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Full text of "The non-Christian tribes of Northern Luzon"

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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023497344 






THE PHILIPPINE 

iauSMLOF Science 



THE PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 



During the coining year a series of articles on ethnological and ethno- 
graphical subjects will appear in the Philippine Journal of Science. 
The first article of this series appears in this number of the Journal. The 
following additional papers will certainly be available: 

1. The Non-Christian Tribes'of Southern Luzon, with Map Show- 

ing Distribution of Non-Christian Tribes throughout the 
Entire Island of Luzon; by Dean C. Worcester. 

2. The Tagbanua and Mangyan Alphabets; by Dr. T. H. Pardo 

de Tavera. 

3. The Subanos of the Zamboangan Peninsula; by Edwin B. 

Christie. 

4. Primitive Philippine Fire-Making Apparatus; by Dean C. 

Worcester. 
This entire series of ethnological and ethnographical papers will be 
of fundamental importance to all who are interested in the peoples of the 
Philippine Islands. 



3. BusAos. 

Habitat: The northern paTt of Tilas Cordillera, Tiagan, the northern 
half of Lepanto and Bontoc on the northern waters of the Rio Cagayan. 

4. Altasanes and Ilimutes. 

Habitat : Nueva Vizcaya. 
46941 791 



y 






THE PHILIPPINE 



Journal of Science 



Vol. I OCTOBER, 1906 No. 8 



THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES OF NORTHERN LUZON. 



By Dean C. Worcbsteb. 
[From the office of the Secretary of the Interior, Manila, P. I.) 



INTRODUCTION. 



In this article the words "Northern Luzon" are used to designate that 
portion of the island lying north of a line drawn due east from the city 
of Manila to the Pacific coast. 

Great confusion exists as to the classification and geographical dis- 
tribution of the non-Christian tribes inhabiting this area. It would be 
impracticable, within the limits of a brief article, to discuss all of the 
different classifications which have heretofore been proposed and I shall 
confine myself to three of the latest and most authoritative. In 1883 
Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt published his "Versuch einer Ethnographic 
der Philippinen," in which he recognizes one race and tribe, the Negritos, 
and a second race, the Malays, which he subdivides into twenty-three 
tribes. His classification by tribes stands as follows : 

1. The Negkitos. 

Habitat : Principe, Isabela, Cagayan, North and South Ilokoa, Abra, Pan- 
gasinan, Zambales, and Bataan. 

2. Igoeeotes. 

Habitat: Benguet, Lepanto, including the district of Tiagan and Bontoc. 

3. BusAos. 

Habitat: The northern patt of Tilas Cordillera, Tiagan, the northern 
half of Lepanto and Bontoc on the northern waters of the Kio Cagayan. 

4. Altasanes and Ilimutes. 

Habitat : Nueva Vizeaya. 
46941 791 



792 

5. BUJUANOS. 

Eabiiut: Isabela. 

6. Panuipuyes. 

Habitat: Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela. "Perchance only a branch of the 
Mayoyaos." ' 

7. ISINATS. 

Eaiitat: The middle course of the Agno River. 

8. Ibilaos. 

Habitat: The region extending from the border line between Nueva 
Vizcaya and Nueva Ecija to the vicinity of Baliran. 

9. Ilongotes. 

Habitat: Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, Principe and northern Nueva Ecija. 

10. Mayotaos; also called Quianganes, Pungianes, and Silipanes. 

Habitat : Southern and eastern Bontoc and northern Nueva Vizcaya. 

11. Ifugaos. 

Habitat : Left bank of the Magat River to the south and southwest from 
Fural between Mayoyao and Camarga in Nueva Vizcaya. 

12. Gaddanes. (A considerable number of this tribe christianized.) 

Habitat: The region between the Magat River and the Rio Chico. 

13. Itetapanes. 

Habitat: The territory to the east of the Busaos and the west of the 
Gaddanes. 

14. GUYMANES (QuYMANES, QUIAMANES). 

Habitat : Territory north of the Busao Igorots, especially the eastern 
slopes of the Cordillera which separates the Province of Abra from Cagayan; 
the right bank of the Abra River to the left of the Pusulgan River marks 
the western limits reached by them. 

15. Calaus or Itavbs. 

Habitat : Western Cagayan from Piat and Tuao on the south to Malaueg 
on the north. 

16. Gamunanges and Bayabonanes. 

Habitat: Mountains east and north of Tuao, Province of Cagayan; may 
be a branch of the Dadayags. 

17. Dadayags. 

Habitat: Left bank of the middle portion of the Rio Grande, Province 
of Cagayan, extending into the heights near Cabagan. 

18. Nabayuganes. 

Habitat: Region to the west of Malaueg on one of the northern. affluents 
of the Rio Chico, Province of Cagayan. 

19. Abipas. 

Habitat: Region between the Nagsiping and Tubang to the south of the 
union of the Rio Grande and Rio Chico, Province of Cagayan; also the 
southern part of the mountain range which forms the watershed between 
the Rio Grande de Cagayan and the Rio Apayao. 

20. Caljnqas. 

Habitat: Tlio mountuins where the Aripas dwell and farther north. 

' Blumentritt: Vvmuvh cincr Ethiwgraphic dcr Philippincii (1882), 32. 



793 

21. TiKGUiANES (Itanegas, TinGgtanes, Tinques). 

Habitat: From Ciiiidon in llokos Sur to Mount Pacsan on the bolder line 
between Cagayan and llolios Sur; also extending sovitli to the neighborhood 
of Santa Cruz and Namacpacan, so that they inhabit the Provinces of 
llokos Sur, Abra, and llokos Norte. 

22. Apayaos. 

Habitat: ^'alley of the Apayao River and northern portion of eastern 
slope of the movintain chain which separates the Province of Cagayan from 
llokos Norte, extending south to Malaueg. 

23. Catalanganes. 

Habitat: Catalaligan River, one of the right branches of the Rio Grande, 
in the Province of Isabela. 

24. Ibayas. 

Habitat : The region to the south of the Gatalanganes, chiefly on the west 
side of the Cordillera of Palanan. 

In 1890 Professor Bliifnentritt published his "Alphabetisches Ver- 
zeichniss der eingeborenen Stamme der Philippinen imd der vor ihnen 
gesprochenen Spraehen." This list differs from that published in 1883 
in the following particulars : 

The AUasanes and slliinut are given as separate tribes, as are the 
Baydbonanes and the Silipanes, while the following tribes not mentioned 
in his first list are added : 

Abunlon. 

Habitat: Mountains of Zambales. 

BUNGANANES. 

Habitat: Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya. 
Ifumangies. 

Habitat: Nueva Vizcaya. 

Ilamut. 

Habitat: Vicinity of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Ileabanes. 

Habitat: Nueva Vizcaya. 

Italones. 

Habitat: Mountains of Nueva Vizcayjt. 

JUMANGIS. 

Habitat: Central (?) Luzon. 

PUNGIANES. 

Habitat: Not given. 

The total number of tribes recognized by Professor Blumentritt is thus 
raised to thirty-six. 

In 1899 a number of priests of the Jesuit mission of Manila col- 
laborated to produce, for the use of the first Philippine Commission, a 
very full account of the Philippine Islands, their resources, and their 
people.- 

= Published in Report of the Philippine Commission (1900), 3, 333-412. 



794 

They recognized three races^ the Negrito, the Indonesian, and the 
Malay, of which only the Negrito and the Malay were believed by them 
to be represented in northern Luzon. The Malay race they divided into 
three subraces — the Malay-Negritos, the Malay-Chinese, and the Malay- 
Mohammedans. 

In order to facilitate comparison, I give these two lists in tabulated 
form: 



■ Name oi tribe. 


Habitat. 


Blumentrltt's list. 


Jesuit list. 


1. Abunlon 


1. Abunlon. 


Mountains of Zambales. 

Pangasinan and Zambales. 

Mount Adang in North Ilokos. 

Quiangan (?), Nueva Vizeaya. 

Northwestern Nueva Vizeaya. 

Northwestern Cagayan and neighboring parts of 
North Ilokos and Abra. 

Near Naesiping and Tubang, Cagayan. 

Mountains east of Tudo, Cagayan. 

Eastern mountain chain of Cagayan, down to the 
Paciflo coast. 

Isabela. 

Nueva Vizeaya and Isabela. 

Eastern Cordillera of Nueva Ecija; mountains 
bordering on Tarlac and Pampanga; Cordillera 
oi Zambales; eastern mountains of North and 
South Ilokos. 

Zambales. 

Abra. 

Siguey mountains, Abra, near Benang (Jesuits). 

Valley of the Rio Chico near Malaueg, Cagayan. 

Between the Rio Grande, de Cagayan and the 
Ablug River. 

Watershed of CatalaiSgan River, east of Ilagan, 
Isabela. 

Mountains west of Cabagan, Cagayan. 

Mountains from Baler and Casiguran to Cape 
Engano. 

Mountains east and north of Tuao, Cagayan. 

Watei-shed between Abra River and Rio Grande 
de Cagayan. Border territory between Isabela 
and Abra. 

Border territory of Nueva Vizcava and Nueva 
Eeija. 

Nueva Vizeaya and Isabela (Blumentritt). Mis- 
sions of Ituy and Paningui, eastern Carraballos 
(Jesuits). 

Nueva Vizeaya. 

Benguct and Lepanto (Blumentritt). Abra, Pan- 
gasinan, Nueva Vizeaya, Zambales, and Pam- 
panga (Jesuits). 

Nueva Vizeaya in Cordillera forming boundary 
with Benguet. 

Nueva Vizeaya. 




2, Aetas 




3. Alimut 
















7. BayabonaD 




8. Bujuanos . 


6. Attas 




9. Bunganaiies 




10. Busaos 




8. Buquiles 

9. Buries 




11. Calauas 


11. Calauas. 


12. Calingas 


12. Calingas 


13. Catalanganes 


13. Catalanganes 


15. Garaungan 


14. Dumagas i__ 


16. Guinaanes 

17. Ibilaos 


16. Guinaanes 

16. Ibilaos 


18. Ifugaos 




19. Ifumangies 




20. Igorrotes _ 

21. Ilamut 


18 Igorrotes 




22. Ileabanes 









795 



Name of tribe. 


Habitat. 


Blumentritt's list. 


Jesuit list. 


23. Ilongotes 

24. Irayas _ 


19. Ilongotes 


Boundary region ol Nueva Vizcaya and Principe; 
also Nueva Eoija. 

Western slopes of tlie Cordillera oi Palanan (Bln- 
mentritt). Banks ol River Ilaron and eastern 
slopes of Sierra Madre on the side of Nueva Viz- 
caya, Isabela, and Cagayan (Jesuits). 

Nueva Vlzcaya (Blumentritt). Panay (Jesuits). 

Nueva Vizcaya. 

Western Isabela and possibly Bon toe (Blumen- 
tritt). Territory east of the Busaos, bounded 
on the south by the Igorrotcs ol Benguet and 
on the north by the Guinaanes (Jesuits). 

Central (?) Luzon. 

Southwest corner of Isabela and northwest cor- 
ner of Nueva Vizcaya. 

Territory west of Malaueg, Cagayan. 

Different parts of Luzon (Blumentritt). Bataan, 
North and South Ilokos, and Nueva Ecija 
(Jesuits). 

Western Nueva Vizcaya or Isabela. 

Not given. 

Comandancia of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Do. 

Abra and North and South Ilokos (Blumentritt). 
Cordillera of Tila and Province of Abra 
(Jesuits). 


20. Irayas 


25. Isinavs 




26. Italones _ 


22. Italones 


27. Itetapanes. 

28. Jumangi 


23. Itetapanes 


29. Mayoyaos 




30. Nabayuganes 




31. Negritos 


24. Negritos 


32. Panuipuyes 




33. Pungianes 




34. Quianganes 

35. Silipanes 


25. Quianganes 


36. Tinguianes 


26. Tinguianes . 



It will be noted that the Jesuits emimerate but twenty-six tribes while 
Blumentritt lists thirty-six. The Alimut, Aliasanes, Bayabonanes, Bu- 
juanoSj Bungananes, Dadayag^ Gamungan, Ifumangies, Ilamut, Ileaha- 
neSj Jumangi^ Mayoyaos, Nabayuganes, PanuipufBs, Pungianes, and 
Silipanes do not appear in the Jesuit list, and on the other hand the 
Aetas, Attas, Buquiles, Buries, Balugas, and Dumagas of the Jesuit 
list are omitted by Blumentritt, and rightly so, as all of these peoples 
except the Buries are Negritos, while the word huric means tattooed or 
painted and is used in describing certain tattooed persons. It is not a 
tribal name. 

In 1903 Dr. David P. Barrows, at that time Chief of the Bureau of 
Non-Christian Tribes, wrote for the Census of the Philippine Islands 
a history of the non-Christian tribes of the Philippines^ in which he 
makes the following statement : 

One impression that has gained foothold in regard to the tribes of the Philip- 
pines I believe to be erroneous, and that is as to the number of distinct types or 
races and multiplicity of tribes. Owing to the fact that nowhere in the Phil- 
ippines do we encounter large political bodies or units, we have a superlative 
number of designations for what are practically identical people. The tribe itself 



'Census of the Philippine Islands of 1903 (1905), 1, 453-477. 



796 

as a body politic is unknown in this Archipelago. The Malayan has never by 
his own effort achieved so important a political organization. Such great and 
effective confederacies, as we find among the North American Indians are far 
beyond the capacity of the Filipino of any grade. For example, among the 
powerful and numerous Igorot of northern Luzon the sole political body is in the 
independent community. * * * 

Errors in nomenclature prevail everywhere in the Islands. Sometimes three or 
four different terms have been applied by different localities or towns to identical 
peoples, and all these designations have gone to swell the reputed number of 
Philippine tribes. Thus Blumentritt credits fully eighty-two such distinct tribes; 
the Jesuits, who have been diligent collectors of information here, as everywhere, 
report sixty-seven tribes, and the enumerators for the census turned in on their 
schedules a total of about one hundred and sixteen different or differing titles, 
which had to be explained and reduced to system. 

Dr. Barrows, in his history, adopts the following classifications for the 
tribes of northern Luzon : 

NEGRITO RACE. 

Tribe, Negritos. (Synonyms: Ita, Eta, Agta, Baluoa, Dumagat, 

Abtjnlon. ) 
Babitat: Cagayan, Isabela, Ilokos Norte, Abra, Nueva Vizcaya, Tayabas 
(Principe and Infanta), Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Pangasinan, Tarlac, 
Zanibales, Pampanga, and Bataan. 

MALAY RACE. 
Tribe, Iqokot. 

Habitat: The Cordillera Central from the extreme north of Luzon to the 
plains of Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija. 

Under Igorot, he employs various dialect group designations such as 
the Qaddang, Dadayag, and Mayoyao, said to be divided solely by slight 
differences of dialect. He states that the exact number of these groups 
has not thoroughly been worked out, but that he has personally studied 
and collected vocabularies of twelve and believes that this number includes 
all except minor variations and one branch in the extreme north of the 
Cordillera, called Apayaos. This last people, he says, is on both slopes 
of the Cordillera, but far more numerous on the Cagayan side. 

Eeferring further to these dialect groups of people, he mentions the 
following : 

Dadayaq. 

Habitat: The head waters of the Rio Chieo de Cagayan in Itaves district, 
Cagayan Province, where they occupy the low foothills of the Cordillera 
Central. 

Gaddang. 

Habitat: The region farther south, along the same foothills as the Da- 
dayag, extending through Isabela.. 
Kalinqa. 

Habitat: The region east of the Dadayag and Gaddang. 
Banaos. 

Habitat: The region midway between Balbalasan and Labuangan as well 
as the Saltan River valley, all in the Province of Bontoc. They are regarded 
by Dr. Barrows as the prototype of the present more civilized Tingian 



797 

Bunnayan. 

Habitat: Western part of okl Spanish comandan(yia of Quiangan. 

SlI.IPAN. 

Habitat: Eastern part of okl Spanish comandamoia of Quiangan. 
Matoyao. 

Habitat: Region on dividing line between Quiangan, in the Province of 
Nueva Vizcaya, and the Province of Isabela. 

ISANAY. 

Habitat: Movmtains vfest of the civilized portion of Nueva Vizcaya. 
Tinguians. 

Habitat: Abra and eastern mountains of Ilokos Sur and Ilokos Norte. 
Kankanay. 

Habitat: Northern Benguet and Aniburayan. 
Nabiloi. 

Habitat: Southern Benguet and the district of Kayapa of the same 
province. 

Dr. Barrows states that for the purpose of ethnological classification 
all these peoples represent one group. He then discusses what he terms 
a very curious tribe of head-hunters known among the people of Nueva 
Vizcaya as Ihilao but sometimes designated as Ilongot. 

Habitat: Head waters of the Rio Grande de Cagayan in Isabela Province, 
Caraballo Sur Mountains, thence southeast through the mountainous portions of 
Nueva Eeija and Principe. 

This tribe he apparently does not regard as one of the "Igorot peoples." 
He next refers to the nomadic Malayan families living southward in 
the montainous country north of Eizal Province and occurring also in 
Ambos Camarines, Negros, and Panay. These people are designated by 
him a wild " type," and with other peoples are included under the designa- 
tion Bukidnon. If he gives the BuTcidnon tribal rank, as he apparently 
does, Dr. Barrow's classification stands as follows : 



Race. 


Tribe. 


Dialect groups. 


1. Negrito 


1. Negrito. 


Gaddang. 

Dadayag. 

Mayoyao. 

Kalinga. 

Banaos. 

Bunnayan, 

Silipan. 

Ganay. 

Tinguians. 

Kankanay. 

Nabiloi. 

Apayaos. 


2 Malay 


3. Ilongot. 

4. Bukidnon. 





798 

I am in entire accord with all that Dr. Barrows has said relative to the 
superabundance of tribal designations. In a number of instances, two 
or more have been given to the same tribe. The names Ibilaos and Ilon- 
gotes, for instance, are clearly two distinct designations for a single people. 
However, I am of the opinion that there is another and much more im- 
portant source of error. It is undoubtedly true that the ideas which 
existed among the Spaniards as to the meaning of the word "tribe" were 
rather vague. Throughout the Cordillera Central the rancheria or settle- 
ment is the social and political unit. In the head-hunting countries 
ranchenas of people of the same tribe were constantly at war with each 
other, and the blood feuds between them were handed down from genera- 
tion to generation. As a result, intercourse between these rancherias 
was more or less completely cut off for scores of years. It was unavoid- 
able that differences of dialect should develop under such circumstances. 

Further study of the peoples of northern Luzon has shown that 
such variations have appeared to a greater extent than Dr. Barrows had 
been led to believe. 

It was the usage of the Spaniards to designate as a tribe each group of 
people which had a dialect, more or less peculiar, of its own. Further- 
more, the custom which is widespread among the hill people of northern 
Luzon of shouting out the name of a settlement when they desire to call 
for one or more persons belonging to it, seems in many instances to have 
led the Spaniards to adopt settlement names as tribal ones, even when 
there were no differences of dialect between the peoples thus designated. 

In criticising Professor Blumentritt's classification, it must be remem- 
bered that he has never visited the Philippine Islands. He is a compiler, 
pure and simple, and when preparing his list of Philippine tribes has 
been compelled to follow, mpre or less blindly, the persons from whom 
he has derived his information. After nearly four centuries of Spanish 
occupation and rule, extensive areas in northern Luzon remained entirely 
unexplored at the time of the American occupation, and it has proved a 
simple matter to find, in the northern part of the Cordillera Central, 
extensive river valleys within which the face of a white man had never 
been seen prior to that date. The alleged facts as to the inhabitants of 
this region were necessarily hearsay when they reached the Spaniards, 
and second-hand hearsay when they reached Professor Blumentritt. 

At the time their list of Philippine tribes was prepared, the Jesuits 
had never occupied missions in northern Luzon, and no explorations had 
been made by the Americans in that part of the island, so that they were 
forced to digest, as best they could, the miscellaneous mass of information 
prepared for them by Blumentritt and other writers. 

Dr. Barrows had the benefit of personal acquaintance with many of 
the peoples concerning whom he wrote. 

In July, 1902, lie left Baguio, in the Province of Benguet, and traveled north 
by way of Tublay, Kapangan, Balakbak, Kibungan, and Palina. Crossing into 



799 

Amburayan he visited Bokong, Tubaoo, Bagu, Balbalit, Lameo, Biianis, Amilugan, 
Bais and Alileni, the capital of the subprovinoe. From Alilem he went to the 
coast and north to Candon, thence to Saloedo, and by way of Barakbak and 
Paltog to Tiagan ; thence to Angaki and Cervantes, returning to Baguio by way 
of Buguias and Daklan. 

On September 24 of the same year, Dr. Barrows, accompanied by Dr. Albert 
E. Jenks, again left Bagviio for the north. They proceeded to Ambuklao and the 
old comandancia of Kayapa, visiting Losod, Wagan, and Limus in the latter 
region. Thence they went to Dupax in Nueva Vizcaya, passing through the 
country of the few remaining uncivilized Isinays. From Dupax they traveled 
to the Ilongot rancheria of Baiyait, and thence to Quiangan by way of Bagabag. 
From Quiangan they proceeded to Lagani, Banao, and Libung, returning to 
Bagabag and crossing the mountains to Echague and Ilagan in Isabela. From 
the latter place they went by the Catalailgan River to San Mariano, visiting 
various Negrito and Kalinga rancherias. Returning to Ilagan, they traveled 
to Cabagan Nuevo and thence to Bulana, the old mission station of Itaves, pass- 
ing through the country of the Dadayags ; thence to Amiao, Nanung, and Minanga, 
all on the Rio Chico; thence to Kagaiwan, and over the divide to Ablug in the 
subprovince of Bontoc. From Ablug they went by way of Laguagan, Tokukan, 
and Butbut to Sakasakan; thence to the rancheria of Bontoc, returning to Baguio 
by way of Sagada, Cayan, Cervantes, Loo, Buguias, Adaoay, Kabayan, Daklan, 
and Ambuklao. 

On other occasions Dr. Barrows has also traveled extensively in south- 
ern Benguet and in Abra. 

He was necessarily impressed with the absurdity of applying the host 
of tribal names which had been assigned them to the peoples with whom 
he came in contact, and in preparing his "history" he very properly 
attempted to reduce the number in use. It does not appear, however, 
that he had clearly in mind a definition of the word "tribe," and we find 
him dividing the people into "tribes," "types," and "dialect groups," 
without informing us what he means by any of these terms. 

Apart from this confusion of terminology, any classification which 
unites such strikingly different peoples as the peaceable, industrious, and 
highly civilized Tingians of Abra, the long-haired, warlike, head-hunting 
Igorots of Bontoc, the short-haired, head-hunting peoples of Banaue, 
Silipan, and Mayoyao, and the fierce and wild Kalingas in one "ethno- 
logical group" seems to me fundamentally wrong. These peoples differ 
in many of their physical characteristics ; in the manner in which they 
group their habitations ; in their dress and manner of wearing their hair ; 
in their tattoo patterns; in their architecture and industries; in their 
music and dancing; in their religious ceremonies; in their methods of 
head-hunting and in the ceremonies which follow successful head-hunts, 
and in their customs relative to marriage and the burial of the dead. 
While I am far from denying that they may have had a common origin, 
or for that matter that their origin and that of the civilized tribes of 
northern Luzon may, in the remote past, have been a common one, I do 
maintpn that any ethnological classification which groups together such 
radically distinct peoples fails in the main object of such classification. 

In addition to the explorations made by Dr. Barrows and Dr. Jenks, 



800 

other extensive and important investigations have been carried on relative 
to the non-Christian tribes of northern Luzon. 

Dr. M. L. Miller, now Chief of the ethnological division of the Bureau of 
Education, on November 3, 1904, left San Fernando, in the Province of Union, 
and proceeded up the coast to Candon in South Ilokos. In the vicinity of 
Candon he visited twenty-two Tingian ranoherias. 

From this place he again proceeded along the coast northward to Badoc and 
Paoay, and near Badoc visited the Tingian settlement of Uguis. Returning to 
Vigan, he went up the Abra River to Bangued, and thence to Pilar by way of 
Catebongan, visiting the Negrito settlement near the latter place. From Pilar 
he passed through the settlements of San Jos6, San Guillermo, Tui, and Balbalasan 
to Guinaan. From Guinaan he proceeded to Baguio by way of Labuagan, Ting- 
layan, Bontoc, Cervantes, Mancayan, Loo, Bugias, Daklan, and Ambuldao. 

On January 31, 1906, he went to Capas, in the Province of Tarlac, and thence 
to O'Donnell and Iba in Zambales. Between Iba and Santa Fe he visited five 
Negrito settlements, and afterwards Aglao, an Ilokano settlement. He then crossed 
over the mountains through Negrito territory to Florida Blanea. In February 
of the same year he traveled to Tarlac and visited a Negrito settlement near 
Mangatarem. 

In April, 1906, he went to San Isidro and Cabanatuan, in Nueva Ecija, and 
thence to Baler on the Pacific coast, passing through the country of the Ilongots 
and Igorots. 

Capt. Charles E. Nathorst, of the Philippines Constabulary^ lived for 
some time among the Igorots in southern Lepanto and, since his ap- 
pointment as a Constabulary officer, has traveled very extensively in the 
mountain country of northern Luzon. 

He has visited the Bontoc Igorot rancherias of Amboan, Barlig, Lias, and 
Balangao in southern and eastern Bontoe, bordering on Nueva Vizcaya; the 
Kalinga rancherias of Lubo, Mangali, Taloctoc, Tanglac, Liclic, Balantey, Bolo, 
Salecsec, Calogney, Damijon, Dalugen, Book, Patiquian, Linas, and Baneng, which 
are in eastern, northeastern, and northern Bontoc, bordering on Cagayan, and also 
the rancherias of Sesecan, Talalan, Balbalasan, Pasqual, and Innanungan, iii 
northern and northwestern Bontoc. These rancherias have a mixed population, 
composed largely of Tingians who have intermarried to some extent with Bontoo 
Igorots, and Kalingas. 

Captain Nathorst has been informed that south of Lubo is a Kalinga ranche- 
ria called Gaan, and south of Gaan an Ifugao one called Dakalan, on the border 
of Isabela. 

Capt. Samuel D. Crawford, who accompanied me from Laoag in North 
Ilokos to Ablug in Cagayan in 1906, has also made numerous expeditions 
of his own through the mountains of northern Luzon. 

Lieut. L. E. Case, of the Philippines Constabulary, was stationed at 
Banaue in Nueva Vizcaya from January, 1903, to July, 190G, and visited 
nearly every rancheria in the northwestern part of that province. 

My own more important trips through northern Luzon have been as 
follows : 

In 1900: Manila to Baguio, Benguet, and return by way of San Fernando. 
In 1901: Manila to Pozorubio, in Pangasinan; thence to various settlements of 
"new Christians," who proved to be Tingians, in the foothills of the Benguet 



801 

mountains in the vicinity of Pozorubio and Rosario; thence to Baguio, Benguet, 
by way of the coast route in Union, and the Naguilian trail; thence north by 
way of tlie Igorot settlements of Ambuklno, Daklan, Kabayan, Buguias, Adaoay, 
Loo, Suyok, and Mancayan to Cervantes; thence to the coast and Manila, passing 
through the Igorot settlements of Angaki and Concepcion en route. 

In 1903: Manila to Bangued, the capital of Abra, from which point numerous 
Tingian settlements were visited; thence to Cervantes in Lepanto, by way of 
the Tingian settlements of Tiagan and Angaki; thence to Bontoc by way of the 
Lepanto Igorot settlements of Kayan and Bagnan, and the Bontoc Igorot settle- 
ment of Sagada; thence to the Bontoc Igorot settlement of Mayinit and return; 
thence to the Bontoc Igorot settlements of Talubin and Amboan; thence through 
the mountain range to the Ifugao settlement of Banaue, in Nueva Vizcaya, return- 
ing to Bontoc; and thence by another route through the Bontoc and Lepanto 
Igorot settlements to Kayan; thence by the route previously traveled to Cervantes, 
and through Benguet to Baguio and Manila. 

In 1905: From Manila to Bangued in Abra; thence to the Tingian settlements 
of Manobo, San Andres, and Tui ; thence over the Cordillera Central to Balbalasan, 
and down the valley of the Saltan River through Sesecan and Patiquian to 
Saleesec; thence north, through the Kalinga settlements of Gannaan and Ubel; 
thence over- a spur of the Cordillera Central to Mabaca, Umbali, Bunuan, and 
Balanga, and down the hitherto unknown Mabaca River by way of Lapoo, 
Kalaling, Madadnao, Kalaoang, Bagnang, Bontoc (a small Kalinga ramcJieria, 
not the capital of the subprovince of the same name), Took-Took, Manongnong, 
Asiga, Uaged, Malagnat, Ammasian, and Pinakpook (Pinecpec) ; thenee to Tuao 
and Tuguegarao, in Cagayan, and up the Rio Grande to the Ilongot settlement 
of Dumabato in southern Isabela; thenee by way of Echague and Carig to 
Bayombong, the capital of Nueva Vizcaya, north through the Quiangan and 
Banaue settlements and over the Polis range, to Bontoc, returning by the usual 
route to Baguio and Manila. 

In 1906: From Manila overland to'Laoag, in Ilokos Norte; thence to Piddig, 
and thence by river bed and trail over the Cordillera Central to Dallaoas, in 
Apayao; thenee down the Ablug River, through the rancherias of Dallaoas, 
Cabugaoan, Lapoc, Abbil, Naguilian, Nagtuyangan, Dibagat, Paloeago, Dipadi, 
Nacagman, Madatag, Tamogac, Cabotot, Pili, Masimut, Locab, Nagbabalayan, 
Nagsimbangan, Cabugaoan (there are two rancherias of this name on the Ablug 
River), Atanani, Magapta, Bolo, Uaga, Puncian, Guenned, Bubulayan, Burayangan, 
• Tauit, and Maculaling, to Ablug; thence to Aparri, and by way of the Rio Grande 
to Ilagan and Gamu, in Isabela Province; thenee to the Kalinga rancheria of Sili 
and the Ifugao rancherias of Mayoyao, Ayangan, and Banaue; thence to Bontoc, 
Baguio, and Manila by the usual trail. 

* Governor Bias Villamor, who accompanied me on my 1905 and 1906 
trips, has visited practically every settlement of non-Christians in his 
province and has made the direct journey overland from Ilagan and Santa 
Maria in Isabela Province, to Bangued, in Abra, stopping en route at 
many Kalinga and Ifugao rancherias. 

Capt. Henry Knauber, of the Philippines Constabulary, has made 
numerous trips northward and westward from Malaueg, in the Province 
of Cagayan, has thoroughly explored the Kalinga country between Ma- 
laueg and Nagsimbangan on the Ablug Eiver, and has ascended the river 
for some distance above the latter point. 

It should further be remembered that there are organized and effective 



802 

governments in Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, and in the subprovinces of 
Ambnrayan, Lepanto and Bontoc, which collectively form the Province 
of Lepanto-Bontoc. Governor Pack, of Benguet, and Lieutenant- 
Governor Hale, of Amburayan, have repeatedly visited every settlement 
under their jurisdiction. Governors Dinwiddle and Eeed have done the 
same in Lepanto, as have Lieutenant-Governors Folkmar and Eckman 
in Bontoc. In Nueva Vizcaya there remains practically no unexplored 
territory, thanks to the efforts of Governors Johnson, Bennett, and 
Knight, and of Lieutenant Case. 

While the census enumeration of 1903 was in progress, a special effort 
was made to ascertain the truth about the non-Christian tribes of the 
Philippines, and much valuable information was obtained relative to 
those of northern Luzon. 

It is not too much to say that hardly a ranch eria now remains in the 
Cordillera Central and its foothills, except in the district of Apayaos, 
which has not been visited by Americans, while even in the latter district 
twenty-nine of the more important rancherias have been visited. As a 
result of these recent explorations, a large amount of reliable information 
has been gathered, and it is upon this information and upon personal 
observations that the conclusions hereinafter set forth are based. 

Doubtless much of the present confusion as to the tribes of northern 
Luzon is due to the fact that those who have written concerning them 
have used the word "tribe" with very different meanings. I will, at the 
outset, endeavor to make plain the sense in which I employ it. 

The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia describes "tribe" as follows : 

Tribe: (1) In Roman history, one of the three patrician orders, or original 
political divisions of the people of ancient Rome, the Ramnes, Titles, and Luceres, 
representing respectively, according to tradition, the separate Latin, Sabine, and 
Etruscan settlements, having at their union equal representation in the senate 
and retaining their distinctive names for several centuries. Hence, (2) any one 
of the similar divisions of a race or nation common in antiquity, whether of 
natural or of political origin : as the tribes of Athens. { Ethnical tribes among the 
ancients regarded themselves as enlarged families, and generally bore the name of 
some real or supposed common progenitor. Such were the twelve tribes of the 
Israelites, the tribes of the Dorians and other Greek races, etc.) (3) Specific- 
ally, a division of a barbarous race of people, usually distinguishable in som'fe 
way from their congeners, united into a community under a recognized head or 
chief, ruling either independently or suhordinately. In general, the tribe, as it 
still exists among the American Indians and many African and Asiatic races, 
is the earliest form of political organization, nations being ultimately constituted 
by their gradual amalgamation and loss of identity in the progress of civilization. 
The characteristic of all these races (Uralian), when in the tribal state, is that 
the tribes themselves, and all subdivisions of them, are conceived by the men 
who compose them as descended from a single male ancestor. In some cases the 
tribe can hardly be otherwise described than as a group of persons taken col- 
lectively; any aggregate of individuals of a kind, either as a united body or as 
distinguished by some common characteristic or occupation. 



803 

Webster's International Dictionary gives the following definition of 
the word "tribe :" 

Tribe: (1) A family, race, or series of generations descending from the same- 
progenitor, and kept distinct, as in the case of the twelve tribes of Israel, de- 
scended from the twelve sons of Jacob. (2) A number of species or genera having 
certain structural characteristics in common. (3) A nation of savages or un- 
civilized people; a body of rude people united under one leader or government, 
as the tribes of the Six Nations; the Seneca tribe. (4) A division, class, or 
distinct portion of a people from whatever cause that distinction may have 
originated; as, the city of Athens was divided into ten tribes. (5) A family of 
animals descended from some particular female progenitor; as, the Duchess tribe 
of shorthorns. 

Under the fourth alternative definition given in the Century Dictionary 
any one of the several classifications which have been adopted for the wild 
tribes of northern Luzon could be justified. On the other hand, were we 
to adopt any definition which includes as an essential feature the existence 
of a head or chief warrior of the tribe as a whole, we should be forced 
to the conclusion that there is no such thing as a tribe in the Philippines 
outside the territory occupied by the Moros. 

I use the word in the following sense : 

A division of a race composed of an aggregate of individuals of a hind 
and of a common origin, agreeing among themselves in, and distinguished 
from their congeners iy physical characteristics, dress, and ornaments; 
the nature of the communities which they form; peculiarities of house 
architecture; methods of hunting, fishing and carrying on agriculture; 
character and importance of manufactures; practices relative to war and 
the taking of heads of enemies; arms used in warfare; music and dancing, 
and marriage and burial customs; hut not constituting a political unit 
subject to the control of any single individual nor necessarily speaking 
the same dialect. 

Where different dialects prevail among the members of a single tribe 
it should be subdivided into dialect groups. The differences in language 
between the people of difl'erent dialect groups of a tribe are of course far 
less radical than are those between the people of different tribes. . 

Eeturning now to a consideration of the list of tribes published by 
Blumentritt and by the Jesuits, I will endeavor by a concrete example 
to show the absurdity of the conclusions to which one is led who follows 
their classification. 

Blumentritt assigns the following fifteen tribes to Nueva Vizcaya: 

Alimut, AUasanes, Bungananes, Ibilaos, Ifugaos, Ifumangies, Ilamut, 
Ileabanes, Ilongotes, Isinays, Italones, Mayoyaos, Panuipuyes, Quian- 
ganes, and Silipanes. 

The Jesuits add the Igorots and the Irayas. 

Nueva Vizcaya has been so thoroughly explored that no unknown tribe 
can possibly exist there, and these explorations have shown conclusively 



804 

that there are but three non-Christian peoples in the province, viz : the 
Ilongots, the Ifugaos, and the Isinays. Of the remaining tribal designa- 
tions employed by Blumentritt, Ibilaos and Italones are synonyms of 
Ilongots; Alimut and Ilamut are synonyms; and the Bungananes or 
Bunnayanes, Mayoyaos, Quianganes, and Silipanes are all Ifugaos to 
whom the names of their rancherias (or in the case of the Alimut, the 
name of their river valley) have been applied as tribal designations. 

The AUasanes, Ifumangies, lUabanes, and Panuipuyes do not exist. 
In all probability these latter names were taken from those of rancherias 
which have long since disappeared. While some of the larger rancherias 
in northern Luzon are very old, others are of recent origin and the names 
and locations of these settlements are constantly changing. 

When descending the Saltan Eiver valley in 1905 I was greatly puzzled 
by my failure to find numerous rancherias shown on the Spanish map 
which I was using. As the Spaniards had a garrison at Balbalasan, it 
seemed that they should certainly have mapped correctly the rancherias 
on the upper Saltan Eiver. I inquired concerning the ones which seemed 
to be missing and learned that the people of one had been decimated by 
smallpox and the survivors had burned the houses and filed; those of 
another had practically been exterminated by their enemies; those of a 
third had moved in search of more extensive agricultural lands, and so on. 
Meanwhile several new rancherias had sprung up. Therefore, it will 
readily be understood how it is that in many instances no peoples can at 
present be found answering to names which a few years ago were con- 
sidered to be tribal designations. 

To the lists of tribal names employed by Blumentritt and the Jesuits 
which may be excluded from further consideration because no people can 
at present be found who apply these names to themselves must be added 
the Addang, Adangtas, Aripas, Bayobanan, Bujuanos, Gamungan, Iteta- 
panes, Jumangi, Nahayuganes, and Pungianes. 

As already stated, the term "Buries" of the Jesuit list is not a tribal 
designation at all, while the separation of the Negritos into Abunlon, 
Aetas, Adaugtas, Attas, Balugas, Buquiles, and Dumagas is hardly jus- 
tified. It is true that the groups of Negritos to which these names have 
been applied differ more or less, these differences depending on the extent 
to which they have intermarried with neighboring peoples; and since 
they have always adopted the languages of their civilized neighbors they 
often speak difl;erent dialects as well ; but they have all attained to sub- 
stantially the same degree of civilization, or perhaps better, they all 
continue to lack civilization to substantially the same degree and can not 
be considered as belonging to different tribes when the word " tribe " is 
employed in the sense in wliicli I use it in this article. 

I will not here further criticize the lists of Blumentritt and the Jesuits 



805 

biit will state that in my opinion the following tribes should be recognized 
in northern Luzon : 

I The Neghitos. II The Ilongots (Ibilaos). Ill The Ka- 
LiNGAS. IV The Ifugaos. V The Bontoo Igoeots. VI The 
LErANTO-BENGUET Iqoeots. VII The Tingians. 

A word as to terminology. Dr'. Barrows and Dr. Jenks in writing the 
names of Philippine tribes have ordinarily used the same form for both 
singular and plural, although Da.-. Barrows at least has been very incon- 
sistent in this matter. This usage has been allowed under protest in. 
printing his contributions to the Census Eeports.* There is some excuse 
for it when the name of a tribe is of Malay origin, but it becomes absurd 
when applied to names derived from the Spanish, as, for instance, Ne- 
grito. When one is writing English rather than Malay it seems to me 
well to form plurals in the usual way by adding "s" or "es" to the sin- 
gular, and I have followed that usage in this article. 

I will now endeavor to describe briefly the several tribes above listed, 
giving under each — 

1. The synonyms of its name as well as the names of peoples which now 
exist or are supposed to have existed and have been given separate tribal 
ranlc, and in my opinion are not entitled to such rank, but should be 
classed as belonging to the tribe under discussion. 

2. Its habitat so far as it is at present known. 

3. A brief description of the physical characteristics of its members; 
of their dress and ornaments, including ornamentation of the skin by scar- 
ring or tattooing; of their buildings and settlements; of their hunting, 
fishing, agriculture and manufactures; of their methods of warfare and 
head-hunting; of their arms; of their music and dancing; of their 
marriage customs, and of their customs relative to the biirial of the dead. 

I shall not discuss ' folklore, or religious beliefs, or other ceremonials 
except in so far as they are directly related to the subjects above 
mentioned. 

Tribe I. THE NEGRITOS. 

SYNONYMY. 

ABUNLON- Name applied to the Negritos of Zambales, especially when of 
mixed blood. 

ABURLIN. Name applied to the 'Negritos of Moriones, Tarlao. 

ADANG. Name of ii Negrito people which' formerly inhabited Mt. Adang in 
North Ilokos at the extreme northern end of the Cordillera Central. No such 
people now exists. 

ADANES. BjnoJiyra ot Adang. 

ADANGINOS. Synonym of Adang. 

ADANGTA8. Synonym of Adang. 

ADAUGTAS. Synonym of Adang. 

* Census of the Philippine Islands of 1903 (1905), 1, 453. 



806 

A ETAS. The common name for Negritos. It has been applied more especially 
to those of Cagayan, Ipabela, Pampanga, Bulacan, and Bataan. 

AGTAS. Name applied to the Negritos of Isabela. 

AH ETAS. Synonym of Aeias. 

AITAS. Synonym of Aetas. 

ATTAS. Name applied to the Negritos of Cagayan. 

BALUGAS. Name applied to the Negritos of Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Zam- 
bales, Ilocos Sur, and Tarlac; especially to those of mixed blood. 

BUQUILES. Name applied to the Negritos of Zambales. 

DUMAGAT. Name applied to those of the Pacific coast of northern Luzon. 

DUMAGAS. Synonym of Dumagat. 

DUMANGAS. Synonym of Dumagat. 

ETA- Synonym of Aetas. 

IT AS. Synonym of Aetas. 

PARAMES. Name applied to the Negrito inhabitants of a rancheria in the 
municipality of Baggao, Cagayan. 

HABITAT. 

The Negritos are still numerous in the mountains of Bataan and Zambales 
and in the eastern mountain chain of northern Luzon extending from Cape 
Engano to Baler. They are found in limited numbers in the mountains of Rizal, 
Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Pangasinan, and Ilokos Norte. A few still remain 
in Nueva Ecija and Abra. - 

There is a considerable area between the E,io Grande de Cagayan and the Ablug 
River in the Province of Cagayan which is populated almost exclusively by 
Negritos. They are also to be found in the former comandancias of Infanta and 
Principe, which now constitute part of the Province of Tayabas. 

DESCEIPTION. 

The Negritos, generally believed to have been the aborigines of the 
Philippines Islands, are racially distinct from the other tribes. 

It is possible that when they have been more carefully studied we shall 
find it is necessary to subdivide them into several tribes. At present, 
next to nothing is known of those inhabiting the great eastern Cordillera 
of northern Luzon, from the latitude of Baler to Cape Engano. How- 
ever, the inhabitants of the remaining . iV^eg'j-iio settlements in northern 
Luzon a,re quite well Imown and are in every way so similar to each other 
that there seems to be no sufficient reason for making any attempt to 
subdivide them. 

The Negritos, as is well known, are as a rule of dwarfish stature, but 
contrary to the usual belief, m^any of them are well formed. 

Among 77 Zambales Negritos selected at random and measured by Mr, Reed, 
the tallest man measured 5 feet 2 inches, and the tallest woman 4 feet 11 inches. 
The average height of 48 men was 4 feet 9 inches; that of 29 women was 4 feet 
6 inches. The shortest man measured was 4 feet 2 inches high, and the shortest 
woman 4 feet. 

The photographs of an adult man and woman standing beside me 
which are reproduced in Plate I, figs. 1 and 2, give a good idea of relative 



807 

size. The types shown are full-blooded Negritos of Bataan. Unfortu- 
nately, many of the persons measured by Mr. Eeed were of mixed descent 
and some were even half-breeds. 

The Negritos are of a dark, sooty-brown color and have woolly hair, 
which is usually black but may be reddish-brown. The men often have 
abundant beards and a thick growth of hair on the arms, chest, and legs. 
(PL IV, figs. 1 and 2.) They have broad and flattened noses, thick lips, 
long arms, and in many instances prominent abdomens. They make no 
attempt to dress their woolly hair, which stands out from their heads and 
is allowed to grow until it gets long enough to be troublesome, when it is 
chopped off with a bolo, or cut with scissors if they are fortunate enough 
to possess any. (PI. -II, fig. 1.) Some of the Bataan Negritos shave a 
round spot on the crown of the head during the hot months of the year. 
(PL IX, fig. 1.) This, they say, is to let the heat out! Those of 
Zambales occasionally shave the entire back of the head up to a line 
extending from one ear to the other, over the top of the cranium. 
(PL XIV, fig. 3.) 

The custom of pointing the front teeth is widespread among the 
representatives of this tribe. The operation is performed not with a 
file, as is commonly supposed, but in the following manner: A chip of 
wood is placed back of the tooth to be operated on, the point of a bolo 
is pressed firmly against the front surface of the tooth and the bolo is 
struck a sharp blow with a stick or stone,' so that a corner of the tooth 
is chipped off. This operation is repeated on the other side and an 
artistic point is thus produced. (PL XXI, fig. 4.) 

The N^egritos do not tattoo themselves, but do ornament themselves 
with scar-patterns, produced by making cuts through the skin with slivers 
of bamboo. (PL XXIII, fig. 1.) Into these cuts, which are arranged 
with more or less geometric symmetry, dirt is rubbed to cause them to 
become infected and to produce large- scars. The men may have scar- 
patterns on their chests, backs, and arms ; the women on their chests. , 
backs, arms, the calves of their legs, fronts of their thighs (PL XXV, 
fig. 1), and sometimes also on their breasts and abdomens. 

The normal dress of the Negrito men and boys is a clout of bark or 
cloth (PL I, fig. 1 ; PL II, fig. 1) ; that of the women is a short skirt of 
bark or cloth, reaching from the waist to the knees (PL I, fig. 1; 
PL XII, fig. 1). However, as many of the groups of Negritos fre- 
quently come in contact with civilized natives, they often acquire from the 
latter articles of civilized dress of which they are very proud. Many of 
the women habitually wear camisas or upper garments, which the ones 
who are unmarried are very reluctant to remove. 

Their ornaments are varied and characteristic. The most peculiar 
ones are bamboo combs, which the women wear thrust into their back 
hair; these are decorated with scratch-work patterns, which are black- 
ened by rubbing grease and soot into them. In many instances they are 

46941 2 



808 

provided with depending plumes of horsehair, to which bright-scarlet, 
yellow and white feathers are fastened with bits of beeswax ; these plumes 
are attached to the concave, or inner, surfaces of the combs by means of 
the same material. (PI. XXV, fig. 4.) A highly characteristic Negrito 
ornament consists of circlets of boars' bristles, worn by the men about 
the calves of the legs. (Ph X, fig. 1.) 

Their other ornaments are earrings, bits of copper wire, buttons, beads, 
pieces of looking glass, and similar things. Many have no ornaments of 
any sort. Like most of the other non-Christian peoples in northern 
Luzon, they are especially fond of bright-scarlet cloth. 

They often employ "medicines," consisting of leaves or herbs which are 
pasted on their temples or thrust through the holes in their ears, and of 
tubers or seeds which are strung on bits of creeper or rattan and hung 
about their necks. (PL XXIII, fig. 1.) These remedies are supposed 
to be of value in curing colds, headaches and fevers. 

They have practically no manufactures of their own. On occasion 
they roll leaf tobacco into rude cigars for their personal use. They 
fashion their bows and wooden-headed arrows and lances with bolos 
obtained from the Christian natives. The arrow and lance-heads of iron 
and steel which they sometimes possess are all obtained by purchase or 
trade. They make no cloth or pottery and, so far as my observation goes, 
do not even know how to make any fermented drink, although they are 
at no loss to know the use to which such drink is commonly put and 
when supplied with it by others promptly get intoxicated. 

Most of the Negritos, while somewhat inclined to be mischievous and 
thievish, are timid and peaceful. They have feuds among themselves, 
but seldom make war on neighboring tribes. However, the people of 
some of the settlements in the eastern cordillera of northern Luzon have 
the reputation of being quite fierce and warlike. The bow and poisoned 
arrow are the principal weapons used in war. (PI. X, fig. 1.) . The 
Negritos are afraid of strangers and sometimes take "pot shots" from 
ambush at persons who invade their territory without giving due warning 
of their approach. Head-hunting is unknown among them. 

Normally the Negritos are nomadic in their habits, and as a natural 
result they do not build houses worthy of the name. Their dwellings 
are mere huts with roofs of leaves or grass, under which there may or 
may not be sleeping platforms of poles. (PI. XXIX, fig. 2.) Such 
huts can be constructed in a few moments and are of course abandoned 
without regret. They are usually scattered here and there through the 
forest, although occasionally a group of one or two dozen will be found 
together. Governor Bias Villamor informs me that the largest settle- 
ments of northeastern Luzon number forty to fifty families. 

The Negritos subsist chiefly on game, fish, wild honey, and forest 
products. In fishing thoy sometimes use small traps and sometimes bows 
and arrows. I have found those of southern Isabela very skillful in 



809 

the use of circular casting-nets, which they occasionally obtain from their 
civilized neighbors. In hunting they employ dogs, and often, also, nets 
into which deer and wild hogs are driven in order that they may be 
lanced while entangled. They are very skillful in the use of the bow and 
arrow and in their hunting employ poisoned arrows which bring large 
game down very quickly, without rendering the flesh unfit for eating. 
Snakes, lizards, frogs, and certain insects and insect larvffi are prized by 
them as articles of food. 

Most of the Negritos do not practice agriculture at all. A few of the 
individuals who have come in contact with the civilized natives, plant 
camotes (yams) and squashes, and a still smaller number a limited 
amount of mountain rice. Little or no cultivation is given to the crops 
when planted, and it often happens that by harvest time their owners 
have wandered off through the mountains to some point many miles 
distant, thus losing the fruits of their labor. 

In very rare instances small groups of Negritos settle in some par- 
ticular locality and actually cultivate fields. In such cases they usually 
build houses which, while but feeble imitations of those of their civilized 
neighbors, are a distinct improvement over their ordinary huts. 

Dogs and chickens are their only domestic animals, and they have 
few of the latter. 

They are very found of music, although their instruments are of a 
primitive sort. They make "jew's-harps" and flutes from bamboo, but 
their principal musical instrument is the copper timbrel imported from 
China and known throughout northern Luzon as the gansa. (PI. LII, 
fig. 4.) Bamboo violins and rude guitars are sometimes seen among 
them, but dance music is almost always furnished by gansas alone. I 
have seen men dancing on their knees and playing gansas at the same 
time. (PI. LII, fig. 4.) The most characteristic Negrito dance is 
the so-called circle dance, in which men, women, and boys group them- 
selves about one or two of the older inhabitants of the settlement; each 
person hooks two or three fingers into the clout or waistband of the skirt 
of the individual in front of him and the whole company then begins 
slowly to move in a circle with much stamping of feet and some shouting 
and singing, the latter being usually performed with the mouth covered 
by the hand. This circle dance, which is indulged in at funeral and 
wedding feasts and on other important occasions, is often kept up until a 
dusty path has been worn through the sod. (PI. LII, figs. 1 and 3.) 

Various obscene dances of the Negritos have been described by travelers. 
Many of these tales are obviously untrue, as are all stories to the effect 
that these people go wandering through the forest in a state of absolute 
nudity; but Dr. Thos. E. Marshall, formerly Chief Health Inspector of 
the Philippine Islands, has described to me in detail an obscene dance 
participated in by one woman and two men which he witnessed at night 
in the mountains of Zambales. His word is above suspicion. I have 



810 

neither seen nor heard of similar dances among any of the other northern 
Luzon tribes. 

Mr. Eeed describes the following special dances which he observed 

among the Negritos of Zambales : 

The camote dance, in which the performer, after some preliminary 
fancy steps, goes through the motions of finding a camote patch, digging 
the tubers, putting them in a sack, and shouldering it, all the time keep- 
ing watch for the owner in order that he may not be caught stealing. He 
then cuts his way through the fence which surrounds the patch, attempts 
to ford a river, gets into deep water, and loses his burden. The feet are 
kept in rapid motion throughout this pantomime and the body is bent 
forward in a crouching position, so that great physical exertion is involved. 

In the bee dance, the performer finds a nest of bees, which is conven- 
tionally represented by a piece of cloth tied to a pole. He then goes 
through the motions of making a smudge, climbing the tree, and holding 
the smudge under the nest. He is stung, retreats, makes other attempts 
and finally succeeds in smoking out the bees and securing the honey, 
whereupon he holds a feast. 

In the torture dance, a person who represents the captive is bound to 
a stake and the participants first execute a circle dance, with its usual 
vocal accompaniments, around him. The movement soon becomes very 
rapid, until the performers are leaping around in an apparent state of 
great excitement. Finally, when worked up to a proper point they draw 
their bolos, rush at the victim, and go through the motions of chopping 
him to pieces. 

In the lovers' dance, a man and a woman take part. The woman keeps 
her feet moving in time to the music but remains in one place. The man 
dances about her with various extravagant gestures, and the performance 
is continued until both are tired out. 

In the duel dance two men, armed with bows and arrows, have an 
imaginary encounter. One of them ultimately succeeds in placing a 
fatal shot, his opponent falls to the ground, the victor dances up to the 
body and goes through the motions of cutting off the head with a bolo. 
He then calls for the relatives of the dead man to come and avenge the 
deed, but as no one appears he buries the head and body. Mr. Eeed 
states that this dance lasts some fifteen minutes and that during this 
time the man, who by previous arrangement was to be the victor, never 
for a single instant pauses or loses step. 

In practice the Negritos are ordinarily monogamous, but polygamy is 
allowed and is not infrequently indulged in, inability to support more 
than one wife being apparently the usual reason for not having a larger 
number. 

Among the Negritos of Zambales and Bataan, when a young man has 
found a girl whom he wishes to marry, he informs his parents, where- 
upon the family discuss her value, and after an agreement has been 



811 

reached on this point the suitor or some one of his relatives goes to her 
parents to ask if the suit will be favorably considered. If an affirmative 
answer is received they return and a little later take presents to the father 
of the prospective bride. If he is satisfied, he gives his consent. If 
not, more presents must be forthcoming. Betrothals are made by 
parents for children of very tender years, but actual marriage does not 
take place until about the age of puberty. 

The marriage ceremony varies in Zambales from practically none at I 
all in the Pinatubo region to a rather complicated affair in the vicinity 
of Olongapo. In some cases, as soon as payment has been made for the ' 
bride, a dance follows, after which the young couple go to their own hut. 
In other rancherias there is a ceremony during which food is exchanged. 
A mat is placed on the ground and on it is set a dish of cooked rice. 
The bride and bridegroom seat themselves, facing each other, with the 
dish between them. The man places food in the mouth of the woman and 
she reciprocates, whereupon the crowd set up a shout and the ceremony is 
held to be terminated. Sometimes the girl runs away and her husband 
pursues her, calling to her to stop, and she ultimately does so. 

I once witnessed a marriage ceremony among the Negritos inhabiting 
Mount Mariveles, in Bataan Province. The bride and her friends hid 
in the forest. The bridegroom and his friends searched until they found 
them. The bridegroom then attempted to persuade the bride to go to 
the place where the ceremony was to be concluded, beating a gansa, 
dancing in front of her, and constantly retiring in the desired direction. 
The bride had a piece of cloth which she kept drawn over her head and 
face and she moved along the ground a few yards at a time in a squatting 
position. When the sweet music discoursed by the bridegroom failed to 
accelerate her progress sufficiently, he or his friends placed gifts a short 
distance in front of her. Ultimately she came out into a clearing in 
which a platform had been erected some 13 feet above the ground. An 
inclined plane of poles led up to this platform. The relatives of the 
bride gathered about her, armed with long rattans. The bridegroom 
made a rush for her, getting soundly whacked in the process. He seized 
her in his arms, and carried her up to the top of the platform, where both 
of them sat down with their arms interlocked. Some of their friends 
and relatives also mounted the platform. Others placed gifts at the 
bottom of the inclined plane to persuade the couple to come down. Ulti- 
mately they descended and squatted in front of an old man and an old 
woman who had been detailed to give them "good advice." 

Mr. Eeed states that divorce is not common among the Negritos of 
Zambales and that there seems to be a prejudice against it. My observa- 
tion is that it is quite common among the Negritos of Bata^. It is 
effected by mutual consent between the two persons interested, if their 
respective families agree to the arrangement. Where there has been no 



812 

fault on the part of either person the property is divided equally, but the 
mother takes the children. 

If a woman deserts her husband for some other man whom she prefers, 
the new husband must pay a fine, and if he can not be compelled to do so 
the family of the woman must pay back to the husband what he gave 
for her. If the new husband is caught, and is unwilling or unable to 
pay the fine imposed, he may be put to death. 

The dead of the Bataan Negritos are buried in the ground at some dis- 
tance from the houses, after more or less elaborate ceremonies. The 
graves are often fenced in to keep wild hogs away. The relatives of the 
deceased watch the graves for some time and hold occasional feasts near 
them. 

The Zambales Negritos also bury their dead in the ground, wrapping 
them in mats and placing them in graves 3 or 4 feet deep. 

Unfortunately, there is little reason to believe that the Negritos can 
ever be civilized. Attempts in this direction heretofore made in the cases 
of individuals have usually ended in lamentable failure. Even children 
who have been taken very young and brought up in christian families 
have shown a strong tendency to return to a wild life. 

Negritos have in many places been greatly imposed upon by the chris- 
tian natives, and in not a few cases their children have been stolen from 
them by the latter, nominally so that they might be christianized but 
really in order that they might be brought up as slaves. Their parents 
have revenged themselves on their civilized neighbors by raiding crops 
and killing or running ofE cattle. 

Under strong provocation they are entirely capable of doing murder, 
but murderous attacks are usually the result of gross mistreatment. 

For the present, at any rate, all that can be done for these little blacks 
is to protect them from their civilized neighbors and persuade them to 
refrain from making trouble when they are not themselves molested. 

They are a fast disappearing people, but their numbers do not seem to 
be diminishing as rapidly in northern Luzon as in other parts of the 
Archipelago. The total number of Negritos in the Islands is commonly 
estimated at 25,000, but while the whole northeastern coast line and the 
Pacific Cordillera of northern Luzon remain unexplored, and while we 
do not even know whether true Negritos exist in the interior of Mindoro 
such an estimate is at the best but a mere guess. 

Tribe II. THE ILONGOTS. 

SYNONOMY. 

IBILAOS. Name applied to the Ilmgots by the Isinay people of southern 
Nueva Vizcaya. 

ILUNGUT. Synonym of Ilmgots. Name applied by the Ilongots of Tayabas 
to themselves. 

ITALONES. The Oaddan name for tlie Ilongots. 

LINGOTES. Synonym of /lorajo/s. 



813 

HABITAT. 

Southeastern and southern Isabela, especially along the head waters of the Rio 
Grande de Cagayan; eastern Nueva Vizcaya; mountains along border between 
Nueva Ecija and the old comandancia of Principe, now a part of the Province of 
Tayabas; also the old comandancia of Infanta, now a part of the same province. 
There are a few, small, isolated rancherias near Dupax, in Nueva Vizcaya. 

DESCEIPTION. 

The Ilongots are of Malay origin, showing, however, abundant indica- 
tions of a considerable infusion of Negrito blood. In southern Isabela, 
where they are in close contact with the Negritos, they still intermarry 
freely with the people of the latter tribe. As a result, many of them 
are dark-skinned, curly haired, abundantly bearded and of low stature. 
(PI. IV, fig. 3.) Some of them, however, seem to be nearly pure 
Malays, and an occasional individual may be met with who has quite 
sharp and regular features. (PI. IV, fig. 4.) . The hair, which the 
men as well as the women allow to grow long, is confined in a knot at 
the back of the head, around which strips of bark or cloth are sometimes 
wrapped. Many of the men wear over the hair and just above the 
forehead in front, a net which, while keeping the hair out of their eyes, 
also serves as an ornament. (PI. IX, fig. 2.) No other Philippine 
tribe uses a hair-net of this sort. 

The dress of the men consists of the usual clout and that of the women 
of a skirt reaching from the waist to the knees. (PI. II, fig. 2 .; PI. XII, 
fig. 2.) These garments are sometimes, though rarely, supplemented by 
shirts in the case of the men and by camisas with' the women, but the 
latter articles, even if possessed, are worn only on state occasions. 

The ornaments of the Ilongots are peculiar to, and highly characteris- 
tic of, this tribe. I have referred to the curious hair-nets worn by the 
men. Another common and peculiar ornament is a girdle mad^ of small 
cowries strung on bits of cloth or twine. The women and sometimes ^Iso 
the men wear girdles of this type about the waist, or extending over one 
shoulder and under the opposite arm. (PL XX, fig. 1; PI. II, fig. 2.) 
As the Ilongots are essentially an inland tribe, extending to the coast 
only in Principe and Infanta, it is remarkable that these shell girdles 
should be so generally distributed. They are highly prized, and must 
be secured with difiBculty. Another very characteristic ornament consists 
of a round and concave piece of mother-of-pearl on which black scratch- 
patterns have been made. (PI. XXV, fig. 5, a and h.) This is attached 
by means of a bit of wire to the ear, usually to the cartilage of its upper 
border. (PI. VII, fig. 3.) 

Still another highly characteristic ornament is an hour-glass shaped 
affair made of copper wire, coiled spirally. It is worn by the women, 
usually on the left arm but occasionally on the right, and extends from 
the hand to the elbow. It is so heavy as seriously to interfere with the 
use of the arm on which it is worn. (PI. XX, fig. 1.) 



814 

The Ilongots like to wear about the neck, the waist, or over one shoulder 
and Tinder the opposite arm, great coils of fine copper wire or of a fine 
cord, the latter woven in ornamental patterns from strips of bark or fiber 
stained in different colors. They are also very fond of wearing coils of 
split rattan of a scarlet color, which they say is the natural one. (PI- 
VII, fig. 3.) They have other ornaments, consisting of tufts of bristles 
or tassels of fine thread, to which, with infinite pains, they attach bright 
bits of metal, feathers, etc. (PI. XXV, fig. 5, &.) Many of the bristles 
are ringed about with fine threads of bright colors. Tobacco pouches 
of bark cloth are decorated with ornamental stitch-patterns of colored 
thread and with bright-colored seeds. Lime-boxes of bamboo are some- 
times ornamented with scratch-patterns, darkened after the Negrito 
fashion with grease and soot. Elaborate armlets of polished bands of 
metal of different colors are commonly worn by the men. 

In short, the Ilongots display a high appreciation of ornaments, and 
with the very limited means at their disposal show much patience and 
ingenuity in fashioning them. 

I have never observed Ilongots who were tattooed to any extent, but 
Governor Villamor informs me that he has seen men whose chests were 
covered with tattoo marks. They do not ornament themselves with 
scar-patterns, as do the Negritos. 

Some of their houses are fairly well constructed and of considerable 
size. (PI. XXX, fig. 2.) They are built on piles set firmly in the 
ground, or on the trunks of trees which have been cut off at a considerable 
distance above its level. To enter a house one must usually scramble up 
an inclined pole, which may or may not have notches cut in it. The 
house often has an outside platform. The floor is made of bamboo or 
of the smooth stems of saplings tied in place with rattan or creepers. 
The sides may be low and open, or high and covered with palm or rattan 
leaves or with grass. The roof is well thatched and has a good slope; 
it ends in a short ridge from each end of which there projects a pointed 
piece of wood, curving upward with a broad sweep. This form of roof 
and type of roof ornament are peculiar to the Ilongots. Not all of the 
houses have the pair of sticks projecting from the ridge of the roof like 
a pair of horns, but most of the better ones are so decorated. While 
some of the houses are wretched affairs (PI. XXX, fig. 1), all, so far 
as my observation goes, are better than Negrito huts. 

In addition to their houses, the Ilongots malce small, but well- 
constructed, rice granaries, on the roofs of which often may be seen the 
same curved and pointed pieces of wood which appear on those of their 
dwellings. 

These people often live together in considerable numbers. Their 
houses are usually scattered irregularly about clearings made by girdling 
forest trees and cutting and burning underbrush. 

They keep dogs for use in the chase. Occasionally, also, they have pigs 



815 

and chickens, but I have never seen any other domestic animals about 
their settlements. 

The manufactures of the Ilongots show a distinct advance over 
those of the Negritos. They do not weave cloth, but make the so-called 
bark cloth and also circular casting fish-nets, buying the necessary cord 
and sinkers from the Christian natives. The women sew with a reason- 
able degree of skill and embroider as well, in a rude fashion. The men 
make head-knives, metal lance-heads and arrow-points, employing in 
their blacksmith operations the usual double-barreled bellows and a 
charcoal fire. They also manufacture many of their own ornaments, as 
well as their wooden shields, and construct small wooden boats which they 
handle quite skillfully in swift water. They grow, cure, and roll their 
own tobacco. 

They prepare iasi, extractiag the juice of the sugar-cane with a simple 
mill similar to that used by the Kalingas. (PI. XL, fig. 3.) The 
juice is then boiled for a short time and is put into olios and kept. No 
spices or fruits are mixed with it at any stage, and after fermentation it 
becomes clear and ultimately quite sour. 

The Ilongots are more warlike than are the Negritos,, but are cowardly, 
their attacks being almost invariably made from ambush. Feuds exist 
to some extent between their difEerent settlements, as well as between 
Ilongots and Negritos. Christian natives who are forced to travel the 
lonely mountain trails of their country are sometimes attacked and killed 
by them, robbery being, it is said, the usual motive of the aggressors. 
Occasionally, also, the Ilongots attack barrios of the civilized towns and 
take a few heads to assure a good rice-crop for the coming year, or to 
avenge wrongs received at the hands of the Christians.* 

Like the Negritos, the Ilongots depend largely on fishing and the chase 
for their food supply. In taking game, they employ nets of their own 
manufacture and use bows and metal-headed arrows and lances. Their 
hunting arrows and lances are usually made with detachable heads 
fastened to^the shafts with strong cords. (PI. XV, figs. 3 and 4.) When 
the barbed head of such an arrow or lance is fixed in an animal, the shaft, 
dropping loose and catching in the brush or grass, impedes the escape of 
the game. 

The Ilongots are expert fishermen. They are very successful in the 
use of circular casting-nets and are also skilled in spearing fish by 
torchlight. 

Their agriculture, while a distinct advance over that of the Negritos, 
is primitive. They select a suitable piece of forest land, girdle the trees, 
and chop down the brush. (PI. XXXVII, fig. 1.) When the trees have 

* Dr. M. L. Miller informs me that when Ilongots murder travelers on the trail 
from Nueva Eeija to Baler, in Tayabas, they never rob their victims, even though 
the latter may be loaded with goods, but content themselves with cutting off and 
carrying away a hand or some similar trophy. 



816 

died, the brush is burned and in the soil thus left bare are planted moun- 
tain rice, squashes, gourds, cucumbers, and sometimes a few tomatoes and 
a little sugar cane or egg-plant ; bananas also are grown abundantly. In 
planting rice, the women make holes in the ground with specially shaped 
and carved implements of hardwood, while the men drop in the seed 
and cover it. (PL XXXIX, fig. 1.) The clearings are often quite ex- 
tensive, although but little care is given to the growing crops, which 
become buried in a tangle of vines and weeds. However, rice, which is 
an especially valuable crop, is sometimes quite carefully weeded. It is 
harvested by cutting off the individual heads, which are tied in bundles, 
placed on low platfroms, and protected from rain by thatches of leaves. 
(PI. XXXVI, fig. 1.) It is said that the Ilongots of any given settle- 
ment are unwilling to transfer their rice to their granaries until some one 
of their number has taken a human head in order to assure a good crop 
for the coming year. 

Their arms consist of bows and arrows, broad-bladed head-knives, and 
lances with weak shafts and still weaker points which are hardly larger 
than good sized arrow-heads. (PI. X, fig. 2; PI. XV, figs. 3 and 4; 
PI. LX, fig. 2, a.). The shafts of their lances are ornamented with spiral 
bands of metal or of vegetable fiber for about half of their length. The 
shields are long and narrow, of very light wood, and are obviously designed 
for stopping arrows. (PI. LXI, figs. 1, a and 2, a.) 

The head-hunting of the Ilongots is of a rudimentary sort and may 
perhaps fairly be considered as representing the first step in the evolution 
of this particular form of sport. They usually cut off the heads of 
their victims, but either leave them beside the bodies or throw them away 
after having carried them for a time through the forest. They appar- 
ently do not take them home to exhibit at a subsequent ceremony, as 
do most of the head-hunting tribes. In taking heads the Ilongots use 
a sharp, broad-bladed knife. (PI. LX, fig. 1, a.) 

Their most common musical instrument is made of a joint of bamboo, 
from the outer layer of which strings have been cut, and raised by means 
of wooden bridges. (PL LIX, fig. 1, a.) A man holds the instrument, 
while a woman plays it by striking these strings with two slender, curved 
strips of bamboo. (PL LIII, fig. 1.) In addition to this peculiar 
instrument the Ilongots make and use the nose-flute and the bamboo 
mouth-organ. 

The only dance I have seen was to the accompaniment of the bamboo 
instrument just described. There was but one dancer, a man, who gave 
a grotesque and exaggerated imitation of the movements of ambushing 
and slaying an enemy and taking his head. (PL LIII, fig. 2.) 

In another one described by Governor Villamor, two or three men and 
an equal number of women take part. The men form a line and with 
outstretched aruis dance around in a circle. The women never enter the 



817 

line, but dance at one side of it. Tlie mouth-organ as well as the bamboo 
instrument above described are used to provide the music. 

The Ilongots are polygamous. One man may have several wives who 
not infrequently all live together in one house. However, if he is 
wealthy, he may construct as many houses as he has wives, the dwellings 
being built close together. Many men also secretly keep queridas or 
mistresses, but if this fact becomes known they are obliged to pay fines 
to the relatives of their lawful wives, and this act also makes lawful wives 
of their queridas. 

The Ilongots not infrequently abandon their sick. They are said not 
to use medicines for ordinary illnesses, but only in the treatment of 
wounds and in connection with childbirth. They try to cure their sick 
by stuffing them with food. 

When a death occurs, the members of the family mourn throughout 
the ensuing night, keeping up a series of doleful cries which may be heard 
at a great distance. Early the following morning they desert the house 
in which the death occurred, leaving it not to return, but they take 
with them all articles of value. The dead person has the dwelling 
as his sepulchre. Sometimes, when the house of a sick person is large and 
valuable and it is evident that he is likely to die, in order to avoid 
abandoning the more pretentious structure a smaller one is hastily con- 
structed and the patient is removed to it before death occurs. 

The Ilongots punish robbery among themselves — that is, among the 
people of a single rancheria—hj obliging the thief to grasp a piece of red- 
hot iron. However, if a man from' one rancheria steals from an indi- 
vidual belonging to another, he is held to have committed a praise- 
worthy act. A murder among the people of a rancheria leads to a feud 
between the two families concerned. When a person from one settlement 
kills a person belonging to another, war between the two rancherias 
results. Adultery is punishable by fine paid by the offending person to 
the family of the one offended. 

The anito images of the Ilongots ^ are made of grass or leaves and are 
usually set up on river banks. After the necessary measures to propitiate 
them have been taken they are abandoned or even burned. 

In general it must be said of the Ilongots that, while superior to, the 
Negritos, they are of inferior intelligence and of a somewhat unreliable 
and treacherous disposition, which makes them far more dangerous than 

^ The word anito is used by the Ililaos, the Kalingas, the Ifugaos, the Bontoc 
Igorots, the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, and the Tingians. Primarily it seems to 
mean a spirit, and in very many cases the term is employed to designate the spirits 
of the dead. It is also applied to images of men and women carved from wood 
or made by tying leaves or grass together which have to do in one way or another 
with efforts to secure the assistance of good spirits and to propitiate evil ones. 
Gifts are made either to the visible images of anitos or to the invisible spirits 
bearing the same name and various propitiatory ceremonies are performed, the 
performance of such ceremonies being termed by some tribes "making anito." 



818 

their little black neighbors. They keep very much to themselves, main- 
taining only such intercourse with the people of the neighboring civilized 
communities as may be necessary in order to secure salt, metal, cloth, 
and a few other necessaries. However, the experience of Americans with 
them has tended to show that they appreciate fair dealing and that when 
their confidence has been won they refrain from hostile acts toward those 
who have become the objects of it. 

Probably, as in the case of the Negritos, there is little hope of doing 
more for them than to protect them from the aggression of the civilized 
natives and to cause them to refrain from hostile attacks upon others. 

They constitute a sharply marked tribe, the members of which may 
usually be distinguished without difficulty from any of their non-Chris- 
tian neighbors. 

The names Ilongots, Ihilaos, and Italones are designations for the same 
people, and I have adopted the former because it seems to be the one in 
more general use. 

Tribe III. THE KALINGAS. 

SYNONYMY. 

ARI PANES. Synonym of Aripas. 

ARIPAS. Name applied to the Ealingas who formerly lived near Tubang, 
Cagayan. No such people now exists. 

BAYABONAN ( ?). Said to have been a tribe occupying the "mountains east 
of Tuao, Cagayan." As the country east of Tuao, Cagayan, is a level plain, it 
may well be doubted whether such a people ever existed. At all events they do 
not now exist.' 

CALAGUAS. Synonym of Oalauas. 

CALAUAS. Name applied to the Ealingas occupying the heights in the neigh- 
borhood of Malaueg and the valley of the Rio Chico, in Cagayan. 

CALINGAS. Synonym of Kalingas. 

CATALAN G AN ES. Name applied to the Kalingas living east of Ilagan, on 
the Catalangan River, in Isabela. 

CATALAl5tiES. Synonym of Oatalanganes. 

CATATANGANES. Synonym of Oatalanganes. 

DA DAY AGS. Name applied to the Kalingas living west of Cabagan Nuevo 
and in the lower Saltan River valley. 

DADAYAS. Synonym of Dadayags. 

GADDANES. Name applied to the Kalingas of western Isabela Province, many 
of whom were long since converted to Christianity and have become civilized. 

GAMUNGAN. A name which has been applied to the uncivilized inhabitants 
of the mountains "east and northeast of Tuao, in Cagayan." As no such mountains 
exist, it is doubtful if there ever was such a people. 

GAMUNANG. Synonym of Oamungan. 

GAMUNANGANES. Synonym of Oamungan. 

I RAYAS. Name applied by Blumentritt to the peojde living to the westward 
of the Oatalanganes. 

KALIBUGAN. Name applied to certain Kalingas of Isabela Province. 

NABAYUGANES. Name applied to the Kalingas living to the westward of 
Malaueg, in Cagayan. 

YOGADES. Synonym of Oaddanes. 



819 

HABITAT. 

The territory inhabited by the Ealingas is, broadly speaking, the eastern slopes, 
river valleys and foothills of the Cordillera Central from the Saltan River north 
to Dagara and to the vicinity of the valley of the Ablug River. In some places 
they extend into the level plains of Isabela and Cagayan. There are several 
important rancherias on the Santa Maria friar estate in the former province and 
there is one north of Ilagan near the Rio Grande de Cagayan. There are a 
number of others to the east of Ilagan in the level country and in the foothills 
of the western slopes of the chain of mountains which borders the Pacific coast. 

The line of demarcation between their territory and that of the Tingians of 
Bontoc is a fairly sharp one, although there has been some intermarriage in the 
settlements along the upper waters of the Saltan River. The Cordillera Central 
separates the Ealingas from the Tingians of South and North Ilokos. They are 
constantly at war with those of Dagara and the Apayaos district. They appar- 
ently have not intermarried at all with the Negritos, and their territory, except 
for the isolated rancherias near Ilagan and those lying to the eastward of Ilagan, 
is bounded on the east by that of the Christian municipalities. 

DBSCEIPTION. 

The Kalingas are of Malay origin. They are less well-lmovm than is 
any other northern Luzon tribe except the Ilongots. They are a cleanly 
people, of medium stature and are physically well-developed. The average 
member of the tribe may be recognized at a glance by his high cheek 
bones, and especially by his peculiarly shaped eyes, which are set very 
far apart. (PI. V, figs. 1 and 2; PL IX, fig. 3.) No other Luzon people 
have such eyes. The skin is brown, the hair black and usually straight, 
but in some rare instances wavy. The men wear the hair long behind, 
and banged across the forehead, with a cut extending from the level of 
the bang along each side of the head over and considerably back of the 
ear. The long, back hair is allowed to hang down. (PI. IX, fig. 3.) 
This method of cutting the hair is peculiar to the people of this tribe, 
although a very similar style is followed by the Bontoc Igorots. 

In spite of the remoteness of the regions which they inhabit, the 
Kalingas are better dressed than the people of any other northern Luzon 
tribe except the Tingians. The men wear the usual clouts, but in ad- 
dition have short jackets, which, like their clouts, are often ornamented 
with beadwork. Many of them have collars of beads. They also usually 
wear blankets of silk or very gaily colored cotton cloth, which are knotted 
over the right shoulder in such a way that the arm on the opposite side is 
supported in a fold. A bag or sack which is opened and closed by 
sliding silver or brass rings is often worn around the neck. (PL X, 
fig. 3; PL VII, fig, 4.) 

Huge holes are pierced in the lobes of the ears and stretched to receive 
great rolls of gaily colored worsted or cotton yarn, or plugs of wood 
which extend back along the sides of the neck in such a way as to turn 
the lobes of the ears forward. When wooden ear-ornaments are used, 
coins, pieces of brightly colored stone, or bits of looking-glass are inserted 



820 

in the ends which arc directed forward, or these ends are covered with 
pieces of cloth embroidered in bright colors. (PI- VII, ng- 4.) 

The women wear skirts reaching from the waist to the knees, or, m 
rare instances, even to the ankles; also camisas of brightly colored and 
large-figured cloth of European manufacture, or of the handsome striped 
cloth which they themselves weave. (PL XII, fig. 3; PL XVII, fig. 2.) 
They wear clouts under their skirts. 

That the habitual wearing of so many clothes by the women is a matter 
of display rather than of modesty is shown by the fact that they discard 
their camisas when at work, and if they have occasion to cross deep 
streams, strip naked, regardless of the presence of men. 

Nearly every woman or girl owns a pair of huge brass earrings of a 
peculiar form (PL XX, fig. 3) which weigh two to four ounces. The 
part which passes through the ear is wrapped in leather or cloth to 
prevent its chafing the flesh. Still more highly prized are large ear orna- 
ments of mother-of-pearl, each shaped like a solid figure 8. (PI. XX, 
figs. 3 and 4.) Many heavy necklaces are also worn. (PL XX, fig. 3.) 
The beads most highly prized, called manding, are of agate and very 
roughly made. (PL XX, fig. 4.) They are apparently valued on account 
of their age, and one of them is sometimes worth a carabao. J^ext to 
these in value come imitation agate beads of recent manufacture. 

Many of the women have beautiful, long hair, which is banged across 
the forehead and worn in great coils about the head, being held in place 
by numerous strings of beads. (PL XX, fig. 3.) On state occasions it 
is the fashion to wear great switches of dead hair. (PI. XX, fig. 4.) 
Very wealthy women and influential men sometimes wear elaborate or- 
naments of scarlet and yellow feathers. (PL XX, fig. 4; PL VIII, 
fig. 1.) 

The Kalingas do not tattoo themselves to any very great extent. The 
women sometimes have marks on the throat or the forearms supposed to 
bring good luck. (PL XXIII, fig. 2.) The men are tattooed even less 
than the women. Their marks are usually on the shoulders and are said 
to be of no special significance. 

Their settlements consist of groups of from three. or four to a score of 
houses, placed close together and often perched in some inaccessible spot 
on a steep mountain side. (PL XXVII, fig. 1.) Not infrequently they 
are surrounded by wind-breaks of bamboo. The houses are of two types. 
Those built on the ground are quite clean and are very substantially 
constructed. The floors, which are i-aised five or six feet above the 
ground, are usually made of well-cleaned stalks of runo grass tied close 
together. The piles on which the houses stand, and their frameworks, 
are of hard wood. The roofs, which on the inside have a concave curve 
consist ordinarily of an inner layer of closely tied and well-cleaned runo 
stems over which is placed a very thick, outer layer of carefully laid grass 



821 

thatch. These roofs must last for many years. The sides of the houses 
of this type are usually made of boards, hewn with great labor from thick 
tree trunks. (PL XXXI, fig. 2.) I have never seen any wood-carving 
on these houses, but am informed by Governor Bias Villamor that the 
inner surfaces of the side boards are sometimes carved. Where timber, 
1-uno and grass for thatching are scarce, the floors, sides, and roofs of 
houses may be made of bamboo. Some of the bamboo roofs made of 
joints laid like tiles are very remarkable affairs. (PI. XXXII, fig. 1.) 

The Kalingas of Isabela often build their houses amid the branches of 
trees which previously have been killed. These tree houses, which, as a 
rule, are not very substantial, can be entered only by long ladders. The 
latter are drawn up at night or when an attack is feared. (PL XXXI, 
fig. 1.) Granaries for rice are usually to be found near dwelling-houses. 

The agriculture of the Kalinga shows a distinct advance over that of 
the Ilongot. He often raises enough tobacco for his own use and some- 
times has a little to sell. Occasionally, also, he raises small quantities of 
cacao and coffee and barters them with his Christian neighbors. He 
grows gabi (taro) and rice in irrigated fields, and on the mountain sides 
cultivates camotes and mountain rice which grow without irrigation. 
Indian corn he sometimes raises upon a considerable scale. He usually 
has a good supply of bananas. 

He keeps dogs and chickens and in gome instances cattle, carabaos, and 
even horses, although ownership of the latter three kinds of animals by 
Kalingas is rare, those of Taling and Nanong being the only ones who 
raise any considerable number of cattle, carabaos, and horses. Cattle 
and carabaos are kept for eating and are never worked, but horses are 
sometimes used for riding. 

The Kalingas do not use the bow and arrow, but occasionally kill with 
their lances a deer or a hog which their dogs have brought to bay. They 
set fish-traps in the mountain streams. 

Basi is indispensable to the successful celebration of a canao and is 
made by the Kalingas in considerable quantity. Their houses usually 
contain large, earthenware pots filled with this drink. The sugar-cane 
juice is pressed out by means of a simple apparatus similar to that used 
by the Ibilaos. An aromatic bark is mixed with it, it is boiled until it 
is of the proper consistency, and is then allowed to ferment. 

Although many head-axes made by the Tinguians are imported into the 
Kalinga country from the south, there are quite a number of good Kalinga 
smiths who are fairly skillful in shaping weapons of iron and steel. 

Some of the women weave cloth and many of them embroider quite 
well. 

The houses of the Kalingas usually contain quantities of glazed 
earthenware pots, many of which are ornamented with raised figures of 
dragons, but although porcelain and china plates and bowls are also in 



822 

common use, I have never seen an individual of this tribe make pottery 
of any sort. Apparently many_ of the highly valued earthen pots have 
come from China. 

Wood carving is not common. I have seen only scratch-work, black- 
ened with soot and wax or grease, on bamboo lime-boxes, and ornamental 
clothes-hangers of carved wood on which figures had been burned with 
hot irons. Ealinga fireplaces are usually provided with carefully cut, 
stone fire-dogs. 

The Ealinga is a bold warrior and an inveterate head-hunter. His 
arms consist of shield, head-axe (PI. X, fig. 3), and lance. The shield 
is painted black, with red and yellow rattan lashings. It has three points 
above and two below and is of a graceful form, peculiar to the people of 
this tribe. (PI. LXI, fig. 2, 6.) The head-axe has a slender blade with a 
curved, cutting edge on one side and a long, projecting spine on the other. 
The wooden handle is frequently ornamented with bands of metal of 
different colors and has on it a projecting point under which the first 
finger may be hooked to prevent the axe from slipping from the grasp 
when it is carried blade down. Ordinarily it is thrust into the waistband 
of the owner. It is a tool as well as a weapon. (PI. LX, fig. 1, &.) 

The lances show a great variety of forms. Some of them have heads 
of hardened bamboo ornamented with scratch-work designs and with 
plumes of horsehair. Others have steel heads which may be plain or may 
have two to six or even eight pairs of barbs. Many of the lance-shafts are 
ornamented with horsehair plumes and with lashings or woven envelopes 
of scarlet, yellow, and black rattan. (PI. LX, figs. 2, 1, c, d, and e.) 

The head-hunting expeditions of the Ealingas are carefully planned in 
advance, and a plan of campaign once formed is carried out as closely 
as circumstances will permit. A band of forty or fifty warriors may be 
on the trail for days before they reach their objective point. The combat 
is usually begun from ambush, and is of short duration. The man who 
first reaches the enemy is the leader. As soon as either side has a com- 
batant dovra, it concentrates its efforts on saving his head and to this 
end tries to get away with him as speedily as possible. 

Warriors always make a determined effort to secure the heads of 
enemies killed in battle and to carry them to their rancherias, where they 
are immediately exhibited in bamboo baskets at the houses of the persons 
who took them. These baskets, which are in general use among the 
Ealingas and Tingians, are made in the following manner: A thick 
piece of green bamboo of the proper length is sharpened at one end and 
driven into the ground. The other end is split down for a foot and a 
half or two feet in such a manner as to make a dozen flexible slats. 
These slats are then separated and others are interwoven with them in 
a horizontal direction so as to form a conical basket with its point directed 
downward and ending in a solid stem of bamboo. A pair of partially 



823 

completed baskets of this sort may be seen immediately to the left of the 
small structure shown in Plate LXVII, fig. 1. 

Eeturning head-hunters, if successful, are met by their friends and 
neighbors, who make the air ring with the high-pitched ululating Kalinga 
war cry. " 

The members of a war party who have not been lucky enough to secure 
heads, hasten to their homes and return to the house of some more 
fortunate companion, bringing pieces of bark cloth which they dip in 
the blood of a head and then hang over the doorways of their dwellings 
in order to avert evil fortune in general and more especially the ven- 
geance of the friends of the victim. (PI. LXII, fig. 1.) 

A feast, held at the expense of those who have taken heads, begins at 
once. It may last for seven or eight days. Shortly after arrival at the 
home rancheria the top of each head taken, including the upper part of 
the skull, is removed and cut into as many pieces as there were warriors 
in the party, one piece being .given to each. The brains are then stirred 
up with tasi and the head, which serves as a drinking cup, is passed 
around in order that all who desire to do so may partake of the grue- 
some mixture. The first to drink is the man who took the head. It is 
believed that those who partake thereby ward off danger of being punished 
if they were members of the war party and in any event are protected 
against illness. 

The lower jaw is separated from the skull and kept for use as a gansa 
handle, as with the Bontoe Igorots. That part of the skull which remains 
is then put in a hiding-place, used in common by all members of the 
rancheria. This may be a hole in a tree, a cave, or an excavation in the 
groimd. 

The feast is accompanied by dances which are sometimes decidedly 
imposing affairs. The men and women form a circle about a level plot 
of ground, in the middle of which a fire burns if the canao is at night. 
An old man hands a handkerchief to some warrior who has distinguished 
himself. This is a signal that he is expected to tell his story to the as- 
sembly. Wearing his best clothes, and carrying a lance, head-axe, and 
shield, he walks into the center of the circle accompanied by another in- 
dividual who serves as a sort of dummy. He recounts his adventures 
in a high falsetto voice, similar to that which Japanese actors use on the 
stage. His remarks are staccato to an extraordinary degree, each word 
being clipped off short. Bach sentence is begun with a sharp outcry, 
which sounds like the sudden yap of a dog. Kot only does the per- 
former describe his adventures, but he acts them out, going through the 
motions of slaying the unfortunate dummy as he slew his enemy, taking 
his head, etc. The crowd yells with delight and every now and then 
some one gives the war cry. Meanwhile the hasi is circulating freely, and 
by. the time the canao has been in progress for two or three hours, nearly 

46941 3 



824 

everyone is drunk. When the original performer has exhausted his 
resources, he hands the handkerchief on to some one else who takes his 
place. As the night advances, the excitement becomes more and more 
intense and the canao not infrequently breaks up in a drunken row, m . 
the course of which men inflict serious injuries upon one another. How- 
ever, it is generally understood that one is not responsible for what he 
does when he is drunk at a canao, and little, or no, ill will seems to be 
borne afterwards. 

Annually, just before harvest, all of the skulls in the rancheria collec- 
tion are brought out and exposed in bamboo baskets throughout an entire 
night. Old women conduct the ensuing ceremony in which the men are 
not allowed to participate, although they watch it with interest. Before 
inaugurating it, one of the old women sticks a lance in the ground in 
front of the baskets containing the skulls and she and her assistants stand 
behind it throughout the performance. Ultimately, one of them informs 
the men whether' or not it is necessary that they should go to war and 
take more heads id order to protect their crops from a mythical big bird 
which is supposed to come each year and devour them. As a matter of 
fact the rice is eaten by many very small birds, but the Ealingas refuse 
to believe that such small creatures can do so much damage and insist 
that their crops are destroyed by a big bird which they have never seen. 

The canao circle is the scene of more than the recounting and acting 
out of warlike exploits. All important events and affairs which especially 
concern the settlement as a whole are discussed there, the man who has 
the floor invariably speaking in the high, staccato tones above described. 

Within this circle the dances are also held. Although nose-flutes are 
occasionally met with, dance-music is. ordinarily furnished by a battery 
of four or more gansas played with great energy and skill by men who 
beat them with their hands. The dancing is participated in by women as 
well as men. Ordinarily, one man and one woman perform at the same 
time, but if the man is an especially good dancer, two or more women may 
compliment him by coming into the circle with him. The dancing is of 
a decidedly vigorous sort and involves much jumping and noisy stamping 
of the feet. Especially when slightly intoxicated, the Ealingas are prone 
to insist that strangers enter the circle and do their share toward the 
entertainment of the assembly by dancing or singing. If one is neither 
a dancer nor a musician he may readily satisfy his audience by performing 
a few sleight of hand tricks or burning a little magnesium wire or red 
fire. Even a candle is in many rancherias a great curiosity. 

The Ealingas do not, as a rule, have boats, but are excellent swimmers 
and expert raftsmen, taking their bamboo rafts in safety down rapids 
where one would expect them to be dashed to pieces. (PL LVIII, fig. 2.) 

I have never seen any evidence of worship, or of attempts to propitiate 
good or bad spirits, among the Negritos, but in nearly every Ealinga 
settlement one will find some secluded spot where aniios are made. 



825 

The method of "malting anito" practiced by the Kalingas is interesting. 
A lance or head axe is stuck up in the ground and is surrounded with 
bamboo baskets made by splitting the ends of green pieces of bamboo 
into slats and then interweaving other pieces horizontally around the 
bundle thus formed. In these baskets are placed flowers and dishes of 
food, and the bushes in the vicinity, or the lance, may be hung with fresh 
pieces of bark-cloth or with articles of clothing belonging to the persons 
who take part in the ceremony. Anitos of this sort are made in giving 
thanks for victory over enemies or for good crops. 

Justice is administered in a Kalinga rancheria by a council of old men, 
all crimes, even including murder, when committed among the people of 
the rancheria, being punishable by fine. 

The Kalingas are polygamous and have more wives than do the mem- 
bers of any other tribe of northern Luzon. A wealthy man may have 
as many as seven helpmeets who may and often do live in one house. 
They are said to get on well together, it being their wish that the 
number of their people should increase as rapidly as possible and 
polygamy being deemed a desirable means to this end. 

The men also keep queridas on occasion, but always secretly. - If the 
wife or wives can prove that the husband is keeping a querida they bring 
the fact to the attention of the old men of the rancheria, who impose a 
fine on the guilty individual and collect it from him. He is not other- 
wise punished, but his wife or wives may secure divorce from him if the 
council of old men gives its consent. However, divorce is ordinarily 
brought about by mutual agreement between the persons concerned. 

The Kalingas are kind, to their sick, and care for them until -they die 
or recover, treating them with roots and herbs and with baths. They 
also hold such canaos and sacrifice such animals as their old medicine- 
women may direct. If the medicines, the canaos, and the incantations of 
the medicine- women prove of no avail and the patient dies, a funeral 
feast is held to which all of the people of the rancheria are invited. 
After a day or two of feasting, the dead person is buried under his house, 
which is then fenced in, the head of the family remaining fully armed 
inside the fence for a period of twelve or fourteen days. It is his duty 
to kiU any person who may enter the inclosure during this period. 
Pood and drink are handed in to him by relatives. After the prescribed 
time has elapsed, the fence is removed and the house is occupied again 
as if nothing had happened. This ceremony is performed only in connec- 
tion with the death of adult persons. If the individual who dies is un- 
married, the house is fenced in and left empty for the prescribed period, 
" but no armed person remains on guard to repel intruders. 

The Kalingas form a well-marked tribe. As previously stated, they are 
readily recognized by their high cheek-bones and their peculiar eyes, as 
well as by the style of hair-cut universal among the men. They also 
differ from their neighbors in their house architecture, their weapons 



826 

and head-hunting customs, their music, their dancing, and especially lu 
the character of their peculiar canaos, at which public events are discussed 
and victories over enemies are celebrated. 

They are strong, cleanly, brave, and intelligent. They are probably 
less industrious than the Ifugaos or Bontoc Igorots, but are vastly more 
so than are the Negritos or Ilongots. I do not believe that the checking 
of head-hunting among them will prove to be a matter of any great 
difficulty, and when they are once on good terms with their Christian 
neighbors and thus gain a market for their products, they will pay more 
attention to agriculture. 

One former branch of the tribe, the Gaddanes, now forms an important 
element of the civilized population in the Cagayan Valley, and there 
would seem to be no good reason why the remaining wild KaJingas should 
not follow in their footsteps. 

Tribe IV. THE IFUGAOS. 

SYNONYMY. 

ALAMIT. Name applied to the Ifugaos of the Alamit River Valley, Quiangan, 
Nueva Vizcaya. 

ALIMUT. Synonjra of Alamit. 

ALTABANES. Synonym of Altasanes. 

ALTASANES. Name formerly applied to the Ifugaos of northwestern Nueva 
Vizcaya. No such people now exists. 

AYANGAN. Name applied to the Ifugaos of the rancheria of the same name 
in Nueva Vizcaya. 

BUNGANANES. Said by Blumentritt to be a warlike and possibly head- 
hunting tribe of Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya. No such tribe now exists. 

BUNNAYAN. Name applied to the Ifugaos of Quiangan and neighboring 
ranoherias. 

EPOCAOS. Synonym of Ifugaos. 

Gl LI PANES. Synonym of Silipancs. 

I LA BANES. Blumentritt quotes Diaz Arenas as authority for the existence 
of such a tribe in Nueva Vizcaya in 1848. It no longer exists. 

IFUGADOS. Synonym of /fuj^aos. 

IFUMANGIES. According to Diaz Arenas, who is quoted by Blumentritt, a 
tribe of "Igorrotes" of Nueva Vizcaya in 1848. No such people now exists. 

ILAMUT. Synonym of Alamit. 

IPUCAOS. Synonym of /fusraos. 

IRAYAS. Name applied by the Jesuits to the Ifugaos and Kalingas inhabit- 
ing the banks of the River Ilaron and the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre in 
Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, and Cagayan. 

MAYOYAOS. Name applied to the Ifugaos of the rancheria of Mayoyao and 
other neighboring rancherias of Nueva Vizcaya. 

PANIPUYES. Synonym of Panuipuyes. 

PANUIPUYPS. According to Blumentritt -'a tribe of so-called Igorrotes to 
to be sought in ^^■estern Nue\a Vizcaya and Isabela." No such tribe now exists. 

PUNGIANES. Classed by Blumentritt interrogatively as ."a tribe of the 
Mayoyaos." No such people now exists. 



827 

GUIANGANES. Name applied to the Ifugaos of the rancheria of Quiangan. 
The Jesuits have erred in stating" that these people are Malay-Negritos. They 
show no indications of Negrito' blood. 

SI LI PANES. Name applied to the Ifugaos of Silipan and neighboring ran- 
cherias in Nueva Vizcaya. 

HABITAT. 

The Ifugaos occupy the whole of northwestern Nueva Vizcaya and 
extend for a short distance into southwestern Isabela, whei'e they have 
several important rancherias. So far as is at present known, their north- 
ernmost rancheria is Pulay, in Isabela. 

DESCEIPTION. 

The Ifugaos are a Malay tribe and physically are well-developed. For 
their strong, muscular bodies they doubtless have to thank the pure air 
and water of the rugged country which they inhabit, no less than the 
tremendous exercise involved in going up and down its steep mountain 
sides. (PL XIV, fig. 1.) They are well-proportioned people of me- 
dium height, with dark-brown skins, straight hair, and typical Malayan 
features. 

The ordinary costume of the men is a clout, usually of cloth (PI. II, 
fig. 4; PI. XIV, figs. 1 and 2) ; that of the women is a short skirt, con- 
sistiing of a piece of cloth wrapped around the body below the waist in 
such a way as always to leave the navel exposed. It may extend to the 
knees, but often it does not. (PL XII, fig. 4; PL XIV, fig. 3.) 

Usually, both men and women are tattooed. (PL VIII, fig. 3; 
PL XXIII, fig. 3.) The tattoo marks of the men are on the chest and 
neck, but those of the women are on the arms only. The patterns differ 
radically from those of the Bontoc Igorot. The tattooed Ifugao may be 
recognized immediately as such by the pattern of the markings alone. 

The men wear their hair cut, the appearance being exactly that which 
would result were a rather wide and shallow bowl pressed down on 
the top of the head and the hair clipped up to its edge. This style of 
cutting the hair is highly characteristic of the Ifugaos and is not in 
vogue among the people of any other northern Luzon tribe. (PL IX, 
fig. 4.) The women wear their hair long. It is usually drawn straight 
back from the face on all sides and confined in a knot at the back of the 
head. (PL XVII, figs. 3 and 4.) 

The ornaments of the Ifugaos are quite elaborate, and in some in- 
stances are of considerable value. The men are especially fond of wearing 
huge earrings of copper wire or beaten brass. (PL VIII, fig. 3.) They 
also delight in coils of thick copper wire worn around the legs just 
above the calves. (PL. II, fig. 4.) Their most highly cherished or- 
naments are girdles made of handsomely carved opercula of sea-shells 

^Report of the Philippine Commission (1900), 3, 358. 



828 

(PI. II, fig. i; PI. XIV, fig. 1) ; from each a pendant, also of opercula, 
hangs in front. These girdles are very valuable and, if their wearers 
are to be believed, are often the property of 'the settlement rather than 
of the individual; their use seems to be confined to men of high rank 
or of great wealth. . The women wear armlets or leglets of copper wire, 
earrings, bead necklaces, and strings of beads in the hair. (PI. XVII, 
figs. 3 and 4.) The beads are in sopie instances very large and of a white 
stone resembling fine grained marble. (PI. XXII, fig. 3.) Both men 
and women occasionally wear in their hair white tail-feathers from cocks. 
(PI.'V, fig. 4; PL XIV, fig. 3.) 

The Ifugaos live in rancherias which sometimes number five or six 
thousand souls. However, the houses of a given rancheria are not 
placed closely together, but are scattered about in little groups of from 
four or five to a dozen or two, so that a settlement may extend along a 
valley for ten miles. Doubtless one of the reasons for this arrangement 
is that the people desire to be near their wonderful, terraced rice-fields, 
in order to watch the supply of irrigation water and to prevent depreda- 
tions upon their crops. (PL XXVI ; PL XXXVII, fig. 2.) 

Their dwellings are built from 5 to 8 feet above the ground, on strong 
piles which are often ornamented with rough carving. (PL XXXII, 
fig. 2.) They have board fioors and sides and thatched roofs. In the 
peak of the roof there often is a small room in which rice and other 
commodities are stored. At one side of the main living-room is a fire- 
place made of earth and stones; the smoke escapes through the chinks 
of the house as best it may. Over the fireplace and at its sides, are 
grouped the skulls of animals killed in the chase or sacrificed at feasts, 
and also, on occasion, the skulls of enemies whose heads have been taken 
in war. Carved, wooden images, called anitos, are not infrequently seen 
at the sides of the door. (PL LXIII, fig. 1.) The houses are usually 
windowless. I have seen lizards carved in relief on the under surfaces 
of fioor boards. 

At the side of the door may sometimes be seen a shelf on which are 
placed the skulls of enemies. (PL LXII, fig. 2.; PL LXIII, fig. 1.) 
At the corners of the house one also sees skulls of carabaos or pigs, carved 
wooden imitations of carabao horns, bunches of dried grass, and some- 
times human skulls. I have seen an ornamental frieze of alternating 
carabao and human skulls on a level with the floor and extending half- 
way around a house. Hanging from the floor timbers are neatly 
woven baskets with small doors. In these the chickens are placed at 
night to prevent their being stolen or carried away by civet eats 
(PL XXXII, flg. 2.) 

The Ifugaos build rice granaries and also often construct, at a short 
distance from their own dwellings, little grass-thatched houses with tight 
board floors and sides, the crevices between the boards being chinked 



829 

with a mixture of clay and carabao dung. (PL LXV, fig. 1.) In these 
houses are placed the bodies of persons who die natural deaths. The 
bodies of men killed in war must be buried in the ground. 

The Ifugaos never use the bow and arrow, but when hunting hogs and 
deer employ dogs to bring the game to bay, killing it with their lances. 
However, they are by no means so dependent upon game as are the 
Negritos and Ilongots. 

Their agriculture is little short of wonderful, and no one who has seen 
their dry stone dams, their irrigating ditches running for miles along 
precipitous hillsides and even crossing the faces of cliffs, and their 
irrigated terraces extending for thousands of feet up the mountain sides^ 
can fail to be impressed. (PI. XXVI; PL XXXVII, fig. 2.) When 
water must be carried across cliffs so hard and so broken that the Ifugaos 
can not successfully work the stone with their simple tools, they construct 
and " fasten in place great troughs made from the hollowed trunks, of 
trees, and the same procedure is resorted to when canons must be crossed, 
great ingenuity being displayed in building the necessary supporting 
trestlework of timber. The nearly perpendicular walls of their rice 
paddies are usually built of stone, although near Quiangan, where the 
country is comparatively open and lev6l, walls' of clay answer the pur- 
pose and are used. The stone retaiaing walls are sometimes forty feet 
high, and so steep are the mountain sides that the level plots gained by 
building such walls and filling in behind them are often not more than 
twenty or thirty feet wide. I know of no more impressive example of 
primitive engineering than the terraced- mountain sides of Nueva Viz- 
caya, beside which the terraced hills of Japan sink into iasignifieance. 

Water is led with the greatest skiU from plot to plot, sometimes being 
allowed to flow down the faces of the stone retaining walls and some- 
times being led through subterranean passages which have their upper 
openings in the middle of plots. 

The Ifugaos keep hogs. Manure is carried from the hog-pens to the 
rice-paddies and worked into the ground, which is carefully prepared 
before planting and which continues to produce fine crops year after 
year. The rice is always well weeded and thinned. 

When the rice crop has been harvested, the irrigation water is often 
shut off and the earth in the paddies raised into little mounds. The 
water is then once more turned on, whereupon these little mounds become 
miniature islands on which are planted garlic, beans, gabi, and other 
vegetables, the water serving to keep away cutworms and crawling insect 
pests. 

The Ifugao raises tobacco in limited quantity and rolls his own cigars. 
He makes a fermented drink from rice called bubud which is much 
used at feasts and in ceremonials connected with the cementing of friend- 
ship. (PL XLI, fig. 1.) He also keeps dogs and chickens which are 



830 

well cared for and carabaos which are allowed to run half wild and are 
apparently not used as draft animals but are kept to be eaten at feasts. 
I have never seen cattle or horses in an Ifugao settlement. 

The Ifugao women weave very good cloth, usually of a dark indigo- 
blue color with small, scarlet figures. The simple type of loom used by 
them will be better understood from the accompanying illustration 
(PI. XLIII, fig. 2) than from a detailed description. It will be noted 
that the warp is held taut by a broad belt which passes around the back 
of the operator and against which she leans; also that the shuttle is 
passed by hand, the threads being held apart during the operation by a 
piece of wood set on edge. When the shuttle has been passed, this piece 
of wood is dropped on its side and drawn sharply toward the operator so 
as to drive the thread into place. Although this method of cloth making 
is slow, the narrow strips produced are often of very good quality. 

There are among the Ifugaos many skillful workers in iron and steel, 
although a smithy is not to be found in every rancheria. Some of the 
settlements, notably Sapao, have a widespread reputation for the ex- 
cellence of their steel and iron manufactures. The implements used 
by the smith are of the simplest. He has an old iron hammer or two for 
shaping, several heavy, stone hammers for flattening, and a rude, wooden 
trough of water for tempering. His bellows consists of two vertical 
wooden cylinders in which pistons, packed with feathers and rags, are 
alternately raised and lowered by the operator. From each of these 
cylinders a tube leads to a central pipe of bamboo or fire clay, which 
extends to a little depression in the groiiid, fille'd with charcoal, in which 
the ingot of iron or steel is heated. In spite of the primitive nature of 
this plant the Ifugao smith turns out beautifully shaped and well- 
tempered lance-heads and head-lmives. (PL LX, figs. 1, c and 2, g, h, 
and i.) He is also skillful in making metal pipe-bowls, which are cast in 
clay molds. 

The Ifugaos of Banaue, and doubtless of other rancherias as well, 
manufacture excellent pottery which has a smooth, glazed surface. 

They are especially skillful in wood-carving. I have called attention 
to the fact that the door posts, under surfaces of floor boards, and the 
harigues or supporting piles of their houses are often ornamented. A 
house may be surrounded by a stockade, some of the posts of which are 
carved in imitation of human heads. As one approaches a rancheria 
he may find beside the trail anitos carved from the basal portions of the 
stems of tree ferns and set there to keep watch for enemies. Skillfully 
carved wooden images or anitos, which are supposed to be able to bring 
good crops or good weather, may be found within the houses. They are 
often bedecked with gifts consisting of earrings, rice-knives, etc., which 
have been presented in the hope of propitiating the anitos. (PI XLVII 
fig. 1.) 



831 

The Ifugao eats his rice from a carved wooden bowl which may be 
single or double, or may take the form of a large vessel with four small 
ones attached to its perimeter. (PI. XLVI, fig. 1.) The large bowl 
is used for serving boiled rice and the smaller ones hold salt, pepper, 
tomatoes, etc., with which the rice may be flavored. Porks and spoons, 
with handles carved in imitation of men and women, are in common use, 
as are bowls on the covers of which are carved pigs, carabaos, or figures 
of men and women. (PI. XLVI, figs. 2 and 4; PI. XLVII, fig. 2.) 
I have seen a lime-bos made from a human bone, on which was scratched 
a picture illustrating the manner in which the original owner of the bone 
lost his life. (PI. XLVI, fig. 3, 6.) Lime-boxes ornamented with elab- 
orate scratch-work patterns are frequently seen. (PI. XLVI, fig. 3, a.) 

Kear, or under, the houses one sometimes finds large, artistically shaped 
wooden resting-benches, each large enough to accommodate two persons 
stretched out at full length. (PL XLVII, fig. 4.) 

The Ifugao has been, and when not held in check, still is an inveterate 
head-hunter. The head-hunting feuds are strictly rancheria affairs. 
When some of the people of a given rancheria lose their heads, their 
friends make little or no attempt to take vengeance upon the particular 
individuals who took them but are content to get the heads of any of the 
residents of the settlement to which the aggressors belong. In the past, 
each rancheria has, as a rule, been at war with every other for miles 
around. Its people were ordinarily sufficient unto themselves and in 
many instances had little intercourse with, outsiders for scores of years. 
It is doubtless due to this fact that a number of local dialects have 
sprung up, and that the Ifugao people, who really form a distinct and 
sharply marked tribe, have been subdivided into so many so-called tribes. 

Heads taken in war are brought home by those who take them and are 
exposed at feasts which last for varying periods, their length depending 
upon the wealth of the victors and the importance of their victims. The 
skulls are then carefully cleaned and are used as household ornaments 
by those who took the heads, being either placed about the fireplaces, or 
at the doors or outer corners of the houses, or in a row at the level of the 
heavy floor timbers, or even, in some instances, hung in baskets under the 
eaves. 

The arms of the Ifugao consist of a long shield in the form of a 
board, with a hand grip at the back, the lower end cut squarely off and 
the upper bluntly pointed (PL XI, fig. 1; PL LI, fig. 5) ; a steel lance 
with finely shaped head and wooden handle, reinforced with rattan 
lashings which are often colored red, and a broad bladed knife attached 
to a board sheath by means of one or two loose rattan lashings. The 
knife and sheath hang from the waistband of the owner's clout. (PL XI, 
fig. 1 ; PL LX, figs. 1, c and 2, g, h, and i.) 

Small groups of houses are often surrounded by rice-paddies with high 



832 

and almost vertical walls, which make the approach of enemies diflBcult. 
(PI. XXVI.) It is said that in repelling an attack in the terraced 
fields, bamboo lances, the points of which have been thrust into dead 
animals, are ordinarily used for throwing. Steel lances are usually 
reserved for thrusting, as they are too valuable to throw except in case 
of great emergency. 

The only musical instrument in common use among the Ifugaos is the 
gansa, which is played with a drumstick. In the typical Ifugao dance 
both men and women take part. They form a line, the dancers in front 
and the musicians behind, and march back and forth with many rhyth- 
mical sidewise motions of the hands and arms and much flexing of the 
upper part of the body. This dance, which is common throughout the 
Ifugao country, is radically different from that of any other northern 
Luzon tribe. (PI. LIV, fig. 1.) 

I once attended the funeral of a man who had lost his head. (PI. LXIII, 
fig. Z.) No gansas were used, but as the body was carried through the 
fields, the chief musician beat a'tattoo on a piece of hard wood suspended 
by a cord in such a way that its vibrations were not interfered with. This 
piece of wood was painted black with white stripes. Behind the chief 
musician came five or six men carrying shields painted black, with zigzag, 
white stripes, and after the leader had beaten out a few notes he would 
stop while the men with the shields drummed a precisely similar series of 
beats upon them with wooden sticks. 

Whatever may be the theoretically proper matrimonial state of the 
Ifugao, in practice he is not infrequently a polygamist. I have known 
a number of old and influential men who had wives of their own age 
and also a liberal assortment, of young queridas. 

The Ifugao wedding-dress is quite elaborate and striking. (PL XXIV, 
fig. 2.) 

As already stated, the dead are sometimes buried in small houses 
especially constructed for the purpose. Not infrequently they are buried 
under the houses where they have lived, in the Tingian fashion, but the 
body of a man who has lost hiSf head in war is placed in the ground, 
often on some lonely mountain top. (PL LXIV, fig. 1.) 

I employ the name Ifugaos for the people of this tribe, because it has 
long been in general use with reference to a considerable number of 
them and seems to me more appropriate than any of the designations 
derived from the names of single rancJierias. Some of the Bontoc Igorots 
call themselves Ipuhaos or Ifugaos, but no special significance attaches 
to this fact, as the name Ipuhaos or Ifugaos means simply " people." 
The Bontoc Igorots have always been known by the name of their prin- 
cipal rancheria and of the subprovince which they inhabit, and, as pre- 
viously stated, I have deemed it desirable to retain this name for them. 



833 
Tribe V. THE BONTOO IGOROTS. 

SYNONYMY. 

The Bontoc Igorots are so sliarplj^ differentiated from their neighbors that they 
have never been confused with any other tribe. Many of them apply to them- 
selves and their neighbors the name Ipukao or Ifugao. This name means "people" 
and is also applied by them to the short-haired inhabitants of Quiangan and 
Banaue, who are most certainly tribally distinct from them. Inasmuch as it 
has never been used in literature as a designation for the people of Bontoc, but 
has been so used for the short haired inhabitants of northwestern Nueva Viz- 
caya, it seems to me best to retain the commonly employed name Bontoc Igorots 
for the Bontoc people and to reserve the designation Ifugaos for their short 
haired neighbors. 

I know no other synonymous designation for this people. 

HABITAT. 

The Bontoc Igorots are separated by the lofty Polis range of mountains from 
the Ifugaos on the south and southwest, and there has been no intermarriage 
with this tribe, with whom they have been at war for a very long time. 

The line between their territory and that of the Ealingas and Tingianes on 
the east and north is not so sharply drawn, and there has been some intermar- 
riage with the people of both these tribes, notably with the Tingians of Guinaan, 
Balatoc, and Balbalasan. 

Captain Nathorst gives a list of the border rancherias of Bontoc visited 
by him and characterizes their inhabitants as follows : 

Amboan. Southeast, bordering on Nueva Vizcaya. Bontoc Igorots. 

Babug. East by south, bordering on Nueva Vizcaya. Bontoc Igorots. 

Lias. East by south, bordering on Nueva Vizcaya, Bontoc Igorots. y- 

Balangao. East by south, bordering on Nueva Vizcaya, Bontoc Igorots. 

LuBO. East, bordering on Cagayan or Isabela. Kalingas ( ? ) , Igorots. 

Mangali. East, bordering on Cagayan. Comprising six large barrios. 
Kalingas. 

Taloctoc. East, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas, Igorots. 

Tanglac. Northeast, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas and Bontoc Igorots. 

LiCLic. Northeast, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas and Bontoc Igorots. 

Baxautky. Northeast, bordering on Cagayan. Kalingas. 

Bold. North, bordering on Cagayan. EaUtigas. 

Saleoseo. North, bordering on Cagayan. Kalingas. 

Calognet. North, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas. 

Damijon. North, bordering on Cagayan. Kalingas. 

Daltjgen. North, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas. 

Bo-OK. North, bordering on Cagayan. Kalingas. 

Patiquian. North, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas and Bontoc Igorots. 

LiNAS. North, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas and Bontoc Igorots. 

Baneng. North, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas and Bontoc Igorots. 

Seskcan. North, bordering on Cagayan. Kalingas and Bontoc Igorots. 

Talalan. North, bordering on Cagayan. Ealingas, Tingians, Bontoc Igorots. 

Baibalasan. North, bordering on Abra. Tingians, Ealingas, Bontoc Igorots. 

Pascttal. Northwest, bordering on Abra. Tingians, Ealingas, Bontoc Igorots. 

Innanungan. Northwest, bordering on Abra. Tingians, Kalingas, Bontoc 
Igorots. 



834 

Governor Villamor is of the opinion that the people of Lubo and 
Taloctoc are Igorots. 

Dr. Jenks says that the Bontoc culture area stops short at Tinglayan, 
but does not tell us whether he has visited the latter place or any of the 
rancherias north of it. Of the rancherias listed by Captain Nathorst 
thq only ones which I have visited are Balbalasan, Talalan, Sesecan, Pati- 
quian, and Salecsec. 

In my opinion, Tingian blood is predominant in Balbalasan, Talalan, 
and Sesecan, although that of the Kalingas, at least, is decidedly in 
evidence and becomes predominant in Patiquian, while the inhabitants of 
Salecsec are almost pure Kalingas. 

More work must be done in several of these border rancherias before 
any final determination as to the exact limits of the territory of the 
Bontoc Igorots on the north and east can be reached. 

The line between the territory of the Bontoc Igorots and that of the 
Benguet-Lepanto Igorots is well defined, the first rancherias of the latter 
tribe on the north and west being Quinali, Besao, Payeo, Bagnen, Bang- 
nitan, Data, Sabangan, Bonayan, Pingad, Gayan and Namatec. 

DESCEIPTION. 

The Bontoc Igorots are a tribe of Malay origin. While one occasionally 
sees individuals with curly or wavy hair, they do not show any of the other 
characteristics of Negritos, and if their curly hair is a consequence of 
the admixture of Negrito blood, such admixture probably occurred a very 
long time ago. 

The Bontoc Igorots have been so carefully and fully described by 
Dr. A. E. Jenks, in his book entitled The Bontoc Igorot," that any further 
extended description would be superfluous, and the facts essential to -this 
discussion may be stated in summary form. 

The men are of medium size, but their muscular development is mag- 
nificent, and they create the impression of being much larger than they 
really are. 

Thirty-two individuals measured by Dr. Jenks averaged 5 feet 4J inches in 
height. Of these, the shortest measured 4 feet 9J inches and the tallest slightly 
more than 5 feet 9 inches. The average height of 29 women was 4 feet 9| inches, 
the tallest woman measuring 5 feet 4J inches and the shortest 4 feet and three- 
fourths of an inch. 

The men are never corpulent and they are seldom very thin, except in 
extreme old age. The body is distinctly narrower at the waist than at 
the shoulders or hips. The buttocks are heavy, the legs straight, with 
thighs and calves splendidly developed ; the hands and feet are broad and 
short; the skin is dark-brown, sometimes with a distinct, saffron tinge. 
(PI. ITI, fig. 1; PI. XI, fig. 2.) Individuals who have joined the Con- 

'Ethn. Surv. Pub., Manila, P. I. (1905), 1. 



835 

stabulary and as a result have worn clothes and bathed with frequency, 
have bodies so much lighter in color than their fellow-tribesmen that 
their appearance when they divest themselves of their uniforms never 
fails to create surprise. 

The breasts of young women are large, full, and well supported; 
the hips broad and the waist scarcely narrower than the hips. The legs 
are very strong and are usually straight, with large calves and coarse 
ankles. The hands and feet are short and broad. (PL XIII, fig. 1; 
PI. XXIV, fig. 1.) The women reach .their prime at about twenty-three 
years, and at the age of thirty are beginning rapidly to grow old. 

The hair-cut of the men strongly resembles that of the Kalingas, from 
which it differs only in that the cut extending over the ear is not usually 
continued so far back as with the members of the latter tribe. The 
hair over the forehead is banged squarely across, Just as with the Kalingas, 
but the back hair, while allowed to grow long, is usually worn in a coil 
at the back of the head and is held in place by a cap, ordinarily of basket- 
work, but sometimes of wood. (PL IX, fig. 5.) Many of the men are 
very elaborately tattooed (PL VIII, fig. 4) and most of the women have 
tattoo marks on the arms. (PL XXIII, fig. 4.) Theoretically, the 
people of an dto (one of the political divisions of a Bontoc town) may 
be tattooed only when some person belonging to that ato has taken a 
head. However, the suppression of head-hunting in Bontoc has con- 
tributed to the breaking up of this custom, and undoubtedly a large 
amount of tattooing is done at present when no heads have been taken. 

In every rancherm there are one or more men who are skillful in 
tattooing. The desired design is first drawn with a mixture of soot and 
water upon the skin of the person to be operated upon, and the tattooer 
then pricks the skin, following the lines of the design; After the design 
has been pricked in, soot is rubbed into the wounds thus produced. 
This causes the flesh to rise in great welts, which sometimes become in- 
fected and cause serious trouble. 

The Bontoc Igorots recognize three kinds of tattoo. First, that oti the 
breast, usually running upward from each nipple, curving out on the 
shoulders and ending on the upper arms. This indicates that the person 
so marked has taken a head. Second, the tattoo on the arms of men and 
women. Third, all other tattoos of both sexes. The women are tattooed 
only on the arms. 

Dr. Jenks states that tattoo marks on the face, arms, stomach, and 
other parts of the body are believed to be purely esthetic, but other 
observers have remarked that it is often possible to determine from a 
man's tattoo marks the rancheria to which he belongs. With the Bontoc 
Igorots, as with a number of the other northern Luzon tribes, tattoo 
marks, because of their supposed therapeutic value, are put on goiters, 
tumors, and varicose veins. 



836 

The people of this tribe do not blacken their teeth, as do the wild 
Tingians of Apayao, nor do they chew betel nut. 

Adult men usually wear a clout (PL III, fig. 1), although its place 
may be taken by a girdle about the waist and a bag attached to the girdle, 
which hangs down in front and serves the double purpose of apron and 
pocket. Very old men not infrequently have blankets, but young men 
scorn to use them. In addition, every man has a small cap, usually made 
of basket work, but sometimes of wood, which is worn on the back of 
the head and helps to confine the back hair. (PI. VI, figs. 1 and 2 ; 
PI. IX, fig 5.) In a few of the southern and western towns, where the 
men have cut their hair in imitation of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, a 
head-baifd is worn instead of this cap. In addition to the articles above 
mentioned, many of the men possess conical rain-hats covered with wax 
and thus made waterproof, and all have basket-work sleeping caps. 

The ordinary dress of the women consists of a single, short piece of 
cloth woven from bark fiber which is wrapped about the body and extends 
from the waist to the knees. The opening between the two ends usually 
comes along the outside of the right leg. This skirt is held in place at 
the waist by a girdle of similar material. Prom the ends of this girdle 
there project long threads on which are strung seeds resembling the 
beads commonly known as "Job's tears." (PI. XIII, fig. 1.) Most of 
the women also own cotton blankets, which are worn for warmth in 
inclement weather and also when the owners are dancing. (PI. LIV, 
fig. 3.) 

Women as well as men often strip before wading streams, and it is 
not unusual to see adults of both sexes going about entirely naked during 
rainy weather, or when engaged in dirty field-work. 

Both men and women wear quite elaborate ornaments. Small holes 
are pierced through the lobes of the ears and are then stretched by forcing 
into them a constantly increasing number of small pieces of wood, about 
the size of matches, until they reach huge dimensions. (PI. XXI, 
fig. 1.) Into these holes are thrust great rings of bamboo or blocks of 
wood in which coins, pieces of metal or of looking-glass, or bits of brightly 
colored stone may be set. At times, brass, silver, or gold ear ornaments 
of a pattern resembling those seen among the BengUet-Lepanto Igorots 
are used. (PI. VI, figs. 1 and 2 ; PL XVIII, figs. 1 and 2.) 

The men often wear in their hair brass tobacco-pipes of more or less 
elaborate design, from the bowls of which hang metal chains supporting 
metal pipe cleaners. (PL VI, fig. 1.) Huge earrings -of metal are 
sometimes seen and the spoons of the unwary traveler are apt to dis- 
appear temporarily, reappearing later in the ears of the thief, after 
undergoing a very complete metamorphosis. The men often wear about 
the waist, chains of highly polished copper or brass wire (PL III, fig. 1), 
and about the neck, necklaces of seeds, boar's tusks, or dog's teeth. 
Armlets of boar's tusks, worn above the elbow, are quite common. 



837 

Perhaps the most highly treasured ornament of the men is made from 
one of the valves of a pearl-oyster shell. (PI. Ill, fig. 1.) The for- 
tunate owner of such an ornament wears it suspended from the waistband 
of his clout or from a chain or girdle about the waist. Armlets and 
leglets of copper wire are common. Finger-rings are relatively rare. 
I have seen men with pieces of coral thrust into their hair or through the 
holes in their ears. 

The women are fond of copper-wire armlets and leglets, but seldom 
wear chains about their waists. Strings of beads or of dog's teeth and 
bright-colored seeds are highly prized." (PI. XVIII, fig. 1; PI. XXIII, 
fig. 4.) Unmarried women often wear flowers or bunches of green foliage 
in the hair, which is carefully dressed and held in place by strings of 
beads. The women do not ordinarily possess hair combs, but are very 
glad to get them. Many save their loose hair and wear it in the form 
of switches. (PI. XXI, fig. 2.) 

The houses of the Bontoc Igorots are usually closely grouped, forming 
genuine towns which often number several thousand inhabitants. Each 
town is made up of a number of political divisions Imown as atos which, 
for want of a better name, we may call wards. The affairs of the ato 
are presided over by a council of old men, and delegates from each of 
these councils sometimes meet to discuss affairs which concern the town 
as a whole. 

In each dto there ordinarily are three public buildings which may be 
placed in close proximity to each other. ' (PL LXIV, fig. 3.) One of 
these, called the pabafunan, is the house of the ato ceremonials. It is 
reserved for the men and boys of the aio, and women may not enter it. 
Boys of more than three or four years of age and all unmarried men of 
the dto sleep in the pabafunan. It consists of an open, stone court, par- 
tially covered by a roof. About this court there may be trees, and one 
ordinarily also sees posts on which rude images of human heads are 
carved, or dead limbs of trees with the ends sharpened of the branches 
which project upward. On these posts and sharpened branches the heads 
of vanquished enemies are placed during the head feast. The pabafunan 
is incidentally the men's club of the Bontoc settlement. In it the men 
loaf when not busy at home or in the fields, and they naturally improve 
the opportunity to exchange gossip and discuss current events. 

The fawi or ato council house is used as a place of meeting by the old 
men, and other persons are not ordinarily allowed to enter it. It is 
roofed over, and although often adjoining the pabafunan, is not in con- 
nection with it, entrance being had by a separate and very narrow door. 
In the fdwi are kept the skulls of enemies whose heads have been taken 
by the warriors of the dto. 

The olag is the dormitory for girls, and unmarried femals of the dto, 
of two or more years of a,ge are expected to sleep there. It has but one 
opening, a door some thirty inches high and often not more than ten or 



838 

twelve inches wide. Its floor is covered with boards about four feet long 
b-y eight to fourteen inches wide, each board serving as a bed for one of 
the girls. In some atos .the olag is lacking, in which case the girls go 
to the olag of some other ato to sleep ; or there may be two olags, if the 
number of girls ajid unmarried women is large. 

The typical Bontoc family dwelling house is the place where a man, 
his wife, and his children less than two years of age sleep and where the 
entire family eats. In the rancheria of Bontoc it is practically always 
constructed on a fixed plan. (PL XXXIII, fig. 1.) The walls are 
about three and a half feet high; the front wall is open in the middle; 
the front and side walls are built of boards, but the rear one is of stone, 
chinked with clay. There is a post six or seven feet high at each of 
the four corners of the building; the boards of the side walls are tied to 
these posts, which also support the greater part of the weight of the roof. 
There is no fioor on the first story. On the left, as one enters, is a small 
room partially marked off by stones sunk in the earth. In this room 
rice is hulled, millet is threshed, and food is prepared for cooking. 
Next to this room on the left comes one in which the food is cooked. 
Down the center of the house extends a passageway and to the right as 
one enters there is a shelf or bench on which are placed various household 
articles. 

At the rear is a sleeping box, extending from one side of the house to 
the other, so that the side walls make its ends and the back wall forms 
its back side. It has a front side and a top of wood, and is entered by 
means of a small door. This box is sometimes lined on the inside with 
stone, except at the point where the door gives entrance to it. It con- 
tains sleeping boards for the husband and wife, and in one end of it a 
fire is built for warmth. Many of the Bontoc Igorots suffer from serious 
eye trouble, which doubtless has -its origin in the constant irritation 
caused by the smoke in their sleeping boxes. 

The roof of the house extends nearly, but not quite, down to the level 
of the sides and projects beyond them for some distance. In its peak 
there are ordinarily two rooms, one above the other. Entrance is had 
to the lower by means of a door and short ladder. It is used as a store- 
room. The second room must be entered from the first. It is sometimes 
used as a storeroom and sometimes stands empty. The roof of the house 
is well thatched with grass. Under the eaves, firewood is stored. 

Dwelling houses of very difl'erent types may be found in many of the 
other rancherias of the Bontoc Igorots, and even in the settlement of 
Bontoc itself, those inhabited by widows are sometimes mere huts. 

The fish of the Bontoc streams are few in number and are usually 
small in size, but the people manage to secure a considerable supply of 
them either by catching them with their hands imder stones in the streams 
or by chasing them into wickerwork baskets or traps. (PI. L, fig. 1.) 



839 

Traps are also set for jungle-fowl. and for small birds and mammals. 
Wild carabaos are hunted by large bands of warriors, who lie in wait by 
their runways and attempt to spear them when they pass. This form 
of- sport is attended with a good deal of danger, as a wounded carabao is 
a fierce and determined fighter. Dogs are sometimes kept for running 
deer and hogs. Deer are relatively scarce in Bontoc, but hogs are quite 
abundant. "When brought to bay by the dogs, they are killed with 
lances, the use of the bow and arrow being unknown among the Bontoc 
Igorots. Deer and hogs are also taken in pitfalls and dead-falls. 

The agricultiire of the Bontoc Igorots, like that of the Ifugaos, is 
very highly developed for a people otherwise so primitive. As the 
country which they inhabit furnishes little game and fish, they are very 
largely dependent upon the fruits of agriculture for a livelihood. They 
build wonderful irrigation dams and ditches and terraced rice-fields which 
often extend far up the mountain sides. (PI. XXXVIII, fig. 1.) The 
ground; after being flooded, is prepared for planting with no other imple- 
ments than sharpened sticks and the hands and feet of the laborers. Men 
and women join in this work, and may not infrequently be seen working 
side by side in a state of absolute nudity, their clothes having been dis- 
carded in order to prevent injury to them by mud and water. However, 
more frequently the women leave their girdles on, and attach bunches of 
leaves or grass to them in lieu of skirts. (PI. XXIV, fig. 1.) 

The two principal crops are rice and camotes; the former grown under 
irrigation, and the latter as a rule high up on the steep mountain sides. 
However, in ^ome cases a crop of camotes is grown on the rice-terraces 
during the dry season, and in rare instances one sees terraces which are 
given up exclusively to the cultivation of these tubers. 

The Bontoc Igorots also raise a considerable quantity of millet, beans, 
and maize. Their cultivated fields are fertilized with care. They have 
well-established property rights over them and also have rules relative 
to the use of irrigation water, which are designed to insure its equitable 
distribution. 

Eice is first sown thickly in seeding beds, and when it has sprouted 
is transplanted by hand. During the entire period of growth it is 
kept carefully weeded and is thinned out as occasion may require. After 
it has headed, constant care is necessary to protect it from the depreda- 
tions of hogs, monkeys, rats, and birds. In this, as in all other work, 
the Bontoc Igorots display great patience and industry. 

Before the rice harvest is begun, a brief ceremony is performed in a 
pathway adjoining each plot where harvesting is to go on. Tall stalks 
of runo grass are then set as a warning to other Igorots that harvesting 
is in progress and they must not pass that way. Persons violating this 
rule are subject to heavy fines. 

More attention is paid by the Bontoc Igorots to domestic animals than 
is given by the Negritos, Ilongots, or Kalingas. Pigs are kept in large 

46941 i 



840 

numbers and lead a pampered existence, being provided with well- 
thatched houses in which they may seek shelter from the sun or ram. 
These houses open from yards sunken in the stone courts of the houses 
of the owners. Cooked food is often prepared for the pigs and is served 
to them from wooden buckets, in troughs of wood or stone. The pigs 
thus carefully raised do not furnish a part of the ordinary food supply, 
but are reserved for consumption at ceremoniar feasts. Chickens are kept 
in some abundance, and some of the more wealthy Igorots own carabaos 
which are usually allowed to run in a half -wild state, so that it is necessary 
to organize a regular hunt in order to kill them. They are never em- 
ployed as draft animals but, like pigs and chickens, are eaten at 
ceremonials. In a few of the settlements a small number of horses are 
kept. They are not ridden, but serve as a source of food supply. Dogs 
a:re raised in considerable numbers. Some of them are used by their 
owners in hunting, but the majority are kept to be killed and eaten at 
ceremonials. . However, occasionally the ordinary bill of fare is helped 
out with a little dog meat. 

The Bontoc Igorots have manufactures of some importance. They 
occasionally roll cigars, but as a rule prefer to smoke their tobacco in 
pipes. They make lasi in considerable quantity and sometimes have 
enough not only to satisfy their own necessities, but to sell to others. 
The apparatus used for extracting the cane-juice may properly be 
dignified by the term " mill." It consists of two vertical, wooden 
cylinders, one of which is geared to the other. To the upper end of one 
of the cylinders a long wooden beam is fastened, and men and boys fur- 
nish the necessary motive power by pushing on this beam. (PI. XLI, 
fig. 2.) The cane is fed between the cylinders and there is a receptacle 
in which is caught the juice, which is subsequently boiled for six or seven 
hours. A handful of vegetable ferment is then thrown into it and it 
is allowed to stand for four or five days, when fermentation is complete. 
The fermented liquid is then poured into large, earthen jars and tightly 
covered. It will keep for four or five months, but ultimately turns into 
vinegar. 

The Bontoc Igorots also make another fermented drink, called tapuy, 
from rice. They also prepare a very limited amount of cane-sugar. 

The women roll strips of bark into coarse thread (PI. XLIII, fig. 1) 
which they weave into cloth on primitive looms. In a few towns they 
weave cotton clouts and blankets of quite elaborate design and varied 
pattern. The making of basket-work is one of their most important 
industries. They weave not only basket caps for the hair, which are 
made of brightly stained rattan and are often highly ornamental, but 
rattan sleeping caps; baskets for serving food; for confining chickens; 
for carrying rice and rnmotcs: for rain shields, and for a variety of other 
purposes. Pottery of very good quality is manufactured in several towns, 
notably in Samoki and in Bitwagan. Other towns make clay and metal 



841 , 

pipe bowls. Wooden pipes are maniifactured by the people of all the 
towns. 

Head-axes and lance-points are fashioned from iron and steel at Bali- 
wang, and axes which, by a change in the position of the head on the 
handle, can readily be converted into adzes are produced in considerable 
numbers. 

Ceremonial drinking cups and lime-boxes, ornamented with scratch- 
work patterns, or with quite elaborately woven lashings of vegetable fiber, 
are made from bamboo. Bowls, troughs, and ladles are fashioned from 
wood, and pig-troughs are sometimes hollowed from stone. The elabo- 
rately carved wooden spoons, forks, bowls, and other wooden dishes so 
common among the Ifugaos are conspicuous by their absence. So called 
anito posts, carved from tree-fern trunks, are sometimes seen in the fields 
or beside the trail. (PI. XLVIII, fig. a.) 

One town of Bontoc, Mayinit, has an important and unique industry 
in the manufacture of salt from a brine which flows from boiling springs. 
This brine is led to clay courts roughly paved with small stones and 
roofed over to keep ofE the rain. It flows among the stones, evaporating 
by its own heat and depositing its salt. When a sufiQcient amount has 
been deposited on the lower surface of the stones, their position is reversed. 
When they are entirely covered they are taken out, the salt is washed, off, 
and the strong brine thus formed is evaporated in kettles over fire. The 
salt thus produced is made into cakes and dried and then becomes an 
important article of Igorot commerce. 

Until within a short time the Bontoc Igorots have been persistent head- 
hunters, but this practice is now rapidly disappearing. Dr. Jenlcs states 
that the possession of a head is in no way requisite to marriage, and that 
the heads of enemies have no part in the ceremonies celebrated in order 
to secure good crops, good health, or for other similar purposes; that 
they do not affect a man's wealth, nor his supposed fortune in the world 
to come. He accounts for the persistency with which head-hunting is 
indulged in on the basis that a man desires to be considered brave by his 
neighbors and his descendants, and that he also needs activity and 
excitement. 

« 

It does not appear that Dr. Jenks had any opportunity personally to 
investigate the head-hunting customs of the Bontoc Igorots. Informa- 
tion received from other sources leads me to believe that the taking of a 
head is of very real assistance to a Bontoc man in making a good match. 
If the heads taken are of so little use, how are we to account for the 
undoubted fact that the cash value of a head in Bontoc was, until recently, 
a hundred pesos, a very large sum among such poor people ? 

The Bontoc warriors are brave men, and instead of murdering their 
victims from ambush, as do the Ilongots, they not infrequently send 
formal challenges to the enemies with whom they wish to fight. When a 
challenge is accepted, an open attack is made by the inhabitants of one 



842 

town on the other. Challenges may be refused, and there are regular, 
established procedures for breaking the peace between towns, and for 
reestablishing it. 

I When a warrior takes a head, he usually returns at once to his town 
and placing the trophy in a funnel-shaped receptacle fastens it to a post 
in the stone court of the fdwi. A short ceremony lasting a day and a 
night, at which a dog or a hog is killed, is immediately inaugurated, and 
on the following night there begins a ceremony which lasts for a month. 
At the outset the head is taken to the river and washed, the lower 
jawbone is cut off, cleaned, and reserved for use as a gansa handle. 
(PI. LV, fig. 1.) On the evening of this day the head is buried under 
the stones of the fawi, while the ceremony continues. Endless dances 
are held, and carabaos, dogs, hogs, and chickens are killed and eaten. 
After the head has been buried for approximately three years, it is dug 
up, and the slcull, after being thoroughly washed, is placed in a basket 
with other skulls and hung in the fdwi. (PI. LXIV, fig. 3.) Another 
feast is celebrated at this time. The skulls are ultimately again buried 
under the stones of the fdwi and, in fact, some of the rancherias do not 
dig them up at all. The body of a warrior unfortunate enough to lose 
his head is buried without formal ceremony under the trail leading to 
the town of the man who took it. On the day following such a burial, 
the people of the dto to which the victim belonged have a fishing cere- 
mony, and eat fish for the evening meal. On the succeeding day they go 
to a spot near the place where their companion lost his head and ask his 
spirit to return to their town. 

The Bontoc warrior is usually armed with a broad-bladed head-axe, a 
steel-headed lance, and a good-sized wooden shield. (PI. XI, fig. 3.) 
Lance-heads are variously shaped, some of them being mere plain blades, 
while others have from one to four pairs of barbs. (PI. LX, figs. 2 ;, fc, 
I, and m.) In the rancherias of Amboan, Agawa, Sagada, and Tetepan 
t most of the warriors use head-knives or bolos instead of head-axes. 

The Bontoc Igorots have a number of musical instruments, including 
"Jew's-harps" made of bamboo or brass, bamboo flutes and gansas. Of 
these, the gansa, which is in such general use among the non-Christian 
tribes of northern Luzon, is by far the most important. It is made 
of copper or brass, and is suspended from a handle which theoretically 
should be and practically often is, the lower jawbone of an enemy killed 
in a battle. (PL LV, fig. 1.) 

The Bontoc Igorot does not beat his gansa with his hands as does the 
Kalinga, Tingian, and Ifugao, nor with a bit of wood as does the Benguet- 
Lepanto Igorot, but uses a well-fashioned, skin-covered drumstick. 

He dances while he plays, and in the dance both men and women par- 
ticipate. In one of the common dances the men form a long line which 
winds in and out through the crowd of spectators, while the dancers 
pound their gansas and execute some very fancy steps. This dance is 



843 

participated in by women who do not join the line, but keep near it, 
dancing with outstretched arms and with much rising on tiptoes and 
descending on the flats of the feet. 

In the head-dance, the chief actor goes through the motions of hunting 
down and killing his enemy, taking his head, etc., dancing meantime to 
the accompaniment of gansas played by men who at the same time 
themselves dance, as do the women who happen to be near. (PI. LIV, 
fig. 3.) 

In another dance the men form a line with their arms about each other's 
necks, and the women form a similar one immediately behind them. 
The man at the right holds in his hand a stick which he stretches toward 
the ground from tinie to time. This dance is executed to the tune of 
rather mournful singing by the participants, and is accompanied with 
much flexing of the body and legs. (PI. LV, fig. 2.) It is said to 
be performed in connection with funerals. All of the dances of the 
Bontoc Igorots are spirited and striking affairs. 

The Bontoc Igorot is monogamous. He has but one wife and is/ 
usually faithful to her. However, he has the peculiar custom of trial 
marriage, a young couple establishing a temporary union while the girl 
is still living in the olag and leaving future events to determine whether 
this union shall become permanent. The advent of a child usually 
settles the matter in the affirmative. 

Unfruitful unions generally lead to divorce, separation being accom- 
plished by mutual consent between husband and wife. In case either 
party to a marriage deserts the other, he or she must pay a fine of one 
or more rice plots or other valuable property. If either party dies, the 
other must not remarry for at least a year. 

Theft, lying to shield oneself from the consequences of evil deeds, 
assault and battery, adultery and murder are recognized as crimes by the 
Bontoc Igorots. There are a number of interesting tests to determine 
which of several suspected persons is guilty of a crime, but I will not 
describe them, as we have not sufficient knowledge of similar practices 
among the other northern Luzon tribes to establish a comparison of 
importance. However, it should be said in passing that one of these 
is the rice-chewing test, in which each of the suspected persons is made 
to chew a mouthful of raw rice, and to spit it out at word of command. 
Each mouthful is then examined, and the person whose rice is driest is 
considered guilty, it being supposed that the guilty one will be frightened 
during the trial and that the flow of saliva will consequently be checked. 
This same test occurs among the Taghanuas of Palawan and the Mang- 
yans of Mindoro. 

The Bontoc Igorots believe that sickness and death are caused by 
anitos. They have medicine for wounds, burns, and headaches. They 
poultice boils and other sores, and make a salve of millet and charcoal 
to use in curing the itch. Toothache is treated with salt mixed with 



844 

pounded herbs. A decoction of certain leaves is used to cure smallpox, 
but in ordinary cases of severe illness the measures taken are purely of a 
nature calculated to appease the anitos who are believed to be making 
the trouble. 

Death is taken very quietly by the living. A woman weeps a day for 
a child or a husband, but men do not weep over the death of friends or 
relatives. There is no long or loud lamentation as with the Ilongots. 
The body, wrapped in a blanket on which are woven white anito figures, 
is placed in a rudely fashioned chair and set inside the house, immediately 
in front of the door. Feasting and drinking then begin and last for a 
time which varies with the wealth and importance of the deceased. 

There is no field work in an dto on the day when an adult person is 
buried. The body is placed in a coffin and buried ia the ground. When 
the cofiia has been lowered, the grave is filled as quickly as possible in 
.order to avoid evil portents, such as the crowing of cocks, the barking of 
dogs, and the crossing of the trail by snakes or rats. The bodies of 
persons of importance are buried at the outskirts of the town; those of 
ordinary persons in the fields near their houses; those of children are 
not placed in coffins. The bodies of very young children are buried close 
to the houses in. order that the children may be afforded protection. 
After a burial, the relatives return to the house of the deceased and pass 
the night there, a ceremony being performed with the apparent objet of 
propitiating his anito. On the following day all the male relatives go 
to some neighboring stream and fish. That evening they have a fish 
festival to which all the ancestral anitos are invited. The second night 
is also spent at the house of the deceased, after which the relatives retire 
to their homes at night. The funeral rites last from two to eight days. 

In general it may be said of the Bontoc Igorot that, although a pagan, 
he is brave, industrious and intelligent, and is possessed of a strong sense 
of humor which leads him at times to play practical gokes even upon 
white men. He has shown himself rather docile ta the matter of giving 
up head-hunting. He responds readily to the discipline of military serv- 
ice, and makes a good soldier. All in all, there is much hope that he 
ultimately will make great progress in civilization and in material pros- 
perity, but his intense conservatism will, at the outset, render such prog- 
ress slow. 

The boys are bright and learn rapidly. They also indulge in vigorous, 
not to say rough, play, and laugh and shout like small American boys, 
presenting in this particular a pleasing contrast to the silent and timid 
children of the civilized towns. 

I incline to believe that Eizal's statement that the hope of the Philip- 
pines lies in the people of the mountains is worthy of more serious con- 
sideration than has hitherto been accorded to it. At present, very few of 
his countrymen are really interested in the work of civilizing the wild 
\ 
\ 



845 

tribes. It is to be hoped that the mimbeT of such persons will increase 
in the not very distant future. Meanwhile, the average wild man accedes 
with much better grace to suggestions from a white man than to those 
made by a civilized Filipino. 

Tribe VI. THE BENGUET-LEPANTO IGOROTS. 

The non-Christian people of the Province of Benguet and the subprovinoe of 
Lepanto call themselves Igorot, and the name Igorots might, with entire propriety, 
be assigned to them as a, tribal designation were it not that no satisfactory name 
for the Bontoc people except that of Bontoc Igorots has thus far been suggested, 
and it therefore becomes necessary to distinguish between the Igorots of this sub- 
province and those of Benguet and Lepanto. 

SYNONYMY. 

BENGUETANOS. Name applied to Igorots of Benguet. 
IGUDUT. Synonym of Igorot. 
YGOLOTES. Synonym of Igorots. 
YGOROT. Synonym of Igorot. 

HABITAT. 

The entire Province of Benguet, including the former oomandanoia of Kayapa; 
the mountains of that portion of Union Province which borders on Benguet and 
Amburayan; the entire subprovince of Amburayan with the exception of the town- 
ship of Sigay, where there are a number of Tingicms; the hills bordering upon 
Amburayan and South Ilokos, and the entire subprovince of Lepanto with the 
exception of the townships of Angaki, Concepcion, and San Emilio, in each of 
which there are considerable numbers of Tingians. 

The rancherias inhabited by Benguet-Lepanto Igorots which border upon the 
territory inhabited by the Bontoc Igorots have already been listed. 

It should be noted that in the mountains of northeastern Benguet there live, 
in inaccessible places, a people called by the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots "Busaos." 
This word means "enemies" and is not a tribal designation. The people to whom 
it is applied are Benguet-Lepanto Igorots and speak the Kankanai dialect. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The Benguet-Lepanto Igorots are of lower stature than are the Bontoc 
Igorots and Ifugaos, but as a result of inhabiting a very healthful moun- 
tain country they are remarkably strong .and well developed. Many of 
them have large and very beautiful eyes. Their skins are of the usual 
dark shade of brown, although often darkened by earth and soot and by 
long continued exposure to the sun. The men usually wear their hair 
cut moderately short. The women bang the hair which hangs over the 
forehead, but allow the rest of it to grow moderately long and wear it 
hanging down their backs. 

The usual costume of the men is a clout, supplemented, whenever the 
means of the individual will permit, by a cotton blanket, which is 
wrapped around the upper part of the body to protect it from the cold 
breezes of the mountains. (PI. Ill, fig. 3.) 



846 

At the present time many of the men have adopted civilized dress. 
Old hats and blue flannel shirts are especially desired. Trousers they 
don with some reluctance. It is considered etiquette for the presidents 
and councilors of the rancherias to wear civilized dress during office 
hours and on state occasions. Many of them discard their trousers as 
soon as these hours are over, and some of them request vacations from 
time to time in order that they may go back to their clouts and " rest." 

The Benguet women, unlike those of any other non-Christian tribe in 
northern Luzon, habitually clothe the entire body. Their working cos- 
tume consists of a skirt reaching to, or a little below, the Imee, a long- 
sleeved upper garment and a towel or a piece of cloth coiled about the 
head in the manner of a turban. The poorer women, on state occasions, 
and the wealthier ones when not at work, wear garments of brightly 
colored cloth. Three or four skirts may be superimposed one over 
another, like Japanese kimonos (PI. XIII, fig. 2), and the same holds 
true of the upper garments. From childhood, the Igorot women are ac- 
customed to carry heavy burdens in baskets on their backs. In order to 
save their clothes, when carrying they usually put their upper garments 
on with the back side forward, leaving their backs bare, so that the 
wear from the baskets may come on their skins rather than on their 
much-cherished clothes. Occasionally also, when at work in the fields or 
in the privacy of their homes, they remove their upper garments, which 
are, however, always promptly donned if a stranger appears. 

The men of southern Benguet usually have the hair cut quite short all 
over their heads and often wear pieces of cloth coiled around their heads 
turban fashion. (PI. VI, figs. 3 and 4; PL IX, fig. 6.) The women 
usually bang their hair across their foreheads, but allow the rest of it to 
grow moderately long and to hang down their backs. They almost 
always wear towels or pieces of cloth bound around their heads so as to 
form rude turbans, and if their hair is long enough to cause them an- 
noyance when at work, it may be bound up at such time. (PL XVIII, 
figs. 3 and 4; PL XXI, fig. 3.) 

Both men and women are sometimes tattooed, the women more fre- 
quently than the men. The tattoo marks are chiefly confined to the hands 
and arms (PL XXV, fig. 3), although sometimes they are made upon 
goiters and tumors because of their supposed curative effect. The men 
often have conventional tattoo marks, representing the sun on the 
backs of their hands. 

They have few ornaments, but sometimes wear earrings of copper, 
silver, or gold, and leglets of copper wire. A few of the men have metal 
pipes, and many of them carry a set of metal toilet articles consisting 
of ear spoons of different forms and pinchers for pulling hair from the 
face or body. The women have ear-ornaments similar to those of the 
men (PL XXV, fig. 3a), and occasionaly bedeck themselves with beads. 
Some of the women of Kabayan have thin bands of solid beaten gold 



847 

which are worn between their lips and front teeth, completely closing 
their mouths. (PI. XXI, fig. 3.) These gold bands are no longer made, 
the ones which exist having been handed down by the ancestors of the 
present generation. 

In the vicinity of Suyok, large, and strangely fashioned, gold ornaments, 
which, for want of a better name may be called brooches, are occasionally 
met with. (PI. XXV, fig. 36.) 

The Bengnet-Lepanto Igorots usually live in well-defined settlements 
(PI. XXVIII, fig. 1), although occasionally one finds single families 
inhabiting remote and inaccessible mountain fastnesses. The dwelling 
house may have a grass roof and sides and be placed on the ground, or 
it may have board sides with a thatched roof, and be either placed on the 
ground or raised several feet above it on piles. (PI. XXXIII, fig. 2; 
PI. XXXIV, fig. 1.) Frequently it has a platform under the eaves, on 
which the occupants sit during rainy weather. It is sometimes lighted 
and ventilated by but a single door, but may have two or more doors and 
several windows. It is almost invariably black with soot on the inside, 
the cool weather of the mountains making a fire constantly necessary. 

In the rancherias along the Bontoe border and in some of those in 
Amburayan the houses are built on the ground, with low sides and very 
high peaked roofs, each roof containing a small room, to which there is 
access by a ladder and in which rice and other commodities are stored. 
(PI. XXXIV, fig. 2.) 

Eice-granaries and pig-pens are the only other structures ordinarily 
made by the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, unless, indeed, that name be 
applied to the ceremonial platforms usually found near their houses, on 
which are placed offerings to propitiate the spirits. 

The boards and timbers used for house construction are hewed from 
pine trees and are rarely carved or ornamented, although there are 
exceptions to this general rule. 

The streams of Benguet and Lepanto contain even fewer fish than 
those of Bontoe and ISTueva Vizcaya. Nevertheless, with traps and with 
their bare hands the people manage to catch a few small fish (PI. L, 
fig. 2), and they sometimes spear eels of large size. 

Deer and wild hogs, which are fairly abundant, are hunted with dogs 
and kiUed with lances. The use of the bow and arrow is unknown 
among the people of this tribe. 

The agriculture of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots is not so well developed 
as is that of the Bontoe Igorots and the Ifugaos, although they some- 
times construct quite extensive, terraced rice-paddies. The walls of these 
terraces are almost invariably made of mud, but in the vicinity of Kaba- 
yan, in Benguet, one sees stone walls. Camotes are the staff of life, rice 
being more or less of a luxury. Camotes are usually grown on the steep 
mountain sides, and after two or three crops have been raised the land 
is allowed to rest for some time before being planted again. Tomatoes, 



848 

squashes, and taro are grown to a limited extent. Fine bananas are raised 
in abundance and good mangas are to be had in the warmer valleys. 
Considerable coffee is raised at Daklan and Kabayan, in Benguet. 
(PI. XXXVIII, fig. 2.) 

The Benguet-Lepanto Igorots keep dogs for hunting purposes and 
for household pets and also bring in from the lowlands a large number 
of these animals which they eat. They raise chickens and pigs in 
considerable numbers, the latter being mostly reserved to be eaten on 
state occasions. Their pigs, which are well cared for and sometimes 
attain a large size, are of a type distinctly better than that of those kept 
by the civilized natives of the lowlands. Carabaos, cattle, and. horses 
are raised in considerable numbers. The men are good horsemen and 
ride skillfully either with or without saddles. (PI. LI, fig. 3.) They 
have very little consideration for their horses, and often run them up and 
down hill. Many of the women also ride. (PI. LI, fig. 1.) Chickens, 
pigs, carabaos, cattle, or horses which die of disease are promptly eaten. 

The Benguet-Lepanto Igorots roll their own cigars and prepare from 
rice a fermented drinlc known as tapuy. Their manufactures of wood 
are limited to images or anitos (PI. XLIX, figs. 1, a^ &j c, and d), the rude 
ladles and bowls or trays used in cooking and serving, food (PI. XLIX, 
fig. 2,c), carrying-boxes (PI. XLIX, figs. 2, a and 6), and carved walking- 
sticks, spoons and small, wooden dishes, which are produced in some 
quantity by the people living in the vicinity of Bugias. (PI. XLVIII, 
figs, c, d, and e; PL XLIX, figs. 1 and %.) The men have mined gold 
for centuries. They work over the faces of exposed cliffs, when necessary 
suspending themselves by means of rattans, and pick out the streaks of 
rich ore which show free gold. This they dig with their crude iron or 
steel implements, the use of powder being unknown among them. The 
ore, after being dug, is crushed and panned. 

Both men and women also wash gold from the sands of the streams, 
and the women are especially famed for the skill with which they save 
the very light float gold — a skill which American miners have found it 
impossible to attain. The gold is usually sold in the form of dust, 
although it is sometimes melted and run into ingots. 

Many of the Igorots of northern Benguet and southern Lepanto mine 
copper and smelt it by a process of their own. Prom the metal thus 
obtained they fashion olios and kettles which frequently are of large size. 
The method employed in making kettles is kept secret by those familiar 
with it, and numerous attempts on the part of Americans to surprise 
coppersmiths at their work have proved abortive. At one time a consider- 
able business was done in the vicinity of Suyok in making rude counter- 
feits of Spanish copper coins. Clay molds were taken from genuine 
coins, and into these molds the copper was run. These counterfeits 
although quite recognizable as such, circulated freely for some time 
because of the shortage of small change. 



849 

The Igorots of Benguet make little or no cloth, but some of those of 
Lepanto bordering on the Tingian country have learned the art of 
weaving from their neighbors, and the same is true of some of the in- 
habitants of the rancherias near the Bontoc border, who weave beautiful 
blankets. Basket ware of good quality and in considerable variety is 
quite generally manufactured. 

The Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, both men and women, carry burdens on 
their backs as do the Bontoc Igorots, differing in this respect from the 
Ifugaos who, so far as possible, carry everything on their heads. 

Although seventy-seven years ago the Igorots of Benguet offered armed 
resistance to the Spaniards who first entered the province, they are now 
the most pacific of people. When the first Spanish expeditions pene- 
trated their territory, the Benguet Igorots seem to have used bows and 
arrows, but this is no longer the case. In an emergency it is still pos- 
sible for them to hunt up a few old shields and lances, but many years 
have passed since they have made war on any other tribe or committed 
any act of armed aggression. They do not take heads, and there seems 
to be no evidence that they have ever done so. Their war shields were, 
' it is said, usually ornamented with the carved figure of a man. (PI. LXI, 
figs. 1, d and 3, d. ) Lances are far more commonly met with than shields 
at the present time. They have been retained because they are useful in 
hunting. In general, their heads are smaller and less well made than are 
those of the lances of the Bontoc Igorots, which they resemble in shape. 

The music of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots is highly characteristic, and 
severar instruments are used in producing it. Of these the most peculiar 
is a pair of long, slender-barreled wooden drums, open at one end and 
having the other covered with pigskin or lizard skin. (PI. LVI, figs. 1 
and 3.) These drums are played with the hands. The operator can 
change the pitch of the tones produced by pressing his arm or leg, or both, 
against the wooden barrel. The gansa, which is always used when music 
is wanted, is played with a short stick or slat of bamboo. (PI. LVI, 
figs. 1 and 2.) Usually there is also one musician who beats together a 
stone and a bit of steel or iron. During certain months of the year a 
Benguet Igorot woman will not go on the trail without carrying and 
constantly playing the bamboo musical instrument shown in Plate LIX, 
figs. 1, b and c. This instrument is carried in the left hand and is made to 
vibrate by striking one of its prongs against the right wrist. The char- 
acter of the sound thus produced is changed by thumbing the hole near 
the septum at the undivided end. The Benguet Igorots are also fond of 
vocal music. They sing frequently at their feasts and occasionally when 
on the trail or resting beside it. 

In the dance which is most commonly seen, a man with outstretched 
arms from which blankets are hung represents a bird. He dances with 
active movements of the feet and with much flexing of the arms, wrists, 
and hands. His fair partner dances with her hands stretched upward 



850 

and the palms turned forward. (PL LVI, fig. 3.) Her steps are less 
active than those of the man and she occasionally stoops forward until 
the tips of her fingers almost touch the earth. At times she moves 
forward by bending the toes, keeping her feet almost constantly in contact 
with the earth. 

The Benguet-Lepanto Igorots are monogamous. Children are be- 
trothed at a very early age and often marry at the age of puberty or even 
before. Strong attachments are not uncommon among the married 
people and divorce is relatively rare. 

Sickness is attributed to anitos. Very few native medicines are em- 
ployed in treating the sick and great reliance is placed in canaos, at which 
carabaos, cattle, pigs, or chickens, according to the wealth of the sick 
person, are killed. Gradually, however, southern Benguet representatives 
of this tribe have learned the value of the white man's medicine, many of 
them having been treated in the hospital at Baguio. . A great triumph 
was scored a short time since when the wife of an influential chief named 
Mateo Cariiio, was persuaded to place herself in the hands of an American 
physician when she was nearly dead from dysentery, and was cured. 

When a person dies, a funeral feast is held which frequently lasts until * 
the expense involved equals the value of all the property of the deceased. 
While the feast is in progress the body is kept, usually in a sitting posi- 
tion, in or under the house. It is ultimately placed in a wooden coffin 
and removed to a burial place, which is often in a cave or under a great 
rock. (PI. LXVI, fig. 1.) If the deceased is a distinguished person 
his relatives visit his grave from time to time and bring him food and 
drink. 

The people of the Kayapa district in Benguet and the so-caUed Busaos 
who inhabit the mountains near Buguias and Loo are the wildest represen- 
tatives of this tribe. They show few indications of association with their 
Ifugao neighbors, from whom they are separated by high mountains. 
Along the Bontoc and Abra boundaries there has been some intermarriage 
with the Bontoc Igorots and Tingians, with consequent confusion of 
customs. However, on the whole the line between the territory of these 
several peoples is quite sharply drawn. 

While all the settlements of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots have their 
own governments, organized in accordance with the white man's law, 
there still remain Igorot representatives of the families from which came 
the chiefs of former days, who have more influence than have any of the 
present elected officials. Kot a few individuals of these families have 
attained to considerable wealth. 

All in all, the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots must be considered far more 
highly civilized than any other non-Christian northern Luzon tribe except 
the Tingians. Their boys are now attending school in considerable 
numbers and are proving to be bright pupils. For a long time they 



851 

refused to allow their girls to go to school, but their prejudices have 
now been overcome to some extent and an interesting experiment in the 
education of girls is being conducted at Bagnio. 

Tribe VII. THE TINGIANS. 

SYNONYMY. 

APAYAOS. Name applied to the Tingians living in the district of Apayao, 
Cagayan. 

APAYOS. Synonym of Apayaos. 

APOYAOS. Synonym of Apayaos. 

BANAOS. Name applied to the Tingians of the upper Saltan Eiver Valley and 
the rancherias of Guinaan and Balatoc. 

BURICS. Name applied to the Tingians of the Cordillera Central in northern 
Abra. 

BUSAOS. Name applied to the Tingians of the mountains of Siguey, near 
Benang, Abra. 

EC NIG. Synonym of Itneg. 

G I N A N . Synonym of Guinaanes. 

GUINAANES. The name applied to the Tingians of Guinaan and neighboring 
rancherias. The statement of the Jesuits that these people are Mala,j-Negritos 
is incorrect. They show no evidences of Negrito blood. 

GUINANES. Syaonyva of Guinaanes. 

1 TAN EG. Synonym of Itneg. 

ITAVEG. Synonym of Itneg. 

ITETAPANES. Said by the Jesuits to be a tribe "contiguous on the south 
with the Igorots of Benguet, on the north with the Guinaanes, and on the west 
with the Busaos." No such people exist at the present time. In point of fact 
this name was probably applied to the inhabitants of Tetepan. 

ITNEG. The name universally applied by the Tingians to themselves. 

QUINAANES. Synonym of Guinaanes. 

QUI NAN ES. Synonym of Guinanes. 

TINGGIANES. Synonym of Tingians. 

TINGUES. Synonym of Tingians. 

YTATAPANES. Synonym of Itetapanes. 

HABITAT. 

The stronghold of the Tingians is the subprovinoe of Abra, where they make up 
approximately 50 per cent of the population. Numerous Tingian rancherias are 
found in the eastern mountains and foothills of Ilokos Sur and Ilokos Norte, and 
the inhabitants of the Ablug River Valley, including the old Spanish oomandwnciaS 
of Cabugaon and Apayaos and in general the district which has been laiown as 
Apayaos, belong to this tribe. It extends south along the eastern slopes of the 
Cordillera Central as far as Dagara. South of this point the Tingians give way 
to the Kalingas, only to reappear again along the headwaters of the Saltan 
River at Sesecan, Balbalasan, Balatoc, and Guinaan. In these latter rancherias 
they have intermarried somewhat with the Kalingas and Bontoc Igorots. There 
are considerable numbers of them in the roMcherias of Tiagan, Concepcion, and 
Angaki, in the subprovince of Lepanto, where they are living with Benguet- 
Lepanto Igorots. The same condition of things prevails in the tovmship of Sigay, 
in the subprovince of Amburayan. Finally, there are a number of settlements of 



852 

Tingians who have been converted to Christianity, in the vicinity of Rosario and 
Pozzorubio in Pangasinan, near the mouth of the Bued River canyon, and 
strangest of all, there is a single Tingian ranoheria called San Marcelo in the 
Province of Nueva Ecija. A band of virandering Tingians has even been observed 
by Dr. Barrows in Pangasinan. 

DESCEIPTION. 

The name Tingians or Tinguianes has long been applied to the non- 
Christian inhabitants of Abra and to certain of those of the western 
slopes of the eastern mountain ranges of Ilokos Norte and Ilokos Sur. 
These people call themselves Itneg, and this appellation would be a fitting 
tribal designation for them, but the name which I have adopted has been 
so long and so generally in use that it seems undesirable to change it. 

Many of the Tingians of Abra and of Ilokos Norte and Ilokos Sur are 
possessed of a degree of civilization quite equal to that of their Ilokano 
neighbors, but the inhabitants of some of the settlements of Ilokos Norte 
and Ilokos Sur and of eastern Abra are not far advanced in civilization. 
Until very recently the wildest of all the known Tingians were the people 
of Guinaan and Balatoc, in Bontoc, and of Balbalasan and other settle- 
ments along the headwaters of the Saltan Eiver. 

The people of the district of Apayao have long been known under the 
nsime'Apayaos, although their immediate neighbors call them Ealingas. 
On a recent trip through this hitherto almost unknown region I was 
greatly surprised to discover that they were Tingians, but Tingians with 
a degree of civilization comparable to that possessed by those of Abra a 
century and a half or two centuries ago. They themselves trace their 
ancestry without hesitation, to the Tingians of Uocos Sur, for whom 
they still entertain friendship and whom they often visit. They call 
themselves Itneg. A very large proportion of them speak Ilokano, which 
is not true of the Ealingas; and, according to Governor Bias Villamor, 
who accompanied me on this trip, the language which they use among 
themselves is, with comparatively minor differences, that of the Tingians 
of Abra. Governor Villamor further states that the costumes which 
they wear at the present time are practically identical with old Tingian 
ones which have been preserved in Abra for a century and a half. The 
inaccessibility of the river valley in which the Apayao Tingians live 
doubtless affords a satisfactory explanation of their having retained their 
primitive dress and customs. 

Of this tribe, then, we have a civilized and an uncivilized branch, the 
people of the former being justly celebrated for their kindness and 
docility, while those of the latter are equally well known as fierce head- 
hunters. 

On the average, the civilized Tingians are perhaps somewhat smaller 
in size than are the neighboring Ealingas and Bontoc Igorots. However 
the wild Tingians of Apayao, of Balbalasan, and of Guinaan are quite 



853 

as large as their Kalinga and Igorot neighbors. One is at once impressed 
with the fact that the Tingians of Abra are somewhat lighter colored 
than are the people of the other non-Christian tribes of northern Luzon, 
but this is doubtless in some measure due to their being, a scrupulously 
clean people who bathe with great frequency and thoroughness. Their 
women are especially well-favored and attractive. 

The Tingian type of face is very different from that of any other 
northern Luzon tribe, and many of the men and women have peculiarly 
sweet expressions, thoroughly in keeping with the mildness and gentleness 
of their character. 

Both the men and women of the more civilized section of the tribe 
wear the hair uncut, the men confining their long locks at the back of 
the head by means of handkerchiefs or bits of cloth tied like turbans 
(PI. IX, fig. 9), while the women do up theirs nicely with strings of 
beads, forming knots which are usually at the left sides of their heads. 
(PI. XIX, fig. 4.) Among the Tingians of Apayao one not infrequently 
sees men with the hair banged across the forehead after the fashion of 
the Kalingas, but I have never observed the cut over and back of the 
ear, which completes the Kalinga coifEure. (PL IX, fig. 8.) The hair 
is also sometimes ornamented with a wreath of scented grass. It is held 
in place by a more or less elaborate turban which, when possible, is made 
of bright scarlet and yellow cloth. (PI. IX, fig. 7.) 

Tattooing is practiced to a considerable extent among the Tingians of 
Ilokos Sur and Ilokos Norte and of Abra, and especially among the people 
of Guinaan and Balatoc, who come in close contact vsdth the Bontoc 
Igorots. Among the people of Apayao elaborate tattoo patterns are rare, 
if indeed they occur at all. I have never seen one. Most of the men 
have a large tattoo mark in the form of a cufE on each wrist, sometimes 
extending down onto the back of the hand. The only tattoo marks I 
saw on women had been placed over goiters, presumably because they 
were believed to have therapeutic value. 

The typical dress of the Tingian men of Abra and of Ilokos Sur and 
Ilokos Forte is still the clout (PI. Ill, fig. 3), although a large percentage 
of the men have shirts and trousers, which they wear on festival occasions. 
Nearly all of them wear hats called salacots. The typical dress of the 
women is a neat skirt of white, cotton cloth, with an indigo-blue border. 
(PI. XIII, fig. 3.) This cloth is woven by the women themselves. 
When at work they usually wear no other garment, but most of them 
have upper garments which are made short-sleeved so as to show their 
remarkable arm ornaments, and are worn when they are about the 
house, or at least oa feast days and when they have occasion to visit 
the neighboring, civilized towns. (PI XIX, fig. 4.) Under the skirt 
is worn a clout, supported by coils of braided rattan cord, fastened 
together in such a way as to remain spread over the hips of the wearer, 
but to constrict readily into a bundle in front and behind, where the 



864 

ends of the clout are tied. (PI. LIX, fig. 2, a.) This curious article 
of dress is decidedly suggestive of the clout, supported by coils of braided 
rattan cord (PL LIX, fig. 2, h), which forms the one garment of 
married women among the mountain Mangy ans of Mindoro. (PI. XVI, 
figs. 1 and 2.) 

The men wear few or no ornaments. At the most they have earrings, 
or armlets or leglets of brass wire. The women have necklaces and strings 
of beads which they wind into their hair, but their most remarkable 
and characteris'tic ornaments are wristlets and armlets of beads which 
often almost completely cover their wrists and arms to the shoulders. 
(PI. XIX, figs. 3 and 4; PI. XXII, figs. 2 and 3.) 

The women consider it a mark of beauty to have the middle of the fore- 
arm constricted, and to this end tight armlets of beads are placed about 
the forearms of little girls and kept there until the pain caused by the 
constriction of the growing arms becomes unendurable, when other, 
slightly larger, armlets are substituted. This leads to unsightly swelling 
of the wrists, which is, however, fashionable. (PI. XIX, fig. 4; PI. XXII, 
fig. 2.) - 

Old agate beads of considerable value are worn by the women about 
their' necks, and coins are often attached to their necklaces. In 1903, I 
saw a necklace on which were strung four coins, each more than a century 
old. (PI. XIX, fig. 3.) 

As one approaches the Bpntoc border, the characteristic arm ornaments 
are less frequently seen, and in Bontoc they are represented, if at all, by 
a few bands of beads on the wrist and forearm. 

The men of Apayao, in addition to a quite elaborately tied clout, wear 
a short Jacket and a turban which is by choice made up of alternating 
bands of scarlet and bright-yellow cloth. (PI. Ill, fig. 4.) 

The dress of the Apayao women consists of a piece of cloth wrapped 
around the body so as to form a short skirt, extending from the waist 
to the knees. The line of contact of the two ends usually runs straight 
up and down the front. Under the skirt is worn a clout, and on the 
upper part of the body a long-sleeved garment which often barely 
covers the breasts, so that there is quite a gap left between it and the 
skirt. (PI. XIII,. fig. 4.) The women frequently wear turbans on their 
heads. They are much more careful than are their sisters of Uokos and 
Abra about exposing the upper half of the body. (PI. XIX, figs. 1 
and 2.) 

Both men and women of Apayao often wear ornamental wreaths of 
sweet-scented grass in their hair. (PI. VII, fig. 1; PI. IX, fig. 7.) 
They are very fond of brass wire, which they fasten about their necks 
or convert into armlets and leglets, but their most highly prized ornament 
consists of a series of plates and pendants of mother-of-pearl, fastened 
together with wire or strong thread, in a great mass, which is attached 
to a cord about the neck and is worn sometimes hanging over the chest 



855 

and at other times down the back. This same mother-of-pearl ornament 
is also worn by men. The women, like their sisters of Abra and Ilokos, 
are inordinately fond of beads, which they string and wear around their 
necks, in their hair, and on their wrists and arms. Probably the explana- 
tion of their lack of the elaborate armlets worn by the Tingian women 
of Abra may be found in the scarcity of beads from which to make 
them. Miniature battle-axes are worn thrust into the hair or the turban. 
They serve a double purpose, as ornaments and as implements for cutting. 
(PL XXII, fig. 4.) Agate beads are more highly valued than are any 
others. 

Occasionally one meets a man whose fingers are covered with gold, 
silver, and brass rings, or one with very elaborate ear ornaments. 

The more civilized Tingians build quite compact towns. Their houses 
are frequently made almost entirely of bamboo and are roomy and scru- 
pulously eleam. (PL XXXV, fig. 2.) They are arranged along well- 
defined streets. (PL XXIX, fig. 1.) With the wild Tmf/iaws of Apayao 
a large percentage of the houses have floors and sides of boards, hewn 
with great labor from forest trees. The roofs, which are concave on the 
inner side, are made with an inner layer of neatly cleaned stems of runo 
grass, tied so closely together that they touch each other. Over this 
come several inches of thatch and then two or three layers of bamboo, the 
individual pieces being halved and laid with convex and concave surfaces 
alternately turned upward. Over the layers of bamboo comes a very 
thick one of well-packed thatch. A roof of this sort must last for many 
years, and is perfectly water-tight. The houses of the Tingians of 
Apayao are often framed with hard wood, and many of the boards are 
ornamented with carvings. (PL XXXV, fig. 1.) In some instances 
eyes, noses, and moiiths are cut out of the boards, so that rude eflSgies 
of human faces are produced. (PL XLVII, fig. 3.) Frequently the side 
boards are perforated by round peepholes which enable the occupants 
to observe people outside without exposing themselves. 

Houses of the better class are invariably built on piles and raised well 
above the ground. Some of the poorer houses of the Tingians of Apayao 
are constructed entirely of bamboo, even the roofs being made of joints 
of this useful plant. In addition to their dwellings, the Tingians of 
Apayao construct rice-granaries (PL XXXVI, fig. 3) and chicken- 
houses. Those of Abra and Ilokos build quite elaborate rice-granaries 
(PL XXXVI, fig. 4) and sometimes construct stables for their domestic 
animals. They also make miniature houses called balaua (PL LXVII, 
fig. 2), in and around which are given feasts in honor of their ancestors. 

Although some of the Tingians of Abra and Ilokos fish and hunt on 
occasion (PL L, fig. 3), they are essentially an agricultural people and 
depend for food far more upon the products of their farms than upon 
those of fishing and the chase. They have extensive rice-paddies on 

46941 5 



856 

fairly level ground and also cultivate tobacco, taro, Indian corn, and 
cotton upon a considerable scale. Near their houses they often plant 
fruit trees. In general it may be said that their agricultural operations 
are often both more extensive and more successful than are those of their 
Ilokano neighbors. They raise carabaos, cattle, and horses in consider- 
able numbers. Their horses are used for riding instead of for eating. 

So far as my observation goes, the Tingians of Apayao have no irri- 
gated rice-fields. They raise a very limited quantity of mountain rice, 
which, after being threshed, is preserved in joints of bamboo over the 
fireplaces in their houses. Upon the steep mountain-sides they grow 
a considerable quantity of tobacco of excellent quality (PI. XXXIX, 
fig. 2), and they also raise camotes, gabi, tomatoes, and squashes. Their 
rancherias, even when high up in the mountains, are almost invariably 
-buried in coconut trees, and each has a group of palms with fan-like 
leaves from which rain coats are made. (PI. XXVIII, fig. 2.) Cacao 
in small quantity, but of fine quality, is usually found growing near their 
houses. 

All the Tingians roll their own cigars and make iasi from sugar-cane 
juice for use at their feasts and in ceremonials attendant upon the 
sealing of friendship. The women grind rice between pairs of specially 
shaped stones. (PI. LI, fig. 3.) 

The Tingian women of Abra, Ilokos, and Union spin, dye, and weave 
cotton, making narrow strips of cloth of excellent quality which they 
afterwards fashion into garments for themselves. (PL XLIV, figs. 1, 
3, and 3; PI. XLV, figs. 1, %, and 3.) Most of the cloth used by the 
Tingians of Apayao is obviously imported. However, some cloth, evi- 
dently made by the women of that region, was seen by me. 

Both the civilized and uncivilized branches of the tribe produce very 
good basket-work. Their houses are well furnished vrith pottery. Some 
pieces, decorated with dragons in relief and showing signs of being 
very old, are probably of Chinese origin. They themselves, however, 
make good pottery, ornamenting some of it with raised figures. 

Many of the Tingians are quite skillful in working steel and iron, and 
the head-axes used by the warlike Kalingas are largely made by their 
more pacific neighbors of Balbalasan. (PI. XLII, fig. 3.) The Tin- 
gians of Apayao make their own steel and iron weapons (PI. XLII, 
fig. 1) and probably also brass pipes, which are not uncommon among 
them. 

Apart from the house ornaments above referred to, neither the civilized 
nor uncivilized Tingians seem to do much wood carving and neither 
branch of the tribe does any mining. 

The civilized Tingians of Abra and Ilokos are the gentlest and most 
pacific of people. Nearly all of them are entirely unarmed, although 
most of the settlements can, on a pinch, produce a few rusty head-axes and 
lances and an old shield or two. The people of the settlements over the 



857 

Bontoc border are, as a result of dire necessity, more warlike. They 
are forced to keep themselves armed and ready to repel Kalinga or Bontoc 
Igorot raids. They therefore carry head-axes, lances, and shields. (PI. XI, 
fig. 3.) Their shields and lances are similar to those'used by the Bontoc 
Igorots (PL LXI, figs. 1, e and 2, e; PL LX, figs. 2, n and o) and their 
head-axes to those used by the Ealingas. (PL LX, fig. 1, e.) 

The more civilized Tingians of Abra, Ilkoos, and Union have not taken 
heads for many years. However, those of Guinaan, Balatoc, and Balba- 
lasan have, until quite recently, been head-himters, and those of Apayao 
are still devoted to this form of sport. The latter section of the tribe 
uses lances with long, slender blades (PL LX, fig. 3, n), head-axes of 
peculiar form (PL LX, fig. 1, /; PL LI, fig. 4), and shields each of 
which consists of a rectangular board with a spine of wood projecting 
from the center of each end. The body of the shield is black, and 
on this are painted ornamental geometric designs in red and yellow. 
(PL LXI, figs. 1, / and 2, /.) 

Scattered through the towns of the more civilized Tingians are to be 
found numerous miniature houses in which are put food and other offer- 
ings for the anitos or spirits, and beside the trails leading into the towns 
may often be seen pieces of bamboo with their lower ends sharpened and 
driven into the ground, and their upper ends split into a dozen slats, 
which are held apart by other bamboo slats, horizontally interwoveil 
with them in such a way as to form small baskets. (PL LXVII, fig. 1.) 
In these are placed plates of boiled rice, chicken-livers, etc., as offerings 
to the spirits or anitos. 

The warlike Tingians of Apayao also exhibit in these baskets the heads 
of their victims ; eight heads were so displayed at the rancheria of ISTag- 
simbangan at the time of our visit to it. During my short stay in 
Apayao I was unable to gather any reliable information relative to the 
customs and ceremonies connected with tfie head-hunting of the men of 
that region. 

The musical instruments of the more civilized Tingians are the gansa, 
which is played with the hands (PL LVII, fig. 3), the bamboo mouth- 
organ (PL LVII, fig. 1), and the nose-fiute of bamboo. The operator 
of the latter instrument plugs up one nostril with a mass of soft vegetable 
fiber, and blows the fiute with the other (PL LVII, fig. 3) ; or he may 
' press the flute against the nose in such a way as to close one nostril while 
he blows through the other. 

The Tingians of Apayao make musical instruments of bamboo, which, 
for the lack of a better name, may be called " jew's-harps." A single 
joint of cana lojo is taken, one end is cut off, and more than half of one 
side cut away so as to leave a projecting tongue. Near the septum at the 
end of the joint a round hole is pierced, over which the thumb of the 
operator may be placed. The projecting tongue is then struck upon the 
head of a battle-axe and the musical tone produced by the resulting 



858 

vibration can be varied by thumbing the hole pierced near the septum. 
The men often play these instruments when on the march. 

The dances of the civilized Tingians take place inside a typical canao 
circle and are usually participated in by one man and ope woman, 
although if the man is an especially noted dancer, two or more women 
may honor him by entering the circle and showing off their fancy steps. 
Both men and women dance with handkerchiefs or larger pieces of 
cloth stretched between their hands. (PI. LVIII, fig. 1.) The dance 
music is furnished by gansas alone and is of a decidedly lively char- 
acter, as are the dances themselves. The participants often evidently 
try to dance each other down, and the exercise involved is so vigorous 
that one or another of them is sure soon to give out. When a dancer 
has had enough, he or she indicates the fact by giving a sharp snap to 
the piece of cbth held in the hands and then immediately retires; If a 
man is danced down by a woman, he is jeered by the crowd. Basi circu- 
lates freely during the dancing. In fact, the Tingians will not attempt 
to give a dance unless hasi is to be had in abundance. The dancers 
often add to their performances by composing extemporaneous songs 
dealing with important current events, and they are frequently answered 
in song by some of the spectators. 

I was unfortunate in failing to see dances among the Tingians of 
Apayao, but was told that they were similar to those of the people of 
Abra. However, I did see gansas and nose flutes among them, and was 
surprised to run across a long, wooden drum similar in shape to those 
used by the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots. 

The civilized Tingians are polygamous. The headmen may have two or 
three wives, but this privilege seems to be quite strictly confined to them. 
The men not infrequently keep queridas, but very secretly, for if the 
facts became Icaown, their wives may secure divorce from them and 
compel them to pay heavy fines into the bargain. 

Betrothals are. arranged by parents between very young children. In 
fact, in some instances, they are arranged prior to the birth of a child, 
of course with the proper proviso as to its proving to be of the right 
sex. The marriage ceremony among the Tingians of Abra is interesting. 
After the preliminaries have been arranged between the families of the 
bride and bridegroom the family of the bride invites that of the bride- 
groom to come for her on a certain fixed date. The latter arm them- 
selves with bolos on the evening of the day before the one set and at 
midnight feign an attack upon the house of the bride. The bridegroom 
is the only person to enter the house, lie leads the bride out by the 
hand, releasing her at the bottom of the stairway. She accomi)anies him 
to his house. On the next day her family follows her and a feast begins 
which usually lasts for about four da3-s, at the end of which time the 
relatives of the bridegroom kill animals and distribute the flesh liberally 
to the guests in order that, in their desire to carry it home, they may go 



859 

away. The marriage can not take place Tintil the bridegroom has a house 
of his own. 

A couple ordinarily has three or four children. The old man of the 
ranclieria baptises a new-born infant when it is two or three days old, 
giving it the name of any object which particularly impressed itself upon 
his mind as he was on his way to the ceremony or which happens to 
occur to him at the moment. If he stubs his toe. on a stone, for instance. 
Stone may be the baptismal name. The Tingians have no family names. 

They are very kind to their sick and take the best possible care of 
them. They have some knowledge of the uses of medicinal plants, but 
depend chiefly upon canaos or feasts in attempting to drive away the 
evil spirits through whose influence they believe illness to be caused. 

They have a great variety of canaos and each one has its peculiar 
and characteristic sign. The sign of a feast, held in order to drive 
away illness, is an egg balanced on the point of a lance thrust into 
the ground. Obviously, much skill is required to make the egg stand 
on a lance point and the lance must be placed in a very sheltered spot, 
as a breath of air will cause the egg to fall. Hogs or other animals are 
killed, according to the directions of the medicine man or medicine 
woman who has charge of the case. The flesh of the animal .sacrificed 
is eaten, basi circulates freely, and the crowd is apt to get very drunk. 
The feast ordinarily lasts one or two days. If the anito is not driven 
away, but kills its victim, the body of the deceased may be kept in the 
house for ten or fifteen days until the value of his personal property 
has been expended on the funeral feast, or so long as any relatives are 
. still absent. (PI. LXVI, fig. 2.) 

The dead are dressed in their best clothes, adorned with their most 
valuable ornaments, and are buried under their houses. When a very 
poor man dies, if he has no property which can be disposed of in order 
to meet the expenses of a feast, and no good clothes in which he may 
be interred, he is buried at once near the outskirts of the rancheria. 
The grave is protected with stones and logs and is sometimes roofed 
over. (PI. LXV, fig. 2.) Children are buried soon after death without 
any special ceremony, although the parents of a deceased child remain 
silent, when in their houses, during a period of ten or fifteen days, out of 
respect to its memory. 

Near the dwelling houses of a Tingian rancheria there often may bp 
seen certain structures, some of which look like children's playhouses, 
while others are nearly or quite as large as dwelling houses. Such 
structures are known as balaua. (PI. LXVII, fig. 2.) In one of them 
the father of the family, or some person representing him if he is dead, 
takes up his quarters for a period of ninety days after the conclusion of 
a funeral feast. During this time he may not enter his own house. If 
the deceased person was too poor to have a funeral feast the occupant of 
the balaua must remain there for four or five months. 



860 

Anniversaries of the deaths of adult persons are celebrated annually, by 
feasts held in and about the halauas. 

The civilized Tingians know their own ages, differing in this respect 
from the people of any other non-Christian tribe of northern Luzon. 
In reckoning time they have weeks of seven days each, and months of 
which there are eleven to the year. Their year begins during our month 
of January, when the moon is a quarter full. 

The Tingians of Abra have advanced further in civilization than have 
the members of any other non-Christian tribe of the Philippines. They 
are a most attractive people, cleanly in their personal habits, and of excel- 
lent disposition. They are peaceable and law abiding to an astonishing 
degree. Crime is almost unknown among them. Their towns are well 
built and well kept. Their fields are often better tilled than are those 
of their Ilokano neighbors. They save their money and some of them 
become quite wealthy. They are anxious to receive the benefits of 
civilization now that they may have them without being compelled to 
change their religious belief, and there is hardly a rancheria in Abra 
which does not have one or more schoolmasters, paid by local revenues 
or by voluntary contributions. Considerable numbers of Tingian chil- 
dren attend the public schools in the Christian municipalities in spite of 
the hostility which exists between their people and the Ilokanos. 

The rancherias of Abra and of North and South Ilokos have been 
given independent governments of their own, which have progressed very 
satisfactorily. The Tingian is a born politician and thoroughly ap- 
preciates being allowed to run his own local affairs. 

While there have long been bloody feuds between the Tingians of- 
Apayao and their civilized neighbors, the fault is by no means all with 
the wild people, and when order is once established throughout their 
territory there is no reason why they should not advance rapidly in 
civilization and in material prosperity, for they too are cleanly, intel- 
ligent, and industrious. The degree of civilization to which they have 
already attained is surprising when one remembers that they have been 
almost completely shut off from the outside world from the date of the 
discovery of the Philippines up to the present time. 

A careful study of this section of the tribe would doubtless be well 
repaid and would throw much light on the early history of the Tingians 
of Abra and Ilokos, from whom the Apayao people are, according to their 
own traditions, descended. 

THE ISINAYS, GADDANES, AND EBMONTADOS. 

The inhabitants of southern Nueva Vizcaya, at the time when the 
Spaniards first entered the territory now embraced in that province, were 
called Isinays {Isnays, Isinac, Isinayas) . Nearly all of them were sub- 
sequently converted to Christianity, but on the eastern slopes of the 
mountains which separate southern Nueva Vizcaya from Benguet and 



861 

along the Padre Juan Villaverde trail there still remain a few wild 
people called Isinays. I have never seen them. Dr. Barrows states that 
they resemble the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots more than the Ifugaos, and 
Governor Knight of Nueva Vizcaya says that they are very similar to 
the former people. It is not easy to decide whether or not they originally 
belonged to the same tribe and represent only a dialect group, but pending 
further information relative to them I shall so treat them. 

Many of the civilized inhabitants of Isabela and of Cagayan are 
descended from a people who were called Gaddanes, and this name is still 
sometimes used as a designation for the long-haired, wild people of these 
two provinces. I do not believe that the Gaddanes were at any time more 
than a dialect group of the Kalingas. 

Dr. Barrows has treated the so-called Remontados as if they constituted 
a separate tribe. This is not the case. It is very generally true that 
there will be found in the vicinity of non-Christian tribes in these Islands 
renegade Christian natives who have abandoned civilized life and taken 
to the hills. Not infrequently they marry women of the hill tribes 
and have half-caste children, but I see no more fitness in assigning to 
such people and their offspring the rank of a tribe than there would be 
in following the same course with reference to the people of mixed blood 
who are usually to be found in greater or smaller numbers wherever two 
non-Christian tribes adjoin each other. 

DIALECT GEOUPS. 

As I have already stated, it seems to me far wiser to class peoples 
which are substantially alike except for differences of dialect in one tribe 
and to divide them into dialect groups rather than to attempt to make 
as many tribes as there are dialects spoken. 

Were we to adopt the other basis it would lead us into manifest absurd- 
ity in classifying the civilized tribes. While the Ilokanos of North 
Ilokos, South Ilokos, Union, and Abra can understand each other after 
a fashion. Governor Villamor, himself an Ilokano, assures me that there 
are very great diilerences in their dialects. This holds to even a greater 
extent among the Visayans, yet' no ethnologist thinks of dividing them 
into Ilongos, Cebuanos, Cuyunos, etc. 

A considerable amount of new work must be done before a satisfactory 
conclusion can be reached as to the dialect groups into which the seven 
tribes of northern Luaon should be divided. 

The Negritos have very generally adopted the language of their civil- 
ized neighbors. This can hardly hold for the Negritos of eastern Cagayan 
and Isabela, who, on account of the extent of the territory which they 
occupy and their comparative isolation, must, it would seem, have a 
language of their own; but of these people we know next to nothing 
at the present time. I saw about one hundred of them at Dumabato 
in 1905 but had little opportunity to study them. 



862 

So far as we at present know, the Ilongotes have but a single dialect, 
but it is probable that those of northern Tayabas speak a different dialect 
from' those of Nueva Vizcaya. 

The Ifugaos should be divided into numerous dialect groups. 

In the absence of Lietuenant Case, who has lived among them for years, 
I have no information to add to that gathered by Dr. Barrows and there- 
fore provisionally adopt his conclusions as to the number of such groups 
which should be recognized. 

As yet we know very little as to the language of the Kalingas. The 
people known as Dadayags and Calauas are said to have peculiar dialects, 
as are also the Catalan ganes. 

I have not sufficient information relative to the dialects spoken by 
the Bontoc Igorots to be able to form any conclusions as to the subdivi- 
sions of this tribe. 

The two important dialects of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots are Na- 
baloi, spoken in central and southern Benguet, and Kankanai, spoken in 
eastern and northern Benguet, in Amburayan, and in southern Lepanto. 
There is, it is said, another dialect called Kataugnan, spoken by the 
Igorots of central and northern Lepanto. 

So far as concerns the Tingians, it may prove that the people of Apayao ■ 
form a dialect group and that those in the region of Guinaan, Balatoe, 
and Balbalasan can be differentiated on account of peculiarities of speech, 
but more work needs to be done before definite and satisfactory conclusions 
on this subject can be reached. 

ORIGIN OF THE NON-CHEISTIAN TRIBES OF XORTHERX 

LUZON. 

I agree with the conclusion reached by Dr. Barrows that the only races 
to which we need give consideration in accounting for the origin of the 
tribes under discussion are the Negrito race and the Malay race. Pos- 
sibly an exception should be made in the case of the Kalingas, many of 
whom have eyes which are decidedly suggestive of Chinese or Japanese 
origin, but there is no direct evidence that central or northern Luzon 
has ever been occupied by Chinese in large numbers, and if such occupa- 
tion really occurred, a study of the language of the Kalingas should 
show affinities with Chinese. 

The Ihilaos are the. only northern Luzon people who have intermar- 
ried extensively with the Negritos, and in my opinion the influence of 
Negrito blood may be left out of account in considering the origin of the 
other tribes. 

The Tingians difl'er physically in important particulars from the other 
northern Luzon tribes and seem to have much in common with the 
Mangyans of Mindoro and the Dyals of Borneo, but there is no evidence 
that they have had other than a Malay origin. 



863 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The halftone illustrations which accompany this paper are all from 
absolutely authentic photographs. Of these, four were taken by Mr. Reed, 
formerly of the Ethnological Survey, or by a photographer working 
under his direction; two were taken by Dr. Albert E. Jenks, formerly 
Chief of the Ethnological Survey ; two by Dr. M. L. Miller, present Chief 
of the Division of Ethnology of the Bureau of Education ; ninety-one by 
the Government photographer, Mr. Charles Martin; and ninety-nine by 
myself. 

CONCLUSION. 

It is my hope that this paper may serve to awaken interest in the 
classification and distribution of the non-Christian tribes of northern 
Luzon, so that the conclusions herein set forth may be verified or corrected 
and that we may obtain further information relative to the people of 
the several tribes. • 

A law has been enacted for the government of the settlements of non^ 
Christian tribes throughout the Philippine Islands, exclusive of the Moro 
Province where special legislation is in force, and in many of the prov- 
inces this law is rapidlj' being put into eflPect. A special provincial 
government act, providing a government particularly adapted to the 
needs of primitive people, is in effect in the Provinces of Nueva Vizeaya, 
Lepanto-Bontoc, and Benguet. 

Many of the Tingians of Abra and North and South Uokos are already 
the equals in civilization of their Uokano neighbors. Their old customs 
are rapidly being forgotten. On a recent occasion, when the members 
of two important Tingian families attempted to celebrate a wedding in 
the old-fashioned way, the party of bolo men which accompanied the 
bridegroom when he went to bring home the bride actually created alarm 
among the inhabitants of the settlement where that fair lady lived. 

Head-hunting has almost entirely ceased among the Bontoc Igorots 
and the Ifugaos. The Ilongots in Tayabas, Nueva Vizeaya, and Isabela 
are gradually being brought under the control of the governments of 
those provinces. Special governments will in the near future be estab- 
lished for the Kalingas and the wild Tingians of Apayao. 

It is therefore of great importance that the several tribes of northern 
Luzon should be studied carefully and thoroughly before customs which 
still prevail have been as completely forgotten as have the alphabets in 
which several of the civilized tribes formerly wrote their languages. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate I: 

Figs. 1 and 2. Adult Negrito man and woman of Mount Mariveles, Province 
of Bataan, taken with Mr. Worcester in order to show relative size. Their 
dress is typical. 
Plate II: 

Fig. 1. A typical Negrito man of Zambales, showing physical charac;teristics 
and dress. 

Fig. 2. A typical llongot man of Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical pecul- 
iarities, dress, and ornaments. 

Fig. 3. A typical Kalinga man of Isabela, showing physical characteristics and 
dress. Note this man's magnificent muscular development. His jacket, 
ornamented with beads, and his clout similarly ornamented are of Kalinga 
make. ^ j ' i J « I 

Fig. 4. A typical Ifugao man of Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical 
characteristics, typical dress, and ornaments. Note especially the girdle 
made from opercula of seashells, the beads about the neck, and the copper 
wire ornaments on the legs. 
Plate III: 

Fig. 1. A typical Bontoc Igorot man, showing physical characteristics, dress, 
and ornaments. Note especially the pearl-shell ornament at his left side. 

Fig. 2. A typical Benguet-Lepanto Igorot man of Iresan, Benguet, showing 
physical characteristics and dress. 

Fig. 3. A typical civilized Tingian of Lanao, Abra, showing physical charac- 
teristics and ordinary working dress. When in town this man would wear 
a hat, shirt, and trousers. 

Fig. 4. Two typical wild Tingian men of Aoan, Apayao district, Cagayan, 
showing physical characteristics and dress. 
Plate IV: 

Figs. 1 and 2. A typical Negrito man of Mount Mariveles, Bataan, showing 
physical characteristics. Note the full beard which has been close clipped. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Two typical llongot men of Nueva Vizcaya. The one shown 
in fig. 3 has a good deal of Negrito blood, while the one shown in fig. 4 is 
an almost pure Malay. 
Plate V: 

Fig. 1. A young Kalinga man from Patiquian, Bontoc, showing physical 
characteristics. Note especially the woven rattan cap and bamboo ear 
ornaments. 

Fig. 2. A Kalinga man from near Ilagan, Isabela, showing physical character- 
istics. This man has typical Kalinga eyes. 

Fig 3. A young Ifugao man of Qiangan, Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical 
characteristics. 

Fig. 4. An Ifugao man of Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical charac- 
teristics. Note the white feather ornaments in his hair. 

865 



866 

Plate VI : 

Fig. 1. A Bontoc Igorot man of Bontoc, Bontoc. Note the woven rattan cap 
ornamented with dog's teeth and with a piece of mother-of-pearl; also the 
metal tobacco-pipe and pipe-cleaner. 

Fig. 2. A Bontoc Igorot man of Bontoc, Bontoc, showing physical character- 
istics. Note the plug of wood in the ear. 

Fig. 3. A young Benguet-Lepanto Igorot man of Bua, Benguet, showing phys- 
ical characteristics. Note the short-cut hair and the turban. 

Fig. 4. Chapdai, an old Benguet-Lepanto Igorot priest of Bua, Benguet, 
showing physical characteristics. 
Plate VII : 

Fig. 1. A wild Tingian man of Aoan, district of Apayao, Cagayan, showing 
physical characteristics and dress. 

Fig. 2. A typical Tingian man of Manobo, Abra, showing physical char- 
acteristics. 

Fig. 3. An Ilongot man of Dumabato, Isabela. Note the long hair, tied up, 
the peculiar hair ornaments, the ornament fastened to the cartilage of 
the upper ear, the fine, braided cord worn over the right shoulder and 
under the left arm, and the tobacco pouch of bark cloth ornamented with 
seeds hanging down the back. 

Fig. 4. A young Kalinga man of the settlement of Bontoc, Cagayan (this 
settlement should not be confused with the settlement of Bontoc in the sub- 
province of the same name ) . Note the plugs of wood in- the lobes of the 
ears, the bead collar, and the buttons sewed on the neck of the jacket as 
ornaments; also the bag hanging abovit the neck, which is opened and 
closed by sliding metal rings, the silk blanket knotted over the right 
shoulder, and the head-axe. 
Plate VIII: 

Fig. 1. The Kalinga chief of a settlement on the Rio Grande de Cagayan, near 
llagan, Isabela. Note the hair ornaments of feathers, beads, and mother- 
of-pearl; also the jacket of Kalinga-vaa,Ae cloth ornamented with beads. 

Fig. 2." A young Ifugao man of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. Note the huge 
metal ear-ornaments and the girdle of opercula. 

Fig. 3. An Ifugao man of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya, showing typical tattoo 
pattern. 

Fig. 4. A Bontoc Igorot man of Labuagan, Bontoc, showing typical tattoo 
pattern. 
Plate IX: 

Views showing typical methods of cutting and dressing the hair in vogue 
among the men of the several non-Christian tribes of northern Luzon. 

Fig. 1. Negrito of Mariveles with hair cut short and crown pf head shaved. 

Fig. 2. An Ilongot of Delapping, Nueva Vizcaya, hair uncut and confined in 
front by a net peculiar to the men of this tribe. 

Fig. 3. A Kalinga of Cagayan. Note the high cheek bone. 

Fig. 4. An Ifugao of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 5. A Bontoc Igorot of Bontoc, Bontoc, showing typical hair-cut and 
ornamental, woven rattan cap on which are fastened a piece of mother-of- 
pearl and two dog's teeth. 

Fig. 6. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot of Ambuklao, Benguet. 

Fig. 7. A wild Tingian man of Aoan, Apayao district, Cagayan, showing the 
liair confined by a tasscled turban and ornamented with a wreath of 
fragrant grass. 

Fig. 8. A wild Tingian man of Aoan, Apayao district, Cagayan, showing 
typical fashion of wearing the hair. 

Fig. 9. A civilized Tingian of Manobo, Abra. 



867 

Plate X: 

Fig. 1. A Nei/rito man of Mount Mariveles, Bataan. Note the boar's-bristle 

ornaments on his legs. 
Fig. 2. An llongot man of Canadem, Nueva Vizcaya, holding a hunting Umcc 

and a bow and arrows. 
Fig. 3. A Kalinga warrior of Bunuan, Cagayan. Note the shield and head- 
axe, the silk blanket, the bead collar, and the bag worn about the neck 

which is closed with sliding silver rings. 
Plate XI: 

Fig. 1. A fully armed Ifugao warrior of Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. He carries 

a typical Ifugao shield, head-knife, and lance. 
Fig. 2. A fully armed Bontoc Igorot warrior of the ranoheria of Bontoc. 

Note the three-barbed lance, the shield, and the head-axe. 
Fig. 3. Atunipa, the Tingian chief of Guinaan. Note his featlier head 

ornaments' and typical lance, head-axe, and shield. 
Plate XII: 

Fig. 1. A typical \egrito woman of Duniabato, Isabela, with two children, 

showing typical dress. Note the skirt of bark cloth. 
Fig. 2. An llongot woman of Canadem, Nueva Vizcaya, showing typical 

dress. Note the shell girdle and the fold of the skirt which serves as a 

pocket. 
Fig. 3. A young Kalinga woman of a settlement on the Rio Grande de 

Cagayan near Isabela, showing typical dress. The jacket and skirt are 

of Kalinga weave. 
Fig. 4. An Ifugao woman of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya, showing typical 

dress. 
Plate XIII: 

Fig, 1. A Bontoc Igorot woman of the settlement of Bontoc, showing physical 

characteristics and typical dress. 
Fig. 2. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot wonian of Baguio, Benguet, showing dress 

of the women of the better cla'ss. Note the numerous superimposed skirts ; 

also the metal ornaments suspended from the chain about the neck. 
Fig. 3. A young Tingian woman of Lanao, Abra, showing dress and ornaments. 
Fig. 4. A wild Tingian woman of Masimut, district of Apayao, Cagayan, 

showing dress and method of carrying young child. 
Plate XIV: 

Fig. 1. A young Ifugao warrior of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya, showing typical 

dress and ornaments. Note the girdle of opercula, the ear ornaments, the 

lance, and the rattan carrying basket which serves also as a raincoat. 
Fig. 2. An Ifugao family of Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya, showing typical dress 

and manner of carrying young children. Note the white cock's feathers 

in the woman's hair. 
Fig. 3. Two Negrito women, Zambales, showing typical dress. Note espe- 
cially the peculiar hair-cut of the woman at the left. 
Plate XV: 

Fig. I. A typical Tingian woman of Guinaan, Bontoc, showing peculiarly 

shaped clout-supporter made of braided rattan cord. 
Fig. 2. A Mangyan woman of the Baco River country, Mindoro; showing 

typical dress. The original costume of the Tingian women may have been 

similar to that of the Mangyan women, the skirt having been added later. 

Many of the Mangyan women on the Baco River are beginning to adopt 

skirts, which they wear over their clouts. 
Figs. 3 and 4. llongot arrows, two of which have detachable heads fastened 

with cord to their shafts. Delapping, Nueva Vizcaya. 



Plate XVI: 

Fig. 1. Full-blooded Negrito woman of Mount Mariveles, Bataan, showing 
physical characteristics, ear ornaments, and "medicine" about the neck. 

Fig. 2. A so-called 'Negrito woman of Abra. She really has a. large amount 
of Malay blood. 

Fig. 3. Ilongot woman of Oyao, Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical character- 
istics, method of dressing the hair, and ear ornaments of mother-of-pearl. 

Fig. 4. Ilongot woman of Canadem, Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical char- 
acteristics. 
Plate XVII: 

Fig. 1. Ealinga 'v/oman of a rancheria in Isabela near Ilagan, showing phys- 
ical characteristics and ornaments. She is wearing both imitation and 
genuine agate beads. Nqte especially the peculiarly shaped eyes. 

Fig. 2. A KaHmga woman of Sili, Isabela, showing physical characteristics 
and typical dress and ornaments. Note particularly the beads in the hair, 
the bead and mother-of-pearl ear ornaments, the agate necklaces and the 
bead ornaments on the jacket. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Two Ifugao women of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya, showing phys- 
ical characteristics, ornaments, and method of dressing the hair. 
Plate XVIII: ■■.:': 

Fig. 1. A middle-aged Bontoe Igorot woman of the settlement of Bontoc, 
showing physical characteristics and typical ornaments. 

Fig. 2. A young Bontoc Igorot woman of the settlement of Bontoc, showing 
physical characteristics and typical ear ornaments. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Two young Benguet-Lepanto Igorot women of Pico, Benguet, 
showing physical characteristics, typical dress, and manner of wearing the 
hair. These women by preference use towels for turbans. 
Plate XIX: 

Fig. 1. A Tingian woman of Dallaoas, district of Apayao, Cagayan, showing 
physical characteristics, typical dress, and ornaments. Note especially the 
elaborate rings. 

Fig. 2. A young Tingian woman of Dallaoas, district of Apayao, Cagayan, 
showing physical characteristics and typical dress. 

Fig. 3. Young Tingian woman of Danglas, Abra, showing physical , character- 
istics, typical dress, and ornaments. The light-colored beads on the armlets 
of this girl were of solid gold. On her necklace were strung four coins, 
each more than a century old. 

Fig. 4. Young Tingian woman of Abra, showing physical characteristics, 
typical method of dressing the hair, ornaments, and dress typical for those 
Tingian women who live near the Christian towns or who come much in 
contact with Christian natives. Note the constriction of the forearms and 
the swelling of the wrists. These artifleially produced deformities are 
considered to be marks of beauty by the Tingian women. 
Plate XX: 

Fig. 1. Ilongot woman of Dumabato, Isabela, showing physical characteristics 
and typical ornaments. Note especially the shell girdle, the heavy wire 
ornament on the left forearm, and the fine, braided rattan cord about the 
neck. 

Fig. 2. Young Kalinga woman of Patiquian, Bontoc, showing physical char- 
acteristics and ornaments. Earrings of the type here shown are in almost 
universal use among the Kalinga women. 

Fig. 3. Young Kalinga woman of a settlement on the Rio Grande de Cagayan 
near Ilagan, Isabela, showing physical .characteristics and typical orna- 
ments. Note especially the huge beads and large mother-of-pearl ornaments ; 
also the splendid head of hair. 



869 

Plate XX — Continued. 

Fig. 4. A very wealthy Kalinga woman of Tooktook, Cagayan, showing elab- 
orate dress and ornaments. Note the great mass of dead hair, the scarlet 
and yellow feather hair ornaments, the bead collar, the typical ear orna- 
ments, and the necklace of agate beads. When first seen this woman was 
wearing only a very abbreviated skirt, but before being photographed she 
adorned herself as shown. 
Plate XXI: 

Fig. 1. Head of young Bontoc Igorot woman of the settlement of Bontoc, 
showing method of stretching the hole in the lobe of the ear preparatory 
to the insertion of the characteristic ear ornaments. Additional pieces of 
wood are inserted from time to time until a. hole of the desired size is 
produced. 

Fig. 2. Old Bontoc Igorot woman of the settlement of Bontoc, showing 
physical characteristics. Note the wrinkled skin, also the mass of dead 
hair which she is wearing. 
' Fig. 3. Benguet-Lepanto Igorot woman of Kabayan, Benguet, showing physical 
characteristics, typical dress, and especially a peculiar ornament of beaten 
gold worn between the front teeth and the lips, and completely closing the 
mouth. 

Fig. 4. A Negrito man from the moimtains back of Porac, Pampanga, showing 
pointed teeth. 
Plate XXII: 

Fig. 1. Tingian woman of Balbalasan, Bontoc, showing physical characteristics 
and especially tattoo. 

Fig. 2. Young Tingia/n woman of Lanao, Abra, showing physical character- 
istics and typical ornaments. Note especially the constriction of the left 
forearm and the swelling of the left wrist produced by the arm ornaments. 

Fig. 3. Arm of Tingian girl of Abra, showing ornaments. 

Fig. 4. Wild Tingian girl of Dallaoas, district of Apayao, Cagayan, showing 
physical characteristics, typical dress, and ornaments. Note especially the 
beads, and the ornament composed of numerous pieces of mother-of-pearl 
suspended from a bead collar about the neck. Note also the point of the 
miniature head-axe projecting at the right side of the head. Such minia- 
ture head-axes are worn by the women of Apayao as ornaments and are 
also used for harvesting rice and for various household purposes. 
Plate XXIII: 

Fig. 1. Full-blood Negrito woman of Mount Mariveles, Bataan, showing scar- 
patterns on chest and abdomen, and "medicine" about neck and in^left ear. 

Fig. 2. Kalinga woman of Patiquian, Bontoc, showing physical characteristics, 
and especially tattoo marks on the arms. 

Fig. 3. Ifugao woman of Banaiie, Nueva Vizcaya, showing physical character- 
istics, typical ornaments, and especially tattoo marks on the arms. Note 
the peculiar ferh-leaf pattern of these marks. 

Fig. 4. A Bontoc Igorot woman of the settlement of Bontoc, showing physical 
characteristics and typical ornaments and especially tattoo marks on the 
arms. 
Plate XXIV: 

Fig. I. Two young Bontoc Igorot women of the settlement of Bontoc, showing 
usual rainy-day costume. 

Fig. 2'. Ifugao man and woman of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. Full-length 
front views showing marriage costumes of the Ifugaos. 



870 

Plate XXV: 

Fig. 1. Legs of 'Negrito woman of Mount Mariveles, Bataan, showing scar- 
patterns. 

Fig. 2. Arm of Benguet-Lepanto Igorot woman showing tattoo pattern. 

Fig. 3, a. Gold earrings of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots of Suyok, Lepanto. 
Rings of this general form, made of gold, silver, copper, or brass are in 
very general use among the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, Bontoc Igorots, and 
Ifugaos. 

Fig. 3, 6. Peculiar brooch-like ornament of solid gold found in the posses- 
sion of a Benguet-Lepanto Igorot woman of Suyok, Lepanto. 

Fig. 4. Negrito woman of Mount Mariveles, Bataan, showing bamboo hair 
comb with attached horsehair and feather ornaments. 

Fig. 5, a. Four Ilongot earrings of mother-of-pearl ornamented with scratch- 
work. 

Fig. 5, 6. Two peculiar Ilongot ear oinaments. 
Plate XXVI: 

View of two of the numerous groups of houses which go to make up the 
Ifugao settlement of Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. Note the remarkable system 
of terraced rice fields, which at this point extend up the mountain sides 
to a great height. 
Plate XXVII: 

Fig. 1. The Kalinga settlement of Bunuan, Cagayan. 

Fig. 2. The Bontoc Igorot town of Sumader, subprovince of Bontoc. Note 
the series of rice terraces extending far up the mountain side. 
Plate XXVIII: 

Fig. 1. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot settlement in Kayapa, Province of Benguet. 

Fig. 2. View of the site of Masimut, a settlement of wild Tingians on the 
Ablug River, district of Apayao, Cagayan. Like all the settlements on 
this river, it is buried in coconut trees so that the houses can hardly 
be seen. Note the camote fields extending nearly to the top of the hills 
in the background. In the foreground are some of the bamboo rafts on 
whieh Mr. Worcester and his party descended the river. 
Plate XXIX: 

Fig. 1. Part of the Tingian settlement of Tui, Abra. Note that the houses 
are grouped along a well-defined street. 

Fig. 2. A typical Negrito house with some of its occupants, Tauit, Ablug 
River, Cagayan. 
Plate XXX: 

Fig. 1. An Ilongot house of the poorer class, Delapping, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 2. An Ilongot house of the better class, Dumabato, Isabela. Note the 
peculiar horn-like wooden ornaments extending from the peak of the roof. 
Plate XXXI: 

Fig. 1. A Kalinga tree hovise near Ilagan, Isabela. 

Fig. 2. A typical Kalinga house at Ubel, Cagayan. Note the very thick 
thatch; also the fire wood under the eaves in front. 
Plate XXXIl: 

Fig. 1. A Kalinga house with bamboo roof, Bunuan, Cagayan. Note the 
adze marks on the boards. 

Fig. 2. A typical Ifugao house, Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. Note the baskets 
in wliich chickens are confined at night. Note also the shoulders on the 
four corner timbers of the house. These are to prevent rats from climbiiig 
the timbers. 



871 

Plate XXXIII: 

Fig. 1. A typical Bontoc Igorot house of tlie settleuieut of Boutoe. Note tliu 
firewood under the eaves. 

Fig. 2. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot house of the better class, Baguio, Benguct. 
Plate XXXIV: 

Fig. 1. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot grass house of the poorer class, Packdai, 
Benguet. Note the ceremonial platform at the left corner of the house. 

Fig. 2. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot house, Bagnan, Lepanto. Note the high- 
peaked roof. 
Plate XXXV: 

Fig. L House of a wealthy wild Tingian of Bolo, district of Apayao, Cagayan. 

Fig. 2. House of a civilized Tingian of Daguioman, Abra. 
Plate XXXVI: 

Fig. I. An Ilongot temporary rice granary, Dumabato, Isabela. It is said 
that rice is stored in this way until the people of the settlement take a 
human head, in order to assure a good crop for the coming year. Tlie 
rice is then transferred to a. permanent granary. 

Fig. 2. Bontoc Igorot rice granary, settlement of Bontoc. ' 

Fig. 3. Wid Tingian rice granary, Bolo, district of Apayao, Cagayan. 

Fig. 4. Rice granaries of civilized Tingians, Baae, Abra. 
Plate XXXVII: 

Fig. 1. An Ilongot clearing, Oyao, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 2. Ifugao rice terraces near Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. Note the group 
of houses at the right, protected from the sudden approach of enemies by 
the terraces. 
Plate XXXVIII: 

Fig. 1. Bontoc Igorot rice terraces, Bulugan, Bontoc. 

Fig. 2. Coffee and rice terraces of Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, Kabayan, Benguet. 
Plate XXXIX: 

Fig. 1. Ilongots of Oyao, Nueva Vizcaya, planting rice. The woman makes 
holes in the ground with a, hard-wood stick, the man drops in seed and 
covers it. 

Fig. 2. Tobacco field of wild Tingians of Dallaoas, district of Apayao, Caga- 
yan. -Note the steepness of the hillside. 
Plate XL: 

Fig. 1. Tingian rice fields, Abaya, South Ilokos. Tingian houses at the right. 

Fig. 2. An Ilongot basi mill. The long pole on which the operator is resting 
his hands is pivoted between two sticks. The longer end is made to vibrate 
by the treadle on which his right foot rests. Sugar cane is placed on the 
block of wood under the short end and the juice which is pressed out runs 
through a trough into an earthen jar and is subsequently boiled and allowed 
to ferment. 
Plate XLI: 

Fig. 1. An Ifugao basi mill, Qiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. This mill works on 
the same principle as the one shown in Plate XL, fig. 2. Note the shoulders 
on the supporting timbers of the house. 

Fig. 2. Bontoc Igorot basi mill turned by man power, settlement of Bontoc. 
Plate XLII: 

Fig. 1. Smithy of wild Tingians of Masimut, district of Apayao, Cagayan. 

Fig. 2. Tingian smithy, Balbalasan, Bontoc. Note the iron shaping-hammer 
and tongs used by the smith, the heavy stone flattening-hammers, the fire- 
clay conduit into which the bamboo tubes from the bellows lead, and at the 
right the smooth stone for sharpening and the trough of water for tem- 
pering. 
46941 6 



872 

Plate XLIII: 

Fig. 1. A Bontoc Igorot woman making -thread by rolling strands of fibrous 

bark over her knee. Finished thread in the foreground. A bundle of 

unrolled strands of bark at her feet. Settlement of Bontoe. 
Fig. 2. An Ifugao woman weaving, Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Plate XLIV : 

Fig. 1. A Tingiwn woman ginning cotton, Bulilising, Abra. 

Fig. 2. A Tingian woman beating ginned cotton on a carabao hide in order to 

prepare it for spinning, Tiagan, Lepanto. 
Fig. 3. A Tingiwn woman spinning. The top-like affair which she holds in 

her right hand is spun between the hand and calf of the leg and made to 

whirl on the bit of cloth on which its lower end rests. 
Plate XLV: 

Fig. 1. Young Tingicm girl of Baac, Abra, skeining cotton thread. 
Fig. 2. Tingian woman of Tiagan, Lepanto, dyeing cotton thread with indigo. 
Fig. 3. Tingian woman of Baac, weaving. 
Plate XL VI: 

Fig. 1. A typical Ifugao food bowl, Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 2. An Ifugao carved, wooden* bowl, Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 3, a. An Ifugao lime-box of bamboo, ornamented with scratchwork, Banaue, 

Nueva Vizcaya. 
Fig. 3, b. An Ifugao lime-box made from a human bone. Note the drawing 

on the upper end of the bone showing how its original owner met his death, 

Banaue, Nueva VizcayA. 
Fig. 4. A peculiar Ifugao carved, wooden bowl, Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Plate XLVII: 

Fig. 1. An Ifugao anito supposed to possess the power of insuring good crops, 

Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. Note tlie knife for harvesting rice under the 

right arm, also the large, brass earrings. These things have been presented 

to the anito to propitiate it. 
Fig. 2. An Ifugao wooden bowl, carved in imitation of a pig, Banaue, Nueva 

Vizcaya. 
Fig. 3. Carved boards from the house of a wild Tingian of Dallaoas, district 

of Apayao, Oagayan. 
Fig. 4. An Ifugao carved, wooden resting bench, Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Plate XLVIII: 

Fig. a. Top of a Bontoc Igorot anito head post. Photographed beside the 

Bontoc-Talubin trail in 1903. 
Figs. 6, c, d, and e. Samples of Benguet-Lepanto Igorot wood-carving from 

Buguias, Benguet. 
Plate XLIX: 

Fig. 1 ft, 6, 0, and d. Benguet-Lepanto Igorot anitos. 

Fig. 2, a and 6. Wooden carrying-boxes worn suspended from the right 

shoulder and hanging under the left arm. 
Fig. 2, c. A food-bowl with auxiliary bowls for holding condiments. 
Fig. 2, d. A wooden food-bowl. 
Plate L: 

Fig. 1. Bontoc Igorots fishing, settlement of Bontoc. 

Fig. 2. Benguet-Lepanto Igorot girls fishing, Trinidad River, Benguet. 

Fig. 3. Civilized Tingians fishing, San Andrez, Abra. Note the man in the 

act of throwing the circular casting-net. 



873 

Plate LI: 

Fig. 1. A Bengiiet-Lepanto Igorot woman on horseback, Tublay, Benguet. 
Fig. 2. A Tingian woman grinding rice between stones, Salapadan, Abra. 
Fig. 3. A Benguet-Lepanto Igorot man mounting a horse, Pico, Benguet. 
Fig. 4. Three styles of head-axe in use among the wild Tingians of Masimut, 

district of Apayao, Cagayan. 
Fig. 5. Back view of an Ifugao shield, Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Plate LII: 

Fig. 1. Negrito circle dance, Zambales. 

Fig. 2. Negrito circle dance. Mount Mariveles, Bataan. 

Fig. 3. Negritos of Zambales doing buck and wing dance. 

Fig. 4. Negritos of Mount Mariveles, Bataan, playing gansas and at the same 

time dancing on their knees. 
Plate LIII: 

Fig. 1. Ilongots playing bamboo musical instruments, Delapping, Nueva 
/Vizcaya. 
Fig. 2. An Ilongot executing a war-dance to the tune of a bamboo musical 

instrument, Delapping, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Plate LIV: 

Fig. 1. A typical Ifugao dance, Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 2. A Bontoc Igorot head-dance, settlement of Bontoc. The man at the 

extreme right who holds a head-axe i'n his right hand is the principal actor. 

Note that the women who are dancing all wear blankets. 
Plate LV: 

Fig. 1. Two Bontoc Igorot gansa players. Note their drumsticks, also the 

handles of their gansas consisting in each case of a human lower jaw; 

settlement of Bontoc. 
Fig. 2. Bontoc Igorot funeral dance, executed at Manila by people from the 

settlement of Bontoc. 
Plate LVI: 

Fig. 1. Musical instruments of Benguet-Lepanto Igorots consisting of a 

wooden drum with skin head; a gansa with boar-tusk handle and a wooden 

stick for use in playing the gansa. 
Fig. 2. Benguet-Lepanto Igorot musicians. The jar at the left contains 

tapuy, a fermented drink made from rice with which both musicians and 

dancers frequently refresh themselves. 
Fig. 3. A typical Benguet-Lepanto Igorot dance. Note the woman with the 

palms of her hands turned forward and the man with the blankets over 

his shoulders. 
Plate LVII: 

Fig. 1. A Tingian woman of Balbalasan playing a bamboo mouth organ. 

Fig. 2. A Tingian man of Manobo, Abra, playing a nose-flute. 

Fig. 3. Tingian gansa players of Balbalasan. The gansas, the handles of 

which are hooked into the belts of the men's clouts, are beaten with their 

hands. 
Plate LVIII: 

Fig. 1. A TingioM dance, Padangita, Abra. Note the feather ornaments on 

the heads of the dancers and the blankets in their hands. When one of 

the dancers wishes to stop dancing, that fact is indicated by giving the 

blanket a sharp snap. 
Fig. 2. Kalingas of Tooktook, Cagayan, taking a raft down a dangerous rapid 

of the Mabaca River. 



874 

Plate LIX: 

Fig. 1, u. llongot bamboo musical instrument. 

Fig. 1, b and o. Bamboo musical instrument of the Bcnguet-Lepanto Igorots, 

constantly played by the women when on the trail during certain months 

of the year. 
Fig. 1, d and e. Bamboo flutes of Benguet-Lepanto Igorots. 
Fig. 1, f. Bamboo jew's-harp of Bcnguet-Lepanto Igorots. An entirely similar 

instrument is used by the Bontoc Igorots. 
Fig. 1, g. An Ifugao carved, bamboo lime-box, Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 
Fig. 2, a. Clout supporters of braided rattan worn by Tingian women of Abra, 

North and South Ilokos and Bontoc. 
Fig. 2, 6. Clout supporters, of braided rattan and plain rattan respectively, 

worn by Mangyan women of the Baco River, Mindoro. 
Plate LX: 

Fig. 1, a. llongot head-knife and scabbard, Oyao, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 1, 6. Kalinga head-axe. 

Fig. 1, K. Ifugao head-knife and scabbard, Mayoyao, Isabela. 

Fig. 1, d. Bontoc Igorot head-axe, settlement of Bontoc. 

Fig. 1, c. Tingian, head-axe, Guinaan, Bontoc. 

Fig. 1, f. Head-axe of type used by wild Tingians of the Apayao district, 

Cagayan. 
Fig. 2, a. llongot lance, Dumabato, Isabela. 
Fig. 2, 6, c, d, e, and f. Kalinga lances, Isabela. Note the shafts which are 

ornamented with highly colored, woven rattan and with horsehair. Note 

also the diflferent forms of head. That shown in Fig. 2, f is of bamboo. 
Fig. 2, g, h, and i. Ifugao lances, Nueva Vizcaya. The steel heads of these 

lances were made at Sapao. 
Fig. 2, }, k, I, and m. Bontoc Igorot lances, showing different styles Of head; 

settlement of Bontoc. 
Fig. 2, n. Lance of a wild Tingiam of Masimut, district of Apayao, Cagayan. 
Fig. 2, 0. Lance of a wild Tingian, northern Bontoc. 
Plate LXI : 

Fig. 1. Front views of typical shields belonging to the following tribes: a, 

Ilongots; 6, Kalingas; o, Bontoc Igorots; d, Benguet-Lepanto Igorots; e, 

Tingians of Guinaan, Bontoc ; f, Tingia/ns of district of Apayao, Cagayan. 
Fig. 2. Back views of shields shown in fig. 1. 
Plate LXII: 

Fig. 1. Entrance to a Kalinga house of Bunuan, Cagayan, showing bloody 

emblems over the door. Each piece of bark cloth with a blood-stain on 

it indicates that the owner of the house has participated in u headhunt 

during which one or more of his companions took heads. Bark cloth, 

dipped in the blood of such a head and hung over the door, is supposed to 

avert the vengeance of the friends of the beheaded warrior and to keep off 

illness. 
Fig. 2. An old Ifugao warrior of Quiangan, Nueva Vizcaya, with a part of his 

collection of enemies' skulls. 
Plate LXIII : 

Fig. 1. Entrance to an Ifugao house of Banauo, Nueva Vizcaya, showing anito 

door posts, and skulls of enemies beheaded by the owner of the house. 
Fig. 2. A beheaded Ifugao warrior being carried out on his shield for burial, 

Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 



875 

Plate LXIV: 

Fig. 1. Grave of a beheaded Ifugao warrior on the creRt of a mountain above 
Ayangan, Nueva Vizcaya. The lance Indicates the fact that the occiipiint 
of the grave was killed in battle. Note the anilo made of grass. The 
two bamboos projecting upward are part of the stretcher on which the 
body was carried. It has been interred in a tunnel leading into the hillside 
and the stretcher stands vertically against the end of the tunnel. Note 
the steep -mountains in the background. They form typical Jfufjao eouniiy. 
War-trails lead along their treeless ridges and cultivated fields in many 
instances extend to their very crests. 

Fig. 2. Public buildings of an Aio of Bontoe Igorots, Talubin, Bontoo. Note 
the dead tree with sharpened branches on which heads may be placed 
while the head-feast is celebrated. The stone court of the pabafunan 
was occupied by the dto council at the moment the picture was taken. 

Fig. 3. A basket of skulls from a Bontoe Igorot fdwi, settlement of Bontoo. 
Plate LXV: 

Fig. 1. An Ifugao burial house, Banaue, Nueva Vizcaya. 

Fig. 2. The grave of an impecunious Tingian man, Balbalasan, Bontoe. 
Plate LXVI: 

Fig. 1. Burial place of Benguet-Lepanto Igorots, Baguio, Benguet. Note the 
wooden coffin carved in rude imitation of a carabao. 

Fig. 2. Tingian mother mourning over lier dead daughter, Ablug, Bontoe. 
Note the ornaments worn by the daughter. They were doubtless buried 
with her. 
Plate LXVII: 

Fig. 1. Small structure of the sort in which the civilized Tingians place 
offerings for the anitos. Such little buildings are numerous about the 
outskirts of the civilized Tingian towns. Note the two conical, bamboo 
baskets at the left of this structure. Offerings are also placed in these 
baskets. 

Fig. 2. A Tingian balaua, or house in which annual festivities are held in 
honor of deceased relatives. After the death of an adult person the head 
of the family is obliged to sleep in the balaua for three to five months 
during which period he may not enter his own house; Daguioman, Abra. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Jouhn. Sci., Vol. I, No. S. 





0. 






Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 



J 







PLATE IV. 



WoHCESTEE : The Non-Chbistian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Joubn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




WoHCESTER : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Jouhn, Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 







Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 







Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




WoECESTKE : The Non-Christian Thibes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Jouhn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 







a 
X 
o 

z 
o 

H 
X 




o 

2; 




a. 





■"»£' 




a. 









WOBCESTEE : The Non-Christian Teibes, Etc.] [Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 







PLATE XVI. 



WORCESTEB : The Non-Chhistian Tribes, Btc.1 



[Phil. Joukn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XVII. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil, Joukn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 






PLATE XVIII. 



WoKCESTEK : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Jocrn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XIX. 



Worcester ; The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ, Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 






Worcester : This Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. .Tourn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXI, 



WoHCESTBH : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. .Tourn. Sci., Vol, I, No. 8. 







PLATE XXII. 



WoHCESTEE : The Non-Chhistian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 






PLATE XXIII. 



■Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] y [Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. S. 




PLATE XXV. 



s 
o 





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1 
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1 
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II 




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ft^ 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. S. 




PLATE XXVII. 



"Worcester : The Non-Chkistian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXVIII. 



WoRCESTEK : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXIX. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXX. 



WoKCESTER : The Non-Cheistian Tbibes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Joubn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXXI. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXXM. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 




PLATE xxxm. 



WOBCESTEH : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.1 



[Phiu .Iourn. Sci., Vol. I, No. S. 




PLATE XXXIV. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. .Journ, Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXXV. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. .Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XXXVI. 



Worcester : Thk Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ, Sci., Vol. I, No. 8, 




PLATE XXXVM. 



WOECESTEB : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. .Joukn. Sci.. Vol. I. No. S. 













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PLATE XXXVIII. 



WOKCESTER : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phiu Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XL. 



WoECESTER ; The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XLL 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil, Jouen. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XLII. 



WoECESTEE : The Non-Cheistian Teiees, Etc.] 



[Phil. Jouen. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XLIII. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. S. 




PLATE XLV. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Jouen. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 







PLATE XLVI. 



WoECESTEE : The Non-Cheistian Teibes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Jouen. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XLVII. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Journ, Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE XLVlll. , 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Johrn. Sci., Vol, I, No, 8, 




PLATE XLIX. 



WoECESTER : The Non-Chkistian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




WoKCESTEE : The Non-Cheistian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol, I, No. 8. 




Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sol, Vol. I, No. 8, 




Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. S. 




-■^,1 Xi?''^:>i^y^''si'i' 








■ tJ'-S: 



'4 y^-H^yi^--: v,-^;«?fi2j^^ 



WoBCESTEE ; The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 





PLATE LV. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil, Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 




WOECESTEH : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil, Journ. Scl, Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LVII. 



WoKCESTEE : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LVIII. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 





n m I k J 



WoHCESTEB : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LXI. 



o 










Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LXIII. 



WoECBSTER : The Non-Chhistian Tribes, Etc.] [Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LXIV. 



WoRCESTEH : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sni., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LXV. 



Worcester : The Non-Christian Tribes, Etc.] 



[Phil. Joukn. Sci., Vol. I, No. 8. 




PLATE LXVII. 



PHILIPPINE COALS AND THEIR GAS-PRODUCING POWER. 



By Alvin J. Cox. 
{From the Chemical Division, Bureau of Science.) 



Although coal occurs so abundantly in the Philippines, native coal is 
used only sparingly as a fuel. It has been employed on the small vessels 
plying along the coast with fairly satisfactory results, but, largely owing 
to the undeveloped condition of the mines and the diflBculty of transporta- 
tion, it has come very little into competition with the coal imported from 
Japan and Australia. 

The Philippine coals are deposits of the so-called black lignites but are 
superior to ordinary lignite in every respect. It is rather the exception 
for these coals to have a brownish color and they never show a woody 
structure. In appearance they are usually black and shiny, much resem- 
bling bituminous coal,* but have a slightly lower calorific value than the 
latter. On the other hand, they have a much higher calorific value than 
ordinary brown lignite. 

A great many formulae which have been found to approximate the 
truth have been proposed ^ for the calculation of the total amount of 
heat obtainable on the combustion of coals, from their ultimate analyses. 
Dulong's formula is said to give results with a probable error not exceed- 
ing 2 per cent — ^that is, they differ by not more than 3 per cent from the 
value obtained by experiment in the bomb calorimeter. 

Fewer attenipts have been made to derive a formula for the calculation 
of the calorific value of coals from their proximate analyses. In 1896 
Goutal ^ deduced a formula from the calorific determinations of some 
600 coals of different kinds, by which the results of calculation in llearly 
every case agree within 1 per cent with those of experiment. Gill ' 
says that the results upon a series of American coals varied less than 
2 per cent from those obtained by the calorimeter. Such a formula is 

'FormulsB of Dulong, Graelin, Comut, Ser, Scheurer-Kestner and Meunier- 
Dollfua, Ann. Ghim. Phys. (1886) (6),. 8, 267; and Bunte, J. f. Gasbeleuchtung, 
34, 21-26 and 41-47. 

'Rev. d. Ghim. ind. (1896) 7, 65.; Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Par. (1902) (12), 
135, 477-479. 

'Gill, A. H.: Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers, New York (1902), p. 90. 

877 



878 

purely empirical and depends on the volatile combiistible matter of one 
coal having the same calorific 'value as that of every other coal of the 
same percentage composition, which fact is questionable. The facts 
expressed in Table X of this investigation show that this statement is 
more or less true, and since the error from this source can influence only 
one factor, it is thought that an empirical formula of sufficient accuracy 
may be obtained which will be of some assistance to practical workers. 
The formula as proposed by Goutal is as follows : 

P=81.5 C+oV where, 
P=The heating power in calories. 

C=Peroentage of fixed carbon, as determined by analysis. 
V= Percentage of volatile combustible, as determined by analysis. 
a=An empirical value, varying with the percentage of volatile combustible 
to total combustible matter in the coal — i. e., 
per cent volatile combustible 



100— (per cent moisture+per cent ash). 




le values given are as follows : 




When the percentage o£ volatUe 
combustible to total combustihle 

matter is equal to — Then 

5 


a is equal to- 
145 


10 


130 


15 


117 


20 


109 


25 - 


103 


30 


98 


35 


94 


40 


85 



The numbers given by Goutal have not been carried far enough to be 
of any assistance in determining the calorific power of Philippine coals. 
I have therefore collected proximate analyses of coals, on which calorific 
determinations have been made, of the same grade as those from this 
Archipelago, from as many sources * as possible and have calculated 
values for a from them. The total number of analyses used in this 
collection was 150, and the results of calculating by means of these 
numbers agreed in nearly every case within 1.5 per cent with those deter- 
min§(J by experiment. The numbers are as follows : 

" U. 8. G. 8., P. P. 48 (1905), 1 ; W. Virgima G. 8. (1903), 2; Maryland 0. 8. 
(1905), 5; U. a. G. 8. 2MAn. Rep. (1900-1901), 3; V. 8. G. 8. Bull. 218 (1903). 



879 



When the percentage of volatile 
combustible to total combustible 
_ matter is equal to — 

7 , 25 - 

27.5 
30 
32.5 
35 
37.5 
40 
42.5 
45 
47.5 
50 
52.5 
55 



Then a is equal to — 
102 ; 
97 
92 
87 
82 
77 
72 
67 
63 
59 
58 

56 



As yet we have not sufficient data thoroughly to test the accuracy of the 
formula when applied to coals of this region. Greater discrepancies 
between calculated and determined values have been noted on the coals 
analyzed in this Bureau than on the 150 others. In two of the deter- 
minations the results of the calorimeter tests fall 13 per cent below the 
calculated calorific values. These are both outcrop coals, atid like many 
of our poor coals they probably contain carbonates which lose their carbon 
dioxide on ignition. In such cases the volatile combustible matter is 
largely volatile rather than combustible. The average variation, of a 
series of eight, which is thought to be representative, is exactly t per cent ; 
hence it is thought that the formula will give approximate results for 
average coals. 

The oldest and largest deposits o{ Philippine coal known are oh Batan 
:Island,° Cebu, and Polillo, although it occurs in greater or less quantities 
in Negros, Zamboanga, Mindoro, Surigao, Eizal, Nueva Vizcaya, and 
Samar. 

In order to give a more accurate idea of these districts I have sum- 
marized the analyses madehy this Bureau, and give them in the following 
tables. The calorific power has been figured according to the formula 
P = 81.5 C + aV where the values of a are as given above: 

"Smith W. D.i The Coal Deposits of Batan Island. Bull. Min. Bur., Manila 
'^966), 5. , - 



880 



Table I. — Outcrop and upper-bed coals of Baton Mand. 



> + 
80 

> 



3908 

227 
3907 
1638 
1637 



2397 



10 4096 



11 
12 
13 

U 
15 

16 
17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
?2 
23 

24 

25 
26 
27 



226 
3907 
3908 

3662 
3907 

8907 
3908 

2348 
36G2 
3907 

3907 
3907 
3907 
3907 



2348 
3907 



6.08 

■5.00 

7.40 

9.4 

6.90 

5.80 

9.53 

6.00 

5.10 

•20.80 
18.50 
17.18 
15.33 

11.09 
11,35 

12.18 
18.30 

11.48 
14.82 
17.88 

17.56 

9.86 

18.96 

17.77 

17.06 
10.69 
17.22 



42.21 

40.84 

38.5 

36.9 

41.2 

41.56 

42.2 

88.28 

37 
37.73 



44.02 
45. 75 

42.84 
40.44 

40.26 
43.28 
41.32 

42.72 
47.58 
43.14 
45.18 

50.73 
50.47 
51.08 



49.70 

48.06 

48.8 

40.0 

44.5 

44.86 

44.0 

39.84 

37.3 
38. 10 
38.25 
40.45 

40.67 
41.01 

37.96 
35.88 

34.76 
37. 06 
34.77 

35.56 
38.89 
32.79 
32.71 

29.12 
26.39 
25.77 



3.70 
8.3 

16.20 
8.5 
4.05 
7.8 

16.78 

4.9 
5.66 
5,49 
2.17 

4.22 
1.89 

7.02 
5.38 

13.50 
4.84 
6.03 

4.16 
3.67 
5.11 
4.34 

3.09 

■ 2.45 

5.93. 



Yellowish 
brown. 

Light gray. 



4.00 



0.22 
1.62 



Light 
brown. 



White 

Yellowish 
brown. 

Brownish 

gray. 

White 

Light 

brown. 



Light 
brown. 

Brown 

Gray 

Brown 

Light 

brown. 

Brown 



Light 
brown. 



0.05 



0.52 



1.30 



1.33 
1.37 



0.33 
0.42 
2.37 
0.49 
l.U 

1.13 
0.87 
1.15 
1.08 

2.36 
2.00 

1.97 
0.38 

0.83 
1.33 
2.10 

2.23 
2.73 
2.15 
2.00 

1.24 
0?64 
2.16 



1.30 



0.06 



0.45 



0.5S 



1.36 



1.32 
1.36 



1.40 
1.31 



1.37 
1.81 



1.52 
1.32 

1.37 
1.29 
1.30 
1.33 

1.32 

1.35 



= 6,775 

6,695 
6,470 
5,*5 
5,455 
6,080 
6,125 
6,080 
5,506 

5,210 
5,309 
5,397 
5,750 

5,845 
5,965 

5,554 
5,250 

5,135 
5,4a5 
5,170 

5,315 
5,855 
5,105 
5,220 

5,180 
4,945 
4,912 



44.1 

45.9 

45.9 

46.7 

48 

48.1 

48.1 

49 

49 

49.8 
49.8 
50.6 
51 

51.9 
52.7 

53 
53 

53.6 
53.8 
54. S 

54.6 
55.1 
56.8 

58 

63.6 
65.7 
66.5 



"Percentage of volatile combustible to total combustible matter. 
Fixed carbon. 
Volatile combustible. 
» Calorimeter calories, 6,487. 



1.270 

1.178 
1,177 
1.137 
1.085 
1.080 
1.078 
1.044 
1.042 

1.008 
1.010 
0.980 
0.962 

0.924 
0.897 

0.887 
ft 887 

0.862 
ft 857 
a 842 

0.833 
0.817 
0.762 
ft 724 

ft 574 
ft 523 
ft 506 



881 



Tablk II. — Drill samples or lower coal seams of Baton Island. 









6 










0) 






■ i' 






. 














s 




>. 


? 





















ti 


a 






s 












g 


o 




i 

•s 


a. 






> 








1 


£ 


S 


•s 




t 


1 
1 






•a 
3 


6 
> 


O 
+ 


.3 
1 


6 


1 




1 


.5 


1 


o 
•3 
o 


3 


2 


s 


o 


8 


> 


'3 


1 
2 


8661 
3661 


5.62 
5.39 


88.68 
36.23 


54.42 
48.28 


1.28 
10.10 




0.14 
0.26 






1.35 
1.46 


7,085 
6,387 


41.6 
42.9 


1.405 
1.333 








S 

4 


3661 
2780 


^ 5.S8 
5.82 


39.62 
40.29 


51.96 
52.40 


8.04 
1.49 




0.11 
0.66 






1.37 
1.58 


6,875 
6,960 


43.2 
43.4 


1.312 
1.301 


Orange 






5 


2780 


5.74 


39.98 


48.88 


5.40 


Yellow 


0.66 




^_ 


1.57 


6,525 


45. 


1.223 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 


3661 
2369 
2370 
3661 
2871 
2780 


5.08 
6.3 
• 6.4 
5.03 
6.5 
5.89 


42.03 
39.4 
89.7 
40.82 
■40.6 
39.68 


50.31 

46.8 

46.5 

47.15 

46.0 

45.04 


2.58 

7.5 

7.4 

7.0 

6.9 

9.39 




0.25 

0.53 

0.45- 

0.45 

0.6 

0.97 






1.41 


6,775 
6,320 
6,295 
6,355 
6,125 
6,115 


45.6 

45.7 

46. 

46.4 

46.8 

46.8 


1.197 
1.190 
1.172 
1.156 
1.133 
1.133 


White 

do 
















1.41 


•White 

Brown 










1.57 


12 


2780 


5.17 


41.28 


46.91 


7.64 


do 


0.96 






1.64 


6,195 


47.3 


.1.112 


13 


2780 


5.47 


40.23 


44.51 


9.79 


Gray 


2.17 






1.53 


-6,020 


47.5 


1.107 


14 


2780 


5.88 


40.16 


43.82 


10.19 


do— ^- 


2.69 







1.60 


,5,950 


47.8- 


1.090 


15 


8491 


4.53 


45.89 


46.96 


2.62 


White- - 


0.59 








1.43 


6,515 


49.4 


1.025 


16 
17 


3661 
3661 


5.10 
4.88 


45.86 
45.47 


44.20 
43.09 


4.84 
6.56 




0.18 
0.12 






1.40 
1.47 


6,285 
6,200 


50.8 
51.4 


0.965 
0.947 



















Table III. — Outerop and upper-hed coals of Cehv. 





1 
a. 


t 


3 

1 


a 
1 

es 

■a 




1 

■s 


i 

a. 

'3- 


1 




1 

a ■ 

s 


1 
1 

1 

a 


1 


> 


d 
+ 


6 

1 


o 
B5 


t- 


o 

3 


1 


H 
'£ 


"* 


o 

: 3 


1 


i 


1 


m 


o 

3 


_u 


S 


d 




1 
2 


406 
405 


8.96 
8 88 


35.11 
35 10 


52.92 
52 78 


3.00 
3 28 










1.26 
1.30 




6,841 
6,836 
6,245 


39.8 
39.9 


1.508 
1.505 










3 






33 6 


47.8 


2 


Light 
brown. 












41.3 


1.421 




























4 


2481 


17.3 


82.8 


46.2 


3.7 


White 












6,060 


41.5 


1.409 


5. 
6 

■ 7 


404 
2348 
4742 


9.3 
3.73 
14.13 


39.24 
42.02 
39.44 


48.64 
50; 20 
44.66 


2.81 
4.45 
1.77 










1.32 




6,486 
6,744 
6,060 


44.7 
45.6 
46.9 


1.240 
1.195 
1.134 




1.88 
0.12 


0.01 


0.73 






5,923 


g 


2413 


5 


44.1 


48 7 


2 2 


Slightly 
red. 


0.37 










6,687 


47.5 


1.105 


























9 
10 


2483 
2348 


14.7 
5 19 


38.4 
34 69 


41.6 
37 16 


5.3 
22 96 


White 












6,658 
5,077 


48. 
48.3 


1.085 
1.072 




0.86 


o.q4 


0.96 






11 
12 
13 


408 
4742 
2348 


13.35 
15.45 
11.13 


42.2 

40.78 

44.22 


43.73 
40.47 
41.68 


0.71 
3.30 
2.97 








1.30 


5,535 


6,054 
5,665 
5,960 


49,1 
50.2 
61.5 


1.036 
0.993 
0.943 




1.05 
0.54 


■ ■■ 


■' 





0.05 


0.78 




14 


4742 


14 21 


41 40 


36 69 


7 70 




1.70 








5,248 


5,360 


53.1 


0.888 








44 99 


35.83 


6.12 




0.23 








6,497 


5,440 


65.7 


0.797 


16 


403 


17.30 


44.51 


34.67 


3.52 










1.29 




5,320 


56 2 


0.780 















882 



Table IY.— Outcrop and-upper bed coals of PolUlo. 















■ 




■a 






a 






































































« 




■J3 
















g 


■c 






6 


1 
g 


i 


1 

1 


1 

H 

E 


i 


■s 

8 


1 

3 


J3 

a 

1 

a, 


1 


1 


! 

a 

■c 

o 
'5 


o 
1 

9 

3 


> 

S 


d 

+ 

d 
> 


d 
g 

1 


1 


4096 


5.70 


35.4 


45.6 


13.3 




0.57 




^ 


1.35 




6,055 


43.7 


1.288 


2 


4096 


4.90 


42.3 


49.1 


3.7 




0.27 






1.31 




6,660 


46.2 


1.162 


3 . 


2426 


4 70 


43 5 


50 1 


1 70 


Light 
brown. 


28 








6,897 


6,820 


46.5 


1.152 






























4 






















5,883 








5 


2792 


10 06 


41 19 


46 45 


2 30 


Brown 












6,215 


47.0 


1,126 


6 


4052 


5.40 


46.22 


45.96 


3.42 


Light 
brown. 


0.44 


-,- 


0.82 







6,365 


49.6 


1.016 


7 


4355 


5.0 


48.0 


43.3 


3.70 















6,270 


52.5 

>• 


0.902 



Table V. — Outcrop and upper-bed coals of Negros. 





K 




6 
3 










o5 
•a 

■a 






1 


1 




































6 


g 

"i 

i 


■ B 
*o 

-g 


'3 
> 




S 


% 


i 


I- 

1 

3 


PI 

I 




s 

1 

o 


i 
■§ 




d 
> 
1 


d 

+ 
d 


6 

1 
% 


1 


409 


15.03 


33,5 


44.67 


6.79 










1. 326 




5,880 

6, 295 
5,370 


42.8 


1,334 


2 
3 


407 
2348 


19.33 
12.67 


32.37 
44.42 


39.91 
35.46 


8.39 
7,45 










1.39 




44.8 
55.6 


L234 
0,798 


_. 


1.67 


0.10 


0.61 


4 


966 


2L2 


40.80 


3L6 


6.5 


Red 


0.6 






_ _ 


5,521 


4,860 


56,4 


0,773 


5 


2348 


11.17 


50.16 


29.19 


9.49 


. 


0.99 


0.18 


1.01 






5,130 


63.3 


0,582 


6 


2348 


9.39 


42.90 


21.50 


20. 15 




1.75 


0.03 


0.96 






4,117 


66.6 


0.503 


7 


2348 


1,2.31 


49.28 


24.27 


14.10 




1.61 


0.04 


0.91 






4,685 


66.9 


0.494 


8 


2348 


13.11 


5L10 


.6,27 


10.62 




1.28 


0.03 


0.69 






4,870 


66 ^ 


0.494 













883 
Table VI. — Outcrop and vpper-hal coals of other locaUtu 



' 6 
S5 


•a 
B 
& 

1 
o 


1 

CD 
O 


6 
3 

a 

8 

O 
> 


o 

■e 
§ 

■s 




i 

■s 

o 

8 


1 
g 


1 

1 
1 


a 

S 

M 


a 

o 

'3 


1 

1 

a 

■3 


■g 

§ 

-3 

<y ■. 
■3 
o 


> 

8 


6 

fa 
+ 

> 


6 
t 

fa 


ZAMBOANGA. 


1 
2 


427 
2348 


4,64 38.38 55.19 
6.90 39.91 48.03 


1.78 
5.16 










1.27 




7,401 
6,450 


41.0 
45.4 


1.437 
1.206 . 


• 


0.62 


0.01 


0.94 


MINDORO. 


3 


1337 


13.82 40.69 


41.62 


3.87 


Reddish .__ 


0.74 











5,771 


49. 4> 


1.024 


;:Vi SURIGAO. ^ 


4 
5 


402 
2348 


17.37 41.80 33.44 
9.35 51.22 20.73 


7.38 
18.60 














5,080 
4,464 


55.6 
71.2 


0.800 
0.404 ; 




2.66 


0.03 


1.45 










EIZAL. 


6 
7 
8 
9 


358 
2348 
2348 
4028 


1.75 38.19 
6.88 38.69 
5.19 34.69 
8.17 49.32 


47.86 
47.90 
37.16 
36.58 


12. 19 
5.53 

22.96 
6.93 








0.53 
0.96 


1.26 
1.36 





6,335 
6,400 
5,022 
5,710 


44.4 
44.7 
52.7 
57.4 


1.252 
1.238 
1.071 
0.743 


, ^ 


0.74 
0.86 
0.43 


0.06 
0.04 


NDEVA VIZCAYA. 


10 
11 


3147 
2570 


13.61 
14.25 


36.56 
53.09 


31.71 
27.64 


18.12 
5.02 


Light 

brown. 
Brown 


1.95 










4,683 
5,186 


63.5 
65.8 


0. 868 
0.520 


1.72 


















TAYABAS. ; 


12 


2348 


11.04 


38.87 


27.06 


23.02 




0.45 


0.07 


1.50 






4,358 


58.9 


0. 696 , 


SAMAR. 


13 


4369 


25.2 


40.6 


31.6 


2.6 














4,865 


56.2 


0.778 














PHILIPPINE COAL (SOURCE UNKNOWN). 


14 
15 
16 

.11- 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 


1123 
3195 
3915 
.1831 
3702 
4743 
4743 
4833 
4773 


13.89 
2.98 
24.80 
4.30 
12.70 
is; 03 
11.91 
28.1 
16.10 


32.71 

40.96 

32.4 . 

28.5 

29.30 

41.73 

42.68 

34.4 

42.30 


40.23 

46.98 

36.3 

30.8 

30.76 

42.78 

38.93 

30.0 

34.2 


13.16 
9.08 
6,50 
36.4 
27.24 
2.46 
6.48 
7.5 
7.4 


Red. . . 

Brown 

Reddish 


0.77 
1.35 








5,567 


5,388 
6,395 
4,887 
4,205 
4,248 
5,930 
6,620 
4,420 
5,170 


44.8 
46.6 
47.2 
48.1. 
48.8 
49.4 
62.3 
53.4 
55.4 


1.230 
1.148 
1.120 
1.081 
1.050 
1^025 
0.9U 
0.872 
0.809 










Red 












do _— 


6.07 
0.15 
0.26 






1.37 



















1.32 


4,992 




























884 



Table YII.— Analyses of foreign coals. 
AUSTRALIAN. 



6 


1 


£ 

i 

1 


3 

1. 

8 

I 


1 

s 




o 

" ti 

o 

§ 


3 

t 

3 

o 


1 
■ >> 

1 

s 


1 


1 

M 
O 
eg 
'o 


1 

i 

i 

■3 


i 
■g 

S 


> 


d 

+ 
d 
> 


■3 

g - 
1 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 


225 
1032 
4121 
3113 
1209 
4216 

1209 
3265 


2.47 

2.0 

2.7 

2.81 

2.77 

2.49 

2.94 
2.74 


32.15 

32.6 

3L7 

33.05' 

36.11 

36.53 

36.57 
38.63 


58.20 

66.6 

54. 

62. 92 

62.66 

63.02 

51.37 
53.65 


7.17 
8.8 
11.6 
11.22 
8.46 
7.96 

9.12 
4.98 




0.22 
1.0 


0.66 


0.24 





7,559 
6,637 


7,330 

7,265 
6,895 
6, 865 
6,910 
6,975 

6,770 
7,100 


35.6 

36.6 

37. 

38.2 

40.6 

40.8 

4L6 
41.9 


1.810 
1.737 
1.704 
1.604 
1.460 
1.4-50 

1.421 
1.390 


White 


Gray 

..—do 

Yellowish 

brown. 
Reddish 


0.86 
0.8 
























0.88 












• 


















JAPANESE. 


9 
10 
U 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 

28 
29 


229 
1207 

228 
2540 
1207 
2781 
2779 
2540 
2781 
2346 
3113 
2346 
2540 
1207 

1207 
3411 

1033 
2526 
3288 

2346 
2527 


1.71 
3.43 
2.38 
2.48 
2.89 
2.64 
2.81 
3.05 
2.62 
1.87 
2.49 
1.88 
2.91 
2.66 

1.26 
2.10 

2.1 

2.78 

2.48 

1.86 
2.66 


25.53 
36.06 
38.27 
39.82 
37.68 
39.26 
38.77 
37.67 
39.26 
40.34 
39.12 
40.53 
38.71 
39.65 

38.36 
39.51 

38.1 

42.88 

40.66 

40.16 
40.34 


67.06 
65.51 
62.68 
63.02 
60.60 
51.91 
60.85 
49.34 
60.68 
51.85 
30.26 
51.73 
48.01 
49.03 

47.13 
48.19 

46.90 
61.11 
47.20 

39.45 
3.5.94 


5.-T0 
6.00 
6.77 
4.68 
8.93 
6.19 
7.57 
9.94 
7.45 
5.94 
8.13 
5.86 
10.37 
8.76 

13.25 
10.20 

13.90 
3.23 
9.66 

18.53 
21.06 


Reddish 


0.14 
1.64 
0.21 
0.24 
0.69 
0.66 
0.88 
0.42 
0.28 


1.07 


0.42 






7,970 
7,140 
6,880 
7,015 
6,660 
6,880 
6,820 
6,530 
6,710 
6,855 


27.6 
39.4 
42.2 
42.8 
42.8 
43.1 
43.3 
43.3 
43.7 
43.7 
43.8 
44.0 
44.7 
44.7 

44.8 
45.1 

45. S 
45.6 
46.3 

50.4 
52.8 


2.630 
1.538 
1.375 
1.335 
1.335 
1.323 
1.313 
1.309 
1.290 
1.288 
1.286 
1.276 
L241 
1.239 

1.230 
1.221 

1.206 
1.192 
1.160 

0.983 
0.892 


0.32 


0.33 









Reddish 

Brown 










0.03 


0.45 


1.70 












Gray 


0.02 


0.21 






Gray 


0.77 


..... 








6,660 
6,853 
6,375 
6,513 

6,274 
6,436 

6,165 
6,890 
6,350 

5,565 
5,246 




0.39 
0.49 

1.38 
0.47 

2.90 
0.36 
1.11 










Reddish 
gray. 

Gray 

Light 
brown. 

































6,652 




Light 
brown. 


















"" 


0.44 











INDIAN. 


30 


3546 


2.04 


36.16 


52.00 


10.80 


Light gray. 


0.62 










6,795 


40 ^ 


1.480 















The tipper beds of Philippine coal which have thus far been discovered, 
and which outcrop at certain places, should for the greater part be classed 
under the name sub-bituminous, which has recently been adopted by the 



885 



United States Geological Survey. The question of the proper classificar 
tion of coals of this class has often been the subject of discussion/ but 
the new name, in a single word, gives the best idea and is therefore 
satisfactory. 

The moisture, as shown by our many determinations, varies from 5 
to 20 per cent in coals otherwise having common properties. Prom this 
it is self-evident that any classification attempted on the basis of water 
content would be entirely false, and in no way applicable to these upper 
beds. 

The fuel ratio and the content of volatile combustible, or of fixed car- 
bon which is a proportional ratio, are not wholly satisfactory as a basis of 
classification, but for practical purposes are of much assistance, as can 
be seen by an examination of the above tables. These classifications are 
the best which can be obtained from proximate analyses. Probably the 
best simple method for a scientific arrangement is by means of the 
calorific values as determined in the calorimeter, but as yet we have not 
sufficient data at hand for this purpose. 

Other systems based on the ultimate analysis of eoaj are important, 
b-ut neither can any of these be considered thoroughly with reference to 
Philippine coals for the same reason. Proximate and ultimate analyses 
and calorific tests of a sample of Batan Island coal were made' at St. 
Louis, Missouri, during the operation of the Fuel Testing Plant of the 
TJnited States Geological Survey. The analyses are as follows : 



Air-dried 
sample. 



Sample as 
received. 



Proximate- 



Ultimate . 



{Moisture 
Volatile combustible . 
Fixed carbon 
Ash 

Sulphur . 

Hydrogen 

Carbon 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Ash 



Calories * 

British thermal units-. 



7.06 

43.94 

43.44 

5.56 

1.36 

5.55 

62.91 

1..33 

23.29 

5.56 

6,101 

10,983 



22.21 

•36.77 

36.36 

4.65 

•ll4 

6.46 

52.66 

1.11 

33.98 

4.65 

5,107 

9,193 



A comparison of the above proximate analysis with those of many 
samples made in this laboratory, and published in Table I of this report, 
demonstrates that the sample now under consideration is almost a perfect 
average of the published table, and it is believed to be a fair average of 
the upper beds of Batan Island coal. The carbon-hydrogen ratio, cal- 
culated from the ultimate analysis, is — = 11.35. By adjusting this 

» Collier A. J.: U. 8. G. S. Bull. 218, (1903) 58 et seq.; Smith, W. D.: Log. cit. 
' By Mr. F. M. Stanton. 



886; 

value in' the scheme proposed by Mr. M. E. Campbell in a chapter on the 
classification of coals on a basis of their carbon-hydrogen ratios " this 
sample falls into its pi-oper place — i. e., a sub-bituminous coal. 

Keference to Tables I and II shows that the coals represented by 
Table II are superior to those of Table I, when judged from the stand- 
point' of the usual criterion for steaming purposes. In time it is ex- 
pected that a much better quality of coal will be developed from the lower 
beds, as is indicated by the drill sample analyses. At present, practically 
all the coal which is mined in the Archipelago is that taken out by the 
natives for local consumption. However, coal from Batan has been siib- 
jected to careful, systematic tests by the United States Army transports 
Chuhong, Sacramento, and Palawan,^ and Polillo coal has also been care- 
fully tested by Government employees at the Insular Cold Storage and 
Ice Plant ^" with very satisfactory results. Several other steam tests 
on a large scale have been attempted by private persons, but as the equip- 
ment of the steam boilers was not designed for this class of fuel the 
results were very unsatisfactory. A furnace with a short fire-box, 
planned for a high-grade steaming coal, which burns with a short, hot, 
smokeless flame, is entirely unsuited to Philippine coal. The fire-box 
must be greatly lengthened or else a large part of the fuel value of the 
volatile combustible matter, which approximates 50 per cent, will be 
lost. This accounts for the fact that the temperature of the escaping 
gases of many smokestacks is 450° C, when in a carefully and economic- 
ally operg,ted plant it should not exceed 310° C. 

How best to utilize the coal deposits of this country is a question 
which has long attracted attention; however but little progress has been 
made toward its solution. Eeeently experiments with a producer gas 
plant ^^ have given unusually promising results. It was at first thought 
impossible successfully to use lignites in a gas producer, but these fuels 
worked well and the gas had a higher calorific value than that from any 
other coal which was used. For instance; it was at first supposed that 
New Mexico coals could not be used to advantage in the manufacture of 
producer gas, but later the best results were obtained from lignites of 
even poorer quality than those from New Mexico. 

Coal converted into producer gas and burned in a gas engine resulted 
in a gain of efficiency of from 110 to 144 per cent ^^ over the same coal 
burned in a carefully operated Heine boiler. A simple engine was used 
in making the boiler tests. The efficiency of these tests might have been 

' V. 8. G. 8., P. P. 48 ( 1906) , 1 , 156. 

» "Coal Efficiency Report," furnished by the military secretary. Bull. Min. Bur., 
Manila (1906), 5, 47 et seq. 
."The Far Eastern, Review, Jan. (190C). 
"t/. 8. a. 8., P. P. 48 (1906), 3. 
" The result from one coal from the Indian Territory. 



887 

increased by substituting a compound engine ; but the fact must not be 
overloolied that there is even a greater chaHce of increasing the elRcieney 
by improving the gas engine, which is sti]l now and unperfected. 

Some of the lignites of the Philippines contain sulphur in sufficient 
quantity to injure a boiler in the course of time. The United States 
Geological Survey has shown that similar coals from the United States can 
be used satisfactorily when they are converted into producer gas, and it is 
thought that all native coals can be utilized in that way. The results 
given by the producer gas plant on Kentucky coals were satisfactory, 
although the report says that the percentage of sulphur was very near 
the limit allowable for the purifying apparatus. The amount of sulphur 
contained in these coals was over 4 per cent, whereas of all the Philippine 
coals analyzed in this laboratory (over 100), none have contained such 
a high percentage of sulphur. 

The majority of our coals have been classed as non-coking. This 
Bureau has made several attempts to obtain a satisfactory coke, but has 
not yet succeeded. If we are successful in securing such a one from 
the Philippine coals, it may have too high a sulphur content to be used 
in an iron furnace, but it could be utilized in other ways. However, 
although the sulphur might interfere in some respects, the coals appear 
to be in every way suitable for use in a producer gas plant. The' fact 
that they are non-coking has an advantage in this method of their utiliza- 
tion. The ash can be discharged easily and there will be no clogging of 
the furnace. 

To assist in the demonstration of the efficiency of the coals of the Phil- 
ippine Islands in the manufacture of producer gas, their gas-producing 
power upon dry distillation has been investigated. A proximate or an 
elementary analysis of a coal is not by any means a good criterion as to 
the amount and quality of gas which can be obtained from it, for one 
must know certain- physical properties which can not be determined by 
an ordinary analysis. Attention has already been called to the fact^^ 
that, in consulting most of the written works on gas manufacture, the 
chemist finds only a description of a rather large amount of special 
apparatus which is designed for use in the gas works. However ingenious 
the apparatus may be, it is generally too expensive and too cumbersome 
for the purposes of the scientific chemist. The instructions accompany- 
ing the apparatus leave nothing to the skill and judgment of the analyst. 
One publication,^* after mentioning the size of a cast-iron D-shaped retort 
to be used, says : 

On starting a test of a sample of coal it is of course very essential that an 
average sample is taken and small pieces, about the size of a walnut, used. Three 
quantities of 2.24 pounds each will be found sufficient to give a reliable opinion 

"Rhodin, J. G. A.; J. Soo. Chem. Ind. (1902), 19, 12. 
"Phillips: Engineering Chemistry, London (1902). 
46941 7 



as to the value of the coal. The retort must be first got up to a bright red heat 
before the charge is introduced and must be maintained at this temperature 
during the whole of the distillation. 

The instructions are to take an average sample, but there is very 
serious doubt in my mind if this is consistent with the limitations of 
"lumps the size of a walnut" and of approximately a kilo. In consider- 
ing this question I can see no reason why work on a smaller scale, 
selecting the sample more carefully, crushing the coal to smaller particles, 
and quartering to a sample of 40 or 50 grams should not give as good or 
even much more accurate results than would such approximate work done 
on the large laboratory scale recommended by Phillips. The work of the 
committee on uniform chemical analyses ^= indicates that a gram, if 
properly selected, is an excellent sample of a ton of mineral, and a 
mineral is much harder to sample than coal. There seems to be no 
reason then why a carefully prepared sample of 40 or 50 grams is not 
ample, and this brings the size of the apparatus within the range of the 
ordinary chemical laboratory. 

The method, as given in the above quotation, is representative of many, 
and it seems that one of two things must happen in charging the retort, 
either some of the volatile hydrocarbons are lost before the apparatus is 
closed, or the retort cools down in the charging. As a matter of fact 
these methods have been criticised by gas manufacturers as being apt to 
give low results both as to quality and quantity of gas. With a cool 
retort, which can be heated only gradually, the products of the aromatic 
series, such as toluene, naphthalene and anthracene, which ought to go 
into the gas, go into the tar. It is thought that both of these difficulties 
are eliminated and the yield more nearly like that obtained in a com- 
mercial way, by using the apparatus described below. 

Description of the apparatus. — Plate I, X and X' (the latter is not shown in the 
figure) are two combustion furnaces, fitted together so as to form one continuous 
piece of apparatus. B is a piece of galvanized gas pipe of 1.5 centimeters inter- 
nal diameter capped at one end, and about 3 centimeters from the other end is a 
water jacket." Into the open end of the iron tube is fitted a rubber stopper, 
carrying a glass tube which delivers into the top of a Fresenius tower (C) filled 
with glass wool. The lower hole of the Fresenius tower is fitted with a rubber 
stopper, carrying a Geissler three-way stopcock (D)." To one long tube of this 
stopcock are connected, by means of a second Geissler three-way stopcock, (E), 
two manometers (F and G), the former to indicate the degree of exhaustion and 
the latter the return to normal pressure. A Geryk air pump and a gasholder 
(K) are connected by means of an ordinary three-way stopcock to the other arm 
of the Geissler three-way stopcock (D). Between the three-way stopcock and the 
air pump are imposed two drying tubes, tlie first containing calcium chloride 

"J. Am. Ghem. Soc. (1906), 28, 22.3. 

" The apparatus worked splendidly with non-coking coals, but u coal retort of 
this size might be troublesome with coking coals. 

" The only advantage which a Geissler three-way stopcock has over an ordinary 
T-tube is to facilitate the discovery of leaks in the apparatus. 



889 

and the second phosphorus pentoxide. All of the rubber tubing and rubber con- 
nections are of vacuum tubing and all joints are sealed with a, solution of rubber 
in carbon disulphide. 

Manipulation of the apparatus. — After the apparatus has been shown to be 
tight, it is disconnected at A and the sample of coal weighed by difference into 
the iron tube B from a 40-centimeter bulb tube. By this means the inner sur- 
face of the iron tube is kept free from coal to a considerable distance from its 
open end. The apparatus is again connected as shown in the figure. The gas- 
holder (K) is completely filled with water and the stopcock closed. With the 
stopcock (H) in the position shown in the figure, the air is exhausted from the 
apparatus. The air is then exhausted from the tube connecting H and K into 
the apparatus and the apparatus again exhavisted to a pressure indicated by 
the manometer (F). In the meantime, the 'eight burners on the right in the 
illustration have been lighted and that portion of the furnace raised to a red heat. 
The water is next allowed to flow through the jacket, and the iron tube (B) is 
put in place in the furnace with the water jacket close to the furnace cover. 
As soon as the iron tube is red, the number of lighted burners is gradually 
increased and before long the distillation begins. As soon as the pressure within 
the apparatus is equal to the atmospheric pressure, the gas is turned into the 
gas holder (K). 

The rate of the production of the gas is regulated by the rapidity with which 
the number of lighted burners is increased. The best yield is produced with 
this apparatus when the rate of production is 100 to 200 cubic centimeters per 
minute. With the use of a higher temperature than that of the experiment, 
such as is used in a large gas works, this rate could be greatly increased. With 
this apparatus all of the distillation products must pass through the red-hot 
iron tube and therefore the quantity of tar is not increased at the expense of 
the gas, as is apt to be the case in the majority of miniature gas works. 

The water discharged from the gasholder is carefully measured as soon as all 
the gas has been driven off from the coal. When the apparatus has uniformly 
cooled to a known temperature the volume of gas is corrected to atmospheric 
pressure. 

Condition of conducting tests. — Xo pyrometer was at hand, therefore 
it was necessary to construct one in order to read the distillation tem- 
perature. The apparatus was made in the following manner: 

An ordinary Schaffer & Budenberg pressure-gauge was fitted to a piece of gas 
pipe of 1 centimeter internal diameter about half a meter long, capped at one 
end, bent to a right angle in the middle and surrounded by a water jacket 
close to the pressure-gauge. The gas pipe was filled with mercury and the steel 
tube of the pressure-gauge with an inert gas (carbon dioxide) to prevent oxida- 
tion. When the mercury expands, this gas is compressed, the tube of the pressure- 
gauge straightens out, and the indicator moves over the gauge face. The usual 
scale of the pressure-gauge was covered with white paper and the pyrometer 
calibrated by determining its highest point by immersion in a crucible of melt- 
ing aluminium. For more accurate work, the calibration may be effected by 
using the following melting and boiling points : 

Aluminiiun 650° 

Sulphur 448° 

Mercury 360° 

Naphthalene 218° 

Water 100° 



890 

A uniform temperature was maintained in the combustion furnace 
throughout all the distillations and this was shown by the pyrometer to 
be 625°." 

The possibility of maintaining an average, imiform temperature in the 
Tropics is not a serious problem. All gas measurements and gas analyses 
were made at 30° and all data are given at this temperature. 

It was not possible to exhaust the air completely from the apparatus, 
but from its known capacity (864 cubic centimeters) and the pressure, 
as read by the manometer (F), the amount of air contaminating the gas 
was determined and is given in column 3 of the experimental results. 

The coal analyses were made according to the directions recommended 
by the committee appointed by the American Chemical Society.^" In 
the determination of volatile combustible matter it has been found that 
these give very inaccurate results. The committee state that the most 
serious objection brought against their method is that the rapid heating 
causes mechanical loss in the case of certain non-coking coals; that no 
evidence has been given as to the amount of such loss, while in the light 
of certain experimental determinations which are described, they state 
that the loss can only have been insignificant. It has been observed in 
this laboratory that the error from this source on our coals is very large, 
possibly amounting to a few per cent in some cases. It has also been 
found that this could be largely, if not entirely, eliminated by expelling 
the moisture and most of the volatile matter at a low heat before sub- 
jecting to "the full flame of a Bunsea burner for seven minutes." Four 
to five minutes' gentle heating is sufficient to do this. With this excep- 
tion the oflBcial method has been followed in detail. 

"A value of 600° was approximated by judging the color of the iron tube in 
the furnace. However, such results are unsatisfactory, as there is a large per- 
sonal equation to be considered as well as the degree of illumination under which 
the observation is made. The table used was that constructed by il. Pouillet, 
given in Kent's Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-hook, New York (1903), page 454, 
as follows: . 

Color ot iron. Degrees C. 

Incipient red heat 625 

Dull red heat 700 

Incipient cherry-red heat 800 

Cherry-red heat 900 

Clear clierry-red heat 1,000 

Deep orange heat 1,100 

Clear orange heat 1,200 

White heat 1,300 

Bright white heat 1,400 

Dazzling white heat (1,500 

11,600 
'"J. Am. ahem. Soc. (1899), 21, 1116-1132. J. Soc. Ghem. Ind. (1900) 
19, 174. 



891 

The gas analyses were made according to standard methods. The 
methane and hydrogen were determined by explosion over mercury and 
the nitrogen by difference. 

The calorific value of the coal was figured according to the formula 
given on page 878. 

The ealoriflc value of the gas was calculated at 30° from the following numbers 
of J. Thomsen : "> For the heat of formation of water from hydrogen, Thomsen =' 
obtained, as an average of three very closely agreeing numbers, the value H2O+ 
0=H.0+ 68,388 calories. The heat of combustion of methane has often been 
determined and the number obtained under the most painstaking conditions by 
Thomsen,^^ and a fair average of the reliable values of other investigators is, 
CH.+4O=CO,+2HsO+211,900 calories. The heat of combustion of ethylene, 
according to the measurements of Thomsen, is C2H4+6O=52COa+2HjO+333,300 
calories. The number obtained by Thomsen for carbon monoxide has not been 
used, but by preference the round value recommended by Ostwald,'^ which lifes 
between those obtained by J. Thpmsen=* and Berthelot,"" i. c, 00+0 = 002+ 
68,000 calories. One gram molecule of a gas=22.32 liters under standard 
conditions. 

The following factors have been figured from the foregoing data :^'' 

Calories per c. c. 
Carbon monoxide (CO) 2. 744 

Heavy hydrocarbons (Cnllju)" 13.455 

Methane (CH^) 8.553 

Hydrogen (H^) 2. 756 

The gas-producing power of five native coals has been determined. 
Por the purpose of comparison a very superior^ coking, Australian 
steaming coal has also been investigated. 

EESULTS. 

A sample of coal from Batan Island ^* gave the following results : 

™ Thomsen, J. : Thermoohemische Vntersuchungen, II. 

■^Idem: Loo. oit., 44; Pogg. Ann. (1873), 148, 368. 

^Idem: hoc. cit., 94. 

^ Ostwald, W. i Lehrhuch allg. Ghent, p. 173. 

^* Thomsen, J.: Loc. cit., 284. 

^Berthelot: Ann. Chim. Phys. (1878), (5) 13, 11. 

^ If it is desired to compare in any way these numbers with those of the 
Report on the Operations of the Coal-testing Plant at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904, V. 8. G. 8., P. P. 48 (1906), 3, Producer-gas, 
etc., it must be remembered that in each of the last three lines on page 1004 
"per c. c." should read, per percentage-content. 

" All the heavy hydrocarbons are assumed to be present as ethylene. This 
probably gives too low a r^ult, but the error is on the conservative side. 

'^ This was taken from the southeastern end of the island. It is a well-known 
fact that the coals from this region are of a much poorer grade than those from 
the western end. 



892 
Proximate analysis of the coal. 





« 








Calculated 








3 








calories— 


























pO 






tt 




CO 






g 


.2 


§ 




•a 
1 


■3 


h 




O 

+ 


6 

1 


■s 


1' 


V 

K 


1 


i 


o 

V 

O 


s 


g 


o 
> 


■3 


15.10 


40.82 


40.10 


3.98 


0.22 


5,630 


7,015 


50.45 


0.935 



Production of gas (in liters). 



Weight of 
coal in 
grams. 


Yield of 
gas. 


Air in gas. 


Actual 

yield of 

gas. 


Actual 
yield of 
gasper 
kilo of 
coal. 


44.021 


16.167 


0.057 


16.110 


365.955 



Analysis of gas. 





CHrbon 

dioxide 

(COs). 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 
(C„H2.). 


Oxygen 
(Os). 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 
(CO). 


Methane 
(CH,). 


Hydro- 


Nitrogen 
(No). 


Analysis ol gas as ob- 
tained (per cent) 

Calculated analysis o£ gas 


25.9 
26.04 


2.8 
2.31 


0.5 
0.43 


14.1 
14.15 


16.85 
16.9 


35.3 
35.4 


5.05 
4.77 





Calories per liter. 

Calorific value of the gas as obtained 3 115 

Calorific value of the gas as produced 3,'l25 

A sample of coal from Cebu gave the following results : 
Proximate analysis of tlie coal. 





6 








Calculated 
















calories— 












1 


.§ 




% 




3 


- 


d 




t 


lU 


§ 




a, 
■3 




g « 





1^ 


■2 




3 


-O 






■3 


§.a 


> 


-h 


g 


1 


t 


E 


1 




u 







8 


6 

> 


■3 


12.12 


43. '70 


41.24 


2.94 


0,04 


5,917 


6,965 


51.45 


0.944 



893 
Production of gas (in liters). 



Weight of 
coal in 
grams. 


Yield of 
gas. 


Air in gas. 


Actual 

yield of 

gas. 


Actual 
yield of 
gas per 
kilo of 
coal. 


47.406 


15.217 


» 0.757 


14.460 


305.020 



Analysts of gas. 





Carbon 

dioxide 

(COa). 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 
(C„Ha,). 


Oxygen 
(Oj). 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 

(CO). 


Methane 
(CHi). 


Hydro- 
gen 
(Hj). 


Nitrogen 
(Ns). 


Analysis of gas as ob- 
tained (per cent)- 

Calcalated analj'sis of gas 
as produced 


13.3 
14.4 


5.2 
5.48 


1.75 
0.7 


9.3 

9.8 


24.2 
25.46 


39.2 
41.3 


7.05 
2.86 





Calories per liter. 

Calorific value of the gas as obtained -^ 4,082 

Calorific value of the gas as produced 4,295 

A sample of coal from Polillo gave the following results : 
Proximate analysis of the coal. 





<a 








Calculated 








a 








calories— 






















a 


.a 


1 










O 




6 

■43 


2 
■3 


3 




4 


g 
1 


<4H 


§3 


> 
1 


+ 
d 


g 
1 


S 


> 


s 


< 


t* 


o 


o 


P- 


St 


5.58 


40.99 


47.04 


6.39 




5,925 


6,735 


46.6 


1.174 









Production of gas (in liters). 



Weight of 
coal in 
gramsj 


Yield of 
gas. 


Air in gas. 


Actual 

yield of 

gas. 


Actual 
yield of 
gasper 
lilo of 
coal. 


44.690 


14.338 


0.008 


14.330 


320.648 



^ During this experiment the apparatus leaked so that the number of cubic 
centimeters of air has been assumed to be that given and is nearly equal to the 
quantity of air originally exhausted from the apparatus. 



894 
Analym of gas. 





Carbon 

dioxide 

(CO2). 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 
(C„H2„). 


Oxygen 
(O2). 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 
(CO). 


Methane 
(Cfii). 


Hydro- 
gen 
(Hs). 


Nitrogen 
(N2). 


Analysis ol gas a.s ob- 
tained (per cent) 

Calculated analysis of gas 
as produced 


8,4 
8.4 


8.1 
8.1 


0.7 
0.7 


8.95 
8.95 


32.7 
32.7 


• 

40.5 
40.5 


0.65 
0.65 





Calorific value of the gas, 6,254 calories per liter. 

A sample of coal from Negros gave the following results : 
Proximate analysis of the coal. 





<u 








Calculated 








1 


^ 




s 


calories — 








i, 


1 


1 
1 


i 


4 


■a 
3 


■3. 
8 


.D 

is 

8g 




d 

1 
"3 


s 


s 


■< 


H 








\> 


g 


18.95 


32.39 


31.07 


17.69 


0.0 


4,402 


6,935 


51.1 


0.960 



Production of gas {in liters). 



Weight of 
coal in 
grams. 


Yield of 
gas. 


Air in gas. 


Actual 

yield of 

gas. 


Actual 
yield of 
gas per 
lilo of 
coal. 


49.706 


13.400 


0.100 


13. 300 


267.570 



Analysis of gas. 



1 


Carlioh 
dioxide 
(CO2). 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 

(CnHj.). 


Oxygen 
(0=). 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 
(CO). 


Methane 
(CH,). 


Hydro- 
gen 
(Ho). 


Nitrogen 
(No). 


Analysis of gas as ob- 
tained (per cent) 

Calculated analysis of gas 
as produced 


17.3 
-17.44 


3.2 
3.21 


0.2 
0.05 


7.1 

7.15 


1 

34.15 
34. 43 


34.2 

34.48 


3.85 
3,24 





Calorific value of the gas as obtained '^"'""'^ P" '"^'•• 

Calorific value of the gas as produced... -— — 4^490 

5,427 



895 

A sample of coal from Zamboanga gave the following results: 
Proximate analysis of the coal, 





<o 








Calculated 








1 
a 


d 




3 


calories— 








1- 

a o> 

83 


i 


o 

— 


■s 




•a 
1 


"S 


■'d 
> + 


•2 


o 


« 


•1 


■a 


^ 


s 




So 


"O) 


s 


> 


3 


e 


o 


o 


"!> 


1^4 


6.98 


39.87 


48.00 


5.15 


0.06 


6,427 


7,304 


46.4 


1.204 



I'roduction of gas {in liters). 



Weight of 
coal in 
grams. 


Yield of 
gas. 


Air in gas. 


Actual 

yield of 

gas. 


Actuiil 
yield of 

coal. 


44.69 


13.518 


0.008 


13.510 


302.305 



Analysis of gas. 





Carbon 
dioxide 

(COO. 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 
(C„Ha,). 


%?r 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 
(CO). 


Methane 
(CH,). 


Hydro- 
(H2°. 


Nitrogen 
CNs). 


Analysis of gas as ob- 
tained (per cent) 

Calculated analysis of gas 
as produced 


10.1 
10.1 


6.2 
6.2 


0.65 
0.65 


9.5 
9.5 


35.5 
35.5 


36.4 
36.4 


1.65 
1.65 



Calories per liter. 

Caloritic value of the gas as obtained 6,135 

Calorific value of the gas as produced 5, 135 

A sample of coal from Australia ^^ gave the following results : 
Proximate analysis of the coal. 





















^ 








i 








































^ 
















.Q 


fl 




t-i 


■3 








B 
























.a 






:) 




i 

3 





00 




1 


s 

3 



> 


1^; 

+ 



S 






s 


d 


3 





S 


ri 


'3 




















S 


> 


s 


-< 


B 


. - 




> 


fe . 


2.28 


35.31 


50.25 


12.16 


0.09 


6,550 


41.26 


1.423 



""This was taken from the laboratory supply. It is a coking coal and was 
therefore analyzed according to the official method. 



896 
Production of gag {m liters). 



Weight of 
coal in 
grams. 


Yield of 
gas. 


Air in gas. 


Actual , 

yield of 

gas. 


Actual 
yield of 

kilo of 
coal. 


43.714 


10.018 


0.058 


9.960 


227.845 



Analysis of gas. 





Carbon 
dioxide 
(CO2). 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 
(C.Hj„). 


°(4r 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 
(CO). 


Methane 
(CH,). 


Hydro- 
gen 
(Ha). 


Nitrogen 
(Ns). 


Analysis of gas as ob- 
tained (per cent) 

Calculated analysis of gas 
as produced 


6.2 
6.24 


6.3 
6.34 


0.85 
0.73 


5.0 
5.03 


41.8 
42.05 


37.1 
37.34 


2.65 
2.17 





Calories per liter. 

Calorific value of the gas as obtained 5, 583 

Calorific value of the gas as produced 5,616 

The gas which supplies the Bureau of Science is not made from coal, 
but from a mixture of equal parts of petroleum and crude oil. For some 
time a mixture of petroleum and "Cape Axle Oil" has been used for this 
purpose. Coconut oil in the place of "Cape Axle Oil" was formerly 
found satisfactory. The oil is gasified by dropping under considerable 
pressure into a retort heated to a bright cherry-red heat. The gas pro- 
duced in this way burns with a lorig, smoky flame in spite of the fact that 
it is mixed with 30 per cent of air at the generator. This gas would make 
a splendid enricher for others which are deficient in illuminating power. 
An analysis of a sample taken from the tap on July 26, 1906, gave results 
showing a wide difference between it and coal gas as follows : 

Analysis of laboratory supply. 



Carbon 

dioxide, 

(CO2). 


Heavy 
hydro- 
carbons 
(C.H2„). 


Oxygen 
(O2). 


Carbon 
monox- 
ide 
(CO). 


Methane 
(CH4). 


Hydro- 
gen 
(Hs). 


Nitrogen 

(No). 


Per cent. 
1.00 


Per cent. 
24.9 


Per cent. 
5.9 


Per cent. 
0.8 


Per cent. 
35.1 


Percent. 
8.1 


Per cent. 
29.2 



Calorific value of the gas, 7, 70581 calories per liter. 

No calorimetric determinations of the gases could be made, but a table 
which shows their comparative heat values is given below. The combus- 

"^This number becomes 8,020 when the value used in the calculation of the 
heavy hydrocarbons is that given by Payne, H. L., J. Anal, and App. Ghem. 
(1803), 7, 2.3,% when the "illuminants" are derived chiefly from the decomposi- 
tion of mineral oil. 



897 

tion was effected in a Bunsen burner with a constant flow oi! air, regulated 
empirically by trial with Polillo gas, and a flow of gas regulated to deliver 
approximately 7 liters in five minutes. The apparatus used was an 
ordinary uninsulated copper bath protected from drafts and containing 
1 liter of water. The amount of heat lost by radiation was of course 
very large, but by conducting the experiment in each case for exactly 
five minutes and raising the water over the same range of temperature, 
viz, from 30° to about 50°, the results are thought to show the relative 
calorific value of the gases. The heat value of the water bath, as deter- 
mined, is 160 calories for each increase of 1° in temperature. It was 
also calculated ^^ from the weight and specific heat of the materials of 
which it is constructed and a very concordant result obtained. 

Table VIII. — Comparative heat value of the gases obtained. 



Name of gas. 


Volume 
of gas 
burned 
in liters 
at 760 
mm. pres- 
sure. 


Increase 
in tem- 
perature 
of the ap- 
paratus 
in de- 
grees C. 


Heat im- 
parted 
to the 
water in 
calories. 


Heat im- 
parted 

to the ap- 
paratus 
in cal- 
ories. 


Total 
heat ab- 
sorbed in 
calories. 


Heat ab- 
sorbed 
for each 
literofgas 
burned 
in cal- 
ories. 


Calcu- 
lated 
calorific 
value of 
the gas. 


Heat 
lost by 
radiation 
in cal- 
ories. 


Batan Island 
coal 


7.21 
7.30 
7.28 
6.88 

6.98 
5.78 
6.35 


15.0 

17.5 
24.0 
18.0 

22.5 
21.0 
30.5 


15,000 
17, 600 
24,000 
18,000 

22,600 
21,000 
SO, 500' 


2,400 

2,800 

3,840 

^,880 

3,640 
3,360 
4,880 


17,400 
20, 300 
27,840 
20,880 

26,100 
24,360 
85,580 


2,414 
2,780 
3,824 
3,037 

3,740 
4,210 
5,570 


3,116 
4,082 
5,264 
4,490 

5,135 
6,583 
7,705 


701 
1,302 
1,430 
1,453 

1,395 
1,373' 
2,136 


Cebu coal 

Polillo coal 

Negros coal ^^_ 

Zamboanga 
coal 


Australian coal- 
Laboratory oil- 



It would have been better to have regulated the flow of air so that, in 
each case, the combustion of the gas would have been as nearly complete 
as possible. The gas generated from Batan Island coal contained a less 
amount of combustible matter than that derived from the other sources 
and, with the fijsed supply of air, a more perfect combustion was ob- 
tained. On the other hand, the gas generated from oil for laboratory 
use contained a very large percentage of heavy hydrocarbons, and in this 
ease the fixed supply of air was insufficient' to effect total combustion. 
Discrepancies from both of these sources have been included in the last 
column representing the heat lost by radiation. Nevertheless, the third 
from the last column of the table represents fairly well the general 
relation which the calorific values of the gases bear to each other. 

Perhaps the relations above determined can better be appreciated if 
placed together and expressed in a more comparative way, as follows: 

'" Ostwald-Luther : Physiko-Chemische Messungen (1902), 191. 



Table IX. 



Name of gas. 


Actual yield of gas 
per kilo of coal. 


Actual yield of gas 

per kilo of com- ' 

bustible. 


Actual yield of gas 

per kilo of volatile 

combustible. 


Calories, 
per liter. 

1 


In liters. 


In ciibie 
feet. 


In liters. 


In cubic 
feet. 


In liters. 


In cubic 
feet. 


Batan coal 


366. 955 
305.020 
320. 648 
267.570 
302. 306 
227.845 


12.922 
10.770 
31.322 

9.448 
10.674 

8.046 


462.265 
359. 100 
364.246 
369.350 
344.035 
264. 820 


15.97 
12.67 
12.88 
12.69 
12.15 
9.89 


854.380 
697.986 
782.260 
826.088 
768.227 
645.270 


30.89 
24.65 
27.60 
29.14 
26.77 
22.22 


3,125 
4,295 
5,264 
4,627 
5,135 
5,616 




Polillo coal . 






Australian coal 





The quantity of carbon dioxide in each of the gases is sufficient to 
render it non-luminous. This inert body can easily be removed or 
diminished in quantity in practical work by slaked lime, but no attempt 
was made to do this as it would give a distorted idea of the actual con- 
ditions. As this is the chief noxious body in the gases, perhaps a better 
idea of the relation existing between them can be obtained when they are 
calculated as free from it. 



Tablb X. — Gas free from carbon dioxide. 



Source of coal. 


Yield per kilo 
of coal. 


Yield per kilo of 
combustible. 


Content of desirable 
constituents. 


Calo- 
ries 
per 

liter. 


Calorific 
value of 
gas pro- 
duced per 
kilo of 
combus- 
tible In 
calories. 


In liters. 


In cu- 
bic 

feet. 


In liters. 


In cu- 
bic 
feet. 


C.Hj„. 


CO. 


CH4. 


H.. 


Batan Island 

Cebu 


270.660 
261.097 
246. 094 
220.906 
271.772 
216.627 


9.56 
9.22 
10.37 
7.81 
9.60 
7.66 


334.488 
307.390 
333.648' 
296.680 
309.287 
248.825 


11.81 
10.84 
11.79 
10.48 
10.92 
8.46 


P.ct. 
3.12 
. 6.4 
8.86 
3.9 
6.9 
6.7 


P.ct. 
19.2 
11.45 

9.77 

8.66 
10.6 

6.4 


P.ct. 
22.8 
29.8 
35.7 
41.7 
39.6 
44. T 


P.ct. 
47.8 
48.2 
44.2 
41.8 
40.5 
39.7 


4,225 
5,020 
5,730 
5,483 
5,710 
5,970 


1,413,000 
1,542,000 
1,910,000 
1,626,000 
1,768,000 
1,485,000 


Polillo-. 


Negros 

Zamboanga 

Australia 


Average of 
Philippine 
coals 






316.299 


11.17 

































Perhaps the results of the last column of Table X become more intel- 
ligible when attention is called to a piece of research done in 1891 by 
Mahler.='=' Commentry coal " was distilled on a large scale by the Paris 

'"Mahler, Pierre: Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Par. (1891), 113, 862. 

»■' An ultimate analysis published in Handbuoh der chemisohen Technologie, by 
0. Daminer, 4, 52, shows that Commentry gas coal is of ^ much better g^ade 
than the Philippine coals. The analysis of Batan Island coal has been calculated 



899 

Gas Works and the yield of gas per kilo of coal had a total calorific value 
of 1,898,870 calories. The other results of the table are comparable to 
the quantityand quality of the gas produced from American and English 
coals as shown in the following table: 

Table Xl.^—Oasfrom American bituminous coal. 



Source of coal. 


Yield per kilo 
of coal. 


Yield per 
kilo of com- 
bustible. 


Content of desirable constituents. 


In 
liters. 


In 
cnbic 
feet 


In 
liter-. 


In 
cubic 
feet. 


CnHsn. 


CO. 


CHi. 


Ih- 


Westmoreland, Pa 

Sterling. Ohio 

Despard. W. Va __ 
Darlington, Ohio. 

Petonia, W. Va 

Grahamite, W. Va 


382.0 
377.5 
386.0 

474.0 
535.0 


10.82 
10.70 
10.93 
9.97 
13.42 
15.25 


406,0 
400.0 
413.5 
872.5 
545.0 
551.5 


11.50 
11.33 
11.71 
10. ,56 
15.43 
15.56 


Per cent. 
4. 5 to 7. 6 
4.5to7.5 
i. 5 to 7. 5 
4.5 to 7.5 
4. 5 to 7. 5 
4.5 to 7.5 


Per cent. 
2 to 14 
2 to 14 
2 to 14 
2 to 14 
2 to 14 
2 to 14 


Per cent. 
31 to 43 
31 to 43 
31 to 43 
31 to 43 
31 to 43 
31 to 43 


Per cent. 
38 to 48 
38 to 48 
38 to 48 
38 to 48 
38 to 48 
'38 to 48 



Table XII.'" — Gros from English bituminous coals. 



Source of coal. 



Yield per kilo 
of coal. 



In liters. 



In cubic 
feet. 



Yield per kilo of 
combustible. 



In liters. 



In cubic 
feet. 



Llantwit 

Aberbeeg 

Abeream 

Radstock 

Caleford 

Hartley 

New Pelton 

Hindley Field. 

Lydney 

Throneliffe 

Ga.sforth 



-Average of English eoals- 



279.5 
256. 2 
350.3 
294.6 
273.6 
302.0 
301. 5 
309.0 
273.6 
302.0 
288.2 



9.87 

9.04 
12.49 
10.41 

9.66 
10.67 
10.65 
10.91 

9.66 
10.67 
10.19 



294.0 
268.2 
372.6 
312.6 
296.3 
313.0 
310.0 
325.7 
291.4 
313.3 
305.0 



309.; 



10.39 
9.46 
13.18 
11.05 
10.48 
11. 06 
10.95 
11.61 
10.30 
11.07 
10.78 



10.93 



from the air-dried sample (see p. 885) to figures free from water and other 
impurities. The comparative analyses are as follows: 



Commentry gas 
coal (per cent). 

82.92 



Batan Island coal 
(per cent). 

73.08 

5.54 

21.38 



Carbon 

Hydrogen 5.30 

Oxygen and nitrogen 11.78 

''Calculated from Kent's Meohanieal Engineer's Pocket-book (1903), table on 
page 652. 

'"Calculated from Phillips's Engineering Chemistry (1902), table on page 323. 



900 

Since the Philippine coals used in this study were of the upper or 
outcropping beds, in which naturally the percentage of ash and especially 
of moisture, due to climatic conditions, is higher than the average, it is 
only fair in comparing the results with those of other lands, to do so on 
the basis of the yield of gas per unit of combustible matter. It will 
be seen from Tables X, XI and XII that the yield compares favorably 
with American gas coals and the average, by a small amount, exceeds the 
average yield from English coals. 

The regions represented by this investigation include the largest coal 
iields of the Islands and show wide distribution. Since the character 
"of the coal in the Philippines and the facts of the gas tests are so nearly 
the same, conclusions may also be dtawn from these results regarding 
the other regions. Furthermore, it is probable that equally good or even 
better results could be obtained from a study of the other coals. 

An investigation of the by-products of the distillation of these coals 
has not been made, but it can be stated that the yield of tar is compara- 
tively small. 

The producer-gas plant depends not only on the production and utiliza- 
tion of the ordinary coal gas but also on the partial combustion of the 
fixed carbon which, in an ordinary gas plant, is left behind. Carbon 
monoxide, the product of the partial combustion, is of comparatively 
low calorific value, much lower than that of the gas produced from the 
volatile combustible matter. This explains the results of the work of 
the United States Geological Survey which show, when viewed from the 
usual steaming standpoint, that the quality of the producer gas "improves 
as one descends in the scale of quality of a coal, the best results being 
obtained from brown lignite." The same tendency is noted in the gas- 
producing power of native coals, as shown below : 



Source of the coal. 


Heating power 
of the com- 
bustible in 
calories. 


Calories per 
liter of gas. 


Total heating power 

of gas produced per 

kilo of combustible 

in calories. 


Zamboanga 


7,306 =0 
7,015 1% 
6,965 j§i 
6 935 1^1 
6,735|r^ 


5,710 =0^ 
4,225 l%l 
5,020 ;s|s 

5,483 pll 
5,730$ S"-"" 


1,768,000 g|| 
1,413,000 -? " . 
1,542,000 tsi] 
1,626,000 III! 
1,910,000||°°^ 


Batan Island 


Cebu 


Negros 


Polillo 





This fact is of importance to the Philippines as it suggests a method 
for the utilization of the low-grade fuels. The disposition of the outcrop 
coal, which must be mined in opening up the works, and the use of the 
slack is the question now to be considered and the problem which we 
must solve. My investigations have been made with outcrop coals of a 
low fuel ratio, with the particular object of determining their utility. 
The above results show that the coals tested have satisfactory gas- 



901 

producing power and could probably be used in a producer plant with 
excellent results. 

Physically, the Philippine coals are ideal to handle in a producer 
furnace. They do not swell, they burn steadily, form no clinkers, and 
the ash would easily be removed automatically. Since the quantity of 
ash in a producer plant is of no material consequence, it seems probable 
that dirty coals could be used in this way to great advantage. It is also 
probable that the outcrop coals used in a producer-gas plant may become 
as valuable as the best grades of coal tised in a steam plant. 

With a satisfactory scheme for the utilization of the upper and poorer 
grade of coal, the mines can successfully be operated and the deeper 
coal can be used for steaming where a producer gas plant is impracticable. 
For the production of power, the utilization of our low-grade and outcrop 
coals for producer gas ^eems much more promising than any other scheme 
which has yet been devised for their use. 



902 



I 



O 

1-1 







NOTES ON A COLLECTON OF BIRDS FROM 
PALAWAN ISLAND. 



By Richard C. McGregor. 
{From the zoological section, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Science.) 



During the months of December, 1903, and January and February, 
1906, Messrs. Celestino and Canton, assistant collectors in the Bureau of 
Science, collected birds at Puerto Princesa and Tinabog in the Island 
of Palawan. Tinabog is situated on the east coast, some 35 miles north 
or Puerto Princesa. The collection contains good series of the charac- 
teristic Palawan species and makes a very considerable addition to the 
number in the Bureau collection. One species obtained, namely, Hypo- 
twnidia striata, has not, it is believed, previously been recorded trom 
Palawan. 

LIST OF SPECIES COLLECTED IN PALAWAN. 

Megapodius cumingi Dillw. 

A young bird, 6 inches in length, collected December 19 at Puerto Princesa, 
has the secondaries, wing coverts, and scapulars barred with fulvous. 
Treron nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

Two males and a female from Puerto Princesa, December 14-19. 
Osmotreron vernans (Linn.). 

Eight specimens from Puerto Princesa. 
Muscadivora aenea (Linn.). 

Several specimens. The fruit pigeon of Palawan has been described by Blasius 
under the name Garpophaga cenea palawanensis. 
MyristicJvora bicolor (Scop.). 

One specimen from Puerto Princesa. 
Macropygia tenuirostris Bp. 

A male from Tinabog. 
Spilopelia tigrina (Temm. and Knip.). 

Three adults and one immature bird from Puerto Princesa, December 5-9; 
one adult specimen from Tinabog, January 17. This species seems to be very 
scarce in the Palawan group and to occur in the winter months only. 

Chalcophaps indica (Linn.). 

Two specimens of this ground-frequenting dove from Puerto Princesa. 

Hypotsenidia striata (Linn.). 

A female, taken at Puerto Princesa, January 2, seems to be the first specimen 
of this species recorded from Palawan. 

46941 8 903 



904 

Amaurornis phoenicura (Forster). 

A fine male specimen was taken at Tinabog, January 17; the only previous 
record of this species for Palawan was made by Platen. 

^gialitis dubia (Scop.). 

Tinabog, January 18, one female in badly worn plumage. 

Actitis hypoleucus (Linn.). 

One specimen from Tinabog, January 15. 

Ardea sumatrana Eaffe. 

An adult male heron taken at Tinabog, January 23, agrees very well with 
the description of the great slaty heron given by Dates in his Birds of British 
Burmah, II, page 244. Total length of specimen in the flesh, 53 inches; wing, 
19.25; tail, 6.75; tarsus, 6.50; culmen, 7.10. 
Butastur indicus (Gm.). 

A specimen taken at Puerto Princesa, December 9. 

Syrnium whitehead! Sharpe. 

A female example of Whitehead's barred owl in fine plumage was taken at 
Puerto Princesa, December 16. 
Cacatua haematuropygia (P. L. S. Miill.). 

A female of the Philippine cockatoo from Puerto Princesa. 
Prioniturus cyaneiceps Sharpe. 

Twelve specimens of the blue-headed racket-tailed parrot were taken at Puerto 
Princesa in December and January. The females in this series have the 
feathers of the chin, and to a less extent of the throat and breast, matted 
with a resinous gum, which injuries their appearance as specimens; the males 
are practically clean and in smooth plumage. 
Tanygnathus lucionensis (Linn.). 
A female from Puerto Princesa. 
Pelargopsis gouldi Sharpe. 

Three specimens from Tinabog, Palawan, have been compared with a male 
from Mindoro and a female from Lubang. So far as I can determine these all 
belong to the species described as P. gouldi. 
Alcedo bengalensis Briss. 

One male from Tinabog. 
Ceyx euerythra Sharpe. 

An adult female from Tinabog, January 12; a pair of immature birds from 
the same locality, January 13.^ 
Gymnolsemus lemprieri Sharpe. 
A male from Puerto Princesa. 
Caprimulgus macrurus Horsf. 

Six specimens of this goat sucker were killed in Palawan during January and 
February; three are from Puerto Princesa and three from Tinabog. 
Caprimulgus jotaka Temm. and Schl. 

Bourns and Worcester obtained a specimen of this species in Palawan and 
one was collected by me in Calayan; the present collection contains the third 
known Philipppine specimen, a female from Puerto Princesa, December 29. 
This specimen differs from the one from Calayan iii having a greater number 
of bars on primaries and rectrices; the measurements of the two are equal. 

^For full description of the various changes in plumage of this species see 
Bourns and Worcester, Occ. Pap. Minn. Acad. (1894), 1, No. 1, 45. 



905 

Salangana whiteheadi (Grant). 

Three small swifts from Puerto Princesa, belong without doubt to this species. 

Salangana troglodytes (Gray). 

Two specimens of this small swift were taken at Tinabog. 

Chaetura gigantea (Temm.). 

Specimens of this large swift were taken at Puerto Princesa, December 26, 
January 3, and February 3 ; at Tinabog specimens were taken January 22 and 24. 

Surniculus lugubris (Horsf.). 

A female from Puerto Princesa, December 20, and a male from Tinabog, Jan- 
uary 18. Shelley" characterizes 8. velutinus as "having the head, back, throat, 
and breast velvety black, with absolutely no trace of white on any of the tail 
coverts and a distinct, narrow, white, basal edging to the tail feathers." A male 
of velutinus from Balete, Mindoro, has the under tail coverts tipped with white, 
but not barred as in lugubris; on the other hand the two specimens of 8. luguhris 
from Palawan have narrow, white, basal edgings to the tail feathers but these 
edgings are not distinct as they are in the Mindoro specimens of 8. velutinus 
before me. The specimens from Palawan have each a white feather on the 
nape; this is absent in the specimens of S. velutinus. There seems to be very 
little difference in the size of these species. The greatest variation is in the 
gloss of the wings and tail and their coverts which in 8. velutinus is bluish 
and in S. lugubris is greenish. 

Cacomantis merulinus (Scop.). 

Puerto Princesai _ 

Chalcococcyx xanthorhynchus (Horsf.). 

Two males of the emerald cuckoo from Puerto Princesa. One taken December 
26 is in adult plumage; the other taken three days earlier is in mixed plumage, 
the throat and upper breast with white and green barred feathers of the young 
and violet feathers of the adult about equally represented; a few feathers of 
the hind neck, barred with white and green. Primaries 1, 3, 5, 8 in one wing 
and 1, 3, 5, 6, 9 in the other wing are of the young plumage; nearly all second- 
aries and the greater secondary coverts are green and rufous. There seems 
some probability that the name C. amethystinus (Vigors) will have to be 
adopted for the Mindoro bird. The Palawan bird is certainly distinct from 
that from Mindoro and the latter should be recognized as a subspecies. Vigor's 
bird came from the "neighborhood of Manilla" and it is not unlikely that all 
the specimens from the Philippine Islands (excluding the Palawan group) 
belong to C. amethystinus. Tweeddale' recognizes Vigor's name, subject to 
revision on the basis of actual material to be compared. 

Measurements of three maletspecimens of Chalcococcyx. 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Mindoro 


4.04 
3.56 
3.60 


2.72 
2.65 
2.54 


0.67 
.58 
.57 




Do — 





Centropus javanicus (Dumont). 

A female from Tinabog, January 18, has the under parts buff, blotched with 
black; feathers of flanks and thighs, barred with black. 

'Cat. Bds., 19, 230. 

= Trans. Zool. 8oc., 9, 160, 161. 



906 

Dryococcyx harringtoni Sharpe. 

Five specimens of this curious coucal from Puerto Princesa. 

Tiga everetti Tweedd. 

A male from Tinabog, January 11; a pair from Puerto Princesa taken in 

December. 

Chrysocolaptes erythrocephalus Sharpe. 

A female from Puerto Princesa, December 20. 
Mulleripicus pulverulentus (Temm.). 

Two males and two females from Tinabog, January 22. 

Pitta atricapilla Less. 

Puerto Princesa. 
Hemichelidon griseisticta (Swinh.). 

One specimen from Puerto Princesa, December 18, 1905. 

Cyornis lemprieri Sharpe. 

Specimens obtained at Puerto Princesa and Tinabog, Palawan. 

Hypothymis occipitalis Vig. 

The black-naped flycatcher was obtained in Palawan. 
Rhipidura nigrltorquis Vig. 

The black-necked, fantailed flycatcher was obtained in Palawan. 

Zeocephus cyanescens Sharpe. 

A series of nine specimens from Puerto Princesa and Tinabog. 

Culicicapa helianthea (Wall.). 

Two specimens taken at Puerto Princesa in December. 

Artamides dificilis Hartert. 

Two specimens from Puerto Princesa and one from Tinabog. 

Pericrocobus igneus Blyth. 

A male from Tinabog, January 11, 1906, differs from the description* in 
the following points: Four central tail feathers black, not "two;" "the broad 
vermilion sub-basal band which traverses the wing" is absent from the first 
four primaries, not from the first and second only. The inner web of each 
primary, except the short first, bears a yellow patch. 
Lalage niger (Forster). 

Puerto Princesa. 
/Egithina viridis (Bp.). , 

Fifteen specimens from Puerto Princesa collected in December and January. 
Chloropsis palawanensis Sharpe. 

A fine series of this curiously colored species was obtained at Puerto Princesa 
and Tinabog. 

Irena tweeddalii Sharpe. 

Tweeddale's fairy bluebird was taken at Puerto Princesa and Tinabog. 
IVIIcrotarsus melanocephalus (Gm.). 

Nineteen speciinens from Puerto Princesa taken in December, January, and 
February. 

Cri niger f rater Sharpe. 

Seven specimens of this bulbul were obtained in Palawan, December 11 to 
January 31. In this species the reotrices are clear-brown, without the greenish- 
yellow wash shown in the plate." 

* Sharpe : Cat. Bds., 4, 78. 
'Ibid., 6, PI. V. 



907 

Ciniger palawanensis Tweedd. 

A male and a female of this smaller Criniger were taken at Tinabog, Jan- 
uary 19. 

Pycnonotus cinereifrons Tweedd. 

A large series of specimens was obtained at Puerto Princesa. 
Turdinus rufifrons (Tweedd.). 

Four specimens from Tinabog, January 11 and 12, agree with Tweeddale's 
description and plate. 

Anuropsis cinereiceps (Tweedd.). 

This curious species is represented by two males from Puerto Princesa, De- 
cember 14, and one male from Tinabog, January 12. 
Mixornis wood! Sharpe. 

Specimens from Tinabog and Puerto Princesa. In the description' of this 
species no mention is made of the numerous obsolete cross bars on the tail 
feathers. 

Cittocincia nigra Sharpe. 

A good series of specimens of this species from Puerto Princesa, December 
5 to January 31 ; one specimen from Tinabog, January 12. 
Acanthopneuste borealis (Bias.). 

A specimen of the willow warbler from Tinabog. 
Artamus leucorhynchus (Linn.). 

One female from Puerto Princesa, December 13. 
Otomela lucionensis (Linn.). 

Three shrikes in more or less barred plumage were taken at Puerto Princesa 
in December and January. 
Hyloterpe whitehead! Sharpe. 

Puerto Princesa and Tinabog. 
Pardaliparus amabilis (Sharpe). 

Specimens from Tinabog and Puerto Princesa. 
Callisitta frontalis (Swains.). 

Fourteen specimens of this nuthatch from Tinabog and Puerto Princesa are 
all in fine adult plumage. Probably this is Sitta frontalis palawana of Hartert. 
Dicaeum papuense (Gmel.). 

Three specimens from Puerto Princesa. 
Prionochilus Johannae Sharpe. 

Specimens from Puerto Princesa and Tinabog. 

iCthopyga shelleyi Sharpe. 

This beautiful little sun-bird was found both at Puerto Princesa and Tinabog; 
a number of specimens in fine plumage were taken in December and January. 
Cinnyris aurora Tweedd. 

One specimen from Puerto Princesa. 

Arachnothera dilutior Sharpe. 

Eight specimens of Sharpe's spider-hunter from Puerto Princesa, taken in 
December and January. 
Anthreptes malaccensis (Scop.). 

A gdod series from Puerto Princesa and one male from Tinabog. 

« Sharpe: Ibid., 7, 577. 



908 

Budytes leucostriatus Horn. 

Three specimens. It is possible that Philippine birds of this genus belong 
to the recently described Budytes flavus alascensis of Ridgvi'ay.' 

Anthus rufulus (Vieill.). 

One specimen of this common pipit from Puerto Princesa. 

Anthus cervinus (Pall.). 

Three specimens of the red-throated pipit were taken at Tinabog, Palawan, 
in January. 
Anthus gustavi Swinh. 

One specimen from Puerto Princesa, taken December 20. 

Uroloncha everetti (Tweedd.). 

A male and female from Puerto Princesa, December 29. 
Oriolus chinensis Linn. 

An immature female from Puerto Princesa. 
Oriolus xanthonotus Horsf. 

Twelve specimens obtained at Puerto Princesa and Tinabog, December 12 to 
January 23, are in fine plumage. 
Chibia palawanensis (Tweedd.). 

Three specimens of the Palawan drongo taken at Puerto Princesa in Decem- 
ber are in perfect plumage. 
Buchanga palawanensis Whitehead. 

Two males from Tinabog and four specimens from Puerto Princesa; one of 
the last taken December 9, 1905, is immature, having acquired but few of the 
dark, slate-blue feathers of the adult. The old feathers are dark smoky-brown. 
Specimens from Culion and Paragua do not differ from each other. 
Eulabes palawanensis Sharpe. 

Ten specimens from Palawan; an immature female taken at Puerto Princesa, 
December 22, has the bill lighter and more yellowish than the adults. 
Lamprococorax panayensis (Scop.). 

Tinabog and Puerto Princesa. 
Corvus pusillus Tweedd. 

AJemale from Puerto Princesa. 

' Bull. SO, U. S. Nat. Mus., Eds'. N. and M. Am., pt. 3, 8. "Winter specimens 
from the Philippine Islands apparently belong to this form (alascensis) , but ovping 
to the fact that no winter specimens undoubtedly belonging to this subspecies are 
available for comparison their identification is uncertain." Op. cit., p. 10. 



PBEVIOTJB FVBLICATIOirS OF TH£ BUBEAV 07 OOVESmiEIfT 
IiABOBATOaiES-Concluded. 



(Oonoluded from second page of aoveT.) 

No S8,190S. — Biological Laboratory: I. Intestinal Hsmorrhage as a Fatal Complication 
in Amoebic Dysentery and Its Association with Liver Abscess. By Richard P. Strong, M. D. 
II. The Action ol Various Chemical Substances upon Cultures of Amosbee. By J. B. Thomas 
M. D., Bagulo, Benguet. Biological and Serum Laboratories: III. The Pathology of In- 
testinal Amceblasla. By Paul Q. WooUey, M. D., and W. B. Musgrave, M n ' 
i,. ■''?;■**' iSOS, Biologicat Laboratory. — Further Observations on Fibrin Thrombosis in 
the Glomerular and in Other Renal vessels in Bubonic Plague. By Maximilian Herzog, 
M. D. 

No. Si, 1905. — I. Birds from Mindoro and Small Adjacent Islands. II. Notes on Three 
Rare LuEon Birds. By Richard C. McGregor. 

No. S6, 1905. — I. New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, IV. II. Notes on Cuming's 
Philippine Plants In the Herbarium of the Bureau of Government Laboratories. III. 
Hackel, "Notes on Philippine Grasses." IV. Ridley, "SoitimlnesB Philippiuenses." V. 
Clarke, "Philippine Acanthacese." By Elmer D. Merrill, Botanist. 

No. S6, 1905. — A Hand-List of the Birds of the Philippine Islands. By Richard C. 
McGregor and Dean C. Worcester. 

The previous publications of the Bureau were given out as bulletins in serial number 
pertaining to the entire Bureau. These publications, it they are desired, can be obtained 
by applying to the librarian of the Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I., or to the Director of 
the Bureau of Science, Manila,-?. I. 

LIST 07 FBEVI01TS FTTBLICATIOITS 07 THE HINIITO BTTBEAU (SOW DITISIOIT 
OF UINES OF THE BUBEAU OF SCIEirCE). 

1890. — Descripci6n ffslca, geolfigica y minora en bosquejo de la Isla de Panay por 
D. Enrique Abella y Casariego, Inspector General de Mlnas del Arohipifilago. 

1890. — ^Memoria descriptiva de los manantiales minero-medicinales de la Isla de Luzon, 
estudlados por la comisidn compuesta de los Sefiores D. Jos§ Centano, Ingeniero de 
Mlnas y Vocal Presldente, D. Anacleto del Rosario y Sales, Vocal Farmac6utico, y 
D. Josg de Vera y GOmez, Vocal MSdico. 

189S. — Estudio Descriptive de algunas manantiales minerales de Filipinas ejecutado 
por la comisiOn formada por D. Enrique Abella y Casariego, Inspector General de Minas, 
D. Jos£ de Vera y GOmez, M£dico, y D. Anacleto del Rosario y Sales, FarmacSutico ; 
precedldo de un prdlogo escrito por el Ezcmo. Sr. D. Asgel de Aviles, Director General 
de Admlnlstracifin Civil. 

189S. — ^Terremotos experlmentados en la Isla de LuzSn durante los meses de Marzo 
y Abril de 1892, especialmente desastrosos en Pangasin&n, UniSn y Benguet. Estudio 
ejecutado por D. Enrique Abella y Casariego, Inspector General de Minas del Archipi^lago. 

1901. — The Coal Measures of the Philippines. Charles H. Burritt. *;, 

1902. — ^Abstract of the Mining Laws (in force in the Philippines, 1902). CbarlCs H. 
Bumltt. 

1902, Bulletin No. 1. — Platinum and Associated Rare Metals in Placer Formations. 
H. D. McCaskey, B. S. 

190S. — ^Report of the Chief of the Mining Bureau of the Philippine Islands.' Charles H. 
Burritt. 

190S, Bulletin No. Z. — Complete List of Spanish Mining Claims Recorded in the Mining 
Bureau. Charles H. Burritt. 

190S, Bulletin No, S. — ^Report on a Geological Reconnoissance of the Iron Region of 
Angat, Bulacan. H. D. McCaskey, B. S. 

190i. — Fifth Annual Report of the Mining Bureau. H. D. McCaskey. 

1905. — Sixth Annual Report of the Chief of the Minin'g Bureau. H. D. McCaskey. 

1905, Bulletin No. 4. — ^A Preliminary Reconnoissance of the Mancayan-Suyoc Mineral 
Region, Lepanto, P. I. A. J. Eveland, Geologist.- 

1A05, Bulletin No. 5. — The Coal Deposits of Batan Island. Warren D. Smith, B. S., 
M. A., Geologist. 

The above publications can be obtained by applying to the librarian of the Bureau 
of Science, Manila, P. I. 

1 The first four bulletins in the ornithological series were published by The Ethnological 
Survey under the title "Bulletins of the Philippine Museum.i!' The other ornithological 
publications of the Government appeared as public^ttous of the Bureau of Government 
Laboratories. 



CONTENTS 

Page. 
WORCESTER, DEAN C. The Non-Christian ' 
Tribes of Northerfi Luzon 791 

COX, ALVIN J. Philippine Coals and Their Gas- 

,,1*rei^|&i|;:;Power , ^7 

McGregor, RICHARD C. Notes on a Collec- 
tion 6C Birds from Palawan Island 903 



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