 
session of the United States through the exploration of Lewis and Clark, 
and the settlement of the boundary dispute with Great Britain through 
what is known as the Ashburton treaty. 

The next step in American expansion was taken February 22, 1819, 
-when Spain ceded 59,268 square miles, known as Florida, to the United 
States as payment of American claims against Spain, amounting to 
$5,000,000. Spain had come in possession of this territory in 1783 
through a treaty with Great Britain. She therefore claimed that Flor- 
ida was not included in the Louisiana purchase, because she (fould not 
retrocede to France what France had not ceded to her prior to 1763, and 
that she had no intention of retroceding this territory by the treaty of 

The claims of the United States were that Spain's retrocession and 
France's cession of Louisiana included Florida, but to avoid war with 


Spain -this claim was not forcibly asserted until 1810, when Governor 
Claiborne, of Orleans Territory^ took possession of West Florida. 

In 1813, General Wilkinson captured Mobile Fort and City. In 
1814 General Andrew Jackson drove the British from Pensacola and 
restored the place to Spanish authorities. The Seminole war in 1818 
demonstrated to Spain that Florida was completely at the mercy of the 
United States, and the result was the treaty of February 22, 1819, but 
which treaty was not ratified until 1821. This treaty determined the 
western boundary of Louisiana as follows: "Beginning at the mouth 
of the Sabine in the Gulf of Mexico; up the west bank of the Sabine to 
the 32d degree north latitude; thence north to the Red Riyer; along 
the south bank of the Red River to the 100th degree of longitude east 
from Greenwich ; thencenorth to the Arkansas; thence along the south 
bank of the Arkansas to its source; thence south, or north, as the case 
might be, to the 42d degree of north latitude, and along that parallel to 
the Pacific." 

By this treaty the United States yielded its claims to Texas and the 
Rip Grande as the western boundary. 

The acquisition of Texas was an inevitable result of the annexation 
of Louisiana and Florida, Jhe United States had surrendered its claim 
to this territory by the treaty of 1819. When Mexico's revolt became 
successful, "Texas and Coahuila" became one of the states of the Mexi- 
can Republic. The story of the Texan revolution is too long and too 
well known to be repeated here except in outline. 

After unsuccessful efforts to secure the territory by purchase, both 
by Clay and Van Buren, Texas declared her independence and seceded 
March 2, 1836. The war which followed was brief, but bloody. 

The massacre at the Alamo and the battle of San Jacinto are as fa- 
mous as Concord and Lexington. In March, 1837, the United States 
recognized the independence of Texas, and in August of the same year 
the Te^an minister at Washington made application for the annexation 
of the Texas Republic to the United States. 

From 1837 to 1845 the question of the admission of Texas consti- 
tuted the principal issue between the existing political parties. - 

Andrew Jackson favored annexation and strongly urged it in 1843, 
but the Democratic convention, which that year was postponed until 
May, 1844, nominated Van Buren, who openly declared against it, as did 
Clay, the leading candidate of the Whigs. An annexation treaty was 


concluded by Gallioun April 12, 1844, but it was rejected by the Senate. 

The election of Polk was taken as a popular indorsement of Texas 
annexation, and on January 25, 1845, a joint resolution was passed by 
the lower house of Congress consenting to annexation and setting final 
action on or before January- 1, 1846. 

June 18 the Texas Congress voted unanimously for annexation, 
which action was ratified July 4 by a convention of the people. 

The joint resolution in the American Congress admitting Texas as 
a state was passed as follows : In the House, December 16, 1845, by a 
vote of 141 to 56; in the Senate, December 22, 1845, by a vote of 31 to 13. 

. The Senate amendments to the joint resolution of January 25, 1845, 
authorized the President if he should deem it advisable to first make a 
treaty of annexation with Texas, but no such treaty was ever made. 

It will thus be seen that annexation by treaty, which had first been 
exercised in 1808, and the constitutionality of which had been ques- 
tioned, had, by the annexation of Texas, eventuated into annexation 
without treaty. 

The annexation of Texas added 376,133 square miles of territory to 
the United States. 

During the Mexican War, an American land force under General 
Stephen Watts Kearney conquered and held the territory of New Mexi- 
co, including Utah, Nevada, and a large part of Colorado and Arizona. 
At the same time a land force under General John C. Fremont, aided by 
a naval force under Commodore Stockton, conquered and held upper 
California. Indeed the principal object of the war had been the acquisi- 
tion by force or purchase of a liberal tract of Mexican territory as "in- 
demnity for the past and security for the future." 

The final object of the war was accomplished through what is 
known as the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, signed by 
Nicholas Trist on behalf of the United States, and by three commission- 
ers on behalf of Mexico. 

By the terms of this treaty the above named territory was ceded to 
the United States, for which this country paid |15,000,000 and assumed 
claims of American citizens against Mexico to the further amount of 
$3,250,000. The annexed territory included that part of New Mexico 
east of the Kio Grande Kiver which was claimed by Texas, and for which 
the United States afterward paid Texas |10,000,000. The treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was ratified by the Senate, March 10, 1848, and 



added 545,783 square miles of territory to the expanding United States. 

But the dispute with Mexico was not ended. The fruitful Mesilla 
Valley in what is now southern Arizona was a Source of contention, and 
five years later Santa Ana marched an army into the disputed territory, 
prepared to renew hostilities. The matter was settled, however, with- 
out resort to arms, and the, disputed territory was obtained through 
what is known as the Gadsden Treaty or Gadsden Purchase, so called 
on account of its negotiator. The price paid was |10,000,000, and be- 
sides the annexed territory the United States acquired the right of tran- 
sit for troops, mail and merchandise, across the isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
The Gadsden treaty bears date of December 30, 1853, and added 45,535 
square miles to United States territory. 

The last acquisition of territory by the United States previous to 
the war with Spain was Alaska, which was purchased from Kussia, 
March 30, 18157, for |7,200,000. The ceded territory embracing the w^iole 
of Alaska added 577,390 square miles to United States domain. 

V~/J ^ 





;ERY many men owe their • success in life to the 
habit of early rising. In Vermont as in other 
New England States it is a chief characteristic 
of the people. The farmers, who constitute the 
backbone of the American nation, furnish the 
best proof that the man who is up bright and 
early has a big advantage over his stay-a-bed 

It fell to the lot of Commodore (now Ad- 
miral) George Dewey to prove that this is as true 
in the navy as on the farm. 

At daybreak. May 1, in Manila bay, the drowsy Spaniards of 
Admiral Mohtojo's fleet tumbled out of their hammocks half awake and 
half asleep to meet a wide awake foe who had important work to do, 
and in the characteristic fashion of the active American, had decided 
to begin the task before breakfast. 

Many an American farmer has a half day's work done before the 
welcome notes of the breakfast horn summon him from the field, and on 
that May morning Admiral Dewey had the Spanish fleet more than half 
whipped before he retired to partake of his mprning meal. Then he 
returned to the task and finished Ms work in true American fashion. 

Admiral George Dewey, who so rudely roused the Dons from their 
dreams of conquest to the stern realities of a close fought fight, was 
born in Montpelier, Vermont, December 26, 1837. 

He belongs to the ninth generation of the Dewey family which came 
from Sandwich, England, with the Massachusetts Bay Colony to Dor- 



Chester in 1633. His grandfather, Simeon Dewey, was born in Han- 
over, New Hampshire, more than 100 years ago. He located on a farm 
at Berlin, Vt., about four miles from Montpelier, and it was there that 
the Admiral's father. Dr. Julius Gemano Dewey, was born, in 1801. 

Admiral Dewey's father was of that sturdy stock which breeds the 
highest type of America.ns. He was a man of intense religious convic- 
tions, but a thorough master of himself. Early in life he learned how 
to control his temper, and none of his children ever saw him angry. As 
a result all of his acts were characterized by coolness and determination, 
traits which were transmitted to the son, and which have helped him 
to achieve the distinction of the foremost living naval hero. 

The elder Dewey was a poor lad, but having received a fair educa- 
tion, he taught school in Montpelier and saved enough of his salary to 
enable him to take a course in medicine and secure a diploma. He 
made a success of his chosen profession from the start, and soon became 
one of the most popular practitioners in the state. 

Dr. Dewey loved children and was a great favorite among them. 
His favorites, of course, were his own, of whom there were four : Oh^arles, 
Edward, George and Mary, all by his first wife, who before marriage 
was Miss Mary Perrin. Mrs. Dewey died when the present admiral was 
but five years of age, and her funeral was the first one that took place 
from the Christ Episcopal Church in Montpelier, which had been 
founded by Dr. Dewey. 

It was prophetic of the future that Dr. Dewey's favorite title for his 
son George was "my little hero." It is also indicative of the fact that 
the heroism which distinguished George Dewey ih the civil war and at 
the battle of Manila was a characteristic of his childhood. Dr. Dewey 
lived long enough to see his estimate of "the little hero" partly justified, 
for it is recorded that in a conversation with the great Farragut, the 
admiral, seizing the doctor's hand, said: "Sir, your son George is a 
worthy and a brave officer. He has an honorable record and some day 
will make his own mark." 

The boyhood life of George Dewey was much the same as that of 
other boys reared in New England villages. He was no better, and in 
some respects was a little worse than the average village boy, for his 
high spirits, hardy frame and daring courage often led him to play 
pranks and engage in boyish mischief from which more timid and 
quieter lads would have shrunk in fear. 


An illustration of this is recorded of his school days when as the 
leader of the Washington County Grammar School he defied the author- 
ity of the teacher, Mr. Z. K. PangbOrn. The teacher, who afterward 
won the title of Major, and at the time of the battle of Manila was editor 
of the Jersey City Journal, narrates how his pupils mutinied with young 
George Dewey at their head. 

Dewey was ordered to come from his seat and make an explanation 
of his conduct. This he refused to do. Teacher Pangborn then took the 
future admiral by the collar and chastised him as he was never chas- 
tised before nor since. Dewey made the best resistance possible, but 
when the affray was over his back was striped by the rod and he was 
ordered to go home, the teacher accompanying him. 

When the matter was explained to Dr. Dewey he told the future 
admiral that he deserved the punishment he had received, and that he, 
the doctor, would add a little on his own account if George still thought 
he had not had enough. 

The admiral himself has also narrated this stirring incident of his 
boyhood and said his thanks were due to Major Pangborn for the valu- 
able lesson he'learned from it. 

Among the admiral's schoolmates was a boy named Wright, now a 
prominent preacher in Montpelier. When Mr. Wright read of Dewey's 
victory in Manila bay, he exclaimed: "Well, George always was a fight- 
ing boy." 

George Dewey's favorite playmate was his sister Mary. It was 
Mary who trudged with him on his tramps over the Vermont hills and 
along the streams, forthe coming admiral was a great fisherman. Still 
later in life, when the embryo admiral was deep in the "Life of Hanni- 
bal," it was Mary who played the part of the army and followed the 
young Hannibal over the Alps, which in this instance was a huge snow- 
bank specially constructed for the purpose. "Hannibal" escaped with- 
out serious consequences, but "the army" had a week's illness as a result 
of her devotion. 

Probably the greatest incongruity between the character of George 
Dewey the boy and Admiral Dewey the man is found in the boy's love 
for theatricals. Admiral Dewey is noted for his extreme modesty and 
his dislike for anything savoring of theatrical effect, but the boy George 
Dewey converted his father's barn into a theater where he gave minstrel 
shows and hair-raising dramatic performances for the delectation of 


Montpelier youth. George always played the part of the hero, and he 
usually had a part which required him to shoot the villain or slay him 
with a sword. On these occasions Dewey was not only the principal 
actor, but he was the proprietor, manager, stage manager, and also ran 
a peanut stand at the entrance. . 

One of the boyhood adventures of the future admiral was in wreck- 
ing his father's buggy in the Dog River and barely escaping with his 
life. He was accompanied by a boy named Will Redfield, and when 
they reached the river, they found it higher than it had ever before been 
known. Eedfield wanted to turn back, but Dewey was not any more 
frightened by the roaring, swollen river than he was by the torpedoes, 
in Corregidor inlet or the frowning forts that guarded its entrance. He 
decided to cross, and he succeeded in getting across, but when he 
emerged upon the opposite bank he was calmly seated astride of the 
horse, while the' greater part of the doctor's buggy was floating rapidly 
dowh the Dog River. i 

Dewey entered the Norwich (Vermont) Military Academy at the age 
of fifteen, and two years later entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis, 
joining the class of '54. At Annapolis Dewey had several personal en- 
counters with cadets, and in each instance it is recorded that he came 
off victor. Once he was challenged by a Southern cadet to fight a duel 
with pistols. The cadet had been soundly thrashed by Dewey for call- 
ing "him a "dough face." The challenge was promptly, even keenly 
accepted, the weapons were selected, and the ground paced off, when 
some officers who had heard of the affair appeared upon the scene and 
put an end to it. 

Cadet Dewey graduated in 1858, standing fifth in his class. He* 
was by no means the most studious member of his class, but he excelled 
in seamanship. During his term as midshipman he served on the Euro- 
pean station, and cruised for two years in the Mediterranean on the 
Wabash with Captain Barron, a Virginian, who afterward served in 
the Confederate navy. He was examined for a commission in 1860, 
leading all competitors, and receiving a final rating of three in his class. 

When the Civil War broke out Dewey was at home in Vermont. 
He at once secured his commission and was assigned to duty on the 
steam sloop Mississippi of the West Gulf squadron. This vessel was 
commanded by Melancthon Smith, and the part she played in the Civil 
War, including her destruction while running the batteries at Port 


Hudson, is a matter of history. The first battle in which the Mississippi 
was engaged was with the batteries of St. Philip and Jackson, the lower 
defenses of New Orleans. Students of history know how the larger ves- 
sels of Farragut's fleet were unloaded and hauled over the bar, and how 
on the night of April 23, 1862, they were prepared to run the batteries 
and conquer the Confederate fleet. The Mississippi was the third in line 
of the first division, and the only side-wheeler in the fleet. The night 
was dark, and all lights on the ships were out, just as they were when 
Dewey's Asiatic squadron steamed past the forts on Corregidor Island. 
Hugging the shore to, avoid the current, the Sloops of war steamed on 
until directly opposite the forts, when the guns belched a broadside at 
the forts and were answered in kind. On the bridge of the Mississippi 
stood Lieutenant George Dewey, as calm and imperturbable as he was 
when as a commodore he stood on the bridge of the Olynipia and di- 
rected the destruction of Admiral Montojo'? squadron. 

Commander Smith was pacing from port to starboard, not entirely 
sure of his ground, but trusting much to his lieutenant. 

"Do you know the channel, Dewey?" he asked; 

The twenty-four-year-old lieutenant who didn't know the channel 
any better than Smith knew it, and who afterward confessed that he 
expected to ground £very minute, answered in a confident and reassur- 
ing tone: 

"Yes, sir." 

Dewey's part in that battle is well described by Chief Engineer 
Baird, who was an eye witness of his conduct: 

"I can see him now in the red and yellow glare flung from the can- 
non-mouths. It was like some terrible thunder storm with almost 
incessant lightning. For an instant all would be dark and Dewey un- 

"Then the forts would belch forth, and there he was away up in the 
midst of it, the flames from the guns almost touching him and the big 
shot and shell passing near enough to him to blow him over with their 
breath, while he held firmly to the bridge-rail. Every time the dark 
came back I felt sure that we would never see Dewey again. 

"But at the next flash there he stood. His hat was blown off, and 
his eyes were aflame. But he gave orders with the air of a man in 
thorough command of himself. He took in everything. 

"He saw a point of advantage and seized it at once. And when 



from around the hull of the Pensacola the rebel ram darted, Dewey, like 
a flash, saw what was best to be done, and as he put his knowledge into 
words, the head of the Mississippi fell off, and as the ram came up along- 
side the entire starboard broadside plunged a mass of iron shot and 
shell through her armor and she began to sink. Her crew ran her 
ashore and escaped. 

"A boat's crew from our ship went on board^ thinking to extijiguish 
the flames which our broadside had started and capture her, but she was 
too far gone. Dewey took us all through the fight, and in a manner 
which won the warmest praise, not only of all on board, but of Farragut 
himself. He was cool from first to last, and after we had passed the 
forts and reached safety and he came down from the bridge, his face 
was black with smoke, but there wasn't a drop of perspiration on his 

• A year later Lieutenant Dewey participated in the battle at Port 
Hudson, where the Mississippi was sunk. It is characteristic of Dewey, 
the fighting admiral, th^-t he was the last man to leave the sinking ship. 

The attempt to run this battery was led by Farragut's flagship, the 
Hartford. Two vessels of the fleet got aground, but were floated again 
after much difficulty. When directly opposite the fort the Mississippi 
struck a snag and stuck, and the fire of the battery was concentrated 
upon her. An idea may be had of the terrific rain of shot and shell 
when it is stated that she was hit two hundred and fifty times in half an 
hour. Her officers, who left in a boat for the Eichmond, did not return, 
and it devolved upon Captain Smith and Lieutenant Dewey to get off 
the crew, which they did. Finally Dewey and the captain were the 
only two remaining souls on board. The Mississippi was on fire in five 
places and sinking, but they were not willing to leave as long as there 
was any hope of saving her. Lieutenant Dewey made a tour of investiga- 
tion. He got as far as the ward room and returned with the tails- 
burnt off his coat. Then he and Captain Smith left the vessel. 

Lieutenant Dewey was given command of a gunboat which Farra- 
giit used as a dispatch boat, and while in this position saw a great deal 
of the famous admiral, who would come aboard and use the vessel to 
reconnoiter. He was at Donaldsonville, and for a short time was in 
command of the Monongahela after her captain was killed. 

He was first lieutenant on the Colorado at Fort Fisher under Com- 
modore Henry Knox Thatcher, and distinguished himself by silencing 


a portion of the battery, for which he was highly complimented by the 
commodore, who recommended him to the consideration of Adifiiral 
Porter, and also recommended him to the navy department for promo- 
tion to fleet captain. This was not done, but he was shortly thereafter 
promoted to be lieutenant commander. 

For two years after the war he served on the European station, first 
on the Kearsarge, and then on the Colorado. Upon his return he was 
married to Miss Susy Goodwin, daughter of Governor Ichabod Good- 
win, of New Hampshire. One son was the result of this union, George 
Goodwin Dewey, born in 1872, the year his mother died. The son gradu- 
ated from Princeton and began a business career in New York City. 

From 1868 to 1870 Lieutenant Commander Dewey was attached to 
the navy department. In the latter year he was given his first full com- 
mand, the Narragansett. In 1875 he was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander and assigned to duty on the light-house board, and later was 
sent to the Asiatic squadron in command of the Juniata. In 1884 he 
was made a captain and given command of the Dolphin, one of the first 
vessels of 'the new navy. 

In 1885 he was assigned to the Pensacola, the flagship of the Euro- 
pean sguadron. From 1888 until he was sent to the Asiatic squadron 
as commodore, lie performed shore duty, among other positions having 
been Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, and when promoted to the rank 
of commodore was also made president of the Board of Inspection and 

The commodore welcomed his assignment to the Asiatic squadron, 
as his health had not been good. The year following the battle of Ma- 
nila was a trying one for him, as he had to perform many delicate diplo- 
matic duties. 

Personally Admiral Dewey was a popular man among his acquaint- 
ances before his great victory gave him world-wide popularity. He is 
rather reserved with strangers, but very affable with friends. He is 
fond of music and pictures, but his reading has been largely of books 
relating to his profession. He has always been known as a tactician, 
and has mastered all the details of the naval profession. 

Admiral Dewey has the reputation of being one of the best dressed 
men in the American navy. He is always spick and span and insists 
upon his men and ships being kept in the same condition. 






HEN the American forces landed in the Philip- 
pines they were given a hearty welcome by the 
Filipinos, whom they treated as friends and allies. 
After the peace protocol had been signed, Aguin- 
aldo, the Filipino insurgent leader, who had been 
taken back to the islands from Hpng Kong by 
Admiral Dewey, sent commissioners to Paris and 
Washington for the purpose of obtaining recog- 
nition from the peace commission and Presi- 
dent McKinley of absolute independence of the 
Philippines. Aguinaldo's attitude at this time, while not openly hostile, 
was far from friendly, and when it became evident that the United 
States would insist upon the cession of the "islands to the American 
government it required great diplomacy and forbearance on the part of 
the American commanders to avoid an open conflict with the native 
troops. A clash was inevitable, however, and it came on the night of 
Saturday, February 4th. Two battles were the result — one in Manila 
and its suburbs and the other at Caloocan, a town to the north. 

Splendid descriptions of these two battles, were published by John 
F. Boss, a correspondent with the American forces. At the beginning 
of the engagement Mr. Boss was wounded in the wrist, but he con- 
tinued writing his report, which is as follows: 

When hostilities were opened the American army encircled Manila 
in two divisions, the First Brigade of the First Division being under 
command of Brigadier-General King, and the Second being commanded 
by Brigadier-General Ovenshine. The lines extended from the sea 
along the line of Spanish blockhouses to the Pasig River, in Samapaloo. 
The Second Division, under General McArthur, with the First Brigade, 



commanded by Brigadier-General Harrison G. Otis, and the Second 
Brigade, by Brigadier-General Hale, occupied a position to the north 
of the city from Pasig Eiver to the sea. 

The most extreme point inland occupied by American troops was 
the camp of the Nebraska Regiment at Santo Mesa, where the first 
fighting began at 8:45 o'clock last Saturday evening. The Nebraska 
outposts challenged and fired on an insurgent company which was ad- 
vancing into the neutral zone. 

It was not long before the entire insurgent line on the north of the 
city began a heavy fusillade. The charge was concentrated on the Ne- 
braska camp, which became untenable. Orders were given for the - 
regiment to open fire. Springfields flamed in the half moon all about 
the camp. The enemy's Mausers gave no flash. 

At 4 o'clock Sunday morning, with the shout, "Viva la republica!" 
the Filipinos tried to rush across the bridge over a road leading to the 
waterworks, opposite the American camp. One company of Nebraska 
men met the advancing insurgents at the bridge and drove them back. 
Twice the Filipinos, with indomitable pluck, charged upon the bridge 
again, but they w^re driven back each time. 

Lieutenant Webb, of Battery A, stationed on Mesa Hill, prayed for 
daylight, and when dawn came two guns of the Utah battery opened 
fire so near to the firing line that two men were killed at once. 

The plan for the Second Division was to sweep forward and carry 
a high position held by the enemy north of the Pasig River. The Colo- 
rado Volunteers, under command of Colonel Mecoy, rushed blockhouses 
No. 4 and No. 6, and the villages beyond San Juan bridge were cleared 
with shrapnel. The Nebraska men made their way over the bridge, 
crouching in pairs, amid the hissing and pattering of bullets. 

On the other side they were met with a surge of lead from the steep 
hill of San Juan. But they were followed closely by two Nordenfeldts, 
under charge of Lieutenant Gibbs. As these rumbled over the bridge a 
battalion of Tennessee troops approached and quickly followed across 
in columns of four, under fire. Colonel Smith fell from his horse and 
died of apoplexy at the moment of the charge. 

Up the hill the artillery and infantry scrambled, digging with their 
hands and feet. Nothing could stand before them. It was a grand 

At 12 o'clock noon our men took the reservoirs at the top of the 
hill. Further to the left, on the heights, was Binando Church. In order 


to take this the Americans did not have to advance up a steep incline, 
but fcould make a gradual ascent over two miles of rough country. 
Barbed wire impeded their advance. 

The Utah guns followed the advance of the troops step by step to 
clear the way. The Third Artillery moved along dikes through a cul 
de sac, with swamps on either side, and got into the open, losing twenty- 
five men. Two batteries then swung to the right, un,der Captain O'Hara, 
going into the open like veterans, and drove from the Chinese Church 
the insurgents who were pouring a cutting fire on the Montana and 
Pennsylvania troops while they were coming up the hill through a 
cemetery toward Binando Church. 

Colonel Frost, commanding the South Dakota Kegiment, swung 
that body around from the left and carried two insurgent redoubts, 
wHere thirty insurgents were killed. The South Dakota and a part of 
the Pennsylvania troops then took the Binando Church. 

The Concord, from the bay, shelled the woods near the shore, and 
the Kansas men, followed by the Montana troops and supported by one 
gun, moved on Saturday night along the Caloocan road. The eneniy 
charged them six times, coming within 100 yards, but they were steadily- 
pushed back until by Sunday night the American line had advanced 
three miles. Thus, all along the Second Division had little difficulty in 
driving the enemy, who fought well behind trenches, but, once dislodged, 
fled in panic. 

Against the First Division, south of the city, perhaps the fighting 
was hardest. The insurgents showed wonderful pluck, under the com- 
mand of General Noviel. 

During Saturday night everything was quiet, but at 7:30 o'clock 
on Sunday morning from Artillery Knoll — General Anderson's head- 
quarters—the Sixth Artillery opened fire, and from the bay to block- 
house No. 14 — where the American troops entered Manila — ^the ground 
was held by the North Dakota Eegiment and the Fourteenth Infantry. 

The Monadnock, from her place in the bay, pounded the insurgents 
with her big guns. 

Captain Murphy, in command of the Fourteenth Battalion, began 
fighting at 8 o'clock in the morning. So stubborn was the resistance 
at this point tliat he only succeeded in taking blockhouse No. 14, 400 
yards distant, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 

The line of the First Division on Sunday night extended from the 
bay at Pasay to the Pasig Eiver, at San Pedro and Macati. Further 


inland our line ran along. the stream to Triega. Three miles in front 
was an open country. One and a half miles diagonally across the line 
Colohel Smith, with three companies of California trpops, one Wash- 
ington and four Wyoming companies, was ordered to advance toward 
San Pedro and Macati. General King was to move forward as soon as 
Colonel Smith came opposite. 

The troops waded the stream and marched into the open as if 
they were on drill. From the stone houses, nipa huts and earthworks 
the natives poured bullets upon the Americans, while Battery p of the 
Sixth Artillery, Dyer's and Hawthorne's separate Montana Battery con- 
tinued to shell the enemy magnificently over the heads of the advancing 

At San Pedro and Macati the position of the insurgents seemed 
impregnable, but Lieutenant Haven, of Company A, engineer corps, 
forced a way back of the town, and by plucky work made the position 
untenable for the enemy. 

This place is called "Bloody Lane" by the Spaniards. 

Lieutenant Michael fell, crying: "Never mind me; go on!" 

Lieutenant Miles then took the lead. One hundred yards from the 
blockhouse the fire was so hot he called for volunteers, and with eight 
men he took it, the insurgents going out as his men went in. 

General Ovenshine was ordered to dislodge the enemy, in Murphy's 
front. He formed a brigade of the Fourteenth Infantry on the right of 
Murphy's position, with volunteers on the right of the Fourteenth In- 
fantry, and Troops E, and L, of the Fourth- Cavalry, dismounted, on 
the left of Murphy's men. 

All the men to the i^ight of Murphy's position wheeled to the left 
across an open field till a thicket was reached. Then they opened fire 
and the enemy finally was dislodged. The engagement was hot, but 
the fire of our men was irresistible. 

General Ovenshine, with his brigade, then proceeded to Pasay, 
which he entered without resistance. 

Washington troops swam the estuary under fire, and later the 
Idaho troops, with one company of Washington men, swept the insur- 
gents toward the left. 

One hundred of the Filipinos jumped into the Pasig Eiver, but only 
twenty succeeded in getting across the stream. 

The village was burned on every side to dislodge the guerrillas. 
The smoke of fire and battle encircled the city. 


An imjjrovised river gunboat, with Captain Kandolph, of the Third 
Artillery, commanding, riddled Santa Ana with its guns. The Idaho 
troops charged the bastion fort, and Major McConville was killed. The 
Krupp guns were captured. Sixty-five dead insurgents Were found in 
one heap. The rice fields were dotted wijh dead and wounded Filipinos. 
The hospital corps did splendid work for both friend and enemy. 

The insurgents, once dislodged, ran miles back into the country, all 
along the line swept by the First Division. 

On Monday afternoon the Nebraska battalions, the Twenty-third 
Infantry. and the Tennessee troops. General Hale commanding, with 
four guns, under Major Young, of Utah, swept the country for four 
miles to the pumping station. ' They shelled the insurgents from hill to 
hill. At the foot of the second hill was found the stripped body of Dr. 
Young, of Utah, wha rode through- the lines by mistake. His horse had 
been shot and twelve empty revolver cartridges were found by his side. 

The insurgents retired, firing as they went, and at 5 o'clock in the 
afternoon on Monday the pumping station had been taken. The cylinder 
heads had been removed by the insurgents, but they were found later 
in the coal works and are now in good condition. 

On Tuesday General Anderson moved his left up to the Lagana 
Pasig, which surrendered. 


For several days train loads of insurgents were seen landing at 
Caloocan, north of Manila, and on Friday the Concord shelled the town. 
General MacArthur then sent the Kansas and Montana troops and the 
Third Artillery to take the place. In a splendid charge the Kansas men 
went through a jungle near shore. 

The insurgent's fought from tree to tree, but were steadily driven 
back by the heavy infantry fire. The Montana troops and the Third 
Artillery advanced into the open for two miles without shelter. The 
insurgents fired from the edge of the Woods and the strong earthworks 
in Caloocan. Four guns of Battery A, Utah, and two guns of Dyer's 
Battery, under Lieutenant Fleming, shelled the position accurately, and 
under the splendid charge of the infantrynlen the insurgents fled. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace was shot through the lungs, but he 
will recover. 

Our men rushed in Caloocan with a shout. The American flag was 


raised on the church at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. The insurgents fled 
in every direction, followed by enthusiastic American soldiers. Their 
charge could not be stopped until they had reached a point a mile be- 
yond Caloocan. The town was burned to dislodge sharpshooters. 
Our losses were three killed and thirty-eight wounded. 


Other accounts of the two battles with the Filipinos furnish some 
dramatic incidents not contained in Mr. Boss' report. 

In the engagement there were involved 33,000 men, of which num- 
ber 13,000 were Americans and 20,000 'Uativep. -It is estimated that 
2,000 Filipinos were slain, 3,500 were wounded, and 500 taken prisoners. 
They were slaughtered by the American fire, which was both deadly 
and accurate. 

Among those who fought gallantly in the. face of the American 
artillery fire was a tribe of natives known as Ygorotes, armed with 
bows and arrows. After the battle their chief was found in a hospital 
with a shattered thjgh. He admitted that he never had seen modern 
artillery and was ignorant of its effects until he and his followers met 
the disastrous fire of Sunday morning. The chief is bitterly incensed 
against the Tagalos for placing the Ygorotes in front of the American - 
battery, under the pretense that they were sent to occupy a post of 
honor, and he intimates that the Ygorotes will avenge this treachery 
when the survivors return north. 


The force under Brigadier-General M. D. Miller, which had been 
sent to the island of Panay, captured the principal seaport of Hollo on 
Saturday, February 11th, assisted by warships from Admiral Dewey's 

In the morning of that day General Miller sent an ultimatum to 
the commander of the rebels on shore, notifying him that it was his 
intention to take Iloilo, by force if necessary. 

Noncombatants and foreigners were warned to leave the town with- 
in 24 hours. The rebels were also warned that they must make no fur- 
ther belligerent preparations. 

The gunboat Petrel was then towed to a position close in shore 


and near the rebel fort, while the cruiser Boston took up her station at 
the other end of the town. Friday passed quietly. During the day many 
refugees left the town of Iloilo. The majority of them were taken on 
board foreign ships lying in the harbor. 

At 3 o'clock on the mornjing of Saturday, February 11th, the gunboat 
Petrel signaled to the cruiser Boston that the rebels were working in 
their trenches. In return the Petrel was ordered to fire warning shots 
upon the town from her 3-pounders. This was done, and the rebels 
replied with a harmless fusillade. The Boston and^ the Petrel then 
bombarded the rebels' trenches, completely clearing them of their oc- 
cupants in a very short space of time. 

Soon after the bombardment began, flames broke out simultaneous- 
ly in various parts of the town. Thereupon 48 marines, acting as in- 
fantry and artillery, were landed from the cruiser Boston, and a com- 
pany was sent ashore from the gunboat Petrel. These detachments 
marched straight into the town of Iloilo, and, hoisting the stars and 
stripes over the fort, took possession of the place in the name of the 
United States, 

The capture of the town and its defenses having been accomplished, 
the marines and soldiers who had been sent ashore proceeded to the task 
of saving the American, English and German consulates from destruc- 
tion by the fire which was raging among the frail and inflammable 
buildings of the town. The Swiss consul's residence, which was in the 
same row as the consulates named, was burned. The entire Chinese 
and native sectiojQs of the town were destroyed, but foreign mercantile 
:, property escaped with slight damage. 

There was some desultory firing by the enemy in the outskirts of 
Iloilo, but not a single American was injured. 

General Miller's force consisted of the Sixth United States Artillery, 
the Tennessee Volunteers and the Eighteenth United States Infantry. 


The night of February 22d was one of terror for the residents of 
Manila. The rebels made good their oft-repeated threats to the extent 
of burning acres of buildings, wounding an officer and three men by 
firing through windows during the excitement. 

At 8 o'clock an incendiary fire occurred in a block of brick build- 
ings occupied by Chinese on the Calle La Coste, in the Santa Cruz di^- 


trict. A stiff breeze was blowing, and the inflammability of the struc- 
tures caused the blaze to spread with alarming rapidity. 

Shortly after midnight another big fire was started in the Tondo 
district, where the natives are thickest, and when the firemen and sol- 
diers attempted to work a regular fusillade of rifle and revolver shots 
was fired from the windows and roofs of the buildings. 

The firemen, escorted by soldiers^ proceeded to plean out the houses. 
While the fire was unheeded. The Thirteenth Minnesota was re-enforced 
by detachments from the Third Infantry, the Second Oregon, the Third 
Artillery and the Tenth Pennsylvania. 

Bullets flew in every direction in almost every street in the Tdndo 
and Binondo districts, causing the most intense excitement. 

Captain Robinson, of Company C, Thirteenth Minnesota, and three 
men were wounded. 

Many timid persons, imagining that the rebels had effected an en- 
trance through the American lines and were advancing into the city, 
hurried frantically from the hotels and houses only to be stopped at the 
flrst corner by a guard. The sounding of a native bugle call, imme- 
diately preceding the firing, lent color to the story. 

Thousands of Chinese crossed the bridges and plazas under fire, 
hurrying with their bundles to the Chinese consulate. 

All night long the fire spi'ead through the Tondo district, sweep- 
ing away rows of houses and devastating acres of territory. 

The damage was inestimable. 

With daylight punitive measures were decided upon, and the 
Americans, although tired after their sleepless night's work, soon 
cleared the district of every native after a slight resistance. 



OLLOWING the events narrated in the foregoing 
chapter Major-General Otis inaugurated a gen- 
eral forward moTement to the north with the idea 
of crushing the rebels in their stronghold of 
Malabon and ending the war with one decisive 
battle. McArthur's division was selected for this 
work and his advance was marked by a succession 
of skirmishes and the capture of every town be- 
tween Manila and the rebel capital of Malolos. 
While many of these skirmishes were marked by exciting and dramatic 
incidents, the only engagehients that could be dignified by the title of 
battles were those of Malabon and Malolos. 

The former was fought on March 25. Eleven thousand of the pick~ 
of the American soldiers were arrayed on one side and practically the 
entire Filipino army on the other. The former moved out toward Mala- 
bon at daybreak in a line five miles long. Elaborate preparations 
were made for the movement. Gen. Wheaton's brigade was placed in 
the rear and Gen. Harrison Gray Otis' and Gen. Hall's were massed 
behind Gen. Hale's. Under the cover of the darkness Gen. Otis' and 
Gen, Hale's brigades left their trenches and advanced close upon the 
enemy's line without being detected, Gen. Wheaton's and Gen. Hall's 
brigade occupying the vacated positions. 

At 4 o'clock the American troops breakfasted, and the Filipinos, 
noticing the camp fires, their buglers called to arms. 

At daylight Gen. Otis' and Gen. Hall's brigade advanced from La 



Loma church straight through the rebel lines, cutting the enemy's force 
in two. 

Upon this occasion, the rebels adopted the American tactics of 
holding their fire until the attackers were about 1,000 yards distant. 
The rebels also fired lower than usual. 

The United States troops drove the rebels straight up the valley, 
the Minnesota and Montana volunteers fighting like veterans^ flanking 
them from the east. 

The enemy occupied a crescent-shaped, heavily wooded position 
when the fighting began, but the Kansas and Montana and the Third 
artillery shelled them from their stronghold and forced them to fight in 
the open. 

The movement of the American troops swept the insurgents back 
toward Malabon. The American troops advanced on the double-quick, 
yelling fiercely and occasionally dropping in the grass and firing by 
volley. The natives stood until the Americans were within 200 yards 
of their position and then broke and ran for the woods. Thirty of them 
were killed in the outskirts and 70 on the roads. 

The Montana and Kansas troops met the hottest resistance in a 
strip from which the rebels have greatly worried the Americans recently 
during the night time. 

Ninety minutes after the start — at 6 o'clock — the whole front for a 
distance of three miles to the north had been clear. Gen. Hale's brigade 
had simultaneously swept in a northwesterly direction, routing the 
enemy and burning the town of San Francisco Del Monte and a number 
of scattered huts. The line was then opposite Novaleche, the artillery 
advancing along a good road from La Loma to Novaleche, the wagons 
carrying pontoons, telegraph supplies, and ammunition following. The 
infantry moved in splendid order. 

Smoke from the burning huts marked the line of the American 
advance. Ambulances and horse litters, led by Chinese, brought in 
the wounded, among whom were a few Filipinos. 

The Americans .who were wounded endured their injuries bravely, 
one group which had been brought into the hospital singing "(Com- 

The Pennsylvania troops took nine prisoners, among them a great 
naked captain of the Macabebee tribe and one Japanese. All the pris- 
oners were greatly terrified, expecting to be executed immediately. 


The Americans fired volleys with terrible effect and then rushed 
forward, cheering and carrying everything before them. 

Once through, Gen. McArthur's division was swung to the left, 
-driving the rebels away on all sides. 

They captured the towns of Polo and Novaliches on the left and 
San Francisco de Monte and Mariquina on the right, clearing the rebel 
trenches in front of the line north from the river to Caloocan. 

They also secured possession of the railroad, practically cornering 
the flower of Aguinaldo's, army at Malabon and in the foothills at Slnga- 
lon, 20 miles apart. 

^. The troops engaged were the Third artillery, as infantry^ the Mon- 
tana, Kansas, Pennsylvania, Wyoming, Colorado, South Dakota, Min- 
nesota, and Oregon volunteers, the Third, Fourth, Seventeenth, and 
Twenty-second regulars, the Utah artillery battalion, and Twenty-third 

The Americans lost 16 killed and 130 wounded; the Filipino^ lost 
125 killed and 500 wounded. 

On March 28, a fierce engagement took place at Marilao, which was 
captured. An incidtot of this battle was a brilliant charge of the 
South Dakota regiment. 

Garcia, a Filipino general, came down from Dagupan by train with 
1,000 riflemen and 4,000 Bolomen and took positions at Marilao. A 
river was between the American and the insurgent forces. 

The South Dakota volunteers and the Third artillery, acting as 

infantry, were thrown forward. The South Dakotas charged brilliantly 

-across an open space on the east of the railway to the edge of some 

woods. They lost 10 killed and 11 wounded, including three lieutenants. 

The Third artillery on the edge of the railroad charged and lost nine 
men wounded, two mortally. 

On the left the insurgents in a trench east of the river offered a 
stubborn resistance. Lieut. Ontchlow, with two guns, forced 30 insur- 
gents in a long trepch on the opposite side of the river to surrender at 
the close quarters of 100 yards. The rest of the insurgents got out with 
severe loss. Ninety dead insurgents were counted. 

The insurgents continued to retreat toward the north burning each 
town they evacuated. 

On the night o^f March 30 Mc Arthur was on the outskirts of Majolos, 


the Filipino capital, where it was supposed Aguinaldo would make his 
final stand. 

At dawn, March 31, the line of battle was formed* Its order was 
this: The Third artillery and the Montana and Kansas regiments on 
the right; on the left the South Dakota and Nebraska regiments and 
the Utah battery. 

The battle opened with a bombardment of the trenches in front. 
For half an hour our shells fell in a shower. From the huts the natives 
threw knives at the Kansas men^ while showers of arrows fell upon our 

Our right wing, unbr;oken, advanced over fields and through streams 
and thickets, taking the main trenches south of the city. They found 
them deserted. The condition of the rebel earthworks gave proof of the 
wonderful accuracy of our artillery fire. 

A few trembling men came out to meet the advancing, line of 
bristling steel. They said that the Filipino army had gone by the rail- 
way toward the interior. 

The Kansas men led the left as the American troops reached the 
city. The insurgent palace was burning and there were puffs of smoke 
from all quarters of the town. 

At the end of the main street there was a stone barricade. Scat- 
tering bold spirits among the insurgents, concealed behind this, poured 
a hot fire into the Kansas ranks. But Colonel Funston, leaping from 
his horse and swinging his hat, yelled encouragement to his men. 

With the Colonel at their head the Kansas men dashed over the 
barricade and down the street with terrific yells, firing volleys as they 
ran,. The Kansas boys follow(?d the Colonel as he leaped the barricade, 
and were with him when he reached the square where the walls, of the 
fiaming palace were crashing in. 

Sweeping the square, the Kansans advanced to the other side of 
the town, where they rescued a hundred Chinamen who were being 
driven to the woods by the Filipinos under threats to cut their throatsl 

The little city was a scene of desolation. The American flag was 
raised at 10:00 A. M. beside the still burning palace, while the troops 
cheered lustily. 

The decisive victories of General McArthur all the way from Manila 
to Malolos, and, the capture of the Filipino capital had the effect of 


scattering the insurgent forces and reducing the warfare to a guerrilla 

Aguinaldo and the members of the Filipino Congress, after Malolos 
had been set on fire, decamped for parts unknown, but presumably to 
a town called San Fernando. Many of his troops deserted him, and 
v/hile the rebellion was not ended, it received a blow from which it 
could not recover. 

Merely a friendly call. — Minneapolis Journal. 

The avowed purpose of 
the Maine in entering Ha- 
vana harbor was to make 
a friendly call, but as is 
well known, she went pre- 
pared to protect American 
interests with shot and 
shell if necessary. Uncle 
Sam, heavily armed, drop- 
ping in on Captain- General 
Blanco for a " friendly call," cleverly satirizes the incident. 

When the people 
were demanding that 
the government should 
take quick action con- 
cerning the destruction 
of the Maine, certain 
administration papers 
were telling them to 
"keep cool and wait." 
The papers that fa- 

"Tell vour comrades (in Havana harbor) to 'keep cool and wait.' " r^ 

—Chicago Tribune. 

freely charged the ad- 
ministration press with advocating delay in the interest of 
Wall street, and the cartoonist has depicted the situation by 
showing Uncle Sam at a stock ticker telling the ghost of a 
Maine sailor to tell his dead comrades to keep cool and wait, 

How long will it stand the pressure?— Chicago Record. 

President McKinley had hard work to prevent radical 
action by Congress pending his controversy with Spain 
concerning Cuba. Chief Engineer McKinley in the above 
picture is wondering how long the congressional boiler 
will stand the pressure of pent up steam (oratory). 

Patiently awaiting the verdict.— Syracuse Herald. 

Uncle Sam is standing on his southern coast, looking 
toward the sunken Maine. He is waiting for the report of 
the board of inquiry. The floral anchor is his tribute to 
the* brave sailors lost on the Maine. Upon the report of 
the board of inquiry depends whether he will take up the 
peace wreath or the musket. 



Speaker Reed to McKinley. — "Will, you've got to bank the fire some way or other; 
Ican't hold in this steam much longer,"— Minneapolis Tribune. 

Following the destruction of the Maine Speaker Reed 
cooperated with President McKinley in preventing Con- 
gress from making a precipitate declaration of war. The 
picture represents the dome of the capitol with the Speaker 
and the President vainly trying to keep down the war 

Pride goeth before destruction, — New York World. 

To Uncle Sam's ultimatum that Cuba should be free 
Spain refused to make any concessions, being largely 
restrained by a false national pride^ 

This picture represents Uncle Sam holding back the 
dogs of war. 

o n 




Chicago Tribune. 

The time and date shown 
on the clock mark the decla- 
ration of war against Spain. 
President McKinley seizing 
Spain by the nape of the 
neck is the "man" to whom 
the pictm-e refers. 


"No, thank you, gentlemen; too many cooks would spoil the broth." — Boston Globe. 

Before the outbreak of hostilities with Spain the foreign 
ambassadors and ministers at Washington tendered their serv- 
ices for the adjustment of the dispute concerning Cuba, but 
were politely and firmly informed tliat the United States would 
not consider outside interference. 





Congress heard from.— Minneapolis Journal. 

The "first gun/' or more properly speaking the "first 
cannon," of the war was Congressman Joseph Cannon's 
bill appropriating $50,000,000 for national defense. 

As all the modern fight- 
ing ships are propelled by 
steam, coal is as essential 
as powder to naval success. 
The fact that the United 
States had an ample coal 
supply suggested the idea 
that a navy v^ith an ample 
coal scuttle was invincible. 

A vessel that makes our navy invincible. — St Louis 

This illustration 
shows that when Uncle 
Sam called for troops 
more hands were held 
out for guns than there 
were guns to give. 

Johnny, get your gun! — Minneapolis JournaL 


New York Herald. 

This cartoon appeared 
immediately after the bat- 
tle of Manila. The pun- 
ishment Spain received 
in that battle will forever 
t<^^? '^' cause her to "remember 
the Maine." 


Blanco y Negro, Madrid. 

Blanco y Negro, meaning 
Black and White, in English, 
is a popular illustrated paper 
in Madrid. This is its car- 
icaturist's idea of President 

The Manila incident reflected in the faces of Europe. — New York Bee. 

Austria has a sinister expression ; Germany doesn't 
know what to make of it ; England is pleased ; France is 
surprised; Russia is displeased, and Italy is amazed. 

What will he do with it ? — New York Herald. 

When a person has acquired something that is of no 
use to him and is a constant source of care and expense 
we say that he has "an elephant on his hands." The 
artist thinks that the Philippine Islands are Uncle Sam's 

How Dewey is entrapped.— Syracuse Herald. 

Before definite news 
had been received from 
Admiral Dewey's fleet 
at Manila, the Spaniards 
tried to make it appear 
that he had been led 
into a trap, but it was 
the Spanish rats (ships) 
that were caught in the 
trap (blockade), while 

Dewey played the part of a cunning mouser. 

Uncle Sam—" I'll just frame this."— Denver Post. 

The look of admiration on the face of Uncle Sam as 
he gazes at a picture of Dewey, represents the national admi- 
ration for the hero of Manila when the people heard of 
his victory. 

J^ ip 


will the big sentinel let him slip in at last? — Minneapolis Journal. 

The admittance of Hawaii into the Union was vigor- 
ously opposed by Speaker Eeed — the big sentinel in the 
above picture — but with the countersign of "a war necessity" 
the Pacific Kepublic skipped into Uncle Sam's dominion 
very much in the manner depicted in the above cartoon. 



President Dole— "Accept a little gift from me— you might need it in your business/ 
— Minneapolis Tribune. 

Immediately after the declaration of war the Republic 
of Hawaii, through President Dole, officially offered itself 
to the United States government — which offer was ulti- 
mately accepted. 


Owner of Spanish poultry— "GueSs I'll kill those fowls, anyway."— I,onclon Punch. 

The patriotic farmers of Westchester County, N. Y., 
had such an intense hatred of Spain during the war that 
many of them killed the Spanish fowls they owned. 


"Just wait till I come up, then "Just wait till I come down, 

I'Ugetatold VankeeSam!" and I'll show the Yankee bog 

what a Spanish warrior can dol" 
— BUadderadatscb, Berlin. 

Throughout the war the Spaniards were constantly 
boasting of what they were going to do, if the Yankees 
would only wait. A German paper cleverly satirizes these 
boasts in the above cartoon. 

Would make an excellent addition to our museum.— Philadelphia Inquirer. 

No Spanish governor-general of Cuba was ever so 
thoroughly hated and detested as Weyler. The above 
picture, representing him as an ape, is probably the most 
expressive form in which public contempt for him could 
have been shown, 

One result of the war 
was to completely reunite 
the North and South and 
reveal the sympathy and 
friendship between Great 
Britain and the United 

If the war brings nothing else, lor this we are thankful. 
—New York Herald. 

President McKinley 
for many years has 
been represented as 
Napoleon, both on ac- 
count of his remarka- 
ble resemblance to the 
"little corporal" and 
because his successful 

Commander-in-chief.— Washington Post. 

methods in politics 
compared with those 
of Napoleon in war. He is shown in the above picture in 
the character of Napoleon leading the armies of the 
United States to victory. 



Edited by General Blanco.— Minneapolis Tribune. 

The bulletins issued by Captain- General Blanco, of 
Cuba, relating- to battles in the island, always claimed 
great victories for the Spanish troops. 

1. — "You can't unbuckle that shoe !" 

2. — Cervera bottles up Schley. 
—Don Quijote, Madrid. 

3.— McKinley's condition. 

1. — Spain, as a fair Senorita, is informing. President 
McKinley that he has not sufficient strength to unbuckle one 
of her shoes. All the cartoons in the Spanish papers rep- 
resented the president with the ears of a pig. . 

2. — The Spanish papers reported that Cervera had 
Schley's squadron bottled up. 

3. — The same papers reported Spanish victories at 
Porto Rico, Cienfuegos and Santiago. 

Don Quijote, from which the above cartoons are taken, 
is one of the principal comic papers of Madrid. 

"Pinned."— London Punch. 

The above cartoon represents the situation at the time Spain 
sued for peace. With her fleets destroyed and her ajmy .hemmed 
in at Santiago, Spain was in the exact position of the toreador 
(bull fighter) in the picture, pinned by the (American) bison. 

The above cartoon is from the principal comic paper of 
Mexico. The American squadron represented as a cat while 
the Spanish squadron in Santiago harbor is represented as a 
mouse, shows the relative positions of the ships of Admirals 
Schley and Cervera before the battle. 

Our friend, the toUgate keeper.— Chicago Journal. 

When Admiral Camara's squadron reached the Suez canal 
on the way to Manila it was stopped by the British authorities 
and required to pay a large amount in toll, and pay again when 
the squadron returned. 

The sea serpent that shortly will be seen off the Spanish coast— Boston Globe. 

Just previous to Spain's request for peace President 
McKinley ordered a flying squadron assembled, under command 
of Commodore Watson, which was to be sent across the Atlantic 
to bombard the Spanish coast. The news created great con- 
sternation among the Spaniards at home. 



The Cuban — " Say, ain't it time this ere shindig was stopped ? Where in Cuba Libre 
do I come in?'' — Syracuse Herald. 

After the surrender of Santiago the American and 
Spanish soldiers mingled together on very friendly terms, 
which excited the jealousy of the Cubans and caused 
them to inquire as in the above cartoon, "Where do I 
come in ?" 

Uncle Sam~" Now run along home and keep out of mischief."— Chicago Tribune. 

When the Spanish evacuation of Cuba took place 
the Spanish troops were sent back home in transports 
furnished and paid for by the United States government. 


The wild rush to surrender on the part of those Porto Ricao towns portends another 
Spanish victory.— Chicago News. 

During General Miles' campaign in Porto Rico the 
Spanish press daily recorded Spanish victories in 
that island. The facts were that the natives, headed by 
the officials, marched out to meet and welcome the Amer- 



Quite a factor iu international politics nowadays.- 


-Philadelphia Inquirer. 

Hold on there, Dewey ! The war is over !— Chicago Journal. 

Admiral Dewey in co- 
operation with the troops 
of General Merritt com- 
pelled the surrender of 
the city of Manila the 
day after the peace proto- 
col was signed. Uncle 
Sam could not notify the 
fighting admiral in time 
to prevent him from 
attacking the Spanish 

"Uncle Sam, he pays the freight."— New York Herald. 

When the Spanish troops evacuated Cuba and Porto Rico 
they were shipped back to Spain in transports hired and paid 
for by the United States. The above cartoon shows Uncle Sam 
making a consignment of Spanish soldiers to Sagasta. 

President McKinley, at the helm of the Ship of State, 
brings her safe into the haven of Peace and Honor, while 
the American Eagle aloft proclaims victory. 

"Adios, Sefior; you keep the bag."— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

In the peace negotiations Spain made a strong, efPort 
to have the United States assume the Cuban debt, but 
without success. The American government sailed away with 
the colonies and left Spain to carry the load in the bag — the 
Cuban debt. 


John Bull — "It's really most extraordinary what training will do. Why, only the other 
day I thought that man unable to support himself." — Philadelphia Inquirer. 

The sudden strength displayed by Uncle Sam was a 
great surprise to Europe. Even his friend and kinsman, 
John Bull, did not think him ca.pable of such an athletic 
performance as he is giving in the above picture, standing" 
on the firm support of the army and navy. 


Uncle Sam's next duty.— Minneapolis Tribune. 

The long trip of the Oregon around the horn would 
have been shortened thousands of miles if the proposed 
Nicaragua, canal had been, constructed. The cartoon shows 
that Uncle Sam could easily cut the canal and suggests 
that it is his duty to do so.