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Full text of "Slavery and peonage in the Philippine Islands"

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Slavery and peona 




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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023437878 




ENTRANCE TO QUIANGAN SCHOOLHOUSE. 



The stone for this building was quarried and cut to dimensions and the building was 
constructed by Ifugao boys and Mr. Alfred W. Hora, an American teacher: Two of the boys 
who did the work appear in the picture- (See also illustration facing page 48.) 

Should it not be made a crime to sell or buy such children as chattels ? 



Government of the Philippine Islands 
Department op the Interior 



Slavery and Peonage in the 
Philippine Islands 



By 

Dean C. Worcester 

Secretary of the Interior 



MANILA 
BUREAU OP PRINTING 
1913 
•5,5 



1189S7 






*£ 



At-siis^ 



A REPORT ON SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 
IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 1 



By Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of the Interior. 



BAGUIO, April 30, 1913. 
SIR : Among the recommendations which I made in my annual 
report for the year ended June 30, 1912, was the following : 

"That for the adequate protection of the non-Christian tribes 
a final and earnest effort be made to secure the concurrence of 
the Philippine Assembly in the passage for the territory under 
the jurisdiction of the Philippine Legislature of an Act identical 
with, or similar to, Act No. 2071, entitled 'An Act prohibiting 
slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, and the sale or purchase 
of human beings in the Mountain Province and the Provinces of 

1 This report was originally addressed to the Philippine Commission, 
under date of April 30, 1913, and was on that date delivered to the President 
of the Commission. 

Upon my return from an inspection trip through the Mountain Province 
I found that there had been no meeting of the Commission and improved 
the opportunity to add to it additional information which I had meanwhile 
obtained, returning it to the President of the Commission on May 15. It 
was read to the Commission on May 17. The Commission thereupon passed 
the following resolution : 

"Whereas the Act of Congress passed July 1, 1902, 'temporarily providing 
for civil government of the Philippine Islands and for other purposes' 
provides that 'neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as punish- 
ment for crime whereof the parties have been duly convicted shall exist in 
said Islands,' and 

"Whereas the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in the case of the 
U. S. vs. Cabanag (Vol. VIII, p. 64, Phil. Repts.), decided on March 16, 1907, 
decided that 'there is no law applicable here either of the United States or 
of the Archipelago punishing slavery as a crime;' and 

"Whereas, in order to remedy this condition in accordance with the 
above-mentioned provisions of the said Act of Congress, the Philippine 
Commission in its exclusive legislative jurisdiction over all that part of the 
Philippine Islands inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes passed 
Act No. 2071, and as a branch of the Philippine Legislature has in four 
successive sessions passed an act prohibiting and penalizing slavery, 
involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of human beings, and 

"Whereas during each of said sessions the Assembly has failed to concur 
in the passage of such Act; now, therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the Honorable the Governor-General be requested to send 
to the Honorable the Secretary of War a copy of the proposed law entitled 

3 



Nueva Vizcaya and Agusan, and providing punishment therefor,' 
and that in the event of failure, the attention of Congress be 
called to this important matter to the end that it may pass 
adequate legislation if it deems such a course in the public 
interest." 

On October 24, 1912, the Commission passed a bill entitled "An 
Act prohibiting slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, and the 
sale or purchase of human beings in the Philippine Islands, and 
providing punishment therefor." 

This bill was tabled by the Assembly on January 8, 1913. I 
therefore now recommend that- this matter be brought to the 
attention of the Congress of the United States, and beg to 
present certain facts for your consideration. 

The Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, the Philippine bill, "An 
Act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs 
of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other 
purposes," provides that — 

"Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted, shall exist in said Islands." 

For the purpose of this report I define slavery as the condition 
of a human being held as a chattel and compelled to render 
service for which he is not compensated. Food and clothing are 
necessarily furnished by the slave owner, and are not considered 
to constitute compensation. 

Peonage I define as the condition of a debtor held by his 
creditor in a form of qualified servitude to work out a debt. 

It is well known to all persons having any considerable 
familiarity with Philippine affairs that the Moros, or Moham- 

'An Act prohibiting slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of 
human beings in the Philippine Islands' as passed by the Commission in the 
last session of the last Legislature, but which failed of passage in the 
Assembly, with the recommendation that a copy of the law be sent to 
Congress with the request that the necessary legislation be enacted to render 
fully effective the above-mentioned provisions of the Act of Congress of 
July 1, 1902." 

I was subsequently requested by His Excellency the Governor-General 
to address the report to him rather than to the Commission, to the end that 
the Filipino members of that body might be spared the embarrassment 
which would otherwise result from the necessity of voting either for its 
acceptance or for its rejection, and I very willingly made the requested 
change. 

I have taken advantage of the delay caused by printing it to bring it 
up to date (July 15, 1913) and now close it, although important evidence 
continues to come in. — D. C. W. 



medan inhabitants of the southern Philippines, were formerly 
pirates and slave hunters, and that the custom of taking and 
keeping slaves prevailed among them at the time of the Amer- 
ican occupation. 

In a report dated August 25, 1902, General George W. Davis 
made the following statement relative to conditions in the Moro 
Province : 

"With a people who have no conception of government that is 
not arbitrary and absolute; who hold human life as no more 
sacred than the life of an animal ; who have become accustomed to 
acts of violence ; who are constrained by fear from continuing the 
practice of piracy ; who still carry on slave trade ; who habitually 
raid the homes of mountain natives and enslave them; who 
habitually make slaves of their captives in war — even when of 
their own race ; who not uncommonly make delivery of their own 
kindred as slaves in satisfaction of a debt for liquidation of 
which they have not the ready money; who habitually observe 
the precepts of the Koran which declares that female slaves 
must submit to their masters; it is useless to discuss a plan of 
government that is not based on physical force, might, and 
power." 

On September 24, 1903, the legislative council of the Moro 
Province passed an act entitled "An Act defining the crimes of 
slaveholding and slavehunting and prescribing the punishment 
therefor," 1 which was promptly approved by the Philippine Com- 
mission and thus came to have the force and effect of law. Under 
it active measures were adopted to break up slavery in the Moro 
Province. They have resulted very successfully, and persons 
who have captured others to be held or sold as slaves, as well 
as persons who have actually sold, bought, or kept slaves, have 
been convicted and punished, yet even at this late day there are 
not lacking individuals who stoutly maintain that slavery does 
not exist, and never has existed, in the Philippines. It is hard 
to determine whether they are blindly ignorant or viciously un- 
truthful. 

For their confusion, and for the enlightenment of those who 
wish to know the truth, I have inserted in the appendix to this 
report (page 84) brief summaries of a number of typical cases, 
taken from the court records of the Moro Province. 

It is perhaps not generally known that there are Moros in 
the southern third of Palawan, a province under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Philippine Legislature. When possible, they take 
and keep slaves. 

1 See appendix, p. 83. 



Slave hunting and keeping still prevail, to a limited extent, 
among the Manobos and Mandayas in the Province of Agusan, 
in Mindanao, although quite strictly confined to remote forest 
fastnesses where effective governmental control has not as yet 
been established. The slave-hunting raids formerly carried on 
by these tribes are historic, and in themselves afford adequate 
ground for impugning the honesty of anyone, assuming to speak 
with knowledge of the facts, who declares that slavery has not 
existed in the Philippines. 

It has been and still is a comparatively common thing for 
Filipinos living in territory adjacent to that inhabited by Ne- 
gritos, Tagbanuas, Ilongots, or Ifugaos to obtain children or 
adults of these tribes by capture or by purchase and to hold 
them as slaves, selling them to others when it proves financially 
advantageous to do so. Such unfortunates are clearly chattels, 
and are often sold repeatedly. 

A typical case is that of Lasso, a Tagbanua of Palawan. Lasso 
was bought from Patricio Tabastabas by Pastor Medina for 1*40. 
Pastor Medina sold him to Vicente Baculi for the same price. 
In 1912 Patricio Tabastabas bought him back again for 1*45. 
The following year he sold him to Benito Marcelo for 1*55. The 
Secretary-Treasurer of Palawan, who is also a justice of the 
peace, then gained knowledge of the case, which came before him 
because of trouble over this last payment. He sent the unfor- 
tunate Tagbanua back to the people of his tribe, and furnished 
me a statement of the facts.' Other cases of slaves sold over and 
over again will be found in the records which follow. 

Persons less rash than those of the class above referred to 
have made a qualified claim, to the effect that slavery does 
not exist, and never has existed, in the territory subject to 
the authority of the Philippine Legislature, as distinguished from 
the territory inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes 
and subject to the legislative authority of the Philippine Com- 
mission only. 

Sr. Manuel Quezon has loudly and recklessly voiced this claim 
in a letter to the editor of the New York Evening Post, from 
which I quote the following: 

"As a Filipino familiar with the facts in the case, I do not 
hesitate to qualify the letter of Secretary Worcester as being 
at once false and slanderous. It is false, because there does 
not exist slavery in the Philippines, or, at least, in that part of 
the country subject to the authority of the Philippine Assembly. 
It is slanderous because it presents the Philippine Assembly, by 
innuendo, if not openly, as a body which countenances slavery. 



"Since there is not, and there never was, slavery in the terri- 
tory inhabited by the Christian Filipinos, which is the part of 
the Islands subject to the legislative control of the Assembly, 
this House has refused to concur in the anti-slavery bill passed 
by the Philippine Commission." 

Palawan is one of the provinces "subject to the authority of 
the Philippine Assembly." It is possible that Sr. Quezon is 
so ignorant of conditions there as to be unaware of the in- 
disputable fact that the Moros of that province held slaves 
until compelled to give them up by a provincial government 
carried on under the administrative control of an American 
Secretary of the Interior, but if so, he has no rightful claim 
to be "a Filipino familiar with the facts." 

Isabela is a province "subject to the authority of the Philip- 
pine Assembly." It differs from Palawan in that the large 
majority of its inhabitants are Christian Filipinos, and in the 
further fact that it is organized under the Provincial Govern- 
ment Act, and is therefore not in any way subject to the control 
of the Secretary of the Interior. 

Slavery has been common in this province from the beginning 
of historic times, and it is common there to-day. 

Its occurrence is admitted, and the conditions under which it 
prevails are described, in a report by a fellow countryman of 
Sr. Quezon, Sr. Francisco Dichoso, who was governor of the 
province when he made it on September 9, 1903. 

The history of this interesting and important document is 
briefly as follows: 

On April. 28, 1903, the senior inspector of Constabulary in 
Isabela wired the first district chief of Constabulary, Manila, 
that: 

"In this province a common practice to own slaves. These 
are bought by propietarios (property owners. — D. C. W.) from 
Igorrotes and Calingas who steal same in distant places from 
other tribes. Young boys and girls are bought at about 100 
pesos, men 30 years old and old women cheaper. When bought, 
are generally christened and put to work on ranch or in house, 
and I think generally well-treated. In this town a number sold 
within last few months, and as reported to me, Governor has 
bought three. Shall I investigate further? Instructions desired. 

(Signed.) SOKENSON." 

Senior Inspector Sorenson was instructed to make a thorough 
investigation and a detailed report of the slave question. His 
report, which is of great interest, will be found in the appendix * 
(page 85). 



8 

Governor Taft forwarded it to Governor Dichoso with the 
following letter: 

"Manila, P. I., August 8, 1903. 
"Honorable Francisco Dichoso, 

"Governor of Isabela, Ilagan. 
"My dear Sir: I have a report from your province stating 
that slavery exists there. The report goes into further details^ 
as you will see by a copy which I enclose, and charges that you 
have a slave boy whom you purchased for a certain amount of 
money and that you are using him as a slave now. This, you 
know, is entirely contrary to the principles of the American 
Government and in the teeth of the Philippine Act, and if true, 
requires action on my part. I write that you may give me a 
frank statement of all the facts, and if slavery does prevail in 
your province, that we may be advised of it so that we may 
take radical steps to prevent its continuance. 
"Respectfully, 

(Signed.) "William H. Taft, 

"Civil Governor." 

In a letter addressed to the Honorable the Executive Secretary, 
under date of September 9, 1903, Governor Dichoso replied to 
this communication. I here quote the relevant statements of his 
report : 

"Having noted the contents of the official letter of the Honor- 
able the Civil Governor in the Philippine Islands, Mr. W. H. 
Taft, dated the 8th of August, last, and of the copy of the report 
annexed thereto, which were received yesterday, I have the honor 
to respectfully reply that during the 21 years, more or less, that 
I have resided in this provincial capital (Ilagan), I have never 
thought of buying a member or a child of the race mentioned 
in the report, or of any other tribe, to serve as a slave in my 
household, not for the reason that this is prohibited and punished 
by section 484 and the following sections of the Spanish Code 
now in force, relative to the crime of kidnapping, but because 
it goes against my nature to treat in this manner a person who, 
like all human beings alive, is a likeness of the Highest. This 
I prove by means of the documents annexed hereto. 

"I could easily have done so in time of the late Spanish Govern- 
ment, because I had good opportunities for doing so, and could 
have afforded to do so on account of my social position from that 
time on up to date, during which period I held successively the 
following public offices: 

******* 

"This having been my status, and considering the power and 
the opportunity which I had for obtaining slaves, I might not 
have had only one, but enough to harvest the tobacco on my 
plantation, and the other crops which I had planted. 

"Under the past Government there existed slaves in this prov- 
ince, but only a small number, for only wealthy families could 
afford to keep them. The same was the case in the neighboring 



Provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Cagayan; in the former they 
also used to have slaves of the Ifugao tribe, and in the latter 
Negritos, but very few of these. 

"Since the glorious Star-Spangled Banner has been unfolded 
over the Province of Isabela, the slaves existing in the same, 
which had been purchased in that time and recently, are very 
well treated and seem to be members of the family, because the 
military authorities prohibited their masters from ill-treating 
them as they were wont to do. Since then many of the slaves 
have run away from their owners and have sought new masters 
who treat them well, as it happened in the case of an Igorrote 
woman of the Ifugao tribe, who was about 40 years of age, and 
who had been in the service of a lady in the pueblo of Echague 
for many years. When, in the year 1900, the military enforced 
the prohibition of ill-treatment of slaves in the said pueblo, this 
Igorrote woman ran away and presented herself at my house, 
I being at this time justice of the peace of this provincial capital, 
and asked me to employ her as servant. My principle not to 
have slaves preventing me from complying with her wishes, 
I directed her to apply to Mr. Andres Claraval and his wife, 
Filomena Salinas. They accepted her, and a short time after- 
wards they had her baptized and christened Magdalena Claraval. 
She is being treated like an adopted daughter by them. 

"The gentlemen who are mentioned in the report as having 
purchased slaves really acquired Igorrotes by purchase and keep 
them in their house, some of them having died since. Some of 
these transactions were made in the Spanish times, as in the 
case of the late Mr. Policarpo Gangan, who bought 6 or 7 Ifu- 
gaos, which on his death he left to his children, Mr. Pedro 
Gangan, Mrs. Susana Gangan, Miss Maria Gangan, and Mrs. 
Rufma Gangan, and others who were made recently and secretly, 
while I was absent from town on official business in the pueblos 
•of this province. Mr. Thomas Gollayan, the late provincial 
secretary, bought two Igorrotes while I was in Manila in Decem- 
ber and January, last. They were well aware of the fact that 
I prosecuted kidnapping with tenacity, my object being to put 
a stop, if possible, to this abominable practice, which has since 
some time prevailed in the pueblos of this province. * * * 

"In order to prove that I endeavored to make the proper in- 
vestigation for the purpose of proving whether slavery really 
existed in this province, I have the honor to annex an affidavit 
by Agapito Telan, a resident of Ilagan, in which it appears that 
he sold Igorrotes of the Ifugao tribe to several residents of this 
town. I was unable to ascertain the numbers of Igorrotes of 
the same tribe sold by Modesto Sibal, Lorenzo Montevirgen, 
Lorenzo Montalvo, Andres Castro, and Cosme Ferrer, who are 
engaged in the same business as Agapito Telan, as it appears 
from the deposition of the latter, for the reason that these per- 
sons did not appear before me, although in 1902 I had on several 
occasions verbally requested the late municipal president, Mr. 
Pascual Paguirigan, to cause them to appear in an unofficial 
manner. I was not surprised that they did not appear before 
me, as Paguirigan was involved in the investigation, as it hap- 



10 

pened in the case of the aforesaid Agapito Telan, who appeared 
before me when I asked the acting municipal president to have 
him to do so. 

"I was afraid to direct those persons to appear before me by 
means of written orders, because I had not document or com- 
plaint whereon to base them, as required by the procedure now 
in force, and feared that on account of the unlawful nature of the 
summons they might proceed against me for coaccion, and sue 
me besides for damages. 

"According to my personal observation and to what I have 
seen in the other pueblos of this Province of Isabela, but prin- 
cipally in the provincial capital, the Igorrotes which are said 
to be slaves cannot be considered as such since the times of the 
military government, as they are considered and treated as 
members of the family of the chief of the household. Never- 
theless, I am and shall continue to be inexorable in the prosecu- 
tion of slavery, as it is a crime and should be prosecuted as such, 
in order to prevent at least that the persons engaged in this 
business commit this crime again. 

"It is my humble opinion that an act should be passed to the end 
of eradicating this practice which has become general through- 
out the Cagayan Valley. 1 Otherwise, as I have seen in my 
continual efforts, the provincial authorities cannot do anything 
to check the evil, however they may try. It is necessary that 
some one should be made to feel the rigor of the act suggested 
and suffer the punishment designated by it. 

"As a rule the inhabitants of this province already under- 
stand personal liberty and know that a person is entitled to go 
wherever he pleases, which liberty has given birth to the humane 
treatment of the fellow-men which now prevails. 

"Caciquism is still existing in parts of this province, but I 
am confident that with the cooperation of sensible persons in my 
continuous efforts it will be completely eradicated, and personal 
liberty will reign supreme, as in every republic where the laws 
assure complete and real liberty, the liberty from slavery-" 

As supporting documents Governor Dichoso forwarded with 
his letter a number of statements from persons resident in the 
capital of Isabela to the effect that during the twenty-one years 
that he had lived there he had never purchased, intended to pur- 
chase, or kept in his house any Igorrote of the Ifugao or any 
other tribe. 

In addition he forwarded a somewhat unique document in the 
form of a sworn statement by a slave dealer which is of such 
interest that I give it in its entirety : 

"I, Agapito Telan, a resident of this provincial capital (Ilagan) , 
certify: On the 19th of June, 1903, I was summoned by the 
provincial governor, Mr. Francisco Dichoso y Reyes, and when 

1 This valley includes the Provinces of Cagayan and Isabela. — D. C. W. 



11 

I was with him in the office of the provincial government, he and 
the secretary took my sworn deposition, as follows : 

"Upon being asked to state the number of children of the 
infidel tribe of the If ugaos sold by me to several residents of this 
provincial capital, the approximate age of these children, the 
names of the persons to whom they were sold, the number of 
children bought by these persons, the value of each of the said 
children, their sex, and the year, month, and day on which the 
said sales were made, deponent replied that in the year 1902, 
in the month of September, and on a day which he cannot re- 
member, he sold to the late Policarpo Gangan two Ifugao boys, of 
the ages of 8 and 9, respectively, for the sum of 360 Mexican 
dollars, another boy, 9 years of age, he sold to Juan Dauag for the 
sum of 180 Mexican dollars, and another boy, 8 years of age, he 
sold to Seferino Malana for the sum of 160 Mexican dollars, the 
latter two being sold on the same month and year aforementioned, 
and in Ilagan also. 

"In the year of 1903 the deponent sold a boy and a girl of the 
Ifugao tribe, who, judging by their physical development, were 
about 6 and 8 years old; the boy, six years of age, he sold to 
Pascual Paguirigan, late municipal president, and the girl to 
Dona Rufina Gangan, for the sum of 180 Mexican dollars each. 
This was in January, but deponent does not remember the day. 

"In February he sold a boy and a girl of the same tribe, 8 
years of age, the former to Cirilo Gantinao and the latter to Sal- 
vador Aggabao, for 180 Mexican dollars each. The purchasers 
are residents of this town. 

"Upon- being asked who are the other persons who, like de- 
ponent, are engaged in taking Ifugao children from the settle- 
ments of the infidels and then selling the same to whomever 
wants them, and that he state where they reside, deponent 
replied that the persons who are engaged in the same business 
as he, are Modesto Sibal, Lorenzo Monte- Virgen, and Lorenzo 
Montalvo, residents of the pueblo of Gamu, and Andres Castro 
and Cosme Ferrer, residents of this provincial capital. 

"Upon being asked whether he knew if these persons are like 
him engaged in the purchase of minors and what was the number 
of children taken by each during the year of 1902 and 1903, and 
if so, to state to whom they were sold, and at what price the 
deponent replied that he is completely ignorant of the matter in 
regard to which information is requested, but that it was pos- 
sible that they had taken more children, as they are living nearer 
to the settlements from which they are taken, and as they are 
able to make the trip three times to the defendant's once. 

"Asked what methods they employ for the purpose of getting 
children from that tribe, deponent says that all they do is to 
enter into a contract with those whom they consider their dattos 
or chiefs, and who come down from the mountains with the 
children, which are purchased from them by the persons engaged 
in this trade. 

"Asked to state the price of the children bought at the accus- 
tomed places for these transactions for the purpose of reselling 



12 

them, the deponent states that the children are sold at the same 
price at which they are purchased at that place. 

"He having thus stated, the foregoing was read to him, and he 
agreed to it, signing it after the Provincial Governor, which I, 
the secretary appointed for this act, attest. 

"Francisco Dichoso, 

"Provincial Governor. 
"Agapito Telan, 
"Fernando Domingo, 

"Secretary appointed. 
(Sgd.) "Agapito Telan. 
"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 10th day of Sep- 
tember, 1903. 

(Sgd.) "Francisco Tauad, 
"Clerk of the Court, Ilagan." 

Misamis is a regularly organized province, inhabited by Chris- 
tian Filipinos. 

In May, 1902, its Filipino governor, Sr. Manuel Corrales, was 
asked to report, and did report, on slavery in that province, 
under the following circumstances : 

On May 2, 1902, General George W. Davis telegraphed the 
Adjutant-General, Manila: ' 

"Following telegram respectfully repeated: 'Zamboanga, May 
1, 1902, via Malabang, to Wade. Commanding Officer, Misamis, 
reports April 30, that Presidente notified him that he was going 
to send armed party to capture two Moro slaves' which have 
escaped from their Filipino master whose names were not given. 
Says there are many Filipinos who own slaves. Presidente was 
told that the troops had nothing to do with civilian affairs. I 
have no doubt but that the Filipinos on the north coast here 
have many slaves. At Butuan I saw one in November that had 
been recently purchased.' " 

Governor-General Wright referred a copy of this telegram to 
Governor Corrales with an -indorsement : 

"calling his attention to the within communication, informa- 
tion is desired as to whether or not the within facts are true 
as stated, and also whether there are any persons held in in- 
voluntary servitude other than convicts within the province, and 
if so, that, full particulars be given." 

In reply Governor Corrales made the following report: 

"Cagayan de Mindanao, Misamis, May 31, 1902. 
"The Hon. Civil Governor of the Philippines. 

"In answer to your request for information in regard to slave 
holding in the province, I will say that in old times it was often 
the custom to have slave-servants in some of the rich families 



13 

of certain pueblos; these slaves were generally well treated, to 
such an extent that they were considered members of the house- 
hold, especially the female slaves. However, this only happened 
in pueblos which had frequent intercourse with the unchristian 
tribes, especially with the Moros, such as Iligan in the first 
place, on account of its proximity to the Laguna de Lanao, Mis- 
amis, whose south coast is entirely inhabited by Moros, Cagayan, 
Agusan, Tagoloan, and Balingasag, where the mountain tribes 
come to trade their native products, although on a smaller scale, 
on account of the character of the mountain tribes, which are 
more humane and more noble, if such a word can be applied 
to them. One still finds in these pueblos a few slave-servants, 
most of them acquired many years ago ; but the custom is grad- 
ually being lost, thanks to the prohibitory laws which had been 
established by the Spanish government. 

"Every time a slave in Cagayan or in the neighboring pueblos 
presented himself to the Spanish authorities or their represent- 
atives, and declared he wanted to be free, he was duly protected ; 
and as they all knew it, the only ones to remain at the service 
of the families are those who have no means of subsistence; 
and they can leave their service whenever they wish to do so, 
without being pursued by their masters. 

"At the present time, there are but few sales of slaves pro- 
ceeding from the mountain tribes, which are now relatively 
civilized. In Iligan and Misamis, I have heard that such sales 
were more frequent, for two reasons: (1) the Moro race is 
more despotic and more numerous; (2) the weekly market in 
Iligan gives them an opportunity to carry on that sort of busi- 
ness, although they have to do it by stealth, on account of the 
watchfulness of the authorities. 

"I will call your attention to the fact that the slaves proceeding 
from the Moro district constitute, in the Moro villages, an in- 
ferior social class, the slave family, whose origin is due to the 
prisoners taken by the Dattos on their expeditions; when they 
are transferred to the Christians in Iligan or Misamis, because 
their masters wish to make money, or are hard pressed by the 
famines which are so frequent in the region of the Lanao, their 
condition is considerably improved by the good treatment and 
the better and more abundant food which they obtain in their 
new situation, by the mere fact that they live with a more civil- 
ized people. 

"Those who come from the mountain tribes are not born slaves ; 
with few exceptions, the chiefs and principal men of these tribes 
do not own slaves which they use for their service or for agri- 
cultural work, as the Moros do. Slaves are generally obtained 
in the following way : 

"It happens that a chief with bellicose and sanguinary in- 
stincts, who leads a nomad life and does not belong to the peace- 
ful class which is given to farm life, organizes a gang of men 
of his sort, makes incursions in the wildest parts of the woods 
and raids the lone huts inhabited by savage and nomad families ; 



14 

he kills by treachery the grown up people and carries off the 
children, which he can easily master; he then sells them to the 
peaceful farm dwellers, who sell them in their turn to the Chris- 
tian pueblos. 

"As I have already said, such cases are happily rare. In 
Iligan and Misamis, which are far from the capital of the prov- 
ince, and therefore from the Court and the provincial author- 
ities, the slaves have had less opportunity to claim their rights, 
and it is not astonishing that neither the slaves nor their masters 
have a true notion of what is meant by individual liberty, al- 
though the former are at least sure of their lives since they left 
the jurisdiction of the Moros, at whose absolute mercy they were, 
and are much better treated among the Christians. 

"I intend taking all necessary measures within my jurisdiction 
in order to put an end to such a hateful trade, and wait for any 
further instructions which you may deem it convenient to give 
me. 

"I can give you no information in regard to Butuan, as there 
are no communications between the two provinces, although they 
are neighbors. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Manuel Corrales, Governor." 

Ambos Camarines is a regularly organized province subject to 
the control of the Philippine Assembly, yet since the American 
occupation Filipino children have been sold there into slavery 
for deportation to China. 

The essential facts were reported by the Filipino governor 
and the Filipino fiscal of the province. The former official sent 
the following telegram : 

"Nueva Caceres, November 13, 1903. 
"Civil Governor, Manila. 

"Fiscal Contreras has just discovered trade in children, sold 
by their parents or relatives to the Chinese under the pretense 
that they are too poor to support them. Seven children were 
gathered up to-day, and the Chinese produced documents stating 
that the children had been adopted. According to the Fiscal 
this is illegal, as they had no judicial authorization, and the truth 
is that those children were sold. This is a new social phenomena 
(sic) which has appeared in this province and which calls for 
severe punishment; but I believe there is no law for the sup- 
pression of this crime, and desire that an act in the premises be 
immediately passed. It seems that there are more children in 
the same situation, and the Fiscal is conducting an investigation 
for the purpose of discovering other cases of this kind. Three 
boys by the names of Mamerto and Marcos Quilon and Juan 
Chiquitin, accompanied Joy the Chinese Colin and Dycheico, 
embarked on the S. S. 'Montafies,' which sailed here on the 11th 
instant for Manila, for China. I trust that the necessary orders 
be given for the arrest of the said Chinese and boys, and that 



15 

they be remitted to this province and placed at the disposal of 
the Fiscal. 

"Pimentel, Governor." 

I have been informed that it was the custom of the Chinese of 
this province, who bought children to send to China, promptly to 
give them a Chinese haircut and dress them in Chinese costumes. 

It is especially interesting to note that these Chinese claimed 
that they were purchasing children for adoption, this being the 
defense often given by Filipinos who purchase Negrito children 
to be held as slaves. 

The provincial fiscal of Ambos Camarines telegraphed the 
Attorney-General at Manila relative to this case as follows : 

"Nueva Caceres, November 13, 1903. 
"Hon. Wilfley, Attorney-General, Manila. 

"I have just discovered traffic in children which are sold to 
Chinamen by parents and relatives alleging poverty and impos- 
sibility to maintain them. Seven boys were recovered to-day 
from the Chinamen on my orders and are lodged in the municipal 
building. I have summoned relatives to commence investigation 
and file the case before the court. I believe no law exists to 
repress this scandalous case; I request your support for im- 
mediate approval as it is a social phenomena (sic) recently 
appeared in this province, under the pretext of misery. China- 
men are arrested ; I await resolution. 

"Contreras, Fiscal." 

The papers were referred to the Civil Governor by the 
Attorney-General with a statement to the effect that "the Penal 
Code does not apply to this case." They were referred by the 
Civil Governor to the Secretary of Commerce and Police for 
consideration in connection with the Criminal Code and on 
November 16, 1903, the Attorney-General telegraphed the fiscal 
of Ambos Camarines as follows: 

"Provincial Fiscal, Nueva Caceres. 

"No law punishing traffic in children. I advise that Chinamen 
be released and children restored to their parents. Give China- 
men and parents to understand that the contract is illegal, is 
immoral, and cannot be enforced. 

"Attorney-General." 

It appears, however, that an effort was later made to reach 
some of the Chinamen under the Penal Code, for on December 18, 
1903, the prosecuting attorney indorsed the papers as follows : 

"The three Chinamen, Dy Bocco, Dy Cico, and Dy Liaoco, 
within named, have been apprehended and charged in the Court 



16 

of First Instance with the crime of illegal detention, and have 
been released on bail pending transfer of cause and defendants 
to Camarines for trial. 

"The three little boys, Memerto and Marcus Quilon and Juan 
Chiquitin were taken into custody at the same time and have 
since been kept in the family of an operative of the Secret 
Service Bureau of the city of Manila. These little boys are 
entirely ignorant of the transaction referred to in Gov. Pimentel's 
telegram and are of such tender age as to be useless as witnesses. 
The Secret Service Bureau have asked for instructions as to 
what disposition is to be made of these three boys ; such instruc- 
tions this office is unable to give. The return of the boys to 
Camarines may result in their being again turned over to the 
same Chinamen or resold to others, as it appears that they have 
no near relatives living. 

"It is respectfully requested that this paper be returned with an 
expression of the wishes of the Honorable the Civil Governor. 

(Sgd.) "Chas. H. Smith, 

"Prosecuting Attorney." 

By direction of the Civil Governor the three boys were returned 
to their homes. Their subsequent fate is unknown to me. 

Romblon is a subprovince of Capiz, a regularly organized prov- 
ince, inhabited almost exclusively by Christian Filipinos. It 
has a Filipino lieutenant-governor. On October 9, 1909, he 
telegraphed the Executive Secretary as follows : 

"Romblon, October 9, 1909. 
"Exsec, Manila. 

"Retel yesterday Vicente Montiel representing himself agent 
for Society Manila seeks to secure one hundred students from 
Romblon. By claiming to represent Government leads pupils 
to believe they are securing scholarships. Guarantees expenses, 
and schooling. Pupils are to have work as clerks and to receive 
income for same. About seventy Romblon school boys aged ten 
to eighteen are said to have signed agreement to sail on first 
boat. Parents and guardians not consulted. Some have no 
knowledge of proposition. Is the act of Montiel enticing children 
from school unlawful? 

(Sgd.) "Sanz." 

In a letter dated July 5, 1913, Governor Sanz has made the 
following statements to me concerning this extraordinary effort 
of this man to take seventy-odd Filipino school children from a 
subprovincial capital, without the knowledge or consent of their 
parents, and, as it was later proved that he had actually suc- 
ceeded in doing in a number of cases, to sell them outright in 



17 

remote towns or to turn them over as "servants" at such salaries 
as ¥=4.00 per month : 

THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF CAPIZ, 

SUBPROVINCE OF ROMBLON, 

ROMBLON, P. I. 

"Office of the Lieutenant-Governor, 

"Romblon, July 5, 1913. 

"Sir: In view of your verbal request, I have the honor to 
submit the following report on the case of abduction of minors 
that has occurred in this subprovince of Romblon : 

"About the beginning of the month of October, 1909, the 
undersigned lieutenant-governor was advised by the head-teacher 
of the schools of this subprovince that one Vicente Montiel, 
acting under orders from one Amando Nicandro, had recruited 
a considerable number of boys of the provincial and municipal 
schools of Romblon, numbering about seventy, all minors, who 
had been enrolled to be taken to Manila under the deceitful 
promise that said Amando Nicandro would place them in a 
school and that besides studying, they would earn wages. 

"In view of this deceitful offer the boys, lacking experience 
in such matters and being desirous of thus securing an education, 
were ready and willing to follow said Amando Nicandro, with- 
out the previous knowledge and consent of their parents. 

"Certain men and women, the fathers and mothers of the 
boys thus inveigled, also came to this office and requested the 
authorities to find their boys who had absented themselves from 
their homes without their knowledge, and only after the investi- 
gations did they learn that their boys had been enticed away 
in such a despicable manner by the aforesaid Amando Nicandro. 
******* 

"I must further inform you that it appears from the investiga- 
tion made in this matter and from data acquired by me, that 
Amando Nicandro and Ponciano Abanilla made it a business to 
look for men and women to work at Pagsanjan, and also to trade 
in boys of minor age, as happened in the case of the boys Aniceto 
Maaba, Aniceto Malasa, Emeterio Musico, and Emeterio Sal- 
divar, whom Amando Nicandro left in certain houses in Manila 
and Capiz, where said boys were to work as servants, and for 
each of the said boys Nicandro received the sum of 1*10.00 from 
the employers with whom he left the boys. 

"These boys left their homes without the knowledge and con- 
sent of their fathers and mothers, and in order to find them 
and make them return to their parents, on the latter's request, 
the undersigned had to make use of the services of the Manila 
Secret Service and of the Constabulary inspector at Capiz, except 
in the case of a boy by the name of Aniceto Maaba, who has not 
yet returned to his home, nor are his whereabouts known. 

"Thanks to the timely notice given to the undersigned lieu- 

118937 2 



18 

tenant-governor, it was possible to prevent the other boys who 
had been enlisted, as above described, from absenting them- 
selves." 

The men concerned in this transaction were arrested and tried, 
and the principal, who had been working under an assumed name, 
was convicted of abduction of minors. He appealed and lost. 
Governor Sanz worked for months to get back the children 
whom this "chief of an employment bureau" had actually suc- 
ceeded in abducting from Romblon. Some of them Were found 
in northern Panay, others in central Luzon. The following is 
the statement of one of them: 

"Statement of Aniceto Malaza, taken in the Office of the Secret Service 
Bureau at 8.A5 p. in., January 11, 1910, n the presence of Detectives 
Hartpence and Alvarez; interpreted by Hartpence. 

"Q. What is your name, age, residence and occupation? — A. 
Aniceto Malaza; 16 years; 238 Calle Solidad, Tondo; servant; 
I was born in Romblon, Romblon; my fathers's name is Leon 
Malaza ; he is a farmer and resides in the outskirts of Romblon, 
owning some land there; my mother, Maria Mores, is dead; 
I have two brothers and three sisters, Juan, Luis, Petrona, Isi- 
dora, and Lucena, aged 21, 18, 34, 28, and 24, respectively. 

"Q. Are you willing to make a voluntary statement regarding 
the shipment of sixteen native boys from Romblon to Manila on 
the S. S. Ramoncito during the month of October, 1909 ? — A. Yes, 
sir. I have been in Manila since October 3, 1909 ; I left Romblon 
and embarked on the S. S. Ramoncito October 1st ; Vicente Mon- 
tiel, a storekeeper in Romblon, asked me if I wished to go to 
Manila and go to school at the Government's expense. I told 
him yes. He took me to his house in Romblon, where I met 
a number of other boys. I stayed there about two hours when 
Ponciano Abanillo came and took me and eleven other boys from 
Montiel's house aboard the S. S. Ramoncito. We asked him 
where he was going to take us and he answered that we would 
be educated by the Government in Manila. 

"Q. Do you know the names of the other boys who came with 
you to Manila? — A. Vicente Zobal, Higino Vidal, and Aniceto 
Maaba ; I don't remember the others. 

"Q. Did your parents know you were coming to Manila? — A. 
No, sir. 

"Q. Do you know whether or not Vicente Morttiel received 
any money for these eleven other boys ? — A. No, sir. 

"Q. Did Ponciano Abanillo receive any money for them? — A. I 
don't know. I was informed by my mistress, Escolastica Real, 
that she gave him 1*10.00 for me. I arrived in Manila on October 
3d, and was taken by Ponciano Abanillo to the house of Antonina 
Samanego, No. 151 Calle Elcano, in company with fourteen other 
boys. I worked one month there. The other boys were taken 
by Abanillo the next morning to Laguna Province. 



19 

"Q. How much salary did you receive from Antonina Sama- 
nego ? — A. I received my salary, 1*4.00 per month, from Escolas- 
tica Real, who was living in the same house as E. Real at that 
time. She moved on the 15th of November, 1909, to No. 238 
Calle Solidad. 

"Q. Do you know Lazaro Villanueva? — A. No, sir. 

"Q. Do you know Amado Nicandro? — A. No, sir. 

"Q. Do you wish to return to Romblon? — A. Yes, sir. 

"Q. Did you come to Manila of your own free will, or were 
you compelled to do so? — A. I told them I wanted to come to 
Manila, because they informed me I could go to school in Manila. 

"Q. Have you any relatives in Manila? — A. No, sir. 

"Q. Do you know where any of the other boys who came to 
Manila with you, are living at the present time ? — A. No, sir. 

"Q. Is all that you have stated to me the truth ? — A. Yes, sir." 

I quote the following extract from the decision of the Supreme 
Court in this case : 

"At Romblon, Vicente Montiel was the agent whom Nicandro 
used for persuading and attracting those who wished to leave for 
Manila, the boys being told that they were to go to Manila to 
study at the expense of the Government. This work of propa- 
ganda and seduction produced the effect that many boys left the 
paternal home without the consent of their parents who, alarmed 
at the disappearance of their children, complained to the admin- 
istrative authorities. Equally great was the panic in the public 
schools, where the teachers noticed within the brief space of a 
week the exodus of a considerable number of pupils and found 
it necessary to adopt measures in order to remedy the evil." 

The significant thing about this case is that the offender, who 
had previously taken a number of school children away from 
Romblon under promise of free education in Manila at Govern- 
ment expense, and sold them or hired them out, had found the 
market so good that he was anxious to take seventy more in 
one lot. 

I may add, as illustrating the difficulties I have encountered 
in getting even the facts which are already of official record in 
regard to slavery and peonage, that although there were records 
concerning this case both in the files of the Executive Bureau 
and in the office of the Philippine Constabulary, and although 
I had long since requested that all records of this sort be fur- 
nished me, and had been assured that I had been furnished all 
that could be found, I by pure accident learned of this case from 
Governor Sanz himself on July 4, 1913, and am indebted to him 
for certified copies of the numerous documents pertaining to it. 

A responsible employee of the Bureau of Customs made the 



20 

following report to the Insular Collector of Customs on July 
1, 1913 : 

"In connection with recent statements in the press, relative 
to the existence of slavery in this country, I have to report an 
incident which occurred several days ago in connection with the 
investigation of a Chinese merchant from Cadiz Nuevo, Occ. 
Negros, who was about to embark for China and sought to 
establish his status as a merchant. His name is Luiong Co and 
he is a partner in a firm doing business under the name of Se 
Quio Co and Company. 

"In the course of the examination the information was 
developed that he owned a girl 17 years old, named Miguela, 
having purchased her from his partner Se Quio Co three years 
ago for the sum of ?20.00. According to his testimony, Se Quio 
Co had been made a present of -the girl by her sister. 

"The ownership of household slaves who are regularly bought 
and sold is so common in Negros, so I am informed, that it 
excites no special interest among foreigners who are familiar 
with such forms of servitude. I am led to believe, however, 
that in the case of Chinese slave owners the ulterior motive in 
many instances, especially if the slaves are females, is to take 
them to China where they are sold as servants to wealthy Chinese. 
This belief is something more than a theory, as evidenced by a 
talk yesterday with a very prominent English-speaking China- 
man who went so far as to acknowledge that they were taken to 
China for servants in Chinese families. In the case under 
investigation, I conferred with the local director of Constabulary 
and referred it to him for investigation. 

"Immediately following the investigation of Luiong Co, which 
was more or less published in the Chinese community due to the 
fact that I personally took a hand in the proceedings, another 
Chinaman — Dy Ynsi — a laborer, appeared before the Immigra- 
tion Inspector and took out return papers for himself and his 
son, Ceferino, age 10 years. He made no mention whatsoever 
of two Filipino girls Caridad Dy, age 17, and Filomena Dy, 
age 4. An examination of the Taming passenger manifest, after 
departure, showed that he embarked with two sons and the two 
Filipino girls mentioned above. 

"This matter is brought to your attention in view of my 
suspicions, which seem reasonable, that young Filipino girls are 
being taken to China for other than legitimate purposes. The 
fact that female children are commonly bought and sold in China 
is corroborative evidence that a Chinese laborer who leaves this 
country with two Filipino girls, whom he has failed to mention 
in the investigation by the Immigration Inspector, probably 
intends to dispose of them upon arrival in China. 

"The Chinaman Luiong Co made no pretense of concealing his 
ownership of the girl Miguela, as will be seen by copy of evidence 
taken by the undersigned, transmitted herewith. In the case of 



21 

Dy Ynsi his failure to mention the two girls was probably due to 
the investigation of the other case. 

"Instructions have been given which will increase the vigilance 
at this port." 

Governor Dichoso, of Isabela, was succeeded by George Curry, 
whose record as a "rough rider" in Cuba, a captain of United 
States volunteer troops in the Philippines, and as governor of 
New Mexico, is well known. 

On November 30, 1904, Governor Curry made the following 
statement in a letter to Governor-General Luke E. Wright: 

"There is one other matter which developed the last term of 
court, and that is, that, although there is an act of Congress 
prohibiting slavery in the Philippine Islands, there has been 
no legislation by the Commission providing a penalty therefor. 

"I have, in many cases, however, taken children away from 
people who were holding them as slaves and had the parties 
arrested, but they were released by the court, as there was no law 
on the subject. However, the slaves in every case were delivered 
to somebody who would provide for them, but I would recom- 
mend that the Commission pass a law providing penalties for 
the sale and purchase of slaves. I think, however, that we have 
the matter checked temporarily, at least, in this province. The 
different wild tribes have been told that they would be punished 
for selling as well as for buying slaves, and we have had it 
published generally in all of the towns that any one caught pur- 
chasing slaves would be punished severely and the slaves taken 
away from them. 

"Of course, in many cases where children have grown up 
practically as members of the family they live with and have 
been well treated and don't even know their fathers and mothers, 
it is not possible, or is it advisable even if it were possible, to 
take any action. 

"I presume Judge McCabe has called the attention of the 
Commission to this fact." 

Governor Curry temporarily checked slave dealing in Isabela 
by a bold bluff. It did not stay checked under his Filipino 
successors. 

I have not the slightest doubt that Sr. Quezon is, as he says, 
"a Filipino familiar with the facts." I trust that he may be 
authoritatively asked why, knowing them, he made the reck- 
lessly false statement that "there is not, and never was, slavery 
in the territory inhabited by the Christian Filipinos, which is the 
part of the Islands subject to the legislative control of the 
Assembly." 

The question will, with propriety, be asked, What was done to 
remedy the conditions revealed by the reports above referred to? 



22 

Promptly upon the receipt of Senior Inspector Sorenson's re- 
port relative to slavery in Isabela Governor Taft indorsed the 
papers as follows : 

[Fifth indorsement.] 

"Office of the Civil Governor, 

"Manila, August 13, 1903. 
"The Senior Inspector of Constabulary in the Province of 
Isabela reports that there is quite a slave trade in the Cagayan 
Valley. The report of Sorenson, the Inspector, is submitted to 
the Commission and I suggested a reference to Commissioner 
Wright in order that he may include in the Criminal Code some 
clauses which will enable us to reach this abuse. 

(Sgd.) "Wm. H. Taft, 

"Civil Governor." 

The report was, by direction of the Commission, referred to 
Commissioner Wright as suggested by Governor Taft for con- 
sideration in connection with a proposed new Criminal Code which 
was being prepared, under his general supervision, for enact- 
ment. An immense amount of work was necessary on this code, 
and it was never completed and enacted. Various matters need- 
ing attention have since been reached through the medium of 
special laws, and it is obvious that it was intended to pursue 
this course in this instance as is shown by the fact that Governor 
Dichoso's reply was forwarded to General Wright on October 19, 
1903, with the following indorsement : 

[First indorsement.] 

"Executive Bureau, 
"Manila, October 19, 1903. 
"Respectfully referred to the Secretary of Commerce and 
Police, for his information and consideration in connection with 
the proposed Act denouncing slavery and kidnapping and kindred 
offenses as crimes. 

(Sgd.) "Wm. H. Taft, 

"Civil Governor." 

Why such an Act was not drafted and passed I do not know. 
I was then absent on leave and did not even learn of the existence 
of any of the above-quoted documents at the time of their re- 
ceipt and reference. I then entertained the belief, still held by 
some Americans, that both slavery and the sale and purchase of 
human beings could be adequately punished under certain provi- 
sions of the Spanish Penal Code, which were then, and still are, 
in effect. 

My personal attention was forcibly drawn to this matter when 
I first inspected Nueva Vizcaya in 1905. The territory occupied 



23 

by the Ifugaos, since separated as a subprovince of the Mountain 
Province, was then a part of Nueva Vizcaya, which had been 
organized as a province under a specal act and was, in a way, 
subject to my executive control. 

Its governor, Louis G. Knight, called my attention to the fact 
that Ifugao children were frequently enslaved by Filipinos of 
Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela. I asked him to get specific data so 
that we might prosecute the offenders. He soon sent to the 
Executive Secretary a report which, because of its importance, 
I insert in its entirety : 

"BAYOMBONG, P. I., August 28, 1905. 
"The Executive Secretary, Manila, P. I. 

"SIR : I have the honor to make the following brief report of 
the details of certain recent cases of buying and selling of Igo- 
rotes as servants or slaves in this province and the adjoining 
province of Isabela and to recommend that legislation be enacted 
providing adequate punishment for any offenses of the kind that 
may occur in future. 

"I can find nothing whatever in the Penal Code defining or 
punishing as a crime the buying or selling of human beings. 

"I recommend that this crime be defined and punished in the 
proposed new Penal Code and that it be made a crime for the 
parents of children of tender years to part with the custody of 
their children without an order of the Court of First Instance 
providing for the child's proper maintenance and education by 
the party adopting him and absolutely forbidding that any con- 
sideration pass between the child's natural guardians and the 
persons wishing to adopt it, and that the law cover other points 
that do not now seem to be adequately covered that will be sug- 
gested by the details of the following cases. 

"In the early part of this year an Igorote boy about fourteen 
years of age was taken by force or surprise from Sapao district, 
this province, and delivered by his captors, who were Igorrotes 
of Sapao, to certain Igorrotes of Anao district, who accompanied 
by other Igorrotes from Quiangan in an armed band took the boy 
by Igorrote trails across the mountains into Isabela and sold him 
to a woman of Echague, that Province, for ¥=140. He was held 
there by her as a slave until a few days ago, being told that his 
mistress had arranged that the Americans should shoot and kill 
him if he attempted to escape. Arrests have been made of five 
of the guilty parties by the authorities of the respective provinces 
on the charge of illegal detention and the others will be appre- 
hended shortly. 

"In February of the present year an Igorrote man of Anao 
district, this province, turned over to an Igorrote woman, An- 
tonia, of Quiangan, a stolen girl 7 to 9 years of age to be taken 
to a christian town and sold for f*100. 

"The child was sold by the woman in Solano to Tomas Ca- 
banag, a well to do Christian native of Cauayan, Isabela, for 



24 

¥100, who took the child to his home in Cauayan there selling her 
to Mariano Lopez a wealthy resident of Cauayan, for 5*200, 
making ¥=100 by the transaction. 

"Antonia spent ¥20 of the ¥100 she had received for this girl 
and tendered the remaining ¥80 to the Igorrote from whom she 
had received the girl. 

"The Igorrote refused the ¥80 demanding his ¥100, where- 
upon the arrangement was made that with the ¥80 another child 
should be bought and sold at an advance so that she could pay 
the ¥100 which she admitted owing the Igorrote from whom she 
received the girl. 

"She learned from other Igorrotes that a stolen boy was for 
sale in the rancheria of Cababuyan in the district of that name. 
She went to Cababuyan, purchased the boy for ¥80. The boy 
says the Igorrotes from whom she purchased him stole him from 
his father's house while the Igorrotes themselves say that (they) 
were acting with the consent of the father, they having paid the 
father in pigs and chickens for him. 

"The father will be apprehended in a few days and this point 
cleared up. Antonia having kept the boy a while at her house 
in Quiangan, took him to Solano to Miguel Manat, a christian 
resident of Solano, with whom she had previously talked about 
selling a child when she could procure one. 

"Miguel, according to his own testimony, was afraid to pur- 
chase and came to Bayombong to ask the advice of Don Ramon 
Arriola, former Provincial Fiscal, and now Deputy Clerk of the 
Court of First Instance. 

"Arriola, according to Manat's statement, advised him that his 
(Arriola's) wife would go to Solano to see the boy with a view 
of purchasing. She did so on the following day bringing back 
to Bayombong the woman Antonia and the boy. 

"Then, it appears from the statement of the witnesses, that 
after a conference between the Arriolas and Antonia at Arriola's 
house the purchase of the boy was made by Sefiora Arriola on the 
following day, she paying Antonia ¥116 for him. 

"Again in May pf this year an Igorote boy of 7 or 8 years of 
age living with his mother in the rancheria of Cababuyan was 
surprised in the dark of the evening and carried off by five armed 
Igorrotes before his mother's eyes, she not knowing where he 
had been taken. 

"These Igorrotes took him to Quiangan and afterward across 
the mountains into Isabela and there sold him to a citizen of 
Echague for ¥110. In this case and in the first case mentioned 
the buyers, very intelligent natives, confessed that they had 
purchased the boys as they would a horse or carabao and 
regarded them as their personal property. 

"In the month of January last as has just been reported to 
the Senior Inspector of Constabulary of this province that two 
Igorrote women being held as slaves in Carig, Isabela, by 
'Capitan' Vicente Tumang (now Concejal of Carig and 'Commi- 
sionado' or ex-commisionado for the Ilongote rancheria of Payu- 



25 

pay) escaped from their master and tried to escape into Nueva 
Vizcaya over the regular trail to Bagabag. They were pursued 
by the municipal police of Carig, overtaken on or near Bagabag, 
and returned to their master and say that he threatened them 
with death if they again attempted to escape. 

"The fiscal of the Mountain District will arrive here in a few 
days to take charge of the preparation of these and other cases 
for presentation to the Court of First Instance, and he also 
will doubtless make such recommendation to his department as 
he deems appropriate regarding needed legislation in the 
premises. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Louis G. Knight, 
"Governor of Nueva Vizcaya." 

On September 20, 1905, this report was referred to me as 
Secretary of the Interior by the Executive Secretary and on 
September 22 was by me forwarded to the Honorable Luke E. 
Wright, Governor-General, with an indorsement 

"inviting attention to the inclosed statements from the Governor 
of Nueva Vizcaya, relative to the traffic in Igorrote children in 
his province. 

"The undersigned has reason to believe that Negrito children 
and children of other non-Christian tribes are occasionally 
bought and sold by civilized natives, and is strongly of the opinion 
that in case the Penal Code does not provide adequate punish- 
ment for such offenses, it should be so amended as to make 
it possible to inflict severe penalties upon those who buy and 
sell human beings in this Archipelago. 

(Signed.) "Dean C. Worcester, 

"Secretary of the Interior." 

The papers were referred by Governor-General Wright to the 
Attorney-General, 

"for an opinion as to whether there is not some provision in 
the present Penal Code which will provide adequate punishment 
for such offenses as are related herein." 

The opinion of the Attorney-General rendered in response to 
this request reads as follows: 

"Respectfully returned to the Honorable the Governor-General 
of the Philippine Islands, with the following opinion: 

"The acts given in the attached letter of the Provincial Gov- 
ernor of Nueva Vizcaya, dated September 14, 1905, in so far 
as they refer to the purchase and sale of human beings, are not 
provided for or punished under the existing Penal Code; but 
such actions are punishable under that Code when they consti- 
tute either the kidnapping of a minor, illegal detention or serious 
threats, according to sections 481, 484 and 494 thereof. 



26 

"Therefore, in accordance with the fourth paragraph of the 
letter of the said Provincial Governor, I am of the opinion that 
not only the Igorrotes who stole the Igorrote boy, but also those 
who received and sold him, as well as the woman who bought him 
for forty pesos, are guilty of illegal detention. The latter is 
furthermore guilty of grave threats, inasmuch as she threatened 
to kill the purchased Igorrote if he tried to escape from her 
service. 

"With reference to paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the attached 
letter, I believe that those who stole the little Igorrote and also 
the woman Antonia, who sold him when knowing him to have 
been kidnapped, are guilty of the offense of illegal detention. 

"If the boy who was stolen and sold, referred to in paragraphs 
9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the enclosed letter, was under seven years 
of age, then those who stole him are guilty of the offense of kid- 
napping a minor, and the Igorrote woman, Antonia, and the 
wife of Sefior Arriola, the Clerk of the Court, are accomplices 
in the crime. But if the child was over seven years old, then 
the offense would be illegal detention. The same may be said 
of the case recounted in paragraphs 14 and 15 of this communi- 
cation. The parties who stole, sold and bought the little Igorrote 
are guilty of kidnapping a minor or of illegal detention according 
to the age of the victim. 

"The acts committed by Captain Vicente Tomang, referred 
to in paragraph 16 of this letter, are punishable both as a serious 
threat and as illegal detention, because he unlawfully deprived 
the two Igorrote women of their liberty when they desired to 
leave his service, for which purpose he threatened to kill them. 

"Although not asked for in the endorsement to which this 
is a reply, I venture to suggest that the Igorrotes who armed 
themselves and formed a band for the purpose of kidnapping 
persons for subsequent sale, be punished under Act 1121, which 
penalizes as bandolerismo the abduction of persons for any pur- 
pose, even though there may be no extortion or ransom demanded, 
if the abduction be done by an armed band. 

(Signed.) "L. R. Wilfley, 

"Attorney-General." 

Encouraged by the opinion of the Attorney-General to think 
that something could be done under existing law, I returned 
the papers, together with the opinion, to the governor of Nueva 
Vizcaya and three test suits were brought as promptly as possible. 

Ramon Arriola and Amanda Martinez were prosecuted for 
illegal detention. They were acquitted, the judge basing his 
action on the erroneous belief that the boy sold was an orphan 
and on the further undoubted facts that he was not locked up, 
watched and guarded, menaced, or threatened nor in any way 
by force deprived of his liberty and freedom, at least while in 
the custody of Seiior Arriola, and was well treated by that 
gentleman. 



27 

Governor Knight quotes the following as the statement of 
the boy in question: 

"I am an Igorrote, do not know my age, I lived with my 
father in the rancheria Banbang of Cababuyan. One day during 
the planting of the palay, I was left alone at our house, my 
father having gone to Banaue, and a man named 'Pali' came 
to our house and grabbed me by the arm and took me away 
with him, I cried and pulled back and begged to be let loose 
saying that I did not want to go with him, but he took me to 
his house in~ rancheria 'Halihi' where I was kept under guard 
and required to work, and poorly fed until about a month ago, 
a man named 'Buyag' was there and was the companion of 'Pali,' 
and they both told me that I was to be sold in Quiangan, I pro- 
tested that I did not want to be sold but it did no good, they 
finally took me to Quiangan and turned me over to a woman, 
named 'Antonia,' saying that she would take me to some of 
the towns and sell me, then they went away. Some time later 
'Antonia' took me to Solano where I was shown to 'Amanda,' and 
later I was brought to Bayombong along with Amanda, Antonia 
and Maria (the companions of Amanda) and I was left at the 
house of Amanda where I was required to work as a servant, 
I did not go to school nor was I given lessons or taught in any 
way, just required to work as a servant. I saw Amanda pay 
some money to Antonia and 'I knew that I was being sold and 
that I would have to stay at the house of Amanda and work. My 
father's name is Taguiling and he lives in Bangbang of Caba- 
buyan, I want to go back to him." 

There was unquestionably a grave miscarriage of justice in 
this case. 

The judge stated in his decision that Senor Arriola's repre- 
sentative had taken particular pains to ascertain that the boy 
was an orphan. Senor Arriola himself had told Governor Knight 
that he thought the woman who sold the boy was his mother, 
and had stated that he intended to keep him as a house servant 
but would give him up if the authorities so desired. It was 
doubtless true that Senor Arriola was not guilty of illegal 
detention within the technical meaning of that term and there 
was no law to punish him for buying a boy and holding him as a 
slave unless he used physical force in detaining him. 

Antonio Dumay and Guinalot were prosecuted for illegal deten- 
tion. Guinalot died in jail while awaiting trial. Dumay was 
convicted and the case was not appealed. This was an instance 
of the capture of an Ifugao boy by armed men, and his subsequent 
sale to a Christian Filipino in Isabela. 

The third test case has become historic. It was brought 
against Tomas Cabanag, a well-known slave dealer who made a 



28 

business of buying and selling Ifugao children. He was charged 
with illegal detention in connection with the admitted sale, by 
him, of an Ifugao girl named Jimaya (or Gamaya) . 

He was convicted in the lesser court. The opinion and decision 
of the judge are given in full in the appendix (p. 89) . I quote 
here the following extract therefrom : 

"The Congress of the United States has declared that human 
slavery shall not exist in these islands and while no law, so far 
as I can discover; has yet been passed either defining slavery in 
these islands or affixing a punishment for those who engage in 
this inhuman practice as dealers, buyers, sellers, or derivers, the 
facts established in this case show conclusively that the child 
Jimaya was by the defendant forcibly and by fraud, deceit and 
threats unlawfully deprived of her liberty and that his object 
and purpose was an unlawful and illegal one, to wit, the sale of 
the child for money into human slavery. This constitutes the 
crime of Detention ilegal defined and penalized by Article 481 
of the Penal Code and this Court finds the defendant guilty as 
charged in the information." 

The case was promptly appealed to the Supreme Court and 
was there lost, on March 16, 1907. The judgment of the Supreme 
Court is also given in the appendix (p. — ) . 

As to the facts, the court found, in part, that : 

"Buyag testified that more than two years before, in order to 
help the family after the father's death and for the purpose of 
keeping the child at home, he had bought her for three pigs, 
twenty-five hens, two measures of rice, and a cloak worth two 
pigs, from her mother, with whom she remained until the third 
year, when (her mother presumably having died) she was 
brought away by one Eusebio, at the instance of himself and 
another Igorot named Yog Yog, who had furnished part of the 
purchase price. Together they instructed Eusebio to sell her 
for a carabao and 50 pesos. Eusebio, together with his sister, 
Antonia, brought her to Quiangan, in the Province of Nueva 
Vizcaya, and sold her to the accused, Tomas Cabanag, for 100 
pesos. 

"In respect to this last sale, the stories of Tomas, Antonia, 
and the girl substantially agree. 

"Cabanag had previously been instructed to buy a girl by one 
Mariano Lopez of Caoayan, to whom, after a few days, Gamaya 
was delivered in return for the price, which appears to have 
been 200 pesos. In his hands she remained for about two 
months until she was taken away by an officer of Constabulary. 
Afterwards this prosecution was instituted. Although Gamaya 
made objection to leaving the house of Cabanag, she appears to 
have gone without actual constraint and at no time in any of 
these places was she physically restrained of her liberty ; she 
was riot under lock or key or guard, went into the street to play, 



29 

returned at will, and was not punished or ill-used in any way, 
but was employed about the household tasks; in short, she ap- 
pears to have been treated by Mariano Lopez as a household 
servant and to have been well cared for while in the custody of 
the accused." 

This 13-year-old girl, purchased from her mother for pigs, 
hens, rice, and a cloak, under the absurd pretext that the object 
of the purchase was to keep her at home, where she would, of 
course, naturally have remained in any event, was allowed to 
stay with her mother during a period of some three years. In 
this manner the purchaser was saved the cost of boarding her 
while she was growing up. Having now reached what the Igo- 
rots consider a marriageable age, she was sold to a man who 
was engaged in the business of buying in Nueva Vizcaya children 
to sell in the lowlands of Isabela; in other words, to a slave 
dealer. He sold her to an inhabitant of the town of Caoayan, 
in Isabela, who had instructed him to buy a girl. Caoayan is 
distant many days of hard overland travel from this girl's home. 
When taken there she was among an alien people of another tribe 
and another religion, and although, as stated by the Supreme 
Court, she was not kept under lock and key and although that 
court held that : 

"* * * There can be no unlawful detention under article 
481 of the Penal Code without confinement or restraint of person, 
such as did not exist in the present case" 

and held further that : 

"Under the complaint for this crime it is possible to convict 
for coaccion under proof of the requisites of that offense * * *, 
but among those requisites is that of violence through force or 
intimidation, even under the liberal rule of our jurisprudence 
* * * ; consequently the charge of coaccion against the accused 
cannot be sustained upon the evidence" 

it is nevertheless true that this child, who had been thrice sold, 
was detained just as effectively in Caoayan as if chained to a 
post in the house of the man who bought her, and was required 
by him to perform menial labor without compensation. It would 
have been utterly impossible for her to escape and to make her 
way back through Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya to her own people, 
no matter how strenuously she might have endeavored to do so. 

It is extremely difficult to prove forcible detention in connec- 
tion with most cases of slavery in these Islands. Negrito slaves 
are usually purchased when mere babes and later have no rec- 
ollection of their parents or of their former wild life in the hills. 



30 

Babes or very young children bring a better price than do older 
children, for the reason that they are less likely to run away. 

Adult Negritos, and adult members of other tribes held in 
slavery, have as a rule been made to feel the heavy hand of the 
oppressor and are so afraid of their lives that they will not tes- 
tify. Only under very exceptional circumstances will they admit 
that they are being held against their will, although they are 
quick to make their escape when a favorable opportunity presents 
itself. 

The difficulty involved in protecting these simple people is 
illustrated by the following case which came to my personal 
attention : 

An 11-year-old Bukidnon girl was carried away from northern 
Mindanao to Bohol by a Filipino school-teacher who had been 
discharged from the Insular service. Her parents gave every 
indication of bitter grief and begged to have their daughter 
restored to them. This was finally accomplished, to their great 
joy, as a result of my efforts. The kidnapper was ultimately 
brought into court, but before the case came up for trial the 
parents had been subjected to such "influence" that when called 
to the witness stand they swore that the kidnapper had taken 
their daughter with their full knowledge and consent! 

In order to be reasonably effective, laws in these Islands must 
be so framed as to make it possible to protect people too 
ignorant, or too timid, to protect themselves. 

Returning now to the Supreme Court decision, the Court held 
that : 

"* * * the defendant appears to have engaged in the busi- 
ness of buying in Nueva Vizcaya children to sell in the lowlands 
of Isabela." 

But it further held that: 

"Not even the abhorrent species of traffic apparently carried 
on by the accused justifies a sentence not authorized by law." 

More important still, the court held that : 

"The judge below quotes the Bill of Rights of the Philippines 
contained in the Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, declaring that 
'neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist in said Islands.' This constitutional provision is self- 
acting whenever the nature of a case permits and any law or 
contract providing for the servitude of a person against his 
will is forbidden and is void. For two obvious reasons, however, 
it fails to reach the facts before us : 



31 

"First. The employment or custody of a minor with the con- 
sent or sufferance of the parents or guardian, although against 
the child's own will, can not be considered involuntary servitude. 

"Second. We are dealing not with a civil remedy but with a 
criminal charge, in relation to which the Bill of Rights defines 
no crime and provides no punishment. Its effects can not be 
carried into the realm of criminal law without an act of the 
legislature," 

and also that: 

"To sum up this case, there is no proof of slavery or even of 
involuntary servitude, inasmuch as it has not been clearly shown 
that the child has been disposed of against the will of her 
grandmother or has been taken altogether out of her control. 
If the facts in this respect be interpreted otherwise, there is 
no law applicable here, either of the United States or of the 
Archipelago, punishing slavery as a crime." 

In view of the facts above cited the necessity for legislation 
seemed obvious. 

The Commission in its capacity as sole legislative body for 
the territory inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes 
might have passed an act prohibiting and penalizing slavery, 
involuntary servitude, and peonage in that territory; but such 
an act unless supplemented by a similar one applicable to the 
neighboring Filipino territory where most of the slaves are ac- 
tually held would obviously have been ineffective, while the 
desirability of having uniform legislation throughout the Phil- 
ippines was evident. 

The Philippine Assembly was about to meet for the first time. 
The work of drafting a proper bill was duly provided for and 
I am sure that no member of the Commission for a moment 
entertained the belief that there would be any difficulty in 
securing the concurrence of the Assembly in the passage of a 
reasonable act prohibiting and penalizing slavery, involuntary 
servitude, peonage, and the sale and purchase of human beings. 
The gentleman charged with drafting the bill encountered diffii- 
culty in so framing it that it would accomplish the desired end 
without unduly interfering with the rights of parents over 
their children. Long delay ensued. 

I myself finally drafted a bill entitled: "An Act prohibiting 
slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of human 
beings in the Philippine Islands," and introduced it in the Com- 
mission. 

It was referred to a committee consisting of Commissioners 
Branagan and Palma, and reported back with the recommenda- 



32 

tion that it be passed with certain amendments, all but one of 

which were adopted. The bill as amended was passed by the 

Commission on April 29, 1909, and sent to the Philippine 

Assembly, where it was introduced on May 6, 1909. On May 7 

it was referred to the Committee on Revision of Laws, and 

on May 17 it was returned by that, committee with the following 

report : 

"May 17, 1909. 

"Mr. Speaker: The committee concurs with the Commission 
in the approval of Bill No. 100 with the following amendments : 

" (a) That the word 'slavery' be stricken out of the title of the 
Act, because- it does not exist in the Philippines. 

"(b) That from section 1, page 1, lines 7 and 8, the following 
words be stricken out : 'take the fruits of his labors, compel him 
to deliver to another the fruits of his labors,' since the acts con- 
tained therein constitute other crimes that may be robo, hurto, 
or estafa. 

"(c) From line 11 in the same section the words: 'less than 
six months nor;' and from line 12 the words: 'less than one 
hundred pesos and not;' because the acts penalized in section 1 
may be of such slight importance that they should not deserve 
a punishment of imprisonment for six months or a fine of one 
hundred pesos. 

"(d) From line 22 (page 2), the word: 'peso,' substituting 
for it: 'two pesos and a half.' 

"With these enactments Commission Bill No. 100 is drawn up, 
according to the one attached hereto. 

"For these reasons the committee submits for the considera- 
tion of the Assembly Commission Bill No. 100 and recommends 
its approval with the amendments introduced. 

"Respectfully submitted. 

(Signed.) "Aguedo Velarde, 
"Chairman, Committee on Revision of Laws. 

"To the Honorable, 

"The Speaker of the Philippine Assembly." 

This report, if adopted, would have emasculated the bill by 
striking out the minimum penalties, but it was not adopted. 
On May 19 the Assembly laid the bill on the table without 
discussion. 

The following year I introduced in the Commission the bill 
which the Assembly had rejected. Action upon it was post- 
poned, pending the receipt of information which was requested 
from the Assembly as to the reason for the failure of that body 
to pass it the preceding year. Shortly after this was obtained 
in the form of the above-quoted extract from the minutes of that 
body I was called to the United States and no further action was 
taken in the matter at that time, although the Governor-General 



33 

in his message to the Legislature had included the following 
recommendation : 

"There is no express provision of law prohibiting slavery or 
involuntary servitude in the Philippine Islands. While the law 
provides certain methods of punishing the practice of slavery, 
as for example, the law for illegal detention, yet it does not seem 
right that an enlightened and modern country should have no 
way of punishing the purchase or sale of human flesh. It is 
recommended that this be remedied by appropriate legislation 
at the coming session." 

On January 31, 1911, I again introduced this bill in the Com- 
mission. It was amended in minor details and passed on that 
date and was duly forwarded to the Assembly. There it was 
introduced on February 2 and on February 3 was laid on the 
table. I here give the full record. It is significant as showing 
the lack of interest displayed by the Assembly in this important 
subject. 

"An Act prohibiting slavery. 

"The Speaker. Commission Bill No. 88 is submitted to the 
House for consideration. Read the bill. 

"The Secretary [reading]. * * * 

"Seiior Sotto. The Committee on Revision of Laws proposes 
that this bill be laid on the table. 

"The Speaker. Is there any objection? 

"The House. None. 

"The Speaker. On the table." 

The Commission felt that it must act for the territory under 
its exclusive legislative jurisdiction and on August 7, 1911, after 
careful consideration, passed the bill in the following form: 

"PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. f N o' f " 4 

"[No. 2071.] 

"AN ACT PROHIBITING SLAVERY, INVOLUNTARY SER- 
VITUDE, PEONAGE, AND THE SALE OR PURCHASE 
OF HUMAN BEINGS IN THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE 
AND THE PROVINCES OF NUEVA VIZCAYA AND 
AGUSAN, AND PROVIDING PUNISHMENT THERE- 
FOR. 

"By authority of the United States, be it enacted by the Phil- 
ippine Commission, that: 

"Section 1. Whoever, except in pursuance of the judgment 
of a court of competent jurisdiction or other lawful authority, 
shall hold any person in slavery or involuntary servitude, or 
deliver any person to another person to be held in slavery or 

118937 3 



34 

involuntary servitude, shall, on conviction thereof, be punished 
by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than 
twenty years and by a fine of not less than five hundred pesos 
and not more than five thousand pesos, in the discretion of the 
court. 

"Sec. 2. Whoever shall compel another person, against his 
will, to render labor or services in payment of a debt, or whoever 
shall accept labor or services for such purpose performed under 
such compulsion, with knowledge of that fact, shall, upon con- 
viction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not less than 
six months nor more than five years, or by a fine of not less 
than one hundred pesos nor more than one thousand pesos, or 
by both such imprisonment and fine in the discretion of the 
court. 

"Sec. 3. Whoever shall sell or barter or cause to be sold or 
bartered, and whoever shall buy or barter or cause to be bought 
or bartered, any human being, shall upon conviction thereof, be 
punished by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more 
than twenty years or by a fine of not less than five hundred 
pesos and not more than ten thousand pesos, or both in the 
discretion of the court. 

"Sec. 4. Upon the trial of any person for violation of any of 
the provisions of this Act, lack of consent of a person under 
eighteen years of age shall be conclusively presumed. 

"Sec. 5. One-half of any fine collected under the provisions of 
this Act shall be paid to the injured person and such payment 
shall not operate to extinguish in whole or in part any civil 
action which such injured person may have for damages. 

"Sec. 6. This Act shall apply to the Mountain Province and 
the Provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Agusan. 

"Enacted, August 7, 1911." 

Immediately after its passage some 40 slaves were liberated 
in Nueva Vizcaya by Lieut. Gov. Jeff D. Gallman of Ifugao, 
the persons who held them being so alarmed that they gave 
them up without objection. Under the circumstances, prosecu- 
tions in these cases were deemed unnecessary. 

When the Legislature reassembled on October 16, 1911, the 
excerpt from the Governor-General's message above quoted and 
the bill passed by the Commission were referred to the Honor- 
able Gregorio Araneta, Committee on Matters Pertaining to 
the Department of Finance and Justice. Secretary Araneta 
made slight changes in the bill and reported it back with the 
recommendation that it be passed by the Commission, for the 
regularly organized provinces, which was done. It was again 
forwarded to the Philippine Assembly and referred by that body 
to its Committee on Revision of Laws. It was held in committee 
from October 27, 1911, to February 1, 1912, at which time it 



35 

was reported back with the recommendation that it be laid on 
the table. This action was taken. 

I subsequently included in my annual report for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1912, the recommendation cited at the beginning 
of this communication. 

As already stated, the Commission, on October 24, 1912, 
passed the same bill that it had passed during the last previous 
session. It was duly forwarded to the Assembly where it was 
introduced on October 26 and on the same day was referred to 
the Committee on Revision of Laws. On January 8 the com- 
mittee reported it back with the recommendation that it be laid 
on the table. This was done without discussion. 

From the above record it will be apparent that on four sepa- 
rate occasions the Commission has endeavored to give effect to 
the will of Congress that: 

"Neither slavery, nor involutary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist in said Islands," 

and that on each occasion the* Assembly has frustrated the 
attempt by laying the Commission bill on the table. 

It appears, furthermore, from the records of the Assembly 
that this action has been taken absolutely without discussion, 
and that no reason whatsoever has been assigned for such an 
extraordinary course, the only thing approaching a reason being 
that paragraph in the report of the Committee on Revision of 
Laws of May 17, 1909, which reads: 

"(a) That the word 'slavery' be stricken out of the title of 
the act, because it does not exist in the Philippines." 

Individual members of the Assembly have been less silent 
than has that body as a whole, and the public press has from 
time to time made itself heard on the subject. In the absence 
of anything better I quote the following rather ingenious editorial 
from the number of the Filipino paper "La Vanguardia" for 
October 29, 1912, as probably a fair statement of the contentions 
of a certain class of Filipinos on this subject: 

[Editorial.] 

"THERE IS NO SUCH SLAVERY. 

"Intelligent public opinion reflected in its organs of the press, 
has shown itself against that new law of the Commission which 
prohibits slavery in the Philippine Islands without distinction 
between the Christian and non-Chrstian provinces, considering 



36 

the same injurious, oppressive, and in the nature of an attempt 
to lower the democratic prestige and national pride of the race, 
and even the good name of the regime under which we have 
been governed for more than twelve years. 

"In an evil hour a local contemporary has entered the arena, 
following an accustomed practice, to defend the attitude of the 
Government. Once more the decided purpose of the contem- 
porary to support disinterestedly any measure, even the most 
unreasonable and untimely, provided its official origin is pos- 
itively known, is guessed. 

"It is certain and undeniable that every law looks to the 
future, but not to the point of affecting facts the possibility of 
the realization of which is too remote and disputable, considering 
the conditions of national existence, degree of civilization, pres- 
ent customs, and primordial tendencies of the people for whom 
the law is made. 

"Does slavery exist at present in the Christian provinces of 
the Archipelago? The answer to this must be in the negative, 
if we understand slavery as it should be understood, by the 
lowest social class, debased and despised, that the ancient Romans 
created in order to give a useful application to their human booty 
of war, and by the American planters of the United States who 
cracked their whips upon the backs of the unhappy negroes who 
worked on their plantations, the gradual abolition of which 
was attributed to the campaign initiated and sustained by Chris- 
tianity. Understood in this sense, it would be the height of 
humor, not to say of evil intention, to affirm the present existence 
of slavery in the Archipelago, much less in the Christian prov- 
inces. Before the Americans came here, our civilization was 
quite advanced and humanitarian ideas regulated our social 
existence. As slavery does not exist here at present, only a 
madman or a visionary can fear its existence in the future. 
To do so would be equivalent to affirming that the Filipinos, 
instead of progressing, think of lapsing back into the barbarism 
of primitive life. If on the one hand it is admitted that every 
people progress from day to day, and, on the other hand, that 
progress signifies reaction against all that is meant by barbarism 
and irrationality, there is no fear that the phantasm of slavery 
will disturb the peace of our civilized society to-morrow. 

"What, then, is the use of a law prohibiting slavery, which 
is not a present fact nor even a fact reasonably to be expected 
in the future? The attitude of the Commission could not be 
more ridiculous. It shows ignorance of the reality and an in- 
opportune ostentation of foresight. We are charitable enough 
not to attribute an ulterior purpose to this legislative body, 
which might be that of reflecting on the good name of our 
people, whose definite status is under discussion at this very 
hour. A law prohibiting slavery in the Philippines presupposes 
the existence of this social condition, which would constitute 
no argument in favor of our aspirations to a free life. The 
fact is that a people who devote themselves to certain primitive 
practices do not deserve the benefits of self-government. 



37 

"But this attitude of the Commission is, in a certain way, 
counter to its interests. The fact that after twelve or thirteen 
years of governing the Archipelago, the Government only noticed 
the existence of an abnormal phenomenon at this late hour, is 
no allegation in favor of the excessive pretensions of that Gov- 
ernment which believes itself the best possible. 

"If the intention of the Upper House is sound, and has for its 
object to prohibit and punish pledged services and involuntary 
servitude, it must express itself in clearer terms, eliminating the 
word slavery which here does not correspond to the most remote 
reality, substituting for it other concepts more adequate to the 
genuine exigencies of the situation. 

"Otherwise, an unpardonable aggression against the prestige 
of our people and advanced civilization, the basis and foundation 
of our ideals of a free life, would be committed." 

Apropos of this editorial the following pertinent suggestions 
have been made by an American newspaper published at Manila : 

"Some of those opposed to the passage of the Act intended 
to outlaw slavery have availed themselves of the unique argument 
that to pass such a law would be to infer that there are persons 
in the Philippines capable of practicing slavery, and would there- 
fore be a reflection on the country. It is hard to take such an 
argument seriously. It sounds like a chapter from a book of 
humor. Our respect for the average Filipino makes us unable 
to believe that any member of the Assembly would be guilty of 
such childish talk. The ostrich is the only bird, so far as the 
writer knows, that has the habit of hiding from unpleasant facts 
by sticking its head under sand. The average Assemblyman is 
too wise in his day and generation to think that he can cover up 
the thing he doesn't want to see by throwing sand in the eyes of 
the onlookers." 

There exists what should perhaps be considered a more author- 
itative statement of Filipino claims relative to the nonexistence 
of slavery in the Islands, and the consequent lack of need of 
legislation for its eradication. 

Governor-General Forbes, while in the United States on leave, 
criticised in a public speech the attitude of the Philippine As- 
sembly on the slavery question. 

Sr. Manuel Quezon, Resident Commissioner of the Philippine 
Islands to the United States, published the following reply in the 
issue of the Boston Herald for June 24, 1912 : 

"THE FILIPINOS AS LEGISLATORS. 

"To the Editor of the Herald: 

"My attention has been called to a statement made by 
Governor-General Forbes of the Philippine Islands, to the effect 
that the Philippine Assembly, of 81 Filipinos, has refused to 



/ 



38 

approve of an Act passed by the Philippine Commission (which 
is an American appointive body) in the last three sessions of the 
Legislature, prohibiting slavery and abolishing compulsory serv- 
ice. Governor-General Forbes draws the conclusion from this 
fact that 'the premature withdrawal of the United States would 
result in the establishment of an oligarchy composed of small and 
favored ruling classes who would oppress the masses.' 

"I am sorry to have been enforced by the statement of my 
friend Governor Forbes, for whom I have the highest personal 
regard, to take issue with him. But I shall not, from personal 
motives, shrink from my duty of defending the interests of my 
people. 

, "The fact that the Assembly has refused to approve of the bill 
^referred to by Governor Forbes, bespeaks the legislative ability 
of our Assemblymen, while, on the other hand, the passage by 
the Commission of said bill indicates either the incompetency or 
the negligence of the Commissioners. Do we have slavery and 
compulsory service in the Philippines or not? If we do not, the 
bill to abolish it is unnecessary. If we do, it is also unnecessary, 
because the Act passed by Congress, creating the present Phil- 
ippine Government, which serves as our constitution, already 
prohibits slavery and compulsory service, and, therefore, no act 
of the Philippine Legislature is needed to declare it illegal. 

"If there is slavery and compulsory service in the Philippines, 
the Governor-General as the Chief Executive, and the members 
of the Philippine Commission, who, with the Governor-General, 
compose the executive department of the Islands, are all of 
them guilty in not enforcing and executing the constitution of 
the Archipelago. 

"If there is anything in the Philippines akin to slavery or 
compulsory service, it can not be found in the provinces to which 
the legislative jurisdiction of the Assembly extends. Should 
there be such a thing in the territories inhabited by the few 
non-Christian Filipinos, which are under the exclusive control 
of the Philippine Commission, I am sure the slaveholders can 
only be the Government officials, who are appointed by the 
Secretary of the Interior, the Honorable Dean C. Worcester, 
the head of the executive department in charge of said territories. 

"It will not be out of place to indicate here the reason where- 
for the Philippine Commission has passed the bill alluded to by 
Governor Forbes. The members of the Philippine Commission 
are sternly opposed to Philippine independence. Moreover, they 
are opposed to allowing the Filipino people to have a legis- 
lature wholly constituted of natives for reasons too apparent to 
be mentioned. One of their everyday arguments is 'that the 
premature withdrawal of the United States would result in the 
establishment of an oligarchy composed of small and favored 
ruling classes who would oppress the masses.' 

"The passage by the Philippine Commission of the antislavery 
bill placed the Philippine Assembly in a very awkward position 



39 

(as it was perhaps intended to do) ; to concur in the passage of 
the bill was to admit that there is such a thing as slavery and 
compulsory service in the Philippines, which is not a fact. To 
reject the bill would be construed as indicating that the members 
of the Assembly were advocates of slavery. The moral courage 
of our Assemblymen was shown when they took the former 
course, that of truth. The members of the Commission denounce 
the attitude of their colegislators as proof of lack of sympathy 
for the masses of the people. 

"The record made by the Philippine Assembly, as a legislative 
body, shows conclusively that its foremost interest is to promote 
the welfare, uplifting, and liberty of the masses. The first 
general appropriation ever made for schools for the children 
of the farmers in the remotest and poorest villages of the 
Archipelago was the first bill enacted by the First Philippine 
Assembly. The Bureau of Labor was only established at the 
instance of the Assembly and by an act which originated in 
that body. The Employers' Liability Act also originated in the 
Assembly, and only after a long struggle with the Philippine 
Commission, in which the Assembly had to compromise with 
amendments that almost made the Ace ineffective, it became a 
law. 

"The fear Governor-General Forbes expresses of establish- 
ment of a Philippine oligarchy would perhaps be lessened by 
reminding him of the fact that the present Government of the 
Philippines is a foreign oligarchy, and, by all laws of justice 
and nature, is worse than a native oligarchy. 

(Signed.) "Manuel L. Quezon, 
"Resident Commissioner from the Philippines. 

"Washington, June 24." 

With regret I must characterize this reply as puerile. 

While there was perhaps no need of an Act declaring slavery 
and compulsory service illegal, there was very urgent need of 
some provision of law penalizing them. 

No executive official of the Insular Government can with 
propriety be blamed for the nonenforcement of an Act under 
which the courts refuse to convict because it provides no penalty. 

The statement that anything akin to slavery or compulsory 
service cannot be found in the provinces to which the legislative 
jurisdiction of the Assembly extends is false as I have shown. 

The statement that if there should be such a thing in the 
territory of non-Christians under the exclusive control of the 
Philippine Commission the slaveholders can only be the Gov- 
ernment officials appointed by the Secretary of the Interior is 
both false and absurd. 

I will now address myself to Sr. Quezon's claims relative to $he 



40 

nonexistence of slavery by citing certain additional pertinent 
facts. 

The following letter gives some of them : 

"Camp Stotsenburg, 
"Pampanga, P. I., September 26, 1910. 

"The Adjutant, 

"Camp Stotsenburg, Pampanga, P. I. 

"Sir: I have the honor to inform you that a report has this 
day been made to me that a party of hostile Filipinos, about 15 
in number, armed with 1 rifle, 1 revolver and the remainder 
with bolos, presumably ladrones, entered a small Negrito barrio 
situated about one and one-half miles directly southeast from 
the post during the forenoon of Tuesday, September 20, 1910, 
and killed three men and carried away two small children. I 
have visited the barrio and the body of one man showing 
frightful mutilation, both head, feet and hands completely severed 
from the body was found. This settlement is situated in a dense 
jungle and the other bodies were presumably carried away or 
hidden, so that they could not be found. 

"But one person can be found who witnessed the affair, an 
aged Negrito woman, who can scarcely walk from the treatment 
she received at the hands of these outlaws. She states that she 
would be able to recognize and identify some of the party. I am 
informed by Negritos living in the vicinity that this, party of 
outlaws has a rendezvous a short distance east of Solbac where 
they might be apprehended. 

"The killing took place without the reservation, but the matter 
is of sufficient importance, since all the Negritos living in the 
vicinity of the post are greatly excited and disturbed, to warrant 
the recommendation that it be referred to the Senior Inspector 
of Constabulary, San Fernando, Pampanga, P. I., for such action 
as he may desire to take. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "Kyle Rucker, 
"1st Lieut. & Squadron Adjutant, 

"Hth Cav. Intelligence Officer." 

The subsequent fate of these Negrito children is made plain 
by the following letter : 

"Philippine Constabulary, 
"San Fernando, Pampanga, P. I., October U, 1910. 

"My dear Holmes: We have a case up here of murder com- 
mitted near the town of Angeles in which several Negritos are 
mixed up. 

"We managed to locate two Negrito children who had been 
sold by the man who killed their father. They were in the 
possession of a man named Ambrocio David who says he paid 
s^xty pesos for them and says they are his property. 

"I think that we can convict the murderer of the children's 
father, if we can catch him, but this sale of Negritos has gone 



41 

such a pace that almost every family x in Pampanga has at least 
one as a 'companion' of their children, they say, but really as 
a slave. 

"The fiscal says there is no law against the sale or purchase of 
Negritos and I cannot find it although I seem to remember a law, 
but whether it alludes to Negritos or only Moros I am unable 
to say. 

"If there is a law, what number is it and if not, can you get 
me an opinion of the Attorney-General or some ruling so as to 
show us how to act in this and future cases of this kind ? 
"Yrs 

"W. S. North, S. I." 

In this case one of the kidnappers was convicted of murder, 
but nothing could be done to him for selling the Negrito chil- 
dren nor could anything be done to Senor Ambrocio David for 
buying the children or for claiming that they were his property. 

This case is typical of a considerable group of cases in which 
raids are made to capture slaves, the relatives, friends, or fellow.- 
tribesmen of the persons captured being killed if they offer 
resistance. 

Slave-raiding expeditions made by Filipinos are comparatively 
rare. A method more commonly pursued by them in obtain- 
ing Negrito children is to negotiate with Negritos for the pur- 
chase of as many children as are desired, leaving them to raid 
their unfortunate fellow-tribesmen in some other locality and 
capture the required number. As the Negritos are savages of 
low mentality, living in families or small groups which are often 
hostile to each other, inhabiting the most inaccessible mountain 
regions and constantly wandering about, it is often easy to per- 
suade them to undertake the kidnapping of children to be sold 
into slavery, especially if they can at the same time revenge 
themselves on some group of Negritos with whom they are at 
war. It is difficult to obtain information concerning these raids, 
or to prevent them, for the Filipinos and Negritos concerned 
have abundant reason for keeping their own counsels. 

Another common procedure is to get Negrito parents thor- 
oughly intoxicated with vino, of which they are inordinately 
fond, and buy their children from them while they are drunk. 

The Negritos are very improvident and consequently some- 
times suffer severely from hunger. When they are starving 
it is comparatively easy to buy their children. Under such 
circumstances I have personally known a Negrito girl of mar- 
riageable age to be purchased for rice worth f*3 ($1.50 gold). 

1 The word "family" here means important or leading family. — D. C. W. 



42 

I quote the following from a memorandum for the district 
adjutant furnished by Walter S. North, senior Constabulary in- 
spector for the Province of Pampanga, under date of October 
20, 1910 : 

"I know of several cases in Pampanga where men have come 
into the province from Bataan and Zambales especially to cap- 
ture Negritos and to sell them into slavery. 

"This 'underground' system has its outlet at Calumpit, Bula- 
can, where the two children were bound 1 when caught in Guagua. 

"Isaac Gramonte, now in Culion or Iwahig, and his partner 
Leon Sibal, who died in Bilibid, were considered experts in the 
capture of Negritos. Victor Dula of Floridablanca admitted 
that he sold several children and the town of Floridablanca has 
a regular schedule of prices, viz, a boy of five years, ¥=30.00; a 
girl of the same age, a little less; a girl of seventeen, from 
¥30.00 to ¥60.00, and a man of twenty sometimes brings as high 
as ¥80.00. Those with strong bodies naturally go for higher 
prices. 

"The recent murder in the barrio of Santol, Angeles, was done 
by a slave-hunting band; the father and mother of the two re- 
covered children were killed by (it is reported) a man named 
Ignacio Lumanlan and a Negrito guide who led a band of five 
slave hunters. One man has been captured and will be tried 
for illegal detention of children, but the ringleaders escaped thru 
the stupidity of the Angeles police." 

At my request a captain of Constabulary was sent to Pam- 
panga during the latter part of January, 1913, to make some 
further investigations relative to Negrito slavery. Under date 
of January 27 he telegraphed as follows : 

"A good chance buy several persons. Can you send me a 
remittance of seventy-five pesos each? Require telegraphic 
authority Secretary of Interior. Written receipt can be secured. 
Can produce witnesses. Dealers waiting anxiously for money. 
Immediate reply imperative." 

My first impulse was to forward money from a fund disburs- 
able by me to promote friendly relations with head-hunting tribes 
and other non-Christians, asking him to buy the persons offered 
for sale and then restore them to their people, thus accomplish- 
ing a good work and at the same time securing conclusive 
evidence that sales are still being made, but on further considera- 
tion it occurred to me that were I to do this my action might be 
subject to grave misinterpretation, and indeed might actually 
lead to fresh slave-hunting raids carried out for the purpose of 

1 i. e., going — D. C. W. 



43 

restocking the general market or for that of getting more 
Negritos for sale to this officer. I therefore directed him not to 
make any purchases but to secure such evidence as was available 
relative to the existing and past state of the market. He sent 
me the following document among others : 

"San Fernando, Pampanga, February 3rd, 1913. 

"I, Pilar Sason, wife of Dimas Reyes, residing in poblacion 
of Lubao, Pampanga, certify to the following: 

"That one day about three years ago there arrived at our house 
in Lubao three natives of Dinalupijan, Bataan, one of whom had 
the surname Arellano, the other two unknown by name, bringing 
with them two adult male Negritos (Balugas). My husband, 
Dimas Reyes, was at the time in Floridablanca, so the three 
above mentioned natives, with the two Negritos, waited until 
my husband arrived, about three days later. 

"That upon my husband's arrival home he told me to get 
f*80.00 and pay it to the three natives of Dinalupijan, which 
I did counting out the money and passing it over in the presence 
of my husband and several neighbors. This 1*80.00 was in 
payment of but one of the Negritos, and had previously been 
brought from Tanauan, Batangas, by my husband (so he stated 
to me) with ¥=5.00 for expenses, for the purchase of a Negrito. 

"The following day the three Dinalupijan natives, my husband, 
and the two Negritos left by train for Tanauan, Batangas. My 
husband was away for more than one month, and on his return 
told me that the two Negritos had been sold in Tanauan, al- 
though one objected to the climate of that section. 

"The above statement has been interpreted to me by Supply 
Sergeant Juan Oxiles, and I certify to the facts therein expressed. 

(Sgd.) "Pilar Sason. 

"Witnessed : 

"L. T. ROHRER. 

"Juan Oxiles." 

Curiously enough, it happens that I had previously run across 
this same case while attending a gathering of Negritos in the 
Province of Bataan. The kidnapped Negritos were named Ru- 
fino and Hilantic. Constabulary and police reports show that 
they were captured by Dimas Reyes and a man with the sur- 
name of Estanislao, both of the Province of Pampanga, who got 
them dead drunk with vino, tied their arms behind them while 
they were helpless, and when they recovered their senses dragged 
them away into slavery, threatening to kill them if they made 
any objection; were taken to Guagua, Pampanga, where they 
were put on the train and shipped to Manila and from Manila 
were sent to Calamba in the Province. of La Laguna by steamer; 
were taken from Calamba to Tanauan, Batangas, in a carromata, 



44 

and were there sold to Nicolas Gonzales, the municipal president 
of the town, and to Capitana Maria Laurel, or at least that 
these were the persons who made the payments for them. 

These Negritos were subsequently informed that they had been 
purchased for ¥=440.00. Three months later they escaped, but 
were recaptured in Binang and returned to their respective 
owners. Two months later Rufino again escaped and ultimately 
made his way back to his native mountains in Bataan. Hilantic 
escaped at the same time but has never returned to his old home. 
Believing that I had traced him to Manila I caused a careful 
search to be made for him there by the police, as a result of 
which I secured a list of all the Negritos who could be found in 
that city, but the unfortunate Hilantic was not among the num- 
ber and there is grave reason to fear that his "insubordination" 
has cost him his life. 

Under existing provisions of law it was possible to prosecute 
the nien who kidnapped these Negritos since they forcibly 
restrained them of their liberty, but nothing could be done to 
the two leading citizens of Tanauan who bought them for cash. 
Indeed, it was with great difficulty that the survivor, Rufino, 
could be persuaded to talk of his experiences in private. He 
would have refused to testify against his late owner and could 
not have been persuaded that such conduct would not endanger 
his life. 

I shall later discuss the subject of Negrito slavery in Manila, 
the capital city of the Philippine Islands. 

The following specific cases occurring in Pampanga were 
reported as the result of one day's investigation by a supply 
sergeant of the Philippine Constabulary. 

"Negrito boy aged about 8 yrs., is reported by Juan de Ocampo 
and also by Nicolas Losong of San Juan of Santa Rita, to be 
living in the house of Monica Darious, a widow of Santa Rita. 
Witnesses say it is commonly known that the Negrito boy was 
purchased from his parents when about 2 yrs. old. Boy came 
from a sitio called Mt. Pio, near Porac ; is ignorant and does not 
know much about himself. 

"Negrito boy aged about 7 yrs. Living in house of Esteban 
Simpao, of Santa Monica, Santa Rita. Boy came from Florida- 
blanca mountains. Boy says he thinks his parents are dead. 
Teodoro Icban of barrio of Santa Monica says he knows that 
Esteban Simpao bought the Negrito boy although he' does not 
know how much was paid for him. Andreas Mendosa, also of 
the barrio of San Matias, knows that the Negrito boy has lived 
in house some time and that Esteban bought him in Florida- 
blanca when he was 2 years old. 

"Negrita girl aged about 11 yrs., living in the house of Ariston 



45 

Maglalang, formerly presidente of Santa Rita; girl came from 
sitio called Mt. Pio, near Porac. Juan de Ocampo gave above 
information. He lives in Santa Rita. Nicolas Losong, barrio 
of San Juan of Santa Rita, says he knows that Ariston Maglalang 
bought the girl when she was 3 years old and that she has been 
living in Maglalang's house as a servant ever since. 

"Negrita girl aged 11 yrs., living in house of Jose Juico, the 
ex-presidente of Porac (term just expired). Girl came from the 
mountains near Porac. Victoriano Calma of Porac says he 
knows when Juico bought this girl and that she was about 3 
years old at the time. Calma is a friend of Juico and there does 
not appear to be any secret about the slave trading, prices are 
discussed in public and in Porac range from f*50.00 to 9*100.00. 

"Negrito boy aged 8 yrs., living in the house of Magno Garcia, 
Santa Monica, Santa Rita. Boy came from mountains behind 
Floridablanca. Parents are dead. Andreas Mendosa of same 
barrio says that he knows that boy was purchased by Magno 
Garcia from his parents when he was aboul; 3 years old. Garcia 
does not make any efforts to hide the fact that he has the boy 
and admits having bought him. Juan Oxiles says he talked with 
several persons in the barrio and they all know about it. 

"Negrita girl aged 9 yrs., living with Josefa Siongco, Mitla, 
Porac. Girl came from mountains behind Porac. Marcelo 
David of the same barrio knows of case; says parents are dead 
and girl was taken to save her life and to look after her at 
death of parents. Eleno David also talked freely of case; he 
said that Josefa bought the girl and treats her well. That she 
was about 2 years old when purchased." 

The supply sergeant who investigated these cases did so in 
disguise, telling the persons interrogated that he was a slave 
dealer of Pangasinan, but no secret was made of any of the 
cases. He went openly into the cockpits and talked with 
strangers, who freely gave him information. It is well known 
that no existing law can touch the dealers. 

The frankness with which the facts are admitted is well illus- 
trated by the following rather naive statement made by Sal- 
vador A. Santos in an article entitled "Economic Advancement 
among the Negritos of Pampanga," which appeared in "The 
College Folio," for November, 1912: 

"An economic fact among the Negritos is the orphan child. 
An older brother or sister, who is not willing to support the 
fatherless and motherless child, sells it to some wealthy Filipino. 
The money is divided among the relatives of the child and with 
it they buy such things as they may happen to need." 

"The College Folio" is published by the students of the College 
of Liberal Arts, University of the Philippines. 

The above-mentioned supply sergeant reported that Macario 
Ayson, of Angeles, told him that if he went to Porac he could get 



46 

Negritos there. In case there were none in Porac for sale, he 
could get any number of persons to go out and capture them 
for him. 

The same man told him that it was not the custom to keep 
Negritos ready for possible sales, but that the supply was in- 
exhaustible in the mountains and it was the custom to go out and 
get them in each case. 

In response to a recent request by me for information, six 
cases were reported from the Province of Zambales by the Phil- 
ippine Constabulary. I give one here. 

"Mr. Antonio Rolls, San Marcelino, Zambales. One Negrito 
girl, 9 years of age, named Librada. Bought by Mr. Rolls from 
a Negrito, Lazario Catapias, of Santa Fe, barrio of San Mar- 
celino, for f*80.00 seven years ago. She does not receive wages. 
Used as a servant for the family." 

For the others see the appendix of this report, page 95. 

Of 27 cases reported for the Province of Tarlac, in response 
to my request, by a Filipino Constabulary officer, I cite the fol- 
lowing as typical : 

"Maria Sival, woman, age 25 years, single. She was presented 
in 1895 by one Cirilo Marestela to Leon Sival of Bamban, Tar- 
lac, who had her baptized and adopted her. She receives food 
and clothes but no wage. 

"Arsenia Natividad, a girl of 10 years. She and her mother 
presented themselves on about 1909 to Mariano Natividad, of 
Tarlac, Tarlac; later her mother died and she was left in the 
care of Laureana de la Cruz, who had her baptized. 

"Rufina de Guzman, a girl of 7 years. She was sold in 1911 
by another Negrito by the name of Tranquilino to Gervacio de 
Guzman of Capas, Tarlac, for 1*50.00. Guzman had her bap- 
tized, giving her his name. She is very young for any kind of 
domestic work. She receives no wage." 

The other cases are given in the appendix, beginning on page 
96. There are certain especially interesting things about the 
report of this Filipino officer. He claims that in 20 of the 27 
cases which I cite, the Negrito was presented by his father, 
mother, or some other near relative to his owner. He mentions 
the still more remarkable fact that in two instances Negritos 
calmly walked in and presented themselves, to be held as servants 
without pay ! 

These allegations hardly need discussion. Negrito children 
sell readily for considerable sums, and if parents were to make 
up their minds to part with them there is no apparent reason 
why they should not demand and receive the full market price. 



47 

Indeed, no one familiar with the characteristics of Negritos can 
doubt that they would do this if left free to follow their in- 
clinations. 

The constant references to baptism in the above-mentioned 
report are worthy of note. The belief seems common among 
Filipinos that the act of baptizing wild people, whether with or 
without their consent, affords adequate excuse for subsequently 
retaining them in servitude, the favor conferred by the act of 
baptism being so great that the fortunate ex-heathen ought to 
be willing to work the rest of their lives in return for it ! 

The frequency with which these little black, dwarfish, woolly- 
headed savages are claimed to have been "adopted" is also sig- 
nificant. 

In no single case have I been able to obtain evidence of real, 
legal adoption. The following document illustrates the proce- 
dure which seems invariably to have been followed: 

"On the 25th of December, 1912, I, the authorized curate of 
this district, Lubao, Province of Pampanga, baptized solemnly, 
and put on the blessed 'Oleos' in this church in my charge on 
one Negrita ten and eight years of age (18), and have given 
the name of Juana, daughter of a father poor and unknown. 
The foster mother, Dona Pia Vitug, married in this town re- 
ceived the charge as a parent to care for the spiritual welfare 
and other obligations. 

"I for the truth sign, 

"Friar Pedro Diez." 

(Girl given the name of Juana de Jesus Vitug.) 

A document of this sort imposes no legal obligation whatever 
on the owner of a slave, and makes no change whatever in the 
status of the slave, but merely serves as a basis for the claim 
that he or she "is treated as a member of the family." 

It will be noted that the cases I have thus far cited occurred 
in the provinces of Tarlac, Pampanga, Bataan, and Zambales, 
near Manila. Now let us take a look at Manila itself. 

In endeavoring to get track of the Negrito Hilantic, who es- 
caped from slavery in Tanauan, Batangas, and then disappeared, 
I asked the chief of police of Manila to look into the cases of all 
Negritos known to him to be residing within the city. I quote 
the following from his report: 

"Jose Tuason, age 27 years; genuine Negrito; born in Zam- 
bales; has never known his parents; cannot fell details of his 
life, being completely ignorant. One Mariano Tuason related 
that this Negrito was presented to him, when said Negrito was 
four years old, by a tailor. When Mariano Tuason came to 



48 

Manila, he took this Negrito with him as his muchacho, 1 receiv- 
ing board and lodging and clothes for his services, but no wages. 
Said Negrito is still working for him at 817 Calle Santol, Sam- 
paloc, Manila. 2 

"Lorenzo Ferrer, age 25 years; genuine Negrito, born in Flo- 
ridablanca, Pampanga; has never known his parents. The son 
of Felix Ferrer stated that this Negrito, while yet two years old, 
was sold to him by a Filipino in Floridablanca. Since that time 
this Negrito has lived continuously with Felix Ferrer, his present 
owner, at 355 Calle Aviles, as a servant. He receives no wages. 

"Trinidad Joven, a Negrita woman 20 years of age; born in 
Bacolor, Pampanga. She has never known her parents. She 
says that from the age of two to that of fourteen years she 
worked for her godmother, one Felisa Joven in Bacolor, and 
then escaped from her for maltreatment. She afterward came 
to Manila in company with an American soldier as his mistress. 
Later the soldier left for America and she then went to work for 
a Spaniard as a servant for three months. In order to earn 
more money she voluntarily entered the house of prostitution 
where she was living when interviewed. She says that no one 
ever induced her to become a prostitute." 

The details of nine additional cases are given in the appendix, 
beginning on page 98. 

A comparatively short time ago a Negrita girl was brought 
in, as a pony or a carabao might be, and offered for sale to the 
wife of an English gentleman living in the outskirts of Manila. 

If conditions such as these prevail in the capital city of the 
Philippines and the immediately adjacent provinces, what of the 
more remote regions of the Archipelago bordering on the terri- 
tory inhabited exclusively by non-Christians ? 

The Ifugaos have been especially victimized. The following 
conditions of servitude are recognized by them : 

Jim-but. — This is the name applied to real slaves. The Jim- 
but becomes an article of commerce and often changes owners 
several times before reaching the country of the Ba-li-uon (Chris- 
tians) . 

Nij-cop. — This is the name applied to children who have been 
really adopted under a formal contract made with their parents 
or nearest relatives in case the parents are dead. The Nij-cop 
acquire certain property rights from their new parents-by- 
adoption. 

Baj-dl. — This is the name given to orphan children who have 
been formally taken in charge by some well-to-do Ifugao and who 

'Servant.— D. C. W. 

2 Since the above was written this Negrito has left his master and, 
"disappeared." The police cannot find him. 




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49 

are unable to support themselves. The Baj-al is a tentative Nij- 
cop, for if he turns out to be bright and industrious he may- 
become a member of the family and acquire property rights. 

Ta-gd-la. — This is the name applied to servants who receive 
regular compensation. 

Lieut. Gov. Jeff D. Gallman, of the subprovince inhabited by 
the people of this tribe, has given me data relative to numerous 
cases of Jim-but, or true slavery. I quote the following : 

"Shortly after the evacuation of Ifugao by the Spaniards in 
1898 or '99, one Duyugon of Bambang, Ifugao, was brought to 
Kiangan by one Du-ma-guing of the same rancheria, and was 
turned over by him to Ban-nu-jac of Pin-dungan, Kiangan, to 
be taken to the lowlands for sale. This man was sold to an 
unknown person x at the barrio of Id-da-lom, Echague, Isabela, 
for 1*150.00 which was equally divided between Du-ma-guing 
and Ban-nu-jac. 

"During the first year that the Americans were at Kiangan 
a woman named Intanap of Lingay, Ifugao, 17 years of age, was 
purchased by one Bal-la-tong for two carabaos and was sold to 
one Tomasa Balanag of Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, for two carabaos, 
some chickens, and a small amount of money. 

"In 1900 a fourteen year old girl named Indungdung, a niece 
of one Pingot of Jin-yon, Ifugao, was paid by the latter to one 
Tunog in settlement of a debt. Tunog turned her over to one 
Pingkijan of Burnay for sale to the Christians. Accompanied 
by three companions he set out with the 'Jim-but' for Nueva 
Vizcaya but on approaching the rancheria of Ca-ba the party 
were attacked and all were killed. 

"During 1900 a boy named Immangjing, of Paniki, Japao, 
Ifugao, was stolen by Bulyunan, of Uja, Banaue, and taken to 
Dammag, whence he was taken to Isabela Province and sold to 
Christians for 1*1 15.00. 

"About 1903, during the time that Lieutenant H. L. Logan 
was in command of the Constabulary station that had been estab- 
lished at Banaue, a boy named Bantiyao, son of Bungtayon, of 
Jim-man-ing-jin, Japao District, was stolen by one Dalit, of Ta- 
gaue, Canaue, taken to the province of Isabela, and there sold 
to Filipinos for P70.00." 

Numerous additional cases of slavery, reported by Lieutenant- 
Governor Gallman, will be found in the appendix beginning on 
page 99. 

Other cases of slavery in Ifugao have been reported by 
Lieutenant W. E. Dosser, P. C, commanding the garrison of 
Constabulary stationed at Mayoyao. 

1 Ifugaos in their dealings with Filipinos usually know only their 
Christian names and it frequently happens that the names given to them 
are fictitious. 

118937 4 



50 

Lieutenant Dosser's report was addressed to the Adjutant, 
District of Northern Luzon, San Fernando, Union, under date of 
April 6, 1910. It will be found on page 103 of the appendix. 

I invite special attention to the fact that Lieutenant Dosser 

says: 

"None of these deals have ever been made for any specified 
period of time, but for all time." 

This fact is of interest apropos an extraordinary claim recently 
advanced by Ex-Justice Tracey that the so-called slavery among 
"the Igorots" is a sort of "apprenticeship" or "indenturing of 
children." 

The number of cases cited of Ifugaos held as slaves in Isabela 
might be very largely increased. It is well known throughout 
the territory of the people of this tribe that hundreds of their 
fellow tribesmen have been sold into slavery in that province. 

In Nueva Vizcaya it has been possible to deal with the more 
flagrant cases since the passage by the Commission of the law 
above referred to, but the Commission is powerless to pass a law 
applicable to Isabela. When the enforcement of the Antislavery 
Act of the Commission began it was found that some of the 
persons originally sold into slavery in Nueva Vizcaya had run 
away from their masters and become vagabonds. Few really 
wanted to return to their parents, whose language they had 
in many cases almost forgotten. Their condition was pitiable 
in the extreme. 

If an effective law could be made applicable to the Province 
of Isabela, slave dealing in Ifugao children could be promptly 
terminated. 

The Ilongots of Nueva Vizcaya are victimized much less than 
are the Ifugaos, partly because of their small numbers, and 
partly because of the inaccessibility of the places in which they 
live. However, they have suffered to some extent, as is shown by 
the following statement of Norman G. Conner, who served for 
some time as acting governor of the province : 

"Just before the American occupation Jose Baucel,' of Dupax, 
Nueva Vizcaya, who had been a trader among the Ilongots for 
many years and had gained strong influence over them, persuaded 
Santos, an Ilongot of Campote, to send his boy and girl, aged 
about five and seven years, to Baucel's place at Dupax. Baucel 
said that he would educate the children but after they had been 
with him for a few months he arranged with three Ilocanos of 
Dupax to take them to the Province of Isabela and sell them. 
They were sold for 1*200 and the proceeds were divided among 



51 

the four men. The Ilongots did not learn of the sale of these 
children for several months, but from that time on Baucel has 
never dared to go near the Ilongot country." 

From numerous other cases of slavery in Nueva Vizcaya, the 
details of which have been furnished me by its former Acting 
Governor 0. A. Tomlinson, I have selected eight which will be 
found in the appendix, beginning on page 104. 

It will be noted that most of the cases of slavery in Nueva 
Vizcaya date back of 1905, in which year we seriously took up 
the matter of slave dealing in this province, and prosecuted a 
number of persons under the charge of illegal detention. While 
we usually failed to obtain convictions on account of the unsatis- 
factory nature of the then existing law, the prosecutions had a 
good moral effect and slave dealing became a troublesome, if not 
a dangerous, occupation. 

The method at present used in obtaining so-called Ifugao 
"servants," who are to all intents and purposes slaves, is for the 
Filipinos desiring them to make arrangements with traders who 
visit the Ifugao country. The latter procure them through 
enticing offers of high wages, school advantages, etc. The pay 
of children obtained under these circumstances is practically 
always withheld in order to prevent them from escaping, and 
they are slaves in everything but name. The following case is 
typical of scores of others : 

"In 1907 Juan Tagle, of Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, on being 
discharged from the Constabulary service at Banaue, in Ifugao, 
brought with him an Ifugao boy some 12 years of age named 
Bandao, taking him to Bayombong and promising to pay him 
1*1.00 per month. Tagle never paid the boy a cent and at dif- 
ferent times permitted (?) him to work for other people. 

"The boy finally accumulated ¥=10 from the latter class of 
work and began to be desirous of leaving his master. In order 
to prevent this Tagle borrowed the ?10 and failed to return 
them, thus keeping the boy subject to his wishes." 

If some American official becomes cognizant of the facts in a 
case like this, "salaries" long overdue are promptly paid and 
"servants" are allowed to return to their homes. 
' Lieut. Gov. Walter F. Hale, of the subprovince of Kalinga, 
reports that on several occasions when he has been trying cases 
in his capacity as justice of the peace, slaves have been offered 
to him on condition that their masters be not punished for crimes 
committed. 

It should be borne in mind that I have obtained the details of 
the above-cited cases within a few weeks. I have as yet heard 



52 

nothing from a number of regions where slavery is well-known 
to be especially common. I think, however, that I have cited 
a sufficient number of cases of genuine slavery to demonstrate 
the fact that this evil- exists in the Philippine Islands. It can 
never be successfully checked until there is a law of general 
application throughout the regularly organized provinces of the 
Archipelago penalizing the sale, barter, or purchase of human 
beings. What reason has the Philippine Assembly for refusing 
to pass the necessary act? 

That body has members from Pampanga, Tarlac, Bataan, 
Zambales, Isabela, Cagayan, and numerous other provinces 
where slavery prevails. It holds its sessions in Manila, where 
slavery exists. Are its members ignorant of the facts which 
schoolboys know? 

Without hesitation I express the opinion that, apart from a 
false and foolish pride which makes the persons concerned un- 
willing to admit the existence of slavery, the chief reason why 
Assemblymen object to the law which they have tabled is that 
it would not only prohibit and penalize slavery, but would neces- 
sarily also prohibit and penalize peonage, which is so common 
and widespread that it must be called general. Indeed, I have 
no hesitation in asserting that it prevails in every municipality 
in the Philippine Islands. 

The rich and powerful man, commonly known in this country 
as a "cacique," encourages the poor man to borrow money from 
him under such conditions that the debt can never be repaid, and 
holds the debtor, and frequently the members of his family as 
well, in debt servitude for life. One might fill a score of volumes 
with records of cases and I can here do no more than select a 
few typical illustrations of the working of this vicious and 
abominable system. 

The following facts have been furnished me by Hon. James A. 
Ostrand, judge of the Court of Land Registration : 

"In 1907 a woman, whose surname, I think, is Quintos, asked 
me to lend her twenty-five pesos with which to 'redeem' her 
daughter who had been mortgaged for that amount to a Chinese 
merchant, whose name at present I do not recall, but who had 
his establishment on the ground floor of the house of Ubaldo 
Diaz in Lingayen. The woman stated that the Chinaman was 
corrupting the morals of the girl, and that this was the reason 
why she wanted to make the redemption. I told her that under 
the circumstances no redemption was necessary, but that I would 
see that the girl was allowed to leave the Chinaman, who, on 
proper representations, was induced to let the girl go home. 
She stayed with her mother for a couple of weeks, but, by adding 



53 

f*75 to the mortgage debt, the Chinaman got her back, and 
shortly before I left Lingayen I learned that the girl, though 
scarcely fifteen years old, had given birth to a child. 

"In 1907 a woman from the town of Balincaguin in Panga- 
sinan came to my office and stated that she, about six years 
before, had 'mortgaged' (the term 'salda' in Ilocano and 'sanla' 
in Pangasinan are usually translated mortgage, but also imply 
pledge, as the creditor generally takes possession of the mort- 
gaged property) her twelve year old son for some twenty pesos 
to Don Cirilo Braganza, the member of the Second Philippine 
Legislature for the district in which I was then living; that her 
son had been working for Braganza ever since, and that, accord- 
ing to her reckoning, the debt had already been paid, but that 
Braganza had unjustly charged the loss of a carabao to her 
son's account, thus adding ¥=120, if I remember correctly, to 
the debt. She further stated that she had asked Braganza to 
release the boy, but that he refused to do so. I informed her 
of the provisions of the Philippine Bill in regard to involuntary 
servitude, and advised her that her son was free to leave Mr. Bra- 
ganza's services if he so desired. She said that if the boy should 
leave she was afraid something might happen to him as Bra- 
ganza was very influential in that locality. I then gave her 
a note for Braganza requesting him to let the boy go. Shortly 
afterwards Braganza came to me and gave me his version of 
the case, stating that he had always treated the boy well, and 
that the loss of the carabao was entirely due to the boy's negli- 
gence, and that he, Braganza, would not consent to the boy 
leaving him before the carabao was paid for. At last reports 
the boy was still with Braganza and may be there yet. I may 
add that I believe Braganza told the truth, and that the boy 
was guilty of negligence in connection with the loss of the 
carabao." 

The net result in this case was that a boy was "mortgaged" 
for a 1*20 debt and after six years the debt had very largely 
increased, possibly in part as a result of the carelessness of the 
boy. 

In a letter to Judge Ostrand I had defined "peonage" as "the 
condition of a debtor held by his creditor in a form of qualified 
servitude to work out a debt." Of its prevalence the Judge 
says: 

"While practicing law in the Province of Pangasinan, during 
the years 1905 to 1909, hardly a week passed but what cases 
of involuntary servitude, as defined in the within communica- 
tion, came under my observation." 

He also calls attention to the fact that interference with the 
system does not increase one's popularity: 

"Interference by third parties in cases of involuntary serv- 
itude is not looked upon with favor, and is generally considered 



54 

highly reprehensible. I remember, for instance, a case where 
Mr. Pedro Sison (not the member of the Legislature), then a 
prominent resident of Lingayen, was, as he himself regarded it, 
made the victim of unwarranted interference. A woman bought 
a small parcel of land from Mr. Sison, agreeing to work out the 
purchase price, forty pesos. She worked with Mr. Sison for 
six years, at the end of which period the debt had increased to 
over sixty pesos, according to Mr. Sison's accounts. In the 
meantime the woman became a protestant, and Rev. E. S. Lyons, 
the methodist missionary in Pangasinan, advised her to leave 
Mr. Sison's service. Upon her doing so Mr. Sison became very 
indignant not only at her but also at Mr. Lyons, and for some 
time thought seriously of having the latter criminally prosecuted. 
He appeared to be very much surprised when he found that there 
was no penal provision covering Mr. Lyons' action. Mr. Sison 
was otherwise a very estimable and good-natured man, but he 
never until' his dying day, which occurred a couple of years 
afterwards, got over his bitter resentment toward Mr. Lyons." 

Judge Ostrand summarizes the results of his observations as 
follows : 

"Nearly all the involuntary servitude cases of which I have 
any knowledge have arisen from the practice of mortgaging 
half -grown children. The sum advanced is usually some twenty 
or thirty pesos. As the money seldom draws interest at a 
lower rate than ten per cent a month, . and the creditor fur- 
nishes the child food and such clothing as it may need, its 
services are ordinarily not considered worth more than the 
amount of the interest, and the debt instead of being reduced 
usually increases as the years pass. I venture to say that among 
the Filipinos in some sections of the Islands the majority of 
house-servants are obtained and employed in this manner." 

It would indeed seem that with interest at the rate of 120 per 
cent per year and the creditor able to fix his own price for food, 
clothing, and other necessaries furnished his debtors while they 
were trying to work out their debts, they would not be likely 
to succeed in doing so ! 

If the unfortunate peon finally rebels, the rich cacique often 
invokes the law against him by having him prosecuted on some 
false criminal charge. 

In this connection the following letter is of interest: 

"Philippine Constabulary, 
"Office of the Senior Inspector, 
"San Fernando, Pampanga, September 26, 1912. 
"The Superintendent, Information Division, P. C, 

"Manila, P. I. 
"(Thru' Adjutant, District of Central Luzon.) 
"Sir: Reference to the prosecution of Maria Guzman before 
the justice of the peace of Apalit for 'Infraction of Law 2098' 



55 

(your file No. 8634-75) I have the honor to attach copy of de- 
cision in the case, and remarks: 

"About three (3) years ago Simeon de los Reyes, by and with 
the consent of his wife Maria Guzman, borrowed and signed 
receipt for fifty pesos (¥=50.00) to Maria Santos of Apalit, con- 
tracting that his wife work out the debt moulding earthen jars — 
that for every hundred jars made Maria Guzman received ¥1.00, 
25 $ of which was to go on the debt. The woman states she 
could make about fifty jars per week, so that her actual wages 
were 50^ per week (or $.005 per jar. — D. C. W.). This without 
board, as the woman states that any money she got for food was 
charged on original debt. 

"By the first part of this year the debt had 'decreased' to 
1*70.00, when another receipt for that amount was signed by 
the husband, de los Reyet, and the old receipt for ¥=50.00 de- 
stroyed. In the month of August ultimo the Santos woman re- 
fused to advance Maria Guzman more money, so Maria Guzman 
left and joined her husband, who was working in Manila. The 
debt at time of trial amounted to ¥=79.00 and a fraction. 

"Warrants of this nature are being continually sent from Pam- 
panga, either by messenger or mail, direct to the Superintendent, 
Information Division, without passing through my hands. v The 
reason is evident. 

"It is respectfully requested that in the future all warrants 
reaching your office in this way be referred back to me before 
execution. 

"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "L. T. ROHRER, 

"Senior Inspector." 

This woman, if she succeeded in making 50 earthen jars per 
week, rece'ived wages amounting to 50 centavos against which 
her creditor charged her food and doubtless also her clothing. 
In other words, she was in effect charged for the privilege of 
making 50 jars per week for her master. The interest on her 
debt was meanwhile piling up while the principal steadily in- 
creased, and when she grew weary of her hopeless task and ran 
away her taskmaster prosecuted her and she was convicted and 
sentenced to two months in jail and to pay the cost of the suit! 

The following letter presents a typical case of peonage: 

"ROSALES, March 26, 1912. 

"Chief op the Secret Service Dept., 

"Manila. 

"Dear Sir : On behalf of Garigorio Almario, a young girl re- 
siding at my house, I write to ask you if you cannot have this 
matter attended to. 

"Six years ago a man named Tomas Almario, living at present 
in Rosales, borrowed some money (twenty pesos only). This 
man was unable to repay this money so he sold this girl named 
Inocencia Almario to a Mr. Galban. I think he is the president 



56 

of Bautista. Her sister has been to Bautista to take this girl 
away but she has been rebuked by these people in my presence. 
They state she owes ¥=60.00, the extra 1*40 being interest on the 
1*20.00 borrowed 6 years ago. They have got this girl and 
another girl working as slaves and to-day I heard that the girl 
escaped in a carromata but they sent an automobile after her 
and took her into Bautista beating her all the way. In the in- 
terest of justice I hope you will have this girl released and hand 
her over to her sister in my house here out of the hands of those 
wretches. I also found out that this girl is being sent from place 
to place amongst men who take girls to cover debts. If you 
send a man here to Rosales I have the proof and will show you 
where this girl is and will get the evidence against these people. 
I understand that the president of Bautista is the man who is 
at the bottom of the whole affair. I hope you will put a stop 
to this slavery. I have the man here who owes the money and 
sold the two girls to this man. I have the sister here ; also the 
other relatives to prove that this girl has worked as a slave for 
6 years to cover a debt of twenty pesos and now they want 60 
before they will release her. Please release my sister and oblige. 
"Yours truly, 

"Garigorio [her mark] Almario. 

"Witness : 

(Sgd.) "W. A. Cole. 

"Address Garigorio Almario, 

"c/o W. A. Cole, Rosales, Pang." 

For the documents in the following additional cases I am in- 
debted to the Manila chief of police: 

"January 24, 1913. 
"On November 11, 1912, Mrs. Pilar Derecho reported the 
disappearance of Narcisa Candare y Parba, having run away 
from her employ. Investigation showed that she was working 
out money advanced to her mother. After leaving Mrs. Pilar 
Derecho's house, she went to work for Sra. Benigna Rama of 
No. 109 Calle Santa Potenciana, Intramuros, who called at this 
office January 24, 1913, and made a complaint against said Nar- 
cisa Candare y Parba, for having stolen property to the value of 
¥=200. Investigation shows that Narcisa worked about two (2) 
months at this place and as yet has not received any pay. Com- 
plainant states reason for not paying salary is that this girl lost 
a pin valued at ¥30 belonging to the complainant and that the 
girl was working out the value of the pin at the rate of ¥6 per 
month, and that on the night of January 23, 1913, she ran away 
from the house. Investigation still being held." 

"January 24, 1913. 
"To whom it may concern: 

"This is to certify that I, Pilar Derecho, of No. 87 Calle San 
Juan de Letran, Walled City, advanced ¥6 to the mother of 
Narcisa Candare y Parba, with the understanding that her 



57 

daughter was to work it out, at the rate of ¥3 per month. The 
daughter Narcisa Candare y Parba, worked for me five (5) 
months, then she ran away. I paid her each month; and when 
she broke anything, I would take it out of her pay. While 
with me, she had to pay three pesos (1*3) for breakage; one 
fine looking glass; three drinking glasses; one lamp, and one 
nursing bottle. The debt of the mother has been paid by the 
girl working it out. I gave ¥12 to the mother as follows: 
1st: ¥=6, given to the mother at Cebu; then I mailed ¥6 from 
Manila, and the ¥3 for breakage, making ¥15 in all the girl 
earned during the five months with me. I never gave any 
money to the girl. 

(Sgd.) "Pilar Derecho. 
"Mrs. Pilar Derecho reads English." 

Just how Mrs. Pilar paid her without giving her money is not 
clear. A criminal charge was brought against the peon, as 
usually happens when one endeavors to escape. 

"January 24, 1913. 
"Luis (surname unknown), a native of Binangonan, Rizal, 
borrowed fifty pesos about one year ago from Nicolas Cruz, 
living in the barrio of Camiogan, Pasig, and is now working 
out the debt with his wife at the rate of thirty pesos a year for 
the both of them ; the wife washing clothes and Luis feeding and 
taking care of the horses. This debt is constantly growing in- 
stead of diminishing, as thirty pesos a year is not sufficient to 
buy the clothes necessary for them to wear." 

"January 24, 1913. 

"Marcelina Lopez, aged 12 years, charged with vagrancy on 
September 12, 1912; sentenced by Judge Camus to the Hospicio 
de San Jose for an indefinite term. 

"This girl was turned over to Albina de Bedua by her mother, 
to work out a debt of twenty-two pesos at the rate of two pesos 
per month. On account of the abuse, this girl escaped from the 
house of her employer and was arrested by this department on 
the above-named charge. On account of the statements made 
by this girl, charges were filed against Albina de Bedua, and she 
was fined ten pesos for assault." 

Occasionally the unfortunate peon gets a bit of justice, in 
Manila at least, as in the present instance. While it can hardly 
have been a pleasure for the peon to have been arrested for 
vagrancy on the one hand, on the other the mistress was at least 
fined. 

The following is another typical case reported by the chief of 
police of Manila: 

"Lucia de la Cruz, 18 years of age, residing at No. 1609 Calle 
Sande, had been a servant of Ines Feliciano, 702 Calle Azcarraga, 



58 

for two years. She left this house about three weeks ago because 
Ines Feliciano would not give her the money due her for back 
salaries. Lucia de la Cruz had not been paid any salary since 
entering the service of Ines, who claims that Lucia is indebted 
to her in the sum of ¥120, and had her taken to the Secret 
Service Bureau for robbery of ¥200. She was later released for 
lack of evidence. Ines refuses to deliver her clothes — 2 skirts, 
3 shirts, and 1 tapis." 

It is almost impossible to say where peonage leaves off and 
slavery begins, and the former naturally leads to the latter as is 
shown by the following letter from a Filipino Constabulary 

officer: 

"Philippine Constabulary, 
"First Pampanga Company, 

"Lubao, February 8, 1912.- 
"The Senior Inspector, Constabulary op Pampanga, 

"San Fernando, P. I. 
"(Thru Company Commander.) 
"Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report re 
abduction and sale of three boys from Cuyo, Palawan. 

"Juan Yusoy of Macabebe stated that he just arrived about 
three weeks ago from Cuyo with Esteban Yusoy of Gapang, 
Nueva Ecija, bringing with them Pedro Rodriguez, Angel Pag- 
tanac and Macario Aburot (the educted boys) . Juan brot with 
him Angel and Macario, while Esteban, Pedro. 

"Juan further said that Angel was formerly working at the 
house of Felix San Juan, ex-vice president of Cuyo, for money 
consideration for which Anacleta Aniar, mother of Angel, took 
from Felix. In order that Angel might be relished from his 
former master Felix, she asked Juan to give her ¥25.00, the 
amount she owned to Felix. After Anacleta delivered the money 
to Felix, she and Juan made a contract, the understanding of 
which the latter will bring Angel to his native town Macabebe. 
A copy of the receipt is in the hand of the Senior Inspector of 
Pampanga. Macario, the other boy, has almost the same story, 
except Juan gave 1*10.00 to Jose Aburot, father of Macario. 

"Both Angel and Macario are at the house of Captain Salomi 
Garcia of San Fernando, Pampanga. Capitana Salomi gave 
Juan ¥=63.00 for them. Capitana Salomi was investigated and 
confessed the fact. 

"Pedro is 12 years old; Macario, 10; Angel, 8. 
"Macario expressed a desire to return to Cuyo. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "G. N. Laurel, 

"3d Lieutenant, P. C." 

While the English of Lieutenant Laurel is good considering his 
opportunities for acquiring that language, the meaning of this 
communication may be not altogether clear. Briefly, these Fili- 
pino boys were being held in peonage,'' were in effect bought 



59 

from the persons who held them, with the consent of the mother 
in one instance, and were removed hundreds of miles from their 
homes among a people speaking a language different from their 
own. One of them was taken by Juan Yusoy to his home in 
Macabebe and held there, and the other two were sold to Capitana 
Salomi for P63. 

The following series of communications tell an interesting and 
significant story : 

"MANILA, January 22, 1913. 
"The Commanding Officer, 

"Precinct No. k. 

"Sir: At 1.45 p. m., January 10, 1913, Alexandra Malbarin, 
Filipina, age 19 years, muchacha, a native of Camarines Norte, 
came to the station crying and stated that her employer As- 
semblyman Silverio Cecilio, 193 Calle G. Tuason, had beat her 
up and did so most every day. Both the girl's legs from the 
knees down were black and blue and she stated that the rest of 
her legs and body was beat up worse than the part I had seen. 
The left side of her face was also black and blue. She also 
stated that she was working for the above mentioned Assembly- 
man since last June and so far had received no pay, not even 
enough to purchase cigarettes. The girl is ignorant and does 
not know her rights and when I investigated the case I found 
that the girl was held in slavery and I notified the Prosecuting 
Attorney Major Bishop and stated the facts to him, and he 
directed that I send the case to him and that he would take 
action. 

"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "James J. Sullivan, 
"Sergeant, Manila Police, Precinct No. U." 

"Manila, January 22, 1913. 
"The Commanding Officer, 

"Precinct No. k. 
"Sir: On January 10, 1913, Sergeant Sullivan phoned me to 
wait at the corner of Alix and Bustillos and accompany a native 
girl he was sending to her employer's house and get her clothes 
if it was possible, as she did not care to stay there any longer 
on account of abuse she received. On going to her house her 
employer stated that she could not have her clothes and that 
she would have to stay there with him as her father owed him 
money and that he had papers to show for it. I informed her 
employer that the girl could go where she pleased; but he said 
no that her father was in his debt and that the girl was held 
by him as security for same. I told this man that there was 
no law in the Philippine Islands at the present time where any 
person or a member of his family could be held in slavery for 
debt that other members of the family contracted. He gave 
me his card stating for me to go ahead and get a warrant out 
for him. I returned to the station accompanied by the girl and 



60 

told the facts to Sergt. Sullivan, who sent me to the Prosecuting 
Attorney with the girl. After stating the facts to Major Bishop 
and upon his learning that the man was an Assemblyman, he 
concluded to drop the case until after adjournment of the As- 
sembly. Captain Seaver came in to the Prosecuting Attorney's 
Office shortly after my arrivel with the girl and the Prosecuting 
Attorney called his attention to the case. Captain Seaver and 
I sat at the Prosecuting Attorney's desk while he dictated a 
letter to the Commanding Officer, Precinct No. 4, after which 
Captain Seaver directed me to take the girl to the Sampaloc 
Station and inform the sergeant at the desk to ask sister Paula 
of the St. Paul's Hospital to arrange for taking care of this 
girl. Later Sergeant Becker directed me by orders of the Chief 
of Police to take the girl back to the house of her employer, 
which I did. 

"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "Chas. A. Darneille, 
"Patrolman, Manila Police, Precinct No. k." 

[Extract.] 
"MORNING REPORT. 

"Precinct No. 4, January 11, 1913. 
"At 1.45 p. m., January 10, Alejandra Malbarin, Filipina, age 
19 years, a native of Camarines (North), muchacha for As- 
semblyman Silverio Cecilio, Interior of 193 G. Tuason, reported 
that her master had beaten her and was holding her in slavery. 
Patrolman Darneille was sent with the girl to the above address 
and obtained the above information. Prosecuting Attorney was 
notified and he directed that the case be turned over to him for 
investigation. No complaint filed by the Prosecuting Attorney 
and the girl returned to the home of Mr. Cecilio. 
"A true copy: 

(Sgd.) "Wm. Murphy, 
"Chief Clerk, Department of Police." 

"City of Manila, Department of Police, 

"Central Office, January 22, 1913. 
"Honorable DEAN C. WORCESTER, 

"Secretary of the Interior, Manila. 

"SIR: I have the honor to enclose herewith extract from the 
morning report of Precinct No. 4 in the case of Alejandra Mal- 
barin, report of Sergeant James J. Sullivan, Sampoloc Police, 
on duty at the desk at the time Alejandra Malbarin presented 
herself and made complaint at Sampoloc Police Station, report 
of Patrolman Charles A. Darneille who accompanied the girl to 
the home of Assemblyman Silverio D. Cecilio in order that she 
might obtain a change of clothes, also a copy of the letter written 
by the Prosecuting Attorney to the Commanding Officer, Precinct 
No. 4. 

"Later on in the day the Prosecuting Attorney called me on the 
telephone and stated that after a thorough investigation of both 



61 

sides of the question, he was satisfied that the girl was held in 
slavery, but as it was impossible to file a complaint during a 
session of the Assembly, and at my request he agreed to take the 
matter up administratively and so requested me to return the 
girl to the home of her master, as it would be easy to secure her 
as a witness at any time she was required. I therefore directed 
the girl be returned to the house of Assemblyman Cecilio. 

"Shortly after the girl had returned to the house with the 
patrolman endeavoring to get her clothes, Assemblyman Cecilio 
called on me in my office and made a complaint against the 
policeman for entering his house without his permission or with- 
out any legal process, and also made a complaint that the girl 
that left his house had stolen ten pesos. Upon looking into the 
matter and finding out the nature of the case, I directed him to 
the Prosecuting Attorney. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "J. E. Harding, 

"Chief of Police." 

"January 10, 1913. 
"To the Commanding Officer, 

"Precinct No. 4, Manila. 
"Sir: In reference to the charges against Silverio D. Cecilio, 
charged with violation of Act 2098 (Labor Law) and also with 
whipping a girl who was in the house in the capacity of a 
servant, I do not think it advisable in view of the provisions of 
next to the last paragraph of sec. 8, of Act 1582,- to take any 
action in the matter. After the adjournment of the Assembly, 
it might be advisable to pursue the investigation as to the first 
charge, but it would not do to bring a charge even of a breach 
of the peace, at this time, as we certainly would be met with 
a statement on his part that the girl was in his family with 
the consent of her parents, and that he stood in the place of the 
father; hence, had a right to administer reasonable corporal 
punishment. In view of the fact that I cannot file a complaint, 
I am referring the case back to you in hopes that you can find 
some proper home for the girl. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "W. H. Bishop, 

"Prosecuting Attorney." 

"City of Manila, Law Department, 
"Office of the Prosecuting Attorney, 

"January 11, 1913. 
"To the Executive Secretary, Manila, P. I. 
"(Through the Chief of Police.) 
"Sir : I have the honor to advise you that yesterday morning 
Patrolman Darneille brought to my office a native Bicol girl, 
apparently 18 years of age. She showed decided signs upon 
the legs of having been whipped, and she made quite a full state- 
ment of the case, but before the completion of the examination 
it developed that her master, Silverio D. Cecilio, was a member 



62 

of the Assembly from Ambos Camarines, so I immediately 
stopped the investigation and referred the matter back to the 
Commanding Officer of Sampoloc. Shortly after the girl left 
my office, Assemblyman Cecilio called, with a charge against 
the girl of having stolen J^IO, stating that he had a witness 
who could testify to the fact and that he would bring the 
witness this morning. At 10 o'clock this morning he called 
and said that the girl was back in the house and was very 
penitent for having run away and having stolen his money, and 
begged that his charges against the girl be dropped, which of- 
course I consented to do, particularly in view of the fact that 
it is very rare that a servant leaves a house, after violent treat- 
ment and makes a complaint against his or her master, but what 
the latter comes in with a charge of theft. 

"Now the most serious phase of this case is this: The Assemoiy- 
man says that he brought the girl to Manila as a servant; that 
he is paying her no wages ; that it was to be a sort of educational 
trip for the girl and that her father had entrusted her to his care 
because the father was in debt to him. The Assemblyman's 
statement to the patrolman was even more definite as to the girl 
working out a debt, than to me. As a matter of fact, if I were 
in Nueva Caceres, I would certainly pursue my investigation of 
this case, under the Labor Law, as it has all the appearance of 
being a flagrant violation of that Act. 

"Finally, this is not an isolated case. Such matters are 
presented to this office very frequently, but there is little we can 
do, because as a rule the parents are beyond reach, and if we do 
reach them, the master has been ahead of us and fixed the matter 
up. It is certainly to be hoped that some arrangements can be 
made by which these young unfortunate boys and girls can be 
cared for and sent back to their homes, always, of course, after 
inquiry as to whether or not the parents can and will care for 
them, always keeping in mind what is best for the child. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "W. H. Bishop." 

It will be noted that in this case the usual effort was made to 
bring criminal proceedings against the unfortunate peon who 
attempted to escape, and that the net result of the efforts of 
this poor girl to end the intolerable conditions under which she 
existed was that she was sent back to the Philippine Assembly- 
man, her master. 

While on my last visit of inspection to the Province of Palawan 
a complaint was lodged with me against Assemblyman Sandoval, 
who represents that province in the Philippine Legislature. It 
was alleged that he had taken a young girl to Manila when he 
went there to attend the legislative session of 1912, promising 
to put her in school, but that instead of doing this he had com- 
pelled her to work as a house servant ; that the girl, dissatisfied, 



63 

made her escape and started for her home; that unfortunately 
for her, the steamer touched at the place of residence of the 
Assemblyman, who discovered that she was on board, took her 
off the vessel and caused her to be returned to Manila. 

But why multiply cases? I could obtain conclusive evidence 
concerning a hundred, a thousand, or ten .thousand. It is simply 
a question of time and work. 

I have not made the slightest effort to get the peonage records 
of Philippine Assemblymen, but have taken cases as they came, 
yet three of the relatively very limited number furnished me 
concern members or ex-members of the Assembly. Is it any 
wonder that that body refuses to consider a law prohibiting and 
penalizing peonage? 

Gambling is the besetting sin of the common people of the 
Philippines. The poor are usually glad to get the opportunity 
to borrow money, and will do this on almost any terms, if neces- 
sary, in order to continue to indulge in their pet vice. They 
are thoughtless about their ability to repay loans, and thus readily 
fall into the power of the cacique money lenders, who thereafter 
use them as house servants or laborers, under conditions such 
as to render their escape from debt servitude practically impos- 
sible. 

Indeed, if they seek to escape, the caciques threaten them 
with the law, or actually invoke it against them, while if they 
endeavor to homestead public land and thus better their con- 
dition the caciques only too often cause opposition to be made 
to their claims and keep it up until they become discouraged. 

If they are ignorant heathen like the Negrito mestizos of 
Mount Isarog, the cacique boldly informs them that the American 
Government will not allow them to take up land. Such ignorant 
people, by the way, are often made peons by wholesale. A plan 
to have 50 Negritos brought down from Mount Isarog to work 
out a ?12 debt was quite recently frustrated by an American. 

Beginning on page 105 of the appendix will be found official 
correspondence further describing the conditions which now 
exist among the Negritos of Ambos Camarines. 

On August 7, 1909, Guy Clinton, who was then acting division 
superintendent of education for the Province of Bataan, wrote to 
the Director of Education a letter in which he stated that a whole 
band of Negritos, numbering 122, were "in practical slavery" 
to two Filipinos named Malixi and Ganzon, respectively. As a 
matter of fact, the condition of these Negritos was that of peons 
rather than that of slaves. 



64 

Special interest attaches to the letter below quoted, as it relates 
to conditions at Baler, the birthplace of Sr. Manuel Quezon, who 
says he is "familiar with the facts" and ought surely to under- 
stand conditions at his old home : 

"The Mindoeo Lumber Company, Incorporated, 

"Baler, P. I., February 6, 1904-. 
"Bureau op Non-Christian Tribe, 

Manila, P. I. 

"Gentlemen: Would desire to call the attention of your 
Bureau to the abuses that are being constantly imposed on the 
Negritos of the vicinity. 

"We have here a large number of Negritos south of here, and 
Illongotes north. I estimated the No. of Negritos at about 400, 
while the Illongotes it is very hard to get a correct estimate, 
but as they are more warlike than the Negritos, they are re- 
spected and feared by the Negritos. Last year I tried to teach 
those Negritos to clean hemp, and with that end in view I had 
a white man in charge of a camp established right on the ground 
to show them the business, and I paid them at the rate of Pfs. 
10.00 per picul. Everything went well until I recalled my man 
back then the Tagalog went amongst them, and took all their 
clothing away, prevented them from further working hemp, and 
made them work for themselves, pounding rice, cutting wood, 
bamboos, etc., for which they would receive no pay, in fact, 
they were forced to do the work and are slaves to the Tagalogs. 
They are very much abused and are in fear of the Tagalogs, and 
are afraid to do anything which might bring them some pay, 
as they would be robbed by the Tagalogs. Kindly let me know 
if there are any remedy for this evil, the Negritos as a rule are 
peaceable people and inclined to work and have tried to better 
them with the above results. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) "Albert d'Arcy, 

"Baler, Principe." 

While the conditions described by Mr. d'Arcy constitute peon- 
age rather than slavery, it is perhaps hardly to be wondered 
at that he failed to distinguish between the two. 

Serious as are the conditions relative to slavery and peonage 
among the people of the non-Christian tribes, they are relatively 
unimportant compared with those which result from peonage 
among Filipino laborers, because of the much smaller number of 
persons involved. 

The hard truth is that peonage to-day lies at the root of the 
industrial system of the Philippines. 

After completing so much of this report, I read it to nine of 
the men who have been longest in the service of the Insular 
Government and asked for criticism. 

Two of them promptly suggested that I had laid undue em- 



65 

phasis on the extent to which members of non-Christian tribes 
were enslaved; or, rather, that I had failed properly to bring 
out the facts as to the extent to which Filipinos are enslaved 
by their own people. Each mentioned a number of instances, 
which had come within his own knowledge, of the selling of 
Filipinos into slavery for cash. Mr. Frank L. Crone, Assistant 
Director of Education, subsequently made to me the following 
statement : 

"In the fall of 1903, when the writer was chairman of the 
election board of Nueva Caceres, certain Chinese with five 
children were brought into the municipal building. These 
children had, according to the statements made to me, been 
purchased by the Chinese for sums ranging from 1*12.00 to 
=P23.00. The youngest was three or four years old. Some of 
them already had their heads sheared, so as to resemble Chinese. 
Documents in Bicol had been drawn up; they were not trans- 
lated to me. I talked with some of the parents who were also 
called to the municipal building. They seemed to love their 
children, but felt compelled to sell them in order to provide 
food for themseves or to meet certain debts which they had 
incurred. These parents seemed to be pleased when they found 
out that the children were not to go to the Chinese. It was 
stated at the time that the intention was to ship these little 
boys to Manila. I was informed that a shipment had been 
made some time before and that the children had been recovered 
by the Constabulary at Manila. 1 It was stated that some of 
these children had been sent to China, but I never went to any 
trouble to confirm this statement. 

"It is a well-known fact that there was a traffic in women 
in and about Nueva Caceres. This traffic was carried on chiefly 
in the towns near Nueva Caceres, particularly in those on the 
other side of the river, where economic conditions were at that 
time deplorable. 

"Many of these young women of course simply entered into 
prostitution, much as women do in other countries, but there 
is no doubt that many of them were offered for sale at ridic- 
ulously low prices. There was one very noteworthy case of 
a Filipino who offered a rather pretty daughter for ¥=500.00. 
This offer was made to a large number of Americans in Cama- 
rines. The woman was finally purchased by a Spaniard who 
had an establishment near the town of Tigaon. The ordinary 
price for girls was a very small fraction of this amount. 

"In Camarines there were a number of procurers who acted 
in a double capacity. They acted as go-betweens for women 
of easy virtue. They were also agents in transactions which 
practically amounted to the selling of young girls." 

1 The latter were presumably the children hereinbefore referred to on 
page 14. 

118937 6 



66 

I give the following as a sample peonage contract: 

"I, Maximina Capistrano, widow and of advanced age, native 
of this pueblo of Angat, having Cedula No. 240121, declare before 
those present, D. Pedro Otayco and D. Antonio Mendoza, likewise 
residents of this pueblo, that I owe Dna. Filomena Vergel de 
Dios also of this pueblo, the sum of forty pesos that I spent for 
my children ; and as I have no means of paying said debt, I have 
agreed to hire to the said Vergel that one of my children, named 
Florentina, for which service she (Vergel) will allow four pesos 
the first year, beginning this date, and for the second year 
there is to be an increase of half a peso. The third year she 
will allow five pesos, and the fourth year six pesos, and thus 
until the debt is canceled. But if perchance the girl should be 
unable to do the work, or should run away or die, then I may 
pay in money what remains of the debt ; or, if I should not have 
the necessary money, then I will dispose of the services of 
another child of mine, or otherwise of my own. But, if God 
should take my life, then she (Vergel) or anyone authorized 
by her, may at once levy upon my effects, and should there be 
none, then others of my children will be obliged to serve her 
or pay the money conjointly, as for them the money was spent. 

"Thus it is that in all my promises I have given my word 
to Vergel to do my duty; and, that it may appear 'clear, I have 
had this document written before Otayco and Mendoza as wit- 
nesses; and, finally, as I do not know how to write and sign 
this, Jose Fajardo will sign it for me, the witnesses likewise 
signing to certify to what has been agreed upon, and that from 
this day my daughter Florentina will begin to live with and 
work for her (Vergel) . 

"Given this 10th day of January, 1899, at Angat. 

(Signed.) "Pedro Otayco. 

"Antonio Mendoza. 
"Jose Fajardo." 

The attitude of many of the municipalities of the Philippines 
toward peonage is typified by that of Cagayan de Misamis, which 
passed an ordinance forbidding a servant to quit his master's 
employ without the consent of the latter ! 

Of course, the ordinance was illegal, but Mr. Lawrence M.. 
Jacobs, of the Treasury Bureau, who first reported its existence, 
pertinently remarked : 

"If such an act of the council is illegal what is to be done 
about it? It may be said, and rightly, that an abused man has 
recourse to the law. But what does the average man in Misamis 
Province know about the law? In short, what is the use of 
giving men rights before the law when they are too ignorant 
to understand the law — too ignorant to exercise those rights — 
unless there is some one to protect them in their rights? To 
have an American judge of the Court of First Instance is not 
sufficient. A servant of a local official is arrested and thrown 



67 

in jail. After a time he may be tried before a justice of the 
peace, convicted and sentenced. The law under which he was 
convicted is illegal. The man has an appeal, but what does 
he know about appeal? 

"I believe a man with legal training is more needed on Pro- 
vincial Boards than one who is an engineering expert." 

I have been especially interested by the comments in the 
Filipino and the American press, evoked by the rather pre- 
mature reading, in the United States Senate, of my letter fur- 
nishing information requested by the President of the American 
Humane Association — premature not because the statements con- 
tained in this letter were of a private nature, but because, if 
to be transmitted to the Senate, they should have been supported 
by much detailed information which was not given. 

It has been claimed in the local native press : 

That there is no slavery in the Philippines. I have already 
discussed this contention. 

That slave gangs do not labor in the Philippine fields under the 
lash of the driver. This is strictly true. 

That slavery is rare. It is rarer than theft. So is murder, 
but that is no reason for failing to penalize the one crime or 
the other. 

That such slavery as exists is to be found only in the special 
government provinces under the executive control of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, who must be responsible for its continued 
existence. The first of these statements is grossly false. The 
large majority of slaves are held in the regularly organized 
provinces. As regards the second, I can neither enact laws nor 
control the courts. Now, that I have secured the passage of ade- 
quate legislation prohibiting and penalizing slavery, peonage, 
and the sale and purchase of human beings in the territory under 
the legislative jurisdiction of the Commission, I am still obviously 
just as powerless personally to prevent the occurrence of cases 
of slavery as I am to prevent the occurrence of cases of murder. 

As it has further been charged that I have only at this late day 
developed an interest in this subject and that my action is merely 
a sharp move made for political effect alone, I deem it necessary 
here to outline my past activities. I have already called attention 
to the fact that I took it upon myself to draft and submit the Act 
passed by the Commission, although this work had not been 
allotted to me. When the Philippine Commission passed this 
Act and the Philippine Assembly tabled it, I included the follow- 
ing in my next annual report, which was for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1909 : 



68 

"Failure to secure legislation prohibiting slavery, involuntary servitude, 
peonage, or the sale of human beings in the Philippine Islands. 

"Having discovered to my amazement that there was no law 
in the Philippine Islands prohibiting the sale of human beings, 
and impressed with the necessity of providing legal remedy for 
existing conditions as regards slavery, involuntary servitude, 
peonage, and the sale of human beings, I drafted, and the Phil- 
ippine Commission passed, the following act :" (There follow the 
title and text of the act referred to.) 

"I regret to state that this act failed to pass the Philippine 
Assembly. 

"The stealing or the purchase of children of members of non- 
Christian tribes is lamentably common. On my last visit I 
found at the house of Lieutenant-Governor Villamor a bright 
little Negrito girl eleven years of age who had been sold to a 
Christian native by her parents, who were starving, for a cavan 
of palay (unhusked rice) , worth about 5*3.00. Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Villamor, on learning the facts, took her away from her 
purchaser on the ground that as she had served him for two and 
a half years she had certainly repaid him for her cost. This 
infamous practice is carried on under the guise of Christianizing 
the children of the wild men. 

"If the conditions thus brought about are bad, those due to 
the peonage in which very numerous families, not only of the 
wild tribes but also of the more ignorant Christian peoples, are 
held by people of a certain class in these Islands, are worse and 
undoubtedly call for remedial legislation. 

"I recommend that at the next session of the Philippine Legis- 
lature this Act be again passed by the Commission, and that a 
strong effort be made to secure its passage by the Philippine 
Assembly. In the event that the Assembly should refuse to 
pass it, I recommend that the Congress of the United States 
be requested to enact suitable legislation, supplementing and 
making effective the provision in its Act of July 1, 1902, to the 
effect, 'that neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as 
a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted, shall exist in said Islands.' " 

This matter did not meet with the approval of Colonel Frank 
Mclntyre, at that time Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs. It was submitted to the Secretary of War with a 
memorandum setting forth what Colonel Mclntyre deemed to be 
its objectionable features, and further setting forth his view that 
existing provisions of criminal law effective in the Philippines 
were adequate to prevent the evils complained of. This memo- 
randum was signed "Edwards," but in a letter to me dated 
January 13, 1913, General Mclntyre made the following state- 
ment concerning it : 

"I had intended writing to you some time ago partly by way of 
confession. We received your criticism of the memorandum 



69 

signed 'Edwards' with reference to slavery in the Philippine 
Islands. General Edwards is not with us now and I do not 
wish him to bear the burden of your criticism. I, myself, in the 
first instance was the father of that document of which you think 
so little." 

Had General Mclntyre's view as to the adequacy of existing 
legislation been correct, his argument would have been hard to 
answer. The Secretary of War had no reason to think it in- 
correct and I was not then even aware of its existence. As a 
result of it the elision of this portion of my report was arranged 
for without my knowledge, through the following cablegrams: 

"Manila, Jan. 22, 1910. 
"Forbes, Manila. 

"Referring to the Annual Report of Dean C. Worcester, we 
are inclined to the opinion that reference to slavery in the Phil- 
ippines is unwise. It would create false idea here and would 
naturally offend Philippine Assembly. We are of the opinion 
that its omission would greatly improve report. Please suggest 
this to him and cable your views and his. 

"MdNTYRE." 

"Manila, Jan. 26, 1910. 
"Secwar, Washington. 

"Referring to telegram from your office of the twenty-second 
instant, Dean C. Worcester is absent inspection tour but have 
already his authority to modify his report and agree it is ad- 
visable to cut out this reference. Report will end with word 
Isabela at the end of article on the Province of Nueva Vizcaya. 

"Forbes." 

I had been obliged to leave Manila before the Commission had 
considered my report, and had authorized the Governor-General 
to make changes in it, having in mind minor matters which 
might be suggested by my colleagues. This important passage 
was cut out and upon my return I was informed of what had 
occurred. I thereupon sent the following memorandum to the 
Governor-General : 

"BAGUIO, February 28, 1910. 

"Memorandum for the Honorable the Governor-General. 

"Practices in the matter of purchasing and practically enslav- 
ing the children of wild people, and holding wild people in the 
state of peonage, closely approaching slavery, are more grave 
and more common than is ordinarily understood here; and, in 
my opinion, as stated in my report, ought to be brought to the 
attention of the Congress of the United States if the situation is 



70 

not dealt with effectively by the Philippine Legislature at its 
next regular session. 

"I do not object to the omission from my report of the matter 
treating on this subject, with the understanding that a strong 
effort will be made here to secure legislation which will, at least, 
penalize the sale for cash or other valuable consideration of 
human beings. 

"As things stand at present, we should be placed in a some- 
what embarrassing situation if anyone thoroughly acquainted 
with the facts were to ask us what we had done to make effective 
the provisions of the Act of Congress prohibiting slavery. 

"Dean C. Worcester, 

"Secretary of the Interior." 

In my report as Secretary of the Interior for the year ended 
June 30, 1910, I again took up this important subject. All 
matter pertaining thereto was cut out, ostensibly by order of 
the Secretary of War, although I now hold a personal letter from 
Mr. Dickinson stating that he cannot remember having dealt 
with the matter. 

I was in Washington at the time, but the "Edwards" memo- 
randum was not shown to me, nor did I ever see it or hear of it 
until there was forwarded to me by Acting Governor-General 
Newton W. Gilbert a letter from Colonel Mclntyre dated August 
1, 1912, which reads as follows : 

"War Department, 
"Bureau of Insular Affairs, 

"Washington, August 1, 1912. 

"My dear Governor : I have had a long talk with Mr. Quezon 
this morning and I thought it well to place before you several 
matters, some of which he regarded as Philippine grievances 
under the present government. 

"He called my attention to the fact that Governor Forbes had 
in a speech delivered in Boston very seriously criticised the Phil- 
ippine Assembly for not passing a bill which had been passed 
by the Commission prohibiting slavery and the sale of human 
beings in the Philippine Islands. 

"We have felt in this Bureau that the Commission had been 
a little unfair in dealing with the Assembly in this matter of 
prohibiting slavery. This was taken up in 1909 and a cable 
was sent January 22, 1910, with reference to the omission of 
this discussion from a report of Commissioner Worcester. I 
inclose a copy of the memorandum which was not sent to the 
Islands at the time largely because it was believed that the points 
brought out in the memorandum were well known to all mem- 
bers of the Commission in the Philippine Islands. 

"If this memorandum is not a fair statement of the case I 
should like to know about it. I have looked up the decision in 



71 

which Judge Tracey indicated the necessity of some legislation 
on this subject but his opinion was not very convincing to me. 
"Sincerely yours, 

(Sgd.) "Frank McIntyre, 

"Colonel, U. S. Army, 
"Assistant to Chief of Bureau. 
"Hon. Newton W. Gilbert, 

"Acting Governor ^General of the 

Philippine Islands, Manila, P. I." 

As this communication was sent to me with a request for 
comment, and as the memorandum in question was in my opinion 
very far from being "a fair statement of the case," I wrote a 
letter to the Acting Governor-General replying to the arguments 
there advanced and stating definitely and specifically that slavery 
exists in these Islands. The memorandum and my reply thereto 
will be found in the Appendix beginning on page 108. 

On May 1, 1913, the United States Senate passed a resolution 
reading : 

"Resolved, That the Secretary of War be, and he is hereby, 
directed to send to the Senate any and all facts bearing directly 
or indirectly upon the truth of the charge publicly made that 
human slavery exists at this time in the Philippine Islands and 
that human beings are bought and sold in such Islands as 
chattels." 

The reply addressed by the Secretary of War to the President 
of the Senate on May 6, 1913, contains the following statement : 

"There is not in this Department, to the knowledge of the 
Secretary thereof or of the head of the Bureau having charge . 
of insular affairs, a record of any facts bearing directly or in- 
directly upon the truth of the charge, publicly made, that human 
slavery exists at this time in the Philippine Islands and that 
human beings are bought and sold in such Islands as chattels." 

I do not know whether the passage above quoted which was 
cut out of my 1909 report as Secretary of the Interior was 
considered to bear either directly or indirectly upon the truth 
of the charge in question, but it was, at all events, on file in the 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, as presumably was the one cut out of 
my 1910 report. 

My letter of October 28, 1912, addressed to the Acting 
Governor-General, and duly forwarded by him to Washington, 
in which I replied to General Mclntyre's memorandum, contains 
the following statements among others : 

"The first criticism reads as follows : 

" 'First, That it creates the impression that slavery, involun- 
tary servitude, peonage, and the sale of human beings are com- 



72 

mon in the Philippine Islands, have legal recognition, and cannot 
be prevented under existing law.' 

"Involuntary servitude and peonage are common in the Phil- 
ippines. Slavery and the sale of human beings are also common, 
not only in certain portions of the wild man's territory under 
the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the Commission but in 
Palawan, and are by no means very rare in general in the 
territory occupied by Filipinos which borders on the territory 
occupied by non-Christians. But even if they were rare through- 
out the Philippines, the argument advanced by Edwards would 
no more be logical than would an argument against an act pro- 
hibiting and penalizing murder on the ground that it was not a 
common crime. The important question is not whether the acts 
provided against are committed frequently or infrequently but 
whether they are good or evil. If evil, they should obviously 
be adequately provided against. 

"I do not wish to be understood to imply that slavery, invol- 
untary servitude, and the sale of human beings are limited to 
the above-described territory. 

"It is but a short time since the wife of an Englishman living 
on the outskirts of Manila was offered a Negrito child which 
was brought to her home for sale as a pony or a carabao would 
have been brought. 

"I am now trying to find in Manila one of two Negritos who, 
some time since, were kidnapped in the province of Bataan, 
having first been made drunk with vino ; were then tied up and 
taken into the province of Pampanga ; and were afterwards sold 
in the province of Batangas. Ultimately, both of them escaped 
from their purchasers. One of them has made his way back 
to his old home in the mountains of Bataan. The other is 
believed to have been detained on the way, and to be held at the 
present time in the city of Manila. 

"I see nothing in the enactment of a law prohibiting slavery, 
involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of human beings, 
which could logically lead to the belief that these practices have 
legal recognition in these Islands, but it is true that they connot 
be effectively prevented under existing law." 

Some of these statements seem to me to bear somewhat directly 
upon the truth of the charge that slavery exists in these Islands. 
They were on file in the War Department, unless thrown away 
or filed elsewhere, for General Mclntyre acknowledged to me the 
receipt of the document containing them. 

In my report as Secretary of the Interior for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1911, I again took up this subject. After this 
report had been submitted to the Commission I myself cut out 
all mention of slavery at the request of Governor-General Forbes, 
who urged that we make a last effort to get the Assembly to act 
before appealing to Congress. 

In my report for 1912 I once more discussed the subject, send- 



73 

ing the document to the printer without awaiting possible further 
requests or orders that I again remain silent. The present 
report is the logical and necessary sequel to the recommendation 
there made that if the Assembly again failed to act the matter 
be brought to the attention of Congress, and is intended to 
furnish proof of the necessity for Congressional action. 

In preparing it I have not received the assistance to which 
I feel that I was entitled. 

For merely stating the bare fact of the existence of slavery in 
the Philippines I have been publicly denounced as a liar, actuated 
by unworthy political motives, and my removal has been loudly 
demanded. Warned by my personal experience, the timid and 
the politic have refused to give information in their possession, 
or have insisted that their names be concealed. 

At the outset I determined not to use evidence in connection 
with which I was not at liberty to give the names of witnesses. 
A responsible employee of the Government who reports the sale 
of a Negrito slave in Pampanga during the third week of Feb- 
ruary, 1913, says: 

"It is requested that my name be mentioned in no way in this 
case. I promised my informant his would not be." 

Another highly paid employee who reports three cases of 
peonage says : 

"In making these reports, the undersigned understands that 
his name is to be withheld absolutely in all matters pertaining 
to them hereafter, and that further investigations, if any, are to 
be made by others." 

Another who furnishes really important information says : 

"I respectfully submit the following general narrative of what 
my conclusions are, drawn from general observation and from 
cases personally noted by me, but in doing so, shall omit names 
for two reasons: First, I do not remember the names in most 
instances, and second, I do not desire to go on record as having 
given any direct evidence that would subject me to the annoyance 
of being called before investigating committees or being required 
to submit proofs, etc. 

"I believe that almost every person who has resided in the 
Islands for any length of time and who has been associated to 
any extent with the Filipinos, is aware of the fact (of the exis- 
tence of slavery and peonage. — D. C. W.), and that a careful 
investigation into the matter would soon convince the most 
scrupulous that such things do really exist in certain forms. 
The securing and furnishing evidence of their existence, I believe 
to be police work." 



74 

Unfortunately, the Director of Constabulary, which is the 
police force of the Islands, was found in the ranks of the "politic" 
and the timid. I asked for all Constabulary records relative to 
slavery and received half a dozen typewritten pages concerning 
two sets of cases with a statement that nothing more could be 
found. This, too, when there were actually on file documents 
like Senior Inspector Sorenson's report (appendix, page 85). 
I have been extracting information from the Constabulary 
files ever since with forceps. 

I asked for reports from Constabulary officers now in the 
provinces relative to slavery in their territory. A number were 
forwarded by the Director marked "Confidential." Finally, the 
report of a case of peonage dated June 5, 1910, came in with 
the following indorsement signed "For the Director" by Colonel 
J. G. Harbord, who merely carried out instructions: 

"Respectfully forwarded, through the Honorable the Secretary 
of Commerce and Police, to the Honorable the Secretary of the 
Interior. 

"It is requested that the interests of the Constabulary be 
guarded by considering as confidential the source of this informa- 
tion." ! 

As the Constabulary is an armed force of nearly 5,000 officers 
and men, I had supposed it able to guard its own interests in such 
matters. While it is, of course, often an unpopular thing to 
tell the truth, if one may not use the reports of police officers in 
demonstrating the existence of crime, what may one use? 

In justice to the present Acting Director of Constabulary and 
to the officers of that force I must say that the former does not 
object to the free use of Constabulary reports on slavery signed 
by those who wrote them, and that I am convinced that the very 
large majority of the latter would gladly assume responsibility 
for any statements made by them on this or any other subject. 

The attitude of the Insular Auditor and some of his subor- 
dinates has also been worthy of note. Being reliably informed 
that a number of district auditors could give important evidence, 
I requested the Auditor to obtain for me such proof as he could 
get. On March 14 he wrote me, saying : 

"My dear Mr. Secretary : I am slowly gathering up informa- 
tion in relation to slavery. It is taking up more time than I 
thought it would owing to the fact that each district auditor 
finds it necessary to make investigations to get concrete cases in 
hand. I have some very important communications at this time 
that might be forwarded, but I think it best to gather them all 
together and then make a statement to you of the entire matter 



75 

in a report so that you will have it all before you. I take it you 
will not want it piecemeal when it comes to you, but that you 
will want it so that you can have the entire source of information 
at hand. 

"Your truly, 

(Signed) "W. H. Phipps, 

"Insular Auditor." 

' In my reply to this letter, dated March 17, I said : 

"While I should be glad to have a connective report from you 
on this subject, and hope that you will not give up the idea of 
preparing one, I should particularly like to see the nature of 
the information which you are receiving and suggest that if you 
have copies of documents already in hand you send them to me, 
or, in the event that .you have not, you send me originals and I 
will have copies prepared here and return the originals for use 
in connection with your final statement. 

"Thanking you very much for the interest you are taking in 
this matter, I am, 

"Sincerely yours, 

(Signed.) "Dean C. Worcester." 

On March 24 he wrote me as follows : 

"My dear Mr. Secretary : I have yours of March 17th in rela- 
tion to the report I am preparing in relation to slavery in the 
Philippine Islands. I have not received this information as 
rapidly as I thought I might. I have some concrete cases in 
hand but most of the statements I have received are general in 
character. The reports which I have received seem to avoid 
giving personal instances to quite a large extent. I think they 
fear they will be compelled to produce proof of their declarations 
in court. I have been assuring them that such is not the case 
and the communications that I have received which give concrete 
instances have been given under the strict assurance that the 
author of the report would not be made public for the reason 
that they fear it will injure them in their work in the provinces 
and I have no doubt but that it would to quite an extent. 

"I will be in Baguio within a short time and will then discuss 
with you the entire subject and show you what reports I have 
received. 

"Yours truly, 

(Sgd.) "W. H. Phipps." 

The Auditor came to Baguio, but he did not call on me, nor 
discuss the subject, nor show me any reports. He delayed for- 
warding his report until after mine had been sent in and then 
addressed it to the Secretary of War through the Governor- 
General! It is important. I hope that the Commission and 
Congress may see it. 

I can only express my appreciation of the courage of the men 



76 

who have not shrunk from the unpleasant duty of testifying 
to disagreeable truths, nor sought to avoid responsibility for 
their statements. I believe that this appreciation will be shared 
by the very large majority of their fellow countrymen here and 
in the United States. I shall regret it if any of them are 
compelled to share the odium felt by many Filipinos toward me 
for my long-continued effort to prevent slavery, peonage, and 
the sale or barter of human beings in the Islands. 

It has been stated over and over in the native press that many 
persons who have been purchased, and are held as chattels, and 
compelled to labor without compensation other than food and 
clothing, are treated with kindness by their masters and hence 
are not slaves! Some such persons have been treated with 
the utmost kindness, educated, and set free. Others have been 
treated with incredible brutality. All were slaves, and slavery 
fosters brutal treatment. In my opinion, instances of harsh 
treatment have become more rare of late for the reason that 
abuse has led to efforts to escape on the part of the slaves, and 
owners are fully aware that they can not legally prevent them 
from running away. 

The commonest contention of all has been that if slavery did 
exist in the Philippines, or any part thereof, the Commission 
alone was to blame, as it had abundant time to pass an anti- 
slavery law during the period while it was the sole legislative 
body of the Islands. I have shown that as long ago as 1903 
provision was made by the Commission first for the amendment 
of the Spanish Penal Code, and later the drafting of a special 
act, but that before this was done an attorney-general advanced 
the theory that the typical specific cases presented for his con- 
sideration could be dealt with under existing provisions of law. 
I have also shown that efforts to secure conviction under these 
provisions failed miserably after consuming some two years; 
that the Philippine Legislature, with the Assembly as its lower 
house, was then about to meet for the first time; and, finally, 
that the Commission has now patiently and vainly sought, 
through four long years, to secure the cooperation of the As- 
sembly in the passage of an antislavery law and has failed on 
four several occasions. There is at all events no room for doubt 
as to where the responsibility has lain during this period and 
still lies. The Assembly has never even deigned to discuss any 
of the bills prohibiting and penalizing slavery, peonage, and the 
sale of human beings passed and sent to it by the Commission, 
much less to investigate facts, plenty of which I should have 



77 

been glad to furnish its members at any time since its organ- 
ization. 

Before closing my comment on the attitude of the press and 
that of certain individuals relative to slavery in the Philippines, 
I must with regret call attention to an extraordinary communica- 
tion addressed to the editor of the New York Times by Ex- Justice 
James F. Tracey, who states, doubtless truly, that he wrote the 
opinion of the Supreme Court in the Tomas Cabanag case and 
adds that he feels it incumbent on him "to promptly call attention 
to the substance of this decision." 

Because of the deservedly high standing of Judge Tracey as 
a jurist, and of the very wide publicity that has been given to 
his recent statements through the public press, I will here answer 
them fully even at the cost of some repetition. 

No thinking person can deny that the essential "substance of 
this decision" was that part of it which clearly set forth the fact 
that "there is no law applicable here, either of the United States 
or of the Archipelago, punishing slavery as a crime." Yet in the 
article referred to Justice Tracey fails to so much as mention this, 
its fundamentally important feature, or any other features of it 
whatsoever, except the following: 

"The record before the Court shows not that slavery existed in 
any form throughout the Philippine Islands, but only a custom 
of child servitude or apprenticeship in certain mountain regions." 

"The opinion says: 

" 'It is proved in the case that it is an Igorot custom to dispose 
of children to pay the debts of their fathers, the transaction in 
the native language being termed a sale, and the defendant 
appears to have engaged in the business of buying in Nueva Viz- 
caya children to sell in the lowlands of Isabela. * * * 

" 'The name applied to it by the custom of the Igorots is not 
enough to establish that in truth and in effect it was a sale, or 
anything more than a contract for services. * * * 

" 'The employment or custody of a minor with the consent or 
sufferance of the parents or guardian, although against the 
child's own will, cannot be considered involuntary servitude.' " 

Immediately after the passage above quoted from the decision, 
Justice Tracey adds in his newspaper article: 

"It is likened to an indenturing of children, in accordance 
with custom, unprotected by statutory safeguards." 

So far as I am aware, no one has ever claimed that "slavery 
existed in any form throughout the Islands." I certainly never 
have. This was not the question considered by the court, nor 
was there any record on the matter before it. No testimony 



78 

on the subject was taken either in the Supreme Court or the 
Court of First Instance which tried the case, and the allegation 
of Judge Tracey, while strictly true, is hardly disingenuous. 

I have great respect for his knowledge of the law, and when 
his colleagues of the Supreme Court accepted and made theirs 
his statement that "there is no law applicable here, either of 
the United States or of the Archipelago, punishing slavery as 
a crime," I believed, and I still believe, that the last word on 
this subject had been said. 

I have no respect whatever for his knowledge of the non- 
Christian tribes of the Philippines. He does not even know 
their names, and his ignorance of their customs is so compre- 
hensive as to embrace practically all that there is to be known. 
Had he not precipitately rushed into print, adopting the absurd 
hypothesis that my charges "relative to slavery in the Philip- 
pines were largely based on the decision of the Supreme Court" 
of the Philippine Islands in the Tomas Cabanag case; had he 
not republished portions of the opinion of the court relative to 
"Igorot" customs; and had he not compared the sale of human 
beings into slavery to "an indenturing of children," and specifi- 
cally described it as a custom of child "apprenticeship," I should 
have refrained from saying that he is unfit to discuss the customs 
of the wild people or the prevalence of slavery, because of his 
complete lack of accurate and comprehensive information con- 
cerning these matters. 

Had he possessed the slightest familiarity with local conditions 
or even with the geography of the region in question, he could 
not possibly have included in his draft of the Supreme Court 
decision the words : 

"To sum up this case, there is no proof of slavery or even of 
involuntary servitude, inasmuch as it has not been clearly shown 
that the child has been disposed of against the will of her 
grandmother or has been taken altogether out of her control." 

The child had been taken long days of travel through a portion 
of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya, where travel was then exces- 
sively dangerous on account of the activities of the murderous 
Silipan Ifugaos, who have been shown in this report to have 
killed other slaves and their guards while in transit. She was 
not held in any of the "certain mountain regions," but in the 
great hot lowland plain of Isabela. She was surrounded by 
people of an alien race whose language she did not understand. 
Other slaves who had attempted to escape from this same vicinity 
had been pursued and captured by municipal police, returned 



79 

to their owners, and threatened with death if they again ran 
away. Other slaves had been warned that the Americans would 
shoot them if they tried to run away. The severance of relations 
between this 13-year-old girl and her grandmother was to all 
intents and purposes as complete as if she had been transported 
to central Africa. Incidentally, the claim that there was any- 
thing resembling apprenticeship or indenturing in this case was 
negatived by the fact that she had been sold twice after leaving 
the custody of her grandmother. She was held as a chattel. 

So far as concerns its not having been clearly shown that 
the child had been disposed of against the will of her grand- 
mother, the court found that she was bought in the first instance 
from her mother; that when the Ifugao man Buyag came to 
the house and took her to his home the grandmother objected 
saying, "Don't take off that little girl;" that she had first 
returned occasionally to her grandmother's house, but when she 
was taken away for the last time before her enforced journey 
into the lowlands the grandmother was angry and did not wish 
her to go but did not prevent her. How in the name of common 
sense could this poor old woman have prevented a husky Ifugao 
fighting man from taking away a child whom he had bought 
and paid for in a country where might was right, and where 
American authority had not then been established? A rudi- 
mentary knowledge of the customs which prevailed among the 
Ifugaos at that time would have taught Judge Tracey that any 
active effort to prevent this man from taking possession of the 
property he had purchased would have cost the grandmother 
her life. 

The extraordinary contention included by Judge Tracey in 
this decision that the fact that the transaction made in accord- 
ance with "Igorot" customs of disposing of children to pay the 
debts of their fathers is termed a sale is not enough to establish 
that in truth and in effect it is a sale or anything more than 
a contract for services, is hardly worth discussing. Such a 
transaction may safely be considered to be what it is called unless 
there is evidence to show that it is something else. There was 
not a scintilla of evidence to show that in this instance there 
was anything amounting to an apprenticeship or indenturing, 
and there was very strong proof that this was not the case in 
the fact that the individual who took this girl away from her 
people gained rights over her which were twice thereafter dis- 
posed of for cash. Is it not the height of absurdity to suppose 
that she was apprenticed to Buyag, who bought her from her 



80 

mother and took her from her grandmother ; was by him appren- 
ticed to Tomas Cabanag, of whom Judge Tracey wrote in his 
decision: "Not even the abhorrent species of traffic apparently 
carried on by the accused justifies a sentence not authorized 
by law;" was by him apprenticed to Mariano Lopez, who paid 
¥=200 for her; and finally, although held by this man in a distant 
Christian province, remained under some sort of control of her 
grandmother? 

Incidentally, what did the Judge mean by inserting the word 
"traffic" in this decision. If the case was merely one of child 
apprenticeship, why was it "abhorrent;" and if "abhorrent," 
is not legislation needed penalizing it? 

Judge Tracey and his colleagues lived and worked in Manila. 
When this decision was written no one of them had ever set foot 
in Nueva Vizcaya, much less in the territory of the Ifugaos. 
My acquaintance on the ground with the people of that tribe 
began in 1903, and one year excepted, I have traveled in their 
country extensively annually ever since, making a special study 
of their customs. I have known of numerous cases of straight 
out and out sale of Ifugao children to Christian Filipinos. I 
have never known of a single case of anything approximating 
apprenticeship or indenturing. Far be it from me to deny that 
such case or cases may exist, but this was not one of them. Had 
it been, it would have been the very rare exception, not the rule, 
and would have had no bearing on the question of Ifugao custom 
relative to the sale of children. 

Judge Tracey says: 

"It is stated in the letter 'there are Negrito slaves held to-day 
in the city of Manila. If this is so, their liberation can be 
enforced any day through a writ of habeas corpus." 

How, when they will without exception declare that they desire 
to continue to serve their present masters, on the one hand, and 
will run away at the first good opportunity, on the other! 
Would setting them at liberty bring to life parents killed when 
children were captured? Make children desirous of returning 
to parents whom they have not seen since babyhood? Fit them 
for the wild life of their fellow-tribesmen which they have never 
experienced? Make up to them for long years of abject ser- 
vitude which have unfitted them to stand alone? Or in any other 
way undo the wrong perpetrated on them when they were taken 
from their homes and sold as human chattels? Will the custom 
of buying and selling Negrito children be discontinued if the 



81 

worst thing that may result from indulging in it is the loss of 
the slave if the purchaser chances to be found out, while the 
vendor goes unpunished even then? 

Judge Tracey states that he does not know of such a condition 
of things as I describe in the city of Manila, although he resided 
there for some years in an official position. I can hardly be 
held responsible for what he does not know. I may add that 
I did not know the facts myself until I utilized the police depart- 
ment of the city to obtain them, a thing which, I fancy, the 
Judge never did. Slave holders do not here advertise themselves 
as such. 

Admitting his further contention that — 

"The condition must be exceptional and abnormal, as it is 
illegal, existing in the Islands, as phrased by Gen. Mclntyre: 
'Just as crime exists everywhere.' " 

is it not desirable that this crime should be both illegal and 
punishable, a condition which, as the Judge has clearly set forth 
in the decision in question, does not now exist? 

Far from basing my charge that slavery exists here largely on 
the decision of the Supreme Court in this isolated case, as Judge 
Tracey says I have done, I have based it on the following abund- 
antly proven facts : 

Negritos, Ifugaos, Manobos, Mandayas, Moros, Tagbanuas, 
and Filipinos have been captured by armed men who, in order to 
obtain them, killed their parents or other natural defenders, 
and have subsequently been sold as chattels, held as chattels, 
and compelled to render services for which they were not paid. 

Members of all the above-mentioned tribes, as well as Christian 
Filipinos, have been kidnapped and subsequently sold, held, and 
required to render services as above. 

Negritos, Ifugaos, and Christian Filipinos have been bought 
outright for cash from their parents or other near relatives,' and 
sold, held, and required to render services as above. 

Filipino slaves have been shipped to China. Filipino school 
children have been secretly enticed from their homes by false 
promises of education and remuneration, and have been sold into 
slavery and peonage. 

While there has been much noise about slavery, there has been 
profound silence relative to peonage, which, in the Philippines, 
is by far the greater evil of the two, because of the very large 
number of persons who suffer from its prevalence. It is to be 
hoped that this silence will soon be broken, and that we may hear 

118937—6 



82 

from Sr. Quezon, Judge Tracey, and the native press on this 
most important subject. 

It is universally conceded that the sale of human beings is not 
per se punishable as a crime in the regularly organized provinces 
of these Islands. 

Without hesitation I assert that the existence of slavery and 
peonage in the Philippines presents the greatest single problem 
which there confronts the Government of the United States, 
in its effort to build up a respectable and responsible electorate 
and to establish representative government. 

Shall human flesh be openly bought and sold under the Amer- 
ican flag? 

Must the constitutional provision of the Philippine Bill that 
"neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist in said Islands" remain inoperative because 
the Assembly refuses to pass the necessary suppletory legislation 
to give it effect criminally, or will the Philippine Commission 
bring the facts to the attention of Congress and request that 
body to act? 

Respectfully submitted. 

Dean C. Worcester, 

Secretary of the Interior. 

To His Excellency the Governor-General, 

Manila, P. I. 



APPENDIX. 



No. 8.— AN ACT DEFINING THE CRIMES OF SLAVE 
HOLDING AND SLAVE HUNTING, AND PRESCRIB- 
ING THE PUNISHMENT THEREFOR. 

(As amended and approved by the Philippine Commission, November second, 
nineteen hundred and three.) 

By authority of the Philippine Commission, be it enacted by 
the Legislative Council of the Moro Province, that: 

Section 1. Every person who buys, holds, sells, or otherwise 
disposes of any person as a slave, or who directly or indirectly 
causes any person to be held in involuntary servitude, except 
as provided by law, is guilty of slave holding, and upon convic- 
tion shall be imprisoned not more than twenty years and be 
fined not more than ten thousand pesos, Philippine currency. 

Sec. 2. Every person who buys, captures, abducts or receives 
any person with intent to sell or otherwise dispose of such person 
as a slave, or to cause such person to enter into involuntary 
servitude, or who knowingly aids or abets the recapture or 
detention of any person escaped from slavery for the purpose of 
returning such person to a condition of slavery or involuntary 
servitude, or who knowingly owns or is employed upon or has 
any interest in any vessel used or employed in the transportation 
of any person for the purpose of causing such person to enter 
into slavery or involuntary servitude in the Moro Province or 
elsewhere is guilty of slave hunting, and upon conviction shall 
be imprisoned for not more than twenty years and be fined not 
more than ten thousand pesos, Philippine currency. 

Sec. 3. Any vessel employed with the knowledge and consent 
of the owner in the transportation of any person from or into 
the Moro Province, or within the limits of the same, for the 
purpose of disposing of such person as a slave or of causing such 
person to enter into involuntary servitude in the Moro Province 
or elsewhere, and any property, shelter, subsistence, arms, 
animals or equipments employed with the knowledge and consent 
of the owner, in the trafficking in, hunting, capturing or recap- 
turing slaves, shall be subject to confiscation, and upon due proof 
before the proper court and after due sentence shall be sold at 
public auction. The proceeds of such sale constitute a part of 
the funds of the Moro Province. 

Sec. 4. Nothing in this act shall be construed as countenancing 
or recognizing the legality of slavery or involuntary servitude as 
heretofore existing in the Moro Province, or as exempting or 
excusing any person who may have heretofore committed any 
of the acts defined and punished in this act as slave holding or 
slave hunting from prosecution and punishment under the laws 
of the Philippine Islands. 

SEC. 5. Subject to annulment or amendment by the Philippine 
Commission, this act shall take effect on its passage. 

Enacted, September 24, 1903. 

83 



84 

TYPICAL CASES OF VIOLATION OF THE MORO PROVINCE 
ANTI-SLAVERY LAW FROM THE COURT RECORDS OF 
SAID PROVINCE. 

On April 19, 1904, the Moro Alan was convicted of having 
violated the Anti-Slavery Law by sequestering a Moro girl named 
Cabala in order to make a slave of her and was sentenced to 
twelve years imprisonment. (Criminal case No. 31, District of 
Zamboanga.) A fine of ¥=500 was imposed on this man, while 
the Moros Milajan and Tangigi were sentenced to ten years 
imprisonment and a fine of 1*100 each. 

On September 7, 1904, a Bagobo named Obo was convicted 
of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by purchasing, possess- 
ing, and disposing of one Dumancal as a slave. (Criminal case 
No. 40, District of Davao.) 

On November 7, 1904, a Moro man named Batu was convicted 
of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by capturing and carry- 
ing away a Moro woman named Lalia with the intention of 
selling her as a slave, which he later actually did. (Criminal 
case No. 28, District of Sulu.) 

On March 25, 1905, a Moro man named Javing was convicted 
of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by holding as a slave a 
Moro man named Tutu, his wife called Patima, and his four 
children called Napala, Daulan, Adajali, and Malija. (Criminal 
case No. 78, District of Zamboanga.) 

On March 8, 1905, a Moro man named Valentin was convicted 
of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by holding a girl called 
Dugunayan as a slave. (Criminal case No. 49, District of 
Davao.) 

On November 22, 1905, a Moro man named Hadjee Asmail 
was convicted of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by taking 
three Moros and capturing a Moro woman named Incung who 
was held to be sold as a slave. (Criminal case No. 26, District of 
Sulu.) 

On August 9, 1906, a Moro named Ampan was convicted of 
violating the Anti-Slavery Law by capturing a Moro man named 
Tagusii and holding him as a slave. (Criminal case No. 107, 
District of Lanao.) 

On August 8, 1906, two Moros named Magumpara and Maga- 
ling were convicted of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by 
capturing as slaves Gamba and Tabilaran. (Criminal case No. 
106, District of Lanao.) 

On August 7, 1906, a Moro man named Campung was con- 
victed of having violated the Anti-Slavery Law by selling as a 
slave a Moro woman named Bacudi. (Criminal case No. 104, 
District of Lanao.) 

On August 7, 1906, a Moro named Pasagui was convicted of 
violating the Anti-Slavery Act by buying a Moro woman named 
Abacudi as a slave. (Criminal case No. 105, District of Lanao.) 

On August 7, 1906, a Moro chief named Sanco was convicted 
of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by buying two Moro men 



85 

named Sampiri and Siryat as slaves. (Criminal case No. 102. 
District of Lanao.) 

On February 12, 1907, a Moro named Bambang was convicted 
of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by capturing two Moros named 
Garuda and Tabilaman in order to sell them as slaves. (Crimi- 
nal case No. 120, District of Lanao.) 

On August 7, 1907, a Moro named Murodan was convicted 
of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by buying a woman named 
Talama as a slave. (Criminal case No. 71, District of Cota- 
bato.) 

On August 7, 1907, three Moros named Guimgbangan, Morega, 
and Gwam were convicted of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by 
selling a Moro woman known as Talama, referred to in the 
previous case, as a slave. (Criminal case No. 72, District of 
Cotabato.) 

On April 17, 1908, a Moro named Atucan was convicted of 
violating the Anti-Slavery Act by selling a woman named Du- 
ducan as a slave. (Criminal case No. 8, District of Lanao.) 

On August 16, 1907, two Moros named Umpara and Bansil 
were convicted of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by selling a 
Moro named Liba as a slave. (Criminal case No. 133, District 
of Lanao.) 

August 16, 1907, two Moros named Amay and Saumayang 
were convicted of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by selling a 
Moro named Bansil as a slave. (Criminal case No. 134, District 
of Lanao.) 

On August 19, 1907, a Moro named Macalangut was convicted 
of violating the Anti-Slavery Act by buying two Moros named 
Sandat and Alanga for whom he paid 1*5. (Criminal case No. 
138, District of Lanao.) 

In numerous other cases conviction was not secured because 
of the inability to secure witnesses who would testify to facts 
which were well known, or because of the sudden and complete 
disappearance of witnesses with knowledge of the facts who 
were willing to testify. 

REPORT OF SENIOR INSPECTOR SORENSON, P. C, ON SLAVERY 
IN THE PROVINCE OF ISABELA. 

Constabulary of Isabela, 
Office of the Senior Inspector, 

Ilagan, Isabela, May 2nd, 1903. 
First District Chief, 

Philippine Constabulary, 

Manila. 

Sir : In compliance with telegram of April 28, 1903, from the 
Chief of First District, Phil. Const., I have the honor to respect- 
fully submit the following report : 

Buying and having slaves has evidently been very common 



86 

in this valley during Spanish occupation. I am satisfied that, 
to a large extent, the poorer population in the towns and barrios 
are the descendants of former slaves bought from Igorrotes or 
Calingas by the richer Spanish or Ibanag landowner. 

The two Christian tribes in this valley are the Ilocanos and 
the Cagayanes or Ibanags. The former are immigrants from 
Ilocos Sur and Norte, and they have practically only been here 
for a generation; they come here as laborers for the tobacco 
companies and eventually stay and settle here. The latter tribe 
are the original inhabitants of the valley, but are somewhat 
indolent, and do not care to work for others. 

These two tribes are confined to a very narrow strip of land, 
in fact only about twenty miles wide, taking in only river bottom 
land of the Cagayan River and its tributaries, and their only 
crop is tobacco, which cannot profitably be raised by them on 
the higher land not inundated during the rainy season. They 
are also afraid of living in isolated places, as families that have 
done so, are killed by the uncivilized tribes whenever opportunity 
offers. 

The non-Christian tribes living in this valley and surrounding 
foothills and mountains are the Calingas or Gaddanes, Igorrotes, 
Negritos, Ilongotes, and Catalanganes. Of these the Igorrotes 
and Calingas are confirmed headhunters, and consequently always 
at odds with their neighbors, even if they belong to the same 
tribe. The Igorrotes, I think, are the larger tribe ; at least, they 
are more plentiful in this province, and in appearance and man- 
ner very much like the ordinary Filipino, and though they con- 
sider a Gee string to be ample covering for anybody, they 
otherwise are as far advanced as the barrio Filipino ; they have 
bamboo houses, cooking utensils, same as used by the Filipinos, 
raise rice and garden truck, have horses and carabaos, make 
baskets and earthenware pots, and, in fact, have all the comforts 
enjoyed by their Christian brothers. 

They live in so-called rancherias, very much resembling a 
barrio, but generally situated in out of the way places. As 
they covet the possession of heads, for religious or other reasons, 
and as these heads are never obtained from their own rancho, 
they naturally do not live on the best of terms with the outer 
world. 

In making raids on other rancherias for headhunting purposes 
some prisoners are generally taken, with the idea, I think, of 
killing them afterwards, or selling them, as the Igorrotes do not 
keep slaves. In disposing of their slaves they generally do as 
follows : 

A small number of Igorrotes, generally about four or five, 
will appear in a town with one, two, or three prisoners, as the 
case may be, and make known to the people that they wish to 
dispose of them. They will generally be accompanied by an 
interpreter, who is often a hunter, who is on good terms with 
the Igorrotes, he will taken them around to the most likely houses 
in town, and no doubt gets a fee for his trouble. 



87 

After some dickering and showing the fine points of their 
wares, a bargain is struck, cash is handed over, and the Igorrotes 
depart. 

The slave is then put to work in the house, and shortly after- 
wards baptized, is treated well, learning to speak the prevailing 
dialect, and no doubt thoroughly appreciates the change. 

He is, of course, assigned to the meanest and hardest work, 
as carrying water and the like, but nevertheless well treated, 
for fear that he should run away, and his only compensation 
is food and what little clothing he needs. His master will gen- 
erally see that he gets married in due time, and whenever he 
thinks that he can safely do so, he sends him out to his ranch 
to work there. 

If the slave should wake up. to the fact that his services ought 
to be paid for, and would look for other work, he will find that 
nobody would employ him, as everybody in town knows that 
he belongs to his master, and a person doing so would incur the 
enmity of every slave owner. Consequently, the only method of 
liberating himself, is to run away to some distant place, from 
where his master would not be likely to get "noticias," or where 
the practice of owning slaves is not prevailing. 

My investigation of this matter has been conducted very 
quietly as it would look suspicious in the eyes of the native, if 
I should inquire too deep into the prices paid, or personally in- 
terview the buyers; I have therefore had a young native to fur- 
nish me the following list of persons who have bought slaves 
during the last year. 

The slave owner will make himself believe that he is doing a 
very commendable thing in rescuing an infidel, and having him 
brought up to become a good Christian; true, also, if carried on 
for some time the non-Christians will become assimilated and a 
Christian. 

I stated in my telegram that the governor, Sr. Dichoso, had 
recently bought three slaves ; this I have not been able to verify ; 
on the list given me, he is supposed to have bought only one of 
a lot of three, recently sold here, of the remaining two, one went 
to his father-in-law, Andres Claraval. The third of this lot I 
have not been able to trace, as I did not like to show too much 
zeal in the matter as yet. 

Igorrotes sold in Ilagan, within last year. To the presidente, 
Pascual Paguirigan, one boy 12 years old for $130. This boy 
is doing housework. 

To Gabriel Maramag, sheriff of the Province, one girl 12 years 
old for, he believes, $150. This girl is also doing housework. 

To Pedro Gangan, consejal, a woman, 25 years old and a man 
26 years old for $145. They both do housework. 

To Desiderio Camarao, a merchant doing business in this 
valley, with house in Aparri, boy and girl about 10 years old, 
for $250. These children are working in house in Aparri. 

To Luis Futad, owner of a billiard hall here, a boy 8 years old, 
for $115. This boy is doing housework. 



88 

To Bias Padagas, an Ilocano consejal, a boy about 10 years 
old for $150. This boy does housework. 

Bias Padagas also bought another boy at about 10 years 
of age, and sold him afterwards to Irineo Comaseng, manager of 
cooperative store in Ilagan, for $180. This boy has been sent 
to Manila, where he now works for Irineo's sister living some- 
wheres in Santa Cruz, Manila. 

To Juan Paggao a former consejal, and whose son is now con- 
sejal, a man 27 years old for $110. This slave died about two 
weeks after being purchased. 

To Sr. Dichoso, governor of Isabela, a boy of 14 years old. 
Have not been able to ascertain the price paid. 

To Andres Claraval, father-in-law of Sr. Dichoso, a woman 
26 years old. Also not able to ascertain price in this case. 

Jose Patanag, a boy 10 years old for $170. This boy is work- 
ing on owner's ranch in barrio Lulutan. 

While in Aparri, en route for this station, I saw three young 
Negritos, two boys and one girl; the boys were about 14 years 
old and the girl slightly younger. Inquiring, I was told that they 
belonged to a Chino merchant, who had bought them recently. 
The boys were working in rear of the Chino's house, facing the 
river, and engaged in filling in and raising the level of the land 
with soil obtained in or near the river. The girl was working in 
the cuisine. 

As seen from above list, only the very best or richest class of 
inhabitants keep slaves, naturally the poorer could not afford to 
buy them; nevertheless, it is apparently a good investment, as 
the salaries for field hands are about 4 or 5 pesetas a day, or a 
certain part of the crop. 

The people here, especially the officials, are very bitter against 
the Calingas, who they declare, ought to be kille'd wherever met ; 
this is especially so whenever it is discovered that they have 
killed Christian Filipinos. It is certainly a very bad state of 
affairs, considering the impossibility of fastening the guilt of 
these murders on individual Calingas. They roam over such 
a large territory that it is impossible to know by which band a 
certain murder has been committed, and there never are any 
eyewitnesses to these affairs, as they are always perpetrated on 
hunters, travelers, or families living on isolated ranchos. 

The Calinga, though, is not entirely to blame, as he is treated 
unjustly, and practically has no standing in their courts, besides, 
these so-called hunters, in doing so, invade the country of the 
Calingas and whenever opportunity offers, will steal their cara- 
baos and horses, or kill them, claiming that they thought they 
were wild carabaos and horses. The main trouble is that in 
revenging himself he does not always get the guilty parties. In 
order to be more conversant with the Calinga question, and to 
be able to be on speaking terms with them whenever desirable, 
and to gain their confidence, it is necessary that we be supplied 
with about 20 more good horses. I believe that this province 
needs horses more than any, on account of this same question. 
In other provinces, usually food can be obtained most every- 



89 

where, while here it is an impossibility to obtain anything out- 
side of the towns or barrios. 

A peculiar fact connected with the selling of slaves is that an 
Igorrote never sells Calingas as slaves, or vice versa, which no 
doubt shows that they do not show each other mercy, but that 
if prisoners are taken they are invariably killed. 

A Tagalo by the name of Cosme Ferrer, living in this town, 
and a hunter at odd times, has acted as go between in the selling 
of slaves at various times, and I am assured that if any Filipino 
should want to invest in a slave this man could arrange to have 
a lot brought in here for selection. 
Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) A. 0. Sorenson, 
Captain and Senior Inspector, Isabela Province. 

DECISION OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE IN THE TOMAS 

CAB AN AG CASE. 

In the Court of First Instance in and for the Province of Nueva Vizcaya, 
Mountain Judicial District. 

L ° S EST cSra UNID0S i Criminal case N .°- 32 — For tendon 
Tomas Cabanag. ) ilegal. 

OPINION AND JUDGMENT. 

The above-entitled cause submitted on January 10, 1906, and 
by the court taken under advisement presents another and still 
different phase of the traffic in human beings from any and all 
others that have been tried and disposed of by the court at this 
term, viz, the occupation of an agent or factor from the intelli- 
gent and educated natives who buy in Nueva Vizcaya to sell 
at a profit or advance in Isabela. The accused has been ably 
defended and the evidence is in conflict upon some material points 
and it is only by the most careful consideration and observation 
of the nature, interest, and manner of the witnesses while testi- 
fying that the real and true facts as established by such evidence 
is made clear and apparent. 

Without entering into a discussion or explanation of the 
nature, interest, and manner of witnesses this court now finds 
the following facts established by the evidence beyond all reason- 
able doubt: 

Tomas Cabanag the accused was and is an intelligent and well- 
known citizen and resident of Cauayan in the Province of Isabela 
and also has a house in Solano in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya 
where his relatives (sister) live and where he is accustomed to 
stop on his visits to said pueblo. 

On or about the 30th of April, 1905, the accused being in 
Solano aforesaid made and entered into a contract with the 
Igorrote woman Antonia Malanta, a so-called Christian Igorrote 
from the rancheria of Quiangan, in said Province of Nueva Viz- 
caya, for the purchase of the Igorrote child Jimaya, age, about 
13 years, and a native of the rancheria of Anao in said province, 
agreeing to pay the said Antonia Malanta the sum of 100 pesos, 



90 

and with the purpose and object of taking said child Jimaya to 
the Province of Isabela and there selling her into slavery. 

This contract for the transfer of the possession of said child 
was made without any inquiry whatever as to the parentage or 
guardianship of said child or the right of the said Igorrote An- 
tonia Malanta to have such child in her possession or under her 
control for while the said Antonia at first declared that Jimaya 
was her daughter the subsequent conversation clearly demon- 
strated that such was not the fact and that such was well 
known and understood by the said accused. 

This contract for the transfer was consummated the following 
morning, and the money was paid by the accused to Antonia and 
the child was delivered to the accused and his sister at their 
house in said pueblo of Solano. 

The child Jimaya had been forcibly taken from the possession 
of her grandmother Oltagon in the rancheria of Anao by one 
Buyag an Igorrote of said rancheria and against the will and 
protest of both the child and her grandmother who in the absence 
of the parents of said child, was then exercising a lawful and 
proper guardianship of the said child, and when so taken and 
abducted was delivered to Eusebio, brother of Antonia and by 
said Buyag and Eusebio delivered to said Antonia for sale. 
Buyag, a prisoner in jail here for said offense, was produced as 
a witness by the accused and testified that the child's father was 
dead and that the child was taken from the possession of Dudduli, 
the child's mother, from whom he in company with another Igor- 
rote bought the child in payment of the debts of the deceased 
father. This claim is not established by the evidence and is 
inconsistent with the other evidence which establishes the fact 
that the child Jimaya was an orphan and when abducted and 
seized by Buyag was and had been for a considerable time in the 
house and under the control of the maternal grandmother Olta- 
gon, and against whom as well as the child force and threats 
were used at the time of the abduction and seizure as herein- 
before found and set forth. 

This feature of the seizure and abduction, the parentage of 
the child, and the alleged sale as advanced by the accused on 
his trial in this court, it is clearly shown were matters of sub- 
sequent information and that he made no enquiries from the 
woman Antonia to ascertain whether the parents were living or 
the circumstances or conditions under which the child came into 
her possession or was held by her for sale. The child was held in 
his possession in Solano and in a day or two thereafter upon a 
false and untrue statement to the child that he was going to take 
her back to her rancheria he did as a matter of fact take the 
child weeping and crying and with such degree of force as was 
sufficient to intimidate said child and against her will carried 
her on horseback, accompanied by his sister to his residence in 
Cauayan in the Province of Isabela and with the object and pur- 
pose of selling the child there into human slavery which object 
and purpose was effected within two or three days to one Mariano 
Lopez where the child was used and employed in the manufacture 



91 

of cigars, being beaten and intimidated by the wife of the said 
Mariano Lopez, and from whence she was rescued and returned 
to Nueva Vizcaya by the Constabulary of said province. 

However much may be said in extenuation of the alleged cus- 
tom among the ignorant Igorrotes of seizing and abducting chil- 
dren for sale as even of the voluntary sale by Igorrotes of their 
children, there is nothing in all this to palliate or extenuate the 
conduct of the accused in this case. 

The Congress of the United States has declared that human 
slavery shall not exist in these Islands, and while no law, so far 
as I can discover, has yet been passed either denning slavery 
in these Islands, or affixing a punishment for those who engage 
in this inhuman practice as dealers, buyers, sellers, or derivers, 
the facts established in this case show conclusively that the child 
Jimaya was by the defendant forcibly and by fraud, deceit, and 
threats unlawfully deprived of her liberty and that his object 
and purpose was an unlawful and illegal one, to wit, the sale 
of the child for money into human slavery. This constitutes 
the crime of detencion ilegal denned and penalized by article 481 
of the Penal Code and this court finds the defendant guilty as 
charged in the information. 

There are neither extenuating nor aggravating circumstances 
found in the case. 

The court, therefore, sentences the accused Tomas Cabanag 
to eight years and one day of prision mayor and to pay the costs 
of this instance with the accessories of the law. 

Done in open court at Bayombong in the Province of Nueva 
Vizcaya, P. I., this 16th day of January, 1906. 

(Sgd.) Charles H. Burritt, 
Judge, Mountain Judicial District. 

DECISION OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE PHILIPPINE IS- 
LANDS IN THE TOMAS CABANAG CASE. 

[No. 3241. March 16, 1907.] 

The United States, plaintiff and appellee, vs. Tomas Cabanag, 
defendant and appellant. 

1. Illegal Detention. — The crime of illegal detention implies actual con- 

finement or restraint of the person. 

2. Coercion. — Violence through force or intimidation is a necessary ele- 

ment of the crime of coaccion. 

3. Minors. — The mere custody and disposal by a stranger of a minor 

over 7 years of age, with or without the consent of the parent or 
guardian, is not in itself a crime. 

4. Slavery. — The practice of certain tribes of the Igorots, so far as proved 

in this case, termed by them the buying and selling of children, does 
not necessarily constitute slavery or involuntary servitude. There 
is at present no law punishing slave-holding as a crime. 

5. Id.; Involuntary Servitude; Constitutional Provisions. — The con- 

stitutional provision of the Philippine Bill that "neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude * * * shall exist in these Islands," while 
operating to nullify any agreement in contravention of it, requires 
suppletory legislation to give it effect criminally. 



92 

APPEAL from a judgment of the Court of First Instance of 
Nueva Vizcaya. 

The facts are stated in the opinion of the court. 

J. F. Boomer, for appellant. 
Attorney-General Araneta, for appellee. 

Tracey, J.: 

The accused, an Igorot; was convicted in the Court of First 
Instance of Nueva Vizcaya of the crime of unlawful detention, 
under article 481 of the Penal Code, which punishes "any private 
person who shall lock up or detain another or in any way deprive 
him of his liberty." 

An Igorot orphan girl called Gamaya, 13 years of age, was 
taken from the possession of her grandmother, Ultagon, in the 
rancheria of Anao, in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya, by one 
Buyag, also an Igorot; whether this was done with or against 
the will of the grandmother is not altogether clear in the evi- 
dence. We accept the version least favorable to the accused — 
that of the child — who testified that in the daytime Buyag came 
to the house and took her away, although the grandmother ob- 
jected, saying, "Do not take off that little girl," but not speaking 
when she went away. The man brought her to his house, about 
a half mile distant, where she was not confined, but on the con- 
trary was allowed to go back alone to her grandmother, with 
whom she would spend a little while, returning the same day. 
She testified that on last leaving, the grandmother was angry 
and did not wish her to go, but did not prevent her. According 
to her recollection she remained with Buyag, in the vicinity of 
her grandmother's residence, some two or three months. 

Buyag testified that more than two years before, in order to 
help the family after the father's death and for the purpose of 
keeping the child at home, he had bought her for three pigs, 
twenty-five hens, two measures of rice, and a cloak worth two 
pigs, from her mother, with whom she remained until the third 
year, when (her mother presumably having died) she was 
brought away by one Eusebio, at the instance of himself and 
another Igorot named Yog Yog, who had furnished part of the 
purchase price. Together they instructed Eusebio to sell her for 
a carabao and 50 pesos. Eusebio, together with his sister, An- 
tonia, brought her to Quiangan, in the Province of Nueva Viz- 
caya, and sold her to the accused, Tomas Cabanag, for 100 pesos. 

In respect to this last sale, the stories of Tomas, Antonia, and 
the girl substantially agree. Cabanag had previously been in- 
structed to buy a girl by one Mariano Lopez of Caoayan, to 
whom after a few days Gamaya was delivered in return for the 
price, which appears to have been 200 pesos. In his hands she 
remained for about two months until she was taken away by an 
officer of Constabulary. Afterwards this prosecution was in- 
stituted. Although Gamaya made objection to leaving the house 
of Cabanag, she appears to have gone without actual constraint 
and at no time in any of these places was she physically restrained 
of her liberty; she was not under lock or key or guard, went 



93 

into the street to play, returned at will, and was not punished 
or ill used in any way, but was employed about the household 
tasks; in short, she appears to have been treated by Mariano 
Lopez as a household servant and to have been well cared for 
while in the custody of the accused. 

It is proved in the case that it is an Igorot custom to dispose 
of children to pay the debts of their fathers, the transaction in 
the native language being termed a sale, and the defendant 
appears to have engaged in the business of buying in Nueva 
Vizcaya children to sell in the lowlands of Isabela. 

In his sentence, the judge below said: 

"However much may be said in extenuation of the alleged 
custom among the ignorant Igorots of seizing and abducting 
children for sale and even in selling their own children volun- 
tarily, there is nothing in all this to palliate or extenuate the 
conduct of the accused in this case. 

"The Congress of the United States has declared that human 
slavery shall not exist in these Islands and while no law, so far 
as I can discover, has yet been passed either defining slavery 
in these Islands or fixing a punishment for those who engage in 
this inhuman practice as dealers, buyers, sellers, or derivers, 
the facts established in this case show conclusively that the 
child Gamaya was by the defendant forcibly and by fraud, deceit, 
and threats unlawfully deprived of her liberty and that his object 
and purpose was an unlawful and illegal one, to wit, the sale 
of the child, for money, into human slavery. This constitutes 
the crime of detention ilegal, defined and penalized by article 
481 of the Penal Code and this court finds the defendant guilty 
as charged in the information. 

"There are neither extenuating nor aggravating circumstances 
found in the case. 

"The court therefore sentences the accused, Tomas Cabanag, 
to eight years and one day of prision mayor and to pay the costs 
of this instance with the accessories of the law." 

This sentence can not be sustained. There can be no unlawful 
detention under article 481 of the Penal Code without confine- 
ment or restraint of person, such as did not exist in the present 
case. (U. S. vs. Herrera, March 28, 1904, 3 Phil. Rep., 515.) 

Under the complaint for this crime it is possible to convict 
for coaccion upon proof of the requisites of that offense (U. S. 
vs. Quevengco, 2 Phil. Rep., 412), but among those requisites 
is that of violence through force or intimidation, even under the 
liberal rule of our jurisprudence (U. S. vs. Quevengco, supra; 
U. S. vs. Vega, 2 Phil. Rep., 167 ; U. S. vs. Ventosa, 6 Phil. Rep., 
385, 4 Off. Gaz., 573) ; consequently the charge of coaccion against 
the accused can not be sustained upon the evidence. 

The Penal Code, chapters 2 and 3, title 12, articles 484 to 490, 
provides punishment for those who carry off children under 7 
years of age or those who devote children under 16 years of age 
to certain hazardous occupations ; but none of these articles can 
apply to the case before us, except article 486, which punishes 
him who induces a child over 7 years of age to abandon the house 
of its parent or guardian. Under this article it is possible that 



94 

on full proof of the facts, Buyag might be held, but not the 
accused. It was not the design of the law to prevent parents or 
grandparents from devoting their children to customary work, 
nor from receiving compensation for such work in wages or 
otherwise. Such agreements binding out minors are sanctioned 
in most countries, usually, however, subject to stipulations for 
their welfare expressly prescribed by statute. In the absence 
of proof of what the agreement of the parties or the custom of 
the people called for in respect of the use, treatment, and care 
of the child, the term of her service and her final disposition, 
and particularly in respect of the maintenance of her relations 
with her grandmother and the prospect of an ultimate return 
to her, it is not possible to hold that the arrangement was a 
criminal or even an illicit one. The name applied to it by the 
custom of the Igorots is not enough to establish that in truth 
and in effect it was a sale, or anything more than a contract for 
services. While there is much in this practice to condemn, we 
do not feel it to be our province to strain the law in order to 
bring this local custom of this mountain people to an end. This 
condition may present matter for the consideration of the legis- 
lature but not for action by the criminal courts. Not even the 
abhorrent species of traffic apparently carried on by the accused 
justifies a sentence not authorized by law. 

The judge below quotes the Bill of Rights of the Philippines 
contained in the Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, declaring that 
"neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist in said Islands." This constitutional provision is 
self-acting whenever the nature of a case permits and any law 
or contract providing for the servitude of a person against his 
will is forbidden and is void. For two obvious reasons, however, 
it fails to reach the facts before us : 

First. The employment or custody of a minor with the consent 
or sufferance of the parents or guardian, although against the 
child's own will, cannot be considered involuntary servitude. 

Second. We are dealing not with a civil remedy but with a 
criminal charge, in relation to which the Bill of Rights defines 
no crime and provides no punishment. Its effects cannot be 
carried into the realm of criminal law without an act of the 
legislature. 

It is not unnatural that existing penal laws furnish no punish- 
ment for involuntary servitude as a specific crime. In the King- 
doms of the Spanish Peninsula, even in remote times, slavery 
appears to have taken but a surface root and to have been 
speedily cast out, the institution not having been known therein 
for centuries. It is only in relation to Spain's possessions in 
the American Indies that we find regulations in respect to 
slavery. In general they do not apply in their terms to the 
Philippine Islands where the ownership of man by his fellow- 
man, wherever it existed, steadily disappeared as Christianity 
advanced. Among the savage tribes in remote parts, such 
customs as flourished were not the subject of legislation but 
were left to be dealt with by religious and civilizing influences. 



95 

Such of the Spanish laws as touched the subject were ever 
humane and radical. In defining slavery, law 1, title 21 of the 
fourth Partida, calls it "a thing against the law of nature;" 
and rule 2, title 34 of the seventh Partida says: "It is a thing 
which all men naturally abhor." These were the sentiments of 
the thirteenth century. 

To sum up this case, there is no proof of slavery or even of 
involuntary servitude, inasmuch as it has not been clearly shown 
that the child has been disposed of against the will of her grand- 
mother or has been taken altogether out of her control. If the 
facts in this respect be interpreted otherwise, there is no law 
applicable here, either of the United States or of the Archipelago, 
punishing slavery as a crime. The child was not physically 
confined or restrained so as to sustain a conviction for illegal 
detention, nor are the acts of the accused brought within any 
of the provisions of the law for the punishment of offenses 
against minors; consequently the conviction in this case must 
be reversed, in accordance with the recommendation of the 
Attorney-General, with costs de oficio, and the prisoner is 
acquitted. 

After the expiration of ten days let judgment be entered in 
accordance herewith and ten days thereafter let the case be 
remanded to the court from whence it came for proper action. 
So ordered. 

Arellano, C. J., Torres, Mapa, Carson, and Willard, J. J., 
concur. 

Defendant acquitted. 

ADDITIONAL CASES OF SLAVERY IN ZAMBALES. 

(Reported by the Philippine Constabulary.) 

Mr. Manuel Millares, San Marcelino, Zambales. One Negrita 
girl, 10 years of age, named Valeriana. Bought by Mr. Millares 
from a Negrito father named Eslao, of Mabayto, sitio near San 
Marcelino, for 30 manojos 1 of palay 2 per annum. Eslao owes 
Mr. Millares ¥10.00, debt contracted two years ago. This debt 
is not cancelled by the payment in palay. The girl has been 
in the possession of Mr. Millares for three months. 

Miss Aurea Magsaysay, San Marcelino, Zambales. Two Ne- 
grita girls, of 10 and 12 years, named Donata and Mariana, 
respectively. Bought by Miss Magsaysay in 1908 from their 
uncle named Mariano Lacsamana of Maguining, sitio of San 
Marcelino, for rice and clothes for the uncle; amount could not 
be learned, but the Negrito has received them three times since 
delivering the children. No money appeals to have entered into 
the transaction. 

Carmen Magsaysay, San Antonio, Zambales. One Negrita 
girl named Rosalina, about 10 years of age. Receives clothes 
and food in return for services as servant. No parents. Aunt 
and uncle, named Niquiroc and Sucuban, live in sitio of Marasa, 

1 Bundles.— D. C. W. ' Unhusked rice.— D. C. W. 



96 

near Botolan and receive clothes and food when visiting at the 
house of Carmen Magsaysay. 

Mrs. Magdalena de Guzman, Castillejos, Zambales. One Ne- 
grito boy of 8 years, named Antonio de Guzman. Bought by 
Mrs. de Guzman from uncle of boy, Pampalacuan of Santa Fe, 
Marcelino, for f*5.00 and 5 yards of cloth in 1908. Uncle owed 
1*5.00 to Mrs. de Guzman since 1902 and settled the account by 
receiving the cloth. When the uncle visits Mrs. de Guzman, he 
receives food. Boy has no parents. 

Mrs. Carlosa Perez, Paliuag, Zambales. One Negrito boy, 
named Hugo, aged 16. Bought from the boy's aunt, named 
Petra, by Mr. Patricio Lesaca, now of Botolan, Zambales, for 
5*100.00, about eight years ago ; Mr. Lesaca first paid to the aunt 
§*35.00 and subsequently, at different intervals, cloth amounting 
to ^65.00. About two years have elapsed since the last cloth 
was given to the aunt. Mrs. Perez states that she believes Mr. 
Lesaca will give the Negrita woman more cloth, if she requests 
it. The boy has no parents. 

ADDITIONAL CASES OF SLAVERY IN THE PROVINCE OF TARLAC. 

(Reported by a Filipino Constabulary officer. 1 ) 

Tomas Sival, a boy of 5 years. He was presented by his 
parents in 1912 to Agatan Sival of Bamban, Tarlac, who had 
him baptized. He is cared for as an adopted son of Sr. Sival, 
and receives no wage. 

Maria, a girl of 8 years. She was presented by her mother 
Roberta and her stepfather Dumpil, Negritos of the sitio of Ma- 
pical, to Leon Sival of Bamban, Tarlac, in 1907. She is treated 
as a member of the family and receives no wage. 

Maria, a woman of 52 years. Her parents died when she was 
but a little girl and she was taken care of by a Christian family. 
In 1896 she entered the service of Catalino Cristobal of Bamban, 
Tarlac, to work for her food and clothes. She receives no salary. 

Magdalena David, a girl of about 7 years. She was given by 
her parents to Petronila David of Bamban, Tarlac, who adopted 
her as a daughter. She receives no wage. 

Lucia de la Cruz, a girl of 15 years. In 1900 her grandfather 
gave her to Angela de la Cruz of Bamban, Tarlac, to be adopted. 
She is furnished food and clothes but no wage. She is godchild 
of Angela de la Cruz. 

Angela Sival, a girl of 13 years. She was presented in 1911 
by her parents, names unknown, to Agatan Sival. She is fed 
and clothed, but receives no wage. 

1 Note the constantly reiterated claim that these Negritos were given to 
their owners, baptized, and adopted, or treated as members of the family. — 
D. C. W. 



97 

Tuning, a woman of 50 years. She has lived since 1898 with 
Paulino Vergara of Bamban, Tarlac, to whom she was sold for 
f*25.00 by one Angelo Megia. She is given her food and clothes 
and some money occasionally but receives no regular wage. 

Jose, boy, age 7 years. His parents died and his sister, Maria 
Sival, brought him to the house of Leon Sival at Bamban, Tarlac. 
He is taken care of by Leon Sival. He is too young to work for 
wage. 

Amado David, a boy of 6 years. He was presented in 1911 
by one Ancelma Austria to Geronimo David, both of O'Donnell, 
Capas, Tarlac, who had him baptized and adopted him. Does 
not receive regular wage but he is fed and clothed. No parents 
or relatives. 

Tali, a girl of 15 years of age. She was presented in 1908 by 
her mother to Pascual Yamson of O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, to 
be adopted. She receives no regular wage but food and clothes 
only. 

Pedro David, a man of 28 years. He was presented in 1890 
by his father, Francisco, to Catalino Miranda of O'Donnell, 
Capas, Tarlac, to be adopted and was baptized. He is fed and 
clothed as a member of the family but receives no wage. He has 
no parents or relatives. 

Geraldo David, a man of 25 years. He was presented in 1890 
by his father Francisco to Catalino Miranda of O'Donnell, Capas, 
Tarlac, to be adopted and was baptized. He is fed and clothed as 
a member of the family but receives no wage. He has no 
parents or relatives. 

Margarita, a woman of 20 years. Her parents died when she 
was a little girl and she was brought up by Filipino families. 
She entered in the service of Saturino Lomboy of . Bamban, 
Tarlac, in 1905, as servant. She is fed and given her clothes 
but receives no regular wage. 

Alberto San Miguel, a boy of 6 years. He is godson of Alberto 
San Miguel of Bamban, Tarlac, to whom he was presented by 
his father Rugio and mother Clara in 1911 to be baptized and 
brought up. He is treated as a member of the family and 
receives no wage. 

Diqui, a boy of 16 years. He was presented in 1901 by his 
uncle Mariano Salazar to one Flaviano of Bamban, Tarlac, as 
servant, and receives his food and clothes but no regular wage. 

Enriqueta Miles, a girl of 6 years. She was given by her 
mother Maxima to Mr. Clarence Miles of Capas, Tarlac, who 
had her baptized, giving her his name. She is an adopted 
daughter and receives no wage. 

Catalino Pascual, a Negrita girl of 10 years. She was pre- 
sented in 1908 by her mother to Isabel de Pascual of O'Donnell, 
Capas, Tarlac, to be cared for, and was baptized. Receives food 
and clothing but no wages. 

118937 7 



98 

Urullo, a boy of 12 years. He was given in 1910 by his mother, 
Magdalena, to Vicente Frias, teacher of Negrito school at Bueno, 
to study under him. He receives regular wage of one oyon of 
palay per year. 

Alejandro Miranda, a man of 34 years. He was bought in 
1882 from unknown Negritos of Pinatubu Mountains by Catalino 
Miranda for ¥=30.00 and was baptized. He receives no regular 
wage but gets food and clothing. 

Balundoy, a boy of 16 years of age. He was given in 1910 by 
his father to Juan Supan of O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, as a 
servant and receives regular wages of =P9.00 per year. 

Margarita, a Negrita girl of 15 years. She was presented in 
March of 1908 by her mother, Romana, to Protacio Santos of 
Camiling, Tarlac. She receives P1.00 per month. 

Taran, a man of 30 years. He was presented in 1885 by his 
cousin, Emiterio Galang, to Pedro Nuega of Moriones, Tarlac, 
to be adopted. He is a servant and when able to farm was made 
a tenant. His wage as a servant was 10 capungos of palay per 
year and when made a tenant his regular wage is 2 oyones, 
about =F24.00 worth, of palay per year. 

Milio, a boy of 8 years. He was presented in 1911 by his 
mother to Gregorio Tabun of Moriones, Tarlac, to be adopted and 
used as a servant. He receives no regular wage but is fed and 
clothed. 

Petronila, a woman of 35 years. She was found in 1881 
loitering near Sula, Tarlac, by Francisco de los Santos, whom 
she followed and who gave her to Timoteo Suba of Moriones, 
Tarlac, with whom she has lived ever since. She works as a 
servant and is given her food and clothing but no regular wage. 

ADDITIONAL CASES OF SLAVERY IN MANILA. 1 

(Reported by the Chief of Police.) 

Luis Zarate; age, 6 years; mestizo Negrito. It appears that 
his father is a Filipino and his mother a Negrita. Accord- 
ing to the statement of his present employer, this Negrito was 
presented to her personally while the boy was yet 2 years old. 
The name of his present employer is Margarita Guidote, 814 
Interior, Calle San Miguel. It is suspected that this Negrito 
was bought, because of the fact that his employer did not wish 
to tell the name of the person who gave this boy to her. He 
receives no wages. 

Constancio Sandico, alias Bablito Sandico; age, 17 years; 
genuine Negrito, born in Patling, Tarlac. He has never known 
his parents. He was in the possession of one Eulalio de Guzman 
since childhood, and at the age of 3 years was turned over to 
one Francisco Sandico, 527 Calle Velasquez, with whom he is 
still living as cochero. He receives no wages. 

1 Some of these Negritos have now obviously ceased to be slaves. — D. C. W. 



99 

Manuel Guido, 22 years of age; genuine Negrito, born in Bo- 
tolan, Zambales. He has never known his parents. Since child- 
hood he was in the possession of one D. Benito Guido of Botolan, 
Zambales, who then brought him to Manila at the age of 5 
years. This Negrito was presented to the brother of his master, 
Justo Guido, with whom he is still living as one of the family. 
Residence, 915 Calle Singalong. He is now a tobacco worker in 
the Germinal Factory, receives wages, and has ceased to be a 
slave. 

Dorotea Sibog, a Negrita woman 22 years of age; born in 
Floridablanca, Pampanga. She has never known her parents. 
At the age of 6 years she was brought to Manila by an insurgent 
officer and presented to one Benedicto Niedao, 175 Calle Lipa, 
Sampaloc, with whom she is still living as a servant without 
pay. 

Angela Vega, a Negrita mestiza, 26 years of age, her father 
being a Negrito and her mother a Visayan. She was born in 
Albay, where her mother still lives. Her mother told her that 
a 'Captain de Guardia Civil' took her from her mother. She was 
presented to a Spaniard named Ventura Vega in Albay. When 
her master came to Manila, he took her with him. She stayed 
with him until five months prior to the date when she was 
interviewed, at which time she left him to look for another job 
with wages. 

Casimira Puno, a Negrita woman, 22 years of age. She was 
born in Palma, Pampanga. She has never known her parents. 
From the age of 3 to 15 she lived with Eugenio Puno and then 
ran away because of ill-treatment. She came to Manila alone 
to seek employment- She worked for one Quicay for four 
months, then for Luis Zamora for a year. She now lives with 
Ciriaca Basa as a servant without pay at 305 Calle Perialosa. 

Carmen Toledo, a Negrita woman 30 years of age; born in 
Floridablanca, Pampanga. She came to Manila at the age of 
6 years in company with her former "employer," Eulalia Toledo. 
She now lives with one Elvisa Wolfert as a servant at 302 
Calle Lorenzo Chanco, Tondo, Manila. She receives no wages. 
Mrs. Wolfert took her from a charitable institution. 

Vicente Gutierrez, a Negrito man 30 years of age. He has 
never known who or where his parents or relatives are. At the 
age of 7 or 8 years he came to Manila in company with a t^* . y 
Spaniard. He is at present living with wic. Mr. Ilanna, ao tf/M^?y^ 

rnnnT-mri-, I ~"\ r " n "■ li -" u - \ He receives no wages, but^. ^ ij>sT ' 

gets board, lodging, and clothing. _</-OcJ I 

Eusebia Marcelo, a Negrita mestiza girl 14 years of age. She 
was born in Romblon, Tablas Island, her father being a Ne- 
grito and her mother a Visayan. With the consent of her 
parents she was taken to Manila when 10 years of age by her 
'employer,' Marcelo Lopez, with whom she still lives as a servant 
at 239 Calle Cabildo, Intramuros, Manila. She receives board, 
lodging, and clothing but no wages. 



100 

ADDITIONAL OASES OF THE ENSLAVING OF IFUGAOS. 

(Reported by Lieut. Gov. Jeff D. Gallman.) 

About 1 1899 a woman 20 years of age, from Mampolla, named 
Manay, who had been turned over to Bacngango in settlement of 
a debt, was sold to people of Jocbong, Ifugao, for ¥=80.00. 

About 1899 a woman called Gayang, of Jigyon, 20 years of 
age, was purchased by one Bandao of the same rancheria and 
was sold in Nueva Vizcaya to an unknown Christian for three 
carabaos. 

About 1898 a woman of Bambang called Cuyappi, some 18 
years of age, was sold to Don Jacinto Logan of Solano, Nueva 
Vizcaya, for ¥100.00. She continued as Don Jacinto's slave 
until her death. 

About 1899 a 15-year-old girl called Dinaon, of Lingay, Ifugao, 
was sold to Dalmacio Fernandez, of Pangasinan, who then lived 
at Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, for ¥100.00. 

About 1900 a 16-year-old girl named Imbajay, of Cayapa, 
Lingay, Ifugao, was sold by Mangognope of Jalong, Lingay, to 
Maynayno of Mayoyao, for ¥8.00. The latter turned her over 
to Mangjit of Bunjian, who took her to Isabela and sold her for 
¥80.00. The girl later escaped from her Christian master and 
now lives in Damag, Ifugao. 

In 1899 a girl called Tayaban, 15 years of age, of Dangtalan, 
Ifugao, was carried by one Pumijic to Dinangan, Mayoyao, 
Ifugao, for sale. A man named Baynan took her to Isabela and 
sold her for ¥100.00. 

About 1899 Camjit of Ajin, Ifugao, sold a woman of some 28 
years of age to Tayaban of Curog, Ifugao, for ¥30.00. The 
latter resold her to an unknown Christian of Nueva Vizcaya for 
two carabaos. 

About 1900 Don Sebastian Panganiban, of Solano, Nueva 
Vizcaya, bought from Balog of Piuong, Ifugao, a 16-year-old girl 
named Indungdung for ¥100.00. 

About 1902 Licco of Curog took a 15 or 16 year old girl named 
Oltagon to Isabela and there sold her to an unknown Christian 
for ¥80.00. He had paid ¥40.00 for her. His companion on 
the trip to Isabela was Liangna of Bonuitan, Ifugao. 

About 1899 a woman named Intanap was sold by Dunnuan of 
Cabulo, Maggoc, Ifugao, to Bayao for- ¥8.00. Tha latter took 
her to Pingad, Lepanto, and there sold her for ¥80.00. 

About 1903 a 10-year-old girl named Uyame was sold by Gam- 
boc of Panike, Japao, Ifugao, to a man in Mayoyao for ¥80.00. 

About 1900 a boy named Muntamoc of Boco, Japao, Ifugao, 
was in the power of Gulji of Japao, as a slave. He was about 
14 years of age. Guilji sold him to Aliguyon of Bangauan, Ajin 

1 Ifugaos can give only approximate dates. 



101 

District, for ¥=60.00. The latter sold him to Lupai of Pindungan, 
Kiangan, for a carabao, and the latter took him to Isabela and 
there sold him for ¥80.00. 

About 1903, one Pagal-la, a boy of about 17 years of age of 
Daligan, Lingay, Ifugao, was sold in Isabela by Malingan, for 
two carabaos. A man named Bayao was the companion of 
Malingan on the trip to sell this boy. 

About 1899 a 25-year-old woman named Bugan of Cababuyan 
was captured by Buyugan and was kept at his house as a slave 
until the relatives of the woman paid 1*80.00 for her release. 

About 1900 one Pumijic of the rancheria of Jicot was captured 
by Bin-nuj-ji of Daligan, Lingay, Ifugao, who brought the boy, 
who was about 10 years of age, to Pindungan, Kiangan, and 
turned him over to one Gui-na-lut, who took him to Isabela and 
sold him to Christians for ¥80.00. 

About 1900 a woman called Indungdung, of Namulditan, Ifu- 
gao, some 22 years of age, was purchased for ¥60 by Bayung- 
Abung, of the same rancheria, and turned over to Bulajac, who 
intended to sell her but was unable to find a purchaser. 

About 1900 Inuyao, a boy of Nabalilian, Namulditan, Ifugao, 
the son of Indongdeng, was purchased by Bayungabung and 
Ngayajan for ¥=40.00. He was taken to Banaao, Jfugao, and 
there sold to Silipan Ifugaos for ¥80.00. 

About 1899 a 25-year-old man named Imbangao, of Bangtinon, 
Curog, was bought by Guim-Mal of Mampolla, Ifugao, for 
¥50.00, and was resold later in Mayoyao, Ifugao, for ¥80.00. 

About 1900 a 10-year-old boy, Ajuday, of Cababuyan, Ifugao, 
was purchased by Balinon for ¥30.00 and resold to Umuniad, 
of Cutug, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, for ¥100.00.- The latter 
then sold the boy to Christians of Isabela. 

About 1890 a boy of Anao, Ifugao, some 10 years of age, was 
purchased by Catongyan of the same place for ¥30.00, and later 
sold to a Christian of Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, for ¥60.00. 

About 1899 an 8-year-old girl named Intanap, daughter of 
Kiladan, of Nungulunan, was purchased by Cabecilla Daclijon, 
of Japao, Ifugao, for four hogs, a little palay, some chickens and 
some bubud 1 . This man kept the child in his possession for 
some months then sold her to one De los Santos of Solano, 
Nueva Vizcaya, for ¥120.00. She was taken to Solano by Bunol, 
of Paniki, Japao, Ifugao. Bunol negotiated the sale and received 
¥10.00 for his trouble. 

About 1898 a 7-year-old girl called Bugan of Tabag, Japao, 
Ifugao, daughter of Bayangog of the same place, was bought 
by Daclijon and Bunadon, of Duyung, Japao, for four hogs, some 
chickens and a few unimportant articles. Bunol, of Paniki, 
Japao, Ifugao, took the contract to sell the child to Christians 



1 A fermented drink made from rice. — D. C. W. 



102 

of Nueva Vizcaya. With a companion named Wilan, he took 
the child to Bagabag and sold her to Don Domingo Busa for 
¥=120.00. The two agents received ¥10.00 each for their trouble, 
and ¥100.00 was turned over to Daclijon and Bunadon, who 
divided the money equally. 

About 1899 an 8-year-old boy named Batangog, son of 
Cobagob, of Lubuung, Banaue, was bought by Nabokiag, of 
Paniki, Japao District, for four hogs and a number of chickens. 
Two agents named Bunol and Ananayu brought the child to 
Kiangan and sold him to Paticual of Pindungan for ¥100.00, 
receiving ¥10.00 each for their trouble. 

About 1898 a small boy named Pidlo of Dayandi, Japao 
District, was sold by his own father to Yagyag, a wealthy man 
of Japao District. When the boy had reached the age of about 
9 years he was sent to Loo, Benguet, where he was sold for 
four carabaos. Yagyag paid the father of the boy four hogs, 
some palay and a few chickens. 

About 1899 a boy named Baguiuan, of Dayandi, Japao, was 
sold by his father, Yuya, to Duyapat, of Japao, for four hogs, 
some chickens, palay, and a few jars of "bubud." The boy was 
taken to Loo, Benguet, by Angayan and Pugnuon, of Japao 
District, and sold there for four carabaos. 

About 1899 a 9-year-old boy named Kimmuliap, son of Nan- 
gili, of Dayandi, Japao, was sold by his father to Acol of the 
same rancheria for four hogs, some chickens, palay and bubud. 
The boy was later taken to Cervantes by Jabbiling of Japao 
and there sold to a Filipino of Kabayan, or Baguio, for 2 Igorot 
blankets, 2 bubud jars, and a small amount of cloth. 

A boy called Capnigping, about 9 years old, of Dayandi, Japao 
District, was sold by his father to Atolba for some palay, bubud, 
etc. Later Atolba sold the boy to one Pio, of Baguinge, Kiangan, 
for a Remington rifle and ten cartridges. Pio resold the child 
to a Christian of Nueva Vizcaya. 

About 1898, one Nganjena, a boy about 12 years old, son of 
Ingulon of Japao District, was stolen by Mundiguin, of Buc- 
yauan, Japao District, and sold to Joggang, of Pindungan, 
Kiangan, for ¥60.00. He was later sold to Filipinos in Isabela 
for ¥100.00. 

About 1898 an 11-year-old boy named Bumangjat, son of 
Napadauan, of Tabeg, Japao, was sold by his father to Bunnol, 
of Paniki, Japao, for four hogs, some chickens, etc. Bunnol 
later sold the boy in Mayoyao for four carabaos. 

Abut 1900 Dango, a boy of some 14 years, son of Jodayan, 
of Obnag, was purchased by Taguiling of Cababuyan for ¥60.00 
and sold to Antonio and Guinalut of Piuong for the same sum. 
The boy was later again sold to a Filipino of Isabela Province. 

During 1899 a boy called Batangol of Cambulo, Ifugao, was 
taken to Isabela by Binot of Mayoyao and Ganachan of Dammag 
and there sold to a Christian Filipino for ¥100.00. 



103 

During 1899 a small girl called Dulimay, of, Cambulo, was 
sold by Binot of Mayoyao to a Christian of Aj-jinda, Isabela, 
for ¥=100.00. 

About 1899 a 12 or 13 year old girl of Cababuyan named 
Intugay was sold by Balogan and Ngongoy of Cababuyan to 
Layangan of Mayoyao for ¥=80.00. The latter intended to take 
the child to Isabela and sell her to Filipinos but was prevented 
by the death of the child. 

ADDITIONAL CASES OF SLAVERY IN IFUGAO. 

(Reported by Lieutenant W. E. Dosser, P. C.) 

PHILIPPINE CONSTABULARY, 

CONSTABULARY OP MT. PROVINCE, 

FIFTH COMPANY. 

Mayoyao, M. P., April 6, 19 10. 
The Adjutant, 

District of Northern Luzon, 

San Fernando, Union. 

Sir: In reply to communication No. 4027-1, dated March 15, 
1910, I have the honor to submit the following report of slave 
dealing known to me : 

All the information obtainable regarding this subject, was 
taken down at the time complaint was made. Cabecilla Eyabon, 
of Mayoyao, who has had more to do with these dealings than 
anyone else known to the undersigned, was called up, but nothing 
more than was already known could be obtained, with the excep- 
tion of the name of one man in Echague, who is known to be, 
or has been, a slave dealer. 

When these sales were made no questions were asked regard- 
ing the name of the buyer, as it was quite immaterial to the 
Ifugao what the man's name was so long as he received the 
money. 

The only reason these slave-dealing complaints come in, is due 
to the fact that the man who makes the deal usually fails to 
come up to the contract made with the owner of the person sold. 

No settlements on slave dealings have ever been forced at this 
station, the only action taken has been to get all the information 
possible regarding the deal, but only in one instance has the 
undersigned been able to get the name of the buyer, and this 
has always been one of the principal questions. 

None of these deals have ever been made for any specified 
period of time, but for all time. 

The following are the cases known to the undersigned : 

About the year 1904, Duagna, cabecilla, of Tuleed, M. P., 
brought to Mayoyao a man named Im-ma-tan, whom he wanted 
to sell in Echague. The man was turned over to Cabecilla 
Eyabon. He was taken to Echague and sold for ¥65.00, 1*5.00 
of which went to Eyabon as payment for making the deal; the 
balance, ¥=60.00, went to Duagna. 

About the year 1895 Wang-ag, of Malop-pop, Banaue District, 
M. P., brought to Mayoyao a woman named Bal-o-wag. Eyabon 



104 

purchased the woman for 70.00. She was taken to Echague to 
sell, but on account of her age, Eyabon was able to procure only 
1*70 for her. The woman is now dead. 

About the year 1906 Eyabon received from a man (name 
unknown) of Ca-na-cin, Banaue District, a small boy named 
Binniajan, for whom he paid ¥70.00. The boy was taken to 
Echague, and sold for ¥=100,00. The boy is now dead. 

About the year 1897 A-ta-ban of Tuleed, M. P., brought to 
Mayoyao a man named Cha-log, whom Eyabon purchased for 
¥60.00. This man was taken to Echague and sold to Antonio 
Mangadap for the sum of ¥70.00. 

About the year 1900 Bango of Mayoyao, M. P., bought of 
In-hu-mang of Ca-na-cin, Banaue District, a small boy for which 
he was to pay 1*70.00. ¥30.00 was paid down, but Bango died 
before balance was paid. The boy was taken to Echague to sell, 
but died before sale was made. In-hu-mang also died shortly 
after this. 

About the year 1906, Duagna, cabecilla of Tuleed, M. P., pro- 
posed marriage to a girl who had emigrated from Cambullo, 
M. P., to Tuleed, with a relative. The girl was willing, but as 
soon as Duagna got her in his possession, instead of marrying 
her, he took her to Echague and sold her to the christianos. 

No recent sales have been transacted, at least not to the 
knowledge of the undersigned. In case there has been a recent 
deal, it is only a question of a short time until it will be known. 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed.) W. E. Dosser, 

Commanding Company. 

ADDITIONAL CASES OF SLAVERY IN NUEVA VIZCAYA. 

(Reported by Acting Governor O. A. Tomlinson.) 

In 1902 Felipe Lumicao of Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, purchased 
an Ifugao girl named Intanap and a woman named Indungdung 
for ¥120 and ¥100, respectively. In 1906 the girl married a 
Santa Cruz Igorot and was liberated by Lumicao. The woman 
Indungdung was given her liberty at the same time by her 
master, who feared prosecution for illegal detention. 

In 1902 Domingo Ludan of Solano purchased two Ifugao boys 
for ¥80 each. One of the boys died in 1905 and the other, Pedlo, 
escaped and returned to Gojang, Banaue, in 1910. 

In 1905 Mrs. Amanda Martinez of Bayombong, Nueva Viz- 
caya, purchased an Ifugao boy named Joaquin from Antonia, 
an Ifugao woman of Jabian, Quiangan, for ¥116. She was 
prosecuted for "illegal detention," but the case was dismissed 
against her and the slave was sent to the Episcopal School at 
Sagada, Bontoc. 

In 1903 Cirilo Lumicao of Solano, now living in Angadanan, 
Isabela, purchased an Ifugao girl for ¥80. The girl is still with 
Lumicao but does not care to return to her people. 



105 

In 1905 Juan Jamias (now an Aglipayano priest) purchased 
an Ifugao boy named Cecilio. Jamias took the boy to Manila 
in 1910 and left him with some of the Aglipayano priests there. 

In 1906 Pedro Piggangay of Solano purchased an Ifugao boy 
from an Ifugao named Clemente of Quiangan, for KL80. The 
boy died in 1908 while still with Piggangay. The boy was from 
Anao, Ifugao. 

In 1904 Dalmacio Aggabao of Solano purchased two Ifugao 
girls for ¥=350. One of them died in 1906 and the other married 
an Ilocano of Solano named Mariano Lumapit. She was liberated 
when she married. 

In 1901 Joaquina Logan of Solano purchased two Ifugao girls 
for ¥=120. One of the girls was returned to her people in 1905, 
probably because of fear of prosecution, but the other is still 
with Joaquina. 

OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE RELATIVE TO THE CONDITION OF 
NEGRITOS IN AMBOS CAMARINES. 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, 

DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR, 

BUREAU OF SCIENCE. 

t 

Baguio, March 6, 1913. 
Dr. E. L. Walker, 

Acting Chief, Biological Laboratory, 
Bureau of Science, Manila. 
My Dear Doctor Walker : A few days ago Mr. Garvan of our 
division of ethnology stated to me that the lowlanders of the terri- 
tory in Ambos Camarines, through which he has recently traveled 
on official business, have been very active in creating the impres- 
sion among the Negritos that the latter are not entitled to the 
privilege of occupying Government land, presumably with the 
object in view that the Christians may the better retain them as 
servants and laborers. I directed Mr. Garvan to present this 
case to me, in writing, in order that I might bring it before the 
proper authorities. Please have this done promptly and sub- 
mitted to me. 

Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) Alvin J. Cox, 
Acting Director, Bureau of Science. 

BUREAU OF SCIENCE, 
DIVISION OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Manila, March 12, 1913. 
Dr. Alvin J. Cox, Acting Director of Science, Manila. 

(Through the Acting Chief, Division of Ethnology.) 
Sir : In compliance with your request for a written statement 
regarding certain deceptions practiced by Tagalogs of Tayabas 
on the Negritos, I have the honor to submit the following in- 
formation : 

On the trail between Buyabud and Tagkawaian to the west 



106 

of the most northern part of the gulf of Ragai, I asked a very- 
intelligent and influential Negrito, by name Lucas, as to why 
the Negritos of Buyabad, Malbug, and other points did not make 
clearings of their own instead of living in a state of economic 
servitude on the land of Tagalogs. The immediate reply given 
by Lucas was that Americans did not permit Negritos to make 
clearings of their own. I questioned him very carefully through 
my interpreter, Manuel Balefia of Lopez, as to his reason for 
this statement. He averred that no American had personally 
forbidden them to clear land, but that the Tagalogs of Katimo, 
Tagkawaian, and Kinatakutan had repeatedly advised them not 
to do so, assuring them that they would be punished by the 
monteros or forestry officials. In reply to my question as to 
why Tagalogs were allowed to occupy land and to make clearings, 
Lucas stated that they were permitted by the "monteros." 

It is to be presumed that the only motive that those Tagalogs 
can have in thus misinforming the Negritos is that the latter 
may be obliged to remain in economic dependence on them. 

In Tagkawaian I questioned the municipal lieutenant, Gonzalo 
Olea (Cabeza Alo), as to why the Negritos of his barrio had 
no clearings and no crops of their own. He told me that it 
was more advisable to keep the Negritos under their (Tagalog) 
supervision for the purpose of instructing them (the Negritos) 
in civilized ways and beliefs ! * * * 

As to the general economic and social dealings between the 
Tagalogs of Lopez, Kalawag and Ginayangan and nearly all the 
Negritos of those municipalities, I beg to make the following 
remarks, based on personal observations: 

The Negritos live in little groups of from five to twenty 
persons on the land of a Tagalog "abidn" or master, as they 
call him, or "owner" (mai-ari) as the Tagalog styles himself. 
For their services in clearing their "owner's" land, in planting 
his coconuts and rice and in procuring rattan, beeswax, and 
other forest products, they receive very insufficient pittance of 
rice, occasionally a little cloth, or some cast-off Filipino clothing, 
and once in a while a contribution of rice and native vino for 
their ever-recurring mortuary feasts. As a result of this miserly 
treatment, and of the dissatisfaction that sooner or later in- 
evitably follows, their permanence in one locality or under one 
"owner" is shortlived, for it is seldom the case that some Taga- 
log is not intriguing against their "owner" and trying to wheedle 
them from him, with fair promises. During my hasty trip 
several instances of this nature occurred. 

Social dealings are still more lamentable. The Negrito is 
cozened with soft words and often honored with the fictitious 
titles of "presidente," "vice," or "sargento," but he is requested 
at the same time to do all the incidental chores that may turn 
up. It is a pity that his childlike nature does not rebel. I said 
to a Tagalog on one occasion — I do not remember where — "If 
Americans were to treat Filipinos with the same discrimination 
that you people use in dealing with Negritos, there would be a 
revolution within one hour." 



107 

As a result of the unsatisfactory economic conditions under 
which they live it is obvious that the Negritos, some five hundred 
in number, of the above-mentioned municipalities lead a life that 
is of a peculiarly nomadic character, for in an endeavor to better 
their condition, they are constantly changing from one master 
to another. Now tired of waiting for the fulfilment of fair 
promises and formal contracts, now lured on by the promise of 
better conditions they leave their Tagalog master without warn- 
ing, remain in the forest for some days, and finally take up their 
abode on the land of some new but equally deceptive "owner." 

Though the Negrito is of a happy, I should say, merry, viva- 
cious, and most good-natured disposition, he silently resents the 
faithlessness and miserliness with which he is treated, as I had 
sufficient occasion to observe on my trip among the Negritos of 
southern Tayabas and northern Camarines Sur. 

Another flagrant injustice that is perpetrated on the Negrito 
and that dooms him to inevitable extinction is the underhand 
opposition of interested Tagalogs to any movement that would 
better Negrito social or material condition. In my own case 
it was supposed in one district that I had come for the purpose 
of forming Negrito towns. To prevent the achievement of this 
imaginary project the report was spread that I was a "Bombay" 
who was coming to suck the blood of Negrito children ! Nearly 
everywhere I went, it was necessary for me to meet in person 
the Tagalog "owner" of the Negritos I desired to visit, explain 
to him that my sole purpose was to study Negrito customs — and 
in other ways allay his misgivings as to the object of my visit. 

As another illustration of the opposition of the Christian Fili- 
pino to the advancement of the Negritos of those parts, I was 
told by Sr. Serapio Garcia of Ragai — whose statement was 
corroborated by Mr. Hillesman of the Bureau of Internal Rev- 
enue — that several years ago Mr. Frank L. Crone had made 
arrangements to open a school for the Negritos of Ragai but 
that his design was frustrated by the malicious report of Chris- 
tian natives of Ragai that the ulterior object of Mr. Crone was 
to carry away all the Negrito children in ships and ultimately 
to sell them to the Moros ! 

Other facts of minor importance bearing on this subject will 
be included in the full report which I am preparing on Negrito 
life and language around the Gulf of Ragai. 
Very respectfully, 

(Sgd.) John M. Gaevan, 

Division of Ethnology. 

Such conditions as those above described are by no means ex- 
ceptional. On the contrary, they are the rule along the border 
between the more primitive non-Christian tribes and the Fili- 
pinos. They prevail not only in the vicinity of the Negrito coun- 
try, but in that of the Mangyans of Mindoro and the Bukidnons 
and Manobos of Agusan. 



108 

the "edwards" memorandum and the reply of dean c. 
worcester thereto. 

War Dapartment, 
Bureau op Insular Affairs, 
Washington, December 29, 1909. 
The following is taken from the annual report of the Secretary 
of the Interior of the Philippine Islands : 

"FAILURE TO SECURE LEGISLATION PROHIBITING SLAVERY, INVOLUN- 
TARY SERVITUDE," PEONAGE OR THE SALE OF HUMAN BEINGS IN 
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

"Having discovered to my amazement that there was no law 
in the Philippine Islands prohibiting the sale of human beings, 
and impressed with the necessity of providing legal remedy for 
existing conditions as regards slavery, involuntary servitude, 
peonage, and the sale of human beings, I drafted, and the Philip- 
pine Commission passed, the following Act: 

" 'AN ACT PROHIBITING SLAVERY, INVOLUNTARY SER- 
VITUDE, PEONAGE OR THE SALE OF HUMAN 
BEINGS IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

" 'By authority of the United States, be it enacted by the Philip- 
pine Legislature, that: 

" 'Section 1. Whoever, except in fulfillment of the judgment 
or sentence of a court of competent jurisdiction or under other 
lawful authority, shall, against the will of any person, restrain 
such person of his liberty, hold him to servitude, compel him 
to labor, take the fruits of his labor, compel him to deliver to 
another the fruits of his labor, or shall deliver such person to 
another for any of the purposes hereinabove set forth, shall, 
on conviction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not less 
than six months nor more than five years and by a fine of not 
less than one hundred pesos and not more than one thousand 
pesos, in the discretion of the court. 

" 'Sec. 2. Whoever shall compel another person, against his 
will, to render labor or services in payment of a preexisting 
debt, or whoever shall accept labor or services performed under 
such compulsion, with knowledge of that fact, shall, upon con- 
viction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not less than 
three months nor more than five years, or by a fine of not less 
than ten pesos nor more than one thousand pesos, or by both 
such imprisonment and fine in the discretion of the court. 

" 'Sec. 3. Upon a trial for violation of this Act the consent 
of the person restrained or rendering service shall not be a 
defense unless it shall satisfactorily appear that such person 
was above the age of eighteen years and that such consent was 
obtained without mental or physical compulsion. 

" 'Sec. 4. Whoever shall buy or barter or cause to be bought 
or bartered, or whoever shall sell or barter or cause to be sold 
or bartered, any human being, shall, upon conviction thereof, 
be punished by imprisonment for not less than six months nor 



109 

more than five years and by a fine of not less than one hundred 
pesos and not more than one thousand pesos in the discretion of 
the court. 

" 'Sec. 5. One-half of any fine collected under the provisions 
of this Act shall be paid to the injured person and such payment 
shall not operate to extinguish in whole or in part any civil 
action which such injured person may have for damages. In 
case of the nonpayment of any fine imposed under the provisions 
of this Act the same shall be extinguished by imprisonment at 
the rate of one day for each peso of such fine unpaid. 

" 'Sec. 6. This Act shall take effect on its passage. 

" 'Enacted.' 

"I regret to state that this Act failed to pass the Philippine 
Assembly. 

"The stealing or the purchase of children of members of non- 
Christian tribes is lamentably common. On my last visit I found 
at the house of Lieutenant-Governor Villamor a bright little 
Negrito girl eleven years of age who had been sold to a Christian 
native by her parents, who were starving, for a cavan of palay 
(unhusked rice) , worth about f*3.00. Lieutenant-Governor Villa- 
mor, on learning the facts, took her away from her purchaser 
on the ground that as she had served him for two and a half years 
she had certainly repaid him for her cost. This infamous prac- 
tice is carried on under the guise of Christianizing the children 
of the wild men. 

"If the conditions thus brought about are bad, those due to 
the peonage in which very numerous families, not only of the 
wild tribes, but also of the more ignorant Christian peoples, are 
held by people of a certain class in these Islands, are worse and 
undoubtedly call for remedial legislation. 

"I recommend that at the next session of the Philippine Legis- 
lature this Act be again passed by the Commission, and that a 
strong effort be made to secure its passage by the Philippine As- 
sembly. In the event that the Assembly should refuse to pass it, 
I recommend that the Congress of the United States be requested 
to enact suitable legislation, supplementing and making effective 
the provision in its Act of July 1, 1902, to the effect 'That 
neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist in said islands.' " 

This is submitted to the Secretary of War with a view to his 
determining whether it should be published in his annual report. 
The objectionable features are : 

First, that it creates the impression that slavery, involuntary 
servitude, peonage, and the sale of human beings are common 
in the Philippine Islands, have legal recognition, and cannot be 
prevented under existing laws. 

Second, that there is a threat, with apparent intention, of 
coercing the Legislative Assembly in the Philippine Islands into 
enacting this legislation proposed by Commissioner Worcester. 

As to the first of these propositions, the reverse is true. 
Slavery and involuntary servitude are more specifically corrected 



110 

by legislation in force in the Philippine Islands than by legislation 
in force in the United States. In addition to the civil remedies 
which are in general identical with those in the United States — 
that is, the writ of habeas corpus and civil prosecution — there 
are specific penal statutes applicable. For example, article 497 
of the Penal Code in force in the Philippine Islands is as follows : 

"Any person who, without lawful authorization, shall with 
violence prevent another from doing what is not prohibited by 
law, or shall compel him to do what he does not wish, whether 
just or unjust, shall be punished with the penalties of 'arresto 
mayor' and a fine of from 325 to 3,250 pesetas." 

Article 481 of the Penal Code is as follows : 

"Any private person who shall lock up or detain another, or 
in any way deprive him of his liberty, shall be punished with 
the penalty of prision mayor. The same penalty shall be in- 
curred by the person who furnishes a place for the commission 
of this offense. 

"If the culprit should release the person locked up or detained, 
within three days after his detention had commenced, without 
obtaining the object he had in view and without the commence- 
ment of proceedings, the penalties shall be prision cotreccional 
in its minimum and medium degrees and a fine of from 325 to 
3,250 pesetas." 

And each of these particular sections are accompanied by other 
sections covering the commission of offenses outlined in more 
aggravated cases. It should be observed that under 497 can 
be punished any offense covered by section 1 or section 2 of 
the bill proposed by Commissioner Worcester, and the punish- 
ment is made severer if the restraint is accompanied by illegal 
detention, which is punishable under 481. Section 3 of Com- 
missioner Worcester's bill provides that upon a trial for violation 
of this Act "the consent of the person restrained or rendering 
service shall not be a defense unless it shall satisfactorily appear 
that such person was above the age of eighteen years and that 
such consent was obtained without mental or physical com- 
pulsion." 

It should be observed that this would only be of application 
in the case of emancipated minors under the code in force in the 
Philippine Islands, as an unemancipated minor is not competent 
to give his consent to any contract. It would seem that the 
section might be held to prevent an emancipated minor from 
giving his consent to a contract of labor. If so, the objections 
to the section would apparently outweigh any advantages. 

Section 4 of this bill as drawn, if it has any effect not now of 
ready accomplishment under existing law, would have the effect 
of preventing parents from profiting by the labors of their 
children. This may be advanced legislation, but it is not in 
accordance with the legislation generally in force in the United 
States or in any other country so far as known. 

Briefly, this is an ill-digested effort to introduced new legisla- 
tion into one of the best codes in existence. The code in force 
in the Philippine Islands, which is practically the Spanish Code, 



Ill 

did not provide as against the Government the same individual 
liberty which we have in the United States, but it did so provide 
as against any other individual, and it not only so provided by 
broad principle, but by specific punitive statutes. 

Edwards. 

[See U. S. vs. Tomas Cabanag, vol. 8, P. I. Reports, page 64, and other 
cases indexed under arts. 481 and 497, Philippine Penal Code.] 

October 28, 1912. 

Sir: General Mclntyre's letter of August 1, 1912, with in- 
closure thereto, has been sent to me by Mr. Bowditch with request 
for comment. 

As far as concerns Governor Forbes' Boston speech, it is 
doubtless true that the bill referred to by him was not the one 
discussed in the memorandum transmitted by General Mclntyre, 
which has been superseded. The latter bill died in the Assembly. 
It, or a similar bill, was reenacted by the Commission during my 
absence in Washington, and also died in the Assembly. 

Neither of these bills was made applicable through the ter- 
ritory inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes, because 
of the obvious desirability of having uniform legislation for the 
entire Archipelago ; but as it finally seemed undesirable to wait 
longer before enacting legislation calculated to correct regret- 
table conditions at least in the territory under the legislative 
jurisdiction of the Commission, on August 7, 1911, Act No. 2071 
was passed by the Commission. It reads as follows: (See p. 33 
for text of this bill.) 

Subsequently an act identical with this, except that section 5 
was omitted, was passed by the Commission and sent to the 
Assembly, which did not pass it. Undoubtedly it was the failure 
of the Assembly to act favorably on this bill rather than its 
failure to act on the bill referred to by General Mclntyre which 
was made the subject of criticism by Governor-General Forbes. 

In my opinion, the memorandum which was transmitted by 
General Mclntyre and is signed "Edwards" is very far from 
being a fair statement of the case. I have never previously seen 
it, am very glad to have this opportunity to comment on it, and 
request that this communication be transmitted to General 
Mclntyre and filed in the office of the Bureau of Insular Affairs 
in connection with the memorandum in question. 

The first criticism reads as follows : 

"First, that it creates the impression that slavery, involuntary 
servitude, peonage, and the sale of human beings are common 
in the Philippine Islands, have legal recognition, and cannot be 
prevented under existing laws." 

Involuntary servitude and peonage are common in the Philip- 
pines. Slavery and the sale of human beings are also common, 
not only in certain portions of the wild man's territory under 
the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the Commission, but in 
Palawan, and are by no means very rare in general in the ter- 
ritory occupied by Filipinos which borders on the territory oc- 



112 

cupied by non-Christians. But even if they were rare through- 
out the Philippines, the argument advanced by Edwards would 
no more be logical than would an argument against an act pro- 
hibiting and penalizing murder on the ground that it was not 
a common crime. The important question is not whether the 
acts provided against are committed frequently or infrequently, 
but whether they are good or evil. If evil, they should obviously 
be adequately provided against. 

I do not wish to be understood to imply that slavery, involun- 
tary servitude, and the sale of human beings are limited to the 
above-described territory. 

It is but a short time since the wife of an Englishman living 
on the outskirts of Manila was offered a Negrito child which 
was brought to her home for sale as a pony or a carabao would 
have been brought. 

I am now trying to find in Manila one of two Negritos who, 
sometime since, were kidnapped in the Province of Bataan, 
having first been made drunk with vino ; were then tied up and 
taken into the Province of Pampanga ; and were afterward sold 
in the Province of Batangas. Ultimately, both of them escaped 
from their purchasers. One of them has made his way back to 
his old home in the mountains of Bataan. The other is believed 
to have been detained on the way, and to be held at the present 
time in the city of Manila. 

I see nothing in the enactment of a law prohibiting slavery, 
involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of human beings, 
which could logically lead to the belief that these practices have 
legal recognition in these Islands, but it is true that they cannot 
be effectively prevented under existing law. In this connection, 
your attention is invited to the following extracts from the judg- 
ment of the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in the case 
of the United States vs. Tomas Cabanag (Philippine Reports, 
Vol. VIII, page 64). 

In this case it was shown that one Buyag bought an Igorot 
girl called Gamaya for three pigs, twenty-five hens, two measures 
of rice, and a cloak worth two pigs from her mother, as he claim- 
ed, for the purpose of keeping her at home, her father having 
died. At the end of three years, her mother having, it is stated, 
presumably died, 

"she was brought away by one Eusebio, at the instance of him- 
self and another Igorot named YogYog, who had furnished part 
of the purchase price. Together they instructed Eusebio to sell 
her for a carabao and 50 pesos. Eusebio together with his sister, 
Antonia, brought her to Quiangan, in the Province of Nueva 
Vizcaya, and sold her to the accused, Tomas Cabanag, for 100 
pesos. 

"* * * Cabanag had previously been instructed to buy a 
girl by one Mariano Lopez of Caoayan, to whom after a few 
days Gamaya was delivered in return for the price, which appears 
to have been 200 pesos. In his hands she remained for about 
two months until she was taken away by an officer of Constab- 
ulary. Afterwards this prosecution was instituted. Although 



113 

Gamaya made objection to leaving the house of Cabanag, she 
appears to have gone without actual constraint and at no time 
in any of these places was she physically restrained of her 
liberty; she was not under lock or key or guard, went into the 
street to play, returned at will, and was not punished or ill 
used in any way, but was employed about the household tasks; 
in short, she appears to have been treated by Mariano Lopez 
as a household servant and to have been well cared for while 
in the custody of the accused." 

It was further shown that: 

"* * * the defendant appears to have engaged in the 
business of buying in Nueva Vizcaya children to sell in the 
lowlands of Isabela." 

The lower court found that: 

"The Congress of the United States has declared that human 
slavery shall not exist in these Islands and while no law, so far 
as I can discover, has yet been passed either defining slavery 
in these Islands or fixing a punishment for those who engage 
in this inhuman practice as dealers, buyers, sellers, or derivers, 
the facts established in this case show conclusively that the 
child Gamaya was by the defendant forcibly and by fraud, deceit, 
and threats unlawfully deprived of her liberty and that his 
object and purpose was an unlawful and illegal one, to wit, the 
sale of the child, for money, into human slavery. This con- 
stitutes the crime of 'detention ilegal' denned and penalized by 
article 481 of the Penal Code and this court finds the defendant 
guilty as charged in the information." 

The defendant appealed to the Supreme Court and was ac- 
quitted, the Supreme Court finding, among other things, the 
following : 

"This condition may present matter for the consideration of 
the legislature but not for action by the criminal courts. Not 
even the abhorrent species of traffic apparently carried on by 
the accused justifies a sentence not authorized by law. 

"There is at present no law punishing slaveholding as a crime. 

"The constitutional provision of the Philippine bill that 'neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude * * * shall exist in these 
Islands,' while operating to nullify any agreement in contra- 
vention of it, requires suppletory legislation to give it effect 
criminally. 

"We are dealing not with a civil remedy but with a criminal 
charge, in relation to which the Bill of Rights defines no crime 
and provides no punishment. Its effects can not be carried into 
the realm of criminal law without an act of the legislature." 

I am not familiar with the legislation against slavery, invol- 
untary servitude, and peonage now in force in the United States ; 
but if it be true that the legislation at present in effect in these 
Islands, suffering as it does from the defects hereinbefore set 
forth, is more effective than that in the United States, this fact 
would, in my opinion, be a demonstration of the ineffectiveness 

118937 8 



114 

of the United States legislation for dealing with such conditions 
as prevail here, rather than a reason for considering existing 
Philippine legislation to be adequate. 

It might further be suggested that it is comparatively un- 
important at this time whether or not United States legislation 
against slavery and involuntary servitude is effective, for the 
reason that there is little or no occasion to invoke it, a condition 
which does not obtain in these Islands. 

The extracts from the Cabanag case above quoted seem to 
me to afford a sufficient demonstration of the practical workings 
of the provisions of law quoted by Edwards from the code in 
effect here, which he considers "one of the best codes in 
existence." 

A thirteen-year-old girl was purchased from her mother for 
pigs, hens, rice, and a cloak, under the absurd pretext that the 
object of the purchase was to keep her at home, where she 
would, of course, naturally have remained in any event. She 
was allowed to remain with her mother during a period of some 
three years, at the end of which time her mother is supposed 
to have died, and in this manner the purchaser was saved the 
cost of boardng her. Having now reached what the Igorots 
consider a marriageable age, she was sold to a man who engaged 
in the business of buying in Nueva Vizcaya children to sell in 
the lowlands of Isabela; in other words, to a slave dealer. She 
was sold by this man to an inhabitant of the town of Caoayan 
in Isabela, who had instructed him to buy a girl. Caoayan is 
distant many days of hard overland travel from this girl's home. 
When taken there she was among an alien people of another 
tribe and another religion and although, as stated, she was not 
kept under lock and key and although our Supreme Court held 
that: 

"* * * There can be no unlawful detention under article 
481 of the Penal Code" [which is one of the two articles quoted 
by Edwards to show the sufficiency of existing law] without 
confinement or restraint of person, such as did not exist in the 
present case," 
and held further that — 

"Under the complaint for this crime it is possible to convict 
for coaccion under proof of the requisites of that offense 
* * *, but among those requisites is that of violence through 
force or intimidation, even under the liberal rule of our juris- 
prudence * * * ; consequently the charge of coaccion against 
the accused can not be sustained upon the evidence," 
it is nevertheless true that this child, who had been thrice sold, 
was detained just as effectively at Caoayan as if chained to a 
post in the house of the man who bought her, and was required 
by him to perform menial labor without compensation. It would 
have been utterly impossible for her to escape and to make her 
way back through Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya to her own people. 

Can legislation under which it is not possible to do anything in 
a case like this be considered adequate or satisfactory? • 



115 

It is doubtless difficult for General Mclntyre and others in 
Washington to appreciate the peculiar conditions which prevail 
here in the territory of the wild tribes and that of the Christian 
peoples adjacent thereto. 

Sometime since, an eleven-year-old Bukidnon girl was carried 
away and taken from northern Mindanao to Bohol by a school- 
teacher who had been discharged from the service. Her parents 
gave every indication of bitter grief and begged to have their 
daughter restored to them. This was finally accomplished, to 
their great joy, as a result of my personal efforts. The kidnapper 
was ultimately brought into court, but before the case came up 
for trial the parents had been subjected to such "influence" that 
when called to the witness stand they swore that the man had 
taken their daughter with their full knowledge and consent! 

In order to be effective, the law in these Islands must be 
so framed as to make it possible to protect people too ignorant, 
or too timid, to protect themselves. 

So far as concerns the opinion of Edwards as to the adequacy 
of article 497 of the Penal Code, which provides that — 

"Any person who, without lawful authorization, shall with 
violence prevent another from doing what is not prohibited by 
law, or shall compel him to do what he does not wish, whether 
just or unjust, shall be punished with the penalties of arresto 
mayor, and a fine of from 325 to 3,250 pesetas," 
and his contention that — • 

"under 497 can be punished any offense covered by section 
1 or section 2 of the bill proposed by Commissioner Worcester," 
and that— 

"section 4 of this bill as drawn, if it has any effect not now 
of ready accomplishment under existing law, would have the 
effect of preventing parents from profiting by the labors of their 
children," 

the judgment of the Supreme Court that, in the above case, 
"we are dealing not with a civil remedy but with a criminal 
charge, in relation to which the Bill of Eights defines no crime 
and provides no punishment. Its effects can not be carried into 
the realm of criminal law without an act of the legislature," 
seems to me conclusive, as does the conclusion thai; — 

"The constitutitional provision of the Philippine bill that 
'neither slavery nor involuntary servitude * * * shall exist 
in these Islands,' while operating to nullify any agreement in 
contravention of it, requires suppletory legislation to give it effect 
criminally." 

I further respectfully submit that section 4 of the law as 
drawn by me made it a crime to buy or barter or cause to be 
bought or bartered, or to sell or barter or to cause to be sold or 
bartered, any human being; that I have the judgment of the 
Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands to the effect that this 
is not a crime under the provisions of existing criminal law, 
and that the bill as drawn accomplished this very important 



116 

thing without preventing parents from profiting by the labors 
of their children. It is surely not necessary that parents should 
sell their children for cash, or barter them for produce or other 
commodities, in order to profit by their labor, and in my opinion 
the right to sell children for cash or to barter them for produce 
or other commodities should be specifically taken away from 
parents in this country, for the reason that when so sold or 
bartered they are in the very large majority of cases either 
retained in a condition of involuntary servitude or employed for 
immoral purposes. 

Edwards states that — 

"Second, that there is a threat, with apparent intention, of 
coercing the Legislative Assembly in the Philippine Islands into 
enacting this legislation proposed by Commissioner Worcester," 
basing this assertion on the statement in my report, which reads : 

"I recommend that at the next session of the Philippine Legis- 
lature this Act be again passed by the Commission, and that a 
strong effort be made to secure its passage by the Philippine 
Assembly. In the event that the Assembly should refuse to 
pass it, I recommend that the Congress of the United State's be 
requested to enact suitable legislation, supplementing and mak- 
ing effective the provision in its Act of July 1, 1902, to the 
effect 'that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as 
a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been 
duly convicted, shall exist in said Islands,' " 

This statement was not intended as a threat, nor was it my 
intention to coerce, or to attempt to coerce, the Assembly. The 
words quoted embodied my views as to what should be done to 
get results. 

The Supreme Court of these Islands having held that; — 

"The constitutional provision of the Philippine bill that 'neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude * * * shall exist in these 
Islands,' while operating to nullify any agreement in contra- 
vention of it, requires suppletory legislation to give it effect 
criminally," 

it was and is my opinion that such suppletory legislation should 
be enacted by the Philippine Legislature, if possible ; and if, on 
account of the attitude of the lower house, it can not be so enacted, 
this condition should be brought to the attention of Congress, 
to the end that it may, if it sees fit, enact the legislation held 
by our courts to be necesary in order to make effective the 
provisions of its own act. 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed.) Dean C. Worcester, 

Secretary of the Interior. 

Hon. Newton W. Gilbert, 

Acting Governor-General, Manila, P. I. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Act No. 2071 of the Philippine Commission prohibiting slavery, 
involuntary servitude, peonage, and the sale or purchase of human 
beings in the Mountain Province and the Provinces of Nueva Viz- 

eaya and Agusan, and providing punishment therefor 33 

Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, the Philippine bill, provision of, 

relative to slavery 4 

Agusan, slavery in the Province of 6 

Almario, Garigorio, communication from, relative to peonage 55 

Ambos Camarines, slavery in the Province of 14 

Annual Report of Secretary of the Interior for year ended June 30, 
1913; recommendation in, for legislation relative to slavery and 

peonage in the Philippine Islands 3, 35 

Annual Report of Secretary of the Interior for year ended June 30, 

1910; statement contained in, relative to slavery 68 

Antislavery Act of the Moro Province 83 

Assembly : 

Action by, upon Commission bill passed October 24, 1913 4 

Action by, on bill relative to slavery and peonage passed by Com- 
mission 32 

Action by, relative to legislation prohibiting slavery and peonage.. 76 
Assistance, failure of Secretary of the Interior to receive, from 

Insular officials in securing information relative to cases of slavery.. 73 
Attorney-General, opinion of, relative to cases of slavery in Nueva 

Vizcaya 25 

Auditor, Insular, attitude of, relative to furnishing information to 

Secretary of the Interior relative to cases of slavery 74 

Auditor, letter of, to Secretary of the Interior, dated March 14, 1913.. 74 

Cabanag, Tomas, test case brought against 27 

Caciquism 52, 63 

Cagayan de Misamis, municipality of, attitude toward peonage 66 

Cecilio, Silverio D., Assemblyman, charges against, in case of Ale- 
xandra Malbarin _ 59 

Chief of police of Manila, documents relative to peonage furnished by.. 56 
Clinton, Guy, acting division superintendent of schools for the Prov- 
ince of Bataan; communication from, regarding peonage in that 

province 63 

"College Folio, The," article in, entitled "Economic advancement 

among the Negritos of Pampanga" 45 

Commission resolution of May 17, 1912 3 

Commission bill of October 24, 1912, relative to slavery and peonage.. 4 

Commission bill of October, 1911, relative to slavery and peonage, 

tabled by Assembly — 34 

117 



118 

Page. 
Commission, action by, relative to legislation prohibiting slavery and ■ 

peonage 76 

Conner, Norman G., acting governor, statement of, relative to slavery 

in Nueva Vizcaya _ 50 

Constabulary, Director of, failure to render assistance to Secretary 

of the Interior in securing information relative to slavery. 74 

Corrales, Gov. Manuel, report of, relative to slavery in Misamis 12 

Crone, Frank L., Assistant Director of Education, statement of, 

relative to sale of Filipino children to Chinese, and sale of Filipino 

girls .-. 65 

Curry, Gov. George, statement of, relative to slavery in Isabela 21 

D'Arcy, Albert, communication from, relatve to abuses imposed on 

Negritos near Baler 64 

Davis, Gen. George W. : 

Report of, on slavery in the Moro Province 5 

Telegram from, to Adjutant-General, Manila, relative to slavery.. 12 
Dichoso, Francisco, governor of Isabela, letter of, relative to slavery.. 8 

Forbes, W. Cameron, Governor-General, reference to public speech 

at Boston, on slavery question in Philippines 37 

Forbes, Hon. W. Cameron, Governor-General, cablegram from, to 

Secretary of War, dated January 22, 1910 69 

Gallman, Jeff D., lieutenant-governor of Ifugao, 40 slaves liberated 

by 34 

Hale, Walter F., lieutenant-governor, report by, relative to slaves 

in Kalinga 51 

Hilantic and Rufino, Negritos kidnapped and held as slaves 43 

Ifugao, slavery and peonage in the subprovince of 48, 99 

Isabela, slavery and peonage in the Province of 7,21 

Jacobs, Lawrence M., report of, on a municipal ordinance forbidding 

servants to leave their masters 66 

Kalinga, slavery and peonage in the subprovince of 51 

Knight, Louis G., governor of Nueva Vizcaya, report from, relative 

to slavery 23 

Laurel, G. N., lieutenant, Philippine Constabulary, communication 

from, relative to slavery and peonage 58 

"La Vanguardia" for October 29, 1912, editorial relative to slavery.... 35 

Malbarin, Alejandra, of Manila, case of 59 

Manila, slavery in the city of 47 

Mclntyre, Col. Frank: 

Statement by, relative to portion of Annual Report of Secretary 
of the Interior for the year ended June 30, 1910, regarding 

slavery and peonage 68 

Letter of, to Acting Gov. Gen. Newton W. Gilbert, dated August 

1, 1912 70 

Misamis, slavery in the Province of 12 

Moro Province, act prohibiting slavery in 5 

Native press, comments of 67 

Negritos : 

Adoption and baptism of, by Filipinos 47 

Manner in which they are obtained for slaves 41 

North, W. S., senior inspector, Philippine Constabulary, communica- 
tion from, relative to capture of Negrito children 40 



119 

Nueva Vizcaya: p a8e- 

Slavery and peonage in the Province of 23 

Test cases tried in the Province of 26 

Occidental Negros, slavery in the Province of 20 

Ostrand, Hon. James A., facts furnished by 52 

Palawan, slavery and peonage in the Province of 6 

Pampanga, slavery and peonage in the Province of 42 

Peonage, definition of 4 

Peonage at root of industrial system of Philippines 64 

Peonage contract 66 

Press, native, comments of 67 

Prosecuting attorney of Manila, decision of, in case of Alexandra 

Malbarin 61 

Quezon, Sr. Manuel: 

Claim of, that slavery does not exist in the Philippines 6 

Reply to Governor-General Forbes's speech at Boston 37 

Resolution of United States Senate of May 1, 1913, relative to slavery 

in the Philippine Islands 71 

Rohrer, L. T., senior inspector, Philippine Constabulary, communica- 
tion from, relative to caciquism 54 

Romblon, slavery in the Province of 16 

Rucker, Kyle, lieutenant, U. S. Army, communication from, to ad- 
jutant, Camp Stotsenburg, relative to capture of Negrito children.... 40 

Sandoval, Manuel, Assemblyman, complaint lodged against 62 

Sanz, Francisco, governor of Romblon, report of, relative to slavery.... 17 
Secretary of the Interior: 

Recommendation of, relative to action by Congress to prohibit 

slavery and peonage 4 

Bill drafted by, relative to slavery and peonage 31 

Certain pertinent facts cited by, relative to Sr. Quezon's claims 

in regard to nonexistence of slavery in Philippines 39 

Statement of, relative to slavery, in annual report for year ended 

June 30, 1910 68 

Memorandum of, for the Honorable the Governor-General, dated 

February 28, 1910 69 

Report of, for the year ended June 30, 1911, reference to 72 

Report of, for the year ended June 30, 1912, reference to 72 

Letter of, to Insular Auditor, dated March 17, 1913 75 

Secretary of War: 

Cablegram from, to Hon. W. Cameron Forbes, Governor-General, 

dated January 26, 1910 69 

Extract from reply of, to President of the Senate, relative to 

records in War Department concerning slavery 71 

Senate, resolution of, May 1, 1913, relative to slavery in the Philip- 
pine Islands 71 

Slavery, definition of 4 

Slavery in: 

Agusan 6 

Ambos Camarines 14 

Ifugao 48 

Isabela 7 

Kalinga 51 

Misamis 12 



120 

Slavery in — Continued. Page. 

Moro 5 

Nueva Vizcaya 23 

Occidental Negros 20 

Palawan 6 

Pampanga 42 

Romblon 16 

Tarlac 46 

Zambales 46 

Sorenson, A. O., senior inspector, Philippine Constabulary, telegram 

of, relative to slavery in Isabela 7, 22 

Supreme Court decision in case of slavery in Romblon 19 

Taft, William H., Governor-General, letter of, relative to slavery in 

Isabela 8 

Tarlac, slavery in the Province of 46 

Tracey, James F., ex-justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippine 

Islands, reply to statement by, in New York Times 77 

Zambales, slavery in the Province of 46 



INDEX TO APPENDIX. 

An Act defining the crimes of slave holding and slave hunting, and 

prescribing the punishment therefor 83 

Typical cases of violation of the Moro Province antislavery law from 

the court records of said province 84 

Report of Senior Inspector Sorenson, Philippine Constabulary, on 

slavery in the Province of Isabela 85 

Decision of the Court of First Instance in the Tomas Cabanag case.... 89 
Decision of the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in the Tomas 

Cabanag case 91 

Additional cases of slavery in Zambales 95 

Additional cases of slavery in Tarlac 96 

Additional cases of slavery in Manila 98 

Additional cases of the enslaving of- Ifugaos 100, 103 

Additional cases of slavery in Nueva Vizcaya 104 

Official correspondence relative to the condition of Negritos in Ambos 

Camarines 105 

The "Edwards" memorandum and the reply of Dean C. Worcester 

thereto _ 108 

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