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Full text of "Goh or wei chi : a handbook of the game and full instructions for play"

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CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 

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PRINTED IN U.SA 



Goh or wei chi :a handbook of the game a 




3 1924 023 392" ^yg 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023392479 



Handbook of G H 
or WEI CHI. 

The Great Military and Stragetic Game of Eastern Asia. 

Aaapted for European Players. 

Historical Notes and Appendix. 



Printkd bv Taylkr Bros., 
Western Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 



GOH 



WEI CHI. 

A HANDBOOK OF THE QAME 

AND 

FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLAY, 



HORACE F. CHESHIRE, F.I.C.. B.Sc, etc, 

Lecturer to the Japan Society ( London), Hastings Chess Club, 

Tunbridge Wells Chess Congress iqii, etc., 

Editor of The Hastings Tournament Book iSg^. 

Author of " Sociable Chess," etc. 



INTRODUCTION & CRITICAL NOTES 

BY 

Prof. T. KOMATSUBARA, 
of Japan and London. 



DIAGRAMS AND PLATliS (25), ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES (12), 

WITH NOTES JAPANESE AND ENGLISH, MANY 

POSITIONS AND PROBLEMS DISCUSSED. 



Published by The Author at Hastings. 
London Ag-ent: Frank Hollings, 7, Great Turnstile, Holborn. 



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XaJ CKy<3j(XV\ 

G,7Cba- 






66pVRl6ilT, 191 I, BY 

tfoRAtE F. CHESHiftE,' " Rdtliesay," Hastings".' 



.1. ' : ^■ 



Pi'iWisl'i'ed' Aug-ust', igii 






TO 

WILSON CREWDSON, Esq, J;P., M.A., 

Chairman of the Council 

The Japan Society, London, 

The Author Respectfully Dedicates this Book. 



PREFACE. 



It scarce!)- needs an apolog-y to have broug-ht out a 
handbook on such a subject as the present, especially as 
nothinsj of the kind existed, available in this country. The 
game has only to be generally tried to become universally 
popular, and it gets fascinating to a degree to all who study 
it. It perhaps never will take the place of our evergreen 
chess with its infinite variety, but it should at least make a 
very worthy companion. 

I can claim some acquaintance with chess and draughts, 
but have also played this game with considerable pleasure 
for over thirty years, and my information is from both 
Chinese and Japanese sources. 

The game is treated stragetically, and in this respect in 
three degrees. The first part " How to play," is elementary, 
treated so as to leave no lurking doubt in the minds of 
beginners, the second part "Tactics" is more advanced, 
and the most advanced considerations come on later. A 
special marking of the board has been adopted and the rules 
have been drawn out with the greatest care and consideration 
for the Western mind. The new marking of the board 
should help to acclimatise the game by enabling it to be 
played on a smaller scale by those inclined. In fact it can 
be played on so small a scale as an ordinary draughts 
board with ordinary draughts men, and should appeal very 
strongly to draughts players generally. The game is quite 
simple in its preliminaries, and soon gets away from mere 
book knowledge, and a draw is extremely rare. Careful 



attention has been given to the discussion and explanation 
of local positions designed to illustrate special points, avoid- 
ing in these cases the grand combinations, which to a 
beginner appear more like grand confusion. 

The book is intended for the student, but I hope that 
all but the champions may find something interesting, and 
perhaps the originality of the treatment may interest them 
too, even if the Historical notes and the Appendix do not. 

I would remind my critics also that I am tr)'ing to 
give a successful example of the art of the teacher. I want 
my readers to learn the game and with this intent, the 
principles have been generalized as far as possible to be 
helpful, rather than discuss a few special positions which 
may never occur. 

The language has been made English and where it 
seemed desirable there has been no hesitation in supplying 
appropriate terms. Great care has been taken too in finding 
the best logical arrangement and in checking the positions 
and games. Criticisms and suggestions are freely invited. 

I have the honour of offering my best thanks- to Mr. 
Wilson Crewdson J. P., M. A. for doing so much to popularise 
the game and for allowing me to copy for the purpose of 
this work his valuable sword guard with its two Goh players, 
also to Professor Komatsubara for his appreciative intro- 
duction with the notes on the Japanese practice of the 
present day, nor must I forget Professor Joly's kindness. 

H.F.C. 



TA3LE OF CONTENTS. 



Preface 


PAQB 
I 


Introduction 


7 


Goh 




Descriptive 


13 


How to play 


16 


Taking (and eyes) ... 


20 


General 


22 


Notation ... 


29 


Illustrative positions and further discussion 


37 


Games 


41 


Historical notes 


52 


Tactics 




General 


59 


Fortification (and pockets) ... 


66 


Neutral mees 


76 


See saw ... 


77 


Chains 


80 


The opening 


89 


The last word 


97 


Japanese illustrative games 


113 


Handicap play 


127 


The Rules ... 


137 


Answers 


141 


Appendix 


145 


Index 


157 



LIST OF PLATES AND DIAGRAMS. 



PLATES. 



1. Portrait 

2. Chinese Saucer 

3. Two tsubas 

4. One tsuba 



Frontispiece 

52 

113 

145 



DIAGRAMS. 

1. Tile Goh board. 

2. Group.s of arre.sted men. 

3. Groups of nearly arrested men. 

4. Example of using the squares. 

5. Types of continuous double eyes, 

6. Discontinuous double eyes, etc. 

7. Sound bases but requiring' attention. 

8. Combination board sliewing the notations. 

9. Score of a game on a diagram. 
10. Chains or connecting links. 

1 I. Vo illustrate a forcing position. 

12. See-saw between fortified camps. 

13. See-saw to a tottering camp. 

14. Critical position to shew proper treatment. 

15. Neutral territory. 

16. Problem: Can White fortify ? 

17. A nearly arrested camp shewing fight. 

18. Problem : Can Hlack save himself? 

19. Surrounded single spaces. 

20. Ditto with intruders. 

21. Arranging the board for the score ... 



'7 
2 1 

2 1 



27 

30 

36 

81 

98 

98 

98 

98 

98 

98 

98 

98 

106 

109 

139 



INTRODUCTION. 

BY 

PROF. T. KOMATSUBARA, 

(OF LONDON AND JAPAN), 
WITH NOTES ON MODERN CUSTOM, Etc. 



It is gratifying- to hear that an English handbook is 
being prepared on the great tactical game of Eastern Asia. 
The venture will carry with it the good wishes of the 
Japanese people, who will hope to see it followed by a 
general adoption of this instructive and fascinating pursuit. 

In our country it is treated as of the greatest importance 
and plays a considerable part in the mental training of the 
people. It is played by the comparatively educated middle 
and upper classes ; especially it is a favourite game of 
persons who retire from active busy life. 

Handicap is freely adopted and accepted to give equal 
chances and greater interest to the two players and the 
stronger player always gives at least the first move. But if the 
difference of strength is pretty great, the weaker player 
stations two to nine black men, according to the degree of 
inequality, on certain marked points before they commence 
the game. In that case White starts instead of Black. 

The game is often compared with military manoevures 
and its principles are thought to be similar. Necessarily 
there are many differences in detail, but the detached battles 
at first apparently distinct, then spreading their influence 
more and more till they become one general whole ; com- 



8 

pelling- attention from tlie verj' beg-innins^, to llie ultimate 
effect of one on the other, reminds one very much of what 
must he in the mind of the General on the genuine battle 
field. 

Good players are alwaj's giving- heed to the general 
situation of both sides on the whole board, while bad players 
are very busy in one corner only. We must make a point 
of securing as great an enclosure as possible. It is also of 
great importance that we strengthen our own men on the 
one hand while we strive to make an attack on the weak 
points of the opponent on the other. As will be seen, the 
four corners are the strongest and most important places, 
so that if a player starts from the middle of the board it is 
a great disadvantage for him. The most common mis- 
conception for beginners is the idea that the occupation of 
the middle part will surely lead to victory. At first sight it 
seems to be a big field worthy of contending for (aid 
certainly it is in some cases), but in reality tlie important 
dominion to be conquered lies in the corners and sides of 
the board. 

As in a real battle, the connection of the moving men 
must be complete in order to effect a safe capture of the 
opponent's camp. Of course every line of moving men 
must have a safe base ; otherwise it is sure to be taken 
prisoner. The safest way of establishing the connection 
between the moving men is what is called " bamboo knot 
moving." Suppose there are already men on d^ and dz 
we move to f^ with one point between these two men. 
However much the opponent strives to break the connection 

he cannot do it. Again there are moves called " Knioht 
move" and great Knight move." If there is a man on 

d4, f3 or f5 would be a knight move, two paces in advance 



and one sideways, like a knight in the English game of 
Chess, whilst g3 or g5 would be a great knight move, with 
three paces in the advance. Sometimes in our anxiety to 
extend as quickly as possible, we move to the third or 
fourth point on the same line as to g4 or h4, when the 
support of other groups render it permissible. 

In the beginning of the game, when we are busy in 
occupying the camps — I mean the establishment of the bases 
for action — these moves are often adopted and prove very 
effective. By studying the game of experts it will be found 
that they are almost invariably opened by taking possession 
of the corners, a little skirmish soon arises in one ot them, 
but does not long remain confined to that quarter. Here 
are some specimens of the Japanese style played quite 
recently in Japan by very strong players with a translation 
of the criticisms by a champion on two of the games. 

The game resulted in a win on Black's side by 5 points 
in the one case, while in the other it was slopped before the 
finish for there was no hope for Black. It was clear that 
White would win by more than 17 points. 

We score by enclosed unoccupied points only, without 
counting the men played. We stop when there is no point 
left to be gained by either side. Otherwise both players 
must go on alternately ; neither side is at liberty to omit 
his move while the opponent is going on. As strong 
players can forsee the final result — even the exact score — 
long before the finish, they stop much earlier than moderate 
players would do. 

At the finish there may be some points or "me "left 
unoccupied on either side. These points are called " da 
me'' which means "me" of no good. As these do not 
affect the score at all they can be filled by both sides 



lO 



irrespective of their turns, simply for the sake of making the 
counting- easier and 7ve never deduct points for isolated 
camps. 

Before counting up the "me" at the finish, the 
opponents fill the enclosures of each other's dominions with 
the prisoners. If there are some spaces left on both sides, 
then the difference in the numbers of " me " is the score of 
the game. For example, if the "me" of the White are 
30 and those of the Black only 5, the score is 25 on the 
White's side. If again either side of the opponents fills up 
the other's enclosures with the prisoners taken and still has 
some more left, then the number of those left in his hand 
must be added to the number of points in the enclosures he 
occupied. For example, if White fills up the enclosures of 
the Black and still has seven more prisoners left in his hand, 
while the Black cannot fill up the White's enclosures, say 
leaving 20 points, then the score is 27 on the White's side. 

The recognised form of the board itself is slightly 
oblong, I shaku 4 sun in length, i shaku 3 sun 8 bu in 
width, and 6 sun in thickness and they vary very slightly 
(i foot = 1-0058 shaku ; i sun = iV shaku ; i bu = i^sun.) 
It is often made of the wood of icho (gingko biloba) or of 
the kaya (torreya nucifera). 

The spaces between the lines are squares or slio-htly 
oblong and now there is no sentiment about the colour of 
the men. Fancy patterns are met with, such as small 
thin folding boards for travelling purposes and musical 
metal boards. Some of the noble families have even gold 
and silver men in place of the ordinary black and white 
ones. 



ELIMENJ/iRy 

/\ND DESGRipjIVE 

SEGTIOJ^l. 



GOH. 



DESCRIPTIVE. 

This brief title, short as it is, stands for a g-reat deal. 
It is an Enjjlish equivalent for the Japanese name of tlieir 
great national game which nobly takes its place in the 
economy of that Oriental people as their Royal game, like 
chess does with us. 

It has a truly aristocratic lineage, dating bdck some 
forty-two centuries, and like most of the ancient accomplish- 
ments is of Chinese origin, the invention, we are told, of one 
of their Empei ors. About our Saxon times it filtered through 
into Japan and has become firmly implanted there and some- 
what modified, being eminently suited to the • thoughtful 
temperament of our friends. It has hitherto been little 
known in this country, though the author has played it for 
many years with a great deal of pleasure. The Hastings 
Chess Club was honoured by a demonstration on January 
6th, 191 1, by two Japanese experts through the good offiices 
of its president, Mr. Wilson Crewdson, J. P. 

Besides its patriachal origin, it is a game of enthralling 
interest, destined to become more popular in this country for 
its own sake, in addition to the interest it must awaken as 
the intellectual practising ground of our brilliant allies. 

Its rules are simple enough and can be easily under- 
stood and learnt ; any child can play it after a style, getting 
plenty of amusement out of it from the first, so that the 



14 

learner can start his practical play at a very early stajje of 
his studies and leave the more subtle strategies for a later 
stage in his training. This is a quality of the game which 
will commend itself to all, and should be an effective factor 
when realised, in making it universally popular. 

Avery considerable influence in its sluggish introduction 
into Europe is the current exaggerated idea of the difficulties 
of the game, partly no doubt owing to its being compared 
with the Eastern form of chess which is ver}' different to our 
game ; a form very complicated in its own way from the 
enrolment of prisoners, though falling far short of ours in the 
limited scope of the pieces. But it is in the complications 
and finesse introduced by the skilled player that the brain 
wracking thought-inazes of Goh arise, producing positions 
and cosiderations of most absorbing interest to those that 
way inclined. 

It has been described as the most complicated board 
game known to civilised man. Its votaries claim that it is 
even more difficult than our chess to play well and tfiat it 
admits pf greater intricacies ; but as in all mental games 
it is largely whatever the players like to make it, simple or 
complicated according to the nature of the effort made and 
the attention given, or to the temperament of the player. 
Those who play such games lightly, find them .simple if the 
preliminaries are simple, as in this case, and do not put more 
into them than is tasteful ; those who give more profound 
thought find in them all they desire. When once the learner 
is past the preliminary stage and begins to see a little into 
the tactical points of the game, he gets his pleasure out of it 
pleasure suitable to his point of view. As he becomes more 
expert, rendering the shallower strategies obvious or insipid, 
he dips into the deeper recesses, sipping stronger nectar 
and profounder joys. 



15 

In the East proficiency in Goh is one of the best 
recommendations to hig-h places. It is considered as good 
an indication of mental ability as a successful examination 
in our subjects of standard knowledge does with us. In fact 
classes are held to teach it and diplomas of advancement 
were till within the last few years, awarded in Japan, the 
people being' ranged into nine classes or grades, according 
to the degree of their expertness. It is a great favourite in 
military spheres and is associated with all official life. A 
certain standard of excellence in the game was in ancient 
times almost essential to officials of every description, 
especially in China, and it still takes a high place. 

In its orig'inal form, with the imagination characteristic 
of the Eastern nations, it was supposed to represent a 
contest between darkness and light, figuratively describing 
a struggle of a kind that is always going- on in this world, 
not only on the physical earth, where night, symbolised by the 
black men, is overcome and dissipated by the day, whilst the 
night is always starting again to commence another tussle, 
but a strug-g-le that is continuously g^oing on more or less in 
every sphere. 

The symbolic markings on the native boards show that 
day and nig^ht formed the primary idea, for the chief points 
of vantag-e on the field of battle, are not left to knowledge 
or memory, but are indicated on the board and given 
geog-raphical or astronomical names. In the modern forms 
especially in Japan, these markings become mere landmarks, 
and the special names are practically lost sight of. 

Goh differs from chess and draughts in some character- 
istic particulars. Not only is it, as we shall find, played on 
the intersections of the lines instead of in the squares, but 
the men are not shifted about, prisoners are taken for 



i6 

subsequent use and above all we do not come to the boaird 
to find a camp already formed for us with a supply of men 
that cannot be reinforced. At the start, the board is a clear 
field ; we have to form our own camps, attacking and 
defending the while. The army is continually augmenting 
and the fight ceases when there is no more territory to fight 
about. Prisoners are then returned and the reckoning made. 

A careful study of the game will well repay the time 
and attention given to it, and the board and men may be 
bought or are easily made, so we will now proceed with : — 

HOW TO PLAY. 

THE BOARD. 

Goh is played in this country on a board of the ordinary 
type, or with a special ruling, like our chess or draughts 
board, except that it is ruled into eighteen (or ten) squares 
each way, which were slightly oblong in the Eastern board, 
to give a fanciful significance to one direction, though their 
notation, to be given presently, carefully avoids, any 
distinction. ( See diagram i.J 

The two necessary perpendicular sets of parallel straight 
lines which torm the squares, of course intersect at 19 
multiplied by 19, that is 361 places (or 121). These 
intersections are technically called "me,"' or rather that is 
the usual English way of representing the Japanese word, it 
is pronounced something between a final syllable in German 
and an acute accented French " e." There is no suitable 
translation of the word " me " and the use of the imitation 
of the original, causes difficulties with the plural, so the 
author suggests " mee," plural " mees," as an English 
equivalent, and this will be used as an English word 
throughout this little handbook. 



17 



Diagram 1. 



English forvi of the Goh Board. 

The Eastern fornix have no thickened lines, but variously 
placed dots, mainly on the points where the thickened lines 
intersect. See diairravi 8 where the Japanese dots are given. 

The quarter board has only ten squares each way. 



i8 

It is more in accordance with Western sentiment to 
play on the squares, and there is no real reason why this 
should not be done if preferred. The ideas of direction that 
belong- to the lines then become, along the rank and along- 
the file, and the mee then becomes the square. The board 
also would have to be a little larger to yield the 19 (or 11) 
squareseach way. In the East the larger board is almost 
invariably used, but there is also this smaller board used in 
China, known as a quarter board (with its 11 lines each 
way) which still allows of interesting pla.y, and. is preferable 
for beginners, whether they ever aspire to the larger fields 
or not. The special ruling that we have adopted enables 
what we call a " limited game " to be played on the centre 
twelve square board, ignoring the other three lines. 

THE MEN AND THE MOVES. 

The men are black and white or dark and light, but 
there is no distinction of rank amongst them, though those 
of the Eastern people often differ in size and shape amongst 
themselves, nor is there any idea of promotion of any kind. 
There is no real reason why green and yellow or any other 
colour should not be used by us, the more practical if less 
sentimental people, though it loses the old poetic idea of 
day and night, not that our friends now make any objection 
on the question of colour. One hundred and eighty men of 
each colour are supposed to make a full set, but about 150 
will be found ample for the large board and 60 for the small 
one ; beginners require more men than experts (they take 
more prisoners and fill up the board more). 

The men are played onto the mees, not into the squares, 
alternately, the dark colour commencing (unless, of course 
a board is being used for playing on the squares). fSee 



19 

diagrams.) If in a one-sided game one colour should 
run short, it will be found that many men may be spared 
from a secure district, which is then marked off as won, that 
is to say, not liable to assault by the adversary, or prisoners 
may be exchanged in equal numbers. 

When once a man is placed he never moves, though 
under certain circumstances he may be removed from the 
board by the adversary, such as when he has an adverse man 
on each of the four adjacent mees, but this will be given 
more in detail presently. A man never plays from om mee 
to another, and if he is taken off tlie board he goes into the 
box or ranks as a prisoner to be returned at a price into his 
camp at the end of the war, or to count in the score. 

A placed man, as long as he can stop where he was 
put, takes possession of that mee for his side and the object 
is to capture as many of the mees as possible, placing one's 
own men and removing the adversary's as we shall find, by 
making prisoners and enclosing small districts into which 
it would be useless for the adversary to play. A man may 
be played on to any of the mees whether it is enclosed or 
not, the only restriction being that a position must not be 
exactly repeated, as would otherwise sometimes be possible, 
by playing a man on to a mee from which a man has just 
beeii removed by the adversary and at the same time 
picking up the adversary's man which he has just played. 
If this were allowed, a game might be drawn by repetition 
of move and position, or the player with the weaker position 
might force his more fortunate adversary to abandon some 
of his advantage to avoid the draw which would be 
threatened. This restriction may sound rather difficult, if 
so, ignore it till you come across it--no difficulty in recog- 
nising it then. Such a position is called a see-saw. 



20 



TAKING THE MEN. 

Although the men never move, they are supposed to be 
able to, as it were, and every man must have an unoccupied 
mee next to it or be able to reach one by travelling in 
imagination along the line of its friends. The development 
of the camps by extending the lines is looked upon as a 
movement of the men and they must be free to thus develop. 

To put it differently a man must be able to reach in 
imagination an unoccupied mee by travelling along the lines 
of the board without stepping on to or jumping over one of 
the adverse men. Men or a group of men so placed that they 
cannot do so, may be said to be arrested. If you are 
playing on squares the imaginary journeys are in the same 
directions, never oblique. 

This is a great point of the game and one which gives 
rise to most intricate manoevurijig ; the preservatioji of and 
the blocking up of the unoccupied spaces so necessary to 
life, and keeping open the communication with the outposts. 
For whenever either of the players having placed his man, 
or before doing so, in his turn to play can shew that any 
adverse man or group of men are without open spaces in 
their midst and are wholly surrounded by his men, with or 
without the assistance of the edge of the board, that is 
that they are placed in a position of arresl, he picks up 
these men and retains them as prisoners as a part of his 
move, leaving the mees unoccupied. The unoccupied mees 
are immediately available and may be played onto by either 
colour, exactly as though they had never been occupied. 

In Diagram 2 we find certain groups of black men all 
arrested by wliite men. They would be immediately picked 
up by White. It should be carefully noted that in no case 
in this dia;,Tam could a black man reach the open air with- 
out crossing the enemy's lines. 



21 



Diagrams 2 to 5. 




• 


o 




• 


o 


• 


o 




o 


• 




• 


• 




o 










o 


• 


• 


• 


o 


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o 




o 


o 


o 







o 







o 




o 


• 


• 


• 


o 














o 


• 




o 


• 


o 




o 


o 


o 




o 


• 


• 


• 


• 


o 




• 


• 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 






• 


o 


o 


o 


o 




Ni 


4 






o 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


o 


o 


o 




o 


• 


o 


o 


o 


o 


• 


• 


• 


o 




o 


• 




o 




o 




• 


• 


o 









c?^ 


5n 




^ 


h4 


M 

4 


1 








i \ 4 


i t 


h g 




















_f 


\ ^ 


Vj-k-jJw 








IxrxTi 


r 








-/>-rVrv-o-f 


? 


i 


i 1 h 






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—C 


^_A_iJ 


56 


Ai 


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i 


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itei 


6 




h 1 


k A 


fc i k 


L^i^ 


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Diagram 2. Groups of arrested men on the quarter board., 

,, J. Groups of nearly arrested men. 

,, ^. /y No. J again on squares for mees. 

,, J. Types of continuous double eyes. 



22 

We see here the somewhat rare case of an enclosure 
within a surrounded enclosure. The unoccupied mee in the 
centre is a protection to White but not to Black, for his men 
would not be able to get to it. His surrounded district is 
annular. 

In yVo. J we find some groups, not quite but nearly 
arrested, there is an unoccupied mee which should be readily 
found in each case. If it is White's turn to play he can 
pick up any of the black groups after placing a man on the 
right mee. In one of the groups there are seven detach- 
ments liable to immediate arrest. 

'We repeat this diagram as No. 4 on squares and the 
reader who prefers that method will then have no difficulty 
in translating the other diagrams. 

When there is an open space either player is at perfect 
liberty to fill it up partly or wholly, the one to strengthen 
his position and the other to bring about the downfall of an 
adverse camp. 

GENERAL. 

Thus the game proceeds, placing men, capturing the- 
adversary's, and enclosing districts till neither party wishes 
to play another man. It is obvious that neither party will 
wish to put his camp into a position of danger (he may if he 
chooses) by filling up his own open spaces to spoil his score 
and to render his camp liable to capture by surrounding, nor 
can he be forced to do so by an adversary who claims that 
he wishes to go on. 

When the game is thus complete, or a complete state is 
agreed upon, the count up begins. Each opponent picks up 
any prisoners, or opposing men that have been abandoned 
as such and after that usually returns the prisoners he holds 



23 

to their friends, filling' up vacant spaces. Then each scores 
for every vacant mee (or square) enclosed by his own men 
and for any prisoners he may have over. When men have 
been borrowed an allowance must be made accordingly. 

When the game is sufficiently far advanced, a good deal 
of time is saved by abandoning' men that obviously caimot 
be defended, and agreeing that they be taken prisoners and 
that the mees they occupied should be counted to the 
opponent ; but any doubtful cases should be fought out. 
Men which are inside an opponent's enclosure, not forming 
one themselves and that could not be defended, are picked 
up at the end of the game without a formal arrest. 

In No. 5 diagram we see some continuous double eyes. 
They are all impregnable. They are said to be continuous 
when all the men coniposirii'' the structure are connected 
along the lines and no part could be arrested without the 
others. Some of them are complete also, but this is a 
matter of little importance. 

Small enclosed open spaces are technically known as 
'■ eyes," and it will be found that a camp, however large, that 
has only one open space or eye, with no prospect of forming 
another, can generally be captured, by first of all surrounding 
it, and then filling up the eye mee by mee (or square by 
square). When the last mee (or square) is filled the camp is 
arrested and may at once be removed as prisoners. It is 
true that in filling the eye the man or men doing so are 
ciiemselves placed in a position of arrest, but there is no 
penalty for so playing, and as by picking up the camp, 
abundant open space is at once provided before it is the 
adversary's turn to play. 

If an arrested camp is not picked up when it should be 
and subsequent moves are made, these must not be retracted, 



H 

a move once made is final.. Either player when it is his turn 
to play may pick up any 'arrested men however long they 
have been there, and in the meantime, such men, whilst on 
the board, have their full power in occupyingf mees or 
effecting the arrest of others and might gain their release in 
the process. 

When you have occupied all but one of the mees (or 
squares) of an eye, the adversary may if he choose place a 
man there and pick up your men, opening the eye again and 
relieving the camp, but you could now start once more 
filling the eye, which has become smaller by one mee (or 
square) than before, and every time the adversary carries 
out the manoevure one is lost till at last the camp falls. 
In practical play however, such a tedious performance would 
only be possible with the veriest beginners. 

On the contrary it will be found that a continuous camp, 
having two or more eyes, is always impregnable, however 
they are arranged, for to sieze it all the eyes must be filled. 
They carniol all be completed at the same moment, in one 
turn, therefore one must be filled absolutely before the 
second one is complete, but these men filling the eve will 
be in a position of arrest where they will be picked up by 
the adversary. Which ever one you first fill, that one is 
released before the second one can be filled, and so the camp, 
even without any care on the part of its owner can never 
be arrested, 

A discontinuous camp, with two or more vacant mees 
may also be impregnable ; we may then call it a fortification. 
In diagram 6 some small examples are given. The essentials 
are that the vacant mees must form two groups, not be all 
continuous one with another, and that the isolated parts 
which may be single men, must all be adjacent to two of 



25 



Diagram 6. 



w 


-p-< »-[-< H H-p- 


VZt "u 


T^^ 


-iM^- 


VAat Til 


T T 






^^. 


A^ g i 


A A 


Ik i k J 1 


—A-o 


I • 


o o 


i k d k O 


J.?x 






^^^^xcu- 


i h i 


A A 


-ii-ii-«h- 


AT 6 




4i^ - 




166 




iTi. 








A II II U 


Q 


^ 


ul 


*> ' k II II 


n on II 


—1 Ml 


At^ 


\ i k jk ' h 1 h 


r\ A lb 


o ! 


A 






1 1 


AS 


A A 


1 b 1 1 


i k 1 h 




^4kU 


dk i k 




i k i k 


AAA 


Ik A 1 k 


A A 




L±rm 


i t A 


jiA 


< » — f 


l^±St- 


' • <n> — L_L 


■W 



Discontinuous fortifications. 

All quite secure without attention. 

It is good practice to try these to see that they cannot be 
arrested. One of them has a man more than is necessary. 
Which is it? (See the end of the book.) 



26 

those groups. If any part is adjacent to one only of the 
\acant groups, it can be arrested, unless of course the 
structure can be sufficiently enlarged or strengthened while 
the siege is going on. Some of these camps will stand a 
little variety of structure and therefore the}' need not be 
completed at once, unless beset. They will all stand the 
enlargement of their spaces or eyes, though in some cases 
attention then becomes necessary. They are given in 
condensed form and should be carefully studied. 

On diagram 7 are given some camps in which these 
alternative squares are marked with stars. Directly one of 
these starred mees is taken by the adversar}' the other must 
be taken by a friend. Others are more complicated and 
advanced but they can all be easily saved after the attack 
has commenced. 

A later chapter will deal with the more advanced tactics 
of the game and some hints given towards pla3'ing well ; at 
present we must be satisfied with how to play at all ; but it 
will be only too obvious that the formation of double eyes 
forms an important part of the game, for anything not 
associated with at least two eyes can generally be arrested 
and anything directly joined to or sufficiently associated with 
two eyes cannot be arrested, and forms a part of one's 
permanent possessions, in fact the only part we can keep at 
all in the finish. These two eyes may be as far apart as we 
please, as long as they are sufficiently connected or can be 
connected when an assault comes. 

Well ! That is the game, described with a main 
thought to the quarter board, though all that has been said 
equally applies to the full one. The game does really depend 
largely on the size of the board and we have already given 
our orpinion that the smaller board is large enough for 



DifXgram 7. 



""T' 




.Z<^'z 


^ 


} 


1 




— 1 O- 


■f-'f 


"' 


111 


it it o 


^ tl 


Ti " 


n — it — i.y-^ 


A 9 

> 


-O-O— 






^61" 


o o o 




,. 


' f 


YVY^ 

o 1 o 


i k i k 


1 


\ t 


]~ 








A 


ik ik 


O o 

' ^ 




it 


vJ 


I In 


i k 


" T^^ 






Jk Jk ik i k 


nil ^ 




A 




I^Xh.^ 


HHM^ -CJ 


tit] 


!^^H - 


O 


HJ-\J- 


V 


4 




""^" 






it^^^T- 


fill 


-^H 




^ 



Any of these could be picked up if no attention is given 
but not with attention. Where there are t-Mi slurred meeSy the 
second one must be taken immediately lohencver the first is 
taken by the adversary. 

Their investigation makes good practice. 



2'8 

beifimiers or for an occasional short game. What is called 
the Inner bo.ird is a little larger and will be described later. 
Tne few diagrams will help to make the things clear and 
make sure that we know what we are doing ; the positions 
could be set up on an actual board, or may be studied 
from the diagrams. 

THE CENTRE of the board has a peculiar property in 
symmetrical positions which will be amply indicated by the 
following ancient story. 

It is said that a certain Chinese Wei Chi champion, 
whose fame had spread far and wide, was sent for to Court 
to play with the Emperor and show his prowess. Rather a 
ticklish job, for to beat the Emperor was sacrilege and to lose 
was disgrace, it was in fact one of those delicate and exciting 
positions in which he was very liable to lose his head and to 
do so might be fatal. He might be quite willing to show 
his skill but not to kill his show ; but the Emperor had laid 
his plans well. He wished to see the skill of the player, but 
quite realised the difficulties of the case, and had no wish 
to deprive the country of such an acquisition. 

The Emperor started the game on the centre mee, for 
etiquette would naturally give him the initiative. The 
expert, doubtless with mixed feelings, placed his man, and 
the Emperor promptly placed one of his exactly opposed, 
and whatever the champion did the Emperor paid him the 
compliment of imitating him by taking the mirror position, 
the one on the line through the centre and the same distance 
the other side. He was thus able to watch the expert's 
manoeuvres and at the same time to avoid defeat, for whatever 
advantage could be claimed by the champion in any part of 
the board coulJ be claimed by the Emperor in the 
corresponding po.iition opposite. Therefore, as far as the 



29 

gfame was concerned, honours were easy, except that the 
Emperor retained unpaired the centre mee and won by the 
odd point, according- to the then method of scorings, 
honour and everything else was satisfied, the Emperor had 
won, and the champion had only yielded the odd point to the 
great Emperor, having taken the second move. According 
to the modern method of scoring this would be called a draw. 

Unless there is some restriction this cannot be 
prevented either on the large or the small board. If the 
game is played for amusement only, or for study, this would 
not be done, but in a match where the sole aim was not to 
lose regardless of points, it might be. It is a defect in the 
game which in the East does not matter. 

The difficulty could be got over if necessary by ruling 
that the centre mee was not to be played upon at any time 
when the position was symmetrical through the centre, or 
perhaps better still, within a certain number of moves. 
Bilateral symmetry is of no account, because the centre line, 
being single does not allow of duplication. 



NOTATI ON. 

We cannot discuss positions very well till we have a 
notation. Our Chinese friends first divided ths board into 
four quarters and numbered the lines towards the centre, the 
outside lines being i and the middle ones lo. The quarters 
were named variously according to the times and the 
country, we will call them A, B, C, D. Everything rotated 
in the positive direction (the reverse way to the hands of a 
watch lying on its back). The top right-hand corner will be 
Aj the left-hand B and so on. See diagram 8. 



3° 



Diagram &• 



/ 


— -■ 


■— 


> . 


. ;f 


— 


• 


1 i 


V^ 






t i 


—: 


' > 


— ' 


. 


/ 


/ 


















-f 


W V. 


■^ 


















K 


^ 
















































/9 














d 


k 






/t 








V 












/ 












i 






s 










«< 








































y 


1 
































t 


h- 


f 


9 






































1 
































(■ 


)- 




7 


































\ 




f 






















i^ 
















/ 

6 






















V 












































f 


k 




















V 


^ 


















J 
















i 


l'^ 


(. 


>■■ 


















J> 










1 






































'y 


f 




















































r 


s 






















if 




s 


^ 


?- / 




T 3 


»■ ; 


h < 


J 


* / 


< 




i S 


^ i 


r 


C t 


^. 




[«- < 



Full board marked for the three notations^ Chinese, 
Japanese and English. 

The Chinese takes the A B C D and the numbers i to to 
giving the files and ranks in rotation. 

The Japanese takes the letters for files atid the numbers 
I to igfor ranks. 

The English takes the districts i 2 j 4 for hundreds, 
the numbers i to 10 ( oj of the ri,tnks for tens, and the filei 
for units.. 



31 

On the board are a number of men, the position of 
which will be C 4 4, C 5 6, C i 8, D 3 10, D 8 8, D 5 6, 
A 5 8, A 8 2, A 1 1, B 10 2, B 1 6, B 9 2. It will be noticed 
that the men on the 10 or middle lines may be located in two 
of the quarters, D 3 10, is also A 10 3 and B 10 2 is also 
A 2 10. The middle mee is simply lo 10 and is equally 
located in all the quarters and could carry any of the letters. 
It must be noted that no preference is given to the 
horizontal or to the vertical lines, but that the numbers of 
the lines are always quoted in the positive direction. There 
is certainly an advantage in this method in that the mees 
with similar properties in different quarters are similarly 
indicated as regards numbers. The Chinese mark the 
centre and the 4 4 mees, the Japanese the 10 4 mees in 
addition and the Koreans add the 7 4 and 4 7 mees, making 
17 marked points in all. 

The modern Japanese have now broken away from this 
method and have adopted one on similar lines to what is 
known as the German Chess notation ; they indicate the 
vertical lines or the files by the letters of their alphabet right 
to left (as is their custom) and the ranks or horizontal lines 
by their numbers downwards. To indicate a particular mee 
the letter of the file is given with the number underneath, for 
example if one sees an upright cross, like our plus sign, 
surmounted by a letter something like an Australian 
boomerang, it means the sixth file from the right and the 
tenth or middle rank. In other cases we actually see our 
Arabic numerals used for the files instead of their letters, 
somewhat in the same way as we might use Greek letters. 
In those cases we find a Japanese number surmounted by an 
Arabic number. 

Western players would also prefer to look upon the 



32 

board as having sides home and away, and give up the 
rotary idea, and we here suggest and adopt the following 
convenient and concise notation : — 

Number the four quarters i, 2. 3 and 4, so that 2 comes 
under i and diagonally opposite to 3. Number the ranks 
and files of each quarter separately from outside towards the 
centre and reserve the nought for the middle lines, instead 
of 10. The centre line number for the smaller boards would 
be 6 (or 7), 

In any quarter give the rank first and the file following 
and so indicate the mee by a number of two digits. When 
it is necessary to indicate the quarter also, prefix this, 
making three digits. The mees of the middle lines are 
referable to two different quarters, but we have now every 
mee numbered with a three figure number which is easy to 
find and easy to write and print. 

The men of diagram 8 would then become 244, 256, 
2x8, 403, 488, 465, 358, 382, 311, 120, 161 and 129. 

This is the notation that will be used in this handbook. 

The modern Japanese notation is also convenient, 
especially for the smaller boards ; letter the files from right 
to left and number the ranks downwards from i to 19, then 
for any mee give the file and rank ; the men on diagram 8 
would then become p 16, n 15, 1 19, c 10, h 12, e 14, h 5, 
b 8, a I, j 2, s 6, k 2. Some of the illustrated games will 
be given in this notation. 

In this and in our notation some might prefer to quote 
the sign of the rank and file in the reverse order or to treat 
the score as if it had been given so. There is no objection, 
the game comes out equally well, but in our notation initial 
2 would have to be read for initial 3, and 3 for 2, so that 



33 

326 would become 226 and 252 would become 352 ; tlie ones 
and the fours of the hundreds would remain the same. 
When the quarter (or hundreds) is not indicated such as 
" 78 '' there is no correction to make. Or better still simply 
change the places of Nos. 2 and 3 districts on the board. 
Put No. 3 district under No. i and read the next figure of 
the number for the file and the last one for the rank. The 
mees along the bottom row of the board from left to right 

would become 311, 321, 331 431, 421, 411. It has only 

the effect of turning the board over. The point is : — If the i 
and 2 districts are placed downwards the numbers must be 
read along but if i and 2 are ranged along the top the 
numbers must be read downwards. The men on diagram 8 
would then be recorded as 192, 102 or 202, 285, 118, 228, 
230 or 430, 488, 456, 365, 344 and 381. In the case of the 
Japanese notation also the letters can be put in our order if 
preferred which again only has the effect of turning the 
board over. 

To convert our notation for the full board if you wish 
into the Chinese put A for 300, B for 100, C for 200, D for 
400 and reverse the tens and units when the hundreds were 
I or 4, also put 10 for o, and reverse the process to get the 
other way. To convert ours into the Japanese is more 
difficult. When the hundreds are 1 or 3 leave the tens 
figure as it is but when the hundreds are 2 or 4 subtract the 
tens figure from 20, putting in each case ib for o. For the 
unit figure when then the hundreds were i or 2 put s for i, 

r for 2 j for o, etc ; when the hundreds were 3 or 4, put 

a for 1, b for 2, c for 3 and j for o ; omit the hundreds 

altogether. In going the other way reverse the process and 
put 2 or 4 for the hundreds when the number of the rank is 
subtracted from 20 and put i or 2 when the letter was s to j and 
3 or 4 whea a to j. Som.ewhat similarly for the smaller sizes. 



34 

We recommend that for European players the board 
should have the middle and the 4 lines conspicuously 
marked with no special points at all as iu diagram No. i . 
They are efficient landmarks which never get covered over 
and save a good deal of counting up. They are particularly 
useful in playing over games or scoring one's own. The 
intersections of the lines give the nine points of the Japanese 
board. The Japanese black dots also act as landmarks, but 
they frequently soon get covered over, especially in handicap 
games. The " Four line " give's an "Inner board" which 
can be used for a limited game and we have found by 
experience that although tiie quarter board on account of its 
restricted area gives a t;anie more resembling the play in one 
corner of the full board without the grand combination 
effects, the slight increase in size to the 12 square board 
alters the character of the game fundamentally. If then we 
use the " Four line " as the boundary of the " Inner board " 
we get a 12 square board and a game which is more a 
miniature of the full game and similar in character. Some 
games will be found given in that size at the end of this 
section. 

As regards the rival notations, the original Chinese is 
somewhat confusing. The Japanese is the most simple to 
follow but letters fail to give to the average person a correc 
relative idea of position ; and the four corners being 
differently noted, the similarity of play in them is masked. 
Our notation is perhaps slightly more difficult to follow but 
it brings out strongly the similarity of the diflferent corners 
and the relative positions of the mees. It also avoids the 
objectionable mixing of letters and numbers. The iilustrative 
games will be be given iu these two last uotatioiii 
alteraately., 



35 

In writing- down a position our notation gives a concise 
method. For an example which will sufficiently explain 
itself the position after b 5 in sjame 5 is ; — B 1/367 445 556 
64 7567 2 65 567 43457 25 3/26 3456 436 6456 
746 453356 4345 3123 224 14 W 1/26 467 57 
6567 734 2/6467 545 46 367 3/33 45 53 725 
4/63456 54 46 3456 25 '5- This means that the 
Black men are on 136 137 144 145 and so on. 

In writinjj down a g-ame the successive squares are 
noted down as the men are placed on them, either in single 
or ill double column ; preferably in double column, Black 
first and then White, or the two numbers may be run 
together as six fig-ure numbers. The opening of a game 
niii^ht then appear as : - 

Black White 

234143 c 4 p 3 

254434 e 4 c 16 

353334 or o 17 q 16 

393454 1^ 17 e 16 

430145 CIO p 5 

The moves may also be written in line, then the comma 
should always follow the white move thus : — 234 143, 254 
434. 353 334- 393 454- 43° '45- and so on. This 
method is convenient for recording analyses. If the numbers 
are run in together then no commas are necessary as 
234143 254434 and so on. If in this case single moves 
are recorded they should be given thus — 143, 254 — . The 
colour of a move can also be indicated by placing " W " or 
" B " before it thus : — W 143 B 254. 

Weak moves are commonly marked with a "?" 
whereas the "!" is used to, indicate either a particularly 
strong, one or y. surprise. 



I!l:.ck 


White 


234 


143 


254 


434 


353 


334 


393 


454 


4.30 


'45 



3«> 



Diagram 9. 



lib Hi ■ 



I. I I I I 



» Xf-i-f^ --^99f' 



'tf -|-v/^ /// j3 -l-/«y 4- V '""' + ^ 

'>i//t U iff hif /(^ m - -loi lez 



Hi //f Id. ■ 



■/ry/sf/iiiii -] — [-/J7 



r-/tf nji'omv — I [—'J/ -1 1 

-/ipys — iri,X-st> yi, yjr-\-r/~ 



-Ifl --lOI ■ 



liy/Si'lcyn /(^ih-X-iyi-^ 
\- lot 9S ri i(y lyi luiiusrfi I'fu 
mimyi-X-yi lyi iw - -lys nn 

-iim tb ihA — I \-nsilb 



■ iii h' Iff 6y- 



i-sfiif y tsiisiiii 
■X-/iiiii II f /JO lis 
-X-ltjy 12 8 /» l>i- 
Ui lf>-\ — I- -j-/»- 

iSe 780 -I U iit\ Hgn'i^s- 

19?]- Y "? if /P y/19'^ 

-j-jw — 17. ri I'l'fA 
, I miiinit lizuit-^-i^i-^yiit, yy/ai 
— |-/i>^-L //2 fi iipia ni HI -—]-ui itfi 1^0 if 3i ii-\ 

- 6o X-bb \^nuX-iue-- n xi 1,3-L-ii it^ iy uo 

-\- Y" -] — nynsiiiX-- ib> lo i^-\ — (- i4.i-\ — 
qb H q2 i yi--ii<jiii-iiblx—-i(iti!iy-\-is-\-iyy- 

^i-X-Ul- 



•fX- 



/i'-\ — Vzs 2u li Ii zb-L-y lyl I!, 

61 ih b ic 29 ly 2i--\—z-i-iyy/yb-i 
b3 n<j HO ht -I — I- loi Uit-Qt bt ri)-\ 

-i-m- l i i j fl^i «o 7J 



Gavie 12 scored on to a paper board used for the purpose. 
This method is' a very ancient one. The odd numbers are 
Black's moves and the even ones W hite's. 



37 

The Eastern people use a curious method for publication 
or recordinsf purposes, they give a diagram of the board 
with each mee marked with the number of the move made 
on it. The odd numbers are Black's moves and the even 
ones White's, game 12 has been treated in that way as an 
illustration on diagram g. 

On your quarter board place black men as 223, 224, 
225, 226, 425, 424 and 423, and white men on 222, 232, 
242, 252, 263, 264, 265, 266, 465, 464, 463, 452, 442, 432 
and 422. Here we have a somewhat artificial jiosition but 
illustrative, seven black men in line with twenty different 
ways of fortifying on the outside line if they are left alone. 
Yet White can easily prevent them all. He plays 213 (or 
413), 214, 216, 415, 413, preventing an immediate double 
eye, if now 212 412 (or away), followed by 211, 221, 231, 
and takes all the corner unless Black fills up, leaving one 
eye only. Should Black now play to prevent White forming 
a double eye on the edge in the 400 district he must 
commence with 421 next door but one as it were to the 
boundary which counts for either colour as a confining 
influence; White may follow on with 431, and can after 
Black's 451 form a double eye there without materially 
extending his line by say 461. If White followed 421 with 
451 Black plays to 431. 

But he probably would leave that alone and having 
obtained an eye on the outer edge would immediately 
commence the struggle inside the line ; there is also room 
here, ample, if not interfered with, and as White was bound 
to attend to the outside promptly it will be Black's first 
move. First of all investigate it and then follow our 
analysis. Suppose 235 to form an eye either side of it, he 
only wants one and there appears to be plenty of room. 



38 

The eye need not be complete, one corner may be mi.ssm<f. 
White plays say 245, Black !>oes on with his i(Je;i 435 445. 
244 243, 255 246, 455 465 ! Evidently we must be 
more bold if we would succeed. Try 245 246, 244 243, 
236 234, 233 and succeeds. I'ry 245 246, 244 233, 

234 •236, 445 435 ! and stops him this time. Try 245 
246, 236 234, 233 244, 445 456, 444 434, 433 

443. 435 ! Instead of 456 try 444, 456 434, 455 255, 
435 235 ! that's better. Let us try a more central position 
246 256 (?), 245 445, 244 ! Try again 246 245, 445 

444, 434 436, 235 and still succeeds. Anotlier idea 
246 236, 235 435, 434 445, 455 444 ! Instead of 
434 how about 444 445, 455 456, 434 445, 435 454, 
445 and agfain succeeds. Just one more, try, 246 236, 

235 245, 435 445, 444 455, 255 244, ! ! ! 

It will be readily seen from this •'hat the play in such 
cases is delicate and very difficult to forsee the correct result 
of a fight, especially true wlien the surrounding- lines are 
rugged. One eye was formed on the edge of the board and 
the whole safety of the black camp depended on whether 
this second eye could be formed or not. This position will 
be referred to again in a later chapter and discussed more 
deeply. 

It has been said that a position must not be exactly 
repeated and perhaps it would be as well now that we have 
a notation, to make this clear also by a position, and we 
again leave the student to set up his own. To take a 
simple case, place black men on 33, 35, 44 and 24, and 
white men on 45, 36 and ?5, as a part of a larger position 
perhaps. White to play may place a man on 34 and pick 
"P 35. but if Black then plays to 35 and picks up 34, White 
may object as it repeats the position. Suppose however, 



39 

after 34 picking up 35, sa_y 43 for Black and 54 for White, 
now Black may play 35 picking- up 34, as it does not repeat 
the position owing to the extra men and it is White who 
now cannot repeat with 34 picking up 35, until something 
else has heen played. This we have proposed to call a see- 
saw and it will be discussed later in reference to its effect on 
the score. Sometimes a move that would otherwise repeat 
also arrests other men, it is then quite legal. 

Except perhaps for reading the rules, which are to be 
found in a concise form at the end of this book, the student 
is strongly advised to play several practice games now, at 
first certainly on a small board only, even on an ordinary 
chess or draughts board, before proceeding further. He 
will not play perfectly but who does ? It is all a matter of 
degree. He will get to see the idea of the game with some 
of its difficulties and beauties. When he feels more at home 
he may continue the book, and after reading the section on 
tactics, try the full board. A beginner plays so many more 
men than an expert that he would find the full board top 
wearisome at the start. 

We therefore give for this purpose, eusurlng that our 
readers shall start out with a right idea, three games on the 
quarter board (in the various notations) in which the play is 
intentionally made simple, all the deeper complicated 
manoeuvres and open play of the expert are avoided and the 
easiest games are set first. The quarter and an inner board 
should be marked for the three notations. The middle lines 
will be "6" and "7" or "f" and "g" respectively. 

Then follows four games of aibetter type played on the 
iinier or 12 square board as marked on the full board. 



40 

We hrfve given nothing' on the ordinary 8 square chess 
and draug-hts boards but that is no reason why they should 
not be used extensively. In playing over the games for the 
first time it would be well to carefully follow the notes and 
after that play them over trying to see more into the plan of 
the game and to find the defects of the simple .tactics. Try 
different variations and show how materially a small 
departure from the line given alters the subsequent moves. 
Note also should be carefully taken of the evil effect of 
playing too close up to the enemy when there is no proper 
support. 

BEAR IN MIND. 

You start with an empty board and unlimited men. 

The men are alternately placed on the board, black or 
the dark colour commencing. 

The object is, to surround areas and to take prisoners. 

The game stops when there is nothing more to do or 
when both players are satisfied. 

All surrounded abandoned men are then taker> up as 
prisoners. 

Prisoners and properly enclosed mees both count 
towards the game. 

The player that has the higher score wins. 



If the Chinese method which is more simple for small 
boards is adopted either player may miss any number of his 
moves, allowing his opponent to go on till he is satisfied and at 
the finish of the game all the mees occupied or surrounded 
count towards the game but the prisoners do not. 



4' 
GAMES. 

GAME NO. I. 

English notation. Quarter Board. 

124 125 Black starts building a wall and White tries to 

hinder him. 
134 135 

144 154 Going round to stop him. 
155 164 Taking Black's line. 

165 255 Quite satisfied. 

145 136 To guard these. 

335 346 With sinister designs. 

345 356 Following one another up. 

366 355 Threatening the two. 

354 344 Going in behind. 

334 343 To save his man. 

365 364 Black has designs on the 125 group. 

353 352 

363 454 Again to save his man. 

333 342 Joining up. 

362 332 After one another now. 

322 452 Quite a skilled stroke. 

461 451 Threatening the group. Black leaves them to 

their fate. 
254 453 
245 256 Hoping to get Black into difficulties 

455 446 

436 445 To join hands with his friends. 

444 435 For safety and with designs on 444. 

425 434 Compelling Black to save his man 

443 442 The chase has changed hands. 

433 424 Attack and defence. 

432 351 Taking five. 

4 '4 32^5 An attack oa the jailors. 



42 

Black took seven. 

The 245 group is captured but so is this. 

To start another camp. 

Black took three. 

Struggling on. 

He must attack. 

234 It should be hopeless, there is no room for a 
fortification. 

244 The only hope is to catch Black napping. 

Looks very hopeful now. 

White captures the 221 group and saves his own. 

At the finish White takes up 5 more men 
making 15 prisoners in all. Black has taken 
10 prisoners. White's territory is worth 26 
and Black's 27. 

White wins by 4 points. 



GAME NO. 2. 
Japanese notatiim (English equivalent ), quarter board. 

b 3 f 6 Black starts a fortification in the corner, White 
apparently would like the whole board, but 
interferes later. 

b 2 b 4 

c 4 b 5 Barkis is not willing. 

c 5 b 6 Nor yet. 

c 7 c 6 Black has a brilliant idea but White comes out. 

d 6 b 7 

b 8 d 7 A palpable threat. 

c 8 d 5 An acceptable recognition from his first love. 

e 6 e 5 

e 7 d 8 To save his man. 



423 


324 


163 


153 


152 


253 


143 


243 


252 


242 


232 


251 


262 


234 


233 


222 


231 


244 


221 


223 


212 


224 


235 


225 


226 


216 


261 


241 


415 


2'5 


115 


116 


114 


213 


431 


21 I 



e 8 d 9 Necessary to save his group. Black's next is 
wealt; he should have played b 9 and perhaps 
got time in that case to arrest the group. 

e 10 eg 

b 9 b ID With dire intent. 

c 10 a 9 Strong. 

e 4 a 8 Taking four men, but Black has been improving 
the shining hour too. 

f 5 f 7 

d4 f8 Black took two men. 

eg f 9 Following him down. 

d 10 f 10 To shut Black off. 

en g 6 

c 1 1 g 5 Each playing his own game. 

f 4 g 4 Creeping slowly along. 

g 3 h 3 To secure as much of the corner as possible. 
His other camp can form two eyes when 
they are wanted. 

h 4 i 4 

h 5 h 6 He should occupy the i column in preference. 

is J 5 

h 2 i 6 Taking three men. 

13 h 4 For the purpose of holding h 3. 

■j 4 j 3 Attacking two at once, j 4 was weak, 

i 2 k 4 Taking one. 

i 9 g 2 After three. He leaves Black to his new 

pastures. 
f3 h I 

fa g r White cannot live without support, 
f I j 2 

i I j 9 Black has taken three more men and White 

comes to look after him in his new quest, 
j 10 i 10 
j8 kg 
k io i S 



44 

k 8 h 9 Black has picked up two but he must not let 

White pick up i g. 
J 9 J II 
ill h lo 
k 1 1 h 1 1 Black takes one 

j 6 j u White does not see Black's ingenious idea to 

save i 8 
i 7 h 8 

k 6 h 7 White could still have spoilt things by j 7, a 
vital square for the opponent, thus j 7, k 7 
(taking- one) h 7, j i perhaps (j 7 is useless 
as it blocks up the second eye absolutely) i 7 
and captures the camp. 

To an expert the game is now quite finished, 
but 



Both combatants have 8 prisoners but Black 
has 19 mees to White's 15, therefore Black 
wins by 4 points, 
a 1 1 and k 5 are neutral mees. 



GAME NO. 3. 

Chinese notation (English equivalent). Quarter Board. 

B 44 D 35 Each taking his own corner, 
B 46 D 54 and fortifying it. 

C 44 C 45 They clash. 

C 55 C 56 White wishes to check Black and to keep up 

communications with his own forces. 
C 35 C 46 

C 66 B 65 To drive Black if possible. 

B 55 D 56 To relieve the pressure on his B 65. 

B 56 B 54 Continuing the line. 

B 53 B 64 63 was not sufficiently tempting. 

B 63 A 35 Holding him in, all he can. 

C 36 D 52 The attack has shifted ground. Both are 
anxious to get round now that they think 
Whine's other group is secure. 



J7 


1 1 1 


j I 


a 3 


a 2 


a4 


b II 


a 10 


f II 


g II 


k I 


k 2 



D53 


DS4 


A 25 


A 24 


A 14 


A 13 


A 15 


A 26 


Ass 


A 45 


D 62 


A 16 


Dsi 


D 42 


Bs2 


D41 


D 6i 


Bsi 


B 41 





45 

Giving Black a chance at A 45 but he missed it. 

Winning three but still leaving A 45 open. 

Both declared themselves satisfied. White 
picks up two men making five prisoners and 
Black has none. Both have 42 mees so 
White wins by 5 points. 

Black being the loser ought to have tried for 
a fortification within White's lines. 

GAME NO. 4. 
English notation. 12 square board. 

He is rather bold and comes to grief. 

Necessary support. 

Steering towards the open field. 

Gaining time by attacking 125 which cannot be 
saved. 

White is in terrible danger. This gives an 
additional oujlet and a threat. 



White finds local disaster inevitable so indulges 
in ambitious schemes, elsewhere. 

346 344 Constantly following his great idea. 

334 333 

343 342 Starting another local fight. The position is 
desperate. 

353 354 

352 332 Not too happy here. 

323 324 White is anxious to get round here as there may 
be a chance of saving the lost group. 

335 3'3 
355 365 



143 


444 


147 


145 


155 


135 


125 


,36 


137 


124 


134 


144 


133 


126 


123 


114 


154 


127 


326 


2H- 


if6 


47 + 



46 



363 


315 


A bid to save his hopefuls. 






3.6 


364 








465 


274 








275 


265 


To confine Black's range. 






455 


'56 


Just to hinder. 






435 


454 








464. 


165 


Threatening the 155 group. 






164 


176 








'57 


166 


Both are very dangerously placed. Neither '. 


have 






proper breathing space. 






113 


"5 








117 


345 








356 


376 


325 314 237 236 446 246 


153 


151 


457 


256 


341 372 226 227 467 152 


141 


331 


373 


167 


453 162 436 225 466 366 


351 


217 


ii6 


322 


445 247 426 216 142 163 


416 





Neutral mees are 177 266 375. Black wins by 16. 

GAME NO. 5. 

Japanese notation. 12-square Board. 

d 3 ill They both take the corners. It's a good way. 

j 4 c ID 

k 10 j 9 Starting the fight. 

kg j 6 Exerting influence in two directions at the same 

time, 
j 8 k 8 Friendless. 

k7 J7 

18 18 Black took one man. 

k 8 16 Suggesting the possibility of enclosing Black's 

men. 
e 1 1 k II 
d 9 c 9 For defence. 

d 5 d 8 Running between the two Black camps to 

prevent the enclosure of a strip of territory 
f 5 d6 



47 



h4 


65 


Under the support of friends but 


e6 


e4 


Easily shut off. 


d4 


f6 


An attacking defence. 


e 7 


f4 


As White's friends are near he hopes to get the 
better of this fight. 


g-5 


f7 




d7 


c6 


No spaces are being enclosed but prisoners are 
at stake. 


e 8 


c8 




eg 


c? 


Bidding for a central patch. 


J " 


g 3 


Quite time this was attended to. 


d lo 


f 10 


Towards holding Black back. 


C II 


b 10 




b 12 


a 12 


All right this time apparently. 


a 13 


b 13 




c 12 


§: + 


If a 13, c 13 a II, b 10. 


c 13 


a 1 1 




a 13 


h5 


A sharp counter threat. 


er6 


b 13 




i 5 


h 6 


No time for a 13. 


g7 


f8 


Nor has Black either. 


i 6 


h7 


A lot of hard hitting and no time left for either 


g8 


f9 


to play a 13. 


h8 


i 7 


Which wins ? 


h9 


19 


Black finds it necessary to defend his group also. 


h 10 


h II 




& 10 


f II 


Quite necessary. 


g II 


gI2 


Just time for this. 


k6 


i 10 


Again quite necessary. 


J5 


8r9 


Taking ten. 


1 II 


1 12 




i 3 


i 2 


He guards against this incursion. 


J 2 


1 10 


Good. 


m 10 


m II 



48 

m 9 ■ e 5 

d 2 b 3 A fortuitous after-thought. 

b 2 :i 2 Which however, Black meets correctlx' for the 

time being, 
c 3 b I 

c 2 e 12 White realises now that the a line is hopeless 
unless he can capture a jailor which he now does. Black 
should have played here but in the pressure of minor 
worries which were serious enough in their way he missed 
it. This limb of the prison has no eye. It was secure while 
the white group could be picked up in. a move or two but 
now that it has extended so much towards a i, the arrest 
which looked sure enough has become a long process. Black 
cannot now save the e group and so gracefully resigns. 

The position at this point is : — 
B b 12 c 1123 d 3457910 6678911 h4 156 J45811 
k 678910 18. W a 112 b 103 c 678910 d 68 645 
g 34912 h 56711 1789101 j 679 kii 16. 

Black co:Tipels a 10 to reduce White's enclosure. 
There is no time for 313. 

b 8 is th2 k3y square of this enclosure the only 
one that will allow it to be formed into a 
double eye. 

Black is playing this part in first class style. 

Another attempt. 

White has given up his big group on the a line. 

To shut off the two black men and save the 
white one. 

The following games are again of a rather better type 
and again played on the 12-square or " Inner board." The 
full meaning of these may not be appreciated by the tyro 
until he has gained some experience. The notes are placed 
at the end of the game so as not to disturb the student and 
are of a less elementary character. 



f 46789 lOI 


b5 


b6 


b II 


a 10 


a6 


a7 


b8 


a 5 


b4 


a4 


as 


e 10 


d II 


a8 


b9 


h3 


»4 


J 10 


i 12 


k iJ 



49 







GAME 


NO. 6. 


(read along (he line.) 






'34 


445 


244 


31-4 


2+6 


155 


446 466 


146 


346 


157 


266 


267 


257 


277 


167 


366 1 66 


176 


265 


i65 


16+ 


175 


'74 


•56 


145 


264 254 


263 


253 


255 


256 


245 


262 


456 


273 


4-17 264 


^65 


365 


•44 


375 


376 


154 


135 


464 


153 152 


H3 


233 


435 


454 


444 


455 


466 


434 


443 425 


436 


433 


355 


364 


345 


335 


336 


337 


326 327 


347 


325 


356 


354 


316 


126 


116 


115 


H7 125 


124 


315 


346 


235 


234 


426 


427 


416 


417 424 


243 


242 


223 


142 


132 


232 


453 


463 


432 442 


452 


462 


441 


422 


122 


13" 


121 


141 


162 171 


231 


241 


221 


161 


151 


172 


163. 











The prisoners were now placed in their camps when it 
was found that 

Black still had 23 vacant mees. 

White still had 31 vacant mees and wins by eig-ht points 

NOTES. 

366 Attack on the lower side because although there 
are white in easier proximity in this direction, on the whole 
Black is the strong'er on the upper side. The next move is 
an attacking one with the idea of catching' some of the 
white men. A player in a more cautious mood might play 

376. 

164 156 would not save the camp and only lead others 
into the mees. 

264 Black was anxious not to let White get an 
encircling grip. 

253 White is not strong enougli to go further afield. 

262 Tlie only move. If 456, 252. 

464 White judges that the gain is greater in this 
corner tlian in 100. 



50 

425 and 433 These keep possession of this corner. 
Black does not attack at 424 and the two men at 445 and 
444 are doomed. 

345 This Iceeps White out of 356 for the present. 

347 It was necessary. 

316 Indirectly protecting the important connection at 
136 and securing this territory. White's reply threatens to 
break outand thesubsequentmanoeuvrelosesnothingto White 

416 417 would be bad. 417, 216 416, 424, 

442 A sacrificial check and it gives time under a 
threat to capture the whole contingent. Black gains one 
point by the manoeuvre. 

162 White has made a bad slip here. He reckoned 
that his prospective attack at 122 would suffice to protect 
him and to gain more territory. 

161 Chipping bits off the opponent's accumulations. 

The position after 466 434 was B 1/345 434 5367 
6457 757 667 2/44 545 64 746 6456 536 44. 

W 1/25 37 4567 545 3/64 567 44 2/26 335 456 56 
656 75 545 4356- 

GAME NO. 7. (read along the line. ) 

d3 k 10 in C5 J3 cii en k5 g3 g 10 

gii i 10 J5 J7 fg gg g8 f7 g6 g7 

h7h8 f8h6 d5d6 e7f6 g5 e6 

i6i7 k4d4 esfs e4c4 l5e3 

f4f3 ^4^2 k6c3 c6d7 e8c7 

d8c8 cgk7 b8b7 kiihii hi2fii 

f 10 g 12 f 12 g II i 12 j II j 12 j 10 I II h 13 

k 12 g2 1 10 Ig h5 e 12 d 12 f 13 dii a8 

bgh7 i7h3 i3i2 J2J6 i5li4 i4l8 

iih2 him7 16di3 ci3ei3 ci2iri 

I i-J. i 13 & 13 m6 mS ag a7 m 10. 



51 



NOTES. 

g- lo As second player he is anxious to avoid a 
symmetrical division of districts which is liable to favour the 
first player. 

j 5 And Black is shutting White off. 

j 7 Having a friend here he can certainly take the 
four line. 

d 5 If i 7 i 6, i 8 h 9, and the group falls presently. 

c 4 This attack and counter attack on isolated units 
is difficult to calculate. 

d 2 He has no time to defend k5, but counter attack 
is equally effective. 

c 7 Perhaps better than d 8. 

h 1 1 White hopes to cut off this section of the black 
claim. 

f II Half measures are of no value. 

i II Plunging into Black's game disturbing the eye 

formation. 

* . . . 

Position after j 12 j lo, is B 1 5 k 4611 j 3512, i 61112, 

h 12 (twelve) g 34.568, f 4891012, e 457811, d 58, c 69, b 8, 

Wb7 c 34.57811, d 2467, 636, f3567ii g79ioiii2 

h 6811 1710 j 71011 k 710. 

k 12 If i 13 then k 12, g 13 1 13 etc. 

d II d 13 would come to grief. 

h 7 The chief thin^f that made this worth closing was 
the pressure that wrould be brought to bear on White's 
position by Black after the capture of h 6. 

i 5 He cannot allow this to be taken because of the 
g 3 group. 

f 2 Necessary. 

Black wins a good game by three points. 



52 

HISTORICAL NOTES. 

The invention of this notorious g'ame has been ascribed 
by Chinese Historians to two different Emperors and to a 
layman, all just about the same period, all dating' back more 
than two thousand years before the Christian Era. The 
Emperors are both said to have taught their sons, and in 
one case in order to improve his mental powers. Looking 
at the nature of the evidence and the probabilities of the case 
not forgetting their strong ideas on parent and ancestor 
worship, it would seem likely that the layman was the real 
inventor and that it immediately, or at least soon, received 
royal favour, and it miglit have been devised for the former 
of the two Emperors and even submitted to the second in 
answer to an enquiry or demand. It is reasonable to 
suppose that an Emperor's part in any invention deemed to 
be important would be exaggerated a little, and an adoption 
of an obscure invention is very likely to grow to invention 
itself. The son portion of the story is far from doubtful but 
is handing down from father to son was 'the corre ct thing, 
more credit might have been given to the accuracy of the 
itory on this score than is deserved. 

Its imperial patronage would ensure its importance, 
especially in official circles and this as a reaction made it 
advisable that all officials even the Emperors, should be 
skilled in degree according to their rank. A story is 
reported of an Emperor, and given in another part of this 
book, that he summoned to court an expert player whose 
fame was over the land to play him a game. Rather an 
awkward position for the expert, who doubtless attended 
with much misgiving, but the Emperor had laid his plans so 
well that he neither robbed his country of a treasure nor lost 
his own dignity. 



' ^^^hj^^*:. ^'^Ij 




Goh in China. — See Appendix. 



53 

If the game is to be generally adopted in this country 
as seems likely, some title was necessary, and in these cases 
it is better if possible to avoid too great a multiplication of 
terms, Its title should be suggestive but not undignified. 

For an English name it is proposed to use " Goh ". Of 
the three modern Asiatic names the Japanese is the best 
known in this country and they are now taking precedence 
in the game itself,' but "Go", the best representation of 
their orthography is obviously unsuitable to English speak- 
ing people, especially as it might well be taken as 
representing an incident of the game. 

Various names hrfve been given to the game of old, but 
the modern ones are, for China " Wei Chi"; ( Wei to sur- 
round, Chi - a game, it is pronounced like "Way Key"; for 
Japan " Go "or " Goh ", meaning five from the five points 
marked on the Chinese board, it is pronounced as spelt, and 
for Korea " Pa Tok ", (pebble game). Stewart Culin and 
others, tell us of various ways in which it is said to have 
crossed to Japan, extending over a period of several hundred 
years. They are at first sight apparently contradictory, 
but these old records are probably all substantially correct. 
Although those people with their ancient civilization must 
not be judged by the condition of the Western world of that 
time; they still were distinct branches of the race, still with 
very conservative notions as regards innovations and it is not 
to be expected that a foreign game, however good, would 
firrrily establish itself at once on the first introduction. The 
infiltration and acclimatization would take time, It would 
be rather extraordinary unless several visits were necessary 
before it was welcomed with opened arms and adopted. 
The strong'hold that it had upon China would enhance its 
chance and the intercourse between the neighbouring peoples 
would iine-viilably cause it to be seen in Japan now and again. 



54 

The early board had but seventeen lines each ■way 
instead ot nineteen, possessintj some characters not common 
to the larg-er one. Taking into account the symbollic ideas 
held by the ancients concerning numbers, it was to be 
expected that an odd number would be chosen and in 
preference a prime. Now seventeen gives a middle line the 
ninth from the edge and it woiild be fought for as two rival 
camps approach from the sides; again a central line of 
importance between that and the edge on each side of it (the 
fifth) and so on till every line is taken up. This was 
probably a part of the idea. 

It would very soon be found in practical play that the 
absolute bar of the edge of the board was so much stronger 
than the command of a central position that the vantage 
distance was somewhat upset or strained and that really the 
the fourth line from the edge became important instead of 
the third. Then after a time, somewhere about our Christian 
era, an additional line was added all round to restore the 
balance, so that the nineteen board may be looked upon as 
the old seventeen board with an extra line all round, at 
least that is a suggestion; it is difficult to build theories 
on events so long ago. It is quite possible that the sole idea 
was that of making the lines number one to nine to the 
centre and the subsequent increase simply to enlarge the 
scope of play, or perhaps the indefinite division of the 
sixteen squares was responsible for the first choice of number. 

If a line has been added all round to both boards it 
fully accounts for the eleven line board being called a 
quarter, for whereas in the full one the centre line is the 
ninth, in the smaller one there were nine lines all told and 
the orignal small board was exactly a fourth of the size of 
the larger one. The quarter board seems not to have been 
adopted in Japan. 



55 

In any case the middle line has become the tenth, the 
vantag"e or important line from the boundary the fourth. 
The Chinese named the four corners of the board after the 
points of the compass, N.E., etc., and the centre point is 
the centre of the universe. The Japanese named their nine 
points after the sun and moon and the seven stars of "The 
Plough ", the constellation which indicates the position of 
the Pole star. But now they are adoptingf a method very 
similar to what is known by chess players as the German 
method. 

The Chinese boards are usually of paper and the same 
sheets may be used as scoring sheets by writing the number 
of the moves on the successive mees. The Japanese Tplay 
on thick wooden blocks, sometimes mounted on feet; in 
Korea the favourite is a metal board on feet; it makes a 
metallic twang when played on. This would be a little 
irritating to Western nerves but it would have the effect of 
attracting the attention of the waiting adversary if necessary 
perhaps from a doze during his opponent's deliberations. 
This thickness and mounting enables the board to be used 
with comfort when they are sitting on their mats in native 
fashion, and it is obviously far more steady than the old 
paper ones. The board used for an exhibition game by the 
Japanese expert.s at the Hastings Chess Club, was kindly 
lent by the Japanese Consul General. It was a handsome 
piece of furniture of highly polished hard wood, with the 
lines regularly ruled, so that the outside measure of the 
hoard proper was i6^ inches one way and I5|^ inches the 
other, giving oblongs approximately 12/14 by 13/14 of an 
inch. It was mounted on four handsome legs or feet. The 
boards vary a little in size but usually have somewhere about 
this extent. The men, contained in two handsome covered 
jars, were all exactly alike in farm, being like a short focus 



56 

double convex lens. The white men were highly polished 
pieces of a shell and the black ones were of stone. This was 
placed on a low table and our friends sitting- at it in the 
ordinary European fashion took the men as wanted neatly 
between two fingers and placed them where they were 
required. The play was rapid and consumed about thirty 
minutes each game. The first game, however, was played 
on a large wall show board which had been prepared, with 
two inch squares and men that could be easily attached. 
The game is now occasionally played at the above Club. 

The method oT scoring has changed somewhat also since 
the early times. At first every mee captured by occupation 
or enclosure counted, and as there are an odd number of 
mees the win must always be by an odd number. This was 
tedious and it quickly becomes obvious that the difference of 
of the number of men on the board can be made out by 
counting the prisoners; for the difference of the prisoners 
will give the difference of tlie men on the board, or within 
one. The next step, to drop the one (an improvement) and 
count by adding the prisoners to the enclosed unoccupied 
mees was easy. Then by filling up the opponents enclosed 
spaces with the prisoners you have taken, the counting is 
easier still, and a drawn game .has become possible and the 
uninteresting old filling up of the spaces between the camps 
at the conclusion of the game is avoided as not counting to 
either party. Originally too a point was deducted for each 
isolated camp, that is every camp that is separated from the 
main body. This has been quite dropped and makes an 
improvement as the deduction told less against Black than 
against White, who already suffers sufficiently from the 
second move. This difference in the method of scoring has 
made a slight difference in the tactics but not so much as 
masght be suppose'd. 



JAGT1G/\L SEGJIOJ^. 



59 



TACTICS. 

A few minor points of tactics have already been brou<fht 
out and we hope fully appreciated. Formerly our thought has 
been chiefly for the" smaller board, now our thoughts must 
be chiefly for the larger one, where the finer points of the 
game are alone possible. It is evident that having to cover 
as much territory as possible the men must be placed to the 
greatest possible advantage where they exercise the greatest 
influence on the game. To find the most powerful posts is 
the problem of the expert, the result of brains, study and 
practice. Another most important consideration is the 
question of capture. If a man is so placed that it 

produces a threat, or increases one already existing to 
capture a group of men or even a single man, the opponent 
becomes constrained, and if the position requires special 
attention in one direction owing to the threat, it cannot be 
developed in another, his men cannot be played with freedom, 
the threat must be attended to or disregarded. If the former 
course be determined on, time and opportunities are lost; 
while a breach is being repaired at one point the attack of 
the adversary is being strengthened in another; if the latter 
course is adopted there is immediate loss of territory. The 
other side of the picture tells us that we must guard 
sufficiently against capture ourselves. The group at the 
upper right hand corner of diagram 2 to occur in actual play 
must have been treated with extraordinary carelessness, as a 
man placed anywhere in the larger eye at any time during the 
lining process would have made its arrest impossible, for the 
lining must then have become a complete filling. Besides 



6o 

which the lining could ha^ been arrested the moment it was 
complete. 

A man played where it is at all liable to a serious threat 
thereby acquires an element of weakness which must be 
balanced against any advantage attributed to its position. 
On the other hand it will admittedly sometimes pay well to 
plant a man or even a small group where its eventual capture 
is certain or practically certain, if it requires immediate 
attention and demands the playing of at least as many men 
on the part of the adversary to stop the mischief as are 
engaged in the manoeuvre. Occasionally a man or even two 
or more can be left for capture to give time to surround or 
capture the capturing group. A forlorn hope is sometimes 
justifiable. For example, an attempt may on occasion be 
made with advantage to force a double eye somewhere, 
where with correct defence it cannot succeed, buf- the 
attention required must be demanded immediately. It is 
useless and a suicidal waste of effort, if the opponent can 
wait till he has finished a scheme elsewhere. All men played 
after the mainplay is finished, count as nothing. Even when 
two or three men must be placed before the threat has to be 
attended to, the manoeuvre may easily become questionable. 
Judgement and experience alone can guide. The point is to 
hinder the opponent or to give him something to think about 
and attend to. He must not be allowed to work unmolested 
on any account, a judiciously placed man popped in here and 
there that demands notice may prove of the greatest value 
more particularly when two camps are approaching each 
other. Look out for the vacant spots vital to the adversary 
and consider the advisability of planting one of your own 
men there; it at least prevents its iminediate occupation and 
the picking up of the man may mean the closing of an eye 
that it is necessary to keep open. 



6i 

A threatening- attack is often met by a counter threat, 
in fact one great difficulty in an attack with the idea of 
destruction, is to advoid getting a lot of little isolated bits 
which become more and more involved with the enemy's 
forces, more and more insecure, till the downfall of some 
indispensable part upsets the whole scheme and establishes 
the enemy's position. When you are sorely pressed by 
these active little flying contingents, go for them, make a 
raid amongst them; counter attack has saved many a camp. 
"The attacking party wins " has much truth in this game, 
liable as it is to lead one to " Death or Victory " where the 
former is tolerably certain. The more desparate the position 
the greater is the justifiable risk. Time and opportunity are 
easily lost, never to return. 

There are then three main considerations in placing a 
man: — (i) Its attacking and constructive power forwarding 
your own game. (2) Constraining or hampering your 
opponent. (3) Its safety. The balance of these 
considerations is the power of the man or of its position. 

It is evident also that a man on the outside line only 
exerts an influence on one side. It shuts off no space and 
with very little defensive power from its constrained position 
impossible of support on the off-side, it is particularly liable 
to arrest. Men on the second line are distinctly better off in 
all these respects, and so on. But it is sufficiently apparent 
that as the space between the men and the edge of the board 
increases, it becomes increasingly difficult to defend the 
enclosed strip of territory and also increasingly difficult to 
defend loose men, rendering it necessary to build the fences 
more solidly. Experience and investigation of the pros and 
cons show that the fourth line is the important one in regard 
to the edge of the board and its early command becomes vital 
to success. If nearer the centre it takes longer to run 



62 

pai titio.is CO tlie edge and there is room to form up behind. 
Modern strong play tends to show that in face of attack it 
is g-enerall}' better first to occupy the third line as perhaps 
safer than occupying the fourth at once. The points 
where the four lines cross at the corners, are known as the 
vantage points and are usually marked on the board when 
the whole line is not marked. Play generally commences by 
taking possession of the neighbourhood of the vantage 
points. As the rival camps approach, the central point 
becomes important and the mees or squares where the fourth 
lines cross the centre lines are also generally marked. 

As the great aim is to enclose much territory not to 
build solid walls round small plots, the enclosing fences 
should be of the lightest possible make. As few men as can 
resist assault must be employed, with due regard to the 
chances of capture and collapse. The size of the enclosure 
must be guaged against the number of men necessary. The 
wider the strip the further removed is the fence from safety 
and the better built must it be. On diagram 5 near the 
centre we saw a good solid completed double eye, perfect in 
make and serenely secure but taking thirteen men to enclose 
only two empty places. Such a structure, in one sense ideal- 
is rarely if ever seen in practical play, it would take too 
many men: the object of the game is not to get peace of 
mind but territory, and while these solid structures are 
being built the opponent will be throwing a light fence round 
some extensive possessions. 

If a lightly constructed fortification is somewhat doubt- 
ful in the matter of its security and is attacked, generally the 
best policy is not so much to strenghten its walls but to 
extend it and to counter attack the rival attacking forces. 
In this way other eyes may often be formed, flimsy perhaps 



63 

at first but servingf the purpose of saving' the situation and 
capable of being strengthened later. This question of 
attack on the attacking forces is never absent from the mind 
of the skilled strategist, but a well planned attack may 
compel the opponent to close an eye and make the fortress 
more vulnerable, which may well be worth the cost of a few 
men. 

Place white men at 26, 37 and 46, with black ones at 25 
34, 45 and 36. If it is White's turn, he may play 44 and 
pick up 45, but if it is Black's turn he is likely to close up 
the eye by playing 44 to connect the loose man. 

On diagram 6 we had some incomplete discontinuous 
double eyes, which, however, were quite secure. 

, Diagram 7 gives some still lighter structures which are 
not quite so obviously safe, but which are quite safe in 
reality. Directly there is any danger they can be joined up 
and made as solid as may be necessary. Without care they 
may fall, with care they never can and these are therefore 
equally reliable bases for attacking outworks. Positions 
might have been given of the very flimsy type much more 
often met with. It is always a question whether some of 
these last can survive an attack at all. 

In high class practical play most of the enclosed spaces 
are at least at first scarcely more than imaginary, but within 
the light films must be the ability to form the all absorbing 
eyes when called upon, and the player who can make and 
defend his enclosures with the smallest number of men will 
get the most for his pains; for the men are played alternately 
and each get the same number of moves. Of course if the 
films are too flimsy some parts will get arrested, and every 
chance of capturing ill considered trifles belonging to the 
enemy must be eagerly seized upon. The destructive as 



64 

well US the constructive and defensive quality must be given 
full scope in this class of contest. It is astonishing how much 
territory' may be affected by a break through a lig'ht wall. 

The relative importance of districts must receive its due 
attention. In fighting a new district the stake is probably a 
large one, as the fij^ht proceeds the issue becomes 
more definite and the undecided portion of the stake 
grows less. The wise player will then leave it for another 
battle-field where the stakes are higher or the attention 
relatively more urgent; as the position developes the original 
fighting ground again becomes the most important for a 
time, till everything is sometimes whittled down to a race 
for single points. A skilled player therefore often dots about 
over the board always giving his attention where there is 
most to be gained. The importance of a position may be 
enhanced by its neighbourhood to another critical one and 
its consequent influence over it. To a beginner this is 
distinctly puzzling and is one of the great reasons of the 
greater appreciation of a smaller board in the early stages of 
study. 

Let us discuss the position of diagram ly, supposing 
ihat the other men are too far off to interfere. Black may 
have played three men away and then tried to form a 
fortification behind White, who has played one elsewhere, so 
we will clear the board of other men. Black has now, we 
win say 12 men on the board and White whose turn it 
is, II. Black has a single eye nearly but not quite closed 
in. The White man at 12 has been wisely placed to prevent 
the formation of a double eye internally in the immediate 
corner. White may now at once bring about the arrest of 
the black camp by playing 11 and 13, Black not being able 
to offer any resistance quickly enough to be effective. But 
seeing that the battle at this spot is decided, he may 



65 

determine to make the best of his opportunities elsewhere and 
get a considerable start of White as compensation in another 
quarter of the board. For this reason White may wish to 
leave it to a later stage, but if so, he must not neglect to 
secure the loose man at 17 by playing to 27, or the position 
would be liable to a very serious attack. Having done so 
the position may well wait till the final stages or until it is 
seriously assaulted. Black's only even apparent chance of 
recovery is to be able to capture the four men of the right- 
hand section or of course the six of the other, which however 
could be joined up at 35. Should Black attempt to forestall 
this by placing one of his own men at 35, 46 would settle 
matters at once, but White's 36 or 45, if he chose to risk 
one of them for the chance of gain, would lead to some brisk 
play very dangerous to Black, but largely depending for its 
results on the position of other men on the board. The real 
danger to White, however, is practically nothing, as he can 
always arrest the 14 group in two moves. In an open board 
even after 36, Black's men fall as follows: -27, 35 36, 45 

55, 46 47, 56 66, winning in the far corner (if Black 
continued so far). If Black had a man placed suitably in 
the road, say on 244, it would save the situation in that 
variation. In such a case White might vary with 56 instead 
of 55, then perhaps 55 66, 65 75, 6| 74, 63 (if 73 63, 53 62, 
52 15, wins the group) 73, 72 (if 62 then 72 shuts them in, 
for if any serious attempt is made to capture the 41 group 
White picks up the 21 group) 82, 81 92. White by hugging 
more closely, would not get so good a game 27, 35 36, 45 

56, 55 65, 54 63, 64 74, 66 75, 46 57, 47 (if 53 52 in time) 
48, 58 67, 38 (76 is to slow and loses ground quickly) and 
White must give up something to save the 17 group; he is 
forced to make the two moves to pick up the 14 group at a 
critical juncture. White could with advantage give a wider 



66 

berth to Black. After 45 for 36, the play might go 36 47, 
37 38, and settles it at once, or as before a more open 
formation could be adopted. 

The position illustrates another point. If White's last 
move was 17 as the appearance of the board would suggest 
it was bad, 27 was much better; it does not close the enemy 
in quite so quickly, but it is more secure and more useful. 
Should Black then play to 17, White replies with 28 or 29, 
obviously keeping Black in, unless there are some Black 
friends along in that direction: in which case White would 
head off the line. If, however, after W 27, B 28 then 17, 
and uses the white base to support an attack against 28 and 
friends without loss of time or undue risk. Time rightly 
understood is a great element in this as in most games of 
skill. Not time in the sense of speed of play, but in the 
sense of the number of moves made. Making a few moves 
say to build a fence that might have taken more is gaining 
time. Lightness combined with strength is the aim of us all 
but the privilege of the few. 

Examine carefully all the cases of enclosures near the 
fringe of security. Remember that sometimes a fortification 
can be destroyed by attacking an eye in detail, capturing a 
detached portion. Remember on the other hand that a single 
eye wide open may generally be doubled internally, and again 
very particularly that if there is only one way of doing it, 
the chance of bringing about the double may be spoilt by an 
adverse visitor dropped into the critical position. 

FORTIFYING ENCLOSURES. In forming or 
leaving an unsupported enclosure not to be fortified till it is 
attacked, it is very necessary to know what will stand 
securely against assault. One with more than seven vacant 
mees is safe and it would be sheer waste to strengthen it, 



67 

(except to prevent neutralisation to be explained presently) 
always supposing- of course, that the walls are continuous or 
could be made so when required, without reducing the 
vacant mees to less than 7, but when the number is not 
greater than 7 it must be examined. 

Starting from the simplest case it is obvious that a 
camp with only a single mee, or with two, cannot be fortified 
internally. When we come to three mees (enclosed by 
friendly walls or the edge of the board) the case is quite 
different ; with the move these can always be fortified by 
playing into the middle one of the three. So, when the 
move is against you the opponent can always prevent the 
fortification by playing on to the same spot : he has then 
only to fill up the enclosure to arrest a surrounded camp. 
-Four mees depend entirely on their position, if they form a 
continuous line, straight as 33 34 35 36, or crooked such 
^s 33 34 44 45 they can maintain themselves even 
against the move ; for a man placed in either of the two 
intermediate mees will divide the enclosure into two. 
Whichever one the opponent takes, the other is available. 
But if they happen to be in a square form they cannot fortify 
even with the move ! Into whichever corner a man is 
played the adversary has only to take the opposite one. 
Therefore although when a three enclosure is formed or is in 
formation it must be attended to at once, a four in a square 
may be left by an opponent as long as it remains a square. 
The weakness of the square formation is handed on to 
larger spaces containing it and it is curious to note that if 
an opposing man is played into the square leaving three 
mees unoccupied, this remaining part cannot fortify, though 
in a sense a three. A part of the wall is not friendly. A 
formation like a stunted " T " 33 34 35 44 can be fortified 
(at 34) with the move but not against it. Five men in line 



68 

(without doubling' on themselves) will of course be as secure 
as four, and may even wait for action till there are two 
invaders, but when they take the form of a Greek cross as 
33 34 35 24 44 they can be fortified (at 34) but cannot 
stand assault and the same may be said of a square with an 
extra mee at the corner; the critical mee this time being the 
corner of the square adjacent to the extra mee. In this last 
.case, in filling up, caution begins to be necessary, care must 
be taken to leave the extra mee or the one diagonally opposite 
to the critical square till last or the four mees when picked 
up will leave a fortifiable enclosure. Now we come to a six 
mee space. There is one form in this set that will not stand 
against assault and this is like a square with the two extra 
mees adjacent to on the two sides of the same corner ; the 
critical spot then being the said corner. The enclosure 
might be 24 33 34 35 44 45, the critical mee is 34. All 
other forms of six have at least two fortifying mees. In the 
case of two parallel rows of three whether evenly placed or 
not, the middle of each of the three gives what is wanted, 
to be backed up by any mee of the other set and so on. 
Diagram 19 collects these forms with some others. 

In all cases as hinted above care must be taken as to 
the order of filling both by friend and foe, and the friend 
must be careful that he is not called upon to pick up a group 
that will leave an unfortifiable space. In sound forms it is 
always possible to form a double eye when the enclosure is 
clear of the enemy to start with. When there are more 
than 7 mees in the enclosure it is always possible to double 
and therefore to arrest any adverse men that are played into 
it. 

It seems difficult to give a general rule but the following 
is the author's aid to memory:- "After the opponent has 
played his one man there must remain either three vacant 



69 

mees in line or an open pocket. " An open pocket being- a 
vacant mee surrounded by three triendly men and another 
vacant mee. Then a double eye can always be accomplished 
by playing to the centre mee of the three or closing- the 
pocket. 

When the space is already occupied by some adverse 
men as will often be the case especially if we have also been 
surrounding- the enemy, the question becomes more complex 
but the same principles apply. If the number of mees is 
more than 7 we can simply wait events and fortify by 
defiance if we cannot get a double. Should the enemy go 
on filling up we could -wait till there is only one vacant mee 
left and then arrest the invaders. It is never possible for 
the enemy to subdue the fortification by exhaustion from a 
large number as it is possible at any time to form a double 
till we get down to a 7 mee space. No clear 7 space camp 
can be arrested but there is one form in which a double can- 
not be secured. This is when the space is two squares of 
four superposed at one corner say 23 24 33 34 35 44 45 ; 
the enemy 'occupies 34 it cannot wait and we play -24 33, 
35 (or 44) +4 (or 35) and in either case we hold the position 
by defiance for if he play another man we pick up and secure 
a four in line space. In all other 7's a double can be forced. 
If we are compelled to try the defiance method with not 
more than 7 mees (vacant or occupied) in the enclosure we 
must struggle to obtain a sound form for the pick up. If 
we get one, the camp is secured. 

In securing camps and in many other cases the idea of 
open pockets is a useful one, they always add security, and 
a line space owes its strength to its having an open pocket 
at each end. In fact the whole line is simply a closed long 
pocket which may be cut in two at any time. Perhaps we 
may be forgiven for illustrating their influence on the game 



70 

generally by discussing briefly the formation of eyes within 
the larger enclosures. We take the intractible case of 
a square i6 with its corners say at 33 36 63 66. We 
first essay at 46 to form a pocket which must be closed by 
the adversary at 35, we then elongate our pocket at 45 ; it 
already has a man in it, but this does not matter, there is 
room for another. Once more it must 'be closed. Elongate 
again at 44 and finally play 43 or 33. Another scheme 
would be to play to 45 suggesting a long pocket two ways. 
Adversary goes to 46. We then take 56, following it up by 
35 or 36 without leaving the corner and so on. When our 
space is partly filled by the enemy we must devise a plan 
which avoids him if possible. 

Now for the purpose of further illustrating the principle 
let us consider a case from the other point of view. An 
eight is being formed of a square nine with one corner miss- 
ing and we have the opportunity of planting two (or more) 
men in it while it is forming. Can we prevent a double eye ? 
The enclosure may be 23, 24, 33, 34, 35, 43, 44, 45. It is 
clear that 34 is important. If we allow the adversary to 
occupy it he makes two pockets. Suppose we took 23 and 
45 to close the pockets before-hand he could still take 34 
followed by 33 or 34 doubling the space. No. We must 
take 34 for one ; 43 to spoil both threes is useless for the 
other, as he has 33 and 44 or 24. Try therefore 33 and 34 
if he then plays to 35, 44 will prevent him forming an eye or 
or in any way doubling the space. He dare not play another 
man, he is thrown back on defiance at once. If we had the 
opportunity of placing more men it would be of no use 
unless we could tempt him to play another man within and 
reduce his space to 7, even then it must not be at 33, 34 or 
44. In filling up a not more than 7 space we should if 



71 

possible adopt forms that will grow through the indefensible 
ones to the indefensible six. 

We must not leave the question of fortification by 
defiance without pointing out the danger of allowing a one 
space camp to be lined and also the danger of allowing even 
a single eye to be formed within it. 

If such a process is going on, projections should be 
thrown out. Suppose our square i6 above to be lined to 
the extent of 33 43 53 63 64 65 66 we play to 35 perhaps, 
bringing 46 then to 45 followed by 44 or 45 and there is no 
room for mischief, if 35 is replied to by 44, 55 must be played. 
If however it was still the opponent's turn to play and he 
occupies 35 the position is more delicate. It is no use try- 
ing to form a line so we occupy 45, 46 56, 36 34. Or if 
35 45, 44 55 ! (to stop the eye) followed by 46 or 56, but 
in this case 46 for 55 would be fatal enough, for after 46, 55 
36, 34 there is no fortification by defiance for when the 
enemy completes the lining at 56 a pick up is effected. 

In conclusion then : — Any space of more than 7 mees 
with continuous walls is defensible whether occupied or not 
unless lined or with an opposition eye within it. All 7 mee 
spaces are defensible if clear at the start. Certain forms 
with less than 7 are not defensible against the move and as 
a further aid to memory, these are all included in : — A square 
nine with three or the four corners missing and any of the 
mees between the missing corners also. This will be found 
to include all these forms and no other.s. The only case in 
which the edge of the board materially interferes with any 
of the above considerations (except by breaking the con- 
tinuity of the walls) is in the corner when it is sometimes 
very serious. This is more deeply dealt with at the end of 
the Tactics section. See Diagram 19 mtd zo. 



72 

When the adversary is trying- to form up in any con- 
fined space, play men on to squares that are important to 
him, such as the corners, or better still the middles of the 
sides of his prospective eyes and the positions necessary to 
join up his men, especially when to pick up the man he must 
play into an eye that is better left vacant. It is often good 
to play into a mee (or square) next to one the adversary 
wishes to keep open. 

A good deal of nice play often arises in fighting in en- 
closed spaces. When a space is temptingly large but 
irrejjular, there is room for a considerable amount of judg- 
ment as to whether the attack should be begun at once or 
be kept waiting till the play is complete in other parts. 

If the attack demands immediate attention and counter- 
play within the same enclosure it is generally well to go 
ahead and to continue as long as it does command it or as 
long- as the issue is still doubtful. When success is assured 
(or doubtful) and it becomes only a question of a few places, 
its importance must be weighed in the usual way against 
the prospect in other battles. If ultimate defeat is evident, 
of course no men should be wasted on the camp unless the 
play strictly involves one for one. 

Another case in which it may be necessary to proceed 
at once is when the defence could quickly spoil the chance by 
a judiciously placed man or so, and has the time to do it, 
then to wait is to abandon it entirely. 

After the general play is finished, there may be nothing 
to lose and a possible gain in attacking any open space in 
in which there is room to form a double eye or a chance of 
breaking through, but while there is anything else to go for, 
temptation must be borne quietly* and not easily yielded to. 

It has been said that when the first enclosures have 



73 

been made there are the points between them to be fought 
for, but when the frontier posts are thinly placed the dis- 
puted territory becomes very ill defined and as some sort of 
claim is at once thrown out, from the very beginning, almost 
the whole fight may be said to be really for the spaces 
between the ill defined boundaries and foi the breaking down 
of the boundaries themselves. The modern scoring has 
avoided the tedious, one and one, picking up of the last 
points between the camps where there is no room for an 
enclosure. 

Practice and experience show that a fence thrown out at 
about half strength is secure, that is, man and space 
alternately. The adversary generally cannot play between 
without loss, but if they are further apart a fight for the 
intervals is quite feasible, the prospect of .success depending 
on the positions of the other groups. Of course if friends 
are near, the lines can well be thinner than when the enemy 
or the boundary has to be faced and there is no support to be 
expected. 

In playing to hinder the development of an adverse 
man, in a clear field it is not generally good to play next to 
him, as he immediately begins an attack that may be dis- 
astrous to you ; but it is better to leave a slight space 
between the men and then his attack would be too slow for 
complete success. For example, a lonely mkn is on 44, you 
may play to 46, 36 or perhaps 55, but 45 would be bad and 
43 very bad. The proximity of other men introduces other 
considerations which may outweigh the one just given, and in 
crowded positions it is swamped. This is why in starting 
a game modern players tend to prefer 34 to 44, following it 
up presently with 54 if no adverse man has appeared to 
disturb the harmony. The 44 is on both vantage lines, but 



74 

being at the corner, having to guard both ways, often finds 
itself overtaxed and generally needs the support of 34 or 43 
later on. The 34 is nearer the edge and can so much sooner 
form its eyes on the boundary, that this advantage, lessen- 
ing the attention that is demanded, weighs heavily 
against the more commanding position. The more cautious 
move also will better bear leaving in the event of its being 
attached whilst urgent business is demanding attention 
elsewhere. The 34 is generally held in check with 53 and 
the 44 with 63 or 64. It should be noted in this connection, 
both for attack and defence, that for the formation of a 
double eye in the corner the possession of the 4 line is not 
necessary either way. A secure fortification can be built 
outside both these lines in two different ways [see diagram 6). 

Don't be too easily led away from a profitable scheme 
to dsfend something which is of little value or is indefensible, 
especially if your opponent is the stronger player he may see 
that success awaits you and is bluffiing. Even if he attacks 
a stronghold, let him go on, examine it carefully and don't 
disturb him until it is necessary if there is anything else to 
be done. On the other hand it is general!}' right to follow 
your opponent up and not leave him a free hand, at any rate 
when he changes quarters always look for what he seems to 
be up to and if you are doubtful take the best chance and 
follow him up. He has left the other district and when he 
goes back you can go too if you then think well of it. 

It is very important not to get too absorbed in any local 
affair, every little bit is a part of the whole struggle and 
affects more or less the whole field, but guard against the 
other extreme, which is sometimes met with, of jumping 
about all over the place for the mere sake of doing so. 
Don't leave a keen struggle simply because it is keen or long 



and you think it is time it slacked down or because you 
are anxious to open an account somewhere else. By all 
means give a good look round but deal efficiently with 
what you have in hand before leaving it for less urgent 
cases ; lean towards friendly camps and even one solitary 
man in a corner is sufficient encouragement to steer the 
conflict into that direction, this slender promise of help is 
quite sufficient. When the ferocity of the fight calms down 
a little then is the time to look tor opportunities to pop down 
a man here and there. This is often where the main 
advantage of a fight comes in, having the grip and so being 
able to spare a move now and then for other fields. Gener- 
ally these corner fights divide honours in the way of giving 
a camp to one, and to the other the outside berth which is 
not to be despised, it is much more powerful than at first 
sight appears. Whichever way the predominance turns 
towards other corners or to the centre, it lends material 
assistance to all friendly forces in that direction, whether it is 
an attack or an extension in a superior position or a defence 
against an inferiority. If one player gets the outside berth 
at all the corners he has probably lost a considerable amount 
of property there, but he is sure of getting a very large share of 
the centre field. Besides capturing men and territory, one aims 
at driving the opponent's walls in to lessen his, and this 
is especially true when he is seizing the centre field. 

The same principle applies to its not alwaj's being good 
to attempt to hurry on a capture too much but to play round 
at a respectful distance. The argument on the position of 
diagravi ly shows it to some extent. White instead of play- 
ing to 27 had played to 17 to hurry on the arrest, rendering 
the weakness liable to serious attack. The consideration of 
influence indicates that 27, if feasible, is better then 17, 
taking a more outside berth (towards the centre). When 



76 

White plays on to the one line, Black is naturally forced on 
to llie two line and a free field ; but if White is on the two 
line Black is driven in to the one line and a confined space, 
leaving- the free field to White. If Black comes out into the 
open he still has to face a White line. The more the fight can 
be brought away from the edge, the more territory is involved 
and the greater the reward of success, in addition to the 
greater influence of the man played, but we must give the 
everlasting warning against over-doing it, success must not be 
thrown away. The play to defeat 35 in the position is also 
significant in this connection, 36 the move natural to a novice 
in direct contniuity and defending the weakest side, is just 
good enough, 54 is distinctly better, but 46 still more out- 
side and into ihe unfought field does the business at onre. 
A rather larger ring round the black man is more efficacious 
still and encloses some acceptable territory. 

USE OF NEUTRAL MEES. 

When the game is practically finished, really you think 
quite finished, but your opponent is not satisfied and wishes 
to go on as you must do if he demands it, play as long as 
you dare into neutral mees between the territories as evefy 
man you play into enclosed territory of either side lessens 
your claim by one ; and ;dthough by playing men that are to 
be arrested eventually he is fully making up for the deduction 
by taking equally from his claim, you might just as well 
save what you can and so help the final differential score. 
If both go on playing into enclosed districts man for man the 
final difference is not affected, for although you are filling up 
your enclosures, the prisoners you take will fill up his to the 
same extent, or if you play into his enclosures your own men 
become prisoners to be handed over by your opponent to fill 
up yours. And similarly whether he plays into his own 
enclosures or into yours. 



77 

The modern scoring- by enclosures only in the place of 
scoringf by men and enclosures together as some readers 
will have been in the habit of doing, affects the tactics very 
slightly and not to the extent one might at first sight 
suppose. It might be imagined for example that the pro- 
jection in such a formation as 64, 65, 76, 67, 68, was useless if 
it eventually became necessar}- to fill up the vacant mee by 
playing 66, but that is not so. It would not have been 
necessary to fill up the gap unless the adversary was at close 
quarters. Allhough the projectinjf mee does not count to 
you it pushes the adversary back and so impoverishes his 
territory. There is no serious difference in the tactics 
brought about bj' the different method of scoring. You can 
practically alwa3's play just as if the occupied mees scored 
just as much to you as the vacant ones Neutral mees are of 
course useless as regards the ordinary score, but sometimes 
by playing into them you may force your opponent to occupy 
a mee of his enclosure and save a point. 

SEE-SAW. 

Difficulties arise with the " see-saw " position sometimes, 
the position in which repetition is possible, and it is not , 
easy at first sight to see how the score is affected. There 
is a natural disinclination to block up one's own enclosure, 
but under every circumstance of the score it will be found 
that it always pays to do so rather than let the opponent 
take another swing, unless there is more important work 
elsewhere. The vacant mee becomes occupied but the 
prisoner is held (or saved) and the opponent in general 
makes a corresponding move. In the middle of the game 
it makes a difference of two points whether you give or take a 
see-saw position. There is no question of vacant mees and you 
give instead of taking a prisoner. It however occupies moves, 
and may well not be worth while to take it when it is formed. 



At the end of the game when all other districts are 
quite settled the taking of a see-saw already formed may 
mean one point only, or three. Let us examine the position 
on diagram No. 12. Suppose it is the end of the game and 
j'ou, Black, seize the see-saw by 19 and ask White to con- 
tinue, he plays to a neutral mee and you close by 18, hold- 
ing the prisoner, on the other hand if you were last occupied 
on the other part of the board and White closes the see-saw, 
there is no prisoner ; a difference of one point only. Let us 
imagine with this position that there are some neutral mees 
with everything else settled and quits, with White to play. 
White hesitates to fill up his mee and make a draw we will 
suppose. So he plays to a neutral mee ; Black now seizes 
the position with 19 and calls upon White to continue, then 
plays to 18 and wins by one point, his prisoner. If, how- 
ever, he also hesitates and lets White in again, we get a 
draw. If there are no neutral mees at disposal, or they are 
not used, it makes matters worse and two points are at 
stake. Should White hesitate to close and be foolish enough 
to play to an enclosure, there may be no neutral mees, he 
loses 3 points, two for the men he plays and one for the 
prisoner in the see-saw. 

These arguments have shewn that when there is 
nothing particular about, it is always worth while to take or 
close a see-saw as the case may be, but its value may well 
be over-estimated. The point of view mostly presented in 
practice is : — Here is a see-saw already formed with play 
going on elsewhere. There is no question of territory or 
the safety of that particular group. What has been done is 
done with so far. What is it worth to take it and what is 
the cost? If I take it and let my opponent take it back 
again there is no direct effect on the score, only whatever 
disadvantage may arise in the matter of the order of the 



79 

moves — this may be very slig^ht or serious. If I leave it 
my opponent blocks it al the expenditure of a move. If / 
take it and block it I gain one point (the prisoner) at the 
cost of tviro moves. 

Therefore in such a case merely to take it and let it go 
again is not generally good and to take it and block it costs 
three moves, two for oneself and one saved to the opponent. 
In the early part of the game it can rarely be good to take a 
mere see-sav*r, but as the moves get less valuable it becomes 
more and more worth consideration. 

In an ordinary case there is no question of security 
because the mees being filled up brings the rival camps into 
close proximity without spaces, whoever effects the block, 
but when it does occur the matter must be viewed in a 
different light. 

When a see-saw appears there is naturally a wish to get 
the chance of seizing it and its point, but it is necessary to 
be cautious. Suppose this see-saw above discussed were 
suddenly brought on in connection with position No ii of the 
same sheet. White may not repeat the position with i8, but 
plays 32 in the other position, obliging 31 then seizes the 
see-saw to hold it, unless his opponent can make a similar 
manoevure in his turn elsewhere. Hence tentative positions 
of this character have their disadvantage, and should be 
closed (in this case by Black) as soon as a fitting opportunity 
arises. 

Here is another interesting position also illustrating the 
question of safety, on diagram 13. Black plays to 12 taking 
the see-saw and threatens White's whole camp. White now 
searches for a forcing position to be able to play as before, 
a move that compels his opponent to reply on the spot ; if 
he succeeds, then he takes up the see-saw again, threatening 



8o 

to establish his position by picking- up Black's man on 23 
and gives himself a nice double eye. But now it is Black's 
turn to find a forcing move against White if he can and so 
on, as long as such positions are to be found, and probably 
it will not be for long. The first one to fail loses the position. 
That is if White first fails he loses his camp and if Black 
first fails White secures his camp. The Japanese word for 
see-saw is " Ko.'' 

We often come across what might be termed a half see- 
saw which only g'oes down at one end, If white men are at 
56, 66, 65, 64, 54 and 53 and Black ones at 34, 35, 36, 46 
and 55 as part of a larger position. Black may block as 
before at the cost of one move or White may take the man 
and secure the mee at the cost of one move only as he need 
not block. The bargain therefore is two points for at the 
most two moves, a much better speculation than a proper 
see-saw. In the above position 34 and 35 may be white 
men and the question is not affected. The question of 
security may well come in here also as the mee acquired is 
an eye and may be vital to White. The original vacant 
mee at 45 was neutral. 

A see-saw at the end of a game sometimes swings back- 
wards and forwards for many turns whilst each player in 
turn finds a forcing move that would not be worth while 
under ordinary circumstances. 

These stragetic schemes for construction and destruc- 
tion may be gathered into what may be called a 

THEORY OF CHAINS. 

It is required to connect two points having we will 
suppose, somewhat the relation of 21 and 04. What sort 
of chain can we use to make a fence across the gap ? Nine 
patterns from the strongest to the most flimsy are given to 
choose from on diagram 10, and are discussed. 



8i 



Diagram 10< 







I 








2 








riS 


3 






4 




—I 


f— 






h^ 
















1 








—i 


h- 






K. 


-'j 








i 


b 1 ^ 




"i 








—i 


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; 






















—i 


H 


f— 




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ii 


\ i 


1 






— r 


K)- 


— 


H 


H 

1 i 


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r 


s 


















H 


H 








— <. 


r 


s 






i 


1 i 


k 






r 


Y 


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H 


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c. 


J 








1 i 


t 




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H 


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— 1 


M 


t-% 


( 






1 


k 




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r 


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S 






A 


k 




r 




















D 


1 




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f 


k 






i 


h 






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r* 








































4 


k . 




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■ V 












i 


\ 


(- 


\ 






















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H 


h- 


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u 


hJ 



Chains ; or strings of men of various forms connecting 
two points. 



82 

No. I is complete and continuous but elementary and 
extravag'ant. It is scarcely a cliain at all but a good all 
round ready made permanent fence. Its solidity is unques- 
tionable. It is absolutely secure against an assault, unless 
it can be entirely surrounded, and is equally reliable for 
attack or defence. Nothing can break it. It requires no 
attention whatever, but it costs many men, the full nimiber 
for the route including the deviation from the direct line. 
It is so thoroughly stiff also that it would be difficult to 
build in the face of an active enemy. It is an ideal which, 
though always kept in mind, is seldom aimed at for any con- 
siderable length of chain and still more seldom obtained. 
In short pieces it abounds in ever)- game and occasionally 
we do see it in longer lengths winding snake-like in and out 
of the adverse forces. 

No. 2, a diagonal chain, is a revelation to a novice and 
should be carefully examined. We find here the other 
extreme of flexibility and freedom. Not one man is joined 
up, yet every line is taken possession of ; the enemy cannot 
bridge it without destroying a part of it by picking up the 
men. Yet is quite secure, every pair has two vacant mees 
in the angles, the occupation of either of which joins up the 
men as in No. i. If the enemy takes one we can occupy 
the other, even if it would not pay better to attack the 
intruder by threatening its arrest and so gain more territory, 
perhaps at the cost of a link or two of the chain, instead of 
joining up at all. Its angles form so many traps, and it is 
particularly entangling at the bends where it forms open 
pockets. One often uses the short length formation of three 
men as at the top end of the chain given wherever the 
pressure is not too great, it is better than a direct line as 
keeping the enemy more at bay and securing an extra mee if 
it can be maintained. It is wider ia its influence on thq 



83 

board, but as it does on occasion require support, it is not 
so strong as No. i. True every addition that has to be 
made is in reply to the opponent's move, one for one, but 
the demand may come at a time of great pressure when the 
opponent's move means more than the mere threat on tiie 
chain, whilst if it had been complete as in No. i, the 
supporting man could be available in another part of the 
board, even if the attack had not ceased to be worth the 
opponent's while. However, very little attention i-^ 
demanded to keep it intact and there is a distinct saving of 
force owing to the deviation coming naturally. 

We see from this that the angle men in No. i are not 
immediately necessary, they can be put in outside or inside 
of the angles whenever the pressure comes, if at all. In 
building a wall it follows from this that the next man need 
not be directly ahead, but may deviate to one side or the 
other giving a choice of three squares and relieving the 
stiffness. Short lengths of Nos. i and 2 work well together 
and form the staple of close fighting manoeuvres. 

No. 3. As the general principles of chain formation 
have been sufficiently discussed in the foregoing, it is only 
necessary to indicate the peculiarities of the remaining 
patterns. 

Here we have a useful, open work form, using the same 
number of men as No. -z and wider still in its influence, 
though it will not take a full diagonal course. When the 
line is direct the security is obvious. It seems to invite the 
enemy through, but he cannot accomplish the feat. In a 
clear field he may be allowed to go so far as to fill both the 
ntermediate mees and join on at one end, but he is stopped 
at the other by a man that immediately joins to one of the 
two sides. Nor is it much less powerful when oblique. In 



84 

the diagram, let White play 87, Black places a guard on 88 
or 85 according to which is the dangerous side. With 
friendly neighbours White may be allowed to occupy 86, 87 
and 88, but he is still caught. It is a ver}' useful idea when, 
working amongst the enemy, and it rarely wants patching, 
for the adversary dare not play into the meshes. 

This lends some additional glory to two men side by 
side in any position, it shows that not only are they mutually 
supporting jbut that they form an effective part of a line 
practically in any direction. 

No. 4. Still more economical ; nearly as strong as No. 
3, it is easily turned into it, and only uses three quarters of 
the men. If there are no adverse men actually amongst it 
at the time of building, it cannot afterwards be disturbed. 
Say an attack takes the form of 44 45, 43 42, 33 22 ! If 
one wishes to build a strong wall in front of a threatening 
fortification this is the pattern to adopt. In practice it 
proves even stronger than it appears on a cursory examin- 
ation, there are so many ways of patching it up and of 
turning attacking parties on to its own base to be efficiently 
crushed. 

No. 5. Those on the lower half of the- board are lighter 
in character and as they belong to the nimble family less is 
expected in the way of sturdy resistance. Their use 
will depend on circumstances. This one is useful, being the 
strongest with so little material, it takes only half the com- 
plement of men and can quickly be augmented into No. 4 or 
any of the preceding. The mee between the two men can- 
not be seized by the enemy without adequate support. It is 
the form to adopt when a strong base is contemplated in 
some position where there is no pressure yet, but will 
certainly come, such as commencing in the corner. Two 



85 

men so placed constitute a splendid foundation for a base 
that cannot be overcome unless deserted by its captain for 
other loves. This form of development is in constant request. 
Three men say at 64, 44, and 46 are very stronjf, and 
another at 55 renders them impregnable. 

No. 6. A much used modification of No. 5, allowing- 
of deviation without waste of material. It bears somewhat 
the same relation to No. 5 that No. 2 does to No. i, but 
without the great difference in strength. It may equally be 
filled in to become any of the upper forms, but there is less 
choice of method of change than with No. 5. It will be 
used when the fighting is already going on in the district, 
the deviation being made towards the danger side when the 
position is strong and towards the safe side when the 
position is weak. 

No. 7 and 8. Still more rapid and slender and at the 
same time much weaker. A sort of giant stride, one direct 
and the other oblique. There is a great choice of places for 
inserting strengthening men, but it cannot withstand attack 
without them. Useful when sallying forth from a friendly 
base into a new field, perhaps the centre, or sometimes in 
throwing a rapid fence from corner to corner to enclose the 
side territory. Sometimes also by way of an advanced 
guard to meet an advancing foe. The stronger the base 
and the weaker the present opposition the longer the forward 
stride may be. It is attacked by placing a man each side of 
the gap and is liable to be used too freely. 

No. 9. Scarcely more than an indication of claim to 
acquire territory, but often effective for all that, especially 
when it associates two friendly bases. (See remarks on Nos. 
7 and 8). It has the advantage of readily becoming No. 5 
or 6, being in fact a transition form. In using' it we must 



86 

bear in mind that the long-er the linlc the more necessary is 
it to incline towards the safe side. This is still more liable 
to be used too freely. In joining- two friends at a distance 
by say three links, it is best to take the middle one first 
leaving the adversary less room than by taking an end one. 

GENERAL. It need hardly be pointed out that chains 
may be and are, of necessity, forged of mixed pattern-^. 
We must fit in our links according to space and other 
circumstances, We use the lighter transition forms in open 
field and, as far as possible, the denser forms for the close 
fight. The great aim is to be able ultimately to construct a 
fence of sufficient strength without putting too much into it 
in the early stages. Needless attention, when there is any- 
thing else to do, means loss in another place. The whole 
art of the game lies behind that. The most important job 
must be done first. Which is the most important ? "There's 
the rub." One difference that distinguishes a good player 
from a bad one is his ability to judge these things correctly. 
And the ability to judge is chiefly made up of knowledge 
and the mental power of the individual, the one can be got 
by study and practice, and the other by close attention during 
play. Never make a move without a reason and always 
work out as far as you can into the result ot any contem- 
plated manoevure. 

CHECKING PLAY and destructive tactics are converse 
to development and construction and they are to a great extent 
directly opposed, but are in other respects intimately inter- 
woven. This side of the play is the more difficult. We have 
the building and the defence to consider with almost as much 
attention as on the other side and much more besides. We 
use all the art of the builder for our own structure and learn 
from it how we can best get in his way. Perhaps we think 
our opponent would be assisted by the possession of a certain 



87 

mee, it is one reason and a strong- one why we should play 
there. If the possession of the mee is vital to him this 
consideration becomes paramount. From its dangers to 
you, however, or from the more seductive attractions of 
another, you may be content with simply making it danger- 
ous to him to occupy the mee. He replies, when and if 
policy dictates, by placing a support that would suflRciently 
increase the safety of the move. You then increase the 
danger till the position is either occupied by the one or the 
other or abandoned altogether. 

The two pace oblique link of No. 6 chain is appropriate 
as a checking move in many cases, and especially when both 
the enemy and ourselves are weak or thinly represented as 
at the opening of the game. The man also ckecks the direct 
advance in two places and is itself sufficiently out of danger. 
It is the staple checking move. A direct two pace opposition 
(as 46 to 44) is a slightly greater check, as it also directly 
commands three places and it is in the direct line itself; on 
the other hand, though it completely checks the important 
two pace advance in one direction, it is in one direction only, 
not two like the oblique does. Experience shows that the 
direct opposition without support, whilst being very little 
more check than an oblique one, is in too dangerous prox- 
imity to the enemy, and this is certainly a question that 
experience must decide. From a self defensive point of view 
it is distinctly nearer to the enemy, being reached in one 
pace instead of two. If it is attacked it must be defended 
at once, not leaving its captain liberty of action elsewhere 
and to be bound down to take up a defence at the opponent's 
bidding as to time and place is a serious general weakness. 
When, however, there is but one fellow soldier in the district 
this closer opposition may be adopted. In all cases where 
there is more support, internal or external, the closer 



88 

oppositions are used till in a mixed medley or when a 
friendly contingent is within say two paces, the close up 
contacts, diagonal or direct, should be freely adopted. The 
diagonal contact (say 55 to 44) is avaifable for checking 
purposes with very slight support in a thin field, it is not 
the same thing as a diagonal constructive chain. 

If your opponent throws out a long link it may generally 
be threatened by placing a man somewhere in its midst not 
quite in the direct line, and probably a second man to the 
other side to cut off communications when there is no 
support near. The men must be attended to quickly or they 
will be able to break the chain. But when we think we see 
a weak spot somewhere or a bit of fencing too lightly con- 
structed, we should attack it, but not clumsily, caution is a 
prominent virtue in these matters ; it is of no use challenging 
to an unequal battle and bringing about disaster. 

The destruction of a short link open fence is, we have 
found, quite out of the question, unless we have friends at 
Court, but that does not prevent us sending the friends on 
ahead if it suits our plans elsewhere. Generally the support 
must be provided well before the attack is commenced to 
avoid the risk of a disastrous collapse and care may be taken 
not to alarm the enemy before it is too late for him to save 
the situation. He has much to consider all over the board 
and it is not wise to over advertise our schemes. With so 
many things he wants to do at the same time you may find 
it possible to attract him where you don't mind him, away 
from where you don't want him. Absence is often highly 
appreciated. 

Sometirhes in an attack to capture a whole camp, the 
question arises in reference to a roomy avenue for an escap- 
ing development. There should not be too much haste to 



89 

bar the way at close quarters. Choose a place of economy 
and as far from the enemy as practicable, as this not only 
encloses for yourself a larger territory but takes longer for 
the enemy to reach you. It requires a width of three mees to 
form an eye and they are easily stopped in that space with 
care, but there are many tricky little structures which require 
careful watching. 

If your opponent begins running out a line in close 
formation into an open field, perhaps to escape suffocation 
from a one eye camp which j'ou are surrounding, vou can 
generally adopt the two pace direct advance with advantage, 
it turns him at once. e.g. Suppose Black has men at 12, 
21, 22, and 31 ; White at 13, 23, 33 and 32. Black plays 
to 41, now if the force to be met in the distance is white, by 
all means play to 42, but if it black it would be fatal to allow 
the meeting and we (White) play to 52, bringing about an 
arrest of the camp, it leaves two outlets but both are under 
complete control. Another example away from the side of 
the board is met with in the discussion of No. 4 chain (22). 
Too much of this may bring trouble ; suppose in the above 
after 14 25, 24 35, 34 45, 44 53, 43 42, 52 ! Detached men 
are also liable to attack, but a little practical play will shew 
this at once without exemplification here. 

THE OPENING. 
The discussion on the chains and checking moves will 
have given already a good idea of the opening of the game, 
but there are still some difficult considerations. On the open- 
ing the whole history of the subsequent game depends. 
There is the very troublesome question of the amount of 
attention that is desirable before leaving a camp temporarily 
for other fields, and the checking and counter checking of 
the first comers. It is clear that when two men hold the 



90 

fort they require no assistance till the enemy comes. But 
the player of the two men is two moves behind elsewhere and 
is probably already involved in a fierce fight. Each will 
strive to get ahead in some quarter and force the fighting ; 
when the enemy begins to get tied up it will give an 
opportunity to put " a stitcli in time " where the stitch is 
needed. Thus we must not be too hasty in establishing a 
two-man camp. On the other hand the two established 
occupants are ready to begin a fight to great advantage 
directly an enemy ventures into their neighbourhood. They 
form a dangerous group to tackle till support appears in the 
way of a growing base, and as such are generally better 
left alone by the opponent till such support arrives. The 
enemy being the two moves ahead should be able to get a 
predominance somewhere which will enable hicn to lay siege 
in a suitable manner. 

When a claim is laid to a corner district, then we must 
decide whether we put in a check or leave it alone. Again 
perhaps 34 has been met by 53, 42 can now be played in 
diagonal contact as a counter check, constructive as well as 
restraining, being an important step towards a fortification 
and at the same time, though sufficiently safe itself owing 
to the company of 34, it renders 53 very unstable. The 
white man, besides suff'ering from a diagonal contact with- 
out support, is out-numbered, it demands immediate attention 
and if White does not respond to the call, local trouble is 
likely to follow. 

If this or some other counter check is not played. White 
may take up the running by playing 45 with even greater 
effect. It is particularly important in the opening develop- 
ment to get in these double-barrelled moves. All our 
checking moves should assist our constructive schemes as 



91 

far as they can possibly be made to do so, and even in 
our purely constructive manoevures the restraining' influence 
must be kept well in mind. 

A camp of a solitary two, gives a g-reat temptation to 
throw out a long' link too early, perhaps 34 and 54, sup- 
plemented by 49. It is the correct way to treat it, but it 
should be a long' time before an effort can be spared from 
other districts. Already two moves behind, every attention 
should be g^iven to the other camps till the fury of the fig'ht 
has abated. 

In checking' and I'naking' 3. g'uard in the corner, keep an 
eye for the outside berth and whenever you start with a 
preponderance of force it should be easy, as your opponent 
by reason of his weakness, is forced towards the side for 
fortification purposes ; in itself a sufficient reason for leav- 
ing a two man camp alone. You may be able to approach 
later on, with a strong base behind you. 

Instead of giving an attacking check in such a case as 
after the 34 53, we may adopt a purely constructive policy 
with 45, which is equally useful in another way, bidding for 
the outside berth instead of a fortification in a cramped 
position. Let us see what the experts do, and to avoid com- 
plications we will dissect the opening used in the various 
corners in some games played by Japanese players, they 
form our best model and at present practically our only one. 
Later on there ijiay be an English school as in other games 
of skill. A few running notes will help to extract the lessons 
and the removal of the other play will intensify the special 
part that we desire to illustrate. The numbers of the moves 
in the games are given to show whether the position was 
pushed along keeping others waiting, or was itself con- 
sidered able to wait whilst others were in active play. 



92 

Having^ appreciated llie local Lreatiiient of the corners, then 
the student will be better able to study with advantage 
the games given. It will be noticed that White often treats 
the opening more boldly than Black ; this is partly due to 
necessity, White being beliind wants to catch up, and some- 
times White ni;iy have a feeling of superior tactical strength 
and so be prompted to be less cautious than Black would be. 
A'dash is used with the ordinary meaning of the move being 
made elsewhere. 

No. 1. 1. 34 — , 2. 54 — I being well away from the 
enem}^ this formation is adopted : 3. — 39 approach from a 
distance, 30. —73- 31. 37 5o, '32. 28 — , 33. 93 75- 34. 95—. 
White is strong below and has played to separate the Black 
forces. Black equally plays to prevent White from making 
an enclosure by leaving bare room. 

No. 2. 1. 34 — , 2. 54 — , 6. 03 — . the camp this side is 
two of the enemy. 8- 69 to meet a similar advance, 67, the 
first check and to prevent too easy a junction. 9. 65 87, 
10. 05 47, fencing through, 11. 78 77, and a furious contest 
raged around this position. Wliite is forced into building a 
strong fence. 

No. 3. 1. 53 — , a little variety, rather more enterprising, 
3. — 34, the two friends were in the far comer, i. 93 — , and 
it was now left till 55. 37 45, 56. 30 73. Practically two 
fights have developed in one corner. 

No. 4. 1. 34—. 2. 54—, 3.— 39- IS.— 30, 25-— 06, 
26. 03 another respectful approach. 

No. 5. 1, 34 — ; 2. — 53, i. 93 — , one white man in this 
direction. 12. — 45, taking the outside berth, 23. 42 52, 
24. 44 54, 25- 43 25, 26- 55 24. White does not succeed in 
preventing the fortification but limits its extent. 



93 

No. 6. 1. 34 — , i. 54 — , 7- 83, the camp below is held by 
the enemy. 80- 38 — . and it was left for some time. 

No. 7. As in No. 6 but 13. 47 37 a fierce fight ensued. 

No. 8. i. 34 — , 2. — 53, i. 93 — , 9- — 36 there isafriend 
near. 12 — 45, a furious fight is going on in the far corner. 
23. 42 52, and now it begins here. 

No. 9. 1. — 44, 6. 63 46, 29. — S3, close contact as he is 
well supported. 30- 64 84, H. 04 — . 

No. 10. 1. — 44, 13- 83 — , 38, — 63,40. 0694, to localise 
the struggle as far as possible. 

No. II. 1. — 35, 3- 43 — , 7- — 73i there are three friends 
and four opponents in this direction. 8- 54 46, 9- 56 57, 
10- 66 67 and so the fight began, 

No. 12. 1. — 43, 5- — 45> 7- — 83 three Black men in this 
direction. 27- 84 75, Black has fairly near supports but 
White attacks. 28- 96 97, 29- 07 — , 30- 93 — , 31- — 86, 
32. 95 — . 33. 98 — a furious fight is going on, on this side. 
It was now left for a long time. 

No. 13. 2- 43 — , 3- 35 — , i- — 64, one white man in this 
direction. 5- 45 44, supported on both ^ides he may boldly 
play in. 6- 54 34 «"'' some hard hitting ensues. 

No. 14. 2. 43 35, 4- — 30j two black men this way, 
8. 54 — , 9. — 93, two black and one white over here. 12. 38 
55. 13- 65 56, 14. 58 64, 15. 63 74, 16. 73 84 and so on. 

No. 15. 2. — 53, 27- 45 34 again a No. 6 support allows 
diagonal contact. 28. 35 24, White being on tlie border 
side must play closer. 29.49 — > black friends in this direction. 
36. —93. 37. 95—- 'W-— 74. 53. 83 03, M. 84 25, 45. 37— 
when more attractive fields drew away the combatants. 

No. 16. 2. — 34> *■ — 54. 5. 30 — , 6- — 93, facing an 



c;4 

opponent in the neighbouring' corner. 7- 37 — > 25- 89 — , a 
desperate struggle is in progress in the lower corner and 
Black rightly or wrongly is taking opportunities. 71- 64 — , 
72. 53 43. 73. 55 44. Ti- 45—. 75. 52 42, 78.-63, 79- 83 62, 
80- 94 03, 81. 96—. 

No. 17. 3- 34 — , 13. — 54 the bulk of the men are in this 
direction, ii. 73 44, Black might have played closer up. 
15. 35 33, 16. 23 42, 17- 32 43, Black takes a square useful 
to the atlversary. 18. 22 46 murii better than close up. 19. 
75 36. 20. 26 — . 21. — 27, 22. — 25, winning 26, etc. 

No. 18. 3. 34 — 1 5. 45 30, one white man this way. 
7.-37. 8. —74. 9. 43—. 10- —54. 11- 36 47. and was left 
for a very long time. 

No. 19. 3. 34 53. 5. 45 30. 9- 43—. 10- -54- H- 36 
47, the old story. 

No. 20. 4. 35 54. 5. 43 53. 6- 44 55. 20- 84—, two 
black men and one white over here. 23- 93 67, most of the 
men are this way. 24. 86 75, 25. 85 06, 26. 03 38. 

No. 21. i. 53—. 6. —45' 7. 34 35. 8. 24 39, three 
black and four white this way, all well back. 

No. 22. 3. —35. 9- 43 54. 10. 53 74. H- 64 65, 12. 63 
75. 13. 83 30 two black in this direction. Now left. 

No. 23. 1. —34, 2. 53 73. 4. —54, 5. 43 44. 6- 33—. 
1£. 24 2 -, 16. 23 36 and left. 

No. 24. 1. 43—, 2. —35, i. —64, 5. 45 44. 6. 54 34. 
7. 55 53. S- 63 52, 9. 74 37. 10, 65 42 and left. 

No. 25. 3. 43 — 11. — 35, two biai'k men over here. 
12. 39 54. IS. 53 64. 14. 63 74, I5. 73 84, 16. 93 39 in the 
next corner, 17. 34 :!4, 18. 23 44, 19. 33 59 in the next corner, 



95 

20. 36 26, 21. 45 25 22. 37 46. 23. 47 56. 24. 57 2o, 25- 66 
55, 26- 29 78, 27- 68 77, 28. 79 and it receives no more 
attention yet awhile. 

It will be seen'that a close contact check is never made 
in the early stages. Should it be adopted it should be 
immediately countered ; say 43 44, 45 and Black must benefit 
by White's difficulties. 

One learns that there is a great choice of play not only 
as regards tiie squares to play to but in general treatment. 
One may adopt the old 44 opening or the more cautious 34 
or tlie more enterprising and consequently more risky 35 or 
even 45 without infringing much on good ta.ste. Certain 
formations are more urgent of treatment and others can 
wait. In any case it wants an appreciable disadvantage to 
mean serious disaster. A camp can generally be fairly 
easily saved, with careful play, and experts rarely for that 
reason get the opportunit]' of taking, any considerable batch 
of prisoners. Nevertheless it pays to attack a weak position 
to curtail its ijifluence as a saving of vacant mees is as 
useful as acquiring them. Prisoners of course count double 
in a way, one for the man and one for the mee acquired, this 
doubling being discounted by the mees you have to fill up in 
effecting the arrest. 

One lesson that the study of the local treatment of the 
openings strongly exemplifies is that in playing a man two 
mees off you are preparing the formation of an eye, whereas 
in playing two mees oflf the adversary you hinder iiim from 
carrying out a like manoevre, by curtailing his space. Don't 
make a close up assault unless you believe it will succeed. 
Defeat loses ground. Make a finessing move to bring up 
reinforcements or an attacking one to compel a defence that 
will give you time. The exception is the planting 



96 

of a man into the midst of a hostile camp to force 
local attention. 

Of course the whole treatment, especially after the first 
few moves is sublimely influenced by the position of other 
camps, but the first thing- to learn is local government, the 
imperial may follow. 

The gfeneral management of the full board will be 
illustrated by the g^ames which follow, but it is exceedingly 
difficult to dictate about the opening moves which are very 
largely a question of fancy and style. The test of a good 
opening is a good position to follow and the general com- 
mand of the board, and the central position must be balanced 
against e.N.tra mees acquired by tiie other side. 

The game after all is in three stages ; the opening is 
but to lead to the middle game where the main play arises, 
sometimes quite general and sometimes patchy, followed by 
the end game or scramble for the few odd points remaining, 
which with experts is a very short affair. All we need say 
is, if you hold enough to win, play safe and hold it. If you 
are behind, then is the time for risk. The middle game will 
soon show for example whether, between any particular 
pair, 43 or 44 is better; the safe, or the m6re enterprising. 
What pays in one case is not permissible in another. 



97 



THE LAST WORD. 

(and a few others ! ). 

Practice ! Read, but practice ! In writing this hand- 
book an honest endeavour has been made to make the 
principles clear but nothing- can avail without practice. If 
you find it tiring because too complex on the full board, as 
well a beginner may, play on a draughts board. The practice 
on the smaller one will soon make you want the full one. 
It on an occasion, after having attained some proficiency, you 
have no time to play a steady game on the full board, and 
have no taste for the lightning style, play the limited game as 
before advised on the inner board, your boundar)' is clearly 
indicated by the special ruling. 

On the sheet now presented, have been gathered a 
few positions for study or iUustration. They are more or 
less critical or interesting, some of them have already been 
discussed, and all will repay attention. The analyses of 
such as will be worked out are given in such a way as to 
show how positions should be examined. They have each 
been composed with the idea of shewing some point of 
importance or interest, and of giving a further insight into 
the intricacies of practical play. 

No. II. Black has two eyes but they are not connected. 
He can do this at any time and there is only one point at 
stake. He can play to 32 and enclose three mees in all, at 
the cost of one move, or he can wait till White plays to 32 
and still remain with two mees by playing to 31 at no cost 
in moves. That is, as far as the score is concerned he need 
not attend to it till other fields do not involve a stake greater 



98 



Diagrams 1 1 to 18. 




Diagram ii. A useful forcing position. 

Diagram 12. A see-saw bctioeeii fortified ca?nps. 

Diagram /j. A see-saia on a tottering camp. 

Diagram 14. A critical position to sheio treatinent. 

Diagram i ^. Neutral territory. 

Diagram 16. Can White fortify ? 

Diagra?n ly. A itearly arrested camp that can shew fight. 

Diagram 18. Can Black save him-self against the move ? 



99 

than one point, but in this class of position the immediate 
score is not the only consideration, for its being left open 
gives White an option that may come in useful. If it is 
White's turn to play he can at any time go to 32 and force, 
in general, an immediate reply, move for move, docking 
Black of one point at no expenditure of moves. It would 
therefore seem that there is no reason why he should wait, 
especially as by doing so, he gives Black the opportunity of 
saving the point. On the other hand, by leaving this class 
of position as long as Black ought not to avail himself of the 
chance given, he not only gives Black the opportunity of 
doing badl)', a consideration which may perhaps not be 
objected to as unworthy in handicap play, but he also keeps 
the opportunity of forcing Black, should an important see- 
saw come along. 

No. 12 is a see-saw attached to a fortification. It means 
one point only and would generally be left till the game is 
practically finished. 

Xo. 13 is a see-saw attached to a tottering camp whose 
life depends on securing it. It has been discussed in the 
article "See-saw."' 

No. 14. This position supposed to be unassailable 
from the sides, as it generally would be in practical play, 
may give a little further help. White is in danger, and 
could save the situation at once by 63, but unless pressure 
from without forbids, 84 or 93 must be better, not only in 
playing out more into the field and so gaining influence, but 
in tending to enclose more space. 94 would in general be 
better still, depending on the neighbours near and far ; Black 
could not venture into 83 at once, nor ev°n after taking the 
man by 91, because of 93 in reply. After any of three moves 
suggested for a pieliminary White suggests to block the 



lOO 

see-saw by gi. Say after 94, Black plays away, then gi, 
8393- 

White may ig-nore the position for a time, it will wait, 
yet he has scarcely time for 91 at once, 83 93, 84 94, 85 86, 
95 and if 05, 04 : but if the mee 91 had at this point been 
vaCfint for a breathing' space, then now 96, 75 65, etc. 
Breathing- spaces must be Icept open until they are done 
with. 

No. 15 is a curious position. There are within the 
enclosure three vacant mees and nine unfortified men of each 
colour, 21 in all, yet the first one to play into it loses the 
camp, the whole 2t points, to the adversary. Eleven by 
way of mees and ten by prisoners. The position is neutral 
in its own right without any question of eyes elsewhere, and 
it was constructed to illustrate this possibility. 

If the position be opened out one space and two men of 
each colour be filled in so as to make the halves exactly 
alike, then a see-saw man placed in tlie centre will give a 
position in which the first to play into it wins the camp 
instead of losing it. (The ten inside men on one half of the 
position would be on 85678 957 05678). See the end of this 
chapter "Neutral territory." 

No. 16. Here we have again an interesting problem. 
The student should examine it very carefully before looking 
at our analysis. Can White fortify or must he lose his 
camp ? Like most of the positions of its class, it is capable of a 
good deal of play. Try 03, 82 92 (nothing bettter), 72 and 
White is helpless. There is no time for 03. Try 72 (82 is 
useless as it only encloses a square) 03 (time for this as it 
forces 02) 02, 04 as Black now threatens to play to 92 win- 
ning a section, White must go to 92 or gi, 62 71, 81 or 82 
accordingly wins. If instead of 71 White try 61, then 51 71, 



lOI 

8 1 or 82 and it is not much better; but if instead of 71 
White is less ambitious and is content with 81, he saves his 
camp. Tliere is therefore no time for 04, he was right in 
taking the see-saw because it forced a reply and drove a 
a man into the camp ; also if White has to take it back he has 
lost time unless the 02 forced on him was quite useful. Trv 
(de novo) 72, 03 02, 62 63, 74 6i, and White is all right, 
but if we plump riifht in, as it is often good to do, and for 
62 play 92 04, 82 White is crushed. Black is a little too 
strong for White. Let us shift 73 of tiie diagr:im back to 
74 or nearly the same thing, imagiiie that Black stops to 
strengthen his position at 74 after White's first move 
of 03. We then get 03, 74 72, 62 71, 61, 63, 82 8i, 91 
Black wins. No time for 63 try 92, 91 01 (not 81), and 
succeeds ; or again 82, 8i 92, 91 01, and again succeeds ; 
or 92, 82, 81, 91, 01 or 92, 81 82 and wins. It is now for 
Black to improve his play if he can. For 6t try 92 91, 

82 02. and still White wins, but after 91 92, 81 82, 01 
02, 91 63, S3 Black wins. Going further back, if instead 
of 71 White tries 91, we get 03, 74 72, 62 gi, 82 71, 6i 81 
and still White wins. And so on. 

No. 17. Let us take another look at thisposition and 
suppose it is Black's turn to move. It has been discussed 
somewhat before. We may get 27 18, 28 19, 29 and 
evidently Black gets another eye and fortifies : 18 was bad ; 
try 27 28, 18 19, 37 17, 36 35, 38 39, and Black's inside 
camp falls. In this last, instead of 38 try 18 38, 17 (must) 
47, and again there is a fall. Once more, 27 28, 37 47, 36 
35, 18 38, as before. A more open style for White is even 
stronger, 27 28, 18 37, now if 17 38, 19 20 or if 36 then 17 
and 27. It is increasingly evident that Black has no time 
for the 18 so try 27 28, 36 35, 37 18, and White can still 
pick up the camp, but Black will b-e much better placed. 



102 

In this instead of White's last move of i8, try 48, 18 38, 
1719, and Black is much better shut in. Instead of Black's 
last 18, try 47 57, 38 39, 18 (must) 29, 58 49, 56 67, 66 and 
Black is out agpain. 

Of course instead of White's 57 he could have played 17 
and picked up the inner camp. Or 19 instead of the 49. 

No. 18 has already been discussed somewhat except that 
the White line has now been put further off and onl)' 
indicated. The two men however are quite sufficient to 
keep off interference from outside. It has been shewn that 
White with the move can prevent Black from forming- more 
than one eye on J;he first line, it will then be Black's turn to 
commence operations on the inside of the arrangement. It 
will be evident by now that 46 is the best try, being a central 
position and standing towards the enemy. Then if 46 45, 
36 47, and there is no room. Try 46 45, 47 48, 38 36, 35 
and succeeds. But if 46 45, 47 35, 36 (if 48 36, or if 39 48) 
38, 39 48, 55 44 and stops him. Accomplished without help 
from the top line by occupying mees important to the 
opponent especially the middles of the sides of his contem- 
plated eyes. After 46 White could also try 36, but 47 35, 
44 45i 55 ^^^ succeeds. It is instructive to note that Black 
is the strongest on the margin side. 

NEUTRAL TERRITORY. In a territory that is 
mutually abandoned as dangerous, or neutral, the vacant 
mees do not count, as they are not surrounded by men of 
one colour, the walls are mixed but it is not always easy to 
see when a position is liable to be neutralised, or what is the 
effect on the score. 

This important consideration occurs in the fortification 
by defiance when neither double nor arrest can be effected. 
The camp has been saved but the territory is lost. Neither 



I03 

paity can be forced to play into it and neither will choose to. 
The men occupying it may have scored indirectly but the 
mees left vacant are noutral. It is quite possible that a tyro 
may agree to a position as neutral that could be won one 
way or the other as some care and insight is needed, and 
still more likely that a camp may be allowed to lapse that 
should have been secured. 

An enclosure that should be neutral may easily be lost 
by trying to win it or to arrest some prisoners. In these cases 
the ultimate result is largely dependent on whether the camp 
is wholly invested or not and the neutrality of the mees is 
not quite so absolute as with those between camps. We 
will now consider a one space position with the conception 
that it may not be wholly invested. 

Suppose II, 12, 13, 21, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33 form the territory 
of a sole enclosure in our white camp which is surrounded 
or destined to be. We itnow by the size, 9 mees, of the 
enclosure that the camp is safe (even if it is occupied by 
several men not able to form an eye). It is quite necessary 
to watch the enemy when he begins to play into it as an eye 
is possible here in the corner. It is clear that if he be 
allowed to take 12, 22, 32, cutting the enclosure in halves, we 
cannot double and our only chance is in defiance. With 
that idea perhaps we play 21 with the idea of preventing an 
eye, then 31 clearly brings down the camp, unless we have 
at least four moves margin from the incomplete investiture, 
whether he arrests 21 or not. If he refuses to occupy 31 we 
do so and defend by defiance if necessary, as he cannot 
assume an indefensible six. Even if the margin is ample we 
cannot arrest his three men for the sake of the score and 
defy on the resulting positions as would at first appear, and 
if we allow the eye at 21 the camp evidently falls with or 
without a margin. This should be looked at very carefully ; 



104 

if the investiture is not complete, he first completes and 
then fills the space, or if you arrest liis four he imm.ediately 
plays to 2 2. • 

If he is only allowed two men start, he may occupy two of 
12, 21, 23, 32, to prevent you doublinsj by pocket b)' occup}'- 
ing one of them yourself. Say he takes 12 and 32 you play 
22, 23 21, 33 31, winning-. It will be found that the only 
two mees that give him an)' real chance of subduing the 
camp are 12 and 21, and as these form an eye they are 
dangerous especially if the investiture is complete. We play 
22, 32 23. 31 forming a defiance if there is no margin, but a 
margin of one point gives White the victory by 33, even if 31 
is not played, owing to his three men being separated and 
not forming part of a indefensible shape on account of 22 
being occupied. If this were in the centre of the board, 11 
would now win for White, as it would be in continuity with 
the walls. Separation of the intruders is generally a weak- 
ness. Even if Black starts on a clear field White's play 
must be correct. Suppose 12 21, 22 32, 23 11, 31 2:, 11 
and defiance by 31 is all that is left for the investiture is 
supposed complete. If instead of the first 11 we tried 13 we 
could not arrest his men and still nothing better than defiance 
is left. No. The play of the defence is wrong. We had 
a large enclosure free of the enemy and a double must be 
possible. We must answer the 12 attack by 23, 32 22, 
followed by 31 or 12, or by 22, 21 13. To secure the 
neutralisation simply, 22 is the strongest and is effective, 
22 23, 12 32, 21. 

In large spaces so much hampered by the opponent's 
men that a double is not possible, it is necessary to fall back 
on a neutralisation of territory but the opportunity for a 
double should not be allowed to slip. 

It therefore in general often becomes a sort of debtor 



I05 

and creditor account between the arrest within tlie camp 
and the completion of the investiture outside. When the 
latter is complete both sides gfet pulled up when two vacant 
mees are left. The only point that can arise for scoring- 
purposes is : — What is the nature of the g^roup that can be 
taken up as prisoners and what territory is to count? But 
it is really more simple than it looks. If the camp has a 
double and no part has been made neutral it takes everv'thing-. 
If a double is possible it should be made (or shewn). If there 
are intruders that form an eye or one dare not pick up they 
cannot be claimed. If one enclosure is within another the inner 
one counts but not the space, if any, between the rival walls. 

The treatment of neutral territor}' is the only case which 
has been much affected by modern modifications. For 
beginners there is no effect on the score in playing- out a 
doubtful position if both play into enclosures. A local 
position can be tried, if it is wished, without interfering with 
the g-eneral position or the score, by using- coloured counters 
or anything different to the men. 

We give diagrams showing the principal forms concerned 
ill this neutralisation. 

On diagram 19 are collected all the single spaces alreadj' 
discussed that cannot double against the attack if closely 
invested, and in addition the corner positions (not dependent 
on the square nine) which are altered in their character from 
the fact of their being where they are. They should all be 
well known and attention must be drawn especially to the 
three using- the boundary at the corner, the results are curious 
and unexpected. In all cases as an aid to memory the 
property of the enclosure is indicated on the diagram by the 
chai'acter of the men forming it and the critical mees are 
indicated. The play of the four in the corner is easy when 



io6 



Diagram 19. 




The set of single space enclosures that cannot be' doubled 
against the attack. 

If they are closely surrounded : — 

The black ones are indefensible even •with the move. 

The crossed ones are indefensible against the move but 
could double with if. 

The white ones could doubli -with the move and neutralise 
against it. 



107 

the possibilities are pointed out. The play of the six is 12 
22, 13 ! If then nothing, the fill up continues by 11 and 21, 
then after the arrest by 23, 12 kills. The play of the seven 
is very touchy ; say 13 12, 22 11, 21 12,11 and the camp 
falls : the only way is 13 22, 12 and then the only chance is 1 1, 
2 1 and he must not play another. If Black starts in with 22 
he will fail to neutralise. To make this set really complete 
there should be added from amongst the higher forms the 
square nine or three rows of three in the corner, the eights 
derived from it by putting an additional man in any one of 
the corners and certain of the sevens. In these cases the 
attack can neutralise but not capture the position by starting 
at 22 the middle mee. Those sevens formed by the extra 
men being placed in the nine at 11 and 12, 11 and 33, 13 and 
33 or 22 and 33, and their inversions are capable of neutralis- 
ation, all the others can clear themselves. 

When the extra man to form an eight is at 33 the 
position is very weak and the defence difficult. It is so left 
as problem No. 2 with the solution at the end of the book. 
Also in a variation of the above positions a very curious 
result can be obtained, a sort of paradox. It is left as problem 
No. 3. An enclosure of more than nine mees is never liable 
to neutralisation if clear at the start wherever it is located. 

The effect of the corner is very striking and these 
positions should be carefully noted as the greater part of the 
close play in a game occurs in this region. The peculiarity 
mostly arises from the eye 12 21 which becomes possible to 
the attack and weak for the defence as it has not the direct 
support of the walls. Although the corner square is 
generally weak and should be left as an eye it must not be 
taken for granted that is always so, occasionally it is strong 
play to occupy it especially if 22 is occupied by a friand. It 
may prevent the eflfective adverse occupation of 12 or 2i. 



io8 

If an enclosure gets surrounded before the walls are 
complete there may be great danger of collapse. In general, 
if any part of the wall could be cut off by two adverse men 
played successively it is fatal unless the enclosure is large 
enough to admit of internal fortifications after securing the 
section of the wall by playing to the second of the two 
places, the opponent having taken the first. If three suc- 
cessive riien would be necessary the camp may generally be 
saved, or if it is very small, such as a zig-zag four, it can be 
neutralised. 

On diagram 20 will be found some illustrative positions 
up to nine mee spaces with intruders, making them incapable 
of doubling against the attack when closely invested. Again 
tlie properties are indicated by the nature of the men and 
again those using the corner are of special interest. The 
partly occupied six mee space is curious, although the form 
is one tliat could be arrested in the ordinary way, the presence 
of a man already in the corner proves an effective hindrance 
instead of a help as might have been expected ; the 
iieiitralisation and the defence of the camp are left for the 
student to work out as problem No. 4. How is it done? 
The solution will be given in the " Answers " with the others. 
In all the cases the attack must be careful to select the right 
moves and play tliem in the right order. 

Neutralisation and reductions may cost men as prisoners 
or rarely gain them. It may therefore become doubtful 
with some whether they are worth while, making it necessary 
lo calculate the profit and loss. Now a neutralisation is 
always at least just worth it, for it cannot cost so many men 
as the number of points neutralised. But a reduction by 
exhaustion when the opponent obstinately defends becomes 
somewhat appalling in the number of men that must be 
thrown into the morass, so that it wants looking- at. 



log 



Diagram 20. 




Single space camps with intruders. 

If they are closely surrounded : 

The crossed ones are indefensible against the move but 

can double with it. 
The white ones can neutralise against the move and 

double with it. 

The spotted one is neutral in any case. 



no 

The corner is the most economical place for the enemy 
and allows of the most extensive destructible enclosures. 
Here the largest enclosure that can be brougfht down is one 
of six mees in the corner of diagram 19, or the one of seven 
in the opposite corner when one man of the attack is already 
in occupation. Let us calculate these as a test and to show 
how to calculate in similar cases. The reduction of the six 
will require 5 + 4 + 3 + 2+1 men, total 15. The opponent 
must play 5 men and the least number of men to form his 
enclosure is 6, we gain these with 1 1 mees into the bargain 
and rob him of 6, total 28 points showing a handsome profit. 

In the seven, the mees required will be 21 less 1=20, 
and the gain is obviously greater. 

There is just one other consideration ; a filling up in 
one stage costing inen may become a neutralisation in the 
"second stage perhaps costing more men ; but it will be found 
that no form costing more than one prisoner to reduce it, is 
a possible outcome of the previous filling which always has a 
margin. It can then confidently be stated that these pro- 
cesses whether neutralisations or actual winnings are always 
worth while and cost in all cases less than they gain. 



Ill 



ILLU5TR/\JIVE QAJ^IES. 




c 

A 

a. 
< 

(A 



"Oil 



O 

(A 

o 

H 



113 



GAMES. 



The following- are by Japanese experts and played 
recently in Japan. The notes to the last two are Japanese 
also. They were sent by Professor T. Komatsubara and are 
mentioned in his introduction at the beg-innin^ of the book. 
The notation is alternately Eng-lish and Japanese. 

It is good practice for learners to finish out these games 
to what they consider completion and to make out the score. 
Diagram 21 in the " Rules " may help in this. 

if any difficulty is found in following- the score of the 
long- games correctly it is a good idea to use two boards and 
men. Play on one up to say 20 moves, then on the other 
board plaj' the same ?o moves perhaps more deliberately and 
compare the two positions and correct any errors on both 
boards and play another 20 and so on. It is a good and 
instructive plan in any case and variations can then be 
freely tried on one of them. In Goh it is not so easy to 
replace a position as in Chess and Draughts. 

A few simple notes have also been added to the first 
three games with the idea of helping the young student 
rather than criticising the play, and different phases of the 
tactics have been given prominence in each case. 



114 



GAME 8. 



English notation whicli may be taken either way. If it 
sliould be preferred that 134, 135, 136, should read down- 
wards No. 3 corner is in the S.W. If they are to r.ead 
along- the row, No. 3 corner is in N.E. 



I 


334 


444. 


18. 


123 


145- 


35- 


368 


357- 


2 


143 


135- 


19. 


144 


150. 


36. 


374 


363- 


3 


234 


253- 


20. 


160 


348. 


37- 


353 


364- 


4 


354 


130. 


21. 


347 


337- 


38 


365 


362. 


5 


245 


230. 


22. 


327 


336- 


39- 


375 


355- 


6 


463 


446. 


23- 


349 


358. 


40 


332 


386. 


7 


383 


237- 


24. 


339 


359 


4J 


304 


369- 


8 


■ 154 


274. 


25- 


340 


326. 


42 


379 


170. 


q 


. 243 


•93- 


26. 


159 


356- 


43- 


169 


1 80. 


10 


338 


254- 


27. 


176 


166 


44 


399 


397- 


n 


236 


247. 


28. 


177 


I75- 


45- 


389 


352. 


12 


138 


155- 


29. 


328 


453- 


46. 


342 


405- 


13 


■65 


156. 


30- 


464 


484. 


47- 


494 


495- 


14. 


158 


16+. 


31- 


378 


324- 


48. 


483 


190. 


15 


163 


174. 


32- 


335 


325- 


49. 


ICO 


198. 


16 


173 


184. 


33- 


323 


377- 


50 


109 


178. 


17 


134 


124. 


34- 


387 


376 









The position after 50 moves is : 

Black 1/32467 4345 67 77 835 9560 0460 934789 
82367 7248 5367 43570 3258 234 2/34 4^ 54 63 4/496 386 

White 1/39 42678 53745 656 879 035789 956 845 
73579 623578 5250 426 36 256 2/35 475 743 03 64 59 
484 35- 



"5 

NOTES. 

It will be seen the Black opens cautiously taking the 
corner districts where it is easier to form enclosures on 
account of the assistance accorded by the boundary. An 
early attempt to form a larg-e enclosure in the centre is 
bound to be frustrated by the enemy breaking- in on one of 
the four sides. White is a little bolder with his 44 and he 
elects to start checking his opponent and separating the 
black forces at the second move thereby giving up the 
initiative in three out of the four corners. 

Black's third move fairly establishes that camp but 
leaves him in arrears in the others. This corner is likely to 
be left alone for some time. 

White's fourth and fifth are a little extraordinary so 
early in the game and aim both at attacking the enemy and 
long enclosures for himself. 

B 7. Black might have continued in the 4 district with 
47 or with 35 threatening 45 ; 145 would also have been 
useful but he prefers to strengthen his position elsewhere. 
Amongst so many good things choices differ. 

W 7. Not too closely as there are two blacks to face. 

B 9. Black must be careful to keep sufficient control to 
avoid being crushed and his eleventh move is double 
barrelled, threatening to break into White's claim at the 
same time. This is the first close contact with the enemy 
justified by the ample support. 

W 12. Black's last move suggested the smothering of 
two different White outposts which were weak, the after 
play continues the suggestion and the first serious battle 
commences. White getting the outside is able to involve 
the No. 3 district and except for No. 2 the fight becomes 
general. 



lib 



GAME 8 — continued. 
461 
491 
482 
467 
477 
445 ' 
434 ' 
293 
232 
227 

2l6 

129 
118 
127 
221 
196 
127 

NOTES. 

ji. The communication through to 324 is now 
secure and this move looks to the possibility of saving the 
352 group. If he can cut off 383 from 304 the former camp 
falls. In any case he compels defence and strengthens his 
own position in doing so. 

W. 53. To play 304 would be premature with 394 
unsupported and this move makes a bid for joining on at 373. 

W. 53. Securing both 397 and 394 now that Black has 
joined forces. It would be of no use to attack at 344 or 345 
as Black can always form an eye by 344 or 343 in conjunction 
with 345. But the 323 possibility as a preparation is worth 
keeping in mind ; at present it would be useless. The 
point is that Black can pick up the 352 group in less time 
than White could take the 342 group. 



5« 


307 


394- 


68. 


461 


462. 


86. 


120 


258. 


52 


393 


384 


69. 


491 


451- 


85- 


222 


128. 


53 


373 


396 


70. 


482 


126. 


87. 


218 


229. 


54 


498 


398. 


71- 


467 


466. 


88. 


273 


272. 


55 


289 


167 


72. 


477 


458- 


89. 


127 


486. 


56. 


297 


108. 


73- 


445 


435- 


90. 


475 


476. 


57- 


298 


479- 


74- 


434 


433- 


91. 


454 


424. 


58 


106 


186. 


75- 


293 


242. 


92. 


487 


276. 


59- 


104 


226. 


76. 


232 


262. 


93- 


277 


286. 


60 


225 


246. 


77- 


227 


228. 


94. 


287 


270. 


61 


235 


255- 


78. 


2l6 


128. 


95- 


280 


128. 


62 


267 


269 


79- 


129 


137- 


96. 


182 


148. 


63 


489 


478. 


80. 


118 


117. 


97- 


127 


309- 


64 


278 


452- 


81. 


127 


231. 


98. 


308 


128. 


65 


455 


456. 


82. 


221 


128. 


99. 


139 


147. 


66 


485 


481. 


83- 


196 


187. 


ICO. 


149 


461. 


67 


472 


471. 


84. 


127 


241. 


lOI. 


492 


113. 



w. 



11? 

B.- 58. Lookhig towards his two men in here. Also 
closing- round the White forces but with no hope of winning- 
them, for they have 169 or 168 besides the move chosen, 
hence the respectful distance of 106. Had White been weak 
in that camp, closer play would have been desirable. There 
is as well, the idea of cutting off White's growing line from 
their friends in No. 2. His next move caused a little 
attention to be given to the slighted corner which was then 
drawn into the general mel^e. 

There is plenty to do at the other end of the board still, 
but the undecided prizes are greater in this district for the 
present. 

W. 65. Of course White designs a large territory here 
leaving the smaller bits to the adversary. 

W. 66. This slip-in behind Black's forces robs him of 
some valuable mees, especial!}' if he waits to pick up 484. 
The student should examine this carefully as similar oppor- 
tunities often occur, and as often have to be guarded against. 
Such a mancevure may even bring down a camp by reducing 
its eye-making- power. The power of such an outpost to 
join the main body is extraordinary and to a beginner quite 
unexpected. Black could have avoided it by 462. 

W. 70. The take at 461 is not so valuable as it looks, 
as White immediately counters and each fill a mee, but for 
all that it was left too long, as White must counter at once 
or lose three points by Black's two moves 461 and 471, and 
further, when White closed, it practically forced the reply 
428 or something- of the same nature at once. 

B. 81. This provides an iiiteresting- see-saw which 
involved more than the one point on account of the isolated 
inen on the boundary line. 



ii8 



GAME 9. 



Japanese notation which may however be taken either way. 
Either set of lines may be marked with the letters A to s, 
begfinningf at either end and the other set i to ig backwards 
or forwards. The various positions obtained are inversions 
and equally intelligible. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

i. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
it. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
2S. 



C4 

di7 

qi5 
piy 
pi6 
P14 
ei6 
ei4 
fi4 

di3 
C13 
cia 
cii 
gi6 
hi7 



C15. 

03- 
eg. 

016. 

017. 

015. 

di4. 
ei3- 
fi3- 
ji6. 
di2. 

dis- 
dii. 

CIO. 
gI2. 

i'7- 
hiaf hi8.' 
gi8 bi7. 

h6 gig. 

fi7 hi3. 
gi4 ii2. 
ki7 ni3. 

I14 mi5. 

Ii5)f Ji4-» 



26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 



J17 
P5 

qs 

P9 
bi8 

c7 

b8 
13 
'5 

d3 

65 

k5 

ri6 

ii8 

ki8 

ri8 

h6 

I3 

I4 

q7 

ai8 

d2 

CI 

b2 

qg 



pi2 

q4 

r4 

g3 
eio 
bii 

S5 

62 

H 

k3 
"5 
ii6 
I18 
ri4 
m4 
\2 

J3 

•"5 

bi6 

63 

di 

ei 

qio 

pio 



51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 



bi2 bio 

C16 C17 

ci8- di6 

ci4J( bi5 

dg dio 



mi4 
04 
f6 

"5 

ni2 

oi8' 

oig 

mi7 



64. mi8 

65- 

66. 



ni4 
09 
07 

m5 

013 

ni8 

mi6 

ni7 

nig 

qi8* mig 

I17 lig 



67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 



kX3 
ji8 

J19 
>4 

d8 
m6 

ey 

ii I 



iig 
kig 

h3 
r6 
eg 
g6 
eS 

f7 
mi2 



119 



NOTES. 



This was a fragrnent of 50 moves only, so we have 
suggested a completion and taken the opportunity of 
illustrating- some of the points in end game strategy. 

W. 18. A confining move but also to give stability. 
This corner is very critical especially in regard to the di;^ 
and di4 groups and demands attention from both sides. 

W. 25. Splitting in between the two camps to jeopardise 
and prevent enclosures. 

W. 49. To prevent 02. 

B. 53. Allowing the capture has fatally weakened any 
chance of saving di3 group. 

W. 54. To bi4 was much better, threatening to pick 
up in two more moves and giving more space. 

B. 61. He could have encroached at nig with 
advantage. 

B. 65. Something was necessary to save 018 and ig. 

The position after 75 moves is : — 

B. ai8, b28i28, C14712348, d2389i37, 6457146, f6i47, 
gi3468, h6i67. 1345118, ji78g, k5i378, I3414567, m6i478, 
n5i2, 04189, P591467, q579i58. r7i68. 

W. bioi567, C91057, diioi2456, 612389103, f47i3, 
g356i29, h3i38, i2i267g, J3146, k3ig, li8g, m45i256g, 
ni3478g, o37gi3567, pi02, q4io3, r456i45. 

It will be seen that in giving the position we have used 
a contracted form such as would be used in writing. For 
example, P591467 stands for p5, pg, pi4, pi6, and pi7 : 
in the event of i occurring without tens it should be indicated 
as by a comma or underlining. 



I20 

GAME 9 — coiwhidetl. 

76- nil nio. 98. ky k8. 120. c8« bg. 

77. mil ho. 99. j8* k6. 121. a8 aiy. 

78. In kii.» 100. j6 fi2. 122. li mi. 

79. kio jio. 101. ei5 ki4. 123. sio sii. 

80. kg li2. 102. I13 J4. 124. sg 57. 

81. jii mi3. 103. J5 J2- 125. s8 s6.' 

82. ki2 hi I. 104. hi5 h4. 126. q3 q2.» 

83. hio fii. 105. g:7 f8. 127. r3 r2.* 

84. gfioi g:g. 106. I18 fio. 128. S3 s2. 

85. mio hg. 107. gr8 fg. 129. 01 pi. 

86. ig mg. 108. "3 "2. 130. ka ji. 
87- I9 m8. 109. P4 02.. 131. si5\ SI4. 

88. I7 n8. 110. 114 1112. 132. S16 di8.» 

89. on 010. 111. p2 p3. 133. ei7 ei8. 

90. pii qii. 112. 113 114. 134. fi8 cig. 

91. 06 p7. 113. J13 hi4. 135. eig big. 

92. q6 q8.% 114. ji2 hi 2. 136. dig £5. 

93. r8 p8. 115. 117 g-ii.\ 137. e6 P15. 

94. rg m3^ 116. iio kI.^ 138. qi4 ri3.* 

95. I2 I5. 117. 115 j'5- 139. P13 012. 

96. k4 16. 118. ag^ no. 140. qi6 014. 

97. m7 18. 119. aio an. 141. ais bi4.i 

NOTES. 

W. 78. White is striving to confine Black, and Black 
to get out or join up another force. 

B. 84. Black is not gaining much territory but he has 
driven ver)' far into the ground that White was hoping to 
enclose. 

W. 92. .'\n important cut. 



121 

W. 94. Both sides are probably watching- the com- 
munication of the p9 group. Only one eye is possible on 
the margin and if White started blocking off, no further eye 
would be possible in the neig-hbourhood of 05, but in the 
event of violent play m4 and 5 would be weak. Therefore 
White strengthens these at the same time forwarding his 
game towards the margin. The only possible break in 
Black's line however, is at n6, but White cannot play into it 
without preparing at n"], which would be too glaring. If he 
sacrificed a man at n6 he could not afterwards close the eye. 
He presently suggests to break in at my. 

B. 99. The natural k6 would give White a line across. 

W. 109. Not necessary yet, 19 was better. 

W. 115. This forces move for move but serves no 
immediate purpose. The eye could be forced to close at any 
time and the move might have become useful in a " see-saw " 
struggle. In addition to this he throws away kg which he 
now cannot close by 08. 

W. 116. And here li was much better. Why not? 

B. 118. But here, aio could be answered by ag. 

B. 120. If bg c8 spoils it. 

W. 126. r3 would lose by q2 followed by 01 and ni. 

W. 127. pi would lose by 54. Black loses nothing by 
the try. 

B. 131. 112 is met by k5. 

W. 132. Another of those tries that cost nothing but 
only want to be carefully met. 

W. 138. Threatening ri3. 

W. 141. ai4 would lose this camp. 



122 



GAME lO. 

Englith notation which may be taken either way. If it 
il culd be piefered that 134, 135, 136, should read down- 
wards No. 3 coiner is in the S.W. If they are to read 
along the row, No. 3 corner is in N.E. 



I 


234 


144. 


2 


443 


253- 


3 


334 


435- 


4 


293 


464. 


5 


445 


444. 


6 


454 


434 


7 


453 


455- 


8 


465 


446. 


9 


456 


236. 


10 


445 


433- 


1 1 


447 


455- 


12 


467 


245- 


13 


■83 


354- 


14 


373 


344- 


IS 


335 


333- 


16 


323 


342. 


17 


332 


343- 


18 


322 


346- 


19 


375 


336. 


20 


326 


475- 


21 


445 


327- 


22 


436 


325- 


23 


242 


252. 


24 


244 


254- 


25 


243 


225. 



26 


25s 


224. 


27. 


223 


232. 


28 


251 


261. 


29 


241 


272. 


30 


. 222 


213. 


3' 


212 


231. 


32 


221 


284. 


33 


294 


285. 


34- 


442 


393- 


35- 


324 


316. 


36 


395 


372. 


37 


331 


383- 


38. 


311 


163. 


39 


239 


256. 


40 


106 


194. 


41 


295 


193- 


42. 


186 


184. 


43 


286 


426. 


44. 


427 


417. 


45 


425 


415- 


46. 


416 


235- 


47 


233 


426. 


48 


276 


265. 


49 


416 


297. 


50 


207 

NOTES 


426. 



51 


428 


432. 


52 


416 


298. 


S3 


. 296 


426. 


54 


125 


134- 


SS 


. 416 


149. 


56 


■ 414 


147. 


57 


170 


386. 


58 


396 


387- 


59 


385 


389- 


60 


380 


399- 


61 


350 


367. 


62 


493 


404. 


63- 


496 


495- 


64 


487 


486. 


65 


497 


473- 


66 


357 


356- 


67 


368 


366. 


68 


138 


139- 


69 


129 


148. 


70 


120 


137- 


71 


349 


339- 


72 


330 


340- 


73 


338 


359- 


74 


348 


328. 


75 


329 


360. 



B. 22. By giving up trifles W bite hopes to be more than 
recompensed elsewhere. His policy is to concentrate attention 
here where he is letting things go, whilst he gains elsewhere. 



123 

B. 28. This sort of thing- early in a game is bad, unless 
either the forced move (241) is otherwise necessary or a 
further move is forced on the opponent. In this case both 
considerations apply. 

B. 32. White has lost nothing by the attack. The 
prisoners are more than compensated for by mees occupied. • 
233 cannot be held. 

W. 37. He could still have won Black's camp by 312, 
313 (315 is no better) 311, 321, 315. Black's save is a good 
example of taking the corner square to guard the adjacent 
ones. 314 was useless. 

VV. 44. It was to tempt Black to lose time but 416 was 
better. 

B. 46. Better 424 and if then 416 (?), 414 418, 428419, 
429 210, 219 220, 230. 

W. 52. A preparation for entering 296. 

W. 54. Being isolated he must hug the boundary. 

W. 57. As Black essays to join camps White prepares 
to cut. 

W. 60. Against two blacks and more near, he is not 
strong enough for 390, and he dare not risk letting in No. 3 
corner. 

B. 62. Probably 494 was better to make sure of the 
cut in. 

W. 64. Stronger than 485, it prepares 497. 

B. 67. Black is squeezing White up to lessen or destroy 
the enclosures. 

W. 75. The manoevuring here about has been very 
delicate and complicated. The black camp is nearly cut off. 
The new eye at 329 is in imminent danger of being forcibly 
closed. Black is compelled to ensure his safety by his next 
move. What is it to be ? 



124 

The position after the 75 moves is : 

Black 1/38 52 680 70 83 gx 023578 924 8346 75 69 53789 
423 327 223 113 2/1542 2421 39432 4943 59 6987 93 4/82 
798642 69531 5642 451 3954 24. 

White 1/369 43489 734 84 934 046 9589 82 7268 6134568 
52 4450 33489 Hf 2/16 275 351 4852 586432 653 79 89 4/71 
68 5973 4643 373 23. 

GAME I o — continued. 



76 


379 


300. 


99 


412 


128 


122. 


229 


228. 


77 


127 


128. 


100 


362 


363 


123. 


250 


270. 


78 


118 


126. 


lOI 


,38 


258 


124. 


479 


289. 


79 


138 


136. 


102 


116 


128 


125. 


290 


499. 


80 


199 


128. 


103 


374 


352 


126. 


489 


460. 


81 


472 


278. 


104 


138 


109 


127. 


469 


127. 


82 


369 


159- 


105. 


197 


128. 


128. 


269 


279. 


83 


178 


482. 


106 


166 


117 


129. 


259 


157- 


84 


462 


483- 


107 


J 82 


172 


130. 


167 


,65. 


85 


102 


192. 


108 


127 


175 


131- 


^56 


155- 


86 


191 


181. 


109 


138 


179 


132. 


283 


273- 


87 


ICI 


173- 


no 


168 


169 


133- 


275 


274. 


88 


476 


249. 


1 1 1 


189 


128. 


'34- 


498 


409. 


89 


230 


176. 


112 


378 


388 


135- 


119 


485- 


90 


177 


195- 


113 


138 


319 


136. 


345 


355- 


91 


108 


196 


114 


282 


128 


137- 


315 


326. 


92 


299 


277 


115 


281 


117 


138. 


268 


267. 


93 


280 


238 


116 


■ 382 


361 


139- 


240 


271. 


94 


397 


398 


117 


127 


.87 


140. 


2l8 


217. 


95 


i-,8 


150. 


118 


. 188 


117 


141. 


219 


214. 


96 


358 


128 


119 


492 


491 


142. 


314 


185. 


97 


376 


377 


120 


127 


414 


143- 


187 


405- 


98 


138 


421 


121 


313 


117 


144. 


28^ 


146. 



125 

NOTKS. 

W. 76. He is cuttinj>- through the centre and he may 
save something for himself. He still wants to join via. 278 
or somewhere thereabouts. 

W. 78. This, by forcing 138 secures the termination of 
Black's territory. 

W. 83. Each with his own devices. White here is not 
only forming an enclosure but there was some chance of 
getting sufficient support at 462 etc., to save the 432 group by 
playing 441. 

B. 86. Here loi was desirable to prevent the enemy 
slipping across and joining with the other detachment, so he 
first plays 191 gaining at least one point thereby. 

W. 90. Purely to cut into Black's enclosure who should 
have closed 196 in preference to 108. 

B. 99. If he is to pick up these at the end of the game, 
he must prevent an enclosure which 412 would form. 

B. 107. An extraordinary looking move, but 183 was 
already gone, and 182 is compensated for by 172. 

W. 1 16. He might have blocked the see-saw instead 
of this. 

B. 119. Threatening 481. 

W. 120. Again very forcible and may gain a point for 
time. If he allows the capture and occupation of 314 there 
is neither gain nor loss, but he may hold it gaining a point 
for two moves net, as against Black occupying 314. 

B. 122. If 228, 227 threatening 219. 

W. 136. He dare not allow White here. 

B. 139. Absolutely necessary. 

A few moves have been added for greater completeness. 



126 



GAMIi I I. 

Japanese notation which may however be taken either way. 
Either set of Hnes may be niari<ed with the letters A to s, 
begiiinip.fj: at either end and the other set i to 19 backwards 
or forwards. The various positions obtained are inversions 
and equahy intelligible.* 



1. 


C4 


P3 


21. 


C5 


C3- 


41. 


ei 


fi. 


2. 


64 


C16 


22. 


b2 


dS- 


42. 


hi 


i2. 


3. 


017 


qi6 


23. 


d5 


b3- 


43. 


J2 


^i- 


i. 


ki7 


ei6 


2i. 


d3 


C2. 


44. 


g-3 


^2. 


5. 


CIO 


P5 


25. 


hi I 


16. 


43. 


ii 


ji- 


6. 


J3 


i'7 


26. 


g5 


j6. 


46. 


ii 


'7- 


7. 


C13 


I3 


27. 


I4 


'"3- 


47. 


"H 


I2. 


8. 


'9 


f? 


28. 


k6 


k7. 


48. 


ki 


"4- 


9. 


f5 


h7 


29. 


J7 


'5- 


49. 


"15 


e6. 


10. 


J5 


d7 


30. 


k3 


'4- 


50. 


c6 


n6. 


11. 


^8 


g-7 


31. 


'3 


16. 


51. 


'15 


m6. 


12. 


e8 


67 


32. 


k5 


>7- 


52. 


04 


05- 


13. 


J8 


dg 


33. 


k8 


b6. 


53. 


"3 


n2. 


14. 


d8 


c8 


34. 


b8 


h3- 


54. 


k4 


03- 


15. 


eg 


hg 


25. 


^'4 


g6. 


SS. 


qi3 


Pi5- 


16. 


n 


f8 


36. 


b5 


62. 


56. 


qio 


mi 7. 


17. 


eg 


g9 


37. 


d2 


di. 


57. 


mi8 


Pi3- 


18. 


i8 


h8 


38. 


a4 


a2. 


58. 


qi4 


I18. 


19. 


jio 


h5 


39. 


bi 


h2. 


59. 


I17 


ni8. 


20. 


h4 


b4 


iO. 


f3 


f2. 


60. 


mi6 


my. 



NOTES. 

Translated from the Japanese. 

B. 5. This was apparently played to secure a large 
dominion but it would have been better to occupy the point q^. 



127 

B. 7- It should have bj^jn 03 and the game would 
probably proceed as follows : — 04, 113 pa, 114. n^, m^ n6, 
m6 nj. Here Black takes the opportunity of occupying q 13. 
If White comes out to P15, Black may well move to qio 
leaping over two points. But if White takes the step of 
obstructing the movement at mj instead of n7 when Black 
has moved to m6 then Black must break White's connection 
at ny. 

B. 8. Better to have taken J5 

B. II to 13 are not good. First he should coma out 
diagonally to dg ; then he can send out a scout to _!,'-r3 to 
observe the opponent's movements. 

B.21 to 23 are also bad. He had only to obstruct the 
opponent at b3 and if the reply was to 05 he should move to 
d4 to keep his connection unbroken. 

W. 25. This should be g5 ; and if the opponent repels 
the attack at g4 he should make an invasion at b6. But if 
the opponent connects the line at c6 then he can also connect 
his line at b5. There is no risk of losing his men in the 
middle field. If again the opponent comes down to b8 
instead of connecting the line at c6 then the moves would 
be as follows : — c6, e6 f6, 65 b5. In this case, too, the big 
white group in the middle field is quite safe and the dis- 
advantage is on the opponent's side. Suppose for a moment 
that when White moved to g5 the opponent moves to b8 
instead of gj, then White can himself go to g4 and he has 
no disadvantage. 

The result of White's moves 25 to 35 prove to be bad, 
especially 33 (b6) which is very bad. He should have moved 
to g6 which would save his men. • 

W. 36 to 54. These also are not good. He ouglit to attack 
the opponent at n4 or save his man at a2, or come out topij 



128 



The position after 60 moves is . 

Black a4 bi,258 C45679103 d2368 0489 £359 g345 I1411 
ii.38 J2357810 ki34568i7 I417 m45i68 1135 0417 41034. 

White a2 b346 C2316 di,579 e267i6 fi,278 gi,2679 
h235789 12456717 j6 k7 I236718 1113617 1126178 035 P35135 qi6. 
GAME II — continued. 



61. 


ni6 


ki8. 


73. 


ei5 


di6. 


85. 


J14 


ki2. 


62. 


018 


mi 9. 


74. 


fi5 


I16. 


86. 


I13 


ng. 


63. 


016 


P14. 


75. 


ei8 


di8. 


87. 


m8 


nio. 


64. 


mi3 


qi2. 


76. 


I14 


1114. 


88. 


n8 


09. 


65. 


ri2 


pi2. 


77. 


lis 


ki6. 


89. 


P9 


01 1. 


66. 


qii 


q8. 


78. 


1113 


fi7. 


90. 


012 


pii. 


67. 


qg 


p8. 


79. 


hi7 


fi8. 


91. 


pio 


mi I. 


68. 


ni I 


■■15- 


80. 


ii6 


ji7- 


92. 


1112 


kio. 


69. 


ri4 


S14. 


81. 


ii4 


k.4. 


93. 


kg 


rg. 


70. 


010 


qi8. 


82. 


ki3 


mio. 


94. 


SIO 


In. 


71. 


fi6 


ki5. 


83. 


08 


07. 


95. 


j" 


S12. 


72. 


ei7 


di7. 


84. 


mg 


ji3- 


96. 


r8 


r7- 



97. SI I qi5 and Black resigned. 

NOTE. 

B. 74. He should have played to I15 and would have 
been crowned with a decided victory if he had only aimed at 
the safety of his men. It is a great pity that he challenged 
the opponent to an unnecessary battle which turned the wheel 
of fortune and precipitated him from the glorious heights to 
miserable depths. 

The fight has been largely round the black nii group 
and the white nio group, both of which were insecure but 
only one could fall. N14 prevents the eye but he could not 
sever connection at m 15 on account of the reply n 15. The white 
camp can be cut off on the j or i line. White's last move 
however wins the 010 group and so saves the other. If now 
13 no, rii s8 or if s8 no followed by q3. [Ed. 



129 



GAME 12. 



English notation which may be taken either way. If it 
should be preferred that 134, 135, 136 should read dovvn- 

If they are to read 



wards No 


. 3 corner 


is i 


1 the 


s.w. 


along the 


row, 


No. 3 


corner is in N. E 


I- 234 


435- 




9- 


456 


457- 


2- 254 


153- 




10. 


466 


467. 


3- 443 


^39- 




1 1. 


477 


404. 


4- 335 


354- 




12. 


447 


448. 


5- 343 


353- 




13- 


437 


445- 


6- 344 


355- 




H- 


438 


449- 


7- 346 


473- 




15- 


439 


430- 


8. 454 


446. 




16. 


474 

NOTES 


478. 



17- 


483 


493- 


18. 


484 


482. 


19. 


472 


423- 


20. 


384 


471- 


21. 


463 


487. 


22. 


476 


498. 


23- 


393 


367- 


24. 


386 


375- 



Translated from the Japanese. 

B. 14 and 15. These are bad. He must obstruct the 
opponent's movement at 474. In that case the opponent 
could not come to 478, he had nothing else to do but 438. 
Then Black moves to 483. That would be a better plan 
than that which Black adopted ; for the situation thus 
created is almost equal to that which would come out when 
Black 12 plays to 474, White to 448 and Black to 483. 
Black's gain is probably mote than his loss ; he gains 445 
and 438 while he loses 447 and 437. 

W. 22. This is very bad. 489 is the point he must 
move to, at least he ought to establish the safest connection 
at 488. If he did not move to 489 his 26th move might be 
omitted and he could move to 134 instead, one move earlier. 
Indeed he has left many other bad effects. To s>ay that this 
move was the cause of the defeat may be an exaggeration ; 
still there is no dojibt that it brought about a great dis- 
advantage. 



I30 



GAME 12 — continued. 



25- 


385 


306. 


53- 


172 


163. 


81. 


238 


285. 


26. 


303 


348- 


54- 


126 


294. 


82. 


468 


458- 


27. 


■45 


134- 


55- 


141 


152. 


83- 


204 


283. 


28. 


135 


124. 


56. 


144 


143- 


84. 


185 


.76. 


29. 


149 


337- 


57- 


151 


161. 


85- 


156 


186. 


30- 


422 


273- 


58. 


162 


131- 


86. 


196 


189. 


3'- 


237 


250. 


59- 


171 


132. 


87. 


178 


180. 


2'^- 


228 


429. 


60. 


197 


288. 


88. 


199 


432. 


33- 


293 


275- 


61. 


299 


289. 


89. 


433 


442. 


34- 


295 


252. 


62. 


298 


290. 


90. 


452 


413- 


35- 


243 


264. 


63- 


200 


409. 


91. 


441 


167. 


36. 


255 


193- 


64. 


287 


268. 


92. 


318 


328. 


37- 


195 


325- 


65- 


229 


220. 


93- 


310 


317- 


.38- 


324 


494. 


66. 


280 


499. 


94- 


319 


157- 


39- 


492 


382. 


67. 


269 


278. 


95- 


147 


485- 


40. 


392 


326. 


68. 


258 


259- 


96. 


486 


496. 


41. 


322 


174. 


69. 


267 


248. 


97- 


383 


381. 


42. 


286 


292. 


70. 


257 


270. 


98. 


373 


372- 


43- 


183 


103. 


7'- 


190 


187. 


99. 


356 


366. 


44. 


184 


125. 


72. 


192 


102. 


100. 


388 


378. 


45- 


137 


424. 


73- 


188 


491. 


lOI. 


397 


191. 


46. 


412 


253- 


74- 


402 


345- 


102. 


426 


425- 


47- 


242 


241. 


75- 


336 


342. 


103. 


415 


182. 


48. 


231 


251. 


76. 


332 


334- 


104. 


173 


154. 


49. 


222 


130. 


77- 


333 


362. 


105. 


155 


and 


50- 


139 


140. 


78. 


341 


352. 


wins 


by 5 points. 


51- 


169 


150. 


79- 


314 


320. 








52- 


159 


175- 


80. 


129 


379- 
















NOTES. 









W. 30. 236 was better. Then the opponent might 
move to 283 and White must come out diagonally to 164. 
As it was, White lost 237 and 228 while he only gained 450 
and 429. Was it not a great loss ? 



131 

W. 52 and 53 are also bad. For the 52nd , 162 was 
better. In short at first Black committed a gross mistake 
in his 14th and 15th moves and the situation of White 
was rather g'ood. But as the game went on White incurred 
a heavy loss as you can see from the criticism I have 
just made and became the loser of the game by 5 points. 



No. p is a diagram of the foregoing game in the Easterji 
style as mentioned in the article on notation. Each mee is 
numbered with the number of the move played on to it. 
Black and White play alternately in the usual way and 
the moves are numbered seriatim. It enables the position to 
be set up at any move. We repeat it below. [Ed. 



I I I I 
llk IIS-\- sit SS -i-tf 

'ef-\-//z III J3-\-iff 
•lino u uti^if^iet 

tin llf Ifi -j — 1-4-/'^ 



— ^-/rs'/s//iiifi 
-99 f^ 



-isy- 



I B I I »*J IVV 1 1 /^/ I ^ ■'■ - 

--ittX-io yti p--\-ri— 
' ssn'9 y ^sllSil:^- 



~rf MO- 

-lOi 102 

-101 



Hi icy 2c/ n /«» //» -X-iyi -| 16a 200 -I — I- « f - —igs'i^i 

y wb ts rf iiy lY' 11,1 lus lyii'jL, 



■ il- 



/i M II f /fo/ss 
iqy n 8 10 ii'i- 
ui i^f\ — (- -I-/.)*- 



'■'X 



miiiip-\r-yi 'i' /If 

luu tb its 
^!i4 is lof 6y- 



liS im- 
-X-itsnb 



iql^- «y Af if l^i yii^'* 
■ -20/4 — [- \-'*i- 



^/bb X- ih fi iipio III /hi 
60 Ybb ' ' 



H-t-/" 

()b Hqi d yi 

tju fS 6^ -j. 

-9Y- 



st> — 21 J? /ly- 
/hni/itt /a uit-i^iifi--ybm yy/ii 

■u 1 /<}/ /IO ii'ii ib -\ 



/■ih-X-iiit-- ii XI u3-\-ii /-» iy t*o 
hynmsX--- ibno /f-j-4 '*'~\ — 
n^/hsiibh.— -lilt /f iy-\—is -\-iY9- 

_|-/3'-j V2S 2u 2i It 2b-X-y lyt //. 



^ /h b ie Tj 2y 2i--\-t-^/yy/yi> 

' In, /2(j/io&if-\ — V-20S2eit<)Ci it T(j 

J I I I — I — I — Ljflj-l no ^ ( 



H/iJ^DlGAP, 
pUbES, 1|JDEX, Etc. 



135 



HANDICAP PLAY. 



There is very little to say under this heading. Let no 
one be too proud to receive the odds that would make the 
chances about equal, it is much more interesting to both 
players, especially to the stronger one. There is not much 
glory or pleasure either, in flogging a lame horse ; the game 
is not spoilt in any way -by the odds. 

In giving odds it is of course necessary to play a more 
forward game than when on equal terms ; greater risks can 
be and should be run ; a fortification that would not be good 
enough for an equal, may be quite good enough against the 
play expected of the odds received. The extreme of running 
bad risks, however, should not be indulged in unless the 
game is desperate. The risks should generally be on 
small stakes and numerous, rather than on long ones, small 
in number. One or more risky shots may then receive pun- 
ishment without disaster. Especially should the odds-giver 
run for enclosing long strips. 

If, and when the odds-giver equalizes the position so 
that the odds disadvantage has disappeared, then steady 
going is the thing. 

In the opening, the small odds-giver can freely take the 
44 in-^tead of 43, or he may take 53 or even 54. A common 
opening in such rases is t;-;, 34, 45. 



136 



The odds receiver should play his ordinary game, avoid- 
ing risky play, but he should hang on to the skirts of his 
opponent rather more than usual and try to make his extra 
men tell. He should be able to balance his opponent's 
forces everywhere and outnumber them somewhere. Don't 
be led away from your extra forces altogether and if you 
cannot bring your opponent to them, throw out outworks to 
enclose territory. Above all don't if you can help it let your 
opponent gain a preponderance somewhere to crush you. 

The positions for the odds men may be : 

1 man (the move) anywhere. 

2 ,, ,, 144, and 444. 

3 ,, ,, 144. 244 and 444. 

4 .. .. 144, 244, 344 and 444. 

5 ,, ,, 144, 244, 344, 444 and 100. 

6 ,, ,, 144, 244, 344, 444, 100 and 104. 

7 .. .. 144. 244, 344, 444, 100, 104 and 304. 

8 ,, ,, 144, 244, 344, 444, 100, 104, 304 and 340. 

9 .. .. 144.244. 344 444. 100. 104. 304. 34° & 240. 

Some give the centre mee when an odd number of men 
is given but not when an even number is given. The 
stations for 6 men for example would thus be 144, 244, 344, 
444, 104 and 304. 



137 



RULES. 



1. The Board is ruled into squares, i8 each way for 
the full board but one of any size may be used, and it may be 
marked according' to the fancy of the players. The inter- 
sections of the lines are called mees. 

The men are of two colours, unlimited in number, and 
are played alternately, the black or dark colour first, on to 
the 361 (or other number) mees. 

NOTE. For European players it is recommended that on 
the full board the middle lines and the fourth from the 
edge should be conspicuous. A "limited game" can then 
be played on the " inner board " of twelve squares each 
way. If it is preferred to play on the squares, it does 
not affect the game, but the board should then be 19 
squares each way for the full size. 

2. If a group of men (or a single man) is blocked up 

by the adversary so that it has no vacant mee adjacent to it 

(along the lines) internally or externally, it is said to be 

arrested. (See diagram 2). The group is taken as a 

whole. 

Either player may remove any arrested men of the 

opposing colour as a part of his move, either before or 

immediately after placing his man. 

NOTE. The test is that the space enclosed by the opponent 
with or without the help of the side ot the board and of 
whatever shape, must be wholly filled. 



138 

3. A man may be placed on any vacant mee with the one 
restriction that a position must not be exactly repeated in 
the same game. 

NOTE. It frequently happens that immediately after one 
man has been removed, except for this restriction the 
opponent could play into the now vacant mee and by 
picking up the opposing man just played, exactly repeat 
the position. 

4. When there is mutual agreement, or there is 
obviously nothing more to be gained on either side, the game 
stops and each player picks up the prisoners left for 
him. He then counts one for each prisoner, and one for 
each vacant mee enclosed. The balance is the score for the 
winner. Whilst there is anything undecided a pla3'er must 
continue as long as his opponent wishes to play another man. 

NOTE. There is nothing more to be gained when there are 
no longer any doubtful points that are not agreed upon, 
and when none of the enclosures contain enough space 
for a fortification. There is no hardship in having to 
continue play at the wish of an opponent, you cannot be 
forced to play to your damage by an opponent declaring 
that he is not satisfied. In scoring it is usual to fill up 
spaces in the opposing camps with the prisoners held, 
before counting up, and then to score by the vacant 
mees remaining. (See diagram 21 ). 

5. The prisoners are those men arrested during the 
progress of the game and such as are abandoned or in a 
hopeless position at the end, within the enemy's enclosures, 
neither on neutral territory nor in themselves forming an 
entire enclosure. 

Neutral territory is that between rival boundaries or 
being enclosed and containing men of both colours, is such 



139 



Diagram 21. 




Position No. I. The finish of a game. Black to play. 

, , 2. The same, more complete to satisfy a beginner. 

, , J. The same with the abandoned men taken off 

the board and the neutral mees filled up. 

„ ^. The prisoners filled in and the remaining 

enclosures tidied up for easier counting. 



140 

that neither party wishes (dares) to force it. It scores nothing 

and the men within it are not prisoners. 
NOTE. An enclosure is entire when there is no break in its 
walls, when every man is in contact, direct or oblique, 
with its neighbour or the boundary on each side (see 
chains i and 2). 

It follows that if at the end of the game, two entire 
enclosures mutually overlap, the whole territory is 
neutral, but that if one is wholly within the other, the 
inner one scores to its owner but the space between the 
rival walls is neutral. 

6. Handicapping is done by giving the move, or two 
or more men. When two men are given they are placed on 
obliquely opposite intersections of the four lines, the next 
two on the other two, the fifth on the centre, the sixth and 
seventh on two opposite intersections of the four and middle 
lines, and the next two on the remaining two of these, 
making up the nine points of mutual intersections of the 
three lines each way. White follows on. 
NOTE. Any system of handicapping may be adopted that 

is mutually agreed upon or is arranged by committee. 

The time element forms a convenient means. One 

player having to move faster than the other. 

SPECIAL RECOMMEDATION. 
A difficulty sometimes arises (rarely with experts) 
especially on small boards in the "finishing up; when one 
player wants to play a number of men, perhaps to arrest a 
rival eye of doubtful score within his fortification whilst the 
other has no call to play. The adoption of the following rule 
simplifies matters very much and there seems to be no objection 
to it. 



HI 

"Either player may at anytime in his turn to move, and 
as often as he pleases, pass, instead of playing a man, even 
after he has picked up prisoners." 



ANSWERS . 

No. I. — Diagram 6. The superfluous man is on 481. 

No. 3. The position is saved (neutralised) as follows : — 
22 12, 21 23, II — , 13 — , 12 — , neutral, but if now 31 3a, 
12 21, 22 13, or if 32 31, 22 12, 21 32. The slightest 
departure on the part of the defence loses the camp altogether. 

No. 3. The invested eight space 11, 12, 21, 22, 23, 31, 
32, 33 can form two eyes, one of which is free and the other 
neutralised. The play to bring this about is natural, but 
not good ; 22 21, 12 32, 23. White dare not play anything 
but II, and if he play away Black dare not play into the 
enclosures. If White chooses to play 1 1 he only loses a 
point by 31 21, so he would be content to score the one point 
for the 31 mee, leaving the neutral position in the other eye ! 
Black's 12 should have been 32 12, 31 winning; and White's 
21 should have been 12 to stop the eye and then wait. 

No. 4. — Diagram 20. Black must not play the natural 
21 22, 31 II, 31 21, the presence of the intruder at 3a actually 
assisting the defence ; but 22 12 or 21, 21 or 12 neutral, 
though 22 would be useless without the man at 32. The 
camp cannot be arrested against a correct defence. 




Japanese Sword-guard. — See Appendix. 



/\PPEJ^DIX. 



H5 



APPENDIX. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

THE PROBABLE ORIGIN OF CHESS AND DRAUGHTS. 

-*- 

The importance and general acceptance of the g-ame of 
"Go"''= amongst the cultured classes of the far East is 
shewn b}' our special plates. The first of these facing page 
143 is associated with the official or military side of life It 
is a representation of a valuable Tsuba or Japanese sword 
guard in tl.e possession of Wilson Crewdson Esq., J. P. of 
St. Leonards, who has been kind enough to lend it for 
reproduction to illustrate this book. 

Formerly every Japanese gentleman carried two swords, 
one being the large one, now made familiar to us by illustra- 
tions, and the other a smaller one. These swords had as a 
rule, guards and other sword furniture that are amongst the 
triumphs of the metal workers' art. The one illustrated 
belongs to the large sword and is reproduced about its 
nalLuai size. The workmanship is certainly exquisite and it 
is beautifully inlaid in gold and other metals. Its beauty 
needs to be seen to be full)' realised. These guards were the 
pride of the Japanese and nothing was considered too fine 
for them. The guaid of the smaller sword of this pair is in 
the possession of Chas. P. Peake, Esq. 

* Tliougli we have adopted " Goh " to be the name of the English 
yanie, we here g'ive what is now preferred by the authorities as the 
best Western equivalent of the real Japanese name, since we are 
speaking of the Eastern game. 



140 

APPENDIX. 



The followinff is the technical description given by 
H. L. Joly, Esq., the author of " Legend in Japanese Art." 

" Tsuba. Hikone style. Iron perforated and inlaid. 

On a verandah Watanabe no Tsuna and another of 
Yorimilsu's retainers have fallen asleep over a ij^ame of 
"Go." In the background on a huge spider's webb (cut A. 
jour) appears in high relief a Bakemoiio (Japanese Ghost) 
carrying a Kanabo (iron Club). This is the spider devil 
which Watanabe was to slay later." 

It will be seen tliat the board or " ban " is of the usual 
type, a thick block on four legs and beneath it will be noticed 
one of the boxes used for the men with the men spilled about. 
The reverse is equally beautiful with the front, shewing the 
foliage of the trees and the plants growing on the ground. 

The opening in the centre is of course where the 
sword blade passes through and the two small openings are 
for the reception of the Kodzuha, a knife, and the other for 
the Kogai Kodzuka. 

On Mr. Joly being appealed to, he magnanimously sent 
some more illustrations, and with full permission to extract 
anything on the subject (and there is a great deal) from his 
unique work for the purpose of this book. Two guards have 
been selected and appear on another plate facing page 113 
The first represents Kibi no Mabi (Kibidaizin) playing his 
life against the Calendar, helped by the ghost of Nakamaro. 
The method of handling the men is well shewn. In the next, , 
Sate Tadanobu is using his " Go ban " as an effective check 
to the murderous propensities of two enemies. He has his 
foot on the neck of one he has knocked down, whilst the 



HI 

APPENDIX. 



other is for the moment reclining- gracefully under the deftly 
thrown board. The whole is a scene of activity, even the 
" Go " stones are flying about. It would not be fair to take 
further advantage of Mr. Joly's kindness, but our readers, 
will find a fuller account of these guards and many others in 
his interesting book. It takes a special place amongst art 
books in this country, it is thought highly of by the Japanese 
themselves, and it is very entertaining- to the ordinary reader. 
There will be found among-st many not associated with our 
game, legends of sages playing " Go " in the mountain fast- 
nesses and receiving unwelcome visitors, players being found 
in an enormous orange, horseback experts standing on a 
" Go " board, games lasting several centuries, and such like 
interesting items all shewing the important and predominant 
place taken by "Go" in the life of the Japanese nation. 
With the adoption of Western methods the granting of 
diplomas for proficiency in " Go " has now ccsased but the 
game has scarcely lost any of its importance or veneration. 

The next plate facing page 52 is of rather different 
type, it connects the game with the social life, and this time 
with China. It is a reduced reproduction of an old Chinese 
saucer measuring in the original about six inches across. 
It will be seen that it represents two /adies playing the game 
whilst two others are looking on evidently interested, and a 
servant stands at a short distance shewing no concern. The 
perspective of the board is incorrect according to our ideas 
but the position shews that the game is in the early stages 
and h,is been opened on somewhat normal lines, though the 
middles of the sides have perhaps received over much 
attention. 



148 

APPENDIX. 



This picture on an ordinary tea saucer at once removes 
the game from a mere recondite study and brings it down to 
the level of the ordinary human being. To the cultured classes 
" Go " or rather "Wei Chi," for this is Chinese, was, and 
is almost an essential part of their life, just as truly as it is 
in Japan. One would hardly expect a scene of a game at 
Chess to be used for such a purpose in this country, 
especially for ladies to be playing it. 

It seems far from improbable that this game has 
given rise in the dim and distant past to Draughts and 
perhaps Chess. This game of " the four directions " itself 
has been modified but little since its commencement, at any 
rate so far back as it can betraced, the slight change in the 
size of the board and in the system of scoring being about 
all. The game must however have had other trial modifica- 
tions, some of which would have died out and others perhaps 
survive. Some of these modifications would be in the way 
of increased complications and some of simplifications, or 
these two may occur together so that the game becomes 
more complex in one direction and more simple in another. 
Now, one tendency that is noticeable in many of such pro- 
gressions or evolutions, is an attempt to save time at the 
commencement. Impatient people want to get to work at 
once and grudge the time necessary for the opening. In our 
modern games we find the position already set up, the open- 
ing has been partly played for us as it were. Even in the 
old Indian form of Chess in which the pieces are on the 
board, but have a very limited range compared to ours we 
find that the players might play a certain number of moves 
with necessary restrictions, but regardless of each other 



149 

APPENDIX. 



before the real fight begins. This tendency to save time 
leads in the first place to the men being- put on to the board, 
giving- us a start well into the game. 

Draughts is played on an eight or a ten square board 
and these are the sizes of the quarter boards for " Wei Chi " 
of China before and after the enlargement which was made, 
probably within about one hundred years or so of the 
Christian era. The original quarter board was an eight 
sqviare one and the later one had ten squares on the side. 
The shifting from the mees on to the squares was natural 
enough especially when the rectangular idea of direction 
was abandoned for the diagonal one. Take Goh on the old 
quarter board and place some meii on it, change the direction 
and make the men really move instead of in imagination. 
Now decree that for the old idea of keeping open the four 
diiections which have disappeared on account of playing on 
the squares, it shall be necessary for an attacked man to be 
supported on the further side, reinforcements as it were, on 
pain of capture and you have something very like our 
Draughts. The changes are all natural. 

The games it must be admitted are essentially different 
in their present forms, quite enough for a distinct origin but 
it still seems probable that the one may have been derived 
from the other by the gradual changes through forty odd 
centuries, more or less helped by the sudden changes, 
perhaps through errors that may arise in passing from one 
nation to another. When a game is satisfactory, changes 
are likely to be slow but any radical change may not work 
smoothly at first and the innovation will die unless further 
changes come quickly as they would naturally do, till some- 



APPENDIX. 



thing of a satisfactory, in other words stable, nature is 
arrived at, when the changes are likely to be very slow 
again. We may thus see a slight change produce from its 
very nature a modification essentially different from the 
original type. A new game is produced. Again, changes 
are much more likely on a small board than on a large one 
where the complications are already sufficiently great, and 
ever so slight a change may upset the entire affair making 
it unworkable. Whilst in the more simple board game there 
is a great incentive to try experiments. 

The possibility of slipping away on to the square is 
further exemplified in the Chinese and Japanese Chess, both 
played on nine square boards, which certainly suggest the 
quarter board of eight squares but nine lines with the men 
now naturally put on to the squares in the place of inter- 
sections when the rectangular direction ceases to be 
paramount ; at the same time retaining the correct number 
on a slightly enlarged board. In Chinese Chess, the older 
form, the movements of the men are simple and there is a 
river across the board between the two rival positions. The 
introduction of the river may have been the beginning of the 
break away. The battle field of the Goh board is uniform, 
free from obstacles. This addition of the river being 
decided upon, the placing of the men, one group on each 
side of it was inevitable. The men being placed with a 
definite obstacle to overcome it was an easy step to the 
appointment of a leader and ofiicers who would require 
diverse powers. In the Japanese game some idea of districts 
is still retained but the river is missing and the movements 
of the men become freer. Prisoners are taken but instead 



151 

APPENDIX. 



of obliterating^ them as dead men as in "Wei Chi" 
or using them to plump down into the enemy's camp as in 
" Go " they may be compelled to fight for their captors. In 
our Chess we have come down to the eight square board 
and the captured men are treated as dead but the complexities 
are enormously increased again by the much increased 
powers of the men themselves. We see greater modifica- 
tions, both in Chess and in Draughts of the present day 
than is necessary to account for its origin' from Goh. 

Draughts has many varieties as well as Chess, a fact 
which even strengthens the belief that both are ofF-shoots of 
Goh. They commenced in ancient times when there was 
not the commercial stimulus to the invention of new (?) games 
that there is now. A game was looked upon seriously and 
had a meaning. It was a training rather than an amusement. 
The chief incentive to change would be in the direction of 
being more natural as in adding the river. There is no account 
as one might reasonably expect of the invention of Chess 
or Draughts to be found anywhere, but if they were originally 
modifications of Goh unstable in their early stages, this is 
amply explained. True, it may be urged that the early 
record is accounted for by the invention of Goh being 
attributed to a Chinese emperor who ended his reign in B.C. 
2256, and a little later to another, but the argument really 
cuts the other way. A new game is invented, a new mental 
exercise is available to develop the minds of the people. 
It is to be expected that it should sooner or later receive 
royal favour and it is also to be expected that its invention 
would be attributed in the records to the emperor who 
accorded it that favour. It is a natural exaggeration and 



152 
APPENDIX. 



just exactly as one must expect. If Chess and Draugflits 
had been distinct inventions one might well look for some 
records of such important events, old as they were. 

Another small but important circumstantial evidence is 
the Chinese custom of calling check (I'll eat you) as a warning 
to any man or group that was in danger of capture. The 
custom, though dying out , still applies to the King in our 
Chess, and within the memory of some of us, to the Queen 
also — records say in earlier times to the other pieces also. 

Nor is this the only evidence of the kind that is forth- 
coming. In all the disputations it is pretty generally agreed 
that our particular form of the game comes to us from India 
through Persia. There have been discussions as to whether 
the Persians or Hindus first played it, but the evidence 
strongly points to the latter, and for our purpose it does 
not much matter which is to have the honour of priority ; it 
is the question of language we have to deal with. The early 
Hindu word for Chess was Chaturanga. Now looking at 
this word as one having a meaning in Hindu, or the parent 
Sanscrit, it is a bit of a puzzle as far as Chess is concerned. 
The first part of the word evidently means "four," there is 
no getting away from that. The whole word is used by the 
poets to signify an army, why, no one quite knows. What 
does anga mean, to us? It has been suggested by the des- 
perates that Chaturanga means the four forces of the army 
or of the game — the elephants, horses chariots, and foot 
soldiers^rather a stretch, but justifiable as a suggestion in 
the lack of something better. There is no suspicion that the 
early Chess was four handed or that there was in any wav 
four centres of strength. 

The early Chinese game was " the game of the four 



153 

APPENDIX. 



directions," played on boards of two sizes, and especially on 
the larg-er board, invariably started by the formation of four 
camps or centres of streng-th in the four corners. Four 
battles ensued, which merged at length into a general fight. 
The four corners or battle fields were separately named and 
marked and separately indicated in the notation. What 
could be a more appropriate name for the Chess form of it 
as it went through into India than Chaturanga, and Chat- 
uranga has been used to indicate an army because it was 
distinctly a military game, a mimic war with its mimic 
battles. 

True, the Japanese word "Go" means five, from the 
five points marked on the board, but the Japanese tCok this 
game after the centre point had been added, which was 
possibly done at the time the board was enlarged. 

The experts seem anxious to cradle Chess on to 
Hindustan, but why ? What is to be said about the evi- 
dently more primitive Chinese Chess? We cannot claim that 
there have been two separate inventions of two separate 
forms, or that Chinese Chess is derived from the Hindu. 
Surelj' not. 

The present suggestion is not that Japanese Chess forms 
a connecting link, but that it is an off-shoot illustrating the 
changes that may take place, a cousin as it were, but that 
our Chess comes from Hindustan where it filtered through 
(Tibet perhaps) from China, where it was a modification of 
the early form of " Wei Chi " on the quarter board by the 
introduction of a river that was afterwards abandoned some- 
where in its history. Draughts probably came later. 



154 

APPENDIX. 



Is it not ag'ain just possible that some of the early 
accounts of the passajje of "Wei Chi" into Japan may 
really have referred to the Chess form ? 

We venture to sug'gest that the invention of Goh mig-ht 
have been somewhat on the follovvintf lines. We see around 
us a strusi^'g'le continually ffoins;' on between gfood and evil, 
between the powers of iijjht and the powers of darkness, 
amongst human beini;fs also, between those who are rig-ht, 
ourselves, and those who are wronsf, our neii^hbours, and, 
before the introduction of long range weapons, we wish to 
represent this. We map out a field of battle, and as evil is 
generally the aggresor we place a black man to occupy a bit 
of territory or spliere of influence on behalf of darkness and 
then a white man on behalf of light alternatelv. This would 
not make a contest so we allow each to encompass territorv. 
The idea for a game now exists but we must define some 
limit or test as to the efficiency of the occupations, or en- 
closures will be made by more and more delicate fences till 
the first man played may claim the whole board. In real 
life if two rival, but friendly nations were to be contending 
for the territory of an uncivilised tribe, a hinterland we will 
suppose, by sending small detachments to occupy and claim 
various positions, some test would have to be decided on as 
to what was to be considered effective occupation ; for a 
couple of men and a flag might be effective enough against 
the unarmed natives but not when considered as against 
their powerful rivals ; so in our game there must be some 
test as to the limit of thinness as it were of the occupation. 
It is clear that the force must be capable of maintaining its 
freedom, against attack, it must maintain some degree of 



155 

APPENDIX. 



freedom of movement, so we decree that a force must be 
able to preserve an outlet in some direction, internally or 
externally, on penalty of becoming prisoners and our game 
is made. It is found to work satislactorily, minor points are 
soon settled and the invention is complete. Later on it 
receives the royal recognition and becomes k part of the life 
of the people. 

It is very much like this with nations, they must either 
have their outlets free or their internal resources. China 
has its internal resources and may long rest content. Japan 
is striving to keep up outlets in all four directions and her 
internal resources as well. 

It is rather interesting to note how closely the strategy 
of Goh is reflected in the military tactics of the Chinese 
people, their great aim is to cut off communication and to 
surround the enemy. If the enemy is too strong for them 
they let them go on, apparently most successful, scarcely 
showing any resistance, then they slip in behind and the 
enemy is surrounded and overwhelmed. Another great lesson 
of Goh is the necessity for strong bases and well preparing an 
attack before making it, not being too eager to capture 
small detachments. Perhaps a careful study of the last great 
war of the Japanese people may also reveal the influence of 
their great game. 



157 



INDEX. 



Abandon, 22 

Arrest, 20 

Bamboo Knot, 8 

Base, 9, 63, 155 

Board, 10, i6, 34, 54, 55, 
146 

Camp, 9, 92 

Centre, 28, 75, 153 

Chains, 80 

Champion, 9, 28, 52 

Cliaturang-a, 152 

Check, 86, 152 

Chess, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

148, 153 
Chinese Emperor, 28, 52 
Continuous, 23 
Culin, 53 

Discontinuous, 24 
Enclosure, 19, 22, 66 
Eye, 23, 97 
Fortification, 24, 66 
Games, 9, 41, 1 13 
Goh, 13, 53, 145 
Handicap, 7, 8, 127 



Inner Board, 34 
Knitjlit move, 8, 9 
Men, 10, 20, 55, 146 
Mees, 9, 1 6, 18 
Moves, 18 
Neutral Mees, 76 
Neutral territory, 102 
Notation, 29 
Opening, 89, 92 
Origin, 13, 154 
Outside Berth, 75 
Pocket, 69 

Positions, 36, 37, 38, 63, 
64, 66, 70, 75, 77, 78, 
84. 89, 97, 106 

Prisoners,' 8, 9, 15, 19, 22, 
76. 138. 150 

Quarter Board, 18, 149 

Rules, 16, 137 

Score, 9, 22, 77 

See-saw, 19, 38, 77, 98 

Tactics, 25 

Taking, 20 

Wei Chi, 53, 153 



THE END. 



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