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Chau Ju-kua 

On the Cliiiiese and. Arab Trade 

in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. 


His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth 
and thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu>^fan>^chi, 

Translated from the Chinese and Annotated 






Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 

Vass. Ostr., Kinth Liao, 12. 

rrinted by order of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 
September 1911. Permanent Secretary S. d'Oldenburg, 


Prcf eice. 

Chau Ju-kua (^ f^ jS), the author of the Chu-fan-cM (^ ^ ;^), 
i. e. «A Description of Barbarous Peoples», or «Records of Foreign Nations», 
deserves to be named among the most prominent writers on the ethnography 
and trade of his time. As throwing light on the mediaeval trade with the 
Far East, then in the hands of Arab or Persian merchants, his notes com- 
pete successfully with those of Marco Polo and the early Arab and Christian 
travellers. The authors of this volume have, therefore, endeavoured to 
furnish a translation, illustrated by notes derived from other sources, which 
it is hoped will place readers in the position to fully realize the value of 
this new Chinese source on an interesting historical subject, 

The Ghu-fan-cM, is a rare and expensive work, obtainable only as part 
of certain voluminous collections of reprints. For the benefit of Sinological 
readers, therefore, Chinese characters and passages have been frequently 
added, and this has increased the difficulty of printing the book, credit for 
which is due to the Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at 
St. Petersburg. 

Friearich Hirth. W. W. nockhill. 



Preface V 

Table of Contents VII— X 

Introduction 1 — 39 

PART 1 41—190 

Preface by the Chinese Editor 43 

1 . Tongking (Kiau-chi) 45 

2. Annam (Chan-ch'5ng) 47 

8. Panraug (Pin-t'ung-lung) 51 

4. Kamboja (Chon-la) N 52 

5. Ligor (?), Malay Peninsula (Tong-liu-mei) 57 

6. Pagan, Burma (P'u-kan) 58 

7. Palembang, Eastern Sumatra (San-fo-ts'i) 60 

8. Kwantan (?), Malay Peninsula (Tan-ma-ling) 67 

9. Lengkasuka, Malay Peninsula (Ling-ya-ssi[-kia]) 68 

10. Beranang, Malay Peninsula (Fo-lo-an) 69 

1 1 . Sunda, Western Java (Sin-t'o) 70 

12. Kampar, Eastern Sumatra (Kien-pi) 71 

13. Lambri and Island of Ceylon (Lan-wu-li, Si-lan) 72 

14. Java (ShO-p'o) 75 

15. Central Java (Su-ki-tan) 82 

16. Malabar (Nan-p'i) 87 

17.. Guzerat (Hu-ch'a-la) 92 

18. Malwa (Ma-lo-hua) 93 

19. Chola Dominion, Coromandel Coast (Chu-lien) 93 

20. Baghdad (Ta-ts'in) 102 

21. India (T'i6n-chu) 110 



22. The Arabs (Ta-shi) 114 

23. Mecca (Ma-Ma) 124 

24. Zanguebar (Ts'6ng-pa) 126 

25. Berbera Coast (Pi-p'a-lo) 128 

26. Sohar (?) (Wu-pa) 130 

27. Somali Coast (Chung-li) 130 

28. Oman (Yung-man) 133 

29. Island of Kish (Ki-shii) 133 

30. Baghdad (Pai-ta) 135 

31. Basra (Pi-ssi-lo) 137 

32. Ghazni (Ki-tz'ii-ni) 138 

33. Mosul (Wu-ssi-li) 140 

34. Rum, Asia Minor (Lu-mei) 141 

35. Murabit, Southern Spain (Mu-lan-p'i) 142 

36. Misr, Egypt (Wu-ssi-li) 144 

37. Alexandria (O-kon-t'o) 146 

38. Countries in the Sea . .147—154 

Andaman Islands (Yen-t'o-man) 147 

Pemba and Madagascar (K'un-lun-ts'ong-k'i) 149 

Malay «Men of the Sea» (Sha-hua-kung) 150 

The Amazons (The Countries of Women) 151 

Besi (?), Sumatra (Po-ssi) 152 

Djabulsa, the Land of the Setting Sun (Ch'a-pi-sha) 153 

Sicily (Ssi-kia-li-y6) 153 

Mogreb-el-aksa (Mo-k'ie-la) 154 

39. Borneo (P'o-ni) 155 

40. Philippine Islands (Ma-i) 159 

41. Islands of Calamidn, Busuanga, Palawan, — Philippine Islands 

(San-su) 161 

42. Northern Formosa (Liu-k'iu) 162 

43. Southern Formosa (P'i-sho-ye) 165 

44. Korea (Sin-lo) 166 

45. Japan (Wo) 170 

46. Island of Hainan (Hai-nan) 175 



PART n 191—239 

1 . Camphor (nau-td) 193 

2. Frankincense (Ju-Uang) 195 

3. Myrrh (mo-yau) 197 

4. Dragon's blood Qiue-Ue) 197 

5. Sweet Benzoin {kin-yen-Jiiang) 198 

6. Dammar (tu-nau-Mang) 199 

7. Liquid Storax (su-ho-hiang-yu) 200 

8. Benzoin (an-si-Jiiang) 201 

9. Gardenia Flowers {cM-td-hua) 202 

10. Rose-water {tsHang-wei-shui) 203 

11. Grharu-wood (ch'dn-hiang, etc.) 204 — 208 

12. Sandal-wood (fan-Mang) 208 

13. Cloves (ting-Jiiang) 209 

14. Nutmegs (jou-tdu-k^ou) 210 

15. Laka-wood (kiang-chon-Mang) 211 

16. Musk-wood (sho-hiang-mu) 212 

17. Jack-fruit (po-lo-mi) 212 

18. Areca-nuts (pin-lang) 213 

19. Cocoanut {ye-tzi) 214 

20. Oak-galls {mo-sM-td) 215 

2 1 . Ebony (wu-mon-td) 216 

22. Sapan-wood (su-mu) 217 

23. Cotton (ki-pei) 217 

24. Mats (ye-sin-tien) 220 

25. Putchuck (mu-Mang) 221 

26. Cardamoms (pai-tou-k'du) 221 

27. Pepper (hu-tsiau) 222 

28. Cubebs (pi-tong-kHe) 224 

29. Asa-foetida [a-wei) 224 

30. Aloes Qu-wei) 225 

31. Coral-tree (shan-hu-shu) 226 

32. Opaque Glass {liu-U) 227 

33. Cat's-eyes (mau-'ir-fsing) 228 

34. Pearls (chon-chu) 229 




35. Ch'o-k'u 231 

36. Ivory (siang-ya) 232 

37. Rhinoceros Horns (si-Mo) 233 

38. Castoreum, Civet (wu-na-ts'i) 234 

39. Kingfishers' feathers (ts'ui-mau) 235 

40. Parrots (ying-wu) 236 

41. Ambergris (lung-Men) 237 

42. Tortoise-shell (tai-mei) 238 

43. Bees-wax (huang-la) 238 

General Index 241 — 267 

Index of Unusual Foreign Names and Terms occurring in Chinese 

Texts 269 — 285 

Errata and Addenda 286 



"When King Solomon, in the early part of the tenth century B. C, had 
opened relations with the Saheans of the Southern coast of Arabia, the 
land of Punt of the Egyptians, he sent his ships from the head of the Red 
Sea to the land of Ophir, — generally believed to have been Guzerat or the 
s Malabar coast. Already at that remote time trade by sea was active between 
the ports on the south coast of Arabia, the principal of which was where 
Aden now stands, and Western India. The ships of the Sabeans carried the 
products of Arabia and India to the heads of the Red Sea and the Persian 
Gulf. By the former route they reached the cities of the Phoenicians; by the 

10 latter they came to Media and Nineveh. 

Although some accurate particulars concerning the sea-route between 
the Indus and the head of the Red Sea must have reached the Greeks through 
the voyages of Skylax of Karyanda, made about 512 B. C, it was not until 
Alexander the Great's invasion of India in 327 B. C, that real knowledge 

15 of this vast region and of the sea-route leading there was given to the Western 

world. Notwithstanding the fact that the writers of the time of Alexander 

make no mention of the considerable coasting trade which was carried on in 

their time between the West and India through the medium of the Sabeans, 

; they were certainly aware of its existence. We learn from Arrian^ that, at 

20 the time of his death, Alexander was entertaining the scheme of following 
up the explorations of Nearchus by another expedition to proceed fi-om the 
mouth of the Euphrates to the head of the Red Sea, presumably for the 
purpose of diverting the great profits of the sea trade between India and 
Egypt from the Sabeans to the Greeks. 

1) Hist. Indica, XLIIL 


Fifty years later Ptolemy Philadelphus attempted to carry out this 
scheme by erecting on the Red Sea the ports of Arsinoe, Myos-hormos and 
Berenike; but it appears that the ships of Egypt went no further than the 
port of Aden, where the merchants of India came to sell their wares. The 
voyage from southern Arabia, Aden and Merbat to India was first made in 5 
small vessels which kept close to the shore and followed its windings, but 
after sailing with the monsoons became known (sometime between B. C. 10 
and A. D. 52), trade was greatly developed; larger ships were used (though 
the coasting trade was -not abandoned) and a straight course was steered 
between the Somali, or rather Arabian coast, to Diul-Sindh or Bharoch, Manga- lo 
lore or Nelisseram'. Though Nelkunda (Nelisseram, at the head of an estuary 
the mouth of which is a few miles to the north of Mt. Delli on the Malabar 
coast) was the farthest point habitually visited by Greek (and probably Sab- 
ean) merchants in the first century A. D., Ceylon and the coast of India as 
far as the Ganges were already known to them, presumably through the re- 15 
ports of native traders. 

By the middle of the second century Greek knowledge of the sea-route 
to the Far East, though here again the information appears to have been 
derived solely from native traders, extended to Tongking, where mention is 
made of the port of Cattigara, — the present Hanoi. Ptolemy had heard of 20 
the various stages on the route between Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, of 
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Bazakata), the Islands off the west coast 
of Sumatra (?Barusai), Sumatra (Sabadiu) and Kalah(Kozi), but beyond their 
geographical position he knew practically nothing ^, nor can I find anything 
in the works of succeeding geographers, — Pausanias, SoUnus, Orosius, or 25 
even Cosmas Indicopleustes, this last writing in the first half of the sixth 
century, — to show that the Greek traders had reached China (although 
there is no reason for denying that some adventurous traders may have got 

1) Nearchus had already noticed the monsoon (Arrian, Hist. Indie, XXI. See also M° 
Crindle, Periplus, 135 n., where he notes that Vincent (in his Commerce and Navigation of the 30 
Ancients) remarks that the account of the discovery of the monsoon given in the Periplus, natu- 
rally excites a curiosity in the mind to enquire how it should happen that the monsoon should have 
been noticed by Nearchus, and that from the time of his voyage for 300 years no one should have 
attempted a direct course till Hippalus ventured to commit himself to the ocean. He is of opinion 
that there was a direct passage by the monsoons both in going to and coming from India in use 35 
among the Arabians before the Greeks adopted it. — The Periplus (§ 32) notes that such ships 

as come from the west coast of India (Limurik6) and Bharocbj (Barugaza) too late in the season 
put into harbor at Merbat (Moskha) for the winter, where they dispose of their muslins, corn, and 
oil to the king's officers. 

2) See Gerini, Researches on Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia. 1909. 40 


that far), — or that Chinese traders had visited Ceylon, or India, let alone 
the ports of Arabia or the Persian Gulf. 

At a very early date Ceylon had become a flourishing country and en- 
tertained important commercial relations not only with India but with the 
5 countries of the East, the Malay Peninsula, and probably Indo-China. Its 
pearls and precious stones, its ebony, muslins and tortoise-shell were carried 
to Nelkunda and Barugaza (Bharoch) in the first century of our era, and 
probably centuries before. The tortoise-shell from the Malay Peninsula (the 
island of Chrys6) reached those ports through it. In all likelihood the traders 

10 of southern Arabia founded establishments in Ceylon at a very early date; 
however this may be, the commercial importance of Ceylon in the trade 
between the East and the West was coeval with the 'opening of this trade, 
and it retained its preponderance down to modern times. 

The pilgrim Fa-hi6n. the first Chinese who has left a record of a voyage 

15 from India to China (A. D. 413), came from Tamlook at the mouth of the 

Ganges to Ceylon to sail for Sumatra, and when in Ceylon he noted the signs 

of wealth of the «Sa-po traders» on the island, and it does not seem unlikely 

that these foreigners were Arabs from the Hadramaut and Oman coasts. 

Cosmas in the sixth century says of Ceylon: «The Island being, as it is, 

20 in a central position, is much frequented by ships from all parts of India and 
from Persia and Ethiopia and it likewise sends out many of its own. And from 
the remotest countries, I mean Tzinista (China) and other trading places, it 
receives silk, aloes, cloves, sandalwood and other products, and these again are 
passed on to marts on this side, such as Male, where pepper grows, and to 

25 Calliana, which exports copper and sasame logs and cloth for making dresses, 
for it also is a great place for business. And to Sindu (Diul Sindh at the 
mouth of the Indus) also where musk and castor is procured, and cmdro- 
stachys (possibly spikenard), and to Persia and the Homerite country (Yemen) 
and to Adule (Zula on the African coast of the Red Sea). And the island 

30 receives imports from all these marts which we have mentioned, and passes 
them on to the remoter ports, while, at the same time, exporting its own 
produce in both directions^ 

1) Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography, 365 (Hakluyt Soc. edit.). Among the 
products which Cosmas mentions as coming from China, the only real Chinese product is silk. 
35 The ships which came to Ceylon from China got the eaglewood, cloves, sandalwood, etc., at the 
various ports in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago at which they stopped. Edrisi (I. 51 
Jaub art's transl.) makes a similar loose statement about the products of China brought to Aden. 
He says «The town of Aden is small but renowned on account of its port, whence sail the ships 



It seems evident tliat, during ancient and mediaeval times, the sea-trade 
between Egypt and Persia on the one side, and India and the Far East on 
-the other, remained nearly exclusively in the hands of the enterprising Arabs 
of the southern Arabian coast, who, in very early days, estabhshed stations 
at all the principal ports-of-call along the coast to the south of the Indus 5 
and thence ultimately to Canton where, as we shall see, they appear to have 
had a settlement or colony as early as A. D. 300. So far as can be gathered 
the Greeks took little or no share in this trade beyond the Malabar coast, 
and, as the sequel will show, there is absolutely no evidence to substantiate 
the assertion that the Chinese did either ^ Greeks may have got to China, lo 
and Chinese may have travelled in the sixth century as far as Aden or the 
head of the Persian Gulf, to Hormuz, Siraf, Basra or Baghdad, but these 
were isolated cases of commercial adventure, and do not affect the conclusion 

It was in about 120 B. C. that China first heard of the countries of 15 
western Asia, of Syria (Li-kan) and of Chaldaea (T'iau-chi). This information 
came to it through Chang K 'ien, who had been sent by the Emperor Wu-ti 
on a political mission to the Yu6-chi (Kushan) to solicit their aid against 
the Hiung-nu, who were pressing on the Chinese western frontier. Chang 
K'i6n only heard of the countries of the west when in Parthia (An-si)^ and 20 
the information he brought home concerning them was of thevagiiest.[ltw^as 
not until the end of the first century of our era that a Chinese, Kan Ying . 
reached Chaldaea and gained some exact information concerning it and the 
sea-route which led from the head of the Persian Gulf to Syria and Egypt. 
But Kan Ying went no further than the mouth of the Euphrates, probably 25 
to the Apologos of the Greeks, when frightened by the reported dangers of 
-the voyage, he retraced his steps ^. 

for Sindh, India and China. There is brought there from the last named country such merchandize 
as iron, damasked sword blades, shagreen skins,-musj£, aloes wood (gbaru?), horses, saddles, pottery, 
pepper, both odoriferous and non-odoriferous (i. e., black pepper and long peppers), cocoanuts, 30 
hermut (a perfumed seed), cardamoms, cinnamon, galangal, mace, myrobolans, ebony, tortoise^hell, 
camphor, nutmegs, cloves, cubebs, divers grass tissues, and others rich and velvety, elephants tu^s, 
tin, rattans, and other reeds, as well as the greater part of the bitter aloes destined for commerce)). 

1) As for example K. Beazley, Dawn of modern geography, I, 490, and E. Speck, 
Handelsgeschichte des Alterthums, I, 29. 35 

2) See F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 35 et seqq., 137 et seqq. and E. Cha- 
vannes, Les Pays d'Occident d'apres le Heou Han Chou, in T'oung-pao, 2* ser. VIII. 176, et seqq. 
Chavannes (1-76. n. 3) thinks it possible that the name T'iau-chi- may be an attempt to transcribe 
the Persian word desht «plainD, which is found used by early Arab writers to designate the Desht 
Misan, the Mesene at the mouth of the Tigris. 4q 


Although China appears to have first become known to the Greeks 
through the expedition of Alexander, (Nearchus and Onesicritus mention the 
Seres, of whose longevity they had heard marvellous tales, but which they 
evidently supposed to have been an Indian tribe), the first accurate information 
5 concerning China was supplied by the author of the Periphs of the Ery- 
thraean Sea, writing somewhere about 80 A. D. He refers (§ 64) to the 
country of Thina as lying beyond the Malay Peninsula (Chryse) «Where the 
sea terminates outwards». For more precise information concerning the geo- 
graphical position of China, we have to come down to the first half of the 

10 sixth century, when Cosmas Indicopleustes stated that Tzinista «was bounded 
to the east by the ocean». 

Although the author of the Periplus knew little of China's position, he 
supplied other reliable information concerning it. We learn from him that 
already in his time there came from a city in the interior of that country 

15 much silk «both raw and spun into thread and woven into fine stuff», also 
furs and iron, which were brought overland through Baktria to Bharoch. 
(Barugaza) and to Diul-Sindh at the mouth of the Indus (Barbarikon), or to 
Mangalore (Muziris) and Nelisseram near Mt. Delli, by way of the Ganges. 
Nothing, however, is to be found in the Periplus to indicate that the author 

20 had the slightest idea of there being any direct communication by sea between 
India or Ceylon and China. «Had such existed)), Bunbury justly remarks,^ 
«even in the hands of native traders, it is hardly possible that our author 
could have remained so entirely in the dark as we actually find him with 
regard to all the countries beyond the Ganges)). ,, 

25 Chinese records confirm the belief that China had no relations by sea 

with India and the West at the beginning of our era. The earliest mention 
of a mission, or more probably a private expedition, arriving from the West 
(Ta-ts'in) in China is referred to in the year 166 A. D., when a party of 
foreigners representing themselves as sent by An-tun (the Emperor Marcus 

so Aurelius Antoninus) arrived by sea in Tongking, and proceeded thence overland 
to the court of the Emperor Huan-ti. Sixty years later, in 226, another 
westerner came to China, also a merchant from Ta-ts'in, Ts'in-lun by name; 
he also landed in Tongking, and was sent overland to the court of the Emperor 
Sun-ch'uan. When Ts'in-lun started on the return journey, the Emperor sent one 

35 of his officers with him, but he died on the way, andT'sin-lun returned alone =*. 

1) Ancient Geography, ii, 476. 

2) Hirth, Op. cit, 42, 47, 48. 173—178. 


Althougli direct intercourse between China and Ta-ts'in may be said 
to have begun with the arrival of the mission of A. D. 166, we are told 
by the Chinese that down to the sixth century no Chinese and but few 
(if any) persons from Kamboja, Annam or Tongking had reached the Far 
West (Ta-ts'in), though merchants from those parts came frequently to 5 

Eegular trade relations between China and the regions lying immedia- 
tely outside its southern and south-western border, Tongking and India, may 
be said to have begun in the latter part of the second century before our era, 
after the conquest of Tongking by the Chinese ^ The bulk of the trade with lo 
the latter country appears to have been conducted over the land routes and 
to have been concentrated at a few marts in close proximity to the frontier, 
although there can be little doubt that a coasting trade must have existed 
from even earlier times between Canton and the people of Tongking (Kiau- 
chi). However, official trade between the two countries followed the land 15 
route from Hanoi to K'in-ch6u in south-western Kuang-tung, which remained 
for many centuries the center of Chinese overland trade with Indo-China. 

The mission of exploration of Chu Yin^ to the countries south of China, 
which was undertaken in the first half of the third century, by order of the 
Emperor Sun-ch'uan, who had tried to open relations with Ta-ts'in by means 20 
of the trader Ts'in-lun, travelled, it would seem, overland. The narrative of 
this journey has not reached us, but it does not appear to have resulted in 
eMablishing relations of any increased importance with the neighbouring coun- 
tries of Indo-China ', for it was not until the last quarter of the third century 
that we hear of a tribute mission (i. e. a trading venture) from Siam (Fu- 25 
nan) coming to the court of China. 

Notwithstanding the lack of enterprise on the part of the Chinese in 
the first centuries of the Christian era, they were becoming better known 

1) Sung-shu, 97. Liang-shu, 54. See also Hirth, Op. cit., 46, 47, 180. The presence of 
people from western Asia (Hu-j6n) in Canton prior to the year 300 is confirmed by a reference 30 
to them at that city and to the fact that they had introduced the cultivation of the jasmine {i/e-si- 
ming, Persian ydsmin. See Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chnang, 2,a. This work was written A. D. 300. 
Hirth, Op. cit., 270—272, and J. Amer. Orient. Soc. XXX. 23. 

2) When Ch'ang K'ifin was in the country south of the Oxus, called Ta-hia, he learned 
that it had commercial relations with India and received from it products of Ssi-ch'uan. Already 35 
in the beginning of the second century A. D. there was a regular trade-route from southwestern 
Yunnan to Pegu. Hirth Op. cit., 179. 

3) See MaTuanjHn^ remarks on this mission and on the slowness of the development of 
Chinese foreignTBlatiens —Commercial and political, in the h^\ 6*1 and 7th centuries. Hervey 
St. Denis, Ethnographie des peuples etrangers h. la Chine, II, 410. 40 


to the rest of the world. Commerce by sea with south-eastern Asia and the -^ 
countries lying to the west was steadily increasing through the continued 
energy and enterprise of the Arabs and Indians ^. 

The troublous times through which China passed in the fourth, fifth and 

B sixth centuries may have had much to do with retarding the development of 
commercial enterprise on the part of the people of the southern provinces, 
but piracy was probably more effective in keeping them off the sea. In the 
middle of the fifth century, Chinese living along the southern coast were so 
harried by the Tongking pirates, who plundered cities and towns, that the 

10 Emperor "W6n-ti of the Sung had to send, in 447, a punitive expedition into 
Indo-China, which laid the country waste and sacked the capital ^. 

How hazy were the notions of the Chinese of the fifth century of India and 
the "West, how slight the intercourse established with them, may be seen in 
the Sung-shu, the history of the period extending from A. D. 420 to 478, 

15 and written about A. D. 500. In chapter 97 we read: «As regards the Roman 
Orient (Ta-ts'in) and India, far out on the Western Ocean (jj^ Jij |g 7^), 
though the envoys of the two Han dynasties have experienced the special 
difficulties of this route, yet trade has been carried on, and goods have been 
sent out to the foreign tribes, the force of the wind driving them far across 

20 the waves of the sea. There are lofty (ranges of) hills quite different (from 
those we know) and a great variety of populous tribes having different names 
and bearing uncommon designations, they being of a class quite different 
(from our own). All the precious things of land and water come from 
there all this has caused navigation and trade to be extended to those 

25 parts» (-j^ M M ^ M ^ ^ MV' ^^^^^ *^^^ ^® ^°^®^ *^^* ^* *^^* 
time what trade there was between China, India, and the West was not in 
Chinese hands, and that the Chinese had but a vague notion of the lands 
whence the products of foreign countries were brought to them, and to which, 
none of their people had ever gone. Additional evidence of this is furnished 

30 by other dynastic histories covering the period from the end of the fourth 
to the beginning of the seventh centuries, in which we find all the products 
of Indo-China, Ceylon, India, Arabia, and the east coast of Africa classed as 

1) In A. D. 414 the pilgrim Fa-hien embarked in Java on a large merchant ship bound 
for Canton. The people on board were «Po-lo-mon», a name used in those days by the Chinese to 

35 designate the west coast of India from Kulam to the mouth of the Indus. Legge, A Record of 
Buddhist Kingdoms, 111—115. See also infra, p. 12. 

2) M" Gowan, History of China, 209, 210. 

3) Hirth, Op. cit., 46, 180. 



«products of Persia (Po-ssi),» the country of the majority of the traders who 
brought these goods to China ^ 

In the seventh century Chinese maritime enterprise began to manifest 
itself, and we hear of Chinese making at least one sea voyage of considerable 
length. In the third year of his reign, A. D. 607, Sui Yang-ti sent a mission 5 
by sea to Siam (Ch'i-t'u) to open commercial relations with it. The explorers 
were back in 610, and, from the fact that they received high official prefer- 
ment, there is little doubt that the exploit was held to be a most extraordi- 
narily daring one*. 

In 629 the famous pilgrim Hfian-tsang started on his travels through lo 
Central Asia and India. He reached the south-eastern coast of India near 
Ceylon, but the notions he brought back of the latter country were still of the 
vaguest. He did not even know that it was an island. He heard of some islands 
ftsome thousands of li» to the south and the west of Ceylon, but apparently 
never a word reached him of intercourse by sea existing between India and i& 
Ceylon and the countries to the east, Sumatra, Java, Indo-China and China. 
The pilgrims to India who succeeded him followed at first the overland route 

1) See Wei-shu, 102, Sect. Po-ssi. Sui-shu, 83, Sect. Po;Ssi. 

2) The explorers Chan p r Tsnn and Wang Kfln embarked at Canton in the month of 
November 607 (lO^i^ moon), and, sailing day and night for 20 days with the monsoon, they passed 201 
Tsiau-shl island (^^ ^ ijj) and anchored S. E. of it at Ling-kiS-po-pa-to island (1^ Ahg 

'^ ^t ^ fM\ )' ^^^'^^ ia.ces Lin-i (Tongking) to the W. and on which there is a temple 
(^$ ^\ 'l^i-'"^''y")- Continuing S. they came to the ShMzi rocks (0)^ -^ '^\ where there 
are a great many contiguous islands and islets, whence continuing for two or three days they sighted 
in the W. the hills of Lang-ya-stt (^g ^ ^). Thence S. by the Ki-lung island (^ W, ^) ^^ 
they came to the frontier of Ch'i-t'u. 

On the return voyage, on which ihey were accompanied by Siamese envoys, they noted 
shoals of green flying-fish. After ten days they came to the high coast of Lin-i, when for a whole 
day the ship sailed through a strip of yellowish, foul smelling water, which, it was said, was the 
dung of a great fish. Following to the N. coast of the sea they came to Kiau-chii (Hanoi?), where SO 
it seems that their sea voyage finished. See Sui shu, 82. Sect. Ch'i-t'u. 

Tsiau-shi island, is tentatively identified with the island of Tseu, Hon Tseu on the maps, 
IV2 miles S. E. of Mui (Cape) Duong, in the Ha-Tinh district on the coast of Annam, near Tourane. 
(See Gerini, A^iat. Quart. Eev.,34 ser.XI, 156). Ling-kie-po-pa-to island, is identified by the same 
(loc. sup. cit.) with Cape Varella. It is evidently the same as Mount Ling of Ki a Tan (see infra, So- 
p. 10) which Pelliot thinks may possibly be Cape Sa-hoi, N. of Quinhon. The Shi-tzi rocks, 
Gerini thinks (p. 157) may be Pulo Sapatu of the Catwick group, or else Pulo Cecir de Mer not 
far N. of Pulo Sapatu. Lang-ya-stt is identified by Gerini (p. 157) with the Lankachiu islands, 
Koh Katu on the charts, intended for Koh Kachin (i. e., Koh Lankachiu) in the gulf of Siam 
opposite Swai Bay, a little below C'hump'hon Bay. Although the name Lang-ka-stt was applied 40- 
by mediaeval Chinese to several places in the Southern Seas widely apart, G erini cannot, it would 
seem, be far wrong. Ki-lung island, is tentativaly identified by Gerini (p. 158) with Koh-rang-kai 
oir ((Hen's nest island)), one of a group of 4 islets, S. of Lem (Cape) C'hong P'hrah, some 
20 miles above C'hump'hon Bay. 


by Balkh, Peshawar, Tibet and Nepaul, but in the latter part of the seventh 
century the sea-route became nearly exclusively used^ the port of enibar-. 
kation being Canton, whence the travellers made western Java (Ho-ling), or 
more usually Palembang in Sumatra. Here they changed ships and, taking 
5 a course along the northern coast of Sumatra and by the, Nicobar Islands, 
came to Ceylon, where they usually took ship for Tamlook at the mouth of 
the Ganges and thence reached the holy places of India by land. The voyage 
took about three months, one month from Canton to Palembang, one to the 
northrwest point of Sumatra and one to Ceylon; it was always made with the 

10 north-east monsoon in winter, and the return voyage to China in summer, — 
from April to October — with the south-west monsoon. 

It seems that by this time the sea-trade of the Hindus and Arabs with 
the Malay Archipelago and China had assumed very considerable unportance, 
and this accounts partly for the fuller and more accurate accounts of the 

15 countries of southern Asia and the Archipelago given in the Chinese Annals 
of the sixth and seventh centuries. 

The earliest Chinese testimony we have concerning this trade is of the 
eighth century 2. From it we learn that the ships engaged in this trade and 
wMch visited Canton were very large, so high out of the water that ladders 

20 several tens: of feet in length had to be used to get aboard. The foreign 
(Fan ^) captains who commanded them were registered in the office of the 
Inspector ofMaritime Trade (Shi-po-shi). This office (the existence of which, by 
the way, proves the importance of this trade), before allowing the ships to clear 
required that the manifests should be submitted to it, and then collected export 

25 duty and also the freight charges. The export of «precious and rare articles)) 

was forbidden, and attempts at smuggling were punished with imprisonment. 

With the exception of the chapters devoted to foreign lands in the 

Annals, very little has come down to us concerning the extent of Chinese 

geographical knowledge in the eighth century. One document of great value 

30 has fortunately been preserved in the itineraries compiled bv Kia Tan b etween 
785 and 805*. The one dealing with the sea-route from Canton to the Per- 

II) I-ts;ng mentions 60 Chinese pilgrims who in the latter part of the seventh century made 
the journey to India. Of these 22 travelled overland and 37 took the sea-ronte. See Chavannes, 
Mem. sur les Eeligieux emiuents, passim. 
35 2) T'ang-Kuo-sM-pu, by Li Chan, a work of the beginning of the ninth century, but 

purporting to record historical facts concerning the period from 713 to 825. 

3) Given in T'ang-shu, 43^ See also Pelliot, Deux itineraires de Chine en Inde, 131 
et seqq. (in B. E. F. E. 0., IV). On Kia Tan, who died in 805, see Mem. cone, les Chinois, XVI. 



sian Gulf enables us to determine the extent of Chinese knowledge in this 
direction, and leads us to believe that it was for a great part, — especially 
that bearing on the route from Kulam to the Persian Gulf,— entirely second 
hand, and supplied by the foreign traders who frequented Canton and 
presumably often visited other cities of China. It is particularly interesting 5 
to note that Kia Tan seems to have had no knowledge of the regular direct 
route between Kulam-Male and the Persian Gulf followed by Arab ships. 
Why Kia Tan's informants should have told him only of the roundabout, little 
followed coasting route from Kulam to the Persian Gulf must remain — of 
course — a matter of conjecture; it may have been, however, that he was 10 
not told of the regular course for the purpose of keeping the Chinese from 
attempting to compete in the valuable trade, of which the Arabs and Persians 
had a monopoly. 

Kia Tan's sailing directions read as follows: «From Kuang-chou towards 
the south-east, travelling by sea for 200 li, one reaches Mount T'un-mQn^ 15 
(TE PD- Then, with a favourable wind going westward for two days, one 
reaches the Kiu-chou rocks" (fi j\\). Then southward, and after two days 
one reaches the Siang-shi ' (^ ^), or «Elephant rock». Then southward, 
after three days, one comes to Mount Chan-pu-lau* {^ '7(^ ^); this moun 
tain is in the sea at 200 li east of the country of Huan-wang^ (1^ T). 

«Then southward, after two days journey, one reaches Mount Ling ^ ^ 
(|^). Then after a day's journey one comes to the country of M6n-tu^ (f^ 


1) T'un-mon is mentioned as one of the several passages leading out to sea from Sin-an- 
hi^n, the next one mentioned being Ki-shai-mon, i. e. the passage known to sailors as Capsing- 
moon, or Kapsny-moou (see Euang-tung-sin-yii, 2,15). The best known native map of the province, 25 
the Knang-tung-t'u, has a village called T'un-m6n-ts"im on the coast of the continent right' 
opposite the northern spit of Lantao Isd. I suppose the following passage appearing in an early 
account of the China Coast (Chinese Eepository, V, 348) refers to this anchorage: «Just after 
passing out of Kapshwuy Moon towards the northeast, there is a bay protected by the island 
Chungyne ( -^ Z^ ?) on the south, which affords good anchorage, is perfectly land-locked, and 30 
was the principal rendez-vous of the pirates in the early part of this century. It was examined 
by a party of English and American gentlemen last year, and pronounced to be one of the safest 
harbors in the worldn. 

2) Taya islands, N. E. point of Hai-nan. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 216. 

3) Tinhosa island, or a point even farther south, Pelliot, ibid., 216. 35 

4) Culao Cham. Pelliot, ibid., 200. 

5) The kingdom of Huan-wang was practically the same as the Chan-ch"6ng of the 
Sung period. It included, in the Sung period, most of the Tongking and Annam coast 

6) Possibly Cape Sa-hoi, N. of Quinhon. Pelliot, ibid., 217. See also supra p. 8. Ling- 40 
ki6-po-pa-to island some writers think was Cape Varella. 

1 7) Probably near Quinhon, but unidentified. 


^); then after a day's journey one comes to the country of Ku-tan^ 
(lir a); t^6n after half a day's journey one reaches the territory of 
Pon-t'o-lang2 (^ [Jg »]J^). Then after two days' travel one reaches Mount 
Ktin-t'u-nung' (|| ^ ^). Then after five days' travel one comes to a 

5 strait which the Barharians call CM* (^). From the south to the north it 
is 100 li. On the northern shore is the country of Lo-yue^ (^ ^; on the 
•southern coast is the country of Fo-shi' (-^ ^), 

«To the east of the country of Fo-shi, travelling by water for four or 
five days, one comes to the country of Ho-ling' (§5f f^); it is the largest 

10 of the islands of the south. Then east(west?)ward, going out of the strait, 
after three days, one comes to the country of Ko-ko-song-chi(orti)8 (^ ^ 
i^ fVc or ^g;), which is an island separated at the north-east point from 
Fo-shi. The people of this country are pirates and cruel; sailors dread 

15 «0n the northern coast (of the strait) is the country of Ko-lo^ ("^ ^), 

and to the west of Ko-lo is the country of Ko-ku-lo i» (^ ^ ^), Then 
from Ko-ko-s6ng-chi, after four or five days' journey, one comes to the island 
of Shong-tOng" (^ ^[J). Then westward, and after five days' journey 

1) Eanthara, the Sanskrit name of the present Nha-trang. Pelliot, ibid., 217. 
20 2) Fap(}nraDga, the present Phanrang, see infra, p. 51. 

3) Pulo Condore. See infra, p. 50, n. 10. 

4) Pelliot sees in this the Strait of Malacca. I agree with Gerini (J. R. A- S., 1305, 
505) in thinking it was the Singapore strait. 

5) The southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula, or Ligor. Gerini, Kesearches on 
25 Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia, 820. 

6) Eastern Sumatra. According to our test the voyage from Canton to E. Sumatra occupied 
20 days; this is exactly the time taken by the pilgrim I-tsiug to make it, Chavannes, Eelig. 
emin., 119. 

7) Java, but see infra, p. 78, n. 1. 

30 8) Possibly the Brouwers islands, as suggested by Pelliot, op.cit.,839. Gerini, Eesearches, 

816, 817 identifies this island with Pulo Medang, the old designation of which was Kukor. It lies 
W. of the mouth of the Siak river, E. coast of Sumatra or Pulo Siak. 

9) In all likelihood the Kalah of the Arabs of the ninth century, which Groeneveldt, 
Notes, 122, has identified with the present Kora on the W. coast of Malacca in about 7° N. 

35 lat. — Gerini, Asiat. Quart., 3d series, XIII, 133, and Pelliot, op. cit., 339 accept this identi- 
fication. Gerini, Eesearches, 817, thinks Kia Tan's Ko-lo may be Ealapang near the TJmbai 
river, just below Malacca. _, 

10) Pelliot, Op. cit., 343 thinks this is the Qaqola (XliSlS) of Ibn Batuta, the Angkola river 
on the W. coast of Sumatra, and an affluent of the Batang gadis. This identification seems to me 

40 impossible since Ko-lo was on the Malay Peninsula, and the two seem to have been conterminous. 
Gerini, Eesearches, 444, n. 2 suggests, with great plausibility, either Kelantan or Ligor on the 
, E. coast of the Malay Peninsula. 

1 1) P e 1 1 i 1, Op. cit., 354, thinks this may have been the Deli or Langkat district of Sumatra. 
Gerini, Op. cit., 817, says it is the Serdang district near Deli. 


one comes to the country of P'o-lu^ (I^ ^). Then after six days' journey 
one reaches the island of K'i^-lan'' ("Ijja ^) of the country of P'o^ (^). 
Then northward, and after four days' travel one reaches «the country of the 
Lion»* (^1^ ^); its northern coast is 100 li from the southern coast of 
southern India. Then westward, after four days' journey one passes through 5 
the country of Mo-lai* (^ ^), which is the extreme southern frontier of 
southern India. 

((Thence (from Mo-lai) northwest and passing by {^) more than ten 
small ci>untries, one comes to the western frontier of P'o-lo-mSn " (^ ^ 

1) Presumably some place in N. W. Sumatra, Perlak or Pedir. It may be the same on the 10 
((kingdom of P'o» referred to in the next phrase, and of which the Nicobar islands were a 

2) There is little room for doubt that the island of K'i6-Ian is one of the Nicobars. t-tsing 
states that it took him ten days' sailing in a northerly direction from Kie-ch'a — which was some 
place on the N. W. coast of Sumatra near Kia Tan's P'o or Fo-ln (if not identical with it) to reach 15- 
the Lo (f^) country, or «the country of naked peoplen. Chavannes, Religieux eminents, 120. 
Httan-tsang was the first Chinese writer to mention the Nicobars by name, he calls them Na-lo- 
ki-lo islands (fiK ^S ^S ^S l^'I'l): ^ transcription of Sanskrit nSrikera, (tcocoanutn, which he 
and I-tsing and the Arab Relations state was the principal food of the islanders. The name used by 
I-tsing may be an abbreviated from of that used by Htian-tsang. K'i6-lan is also an abbreviated 20" 
form of the Sanskrit name, or rather a transcription of the two last syllables -leera. In the fifteenth 
century the Chinese called these islands Ts'ui-lan (^S ^§)- Gerini, Besearches, 396, suggests- 
with a high degree of probability that Ts'ui-lan-shan is but the phonetic transcript of Tilong- 
chong, the native name of the north-easternmost of the Nicobars. The Sanskrit name Narikera is 
found in Necuveram, the name Polo gives to these islands. Yule, MarcoPolo(2d edit.), II, 289 — 25- 
292. See also Beal, Records, II. 251, Chavannes, Relig. §min., 100, 120; Geo. Phillips R. 

A. S., 1895, 529. 

3) Possibly the same as the P'o-lu in the preceding phrase. Gerini, Op. cit., 817, says 
ttP'o simply stands for lar, var, and is thus a contraction of Nikobar, if not actually meant for 
Bharu, in which case Chia Tan's P'o kingdom would recall the ancient Bharu kingdom)). 30' 
According to Buddhist tradition, he says, the Bharu kingdom, as the result of a cataclysm, 
became detached from the continent of India, forming a thousand islands which, according to the 
scholiast, is identical with the island of Nalikera, mentioned by Htian-tsang. Ibid. 399. 

4) Fa-hien first used this name to designate Ceylon, which he was probably the first to 
make known to his countrymen. It is a translation of the Sanskrit name Singhala. In the twelfth 35. 
century some Chinese writers, who had got their knowledge concerning the island from Arab 
traders, wrote the name of the island Si-lan. See infra, Ch. Xllf. 

5) The Malabar coast and more particularly the port of Quilon. In the sixth century Cosmas 
refers to the city of Mal6, where there was a settlement of Christians — Christian Topography, 
119. A century later Httan-tsang calls this country Mo-lo-kO-ts'a (^jt ^ ^g ti-fr), in 40' 
Sanskrit Malakuta. The form Mo-la-ye (^ ^J ;^) or Malaya also occurs' at about the same 
time. The Arab Relations of the ninth century use the form Kulam-Mal6 (jl<o f^^)- In the Sung 
period Quilon was called by the Chinese Ku-lin (ifr S^ or "i- M), and in the Yuan period 

6) In another passage of these Itineraries, Kia Tan says «From the southern frontier of 45- 
Po-lo-m6n by way of Mo-lai to Wu-la, all (this) is the eastern shore of the Green Sea)) {^ yfe 
the Arab name of the Ocean). Po-lo-mon meant therefore the whole of the west coast of India. 


. P^). Then going north-west for two days, one comes to the country of Pa-yu^ 
(^ Ji!)- Then going ten days, and passing by (|5) the western frontier of 
T'i6n-chu (^ ^ i. e., India) (and) five small countries, one comes to the 
country of Ti-yu2(|^ ]^\ in which country is the great river Mi-lan « 

^ (M M)' also called (— ^) the Sin-t'ou {^)^ fl|) river. It comes from the 
mountains of P'o-lun* ('^^ ^) in the north and flows westward; on arriving 
north of the country of Ti-yu it empties into the sea. 

"Again going westward from the kingdom of Ti-yii twenty days and 
passing more that twenty little countries, one comes to the country of Ti-lo- 
10 lu-ho (^ ^ Jl# ^), also called the country of Lo-ho-i {^ ^U ^). The 
people of this country have set up ornamented pillars (^ |^) in the sea, on 
which at night they place torches (^g) so that people travelling on board 
ships at night shall not go astray. ^ 

1) Presumably some port on the coast of the Guzerat peninsula, the Balahhi or Vala- 
15 bhadra kingdom of the sixth and seventh centuries. The name suggests the island of Dlu, an 

important port in mediaeval times, but I do not know whether it existed in the eighth century. 

2) This seems to be the Taiz (i^") of mediaeval Arab geographers. According to Abulfeda 
(II. Pt. 2, 111, Eeinaud's transl.) Taiz was the port on the Indus for the Mekran and adjacent 
countries. It was on the banks of the Indus, to the west, near the canal which left the river not 

20 far from Mansurah (Brahmanabad). Ti-yfi may, however, represent Daibul, which was on the 
Indus at its mouth, and which was the principal port of Sindh in mediaeval times. 

3) The Arabs called the Indus Nahr Mihran. Since the time of Fa-hien the Chinese had 
known of the Indus under its Indian name of Sindhu. 

4) It appears probable that P'o-lun is the same country as Huan-tsang's Po-Iu-lo (^|fc 
25 ^^ jjt^) or Bolor, the modern Balti, the Palow of Marco. Polo. It is possible, however, that 

we should read K'un-lun ( s '^)! foi' Liang-shu, 54,i6 says that the great river called Sin-t'au 
($fj" [^ Sindhu) has its source in the K'un-lun mountains. 

5) Ti-lo-lu-ho, or Lo-ho-i does not occur in any other Chinese work I have seen. I am 
inclined to look for this country on the Mekran coast, about a day's sailing S. E. of Cape 

so Mesandum. Geo. Phillips (J. R. A. S., 1896, 525) thinks the beacons referred to in our text were 
near Al-UbuUah on the Tigris estuary, and he mentions passages in Masudi and Abulfeda to the 
effect that marks are said to have been erected in the sea near Al-Ubullah (^JjV^), see Masudi, 
Prairies d'or, I, 230;Lee's Travels ofJbnBatuta, 36note, andlstakhri (Mordtmann's transl., 
18). If the indication given in the text as to the distance between the mouth of the Indus and the 

.35 point on the coast where the beacons were is anyway near correct — 20 days, it is quite impossible 
that Al-Ubullah can be referred to, we must look for them not farther than the mouth of the Persian 
Gulf. The most natural identification of the place where the beacons were erected seems to be 
with Cape Mesandum on the Oman coast. The Arab Eolations of the ninth century (Reinaud, 
Relations, 1, 14) state that on the coast of Oman there was a place called Aldordur, a very narrow 

40 passage between two mountains which small boats passed through, but in which the China ships 
could not enter. There were two rocks called Kossayr and Uayr; only a small portion of the rocks 
was seen above water. See also Masudi, Op. cit., 1, 240. These rocks are, I take it, the huge basalt 
rocks seen some miles out afsea beyond Cape Mesandum. See W. G. Palgrave, Central and 
Eastern Arabia, II, 317. 

45 Marco Polo speaking of Kalhat, which stood near Cape Mesandum, says «This city of 

Calatu stands at the mouth of the Gulf, so that no ship can enter or go forth without the will 


aAgain going westward one day one comes to the country of Wu-la ^ 

«Now (7^) the Fu-li-la river — (^ %\] ^j ^Rf) of the realm of the 
Ta-shi flows southward into the sea. Small boats ascend it two days and 
reach the country of Mo-lo (^ ^), an important market (g ^) of the 5 
Ta-shi 2. 

((Again going overland (from Mo-lo?) in a north-westerly direction for 
one thousand li one comes to the capital of the Prince of the Mau-mon 
(M P^ 3E)' (wliich is called) the city of Fu-ta^ (|f ^ ^)». 

By the beginning of the seventh century the foreign colony at Canton, 10 
mostly composed of Persians and Arabs, must have been a numerous one, for 
Islam seems to have been brought there between 618 and 626. There is even 
some evidence for believing that the Moslim had also settlements at that time 
in Ts'uan-chou and Yang-ch6u; Ts'uan-chou, however, became of importance 
in their China trade only in the ninth century*. By the middle of the eighth 15 

of the chief)). He also notes that the chief of Kalhat was subject to Hormuz». Yule's Marco 
Polo, II, 448. 

1) Wu-la is, I think, to he identified with Sohar in Oman, on account of the indications 
concerning its position given in the text. It is probably the same as Chau-Ju-kua's Wu-pa 
(infra, Chs. XXVI and XXVIII). 20 

2) Mo-lo I am disposed to identify with Old Hormuz, which lay at a distance of two post- 
stages, or half a day's march, from the coast, at the head of a creek called Al-Jir, according to 
Istakhri, aby which after one league ships come up thereto from the seaw. Le Strange, Lands 
of the Eastern Caliphate, 318. Ibn Batuta, Voyages, II, 230 calls Old Hormuz Mughostan, which 
maybe the original of the Chinese name Mo-lo. On Old Hormuz, see Yule, Marco Polo, 1, 113 and 25 
Heyd, Histoire du Commerce, II, 133. Assuming that the identification of Mo-lo with Hormuz is 
correct, it is interesting to note that this is the only reference in Chinese works to this great 
port of the Persian Gulf. This is another proof that the Chinese cannot have taken any personal 
part in the sea trade with Persia in the eighth century, as Geo. Phillips (J. R. A. S. 1895, 525) 
thinks they did. The Al-Jir of Istakhri is the present Minab river. 30 

3) Mau-mon is Arabic Momenin «the Faithful)). The title Ameer al Momemn, or 'Commander 
of the Faithful' was first assumed by Omar (635—644). Caliph (Successor) of the Prophet of 
the Lord, was, he said 'too long and cumbersome a name, while the other was easier and more 
fit for common use.' Muir, Annals of early Caliphate, 285. This is the earliest occurrence of this 
title in Chinese works. 35 

Fu-ta might be the city of Fostat, the modern Cairo, which is spoken of by Chau Ju-kua 
(infra Ch. XXXVI) as el Kahira (K'ifi-ye). Fostat was founded in or about A. D. 641. It is possible, 
though, that the first character of this name is incorrectly written in our text and that it should 
be Fo (;p|) and that Baghdad is meant. This city was founded by the Caliph Mansur in 762. 

4) W. F. Mayers, quoting the Min-shu, says that sometime between A. D. 618 and 626 40 
four disciples of Mohammed are supposed to have brought Islamism to China. One taught at 
Canton, one in Yang-chou and the two others at Ts'iian-ch6u. China Review, VI, 276. The Pan- 
yfl-hi6n-chi, as quoted by Edkins in Opium, Historical note, etc., 5, says Mohammed sent 
his mother's brother to China. See also Dabry de Thiersant, Mahom6tanisme en Chine, 

I, 86 — 97, and G. Dev6ria, Origine de I'Islamisme en Chine, 319—325. 45 


century the Mohammedans at Canton, — which they called Khanfu,— had 
become so numerous that in 758 they were able, for some reason which has 
not come down to us, to sack and bum the city and make off to sea with 
their loot \ 

5 The earliest Arab narratives concerning the China trade date from the 

ninth century. They are those of a trader called Soleyman and of Ibn 
Wahab of Basra; the former made the voyage to China in the first half of 
the century, the latter in the second. They have been recorded by the Zeyd 
Hassan of Siraf in his little work entitled Salsalat-al-tewarykh, or «Chain of 

10 Chroniclesa^ From it we learn that at this time the products of China were 
very expensive and scarce in the markets of Basra and Baghdad, on account 
of the fires in Canton which frequently destroyed them, and also by reason 
of the frequent wrecking of the ships engaged in the trade and the acts of 
pirates. Some of the trade also went to the ports in the Yemen and to other 

15 countries. The ships engaged in the China trade ^ sailed from Siraf on the 
coast of Fars, where the goods were brought from Basra, Oman and other 
places. They then went to Mascat, whence they sailed for Kulam-Male, 
which port was reached in a month. Passing the Nicobar Islands they made 
directly for Kalah on the Malay Peninsula, which was reached in a month 

20 from Kulam. From Kalah four days were employed to reach Pulo Condore, 
from which point a month's sail brought them to Canton. 

On arriving at Canton each ship handed over its cargo to the agents of 
the Chinese Government, and it was stored until the last ship of the season's 
fleet arrived, when three-tenths of the merchandise was retained as import 

25 duty and the balance handed back to the owners. The principal imports into 

1) T'ang-shu, 10 and 258'". See also Bretschneider, Early Chinese and Arabs, 10—11 and 
Chavannes, Documents sur lea Tou-Kioue, 173. Ehanfu is Euang (cli6u) Fu. On the identity of 
Khanfu of the Arabs with Canton, see infra p. 20, n. 3 and 22, n. 1. 

2) Text and translation published by Beinaud in Kelation des Voyages faits par les 
30 Arabes et les Persans dans I'Inde et h. la Chine. See p. 12 et seqq. See also E. Dulaurier, 

Journ. Asiat., 1846, J& 10. 

3) The text reads aChinese ships.» Masudi (Prairies d'or, 1, 308) also speaks of «the ships 
of China which used to go to Oman, to Siraf, to Obollah and Basra, while the ships of those 
countries sailed directly for China.)> The so-called aChinese ships» may have been built in China, 

35 but it seems highly improbable that they were owned or navigated by Chinese. Down to the end 
of the twelfth century the names of Aden and Siraf even were unknown to the Chinese. Ch6u 
K'tl-fei, Ling-wai-tai-ta, II, 13 says distinctly that «when the Chinese traders (l^^ @ j^ 
jSi ) wished to go to the countries of the Arabs they had to embark at Quilon on small 
boats {-j^) on which, with a fair wind, they could make the voyage in a month. There is no 

40 evidence that it was not the same in the time of Soleyman and Masudi. 


China were, according to Soley man, ivory, frankincense, copper, tortoise-shell, 
camphor, and rhinoceros horns ^ 

The importance of the Moslim settlement in Canton in the ninth century 
may be guaged by Soleyman's statement that one of the Musulmans was 
appointed by the Chinese authorities to maintain order among his coreligionists 5 
and administer the law of Islam. On feast-days he said prayers, repeated the 
lihotba and prayed for the welfare of the Caliph. From Chinese sources we 
learn that this organization was extended at a later date to the foreign 
settlements at Ts'uan-ch6u, Hang-ch6u and elsewhere, in all of which the 
Moslim had their kadi and their sJieikhs, their mosques and their bazaars. A lo 
Chinese work of the beginning of the twelfth century ^ notes the following 
interesting facts concerning the foreign^ (^) settlement of Canton: 

1) Reinaud, Op. cit, I, 13, 33 — 35. Cf. also supra, p. 3 and infra, p. 19, n. 1. The Wei- 
shu, 102, the history of the period hetween 385 and 556, and written prior to 572, mentions among 
the products of Po-ssi (Persia), — by which it seems probable should be understood products 15 
brought or made known to China by Persians — coral, amber, cornelians, pearls, glass, both 
transparent and opaque, rock-crystal, diamonds (? kin-k'ang), steel, cinnabar, quicksilver, frank- 
incense, turmeric, storax, putchuk, damasks, brocaded muslins, black pepper, long peppers, 
dates, aconite, gall nuts and galangal. The Sui-shu, 83, which relates the events of the period 
extending from 581 to 617, and which was certainly written before 650, reproduces substantially 20 
the above list of Persian products, to which it adds gold, silver, tush, lead, sandalwood, various 
tissues, sugar and indigo. Most of these products came, of course, from India or from countries of 
south-eastern Asia, only a few being products of Arabia or countries bordering on the Persian 
Gulf. See also infra p. 19 for the lists of foreign imports into China at the end of the tenth century. 

1) P'ing-ch6u-k'o-t'an {^ f^\ pf g^) by ChuYu( ;^ ^) II, l_4. This work 25 
appears from internal evidence to have been written in tlie first quarter of the twelfth century. 
The latest date found in it refers to the period between 1111 and 1117. The father of the author • 
was an official at Canton in the latter part of the eleventh century. All the quotations from this 
work are taken from Ch. II, p. 1—4. Hirth, The Ancient History of China, etc., 133. 

2) By ((foreigners {fan) the author understands Moslim of all nationalities. He says they did 30 
not eat pork, and only ate domestic animals (fish and turtles excepted) which they had killed them- 
selves. Their women answered to the name of P'u-sa-man (^ ^ ^.), the Chinese transcription 

of the name Musulman, the Bussurman of mediaeval Russian annalists, the Bisermin of Friar 
John of Plan di Carpine. 

In Ibn Batuta's time (beginning of the fourteenth century) the Mohammedan quarter of 35 
Canton was inside the city; at Ts <ian-ch6u they had a city of their own. Voyages, IV, 273. 
269. As relating to the foreign Moslim settlement in Canton in the thirteenth century, the foll- 
owing, taken from Tung-nan-ki-w6n (^ ^ gg ^ ), a work written in the beginning of 
the Yuan dynasty, but referring to events during the previous Sung dynasty, is of interest. It says 
(3,6*): ((Many Sea Lao ('/^ ^) live scattered about in Canton. The most prominent among 40 
them was a man surnamed P'u {^ Abu) who was by birth a noble of Chan-ch'ong. Later 
on he took up his permanent residence in China, to attend to his import and export trade. He 
lived inside the city where his home was furnished in the most luxurious fashion, for in wealth 
' he was the first of the time. 

((His disposition was very superstitious, and he loved neatness. For his prayers he had a 45 
hall in which was a tablet which served as a god (^ ^ ^). Whenever there was a gather- 


«In the foreign quarter (^ j^) in Kuang-ch6u (Canton) reside all the 
people from beyond the seas (y^ ^|.). A foreign head-man (^ ^) is ap- 
pointed over them and he has charge of all public matters connected with 
them. He makes it his special duty to urge upon the foreign traders to send 

■5 in tribute (to the Chinese court). The foreign official wears a hat, gown, 
shoes, and (carries) a tablet just like a Chinese. When a foreigner commits an 
offense anywhere, he is sent to Kuang-ch6u (Canton), and ifthe charge is proved 
(before the Chinese authorities?), he is sent to the foreign quarter ^ (There he 
is) fastened to a ladder {^^ ^ J^) and is whipped with a rattan from head 

lo to foot, three blows of a rattan being reckoned equal to one of the heavy 
bamboo. As foreigners do not wear drawers and like to squat on the ground, 
beating with the heavy bamboo on the buttocks proves most painful, whereas 
they do not fear beating on the back. Offenses entailing banishment or more 
severe punishments are carried out by the Department Magistrate of Kuang- 

15 ch6u»^. 

Somewhere about the ninth century, possibly even earlier, a portion of 
the southern sea-trade of China was diverted to Ts'uan-ch6u, near Amoy, 
which had had commercial relations with Japan and Korea for centuries past, 
and where the Arabs found the products of those countries and of remote 

20 parts of China not easily reached from Canton, besides probably receiving 

ing (of his people) to feast (at his home), they did not use spoons or chopsticks: they had very 
large platters (lit. rtbig tronghs» g ^) of gold and silver in which was fresh water porpoise 
(]l^) and millet (or rice ^ ^) cooked together. They sprinkled rose (water) about, and put 
their right handa under their skirts, all picking up the food with their left hand». 

25 1) Gambling appears to have been prohibited, but the game of chess was allowed. The 

P'ing-ch6u k'o-t'an, loc. sup. cit., says «In the foreign quarter of Canton one sees foreigners playing 
the ((elephant game» (i. e., the Chinese game of chess). They do not have rooks (^,) or knights 
(j^)' ^^^ * number of pieces made of ivory, rhinoceros horn, gharu wood or sandal-wood, which 
the two players move in turn according to certain rules. They play as an amusement (not for 

30 stakes) and it is not usually inquired into». — The game was probably a kind of backgammon 
called nerd. 

2) From this it appears that the right to inflict capital punishment on foreign residents was 
reserved by the Chinese government. As regards mixed civil cases in which Chinese and foreigners 
were parties, we learn from another passage of the P'ing-ch6u-k'o-t'an (2,3*) that there was at 

35 Canton an office under the orders of the Superintendent of Merchant Shipping which received 
all complaints (of Chinese) for non payment of loans or interest on loans made to foreigners. The 
custom of the Cantonese was to ask of traders double the amount lent, irrespective of the period 
for which the money was lent. Payment was made in merchandise, which were taken at the 

' market price at the time of settlement. 

40 The Adjaib says that the -moslim settlements in India had each their honarmen, who 

tried all cases against Musulmans according to the laws of Islam. Merveilles de I'Inde, 161. 

Apparently the same power was given the honarmen in China, though the carrying out of certain 

sentences was done by the Chinese authorities. 

' 2 


more favourable treatment from the local customs. Two centuries later this port 
became of nearly equal importance with Canton; the Arab settlement became 
much larger than at the latter place, and the fame of the city extended 
throughout the mediaeval world under its Arab name of Zaytun\ 

The troubles which broke out in China in the latter part of the ninth 5 
century, when the revolted troops of the T'ang Emperor Hi-tsung (874 — 
889) sacked Soochow, Chang-chou and Ch'o-kiang, and Fu-ki6n generally, 
interrupted for a time established trade relations, and caused the foreigners 
at Canton and Ts'uan-chou to seek refuge at Kalah on the west coast of the 
Malay Peninsula, and presumably Palembang; and at the former place the lo 
ships from Siraf and Oman met those which came from China. Trade was 
carried on in this way down to at least the beginning of the tenth century, 
for Masudi says it was so at the time he visited that placeMt seems possible 
that the ships which plied at this time between China and the Malay Pen- 
insula were really Chinese-manned ships. In the twelfth century, as is shown 15 
further on, Chinese (Cantonese) sea-going junks went as far as Quilon on the 
Malabar coast, and this seems to be the farthest point west ever reached 
by them before the Ming dynasty. 

At the end of the tenth century Canton and Ts'iian-chdu had revived, 

1) There has been much discussion concerning Zaytun, whether it was the present Ts'flan- 20 
ch6u — east of Amoy, or Chang-chou — west of that port. The conclusion now nearly universally 
accepted is that Zaytun of the Sung and Yflan periods (i. e., eleventh to fourteenth century in- 
clusive) was Ts'tlan-ch6u or Chinchew as it is now often called, but, that as used by the Portuguese 

in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it may have meant Chang-ch6u. Sir Henry Yul e (Marco 
Polo, 2* edit., II, 223) summed up the discussion as follows: nWhether the application by foreigners 25 
of the term Zayton, may, by some possible change in trade arrangements in the quarter century ; 
after Polo's departure from China, have undergone a transfer, is a question which it would be vain 
to answer positively without further evidence. But as regards Polo's Zayton, I continue in the 
belief that this was Ts'wanchau and its haven, with the admission that this haven may probably 
have embraced that great basin, called Amoy Harbour, or part of it». Cordier in the 3* edit, of 30 
Yule's Marco Polo (11, 239 — 241) accepts these conclusions. 

As corroborative evidence of the identity of Ts'tian-chdu with Zaytun during the Sung and 
Yfian periods, we find in the Yflan-shI, 94,25, that at about the time of Polo's departure from 
Zaytun, Inspectors of Maritime Shipping (sM-jpo-shi) were stationed at the following ports: 
Ts'flan-ch6u, Shang-hai, Kan-pu (near Hang-chou, Polo's Ganfu), Won-chdu, Kuang-ch6u (Can- 35 
ton), Hang-ch6u and K'ing-ytian (Ning-po). The places where the chief officers for collecting the 
customs revenues from foreign trade were stationed must have been identical with the places 
where that trade was carried on, 

Abulfeda (Reinaud's transl. II, Pt. ii. 122—124) says «Khanfu (Canton) and Shiiyu — 
the latter known in our time as Zaitun— are the landar or ports of China, and with them the ports 40 
are also the places of customs». Shinju (a pretty close transcription of Ts'Qan-ch6u by the way) 
was situated, he goes on to say, on a gulf or bay and at the mouth of a river, a half-day from 
the sea. Ships could come up to the fresh water river. 

2) Masudi, Prairies d'or, I, 308. 


for we learn that at that time they carried on direct trade with the Arabs, 
the Malay Peninsula, Tongking, Siam, Java, Western Sumatra, "Western 
Borneo, and certain of the Philippine Islands, though, of course, the products 
of many other countries of the south and south-west were brought there too. 
5 The annals of the Sung dynasty ^ supply a list of the principal articles of this 
trade, imports and exports. In or about 999. They were gold, silver, Chinese 
cash, coined money, lead, piece-goods of all colours, porcelain-ware, cotton 
fabrics, incense and scented woods, rhinoceros horns, ivory, coral, amber, 
strings of pearls, steel (pin-tHe) ^, shells of turtles, tortoise-shell, cornelians, 

10 ch^o-M shelP, rock-crystal, foreign cotton stuffs, ebony and sapan wood. 

So valuable had this trade become at the end of the tenth century, that 
not only was it made a Government monopoly, but, with the object of increas- 
ing it, a mission was sent abroad by the Emperor with credentials under the 
Imperial seal and provisions of gold and piece-goods to induce «the foreign 

15 traders of the South Sea and those who went to foreign lands beyond the sea 
to trade» to come to China. Special licences to import goods were promised 

The result of the Government's strenuous effort to increase this trade 
was only too soon felt; the Imperial storehouses were shortly packed with 

20 ivory, rhinoceros horns, pearls, jade, incense and scented woods and all the 
precious merchandise of the southern seas. To find a market for these goods, 
the local officials of the empire were ordered to induce the people to purchase 
them with «gold, piece-goods, rice and straw»*. 

The great value to China of this foreign trade may be estimated by the 

25 steps the Government took to regulate it. We have seen (p. 9) that a 

1) Sung-shI, 186,18*. 

2) Literally «hard irona. There is great uncertainty as to the nature of pin-t'ie (■^B 
I). Bretschneider, Ancient Chinese, etc., 12, n. 2 — is disposed to think it was damascene 

steel, especially sword blades. Perhaps it was the ondanique of which Marco Polo (I. 91) 
30 speaks as a product of Kerman, a word which Yule thinks may be Hundwaniy ^\^^^, 
nindian steel», which enjoyed great fame all over the East. Edrisi (I, 65) says that the iron 
preferred by the Indian smiths came from the Sofala coast of East Africa. There was a large' 
amount of it carried yearly to India by ships from Sumatra or Java («the islands of Zabedj»). 

3) Probably a large white shell of the cockle kind, plentiful in Sumatran waters. The 
35 term is sometimes translated «mother-of-pearl». See infra Pt. II, Ch. XXXV. 

4) Sung-shi, 186,19. It is imposible to determine the exact amounts of these imports, 
as we do not know the units of count, which varied greatly. The Sung-shi says that from 
1049 to 1053 the annual importation of elephants' tusks, rhinoceros horns, strings of pearls, 
aromatics, incense, etc., was over 53,000 units of count. In 1175 the annual amount had risen 

40 to over 500,000 units. 



maritime customs service existed in Canton in the eighth century, and Soleyman, 
the Arab, has informed us concerning it a century later. In 971 the Canton 
Inspectorate of Maritime trade was reorganized to meet the requirements of 
the rapidly increasing foreign intercourse and to secure to the Government a 
larger share of the profits. A few years later, between 976 and 983, this 5 
trade was declared a state monopoly, and private trading with foreigners was 
made punishable by branding on the face and exile to an island of the sea ^ 

Still a few years later, but before 998, a General Customs CoUectorate 
was established at the capital (King-shi, Marco Polo's Kinsay) and orders 
issued that all foreign aromatics and goods of value arriving in China, either lo 
at Canton, Ts*uan-ch6u, the Liang-ch'6 (Ch'0-kiang) Province, or even in 
Kiau-chi (Tongking) ^ were to be deposited in Government warehouses. 

In 999 Inspectorates for Maritime trade were established atHang-ch6u 
and at Ming-ch6u, — the present Ning-po, — and we are told that this was 
<ione «at the request and for the convenience of the foreign officials)) *. 15 

The P'ing-ch6u-k*o-t'an, previously referred to, throws some additional 
light on the Chinese Maritime Customs of the beginning of the twelfth century. 
«The Superintendency of Merchant Shipping (7^ ^ u}) at Canton», it says, 
«is an old institution; (originally) the Comptroller General of the grain 
transport was specially appointed for the management of merchant shipping 20 

«In the reigns of T'ai-tsu and T'ai-tung (of the Sung dynastry, i. e., 
960 — 997) he was called Superintendent of Merchant Shipping (7|j* ^ '^). 

aTs'iian-chou in the province (^) of Fu-kien, Ming-ch6u and Hang- 
chou in the province of Ch'6-kiang (^ */0J), being all near the sea, had also 25 
Superintendencies of Merchant Shipping (Shi-po-ss'i). In the beginning of the 
chung-ning period (1102) the three provinces had each its special official for 
the management of merchant shipping (:^ ^ -jIj j||^ ^). Of the three, 
Kuang-tung was, however, the most prosperous. If, perchance, the officials 
and underlings (there) were extortionate, then the merchants went to the one 30 
making the lightest charge. So these three places (provinces) had their periods 
of prosperity and decline. 

1) Sung shi, 186,18''. See also infra p. 21. 

2) Kiau-chi was an integral part of China; jaost of its trade with China proper was cen- 
tered at K'in-ch6ii in S. W. Kuang-tung. ag 

3) Sung-shJ, loc. cit. The fact that a Custom house was opened at Hang-chou only in 
999 disposes of the identification of this port with the Khanfu of the Arabs of the middle of 
the ninth century. Marco Polo's Ganfu is Kan-fu (or pu ^ ^^1) near Hang-chou. 


«At one time the Court abolished (the superintendency) at Ts'uan-chou 
and directed that (merchant) shipping should repair to Kuang-chou ; this did 
not please the merchants-). 

We know, on the authority of the Arab trader Soleyman \ that in the 

5 middle of the ninth century thirty per cent, (in goods) was levied as duty on 

foreign imports at Canton. This tariff seems to have been maintained for 

centuries after, with only occasional lower rates ^. The P'ing-chou-k'o-t'an 

supplies us with the following: 

«0n the arrival of any ships the Chief Commissioner (^[|] j^) and the 
10 Superintendent of Customs examine the cargoes and levy duties, which is 
called 'taxing for release' (or 'clearance duties' :J^ ^). On a basis of ten 
parts for the whole, pearls, camphor, and all articles of fine quality (j^fj '^) 
pay (in kind) 1 part, (i. e., 10%). Tortoi£e-shell, sapan wood and all coarse 
grade articles pay (in kind) 3 parts (i. e., 30%). Besides this duty each official 
15 market (^ Tff) levies a small tax. After these charges are paid the remainder 
belongs to the merchants themselves. 

((Ivory tusks of thirty catties weight or over, and gum ohbanum, besides 
paying the 'clearance dues' must be disposed of exclusively at the official 
market, since they are 'licensed articles' 0^^ ^, — i. e., sold only to those 
20 having received licenses to import them) '. Merchants who have rather large 
ivory tusks (and who wish to sell them elsewhere) must cut them into pieces 
of three catties or less (jj^\ ^ ^ =. )t ii^ ~F) *° escape the official 
markets. All prices on the official market are low, and other varieties of goods 
are so greatly undervalued on it that the merchants are displeased (or 'injured' 
25 ^) thereby. 

((Should anyone, before the ship has paid its clearance dues, presume to 

remove from it any part of the cargo, even the smallest bit (ht., 'a ^aw worth,' 

i. e., a ten- thousandth part of a tael), all the remainder (of the cargo) is 

confiscated, and he is in addition punished according to the gravity of the 

30 offense. So it is that traders do not dare to violate the regulations**. 

From another source ^ we learn that in 1 1 44 an import duty of 40% was 
levied on all aromatic drugs and that, though in 1147 it would seem to have 

1) Keinaud, Relation, I, 3J. 

2) See infra, p. 22. 

35 3) Scented woods generally were also ((licensed articles)), and could only be sold to 

Government, or, as it is said in the text «in the official markets)). See l-'ing-chbu-k'o-t'an, loc. cit. 

4) In the fourteenth century smuggling was punished at Zaytun by confiscation of the 
whole cargo. Ibn Batuta, IV, 265. Conf. also supia p. 20. 

5) Sung-shi, 186,18*. 


been reduced to 10%, it was 507o i^i 1175, the duty being paid in merchan- 
dise. Some idea of the magnitude of this trade may be got from the fact that 
in 1175, and probably during a number of years preceding that date, the 
import duties amounted to 500,000 odd units of count (catties, strings, pie- 
ces, etc. according to the various articles). 5 

The tariff would seem to have been lowered, in the Yiian dynasty, for 
Marco Polo (II, 217) says of the customs of Zayton (Ts'uan-chou) in his 
time: «The great Kaan derives a very large revenue from the duties paid in 
his city and haven; for you must know that on all the merchandise imported, 
including precious stones and pearls, he levies a duty of ten per cent; or in lo 
other words takes tithe of everything; then again the ship's charge for freight 
on small wares is 30%, on pepper 44°/o, and on lign-aloes, sandal- wood, and 
other bulky goods, 40%; so that between freight and the Kaan's duties the 
merchant has to pay a good half the value of his investment though on the 
other half he makes such a profit that he is always glad to come back with i5 
a new supply of merchandise)). It may be, however, that the figures given on 
previous pages included freight which, we know, (at all events in the early 
part of the ninth century) was collected by the Inspector of Maritime Gus- 
toms at the same time as the import duty. If this assumption is correct the 
Yiian tariff was practically the same as the earlier ones. 20 

In the twelfth century Chinese contemporary writers agree in stating- 
that the foreign trade was confined to Canton and Ts'uan-chou', if not by law 
at least by custom. 

Chou K'u-fei, writing in 1178, makes this point perfectly clear ''.His 
statement contains so much other interesting matter on the southern sea trade 25 
of China and shows so conclusively that this trade in his time was in the 
hands of the Arabs and other foreigners, that it is given here in full: 

«The coast departments and the prefectures of the empire now stretch 
from the north-east to the south-west as far as K'in-ch6u3 (^ j^), and 

1) The Khanfu and Sliinju of mediaeval Arab writers. Additional proof of the identity of 30 
Khanfu with Canton is supplied by Edrisi (I, 84. 90 Jaubert's transl.); he says that Lukin (Hanoi, 
the Chinese Kiau-chi) was four days sailing from Khancu (Khanfu), or 20 days by land. This' 
city, he adds, was the end of the voyage for travellers from the West. 

2) Ling-wai-tai-ta (^ ;^[. ^ ^) ^s_ Ch6u K'&-ieL {M .±. ife) 3 m-u 
Ch6u K'tt-fei was a native of W6n-ch6u (^_>fi|>|) in Ch"6-kiang, Sk i^n' he wrote 35 
•his book he, held the position of Assistant Sub-Prefect in Kui-lin (j^ j^\ the capital of' 
Kuang-si. It is highly probable that he collected his notes while in Canton, 'when on his way 

to his official residence. , 

3) K'in-chou was the westernmost district of Kuang-tung on the Kiau-chi (Tongking) front- 
ier. It is part of the Lien-chou Fu of the present day. aq 


these coast departments and prefectures (are visited) by trading ships (7^ 
-JlQ). In its watchful kindness to the foreign Barbarians (^[. ||) our Govern- 
ment has established at Ts'uan-ch6u and at Kuang-chon Special Inspectorates 
of Shipping, and whenever any of the foreign traders (^ ]^) have difticul- 
6 ties or wish to lay a c(^mplaint they must go to the Special Inspectorate {^ 

((Every year in the 10th moon the Special Inspectorate establishes a 
large fair for the foreign traders and (when it is over) sends them (home) ^. 
When they first arrive (in China) after the summer solstice, (then it is that) 

"10 the Inspectorate levies (duties) on their trade and gives them protection. 

«0f all the wealthy foreign lands which have great store of precious 
and varied goods, none surpass the realm of the Arabs (Ta-shi). Next to them 
comes Java (Sho-p'o); the third is Palembang (San-fo-ts'i)^; many others 
come in the next rank, 

15 ((Palembang (San-fo-ts'i) is an important thoroughfare (f^) on the sea- 

routes of the Foreigners on their way to and from (China). Ships (on leaving 
it, on their way to China) sail due north, and having passed the Shang-hia- 
chu islands" (J^ "]C ^) and (through) the Sea of Kiau-chi (^ y:^), they 

1) The text reads -^ =^ ^ "^ fj'p ^ ^. It appears from Sung-shi. 1 86,19* 
20 that in 1175 the Inspector of merchant shipping was ordered not to grant leave to unload to any 

ships from abroad until ten at least had arrived. He was then to levy duty — in goods, 50 per 
cent, on all goods not government monopolies imported under special licenses. All this latter 
class of goods had to go to the government saleshouse. 

P V) g- Ch6u-k'o-t'an supplies some interesting details — referring presumably to the latter 

25 part of the eleventh century, as to the rules observed by ships from foreign ports entering the 
port of Canton. «From the SiauHai (>>K ]^) at Kuang-ch6u to Ju-ch6u (island Js fM'j is 
700 It. At Ju island there is a lookout for ships; it is called Lookout A: 1 ( — • 3^). A little to the 
north are Lookouts JNs 2 and JV» 3. Beyond Ju island is the Warm Current ('^ 7^)- Merchant 
ships on reaching Ju island make a brief stop to say farewell, and setting sail after this is called 

So ((putting to sea» {"M^ T^)- ^^^i™ (ships) reach Ju island on their return, they exchange con- 
gratulations, and the soldiers at the port supply them with samshu and meat as well as provide 
them escort to Kuang-ch6u. "When they drop anchor at the Inspector of Foreign Customs' pavilioli 
(at Canton) the Wu-chfiu Inspection Office (^ fj\\ ^ j^ W}) sends soldiers to keep watch 
on board, and this is called ((putting up the barriers» (j|S j^ ). On the subject of this Pavilion 

35 and Wu-ch6u islands, see infra p. 29, n. 1 and 2. 

2) In another passage (2,ii) the same writer says of San-fo-ts'i: (dt is the most important 
port-of-call on the sea-routes of the foreigners from the countries of Java (Sho-p'o) in the east 
and from the countries of the Arabs (Ta-shi) and Quilon (Ku-lin) in the west; they all pass 
through it on their way to Chinaa. 

40 3) Called T'ien-chu (^ ^) islands in the Sung-shi, 489. They are usually identified 

'with Pulo Aor, S. E. of Tyoman, although some writers place them near Singapore. 


come witliin the confines of China. Those wishing to make Kuang-chou enter 
that port by the T'un-m5n^ (ig f^), while those wishing to enter Ts'uan- 
chou make it by the Kia-tzi-m6n^ (^ -f' P^). 

aShips coming from Java (Sh6-p'o) go a little north-west (at first), but 
when they have passed the Shi-ir-tzi rocks » (-f^ H -^ 5), they take the .5 
same route as the Palembang ships from below ("f i. e., south) of theShang- 
hia-chu Islands. 

(((Traders) coming from the country of the Ta-shi, after travelling south 
to Quilon (Ku-lin) on small vessels, transfer to big ships*, and, proceeding 
east, they make Palembang (San-fo-ts'i). After this they come to China by lo 
the same route as the Palembang ships. 

((The (foreign countries) which are dependencies of Annam (Chan- 
ch'ong) and Kamboja (Chon-la), are all near the southern part of the Sea of 
Tongking (Kiau-chi), not half as far away as San-fo-ts'i and Sho-p'o, and 
these latter in turn are not half as far away as the countries of the Arabs 15 
(Ta-shi). A year is sufficient for all the foreigners to make the round voyage 
to China, with the exception of the Arabs who require two years. 

((As a general thing the- foreign ships can make 1,000 U a day with a 
good wind, but if they have the misfortune to run into a north wind and they 
can neither find an anchorage on our territory or some place in which to run 20 
to shelter and anchor in some foreign land, men and cargo will all be lost. 

((As to Mo-k'ie (g ^) and Wu-ssi-li (^ ^ H.), it is not known ■ 
how many myriads of U away they are» ®. 

1) On T'nn-mon, see supra, p. 10, n. 1. 

2) The present junk passage at the place known to mariners as Cupchi Point (BEf -^ 25 
Jfe), now an important station of the Kuang-tung province. «The junks pass between Turtle 
Ilock and therock next to the northward». See Williams, Chinese Commercial Guide, 5^'^ edit., 
Appendix-Sailing Directions, p. 55. The Kia-tzi-mon appears to have been the safest anchorage 

in the neighbourhood and a refuge shelter for junks sailing between Hongkong and Chinchew 
waters. The Emperor Tuan-tsung, in his flight from the Mongol conquerors, made it the head- 30 
quarters of his fleet before the final downfall of the Sung dynasty, in A. D. 1277. See Tjt^u-tsi- 
ch^^lgj^ect. 6. Ch. 1326, p. 4, a,nd Kiianfr-tiinfr sir^-yti 2,7 where a special paragraph is devoted 
to the Eia-tzi-m5n. 

3) These rocks are marked on Chinese maps of the sixteenth century as being N. of Cari- 
mata Island off the S. W. coast of Borneo. Phillips, J. C. B. K. A. S., XXI. 40, and maps. 35- 

4) The Arab sanibuks (^^-v-L..)) of those times were probably of about 100 tons burden, 
like those of the present day. They were made of boards lashed together with coir ropes and 
the seams pitched. Their weakness is often referred to in mediaeval Arab works. Conf. also infra 
"p. 30, n. 4. It seems probable that at Quilon the Arabs transhipped to large junks of the Chinese 
type which regularly made the voyage from Canton to Quilon. 40 

5) Mo-k'ie is probably the Magreb-alaksSi of the Arabs — «the remotest West, corres- 
ponding roughly with the present Morocco. Chau Ju-kua transcribes the name of the 


This extract naturally suggests an inquiry into the general geographical 
knowledge of the Chinese concerning the world of the Barbarians in the time 
of this author. Fortunately he has left us a comprehensive and complete 
statement (the like of which is found in no other Chinese writer of the Sung 

5 period) of his notions on the physical and political geography of the world in 
his time. It reads as follows: 

«The Great (World)-encircling-Ocean-Sea bounds the Barbarians' coun- 
tries; in every quarter there are kingdoms of them, each has its peculiar 
products, each its trading centre (^ ■^) from which it derives its(commer- 

10 -cial) prosperity. The (Barbarian) kingdoms due south have San-fo-ts'i as their 
commercial centre. Sh5-p*o is the centre ofthose to the south-east. The countries 
to the south-west are so vast in extent that they cannot all be described. The 
nearest are Chan-ch'ong and Chon-la as the commercial centres of Wa-li^ 
(m. ^)- "^^ ™o^* distant is Ta-ts'in as the commercial centre of the coun- 

15 tries of Western Indian Among the distant ones Ma-li-pa^ (^ "^ :f^) is 
the commercial centre of the countries of the Ta-sM, and beyond these there 

same country Mo-k'ie-la (^ -^ |^). Wu-ssMi, asusedbyChau J u-ku a, is certainly Egypt; 
whether our author applies this name in the present case to the same country or to some other 
it is impossible to say. In another passage (SiS*) Ch6u uses three characters with the same sounds 
20 {'^ ^ ^) for Mosul (al Mawsil). 

1) Chau Ju-kua (infra, p. 54) mentions Wa-li as a dependency of Chon-la (Kamhoja). 
Chou K'ii-fei (2, 11") says it was 60 days journey from P'u-kan on the Irrawadi, without men- 
tioning any direction. It may have been either the Laos country or that of the Karens. 

2) The whole of Western Asia is sometimes covered by this term in Chinese works. For 
25 example in the modern work Hai-kuo-t'u-chl (30), Persia, Arabia, Syria and their ancient equi- 
valents are discussed under the heading of Si-Yin-t'u, i. e.. Western India. 

3) Ma-li-pa, or Ma-lo-pa as Chau also writes it, appears to be Merbat on the Hadramaut 
coast of southern Arabia. At the time of which our author writes, Aden was perhaps the most 
important port of Arabia for the African and. Arabian- trade with India and the countries beyond. 

30 It seems highly probable that the Ma-li-pa of the Chinese must be understood as including 
Aden— of which they make no mention whatsoever, but which was one of «the great commercial 
centres of the Arabs». In another passage of his work (3,2) Chou says that Ma-li-pa was 
reached from Lan-li (N. W. Sumatra) by ships sailing with the N. E. wind in some 60 days. 
It was also some 80 days by land from Mekka (Ma-kia). Chau Ju-kua says it was 120 

35 stages from Ma-lo-pa to Ki-tz'I-ni (possibly Ghazni) and 300 stages to Lu-mei (Rto,— Syria, 
Rome or Constantinople?). There is nothing in these indications which can help us locate this 
place. The ancient Merbat or Robat was, according to Theo. Bent (Geogr, Journ. VI, 
115—116, 124 — 125), near the modern Takha, about half way between Cape Risut and 
the modern Merbat. From Bent's examination of the locality, it had a good spacious 

40 and commodious harbor with an island protecting the entrance. It is, he says, the Abyssa- 
polis ('ApuffffaTToXii;) of Ptolemy, the Moscha (Mo'uxa) of the Periplus. Ibn Khaldun uses 
the name Mirbat. See also Mailer, Geogr. Graeci min. I, 282, § 32 and Mo Crindlo, 
Periplus, 95. 


is Mu-lan-p'i^ (tj^ ^ J^) as the commercial centre of the countries of the 
extreme west. 

«To the south of San-fo-ts'i (here Sumatra) is the Great Southern Ocean- 
Sea and in this Ocean-Sea there are islands inhabited by a myriad and more 
of peoples. Beyond these to the south one cannot go. 6 

«To the east of Java (Sho-p'o) is the Great Eastern Ocean-Sea,— where 
(the surface of) the waters begins to go downward (;^ ^ }Df %); there is 
the kingdom of women. Still further to the east is the place where the 
wei-lu (^ ^) drains (jflH:) into the world from which men do not return «. 
In a slightly north-easterly direction there is only Kau-li(N. W. Korea) and lo 
Pai-ts'i (N. Korea). 

«It is impossible to enumerate the countries in the South-Western Ocean, 
but if we take Tongking (Kiau-chi) as a central point, we have to the south 
of it Annam (Chan-ch'6ng), Kamboja (Chon-la) and Fo-lo-an» (# /^ 
^). To the north-west of Kiau-chi is Ta-li (Yun-nan), the Hei-shui, or 15 
'Black Water'* (^^ 7JC), and the T'u-fan (the Tibetans), and beyond this to 
the west a big sea called the Sea of Ceylon^ (^ ^ '/$). In this sea is a 
big island called the country of Si-lan (Ceylon). Crossing westward there are 
again countries; in the south there is Ku-lin (^ [^, Quilon); in the north 
is Ta-ts*in (the empire of the Caliphs) and the T'ien-chu of Wang-sho-ch'6ng^ 20 
(^ -^ M ^ ^ Central India). 

«Still beyond (this Sea of Ceylon) there is another sea called the 'Eastern 
Sea of the Arabs', and beyond it to the west are the countries of the Arabs. The 
lands of the Arabs are very broad and their kingdoms very many, too numer- 
ous to enumerate. In the west beyond them is the sea called the ((Western Sea 25 

1) Mu-lan-p'i appears to be a transcription of tlie Atahic Mmabit, the Almoravides or 
Almorabethum, wlio reigned in northwestern Africa and in Spain between 1073 and 1 147. 

2) On this old notion of a hole in the Pacific into which the waters of the Ocean emptied, 
see infra, p. 75, and Chs. XXXVIII, 4, and XLVI. 

3) Fo-lo-an is identified with Beranang on the Langat Eiver, west coast of the Malay 30 
Peninsula. Chau Ju-kua (Ch. VII) says it was a dependency of San-fo-ts'i. 

4) According to the earliest geographical notions of the Chinese (Shu-king, Tribute of Yfl, 
Pt. I, 71, Pt. II, 6) the Black W^ater formed the western boundary of China, and emptied into 
the Southern Sea. See Legge, Shu-king, Pt. III. Bk. I, 123, and Chavannes, M6m. historiq., 

I, 126, n. 2. Here the Irrawadi must be meant. See infra, p. 63, n. 1 another reference to the 35 
Black Water by Ch6u K'fl-fei.a nd a repetition of this whole passage in slightly different words. 

5) This is the earliest use known in Chinese literature of the Arab name for Ceylon. 
See infra, p. 71, n. 2. 

6) According to another passage of Ling-wai-tai-ta (8,4) this Tien-chil was the country 
,of Magadha, He mentions another Wang-sho-ch'ong as being located by some writers in Pin-t"o- 40 
lung. See infra, p. 51, n. 1. 


of the Arabs», and still beyond that is Mu-lan-p'i, and a thousand other 
kingdoms; and in the extreme West is the place where the sun goes in and 
of which we do not know» ^ 

The earliest narrative of a voyage on the southern seas by a Chinese 

5 which has come down to us is that of the pilgrim F a-hi^ in the early part 

of the fifth century. He says that, desiring to return from India to China, he 

embarked at Tamlook ^ near the mouth of the Hoogly, on a large merchant 

vessel (j^ A. 3^ iW) ^"^ which, sailing day and night, he came to Ceylon 

' in fourteen days. Here he took passage on another large merchant ship (-^ 

10 j|§), on board which there were more than 200 men, and to which was 

attached a smaller vessel i^)in case of damage to the larger one by the 

sea. Fa-hien speaking of the voyage says*: 

«The Great Ocean (^ '/^) spreads out over a boundless expanse. There 
is no knowing east or west; only by observing the sun, moon and stars was 
15 it possible to go forward. If the weather was dark and rainy the ship went 
forward as she was carried by the wind, without any definite course. In the 
darkness of the night only the great waves were to be seen, breaking on one 
another, emitting a brightness like that of fire, with huge turtles and other 
monsters of the deep (all about). The merchants were full of terror, not know- 
20 ing where they were going. The sea was deep and bottomless, and there 
was no place where they could drop anchor ("|^ ^, lit., «let down a stone») 
and stop. But when the sky became clear they could tell east and west, and 
the ship again went forward in the right direction. If she had come on any 
hidden rock there would have been no way of escape». 
25 Arriving in Java C^ ^ ^) he took passage on another large mer- 

chantman, on which there were over 200 men. It carried provisions for fifty 
days and set sail on the 16*" of the 4*" moon (sometime in May). After 
steering a north-easterly course for a month, they encountered a «black wind», 

1) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,9. 
30 2) Tamlook was already in FaJiien 's time the principal emporium of trade with Ceylon 

< and south-eastern Asia, and it remained so for centuries after. It was visited by numerous Chi- 
nese pilgrims in the seventh century, but no mention is made of it as a great commercial center 
either by the writers of the T'ang or the Sung dynasties. Ch6u K'tt-fei and Chau Ju-kua did 
not know of its existence. 
85 3) L e g g e, Kecord of Buddhist kingdoms, 100, 11 2— 1 1 3. C h a v a n n e s, Religieux Iminents, 

' 42, says, on the authority of the I-tsie-king-yin-i, Ch. 1, that the vessels called po {^) were 
some 200 feet long and could carry from six to' seven hundred persons. Ships called ch'uan (^) 
were, probably, of smaller dimensions. 


accompanied by a heavy rain. «The sky continued dark and gloomy and the 
sailing masters (y$ $rR) looked at one another and made mistakes)). When 
seventy days or more from their start from Java were passed, they came 
to the conclusion that they had held a wrong course as they should have made 
Canton, at the ordinary rate of sailing, long before; so they altered their 5 
course to the north-west and in twelve days made Lau-shan, near Tsingtau on 
the south-east of the Shan-tung Peninsula. 

Such was the method of sailing ships in the fifth century, such it remained 
down to the twelfth; the skippers trusted— when venturing out of sight of 
land, to the regularity of the monsoons and steered solely by the sun, moon lo 
and stars, taking, presumably, soundings as frequently as possible. From other 
sources^ we learn that it was customary on ships which sailed out of sight of 
land to keep pigeons on board, by which they used to send messages to land. This 
custom appears to have been a very old one with the sailors of India, as it 
is found mentioned in Buddhist works dating from the fifth century B. C. ^. 15 

By the twelfth century, the next period concerning which we have any 
information, navigation had made considerable progress, due principally to 
the application made of the compass or «south- pointing needle», as it is 
called by the Chinese, who had long known of the polarity of the needle, 
but had never applied it to this purpose*. The earliest mention of the compass 20 

1) Yu-yang-tsa-tsu (]§ ^ ^ M) by Tuan Ch'ong-shii (^ ^ ^). The author 
died in A. D. 863. Mayers, Chin. Readers' Man. 211. Wylie, Notes, 155, says he wrote towards 
the end of the 8*1' century. See also Giles, Chinese Biograph. Diet., 788. Tuan says (16,5), on the 
authority of Chong Fn-]i (HK ^h ?b), that «on the sea-going ships of the Persians many 
feed pigeons. These pigeons can fly several thousand li, and, when let loose, at a single flight 25 
they return to their homes, thus serving as a letter of good news (^^ ^r ^s)"- 

2) The Kevattha Sutta of the Digha nikaya puts the following in the Buddha's mouth: 
«Long ago ocean-going merchants were wont to plunge forth upon the sea, on board a ship, 
taking with them a shore-sighting bird free. And it would go to the East and to the South and 

to the West and to the North, and to the intermediate points, and rise aloft. If on the horizon it 30 
caught sight of land, thither it would go. But if not, then it would come back to the ship again». 
AsRhysDavids remarks, this is very probably the earliest reference in Indian books to ocean- 
going ships out of sight of land. J. R. A. S., 1699, 432. 

The use of carrier-pigeons was probably introduced into China by the Hindu or Arab 
traders. The earliest mention of them in Chinese literature is connected with Chang Kiu-ling, 35 
born in A. D. 673, and who was a minister of the Emperor Hftan-tsung. Watters, J. C. B. R. 
A. S., IV, 226. 

3) Beazley, Dawn of modern geography, I, 490 says that the Chinese used the compass 
on their long voyages from Canton to Malabar and the Persian Gulf as early as the third century 
A. D. So far as I am aware there is absolutely no evidence that they made these long voyages 40 
at the time mentioned, or that they had ever thought of using the compass for navigation. 
E. Speck, Handelsgeschichte des Alterthums, I, 29, 209 thinks the Chinese used the compass for 

J I 


for navigation is probably the account of the P'ing-chou-k'o-t'an, which Chi- 
nese critics believe was supplied by the author's father during the latter part 
of the eleventh century. Another early mention is found under the year 1122. 

The rather disconnected notes on Chinese sea-trade contained iii the 
6 P'ing-chou-k'o-t'an embody so much of interest on the general subject with 
which we are dealing that they are given in full. They run as follows: 

«At the Shi-po's (Inspector of Foreign Trade) pavilion there is close to 
the water-side the Hai-shan-lou ^ (y^ (Jj ^^); it faces Wu-chou^ (5£ yj\\ 
'Five Islands'). Below this (the river) is called the «Little Sea» (/J> '/^). 
10 In mid-current for some ten odd feet the ships can take water (from the sea 
or river) aboard for use in crossing the sea ; this water does not spoil, but 
water taken outside this limit of ten feet or more, and all ordinary well-water 

navigation as early as the first century A. D. Reiuaud, GeograpLie d'Aboulfeda, I, CCIII— CCIV, 
speaking of the oldest Arab references to the polarity of the magnetic needle, concludes his 

15 remarks by saying: wThese various pieces of evidence prove that at the end of the XII ti and 
beginning of the XIIIti> centuries the magnetic needle came into use (for navigation) at the same 
time in the East and in the "WestB. It may well be, however, that the Arab traders engaged in 
the China trade got their knowledge of the polarity of the magnetic needle from the Chinese and 
applied it to navigation before the Chinese did. See Hirth, Ancient History of China, 126, 134. 

20 Another early mention of the mariner's compass in Chinese works is that made by Sfl-king in the 
narrative of his mission to Korea in 1122. He there describes the use of the csouth-pointing 
floating needles (dig '^l ^^ '^) on the ships on which he sailed from Ning-po, as if it 
were a new invention. Edkins, J. C. B. K. A. S., XI, 128—134. A. Wylie, Magnetic Compass 
in China, quoting the M5ng-k'i-pi-t'an of the Sung period, shows that the Chinese, or at least 

25 a few of them, had some knowledge of the changes which take place in the magnetic elements, 
in the tenth to thirteenth century, but of the application of the magnetic compass to navigation 
no mention is made earlier than that of the P'ing-chou-k'o-t'an. 

E. H. Parker, China Eeview, XVIII, 197 says that tlie Sung-shu makes mention of a 
Ksouth pointing ship» (:j^ ^ -M-) during the Tsin (^) dynasty (A. D. 265— 3 13), but this 

30 is not sufficient evidence to show that the compass was used at that date for sea navigation. 
J. Chalmers, China Review, XIX, 52—54 arrives at the conclusion that the «south-pointing 
chariots)) mentioned in early Chinese records did not lead to the discovery of the compass)). 

It is of interest to note that no reference occurs in any Chinese works of the T'ang or 
Sung periods to the astrolabe, an instrument which must have been in very general use on the 

35 Arab ships of those times. 

1) The Hai-shan-lou, according to the Y0-ti-ki-sh6ng, the geography of the Southern Sung 
dynasty, 89,11, is enumerated among the wsights worth seeing» of Canton. It was a building com- 
manding a fine view of the surrounding country, and situated in a locality called Ki-mu-kan-li 
(S @ "F" M.) *"° ^^^ ®*'"*^ "^ *^^ *''*y"" '^^^ ^""^^^ chronicles, quoted in the T'u-shu-tsi- 

40 ch'ong, Sect. 6. 1313,2, describe its situation as coutside the south-gate of the prefectural city 
defenses)). This seems to involve that the Shi-po's office was in the southern suburbs of Canton 
city and on the north shore of the Pearl Eiver. 

2) On Wu-ch6u or Five Islands, see also supra, p. 23, n. 1. They cannot be identified at 
present. The same remark applies to the Little Sea (Siau-hai), though it may be the Bay of 

45 Lintin below the Bogue, since in a temple inscription of this neighbourhood, the Siau-hai is 
opposed to the Ta-hai, the latter being east ot the former. P'ei-won yfln-fu, 40,35. 


cannot be stored (on board ship), for after a time it breeds insects. Tlie cause 
of this is unknown ^ 

«Ships sail in the eleventh or twelfth moons to avail themselves of the 
north wind (the north-east monsoon), and come back in the fifth or sixth 
moon to avail themselves of the south wind (the south-west monsoon). 5 

((The ships are squarely built like grain measures (((bushels» %^). If 
there is no wind (i. e., if the sails are not used) they cannot remove the 
masts, for these are firmly planted, and the sails hang down on one side (of 
them), — one side close to the mast, around which they move like a door (on 
its hinges). They have mat-sails. .These ships are called kia-t'u^ (jjlfl ^), 10 
which is a foreign word^ (^ "^ -j;^). 

((At sea they can use not only a stern wind, but wind off or toward 
shore can also be used. It is only a head-wind which drives them backward. 
This is called «using the wind of three directions)) {-^ ^ ^ ^). When 
there is a head- wind they can heave the anchor (|J J^) and stop. 15 

((The Governor of Kuang-tung in the fifth moon prays to the god Fong- 
lung (^ 1^ ^^) for wind. 

((On large kia-Ung (Kling?)* sea-going ships (^ ^ "M M ik ^)> 
every several hundred men, and on small ones a hundred and more men, 

1) Kuang-tung-sin-yfl, 4, 6,a5, contains an account of springs of brackish (or fresh) water 20 
in the sea ("^ ptl V^ ^^)' ^^^ "^ which were along the Kuang-tung coasts, two of these 
seeming to have been on the coast of Sin-hui-hien near the Bogae. Our author assumes, I take 

it, that a submarine spring sends a column of fresh water to the surface where it spreads out, 
while the lower strata of the sea remains salt-water, this prevents the formation of certain 
organic growths containing the germs that will breed insects in ordinary spring-water. 25 

2) Icia-t'u is pronounced Jca-tat in Cantonese, and the second syllable stands for tur or 
tur. Final r is quite commonly represented by final t in old inscriptions, as in the name T'u-ku6 
which represent Ttlrk of the Old Turkish stone inscriptions preserved in alphabetical script. Katur 
is proba.hly the word Catur said to have been in use on the coast of Malabar as the name of a 
special kind of sailing ship in the early days of the Portuguese. Yule & Burnell, Anglo-Indian 30 
Glossary, s. v. -Catur, say «Jal (Archfiologie Navale, II, 259) quotes Witsen as saying that the 
Caturi or Almadias were Calicut vessels, having a length of 12 to 13 paces (60 to 65 feet), sharp 

at both ends, and curving back, using both sails and oars. But there was a larger kind 80 feet 
long, with only 7 or 8 feet beam». This, it is true, does not tally with the description of our 
Chinese author, who compares the ship to a grain measure, hu, the characteristic shape of 35 
which is that of the frustum of a pyramid, — an impossible type, even for this remote period, for 
distant ocean craft. See, however, the picture of an Arab ship of about this period in Van der 
Lith and Devic's Merveilles de I'Inde, 91. Our word «cutter» is derived from Catur (or '- 

3) Fang-yen lit. «local terms, in the title of a well-known ancient work, means «terms 40 
not usual in the standard language of China)), being some kind of provincialism; but it also occurs 

in the sense of a regular ((foreign word)). P'ei-w5n-yiin-fu, 13A, 85. 

4) The Kling are usually called Ho-ling (g^ |^) in Chinese mediaeval works; my 
suggestion is quite gratuitous. It is certain that the Kling were the principal foreign traders 


choose one of the more important traders as head-man (^ "^) who, with an 
assistant head-man— (g|J ^ ■^), manages various matters. The Superinten- 
dent of Merchant Shipping (at Canton) gives them a certificate (:^ |E) per- 
mitting them to use the light bamboo for the punishing of their followers. 

5 When one (of the company) dies, they (i. e., the head-men) make an inventory 
of his property. 

((Traders say that it is only when the vessel is large and the number 
of men considerable that they dare put to sea, for over-seas (y^ ^\>) there are 
numerous robbers, and they plunder, moreover, those who are not bound for 

10 their (the robbers') country. For instance, if a ship be bound for Chan-ch'ong 
and by chance get off her course and enter Chon-la, both ship and cargo are 
confiscated and the men are bound and sold, (the robbers and the people of 
the place) saying: (dt was not your purpose to visit this place»^. 

((In foreign lands, though there may be no tax on commerce, there is 

15 an insatiable demand for presents. No matter whether the cargo is large or 
small, the same demands are made; consequently small ships are not profit- 
able. Sea-going ships are several tens of c/j'awi; in breadth and depth ('^ yf^). 
The traders divide the space by lot among themselves and store their 
goods therein. (Each) man gets several feet (of space for storing his goods) 

20 and at night he sleeps on top of them. 

((The greate;r part of the cargo consists of pottery ([^ ^), the small 
pieces packed in the larger, till there is not a crevice left. 

<«At sea they are not afraid of the wind and the waves, but of getting 
shoaled, for they say that if they run aground there is no way of getting ofiF 

25 again. If the ship suddenly springs a leak they cannot mend it from the inside, 
but they order their foreign slaves'* (lit. 'devil slaves' ^ j^) to take knives 

at this time in Java, Sumatra, and possibly China. The ships here described were certainly not 
Chinese either in build or crew. Chau Ju-kua calls the ships which traded between Ts'Oan-chou 
and the Arab countries of the West «Fan-po» (||: ^). When'te speaks of Chinese junks he, 
30 as well as the other writers of his time, call them «Ts'uan (ch6u) ships», or even Chung-kno 
(i. e., Chinese) shipsa. — In the ea;r]y part of the Uth century Ibn Batuta (Voyages, IV, 90) 
remarks ((Chinese ships only are used in navigating the Sea of China . . . These vessels are built 
at Zaytun (Ts'flan-ch6u) and at Sin-kalan» (Canton). 

1) Abd Alrazzak in the narrative of his mission to the court of China, to which he was 
35 sent by Shahrokh, refers to this practice as being followed on the west coast of India in bis time, 
' Calicut only excepted. Keinaud, G6ogr. d'Aboulfeda, I. CDXXXIII. 

2) Fing-ch6u-k'o-t'an, 2, 4*, says of these «devil slavesa, that «in Kuang (Canton) rich 
people keep (^ j many «devil slavesa, who are very strong, being able to carry several hundred 
catties. In their language and tastes they are strange. Their disposition is gentle, and they do 

40 not run away. They are also called «wild people» (^ /J. They are black in colour, as black 


and oakum {%) and mend it from the outside, for the foreign slaves are expert 
swimmers, and do not close their eyes under water. 

«Tlie ship masters know the configuration of the coasts (i^ ^); at 
night they steer by the stars and in the day-time by the sun. When the sun 
is obscured they look at the south-pointing needle ^ (:jf ^ ^) or use a 5 
line a hundred feet long with a hook (^), with which they take up mud 
from the sea bottom; by its smell they determine their whereabouts. In mid- 
ocean it never rains; whenever it rains (they know) they are nearing an island 
{or headland (Jj). 

((Traders say that when they get in calms the water of the sea is like a lo 
mirror. The sailors then catch fish by taking (a line with) a hook (on it) as 
large as a man's arm, on which they fasten a chicken or duck as bait. When 
this is swallowed by a big fish they follow it (in a small boat?) as it makes 
off, but not till half a day (is passed) does it grow tired enough for them to 

as ink. Their lips are red, their hair curly and yellow. Both sexes are found among them; they 15 
are natives of the islands beyond the sea (of China '/^ ^|»). They live (in their native land) on 
raw food; when caught and fed on food cooked with fire, it purges them daily and this is called 
((Changing the bowelss {^ J^). Many during this treatment sicken and die, but if they do not 
they may be reared and become able to understand human speech (i. e., Chinese), though they 
themselves cannot (learn) to speak it. 2Q 

((There is a variety of wild men from near the sea ( jg^ *^ ^ ^) which can dive 
in water without closing the eyes; these are called «K.'un-lun slaves;) (ja J^ ^Z.)- 

The slaves who were anatives of the islands beyond the Sea (of China)», may have been 
African negroes, in which the Arabs of those times carried on a large traffic. The effect of the 
change of diet on these blacks, making them able to understand Chinese, is based on the Chinese 25 
notipn that purging of the bowels is a result of mixing hot with cold food, and that these people 
had to become used to the food and water of China and have the old washed out of them, before 
they could understand Chinese. 

The «K'un-lun slavess were in all likelihood Malays or Negritos of the Malay Peninsula 
and the islands to the south. I-tsing calls the Malay language ((language of K'un-luna — Cha- 30 
vannes, Kelig. dmin., 63, 159, 183. In A. D. 976 an Arab brought to the Court of China, aa 
K'nn-lun slave with deep set eyes and black body)); Sung shi, 490. The practice of keeping black 
slaves continued in China down to the latter part of the fourteenth century, perhaps even to much 
more modern times. In 1370 among the presents brought to the Court of China by a mission from 
Malacca were ((little foreign slavesa (^g: yj> ^K). The following year a mission from Borneo 35 
brought ((little black slaves)) (S^ yj-^ ^^)- Kan-yile-pi-ki. 7,16,17. The same work- (whether 
referring to the time when it was written, latter part of eighteenth century, or to past ages does 
not appear) says that «many families (in China) buy black people to make gate-keepers of; they 
are called Am«-wm or ((devil slaves)), ot h^siauss'i ((black slaves or servants)). Duarte Barbosain 
the early part of the sixteenth century says that many slaves were shipped from the island of 40 
Snnda to China. Descript. of East Africa, etc. (Hakl. Soc. edit.), 196. 

F.W.Mayers, China Eeview, IV, 182 in translating the passage of this P'ing-chou- 
k'o-t'an was under the impression it referred to the Ming period. He mentions the fact that in 
1381 the king of Java sent 300 black slaves as a present to the Chinese Emperor. 

1) See supra p. 28, n. 3. 45 


get near it, and it is another half a day before they can secure it. Should a 
wind come up suddenly, they abandon it. If they catch a large fish which is 
not fit to eat, they open its belly and take out the small fish which it has 
swallowed and which are eatable. There may be not less than several tens 
, 5 in one belly, each one weighing several tens of catties \ All kinds of big sea 
fish follow the ships, rising and sinking (around them), and there is nothing 
thrown overboard that they do not eat. When a man sickens, he fears dying 
on ship-board, for usually before the breath has left his body, he is rolled up 
in several layers of matting and thrown into the sea, and, as it is desired to 
10 have the body sink, several earthenware jars are filled with water and tied 
in the matting before it is thrown overboard. The crowd of fish have devoured 
the body and the matting before it can get down very far. 

"There are saw-fish (s|g ^) hundreds of feet long, with snouts like 
saws, and when they strike a ship they cleave it asunder as though it were 
15 a piece of rotten wood. 

((When the ship is in mid-ocean, if suddenly there is seen in the distance 
(something like) a clump of islands covered with dried trees, and the skipper 
has reason to believe that there is no land in that place, they (know) that it 
is the sea-serpent (lit., «the dragon-monster» ^ ^). Then they cut o£f 
20 their hair, take fish-scales and bones and burn them, upon which it will 
gradually disappear in the water. 

oAU these are dangers, from the most of which there is no escape. 

Traders give heed to the bonzes' saying: 'To cross the sea is dangerous, but 

pray, and you will see to the vault of heaven (^ ^ ^)> and in nothing 

25 will help fail you'. On their arrival at Kuang-chou they make the bonzes 

presents of food, which is called a 'Lo-han feast'». 

Chou K'ti-fei, writing a generation later, thus describes the great ships 
which sailed the Southern Sea, and the method of navigating them: 

«The ships which sail the Southern Sea and south of it are like houses. 
30 When their sails are spread they are like great clouds in the sky. Their 
rudders are several tens of feet long. A single ship carries several hundred 
men. It has stored on board a year's supply of grain. They feed pigs and 
ferment liquors. There is no account of dead or living, no going back to the 
mainland when once they have entered the dark blue sea. When on board 
36 the gong sounds the day, the animals drink gluttonly, guests and hosts by 

1) The Arab relations of the ninth century mention fish caught in the Indian Ocean which 
were 20 cubits long. On opening it a smaller fish of the same species was found in its belly, and 
in the belly of the smaller fish a still smaller one. Reinaud, Relations, I, 2. 



turn forgetting their perils. To the people on board all is hidden, mountains, 
land-marks, the countries of the foreigners, all are lost in space. If (the ship's 
master) says 'to make such and such a country with a favourable wind, in so 
many days, we should sight such and such a mountain, the ship must (then) 
steer in such and such a direction'; but if it happens that suddenly the wind 5 
falls and is not strong enough to sight the mountain on the given day, it 
must change its bearing. But if the ship has been carried far beyond (the 
land-mark), it has lost its bearings, it is blown hither and thither, gets in 
shoal water, comes on hidden rocks; then it is broken to pieces (lit., 'the tiles 
are broken'). The big ship with its heavy cargo has naught to fear of the lo 
great waves, but in shallow water it comes to griefs 

«Far beyond the Western Sea of the Arabs' countries lies the land of 
Mu-lan-p'i (Southern Spain). Its ships are the biggest of all. One ship car- 
ries a thousand men; on board are weaving looms and market places. If it 
does not encounter favourable winds it does not get back to port for years. 15 
No ship but a very big one could make such voyages. At the present time the 
term 'Mu-[lan]-cJidu' is used (in China) to designate the largest kind of ship»^ 

1) One is inclined to infer from this passage that the compass, if used at all, did not play 
much of a role in navigation at the time. The captains of the ships appear to have counted on 
the wind carrying them from one land-mark to another in a given time and kept approximately 20 
on their course by means of some star. 

Ling-wai-tai-ta, 6,9, says that there grew on the coast hills of K'in-chou (^^ >|>|>| ) two 
very remarkable kinds of timber. One is called tzi-king-mu (^^ ^J ^ lit., npurple thorns). 
The wood is of the colour of red cosmetic and straight grained, and of a girth that two men can 
reach round. Used for roof beams it will last for hundreds of years. 2& 

The other kind of timber is called wii-lan mu (j& ^fe TK)' ■'■* ^^ ^^^^ for the timbers 
of sea-going junks, and is the most wonderful thing in the world. Foreign (^S) ships are as big 
and deep as a great room. They sail the Southern Ocean for tens of thousands of U, and the lives 
of thousands or hundreds of men depend on one timber. Other varieties of timber are not more 
than 30 feet in length and are good enough for junks with a capacity of 10,000 bushels (^ij*), 30 
but these foreign ships carry several tens of thousands of bushels, and might break in two if they 
encountered storms on the deep sea. But this timber of K'in-ch6u is dense and tough and about 

50 feet long, and is not affected by the wicked winds and angry waves It is truly a treasure 

in the heaving billows! A couple of these logs (>jm) are worth at K'in-ch6u only a few hundred 
strings of cash. At Canton and WSn-ling (i. e., Ts'uan-ch6u) they are worth ten times as much, for 3» 
only one or two-tenths of this timber is sent there as its length makes it difficult to transport by sea». 

2) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 6,7,8. I fancy that the Mu-lan-p"i ships had no more real existence 
than the other enormous products of the same country, such as grains of wheat 3 inches long, 
melons 6 feet around, pomegranates weighing 5 catties, citrons or lemons of 20 catties, etc., 
which the same work (3,4) mentions. See also Chau Ja-kua, infra Ch. 35. The largest ships 40 
known in China were those called po (see supra, p. 27, n. 3). All mediaeval western writers 
refer to the great size of the ships seen in China. Marco Polo (II, 231—235) speaking of «the 
ships in which merchants go to and fro amongst the Isles of Indian, says they had crews of at 
least 200 mariners, and every great ship had certain large barks or tenders attached to it». 


In tLe preceding pages an attempt has been made to trace briefly the 
rise and development of the maritime intercourse between China and southern 
and south-western Asia down to the latter part of the twelfth century, when 
Chau Ju-kua, w hose oDescription of the Barbarous Peoples* (Chu-fan-chi) is 

5 translated in this volume, takes up the subject and tells of what the Chinese 
at the beginning of the twelfth century knew of the foreign countries, peoples 
and products of Eastern and Southern Asia, Africa and Europe. 

Chau Ju-ku a was, as appears from the genealogical Records in the 
Annals of the Sung *, a descendant of the Emperor Tai-tsung in the eighth 

10 generation through the Prince of Shang, a younger brother of the Emperor 
Chon-tsung (A. D. 998—1023). 

We know nothing concerning him beyond the briefest kind of notice of 
his work in Ch'5n Chon-sun's (^ :^ ^) Descriptive Catalogue of his family 
library, written about the middle of the thirteenth century *. It is there said, after 

15 giving the title of Chau Ju-kua's book, and by way of explanation: — «The 
Inspector of Foreign Trade (Shi-po-shi) in Fu-kien, Chau Ju-kua, records (in 
this book) the several foreign countries and the merchandise which comes 
from them». 

This is little indeed, and yet it enables us to see the reason for Chau 

20 Ju-kua's interest in foreign peoples and trade, to determine the probable 
source of the information contained in those portions ofhis book, which cannot 
be tracedto any previous written source, and it helps also to fix approximately 
the date before which the Chu~fan-chi must have been written ^. 

This is exactly the style and size of ships Fa-hie n has told us (supra, p. 27) he sailed on from 
25 Ceylon in A. D. 412. Ibn Batuta, "Voyages, III, 88—91 says the largest class of Chinese ship 

— which he calls Junk — had a crew of 1,000 men, viz., 600 mariners and 400 soldiers, and each 

vessel had three tenders. These ships need not have been much larger than the ordinary Chinese 

sea-going merchant junk (po) of the time — they were probably literally packed with people. 

In 1612 Sir Henry Middleton stopped off Aden a ship of Surate with 1,500 persons aboard. 
30 Captain John Saris had this ship measured. It was long «from stem to sterne-post, one hundred 

three and fiftie foot. From 'the top of her sides in bredth, two and fortie. Her depth, one and 

thirtie». Purchas, His Pilgrimea, III, 193, 396 (Mac Lehose edit). 

We have to come down to the beginning of the fifteenth century, to Ch6ng Ho's famous 

expedition to the West, to find mention in Chinese works of ships of the Mu-Ian-p'i type. 
35 In this expedition there were ships measuring 440 feet in length and 180 feet beam. It is perhaps 

unnecessary to add that we may doubt the correctness of these measurements. 

1) Sung-shi, 231, 283. See Hirth, J. E. A. S., 1896, 57 et seqq. 

2) Wvlie. Kotfis on Chinese literature, 60. The title of this work it Chi-chai-shu-lu-kie-ti 

rib* 3) From a remark our author makes in his chapter on Baghdad it is possible to assign 
klpjjj^Ujrk to about the middle of the thirteenth century. 


That the Inspector of Maritime Trade at the great port of Ts'uan-chou 
in Fu-ki6n should have been interested in foreign trade and peoples, that he 
should have had peculiar facilities for obtaining information on the subjects 
from the foreign sailors and traders who frequented his port, and that his 
statements should be found clear, matter-of-fact, and often agreeing with the 5 
narratives of mediaeval Arab writers and giving information concerning 
countries of the West never known to the Chinese from personal observation, 
is all made clear to us by Ch'6n Chou-sun's few words. 

Notwithstanding the use made of Chan's book by Ma Tuan-lin and 
others, it has remained very little known in China, solely, it is to be suppos- 10 
ed, through the habit of nearly all Chinese writers of incorporating bodily 
into their writings the work of others without giving the names either of 
the authors or of their books. The numerous Chinese biographical works with 
all their fullness, are, with the one exception ofCh'onChon-sun's, absolutely 
silent as to our author. His name is mentioned neither in the biographical 15 
section of the Sung Annals nor, apparently, in the minor records of those and 
of later times, such as the Biographical Treasury of the Ming dynasty (Wan- 
sing-t'ung-p'u), the first general biographical record published after the life- 
time of Chau Ju-kua. 

The Chu-fan-chi, though of great value for a knowledge of the oriental 20 
s,ea-trade of the Sung period, is but seldom quoted in Chinese works. Much 
of it was incorporated by Ma Tuan-lin in his great Encyclopedia, andT'o-t'o 
made frequent use of it in his Annals of the Sung dynasty, in both cases, as 
is usual with Chinese authors, and as Chau-Ju-kua did himself with his 
chief authority, Ch6u K'u-fei, as well as with the many others he quotes, 25 
Without a single word of acknowledgment. A comparison of the complete 
text of the Chu-fan-chi with the extracts made from it by Ma and T'o-t'o 
shows how much valuable information we would have lost if we knew this 
work only through their quotations. The same would be true ofChduK'ii-fei, 
if we knew his Ling-wai-tai-ta only through Chau Ju-kua's frequent, but so 
not always comprehensive, extracts. The one completes and frequently elu- 
cidates the other, besides both having great intrinsic value. 

Chau Ju-kua's chief authority is C h6uK'u-fei; in a number of sections 
of his work he confines himself to quoting him textually, and in a still larger 
number he adds but a phrase or two (and that not always wisely) to Chou's 35 
text. He has also used the various dynastic histories, the T'ung-tienandafew 
other works. The most interesting part of his work, and, so far as the num- 
ber of countries is concerned, the largest, is that in which he has set f ""• ""^ 

\0 it)). ^^^ 


the information supplied him directly by Chinese and foreign traders of the 
lands they had visited and concerning the products of their soil. The facts he 
there records are not to be found in any other known Chinese work either of 
the thirteenth or of subsequent centuries; he was the first, so far as we know, 
5 to make known to China the names and some few facts, at least, concerning 
many countries and localities of south-western Asia, ofAfrica and of the Medi- 
terranean Sea. 

The sections of the Chu-fan-chi based exclusively, it would seem, on oral 
information famished the author by Chinese and foreign traders, are those 

10 dealing with San-fo-tsM, Tah-ma-ling, Ling-ya-ssi-kia, Fo-lo-an, Sin-t'o, 
Kien-pi, Lan-wu-li, Si-lan, Su-ki-tan, Nan-p'i, Hu-ch'a-la, Ma-lo-hua, Tsong- 
pa, Wu-pa, Chung-li, Wong-man, Ki-shi", Pi-sSi-lo, Wu-ssi-li (Egypt), 
0-k6n-to, An-tO'man, Cha-pi-sha, Ssi-kia-li-y6, Mo-ki6-la, Po-ssi, Ma-i, 
San-sti and Pi-sho-ye. 

15 In some chapters, while most of his information must have been supplied 

him by traders, he has added to it paragraphs taken from Chou K'u fei's 
work. These are the chapters on Chan-ch'6ng, Pin-tung-lung, Chon-la, P'u- 
kan, Sh8-p*o, Chu-li6n, the Ta-shi, Pi-pa-lo and Ki-tzi-ni. 

In the chapters on Ta-ts'in, T'i6n-chu, Wu-ssi-li (Mosul), Lu-mei, Mu- 

20 lan-p'i, Ma-kia, Pai-ta, K'un-lung-ts6ng-ki, Sha-hua-kung, Ma-lo-nu and 
Nii-kuo, he either quotes nearly verbatim the Ling-wai-tai-ta, or takes prac- 
tically all his information from the Dynastic histories, the T'ung-tien or some 
other minor work, adding occasionally a few words of his owu. 

The chapter on the island of Hai-nan is very largely taken from the 

25 Dynastic histories and from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, but it contains also much 
valuable original matter. 

The chapters on Sin-lo and Wo are practically entirely copied from the 
Dynastic histories without any regard to the periods to which they refer. These 
chapters have consequently less value than any other portion of this work, though 

30 they are useful as showing the knowledge possessed by Chinese of these coun- 
tries in the days of Chau Ju-kua. 

The second part of Chau's work, which is devoted to a description of the 
principal foreign products mentioned in the first part, contains a considerable 
amount of information, which the author probably got from traders at Ts'uan- 

35 chou; he, however, makes frequent use of the'Yu-yang-tsa-tsu and the Ling- 
wai-tai-ta, and has based his statements for the most part on the same autho- 
rities-mentioned previously in writing many of the articles. In this second part, 
chapters XIX and XLI are verbatim quotations, without the addition of a 


word, from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, and in chapters IX, XVIII, XXIII, XXIV, 
XL and XLII he has made good use of this same work. 

Geographical studies, though extensively applied to every part of China 
proper during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, were treated with consider- 
able contempt where foreign countries were concerned. The enthusiasm for 5 
geographical record^ shown by the men of the Fan Ch5ng-ta, Ch6u K'u-fei 
and Chau Ju-kua kind, was certainly rare and unappreciated in their times; 
the public taste was not given that way. Chang K'i6n and Pan Ch'ao, the 
early explorers of the West, had become national heroes, it is true; Fa-hie n 
and Htian-tsang, the Buddhist pilgrims, had in their time occupied public 10 
attention in a high degree, but Confucian learning was the order of the day 
at the end of the twelfth century, when Chu Hi was writing his great Com- 
mentaries on the Confucian classics. The antiquities of China, the history of 
its art, the philosophy of the classical and Tauist schools, Buddhist chrono- 
logy, the poetry of the past and present, all were studied with an ardour 15 
worthy of a period which may justly be called the age of renaissance in 
China. But the knowledge of foreign countries was an obscure, unprofitable 
hobby, taken up only by a few officials whose special duties disposed them to 
make these researches, and which in no way appealed to the public fancy. 
Confucian philosophers actually threw discredit on what was then known oi 20 
the geography of foreign parts, and one of the well-known essayists of the 
period, Ch'ong Ta-ch'ang, tried in his K'ao-ku-pien to prove the untrust- 
worthiness of all geographical information on foreign lands. 

The first publication of the complete text of the Chu-fan-chi was, it 
would seem, in the early part of the fifteenth century, when it was incorpor- 25 
ated- in the great collection of Chinese literary works called the Yung-lo- 
ta-tien (Jfi ^ -i^ M). In this ponderous and extremely rare manuscript 
collection it remained buried until 1783, when it was unearthed by a learned 
Han-lin and a great lover of literature, Li TMau-yuan (^ fj| 7ic),andin- 
corporated in his collection known as the Han-hai (g 'z^). From this, the 30 
first printed copy, it would seem, of this book ever published, another edition 
was made in Chang Hai-p'ong's (gg ;^ |J|) collection entitled Hiau-tsin- 
t'au-yuan (^ l^ |ij- J^), which was brought out in 1805. These two ver- 


Such as it is, Chau Ju-kua's work must be regarded as a most valuable 
source of information on the ethnology of the nations and tribes known through 
the sea-trade carried on by the Chinese and Mohammedan traders in the Far 
East about the period at which it was written. 

5 His notes to a certain extent are second-hand information, but notwith- 

standing this,-he has placed on record much original matter, facts and infor- 
mation of igreat interest. The large percentage of clear and shnple matter-of- 
fact data we find in his work, as compared with the improbable and incredible 
admixtures which we are accustomed to encounter in all oriental authors of 

10 his time, gives him a prominent place among the mediaeval authors on the 
ethnography of his time, a period particularly interesting to us, as it preceeds 
by about a century Marco Polo, and fills a gap in our knowledge ofChina's 
relations with the outside world extending from the Arab writers of the ninth 
and tenth centuries to the days of the great Venetian traveller. 

15 in hisPeuples orientaux connus des anciens Chinois, 48— 49 (23 edit., 1886). F. Hirth translated 
the entire work; during the years 1885 to 1895, and during his stay at Chungking (1893—95) 
revised his translation with Mr. H. E. Fraser, then British Consul at that port. He published 
the chapter on Ta-ts'in in his China and the Roman Orient (18851 92 — 96, and other portions of 
it in his Die Lander des Islam (T'oung-pao, V, 1894), Das Reich Malabar (Ibid. VI, 1895), Chi- 

20 nesiche Studien, 29 — 43, Die Insel Hainan nach Chao Ju-kua (Bastian Festschrift, 1896), Aus 
der Ethnographie des Tschau Ju-kua (Sitzungsberichte der philos.-philol. und histor. Classe der 
K. Bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch. 1898, III) and in Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1896, 57—82, 
477—57. More recently P. Pelliot has made use of this work in Bull, de I'Ecole Franj. 
d'Extreme Orient, IV, as has also G. Schlegelina series of articles in the T'oung-pao, referred 

25 to in subsequent notes to our text. So far as I am aware Chou K"ti-fei's Ling-wai-tai-ta was 
first made known to Western students in 1899 by Tsuboi Kumazo in his paper entitled Cheu 
Ch'ilfe's Aufzeichnungen ilber die Freniden LSnder, published in the Actes du XIP Congres 
des Orientalistes a Rome, 1901, I, CXL. Since then Pelliot has made some use of it in 
his study mentioned above. 


Preface by the Chinese Editor, 

Li TMau-yiJan, called Yu-ts'un of T'ung-shan. 

The two chapters of the Chu-fan-chi, compiled by Chau Ju-kua of the 
Sung dynasty while holding the post of Inspector of Foreign Trade in Fu- 
5 kien, are a collection of miscellaneous notes on foreign countries and their 
products. The fact that these accounts are very minute and agree exactly 
with what we hear and see of these countries at the present day leads us to 
the conclusion that Chau Ju-kua's sketches are drawn from the observations 
of eye-witnesses and more than merely theoretical lucubrations. 
10 When the writer of this notice lived in Canton as Literary Chancellor, 

he had taken this book with him and, subjecting it to careful revision, could 
not but admire the accuracy of its detail, thus illustrating the truth that 
even those of later times who survey the same field obtain no small assistance 
towards a wider knowledge of their subject (by the use of works of earlier 




Kiau-chi'(^ Ht)* 

Kiau-chi, the ancient Kiau-chou^ (^ j^), to the east and the south 
5 reaches to the sea and borders on Chan-ch'ong (^ ^). To the wiest it 
communicates with the Pai-i Man ^ ( f^ ^ ^) ; to the north it comes down 
to K'in-ch6u« (^ jj\). 

The various dynasties (of China) kept troops continually stationed (ui 
Kiau-chi), although the revenues (derived from it) were extremely small, while 
10 the military occupation on the contrary was extremely expensive. In view of 
these facts the Government of our present dynasty, out of affection for the 
army and for the weal of poor humanity, deemed it advisable that our troops 
should no longer be kept in this pestilential climate for the purpose of guarding 
such an unprofitable territory, and in consequence the territory was held 
15 merely for the collection of tribute. 

The king (of Kiau-chi) bears a Chinese surname*. 

The clothing and food of the people are practically the same as in the 
Middle Kingdom, with the exception that both sexes go barefooted. 

Every year on the fourth day of the first moon they kill oxen to have 
20 a feast with their kinsfolk. The great annual feast-day is the fifteenth of the 
seventh moon ^, when all families exchange civilities and give entertainments, 
and officials present their superiors with live animals, in consideration of 
which those who have received such presents give a feast in return on the 
sixteenth. On New Yeai-'s day they pray to the Buddha, but they do not 
25 make presents to their ancestors (as we do in China). 

When they are ill they do not use medicines. During the night they do 
not keep lamps burning. Among their musical instruments the best are 
those (covered with) boa-constrictor's skin. They do not know how to manu- 
facture paper and writing brushes, so those from our provinces are in demand. 


46 T0NGKIX6. 1,1 

The products of the country are ch'on-Uang (gharu wood), p'ong-lai 
(gharu wood), gold, silver, iron, cinnabar, cowries, rhinoceros horns, elephants, 
kingfishers, ch'6-M (shells), salt, lacquer, tree-cotton (tJc |^) and M-pt'i 
(cotton^ ^y. 

Tribute is sent annually to the Court (of China). 5 

Although this country does not participate in the foreign trade (of China), 
the author has included these notes as an introduction to the (account of the) 
neighbouring country (of Chan-ch'ong). 

Ships -after ten full days' sailing (from Kiau-chi) reach the country of 

Chan-ch'Ong. lo 


1) Down to the beginning of tlie Han dynasty (B. C. 206) Kiau-chi was a portion of Nan- 
yue (raf ;^)- During the reign of Wu-ti (B. C. 140—86) Nan-yue was conquered and divided 
into nine prefectures (^|jj)) one of which was Kiau-chi (^ P]t)» ^^^ '"^ '' *^® ^^^^ °^ govern- 
ment was placed, which resulted in the name of Kiau-chi being applied to the whole of the 15 
country. SeeMaTuan-lin, Won-hien-tung-k'au, 830,i2. During subsequent centuries, down to the 
year 670, the name of Kiau-chi or Kiau-chou (tH) was given to at least a portion of the terri- 
tory known by that name in the Han period. In 670 Kiau-chi was absorbed by a larger admi- 
nistrative district called An-nan (■^' ^S)> ^"d after this the name of Kiau-chi was applied to the 
Song-kai delta district, perhaps to the whole of the present Tongking. The name Kiau-chi may 20 
be the transcription of a native name Kesho, by which Hanoi was known down to very recent 
times. Chavannes, Relig. emin., 53. It may also possibly be the original of Kattigara, used by 
Ptolemy and other classical writers to designate Kesho, though the name Kiu-to ("fl :ffi, in 
Cantonese Kau-tak), that of one of the Tongking prefectures on the Chinese frontier, lends itself 
better to that identification from- a linguistic point of view. In A. D. 264, Kiu-to is mentioned as an 25 
official sub-division, and it 'is especially identified with the seat of the ancient Yfl6-shang tribes, the 
probable starting-point of nautical enterprise in high antiquity. Tsin-shu, 15, 16—17. Kiau-chi is 
certainly the original of M a r c o P o 1 o's Caugigu and of R a s h i d e d d i n's Kafchikue (b^ ^=?^ Kaf- 
tchehkoueh, i. e. ojSAar.S' Kancheh-koueh), Hist, des Mongols publ. par. Quatremere. Ip. XCVI 
and note on p. XCV), the last syllable in both these names representing kuo ( ^ in Cantonese kwok) 30 
«kingdom». It may also be the original of our modern name Cochinchina (Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 
0., III. 291 n.), although other writers (as Deveria, la Chine avec I'Annam, 1) trace this 
name back-to Kiu-chon (^ W), one of the old prefectures of Kiau-chi. 

2) The Pai-i Man are, I imagine, the same as the J'al Ts'uan (or Man), the western branch 

of the aboriginal tribes called Ts'uan (^) or Man (^), which in the tenth century occupied 35 
southern Yun-nan. Hervey St. Denis, Ethnogr., ii. 271—288. The Lolos of the present day are 
thought by some to be their descendants. 

3) K'in-chou in Lien-ch6u-fu in the extreme west of Kuang-tung province. It was the nearest 
Chinese port to Kiau-chi territory and the centre of trade with that country. See supra pp.6 and 22. 

4) Sung-shi, 488,2 sqq., supplies some of the Chinese surnames of the kings of Kiar lichi. 40 
We find among them the well-known family name of Ting ('J'),U (^),Li (^)aad Ch'en([* *). 

5) Bowring, Siam, I, 158, mentions the fifteenth of the sixth moon as a holiday, v^en 
the king sends presents to the bonzes. The eighth and fifteenth days of the moon are considered 
holy by the Siamese, the same writer states. I cannot, however, find that the fifteenth of the 
seventh moon was at any time a particularly great festival in Siam or China. 45 

6) On these various products, see Part II of this work. I-ing-wai-tai-ta, 7,8 says that 
Kiau-chi was a great market for amber. 


^'- AXKAM. 4 7 



Chan-ch'6ng (^ ij^). 

The sea -route to the east of Chan-ch'ongi leads to Kuang-chou 

5 (Canton); to the west it borders on Yun-nan; to the south it reaches to 

Chon-la; to the north it confines on Kiau-chi, whence it communicates with 

Yung-chou^ (^ ;|>|.|). From Ts'uan-ch6u one can make this country in twenty 

days' sailing with a favourable wind. 

The country extends from east to west 700 li; from north to south 
10 3000 li. The capital is called Sin-chdu" (fp ^|>|). Thev use the designntimi^ 
(( district city» (Men ^) and «markftt, tnwn» fpJ,n^. ^ \ 

The (capital) city walls are of brick and are flanked with stone towers. 

When the king shows himself in public he is seated on an elephant or 

is carried in a kind of cotton hammock (or jmn-pu-tou* |^ ^ 5|) carried 

15 by four men. On his head he wears a golden cap and his body is ornamented 

with strings of pearls. Whenever the king holds his court, encircling his 

throne are thirty women attendants carrying swords and bucklers or his 

betel-nut. At audiences the officials present make one prostration and stop. 

When the business has been concluded, they again make a prostration and 

20 retire. The forms of prostration (^) and salutation (:^) are the same for 

women as for men. 

In cases of adultery both the man and the woman are put to death. 
Theft is punished by cutting off the fingers and the toes. 

In battle they bind five men together in one file(|± ^ j^); if one 
25 runs, all who belong to the same file are doomed to death. If a Chinese 
should be left by a native while lying dangerously wounded, the latter is 
treated as a murderer and put to death. 

The people of this country are fond of cleanliness, they bathe from three 
to five times daily. They rub themselves with a paste made of camphor and 
30 musk and perfume their clothes with fumes of various scented woods. 

During the whole year the climate is agreeably warm; there is neither 
extreme cold nor heat. 

Every year on New Year's day they lead a chained elephant through 
the city, after which they turn it loose. This ceremony is called «driving out 

48 AXNAM. 1,2 

evil» (^ ^). In the fourth moon they play at boat-sailing, when they have 
a procession of fishing boats and look at them ®. 

The full-moon day of the eleventh moon is kept as the winter solstice. 
At that time cities and towns all bring the king the products of the soil and 
of their industry. 5 

The people usually plough their fields with two buffaloes. Among the 
various kinds of cereals they have no wheat; but they have millet, hemp and 
beans. They do not cultivate tea, neither do they know how to make fer- 
mented liquors. They only drink the juice (or «wine») of cocoanuts. As to 
fruits, they have the lotus, sugar-cane, bananas and cocoanuts. The country lo 
also produces elephants' tusks, the tsien, ch'on and su (varieties of gharu 
wood), yellow wax, ebony, white rattans, M-pei cotton, figured cotton stuffs, 
silk, damasked cotton gauzes (^ ^), white muslins (or po^He ^ ^|), 
fine bamboo matting, peacocks, rhinoceros horns and parrots*. 

The cutting of scented wood in the mountains is conducted under iB 
government control ; the tax paid the government is known as «the scented 
wood poll-tax», just like the Chinese «salt poll-tax)\ Once the full amount 
due has been paid, the people may trade in it on their private account'. 

Money is not used in trade; they barter with wine, rice and other food 
substances; with these they settle their accounts yearly. 20 

When it happens that any one of the people has gone into the mountains 
and has been killed by a tiger, or has been dragged into the water by a cro- 
codile, the relatives submit the case to the king. The king then orders the 
high-priest of the realm to invoke the gods, to recite incantations and to 
write out charms, which are scattered about at the place where the person 25 
was killed. Then the tiger, or the crocodile, comes of itself to the spot; after 
which an order must be secured to kill it. If, however, the complaint about 
the killing is only an illusion, the result of magic, and the officials can get no 
light on the matter, they order the complainants to pass through a crocodile 
pool. If they have not spoken truth, the reptiles will come out and eat them; so 
but if they have been truthful they may go through it ten times and the cro- 
codiles will flee away ®- 

They buy people to make slaves of them; a boy is priced at 3 taels of 
gold, or the equivalent in scented wood '. 

On the arrival of a trading-ship in this country officials are sent on 35 
board with a book made of folded slips of black leather. In this they write 
out in characters in white a list of the goods. After the ship has been sear- 
ched, the cargo may be landed, and, with the exception of two-tenths claimed 

1,2 AKNAM. 49 

by the government, is set free for barter. If there be goods omitted from the 
manifest they are confiscated. 

Foreign merchants trade in camphor, musk, sandal-wood, lacquer-ware, 
' porcelain, lead, tin, samshu and sugar. 
5 The dependencies of this country are ^° : 

Kiu-ch6u (^JH) Wu-ma-pa (.^ ^ ;^) 

Wu-li t%^^) Lung-yung (^ ^) 

Ji-li (a m)__ P'u-lo-kan-wu (^jf M "M^ JD 

Yiig-li (^ ^a-) 10 Liang-pau (^ ^) 

10 5 Wei-jui Ci^ p^) Pi-ts'i (HJfc ^) 

Pin-t'ung-lung (g Bf f|) 

This country (of Chan-ch'ong) had only infrequent relations with former 
Chinese dynasties. During the hien-to period of the later Ch6u (951 — 960) 
it sent its first tribute mission. During the JcHen-lung and kHen-lo periods of 
15 the present dynasty (960 — 967) it sent native products as tribute. 

In the sixth year of the t'ai-pHng-liing-kuo period (981) ^\ Li Huan 
(^ iM) of Kiau-chi informed the Emperor that he wished to return ninety- 
three Chinese prisoners of war to the Imperial Capital. The Emperor T'ai- 
tsung ordered them to stop at Kuang-chou and provided them with sub- 
20 sistence. From that time (Chan-ch'ong) has constantly presented tribute, and 
has been enabled through the presents so freely bestowed by the Imperial 
bounty to express its admiration for Chinese civilization. 

A five to seven days' journey south of this country brings one to the 
kingdom of Chon-la (Kamboja). 
25 Notes. 

1) During the Sung dynasty the kingdom of Chan-ch'ong extended along the greater part 
of the Annam and Tongking coasts, to within two days sailing of (the town of) Kiau-chi. Sung- 
shi, 489,1. It corresponded roughly with^the old kingdom of Lin-i (;fc|t |^), which, in the 
seventh century became also known to the Chinese, through the travels of Huan-tsang, by its 

30 Buddhist Indian name of Mo-ho Chan-po (J® gSj" Hp '^) or Maha Champa, from which in 

turn have been formed the various Chinese names given this country, Chan-ch'ong, Chan-p'o 


(A ^^) ^^^ Chan-pa (Jt /\, or fflU /V)) ^^^ ^^^^ mentioned being occasionally used during 

the Mongol dynasty. Yttan-shi, 23. In the middle of the eighth century the name Lin-i was changed 

to that of Huan-wang H^^ 3E)' '"'■^"^ designation it retained until the beginning of the 

35 ninth century, when it was called Chan-ch'ong. In 1177 Chan-ch'ong conquered Chon-la, but in 

1199 it was in turn conquered by the latter country, the dynasty overthrown and a native of 

Chon-la placed on the throne. Our author mentions these latter events in his chapter on Chon-la, 

reproducing some facts from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,ii. 

2) Yung-ch6u was the name by which was known during the T'ang dynasty the present 
40 Nan-ning (j^ ^) in the Tso-kiang circuit in the province of Kuang-si. Play fair. Cities 

and Towns of China, 244. A» 5116. 

3) Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 202—208 calls attention to the fact that the Tung-si-yang- 
k'au (a sixteenth century work), 9, and the Ming-shi, 324, apply the name of Sin-ch6u to the port of 


50 AXXAM. 1,2 

Binh-dinh, Thi-nai, which we call Quinhon. This town, he adds, is the same as Sha-ban of the 
Annamese, which was their capital in the early part of the fourteenth century. In another passage 
(op. cii, 198—202) Pelliot places the capital of Chan-ch'ong near the Quang-nam river in 
Annam, at the present village of Dong-duong, anciently called Indrapura. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,io 
says the capital was called Chan-ch'ong like the kingdom. Gerini, Researches, 238, says it is the 5 
same as the Senef of the Arabs. 

4) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 10,u says that in Tongking, Chan-ch'ong and Chon-la there was a kind 
of litter (^ ^) made of cotton cloth. It had one pole, a covering of overlapping pieces of 
matting, and was borne by four men. In Annam is was called U-ya (/W^ ^§)- — ^'^'^ ^^ certainly 
the juan-pu-tou of our text. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,13 calls it also juan-tou. Our author elsewhere 10 
speaks of a pu-tai-Mau, which must be the same thing. This litter, as used in Chon-la, is described 

in Chon-la-fong-t'u-ki, Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., II, 172. Schlegel, T'oung-pao, VI, 163, suggests 
that juan-pu-tou is the transcription of a Singalese word handul, which, according to the Mer- 
veilles de I'Inde (118. § LXV), was a kind of hammock. It may be a foreign word, but I do not 
think that handul is the one it represents. 15 

5) The time of year chosen for this boat festival or boat racing seems to connect it with 
the rise of the rivers. In Siam a boat festival was kept when the Meinam had reached its highest 
point. Bowring, Siam, I, 9, 101. 

6) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,io says «The native products of the country (of Chan-ch'ong) include 
famous aromatics, rhinoceros and elephants. The soil is of white sand with but very little arable 20 
land, and there are no sheep, swine nor vegetables. The people gain their livelihood by gathering 
scented woods. They do not hold markets)). Su, which is rendered by «millet» in the text, is in 
more modern works used for «maize, Indian corn». Po-tie is a foreign word (probably Turki 
A^us^ jJaSftto) for «cotton», see infra Pt. II, Ch. XXIII. On «ebony))(j^ i^ ^) and the other 
products here mentioned, see also Pt. II. 25 

7) Pigafetta, First Voyage round the World, 156 (Hakl. Soc. edit.), describes the mode of 
hunting for gharu-wood in Chan-ch'ong, but he confounds this product with rhubarb. In Chiempa, 
he says, «there grows the rhubarb, and it is found in this manner: men go together in companies 
of twenty or twenty-five to the woods, and at night ascend the trees, both to get out of the way 

of the lions, the elephants, and other wild beasts, and also to be able better to smell the odour of 30 
the rhubarb borne to them by the wind. In the morning they go to that quarter whence they 
have perceived that the odour comes, and seek for the rhubarb till they find it. This is the rotten 
wood of a large tree, which acquires its odour by putrefaction. The best part of the tree is the 
root, but the trunk is also good, which is called Calama)>. Ccdama is kalanibak, one of the names 
in use among the peoples of the Malay Archipelago for gharu-wood. 35 

8) Liang-shu, 54,7 speaking of Fu-nan (roughly Siam) says that criminals were thrown to 
wild beasts kept for the purpose, or to crocodiles. If they were not devoured by them, their inno- 
cence was held to have been proved. 

9) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,io says «The people (of -Chan-ch'ong) buy male and female slaves 
{"^ ^^), and the ships carry human beings as cargo» (j|j^ -Jft- ]>{ A -^ ^)- 40 

10) None of the authorities available are of any assistance in identifying"the dependencies 
of Chan-ch'ong. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,io says only «The dependencies (or the dependency) of Chan- 
ch'6ng are (is) Pin-t'ung-lung and (or) Pin-to-ling». MaTuan-lin says «The southern province of 
Chan-ch'ong is called Shi-pei-ch6u (|J^ ^ j^)^ the western Shang-yuan-chou (_^ 7^ ill) 
and the northern Wu-li-chdu)) (,^ ^ j^). The last named province is, presumably, the 45 
second of the list in our text. Sung-shi, 489,1, repeats what Ma says, adding only that there 
were 38 departments (or cities, ^|>|)in all Chan-ch'5ng. By Fu-lo-kan-wu one is inclined to think 
our author transcribes the namePulo Condore, though these islands were always called during the 
Sung period K'un-lun-shan (^ ^ [Jj), a transcription, according to Crawfurd, of the 
native name Pulo Kohnaong. In Kia Tan's sailing directions (supra p. 11) we have another form 50 
of this name, Ktin-t'u-nung. 

11) This was the year in which the founder of the first Li dynasty ascended the throne 
of Annam. See J. C. B. R. A. S. XVII, 51. On Chan-ch'ong, see G. Maspero, Le Rovaume de 
Champa, in T'oung-pao, 2\ Ser. XL pp. 165—220. 

Ij^ PAXRAKG. 5 1 



(Coast of Cochinclima). 

Pin-t'ung-lung (^ Bg f|) 

5 The ruler of the country of Pin-t'ung-lung^ wears the same kind of 

head-dress and clothing as that of Chan-ch'ong. The people cover their 
dwellings with palm-leaves, and protect them with wooden palisades. They 
send yearly products of the country as tribute to Chan-ch'ong. 

At the present day there is (counted) among the saints (lo-han) the 
10 Venerable Pin-t'ou-lu (^ || fg), from whom this country derives its name, 
corrupted into Pin-t'ung-lung. 

There are some also who say that the foundations of the hut (^ ^) 
of Mu-li^n ( g jH) are still extant (in this country) ^ 

In the fourth year of the period yung-U (987) (this people), in company 
15 with Ta-shi (Arabs), brought tribute to the court of China ^ 


1) The identification of this territory with the Panrang coast of Cochinchina, the Sanskrit 
Pan^uranga, first pointed out by Hirth, Aus der Ethnographie des Tschau Ju-kna, has been 
accepted by all subsequent writers. See H. Finot, B. E. F. E. 0., Ill, 630—648. The name 

20 appears in the earliest Cham inscriptions under the form Panrang and Panran. All the Chinese 
forms of the name — and we know of nine, point to an original form Pandaran, and this conclu- 
sion is supported by local chronicles. The earliest mention of Pandaran in Chinese works is in 
T'ang-shu, 222*, where it is given as Pon-t'o-lang (^^ [J^ 5H.)' '^^^ transcription of the name 
was apparently never settled, for Ch'ou K'u-fei uses two forms and Sung-shi three in the three 

25 brief references it makes to this country. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., Ill, 649—654, has translated 
and studied with his usual thoroughness all the Chinese references to Pandaran. 

Our author takes most of his information from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,io, which reads as follows: 
«Pin-t'ung-lung (or) Pin-t'o-ling {^S R^ 1^) is a dependency of Chan-ch'Ong. The foundations 
of the hut of Mu-lien are in Pin-t'o-ling. It is even said by some ( ^ ^) that Wang- 

30 sho-ch'ong (^ -^ ^) is in this country. 

«In the second year A;i'e«-Z«n£f (of -the Sung, 961 A. D.) it brought objects of tribute (to the 
Court of China). Again in the 8Ui moon of the third year (962) it came with tribute. In the first 
year yuan-yu of Cho-tsung (of the Sung, 1086) in the 12ti» moon it again came with tribute, when 
it received 2600 strings of cash from the Imperial bounty». 

35 2) The references in the textsof bothChouK'u-fei andChau Ju-kuatotheLohanPin- 

t'6n-lu — better known by his Sanskrit name of Arhat Pindola (Bharadvaja), to the great disciple 
of Gautama, the Lohan Mu-lien — in Sanskrit Maudgalyayana, and to Wang-sho-ch'ong — in 
Sanskrit Kugagarapnra, the old capital of Magadha in Central India, remain unexplained. 
None of the inscriptions or texts studied by Finot throw any light on these curious Chi- 

40 nese traditions, which are found repeated, with only unimportant changes, in Chinese works 


5 2 .KAMBOJA. "I;* 

of the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. See also infra p. 101, line 2 the tradition referred 
to in 1015 hy the envoys from Chu-lien (Coromandel) that the tomh of the Si-wang-mu was 100 li 
E. of Pin-t'ung-lung. 

The derivation of the name of the country from that of the Arhat Pindola seems purely 
fanciful. Conf. Hirth, Op. cit., 500 at seqq. 5 

3) The tribute mission of Pin-t'ung-lung in 987 is not mentioned in the Sung-shi, but this 
work notes (490,18) a tribute mission from that country to China in 997, and this is the only one it 
records. Pelliot, Op. cit., 650, shows by the Sung-shi that the tribute missions from Pin- 
t'ung-lung mentioned in the passage from Ling-wai-tai-ta translated in Note 1, and there recorded 
under the years 961, 962 and 1086 were from Chan-ch'dng generally, not from this dependency 10 


Chon-la (^ Jl). 

Clion-la lies to the south of Chan-ch'ong; in the east one comes to the 15 
sea; in the west one comes to P'u-kan (^ -^); in the south one comes to 
Kia-lo-hi^ (jfjR ^ ^). 

From Ts'iian-chou a ship, with a good wind, can reach this country 
within a month or more. 

The country covers altogether fully 7000 square U. The capital of the 20 
kingdom is called Lu-wu^ (^ J[]). There is no cold weather, 
r The king's clothing is in all respects similar to that of the king of 
€han-ch'ong, but the ceremonial at his court is more elaborate. When he 
.goes out in his carriage of state it is drawn by a pair of horses ^ or he 
has oxen. 25 

The administrative divisions of the country do not differ from those of 

The officials and the common people dwell in houses with sides of bamboo 
matting and thatched with reeds. Only the king resides in a palace of hewn 
stone. It has a granite lotus pond of extraordinary beauty with golden bridges, 30 
some three hundred odd feet long*. The palace buildings are solidly buLlta,nd 
richly ornamented *. The throne on which the king sits is made of gharu-wood 
and the seven precious substances; the dais is jewelled, with supports (^) of 
veined wood (ebony?); the screen (behind the throne) is of ivory. 

When all the ministers of state have audience, they first make three 35 
full prostrations at the foot of the throne ; they then kneel and remain thus, 




with hands crossed on their breasts, in a circle round the king, and discuss 
the affairs of state. When they have finished, they make another prostration 
and retire. 

In the south-west corner (of the capital) there is a bronze tower (^), 

5 on which are twenty-four bronze pagodas guarded by eight bronze elephants, 

each weighing four thousand catties ®, vj 

There are some two hundred thousand war elephants and many horses, 
though of small size. 

(The people) are devout Buddhists., Ther^ are, serving (in ihp. templp.s) 

10 some three hundred foreign women: they dance and offer food to the Buddha. 

They are called a-nan (^pf ^) or slave dancing-girls ' (^ ^ [read ^]). 

As to their customs, lewdness is not considered criminal; theft is punished 
by cutting off a hand and a foot and by branding on the chest. 

«The incantations of the Buddhist and Tauist priests (of this country) 

15 have magical powers. Among the former those who wear yellow robes may 

marry, while those who dress in red lead ascetic lives in temples. The Tauists 

clothe themselves with leaves»^; they have a deity (|^) called P'o-to-li (^ 

0, T^lj) which they worship with great devotion. _ 

(The people of this country) hold the right hand to be clean, the left 
20 unclean, so when they wish to mix their rice with any kind of meat broth, 
they use the right hand to do so and also to eat with. 

The soil is rich and loamy; the fields have no bounds. Each one takes 
as much as he can cultivate. Rice and cereals are cheap; for every tael of 
lead one can buy two bushels of rice. 
25 The native products comprise elephants' tusks, the cJian and su (varie- 

ties of gharu-wood), fine and coarse sJiou (gharu-wood) (^^ # H ^ ^), 
yellow wax, kingfisher's feathers (Note: Of which this country has great 
store), dammar resin and gourd dammar, foreign oils, ginger peel (^ ^), 
«gold coloured incense» {Mn-yen-himg), sapan-wood, raw silk and cotton 

30 fabrics (|f< ^)^ . 

The foreign traders offer in exchange for these gold, silver, porcelain- 
ware, satinets, kittysols, skin (covered) drums, samshu, sugar, preserves and 


The following foreign (^) (countries or localities) are all dependencies 

35 of this kingdom : 

Tong-liu-meii {^ ^^ M) ^an-lo (H i|^) 

Po-ssi-lan (j)^ ff M) ^ Chon-li-fu {& M W 

Lo-hu (P ^i|-) Ma-lo-won (ffi ^ f^) 



54 KAMBOJA. 1,4 

Lu-yang (^ 7^) 1° ^a-li (^^ ^) 

T'un-ii-fu (^ a W) si-p'^°s m W) 

P'u-kan (.^ -y^) Tu-huai-sun^o (;f± '^ ■^) 

From of old this country had maintained close neighbourly relations with 
■Chan-ch'ong, and sent it yearly a tribute of gold; but on the fifteenth of the 5 
fifth moon of the fourth year of the sh^m-M period (of the Sung, i. e., 1 1 77) the 
ruler of Chan-ch'ong surprised the capital (of Chon-la) with his fleet, and on 
the refusal of their demands for peace (the people) were slaughtered. From 
that time the bitterest enmity and a thirst for revenge existed (in Chon-la), In 
the fifty-sixth year of the cycle in theJcHng-ymn period (i. e., 1199) (Chon-la) 10 
invaded Chan-ch'5ng with a powerful army, made the sovereign prisoner, 
put to death his ministers, and nearly exterminated the people, after which it 
made a man of Chon-la sovereign of Chan-ch'ong, and down to the present 
day it has remained a dependency of Ch6n-la ". 

In the wu-to period of the T'ang (618 — 627) this country (of Chon-la) 15 
entered for the first time into relations with the Middle Kingdom. In the 
second year of the suan-ho period (1120) it (first) sent a tribute mission 
(to the reigning dynasty). ^^ 

This country confines to the south on Kia-lo-hi, ^^ a dependency of 
San-fo-ts'i. 20 


1) Chon-la, or Kamboja, included in the Sung period the present Lower Gochinchina, a 
considerable portion of Lower Siam and of the Malay Peninsula. The origin of the name Chon-la 
or Chan-la (q H^) as it was also written during the Sung period, (see Sung-shi, 489,6), remains 
unexplained. The earliest mention of Chon-la in Chinese works occurs in the seventh century. Its 25 
first mission to China was in 616. Sui-shu, 82. T'ang-shu, 222'', says it was called Chon-la or Ki-mie 
(ja ^)' The form Chan-la was adopted in 1199 after the conquest of Chan-ch'Ong mentioned 

in our text. Ming-shi, 324. During the Yiian period the older form Chon-la was again used. 
During the Ming period this country was called Kien-pu-ch'ai (4 jpm ^^) or Kan-pu-chi 
(~U* ^p ^^)> """^^ transcriptions of the native name of the country Kamboja. See Tung-si- 30 
yang-k'au, 3,6, and Pelliot. B. E. F. E. 0. IL 123— 13). Ki-mie, pronounced Kat-mit in Cantonese, 
may be a transcription for Kmir, or Khmer. Cf. Gerini, 776. 

On P'u-kan, identified with Pagan on the Irrawadi between the mouth of the Shindwin 
and Prome, see infra, Ch. VL Kia-lo-hi was a dependency of San-fo-ts'i and probably in the Malay 
Peninsula, see infra, p. 66, n. 10. 35 

2) In the seventh century the capital of Chon-la was called I-sh6-na-ch'6ng('jS-^^ BR IfcB) 
i. e., Kanapura. Sui-shu, 82. The name Lu-wu would seem to point to Lovek, the ruins of which 
city are still visible 10 kil. N. of Udong. Bergaigne, Inscriptions, 122, but Pelliot, Op. 
cit. II, 132. n. 3, 141 and IV. 237, says that Lovek only became the capital of Kamboja in the 
fifteenth century. «When Chau Ju-kua wrote, he says, the capital was certainly Angkor, and its 40 
name was Kambupuri or YaQodharapuras — consequently Angkor is here referred to. In the 
eighth century the capital of Southern Chon-la was, according to T'ang-shu, 222'', Po-lo-ti-pa. 

3) I b n B a t u t a, IV. 245, speaking of the Sultan of Mul Djauah (Siam) says «no one in this 
country, save only the Sultan, owns horses. The people ride elephants». 

Ij4 KAMBOJA. 55 

4) This wlotus poEd» may be the «Northern Lake» mentioned in the Chon-la-fSng-t'u-ki, 
and which Aymonifir has identified with the Preah R6ach Dak near the great monument of 
Prakhan at Angkor Thom. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. II, 144. 

5) The Ohon-la-fbng-t'u-ki (Pelliot, Op. cit. 144) says ((counting from the outer gate 
5 the palace was from five to six li around. The tiles of the private apartments are of lead, those 

of the outer buildings of earthenware and yellow .... The Council hall has golden window 
frames; to the right and left are square columns bearing forty or fifty mirrors along the sides of 
the windows. Underneath are represented elephants». 

6) The Chon-la-fdng-t'u-ki (Pelliot, Op. cit, 142) describes a golden tower in the 
10 center of the capital and one U north of it a higher tower of bronze, which was very imposing. 

One li N. of it was the Palace. Aymoniersays that this bronze tower is the monument ofBaPhun 
in Angkor. 

7) A-nan, as here written, is the usual transcription of the Sanskrit word ananda «joy, 
happiness)). — The almeh or dancing-girls are usually called in India deva-dasi («slave of a 

15 god))) or ramjani. Conf. Reinaud. Belation. T. 134. w hat bo says of the acourtizans of the Bodda». 
Marco Polo. IT. 329. speaking of the province of Maabar says: «They have certain abbeys in 

which are gods and goddesses to whom many young girls are consecrated And when the 

monks of a convent desire to make a. feast to their god, they send for all these consecrated 
damsels and make them sing and dance before the idol with great festivity. They also bring 

20 meats to feed their idol withal; that is to say, the damsels prepare dishes of meat and other good 
things and put the food before the idol, and leave it there a good while, and then the damsels 
all go to their dancing and singing and festivity for about as long as a great Baron might require 

it to eat his dinner This is performed by these damsels several times every year until they 

are married)). See also infra p. 92. «Buddha» here means «idol)), see infra p. 90 n. 5 and p. 92. 

25 8) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,ii, which in turn seems to have been partly taken 

from Sui-shu, 82,7—8. The name of Tauist was often used by Chinese mediaeval writers to 
designate the followers of various forms of worship of Hindu origin. 

P'o-to-li, the divinity they specially revered, may represent the Sanskrit Bhadra, used 
in the Cham inscriptions to designate Siva. The Chon-la-fong-t'u-ki mentions among these religions 

80 of Chon-la «the Tauists, who are called Pa-ssi-wei ( /^ ffl^ ^f^)'"- Finot has suggested that 
this is the name Pagsepatas, that of a Sivaite sect, and mentioned in an inscription of Angkor. 
Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. II, 149—151. The Sui-shu, 82,8 says in connexion with the worship of 
P'o-to-li in Ch8n-la, «Near the capital is a mountain called Ling-kie-po-p'o ((^ yff ^fe ^^)! 
on the summit of the mountain there is a temple (^jjl *b} Sanskrit, devalaya) which is con- 

35 tinually guarded by 5000 soldiers. To the east of the city there is a spirit (^.^ deva) called 
P'o-to-li, to whom human flesh is offered in sacrifice. The king of this country (of Chon-la) goes 
every year thither and sacrifices a human being in the night. There are also 1000 men guarding 
(this spot))). Our author, in all likelihood, derived his information concerning P'o-to-li from this 
passage, as no mention is made of P'o-to-li in Ling-wai-tai-ta, which concludes its reference to 

40 the religious systems of Chon-la by saying: «In this country, when looking at the sky, they 
constantly see in one corner (of the heavens) a few marks (or stains), and the people say: 'it is a. 
place to which Nu-kua (-ir i^) did not get')). This is an otherwise unknown extension of the 
Nii-kua legends, the origin of which has to be looked for in all probability in the north of China. 
If not observable by the naked eye, the knowledge of those starless holes in our firmament known 

45 as the wcoal-sacks)) near the Southern Cross, may have become familiar to the Kambojians 
through their Indian relations or the reports of Indian or Arab I.e. travellers, whose attention might 
have been attracted by the phenomena in the southern seas. Of. Hirth, The Ancient History 
of China, etc., 10. On Nu-kua, see F. W. Mayers, Manual, 162. 

9) The Ch5n-la-f6ng-t'u-ki gives the name of some other Kambojian products not mentioned 

50 by our author; they are hua-huang (^ ^ lit, «painter's yellow)), gamboge), a kind of lacquer 
called Ui-Tc6ng (^' :^^), oil of lucrabau seeds {-f^ ^ ^ yft), hiang-cMn ((^ ^ 
myrcitica iners) and some pepper. See Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. II, 166. Eiang pi or «ginger 
peel)) is the skin of the ginger root which is peeled off in order to improve its appearance and 

56 KiMBOJA. I>4 

make it better adapted as a table luxury; it contains more effective medical properties than the 
inner parts and, therefore, constitutes a specialty in Chinese drug-shops, quite distinct from both 
the fresh and dried varieties of ginger. The Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 26,53, treats of it in a separate 
paragraph. Kiu-yen-hiang, probably benzoin, see infra, Pt. 11. Ch. V. All that the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 
2,11, has to say of the products of Chon-la is: «It is extremely rich in famous aromatics; those of S 
Tong-liu-mei being the best. The aromatics of no other foreign country can compare with thema. 
Most of the products mentioned here are described in detail in Part II. 

10) Assuming that the lists of dependencies of Chon-la, as given in the works of Ch6u 
K'a-fei and Chau Ju-kua, refer to the times at which they wrote (which, however, is not always 
true, in the case of Chau at least), it is not surprising that the list (11 names) of Chau should 10 
include names not found in the earlier one (7 names), for during that time Chbn-la had 
extended its dominion at the expense of Chan-ch'ong and, it would seem, of the small states in 
the northern and north-eastern parts of the Malay Peninsula. Chau included also Fu-kan in his 
list of dependencies of Chon-la. In this he seems to have erred, for in the twelfth century Pagan 
was a powerful and independant state. See Phayre, Hist, of Burma, 49 et seqq. 15 

(1) Tong-liu-mei appears in both lists. See infra, Ch.V. — (10) Wa-Ii is in both lists; 
concerning it Chou K'u-feii says (2,ii) that it was 60 days journey from P'u-kan on the 
Irrawadi, but he does not say in what direction. In another passage (see supra p. 25 n. 1) he says 
that Chon-la was the commercial centre of the Wa-li countries. It may have been the Laos or 
Karen country. So far as known this name does not occur in any other Chinese work. — (11) Si- 20 
p'ong, which occurs in both lists, remains unidentified. — (4) San-lo (which may also be read San- 
yau) is Ch6u's San-po (^ ')A). The first syllable may be an attempt to transcribe the name 
of the country called in the Khmer inscriptions Syam (kut) and which not long after Chau Ju- 
kua's time became Sien (jM)- Syam kut was situated to the N. of Lopburi on the lower 
Menam. San-lu and San-po may, however, stand for a name like Sambuh. — (6) Ma-lo-won, 25 
Ch6u's Ma-lan(^fi M^' ""^ ^° the same as Mo-liang (^£ ^^) mentioned by Chou Ta- 
kuan (1296) and which Pelliot (B. E. F. E. 0., If, 173) says is the Malyan of Cham inscriptions. 
The country has not been located. Gerini, Researches, 495, mentions, on the authority of a Siamese 
Chronicle of the middle of the fourteenth century, a locality (or district) called Worawari orVaravari 
as a tributary state of Siam in the south (Malay Peninsula). There is at least some similarity 30 
•of sound, between this name and the Chinese Ma-lo-w6n. — (2) Po-ssi-lan does not occur in 
Chou's list; it seeriis to be the Pa-ssi-li {/\, ^^ J§_) of Chou Ta-kuan's list. Ma Tuan-lin 
and the Sung-shi (489,ii) say it was S. E. of Chbn-la proper; it stood, however, S. E. of Chbn-li-fu, 
•which is conclusively identified by Gerini (Researches 524) with Chanthabun, so we know its 
approximate location. — (3) Lo-hu has been conclusively identified with the country of Lvo, Lavo 35 
or Lahot, the modern Lopburi on the lower Menam. Gerini, Asiat. Quart,, 34 series, XIII, 119; 
Pelliot, Op. cit. II, 235, 264.— (5) Chbn-li-fu is Chan-li-p o (,J^ ||_ ^) in the earlier 
list. According to Ma Tuan-lin (Hervey S* D enis,. Ethnographic, II, 488) and Sung-shi, 489,ii, it 
was situated N. W. of Po-ssi-Ian, S. W. of Chbn-la proper and N. E. of Tbng-liu-mel. Ch6u 
Ta-ku an's list has in it a Chon-p'u (iM. '5tf[)j which may be the same. He says it was on the 40 
border of Ch6n-la and could be reached from Chan-ch'bng in 15 days sailing with a good wind. 
Sailing from it S. W. V* "W- one reached the mouth of a river. Gerini, Researches, 524, iden- 
tifies Chbn-li-fu with Chanthabun on the E. coast of the Gulf of Siam. The Ling-wai-tai-ta 10,17 
says «A holy Buddha was born in the city of Chan-li-po in the kingdom of Chbn-la».— (8) T'un- 
li-fu, (7) Lu-yang, and (10) Tu-huai-sttn are unidentified; it seems likely that they were in the 45 
north-eastern part of the Malay Peninsula. Chou K'fl-fei's list contains one name not found in 
Chau's, it is Ti-la-ta (^ ^^ '^)) ^* ^^^° remains imidentified. 

11) From Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,io, we gather some additional details concerning this war 
and its causes. In 1171 an official of the military district of Ki-yang (^ 1^ ^) in Hai-nan, 

a Fukienese by birth, was blown by a typhoon to Chan-ch'ong. That country was then at war 50 
with Chbn-la, and, using only elephants to attack with, it was unable to gain a complete victory. 
The Chinaman advised the king to organize cavalry, and offered his service to instruct his soldiers 
in the use of the bow on horseback. The king, pleased with the advice, sent a junk to Ki-yang to 


LIGOR. 57 

buy horses. It purchased «some tens),, and with them he was able to gain a victory over ChQn-Ia. 
The following year the king sent a number of men to Ki-yang to buy more horses, but, as that 
district had none for sale, they went to K'iung-chou on the northern coast of the island The 
authorities of K'iung-chou refused to allow them to purchase horses, and the Chan-ch'Ong people 
5 left in anger and did not come back again. Ma Tuan-lin, who also tells this story, says that the 
Chan-ch 6ng people on being refused permission to buy horses, devastated a portion of the island 
and carried off a number of the people as prisoners. 

12) T'ang-shu, 222^ says that in 707 Chon-la was divided into Northern Chon-la, or Dry 
Chon-la, and also W5n-tan (^ ^) and Fo-16u (^ ^), and Southern Ch6n-la, which was 

10 on the sea-coast, with much marsh land, whence it was also called Wet Chon-la. After 707 these 
two sections of Chbn-la appear to have sent separate "tribute missions to the Court of China. 
Gerini, Researches, 832, says Won-tan was Upper Kamboja, and Fo-16u he thinks (824) may 
have been Kwala Baloh in North Pahang. 

13) On Kia-lo-hi, see infra, p. 66. 

15 5. 

LIGOR (?). 
(Malay Peninsula). 

Tong-liu-mei- (^ ^ M). 

The country of Tong-liu-mei is to the west of Chon-la ^ Its ruler wears 
20 flowers in his hair, which is done up in a knot; on his shoulders (he wears) 
a red (garment) covered over with white (^ ^Jl M S)- 

On audience days he ascends an open platform, for they have altogether 
no palace buildings of any kind. 

Palm-leaves are used as dishes in eating and drinking; neither spoons 
25 nor chopsticks are used in eating; fingers serve the purpose. 

There is a mountain called Wu-nung (^ ^) (where) Shi-kia (i. e., 
Sakya-muni Buddha) (after his) nie-2>an {i. e., nirvana) manifested himself 
(^ "iti)') *^® event being commemorated by a bronze elephant (at this 
place) 2, 
30 The products (of Tong-liu-mei) are cardamoms, the tsien, ch'on and su 

(varieties of gharu-wood), yellow wax and red kino gum ^. 


1) This name does not appear in Chinese works anterior to the Sung dynasty. The earliest 

mention of T8ng-liu-mei seems to be in the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,n, where the same characters as 

85 here are used to transcribe the name. Sung-shi, 489,ji, also writes the name in the same way. The 

only indication we have as to its location is the brief reference in Sung-shi (loc. cit.) that it 

58 PAGAN. 1,6 

was fifteen stages (^^) by sea N. of Lo-yile (tlie southern portion of the Malay Peninsula) and 
S. W. of Chon-li-fu (mentioned in the preceding chapter). Gerini Researches, 524, identifies Tong- 
liu-mei with Taluma, an ancient state on the E. coast of the Malay Peninsula, but whether near 
Patani or in the Ligor roadstead, he cannot say. — Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 233—234, 
places Tan-liu-mei at Ligor or Lakhon, otherwise called Sri Dharmaraja, the Muang Lakawn of 5 
our maps on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. 

2) This paragraph is very obscure, and seems to contain a strange jumble of misstate- 
ments for a writer who must have been somewhat familiar with Buddhist history. The Buddha 
Gautama is said to have entered the womb of his ihother under the shape of an elephant. I do 
not understand how he can have shown himself after his death under this shape. The Bodhisattva 10 
Samantabhadra manifested himself riding an elephant on 0-mi-shan in SsJ-ch'uan, and a great 
bronze elephant commemorates the event. Some such manifestation by a P'u-sa may have taken 
place at Tong-liu-mei. 

3) The Ling-wai-tai-ta,2,ii, says that the gharu-wood from Tong-liu-mei was the best in 
the world. See infra, Pt. II. Chs. XP, XI'', and XI'=. 15 




Pii-kan (^1 -y-). 

Both the officials and the people of P'u-kan^ gather their hair in a knot 20 
on the forehead, binding it with a piece of coloured silk; the chief of the 
country alone is distinguished by a high golden cap (or hat ^). 

In this country there is great plenty of horses; the people ride them 
without saddles. 

Kegarding their customs, they are very devout followers of the Buddhist 25 
religion; all the priests wear yellow robes. 

«The lord of the country holds his court in the early morning, when the 
officials each carry a flower which they present to him, while the priests 
repeat Indian (^) words praying for his long life. The flowers are fixed 
on the king's head; those which are left over are taken to the temples and so 
offered to the Buddha» ^. 

There is in this country a temple dedicated to the Marquis Chu-ko Wul 

In the first year Tcing-to of the present dynasty (1004) (P'u-kan) sent 
a mission (to China) with tribute, together with the kingdom of San-fo-ts'i 
and Ta-shi (Arabs), when they had an opportunity of witnessing the Feast of 35 
Lanterns. In the fifth year ts'ung-ning (1106) (P'u-kan) again sent tribute*. 

1)6 PAGAN. 59 


1) The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,ii, from which nearly the whole of this chapter is taken, reads 
as follows: «The kingdom of Fu-kan is five day's journey from the kingdom of Ta-li (S. W. Yan- 
nan), and from ■Wa-li_(a dependency of Chon-la referred to previously) it is sixty days thither. 
5 Its boundary line (f^) is the «Black-water muddy Eiver» (|^ ;A^ W^ Vt M ^^^ 
Irrawadi?), where begin the kingdoms of the West— which cannot (all) be known (^ pj* ^). 
The king of the country of Fu-kan and the officials wear golden caps (or hats), in shape like a 
rhinoceros horn. They have horses and they ride them without saddles. The king's palace has 
tiles made of tin {^f); in the interior the ornamentation of the rooms is in gold and silver. 

10 There are several tens of Buddhist temples, and all the priests wear yellow robes . . .» (Then 
follows the passage forming the fourth paragraph of our text. After this the chapter concludes 
with the following:) «In the 2d moon of the fifteenth year ts'ung-ning of Hui-tsung (of the Sung, 
H03), P'u-kan sent tribute to the Court of China». 

The name of P'u-kan does not appear to occur in Chinese works earlier than the Ling- 

15 wai-tai-ta, and the tribute mission of 1 103 — which is duly recorded in Sung-sh! (20,4) seems to 
be the first appearance of P'u-kan at the Chinese Court, for the Annals for the king-to period 
(1004—1007) do not bear out our author's statement of a mission from P'u-kan in that year, nor 
his other statement that one from San-fo-ts'i came there also in that year. The Annals (Sung-shi, 
7,s) do, however, mention, under the year 1004 the presence at Court of a mission from P'u-tuan 

20 (^B ^ss) together with missions from Chan-ch' ong and the Ta-shii (Arabs). Again under the 
years 1007, 1020, 1030, 1042, 1050, 1053, 1056 and 1061 P'u-tuan is recorded to have sent 
missions to Court. Ma Tuan-lin (Ethnographic, II, 586) begins his very short account of P'u-kan 
with the mission of 1106. Can P'u-tuan, about which we know nothing, save that Ma Tuan-lin 
(Op. cit , II, 538) tells us that it was reached by sea after some seven days sailing from Chan- 

25 ch'ong, be an earlier form of P'u-kan? It seems probable. 

The article on P'u-kan in the Sung-shi (489,ii), while supplying absolutely no information 
on its geographical position or concerning its people, says that when the P'u-kan mission of 1106 
arrived at Court, the President of the Board of Kites (probably after a protest from the P'u-kan 
envoys) stated that, when in the hi-ning period (1068—1077) Chu-lien (Coromandel Coast, the 

30 country the nearest to P'u-kan of which the Chinese were cognizant) sent a mission to Court, the 
king of Chu-lien had been written to by the Board of Rites on plain white paper, as he was a 
vassal of San-fo-ts'i. Fu-kan, he went on to say, was an important (and independent) kingdom, and 
should not be treated like the princelet (of Chu-lien); it should be addressed with the same 
forms as the Ta-shit (the Caliph) or the sovereign of Kiau-chi. See also infra p. 96. 

35 The identity of P'u-kan with Pugan or Pagan on the Irrawadi between the mouth of the 

Shindwin and Prome is generally accepted. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries P'u-kan ruled 
over Burma from Bhamo south — including Pegu and Arakan — the latter state, at all events, was 
under its suzerainty. The kingdom of Pagan was overthrovn by the Mongols, who captured the 
capital in 1284. Phayre, Hist, of Burma, 18—54. 

40 Schlegel, T'oung-pao, IX, 90, tried to show that P'u-kan was Pahang in the Malay 

Peninsula— a country known to Chinese mediaeval writers as Fong-hong (^ "^), but his 
argument was extremely weak and his identification has not been accepted by any subsequent 
writers. If there could be any doubt as to the identity of Fu-kan with Pagan, we might refer to 
the account of the Mongol conquest of Mien or Burma, contained in the Yiian-shi, 210,5, where 

45 a victory over P'u-kan (written as in our text) in 1287 is said to signify the complete pacification 
of Mien resulting in the payment of an annual tribute of local produce. Again in the Yuan- 
ch'au-ch5ng-Mien-lu (j^ S^ ^j^ ^ ^) or ((Account of the war of the YUan dynasty 
against Burma», and which dates from the Mongol period, there are a number of passages in 
which P'u-kan is mentioned as a dependency of Mien. 

50 2) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, see supra, n. 1. 

3) Better known as Chu-ko Liang. He is credited with having led an expedition into the 
heart of Burma somewhere about A. D. 225. Giles, Chin. Biograph. Diet. 180. 

4) See supra, n. 1, § 2. 

60 PALEMBAXG. 1,7 



(Eastern Sumatra). 

San-fo-ts'j (H # W- 

San-fo-ts'i ^ lies between Cbon-la and Sh5-p'o. Its rule extends over 5 
fifteen chou ( j>|'[, provinces, or towns). It lies due south of Ts'iian-chou. 

In the winter, with the monsoon (j||| ^), you sail a little more than ' 
a month and then come to Ling-ya-mon (^ ^ f^ ), where one-third of the 
passing merchants (put in) before entering this country (of San-fo-ts'i) ®. 

A large proportion of the people of this country are surnamed 10 
c<P'u.>3(^). . 

The wall of the (capital) city is built of bricks, and measures several 
tens of li round. 

When the king goes out he sits in a boat; his body has a man-pu^ 
(f§ 'ffj) wrapped around it. He is sheltered by a silk umbrella and guarded 15 
by men bearing golden lances. 

The people either live scattered about outside the city, or on the water 
on rafts of boards covered over with reeds, and these are exempt from ' 
taxation ^. 

They are skilled at fighting on land or water. When they are about to 20 
make war on another state they assemble and send forth such a force as the , 
occasion demands. They (then) appoint chiefs and leaders, and all provide 
their own military equipment and the necessary provisions. In facing the 
enemy and braving death they have not their equal among other nations. 

They have no stringed copper cash, but use chopped off lumps of silver 25 
( ^ ^ ^) in their business transactions. 

During most of the year the climate is hot, and there is but little cold 
weather. Their domestic animals are very much like those of China. 

They have wine of flowers, wine of cocoanuts, and wine of areca nuts 
and honey, all fermented, though without yeast of any kind, but they are 30 
intoxicating to drink ^. 

In writing documents on official affairs they use foreign (^) char- 
acters^, and the king's signet is used as a seal. They also know Chinese 
characters, which they use in sending memorials to (our) court. 



The laws of the country are very severe; adultery exposes man and 
woman to the severest form of punishment (i. e., death) «. 

When the king dies the common people go into mourning by shaving their 
heads; his personal followers (or courtiers) choose, however, voluntary death 
5 by leaping into the blazing pyre; this is called diving and dying together))'. 
There is (in San-fo-ts'i) a (kind of) Buddha (^. e., image) called «Hill 
of Gold and Silvm, (^ ^ |1|) and it is cast in gold. Each succeeding 
king before ascending the throne has cast a golden image to represent Ms 
person lo, and they are most particular to make offerings, of golden vessels 
ao to these images, and the golden images and golden vessels all bear inscrip- 
tions to caution future generations not to melt them down. 

When any one in this country is dangerously ill he distributes his 
weight in silver among the poor of the land, and this is held to be a means 
of delaying death ^^ 
15 They style their king Lung-ts'ing^^ (f| ^). He may not eat grain, 

but is fed on sha-Jiu^^ (fj? ^); should he do otherwise, the year would be a 
dry one and grain dear. He also bathes in rose-water; should he use ordi- 
nary water, there would be a great flood. 

(The king) has a high cap (or hat) of gold, set with hundreds of jewels 

20 and very heavy. At great court ceremonies no one but the king is able to 

wear it; all other people are unable. When the throne becomes vacant all 

the king's sons are assembled, the cap is handed them and he who is able 

(to bear its weight) succeeds to the throne. 

There is an old tradition that the ground in this country once suddenly 

25 gaped open and out of the cavern came many myriads of cattle, which rushed 

off in herds into the mountains, though the people all tried to get them for 

food. Afterwards the crevice got stopped up with bamboo and trees and 

disappeared ". 

Exclusive of the native products, which include tortoise-shell, camphor, 
so the chon, su and chan (varieties of gharu-wood), a coarse sMu (§^) (variety 
of gharu-wood), laka-wood, cloves, sandal-wood and cardamoms, there are also 
pearls, frankincense, rose-water, gardenia flowers, wu-na-tsH{'>), myrrh, aloes, 
asa-foetida, putchuk, liquid storax, elephants' tusks, coral-trees, cat's-eyes, 
amber, foreign cotton stuffs and sword blades. All these (latter) are products 
35 of the Arab (Ta-shi) foreigners (^ ^ ^ ^) ". 

The foreign traders {^ ^) who gather together in this country give 
in exchange gold, silver, porcelain-ware, silk brocades, skeins of silk, silk 
gauzes, sugar, iron, samshu, rice, dried galangal, rhubarb and camphor. 

62 PALEMBAKG. 1,7 

This country, lying in the ocean and controlling the straits (lit., gullet 
00 P^) through which the foreigners' sea and land (lit., ship and cart) traffic 
in either direction must pass, in olden times used an iron chain as a barrier 
to keep the pirates of other countries in check. It could be kept up or lowered 
by a cunning device. If a merchant ship arrived it was lowered. After a 5 
number of years of peace, during which there has been no use for it, it has 
been removed and (now) lies coiled up on the shore. The natives reverence it 
like a Buddha, and vessels coming there sacrifice to it. When rubbed with oil 
it shines like new. Crocodiles do not dare pass over it to do mischief. 

" If a merchant ship passes by without entering, their boats go forth to 10 
make a combined attack, and all are ready to die (in the attempt). This is 
the reason why this country is a great shipping centre^/ 
The following are all dependencies (of this counu-y) ^®: 
P6ng-f6ng (^ m.) Tan-ma-ling (|| ,% ^) 

Tong-ya-nong (^ ^ {|) 10 Kia-lo-hi (jjw ^ ||) 15 

Ling-ya-ssi-kia Q^ ^ |^ Jfjp) Pa-lin-fong (Q ;^ ^) 

Ki-lan-tan (± ^ ^) Sin-t'o (|^ -}^%) 

5 Fo-lo-an (^ J ^) Kien-pi (^ %) 

Ji-lo-t'ing (0 jl ^) Lan-wu-li (g fiE H) 

Ts'ien-mai (*j^ j§) 15 Si-lan (^g ^) 20 

Pa-t'a {^ y^) 

This country began to have relations with China during the t'ien-yu 
period of the T'ang (A. D. 904-907). During the k'ien-lung period of the 
present dynasty (960— 963) it sent tribute three times. In the third year 
shun-Jiua (992) it reported that it had been invaded by Sho-p'o, and be- 25 
sought that an Imperial manifesto be issued authorizing it to render obe- 

In the sixth jesiV Men-ping (1003) it reported to the Throne that a Bud- 
dhist temple had been erected in the country, there to pray for the Emperor's 
life, and a wish was expressed that a name and a bell be bestowed upon it. 30 
The Emperor, approving the wish, ordered that Chong-fien-wan-shou ( ^ ^ 
H ^) should be the title of the temple, and also presented it with a bell. 

Down to the king-to, siang-fu and tHen-hi periods (1004 — 1022) and 
in the yuan-yu and 2/Maw-/oM^ periods (1078 — 1094) this country sent a 
number of tribute missions, when Imperial messages with cordial assurances 35 
were conveyed to it^^- 

This country to the east is conterminous with Jung-ya-lu (^ ^ ^), 
[Note: Also called Chung-kia-lu » (g ^ ^)]. 



1) All Chinese writers have identified San-fo-ts'i with Palembang, the north-eastern coast 
of Sumatra. The form San-fo-ts'i appears to have been first used in the Sung period. The earliest 
Chinese form of the name was Shii-li-fo-shi (^ 5^lj -f^ tt or ^), which occurs in 
5 I-tsin g's writings, in the latter part of the seventh century. In the eighth century Kia Tan uses 
the abbreviated form Fo-shi (^ ^). Shi-li-fo-shi and San-fo-ts'i point to an original Indian 
form grI-Bhoja, and Fo-shi and Fo-ts'i (for that form also occurs) to an original Bhoja. The form 
Qrl-Bhoja is the original of Serboza, the name used by the Arabs in the ninth century to 
designate the island of Sumatra. See Schlegel, T'oiing-pao, 2* series, II, 122—138, 167—182, 
10 329—377 and Gerini, Researches, 429, 481—483. 

San-fo-ts'i was the kingdom of Menang-kabau, the parent country of the Malays in 
Sumatra, (dts original limits to the eastern side of the island were the great rivers of Palembang 
and Siak, and to the west those of Manjuta and Singkeb). Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipel. II, 
371. Marsden (Hist. Sumatra, 268 n.) says that before the name Menang-kabau came into use 
15 the country (or the capital?) was called Syndo-Cauda. The empire of Menang-kabau extended 
at one time over the whole island, and, even in the latter part of the eighteenth century, all the 
Sultans of Sumatra derived their authority from its chief. Marsden, op. cit., 267. 

In or about 1377 San-fo-ts'i was conquered by the Javanese, and the name disappears 
from Chinese works. We find instead Pa-lin-fOng (gj ^ >1^), P'o-lin-pang (^ ^ ^) 
20 and Kiu-kiang (^ J^). Explanations of the last mentioned name, have been offered by 
Groeneveldt, Notes on the Malay Archipel., 76, and by Schlegel, T'oung-pao, 2d Ser. II, 
172; but neither of them is more than a guess, the latter a particularly poor one. See also on the 
subject of San-fo-ts'i, Chavannes, Relig. emin., 36, n. 3 and 64, n. 1, and Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. 
IV, 331 — 348. Gerini, Researches, 628, is of opinion, however, that Pa-lin-fong was probably 
25 Berembang in Deli, 3°42' N. lat., and not Palembang. I doubt it. 

Chon K'u-fei, from whose work our author has largely drawn, uses the name San-fo-ts'i 
in a more restricted sense than Chau Ju-kua, applying it only to a port of that name. Here is 
what he has to say of it: «San-fo-ts'i is in the Southern Sea. It is the most important port-of-call 
on the sea-routes of the foreigners, from the countries of Sho-p'o (Java) on the east and from the 
30 countries of the Ta-shii (Arabs) and Ku-lin (Quilon) on the west; they all pass through it on their 
way to China. 

«The country has no natural products, but the people are skilled in fighting. When they 

are about to fight, they cover their bodies with a medicine which prevents swords wounding 

them. In fighting on land or on water none surpass'' them in impetuosity of attack; even the 

35 Ku-lin people come after them. If some foreign ship, passing this place, should not enter here, an 

armed party would certainly come out and kill them to the last. 

«This country has great store of rhinoceros, elephants, seed-pearls (?^^ i^) and 
medicinal aromatics. It is a custom of this people to make rafts to float on the water and to live 
on them». 
40 For other passages in the Ling-wai-tai-ta bearing on San-fo-ts'i, see supra p. 23. 

2) The text reads :^ JI If M JI ^ ^ ^ >^ ^ PI ll it H # 

^ . -h^ 71 2MI ^ . Some Chinese scholars, consulted on the meaning of this ambiguous 

phrase, think the passage may be mutilated and that it implies that a levy of one third ad 
valorem was made on merchandize at Ling-ya-mon (Linga Strait and Island) before merchants 

45 were allowed to proceed to San-fo-ts'i. This interpretation seems forced; it appears much more 
likely that Ling-ya-mon was a convenient harbour for ships coming from the west and from 
Chan-ch'ong when sailing for San-fo-ts'i, and that many of them stopped there. However, there is 
nothing inconsistent with the facts in the explanation, for Chau Ju-kua tells us that the people 
of San-fo-ts'i and of other parts of the Malay Archipelago were great pirates, and it may well be 

50 that merchant-junks found it to their advantage to put into Ling-ya-mon and pay a toll to escape 
worse. In the fifteenth century the people of the island of Linga still lived by piracy, according to 
Chinese accounts. Groeneveldt, Notes, SO. 

64 PALE3IBANG. 1.7 

The name Ling-ya-mon has not been found in any other Chinese -vrork of this period, but 
in the fifteenth century we meet with the name Lung-ya-mon(^ ^ P^) as that of the Linga 
Strait and Island. Groeneveldt, Notes, 97; Geo. Phillips. J. C. B. E. A. S. XXI, 39; Pelliot, 
B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 218. The sixteenth century Tung-si-yang-k'au, 9,7 says that junks sailing from 
Ch'ang-yau-sti {-M B® |Ifi Pulp Senang, better known as Bam Island. (Gerini, Researches, 5 
815, not Singapore Island, as suggested by Phillips, loc. cit.), on their way to Chan-peii 
(Djambi, in Sumatra) passed the Lung-ya Peak (^| ^"^ LU)- This seems to point without 
a doubt to some point on Linga. Ling-ya-mon appears to have been a trading depot of the Arabs 
in the twelfth century. See infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXIV. 

3) Fu stands for Bu, an abbreviation of Abu fffathers, which precedes so many Arabic 10 
names. The phrase ^ j^ W «many are surnamed P'ub, occurring here and there in Chinese 
ethnographical literature may safely be taken to indicate Arab settlements. Hirth, Die Inscl 
Hainan, 487, note. ^ 

4) The words man (^), lean-man. (^ |§i), tu-man (^ j^^), ho-man (-^ ^) 

or man-jju (^§r ^ ) are used in Chinese works of the mediaeval period to designate the 15 
garment known to us by the Malay name of sarung or sarong. These Chinese names are derived 
from Sanskrit fo»i6ai!(i — probably through some intermediate form. Takakusu, Eecord of 
Buddh. Keligio^n, 12, n. 1; Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., Ill, 268, n. 5 and IV, 283 n. 2. See also 
Crawfurd, Hist. Malay Archipel. I, 208. 

5) The greater part of this and the following paragraph are taken from the Ling-wai- 20 
tai-ta, see supra p. 63 n. 1. The Tanka or boat population of Canton are similarly exempted from the 
ground-tax. The description here given of the town of San-fo-ts'i might apply to Palembang of 
the present day. «The city is a large one, extending for four or five miles along a fine curve of 
the river, which is as wide as the Thames at Greenwich. The stream, is, however, much narrowed 
by the houses which project into it upon piles, and within these again, there is a row of 'houses 25 
built upon great bamboo rafts • which are moored by rattan cables to the shore or to piles, and 
rise and fall with the tide». A. Wallace, Malay Archipelago, 94 (10* edit.). 

6) Conf. what is said in Ch. XIV on Sh6-p'o concerning the drinks of the Javanese. It 
is possible that the «wine of flowers» is nipa arrak — which is made with the liquor drawn from 
the stems of the flowers of the nipa palm. aWine of cocoanuts» is, of course, toddy, which in 30 
Sumatra, however, is made usually from the gomuti palm. Crawfurd, Op. cit., I, 398. 

7) The Sung-shi, 489,12'' quotes this paragraph, but substitutes Sanskrit (^5) for «foreign» 
(^g:) characters. Either of these two readings may be justified. The Kavi character was used in 
the kingdom of Menang-kabau for writing Sanskrit in the seventh century of our era. Lassen, 
Indische Altherthumsk. IV, 463. The same authority says (ibid. IV, 472, n. 1) that other Sanskrit 35 
inscriptions found in the same country were writteft in various other scripts not traceable to any 
system in use in Western India. The P'ing-ch6u-k'o-t'an, 2,8-4, says that San-fo-ts'i had books, 
and that the people were able mathematicians. Traders reported that these people could calcu- 
late future eclipses of the sun and moon; the Chinese, they added, were unable to read their 
books. The San-fo-ts i people did not make use of Chinese characters, it seems hardly necessary 40 
to remark. Chinese versions of letters from their rulers addressed to the Court of China were 
rendered into Chinese — on arrival of the envoys at Canton or Ts'aan-ch6u, and presented by 
them — with the original missives — at Court. 

8) Crawfurd, Op. cit. Ill, 130 remarks that among all the tribes of the Archipelago 
adultery is still considered among the most heinous offences. 45 

9) The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,12* states that the same custom obtained in Java (Sho-p'o), see 
infra, p. 80, n. 10. Conf. also the story told in the Adjaib of the king of India who became the 
lalandjar of his parrot and who had to kill himself when the parrot was killed by the cat. Van 
Lith and Devic, Merveilles de I'Inde, 115. 

10) Conf. Lassen, Indische Alterthumsk. IV, 938. 50 

11) A similar custom has existed in various parts of India from ancient times. It was called 
tulSdana or «weight gift». It is still observed in Travancore — perhaps elsewhere. Thomas 
Coryat, in a letter from the MogoPs Court at Asmere in 1615, referring to the Great Mogol 


(SeUm'3) birthday, which was celebrated while he was there, says that «for that day he weighed 
himselfe m a paire of golden Scales, which by great chance I saw the same day (a custome that 
be observes most inviolably every yeare) laying so much gold in the other Scale as countervaileth 
the weight of his bodie, and the same he afterward distributed to the pooro.. Purchas, His 
5 Pilgrimes, IV, 473. See also.Sir Thomas Roe's Embassy, II, 411 (Hakluyt Soc. edit.) and Lassen, 
Op. cit. Ill, 810. IV, 273. ' \ J ) 

12) Lung-ts'ing transcribes probably some Malay word. The first syllable may stand for 
Amng «king», by which some of the princes in the Malay states were called. Crawfurd, Op. cit. 
I, 12. In Sumatra, or more properly in the Rejang country, the princes were called Pangeran— 

10 but this may not always have been the case. Marsden, History of Sumatra, I, 387. 

Sung-shi, 4M,i2says that the style or mode of address to (^) the king of San-fo-ts'i 
was «Chan-pei» ( ig ^) or «Djambi». Djambi was a town which, after the Javanese conquest 
in 1377, became the capital of eastern Sumatra. It was, however, an important place already in 
the eleventh century, for in 1079 and in 1088 it sent a tribute mission to the Court of China. See 

J5 infra, p. 66, n. 18. It may be that the name Chan-pei came to be used as equivalent to San-fo-ts"i, 
and that the Sultan was usually spoken of as «the Djambi Rajan. 

13) Sha-hu, in Malay sagu, the term used among all the western tribes of the Archipelago 
for the sago palm and the farina extracted from it. Crawfurd, History, I, 387, and infra, p. 84. 

14) This tradition may be in some way connected with what we are told of the native 
^0 etymology of the name Menang-kabau. Marsden (Hist! Sumatra, 266) says it is derived from 

menang «to win» and carhow «a bufFalo»; «from the story, which carries a very fabulous air, of 
a famous engagement on that spot, between the buffalos and tigers; in which the former are 
reported to have acquired a complete victory». See also Marre, Histoire des Rois de Pasey, 103. 
125—12, and Gerini, Researches, 641. 
25 15) On these various products, see infra, Pt. II. 

16) The earliest date assigned for the first invasion or migration of the Sumatrans to the 
Malay Peninsula is the middle of the twelfth century — 1160, and Crawfurd (History, II, 373 
et seqq.) is inclined to think it was even later. 

(1) P'6ng-f6ng is generally identified with Pahang on the E. coast of the Malay Peninsula. 
30 Bretschneider, Chin. Rev. IV, 387; Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 344, n. 4. Gerini, J. R. A. S. 

1905, 499 and Researches, 599, without attempting to identify it, thinks it must be looked for on 
the N. coast of Sumatra, where he locates most of the dependencies of San-fo-ts'i. The localities 
which he mentions as the probable equivalents of the Chinese names, have, at all events, names 
which resemble them in sound. Some of his identifications appear correct, some possible, two 
?5 quite impossible — Sin-t'o and Si-lan. 

(2) X6ng-ya-n6ng, identified with Trengganu or Tringgano on the Malay Peninsula. It is 
mentioned at the end of the fourteenth century as a dependency of the Majapahit empire. Phillips, 
J. C. B. R. A. S.<XXI, 40. Pelliot, Op. sup. cit. IV, 344, n. 6. Gerini, J. R. A. S. 1905, 498 
and Researches, 626, is sceptical as to this identification; he thinks Tong-ya-nong looks more like 

40 Trieng-gading on the N. Coast of Sumatra, a little to the N. of Samalangan, See also Schlegel, 
T'oung-pao, 23 Ser. II, 132. 

(3) Ling-ya-ssi-kia, is identified with Lengka-suka of the Majapahit empire, the original 
capital of Kedah, near Eedah Peak (Giinong Jerai), on the W. coast of the Malay Peninsula.. 
Pelliot, Op. sup. cit. IV, 345, 405—408. Gerini, J. R. A. S. 1905, 495. 498 and Researches,, 

45 825. See infra, p. 68. 

(4) Ki-lan-tan is the Kalenten of the Majapahit empire, Kalantan on the Malay Peninsula. 
The Tung-si-yang-k"au, 9,6 says Ki-lan-tan was the name of the (country at the) mouth of the 
Ta-ni (-^ 9)3 i. e., Patani) river. Gerini, Researches, 626, reading the Chinese name incor- 
rectly Kia-ki-lan-tan, suggests a place called Gigieng in North Sumatra. 

50 (5) Fo-lo-an, Beranang on the Langat river, W. coast of Malay Peninsula. See infra p. 69. 

(6) Ji-lo-t'ing has not yet been satisfactorily identified. Gerini, Researches, 627, says it was 
yery likely Jelatang on a small stream, a little to the south-west of the present Jambi town in 
I°42'5 lat. See also Schlegel, T'oung-pao, 24 ser. II, 134. 



(7) Ts'i6n-inai remains doubtful. Schlegel, op. sup. cit., 135 thought it was Djambi, but 
that name we know was transcribed Chan-pei. Gerini, Researches, 627 takes this name to 
represent Semawi or Semawei, vulgo Semoy on the bight of that name, into which debouches the 
Pasei river, North Sumatra. 

(8) Pa-t'a may possibly he the country of the Batta in N. Sumatra, as suggested by 5 
Schlegel (loc. cit). Gerini, op. cit., 627, thinks it, Pedada or Pidada — the Pirada of de 
Barros between Samalangan and Pasangan, North Sumatra. 

(9) Tan-ma-ling was probably a district about the mouth of the Kwantan river in Pahang, 
on the E. coast of the Malay Peninsula. See infra, Ch. VIII n. 1. 

(10) Kia-lo-hi. In a previous passage (supra Ch. IV p. 62) our author says that Ch6n-la (Kam- 10 
boja) confined to the S. on Kia-lo-hi; it would appear therefore that it should be sought for in the 
Malay Peninsula, south of T8ng-liu-mei which was the southernmost dependency of Chon-la, and 
which is placed, with some degree of probability, in Ligor on the E. coast of the Malay Peninsula. 
See supra Ch. V p. 57. Whether Kia-lo-hi was the same as the Kia-lo-sh5 (^ ^ ■^) of the 
Sui-shu (3,12») and the Kia-lo-sh6-fu (^ ^ -^ %)' Ko-lo-sho-fon (^ ^ ^ ^) 15 
and Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo (^ ^ 'M ^j^ ^) °^ ^^^ T'ang-shu, 222'', I am not prepared to say. 
Pelliot (op. cit. IV, 360 'n.) says that all these forms point to a Sanskrit foi-m Kalasapura, 
and that a city of that name seems to have existed in Indo-China or the Malay Peninsula, but 
where is not known. Gerini (Asiat. Quai-t. 3^ ser. XIII, 133) identifies Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo with 
Koli hadara, the present Kalantan, and (in his Eesearches, 627) he seems inclined to locate Kia- 20 
lo-hi on the, E. coast of Sumatra or on some neighbouring island. He admits that the name is a 
very puzzling one. Schlegel (T'oung-pao, 2^ ser. II, 136) says Kia-lo-hi was contiguous with the 
present Cape Camboja. 

(11) Pa-lin-fong is Palembang,. see supra, p. 63, n. 1. 

(12) Sin-t'o, or, as our author in another passage, transcribes the name Sun-t'a,'is the western 25 
portion of th6 island of Java, or possibly only a small part of it on the Straits of Sunda. See 
infra Chs. XI and XV, from which either conclusion seems possible. Gerini, Eesearches, 628, takes 
Sin-t'o to be Barbosa's Zunda^kingdom, S. W. Sumatra, corresponding to the present Indrapura 
district. It cannot be believed that Sin-t'o was used by Chau Ju-kua to designate any other 
country than that lying in Java near the Straits of Sunda. 30 

(13) Kien-pi is Kampar on the E. coast of Sumatra. See infra, Ch. XII, from which it appears 
that in Chau Ju-kua's time it had become independent of San-fo-ts'i. Gerini, Eesearches, 628, 
thinks some district on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula may be meant. 

(14) Lan-wu-li, the Eamni of Arab mediaeval travellers, the Lamori of Marco Polo. 

It was the N. part of the W. coast of Sumatra. See infra, Ch: XIII. 35 

(15) Si-lan, the Singalese form Silam — shortened from Sihalam (Pali Singhala);- the island 
of Ceylon. See infra Ch. XIII, p. 73, where it is said, not only that Ceylon sends a yearly tribute to 
San-fo-ts'i, but that it is ruled by Nan-p'i (Malabar). In the latter half of the eleventh century the 
Coromandel coast (Chu-lien) was also tributary of San-fo-ts'i. See Sung-shi, 489,ii and supra, p. 59. 

17) The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,ia says: «In the 9ti moon of the first year kien-lung (of the 40 
Sung, 960) the king of San-fo-ts'i, by name Hi-li-ta-hia-li-tan (Hilita Sultan?) presented tribute 

to the Chinese Court. Again in the 5ti» moon of the second year kien-lung (961), and also in the 
third year (962) in the 3^ and 12tii moons». The Annals of the Sung (Sung-shi, 1,9-is) state that in 
961 people from San-fo-ts'i came to Court and offered presents. The following year two official 
missions appear to have come to the Chinese Court, one under a person bearing the Chinese name 45' 
of Li Li-lih (^4^ j^ Mj) — perhaps a Chinese resident of the country. In another passage 
of the Sung-shi (489,is) we read of a mission from San-fo-ts'i in 983 which presented among other 
things a rock-crystal image of the Buddha. See also Groene veldt. Notes, 64. 67. 

18) The Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit., says «In the second year yuan-fong of Chon-tsung (1079) 

in the 7tii moon a mission from the kingdom of Chan-pei (^ Kj, Djambi) came to Court with 50 
tribute; and again this country sent tribute in the year 1088». 

19) Jung-ya-lu was to the east of Sin-t'o, the dependency of San-fo-ts'i in Western Java. 
In another passage (infra, p. 84) our author tells us that Jung-ya-lu was the same as Ta-pan 

I>8 KWANTAN. 67 

(Tuban) and that it was to the W. of «Great Sh6-p'o» and of Su-ki-tan, — CentralJava. Crawfurd, 
History, ir, 297, says that in the twelfth century mention is made of a state of Janggolo in the 
present district of Surabaya in eastern Java. 

Gerini, Kesearches, 451, 812, would place Jung-ya-lu in western or southern Sumatra. 


KW^ANTAN (?). 
(Malay Peninsula). 

Tan-ma-ling (H ,% ^). 

The kingdom of Tan-ma-ling ^ is under a ruler who is addressed as 
10 Siang-Jcung^ (i^ ^). 

The city is surrounded by a palisade six or seven feet thick and over 
twenty feet high, strong enough to be mounted for fighting purposes. 

The people of this country ride buffaloes, wear their hair done in a knot 
behind (^ ^) and go barefooted. 
15 Officials live in wooden houses, the common people in bamboo cottages, 

the walls being filled in with leaves and the poles fastened with rattan. 

The native products comprise yellow wax, laka-wood, the su (variety of 

gharu-wood) incense, ebony, camphor, elephants' tusks, and rhinoceros horns. 

The foreign traders barter for them with silk parasols, kittysols, silks 

20 of Ho-ch'i^ ('/^ ^i\^ 2^1 ^|), samshu, rice, salt, sugar, porcelain basins, 

bowls and the like common and heavy articles, and bowls of gold and silver. 

Ji-lo-t'ing, Ts'ien-mai, Pa-t*a and Kia-lo-hi are of the same kind 

(W. itB) ^^ ^^^ country*. 

This country (of Tan-ma-ling) collects together such gold and silver vessels 
25 as it receives, while Jii-lo-t'ing and the other countries make assorted collec- 
tions, and these they off^er to San-fo-ts'i as tribute. 


1) Takakusu (Record of the Buddhist Eeligion, XLIII— XLV) thought he saw in this 
name the TanaMalayu of de Barros' list of Sumatran kingdoms. Schlegel(T'oung-pao,2d sex. 
30 II, 130) looked for it also in Sumatra. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 328, while not trying to locate this 
district, calls attention to the fact that there is an important affluent of the Pahang river called 
the Tembeling. Gerini, J. K. A. S., 1905, 498 identifies our Tan-ma-ling with Temiling or 
Tembeling, the name of a cape and a hill near the mouth of the Kwantan river in Pahang, on 
the E. coast of the Malay Peninsula. «Probably, he says, it (Tan-ma-ling) is the old designation 
35 borne by the present Kwantan district, and should not be confounded with Tembeling or Tembelang, 



the name of an island district on one of tlie tributaries of tlie Pahang Rivera. As our author 
states (infra Ch. IX § 1) that a land-route existed between Tan-ma-ling and Ling-ya-ssi-iia, which 
we have good reason to believe was about Kedah on the "W. coast of the Peninsula, it seems 
safe to conclude that Tan-ma-ling cannot have been very far from where Gerini has located it. 

2) This may possibly be paraphrased «he is addressed by a title which is the equivalent 5 
of Siang-kung or 'Minister of State' with us in Chinaa. The native title generally used appears 

to have been that of Mantri, which Crawfurd (op. cit. Ill, 34) says is the denomination of the 
first class of the nobility in Malay governments. There is also the title of Pangeran, which is that 
of princelets of Sumatra. See Marsden, Hist. Sumatra, 173. 

3) A district of Ho-ch'i existed during the Sui dynasty (589—618) in the province of 10 
Shen-si; it was identical with the present Huang-hi6n. See Playfair, Cities and Towns of China, 

JVs 1776. According to the local Gazetteer (see Tu-shu-tsi-ch'5ng, 6. Ch. 1416,s) silk was 
produced in abundance in this district. Perhaps sericulture was continued in it down to the days 
of which our author wrote, or perhaps some silk stuff still bore in the trade the name of this 
once famous silk. 15 

4) All of these dependencies of San-fo-ts'i are mentioned in the preceding chapter and in 
Note 16, p. 65—66. By «same' kiudn the author probably means that the people of these various 
districts were of the same race and that their habits, natural products, etc., were similar. 



(Malay Peninsula), 

Ling-ya-ssT-[kia] Qg ^ ^ [Jfjp]). 

Lmg-ya-ssi-(kia) ^ can be reached from Tan-ma-ling by sailing six days 
and nights; there is also an overland road (between the two countries). 

The ruler of the country wraps himself in a sarong (^) and goes 25 
barefooted. The people of the country cut their hair and also wear sarongs. 

The native products are elephants' tusks, rhinoceros homs, the su, cJian 
and shong-Jiiang (varieties of gharu-wood) and camphor. 

Foreign traders barter there in samshu, rice, Ho-ch'i silks and porcelain- 
ware. They calculate first the value of their articles according to their equi- 30 
valents in gold or silver, and then engage in barter of these articles at fixed 
rates. As for example, one tong^ (±g) of samshu is equal to one tael of silver 
or two mace of gold, two tong of rice are equal to one tael of silver, ten 
tong being equal to one tael of gold, and so forth. 

(Ling-ya-ssi-kia) sends yearly tribute to San-fo-ts'i. 35 

1) Though written here without the final syllable Jcia, the name is correctly given in the 
list of dependencies of San-fo-ts'i (supra, p. 62). It is the Lengkasuka of the Majapahit empire, the 

1,10 BEKiNAKG. 69 

original capital of Kcdah, near Kedah Peak (Gunong Jerai), on the W. coast of the Malay Penin- 
sula. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 345, 405—408. Gerini, J. R. A. S. 1905. 495, 498. Schlegel, 
T'oung-pao, 2* Ser., II, 131 read the name Ling-ga-sze and placed it in Sumatra. 

2) Tong is explained iu Chinese Buddhist works as a «Buddhist weighta, •which means 

i that it is an Indian term, here, tola. In the present case it seems to indicate a dry measure; both 

Marsden (op. cit. 155) and Crawfurd (op. cit. I, 271) say that among the Malays everything 

is estimated by bulk and not by weight. Marsden adds that the use of weights was apparently 

introduced among them by foreigners. 



(Malay Peninsula). 

Fo-Io-an (# m ^)- 

The kingdom of Fo-lo-an can be reached from the kingdom of Ling-ya- 
ssi-kia in four days; one may also follow the overland road^. 
15 To this country there came flying two Buddhas, one with six arms, the 

other with four arms. Should ships try to enter the confines (of Fo-lo-an), 
they would be driven back by the wind; this is popularly ascribed to the 
magic power of (these) Buddhas. 

The Buddhist temple (of Fo-lo-an) is covered with bronze tiles and is 
20 ornamented with gold. The fifteenth of the sixth moon is kept as the Buddha's 
birthday with crowded processions accompanied with music and the beating 
of cymbals. The foreign traders take part in them^ 

The native products comprise the su and clian (varieties of gharu-wood)^ 
laka-wood, sandal-wood and elephants' tusks. Foreigners barter for them with 
25 gold, silver, porcelain, iron, lacquer-ware, samshu, rice, sugar and wheats 

It sends yearly tribute to San-fo-ts'i. Its neighbours P'5ng-f6ng, Tong-ya- 
nung and Ki-lan-tan are like it. 


1) Gerini J E A. S. 1905. 498, places Fo-lo-an at Beranang on the Langat river, W. 

30 coast of Malay Peninsula; this satisfies the requirements of this and the last paragraphs of our 

text Earlier writers, misled' by a wrong reading of the Chinese text, tried to locate this country 

in s'lunatra. Schlegel, T'oung-pao, 2^ Ser., II, 134, said it was Puluan in Palembang residency. 

The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,i2 says of Fo-lo-an: «The chief of Fo-lo-an is appomted from San- 

fo-ts'i. The country produces aromatics with which those of the «Lower Coast countries., (i. e., 

35 Java, see Pt. II, Ch. XI) cannot compare in aroma or strength. 

70 SUKDA. 1,11 

((There is here (in Fo-lo-an) a Holy Buddha which the princes of San-fo-ts'i come every 
year to burn incense before». 

2) Kuan^yin (Avalokitegvara) is usually represented with six or four arms. The images 
referred to may have been of this deity. We learn from another passage in C h a u's work (infra, Ch. 
XXXIX) that the celebration of this festival on the IS*!" day of the 6"i moon, was an important 5 
one for sailors for securing good weather on their voyage back to China, and that they kept it as 
well in Borneo as in Fo-lo-an. According to de Groot, Les fStes annuellement c616br6es a Emoui 
(Amoy), I, 199, the principal annual feasts of Kuan-yin kept in Fu-ki6n, are on the 19*'' of the 
2^, the 6tii and the 9"» moon. That on the 19tii of the 6ti» moon is believed by some to be the 
goddess's birthday. The IS'i of the 6tii moon, the same author states (op. cit. I, 394) is also cele- 10 
brated in Fu-kifo as the mid-year festival. It may well be that these two festivals, especially as 
the second one, in some of its features at least, is also connected with the worship of Kuan-yin in 
one of her manifestations (P'o-tsu, ^^ ^(B)' '^ere celebrated by sailors on the same day. 
Schlegel, T'oung-pao IX, 404 says that the 15*^ of the'6tl» moon was the feastday of Ma-tsu-p'o 
(^jS jjjB ^^), the patron saint of sailors. De Groot (op. cit. I, 262) says that Ma-tsu-p'o's 15 
birthday was the 23* of the Simoon. I do not know when the cult of Ma-tsu-p'o's became general, 

at all events the particular ((Buddhas referred to by our author was evidently a patroness of ' 
sailors, hence the presence at her feast of «the foreign traders» both in Fo-lo-an and in P'o-ni. 

3) Fo-lo-an is mentioned in another passage of this work (infra, Ch. XXII) as one of the 
two principal ports of South-eastern Asia to which the Arab traders came, the other was, of 20 
course, San-fo-ts'i. 



(Western Java). 

SIn-ro (ff ijg). 25 

In the kingdom of Sin-t'o ^ there is a harbour (or anchorage }§) with a 
depth of sixty feet. Whei-ever one travels, by water or by land, one meets 
with the people's dwellings all along the two shores (p^ j^ ^ Jg). 

The people are also given to agriculture; their houses are made of poles 
stuck in the ground, roofed over with the bark of the coir-palm", the par- 3o 
titions being made with wooden boards (tied) with bits of rattan. 

Both men and women wrap round their loins a piece of cotton, and in 
cutting their hair they only leave it half an inch long. 

The pepper grown on the hills (of this country) is small-grained, but 
heavy and superior to that of Ta-pan (Eastern Java)'. The country produces 35 
pumpkins (^ }J^), sugar-cane, bottle-gourds (f|), beans and egg-plants. 

As, however, there is no regular government in this country, the people 
are given to brigandage, on which account foreign traders rarely go there*. 

1,12 KAMPAR. ?1 


1) In the chapter on Su-ki-tan (infra, Ch. XV) our author says that Sukitan confined to the 
W. on Sin-t'o and to the E. it adjoined Ta-pan (Tuhan). In another passage (infra, Pt. II. Ch. XXVII) 
our author states that Su-ki-tan, Ta-pan, Pai-hua-yuan, Ma-tung and Sin-t'o (^ |^) are 

5 places in Sho-p'o. In a footnote — (infra p. 84, whether by the author or his editor Li T'iau- 
yUan does not appear), the name of this country is written Sun-t'a (.^ -jlft^), and there seems 
no doubt that the western portion of the island of Java is meant; it would even appear that 
Sin-t'o must have extended well to the E. of Java, for our author has told us previously that 
San-fo-ts'i extended as far E. as Jung-ya-lu in the present district of Surabaya, although it is 
10 difficult to reconcile this with our author's remark that Sukitan — a portion of ShS-p'o — was con- 
terminous ou the W. with Jung-ya-lu — or Ta-pan as it was also called. Schlegel, T'oung- 
pao, 2" ser. II, 136, 137 tried to locate Sin-t'o in Sumatra, because he found there several places 
called Sindar, Sindur, Sintu and Sindu. See also Gerini, Kesearches, 450—456; 628. 

2) Nipa palm, not coir palm, leaves are universally used by the Malays for thatching. 

15 3) Cra'wfurd, op. cit., I, 482, says that Java produces the worst pepper in the Archipel- 

ago. Maffei, Istorie dell' Indie Orientali, I, 275 (as quoted by Gerini, Researches, 453, note) 
speaks of the «pepe molto eccellenti» of Sunda. 

4) The people of Sunda resisted for a long time the power of the Javanese, and were only 
finally reduced by Kaden Panka, who ascended the throne in 1156 and transferred his capital to 

20 Pajajaran in the west of the island for the purpose of subduing and keeping under control the 
people of Sunda. This prince is reported to have introduced rice culture into Sunda. See Lassen, 
Indische Alterthumsk. IV, 476. It seems likely that the absence of any regular government, to 
which our author refers, may have been a result of the war going on at the time to which this 
notice of Sunda relates, some fifty years earlier than the time at which C h a u wrote. It also explains 

25 the absence of any mention of rice among the native products of this part of Java. Crawfurd, 
however (op. cit. I, 358). considers rice «an indigenous product in the Archipelago and its culture 
a native art, — and that one improved tribe taught and disseminated that art». 



30 (Eastern Coast of Sumatra). 

Ki6n-pi (M W- 

The kingdom of Kien-pi^, lying right at the mouth of the road (^ ^ 
P ), is much resorted to by trading ships as an anchorage. It can be reached 
from the San-fo-ts'i country in half a month's sailing. 
35 Formerly it was a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, but, after a fight, it set 

up a king of its own. 

The country produces tin (g ^), elephants' tusks and pearls. 

The people are fond of archery, and those who have killed a great 
number of men boast with one another over the length of their tally scores ^ 

Five days' journey by water brings one to the kingdom ot Lan-wu-li, ; 



1) Kampei or Kampe of the Javanese histories, the modern Kampar on the E. coast of 
Sumatra. Kamp6 is mentioned in the fifteenth century as a dependency of the Majapahit empire. 
Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 344. Takakusu, Record, etc. XLIII, quoting the Sung-shi, 489, 
read the name wrongly, and identified it with Djamhi. The identification with Kampar 5 
does not admit of doubt. Marsden (op. cit. 288) appears to place Kampar W. of San-fo-t'si and 

E. of the Eakan river. Ch6u K'il-fei, 2,13 says «The kingdom of Kien-pi comes every year to 
trade in this country (of Ku-lin) elephants and cattle, and the Ta-shi (Arabs) deal in horses. 
Formerly they used to come to this kingdom to sell goods». This, and the indications furnished by 
our author, would lead us to extend Kien-pi to near the N. W. extremity of Sumatra. On the 10 
other hand the existence of tin in Kien-pi points to the E. part of the island; Cr awfurd (History, 
etc., Ill, 450) says that in geographical distribution tin is confined to the island of Banca, the 
Malay Peninsula, and the islets on the coasts, with Junk Ceylon. 

2) Probably the people made notches on the backs of their swords or on the scabbards of 
the number of persons they had killed, or the number of heads they- had taken. 15 


Lan-wu-li (M M M)- Si-Ian (^ffl ||)- 

The products of the kingdom of Lan-wu-li ^ are sapan-wood, elephants' 
tusks and white rattan. 20 

The people are warlike and often use poisoned arrows. 

With a north wind one comes within twenty odd days to the kingdom 
of Si-lan^, which is under the rule of Nan-p'i* (^ Hlj;). Sailing from Lan- 
wu-li, one knows that one is nearing Si-lan by continual flashing of lightning *. 

The king (of Si-lan) is black, his hair unkempt and his head uncovered. 25 
He wears no clothes but has a cotton cloth of different colours wrapped around 
him; on his feet he wears sandals of red leather, tied with golden strings. 
When he goes forth he rides an elephant or is carried in a litter (^ ^). 
All day he chews a paste of betel nut and pearl ashes. 

His palace is ornamented with cat's-eyes, blue and red precious stones, so 
cornelians and other jewels; the very floor he walks upon is so ornamented. 
There is an eastern and western palace, and at each there is a golden tree, 
the trunk and branches all of gold, the flowers, frdt and leaves of cat's-eyes, 
blue and red precious stones and such like jewels. At the foot of these trees 
are golden thrones with opaque glass (3^ J^) screens. When the king holds 35 


Ms court he uses the eastern palace in the forenoon and the western in the 
afternoon. When (the king) is seated, the jewels flashing in the sunshine, 
the glass (screens) and the jewel-tree shining on each other, make it like the 
glory of the rising sun. 

5 Two attendants are always present holding a golden dish to receive the 

remains of the betel nut (paste) chewed by the king. The king's attendants 
pay a monthly. fee of one i' {^) of gold into the government treasury for 
the privilege of getting the betel nut (paste) remains, for it contains «plum 
flower)), camphor « and all kinds of precious substances. 
10 The king holds in his hand a jewel five inches in diameter, which cannot 

be burnt by fire, and which shines in (the darkness of) night like a torch ^ 
The king rubs his face with it daily, and though he were passed ninety he 
would retain his youthful looks. 

The people of the country are very dark-skinned, they wrap a sarong 
15 round their bodies, go bare-headed and barefooted. They use their hands in 
taking up their food; their household utensils are of copper. 

There is (in this country of Si-lan) a mountain called Si-lun-tie^ (|g 

1^ #)> on the top of which there is a huge imprint of a man's foot, over 

seven feet long, and a like imprint is visible in the water (of the sea) within 

20 a distance of over 300 U from the mountain. The forest trees on the mountain, 

little and big, all bend towards it (as if reverencing it). 

The products (of Si-lan) include cat's-eyes, red transparent glass (S^ 

J^), camphor, blue and red precious stones. The products of the soil are 

cardamoms, mit-lan bark (:^ ^ J^) and both coarse and fine perfumes \ 

25 Foreign traders exchange for them sandal-wood, cloves, camphor, gold, silver, 

porcelain- ware, horses, elephants and silk stuffs. 

This country sends a yearly tribute to San-fo-ts'i ". 


1) So far as is known, Ch6u K'O-fei was the first Chinese writer to mention this section of 
30 Sumatra, which he calls (3,2j Lan-li (^S J^)i ""i* concerning which he only says that it took 
a merchant junk from Canton forty days to reach it. Ch6u's transcription reproduces very closely 
the name used by the Arab travellers of the ninth and subsequent centuries to designate Sumatra 
Al-Ramni. As used, however, by Ch6u K'u-fei, our author and by Marco Polo (who writes the 
name Lamori), it designates the northern portion of the W. coast of Sumatra, commencing from 
35 the neighbourhood of A chin Head. Yule, Marco Polo, 11,281, 283. See also Cordier, Friar 
Odoric, 135, 137. 

The Chinese missions of the beginning of the fifteenth century wrote the nameNan-(Lan-)p'o-li 

(^ "J^ T^lj) or Nan-(Lan-)wu-li (^ /g J^), and in these forms the name occurs in the 

Ming-shi (325), although the same work has lira-(La-)mo-li, yang (j^jj |^ ^7^) "^^^ Sea 

40 of Lambri)). The Ming-shi says that Nan-p'o-li (i. e., the principal port of that district) was three 

■days' sailing from Su-m6n-ta-la (j^ p^ 3^ Wjj) — the Samara of Polo, the Samuthrah of 


Ibn Batuta, and placed by Yule (op. cit. II, 277) near the head of the estuary-like Gulf of 
Pasei, called in the charts Telo (or Talak) Samawe. To the N. W. of Nan-p'o-li, the Ming- 
shi adds, a high mountain called Mau-shan (ijjg |JLf) <»■ "Hat mountainn rises out of the sea. 
This is Pulo Rondo or Pulo Way off Achin. Gerini, Researches, 385. See, however, Phillips, 
J. C. B. R. A. S. XXI, 221, and Groeneveldt, Notes, 100. 5 

2) Chou K'u-feii appears to have been the first Chinese writer to speak of Ceylon as Si-lan, 
which, it would seem, he must have heard of from a Singhalese who probably shortened the sound , 
Sihalam (the Pali form for Singhala) into Silam. See Yule, Marco Polo, II, 296, n. 1. The Yuan- 
shi, 97, uses the form Ki-Ian (^ ^), which represents the same native form, and the Ming- 
shif, 326 has Si-lan (^^ 1|[). Marco Polo also used the form Seilom. The mediaeval Arabs 10 
called the island Serendib — from the Pali Singhala-dipa, and this name we find our author using 

in a subsequent passage, under the form Si-lun-tie to designate (as did also the Arabs) Adam's Peak. 
Fa-hien, in the fifth centtiry, was the first Chinese to mention Ceylon, he called it Shi-tzi-kuo, 
«the kingdom of the Lions, in Sanskrit Singhala. HUan-tsang, in the seventh century, transcribed 
the name by Song-k'ie-lo (f^ ^ ^), while I-tsing used the form Song-ho-lo ({^ g^ ^)' ^^ 
The name Lang-ya (^& ^f") "^^^ '"''^° used, transcribing the Sanskrit Lanka, one of the old 
names of Ceylon. On the Chinese knowledge of Ceylon, see Tennent, Ceylon, I, 583 — 604, and 
also for some additional references toitby Ch6u K'(l-fej, supra, p. 26. Schlegel, T'oung-pao, 
2^ ser. II, 133 made out that Si-lan was not Ceylon but a Sumatran tribe, the Silan of Deli. 

3) Nan-p'i, roughly speaking, comprised as its dependencies the whole of the western coast 20 
of India, though it applied more particularly to the Malabar coast. See infra, p. 89, n. 1. The 
Malabars invasion of Ceylon began in A. D. 515 and ended in 1153, when Prakrama Bahu, having 
driven them out of Ceylon, was crowned «soIe king of Lanka». He carried the war into the Dekkan, 
and reduced Pandya and Chola, making their sovereigns his tributaries. He carried his arms into 
Kamboja and Arramana in the Malay Peninsula (probably between Arracan and Siam). He died 25 
in 1155, after the most glorious reign in the annals of Ceylon. aWithin thirty years itom the 
decease of Prakrama Bahu, the kingdom was reduced to such an extremity of weakness by con- 
tentions amongst the royal family, and by the excesses of their partisans, that the vigilant Malabars 
seized the opportunity to land with an army of 24,000 men, reconquered the whole island, and 
Magha, their leader, became king of Ceylon A. D. 1211... From the beginning of the 13"! century 30 
to the extinction of the Singhalese dynasty in the IStt, the island cannot be said to have been 
ever entirely freed from the presence of the Malabarsn. Tennent, Ceylon, 394 — 418. See, however, 
supra, p. 62, where Si-lan is mentioned as a «dependency» of San-fo-ts'i, and supra, p. 73, where it 

is said Si-lan sent yearly tribute to San-fo-ts'i. In the early part of the twelfth century and 
again in the early part of the thirteenth Ceylon, or a part of it, were under Cholian rule. T e n n e n t, 35 
op. cit. I, 402 et seqq. 

4) «The lightnings of Ceylon are so remarkable, that in the middle ages they were as 
well known to the Arabian seamen, who coasted the island on their way to China, as in later 
times the storms that infested the Cape of Good Hope were familiar to early navigators of 
Portugal. In the Mohit of Sidi Ali Chelebi, translated by von Hammer, it is stated that to 40 
seamen, sailing from Diu to Malacca, «the sign of Ceylon being near is continual lightning, be it 
accompanied by rain or without rain; so that 'the lightning of Ceylon' is proverbial for a liar» . 
Tennent, Ceylon, I, 60 n. 

5) An i weighed 20 taels; it seems only to have been used for weighing gold. 

6) See infra Pt. II. Ch. I. 45 

7) Hflan-tsang speaks of the great ruby over the vihara of the Buddha's tooth in Ceylon. 
Beal, Records, II, 218. Cosmas Indicopleustes teUs of a wonderful luminous gem of the king of 
Taprobane which was «as large as a great pine-cone, fiery red, and when seen flashing from a 

: distance, especially if the sun's rays are playing round it, is a matchless sight.D Christian Topo- 
graphy, 365 (Hakluyt Soc, edit.). 5q 

8) Our author js, so far as is known, the only Chinese who has used this name to designate 
Adams' Peak. Si-lun-tie, in Cantonese Sai-lun-tip, is the name Serendib, used by the mediaeval 

->Arabs to designate the peak, although originally applied by them to the Island of Ceylon itself. 

I,U JAVA. 75 ' 

Keinaud, Relations, etc. I, 5. Ibn Batuta, Voyages, IV, 179—182 says: «The mountain of 
Serendib is one of the highest in the world; we saw it from the open sea, although we were 
distant from it nine days' journey .... The impress of the noble foot, that of our father Adam, 
is seen on a black and high rock, and in an open space. The foot is embedded in the rock, 
5 the imprint deeply sunk; its length is eleven spans. The people of China came here in past 
times; they cut out of the stone the impress of the big toe and around it, and have placed 
this fragment in a temple of the city of Zeitun (Ts'aan-ch6u-fu) to which they come from the 
most distant provinces)). From this it appears that the Buddhist legend that the impress of 
the foot on Adams' Peak was that of the Buddha, had grown up before the fourteenth century; it 

10 was unknown apparently to early Chinese writers. Fa-hi6n lived in Ceylon for two years, but 
makes no mention of the Peak. In the seventh century Hflan-tsang speaks of the Ling-k'i6-shan 
m^ 1.°^ %^1 "^ U-l)? "^^^ mount of Lanka or Ceylon)) — as the spot where the 
Buddha preached the Lankavatara sUtra, but he makes no mention of the footprint (Be a I, 
Eecords, II, 251), nor did I-tsing writing a little later, though he refers. in several places to the 

15 Buddha's tooth. In the fifteenth century Adams' Peak is called Si-lan-shan (^, ^M \\\) 
in Chinese works. See also Tennent, Ceylon, II, 132 — 141, and E. Dulaurier, Etude sur 
I'ouvrage intitule Kelation des Voyages, 51, 54. 

9) On glass, both opaque and transparent, see infra, Pt. II. Ch. XXXII. It does not appear that 
camphor was ever procured in Ceylon; it was probably imported there from Sumatra. The blue and 

20 red precious stones are sapphires and carbuncles. On the precious stones of Ceylon, see Tennent 
op. cit., I, 32—40, II, 590 — 592. «Mu-lan bark» is evidently the bark of the IcunibuJc of the Singha- 
lese — called maratha-maram by the Tamils; mu-lan transcribing the Tamil word maram. It is 
the Pentaptera tomentosa, Rox., and «is chiefly prized for its bark, which is sold as medicine, 
and, in addition to yielding a black dye, it is so charged with calcareous matter that its ashes, 

25 when burnt, afford a substitute for the lime which the natives chew with their betel». Tennent, 
op. cit. I, 99. 

10) The previous reference to Si-lan as a «dcpendency» (S ^) of San-fo-ts'i, and the 
present one are irreconciliable with the statement made in the beginning of this chapter that 
Si-lan is «under the rule of» (^^ \\\ Nan-p'i, unless we suppose that these statements refer 

30 to two different periods or to different portions of the island. 


Sho-p'o im W- 

The kingdom of Sh6-p'o, which is also called P'u-kia-lung^ (^ ^ f|), 
35, is in a south-easterly direction from Ts'uan-chou, (whence) ships start, as a 
rule, during the winter, for, sailing day and night with the north wind, they 
can arrive (in Sho-p'o) within about _a month. 

(.East (of Sho-p'o) you come to the (Ocean)-Sea and to where the waters 
flow downward; there is the kingdom of women». Still farther east is the 
40 Wei-lU; the end of the habitable world ^ (M ^ ^ ^ ^)- . 

76 JAVA. 1,14 

Sailing the sea half a month (to the west from ShO-p'o?)one comes (Jg) 
to the K'un-lun (^ ^) country. To the south (from the port or chief city 
of Sh6-p'o?) the sea is reached in three days' journey (0 ^). 

Sailing (^ y^) five days (from Sh6-p'o), one comes to a country of the 
Ta-shi (Arabs). "Westward one comes to the sea in forty-five days' journey. 5 
Northward one comes to the sea in four days' journey (from the chief city?). 

Sailing north-west (from Sh8-p'o?), in fifteen days one arrives at the 
country of P'o-ni (y^ "^); furthermore {%) you come in ten days to the 
kingdom of San-fo-ts'i. You arrive in seven days more (^) in the kingdom 
of Ku-lo (-^ ^). Again (^) seven days and one comes to Ch'ai-li-t'ing 10 
(^ M ^) ^^^ reaches (J^) Kiau-chi, (whence) one makes (^) Kuaug- 
chou (Canton) ^. 

There are two kinds of monasteries (^ i. e., religious systems) in the 
kingdom (of Sho-p'o); the one is called that of the «Blessed Buddha» (^ -^), 
the other that of the usho-sMniy * (1^ ^). 15 

There is a hill on which live parrots and it is called «Parrot Hill» 

The king wears his hair in a tuft (or knot), on his head is a golden : 
beU; he wears a silken robe and leather shoes ^. His throne is a square seat, 
and his officers at their daily audience bow three times when withdrawing. 20 
"When he goes forth he rides an elephant, or is carried in a chair* (^ ^), 
followed by a company of from five hundred to seven hundred armed soldiers. ' 

When any one of the people sees the king, he squats down until he has 
passed by. 

Three sons of the king are made Fu-wang (g(| 3E Royal Deputies), 25 

Of officials they have Ssi-ma-Me (and) Lo-U-lien (^) J^ -^ ^ -(§ 
5^), who conjointly manage the affairs of Government as the Tsai-siang (^ 
i^ Ministers of State) do in China ^ They have no monthly salaries, but at 
intervals they are given a liberal supply of native produce. 

Inferior to them are three hundred and more civil officials, who divide 30 
among themselves the government of the cities, the treasury and the govern- 
ment granaries. The commanders of the troops receive an annual salary of 
twenty taels of gold, and the soldiers of the army, 30,000 in number, also 
receive fixed annual pay in gold in various amounts. 

As to the customs of the country, in seeking for a woman in marriage, 35 
they do not employ go-betweens, but make presents of gold to the woman's 
family in order to marry her. 

They do not inflict- corporal punishment and imprisonment on criminals 

1,14 JATA. 77 

(^ Ixf ^j ^ ^11 If ^); they are fined an amount in gold varying 
according to the gravity of their crime. As to robbers or thieves, they are 
put to death. 

In the fifth moon they make pleasure trips in boats; in the tenth moon 
5 they visit the hills, either riding hill ponies ([Ij ,^) or carried in a litter 

Of musical instruments they have the flute, the kettle-drum and the 
Castanet (^); they are, furthermore, skilled in pantomimes (^). 

The hills are full of monkeys. They are not afraid of man, but if one 

ao calls «siau-siau» (^ ^ or if one whistles?) they come out, and if one throws 

fruit before them a big monkey, called «the monkey king» by the natives, 

first comes forward to eat, and the crowd of smaller monkeys eat what is left 

of his meal ^. 

In this country there are bamboo gardens where they have pig-fighting 
15 and cock-fighting. 

The dwellings are of imposing appearance and painted in greenish tints 
(^ ^). Traders (^ \) going there are put up in visitors' lodges, where 
food and drink both plentiful and good (are supplied them). 

The natives dress their hair and wear clothes which are girt around 
20 their chest and reach down to the knees ". 

When they are sick, they take no medicines, but simply pray to their 
local gods (jji^) or to the Buddha. 

The people have personal names but no surnames. They are quick- 
tempered and of a pugnacious disposition, and when they have a feud with 
25 San-fo-ts'i, both parties seek to joiu in battle '". 

In the twelfth year yiian-kia of the Sung dynasty (A. D. 435), this 
country entered into communication with China, but after that intercourse was 
broken off until the third year shun-hua of the present dynasty (992)", when 
it again performed the ceremony of sending tribute to our Court. 
30 It is a broad and level country, well suited to agriculture. It produces 

rice, hemp, millet, beans, but no wheat. Ploughing is done with buffaloes. 
The people pay a tithe-rent. They make salt by boiling sea water. The 
country also abounds in fish, turtles, fowl, ducks, goats, and they kill horses 
and buffaloes for food^^. 
35 The fruits comprise big gourds, cocoanuts, bananas, sugar-cane and taro 

(^). They have also elephants' tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls, camphor, 
(^ Jii)' tortoise-shell, sandal-wood, aniseed, cloves, cardamoms, cubebs 
(M 'M M)' laka-wood, mats, foreign sword blades (^ ^\), pepper, betel- 

78 JAVA. 1)14 

nuts, sulphur, saffron {^ 1^^), sapan-wood and parrots. They also pay 
attention to the raising of silkworms and the weaving of silk; they have 
various coloured brocaded silks (|f ^\ cotton (± ^), and damasked cotton 
gauzes (or damasks and cotton cloth ^ ^). 

No tea is raised in this country. Their wine is derived from the cocoanut 5 
and from the inner part of the Ua-nm-tan (jfeg ^^ fY) tree, which tree has 
not been seen by the Chinese, or else it is made by fermenting (the fruits) of 
the kmng-lang {-if^ ^, sago palm) and of the areca palm; all of these 
(liquors) are clear and well-flavored" (7ff ^ '^ #). 

«As to cane sugar, it is brown and white (or brownish white ?) in colour i6 
and very sweet to the taste. 

«They cast coins in an alloy of copper, silver, white copper {§^), and 
tin; sixty of these coins are equal to one tael of gold; thirty two are equal 
to half a tael of gold» "- 

Foreign merchants use in trading gold and silver of various degrees of is 
fineness (^ H :^ ^), vessels made of gold and silver, silk stuffs, black 
damasks {% ^), (ssi)-ch'mn-kung^^ ( j|| ^), orris-root, cinnabar, copperas, 
alum, borax, arsenic, lacquer-ware, iron tripods and green (or blue ^) and 
white porcelain-ware. > 

There is a vast store of pepper in this foreign country (j{;(j ^) and the 20 
merchant ships, in view of the profit they derive from that trade, are in the 
habit of smuggling (out of China) copper cash for bartering purposes. Our 
Court has repeatedly forbidden all trade (with this country), but the foreign 
tl-aders, for the purpose of deceiving (the government), changed its name and 
referred to it as Su-ki-tan" (^ ^ ^). . 25 


1) Although it is possible that the Chinese may have heard of Java as early a&the middle 
of the third century A. D., under the name of Chu-p'u(^ ^; see Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 
270), it was in the early part of the fifth century that authentic mention was made of it by the 
pilgrim Fa-hien, who gave it its Sanskrit name Ye-p'o-t'i(H|J ^^^ '1^^ i. e., Tavadmpa). In 43S, 30 
and again in 435 Javanese came to the Chinese Court, at which time their country is referred 
to by the Chinese (Sung-shu, 5) as the island of Sho-p'o (BS 1^ fj\\)- From this time 
on relations were maintained between the two countries. In the sixth and seventh centuries, the 
Chinese wrote the name Sh6-p'u (jlj^ wi)' ^^^ *^® ^'^^ character was not infrequently 
erroneously written Tu (>ht)> as in Ma Tuan-lin, 332. In the Mongol period Java was known to 35 
the Chinese by the name of Chau-wa (J(^ |^), sometimes wrongly written Kua-wa (JJ^ ^), 
and this name has continued in use ever since; though in the Ming period it was also known as 
Shun-ta(||^ ^), Hia-kiang ("j^ y^) and Fu-kia-lung. See Tung-si-yang-k'au, 8,1. In the 
fifth century the Chinese are believed to have referred to Java under the names of Ho-lo-tan 
(Bpr ^S iS) and Ho-ling (g^f |®j), the latter being presumably a transcription of the name 40 
Kalinga, from which part of India the Hindu settlers in Java had for the most part come. Gr-oe- 
neveldt, Notes, 15; Gerini, however, thinks that Ho-lo-tan was in Siam and Ho-ling in the 

l,U JATA. 79 

Malay Peninsula. Asiat. Quart., 3*ser.X, 384, and XIII, 137. More recently, Gerini, Researches, 
458 et seq., has arrived at the conclusion that Sho-p'o was a part of the Malay Peninsula, below 
the Krali Isthmus, and that the name is probably the last glimmering of Tuba, Jaba, or Saba, «the 
country of the Java (c|r Jawa) race», i. e., the Malays. He does not think that the name Sho-p'o 
5 can have ever been applied by the Chinese to any part of Sumatra. «It is, he says, a most 
egregious mistake to localize the term Java or Jaba, with its variant Sava or Saba, to the present 
island of Java alone, since it was the common designation for the whole archipelago, or, at any 
rate, for those portions of it that had been settled by the Javana or Yavana race, besides being 
the name of several regions on the Indo-Chinese mainlands (p. 461 — 463). The above conclusion 

10 being accepted, Gerini (541) says Fa-hien's Y6-p'o-t'i «must be identiiied either with the east 
and north coasts of Sumatra, or with a portion of the seabord of the Malay Peninsula on or about 
Malacca Straita. As to Ho-lo-tan, Gerini (542) says it was «possibly Gurot in the Ghirbi 
district, west coast of the Malay Peninsula»; Ho-ling, according to him (544) was probably the 
east coast of the Malay Peninsula at Tanjpng Gelang or Puling, 4° N. lat.; and perhaps the 

15 eastern portion of the country of Ho-ling referred to previously as on the west coast of the Malay 
Peninsula about Gunong Geriang and abreast of the Langkawi islands. 

Headers may judge fot themselves whether all these identifications can fit in with the 
details of our text. Schlegel, T'oung pao, X, 258 et seqq. and 2* ser. IV, was of opinion there 
were two Sho-p'o, one in Sumatra (Java minor), the other in Java (Java major). He looked upon 

20 Chau Ju-kua's account of Sho-p'o, as a jumble, referring here to Sumatra, there to Java and still 
in other places to the Malay Peninsula. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 269 et seqq., has conclusively 
shown, it would seem, that Schle gel's suggestions on this point are quite untenable. 

As to the name P'u-kia-lung, the identification first made by Groeneveldt (Notes, 40) 
with Pekalongan on the N. coast of Java, is generally accepted. This was presumably the chief 

25 center of Chinese and foreign trade in the Sung period. 

The apparent error into which our author has fallen in this paragraph of placing Sh5-p'o 
S. E. of Ts'uan-ch6u maybe through his having used the general indications supplied by Ch6u 
K*u-fei (2,12'') as to the position of this island, while overlooking the fact that Chou gives its 
bearing from Canton. But even from Canton it is rather south or south-west. The more likely 

30 explanation of the position assigned by both writers to Java may be that junks sailing from 
Ts'iian-chou and Canton had to steer S. E. in order to obviate the strong N. E. monsoon pre- 
vailing in the winter. Quite a number of errors in the directions of the compass as placed on 
record in mediaeval Chinese texts can be thus accounted for, as for example, the placing of 
Tsong-po (off the E. coast of Africa) to the south of Guzerat; ships were forced by the winds 

35 prevailing at the season of the year when the voyage from Guzerat to the E. Africa coast was 

made, to steer in a southerly direction to be driven where they would go. See infra, Ch. XXIV. 

The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,ia^, from which our author takes this paragraph, reads as follows: 

oThe kingdom of Sho-p'o, also called P'u-kia-lung, is in the south-east of the sea. Its position 

being downward (i. e., in the S. as compared to the countries of Annam in the N., which are held 

40 to be «upwards», or aabovea) causes it to be called the «Lower Coast». In the eleventh and 
twelfth moons of the year ships can reach there from Kuang-ch'ou with the monsoon and sailing 
day and night in one months. 

2) The phrase in quotation marks is taken from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,9. See also supra, 
p. 26 and infra, Ch. XXXVIH. 4. The Chinese believed that the waters which poured continually into 

45 the great Wor'ld-Ocean-Sea flowed put again through a great hole called the Wei-lu. The surface 
of the Ocean began to incline downwards somewhere E. of Java at the mythical Kingdom of 
Women, so the waters flowed continually eastward into the great gulf, which, however, overflowed 
every few years. Masudi, Prairies d'or, I, 342, says that in the boundless and unknown sea east 
of the Sea of Sanf (i. e., Champa, Annam) are volcanic islands and beyond them is an island on 

50 which the sound of music can be heard. «Sailors, he adds, who have been in those parts pretend 
that it is there that Dedjdjal (the Antichrist) has set his abode». There seems some connexion 
between this Arab story and the Chinese one. 

3) This paragraph and the two preceding ones were reproduced with some change in the 

80 JAVA. Ijl4 

Sung-shi, 489,14—15, the most important one making the time used in sailing from Sho-p'o to 
San-fo-ts'i 15 days instead of 10, as stated in our text. Ma Tuan-Iin, 332 agrees on this point 
■with our text. Groeneteldt, Notes, 15 has translated this passage from the Sung-shi', as has 
also Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 296. The only difficulty in it is the vagueness or rather 
uncertainty of the meaning of the character yu (^J); apparently it has not in each phrase 5 
quite the same meaning. 

K'un-lun as here used may mean either K'un-lun-shan, i. e., Pulo Condore, or the country 
of the K'un-lun or Malays. See supra p. 32 n. It may also be the same as Ku-lun, a piratical 
state referred to in a subsequent passage (infra, p. 84), but this is doubtftil. The Arab settlement 
referred to in the second paragraph may have been in western Java, our author's Sin-t'o. In 10 
another passage (infra, Ch. XXXIX) our author says it was 45 days sailing from Sho-p'o, to P'o-ni, 
i. e., the W. (or S) coast of Borneo; in the present case a straight course is probably meant, 
while in the latter the course taken may have been by way of San-fo-ts'i, the Malay Peninsula, and 
thence eastward. Ku-lo is, it would seem, the Ki-lo Ta-nung. of a subsequent passage (infra, p. 88) 
situated possibly on the Perak coast. As to Ch'ai-li-t'ing, Groeneveldt, Notes, 16, thinks 15 
it may have been an island about the entrance to the Gulf of Siam. Gerini, Kesearches, 
614, suggests, with much more probability, that the Cherating river on the E. coast of the Malay 
Peninsula, 4°10' N. lat., is the locality referred to. On P'o-ni (Borneo) see infra, Ch. XXXIX. 

Schlegel, T'oung pao, 2* ser. IV was of opinion that these three paragraphs in our text 
referred to the Malay Peninsula. He also corrected our text in the last paragraph and would read 20 
asailing north-east (from Sh6-p'o)in fifteen days one arrives in the kingdom of P'o-ni». This correction 
is not needed, it would seem, for the reason given in a previous note on the courses junks have to 
sail with the monsoons. 

4) Sho-shon, «to give up, to renounce the world, to enter the priesthood)). Probably the 
Brahmans, or some kind of Hindu ascetics are meant. Brahmanism, at the time of which our 25 
author writes, was tolerated in Java where Buddhism was, however, the predominant religion. 
Lassen, Indische Alterthumsk. TV, 467. 

5) Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit., has «The king of this country wears his hair in a knot behind 
his head; the common people shave their heads, leaving only a short top-knot. They like to wrap 
round their bodies cotton sarongs with gaudy patterns)). 30 

6) Tau-yu, literally «waist-carriage». It was carried by hand, like the so-called aPalace 
chairs)) or Eienryu ( J^ ^) in use in the Palace of Peking at the present day. 

7) Ma Tuan-lin, op. cit., 332, gives the title of these officials as Lo-ki-lien, as does also the 
Sung-shi, 489,15. Schlegel, T'oung-pao, X, 276 suggested that the last four characters in our 
text (Kie-lo-ki-lien) represent a Malay form kedekaran, «a council of warriorso. Pelliot, B. E. 35 
F. E. 0. IV, 311, says that no such Malay word is known to exist. He suggests that Lo-ki-lien 
inay represent the Malay rakyran or rakarayan, which appears in inscriptions in Java in con- 
junction with the word rmntri, cminister)), which in our text corresponds to the Chinese title 
Tsai-hiang. The Sung-shi, loc. cit., says there were four Lo-ki-lien who jointly managed the 
affairs ofthe kingdom. The T'ang-shu, 222'', says there were in Java thirty-two high Ministers of 40 
State {jjs^ ■^), the highest of whom was the Ta-tso-kan-hiung {-jf^ ^ J^ jt). The 
dependencies of Sho-p'o are enumerated in the chapter on Su-ki-tan, infra, p. 83. 

8) Ibn Batuta, op. cit, IV, 175, says that he was told in Ceylon ofthe monkeys of that 
country having chiefs whom they obeyed as a sovereign. They supplied him with bananas, when 
he, his young, and the four principal monkeys ate them while the others looked on. The 45 
Sung-shi, 489, gives the story as told in the text, on the authority of the Javanese envoy to 
China in 992. 

9) Conf. supra, n. 5. 

10) The Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit., says: «The inhabitants (of ShB-p'o) prize courage and 
are given to quarrelling and fighting. When the prince or some prominent official dies, all his 50 
personal attendants vow to follow him; so when the corpse is burned, they go with dancing intrf 
the flames, and when the bones are thrown into the water, they jump in afterwards without the 
slightest hesitation and drown themselves)). Our author says (supra, p.' 61) that this custom 
prevailed in San-fo-ts'i. 

I>1* JAVA. 81 

11) Our author errs here, as the T'ang-shu, 222'' mentions a number of missions from 
Java to the Court of China from A. D. 627 to 873. The reason for the omission of any mention of 
them was presumably because our author did not know that the Ho-ling of the T'ang period was 
identical with Shb-p"o. The Sung-shi, 489, gives a detailed account of the mission of 992. It 

5 mentions also tribute missions in 1109. In 1292 Java, or a part of it, was invaded and possibly 
conquered by the Chinese. Groeneveldt, Notes, 14—34. 

12) Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. sup. cit., says aThe native products (of Sho-p'o) are pepper, 
sandal-wood, cloves, white cardamoms, nutmegs and the eJion variety of gharu-wood». Eaffles, 
Java, I, 106, refers to the fondness of the Javanese for horse and buffalo meat. 

10 13) The Smig-shi, 489,15 reproduces this paragraph, changing only the last four characters to 

vJ* "& ^* 5^' '^^^^ justifies the translation given above. JSia-nau-tan, lit., «extract of Ma- 
naua; anao is the Malay name of the gomuti palm whose sap supplies the toddy of Java. The liquor 
itself is called in Malay tuwalc. Crawfurd, History, etc., I, 40. Schlegel, T'oimg pao, X, 267 
suggested that Ma-nau-tan was a Malay word fcetfyMfan. Pelliot, op. sup. cit., IV, 310 while 

15 rejecting this identification could suggest nothing better. The Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. sup. cit., has: 
«They make wine from the cocoanut and also from the sap of a trees. 

14) These two paragraphs are quoted from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. sup. cit. Tou is 
certainly in this passage the awhite copper» of the Chinese and Koreans. The fou-sM (^mt yQ) 
mentioned in Chinese historical works as a product of Persia, may represent Uiguric tutsch, Eazanic 

20 tudsch, tuus (Ac), possibly Italian tausin, from which German tauschircn «to damascene)) is derived. 
See T. Watters, Essays on the Chinese Language, 359. Both Ma Tuan-lin(Hervey S* Denis, 
op. cit., II, 496) and the Sung-shi, 489,15, referring to the currency of Sho-p'o say: «They cut up 
leaves of silver to make coins for business purposes; one coin of which is exchanged by govern- 
ment for 1 7m 2 t'ou (approximately 12 bushels) of rice)). Crawfurd, History, etc., I, 281 says: 

25 ((Among the extensive and curious variety of ancient rielics which Java has afforded, and par- 
ticularly when a great variety of brass and tin coins has been found, no gold coin has ever been 

discovered, and silver coins on only one or two occasions The Mahomedans, shortly after 

establishing their religion in the Archipelago, seem to have taught the natives the use of gold as 
a coin. All the coins "vehich we discove,r are stamped with Arabic letters, and bear the names of 

30 the Mahomedan sovereigns by whom they were coined ... A brass coin, impressed with a number 
of fantastic figures and characters, which are at present unintelligible, formed the most ancient 
currency of Java . . . This was the currency of the Buddhist sovereigns, whose empire was at 
Mojopahit. The Mahomedans who succeeded them coined a smaller money of the same metala. 
We gather from what our author says in the text, and particularly from his remarks concerning 

35 the currency of Su-ki-tan (infra, p. 82), that there was a great scarcity of money in Java. See also 
infra, n. 16, and p. 82. 

15) No explanation has been found of the nature of the stuff called tsaii-ling, lit., ((black 
damask». The ssi-ch'uan-Jcung is a species of levisticum, II anbury. Science Papers, 260, Bret- 
schneider. Materia medica, p. 100—102. In the chapter on Sukitan, our author says (infra, p. 83) 

40 that the headaches from which the pepper-gatherers of Java suffered so greatly yielded to doses 
of this medicine; hence presumably its importance as an import from China. 

16) Chinese copper cash appear to have been in great demand in the Archipelago. Among 
the return presents made the San-fo-ts'i mission of 1079 by the Chinese Government were 64,000 
strings of cash (Sung-shi, 489). The same work (180) says that «after the appointment of Inspectors 

45 of Foreign trade (Shi-p'o-shif) in Ch'6-kiang, Fu-kien. and Kuang-tung, the traffic of merchant 
ships between China and foreign countries had the effect of scattering abroad the copper cash 
coined for the use of our country. For this reason the exportation of cash to any place beyond 
the straits near Hang-ch6u was prohibited. In the 9* year shun-M (1182) an Edict was issued 
making the local authorities of Ch'6-kiang responsible for the unlawful exportation of copper cash. 

50 In the 9* year Tiia-ting (1216) the High Commissioners for the inspection of government affairs began 
their Report as follows: aSince the appointment of Inspectors of Foreign trade, the issue of copper 
cash to ships engaged in foreign trade at the open ports has been forbidden. At the end of the 
shan-hing period (about 1163) the Ministers drew attention to the irregularities arising from the 


8;2 CEXTKAL JAVA. 1,14 

Inspectors of Foreign trade at Ts'iian-chdu and Canton, as well as the two Mint Inspectors of 
the south-western Provinces, allowing vessels to clear with return cargoes containing gold and 
copper cash. How could the local authorities be held responsible for such infraction of the law, if 
the four officers referred to were habitual law breakers themselves?!) 

It appears that similar complaints led to the repeated complete prohibition of the : 5 
exportation of cash, although during certain periods it was not strictly enforced. Thus in 1234 an 
Edict was issued prohibiting the exportation of cash oby Ocean going shipss; this seems to involve 
a partial restriction only, since traffic with Sho-p'o (Java) was specifically prohibited, and since 
the restriction could be, easily evaded by clearing ships for another country — as Chau Ju-kua 
tells us traders did. 10 

See also Schlegel, T'oung pao, 2^ ser. IV, 236—238. 


Su-ki-tan {^ ± M 

Su-ki-tan is a branch of the Sho-p'o country. To the west it borders i5 
on Sin-t'o, to the east it adjoins Ta-pan* (fj /^). 

There is a mountain of immense height called Pau-lau-an (^ ^ ^)- 
"When approaching the coast foreign ships iirst sight the five lofty peaks of 
this mountain, always covered with clouds". 

The king of this country wears a turban of cotton cloth of variegated 20 
colours and goes barefooted. When walking about he is shaded by a black or 
white umbrella, and more than five hundred attendants follow him, bearing 
every sort of weapon and wearing hats of various shapes, — some like a 
tiger's head, some like a deer's, others like the head of an ox, of a sheep, a 
fowl, an elephant, a lion or a monkey; and little flags of coloured silk are stuck 25 
in the side (of the hats). 

Among the natives, the men cut their hair, but the women wear a 
coiffure; they all wrap their bodies in cloth, but go barefooted and wear a 

The people use as a medium of trade pieces of alloyed silver cut into bits 30 
like dice and bearing the seal of the Fan-kuan (^ 1^) stamped upon it. Six 
of these counters are worth one tael of «trade golds {"^ ^), and each one may 
be exchanged for from thirty or forty up to a hundred shong (pecks) of rice. 
For all their other trading they use (this money) which is called «Sho-p'o kin» 

1)13 CENTRAL JAVA. 83 

(((Java money))); from which it may be seen that this country is (identical with) 

Dwellings are built in the same fashion as in Sin-t'o. There is much 
rice in this country; very wealthy families keep as much as ten thousand piculs 
5 in their granaries. 

There is a tree called po-lo-mi (y^ ^ ^ the jack-fruit). The fruit 
is like a pumpkin, the skin like that of the chestnut, the pulp like that of 
the mandarin orange. It is extremely sweet and well-flavoured*. There are also 
lichees, bananas and sugar-cane, in all respects the same as those of China, 
10 with this difference, however, that the lichee, when sun-dried, will cure bowel 
complaint; that the bananas grow a foot long, and sugar-cane to the height 
of ten feet. 

The juice of the latter, with the addition of a drug, is brewed into a 
liquor superior to (that derived from) the cocoanut ^ 
15 The products of the soil are, on the whole, not different from those of 

Sho-p'o. There is a great abundance of pepper. At the right season and in 
good years, twenty-five taels of ((trade money» (^ §^) will buy from ten to 
twenty packages (^) of pepper, each package holding fifty pecks (shong). In 
years of dearth, or in times of disturbance, the same sum will buy only half 
20 that amount. 

The pepper-gatherers suffer greatly from the acrid fumes they have to 
inhale, and are commonly afflicted with headaclie (malaria) which yields to 
doses of (ssl)-ch^uan-kung. 

As cinnabar is much used in cosmetics (:J^ ^) by the Barbarian 
23 women and also for dyeing the finger nails and silk clothing of women, 
foreign traders look upon these two articles as staples of trade ®. 

Traders are treated generously; they are not charged expenses for either 
harborage or board. 

This country is adjacent (j^) to the following countries, all of which 
30 are dependencies of Sho-p'o ': 

Pai-hua-yuan ("g" :^ g) Ma-li (ffi ^) 

Ma-tung (0 ^) 10 Niu-lun {^ |^) 

Ta-pan (^ i^) Tan-jung-wu-lo {^ ^ i^ W) 

Hi-ning(fri f ) Ti-wu(lg^) 

35 5 Jung-ya-lu (5^ ^ ^) Ping-ya (2p ^) 

Tung-ki (^ |l^) I-wu {% ^) 

Ta-kang (^ |^) i5 Nu-ku {j^X %) 

Huang-ma-chu (^ ^ |^) 

84 CENTRAL JAVA. 1,15 

The country of Ta-pan connects to the east with Great Sho-p'o, it is 
(also) called, (^) Jung-ya-lu. (Note: Also written Chung-kia-lu (^ ^ )^). 
The houses which the people of this country build are like those of China. 
The country being a level plain, intersected by an anchorage (J^), there is 
trade both by water and by land. 5 

The native products are bay-salt (^ ^), sheep and parrots. 

The foreign head-men^ (^ ^) are brave and fierce; they take wives from 
the pirate states of the eastern borders. The people of the latter, under pretext 
of visiting relatives (married to the Fan-kuan and on board their ships), ships 
were frequently plundered (in this way). Matters went so far that captives 10 
were considered a most valuable commodity, each one being worth two or three 
taels of gold. For this reason trade (with this country) was presently broken off. 

(Note®: By «pirate states», Tan-chung-pu-lo (^ ^ ^ ^), Pa-li 
M\ Sun-t'a (^ ■/{g,) and Ku-lun (^ |^) are to be understood). 

The countries of Ta-kang, Huang-ma-chu, Ma-li, Tan-jung-wu-lo, 15 
Ti-(wu), Ping-ya, I-wu and Nu-ku are situated on islands; each of them has 
its own chief, and they have vessels plying between them. There is but little 
agriculture, but there are many old trees, the inner parts of which produce 
sJia-hi (sago), which looks like wheat flour. The natives by mixing water with 
it, make it into pellets of the size of peas. After being sun-dried it is packed 20 
up and stored like grain. They also mix it with fish or meat and make a 
porridge. They are fond of sugar-cane and bananas. The former is crushed 
and by adding a certain substance (lit., drug) is caused to ferment and is 
made into wine. They have also the wei-pa^° (j^ g,) tree, whose pith 
being taken out and the juice extracted yields wine. 25 

The natives (of these countries) are strong fellows, but savage and of 
a dark bronze colour. They wrap (a cloth round) their limbs and tattoo their 
bodies. They cut their hair and go barefooted. They use no vessels in eating 
or drinking; in their stead they bind leaves together, which are thrown away 
when the meal is finished. • 30 

As a standard of exchange the people use only pecks and pints of sago. 
They do not know either how to write or how to count. 

They erect stages with wooden poles stuck in the ground and reaching 
to a height of twenty feet or more; on the top they build houses with walls 
and roofs of the same type as those made by the Sin-t'o people. 35 

The native products include sandal-wood, cloves, cardamoms, fancy 
mats, foreign cotton cloth (^ ^), iron swords and other weapons. 

Among these islands those of Tan-jung-wu-lo and Ma-li " are rather 

1,15 CESTKAI, JAVA. - 85 

more extensive than the others; they raise large numbers of horses for mili- 
tary service and they have a slight knowledge of writing and counting. The 
native products are laka-wood, yellow wax, fine aromatic substances and tor- 
5 Although Tan-jung-wu-lo has such products, the people instead of 

attending to (legitimate) business, prefer going to sea for piracy, and so 
foreign traders rarely come there ^^. 


1) The name Su-ki-tan does not appear in the Ling-wai-tai-ta or the Sung-shif, nor does 
10 it occur in Crawfurd's list of mediaeval Javanese states. It seems to be of Indian origin, possibly 

fwfca «parrot» and diina «gift». The name Subatana is found as that of a Javanese colony in 
southern Borneo. Lassen, Indische Alterthumsk. IV, 533, and A. Marre, Madjapahit et Tchampa, 
pp. 95—97, in Recueil de Memoires, Centenaire de I'Ecole des Langues Orientales, 1895. Gerini. 
Researches, 451, suggests that Su-ki-tan was Sukadana in S. E. Sumatra. 

15 It seems impossible, with only the references of Chinese authors of the Miiig period to 

guide us, to locate Sukitan more closely than it is in the text, i. e., between the Sundas on the 
W. and Tuban on the E. In the Ming period Sukitan was apparently a much more extensive 
region. The Tung-si-yang-k'au, 4,is says of it: «its chief place is Ki-li-shi (^ ^ ^ i. e., 
Gersik) .... The people of this country go to Yau-tung ('gS *)0 i. e., Yortan, S. of Surabaya 

20 on the Brantas river) to trade with the Chinese The neighbouring countries are Ssi-Iu-wa 

(^B> @ 3£ ^' ^'' Surabaya) and Tu-man (^^^p i- e., Tuban). Groeneveldt, Notes, 54. 
Our author in two passages conveys the impression that he uses'the name Su-ki-tan as being 
identical with Sho-p'o. 

2) The Tung-si-yang-k'au, 4,i3^ quotes the Ming I-tung-chi as follows: «The Pau-lau-an 
25 mountain is in the country of Su-ki-tan. All foreign ships sight this mountain before arriving. The. 

summit has five peaks and there are clouds on it all the year round. (Chinese) sailors call it 
Pa-na ta-shan (g, <^P ;A iU)- The Ki-li-mon shan (± ||_ f^ jjj ) faces the Pau-lau 
shan. Its western side extends into a very broad spit (or «promontory» J^)»- There can 
be no doubt as to the K'i-li-mon shan being Pulo Krimun, consequently Pau-lau-an (lit. «the 
30 mountain (on) the cliffs of Pau-lau» [or Pulo]) must be the Tanjong (Cape) Pautuman of our maps. 

3) Fan Jcuan «Foreign official)), probably the resident head-man of the Foreign settlement. 
The silver «dice» here referred to were probably made by the Arab traders and bore the «chop» 
of their head-men. See also supra, pp. 60 and 69. The text reads ^ '^ ^ .^ ^ ]^ 

m^ B m m ^ '^ M. ii:t m m m m -iL- 

85 4) «0f the Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) two species occur in the Indian islands, the 

common Jack, and the Champadak .... Rumphius suspects that it is not an indigenous product of 
the Indian islands, but that it was brought from the continent of India by stranger merchants)). 
Crawfurd, op. cit., I, 422. See also infra, Pt. II, Ch. XVII. 

5) Crawfurd, op. cit., I, 412 says: «The Indian islands are the countries in which the 
40 banana grows to greatest perfection, and is found in greatest variety. There are at least sixteen 

distinct species or varieties of the cultivated banana, and five species of wild)). In another passage 
(infra, Pt. II. Ch. XXVIII) our author states that cubebs grew in Sukitan. Crawfurd, Hist. Ind. 
Archipel., I, says cubebs only grow in Java; 

The use to which our text says the juice of the sugar-cane was put agrees with what 

45 Crawfurd tells us (I, 476): «The natives of the country, to this day, are unacquainted with the 

art of extracting sugar from the cane, which they rear solely with the view of using it in its 

raw state, as a common esculent vegetable». The «drug» used in brewing arralc, the liquor here 

referred to, is toddy or palm wine which enters into its composition. 

6) On pepper, see infra, Pt. If, Ch. XXVII, and Crawfurd, op. cit., I, 479—486. On the ssi- 

86 CEKTKAL JAVA. 1,13 

cKiian-hung, see supra, p. 81, n. 15, it appears from this passage to have been, as also cinnabar, 
considered as a staple article of Chinese trade. 

7) Crawfurd, op. cit, II, 297 et seqq., says: aThe latter portion of the twelfth century is 
the earliest period of Javanese history to which I can with confidence refer. From this time, down 
to the establishment of Mahomedanism, at the close of the fifteenth century, a number of 5 
considerable, but independent states, existed in Java, and the religion of the people was a 
modified Hinduism .... The following are the chief (states) which existed in the three centuries 
which preceded the conversion to Mahomedanism: Doho, Brambanan, Madang-kamolan, Jangola, 
Singhasari, Pajajaran, and Mojopahit . . . The ruins of Doho are in the fertile district of Kadari, 
about the centre of the island, counting by its length and towards the southern coast ... The 10 
state which existed at Brambanan flourished about 1266 and 1296 of Christ .... Tradition hands 
down to us the name of Madang-kamolan, and, in the district of Wirosobo, the ruins of a palace 
are still discernible .... Janggolo and Singhasari, the first in the destrict of Surabaya, and the 
last in that of Malang, both towards the eastern part of Java, are said to have flourished at the 
same time .... Pajajaran about forty miles from the modern city of Batavia, is pointed out by 15 
tradition as the only ancient state of considerable extent, which ever flourished in the country of 
the Sundas .... The probability is,- that it flourished during the end of the thirteenth, and the 
beginning of the fourteenth centuries of the Christian era. The origin of.,.. Mojopahit remains 

as undetermined as that of Pajajaran All accounts agree that Mojopahit was destroyed in 

the year 1478 of Christ, and, from presumptive evidence, it is inferred that it may have been 20 

founded about a century and a half before .... The ruins of the city of Mojopahit are still visible 
in the district of Wirosobo». 

Chau Ju-kua places the following states on or near the island of Java: (1) Pai-hua-yflan, 
(2) Ma-tung, (3) Hi-ning, (4) Jung-ya-lu also called Chung-kia-lu or Ta-pan, (5) Niu-lun, 
(G) Tung-ki, (7) Sin-t'o or Sun-t'a. 25 

Pai-hua-yttan is probably Pcjajaran of Crawfurd's list, Ma-tung is his Medang-kamolan, 
Hi-ning possibly his Singhasari, Jung-ya-lu is his Janggolo (see supra, p. 66, n. 16(i9), aud Sin-t'o the 
Sundas (see supra, p. 66, n. 16(i2) and pp. 70—71). Niu-lun and Tung-ki are unidentified. The latter 
may be a Chinese name, it meansaEastern Capes. Schlegel, T'oung pao, 2* ser. IV, 238 thinks Ma- 
tung is Batang in E. Java, and Hi-ning probably Giling Trawangan near Bali, but he only bases 30 
these identifications on the fact of the names of these localities resembliug phonetically the Chinese. 

Chau Ju-kua places the following localities of his list on islands not close to Java: 
(7) Ta-kang, (8) Huang-ma-chu, (9) Ma-li, (10) Niu-lun, (11) Tari-jung wu-lo, (12) Ti-wu, 
(13) Ping-ya, (14) I-wu, (15) Nu-ku. Nos 7 and 8 remain unidentified. Schlegel, loc. sup. cit., 
suggests that Takang is possibly the old name of Sumarang. Infra, Pt. II. Ch. XII we are told 35 
that Ta-kang supplied sandalwood. Ma-li (or Pa-li) is the island of Bali. Niu-lun is unidentified; 
Schlegel, loc. sup. cit., thinks it the same as the Ku-lun pirate state mentioned in another 
passage of this chapter; he would place it in E. Java. Tan-jung wu-lo suggests Malay Tanjong 
Pulo or an Indian form Tanjong pura, and it appears that in the fifteenth century this name 
was applied by the Javanese to Borneo. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 224. Schlegel, loc. sup. 40 
cit., says Tan-jung wu-lo must have been on the E. coast of Java. Ti-wu, in Cantonese dialect 
Ti-mat, is the island of Timor. In another passage (infra, Ch. XXXIX) the name is written Ti-mon, 
and this is the usual transcription. Ping-ya, in Cantonese dialect Pang-ga suggests Banca. 
Schlegel, loc. sup. cit., divides the last six characters in the list into two names only, Ping-ya-i 
and Wu-nu-ku, but this does not enable Mm to identify them. In Pt. II, Ch. XIV we are told that 45 
Huang-ma-chu and Niu-lun produced nutmegs, we may therefore presume that these islands were 
near Ceram, Gilolo, Ternate or Amboyna. See Crawfurd, History etc. I, 505. I-wu and Nu-ku, 
supposing the names are to be read in this way, suggest nothing. 

8) Probably here as in other passages meaning the head-men of the Arabs and other foreign 
traders settled in the various localities on the islands. 50 

9) This note, like the others, may be by the Ming editor of the Chu-fan chi, as the name of 
the places mentioned are written, not as Chau does in the text, but as they were written at a 
later period. Pa-li is Bali, and Ku-lun may be Gurong off W. coast of Borneo. 

-I>15 MALABAR. '87 

10) Wei-pa, in Cantonese dialect mi-pa, tlie nipa palm. It is cultivated in some of the 
islands of the Archipelago solely for the liquor it yields, thoHgh its leaf, or atap, is the usual thatch 
of the Malays. See also infra, Ch. XXXIX. 

11) The text reads Tan-jung ma-li wu-lo, but there can be no doubt that this is an error 
5 of a copyist. 

12) Schlegel, T'owig-pao, 2^ ser. IV, 240 says that this paragraph shows that Chau 
Ju-kua ahas confounded Java with Djava on the Malay Peninsula, at all times the favourite 
haunt of the Malay piratesa. 


Nan-pi (^ 

The Nan-p'i country is in the extreme south-west \ From San-fo-ts'i 
one may reach it with the monsoon (^ |^) in a little more than a month. 
The capital of the kingdom is styled (^) Mie-a-mo (^ ^ ;^), which 
15 has the same meaning as the Chinese expression li-ssV (j^ ^). 

The ruler of the country has his body draped, but goes barefooted. He 

wears a turban and a loin-cloth, both of white cotton cloth. Sometimes he 

wears a white cotton shirt with narrow sleev^es. When going out he rides an 

elephant, and wears a golden hat ornamented with pearls and gems. On his 

20 arm is fastened a band of gold, and around his leg is a golden chain. 

Among his regalia is a standard of peacock feathers on a staff of ver- 
milion colour; over twenty men guard it round. He is attended by a guard of 
some five hundred picked foreign women (^ j^), chosen for their fine phy- 
sique.- Those in front lead the way with dancing, their bodies draped, bare- 
25 footed and with a cotton loin-cloth. Those behind ride horses bareback; they 
have a loin-cloth, their hair is done up and they wear necklaces of pearls 
and anklets of gold, their bodies are perfumed with camphor and musk and 
other drugs, and umbrellas of peacock feathers shield them from the sun ^ 
In front of the dancing- women are carried the officers of the king's 
so train, seated in litters (^ bag) of white foreign cotton, and which are 
called pu-tai-kiau (=jfj ^ ^), and are borne on poles plated with gold and 
silver *. 

In this kingdom there is much sandy soil, so, when the king goes forth, 
they first send an officer with an hundred soldiers and more to sprinkle the 
35 ground so that the gusts of wind may not whirl up the dust. 

88 MALABAR. ' 1,16 

The people are very dainty in their diet; they have a hundred ways of 
cooking their food, vfhich varies every day. 

There is an officer called Han-lin (^ J^) who lays the viands and 
drinks before the king, and sees how much food he eats, regulating his diet 
so that he may not exceed the proper measure. Should the king fall sick 5 
through excess of eating, then (this officer) must taste his faeces and treat 
him according as he finds them sweet or bitter. 

The people of this country are of a dark brown complexion, the lobes 
of their ears reach down to their shoulders. They are skilled in archery and 
dextrous with the sword and lance. They love fighting and ride elephants in lo 
battle, when they also wear turbans of coloured silks. 

They are extremely devout Buddhists^. 

The climate is warm; there is no cold season. Rice, hemp, beans, wheat, 
millet, tubers and green vegetables supply their food; they are abundant and cheap. 

They cut an alloyed silver into coins; on these they stamp an official 15 
seal. The people use these in trading. 

, The native products include pearls, foreign cotton stuff of all colours 
(i. e., coloured chintzes) and tou-lo mien (cotton cloth)*. 

There is in this country (a. river called the) Tan-shui kiang Q^ jjf. ;^x) 
which, at a certain point where its different channels meet, becomes very 20 
broad. At this point its banks are bold cliffs in the face of which sparks (lit., 
stars) can constantly be seen, and these by their vital powers fructify and 
produce small stones (^ Wij ^^ ^ ^ A^ ■^\) ^^^^ cat's-eyes, clear 
and translucid. They lie buried in holes in (these) hills until some day they 
are washed out by the rush of a flood, when the officials send men in little 25 
boats to pick them up. They are prized by the natives''. 

The following states are dependencies of this country (of Nan-p'i)^: 

Ku-lin (^ gg) Fong-ya-lo OM 3f W 

Hu-ch'a-la {^^ ^ ^) Ma-li-mo (jg {!i #) 

Kan-pa-i (-^ g ^) Tu-nu-ho (|5 ^ ^) 30 

Pi-li-sha (5B5 m '&) A-li-jo (1^ Pi p^) 

5 Ma-lo-hua (^ % ^) 10 Au-lo-lo-li (Pf || ^ {3f ) 

This country (of Nan-p'i ?) is very far away and foreign vessels rarely . 
visit it. Shi-lo-pa-chi-li-kan, father and son, belong to this race of people; 
they are now living in the southern suburb of the city of Ts'uan-(ch6u-fu)^ 35 

Its products are taken thence to Ki-lo Ta-nupg " (^ ^ ^ ^) and 
San-fo-ts'i, and the following goods are exchanged in bartering for them: 
Ho-ch'i silks, porcelain-ware, camphor (chang-nau), rhubarb", huang-lien 



(^ W: cloves, lump-camphor (nau-izi), sandal-wood, cardamoms and 
gham-wood '^. 

Ku-lin may le reached in five days with the monsoon from Nan-p'i. 
«It takes a Ts'uan-chou ship over forty days to reach Lan-li (^ ||_ i. e., 
5 Lan-wu-li); there the winter is spent, and, the following ye^ a further 
voyage of a month will take it to this country» ^l 

The customs of the people are, on the whole, not different from those 
of the Nan-p'i people. The native products comprise cocoanuts and sapan- 
wood; for wine they use a mixture of honey (^ ||) with -cocoanuts and the 
10 juice of a flower, which they let ferment". 

«They are fond of archery; in battle they wrap their hair in silken 
turbanss ^^. 

For the purpose of trade they use coins of gold and silver; twelve silver 
coins are worth one gold one. The country is warm and has no cold season. 
15 Every year ships come to this country from San-fo-ts'i, Kien-pi and 

Ki-t'o^" (± jjjg)^ and the articles they trade with are the same as in Nan-p'i. 
«Great numbers of Ta-shi live in this country. Whenever they (i. e., 
the inhabitants) have taken a bath, they anoint their bodies with yu-hin 
(^ :^); as they like to have their bodies gilt like that of a Buddha» ". 

20 Notes. 

1) Or more correctly «tlie country of the ]Sfan-p'i», or Nairs of Malabar. Tlie name Nan-p'i 
does not occur, it is believed, prior to Cbau Ju-kua. In the light of the list of dependencies of 
Nan-p'i given by our author in a subsequent passage of this chapter, the supremacy of the Malabars 
extended from Xellore to Cambay, and, as we have learned from a previous passage (supra, p. 72), 

25 comprised also the island of Ceylon. 

The Si-yang chau-kung tien-lu, 3,3, which is a record of the famous expedition of the 
eunuch Ch'6ng-Ho, about A. D. 1430, speaking of the inhabitants of Calicut, says that there were 
five castes, the Nan-p'i, the Hui-hui or Moslims, the Chi-t'i {^)t JHi) or Chittis, the Ko-ling 
("hb -^) or Klings, and the Mu-kua {"^^ ;QX) "i' Mukuva, a name applied to the fishermen 

30 of the western coast of the Peninsula near Cape Comorin. Phillips, J. K. A. S. 1896, 342, gives 
the first name as Nan-k'un (^a .^)' ^^^ *^ °^ opinion that it also transcribes the name Nair. 
The characters Tcun and pi differ so slightly that a copyist may have easily confounded th^m. 

The time here stated as necessary to make the voyage from San-fo-ts'i to the Nan-p'i 
country is the same as that usually given to make the voyage from the former port to Quilon. In 

35 a silbsequent passage (infra, p. 89) our author says it takes a ship sailing with the monsoon five days 
to reach Quilon from Nan-p'i; it would appear therefore that Nan-p'i, or the principal port of the 
Nan-p'i, was really, as our author says, «in the extreme south-westa of the Peninsula. 

2) Mie-a-mo, in Cantonese dialect Mit-a-maf, may be the same as the Ma (or Mo)-Ii-mo 
of Chan's list of dependencies of Nan-p'i, and both may transcribe the name Malabar, which 

40 country in another passage (Pt. II, Ch. XXVII) he calls Wu-li-pa (in Cantonese Ma-li-pat). 
Li-ssi means ((controller of sacrifices, priestn. No explanation suggests itself. 

3) Edrisi (I, 177 Jaubert's transl.) speaking of the Raja of Malwa — the Balhara, says: 

((He has troops and elephants He wears on his head a golden crown .... He rides much on 

horseback, particularly once a week accompanied solely by women, numbering a hundred; they 

iQO MALiBAK. Ijl6 

are rioUy attired, wear on their feet aud wrists rings of gold and silver, their hair is done in 
tresses. They play at games and at sham fights while the king precedes them .... He owns many 
elephants and in this consists the principal force of his army». 

4) Pu-tai Mm, lit. « Cotton-cloth-bag sedan-chair». On the S. W. coast of India this form 

of palanquin is called manjil; it is a hammock-litter. Yule & Burnell, Glossary, 456, sub voce 5 
Muncheel. Ralph Fitch when in Pegu (1583—1591) travelled in Delingeges « which are a kind of 
coches made of cords and cloth quilted, & caried upon a stang betweene 3 or 4men». Hakluyt, 
Princ. Navigations, V, 486 (Mac Lehose's edit), see also supra, p. 47. 

5) Here, as in speaking of Hu-ch'a-la (Guzerat) and various other countries of India, Chau 
uses the word Fo (Buddha) in the sense of can image of a god», not in its literal sense. In 10 
speaking of Ta-ts'in (Baghdad) he says the sovereign aworships Buddha, does reverence to 
Buddha». In another passage he calls Mohammed a Buddha, and in another Brahma Fo. In 
Chapter XL on Ma-i (the Philippines) he calls the stone images of gods «Buddhas». There is 
some excuse for his confounding Hindu with Buddhist worship, as he does several times. Ma 
Huan in the 15ti> century makes the same blunder, he says the king of Cochin was a devout 15 
Buddhist. J. R. A. S. 1896, 342. 

6) This cotton-cloth is probably «the buckram which looks like tissue of spider's web» of 
which Polo speaks, and which Yule says was the famous muslin ofMasulipatam. Yule, Marco 
Polo, II, 348. Conf. infi-a, Pt. II, Ch. XXIII. 

7) It may be more correct to translate the first line of this paragraph: «There is in this 20 
country a river of brackish waters or what is called a tidal-river. Cat's-eyes were procured in 
Ceylon (supra, p. 73. Cf. infra, Pt. II. Ch. XXXII). It may be that the river referred to was in 
Ceylon — a dependency of Nan-p'i. Conf Reinaud, Relation, I, 127. 

The P'ing-ch6u-k'o-t'an, 2,4, speaking of the customs of the foreigners who frequented 
Canton says: «The men wear on a finger of the hand precious stones «set in gold or tin, according 25 
as the wearer is rich or poor. These they call «flnger-rings» (:^ ^g "j )• '^^^ people of 
Kiau-chi place particular value on this habit, one ring being worth as much as a hundred pieces of 
gold. The finest (precious stone) is called «cat's-eye», and it is a jade stone (or «of jade colour»? 
yh ^^ ^^ "Wi)- ^^ ^^ ^° brilliant and flashing that it seems alive, and (close) examination 
does not disclose the reason of this. There is also the mo-so stone (^S ^K ^ bezoar stone) 30 
which is an antidote for the poison of reptiles. Worn in a finger-ring, if one is poisoned and licks 
it, one is at once cured; so it may well be considered a life preserver)! ('^^ A^ ). 

8) Ku-lin, in Cantonese Ko-lam is Quilon, see supra, p. 12 and infra, p. 91. n. 17. Hu-ch'a-la, 
in Cantonese Hu-ch'a-lat is Guzerat, see infra p. 92. Kan-pa-i, in Cantonese Kom-p'a-yat is the city 

of Cambay, the Kambayat of the Arabs. Pa-li-sha is probably Bharoch. Edrisi (I, 175. Jaubert's 35 
transl.) says that Bharoch (Baruh i. e. ^^yf) was a station for ships coming from China. Ma-lo-hua 
in Cantonese Ma-lo-wa is Malwa. Fong-ya-lo, in Amoy dialect Bang-ga-lo is probably Mangalore. Ma- 
li-mo, in Amoy dialect Ma-li-bwat is probably Malabar. See supra, p. 89, n. 2. Tu-no-ho may be the 
Tana or Tannah of Arab geographers and of Marco Polo, on the islandofSalsette near Bombay. 
A-li-jo may be theRasHailiof Abulfeda, the country of Hili of Rashideddin and Ibn Batuta 40 
between Mangalore and Fandarsina (i. e., Pandarani, 10 miles N. of Calicut), the kingdom of Eli 
of Polo. Ao (or !N'gao)-lo-lo-ni may be Cannanore or Nellore — the Nilawar of Was saf which 
divided Malabar from MAbar, and whichMaHuan in the 15ti» century calls Hon-nn-ir (^S "^7 
^). Phillips, J. R. A. S. 1896, 345. See also Yule, Marco Polo, II, 315, 374—376. 

9) Two paragraphs farther on he tells us that Nan-p'i is five days sailing nearer the 45 
N. W. coast of Sumatra (Lan-wu-li) than Quilon. It may well be that it was not frequently visited 
by ships engaged in the China trade, for their principal port of call was Quilon. The name of the 
two Nairs living in Ts'flan-ch6u in Chau's time may have been Shi-lo-pa and Chi-li-kan, there is 1 
nothing in the text to indicate how these six characters should be read. Ma Tuan-lin, op. sup.^ 
eit., II, 587, after quoting this paragraph adds: «sincB then (the arrival of these two Malabars in 50 
China) inany ships (of China?) have visited that country)). On the Malabar coast and its trade in 
the middle ages, see Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 146—149. 

1,1 Q 


10) Identified by Gerini, Kesearches, 629, with Kwala Terong, or Trong, probably on tbe 
Perak coast. 

11) The mention of a sea-trade in rhubarb at this period is very interesting. Heyd, Hist, 
du Commerce, II, 667 had suspected its existence. Hirth, J. N. C. B. R. A. S. XXII, 108. 

5 12) Huang-lien is the rhizoma of the Coptis teeta, Wall. Bretschneider, Materia medica, 

68, 70. Pepper is not mentioned in this chapter as a product of Malabar, but in a note in a 
subsequent chapter (Pt. II, Ch. XXVII) this omission is repaired, not by the author, I think, but 
by the first editor. 

13) The phrase in quotation marks is taken from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,18 with the change 
10 of «Kuang(-ch6u) ships, to «Ts'uan(-ch6u) shipx. Considering the great importance of the port 

of Quilon in the sea- trade between China and the West, it is surprising that both Ch6u K'a-fei 
and Chau Ju-kua have so very little to say concerning it. On Quilon, see Yule, Marco Polo, 
II, 363—365. Cordier, Voyage d'Odoric, 106 et seqq. 

14) Polo (II, 364) mentions the wine of Ku-lin (Coilum) which he says was made from 
15 (palm) sugar, and acapital drink it is, and very speedily it makes a man drunk». The Kambojians 

had a drink which the Chinese called mi-t'ang tsiu (^ ^ yg), to prepare which they used 
, half honey and half water, adding a ferment. See Chon-la-fong-tu-ki as quoted by Pel Hot, 
B. E. F. E. 0. II, 170, and infra, Pt. II. Ch. XXIII. 

15) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,is. In another passage of the same work (see supra, 
20 p. 63, n. 1) the courage and impetuosity of the Ku-lin people is referred to as second only to those 

of the San-fo-ts'i men. 

16) On Kien-pi, see supra, pp. 71—72. Ki-t'o may transcribe an original Karta. From its 
association in this passage with Palembang and Kampar, it may be looked for in Sumatra. Gerini, 
Kesearches, 628 says Ki-t'o «is Kat-to = Telok Kruit, West Suiliatra?» The name does not 

25 occur elsewhere, neither does that of Ki-Io. Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0. IV, 852, n. 5 suggested 
for Ki-t"o Kedah on the Malay Peninsula, but Gerini, J. K. A. S. 1905, 495—496 says there 
is not a vestige of evidence to show that the name of Kedah existed before the end of the 
15'ii century. The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,i3 says: wEvery year Kien-pi takes elephants and cattle, 
and the Arabs (Ta-shi) take horses to trade in this country (of Ku-lin)»; This passage appears 

30 to be the basis for Chau Ju-kua's remarks, he has only added the names of San-fo-ts'i and 
Ea-t'o, presumably because they were adjacent to Kien-pi and in Sumatra. It seems just possible 
that Ki-t'o may be the same as the pilgrim I-tsing's Kie-ch'a {^^ ^), which was on the 
extreme N. E. coast of Sumatra, and the last port-of-call (at least in the seventh century, but 
very probably also in later days) for ships going from San-fo-ts'i to India. Chavannes, Relig. 

35 6minents, 105. 

17) Quotation from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,i3, which adds: «The king of the country 
worships Heaven. He who kills an ox forfeits his life. Chinese traders with big ships who wish to 
go to the country of the Arabs, must tranship at Ku-lin to smaller boats before proceeding 
farther. Although they may get (to their destination) in one month with a southerly wind, it may 

40 be two years before they can get back (to China)». The text goes on to state that «the people of 
Ku-lin are black, they wrap their bodies in white cotton cloth, wear their beards and all their 
hair loose and uncovered. They wear red leather shoes, so they look when walking as if they had 

the painted feet of a lo-han The king wraps his body in cotton-cloth, when he goes out he is 

carried in a litter (juan-tou) of cotton cloth, or else he rides on an elephant. The inhabitants are 

45 devout Buddhista. On this last remark, see supra, p. 90, n. 5. The remark about the people smearing 
their bodies with turmeric occurs twice in the Ling-wai-tai-ta, first in connection with Ku-lin, and 
secondly as a custom of NS,n-ni-hua-lo. 

W-Jcin is produced by a plant which remains indetermined; it is a native of the south of 
China, and,is most probably a species of Curcuma. Hanbury, Science Papers, 254. This seems 

50 to be borne out by the probable etymology of the word, which is pronounced wat-lcam in Can- 
tonese (old sound described by K'ang-hi's authorities as ^ Ml ^ = Jiat and Mm, gold), and 

may thus represent Persian »y harham and Hebrew Dsns TcarMm, Arabic ^^Jcurlcnm, 

92 OUZERAT. I>16 

from -which the hotanical name Curcuma is derived. Hirth, J. C. B. E. A. S. XXI, 221. This 
need not necessarily involve that Curcuma is here covered by the word, though it would appear 
that India furnished the root in ancient and mediaeval times. Fluckiger, Pharmakognosie des 
Pflanzenreiches, 368 (3'^ edit.). The Liang-shu, 54,17, says that yii-kin was procured solely 
from Ki-pin (Kapisha, or rather Kashmir). 


Hii-ch'a-la {-^ ^ ^). 

The kingdom of Hu-ch'a-la^ rules over a hundred cities i^\\) and 
more; its (principal) city has a four-fold wall. lo 

The inhabitants of this country are white and clean looking; both men 
and women wear double rings hanging down from holes in their ears; they 
wear close fitting clothes with a cotton sarong wrapped around them. On 
their heads they wear white hoods (Q >j^), and on their feet shoes of red 
leather. They are forbidden to eat flesh. i5 

There are four thousand Buddhist temple buildings, in which live over 
twenty thousand dancing-girls (]^) who sing twice daily while offering food 
to the Buddha (i. e., the idols) and while offering flowers. When offering 
flowers they tie them in bunches with cotton thread, of which they use three 
hundred catties every day ^. 20 

There are over four hundred war-elephants and about one hundred 
thousand cavalry horses. When the king goes about he rides au elephant; 
on his head he wears a cap. His followers ride horseback and carry swords. 

The native products comprise great quantities of indigo, red kino, 
myrobolans and foreign cotton stuffs of every colour. Every year these goods 25 
are transported to the Ta-shi countries for sale*. 


1) This is the earliest mention in Chinese works of the name Guzerat. In the preceding 
chapter our author states that it was a dependency of the Malabars; I cannot verify this statement. 

2) Guzerat was famous for its many temples, Hindu not Buddhist, most of which were 30 
situated on the south-western coast, in the territory of Okamandala. Lassen, Indische Alterthumsk. 

I, 134. Polo (II, 350) goes so far as to say that all the Abraiaman (Brahmans) in the world come 
from that province (of Lar — possibly roughly the same region to which Chau refers). The word 
«Buddhist» and «Buddha» are here used for «idolB. See supra, p. 90, n. 5. On the dancing-girls, 
conf. supra, p. 55 n. 7. and infra, p. 95. 35 

3) Polo (II, 383) says: «In this province of Gozurat there grows much pepper, and ginger, 
and indigo. They have also a great deal of cotton. Their cotton trees are of very great size, growing 
full six paces high, and attaining to an age of 20 years». He also refers (II, 363) to the fine 

1,17-19 MALWA. — CHOLA DOMINION. 93 

iudigo of Coilum (Quilon) and describes its , preparation, and he mentions the indigo of Cambaet 
as very abundant (If, 388). The «foreign cotton stuffs of every colour» of our author were probably 
chintzes. Polo refers repeatedly (II, 879, 385, 388) to the adelicate and beautiful buckrams», nthe 
export of good buckram and cotton)), etc., from places in Chau's Hu-ch'a-la. The omission of any 
5 mention of pepper among the products of Guzerat by bothCh6uK'ii-fei and Chau Ju-kua has 
been remarked on previously, supra, p. 91, n. 12. All mediaeval writers. Eastern and Western, 
remark on the great number of horses brought by the Arabs to the Malabar coast. Chou 
K'fl-fei refers to it; supra, p. 91, n. 16. 

10 ' lAAlSSSTK, 

Ma-lo-hua {%% ^ ^.). 

The kingdom of Ma-lo-hua borders on that of Hu-ch'a-la ^ This coun- 
try rules over sixty odd cities, and it has land routes ^ 

The manner of dressing and the local customs are the same as those of 
15 Hu-ch'a-la. 

Of products white cotton cloth is very common. Every year two thou- 
sand oxen, or more, laden with cotton stuffs are sent over the roads to other 
countries to barter. 


20 1) No other reference to Malwa has been found in any other Chinese author of the period. 

Ch6u K'ii-fel does not mention it, nor does Ma Tuan-lin, the Sung shi, or any subsequent writers. 

2) Ibn Batuta, Voyage's, III, 182 says its sovereign was the most powerful of the infidel 

rulers of India. He also (IV, 28) speaks of the beauty of the people of this country, especially the 

women. By «it has land routesn (^ [J^ ^) must be meant that it had only land routes and 

25 no sea-coast, and this is quite true of Malwa. 



(Coromandel Coast). 


Chu-lien (i^^ %). 

«The Idngdom of Chu-li6n is the Southern Yin-tu (ffj ^) of the west»i. 

To the east (its capital) is five li distant from the sea; to the west one 

comes to Western India (® ^ ^) (after) 1500 li; to the south one 

94 CHOtiA DOMINION. " 1,19 

comes to Lo-lan {^ ||) (after) 2500 U; to the north one comes to Tun-t'ien 
iM ffl) (after) 3000 U\ 

This country had not from olden times carried on trade (with China). 
By water one comes to Ts'iian-ch6u after some 411,400 IP. 

"If you wish to go to this kingdom, then you must change ships at 5 
Ku-hn to go there. Some say that one can go there by way of the kingdom 
of P'u-kan» *. 

In this kingdom there is a city with a seven-fold wall, seven feet high, 
and extending twelve li from north to south and seven U from east to west. 
The different walls are one hundred paces distant from each other. Four" of lo 
thiese walls are of brick, two of mud, and the one in the centre of wood. 
There are flowers, fruit trees, and other trees planted (on them?). 

The first and second walls enclose the dwellings of the people, — they 
are surrounded by small ditches; the third and fourth walls (surround) the 
dwellings of the court officers; within the fifth dwell the king's four sons; 13 
within the sixth are the Buddhist (i. e., idol) monasteries ('^ ^) where the 
priests dwell; the seventh wall encloses over four hundred buildings form- 
ing the royal palace. 

There are thirty-one (sic) pu-lo {^ ^); of these twelve are in the 
west, namely: 20 

Chi-tu-ni (K is JS) 

Shi-ya-lu-ni (^ 55 jt ^) 

Lo-pa-li-pi-pa-i {^ ® ^j| 11 § #) 

Pu-lin-pa-pu-ni (% # ^ ^ Jg) 
5 Ku-tan-pu-lin-p'u-t6Dg ("^ ^M ^ # ^M ^) 25 

Ku-li (^ M) 

Po-lun-ts'6n (^ |^ J^) 

Pon-t'i-kie-ti {:^^mi^) 

Yen-li-ch'i-li {f^ ^ f^ ^) 
10 Na-pu-ni {M oP j/S) 30 

Cho-ku-lin (jg -^ ^) 

Ya-li-cho-lin (Eg S. i #) 
Eight are in the south, namely: 

Wu-ya-kia-li-ma-Ian (M ^% j^ ^ J^^^ ^) 

Mei-ku-li-k'u-ti {M-^W^ %) 35 

15 Sho-li-ni (^ ^ jg) 

Mi-to-ld-mo (^ ^ MM) 

K'ie-lan-p'u-tong {j^ M '/i :^) 

I>i9 cnoLA DOMixiox. gt5 

Mong-k'i6-lin-kia-lan (^ # |jc Jf|p ^) 
Pa-li-pa-li-yu {^ M, W k M) 
^ 20 Ya-lin-ch'i-m6iig-k'i6-laii (Sg # ^/fe, ^ # ^) 
and twelve are in the north, namely: 
5 Fa-lo-y6 (^ p ^) 

Wu-mo-li-kiang (^ |^ ^ J^[2) 
Chu-lin(^i #) "^ 

Kia-li-ra6ng-k'i6-lan (j^ M ^ # M) 
25 Ts'i-kie-ma-lan (0 |J ^) 
10 "Wu-cho-mong-k'ie-lan (:^ ^ ^ ij$ ^) 

P'i-lin-k'ie-lan (^ # # ^) 
P'u-l6ng-ho-lan (^ ft ^ ^) 
Pau-pa-lai (;^ g ^) 
30 Tien-chu-Ii (gg '^ ^) 
15 Lii-so-lo (Jg ^ PP) 

Mi-mong-k'i§-lan^\^ ^ >f^ ^) 

When any one among the people is guilty of an offense, one of the 

Court Ministers (-f^ gfj) punishes him; if the offense is light, the culprit is 

tied to a wooden frame and given fifty, seventy, or up to an hundred blows 

20 with a stick. Heinous crimes are punished with decapitation or by being 

trampled to death by an elephant. 

At state banquets both the Prince and the four Court Ministers (f^ ^P) 
salaam (^ ^) at the foot of the throne (ji^), then the whole, (company 
present) break into music, song and dancing. He (the Prince) does not drink 
25 wine, but he eats meat, and, as is the native custom, dresses in cotton cloth- 
ing and eats flour-cakes. For his table and escort he employs «fully a myriad 
dancing-girls (^), three thousand of whom are in attendance daily in rotations". 
When contracting marriage, they send, in the first place, a female go- 
between with a gold (or) silver finger-ring to the girl's home. Three days 
30 afterwards there is a meeting of the man's family to decide upon the amount 
of land, cotton, betel nuts, wine and the like to be given as marriage por- 
tion. The girl's family sends in return (a ?) gold or silver finger-ring, piie-no 
cloth' (^ ^ ^) and brocaded clothing to be worn by the bride to the 
(intended) son-in-law. Should the man wish to withdraw from the engage- 
35 ment, he would not dare reclaim the marriage gifts; if the girl should wish 
to reject the man she must pay back double. 

As the taxes and imposts of the kingdom are numerous and heavy, 
traders rarely go there. 

96 cnoLA Dommox. I,i9 

«This country is at war with the kingdoms of the west (of India?). The 
government owns sixty thousand war-elephants, every one seven or eight 
feet high. When fighting these elephants carry on their backs houses, and 
these houses are full of soldiers who shoot arrows at long range, and fight 
with spears at close quarters. When victorious, the elephants are granted 5 
honorary names to signahze their merits. 

«The inhabitants are hot-tempered and reckless of life; nay, in the 
presence of the king they will fight man to man with swords and die without 

((Father and son, elder and younger brother, have their meals cooked 10 
in separate kettles and served in separate dishes; yet they are deeply alive 
to family duties»*. 

The native products comprise pearls, elephants' tusks, coral, transparent 
glass, betel nuts, cardamoms, opaque glass, cotton stuffs with coloured silk 
threads (-^ ^ ^), and cotton stuffs. 15 

Of quadrupeds they have goats and domestic cattle; of birds, pheasants 
and parrots; of fruits, the yu-han (^ -y*) the fong-lo (|^ ^), Persian 
dates {=f- ^ ^), cocoanuts, the Jcan-lo {-j^ ^), the ¥wn-lun plum (^ 
^ ;j<^), and the ^o-Zo-mJ (jack-fruit)®. 

Of flowers, they have the white jasmine (Q ^ t^iJ), the san-ssi {^ 20 
^), the sho-tsH-sang ($|^ ^ ^), the li-isHu (j|| ^), the blue, yellow 
and green p^o-lo (^ ^) the yau-lien-ch^an (J§ ^ ^), the red canna 

Of grain they have green and black beans, wheat and rice; the bamboo 
is indigenous. 25 

In former times they did not send tribute to our court, but «in the 
eighth year of the ta-chung and siang-fu periods (A. D. 1015), its sovereign 
sent a mission with pearls and like articles as tribute. The interpreters, in 
translating their speech, said they wished to evince the respect of a distant 
nation for (Chinese) civilization)). They were ordered by Imperial Decree to 30 
remain in waiting at the side gate of the Palace, and to be entertained at a 
banquet by the Associates in the College of Court Annalists. By Imperial 
favour they were ranked with the envoys of K'iu-tz'i. It happened to be the 
Emperor's birthday, and the envoys had a fine opportunity to witness the 
congratulations in the Sacred Enclosure (^ ^)^^- 35 

«In the tenth year si-ning (1077) they again sent tribute of native 
produce. The Emperor Shiin-tsung sent an officer of the Inner Department 
(i. e., a Chamberlain) to bid them welcome»". 


The remaining countries (of India), Nan-ni-hua-lo (^ /^ ^ B^) and 
others, are more than a hundred in number; they are all included under the 
term of «"Western» {lit., Western Heaven ^ ^). 

Concerning "Wang-sho-ch'ong (3^ ^ ^), tradition says that north of 
5"Kiau-chi (Tongking), «one comes to Ta-li (Yiin-nan), and west of Ta-li one 
comes to Wang-sho-ch'6ng in less than forty days' journey». 

Kia Tan (g ^) in the Huang-hua-ssi (or si)-ta-ki (^^^ [or ® ] 

M IE) J s^ys t^at to go from An-nan(^ ^) to T'i6n-chu (^ ^), there 

is an overland route which one can take to get there. Yet as Ta-mo (5^ )^) 

10 came sailing across the sea to P'an-yu (^ || , Canton), we may fairly ask 

whether the sea journey is not more expeditious than the long overland one^*. 

P'6ng-k'i6-lo (in ^ ^) of the West has a capital called Ch'a-na-ki^* 

(^ ^15 Po)- The city walls are 120 U in circuit. The common people are 

combative and devoted solely to robbery. They use (pieces of) white conch 

15 shells (^3f i^) ground into shape as money. The native products include 

, fine swords (^ ^J), tou-lo cotton stuffs (^ ^ ,|j|) and common cotton 

cloth (^). 

Some say that the law of the Buddha originated in this country, for 

Hiian-tsang, the master of the Tripitaka in the T'ang period, (when) he got 

20 the Buddhist Classics (to bring to China), had already reached the West 

m %)■ 

«Nan-ni-hua-lo (^ ^ ^ E^) city has a triple wall ^^. The inhabitants 
morning and evening bathe and besmear ,their bodies with yu-kin (turmeric) 
so as to look like golden coloured images (lit., Buddhas)^*. «A large propor- 

25 tion of them are called P'o-lo-mon (^ ^ P^ , Brahmans), as they are genuine 
descendants of Fo {•i^). 

«The walls of their rooms and the mats they sit on are besmeared with 
cow-dung, which they look upon as a clean substance. In their houses they set 
up altars, three feet high and which are reached by three steps, and on which 

30 daily in the morning they burn incense and offer flowers»; this is called 
«the offering to Fo»" (-^ ^). 

When Arab (Ta-shi) foreigners come to this country, they give them 
seats outside the doors and. lodge them in separate houses supplied with 
beddmg and household utensils ^^ 

35 When a woman is guilty of adultery she is put to death, and the offi- 

cials make no enquiry about it. 

98 CnOLA D031IXIOX. 1,19 

The native products include the best quality of putchuck, and fine white 
flowered (or dotted) cotton stuffs (^^ Q ^g M ^)- The people eat much 
butter" (^ ^), rice, beans and vegetables; they rarely eat fish or meat. 

«A road leads to the Western Regions (Si-yii); when there are raids 
(on Nan-ni-hua-lo?) by the light horsemen of the Western Regions, the only 5 
resistance they offer is to lock their gates. In a few days provisions run 
short, and (the raiders) withdraw of their own accord» ^''. 


1) Quotation from the Liiig-wai-tai-ta, 2,13'': ((Southern Yin-tu of the Wests,; means the 
peninsular part of India. Chu-lien is Chola orSoladesam, of which Kanchi (Conjeveram) was the 10 
an(;ient capital. From Sola was formed apparently Sola-mandalaor Chola-mandala, which the 
Portuguese made into Choromandel and the Dutch into Coromandel. Yule, Marco Polo, II, 354. 
Polo speaks of othe kingdom of Ma'abar called Soli, which is the best and noblest Province of 
Indian. According to Yule, it was in Polo's time i^i all likelihood Tanjore, biit we are told by 
Tennent (Ceylon, I, 394 et seqq.), using Singhalese chronicles, that the Chola dominion at various 15 
times before that had included most of southern liidia. As used by Chou K'ii-fei arid Chau Ju-kua, 
I think it should be understood to correspond to the Ma'abar of the Arabs, just as Nan-p'i does 
to their Malabar, According to Rashideddin «Ma'abar extended from Kulam to the country of 
Sildwar, 300 parasangs along the shore. Its length is the same. It possesses many cities and 

villages of which little is kiiown Large ships, called in the language of Cl^ina, ((Junks», bring 20 

various sorts of choice merchandise and cloths from Chin and Machin, and the countries of Hind , 
and Sindi). Elliot, Hist, of India, I, 09. 

In the seventh century Huan-tsang mentions a kingdom of Chu-li-ye (^^ 7RIJ Mljj 
between the lower Krishna and the Pennar rivers. (See, however, A. Cunningham, Anc. geog. of 
India, 645). The next mention of this country is in the Ling-wai-tai-ta. Ma Tuan-lin (op. cit, II, 25. 
371 — 582) reproduces Chau's notes, omitting from them, however, all the passages he has taken 
from Ch6u K'ii-fei. The Sung-shi does likewise. In the Yiian period the name Chu-li'en was not 
used; it was replaced by the appellation Ma-pa-Sr (j|6 /^ G^, Ma'abar). Yiian-shi, 210. It is there 
stated that Ma'abar is the largest of all the kingdoms of India. See Pauthier, Livre de Marc 
Pol, 603— G05. 30 

Chinese writers of the Ming period speak of the Cholas as So-li (^^ ■'ffl or Cfr JB )• 
Groeneveldt, Notes, 40. G. Phillips, J. K. A. S.,.1896, 3J2. The Sung-shi, 489,so also calls 
these people So-li. 

Additional evidence as to the location of Chu-lien is supplied by Chou K.'fl-fei's statement- 
which forms the fourth paragraph of this chapter. It was between Quilon arid Burma (P'u-kan) 35 
on the coast. The route followed by the Chola mission to China in 1015 (see infra) which took 
them by ((the Cholian (part of) Ceylonn (^S J^ ^^ Ml ) is likewise evidence of some value. 
Still another indication is found in the statement made by the Sung-shi, 489,11 (see supra, p. 59), that 
the envoys who came in 1106 to the Chinese court from Burma (P'u-kan) insisted that they 
should be treated with more ceremony than those from Chu-lien which was a vassal of Sari-fo-ts'i. 40; 
From Singhalese sources (Tennent, Ceylon, I, 402) we learn that in the beginning of the twelfth 
century (and how long before is not stated), and again in the beginning of the thirteenth, Ceylon 
(or a part of it) was under Cholian rule. It was easy for the P'u-kan envoys to make out Chu- 
li6n itself, instead of its dependency Ceylon, a feudatory state of San-fo-ts'i. 

2) Ma Tuan-lin and the Sung-shi reproduce textually this paragraph (the former writer 45 
giving erroneously the distance between the capital and the sea as 5000 H). Yule, Marco Polo, 
II, 319 places the principal' sea-port" of the Chola kingdom at Kaveripattanam, the oPattanami) ; 
par excellence of the Coromandel Coast, and at one of the mouths of the Kaveri. He says that 
there seems to be some evidence that the Tanjore ports were, before 1300, visited by Chinese 


trade. The only liO-lan known to mediaeval Chinese is mentioned in the T'ang-shu, 221°, and is 
identified with the capital of Bamian in Afghanistan. I think our text is corrupt here and that 
the character lo should be changed to si ( £§ or ;^), and that we should read Si-lan, our Ceylon. 
Both Ma and the Sung-sM say that 2,500 li south-east of Chu-lien was «Si-lan-ch'i-kuo (5^ M 
^ ^mi H ) ^^''^ which it was at war. Of course the distance mentioned is absurd, but all figures 
connected with Chu-li6n in Chinese accounts are inexplicably exaggerated. 

As to Tun-t'ien, which our author says was 3,000 li N. of Chu-lien, I am constrained to 
suggest that the text is again corrupt, or that our author's authority — which remains unknown^ 
knew not of what he wrote. Tun-t'ien (in Cantonese Tun-t'in) is not mentioned in any other 
10 Chinese work. It seems just possible that we should correct the text to read «to the east one 
comes to Tun-sunn (^ ^)' ^^^'^^ i^ supposed to have been near the southern extremity of the 
Malay Peninsula. 

3) The envoys, who came to the court of China in 1015 are reported to have said that it 
had taken them over three years to make the journey, but, according to their own statement (see 

15 infra p. 101. line 7), they were only under sail during that time 247 days. It is within the bounds ot 
probability that they said they had sailed 41,000 U, which would be at the rate of about 166 K a 
day, or else that the Chinese, to whom they narrated their journey, estimated that they must have 
sailed that number of li during the .247 days they were under way. Purchas (His Pilgrimes, I, 
110 et seqq.) discussing the extreme slowness of navigation for coasting voyages in early centuries, 

20 estimates 32 miles a day as the average run for the whole voyage, counting all the delays, stops 
at night, etc. 

Ma Tuan-lin and the Sung-shi reproduce this paragraph of our text. Ma sums up his 
chapter on Chu-li§n by saying: nlf one considers seriously, all that we have related concerning 
this kingdom of Chu-lien, situated at exactly 411,400 li by sea from Kuang-chou-fu, and the 

25 journey from which took 1,150 days, one only establishes three facts worthy of credence, that Chu- 
lien was a country very remote from China, that it had never had intercourse in olden times with 
the Empire, and that it ofi^ered tribute for the first time in the middle of the ta-chung and siang-fu 
period (A. D. 1015)». As to the supposed letter of the king of Chu-lien presented to the Emperor 
on this occasion, Ma says, there can be no doubt that it was of Chinese composition and did not 

30 show any evidence whatever of foreign composition. 

The Yflanrshi, 210, says that it was 100,000 li from Ts'uan-chou to Ku-lin (Quilon), and 
15 days sailing from there to Ma-pa-ir (Maabar, i. e., Chu-lien). 

4) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,18''. See supra, p. 91. n. 17. 

5) Pu-lo represent probably Sanskrit ^wra, «city, town, fortress)). The thirty-two names given 
35 in this list may be those of localities subject to the Cholas, or, more probably, they are the names of 

various places, scattered all over peninsular India, which our author probably heard of from some 
Hindu, or Arab, trader — for this list seems quite original with Chau Jii-kua. It is reproduced by 
Ma Tuan-lin and the Sung-shI without a change, omission, addition or remark. There is nothing 
to indicate how this long list of characters should be divided, where one name ends and another 

40 begins. The divisions adopted are purely arbitrary, based on general analogy of sound with known 
Indian names, and by placing such recurring groups of characters as p'u-tong (Sanskrit, patam), 
k'il-lan (Sanskrit, glan, galam), mong-k'ie-lan (Sanskrit, mahgalam), and others which seem to be 
final syllables, at the end of the various groups. 

It is only possible to suggest the following identifications. Chi-tu-ni may be Chitor; Pu-lin- 

45 pa-pu-ni, in Cantonese Po-lam-pa-po-ni, Braihmapura. Ku-t'an-pu-lin-p'u-tong may be Kaveri- 
pattanam. Ku-limay be Koil, and P6n-t'i-kie-ti Bundelkhand. Na-pu-nimay be Nagpur. Ya-li-tu-lin, 
Elichpur. Mei-ku-li-ku-ti, may be Mutapili, Polo's Mutafili near Masulipatam. Mi-to-lo-mo suggests 
Madura, and K'ie-lan-pu-tong, Kalingapatam. Mong-kie-lin-kia-lan recalls Mangalore, Po-lo-ye, 
Vallabhi and Sho-li-ni Abulfeda's Schaliyat (Jaliat). Other arrangements of the characters are 

50 possible; for example, in the pu-lo in the north, instead of reading Chu-lin and forming out of the 
nine characters which follow two names, one might read Chu-lin-k'ie-li-mong, K'ie-lan-ts'i and 
Kie-ma-lan;in this case K'ie-lan-ts'i, in Cantonese Ka-lam-ts'at recalls Kalindjar. 

Conf. the list of kingdoms in India given by Yule, Marco Polo, II, 419—421. 

6) The words in quotation marks are taken from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit. Con- 

100 CHOIiA DOMINION. 1,19 

cerning the kings of Chu-lien, Ma Tuan-lin and the Simg-shi (loc. cit.) supply a few additional 
facts of considerable interest. They say: «At the present time it is stated that the ruling sove- 
reigns (of Chu-lien) have reigned for three generations)). The first mission from Chu-lien to 
China, in 1015, stated that the king of their country was called Lo-ts'a-lo-tsa, which probably 
stands for Kaja-raja. In 1033 the Chu-lien envoy said his king was called ShI-lo-lo-cha yin-to- 5 
lo-chu-lo, which may well be Sri Raja Indra Chela; and in 1077 the king of Chu-lien, his envoy 
stated at that time, was Ti-hua-kia-lo, standing probably for Dewar Kala (or Kara or.Deva-kuIa). 
Kashideddin (Elliot, Hist, of India, I, 69) says^the king of Ma'bar was called Dewar, M'hich 
means in the Mabar language, the olord of wealth». The words oat the present time» very 
probably mean «at the time of the mission of 1077», and this date would appear to be the latest 10 
for any of the information given by Sung writers concerning Chu-lien, their earliest information 
going back to 1015, when the first mission came to China. Cf. Gerini, Kesearches, 609,624. 

The Ling-wai-tai-ta, after the words quoted in our text has «the king's cap has on it 
lustrous pearls and other jewels)). Duarte Barbosa speaking of the king of Calicut, says «This 
king has a thousand waiting women, to whom he gives regular pay, and they are always at the 15 
court, to sweep the palaces and houses of the king: and this he does for state, because fifty would 
be enough to sweep . . . And these women do not all serve, but take turns in the service . . . i; . D u a r t e 
Barbosa, Descript. coasts of East Africa and Malabar, 111. (Hakl. Soc. edit.). 

7) Probably a kind of very fine muslin, made in various localities of western Asia. Our 
author mentions «white yue-no cloth» as a product of Baghdad and of Ki-tz'i-ni (Ghazni), and 20 
«gold spangled yiXe-no cloth)) as a manufacture of Damascus (Lu-mei). See infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXVII. 

8) Quotation from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit. After the words quoted in the first para- 
graph it continues: aand there are some who bestow upon them (the elephants) embroidered 
housings and golden mangers. Every day the elephants are taken into the presence of the king. 
The king, his officers and the people all twist their hair into a knot, and wrap (themselves) in white 25 
cotton cloth. They make coins of gold and silver. The country produces ( HJ) finger-rings, camphor, 
cat's-eyes and such like things; also pearls, elephants' tusks, amber of diiferent colours and cotton 
stuffs with coloured silk threads ("m ^^ "llj)"- 

9) The yu-Tcan, t'6ng-lo, and kan-lo are, so far as I am aware, unidentified. aK'un-lun 
plums may have been a fruit also met with in the Malay (K'un-lun) country. The Tcan-lo is said 30 
in the Shi-ki to be the same as the Tcan-mau-sun ("H' /j^ •^)- ^^^ China Review, XIX, 193. 
This does not help us, however. 

10) Most of these flowers are indetermined, the names seem to be foreign. Instead of sho- 
ts i-sang the Simg-shi (489), which reproduces this paragraph, has sM-ts'i-fo ('^). Sang is the 
Chinese name of the mulberry tree, but here the character is probably used phonetically. 35 

11) The passage in brackets is taken from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit. Chou K'u-fei, 
Chau Ju-kua, Ma Tuan-lin and the author of the Sung-sh!, all appear to have derived their 
information concerning this mission from one and the same written source. Ma and the Sung-shl 
(489,20— m) contain information not found in the works of the two earlier writers. The Sung-shi says 
the principal envoy from Chu-lien was called So-li San-won (^^ J9 ^^ ■^);So-li, I take it, 40 
represents the name Chola. Concerning the voyage of the mission to China, this envoy said: 
wAfter leaving Chu-lien they had sailed for 77 days and nights, during which they passed the 
island (or headland) of Na-wu-tan (^ ^ ^ |lj ) and the island of So-li Si-lan (^ M 
® ^ ill Ceylon of the Cholas?), and came to the country of Chan-pin ( Jb ^ not identified, 
but presumably in Pegu). Thence going 61 days and nights they passed the island of I-ma-lo-li 45 
^W nH' ^E S. °°* identified), and came to the country of Ku-lo ("dtr ^S possibly on W. 
coast Malay Peninsula, but see infra, p. 124, n. 25), in which there is a mountain called Ku-lo, 
from which the country takes its name. 

«Proceeding again 71 days and nights and passing the island of Kia-pa Chx\ /V \\\ 
not identified), the island of Chan (or Ku)-pu-lau {^ [or ~^'\ ^ ^ Cham pulo) and the 50 
island of Ch6u-pau-lung (-^ ^ ^^ not identified), they came to the country of San-fo-ts'i. 

aGoing again for 18 days and nights and having crossed (or passed by B^ ) the mouth of 
the Man-shan river (? ^ |Jj -^ P in Kamboja?) and the T'ien-chu islands (^ hk |Jj 


Pulo Aor?), they came to (^) the Pin-t'ou-lang headland (^ g^ |]^ jlj Cape Padaran), 
from whence, looking eastward, the tomb of the Si-wang mu (^ ^ -jH: ^) was about 100 U 
from the ship. 

«Proceeding 20 days and nights and having passed by (^) Yang island (:M [U Pulo 
5 Gambir) and Kiu-sing island (^ ^ [Jj ), they came to Pi-p'a island (]^ g ^j) of Kuang- 
tung (Canton\ 

«From their home they bad taken in all 1150 days to reach Kuang-ch6u». See supra, p. 83, 
n. 1. Conf. China Review, XIX, 193. 

As previously noted, great exaggeration is met with in all that has come down to us 

10 concerning this mission. It is said by Ma Tuan-lin and the Sung-shi that the king of Chu-lien 

sent the Emperor of China, among other presents, 21000 ounces of pearls, GO elephants' tusks, 

and 60 catties of frankincense. The envoys' gifts to the Emperor included 6600 ounces of pearls 

and 3300 catties of perfumes I 

The ranking of the envoys of Chu-lien with those from K.'iu-tzi, K'ucha in Eastern Tur- 
15 kestan, a vassal state of China, shows the low estimate in which Chu-lien was held. In 1106 
the Chu-lien vassalage to San-fo-ts'i was given by the Burmese envoys as a reason for asking 
greater privileges at the Chinese court than they had received. See supra, p. 23. 

12) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit. For further details concerning this mission, 
see Ma Tuan-lin (Hervey St Denis, Ethnographic, etc., II, 571 — 582), and Sung-sJu, 

20 489,22. These works mention tribute missions from Chu-lien in 1020 and 1033. In 1077 the 
«native producea offered as tribute included pearls like peas (? gSn ^5 ^fe)) ^ large 
wash-bowl of opaque glass, white «plum-blossom» camphor (^ ^W '^ti B^ see infra, Pt. 
II, Ch. I.), cotton, rhinoceros horns, jugs of frankincense, rose-water, golden lotus flowers (tropsBOlum 
majus, Linn.), putchuk, asa-fcetida, borax and cloves. The Emperor gave the envoys as a return 

25 present for the king 81,800 strings of cash and 52,000 taels of silver. 

13) This and the preceding paragraph are based upon the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,4, which reads 
about as follows: «Among the hundreds of countries in the West that are famous, the one which 
ranks the highest of all is Wang-sho-ch'ong, the Mid-India (Yin-tu) of the T'ien-chu country, 
which owes its great fame to being the birthplace of the Buddha. 

30 wTradition says that to the east of this country is theHei-shui-yu river or «Black- water-muddy 

river« (S -jiC V^ j^R]" Irrawadi? see supra, pp. 26 and 59. n. 1) and a Sea (-^ J?fi)- 
Still farther east beyond this are the Western Regions (^ ^^ Turkestan), the T'u-fan (|j4- ^fc 
the Tibetans), Ta-li (Yun-nan) and Kiau-chi (Tongking). To the west of this coiintry is the Eastern 

' Ocean of the Ta-shJ (Arabs), and still farther west than this are the realms of the Ta-shl. To the 

35 south of (Mid-India) is an island called the kingdom of Si-lan (^OT M Ceylon), and its sea is 
called the Sea of Si-lan. 

«In olden times the envoy Chang K'ien being in Ta-hia (Bactria) learnt that the land of 
Shijn-tu (India) was 1000 U south-east of Ta-hia. He also learnt that the kingdom of Ta-li (S. W. 
Yfln-nan) was not more than forty stages from Wang-sho ch'ong (Mid-India). Kia Tan's Huang-hua- 

40 ssi-ta-ki says: 'From Annam there exists (land) communication with T'ien-chu (India), but as 
Ta-mo (Dharma, the first Buddhist patriarch in China) came by sail all the way to P'an-ya 
(Canton), we may draw the conclusion that this sea-route is the more practicable one, to follow». 
See supra, p. 4 on Chang K'ien's mission, and T. W. Kingsmill, J. E. A. S., n. s. XIV, 

74 et seqq. 

45 Wang-sho-ch'ong, as used by Ch6u K'a-fei, is synonymous with Magadha. It is generally 

used in Chinese works to designate the city of Kucagarapura, the old capital of the kingdom of 

Magadha, and occupying, it was supposed, the exact center of that country. New Wang-shO 

ch'ong was Rajagrha. Chavannes, Relig. eminents, 65,' n. 8. See also supra, pp. 26 and 51, n. 1. 

Kia Tan, a great geographer of the T'ang period, lived from about A. D. 730 to 805. He 

50 was the author of a number of geographical and ethnographical books and of maps, one entitled 
((Chinese and Foreigners within the Seas» ('/$ ^ ^ ^) on a scale of 100 li to the inch. 
T'ang-shu, 58, and Mem. cone, les Chinois, XVI, 151. The work mentioned in the text has appa- 

102 BAGHDAD. 1, 19 

rently been lost, Lut what may be an extract from it has been preserved in the T'ang shu, 43, 
■w'bere wo find a number of'itineraries and sailing directions to various parts of Asia. — A trans- 
lation of Kia Tan's sailing directions from Canton to the Persian Gulf is given in the Introduction 
(supra, pp. 10—14). Pelliot, B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 131 et seqq., has translated and studied with 
great care those relating to S. E. Asia, and Chavannes has translated and annotated, with his 5 
usual learning, two itineraries of Kia Tan's referring to Central Asia, in his Documents sur les 
Tou-Mou6 occidentaux, 7 — 10. 

14) Although P'6ng-k'ie-lo suggests Bangala, Bengal, I am disposed to think it possible that 
the ((kingdom of the Balhara ((..liaJo))) of mediaeval Arab writers is meant. Elliot, Hist, of Intlia, 

I, 358, says «the Tapti on the south, and the Aravalli mountains on the north, may perhaps 10 
represent an approximation to the real extent of the kingdoms. The native products mentioned 
do not assist us in locating it; as to the name of the capital city, it remains unidentified. T6u-lo is 
Sanskrit tula ((cottons. 

15) This paragraph and all the subsequent passages marked with brackets are quotations 
from the Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,5. Nan-ni-hua-lo or Southern Ni-hua-lo is not mentioned in any other .15 
Chinese work, before or after Ch6u and Chau. The fact that it was exposed to the raids of the 
light horsemen of the West and that it produced the best putchuk, incline me to believe it must 
have been in Sindh. 

16) Fo in this case and in the next paragraph, is to be taken as meaning Brahma. Conf. 
supra p. 89. 20 

17) The Ling-wai-tai-ta, after the words aoffer flowers», has «the altars are also smeared 
-with cow-dungo. 

, 18) Mohammedans were treated thus through caste prejudice, not to show them special honour. 

19) Su-lo, literally ohard 2o», aniju-lo —''literally «milk lo», usually mean ((buttern and 
«milli». There can be little doubt that, when used in connection with India or southern Asia, these 25 
words should be taken in their usual acceptations. When used in reference to Mongol and Turkish 
•countries, ju-lo has often a different meaning — adried sour milk». See infra, Ch. XXXII. 

20) ((Light horsemen of the Westn may be a reference to the early Moslim invaders of 
Sindh in the latter part of the seventh and beginning of the eighth century. 

20. 30 


Ta-ts'in (^^ ^). 

«The country of Ta-ts'in», also called Li-kien (^ ^), «is the general 
mart of the natives of the Western Heaven, the place where the foreign 
merchants of the Ta-shi assemble» ^ 35 

«Their king is styled Ma-lo-fu» (^ R^ _^);» he rules in the city of 
An-tu (^ f5) 2. «He wears a turban of silk with gold embroidered cha- 
racters, and the throne he sits upon is covered with a silken rug»^ 

wThey have walled cities» and markets with wards and streets. «In the 
king's residence)) they use crystal in making pillars, and aplaster in guise of 4o 

1)20 . BAOnDAD. 103 

tiles. Wall-hangings abound. The circuit (of the wall) is pierced with seven 
gates, each guarded by thirty men^ 

wTribute bearers from other countries pay homage below the platform 
of the (palace) steps, whence they withdraw after having offered their con- 
5 gratulations)). 

The inhabitants are tall and of a fine bright complexion, somewhat like 
the Chinese, which is the reason for their being called Ta-tsHn ^ 

They have keepers of official records, and in writing they use Ha (^^) 
characters. They trim their hair and wear embroidered gowns. They also 

10 have small carts with white tops, flags, etc. (Along the roads) there is a 
shed (i^) every ten 11, and every thirty li tliere is a beacon-tower (f-^). 
Tliere are many lions in, this country that interfere with travellers and 
are likely to devour them unless they go in caravans of an hundred well- 
armed men ^. 

15 wUnderneath the palace they have dug a tunnel through the ground 

communicating with the hall of worship (jj^ ^ ^) at a distance of over 
a li. The king rarely goes out except to chant the liturgy (fj j^) and 
worship (;i^ ■^). On every seventh day he goes by way of the tunnel to the 
hall of worship for divine service (^ -^), being attended by a suite of over 

20 fifty men. But few amongst the people know the Icing's face. If he goes out 
he rides horseback, shaded by an umbrella; the head of his horse is orna- 
mented with gold, jade, pearls and other jewels ^ 

«There is among the kings of the Ta-shi country he who is styled Su-tan 
(^ ^); every year he deputes men to send in tribute, and, if trouble is 

25 apprehended in the country, he orders the Ta-shi to use their military force 
to keep order ^. 

«The food consists principally of cooked dishes, bread (f^) and meat. 
They do not drink wine; they make use of vessels of gold and silver, helping 
themselves to the contents with ladles. After meals they wash their hands in 

30 golden bowls full of water. 

«The native products comprise opaque glass, coral, native gold (or gold 
bullion, ^ ^), brocades (or kincobs, ^ ^), sarsenets (H :flj), red 
cornelian and pearls»®; also (the precious stone called) hie-ki-si (,^ ^ ^) 
or tung-tHen-si (jg ^ ^)"- 

35 In the beginning of the yen-hi period of the Han (A. D. 158 — 167)" 

the ruler of this country sent an embassy which, from outside the frontier 
of J'i-nan (0 ^), came to offer rhinoceros (horns), elephants' (tusks), and 
tortoise-shell;— this being the first direct communication with China. As the 

104 BAGHDAD, I>20 

presents comprised no other rarities, it may he suspected that the envoys 
kept them hack. 

During the t'ai-k'ang period of the Tsin (A. D. 280 — 289) trihute 
was again hrought from there^^. 

There is a saying that in the west of this country is the Jo-shui (^ 5 
■j^) and the Liu-sha (^ fp), near the place where the Si-wang-mu {^ 
3E ■^) resides and almost where the sun goes down^^- 

Tu Huan {i^ ^) in the King-hing-U (|f ^ |E) ««2/S- "^^'^ country 
of Pu-lin (^ M)«s in the west of the Chan ("g") country; it is also called Ta- 
tsHn. The inhabitants have red and white faces. The men wear plain clothes, lo 
but the women brocades set with pearls (^ ^^). Tliey like to drink wine and 
eat dry cakes (^ f^). They have many skilled artisans and are clever 
weavers of silk. 

(iThe size of the country is a thousand li. The active army consists of 
over ten thousand men. It has to ward off the Ta-shi '*. 15 

ttin the Western Sea there is a market where a (silent) agreement exists 
between buyer and seller that if one comes the other goes. The seller first 
spreads out his goods; afterwards the (would be) purchaser spreads out the 
equivalent (he offers), which must lie by the side of the articles for sale till 
taken by the seller, when the objects purchased may he carried off. This is 20 
called the 'Devil (or Spirit) markef (J^ rfj )»^^- 


1) The first part of this chapter is taken nearly literally from Ch6u K'ii-fei's account of Ta- 
ts'in, 3,1. The work of this author, as stated in the Introduction (supra, p. 22.) appeared in A. D. 
1178, and was the result of personal enquiries made by him on the subjects of which it treats, 2» 
and nowise a compilation from previous works. It may be looked upon as containing chiefly 
contemporaneous matter. AH other portions of this chapter are taken from the older Chinese 
historians; they are mentioned in the footnotes to this chapter. 

To emphasize the additions made by Chau Ju-kua, all portions of this chapter occurring 
in previous records other than Ch6u K'u-fei's, are printed in italics. The first phrase of Chau 30 
Ju-kua's chapter on T'ien-chu (infra, p. 110) and another phrase in the same chapter (infra, p. Ill) 
are the only passages of Ch6u K'ii-fei's notes on Ta-ts'in omitted from this chapter. 

The Ta-ts'in of the twelfth century, as represented in Chou K'ii-fei's account, has all the 
characteristics of an ecclesiastical state. As in ancient times Ta-ts'in and Fii-lin may be looked 
upon as the representatives of the Christian world united under a spiritual chief, the Patriarch of 35 
Antioch, so the king of Ta-ts'in of the twelfth century must have been a patriarch, and, as is 
shown in a subsequent note, this king must have been the Nestorian patriarch of Baghdad, which 
city was indeed, at that time, the point of junction where all the great trade routes of Western' 
Asia united. The words oalso called Li-kien», added here by Chau, are taken from the Hou Han- 
shu, 88 (see Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 40 and 146), and refer to the Ta-ts'in of 40 
ancient times. / 

2) Since the Capital of Ta-ts'in is called An-tu (Antioch) in the Wel-shu, 102 (see Hirth, 
op. cit.," 48 et seqq.), the so-called king of Ta-ts'in may have to be identified with the Patriarch 

1,20 BAGHDAD. ' 1 05 

of Antioch, who was indeed considered the spiritnal head of all the Christians in Asia, certainly 
before the schism in 498 A. D., when the adherents of Nestorius (f 440) established their own 
church in Chaldsea. According to the T'ang-shu, 198 (see Hirth, op. cit., 55 and 60) the king of 
Fu-lin called Po-to-li ('^ ^ ^ Canton dialect and probable old sound: Po-to-lik), sent 
5 ambassadors to the Chinese court in 643 A. D. This name lends itself admirably as a transcription 
of the Syriac form for «patriarch», viz. hatriJc. In Chou K'u-fei's account, as copied by Chau 
Ju-kua, the king of Ta-ts'in in the twelfth century is styled (^ i. e., he is addressed by the 
title of) Ma-lo-fa (^ ^ ^ Canton dialect: Ma-lo-fat, probable old sound Ma-lo-pat, oir 
Ma-lo-ba, since fit [^] may stand for iha in Sanskrit transcriptions, see Julie n, Methode pour 

10 dechiffrer, 104, As 309). This again is an excellent transcription for Mar Aba, one of the titles by 
which the Nestorian patriarch could be addressed. Mar is a title of honour given to learned devotees 
among the Syrian Christians, somewhat like our «Venerable» (Ducange, Glossarium, etc., ed: 
L. Favre, s. v. Mar). Aba means afathera. Mar- Aba may thus be translated by «Venerable 
Father*). Its Latin and Greek equivalent was Patricius (itarpixto;). (Assemani, Bibl. Orient., 

15 III B, 92: «Quem enim Graeci Latinique Patricium vocant, is dicitur Syriace Aba, et praefixo Mar, 
seu Domini titulo, Mar-Aba»). In the Syriac portion of the Nestorian inscription of Si-an-fu the 
patriarch Hannanjesus II, who died in 778 A. D. three years before the erection of the monument 
in 781, is referred to under the title Abad Abahotha Mar Hanan Isua Qatholiqa Patrirkis («Pfere 
des Peres, le Seigneur Hanan-Jesus, etant le Patriarche universel.i) Pauthier, L'inscription de 

20 Si-ngan-fou, Paris, 1858, 42). This does not exclude the possibility of all the patriarchs mentioned 
jn Chinese records up to the time of Chou K'u-fei as kings of Ta-ts'in or Fu-lin being patriarchs 
of Antioch. Still we may entertain doubts as to whom the title should be applied in Ch6u K'u- 
fei's Ta-ts'in chapter, at the end of which it is stated that «T'icn-chu (India) is subordinate to 
Ta-ts'in» (^^ Afc 1^ H JH ■ffti), and that the sacred water by which the waves of the sea 

25 can be stilled is found there (see infra, p. HI). It would seem that Chau Ju-kua has built up his 
account of T'ien-chu on little more than this information, which in Chou K'ii-fei's original 
merely refers to the Indian Christians, and not to India generally, by adding all possible notes 
referring to non-Christian India from older records. Since we are in the possession of ample 
evidence showing that the Indian Christians of the St. Thomas church were Nestorians and that 

30 their chiefs were appointed by the Chaldsean patriarch in Baghdad (see Assemani, op. cit., 435, 
et seqq.: Christiani S. Thomae in India), it must seem strange that, according to Chou K'u-fei at 
some time preceding the appearance of his bopk in 1178, it was the eking of Ta-ts'in», if this 
means the Patriarch of Antioch, who appointed the chief of T'ien-chu, i. e. the Indian Christians, 
and that this statement seems to correspond with that of a Byzantine author, the archimandrite 

35 NilosDoxopatres, a notary in the service of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who wrote in 1143, 
for kino' Rogers II of Sicily, a short treatise on the patriarchal thrones (Krumbacher, Gesch. 
derbyzantin. Litteratur, 2'' ed., Munchen, 1897, 415 et seqq.). Doxopatres says in unmistakable 
Greek that «the Patriarch of Antioch was in charge of all Asia and Anatolia, and even India, 
whither he had sent a 'katholikos' ordained by himself, styled the one of Komogyris, and also of 

40 Persia and Babylon, called Baghdad at his time, and that he had under him altogether thirteen 
metropolitans)). (See Varia Sacra Stephani le Moyne, Leiden, 1685, II, 211 et seqq.; cf. Renaudot, 
Ancient Accounts of India and China, London, 1733, 119). It seems to follow from this that, 
whatever the relations of the Nestorians in India were to their immediate chief on the patriarchal 
throne in Baghdad, the one of Antioch was looked upon as a still higher authority. Assemani 

45 (III, 289) admits that the Melchite, Maronite and Jacobite Syrians gave their chiefs the title 
{(Patriarch of Antioch)), but he emphatically denies it for the Nestorians. For materials regarding 
this crux of patriarchal history, see Assemani, passim; W. Germann,Die Kirche der Thomas- 
christen, Gtttersloh, 1877; Richter, Indische Missionsgeschichte, Gtttersloh, 1900, where the 
Greek passage referred to is quoted on p. 163, note; and Charles Swanston, A memoir of the 

50 Primitive Church of Malaya, or the Syrian Christians of the Apostle Thomas, etc., in J. R. A. S. 
London, I, 172— 192, and II, 54—62 and 243 — 247; La Croze, Histoire du Christianisme des 
Indes La'naye, 1758. Swanston says among other things: ((Whatever credit may be thought 

,:106 BAOnDAD. l,20 

tine to the current tradition of these Christians, that the Apostle Thomas planted the seeds of 
the Gospel among them, so much may be considered established beyond contradiction, that 
they existed in Travancor as a flourishing people, connected with the Syrian church, from 
the first centuries of the Christian Era» (op. cit., II, 234); atheir liturgy is that which was formerly 
road in the churches of the Patriarch of Antioch, and their language is the Syriac» (237); «they 5 
hold in the highest respect theii; Patriarch of Antioch, or Mosul, and make mention of him in 
their prayer* (239). These relations between Chau Ju-kua's India and his Ta-ts'in were first 
pointed out by Hirth, aChao Ju-kua's Ethnography)), in J. E. A. S., 1890,496—499. ThougJi 
the Antiochian patriarch is referred to in these records, the main fact to us is the position 
■of the one of Baghdad as the immediate chief of the Indian Christians. It seems, therefore, that 10 
Ch6u K'il-feii's Ta-ts'in is not the ancient Ta-ts'in as far as its territory is concerned, and that 
Antioch or An-tu, though referred to by Chau Ju-kua as its capital on the groijnd of former 
statements, cannot be the place «where the foreign merchants of the Ta-shi assemble ». This 
remark is much more likely to apply to Baghdad, in 1178 A. D. the seat of the Nestorian 
patriarch. Here indeed was athe point of junction where all the great trade-routes of .Western 15 
Asia united)) (von Kremer, Culturgesch. des Orients, 11,47), which in those days could not quite 
so well be said of Antioch. See also Hirth, The Mystery of Fu-lin, in J. A. 0. S., XXX, 1—31. 
, 3) «He wears a turban of silk with gold embroidered characters)). According to Assemani 
III B, 389) the Nestorian patriarchs did not wear a mitre like other church dignitaries of this 
rank, but an embroidered turban, called birima («Biruna, hoc est, Cidaris, phrygio opere ornata, 20 
qua caput tegitur, instar Amictuso). It appears, however, that scholars disagree as to the meaning 
of this word Mruna, which according to some must have been a kind of burnoose rather than a 
turban, if not even a gown of considerable length. See infra, p. 107. 

4) The first four words (in Chinese ^W WJ) may also be rendered athere is a wall 
(around the city)i). This reference to the use of plaster is not original with Ch6u K'u-fei, he found 25 
it in the Kiu T'ang-shu, 198 (see Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 53). The reference to the 
use of crystal is taken from H6u Han-shu, 118. (See Hirth, op. cit., 40, 44, 51). On the 'Seven 
gates', cf. Le Strange, Eastern Caliphate, 30, 31, his description of Baghdad. 

5) Quotation from H6u Han-shu, 118. See Hirth, op. cit., 40, 44, 50, 70, 78. 

0) This paragraph is substantially a quotation from Wei-lio, 30, and Hou Han-shu, 118. 30 
See Hirth, op. cit., 70 and 40, 55, 58. The custom of wearing short hair is referred to in the 
oldest Ta-ts'in texts. aDiiferent from the custom both of the Greeks and the Egyptians, that of 
the Hebrews was to wear their hair generally short, and to check its growth by the application 
of scissors onlyn. Kitto, Cyclopsedia of Biblical Literature, s. v., 'Hair'. 

7) Ch6u K'u-fei and our author make frequent use of Buddhist terms when speaking of 35 
other religions. See supra, p. 73, note 1, p. 93, et passim. 

BenjaminofTudela, who visited Baghdad in the middle of the twelfth century, says of the 
Caliph: aBut in that Palace of the mightie king, there are buildings of an admirable greatnesse, 
the Pillars whereof are of silver and gold, and the inner parts of the houses are over-laide 
with these metals, and beautified with all kind of Precious stones and Pearles: out of the which 40 
Palace he goeth forth once only in the yeere, on that festival day or Easter, which they call 
llamadan. And on that day, great multitudes of men from divers and remote Countries, flocke 
together to see his face. And he is carried upon a Mule, attired in princely garments, intermingled 
with gold and silver, having his head adorned with a Myter, shining with stones of incomparable 
price: but he weareth a blacke Handkerchiefe upon the Myter, ... But he commeth forth of his 45 
Palace to the great house (as they call it) of Prayer, built in the gate Bosra: for that is a,ccounted 
their greatest home of Prayer. ... All that whole yeere after he is conteyned within the Palace, 
never to goe forth to any other place ». And of the chief of the small Jewish community dwelling 
in Baghdad, the aChief of the Captivity», as he was called, he says: «But when he commeth forth 
to visit the Great king, he is guarded with a great number of Horse-men, Jewes and gentiles 50 
accompanying him, a Cryer going before him. ... 3ut he is carried upon an Horse cloathed with 
silken and embroydered garments, he adometh his head with a Miter, upon the Miter he weareth 
a white Shash, and upon the Shash a Chainea. Purchas, His Pilgrimes, VIII, 559—562. Conf. 



M. N. Adler, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, London, 1907, 36 et seq. Such, it appears, 
was the style m which the minor rulers residing in Baghdad paid their state visits to the Caliph, 
who himself, as an Abbaside, wore a (.black handkerchief upon his mitre». What we know about 
the official dress of the Nestorian patriarch seems to be quite compatible with Chou K'fl-fei's 
5 account. Each patriarch, as we may conclude from Mar Amr's lives of the Nestorian patriarchs 
(quoted below), was at his coronation endowed with a pallium (biruna) of some particular colour 
peculiar to his government. This pallium is not clearly referred to in Chau Ju-kua's text, who 
contracts into one word san (|^), umbrella, Chou K'fl-fei's words: (.protected by a blue (or 
green) umbrella provided with threefold eaves» {fy^M^ ^St). This blue (or green) 
10 umbrella may have got into the text from a mistaken description of the sacred gown called 
biruna, the exact shape and use of which seems to be a matter in dispute. Assemani calls it a 
((pontifical gowns in one place and a «cidaris» in another. A Chaldsean archbishop, consulted on 
the meaning of the term, also gives four different explanations, the second of which seems to be the 
most hkely to answer, viz. uhiruna vocatur indumentum exterius perlongum et amplum personam 
IB totam cooperiens, ad modum fere togsie senatoriae aut purpurae cardinalitiae» (see Abbeloos 
and Lamy, Barhebraei Chronic, ecclesiast., I, 355, note 2); and since Assemani, in his last 
volume (III B, 683) distinguishes the liruna as a cidaris, i. €. a low turban, from the 
opaenula, quae pluvialis formam repraesentat», it may have been a kind of hood, or cape, 
used primarily for protection against rain, thus corresponding to the sacred gown called 
20 phaina by the Jacobites and maajohra by the Nestorians. Assemani (op. cit., 674) describes the 
final act in the coronation of the Nestorian patriarch in such a way as to suggest that the twOj 
the maaphra or kaphila, i. e. the rain cloak, and the liruna, i. e. the turban, have to be put on, 
before coronation can be pronounced to be complete. It seems that, whatever the two terms may 
mean, they practically belong to one another, which may have given rise to the confusion existing 
' 25 in their interpretation. It is quite possible that Ch6uK'u-fei, who was a native of Won-ch6u and, 
when he wrote his book, held the post of Assistant Sub-Prefect in Kui-lin, the capital of 
Kuang-si, collected his notes in Canton, which place he had to pass on his way from his home to 
his official residence; and in Canton, as we know (see supra, pp. 14—16), there was then, and had 
been for centuries, a large foreign, mostly Mohammedan, settlement. Among these foreigners 
30 there may have been natives of Baghdad familiar with Nestorian institutions in that city, if not 
some merchants, or business friends, who happened to be Christians themselves. One of these may 
have supplied the information regarding the patriarch, and from his description of the ((pluvialen 
forming part of his official dress, the Chinese writer may have misunderstood what was originally 
a (irain cape, or cloak» to be an umbrella. Two years before the completion of Chou K'u-fei's 
35 book, in 1176 A. D., the contemporary patriarch, by the name of Elias III, was elected and 
ordained at Madain, npallio amictus pistacini coloris (see Gismondi, Maris Amri et Slibae De 
I'atriarchis Nestorianorum Commentaria, II, 64). This vest, whatever it may have been, of 
pistachio-green colour, the colour of the patriarch's personal reign,, may have something to do 
with Chou K'ii-fei's ts'ing, i. e. «green», or «blue, umbrellas, since that word may cover both 
40 shades (see Hirth, Ancient Porcelain, 7 et seqq.). 

If Elias III be meant by Ch6u K'fl-fei's nking of Ta-ts'in», the tunnel leading from his 

palace {cello) to the hall of worship {ecdesia) might be considered his work. For, we have two 

passages testifying to his love of architectural enterprise. Mar Amr says (1. c.) that, after his 

ordination at Madain, he proceeded to the patriarchal residence in the Christian quarter of 

45 Baghdad, and when he observed its being in a state of ruin began to rebuild it together 

with the church; that God favoured his ventures, and that by his exertions many benefices have 

been brought about («Inde ad cellam in aedibus Eomaeorum positam profectus, eandemque 

dirutam contemplatus, illam reaedificare coepit unS, cum ecclesia: favitque eius conatibus Deus, 

operaque ipsius multa praestita sunt beneficias). The other passage occurs in B arhebrae us' Chro- 

50 nicon (Abbeloos and Lamy, III, 370), where he is referred to as having built up the ruins of the 

patriarchal residence and made it habitable (((Ipse ruinas cellae catholici instauravit et habita- 

bilem fecits). The two passages do not distinctly mention the subway, but it seems suggestive that 

just at this time both the palace, or cella, and the church of the patriarch were rebuilt. Jacobus. 

108 BAGHDAD. 1,20 

Golius (1596-1GG7) is quoted in Hettinger's Bibliotheca Orientalis, 62, as having referred to 
Elias III as ((Patriarch of Antiochn, but Assemani ridicules the idea, because he says, the title 
((Patriarch of Antioch» was never claimed by the Kestorians (see supra, p. 105, line 46). 

8) Mahmud of Ghazni is wrongly reputed to have been the first sovereign prince to take 
the title of Sultan, in 1002 A. D. It was later on borne by Togrul beg and the succeeding Seldjuk 5 
princes. See de Guignes, Hist, des Huns, II, 162. In 1057 Togrul was made General of the Empire 
and Governor of all the Moslim by the Caliph. In 1072 the Sultan Malekshah was given by the 
Caliph the title of Amir el-Mumenin, which had only been borne by the Caliphs until then. On the 
other hand the Caliphs were confirmed in their title by the Sultans. Ibid. II, 197—198, 214. 

In the time just preceding the year 1178, when Ch6u K'il-fei's work appeared, the Caliphs 10 
of Baghdad were politically powerless, though they continued to be the spiritual rulers of the 
Moslim world. The political masters of Baghdad itself were the Seldjuk Sultans, descendants of 
the great Malekshah. But even their power had begun to decline, and it seems doubtful which 
of the several rulers bearing the title of Sultan in Ch6u K'il-fei's time is referred to by that 
author. Possibly Saladin, who had captured Damascus and other Syrian cities, called himself 15 
'Sultan' on his coins, and gave orders ' that in the mosque prayers the names of himself and 
the Caliph of Baghdad should be mentioned. "When Elias III was elected Patriarch of the Nesto- 
rians, Mustadi was Caliph (see Mar Amr, op. cit., 64); the Seldjuk Stittans immediately preceding 
this period were Arslan and Togrul. See E. G. Browne, in J. R. A. S., 1902, 873-882. 

Under the Seldjuk Sultans, the country was divided among numerous Emirs as feudal 20 
lords, who had to deliver an annual tribute to the Sultan and who, in times of war, had to fit out 
certain troops for service under the Sultan. Hence the remark that 'he orders the Ta-shi, etc.'. 
See von Kremer, Culturgesch. des Orients, I, 254. 

9) In Chou K'il-fei's work there follow here the references to T'ien-chu being a dependency 

of Ta-ts'in and to the holy-water which quiets the -waTes; which our author has transposed to 35 
the beginning of his chapter on T'ien-chu, see infra, p. 110 line 30 and p. 111. lines 7 — 9. 

10) Chou K'il-fei probably took this reference to the gem called hie-ki-si from the Hou- 
Han-shu, 1 18, where it is found mentioned for the first time. If the hie-ki-si was a gem, it probably 
belonged to the same class as the ye-huang-pi or 'jewel that shines at night', which is said to 
have been a product of Ta-ts'in. See Hirth, China and the Koman Orient, 79 and 242. See also 30 
infTa. Pt. II. Ch. XLI. Kote. 

11) The date here given is apparently a misprint, the Hou Han-shu gives the correct date, 
ninth year of the yen-hi period', i. e. 166 A. D. See on this famous mission from Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus, Hirth, op. cit., 42 and 173. Cf. supra, p. 5. 

12) Quotation from Tsin-shu, 97. See Hirth, op. cit., 45. 35 

13) Quotation from H6u Han-shu, 118. See Hirth, op. cit., 42-43, 291—293. The 
Weak-Water, as well as the other terms usually mentioned together with it, the Si-wang-mu, 
the Bed Water (Ch'i-shui) and the Flying Sands (Liu-sha), appear in very old Chinese legends, 
and, although it would be a fruitless task to seek to ascertain their actual whereabout (cf. F. AV. 
Mayers, Chinese Readers Manual, Nos. 236, 330, 572), so much is certain, that these imaginary 40 
abodes of a fairy queen were, according to the ideas of the original legend writers, neither in 
T'iau-chi nor in Ta-ts'in. See also Hirth, Ancient History of China, 144 — 151. 

14) Tu Huan, the author of the King-hing-ki, was made a prisoner by the Arabs in the 
battle of Taras in 751 A. D., and lived among them for ten years, and, when released, returned 

to Canton by sea. The King-hing-ki is an ethnographical work, fragmentsonly of which have been 45 
preserved in the commentary of the T'ung-tien (^ M.. Chs. 191—193), the author of which, 
TuYu(Jg;2 ■T/b), was his relative. 

Tu Huan's account of Fu-lin throws a still better light on our identification of the coimtry 
with Syria than the statements of the standard Chinese historians, because it was written by a Chinese 
author who had resided in Western Asia during a clearly definable period (751 — 762 A. D.) thus 50 
giving us an opportunity of comparing notes with information from contemporaneous western 
sources. Chan ("^ Canton dialect, Shim), in the west, (not north or north-west), of which Fu-lin is 
to be looked for, is a transcription of Sham, or ash-Sham, ((that which is on the left hand (looking 

1,20 BAGHDAD. 109 

to the rising sun).), i. e., tlie northern country from Mecca, or Syria. At the time of Tii iluan's 
arrival in the West, it had just been the chief province of Merwan II, the last of the Caliphs of 
the house of Omaya, with its capital at Damascus. This city itself is also called Sham. Chau 
Ju-kua's text differs slightly from the original in the T'ung-tien. The latter says: «In the country 
5 of Fu-lin there is the country of Chan (Sham), in the west screened off by (a range of) mountains 
several thousand fi (in length)» CJ^^ |S^"S"|S ffi^lij|^i^M.)- 
This seems to involve that Sham (Syria, or, in its most restricted sense, Damascus) was held to be 
part of the Fu-lin country. The fragment quoted in the T'ung-ti6n contains yet another charac- 
teristic addition omitted by Chau Ju-kua; it says that «when (the people of Fu-lin) are kept 
10 as captives in the frontier states, they will rather accept death than change their national customsa 

(^ ^ ^"^Wi M tJ^^^^JC^IPM,)- '^^''^ ^^ =^° improved translation 
suggested by G. M. H. Playfair («The Mystery of Ta-tsm», in J. C. B. R. A. S., New Ser. 
XX, 78, referring to the corresponding extract from Ma Tuan-lin, given by Hirth in China and 
the Rom. Or., 83 and 116). PI ay fair applied this remark to the Israelites in exile, but there seems 

15 to be no reason why Tu Huan should place on records facts of such remote antiquity as the 
Babylonian captivity. On the other hand he is sure to have come into contact with, or have heard 
of, the Syrian Christians living as captives among the Persians in Madain, or Ktesiphon, where 
Khosru I, after the fall of Antioch in 540 A. D., had built for them a second Antioch as an 
asylum for his Syrian slaves and a model of Greek civilization close to his Persian court 

20 (Rawlinson, The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy, 1876, 305, and Noldeke, Geschichte der 
Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sassaniden, Leiden, 1879, 165 and 329). These Syrian Christians 
had furnished the nucleus of a large foreign population on Persian ground, enjoying under their, 
patriarchs rights amounting in ordinary times to those of an independent nation (see von Kr e- 
mer, Culturgesch. des Orients, II, 174 et seqq.), while at other times they had to suffer the most 

25 cruel persecutions, refusal to abandon the faith of their fathers being under Sassanide and 
Moslem rule often visited by torture and capital punishment. It is to those martyrs of Christian 
faith that Tu Huan refers, when he asserts that othe people of Fu-lin», i. e., the Christians, 
originally of Syria, living under their patriarchs as captives in Persia, owill rather accept death 
than change their national customsa. A celebrated case of Christian martyrdom is recorded by 

30 Mar Amr (op. cit, 37) as having occurred just a year after Tu Huan's arrival in 752 A. D.: «per 
id tempiis martyrium fecit Israel medicus, cui Deus requiem concedat». Cf. Assemani, II, 432. 

Several of the notes placed on record in Tu Huan's fragment point to. Syria as the country 
with which Fu-lin has to be identified. If it is said that the people drink wine, which he knew was 
forbidden to the Mahommedans; this may be accounted for by the term Fu-lin covering the 

35 Christian population, mixed of native and Roman, or Greek elements. Skilled artisans and clever 
weavers of silk were notorious in Syria: so was an industry, not mentioned by Chau Ju-kua, but 
referred to in the original quotation of the T'ung-tien, the manufacture of glass, which it is said «has 
not its equal in the world (^ J^ ^ -^ 5^ "F ^ i^B)-" ^^^^ Ju-kua speaks of 
10 000 men forming the army of Fu-lin, while the T'ung-tien text makes it to consist of a million. 

40 The one figure is much too low, the other much too high for Syria under the Omaiads as well 
as the Byzantine empire. But both texts have the words: «they have to ward offtheTa-shii). This 
might tempt the defenders of the Constantinople theory to look upon it as an argument against 
Fu-lin being Syria. But we have to consider that Tu Huan does not view things from an. histo- 
rical point of view; he merely places on record what he had heard and seen on the spot. His 

45 information is entirely contemporaneous, and refers to events immediately preceding and following 
the year 751, when the battle of Taras was fought. This was just the time when the Romans 
of Constantinople were much less molested by the Arabs than at any other period preceding, or 
following for at least a generation. The great disaster of 718 A. D., when the Arab fleet was 
entirely routed after a fruitless siege of thirteen months, owing to a combination of circumstances, 

50 added to the murderous effect of Greek-fire, had discouraged the Arabs in their attacks for 
generations to come; and since in the sequel, especially during the middle of the century, both 
parties were fully occupied with domestic troubles, the Arabs with dynastic feuds* the Byzantines 
with iconoclastic controversies, there would have been scarcely any occaison for Tu Huan to say 

110 INDIA. 1,20 

that (ithe Romans of the Eastern Empire had to ward off the Ta-shi». We have, therefore, to look 
for a different explanation of this statement. In 751, the year of Tu Huan's arrival Jn the West, 
the term Ta-shJ, from his point of view, applied to that portion of the Arabs who had just gained 
that great victory over the Chinese under Kau Sien-chi, i. e. the Abbaside territory (see Chavannes, 
Documents sur les Tou-kiou§: Turcs Occidentaux, 297). In his account of the Ta-shi (T'ung-tien, 5 
193,23) Tu Huan says: othe country of Chan (Sham, or Syria, of which Damascus was then the 
capital) is on the western boundary of the Ta-shlf» {'^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ffi ;^)j — which 
seems to show that to him the Ta-shi were the Abbaside Arabs and that their western neighbours, 
treated by him as a separate country, were the Syrians, then still iighting for their independence 
here and there against the overwhelming numbers of the Abbaside armies, which had already 10 
captured Damascus and driven the old Omaiad rulers out of the country. This view is supported 
by Tu Huan's mentioning a city called by him A-ku-lo (^ -^ ^) as the residence of the 
king of the Ta-shl. This can be none other than the city of Kufa, the residence of Abu'l-'Abbas, 
the Syriac name of which, according to Bar Hebraeus (Abbeloos and Lamy, III, 112: Of. 
Assemani, op. cit.. Ill B, 715) was Akula. Tu Huan had no knowledge of Baghdad, the 15 
foundation of which by the second Abbaside Caliph in 762 A. D. fell in the year of his return to 
China by a trading vessel bound for Canton. 

15) Sin T'ang-shu, 221, has taken some of its statements concerning Ta-ts'in from T u 
Huan's work, among others what he says of the people's fondness for wine and cakes, also the 
passage conceriiing the «Devil marketn. See Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 58, 60, 279, 283. 20 
Ancient, mediaeval, and modern travellers mention such dumb trading in Asia and Africa. 
Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian topography, 52 (Hakl. Soc. edit.) speaks of it as practised 
between the Ethiopians and the Barbarians-^probably Somalis. Ta vernier, Travels in India, II, 68 
(Ball's edit.) refers to it as existing in his time in India, and Begbie (The Malayan Peninsula, 8) 
says it is used among the aborigines of the Malay Peninsula. Cf also what Chau Ju-kua says 25 
(infra, Ch. XL) on the trade between the natives of the Philippines (Ma-i) and the Chinese. 


T'ien-chu (^ ^). 

'(The country of T'ien-chu is subordinate to the country of Ta-ts'in»; so 
its rulers are all selected by Ta-ts'in^. 

It is the custom of the people to plait their hair and to let it- hang 
down, but the temples and the crown of the head are covered with a silken 
(^) turban. In their dwellings they use plaster (;g' ^) instead of tiles. 
They have walled cities in which the people dwell. 35 

The king dresses in brocaded silk, and his hair is wound into a spiral 
knot on the crown of his head; the rest of the hair is cut short. "When 
holding his court in the morning he sits on a tSng skin, — tong (^) being 
the name of an animal, — ornamented with representations of various objects 
painted in red wax; and his courtiers make obeisance to him and pray for 40 

1,21 LNDIA. 1 1 1 

bis life. "When lie goes forth he rides on horseback, and his saddle and bridle 
are thickly set with dark gold (,|^ ^) and silver. His followers, three hun- 
dred in number, arc armed with spears and swords. 

His consort wears a gold embroidered scarlet dress with large sleeves. 
5 Once a year she shows herself in pubhc, when considerable bounty is given 
to the poor. 

win this country there is holy- water ( ^ y\x.) which can still the wind 
and waves. The foreign traders fill opaque glass bottles with it, and when 
they suddenly get in a rough sea they still it by sprinkling this water on iU ^. 

10 It is said that «during the reign of Siian-wu of the Posterior "Wei dyn- 

asty (A. D., 500 — 515), T'i6n-chu sent envoys with a present of swift 
horses (^ ,^). It is said that their country produces (|ij) hons, sables, 
leopards, camels (^), rhinoceros, elephants, tortoise-shell, gold, copper, 
iron, lead and tin, gold embroidered rugs (^ i^ ^ )& ^ ^ Ij )j jpo-tie 

15 (Q ^) and fa-tong (^| ^|). There is a stone hke talc (^ -^), but of 
a reddish colour; when split it is as thin as a cicada's wing; when put to- 
gether the pieces look like silken gauze. There is the diamond (^ ||||J ^), 
which looks like fluor-spar (^ ^ ^), but which will not melt, though 
exposed to the fire an hundred times». It can cut jade-stono'. 

20 There is sandal-wood (^ ^) and other aromatic woods, sugar-cane,- 

sugar (:^ ^) and all kinds of fruits. They trade yearly with Ta-ts'in and 
Fu-nan (^ ^). They use cowries as a medium of exchange. They are 
clever jugglers. They have bows and arrows, armour, spears, flying-ladders 
(^ ■^)» ^*P^ (^ M)^ ^^^ ^^^° *^® contrivances called the «wooden-oxen» 

25 and the «gliding-horses» (;^ ^ ^ M); yet they are cowards in battle. They 
are good astronomers and calculators of the calendar (^ ^ or astrologers). 

They all study the Si-tau-chang-shu (^ # # #) [Note: A gap of 

seven characters occurs here]. They use the leaves of the pei-to (^ ^) as 


30 In the periods chong-hian (A. D. 627—650) and fien-shou (690— 

692) of the T'ang (this country) sent envoys with tribute (to our Court). In 
the yung-Jd period (of the Sung, A. D. 984—988) a priest, by name Lo- 
hu-na {M ^ t^p), arrived (in Ts'uan-chou) by sea; he called himself a native 
of T'ien-chu. The foreign traders (# |^), considering that he was a foreign 

35 priest (^ f^), vied with each other in presenting him gold, silks, jewels 
and precious stones, but the priest had no use for them himself. He bought a 
piece of ground and built a Buddhist shrine (^ ^ij) in the southern suburb 
of Ts'iian-chou; it is the Pau-lin-yuan (gf ;j^ |^) of the present day \ 

112 INDIA. 1,21 


1) The words in brackets are substantially a quotation from Chou K'fl-fei's notes on Ta- 
ts'in. See supra p. 105. The rest of the paragraph seems original -with our author. As in the account 
of Ta-ts'in, Chau Ju-kua has mixed up a good deal of information derived from earlier Chinese 
sources and applying to India (T'ien-chu) generally, with the India of the Ta-ts'in people, or 5 
Christians, regarding whose dependency on the oking of Ta-ts'in» (i. e., the patriarch of Antioch 
or Baghdad) see supra p. 105. The term T'i§n-chu, as here used, is not to be taken in all cases 
in the broad acceptation in which other Chinese writers use it, for our author has described the 
principal divisions of India in other chapters. It appears that Chau's T'i6n-chu was the coast 
of Madras, at least so far as the first three paragraphs of this chapter are concerned; in the 10 
rest of the chapter, derived nearly entirely from the T'ung-tifin and other Chinese authorities, 
T'ien-chu must, I think, be understood in its broader meaning of India generally. 

The manner in which the king, i. e., the head priest of the Christians, appointed by the 
king of Ta-ts'in, dressed his hair might be looked upon as a strange anomaly, considering his 
being deputed by the Syrian, or the Chaldaean, patriarch. But it appears that in India the 15 
Christian clergy followed the native custom in this respect. Assemani (III B, 337) quotes Jose- 
phus Indus (15 century?, Assemani, ib,, 439), who says «de Christianis Malabariae: Hi habent 
sacerdotes, levitas et hypodiaconos. Sacerdotes vero non ferunt tonsuram, sed nonnihil capillorum 
in summa parte capitis habent: quod et faciunt Saraceni, Persae, Indi, Tartari et Sinenses.)} 

It might also appear strange that the metropolitan of the Christian church was allowed to 20 
have a wife at all; but the history of Nestorian patriarchs shows that opinions on the question of 
celibacy have changed a good deal. Certainly bishops could be married (Barhebraeus, op. cit., 
II, 64, 70, 80), and exceptions are even on record in the case of patriarchs, as in that of Babaeus 
(498 — 503 A. D.), who was married and had sons and who «sanxit, ut ecclesiae ministJri universi 
nuberent, nemine aut presbyterorum aut diaconorum sine uxore manente: haberentque singuli 25 
propriam uxorem palam et publics secundum legis praescriptum: nee quisquam in posterum 
caelibatum ia saeculari conversation! coleret, ut vitatur nempe peccandi periculum» (Mar Amr, 
op. cit., II, 21; cf. Assemani, II, 408). One of the early bishops of India, known as Thomas 
Cana, some time about the year 800 A. 1)., is even credited with having had two wives, one of 
whom was held to be merely a concubine. Assemani (III B, 441 et seqq ) fills several pages of 30 
his erudition with the account of this legend. Of the modern Christians of the church of 
St. Thomas, Captain Ch. Swanston says (J. E. A. S., II, '241): «The celibacy of the priests 
is with them rather a custom than a dogma: they admit, not only that it is not required by 
Scripture, but also .its evil tendency and consequences; and in later years, some of them were 
induced to marry by the influence and persuasion of the British authorities in Travanc6r, and a 35 
marriage gift of four hundred rupees, presented by the sovereign of the country, to induce them 
to return to the ancient usage of their forefathers, and to enter the nuptial state. The feeling of 
the church is, however, against it.» 

The Sung-shi, 490,s'' says that sometime between A. D. 984 and 988, there came to the 
capital of China an Indian priest (^ ^ f^ ^'^) called Yung-sM (^ i^) in company 40 
with aPersian heretic called A-li-yen(|S^ M ^)- Yung-shi said that his native land was called 
Li-t6 (^Ij ^^: Lata of Masudi, was situated on the gulf of Cambay and was a part of the 
kingdom of the Balhara). The sovereign of his country bore the family name of Ya-lo-wu-to 
(^ M. 3S. f^), his personal name was A-no-ni (^^ P^ j^). His clothes were yellow, 
his cap was of gold and covered with all kinds of jewels. When he went fofth h&rode on an 45 
elephant or in a small sedan-chair, preceded by a great throng of people and to the sound of 
conch shells and cymbals. When he visited the temples he made largess to the poor. His consort 
whose name was Mahani ( J^ g^ ^), only appeared in public once a year, when she bestowed 
great bounty on the people. 

The name of this Indian priest means «Time ever-lasting, eternitya, and could never have 50 
been borne by a Brahman or a Buddhist; it appears to me highly probably that Yung-shi was a 


Ij^l INDIA. 113^ 

MalaLar Christian, as may also have been the Persian «heretic» (^\> ^) who accompanied 
him on his journey to China. *^ 

2) Quotation from Ch6u K'U-fcJ, in his notes on Ta-ts'in (see supra, p. 108, note 9). The 
holy water here referred to must he that taken from the well Zemzem at Mecca. Ming-shi, in 
its account of Mecca, says: «Behind the tomb of Ma-ha-ma (Mohammed) there is a well, the water 
of which is limpid and sweet. People who start on the sea voyage use to take along with them 
some water from this well, for it has the property of appeasing the waves in time of storm when 
sprinkled over thesea». Bretschneider, Med..Eesearches, II, 303. San-ts'ai-t'u-hui (Pi6n-i-tien, 
G8 Sec. T'i6n-fang) attributes the same property to the water from the well of Ishmael (o) fi 
jK0)) or Hagar's well, this is the well Zemzem, according to mohammedan tradition. 

2) The portion of this paragraph in quotation marks is taken from Tu Yu's T'ung-tien 
(see supra, p. IDS, note 14). Hou Han-shu, 118,12», mentions among the products of India elephants, 
rhinoceros, tortoise-shell, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead and tin, sugar (^ ^), pepper, 
ginger, black salt, fine cloth, handsome rugs called t'a-tong — Liang-shu, 54,16*' says the usual 

ll exports from India were rhinoceros (horns), ivory, leopards (skins), marmot (? skins), tortoise- 
shell, huo-ts'i (j/^ ^), gold, silver, gold embroidered skin rugs, fine hemps (cloth?), po-iii 
(muslin), fine fur garments and t'a-tong (ru-gs). «Huo-ts'i, it adds, is like talc, its colour is like 
dark gold, it is brilliant. When cleaved it is as thin as a cicada's wing; when put together the ' 
j ..pieces look like silver gauzes. Huo-ts'i appears to be a foreign word; the substance referred to 

20 may be isinglass. According to Porter Smith, Contrib. mater, med., 129, it is lapis-lazuli. 

4) This paragraph was compiled from a number of earlier Chinese writers, largely from 
T'ang-shu, 221A,i7 et seqq. According to tbe Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chuang, I, 4, sM-mi is cane- 
sugar. At the time that work was written, third century A. D., China got all her supply of sugar, 
^ from Tongking and southern Indo-China, wTiere the sugar-cane appears to have been indigenous. 

25 See de Candolle, Origine des plantes cultiv^es, 122 — 127. It was cultivate'd also in India as 
early as the first or second century of our era, as we have seen by the reference made to it in 
the Hou Han-shu in the previous note. By the sixth century its use must have been general in 
Central Asia, for Sui-shu, 83, mentions that sugar came from various countries of Central Asia 
and of the Sassanian empire. In the first half of the seventh century the cane was cultivated in 

30 Central China, at Yang-ch6u (iter J>U in Kiang-su), but the Chinese did not know the process 
of making sugar. Somewhere about A. D. 637 the Eiriperor T'ai-tsung sent a mission to Magadha 
(i. e.. Central India) to learn the method of boiling sugar, and called the attention of his people 
to the superiority of the Chinese cane. T'ang-shu, 221A,i9''. 

At about the same time Htian-tsang mentioned among the articles of food of the people 

35 of India sha-t'ang (vl? /|© agranulated sugar») and sJi'i-mi. He also stated that Gandhara had 
much sugar-cane (^^ J0) and produced (or exported [jH )sfe?-mi. Si-yfi-ki, 2,lo^ 15*. — On 
sugar and sugar-cane in ancient India, see Lassen, Indische Alterthumsk., I, 317 et seqq. 

■ Sui-shu, 83, makes mention of another kind of sugar, or product of sugar, called pan-mi 
4i ^ )• I can find no explanation of this term which, literally translated, means «half-honey». 

40 Concerning the remarks about, the trade relations of T'ien-chu, H6u Han-shu, 118,io'' 

already referred to its trade with Ta-ts'in, and Liang-shu, 54,17* stated that Central T'ien-chu 
had much sea-trade with Ta-ts'in, An-si (Parthia), Fu-nan, Ji-nan and Kialu-chi (i. e., Indo-China 
generally). Our author quotes from T'ang-shu, 22lA,i7''. 

Cowries were not the only medium of exchange in India even in the first centuries of our 

45 era. H6u Han-shu, 118,io'' states that the Indians used coins of gold and silver; the ratio was 
10 to 1. Hflan-tsang says «in the commerce of the country gold and silver coins, cowries and 
small pearls are the media of exchangea. Watters, On Yuan-chuang's Travels, 1, 178. 

The awooden ox» and the ((gliding horse» were, according to San-kuo-chii (Shu, 5,i3,i5), 
contrivances for facilitating the transport of provisions of armies, and were invented in the third 

50 century by the great Chinese general Chu-ko Liang. Conf. Mayers, Chinese Header's Manual, 
s. v. Chu-ko Liang. I can find no explanation oifei-t'i, literally ((flying laddersn, or of ii-taur 

literally ((earth roads, saps». 

* 8 


114 THE AEABS. 1,21 

Si-tan ehang-shu appears to mean the «Siddbanta Book of Eules», and the work was 
probably one on astronomy. Alberuni says in his India (Sachau's translation, I, 153) «The book 
known among Muslims as Sindhind is called by them [the Hindus] Siddhanta, i. e., straight, not 
crooked nor changing. By this name they call erery standard book on astronomy, even such 
books as, according to our opinions, do not come up to the mark of our so-called ZiJ, i. e., hand- 
books of mathematical astronomy. They hare five Siddhantas». See also Lassen, Indische Alter- 
thumsk., IV, 621. On the usual, or orthodox, Buddhist sense of the word si-tan, i. e., a syllabary, 
see Watters, On Yuan-chwang's Travels, I, 155—159 and Eitel, Handbook, 152. The text 
is a quotation from T'ang-shu 221^,25*, the characters missing in_our text can be supplied 
from it. The passage reads as follows ^^^^ij^S^^^H^^^- 
«They. are able astronomers and they study (the work called) Si-tan-ehang, erroneously called 
(by the Chinese) Fan t'ien-fa (i. e., Indian Astronomy))). 

The H6u Han-shu, 118,12* and Liang-shu, 54,16* remarked on the Indians' cowardice and 

Pei-to (in Sanskrit patra, «a leafs) are the leaves of the borassus flabelliformis. Yu-yang- li 
tsa-tsu, 18,7* says there are three kinds of jiei-lo tree in Magadha (Central India), the largest is 
called to-lo-p'o li-ch' a pei-to (^ ^ ]^ "fl ^ M ^) which is in Sanskrit tala vrlcsa 
patra «leaf of the tala tree. 

5) The name of this priest, probably a transcription of Rahula, has often been used by 
Buddhist monks ; it was the name of the son of the Buddha Gautama. The term hu, rendered 2* 
aforeigns, is sometimes applied to Indians (see Pei-won yttn-fu, 70A s. v. ^ .^ "j^ ), though 
usually used to designate the people of Western Asia. 

Sung-shi, 490,s'' has it that in the yung-hi period (A. D. 984—988, the same in which 
Lo-hu-na came to Ts'aan-ch6u), Tzi-huan (^fe !^)> *'■ priest of Wei-ch6u (^^ ^|>| ), came 
back to China from the Western Regions with a foreign priest ("AH i@') by the name of Mi- 2S 
tan-lo (0^ j^ ^^)" They presented to the Emperor letters from the Prince of Northern 
India, and also from Na-lan-t'o (^^ ^ [i£)' Prince of the Diamond Throne (^ |^|J ^ 
-p i. e., Vajrasana, Buddhgaya). Mi-tan-lo is a transcription of Mitra, a common termination 
of Indian Buddhist names. 

22. 30 


Ta-shi (;Ac ^). 

«The Ta-shi ^ are to the west and north (or north-west) of Ts'uan-chou 
at a very great distance from it, so that the foreign ships (^ ^) find it 
difficult to make the voyage there direct. After these ships have left Ts'uan- 35 
chou they come in some forty days to Lan-li (^ ||.), where they trade. 
The following year they go to sea again, when with the aid of the regular 
wind dp ^) they take some sixty days to make the journey». 

The products of the country are for the most part brought to San- 
fo-ts'i, where they are sold to merchants who forward them to China ^. 10 

1,22 THE ARABS. 115 

wThis country of the Ta-shi is powerful and warlike. Its extent is very 
great, and its inhabitants are pre-eminent among all foreigners for their dis- 
tinguished bearing)). 

«The climate throughout a large part of it is cold)^, snow falling to a 
5 depth of two or three feet; consequently rugs are much prized. 

The capital of the country, called Mi-sti-U (^ ^ ^) (Note: Some 
make it to be Ma-lo-pa |^ P||| :f^), is an important centre for the trade of 
foreign peoples ^. «The king wears a turban of silk brocade and foreign cotton 
«tuff (buckram). On each new moon and full moon he puts on an eight-sided 
10 flat-topped headdress of pure gold, set with the most precious jewels in the 
world. His robe is of silk brocade and is bound around him with a jade 
girdle. On his feet he wears golden shoes. In his residence the pillars arc of 
cornelian stone, the walls of lu-kan stone (^|j -^) (Note: It is as transparent 
as crystal), the tiles of rock-crystal, the bricks of green stone (^ ^("jasper?), 
15 and the mortar of hvo stone (y^ ^). The curtains and screens are of brocade 
with rich designs woven in all kinds of colour in silk and pure gold thread *».^ 

The king's throne is set with pearls and precious stones, and the steps 
of the throne are covered with pure gold. The various vessels and utensils 
around the throne are of gold or silver, and precious pearls are knotted in 
20 the screen behind it. In great court ceremonies the king sits behind this 
screen, and on either side, protecting him, «the ministers of state surround 
him)) bearing golden bucklers and helmets and armed with precious swords. 

His other «officers are called Tai-wei (^ ^f); each of them has the 
command of some twenty thousand horsemen. The horses are seven feet high 
25 and are shod with iron. His army is brave and excels in all military 

The streets (of the capital) are more than fifty feet broad; in the middle 

is a roadway twenty feet broad and four feet high for the use of camels, 

horses, and oxen carrying goods about. On either side, for the convenience of 

30 pedestrians' business, there are sidewalks paved with green and black (or 

blueish black, ^ H) flagstones of surpassing beauty. 

«The dwellings of the people are like those of the Chinese, with this 
difference that here thin flagstones (slates?) are used instead of tiles ^). 

The food consists of rice and other cereals; mutton stewed with fine 

85 strips of dough is considered a delicacy. The poor live on fish, vegetables and 

fraits only; sweet dishes are preferred to sour (^ -^ # &£ ^). Wine 

is made out of the juice of grapes, and there is also the drink (called) ssi 

(.S M VM)) a decoction of sugar and spices. By mixing of honey and 

116 THE AKABS. 1,22 

spices they make a drink (called) mei-ssi'ta-Ma (^ y@» ^ ^ v®), which 
is very heating ". 

Very rich persons use a measure (^) instead of scales in business 
transactions in gold or silver. «The markets» are noisy and bustling, and «are 
filled with great store of gold and silver damasks, brocades, and such like 5 
wares. The artisans have the true artistic spirit» ( JC |£ ^ l/Rj j^ ^ 

The king, the officials and the people all serve (or revere ^) Heaven. 
They have also a Buddha by the name of Ma-hia-wu {^ ^ ^J)'- Every 
seven days they cut their hair and clip their finger nails. At the New Year lo 
for a whole month they fast and chant prayers ('^ •^" ;^ |M — ' H)' 
Daily they pray to Heaven five times. 

The peasants work their fields without fear of inundations or droughts; 
a sufficiency of water for irrigation is supplied by a river whose source is not 
known. During the season when no cultivation is in progress, the level of the 15 
river remains even with the banks; with the beginning of cultivation it rise& 
day by day. Then it is that an official is appointed to watch the river and to 
await the highest water level, when he sunmions the people, who then plough 
and sow their fields. "When they have had enough water, the river returns 
to its former level ^. 20- 

There is a great harbour (or anchorage -j^ y^) in this country, over two 
hundred feet deep, which opens to the south-east on the sea, and has branches 
(^) connecting with all quarters of the country (^ ^ '^ ^ ^)', On 
either bank of the harbour (J^) the people have their dwellings and here 
daily are held fairs (^ f|j ), where crowd (^g ^) boats and wagons, all 25 
loaded with hemp, wheat, millet, beans, sugar, meal, oil, firewood, fowls, 
sheep, geese, ducks, fish, shrimps, date-cakes (^ ^), grapes and other fruits. 

The products of the country (of the Ta-shi) '" consist in pearls, ivory, 
rhinoceros horns, frankincense, ambergris, putchuck, cloves, nutmegs, benzoin 
{cm-si Mang), aloes, myrrh, dragon's-blood, asa-foetida, wu-na-isH, borax, 30 
opaque and transparent glass, ch'o-¥u shell, coral, cat's-eyes, gardenia flowers, 
rose-water, nut-galls, yellow wax, soft gold brocades, camel's-hair cloth, 
tm-lo cottonades (^ ^ ,|^) and foreign satins (^ |g). 

The foreign traders (^ ]^) who deal in these merchandise, bring 
them to San-fo-ts'i and to Fo-lo-an to barter. 35 

The folio wing, countries are dependencies, of this country (of the Ta-shi): 

Ma-lo-mo {^ Rf ;^)" Nu-fa {fX ID 

Shi-ho (Ifll ^) Ya-ssi-pau-hien (l^ |Zg ^ P^) 




5 Lo-ssi-mei (P^ M H) i5 P'u-hua-lo (ff :^ ^) 

Mu-kii-lan (tK -^ M) Ts'6ng-pa (^ ^g)'^ 

K'ie-li-ki i^ ;f] ±) Pi-p'a-lo (^^^ g pk) 

-P'i-no-ye_(Bii; p^ ||J)>2 ^^_p^ ^^ ^^^ ' 

I-lu (P 1^) Wong-li (^ g) 

10 Pai-ta (^ )i) 20 Ki-shi (Ig ||) 

Ssi-lien (^, ^) Ma-kia (^ ^) 

Pai-lien (Q ^) Pi-ssi-lo ^g^ ||f ^) 

Tsi-ki {% ±) Ki-tz'i-ni (± ^ j/g) 

Kan-mei (-^ ^) Wu-ssi-li (^ ff ^)- 

This country (or people) was originally a branch of the Persians (y)j^ 
^). In the ia-ye period of the Sui dynasty (A. D. 605 — 617) there lived 
a high-minded and wise man among the Persians who found deep down in a 
hole a stone bearing an inscription, and this he took for a good omen. So he 
15 called the people together, took by force the things necessary (for arming 
men) and enrolled followers, who gradually increased in number till h^ 
became powerful enough to make himself king, and then he took possession 
of the western portjoq of Po-ssl. 

Since the ymg-hui period of the T'ang dynasty (A. D. 650—656) the 

20 Ta-shii have come repeatedly to our Court to present tribute. Before the time 

of their king P'6n-ni-mo-huan (^ X^ tIc ^ Beni MerwAn) they were called 

(.White-robed Ta-shi»; after A-p'o-lo-pa (|Jp|' ^ ^ ^^ Abu'l 'Abbds) they 

were called «Black-robed Ta-shi[» ". 

In the fourth year of the kHen-to period of the reigning dynasty (A. U, 
25 966) the bonze Hing-k'in (^ HJj) journeyed toi the Western Regions; on 
this occasion an (Imperial) letter to their king was granted to enlist his 
sympathy ". 

In the' first year of the k'ai-pau period (A. D. 968) they sent envoys with 
tribute to our Court, and in the fourth year (A. D. 971) they sent presents 
80 with Chan-ch'pag and Sho-p'o to Li Yii (^ j^) in Kiang-nan^®. Yu did 
not venture to accept them, so the' envoys submitted the matter to the Court, 
anrl an Order in Council was issued forbidding that tribute presents should 
henceforth be brought". 

In the, fourth year of the shun-hua period (A. D. 993) they sent tribute 

35 through the Assistant Envoy Li-a-wu (^ [(Jf ^) who stated, at an audience 

granted him in the Ch'ung-chong Audience Hall (of the Palace), that his 

country bordered on Ta-ts'in, and thatit produced ivory and rhinoceros 

hoiTis. The Emperor T'ai-tsung asked him how rhinoceros and elephants were 

118 THE AKABS. 1,22 

captured. He replied, «To capture elephants, we use decoy elephants to get 
so near them that we can catch them with a big lasso. To capture a rhino- 
ceros, a man with a bow and arrow climbs a big tree, where he watches for 
the animal until he can shoot and kill it. The young (rhinoceros) are not 
shot as they can be caught». 5 

The envoy was presented with a court dress, a hat and girdle, and, 
besides these, with as much gold as the tribute presents were worth '^ 

In the third year of the yung-hi period (A. D. 986) envoys of the Ta-shi 
came to Court with a mission from the Pin-t'ung-lung country "• 

In the sixth year Men-p'ing (A. D. 1003) they sent Ma-ni and others lo 
(Hfi Jg ^) with tribute of pearls and a request that return presents should 
not be made them. Although the Emperor Chon-tsung did not want to 
disregard their wish, when the envoys started on their homeward journey 
they were dismissed with extraordinary honours ^''. 

In the first year Jcmg-to (A. D. 1004) the (Arab) envoy remained behind is 
at the capital, together with the envoys from San-fo-ts'i and P'u-kan, to 
celebrate the Feast of Lanterns, on which occasion they were treated to their 
heart's content with money and wine (^ ^ |^ -^) *^ 

In the fourth year (A. D. 1007) they accompanied a tribute mission 
from Chan-ch'ong, and were on this occassion entertained with most parti- 20 
€ular attention, and also allowed to visit the Buddhist and Tauist temples 
9,nd the Imperial gardens and parks (^ g|) *^ 

During the ta-chung siang-fu period (A. D. 1008 — 1017), while the 
Emperor was absent in the eastern part of the Empire for sacrificial pur- 
poses, the chief T'o-p'o-li (^ ^^ "^f ) expressed the wish to be'allowed to 25 
present his tribute presents in person (to the Emperor) on the T'ai-shan 
(where he had gone to sacrifice). He was allowed to do so ^. 

In the fourth year (of the same period, i. e., 1011), while the Emperor had 
gone to F6n-yin (f^ ^) to make sacrifices, the envoy (T'o-p'o-li) came 
again, and was ordered by the Emperor to follow the Court**. 80 

According- to an old tradition told in, Kuang-ch6u (Canton), there was 
a man from the Ta-shi country by the name of Wu-si-hu-lu-hua (fe ^ 
M' ^ ^-)' ^^^ ^^^ attained to the age of an hundred and thirty years. He 
had double ear-beadings and an extraordinarily imposing aspect. He himself 
Stated that long ago, impelled by his high regard for the civilization of the 35 
Empire, he had embarked on a ship of the Ku-lo ("^ ^) country and had 
made the journey to China. The Emperor presented him with a brocade 
gown and a silver girdle, to" which he added a piece of silk^^ 

1,22 THE ARABS. 1 1 9 

In both the yuan-yu period (A. D. 1086 — 1094) and the ^'ai-M period 
(A. D. 1205— 1208) the Ta-shi sent missions to Court with tribute ^l 

A foreign trader (||: ]^) by the name of Shi-na-wei (^ M W)^ ^ 
Ta-shi by birth, established himself in the southern suburb of Ts'uan-ch6u. 
5 Disdaining wealth, but charitable and filled with the spirit of his western 
home, he built a charnel house (^ ^) in the south-western corner of the 
suburb (or outside the city in the south-west direction) as a last resting-place 
. for the abandoned bodies (jg ^) of foreign traders^'. The Customs Inspector 
Lin Chi-k'i {j^ ^ ^) has recorded this fact^s. 

10 Notes. 

1) Tfie name Ta-shi applied by the Chinese to the Arabs, and, as in the present work, to 
(the MohamoMfcan world, is the nameTaziorTay of western Asiatic writers. See Bretschneider, 
The knowledge possessed by the ancient Chinese of the Arabs and Arabian Colonies, 0. Among 
the earliest mentions of it in Chinese works is that of the pilgrim I-tsing, who, in the middle of 

15 the seventh century, speaks of the To-shi (^ .P^) "■^ interfering with travel on the road to 
Kapi^a. Chavannes, Eeligieux eminents, 25. Another still earlier reference as far as facts are 
concerned, occurs in the Tung-tien (193,22'') and the two T'ang-shu, where the first Arab embassy 
to the Chinese court is recorded under the year 651 A. D. In the Kiu Tang-shu (198,28*) the 
king's name is given as Ta-shi, \. e. Ta-shi was his «tribal» name (^ ~H^ ^j^ -^ ^^ .^)» '^'^ 

20 personal name being Han-mi-mo-mo-ni, probably a corruption for P'mir-al-Mumenin, the title of 
the caliph, at that time Othman. According to the T'ang-shu (221 B, lo), the ambassadors «said 
themselves that their king belonged to the Ta-shi tribe» (EJ '^ ^ -^ ■^l ^C)' ^^ 
appears from this that, whatever the origin of the Persian tasi may be, the king's tribal name, 
or his surname, was stated by some of his own subjects to be Ta-shI, though there may be a 

25 misunderstanding about that. The real meaning of the term, which appears as Tazi in Persian 
and Uiguric (Vambery, Eudatku bilik, 234), Tadjik or Taeik with the Armenians, Turks and 
Mongols, and Tayi, Ta-'i, Tayoye with the Syrians according to d'Ohsson (Histoire des Mon- 
gols, I, 217, note), and which Dionysius, Patriarch ofAntioch, in his history of the world (eighth 
century A. D.) refers to under the year 637 as Taj (Tajos vocat Dionysius, Assemani II, 103), 

30 is apparently quite uncertain, so much so that we could not even say with absolute confidence 
that they are all derived from the same root. Among the several forms in which the name 
appears Tadjik, or Tazik, is Ihe most likely to be represented by the Chinese Ta-shi, pronounced 
Tai-shik in Canton. But Ta-i as the ancient sound of -^ ^ is not quite impossible. The shl 
of Ta-shi being ranged with the group of characters anciently read shik, or chik, may be due to 

35 a guess made by the compilers of K'ang-hi's Dictionary. The reading i, though not the usual 
one, is certainly backed by old sound authorities (R'ang-hi, s. v. ^ ad flnem: J^ ^ -^ -^ 
S,), so that Ta-shi may possibly stand for Ta-i. Bretschneider (Mediaeval Kesearches, I, 
268, note) says «that d'Ohsson is wrong in stating that the Mongols called the Mahommedans 
Tadjik; that, in early times [query: how early?] the Persians were called Tadjik, and even now- 

40 a-days this name is applied in Turkestan and Transoxiana to the aboriginal Iranian population 

2) This and the preceding paragraph are partly taken from Chou K'«-fei (8,2). Conf. 
supra, p. 89, lines 3—6 and p. 120, n. 5; our author has attempted to edit the text of the Ling-wai- 
tai-ta, but with no success. Ch6u says: «The name Ta-shi (3/1^ ^ ^ ^ H) i» ^ collective 

-45 appellation for several countries. There are fully a thousand and more countries, but of those of 
' which we know the name's there are only these few. ^^ __, 

«There is the country of Ma-li-pa (|§ft ^f ;^g or R^ ^^); ships leaving Kuang- 

120 THE AKABS. 1,22 

clou during or after the eleventh mcon (Deceniter) and tailing vith a northerly wind, can make 
the country called Lan-li (^ ||_ i. e., N. W. Sumatra) in forty days. Here they trade, buying 
sapan-wccd, tin, and long vhite rattans. The following year, in winter, they set to sea again and, 
with a uorth-easlcily wind favouring them, they maliC the voyage to this countiy of Ma-li-pa, 
(i. c., the Hadramaut coast of Arabia) in some sixty days. 5 

«The products (of Ma-li-pa) are frankincense, ambergris, pearls, opaque glass, ihinoceros 
horns, ivory, coral, putchuk, myrrh, dragon's-blood, asa-foetida, liquid storax, oak-galls and 
rose-water, to trade in all of which the countries of the Ta-shi resort to ibis place». See for the 
remainder of Ch6u's description of Ma-li-pa, infia p. 121, note 11. The other countries of the 
Ta-shii mentioned by Ch6u K'u-fe'i are Ma-kia, Pai-ta, Ki-tz'i-ni, Mei-lu-ku-tun and '\Yu-SEii-li; 10 
his remarks on them are translated in subsequent notes to this work. 

3) Mi-sa-li is the Mizraim of the Hebrews, our Egypt. The Aiabic Misr, derived from the 
Hebrew, was applied by the Arabs to the capital of Egypt. In another chapter (XXXVI), derived 

in all likelihood from different sources, our author writers the name Wu-ssi-li (^wj ^T J^ in ' 
Cantonese Mat-ssi-li). In the Yiian period the Chinese wrote the name Mi-ssi-ir (j?^ ffl^ -^)' "• 
See Bretschneider, J. C. B. B. A.S., X, 29f', and Mediaeval Eesearches, I, 141, II, 135. In 
another passage (Ch. XXXVI) our author calls the capital of Egypt Kie-ye, which is al-Kahirah,' 
the name given the new city founded in 973 A. D. The popular Arabic name of Cairo is Kisi; 
al-kahirah. Chau evidently thought that Mj-sO-li and Ma-lo-pa were the same place. He ^ot his 
more or less original information and that derived frcm Chou K'tl-fei badly jumbled. Ch6.u'B 20 
notes only referred to Ma-li-pa. 

4) This description of the king's dress and of his palace resepibles what he ,tells us 
elsewhere of those of the king of Ta-ts'in. Conf. also infra, Ch. XXXVI. Lii-kati, Canton dialect 
luk-iow, is apparently a transcription of Arabic and Persian rttkham, nmarblc», or,«alabaEter», 
JJuQrsM, literally olive stone», may stand for Iva-nh'i, y© ^\, soap-stone, of which it js, aij 25 
equiTalent, accoiding to Geerts, Les produits- de la nature Japonaise et Chinoise, 434 seq. 
Porter Smith, Contributions towards the materia medica, etc., of China, 205, distinguishes it 

as osteatitej), which he says ((differs from larditone in containing magnesia, havijng the composition 
of a silicate, of magnesia and aluminai), and (ISO) he says of k'uai-huorsM (rat V^ -?l) t^*^* 
it entered'into the composition of some of the old Chinese pottery of the best kind». Cf. Julien, 30 
Histoire et fabrication de la Chinoise, 76, 256 et seqq. 

5) This paragraph and also the preceding ones of this chapter, when in quotation-marks, 
as wejl as lines 4—5 on p. 116, are substantially taken from the statements made to the Chinese 
court by Arabs who came there in the chovg-ho period of the Sung (A. D. 1111—1118). They 
did not mention the name of the capital of their country, hence our author's •. uncertainty 35 
concerning it. See Sung-shi, 490,i4. One is inclined to think that our author is .describing some 
other city thaij Cairo, possibly Baghdad pr Damascus; but it is mpre likely that this picture of 
tjie capital of the Ta-shi is, like many of those pf Chau Ju-kua, a composite one; 

6) Most of this paragraph is taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta; see infra, p. 121, n. 11. The drink : 
called sst is probably Persian $herle1, iharah tiadrangl t, drink, wir.e». Mtn, ss'i-ia and /.mo may 40 
haye to he distinguished, the two first as transcriptions, the latter as a generic term, meaning 
aflowec winei), the term hua-ts'iu, ^ ^ being backed by a number of passages quoted in 
the Pi6n-tzi-lei-picp, 203,17. In another passage (infra, pj 127, n. 4) three kinds of drinks afc 
mentioned, mi, sha and Ma; it seems probable that we should likewise distinguish three here; ' 
we?, fsi-ta and hva. Both transcriptions represent the same original forms, whatever they may be. 45 
Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 4,^^ says that «in Po-ssi, Fu-lin and adjacent countries they ferment rice or 
seed of some kind in meat juice, When, after. some days, it has become wine, it is an intoxicating 

7) In Cantonese Ma-ha-mat, the Prophet Mohammed. The fast referred to is, of course 
that of Bamadan. The weekly cutting of hair and nails is a quotation from I>ing-wai-tai-ta, 3,8*. 50 
See4nfra,-Gh. XXX. 

Ij22 TUB ARABS. 121 

8) Confer what our author says here of the Nile with his other account of it in Ch XXX. 
Ch6u K'tt-fei did not know of the Nile; our author, so far as we are aware, is the earliest 
Chinese author to refer to it. 

9) This may he a reference to Kolzum on the Ked Sea, the Clysma of late classical writers, 
5 and to the canal re-opened by Amru somewhere about A. D. 642 between the Nile and the Eed Sea, 

and which appears to have followed very closely the line of the Fresh-water Canal of the present 
day. After its re-oponing by Amru it remained navigable for eighty years, when, choked with sand, 
it was again abandoned. Muir, Annals of the early Caliphate, 244. Another possible and more 
probable explanation is that it refers to OboUah and Basra, a district famous for its canals, which, 
10 accordiug'to Ib'n Haukal, exceeded 100,000 in number, and of these 20,000 were navigable for 
boats. Le Strange, Land of the Eastern Caliphate, 46. 

10) The list of products here given includes the most important ones brought to China by 
the Arabs from various countries of the West; more detailed descriptions of them arc given in 
Part II this work. 

15 , 11) The last character is certainly an error, it should be ^a(ii&). In another passage (Pt. II, 

Ch. XXXVI) our author, however, writes the name Ma-Io-mo (^^ R|^ -f^)- ^^ shown in a pre- 
vious note (supra, p. 25 note 3-) the country referred to is Mirbat (Lb^) on the Hadramaut 
coast of Arabia. Ch6u K'fl-fei says of it (3,2, continuing the passage quoted supra, pp. 119—120): 
«The king of the country, the officers and the people all worship Heaven (i. e. are iloslims). The 

20 gentry wear turbans of white silk falling down the back; they have designs in gold thread in them; 
Their clothes are. made of white yui-no stuff with golden characters in it, or else of brocades (f 
sundry kinds. They wear red leather boots. They live in five-storied houses. They eat wheaten 
cakes, meat and milk. The poor eat fish and vegetables. The soil does not produce rice. The fruits 
they produce are more sweet than sour. They make wine from grapes. There is also the drink 

25 (called) ssi (}^^ ^^ V®) ''^hich is a decoction of sugar and spices. Mixing honey and spices 
they make drinks (called) me?, ss'i-la, hua ( j^ ^^ :J*J' 3pE), which are heating and stimulating. 
Their coins are of toth gold and silver. (It is a place) where big ships and wealthy traders con- 
gregate ( g ^ *M ^ "^1^ ^ )• ^"^ *'"'' *^''''^ y^'"' J/"«w-2/'« of Ch&-tsuug (1088 A. D.) in 
the eleventh moon, people sent by the Ta-shi of Ma-lo^pa presented tribute to our Court. Now this 

30 Ma-lo-pa is the same as Ma-li-pa» {^ ^^ -l'^)' ^'''"^■s''*'i makes sundry mentions' of «the 

country of Ma-lo-pa of the Ta-shi». It records (17,s) the coming of the mission of 1088, spoken of 

by Ch6u K'u-fei, and also (17,i3) that of missions from the same country in 1089 and in 1094. ■ 

12) Shi'-ho is Shehr, another port on the Hadramaut coast, of considerable importance in 

mediaeval times; it is the Esher (or Soer) of Marco Polo, sec Yule's, Marco Polo (2^ edit.), II, 

'35 324, 439 and Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, SOO. See also infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXV. 

Nu-fa is Zufar, the modern Dhofar f^UJi), the Dufar of Polo, about 400 miles E^of Shehr. 

Yule, op. oH., II. 441-442, Hey d, op. cit., II, 015. Ming-shi, 326, calls it Tsu-fa-ir (|g^ ^ ^). 

• " Ya-ssi-piin-hito, in Amoy dialect A-su-pau-han, is Ispahan or Isfahan. In the Yuan 

period we find the name written I-ssi-fa-hang (:^ ,g, ^ i^). Cretschneider, J. C. B'. 

40 A. S., X, See also infra, Pt. II, Ch. IX. 

Lo shJ-mei in Cantonese Lo-shi-mi, appears to be a tiimcated transcription of Khwaiizm, 
the country south of the sea of Aral; Lo-shi-mei probably representing the sound rizm. See alsd 
infra, Pt. II, Ch. IX. It is called Ho-li-si-mi-kia ( ^ ^|] ^ ^ jjp ) by H U a n-t s a ng (J u 1 i e n, 
HI, 283), andis probably first referred to (Ts'ien Han-shu, 96A, 176) as one of the dependencies of 

45 K'ang-k'u (Sogdiana) under the name of Au-kien (^ ^), the old sound of which characters, 
according -to Yen Shi-ku, was Dk-ken, which may be connected with the name of the present city 
of Kuhne, (Old) Urgendj, the GorgSniya of the Middle Ages. In the commentary on this passage (see 
Han-shu Si-yQ-chuan-pu-chu, l,si) Au-kien is identified with Huan-tsa^'s Ho-li-si-mi-kia,andthe 
abbreviated names (appearing in T'ang-shu, 22 1 B,5)of Huo-siin (^ ^) andKuo-li()j^ ^|J), 

50 which the T'ang-shu says correspond with the site of the ancient city of Au-kien The description 
of the T'ang-shu leaves but little doubt about the identification of all these names with 

122 THE AKABS. 1)22 

Mu-ku-lan, in Cantonese Muk-ku-lan, is the Makran province; there is another reference 
to it in Pt. II, Ch. XXIX. 

K'ie-li-ki, in Cantonese K'e-li-kat, is presumably Kalhat, the Calatu of Marco Tolo 
II, 448). It carried on a lively trade with India in mediaeval times. It was subject to the prince 
of Hormuz. _ ^ 

P'i-no-ye, in Amoy dialect Fi-lok-ya, is a transcription of Arabic Ifrikya, Africa, but 
applied by the Arabs to that part of it which included the present Tunis and Tripoli. See Hirth, 
Die Lander des Islam, 27, note 6 and infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXXI. 

13) I-lu, appears to be the province of Irak. There is no other reference to it. 

Pai-ta is Baghdad, see infra, Ch. XXX. '" 

Ssi-lien, may very likely be Siraf (■-i\j-y>^) on the Persian Gulf, which in the ninth and 
tenth centuries was the starting-point of the Arab ships engaged in the Indian and Chinese trade. 
It may, however, be Shiraz. Our author makes no' other reference to it. 

Pai-lien, the island of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf. This is the only reference to it. 

Tsi-ki, jn CantoneserTsik-kat, possibly the port of Tiz on the Makran coast and in 15 
mediaeval times its chief commercial centre. See Holdich, The Gates of India, 298—301. The 
name does not occur elsewhere in this or other Chinese works of the time. 

Kan-mei, in Cantonese Kom-mui, in Amoy dialect Kam-bi. The name suggests the Comoro 
islands. It does not occur in any other passage of this work. It is hardly likely to be Cambay, 
which our author refers to under the name of Kan-pa-i (supra, p. 88). 20 

P'u-hua-lo, is Bokhara. See Bretschneider, J. C. B. E. A. S., X, 240. 

Ts'6ng-pa, probably the Zanzibar coast; see infra, Ch. XXIV. 

Pi-p'a-lo, is the Berbera coast, see infra, Chs. XXV and XXVII. 

Wu-pa, possibly Sohar L\s^) on the Persian Gulf; see infra, Ch. XXVI. 

"WSng-li, is an error for VV6ng-(or Yung-)man, Oman; see infra, Ch. XXVIIl. 25 

Ki-shi, is the island of Kish (Keis), in the Persian Gulf; see infra, Ch. XXIX. 

Ma-kia, is Mecca; see infra, Ch. XXIII. 

Pi-ssi-lo, is Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf; see infra, Ch. XXXI. 

Ki-tz'i-ni possibly Ghazni; see infra, Ch. XXXII. 

Wu-ssi-li, in Cantonese Mat-ssi-li, is Mosul or Misr; see infra, Chs. XXXIII and XXXVI. 30 

14) This and the preceding paragraph are based on T'ang-shu, 221*. See Bretschneider, 
Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 7,9. The Sung-shi, 490,ia quotes these two paragraphs textually. It 
seems extraordinary that the Chinese should have had such a very vague notion of the Prophet's 
history and of the rise of Arab power. The Omayyad Merwin II, the l9,st Caliph of the house of 
Omayya, was killed in A. D, 7gO. Abu'l-Abbis, the first of the Abbaside Caliphs («Black-robed 35 
Ta-shi»), was proclaimed Caliph th^ same year at Kufa. Mohammed's Call was in A. D. 609 or 
610; this may be the event referred to in our text. 

15) Sung-shi, 2,s, says that on this occasion 157 persons were sent fdrth by the Emperor 
to visit the Western regions, to each of whom was given 30,000 cash. In book 490,16, this para- 
graph of our text is reproduced with only slight changes. 40 

16) Li Yu, Prince of the Southern T'ang, after making his submission to the first Emperor 
of the Sung in A. D. 972, rebelled three years later and held Nanking against the imperial forces 
under Ts'au Pin. The city was taken by storm and the principality incorporated in the Empire. 
Macgowan, History of China, 365—366. Mayers, Chinese Reader's Manual, 231. 

17) Ta-shii continued, however, to come to the Court of the Sung. Sung-shi', 2, 3, and 4, 45 
make mention of their presence there in 973, 974, 975, 976, etc. In 976, the Ta-shii seem to have 
formed an official mission, the only one recorded down to that of 1019. In connexion with the 
•mission of 976, Snng-shi, 3,io'' says the Prince of the Ta-shI was called K'o-li-fu (IpT ^^ iffl 
Caliph) and the envoy's name was P'u-hi-mi (^ ^ ^S or Pu-lo-hai ^ li^ yS in an- 
other passage (490,16*'), both forms transcribing probably Abu-Hamid). Sung-shi, 490,18*' mentions 50 
a Li-a-wu, who in 1008 sent presents to Court; he is called «ship-mastcr» (-JM i). See 
infra, note 23. A mission under an Arab came from P'o-ni (Borneo) in 977. See, infra," p. 157. 

1,22 THE ARABS. 123 

18) The oCourt Chronicles of the Sung-shi does not mention any visit of the Ta-shi in 
993, though there is one recorded in 994. A mission which came to the court in 993, is referred 
to in some detail in Sung-shi, ^gOjie* et seqq. The head of the mission was again the one 
mentioned before as P'u-hi-mi (Abu-Hamid), ali&s- Piv4o-hai. He is described as the master of 

5 an Arab vessel, but being too old and sick to proceed to court himself, he sent his assistant 
captain Li-a-wu with his credentials, in which he addresses the Emperor on his own behalf, 
thanking him for past favours bestowed on him and the foreign trade at Canton, while 
explaining the reasons for his not submitting his tribute in person. Then again in 995 a tribute 
mission arrived under the o8hip-master» P'n-ya-t'o-li (^ iffl K^ ^^)' ^^° deputed P'u- 

10 hi-mi (Abu-Hamid) again to offer his tribute at court. During the audience the emperor enquired 
about his country, when he stated, among other details, that «it was conterminous with Ta-ts'in, 
which, being a dependency, was now governed by his native country)) ( e3. ~7C ^^ ^ >|iH 
||lJ-^^j^J@-^;7|S0jS/f^;^). Then follows the account of the elephant 
and rhinoceros hunting. It will be seen that Chau Ju-kua differs by two years as to the date 

15 of the audience. In 988 P'u-ya-t'o-lr came again- as envoy from San-fo-ts'i. 

19) Sung-shi, 5,a4 records a visit to the Court of China of Ta-shi and people from Pin- 
t'ung-lung in the third year elii-tau (A. D. 997), but none in the third year yUng-hi; the nien- 
hau only differing. See also Sung-shi, 490,18^' and supra, p. 52, note 3. 

20) Between the visit of 997 and that of 1003, Sung-shi, 6,8, records the coming in 999 of 
•20 « South-western barbarians, people of Chan-ch'ong and Ta-shi». The following year it notes (6,ii) 

the coming of people from Ta-shi, Korea, and Kau-chou ( "^ J>|4 ) aborigines. Concerning the 
mission of 1003, two references are made to it, in the first (7,2) it is simply stated that in the sixth 
year hien-p'ing San-fo-ts'i and the Ta-shi came with presents. In the second reference (490,18'') it 
is said that in the sixth year hien-p'ing the Ta-shi sent as envoys dP'o-lo-k'in, San-ma-ni and 

25 othersB (j^ ^S ^|^ ^_ ^ J8 ^^) with tribute. oMa-ni and the others were received 
in audience in the tJhung-ch'Sng tien (hall), etc.)). Bretschneider, Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 
15, referring to this mission (he puts it in 1004, and gives the name of the envoy as Po-kin-lo-san- 
mo-ni), is of opinion that the last three sounds of this name indicate an allusion to the Arabian 
dynasty of the Samanides, who reigned till the beginning of the eleventh century in the East and 

30 had their capital in Bokhara. Chavannes, Le Nestorianisme, 38, 40—41, says of the word 
Ma-(or Mo-)ni ( ^ IE also written "^P y|j^) that it was used solely to designate Mohamme- 
dans. He refers to this mission of 1003 as a proof that the Mani were Moslim. According to 
Broomhall, Islam in China, 05, n. 2, Mo-ni has been sometimes used, erroneously, by tho 
Chinese to transcribe the word Mullah. He gives an example of this in the K'ien-lung inscription 

35 of 1764 in the Peking mosque on the Ch'ang-an-ta-chieh. Devgria, Musulmans et Manicheens 
chinois (Journ. Asiat., 1897, X, 477) looks upon the words P'o-lo-k'in-san-ma-ni as an Arabic 
name, such as Balkin- Samftni, or Balkin-^s-Samani. But this seems improbable. Samani is 
wrong, and Dev§ria confounded Samani (JiLoLw) and Sam' ani (^U^-w); furthermore Balkin 
cannot be an Arabic word. 

40 21) Sung-shi, 490,18'" referring to this mission, uses the same language as our author, but, 

instead of the last four characters used by Chau, it has ^ |^ j^ ^ ^ -pj, 

22) Conf. Sung-shi, 7,14'' and 490,18". 

23) According to Sung-shi, 7,i9, T'o-p'o-li came to Court in 1008, with people from San- 
fo-ts'i and csouth-western barbarians». In another passage (490,13'') it is said that in the third 

45 year hien-p'ing (A. D. 1000) «the ship-master (^ ^) T'o-p'o-li sent as his messenger Mu- 
ki-pi {^ ^^ ^) with presents to the Emperor; when Mu-ki-pi went back the Emperor 
sent to T'o-pVli a letter and also vessels (of porcelain), clothes, a saddle and a horse... :» In 
the tenth moon of the first year ta-chung siang-fu (A. D. 1008), while the Emperor was absent 
in the eastern part of the Empire for sacrificial purposes, T'o-p'o-li asked to be allowed to go 

50 to the T'ai-shan to there offer his presents to the Emperor. He was allowed to do so. (The_same 
year) the ship-master Li-a-wu (see supra, p. 117, line 35) sent a messenger Ma-(hia-)wu (^j^ /^ 
Mohammed) by name, who presented to the Emperor a jade -stone badge (^ ^). of great 

124: MECCA. 1,22 

beauty ...» These references are of great interest as showing the closeness of the commercial 
relations existing between the Arab traders and the Court of China. The Sung-shi contains 
frequent references to these Arab ship-owners and their visits to the court of the Sung emperors. 
To-p'o-li was apparently given a Chinese title on the occasion of his visit of 1008, for in 1011 
he is called ((General who has returned to virtueu (^ 4^ ij|^ W). He was again at 5 
Court in 1019. Similar titles were conferred on other Arabs on subsequent occasions. 

24) Fen-yin, is the present "VVan-ch'uau (Mi -^) in P'u-ch6u-fu in southern Shan-si. 
Playfair, Cities and Towns, A?! 7001. Conf. Sung-shi, 8,i and 480,19", where the list of presents 
is given; T'o-p'o-li is there spoken of as «K'ui-to tsiang-kiin T'o-p'o-li». 

25) Sung-shI, 490,19* reproduces this story with a slight variant; it begins by saying: 10 
«In 1012 it was said in Kuang-chou that the Ta-shi Wu-si-hu-lu-hua had lived to the age of 
130i), etc. Jt is iilan^ven in the Tung-si-yang-k'au, i,&^; the hero of the story is there said to 
have come from Acheen in Sumatra (p3§ 7^ ), nwhich was formerly a Ta-shi country»; from 
which we may infer that, in the Min^ period, Ku-lo was supposed to have been on the Sumatra 
coast. Conf. supra, p. 76. .15 

26) Sung-shi, 17,is, says that in 1094 people from Maii-li (^& ^^ a country otherwise 
unknown, but which may be the same as the Mo-lai of the T'ang period, i. e., Kulam-Male), Ma- 
lo-pa (Itofi, PS ^j^ or ^^ Mirbat) and Arabs (Ta-shi) brjpught presents to Court. No visit is 
recorded during the k'ai-hi period (Sung-shI, 38,8-18). 

27) Ts'u4n-ch6u-fu-chi, as quoted in T'u-shu-tsi-ch'orig (Sect. VI, Cb. 1045), says that on 20 
the Ling-shan, or aHill of soulso, in the south-eastern part of Ts'uan-ch6u were the Mohammedan 
tombs or the atombs of the Medina-men» as they were called. We have shown in a preceding 
note (supra, p. 14, n. 4) that there is some evidence that Islam was brought to Ts'uari-chdii 

in the early part of the seventh century. T'u-shu-tsi-ch'ong (Sec. VI, Ch. 1500), quoting local 
chronicles, says that a mosque called the Ch'ing-ching-ssi, was built by Moslims (Hu-jon) during 25 
the period 1131 to 1163. ' 

28) Sung-shi, 334,10 gives a biography of Lin Chi-k'i; he is there called Customs Inspeictof 
of Min (Fu-kien). He died in 1170. He wrote a. number of works, one called Tau-shan-ki-w6u 
(^ W bS ^) is possibly that referred to. See Hirth, Lander dcs Islam, 33. 



••" ■ ■ Ma-kia mM)- ,. . 

The country of Ma-kia is reached if qne travels from the country of 
Ma-lo-pa for eighty days westward liy land. 

This is the place where the Buddha Ma-hia-wu (^ g^ ^) was born. 35 
In the House of the Buddha the walls are made of jade stone (or precious 
stones) of every colour. Every year, when the anniversary of the death of the 
Buddha comes round, the people from all the countries of the Ta-shi assemble 
Jiere, jslieu -ihey vie with each other in bringing presents of gold, silver, 

1,23 MECCA. ] 25 

jewels and precious stoues. Then also is the House adorned anew with silk 

Farther oif there is the tomb of the Buddha. Continually by day and 
night there is at this place such a brilliant refulgence (p; ^) that no one 
5 can approach it; he who does loses his sight. 

Whosoever in the hour of his death rubs his breast with dirt taken 
from this tomb, will, they say, be restored to life again by the power of the 


10 The journey from Mirbat on the H^dramaut coast, through the Tehama (south-west coast 

of Arabia) to Mecca was the old trade-route of the Sabeans, it is presumably the one referred to 
in our text. 

The whole of this chapter is taken from Ch6u K'tt-fei (3,2*'). He says: aThere is the country 
■ of Ma-kia, which is reached if one journeys for eighty days and more westward by land from the 

15 country of Ma-li-pa. It is the place, where the Buddha Ma-hia-wu (Mohammed) was born. In the 
House (^ ~)j ^) of the Buddha, the facings of the walls of the rooms are of precious stones 
(^)-of every colour. Every year, when the anniversary of the Buddha's death comes roiind, all 
the princes of the Ta-shi send people bearing presents of jewels, gold and silver, and they cover 
the House (yjf ^^ i. e., the Kaaba) with silk brocades. Yearly the (various) countries (of the 

20 Ta-shi) come here to visit the House and to offer prayers. Furthermore the high officials of these 

countries are not deterred by a journey of a myriad U; they all assemble to worship the House. 

ccFarther off (literally, Bbehind» .:i^) there is the tomb of the Buddha, where day and 

night there is such a brilliant refulgence that no one can approach it, those who do shut their 

eyes ('^ BM' ^^^ ^^^ ^y- ■'* ^* ^^'"^ ^^^^ '^ ^ ^^'^ ^^ dying and takes some dirt from oif this 

25 tomb and smears it on his breast, he is restored to life, so great is the power of this Buddha!» 

Chou K'ii-fei is, so far as lam aware, the first Chinese author who wrote of Mecca. The 

T'ang-shu (22l'',23) speaks of Mohammed (|$ =|n[ ^) and of Medina (^ Jjjj ^|5), of the 

Black Stone of the Kaaba, but not of Mecca. It gives, however, some interesting information about 

Islam which our author might with advantage have incorporated in his work^ Among other 

30 things, it speaks of the five daily prayers to the nSpirit of Heavenu (^^ )Iiw)i ^°^ of the 
mosques, which it calls li-t'ang (mp ^), and which can hold many hundreds of people. aHere 
every seven days the king from a high seat speaks to those below saying: 'Those who die fighting 
shall be born in Heaven; those who kill an enemy shall receive happiness)). 

The oHouse of the Buddha)) of Chou's text is not the Prophet's birthplace (Maulid el Naby) 

85 in Mecca, but the oHouse of Allah» (Bayt Ullah), better known as the Kaaba or ocube housei); 
the Chinese name {~fj ^) has the same sense. In the Yuan and Ming periods Mecca was 
called «The Heavenly square)) (^ ~^)j ^^ abbreviation of the earlier name. 

Burton, Pilgrimage to El Medinah and Meccah, II, 278 says that the birthday of the 
Prophet (twelfth of the month Eabi' el Auwal) is celebrated in Mecca with great festivities, feasts, 

40 prayers and perusals of the Koran. 

On the brilliant light which is said to emanate from the tomb of the Prophet, con£ what 
Barthema, who was in Medina in 1503, says ofit in his travels (Purchas, His Pilgrimes, IX, 66). 
When visiting the tomb of the Prophet, the Elders who accompanied him and the Captain of his 
party suddenly cried out; awe asked what was the cause of that exclamation. The Elders 

45 answered: Saw you, not the lightning which shone out of the Sepulchre of the Prophet Mahumet, 
Our Captaine answered, that he saw nothing; and we also being demanded, answered in like 

manner It is therefore to be understood, that none other shining came out of the 

Sepulchre, than a (iertaine flame which the Priests caused to come out of the place of the Tower 
spoken of here before, whereby they would have deceived us)). . . , 

126 ZANGUEBAK. ' 1)23 

Burton, op. cit., I, 309, n. 311, n., says that there is a superstitious story connected with, the 
tomb of the Prophet (Masjid El Nabawi or .(Prophet's Mosque») in Medina, that when the 
eunuchs who have charge of the tomb enter the baldaquin to place over the tomb a new kiswah, 
they guard their eyes with veils against the supernatural splendours which pour from the tomb. 
These eunuchs say that anyone who ventures to approach the tomb would be at once blinded by 
the supernatural light. 


Ts'6ng-pa (^ ^f J). 

The Ts'oDg-pa country is on an island of the sea south of Hu-ch'a-la. i« 
To the west it reaches to a great mountain'. 

The inhabitants are of Ta-shi stock and follow the Ta-shi religion. They 
wrap themselves in blue foreign cotton stuffs (|S ^ # ^) and wear red 
leather shoes. Their daily food consists of meal, baked cakes (^ '^) and 
mutton^. 15 

There are many villages, and a succession of wooded hills and terraced 

rocks^ mn\h^^m^^m§.)- 

The climate is warm, and there is no cold season. 

The products of the country consist of elephants' tusks, native gold, 
ambergris and yellow sandal-wood. 20 

Every year Hu-ch'a-la and the Ta-shii localities along the sea-coast send 
ships to this country with white cotton cloth, porcelain, copper, and red 
cotton* (j^ ^ ^) to trade. 


1) Ts'5ng-pa, in Cantonese Tsang-pat, is Zange-bar or Zanzibar «the region of the Blackss 
which, according to Masudi (Prairies d'or. III, 7), extended along the east coast of Africa «from 
the channel issuing from the upper Nile* (presumably the Eiver Jubb) to the land of Sofala and 
of the Wakwak. Marco Polo regarded the coast of Zanzibar as belonging to a great island like 
Madagascar. Yule & Burnell, Glossary, 746.Ma3udi(op. cit.. Ill, 31)included in the land of the 
Zanj the islands along their coast, including that of Kanbalu (presumably Pemba) in which he tells 80 
us (op. cit., I, 232) there lived a population of Mohammedans and Zanj idolaters. See infra, Ch. 

The mention of a great mountain on the western border of the Ts'6ng-pa country is very 
interesting; can it be Kilimanjaro? The placing of Ts*6ng-pa to the south of Guzerat is readily 
explained by the iact that junks going from Guzerat to the east coast of Africa would have to 35 
sail a general southerly course. See supra, p. 79, line 26 et seqq. 

2) These Ta-shi lived probably in some town, Quiloa perhaps, on the coast. Ibn Batuta, 
II, 192 says that Culua (Quiloa) was a great city whose inhabitants were for the most part Zanj 
of very dark complexion. Masudi (op. cit., Ill, 6, 30—31) says that the Zanj were of the same 

1)21 ZAXOUEBAK. 127 

stock as the Abyssinians, they had no religion, but each man worshipped whatsoever he pleased, 
a plant, an animal, a stone. 

3) Masudi, op. cit. III, 7—8, says, that the country of the Zanj was 700 parasaug long 
and as many wide. It was «cut by valleys and mountains and sandy deserts*. 
5 4) Masudi, op. cit., Ill, 7—8, says the land of the Zanj abounded in elephants; also that 

the ivory was shipped to Oman and thence to India and China. See also infra. Pt. II. Chs. XXXVI, 
XXXVIIl. Marco Polo (II, 404) says that on the island of Madagascar «they had many trees 
of red Sanders of excellent quality; in fact, all their forests consist of it». See also infra, Pt. II, 
Ch. XII. Marco Polo, II, 416 says of Zenghibar: «the staple trade of the Island is in elephant's 
10 teeth, which are very abundant; and they have also much ambergris, as whales are plentiful)). 
The reference to sandal-wood as a product of Ts'6ng-pa is interesting, it was probably brought 
there from Madagascar, which seems vaguely referred to in Ch. XXXVIIl, 2. 

Chinese porcelain of the Sung dynasty has beOn found in Zanzibar. Dr. S. W. Bushell 
says (North China Daily News, May 9, 1888): aSir John Kirk during his residence as Consul- 
15 General at Zanzibar, made a collection of ancient Chinese c61adon porcelain... Some of it was 
dug up, I believe from ruins, mixed with Chinese cash of the Sung dynasty ...» See also 
Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 55—57 and S. W. Bushell. Description of Chinese pottery and 
porcelain, XVI. 

Theo. Bent found among the ruins in the fort of Gibliah on the island of Bahrein, numerous 
20 fragments of afine Nankin and Celadon china, attesting to the ubiquity and commerce of the 
former owners ...» Southern Arabia, 18. 

_^ Sung-shJ, 490,20''— 21", contains a short description of a country called Ts'Sng-t'an (^^^ 

^|g) which we are disposed to think is practically the same as the Ts'ong-pa of our author, or 

some place in it, though the second character of the name is puzzling. It reads as follows: 

25 «Ts'Ong-t'an is on the Southern Ocean. The town is twenty U from the sea-coast. In the fourth year 

hi-ning (A. D. 1071) it brought presents to our Court for the first time. Travelling by sea, and with a 

favourable wind (the monsoon), the envoy took a hundred and sixty days. He passed by Wu-siin [^ 

^j[^ presumably some place near Maskat), Ku-lin ("i" jm Quilon) and San-fo-ts'i (Palembang), and 

came to Kuang-ch6u. The ruler of the country was named A-mei-lo A-mei-lan (H5 a& .^S 

30 H5 jM BJ [Pers. amir-i-amirdn]). They (the A-mei-lo) had ruled the country for live hundred 

years (during which time there had been) ten generations. The language sounds like that of the 

Arabs (Ta-shi). The climate (of Ts'ong-t'an) is warm all the year. The wealthy people wear turbans 

of yue-{no) stuff and clothes of flowered brocade, or of po-tie cloth. They go forth riding elephants 

or on horseback. They have official salaries. According to their laws light offenses are punished 

35 with the bamboo, serious crimes with death. 

«0f cereals, they have rice, millet and wheat. For food they eat fish. Of animals they 
have sheep (j^ ^)> gov'ts, buffalo ('/4? 2fc.), water-buffalo, camels, horses, rhinoceros and 
elephants. Of drugs they have putchuck, dragon's-blood, myrrh, borax, asa-foetida, frankincense. 
Of products, pearls, glass (p'o-K), and three kinds of drinks called ini[^^ Persian, mei, «wine») 
40 sha (yb Arab-Persian, sTiarah, sherbet) and hua (^ ?). In commercial transactions they use 
coins made by the Government only; three parts are of gold and copper in equal proportion, the 
fourth of silver. The people are forbidden coining them themselves. 

oin the sixth year yuan-fong (A. D. 1088) the envoy Pau-shun-Iang-tsiang Ts'6ng-k'ie-ni 

(/p lllg hR (J^ fe' -Hm R the last three characters may mean «tho Zanj))) came again to 

45 Court. The Emperor Shon-tsung, considering the very great distance he had come, besides giving 

him the same presents which had been formerly bestowed on him, added thereto 2,000 ounces 

of silvers. 

128 liEEBEKA COAST, 1,25 


Pi-p'a-lo iWi E W- 

The country of Pi-p'a-lo contains four cities ( jf|); the other (places) are 
all villages which are (constantly) at feud and fighting with each others. 5 

The inhabitants pray to Heaven and not to the Buddha ^ 

The land produces many camels and sheep, and the people feed 
themselves with the flesh and milk of camels and with baked cakes (^ f^y. 

The (other) products are ambergris, big elephants' tnsks and big rhino- 
ceros horns. There are elephants' tusks which' weigh over one hundred catties, 10 
and rhinoceros horns of over ten catties weight. 

The land is also rich in putchuck, liquid storax gum, myrrh, and tortoise 
shell of extraordinary thickness, for which there is a great demand in other 
countries *. 

«The country brings forth also the (so-called) «camel-crane» {^ ,B|£ ^|), 15 
which measures from the ground to its crown from six to seven feet. It has 
wings and can fly, but not to any great height» ^. 

There is also (in this country) a wild animal called isu-la (^5. ^); it 
resembles a camel in shape, an ox in size, and is of a yellow colour. Its fore 
legs are five feet long, its hind legs only three feet. Its head is high up and 20 
turned upwards. Its skin is an inch thick®. 

There is also (in this country) a kind of mule with brown, white and 
black stripes around its body. These animals wander about the mountain 
wilds; they are a variety of the camel (^ ^"^ ;^ ^|j ^ j^). The inhab- 
itants of this country, who are great huntsmen, hunt these animals with 25 
poisoned arrows'. 


1) Pi-p'a-lo, in Cantonese, Pat-pa-lo, which represents Par-pa-ra (see Hirth, CMnesische 
Studien, I, 33), is Berbera, the Somali coast generally. The earliest mention of this country in 
Chinese works is probably in the Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 4,8*', which was written in the middle of the 30 
ninth century. It runs as follows: «The land of Pa-pa-li (^^ J^ "fl Cantonese, Pat-pat-lik) is 
in the south-western Ocean. They do not eat any cereals, but they eat meat; more frequently 
even they prick a vein of one of their oxen, mix the blood with milk and eat it uncooked. They 
have no clothes, but they wrap round their waists a sheep's skin which hangs down and covers 
them. Their women are clear-skinned and well-behaved. The people of this country make their 35 
own countrymen prisoners whom they sell to strangers at prices many times more than they would 
fetch (at home). The products of the country are elephants' tusks and a-mo perfume (Kffl" '^ 
^S- Cantonese o-mut, Arabic 'aribar, i. e., ambergris). 

1,25 BEKBEKA COAST. 129 

((■yVhen Po-ssii (Persian) traders wish to enter this country, they form a caravan of several 
thousand men, and after having made (the natives) a present of strips of cloth (? ^^ 'ffi)) *11 
of them both young and old draw blo.od by pricking themselves and take an oath (ife] mr jV 
^t), after which they trade their goods. 

5 «From of old (this country) has never been subject to any foreign power. In fighting they 

use elephant's tusks, ribs, and wild cattle's horns as spears, and they have corselets (ffl ^?), 
and bows and arrows. They have twenty myriads of foot-soldiers. The Arabs are continually 
making raids on thema. In a slightly abridged form, T'ang-shu, 222Bj1b1> snbstantially reproduces 
the above..See Hirth, J. C. B. R. A. S., XXI, 219 and J. A. 0. S. XXX, 47—51. 

10 The four towns referred to were probably Berbera — the Barbara of western mediaeval 

writers, Zeila, which Ibn Batuta says was the capital of the country, Magadoxo, IbnBatuta's 
Makdashan, and possibly Brawa. Ibn Batuta, op. cit., II, 180 says the Berbera country 
extended from Zeila to Magadoxo. 

2) Our author presumably refers only to the inhabitants of the four cities as being Moslims. 

15 3) Ibn Batuta, op. cit., II, 180 — 181 says the people of Zeila and Magadoxo killed 

several hundred camels daily for food. He also refers to the wealth in sheep of the people of the 
latter place. See also what our author says of the people of Chung-li (infra, Ch. XXVII), which 
is also Somaliland. 

4) The Periplus, in the first century, mentions among the exports from the Berbera coast 
20 myrrh, a little frankincense, tin, ivory, tortoise-shell, odoriferous gums and cinnamon. On the 

various products here mentioned, see infra, Ch. XXVII, and Pt. II. 

5) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,6". The ostrich was first made known to the Chinese 
in the beginning of the second century of our era, when some were brought to the court of China 
from Parthia. The Chinese then called them An-si-tsio (^ J^^ ^ aParthian bird»). See 

25 H6u-Han-shu, 88, and Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 39. In the Wei-shu, 102,12'', no name 
is given them, they are simply «big birds which resemble a camel, which feed on herbs and 
flesh and are able to eat fire». In the T'ang-shu, 22lB,7=' it is said that this bird is commonly- 
called <(camel-bird» ()E£ ,|^) It is seven feet high, black of colour, its feet like those of the 
camel, it can travel three hundred U a day, and is able to eat iron. 

30 The ostrich is called by the Persians usMuriimrgh and by the Arabs teir al-djamdl, 

both meaning <(camel-bird». See Actes du Congrfes Internat. Oriental., 1889, 21—22, and Bret- 
schneider, Mediaeval travel., 87, n. 132. 

Ch6u K'u-fei (op. cit., 3,6) says the lo-fo-hau (he uses the same name for the ostrich as 
our author) is found in K'un-lun-ts'ong-k'i — which, according to his views, apparently, embraced 

35 all the east coast of Afiica, but which he conceived to be a great island. See infra, Ch. XXXVIII, 

2, note 1. 

6) Tsu-la, in Cantonese, is'o-lap, is, of course, the girafe. The Chinese name is Persian 
zurnapa, surnapa (Meninski, but commonly mMurgav,\. e. «camel-ox») «girafe»,in Arabic zarafa. 
Masudi, op. cit., Ill, 3, remarks that some people think the girafe is a variety of camel. He 

40 adds, that it is very plentiful in the country of the Zanj — the Blacks. 

7) The zebra is found in parts of southern Abyssinia. In the Ming period we hear of the 
..spotted /«-?«» (:^ Ig ^) as found in the country of Brawa (;f; ^J |^) near Magadoxo; 
Bretschneider, Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 27, conjectures that this was a species of zebra, 
the Hippotigris Burchelli, or Douw, the «Tiger-horse.> of the ancients. 

45 Duarte Barbosa, Coasts of East Africa, etc., 16, noted that the people of Magadoxo «use 

herbs with their arrows». 


SOHAR (?). 

Wii-pa (^ ^). 

The country of Wu-pa is on the sea-coast and a land road leads hence 

to the Ta-sM. The king is of a dark brown complexion (^ ^ •^), he 5 

wears a turban and a jacket. He follows both the religion and the rules (of 

daily life) of the Ta-shi. 


The name Wu-pa does not occur in any other mediaeval Chinese work known to us. It 
appears possible that it is the same place referred to by Kia Tan as Wu-la (|& W]\) and 10 
which, there is some reason to think, may have been Sohar. See supra, p. 14, n. 1. We are told (infra, 
p. 133) that Wong-man, which is certainly Oman, was like Wu-pa in people and general conditions; 
this strengthens the belief that the two localities were in pretty close proximity to each other. 
Edrisi (Jaubert's trans., J, 152) speaking of Sohar says: ((Formerly there came there traders from 
all parts of the world to bring the products of Yemen and export all kinds of things, and this 15 
contributed to the prosperity of the country, which was besides rich in dates, figs, pomegranates, 
quinces and other fruits of superior quality. Expeditions to China were made from there; but all 
this state of things has come to an end» since the rise of the pirate nest on the island of Kish, 
which drove the trade of the Persian Gulf back to Aden. 

27. 20 


Chung-li(4? 3®). 

The inhabitants of the Chung-li country go bareheaded and barefooted, 
they wrap themselves in cotton stuffs, but they dare not wear jackets, for 
the wearing of jackets and turbans is a privilege reserved to the ministers and 2& 
the king's courtiers. The king lives in a brick house covered with glazed 
tiles, but the people live in huts made of palm leaves and covered with grassT 
thatched roofs. Their daily food consists of baked flour cakes, sheep's and 
camel's milk. There are great numbers of cattle, sheep and camels ^ 

Among the countries of the Ta-shii this is the only one which produces so 
frankincense ^. 

There are many sorcerers among them who are able to change them- 
selves into birds, beasts, or aquatic animals, and by these means keep the 

^i^^ SOMALI COAST. 131 

ignorant people in a state of terror. If some of them in trading with some 
foreign ship have a quarrel, the sorcerers pronounce a charm over the ship, 
so that it can neither go forward nor backward, and they only release the ship 
when it has settled the dispute. The government has formally forbidden this 
5 practice^. 

Every year countless numbers of birds of passage (^ -^) alight in 
the desert parts of this country. When the sun rises, they suddenly disappear, 
so that one cannot find a trace of them. The people catch them with nets, 
and eat them; they are remarkably savoury. They are in season till the end 
10 of spring, but, as soon as summer comes, they disappear, to come back the 
following year. 

When one of the inhabitants dies, and they are about to bury him in 

his coffin, his kinsfolk from near and far come to condole. Each person, 

flourishing a sword in his hand, goes in and asks the mourners the cause of 

15 the person's death. «If he was killed by the hand of man, each one says, we 

will revenge him on the murderer with these swords». Should the mourners 

reply that he was not killed by any one, but that he came to his end by the 

will of Heaven, they throw away their swords and break into violent wailing. 

Every year there are driven on the coast a great many dead fish 

20 measuring two hundred feet in length and twenty feet through the body. The 

people do not eat the flesh of these fish, but they cut out their brains, marrow, 

and eyes, from which they get oil, often as much as three hundred odd tong (from 

a single fish). They mix this oil with lime to caulk their boats, and use it also 

in lamps. The poor people use the ribs of these fish to make rafters, the 

25 backbones for door leaves, and they cut off vertebrae to make mortars with *. 

There is a mountain (or island, |JL() in this country M'hich forms the 

boundary of Pi-p'a-lo. It is four thousand U around it — for the most part 

uninhabited. Dragon's-blood is procured from this mountain, also aloes (^ 

-Qr), and from the waters (around it) tortoise-shell and ambergris. 

30 It is not known whence ambergris comes; it suddenly appears in lumps 

of from three to five or ten catties in weight, driven on the shore by the 

wind. The people of the country make liaste to divide it up, or ships run 

across it at sea and fish it up ^. ' 


35 1) Chung-H, as a name of a country, does not occur in any other Chinese writer hefore 

or after Chau Ju-kua. There is no douht, however, that the region to which it is applied is the 
Somali coast, but it included the island of Socotra. The name itself is not identified; it seems to 
point to the word Zing, Zang or Zenj, for the mediaeval Arab writers refer to this region as the 
wcountry of the Blacksa (Zanj). Ibn Batuta, II, 180 says, the country of the Blacks extended 


132 SOMALI COAST. 1,27 

from Zeila oa the Beibera ccast to Magadoxo. See also Masudi, op. cit., Ill, 6, aad supra. The 
town in which the king of Chung-li lived may well have been Magadoxo. 

2) The African frankincense, also called by the Ancients Peratic and Libyan frankincense, 
was found according to the Periplus (§ 11), near Cape Aromata (Eas Jardafun), and there only; 
the supply, it says, was most abundant, and it was of the very finest quality. See also infra, Pt. II. 5 
Ch. II. Socotra produced, and still produces, frankincense. See Bent, Southern Arabia, 380, S8t. 

3) Ibn Batuta, IV, 227, says that the natives of the island of Barahnagar, which was 
between Bengal and Sumatra, used to raise storms by enchantment. Marco Polo (II, 399) 
speaks of the sorcery of the people of Socotra in nearly the same terms as Chau Jn-kua: «And 
you must know that in this Island there are the best enchanters in the world. It is true that 10 
their Archbishop forbids the practice to the best of his ability; but 'tis all to no purpose, for 
they insist that their forefathers followed it, and so must they also. I will give you a sample of 
their enchantments. There, if a ship be sailing past with a fair wind and a strong, they will raise 

a contrary wind and compel her to turn back. In. fact they make the wind blow as they list, and 
produce great tempests and disasters; and other such sorceries they perform, which it will be IB 
better to say nothing about in our Book». 

Friar Joanno dos Santos (A. D. 1597) says «In the He of Zanzibar dwelt one Chande, a 
great Sorcerer, which caused his Pangayo, which the Factor had taken against his will, to stand 
still as it were in defiance of the Winde, till the Factor had satisfied him, and then to fly forth 
the River after her fellowes at his words. He made that a Portugall which had angered him, 20 
could never open his mouth to speake, but a Cocke crowed in his belly, till he had reconciled 
himselfe: with other like odious sorceries». See Purchas, His Pilgrimes, IX, 254. 

Not twenty years ago Theo. Bent found that the Somalis were afraid of the witchcraft of 
the natives of Socotra. Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 361. 

4) Eastern and Western mediaeval writers all speak of the vast numbers of whales in the 25 
Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. Kazwini says that whales were often caught by the low tide 

in the channels near Basra. The people harpooned them and got much oil out of the brain, which 
they used for their lamps and smearing ships. Beinaud, Relations, I, 145 — 146. Marco Polo 
speaks of the capture of whales by the people of Socotra, and of the great abundance of whales 
and of capdols («oil-heads», spermaceti whales) oflf tlie Zanguebar coast (II, 399, 404). 30 

Tong (}^) is not known as a measure of capacity. It is usually the Sanskrit tola, a 
weight equal to 4 mashas. In our text the character must transcribe some other foreign word, 
Persian probably. Conf. supra, p. 69j n. 2. Edrisi, I, 95, 06, says: «A11 Chinese ships, big or little, 
which sail the sea of China, are solidly built of wood. The pieces bearing the one on the other 
are arranged in geometric figures, secured (against leaking) by palm fibres and caulked with 35 
flour and whale oil ... . This oily substance is famous in the Yemen, at Aden, on the coast of 
Fars, of Oman, and in the seas of India and China The people of these regions use this substance 
to caulk their ships». Conf. also Reinaud, Relations, I, 144 — 146. 

All authors from the time of Nearchus (Arrian, Hist. Indica, §§ 29, 30) have spoken of 
the huts on the Makran coast built with whale bones; although I find no references to this 40 
custom having obtained on the Berbera or Somali coast, there is no reason to suppose that it did 
not. See M" Crindle, Commerce and navigation of the Erythrsean Sea, 196, 197. 

5) The Periplus (§ 30) already mentions dragon's-blood as a product of the island of - 
Dioskorides (Socotra), and it has continued one of the principal exports of the island ever since. 
See infra, Pt. II, Ch. IV. Socotra was famous from ancient times for its aloes which, according to 45 
Edrisi (I, 47), was exported thence to the East and the West. Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 563. 
Marco Polo (II, 399) speaks of the ambergris of the island. See infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXX and 
XLI, and Reinaud, Relations, I, 139. Also Duarte Barbosa, op. cit, 30. 

The island of Socotra is very mountainous; Mount Haghier arises in many jagged and 
stupendous peaks to the height of nearly 5,000 feet... The glory of Mount Haghier is undoubtedly 50 
its dragon's-blood tree (Dracaenia cinnahari), found scattered at an elevation of about 1,000 feet 
and upwards over the greater part of Sokotra»... Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 378—379, 388. 

1,28-29 ■ OMAN . — ISLAKD OF KISH. 133 


Yung (or W6ng-)man (^ ^). 

The country of Yung-man resembles Wu-pa as regards inhabitants and 

5 the products of the soil. The chief of the country wears a turban, wrap& 

himself in light silk, but wears no garments and goes barefooted. His servants 

wear no headdress and go barefooted, but they wrap themselves in sarongs 

(|§) so that the body is covered. They live on meal cakes, mutton, sheep's 

milk, fish and vegetables. The soil produces dates in large quantities. Along 

10 the coast pearls are found, and in the mountains horse raising is carried on 

on a large scale. The other countries which trade here purchase horses, 

pearls and dates which they get in exchange for cloves, cardamom seeds and 



15 In the list of Arab states given in a previous chapter (supra, p. 117) the name of this 

country is erroneously written Wong-li. According to the Arab relations of the ninth century 
(Keinaud, Relations, I, 13—15) the products of Oman and other countries were brought to 
Siraf on the Fars coast and there loaded on ships which sailed to India. These ships touched at 
Maskat in Oman for water and provisions, but apparently Maskat carried on no important direct 

20 trade with the East at that time. A century later Masudi, op. cit., I, 281, speaks of the ships 
of Siraf aud Oman which sailed the seas of China, India, Sind, of the Zendj (ZangueLar), the 
Yemen, of Kolzum and of Abyssinia, — but down to the twelfth century the centre of the Indian 
and Chinese trade of the Persian Gulf was at Siraf, though it was already suffering at that time 
from the pirates of Kish, who in the thirteenth centuiy brought about its complete ruin. Then Ormuz 

25 began its great career, and Aden took much of the trade of the Persian Gulf. 

In a subsequent chapter (infra, p. 137) our author states that Wong -man and Kish 
traded regularly with Basra. 

Ibn Batuta, op. cit., II, 374 says that the fleetest horses brought to India came from 
the Yemen, Oman and Fars, and that Oman supplied the neighbouring countries with dates. 

30 Marco Polo (II, 324) mentions SohAr (Soer) in Omanas one of the principal points from which 
horses were brought to India. See also He yd. Hist, du Commerce, II, 135. 

Masudi, op. cit., I, 328 says pearls were only found in the sea of Abyssinia, in Kharek, 
Kotor, Oman, and Serendib. See infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXXIV. 


Ki-shi (IE M)- 
The country of Ki-shi is on a small island {^) in the sea, in sight of 
the Ta-shi (coast), which is distant from it a half day's journey i. There are 

134 ISLAND OF KISH. 1,29 

very few towns (^ j^) (in this region). When the king shows himself in 
public, he rides a horse and has a black umbrella over him; he is accom- 
panied by over an hundred retainers. 

The people of the country are white and clean and eight feet tall. They 
wear their hair loose under a turban eight feet long, one half of which hangs 5 
down their back. Their clothing consists of a foreign-shaped jacket and an 
outer wrap of light silken or woollen stuff, and red leather shoes. They make 
use of gold and silver coins. Their food consists of wheaten cakes, mutton, 
fish and dates. They do not eat rice. The country produces pearls and fine 
horses. lo 

Every year the Ta-shi send camels loaded with rose-water, gardenia 
fiowers, quicksilver, spelter, silver bullion, cinnabar (5^ ^), red dye plants 
(^ ^), and fine cotton stuffs, which they put on board ships on arriving 
in this country (/^ 0) to barter with other countries^. 

Notes. 15 

1) Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, 257, says that the island of Kays, or, as 
the Persians wrote the name, Kish, in the course of the twelfth century became the trade centre 
of the Persian Gulf after the ruin of Siraf. «A great walled city was built in Kays island, where 
water tanks had been constructed, and on the neighbouring sea-banks was the famous pearl 
fishery. Ships from India and Arabia crowded the port, and all the island was full of palm 20 

gardens The island lay about four leagues from the coast, where the port of embarcation 

was Huzu, to which, in the thirteenth century, a caravan road came down from Shlraz through 
Laghirs. A. W. Stiffe, Geog. Journal, VII, 644—649, says nine miles separate at the present time 
the island from the Persian coast. The centre of old trade was on the north coast of the island. 
See alsoMarcoPolo,I, 64, II, 324 and Ibn Batuta, IV, 168. Chinese writers of the Yuan period 25 
transcribed the name of the island K'ie-shi ('[^ '^)- Bretschneider, Med. geography, II, 129. 

2) The adjoining province of Fars was celebrated for the so-called attar of roses (atar 
or 'itr in Arabic signifies 'a perfume' or 'essence'), which, of divers qualities, was more espe- 
cially made from the roses that grew in the plain round Jiir or Firuzabad. — Le Strange, op. 
cit., 293. Marco Polo, II, 324, refers to the importance of the horse trade of Kish. Barbosa 80 
mentions vermilion and quicksilver among the exports from Jeddah, Aden and Ormuz. Duarte 
Barbosa, Coasts of East Africa, etc., 23, 27, 42. (Hakluyt Soc. edit.). 

The ored dye plants is madder. John Jourdain (1609) speaking of the trade of Aden says, 
that the ships from India and Muscat carried back gum arabic, frankincense and myrrh, «and 
an herbe which groweth here called fua or runa, which they carrie to the Indies to dye red 35 
withall)). See the Journal of John Jourdain (Hakl. Soc. edit.) 177. A century before Jourdain, 
Varthema, speaking also of Aden, said: ayeerely from the Citie of Aden, depart fifteene or twentie 
ships laden with Kubricke, which is brought out of Arabia Felix». o^ fuwah is the Arabic 
name for madder, runas, the Persian. 

Kish carried on an important trade in slaves. Edrisi, I, 58 refers to the expeditions 40 
which the Kish pirates sent to the Zanguebar coast on slave raids. Our author (infra, p. 137) says 
it carried on trade with Basra. 

I>30 BAGHDAD, 135 


Pai-ta (f^j ji). 

«The country of Pai-ta is the great metropolis (— ^ -^) of all the 
5 countries of the Ta-shi». Travelling by land from Ma-lo-pa one comes to it 
after about 130 days journey, passing on the way some fifty cities (j^). 
This country is extremely powerful and large, and the number of its foot- 
soldiers and cavalry armed and equipped is very greats 

«The king is a direct successor of the Buddha Ma-hia-wu», and the 

10 throne has, down to the present time, been transmitted through twenty-nine 

generations (>f\j;), covering a period of from six to seven hundred years 2. 

«The other lands of the Ta-shi have waged war against each other, but none 

have dared to invade this country». 

«When the king appears in public, a black umbrella is carried (over 
15 him); its handle is of gold and on the top is a jade lion with a golden moon 
on its back, shining like a star and visible from afar off» ^ 

«The towns and markets are cut by w^ell-made streets, and the people 
live lavishly. There is great store of precious things and of satins». There is 
little rice, fish and vegetables; the people «eat cakes, meat and su-lo * (^ 
20 f^ butter). 

«The products of the country are gold and silver, engraved glassware 
(liu-li) of the finest quality, white yiie-no cloth and liquid storax». 

The inhabitants like to wear turbans and clothes of fine snow-white 

cotton (gl ^)». Every seven days they cut their hair and nails, and five 

25 times daily they pray to (or worship) Heaven (j|ffi ^ ^)^; they profess the 

religion of the Ta-shi. As they (i. e., the Caliphs) are the descendants of the 

Buddha (i. e., the Prophet), the people of other countries come thither to do 

them honour. 


30 1) The phrases and parts of phrase in quotation marks in this chapter are from Ling-wai- 

tai-ta, 3,3*. It is doubtful whether Po-ta (^A ig) of I'ang-shu, 221B, 24", is Baghdad, as in a 
subsequent passage in the same chapter it is said that the king of Po-ta, Mo -ho-so-ssi received in A. D . 
747 th e title of a Chinese prince, together with five other petty kings, for Baghdad was only founded 
six years later, in 753. In the Yiian period the name was written Pau-ta {^U -iS), Pa-ha-ta 

35 (/\ 5A. ^J^ and Pa-ki-ta (/\ ^ :^). See Bretschneider, Med. geogr,,287, andMed. 
travell., 67. Marco Polo must have taken his name for Baghdad — Baudas, from the Chinese. 

Our author in another passage (supra, p. 124) gives the distance from Ma-lo-pa, i. e., Merbat 
on the Hadramaut coast of Arabia, to Mecca as eighty days' travel, he consequently allowed fifty 
days for the journey from Mecca to Baghdad. In another passage (infra, p. 138) he says that 




Ki-tz'i-"ni, which there is some reason for identifying with Ghazni, was only a hundred and twenty 
stages from Ma-lo-pa. The probahle explanation appears to be that his informant had travelled 
from Merbat to Baghdad, but had only the vaguest notion of Ki-tz'i-ni. Confer this chapter with 
our author's chapter on Ta-ts'in (supra p. 102 seqq.). 

2) Since the remark about the number of generations during which the throne has been 5 
transmitted does not occur in the Ling-wai-tai-ta, we may look upon it as a clue as to the time 
when Chau Ju-kua collected his information. In calculating the number of generations we 
cannot, of course, go beyond the Abbaside dynasty, because our text distinctly refers to a 
descendant of Mohammed as caliph of Baghdad. On the other hand the Arab, or Persian, traveller 
who supplied the information cannot have ignored the several caliphs who held the throne before JO 
the Abbasides. From a genealogical point of view we have therefore to sta,Tt from the one 
ancestor in whom the several dynasties, including the early rival chiefs of the Koreish tribe, 
united Mohammed the Prophet's ancestor Kusai, who represents the first generation in the following 
table derived from Lane-Poole's The Mohammedan Dynasties, 10—15, and Sir William 
Muir's The Life of Mahomet, 3* ed. p. XCV. 15 

Generation 1 Kugai (fifth cent. A. D.) 










(headed » rival honso 
of the Eoroish tribe) 





'Abd-Allah; Abu-Talib; "Abbas 

Mohammed the Prophet 
■ _ I 

Fatimah = Ali 




Omaiyad Dynasty 




, I 


1. Abu-'l-'Abbas; 2. Mansur 
3. Mahdi 
4. Hadi; 5. Eashid; Mansur; 
6. Amin; 7. Ma'mun; 8. Mu'ta§im 




■ I 
12. Musta in; 

9. Wathik; 
14. Muhtadi; 

10. Mutawakkil 

11. Muntasir; 18. Mu'tazz; 15. Mu'tamid; Muwaffak 
Ibn-al-Mu'tazz 16. Mu'tadid 


17. Muktafi 
22. Mustakfi 

18. Muktadir 

19. Kahir 

20. Radi; 

21. Muttaki; 

25. Kadir; 

26. Ka'im 


27. Muktadi 

28. Mustazhir 

23. Muti' 
24. Ta'i' 


29. Mustarshid; 
30. Rashid; 

31. Muktafi 

32. Mustanjid 

33. Mustadi 

34. Na§ir 

35. Zahir 

36. Mustan^ir 

37. Musta'^im (1242—1258 A. D.) 


1,30 BASKA. 137 

It appears that this is the only manner in which we may account for the twenty-nine 
generations referred to by Chan Ju-kua, whose informant ought to have spoken of twenty-four 
generations, and not twenty-nine, if he had looked upon the Prophet as the genealogical head. 
On the other hand the «six, or seven hundred years» of his text can only refer to the Prophet 
5 himself, who died in 632 A. D. We may be allowed to look upon this passage as a clue helping 
us to fix the time of Chau Ju-kua's collecting his notes as falling between the years 1242 and 
1258, the reign of the last Abbaside Caliph Musta'§im. 

The only event Chau appears to have known of in the life of the Prophet is that mentioned 

previously in the vaguest terms (supra, p. 117) and which corresponds roughly with A. D. 610, the 

10 date of Mohammed's Call. Six hundred years counted from that date (or even for that matter from 

632, when the Prophet died) brings us down to the first half of the thirteenth century, which 

agrees with the previous conclusions. 

3) Conf. supra, p. 103 our author's description of the ruler of Ta-ts'in. The «golden moon» 
on the top of the king's baldachin must have been a crescent, since, as an emblem, it would 

15 otherwise have been taken for «a sun». The origin of the crescent among the Turks is wrapped in 
mystery, and this passage, (written before the year 1178), seems to support A. Mailer's con- 
jecture, who finds it mentioned by Mirkhond in connection with Sebuktegin, tenth century; see 
A. Mttller, Der Islam im Morgeu- und Abendland, Berlin, 1887, II, 72, note. 

4) The Ling-wai-tai-ta differs slightly here; it says: bAII the people eat cakes, meat and 
20 su-lo, but rarely fish, vegetables or rice "What is called pliable opaque glass is a product 

of this country)) (^fr gS J^ 5^ J^ ^- 1^ ^Jr j^ -fft^ ). I suppose annealed glass is 
referred to. Our author in the next paragraph refers to polished (ground, or engraved ^ffi ^P,) 
opaque glass. The term nien-hua is not clear; I incline for «engrav(d». See infra, p. 138, andPt. II, 
Ch. XXXir. On su-lo see p. 139 n. 1, 
25 5) He yd. Hist, du Commerce, If, 711 states that in the Middle Ages Damascus was par 

ticularly celebrated for its glass, as was also Kadesia near Baghdad, and other places in Irak. 

The remark about cutting the finger nails and the daily prayers is a repetition of what 
he states in another passage, supra, p. 116 lines 9—10. 

80 BASRA. 

Pi-ssi-io m M I)- 

"When the lord of the Pi-ssi-lo country shows himself in public, he is 
accompanied by more than a thousand mounted retainers in full armour of 
iron, the officers wearing coats of mail (5I 3^ ^ ^ ^)- He receives the 
35 orders of Pai-ta. 

The people live on baked meal cakes, and mutton. Their ahnanack is 
tolerably correct, as regards the hot and cold seasons of the year, but they 
do not know of the new and full moon days (as holidays). 

The products of the country are camels, sheep and dates. The Ki-shi 
40 and Wong-man countries send every year trading parties to this country. 

138 GHAZNI. 1,31 


Al-Ba?rah, the great commercial port of Baghdad and Mesopotamia, lay on the Arabian 
side of the estuary of Al-Bajrah, in other words the Blind Tigris, and was about twelve miles, as 
the crow flies, from its bank. Mukaddasi (lOa century) says the town measured three miles 
across in its greatest width. The modern village of Zubayr now occupies the site of old Basra. B 
The city was founded in 638 A. D. in the reign of Omar. The city of Uhullah (the Apologos of 
the Greeks) was on the Tigris at the mouth of the canal of UbuUah (Nahr-al-Ubullah) which put 
it in communication with Basra. See Le Strange, J. E. A. S., 1895, 304, and Land of the. 
Eastern Caliphate, 44. 

Marco Polo {I, 64) speaks of the «great city of Bastra, surrounded by woods, in which 10 
grow the best dates in the worlda. Ibn Batuta, II, 9 and IV, 376 speaks of the great abundance 
of dates at Basra. He says that a honey, called sayalan (^)Lyui), was made at Basra from dates. 

Ch6u K'u-fei does not mention Basra, nor does any other Chinese author known to us 
either prior to our author or subsequently. 

32. 15 

GHAZNI {?). 

Ki-tz'ihni (± m Ji)- 

The Ki>t^'i-ni country is reached from Ma-lo-pa in about an hundred and 
twenty stages. The country lies to the north-west, and is exceptionally cold, the 
winter's snow not melting until the spring. «This country is surrounded by high 20 
mountains, and the city (or wall |^) is cut out in (the rocks of the) mountains. 
It is about two hundred U square and is surrounded by water. It has some 
two hundred mosques. The officials and the people all go to the mosques to 
pray, which they call c¥u-mm (^ |j^), (Note: some write it shu ^). 

«The people are, for the most part, well off, and live in houses five or 25 
six storeys high. There is a great deal of camel and horse breeding)). «The 
people eat cakes, meat, and ju-lo {'^l g§), but little fish and rice»; they also 
make use of a mixture of cow's milk and water as an habitual beverage'. 

The king's arms reach down to below his knees. He has an hundred 
chargers, every one full six feet high, also some dozen head of mules, three 30 
(sic) feet high, which, on excursions, he rides alternately with the horses. His 
bow pulls several piculs, so that five or seven ordinary men cannot string it. 
When he is on horseback, he carries an iron mace weighing full fifty catties. 
The Ta-shi and all the people of the West fear him^ «The products of the 
soil are gold, silver, ym-no cloth, gold brocade, camel's hair stuffs in all 36 
colours (3l "^ ,|i; ^ J^), engraved opaque glass {^ ^ 1^ J^), liquid 
storax, wu-ming-i (^ ig ^) and mo-so stones» ()^ ^ ^Y- 

1,32 GHAZNI. 139 


1) Quotation marks indicate passages taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,s%^- In the first 
paragraph the divergences between the two texts are important. The older one has: «As to the 
Ki-tz'i-ni country it is entirely surrounded by high mountains. The mountains have been cut out and 

5 made into a wall (^ [Jj •^ ^) two hundred li square (^). It is surrounded by a great 

river (y\^ yj^) it has over a hundred mosques, one of which is over ten li square, ete.». The 

additions to this text made by our author are very difficult to explain. He says Ki-tz'i-ni lay to the 
north-west — presumably of Ma-lo-pa, i. e., the port on the Hadramaut coast which he takes in 

^ other passages as a starting-point in estimating distances to Mecca and to Baghdad, but in 

10 that direction no locality meeting the other requirements of his text is to be found. If the direc- 
tion is to be taken from Baghdad, Kazvin, which has been suggested as the original of the Chinese 
name Ki-tz'i-ni, is also out of the question, as it is north of Baghdad; furthermore, it is in a plain. 
Ghazni may be intended, if we assume that the direction was given as north-west from India. 
Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,8^ mentions Ghazni, under the name of K'ie-sh6-na (^ ^ ^P), as 

15 producing asa-foetida. It says this country is also called «NorthernIndia».See infra, Pt.II, Ch.XXIX 
Ghazni, it is true, was utterly destroyed in 1149, nearly thirty years before Ch6u K'fl-fei composed 
his work, but that is a very slight objection. There is great paucity of information concerning 
Ghazni; among the best modern accounts of this country are the Reports on parts of the Ghilzi 
country and some of the tribes in the neighbourhood of Ghazni, etc. by Lieut'. J. S. Broadfoot 

20 (Hoy. Geog. Soc, Supplementary Papers, I), from which the following notes are taken. «The 
■winter is most severe; frost continuing in the shade from September to April, and snow from 
December to the middle of Marchn. «Elevated from 7,000 to 8,000 feet above the sea, the climate 
is severe. It freezes every evening in October, and the ice lasts till midday; in November it 
never thaws; in December the country is covered with three feet of snow, which melts in the 

io middle of Marcha. «From Ghazni three distinct ranges are perceived, running north-east in one 

unbroken chain Within sixteen miles of the city are six passesa. Concerning the inhabitants 

of the neighbourhood of Ghazni, he says that though poor «they live in little towers containing 
five or six families, and the country all round abounds in forts. The people raise horses, 
camels and cattle. With dried milk they prepare Jcurut, to make which, as well as cheese, butter- 

30 milk and bread is the duty of the women». Kurut is not cheese, but dried airan, i. e , sour milk. The 
latter is condensed into pellets which are dried in the sun or fried in greases. See Vambery, 
Das Turkenvolk, 209. This Jciirut is apparently identical^ith the Chinese jm-Zo of our text. It is 
interesting to note that among the Mongols of the Koko-nor and the Tibetans, kurut is known as 
chura, wrhich may be derived from the Chinese ju-lo — or vice versa 

35 The word lo (E|^) has several meanings. According to the K'ang-hi tz'i-tien, two kinds, 

the dry and the wet to (or ju-lo, lit., «milk lo»), have to be distinguished. The Bdry» variety is 
described in the Yiu-shan-chong-yau (-^ ^ jJ ^), the work of a Court physician 
published in 1831, and quoted in the K'ang-hi-tz'i-tien, in very much the same way as the kurut 
of the Turks. 

40 In other passages of this work, su-Io and Ju-lo are translated with their usual acceptation 

of «butter» and «milk». See supra, p. 98 and p. 102, n. 19. 

2) Our author's yarn about the king of Ki-tz'i-ni, may be founded on some stories still 
current in his time among Arab sailors who visited China, about Mahmud of Ghazni. I can 
think of no better explanation, unless it be that Alamut, the famous mountain citadel of the 

45 Assassins in the twelfth century, which was near Kazvin, is the place referred to. The mention of 
bezoar stones as a product of Ki-tz'i-ni points towards Ghazni, as Badakhshan, an adjacent 
country, was famous for these stones (Le Strange, Lands of the East. Caliphate, 486), and the 
she-camels of Kabul were held to be the best in Central Asia. Ibid., 849. 

The last phrase of this paragraph is slightly different in Ling-wai-tai-ta; it reads: «The 

50 people of the country go once in seven days to the halls (^) to pray; this is called sM-mi 
(1% l|^)»- This is the Arabic worijumah, «assembly» (for prayer in the mosque on friday). 

3) Besides being found in Badakshan, bezoar stones are reported by our author (infra, Ch. 

140 MOSUL. 1,32 

XXXIV) to have come from Lu-mei (Rum, Asia Minoi). See Taveruier's Travels in India 
(Ball's edit.), II, 146-151, and supra, p. 74, note 1. Linscholjen, Voyage, II, 142 (Hakl. 
Soc. edit.) states that bezoar stones come from Khorasan. In the Malay Peninsula they are taken 
from monkeys or porcupines. Skeat, Malay Magic, 274. The best stone was from the stomach of a 
wild goat in the Persian province of Lar. See Y ul e and B u r n e 1 1, Glossary, 68. On the identification 5 
of the name mo-so, see Hirth, Die Lander des Islam, 4.5, note 4. 

As to wu-ming-i, it has been shovrn by Hanbury, Science Papers, 223, to be the iron 
oxide known as limonite. The Pon-ts'au-tsi-kie (;7|j ^ ^ ^)> as quoted in the Tung-si- 
yang-k'au; IV, 8* says of it: «It is found in the Ta-shi countdes on stones, and looks like black 
limestone. The foreign people heat it with oil (and make it into?) black granular stones (^ ^), 10 
which they chew like a sweet (tjj)»- S. W. Bush ell, Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, X and 67, 
n. 4, says, however, that wu-ming-i was cobalt blue. 


Wii-ssi-li (^ M ID- 15 

The country of Wu-ssi-li has many rocky mountains. In autumn there 
falls a heavy dew, which, under the action of the sun's rays, hardens into a 
substance like powdered sugar. This is gathered and is a sweet, pleasant 
tasting food with purifying and cooling properties; it is real kan-lu {-j^ ^Y- 

There is found in the mountains of this country a tree which grows 20 
wild, and which the first year* hears chestnuts (^), called p'u-lii (^ ^). 
The next year mo-sJd C}^ ^ -^) grow on it. Asbestos cloth (j/^ *^ ^) 
and coral are native products. 


1) Taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,!i^-4*, with only some slight verbal changes and the 25 
addition of the words Kcalled p'u-lua — and the change of omany famous mountains)) ( ^ i^ Mj) 
to «many rocky mountains)) (^^ J^ I [ [). 

Wu-ssi-li, in Cantonese Mat-ssi-H, Al-Mawjil, Mosul. In another chapter characters with 
the same sounds transcribe the name Misr, Egypt (supra, pp. 115, 120, n. 3 and infra, Ch. XXXVI). 
The reference to oak-galls point unmistakably to northern Syria. 30 

Kan-hi is used in Buddhist Chinese to render Sanskrit a?Mrto, nectar. Mukaddasi, in the 
tenth century, mentions the exportation of manna from Mosul. Our text does not say that manna 
was a product of Wu-ssii-li. Judging from the statement that it was «like powdered sugar)), it must 
have been the Gaz or Alhagi manna (Persian and Arabic tar-avguhtn, taranjaiw)th.e product of 
the Alhagi camelorum, Fisch., which is found in partsof Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan. See 35 
P. Molesworth Sykes, Geo. Journal, XXVIII, 433. Oak manna, occurs in Kurdistan, it is 
found in the state of agglutinated tears. See Encyclop. Britan., XV, 493, s. v. Manna, and Heyd, 
Hist, du Commerce, II, 632. 

On the subject of oak-galls (in Arabic lallUt 'oak', our author's p'u-lu), see infra, Pt. II. 
Ch. XX. Asbestos was not a product of Mosul, it was brought there probably from Badakshan. 40 

I>34 KUM (ASIA minor). HI 

See Le Strange, op. cit., 436—437. Likewise as to coral, our author can only mean that it was 
plentiful in the Mosul market. 

U ^\^'*°^ '' ^'■^* mentioned in the Hou Han-shu, 11G,2;» under the name liuo-mm,, 
(X ^)- ^^^ Hirth, China and the Eoman Orient, 249-251. Ashestos, according to Fei- 
5 w6n-yfln-fu, 66A, lee, was described in the text known as Lifi-tzi, but it was probably not known 
before the Han dynasty. 


«-ii-meT(M Ji)- 

10 If one travels by land in a westerly direction for some three hundred 

stages from Ma-lo-pa, one reaches Lu-mei, also called Mei-lu-ku (j| ^ 
»^). The city wall (^) is crooked, seven-fold, «and built of large smooth 
flat black stones, and each wall (^) is distant (from the adjoining one) a 
thousand paces». «There are over three hundred foreign towers (^ ^ mina- 

15 rets), among which is one eight hundred feet high», which four horses 
abreast can be driven up. «It has three hundred and sixty rooms in it«. 

c(The people all wear turbans which hang down on the neck, and their 
clothing is made of coloured woollen stuffs (^ % |^). Their food consists 
of meat and meal (cakes). They use gold and silver coins». Forty thousand 

20 families are employed weaving silk brocades (^^). The products of the country 
are byssus (? «^ |§), gold spangled yue-no cloth (^ ^ ^ ^ ^), bro- 
cades with alternating stripes of gold and silk, bezoar stones, wu-ming-i, 
rose-water, gardenia flowers, liquid storax, borax, and a superior quality of 
engraved opaque glassware. The people are fond of breeding camels, horses 

25 and dogs. 


There is but little doubt that our author's Lu-mei is the Eum Bilad ar-Eum, the 'Land 
of the Greeks' of the Arab geographers, Asia Minor; but where we are to look for Mei-lu-ku (or 
rather Mei-lu-ku-tun as the name is written by Chou K'ii-fei) is quite another matter, as there 

30 is nothing in the Chinese name or in the description of the place to help us to elucidate the 
question. One is inclined to look for it in Kuniyah (Iconinm, Konieh) which was the capital of 
the Seljuk Sultanate of Eum from 1077 to 1257, when it was captured by the Mongols. See 
Le Strange, op. cit., 140, 148. If weconsider only the description ofthe city of Mei-lu-ku, we find 
some points of resemblance (the division ofthe city in seven parts, and the separation of these various 

35 parts from-each otherywith Damascus. See von Kremer, Kulturgeschichte, etc., 1, 127 et seqq. But 
Damascus was not in Rum. The 'foreign tower' (minaret, mosque) eight handred feet high(!)with three 
hundred and sixty chambers in it, may refer to the Djami mosque of Damascus; the great impor- 
tance of the silk brocade industry of Mei-lu-ku points also to that great centre of Oriental trade. 
In Chou K'li-fei's work (3,3*) the passage concerning this place reads as follows: «There 

40 is the Mei-lu-ku-tun ( E S^ *a* 'S) country. It is in (J§) a seven-fold wall (or «city»). 


From remote antiquity, they have used tiers of shining big black stones ( 3^ ^/^ y^ yfn §g), 
and each wall is distant from the other a thousand paces (^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^)- There 
are foreign pagodas (minarets) over three hundred in number, among which is one eighty chang 
high; inside are three hundred and sixty rooms. 

«A11 the people wear turbans covering the neck. When it is cold they use coloured 5 
woollen stuffs ("^ ^ ^) ^°^ clothing. Their food consists of meat and bread. Gold and 
silver are used for coins. The substance called Tciau-siau {^ f^ byssus?), rose-water, gardenia 
flowers, bezoar stones, and borax are all products of this countrya. 

It seems possible that Mei-lu-ku-tun may after all not be the name of any city, but a 
transcription of the Arabic word mulhidun, i. e., «Infidels», and that the Arab informant of Ch 6u 10 
applied the name to Constantinople then the principal city of Rome, i. e., Lu-mei. One might see 
in the seven-fold wall, and in some other details, some vague reference to Rome and its seven 
hills. This would also explain the proximity of the country of Ssi-kia-li-y6 (Sicily) to the frontier 
of Lu-meJ, the customs of which are similar to those of Sicily. There seems little room. for doubt 
that the description of our Chinese authors did not refer to any one country; it is a composite 15 
picture, a jumble of sundry bits of information concerning the remote Mediterranean region. Conf. 
supra, pp. 115 and 120, n. 5, also infra, Ch. XXXVII. 

The reference to byssus is important. Although this product — the threads of the pima 
squamosa, is found throughout the Mediterranean, it is more abundant near Smyrna than else- 
where. It was much prized for making fabrics by the Emperors of Byzantium, even after the intro- 20 
duction of the silkworm into Europe. Conf also infra, p. 153, lines 23 — 25. 


Mu-lan-p'i {if. M ^)- 

«The country of Mu-lan-p'i is to the west of the Ta-shi country. There 25 
is a great sea, and to the west of this sea there are countless countries, but 
Mu-lan-p'iis the one country which is visited by the big ships (g ^) of 
the Ta-shi. Putting to sea from T'o-pan-ti (|J^ ^ i-^) in the country of 
the Ta-shi, after sailing due west for full an hundred days, one reaches this 
country. A single one of these (big) ships of theirs carries several thousand so 
men, and on board they have stores (^) of wine and provisions, as well as 
weaving looms (|^ '^^). If one speaks of big ships, there are none so big as 
those of Mu-lau-p'i» ^. 

«The products of this country are extraordinary; the grains of wheat 
are three inches long, the melons six feet round?), enough for a meal for 35 
twenty or thirty men. The pomegranates weigh five catties, the peaches two 
catties, citrons (^ [J]) over twenty catties, salads (j^ g) weigh over ten 
catties and have leaves three or four feet long. «Rice and wheat are kept in 
silos (PI ilfa ^ 1^) for tens of years without spoiiling. Among the native 
products are foreign sheep (^ ^), which are severalfeet high and have 40 



tails as big as a fan. In the spring-time they slit open their bellies and take 
out some tens of catties of fat, after which they sew them up again, and the 
sheep live on; if the fat were not removed, (the animal) would swell up 
and die»^. 

5 «If one travels by land (from Mu-lan-p'i) two hundred days journey, 

the days are only six hours long. In autumn if the west wind arises, men and 
beasts must at once drink to keep alive, and if they are not quick enough 
about it they die of thirst)) ^. 


10 1) The position assigned by Ch6u K'il-fei to the country of Mu-Ian-p'i, as well as the 

similarity in sound of the name point to its being the kingdom of the Al-Murabitun or Almora- 
vide princes who reigned over Al-Maghreb and southern Spain from the latter part of the eleventh 
century to the middle of the twelfth. See Hirth, Die Lander des Islam, 48. T'o-pan-ti must, it 
seems, be the Dimiath of the Arabs, or Damietta, on the eastern branch of the Nile near its 

15 mouth. It was in the twelfth century an even more important seaport than Alexandria. This para- 
graph and the other portions of this article are taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,4. Our author 
omits at the end of this paragraph, the following remark of Ch6u K'u-fei: aAt the present day 
when people say 'a Mu-lan ship', is it not simply saying that it is a big one?B — On these 
mammoth ships, see supra pp. 33—34. 

20 2) Chou K'ti-fei's statement of the mayvellous products of this remote country, outdoes any 

of the fairy stories in the Shan-hai-king, but our author had to improve on his story. Chou made 
the grains of wheat to be two inches long, Chan says they were three inches, then he adds to 
the list of marvels pomegranates, peaches, citrons and salads. The statement, first made by Ch6u 
K'a-fei that grain was preserved in silos is very interesting and, of course, correct. As to the big- 

25 tailed sheep the only reason why he put them in Mu-lan-p'i is that they appeared to him to 
belong to this region of fancy. The Ethiopian broad-tailed sheep are mentioned by classical and 
mediaeval writers as found in Arabia, Kerman in Persia, and in parts of eastern Africa. Aelian, 
de Animal, nat., IV, 32 says in speaking of the sheep of the Indians: «The tails of the sheep 
reach down to their feet The shepherds cut also the tails of the rams, and having extracted 

30 the fat, sew them up again so carefully that no trace of the incision is afterward to be seen». 
M° Crindle, Ancient India as described byKtesias, 38. Herodotus (III, 113) speaks of the long- 
tailed sheep of Arabia and of the trucks put under them. He tells also of the broad-tailed variety, 
the tail a cubit across. The Chinese of the T'ang period had heard also of the trucks put under 
these sheeps' tails. «The Ta-shJ have a foreign breed of sheep {hu yang) whose tails, covered 

35 with fine wool, weigh from ten to twenty catties; the people have to put carts under them to hold 
them up». Fang-kuo-chi ("fc" 1^ ^^) as quoted in Tung-si-yang-k'au, 12,14''. Conf. also Marco 
Polo, I, 99, and Yule's note to same, I, 101, and Leo Africanus, Historic of Africa, III, 945 
(Hakl. Soc. edit.), who says he saw in Egypt a ram with a tail weighing eighty pounds! 

3) In the Ling-wai-tai-ta this passage begins with the words: «There is a tradition in this 

40 country (of Mu-lan-p'i) to the effect that ....» — The remote northern country where the days 
are only six hours long, is the Land of Darkness of which mediaeval Arab geographers and 
travellers told, sec Ibn Batuta, II, 398—401. The killing wind must be the simoon (Arabic 
samUm) of the Sahara. These wonders found natutally place in the marvellous country of 
Mu-lan-p'i. San-ts'ai-t'u-hui (Pien-i-tien, 67,9.) quotes the two first paragraphs of this chapter, 
45 but, instead of mentioning silos for grain, it has atheydig wells a thousand feet (deep), then(^) 
they find springs of watera. 

Hi HISK (EOYPT). 1,36 


Wii ssi-li {^ 1^ M). 

The country of Wu-ssi-li is under the dominion of Pai-ta. The king is 
fair; he wears a turban, a jacket and black boots. When he shows himself in 5 
public he is on horseback, and before him go three hundred led horses with 
saddles and bridles ornamented with gold and jewels. There go also ten 
tigers held with iron chains; an hundred men watch them, and fifty men hold 
the chains. There are also an hundred club-bearers and thirty hawk-bearers. 
Furthermore a thousand horsemen surround and guard him, and three lo 
hundred body-slaves (^ ■^) bear bucklers and swords. Two men carry the 
king's arms before him, and an hundred kettle-drummers follow him on horse- 
back. The whole pageant is very grand ^ 

The people live on cakes, and flesh; they eat no rice. Dry weather 
usually prevails. The government extends over sixteen provinces ("}]]), with 15 
a circumference (j^ |eJ) of over sixty stages. "When rain falls the people's 
farming (is not helped thereby, but on the contrary) is washed out and des- 
troyed. There is a river (in this country) of very clear and sweet water, and 
the source whence springs this river is not known. If there is a year of 
drought, the rivers of all other countries get low, this river alone remains as 20 
usual, with abundance of water for farming purposes, and the people avail 
themselves of it in their agriculture. Each succeeding year it is thus, and 
men of seventy or eighty years of age cannot recollect that it has rained ^. 

An old tradition says that when Shi-su (-|^ ^), a descendant in the 
third generation of P'u-lo-hung (^ Rp V^), seized the government of this 25 
country, he was afraid that the land would suffer from drought on account 
of there being no rain; so he chose a tract of land near the river on which 
he established three hundred and sixty villages, and all these villages had to 
grow wheat; and, so that the ensuing year the people of the whole country 
should be supplied with food for every day, each of these villages supplied it 30 
for one day, and thus the three hundred and sixty villages supplied enough 
food for a year '- 

Furthermore there is a city ( j>|>|) called Ki§-y6 (^ ^) on the bank of 
this river*. Every two or three years an old man comes out of the water of 
the river; his hair is black and short, his beard is hoary. He seats himself on 35 

I") 86 MisR (eqypt). 145 

a rock in the water so that only half his body is visible. If he is thus seen 
taking up water in his hands, washing his face and cutting his nails, the 
strange being is recognized, and they go near him, kneel before him and say: 
((Will the present year bring the people happiness or misfortune?». The man 

5 says nothing, but if he laughs, then the year will be a plenteous one and sickness 

and plagues will not visit the people. If he frowns, then one may be sure 

that either in the present year, or in the next, they will suffer from famine or 

plague. The .old man remains a long time seated before he dives down again ». 

In this river there are water-camels (^^ ^ .^g cranes?), and water- 

10 horses {^t ^) which come up on the bank to eat the herbs, but they go 
back into the water as soon as they see a man ". 


1) The contents of this chapter are not found in any other Chinese work that we know 
of anterior to our author. Chau in a previous passage (supra, p. 116) speaks of the capital of 

15 the Ta-shi by the name of Mi-su-li (Misr). In that he followed the custom of the Arabs, who used 
the same name Mi§r for the country and its capital (e. g. Biblioth. geogr. Arab. II, p. 97,i. Yakut 
IV, p. 554,6), but, using different modes of transcription, he shows he was ignorant of this fact. 

2) Conf. supra, p. 116. 

3) Shi-su is Joseph, the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham (P'u-lo-hung). 
^0 Arab tradition says that the canal of the Fayum was dug by Joseph, and that he brought that 

region under cultivation; this latter fact is evidently the explanation of our author's story of the 
360 villages founded by Joseph to supply Egypt with food. Edrisi, op. cit., I, 303—310 says 
that when the canal had been dug, Joseph said to the king: 'The public good demands that you 
should entrust me with one family for each district of Egypt'. The king consenting, Joseph 

25 ordered a village to be built for each of these families. There were eighty-five families; there 
were built as many villages. When the building was finished, Joseph gave to each village water 
sufficient to water its lands, but nothing more; then to each tribe he assigned drinking water suffi- 
cient even for the time of low waters. Conf. Masudi, op. cit., II, 363, 384. This latter author 
says (II, 365—866) that when Joseph built the pyramids he built also a nilometer at Memphis. 

SO San-ts'ai-t'u-hui (Pien-i-tien, 86, Sec. T'ien-fang), mentions P'u-lo-hung «the Patriarch (j|j^ 
^j]j) of the Ta-shi». 

4) Kie-ye is Kahirah. The name of Al-kahirah, «the Victorious)) was given the new city 
founded in A. D. 973 by the general of the first Fatimite Caliph, Al-Mo'izz, who had conquered 
Egypt in 969. See supra, pp. 16 and 120, n. 3. 

35 5) We have no explanation to offer of this story, nor can we find any similar one in any 

Arabic or western writers accessible to us. 

6) Masudi, II, 394 is of opinion that the hippopotamus resembles somewhat a horse, 
except as regards the hoofs and tail and the greater breadth of the former's head. Leo Afri- 
canus, Historie of Africa, III, 949 speaks of both sea-horses and sea-oxen, which are found in 

40 the rivers of Niger and Nilus. His sea-horse is the hippopotamus, his sea-ox seems to be a 
rhinoceros. «The sea-oxe being covered with an exceeding hard skiane is shaped in all respects 
like unto the land oxe; save that in bignes it exceedeth not a calfe of sixe moneths oldeD. 




O-kon-'to (ii ^il W- 

The country of O-kon-t'o belongs to Wu-ssi-li (Egypt). According to 
tradition, in olden times a stranger (^ X), Tsu-ko-ni (fa ^ f^)^J 5 
name, built on the shore of the sea a great tower under which the earth 
was dug out and two rooms were made, well connected {^ U) and 
very well secreted. In one vault was grain, in the other were arms. The 
tower was two hundred chang high. Four horses abreast could ascend to 
two-thirds of its height. In the centre of the building was a great well lo 
connecting with the big river'. 

To protect it from surprise by troops of other lands, the whole 
country guarded this tower that warded off the foes. In the upper and 
lower parts of it twenty thousand men could readily be stationed to guard, 
or to sally forth to fight. On the summit there was a wondrous great mirror; is 
if war-ships of other countries made a sudden attack, the mirror detected 
them beforehand, and the troops were ready in time for duty. 

In recent years there came (to O-kon-t'o) a foreigner, who asked to be 
given work in the guard-house of the tower; he was employed to sprinkle and 
sweep. For years no one entertained any suspicion of him, when suddenly 20 
one day he found an opportunity to steal the mirror and throw it into the 
sea, after which he made off". 


1) O-kon-t'o, in Cantonese, At-kan-t'o, is clearly intended for a transcription of the name 
Iskanderiah, or Alexandria, and Tsu-ko-ni, in Cantonese Ts'o-kot-ni is no less certainly Dhii-l- 25 
karnein, our Alexander of Macedon, the founder of Alexandria. See Hirth, Die Lander des 
Islam, 52, notes 3 and 5. 

If we substitute ch'i 'foot', for chang, 'ten feet', the height of the Pharos of Alexandria 
■would he approximately correctly stated. Edrisi (I, 298) says it was 300 cubits (of 27 inches) 
high. Abulfeda (II, Pt. 2, 144) gives its height as 180 cubits. Benjamin of Tudela says of 30 
Alexandria: 'But the Citie it selfe is excellently built, as we have saide, upon the Pavement of 
the ground, and with Vaults and Arches under ground, through the hidden passages whereof, 
men may come into the Market places and not be seene: of the which some are a whole mile in 
length, as from the Gate Resid, unto the Gate leading unto the Sea, in which Gate a way was 
made and paved, unto the very Haven of the Citie of Alexandria, which is extended one mile 35 
within the Sea, in which place a very high Tower was built, which the Inhabitants call Magraah, 
but the Arabians, Magar Alecsandria, that is, the Pharos of Alexandria: on the top of which 
Tower, it is reported that Alexander sometimes set a glittering Looking-glasse, in the which all 
the warlike Ships which sayled either out of Graecia, or from all the West into Egypt, to harme 


them, might be seene fiftie days journey by land, that is, aboYO the space of five hundred leagues 
off». Purchas, His Pilgrimes, Yin, 589. 

2) Masudi, op. cit., II, 434—436 says that under the reign of the Omayyad Caliph 
Walid I, which was from A. D. 705 to 715, the king of Byzantium sent one of his favorite eunuchs 

5 to Egypt on a secret mission. Led into the presence of el-Walid, he said that he had fled from the 
court of the Greek king to save his life, and that he wished to become a mussulman. This he did, 
and little by little he gained the confidence of the Caliph by disclosing to him the existence of 
hidden treasures in Damascus and other places in Syria. One day he told el-Walid that when 
Alexander had got possession of the property and the precious stones of Sheddad, son of Ad, or 

10 of other Arab kings in Egypt and in Syria, he had built vaults and subterranean chambers, 
covered over with vaults and arches. In these he put all his treasures,iingots, coin and precious 
stones. Above these vaults he built the Pharos, which was not less than a thousand cubits high, 
and on the top of it he placed a mirror and a guard. As soon as an enemy appeared in the 
offing, the watchmen cried out to the neighbouring posts and, by means of signals, warned the 

15 remotest ones. So the inhabitants were warned, ran to the defense of the city, and foiled the 
enemy's attempt. On hearing this the Caliph sent the eunuch with some soldiers who pulled down 
half of the tower and destroyed the mirror. The people of Alexandria and of the other cities 
saw the ruse, and that they would be its victims, and the eunuch, fearing lest the Caliph should 
soon hear of his perfidy, fled during the night and made oif on a ship which he had got ready in 

20 case of need. Edrisi, I, 298 says a fire burnt on the Pharos continually, but he does not 
mention the mirror. Cf. Yaliut, 263-4, who docs not believe this tale. 

Conf. Abulfeda, II, Pt. 2, 144, who says the mirror was of airon of China». Leo Afri- 
canus, Historic of Africa, III, 864 (Hakl. Soc. edit.), says it was a «steele-glasse by the hidden 
vertue of which glasse as many ships as passed by while the glasse was uncovered should imme- 

25 diately be set on fire; but the said glasse being broken by the Mahumetans, the secret vertue 
thereof vanished)). 


1. Andaman islands. 


Yen-ro-man {^ ^t W- 

When sailing from Lan-wu-li to Si-lan, if the wind is not fair, ships 
may.'be driven to a place called Yen-t'o-man. This is a group of two islands 
in the middle of the sea, one of them being large, the other small; the latter 
is quite uninhabited. The large one measures seventy U in circuit. The 

85 natives on it are of a colour resembling black lacquer; they eat men alive, 
so that sailors dare not anchor on this coasts 

This inland does not contain so much as an inch of iron, for which 
reason the natives use (bits of) eonch-shell {c¥6-¥u) with ground edges in- 
stead of knives. On this island is a sacred relic, (the so-called) «corpse on a bed 

40 of rolling gold., (M ^ M ^ ^)- ™s body has been there for genera- 


148 AKDAMA AN islands: I,3S,1 

tions without decaying, and there is always a huge snake guarding it, on 
whose body hair has grown to the length of two feet. Nobody dares come 
near it. Near by is a spring (or well ^), the water of which overflows twice 
a year and runs into the sea; . the gravel over which it passes, after it has 
been covered by this water, all turns into gold. The islanders offer sacrifice 5 
to this spring. If copper, lead, iron, or tin is heated red hot and then put in 
this water, it is changed into gold ^. 

There is an old story told of a trading-ship which got wrecked, and the 
sailors drifted on a bamboo raft to this island. Having heard of this sacred 
water, they secretly filled some bamboo tubes with it, then got on a raft, lo 
and were driven by the current of the sea to the country of Nan-p'i, where 
they presented the water to the king of the country. Having tested its power, 
the king of Nan-p'i raised an army for the purpose of conquering that island; 
but before his fleet could arrive there, it met with a violent storm, the ships 
with all on board were thrown on the shore of this island, and all the men 15 
were eaten up by the islanders. For on this island is the «Strange man of 
the golden bod» (-^ J^ ^ ^), which is silently guarded by the spirit, 
and no man may come near the place *. 


1) Yen-t'o-man, in Cantonese, An-t'o-man. The Arab travellers of the ninth century were 20 
the first to call these islands by this name. aBeyond (the Lendjebalus islands, i. e., the Mcobars) 
are two islands divided by a sea called Andaman. The natives of these isles devour men alive; 
their hue is black, their hair woolly; their countenance and eyes have something terrifying about 
them. Their feet are long; the foot of one of them is as much as a cubit long. They go naked, 
and have no boats». Keinaud, Relations, I, 8. Conf. Masudi, op. cit, I, 839. Nicolo Conti calls 25 
the islands Andramania, and says it means 'the island of gold'. Ramusio, Navigationi, I, 339, D. 
See, however, Yule, Marco Polo, II, 292. Chou K'u-f ei does not mention these islands; our author 

is apparently the first Chinese writer to do so. 

2) I cannot find in any other work any reference to this treasure and to its «a^a guardian. 
There may be some connection between the story of the corpse and that noted by the author of 30 
the Adjaib (tenth century) concerning Great Andaman. <(At Great Andaman there is a temple of 
gold which contains a tomb, an object of veneration for the inhabitants; it is their great respect 
for this tomb which has led them to raise a golden temple over it. The inhabitants of both islands 
come there in pilgrimage, and they say that it is the tomb of Solomon, the son of David, — may 
God bless both of them. They add that that monarch had prayed to God to put his tomb in a 35 
place where the men of his time could not go, and that God granting him that favour, bad chosen 
their island to put it on. Devic,Merveillesdel'Inde, 134. See also Gerini, Researches, 379 et seqq. 

The Arab relations of the ninth century mention silver mines near the Andaman islands. 
Reinaud, Relations, I, 9. Yule says Nicolo Conti speaks of 'a lake with peculiar virtues' as 
existing on the islands. See Encycl. Britan., IX ti^ edit., II, 13. Ramusio's edition of Conti, the only 40 
one I have seen, does not contain this passage. San-ts'ai-t'u-hui (Pien-i-ti6n, 107,so), reproduces 
textually this and the preceding paragraph, but adds nothing thereto. 

3) Our author has evidently derived his information in this paragraph from an other 
source than that used in the second paragraph; the asacred relics being here called by a diffe- 
rent name. 45 


2. Islands of Pemba and Madag-asear (?). 

K'lin-lun-ts'dng-k'i {% ^ ^ % 

((This country is in the sea to the south-west. It is adjacent to a large 
island. There are usually (there, i. e., on the great island) gveat p'dng (||) 
5hirds which so mask the sun in their flight that the shade on the sun-dial 
is shifted {^ M B ^ #)- If the great fong finds a wild camel it swal- 
lows it, and if one should chance to find a p'ong's feather, he can make a 
water-butt of it, after cutting off the hollow quilPo. 

((The products of the country are big elephants' tusks and rhinoceros horns». 
10 In the West «there is an island in the season which there are many 

savages, with bodies as black as lacquer and with frizzed hair (i^| ^). They 
are enticed by (offers of) food and then caught and carried off» for slaves to the 
Ta-shi countries, where they fetcli a high price. They are used for gate- 
keepers (lit., to look after the gate-bolts). It is said that they do not long 
15 for their kinsfolk^. 


1) K'un-lun-ts'ong-k'i or 'The Zanj (or Blacks) from K'un-lun'. Considering the position 
assigned this island, near the island of the rue (Madagascar), the use of the name Ts'ong for its 
inhabitants which we have previously' seen (supra, p. 126, 130) was given to the blacks from the 
20 Somali coast to the Mozanbique channel, considering further the similarity of sound between the 
name used by the Arabs of the time to designate the big island of Pemba, Kanbalu, we have little 
doubt that the Chinese name means the cZanj of Kanbalu». Ch6u K'ii-fei (for all of the first and 
second paragraphs, and half of the third are taken from his work, 3,6*) used probably the characters 
K'un-lun to transcribe the name Kanbalu, because he saw some connexion between these blacks 
25 in the West, with the negritos inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and the islands of the Archipelago, 
who were known to the Chinese of his time as 'K'un-lun slaves'. See supra, p. 31, n. 2. 

The bird pong is the rukh, or rue of mediaeval writers; the story may have had its origin 
in the Indian legend of the garuda. The localization of the rue in Madagascar was probably due 
to the presence there of the fossil eggs of the gigantic fossil Aepyornis. The rue's quills are, 
30 according to Sir John Kirk and Sir Henry Yule, the fronds of the rofia or raphia palm. See The 
Academy, March 22, 1884. According to Gabriel Ferrand (Journal Asiatique, 10* serie, X, 551) 
they are the Malgash lavgana. The langana is a big bamboo, about 15 centimetres in diameter and 
2 meters long, in which the knots have been perforated with the exception of the one at the 
end, so as to turn it into a water-vessel. The langana is used by a large number of tribes, and 
35 particularly by the coast tribes (of Madagascar). 

Marco Polo (II, 405) also says of the rue that oit is so strong that it will seize an 
elephant in its talons and carry him high into the air, and drop him so that he is smashed to 
pieces; having so killed him the bird gryphon swoops down on him and eats him at leisuren. 

Ch6u K'ii-feii's text has, after the remark about the rue quills: «There are also camel- 

40 storks, which measure six to seven feet in height. They have wings and can fly, but not high. They 

can eat anything while it is burning hot, they can even eat red hot copper or irons. Chau 

Ju-kua, quite properly, put most of this phrase in his chapter on the Berbera-coast, where the 

ostriches properly belonged. Supra, p. 128. 

1 50 MAIiAT «MEN OF TBE SKA» (oKANG-LAUT). 1,38,8 

2) In Ch6u K'fl-fei's work, this island is not located, and after the words 'carried off', 
Dccurs the phrase: athousands and'tens of thousands of them are sold as foreign slaves (^ ^JC)"- 
Conf. supra, p. 31, n. 2. Edrisi, I, 58 says that the Arabs of Oman kidnapped children on the 
Zanguebar coast by offering them sweets. He also tells us (I, 61) that there was the Island of 
Monkeys some two days distant from the African coast. The inhabitants of the islands of Khartan 5 
and Martan (Kurian - Murian Islands) captured the monkeys by ruse and sold them in the 
Yemen, where they were used as slaves. The people of Kish and of Socotra were great slave traders. 

T'ang-shu, 2220,8*, says that during the h'ai-yuan period (A. D. 713—742) there came a 
mission to China from Shi-li-fo-shi (Sumatra) which, among other things, presented two dwarf 
women and two women from S8ng-ti ('j^ ^ ^ |_^ ^ ^ Zl), also singers and dancers. 10 
It seems possible, considering the constant relations between the Arabs of Sumatra with those in 
the African trade, that these Sbng-ti women were of the same race and country as the K'un-lnn 
ts'ong-k'i of our author. There was, however, in the T'ang period, an island near the north-east 
point of Sumatra called Ko-ko-song-chii {or ti), and SOng-ti in the present case may be an 
abbreviated form of that name. The T'ang-shu (loc. cit., 6») says the Sho-p'o country sent in 15 
A. D. 613 as tribute to China «four Song-chi slaves» (j^ f\^ j^ ^). By a slight change of 
the second character the name may appear as Song-k'i, j^ without the dot underneath being 
homophonous with iffl as used by Chau Ju-kua. 

3. Malay „Men of the Sea" (Oraiig--laut). 

Sha-hiia-kung {fp ^ >^). 20 

«The people of the country of Sha-hua-kung are in the habit of going 
out on the high seas for plunder, and sell their prisoners to Sho-p'o». 

«Again in a south-easterly direction (from this country?) there are certain 
islands inhabited by savage robbers called Ma-lo-nu (^ Rp ■^). When 
traders are driven to this country, these savages assemble in large crowds 25 
and, having caught the shipwrecked, roast them over a fire with large bamboo 
pinchers and eat them». 

«The chiefs of these robbers bore their teeth and plate them with yellow 
gold. They use human skulls as vessels for drinking and eating. The farther 
one penetrates among these islands, the worse the robbers are». 30 


The whole of this chapter is taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,&^. Our author has omitted 
some important remarks of Chou. The latter begins by saying: «Sha-hua-kung is a country in 
( \') the south-eastern Sea». In the second paragraph, first line, after the word 'country', Ch6u 
adds 'and near the Fo country' (jg; ^ |g), which, in view of the statement made' in the 35 
first paragraph that the pirates of Sha-hua-kung sell their prisoners in Sho-p'o (i. e., Java), we 
think must stand for Fo-shi {^ ^), the name used during the T'ang period to designate 
Eastern Sumatra, the San-fo-ts'i of the Sung period. Probably Ch6u's authority wrote in the 
T'ang period, hence the use of the older name, fallen in disuse in his time. Pelliot B. E. F. 
E. 0., IV, 301 translated this passage of the Ling-wai-tai-ta differently; he read: eFurther to the 40 
south-east is the kingdom of Kin-fo, etc.» V\'e have never met with this name in Chinese works, nor 
apparently had Pelliot, for he offers no explanation of it. 

1,38,3 THE AMAZONS. 151 

The name Ma-lo-nu is very like Malayu, our Malay, but we are not aware that that 

name had already become an ethnical one in the twelfth century. The fashion of putting gold or 

brass studs in the front teeth and of covering them with gold plates is still adhered to among 

certain tribes in Borneo and Sumatra. See W. H. Furness, Home life of Borneo head-hunters, 

5 157, and Mars den, History of Sumatra, 47. 

4. The Amazons. 

The countries of women {-jn; |g). 

ftStill farther to the south-east (heyond Sha-hua-kung?) there is a 
country of women (jjf |g ). (Here) the water constantly flows east, and once 

10 in several years it overflows, or flows out ("^ 'jgg ^ 1^ [f|)- 

«In this country there are lotus seed (^ |^) over a foot in length, 
and peach stones two feet in length; the people who get them present them 
to the queen. 

«Iu olden days, whenever a ship was wrecked hy a tempest on these 

15 shores, the women would take the men home with them, but they were all 
dead within a few days. At last a cunning fellow who stole a boat at night, 
managed to get away at the risk of his life and told the story. 

«The women of this country conceive by exposing themselves naked 
to the full force of the south wind, and so give birth to female children»^. 

20 In the Western Sea there is also a country of women where only three 

females go to every five males; the country is governed by a queen, and all 
the civil offices are in the hands of women, whereas the men perform mili- 
tary duties. Noble women have several males to wait upon them; but the 
men may not have female attendants. When a woman gives birth to a child, 

25 the latter takes its name from the mother. The climate is usually cold. The 

chase with bow and arrows is their chief occupation. They carry on barter 

with Ta-ts*in and T'ien-chu, in which they make several hundred per cent 

profit ^. 


30 1) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,5^. The earliest reference in Chinese works to this 

fabulous country dates from the sixth century; the bonze Hui-shon is credited with it in the Liang 
shu, 54,28. He said the women went into the water in the second and third moons of the year 
and thereby conceived. See on the various countries of women, G. Schlegel, T'oungPao, Illand 
IV, and Hervey St. Denis, Ethnogi-aphie, I, 402—404. Pigafetta, First Voyage round the 

35 Word, 154 (Hakl. Soc. edit.), says: «Our old pilot (taken on board at the island of Mallua) told 
us that in an island called Ocoloro, below Java Major, there are only women who become pregnant 
with the wind, and when they bring forth, if the child is a male, they kill it, and if a female, 
they bring it up; and if any man visit their island, whenever they are able to kill him, they do so». 

1 52 BESI (?), SUMATRA. 1,38,4-5 

Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra, 262, note, remarks: kTIH witliin a few years the Lampoon 
people (island of Samanlia, in the Straits of Sunda) believed the inhabitants of the island Engano 
to be all females, who were impregnated by the wind; lilte the mares in Tirgil's Georgics. They 
styled them, in the Malay language. Ana Saytcm, or imps of the devil)). Col. Kenneth Mackay, 
Across Papua, 70, says that the natives of the Trobriand Isl-ands off the east coast of New Guinea, 5 
have a curious creation myth, according to which the first human beings were three maidens 
who conceived by the rain falling on them. 

The legend of an island of women somewhere in the Malay archipelago was known to the 
Arabs in the tenth century, see Devic, Livrcdes merveilles de I'Inde, 20—29. 

On the notion of the waters of the Ocean flowing downward, see supra, pp. 26, 75, 9. tO 

2) The island in the Western Ocean inhabited by women and its relations with Fu-lin are 
mentioned by Htian-tsang in his account of Persia, Beal, Records, II, 279, also in T'ang-shu, 
221B,6a. Cf. Hirth, China and Soman Orient, 84,200 — 202. Western mediaeval writers also refer 
to it; Marco Polo, places it some 500 miles south of the Mekran coast. See Yule, Marco Polo, 
11, 395—398, and Friar Jordanus, Marvels (Hakl. Soc. edit.), 44. 15 

There were, according to the Chinese, other countries of women, in Tibet and Central 
Asia, see Rockhill, Land of the lamas, 339—341. The P'o-wu-chi (|^ m\ ^), of the middle 
of the sixth century, mentions a country, or island, to the east of a place called Wu-tsu (^ Sfl.)> 
in the Great Ocean which was inhabited solely by women. 

5. Best (?). Sumatra. 20 

Po-ssV(^ Ijf). 

«The country of Po-ssi is above the countries of the south-west. The 
inhabitants are of a very dark complexion and their hair is curly. They 
wrap around their bodies cotton cloth with green (or blue) flowers (or spots), 
and wear golden circlets on each arm. They have no walled cities. 05 

«Their king holds his court in the morning, when he sits cross-legged on 
a divan covered with tiger skins. When withdrawing from his presence, his 
courtiers make their obeisance by kneeling down. When going out, the king 
sits in a hammock (|^ ^), or rides an elephant, followed by a body-guard 
of over an hundred men carrying swords and shouting. The people eat cakes 30 
of flour, and meat; the food is put in earthenware vessels, from which they 
help themselves with their hands. 


This is a quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,6''. Our author has slightly changed the 
wording of the first phrase, which, in the original, reads nThe country of Po-ssi is above (or «on» 35 

t" ) tte south-western Ocean)). Po-ssi in Chinese mediaeval works is usually Persia here it 
seems to be some country or tribe of south-eastern Asia, inhabited by Negritos; we might expect 
to find it in or near the Malay Peninsula. Gerini, Researches, 429, 679, 681—682, arrives at 
the conclusion that the Po-ssi of our text, is doubtless the same as de Barros' Lambrij, which 
adjoins Daya, which, in turn, adjoins Acheen. oThe name itself, he says, may be Lambesi, i. e., 40 
Besi or Basi — lam being merely the ordinary prefix meaning village — a petty state on the 
homonymous river on the west coast of Sumatra immediately belor/Acheh, upon which it borders)). 


e. DJabulsa, the Land of tlie setting sun. ■, 

Ch'a-pi-sha (^ ?@5 i^y). 

The capital of the country of Ch'a-pi-sha is over a thousand li square. 
The king wears a military robe with a golden girdle. On his head he wears 
5 a high golden cap (^) and on his feet black boots. His courtiers wear clothes 
embroidered with pearls: 

The country produces gold and precious stones in very great plenty. The 
people live in houses which have a much as seven storeys; on each storey 
lives a family. 
10 This country is resplendent with light (3^ ^), for it is the place where 

the sun goes down. In the evening when the sun sets, the sound of it is 
infinitely more terrifying than that of thunder, so every day a thousand men 
are placed at the gates who, as the sun goes down, mingle with the sound of 
the (sinking) sun that of the blowing of horns and the beating of gongs and 
15 drums. If they did not do this, the women with child would hear the sound 
of the sun and would die of fright. 


The country referred to seems unquestionably to be the fabulous City of the "West of the 
Arabs, called by them Djabulsa, Djabirs'o or Djaborso (^^JLa.). Conf. Tabari, Annales, I, 68, 
20 and M. J. de Goeje'snote in Hirth, Die Lander des Islam, 64. The San-ts'ai-t'u-hui (Pien-i-tien, 
'87) has an illustration showing how the people of Sha-pi-ch'a (>^ ^g^ ^) ^^^"^^^ *e parting 
sun. The text refers to a' legend according to which Tsu-ko-ni (Dhu-l-Karnein, Alexander of 
Macedonia) had visited this formerly uninhabited site, where he left an inscription saying that 
here was the place where the sun sets in the West. 

25 7. Sleily. 

SsT-kia-ii-ye (ff M M ^)- 
The country of Ssi-kia-li-ye is near the frontier of Lu-mei. It is an 
island (iftjfe) of the sea, a thousand li in breadth. The clothing, customs and 
language (of the people) are the same as those of Lu-mei. This country has 
30 a mountain with a cavern of great depth in it; when seen from afar it is 
smoke in the morning and fire in the evening; when seen at a short distance 
it is a madly roaring fire. 
• When the people of the country carry up on a pole a big stone weigh- 
ing five hundred or a thousand catties and throw it down into the cavern, 

154: M0GREB-EL-AK8i. 1,38,7-8 

after a little while there is an explosion and (the stone) comes out in little 
pieces like pumice stone. 

Once in every five years fire and stones break out and flow down as far 
as the sea-coast, and then go back again. The trees in the woods through 
which (this stream) flows are not burned, but the stones it meets in its course 5 

are turned to ashes. 


The Arabs called volcanoes A-Jis 'atmah (from the Greek aT[AV]? Dozy); Mt. Etna was 
, known to them as the Jehel el-lorMn 'the blazing mountain'. Masudi, pp. cit., Ill, 67. Our author 
is the first Chinese writer to mention Sicily and its volcano. Edrisi (II, 71) refers to Mt. Etna as 10 
the (.Mountain of fire» er Jebel-el-nar near Lebadj (Aci Keale) in Sicjjy. (Cf. also Yalfut, III, 
407,2, 408,10). 

The Arabs of Africa completed the conquest of Sicily in the lattpr part of the ninth century, 
and, although the island was taken from them by the Normans in the latter part of the eldventh 
century, the Moslims continued to form a large and influential part of the population. 15 

Lu-mel, as here used, may very likely by the Eastern Empire, or perhaps even Home. 

8. Mog-reb-el-aksa. 

Mo-k'ie-la (ft # M)' 

The king of Mo-k'ie-la reads every day the Scriptures and prays to Heaven. 
He wears a turban, clothes of wool (or camel's hair % ^) ornamented in 20 
foreign fashion, and red leather boots. The religious observances (^ |^) 
are the same as with the Ta-shi. "Whenever the king goes forth, he rides a 
horse, and a copy of the Book of the Buddha of the Arabs is carried before 
• him on the back of a camel. Over five hundred cities are under the rule (of 
Mo-k'ie-la), each with walls and markets. It has an hundred myriad of soldiers 25 
who are all regularly mounted. 

The people eat bread and meat; they have wheat but no rice, also cattle, 
sheep and camels, and fruits in very great variety. The sea (on the coast of 
Mo-k'ie-la) is two hundred feet deep, and the coral-tree is found in it. 

Note. 30 

Mo-k'ie-la, in Cantonese Mak-k'i-lap, must be the Dar el-Mogreb, or the Mogreb-el- 
aksa «the Far Wests of the Arabs. Ch6u K'tt-fei (supra, p. 24) is, apparently, the first Chinese 
author to mention this remote country by name, he calls it Mo-k'ie (the character la has been 
inadvertently omitted in his work), but he knew only its name. 

On the term ^ ^, Conf. supra, pp. 138, line 36, and 142, line 6, and on the coral-tree, 35 
Pt. 11, Ch. XXXI. 

1>39 BOKNEO. 155 


P'o-ni m floT^ «^). 

P'o-ni is to the south-east of Ts'iian-chou; from Sho-p'o it is forty-five 
5 days' journey; from San-fo-ts'i forty days' journey; from Chan-ch'ong and Ma-i 
thirty days' journey in either case; all these distances are to be understood as 
taken with a fair wind (i. e., with the north-east monsoon) \ 

In this country, the city walls are made of wooden boards and the city 
contains over ten thousand inhabitants. Under its control there are fourteen 
10 districts (or cities ^|>| ). 

The king's residence is covered with pe'i-to (^ ^) leaves^; the dwell- 
ings of the people with grass. 

The king's mode of dressing is more or less like that of the Chinese. 

"Wlien he does not wear clothes and goes barefooted, his upper arm is encircled 

15 with a golden ring, his wrist with a golden silk band (^ ^), and his body is 

wrapped in a piece of cotton cloth. He sits on a string bedstead {^ ^ 

charpoy). When he goes out, they spread out a large piece of cloth unlined 

(H)* on which he sits; a number of men bear it aloft; they call this ajuan- 

'^(^''^9 (|^ ^) *- He is followed by over five hundred men, those in front 

20 carrying single and double edged swords and other weapons, those behind 

golden dishes filled with camphor and betel-nuts. He has for his protection 

over an hundred fighting boats, and when they have an engagement, they 

carry swords and wear armour. The latter is cast of copper and shaped like 

great tubes, into which they insert their bodies so as to protect the stomach 

25 and the back. 

Their household vessels are often made of gold. The country produces 

' no wheat, but hemp and rice, and they use sim-hu {j^ j^) for grain; 

furthermore, they have sheep, fowl and fish, but no silkworms. They use 

the floss of the U-pei (^ '^) plant to make cloth. They draw the sap from 

30 the heart of the wei-pa (J^ Q), the Ua-mong (j|jp ^), and cocoanut trees 

to make wine ^ 

The wives and daughters in rich families wear sarongs of fancy brocades, 
and of wmelted gold coloured silk» (^ ^ "^ ^)- As marriage presents they 
first give wine, then betel-nuts, then a finger ring, and after this a gift of 
35 cotton cloth or a sum of gold or silver, to complete the marriage rite. 

1 5:6 BOBXEQ. 1,39 

To bury their dead they have coffins und cerements, and they carry them 
to the hills on bamboo biers where they are left unheeded. "When they commence 
ploughing in the second moon, they-offer sacrifices to their spirits (jjfli), but 
"when seven years have elapsed, they discontinue these sacrifices. 

The seventh day of the twelfth; moon Js their New Year's day. The 5 
country is for the greater part hot. When the inhabitants give a feast, they 
make merry by beating drums, blowing flutes^ striking gongs, and by singing 
. and dancing. They make use of bamboo or pei-to leaves plaited together in . 
lieu of dishes and cups, and throw them away when the meal is finish-ed. 

This country is close to the country of Ti-mon (/g f^). There is a lo 
medicinal tree, the root of which is boiled into aa ointment; the latter is taken 
iaternally and also rubbed all over the body, by this means sword wounds 
never prove fatal®. 

The country produces the following articles: camphor of four varieties, 
mei-hua-nau (^ 1(^ JJ^), su-nau (^ |^), Jdn-kiau-nau (^ j^^|J J^^), 15 
and mi-nau (^ ^^), yellow wax, laka-wood-and tortoise-shell; and the 
foreign traders barter for these trade-gold and trade-silver, imitation silk 
brocades, brocades of Kien-yang (^ |||r), variegated silk lustrings, varie- 
gated silk floss (^), glass beads, glass bottles, tin, leaden sinkers for nets, 
ivory armlets, rouge, lacquered bowls and plates, and green porcelain '. 20 

Three days after a foreign ship has arrived, at these shores, the king 
and his family, at the head of the court grandees, (Note: the.king's attendants 
are styled Ta-j6n, -^ ^), go on board to enquire concerning the hardships of 
the journey. The ship's people cover the gang-plank with silk brocade, receive 
them reverently, treat them to all kinds of wine, and distribute among 25 
them, according to rank, presents of gold and silver vessels, mats with cloth 
borders and umbrellas ^ When the ship's people have moored and gone on 
shore, it is customary, before they touch upon the question of bartering, for 
the traders to oifer to the king daily gifts of Chinese food and liquors: it is 
for this reason that when vessels go to P'o-ni {^ '^), they must take with 30 
them one or two good cooks. On the full moon and new moon days they must 
also attend at the king's levee®, and all this for about a month or so, after 
which they request the king and the grandees of his suite to fix with them 
the prices of their goods; this being done, drums are beaten, in order to 
announce to all the people near and far that permission to trade with them 35 
has been granted. Clandestine trading previous to the prices being fixed is 
punishable. It is customary to treat the traders with great regard; for, if any 
of them commits a capital ofiense, he is let off with a fine and is not killed. . 

Ij39 BOKXEO. 157 

On the day when the vessel is about to sail for home, the king also 
gives out wine and has a buffalo killed by way of a farewell feast i", and 
makes return gifts of camphor and foreign cotton cloth, corresponding to the 
value of the presents received from the ship's people. The ship, however, must 
5 wait to sail till the festival in honour of the Buddha on the day of the full 
moon of the sixth moon" is passed, when it may leave the anchorage; for, 
otherwise, its will meet with bad weather on its journey. 

Their god (lit., Buddha) has no image in human shape (^ M ftg, -j^); 
his dwelling consists of a reed-covered building of several storeys, shaped 

10 like a pagoda; below there is a small shrine protecting two pearls; this is 
called the oSacred Buddha» (^ ■^yK The natives say that the two pearls 
were at the outset quite small, but that they have by degrees grown till they 
are of the size of a thumb (nail). On the god's feast the king in person offers 
flowers and fruits for three days, when all the inhabitants, both men and 

15 women, attend. 

In the second year of the period t'ai-pHng hing-kuo (A. D. 977), this 
country sent as envoys P'u A-li (^ ^ ^|j Abu Ali), and others, to present 
as tribute to our Court camphor, tortoise-shell, ivory, and sandal-wood. The 
official document they submitted to the Throne was covered by a number of 

20 wrappers, the paper was like tree-bark, but thin, smooth and glossy, and of 
a greenish tint, several feet long and over an inch in thickness; when rolled 
up, it was just as much as one could hold in the hand. The characters written 
upon it were fine and small, and were to be read horizontally. Their meaning 
was translated into Chinese as follows: «The King of P*o-ni bows his head 

25 to the ground in obeisance, and prays that his Imperial Majesty may live ten 
thousand times ten thousand times a million years», and it was further said 
in that document that, as in their annual tribute voyages, they were apt to be 
driven by the winds to Chan-ch'ong, they therefore requested that Chan- 
ch'ong be instructed by His Majesty not to detain them hereafter. Their 

30 envoys were lodged at the Li-pin-yiian (|§ ^ |^), and were sent back 
with honour ^^. 

In the fifth year yuan-fong (A. D. 1082) they sent a further mission 
with tribute "- 

The inhabitants of the ocean islands of 

35 Si-lung m M) 

Kung-shi-miau (^ fh 

ji-ii-hu (0 m W 

Lu-man (^ ^) 

158 BOKNEO. 1,39 

T'6u-su (U ^) 

Wu-li-ma (^ M ii) 

Tan-yu (|| ^), and 

Ma-jo C^p^) IS 
traffic in small boats; their style of dressing and their diet are identical with 5 
those of P'o-ni; they produce sJiong-Mang (gharu-wood), laka-wood, yellow 
wax, and tortoise-shell; and (the foreign) traders barter for these com- 
modities white porcelain, wine, rice, coarse salt, white silk piece goods and 

Notes. 10 

1) The earliest mention of Borneo in Chinese literature dates from the latter part of the 
ninth century, when it occurs in the Man-shu (/^ ^), 6,5 under the form P'o-ni (y^ j^). 
Pel Hot, B. E. F. E. 0., IV, 287, 296. The two forms of the name used by our author are both 
pronounced in Cantonese Put-ni, i. e., Brni, Borneo. See also Groeneveldt, Notes, 101 et seqq. 
Gerini, Researches, 512 et seqq., is ((perfectly sure» P'o-ni is Pani or Panel on the Barumun 15 
or Pani River, east coast of Sumatra, in about 2°20'— 2°30' N. lat. The information given 
by Chau Ju-kua strengthens the identification of P'o-ni with Borneo. He says it was near 
Ti-mbn (island of Timor, and south of Ma-i — unquestionably Luzon. He speaks of neighbouring 
islands, not one of which can possibly have been near Sumatra, and some, at least, of which appear 

to have been in the Celebes. Certain other facts — even the story of the two pearls, all point 20 
to Borneo, and not one to Sumatra. — It is true that in a previous passage (supra, p. 76} 
our author states that P'o-ni was 15 days sailing N.-W. of Sho-p'o, while in this chapter he says 
it is 45 days journey from Sho-p'o, but this may partly be accounted for by reference to previous 
remarks (supra, p. 58) on Chinese errors in compass directions at sea, and the course sailed, 
whether straight or coast-wise, should also be taken into consideration. 25 

2) Nipa palm (ivei-pa) leaves probably, not palmyra palm (jpet-to). 

3) This character stands for Xh . On the suppression of radicals in Sung books, see Hirth, 
J. A. 0. S., XXX, 27. 

4) In some editions of this work the first character of this word is written MJ- A juan- 
nang is a litter or hammock; the word itself appears to be foreign. See supra, pp. 47, 50, 72. 30 

5) Sha-hu Is sago, see supra, p. 84. We'i-pa, in Cantonese mi-pa is the nipa palm. See supra, 
p. 84. Kia-mong, in Cantonese Jca-mung, is evidently the gomuti palm, the sap of which is the 
ordinary substance from which toddy is made. See Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, 
397 — 399. We do not know what native word is transcribed by Ma-mong. 

6) The island of Timor. In a previous passage (supra, p. 83), giving a list of the depen- 35 
dences of Java, the name is written Ti-wu, in Cantonese Ti-mat. In the Ming period the name was 
written Ch'i-mon (^ ^^ ) and Ki-li-ti-mOn (^ ||_ j^ p^). See Groeneveldt, Notes, 116. 
On the medecine for wounds, conf. supra, p, 63, line 32, 

7) On these products of Borneo, see infra, Pt. II. Kien-yang is a town in Kien-ning-fu, 
Fu-kien. ((Variegated silk flossa. The character jung is probably for -^d also pronounced 40 
jung. Confer the terms Tcie-jung (^ :^) and siu-jung (|k 3^), P'ei-wbn-yiin-fu, 2,7i. 
((Green porcelains, is our celadon porcelain; it was principally manufactured at Lung-ch'iian in 
Chb-kiang province, and was an important article of export in Chinese trade in mediaeval 
times. See Hirth, Ancient Chinese porcelain, 29, 38—69. Conf. Pigafetta, First Voyage round 
the World. (Hakl. Soc. edit.) 117. __ 45 

8) ((Mats with cloth borders», ^^ J^. The first character is identical with J^, according 
to K'ang-hi-tzi-tien, and we find mentioned in P'ei-wbn-yun-fu, llQAj 162, as a term used during 
the Sung dynasty, ((mats having a brocaded hem», ^a Jh| jS. — On the subject of mats, see 
infra, Pt. II. Ch. XXIV. 


9) It is custamary in China for hidg officials to receive the visits of their subordinates 
on the first and fifteenth of each moon, and these days are the ordinary holidays of the people, 
on which they make visits. 

^°) WK f^ ^^^ ^^^^ character stands for ^ oto go to», Bto travels. Pei-wbn-yan-fu, 
5 46,98 gives several quotations of analogous terms; e. g., jjjg_ ^^^ «a farewell dinner to a parting 
friends also «a viaticumn. 

11) The feast of Kuan-yin, the patron of sailors, see supra, p. 69. Buddhism was not unknown 
in Borneo in mediaeval times, though the date of its appearance there is uncertain. See Lassen, 
Indische Altherthumsk. IV, 582. Crawfurd, J. E. G. S., XXIII, 83. 

10 12) Can these pearls be the same Pigafetta speaks of in his Narrative? «They say that the 

king of Burne (Brunei, W. Coest of Borneo) has two pearls as large as a hen's eggs, and so 
perfectly round that if placed on a smooth table they cannot be made to stand stiH». See First 
Voyage round the World by Magellan (Hakl. Soc. edit.), 117, 120. -j^ '^ «humaushape», 
according to the Fang-yea ^ossary in K'ang-hsi tzi-tien. The statue is placed in contrast with 

15 the pearls. 

13) The full text of this letter of the ruler of Borneo is given in Sung-shi, 489,18. The 
king's name is there said to be Hiang-ta (fS] ^) and that of the envoy P'u Lu-sie (»^ 
fM. ^)0- '^^^ ^^"^S said in his letter to the Emperor of China concerning this envoy: ((Recently 
there was a trader, P'u Lu-sie by name, whose ship arrived at the mouth of my river; I sent a 

20 man to invite him to my place, and then he told me he came from China. The people of my 
country were much pleased at this, and, preparing a ship, asked this stranger to guide them to 
the Court ....» See Groeneveldt, Notes, 109. It appears from this that it is to the enterprising 
Arab traders of Canton, or Ts'iian-chou, that belongs the credit of opening relations between 
China and Borneo. 

25 14) Sung-shi, 489,19* gives the name of the king of Borneo as Si-li-ma-jo (^^ j|| 

ffiR r^-) which may be Sri Maharaja or Maradja. The mission sailed back from Ts'iian-chou. 

15) These islands must probably be looked for in the Celebes and Moluccas; there is nothing 

to indicate how the nineteen characters which give their names should be grouped. The division 

here adopted is purely tentative. The first name may be Serang or Coram, the third Gilolo. Wu- 

30 li-ma may be the same as the Wu-li (/^ JB) of Yuan-shi, 162 which Groeneveldt, Notes, 
27, thought might be Bali, but this seems doubtful. — Tan-yu suggests Ternate, and Ma-jo 
Mahono, but none of these islands produce any kind of gharu-wood. 


35 , IWa-i (ifi ^). 

The country of Ma-i is to the north of P'o-ni \ Over a thousand families 
are settled together along both banks of a creek (or, gully ^). The natives 
cover themselves with a sheet of cotton cloth (^ ^ ^B ^), or hide the 
lower part of the body with a sarong (lit., «loin-cloth» ^ ^). 
40 There are bronze images of gods ('^), of unknown origin, scattered 

about in the grassy wilderness 2. Pirates seldom come to this country. 

When trading ships enter the anchorage, they stop in front of the 
officials place, for that is the place for bartering of the country. After a ship 


has been boarded, the natives mix freely with the ship's folk. The chiefs are 
in the habit of using white umbrellas, for which reason the traders ofiferthem 
as gifts. 

The custom of the trade is for the savage traders to assemble in crowds 
and carry the goods away with them in baskets; and, even if one cannot at 5 
first know them, and can but slowly distinguish the men who remove the goods, 
there will yet be no loss. The savage traders will after this carry these goods 
on to other islands for barter, and, as a rule, it takes them as much as eight or 
nine months till they return, when they repay the traders on shipboard with 
what they have obtained (for the goods). Some, however, do not return within lo 
the proper term, for which reason vessels trading with Ma-i are the latest 
in reaching home. 

The following places belong to this country: San-sii («Three islands*)), 
Pai-p'u-yen (^ >jf ^), P'u-li-lu (0 M ^W Li-kin-tung (H ^ ^), 
Liu-sin (^ ff) and Li-han (M MV- 15 

The products of the country consist of yellow wax, cotton, pearls, 
tortoise-shell, medicinal betel-nuts (^ |^ ^) and yu-ta cloth (^ 3^ 
^)*; and (the foreign) traders barter for these porcelain, trade-gold, iron ^ 
censers, lead, coloured glass beads, and iron needles. ■" 

Notes. 20 

1) According to Blumentritt, Versuch einer Ethnographie der Philippinen, 65. Mait, 
meaning othe country of the Blacks», was tte name of the island of Mindoro. See B. Laufcr, 
Relations of the Chinese to the Philippine Islands, 251 — 252. Considering that our author says 
that the Babuyan islands off the N. coast of Luzon, and Polillo island off the E. coast are a part 

of Ma-i, it seems fair to assume that the latter name is used by him as applying to Mindoro and 25 
Luzon at all events, if not to the whole Philippine group. 

The name of Ma-i was first heard of in China in A. D. 982 when some traders from that 
country brought valuable merchandise to Canton. Hervey St. Denis, Ethnographie, II, 502. 

2) When Magellan discovered the Philippines, he found the people worshipping idols. 
Referring to Qebu, Pigafetta says: «These idols are made of wood, they are concave or hollowed 30 
out behind, and the feet turned upwards; they have a large face, with four large teeth like those 

of a wild boar, and they are all painted)). Eirst Voyage round the World, (Hakl. Soc. edit.), 96. 
The images referred to by our author were probably of a like description. In the seventeenth 
century Spanish writers mention the idols of the Negritos of the Philippines and their many gods. 
W. A. Reed, Negritos of Zambales, 26. 35 

3) On San-sii, see infra, p. 161. Pai-p'u-yen are the Babuyan islands, off the N. coast of 
Luzon. P'u-li-lu is Polillo island, off the E. coast of Luzon. The other three names are not 
identified, but Li-kin-tung may be Lingayen, an important port on the W. coast of Luzon, Liu-sin 
may he Luzon, and Li-han the island of Lubang — but this is pure guessing. 

4) Yu-ta cloth is probably the cloth made from the ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea), or the 40 
abaca, the manila-hemp fiber of the Musa textilis, L. On the term «trade-gold)), see supra p. 82. 





(Philippine Islands). 


5 San-sU i~ ^). 

The San-sii, (or c<Three Islands*), belong to Ma-i; their names are Kia- 
ma-yen ijjf\ ^^ ^), Pa-lau-yu (Q ^g 0), and Pa-ki-nung(Q ± f^), 
and each has its own tribes (@) scattered over the islands. When ships 
arrive there, the natives come out to trade with them; the generic name (of 

10 these islands) is San-sii ^ 

Their local customs are about the same as those of Ma-i. Each tribe 
consists of about a thousand families. The country contains many lofty ridges, 
and ranges of cliffs rise steep as the walls of a house. 

The natives build wattled huts perched in lofty and dangerous spots, 

15 and, since the hills contain no springs, the women may be seen carrying on 
their heads two or three jars one above the other in which they fetch water 
from the streams, and with their burdens mount the hills with the same ease 
as if they were walking on level ground. 

In the remotest valleys there lives another tribe called Hai-tan (-/^ 

20 IS)^. They are small in stature and their eyes are round and yellow (brown), 
they have curly hair and their teeth show (between their lips). They nest in 
tree tops. Sometimes parties of three of five lurk in the jungle, from whence 
they shoot arrows on passers-by without being seen, and many have fallen 
victims to them. If thrown a porcelain bowl, they will stoop and pick it up 

25 and go away leaping and shouting for joy. 

"Whenever foreign traders arrive at any of the settlements, they live on 
board ship before venturing to go on shore, their ships being moored in mid- 
stream, announcing their presence to the natives by beating drums. Upon this 
the savage traders race for the ship in small boats, carrying cotton, yellow 

30 wax, native cloth, cocoanut-heart mats, which they offer for barter. If the 
prices (of goods they may wish to purchase) cannot be agreed upon, the chief 
of the (local) traders (^ ^) must go in person, in order to come to an under- 
standing, which being reached the natives are offered presents of silk um- 
brellas, porcelain, and rattan baskets; but the foreigners still retain on board 

35 one or two (natives) as hostages. After that they go on shore to traffic, 
* 11 


wMcli being ended they return the hostages. A ship will not remain at anchor 
longer than three or four days, after which it proceeds to another place; 
for the savage settlements along the coast of San-sii are not connected by a 
common jurisdiction (i. e., are all indepaident ^ :^ j^ J®)- 

The coast faces south-west, and during the south-west monsoon the 5 
surge dashes against the shore, and the rollers rush in so rapidly that vessels 
cannot anchor there. It is for this reason that those who trade to San-sti 
generally prepare for the return trip during the fourth or fifth moon (i. e., 
in May or June). 

The following articles are exchanged in barter: porcelain, black damask lo 
and various other silks, (glass?) beads of all colours, leaden sinkers for nets, 
and tin. 

P'u-li-lu is connected (^ J^) with San-sii, but its settlements are 
more populous; most of the people are of a cruel disposition and given to 
robbery. The sea thereabout is full of bare ribs of rock with jagged teeth 15 
like blasted trees, their points and edges sharper than swords and lances; 
when ships pass by they tack out in time in order to steer clear of them; 
from here come coral-trees, the tsHng-lang-kan (^ ^ Jf-) and the shan-hu 
(^ ^) varieties; but they are very difficult to get ^. 

The local customs and commercial usages are the same as in San-sii. 20 


1) Kia-ma-yen is probably CalamiAn, the largest pf the Calamianes group of islands, N. E. 
of Palawan; Pa-lau-yu may be Palawan, and Pa-ki-nung, it would seem, should be Busuanga Island. 
Laufer, op. sup. cit., 252, note 1, identifies Pa-lau-yu with Penon de Cor6n, near the E. end of 
Busuanga, and famous as one of the places where edible bird's nests are gathered. 25 

2) The Aeta {Aigta or Inagta, appears to be the original form of the word, de Quatre- 
fages, Distribution des Negritos, 6), the negrito aboriginals of the Philippines; they still occupy 
the most mountainous and inaccessible parts of Luzon. 

3) See infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXXI. 

42. 30 


Liu-k'iu (^ ^). 

The country of Liu-k'iu is some five or six days' sail east of Ts'iian- 
ch6u^ The king's family name is Huan-ssi (||Jj ^), but the natives style 
him K^o-lau (pf -p^). The king's residence is called P'o-lo-t'an-tung ('^ ^ 35 


:|^ '^1^); it has a threefold mound and a palisade surrounded by running 
water and protected by thorn hedges, and the eaves of the palace building 
have many figures of birds and beasts carved upon them ^ 

Both sexes bind their hair with white hempen cord and coil it up in a 
6 knot at the back of the head; and they make clothes of different patterns 
from hempen cloth and (ornamented with) feathers ^ 

They plait hats of rattan and decorate them with feathers. Their sol- 
diers are armed with weapons of every kind, such as knives, pikes, bows 
and arrows, and swords; they use drums, and make buff-coats of bears' and 
10 leopards' skins. 

The carriages (^) in which (the chiefs) drive are chased with the images 
of wild beasts, and only several tens of men walk in front and behind *. They 
have no regular tax revenue, but when occasion arises, a duty in the nature 
of an equal impost (on all classes) is levied. 
15 They do not understand the solar and lunar divisions of the year, but 

simply record time by observing the phases of the moon^ 

Fathers and sons sleep together on the same couch. They evaporate sea 
water in the sun to make salt, and they brew rice barm into spirits. When- 
ever they happen to have any extraordinary delicacy, they first offer it to 
20 their principal men (or Worthies ;^ ^ ^ ^)- 

Of meats they have bears and wolves, a great many pigs, and domestic 
fowls; but no cattle, sheep, donkeys nor horses ^ The soil of this country is 
rich and loamy. After burning the grass (i. e., the stubble of the last crop), 
they flood the land and merely hoe it up a few inches deep. 
25 There are no goods of any special importance to be got there; the 

people are, moreover, given to robbery, for which reason traders do not go 
there; but the natives, from time to time, take whatever they can get together 
in the way of yellow wax, native gold, buffalo tails and jerked leopard meat 
to San-sii for sale''. 
30 By its side are the countries of P'i-sh8-ye (HJfc ^ ^) and T'an-ma- 



1) There is no doubt that the country here called Liu-k'iu is Formosa, the indications 
furnished by our author are quite conclusive on this point. The name Liu-k'iu was used by the 
35 Chinese-prior the sixteenth century-to designate all the islands from the coast of Fu-kien to Japan. 
Hervey St. Denis, Ethnographie, I, 414. Our author has taken nearly textually all this 
chapter- with the exception of the two last paragraphs -from Sui-shu, 81,io-i3, which relates 
to the period extending from A. D. 581 to 617. It states (81,is») that in A. D. 605, a certain 
skipper, called Ho-man (>fffl* #), and some others, (reported or noted) that every spring and 
40 autumn, when the sky was clear and there was no wind, when looking eastward one distinguished 



somotMng resembling smoke or mist, but they did not know how many thousand U away it was. 
In 607 the Emperor having ordered Chu Kuan (;^ '^) to go to sea to seek for strange places, 
he took Ho-man with him and sailed to Liu-k'iu. A year or so afterwards the Chinese sent an 
expedition to Liu-k'iu, which, judging by the course it sailed, was the Formosan coast E. of the 
Pescadores. This expedition captured and sacked the king's capital and carried off the population. 5 
After this relations with this country came to an end. See HerveySt. Denis, Ethnographie, I, 
422—424, and G. Schlegel, T'oung-pao, VI, 174 et seqq. 

2) Sui-shu, loc. cit., says the king was styled Eo-la-tou ("^^ ^\ ^) or Ko te'i- (^j) tou 
«it is not known, it remarks, whence (his family) comes, but it has r uled over the country for several 
generations)). The people also called the ruler E'o-lau-yang ("pp -^ :^) and his consort 10 
To-pa-ch'a (^^ jj^ ^k)' ^^^ '*"'*' headmen were called Niait-liau (j& J ). 

The character tung ('/|3) s^ft^r the name of the king's residence, and which commonly 
means «ravine)), is clearly to be understood here as meaning «a village)), in which sense our 
author uses the character (written |l||n|) in his chapter on Hal-nan in speaking of the villages of 
the aborigines. Sui-shu, 81,11" says of Liu-k'iu ceach villagehas its' own little chief)) ("^jS ;^ 15 
A-\ ^£)- Each tung comprised a certain number of hamlets (jpit), ruled by local headmen. 

In modern Kuang-tung a tung ('^1^) is equivalent to a ta-hiang {'/^ ^fP)' * community of 
villages, or parish, as a subdivision of a ssi, or township, which again is a subdivision of a terri- 
tory in charge of a district magistrate. See Hirth, China Review, II. 1873, 158. 

3) Sui-shu, 81,12*, remarks that the people have deep-set eyes and long noses, somewhat 20 
like the people of Western Asia (Hu). The men pull out their moustaches, the hair on their 
temples and wherever it grows on their bodies. The women tattoo insects and snakes on their 
hands. This last custom, we may add, is still observed in the Liu-k'iu islands; some of the natives 

of Formosa tattoo their faces. 

4) This is presumably our author's interpretation of the unintelligible phrase in Sui-shu 25 

(81,ii'') which says: «The prince rides a mu-shou (lit. 'wooden animal') C^P ^^ T^J ■^^) and 

«the princelings ride a loto (lit. 'a low table') carved to look like an animal ("yK ^P ^& i^H, 

5) Sui-shu, 81,12* says: «By looking at the waxing and waning of the moon they reckon 
the divisions of the seasons (Q^ '^ff)- Tliey await the drying-up of (certain) medicinal plants to 30 

reckon a year {^ M M ^'^ ii^ ^ ^ M>- 

6) «0f meats (fi!*t) they have bears, etc.». This is a quotation from Sui-shu (81,ia'') giving 
the products of Liu-k'iu. The addition of the word jou ameat)) is clearly an error on the part of 
our author or the editor of his work. 

7) This reference to a regular trade existing between Formosa and the Philippine islands 35 
is extremely interesting. Were it not that our author calls the Pescadores by the name of 
P'6ng-hu, one would be disposed to think that he was referring to this latter group of islands, 
which in the Yiian period were called San-sii. See Yiian-shi, 210,15. 

8) On P'i-sho-y§, or Southern Formosa, see infra, p. 165. T'an-ma-yen, in Cantonese Tam- 
ba-gan, may be Botol Tobago island off the S. coast of Formosa. ' 40 

From the fact that our author takes practically all his information concerning Northern 
Formosa from the Sui-shu, and from his remark that traders did not in his time visit that part 
of the island, it seems fair to assume that intercourse was not kept up after the Chinese discovery 
of the island in A. D. 607. See however, C. Imbault Huart, L'ile Formose, 4, who is of a contrary 
opinion, but Ma Tuan-lin (Hervey St. Denis, Ethnographie, I, 42'1) says distinctly, that since 45 
the time of the Sui there was no intercourse with Liu-k'iu. The Liu-k'iu-kuo-chI (3E^ 3Sfe |i9 
^) 15,io''-ii* agrees with this. The first mission to China from Liu-k'iu proper was in the fifth 
year of Hung-wu of the Ming (A. D. 1372). 

■'■'*3 SOUTHERN roRmosA. 165 


P'i-sh8-y6 im ^ 

The language of P'i-sho-ye cannot be understood, and traders do not 
5 resort to the country. The people go naked and are in a state of primitive 
savagerj' like beasts. 

In the district of TsHian-chou there is an island in the sea by the name 
of P'ong-hu (^ ^); it belongs to the jurisdiction of Tsin-kiang-hien (^ 
1^ ^); now the country referred to is so near to this island that smoke on 
10 it may be discerned^. 

The savages come to make raids and, as their coming cannot be fore- 
seen, many of our people have fallen victims to their cannibaUsra, a great 
grief to the people ! 

During the period shun-M (A. D. 1174 — 1190) their chiefs were in 

15 the habit of assembling parties of several hundreds to make sudden attacks 

on the villages of Shui-au (^ y^) and Wei-t'6u (g ||) in Ts'uan-ch6u-fu, 

where they gave free course to their savage instincts, slaying men without 

number and women too, after they had raped them ^. 

They were fond of iron vessels, spoons, and chopsticks; one could get rid 

20 of them by closing the entrance door, from which they would only wrench 

the iron knocker and go away. By throwing away spoons or chopsticks they 

could be got to stoop down to pick them up, and thus fall behind some paces. 

The officials' soldiers used to lay hold of them in this manner: when 

the savages got sight of a horseman in mail, they struggled to strip off his 

25 armour, when, in their headlong rush, they met their death without being 

sensible of the danger. 

When attacking an enemy, they are armed with javelins to which are 
attached ropes of over an hundred feet in length, in order to recover them 
after each throw; for they put such value on the iron of which these weapons 
30 are made, that they cannot bear to lose them. 

They do not sail in junks or boats, but lash bamboo into rafts, which 
can be folded up like screens, so, when hard pressed, a number of them can 
lift them up and escape by swimming off vdth them^. 


35 1) In the preceding chapter our author says that P'i-sho-ye is beside (^) Liu-k'iu. He 

now states, that from the Pescadores (P'6ng-hu) smoke could be seen in the country of the 

166 KOKEA. 1,43 

P'i-sho-ye, consequently it was the south-western coast of Formosa. Tsin-kiang-hifin is Ts'uan- 
cMu-fu. See Playfair, Cities and Towns, JVs 1087. 

Terrien de Lacouperie, China before the Chinese, 127, was the first to identify the 
P'i-sho-ye with the Visaya or Bisaya of the Philippines. More recently B. Laufer, in his Relations 
of the Chinese to the Philippine Islands, 253 — 255, has on aculture-historical considerations)) 5 
greatly strengthened the evidence, previously based solely on phonetic coincidence. Laufer, 
however, thinks the text of Sung-shi, 491,1 — which is an abstract of our author's account of the 
P'i-sho-ye, refers to only one raid on the China coast, by a band of Visayans who had failed in a 
descent on the Formosan coast, and had been driven to attack that of China. In this, however, 
he is wrong, for both our author and Sung-shi state that during the period A. D. 1174 — 1190 10 
these raids on the Fu-kien coast were of frequent occurrence. The P'i-sho-ye were consequently 
established along the south-western coast of Formosa at that time, but it seems probable that 
they were of Philippine origin. This belief is further strengthened by the statement of our author 
in the preceding chapter that the people of Liu-k'iu, the Formosans immediately to the north of 
the P'i-sh5-ye, had regular trade relations with the Philippines (San-sii). It must be noted that- 15 
the raiders came to China on rafts, not in boats as they would have done had they come directly 
from the Philippines. 

Although phonetic coincidence is but poor evidence on which to base identifications, never- 
theless it is interesting to note that there is still a branch of the Pepohuan Formosans called the 
Pazehhe tribe living scattered over the Taihoku plain and in the Kelung and Tamsui districts 20 
of Formosa. The name resembles somewhat P'i-sho-y6. See J. W. Davidson, Island of Formosa, 
581, C. Imbault Huart, op. cit, 256 et seqq., and R. Tor ii, Aboriginal Tribes of Eastern 
Formosa (Hansel Zasshi, XII, JV» 10), 48. 

2) Wei-t'6u exists at the present day, it is situated on the spit of land to the east of and 
opposite Quemoy island in Chang-chou Bay. It seems likely that these raids by the Formosans 25 
continued for some time. In 1211, according to the Ts'uan-ch6u-fu-cM, the foreign traders 
residing in Ts'uan-ch6u petitioned the Throne to be allowed to put the city walls in thorough 
repair with funds to be raised by subscription among themselves. The Japanese pirates also 
made frequent descents on the Fu-ki6n coast at this time. 

3) Ma Tuan-lin, WBn-hien-tung-k'au, 347,4, reproduces this chapter of our author. See 30 
also Hervey St. Denis, Ethnographie, I, 425. 


Sin-lo m B)- 

«The country of Sin-lo is inhabited by a race which descends from 35 
Pien-han» (^ ^Y- This country rises opposite to the sea entrance to Ts'iian- 
chou, but, from the popular superstition concerning what geomancers call the 
nrelation between north and south» (ff^ ^ ^ "?" '^), traders journeying 
thither must first go to Ssi-ming (^ ^), and then put out to sea again; 
others say that the water current of Ts'uan-ch6u gradually lessens, which 40 
renders is necessary to pass by way of Ssi-ming ^. 

I,'44 KOREA. 167 

There are two great clans called the Kin (^) and the P'o (^[). 
During the mt-io period of the T'ang dynasty (A. D. 618 — 627) ChQn 
Kin (^ ^ or the true Kin) was appointed Prince of Lo (or Yo)-lang (i^ J^ 
M 3l)'j ^is descendants have always been princes (j^y. 

5 During the period k'ai-yau (A. D. 681 — 682) they sent a mission to 

ask for the T'ang Ceremonial and their request was complied with*. 

Their houses, utensils and implements, their mode of dressing and their 

methods of administration are more or less copies of what we have in China. 

In their government the people are ruled by severe laws, for which 

10 reason offences are of rare occurrence; and the idea of theft is so foreign to 
the people that they do not even pick up things dropped on the road *. 

When contracting marriage, they do not send presents. The people can 
write, and are fond of learning; even the menial classes are given to studious 
pursuits; in the villages they have colleges, called «pubUc halls» (^ '^) in 

IB the inscriptions over their doors. In these their unmarried sons and younger 
brothers are placed in order to study literature and to practice archery. 
They have a triennial examination for the degree of K^u-jon, also the exami- 
nation for the degree of Tsin-sM, with the several faculties, as «Exact Scien- 
ces)), etc. On account of all this the country is styled Kun-tzi-kuo (^ -^ 

20 PI «the Country of Gentleinen»)^ 

The soil of the country is w^ell adapted to the growing of rice, and 
there are (no) camels or buffalo. They use no cash, but merely barter with 
rice. Their household vessels and other implements are all made of copper, 
and they have two kinds of music called the h'u (j^ ^) music and the 

25 Mang (^ ^) music'. 

During the period ¥ai-ymn (A. D. 713—742) Hing Sh6u (Jf|5 J§) 
was sent on a mission of condolence (to the Sin-lo Court)*. During the 
periods fung-huang (A. D. 923—926) and ch'ang-Mng (A. D. 930—934) 
of the Five Dynasties, tribute missions were sent to the Court of China to 

30 perfect the ceremonial; and under the present (Sung) dynasty, in the second 
year Men-lung (A. D. 961), they sent tribute; this was repeated in the second 
year oiking-kuo (A. D. 977).v 

The people of this country believe in the theory of the male and female 
principles, and in good and evil spirits, and are very superstitious. When 

35 Chinese envoys arrive, they must first select a lucky day before they can 
properly receive the Imperial commands; and, whenever such a message has 
been received, an address of thanks is written by them to the Emperor, which 
is not devoid of elegance in style. 

168 KOKEA. 1,44 

The products of the country are ginseng, quicksilyer, musk, pine-seeds, 
hazel-nuts, haliotis shells (^ ^ ^), pine-cones, lihanotis root (^ ||,), 
pai-fu-tzi (Q 1?^ -^), fu-lmg (^ ^), cotton cloth of all sizes, mau-sM 
(^ M) *^^<^t^j bronze temple hells (^ ^), porcelain, straw mats, and writing 
brushes made of rats' hair ( jK, ^f. Trading ships barter in exchange for these 5 
articles coloured silk piece-goods, calendars, and books (^ ^ ^ ^) ^°. 


1) Quotation from T'ang-shu, 220,is''. The kingdom of Sin-lo (in Korean SMnra) occupied 
tlie eastern and south-eastern portions of the Korean peninsula, from Fusan to the Tumen river, 
thus extending over most of present northern Korea. This kingdom appears to have been 10 
founded in the middle of the first century B. C; the first mention of the name in Chinese histories 
appears to date from the Wei period (A. D. 220—264), when it was written Sin-lu (0f j^). 

In the fifth century it occurs under the form Ssi-lo (^ ^). Liang_-shu,_54,25». In 934 Sin-lo 
was absorbed into the newly founded united Korean dynasty of Kau-li ( ^ J^)i ''y ^Mch name 
it was calledduringtheSungdynasty.Sung-shi, 487,1-20. See Hervey St. Denis, Ethnographie, 15 
I, 298 et seqq., J. Ross, History of Corea, 147—195, W. E. Griffis, Corea, 32, 45 et seqq. 

The Arab traders of the ninth century, though they knew something of Korea, do not 
appear to have been there. Suleyman says of it: ((Towards the sea China is bounded by the 
islands of Sila (Al-Sila); they are white people, who live in peace with the sovereign of China, 
and who pretend that if they did not send him presents, the sky would not send down rain on 20 
their land. However, none of our countrymen have visited them, so as to be able to tell of them. 
"White pheasants are found in that country)). Eeinaud, Relations, I, 60. 

Masudi (Prairies d'or, I, 346), differs slightly with this. «Beyond China, he says, there 
is towards the sea no known kingdom or country which has been described, except the territory 
of es-Sila and the islands which depend on it. It rarely happens that a foreigner who has gone 25 
there from Irak or any other country, leaves it afterwards, so healthful is the climate, so clear 
the water, so fertile the soil, so abundant all things)). Cf. Ibn Khord&dhbeh, (de Goeje edit.,) 51, 182. 

2) Ssi-ming-chou in Shang-yu-hien in Ch5-kiang. Playfair, Cities and Towns, J\ii 6655. 
Sung-shi, 487,20 says that after leaving Ting-hai (^^ jife) of Ming-chou (HH >|>|J i. e., 
Ning-po) with a good wind the sea is reached in three days. Five days later Mo-shan (^^ |_[j 30 
Nimrod islands, off extreme S. W. coast of Korea) is made, and the frontier (of Korea) entered. 
After Mo-shan, passing islands and islets by tortuous rocky channels, the junk sailing swifty 
arrives in seven days at the Li-chong-kiang (jjj^ M^ |^ Ta-dong-gang). The river flows 
between two mountains and rushes down through a rocky gorge called Ki-shui-mon (^^ 
■jdC P^ "*^^ S^ts of hurrying waters))), a very dangerous point. Three days hence and 35 
the landing point is reached, where there is ahouse('i&) called the Pi-lan-ting (^, iiij i&). 
From this point the land-route leads by a rough and uneven path over hills and through vales 
for over 40 li to the capital of the kingdom (Pyong-yang))). 

Ssi-ming is the name of a hill near Ning-po which gave its nameT to the entire neighbour- 
hood, especially the coast facing the east. Yti-ti-ki-shong, 11,6. The name may be said to stand 40 
for Ning-po, as it does in the term Ssi-ming-kung-so, well-known in Shanghai as the «Ning-po 

3) T'ang-shu, 220,14" says: «the king's family name is Kin, the family name of the nobles 
is P'o. The common people have no clan names but only surnames)). 

Lo (or To)-lang, in Korean Ak-rang (the present Pyong-yang), was a Chinese colony since 45 
B. C. 108, and remained subject to foreigners until near the fourth century. Maurice Courant 
La Coree jusqu'au IX" sifecle, 3. 

4) The T'ang Ceremonial or T'ang-li (j^ jjj^). The full title of this work has not been 
preserved, it was probably Hi6n-k'ing-li-shu (j^ ^ j|ffl ^). It was published during the 

1,44 KOREA. 169 

chong-Tcuan period (A. D. 627 — 650) and served as tlie basis for tlie Ta-T'ang K'ai-yiian-li 
i'^ ^ ^ TC Jis) ^° ^^^ chapters, publisiied in A. D. 713—742, and described in the 
Shi-k'u-ts'tiari-sliu-ts'ung-mu, 82,2. The material from which both these works were compiled is 
to be found in Tu-Yu's T'ung-tifin, and in the Li-chi (jjjffi ^) division of the T'ang-shu. 
5 The phrase of our text is taken from T'ang-shu, 220,15*'. 

5) Sung-shi, 487,20* says «Their forms of punishment are neither barbarous nor cruel; 
opfen rebels and those who curse their parents are beheaded, all other criminals are punished 
with the heavy bamboo on the ribs. Those who have been condemned to death in the provinces 
are sent to the capital, where, every year in the eighth moon, there is a revision of criminal 

10 cases; capital crimes are commuted to deportation to an island, and other sentences are reduced 
or pardons granted)). 

6) The Shan-hai-king mentions a ((Country of Gentlemen)) where the people wore modest 
clothing and carried swords, and who were of an amiable disposition and not given to litigation. 
Liu An (t B. C. 122) in his Huai-nan-tz'i refers to a ((Country of Gentlemen in the East)). Pei- 

15 w6n-yfln-fu, 102-4,24. Our author bases presuJnably his application of this name to Korea on the 
use made of it by Hing Sh6u during his mission to Korea in A. D. 737 referred to further on (infra, 
n. 8) and which is related in T'ang-shu, 220,16*. 

7) The information contained in this paragraph, and the previous remarks about exam- 
inations, etc., are derived' from the statements made in A. D. 1015 by the Korean envoy Kuo- 

20 Yuan (^K tt'). He said there were neither sheep, hares, camels, buffalo nor donkeys. We have 
corrected our author's text accordingly. He said there were two kinds of music called h'lt and 
hiang. In a subsequent passage (20*) Sung-shi states that there were two styles of music in Korea, 
the right and the left style; the right style is called T'ang-yo[^ ^)°^ ((Chinese musio), the 
left Mang-yo (W& ^) or "Tillage musicn is their old music. Conf. infra, p. 171, line 10, Kuo- 

25 Yuan said that his countrymen did not use cash, but only stuffs and rice for purposes of barter. 
Sung-shi, 487,17 et seqq. under date A. D. 1164, says that in Korea rice and cloth were used to 
barter with, for, though there was copper in the country, they had not known how to cast cash, 
and had hoarded in their storehouses that which came from China. After the ts ung-ning /peTioi 
(A. D. 1102—1106) they learnt how to cast cash, and they had three denominations. 

30 8) It was in A. D. 737 that Hing Sh6u was sent on a mission of condolence to Korea on 

the death of Hing-kuang (^ ■^), king of Sin-lo. When the deceased king's son Ch'ong-k'ing 
i^i 1^) ascended the throne, the envoy was instructed to state in the name of the Emperor 
that Sin-lo was styled the ((Country of Gentlemen)), because its people understood poetry and 
literature, and that, as Hing Sh6u was deeply versed in literary matters, He had chosen him as 

35 His envoy so that he might discuss with them the meaning of the Classics, and impress them with 
the mental superiority of the Great Country. 

9) On the fang-fong or libanotis root, see Bretschneider, Botanicum Sinicum, III, 76—79. 
Fai-fu-tzi (the second character is usually written [Jj^) is an official root, resembling closely 
that of the Aconitum. Bretschneider, op. cit., 257—258, and Porter Smith, Materia medica, 

40 s. v., Aroidese. Fu-ling a funguslike substance used medicinally by the Chinese. It is the Pachyma 
Cocos, Fries, or China-root. It is found also in North America, where it is called «Indian 
Breadn. Bretschneider, op. cit., 532—536. ((Serge» is the usual rendering for mau-sU. Sung- 
shi, 487,18'', under date A. D. 1164 says that Korea ((is cold and mountainous, the soil is good 
for pines (M) and juniper (}jf|[); it produces rice (^Jx,)' ™'"«* (^)' ^®™P ^^^ ^^^^*' ^"* °° 

45 Shu (f Jj a glutinous variety of Setaria italica, Kth.). They make wine from rice. Silkworms are 
rare, and a piece of silk (|l|) is worth over ten ounces of silver. Clothes are made of hempen 
cloth. There are several hundred Chinese, mostly from Fu-kien province, living in the capital 
(Pyong-yang), who have come there on trading junks)). 

10) It may be that these four characters should be translated ((books printed at Foochow)). 

170 JAPAN. 1,45 


Wo m. 

The country of Wo is to the north-east of Ts'uan-(ch6u). It is at pre- 
sent called Ji-pon (Q 2|S), which name has arisen from the fact that this 5 
country is situated near the place where the sun rises. Some people say that 
they changed the old name because they disliked it ^ 

The country extends for several thousand li in all directions. In the 
south and west you come to the sea, in the north and east the country is 
bounded by big hills; beyond the hills is the country of the Hairy men (^ ^) *. lo 

The country is divided into five Ki (^), seven Tau (^j, three islands 
{^), 3772 communes (|||5), and 414 postmg-stations (,^), and its population 
amounts to fully 883,000 male adults ("J')^ 

Since the country is full of hills and forests and without good arable 
lands, the inhabitants have a liking for the various kinds of sea food *, i5 

Many of them tattoo their bodies, and they call themselves descendants 
of T'ai Po (^ 'f^)^- It is also said^ that from remote antiquity they have 
sent envoys to China who styled themselves Ta-fu (-f^ ^), and, just as in 
olden times when the descendants of Shau-k'ang of the Hia dynasty were 
invested with the rule of Kui-ki ("^ ^) they cut their hair and tattooed 20 
their bodies in order to ward off the harmful attacks of dragon-monsters, so 
the present people of Wo tattoo their bodies, in order to drive away the 
beasts of the sea when they dive under water for fishing purposes. 

From a calculation of the way thither, (Wo) lies due east from Kui-ki. 
The climate resembles that of China ''. 25 

The king's surname (^) is Wang (^), and this has been so without 
change for the last seventy generations at least. Civil and military offices are 
hereditary *. 

Men's dresses consist of strips of cloth worn crosswise, tied, not sewn, 
together. Women's dresses are like bed sheets, with an opening to run the 30 
head through, a whole suit consisting as a rule of two or three pieces of 
cloth. Both sexes wear their hair unbraided and go barefooted'. 

They have the Chinese standard works, such as the Five Classics and 
the Collection of poetry by Pal Lo-t'ien (^ i^ ^ ^ ^), all of which 
are obtained from China ^°. 35 

1,45 JAPAN. 171 

The country yields all kinds of cereals, but little wheat. For purposes 
of exchange they use copper cash bearing the inscription Kien-yiian-ta-pau 
i^TCix. ^)- They have water-buffalo, donkeys, sheep, (but neither) rhino- 
ceros (nor) elephants, also gold and silver, fine silks and fancy cotton cloth". 
5 The country produces quantities of cryptomeria trees (ij^ TJ^) and lo 

trees (^ TJ^), reaching to heights of upwards of fourteen or fifteen chang, 
and fully four feet in diameter. The natives split them into planks, which 
they transport in large junks to our port of Ts'iian-chou for sale. The people 
of Ts'iian-chou rarely go to this country ^^. 
10 As regards music, they have the Chinese and the Korean notation (^). 

They have swords, shields (ifj^), bows, and arrows which have iron points, 
but they cannot shoot far with thek: bows, the reason being that in this 
country the people are not accustomed to fighting ^*. 

In their houses separate rooms are used as bed-rooms by father and 
15 mother and by the different brothers ". 

When taking their meals, they use dish-stands and dishes (^ S.)^^- 
When contracting marriage, they do not make presents of money ^^. 

For the dead they have coffins (>Ji^), but no coffin-cases {^). Their 
tombs consist of simple earthen tumuli. At the beginning of their time of 
20 mourning they lament and wail and no meat, but when the burial is over, 
the whole family takes a bath to wash away ill-luck from their bodies^'. 

Whenever important affairs are to be entered upon, they scorch bones 
in order to foretell whether they will turn out luckily or otherwise ^«. 

They do not know the division of the year with its four seasons, but 
25 reckon the year from harvest to harvest ^». The people attain to great age, 
frequently to about eighty or ninety years 2". 

Women are neither licentious nor jealous. There is no litigation, but 
when some one is found guilty of a crime, serious cases are punished by the 
extirpation of the culprit's family, light offenses by the enslaving (j^) of his 
30 wife and children ^^ 

Gold and silver are used in paying taxes to the government; these 
metals are found in Yu6-ch6u (^ f\\) in the east of this country, and in 

another island ^^ 

This county has had intercourse with China since the later Han dynasty 

35 (A. D. 25—221), and it has sent envoys with tribute to our Court during 
the Wei, Sung, Sui and T'ang dynasties. During the first year ymg^ of the 
present dynasty (A. D. 984) a Japanese bonze, by name Tiau-jan(^^)2S 

' came across the sea to China with five or six of his disciples and offered 

172 JAPAN. 1,45 

presents of more than ten pieces of copper (bronze) ware of most delicate 
workmanship. The Emperor T'ai-tsung gave orders that he should have an 
audience and that he should be lodged at the T'ai-p'ing-hing-kuo temple (^ 
2p j^ ig ^); he bestowed on him a purple priest's robe and treated him 
with great kindness. On hearing from him that their kings formed an unin- 5 
terrupted line of rulers, all of the same family name, and that the high offices 
in the country were hereditary, the Emperor sighed, and said to his ministers 
Sung K'i (^ ^) and Li Fang (^ \t^) ^: «These are merely island barbar- 
ians, and they have a line of monarchs for such a long time, and even their 
officials form an uninterrupted hereditary succession; this is indeed the "Way lo 
of the Ancients»! 

Thus it came about that the barbarians of a single island caused the 
Emperor T'ai-tsung to sigh. Cannot these customs be a survival of the spirit 
inherited from T'ai Po, who «used the doctrines of our Great Land to change 
barbarians))? ^^ 15 


1) The name Wo — in Japanese Wa, or perhaps Wani, was probably the name of the ruling 
tribe or family from which the sovereigns of Japan were at one time taken. Wani appears not 
unfrequently, as a proper name in the Kojiki and Nihongi. W. G. Aston, Early Japanese History, 
40, 41. The Arabs of the ninth century appear to have known of Japan under the name of 20 
Waqwaq, transcribing the Japanese words Wa Tcdku ((kingdom of Wa» Van der Lith & Devic 
Livre des merveilles de I'Inde, 295 et seqq.; also Ibn Khordadbeh, 50. According to T'ang-shu, 
145,18'' the name Ji-pSn — in Japanese Nippon, was first used in A. D. 670. See also T'ang-shu, 

The character Wo means ((dwarf», and the Chinese have frequently called Japan Wo -jon- 25 
kno {^. ^ U ), ((kingdom of dwarfsn, and Wo-nu-kuo (-^ ^j^ 1^ ) ((kingdom of dwarf 
slaves)). See e. g, Sung-shif, 491, and Yiian-shi, 101. It was only in 1895 that, at the urgent 
request of the Japanese Government, an Imperal Rescript was issued by the Chinese Emperor 
prohibiting the use of this term in China. 

2) This refers to an early period of Japanese history, probably in the seventh century, when 30 
the Ainu still possessed the northern portion of the island of Hondo. We find mention of «Hairy 
men» in as old a work as the Shan-hai-king, but it is not possible that they were the Ainu, the 
((Hairy men» of our text. The earliest mention we have found in Chinese works of the use of the 
correct name of the Ainu, Hia-i ($^ ^), occurs in T'ang-shu, 145,l8^ where it is said that in 

A. D. 632 the Wo came to Court and with them were Ainu ($S ^|| hA who lived on an island 35 
in ,the Ocean. Their envoy had hair four feet long. They wore earrings and had arrows stuck in 
their hair. A gourd was hung up, and at a distance of some tens of feet they hit it with their 
arrows every time. 

3) The Japanese bonze Tiau-jan — in Japanese Chonen, who visited the Court of the Sung 

in A. D. 984, is the authority for this statement. Sung-shi, 491,7. He also gave the population of 40 
Japan as 883,329 male adults. The division of Japan into five Home Provinces (551 W^ 6b) 
in Japanese Qo-Ttinai, consisting of the Kyoto, Nara and Asaka districts, seven Provinces — in 
Japanese Bo, and two islands — Tsushima and Iki,— was made in the third century of our era by the 
Empress Jingo, after her Korean expedition, and in imitation of the Korean system. The Emperor 
Mommu (696 — 707) increased the number of provinces to 66 by subdividing the older ones. See 45 
Tsin-shu, 97,7 and Chamberlain, Things Japanese (fifth edit.), 211. ffiawgr, in Japanese ^o, here 

1,45 JAPAN. 173 

rendered «commune», was, in Japan, a group of hamlets. The «postiug-stationsi), called yeJci in 
Japanese, were established along all the highroads throughout the Empire. Sui-shu, 81 ,15 notes 
that females were more numerous than males in Japan, so likewise does the T'ang-shu, 220,17*. 
4) See San-kuo-chi (Wei-chii), 30,94*. Our author quotes, however, Tsin-shu, 97,4*. 
5 5) Quotation from Tsin-shu, 97,4*. See also Liang-shu, 54,25, and conf. H6u Han-shu, 

145,la^ On T'ai Po, see Mayers. Chin. Eeader's Manual, 263, s. v., Wn T'ai Peh. See also Legge, 
Chinese Classics, I, 71. 

6) In Tsin-shu, 97,4. See also San-kuo-cM (Wel-chi), 30,25. Hou Han-shu, 115,13* says: «In 
the second year chung-yuan (A. D. 57), in the reign of Kuang-wu, the Wo-nu country sent an envoy 

10 with tribute. He styled himself Ta-fu (In Japanese Baibu). He came from the extreme southern 
part of the Wo country» (Satsuma?). On tattooing in early Japan, conf. Aston, Nihongi, I, 200, 
305, and Munro, Prehistoric Japan, 256 — 260. 

7) Kui-ki is, roughly speaking, the present province of Cho-kiang. The first phrase is 
quoted from Tsin-shu, 97,4*. Conf. H6u Han-shu, 115,12''. 

15 Down to the middle of the eighth century intercourse between China and Japan appears to 

have mostly been carried on, at least by the official envoys, by a circuitous sea-route which, 
starting from Satsuma — for the Chinese down to the days in which our author wrote, do not 
appear to have gone beyond the island of Kyushu — led to Hakata in Chikuzen, then to Ikishima, 
Tsushima and the coast of Korea, from whence the coast was followed all the way to Chekiang 

20 or Fu-kien. In A. D. 761 a mission was sent for the first time directly from Kyushu to Ning-po. 
T'ang-shu, 220A,i9». 

The San-kuo-chi (Wei-chi), 80,24 describes the earlier route between China and Japan; 
unfortunately many of the names mentioned are still, we believe, unidentified. See Aston, Trans. 
Asiat. Soc. Japan, XVI, 57. Liang-shu, 54,28'', describes practically the same route, but with less 

25 detail, though in clearer terms. It says in substance that Wo is distant from Kui-ki (i. e., Chb-kiang) 

over 12,000 li, in a general easterly direction by way of Tai-fang (near Pyong-yang in Korea). The 

■ extreme, point of this route by way of Tai-fang is in Wo. «The stages of this sea-route are 

successively, the Han country (i. e., northern Korea), then east, then south for 7,000 li and more. 

(Then) one crosses a sea which is over 1,000 li broad and is called the Han-hai (i. e.. Sea of 

SO Japan). Then one comes to the Iki country (— • ^ Ikishima). Thence again across the sea for 
over 1,000 li to the Mo-lu country (^ J^ ^ Matsura, but probably Hakata in Chikuzen). 
Then south-east overland 500 li to the 1-tu country('^ ^ °' ta i ^^° ^^ Chikuzen?). Thence 
going south-east 100 li one comes to the Nu country (^ |g probably in Naka, Chikuzen). 
Going thence east 100 li one come's to the Pu-mi country (^ §^ ^ Kasaga, Chikuzen). 

35 Proceeding thence south by water (possibly partly descending the Chikugo gawa) for. 20 days one 
comes to Sho-ma (|5; ^ , not ;^ as in text, Satsuma). Thence ten days by water (and) a 
month overland, and one comes to the country of Ye-ma-t'ai (^J ,^ g Yamato), where the 
Prince of Wo has his residence)). Some modern Japanese, historians are of opinion that the Yamato 
here mentioned was in S. E. Kyushu, presumably in the present Hyuga; its rulers were probably 

40 thought by the Chinese — who had never been farther in Japan — to be the rulers of the Empire. 
See, however, Aston's remarks on this point, loc. cit. 

' ' 8) Hou Han-shu, 115,12'' says: «Wo comprises over one hundred principalities ( |^ } 

more than thirty of them hav° had intercourse with China. All the principalities are styled Wang 

, (III -^ jM T); they succeed each other generation after generation. The Great Wang of 

45 m liv^in the Y6-m'a-t'ai principality (Yamato)... Sui-shu, 81,ls^ says «Wo 1^ divided^o tMrty 

principalities and they all call themselves Wang (Japanese mio) or Prince., (-g- g 7^ ±> 

T'ang-shu 220,1;"° says that around the principal island of Wo there are some fifty 

islands, each one of which calls itself cprincipality.. (U). In 984 the Japanese bonze Tiau-jan 

(Chonen) told the Emheror T'ai-tsung of the Sung that the sovereign of his country was called 

50 Wane (^ T W T ^ lA) ^^^ ^'^^^ ^* *^^ present time there had been a succession 
of sixtJ-Fur l^neV^ions of Wangs in direct descent. Civil and military offices were hereditary. 
Sung-shi, 491,5*. 

174 JAPAN. 1,45 

9) This is the description of the dress of the Japanese in the first or second century of 
our era; our author quotes hero from H6u Han-shu, 115,12''-1S*. Conf. San-kuo-chi (Wei-chI), 
30,25^, Tsin-shu, 97,4 and T'ang-shu, 220,i&='. 

10) This paragraph is talren from Tiau-jan's (Chonen's) statement in 984, mentioned 
previously. «We have, he said, in our country the Five Classics, also the Buddhist Canonical • 5 
works, and Pai Ku-yi's poetry (Q JS Mj ^M) in 17 books, all of which have been obtained 
from China». Sung-shi, 491,4^ On Pai Lo-t'ien's works, see Pfizmaier, Der Chinesische Dichter 
Pe Lo-t'ien, and Mayers, Chin. Read. Manual, 170. 

11) The bonze Chonen said: «The soil produces the five kinds of cereals, but little wheat. 
For purposes of barter (or exchange) we use copper cash bearing the inscription Kim-won {yuan) 10 
ta-pau (^ A^ (TC) "JX. W)" ^® ^^'^^ water-buffalo, donkeys and sheep in abundance, 
also rhinoceros and elephants. The native product is much silk, from which we weave a fine, 
soft silk, most pleasant to wear». Sung-shl, loc. cit. The correct superscription of these coins is 
Eien-yiian-ta-pau, in Japanese Ken-gen tai-ho. Both our author and Sung-shI write the second 
character erroneously won. This coin, which was in use in the second year of Tentoku (A. D. 958), 15 
was the last of the antique coins issued in Japan. No coins were made by Government during 
the six hundred and odd years which separate the period of Tentoku from the fifteenth year of 
Tensho (A. D. 1587). N. G. Munro, Coins of Japan, 75, 79. The earliest mention of coin in 
Japan appears to be in the year 486 A. D. Copper coins were first made in Japan in A. D. 708. 
Aston, Nihonji, I, 360, 391, II, 414. 20 

The text of Chonen's statement concerning Japan contained in the Sung-shi was presum- 
ably taken from an original in which there were a number of undoubted clerical errors, as for 
example, in the superscription of the coins of Japan, and in the phrase ^§ HiJ -m lIj S ^Bj 
which should unquestionably read ^ ^r J^ Hj Q ^^. We are justified, therefore, in 
thinking that the text used by Chau Ju-kua and the author of Sung-shi, and which makes Chonen 25 
say that there were rhinoceros and elephants in Japan, was corrupt also in this case, and that he 
really told T'ai-tsung the simple truth, that there were neither rhinoceros nor elephants in Japan. 

12) So far as we can learn there is no tree in Japan called lo. It is possible that lo is a 
truncated form of so-To (^^ ^S Shorea robusta), though we do not believe that this tree grows in 
Japan. It may, however, be the Chinese horse-chestnut (Aesculns chinensis, Bge.), which is also 30 
called so-Io (as in text, though more commonly ^v|? t-^)- T"u-shu-tsi-ch'6ng (XX, 314, p. 11), 
quoting the Ko-ku-yau-lun (:^ "^ ^ |^, completed in A. D. 1387, see Hirth, Ancient 
Chinese porcelain, 13), says that lo wood (>[^ ^) comes from the Hu-kuang provinces aadNan- 
an-fu (^^ ^- rap Kiang-si), where a hill called Wan-yang-shan produces it. Its wood is white 
with yellow streaks, and coarsely veined, though not unpleasant to the eye. This kind is called Wo-lo 35 
(^< T^E '■ ®'' J^P^i'^^^ ^)i "f which many trees are not veined. Another variety, rather tough, 
with straight fine streaks is called ts'au-lo ( S. 1>^S) and is popularly known as t'u-mu 
('f^ >tC)- S^^ ^Is" K'ang-hi-tzi-tien, s. v. Lo (i^^S)- Giles, Chin. Engl. Dictionary, 746, 
identifies the ts'au-lo with the horse-chestnut (Aesculus chinensis). The lo mentioned by our 
author was probably some kind of pine tree, but it seems impossible to identify it. This paragraph 40 
of our text is practically the only original contribution of our author in the chapter on Japan. 

1 3) The first phrase of this paragraph is taken from the bonze Chonen's statement, quoted 
previously. The substance of the second phrase is taken from Tsin-shu, 97,4*. Conf also H6u 
Han-shu, 115,is* and San-kuo-chi (Wei-chl), 30,25*. Chinese music, called iwre ^aitw, is said to 
have been introduced into Japan from Korea in A. D. 612. Aston, Nihongi, II, 144 — 376. 45 

14) Quotation from H6u Han-shu, 115,is*. See also Ban-kuo-chi (Wel-chi), 80,i5*, and 
Tsin-shu, 97,4*. 

15) Quotation from H6u Han-shu, 115,is* except that for few-Zdw it has ^'en-iOM (^ff 
^). Tsin-shu, 97,4" uses the word tsu-tim. Conf. San-kiio-chi (Wei-chi), 30,25" and Sui-shu, 81, 15*. 

16) Quotation from Tsin-shu, 97,4*. Conf. Sui-shu, 81,15*. wShinto never had a marriage 50 
ceremonys. Aston, Shinto, 249. 

17) Quotation from Tsin-shu, 97,4* or Liang-shn, 54,2a^ Conf. H6u Han-shu, 115,18* and 
San-kuo-chi (Wei-chi) 30,25^ See Aston, Shinto, 252. 


18) Quotation from H6u Han-shu, 115,i8». See also San-kuo-chl (Wei-chi), 30,29*. Aston, 
Shinto, 339 says : tcThe greater, or official, divination consists in drawing conclusions according to 
certain conventional rules from the cracks which appear in a deer's shoulder-blade when 
exposed to firen. 
5 19) San-kuo-cM (Wei-chi) 30,28% quoting the Wei-lio, says: aThey (the Japanese) do not 

usually know the true year and the four seasons. They simply reckon as a year from the spring 
cultivation of the fields to the autumn in-gathering» . Aston, Trans. Asiat. Soc. Japan, XVI. 59, 
remarks on this passage: «It is not quite clear what is meant by this. It may mean simply that 
the Japanese reckoned their year from the spring or autumn equinox and not from the New 
10 Year, and it may not have been intended to imply that their year consisted of only six months. 
Another writer says that the Was reckoned their year from autumn to autumn . . .» This latter 
view is that of Tsin-shu, 97,4*' which our author quotes from. Some native etymologists connect 
tosM, the Japanese word for «year» with the harvest and with tcru «to taken. 

20) Quotation from Tsin-shu, 97,4*. See also H6u Han-shu, 118,13*; San-kuo-cM (Wei-chi), 
15 30,28% and Liang-shu, 54,28*. 

21) Hou Han-shu, li5,is*. San-kuo-chi (Wei-chi), 30,26*- Tsin-shu, 97,4^ 

22) It was again the bonze Chonen who told this to the Chinese in 984. The text, both in 
our author and in Sung-shi, is certainly corrupt here in two places. The character yiie in Yfle-ch6u 
is clearly an error for au (^^ in Japanese o), as Oshu (.^ >)>H ) was the part of Japan where 

20 gold was first discovered, in A. E. 749. Oshu is now divided into several provinces, but it is 
probable that the Handa mine in the province of Iwashiro is the one referred to by Chonen. The 
other error is, as pointed out on page 174, note 11, writing aanotherislanda, instead of ajTwi-teMa 
(^fer .^) in Japanese Tsushima, on which island silver was found in A. D. 675, and where 
mines were worked for a long period subsequently. 

25 23) Tiau-jan, in Japanese. Chonen (posthumous title, Koisi daisi), belonged to the great 

Fujiwara clan. He was a priest of Nara. Our author has incorporated into this chapter all the 
information which the Sung-shi" states he gave the Emperor T'ai-tsung. 

24) The biography of Sung K'i is in Sung-shi, 264,i2; that of Li Fang, in Sung-shi, 265,1. 
Mencius, Bk. Ill, Pt. I, Ch. IV, 12 (Legge, Chinese Classics, H, 129) said: «I have heard 

30 of men using the doctrines of our great land to change barbarians, but I have never yet heard 
of any being changed by barbariansn. 


Hai-nan (y$ ^). ' 

35 Hai-nan is the Chu-ai (:^ j^) and Tan-ir {j§ I^) of the Han period. 

When the Emperor Wu-ti (B. C. 140 — 86) had made the conquest of 
Southern Yu6 (i^), he sent a mission from Sii-won across the sea to recon- 
noitre the country; as a consequence the two prefectures (^) of Chu-ai and 
Tan-ir were established. His successor Chau-ti (B. C. 86—73) dropped Tan-ir 

40 and incorporated it in Chu-ai. On the advice of Kia Kiian-chi (^ :f| ^), 
the Emperor abandoned Chu-ai, and it was only again occupied under the 
Liang (A. D. 502—527) and the Sui (A. D. 589—618) dynasties^ 

176 ISLAND OP HAINAN. .1,46 

In the first year of the chong-huan period of the T'ang dynasty (A. D. 
627), the country (of Hai-nan) was divided into three departaments(;f>|>(), Ai 
(^)) Tan (-(J^), and Ch6n (^), and they were attached to the province of 
Ling-nan (^ ^ ^). In the fifth year (A. D. 631), K'iung shan (j| \l^) 
in Ai was made a prefecture (km), and Wan-an-hi^n (H ;^ ^) was raised 5 
to departmental rank (chou), identical with the military districts (^) or Mn 
of the present day; while Tan and Chon were then as now the military districts 
of Ki-yang (^ ^) and Ch'ang-hua (^ 4^)^- 

In the fifth year of the chon-yucm period (A. D. 789), K'iung was made 
the seat of a military prefecture (^ )^\ which it still remains. lo 

K'iung-(ch6u) lies some 360 U from the place (called) Ti-kio-ch'ang 
(M ^ -^^ ^'^ Sfl-w6n on the main-coast, and the passage to it can be 
made with a fair wind in half a day. The mid-channel is called San-ho-liu 
(^ -^ */g); when this has been passed, if there is neither wind nor sea, 
the sailors can congratulate themselves with raised hands on their good luck^. 15 

Ki-yang lies at the extreme (southern) end of the coast (of Hai-nan), and 
there is no land beyond it, but outside there are two islets, Wu-li (,^ H^) 
and Su-ki-lang (^ ^ ^). Chan-ch'ong faces it to the south, and to the 
west it looks towards Chon-la. To the east (of Hai-nan) are the «Thousand li 
banks» (=p- ||, -^ |j?) and the «Myriad li rocks» (^ M 'H ^)j ^^^^ 20 
(beyond them) is the boundless ocean, where the sea and the sky blend their 
colours, and the passing ships sail only by means of the south-pointiug needle 
— if it be closely watched by day and night — for life or death depends on the 
slightest fraction of error *. 

The island (of Hai-nan) is divided into four prefectures Qtun), eleven 25 
departments Qiim) in all, being attached to the western circuit (^) of 
Kuang-nan (^ ]^). They lie around the Li-mu mountain (^ -^ (Jj) 
where the wild Li (1^ :^^) have their huts (^ ^). The Li are divided 
, into Savage Li and Semi-civilized Li. Although they have much fallow land, 
there is not raised enough rice to supply food for the people; to get their fill 30 
they have to make soup of tubers, taro, and different kinds of grain; this is 
the reason for the trade in sweet-scented woods (carried on by the Li)^. 

The products of the country are gharu-wood, p'ong-lai gharu-wood, 
cJio-hu-pan-Mang (gharu-wood) (1^ ^ Jj^ ^), tsien-hiang (gharu-wood), 
shong-Mang (gharu-Wood), cloves, betel-nuts, cocoanuts, cotton (Jd-pei), hemp 35 
(^ M)^ paper-mulberry bark,- red and white rattan, flowered silk sarongs 
(^ #): aid curtains embroidered by the Li (^ 1^^), green cassia-wood, 
rose-wood,' to'-we?-cM ("^ ^ g^), kHimg chH-ts'ai (jl ;^ ^), hai-tsH 

T 4fi 


mm), loEg pepper (f p), galangal root(^ ^ ^), fi^h glue (« 
p). yellow wax, and fossil crabs (^ ^^). Most of te products cof; 
from the mountaxn villages of the Li and are exchanged with the Chinese for 
salt, iron, fish, and rice; the latter sell them to traders (on the coast) « 
5 The junks which come hither from Ts'uan-ch6u to trade, are laden 

with samshu, rice, flour, silks, lacquer, and china ware. They sail from Ts'uan- 
ch6u at the end of the year, or in the first month of the year, so as to return 
thither in the fifth or sixth month (i. e., June to August); but, if they want 
cargoes of fresh betel-nuts, they must sail earlier, so as to get back in the 
10 fourth month (i. e., April-May). 

K'iung-chou is situated to the north-east of the Li-mu mountain. The 
prefectural capital is the same as Ai-chou of antiquity. During the chong-Jio 
period (1111—1118) it was made the headquarters of a military brigade 
(fjj ^), with the Tsing-hai (^ «^) regiment as garrison. It borders on 
15 the sea, and is not very hilly. As to the climate, it is rainy in autumn, dry 
in spring, not too hot in summer, not too cold in winter. Typhoons (H ^) 
are frequent in the fifth and sixth months (i. e., June to August), and if one 
of these is accompanied by a rainbow, the latter is called «storm (or typhoon) 
mother)) (^ -^y. 

20 According to the 'Records of the Sui dynasty' (^ ^J the people (of 

K'iung ch6u?) were of a frivolous but cruel nature. They did their hair up in 
a mallet-shaped knot, and wore clothes made of grasses (^ ^). They kept 
records by means of notches in pieces of wood, were laborious cultivators, but 
of uncouth manners. Father and son followed different vocations. Important 
25 persons cast bronze into big drums and hung them up in their houses; when one 
of them beat his drum to call his people (|^ ^), and if they hastened to 
gather around him in great numbers, he was known as a fu-lau (^ ■^) ^ 
The people wore silk clothes (X M M OB, and made pots out of clay, 
and household vessels of calabashes. As they had no yeast, they fermented 
30 their wine with pomegranate flowers. 

At the present time their upper garments differ not from those of the 
Chinese, the nether clothing of the men is a cotton sarong (^) and that of 
the women a plaited skirt (|g"). They make their living by spinning cotton. 
They still use earthenware pots, and occasionally calabashes to ladle water; 
35 in brewing wine they use tubers and grain for ferment (\^ ^ -^). Although 
there are no wealthy people among them, nevertheless, as they are a thrifty 
people, there are no poor and one sees no beggars in bad years. 

When Ting, Duke of Tsin ("f ^ ^), was degraded to the rank of 



Prefectural Finance Commissioner {}]] oj ^) lie taught the people (of K'iung- 
chou) to read books and to compose (^ ^)^ During the kHng-li period (1041 — 
1049) Earl Sung Kuan-chi (^ ^ ;^) built the prefectural college, which was 
renovated in the Mng-wu year of the Tiia-ting period (1210) by Earl Chau Ju- 
hia (^ f^ ^), on which occasion tablets to the manes of Dukes Su Tung-po 5 
iW- Mr ^) ^^^ Hu Tan-an (]^ '^ ^) were erected on the east and west 
sides of the Lecture hall, and on the tablet of the hall was written iming 
tam (^ ^ ((Understanding and Methods or «Enlighteners of the Way»)^°. 

In Hai-k'6u (y$ P) there is a «Temple of the two Fu-po of the Han 
dynasty)) (>^ M ik^&. M)' where the manes of Lu Po-to ({^ ]^ f^) and lo 
Ma Yiian {^ j^) are worshipped. Those who pass by on the sea must pray 
here, and no one may pursue his journey before learning his luck from tlie 
pei-kiau tablets (i^ 3^)"- 

Five towns, K'iung shan (j| jij), Ch'ong-mai ('^ ^), Lin-kau (^ 
j^), W5n-ch'ang (^ ^) and Lo-hui (^ ^), are subordinate to this 15 
district (of K'iung-chou), and in each of them there is a Maritime Customs 
Collector (1^ ^y^. 

The junks which trade there are divided into three classes: the first is 
called po (^), the second pau-fou (^ H), the third tan (^)'^. When a 
junk arrives, a Customs Inspector ("/^ ^) reports the fact to the District 20 
Magistrate (^I>|), who then sends an officer to gauge the tonnage and determine 
the regulation duty. Officials of all ranks, as well as the soldiers, look to this 
(duty) for their maintenance. 

After a journey of 236 li farther west the military district (^ f^) of 
Ch'ang-hua ( ^ ^) is reached. 25 

Ch'ang-hua is situated to the north-west of the Li-mu mountain, and is 
the same as the ancient Tan-ch6u ". The city walls are fourteen feet high 
and measure 220 paces (p'u) around. According to ancient records the city 
was built by the noblewoman Tan-ir (j^ ^ ^ \y, she made the goblins 
(51) """ork for her, and they with baskets and shovels completed the whole so 
work in a single night. 

According to another version the people of this country were called 
Tan-ir (i. e., ependant ears») because their ears hung down on their shoul- 
ders. Although at the present time no children are born in Ch'ang-hua with 
long ears, nevertheless the Li, as devout Buddhists, put big rings in their 35 
ears, making them to reach down to the shoulders ^^ 

The country is free from epidemics (i. e., malaria) and marshes. As the 
climate is absolutely different to that of China, all flowers bud early in the 


year and have already ceased blooming in the spring, only the water-lily blooms 
from the fourth or fifth month (i. e., May to June) to the end of the twelfth 
month, and the plum and chrysanthemum follow it immediately. 

The people are simple, honest, and frugal folk. The women do not wear 

5 silk gauzes (^ ^), nor do they whiten their faces nor blacken their 

eyebrows (as Chinese women do). They follow the orthodox (Chinese) fashions 

in their marriage and funeral ceremonies. No one of the common people suffers 

from hunger or cold (i. e., there are no indigents). 

The College was originally situated in the south-eastern section of the 

10 city; it was later on transferred to the western, but in the shau-hing period 
(1131 — 1163) it was again transferred to the eastern. The Memoir (|g) 
concerning it was written by Duke Li Kuang (^ ^ 3^), Assistant Prime 
Minister (^ ^y\ 

Fifteen U from the Departmental Capital there is a place called Tan- 

15 ch'ang (^ :^). When Chau Ting, who was canonized as Duke Chung-kien 
iM- ^ M ^ 7^)' '^^^ degraded to the rank of Magistrate in Ki-yang ", 
he passed this place, where all the springs had gone dry during a great 
drought in midsummer; and here, on digging a well, water was found at a 
depth of a few feet. (This well) has not dried up to the present day, and it 

20 is called the Siang-ts'iian or «The Minister's spring» {j^ ^); it is also well 
known as the Pai-ma-tsing-ts'iian or .(White horse well springa ( ^ ^^ ^ ^); 
it has wonderfully good water, and trading junks supply themselves from it 
for the voyage home. 

There is a shrine called the Ling-tsi-miau (^ ^ j^) inside the 

25 Ch5n-an gate (^ ^ P^ ), which is dedicated to the worship of the noble- 
woman Tan-ir {\^ ^ ^ A)- Inuring the sAaM-AM*^ period (1131 — 1163) 
she was raised to the rank of an official deity under the appellation of Hien- 
ying Fu-jon (^ J® ^ A. "*^® Noblewoman not invoked in vain»). When 
the Li villages (il||^) away from the coast (i. e., in the mountains) get much 

30 loot in a raid on the Tan district, they believe they have solely to thank the 
power of the Fu-j5n. 

Some 60 li west of the city there is, in a big laguna on an islet of the 
sea, a rocky peak shaped like a lion, which the people call «the Lion god» 
(^ j^ II). The fact is that there is here one of the temples consecrated 

35 to the manes of Marquess Chon Li (^ %\\ ^^^, where trading junks pray 
for good wind. The district has three cities, I-lun (g ^), Ch'ang-hua, and 


After a journey of 340 U in a southerly direction, one reaches the 


180 ISUND OF HAINAN. 1,46 

border of the military district of Ki-yang (^ |^ ^), which is situated to 
the south-west of the Li-mu mountain. The capital, a second-class prefecture 
(^ */p jf]]), is founded on the site of the (older city of) Ki-yang-hien ^''. 

Although the different districts of K'iung(-ch6u, i. e., Hai-nan) might 
be reached by land, they are nevertheless so cut off from the Capital by the 5 
villages of the wild Li, that one must go by sea to get to them. That is what 
Hu Tan-an (^ j(^ ^) meant when he said: «Again I passed a great billowy 
dangero (H ^ ^ «^ 1^)=''. ' 

To the south of the district city (of Ki-yang) is the post-station of Hai- 
k'ou ('/^ p ,|^), below which traders moor their junks. There is a small lo 
pavilion in front of this place for the reception of travellers. 

The country is a narrow strip (along the foot of the Li-mu mountain); it 
is sparsely peopled. The climate is not normal, for the spring is usually 
excessively dry, while, when the summer is already passed, then comes the 
rain (^ g ^ pg). 15 

They cultivate the land without either manuring or weeding it. Wood- 
choppers, herdsmen, fishermen and huntsmen must go about carrying bows 
and arrows, as they are always falling in with Li savages. The women do not 
occupy themselves with raising silkworms and making silk, but they weave 
with cotton (ki-pel) flowered coverlets, and sarongs in the Li patterns. The 20 
men have no occupation, and live simply from hand to mouth. They all believe 
in spirits, and have neither medical science nor medicines. When some one is 
ill, they slaughter a bullock, then, with beating of drums and music, they make 
an offering of it (jjiE,); and this they call amaking good luck»; furthermore no 
one is allowed to pass by the door (of the sick person). In their mortuary 25 
ceremonies they have music ^^- 

The country is full of lofty peaks and picturesque mountain scenery ( |Sj 
Ij^ ^ ll|^ ^), so it has come about that among the scholars of the district 
many have made reputations (as able poets) (^ -^ 1^ ^ ^ i A. ^ 

The College is situated in the north-eastern part of the district capital. 
Thirteen li from the city there is a rock with a surface which is as flat as the 
palm of the hand, without any human labour having been used to make it so. 
It is some tens of feet in circumference so that visitors can sit on it; 
(here) there is a grove of thick, luxuriant trees, and a cool, clear brooklet 35 
ripples by. At this spot the Marquess of Chou (^ '^) built a reed hut, and 
over the entrance he put this superscription «untroubled enjoyment» ('I^ ^). 

The villages of the semi-civilized Li are few and far between, their 


dwelling-places being from five to seven li apart. The wild Li who formed 
over an hundred villages, from- time to time made raids (upon the country 
of the Chinese settlers). The Marquess of Ch6u sent a head-man of the 
semi-civilized Li on a mission to them to get them to malie an arrange- 
6 ment for holding a weekly market (|| ^ zi 0)^*; after this they came 
on foot with their goods on their backs and shoulders, or else floated down 
on rafts to trade with the Chinese settlers. The district (of Ki-yang-kiin) was 
divided into two districts Qiien), Ki-yang and Ning-yuan (^ ^), which, 
in the chong-ho period (1111—1118), were united into one, Ning-yiian-hien. 

10 A hundred and twenty U to the east, one reaches the border of the military 

district of Wan-an (|| ^ ^). The Wan-an military district is north-east of 
the Li-mu mountain. It was founded in the fifth year of the cMwgr-Awaw period of 
the T'ang dynasty (A. D. 631) under the name of Wan-an-chou {j\\), and 
divided into three districts (him) called Wan-an, Fu-yiin {'^ ^) and Po-Iiau 

15 (|Ft| ^). In the beginning of the fien-pau period (742) it was changed from 
a department or chou, to a Mn (^) or prefecture. In the second year of the 
cKi-to period (757) its name was changed to that of Wan-ts'iian (^ ^), 
and in the beginning of the kHm-yumi, period (758) it was once more made 
a department. 

20 During the present (Sung) dynasty the two districts (Men) of Fu-yiin and 

Po-liau were done away with, and Wan-an-hi6n was called Wan-ning (^ 
^); but in the sixth year M-ning{1073)it (i. e., the whole district) was made 
a military district (kun), and the name of Wan-ning was changed to Ling- 
shui ((^ ;([c); at the present time they are both included (in the one dis- 

25 trict or Men) *^. 

The Chinese settlers of this district live mixed with the Li and the Tan 
(^-)28. They are plain and uncouth in their habits, but so law-abiding and 
disliking robbery and theft that people can let their cattle and sheep roam 
about unguarded without fear of their being wrongfully claimed. 

30 Their dwellings are mostly of reeds and bamboo, and seldom have tiled 

roofs. Women of all ages occupy themselves with weaving cotton, but they 
do not make patterns on it. The sick take no medicine. They put their faith 
in sorcery (^), and devils, (to whom) they sacrifice an ox, praying for happi- 
ness and aid. After the establishment of the first drug shops by Huang Hou- 

35 shon (^ -^ ^)", they gradually came to see the advantage of taking medi- 
cine. In the eastern part of the city is the Po-chu Tu-kang-miau or «Temple 
of the ship-captain Tu-kang» (M ± ^ M M^- Whosoever with 
profound faith prays here for an omen (|>.), gets a reply. Passing ships 


make an offering here before proceeding (farther). The annual and tri- 
ennial examinations for literary degrees for the three prefectures (of Ch'ang- 
hua, Ki-yang and Wan-chou) are all held, with those for K'iung-chou, (at 
this place). 

The native tribes of the four prefectures of the island of Hai-nan are 5 
called Li (^). The Li-mu mountain of the island is recognizable at night by 
its cheering glitter (jj^ 3fe)> which is visible in all the four adjacent prefec- 
tures. According to a passage in the Tsin-shu (or History of the Tsin (^) 
dynasty) referring to the divisions of the land, (this) division, which is under 
the influence of the wu-nu star (^ ;;^), is said to be under the light of the lo 
stars Li-niu (^ ^) and Wu-nii (^ ^), which are (collectively) called 
Li-wu (^ ^), the sound of which has been corrupted to Li-mu (^ -^j 
the name of the mountain) ^'. 

The dwelling places of the native tribes (§) are situated around this 
mountain, whose summit rises to an extraordinarily great height, for it is 15 
generally wrapped in fog. The Li themselves only rarely see it, save on clear 
autumn days, when its azure peak is visible, floating as it were in space (y^ 
;p[ -^ S)^"- There is a spring on this mountain which bubbles up to form 
five streams, one of which flows to (the town of) Ch'ang-hua, one to Ki-yang, 
one to Wan-an, two to K'iung-chou, one of which becomes a big creek (;^) 20 
and, with 36 rapids (in its course), flows down to the village of Chang-liau 
(M. ^ ^) ^^ Ch'ong-mai-hien (^ ^ ^), the other becomes a small 
creek which, with 24 rapids (in its course), runs to the village of Chu-yiin 
(^^ ^ M) ^^ Lo-hui-hi6n {^ ^ ^). These two streams flow into 
each other and become the San-ho-shui (^ -^ ^), which goes to 25 

(Those of the aborigines) who live in the remotest parts of the province 
are called 8hdng-Li (i. e., 'Wild Li'), those who live nearer (to the Chinese) 
are called SMu-IA (i. e., 'Tame Li'), and these latter are under the control of 
the nearest one of the four Military districts {^). The villages (ilij^f) of the 30 
Li grow daily, so it is not possible to know their populousness. Neither do 
they remain under one chief, but usually each village has its own head-man 
who must belong to either the Wang (3g), the Fu (^), the Chang (gg) or the 
Li (^) family. Persons of the same family name may inter-marry. Frequently 
Chinese criminals seek refuge among the Li. The males wear their hair 35 
twisted in a knot, they go barefooted and stick silver, copper or pewter 
pins in their hair. The women wear copper rings and ear-pendants which 
hang down to their shoulders. Young girls when they reach marriageable age 


have their cheeks finely tattooed; this is called «emhroidering the face» (|§ 
^), and, when the tattooing is completed, the relatives and friends assemble 
to offer congratulations. Female slaves do not «embroider» their faces ^^ 

The women's work is spinning and weaving, for which purpose they 
5 buy Chinese coloured silk stuffs, draw out the coloured threads and weave 
these with tree-cotton (tJ; j^^) into single curtains (^ ^); they also make 
excellent cloth of (both kinds of) cotton. 

They sacrifice to the gods oxen, dogs, fowls, and pigs, often as many as 
an hundred (at a time). As there is neither salt nor iron, fish, nor shrimps 

10 (in their country), they barter for them with the neighbouring Chinese settlers 
with gharu-wood, unbleached cotton cloth, tree-cotton, and hemp (Hff^ ^), 
for they do not make use of coined money. 

Their dwellings have bamboo frames; the ground fioor is occupied by 
their live-stock, the inhabitants live in the upper part. The men carry usually 

15 a long wooden-handled knife (fg) and a long bow (5§ ^ ); they do not take 
a step without them. They delight in taking revenge and killing (their ene- 
mies), they call this «seizing» (:^ \^j)- ^^ the case of a relative being killed, 
they lay hold of and fetter some member of the family of the (dead man's) 
enemy or of his village, and, for a fetter, they use a piece of hchee-wood six 

20 feet long and in shape like a foot-pestle (^^). Then they demand of the 
prisoner, before they will release him, either a cow, wine, silver, or a pitcher 
(^), to «ransom his life» as they call it^^ 

On the conclusion of a marriage contract they break an arrow in 
two as a proof of good faith. The festivals are held with beating of drums, 

25 dances and singing. When a person dies they always kill an ox as a 
sacrifice ^'. 

Among the native products of this country the ch'on-shui and fong-lai 
(varieties of gharu-wood) take the first rank in the Hiang-p'u (^ |f )^*. 
The mountains are covered with areca and cocoanut palms; there are also 

30 ponies, kingfishers' feathers, and yellow wax^^ It often happens that traders 
from Min (i. e., Fu-kien), driven on the coast by storms and having lost 
everything in the wreck of their junks, have gone into the Li country to make 
a living by tilling the soiP®. "When Chinese officials or people are travelling 
to the native villages, they can expect perfect security when they stop in the 

35 houses of (these Chinese inland-settlers). 

Military posts of the four departments (^fj) of Hai-nan keep guard 
outside the (territory of the) Tame Li in the four quarters (pg |5^), along 
a line of a thousand U. There is a road like a connecting ring (between 

184 ISLAND Of HAINAN. 1,46 

the posts). A person wishing to take a trip through this country could not do 
so in less than a month ^'. 

When Ma Fu-po (J^ jf^ jj^) had pacified Hai-nan, he ordered potters 
to make some earthenware vessels {^), the larger of which held several 
piculs of rice, the smaller from five to two or three bushels. Then he invited 5 
(the natives), even from the most remote villages, who had made their sub- 
mission, and he gave (these vessels) to them at their choice. By this means 
he was enabled to form an idea of the accessibility, or otherwise, of their 
nests and caves (^ ^). The Wild Li took the small jars of two or three 
bushels, and when asked the reason, replied that they had all come down lo 
from steep cliffs and the (forks of) trees (^ ;^) and that they could not 
take the big ones, because they feared that they would not be able to carry 
them home. By this (the General) learnt that their villages and caves (il||^[ ^) 
were deep in the interior, in precipitous and inaccessible places ^^. 

Among (the Chinese) population of the four prefectures the clan name is 
of Li (^) is very common, because this clan is descended from the Li. At 
the present time there are many descended from the Li who bear the surname 
of Wang (^), In the first year of the shun-M period (1174) the head-man 
of the wild Li of the Wu-cM-shan (i ^fg* ^]), Wang Chung-k'i (3£ fiji 
^) by name, gathered together the neighbouring Li villages, eighty in 20 
number with a population of 1820 adult males (X), for the purpose of making 
their submission to Chinese rule. When Chung-k'i and the various head-men, 
Wang Chung- won (3£ i^ '^) and others, in all eighty- one men, repaired to 
K'iung (-chou) to present themselves, they bound themselves, by an oath taken 
in the Hien-ying-miau (^ |§ j||), by stone-rubbing and blood-drinking (§f 25 
■^ i^ J^)j to give up misdoing and to desist from rapine and acts of vio- 
lence. The Prefect of K'iung-chou arranged drawings of their outward 
appearance and of their clothing which were submitted to the Viceroy (|g ^ 
alf^. (According to these drawings) those of the natives who wore their hair 
in a knot (or knob) and uncovered, wrapped the lower part of the knot with 30 
red silk, or wrapped the hair entirely in coloured silk, or else they wore little 
flaring ornamented bamboo hats (>J> :^ ^), but all of them wore two 
silver combs (^ ^) stuck in their hair. Some of them wore a short embroi- 
dered skirt*"- Wang Chung-k'i was further distinguishable by a blue turban 
( rtl ) and a long red silk brocade gown, bound round with a girdle. He 35 
himself said that this was a brocade gown which one of his ancestors, during 
the suan-lo period (1 1 1 9— 1 1 26), had received from the Emperor for having 
ceded a piece of land to the Chinese Government". 


The products of Hai-nan are also found in foreign lands; the difference 
is in their quality. The isien and c¥6n (gharu-wood) from K'iung (i. e. Hai- 
nan) far surpass those from foreign lands by the quality and strength of their 
perfume; those from Chan-ch'ong and Chon-la are not to be compared with 
5 them. On the other hand, the yellow wax of Hai-nan is not to be compared 
with that of San-fo-ts'i, it is even inferior to that of San-sii. The other pro- 
ducts are mostly like those of foreign lands, with the exception of betel-nuts 
and cotton (^ ^), which are extraordinarily plentiful; the Ts'iian-chou 
traders look principally to the latter as a profitable article *^ 

10 Notes. 

1) In the two texts we possess of the Chu-fan-chi, the account of Hai-nan appears as an 
appendix to Part II. Nan Yfie or Southern Yiie, was the southern portion of the kingdom of Yiie, 
and corresponded approximately with the present province of Kuang-tung. Su-w6n, a note in the 
text says, «is the present prefecture (Hien) of Su-w6n in the Lei-ch6u peninsula)). For fuller notes 

15 on this chapter of our author, see Hirth, Die Insel Hainan nach Chao Ju-kua. Only such notes as 
are necessary for a good understanding of the text have been added in the present work. See also 
Ts'ien-Han-shu, 6,20''. 

2) ((Province (Tau) of Ling-an». It corresponded roughly with the present Kuang-tung, a 
portion of Kuang-si and of Tung-king. On Gh'ang-hua, in Cantonese Ch'oong-fa, see infra, p. 178. 

20 Substantially all the information in this and the first paragraph is found in Ling-wai-tai-ta, 1,16. 

3) B. C. Henry, Ling-nam, 332, speaking of Hainan straits, says that it (cis the most 
dangerous point on the route; the rocks and the currents are so treacherous and the channel 
so intricate, that no ship will go through in the night. These difficulties of the passage are 
increased by the state of the tides, which ebb and flow through the straits but once in twenty 

25 four hours)). 

Ch6u ira-fel says of it: c(The Great Sea which is south-west of Hainan is called the Sea 
of Kiau-chi (^ K|[; y|fe). In it is the San-ho-lin (((the Triple-joint-currents»). The waves 
break here violently, dividing into three currents; one flows south and is the sea which forms the 
highway to foreign lands; one flows northward and is the sea of Kuang-tung, Fu-kien and Gho- 
80 kiang. One flows eastward and enters the Boundless Place (^E |3^ ^)' '^^^'^^ ^^ called the 
Great Eastern Ocean Sea. 

((Ships in the southern trade, both going and coming, must run through the San-ho-liu. If 
they have the wind, in a moment they are through it. But if on getting into the dangerous 
place, there is no wind, the ship cannot get out and is wrecked in the three currents)). Ling-wai- 
35 tai-ta, 1,13''. 

4) Ling-wai-tai-ta, I, 13^ — 14* says; (dt is said that in the Great Eastern Ocean Sea there 
is a long bank of sand and rocks some myriads of li in length, it marks the Wei-lO, the gulf 

leading to Hades ( M ^ PJT ^ f^ 7^ ^tt ^^- ^^ °^^^^ *™®^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ °'^^^^ 
going junk which was driven by a great westerly wind to within hearing distance of the roar of 

40 the waters (falling into) the Wei-lii of the Great Eastern Ocean. No land was to be seen. Suddenly 

there arose a strong easterly wind and (the junk) escaped (its doom)».Gonf. supra, pp. 26, 75, 79, n. 2. 

Groeneveldt, Notes, 25, translating the narrative of Shi Pi's (J^ ^) expedition to 

Java in 1292 (Yuan-shi, 162,i2^-is), refers to the fleet — which started from Ts'San-chou, sailing 

through the Sea of the Seven Islands (-^ ^i|>| 7^ the Sea of the Paracels Islands) and the Long 

45 Reef(J| J3 ^ ;*i| Macclesfield Banks), and passing the land of Kiau-chii and Champa, etc. 
This identification is, I think, correct. Our author's Wan-li-shi-ch'uang is certainly the same, and 
ch'uang ( fi^) may well be an error for fang (^), the two characters are somewhat alike. The 
along bank of sand and rocksa (-^ ^ ^ ^) of the Ling-wai-tai-ta can hardly be 
the same. 


5) During the Sung dynasty most of the present provinces of Euang-tung and Kuang-si 
formed one province called Kuang-nan, divided into an eastern and western Circuit or Lu. 

On the Li-mu mountains and the Hainan aborigines, or Li, see pp. 182 — 183, and infra, 
note 30. 

6) On these different varieties of gharu-wood, see infra, Pt. II. Ch. XI. Em-me%-c7M, 5 
literally «Sea-plum gum» may be the same as the la-mei (^^ ^j^)) Chimonanthus fragrans, 
Porter Smith, Chin. Materia medica, 60. O-mel-shan-cM, as cited in T'u-shu-tsi-ch'Ong, XX^ 
206, describes a hai-mei growing on Mt. Omi, as a shrub about three feet high with fruit like 
the Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudo-cerasus). 

K'iung-cM-ts'ai is said by P6n-ts'au-kang-mu, 28,28, to be identical with the sM-hua-ts'ai, 10 
or agar-agar, an edible sea-weed much used in China. Eai-is'i, literally «sea-varnish», is, I 
believe, unidentified. SM-hie or wstone-crabsB are mentioned in the List of medicines exported 
from Hankow, etc. (Imp. Marit. Customs. II. Special Series, JV» 8), 37 as aFossil crabs. Macro- 
phthalmus Latreilli and Portunus leucodea.a Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,15 says they are found along the 
whole coast of Hainan and that they are exactly like the big sea-crab or siu-mo (^ffi i^)- I* ^5 
is used, it adds, as a medicine in eye complaints. 

7) Ling-piau-lfi-i (^ ^ ^ ^) written by Liu Sfln (^J j^) during the T'ang 
dynasty says (1,1*), that a hu-fong is a terrible wind which destroys houses, trees, etc. Sometimes 
there is none for two or three years, while at times there may be three in a single year. This 
appears to be the real typhoon. Certain works quoted in the T'ai-wan-fu-chi, however, distinguish 20 
between the Tcu-fon^ and the fai-fong, the former being less disastrous than the latter. See 
Hirth, «The word Typhoons, J. R G. S., 1880, pp. 6—7 of reprint. 

8) See Sui-shu, 31, is, of which this paragraph of our text is an abstract. In regard to the 
bronze drums Sui-shu says that as soon as they had cast a big bronze drum they hung it up in 
their courtyard, put out wine and invited their people to come. Some of the well-to-do sons and 25 
daughters made big hair-pins of gold or silver, and proclaimed the fact by beating their drum, then 
they stored them away. Such wealthy people were known as abronze drum and hair-pin peoples 
(SwI ^t W^' ^^^y "'l^" ^^** their drums to call their clan together to avenge the death of 
one of their number. Those who had drums were called Tu-lau. In the days of the Han the great 
chief of the Man savages (^ ^) was called Lau-fu-ch'6n (^- .^ B^), the Li continued 30 
thereafter to call their elders (or persons of high standing, ^|) tau-lau ("f^lj ;^), a word 
which by phonetic decay has become tu-Um. 

On the subject of the bronze drums, the invention of which is ascribed by the Chinese to 
the General Ma Yflan (regarding whom see infra, note 11), see F. Hirth, Chinesische Ansichten 
liber Bronzetrommeln, 1904. . 35 

9) Ting Tsin-kung was born in Su-ch6u in the latter part of the tenth century; his name was 
Ting Wei ("J" g^). He rendered distinguished services to the state in various capacities, and 
was made Duke of Tsin in 1022. Later on, having become implicated in an intrigue with the 
eunuch Lei Yun-kung, he was degraded and banished. Three years of his exile he lived in a 
village in Hainan and five more on the Lei-ch6u peninsula. He died in 1033. Sung-shi, 283,8 40 
et seqq., and Hirth, Die Insel Hainan, 15, note 2. 

10) Sung Kuan-chi, also called Sung-hien (-^ ^) was born about the beginning of the 
eleventh century; so far as known he did not visit Hainan. The great biographical work called Wan- 
sing-t'ung-pu, mentions a Sung Shou-cM {^ ^ ;^) as having promoted literary studies in 
Hainan. The name given in the text should presumably be corrected accordingly. 45 

Chau Ju-hia was an ancestor of our author (see Hirth in J. E. A. S. 1896, 77—81). He 
wrote several works, one entitled K'iung-kuan-t'u-king (Jfi ^^ ^ j2E) which, to judge 
from the title, must have been an illustrated description of the island of Hainan. The date here 
mentioned in our text, 1210, is the latest found in Chau Ju-kna's work. 

Su Tung-p'o, or «Su of the eastern slope», is the popular name of Su Shi (^^ ^^) one 50 
of the greatest poets of China. A. D. 1036—1101. In 1069 he entered official life. In lOmie was 
dismissed to Huang-ch6u for having lampooned in verse a couple of Censors. Here be built himself 
a hut on the eastern slope {tung-p'o) of a hill, and afterwards took these two words as his fancy, 

1,46 I8LAKD OP HAINAN. 187 

or literary, name. In 1086 he was restored to favour, but in 1094 he was banished, first to Hui-ch6u 
in Kuang-tung, and afterwards to Hainan. In 1101 he was recalled to Court, but died the same 
year. See Sung-shi, 338, particularly p. 12, and Giles, Biographical Dictionary, 680. 

Hu Tan-an or Hu Ts'uan ("j^ ^^) was born in Kiang-si about the beginning of the 
5 twelfth century. He rose to high office at Court and used all his influence to oppose the policy of 
Ts'in K'ui, which was in favour of a division of the Empire with the Xin Tartars. Hu Ts'uan was 
degraded and exiled, in the first place to Kuang-si, and later on to Hainan, where he remained 
for eight years in a small official office. On the death of Ts in K'ui in 1156, he was recalled to 
Court, and held the highest offices of state till his death in 1169. Hirth, Die Insel Hainan, 
10 17, note 2. 

11) Hai-k"6u, in Cantonese Hoi-how, is the port of K'iung-ch6u-fu, which is three miles 
distant from it. Hoihow is now the principal port of the island. 

Lu Po-to, was the General of the Emperor Wu-ti of the Han dynasty, who in 120 B. C. 

conquered the kingdom of Nan-yiie, i. e., the present two Kuang provinces and Tongking. He 
15 received the title of Fu-po-tsiang-kiln or aGeneral Queller of the waves» on account of his 

victories along the sea-coast and on the sea. Ts'ien-Han-shu, 55,17. Mayers, Chin, reader's 

Man., 138. 

Ma Yuan, the greatest Chinese General of the first century of our era. In A. D. 41, when 

already more than seventy years of age, he commanded an army sent to Tongking to suppress 
20 an insurrection. After successfully terminating h;s military operations he fixed the southern 

border of China in the present Annam by erecting five bronze pillars, at each of which he 

established Chinese garrisons. The title of Fu-po-tsiang-kun, formerly given to Lu Po-to, was 

revived for him. Hou-Han-shu, 54. Mayers, op. cit., 149. See also infra, p. 184, and infra, note 38. 

The pei-Tiiau tablets were two pieces of jade or of wood, convex on one side, flat on 

25 the other, which were used for divination. They were thrown down before the altar, if both 

fell with the flat side up, the omen was bad; if they fell with difi'erent sides up it portended 

good luck. 

12) These five towns still bear the same names, which in Cantonese are K'ing-shan, Ch'ing- 
mai, Lam-ko, Man-ch'oong and Lok-ui. 

30 13) Po is the ocean-going junk used in the foreign trade by Chinese and Arabs. See supra, 

pp. 27, 34, n. 2. Pau-t'ou is the same as the present t'ou-mong (^^ jf^])' ^ small junk with open 
framework in the bows, and known in Canton as «West Coast boat». Tan, literally «egg-boat», 
the boat peculiar to the Tanka or boat-people of Canton. See Notes & Queries on China and 
Japan, 1,28,107. On the present Li Aborigines of K'iung-shan, see China Review, XIX, 383—394. 

35 14) Ch'ang-hua, in Cantonese Ch'6ong-fa, is on the west coast of Hainan in Lat. 19° 12'. 

15) This paragraph is practically a paraphrase of Ling-wai-tai-ta, 10,8*'. ,See also Ts'ien- 
Han-shu, 6,20'', which is probably the authority on which our author relies. On the Tan-ir Fu-jon, 
see supra, p. 179. 

16) Li Kuang, an official of the beginning of the twelfth century, died in 1156. Through 
40 political intrigues he was degraded from his high office of Assistant Prime Minister and exiled 

to Hainan where he held a small office. Sung-shi, 363,1 et seqq. 

17) Chau Ting was born in the latter part of the eleventh century in Shan-si. He attained high 
metropolitan honours under the Emperor Kau-tsung. Later on he was degraded for his opposition 
to the weak policy of Ts'in-k'ui (^ j^) with the Kin Tartars, who were rapidly overrunning 

45 China. He was then sent in an insignificant capacity to a place in Fu-kien, and later on 
to Hainan, whence he continued to admonish the Emperor. He died in exile in 1147. For his 
fidelity to his sovereign he was canonized by the Emperor Hiau-tsung (1163-1190) and given the 
title Chung-lien or «Loyal and true» — the same which was also given by the same Emperor to 
Hu Tan-an mentioned previously (supra, note 10). Chau Ting was a voluminous writer. See for his 

50 biography, Sung-shi, 360,ii et seqq. 

18) A temple bearing this name is mentioned in the 1672 edition of the «Description of 

Hainan)) (K'iung-ch6u-fu-chi). 


19) I-lun may be the present Pak-lai on Pak-lai Bay, south of Ch'ang-hua. Kan-bn, in 
Cantonese Kom-yan, still bears this name. It is south of Ch'ang-hua, and near Uen-mun Bay on 
the S. "VV. coast of the island. 

20) Ki-yang is, I take it, the present Ngai-chou on Po-ping Bay on the extreme southern 
coast of Hainan. 5 

21) This paragraph is substantially taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 1,18. 

22) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,8* says of the Li: «Wheu a relative dies they sacrifice an ox, but they 
do not cry or have a funeral festival, they only eat raw beef. As to the burial, a man goes ahead 
of the coffin-bearers throwing eggs on the ground, and wherever one falls without breaking it is 
considered a lucky place for the interment)). Conf infra, 213. 10 

23) The idea appears to be that the wild, picturesque scenery of this part of Hainan has 
been a source of happy inspiration to the Chinese scholars who have lived in this district. The 
characters siu-pa are understood as abbreviated forms of siu-ts'ai (^^ ^J") obachelorsof arts», 
and pa-hung (J^ "g") asenior bachelors)). A literal rendering of this phrase would be athere 
are siu-ts'ai and pa-kung, so of the scholars of this district there are those who have been able 15 
to establish themselves (as able literary men))). 

24) Yin is the third of the Twelve Branches, and i/u the tenth; in other words there were 
two market days in every twelve. 

25) The town is still called Ling-shui; it is a Hi6n or District town. 

26) These Tan or Tan-ka were of the same tribe as the boat-people of Canton. 20 

27) Nothing is known to us of this person, not even the period in which he lived. 

28) K*iung-ch6u-fu-chi (as cited in T'u-shu-tsi-ch'ong, "VT, 1880,7), mentions a temple 
called Chau-ying-miau, 35 U N. W. from Wan-chou. The divinity there worshipped bore the 
name of «Captain)) or aPo-chu)). In 1370 he was raised to official rank under the name of Sin-tso- 
hai-kiang. It was forbidden to offer pork in sacrifice to it. This temple was popularly known as 25 
the Fan-shon-miau or tcTemple of the Foreign god» (^ )jj^ J||). Captain Tu-kang, here 
worshipped, was probably a Moslim skipper. 

29) The passage referred to in the Tsin-shu is in Ch. 11,23^ Conf. also Sui-shu, Sljia*". On 
the star Wu-nti, see G. Schlegel, Ouranographie Chinoise, 203. The derivation of the name of 
the Li-mu-shan here given is fanciful. Mayers, Historical Sketch of the Island of Hainan (J. N. 30 
C. B. R. A. S., new Series VII), 6, note, states on good authority that the aborigines had a tradi- 
tion that the mother of their race dwelt on this mountain; hence the name, which means «Li 
mother mountain)). 

30) R. Swinhoe, Exploring visit to Hainan (J. N. C. B. R. A. S., new Series VII), 57, esti- 
mated the highest peak of the Li-mu-shan range as not exceeding 7,000 feet. Henry, Ijng-Nam, 35 
478, placed the height of the Li-mu-shan at about 5,500 feet. He refers to the fleecy veil of clouds 
which hung most of the time over the summit. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 1,8—9, from which this paragraph 

of our text is substantially taken, says: «In the autumn the sky is clear and the peak is visible,, a 
(spot of) azure floating in space, while below are masses of fog)). It then goes on to say that on 
the summit of the mountain, cut off from the rest of the world by impassible gorges and guarded 40 
by tigers and other wild beasts, live recluses; «can it be, Ch6u K'ii-fei' adds, that they are of the 
family of the old men's village of the Astor pool?)) (:^ ^W-^A-^^^M. W^- 
Ma Tuan-lin quates all that Chou K'a-fei wrote on Hainan, giving as his authority Fan Shi-hu 
(i. e., Fan Ch'6ng-ta, middle of twelfth century). Hervey St. Denis, Ethnographic, II, 400— 401. 
Wylie, Notes on Chinese literature, 218 mentions a collection of odes of the Sung dynasty 45 
entitled KU-t'an-shi (JSS ^M gs) or aOdes of the Astor pool)). 

31) The customs and dress of the Li of the present day do not differ very materially from 
what they were in the twelfth century. See R. Swinho e, op. cit., 26 — 27. He nry, op. cit., 882—883, 
410 et seqq., and an article in the North China Daily News (Shanghai), of Sept. 3, 1902 entitled 
The Lois or Aborigines of Hainan; also China Review, XIX, 383 — 394. 50 

Ch6u K'u-fei (Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,ii''), whom our author substantially quotes for the last 
part of this paragraph, says in effect that ((there being many good-looking women among the Li 


■women, foreigners in olden times used to steal them. So the chaste ones at least took to smearing 
their faces with mud to hide theii- charms, and later on tattooing was resorted to for the same 
purpose. When a girl reaches marriageable age the family sets out wine and invites the relatives. 
Then an old woman prickes out with a needle patterns of flowering plants and flying moths and 
5 puts in the colour in kingfisher blue; the work is very fine and well done». At the present day the 
designs tattooed on the faces of the Li appear to be lines and dots, like those of the Formosans. 
See Henry, op. cit., 383. 

32) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,«, from which this paragraph is substantially taken, says that the 
Li knives were two feet long, with handles of horn over a foot long. The Li also wore helmets 

10 of rattan. Eeferring to the Li bow, the same work (6,6*) says that they were of wood or bamboo, 
and the string of rattan. They were shorter than the Japanese bow, though like it. The arrow was 
not feathered. Conf. Swinhoe, J. N. C. B. E. A. S., new Series VII, 79. The Ling-wai-tai-ta, 
speaking of the revengeful spirit of the Li, says they call killing a person in revenge atso-yaua 
(tt ^^h) ™6aning, like the cho-yau of our text, «seizing, mancipation (?)». 

15 — The same work also notes that nfor the most part, the Li are ignorant and superstitious. 
When a stranger comes to see them, they do not meet him at once, but first examine him through 
some peephole. If he is of pleasing presence and not a dangerous looking person, they send a 
slave to spread a mat for him to sit on, and after a little while the master himself comes out and 
meets him. After a short conversa tion he has wine served, but in the first place he tries the 

20 visitor with some bad-tasting herbs (^S 1^,)> and if he patiently eats of them without hesitating, 
the host is pleased, and follows up the wine with beef. But if the guest refuses (to eat the herbs) 
he is sent back to his people». 

The Li of the present day all carry heavy wood-knives in small baskets, long and narrow, 
attached to the waist behind. In these they also carry their flint and steel and a few other neces- 

23 sary articles. 

33) Taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,s^ 

34) Hiang-p'u or «List of perfumes». This title has been given to several works on the 
subject of aromatic substances. One was written in the early part of the twelfth century by Hung Chu 
(»yt :|S). Surg-shi, 205,22, mentions this work, which it says is in 5 chapters, and also one 

30 by Shon Li (^ ^). Still another work with this title was written during the Sung dynasty 
by Ye T'ing-kui (^ ^ {^). See Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, 1, 149, J\^s 153. 

35) See Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,8*, which also mentions sapan-wood {su-mu) among the products of 

36) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,7* says that aliving among the semi-civilized Li (Shou-Li) are many 
35 desperadoes (^ ^) from the Hu-kuang and Fu-kien provinces, a cruel, thieving lot who, 

though to all outward appearances obeying the officials, are in league with the Wild Li (Shong- 
Li) to plunder the country». 

37) Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 1,16*. 

38) Ma Fu-po is the Ma Yuan mentioned previously p. 178. The text states that these 
40 earthenware jars could hold several piculs of water (;;]<). This must be a clerical error for rice 

(^), as water is not measured by the picul or bushel. 

39) The Wu-chi-shan or « Five-finger mountain)), is south-west from the Li-mu-shan 
proper. Henry, op. cit., 478 estimated its height as about 1,000 feet more than the Li-mu-shan, 
or about 6,500 feet. There is also a Ts'i-chi-shan or «Seven-finger mountain)) in this Hainan 

45 central massif. With the exception of the first and the last phrases of this paragraph, all the 
rest is a quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,7". On the form of oath here mentioned, see Hirth, 

Die Insel Hainan, 29, note 5. .,,,•„ 

40) This description of the costume and head-dresses of the Li occurs, m substantially 
the same words, in Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,8"^, but it is not said that the description is based on the 

50 pictures of the Li. Emg-lio-ssl was one of the titles, corresponding to the present «Governor 
General)), or «Viceroy», used during the T'ang and Sung dynasties. 

41) Instead of this reference to Wang Chung-ki's dress^in^ai-tai-ta, 2,8 , has «for- 
merly in the M-ning period (A. D. 1068-1078) Wang Tsu-tau ( J ]^ ^), head-man of the 


(pacified) Li villages was given official Chinese robes. At the present time his descendants (lit., 
grand- children) wear an additional garment consisting of a long silk brocade gown (^S ajw) 
with a girdle and silver buckle. They say they do so because their ancestor received the like 
from the Emperor». 

Concerning the dress of the women among the Li, Ling-wai-tai-ta, 2,8^ says: «The married 5 
women wear their hair in a high knot (or knob ^S), tattoo their faces, and wear copper 
earrings which hang down to the shoulder. Their clothing consists of a plaited skirt of cotton 
stuff of bright colours. Though they have neither trowsers nor jacket, the skirt they wear is of 
several thicknesses, for they make their skirts with four flounces (^1) sewn together; they put 
it on by the feet (not over the head), and tie it at the waist». 10 

42) On these various products, see infra, Pt. II. 

— "^-^^»{^' 


CAMPHOR (li ^). 

Nau-tzi, or camphor, comes from P'o-ni, called according to some Fo-ni 
jfS); it also comes from the country of Pin-su (^ ^Y- 
6 The common report that it is also found in San-fo-ts'i is an error; the 

fact is merely this — that, owing to this country being an important tho- 
roughfare for the traffic of all foreign nations, the produce of all other 
countries is intercepted and kept in store there for the trade of foreign ships. 
The camphor-tree is like the pine-tree (;|0); it grows in the depths of 
10 the hills and the remotest valleys. So long as branches and trunk continue 
unhurt, the tree will contain the gum even for hundreds and thousands of 
years; otherwise it will evaporate. 

When the natives go into the hills in order to gather the camphor, 
they go in troops of several tens of men; they are provided with clothes made 
13 of tree bark (or fibre) and with supplies of sJia-Jiu ("^ ^ sago) for food. 
They go in different directions, and whenever they find any camphor-trees, 
they fell them with their hatchets, and mark as many as ten or more; they 
then cut these into lengths and divide them among themselves equally, after 
which each one cuts his share into boards; these again they notch along the 
20 sides and cross-wise so as to produce chinks, and the camphor collecting in 
these is got out by forcing a wedge into them ^ 

The camphor which forms crystals is called «plum flower camphor» 
(il& :^ |g), because it resembles the plum flower; an inferior quality is 
called «gold foot camphor» {-^ ^ |^); broken bits are called «rice camphor» 
25 (^ jg^); when these are mixed up with splinters, it is called «grey camphor» 
(^ Is); after all the camphor has been removed from the wood, it is called 
((Camphor chips)> (JJ^ :J^[j). Nowadays people break these chips into small 
bits and mix them with sawdust, which mixture they place in a vessel of 
porcelain, covered by another vessel, the openings being hermetically closed; 
30 when baked in hot ashes, the vapour formed by the mixture condenses and 


194 CAMPHOR. ir,l 

forms lumps, which are called «collected camphor» (^ JJ^); it is used for 
women's head ornaments and the like purposes*. There is furthermore an 
oily sort of camphor called «camphor oil» (Jgg y^), which is of a strong and 
pungent aroma; it answers for moistening incense, or mixing with oil *. 

. Notes. 5 

1) Fo-ni and P'o-ni, both pronounced in Cantonese Fat-ni and Put-ni, transcribe respectively 
Brni, Borneo, and apply more particularly to the west coast of that island. See supra, pp. 155, 156. 
Pin-su, in Cantonese Pan-ts'iit, the latter form representing the sound Pansor, is the Pansur or 
Fansur of mediaeval Arab and vrestern writers, the Barus of later writers. Barus is the name of 
the principal mart of this commodity in Sumatra, and the word has been affixed by traders to 10 
discriminate it from the camphor of Japan. See Reinaud, Relations, I, 7, Masudi, Prairies d'or, 

, I, 338, Ibn Batuta, Voyages, IV, 241, and especially Yule, Marco Polo, II, 282, 285—288. Also 
Crawfurd, Hist. Malay Archipelago, I, 515—517. 

Liang-shu, 54,i4% mentions among the products of Lang-ya-siu (3& ^' Vm} (which 
may be Tennasserim or the Kra district on the Msilay Vemnsuls!) p o-lit-Mang (^^ :ffi' .S>), t5 
and T'ang-pon-ts'au (Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 84,56) says that «in olden times p'o-lu-hiartg came from 
P'o-liis. We are inclined, however, to believe that^ o-Zit is a truncated transcription of Sanskrit Jcar- 
pura, and does not represent Barus, as Gerini (Researches, 427) and Pelliot (B. E. F. E.G., IV 
341) are disposed to think. Hiian-tsang, Si-yu-ki, 10, speaks of Me-pu-lo (^■^ 'f|j -^i) as a 
product of Madura. 20 

Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,7*, says nThe tree which produces the alung-nau perfumes (■»§ H^ 
^^ j comes from P o-li [-^' y^\\ Perak, or thereabout), where it is called hu-pu-p' o-lii 
( fffj '^ "i^- ffi" Icapur). It also comes from Po-ssi (Persia, i. e., it was brought to China 
by Persian ships). The tree is from eighty to ninety feet high, and some six or seven (feet) in 
circumference. The leaves are round and white on the back. It has no flowers. The tree is either 25- 
«fat» (J52) *"' "^6an» (^^)- Lean trees produce t\6 p o-lu-Ttau (or tibalm» >M^). One authority 
says that lean trees produce lung-nau (our abaroos camphor))), and the fat ones p'o-lii-kau 
(camphor balm). If one cuts into the heart of the tree and splits it open, the oil (lit. grease) flows 
out freely from the butt (i^)- The drug can be got also by chopping up the wood and putting 
thepiecesinapit. There are other methods of extracting it». Conf. Marsden's remarks in note 2. 30' 

2) Marsden, History of Sumatra, 121, says: nThe natives, from long experience, know 
whether any (camphor) is contained within, by striking it (i. e., the tree) with a stick. In that case, 
they cut it down and split it with wedges into small pieces, finding the camphire in the interstices in 
the state of a concrete crystallization. Some have asserted that it is from the old trees alone that 
this substance is procured, and that in the young trees it is in a fluid state, callei meeniacapoor, 3S 
or camphire oil; but this, I have good authority to pronounce a mistake. The same kind of tree 
that produces the fluid, does not produce the dry, transparent, and flaky substance, nor ever 
would .... The traders distinguish usually three difi'erent degrees of quality in it, by the names 

of head, belly and foot, according to its purity and whiteness, which depend upon its being more 
or less free from particles of the wood, and other heterogeneous matter, that mix with it in 40 
collecting, after the first large pieces are picked out. Some add a fourth sort, of extraordinary 
fineness, of which a few pounds only are imported to Canton in the year, and sell there at the 
rate of two thousand dollars the pccula. 

3) In a previous passage (supra, p. 156), our author mentions four varieties of camphor as 
coming from Borneo; one of these he calls su-nau; it may be the same as the ts'ang-nau here 45- 
mentioned. See Gerini, Researches, 432 et seqq. 

Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 1,8% mentions some extraordinarily fragrant camphor which was brought to 
the Emperor of China Huan-tsung (in A. D. 756) as tribute from Kiau-chi or Tongking. It was 
called lau-lung-nau (^ ^| |§), and also, a^v^Tentlj, jui-lung-nau ('^ ^| HS). This 

11,1-2 FRAKKINCEXSE. 195 

may be atlie fourth sort» mentioned by Marsden in the preceding note, though no longer known 

by the name given it in the T'ang dynasty. 

Nearly all the camphor used in China is procured from the Laurus camphora, L., called 

Chang {^m)- Nan-yufe-pi-ki (of the eighteenth century), 5,io, says that lung-nau (baroos camphor) 
5 comes from Fo-ta-ni ('^ ^ ;^ Patani?). The Cantonese mix it with chang-nau (i. e., camphor 

from the Laurus camphora) which comes from Shau-chou (^^ M in Kuang-tung); hence its 

name of shau-naun. In northern China camphor is usually called ch'au-nau (iM B^) from Ch'au- 

ch6u, also in Kuang-tung, and not far distant from Shau-chou. This latter name ck'.au-nau must 

be the correct form. See also Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, 346 (J. 0. B. K. A. S., XXV). 
10 Linschoten, Voyage to the East Indies, II, 118 (Hakl. Soc. edit.) remarks that one pound of 

Borneo camphor was worth one hundred pounds of Chin-cheu (i. e., Chinese) camphor. 

4) Marsden, op. cit, 123 says: «The camphire oil is a valuable domestic medicine, and 

much used by the Sumatrans It is rather a liquid and volatile resin, distilling from one 

species of the camphire tree, without any oleaginous quality». 
15 Our author states (supra, p. 67) that camphor was also a product of Tan-ma-ling, of Java 

(p. 77), and of Ling-ya-ssi-kia (p. 68) Chou K'ii-fei adds Chu-lien. See supra, p, 100, n. 8. 


Ju-Mang («milk incense))), or Mn-lu-hiang {"^ P^ ^)S comes from (|j[j) 

20 the three Ta-shi countries of Ma-lo-pa, Shi-ho, and Nu-fa, from the depths of the 
remotest mountain Valleys. The tree which yields this drug may, on the whole, 
be compared to the sung (;^ pine). Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon 
which the resin flows out, and when hardened, turns into incense, which is 
gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Ta-shi 

25 (on the coast); the Ta-shi load it upon their ships for barter against other 
goods in San-fo-ts'i; and it is for this reason that the incense is commonly 
collected at San-fo-ts'i*. 

When the foreign merchants come to that place to trade, the Customs 
authorities, according to the relative strength of its fragrance, distinguish 

30 thirteen classes of incense. Of these, the very best is called Uen-Uang {1^ 
^), or «picked incense»: it is round and of the size of the end of a finger; 
it is commonly called ti-ju (^fL) or «dripping milk»^ The second quaUty 
is called pHng-ju (^ fi) or «potted milk», and its colour is inferior to 
that of the «picked incense». The next quality is csMq^ fing-himg {^ ^) 

35 or «potted incense», so called, they say, owing to its being prized so much 
at the time of gathering, that it is placed in pots {pHng ^). In this pHng- 
Uang (variety of frankincense) there are three grades, superior, medium, 
and inferior. The next quality is called tai-Mang (^ ^) or «bag incenso); 



thus called, they say, because at the time of gathering, it is merely put into 
bags; it is also divided into three qualities, like the p'ing-Mang. 

The next kind is the ju-fa (^ '^); it consists of incense mixed 
with gravel. 

The next kind is the Jiei-t'a {^ :^), because its colour is black. The 5 
next land is the shui-sM-Jm-t'a (^ '^ ^ i^), because it consists of 
incense which has been «water-damaged», the aroma turned, and the colour 
spoiled while on board ship. 

Mixed incense of various qualities and consisting of broken pieces is 

called cho-siau (^ ^\\ «cut-up»); when passed through a sieve and made lo 

into dust, it is called ch'an-mo (|§ ^ «powder»). The above are the various 

varieties of frankincense. 


1) Ju-Mang or «inilk incenseo; this, the common name for olibanum or frankincense in 
China, was given it from its appearance. The Arabic name of incense luban means likewise 15 
«milk». Marco Polo calls it «white incenses. The second name liun-lu (in Cantonese fan-lvk, 
old sound hun-luk) is unquestionably derived from the Arabic kundur (.iX^), or the Indian form 
hnndu 01 Tiundwra. Turkish-osm. giinlUJc, afrankincense, olibanum », Eadloff, Worterbuch d.TQrk- 
Dialecte, vol. II, col. 1636, may be derived from the Chinese. Conf. Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 23. 
The older Chinese works only use the word Mn-lu to designate frankincense, but there is some 20 
confusion in their use of the term, benzoin and other drugs being frequently confounded with the 
true olibanum. See Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, 111,460 — 462, and Ancient Chinese and 
Arabs, 19; also Hirth, China and the Eoman Orient, 266—268. Pon-ts'au, 34,45'' gives its 
«foreign names» as mo-lo (^ ffi||), tu-lu (j^ "'S') *°^ h'ie-to-lo, ('/^ ^ .^S, erroneously 
written to-Tc'ie-lo). Tu-lu is probably Sanskrit turu{shJca), the Indian incense, and k'ie-to-lo is 25 
hhadira, the Acacia catechu. 

2) Ma-lo-pa or Merbat, Shi-ho or Shehr and Nn-fa or Dufar, were the three ports of the 
Hadramaut coast of Arabia, the «Land of Frankincense)). See supra, pp. 116 and 121, n. 11. 

Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chuang (third century A. D.) 2,i'', says ahun-lu incense comes from the 
sea-coast in Ta-ts'in. It is a big tree (which furnishes it), the branches and leaves are just like 30 
those of an old pine (/j^). It grows in the sand. The flowers (lit. buds) are full-blown in summer, 
(when) the sap of the tree flows onto the sand, where it is gathered)). Sni-shu, 83,i6* mentions 
hun-lu-hiang among the products of Po-ssi (Persia), meaning probably that it was brought to 
China on Persian ships. Huan-tsang stated that in the country of 0-ch'a-li (in Southern 
India, near Malwa) grew the hun-lu-hiang tree, the leaves of which resembled those of the 35 
t'ang-li (^ ^ pyrus). This is presumably the Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke, whereas the 
Arabian olibanum is produced by the Boswellia Carterii, Birdw. See Bretschneider, Botanicon 
Sinicum, II, 303, III, 460. See also Linschoten, op. cit., II, 99. 

Marco Polo, II, 441, says «Dufar is a great and noble and fine city, and lies 500 miles 
to the north-west of Esher (i. e., es-Shehr) .... Much white incense is produced here, and I will 40 
tell you how it grows. The trees are like small fir-trees; these are notched with a knife in several 
places, and from these notches the incense is exuded. Sometimes also it flows from the tree with- 
out any notch; this is by reason of the great heat of the sun there.)) See also Yule's exhaustive 
note on the above in his Marco Polo, II, 442—447. Theodore Bent, Exploration of the Fran- 
kincense country. Southern Arabia (Geo. Journal VI, 109—134, says (p. 119): «Near Cape Risut a 45 
large tract of country is covered with frankincense trees, with their bright green leaves like ash 
trees, their small green flowers, and their insignificant fruit .... The best is obtained at spots called 
Hoye and Haski, about four days journey inland from Mirbat .... The second in quality comes 

II>2-4 MTEEn. — dkagon's-blood. 197 

from near Cape Risut, and also a little further west at a place called Chiseri». «To the south of 
Mount Haghier (in Sokotra) one comes across valleys entirely full of frankincense-trees. The best 
quality is called leban Idkt, and the second quality Ulan resimln Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 
234, 252, 380. Our author knew of the African frankincense (supra, p. 130) as well as of the Arabian. 
3) Also called ju-fou-hiang (^ |^ ^) or anipple incenses by mediaeval Chinese 
writers. Bretschn eider, Botanicon Sinicum, III, 460. 

MYRRH ii^ ^). 

Mo-yau comes from the country of Ma-lo-mo (0 R|| j^) of the Ta-shi. 

10 The tree resembles in height and size the pine-tree (7^) of China; its bark is 
one or two inches thick. At the time of gathering the incense they first dig 
a hole in the ground at the foot of the tree, and then split open the bark 
with a hatchet, upon which the juice runs down into the hole during fully 
ten days, when it is removed. 

15 Note, 

The Chinese name for myrrh, meaning «mo medicine or drug» is a transcription of the 
Arabic name mwrr — through the Cantonese mu*. See BretschneiderJ Ancient Chinese and 
Arabs, 20, note 4; and Hirth, J. C. B. R. A. S., XXI, 220. Pon-ts'au, 34,49, quotes no authorities 
on this subject earlier than the Sung. 

20 Ma-Io-mo is clearly an error for Ma-lo-pa or Merbat, the Hadramaut coast of Arabia. 

This error has been noticed in a previous passage, supra, p. 121, n. 11. Our author has stated in his 
description of the Berbera coast (Pi-p'a-lo) that that country produced much myrrh (supra, p. 128). 
At the present time the best myrrh comes from the Somali country near Harar. The myrrh which 
is got from the hills about Shugra and Sureea to the east of Aden (which must have been included 

25 in Merbat as Chinese understood it) is of an inferior quality. See Encyclopaedia Britannica 
(9* edit.) XVII, 121. Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 254, says myrrh in large quantities grows 
in the Gara mountains of the Hadramaut. Hanbury, Science Papers, 378—380, says myrrh 
comes from the Ghizan district on the east coast of the Bed Sea, from the coast of Southern 
Arabia, east of Aden, from the Somali country, south and west of Cape Gardafui, and from the 

30 country between Tajura and Shoa. See also Linschoten, op. cit., II, 99. 

The mo mentioned in the Yu-yang-tsa-tsu (18,io^) as being called a-tz'i ([JfH" -^^ the 
last Character being also read so, tso and tsoJc) in Fu-lin, is the myrtle, the Aramean name of 
which is asa, the original of a-tz"i. Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 21. 


35 DRAGON'S-BLOOD (j^ ^). 

Hiie-Jcie comes also from the Ta-shi countries. This tree is somewhat like 
the myrrh-tree, except that its leaves are rather different in size from those 
of the latter; the manner of gathering is also the same. There is a variety of 

198 SAYEET BENZOIN. 11,4-6 

tree whicli is as smooth as the face of a mirror; these are old trees, their juice 
flows spontaneously, without their heing tapped by the hatchet; this is the 
best quality. Incense which contains an admixture of bits of wood is made of 
the juice of the lakawood-tree (|^ m. ^), and is commonly called «imitation 
dragon's-blood)) (^ j^ ;6g). 5 


In his description of Chung-li, i. c, the Somali coast including the island of Socotra, our 
author says (supra, p. 131) that dragon's-blood, aloes, tortoise-shell and amhergris were procured 
from this island or the adjacent waters. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (§ 30) mentions it 
as a product of the island of Dioskorides (Socotra) under the name of aindian cinnabari) (xcvva- 10 
Papt TO Xeroptevov 'IvStxov), «which is gathered as it exudes in drops (tears) from the tree.» The 
Arabs called it katir (jJjUiJl), and this name, occurring in Yakut's description of Socotra (ed. 
Wustenfeld, III, 102,3), may be the original of hiie-Me, pronounced hUt-Jc'it in Cantonese. This 
Socotran dragon's-blood is the «drop dragon's-blood» of commerce, the spontaneous exudation of 
a leguminous tree, Pterocarpus draco, which grows at elevations between 800 and 2,000 feet 15 
above sea-level. See also Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 379, 388. 

The ordinary Me-kie used in China is the produce of a large species of rattan growing 
on the north and north-east coasts of Sumatra, with some parts of Borneo, and principally manu- 
factured at Jambi, Palembang and Banjermassin. Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, III, 240. 

The Fon-ts'au (34,50-5i) calls dragon's-blood k'i-lin-kie (||^ ^^ jt^ «fc't-Zm blood»). iiO 
The Nan-yue-chii (^7^ ^), it adds, saysthat «it is the sap of thete«-fcM«5'-tree (^'' 0j)|*}. 
The test of its purity is that it is like wax when bit into.» This is a confusion with stick-lac, arid 
traceable to T'ang period writers. Giles, Dictionary, s. v., fm Hsiieh, says that dragon's-blood 
is yielded by the it'o-Zra (V-S ^3 Daemouorops draco). Bretschneider and Porter Smith 
are of opinion that the Chinese drug is furnished by the Pterocarpus draco. Bretschneider, 25 
Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 21, note 6. See also Encyclop. Britann. VII, 389. 



Kin-yen-Mang comes, in its best and standard quality, from Chon-la; 
the Ta-shi kind is of inferior quality. The statement that this incense is 30 
found in San-fo-ts'i must be understood as meaning that it is imported thither 
from the Ta-shi and merely transshipped at that place by merchants for 
importation to China. 

This incense is the juice of a tree; there is a pale yellow coloured kind, 
and another of a black colour. That which, on being broken open, shows a 35 
snow-white colour, is the best; that which contains gravel is of inferior 
quality. Its aroma is so strong that it may be used in combination with all 
other perfumes. It is largely used for mixing by those who wear sachets of 
ambergris and other perfumes of delicate aroma. Foreigners also prepare from 
it, with (other) perfumes, a mixture with which they rub their bodies. 40 

'' ''' ° DAMMAR. igg 


Ein.yen hiang or agolden coloured incense,,. From the description given of it in the second 

rb?:fdorb th:t"""V^"'^ '""* ^"^"'^ °^ '' <=- 

5 1197 whi^e thl "'"^ """^ '' "''"'■ ''' ""'^"''"'^ '^'^ "^^'-^^^ °f Linschoten, op. cit., 
Sumal^o rs n fo I' r"\; T "'"''°°"^ subsequently (infra, p. 202) as a product of Eastern 
L7l« (f;"-f!>-*«>)/« the «benu,m amendoado,, of the same writer. It was known to the Arabs 
rJi f^f T.r T''"'" "^ ^'"^ ^^^^^^^A but did not become known in Europe before the 
?V tri K f century. Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 580. See also Ibn Batuta, Voyages, 

in ^^Y°T '^ l^^n-ym.^uang was the name specially given the Kambojan variety of the drug. 

lu ihe btyrax Benzoin is a native of Sumatra and Java, and was introduced into Siam, 

Borneo, etc «Siain benzoin is generally regarded as the best, and of it two varieties are 
distinguished. The finest quality is Siam benzoin «in tear», it being in small flattened drops, from 
tne size of an almond kernel downward. «Lump., Siam benzoin consists of agglutinated masses 
ot such tears, or of tears imbedded in a darker coloured resinous matrix. Tear benzoin varies in 

15 colour from a pale yellow to a reddish-brown colour, and lump benzoin has a conglomerate- 
like structure from the dissemination of almond-shaped tears throughout the substance 

Sumatra benzoin occurs in larger rectangular masses of a greyish tint, with few large tears in 
It, but contammg small white opaque pieces, with chips of wood and other impurities, in a 
translucent matrix),. Encyclop. Britann. (gth edit.). Ill, 581. 

^° PI,- "■'■^^ Ta-shi kind is of inferior quality,, means, I take it, that the incense brought to 
China by the Arabs from their various trading-stations by way of Palembang in Sumatra, was 
inferior to that which was brought direct to China from Kambqja. 

^B -J"'^°'^''y^"S-k'au, 3,17*, refers among the products of Palembang to Un-yin-Jiiang (^ 
alR ^) or "gold and silver incense,,, which seems, from the few words of description there 

25 given of it — and quoted from the Hua-i-k'au (^ || :^) — to be the same as the fo-n-2/en- 
hiang. It is true that on this same page we find mention of an-si-Mang, but the description of 
this drug there given only strengthens the probability of these two products being the two 
varieties of benzoin mentioned by Linschoten and other travellers. In another passage, Tung- 
si-yang-k'au, 3,9^ mentions Un-yen-hiang as a product of Kamboja and describes it on the 

30 authority of the I-t'ung-chi ( — ■ j^ J^), which in turn quotes textually our text. 


DAMMAR (:^ ^ f:). 

Tu-nau-hiang comes from the country of Chon-la: it is the exudation of 
a tree -which resembles the pin? {i^) and juniper (|^) family in shape; but 

55 the gum (^) lies concealed in the bark. "When the tree is old, it runs out 
spontaneously, as a white and vitreous resin, for which reason it does not 
melt, though the summer heat may be at its height; this is called tu-nau. 

If, in the summer months, the trunk of the tree is scorched by a fire 
kept burning around it, this will cause the fluid resin to flow out freely 

-40 again; it may be gathered during the winter, when it hardens; for this 
variety of incense is liquid in the summer, and hardens during the winter; 
it is called «7^e^ (or black) tu-naun. The natives fill gourds (^ pHau) with it, 

200 LIQUID STORAX. 11,6-7 

and the shippers afterwards transfer it into porcelain vessels. The ilavour of 
this incense is pure and lasting; the black variety easily melts and leaks 
through the gourd; but by breaking the gourd and exposing it to the fire, 
one may obtain something similar to the original substance. This is the 
article now called tu-nau-'fiau or agourd dammar». 5 


The Chinese word tu-nau transcribes the Malay damar. In the fifteenth century Ying-yai- 
sheng-Ian the form ta-ma-'ir occurs (:^ ^^ 0|). Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, 
455, says: «In almost every country of the Indian islands there are trees which afford damar. 
Bumphius enumerates four varieties. These produce different sorts of the rosin, which take 10 
their names in commercial language from their colour or consistency. One is called Damar-batu 
in Malay, or Bamar-selo in Javanese, which means the stony rosin, and another in common use 

Damar-putch, or white rosin Damar is used for all the purposes to which we apply pitch, 

but chiefly in paying the bottoms of ships and vesselso. 

Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra, 128, says that white dammar is a species of turpentine, 15 
yielded by a tree growing in Lampoon called cruyen, the wood of which is white and porous. It differs 
from the common sort, or dammar tattoo, in being soft and whitish, having the consistence, and 
somewhat the appearance of putty.» See also Yule and Burnell, Glossary, 228. 


LIQUID STORAX (^ -^ # yft). 20 

Su-ho-Jiiang-yu comes from the countries of the Ta-shi. Its aroma and 
taste are, on the whole, similar to those of tu-nau (dammar). Richness and 
freedom from sediment are the first requisites in a good sample. 

Foreigners commonly use it to rub their bodies with, and the natives of 
Fu-kien use it in like fashion when afflicted with paralysis (;^ ^)., It is 25 
mixed with jum-Uang (^ ^ or cdncenses of delicate aroma»), and may be 
used in medicine. 


The present day su-ho-Uang-yu or «sweet oil of storax», or su-ho-yu nstorax oil», which 
occurs in commerce in China, is a product of the Liquidambar orientalis, L., of Asia Minor. The 30' 
storax of the ancients, which became known to the Chinese in the early part of the Christian era as 
a product of Ta-ts'in, and the name of which OTupa?, they may have mutilated into su-ho, was a 
solid gum, and appears to have been a product of the Styrax officinalis, which is still common in 
Syria. Sui-shu, 83,i6* mentions su^lio as a product of Po-ssi (Persia). Apparently the storax sent to 
China in those early days was very largely adulterated, for Liang-shu, 54,i7», (covering the first half 35- 
of the sixth century), says that in Western Asia (Ta-ts'in) astorax (su-ho) is made by mixing and 
boiling the juice of various fragrant trees and that it is not a natural product. It is further said that 
the inhabitants of Ta-ts'in gatherjhe su-Jio (plant, or parts of it), squeeze out its juice, and thus 
make a balm or ointment [^ ^); they then sell this drug to the traders of other 'countries; 

11,7-8 BEXZOIN. 20 1 

it thus goes through many hands hefore reaching China, and when arriving here, it is not so very 

fragrant.)) See Hirth, China and Koman Orient, 41, 47, 263—266. 

D. Hanbury, Science Papers, 143, has conclusively shown that the drug now used in 

China is imported into Bombay from Aden, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, being probably 
5 brought thither from Alexandria. He has also established by comparison its identity with the 

substance known as Liquid Storax, obtained from the Liquidambar orientalis, L., in Asia Minor. 

Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, III, 465. 

The Hiang-p'u, a Treatise on perfumes of the eleventh century, makes the remark that su- 

ho-yu is akind oitu-nau-hiang or dammar. Bretschneider, op. cit., 464. The Su-ch'bn-liang-fang 
10 {Wk VJnj ^J ~/j)i ^^®° "^ ^^^ eleventh century, says (Ijis'): «The su-ho-hiang of the present 

day is like hard wood, of a dark red colour. There is also su-ho-yu which is like birdlime.o This 

su-ho-hiang may well have been the classical or solid storax. 

Our author, in the first part of his work, mentions liquid storax as a product of Baghdad, 

Asia Minor (Lu-mei, Rum) and of Ki-tz'i-ni (Ghazni). The Huan-yii-chii (-^ ^^ ^^ of the 
15 tenth century) says that su-ho-yu was produced in An-nan and San-fo-ts'i. Bretschneider, 

Bot. Sinic, III, 464. It is likely that this was the resin of the Liquidambar altingiana, Bl. of Java, 

called in Malay rasamala. P6n-ts,'au, 34,54, gives the Sanskrit name of su-ho-yu as twushlca 

(HiH *^ ^^ '^)> ""'^ich, according to Monier Williams, Sansk. Engl. Diet., is Indian olibanum- 

See supra, p. 190, n. 1. 
20 The expression ta-fong is actually used in the province of Fu-ki6n as a term for paralysis 

of either the body or limbs. 


BENZOIN (^ J, #). 

An-si-Mang comes from the country of San-fo-ts'i; it is the resin of a 
25 tree. It resembles the edible part of a walnut in shape and colour, but it is 
not fit to bum as incense; however, it brings out other scents, for which reason 
there is a demand for it for mixing purposes. 

The T'ung-tien (jg ^), speaking of the Western Barbarians, says 

that the country of An-si has sent tribute to China during the periods fien-lio 

30 of the Chou (A. D. 566—572) and ta-ye of the Sui dynasty (A. D. 605— 

617). It may be conjectured that the name is derived from this (country) 

and that the article was imported by way of San-fo-ts'i. 


Our author's doubts about the country of origin of this incense and his failure to explain its 
35 name, are common to other Chinese writers. See Bretschneider, Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 
19, note 2. Bot. Sinic, III, 465—467. An-si, which, in the second and third centuries of our era, 
was the Chinese designation of Parthia, was transferred, after the overthrow of the Arsacides, to 
the new Persian kingdom of the Sassanide dynasty. Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 198. During 
the Ch6u and Sui dynasties (A. D. 557-618) An-si may therefore be held to be identical with 
40 Persia. Sui-shu, 83,i6 says that «the kingdom of Ts'au (j^), which was the same as theKi-pin 
(Hi W) °^ ^^^ ^^^ dynasty, had (whether as a product or brought there from other countries 
is not clear) an-si-hiang, ts'ing-mu (putchuck, our author's mu-hiang) and other aromatic sub- 
stances.)) The same work, in the section on K'iu-tz'i (^ ^ Kuchar in Chinese Turkestan), 


83,ii'', mentions an-si-hiang among its products. I fancy it only means that an-si-hiang reached 
China by way or K'iu-tz'i'. It is evident none reached China in Chan's time. 

Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, ISjV'' says: «TLe an-si-hiang tree comes from Po-ssi (Persia). In Po-ssi it 
is called the pi-sie tree (Jg^ ^|^ j^ or ((destroying evil tree»). It is thirty feet high; the 
bark is yellowish black. The leaves have four angles (^); they do not shrivel up in winter. 5 
In the second moon it blossoms; the flower is yellowish, the heart of the flower is greenish. It 
has no fruit. When the bark of the tree is cut, its gum (^■) is like syrup ('^p); it is called 
an-si-hiang. In the sixth and seventh moons it hardens, when it can be burned, propitiating 
the gods and dispelling all evils. 

The I-t'ung-chi (of the Ming), as quoted in Tung-si-yang-k'au, 1,11, says that the tree 10 
which produces an-si-hiang is like the k'u-Uen (^ ^»^ Melia azedarach, L.)but straighter; 
the leaves are like those of the yang-t'au (:¥l Jd^ Carambola tree) but broader. The sap which 
supplies the incense is in the heart of the tree. Pon-ts'au, 34,53*, says ((formerly it came from 
Persia, but now An-nan, San-fo-ts'i and all foreign countries have it.» 

Marsdon, Hist, of Sumatra, 123, says: aBenjamin or benzoin (caminyan) .... is produced 15 
by a tree which grows in great abundance in the northern parts of the island (of Sumatra), 
particularly in the Batta country, and met with, though rarely, to the southward of the line.» 

Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, 518, remarks that «Borneo and Sumatra are the 
only countries which produce it (i. e., benzoin), and the territory of Borneo proper in the one, 
and that of the Battas in the other, the only portions of them .... It has but one name, or at 20 
least only one which is current. This is a native term, and is at full length Kaminyan, or abbre- 
viated Minyani). The Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 34,52, gives as the «foreign» name of an-si-hiang 
i|j] ^ ^S Tcu-pei-lo, which seems to be a corrupt transcription either of Sanskrit khadira 
or of kundura, catechu or Indian frankincense. See supra, p. 196, n. 1. 

BothDuarteBarbosa(op. cit., 185) and Linschoten (11,96— 98) distinguish two varieties 25 
of benzoin, one which does not smell except when in the fire, and the other with a strong scent. 
Barbosa adds that it is with this latter variety that othe good and genuine storaxis made in the 
Levant, before extracting from it the oil, which in the Levant is extracted from iti>. Linschoten 
calls the scented variety ((benioin de boninasa or benzoin of the flowers; it is of blackish colour; 
the other variety is «benioin amendoado» or abenzoin of almonds», because it is mixed with pieces 30 
of white benzoin, like pieces of almonds among the black. aThe benzoin from Sumatra and Java, 
he adds, is not as good as that from Siam and by Malacca.)) 


GARDENIA FLOW^ERS (|ji ^ :?5). 

The cTil-tsi-hua comes from the two countries of Ya-pa-hien (i^ ^ 35 
^) and Lo-shi-mei of the Ta-shi. It resembles the safflower (^j^ 1^) in 
appearance, but it is of a light brown (or purple) colour. Its scent is pene- 
trating and lasting. The natives gather the flowers, dry them in the sun, and 
place them in bottles of opaque glass. Flowers of carnation colour are rare. 

What in Buddhist books is called tan-ipo ( ^ -'gj) is the same as this. 40 

11,9-10 KOSE-WATER. 203 


On the Gardenia florida or becho-nuts, see Hanbury, Science Papers, 241 et seqq., and 
Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 500—503. Although our author only refers to its use as a per- 
fume, it was, however, largely used as a dye. Ya-pa-hien (or as it is written supra, p. 116 Ya-ssi- 
5 pau-hien) is Isfahan, and Lo-shl-mei probably stands for Khwarizm. Supra, p. 134, our author 
refers to the trade in gardenia flowers from the Persian coast through the island of Kish. He also 
says (supra, p. 141) that it was a product of Asia Minor (Lu-meii). 

Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,s-4 says: «The foreign gardenia (^ jjfj^ ^) comes from the land 
of the Arabs. It is what is called in the Buddhist books tan-po (1^ ^). The Sea foreigners 

10 (y^ ■^) dry it like dyer's safflower. At the present day when one wants to be scented as if 
with ambergris, one uses foreign gardenia, which is even more penetrating. There is a white 
flower just like the gardenia but five-petaled. People say that (the chi-tzi) brought from Si-chu ( ^ 
^t possibly an error for ^ ^ ^ aWestern India») is (real) tan-po, but I apprehend 
that this is not correct.)) 

15 Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,s^ says of this product: vChi-tzi flowers with six petals are rare, but, 

according to T'au Chbn-po ([^ ^^ {^ or Tan Hung-king |^ ^i ;^ A.D. 451— 536, 
the author of an important work on materia medica; see Giles, Biograph. Dictionary, 718— 719), 
only six-petaled chi-tzi flowers can properly be called by that name. If one cuts off a six-petaled 
flower and slits open the calyx in seven places, the perfume is very powerful. It is said that it is 

20 the chan-po of the Western Kegions.)) The text has fe yen, which stands for ps. tan or dian, the 
change of radicals being frequent in old texts. Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 27. Chan-po, in Cantonese 
cham-pak or chan-po-Tcia (B^ 3^ ^P), is Sanskrit champaka, the champac tree, Michelia 


25 ROSE-WATER (§ # :^). 

TsHang-wei-shui is the dew of flowers in the country of the Ta-shi. In 
the time of the Five Dynasties (A. D. 907—960) the foreign envoy P'u- 
ko-san {^ ff f^ Abu-1-Hassan?), brought as tribute fifteen bottles, after 
which time importation became rare. Nowadays a common substitute is 
30 manufactured by gathering the flowers, which are steeped in water and 
steamed, in order to extract the essence. 

Rose-water is much counterfeited and adulterated; to test its genuineness, 

- the substance should be placed in glass bottles and shaken about for a while, 

then, if it is full of bubbles moving up and down, the substance is genuine. 

35 The flower (from which it is made) is not identical with the Chinese rose 


Eose-water is also known in China as ts iang-wet-lu or «rose-dew». In a preceding passage 

(supra, p. 1 34) Chau refers to the trade through the island of Kish in rose-water. The adjacent province 

40 of Fars was celebrated for its rose-water, which, says Ibn Haukal, was exported to all parts of 

the world. The city of Shapur and its valley produced, according to Muk add asi, ten different 

'204 GHARU-WOOD. 11,10-11 

kinds of perfumed oils, which were exported far and wide over the Eastern world. Le Strange, 
Lands of the Eastern^Caliphate, 293. Edrisi, op. cit, I, 394, speaks of the rose-water of Djur in 
Fars as being particularly pure. In another passage (supra, p. 141) our author mentions rose- 
water among the products of Asia Minor (Lu-mei). 

Rose-water, gulab in Persian, is not to be confounded with the «essence of roses» 'atr in '5 
Persian, our attar of roses, which is an essential oil obtained from the petals of the flower, the 
chief seat for the manufacture of which is at Ghazipur on the Ganges. «The attar is obtained after 
the rose-water is made, by setting it out during the night and till sunrise in the morning in 
large open vessels exposed to the air, and then skimming off the essential oil which floats at the 
top». Yule and Burnell, Glossary, 494. The acommon substitute)) of which our author speaks 10 
seems to have been prepared in much the same way as the attar. We are told, however, that the 
Arabs and Persians did not know of attar of roses, it was a discovery of Princess Nurdjihan, wife , 
of Jehangir. L. Langles, Recherches sur la dficouverte de I'essence de rose, 1804. 

The Chinese rose is the Rosa indica. Lour. According to the Pon-ts'au the people in 
southern China prepared a fragrant water from the petals of the fe'ta»(ir-z»« flowers. Bret- 15 
Schneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 303. See also Duarte Barbosa, op. cit., 188. 


GHARU-W^OOD m ^). 

Gli'dn-Mang comes from different places. That coming from Chon-la is 
the best; the second quality is that of Chan-ch'ong, and the poorest qualities 20 
are those of San-fo-ts'i and Sho-p'o. It is customary to distinguish between 
«Upper Coast» and «Lower Coast» countries; Chon-la and Chan-ch'6ng are 
called «Upper Coast»; Ta-shi, San-fo-ts'i and Sho-p'o are called «Lower 
Coast)) ^ 

This incense is, as a rule, considered superior in quality if it comes 25 
from a living tree; and inferior, if from a decayed one. The hard and black 
kind is considered superior, the yellow (or brown) inferior. The shape of this 
incense varies widely, and several varieties have, accordingly, to be distin- 
guished ; one looks like a rhinoceros horn (si-kio), and is called ti-kio-ch^on 
iW ^^ "rhinoceros horn gharu-wood»); another which resembles the beak 30 
of a swallow (yen-k'ou), is called yen-¥6u-c¥6n (^ p JJg); another kind, 
resembling aconite roots (fu-tsi) is called fu-td-ch'6n (pjfvj- ^ ^); another 
kind resembles a shuttle (so) and is called so-ch'on {H^ |^), If the graining 
be well marked and the veins close together, it is called hong-ko-dfon 

m m UY- 35 

But, on the whole, when judging of the. quality, more importance is 
attached to fragrance than to appearance. Furthermore, the common opinion 
that it is a product of P'o-ni (y^ '^^ Borneo) is a fallacy ^ 

Some authorities assert that sh6ng-kie-c¥on or «fresh» (^ &t) gharu 



is pruned off the tree with a knife while still growing, whereas shou-ch'on, 
or «ripe» (fb) gharu, drops from the tree of itself*. The produce of the Lower 
Coast is called fan-cJi'on (^ JJg «foreign gharu-wood»). Its smell catches 
the breath and its taste is bitter and pungent. As it is used for curing chills, 
5 it is also called yau-c¥on (^ ^ cmedicinal gharu-wood»). Hai-nan also 
prodnces^gharu-wood of a pure and lasting fragrance; it is called jp'ow^-Zai- 
Uang (^ ^ ^y. 


1) Ch'on-Mang means literally Ksinking-incensei); it is thus called because it sinks in 
10 water. Its name in Malay and Javanese is Tcalambak or Manibah, but it is also known in those 

languages by that of gharu or Jcayu gharu, gharu-wood, a corruption of the Sanskrit agaru, 
which in turn is the original from which the Portuguese formed the name of i^ao d'aguila, whence 
the French lois d'aigle and our « eagle- toooda. The name, «aloes-wood» or «aIoes», which is also 
given it in the Bible and by Arab and other mediaeval writers, is likewise derived from the 
15 Sanskrit form. The French «bois de calaniboura is derived from the Malay name TcoHambak. 

On the division of countries into aUpper Coast» and «Lower Coast» countries, conf. supra, 
p. 79, lines 37—40. Ta-shl is here to be understood as the Arab colonies in Sumatra, and the 
lower part of the Malay Peninsula. See also quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta in Note 2. 

2) Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chuang, the earliest Chinese work in which I have found gharu 
20 described, says (2,3) «The mi-hiang ( ^ ^) tree of Kiau-chi has a trunk like the kii-Uu (iig MB 

a kind of elm), its flowers are white and abundant. Its leaves are like those of the orange 
(tw)' ^^ °^^ wants to get the aromatic substance, it must first be cut into (-(^c)) *^s following 
year its root, stem, branches and joints are each of a different colour. The (parts of the) heart 
of the wood and of the joints ("fff)) which are hard and black, and which sink in water, are 

25 ch'on-hiang; those which float on the surface of water are M-ku-hiang (^^ *h* ^i achicken 
bone perfume))); its root is called huang-shou-Mang (^^ Sfti ^^)> its trunk is chan-hiang 
('W ^►)) its small branches which are hard and unbroken are ts'ing-kui-hiang (^ jl^ ^^ 
ffgreen cassia perfume»); the knots in the root which are light and of large size are ma-t'i-hiang 
f jPy ^^ -^^ Bhorse-hoof perfumea). The flowers have no perfume. When the fruit has ripened 

30 it is aromatic and is known as Jci-sho-hiang (^^ ^S" ^^ «chicken-tongue perfume))). It is 
certainly a most wonderful wood!)) On the true nature of ki-sho-hiang, see infra, p. 210. 

The same work (2,6) says the kind of paper called mi-hiang-chi is made from the bark 
and leaves of a mi-hiang tree. It is somewhat of a yellow clay colour and has markings in it like 
fish-roe. It is strongly perfumed, strong and tough, though soft. Soaking in water does not disinte- 

35 grate it.» In A. D. 284 a mission from Ta-ts'in presented 30,000 rolls of it to the Emperor of 
China. The mission had, of course, landed in Tongking, and had purchased the paper there as an 
acceptable present. See Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 272, 275. A paper known by the same 
name was, at a later date, made in the province of Kuang-tung at Lo-ch6u (^g wl) from the 
bark of a tree called chan-hiang (^& ^^)- ^^^ Ling-piau-lu-i (written in the T'ang dynasty), 2,^. 

40 Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,i says: «The best ch'on-hiang comes from Chon-la (Kamboja), the second 

best from Chan-ch'ong (Tongking). The Chon-la kind is the hardest, that from T6ng-liu-mei 
(Ligor possibly, in Malaly Peninsula; see supra, p. 57) the most aromatic. The San-fo-ts'i product is 
called «Lower Coast incensea, that from P'o-lo-man (i^ ^ ^ probably an error for Fo- 
lo-an, see supra, p. 69) is far superior to the Lower Coast incense.» 

45 Ibn Batuta, Voyages, IV, 242 says the best quality of lign-aloes was that of Kakulah 

and Kamarah (the Khmer country, Kamboja). The Arabs knew also the lign-aloes of Chan-ch'ong 
(their Sanf), which they called Sanfi. See Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 581, 584. 

According to Loureiro, Flor. Cochin., 327, gharu is a product of the Aloexylon agallochum 
(the Aquilaria agalocha, Koxb.), Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 459. W. W. Skeat, Malay 


magic 206—210, (quoting Journal Koy. Asiat. Soc, Straits Branch, JV» 18, 359—361) says: «The 
gharu-tree is a tall forest tree, sometimes reaching the size of fifteen feet in diameter. The barii 
is of a silvery gray colour, and the foliage close and dense, of a dark hue. The Malay name for 
the tree is tahaJc ... Gharu, the diseased heart-wood of the tabaJc, is found in trees of all sizes, 
even in trees of one foot in diameter, thus showing that the disease attacks the tree at an early 5 
stage. The gharu is found in pockets, and may sometimes be discovered by the veins which run 
to these pockets .... The tree is generally cut down and left to rot, which exposes the gharu in 

about six months There are great differences in the quality of gharu, and great care is taken 

in classifying them. It requires a skilled man to distinguish between some of the varieties)). Eight 
varieties are then given with their distinctive peculiarities. The first— which is the ch'dn-Mang of 10 
the Chinese, is called in Malay clia,ndan. The tsien (or ehan)-hiang referred to in another passage 
(infra p. 206) is the Malay tandok (or tandak). The other varieties of gharu mentioned by the CM- 
uese are more difficult to identify with the Malay ones. The classification varies greatly in 
different Chinese works, thus the Nan-yiie-pi-ki (^ ^ ^ gg) by Li T'iau-yiian, the 
eighteenth century editor of Chau Ju-kua's work, mentions (14,2°) fifteen varieties, most of the 15 
names being quite different from those used by older writers. Pon-ts'au, 34,26-29, describes twenty 
odd varieties of gharu-wood. 

3) In the first part of this work, our author says that gharu-wood of one kind or another is 
procured in the following countries: Kiau-chi, Chan-ch'ong, Chon-la, Tong-liu-mei, San-fo-ts'i, Tan- 
ma-ling, Ling-ya-ssi-kia, Fo-lo-an, the islands east of Borneo, and Hainan. In Chan-ch'ong (Annam), 20 
he tells us (supra, p. 48) there was levied a special tax on persons engaged in hunting for gharu. 

4) This definition of the difference between «raw» and «ripe» gharu appears — in the 
light of the information supplied from Malay sources (supra, n. 2.)— to be correct; it is however, very 
difficult to follow our author in his explanations concerning the various varieties of this product. 

5) Kiau-chi also produced p'ong-lai gharu (see supra, p. 46). Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,1—2 says that 25 
p'ong-lai gharu-wood is also known as cli on-shui-hiang or asinking in water incensen. Perfect 
nodules are rare, they are like little bamboo hats (>U ^^) or big mushrooms. If they float on 
water, they have lost their fragrance and are worth but little. This ch'Sn-shui is used in mede- 
cine. There is also a good variety ot p'ong-lai-hiang called cho-leu-pan-hiang (^^ jjM ^^ •^*) 
because it is spotted like a partridge's breast. Its perfume is weak but agreeable. There is also a 30 
pong-lai-tsien-hiang which comes from Hainan. 

11 ^ 


Tsien-Mang is an inferior quality of gharu-wood, being similar to (ch'on- 
liiang) in fragrance and taste, but fibrous and not very solid, whence it is 35 
considered inferior to the ch'dn-Mang, though better than the «ripe sm (^ 
jg) variety. 


Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chuang (loc. cit.) says that chan-hiang [^ ^) is the product 
of the trunk of the tree; this is probably the same as the tsien-hiang. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7.2, says 40 
that tsien-hiang comes from Hainan; it flows from the tree in liquid form and coagulates in a 
mass like needles. P'ong-lai-tsien-hiang coagulates in a flat plate-shaped mass. The small frag- 
ments off the edges of this variety are known as hie-k'o-hiang (®> ^& 35: « crab-shell 
incense))). The Icuang-hiang (-^ ^ ((brilliant incense))) which comes from ((north of the Sea)) 
('/§ ^(j Southern China?) and Kiau-chi is identical with tsien-hiang. The shdu-su variety is 45 
mentioned in the next paragraph. 




Shong (or fresli)-SM (^ ^g) comes from Chon-la and Chan-cli'ong, but 
shou (or ripe)-si« (ft jg) has various sources. The Chon-la kind is the best; 
5 the second class is the one from Chan-ch'ong, and the lowest that of Sho-p'o.' 
We call shong-su that kind ■which is obtained from the wood of the tree cut 
down for the express purpose (of getting it), and sJiou-su the incense remain- 
ing in the rotten wood of a tree which has fallen down. The fragrance and 
taste of shong-su are lasting, those of shou-su are apt to have a singed 

10 smell; for this reason the shong kind is superior to the shou. 

A still inferior incense is called chan (§). Its source of origin is the 
same as that of shou-su; but we call the incense which has fallen off the 
tree from its own accord shou-su, and that which consists partly of wood 
chan; it is partly shong, partly shou. Traders slice the wood with a knife, 

15 in order to obtain the incense, of which the better pieces are selected to be 
mixed with shou-su, in which state it reaches the market; nor can purchas- 
ers distinguish it from the genuine article (i. e., shou-su-hiang). 



Huang-shdii-hiang comes from several countries, but the Chon-la variety 

is the best. It is so called because it is yellow (huang) and ripe (shou). It is 

called hua-ng-shou-Pung (^ ^ ^^) if its surface is hard, while the inside 

is decayed, and if it is barrel (rtOT^)-shaped. When it contains tsien-hiang 

25 and is black throughout, and when its aroma is particularly good, it is called 

kia-tsien-huang-shou (^ ^ ^ ^); this is the best quality of this variety 

of gharu^ 


1) Nan-yiie-pi-ki, 14,3 says, speaking of Hainan liuang-shou-Mang, that it is divided into 
30 Tcio-cKon ('^ JJ^) and Imang-ch'on (^w |5tl)' t^iere is furthermore a kind of soft huang- 
ch'on called la-ch'6n (4^ ^Jr£ «wax-gharu»). Kia-tsien-huang-sMu means literally nyellow-ripe- 




Shong-Jiiang comes from Chan-ch'ong and Chon-la; it is also found 
throughout Hai-nan. Its price is cheaper than that of black Mo^cJi'dn (,^ 

The incense is procured from the lopped off young branches. If the 
incense is fresh (^) in the wood, it is called shdng-Mang. 

If the bark (over the gharu) has grown three-tenths (of an inch) in 

thickness, (the gharu) is called chan-Mang (^ ^); if it is five-tenths (of 

an inch) thick, it is tsien-Mang (^ ^); when a full inch thick, then it is lo 

eh'on-Mang (JJg ^)^. 


1) A character or two are missing in the text after the word «black)) {tmi); but there can 
be no doubt that this blank should be filled by the characters Jcio-ch'on, as the only kind of 
gharu called «black» is the hio-ch'on variety. Supra, p. 158, our author says that shdng-Mang 15 
was a product of the islands lying to the east of P'o-ni, presumably the Celebes; he was misinformed. 

2) In other words the quality of the gharu improves with the thickness of the bark (^^) 
over the gharu — ch'on-hiang, the best quality, being found in the heart of the wood. 


SANDAL- WOOD (H ^). 20 

Tan-hiang comes from the two countries of Ta-kang {^J ■^) and 
Ti-wu (Jfg ^); it is also found in San-fo-ts'i, The tree resembles the lichee 
of China, even the leaves are like it. The natives fell the tree and dry it in 
the shade. Its aroma is pure and strong and apt to evaporate; in burning it 
surpasses all other incenses. A variety of yellow colour is called huang-fan 25 
(^ M); a red-brown variety is called td-fan .(^ ;g); a light and brittle 
kind is called sha-fan ('IJ? ;jg). The aroma of these varieties is about 
the same. 

The best quality is that derived from old trees, when the bark is thin 
and the full proportion of fragrance is contained in it. The second quality 30 
contains only seven or eight tenths of fragrance. The poorest quality is called 
tien-sing-Mang {§^^ ^ ^). Pieces of sandal-wood which have dropped 
down like rain are called p'o-lou-Uang (^ '^ ^), or «scented (wood) 
broken off and dropped down.» The root of the tree is called Uang-fm (^ 
1^) or ((incense head.» 35 

11,12-13 CLOVES. 



In Chinese Buddhist worirs sandal-wood is called clian (or chon)-f an (tfe [or m:^ ^) 
transcribing the Sanskrit word chandana; fan, the name now in general use in Ch^a, is ^unS 

, ^7^;' f /^-L^^'iSr^'^- Y'^"'"'' ^°^'''' °''''*'°"' "''^^^ '=''«'»-*'«» (S ft if ) as a product 
6 of Pa-lai (;^ ^) m Southern India. Ta-kang and Ti-wu are mentkTned'among the dependen- 
cies of Java. Ta-kang, which our author says (supra, p. 84) was an island, remains unidentified; 
Schlegel has suggested (see supra, p. 86) that Ta-kang is the old name of Samarang. Ti-wu, in 
Cantonese Tai-mat, is the island of Timor, elsewhere called Ti-mon. In the first part of his work 
our author has told us that sandal-wood was also a product of T'i6n-chu (western coast of India), 

10 and of the Malay Peninsula, and that Ts'ong-pa (Zanguebar) produced yellow sandal-wood. On this 
latter point, see supra, p. 127, n. 4. 

The Ku-kin-chu ("^ ^ >^ 2,2) mentions red sandal-wood, which it calls Ui-fan and 
tsl-mei-mu {^ ^ TJ^v), as a product of Fu-nan (Siam). Conf. POn-ts'au-kang-mu, 84,85-S8», 
which quotes the T"u-king-p5n-ts'au to the effect that a fan tree, but with odorless wood, grew 

15 in the valleys of the Tang-tzi and of the Huai-ho. 

Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, 519, says, regarding sandal-wood, that «from Java 
and Madura eastward it is scattered in small quantities throughout the different islands, improving 
in quality and quantity as we move to the east, until we reach Timur, where the best and largest 
supply occurs. In the language of Timur sandal-wood is called Aikameml, and in that of 

20 Amboyna Ayasru. In the western countries, where it either does not exist at all, or exists in 
small quantities and of bad quality, it is universally known by the Sanskrit name Chandana.n In 
another passage (III, 421) he says «the sandal-wood of the Indian Islands is considered inferior 
to that of Malabar. » 


25 CLOVES (T #). 

Ting-liiang come from the countries of the Ta-shi and from Sho-p'o. 
They are called ting-liiang or «nail-incense» because they resemble in shape 
the Chinese character ting (Hp, «a nail»). They have the property of removing 
bad smells from the mouth, and high officials at Court put cloves into their 
so mouths when they have to lay matters before the Emperor. The large ones 
are called ting-hiang-mu (~J^ ^ -^), and this is the same as ki-sho-Mang 
(^ f^ ^)> though some say that M-sM-Mang is the stone of the Persian 
date (=f- i^ ^). 


•35 In the first part of this work, Chau has stated (supra, pp. 77, 84) that cloves were a pro- 

duct of Eastern Java and of its dependencies, the same region which produced sandal-wood, in 
other words the Moluccas. He refers also to the trade in cloves in Ceylon and in Malabar, whither 
they were brought by foreign traders (Fan-sJiang). Our author was, therefore, better informed 
on this subject than Marco Polo who, though stating in one passage (II, 254) that they were a 

40 product of Java, adds in another (II, 289) that they grew also on the island of Necuveran (Nico- 
bar Islands). Ibn Batuta, Voyages, IV, 243, confounded the cinnamon and the nutmeg-tree 


210 NUTMEGS. 11,13-14 

with cloves. De Candolle, Origine des plantes cultivees, 128, thinks that cloves, a product of 
the Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linnfi, are indigenous to the Molucca Islands. See Heyd, Hist, du 
Commerce, H, 603—607, and Crawfnrd, History Malay Archipel., I, 494. 

In the Chinese Customs Tariff of the present day we find mu-ting-hiang, «mother-cloves», 
answering to the ting-hiang-mu of our text. The Su-ch'5n-liang-fang (||Hj ^^ ^^ JJ) ^''' ^ 
says that M-sho-hiang (achicken-tongue incensea) is ting-hiang-mu, but, it adds, «at the present 
day the name is likewise applied to a substance found in ju-hiang (frankincense), and which is 
of the size of a sJian-cTiu-yu / ijj ^ ^ Cornus officinalis); when cut out it is like a per- 
simmon seed; it is tasteless.)) According to the P6n-ts'au-kang-mu(34,82*)K-sM-femw^ is the female, 
and ting-hiang the male, clove. The Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chuang (2,s, and supra p. 205, note 2) says 10 
that M-sho-hiang is the ripe and aromatic fruit of the mi-hiang, or eagle-wood tree, of China. 

The Chinese name here given the date, ts'ien-nien-tsaw, or ccthousand year tsaun, was 
evidently used on account of the stony hardness of the dates on reaching China, and on 
account of their resemblance to the tsau or common jujube (Zizyphus vulgaris. Lam.), which is 
indigenous to China. Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,9*, the earliest work we have seen describing the date, 15 
calls it Po-ss'i-tsau, i. e., ((Persian tsau», and says that in Persian it is called h'u-mang (^g ^p 
Arabic, hhurma). In the T'ang-shu, 221B,is*, we find the name written hu-mang (^|| ^), and the 
Pon-ts'au, 81,21'', gives also the form k'u-lu-ma (^ ^ ^). See also Ling-piau-lU-i, 2,4^'. 


NUTMEGS mmm)' 
J6u-t6u-¥6u are brought from the foreign tribes in the depths of the 


islands of Huang-ma-chu and Niu-lun (^ |Ij^). The tree resembles the Chinese 

juniper (^j^^), and attains a height of upwards of an hundred feet. Its trunk ' 

and branches, with the foliage, present the appearance of a large shady roof 

under which forty or fifty men may find protection. When the blossoms open 25 

in the spring they are taken off and dried in the sun; this is the article now 

known as tou-k'du-hua (^ ^ :^). The fruit (nut) resembles the fei-f£ (^^ 

■^) nut; when the shell is removed the pulp can be kept a long time, if 

preserved in ashes (^). According to the P6n-ts'au its properties are 

warming. 30 


Huang-ma-chu and Niu-lun were dependencies of Java (supra, p. 83), presumably in the 
Moluccas, in which islands the nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is indigenous. De Candolle, Origine 
des plantes cultivees, 336, Crawfurd, op. cit., I, 505. Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 644, says the 
original home of the nutmeg-tree is still doubtful.' 35 

In the early part of the eighth century Ch'on Ts'ang-k'i ( ^^ ^§5 SS), in his Pon-ts'au- 
shi-i (2fc ^S. f^ ^fi)' ""^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Chinese author to ieacrihe jou-t6u-k'6u, which he states 
was brought to China from foreign countries, where it was called Jcia-M-lo (^p ;tpj Hfl), 
probably intended for Icakulah (AlSLs), which is the Arabic name for cardamom. Bretschneider, 
Bot. Sinic, III, 123, 124. The nutmeg-tree must have been imported from its original habitat 40 
into the province of Kuang-tung somewhere between the time of Ch'on Ts'ang-k'i and the end of 
the eleventh century, for we find it mentioned in Su Sung's (^k ^S) work, entitled T'u-king- 
pon-ts'au (^ ^^ .2J5k .^)) ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ee was cultivated in'Ling-nan. «The buds and flowers, 
he says, grow in the spring; the fruit resembles the cardamom, but it is round and smaller, the 

11,14-15 LAKA-WOOD. 211 

shell darker brown, sticking closer to the puljj and thinner than that of the cardamom. The 
pulp has an acrid taste. The crop is gathered in the sixth moon.» He gives an illustration of a 
nutmeg, which he calls aCantonese nutmega. Su died in A. D. 1101, according to Sung-shi, 340,30. 
Tou-lcoA-hua is mace, the arillus of the nutmeg. Cr a wfurd, op. cit., 1,506. The fei-tg'i is 
5 now the hazel nut (torreya nucifera); it seems that the name was applied to that nut at the time 
our author wrote. Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 429, and Hanbury, Science papers, 233. 

We translate hui by ttashesn and not «lime» on the strength of a passage in the Chong-lei 
pon-ts'au (g^ ^§ ^?|j Q.),9,32,inwhichLei-kung(^^ .^ fifth century A. D.) says with 
regard to the nutmeg: «when it is to be used glutinous rice is powdered and soaked in boiling 

10 water, after which the nut is wrapped in it and baked in hot ashes until the rice coating has 
turned brown. The rice is then remoTed and the nut is fit for use. The use of copper vessels is 
to be avoided.)) The correct translation may be, ^however, «lime)), for Crawfurd (op. cit., I, 509) 
says that in the process of curing nutmegs they are adipped twice or thrice in lime-water, or 
rather a thick mixture of lime and water, made of fine shells, which is supposed to secure them 

15 from the depredations of insects and worms.» The Pon-ts'au referred to, the chief botanical work 
of the Sung dynasty, was compiled in A. D. 1108. See Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, I, 47. 


LAKA-^WOOD (I^ A #). 

Kiang-chon-hiang comes from San-fo-ts'i, Sho-p'o and P'ong-fong; it 

20 is also found in all the districts of Kuang-tung and Kuang-si ^ Its aroma is 

strong and penetrating; it counteracts bad smells. All the people of Ts'iian- 

ch6u, no matter whether a household be rich or poor, burn this incense at 

the end of the year, as if (they were making) a Sacrifice to Heaven ^ 

Its price is very cheap. The product of San-fo-ts'i is considered the best 

25 on account of the purity and strength of its fragrance. This wood is also 

called td-fong-Mang (^ ^ #) or «red vine incense»' 



1) P'ong-fong, Pahang, on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. In the first part of this 
work the author states that laka-wood was a product of Sumatra, Tan-ma-ling (Kwantan), Fo- 

30 lo-an (Beranang), Sho-p'o (Java), the Celebes (?), and Borneo. 

Tung-si-yang-k'au, 3,is*,i7* uses the name kiang-Uang, and says it was a product 
ofPatani(-:/r VM), and Palembang. The Pon-ts'au, 34.36, says it is also c&Wei U-M-Mang, 
which, in another passage (supra, p. 205, line 25), is given as the name of a kind of gharu-wood. 

2) The ..Sacrifice to Heaven)), or fan-ch'ai {j^ ^ lit. ..burning fueb), was not performed 
35 by the people at large, but by the Sovereign. See Legge, Li Ki, II, 202. The simile does not 

appear a happy one; it can only mean that, in view of the cheapness of this odoriferous wood, 
every one celebrated the coming of the New Year in the same way as the Emperors did with the 

fan-ch'ai. ^ ^. , i , j. 

3) In another passage (supra, p. 198) our author states that the sap of the laka-wood tree 

40 was used to make an (.imitation dragon's-blood». 


212 MUSK- WOOD. — JACK-FKUIT. II, 16-17 


MUSK-W^OOD (0 # tK). 

Sho-hiang-mu comes from Chan-ch'ong and Clion-la. It is a tree which • 
from age falls down and sinks into the ground, where it decays; this is the 
best variety. As its fragrance has a slight resemblance to that of musk, the 5 
wood is called «musk-wood». When fresh cut, it is of a strong and unpleasant 
odour; this is the inferior quality. The people of Ts'uan-chou use this wood 
a good deal for making furniture resembling that made of rose-wood (:^ 

Note. 10 

We have been unable to identify this product, nor have we found any mention of it in other 
Chinese works. The Tung-si-yang-k'au, 3,io'' mentions this product as coming from Kamboja, but 
has nothing to say concerning it, except that the I-t'ung-chi says it has the odour of musk. The 
Pon-ts'au does not refer to it. 

17. 15 

JACK-FRUIT ('^ B ^). 

The po-lo-mi is of the size of a pumpkin; its outer skin is covered with 
nodules like the hair on a Buddha's head. Its colour is green while growing, 
and turns yellow when ripe. The pulp, when cut out of the fruit, is of 
extreme sweetness. The tree resembles a banian, and the flowers grow in 20 
clusters (|^). When the flowers fall and the fruit sets, only one develops, the 
rest shrivel up. The po-lo-mi comes from Su-ki-tau; it is also found at the 
Nam-hoi Temple (^ y$ j^) in Canton. 


This fruit is the product of the Artocarpus integrifolia; the origin of our name for it, jack, 25 
is the Malayalam name of the fruit, chaMa. Its Sanskrit names are panasa, phalasa, and lantaka- 
phala. Yule and Burnell, Glossary, 335. Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipel., I, 422. De'can- 
dolle, op. cit., 239, thinks it is indigenous to the Western Ghats-possibly Malabar. The fruit was at 
first calleip'o-na-so by the Chinese, which is the Sanskrit name ^amasa. The Sui-shu 82,?'' is I be- 
lieve, the earliest Chinese work to mention this fruit. Among the products peculiar to Chon-la (Kam- 30 
boja) it spe^s of «the p'o-na-so ( 1^ ^[J ^) tree which had no flowers, and whose leaves were like 
the sM (^ Diospyros kaki) and whose fruit was like a pumpkin (tung-kua). «Later on it received 
the name of po-lo-mi, which, the Chinese say, was given it on its introduction into Canton in the 
sixth century by a native of «the country of Po-1ob ('^ ^), whence the name of the fruit. 
Po-Io, according to T'ang-shu, 222B, was S. W. of Kamboja'(Chi-t'u), and Won-hien-tung-k'au, 35 
331. Sect. P'o-li, identifies it with P'o-li, which is supposed to have been in the Malay Peninsula. 
Conf. supra, pp. 83, 85, n. 4, 96. 

11,17-18 ARECA-KUTS. 213 

Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,8^ has the following on the jack-fruit: «The F'o-na-so (^ ^[5 ^) 

tree grows ({jj) in Po-ssii (Persia); it also grows in Fu-lin, where it is called a-p'u-to (|J^ 

nP ?lS °^ a-sa-to |J^ ^ ^1 according to Pon-ts'au). The tree grows to 50 or 60 feet 

high. The bark is blueish-green. The leaves are very shiny, they do not wither in winter or 

5 summer. The fruit does not come out of the flower, but proceeds from the stem of the tree, and 
is as large as a pumpkin. It has a husk enveloping it, and on the husk are spines (^J)- The 
pulp is sweet and edible. The pips (inside the pulp) are as big as jujubes, and one fruit has a 
number of them. They have stems (;^)- Inside the pips there is a kernel like a chestnut and 
yellow, which is excellent eating when roasted.)) See also Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 24. 

10 P'ing-chou-k'o-t'an, 2,5* says: «In front of the Nan-hai-miau (in Canton) there is a big tree. 

The ripe fruit is like a pumpkin, when opened its sections (J^) are like bananas. The natives 

call it po-lo-mi. When properly prepared (lit. steeped) it is good to eat (y^ ^ 'pT ^^).» 

The Nan-hai (Nam-hoi in Cantonese)-miau in Canton is supposed to have been founded 

• at the end of the sixth century A. D. The two jack-fruit trees in it were said to have been 

15 planted during the Liang dynasty (A. D. 502—557), and are supposed to have been the ancestors 
of all the jack-fruit trees in the neighbourhood. See Kuang-tung-sin-yii (published in 1700), 6,7, 
and 25,28, et seqq. At the present time the jack-fruit is found all over Kuang-tung, Hainan and 
southern Formosa. The image of the iirst propagator of the jack-fruit in China — the native of 
the kingdom of Po-lo referred to previously — is worshipped down to the present day in the Nam-hoi 

20 temple, where jack-fruit trees are still grown. Notes and Queries on China and Japan, II, 169, 
191, III, U. 

Concerning the origin of the Chinese name joo-Zo-mi for this fruit, Thos. Watters, Essays 
on the Chinese language, 437, is inclined to think it a mixed term, po-lo may be Sanskrit for 
phala fruit, and mi may be the Chinese word for honey. This explanation appears to us a fairly 

25 satisfactory one. 

The T'ang-shu, 22lA,i7'', mentions that in the twenty-first year of the chong-Tcuan period 
(A. D. 647) a mission from Magadha (Central India) which came to the Chinese court, presented the 
Emperor with 2k po-lo ('/ij^ viffi) ^'^^^- This tree, it is said, resembled a pai-yang tree (y 7^ 
Populus alba, L.). Po-lo is, as noted previously, the Sanskrit word for «fruit)) — but it seems 

30 possible that this particular one may have been a po-lo-mi or jack-fruit tree, if not a pine-apple. 


The pin-lang comes from several foreign countries, also from the four 
districts of Hai-nan; it is likewise found in Kiau-chi. The tree resembles the 
35 coir-palm (^#^)^ 

«The fruit grows on the leaves, fastened to them in clusters, as on 

willow twigs. "When gathered in the spring it is called juan-pin-lang (^ 

or «soft areca-nuts») and is commonly known as pin-lang-sien (;^J 

or afresh areca-nuts»); it is then good to chew. When gathered in 

40 the summer or the autjumn and dried it is called mi-jpin-lang {^ ^ ^ 

214 COCOANDT. 11,18-19 

or ccrice areca-nuts»). Preserved in salt it is called yen-pin-lang (^ /^ |^ 
or «salted areca-nuts»). Small and pointed nuts are called M-sin-pm-lcmg 
(^ ^Ij? ^^J ^ or «chicken heart areca-nuts»), large and flat ones ta-fu-td 
(^ ^ -^ or «big bellies»).»^ 

"When chewed, these nuts have the effect of preventing eructation. In 5 
San-fo-ts'i they make wine out of the juice. 

«The Customs at Canton and Ts'iian-chou derive an annual revenue of 
several tens of thousands of strings of cash from the trade carried on in this 
products by foreign ships. But most of the product comes from Hai-nan. The 
"fresh nuts» and the «salted nuts» come from there, whereas the M-sin and lo 
the ta-fu-td varieties come mostly from Ma-i. 


1) Pin-lang is a transcription of the Malay name of the areca-palm (Areca catechu, L.) 
pinang. Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chnang, S,!* says that it comes from Lin-i {mR &. Southern Indo- 
China) and that it is also caWei pin-mon-yau-tsim {^S P^ ^S "^g) <"■ «pin-mdn medicinal 15 
comfit)). De Candolle, op. cit., 344 thinks it may be indigenous to the Malay Peninsula. Our 
author mentions betel-nuts in the first part of his work as a product of Ooromandel, of Hainan 
and of the Philippine islands (Ma-i). He calls (supra, p. 160) the betel-nuts brought from the last 
named place yau-pin-lang or «medicinal areca-nutso. He mentions (supra, pp. 60, 78) wine made 
with areca-nuts as in use in Sumatra (San-fo-ts'i) and Java. 20 

2) This paragraph, as also that part of the last paragraph in quotation marks, are taken 
from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 8,3. The Pon-ts'au, 31,14—19, says the ta-fu-tzi is also called chu-pin-lang, 
apig betel-nut)). 

COCOANUT (if ^). 26 

«The ye-tsl, as regards the trunk and leaves, closely resembles the 
coir-palm and the areca-palm. Th« fruit grows in the leaves in bunches of 
several nuts of the size of a vessel holding five pints (4f-). It is the biggest 
of fruits, with the sole exception of the jack-fruit. When cut the outer skin 
is at first green and tender, but after some time it turns yellow, and when 30 
kept a long time the skin shrivels and dries up. The nut shell contained in 
the outer skin can be made into vessels; the pulp inside the shell is of a 
jade-like white, and of an agreeable taste, resembling that of cow's milk. The 
juice (vg) inside the pulp is very clear and fragrant when fresh, but when 
stale it turns muddy, and is no longer drinkable.* In the states of Nan-p'i 35 
they make wine out of the juice of its flower mixed with syrup. 

11,19-20 OAK-GALLS. 215 


The whole of this section, except the last phrase, is quoted from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 8,4. 
De Candolle, op. cit., 345 — 350 discusses the question of the original habitat of the cocoanut. 
He is disposed to place it in the Indian Archipelago. It appears to have been already known in 

5 China in the second century before our era. Nan-fang-ts'au-mu-chuang, 3,2, refers to the toddy 
made from it in Indo-China (Lin-i and Nan-ytt6) and to its intoxicating property. The cocoanut, 
it adds, is commonly called YUe-wang-t'ou (;^ ^ ^ ahead of the king of Yue»), because in 
olden times there was a feud between the king of Lin-i and the king of Nan-yli§, and the former 
sent an assassin who killed the king and cut off his head, which the king of Lin-i had hung on 

10 a tree. After a while it changed into a cocoanut, when the king in anger had it cut down and 
made into a slop-bowl ('^ ^r)' "^^^ people of the South, the author adds to clinch the story, 
still follow this custom of making slop-bowls, out of cocoanuts. See also Ling-piau-l(l-i, 2,6^' (T'ang 
dynasty). On the subject of liquors used in southern Asia, the Pon-ts'au, 31,20, refers to a number, 
among them to one made in Tun-sun (in the Malay Peninsula probably) with the juice of the 

15 flowers of a tree like a pomegranate. In a previous passage (supra, p. 89) our author says that 
in Ku-lin (Quilon) athey made a liquor with a mixture of honey (or syrup) with cocoanuts and 
the juice of a flower, which they let ferment;» perhaps it was similar to that mentioned in the 


OAK-GALLS H^ :^ ^). 

Mo-slii-tzi come from Wu-ssi-li {^MW- Mosul) in the Ta-sM country. 
The tree resembles the camphor-tree, it blossoms once a year and bears a fruit 
similar to the Chinese acorn (^ |^), and called sha-mo-lu (fp j^ ^), or 
p'u-lu (>j^ ^), and which is edible. The following year it grows what is 
25 called ma-ch^a (^ ^), which is the same as mo-sM-td. The year following 
appear again sha-mo-lu, and the mo-sM-tz'i grow in alternate years, so it 
is a valuable article. What a wonderful thing to see one root produce diffe- 
rent fruits ! 


30 The Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,8% appears to be the earliest Chinese work to describe in some detail 

oak-galls. It says: « Wu-sU-U% (fife ^ ^,) come from Po-ssi (Persia), and in Persian they are 
called mo-ts6 (^ tt)- The 'tree is sixty to seventy feet high, and eight or nine feet in cir- 
cumference. Theteaves are like peach leaves but larger. In the third moon its flowers open, they 
are white and reddish in the center. The seed is round like a pill, at first green, but when ripe 

35 a yellowish white. Those with holes in them have been pierced by insects, the perfect nuts are 
without holes in the skin; these are used to make medicine. One year the tree produces wu-sM-tei, 
the following it produces po-lu-tei (^ Jp ^) of the size of thefingqr tip and three inches 
long. On the upper end there is a cup (^) in which is the kernel, like a chestnut, of brown 
colour and which is' edible.» 

40 Our author derives most of his information from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,4», only adding the 

Persian names of the oak, Mut, (p'u-ltt) and shdh-lalut or royal oak, m^Chinese sha-mo-lu. Wu- 
sM-tsi, mo-sM-m, mo-tso and ma-ch'a, all represent the Persian »!«««, the word for oak-galls. 

216 EBOKY. 11,20-21 

Thos. Watters, Essays on the Chinese language, 349. See also supra, p. MO. Wei-shu, 102,12% 
and Sui-shu, 83,16* mention tou-shi-tz'i as one of the products of Po-ssi (Persia). 

Duarte Barbosa, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, speaking of the trade of 
Malacca, says that among the articles its merchants dealt with were magican, awhich are gall- 
nuts, which they bring from the Levant to Cambay, by way of Mekkah, and they are worth a 5 
great deal in China and Java». Description of the Coasts of East Africa and Malabar, 191 (Hakl. 
See. edit.). See also Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 644. 

There is some doubt whether mau-li, which we have translated by «acorn», should not be 
rendered by «chestnut»; this confusion exists among the Chinese. See Porter Smith, Contri- 
butions, 60 and Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, II, 320. 10' 


EBONY i% m ^). 

Wu-mon-tzi resembles the coir-palm (/j?^ ^f^)', it is an erect tree of 
olive-green colour, growing to a height of an hundred feet and more, with a 
thick green and highly luxuriant foliage. Jts wood is as hard as iron and 15. 
lends itself to the manufacture of woodware, being glossy like lacquered 
ware, for which reason it is generally considered a precious wood (^ ;;fc). 


Ku-kin-chu, 3,i, says: «I-mu (^ ^) or wo-i-mu (^^ ^ '^) comes from 
Tongking (Kiau-chou). Its colour is black, and it is veined. It is also called ««M-if6w-(Canton.m6TC) 20^ 
"'"(iIto '^ ^1^ ((black -veined- woods). 

P6n-ts'au-kang-mu, 3513,87, says that the name wu-mon-mu and ivu-wfin-mu are identical 
with wu-mu (J^ '^)< ^^'-^ name used at the present day to designate ebony. This disposes of 
Schlegel's doubts, who (T'oung Pao. Ser II, Vol. II, 127) says tou-man-mu (^^ |Si yij\;) 
stands for ((Black fir-tree» and signifies wArenga saccharifera.» 25- 

Nan-yiie-pi-ki, 13,6 says that «wu-mu is a product of Kiung-ch6u (in Hainan) and of the 
islands. It is much used among the natives to make chopsticks of. The Euang-cM ( 1^ ^) 
says there comes from Hainan a kindofwM-mu called Tiio-wu (-^ ,^ ), which is uniformly 
black throughout and is very brittle. There is also a variety called cVa-wu (^ ^\ which is 
(brought to China) by foreign ships and which is eo dense that it sinks in water.' There are a 30' 
great many varieties of (this kind of) wu-mu, all of which are good for making canes and tables. 
None is real unless it sinks in water.s In Amoy dialect wu-mdn-fei is pronounced o-han-tgl, and 
this word no doubt corresponds to the Persian abnus (e'Pevoq) (cebonyj), from which the Spanish 
abenuz and our eimy are derived. The Persian ahmis is also, apparently, the lonus of Marco 
Polo, of which he says there were vast forests in Champa (the Chan-ch'6ng of the Chinese). Yule, 36- 
Marco Polo, II, 250, 252. 

The explanation of this wood being designated by the same term in old Chinese works 
and by the Persians must be that, either the Chinese received their first supplies of it through 
Persian traders, or the word is indigenous to one of the Indo-Chinese districts where the 
tree grows, and that it had travelled to the east and west with the article. This last expla- 40. 
nation would somewhat modify the traditional etymology of the names for ebony known to the 
ancient Greeks, Hebrews and Latins. Ebony, it should be remembered, is the wood of various 
species of trees of the genus Diospyros and the natural order Ebenacete. The Nan-yue-pi-ki, ia ' 
the passage quoted above, shows that the Chinese are aware of this fact. 

11,22-23 ' SAP AN-WOOD. — COTTON. 217 



Su-mu comes from the country of Chon-la. The tree resembles the pine 
and juniper. The leaves are like those of the tung-tsHng tree (^ pj). Its 
6 habitat is in the uncultivated parts of the hilly country, where the people 
are allowed to cut it. "When the bark is removed and the wood dried in the 
sun, it is of a deep red colour and may be used in dying purple. It is popu- 
larly known as wa-mu (^ TJiC). 


10 The wood of the Caesalpinia sappan. It was known to the Arabs as bakkam, and as 

Brazil-wood in Western mediaeval commerce. Its name in Malay is supang, which is the original 
of the Chinese su-mu, or rather of the earlier form su-fang, concerning which Nan-fang ts'au-mu- 
chuang, 2,4, says: «T)ie su-fang (|^ i^) belongs to the huai {J^ sophora) variety. The 
flowers have black seeds. The tree grows in Chan-ch'Sng (Annam). The men of the south (of 

15 China) make a deep red dye by steeping it in Ta-yu (^ J^) water, which (has the property of) 
making the colour particularly deep.» The word su-fang is said by some Chinese writers to be the 
name of an island. Pon-ts'au, 352,35''. Conf. Yule, Marco Polo, II, 869, where sappan is derived 
from Japan, an impossible derivation, as the name J'i-pon (Japan) was first used in A. D. 670. 

In connexion with dye stuffs, it is interesting to note that already in the sixth century, or 

20 very early in the seventh, the true indigo or Indigofera tinctoria, L. was known to the Chinese 
as a product of the Persian (Sassanian) province of Ts'au (:J^); it was called in Chinese ts'ing-tai 
(W ^). Sui-shu, 83. Sect. Ts'au. See Bretschneider, J. C. B. K. A. S., XXV, 214. 

The term tung-tsing here used is a descriptive and comprehensive one («winter-green») 
applied to certain evergreen oleaceous trees which harbour the wax-insect. Porter Smith, 

25 Materia medica, 229, Hanbury, Science papers, 67.It is the Ligustrum lucidum, Bretschneider, 
Bot. Sinic. Ill, 513—517. Wa-mu may be an abbreviation for Wa-li-mii or «wood of "Wa-li». 
Wa-li is mentioned by our author (supra, p. 54) as a dependency of Chon-Ia. 


COTTON (^ M)- 

30 «The U-pei tree resembles a small mulberry-tree, with a hibiscus-like 

(^ M) ^0^'®^ furnishing a floss half an inch and more in length, very 
much like goose-down, and containing some dozens of seeds. In the south the 
people remove the seed from the floss by means of iron chopsticks, upon 
which the floss is taken in the hand and spun without troubling about 

85 twisting together the thread. Of the cloth (^) woven therefrom there are 
several qualities)), the most durable and the strongest is called tou-lo-mien 

218 COTTON. 11,23 

(5iL M ?il); *^® second quality is called fan-pu or aforeign cloths (^ :j^); 
the third «tree-cotton» or mu-mien (:^ j^); the fourth M-pu (^ ^). 
These textures are sometimes dyed in various colours and brightened with 
strange patterns. The pieces measure up to five or six feet in breadth. 

ISTote. B 

All the first part of this article is substantially a quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 6,12-is, 
the only change made by our author being that Chou K'fl-fei compares cotton to willow-down 

Oriental or herbaceous cotton (Gossypium herbaceum, Linn.), which de Candolle, op. cit., 
323, thinks is indigenous to Sindh, and which was called IcarpSsa in Sanskrit, was in general use 10 
throughout India in the Vedic times. The Greeks first learnt of it by the expedition of Alexander; 
they retained its Indian name, calling it xapTrauo?. By the end of the first century of our era 
cotton, both raw and manufactured, formed one of the staples of trade between the ports on the 
western coast of India, Egypt, and the Greek world. See M" Or indie, 52, 64, 108, 113, and Strabo, 
XV, I, 20, 21. Cotton was introduced into Nineveh about 700 B. C; it was called «wool-tree». 15 
Proc. Soc. Bibl. Archeol., Dec. 1909, 339. 

It would seem that cotton and cotton fabrics first reached China from Central Asia, for 
the earliest name given them in Chinese, po-{oT pai-)tie, is certainly borrowed from one of the Tnrki 
languages. The two characters composing the name yo-t4e(s ^3 or pi SS^) furnish no sense 
in Chinese, and the use of different but homophonous characters to write it, point to its being a 20 
foi'eign word. The nearest equivalent seems to be the Jagatai Turki word for cotton paJckta (A.Xsb). 
See Radloff, Worterbuch d. Tiirk-Dialecte, IV, 1138. Conf. Gerini, Eesearches, 243, u. 2. 

Strangely enough the earliest recorded use of the word po-tie which has come down to us 
relates to a country lying to the south-west of China, and it is applied to a hempen fabric. H6u- 
Han-shu, 116,18'' says that the Ai-lau aborigines (then in Yiin-nan) manufactured ^o-iSie, which a 25 
later history (V\rel-shu, 101,28'') tells us was a textile fabric of hemp, which was called in 
their language lan-Jcan. V^e have to come down to the sixth century of our era to find a reference 
to cotton in Turkestan. Liang-shu, 54,si*, says that «in K'au-chang (Turfan) there grew in 
great abundance a plant the fruit of which resembled a silk cocoon. In the cocoon is a silky 
substance like fine hemp (^OT ^jm) which is called po-tie-tzi (^ HS -?*). The natives 30 
weave it into a cloth which is soft and white, and which they send to the markets (of China).» 

Its use was not so general in Turkestan in the sixth century but that we find in Yen-ki in 
Eastern Turkestan the people using silk cocoons as wadding for clothes. Wei-shu, 102,7*- 

The pilgrim Fa-hi6n, who travelled in India in the beginning of the fifth century, calls 
the cotton fabrics of the country po-tie in the only passage of his Fo-kuo-ki in which he refers to 35 
them (26,27 of Legge's edit., 79 of his translation). Conf also, China Keview, XIX, 192. 

A century later occurs the first use of anew term for cotton, Tcu-pei ("db ^) or Tei-pei 
(^S ^ ), which is the Malay word Jcapas (the Sanskrit karpasa), still in use throughout the Indian 
Archipelago, from Macassar to Sumatra, to designate Gossypium herbaceum. This reference occurs 
in Liang-shu, 5l,i5% where it is said of the people of P'o-li (^ 5^|J north coast of Sumatra 40 
or Southern Malay Peninsula?): «the people of this country wear M-pet as a breech-clout (ijlPj) 
or to make sarongs (^ ^)-'' ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 7^^^ of the p'u-twng period (A. D. 523) a mission 
from this country to the court of the Liang brought, among other presents, some lci-p€i, and 
probably introduced the use of the term; as to the material itself, the Chinese did not perceive, 
apparently, that it was the same as po-tie. Conf. Nan-shi, 78,2*. 45 

The great traveller Huan-tsang in the early part of the seventh century, describing the 
dress of the people of India, says they wore clothing of Uau-shi-ye ('I'^ ^ 5pK) — which he 
also chinesefies into ch'au-hia (^ ^ literally ablush of the Courts), both terms transcribing 
Sanskrit Jcausheya «silken stuff»— and also clothing of tie-pu (@S^ ^ «cloth of (po-)tie»). He 
makes nowhere mention of the term karpasa, nor does he use the Chinese ku-pei or M-pei. See 50 

11,23 COTTON. 219 

Watters, On Yuan-chwang's travels, I, 147, 287. The original meaning of the word ^o-«ie, it 
would seem from Hiian-tsang's use of a mutilated form of it, had already been lost in his time. 
It would appear that the identity of po-tie and M-pet was not realized till some time later; 
it was, at all events, when the T'ang-shu was written, for it says (222C,2*), in referring to this 
5 same P'o-li country (in Siam or Sumatra): «The ku-pei plant is found in P'o-li. The flowers are 
gathered and cloth (^) made from them; the coarse kinds (we) call (fa)-2)e* (_^), the fine ones 
(po-) tie (^Si|)». It seems probable fh&t po-tie was given as a name to the lighter Sumatran cotton 
fabrics because they resembled in texture those from India and Persia, to which the name had 
long been exclusively applied.The Pon-ta'au, 36,69'',says Jci-pei was also called hu-chung (-jfe ^), 

10 pronounced Tiu-tiXng in the Foochow dialect, probably from Arabic Tcutun. Mayers, Notes and 
Queries, II, 95. 

With the simultaneous use of two distinct terms, ^JO-iie and Tei-pei, to designate the same ma- 
terial, it becomes very difficult to distinguish the various cotton fabrics mentioned in Chinese works. 
Thus T'ang-shu, 22ic,i°' says that the king of Huan-wang(Annam) wore clothes of po-fe'-ftM-^ei,and ' 

15 his consort's were otch'au-hia-Jcu-pei, ch'au-hia the Indian word Tiausheya «silken stu£f», being here 
transferred to a cotton fabric. The confusion still existed in the twelfth century, for Ling-wai-tai-ta, 
6,ia, says: «the people of the Laos country (^g ^ ) wore an extraordinarily fine and beautifully 
white (cotton fabric) called ch'au-hia». Another instance of the confusion in the Chinese cotton ter- 
minology is furnished by T'ang-shu (222C,4^) in its notice of Java (Ho-ling), where the word for 

20 cotton is fcapas; it says: «theymake^o-<ie-^ and c7i'aM-Am-j9M.» In another passage of the same work 
(222C,6*) it speaks of c^'aw-Tiia-iie; and,in reference to the cotton of K'au-chang(Turfan),it reproduces 
(221A,6*) substantially the earlier statement of Liang-shu given previously, without any suspicion, 
apparently, that the po-tie of that country was the same as the M-pei of the South. «There is in 
Kau-ch'ang, it says, a plant called po-tie ( t^ SS), the flowers of which are gathered and can be 

25 woven into cloth (■m)"" 

In the Sung period the use of the word M-pei was at last extended to Indian cotton fabrics, 
and a new term introduced (not occurring, however, in Ling-wai-tai-ta or any other work earlier 
than our author's), tou-lo-mien (^ ^ ■^^), composed of the Sanskrit word iwZa «cotton», 
and of mien «soft, downy», a word which appears to have been applied to certain cotton stuffs of 

30 Western Asiatic manufacture as far back as the Wei period, when we find Mn-mien (^^ ^^ 
or kin-tie (^^ @S) used to designate brocaded cotton stuffs. Wei-shu, 102,3,10,12. 

At the time at which our author wrote there were, therefore, four foreign terms in use in 
China for cotton fabrics, po-tie, ch'au-hia, ki-pei and tdu-lo, and two purely Chinese terms, pu 
(^\ which in the earliest Chinese works designated hempen cloth, and mien (^j|) or 

85 mim-puH^ ^). It appears likely that the word mien was more particularly applied to 
certain fabrics made from the «tree-cotton» (Gossypium arboreum, Linn.), which oar author states 
in the first part of his work was cultivated in Tongking, Hai-nan and probably Siam, and which 
is still cultivated in the Indian Archipelago and in India. 

The word mien (J>S), now in general use in China to designate the cotton shrub, and 

40 mien-hua (^^ ^) «cotton» were unknown to the Chinese of the Sung dynasty. They would 
appear to hare been coined after the introduction of cotton cultivation and spinning into China 
(Kiang-su) in the fourteenth century. Already in the twelfth century the cotton of Hai-nan was 
woven into cloth in various localities of Kuang-tung adjacent to that island. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 6,13, 
mentions Lei-chou, Hua-ch6uand Lien-chou (ig 'ft ^ j|>|>)) as mMufaeturing cotton cloth 

45 both beautifully fine and white, which was called man-ki-pei (i|^ ^ ^) oi «%ohU-pei,>^ 
and also a coarser and yellowish coloured kind called ts'u-M-pei {^ "^ M) °^ '"^^^^^^ 
ki-fei.» As an article of clothing it was only used in Kuang-tung and Ha^an^ ^\''°"^° P^°P^® 
who preferred it to silk and linen. It was a woman, Huang Tau-p'o (^ ^ ^), a native of 
Hai-nan, who introduced cotton spinning into Kiang-nan. Mayers, Chin, reader's Man., 71. 

50 In the latter part of the twelfth century, as we have seen in the first part of this work, 

China got most of her cotton, both raw and manufactured, from Hai-nan and Indo-China, but 
Java, Borneo, India, Persia, the Philippines, and even Asia Minor, supplied her with certain 

220 MATS. 11,23-24 

cotton fabrics. These stuffs were either white or dyed various colours, also dotted, striped, mixed 
silk and cotton stuffs, brocaded, or gold-spangled. Chintzes came to China from Annam, India 
and Persia, and damasks from Java. 

One fabric of which our author, as well as Ch 6 u K'ii-f e i", speaks, cannot as yet be identified. 
It is yue-no-pu {j^ ^ ^), a manufacture of the Coromandel coast, of Baghdad, of Asia 5 
Minor, and of Ghazni (Ki-tz'i-ni). It would seem to have been a light cotton gauze, or muslin, 
and was of two kinds, pure white, and spangled with gold. The word yvA-'no is not otherwise 
known in Chinese literature, except possibly as the name of a country— Bukhara, or neighbour- 
hood — from which, on one occasion at least, dwarfs were brought to the court of China. T'ang- 
shu, 221B,ii>. Edrisi (I, 185) speaks of the cotton stuffs made in Cabul and which were exported 10 
to China, Khorasan and Sindh. 

Onthesubjectof cotton in the Middle Ages, see Heyd, Histoire du Commerce, II, 611— 614, 
693—710, and Hirth, J. C. B. K. A. S., XXI, 230 et seqq. 


MATS {^ ;\!> %). 15 

The mats called ye-sin-tien come from Tan-jung-wu-lo. The foreign 
traders carry them to San-fo-ts'i, Ling-ya-mon and Sho-p'o for trade. They 
also come from the island of P'u-li-lu in the San-sii. They are made from a 
plant resembling the rattan in shape and more than ten feet in length with a 
longitudinally striped and smooth surface without knots, which is called ye-sin- 20 
ts'au (^ i'(^ '^). The women in those foreign parts gather (this vine), 
peel it and weave it into mats. They are sometimes dyed with red and black 
checkered patterns, when they are called «figured mats» or hua-tien {1^ ^) 
They are warm in the winter and cool in the summer, and are very conve- 
nient to carry about. The mats coming from San-fo-ts'i are the best, those 25 
coming from the San-sii being of the poorest quality. 


Tan-jung-wu-lo is mentioned by our author (supra, p. 84) as a dependency of Sukitan or 
Java. Ling-ya-mOn is the island of Lingga (see supra, p. 60). P'u-li-lu is the island of Polillo off 
the east coast of Luzon. The mats made in the Philippines are still famous, though perhaps not 30 
so fine as those of Formosan manufacture, which are locally called i-nan-ts au ("h* S ^T ). 
The Pei-won-yun-fu, 58,52, mentions liu-sin-tien (:^jj j^ ^ lit., awillow-heart matsa), and 
the Tung-si-yang-k'au 4,3" refers to tsiau-sin-tien (^ f(^ ^ lit., «banana-heart matsa) as 
a product of Ma-liu (Malacca), and (3,4^), among the products of Hia-kiang in Java, to t'ong-hiux- 
ttin (JJ^ :^ ^ lit., (crattan figured matsa). The ye-sin-tien, lit., «cocoanut-heart matsa of 35 
our author are not mentioned elsewhere. 

11,25-26 PUTCHDCK. — CAKDAMOMS. 2 2 1 


PUTCHUCK (tI^ #). 

Mu-Mang comes from the country of Ma-lo-mo of the Ta-slii; it is also 
found in Shi-ho and Nu-fa. The plant resembles the Chinese ssi-km (^ JJ}^ 
5 Luffa cylindrica, Koem.). The winter months is the time for gathering the 
root, which is chopped into pieces of one or two inches in length and sun- 
dried. Pieces like a chicken bone are of the best quality. 


Ma-lo-mo is Merbat, SM-lio is Shehr, and Nu-fa is Ziifar, the modern Dhofar, all on the 

ID Hadramaut coast of Arabia. See supra, p. 116. Our author also states (supra, p. 128) that mu-hiang 
came from the Somali coast (Pi-p'a-lo); but the best quality of the drug came, he says (supra, p. 98) 
from Nan-ni-hua-lo, which we think must be identified with Sindh, or a section of that region. Our 
author is wrong in stating that this product was found in Hadramaut and on the Somali coast. It 
is a native of Kashmere and was an important export from the ports of Sindh, when the author 

15 of the Periplus wrote, and probably ages before his time, as it was well known to the Hebrews who 
called it Icetgiofh (niV'Sp cassia), which, we presume, is derived from its Sanskrit name, IcusMlia, which 
is the original of the Greek xoffTo?, and the Latin eostus. In Malay it is called pueho, which may 
be the origin of our putchuk, or our term may be derived ivomputchok, by which name this root is 
known in Calcutta. Putchuck is the root oftheAucklandia eostus, Royle. Hamilton, New Account 

20 of the East Indies (1744), I, 127, says: «The Wood Ligna dulcis grows only in this country (i. e., 
Sindh). It is rather a Weed than a Wood, and nothing of it is useful but the Root called Putchock, 
or, Radix dulcis. I never heard it is used in Physic, but it is a good Ingredient in the Compos- 
ition of Perfumes. There are great Quantities exported for Surat, and from thence to China.» 

The earliest mention we have found in Chinese works of this drug is in the Wei-shu, 102,i2^, 

25 and the Sui-shu ,83,16'', where mention is made among the products of Po-ssi (Persia) ofts'ing-mu- 
hiang (^ 7^^ ^i lit., agreen-wood incense»). The name mu-Mang occurs, however, in a 
Chinese Materia medica of the fifth century, Ming-i-pie-lu by T'au Hung-king, as a plant growing 
in western Yun-nan, and which was also called mi-Mang (^ ^•)- ^^^ already at that time 
the Chinese product was no longer used, and ts'tng-mii-hiang was brought to China from abroad 

30 by foreign ships, it being said that it came from Ta-ts"in. Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 111. 
It would seem, therefore, that the name mu-hiang was at first applied by the Chinese to a native 
product, probably because it was 'wood perfume'. In Chinese Buddhist books it -is called Jcii-so-t'o 
(^ ^/^), Sanskrit ftwsTii/sa. Bretschneider, loc.cit.,112. See also Yule, Marco Polo, 11,387. 



Pai-t6u-¥dti come from Chon-la, Sho-p'o and other foreign countries; 

but Chon-la produces them in the largest quantity. The plant resembles the 

ssi-km (^ JR), and the seed a grape; it is a creeping plant fond of deep 

valleys ([Jj ^). It blossoms in the spring and ripens in the summer. The 

40 people are allowed to gather it without hindrance. 

222 PEPPEK. 11,26-27 


The pai-tou-k'm is the Amomum cardamomum, Linn., the 'round' or 'cluster carda- 
mom', a native plant of Kamhoja, Siam and Java. The Javanese name MpuJaga, appears to be 
the only one in use in the Indian Archipelago. Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, 514. 

The earliest mention of the pai-tm-h'oti or awMte t6u-h'6u» in CShinese works occurs in 5 
the eighth century. Ch'on Ts'ang-ki (supra, p. 210, line 36) says that it was a product of 
K."i6-ku-lo (^ i W possibly Kia Tan's Ko-ku-lo, east coast Malay Peninsula) and is there 
called to-Jcu (0, »^). In another passage (supra, p. 210) the same author gives the native 
name of the nutmeg as Ja-M-Zo, which Bretscbneider points out is probably MJcula, the 
Arabic name for cardamom. Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,io reproduces this phrase from Ch'6nTs'ang-k'i. 10 
It says: «Pai-t6u-h'6u comes from K'ie-ku-lo, where it is called to-Jcu. In shape it is like the 
banana (tree). The leaves are like those of the tu-jo (;^ ^) eight or nine feet long; they do 
not wither in winter or summer. The flowers are light yellow. The seeds form clusters like grapes. 
When the seeds first appear they are light green, when ripe they turn white; they are gathered 
in the seventh moon.a 15 

Already in the eleventh century, the cardamom was grown in Kuang-tung and Kuang-si, 
but it was inferior in quality to that brought from abroad. Bretscbneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 

Ling-wai-tai-ta, 8,18'', says that the joai-tdu-h'du comes from the foreigners of the South, 
while the herbaceous (^^) or ts'au-tou-k'ou comes from the mountainous districts of Yung- 20 
ch6u ( S >|>M the present Nan-ning-fu in Kuang-si). «There is also the flower of the tm-k'ou 

which is very much prized The people of the South pick the flowers, steep them in plum 

juice and dry them. They are very tasty » The flower of the tou-h'ou is described in Nan- 
fang -ts'au-mu chuang, l,2^ It is there said that it stops flatulency and dispels phlegm, it has 
also the property of increasing the strength of wine. In A. D. 281 a basket of these flowers was 25 
brought the Emperor from Tongking. He found out by experimenting with them that they 
really possessed the properties attributed to them. Tung-si-yang-k'au, 3,5^ mentions red (^r) 
pai-tou-k'ou among the products of Hia-kiang in Java. 

PEPPER (1^ #1). 


Hu-tsiau conies from the following places in Sho-p'o: Su-ki-tan, Ta-pan, 
Pai-hua-yiian, Ma-tung, and Jung-ya-lu; but the pepper coming from Sin-t'o 
iMx ^) 's the best; the Ta-pan variety takes the second place. 

Pepper grows in the uncultivated wilds, and the villages in the country 

the Chinese grape. The natives grow it on frames made of bamboo 35 

or other wood the flower opens, and in the fourth moon the fruit 


The flower resembles a fong-wei (^ ^ or a «phoemx-tail»), and is 
blue (and) red in colour. The grains are gathered in the fifth moon, dried 
in the sun, and stored in godowns, whence they are withdrawn in the 40 

11,27 PEPPER, 223 

following year, carts drawn by oxen being used to transport them to the 
market. The grain cannot stand the sun, but stands rain; therefore crops are 
but poor after dry weather, whereas heavy rainfalls may double the ordinary 
yield of the harvest. 
6 (Note. Some say that most of the pepper comes from the country of 

Wu-li-pa (^ ^ f^), in Nan-p'i, and that the produce bought by the 
foreign traders in Sho-p'o comes from Wu-li-pa) ^ 


1) The term tsiau was applied by the Chinese in the classical period to Zanthoxylon, of 
10 which more than a dozen species are known in China. Bretschneidcr, Bot. Sinic, II, 
323. Hu-tsiau, our Piper nigrum, literally 'Western Asian tsiau' is first mentioned, it would 
appear, in the Hou-Han-shu, 118,12'', where it figures as a product of T'ien-chu (India). Later 
on it occurs in the V\rei-shu, 102,ia°' and the Sui-shu 83,i6*, as a product of Po-ssii (i. e., it was 
brought to China by Persian traders from India); they also mention pi-po (S. i^), iu Sanskrit 
15 pippali, or along peppera. 

Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, ISjO** says: aHu-tsiau comes from Mo-k'ie-to (i. e., Magadha, or Central 
India), where it is called mo-li-chi (S^ ^§ "jy" Sanskrit maricha). The plant is a creeper, at 
first very flexible. The leaves are an inch and a half long, they grow on stems two by two, on 
either side of the stem. They open at dawn and close up at night, rolling up when closed. The 
20 seeds are between the leaves; in shape they are like the tsiau (Chinese pepper). When they are 
good they have a pungent taste. They are picked in the sixth moon (August-September). At the 
present day people in China who eat meat cooked in foreign style ("jTO ^^ pjj '^l) all make 
use of it.» 

Of the long pepper, the same work (18,io*) says that it comes from Magadha, where it is 

25 called pi-po-U CBB j^ ^j^), and that in the country of Fu-lin it is called a-li-ho-t'o ([JfJ" 
^^ ppf P^)- On *^^ localities here mentioned and the pepper trade, see more particularly, 
supra, pp. 70, 78, 83, and on the great profits of the pepper trade in our author's time, supra, 
p. 78. Crawfurd, op. cit., I, 482 et seq. says that to enable the vine to bear first it must be 
trained on some tree or pole. There are two crops which, in point of time, are, extremely irre- 

80 gular, and in some situations run into each other in such a manner that the reaping is pursued 
nearly throughout the year. The mutilated paragraph in our text is made clear by this remark. 

Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, III, 358, says that pepper is principally obtained 
on the north-eastern coast of the Archipelago, at Patani, Tringanu and Kalentan; in the straits 
on the island of Lingen, also at Achin, Tikao, Bencoolen, Padang and the country of the Lam- 

35 pongs. That of Penang and the west coast of Sumatra is the best. 

2) This paragraph is printed in the text in the form of a foot-note. It is due presumably 
to the editor Li T'iau-ytian, as the name Wu-li-pa— in Cantonese Mo-li-pat,— -is not used by our 
author, for whom the Malabar country was Nan-p'i. It is just possible that the dependency of 
Nan-p'i which appears in his work (supra, pp. 88, 90, n. 8) under the name of Ma-li-mo (in Amoy 

40 dialect Ma-li-bwat) is Malabar. Even then he does not speak of pepper being a product of Nan-p'i, 
presumably because nearly, if not all, the pepper trade of China in his days was with the Indian 


It is noteworthy that Ch6u K'u-fei is the first Chinese author to mention pepper as a 
product of the Indian Archipelago; the Arab traders of the ninth and tenth centuries speak 
45 only of the pepper of India. Ibn Khordadbeh knew that pepper was produced in Ceylon, but his 
information went no farther; the one source of supply was, for him, Malabar. As showing the great 
importance of the Chinese pepper trade in Marco Polo's time, that traveller tells us (II, 186), that 
he ((heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper 

224 CIIBEBS. — ASA-FOETIDA. 11,27-28 

introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads, each load being 
equal to 223 lbs.» And in another passage (II, 217) he says «And I assure you that for one 
shipload of pepper that goes to Alexandria or elsewhere, destined for Christendom, there come a 
hundred such, aye and more too, to this haven of Zaytun». Duarte Barbosa, op. cit, 206, 
mentions also the great quantity of pepper used in China. See on the pepper trade in the Middle 
Ages, Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 658. 


CUBEBS ($. m » 

Pi-tong-kHe come from a plant of creeping habits, which blossoms in 
the spring and bears fruit in the summer, resembling the hHm-niu-tzi (^ lo 
^ ■y*), with a white flower and black seeds, which are packed up after 
being dried in the sun. It is grown in Su-ki-tan in Sho^p'o. 


Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 32,i2, says that pi-tonff-h'ie is a foreign word, and that the form 
pi-ling-h'ie (^j^ [^ ^Jj ) also occurs. It adds that it belongs to the same family as hu-isiau. 15 

The cubeb (Piper cubeba), called in Javanese liurmikus, and in Malay lada barekor or 
«pepper with a tails, is, like the common black pepper, the product of a vine, a native of Java, 
and grows there only. Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, 465. See also Hanbury, Science 
papers, 246 et seq. 

E'ien-niu-tz'i is Pharbitis triloba, according Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, II, 89, 193. It is 20 
Ipomoea hederacea or Pharbitis Nil, according to Porter Smith, Materia medica, 170. 



A-wei comes from the country of Mu-kii-lan (^j^ ^ M) ^'^ *^^ Ta-shi 
country. The tree is not a very high or large one, but the resin exudes freely 25 
from its bark. The natives wind a piece of string round a twig, remove its 
tip, and cover it with a bamboo tube which fills with resin. This bamboo 
tube is broken up in the winter, when the resin is gathered and packed in 
skin bags. 

Some say that this resin is so poisonous that people do not dare to 30 
come near it themselves, but, when the drug has to be gathered, tie up a 
sheep at the foot of the tree and shoot arrows at it from a distance. The 
poison of the resin then drops upon the sheep, which dies of it, and its 
decayed flesh turns into asa-foetida. T do not know which of the two accounts 
is correct; meanwhile they are both placed here on record. 35 

11,29-30 ALOES. 



Asa-foetida is a gum-resin, the product of the Narthex asa-foetida of Falconer. It was 

prmcipally collected in the Persian province of Laristan - which confined on the Mekran - our 

author s Mu-ka-lan. It is also found near Kandahar. See Bretschneider Medieval Researches, 

5 I. 85 In Sanskrit it is called Am^ru POn-ts-au-kang-mu, 34,61-62, gives the Persian name as 

a-yu-(isie), and the Indian as Mn-k'u (|^ ^), and Mng-yu (^ ^) 

The earliest mention I have found of this drug occurs in Sd-shu, 83,16" where «a.wei 
medicine» is mention^among the products of the kingdom of Ts'au (i^) which, it says, is the 
same as the Ki-pin (^ ^ Cabul) of the Han period. A-wei is a foreign word, derived pre- 

10 sumahly from the Sanskrit or Persian name of the drug. 

The next mention of the drug occurs in Huan-tsang's Si-yu-ki (12,i. Julien. Pelerins 
Bouddhistes,II, 187), where ho gives itsSanskrit name liing-k'ii (M Ji ^), and says that it is 
found in the country of Tsjau-ka-ta ( >;§ ^ p:^ the Ts'au of Sui-3hu);Te capital of which he 
notes is Ho-si-na (^j| ^ ^[J Ghazni). 

15 Yu-yang-tsa-tsn, 18,8^ says eA-viei comes from K'ie-sho-na (^ ^ ^\^ Ghazni), 

which is also called Northern India. In K'ie-sho-na it is called /ifn^-yw (^ J^). It also comes 
from Po-ssi (Persia), where it is called a-yu-tsie (^ ^ ^ Persian angvmd, anguea). It grows 
to 80 or 90 feet (1). The bark is a yellowish green. The leaves come out in the third moon; they 
are like a rat's ear in shape. It has neither blossoms nor fruit. When a branch is cut off, the sap 

20 flows like syrup and for a long time. When it coagulates, it is called a-wel. Wan (A) 
the monk from Fu-lin, agrees with T'i-p'o (^ ^ Deva) the monk from Mo-k'ie-to (Maga^a, 
or Central India) in saying that a-wei is formed by the joining together, of particles of the sap 
each of the size of a grain of rice or a bean.n 


ALOES (M #). 

Lu-wei comes from the land of Nu-fa of the Ta-shi country. It is 

derived from a vegetable product, which looks like the tail of a king-crab. 

The natives gather it and pound it with implements made of jadestone, after 

which it is boiled into an ointment and packed in skin bags, and this is 

30 called lu-wei. 


Our author states (supra, p. 131) that lu-wei was a product of an island off the Somali coast, 

which must be the island of Socotra, whence it was probably taken to Nu-fa on the Hadramaut 

coast for exportation. The name lu-wei seems to be Persian cHwa, the name given the Socotran 

35 aloes (Aloe Socotrina, Lam.). Yule and Burnell, Glossary, 10. See also Thos. Walters, 

Essays, 332. 

The Socotran product must have disappeared from the Chinese market after our author 
wrote, for in the Ming dynasty the substance w^ich went by the name of lu-wei, but which was 
also called nu-hui (-h^ ■^), no-hui (^(| '^) and siang-tan (^ J|g welephant's gall») was, 
40 as it is now, catechu, a product of the Acacia catechu (Sanskrit khadira, see supra, p. 196, n. 1). 
See P5n-ts'au-kang-mu, 34,63*'— 64, and Bretschneider, Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 20, note 5. 
Edrisi (1, 47), speaking of the aloes of Socotra, says: «In the month of July the leaves are 
gathered; the juice is then extracted and dried in the sun, and iu the month of August it is 
packed in skin bags.» 


22& CORAL-TREE. 11,30-3! 

Theo. Bent, speaking of the collecting of the aloe-juice at the present day in Soeotra, 
says (Southern Arabia, 381): «The aloe-gatherers dig a hole in the ground and line it with a 
skin. Then they pile old leaves, points outward, iill round till the pressure makes the juice 
exude .... The drops are knocked off into bags. The drops which come off unbroken are the 
most Talued, and called edah amsello.... It is exported in skins.. ..» He also notes that the juice, 
when first extracted is called in Socotran taif diho (or riho), the latter word -meaning «water». 


The slian-hu-shu comes from the country of P'i-no-ye of the Ta-shi. The 
tree grows in the deepest parts of the sea; its colour is at first white', as the lo 
buds form and the twigs put forth, after rather more than a year, the colour 
gradually turns yellow, and the branches begin to interlace. The greatest 
height it attains is three or four feet, and large specimens are a foot in 

The natives, in fishing for it, first make use of a grappling-iron of five is 
prongs fastened to a silk rope; it is kept under water by leaden sinkers, the 
whole apparatus being thrown into the sea. "When the root has been detached, 
the rope is made fast to the boat and the tree is hauled on board by means 
of a windlass. They are not always sure to get the (whole) tree, though pro- 
bably they will get a branch. At first covered with a slimy coating, it dries up 20 
and hardens when exposed to the air, and then assumes a dull carnation colour. 
The higher the tree, the more valuable it is. If the proper time for fishing is 
missed, it will be destroyed by worms. 


The earliest mention of coral in Chinese literature seems to be in H6u-Han-shu, 118,10", 25 
where it occurs as a product of the Roman Orient (Ta-ts'in). T'ang-shu, 221B,i2^, describes the 
coral fisheries in the 'Coral islands' (^ffl 3^ ^|ij), presumably in the Red Sea, in much the 
same terms as our author, who may have derived much of his information on the subject from 
this source. See Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 41, 59 and 246. 

In the first part of this work, our author says that coral was found (on the market) of 30 
Wu-ssi-li (Mosul), and was fished on the coast of Mo-k'i6-la (el-Mogreb, substantially the same as 
the P'i-no-y6 here mentioned (see supra, p. 122, line 6), and also on the coast of Polillo island in the 
Philippines. At these last named fisheries two varieties of coral were found, the one known as 
shan-hu, the other as ts'ing (blue or green) lang-Tcan. The term lang-kan occurs in Shu-king, 
Pt. Ill, Bk. I, Ch. X, 81 (Legge's, Chinese Classics, III, Pt. 1, 127), but no satisfactory explanation 35 
is given of it. Hou-Han-shu and Wei-lio mention both shan-hu ahd lang-Jcan among the products 
of Ta-ts'in. Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 41, 73. 

■'■■^'^^ OPAQUE GLASS, 227 


OPAQUE GLASS {^ j^,). 

Liu-li comes from several of the countries of the Ta-shi. The method 
followed in melting it is the same as that of China, that is to say, it is made 
5 by burning oxide of lead (|§), nitrate of potash (:gf ), and gypsum (;ff m). 
To these materials the Ta-shii add southern borax (^ || |^>), which causes 
the glass to be elastic without being brittle (^ f^ ;f '^J), and indifferent 
to temperature, so that one may put it in water for a long time without 
spoiling it. It is, therefore, more valuable than the Chinese product. 



Liu-li, or as it was first written, pi-liu ^ J^) anipi-liu-K (^ *fe M), is a very 
early transcription of the Sanskrit word vaidurya,' orjhe I'ali veluriija, whicl^robably meant lapis- 
lazuli or rock-crystal. It occurs in the Shuo-won (=^ ^ published A. D. 100), and also in the 
Ts len-Han-shu, 96A,ii, where it is said to be a product of Ki-pin (Cabul). Tuan Yu-ts'ai, the fa- 
15 mous eighteenth century editor of the Shuo-w6n says in his Shuo-won kie-tzi-chu (19' "^ ^ 
^ j^ s. v., J^^), <,the three characters (pi, liu, li) form a Hu ((^Western AsianfvTordijus^s 
s^2/|^i (J-^ ij- 3^) form an I (^Eastern Asian Barbarian) word .... Indian books 
(^ W Chinese Buddhist Classics) speak oifeUiu-U [Jjf^ Jp| J^), the sound /e? approii- 
mating that oipi .... Present day commentators of the Han-shu have omitted the character j)i, 
20 students wrongly holding th« character pi by itself and Uu-li to designate two separate and 
district things ....» See also Hirth, China and Eoman Orient, 230. 

The Arab-Persian lullur,the Greek Pi^puXJ-o;, Latin leryllos, our bery], are traced likewise 
to the word vaidurya. Yule and Burnell, Glossary, 67. 

While originally designating a precious stone it appears likely that, from the first, the 
25 word liu-li was applied to coloured glass which was imported from India, Egypt or Phoenicia. It 
occurs, with the sense of a precious stone, in Hou-Han-shu, 116,19", and as a native product of 
the Ai-lan country — the present Yflnnan — being there mentioned with rock-crystal, amber, etc. 
Pliny, Nat. Hist., XXXVI, 26, 66 says that no glass was to be compared with that made in 
India, and its superiority was due to the fact that it was made from broken crystals; but we find 
30 that the liu-U from the. Eoman Orient, that is to say Egypt as well as Syria, was most prized 
in China; even in the twelfth century the liu-U from Baghdad was held to surpass all others. 

The Wei-lio, speaking of the period between A. D. 220—264, states that glass often colours 
was found in Ta-ts'in. These colours were carnation, white, black, green, yellow, blue, purple, 
azure, red and red-brown. Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 73. 
35 The manufacture of liu-U was introduced into China in the latter part of the fourth 

century A. D. In the reign of Shi-tsu of the Wei there came to the capital (which was the 
present Ta-t'ung-fu in northern Shan-si), men from the land of the Ta-yiie-chi {~hc ^ .pf ) 
in Northern India, who said they knew bow to fuse certain minerals together and to make liu-li 
of any colour. They dug in the hills and got together what they required and fused it in the 
40 city. The finished product was more brilliant and beautiful than that which came from the West, 
so dazzlingly radiant was it that, when they took it to the Palace, all the people standing there- 
about were filled with fear, thinking there was something supernatural about the radiance. After 
this liu-li became cheap in China and no one prized it particularly. See Wei-shu, 102,i5— le. 

Yen Shi-ku (^® ^ffi ~^ ^ seventh century commentator of the Han-shu), referring to the 

45 mention of liu-li in Ts'ien-Han-shu says that it was the custom in his time (in China), when maiing 

what was called liu-li,to use all (the ten kinds of coloured ?(«-?» known in the West?) and to melt 


228 OPAQUE GLASS. — CAT'S-ETKS, 11,32-33 

them down to a liquid state (•^ ^ l^^ ^ y4-), to which certain chemicals were added 
(J!JB JM ^ ^)' ''^'^^ ^''"'^* ^^^^^ manufactured) was, however, filled with air-holes 
(lit., hollow l^)j and brittle, not the clear, true, genuine thing. Ts'i6n-Han-shu, 96A,n». 

At an early date, but much later than that when the word liu-U first appeared, we find 
another word in Chinese literature used to designate the ordinary, transparent glass. This word 5 
po-U (^ J^ or J^^), and sometimes jpi-po-U (^ ^ ^), appears to have been copied 
on the word liu-U a.n6.pi-Uu-li. So far as we can find out, the earliest record of the word is in the 
dictionary called Yfl-pien (^ ^^)> '"^^'^^ dates from the fifth century A. D. It is there 
explained as meaning «a precious stones (3£)- It seems possible that the word was coined in 
the fifth century after the manufacture of glass had been introduced into China, and it had 10 
become necessary to differentiate this common glass from the more valuable coloured and cut 
kinds. It transcribes, in a contracted form, the Sanskrit word sphatika, one of the seven precious 
substances (sapta ratna), and originally meamnjt rock-crystal. In Chinese Buddhist works 
fpfttrW/ca is usually transcribed y'o-cfei-ftm (J^^ 5j[ ^p), but Hiian-tsang (Si-yu-ki, 8,25'', et 
230ssim) uses the contracted from iJ0-c/i4 (^ J3^). ^ ^^ 

Chang Ytl6 (3M s^ seventh century A. D.) says in his Liang-ssi-kung-ki (^^ |7^ 
•^ nE) "'^^® '''S sea-going junks of Fu-nan that come from Western India sell mir- 
rors of pi-po-K (^ ^ 3^ ^) which are clear and transparent on the surface and 
throughout their mass (pb ^K fe 'jM). Objects of all kinds placed before them are 
reflected to the sight without one's seeing the mirror itself. These plates are a foot and a half 20 
in diameter and weigh forty catties.» T'u-shu-tsi-ch'6ng, 32,227, Ki-shi, 4. 

In A. D. 643 we read (T'ang-shu, 221B,i3») of a king of Fu-lin sending red (^) po-U 
as a present to the Emperor of China. As late as 742, the same work (221^,7'") chronicles the 
fact that a prince of Tokharestan sent «red pi-po-lia (^J| ^ ^ 3^^ "^*"' glS'Sss or «red 
transparent glasss) as a present to Court. 25 

Ch6u K'ii-f ei and our author both speak of the superior quality of the coloured and opaque 
glass ware (liu-li) made in the countries of Islam, which was «cut into patterns)) or ctengravedi) 
(^S -?£)> ^^^ annealed (4^)- Baghdad led in this industry, but Asia Minor, Ki-tz'i-ni (it 
included probably Cabul, the Ki-pin of the Han period, whence liu-li was first brought to China), 
and other places sent specimens of it to China which were greatly prized. 30 

Transparent glass (po-U) is mentioned by Chau as a product of Ceylon and of the Coromandel 
coast. It was perhaps from the former country that the Fu-nan traders, mentioned previously, got 
the big glass mirrors they brought to China, for it appears, from what our author states, that 
it was extensively used there for decorative purposes, and was probably made in sheets, or lenses, 
as he speaks of glass screens which surrounded the throne of the king of Ceylon. 35 

Glass beads of sundry colours and glass bottles (presumably very small ones for carrying 
perfumes .or for such like purposes), both of opaque glass, were used as regular trade 
articles in the dealings between the Chinese and Arab traders of the period and the natives of 
Borneo and the Philippine islands. See supra, pp. 156, 162. 

Edrisi is the only Arab writer we know of who mentions the manufacture of glass in 40 
China; he says (I, 100) that at Djankon (Khanfu, Hang-ch6u) nthey worked in Chinese glass.)) 


CAT'S-EYES m la Hft)- 

Mau-'i/r-tsing are of the size of the end of the thumb, that is, they are 
but small stones. They are brilliant, smooth, and transparent like the eyes of 45 
a cat, for which reason they are called «cat's-eyes». They come from the 

11,33-34 CAt's-EYES. - PEAKLS. 229 

country of Nan-p'i. In this country there is a river, called the Tan-shui-kiang 
{'/^ tK I^X)> where several streams unite into one. There, in the depths of 
the hills, pebbles are washed down by the heavy rains and collect there. The 
officials go there in small boats and dredge them out of the water. Round 
5 and brilliant specimens are called «cat's-eyes». Some people say that they are 
the reflection of stars shining on the surface of the earth and hardened there 
by magic influence. 


((The cat's-eye is one of the jewels of which the Singhalese are especially proud, from a 
10 belief that it is only found in their island; but in this I apprehend they are misinformed, as 
specimens of equal merit have been brought from Quilon and Cochin on the southern coast of 
Hindustana. Tennent, Ceylon, I, 37. 

In the first part of his work (supra, p. 73) our author says that cat's eyes were also found 

in Ceylon. The present article is substantially a repetition of what he has said in his chapter on 

15 Nan-p'i (Malabar), supra, pp. 88, 90, n. 7. It would appear from the passage of the P'ing-chou- 

k'o-t'an there quoted that in the eleventh century the use of this jewel in China was confined 

to the Moslim traders of Canton. 

Linschoten, Voyage to the East Indies (Hakl. Soc. edit.) II, 141 says that cat's-eyes 

come from Cambaia, obut the best out of Seylon and Pegu the Indians esteeme much of 

20 them, specially the Chinos, and thether they are caryed, better esteemed, and sold there then 
any other stones. » 


PEARLS (M #). 

The cMn-chu, or «real pearls», which come from certain islands in the 
25 land of the Ta-shi are the best. They also come from the two countries of Si-nan 
(ffi 1^) and Kien-pi. Pearls are even found in Kuang-si and Hu-pei, but less 
brilliant than those of the Ta-shi and of Kien-pi \ 

Whenever pearls are fished for they make use ofthirty or forty boats, with 

■ crews of several dozens of men (to each). Pearl-fishers, with ropes fastened around 

30 their bodies, their ears and noses stopped with yellow wax, are let down into 

the water about 200 or 300 feet or more, the ropes being fastened on board. 

When a man makes a sign by shaking the rope, he is pulled up. Before this 

is done, however, a soft quilt is made as hot as possible in boiling water, in 

order to throw over the diver the moment he comes out, lest he should be 

35 seized with a fit of ague and die. They may fall in with huge fishes, 

dragons, and other sea monsters and have their stomachs ripped open or a 

limb broken by collision with their dorsal fins". When the people on board 

notice even as much as a drop of blood on the surface of the water, this is a 

230 PEAKLS. 


sign to them that the diver has been swallowed by a fish. Cases occur in 
which the pearl-fisher makes a signal with his rope and the man holding it 
on board is not able to pull him up; then the whole crew pull with all their 
strength, and bring him up with his feet bitten off by a monster. 

What the pearl-fishers call «pearl's-mother» (^ ■^)Ms under the con- 5 
trol of the foreign officials, who keep a register in which the finds of shells 
are entered under the names of the fishermen, in the order in which they 
occur. The shells are then placed in a pit. After rather more than a month 
the shell will be found to have decayed, when the pearls may be removed, 
cleaned, and divided between (the government and) the pearl-fishers. lo 

As a general rule a pearl is considered valuable if it is perfectly round; 
the test for its absolute roundness is, that it will not cease rolling about all 
day when put on a plate. Foreign traders (coming into China) are in the 
habit of concealing pearls in the lining of their clothes and in the handles of 
their umbrellas, thus evading the duties leviable upon them. 15 


1) The substance of this article is taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,6. The word chon-chu, lite- 
rally 'real pearl', is possibly connected with Turkish janehii. In the Old Turkish inscriptions we 
h&ye jdncliu-iigiiz as the equivalent of Chinese chon-chu-ho aPearl rivers. Hirth, Nachworte zur 
Inschrift des Tonjukuk (in Radloff's, Alttflrk. Inschrift. d. Mongolei, 2. Folge, p. 80). Jimii and 20 
inzii, «a pearla occur in A. Vanibery's, Etymolog. Worterb., 33. Conf. also Russian shemchug, 
the standard word for «pearl». The term Kuaag-si referred to as covering a district containing 
pearl fisheries probably stands for Kuang-nan-si-lu, the official designation under the Sung 
dynasty of the Western Kuang province, of which Lien-ch6u-fu with its celebrated fisheries on 
certain islands of the sea south of Pakhoi was then a dependency. «Kaang-si» as an official 25 
designation of that province, it appears, dates from the Yiian period. The pearl fisheries along 
the coast of Li^n-ch6u-fu did not yield sufficient profit to justify their being continued after the 
sixteenth century. They have become famous in literature by the story of a disinterested magis- 
trate of Ho-p'u, i. e. Lien-chou-fn, who in the second century A. D. distinguished himself by the 
just administration of his offic ewith its pearl fisheries. See F. W. Mayers, in Notes and Queries 30 
on China and Japan, I, 1, and Stewart-Lockhart, Manual of Chinese Quotations, 284. 

Si-nan, in Cantonese Si-lan, is Ceylon. See supra, p. 74, n. 2. Kien-pi is Kampar on the east 
coast of Sumatra, see supra, p. 71. Our author elsewhere says that pearls came from the Chola country - 
(Coromandel), the Oman coast, the island of Kish, the Philippines, and Java. In Wei-shu, 102,18'', 
pearls are mentioned among the products of Southern India, and are there called mo-ni-elm 35 
(® j/^ ^fe)' '"'■"i-V-^ being the Sanskrit word for «pearl». Edrisi, I, 375 et seq., says there 
were about BOO famous places in the Persian gulf where pearls were fished for. The fishermen 
lived on the island of Awal, the capital of which was called Bahrein. The fishing was principally 
carried on in August and September. See also Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 648. 

2) Ling-wai-tai-ta, loc. cit., remarks that the shark was so fierce and redoutable that 40 
he was called «fish-tiger-dragon-fly» ( ^ 1^ !fe5£)' 

3) Chu-mu, literally 'pearl's-mother', is the pearl bearing oyster, the oyster in which a 
pearl has grown, a pearl producing shell. It stands for chu-mu (^j^ ^) literally ((pearl's 
pasture-ground)), which appears to be the correct expression. Chong-lei-pbn-ts'au, 20,io, and Pien- 
tzi-lei-pien, 77,7. ((Mother of pearl)) Is yun-mu-Tc'o (^ -f^ ^), at least at the present day. 45 

11,35 CH'O-K'it. 231 


CH'O-K'U m ^^). 

The ch'6-k'u comes from Kiau-chi. It has the appearance of a large 
cockle shell (^). The inhabitants of the coast grind the shell and, owing to 

5 its (scolloped) surface, the cups they make are called «lotus-leaf cups» {^ 
^ '^). Its surface is smooth and clean, like that of a cowrie shell (I^ 3g). 
The lower part of the calyx of the largest specimens is worked into cups of 
up to three inches in thickness, and the remnants and chips are still useful 
for making rings, trinkets and other trifles. 

10 According to the Buddhist books this substance was considered as a very 

valuable jewel; nowadays it (i. e., what is called c¥6-¥u) is only an ordinary 
sea delicacy ('/^ ^). We do not know for certain whether it is identical 
with the ancient ch'S-lc^u. 


15 Ku-kin-chu (fourth century, A. D.) says (5*): «The Emperor Wu-ti of the Wei made 

bridles of ma-nau (cornelian) and wine bowls of ch'o-h'u.ii At that time the term ch'o-h'H, was 
applied to a cornelian or violet coloured gem, m which sense it is used by early Chinese 
Buddhist writers as the equivalent of Sanskrit mMsara</afoa, which Childers, Pali Dictionary, 
241, says was a sort of cat's-eye; but Monier Williams, Sansk. Engl. Diet., says it was a kind 

20 of coral. See also Eitel, Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, 102. 

The word ch'o-lc'ii is probably not Chinese. There is an Uiguric word tscheku meaning «a 
large spiral shell, prized as a jewel» Klaproth, Sprache und Schrift der Uiguren, 22. Radloff, 
Worterbuch d. Turk-Dialecte, III, 2036, gives coko «the button worn on Chinese officials' hats», and 
cokoliA, ((Chinese officials)). These words may have been borrowed from the Chinese. Huan-tsang 

25 (Si-yu-ki, Sjas') writes the word ^ra. .^^ and uses it in the sense of musaragalva. The Wel-shu, 
102,12*, mentions ch'o-k'u, along with amber and cornelian, as a product of Po-ssi (Persia). It 
would seem that it was only in the eighth century, or even later, that this word came to have its 
present signification. Confirmation of this seems to be given by Liang-shu, 54,i6*, where we read 
of the kingdom of P'o-li (in the Malay Peninsula) presenting as tribute to the Emperor cups of 

SO Zo (jfcB :^ or ((Conch cups))), probably the same as the lien-yen-pe'i mentioned by Ch6u 
K'u-fei. The word ch'o-Jc'u does not, it is believed, occur in Liang-shu, lo is used instead. 
((Big shells and ch'o-Tc'ua are mentioned by T'ang-shu (221B,is) as products of Fu-lin. 

In the Sung period this name was applied to a very large sea shell. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,8* says 
that in the Southern Ocean there was a kind of cockle shell (^) called eh'6-h'u, which was like 

35 a big han (i^ a big bivalve shell with scolloped surface). It was from one to three feet and 
over across and increasing in value with the size. Cups and vases were made out of them. In 
another passage of the same work (6,3) it is said that the cups like a lotus-leaf and which were 
broad and shallow, were called lim-ym-pei (J^ j§^ :^ «billowing-waves cup))). 

It seems likely that the ch'6-lc'u of commerce was procured from many large shells 
40 found in the waters of the Philippines, and the Indian Archipelago, some nacreous, others 
white. In Sumatra there is a very large one called keemo; it is perfectly white and is worked up 
like ivory by the natives. Mars den. Hist, of Sumatra, 9. 

K'o-yii, here rendered Hcowrie shell», was also at one time, according to some authorities, 
a smooth, pure white, cornelian-like stone. 

232 IVOKT. II,3B 


IVORY (^ ^). 

Siang-ya, or ivory, comes from several countries of the Ta-shi and the two 
countries of Chon-la and Chan-ch'ong. The Ta-shi product is the better, and 
that of Chon-la and Chan-ch'ong is inferior. Among the Ta-shii countries it is 5 
only at Ma-lo-mo that one finds any large supply. 

The elephant lives in the depths of the hills and the remotest valleysj 
but every now and then he comes out of the wild into the plains and tramples 
down everything, so that man is afraid to come near him. 

Elephant hunters make use of bows of extraordinary strength and pois- lo 
oned arrows. When hit by an arrow the elephant runs away, but before he 
has gone a U or two, or a little more, the arrow poison acts and the 
animal falls down dead. The hunters follow him, remove the tusks from the 
carcass and bury them in the ground. When ten tusks or more have been 
collected, they are brought to the Ta-shi, who ship them to San-fo-ts'i and i5 
Ji-lo-t'ing (0 Rp ^) for barter. 

Large specimens weigh from fifty to an hundred catties. The tusks which 
are straight and of a clear white colour and which show a pattern of delicate 
streaks come from the Ta-shi; whereas the produce of Chon-la and Chan- 
ch'ong consists of small tusks of a reddish tint, weighing only from ten to 20 
twenty or thirty catties, and of tips of tusks, which can only be made into 
scent holders (^ ^). Some people say that elephants are caught by decoys, 
and I presume that the tame elephant is used for this purpose. 


Besides the countries here mentioned, our author states elsewhere that ivory was procured 25 
from various countries in the Malay Peninsula, from Sumatra, Java, and Coromandel. The prin- 
cipal source of supply was the Berbera and Zanguebar coasts. Ma-lo-mo, or Merbat, was only the 
great entrepot of the ivory trade. Conf. Piin-ts'au-kang-mn, 61A,io— ii. 

Our author's apparent ignorance as to the method of capturing elephants is strange as he has 
told us in. a proceeding chapter (supra, p. 117) the way followed by the Arabs. Ling-wai-tai-ta, 30 
9,1-2, describes also the method followed in Tongking for capturing elephants, their management 
in captivity, their intelligence, etc.. 

Masudi, Prairies d'or, III, 8, says the negroes of East Africa (Zendjs) killed great num- 
bers of elephants for the ivory which was sent to Oman and shipped thence to China and India, 
so that very little reached the Moslim countries. See also Marcel Devic, Le Pays des Zendjs, 35 

Gerini, Researches, 627, thinks that Ji-lo-t'ing was very likely Jelatang on a small 
stream, a little to the south-west of the present Jambi town in Sumatra. Conf. supra, pp. 62, 67. 




The si, or rhinoceros, resembles the domestic cattle, but it has only one 
horn. Its skin is black and its hair scanty; its tongue is like the burr of a 

5 chestnut. Fierce and violent in its temper, this animal runs so quickly that 
you may imagine it is flying. Its food consists solely of bamboo and other 
woods. Since he rips up a man with his horn, none dare come near him, but 
hunters shoot him with a stiff (?g) arrow from a good distance, after which 
they remove the horn, which in this state is called a afresh horn» (^ -^), 

10 whereas, if the animal has died a natural death the horn obtained from it is 
called a «dropped-in-the-hills horn.) ('^J jjj ;^). The horn bears marks like 
bubbles; the horns which are more white than black are the best. 


The rhinoceros is already mentioned in Shan-hai-Mng, 10,4, where it is called si-niu ( ff 
15 ^). Ling-piau-ltt-i (written in the T'ang dynasty) gives (2,io) an interesting description of the diffe- 
rent varieties of rhinoceros of Indo-China and of the peculiarities of the horns of each. When one of the 
horns is high up on the head, the animal is called ssi-si (Sjl, ^), when one horn, and that a rather' 
small one, is down on the snout, the animal is called hu-mau-si (^^B ^'M ffi). The largest 
kind of rhinoceros is the to-lo-si (^ ^ ^ ), or to-ho-lo (^ ^ ^) rhinoceros, as the 
20 name is written in T'ang-shu, 222C,io*, whose horns attain a weight of seven or eight catties. 
Gerini, Kesearches, 830—831, says To-ho-lo was a district on the Gulf of Martaban. 

Another classification of rhinoceros is mentioned in the Kiau-ch6u-ki (^ J>M =3 possibly 
of the fifth century A. D.) as quoted in Tung-si-yang-k'au, l,io*. This work divides them into water- 
rhinoceros and mountain-rhinoceros, the former, it says, have three horns, the latter two. Conf. 
25 Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 51-A,is— 15. 

Our author in the first part of his work, besides mentioning rhinoceros in Tongking, Annam, 
and the Malay Peninsula, says the horn was also a product of Java, India, and the Zanguebar 
coast of Africa; he does not state they are fojind in Sumatra. The finest horns came, according to 
him, from the Berbera coast. 
30 Masudi, op. cit., I, 385, says that in his time there was a great trade in rhinoceros horns 

with China from Eahma in India, which was probably about Dacca or Arracan. See also Keinaud, 
Kelations, 28 — 30. The method followed in killing rhinoceros was described by the Arab envoy to 
China in A. D. 973. See supra, p. 118. Asiatics believe that rhinoceros horn detects the presence 
of poison, as does also tortoise-shell. 
35 The belief in the formidable nature of the rhinoceros' tongue was old and widespread. 

Marco Polo (II, 265, 271—272) says of them: «They do not mischief, however, with the horn, 
but ,with the tongue only; for this is covered all over with long and strong prickles and when 
savage with any one they crush him under their knees and then rasp him with their tongue.» 

234: CASTOKEUM, CIVET. 11,38 



(The drug called) wu-na-tsH comes from the country of K'i6-li-ki (jfjf! 
^ ^ Kalhat?) of the Arabs. (The animal called wu-m) resembles in shape 
a hua (^^). Its legs are as long as those of a dog; its colour is either red or 5 
black. It moves as if it were flying. Hunters stretch nets near the sea-shore 
to catch it. What is taken from its scrotum and mixed vyith oil {J^ ^ ^ 
rfij i^ ]iX vft) is called wu-na-isH. 

P'o-ni (j^ '^ Borneo) is the only foreign country in which it is very 

abundant. lo 


According to the Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 51B,i7-i8, this animal was known in China as early 
as the first century of our era, when it was mentioned in the Shuo-wiin (|^ ^) under the form 
ku-na (*^ ijij)- I"! ^^^ "^'^^S period thejorm »^* ^^ (or ^) was also used. This word, 
the P6n-ts'au says, is a foreign term (^^ '^). «The ku-na», it goes on to say on the authority 15 
of the eighth century writer Ch'On Ts'ang-k'i (^ |^ ^), awas found in the countries of the 
Si-fan (^ ^ Tihet) and of the T'u-kue (^ J^ Turks). The people of Western Asia 
(■■jft^ >\) called it a-tz'i-p' o-t' a-ni (|J^ ^i W) i^ "f^)' ^^ resembled in shape and size a 
fox, though a little bigger. It had a long tail. Its testicles (|^) were like musk, of a 
yellowish red colour and like decayed (or soft) bone.n 20 

Li Shi-chon then goes on to say that «according to the T'ang-shu the animal called Tcu-na 
is found in Ying-ch6u (^^ »|>|J) of Liau-si (i. e., in southern Manchuria). It was also found in 
the Kie-ku (^^ *h* Kirghiz) country. The I-t'ung-chi ( — • j^ ^) says that wu-na-tsi 
came from the Nu-chi {-hc T^" Northern Manchuria) and the San-fo-ts'i countries. The animal 
is like a fox, its legs are as long as those of a dog. It moves as if it were flying. What is taken 25 
from its scrotum mixed with oil is called wu-na-ts'i.» Cf. T'ang-shu, 117B,ia''. 

From the above (the last two phrases of which are, however, a quotation from Chau 
Ju-kua) it seems clear that, at the time of which our author writes, there were two drugs known 
to the Chinese by the name of Tcu-na-ts'i or wu-na-ts'i, but of widely difi'erent origin. The 
one was derived from Northern Asia, from Manchuria to the Kirghiz steppes, the other was 30 
brought to China by the Arabs of Oman, who called it a-t/i-p o-t' a-ni, in which we have no 
difiiculty in recognizing the Arabic word al-zabad, our «civet». Hearing that the drug procured 
from the Tcu-na and from the animal in the country of the Arabs was secreted in a somewhat 
similar way in both animals, the Chinese, quite naturally, gave both products the same name, 
though that brought them from Northern Asia was not civet, but castoreum, the oily and strong- 35 
scented liquor secreted by the beaver. The word ku-na or wurna is eastern Turki huna, Russian 
kunitsa, the marten, or skunk. Eadloff, Worterbuch d. Ttirk-Dialecte, II, p. 910. As used by 
the Chinese, the name seems to have been applied to the whole family of Mustelidae, and also to 
the beaver, on account of the castoreum. 

Chan's remark that the wu-na resembled the fabulous animal called liua, seems the 40 
result of a copyist's error, as shown by the quotation of our text in the Pbn-ts'au given above. 
All the authorities quoted in the Pon-ts'au agree that the animal resembled a fox. 

The next two phrases of our text, as well as the last one of the chapter, refer to another 
animal from which was derived a substance used medicinally by the Chinese, and which, at an 
early date, was taking the place of the genuine wu-na-ts'i, which at all times was largely 45 
falsified, according to the PQn-ts'au. This third wu-na-ts'i producing animal was a seal, a «sea-dog» 
(*/$ ^^)' °^ «Wack dragon)) (^ ^^ ^|), and the authorities quoted in the Pon-tg'au (loc. 

11,38-39 kingfishers' featheks. 235 

cit.), show tliat it was found in the Sea of Korea, the Eastern Sea, and down to the Malay 
Penmsnla, where, according to Li Sfln (^ i^) of the Tang, „the K'un-Iun people (W, "# 
^) shot It with arrows, remoyed its outer scrotum (;J?f» ^) a nddried it in the shadi for^ 
hundred days. Its perfume was sweet and very strong... In view of the above, there seems no 
5 vahd reason for supposing that the drug supplied by the sea-dog, and known by the name of 
wu-na-tst, may not have been principally procured from the coast of Borneo, as stated by our 
author, although it is remarkable that he makes no mention of the fact in the chapter devoted 
to that region. 

At the time the Pon-ts'au-kang-mu was written, in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
10 tury, genuine vm-na-ts'i must have nearly disappeared from the Chinese market — as had 
long before an-si-hiang, su-ho-yu, and other drugs originally brought from the West — in 
comp^ion with similar but cheaper products from nearer countries, and hai-Jcou-shon (vg 
^RI W)' •"■ «sea-dog scrotum.., had taken its place in the Chinese pharmacopoeia, where it has 
since remained as the identical substance known in olden times as wu-na-ts'i. See Bretschnei- 
15 der. Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 12, and Mediaeval Researches, 1, 149—150, also Porter Smith, 
Chinese materia medica, 54. 

Our author's reference to wu-na-ts'i being procured from K'ie-li-ki, which there seems good 
reason to identify with the important mediaeval port of Kalhat on the Oman coast, is interesting, 
for Abyssinia and Arabia had long been the principal centres of production of civet. In the 
20 sixteenth century, and probably for centuries before, civet was one of the principal articles of 
export from Zeila on the Somali coast, Chan's Pi-p'a-lo. See Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia 
in 1541—1543, pp. 140, 232 (Hakluyt Soc. edit.). 



25 Tsui-mau, or kingfisliers' featliers, are got in great quantities in Chon-la, 

where (the birds) are brought forth in nests built by the side of lakes or ponds in 
the depths of the hills. Each pond is the home of just one male and one female 
bird; the intrusion of a third bird always ends in a duel to the death. The natives 
taking advantage of this peculiarity, rear decoy birds, and walk about with 

30 one sitting on the left hand raised. The birds in their nests noticing the in- 
truder, make for the (bird on the) hand to fight it, quite ignoring the presence 
of the man, who, with his right hand, covers them with a net, and thus makes 
them prisoners without fail. 

The river Ku in Yung-ch6u( ^ ^[>| "]^)?Il)is also the habitat of a bird called 

35 jung-ts'ui ( j^ ^ downy kingfisher), covered with soft blue feathers all over the 

back, which are used by luxurious people as an ornament, ihe feathers being 

twisted and woven into each other so as to resemble long nap satin (^ g). 

Although, of late years, the use of this luxury has been strictly forbidden 

. by the govemmeiit, the well-to-do classes still continue to add it to their dress, 

40 for which reason foreign traders, in defiance of the law, manage to smuggle 
it in by concealing it in the cotton lining of their clothes. 

236 PARROTS. 11,39-40 


The two first paragraphs of this article are substantially a quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 

Sung-shl', 153,10,16, states that prior to the year 1107 «flne brocade of kingfishers' feathersa 
(^. ^ 4;JJ ^^) was included in the list of dress materials presented to officials of certain 5 
grades by the Emperor. In 1107 the Emperor forbade it in an Edict in which he said: «The Ancient 
Rulers in their governmental measures extended the principle of humanity to plants, trees, 
birds and beasts. Now the depriving of living creatures of their life, in order to get their plu- 
mage for a perfectly frivolous purpose, is certainly unworthy of the kindness extended by the 
Ancient Rulers to all creatures. "We therefore order the officials to stop the practice on pain of 10 

Kingfishers' feather are still largely used in China to make ornaments for the head. They 
are still imported from Tongking. 

A river called Ku-kiang, flows near Nan-ning-fu in Kuang-tung — which in the Sung 
period was called Yung-ch6u-fu. T'u-shu-tsi-ch'6ng, 6,U42. Ling-wai-tai-ta (loc. cit.) reads 15 
Yu-kiang (;fc jtC)' ^°^ *^'^ ^® °°® "^ *^^ names of the Nan-ning West River, which quite 
close to this city is formed by the two branches 'Left River' and 'Right River' (Yu-kiang). 
Hirth, China Review, III, 47—48. 


PARROTS m M)- 20 

Ying-um are procured in Chan-ch'Ong where they are found of all colours. 
This is the kind of bird which, in the time of the emperor T'ai-tsung of the 
T'ang dynasty (A. D. 627 — 650), was presented to our Court by Huan- 
wang. In the Annals they are said to have been able to complain of cold, 
for doing which the Emperor gave orders to return them to their home. The 25 
country of Huan-wang is the same as Chan-ch'ong. 

Jn K'in-ch6u (^ f\\) both white and red ying-wu are found of the 
size of small geese. Birds with plumage covered with dust like the wings 
of a butterfly are called «white ying-im» ; those showing deep scarlet colour 
with a tail resembling that of a black kite are called «red ying-wm. 30 


The ying-wu is a large parrot; the smaller varieties are called ying-ho (^fe "mj^)- 
Kuang-tung-sin-yfl, 20,7, calls a specially clever variety of parrot pa-ko (^)J ^3-) and pa-pa 
(^ij ^ij). This last name, which is in common use in Fu-ki^n for small parrots, may be derived 
from the Arabic name for parrot babaga, and the last character, Ico, in the two preceding names 35 
may perhaps also be traced to that word. 

The whole of this article is taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, Ojio*. P'ing-ch6u-k'o-t'aii, 2,5'' 
notes that white parrots that could speak were for sale in Canton. Presumably such parrots were 
a rarity in China at that time. 

The parrots sent to the Emperor T'ai-tsung of the T'ang were of two kinds, of variegated 40 
plumage, and white. T'ang-shu, 222C,i*. 

11,41 AMBERGRIS. 237 


AMBERGRIS (f^ ^). 

«Iii the Western Sea of the Ta-shi there are dragons in great number. 
Now, when a dragon (],ung) is lying on a rock asleep, his spittle (him) floats 

5 on the water, collects and turns hard, and the fishermen gather it as a most 
valuable substance. Fresh ambergris is white in colour, when slightly stale it 
turns red, and black when it is quite old. It is neither fragrant nor bad- 
smelling, it is like pumice-stone, but lighter. The statement that a special 
perfume is derived from ambergris, and the other statement to the eflFect that 

10 the odour of ambergris can bring out all other scents, are both erroneous. 

((Ambergris does not affect the properties of perfumes in any way, either 
by improving or by spoiling them; it merely has the power of keeping the 
fumes together. When a quantity of genuine ambergris is mixed with incense, 
and is being burned, a straight column of clear blue smoke rises high up into 

15 the air, and the smoke will not dissipate, and those present (j^ ^) could 
cut the column of smoke with a pair of scissors. This is occasioned by the 
virtue left in the ambergris by which the dragon exhales cloud-borne build- 
ings)) (# ^ # ft ;^ ^ ^rt -tfe.)- 


20 This article is a quotation from-Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,9. Couf. what our author said concerning 

ambergris in the sea near the Somali coast (supra, p. 131). Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 4,s'', calls it o-mo, 
which is Arabic 'anbar (supra, p. 128). Ed ri si (I, 64) says that the best ambergris comes from 
the Sea of Oman. «It is a substance which flows from springs in the depth of the sea, just as 
naphta flows from the springs of Hit. "When the waves of the sea are raised by a storm, amber 

25 is thrown on the coast. Some people have thought that it was the excretion of an animal, but it 
is not so; it is as we have stated.. ..» Conf. also Masudi, Prairies d'or, I, 333-334. See also 
Marcel Devic, op. cit., 188—194. A thirteenth century Chinese writer calls this substance 
sa-pa-%r (^ R S). Bretschneider, Mediaeval Eesearches, I 152. Sa,-pa-ir is Persian 
shahbuyijt^) «royal perfume», erroneously read shaMan (^^ifii). Vullers, Lexicon, 

SO s. v. sMhbUy.'SeesAso Farhang-i Shu'url, Constantinople, 1100, II, fol. 139, v. A fifteenth century 
Chinese work mentions a Lung-hien-sii, or island, in the sea of Lambri, at a distance of a full 
day from Sumatra, where the ambergris was sold. Groeneveldt, Notes, 100. Gerini, Eesear- 
ches, 691, takes Lung-hito-stt to be a transcription of Lam (p'u) yang, an old name of the island 

of PuloBras. ^, ,j . ^, • r 

35 The last phrase of this article refers to the mythological belief held in China from very 

early times that certain mythical monsters, dragons, frogs, etc., blew out clouds of vapour m which 
were temples and pagodas. Ambergris, or «dragon's spittle» lends itself to this belief. Vapour or 
smoke which can carry a temple or pagoda must perforce be of very great density, hence the 
connection between the dense smoke of this incense, in which ambergris is mixed, and the dragon 
40 exhaled cloud-borne bnUdings. See Pei-wbn-yun-fu, 64,5. 

238 TORTOISE-SHELL. —BEES- WAX. 11,42-43 



The tai-mei resembles tlie Mi -yuan (^ ^). Its back is covered 
"with thirteen plates regularly marked with black and white spots and lines, 
their edges jagged like a saw. It is without feet, in lieu of which it is provided 5 
with four fins, the front fins being longer than the hind ones, serving as 
paddles when moving about in the water. These fins, as well as the head, are 
marked like the plates. The plates of old animals are thick and show the 
black and white parts of the pattern quite clearlj-, whereas young specimens 
have thinner plates with an indistinct pattern. There is no foundation for the 10 
story that these patterns are produced by the animals being lashed to fury so 
as to stir up the blood. They are caught on moon-light nights during the 
autumn. Their flesh is edible. They come from P*o-ni, San-sii, P'u-li-lu and 

Note. 15 

The Icui-ijii an is, according to Williams, Syll. Dictionary, the great sea-turtle. Ling-wai- 
tai-ta, 10,2, after describing the big turtle found in the sea near K'iu-chou, the westernmost 
port of Kuang-tung, and which it calls pi-tai-mc'i (^^ J^jg* J3)j says: «tl)e shell oi tai-mei 
has, like it, thirteen plates, but the story that the distinctness of the pattern on the plates is a 
result of the animal having had its blood lashed to fury is, of course, false.» 20 

In preceding passages our author says that the best tortoise-shell, and also the largest 
quantity of this product, came from Pi-p'a-lo (Berbera cflast). He says it was also procured from 
Socotra, the Celebes and the Moluccas. Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, III, 444, says the 
tortoise is found in greatest abundance on the east coast of the Celebes, the coasts of the Spice 
Islands, and those of New Guinea.' 25 

Hou-Han-shu, 118,12'' mentions tortoise-shell as a product of India. The Ling-piau-lii-i, 
1,4", quoting the (T'ang?) POn-ts'au, says that tai-mei detects the presence of poison as well as 
bezoar stones. Conf. Pon-ts'au-kang-mu, 45,Si''-9,, and Marcel Devic, op. cit., 187—188. 


BEES-WAX (^ 41). 30 

Huang-la, or «yellow wax», comes from San-sii, Ma-i, Chon-la, San- 
fo-ts'i, and such like countries. The habitat of the bee producing it is in the 
depths of hills and the remotest valleys of the interior, where it builds nests 
in old trees, on the banana plant, or in caves in the rocks. The insect is 
somewhat larger than the Chinese bee and is darker in colour. The natives 35 

n,43 BEES-WAX. 239 

in those foreign parts approach them by covering their bodies with a leather 
coat, drive out and disperse the swarm by making a smudge of foul-smelling 
grasses, when the nest is taken away and the honey squeezed out. What 
remains of the nest is the wax, which is melted into a form and reduced to 
5 proper shape. 

Some dealers adulterate the substance by mixing with it lime and rock- 
salt (^ ^). The produce of San-fo-ts'i is the best; the next quality comes 
from Chon-la, and the poorest from San-su, Ma-i and P'u-li-lu. 

Note. , 

10 Besides the countries here mentioned, we learn from the first part of this work that 

bees-wax was also procured in Tongking, Tan-ma-ling in the Malay Peninsula, western Borneo, 
the Celebes and Moluccas, from northern Formosa, and from Ha'nan, the wax from the last 
named country being of very poor quality. 

Crawfurd, op. cit., Ill, 438 says that nbees' wax constituted a very valuable aud consi- 

15 derable article of commerce in the Archipelago. The greatest supply is obtained in the islands 
furthest to the east, and, above all, in Timur and Flores. The trade is principally with China 
and Bengal.» 


A-kti-lo — Arabs. 


A-kii-lo, Akula (Kufa), the capital of the king 
of the Arabs, according to Tu Huan, 110. 

A-li-jo, a dependency of Nan-p'i, 88; possibly 
the Hih or Eas Haili of the Arabs, near Cali- 
cut, 90. 

^ A-mei-lo-a-mi-lan, title of ruler of Ts'ong- 
t'an; presumably Persian Am%r-i-am%ran, 127. 

A-mo, Arabic 'aribar, ambergris, 128. 

A-Dan, the name given dancing- girls in Kam- 
boja, 53. 

A-p'o-lo-pa, the Caliph Abu'l-'Abb4s, 117."i-p'o-t'a-ni, Arabic^ a?-;Sfabod, civet, 234. 

A-yii-tsie, Persian anguzad, angUla, asa- 
foetida, 225. 

Abbaside Caliphs, 136-137. 

Abraham, the Patriarch'— see P'u-lo-hung. 

Abu 'All, — see P'u-a-li. 

Abu Hamid, — see P'u-hi-mi. 

Abu'l- 'Abbas the Caliph, and the Black- 
robed Ta-shi, 117. 

Adam's Peak, first mentioned by Chau Ju- 

:ua, 73; not known to Fa-hien or Hiian-tsang, 

75; its name of Si-lun-ti6 the Arab Serendib, 75. 

Aden, emporium of early sea trade between 
Egypt and India, 2; its trade with China, 3; 
possibly visited by Chinese, 4; no mention of, by 
Chinese down to twelfth century, 15; possibly 
included in Ma;Ii-(or lo-)pa, 25. 

Adultery, how punished, in Chan-ch'ong, 47; 
jn Chon-Ia, 53; in San-fo-ts'i, 61; in Nan-ni- 
hna-lo, 97. 

AdministratiTe divisions of Ji-p6n, 170, 
172, n. 3. 

Aeta negritos of the Philippines, 161. 
/ Africa, trade of, with Ceylon, 3; — gee also 

Agriculture, in Chan-ch'ong, 48; in Chon-Ia, 
53; in Sin-t'o, 70; in Sh5-p'o, 77; among Ta-shi 
of Nile valley^ 116; yearly sacrifices on beginning 
of, in P'o-ni, 1 56; methods of, in Liu-k'iu, 163; 
little land fit for, in Ji-pon, 170; in Hai-nan, 180. 

Ai-chou, in Hai-nan, 177; — see K'inng-ch6u. 

Ai-lau, of Yun-nan, woven fabrics, 218. 

Ainu, live north of Ji-pon, 170; first appear- 
ance of, in China, 172, n. 2. 

Alabaster, used in palace of king of Arabs, 
Up, 120, n. 4. 

Alexander the Great, his projects regarding 
diversion of Indian trade, 1;— see also Tsu-ko-ni. 

Alexandria, — see O-kon-t'o. 

Aloes, bitter, imported to Aden, 4; imported 
to San-fo-ts'i, 61; comes from island of Chung-Ii, 
131; description of, mode of gathering, 225, 

Altars in houses of Nan-ni-hua-lo, daily 
prayers and offerings on, 97. 

Alum, imported to Sho-p'o, 78. 

Amazons, — see Women. 

Amber, imported by Persians to China, 16, 
19; imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; exported from 
Chu-li6n, 100, n. 8. 

Ambergris, a product of Ts'ong-pa, 126; pro- 
duct of Pi-p'a-lo, 128; called cMno-himg, 128; 
comes from island of Chung-li, 131; origin of, not 
known, 131; description of, 237; its properties, 

Angkor, — see Lu-wu. 

Aniseed, a product of Sh6-p'o, 77. 

Annam, — see Chan-ch'ong. 

An-si, the kingdom of, 201; perfume of, 201, 
202; — see Benzoin. 

Antioeh, — see An-tu. 

An(or Yen)-t'o-man (Andaman Islands), 2, 
147; -a group of two islands, one inhabited, 147; 
the inhabitants, 147; no iron on, 147; legend of 
the golden spring, 147—148; attempt of Nan-p'i 
to conquer, 148. 

Ap-tu (Antioeh), the city in which the king 
or Ma-lo-fu of Ta-ts'in resides, 102, 104, n. 2. 

An-tun, the Emperor Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus, subjects of, reach Tongking by ships, 5. 

Apologos, reached by Kan Ying, 4. 

Arabia, south coast of, and Indian trade of 
Sabeans, 1; of Greeks, 2; not visited by Chinese, 
3; trade of south, with Ceylon, 3. 

Arabs (Ta-shi), may have used monsoons on 
voyage to India before Greeks, 2; found establish- 
ments in Ceylon, 3; control early sea trade 
with India and Far East, 4; arrival of, in Can- 
ton, 4; spread of knowledge of China through, 7; 
in Canton in seventh century, 14; their earliest 
narratives of China, 15; their life at Canton, 
16-17; their trade with Canton and Ts'aan-ch6u 
in ninth and tenth centuries, 18, 19; time. needed 
to make round voyage to China by, 24; the seas 
of the; 26; accompany, mission from Pin-t'ung- 
lung to Court of China, 51; accompMiy mission 
from P'u-kan, 58; their principal imports into 
San-fo-ts'i, 61; horse trade at Ku-lin, 72, 91; 
their nearest settlement to Sho-p'o, 76: introduce 
gold coins into Java, 81; many, lived inKiji-lin, gg;, 
take much of the produce of Hu-ch'a-la, Sg; how 
treated in Nan-ni-hua-lo, 97; Ta-ts'in t£e great 
emporium of the, 102; army protects Ta-ts'inj 
103; army of Ta-ts'in has to ward off, 104,; voyage 
from Ts'uan-chou to the lands of the, 114; pro- 
ducts from the lands of the, brought to. Saji'^fo- 



Arabs — Birds. 

ts'i, tlience to China, 114; noted for their distin- 
guished bearing, 115; climate of realm of, 116; 
the capital of the, 115; the king of the, 115; his 
dress and palace, 115; throne of king of the, 115; 
audiences at court of the, 115; ofdcers and army 
of the, 115; streets and dwellings in capital of 
the, 115; food and drink of the, 115—116; great 
wealth in markets of the, 116: worship Ma- 
hia-wu (Mohammed), 116; New Year's fast, 116; 
daily prayers of, 116; agriculture and the Nile, 
116; the great harbour and its fairs, 116; products 
of the realm of the, IIG; dependencies of the, 
116-117; rise of their power, 117; the White- 
robed and Black-robed, 117; relations of with 
China, 117-118, 12?-123; burial place in 
Ts'iian-chou, lit); origin of their Chinese name 
of Ta-shi, 119; trade at Ma-li-pa (Merbat). 120; 
their pilgrimage to Ma-kia, 124; people of 
Ts'6ng-pa of same race as, 126; their trade with 
Ts'ong-pa, 126; trade with Oman, 133; trade with 
Ki-shi, 134; Pai-ta the great metropolis of the, 
135; how they capture slaves, 149; the Book of 
the 154; open trade between P'o-ni (Borneo) and 
China, 157, 159, n. 13; their knowledge of Sin-lo, 
168, n. 1; their knowledge of Japan. 172, n. 1; in 
frankincense trade, 195; in benzoin trade, 198, 
201; their method of making glass, 227; pearls 
of the, the best, 229; their trade in ivory, 

Archery, people of Ki6n-pi fond of. 71 ; people 
of Nan-p'i skilled in, 88; people of Ku-Iin fond 
of, 89; in Sin-lo, 167; Japanese not skilled in, 
171; Ainu skilled in, 172, n. 2. 

Areea (or betel) nuts, wine of, and honey, in 
San-fo-ts'i, 60; used in making liquor in Sho-p'o, 
78; palms, abundant in Hai-nan, 183; varieties 
of, 213—214; wine of, in San-fo-ts'i, 214; revenue 
derived from trade in, by Chinese Customs, 214. — 
See also Betel-nut. 

Armlets, worn in Po-ssi, 152; worn by king of 
P'o-ni, 156; ivory, imported to P'o-ni, 156. 

Armour, worn by escort of ruler of Pi-ssi-lo, 
137; ring, worn in P'o-ni, 165. 

Arms, of escort of king of Chan-ch'ong, 47; 
of escort of king of San-fo-ts'i, 60; people of 
Nan-p'i dextrous with, 88; of escort of king of 
Hu-ch'a-la, 92; of escort of king of T'ien-chu, 
111; of people of T'ien-chu, 111; of escort of lord 
of Pi-ssi-lo, 137; of king of K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; of 
escort of king of P'o-ni, 155; in Liu-k'iu, 163; of 
P'i-sho-ye savages, 165; of people of Ji-pon, 171; 
of the Li of Hai-nan, 180, 183. 

Army, of Sh6-p'o, 76; of Hu-ch'a-la, 92; of 
Chu-Iien, 96; of the Arabs protects Ta-ts'in, 103; 
the army of Ta-ts'in, 104; of the Arabs, 115; of 
Pai-ta, 135; of Mo-k'ie-la, 154. 

Aromatios, in Tan-jung-wu-lo and Ma-li, 85; 
in T'ien-chu, 111; ofBerbera coast, 129, n. 4. 
' Arrows, poisoned, used in Lan-wu-li, 72; in 
Pi-p'a-lo, 128; poisoned, used in elephant hunt- 
ing, 232. 

Arsenic, imported to Sh6-p'o, 78. 

Asa-foetida, imported into San-fo-ts'i, 61; a 
product of Mu-ka-lan (Mekran coast), 224; de- 
scription of tree, how gathered, 224. 

Asbestos, comes from Wu-ssi-li, 140. 

Astrolabe, not known to the Chinese, 29. 

Astronomy, people of San-fo-ts'i learned in, 
64; people of T'ien-chu learned in. 111, 114. 

Au-chou, in Japanese Oshu, gold mined in, 
171, 175, n. 22. 

Audiences, of king of Chan-ch'6ng, 47; of 
king of Ch5n-la, 52; in Tong-liu-mei, 57; in P'u- 
kan, 58; in Shb-p'o, 76; in T'ien-chu, 110; in 
capital of the Arabs, 1 15. 

Au-ki6n, the city of Urgendj, 121, n. 12. 

Au-lo-lo-li, a dependency of Nan-p'i, 88; 
possibly Cannanore, 90. 

Babuyan islands (Philippine Islands), — see 

Baghdad, possibly visited by Chinese, 4: Chi- 
nese goods scarce in, in ninth century, 15; the 
Ta-ts'in of Ch6u and Chau identified with, 104— 
106; the Caliph and the patriarch of, 106—107; — 
see Ta-ts'in and Pai-ta. 

Bahrein, — see Pai-li6n. 

Bali, island of, — see Ma-li and Pa-Ii. 

Bamboo, indigenous in Chu-li§n, 96. 

Bananas, grown in Chan-ch'5ng, 48; grown 
in Sho-p'Oj 77; great size of, in Su-ki-tan, 83, 85, 

Banishment, Moslims in Canton punished 
with, 17. 

Basra, Chinese goods scarce and expensive 
at, 15; goods from, for China, shipped from Siraf, 
15; possible reference to, as "great harbours, 116, 
121, n. 9;-^ see also Pi-ssi-lo. 

Bastinado, with rattan, Moslims at Canton 
punished with, 17; in Chu-lien, 95. 

Bathing, fondness for, of people of Chan- 
ch'ong, 47; rose-water used by king of Sa-fo-ts'i 
for, 61; people of Nan-ni-hua-lo fond of, 97. 

Batta, the country of the, possibly the Pa-t'a 
of the Chinese, 66. 

Beacons, in sea near Ti-lo-lu-ho off Mekran 
coast, 13. 

Beans, grown in Chan-cho'ng, 48; grown in 
Sin-t'o, 70; grown in Sho-p'o, 77; grown in Nan- 
p'i, 88; green and black, grown in Chu-lien, 96; 
much eaten in Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98. 

Bears, in Liu-k'iii, 163. 

Bell, worn on head by king of Sho-p'o, 76; 
given by Emperor to Chinese temple of San-fo- 
ts'i,' 62^ bronze temple, made in Sin-lo, 16S. 

Beni Merwan, and the White-robed Ta-shi, 

Benzoin, sweet, 53, 198; countries of origin, 
198; description of, 198; variety of, called an-si- 
hiang, 201; origin of name, 201. 

Beranang, — see Fo-lo-an. 

Berbera, coast, — see Pi-p'a-lo. 

Betel-nut, of king of Chan-ch'ong, by whom 
carried, 47; and pearl ashes, chewed by king of 
Si-lan, 72, 73; grown in Sh6-p'o, 77; a product 
of Chu-lien, 96; used with camphor in P'o-ni, 
155; used as marriage present in P'o-ni, 155; 
medicinal, a product of Ma-i, 160; a product of 
Hai-nan, 176; fresh, from Hai-nan, 177; great 
plenty of, in Hai-nan, 185. 

Bezoar stone, prized for ring, 90; a product 
of K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; from Lu-mei, 141. /• 

Bharoch, terminus Greek sea-route to India, 
2; Ceylon trade with, 8; Chinese overland trade 
with, 5; probably referred to as Pa-li-sha (q. v.). 

Birds, flocks of migratory, visit Chung-li, 131. 

Biruna — Cash, 


Biruna, of the Nestorian patriarchs, 107. 

((Black WaterDjthe Irrawadi river, 26; called 
the ((Black-water muddy river», 59; formed 
frontier of P'n-kan, 59. 

Blood, brotherhood, 129; oath by drinking, in 
Hai-nan, 184. 

Boat, sailing, festival in Chan-cho'ng, 48; 
used by king of Saii-fo-ts'i, 60; pleasure trips in, 
in She-p'o, 77; whale-oil and lime used in Chung- 
li to caulk, 131; fighting (praws), of king of 
P'o-ni, 155. 

Bokhara, — see P'u-hua-lo. 

Book, The, of the Arabs, 154; carried before 
king of Mo-k"i6-la, 164; trade in Chinese books 
in Sin-lo, 168. 

Borax, imported to Shb-p'o, 78; a product of 
Lu-mei, 141; used by Arabs in making glass, 227. 

Borneo, trade with China at end tenth cen- 
tury, 19; — see Fo-ni. 

Brahmans, possible reference to in Shb-p'o, 
76; people of Nan-ni-hua-lo mostly, 97. 

Branding, punishment for smuggling, 20; for 
theft in Ch5n-la, 53. 

Brawa, town of, on Berbera coast, 129. 

Brocades, silk, imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; 
coloured silk, manufactured in Sho-p'o, 78; a 
product of Ta-ts'in, 103; gold, of the Arabs, 116; 
gold, of K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; weaving of, in Lu-mei, 
141; worn in P'o-ni, 155; imported to P'o-ni, 156. 

Browers islands, the Ko-ko-song-chi (or-ti) 
ofKiaTan, 11. 

Brushes, for writing, manufacture of, not 
known in Kiau-chi, 45. 

Buddha, people of Chbn-la, devout followers 
of, 53; dancing-girls offer food to, in Chbn-la, 53; 
said to have appeared after his nirvana in Tong- 
liu-mei, 57, 58; people of P'u-kan devout follow- 
^''^ers of, 58; offering of flowers to the, 58; the 
two images of a, protect Fo-In-an, 69; people of 
Nan-p'i devout followers of, 88; the, of the Arabs, 
116, 124, 125; the Sacred, of P'o-ni, 157. 

Buddhist, priests in Chon-la, 53; priests of 

P'u-kan, their dress, 58; temple, erected in San- 

,fo-ts'i, 62; monasteries in Shb-p'o, 76; temples 

/" in Hu-ch'a-la, 92; shrine erected at Ts'tian-chou 

by a T'ien-chu priest. 111. 

Buffalo, two used in ploughing in Chan- 
ch'bng, 48; legend connected with, in San-fo-ts'i, 
61; ridden in Tan-ma-ling, 67; used in ploughing 
in Shb-p'o, 77; eaten in Sho-p'o, 77; tails of, from 
Liu-k'iu, sold in San-sfi, 163; none in Sin-lo, 167; 
in Ji-p5n, 171. 

Burial, at sea, 33; place of Moslim, at Ts'Qan- 
ehou, 119, 124, n. 27; in P'o-ni, 156; customs in 
Ji-pbn, 171; in Hai-nan, 180, 183, 188, n. 22. 

Butter, much eaten in Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98; 
eaten at Pai-ta, 135. 

Byssus, a product of Lu-mei, 141. 

Cabul, indigo from, 217; asa-foetida from, 225. 

Cairo, called Fu-ta (Fostat), 14; called Kie- 
y6, 144. 
' Calamian island, — see Kia-ma-yen. 

Calendar, people of T'i6n-chu able calcula- 
tors of. 111; of Pi-ssi-Io tolerably correct, 137; 
Chinese, sold by traders in Sin-lo, 168. 

Caliph, called K'o-Ii-fu, 122, n. 17; of Bagh- 
dad, 135, 186-137. 

Camels, in T'ien-chu, 111; cloth of hair of, 
116; numerous in Pi-p'a-lo, 128; eaten, 128, 129, 
n. 3; numerous in Chung-li, 130; of Pi-ssi-lo, 
137; raising of, in K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; hair fabrics of 
K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; bred in Lu-mei, 141; ((water- 
camels)) of the Nile, 145; in Mo-k'i6-la, 154; 
none in Sin-lo, 167. 

Camphor, imported to Aden, 4; imported to 
Canton, 16; import duty on, 21; used with musk 
in paste to scent the person in Chan-ch'ong, 47; 
imported into Chan-ch'bng, 49; imported into 
San-fo-ts'i, 61; a product of Tan-ma-ling, 67; a 
product of Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; in betel-nut of 
king of Si-lan, 73; imported to Si-lan, 73; a pro- 
duct of Sho-p'o, 77; used with musk as perfume 
in Nan-p'i, 87; exported to Nan-p'i, 88; lump, 
exported to Nan-p'i, 89; exported from Chu-lien, 
100, n. 8; exported to Yung-man, 133; in P'o-ni, 
156, 198; comes from Pin-su, 193; great entrepot 
for trade in, at San-fo-ts'i, 193; description of, 
tree, 193; mode of collecting, varieties of, 193; 
oil, 194; notes on, 194-195. 

Canna, red, a flower of Chu-lien, 96. 

Cannanore, possibly referred to, 88, 90; — 
see Au-lo-lo-ni. 

Cannibalism, practised by the Ma-Io-nu, 
150; practised by P'i-sho-ye savages, 165. 

Canton (Kuang-tung), arrival of Arabs in, 4; 
coasting trade between Tongking and, 6; arrival 
of western foreigners in, 6; early cultivation of 
jasmine at, 6; foreign colony in, in seventh cen- 
tury. 14; called Khanfa by the Moslims, 15; burnt 
and looted by Moslims, 15; frequent fires in, 15; 
principal imports from western Asia and Africa, 
16; government of foreign settlement in, 16; 
where situated, 16; abandoned by foreigners 
during troubles in ninth century, 18; junks from, 
go to Ku-lin, 18; its foreign trade at end of 
tenth century, 19; official godowns for foreign 
imports at, 20; foreign trade at, in twelfth century, 
22, 23; channels for ships entering, 23, 24; where 
sea-going ships took water at, 29; Customs office 
at, where situated, 29; seasons when ships sailed 
to and from, SO; old Arab living in, 118. 

Capital punishment, on Moslims, in Can- 
ton, by who carried out, 17; in Chan-ch'bng for 
adultery and cowardice in battle, 47; for adultery 
in San-ib-ts'i, 61; for robbery, in Shb-p'o, 77; in 
Ku-lin for killing cattle, 91; by decapitation or 
trampling, in Chu-lien, 95; not inflicted on traders 
in P'o-ni, 156. 

Carbuncle, the great, of the king of Si- 
lan, 73. 

Cardamoms, imported to Aden from China, 
4; a product of Tbng-liu-mei, 57; a product of 
San-fo-ts'i, 61; a product of Si-lan, 73; a product 
of Shb-p'o, 77; a product of pirate islands near 
Shb-p'o, 84; exported to Nan-p'i, 89; a product 
of Chu-lien, 96; exported to Yung-man, 133; 
description of plant, 221; early mention of by 
Chinese, 222; foreign name of, 222; use of, 222. 

Carts, used in "Ta-ts'in, 103; of Liu-k'iu, 163. 

Cash, Chinese, exported in tenth century, 19; 
presented to tribute-bearers from Pin-t'ung-ling,. 
51; none in San-fo-ts'i, 60; smuggling of, to Sho-' 
p'o, 78; great demand for, in Malay Archipelago, 
measures taken by China to stop export of, 81—82; 


Cassia — Chinese. 

given to Chu-lito mission of 1077, 101, n. 12; 
none in Sin-lo, 167; Chinese, hoarded in Korea, 
167, n. 7; not used in Hai-nan, 183. 

Cassia wood, green, a product of Hai-nan, 176. 

Castoreum, exported from Diul-Sindh, 3; 
known to Chinese as Tcu-na-ts'i, 234. 

Cat's-eyes, imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; used 
to ornament palace of king of Si-lan, 72; a pro- 
duct of Si-lan, 73; found in the Tan-shui kiang, 
88; prized in rings, 90; exported from Chu-li6n, 
100, n. 8; come from Nan-p'i, 229; how found, 

Cattigara, port of Tongking known to 
Greeks, 2. 

Cattle, people of Kien-pi trade in, at Ku-lin, 
72, 91; killing, punished by death in Ku-lin, 91; 
raised in Chu-lien, 96; numerous in Chung-Ii, 
130; in Mo-k'i6-la, 154; none in Liu-k'iu, 163; 
sacrifice of, by Li of Hai-nan, 180, 183. 

Cereals, in Chan-ch'bng, 48; in Chon-la, are 
cheap, 53; king of San-fo-ts'i may not eat, 61. 

Ceremonial, of T'ang dynasty sent to Korea, 

Ceylon, known by hearsay to Greeks, 2; 
Greek knowledge of, 2; early Chinese knowledge 
of, 3; its early trade relations, 3; products of, 3; 
Arabs in, 3; first Chinese account of, 3; Cosmas' 
description of, 3; Kia Tan's mention of, 12; other 
Chinese names of, 12; Sea of, 26; Cholian rule 
over, 98; pearls from, 229. — See also Si-lan. 

Cb'a-na-ki, the capital of P'6ng.-k'ie-lo, 97. 

Ch'a-pi-sha, possibly Arabic Djabulsa, Dja- 
birso or Djaborso, the «Land of the setting sun», 
153; the king of, 153; products of, 153; houses 
of, 153; the setting of the sun, 153. 

Ch'ai-li-t'ing, possibly the Cherating river on 
east coast Malay Peninsula, 76, 80. 

Cbaldsea, Chinese first hear of, 4. 

Chan, Fu-lin (q. t.) situated in west of, 104; 
explanation of word, 108—109. 

Chan-oh'ong (Annam), a commercial centre 
for Wa-li, 25; its distance from Tongking, 46; its 
boundaries, 47; its area, 47; its capital, 47; dress 
of king of, audiences, 47; forms of salutation in, 
47; people of, bathe frequently, 47; climate of, 
47; festivals in, 47—48; products of, 48; scented 
wood in, 48; ordeals, 48; slaves in, 48; arrival 
of trading ships in, 48; duties on foreign goods, 
how levied, 48-49; foreign imports into, 49; 
dependencies of, 49; relations with China, 49; its 
various Chinese names, 49; Pin-t'ung-lung paid 
tribute to, 51: distance from, toP'o-ni, 155; early 
use of cotton in, 219, line 12; ivory from, 232; 
parrots from, 236. 

Chan-li-p'o, a dependency of Chbn-Ia, the 
same as Chon-li-fu (q. v.), 56. 

Chan-pel, — see Djambi. 

Chan-pin, passed by mission of 1015 from 
Chu-lien; not identified, but presumably in Pegu, 
100, n. 11. 

Chan-pu-lau, an island off coast of San-fo- 
ts'i, not identified, 100, n. 11. 

Chan-pu-lau, Mount, Culao Cham, 10. 

Chang K'ien, brought to China earliest 
information of Western Asia, 4; learns of com- 
mercial relations of Ssl-ch'uan with India and 
Oxus valley, 6. 

Chang Tsun, his voyage from Canton to 
Siam, 8. 

Chang-yau-sii (Pulo Senang,Bam Island), 64. 

Ch'ang-hua, in Hai-nan, 176, 178; climate 
of, 178-179; people of, 179; places of interest 
near, 179; towns in the department of, 179; 
source of river of, 182. 

Charpoy, used in P'o-ni, 155. 

Chau Ju-hia, 178, 186, n. 10. 

Chau Ju-kua, author of the Chu-fan-chii, 
35—36; his sources of information, 36—38; value 
of his work, 36, 39; bibliography of work of, 38; 
date at which his book was written, 136, n. 2. 

Chau Ting, 179, 187, n. 17; his spring near 
Ch'ang-hua, 179. 

Ch'6-k'ii, nacre-shells, imported to China, 19; 
a product of Kiau-chi, 46; description of, 231. 

Cho-t'i, the Chittis, a caste in Malabar, 89, 
n. 1. 

Chon-la (Kamboja), a commercial centre for 
Wa-li, 25; its position, 52; distance by sea from 
Ts'uan-ch6u, 52; area of, 52; the king, his cloth- 
ing, palace, audiences, 52; dwellings, 52; monu- 
ments in capital of, 53; religion, laws, the priest- 
hood, 53; customs of people of, 53; the soil of, 53; 
products of, 53; trade 53; dependencies of, 53—54, 
56; relations of, with China, 54; Chinese forms of 
name, 54, 57; sweet benzoin from, 198; best kind 
of cardamoms from, 221; ivory from, 232; king- 
fishers feathers from, 235; wax from, 288, 239. 

Chon-li-fu, a dependency of Chon-la, 53, 56. 

Chon-p'u, a dependency of Chon-la, possibly 
the same as Chon-li-fu (q. v.), 56. 

Chon Li, the Marquess, his temple, 179. 

Ch'ong-mai, in Hai-nan, 178. 

Chess, how played by Moslims in Canton, 17 

China, knowledge of Greeks concerning, 2; 
may have been reached by Greeks, 2, 8; trade 
of, described by, Cosmas, 3; its early trade with 
Ceylon, 3; mentioned by Nefarchus, Onesicritus, 
and Cosmas, 5; sea-route from India to, not 
known to Huan-tsang, 8; introduction of Islam 
into, 14; earliest narrative of Arabs concerning, 
15; life of Moslims in, 16—17; its relations with 
Kiau-chil; 45; with Chan-ch'ong, 49; with Pin- 
t'ung-lung, 51, 52; with Chon-la, 54; relations of, 
with P'u-kan, 58; with San-fo-ts'i, 62, 66; rela- 
tions with Sho-p'o, 77; relations of, with Cfiu- 
li§n, 94, 96, 100; early relations of, with Ta-ts'in, 
103—104; relations with T'ien-chu, 111; early 
relations with the Arabs, 117—118; relations 
with Ma-Ii-pa (Merbat), 121, n. 11; relations of, 
with P'o-ni, 157; relations of, with Liu-k'iu, 163, 
n. 1, 164, n. 8; relations with Ji-pon, 170, 171— 
172, 173, n. 7; introduction of cotton into, 219; 
introduction of glass making into, 227. 

Chinese, did not reach India, Ceylon or Ara- 
bia before sixth century, 3; rarely if ever visited 
Western Asian porta, 4; first hear of Syria and 
Chaldsea, 4; when first hear of sea-route from 
Persian Gulf to Egypt, 4; first relations by'sea- 
with India and the West, 5; none had been to' 
the Far West in sixth century, 6; vague know- 
ledge of, concerning Ta-ts'in and India, 7; routes 
followed by pilgrims to India, 8—9; products, 
scare in Basra and Baghdad, 15; did not own or 
navigate ships engaged in Western trade, 15; 

Qhiutzes — Cotton. 


ships go to Kalah, 18; efforts of government to 
develop foreign sea-trade, 19; results of this 
policy, 19; sea-going ships, methods of naviga- 
tion, 27—88; traders to the Arabs' country change 
ships at Ku-lin, 91; trade with realm of Arabs 
conducted through San-fo-ts'i, 114; from Fu-ki6n 
living in Sin-lo, 169, line 39; from Ts'1ian-ch6u 
rarely go to Ji-p6n, 171; trade with Li of Hai- 
nan, 177; settlers in Hai-nan, 181, 182, 183; 
method of making glass, 227. 
Chintzes, coloured, made in Nan-p'i, 88. 
Chola dominion, — see Chu-li6n. 
Cbonen Pujiwara, — see Tiau-jan. 
Chou, Marquess of, 180; establishes markets 
in Hal-nan, 181. 

Chou K'ii-fei, author of Ling-wai-tai-ta, 22; 
quoted on the foreign countries trading with 
Canton, 22—24; quoted on the oceans and coun- 
tries of the "West, 25—27; his description of sea- 
going ships, 33—34; use made of his work by 
Chau Ju-kua, 36—38; his use of the name San- 
fb-ts'i, 63; quoted on the Arabs, 119-120, 121; 
quoted on Mei-lu-ku-tun, 141—142. 

Chou-pau-lung, an island or headland near 
the port of San-fo-ts'i, 100, n. 11. 

Christians, of India, 105, 106; their chief, 
the patriarcl) of Baghdad, 105; of Syria, captives 
in Persia, 109-110; of Malabar, possibly visited 
China, 112-113. . . 

Chrysanthemum, time of blooming in Hai- 
nan, 179. ,. . . „ „ . 
Chu-ai, one of the ancient divisions oi Hai- 
nan, 175, 176. - ;, .. 
Chu-ko Wu, Marquess, temple in Pagan dedi- 
cated to, 58; his inventions for war operations, 

111. 113- . , r, 

Chu-lien, the Chola dominions, the Ooroman- 

del coast, a vassal of San-fo-ts'i (Palembang), 59; 
also called Southern India, 93; position of capital 
of 93-94; no relations between, and China, 94; 
how it can be reached, 94; the great city of, 94; 
the thirty-two pu-lo of, 94-95; punishment of 
crimes in, 95; ceremonies at banquets in, 95; the 
dress and food of the prince of, 95; marriage 
customs in, 95; taxes in, heavy, 95; the army ot, 
96; methods of warfare, 96; products, 96; the re- 
lations of, with China, 96; envoys of, ranked with 
those of K'iu-tz'i {K6cha), 96; is the Ma abar of 
the Arabs, 98; other Chinese names of, 98; rule 
of, over Ceylon, 98; the mission of 1015, 99, n. d, 
100, n. 11; sovereigns of, 99-100, n. 6. 

Chu Ying, Ms mission to Indo-China, b. 
' Chu Yii, author of P'ing-ch6u-k'o-t'an (q. v.) 
when he lived, 16. 

Chung-ka-lu, — see Jung-ya-lu. 

Chung-li (Somali Coast), 130; the people of, 
dress, food, occupations, 130; the only country 
producing frankincense, 130; sorcerers ot, 130- 
131; flocks of birds of passage id, 131; mortuary 
customs in, 131; whales, how used in, 131; dra- 
gon's-blood, tortoise-shell and ambergris come 

from, 131. ^ . , _, . ,„. 

Cinnabar, imported by Persians to CMna, lb, 

a product of Kiau-chi, 46; imported to Sho-p o, 

78; its use in Su-ki-tan, 83; exported from Ki- 

ahi, 134. „ _, . . 

Cinnamon, imported to Aden from China, 4. 

Civet, procured frSm K'i6-li-ki, 284; exported 
from Zeila on Somali coast, 235. 

Cleanliness, in eating of Moslims in Canton, 
17; habits of, of people of Chan-ch'5ng, 47; 
customs connected with, in Chbn-la, 53; about 
hair and nails among Arabs, 116, 

Climate, of Chan-ch'ong, 47; of Chon-la, 52; 
of San-fo-ts'i, 60; of Nan-p'i, 88; in Arabs coun- 
try, 115; of Ts'6ng-pa, 126; of Ki-tz'i-ni, 138; of 
Fo-ni, 156; of Hai-nan, 177, 178-179, 180. 

Cloves, imported into Ceylon, 3; into Aden, 4; 
a product of San-fo-ts'i, 61; imported to Si-lan, 
73; a product of Sho-p' o, 77; a product of pirate 
islands near Sho-p'o, 84; exported to Nan-p'i, 89; 
exported to Yung-man, 133; a product of Hai- 
nan, 176; varieties of, 209. 

Coast, «Lower» and «Upper», countries, 
explanation of terms, 79, 204. 
Cobalt blue, — see Wu-ming-i. 
Cock, fighting, in Sho-p'o, 77. 
Coeoanuts, imported at Aden from China, 4; 
principal food of Nicobar islanders, 12; juice of, 
drunk in Chan-ch'ong, 48; grown in Chan-ch'ong, 
48; wine of, in San-fo-ts'i, 60; grown in Sho-p'o, 
77; wine of, in Sho-p'o, 78; a product of Ku-lin, 
89; a product of Chu-li6n, 96; wine of, in P'o-ni, 
155; a product of Hai-nan, 176, 183; description 
of, 214; wine made from juice of, in Nan-p'i, 
214; origin of Chinese name for, 215. 

Coir-palm, bark of, used to thatch houses 
in Sin-t'o, 70. 
Comoro islands, — see Kan-mei. 
Compass, when first used in navigation, 28— 
29; its use in navigation in twelfth century, 32; 
reference to use of, 176. 

Conch shell, ground pieces of, used as money 
in P'6ng-k'ie-lo, 97; pieces of, ground sharp used 
as knives in Yen-t'o-man islands, 147. 

Constantinople, possible reference to, 141, 
142. ~ , 

Copper, exported from Calliana, 3; imported 
to Canton, 16; household utensils in Si-lan of, 73; 
used in alloy for Sho-p'o currency, 78; white, 
used in Sho-p'o, 78, 81; a product of T'ito-chu, 
111; exported to Ts'ong-pa, 126; household 
utensils of, in Sin-lo, 167; temple bells, made in 
Sin-lo, 168. 
Copperas, imported to Sho-p o, 78. 
Coral, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
imported to China in tenth century, 19; imported 
to San-fo-ts'i, 61, a product of Chu-lien, 96; a 
product of Ta-ts'in, 103; comes from Wu-ssi-h, 
140; found off coast of Mo-k'i6-la, 154; two kinds 
of, on coast of P'u-li-lu (Philippine Islands), 162; 
description of, mode of fishing, 226 

Cornelians, imported by Persians to China, 
16; imported to China in tenth century, 19; used 
to ornament palaces of king of Si-lan, 72; a pro- 
duct of Ta-ts'in, 103; pillars of, in palace otking 
of the Arabs, 115. . „ 

Cosmas Indicopleustes, his knowledge oX 
China, 2, 5; describes trade of Ceylon with China, 
3- his reference to Kulam-Male (Quilon), 12. 
' Cotton, fabrics, exported from India, 3; fabncs 
imported to Aden, 4; tree, and fct-pc?, products of 
Kiau-chi, 46; M-pet, a product of Chan-ch ong, 
48- figured stuffs of, in Chan-ch'ong, 48; fabrics. 


Counting — Dress. 

products of Chon-la, 53; faCrics, imported to San- 
fo-ts'i, 61; damasked gauzes of, manufactured in 
Sha-p'o, 78; fabrics of, made on pirate islands 
near Sho-p'o, 84; tissues, made in Nan-p'i, 88; 
fabrics made in Hu-ch'a-la and sold to the Arabs, 
92; Ma-lo-bua exports tissues of, 93; fabrics, 
mixed witb sUk, a product of Chu-li§n, 96; tissues 
made in P'Ong-k'ie-lo, 97; fine flowered and dotted 
tissues of, from Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98; tissues expor- 
ted from Chu-lien, 100, n. 8; tissues exported to 
Ts'ong-pa, 126; red, 126; fabrics, exported from 
Ki-sM, 134; in P'o-ni, 155; a product of Ma-i, 
160; exported from the San-su, 161; fabrics of 
Sin-lo, 168; tissues in Ji-pbn, 171; grown in Hai- 
nan, 176; weaving in Hai-nan, 183; tree, in Hai- 
nan, 183; chief export from Hai-nan, 185; descrip- 
tion of plant, 217; tissues made from, 217-218; 
early history of, 218—220; cultivation and spinn- 
ing of, in China, 219; various tissues made of, 
217, 218, 219, 220. 

Counting, natives of pirate Islands near Sho- 
p'o, unacquainted with, 85; natives of Tan-jung- 
wu-lo, and Ma-li have some knowledge of, 85. 

Cowries, a product of Kiau-chif, 46; the cur- 
rency of T'ien-chu, 111. 

Crabs, fossil, a product of Hai-nan, 177, 
186, n. 6. 

Crime, committed by foreigners in China, how 
tried and punished, 17; of adultery in Chan- 
ch'ong, how punished, 47; of adultery and theft 
in Ohon-la, how punished, 53; of adultery, how 
punished in San-fo-ts'i, 61; how punished in Sho- 
p'o, 76-77; how punished in Chu-lien, 95; how 
punished in Sin-lo, 167, 169, n. 5; how punished 
in Ji-pon, 171. 

Cryptomeria trees, planks of, exported from 
Ji-p6n to Ts'aan-ch6u, 171. 

Crystal, rock, imported by Persians to China, 
16, 19; pillars of, in palace of Ta-ts'in, 102; tiles 
of, in palace of king of Arabs, 115. 

Cubeb^, imported to Aden, 4; a product of 
Sho-p'o, 224; a product of Su-ki-tan, 224; de- 
scriptioli of vine, 224; Chinese name for, a foreign 
one, 224. 

Culao Cham, 10, 100, line 50. 

Cupchi Point, on coast of Kuang-tung, 24. 

Currency, uoue in Chan-ch'ong, 48; of San- 
fo-ts'i, 60; silver, of Su-ki-tan, 82; alloy of copper, 
silver, white copper and tin used to make, in 
Shb-p'o, 78, 81; of alloyed silver in Nan-p'i, 88; 
gold and silver, of Ku-lin, 89; of P'6ng-k'ie-Io, 
bits of coneh shells, 97; of Chu-lien, of gold and 
silver, 100, n. 8; cowries, in T'ien-chu, 111, 113; 
of Ts'ong-t'an, 127; of Ki-shi, 134; of Lu-meif, 141; 
in Sin-lo, 169, lines 23-26; of Ji'-pon, 171, 174; 
n. 11. 

Curtains, embroidered by Li in Hai-nan, 176, 
180, 188. 

Customs, Maritime, Inspector of, at Canton, 
9; his duties, 9, 15; Chinese ports where establish- 
ed, 18; Maritime, at Canton, reorganized, 20; 
all foreign imports by sea, deposited in ware- 
houses, 20; Inspectorates of Maritime, established 
at Hang-ch6u and Ning-po, 20; the organization 
of the, from tenth to twelfth centuries, 20, 21; 
duties, irregulairty in levying, 20; Maritime, at 
Canton and Ts'uan-ch6u in 1178, 22, 23; annual 

fairs for sale foreign imports established by, 23; 
rules established by, for foreign ships entering 
and clearing Canton, 23; Superintendent of, at 
Canton, appoints head-men on trading ships, 31; 
practices of, in Chan-ch'ong, on arrival of ships, 
48; Maritime, try to prevent exportation of copper 
cash, 81—82; statioiis in Hai-nan, 178; revenue 
collected by, on betel-nuts, 214. 

Daibul, possibly the Ti-yfi of Kia Tan, 13. 

Damascus, possible reference to, 141. 

Damasks, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
of cotton, made in Shb-p'o, 78; black, imported 
to Shb-p'o, 78; black, imported to San-sfl, 162. 

Damietta, — see T'o-pan-ti. 

Dammar, a product of Chbn-la, 53, 199; 
description of, 199; varieties of, 199—200. 

Dancing-girls, slaves, serve in temples of 
Buddha in Chbn-la, 53, 55; of king of Nan-p'i, 
87; in temples in Hu-ch'a-la, 92; attendants of 
king of Chu-lien, 95; at the court of the king of 
Calicut, 100. 

Darkness, Land of, reached from Mu-lan- 
p'i, 143. 

Dates, imported' by Persians to China, 16; a 
product of Chu-lien, 96; abundant in Yung-man, 
133; of Pi-ssi-lo, 137; cloves confounded with 
stone of, 209; Chinese names of, 210. 

Degrees, literary, in Sin-lo, 167. 

Dependencies, of Chan-chbng, 49, 50; of 
Chbn-la, 53-54, 56; of San-fo-ts'i, 62; of Sho-p'o, 
83; of Nan-p'i, 88; of the Arabs, 116-117. 

Dhofar, — see Nu-fa. 

Diamonds, imported by Persians to China 16; 
found in Tien-chu, 111. 

Dishes, used by foreigners in Canton, 17; 
palm-leaves used as, in Tbng-liu-mei, 57; of cop- 
per in Si-lan, 73; separate, used by each member 
of family in Chu-lien, 96; used by Japanese, 171. 

Diu, the island of, possibly referred to by Kia 
Tan, 13. 

Diul-Sindh, terminus Greek sea-route to 
India, 2; its trade according to Cosmas, 3; Chi- 
nese overland trade with, 5. 

Divination, in Ji-pbn, 171; by pc'i-kiau 
tablets, 178. 

Djambi, in eastern Sumatra, 65; kingdom of, 
sends missions to Chinese court, 66. 

Dogs, bred in Lu-mei, 141; sacrificed in Hai- 
nan, 183. 

Donkeys, none in Liu-k'iu, 163; none in Sin- 
lo, 169, line 17; in Ji-pbn, 171. 

Dragon's-blood, comes from island near Pi- 
p'a-lo, 131, 197; description of tree, mode of 
gathering, 197-198, adulterated, 198. 

Dress, in Kiau-chi, 45; in Chan-ch'6ng, 47; 
in Tbng-liu-mei, 57; in P'u-kan, 58; in San-fo- 
ts'i, 60, 61; in Tan-ma-ling, 67; in Ling-ya-ssi- 
kia, 68; in Sin-t'o, 70; in Si-lan, 72; of king of 
Shb-p'o, 76; of people of Shb-p'o, 77; in Su-ki- 
tan, 82; of ruler of Nan-p'i, 87; of people of Hu- 
ch'a-la, 92; in Chu-li^n, 95, 100, n. 8; in Ta-ts'in, 
103, 104; of the Caliph and of the patriarch of 
Baghdad, 106-107; of king of the Arabs, 15; of 
people of Ts'6ng-pa, 126; of king of Wu-pa, 130; 
of people of Chung-li, 130; in Yung-man, 133; in 
Ki-shi, 134; iu Pai-ta, 135; in Lu-mei, 141; in 
Po-ssi (in Sumatra?) 152; of king of Mo-k'i6-la, 

Driving — Pu-ling. 


154; in Po-ni, 155; of people of Ma-i, 159; in 
Liu-k'iu, 163; in Ji-pon, 170; in Hai-nan, 177, 
182, 184, 190. ' 

Driving out evil, New Year's ceremony in 
Chan-ch'ong, 47-48; in Hai-nan, 180. 

Drums, imported into Chon-la, 53; kettle, in 
She-p'o, 77; bronze, in Hai-nan, 177, 186, n. g. 
Ducks, abundant in Sho-p'o, 77. 
Dumb trading, Tu Huan quoted on, in the 
Western Sea, 104, 110. 

Dung, cow, walls and floors of houses in Nan- 
ni-hua-lo smeared with, 97. 

Duties, collected on foreign ships at Canton, 
9, 15; irregularities in collection of import, 20; 
tariff of import, 21, 22; clearance, 21; local 
market, 21; punishment for non-payment of, 21; 
when levied, 23; import, in Chan-ch'ong, 48; har- 
borage, none collected in Su-ki-tan, 83. 
Dwarfs, country of, — see Ji-pon. 
Ears, lobes of, of people of Nan-p'i reach 
their shoulders, 88; of Li of Hai-nan, 178. 

Eating, customs in, of foreigners at Canton, 
17; customs in, of people of Chon-la, 53; do., of 
people of Tong-liu-mei, 57; do., of islanders near 
Sho-p'o, 84; customs concerning, in Chu-li6n, 96; 
habits of, in Ta-ts'in, 103; customs in, in Po-ssi 
(in Sumatra?), 152; customs, in Liu-k'iu, 163. 

Ebony, of Ceylon, 3; imported to Aden, 4; to 
China, 19; a product of Chan-ch'ong, 48; a pro- 
duct of Tan-ma-ling, 67; description of, 216; 
origin of name, 216, Note. 

Eclipses, people of San-fo-ts'i able to calcu- 
late, 64. 

Edrlsi, his views on the China trade with 
Aden, 3; quoted, 89, n. 3. 
Educational establishments in Sin-Io, 167. 
Egg-plant, grown in Sin-t'o, 70. 
Egypt — see Mi-sii-li and Wu-ssi-li. 
Elephants, war elephants of Chon-la, 53; 
plentiful in San-fo-ts'i, 63; trade in, between 
Kien-pi and Ku-lin, 72, 73, 91; used in war in 
Nan-p'i, 88; used in war in Hu-ch'a-la, 92; do., 
in Ohu-lien, 96; gifts made to, in Chu-li6n, 100; 
in T'ien-chu, 111; mode of capturing, 117—118, 
232; none in Ji-pon, 171; how killed, 232. 

Elias III, possibly «the king of Ta-ts'in», 
107; his love for building, 107. 
Engano, island of, the country of women, 152. 
Etna, Mount -^ see Ssi-kia-li-ye. 
Exports, principal from China, 3; so called 
Persian, 7—8, 9; from China at end tenth cen- 
tury, 19; of Eiau-chi, 46; of Chan-ch'ong, 48; of 
Chou-la, 53; of Tong-liu-mei, 57; of San-fo-ts'i. 
61; of°Tan-ma-ling, 67; of Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; of 
Fo-lo-an, 69; of Si-lan. 73; to Sho-p'o, 78; to 
Nan-p'i, 88-89; of Hu-ch'a-la, 92; of Ma-lo-hua, 
93; from the Arabs' country, 116, 120; to Ma-li- 
pa (Merbat) from Lan-wu-li, 120; to Ts'ong-pa, 
126; to Yung-man, 133; from P'o-ni, 156; of the 
Ma-i islands, 160; of San-sO, 161-162; of Sin-lo, 
168; of Ji-pon to Ts'uan-ch6u, 171; of Hai-nan 
176, 177. 

Fa-hien, first Chinese to visit Ceylon, 3; crew 

of ship on which he made voyage to Java, 7; his 

narrative of his voyage from India to China, 27-28. 

Fair, annual for sale foreign imports, 23; along 

banks of the great harbour of the Arabs, 116. 

Pansur — see Piu-su. 

Festivals, of Kiau-chi, 45; on birthday of the 
Buddha of Fo-lo-an, 69; of Sho-p'o, 77; atMa-kia 
(Mecca) on anniversary of Mohammed's death, 
124; in P'o-ni, 156, 157. 

Fong-ya-lo, a dependency of Nan-p'i; in 
Amoy dialect Jiang-ga-lo, probably Mangalore, 
88, 90. 

Fines, for crimes, in Sho-p'o, 75 -76; for crimes 
by foreigners in P'o-ni, 156. 

Fish, flying, 8; caught with smaller in belly, 
33: devour corpses at sea, 33; saw-fish, 33; abun- 
dant in Sho-p'o, 77; rarelv eaten in Nan-mi- 
hua-lo, 98; little eaten atPai-ta, 135; little eaten 
at K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; glue, a product of Hai-nan, 177; 
sold to natives of Hai-nan, 177. 
Flour, imported to Hai-nan, 177. 
Flowers, worn in hair in Tong-liu-mei, 57; 
offered to king and to the Buddha in P'u-kan, 58; 
wine of, in San-fo-ts'i, 60, 64; offered the idols in 
Hu-ch'a-la, 92. 

Fo, Buddha, name used in sense of «a god», 
88, 90, n. 5; in sense of Brahma, 97; Mohammed 
called a, 116. 

Fo-lo-an (Beranang), W. coast Malay Penin- 
sula, 26; a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; its 
distance from Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 69; two images of 
Buddhas in, 69; the feast of the Buddha of, 69; 
native products of, 69; sends annual tribute to 
San-fo-ts'i, 69; chief of, appointed by San-fo-ts'i, 
69; Arabs' trade centers at, 116. 

Fo-shi, country of, Eastern Sumatra, 11; — 
see San-fo-ts'i. 

Food, of Moslims, in Canton, 17; allowed king 
of San-fo-ts'i, 61; horses and buffaloes used as, 
in Sho-p'o, 77; of natives of islands near Sho-p'o, 
84; people of Nan-p'i dainty about, 88; given to 
king of Nan-p'i, how regulated, 88; in Nan-p'i 
abundant and cheap, 88; in Hu-ch'a-la, no meat 
used as, 92; of king of Chu-lien, 95; of people of 
Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98; of Ta-ts'in, 103, 104; of Arabs, 
115; in Ts'6ng-pa, 126; in Pi-p'a-lo, 128; of Chung- 
li, 130; of Yung-man, 133; of people ofPai-ta, 
135; of people of Pi-ssi-lo, 137; of people of K'i- 
tz'i-ni, 138; in Lu-mei, 141; in Wu-ssi-li (Egypt), 
144; in Po-ssi (Sumatra?), 152; in Mo-k'ie-Ia, 154; 
of Ji-pon, 170; of Li aborigines of Hai-nan, 176. 
Foreign settlements in China, in seventh 
century, 14; administration of Moslim, at Canton, 
16-17; in Ts'iian-chou, in Yang-ch6u, 16. 
Formosa — see Liu-k'iu and Pi-sho-ye. 
Fowls, domestic, abundant in Sho-p'o, 77; in 
P'o-ni, 155; in Liu-k'iu, 163; sacrificed in Hai- 
nan, 183. 

Frankincense, imported to Canton, 16; 
imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; of Pi-p'a-lo, 129, n. 4; 
of Chung-li, 130, 132, n. s; countries producing, 
195; description of tree, 195; mode of collecting, 
195; varietes of, 195-196. 

Fruit, extraordinary, of Mu-lan-p'i, 142; many 
varieties in Mo-k'ie-la, 154. 

Fu-li-la river, probably the Mindb on which 
stood Old Hormuz, 14. 

Fu-lin, a name of Ta-ts'in, according to Tu 
Huan, 104; identified with Syria, 108-110. 

Fu-ling, a medicinal fungus, a product of 
Sin-lo, 168. 


Fu-nan — Head-dress. 

Pu-nan, trade between T'ien-chu and, 111. 

Fu-ta, the city of, possibly Fostat, the modern 
Cairo, 14. 

Fu-yiin, in Hai-nan, 181. 

Furs, exported from China, overland to India, 
5; sable, from T'i6n-chu, 111. 

Oalangal, imported to Aden from China, 4; 
imported by Persians to China, 16; dried, im- 
ported into San-fo-ts'i, 61; a product of Hai- 
nan, 177. 

Gambling, prohibited in Canton foreign 
settlement, 17. 

Gamboge, a product of Chon-la, 55. 

Gardenia flowers, imported by Arabs to San- 
fo-ts'i, 61; exported from Ki-shii, 134; a product 
of Lu-mei, 141; countries of origin, 202; descrip- 
tion of, 202. 

Gauzes, of silk, imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; of 
cotton, made in Sho-p'o, 78. 

((Gentlemen, the Country of», Sin-lo so called, 
167, 169, n. 6, 8. 

Gharu-wood, imported to Ceylon, 3; exported 
from China to Aden, 4; varieties found in Kiau- 
chi, 46; varieties found in Chan-ch'ong, 48, 50; 
used in throne of king of Chon-la, 52; varieties 
found in Chon-la, 53; varieties found in Tijng- 
liu-mei, 56, 57; found in San-fo-ts'i, 61; su variety 
of, a product of Tan-ma-ling, 67; varieties of, 
found in Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; varieties of, found 
in Fo-lo-an, 69; of Sho-p o, 81; exported to Nan- 
p'i, 89; on islands near P'o-ni, 158; trade in, of 
aborigines of Hai-nan, 176: quality of, of Hai- 
nan, 183, 185; countries of production, 204; 
varieties of, 204-205; tsien-hiang, 206; su and 
chan-hiang, 207; Imang-shou-hiang, 207; shong- 
hiang, 208. 

Ghazni — see Ho-si-na, Ki-tz'i-ni, K'ie-shO- 
na, Ts'au. 

Gift, of person's weight in money, to ward off 
death, 61, 64-65. 

Ginger, peel, a product of Chon-la, 53, 55. 

Ginseng, a product of Sin-lo, 168. 

Girafe — see Tsu-la. 

Glass, both transparent and opaque, imported 
by Persians to China, 16; opaque, screens round 
throne in Si-lan, 72; red transparent, a product 
of Si-lan, 73; transparent and opaque a product 
of Chu-lien, 96; opaque, a product of Ta-ts'in, '. 
103; best opaque manufactured in Fu-lin (Syria), 
109; engraved, a product of Pai-ta, 135, 137, n. 4; 
engraved, a product of K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; superior, 
from Lu-mei, 141; beads arid bottles imported to 
P'o-ni, 156; coloured, beads, imported to Ma-i, 
160; coloured, beads, imported to San-sO, 162; 
Arab, method of making, 227; early hisbory of, 
from Chinese sources, 227—228. 

Goats, abundant in Shb-p'o, 77; in Chu- 
lien, 96. 

Gold, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
imported into China in tenth century, 19; a pro- 
duct of Kiau-chi, 46; imported to Chon-la, 53; 
imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; bowls, imported to 
Tan-ma-ling, 67; relative value of, and silver, in 
Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; brought to Fo-lo-an, 69; 
brought to Si-lan, 73; used in trade in Sho-p'o. 
78; trade gold, in Su-ki-tan, 82; currency, of Ku- 
lin, 89; coins used in Chu-lien, 100, n. 8; a pro- 

duct of Ta-ts'in, 103; a product of T'ien-chii, 111; 
of Ts'6ng-pa, 1'26; of Pai-ta, 185; of K'i-tz'i-ni, 
138; water turning everything to, in Yen-t'o-man 
island, 148; a product of Ch'a-pi-sha, 153; house- 
hold vessels of, in P'o-ni, 155; trade-gold in P'o- 
ni, 156; trade-gold in islands near P'o-ni, 158; 
do., taken to Ma-i, 160; exported from Liu-k'iu 
to San-su; 163; found in Ji-p6n, 171. 

Gourds, bottle, grown in She-p'o, 70; large, 
used for household utensils in Hai-nan, 177. 

Grapes, wine made of, by Ta-shi, 115. 

Greeks, early knowledge of sea-route to 
India, 1; route followed by, on voyage to India, 
2; their knowledge of sea-route to Far East, 2; 
their knowledge of China, 2; . took no share in 
trade with China, 4; knew China only by name, 
5; their information about Chinese exports, 5. 

Green Sea, the, Arab name of the Ocean, 12. 

Guzerat, early sea-trade of Sabeans with, 1; 
the country of Pa-yu, on the coast of, 13; famous 
for its temples, 92; pepper and tissues, 92-93; — 
see Hu-ch'a-la. 

Gypsum, used in making glass, 227. 

Hadramaut — see Ma-lo-pa. 

Hai-k'ou (Hoihow), in Hai-nan, 178; temple 
at, 178. 

Hai-Lau «Sea Lau», in Canton, 16, n. 2. 

Hai-mei-ehi, a product of Hai-nan, unidenti- 
fied, 176, 186, n. 6. 

Hai-nan, early administrative divisions of, 
175-176; the Li aborigines of, 176; the products 
of, 176; trade of, 177; the people of, 177; K'iung- 
chou in, 177-178; Hai-k'6u (Hoihow) in, 178,, 180; 
Ch'ang-haa in, 178-179; Ki-yang, in, 179-180; 
Wan-an, in, 181; Wan-ning, in, 181; Chinese 
settlers in, 181; drug shops iirst established in, 
181; temple to ship-captain in, 181; the Li-mii 
shan in, 182; the natives of, 182; their chiefs' 
names, 182; dress of natives, 182—183, 184. 

Hai-tan, the Acta negritos of the Philippines, 

Haliotis shells, a product of Sin-lo, 168. 

Hall, of Worship, of Ta-ts'in, 103; tunnel 
from palace to, 103; worship every seven days 
in, 103; public, in Sin-lo, 167. 

Hammock-litter, of cotton, used by king of 
Chan-ch'ong, 47; called ti-ya in Chan-ch'6Dg, 50; 
used in Si-lan, 72; in Sho-p'o, 77; used in Nan- 
p'i, 87, 90, n. 4; used in Po-ssi (in Sumatra?), 
152; of P'o-ni, 155. 

Han Huan-ti, mission from western Asia 
comes to court of, 5. 

Han-lin, an officer of the king of Nan-p'i, 
his duties, 88. 

Han Wu-ti, the Emperor, sends mission to 
western Asia^ 4; sends a mission to Hai-nan, 175. 

Hang-chou, organization of foreign settle- 
ment at, 16; Maritime customs at, 18. 

Hanoi, the Cattigara of the Greeks, 2; trade 
route from, to K'in-chou, 6. 

Hares, none in Sin-lo, 169, line 17. 

Hazel-nuts, a product of Sin-lo, 168. 

Head-dress, of ruler of Pin-t'ung-lung, 51; 
of ruler of Tong-liu-mei, 57; in P'u-kan, 58; of 
king of San-fo-ts'i, 61; in Tan-ma-ling, 67; in 
Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; of king of Si-lan, 72; of Idng 
of Sho-p'o, 76; of king of Su-ki-tan, 82; of his 

Head-dress — Indus. 


attendants, and people, 82; of ruler of Nan-p'i 
87; of people of Hu-ch'a-la, 92; in Chu-lien, lOo' 
n. 8; of king of Ta-ts'in, 102; of T'iSn-chn, 110- 
of king of the Arabs, 115; of ruler of Ch'a-pi- 
sha, 153; of Li of Hai-nan, 182, 184. 
Head-men,on merchant ships, their duties,31. 
Heaven, the Arabs worship, 116; Arabs pray 
to, five times daily, 135; prayers of king of Mo- 
k'ie-la to, 154. 

Hei-shui, the Irrawadi river, 26; formed 
boundary line of Pagan, 59, 101. 

Hemp, grown in Chan-ch'ong, 48; grown in 
Sh6-p'o, 77; grown in Nan-p'i, 88; grown in Fo- 
ni, 155; grown in Sin-lo, 169, line 42; grown in 
Hai-nan, 176, 183. 
Hen's nest island, — see Tsiau-shi island. 
Hermut, a perfumed seed, imported to Aden 
from China, 4. 

Hi-ning, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 83; possibly 
Singhasari, 86. 

Hia-nau-tan tree, inner part used to make 
a liquor in Sho-p'o, 78, 81. 

Hiang-p'u, «List of perfumes», by Hung Chu, 
183, 189, n. Si. 

Hie-ki-si, a precious stone found in Ta-ts'in, 
also called tung-t'ien-si; not identified, 103. 

((Hill of Gold and Silvera, statue in San-fo-ts'i 
called, 61. 

Hing-k'in, the Bonze, his journey to the realm 
of the Arabs, 117. 
Hippopotamus, in the Nile, 145. 
Ho-ch'i, silks from, sold in Tan-ma-ling, 67, 
68; sold in Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; sold in Nan-p'i, 88. 
■ Ho-ling — see Java. 

Ho-man, Chinese (or Arab ?) skipper who 

discovered Liu-k'iu (Formosa), 163, n. i. 

Ho-si-na (Ghazni), the capital of Ts'au, 225. 

Holy -water, of T'i6n-chu which stills the 

waves, 105, line 24, Hi; from the well Zemzem, 

in Mecca, 113; from well of Ishmael, 113, n. 2. 

Hormuz, possibly visited by Chinese, 4; only 
probable reference to by Chinese, 14. 

Horses, exported from China to Aden, 4; of 
Chon-la, numerous but small, 53; numerous in 
P'u-kan, 58; Arabs trade in, at Ku-lin, 72, 91; 
imported to Si-lan, 73; eaten in Sho-p'o, 77; for 
military service raised in Tan-jung-wu-lo and 
Ma-li, 84—85; army, in Hu-ch'a-la, 92; large, 
sent from T'i6n-chu to China, 111; of Arab army, 
115; raising of, in Yung-man, 133; fine, in Ki- 
Shi, 134; raising of, in K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; do, in Lu- 
mei, 141; «water-horses» of the Nile, 145; none 
in Liu-k'iu, 163; of Hai-nan, 183. 

Houses, of Pin-t'ung-lung, how built, 51; of 
Chon-la, 52; of San-fo-ts'i, 60; of Tan-ma-ling, 
67; in Sin-t'o, 70; in Sho-p'o painted, 77; in Su- 
ki-tan, 83; of Ta-pan, 84; of islanders near Sho- 
p'o, 84; in Arab capital, 115; of Chung-li, 130; of 
K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; of Ch'a-pi-sha, 153; of P'o-ni, 
155; in Liu-k'iu, 163; of Li of Hai-nan, 183. 

Hu, people of western Asia, first arrival in 
Canton, 6; characters, used in writing in Ta-ts'in, 
103; the name, sometimes applied to Indians, 114. 
Hu-ch'a-la, a dependency of Nan-p'i (Mala- 
bar), 88; extent of, 92; dress of people of, 92; no 
ineat eaten in, 92; temples of, 92; elephants and 
horses of, 92; the king of, 92; native products of. 

92; trade of, with the Arabs, 92; Ts'ong-pa, south 
of, 126; its trade with Ts'6ng-pa, 126. 

Hu-pei, pearls from, 229. 

Hu Tan-an, 178; quoted, 180, 187, n. lo. 

Huan-wang — see Chan-ch'ong. 

Hiian-tsang, the pilgrim; knew nothing of 
sea-route from India to Far East, 8; first Chi- 
nese to mention Nicobar islands by name, 12; 
mentions Kulam-Male, 12; reference to his tra- 
vels, 97; referes to cotton tissues in India, 218, 
line 45. 

Huang Hou-shon, establishes drug shops 
in Hai-nan, 181. 

Huang-hua-ssi-ta-ki, a work by Kia Tan, 
quoted, 97. / ' 

Huang-lien, the rhizoma of the Coptis ieeta, 
Wall., exported to Nan-p'i, 88. 

Huang-ma-chu, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 
83; nutmegs from, 210. 

Huang Tan-p'o, introduces cotton spinning 
into China, 219. 
Huo-shi, possibly soapstone, 115, 120, n. 4. 
Huo-ts'i, a stone like talc, a product of India, 
possibly isinglass, or lapis lazuli, 111, 113. 

I, a weight of twenty taels, used only in 
weighing gold, 73. 
I-lu (Irak) a dependency of the Arabs, 117. 
I-lun, in Ch'ang-hua department, in Hai-nan, 
179. . " ' 

I-ma-lo-li, an island between Chan-pin (q. v.) 
and Ku-lo (q. v.), passed by Chu-lien mission of 
1015, 100, n. 11, not identified. 
I-tsing, the pilgrim, mentions the Nicobars, 12. 
I-wu, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 83. 
Ibn Wahab of Basra, his narrative concern- 
ing China, 15. 

Idols, of bronze in Ma-i,"159; Pigafetta's note 
on idols in Qebu, 160, n. 2. 

Ifrikiya, Africa, but more particularly the 
coast of Tunis and "Tripoli, 122, — see P'i-no-ye. 
Imports, principal, into China, 16, 19; duties 
levied on foreign imports in China, 21, 23; into 
Chan-ch'ong, 49; into Chbn-la, 53; into San-fo- 
ts'i, 61; into Tan-ma-ling, 67; into Fo-lo-an, 69; 
into Si-lan, 73; into Sho-p'o, 78; to Nan-p'i, 88— 
89; from Yung-man, 133; into P'o-ni, 156; into 
the Ma-i islands, 160; into Sin-lo, 168; from Hai- 
nan, 176-177. 

India, Sabeans trade with, 1; Alexander the 
Great and the sea-trade with, 1; Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus and the sea-trade with, 2; extent of 
Greek knowledge of coast of, 2; West coast of, 
and Greek trade, 2; visited by Chinese, 3; begin- 
ning of sea-trade between China and, 6; vagueness 
of Chinese knowledge concerning, in fifth century, 
7; western frontier of, 13; Western, meaning of 
term, 25; Christians of, 105, 112—113; frankin- 
cense in, 196; cotton in, 218; — see also T'ien-chu. 
Indigo, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
Hu-ch'a-la produces a great quantity, 92; men- 
tioned as product of Persia, 217, lines 23-26. 

Indo-China, early trade with Ceylon, 3; early 
trade between China and, 5-6; mission of Chu 
Ying to, 6; sea route from India to, not known to 
Hiian-tsang, 8. 

Indus, sea-route from Bed Sea to, early 
knowledge of, 1; Chinese overland trade to mouth 


Indus — Ki-tz"i-ni. 

of, 5; called Mi-lan by Kia Tan and Mihran by 
the Arabs, 13; called the Sin-t'ou river, 13. 

Inspector, of Maritime Trade, at Canton, 
registered captains of ships, 9; inspected ships' 
manifests, 9; collected duties and freight char- 
ges, 9; prevented export of certain articles, 9; at 
Canton, received complaints for non-payment of 
loans, interest on loans, 17; customs, in Hai- 
nan, 178. 

Interest, on loans to foreigners at Canton, 17. 

'Irak — see I-lu. 

Iron, exported from China to Aden, 4; of 
China exported overland to mouth of Indus, 5; a 
product of Kiau-chi, 46; imported into San-fo-ts'i, 
61; imported to Fo-lo-an, 69; tripods of, imported 
to Sho-p'o, 78; swords, made on pirate islands 
near Shb-p'o, 84; a product of T'ien-chu, 111; 
none on Yen-t'o-man islands, 147; censers and 
needles of, imported to Ma-i, 160; fondness for, 
of P'i-sho-ye savages, 185; imported to Hai-nan, 
177; none in Hai-nan, 183, 

Irrawadi river, called the «Black Watera, 
26, 59. 

Ishmael, well of, same as well Zemzem, 
113, n. 2. 

Islam, when introduced into China, 14; law 
of, administered in foreign settlement in Canton, 
16, 17; people of Ts'ong-pa prefers, 126; in Pi- 
p'a-lo, 128; in Mo-k'ie-la, 154.- 

Ispahan — see Ya-ssi-pau-hien. 

Ivory, imported to Aden, 4; to Canton, 16, 19; 
import duty on, 21; comes from Kiau-chi, 46; 
from Chan-ch'ong, 48; from Chon-la, 53; imported 
to San-fo-ts'i, 61; comes from Tan-ma-ling, 67; 
from Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; from Fo-lo-an, 69; from 
Ki6n-pi, 71; from Lan-wu-li, 72; from Sho-p'o, 
77; from Chu-lien, 96; exported from Chu-lien, 
100; comes from Arabs' country, 116; in Ts'ijng- 
pa, 126; best in Pi-p'a-lo, 128; big tusks of, from 
K'un-lung-ts'ong-k'i, 149; countries producing, 
232; how procured, 232; various kinds, 232. 

Jack-fruit, a product of Su-ki-tan, 83, 85; 
grows in Chu-lien, 96; description of, 212; origin 
of name, country of origin, 212—213. 

Janggolo, in E. Java, — see Jung-ya-lu. 

Japan, its commercial relations with Ts'iian- 
chou, 17, — see Ji-pon. 

Jasmine, introduction of culture of, in Can- 
ton, 6; white, in Chu-lien, 96. 

Jasper, bricks of, in palace of king of Arabs, 

Java, not known of by Huan-tsang, 8; when 
first visited by Chinese, 9; mentioned by Kia Tan 
as Ho-ling, 11; conquest of Sunda by, 71; Chinese 
names of, 78-79; missions from China to, 77, 81; 
ancient states in, 86; — see also Sho-p'o and 

J'i-li, a dependency of Chan-ch'ong, 49. 

J'i-lo-t'ing, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; 
not identified, 65; like Tan-ma-ling, 67; its tri- 
bute to San-fo-ts'i, 67; Arabs bring ivory to, 232. 

J'i-li-hu, an island near P'o-ni, possibly Gi- 
lolo, 157; its products and trade, 158. 

J'i-pon (Japan), Origin of name, 170; its area, 
administrative divisions, population, 170; little 
arable land in, 170; tattooing in, 170; its situa- 
tion, 170; surname of king, 170; offices in, here- 

ditary. 170; dress, 170; Chinese books in, 170; 
products, 171; currency, 171; music, 171; cus- 
toms, 171; divination, 171; calendar, 171; longev- 
ity, 171; women, 171; punishment of crime in, 
171; gold and silver in, 171; relations of, with 
China, 171; the bonze Tiau-jan (Chonen) visits 
China, 171-172; Emperor of China's surprise 
at information about, 172. 

Jo-shui, the oWeak Water», near where the 
sun goes down, 104. 

Joseph, his works for supplying Egypt with 
food, 144, 145, — see Shi-su. 

Ju-lo, dried sour milk, Turki hurut, eaten in 
K'i-tz'i-ni, 138, 139. 

Jugglers, people of T'ien-chu clever. 111. 

Jung-ya-lu, in western Sho-p'o, confined on 
San-fo-ts'i, 62; its name also written Chung-ka-lu, 
62; its position, 66- 67; also called Ta-pan, 84; 
identified with Janggolo, 86; pepper of, 222. 

Juniper trees, in Sin-lo, 169, line 41. 

Kaabah, the, 124, 125. 

Eadi, appointed by Chinese in foreign settle- 
ments, 16. 

Ealah, Greek knowledge of, 2; Kia Tan's 
Ko-lo, 11; ships from Kulam-Male touched at, 
15; foreigners from Canton and Ts'uan-chou seek 
refuge at, 18; ships from Siraf meet those from 
China at, 18. 

Ealantan, E. coast Malay Peninsula — see 

Ealapang, identified with Kia Tan's Ko-lo, 11. 

Ealhat, — see K'ie-li-ki. 

Kamboja, — see Chon-la. 

Eampar, E. coast of Sumatra, — see Kien-pi. 

Ean-lo, a fruit of Chu-lien, not identified, 

Kan-me'i, a dependency of the Arabs, 117; 
possibly the. Comoro islands, 122. 

Ean-on, in Ch'ang-hua department, in Hai- 
nan, 179. 

Kan-pa-i (Cambay), the Kambayat of the 
Arabs, a dependency of Malabar (Nan-p'i), 88. 

Ean-pu, Maritime Customs at, 18. 

Kan Ying, first Chinese to read Chaldaea, 4; 
extent of his personal knowledge, 4. 

Eau-chdng (Turfan), grew cotton, 218. 

Ehanfu, the Moslim name of Canton, 15; 
Marco Polo's, near Hang-chou, 20; additional 
reasons for identification of, with Canton, 22. 

Ehwarizm, — see Lo-ssii-mei. 

Ki-lan-tan, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 02; 
identified with Kalantan, 65; like Fo-lo-an, 69. 

Ki-li-mon-sban (Pulo Krimun), 85. 

Ki-lo Ta-nung, products of Nan-p'i, exported 
via, 88; identified with Kw51a Terong, probably 
on Perak coast, 91. 

Ki-lung island, Koh-rang-kai or Hen's nest 
island, 8. 

Ki-pe'i, also written ku-pii, Sanskrit karpasa, 
Malay hapas; cotton, 218. 

Ki-shi (island of Kish or Keis), a dependency 
of the Arabs, 117; its situation, 183; its ruler, 
134; clothing, currency, food, products, trade, 134; 
traded regularly with Pi-ssl-lo, 137. 

Ki-t'o, ships from, trade of Ku-lin, 89. 

Ki-tz'ii-ni (Ghazni), a dependency of tho- 
Arabs, 117; distance of, from Ma-lo-pa, 138; the 

Ki-tz'i-ni — Kung-shi-miau. 


country and city of, 138; prayers in, 138; houses 
and food in, 138; camel and horse raising in, 138- 
the king of, 138; products of, 138. ' 

Ki-yang, in Hai-nan, 176, 179; islets near, 
176; climate of, 180; natives of, their customs, 
180; college at, 180. 

Kia-lo-hi, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, its 

position, 52, 54, 66; not satisfactorily identified, 

66; lilce. Tan-ma-ling, 67. ' 

Kia-ma-yen, an island of the Philippines 

probably Calamian, 161. 

Kia-mong, the gomuti palm (?), liquor made 
fromsap of, in P'o-ni, 155. 

Kia-pa-shan, an island or headland passed 
between Ku-lo (q. v.) and San-fo-ts'i; not identi- 
fied, 100, n. u. 

Kia Tan, sailing directions compiled by, 9; 
does not mention direct route between India and 
Persian Gulf, 10; quoted, 10-14; quoted as to 
overland route from Annam to India, 97; his 
works,- 101-102. 
Kia-t'u, sea-going ships called, 30. 
Kia-tzi-mon anchorage near Canton, the 
present Cupchi Point, 24. 

Kiau-ehi (Tongking), its boundaries, 45; Chi- 
nese ^ relations with, 45; king of, has Chinese 
surname, 45; annual feasts of, 45; customs of 
people of, 45; products of, 46; various Chinese 
names of, 46. 

K"ie-Ian, island of, the Kicobar islands, 12; 
explanation of name, 12. 

Kie-ye, Arabic al-KShirah othe Victorious)), 
the modern Cairo, 144. 

K'i6-ku-lo, country of, cardamoms in, 222. 
K'i6-li-ki, a dependency of the Arabs, 1 1 7; pre- 
sumably Kalhdt, 122; wu-nn-ts'i (civet) from, 234. 
Kien-pi (Kampar), a dependency of San-fo- 
ts'i, 62; identified with Kampar, E. coast of Su- 
matra, 66; an important port-of-call, 71; distance 
from, to San-fo-ts'i, 71; formerly dependent on 
San-fo-ts'i, now independent, 71; products of, 71; 
people fond of archery and head-hunting, 71; 
distance from, to Lan-wu-li, 71; its trade with 
Ku-lin, 72; ships of, visit Ku-lin, 89; ships ele- 
phants and cattle to Ku-lin, 91; pearls from, 229. 
Kien-yang, brocades of, in P'o-ni, 156. 
K'in-chou, trade-mart in S. W. Kuang-tung, 
6; foreign imports at, to be put in official godowns, 
20; identical with Lien-ch6u-fu, 22; timber from 
coast-hills near, 34; situated N. of Tougking, 45; 
parrots from, 236- 

King-hing-ki, a work by Tu Huan, quoted, 

Kingfishers, a product of Kiau-chi, 46; 
feathers, a product of Chon-la, 53; in Hai-nan, 
183; described, mode of capturing, use of feathers, 
235; killing of, forbidden by Emperor, 236. 

Eino, red, a product of Tong-liu-mei, 57; 
Hu-ch'a-la produces, 92. 
Kish (Keis), island of, ^- see Ki-shi. 
Eia-ehou, a dependency of Chan-ch'6ng, 49. 
Kiu-ehou, rocks, Taya islands, N. E. point 
of Hai-nan, 10, — see Kiu-sing-shan. 

Kiu-sing-shan, an island off the coast of 
Kuang-tung, 101; possibly the same as the Kiu- 
ch6u (q. V.) of Kia -Tan, i. e., Taya islands, N. E. 
point of Hai-nan. 

K'iu-tz'i", K'ucha in Eastern Turkestan; en- 
voysfrom Chu-lien ranked with, 96. 
1-7?'^^'^® '^'^'^-ts'ai, a product of Hai-nan, 
176; an edible sea-weed, the agar-agar, 186, 
n. 6> 

K'iung-ohou, in Hai-nan, 176; its climate, 

]lo' c ^ Pf^P"^' ^'^'^5 ''^'°»' ^^'^^ of Tsin in, 177- 
178; Sung Kuan-chi in, 178; towns in district of, 
178; source of rivers of, 182. 

K'iung-shan, in Hai-nan, 178; the San-ho- 
shm of, 182. 

Ko-ko-song-oM (or -ti), Brouwers islands, 
or Pulo Medang, 11; people are pirates, 11 
slaves from, 150. 

Ko-ku-lo, country of, possibly Ealantan or 
Ligor, 11. 
Ko-ling, the Klings of Malabar, 89, n. i. 
Ko-lo, country of, probably Kora, W. coast 
of Malacca, 11. 

Korea, commercial relations with Ts'iian- 
chou, 17, — see Sin-lo. 
Ku-kiang in Yung-ch6u, kingfishers of, 235. 
Ku-lin (Kulam-Male. Quilon), 10, 12; other 
Chmese names of, 12; ships from Maskat sailed 
to, 15; travellers going east transship- at, 24; 
people of, good fighters, 68; trade of lien-pi at, 
72; a dependency of Nan-p'i, 88; five days voyage 
from Nan-p'i, 89; a month's voyage from Lan- 
wu-li, 89; customs of people of, 89; the drinks 
of, 89; people of, fond of archery, 89; currency of, 
89; ships that visit, 89; many Arabs inhabit, 89; 
dress and customs of, 91; travellers bound for 
Arabs' countries transship at, 91; travellers to 
Chu-lien change ships at, 94. ' 

Ku-lo, possibly the same as Ki-lo-ta-nung, 
and on the Perak coast, 76, 80; old Arab who 
sailed from, to Canton, 118; identified with 
Acheen in Sumatra, 124, n. 25. 

Ku-lun, a pirate state near Sho-p'o, 84; 
possibly Gurgng off W. coast of Borneo. 

Ku-na, Tdrki hina, Kussian kunitsa, the 
marten, skunk, beaver, etc., the family of the 
Mustelidae, 234. 
Ku-tan, Kanthara, the present Nha-trang, 11. 
Kii-lan — see Ku-lin. 

Kuan-yin, the goddess, her images at Fo- 
lo-an, 69, 70. 
Kuang-chou-fu, — see Canton. 
Kuang-nan, province of, Hai-nan part of 
western circuit of, 176. 
Kuang-si, pearls from, 229. 
Kufa, — see A-kii-lo. 

K'ui-ki, approximately Cho-kiang province, its 

early inhabitants, 170; Ji-pOn lies due east of, 170. 

K'un-lun, slaves, 32; language of, 32; country, 

half a month's sail from Sho-p'o, 76; plum, a 

product of Chu-li§n, 96. 

K'un-lun-shan, Pulo Condore island, in Ma- 
lay Pulo Kohnaong', 50. 

K'un-lun-ts'ong-k'i, probably the islands of 
Pemba and Madagascar, 149; the great p'ong 
bird of, 149; products of, 149. 
Kiln-t'u-nung, Mount, Pulo Condore, 11. 
Kiin-tzi-kuo, aCountry of Gentlemen)), Ko- 
rea, 167. 

Kung-shi-miau (?), an island near P'o-ni, 
its products and -trade, 158. 


Ewantan — IiO-hui. 

Kwantan, — see Tan-ma-ling. 

Lacquer, a product of Kiau-chi, 46; ware, 
imported into Ghan-cli"5ng, 49; ware, imported 
to Fo-lo-an, 69; ware, imported to Sho-p'o, 78; 
bowls and plates, imported to P'o-ni, 156; ware, 
imported to Hal-nan, 177. 

Laka-wood, a product of San-fo-ts'i, 61; 
a product of Tan-ma-ling, 67; a product of Fo- 
lo-an, 69; a product of Sho-p'o, 77; a product of 
Tan-jung-wu-lo and Ma-li, 85; a product of P'o- 
ni, 156; on islands near P'o-ni, 158; countries 
producing it, its cheapness, varieties of, uses to 
which put, 211. 

Iian-li , — see Lan-wii-li. 

Lan-wu-li, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; 
extreme N. W. coast of Sumatra, 66; five days 
sailing from Kien-pi to, 71; products of, 72; people 
of, warlike, 72; distance from, to Si-lan, 72; length 
of voyage from Ts'tian-ch6u to, 89; ships from 
China to realm of Arabs, lay over for winter at, 
114; trade of, 120; Yen-t'o-man (Andaman) islands 
passed between, and Si-lan, 147. 

Iiauce, people of Naa-p'i dexterous with, 88. 

Iiang-ya-sii, the Lankachiu islands (Koh 
Katu), 8. 

Xiao, Sea, living in Canton, 16. 

Lead, imported by Persians to China, 16; im- 
ported into China in tenth century, 19; imported 
into Chan-ch'ong, 49; one ounce of, buys two 
bushels rice in Chon-la, 53; a product of T'ien- 
chu, 111; net sinkers of, imported to P'o-ni, 156; 
imported to Ma-i, 160; net sinkers of, imported 
to San-sfi, 162; oxide of, used in making glass, 227. 

Lengkasuka, — see Ling-ya-ssi-kia. 

Leopards, in T'ien-chu, 111; dry flesh of, 
exported from Liu-k'iu to Sau-sii, 163. 

Li, aborigines of Hai-nan, savage and semi- 
civilized, 176; paucity of food among, 176; their 
trading in aromatic woods, 176; their customs 
and dress, 177, 184; their pendent ears, 178; of 
Ki-yang, their mode of life, 180; markets for the, 
181; of Wan-ning, 181; divisions of the, 182; 
names of chiefs, 182; ornaments worn by women, 
182; tattooing among, 182—183; work of women, 
183; sacrifices of, 183; barter of, with the Chi- 
nese, 183; dwellings of, 183; revenge for murder 
among the, 183; marriage, 183; death, 183; native 
products, 183; revenge among the, 183; Chjaese 
descendants of, 184; submission of,of'Wu-chi-ghan 
district, 184; form of oath. among th«, 184. 

Li-a-wu, an Arab envoy to China, tells of rhi- 
noceros and elephant hunting,, 117—118,123; n. 23. 

Li Fang, minister of Emperor T'ai-tsung, 172. 

Li-hau, possibly the island of Lubang (Phi- 
lippine Islands), 160. 

Iii-kien, Ta-ts'in also called, 102. 

Li-kin-tung, probably Lingayen in Luzon 
island,- 160. 

Li Kuang, Duke, 179, 187, n. le. 

Li Li-lin, comes to Chinese Court from San- 
fo-ts'i, 66. 

Li-mu-shan, in Hai-nan, 176; origin of name, 
182; streams that flow from, 182; its height, 188, 
n. so, 

Li-to, a kingdom of Western India, probably 
the Lata of the Arabs, on the gulf of Cambay, 
112; the king and queen of, 112. 

Li T'iau-yuan, first editor of the Chu-fan- 
chJ, 38; his prefatory note to Chau Ju-kua's 
book, 43. 

Li-ts'iu, a flower of Chu-lien, not identified, 96. 

Li Yii, declines to receive Arab envoys, 117. 

Liang-pau, a dependency of Chan-ch'ong, 49. 

Libanotis root, a product of Sin-lo, 168. iJS'i 

Licences accorded foreign traders, 19; ar- 
ticles import of which allowed under, 21. 

Lichees, in Su-ki-tan, their medicinal proper- 
ty, 83. 

Lien-ehou^fu, — see Kin-chou. 

Lightning, along coast of Si-lan, 72. 

Ligor, — see Ko-ku-lo and Tong-liu-mei. 

Lime, used in adulterating wax, 239. 

Limonite, — see Wu-ming-i. 

Lin Chii-k'i, Inspector of Customs in Fu-kien 
and author, 119, 124, n. 28. 

Lin-kau, in Hai-nan, 178. 

Ling-ki4-po-pa-to, island. Cape Varella, 8. 

Ling-shui, in Hai-nan, — see Wan-an. 

Ling-ya-mon (Linga island), one month's 
sail from Ts'uan-ch6u, 60; ships from Ts'flan- 
ch6u to San-fo-ts'i stop at, 60; trade in mats 
at, 220. 

Ling-ya-ss'i-kia, a dependency of San-fo-; 
ts'i, 62; identified with Lengkasuka, 65; distance., 
from Tan-ma-ling to, 68; dress in, 68; native 
products of, 68; trade in, 68; is tributary of San- 
fo-ts'i, 68; four days from, to Fo-lo-an, 69. 

Linga, island, a month's sail from Ts'uan-. 
ch6u, 60; ships to San-fo-ts'i stop at, 60; its 
other Chinese names, 64. 

Lion, country of the, Ceylon, 12, — see Si-lan. 

Lions, great numbers of, in Ta-ts'in, 103; in 
T'ien-chu, 111. ' ; 

Liquor, fermented, none made in Chan-ch'ong, 
48; drunk in Chan-ch'ong, 48; intoxicating, used- 
in San-fo-ts'i, 60, 64; used in Sho-p'o, 78;- made; 
from sugar, in Su-ki-tan, 83; made from sugar- 
and from nipa-palm, 84, 85; fermented, used in; 
Ku-lin, 89, 91; fermented, not used in Ta-ts'in, 
103; drunk by Arabs, 115-116, 120, n. 6; drunk, 
at Ma-li-pa (Merbat), 121, r. il; of Ts'6ng«t'an, 
127; drunk at K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; of P'o-ni, 155; as 
wedding gift in P'o-ni, 155; made from rice in 
Liu;k'iu, 163;. made from rice in Sin-lo, 169, 
line 42; ferments used in making, in Hai-nan, 
177; cardamoms put in, 222, line 25. 

Literature, people of Sin-lo fond of Chinese, 
167; people of Ji-p5n have standard, of China, 170, 

Liu-k'iu (Northern Formosa), distance from 
Ts'flan-chou, 162; the king of, his palace, 162— 
163; dress in, 163; arms of, 163; taxes in,i63; 
divisions.^ of the year, 163; habits of people of, 
163; products of, 163; trade of people, 163; early 
relations of Chinese with, 163, n. i; trade between, 
and Philippines, 163. 

Liu-sha, the «Flowing Sandss, near where; 
the sun goes down, 104. 

Liu-siii, possibly Luzon (Philippine Islands), 

Lo, the country, the Nicobar islands, 12. 

Lo-hu, a dependency of Chon-la, 53; 56. 
. Lo-hu-na, name of a priest from Ti6n-chu 
who came to Ts'uan-ch6u, 111. 

iiC-hui, in Hai-nan, 178, 182. 

Lo-ki-lien — Mau-shi-pu. 


Lo-ki-lien, title of a minister of state in 
Sho-p'o, 76, 80. 

Lo-lan, south of Chu-lien, 94; probably a 
copyist error for Si-lan, 99. 

1.0- (or Yo-)lang, Prince of, 167; the present 
Pyong-yang in Korea, 168, n. 8. 

Lo-ssl-mei, a dependency of the Arabs, 117; 
probably the Khwarizm, 121, n. is; gardenia 
flowers from, 202. 

Lo-yiie, the country of, S. extremity Malay 
Peninsula, or Ligor, 11. 
Iioans, to foreigners at Canton, 17. 
Longevity, in Japan, 171. 
Lotus, grows in Chan-ch'ong, 48; pond, in 
palace of Lu-wu, 52, 55; seeds in kingdom of 
woman, 151. 

Lu-man, an island near P'o-ni, 157; its pro- 
ducts and trade, 158. 

Lu-mei (Rum, Asia Minor), 141; distance from 
Ma-lo-pa, 141, also called Mei-lu-ku (q. v.), 141; 
the city of, 141; the people of, 141; food, coinage, 
industries, products, 141; camels, horses, dogs, 
bred in, 141; Ssi-kia-li-ye, near, 153. 

Lu Po-to, temple of, at Hai-k'ou, 178, 187, 
n. 11. 

Lu-wu, capital of Chon-la, 51; description of 
palace in, 52, 53; identifled with Angkor, 54. 

Lii-yang, a dependency of Chon-la, not 
located, 54, 56. 
Lucrabau seeds, a product of Chijn-la, 55. 
Lung-ya-mon, Linga Strait and Island of, 64. 
Lting-ts'ing, king of San-fo-ts'i styled, 61. 
Lung-yung, a dependency of Chan-ch'ong, 

Lustring, coloured silk, imported to P'o-ni, 

Ma-hia-wii, the Prophet Mohammed, 116; his 
birth place, 124; his House at Ma-kia, 124; feast 
on anniversary of death of, 124; his tomb, 125; 
earliest Chinese references to, 125; king of Pai-ta 
successor of, 135. 

Ma-i (Philippine Islands), thirty days from, to 
P'o-ni, 155; situation of, 159; dress of people of, 
159; their idols, 159; trading customs in, 159-160; 
places belonging to, 160; products of, 160; San-su 
(Three Islands) part of, 161; betel-nuts of, 214; 
wax from, 238, 239. 

Ma-j6, an island near P'o-ni, possibly Mahono, 
its products and trade, 158. 

Ma-kia (Mecca), a dependency of the Arabs, 
117; eighty days' journey from Ma-lo-pa (Merbat) 
to,. 124; the birth place of Mohammed, 124; the 
House of the Buddha, 124; feast on anniversary 
,of death of Mohammed at, 124; the Chinese 
names of, 125. 

Ma-lan, a dependency of Chon-la, 56, — see 

Ma-li (Island of Bali), a dependency of Shb- 
p'o, 83; people live qn sago, 84; drink nipa-palm 
wine, 84; horses raised' on, 85; people have some 
culture, 85; products of, 85; people much given 
to piracy, 85. 

..Ma-li-ino, a depe^dency of Nan-p'i, probably 
Malabar, 88, 90. 

Ma-lo-fu, the king of Ta-ts'in styled, 102; 
presumably a transcription of Mar Aba, a title 
of Nestorian patriarchs, 105. 

Ma-lo-hua, a dependency of Nan-p'i, 88; 

Malwa, 93; its products, 93. 

Ma-lo-mo, — see Ma-lo-pa. 

Ma-lo-nu, possibly Maldyu, our Malays, are 

cannibals, 150; plug and plate teeth with gold, 150. 

Ma-lo (or li-)-pa, Merbat, the trade centre 

of the Arabs, 25; some make it the capital of the 

Arabs, 115; a dependency of the Arabs, 116; 

Ch6u K'tt-fei's note on, 120; its products, 120; its 

ruler, people, food, etc., 121; sends missions to 

China, 121; Ma-kia (Mecca) eighty days from, 

124; distance from, to Pai-ta, 135; distance from,- 

to K'i-tz'1-ni, 138; distance from, to Lu-mei, 141, 

frankincense from, 195; putchuck from, 221; 

centre of ivory trade, 232. 

Ma-lo-won, a dependency of Chbn-la, not 
located, 53, 56. 
Ma-ni, an Arab envoy to China, 118, 123, n. w, 
Ma-tung, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 83; prob- 
ably Medang-kamolan, 86; pepper of, 222. ^ 
_ Ma Yuan (or Ma Fu-po), temple of, at Hai- 
k'ou, 178; ascertains population of Hai-nan, 184; 
note on, 187, n. ii. , 
Macclesfield Banks, 176, 185, n. 4. 
Mace, imported to Aden from China, 4; 
described, 210. 

Madagascar, island of, 126, 149; — see also. 
Madder, exported from Ki-shi, 134. 
Magadoxo, reference to, 129. 
Mahmud of Ghazni, possible reference to, 138.' 
Majapahit empire, districts in Malay Penin- 
sula included in, 65; Kampei, a dependency of 
the, 72; the currency of the, 81; capital of, 86. - 
Malabar, trade of Sabeans with, 1; Greek 
sea-trade with, 2; — see Nan-p'i and Ma-li-mo. 
Malabars, invasion of Ceylon, by, 74. 
Malay Peninsula, Greek knowledge of, 2; 
Ceylon trade with, 3; tortoise-shell from, export- 
ed, 3; its trade with China at end tenth century, 
19; Negrito slaves from, 81—32. ; 

Malays, — see Ma-lo-nu. 
Malwa, — see Ma-lo-hua. 
Man-shan-shui, a river, presumably in 
Kamboja, 100, n. ii. 

Mangalore, reached by Greek ships, 2; 
possibly referred to as Fong-ya-lo (q. v.). 
. Manifests of ships, entering and leaving 
Canton, 9. 
Manna, a product of "Wu-ss'i-li, 140. 
Marriage customs, in ShS-p'o, 76; of Chu- 
lien, 95; of clergy of Christi.ans in India,, 112; iuj 
P'o-ni, 155; in Sin-lo, 167; in Ji-pbn, 171; of Li 
of Hai-nan, 183. . ' 

Mascat, ships for China sailed from, 15; — 
see Yung-man. 

Mathematics, people of San-fo-ts'i learned 
in, 64. .1 

Matting, fine bamboo, a product of Chan-, 
ch'bng, 48; made in Sho-p'o, 77: fancy, made on 
pirate' islands near ShS-p'o, 84; as presents in 
P'o-ni, 156; cocoaiiut-heart, of San-sti, 161; straw,^ 
made in Sin-lo, 168; foreign matting, 220. 
. Mau-shan (Pulo Eondo, off Achin) N, W. 
coast of Sumatra, 74. 

Mau-sM-pu, a tissue (gingham?) manufac-: 
tured in Sin-lo, 168. 


Maudgalyayana — Nan-ni-hua-lo. 

Maudgalyayana, the* Arahat,— see Mu-li6n. 

Mau-mon, Arabic Momemn «t]ie Faitliful», 
14; Prince of the, his capital, 14. 

Mecca, — see Ma-kia. 

Medicine, not used in Eiau-chi, 45; for 
■Wounds, in San-fo-ts'i, 63, line 82; in Nan-p'i, 88; 
dirt from tomb of Mohammed a powerfiil, 125; 
in P'o-ni, 156; among the Li of Hai-nan, 180, 
181; storax as a, 200. 

Medina, the tomb of Mohammed at, 125. 

Mei-lu-ku (-tun), capital of Lu-mei, 141; 
wall of, 141; its mosques, 141; locality cannot 
be identified, 141, n. i. 

Mei-ssl-ta-hua-tsiu, a drink (or drinks) of 
the Arabs made with honey and spices, 115—116, 
120, n. 6, 121, n. 11. 

Menang-kabau, kingdom of, its extent, 63; 
possible legend concerning origin of, 61, 65. 

Merbat, voyage from, to India by Greeks, 2; 
Greek trade at, 2, — see Ma-lo-(or li-)pa. 

Mi-biang, — see Gharu-wood. 

Mi-lam, the river, the Arab name (Mihran) 
of the Indus, 13. 

Mi-sii-li, the capital of the Arabs, 115; Ara- 
bic Misr, Egypt, 120, — see Wu-ssi-li. 

Mi-tan-lo, a Hu (Western) priest comes to 
China, 114. 

Mie-a-mo, the capital of Nan-p'i styled, 87; 
possibly Malabar, 89, n. 2. 

Millet, grown in Chan-ch'ong, 48; grown in 
Sho-p'o, 77; grown in Nan-p'i, 88; grown in Sin- 
lo, 169, line «. 

Ming-chou, — see Ning-po. 

Mo-k'i6-la (Mogreb-el-aksa), its position not 
known to Ch6u K'ii-fei, 24, 154; dress of king of, 
154; extent of kingdom of, 154; army of, 154; food 
of people of, 154; coral found off coast of, 154. 

Mo-lai, — see Ku-lin. 

Mo-la-ye, — see Ku-lin. 

Mo-liang, a dependency of Chon-la, possibly 
identical with Ma-lo-wbn (q. v.), 56. 

Mo-lo, the country of, an emporium of Arab 
trade, probably Old Eormuz, 14. 

Mo-lo-kii-ts'a, — see Ku-lin. 

Mo-so, stones, — see Bezoar stone. 

Mo-t'i-na, Medina, reference to, 125. 

Moghreb-el-aksa, — see Mo-k'i6-la. 

Mohammed, the Prophet, — see Ma-hia-wu. 

Momenin, Ameer-al, in Chinese Mau-mon 
Wang, 14. 

Money, coined, imported into China in tenth 
century, 19; not used in trade in Chan-ch'ong, 
48, — sec Currency. ' 

Monkeys, hills in Sho-p'o full of, 77. 

Monopoly, foreign sea-trade made, by China, 
19, 20. 

Monsoons, effect of discovery of on size of 
Greek ships, 2; Nearchus noticed, 2; Hippalas 
discovers, 2; possibly availed of by Arabs at 
earlier date, 2; voyage from China to India and 
back made with, 9, 28; sailing with, from China 
to San-fo-ts'i, 60; effect of sailing by the, on po- 
sitions assigned different countries by Chinese, 79. 

Mon-tu, country of, probably nearQuinhon, 10. 

Mortuary customs in San-fo-ts'i, 61; in Sho- 
p'o, 80; in Chung-li, 131; of Iji of Hai-nan, 180, 

Moslims, in China, in seventh century, 14; 
sacking of Canton by, 15; administration of 
settlement in Canton, 16; referred to as Fan, 16; 
their women called P'u-sa-man, 16; life of a 
wealthy, in Canton in thirteenth century, 16—17; 
mode of eating, food, gambling, games, 17; how 
punished in Canton and other settlements, 17; 
officials in settlement, 17; their duties, 17; loans 
contracted by, from Chinese, how recoverable, 17; 
people of Wu-pa, 130; customs of, in Pai-ta, 135; 
temple to Moslim sailor in Hai-nan, 188, n. 28. 

Mosques, in foreign settlements in China, 16'; 
in K'i-tz'J-ni, 138; in Mei-lu-ku, 141. 

Mosul, — see Wu-ssi-li. 

Mu-kli-lan, a dependency of the Arabs, 117; 
the Makran province, 122; asa-fo^tida comes 
from, 224. 

Mu-kua, the Mukuva caste of Malabar, 89. 

Mu-lan bark, a product of Si-lan, 78; the 
maratha-maram of the Tamils, the Pentaptera 
tomentosa, Rox, 75. 

Mu-lan-p'i, the kingdom of the Almoravides, 
Southern Spain, a commercial centre, 26; where 
situated, 27; ships of, 34, 142; its location, 142; 
the extraordinary products of, 142; grain' kept 
in silos in, 142; sheep of, 142; the Land of 
Darkness from, 143. 

Mu-lien, the Arhat, in Sanskrit Maudgal- 
yayana, his hut in Pin-t'ung-lung, 51. 

Murabit, the kingdom of the Almoravides, — 
see Mu-lan-p'i. 

Music, instruments of, in Kiau-chi, 4.5; 
instruments of in Sho-p'o, 77; in P'o-ni, 156; two 
systems of, in Sin-lo, 167, 169, n. 7; two systems 
of, in Ji-pijn, 171. 

Musk, exported from Diul Sindh, 3; exported 
from China to Aden, 4; u§ed with camphor in 
paste to scent body in Chan-ch'ong, 47; imported 
into Chan-ch'ong, 49; used in Nan-p'i, 87; a pro- 
duct of Sin-lo, 168; wood, used for making furni- 
ture like rose-wood, 212. 

Muslin, traded by Greeks at Merbat, 2; from 
Ceylon, 3; brocaded, imported by Persians to 
China, 16, — see Po-ti6. 

Myreitica iners, a product of Chon-la, 55. 

Myriad li rocks, (south-)east of Hai-nan, 176. 

Myrobalans, imported to Aden from China, 
4; a product of Hu-ch'a-la, 92. 

Myrrh, imported by Arabs to San-fo-ts'i, 61; 
a product of Pi-p'a-lo, 128; country of production 
of, 197; descriptioii of tree, mode of collecting, 197. 

ITairs, of Malabar, — see Nan-p'i. 

Ifa-wu-tan, an island or headland passed by 
the Chu-lien mission to China of 1015, between 
Chu-lien and So-li Si-lan-shan (Ceylon of the 
Cholas?). It is not identified, 100, n. 11. 

Ifames, of kings of Kiau-chi, 45; in San- 
fo-ts'i, 60, 64; in Sh5-p'o, 77; in Hai-nan, 182, 

ITan-chau (Laos country), early use of cotton 
in, 219, line 15. 

Nan-ni-hua-lo, a country of India, 97; its 
city, 97; people bathe twice daily, 97; besmear 
their bodies with turmeric, 97; many Brahmans in,- 
97; use of cow-dung, domestic altars, 97; treat- 
ment of Arabs when visiting, 97; adultery, 97; 
products of, 98; food, 98; method of defense in, 

Nan-p'i — Pau-lin-yiian. 


against raids from West, 98; situated possibly in 
Sindh, 102. 

. Nan-p'i (Malabar), Si-Ian under rule of, 72; 
its position, 87; its capital, 87; its ruler, 87; the 
.body guard of the ruler of, 87; his officers, 87; 
■much sandy soil in, 87; diet of king of, 88; people 
of, devout Buddhists, 88; climate of, 88; currency of, 
88; products of, 88; cat's-eyes, 88; dependencies, 
88; Chinese relations with, 88; its trade with China 
goes via Ki-lo-Ta-nung and San-fo-ts'i, 88; people 
from, living in Ts'flan-ch6u, 88, 90; tries to con- 
quer the Yen-t'o-man islands, 148; Wu-li-pa in, 
produces much pepper, 223; cat's-eyes from, 229. 

Na-lo-ki-lo islands, the Nicobar islands, 12. 

Navigation, of Chinese, in fifth century, 
27-28; method of, 32, 34. 

Nearchus, effect of his expedition on sea- 
trade with India, 1; mentions China, 5. 

Needles, imported to Ma-i, 160. 

Kelisseram, reached by Greek ships, 2; 
Ceylon trade with, 3; Chinese exports overland 
to, 5. 

Ifestorian patriarch of Baghdad, the king of 
Ta-ts'in of Ch6u K'ii-fei, 104-106. 

New Year, how observed in Kian-chi, 45; in 
Chan-ch'Ong, 47—48; a month of fasting and 
prayer at, among the Arabs, 116; in P'o-ni, 156; 
celebration at Ts'ttan-chou, 211. 

Nicobar Islands, Greek knowledge of 2; first 
mentioned by Kia Tan, 12; Chinese names for, 12; 
cocoanuts principal food on, 12; ships from Per- 
sian Gulf, passed, on way to China, 15. 

Nile, the river, insures Arabs against inun- 
dations and droughts, 116; official who watches 
the rise of the, 116; its source not known, 144; 
annual rise of the, 144; legend of the old man of 
the, 144—145; animals of the, 145. 

Ning-po (K'ing-yaan). Maritime Customs at, 
18, 20. 

Ning-yiian, in Hai-nan, 181. 
• Nipa, arrak of, 64; juice of palm used in mak- 
ing liquor, 84. 

Niu-lun, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 83; nut- 
megs from, 210. 

Notched sticks, records on, in Hai-nan, 177. 

Nu-fa (Dhofar), a dependency of the Arabs, 
116, 121; frankincense from, 195; putchuck from, 
221; aloes from, 225. 

Nu-ku, a dependency of Shb-p'o, 83. 
■ Nii-kua, a Kambojian extension of legend 
of, 55. 

Nutmegs, imported to Aden, 4; a product of 
"Sho-p'o, 81; description of, and of mace, 210. 

0-k6n-t'o (Alexandria in Egypt), 146; the 
great, tower of, built by Tsu-ko-ni, 146; mirror 
on tower, its use, how destroyed, 146-147. 

Oak-galls, imported by Persians to China, 
16; called p'u-lu in Wu-ssi-li, 140; description 
of tree bearing acorns or, in alternate years, 
215; foreign names for, 215. 

Oarth, form of, in Hai-nan, 184. 

Officials, of Sh6-p'o, 76; in Nan-p'i ride in 
litters, 87; hold hereditary offices in Ji-pon, 170. 

Oil, foreign, product of Chon-la, 53; of cam- 
phor, 194; whale, use of in Chung-li, 131. 

Oman, — see Yung-man. 
Onesicrltas, mentions China, 5. 

Ordeals, in Chan-ch'6ng, on supposed death 
by tiger or crocodile, 48. 

Orris root, imported to Sho-p'o, 78. 

Ostrich, or «camel-crane», in Pi-p'a-lo, 128, 
129, n. 5. 

Pa-ki-nung, an island of the Philippines, 
possibly Bnsuanga, 161. 

Pa-lau-yu, the island of Palawan (Philip- 
pines), 161. 

Pa-li, — see Ma-li. 

Pa-ssi-li, a dependency of Ch6n-la, possibly 
identical with Po-ssl-lan (q. v.), 56. 

Pa-t'a, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; pro- 
bably the country of the Batta in Sumatra, 66; 
likie Tan-ma-ling, 67. 

Pa-yii,the country of, on the Guzerat coast, 13. 

Pai-fa-tzi, an officinal root, a product of Sin- 
lo, 168. 

Pai-hua-yiian, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 83; 
probably Pejajaran, 86; pepper of, 222. 

Pai-i Man, situated W. of Tongking, 45, 46. 

Pai-lien, a dependency of the Arabs, 117; the 
island_ and coast of Bahrein, 122. 

Pai IiO-t'ien, his poetry popular in Ji-p6n, 

Pai-p'u-yen (the Babuyan islands in the Phi- 
lippines), 160, 161, — see also San-sii. 

Fai-ta (Baghdad), a dependency of the Arabs, 
117; its commercial importance, 135; distance of, 
from Ma-lo-pa, 135; its army, 135; the king of, 
135; the umbrella of the king of, 135; the city 
of, 135; food in, 135; products of, 135; dress, 
religion, 135; honours shown rulers of, 135; Pi- 
ssi-lo subject to, 137; ruled over Wu-ssi-li (Egypt), 

Pahang, — see P'ong-fong. 

Palawan island, — see Pa-lau-yu. 

Palembang, — see San-fo-ts'i and Sumatra. 

P'6n-ni-mo-huan, the Omayyad Caliph 
Merwan II, 117. 

Pon-t'o-lang (Panduranga, Panrang), 11. 

P'ong, the great, therucof mediaeval writers, 
it can eat a camel, water-butt can be made of 
feather of, 149. 

P'ong-fong (Pahang), a dependency of San- 
fo-ts'i, 62, 65; like Fo-lo-an, 69. 

P'6ng-hu islands (The Pescadores), P'i-sho-ye 
near, 165. 

P'6ng-k'ie-lo, a country of India, possibly 
the kingdom of the Balhara, 97, 102. 

Panrang, — see Pin-t'ung-lung. 

Pantomimes, in Sho-p'o, 77. 

Paper, manufacture of, unknown in Kiau-chi, 
45; pet-to leaves used as, in T'ien-chu, 111, 114; 
mulberry bark, from Hai-nan, 176; from bark of 
mi-hiang tree, 205, lines 32-39. 

Parrots, found in Chan-ch'ong, 48; Hill of, 
in Sho-p'o, 76; in Sho-p'o, 78; in Ta-pan, 84; in 
Chu-lien, 96; talking, and the Emperor T'ai- 
tsung, 23; from K'in-chou, 236. 

Fatani river, 65. 

Patriarch, of Antioch, 104-106; of Baghdad, 
104-106; his dress, 106-107. 

Pau-lau-an, Mount, landmark on coast of 
Su-ki-tan (Central Java), 82, 85. 

Pau-lin-yiian, in Ts'flan-chou, origin of, 



Peacocks — Pb-ssi. 

Peacocks, found in Chan-ch'Bng, 48; standard 
of, feathers of king of Nan-p'i, 87; umbrellas of 
feathers, in Nan-p'i, 87. 

Pearls, of Ceylon, 3; imported by Persians to 
China, 16, 19; import duty on, 21; imported to 
San-fo-ts"i, 61; seed, plentiful in San-fo-ts'i, 63; 
a product of Kien-pi, 71; a product of Shb-p'o, 
■77; a product of l^an-p'i, 88; a product of Chu- 
lien, 9.6; a product of Ta-ts"in, 103; product of 
Arabs' country, 116; on coast of Yung-man, 133; 
of Ki-shi, 134; sacred, in P'o-ni. 157; found in 
Ma-i, 160; countries of origin of, 239; mode of 
fishing, 229-230. 

Pegu, trade-route from, to Yiin-nan, 6. 

Pei-kiau tablets, divination by the, 178, 187, 
n. 11. 

Pei-to, leaves, used as paper in T'ien-chu, 11; 
varieties of, 114; used to thatch dwelling of king 
of P'o-ni, 155; used as dishes and cups in P'o- 
ni, 156, 

Pemba, island of, — see K'un-lun-ts'6ng-k'i. 

Pepper, black, grows in Male (Ku-lin), 3; 
brought to Aden from China, 4; imported by 
Persians to China, 16; some, produced in Chbn- 
la, 55; of Sin-t'o, small-grained but of superior 
quality, 70; in Sho-p'o, 77—78; copper cash in 
demand in Sho-p'o for buying, 78; great quantity 
of, in Su-ki-tan, 83; its price, 83; gatherers suffer 
from fumes of, 83; not referred to as a product 
of Nan-p'i or Hu-ch'a-la, 91, n. 12, 92; countries 
producing, 222; description of vine, gathering, 
storing of, 222-223; Wu-li-pa (Malabar) reported 
to produce almost all, 223. 

Pepper, long, brought to Aden from China, 
4; imported by Persians to China, 16; a product 
of Hai;nan, 177; comes from Central India, 223, 
line 24. 

Perfumes, their use in Chan-ch'Bng, 47; pro- 
ducts of Si-lan, 73; used, by women of escort of 
king of Nan-p'i, 87. 

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, extent of 
its knowledge about China, 5. 

Persia, trade with Ceylon, 3; products classed 
by Chinese as coming from, 7—8, 16; traders 
■ from, and the China trade, 8; sea-route between, 
and China, 15; putchuck from, 221. 

Persian Gulf, products of India reach head 
of, through Sabeans, 1; reached by Chinese, 3; 
sailing directions from Canton to, 9—14. 

Persians, engaged in China trade, 8; in 
foreign settlement in Canton, 14; route followed 
by ships of, to- China, 15; products brought by, 
to China, 16; Arabs a branch of the, 117. 

Pescadore islands, — see P'6ng-hu. 

Pheasants, in Chu-liSn, 96. 

Philippine Islands, trade with China at end 
tenth century, 19, — see Ma-i, San-su and P'i- 

Pigafettaj his description of gharu-wood 
hunting in Annam, 50; and the pearls of king of 
Brunei, 159. 

Pi-li-sha (Bharoch?), a dependency of Nan- 
p'i, 88, 90. 

Pi-p'a island, near entrance to port of Can-: 
ton, 101. 

Pi-p'a-lo (Berbera coast), a dependency of 
the Arabs, 117, 122; four towns in, 128; people 

pray to Heaven, 128; products of, 128; descripe 
tion of the ostrich, the girafe and the zebra of, 
128; early notice of, 128—129; §reat mountain 
on boundary of, 131. 

Pi-ssi-lo (Basra), a dependency of the Arabs, 
117; the ruler of, and his escort, 137; the people 
of, 137; the almanack of, 137; products of, 137^ 
trade of, 137. 

Pi-ts'i, a dependency of Chan-ch'8ng, 49. 

P'i-no-y6, a dependency of the Arabs, 117; 
the Ifrikiya of the Arabs, the coast of .Tunis and 
Tripoli, 122; coral from, 226. 

P'i-sho-y6 (Southern Formosa), near Liu-k'in, 
163; its language, 165; smoke in, visible from 
islands of P'5ng-hu, 165; savages of, raid envi- 
rons of Ts'lian-chou, 165; fondness for iron of 
natives of, 165; their arms and rafts, 165; identity 
of, with Visaya of the Philippines, 166. ; 

Pien-han, the people of Sin-lo descend from, 

Pigj fighting, in Sho-p'o, 77; sacrificed in Hai-> 
nan, 183. 

Pigeons, carrier, on board sea-going ships, 

Pin-su, Pasuri, the Fansur of the Arabs, 
the Barus of mediaeval writers, 193; camphor 
from, 193. 

Pin-t'ie, — see Steel. 

Pin-t'ou-lang-shan (Cape Panrang or Pa- 
daran), 101. 

Pin-t'6u-lu, the Arhat, gives his name to 
Pin-t'ung-lung, 51. 

Pin-t'ung-lung (Panrang), a dependency of 
Chan-ch'ong, 49; the Panrang coast of Cochin- 
china, 51; clothing and dwellings of people, 51; 
origin of name of, 51; hut of Mu-li§n in, 51;iits 
relations with China, 51; — see also Pin-t'ou- 

Pindola, the Arhat, — see Pin-t'6u-Iu. 

Pine, cones, a product of Sin-lo, 168; trees, 
in Sin-lo, 169, line 41; variety of, called to, 171, 
174, n. 12. 

Ping-ya (Banca), a dependency of Sh5-p'o, 
83, 86. 

P'ing-chou-k'o-t'an, when written, 16; 
quoted, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 29-33; earliest work 
to mention mariner's compass, 29. 

Piracy, on southern coast of China and Tong- 
king, 7; of people of Ko-ko-sbng-chi, 11; eflfects 
trade between Persian Gulf and China, 15; pro- 
tection against, at San-fo-ts'i, 62; at Linga, 63; 
prevalent in island dependencies of Sho-p'o, 84; 
people of Tan-jung-wu-lo prefer, to trade, 85; 
among natives of Sha-hua-kung, 150; rare 'in 
Ma-i, 169. 

Plaster, used instead of tiles in Ta-ts'in, 102; 
in T'ien-chu, 110. 

Plum, the K'un-lun, a product of Chu-lien, 
96; season for blooming in Hai-nan, 179. 

Po-liau, in Hai-nan, 181. 

Po-lo, the country of, 212, note; native of, 
brings jack-fruit to China, 212, note; — see also 

Po-lo-mi, the jack-fruit, a product of Su-ki- 
tan, 83; of Chu-li6n, 96; description of, origin ef 
name, 212-213. 

Po-ssi, -T- see Persia. 

Po-ss'i — Rattans. 

25 a 

Po-ssi, possibly a locality in Sumatra, Besi 
or Lambesi (?), 152; the people, their dress, the 
king, the food, 152. 

Fo-ss'i-lan, a dependency of Ch8n-la, 53. 

Po-tie, fine muslin, a product of Chan-ch'ong, 
48; probably Tmki pakhta acottonn, 50; a product 
of T'ien-chu, 111; use of term in China, 218- 

Po-to-li, king of Fu-lin, sends mission to 
China in 6, 43: Po-to-li represents presumably 
baink the Syrian word for «patriarch», 105. 

P'o, country of, possibly contracted form of 
Nicobar, 12. 

P'o-li, country of, in Malay Peninsula (?) or 
Sumatra; identified with Po-lo, whence came the 
po-lo-mi or jack-fruit, 212, note; brings cotton 
to Chinese Court, 218, line so; varieties of cotton 
in, 219. 

P'o-lo, name of a flower of Chu-lien, not 
identified, 96. 

P'o-lo-mon, the west coast of India, 7, 12; 
also means Brahman, 97. 

P'o-lou, a section of ChOn-la during the T'ang 
period, 57. 

P'o-lu, country of, in Sumatra, Perlak or 
Peeir, 12. 

P'o-lun mountains, Bolor, the modern Balti,13. 

P'o-ni (western coast of Borneo), its distance 
from Sho-p'o, 76, 155; distance of, from San-fo- 
ts'i, from Chan-ch'ong and from Ma-i, 155; 
dwellings in, 155; the king of, his dress, escort, 
and fighting boats, 155; products, food, drinks, 
155; female dress, weddings, 155; burial, 156; 
ceremony on beginning of ploughing, 156; festi- 
vals in, 156; dishes in, 146; medicine for wounds, 
156; products of, 156; trading customs between 
Chinese and natives of, 156—157; the god of, 157; 
the two great pearls of, 157; relations with China, 
157; islands near, 157—158; their products, 158; 
Ma-i north of, 159; gharu-wood does not come 
from, 204; imt-na-ts'i (here sea-dog scrotum) 
abundant in, 234; tortoise shell from, 238. 

P'o-to-li, a Tauist deity in Chon-la, 53, 55. 
t Polillo Island (Philippine Islands), — see 

- Pomegranate flowers, use as ferment in Hai- 
nan, 177. 

Population, of Ji-pon, 170. 

Porcelain, exported from China in tenth 
century, 19; imported into Chan-ch'Ong, 49; im- 
ported into Ch5n-la, 53; imported to San-fo-ts'i, 
61; basins, bowls, etc., of, imported to Tan-ma- 
ling, 67; sold in Ling-ya-ssr-kia, 68; imported to 
Fo-lo-an, 69; imported to Si-lan, 78; green, im- 
ported to Sh6-p'o, 78; exported to Nan-p'i, 88; 
exported to Ts'oug-pa, 126; celadon, imported to 
P'o-ni, 156; white, imported to islands near P'o- 
ni, 158; imported into Ma-i, 160; imported to 
San-sii, 161, 162; made in Sin-lo, 168; imported 
to Hai-nan, 177. 

Porpoise, fresh-water, eaten by Moslims in 
Canton, 17. 

Potash, nitrate of, used in making glass, 227. 

Pottery, brought to Aden from China, 4; 

large quantity of, exported from Canton, how 

packed, 31. 

Priests, Buddhist and Tauist, in Chon-la, 53; 

their dress, their style of life, 53; dress of 
Buddhist, in P'u-kan, 58. 

Ptolemy, his knowledge of sea-route to Far 
East, 2. 

Pu-lo {pura), the thirty-two, of Chu-lien, 94- 
95, 99, n. 5. 

P'u, equivalent of ((Abu» in Arabic, 16; a 
common surname in San-fo-ts'i, 60, 64. 

P'u-a-li, envoy from P'o-ni to China, 157; 
also called P'u Lu-sie, 159, n. is. 

P'u-hi-mi (Abu Hamid), an Arab who twice 
visited Chinese Court, 122, n. 17, 123, n. is. 

P'u-hua-lo (Bokhara), a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117. 

P'u-kan (Pagan), its position W. of Chon-la, 
52; a dependency of Ch6n-la, 54, 56; hair-dressing 
in, 58; head-covering of, 58; many horses in, 58; 
people of, devout Buddhists, 58; king of, his 
court, 58; Chinese temple in, 58; missions from, 
to China, 58, 59; recognized as independent and 
powerful state by China, 59; a road to Chu-lien 
said to pass through, 94. 

P'u-kia-lung, another name of Sho-p'o, 75; 
identified with Pekalongan, N. coast of Java, 79. 

P'u-11-lu (Polillo Island, Philippine Islands), 
160; the people of, cruel and robbers, 162; coast 
along, dangerous, 162; coral along coast of, 162; 
mats from, 220; tortoise-shell from, 238; wax 
from, 239. 

P'u-lo-himg, Abraham the Patriarch, 144. 

P'u-lo-kan-wu, a dependency of Chan- 
ch'ong, possibly Pulo Condore, 49, 50. 

P'u-lu, oak(-galls), Persian halut, 140. 

P'u-tuan, its relations with China, possibly 
identical with P'u-kan (Pagan), 59. 

Pulo Aor, — see Shang-hia-chu. 

Pulo Ceeir de Mer, — see Shi-tzi rocks. 

Pulo Condore island, 11; ships from Kalah 
touched at, 15; — see also K'un-lun-shan, Kiin- 
t'u-nung and Pu-lo-kan-wu. 

Pulo Gambir, — see Yang-shan. 

Pulo Krimun, — see Ki-li-m6n-shan. 

Pulo Medang, — see Ko-ko-song-chii (or ti). 

Pulo Bondo, — see Mau-shan. 

Pulo Sapatu, — see Shi-tzi rocks. 

Pulo Senang (Bam Island), — see Chang- 

Pumpkins, grow in Sin-t'o, 70. 

Purification after burials in Japan, 171. 

Putchuck, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; best quality comes 
from Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98; much in Pi-p'a-lo, 128; 
countries producing, 221; mode of gathering, 

QaQola, of Ibn Batuta, identified with Kia 
Tan's Ko-ku-lo, 11. 

Quicksilver, imported by Persians to China, 
16; exported from Ki-shi, 134; a product of Sin- 
lo, 168. 

Bafts, people of San-fo-ts'i live on, 60, 63; 
bamboo, used by P'i-sho-ye savages, 165. 

Bamie fiber cloth, 160. 

Rattans, imported to Aden, 4; Moslim offen-' 
ders at Canton beaten with, 17; white, grow in 
Chan-ch'ong, 48; use of, in Tan-ma-ling, 67; use 
of, in Sin-to, 70; white, a product of Lan-wu-li, 
72; white, exported from Lan-wu-li to Ma-li-pa 



Battans — Satinets. 

(Malabar), 120; baskets made with, in San-sil, 161; 
red and white, from Hai-nan, 176. 
' Begistration, of ship captains, 9. 

Bhinoceros, horns, imported to Canton, 16, 
19; a product of Kiau-chi, 46; a product of Chan- 
ch'ijng, 48; plentiful in San-fo-ts'i, 63; horns, a 
product of Tan-ma-ling, 67; horns, a product of 
Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; horns, a product of Sho-p'o, 
77; in T'i§n-chu, 111; in Arabs' country, 116; 
mode of killing, 118; largest found in Pi-p"a-lo, 
128; possible reference to, as «water-horse», 145; 
horns from K'un-lun-ts'ong-k'i, 149; none in Ji- 
pbu, 171; description of, 233. 

Bhubarb, imported into San-fo-ts'i, 61; 
exported to Nan-p"i, 88. 

Bice, in Chon-la, cheap, 53; imported into 
San-fo-ts'i, 61; imported to Tan-ma-ling, 67; 
imported to Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; imported to Fo- 
lo-an, 69; grown in ShO-p'o, 77; price of, in Su- 
ki-tan, 82; quantities of, stored by wealthy people 
in Su-ki-tan, 83; grown in Nan-p'i, 88; grown in 
Chu-lien, 96; much eaten in Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98; 
not eaten in Ki-shi, 134; little, at Pai-ta, 135; 
little eaten at K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; of Mu-lan-p'i, 
kept in silos, 142; none in Mo-k'ie-la, 154; grown 
in P"o-ni, 155; grown in Sin-lo, 167; liquor di- 
stilled from, in Sin-lo, 169; line 42; insufficiency 
of supply in Hai-nan, 176; sold by Chinese in Hai- 
nan, 177. 

Bings, for fingers, foreigners in Canton prize 
them, 90, n. 7; set with cat's-eyes and bezoar 
stones, 90, n. 7; exchanged when asking to marry 
in Chu-lien, 95; finger, come from Chu-lien, 100, 
n. 8; used as marriage presents in P'o-ni, 155. 

Boads, in Ta-ts'in, sheds and beacon towers 
on, 103. 

Bose-water, used by Moslims in Canton, 17; 
used by king of San-fo-ts'i in bathing, 61; im- 
ported by Arabs to San-fo-ts'i, 61 ; exported from 
Ki-shi, 134; of Lu-mei, 141; country producing, 
203; rare in China, 203; imitations of, 203; test 
of genuiness, 203. 
. Bouge, imported to P'o-ni, 156. 

Bugs, gold embroidered, made in T'i6n-chu, 
111; called t'a-tong, 111, 113; much prized by 
Arabs, 115. 

Bum — Asia Minor, — see Lu-mel. 

Sa-po traders, in Ceylon, possibly Arabs, 3. 

Sabeans, sea-trade of, with West coast of 
India, 1; extreme point on Malabar coast reached 
by, 2. 

Sacrifices, of animals by the Li in Hai-nan, 
180, 183. 

Saddles, brought to Aden from China, 4; 
not used in P'u-kan, 58. 

Saffron, a product of Sho-p'o, 78. 

Sago, king of San-fo-ts'i fed on, 61; palm, 
fruit of used in making a liquor in Sho-p'o, 78; 
method of making, 84; used as standard of value 
in trade, 84; used in P'o-ni, 155; used by cam- 
phor-gatherers, 193. 

Salt, a product of Kiau-chi, 46; imported to 
Tan-ma-ling, 67; made from sea water in Sho- 
p'o, 77; bay, made in Ta-pan, 84; imported to 
isHnds near P'o-ni, 158; in Liu-k'iu, 163; in 
Hai-nan, 177, 183; rock, used in adulterating 
wax, 239. 

Samshu, imported into Chan-ch'oug, 49; im- 
ported into Chon-la, 53; imported into San-fo-ts'i, 
61; imported into Tan-ma-ling, 67; imported into 
Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; imported to Fo-lo-an, 69; 
imported to islands near P'o-ni, 158; imported to 
Hai-nan, 177. 

San-fo-ts'i (Palembang), Chinese begin going 
to India via, 9; foreigners from Canton and 
Ts'uan-ch6u seek refuge at, 18; its importance 
in sea-trade of China, 23; its area, 60; distance 
of, from Ts'iian-chou, 60; the city of, 60; the 
king of, 60, 61; people of, warlike, 60, 63; currency 
of, 60; climate of, 60; drinks of people of, 60; 
mode of writing in use in, 60; laws of, 61; the 
«Hill of gold and silyers, 61; customs oi, 61; 
legend connected with, 61; products of, 61; foreign 
trade at, 61; piracy in, 62; dependencies of, 62; 
its relations with China, 62; other Chinese names 
of, 63; Ch6u K'ii-fei's notes on, 63; people of, 
could calculate eclipses, 64; missions from, to. 
court of China, 66; tribute sent to, by Tan-ma- 
ling and Ji-lo-t'ing, 67; yearly tribute sent, by 
Si-lan, 73; distance from, to Sho-p'o, 76; distance 
from, to Nan-p'i, 87; ships from, trade at Ku- 
lin, 89; products from realm of Arabs brought' 
to, 114, 116; distance from, to P'o-ni, 155; centre 
of camphor trade at, 193; centre of frankincense 
trade, 195; benzoin trade centered at, 198, 201; 
sandal-wood from, 208; mats from, 220; ivory 
trade of Arabs at, 232; wax from, 238, 239. 

San-ho-liu, rapids in channel between Lei- 
ch6u and Hai-nan, 176, 185, n. 3. 

Saa-lo, a dependency of Chon-la, 53, 56. 

San-po, a dependency of Chon-la, 56; possibly 
identical with San-lo. 

San-sii, a flower of Chu-li§n, not determin- 
ed, 96. 

San-sii, «The Three Islands)), in Ma-i, 160; 
their names, 161; local customs of, 161; huts in, 
161; women in, carry water jars, 161; theHai-tan 
savages in, 161; trade customs in, 161; coasts of, 
rooky and dangerous, 161; products and trade of, 
162; their trade with Liu-k'iu, 163; mats from, 
220; tortoise-shell from, 238; wax from, 238, 

Sandal-wood,importedinto Ceylon, 8;import- 
ed by Persians to China, 16; imported into Chau- 
ch'ong, 49; a product of San-fo-ts'i, 61; a product 
of Fo-lo-an, 69; imported to Si-lan, 73; a product 
of Sho-p'o, 77; a product of pirate islands near 
Sh6-p'o, 84; exported to Kan-p'i, 89; found in 
T'ien-chu, 111; yellow, a product of Ts'6ng-pa, 
126; countries of origin, 208; description of tree, 
varieties, 208. 

Sapan-wood, imported to China end ot tenth 
century, 19; import duty on, 20; a product of 
Chon-la, 53; a product of Lan-wu-li, 72; a pro- 
duct of Sho-p'o, 78; a product of Ku-lin, 89; Arabs 
export, from Lan-wu-li to Ma-li-pa (Merbat), 120; 
description of, 217. 

Sapphires, a product of Si-lan, 73. 

Sarong, worn in San-fo-ts'i, 60; Chinese names 
for, 64; worn in Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; in Hu-ch'a- 
la, 92; flowered silk, from Hai-nan, 176; woven by 
the Li of Hai-nan, 180. 

Sarsenets (man-pu) made in Ta-ts.'in, 103. 

Satinets, imported into Chon-la, 53. 

Satins — Si-wang-mu. 


. Satins, of the Arabs, 116; great store of, in 
Pai-ta, 135. 

Scales, used by Arabs for weighing gold and 
silver, 116. 

Scented woods, imported into China in tenth 
century, 19; import duty on, 21, 22; fumes of, 
used in Chan-ch'ong to perfume clothing, 47: poll- 
tax for cutting, in- Chan-ch'ong, 48; best comes 
from Tong-liu-mei, 56; — see also Gharu-wood. 

Sea, the Green, 12; of Kiau-chi, 23, 24; Great 
Southern Ocean, 25; Great Eastern Ocean, 26; of 
Ceylon, 26; Eastern, of the Arabs, 26, 75; 
Western, of the Arabs, 26; serpent, 33; water of 
the Eastern Ocean, flows into wei-lu, 79; islands 
in the, near P'o-ni, 157-158. 

Sea-dog, drug procured from, 234-235. 

Sea-route, of Sabeans to India, 1; of Greeks 
to India in first century, 2; Greelss did not know 
of, from India or Ceylon to China before Cosmas, 
5; of Chinese pilgrims to India in seventh century, 
9; Kia Tan's sailing directions for, from Canton 
•to Persian Gulf, 9—14; followed by ships between 
Persian Gulf and China, 15, 23, 24, 120; from 
Sho-p'o to Canton, 76; from Chu-li6n to Canton, 
100-101; from Canton to Merbat, 120. 

Serendib, — see Si-lun-tie and Adam's Peak. 

Sha-huarkiuig, probably the Malay «Orang- 
laut.B, 150; pirates, sell slaves to Sho-p'o, 150. 

Shagreen skins, exported from China to 
Aden, 4. . 

Shang-hia-chu islands, Pulo Aor, 23, 2i. 

Sheep, none in Chan-ch'ong, 50; in Ta-pan, 
84; in Pi-p'a-l6, 128; many in Chung-li, 130; milk 
of, drunk in Yung^man, 138; of Pi-ssi-lo, 137; 
fat-tailed, of Mu-Ian-p'i, 142; in Mo-k'i6-la, 154; 
in P'o-ni, 155; none in Liu-k'iu, 163; none in 
Sin-lo, 169, line i/jin Ji-pon, 171; in Hai-nan, 181. 

Shehr, — see Shi-ho. 

Sheikhs, appointed by Chinese in foreign 
settlements', 16. 

SM-ho (Shehr) a dependency of the Arabs, 
116, 121; frankincense from, 195; putchuck from, 
221. •■ 

Shi-ir-tz'i rocks, N. of Carimata island, Bor- 
neo, 24. 

Shi-na-weii, an Arab of Ts'aan-ch6u who 
built a charnel house, 119. 

Shi-BU (Yusuf, Joseph), descendant of P'u-lo- 
hung (Abraham), how he warded off famine in 
Wurssi-li, 144. 

Sb'i-tzi rocks, Pulo Sapatu or Pulo Cecir de 
Mer, 8. 

Sho-p'o (Java), San-fo-ts'i invaded by, 62; also 
called P'u-kia-lung, 75; distance from Ts'uan- 
ch6u, 75; regions lying east of, 75; other countries 
reached by sea from, 76; nearest Arab colony^to, 
76; dimensions of island of, 76; religions of, 76; 
officials in, 76i amusements in, 77; monkeys in, 
77; dwellings, dress and character of people of, 
77; relations of, with China, 77; products of, 
77-78; agriculture in, 77; currency of, 78; pepper 
in, 78; slaves brought to, from Sha-hua-kung, 
150; distance from, to P'o-ni, 155; cloves from, 
209; trade in mats in, 220; cardamoms from, 221; 
pepper from, 222; tortoise-shell from, 238. 

Sho-shon, «to renounce the world», sect in 
Sho-p'o, possibly Brahmans, 76, 80. 

Sho-ts'i-sang, a flower of Chu-lien, not iden- 
tified, 96. ; 

Shong-tong, island of, a district of Sumatra, 
near present Deli, 11. 

Ships, employed by Greeks in trade with 
India, 2; from Ceylon, 3; from Persia and East 
coast Africa visit Ceylon, 3; shape of, employed 
in China trade in seventh century, 9; foreign 
captains of, in China trade, 9; manifests of, exa- 
mined in Canton, 9; frequent wrecking of, in 
voyage to and from China, 15; employed in China 
trade not navigated by Chinese, 15; small, em- 
ployed between Quilon and Persian Gulf, 15; 
Chinese-manned, go to Kalah, 18; regulations for 
foreign, entering Canton, 23; tide-waiters put on 
board, on arrival, 23; travellers from West re- 
ship to larger, at Kulam-Male, 24; large, cart 
sail 1000 li a day, 24; size of Arabs', 24; of Chi- 
nese type on route between Kulam and China, 
24; Chinese, in the fifth century, 27; methods of 
navigating sea-going, 27-28; carrier pigeons oii 
board, 28; water supply on, where procured at 
Canton, 29; seasons when, sailed to and from Can- 
ton, 30; shape and rigging of, 30; called Jcia-t'u, 30; 
large hia-ling, their crews, 30-31; large trading- 
ships only profitable, 31; traders on board,31; con- 
fiscated and crew sold on putting into ports not on 
route, 31; leaks in, how mended, 31; description of 
big sea-going, of twelfth century, 33-34; of Mu- 
lan-p'i, 34, 142; size of Chinese mediaeval, 34-35; 
manifests of, in Annam, 48; merchant, forced to 
enter San-fo-ts'i, 62; importance of Kien-pi for 
trading, 71; from San-fo-ts'i, Kien-pi and Bj-t'o 
visit Ku-lin, 89; Chinese traders bound west 
change, at Ku-lin, 91; from Ts'uan-ch6u to lealm 
of Arabs, length of voyage, 114; how caulked, 
131, 132, n. 4; cargoes from Ki-shi, 134; date of 
sailing of, from P'o-ni, 157; date of sailing of, 
from the Philippines, 162; course followed by, 
from Ts'uan-ch6u to Sin-lo, 165, 168, n. 2; of 
Japanese bring lumber to Ts'iian-chou, 171; 
course sailed by, from China to Japan, 173, n. 7; 
engaged in Hai-nan trade, 178, 187, n. is. 

Shui-au; village in Ts tian-chou-fu, 165. 

Si-lan (Ceylon), a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 
62; under rule of Nan-p'i, 72; distance of, from 
Lan-wu-li, 72; lightning along coast of, 72; the 
king of, 72; his palaces, jewels, 72; his betel-nut, 
73; his great rtiby, 73; the people of, 73; the 
great mountain of Si-lun-tie in, 73; products of, 
73; sends yearly tribute to San-fo-ts'i, 73-, Cho- 
lian rule over, 98; Andaman islands between, and 
Lan-wu-Ii, 147; — see also Ceylon. 

Si-lun-tie, the mountain of, in Si-lan, 73; 
impress of foot on, 73; identified with Adam's 
Peak, 74-75. 

Si-lxmg (possibly Ceram), 157; its products 
and trade, 158. 

Si-p'6ng, a dependency of Chon-la, not iden- 
tified, 54, 56. 

Si-tan-chang-shu, a book studied in T'ien- 
chu, HI; a woris; on astronomy, 114. 

Si-t'ien, India, exclusive of Chu-li4n, and 
westward, 102. 

Si-wang-mu, her residence near the Jo-shui 
and the Liu-sha, 104. 


Siam — Su-tan. 

Siam, first mission from, to China, 6; first 
Chinese mission by sea to, 8; its trade with China 
at end tenth century, 19; — see also Ghon-la. 

Siang-kung, title given chief of Tan-ma- 
ling, 67. 

Siang-shi, Tinhosa island, 10. 
' Sicily, — see Ssii-kia-li-y6. 
\ Silk, exported from China to Ceylon, 3; Greek 
knowledge of silk trade of China, 5; produced in 
Chan-ch'ong, 48; raw, a product of Ch6n-la, 53; 
brocades, gauzes and skeins of, imported to San- 
fo-ts'i, 61; tissues of Ho-ch'i, sold in Tan-ma-ling, 
67; tissues of Ho-ch'i, sold in Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; 
•tissues, imported to Si-lan, 73; weaving in Sho- 
p'o, 78; stuffs, imported to Sho-p'o, 78; tissues 
of cotton and, a product of Chu-lien, 96; people 
of Ta-ts'in clever weavers of, lO-l; tissues worn 
in P"o-ni, 155; tissues of, imported to P'o-ni, 
156; tissues imported to islands near P'o-ni, 158; 
■tissues imported to San-sil, 162; tissues imported 
to Sin-lo, 168; value of, in Sin-lo, 169; line 43; 
fine, fabrics in Ji-pon, 171; tissues imported to 
Hai-nan, 177. . 

. Silkworms, in Sho-p'o, 78; none in P'o-ni, 
155; few, in Sin-lo, 169; none in Hai-nan, 180. 

Silver, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
imported into China in tenth century, 19; a pro- 
duct of Kiau-chi, 46; imported to Chon-la, 53; 
lumps of, currency of San-fo-ts'i, 60; imported to 
San-fo-ts'i, 61; currency of Su-M-tan, 82; bowls 
imported to 'Tan-ma-ling, 67; used in trade at 
Fo-lo-an, 69; brought to Si-lan, 73; used in alloy 
for Sho-p'o currency, 78; used in trade in Sho- 
p'o, 78; currency of alloyed, in Nan-p'i, 88; 
currency of Ku-lin, 89; coins used in Chu-lien, 
100, n. 8; bullion exported from Ki-shi, 134; a 
•product of Pai-ta, 135; a product of K'i-tz'i-ni, 
138; found in Ji-p6n, 171. 

Siu-chou, the capital of Chan-ch'ong, 47. 

Sin-lo (Korea), route of ships from Ts'uan- 
chou to, 166; clans of, 167; relations of, with 
China, 167; mode of living, government, fondness 
for literature, 167; products of, 167, 168; music 
in, 167; people of, superstitious, 167. 

Sin-t'o (Sundas), a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 
62; situated west of Su-ki-tan, 82; has a large 
harbour, 70; houses of, 70; dress of people of, 70; 
pepper of, 70; native products of, 70; country in 
unsettled condition, traders rarely visit; 70; 
pepper of, the best, 222. 

Sin-t'ou, the Sindhn or Indus river, 13. 

Singapore Strait, 11. ; 

Siraf, possibly visited by Ciinese, 4; ships to 
and from China came to, 15; not referred to by 
Chinese, 15; possible reference to, by name of 
Ssii-lien, 117. 

Skin, of boa-constrictor, used to cover musi- 
cal instruments, 45. 

Slaves, black, expert divers, 31, 32; from 
Africa and Negritos countries, 32; price of, in 
Chan-ch'ong, 48; dancing-girls in temples of Chbn- 
la, 53; how procured in islands near Java, 84; 
their value, 84; exported from Ki-shi, 134, n. 2; 
in escort of king of Wu-ssi-li (Egypt), 144; how 
caught by the Arabs, 149; of Sha-hua-kung sold 
in Sho-p'o, 150; how made in Ji-p6n, 171; not 
tattooed among the Li, 183. 

Smuggling, punished by prison, 9; by brand- 
ing and exile, 20; confiscation of goods for at- 
tempted, 21; of copper cash from China to Sho- 
p'o, 78; punished in P'o-ni, 156; pearls into 
China, 230. 

So-li, Chola, or Soladesam, Coromandel, 98, 
n. i; Ceylon called So-li Si-lan, 98, n. i, 100, n. u. 

Socotra, island of, referred to, 131; sorcerers 
of, 132, n. 3; dragon's-blood and aloes of, 131, 
132, ri. 5. 

Sohar, — see Wu-la and Wu-pa. 

Soleyman,his narrative concerning China, 15; 
his statement concerning exports to China, 16; 
concerning government of foreign settlement in 
Canton, 16. 

Solomon, his tomb in Andaman islands, 148. 

Solstice, winter, when kept in Chan-cli'6ng,48. 

Somali coast, — see Pi-p'a-lo and Chung-Ii. 

Sorcerers, of Chung-li, 130-131; in Hai-nan, 

Spelter, exported from Ki-shi, 134. 

Spikenard, possibly exported from Diul- 
Sindh, 3. 

Ssi-ch'uan, products of, exported to India and 
Oxus valley, 6. 

SM-'ch'uan-kung, imported to Shij-p'o", 78; 
a species of levisticum, 81; used to cure pepper- 
gatherers, 83. 

Ssi-kia-li-ye (Sicily), near Lu-mei", 153; 
clothing and customs of, 153; the volcano of, 

Ss'i-lien (Sirdf ?), a dependency of the Arabs, 
117, 122. 

Ssi-lu-wa (Surabaya), 85. 

Ssi-ma-kie, title of a minister of state in 
Sho-p'o, 76. 

Ss'i-su, a drink made by the Arabs with sugar 
and spices; probably th.^. sherbet or sharab of the 
Arabs, 115. 

Statues, in gold, ojf kings of San-fo-ts'i, 61; of 
four-armed and six-armed Buddha;, in Fo-lo-an, 

Steel, imported by Persian to China, 16, 19. 

Stones, precious, of Ceylon, 2; used in orna- 
menting palaces of king of Si-lan, 72; of T'ien- 
chu. 111; in palace of Mi-ssii-li, 115; of streets 
of same, 111; 'precious, brought to Mecca, 125; of 
wall of Lu-mei, 141: precious, of Ch'a-pi-sha, 153. 

Storax, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
imported to San-fo-ts'i, 61; liquid, much in Pi- 
p'a-Io, 128; liquid, a product of Pai-ta, 135; 
liquid, from K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; liquid, from Ln-mei, 
141; description and lises of, 200. ' ' 

Su-ki-lang, a small island outside of Ki-yang 
in Hai-nan; 176. 

Su-ki-tan (Java), traders bound for Sho-p'o 
deceive Chinese Government by referring to it as, 
reason for this deception, 78; a portion of Shij- 
p'o, 82; coast of, marked by Pau-lau-an moun- 
tain, 82; dress in, 82; currency, 82; houses, 83; 
fruits, 83; liquors, 83; products, 83; pepper- 
gatherers, 83; cinnabar much used in, 83; no harr 
borage dues charged in, 83; dependencies of, 83; 
location of, 85; pepper of, 222; cubebs from, 224. 

Su-tan, a king of the Ta-shii styled, 103; sends 
yearly tribute to Ta-ts'in, 103; protects Ta-ts in, 
103; — see Sultan. 

Su Tung-po — Taxes. 


Su Tung-po, 178, 186, n.'io. 

Sugar, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
cane, grown in Chan-ch'Ong, 48; imported into 
Chan-ch'ong, 49; imported into CliOn-la, 53; im- 
ported into Saa-fo-ts'i, 61; imported to Tan-ma- 
ling, 67; imported to Fo-lo-an, 69; grows in Sin- 
t'o, 70; cane, grown in Sho-p'o, 77, 78; great 
height of cane in Su-ki-tan, 83; liquor made from, 
in Su-ki-tan, 83, 84; cane, grown in T'ien-chu, 
111; made in T'ien-chu, 111; early use of, 113; 
its manufacture in China, 113. 

Sukatana, a Javanese colony in Borneo, 85. 

Sulphur, a product of Sho-p'o, 78. 

Sui Yang-ti, the Emperor, sends mission to 
Siam, 8. 

Sultan, title assumed by Mahmud of Ghazni, 
108; the Sultan in text possibly Saladin, 108. 

Sumatra, Greek knowledge of 2; not known 
to Hiian-tsang, 8; sections of, referred to by Kia 
Tan, 11—12; its trade with China at end tenth 
century, 19; — see also San-fo-ts'i. 

Sun, the setting of the, in Ch'a-pi-sha, 153. 

Sun-eh'uan, the Emperor, sends mission to 
Indo-China, 6. 

Sunda, W. Java, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 
62, 66; conquered by Javanese, 71; pepper of, 
the best, 222; — see Sin-t'o and Sun-t'a. 

Sung Euan-cM, 178, 186, n. lo. 

Sung K'i, Minister of Emperor T'ai-tsung, 172. 

Surnames, of kings of Kiau-chi, 45; P'u (Abu) 
a common, in San-fo-ts'i, 60, 64; none in Sho-p'o, 
77; in Hai-nan, 182, 184. 

Swine, none in Ch^nrch'ong, 50; abundant in 
Liu-k'iu, 163. ■> 

Sword, blades, damascened, exported from 
China to Aden, 4; blades imported to San-fo-ts'i, 
61; blades, made in Sho-p'o, 77; iron, made on 
pirate islands near Sho-p'o, 84; people of Nan- 
p'i dextrous with, 88; fine kind of, made in P'ong- 
k'i6-lo, 97. 

Syria, when first heard of by Chinese, 4; the 
Chan and Fu-lin of the Chinese, 108-109. 

Ta-fu (in Japanese Datbu), title of Japanese 
envoys to China, 170, 173, n. 6. ^ 

Ta-hia, trade relations with Ssi-ch'uan, 6. 

Ta-j6n, court grandees in P'o-ni styled, 156. 

Ta-kang, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 83; sandal- 
wood from, 208. 

- Ta-ni ho (the Patani river), 65. 
' Ta-pan, a part of Java, east of Su-ki-tan, it 
was also called Jung-ya;-lu, 82, 84; pepper of, 
inferior to that of Sin-t'o, 70; situated on a bay, 
84; its products, 84; pepper of, 222. 

Ta-shi, the, — see Arabs. 

T'a-tong, a product of T'ien-chu, possibly a 
tissue or carpet, 111, 113. 

Ta-ts'in, JSrst Westerners to come to Tong- 
king by sea, 5; the merchant Ts'in-lun of, visits 
China, 5; vagueness of knowledge of Chinese 
concerning, in fifth century, 7; is the 4<'™™6''*''*1 
centre of Western India (i. e., Asia), 25; situ- 
a;tion of, according to Ch6u K'a-fei, 26; also called 
Li-k'ien, 102; the place where the Ta-shi (Arabs) 
assemble for trade, 102; king of, lives in An-tu, 
102; his dress, 102; the cities of, 102; seven gates 
in the wall, 103; tribute bearers to, 103; the 
people of, 103; origin of the name of, 103; records 

and writing of, 103; carts in, 103; roads of, 103; 
lions numerous in, , 103; tunnel under palace in, 
103; the hall of tirorship of, 103; divine service 
every seven days, 103; king of, rarely seen, his 
horse, 103; the Su-tan of the Ta-shi sends tri- 
bute to, 103; protects the country of, 103; food 
in, 103; native products of, 103; the intercourse 
of, with China, 103-104; Tu Huan calls it Fu- 
lin, 104; his King-hing-ki quoted on, 104; king 
of, the Nestorian Patriarch of Baghdad, 101-106; 
appoints ruler of T'ien-chu, 110; T'ien-chu trades 
with. 111; a subject state of the Arabs, 123, n. is; 
its trade with western Country of Women, 151. 

Ta-tso-kan-hiung, title of a minister of 
state in Sho-p'o, 80. 

Ta-yiie-chi, artisans from, introduce glass 
making into China, 227. 

Tablet (hu), carried by foreign head-man in 
Canton, 17. 

T'ai Po, people of Ji-pon call themselves de- 
scendants of, 170; his influence on the Japanese, 

T'ai-tsung, the Emperor; introduces sugar 
making into China, 113, n. 4; his interview with 
an Arab, 117—118; his remarks about Japan, 
172; and the talking parrots, 236. 

T'ai-wei, the generals of the Arabs called^ 115. 

Talc, stone like, a product of T'ien-chu, 111; 
called huo-ts'i, 113; possibly isinglass, 113. 

Tamlook, Fa-hien sails from, for Ceylon, 3; 
Chinese pilgrims to India land at, 9; its import- 
ance, 27. 

Tan, or Tanka, the «boat people» of Canton, 
in Hai-nan, 181. 

Tan-chou, — see Ch'ang-hua. 

Tan-ir, an ancient administrative division of 
Hai-nan, 175; origin of name, 178; the Fu-jon, 
178, 179; her temple, 179. 

Tan-jung-wu-lo, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 
83; a large island, 85; horses raised on, 85;, people 
of, have some knowledge of writing and counting, 
85; products of, 85; people of, much given to pi- 
racy, 85; possibly the Tanjong pura (Borneo) of 
the Javanese, 86; fine mats from, 220. 

Tan-ma-ling (Kwantan?), a dependency of 
San-fo-ts'i, 62, 66; title of ruler of, 67; palisades 
round capital of, 67; people of, ride buffaloes, 67; 
dress ofpeople of, 67; houses ofy67;native products 
of, 67; trade in, 67; its tribute to San-fo-ts'i, 67; 
distance from, to Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68. 

Tan-shui-kiang, a river in Nan-p'i or Ceylon 
in ^ich cat's-eyes were found, 88, 229. 

Tan-yii (?), an island near P'o-ni, its products 
and trade, possibly Ternate, 158. 

T'an-ma-yen, probably Botol Tobago island 
situated near Liu-k'iu, 163. 

Tanjong Fautuman, — see Pau-lau-an-shan. 

Taro, grown in Sho-p'o, 77; eaten by aborigi- 
nes of Hai-nan, 176. 

Tattooing, among islanders near Sho-p'o, 84; 
why Japanese practice, 170; by early inhabitants 
of ChG-kiang, 170; among the Li, 182-183; ori- 
gin of custom in Hai-nan, 188, n. si. 

Tauist, priests, in Chon-la, their dress, their 
deity called P'o-to-li, 53. 

Taxes, not levied on river population of San- 
fo-ts'i, 60, 64; in Sho-p'o, 77; heavy in Chu-Iien, 


Taxes-rr Trade. 

95; no regular, in Lin-k'iu, 163; in Ji-pon, paid 
in gold and silver, 171. 

Taya islands, — see Kiu-chSu rocks. 

Tong, an animal, its skin used as seat bj the 
king of T'ien-chu, 110. 

Tong, a dry measure used^ by traders in Ling- 
ya-ssi-Ka, 68; in Chung-li, 131. 

Tong-liu-mei (Ligor?), a depend«ncy of 
ChBn-la, 53; produced finest scented words, 55; 
dress of its ruler, 57; houses and eating, in, 57; 
famous mountain in, 57; products of, 57. 

Tong-ya-nong (Trengganu), a dependency of 
San-fo-ts'i, 62, 65; like Fo-lo-an, 69. 

T'6ng-lo, a fruit of Chu-lien, not identified, 

Tea, none grown in Cha,n-ch'6ng, 48; none 
raised in Sho-p'o, 78. 

Teeth, studded and covered with gold among 
the Ma-lo-nu, 150. 

Theft, in Chan-ch'ong, how punished, 47; how 
punished in Chon-la, 53; how punished in Sho- 
p'o, 77. 

Thousand li banks, east of Hai-nan, 176. 

Throne, of king of ChOn-la, 52; succession to 

the, of San-fo-ts'i, 61; of king of Si-lan, 72, 73; of 

the king of Ta-ls'in,.102; of king of Arabs, 115. 

. Ti-kio-eh'ang, place on Iiei-ch6u peninsula 

whence K'iung-ch6u in Hai-nan was reached, 176. 

Ti-la-ta, a dependency of Chon-la, not iden- 
tified, 56. - 

Ti-lo-lii-ho country, probably on Mekran 
coast near entrance of Persian Gulf, 13; also 
called Lo-ho-i, 13; beacons insea at, 13. 

Ti-wu (Timor), a dependency of She-p'o, 83, 
86; also called Ti-nion, 156; other Chinese names 
of Timor, 158, n. e; sandal-wood from, 2f>8. 

TJ-yii, the country of, Taiz of the Arabs at 
month of Indus, 13. 

- T'iau-chr(Chald8Ba), suggested explanation-of 
word, 4. - . '' 

Tiau-jan, in Japanese Chonen, a Japanese 
bonze who visited China in tenth century, 171; 
his reception by the Emperor, 172; his statements, 
172, n. 3j 173, n. 8, 174, n. lO, and n. ii. 
' T"i6n-chu (India), Chu-lifen called Southern, 
93; Western, lies west of Chu-lien, 93; kingdoms 
of Westeril; 97; subordinate to Ta-ts'in, 105, 110; 
rulers of, appointed by Ta-ts'in, 110; customs of 
people of, .110; the. king of, 110; the queen of, 
111; the ((holy water» of,. Ill, '113; products of, 
111, . 11^3; people of, good astronomers. 111; people 
of, cowardly, 111; its relations with China, 111; 
priesf of,. builds shrine in Ts'flan-ch6u, 111; pro- 
ducts of, 113; sugar in, 113; early currency in, 
113; its trade with western Country of Women, 

T'ien-ohu-shan, or Pulo Aor, 23, ICO, n. ii. 

- Ting, Puke of Tsin, 177, 178, 186, n. ». 
Timber, from near K'in-ch6u, used in ship 

building, 34; Japanese export, to Ts'tian-chou, 

- Tin, imported to Aden, 4; imported into Chan- 
ch'ong, 49; palace of king of P'u-kan covered 
with,.59; a product of Ki6n-pi, 71; used in alloy 
for Sho-p'o currency, 78; a product of T'i6n- 
chu. 111; exported from Lan-wu-li to Ma-li-pa 
(Merbat),. 120;. exported from Berbera coast, 120, 

n. i; imported to P'o-ni, 156; imported to San- 
sfl, 1G2. 

Tissues, imported by Persians to China, 16:' 
imported to China in tenth century, 19; made in 
Chan-ch'ong, 48; cotton, of Chon-la, 53; of slUc, 
and of cotton manufactured in Sho-p'o,- 78; of 
cotton, made on pirate islands near Sho-p'o, 84; 
of cotton, made iii Nan-p'i, 88; cotton, and cotton 
and silk, products of Chu-lien, 96; fine flowered 
cotton, from Nan-ni-hna-lo, 98; from Ta-ts'in, 
103; of the Arabs, 116; of cotton, 217-220. 

Tiz, on the Makran coast, — see Tsi-ki. 

T'o-pan-ti (Dimiath, Damietta), ships sail 
from, to Mu-lan-p'i, 142. 

T'o-p'o-li, an Arab, visits Court of China, 118, 
123, n. 23; given rank of general by China,. 124. 

Tongking, Greek knowledge of, 2; traders 
from Ta-ts'in reach, by sea, 5; coasting trade 
between Canton and, 6; pirates from, on Chinese 
coast, 7; its trade with China at end tenth cen- 
tury, 19; included in Chinese customs system, 
20; — see also Kiau-chi. 

Tortoise-shell, from Ceylon, 3; from Malay 
Peninsula exported to Ceylon, 3; imported to 
Aden from China, 4; imported to Canton, 16, 19: 
import duty on, 21; a product of Sho-p'o, 77; a 
product of Tan-jimg-wu-lo and Ma-li, 85; found, 
in T'i§n-chu, 111; thickest, comes from Pi-p'a-lo, 
128; comes from island of Chung-li, 131; a pro- 
duct of P'o-ni, 156; a product of islands near 
P'o-ni, 158; a product of Ma-i, 160; tortoise-; 
described, 238; where found, 238. 
- T'oTl-lo-mieh, cotton cloth, made in Nan-p'i, 
88; made in P*6ng-k'i§-lo, 97; of the Arabs, 116;: 
best quality of cotton fabrics, 217; origin of term, 
219. . : i 

T'ou-shi, possibly damascened steel, deri- 
vation of term, 81. 

T'6u-su (?), an island near P'o,-ni, 157; its 
products and trade, 158. ; 

Trade, of Merbat, .3; of Ceylon, 3;. of Persia 
with Ceylon, 3; of East coast of Africa .with Cey-> 
ilon, 3; of China with CeylonJ 3; of Chinsi with 
Aden, 3—4; of China, according to Greeksj 5; of,- 
China with .Ta-ts'in, •5-6; between .China and 
Indo-China, 6; overland, between Ssi-ch'uan and 
the Oxus valley, 6; route, between Yfin-nan and 
Pegu, 6; of China with Basra and Baghdad in.' 
ninth century, 15; between China and the West 
ill latter part ninth century, 18; of Canton and 
Ts'0an-ch6u at end tenth century, 19; foreigii' 
iseEir-trailej made state monopoly in China, 19;. 
value of foreign, of China, in eleventh and twelfth '■ 
centuries, 19, 22; foreign, confined to Canton and 
Ts'tian-ch6u in twelfth century, 22; great centres 
of, of the Barbarians, 25, 26; of Chan-ch'ong, r 
48-49; in Chon-la, 53; in San-fo-ts'i, 51; in Tan- 
ma-ling, 67; in Ling-ya-ssi-kia, 68; foreign, with' 
Sin-t'o, very small, 70; foreign, in ShS'-p'o, 78; 5 
customs of foreign, in Su-ki-tan, 82, 83; customs ■ 
of islanders near Sho-p'o, 84; of Nan-p'i, 88; 
of Hu-ch'a-la with the Arabs_, 92; export, of, 
Ma-lo-hua, 93; Ta-ts'in great" trade Centre of 
Arabs, 102; by dumb bargaining, 104; of T'ien- , 
chu with Ta-ts'in and Fu-nan, 111, 113; of the. 
Arabs, 116; at Ma-li-pa (Merbat), 120; of Pi-p'a- 
lo, 128; of Yung-man, 133; of P'o-ni, 156; customs 

Trade — War. 


and ceremonies attending trading in P'o-ni, 156— 
157; with islands near Fo-ni, 158; in Ma-i, 159- 
160; customs of, in San-sfl (Philippine Islands), 
161-162; of Liu-k'iu, 163; of Sin-lo, 168; lumber, 
' of Japanese with China, 171; with Hai-nan, 177; 
between Li of Hai-nan and Chinese, 183. 

Tree, of gold and jewels, in palace of king of 
Si-lan, 72. 

Trengganu, — see Tong-ya-nong. 

Ts'au, the country of, indigo from, 217; asa- 
foetida from, 225; its capital Ghazni, 225. 

Tsi-ki (Tiz ?), a dependency of the Arabs, 
117, 122. 

Ts'6ng-pa (Zanguebar), a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117, 122, 126; is south of Hu-ch'a-la, 126; 
people of, are of Arab stock, 126; food of people 
of, 126; products of, 126; trade of, 126. 

Ts'ong-t'an, a country in the Southern Ocean, 
possibly same as Ts"ong-pa, description of, 127, 
n. 4. 

Tsiau-shi island, the Hon Tseu island near 
Tourane, 8. 

Ts'ien-mai, a dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; 
possibly in N. Sumatra, 66; like Tan-ma-ling, 67. 
• Ts'in-lim, a merchant of Ta-ts'in, comes to 
China, 5. 

■ Ts'ing-lang-kan, a variety of coral found on 
coast of P'u-li-lu, 162, 226. 

Tsu-ko-ni, Alexander the Great, builds tower 
of 0-kqn-to, 146; Visits Ch'a-pi-sha, 153. 

Tsu-la, the girafe, in Pi-p'a-lo, 128, 129, n. e. 

Tsushima,^ silver mines on, 171, 175, n. 22. 

Ts'uan-eliou, foreign settlement in, 14; admi- 
nistration of foreign settlement in, 16; where 
situated, 16; Arab trade goes to, 17; called Zaytun 
by the Arabs, 18; foreigners abandon, during 
troubles in ninth century, 18; its foreign trade 
at end of tenth century, 19; official godowns for 
foreigp imports at, 20; distance from, to Chan- 
ch'Ong, 47; distance by sea from, to Chan-ch'Sng, 
47; distance to Chon-la, 52; distance by sea from, 
to San-fb-ts'i, 60; distance from, to Sho-p'o, 75; 
natives of Nan-p'i residing in, 88; distance from 
to Lan-wu-li and Ku-lin, 89; distance from, to 
Chu-li6n, 94; priest from T'i6n-chu comes to, and 
Builds a shrine, 111; the Pau-Iin-yflan in. 111; 
the Ta-shi live north-west of, 114; Arab living in, 
built Moslim burial ground, 119; P'o-ni (Borneo) 
south-east of, 155; distance from, to Liu-k'iu, 
162; raids on district of, by savages of P'i-sho-ye, 
165; Ji-p5n lies N. E. of, 170; Japanese junks 
bring lumber to, 171; cotton its principal import 
from Hai-nan, 185; great consumption of laka- 
wood at, 211; people of, use musk- wood to ma,ke 
furniture, 212. 

Ts'm-lan-shan, fifteenth century Chinese 
name for Nicobar islands, 12. 

Tu-huai-siin, a dependency of Chon-la, not 
identified, 54, 56. 

Tu Huan, his King-hing-ki quoted about Fu- 

lin, 104, 108, n. u; his account of Fu-lin, 108-110. 

Tu-kang, a ship captain, his temple in Liilg- 

shui, in Hai-nan, 181, 188, n. 28; literary examin- 

-ations held at temple of, 182. 

Tu-lau, headmen in Hai-nan called, 177; 
explanation of term, 186, n. 8. 
Tu-man (Tuban in Java), '85. 

Tu-nu-ho, a dependency of Nan-p'i, 88; 
possibly the Tana of the Arabs, on Salsette island 
near Bombay, 90. 

Tuan Ch'ong-shi, author of the Yu-yang- 
tsa-tsu, 28. 

Tubers, grown in Nan-p'i, 88; used as ferment 
in Hai-nan, 176. 

Tui-tau, in Japanese Tsushima, silver mines 
on island of, 171, 175, n. 22. 

Tun-t'ien, north of Chu-lien 4000 li, 94; pro- 
bably, a copyist's error for Tun-sun on the 
southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula, 99. 

T'un-li-fu, a dependency of Chon-la, not 
identified, 54, 56. 

T'ua-mon, Mount, passage out to sea from 
Canton, 10, 24. 

Tung-ki, a dependency of Sho-p'o, 88. 

Tung-nan-ki-won, work of fourteenth cen- 
tury quoted, 16-17. 

Turmeric, imported by Persians to China, 16; 
people of Ku-lin anoint their bodies with, 89; 
derivation of Chinese name of, 91—92; people of 
Nan-ni-hna-lo smear themselves with, 97. 

Turtles, abundant in Sho-p'o, 77. 

Tush, imported by Persians to China, 16; — 
see T'6u-shi. 

Typhoons, in Hai-nan, 177, 186, n. 7. 

Tzi-kong, a kind of lacquer found in Chon-la, 55. 

Tz'i-shui-tsiau, a canna'(?) from Chu-lien, 96. 

Umbrella, Chinese, kittysols, exported to Chon- 
la, 53; silk, carried over king of San-fo-ts'i, 
60; black or white, carried over king of Su- 
ki-tan, 82; silk umbrellas and kittysols sold 
by foreign traders in Tan-ma-ling, 67; of peacock 
feathers in Nan-p'i, 87; carried over king of 
Ta-ts'in, 103; of the ruler of Ta-ts'in, possibly 
a reference to the biruna of the patriarch, 
107; black, of ruler of Ki-shI, 134; black, of 
king of Pai-ta, 135; as present in P'o-ni, 156; 
white, used by chiefs of Ma-i, 159; silk um- 
brellas brought to San-su, 161. 

TTrgendj,— see Au-kien. 

Value, relative, of gold and silver, in Ling-ya- 
ssi-kia, 68; relative, of gold and silver in Ku- 
lin, 89; do. in T'ien-chu, 113, line 45. 

Vinegar, imported into Chon-la, 53. 

Wa-Ii, possibly Laos country, its trade centers 
in Chan-ch'bng and Chon-la, 25; a dependency 
of Chon-la, 54; was sixty days from P'u-kan, 59. 

Wa-mu, colloquial name of sapan-wood, 217^ 

Walls, of bricks, round San-fo-ts'i, 60; pa- 
lisade, round Tan-ma-ling, 67; of Lu-mei^ 141; 
palisade, of P'o-mi, 155. ' 

Wan-an, also called Wan-ning and Ling-shui, 
in Hai-nan, 181; Chinese settlers in, 181; the 
aborigines of, 181; the temple of Captain Tu- 
kang, 181—182; source of river of, 182. 
Wang Kiin, his voyage from Canton to Siam, 8. 
Wang-sho-eh'ong, T'ien-chu of. Central 
India, 26; said to be in Pin-t'ung-lung, 51; said to 
be west of Ta-li, 97; means Magadha, 101. 

War, customs as to, in Chan-ch'ong, 47; pre- 
paration for, in San-fo-ts'i, 60; customs as to, in 
San-fo-ts'i, 63; people of Nan-p'i fond of, 88; 
people of T'ien-chu cowards in 111; conntrivanCes 
for, used in T'ien-chu, 111, 113; Japanese unused 
to, 171. 


Warehouses — Yu6-nb. 

Warehouses, governmental at Chinese ports, 
20; all foreign imports to be deposited in, 20. 

Wax, yellow (or bees), a product of Chan- 
cb'ong, 48; yellow, a product of Chon-la, 53; a 
product of TSng-liu-mei, 57; a product of Tan- 
ma-ling, 67; a product of Tan-jung-wu-lo and 
Ma-li, 85; a product of P'o ni, 156; on islands 
near P'o-ni, 158; a product of Ma-i, 160; a pro- 
duet of San-su, 161; exported from Liu-k'iu to 
San-sOf 163; a product of Hai-nan, 177, 183; in- 
ferior, from Hai-nan, 185; countries whicb pro- 
duce, 238; mode of collecting, 238; adulteration 
of, 239. 

Won-eh'ang, in Hai-nan, 178. 
- Won-ohou, Maritime Customs at, 18. 

Wong-man, — see Yung-man. 

Wei-jui, a dependency of Chan-ch'6ng, 49; 
hot indentified. 

Wei-IQ, waters of the Great Eastern Ocean- 
Sea, flow into the, 26, 75, 79; eastern Kingdom 
of Women near the, 151; junk that came near 
the, 185, n. 4. 

Wei-pa, the nipa palm, pith used in making 
liquor in islands near Shfl-p'o, 84, 87; liquor 
made with sap of, in P'o-ni, 155. 

Wei-tou, a village in Ts'flan-oh6u-fu, 165. 

Western Heaven (Si-t'ien), all countries of 
India, exclusive of Chu-lien, included in, 97. Ta- 
ts'in the great mart of the, 102. 

Western Regions (Si-yu), the light horsemen 
of, make raids on Nan-ni-hua-lo, 98. 

• Whales, use made of bodies of, in Chung-li, 
131, 132, n. 4. 

• Wheat, none in Chan-ch'ong, 48; imported 
to Fo-lo-an, 69; none in Sh8-p'o, 77; grown in 
Nan-p'i, 88; grown in Chu-lien, 96; of Mu-lan- 
i)'i, kept in silos, 142; in Mo-k"i6-la, 154; none 
in P'o-ni, 155; grown in Sin-lo, 169, line 42; 
little, in Ji-p6n^ 171. 

Wind, which, favourable for sailing, 30; god 
Fong-lung prayed to for, 30; in the desert, 143; 
women conceive by action of south, 161.- 
. Wo, the country of, — see Jj-pbn. 

Wolves, in Liu-k'iu, 163. 

Women, Kingdom of, 26, 151; form escort of 
king of Chan-ch'ong, 47; kingdom of, situated in 
the Eastern Ocfean-Sea 75; native, of pirate is- 
lands marry traders, 84; guard of, of king of 
Nan-p'i, 87; put to death for adultery in Nan- 
ai-hua-io, 97; eastern kingdom of, 151; lotus 
seed and peach stones of the kingdom of, 151; 
men, how treated in kingdom of, 161; conceive 
under eiffect of south wind, 151; western island 
of, 161; its trade with Ta-ts'in and India, 151; 
women in San-sii, 161; in Jii-pon, 1 71; in Hai-nan, 
179, 180, 182, 183. 

• Wool, tissues of, worn in Lu-mei, 141; tissues 
of, worn in Mo-k'i§-la, 164 

' Writing, characters used in, in San-fo-ts'i, 60, 
64; unknown among islanders near Sho-p'o, 84; 
some knowledge of, in Tan-jung-wn-lo and Ma- 
li islands, 85; Mu characters used for, in Ta- 
ts'in, 103; brushes for, made in Sin-lo, 168. 

Wu-chi-shan, in Hai-nan, 184; its height, 
189, n. so. 

Wu-la (Sohar ?), — see Wu-pa. 

Wu-laii-mu, a wood from K'in-ch6u used in 
ship building, 34. 

Wu-li, a small island outside of Ki-yang in 
Hai-nan, 176. 

Wu-li, a dependency of Chan-ch"8ng, 49, not 

Wu-li-ma {?), an island near P'o-ni, its pro- 
ducts and trade, 158. 

Wu-li-pa, Cantonese Mo-li-pat (Malahar), a 
country of Nan-p'i, producing much pepper, 223. 

Wu-ma-pa, a dependency of Chan-ch'ong, 49, 
not identified. 

Wu-ming-i, a product of K'i-tz'i-ni, 138; 
limonite or cobalt blue, 140; a product of Liu- 
mei, 141. 

Wu-na, — see Ku-na. 

Wu-na-ts"i, a drag, imported by Arabs tb 
San-fo-ts'i, 61, 116; procured from K'i6-li-ki 
(Kalbat) and P'o-ni (Borneo), 234; origin of name, 
234; applied originally castoreum, civet, 234— 

Wu-nung, Mount, in Tong-lin-mei, 57. 

Wu-pa (Sohar?), a dependency of the Arabs, 
117, 122; its position, 130; the king of, and his 
religion, 130; Yung-man resembles^ 133. 

Wu-si-hu-lu-hua, a centenarian Arab, living 
in Canton, 118. ' 

Wu-8Si-Ii (Misr, Egypt); its position not 
known to Chou K'u-fei, 24; a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117; other Chinese names, 120; under 
the rule of Pai-ta, 144; the king of, his escort, 
144; food of people of, 144; the annual rise of 
the river of, 144; the story of Shi-su (Joseph) 
the descendant of P'u-lo-hung (Abraham), 144; 
the city of Kie-y6 (Cairo), .144; the legend of 
the old man of the river, 144—145; O-kon-t'o 
belongs to, 146. 

Wu-ssi-li (Mosul), climate of, 140; mannafrom, 
how produced, 140; oak-galls of, 140,215; asbestos 
and coral products of, 140. 

Wu-tsii, an island inhabited by women, 152, 
lines 17-19. 

Ya-ss'I-pau-hien (Ispahan), a dependency 
of the Arabs, 116, gardenia flowers from, 202. 

Yamato, in Japan, where situated, 173, n. 7. 

Yang-chou, foreign settlement in, 14; admin- 
istration ' of foreign settlement in, 16; sugar 
first cultivated in, 113. 

Yang-Shan, Pulo Gambir, 101. 

Yau-lien-oh'an, a flower of Chu-lien, not 
identified, 96. 

Yan-tung (Yortan), 85. 

Ye-si-ming,— see Jasmine. 

Year, how reckoned in Liu-k'iu, 163; how 
reckoned in Ji-pon,171, 175, n. 19. 

Yin-tu (India), Southern, Chu-lien also called, 
93. , 

Yii-kan, a fruit of Chu-li6n,,96;not identified. 

Yii-ta cloth, a product of Ma-i, probably 
ramie fiber cloth, 160. 

Yud-li, a dependency of Chan-ch'ong, 49. 
' Yiid-np, clcith, sent as bridal present in Chu- 
li6n, 95; probably a fine muslin, 100, n. 7; a pro- 
duct of Pai-ta, 135; a product of K'i-tz'i-ni, 188; 
gold spangled, a product of Lu-mei, 141; name 
of a country, 220. 

Yud-wang-t'ou — Zeyd. 


Yiie-wang-t'ou, "King of Ytt6's head" origin 
of name for cocoanut, 215. 

Yfin-naiif trade route between, and Pega, 6. 

Tung-ohou, in communication witli Chan- 
ch'ong 47. 

7uiig-(or Wdng-)inan, Oman, a dependency 
of the Arabs, 117, 133; dress, food, prodn,cts, 
dates, pearls, horse raising, trade, 133; traded 
regularly with Pi-ssi-lo, 137. 

Yung-shiij a priest from Li-t5 in Western 

India who came to China at the and of the tenth 
century; possibly a Christian, 112. 

Zatiguebar, — see Ts'6ng-pa. 

Zaytun, the Arab name of Ts'iian-chdu, 18. 

Zebra, in Pi-p'a-Io, 128, 129, n. 7. 

Zeila, town of, on Berbera coast, 129. 

Zemzem, well in Mecca, water from the 106, 
113. — See Ishmael. 

Zeyd Hassan of Siraf, his work on early 
Arab voyages to the East, 15. 






^"^ M -^-M-lo, Akula or Kufa, 
the Abbaside Capital, HO. 

n^g Pjl P^ A-li-jo, a dependency of 
Nan-p'i, 88; possibly the Hili or Ras Haili 
of the Arabs, near Calicut, 90. 

|Jnf tJ^ a-mo, Arabic 'anbar, amber- 
gris, 428. 

|J^ ]^ a-nan, the name used in Chon- 
la to designate the temple dancing-girls, 
53, 55. n. 7. 

PhT ^ M i^ A-p'o-lo-pa, the 
Caliph Abu'l 'AbbSs, 4 1 7. 

IW .# 1^ 11 f?jt a-t0'-i-p'o-t'a-ni, 
Arabic al-mhad, civet, 234. 

|Jpf ^5^ a-ts% Aramean asa, the 
myrtle, 197. 

1^ J^ ^ O'-yi^-tsi-e, Persian angU- 
iad, angUsa, asa-foetida, 225. 

^ 1^ § -^^^ {Yen)4''o-inan, the 
Andaman islands, 147. 

^ ^ An-tu, Antioch, the nominal see 
of the king or Ma-lo-fu of Ta-ts'in, 102. 

^ ^[>[ Au-chou, in Japanese ds)^M, 
where gold mines were exploited, 175; 
text of Chau Ju-kua writes first character 
erroneously ^ Tile, 171. 

^ ^ All-Men, probably Urgendj, 
the Gorganiya of the Middle Ages, 121, 
n. 12. 

1^ ^ ii RB -A-U-lo-lo-li, a depen- 

dency of Nan-p'i, 88; possibly Gannanore, 
90, n. 8. 

^ ^[5 P^ Ch'a-na-M, the capital of 
Pong-k'i6-Io, 97. Not identified. 

^ 50? 'B^ Ch'a-pi-sha, the Land of 
the setting sun, Arabic Djabirso or Djaborso, 
1 5 3 . Also written '^^ ij^ ^ 8ha-pi-c¥a. 

^ M ^ Gh'ai-U-fin(f, a locality 
on the Cherating river, east coast Malay 
Peninsula, 76, 80, n. 3. 

"g" Chan, in CantoneseSMw, ash-Sham, 
Syria, or Damascus, 104, 108, n. i4. 

^ ^ (Mn-ch'dng, Annam, 47 — 50; 
its other names, 49, n. i. 

t^ M. ^ Chan-U-p'o, a dependency 
of Chon-la, the present Chanthabun, 56; 
see also GMn-li-fu. 

^ ^ Ghan-pei, Djambi, the capital of 
eastern Sumatra after the Javanese conquest 
in A. D. 1377, 65, 66, n. is. 

^ ^ Ghan-pin, a country, presu- 
mably on coast of Pegu, passed by the Chu- 
li6n mission of A. D. 1015, 100, n. ii. 

|l§ -j^ ^ chan-po-Jcia, Sanskrit 
champaka, the champac tree, Michelia 
Champaca, 203. 

^ ^ ^ \U Ghan-pu-lau-shan, 
Culao Cham, 10. 

^ (or -^ ?) :^ ^ G}mn-(or Ku-) 
pu-lau, an island passed by Chu-lien mis- 


sion of A. D. dOlS on voyage from Malay 
Peninsula to San-fo-ts'i, 100, n. ll. 

^ ^ Gh^ang-Jiua, in Ilai-nan, 176. 

:^ 1^ ift Gh^ang-yau-sU, Pulo Se- 
nang or Bam Island, 64. 

^ ^ c¥au-Ma, — see Uau-sho-ye. 

^ CM, the Singapore Straits, 1 1 . 

^i-l^ C/!dWi, the Ghittis of Malabar, 89. 

M J^ Chon-la, Champa, Kamboja, 52, 
54, n. i; — see Ki-mie and Kan-pu-cM. 

^ ffi. W Ghon-li-fu, a dependency 
of Chon-lg, the present Chanthabun on the 
lower Menara, 53, 56. 

M >^ (yidn-p% a dependency of 
Chon-la, possibly the same as Chon-li-fu 
(q. v.), 56. 

^ ^ si Ghou-pau-limg, an is- 
land or headland near entrance to port of 
San-fo-ts'i, 100, n.ii. 

^ ^ Ghu-ai, an ancient administra- 
tive division of Hai-nan, 175, 176. 

^ ^Ij ^\} ,Ghu-U-ye, Choliya, iden- 
tical with Ghii-lien (q. v.), 98, n. i. 

jhj^ ^ Ghu-lien, the Chola dominion, 
or the Coromandel Coast, 93; — see also 
Ma-pa-'ir and So-li. 

M^ ("^ ^) l*^ ^^'"" (°J" shu-)mi, 
Arabic jum'ah «assembly)> (on friday, for 
prayer in the mosque), 138, 139, n. 2. 

^^ JM. Ghwn^-Ma-lu^ a variant of 
Jung-ya-lu (q. v.), a portion of western 
Java, 62, 66, n. 19. 

FJI ^ Chung-li, the Somali coast; 
the name may be derived from Zang or 
Zenj, 130. 

"^ -^ Fang-chang, the «Cube House» 
the «House of AIlah)> (BaytlJllah)or Kaaba, 
at Mecca, 125, note. 

i^ ^ fip F6ng-ya-lo, in Amoy dia- 
lect Bcmg-ga-lo, probably Mangalore, 88, 
90, n. 8. 

■^ M ^ Fo-lo-cm, a dependency of 
San-fo-ts'i, 62; Beranang, W. coast Malay 
Peninsula, 65, n. 16, 69. 

'^ ^ Fo-slii, 11, 63, n. i, — see 

% %^] M M Fu-li-la-ho, probably 
the Minab river on which stood Hormuz, 14. 

^ ^ Fu-Un, situated in the west 
of the Chan ("^) country (q. v.); it was 
also called Ta-ts'in according to Tu Huan, 

^ ^ iSK -Pw-ta ch'dng,.the city of 
Fostat,the modern Cairo, or Baghdad, 1 4, n. 3. 

y$ '^ 3p| hai-mei-ch'i, a product of 
Ilai-nan; unidentified, 176.. 

'/$ Ift Hai-tan, the Acta, the Ne- 
gritos of the Philippine Islands, 161. 

^ ^ han-lin, title of an officer of the 
king of Nan-p'i who watched over his food, 

^ ^ Hei-sliui, probably the Irra- 
wadi river, 26, called || ^ ^ '^ 
'/rJ" Hei-shui-yu-ni-lio, «Black-water- 
muddy riven) ; formed the frontier of P'u- 
kan, 59, n. i. 

jf fi ^ Hi-nivig, a dependency of Java, 
(Sho-p'o), 83; possibly the Singhasari of the 
Javanese, 86, n. 7. 

4^ ^^ ^ Jiia-nau-tan, a tree of 
Sho-p'o, inner part of which was used to make 
a liquor, 78;. hia-nau protably Malay 
anaoiy the gomuti palm, 81, n. 13. 

^ ^ Hing-kHn, the Bonze, travels 
to the West, 117. 

J^ II Mng-Jc'u, also written hing-yil, 


and Mn-k^il (q. v.), Sanskrit ^iw^?^, asa- 
fetida, 225. 

f^ [^ Ho-ling, or Western Java, 1 1 . 

^ J^ hing-yu, Sanslorit hingu, asa- 
foetida, 225. 

^ ^ Mn-k% Sanskrit hingii, asa- 
foetida, 225. 

'f^ ^ Ho-man, a sailor, probably- 
Arab, of Ts'iian-chou, at beginning of se- 
venth century, who discovered Formosa, 163, 
n. 1. 

^Ji ^ j?5 Ho-si-na, Ghazni, the 
capital of Ts'au (j^), 225. 

^ ^ ^ Hu-ch^a-la, Guzerat, a 
dependency of Malabar (Nan-p'i), 88; 92. 

fS ^ Jm-mang, Persian khurma, 
the date, 210; see also ¥ti-lu-ma and 

^ ^ Huan-ssi, the family name of 
the kings of Liu-k'iu, 162. 

^ Mji .i^ Suang-ma-cJiu, a depen- 
dency of Java (Sho-p'o), 83. Not identified. 

»^ ^ huo-tsH, a stone like talc, 
probably isinglass, 411, 113, n. ii. 

fj][ ^ Me-kie, Cantonese Mt-kHt, 
possibly Arabic Mf^V, dragon's-blood, 198. 

^^ *, a weight of gold, equivalent to 
20 taels, 73, 74. 

— ■ ^ I-cM (I-ki), in Japanese 
Iki(shima), 173, n. 7. 

-j^ ^ I-^«<, in Cantonese I-luk, Irak, 
a dependency of the Arabs, 117. 

'^ M^ ^ M I-ma-lo-U, a country 
or island between Chan-pin (q. v.) and Ku- 
lo (q. v.), on the west coast Malay Penin- 
sula, 100, n. 11. 

•p- ^ I-tu, also written ^ j^' *° 
Japanese Ido, in Chikuzen, 1 73, n. 7. 

^ ^ J-M'U, a dependency of Java (Sho- 
p'o), 83. 

J^ J'^-li, a dependency of Chan- 
ch'ong, 49. 

B M t^ J^-ii-hu, an island near 
PVni, possibly Gilolo, 157. 

^ ^ Jl-lo-tHng, a dependency of 
San-fo-ts'i, 62; not identified, 65, n. 6. 

?L S^'i**"^'', usually «milk», but when 
used in connexion with Mongol and Turkish 
countries, «dried sour milk» or kwut, 102, 
n. 19, and 139, n i. 

$^ 'ill ^ jwin-pu-tou, a litter or 
hammock carried by four men, in Chan- 
ch'ong, 47; other names of same, 50, n. 4; 
also written i^ ^ juan-tou, 72; — see 

^ ^ ^ Jung-ya-lu, in Western 
Java, but east of Sin-t'o; a dependency 
of Sho-p'o, 62, 66, 83, n. 19; also 
written Chung-kia-lu (q. v.). Probably the 
Janggolo of the Javanese, 86, n. 7. 

"M* ^ kan-lo, a fruit of Chu-li4n, 
not identified, 96; is also caWei kan-mau- 
sun {-^ ^ %), 100, n. 9. 

■^ ^ Kan-mei, a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117; possibly the Comoro islands, 
122, n. 13. 

-y^ ^ j[^ Kan-pa-i, in Cantonese 
Kom-p^a-yat, the city of Cambay, the 
Kambayat of the Arabs, 88, 90, n. 8, 

?it 7^ Kan-pu (or fu), near Hang- 
chdu in Ch'o-kiang, Marco Polo's Ganfu, 
20, n. 3. 

-y^ :^ :^ Kan-po-chl, the name 
given Kamboja during the Ming period, 54; 
it was also written ^ j^ ^ KHen-pu- 




^ Ki-lan-tan, a dependency 
of San-fo-tsM, 62; identified with Kalantan, 
65, n. 4. 

^ M. P^ MJ Ki-li-mon-shan, Pulo 
Krimun, north coast of Java, 85, n. 2. 

^ 5P ^ f^ Ki-lo-ta-mmg, the 
products of Nan-p'i were exported to China 
by way of this place, 88; it is not 
identified, but was probably on the extreme 
N. E. coast of Sumatra, 91, n. lo; — see 

W^ ^ ■^ ^i-l'^'ng-tau, Hen's nest 
(or Koh-rang-kai) island, 8. 

^ ^ Ki-mie, Kamboja, according to 
the T'ang-shu. It is probably a transcrip- 
tion of Khmer, 54, n. i. 

^ ^ Tci-pei, or "jjp _^ Jcu-pei, 
Sanskrit Jcarpasa, Malay hapas; cotton, 
218; — see also Tiu-chmg. 

bE J^ Ki-sM, a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117; the island of Kish (Keis) in 
the Persian Gulf; other forms of name, 134, 

n. 1. 

^ IJ;^ Ki-t^o, a port probably of north- 
western Sumatra, its ships traded with Ku- 
lin, 89, 91, n. 16. 

o^ ^ (oi" M) Hi Ki-ts''i-ni, a de- 
pendency of the Arabs, 117; probably 
Ghazni; — see Ho-si-na and KHe-sho-na. 

^ ^ Ki-yang, in Hai-nan, 176. 

^ -f^ Hd ^iC'-kii-lo, Arabic Mku- 
lah, the cardamom, but used by Chinese as 
name of nutmeg, 210. 

J[jH ^ ^ Kia-lo-M^ a southern- de- 
pendency of San-fo-ts'i, probably in Malay 
Peninsula, 52, 54, 62, 66, n. lo. 

JSlB Mr 5^ Kia-ma-yen, Calamian, 
one of the Calamianes islands, N. E. of Pa- 

lawan (Philippine Islds.). It was one of the 
San-sii (q. v.), 161. 

JffP ^ kia-mong, presumably the go- 
muti palm; sap used in P'o-ni to make li- 
quor, 155. 

t/0 A iJj Kia-pa-shan, an island or 
headland presumably on S. W. coast of 
Malay Peninsula, 100, n. il. 

JfjP ^ Ua-fu, a sea-going ship, the 
hatwr, used on the south-west coast of 
India, 30, n. 2. 

^ -^ P^ Eia-td-mon, the point of 
present junk passage on Canton coast called 
Cupchi Point, 24. 

Kiaii-cJii, Tongking, 45 — 46. 
^ ^|5 Jciau-sho-ye, Sanskrit 
kausheya, silken stuff, 218; use of term 
by Chinese, 219, lines 13 et seq. 

^ 7^ Kiau-yang, Sea ofKiau-chi, 
the China Sea, 23. 

f ^ "flj ^ A;ie-|w«-?o, Sanskrit kar- 
pUra, camphor, 194 n. i. 

M ^ Kie-ye, Arabic KdhiraJi, «the 
Yictoriouss, the modern Cairo, 1 44. 

>fjtl -^ ^ KHe-ku-to, possibly same 
as earlier Ko-ku-lo (q. v.) in Malay Penin- 
sula, 222, line 7. 

>(j{f|I ^ ^J KHe-lcm-shan, the Nico- 
bar islands, 12; — see Ts^ui-lan-shan. 

^H -/j ± KHe-li-ki, a dependency 
of the Arabs, 117; presumably Kalhat, 122. 

# ^ i5 K'U-sM-m, probably 
Ghazni, 139, line u; — see Ki-ts'l-ni. 

^ ^ ^ A;'*e-^o-Zo, Sanskrit Ma- 
dira, acacia catechu, 196, n,i; to-¥ie-lo 
occurs, it may be Sanskrit taga/ra, cassia 

1^ '^ Kien-pi, a dependency of San- 



fo-ts'i, 62; Kampar, E. coast of Sumatra, 
66, n. 13. 

jt^ j>W Kiu-cMu, Taya islands, N. E. 
point of Hai-nan, 10. 

■^ j^ Kiu-chou, a dependency of 
Chan-ch'ong, 49. 

^ y^ Kiu-Mang, Palembang, 63. 

>^ M Ui Kiu-sing-sJian, an island 
between Panrang coast and Canton, possibly 
same as Kiu-chou or Taya island, 101. 

JH ^ ^ KHung cM-ts'ai, a pro- 
duct of Hai-nan, not identified, 176. 

JH j^ KHimg-chou, in Hai-nan, how 
reached from China coast, 176. 

MM\% ^^ ("^ ^^) So-Jco-song- 
cKi (or ti), the Brouwers islands or Pulo 
Medang, 11. 

■^ -^ ^ Ko-ku-lo, possibly Kalan- 
tan, 1 1 ; ' — see also KHe-Jcu-lo. 

"^ ^ Ko-Ung, the Klings of Mala- 
bar, 89, n. 1. 

"^ ^ Ko-lo, Kalah of the Arabs, 1 1 . 

pj* ;^ k'o-lau, the style of address 
of the king of Liu-k'iu, 162, 164, n. 2. 

i^^^ K'o-li-fu, the Caliph, 1 22, 
-n. 17. 

-^ M Ku-lan, Kulam-Male (Quilon), 
12;^ — see Ku-Un SiHi. Mo-la-ye. 

^E M 'Pfe Jtu-so-t'o, Sanskrit 
TcusMha, putchuck, 221. 

■^ ^ hu-chung, Foochow dialect ku- 
filng, Arabic kaitan(kuiun), cotton, 219. 

1^ ^ (or "^ #)> ^w-?m, Kulam- 
Mal6, 12; a dependency of Nan-p'i, 88. 

■^ M (°^ M) ^^-^^^ possibly the 
same as Ki-lo-ta-nung (q. v.), 76, 80,. 
1 00, n. ii; identified in sixteenth century 
with Acheen, 124, n. 25. 

1^ g^ Ku-lun, a pirate state near 
Sho-p'o, 84; — see Niu-lun. 

'W tHJ ^M-na^ Turki Mwa, the mar- 
ten, skunk, the family of Mustelidae, 234. 

® ^ ^ ^ ku-'pu-p'o-lu, Malay, 
hwrpur, camphor, 194. 

■^ ^ Ku-tcm, the present Nha-trang, 

^ ^ ^L h'u-lu-ma, Persian 
Tihurma, the date, 210. 

^ ^ k'it-mcmg, Persian khurma, 
the date, 210. 

^ ^ ^ Kun-fu-nung, possibly 
Poulo Condore, 11. 

^ -^ p4 K^un-lim-shcm, Pulo 
Condore, — see Kun-Pu-nung and P'k- 

^ ^ ^ ^ K'un-lun-ts'dng-k% 
alhfi Zanj (or Blacks) from K'un-lun», probr 
ably the islands of Pemba and Madagascar, 

'^ fi' JH Kimg-sM-miau (?), an 
island near PVni, 157; its products and 
trade, 158. 

^ Jl^ Xci/n-U, the Bamni of the 
Arabs, the Lamori of Marco Polo; the north- 
ern part of the west coast of Sumatra, 73, 
n. i; — see Lan-wur-li. 

^ ^ ||_ Lan-wu-U, a dependency 
of San-fo-ts'i, 62,. 72, 73; extreme N. W. 
coast of Sumatra, 66; the name is also 
writtem ^ »^^ %\\ Nan-(Lan-)fo-li, 
and ^ 2^ M N<m-{Lan-)wu-li; ^[5 
^ ^ Na-(La)-mo-U, is also found. 

^% "^ ^ i'aw^-2/a-SM, the Laur 
kachin islands (Koh Katu), 8. 

^ 55 '^ Li-<^wti, a Moslim envoy 

to China, 117. 



tp '^ lA-han, possibly the island of 
Lubang, Philippine Islds., 160. 

^ ^ lA-Men, also called Ta-ts'in, 
but this is not true for the Ta-ts'in of Chau, 

M :^ ^ Li-Mn-ttmg, presumably 
Lingayen, on west coast of island of Luzon, 

^l) ^^: lA-to, a country of Western In- 
dia, probably the Lata of Mas'udi; situated 
on the Gulf of Cambay, and a part of the 
kingdom of the Balhara, 112. 

JS Wi ^«-'^'*^; a flower of Ghu-Iien, 
not identified, 96. 

^ ^ Licmg-pau, a dependency of 
■Chan-ch'ong, 49. 

H # 1^ ^ ^ m Ling-kHe- 
^o-^o-fo island, Gape Varella or Gape Sa- 
hoi, 8, n. 2. . 

1^ ^ P^ Lmg-ya-mon, Linga is- 
land and strait, 60, 63, n. 2; also called 
Limg-ya mon (q. v.). 

^ ^ ^ jfjfl Ling-ya-ssl-kia, a 
dependency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; identified 
with Lengkasuka, 65, n. 16. 

^ 5Jc lAu-kHu, Northern Formosa, 

^ ^ lAu-sin, possibly Luzon (Phi- 
lippine Islds.), 160. 

1^ Lo, country, I-tsing's name for 
Nieobar islands, 1 2, n. 2. 

^ ^ ^ Lo-ho-i, another name of 
Ti-lo-lu-ho (q. V.) on Mekran coast, 13. 

^ ^ Lo-hu, a dependency of Ghon- 
la, the modern Lopburi on the lower Menam, 
53, 56, n, 10. 

B^ ^ P^ Lo-hu-na, Rahula, a 
priest from T'i6n-chu who came to Ts'iian- 

chou in the latter part of the tenth century 
and built a dagoba there. 111. 

M- ia M lo-U-lien, the title of a 
minister of state in Sho-p'o, 76, 80, n. 7. 

^ /t^ lo-mu, a Japanese tree, carried 
as planks to Ts'iian-chdu, 171; presumably 
a species of pine, 1 74, n. 12. 

^ M» ^ Lo-sKi-mei, a dependency 
of the Arabs, 1 1 7; a truncated form of the 
name Khwarizm 121, n. 12. 

^ T^ Lo-yUe, Ligor, or S. extremity 
Malay Peninsula, 1 1 . 

^ *^ Lii-hai, or «Green Sea», medi- 
aeval Arab name of the Ocean, 1 2, n. 6. 

^ "^ lu-Jccm, Gantonese luk-kom, 
Arabic, Persian, rukham, marble, alabas- 
ter, 115, 120, n. 4. 

^ 7^ Lu-yang, a dependency of 
Ghon-la, not located, 54, 56, n. 1. 

^ ^ Lu-mcm {?), an island near 
P'o-ni, 157. 

^ ^ Lu-mei, Arabic Riim (Bilad 
er-Rum), Asia Minor, but as used by Ghau 
extending possibly to Gonstantinople and 
Rome, 141. 

^ -^ lu-wei) Persian alwa, Soco- 
tran aloes, 225. 

^ JI^ Lu-tvu, in Gantonese Luk- 
ngaf, the capital of Kamboja, 52, 54, n. 2. 

^ ^ Iwng-tsHng, the style of the 
king of Palembang, 61, 65, n. 12. 

hI ^ P^ TMng-yor-imn, Linga 
Strait and Island, 64; — see lAng-yor-mon. 

^ ^ Lung- {or Nung-) yung, a 
dependency of Ghan-ch'dng, 49. 

m 3^ ma-ch*a, Persian mazu, oak- 
gall, 215; also written mo-sM, mo-tso, 
and wu-sln(<i.\.). 


/^ ® ^ Ma-Ma-wu, Mohammed, 
416, 120, n. 7, 13S. 

Ifji ^ Ma-i, in Cantonese Ma-yat, 
Mait, «the country of the Blacks», the 
Philippine islands, or a portion of them, 
159, 160, n. 1. 

^ P^ Ma-jo or, Ma-no, an island 
near P'o-ni, possibly Mahono, 138. 

|§jt ^ Ma-Ma, Mecca, a dependency 
of the Arabs, 117, 124. 

H^ ^ Ma-lan, a dependency of 
Chon-la, possibly identical with Ma-lo-won 
(q. v.), 56. 

Hjt ^ Ma-li, Bali, a dependency of 
Java (Sho-p'o), 83, 86, n. 7. see Pa-li. 

1^ PJI :^ Ma-U-mo, i Amoy dia- 
lect Ma-U-hwaf (Malabar?), 88, 90, n. 8. 

B M (or m) S ^«-^^ Cor ?o-; 
pa, Merbat on the Hadramaut coast of 
Arabia, 25, 115, 149, n. 2. 

MH ^ ^ M«a-?o-fM, the style of the 
king of Ta-ts'in, 102; transcribes presum- 
ably Mar Aha, a title of the patriarchs 
of the Nestorians, 105. 

m ^ Ip Ma-lo-Tma, in Cantonese 
Md-lo-wa, Malwa, a dependency of Mala- 
har (Nan-p'i), 93. 

M^ i^X Ma-lo-nu, probably Ma- 
Idyu, our Malays; lived by piracy, were 
cannibals, 150. 

H^ M 5^ ilfa-?o-«<;ow, a dependency 
of Chon-la, the Malyan of Cham inscriptions, 
but not located, 53, 56, n. lO. 

m f^ Ma-ni, an Arab envoy to China 
in A. D. 4003, 418, 423, n. 20. 

i^ A ^ Ma-pa-w-, Ma'bar of the 
Arabs, the Coromandel coast, or Chu-Iien 
(q. v.), 98. 

B ^ Ma-tung, a dependency of 
Java (Sho-p'o), 83; possibly the Medang- 
kamolan of the Javanese, 86, n. 7. 

^ |Jj ;;^ Man-shan-shui, a river,, 
presumably in Kamboja, passed by Chu-lien 
mission of A. D. 1 01 5 on voyage to Cliina, 
400, n. 11. 

]^ P^ I Mau-mon Wang, in Ara- 
bic Amir-al-Mu'menin «Commander of 
the FaithfulB, 44; — see also 449, 1. 20. 

"jig [1| Mau-sJian, Pulo Rondo or 
Pulo Way, off Acheen, Sumatra, 74. 

M ^ '^ ('!$) Mei-lu-ku-(tmi), 
the capital of Lu-mei, not identified; may 
be Arabic mulhidun <!lnfidels», points to 
Constantinople or Rome, though details con- 
cerning it seem to apply to Damascus, 444. 

>S ^@» -JT ^ vM fnet-ssz-ta-Jma- 
tsiu, a drink (or drinks?) of the Arabs 
made with honey and spices, 446, 420, 
n. 6, 4 27, n. 4. 

5^ ^ Mi-lan, the Indus river, call- 
ed Nahr Mihran by the Arabs, 43. 

^ ^ ^ Mi-su-U, the capital of 
the Arabs, ll^;Misr of the Arabs, Egypt, 
420, n. 3; — see Wu-ssi-li. 

^ ,g, ^ Mi-ssi-vr (Misr of the 
Arabs, Egypt), 4 20, n. 3; — see Wu-ssi-li. 

^ i@. M Mi-tan-lo, Sanskrit Mitra; 
a Western priest who came to China about 
A.D., 984, 444, n. 5. 

"M N^ ^ Mie-a-mo, in Cantonese 
Mii-a-maf, the style of the capital of Nan- 
p'i; may possibly be Malabar, 87, 89, 
n. 2; — see Ma-U-mo. 

P^ ^ Mon-tu, probably near Quin- 
hon, 40. Not identified. 

ilt # ^M Mo-kHe,-la, Cantonese 


Mak-¥e-lap, Arabic Maghreb (el-aksa), 

J^ ^ij IflJ Mo-la-ye, Sanskrit Jfa- 
Zffi«/a; Kulam-Mal6, (Quilon), 12. 

;j^ ^ Mo-lai, Kulam-Mal6 (Quilon), 
12; — see also Ku-lin, Ku-lan, Mo-Iq- 
ku-ts% Mo-la-ye. 

^ ^ !i ^o-li-chij Sanskrit ma- 
rlcha, black pepper, 223. 

^ ^ Mo-Uamg, a dependency of 
Chon-la, possibly identical with Ma-lo-w6n 
and Ma-lan (q. v.), 56, n. lo. 

)^ Hd mo-^o, in Cantonese mo-ldk, 
used as a foreign name of frankincense, 
196, n. 1. 

^^ ^ ^V^ Mo-lo-M-ts% ^diU- 
skrit ilfaZaAjMte; Kulain-Mal6, Quilon, 12. 

^ ;S -^0-?**, Japanese Matsura, 173, 
n. 7. 

i^ -^ ^o-sM, — see ^ ^ ma- 

■ W- ^ -^ mo-so-sM, bezoar stone, 
90, 131, 141. 

M i^ 5?P Mo-ti-na, Medina, 125. 

)^ ^ mo-tso, — see ^ ma- 

^ "1^ M Mu-M-la/n, Mekran, a 
dependency of the Arabs, 117, 122, 224. 

yfv JJ^ Mu-Jcim, the Mukuva or fisher- 
men caste of Malabar, 89, n. i. 

^ Wi ^ Mu-lan-p% Arabic Mu- 
rabit, the kingdom of the Al-Mur3bitiin or 
Almoravides, 142. 

/^ M .^ inu-loM-pH, the bark of 
the maratJia-maram of the Tamils (Pen- 
iaptera tomentosa, Rox.); a product of 
Ceylon, yields a black dye, its ashes are 
•used as lime with betel-nut, 73, 75, n. 9. 

g 5^ Mu-lien, the Arhat Maudgal- 
yayana, 51. 

M M ^ MM Na-lo-U-lo-cMu, 
Sanskrit narikera, «cocoanut»; the Nicobar 
islands, 12. 

i^|5 ^ :^ |1| Na-wu-toM-shan, 
an island between Coromandel coast and 
the northern.(?) coast of Ceylon, 100, n. ii. 

^ ^ ^ ^ Nan-ni-Jiua-lo, a 
country of India, 96; situated probably in 
Sindh, 102. Nahrwala inOuzerat, according 
to Gerini. 

^ 0i{; Na/fi-p% the country of the 
Nairs, the Malabar coast, 89. 

■^ 1^ Niu-lim, a dependency of Java 
(Sho-p'o), and adjacent to Su-ki-tan, 83; 
probably the same as Ku-lun (q. v.). 

^ ^ Nu-huo, probably Naka, Chi- 
kuzen, in Kyushu, Japan, 173, n. 7. 

•^ 1^ Nvnfa, Dhofar, a dependency 
of the Arabs, 116, 121, 195. 

j^ IK Nu-ku, a dependency of Java 
(Sho-p'o), 83. Not identified. 

1^ ^ |5£ O-kon-fo, Iskanderiah, 
Alexandria in Egypt, 146. 

. g» ^ f^ Pa-ki-nung, possibly 
Busuanga island, Philippine Islds. It was 
one of the San-sii (q. v.), 161. 

Gi "k^ W ■P'^s-te-t/M, possibly the 
island of Palawan, Philippine Islds. It was 
one of the San-sii, 161. 

§ %^ P^a-li, Bali, a pirate state, 
84; Chau uses the form Ma-li, (q. v.). 

El /J5JC Jl^ Pa-lin-fong, Palembang, 
also written y^ ^ ^ P'o-Un-pang, 

B f^P >^ |Jj Pa-na-ta-slmn, — 
see Pau-lau-an-shan. 


P^lJ ^^l]pci-pa, Arabic babagha, parrot, 

A ^ M Pa-ssi-U, a dependency of 
Chon-la, possibly the same as Po-ssi-lan 
(q. v.), 56. 

^ ^^ Pa-Pa, a dependency of San- 
fo-ts'i, 62; possibly the Baftas in N. Su- 
matra, 66, n. 8. 

^ ^ Pa-yli, a country probably on 
the Guzerat coast, 13. 

W -^S SI Pai-hua-yiian, a depen- 
dency of Java (Sho-p'o), 83; possibly the 
Pejajaran of the Javanese, 86. 

^ ^ Pai-Uen, Bahrein, in Persian 
Gulf, a dependency of the Arabs, 117. 

Q '/^ ^ Pai-p'^u-yen, the Babuyan 
islands, Philippine Islds., 160. 

S ^ Pai-ta, in Cantonese Pak- 
tat, Baghdad, a depenency of the Arabs, 
117; other forms of name, 135, n. i. 

'^ ■^ ^ (Jj Pau-lau-cm-shcm, a 
high mountain on coast of Su-ki-tan (Cen- 
tral Java), 82; identified with TanjongPau- 
tuman, 85, n. 2; it was also called Pa- 
na-ta-shoM (q. v.). 

^ ^ P^i-to, Sanskrit ^afo'a, leaf, 
but more particularly the leaf of !he Boras- 
sus flahelliformis, 111, 114, n. 4. 

^ H^ ^ Wk Pon-ni-mo-Jman, 
Beni MerwSn, the last Omayyad Caliph, 

^ |X6 \%, Pon-fp-lamg, on the coast 
of Cochinchina, Panrang, 11; — see Pin- 
fung-lunff, Pin-fo-Ung, and Pin-fou- 

^ ^ I^ong-fpng, Pahang, a de- 
^pendency of San-fo-ts'i, 62, 65. 

^ W^ P'ong-JiUjthe Pescadores, they 

were in the district of Ts'iian-chou-fu, 

JH 5$& ^ P'dng-hHe-lo, a country of 
India, its capital was Ch'a-na-ki, (q. v.), 
97; possibly «the kingdom of Balharai) of 
the Arabs, 102, n. 14. 

3S5 W. tl'" Pi-H-sM, Bharoch?, a 
dependency of Malabar (Nan-p'i), 88, 90. 

BJfc 1^ ^ pi-Ung-kHe, said to be a 
foreign word meaning «cubeb)> (piper 
cubeba), 22 A. 

^ ^ fM Pi-p^a-chou, island off 
entrance to port of Canton, 101. 

505 ^ 5^ Pi-P^ci^lo, Berbera coast, 
a dependency of the Arabs, 117, 128, 

Ipi j^ ^ pi-po-U, Sanskrit ^«^^a?*, 
the long pepper, 223. 

5B5 ^ M Pi-ssi-lo, Basra, a de- 
pendency of the Arabs, 117, 137. 

ffllfc ^ Pi-tsH, a dependency of Chan- 
ch'ong, 49. Not identified. 

Wife P^ ^ PH-no-ye, a dependency 
of the Arabs, 117; the Ifrikiya of the Arabs; 
the coast of Tunis and Tripoli, 122, 226. 

Bft '^ ^ P^i-sho-ye, a district or 
people of southern Formosa, 163, 165; 
the name may possibly represent Visaya 
or Bisaya, 166. 

■^ ^ Pin-su, Pasuri, the Fansur 
in al-Bamny, Sumatra, of the Arabs, 193. 

W 1^ 1^ Hw-f o-^iw^r, Panrang 
coast, — see Pin-fung-lung and Pon-fo- 

" ^ 1^ ^M UJ Pin-fou-lang-shan, 
cape Panrang or Padaran, 101. 

^ IS M Pin-fo^-lu, the Arhat 
Pindola Bharadvaja; gave his name to Pin- 
t'ung-lung (Panrang), 51. 


^ BM hI Pii^-t'ung-limg, Pan- 
rang), 51; — see also Pin-fo-ling, and 

^ ^ P'ing-ya, island of Banka?; a 
dependency of Java (Sho-p'o), 83. 

tik. M P(^-^(^} 31 region of Chi-t'u 
(Siam), in the Malay Peninsula, gave its name 
to the jack-ihiit, 212, note; — see Po-li. 

M "^ >ft Po-pa-li, Berbera, the 
Somali coast, 128; — see Pi-p'a-lo. 

S S^ or ^ ^ po-tie, in Canto- 
nese pak-tlp, TuTiipakhta, cotton, 218. 

'^ ^ ^ Po-to-U, king of Fu-Iin; 
presumably transcribes Syriac hatrik, «pa- 
triarchn, 105. 

^ ^ Po-ssi, Persia, the Persians; 
the Arabs a branch of the, 117. 

^ ^ Po-ssi, a country or tribe of 
Negritos, possibly in Sumatra, 152. 

^ ^ M Po-ssi-lan, a dependency 
of Chon-la, near the present €hanthabun, 
53, 56, n. 10. 

^ Po, possibly stands for ha/r or var 

in name of Nicobar, 12. 

^^'~^ M Fo-U, a region of Chon-la (Siam), 

probably in Malay Peninsula, identified with 

Po-lo, the home of the ^o-?o-wi (jack-fruit), 

_212, note. 

W ^ p'o-lo, a flower of Chu-li6n, 
Sanskrit ^^aZa, 96. 

^ M PI P'o-lo-mon, the west 
coast of India, 12; also used for Brahman, 

^ ^ Po-Uu, a section of Chon-la, 
during the-T'ang period, 57, n. 12. 

^ ^ Po-lu, in N, W. Sumatra, poss- 
ibly Perlak or Pedir, 12. 

Vf§ ^ |1| P'o-lm-shm, Bolor, 13. 

^ 05 ^ p'o-na-so, Sanskrit ^a- 
wasa, the jack-fruit, 212. 

^^{'or'^)fijPo-{oTFo-)ni, Cantonese 
Put-ni, Brni, Borneo, 155, 158, n. 1. 

^ ^ P^-^o> probably Sansltrit ^wra, 
<icity»; there were thirty-two _pM-?o in Chu- 
lien,- 94—95. 

^ §^ S Pw-m kuo, Japanese Ka- 
saga, in Chikuzen, Kyushii, 173, n. 7. 

^ ^ ^ pu-iai-Mau, a hammock- 
litter, called maw^W(muncheel) in India, 87, 
90, n. 4; — see jucm-pu-fdu and ti-ya. 

W ^ ^'1 P'^-'^^h Arabic Abu Ali, 
the first envoy from Borneo to the Court of 
China, 157; also called P'u Lu-si6 (q.v.). 

W ^ ^ P'm-Mo-Zo, Bokhara, a 
dependency of the Arabs, 117. 

W ^ ^ P*M-Ai-m«, Arabic Abu 
Hamid, twice visited Chinese Court in 
tenth century, 122, n, 17; 123, n. 18. 

^ -^ P'u-ka/n, Pagan on the Irra- 
wadi, 58. 

^ ^ si P^'^kia-lung, a name of 
Sho-p'o, 75; identified with Pekalongan, 
on N. coast of Java, 79. 

^ B^ %i P^i^-ko-san, Arabic Abul 
Hassan, an Arab envoy to China in the 
tenth century, 203. 

W S P*^ Pu-U-ln, the island of 
Polillo off easl coast of Luzon, Philippine 
Islds., 160, 162. 

W 5P ^^ Pu-lo-Jiung, Abu-lo-hum, 
Abraham, 144. 

^ "M* JC P'l^io-km-wu, a 
dependency of Chan-ch'ong, possibly Pulo 
Condore, 49, 50, n. 10. 

W M i'*^-^^^ Persian hallut, oak- 
(galls), 140, 215; also written ^ M 


po-lu, and slm-mo-lu, (q. v.), Persian 
shahballut — aroya! oak», 245, note. 

W )M. W> F^i^-lv,-sie, the Arab who 
opened relations between Borneo (P'o-ni) and 
China, 159, n. is; also called P'u-a-li 
(q. v.). 

^ ^Wt P^'u-sa-man, in Cantonese 
Po-sat-man, Arabic Mtissulman, 16. 

^ ^^ P*M-^Maw, possibly identical 
with P'u-kan (Pagan), 59. 

^1^ Ej ^ sa-pa-h; Persian shah- 
ban, (correct form shahbuy), ambergris, 
literally «royal perfume», 237. 

^ -^ ^ San-fo-tsH, Cri-Bhoja, the 
Serboza of the Arabs, the north-eastern 
coast of Sumatra, Palembang, 60, 63, n. i. 

^ 'a* '/M San-ho-Uu, «three-joint 
cm'rentss, rapids in channel between Lei- 
chou peninsula and Hai-nan, 176. 

^ YI^ San-lo, a dependency of Chon- 
la, possibly an early transcription of the 
name Syam, later on transcribed Sien-lo, 
our Siam, 53, 56, n. lo. 

^ »)A San-po, a dependency of Chon- 
la, 56, n. lo; — see San-lo. 

^ ^ san-ssi, a flower of Chu-li^n; 
not determined, 96. 

^ lll^ San-su, or «Three Islands*, 
belonged to Ma-i, Philippine Islds., 161; 
see Kia-ma-yen, Pa-lau-yu and Pa-M- 

j>\^ ^ sha-hu, Malay sagu, sago, 61. 

Ij? ^ ^ Sha-hua-Tiung, pirates 
on islands near Sho-p'o, the «Orang laut» 
or «Men of the sea» of the Malays, 150. 

ij^ i^ "^ sha-mo-lii, Persian shah- 
ballut, «royal oak», 215. 

Jl T ^ Shang-hia-chu, the island 

of Pulo Aor, 23; also called T'ien-chu 
(q. v.). 

-{' II, -^ ^ SM-ir-tzi-shi, rocks N. 
of Carimata island, S. W. coast Borneo, 24. 

j^ ^ SKi-ho, in Cantonese iS'M-Ao^, 
Shehr, a dependency of the Arabs, 116, 
121, n. 12, 195. 

^ ^1] # « (or W SM-li-fo- 
shl, 63, n. i; — see San-fo-isH. 

J^ 0P ll@ 8Ki-na-wei, an Arab of 
Ts'iian-chou who built a charnel-house for 
Moslims, 119. 

-j- ^ Shi-su, in Cantonese Shap-suk, 
Arabic Yusuf, Joseph, descendant in the 
third generation of P'u-lo-hung (Abraham), 
144, 145, n. 3. 

0f|j "T* ffl Shi-tsi-kuo, Singhala, 
Ceylon, 12; — see Si-lan. 

$ffi ~^ ^ SM-td-sM, Pulo Sapatu, 
or Pulo Cecir de Mer?, 8, n. 2. 

IS! »% Sho-ma, Japanese Satsuma, 
173, n. 7. 

1^ ^ Sho-p'o, Java, 75, 78, n. i. 

^ifii ^ ^ sho-tsH-sang, a flower of 
Chu-lien, not determined, 96. 

^ ^[5 Shong-tong, a district of Su- 
matra near present Deli, 1 1 . 

^ -^ Shui-au, a village in Ts'iian- 
chou-fu, 165. 

^ffl IS Si-lan, Ceylon, a dependency 
of San-fo-ts'i, 62, 66, 72; also written ^ 
^ Ki-lan, and ^ ^ Si-lan, 74, 
n. 2; older forms used by Chinese, 74, n. 2. 

J^ffl Iw ^ l-U Si-hn-tie-shan, the 
Serendib of the Arabs, Adam's Peak in Cey- 
lon, 73, 74, n. 8. 

gg si Si-lwng, possibly the island of 
Geram, 157. 


® m 'S'i-jj'ong') a dependency of Chon- 
la, not identified, 54. 

:;jig ^ siang-liung, the ruler of Tan- 
ma-ling in the Malay Peninsula, was ad- 
dressed by this title, 67. 

^ ,^ Sicmg-sM, Tinhosa island?, 10. 

^ Sim, in Cantonese TsHm, Siam, 
56, n. 10. 

^ j\\ Sm-cMu, the capital of Ghan- 
ch'ong, 47, 49, n. 3. 

7^ 1^ 8in-fo, Sunda, a dependency 
of San-fo-ts'i, also written Sun-fa, (q. v.) 
62, 66. 

Wx H ^rT Sin-foti-ho, the Sindhu 
or Indus river, 13; — see also Mi-lcm. 

^ (also written ^ and ^) J^ So- 
li, the Cholas of Coromandel or Chu-lien, 98. 

MMM. ^ Ssi-Jcia-U-ye, Ski\Y, 

>S> -^ Ssi-lien, a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117. 

.(@^ "^ K Ssl-lu-wa, Surabaya, in 
Java, 85. 

a} ^ "^ ssi-ma-kie, title of a min- 
ister of state in Sho-p'o, 76. 

^ Mr i^ Ssi-ma-yen, Ishmael, son 
of Abraham, 113, n. 2. 

M> W^ VM ssi-su-tsiw, a drink of the 
Arabs made with sugar and spices; probably 
the sharah or sherbet of the Arabs and 
Persians, 115. 

i^ ^ 3R iSM-X;i-Zaw^, a small is- 
land outside of Ki-yang in Hai-nan, 176. 

"^ "^ -^ Su-M-tan, CenfraJ Java, 
between the Sundas and Tuban, 82, 85; 
sometimes used to designate Sho-p'o (Java), 

^ ^ su-tan, Arabic Sultan, title 

of a ruler among the Arabs, a tributary 
of Ta-ts'in, 103. 

^ f^^ Sun-fa, the Sundas,^ in Western 
Java, 84; — see Sin-fo. 

^ ^ Ta-kang, a dependency of 
Java (Sh()-p'o), 83. 

'JK.ID^i^ Ta-ni-Jio, the Patani river, 
E. coast Malay Peninsula, 65. 

^ i^ Ta-pan, Tuban, Java east of 
Su-ki-tan; it was also called Jung-ya-lu, 
(q.v.), ,82, 84.' 

■^ ^ Ta-sM, Cantonese Tai-sMk, 
Persian Tad, or Tadjik, the Arabs, 114, 
;119, n. 2.' 

■^ ^ Ta-tsHn, the Roman Orient, but 
Baghdad as used by Chdu and Chau, 102, 
104, n. 2 , 

^ ^ ^ J^ ta-tso-kan-Mung, 
title of a minister of state in Sho-p'o, 80. 

^^ §J fa-tong, a product of T'i^n- 
chu, 111; a woollen texture. 

j^ ^ Tan-lr, an ancient adminisb-a- 
tive division of Hai-nan, 175, 176. 

^ 1^ ^W: Tcm-jung-wu-lo, a 
dependency of Java (Sho-p'o), 83; in 
fifteenth century the Javanese called S. Bor- 
neo Tanjong-pura, 86, n. 7. 

^ 1^ "^ Tan-ma-ling, a depen- 
dency of San-fo-ts'i, 62; probably about 
mouth of Kwantan river, E. coast Malay Pen- 
insula, 67. 

J ^ tan-po, or ^ ^ tan-p% 
an abbreviated form of chan-po-kia(([.\.). 

y^ 7jC jtt Tan-sJiui-kiang or ((Brack- 
ish river», in the Nan-p'i country, or Ceylon; 
cat's-eyes found in it, 88, 229. 

|g ^ Tan-yil (?), an island near 
P'o-ni, 158. ' 


Wi ^ ^ T'an-ma-ym,. probably 
the island of Botel Tobago off the S. E. coast 
of Formosa, 163. 

^1 tong, an animal, not identified; its 
skin used as a seat by king of T'ien-cihu, 110. 

i^ t6ng,m Sanskrit tola, a small weight. 
It seems in this work to be used as a dry 
measure, 68, 131. 

^ ^^ M Tong-liu-md, Ligor?, 
a dependency of Chon-la, 53, 57. 
, ^ ^ ii Tong-ya-ndng, Treng- 
ganu, a dependency of San-fo-ts*i, 62, 65. 

B^ ^ fong-lo, a fruit of Chu-lien, 
not identified, 96. 

^ ^ Wi Ti-kio-ch'ang, port 
on Lei-chou peninsula coast facing K'iung- 
chou in Hai-nan, 176. 

'^ ^ ^ Ti-la-ta, a dependency of 
Chon-la, not identified, 56, n. lo. 

■^ M J^ 5Rl Ti-lo-lu-ho, probably 
"on Mekran coast near entrance Persian 
Gulf, 13. It was also called Lo-Jio-i 
(q. v.). 

Jf^ ^Ti-wu, island of Timor^ a 
dependency of Java (Sho-p'o), 83; also 
called Jfg P^ Ti-mon, 156^ 

^ §5S ti-y(^-, tie name used in Chan- 
ch'ong to designate a litter with one pole 
and borne by four -men, 50, n. 4; — see 

^ K Ti-yu, possibly the port ofi 
Taiz on the Indus, 13. 

ra ^ liau-jan, in Japanese Gho- 
nen; a Bonze who visited the Court of China 
in A.-D. 984, 171, 175, n. 23. 

^ M Tien-chu, India, 13; — 
used in a restricted sense, 110, 112, 
n. 1. 

^ :^ l-I-I THen-chu-rshan, Pulo Aor 
23, 100; see also SJiang-hia-chu. 

^ *^ to-Jcu, said to be a foreign 
name for the cardamom, 222, line 8. 

P£ M itlll To-pan-ti, Damiath of 
the Arabs, Damietta on the eastern branch 
of the Nile near its mouth, 142. 

p^ ^ ^ To-p'o-U, an j^rab ship- 
master who visited the Court of China, beginn- 
ing eleventh century, 118, 124, n 23. ' 

5iE ^ ^ tou-lo-mien, or 4ula cot- 
tons, from Sanskrit tula, cotton, 217, 219. 

^HU -?i i'ou-sM, «tush», copper, or an 
alloy of copper, produced in Persia, 8 1 , n. 14. 

^ ^ Ts'ong-pa, Zanguebar, a de- 
pendency of the Arabs, 117. 

^ ^0. Ts^ong-fcm, Zanguebar?, a 
country in the «Southern Oceans, possibly 
same as Ts'6ng-pa, p. 127, n. 4. 

^ ^ Tsi-Tci, a dependency of the 
Arabs, 117; possibly Tiz on the Mekran 
coast, 122. 

^ 'S UJ Tsiau-sJii-sh(m,[ Hon 
Tseu island near Tourane, 8. 

=p |g_ -^ *^ Tsien-li-chang-sha, 
«Thousand-li-banks», east of Hai-nan, 176. 

1^ ^ TsHm-mai, a dependency of 
San-fo-ts'i, 62; possibly in N. Sumatra, 

^ ^ 3Fp tsHng-lang-Jccm, a va- 
riety of coral, 162, 226, Note. 

W tK ^ tsHng-mu-Mang, put- 
chuck, 221. 

& -© /Ei Ts'u-Jco-ni, in Cantonese 
Ts^o-kot-ni, Arabic Dhu-l-lcarnein, 
Alexander the Great^ 1 46, 

<^ ^ ts'u-la, Arabic, zq/rafa, the 
girafe, 128, 129, n. 6. 


^ ^ iJj Ts'ui-lan-shan, the Ni- 
cobar islands, 12. 

;jtt "^ ^ Tu-Jmai-sun^ a depen- 
dency of Chon-la, not identified, 54, 

^ y^ tii-lau, a head-man in Hai-nan, 

! tu-lu, probably an abbreviated 
twushka or tu-lu-so-kien 



form foif 
(q. v.). 

tu-lu-so-kien, San- 
skrit furushka, Indian olibanum, the resin 
o[ the BoswelUa Serrati, i96,n. i, 201, 
line 18. 

^ ^ Tw-jwaw, Tuban, in Java, 
85; — see Ta-pan. 

^ j^ "Pi Tu-nu-Tw, a dependency 
of Nan-p'i, possibly the Tana of the Arabs, 
on Salsette island near Bombay, 88, 90, 
n. 8. 

^ ^ Tui-tau, in Japanese Tsu- 
shima, the island of, on which silver was 
mined, 174, n, ii, 17S, n. 22. 

•^ M. 'M -^^w^-fe-ZM, a dependency 
of Chon-la, not identified, 54. 

"jig P^ T'un-mon, passage leading 
out to sea from Canton, 10, 24. 

^ |I|^ Tung-ki, a dependency of Java 
(Sho-p'o), 83. Not identified. 

^ ^ Wa-li, possibly Laos, 25. 

^ tJc wa-mu, colloquial name for 
su-mu, sapan-wood, 217. 

M M.'S !^ Wan-li-sM-ch'ucmg, 
«Myriad-li-rocks», (south-)east of Hai- 
nan, 176; the Macclesfield Banks, 185, 
n. 4. 

I '^ ftB ^ ^ Wang-sM-ch'ong 
THen-chu, Central India, Magadha, 26; a 
Wa g-sho-ch'6ng said to be in Pin-t'ung- 

lung, 51; less than forty stages west of 
Ta-li (Yiin-nan), 97. 

35c M- Won-tan, a section of Chon- 
la during the T'ang period, 57, n. 12. 

^ /^ Wong-man, in Cantonese 
Ung-mm, Oman, a dependency of the 
Arabs, 133; the second character is some- 
times erroneously written ^ li, H7. 

^ fib TFei'-i^«, a dependency of Chan- 
ch'ong, 49. Not identified. 

J^ 2i i^^i-po,, in Cantonese mi-pa, 
the nipa palm, 84. 

3l ^ ill Wu-chi-shan, a peak in 
the Li-mu-shan of Hai-nan, 184, 189, 
n. 39. 

,1^ ^ij Wu-la, Sohar in Oman?, 
14; — see Wu-pa. 

^% M Wu-li, a small island outside 
Ki-yang (Hai-nan), 176. 

il^ ^ Wu-li, a dependency of Chan- 
ch'ong, 49. 

^ M. M Wu-li-ma (?), an island 
near PVni, 158. 

^ ^ 'fe^ Wu-li-pa, in Cantonese 
Mo-ll-paf, Malabar, 223. 

il^ 1^ ■^ Wu-ma-pa, a dependency 
of Chan-ch'ong, 49. Not identified. 

^ ^ til Wu-nung-shin, a hill 
in Tong-liu-mei, on which Sakyamuni Bud- 
dha manifested himself, 57, 58. 

^ ^^ PFm-^<j, Sohar?, a depen- 
dency of the Arabs, 117. 

M ;g' wu-sM, — see ^ ma- 

M M M' iM.^ Wu-si-hu-lu- 
hua, a centenarian Arab living in Canton, 

^ |lf ^ (or M) Wu-ssUi, a de- 


pendency of the Arabs, 117; Misr of the 
Arabs, Egypt; — see also Mi-sU-li, 

^ M M Wu-ssi-U, Al-Mawsil, 
Mosul, 25, 140. 

^ $1. Wu-tsu, an island in the Great 
Ocean inhabited by women, 152, n. 2. 

'^ '■^j^ Tau-tvmg, Yortan, south of 
Surabaya, Java, 85. 

I® G» Pl^ Ya-pa-hien, Ispahan, 
202; — see Ya-ssi-pau-hien. 

I® P3 'M P^ Yci-ssi-pau-Men, 
Ispahan, a dependency of the Arabs, 116, 
121, n. 12. 

i|^ [Jj Jflw^'-s^aw/PuloGambir, 101. 

yau-Uen-ch'an, a flower 
of Chu-li6n, not identified, 96. 

^ i^ ^ Te-ma-fai, in Japanese 
Yamato, 173, n. 7. 

^ "^ yu-Jcan, a fruit of Chu-lien, 
not identified, 96. 

^ -^ yii-Mn, Cantonese wat-Jcam, 
old sound hat-ham, Persian ' karJcam, 
Arabic hurhum, curcuma, 89, 91, n. 17. 

"f* 3^ ^yu-tapu, «clothof«/M-to, 
presumably ramie fiber fabric, a product of 
Ma-i, 160. 

^ ^ Tile-U, a dependency of Chan- 
ch'ong, 49. Not identified. 

■<" ^» » 'H' * *tf" - 


Errata and Addenda. 

P. 12, line 46, read P'o-lo-mSn. 

P. 13, note 2, add: Dr. Bretschneider's opinion is fully corroborated 
by Ts'au Chau (^ flg) who, in his Eo-ku-yau-lun (^ "^ ^ |^), written 
in 1388, says (4, 12): «Pin-tHe comes from the Western Foreigners (^ ^). 
On its surface are spiral designs; some has a design like sesamum seed, and 
(some like) snow flakes. When sword blades are being burnished and polished, 
gold wire is used to gild them (^ ^ ^ ^ ^ >S)> ^^^ fiiese designs (in 
gold wire) are plainly visible. The price (of such blades) is greater than (their 
weight in) silver — Imitation pin-tHe has designs in black; it must be care- 
fully examined)). 

P. 37, line 13, read O-kon-t'o, An-t'o-man, Ch'a-pi-sha, Mo-k'i6-la. 

P. 37, line 17, read Pin-t'ung-lung. 

P. 37, line 18, read Pi-p'a-lo and Ki-tz'i-ni. 

P. 37, hne 20, read K'un-lung-ts'ong-k'i. 

P. 38, line 8, read Pan Ch'au. 

P. 38, line 22, read K'au-ku-pien. 

P. 48, line 13, reaApo-tU. 

P. 51, line 31, read hHen- 

P. 53, line 26, read ^ ^ 


' P. 55, line 33, read Ling-k'i6-po-p'o. 

P. 61, line 30, read Wb. 

P. 62, line 14, read P'Ong-fong. 

P. 70, line 36, read % )Jl. 

P. 75, line 28, read irreconcilable. 

P. 76, line 11, read ^ M ^• 

P. 85, line 34, eleventh character, read HJ. 

P. 89, line 28, read Ch8-ti. 

P. 90, line 43, read |^ ^. 

P. 94, line 25, read Ku-t'an ... 

P. 94, line 27, read P'o-lun ... 

P. 95, line 2, read P'a-li-p'a-li-yu. 

P. 95, line 5, read Po-lo-ye. 

P. 95, line 14, read T'idn-chu-li. 

P. 102, note 15, add: The J. R. A. S. for April 1911, pp.437— 445, 
contains an article by Col. G. F. Gerini on the subject of the Nan-ni-hua-lo 
of Chau Ju-kua. The author identifies it, with great plausibility, with the 
«well-known mediaeval kingdom of Nahrwara, AnhilwSla or Anhilvada in 
Gujarat, which flourished between c. 746 and 1298. A. D.» 

P. 102, line 33, read ^ |f . 

P. 196, line 25, after the word to-¥ie-lo, add: Hung Chu in his 
Hiang-p'u (Ijis'') gives, however, this latter form on the authority of the 
Shi-shi-hui-yau (^ ^ -^ ^), and says it means «root perfumes (;f^ ^). 
It may be Sanskrit tagara, which is Cassia auriculatis. 

P. 215, line 41, read hallut and shah-ballut. 

P. 219, line 31, add: The Ko-ku-yau-lun (4,23') refers to tm-lo-km, or 
tula brocade, as a velvety tissue, from five to six feet broad, made from the 
contents of the seeds of the so-lo (^ :^% Sanskrit sala) tree, and procured 
from the Southern and Western Foreigners, and also from Yun-nan. It also 
mentions si-yang-pu O y^ ^ «Western Ocean cloth») as a snowy-white 
tissue, seven or eight feet broad. 

P. 235, line 22, add: John Saris (1605—1609) noted that «the best 


(civet) is that which is of a deepe yellow colour some-what inclining to the 
colour of Gold, not whitish, for that is usually sophisticated with grease — » 
Purchas, His Pilgrimes, III, 504. (Mac Lehose edit.). 

Although the wu-na-tsH from Borneo here mentioned was unquestion- 
ably a secretion of the sea-dog, the true civet-cat may also have been found 
there. Three centuries later Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza mentions it as very 
abundant in the neighbouring islands of the Philippines. Purchas, op. cit., 
XII, 147.