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J. EDKINS, D.D., Peking, 


Cornell University Library 
PL 1125.E23 

Progressive lessons in the Chinese spolce 

3 1924 023 550 688 



1885. , , ^-',11 

PL 1 1 3.^' 

£ ^3 

W <^4-^ 


This little work is intended to assist beginners in the Chinese 
spoken language. The request has often been made to me, to 
prepare a simple work in the form of a Vocabulary, as being a want 
felt by learners. The attempt is here made to supply this want, 
and to provide a manual which may be suitable for those, who wish 
to acquire the common phrases of conversation, without attempting 
to unravel the more subtle intricacies of the language. < 

In the first part of the work the standard Mandarin orthography 
has been used. It is found in a printed form in the Wu fang yuen yin 
^, Jj y^ g", a compact and useful native dictionary which 
may be advantageously consulted for the sounds of words. Farther 
on, (beginning at the 25th page) I have adopted the peculiarities 
of the Peking dialect, — which are given with great fulness in Sir 
Thomas Wade's'recent and valuable works "The book of Experi- 
ments,'.' and "Elementary Course." 

In the Appendix will be found the laws of the Peking dialect in 
regard to tones which will be of assistance to those who may be 
perplexed by a multitude of seeming irregularities in that dialect. 
These are here reduced to a system of laws sixteen in number. 

All who desire to become really good speakers in this language 
should study the tones. The knowledge of this peculiarity in 
Chinese words, lends great distinctness to what is said, and the 
dryness of the study is much more than compensated, by the 
pleasure found in being readily understood. The difficulty ex- 
perienced in distinguishing and learning the tones is much less 
than is generally supposed. 

The tones are marked in this work chiefly (from p. 1 to p. 52) 
according to the standard five-tone system, or that now prevailing 
at Nanking, and in the northern p|,rt of Kiang-su and Ngan-hwei. 
Such is the system adhered to in the native Mandarin dictionary 
mentioned above, and by Premare, Morrison, Medhurst, and other 




1 to 52. 


32. Surgery. 

1 to 11. Common Words. 

33. The Well. 

12. Boating. 

34. Dinner. 

13. The House. 

35. Arresting a Criminal. 

14. Money. 

36. Baying Land. 

15. The Country. 

37. Tigers. 

16. The Body. 

38. Elephants. 

17. Conversation. 

39. Silver mines. 

18. Tailor. 

40. Water. 

19. Society. 

41. Coals at Peking. 

20. Messages. 

42. Junk Navigation. 

21. Measures. 

43. Furs. 

22. Worship. 

44. Imported foreign Manu- 

23. Man. 


24. Time. 

45. Foreign Tribute. 

26. Strength and Skill. 

46. Emperor's Seal. 

26. Mason's work. 

47. Gratitude, an anecdote. 

27. Study. 

48. Generosity, an anecdote. 

28. Ancestors. 

49. Self-control, an anecdote. 

29. Servants. 

60. Integrity, an anecdote. 

30. Trade. 

61. Rules for a free School. 

31. War. 

52. A Cavern. 

Lists op Useful Woed 

s AND Short Phrases. 


Place and Direction. 

8. Conjunctions. 



9. Names of Imports, Wax, etc 


Afi&rmative and Negative 

10. Incense, Pepper, etc. 


11. Medicines. 


Common Adjectives. 

12. Miscellaneous articles. 



13. Marine productions. 



14. Dyes and Colours. 


Fragmentary Clauses at 

15. Woods. 

the end of Sentences. 

16. Time-pieces, Teleacopes, etc 

17. Cotton Goods. 

18. Woollens, etc. 

19. Metals. 

20. Precious Stones, etc. 

21. Animal Products. 

22. Exports — Oil, Wax, etc. 

23. Medicines. 

24. Miscellaneous Articles. 
26. Colours, Paper etc. 

26. Various Wares. 

27. Wood. 

28. Clothing. 

29. Native Linen and Cotton 

30. Silk Manufactures. 

31. Articles of Pood. 

32. Common Utensils. 

33. Vegetables and Fruits. 

34. Domestic Animals. 

35. Birdff. 

36. Fishes. 

37. Cart Furniture, etc. 

38. Words used in Building. 

39. Liquids. 

40. Clothing. 

41. Sickness. 

42. Boat furniture, etc. 

43. House furniture. 

44. Insects, Reptiles, etc. 

45. Common Verbs. 

46. Distinctive numeratives. 

47. Significant numeratives. 

48. Weights ^nd Measures. 

49. Collectives. 

50. Auxiliary nouns of quality. 

51. Numeral particles to verbs. 

52. Phrases at an Inn. 


I. — Tones of the Peking dialect. 
II. — Tones of the Nanking dialect. 
III. — Tones at Chefoo. 


Alphabet and Tone Marks. 

1. The five vowels i, e, a, o, u, when they are not followed by a 
final n or ng, have the Italian sound. They are the vowels con- 
tained in the words foe, fay, papa, foe, too. 

2. The vowels i, e, when followed by n or ng, are pronounced 
as the vowels in e, fin, and fun. But after i and y, the vowel e is 
to be sounded as e in sent. A, o, u, when n and ng follow are 
unaffected by that circumstance. 

3. The vowel i is heard like e, in middle, tassel, ancle'. 

4. The vowel ii is heard like u, in the French words tu une. 

6. The vowel e is heard as the first e, in there or as ea in hear. 

6. The mute and sibilant consonants k, t, p, f, s, sh, ch, are 
pronounced as in English. Though sometimes a little softened in 
northern dialects, so as to be heard like g, d, b, etc., this need not 
be noticed in expressing their proper orthography. 

7. An inverted comma above the line follows the consonants 
k, t, p, ts, ch, when they are aspirated. In such case a strong 
guttural aspirate closely follows the sound of these consonants. 
Pronounce as the word Tahiti without the vowel a. This might 
be expressed by T'ifci, according to the orthography now explained. 

8. In the mandarin of the north and the west, the initials h and 
B coincide before i and ii. The sound formed by this union may 
be denominated a sibilant h, or an aspirated s, and the spelling hs 
has been proposed for it, but it will probably become sh in the 
course of years. 

9. In the same dialects, ts and k coincide before the same vowels 
i and ,ii. The sound thus formed may be written k, ts, or ch_ 
It is not plainly defined, and is constantly hovering between these 
various phonetic values. After a further period of change, it will 
probably determine itself finally in a distinct ch. 

10. Every word is pronounced evenly, or with a rising or falling 
inflection of the voice, or with a double inflection. It may be 
pitched high or low, according to the usage of any particular 
dialect, and be enunciated quickly or slowly. All words in the 


language are arranged in four or five large groups, and one of 
these, tones or inflections is attached to each. Thus the great 
class to which each word belongs is known, by the intonation with 
which it is habitually pronounced. 

11. The five tone classes are marked in the following manner : 




First tone. 
Second tone. 
Third tone. 
Fourth tone. 
Fifth tone. 

r ^ shang p'ing 
Jt ^S shang sheng 
"S^ ^ c'kii sheng 
yv ^ juh sheng 

h ^ hia p'ing 

jl^ ,wu 
H. 'wu 
^ wu' 
J^ wuh 

* For Nanking mandarin, the fourth tone-class or juh sheng is 
marked with a final h. In the North, the words of this tone-class 
are distributed among the other tone classes, and the number of 
tones is then four. 

Note to Revised Edition. In numbering the tone classes, the 
native system is followed, which in the tonic dictionaries, whether 
for the general language or for provincial dialects, makes Shang 
sheng the second tone, C'hii sheng the third, and Juh sheng the 
fourth; and so on the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth for the 
lower series where this exists. 

In Sir T. Wade's works the Hia p'ing is called the second tone 
the Shang sheng the third, etc. This is an innovation. 

To avoid practical inconveniences the learner is recommended to 
make use of the Chinese names, Shang p'ing, etc., and not of 

When the Chinese began 1200 years since to mark tones, there 
were four in the language and they agreed to denote them by 
small circles at the four corners of a charactar. Thus ^ yii in 
p'ing sheng, ^ yii in Shang sheng, ^ yii in C'hii sheng, and ^ 
dok in Juh sheng. 

This is the basis of the tone notation adopted in Dr. Williams' 
dictionaries, and in the present work. 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



ivi**-' T^ 'Ni, thou. 

Zw yv jJen, maw. 
tJ-C^;^ 14^ Shu' muh, trees. 

■<:«& ^ ,S]iu, 600A;. 
.V -^^ ;^ Shi', is; was. 


^ ffT 'Wo men, we. -^^ ' ->-vva^ 
fSi JPI 'Ni .men, you. . '^' '^-^-"^ 
"Ml ffl ,T'a .men, i%. ^"'-^ -v-*-^ 
j^.Chwen, s/iip; 6oa«. >^ 
^y^ ,81, siZZ;. tt^- 

^'C 'Shui, water. ^ViX 

^5 ^ Na' ko', fhat. ■^' ^^ 

^ Puh, not. /.^i^ 

^^ .Lai, come. ■^ 

gfy Tih, sign of possessive^ 

as 10 ^ -^ ^ ''^^^ ^°' -j^^ P'^^ ^^> ^^^* ''^^"' *''*'^^ '^^^ come, 
or i/ws maw is not coming. 

^t M I Ov ^^ '^° .men tih .c'hwen, our ship. 
1^ iPI ft^ ^^jt'a .men tih ,si, fteiV silh. 
A^ ^k ^ iTI B^ P*^^ ^^^' '^° .men tih, it is not ours. 
ja10^-^^'^6^ clie' ko' ,sha puh shi' 'ni tih, this 
hook is not yours. 



^ ' Yeu, have ; there is. 
- »2/wf y,ii^' ^^ ^ Muh 'yeu, AaiJe not. 
iM£^''^M Cte' 'li, ;iere. 
tMJ, -wt ^ # Clie' yang', tUs sort. 

^'Hau, ^oo(?. 7t*^' 

% ^ Puh 'hau, 6a(i. ^a^ "^ ' 
i5 i Na' 'li, there. IViC t\/ 
0R ^ Na' yang', fAai sort, yi^^ yt-^ 

[2 ] 

"X^" ^ Tsai', at; in; to be at. ^ ,Tuj all. 

^ , fi^^ To, many. A^ 'Sliau, few. ^ ''^ ,To 'shau, how many ? ^^ '^^ 

dLeti J^ Ta', great. yj'* 'Siau, little, small. oAJta.^ 

/tie- ^ jKau, ^ligf/i. '(^ ,Ti, low. , ^' 

0^ 1@ -^ >E 5?^ yv clie' ko' paji shij 'hau jen, this is not a 
good man. 

9? yv 3^ 'haa .jen 'shau, good men are few. 

'pE aa ft 'W ji'C tsai' che' 'li 'yeu ^shui, there is water here. 

JG. I0 ^ -^ ^W^ cbe' ko' jSi puh 'hau, this silk is not good. 

"KL iPI ^ "pb ia S jt'a -meii ,tu tsai' che' 'li, they are all here. 

5^ ^ w /S ^ By ol^s' jsIlu ,tu sH' ,kau tih, these trees are 
all high. 

3^ W ® ^ 5y^ 9^^' yS'Hg' stu/ mull 'liau, trees of this sort 
are good. 

3a 5^ fly yv -^^ cite' 'li tih .jen puh 'shau, the men here 
are not few. 

JK W "nf '^J'* W ix 'R ta' ,shu 'yeu 'siau ,shu muh 'yeu, there 
are large hooks, hut no small ones. 


■1^ ^ ^ 5J$ .Na .lai, hring. $ ^ .Na k'ii (c'hu'), take away. >»«- f^'^ 

.^S:,^'^ ^ 'Tseu, waZfc. ^ K'ii', go. fJOC 

<- -^^^^jTung ,si,{east,y7est)thing,^-''\pj Sia' .t'sing, a matter. Z -Z*^ 

r^ - ^ ^ Shen' 'mo, what ? M M 'Na 'li, where ? Ha.' li/' 

(j^ii^ HSf- Kiau', caZZ; ^s caZZecZ. ^ Bff 'Ki .shi, w?iew ? CUZ'' Z. 

C- -itiX ^ ^ ,1 fuh, clothes. 'f]7 Pu', cotton cloth. fLd, 

ot^yiA, ■^^ .G'heu., woven silk; pongee. ^^ .V'ing, bottle ; pitcher. "Si-i^. 

M 1® 11 **4 ® ^ che' ko' .c'heu kiau' shen' 'mo, what is 
this silk called ? 

3ia, 10 ^k JJr ^ ® che' ko' shi' 'hau ,tung ,si, this is a good 

^y> 1® ®f ^ >^ na, ko' .p'ing puh ta', that bottle is not large. 

■^ ^k ^ fly ^ flR p"^^ ^^^' '^'^ t^ >^ ^"^^j ^^^2/ ''"■^ ^''O^ ^2/ 

JIB,.3^ ■^ ,t'a puh k'ii'. Tie wiZZ not go. 
^ W ^ '^^ '^^"^ '^^^^ hring books. 

[ 3 ] 

Ju -^ ® ^ '^ 'pa jtnng ,si .na k'ii', iafce i/ie things away. 

^ •^ ^R ^ .c'hwen tsai' 'na 'li^ wKere is the boat ? 

Tn ^ B* ^ ^ pu' 'ki ,s]i'i .na .lai, when did you bring 
the cloth ? 

3^a W /W ^ c^e' yang' jSi ,to, there is much of this silk, 
(raw silk.) 

^l*fllW^-^ a! na' yang' sbu' muh puli ta', that hind 
of tree is not large. 

is 1@ :S "S ^ che' ko' shi' shen' 'mo, what is this ? 


Z' ^'' g 2* . Tsi' 'ki, self ^WiW. Clie' 'mo yang', thus. dJ, 7^^ 

-j^ :^ .T'siuen, aZZ; wA^oZe. ^^, ^ '^'Tseti'moyang'^/iowP'fi*^ '~- i* 

'^;4v^ # Koh, eac/i,; ewrj^. -^ Tso', cZo; ma&e. -fe-^ 

<>^ ^,Sie,afewof.alittleof. ^. Ho, with; harmony. ' '^''^^ 

<^^^ tSt^ j^ 1^ Che' lei' this sort of |^ .T'ung, together with. ^^^ 

ȣ^ [h] B-iang', towards ; to. ^ .T,sui^g,from;toaccordwith. J^ 

(<2-<i^s^^ gSj Shwoh, io. say; speaking'. ^ Yau', io tuawi ; Segr. -^'^ 

■jlSi H C* ix.'R jt'a tsi' 'ki muh 'yeu he himself has it not. 

^ffl -^^ 'w^o .men .t'siuen k'ii', we will all go. 

^ •S" fH* fffii 5k jiii c'hli' kiau' ,t'a .lai, gro arid! caZZ him. 

^ ^ ^ Jl '/^^ 'ki .shi .t'sung Shang' 'hai .lai, when did 
you come from Shanghai ? 

m.^^K^^MM^'^ che' ,sie .jen ,tu shi' 'Kwang 
,tung .lai tih, these persons all come from Ganton. 

^- J\. p[ 2t SRi koh .jen ts'i' 'ki shwoh, let each one speak for 

^ /E ia. )M W -t'siiien shi' che' 'mo yang', it is all so. 
-^ W^ ■© ^S P"^^ tso' shen' 'mo, he does nothing. 
M./^ Mi M^ M ffy che' pa' 'tsen 'mo yang' tso' tih, how 

is this cloth made t 
jf^ 05 ft ^L Bv -c'heu 'na 'li tso' tih, where is woven silk 

made ? 

'flfe|tt)'ftfii^^0P^M t'a hiang' ,t'a shwoh yau' na' ,i 
fuh, he said to him that he -wanted, the clothes. ; ' 



CAo-t^ ^5p Kih ('kei), give. 

'^^ Wnf Hwa'j language ; words. 

yi*U^ B^ .Ni, final interrogative. 

'o~^ J^E HuDg. red, 

fvii^ *|^ Han', Chinese. 
'^'^•^ P^ .Men, do(yr, 

<4/^ _ /^ 'Sie, to write. 
.^Aio^^ gj ^chung kwoh, CUna. 
ni- 7~€/ |g -^ Hien' tsai', ai present. 
^"^y^ ±^ T'ai' .yang, iAe sun. 
^*i^X ^ Pill, 'pencil ; pen. 
^^ ^^^.-^ T'i' Vo,/or me. 

J ,Liau, sign of the past. 't^^em. 

jM. Hwa', picture; to draw. ' (f 

W ,Teng, Zamp. ^fe-^ 

•^ ,Kin, groZd. ' ff^^^WiC 

^ t§. Jen' teh, A;wow. '"f^ '^ 
JT^ ,Kin, a catty ; I5 lbs. tUoyvyi 

-J- Tsi', characters. Z 

^V Wai' kwoh, foreign, txf^ ^ittM^M. 
^. *^ .Hwang ti', emperor. '^>t^ ^^a 
^ ^ Yueh liang', iZie moow. i^f'*^ '^^ 
^^'Ch^i, paper. -S<-^ 

,Cha yeh, Zea in leaf. <^ n*^ 

- , J -Jp B'E 'sie 'liau tsi' .ni, have you written. 

^p fla ^W ni kih ('kih) ,t'a 'chi yung', give him paper to use 

^C sS' frf itSi 'wo jen' teh ,t'a, I know him. 

^S ^ ^ >Mf -f* -na pih .lai 'sie tsi', hring a pencil to write. 

W 10 ^ rl 'y^'^ ^*^' -hung .men, there is a red door. 

^^ .a. 51$ W ■^8' hwa' .lai k'an', bring pictures for me to see 

iS 'iS M '^ $F 1^ hien' tsai' hwang ti' 'hau tih, the present' 
emperor is good. 

5^ 'R ^ ^ muh 'yen yueh liang', there is no moonlight. 

jK. 1^ >K JK ^'^^' ■yS'ng t'ai' ta', the sun is very powerful. 

iwwi^W'-m^ >^'^ ti^ ji ^^^ -hung, hung, his clothes are red. 


— ' Tih, one ; a. on^ .-£1^ 7^ Luh, or lieu', six. -^oc- 

~ Br', two. -f;if^ iz^'-t^ '^'^^^' *«^^'*- -^^^o*^^ 

^zi ,San, three, -f;^;^,.*^ j^-L ^ ^*^' ^^S'^*- -e^i^^J^ 
EgSi',/oMr. ^-r ^^ jt 'Kieu, mwe. .,.»*-^ 

i'Wu,>e. ^^i.^. ^^,^;^+ Shih, fer.. "Z^^^ 

* B/U' fg' jen' teh, hnow a person or know characters. ^ ^ 
'hiau teh, know thoroughly. ^^ ,chi tau', know a fact. 


^5 or "10 Ko'j numeral for 7^ 'Pen, root, volume, numeral 
men, etc. for books. 

^ 'Mai, buy. J Mai', sell. 

Hi Yung', to use ; eat. ^ /V Yung' . jen, servant. 

gg .Netig, can. ^ ,C'liwen, <o insert; put on. 

^ -S" ^ Wei' shen' mo, why .? ^ f^ 'Hiau teh, to know. 

■^u tlS /13 J\. t'sih ko' yung' .jen, seven servants. 

^ rr. I'M is3 yau' ,san s'i' fco', I want three or four. 

jS 3£ JT ^ ^ ™^i' j"*^"^ j^iii -c'lia yeh, Swy .A"^ catties 
of tea. 

H J^R Hy /V 'mai 'chi fcih .jen, a man who sells paper. 

^ $1 liX flR cliwen .hung ,i fuh, he put on red clothes'. 

"y' — '10 {1^ .na ,san ko' ,teng, bring three lamps. 

A^ 1S '^ ffl ^^ ^^^ ^°' -i^^ y'^'^g' -c'lia, six men took tea. 

^ — ■ ^JS^ ^J 'mai yih 'pen ,sliu, buy a book. 

jS ^ !^ gg ^ ^^ che' 'li puh .neng 'mai ,shu, here books 

cannot be bought. 
^^ M" ^ -^ ■^ "'^^^^ shen' 'mo puh c'hii, why do you 

not go ? 
^ ^ ^^ puh 'hiau teh, I do not know. 


•^^ii*^ ^^ ift ^ shwoh jhwang, to lie. JM 'tung, understand. t^^ 

H'o"^ ^ K'an', to see. ,^ Mi ^^^ kien', to lose; lost.ixiAtiui 

'^^^ ■^ .C'ha, to seek. Wi ,Shwah to brush. ^<t^ 

"'*' A' ^ "F* -Hiai (.hie) tsi', s/ioes. #T .Ting, a naiL ^ 

^i," ..^fi-' ^ S^ ' Si 'lien, was/i me's face. ^ Ting io nail. ^^"^ 

^fe^' ^^^^ 'Tseu lu', io waZfc. 'l"! Man', slow ; slowly. 'p*> 

/^'.M^iC '^K'wai',sJ^arp; quickly; soon. 77 'Tau, A;m/e; sworcZ. ^ 

TArC Ik Fan', rice. ^^ChihidJi', take a meal.CAt£ "Uti. 

^ -Am," ^ 'Hau, well; good; done. ^ Hioh (.hiau), to Uarn. '-oA. 

"t'u. ^ jT'ien, heaven; day; weather. % Ti', earth. di> 


Jl Shang', above. ^ Hia', 6eZow. 

■ V h HT,r,-„„. /,7,/,„.p r* Hia'. below. ' 0' 

, [ 6 ] 

^ © ^^ J jtung ,si puh kien, 'liau, things are lost. ^ 

wyJiM. 1S ^ -g^ shwah che' ko' ,i fuh, brush these clothes. 

iff fll» 1H r^ ting' na' ko' .men, nail that door. 

te te ^ man' man' 'tseu, walk slowly; wait a little. 

^ ^'1^ 'tseu lu' k'wai', he walks fast. 

PC 5T W qy S^ 'si 'iiau 'ni tih 'lien, wash your face well. 

^T* jtr W P^^ '^8-^ k'an', «,oi grooc? to see. 

•wll q^ "T* shwah .tiai 'tsi, brush shoes. 

^S '0v ^ 5|$ ■113' k'wai' ,tau .lai, bring a sharp knife. 

ilfi 5|C 'l/i J t'a' .lai k'wai' 'Iiau, he will come soon. 

Jx. "W ^? muh 'yeu hioL, J have not yet learned. 

TS -T* TM 'tung puh 'tung, do you understand or not ? 


* *-^ ^!^ ,Sheng i', trade. BB ^ .T'ien 'li, in the fields. Cue £t^ 

'^f*^* "^ Kwei', dear; honourable. ^g Tsien', cheap ; poor. Xt^ > 

^- '^' ift" J^t (jo'), ^oi.J^ .Hang, cooL '^ 'Leng, coZt^. -^-^ 

«^ ^;^ g Put yau', I (io wo< xuant. M Heh (,liei), feZacfc. ^^^ 

e ,a!U«. 15 gg .Man .t'eu, bread. Q Peh (pai), white. 7^^^*^ ' . 

■ «*•' ^fi SM' 't'i, a maWer. :§'-^ ,Slien 'tsi, botij/. -**«< ^^ 

ti-Ay^ ;^ Tsui', very. ]J "Ting, most, top. A^Cnf"^ 

f^y,^'' ^. 'Tsau, early. pj^ f!^ 'Liang ko', two. -ioei,, ^^ ^ 

'/wwvj -^ ,Kin, woM. ^,1^'Yeuhien', «oi«M(cA;/ew. <«^'s«W^ 

i^-T^ Aj) jSin, /leari; mind. ;^ 'K'i ('c 'In), rise ; begin. cA'H,'' 

^' Hv ^ ^ Kwei' tih. puh yau', if dear, I do not want it. 

io. 10 T^ ^ che' ko' ting tsien', this is the cheapest. 

W\ W ^ 'S' tau' .t'ien 'li c'hii', go into the fields. 

t^ 5k -^ T '^^ -^^^ P'^^ 'tsau, you have not come early. 

^ ^1 ^S >Tv jt'ien jeh 'c'hi .lai, the weather is growing hot. 

5c ^(w ^ ^ fiy jt'ien 'leng yau' ,c'hwen tih, when the weather 
is cold'I shall wear it. 

^ ^ Z^ j(^ jSheng i' puh 'hau, trade is bad. -» 

yA '^ RR -jen 'y^'^ hien', i^re are few men. 

[ 7 ] 

ia. ^ y'v I^ "S SS °^s' jSie .jen c'hih .man .t,eu, these people 
eat bread. 

^ py ^ Q pKI ^ ^sli ti^ jto psii till 'shau, there are many 
black, but few white. 

R^ /r SvT ^^ 5^ 'liang jkiti .hung .c'ha yeh, iwo catties of 
black tea. 

nr ^ ^ 'tsau ,sie .lai, come earlier. 

M^^M^^a >t'a puh 'hiau teli sM' 't'i, /le does not 
know matters. 



3^ 'Hen, exceedingly (initial) . fg= jR Teh 'hen, exceeding ly (fin .) i^JL HAnJ 

TTLte '^ ;^ 4^ .Mien ,hwa, cotton. ,-f,^ -^ Twan' 'tsi, saiw. -<3^^ ^^y 

->bi'M. K C'hih, /ooi. •^}^ T'sun', mc/i. -^'«> 

c^' -/it^ ^kJ® '^1 l^'O) ^0^ many ? jtj ^ 'Hau ,to, ?;eri/ many. 'A»t ^ 

'CA.-*-ti4 ^£ jShwang, a pair. 'J^ 'Tsieu, wine; spirit. t<U<^ 

e-A^ ^ ,Ki, /owZ. 1^ (^ C'hih juh (jeu'), eat meat. ci^tULrji 

•*K>e '^. .Yang, sheep ; goat. ^f ,Chu, pig. ^^^ 

(f^^ # -Yii, fish. . fy. 'Ta, beat ; catch. •^^'' ^ 

^* '*^ ^ ^ ■"-' '^^' meaning. j^ Nien', reaii. -t-i^^ 

"^fUe^ "^ Chihj numeral for sheep etc. ^ 'Li, within. -Ci/ 

V?^ -^'^ "7* -Pang 'tsi, /lottse. ^|> ^ Wai' .t'eu, outside. "^d^ ^^ 

^Ij M "?* S '^ ^ "5^ tau' .fang tsi 'li c'hii' 'sie tsi', go into 
the room and write. 

01^ IS ^, ^ itf na' ko .ii 'hen 'hau, that fish is very good. 

p- fX ^ -rS jSan ,kin .mien ,hwa, three catties of cotton. 

A^ "^ ^E ^^ t'sih ,sh-wang .hiai 'tsi, seven pairs of shoes. 

^ -)-- H 1^ "?* 'mai shih c'hih twan' 'tsi, buy ten feet 
of satin. 

^■^^^IK^ che' chi ,ki 'hen 'hau, this fowl is exceed- 
ingly good. 

^ 10 -^ M» ^ S ^^^' k°' ^^^^ '™° ^' >^^> '"'^"* ^°^^ '^^^* 
me aw .^ 

Wf ~¥'^^^^ -^^^S 'tsi 'liau teh 'hen, the house is very good. 

^ >M ^ li^ "W iiien' kwo' ,shu mei' 'yen, have you read books? 


^e 1@ yv ^ 'ki ko' .jen .lai, how many men come ? 
^ ^ -jp ^ J'S^ tsai' .fang 'tsi 'li 'leng, within the house it 
is coldly. 

Wt'f'W^^Wl' twan' 'tsi tso' tih ,i fuh, clothes made 
of satin. 

^ "^ M IS "?" 'liang t'sun' heli twan' 'tsi, two inches of 
black satin. 

^ rPS /K ^ -^^ jet 'shui .lai, bring hot water. 

5E ^ ■^ Rk jsheng i' 'yeu hien', there is not much trade. 

flE ffl ^ ^h ^ jt'a .men tsai' wai' .t'eu, they are outside. 


:ClJ, ^^*^ R^ 'JM Hoh 'tsieu, to drink wine. ^ ^ Pan' ,t'ien, /laZ/ a day. ^ 'ue 

^to^^i' i^ ,Pei, cztp. {1| iB' CTiuli han', io'iUiHO^^ 

, <^ee/. P^ 'Liang, a iaei; two. @ jifc ,Tin 't'si, therefore. M^iJ'^'^ 

' "tk^^v-^. ^ ^ "^^ ^^^' ^^^'^^ ^ Tsin', enter. "ZJ^iSi-^V 

-fitJ^^ Is Sung', present ; escort. (eJ .Hwei, gjo foacfc. -'•'Wi^t/t, 

uu^o^<*ic — '5C Yih chang', a chang, j0c. Sing, family name. t<U^^ 

^ 10 /eei. "^ 

ft-aZ ^^ ^ "^ C'he 'tsi, carriage. jf^ _ll 'Pu stang', your home. 4-^ 2-i^ 

.a^M."^ i® 'Siang, to think. ^l] 'Koh, cut with knife. AUei^, 

Ziw -A^ iK ft C'heng 'li, iti iTie city. §^ 'Tsien, cut with scissors. 't^Ze.'^ 
l>»-^ ^^^''JS^ Jl 'Wan stang', at night, 'flj Pu', cottm. cloth. /^t^i.* 

^ J ^ ^ 'siang 'liau pan' ,t'ien, he thought for half a day 
i. e. a long time. 

W ^H^ tsien 'ki c'hih, pu', or |^ ^ X tU 'cTiiau 'chi 

c'ti pii', how many feet of cloth shall I cut ? 
^ ^ ^ ^ /V /p 'mai .yang juh t'sih pah ,kin, buy seven 

or eight catties of mutton. 

•^ ^ Pw 10 yv "^ 'ta fah 'Hang ko' .jen c'hiif, send two men. 
^S 5W'^ J tsin' .c'heng c'hii' 'liau, he has gone into the city. 

IbJ^S^' .hwei c'heng 'li, c'hii', he has returned into 

the city. 
jfj Jt 5I5 ft 'fu shang' 'na 'li, where is your palace ? i.e. home. 

[ 9 ] 


CA.L.^-'v^ ^ ,0'liun, spring. 

-^Sii^f-t. ^I'C ,T'sieu, autumn. 

J^ ^ ,Hwa, flowers. 

-My^ ^ Luh (lu')j green. 

^'M ;^ ,T'sau, grass. 

^^ '^ Chu', to dwell. 
■k^ dl& ^^ Kia' .t'sien, |)nce 
•^' J^*>«.^ :J^ Ti' ,faiig, flace. 

^ Hia', summer. 

^^ ,Tung, winter. 

Mv j^ing (feng), wiwd;. 

"Q^ 'K'u, misery ; Utter 

5g!^ Kieu', saiJ6. 

^ .Nan, difficult. 

^ Nan'j suffering. 

^ "jQ 'Ki ko', Aow mawj/ •*' 

% ■^ Sing' ming', life. 


^}t .Sin, wew. '^ kieu', old. ■^^^ 

■JS, ^k "Hi -^ gp" clie' 'li jliwa 'f^sau ,to, flowers and grass are '^^f^ 
abundant here. 

P?5 10 -^ M ?2 iia' ko' shen' 'mo ,hwa, flower is that ? 

A^ ^ Mf W V^^ -y^iig i^ tso'j woi easT/ io do. 

■ft 'BE PIP ^ cliu' tsai' 'na 'li, where do you live ? 

^ By IM ^ J^ 'vn^i tih kia' .t'sien ta', yow btti/ a< a high price. 

Jtt ^ W^ -^ }tj jj™ '*'^i ,sheng i' puh 'hau, and therefore 
trade is bad. 

^p y^ "?£ K? Hy jc'hun ,t'ien ,hwa 'hau tih, in spring the 
flowers are fine. 

ia ^& j7 py /V che' ti' jfang tih .jen, the men of this place. 
[ij -^ ^ ^^ c'huh c'hii' k'an' ,hwa, go out to see flowers, 
^' ^ ML {« jtimg jt'ien jfung 'leng, in winter the wind is cold. 
^ j^ wM W^ jto 'shau .c'heu twan', how much silk and satin. 
^ >^ ^ /\. '''^o ^^i' '^'^ -i^^' ^ *™' ^'^ unfortunate man. 
Wk '^ W kieu' sing' ming', to save life. 


du. Ji^ '^ ^,S^en,sheng, sir J teacher, m^ ,Ghen, true. ^Myv^ 

^^>^ i?f Hwa', words. [man. ^ 'PE Shih tsai', truly. X^CJZ'^^ 

•^ Cdxf ^ i .Chwen 'chu, chief boat- ^" .T'ing, to stop. iPLA^ 

^,^^<-/!Ua "^ ^ 'Ma .t'eu, jetty. ^ .Yau, to scull. p^^^e- 

.Mau, anchor. ^ ,P'au, to cast. ^^/<5^z2^ 




[ 10] 

.Veng, sail. ^ 'CTii, to raise. dJi'i 

''a^'f Hia', to let fall. i^ 'Lu, a scull. ^^^ , , ^ 

t<ii«.'' i^ 'Tsiang, oar; to row. }\% Shun', favourablej obedient, ^fu^ 

/f'e. 6v^ pq W< jK'ai .c'liwen, to start. |bJ ^ Hiang' ,tuDg, to go east. ,ii^^*f*^ 

fietahf^^ '^ .C'Lau '.■skm., tide. ffi ^ ,Si ,pien, westward. aL ^a^^ ^ 

Ttit^ ^ .Nan, south. l^B M Pet mien', northwards. /l^!^>^ 

<ui^ ^ .Sieu, to repair. ^^ 'Wang, to go. 'T"^ 

yt 5E 5IJ W ^ jsien ,sheng tau' 'na 'li, where will you go, sir ? 

5^ tE V^ ®5 bien' tsai' ,p'au .man, now cast anchor. 

^ 113 yK. im wfi si'ko' .jen .yau .c'hwen, four men are sculling. 

'fi f^ ^ ,wang, ,tung 'tseu, go to the eastward. 

|w) ^ ^ "S" hiang' .nan ,pien c'hii', go to the southward. 

•fK 'pt T&^^B f wai' kVai' 'c'hi .p'eng, raise i/ie saiZ qwichly. 

iljk 'iT^ 1m k'wai' k'wai' .yau, scull quickly. 

J^ ^^ 'Pi lift ,chen shi' kVai' .c'liwen, it is indeed a fast boat. 

i^ Wi "W 5k -c'liau muh'yeu .lai, the flood tide has not begun. 

JIP J^ |1/e, shun' ,fung .ni, is the wind fair ? 

T§ ^ '^ '1"^ y^''-' )Sieu, the scull needs repairing. 

^ pq ■^ J .c'hwen ,k'ai c'hii' 'liau, the boat has started. 
» '^ iwf ■^ ia. ^ -t'ing .c'hwen tsai' che' 'li, stop the boat here. 

^ ^ i 5l^ kiau' .cliwen 'cliu .lai, call the head boatman here. 


Ztc yna^ "^ f ^ .T'sien .men, front door. ^ ,Kwan, to shut. A'i^^a, 

/CC ^^Kai', to build; cover. ^.^ ,To .]i, glass. -/ui. -u., 

/^WLZw^ A K'eh .jen, guest. ^ ,C'hwang, window. CM,!/^^ 

K'e^ ■■ Pi jK'ai, to open. g/l W Wo' .fang, bed room. ■nt>^ 'V-OKl, 

,^1^ . ^ .T'ang, hall. ^ ,T'i, stairs. (l;t'u 

oJU twu^^ .Sill -fang, library. 1^ Choh, iafeZe, ' (U[^ 

.cU: lU.' i^ ^ Ti' 'pan, /oor. ^ 'I, chair. ^j," 

,£,xo ^ .Leu, wpp'er-story. ^ .O'liwaiig, Jed. ;^''^*^ 

T^«^X«^ _t. -Lsu sbang', v/pstairs. IRr "X* Chang' ,tsi, cMriaiw. -tW^ 
X^ J^ .T'siang, waZZ. ^^ ip 'Ho .lu, /re stove. ^^' Ztl 

^ ^ ^ W ykwan ,po 'li ,c'Jiwang, close th6 glass windows. 

[li J 

•^ W W ^ 'R nv tsai' ,shu .fang 'li 'yeu tih, in the library 
there are some. 

W rl '^ 0^ .t'sien .nienjjuh ,k'ai, the front door is not open 
or they do not open. 

S — ' \^ ^ J® 'leiyih .t'iau .c'hang .t'siang, build a long ivall. 

r. 3^ ^ ^5 shang' ,pieii kai' .leu, huild an upper-story above. 

^» \ ^ ^ J6. _tl k'eh . jen tso' tsai' .t'ang shang', the guests 
are sitting in the hall. [upstairs. 

^S _L ^(x. "W ■^ -Isu sliang' muh 'yeu ,k'uTig, there is no space 
^ ^ i^ ^ ^ -^ t'eli .t'ang muh 'jen ti' 'pan, t/te recep- 
tion hall has no wooden floor. 

i y\. rfe ^ 'cliu .jen tso' .nan, the master sits to the south- 


-cUi- ^g .T'sien, money; cash. ifX 'Ctau, pay a remainder. Ta-rn, 

W^ /r'«w P3 ^ Si' ,k'ai, shilling. ^ -^ .Yin 'tsi, silver. -nyW til,=^ 

.^3^«gX> 'fj^ Chih, to be worth. Jg .Hwan, return money. /\Au\> 

CitJ-^^^ M Tui' hwan', exchange. "X ^ l^'ai' 'shau, too little. '^'^^ '^^ 

7U&V. ^ Tsien', jpoor; cAeap. ffe* Jt Shi'shang',m ^/<e?Har7ce^. J- "^ 

<j^ Z*^ ^ '[* .Hang .t'sing, _pWce. J^^^ ^ Pen .t'sien, copiiaZ. ■j)-c^'die, 

CLyA^i^ ^ Kwei', honourable; dear. '^ _t ,Kiai shang', m* ^/(e street. itA, XU. 

'i^eA-i'A 'g| ^ ^ 'Chang 'c'hi .lai, rise -jj Loh, fall. ^ , 

higher, (e.g. price of dollars ; also of the tide rising.) 
<u^ &e^^ — . p^ yih 'liang, tael; ounce. ^ .T'sien, mace; \-\Oth of an oz. "^^^ 

'^**'^ ^ ,Fen, candareen; 1-lOOth 'p^ Kioh, tenth of a dollar. T^^ 

^ &f an oz. or dollar. 

!% "^ nr ^^ ^"^i' hwan' .yang .t'sien, change the dollars. 

i^ j^ Z^ H iQ ^ 'chau 'ni er' peh ko' .t'sien, I pay you the 

remainder, two hundred cash. 
^ ^ Km ^ >to 'shau ,ying .yang, how many Mexican dollars ? 

Tp _t ^T* f^ K sjii' shang' puh teh 'mai, none to be bought 
in' the market. 

' ^^ ® ^R "(§ 4K i^^^E >si kwei' teh 'hen, the things are very dear. 

l¥ ffl 1^ ^ JK -yang kia* 'chang 'c'hi .lai, the price of the 
dollar is rising. 

[ 12 ] 

ym //-fc rnrr _^ /jfe 

SS 1-4^ — ' Wi — '3^ .hwan 'ni yih 'Hang er' .t'sieiij / return 
you one tael and two mace. 

^^ ^ I0j yT' jSan kioh si' ,fen, three-tenths and four-hun- 
dredths of a dollar; 34 cents. 

Wi "X* ifi ■?£ ^ .yin 'tsi hien' tsai' tsien'j at present silver 
is cheap. 

IM ^ >WC M kia' .t'sien t'ai' kwei', the price is too much. 

-^ liB §^ V^^ cMh .t'sien, it is not worth anything. 


'.*/&■ ;$^ 'Pen jliiang, my village, g^ Chung' ti', to sow. (^^i^ ^ 

f^ ''o^ liU "f»;H:iang hia', in the villages. ^ Oliuh, or chuli 'tsi, bamboo. . fl^**A/ 

Ife'M ^ jT'sun, a village. ^ 'Li, Chinese mile. "^ 

■u^tii Mj^j^™& -li^^g' "^o^- H H, ,San 'li, JS/ugrKs^ miZe. da.^ ^ 

U» Xc'oi.''^^. ,Hwa 't'sau, flowers and j^ j^ 'Tseu 'yuen, waZfc /ar. UM^, ii' 

grass. ^ Hieh, to re^t. ^Litk> 

L^'*^fe"^ ^ , Kin .men, this year. '^^ Fuh. -p'a', not fear. ^ti^Jf'O^ 

M ■'•^^^ fSc^^ .Yen -wan' , walk for plea- Jfl^^g Kin' lu', near road. ^'^If^**^ 

L^2S<a^ T^'x'Y^^ '^^ij (^t4C&. [sMre. W .^ Hwei' 'tseu, caw walk. ■t^i/^njC' iJoj} 

C'd'^ -oA ^ Ifi^ K'an' yah, watch duchs. '^^ ,Sin 'k'u, tired, [water. Cu^pt^ 

^■'^■Z^''>J'>^-y*'Siau.hai'tsi, /tWefioy ^;;^ jl'ing 'shui, wmti and <U>^^'- 

tX;*v^ J|£,Chwang, cluster of houses; JJ ^ Ohuh .lin, bamboo grove. cAMi^Lv^ 

homestead. igEl 1^ Shu' .lin, a wood. ■iV' cJvU 

■^"iVij C^^ H 'Yeu ,t'su, pretty. ^j) Kwah, fo 6Zow. ^ -7^0^ 

^Ij ?il5 P ^ tau' jhiang hia' c'hii', go into the country. 

IIP "T* /V ,hiang hia' . jen, countryman. 

1. i^ Tfj-'^ 1 shang' jkiai shi' c'hii' 'liau, to go to market. 

^ ?S Hv ''v k'an' yah tih .jen, a duck-keeper. 

^^W^\^^^^ *s^i' jhiang hia' ,ki ,to, in the country fowls 
are nwmerous. 

.^ 1^ ^ n 'tseu lu' ,sin 'k'u, he walked till he was tired. 

^ S l^ ,san si' 'li lu', three or four le. [village. 

^ .JllSII ^ 5^ jt'sun shang' tih peh sing', the people of the 

|p|5 "f* /I"* ^ "T* jtiang hia' 'siau .hai 'tsi,. village children. 

-^ ^ ^ 1* j£ -h elm' tsai' ,hiang hia' jchwang shang', 
he lives in a country hamlet. 


[ 13 ] 

3^ i^h W -^ ^ clie' jt'iau lu' puh kin'^ this road is not near. 
Mm yd*^ JKifr jfung 'slmi 'hen. 'hau, the position is very good 
(literally) the wind and water are very good. 

h!) ^^ W* y^ k-wah 'c'hi ,fung .lai, it begins to blow. 

-^ 'iH ^ is P^^ P'^' ^^' 'y^-^^i ^^ does not fea/r the distance. 

^ im V^ 'tseu lu' k'wai', he walks quickly. 

TB -^^ ^E 'hwa 't'sau 'yeu ,t'su, the flowers are pretty. 

^E'trWS^^^ ^^^^' '^^^ •'^i^ '\i .yea yj&u' , wander for 

pleasure in bamboo groves. 
*^^llJ^6^^:^raiili'yeu ,fung .Hang till ti' ,fang, 

there is no cool place. 

t^ iZ-" % fl ,Shen 't% the body. ^ H K'oh .t'eu, make a pros- hl^ 
'Vxa^,'.^^^/ iP^^fl jYen jtsing, ei/es. ^^ T&i', to carry. [tration. <^ 

'''KaJk, fl§ Hiah, blind. \hand. ^ .Hien, hold in the mouth. T*' 

tt^^aXiJ' ^-^ 'Chan 'sheu, cut -off the fh Chan', stand. -"^^y^^ 

4m^UL ]^ ^ .T'eu fah, hair. ^ 'P'au, io run. f> ">^ 

t'V- %^'^'i', shave. - ^ Wo', hungry. '>^\ 

'JLlLl^ ^ M .Tsui 'li, in the mouth, ^i T'iau', jump. t'^je, ^ ^ 

■dcL tlal ^ W Ta' kioh, large feet. ^'^Kwei' ^ai' , kneel and boiv. '^'^f^' 
(UuH\, OU^ 1^ ^ ,Hiung .fang the chest, i^ M .Sin .Chang, heart. ^2^ ^^ 
. '^^^^ -^((Ji'Sheu, sin, ^aZmo/ZtawcZ. ||^* 'T'ang, fo lie down. ^^'itA. ^ 

.^JlJJ^,^^ i^ Moh, <o ioMc/i. ^ ^ ,Sheng ping', <o 6e sick, d^ ^ 

i^ Hr S^ JT 'y®'^ jtsing hiah 'liau, he is blind. 
^f ^^ ,sheng 'liau ta' ping', he has had severe illness. 
^ -jE ^ Jl 'p'au tsai lu' shang', running on the road. 
^ T 'fifc 1^^ SS '(^^^T^ 'liau ,t'a tih .t'eu, they cut off his head. 
i^fi ^ ^ chan' 'c'hi .lai, stand' up. 

Il^' '^ ^ _t 't'ang tsai' .c'hwang shang', he is lying in bed. 
^ 'SE "^ ^ *ai' *sai' 'sheu 'li, carry in the hand. 
^^- — ^ ^ 'slieu moh yih moh k'an', touch it with your 

hand and see. 
Hi ^ ^P ^ ^ .t'eu fah puh 'hen .c'hang, his hair is not 

very long. 
pT A^ l^"T* ^ '^'° '^ ^'^^' ^^^' ■^^^> y°^ ^'^y i'""^ down. 

[ 14 ] 

^T^^^'fifc kwei' hia' .lai pai' ,t'a, kneel down and 
bow to him. 

'^ S l^l] ® V^^ 7^^' t'i' •*'6'^' ^'^ ^"^ ^^"''"^ y°^'^ head. 
i^ A^fPfffeAp .t«ii 'li .hien shea' 'mo ,tung ,si, 
what is he holding in his mouth. 


'La. di 

■flf jft Kwei, sing', your name ? ^ ,Tsuii, honourable; your. 

S^ .Ming, proper name. |^ .Han, cold; mean; my. 

^ Hau', literary name. Mi. O'hu', a place. [name ? Uju" 

;pf :Mfe Kwei' ti', your home ? ^ ^ ,'Kaxi.^va.g' ,yourMghsur- fCoe, a*^'^ 

"^y* She' hai', my cottage. ^" ^ Kwei' ,keng, your age ? cAi^X^e. 

Ling', honoured ; your. ^^ Sui', years of age. ^^kX^ 

Y\\poor; mean; my. •'^ ^ Ling' .t'ang, yowr mo^Aer. Uii/-"^^^^ 


&i^i(Hi -^ ^|) Ling' .lang, your son. 


'Pau jkiuen, your wife. />**^ 

^"Ling' ngai', your daughter. 

jTsun kia', you. 


,Kia ,kiuen, wife and ^ ^ Kwei' ,kan, your business. Cl^ Kil& 
children. ^ J^ Kwei' y^h, your trade. Cm^ 7*u4^ 

'Pau, valuable. jjj; ^J ,T'si k'eh, at present, ta'y^^'e^ 

^Ij Pieh, other. i^ ^ Hien' ,kin, ditto-. ^^ ^^^^ 

• ^ Wei', numeral for men. '^ }(f 'Ni 'hau, are i/om weZZ ? ^*^' ^-<*^ 

^ ^ ^ ^ ,sien jsheng ,tsun sing', teacher, what is your 
^honourable name ? 

^/fj ^ ft kwei' 'fu 'na li, where is your honourable home .? 

^ BsJf ^J fflR ^ 'ki .shi tau' pi' ti', when did you come here ? 

"^ SI ^S ^^ — ' ® kwei' kwoh shi' 'na yih kwoh, of what 
kingdom are you ? 

<&*. ^ ^ ^ ,kin .nien kwei' ,keiig, how old are you this year ? 

f^ 5^ 'ft' )M ^ ^ '^^ -^^^ ^^'^'^ '^° kwei' ,kan, ojj. wfeai 

affair have you come ? 
^ »ii -lau kia', J have troubled you. 
■^ MR ^£ ^ lii3g' .lang 'ki sni', how old is your son ? 
^ ^ -^ y^ ^E 'pau, kiuen tsai' puh tsai', is your wife with 

you or not ? 
Sy ^ B^ pieh hau' ,ni, what is your literary name ? 

[ 15 1 

!^'W ^y fid ^fft mtili 'jen pteli tih hwa' shwoh, I have 
'nothing inore to say. 

J&iMl^^ifM^ 't's'^ k'eh .lai tso' shih 'mo sH', at 
present what have you come to do ? 

■^'f'^ ^^ -T'aai .in-ag, a tailor. ^-^ 'Bien 'ts'i, button. T^pu'^'' ^^^ 
■^E<U-v^ Wl jChen, weetZZe. ■ — UlYih ,knng,onedai/'stvor7c. <mL^£^^ 

^^ ^ .Lau, lasting; strong. ^ P 'JSFieu 'k'eu, button hole. -Hy^z^^A'M>'' 

<^ ^^ 'jH "?" Yang' 'ts'i, pattern. ^ -^ .P'au 'ts'i, i/iicfe robe. ^ ^'' 
'^'^'^ i^ .Fung (e), a seam ; to sew. ^ i\ji Pei' 'sin, waisi coai. ^^ a^t^ 
■d Tue. -j^ ^ Ta' .ni, woollen cloth. ^ _77 'Tsien ,tau, scissors, ^ve."^ €6' 
<^ ^» ,Sha, gauze. ^^ T'ang', to iron. ^'otC 

C^^XA-'' "^Kien', numeral for garments. ^^^ , Si sien', siZfc i/irea(i. az^ -**e 
>^' ^ % ^ 'Ma kwa', jacket. ^ 1?^ Mien sien', cotton thread ""-"^ ■'^'^ 

«^ <i<*. ^^ :^ .C'hangjshan, Zowg^ robei^ ^( 'Ti jchen, thimble. ii/ ^jl*u 

(or c'liang pu' ,shiin.) )pg ^ Kieli shiuh, _^rw. i^At^Z*^ 

^"^<2-«i, j>3.'^ 'Twan ,slian, sAorf coai.fjj -^ K'u 'tsi, trowsers. -^'^ ?*«' 

«Afc«, .<ja. J^ ^ Han' ,slian, shirt. f^ ]^ .Hu' ,cheu, crape. i^r^ ^«/" 

^^uk. -^ ,Si0n, first. # ^ Heu' .lai, after. 'a^'' ^ 

^ — n ^ 'flj ■^ f-so' yih kien' .c'Kang pu' ,shau, make a 
long cotton robe. 

i^^ )a. W •f'liig tsai' che' mien', place the seam on this side. \ 
^ B'S ^ W "T" -na .ni .t'sai yang' 'tsi, take the woollen cloth 
' and cut out the pattern. 

M ^^ 1^ ^ -t yung' ,si sien' .fung shang', sew it with silk. 
^ ^ -^ ^.mien sien' puh .lau, cotton thread is not so lasting. 
— ■ 'pf^ .1^ ^i" yib kien' 'ma kwa', one jacket, [blue silk gowns. 
■^ Pit 'ff M in ^ *so' 'liang Men' .Ian .c'heu ,slian, make two 
'^M^~¥' '^i®^ 'tsien yang' 'tsi, first cut out the pattern. 
'^ y p^ X tso' 'liau 'Hang ,kung, I have done two days' work. 
^ ^ 5^ ^ ,c'hwen 'cti .lai k'an', put it on and see. 
3^ ^ lit $? T ts-' .ni .t'sai 'hau 'liau, the cloth is already cut. 
— f^ PJIS 1$ "F* yih -t'iau -ni k'u' 'tsi, a pair of cloth trowsers. 
^j» PI ?||| 3^ wai' kwoh yang' shih, foreign fashion. 
& ^n dk -<h '^^^^ 'k'eu t'ai 'siau, the button hole is too small. 

[ 16 J 

^(«Y H^"" Jlw ^ .P'eng 'jeu, friend. ^ >|j» .Liang ,sin, conscience, -vet, 44^ 

v^t^Z^^l. y^ ^ 'Lau shih, honest. ^ ^ Tso' ,kwaii, he in office. ^tau> /Cue. 

lo^'^'-ci ^ fj 'P'in hing', conditct. ft f§ 'Tung teh, understand. T^y-Jfe^ 

^ 1"*^ S >^ ,Twan jfang, upright. ^ -f' 'Lau 'tsi, father. ■t^''^'' 

!*<©. -ate tPc I^ jT'iau ,so, sow discard. ^^ 'Niang, mother. Ji^^ 

Ta^ »^^U ffl .Tsa .men * we. ^ 5^ .T'sai .lai, just come. *^^ <^ 

^'.■^^'YC^itiM Mj P'eng' kien', to meet. -^ J^ 'Chang pei', superiors. ^>ite'/6<»c 

4*»i, cCiHZ' Jtu ^ , Hwang .t'ang, false. /[g ^§ 'Li man', politeness. -<^ fruMk. 

**6- '-** ^ ;^ jSiang 'ii, mutually. H^ |3 .Ming peh, clear j know, pt^^tt^ 

^^ ^it' Jl g Shang' tang', fall into^pj ^ 'T'sing tso', please sit T'/iiitf'Zi 

snares. doivn. " 

ta 4a^ ^ ^M ^i^' si°'> ^ow'-e Ze^fer. ^ :^ -P'ing pei', equals. 0-:^ -ha* 

^uX bS fg^ Jen' teh, to Icnow. ^ f^ 'Tseu 'hau, step carefully, t^^i^'j^ 

^e^/iiJy,^ '@v Sin'^h, news. ^ ^ 'Wan pei', inferiors. 'V-r^' lioA. 

A^ WL r^ iM. 10 yV puh jen' teh che' ko'. jen, I do not know 
this man. 

■^^ ^ JL. S pnh 'you shang' tang', do not fall into a snare. 
"flE Jt J S it'a shang' 'liau tang', he is fallen into a snare. 
nP) ^ ?5 ia S 't'sing tso' tsai' che' 'li, please sit here. 
1^ >^ ^ ^ I'li shi' 'chang pei', i/ott are superior, [inferiors. 
^ fP I ^ -W ^ JT '"svo .men sh'i' 'wan pei' 'liau, we are your 
58fP ■fH J!)3 ^ ^f" :^ ^ na' ko' .P'eng 'yeu puh 'lau shih, thut 
friend is not to be trusted. 

JlC ^ 09 0^ ,hwang .fang tih hwa', lying words. 

y& J ^ i® J 'l^-u 'ts'i .niang kwo' 'liau, his father and 
mother are no more. 

Pb IP f TM f^ 'tsa .men 'tung teh, we understand. 
^ 'L^ -^ 5j -liang jsin puh 'hau, his conscience is at fault. 
Vu '^ ■v" /v 't'iau ,so pieh .jen, he sowed discord among others. 
Wi "W 'Is ^B 'l^e^ 'y®'^ '^^ man', he has very much politeness. 
i& S ^ B '*''* y^^' *'^°' jkwan, /le wishes to be a mandarin. 
— ■ 10 Fn /V ^ ^ yili ko' yung' .jen .t'sai .lai, a servant 
has just come. 

* 'Tsa .men, we, us, or toe and vow; owra and yours. 'Wo .men, we, ours. 

[ 17 J 

^^^^^cfr^-n^'-v"' ^^ mm, T'nr^gv^u', announce. t^/^- 
^ ^^ c^i -ming msiimff card. m^ m,-, , / ■ ^ <^/ ^ 

„,^M^p i^ :^ Q ,„ , , 'W^VL -l- 1 wo, %n my name. t'C -riJ 


^ ^^^ ^ 1p .Na sin', taU a letter. ffil +, t^- , 7 ' ' ' ^T", TT 

* -*-*Vlff 1p Tai' sm', carry a letter. iJfc iB T',-a. f , .^ ^^. 'Cv 

■^NiHl^i TT . . , t?5fa ,1'iau .tan, carry lodds. f'^Je. ta> 

.^ g ,T'iau, fo carry, (with a yoke). ^ ^ 'Ta ,t'ing, inquire. U^rs. ^. f^,A. 
^CU^- IS -T'ai, to carry, (of two -^ ^ Sin' kiih, ^fi«cr o^^ce. m^ ^ 

^ . S E ^^""^ '°^^''' '''^' ''""' '^ '^ -^'^^ '™^' ^' '■"^^- '^'^' ^" 

^/^ 1p ^ Sin' .c'liwen, letter hoat. p ^ ,Siang 'tsi, c/?.es<. ^ ^^ 

^ /^^ IIT ^ ^^^ 'P^"^ ""^ ^^'"^^^^ )^ # 'Li wuh, jjrcsfiM!;. t^' -Z^^ai^C 

i' ^^ # si Sie' sie', !!/ia?j&. ^ ^f^ung^ numeral of letters. ^-^^ 

32S /T "T* 'S' sung' p'ien' 'tsi cliii', take a card and present it. 

Ss w ^J i'w' -t sung' k'eh. tau' .c'kwen shang', e&cort the 

^'i^'l!.''J!l'^"i Ito your home. 

^ fe p) ^ S "S" tai' sin' tau' ^kia 'li c'Hii', take a letter 

^ 1p Py ^ "& 'tseu sin' tih .na c'hii', the postman took it. 

[fij "f^ 'T* ^ .hwei sin' puh yau', no ansicer is wanted. 

Py Iffl ^WiWiWt wen' ,t'a ,ngan ,sie ,sie jt'a, as/c how he is 
and thank him. 

^g — ' 'O yV jC'hai yih ko' .jen^ send a man. ' , 

^ ^e ^ H jta ,t'ing. .ming peh, inquire fully. 

59 fy^ By 13 ./@^ wen' 'ni tih sin' sih, ask news respecting!- you. 

o ^ Wi Wa ^ ^ kau' su, ,t'a tsieu' yau' .lai, tell Mm to 

come at once. 
P^ 'S 'Is %l 'liang ipau 'li wuh, two parcels containing presents. 
•S P3 ^ ^ ^ '^'^i ^^' "^^ •'''^^ jsiang, carry four tea chests. 
'i^^*^,^%\\ sin' .c'hwen muh 'yeu tau', the letter hoat has 

not arrived. 
^ — ' ^ 1^ supg' yih ,fung sin', take one letter. 

[ 18 ] 

^^^^^ -Chi 'ma k'wai' k'wai' 'tseu, go quickly on 

horseback. [nounce it. 

^ jH '^ M $R 'tseu tsin' c'liii' .t'ung pau', go in and an- 

Vd^^ ^ jt'iau ,tung ,si c'hii', carry these things on your 



•^■*^. yX ,Sheng, pint measure. /^Vih, 40 feet of cloth; apiece. "hitL 

TnA/'' yf, 'Mi, rice. i^ T'ang', column of characters. 

t^'' if* 'Teu, iere sheng. ^ Ku' , sentence. [hours. *'^^ 

^^^f*^'^ f9" Mien' 'fen, flour. ^ ^ .SM heu', two Mnglish 

'^tuaA^ ^ Huh, flve teu. ^J K'eh, quarter of an hour. 

i/iie'?^ia4, /]"* ^ 'Siau meh (mai'), loAeaf. J^ Yu^h, a month. 
"Hovi, b3! jKang, large earthen water- jE ^ ,Gliengyueli, 1st month, 
■di^^ i^ 'T'ung, a cash. [vessel, i^ '-^^^^ f^^u^ 

it''/4-%i,'^PS j]^ 'Yii 'shui, rain water. ^ Pu', 5 feet, (land measure). y6-lC^ 
i-C-'L^ ^ jK'ung, empty. Uiessel. W^ 'Meu, 240 square pu'. >?'V0^ 

VPt«<<^^ Xing', large earthen water- jjBj Kwo', to pass. /t*w 

/tivo^ ^ Ken', SMj^ciewL '^ B.ia.', to fall; let fall. t'O^ 

— '?r ^-^Ix f^ yili ,slieng 'mi puli keu' cliili, a pint of 
rice is not enough for him to eat. [water vessels. 

^ m TO yK B^ 'i^ai 'Hang ko' 'shui ,kang, buy two large 
— • '^ B^ ■^ jih ko' .shi heu', owe Chinese hour. 

— ■ ^ -^ iSl yit kii' pull sliwoh, he did not utter a sentence. ^ 

— ' hI aa -^ ^yili J^ii' twa' puh keu', one sentence is not enough. 
M T ^ 1S B^ ■fl ^"^o' 'lis-u 'Hang ko' .sBi heu', a/fer four 
^ iM — ■ 1® yM piih' man yih ko' yueh, 7iot afullmonth. ihours. 
pH -^ ^ jP§ si' cMli ,k'ung ,siang, four empty trunks. 
yp 5JS ffl JT V^^ kwo' si' ,kin, woi more than four catties. 
Zl W ffl + ^ — ^ hJI er' pell si shili pu' yih 'men, 240 
square pu make one meu. 

p^ -p ^ — ' /B si' shiH cliih yih -^'ih, forty feet make one piece. 
-j-" Tf* — ' /\. shih t'sun' yih c'hih, ten inches one foot. 
-^ /^ — ' 5C shih c'hih yih chang', ten feet one chang [dcn/s. 
j^ ^ p^ ^ ,k'ung ,san 'Hang ,t'ien, at leisure for two or three 
^ — ''Ito V© '^^ y^^ 't'ung 'tsieu, bring a cask of wine. 

[ 19 j 

IE /^ S '^ ^ jclieng yueh 'li puh ,k'uiig, not at leisure 
^nthenrsUnontlu Icharacters. 

Ml m 3^ "?* 'sie 'Hang t'ang' tsi', write a few columns of 
■ — ' ^J HZ 7^ yili k'eh ,kung ,fu, a quarter of an hour's worlc. 
P» J ^ ^ ^ lii^,' 'liau 'ii puh 'shau, a good deal of rain fell. 
^^ ^ b3! ^ tsai' 'shui ,bang 'li, in the water tubs. 

ViS ^J — ' -H. ^ ^ 'man tau' yih c'h'ili ,to jkau, filled to 
more than afoot high . 


-;4^ ^ Pai', to worship. Jl '^ Shang' ti', GocZ. ^^'^ ^'^ 

^■a^'^10M. -Shen tau', gods (Tst). ^'^Yuhti', god of the Tauists. ^y^ '^^y 

^■>^^ %^ ^ .Shen .ming, ditto. )||^Miau"yii, Tauist temples. Tn-ieC '*^ 

***'<^ -^ Fuh, Buddha; Buddhas.rig^g^ ^ ,T'sien, bamboo divining rods. ^■^^*^ 

l^ ^^ ^ jfg_ Tsi' ,tsu, sacrifice to ances- ^ ^ .K'ieu ,t'sien, to divine. ^^ ^-^ 

■u. <ut^ ^j |g,P'usah, Buddhist deities <\^Wl^ , Sin. shen, soul. jZ^w X^u^ 

(2nd class). ^ P .K'ieu 'ii, pray for rain, fiti^ i^ 

it Tia^^M. 'M -Lo han', do. (3rd class) . ^ I^.T'sai .shen, god of riches. %e. ^^^ 

^ y*^^^ Bi' yuen', JBuddhisf^^ ^Qs;^. ,t'smg, three pure O^t-^ 

' monasteries. [priest. [ones (Tauist). ^ 

'^ ^^ ^ t^ .Ho shang', Buddhist ^ -[- Tan' sH, Tauist priest. -^^ Z'" 

W^ tit -^ f^ ,Kungteh, merit, [cense. ^ ^ ,San 'pau, three precious ,a^^^^ 

L jp- aJJjjoU^. ^. .Shau ,hiang, fewr?! «z- owes, (Buddhist). ^ , 

J^iSi-^jl^lR'.Shau'chi, feztm^oper. i^^lNien',king,c/iaH^i?rayers. 7t^^ 

j^ /^jt* -^.fSt ^"^1 ^i^^'' Buddhist reli- ^ Jl ,T'ien shang', io aci(i. ^-^^ ^^ 

.;^y:j^ ^ "^Mien'. t'sien' 5e/ore. [5'«o«- g|^ ^Kwan ,yin, goddess of 1iile.u^ 

iJL -aW*'^ ^ •'^^^ ^^°^'' ^^® 2'eop^e. ^ :^ Fu' 'nil, women, bnercy. .^^, ^^^ 

ii ft W i^ ^ '^ 1^ ^ che"li peh sing' pai' Fuh tih ,to, ^ 

i/ie people here mostly worship Buddha. 
^^Mfu iJ^^ •P''isahmien' .t'sien ,shau ,hiang hum 

incense before P'u sah. 
JL J^ ^ ^ ^ shang' miau' 'ii 'li c'hu', to go into the temples- 
7^ ^1^ 5Jci^ 'yen sh'i' .t'sing .k'ieu ,t'sien, if anything has 
happened they inquire of the gods by divination. 

god of riches are many. 

[ 20 ] 

'W. ^v W -^^ ^k ^^^ kiau' 'yeu ,saii 'pau, the Buddhist religion 

has the Three precious ones. 
»a. ^C 'R ^^ 1^ Tau' kiau'^yeu ,san jt'sing^ the Tauist religion 

has the Three pure one_s. \Lohans. 

1^ iiJffi "^ "T" /* 10 -lo tan' 'yeu sliih pah ko', there are eighteen 
yti '^ I A> 10 ^r Wi ^ ,sien 'yeu sfih luh ko' wai' kwoli 

. jen, at first there were sixteen foreigners. 

#^^±PS104^^A ten' .lai ,t'ien shang' 'Hang 
ko' ,chung kwoh. .jen, and afterwards two Chinese were added. 

^^ 1W tt •^ ^ K'ii ft -^^ shang' chu' tsai' si' yuen 'li, 
Buddhist priests live in their monasteries. 

i^ W ^ ^ \. jsliau 'clii pai' 'si ,jen, hurn paper to worship 
thedead. [-^^,-^_ 

-^ P M Hv H$ 'f^ P^t ^^' '^ *^^ •^■'^^ ^^"^'j w/iera it does not 
WJ^JlJ^>}^M ,kwan 'fu sliang" miau' .k'iea 'ii, the 
mandarins visit the temples to pray for rain. 


««tjt c^>i^ ^ ^ Juh ,slien, the body. Hb ^ .Neng keu', can. •)VU« ^a^ 
«i»Y !>''^^ S ^ -^^^S -liwun, the soul. ^ '{^ Full hwoh, Zwe again, i;^ foA^ 
Ui^'^'HiU'f^ is 'Tung ■'yuen, eternal. i^5E Full ,slieng, Uve again, t^ <2^ 
te^tLiLie. ^tH ^)Slienge'huh.lai,6o7'?2. ^^ . Chang sheu', old age. oLI^TmI 
i' Xt^' ^ ^ .Weishan', to be virtuous. ^ ^ ,Slieng ping', to be sich_ <ue, {f*^ 
L*eA,ia^ tiJ i& C'huli sM', horn into ^"^ 1^,1 -puh. lai, incurable. C^ta^'^e 
the world. :^ ^ 'Pen fen', duties. Jtkt^^h^ 

'irtL. oAoc''^ /h .T'sung'siau,/rom a boy. ^^ ^ Teh kieu', he saved. iM^siu^ 
^^Ta^ii^'^ A ^Lau .jen ,kia, oldman. ^ ^ .Ye ,su, Jesus. r^^^ Jo - ^. 
''Mif^tv sl ^ ^ ,G'ha puh ,tOi about; ^ p ghuh tsui', retieem /rom i^^ 
^/; . Tiearfj/. [TieaveTi. >«^^ 

'****t5 fi'B^ Sing' .ming, life. J^ ^ Shang' ,t'ien, ascend to ZCe' tie 

-fti^ ^ Kiau', to cause. ^honest. '(^ ^ 'Hwei 'kai, repent. i,.,^^/(e/ 

!Xm^ '■/w''.^ J? ,Chnngheu',/aii/i/'itZ««'^ /I6 1g ^Siang sin', believe. dit M^ 

/f'rt^'' # 'K'eng, willing. Il^ 'Tsung yau', ^ou. must, iii*^" (C 

1^ :^^ S ^ juh ,shen 'tsung yau' 'si, the body must die. 
5 ^ ^ ^ -ling .hwun puh 'si, the soul does not dde. 
^ ^IxK JS. liwoh tau' 'yung 'yuen, live forever. 

. [ 21 ] 

/V \j\ ISl kX -^ •j^i'^ c'huli shi 'i heu', men from their en- 
trance into the world and after. 

■^ ^, -^ §f- .t'siuen shi' 'yeu tsui', all have sin. 

yc Jf -^ '^ */^ 'si 'liau heu' f uh hwolij <o rise again after death. 

•H^P ^ JH ^^ -Ye ,su shuh tsui', Jesus redeemsfrom sin. rj,, jesus. 

fp S -^P ® >R pjy tsui' shi' .Ye ,su shuh tih, sin is atoned for 

>V H ffl "^ P*^^ 'k'eng jsiang sin', not willing to believe. 

jtr yv jQ yC 'hau .jen shang' ,t'ien, good men ascend to heaven. 

^5 ^ 'T' ^^ ping' i' pu-h .lai, the disease cannot be cured. 
•^1^ 77rU^ V^ ^ .Ming jt'ien, to-morrow. '^. .Chang, constant. 'Zi^ 

Cl^^ t'l^ ^ 5^ Heu' ,t'ien, day after do. ^ Yeu', another ; again. ■^><<*-^ 
S!<*o^ ^'^ B^ ^ Tsoh jt'ien, yesterday. %\\ "^ Tau' kwo', having gone, 'toi^^**' 
■o^ ■y*'^ ft ^ Cheu' ye', day and night. ^ ^ 'Ki hwei', /low often ? t^'^'^uma^ 
W' ^Ao' itb^ "^'si heu', henceforth. ^^ .Lai .nien, we** year. <^ n-iHOL 
'*j^f^'' Z., ^ B^ 'Yea .shi, sometimes. — ■ ^ Yih t'si', once. 'VCuA. *^ 

iuujL av*^ — ■ ^ ^i'^ hwei', once. jRH -^ . Ju 'kin, ai -present, ^i ^A^sn^ 

j^t^ P^ Keh (chieh), to separate. jx. ^J Lih k'eh, at once. ' A^eA. l^eA. 

iCo.-' 2.M^ ^ 'Kai jih, another day. ^ "^ .T'sung .t'sien, f or merly.yfft^ 7J^ 
^Z^^v ll Tsai, a^aw. [-^o obtain. ^ A 'Ku .jen, awciewi men.^^<^^ 
yu>L. 7tt£K, l^t^ .Nan teh, seldom; hard !ftjj ,C'hu, for the first time. ^'/.tto 
lie, Xot^ ^ .T'sien jih, day before "^ ^ ,Sien ta.n', first come, -^ie- 't^ 
yesterday. \_yesterday he did not come. 

"fifii ^ ~^^^ j*'^ .t'sien jih 'tsi puh .lai, the day before • 

■^ 'j' ^ ^ c'hii' 'liau 'ki hwei', how many times has he gone ? 

# to % M 1® ^'Ira .t'sung .t'sien 'yeu che' ko' shi' .t'sing, 
formerly there happened this circumstance. [^^ saying. 

•^ ^ ^ — "^ fj 'ku .jen 'yeu yih kii' hwa', the ancients have 

P^ ^ ^ ~r tso^ ,t'ien 'si 'liau, ?ie died yesterday. 

Jtb ^J ii^^ ^ &^ '*'^'^ ^'®^ •<^'^®'^ *^^'^' *^^®^' *^^' '^'^ present 
silks and satins are cheap. 

^ ^ 6^ m t^ ^ -^ .wei shan' tih .nan teh k'an' kien', 

the virtuous are seldom to be met iJjith. 
^0 ^|| IP ^ fg^ ftg, ,c'hu tau' 'na 'li jen' teh ,t'a, on first 

arrival how could I know him ? 

[ 22 1 . i 

^ fn yti^i 'w^o -■men jsien tau'^ we arrived first. \ again. 
HP ^ ^ ^ J tsoh jt'ien yeu' .lai 'liau, yesterday he came 
^n "PC Hy .c'hang tso' tih, he constantly does it, {other day. 
y^ — ' ^ — ' ^ keh yih jili c'hii' yih hwei', go once every 


ow«i?(i^ ^ ^ jT'sung .ming, intelligent. "^ ^ 'Wli i', military arts, vm- 7y<« 
*^ '^Wg^ ^ .Neng kan', ^ower. "^^ 'Sheu i', handicraft, du^ **?*** 

e ■y\fiin^-^ gg .T'sai ineng, ability. "^J^ 'Sheu twan/, dexterity. ^UC y^Ci-e^ 
■"-^■■^ W^ Hwei'j can (acquired power). ^ ^^ 'K'i i', ingenious arts. ^^^ nnie^ 
-vA/W HE -Neng, caw (natural power). ^^ -Ling -lung, clever. oi^ %^ 

r''o'&^^ W|M 'K^o i'j you may. ^^ ^f' Keh wa,i', extraordinary. ^aJi /v^Hi' 

■^C^-ini ^ ^ .Ling 'c'liiau, ingenious. :ff] ^ .Hi .k% wonderful. ,a^ 4)(m, 
»JLt^ -^ M Pii^ -^i^g; inefficacious. ^ $■ 'Pen sM', (s'i), ability. **«/-/z* 
'S'/r^ ^ ^ ^ ;T'ing puh Men', iM^ C'hi' lib, strength. C'ii> U^ 

'^^^ .jlpTiot hear. |-„p^ ;^g^^_ -^ |;jj ,Ngai pen', stupid. tvpuAClaeL 

"^f^ l§ ^ ^ .T'ing puh .iai, I can- ^ 'Kwan, to manage. 0/iiiie/' 

o'teltLt^ ^^^K'an'tehkien'j/camsee. |^ ^ Jwan joh, /eebZe. ?«<f*^e'V*^ - 

-^ ^^ ^e -^ 51$ 'ri 'to , t'ing puli ,lai, I cannot hear (lit. my 

ears cannot hear. 

W %X B Tyxxih. 'yeu 'pen slii' tso' ,kwan, he has not 

the ability to be a mandarin. fcannot be relieved. 

io. H^ ^fE -^^ ^^ 'P^ *'^®' '•'^''^ nan' puh .neng kieu', this misery 

^ f$ M "ftfii ffl ^ M pai' -shen tau' ,t'a .men puh .ling, the 

gods if you worship them are inefficacious. 

"^ HE yE ?W piih .neng tsin' .c'heng, you cannot enter the city. 

A^ W ^ -f' V^^ hwei' 'sie tsi', he cannot write. 

fiif1t#.'^b6^S-^^ ,t'a .men keh wai' tih .ling 'c'hiau, 
they are extraordinarily clever. 

^ :^ "^ S A 'wo shi' 'sheu i' jen, I am a handicraftsman. 

^^^AM^^^^^^^^^ '^S^i pen' tih .jen 
tso' puh .lai .ling .lung tih ,kung ,fu, stupid persons cannot 
do ingenious work. 

M ^ '^ R^ 1^ ^ ^ S Chi' lih 'yen .hien muh 'yeu 'wu i', 
his strength is not great, and he has no military accomplishments. 

[2-3 j 


eMc;^ IS ,01iweii, hridis. \hric\is. M iP.'Paiig 'ting, iop of house. 2?^ ^^ 
^i^*u fiiLie^ >7 ?^ jFang ,cliwen, square ^^^^'[Jl-i ,\d, foundation. uA. ^^ 
>z.^' ^ 'Wa, &Mrn-iiZes. f^ .T'iau, numeral of- lengths M<^ 

7-vijA^ "^J^ -Ni, mud; mortar. %|| ^ .Heng .Hang, cro&& beams. <^'nx. -u^ 

'<£ njui'Zct JtS K L£.Ni 'wa tsiang', mason. ^ j^ SHh jhwei, Kme. ^i^ X.*.^ 
C^ .£^<»-^ -S T^ Shih tsoh, stone-mason. ^IS ^'^ -^i jt^"j trowel. i-mi^ tot. 

a, Z-^H-w* r^ /^ ,San .t'seng, three stories. ^£ .Liang, io measure. ' -^^ 

^C-^ :j^.K'iau, hridge. ■^M.G'hang'twan, long; short. ^■^ 

'V-t^^ ^K'ung', arch. "^ ^ ,K'wa,n tseh, broad; nar- ^<^*^'^ 

^6^ ^^.V'ai. lexi,ornamentalarch.'^.S'hen, deep. 1^'°"-'- ^^^ 

'.&" ^mnn, ^^ Kai' .fang, to build a ^ '^,Sh.ang .liaug, to consider ■<Ue. ^^ , 
-^' house. about. 

^ K ix "W ^ ^ jCliwen 'wa muh 'yeu 'mai .lai, the bricks 
and tiles are not yet bought and brought home. 

B^ — 10 M Si E ^ kian' yih ko' .ni 'wa tsiang' .lai, call 
a mason. r^^g ^ ;^o^gg_ 

^^ J& ^S. W ;S jsliang liang' kai' .fang uh, confer about build- 

^< m PS -W ifi y^^' t^i' 'liang .t'seng .leu, I want to build 

two stories above the ground floor. 
j£ ~r ^ ^ ^ 'wu shih ,san k'ung' -c'liiau, bridge of fiftij 

three, arches. 
^ ^ TM H? ^ ^ ^ kai' .fang 'ting yung' ,to 'shau 'wa, 

in covering in the roof how many tiles shall you use ? 

JJ|tS^i5:S^SicA6^ ,P'ai .leu ,to ,tu sM' king' 

chung' 'nil .jen tih, there are a great many memorial arches 

and they are all in honour of women. 
fi "S ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ .liang .liang k'an'' ,to 'sHau .c'hang 

'twan, measure it to see how long it is. 
^ -^ >^ ^ "t^ S }^ -na .ni ,tau ,to 'pai skill ,liwei, take 

the trowel and put on plenty of lime. 
•j^^^ — ■ 5^ ^. .heng .liang .c'hang yih chang' pan', the 

cross beams are fifteen feet long. 
^ ^ R^ — •J^'Mi ;k'wan tseh ('chai) 'ma yih c'hih ,k'wan, 

as to width let them be a foot wide. 

[24 ] 


'^^ ^>%i ^ W Tuh ,shu, to study. 
•pfi^' .5JS 'Pen, numeral of books. 

J] -J- jFang tsi', square letters. fi>-^ ^ 
nm ^ ^.., , -^ -, -, ' . ^ .P 


Si' jshuj i^owr boohs, 



Pih meh, pews awci ink. i ^^ 'Wa ,kingj Five classics. -H^^alu^ 
^L j^^Hiau' ,king, Book of filial hov^ uLav. 

- \character classic. 

m^^^'San tsi' ,king, Three ofi-itU^ 
/J> g^ 'Siau sTiwoli, novels. Mu^'/iluiU. 
^ ^ 'Ki kiuen', /low man?/ tld'^c^kut- 
chapters ? 

Pi ^jK'aikiuen', o;je» a hook. /ff'A tLi^ 
,To k'an', read muck. ^ A3J' 
Tih cTiu', benefit. ^itbU^&L't 

Kiau' jsliu, teach. ^^ c-*^ ' 

.Hien ,slin, light books. '»^ y^>f^ 


■^'huiie^'%.^ .Wen meh, style. 
^'U^t'tuCW '^ jT'sing 'c'hu, clear. 
ivt^ t^u' ^ ^ .Wen 'li, book style. 
H\v^1m£ 3c ^ .Wen jcliang, essays. 
'■94\, daJi 1^ ^ Fah tab, rise in life. 
>t^' ^j^ jYa, elegant, 
'fi^ /^ ffl 31 Yung' jkung, 6e diligent 
ao 'i\, m\ ^ jT'eu hien', waste time 
e^^d^'M'^ 'I^an to', lazy. 
'Ca/Mu^J^^ g9) 'Kiai shwoh, explanation. 
,1^ f^ ^ y^ Chu' 'kiai, commentary, 
'l^ £4a^^ ^ ^^^"^^^> '^'^PO^^"'^*- j^ '^6, also. Iman. *^ 

-^ >^ ^m. w ^'^ piih shi' tuh ,shu .jen, 'he is not a literary 

^ I Pf iii 1^ 3^ yung' ,kung 'k'o 'i fah tah, if you are 
diligent you will rise in life. 

^ ^ jgg ^ B^ ^ ^ ,shu 'li tih hwa' kiau' .wen 'li, phrases 
used in books are called wen-li. 

^J ^ ^ ^" >®^^ J^^' '*° k'an', fcoofcs mMsi be much read. 

^^ ;^ ^ ^4 ^- tsai' 'lau jkia kiau' ,shu, he keeps school at 
his own home. 

^-^^ ^li^'W:^'^ ,shu puh ,to k'an' muh 'yeu yih 

c'hu', if you do not read much it will be of no use. 
"^C H KM ^5 ,sien tuh si' ,shu, ^rsi study the Four Books. 
■^ ^ ^ 3l J^ heu' .lai k'an' 'wu ,king, and afterwards read 

the Five classics. 
^ ^^ /]^ ^^ ^^ }tf ^' .hien ,shu 'siau shwoh puh 'hau k'an', 

light literature and novels are not good to read. 
WL ^y^ ^ "?* ki^ii' jSiau .hai tsi', ^n teaching boys. 
■^T- ^S p^ jj -J- ,sien yau' yung' jfang tsi', you must first use 

square characters, written on squares of red paper. 
i^2J!C^^^ che' 'pen ,shu 'ki kiuen', how many chapters 

does this book contain ? 


[25 J 

-a* W "^ X ^ put liwei' tso' .wen ,cliang, he cannot write 

4ff -M. "^ Est iVf ^ [iwporiawi 6ooJ. 

Ua :S ;K ^ By Wye shi' yau' 'kin tih ,sliu, this is also an 

"m -Ye, father. ^ :^ Tsang' .mai, bury. ^W" tt-z^ 

-zVt' M :^ 'Tsu fu', grand-father. A i Juh 't'u, enter the ground. 2,*^ ^-.i 
(fW ?W!.' ■^ IB. 'Tseng 'tsu, great ditto. ^ fg .Wang ki', forget, r^^g^i vtnL cl^ 
e X,^*" g Jl Tsai' ^^n^', farther hack. ^ |)^ .Chien .c'heng, reveren- O^uie. ZUt 
^ efci/" g M ,Kan 'tsu, ancestor of Uh fl?, S Chau'ying', tale care of. Ai^ ca^ 
c -ii^m^,'Ken'^en,root. [%»'«''• § 'Sau, sweep. Itemple. '"-^^ 

'■iter 'a -^ 1^ T^.C'huen hia', deliver down, fp) ^ .T'si .fang, ancestral 

.. . J^ .T'si .t'ang, ancestral Z, -i3i^ 

t<>«i ?2;^^ ^ "T* Hiau' 'tsi, /ZmZ soji. -^^ ^ .Ming tsi', ?iame. "^^ ^ 

"HJ^ %% IP.Kwankwoh, coffin Sr case. ^ S Tsai' .t'i, mention again, is^ ,dC 

i«*^ #■ ^ Tso' .fen, make a grave, fg. ^ 'Tsu ,tsung, ancestors. ti^^tL^ 

-<?-tJ' ^-^'Tsijsun, j3osie?:%. ^ Tsi', io sacrt/tce. ^t> 

M.:^>^'TR^ 'tsu jtsung shi' ,ken 'pen, ancestors are the 
root from which men come. 

A^^^ffi^.'l^l^^l^ .jen .t'siuen sM' 'tsu ,tsung 
c'hwen hia' .lai tih, men all spring from the stock of their 

^ JUS. ^ ^J .^n. fvl tsi' 'tsu ,tsung tan' ,san tai', sacrifice to 
ancestors to the third generation. 

^ # M :^ -t :$t m m.^m^ ^^' 'mu, 'tsu fu', ,tseng 
'fu, 'kau 'tsu, tsi' tih ,to, parents, grandfather, great grand- 
father, and great great grand-father are sacrificed to by many. 

A^ W^ TW 1?H puh tso' jkwan kwoh, he did not make a coffin 
and case. 

-^ >E ^ i" puh shi' hiau' 'tsi, he is not a filial son. 

1. ^ Hy ^ -^ shang' pei' tih .ming tsi', the names of elders 

{in the ancestorial line). [tioned. 

^ ^ W fl- ^3 puh 'k'o 'i tsai' .t'i, should not be again mert- 
W^ ^r By ^R) S. sing' 'li tih .t'si .fang, ancestral temple of 

the Li family. _^ [fiowers? 

Pll5 — • ^ ^ ^ ^ 'na yih yang' tih ,hwa 't'sau, which sort of 

^^'i^^_t49i5[S V^^ .t'sung ,keu 'pen shang' ,sheQg 
c'huh .lai, is not produced front, a root.. 



■iue ■'JA-t^ i^ ^ jSiang ,pang, assisL ^ ^ Tung' cTii', io he angry. 4W %• 
■««2^ ^*.& ^ ^ 'Shii hwan', to employ. W^ '^ ,Tan wu', injiirt/ by delay, to, y^ 
ckiL-li^'^'^ C'hih 'pauj eai enough. ^^^,Ku .niang, g-irZ; ?/0Mwgr ^ m^ 
rt^'^ a^' ^M Ngo' 'si, stori;e. ^^ ^ Puh teh, must not. U<iAy ■ /i-^u^^ 

7^_% / ^ 5E Tung' 'si, /j-eese ^o death. ,^ P'ien', io c/ieaL ^'^ *■ 

^ "^ joj/- ^ ^,Kia'cliii, master of family ^ ^ jTung ,kia, master. ■^f*^ ^ 

*)<.e 'Vti> ^ ^ T'sai' fan', vegetables ^ ^ -y*,K'an .fang 'tsi, f aAre -^b'^w^ 

arwi rice. care of a house. ^^^ 
4^^ .^^^ -^ j^ 'Sheng kien', economical. JIjC'w >Sheu sheh, gather up. ^yUc <ueA 

fCSi£^ Z*w ^ 5f^ ,Kan tsing', clean. /J"* ^ 'Siau ,si, waiting hoy. ofdd -o^ 

C>L^i>.^ 1^ .Qi'\xv!i, industrious. /f^^ |^,Ken,pan tih, ser»ffl«i./iW^^^ 

^ 'tZ'^ ^ ^ -T'si 'cteng, orderly. ■'^ i|j» .Lieu ,sin, a^jp/y ^Ae mind. Icu. o^x^ 

■Hiie. TC -Wan, finished. V^^ ]§ Chau'ying', take care of. olUiiOM 

^ ® W S ^ 5^ jtung ,si ,tu yau' ,kan tsing', everything 
must he clean. 

IIS^fi^A^J^ — W 'sM li"<^an' tih .jen puh 'sLau yih 
peh, the number of servants employed is not less than a hundred. 

31 y% Jx- "H W^ TC 'kung ,fu muli 'yea tso' .wan, the work is 
not yet done. 

Pl^ i® ''J'* ^ W W "T* 'liang ko' 'siau ,si ,k'an ,fang 'tsi, two 
waiting boys kept the house. 

^ ^ }^ >lj* ,kia 'chu 'hau ,sin, the master is well disposed. 

^^ iS y^?> ® "fffii iPI ciau' ying' chau' ying' ,t'a .men, take 

«^ °{J^^- \to he fromn. 

A^ Wi 'Wi <^ Su puh kiau' ,t'a tung' 'si, he will not allow them 
is ^ ^ Ita PK ^ 'y^ V^ kiau' ,t'a ngo' 'si, nor to he starved. 
i^ -^ fe iii ^ '^i P'^l'- t^h p'ien' 'wo, you must not cheat me. 
]^ S ^ "H ^Li* jtung ,si put .lieu ,sin, you do not take care 

of things. 

i^ 5^ B$ '^ _t j^ puh tsai' .shi heu' shang' tso', you do not 
do things at the proper time. r^w neglect. 

"J ^ ^ ,tan wu' 'liau ,tung ,kia, you injure your master 
^ ^ 'tsung yau' .t'si 'cheng, {they) must be put in order. 

J 27 ] 

2S !,T' fT' ''^'''"'- MS-^'''"" ■'' '^'"P- Ihouse. 
m^>^'^^^g'o'hn, distinct. ^ ^ .C'ha chan', tea ware- 

sfffl ff Si' swan', carefully count, ft Kwei', counter. 

g^l^ Swan' Chang', ca/cMfo^e.-^lgj^ ,Tang kwei' tih, 

pg ^jK'ai tien', open a shop. shopman. 

^ if 'Hwo ki', assistant. >^ 4^ Shih 'pen, lose capital. 

■H" ?*^ 'Ten c'heng', measures W "iit.T'aajkwang, beg favour. 

and weights. ;/L A ^ 'Kieu pah .yin, 

^ ^ 'Pen .t'sien, capital. Shanghai sycee.* 

^J ^ Li' .t'sien, interest. 7il| ^ 'Ma .t'eu, port ; jetty. 

^ 'M -P'an fei', expenses. "/^ ^ 'Hai ,kwan, custom house. 

■^ ^ jKung .p'ing, yiisi. ^ ^ .Wan shui', ^ay custom. 

-T" ST P"^ t'^i^ '^o^ agree. ^ § Shu' muh, numbers. 

W^ R -^ 3^ shu' muh puh tui', the numbers do not agree. 

W^ ff ^^Wi Cheng' tih ,kin 'Hang puh tui', the weight 
in catties and ounces does not agree. 

^- Ttf -T* m swan' teh puh jt'sing, it is not clearly calculate^. 

§9 /£ St /@» -^ ^ .k'ai tien' ,sheng i' puh ta', when he 
opened shop, his trade was small. 

S tK hv B^ B^ IJC jta-iig kwei' tih shwoh ,t'au ,kwang, the 
shopman said, may I beg custom. 

jg "^ HL ^ jTL /V ^ .hwan ,t'a er' wan' 'kieu pah .yin, 
pay him twenty thousand Shanghai taels. 

5^ "W ^4^ ^§ muh 'yeu 'pen. .t'sien, he has no capital. 
5W S ^ ^1 ^ .c'heng 'li .c'ha chan' ,to, the tea ware-houses 
in the city are numerous. [honest. 

W »T ^ i^ K '^0 ^i' V^^ '^^^ shih, iAe assistants are dis ■ 


^ ~r* jPing jting, soldier. ^ l^-^u .c'hia\i,floating bridge. 
^ i:^ ,Kwan ,ping, ditto. ^ B^.Ngan .min,^fl!ci/y^eojofe. 
t"^ ^ Teh sheng', conquer. ^ ^fi]* .T'eu .ho, leap into a river. 

* Literally, silver at two per cent discount. Kieu pah means ninety eight in 
a hundred. 

128 ] 

^ f .Ying 'liau, won. ^ ^ .T'eu 'tsing, leaiD into a 

$gij ,Sliu, defeated. M A 'Si ,slii, corpses. [^^Zi. 

fy '^ 'Ta change to fight. ^ ^ Tui' Vn, ranh and file. 
^ ^ Pai' chang', de/eaf . ^ ^,Kwei 'kii, orderly conduct 
g ^ .Wei k'wun', fcesiegre. :^ "^ .Mai fuh, ambush. 
■fi :^ 'Ling ,ping, ?ra(? soMjers. ^ "^ Hau' 't'ung, trumpet. 
j^ ^ Fang' 'hwo, sef on fire. ^ H K'an' ,keng, keep watch. 
^ \ 'Lu .jen, seise men. P ^ 'K'eu hau', watchword. 

'^ ^ ,La .jen, t^rap' aM-fl?/ mie«. ^ ^ P'au' .t'ai, lattery. 
^ 'Sheu, fo fceej,. [pZ„„^er. M ^^ ^ang' p'au', //"e cannon. 
i^ ^ 'T'siang toh, rob and [the city. 

^ ;^ -ij* ^ ,kwan ,ping ''sheu .c'heng, mandarin soldiers keep 

•JT T — ■ 10 M ^ 'ta 'liau yih ko' pai' cliang', they fought 

an unsuccessful battle. 
"A^ m W ^ V^^ iiwei' tell sheng', they cannot conquer. 
tu PR ^ ^ 4 .t'sien 'Hang ,t'i6n .ying 'liau, two days since 

they gained a victory. 
'^^A*^Wi -c'lieng .t'siang puh ,kien ku', the city wall is 

not strong. ^^j^^ ^vers. 

J§ /V "K J i^i -^^T^ -jen .t'eu 'liau .to, the men leaped into 

ISC yv -K J 7r '^ii -jen -t'eu 'liau 'tsing, the women threw 
themselves into the wells. 

i^ lS 5JSl "S* tso' .f u .c'hian kwo' c'hii', they made a float- 
ing bridge to pass by. [^g captives. 
^>^-/V^By yau' 'lu .jen c'hii' tih, they carry away men 
•^ tJ* I^ '^ puh 'sheu tui' 'wu, they do not keep rank. 

■fP J m -^ :^ 'ling 'liau ,san wan' ,ping, he marched at the 
head of thirty thousand soldiers. 

A^ OT tg ^ puh 'hii 't'siang toh, robbery is forbidden. 

"^ 1^ 6^ P ^ ,kin ye' tih 'k'eu hau', the pass-word for to-night. 


:^ ^ .Mingjsheng, reputation. ^^^hQ'AieYig'fioic-shoticound. 

■^ ^ .Ming ,i, famed surgeon. ^^U '1^^ tsien', cross-bow 
^^B.uh.]a.n, unexpectedly. «^''o^- [vegetable.) 

* ''"'I Han' .c'hau, Ean dynasty j^fiM .Wu .t'eu, {name of a 

[29 1 

^ |J^ .Hwa .t'o, (a noted sur- ^ ^ Tuh yoh, poison. 
^ Pi', arm. [S'^o"'-) 3^ ^ Ta' .p'en, large hasin. 

IJJ^ ^ Chang' .fang, ietii. r„;.^_ ^ J^ Tsi^h hiueh, receive blood. 
# W .Shen pi', stretch out the ^ ^ P'a' t'ung, /ear ^Jaw. 
^ .T'eng, pain. ^l] ^ Koli ,k'ai, cut open. 

^^~^'T'anhia.', bare the shoulder-^ |^ .p<i ju^, sfcm and /es/i. 
J^ ^Hiu^h' 'kwan, blood-vessel — [J Yih cliih, straight. 
W^^-f' ,Kwan ,fu 'tsi, (the tjjft T'ieh, to stick. 

god oficar, Kwan yun cAa^s--) i^ ^ ,Kau yoh, ^Zasfer. 

'^ ^ -W ^ :^ ■?■ Han' .c'hau 'yeu ,Kwan ,fu 'tsi, in the 
Ean dynasty there was Ewanfu tsi, {the god of war.) 

^fR ^ at It "^ T pei'* na' 'nu tsien' she' ,8hang 'liau, 
he was wounded by a cross-how arrow. 

i@> ^ — 1® A ^ »• ff huh .jan yih ko' .jen .lai kau, su', 
at an unexpected moment, there came a man to say. 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J .ming ,i .hwa .t'o .t'sai .lai ^liau, the 
celebrated surgeon Hwa-to had just arrived. 

hR Wi *S IR^ W ^ 't'sing ,t'a tsin' chang' .fang .lai, he was 
invited to enter the tent. 

Wl R '^ '^ SM ^ ,shang 'li 'yen ,-wu .t'eu yohj in the wound 
there was a vegetable poison called 'Wu-t'eu, 

— li! ?0J *P* SI i5 ft yih chih tau' kuh .t'eu na' 'li, straight 
into the hone. 

yf* -^ -^ ^ pnh shi' 'tsaa ,i, if not cured early. 

aa, i® W ot n /t3 che' ko' pi' muh 'yeu yung', the arm 
would he of no use. 

^' ft '^ y] 'sheu 'li .na tau', in his hand he held a Tcnife. 

A^^WJIiST^J^ ta' -P'en tsai' pi' 'ti hia^ tsieh 
hiu^h, a large hasin under the arm to catch blood. 

^ ^ -f' 'f^ •^ jKwan ,fu 'tsi ,shen 'sheu, the god of war 

held out his arm. 
^3 ~f* -3?^ ^^ 'fan hia' ,i fuh, and bared his shoulder of clothing. 
B4 ^ 1^ ^ij §1 kiau' .Hwa .t'o koh ,k'ai, for Ewa-to to cut 

it open. 

— . §^ '^>\^ 5il yi^ 'tisn puh p'a' t'ung' (.t'eng), he did not 
in the least fear pain. 

* Pei is the sign of tlie passiye. 

[30 1 ■ 

327J [M] *i*MJ:^!j*^M > ,tau hiang' kuli .t'eu 
shang' kwah c'hii' tuh c'hi', he took the knife and approach- 
ing the hone scratched away the poison. 

#iSjB^^i^^5^ Heu' .lai 'pa .p'i juh .fang 'c'hi ,lai, 

afterwards the skin and flesh were sewn up. [much. 

^ y^ ^ y^ ^ jKwan ,f a 'tsi ta' siau'j, Kwan fu tsi laughed 

jr v ja/v nn ^i-f 

0C &C \M] ^a sh.woli shwok .hien Kwa', and talked on ordinary 

j^ Tso', numeral of wells, houses, clocks, hills, graves, &c. 
TT 3^ 'Tsing ,pien, side oftceir'^ ^^ ,Siamg .lieA, connected. 
^ ^ 'Tsing 'shui, well water. ^ ^ ,T'ien jeh, hot weather. 
yZ yx jT'ien 'tsva^,square court. JJ^ Jl 'Wan shang', at evening. 
^ Kung', common. ^ ^ Kiueh,k'ai,c?«jrojoe«. r/^g^_ 

^ 55C .Hien 'shui, salt water. ^ ^ Tiau' 't'ung hanging buc- 
|^^.T'ung,hiaDg,sa!mew7/ff()'e. 5p,^3i ■^'^ .sheng, hempen rope. 
=^ -f" Tseh 'tsi, homestead. "^ ^ ,Shen 't'ien, deep shalloio. 
^ ^f£ jKiau, hwa, water floivers. ^fe ;^ ,T'iau 'shui, carry water. 
EB ^ .T'ien ti', cultivated land. ^ J^'C'Ta 'shui, iafce wp water. 
^ ;^ Tiau' 'shui, raise water. ^ ;^ ,C'he 'shui,pMmp water. 

^^WC^yr^k •P'iHg fang' tsai' 'tsing 'li, place the hottle 
in the well. 

1^1 9PP x\ TT Ha yx .t'ung ,hiang kung' 'tsing tih .jen, men of 
the same village and a common well. 

SW/ Jl ^ 'ff TT ^ wan' shang' tso' tsai' 'tsing ,pien, at night 
they s_^ by t^'^ell. ^ -^ ^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^^_ 

TT ;5T^ 'W ^ iw 'tsing 'shui 'yen ,sie .hien, the water in the well 

^^Mi T*-^ tiau' 't'ung fang' hia' c'hii', let down the bucket. 

^ ^ By v/\ 'ta 'shui tih .jen, the water bearer. 

•j^fe ;^ HI ** jt'iau 'shui .hwei c'hu', carry the water hack. 

'^^^^ 'yau 'Chi 'shui .lai, take up water with ladle. 

"^^■^ .nieu 'c'he 'shui, the bullock pumped water. 

^^^^ 'tsing kiu^h ,k'ai .lai, the well was dug. 

J^mM^^'^^ yuiig' -ma .sheng tiau' 'c'hi 't'ung 

lai draw up water with a rope. ^^.n ^j ^ „iachine. 

7p By -t ?S^ ^ '^^^^S tih shang' .pien 'yeu ,c'he, above the 

[31 ] 


j^ .Br, terminal particle placed after most nouns in the 
northern dialect. 

■yl 'f^Pien' fan', ordinary meal, -f^- ^W Tsai' hoh, drinle again. 

^ 31^ Puh kwo', only (initial) . ^ iR T'si' fan', grant me rice. 

^ J Pa' 'liau, only (final) . Wl W -C'hu .fang, kitchen. 

j^ -T'ing, wait. ^'^ ,Ki jt'&ng, fowl broth. 

— ■ W Yili hwei', a /?Y<fe ; once. ^ ^ Yen' ,wo, birds' nests. 

1^ 'MR 'Pai fan', lay the table. ^ ,T'ien, add; give more. 

Jt^Shang' t'sai', put tte'fS J 'Pau 'liau, safis^ecZ. 

fishes on the table. ^\ ^ 'Tau .c'lia, pour out tea. 

^t^'c'lii 'kan, how dare I?^i^ ,Cliwang ,yen, put in 

^f V@,Chen 'tsieu,^OMr out wine, tobacco. 

^ ^.C'henghwei'jrecewe/ciKif- j^ 'Pa, take. 
^C'hi.c'ha, make tea. [«^«s. yjjjj ^Twan, place. 
J^tt'Liang ,pei, two cups. -^^ 'T'u'i .t'si, refuse. 

^ -^Tui' 'yin,to drink together. @* Tsui', elevated hy wine. 

3^ :^ IS WL che' shi' pien' fan', this is an ordinary dinner. 

■fR ^ iX- "W f^^' 'liau muh 'yeu, is the rice boiled or not ? 

^^ "K B'S t'sai' pien' .ni, are the meat and vegetables ready ? 

^ — ' W ^ •t'ing yiJi hwei' .er, waii a little. 

Wj 1^ J tsieu' pien' 'liau, they will then be ready. 

•J^ 'IS _t ^ 'pai fan' shang' t'sai', spread the table, bring the 
dishes on. {drink together. 

^ ffl ^ "i^ ^ T ''^° -i^sn tui' 'yin pa' 'liau, loe loill just 

^ -W "S" ^ ^ ^ 1^^^ 'y^u shen' 'mo 'hau t'sai', I /lave wo 
good dishes. 

^ P^ P^ ^ ,to hoh 'liang ,pei, take a cwp or two more. 

^i. ^ ^^ ^^ .c'heng hwei' teh 'hen, I receive the greatest kind- 
ness from you. 

V@ ^ Pf A^ P^ @? 'tsieu puh 'k'o 'i hoh tsui'^ I must noi 
take wine so as to become elevated. 

^ is H t'fci' fan' pa', grant me rice. 

[32 ] 

iE 10 ;S WS M ^che' ko' sM' yen' ,wo ,t'ang, this is birds' 

nest soup. Iguests. 

^^yV)^ Wi fc'i* k'eh .jen ,t'ieii fan', give more rice to the 

'H'^'T'^-^kiau' .cliu 'tsi ,slieu sMh, tell the cook to 

put things away in order. 


591 !^ jChi Hen', magistrate. ^ j^ ,Cliwen ,t'ung, secretly 
^ oWang' kan', falseli/ accuse, form connection icith. 
O^Kau' slii', proclamation. ^ l&.So sung',Mif;«ce to accuse. 
lA |ii T'ieh c'liuh, ^0 paste up. JS" ^Tien' p'u', a shop. 
^ ^ jC'hai yih, messenger. ^ Hien', ciij/ of 3rd class. 
^^ Stu yih, secretary. ^"W .W'o .lieu, shelter thieves. 

^^M -P'ai p'iau', tcritten order, i ^ 'T'u 'fei, local banditti. 
■fg 'Kia, false. ^'M Tso' .fang, sii in judg- 

^Kii', arrest. [room. ^'""'^■ 

^ffi^ ,Pan .fangj messenger's -^^^ 'SHen sH', to judge. 
^^ -^ ,Kien .lau, prison. ^ ^ ,Kung sM', public duties. 

Q ^M 'I jking, already. ^j f ^.Ya.meii,wflnf?rt)-/«'s o^ce. 

'^^i^^'^-^^ ,km ,fien Hen' 'li 'yen ,kung sH', 
to-day at the magistrate s there is business. 

— M^M^^^%%^'^ji^ iien' tih sH' ,tTi sM' 
,cM tien' 'kwan tih, all the affairs of a district are directed 
by the city magistrate. 

Pi^"F*6^A'^|| k-ai' p'u' 'tsi till .jen 'yeu tsui', a 
shop-keeper is guilty of a crime. 

^ H Jy^ ::^ i gE,wo .lieu'tau ,to 't'u 'fei, sheltering a great 
number of thieves of the country. 

B jn" ?T ^ ^ ^ jkwan ,f u 'ta fah ,c'liai yih, the mand'arin 
sent messengers. 

^ Iffii 51$ Pq .na ,t^a .lai -wen', bring him for inquiry. 

2» ^^ td T "o" -^ 'i ,king c'liuli 'liau • kau' shi', having 
already published a proclamation. 

Ifi m ^ In W ^^ t'ieli Ckuh .lai kei' peli sing' k'an', it 
was pasted up for the people to see. 

19: ^ PTlii ^ ^ i K shwoli pull 'k'o 'i ,wo .Heu 't'u 
'fei, it said that thieves must not he sheltered. 

[33 j 

Ea ^ iHI T "ffli.c'liai ylh kii' 'liau ,t'a, the messengers arrested him. 

m \4 S "TRI ^J -y* .men 'li ku' tau', they seized and brought 
him to the magistrate's' office. 

j^ ^ ^Si. jchi hien' tso' .t'ang, the mandarin sits in judgment. 

^ 9" BV B^ ^ 'sTien shi' tii. .shi heu', at the time of Judging. 

^il%A$5i^^^ll ^,cM tau' 'yeu .jen ,o'hwen 
,t'ung jshu yih .ho ,c'hai yih, Ae learned that persons had 
secretly influenced the writers and messengers. r fyigg^ 

W ^ S iS By -P'^i p'iau shi' 'hia tih, the order to arrest was 
^^a" J flEi wang' kau' 'liau ,t'a, he had been falsely accused. 
B jfy" ^$ ^ tc J ,kwan 'fu 'shen shi' .wan 'lia,u, the man" 
darin having ceased his inquiry. 

^^ix'W$' lieu' .lai muh 'yeu shi', afterwards nothing 
more occurred, 

LESSON" 86. Burma LAND. 

^ ^ Ti' 'chu, owner of land. TO 51 ,Siang kin', near. 
-^ ^ Pu' ,kung, measure of 5 JpJ ^ Kieh shih, frm. 

^^ 'K'ung p'a', Zes^. U^^^ SX Yih *meu, me mow. 

^ Jl ,Kiai shang', on the street. W^ ^ '^eu pan', meu Sf a half 
W^ ^,Hiang'li, in the country. '^ ^ .Wenyoh, deed of sale. 
^ -^ .Lin she', neighbours. ^ \, , Chung .jen, middleman,. 
-|" 1^ Shih tiau', ten strings. ^ ^ .Ming .er, name. 
-^ ^ Ta' .t'sien, large cash. ^ ^ Tai' pih, a writer. 
"§ Kieu', old. ^ ^ 'Ta ,t'ing, to inqmrci 

^ P'o', broken. '^^ 'Ohau .siiin, to seek. 

^ 1§ ^ ^ '^° y^^' '™*i *i'» -^ wish to buy land. 
3^ ^ ^ Jb tsai' ta' jkiai shang', in the great street. 
fS^ ^ ^ ^ ^ '"^i *'i' ''^^ '*^ >t-iig> inquire for me about it. 
^^^ T — '^ '^o 'chau .siiin 'lian yili k'Wai', I have 

found a piece. 
^ 3;^ 1^ ^ PJ tsai' ta' jkiai .nan mien', on ihe south side of 

the great street. 
j^ — ' 10 ^S" J? A 'oh.a,u yih ko' ,chttng heu' .jen, find rite an 

honest man. [writer. 

Ir "fifc "feif 'Hi ^ 't'sing ,t'a tso' tai' pih, imiite him to be the 


'f^^fi^lA^^f^ tai' pih tih .jen 'sie .wen yob, the 

writer will write the deed of sale. 

i^j^W /^^iii'T^i tso' jchung .jen 'k'o 'i, you can be the 

middle man. 

Pw "F IhI i9l 5^ 'liang Ma' showh shpwh .ming pelt, apeak 
clearly on hath sides. 

^ ^0^ pfy ^ J\ tnai' ti' till 'chu .jen, the proprietor ivho sells 
the land. \not ? 

"W ^ 3^ 'W §S^ 'y®^ .t'sien muli 'yeu .t'sien, has he money or 
"ra S W J 'ysu kieu' .fang 'tsi, there is an old house. 
3^ ^ % _ll .hwan tsai' ti' shang', still on the ground. 

aa.1®7^^^'OT J *^'^^' ^o' 'tsung yau' t'seh (.c'hai) 'liau, 
this must be pulled down. [land 

Jffl ^ k3 SA =P ti' 'yeu si' 'meu pan', there are 4f moio of 

-— T PS ^ "^ — 'HA er' shili 'Uang .yin 'tsi yiH 'meu, 
twenty taels a mow. 

M^ — ^^^MM -liwan 'yeu yih k'wai' ti' tsai' 
,hiang 'li, there is a piece of land in the country. 

^ W y^ ^ jij H^ -lin she' .jen ,kia 'hau tih, the neighhowfa 
are good. 

r W J^ ^ shih tiau' ta' .t'Sien, ten strings of large cash. 

™ ^ ^ j£ ^ ^ 'pa pa' ,kung .liang .liang.k'an', measure 
it with the rod. 

•H W P9 + ^ ""'SX er' peh si' shili ,kung yih 'meu, 240 
pum(^e a mow. j-^^^j^^ „ ^^^^-_ 

— ' ^ to 'H' — ^ yi^ V^' 'ye kiau' yih ,kurig, a pu is also 
S. )\. — ^ 'wu c'hih yih pu', five feet make one pu. 

MM^h^-\^^Wt<i^f 'mo 'siau 'k'uDg p'a' puh keu', 
this is small, and I fear it will not be enough. 


^ ^ 'Lau 'hu, tiger. ^ 3^ Put 'H, not to care for. 

S^ 'Hii, to promise. ^ ^' c'hu', injitries. 

^ 'Shang, reward. Ithers. '^ -Hi^n, to take in the mouth. 
^ ^ 'Hu pau', tigers andpau' ^i ^ ,T'eu t'sieh,io steal. 
^ IS; 'Pai sheh, arrange. ^ .Hiung, violent. garden, 

f|g J^ Hien' ,k'eiig, a pitfall. ^ ^ T'eai' .yum, vegetable 


% ^ Ti' 'nu, a spring how. ^ ^ 'Ye sheu', wild animals. 

^ .K'in, to catch. fj ^^ Chuli ,ken, hartiboo roots. 

2I Wi 'Yin 'yeu, to tempt. ^ ^ Heu' mien', behind. 

^^^^^ ^Olien ,ngan 'lau 'hu ,to, at the city of 
Chenng an tigers are numerous. 

W^SW^ ^i' .c'heng 'li peh sing', they vnjws the 
people in the city. 

■^ /<MbW^ Int .yen .jen .neng shall 'lau 'hu, there are 
persons who can kill tigers. 

^ H1^ T "ftfii iPI '■wo 'hii 'liau ,t'a .men, I promised them. 

^ ' 1^ jR i "T* T shah yih 'hu 'shapg 'wu sh'ih jt^sien, 
if they killed a tiger they should receive fifty thousand cash 
as a reward. 

TC ^ A. 1^ ^ chu' tih .jen 'pai sheh, the inhabitants placed. 

Rg tn^Mb^ hieu' ,k'eng .ho ti' 'nu, pitfalls and under- 
ground spring hows. 

^HlM'flfii'ffl pnh .neng .k'in ,t'a .men, they could not 
catch them. 

M U4 ^ ^I ^TlEi yung' ,shan .yang 'yin 'yeu ,t'a, they used 
goats to entice them. 

^ md^^ '^^^ '^^ pnh 'li, the tigers took no notice. 
WM^ ® ^1^ IS -fang uh heu' mien' 'yeu t'aai' .yuen, 
behind the houses are vegetable gardens, 

^S-WA^.^JH^* ye' 'li 'yeu .jen 'tseu tau' .yuen 
,chung, if at night a man walks into the garden. 

^>^ B^l^ 7 "fi^ 'lau 'hu 'i ,kmg .Men 'liau ,t'* 
k'ii, a tiger has already taken him, away in his mouth. 

^^^^imMM^'^ ye' 'li muh 'yeu t'eu t'sieh 
jtung ,si tih, at ndght there is no one to steal. 

^^>^ ^Wi ^ P'a' 'ISin 'hu puh 'kan .lai, fearing tigers 
they dare not come. 


^ ^ 'Ye siang', wild elephant, j^ 1^ Pang' p'au', fire guns, 
f^ ^ Peh siting',, white do. gpj Wo', hungry ; to starve. 
^ -f" Fah 'tsi, method. ^ |@ 'Tien .feii, to nod the 

-(^^Kung' yih, service. ^<^- 

[36 ] 

^ KiuSh, to dig. ^ .Sie, inclined j crooked. 

^ iS >^'^ sih, spread mats. ^ CWa., to push away. 

^ jtj Kai' 'hau, cover over. ^ ;^ , Chung jshen, whole life. 

^ ^m "^^ •■^°j ^^*^ 9ongs. I7C -T'o, carrj/ on. 6acA;. 

^ 'Kan, drive. H^ ^ Puh shi', to serve. 

^ ^ 'Ta 'ku, heat drums. |^ Wei', to feed. 

1® W'W©^ jsi .nan 'yeu 'ye siang', in the south west 
there are wild elephants. 

TjJ :Mil /v m J^ "T* 'psn ti' .jen yung' fall 'tsi, the natives 
use methods. 

^^^^W^^ 'yeii jt'a .men tso' kung' yih, to tempt 
them to become serviceable. 

M^^^f^'^MM tiueh ti' ,k'eng ,p'u sili 'tsi kai' 
they dig a pit and cover it well with mats. 

^ >yB l^ it ^ _t tsai' ,kia .ni 't'u tsai'' shang', they also 
place earth wpon the mats, 

^ ^ ^:Nil'^ 6^ 'hau siang' .p'ing ti' si' tih, so that it is 
like the level ground ; 

^r ^x 10 yv 'tau 'ki peh ko' .jen, several hundred men. 
^ IS ^ M ^ 1^ 'ta .lo 'ta 'ku fang' p'au', heat gongs and 
drums, and fire guns. 

M^^_^^Wti^~f^ 'kan siang' 'tseu kwo' hien' ,t'a 
hia' c'hu', the;/ drive the elephant past and cause him, to fall in. 

:5*Wh Strti 1^ ,slien 't'i chung' jk'eng ,slien, he is heavy in 
body, and the pit is deep. 

^^ He flj ^K P^^ -neng c'huli-.lai, he cannot come out. 

Wt BW ilQ 3^ ^ tsieu' wo' ,t'a 'ki .t'ien^ they then keep him 

without food for several days. 
^K yH W "nil heu' .lai wen' ,t'a, afterwards they ask him. 
j^'^^'^^'W tso' kung' yili 'k'eng puh 'k'eng, if he is 

willing or not to do service. 

^ Wt m> S® siang' tsieu' 'tien .t'eu, the elephant nods his head. 

*i :^ M Itt # ^ db ti' >t'eng mien' .t'sien c'Mh c'hii' 't'u, 

in front of the pit they remove the earth. 

Pi — '^^1^ ,k'ai yili .t^iau .sie lu', open an inclined path. 
^ ^ $f ^ _h kih siang' 'hau 'tseu shang', so that the 
elephant can walk out. 


' ffiR J BS yili |tien 'liau .t'eu, if he once nods his head. 

^ 3* S -fli^ ^^ yv jchung jslieii yau' fuh ahli' .jen, he will 
serve man all his life. 

3§. yu A^ !^ cii' 'si puh pien', till death never changing. 

'liE'lra !^ j^ m sing' .t'sing tsui' sin' sMh, his disposition is 
very faithful. 

"1® ^ HE Ia yi^ ko' siang' .neng .t'o, one elephant can carry. 

"T" ft w — vL jt'sien jking p'au' yih wei', a canon weighing 
a thousand founds. 

^ ^ ^fi S§ siang' puh 'tien .t'eu, if the elephant does not 
nod his head. 

-^ ^ ItSi !i| ^ puh kiau' ,t'a c'huh ,lai, they do not let him 

come out. 

Fw -^^ Py 1^ 'liang ,san .hwei wen' ,t% they ask him two 
or three times. 

^R yBiHi 'W Hy ^^' 'si 'ye 'yen tih, some are starved to death. 
wM ^ Im SM 'tsung puh 'tien .t'eu, any how they will not nod 
their heads. 


^ 5^ Ti ai' .lai, to hring. p^ ^ Nui' ti', China proper. 

^^S .Yin 'kung, silver-ore "i^^ Han' .c'hau, Han dy- 

mine. [duties. nasty. 

i\)C^i jSheu shui', receive ^ ^ T'eh i', purposely. 
^J M\ Li' sih, profit, [harder. -^ "T jPing .tingj soldiers. 
^ ^1* ,Pien wai', beyond the 5c ^ ,Kiau ,fung, join battle. 
^ San', to disperse. Sg) 'C'hien, to send. 

^P ,Kwan 'k'eu, border ^"^ 'Mien tien', Birmah. 

custom home. ^'^ ,',Cochin-China. 

Jl [IjShang' ,shan, go up a MIL J^ -y 'C'hang ,ting, depot ser- 
^^ 'Chang, large yard or depot. vants or miners. 
^ -f- 'Ki shih, several tens. ^ 2» 'Tsau 'i, long since. 
^ ^ U1 ^ "?■ ^'S , Chung kwoh c'huh .yin 'tsi .ni, does 

China produce silver ? \ha:d silver. 

2jS ^ 'W ^ ■?" 6^ 'P®° -^^^ 'y^^ -y^^ '*^^ *^^' oWgrwaiZy ii 
^■4^ ^^!|^%|^ .ju ,kin nui' ti' muh 'yeu tih, now 

there is none in this country. 


■^ ^ jil 6t ^ !^ 'yeu .yin 'kung till ti' .fang, flaces that 
have silver. 

■T" 2( S^ -51 ^ J 'tsau 'i ,tu 'fc'sii tsin' 'liau, it has long 
since been taken all away. 

|§^^^^^ 'Mien tien' tsai' .lai 'yeu tih, some is 
brought from Birmah. 

^m^~^'\^'^ jNgan .nan .yin 'tsi 'ye 'yeu, in, Cochin- 
china there is also silver. 

e^ SB By B^ ^ Han' .cTiau till .shi heu', in the time of the 
Han dynasty. 

^^'t&'^ffPI^M ,Ngan .nan 'ye tsai' , Chung kwoli 
'li mien', Gochin-china also was a part of China. 

1^ ^ ■W :^ lij ^ 'Mien tien' 'yeu 'Ta ,slian 'cliang, in 
Birmah there is the ^a-shan silver-mine. 

•^ W ^^ J^ ?* r *s^i' .Tiin .nan ,pien wai', outside the border 
of Yun-nan. 

^ TO ^ ^ M wt .N'gan .nan 'yeu Sung' ,sing ^c'hang, in 
Gochin-china is the Sung sing silver-mine. 

•pE ^ @5 JS ^Y ^^^i' 'Kwang ,si ,pien wai', beyond the border 
of Kwang-si. 

#lUtt4CPJ^i§^tr1^ .t'sung .t'sien 'pen kwoh 'U 
'Mien ,tien 'ta chang', formerly our country went to. war 
with Birmah. 

P^ ® ^ 1^ ^ ^ 'liang mien' ,ping 'ma ,kiau ,fung, the 
two armies of soldiers and horses met in battle. 

1^ ~J" 2» ^ wL J 'c'liang ,ting 'i ,king san' 'liaa, the miners 
were all scattered. 

)^^ \. ^ ^ ^ T" ^^^ 'y^^ -js^ c'hii' yau' .yin 'tsi, no 
one went to seek silver. 

#^^JLLW)iS^»t$:|fe teu' .lai shfeh lili ,kwan 'fu ,slieu 
sliui', afteripards they appointed officers to collect duties. 

^M^MiM/^ *'eli i' 'kwan che' ko' sH', they attend 
specially to this matter. 

±4lj^P^^6^^^ shang' ,slian c^u' 't'sai 'kung 
'li tih .yin 'tsi, they went up the hill to seek for it in 
the mines. 

# ^ :5fc^ >i ^ P ^ ^ pill ting' .sien yau^kwp' ,kwan 
'k'eu .wan sKui'j they must first pass the etistom house ami 
pay the duty. 



\(^ \^G'h:ih.kwa,n', eat habifually.. ^^ .Wei 'yeu, only. 
^tS C'hai kwan', send ha- -^ y^ .C'ha,jxg 'kieu, long time. 
■^ ^ 'Lau ,fa, I. Ibitually. ^ ^ 'Lia^g ya^g.^ different. 
^ Suh (siea'), to pass the night. ^ ^ .P'eng yeu', friends. 
ut r^ 'Si 'lien, wash the face. ^^Vm >Kiau kwan', to water. 
^^ .U, small howl. ^ 1*5 ,Kan ,k'u, withered. 

'^ '^ .Cheng jt'sing, to cleanse. |p| ,Kien, socia. 
^ "^ .Yen seh ('shai), colour. gH ^ ,Kien c'hi', soda vapour. 
^ ^ CTii' wei', taste. i ^ 'T'u c'hi', exhalations. 

■^ iflS Ta' kai', the most part. Bffi Shai', to dry in the sun. 
^ JM ^ 5f '^"^ ^^^' >^^^ 'paa, an inestimable treaswre. 
S. ^t n ^ '^^ ^^^ P®^ 'kwo, <7ie _/i«e kinds of grain and the 
hundred fruits. 

'shui tsui' 'shau shih tsai' .wu kia' ,ch'i 'pan, water in Kan- 
suh is very scarce and is indeed of priceless value, 

^ 5^ H ti —1® M A ^IJ K J'H 'lau ,fa ,c'hai ,kwan 
yih ko' yung' .jen tau' .Lan ,cheu, I used to send a messenger 
regularly to Lan-cheu. 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^. J^ ye' 'li suh tsai' k'eh tien', in the night he 
slept at a lodging house. 

^ — ^:^'^^ikW. 'yeu yih .11 'shui sung' k'eh 'si 

'lien, a small basin of water was given to the lodgers to wash 

their faces. 
^ i9^ T 3i ^ "^ J^ ^ T ;!fC'si 'hau 'liau 'lien puh 'k'o 

'i ,tieu 'liau 'shui, after washing their faces the water must 

not be thrown away. 
j;S^}2;|C'^'^7lfffltien' ,kia 'pa 'shui .Cheng 

jt'sing 'liau tsai' yung', the landlord cleansed the water to be 

used again. 
7fC^I&l^l^^'4^iC 'shui puh ,t'ung .lieu tih tsieu' 

kiau' 'si 'shui, water that does not flow is called dead wattr. 

B#'f^:M^^'^lS^-sl'^ lieu' .c'hang 'kieu .yen seh 
yau' pien', after a long time the colou/r changes. 

M^ii^iJf^WJSMl^ c'hi' wei' 'ye puh 'hau puh 
'k'o 'i hohj it smells bad and is not good to dfrvnk. 


y^ W^ ^ yv jia w Hv ts-' tai' ti' .fang che' yang' tih, in most 
places it is so. 

'\^^'^'^^^^^'^ .wei 'yeu ,Kan suli puli sH' 
che' yang' tih, only in Kan-suh it is different. 

.c'liang 'kieu 'shui teh 'liau 't'u c'hi' tsieu' ,t'sing 'hau hoh 
teh, after a long time the water, through the influence of the 
soil becomes clear and may he drunk. 

^^MM^^MW^ Vo 'yen .p'eng yen' tsai' 
.Ning-hia' tso' -jk-wan, I have a friend who was a magistrate 
at Ning-hia. 

'Wi O Wt ^v 1^'^ kau' su' 'wo, he informed me. 

■y' ^ 4" A .>^ bIT M irt ^ .Kan suli 'sheng c'liu' cTiu' 
.neng hia' 'ii .t'sai 'hau, everywhere in Kan-suh province if 
rain fall it is well. 

Wt :S ^ 5 Pl^ 'W- Bv tsieu' shi' .Mng Ha' 'liang yang' tih, 
only at Ning-hia it is different. 

^ "iH ^ ^ r* ^ pih tan' puh yau' hia' 'ii, not only do they 
not desire it to rain. 

ffO ^IH S r^ j^ -^^ 't'sie p'a' yau' hia' 'ii, they even fear 

that it should rain ; 

^^MM^^MM 'J^^ -^^^ ?lie' ko' ti' ,to ,kien 
c'hi', because here there is much soda in the soil. 

m±^Bmmiwt^mm±if 'u fai' .to jih 

.t'eu shai' 'liau tsieu' 'yeu ,kien c'hi' shang' ,sheng, if there is 
much rain, then when the sun shines the vapour of the soda ascends. 

«5fi:#*mS-#^^l5g^t'i ,siang kin', 
kan' choh ,siang siueh yih yang' ,hwa 't'sau ,tu yau' ,kan 
,k'u, seen near it looks like snow, and the flowers and grass 

^ ]^ -^^^-f M ifii ^^ ^li» ± 'so 'i yih .nien puh 
hia' 'ii 'ye puh tsai' ,sin shang', therefore if for a year it does 
not rain, it matters little. 

^MJS ffl?^S^-Nii»g tia' tan' .t'ien 'mi tsui' ,to, 
at Ning-hai rice is grown in the flelds in great quantity . 

'^^%^i^)%M. >n k'au' .Hwang .ho 'shui ,kiau 
kwan', it relies on the Yellow river alone for watering. 

•^^M%Wk^,^^^^^^'^ 's^"i ^^^^^ -^i 'yii tsai' 
ti' ti' tsieu' .fei tih 'heu, the water is muddy and the mud silts 
on the land which is very fertile. 

[41 J 

tih ti' 'wu kuh peh 'kwo ,tu sM' fah wang' tih, in the parts 
reached hy the water, the grain and fruits are abundant. 

^io^^^'pE-t puh pit ,kiau fea' tsai' shang', it does 
not need to he manured. 

'shui jshau .wei ,t'sing yih 'tien tsieu fang' ,t'a .hwei c'hii, 
when the water in the fields has become clearer it is allowed 
to return. 


^g ^Kien'jtn, establish a capital- ^ ^§Tsau' .t'eu, cooking range. 
^ yi^.Clieng.o'lii, wallSr moat. jtX ,C'hui, to cook. 
^ @.0'liau .t'ing, the court.'^^ 'ChUj to boil. [pieces. 

5^ llg'Shui lu'j canals Sf rivers. ^ ^ jC'hiau sui', break in 
^ ^ Han' lu'j roads. jjf^ fP ,Hwei yin', chalk mark. 

^ ^.C'hai ,sin, wood for fuel, ^p ^ Pan' .wen, half a cash. 
— ■ ^ Yih h-iang', one kind of. gy § Ki' chung', the amount. 
^ J^Puh tsuli, not enough. ^ ^ Fen' 'liang, weight. 
"W ^'^^'^ •^' superabundance. ^^ /^^Pu tsuh, make upadeficit. 

«^Slil5^^BM— "f ^$lM|a .Ohung kwoh 
kien' ,tu tsai' Peh ,king yih ,t'sien ,to .nien 'i ,t'sien, China 
had its capital at Peking more than a thousand years ago. 

H — ^^^|9|^B#^ .t'eu yih t'si' tsai' .Liau 
.c'hau tih .shi heu', first in the time of the liau dynasty 

jking ,tu tih .c'heng .c'hi ,kung tien' .c'han .t'ing miau' 'ii 
,hwa .yuen ,tu shi' .-wan .t'siuen, in the capital, the walls and 
moat, halls, palace, temples and gardens are all complete. 
yl:^^^MftT^^i ^shui In' han' lu' lih tai' 
hai' .lai 'yen 'liau, there have been canals and roads through 
successive generations till now. 

^^^\iM%^^M^'j^ 'yeu ju t'ung ,t'ien ,8heng 

tih 'hail c'hii', there are also natural advantages seeming hke 

the gift of heaven. 
J^b^^^i^^^;^® 'pi ,fang-c'hai , sin yih hiang' 

jtung ' ,si, for example, there is for one thing a supply of wood 

for fuel. 

[42 ] 

fSlU^UiMM^MM: ,^^ .shan tih c'huh 'cTian 'li 

'yeu'hau .mei, among the productions of the western mountains 

there is good coal. 
it? 11^ iS ^ 6^ ^ M 'tau tso' ,sliau 'hwo till kung' yung', 

it is serviceable for burning. 
:$C:^6>lif'^l^'T'5^fi' 'lau tih hwa' .c'liwen .lieu Ma' 

.lai, in the words of old men coming down by tradition. 
^ ^ ^ 6^ ® lU 1^ jsliau puh tsin' tih ,si ,sliaTi .mei, the 

coal of the western mountains cannot be burned out. 
SK^^M^ K — %^ — % cMh sM' ,king 'li till 

•jen yih ,t'ien jto yili ,t'ien, but the inhabitants of the capital 
I grow daily more numerous. 

MM^'M^^^:k — %^ — % tsau' .t'eu shang' 
jC'lnii 'chu yung' tih 'hwo yih ,t'ien ,to yih ,t'ien7 the cooking 
and boiling in the kitchens increase daily.- 

^ 1^ — • p ^ — ' o .mei kia' yih jih kwei' yih jih, the 
price of coal is daily higher. 

mm n jpm±n-!^twM m~^mm 

__ fj' "j" __ p^ .mei jC'hiau sui' 'liau 'mei k'wai' shaiig' 
ta' yih ,hwei yin' mai' .t'sien ,san .wen ki' chung' er' ,kin 
shih er' 'liang, the coal was broken in pieces, on each piece a 
chalk mark was made; it was sold for three cash, and weighed 
two catties and twelve ounces. 

Hr hien' tsai' kia' .t'sien yih yang' yih k'wai, tih fen' 'liang 
puh kwo' yih ,kin ,to yih tien, at present the price is the same, 
hut the weight of one piece is not much'more than a catty. 

It .^ -^ ^ M 1^ ^M M CMh li' 'aheng Hwoh luh hien' 
'yeu .mei 'c'hang, in the province of Chih-le, there are coal 
depots at the district of Hwoh-luh. 

i^ M ^ M A^ S^ M -H ,king puh kwo' luh peh 'li, it is 
distant from the capital only two hundred miles. 

miUX-^MM.'^'^^^'^BW^ ,si„shafi puh 
tsuh Hwoh luh tih 'yeu .ii 'k'o 'i 'pu tsuh, the western 
mountains if deficient can he supplemented from the 
add/itional supply at Hwoh-luh. 

[43 ] 


■^ ^ 'fxf .T'ing puh teh, you must not stop. 

^ A^ )ffll 'Tseu puh kwo', you cannot or do not pass, 

W Pg iRT j.Sin ,k'ai .ho, newly opened canal. 

Pw 1^ 1^ 'Liang kii' h6, two river branches. 

y^ P "X* 'Lau 'k'eii 'tsi, old mouth of the river. 

>^ TO TC affl Pi' ik'ai' t'sien kob, ^o pass by and avoid shallows. 

^K ^t ii*^ •^'il'- 'pau sha, name of a sand bank. 

^ lEJMuli .man, wooden anchor. ^ ^ T'ieh .maa, «>ow anchor. 

>5^^ jFang P'an, marmer's^H'^ 'SHeu .wei a little, 

•;$ ^ ^ ± y$ W Vf P ^ ii * 'hal .c'liweii .t'sung 
Shang' 'hai .Hwang p'u' 'k'eu ngan' ,k'ai c'hii', a sea junk 
sets sail from the banks of the Hwang-pu at Shanghai. 

mMn 5:+ a m ^ ?t P a # tiang- ,tung .Mng 
'wu shih. 'li c'huh .Wu ,sung'k'eu .juh .yang, going eastward 
it travels for fifty K passing out of the Wit-sung river mouth. 

MmiM,m'&^m^m^^Wim .wn ^u fuh 

'pau jslia 'tseu tau' .T'suug .ming tih ,Sin ,k'ai .ho, winding 
round the Fuh-pau hank, it sails to 8in-k'ai-ho in T'sung-ming. 

^tt — W— ^+M bung' ki' yih peh yih shih 'li, it 
numbers in all one hundred and ten li. 

^ -t: + S. ^J + it ^ ^ ft >¥ yeu' t'sih shih 'li tau' 
Shih hiau' tsieu' shi' nui' .yang, there are seventy more li to 
SMh-hiau, which is' in the inner ocean. 

^ ^ pf Jj^ -(^ Jigf che' 'K 'k'o 'i .t'ing .c'hwen, here you can 
stop the junk. 

Jit ^ -tfc iS^ ^ # Hi Mi 1^ V^ 't'si ti' 'ye 'hau 'teng heu' 
shun' jfeng fang' .yang, here also you will do well to wait for 
a fair wind to go to sea. 

^ f^ ^ ;^ ^J "^ LU yen' hiang' ,tung 'tseu tau' She' ,shan, 
again going eastward you proceed to Bhe-shan island. 

at \h -£>^^ "Sf ^ 'tt 6J che' ,shan shang' muh /yeu 
peh sing' chu' tih, on this island there are no persons residing. 

Jl&l^^^'^B^T'iS -c'hwen .t'ing puh teh ,pHih .neng 
hia' .mau, ih,6 vessel cannot stop here, it is impossible to c(fjst 

[44 ] 

m'^\^'^^iKn'^i:^UmmM ohe' .er Hang' 
,tnug c'huh ta' .yang 'wang pei (peh) 'shaa .wei ,p'ieii ,tung, 
from this spot going eastward vessels go out to sea and 
proceed north and a little to the eastward. 

.Hwang .ho 'lau 'k'eu 'tsi 'shau .wei hiang' .nan 'yeu 'wu 
.t'iau ,sha 'keng, a little to the south of the old mouth of the 
Yellow river there are five sand banks. 

MMMMiW^^^^WlM^' ^^o^ Mj^g ,feng 'tsung 
yau' jsiang lii' 't'sien koh, should you meet with an east wind, 
you must be looking out against shallows and grounding. 

Wt. la >^ P§ ^ jtai ,tang pi' ,k'ai .lai, you should avoid them. 

i^^tL^^^ 't'ung ,kwei ,kiang .nan ti' kiai', it all 
belongs to the territory of Kiang-nan. 

f^^M^Mj'^\^ yang' jfang .p'an ting' kien' ,fang 
hiang', use the compass to fix your cowrse. 

Wk^ MM^-^M^ hwan' ,fang liiang'_ ,p'ien ,tung 

yih. ko' tsi', change your course and go one point more to the 

!li'^M>Klffi«I?)SM^iS.lan .ni yang' muh .mau, 

ying' .ni yung' t'ieh .man, with a soft bottom use the wooden 

anchor, and with a hard bottom the iron one. 


JM ^ 1^ Yiin' .lai tih, imported. 

<l(j P ^h P®^ 'k'eu wai', beyond the north boundary. 

IS ,Tiau, sable. %. M -H" -li. fox. 

^ -^ 'Li. 'tsi, lining. p| -jF" Mien' 'tsi,a facing. 

^^ Cheng', take advantage of. ^ ^ Tiau' .man, let fall hair. 

^ JK. -^ ''J^ V\ih. ta' puh 'siau, neither great nor little, average. 

0^ ^ ,Hwei 'shu, grey squirrel. J^ .Lang, wolf. 

Wi .C'haUj damp j tide. •f^ Juh, rug. 

ij[j K'ang', brick couch. J^, Liang', to air. 

^ ^i^MMM'^^ ,tiau,p'i .t'sung'na 'li yiin' .lai 
tih, whence are sables imported ? 

i\j. P ^^p.'S'*lli>^^6^ Ipeli 'k'eu wai' .Meng 'ku ti' 
jfang .lai tih, they come from beyond the northern barrier, 
from the land of Mongols, 

r 45 1 

tS.mrc^^^%}%!^W^ ohe' ko' .p'au 'tsi shi' .hu 
su' .p'l tso' tih, this Long coat is made of the fur from foxe^ 

A + ^iMM^-iif ^ pat shih ko' ,liwei 'shu .p'i tso' 
tih, made of eighty squirrels' shins. 

^M^^^M~'M -P'i 'H till ,hiue .t'eu ylh ,sliwang, a 
pair of skin, lined half boots. 

^^MW^^_ -lang .p'i 'iiau tso' 'ma kwa', wolf shin 
can he made into jachets. 

fl^ti.K 6^;^fS^c]iia' .t'sien 'ting kwei' till sM' 
jtiau .p4, the highest in price is sable. 

fSi^i^|i^>5:^^/l^gg + Pi ,tiau .p'i tw 

'tsi chia' .t'sien puh ta' pull 'siau si' shih 'Hang, a sable coat 
costs forty taels more or less. 

M'M&M^^^ che' ko' .p'i 'hau puli tiau' .man, this 
fur is good, the hair will not fall off. 

^M^^'^^^M tso' kwo' ,i .shang tih .p'i puh 
'mai, skins that have been made into clothes I do not buy. 

T S ^ i^ ^ fl^ ^ ill S ^ % ilia' 'u ,t'ien .p'i ,i fuh 
sheu' .c'hau yaa' tiau' .mauj in time of rain fur clothes become 
damp and the hair will fall off. 

BmM^M^:^^m&Mi\^l_ Cheng' Che' 
'hau jt'ien c'hi' ,tsiang .p'i ^i fuh Hang' Hang' ,sheu 'liau, 
taking advantage of this good weather give your fur clothes an 
airing and put them away. 

^JL^M^^^^ k'ang' shang' ,p'u choh .yang .p'i juh^ 
upon the brick couch was spread a goat-shin rug. 

^f^M^^^'M. ti' tia' jsheng choh fan' 'hwo lu', 
below he had lighted a charcoal fire. 


^ ^ 'U .mau, camlets. pf ^ -Sie .wen striped. 

P^ 1^ Pih 'chi, long ells. TJlC "E 'Pen seh, unbleached. 

^ 7^ 'ItJ jHwa .yang pu', chintz; printed cottons. 
2|S "Q 7^ 'fn 'Pen seh .yang pu', grey shirtings. 
Jp @ 7^ "flj ,P'iau peh .yang pu', white shirtings. 
JJ^ ?S 'flj Kwei' ,hwa pu', spotted stuffs. 

[46 ] 

^r!x! lu -Sle .wen pu', American drills. 

'ft ]^ -flj ,Hwa .c'hi pu', domestics. 

J^ ,P'iau peh, hleaehed. 

^ pg ,T'ien jt'sing, purple. ^ "^jTafli 'tsi, a statement, 

^%^ — '/E"f"5E^ 'ii .mau 'mei yih p'ih shih-^wu 

^liang, one piece of camlet costs fifteen taels. 

^ P3 PT ^ 'W 'W jt'ien ,t'sing pih. 'clii 'ma kwa', a jacket 
of purple long ells. 

^ -^ -^f^^^ f^ ^ ,Hwa .yang pu' 'bau 'mai puh 'hau 

'mai, can printed cottons be bought or not ? 

^U^T^^ii et^^^'ii^Ag 'pen seh .yang 

pu' ,p'iau peh .yang pu' .t'siuen muh 'yeu .jen yau', both for 
grey shirtings and vh.ite there is no demand. 

'^WM'^Wi^^'^^ chan' .fang 'li ,liwa .cTii p'u 
jchwang tih ,to, in the warehouse there are stowed domestics 
in large quantities. 

0r ^ nJ 'Wi -^ j^ -^'e ■'wen pu' 'ye puh 'shau, of drills there 
is also no small quantity. 

"W ^ M ^ ^ '^ "flj 'yen k'eh ,shang yau' ,liwa .yang pu', 
there are dealers who want printed cottons. 

tih kwei, ,hwa .yang pu' muh 'yeu .yen seh tih tsieu' 'yen, 
there are no white spotted cotton cloths, but there are 
coloured ones. 

^^ h\li^^P^ -yang pu' 'pi .t's^ng ,sien tsien', foreign 
cottons are cheaper than before. 

jIfc^J^:fc^^i%^I^K Vsi k'eh puh t'ai' .p'ing 
k'eh jshang puh 'kan 'mai, at present times are not peaceful, 
and dealers dare not buy. 

# fli ^ T y$ ')^ W % ^ fi^ -yang pu' sheu' 'liau 'hai 
.c'hau 'yeu .man ping' bib, cottons that imbibed sea damp are 

# ffi fe =^ lu 11 <i li^' ® -yang pu' kiau' .t'sung .t'sien 
kia' chih ,shaa ,k'ii)g, cotton goods compared with what they 
formerly were are a little cheaper. 

4^^'^MmWMM^^W-^ ,kin heu' tih ,tung 
,si shen' yang' kia' .t'sien ,k'ai ,tan 'tsi, from this time the 
prices af articles will he stated in a tabular form. 

[4.7 ] 

!^ ^2 .Nien ki', years; time. iM^G'huh.mmg, to obtain fame. 
t^ ^ Tsin' kung', pat/ tribute. ^ ^ 'Tsai siang', chief minis- 
1$ -J^ K'li' 'tsi, trowsers. ^■^^,^i .nievi, rhinoceros. \-^^'>'- 

^ K'au', to rely on ; lean. ,g|f 1^ Loh .t'o, camel. 
Jp ffi K'au',si, lying in the west. |g 3^ Tu' ,kin, gild a surface. 
^ jK'weij helmet. •ffif ^ .Miau ,kin, gild figures. 

^ Ohiah, coat of mail. l^;^'Sa,kin, gild in spots. 

;?!l'C 0H 'Shui,tsing, j-oc/c-«-ysM. ^ .Mien, so/i{; coWow. 

.wang tih .nien. 'ki 'jqvl c'huh .tning tih jtsai siang' .ming 
kiau' ,1 'yin, in the time of T'ang-wang there was a celebrated 
minister of state called I-yin. 

^^#fiiSS^6^^^ ting' kien' koli kwoli tsin' 
kung' tih. jkwei 'chii, he fixed the regulations for the presents 
brought from, various countries. 

MW^Wi&tfyUf-^'dkM ,tung mien' 'yen .ii .p'i 
tih k'u' 'tsi .ho k'wai' kien', from the east were brought fish- 
shin trowsers and sharp swords. 1^ 

^.^ H ^.^.^ ^^ 4^ ^ Ban ,pien kung' ,chu 'fcsij 
siang' .ya jSi .nieu kioh, from the north were brought pearls, 
elephants' tusks, and rhinoceros' horn. 

A^jK^t J k'au' ,si mien' tih tsin' kung' yung' 'hung liih 
.yen seh, .nieu .mau .c'hi 'tsi, .lung kioh .ho ta' ,kwei 'tsi, 
those on the west brought as tribute red and green dyes, 
buffalo-hair streamers, dragon horns, and large tortoises. 

^B '^ PI ^ M fi^ .1^ 1(2 ^ S .^ peh ,pien kwoh ,tu kung' 
tih loh .t'o .ho peh. 'ma, the northern, nations presented camels 
and white horses. 

^^^W^^W.:^^BWiW Ming .c'hau Jih 
'pen kwoli tsin' kung' ,k'wei chiah, yau' ,tau, tu' ,chin till 
.p'ing ,feng, 'sa ,chin 'sheu , siang, .miau ,chin pih hiah, 
'shni jtsing shu' ,chu, in the Ming dynasty, Japan sent as 
tribute, helmets and coats of mail, belt knives, gili embossed 
screens, hand boxes spotted with gilt, pencil homes painted 
with gold, and crystal beads for numbering prayers. 


, J ttj a ^Ift m 6 mK O'hau ,sien c'huh peh 
.miea .c'heu, c'huh peh .miea 'chi, Corea produces soft white 
silk, and soft white paper. 
^ — ^MM^'i^^ '^^ 'San .nien tsin' kung' Vu 
skih p'ih, of horses there are fifty presented in three years. 


J^ "^ 'I .t'sien, lefore. >^ tI" ,Fang t'sun' ,square inch. 

J^ ^ 'I heu', after. ^ 'f' ,T'ieii 'tsi, son of heaven. 

S 'Si, government seal. ' 2^ ^ .Siiin .c'hang, common. 

En Yin', mandarin's seal. ^ , Cheng, to name. [acter. 
[gj ^ .T'u ,shu, common seal. ^ 3C Chwen' .wen, seaZ c^ar- 

^ ,Feng, confer a title. ^ ^ P'eng' chien', io meet.' 

1^ .Heng, horizontal. ^g Shu', upright. 

-y*5|<P ^ t^ 1^ .T'sin .c'hau 'i .t'sien peh sing' ,tu 'k'o 'i 
jshen ,pien tai' ■'si yung' ,chin 'tsi .yin 'tsi .ho yiih tso' tih, 
before the Tsin dynasty the people could wear a seal at their 
side, made of gold, silver and jade. 

'^ /]"» ^ 5® Jj TT ^^' siau' puh kwo' ,fang t'sun', they are 
in size only an inch square. 

^ 'Hi M >^ fi^ ifc ^ .c'hau tai' yung' ta' tih 'ye 'yeu, there 
are also dynasties that have used large ones. 

m ^ M.^.5^ % f— 1i A tl^MM T'sin 'Shi 
.hwang 'i .lai ,t'ien ,ts'i yih ko' .jen tih ,c'heng 'si, from the 
time of Tsin-sM-hwang till now the word si is applied only 
to the seal of the son of heaven. 

,kwan 'fu 'so yung' tih kiau' yin', .siiin .c'hang .jen 'so yung' 
tih kiau' .t'u ,sha, those used hy mandarins are called yin, 
official seals, and those of the common people t'u shu, common 

M'f'fi^tf Bi^ MR Ml^. hwang ti' tih .hing 'si 
,feng kwoh ,tu yang' tih, that called " emperor's trateUing 
seal" is employed in conferring royal titles. 

M.^^^MM^:^^^'^ .hwang ti' tih sin' 'si shi' 
fah ,ping yung' tih, "the faithful seal" is used in dispatching 
an army. 


^JiM'i'^f^Bl^fflBSft^ff ptili sM' .Hwang ti' 
puh 'hii yung' yiihtsb' .i'M jslilii eottepi ike Emperor no one is 
allowed to use a seal of^jade. 

mien' 'yeu k'eh tih tsi' sheu' jt'ien ,ohi ming' .hwang ti' 
sheu' jC'iiang, upon it are engr'd'veid the words, receiving the 
decree of heaven, the emperor enjoys old age and prosperity. 

^W\M^^^M^MMiC^oh .c'hau k'eh tih .wen 
koh yafig' it'siuen sh'i' chwen' .wen, each dynasty uses its 
peculiar insi^ription, all are in the seal character. 

^mm¥m4i^^w^m:\^}^± ,T'ien v^ si' 

.nien tih .shi heu' tsai' , Chang iho peh ngan' shang', in the 
Mh year of T'ien-c'hi, oA ike liorih battle of the Chang rMer. 

yih ko' chung' .t'ien tih .jen cheng' tsai' ,keng .t'ien p'eng, 
kien' 'liau yiih 'si, an agricultural labourer as he was 
■^ ploughing fell in with a jade seal.^ 

S't^S ail^^^^lniB' puh 'kan tsi' 'chi 

.t'sang choh .na c'hii' sung' 'kei 'pen',kwan, he did not dare hide 

, it, but took it to the maAdarin of the place and presented it to hint. 

B'^^Wt-^^^mn-i-'M. ^' Ms tit yang', 
'tsi .heng tih shu' si' tih t'sun' ,k'wan, it was square in its form 
and was four inches wide abroad and across. Vdn^ f^po tenths. 

J5 ~~ t]" ^ ^heu' yih t'sun' er' ,fen, it was in thickness an inch 

±to%flfti^#IIfl^ sliang' mien' 'yen .lung 
.t'eu kiau' tso' .c'hi .king 'nieu, on its upper surface was a 
drd^oii shaped handle, called the crooTted dragon button. 

l^llS^^ — ■^•/V^ .c'hi .lung 'nieu ,kau yih t'sun' 
pah ,fen, the crooked dragon button was one inch and eight 
tenths in height. 

fia^ 'ting yau' 'chin tih shi' .o'hwen kwoh yiih 'si .t'sung 
.T'sin 'shi .hwang .c'hau tai' chih .c'hwen tau' .ju _,chin, the 
most irnportant is the seal transmitting the empire, which 
from the reign of the emperor Tsin-sKi-hwang has been 
preserved till the present time. 
,pin jt'ien pa' .c'hwen kwoh yiih 'si tsieu' .c'hwen kih .sin 
.hwang ti', the emperor when dying {when departing for 
heaven) takes the seal of hereditary government g,nd gives it 
to the new emperor. 

[ 50 j 

^.W^ jTsau nan', fall into i\^m Shen .lien, to retain. 

misfortune. [fering. j^ ^ ,Kwan tsioh, government 

flSl H^ ,T'oh nan', escape suf- offices. 
f^ ^ ,T'ui 'kei, to give away. — ^ Yih kung', the iwKole. 
^ ^ Peng" sBi', to serve. ^ _Jl .Hwang shang", emperor. 
Kj) Pp .Lang jCliung, member ^ ^ .C'heng jen', to ac- 

of a hocCrd. knowledge. 

^^ Pau' .ngen, be grateful. ^^ ^ Pih ting', certainly. 

^P TK ^ 5S J ^ 'Li ta' liang' ,tsau 'liau nan', Li-ta-Uang 
fell into misfortune. 

m^^ — MM:^^Mffym, pih yihko' .p'eng 
'yeu cliieu' ,t'a tih. nan', Chang^ih a friend rescued him 
from trouble. 

^ ^ Ix J ra W teu' .lat fat 'Kalu fu' kwei', afterwards he 

became rich tflid great. 

^ _t 7§ -^ ^ ?r5 tan' shang' u' cliien' ,Cbaing pih, on the 
road he met Ohang-pih. 

^^ Wi '^ ^ 3^ M ctoh ,t'a tih 'sheu k'uh, he seized him 
by the hand and wept. 

— -^ fit ^.^ ^ 1^ In li yit . t'sieh tih ,ctia .t'sai 
.t'siuen ,t'ai kih ,t'a, the whole of his property he gave over 
to him. 

■fffij !^ 3 JK m /^'^ V^ 'k'eng ,sheu .liauy he would not 
receive it. 

Jtl||^^M*^l^ shang' .c'hau shwoh kit .twalig ti' 

,t'ing, going to court he related his story to the emperor. 

shwoh tau' .c'hen .ju ,kin femg,' shi' .hwang shang' ,tu shii' 
,.Ghang pih tih lih liang', he sadd that your subjeet can at 
present serve the emperor is all due to the efforts of Ghang^pih 

^m^U^'^W—^^^ t'sing yueH' 'pa' .c'hen 
tih ,kwan tsioh yih kung' kih ,t'a, J desire that all tnf <yffices 
may be given to him. 

M # M 111 :^ ^ ^ .hwatlgrti'-yiing' ,^11 .w6i .lang,chung, 
the emperor employed him as a merriber of one of the boards. 

MMA^^Ml^ liang' ko' .jen koh 'yeU 'hau oliu', 

the two men were both to be admired. 

[ 51 J 

M — 10 ^.-^ ^ © a ^ :^ -^ eke' yih ko' puh .c'heng 
jen' tsi' 'chi 'yeu 'hg.u c'Jiu'j the one would not admit that 
he was good. 

^~^10il^^^lRJH na' yih ko'pili ting' yau' pau' 
,ngen, the other was bent on recompensing q, favour, 


nk ^ Si' fah, posthumous title. ^ ^' T'si' ye', stay the night, 

3E jWang, prince ; king. iMWJ -^o tung', to remove. 

^ jKung, Jirst title of noUlity. ^ -f' ,Kung 'tsi, young gentle- 

^ ^ Kung' 'tsung, altogether. ^ Huh, >e teu. ['^«'^- 

5^ ,Sheng, one pint. ^ 'Teu, ten pints. ^temely. 

[P] ^ .Hwei tab, ^o repZj/- T ^ t^ 'Liau puh teh, ex- 

^IQ^.Ii^^te.i^fel^ Sung' .cliau 'yeu ko' 'tsai 
siang' sing' I'an' tih, in the Sung dynasty there was a prime 
minister of the Fan family. 

1^ ^ It^ ^ IE -(^ Si' fat kiau' .Wen cheng' ,kung, in his 
posthumous title he is styled the polished and correct noble 
of the first degree. 

tJ'1^mf^%-f'%^\MJ\\^ 'ta fall ,t'a tih .er 'tsi tau' 
,Su jcheu c'hii', he sent his son to Sucheu. 

W 3^ ^ K iBJ ^ ,tsiang meh .o'hwen ,Ia .hwei .lai, to bring 
back some boat loads of wheat. 

^t ^^ tT ^ t'si' ye' tsai' ,Tan .yang, he passed the night 
at Tan-yang. 

'lau , siang 'hau 'ii fu' ,t'sin .t'ung .nien tih, he saw an old 
friend, of the same year with his father. 

m^M^P. AMI mUZ-nWWi Bhwoh ,chia 
'li ,san 'k'eu .jen 'si 'liau ,kwan .t'sai puh .neng .no tuDg' 
who said that three. pexsori,s of his family had died, and he 
had not yet been able to remove their coffins. 

^"^f in ^J ^B ^ ■^ tsang^ 'h^u 'liau .hwei tau' peh 
pien' c'hii', after they teere buried, he loould return to the north. 

^ ^ ^ -^ In #1 ife muh 'yeu fah 'tsi kih ,t'a pan', he had 
no means of doing any thing for him. 

^E ^\ ^ '^cj' .wu 'k'o 'nai .ho, there was nothing he could do. 

[52 3 

Fan' jkiing 'ts'i tsieu' 'pa meh .c'hwen shang' tai- .lai tih meli 
'tsi suBg' 'liau ,t'a, the young gentleman Fan then took the 
wheat on the boats and gave it him. 

^ ^ -^ i W ^ l^™g' 'tsung 'yeu 'wu peh liuli, in all 
there were five hundred measures. 

.hwei .lai ,t'a 'lau 'tsi wen' ' ,t'a chien' kwo' 'liau shih 'mo 
.p'eng 'yen muh 'yeu, on returning his father ashed him if 
he had seen any friends or not ? 

J ^:^ in yv ny jt'a kau' su' ,t'a 'Ian 'tsi tsai' jTan .yang 
ii' chien' 'liau yih ko' ,cliia ,cliung 'si 'liau ,san 'k'eu .jen 
tih, he told his father that at Tan-yang he had met one who 
had had three -persons of his family die. ' 

6^ ^ -y* ^ 'ftft >t'a 'lau 'tsi ,t'ii]g chien' ,t'a shwoli tsieu' 
we n' jt'a wei' shih. 'mo puL. 'pa .c'hwen shang' tiji meh 'tsi 
,paDg ,t'a, his father hearing what he said, at onoe asked him 
why he did not give hirri the wheat in the boats to assist him. 

,t'a .hwei tah shwoh 'wo'i ,ching 'pa .c'hwen. shang' tih 
meh 'tsi sung' 'liau ,t'a,, he replied I have ul/ready presented 
him with the wheat on the boats. 

M^^mn.j^w^'^iz-n ,t'a 'ku 'tsi ,t'ing 

chien' 'liau 'hi ,hwan tih 'liau puh teh, his father an hearing 
it was extremely pleased. 


H ■& .t'sung .t'sien 'yeu ko' 'tsai siang' sing' Han ,tih * 
'si 'liau heu' ,feng ,t'a tso' 'liau .Wei .kwoh ,kung, formerly 
there was a prime minister whose family name was Han; 
after his death he was honoured with the title Wei kwoh kung, 
i. e. noble of the first rank of the kingdom of Wei. 

M^M^M-^M^'M'H >^'^ >chia 'li ,sheu .choh 
,yih ko' yiih' 'tsieu ,pei, in his house he had a jade-stone 

* From this lesson onwards the Peking sonnds are given for words in jnh 
Bheng, but the distinguishing h final used for all words in thid tone-class is 

[ 53 ] 

W :S ^ 1M •^ M >clien shi' .wu chia' ,clii 'pau, it was 

indeed an invaluable treasure. 

t'si' 't'sing k'eh 'yin 'tsiea .pih yau' .na ,c'huh .lai ,koh tsai' 
.sih shang', every time he invited guests to drink wine it was 
constantly brought out to place on the table. 

M :S:lli 'Cl^ ^.ftd ^ffi tsui' shi' ,t'a ,sia ngai' ,tih .tung 
,si, it was a thing exceedingly valued. 

^P — ^.it J® T A If. 7 ^.^ffl ^ na' yih' ,t'ien 
chiau' 'ti hia' .jen .sliwaih' 'liau ko' si' sui', one day by a ser- 
vant it was thrown down and broken into small pieces. 

.jen Mall' ,tih 'lien shang' jtu 'kai 'liau .^en 'sheiA, the servant 
was so frightened that his face quite lost its colour. 

^ :iPb % T ^ SI 59, M •/§ € =S Ji H. kwei' tsai' ti' 

Kid,' jk'oli .t'eu wen' jkai chi' ,i'a, shed' 'mo tsui', he knelt 
down and knocked his head on the ground asking what puriish- 
ment should be adjudged him, 

Wi^^^M — 1^ -^ei -H^o^ MP^S hiang' ,t'a ,yih 
.t'siau, the c%ief rioble of the Wei' kingdom glaniOe^ g/t 

^'^^'ftfi^o-fflliS; put' ,hwang puh .mang. ,tih 
kau' su' ,t'a ,shwoh, without haste or agitatiop, he spoke to^ 
him as folloios : — 

,yih ting' ,tih c'hi' shu', every thing no matter what, whether it 
is to be preserved or broJcen has a fixed, destiriy ; 

^JSl"^,^ — ^:^^ k'wang?. 't's^e 'ni .shi ,yih .shi 
,shih 'sheu, and more than this you hq,ve for once let it fall. 

M.f^^MM%^^^* ping' ,fei ku' i' ,tih yam' .tsa 
p'o' ,t'a, it certdinly is rtot that 'you wilfully desired to, 
break it. 

— ' ^ jshwoh jChoh 'lien shang' ping' .muh 'yeu yih' 'tien 
'nau nu' ^tih i' ,si .ho .sii^n .c'h&,ng .yih yang', as he spoke on 
his countenance there was not any appearance of anger, it 
looked the same as it ordinarily did. 
^S#^1ii5^^^iS^ -lien .tseh pei' .tseh pei' ,tu, 
' ,puh jen' ,tih, as to, reproving, he could not bear to repraye. 


nieu' ,shu .jen 'yea .yih ko' chiau' ,S'i 'ma ^wen ,kung, among 
the literary men of China is one called S'i-^ma Wen-kung, or 
the gentle nohle of the Si-ma family. 

MM'^^M^Wi tsai' ,cliia 'li 'yea 'liau .yih ko' ,hwa 
.yuen wei' ,tih shi' tsi 'chi .king loli' tsai' na' 'li tsiea' chiaa 
.tub loh' .yuen, at his residence he huilt a flower garden, and 
hecause he himself took recreation there he called it the garden 
of solitary pleasure. 

^li^ia^^A^B^Slt 'yei ko' k'an' .yuan 
'tsi ,tih jjen. .ming chiau' 'Ld .cMh, there was a gardener 
there of the Lufdrmily, called Straight-forward. 

\fy ,yia wei' ,t*a sing' 'tsi .ii 'lu tso' ,c'hali ski' ,lai .puh 
itwei' ,wan ,wan 'ckwen 'ckwen ,tih, hecause his disposition 
was simple and rude, and he could not do things in a crooked 

uy^m^Mmi-mm.^m^^. .wen. 

,kung tsieu' 'keih ,t'a 'c'ki 'Ijau .yih ko' .chih tsi ,tih .ming 
tsi', Wen-kung on this account chose for him the character 
Chih as his name, meaning '• Straight-forward." 

^J T ^ 5^ 6^ .^ '^ t^n' 'liau ,c'hun ,fien ,tik .sk/ keu' 
when spring arrived, 

'yeu .tuk ^sku ,tik .jen ,san 'wu .c'keng .c'kiiin ,tu tan' .yaen 
'li .lai .yeu wau', many students of books, iv> companies of three 
and five, came to the garden to walk about for pleasure. 

^ 15 ^Sliiffl^Tfi^ k'an' .yuen 'tsi ,tih .teh ,tik 
.c'ka .t'sien puh' 'shau 'shu 'liau .yih shu' tsieu' 'yeu .shih 
tiau' ,tij sl}i' ;t'a .men .lieu hia' ,tih, _ the gardener received 
tea-money to no small amount, and after cqunting it found 
that he h(id ten striv/gs {about ^2 IQs. of our ^oney.) which 
had been left by them. 

-f'^^t^^ na' yih' .,t'ienk:'an' .yuen 'tsi ,tih 'Lii 
.cliih paf oke^ ;Shih tiau' .t'sien yih' 'wu yih' '.sHh ,chiau 

[55 1 

'kei ,Wen ,kung, thfit very day the gardener Lil-cMh took 
these ten strings of cash, and in fives und tens gave them to 

^^^M^i^^MM^"^^ ,Wen ,kuiig .sliwoh clie' 
shi' 'ni ymg' ,kai .teh ,tih .t'sien, Wen-hung said, this 
_ money you ought to receive. 

^ T ^ ^ -T^a 'Hau^Tiii' pa', tahe it and go. 

i^T^lil^-7'^^^T ,sliwoli 'liau 'chi pien' ,t'a 
ijih ting' yau' .lieu hia', after repeating it several times, he 
still insisted on leaving it. 

^ft^li^^tlS'PT 'je ,tili ,Wen ,kung ,tu 'nau 'liau, 
until he provohed Wen-hung to hecome angry. 

@ IB §S ^ T ^ -t'sai 'mien 'c'liiang .na 'liau c'hii', he 
then reluctantly carried it away. ■ 

^m^^^K^iA^^^ Jghwan .Hwei^clioh 
.t'eu jshwoh jchih 'yeu 'chu .jen .puh ngai' .t'sien, 'mo 
turning his , head round he saidj it is only my master I 
suppose that does not love moriey? 

>(.-5i® J t ^ 5^ yeu' fc-w'o' 'liau .shih 'cti ,t'ie-a,^again a 
few days passed away. 


tau' .yuen 'li chien' 'tsing shang' ,sirt kai' 'liau .yih ko' <t'ing 
'tsi, the master going into his garden saw over the well a 
new arbour erected.' ' 

.p'an wen' ft'a .nien hei ashed those who were 
there respecting it. 

^a EW -t'sai ,elii tan' tsieu' slii' .t'sien jih' k'an .yuen 'tsi 
.teh jtih. na;' .sbih tiau' .t'sien ,sin kai' ,tih, he then learned 
that it wets newly huilt with the ten strings of cash obtained 
hy the gardener: 


$^±mmi}i>m.mJs^^^^^Km^^ s^' 

lik' i' .hioh pih' ,sii 't'sing .jen 'p'in ,twan cheiig' tih .jen 
tso' jA&a. jshengj in establishing a charity school, you must 
irvuite a man of upright Qhfiractjer ,t^ bp master. , ' , 

^^^1&M^W\M^')!^ .liiu^li .^en yau' ,t'ung .ta 
chiau' hiiin' yati' tsin' ,sin, in ' his learning he must be 
thorough, and in his teaching diligent and faithful.- 


ii 1i ^.# ;i^ ^ it ^ ^ ^ ^ Che' ko' i' .hiueh .t'sai 
.puh chi' 'yeu .ming .wu ,sliih, this charity school will then 
not become a name without reality. 

^ fi jChing 'kwan 't'si shi' ,tili .jen 'mei .nien ,t'sieu 
jtung ,tih .shi heu' liang' Ha' ting' chien' .ming .peh, those 
who superintend the matter, every year in the autumn or 
winter, make the arrangements on both sides. 

,k'ai 'kwan ,tih j'ih.' 'tsi .t'sien ,san ,t'ien yung' .hung ,t'ieh. 
jfung 't'sing ,sien ,Bheng .lai, three ddys before- 'the time of 
opening the schdol, a red card should be prepared and pre- 
sented, to the master inviting hirp, to cofiie'. 

jfe^^i#— ^^ + A^^ isidn ;sheng .sKuii ,sieii 
yih' .nien er' ,shili ,pali , t'sien .wen, the master's emolument 
shall be twentv eight thousand cUsh in a year. 

_ii?;C^^#^^|gX + A^^ fan' .tW 
'tien ,sin .t'sien 'mei nien kiing' 'fcsung er' .shilijpali /t'sien 
.wen his allowance for dinners and luncheons will be in all 
twenty eight thousidUd cash. ^ . 

^.^ 'tBl^^M'^li^l.^A .liioh,sheng,t'sihstii' 
'i shang' .t'sai 'k'o 'i shang' .hioh .t'ang, pupils of severi 
years andjnbre can enter the school. 

^^U^^l^mm'^mnl^n'^ .fa .men 
,tih fu' ,t'sin jkp ,ko yu' ,sien yau' ,k'ai .ming 'pen .hioli 
jsheng ,tih sibg' .ming, .nien 'chi, chu' c'ha' sun^' taii' .hioH 
Jt'ang .lai 'hau shang' pu' 'tsi, their fathers and elder 
brothers must prepare 'd cle'dr statement cf the Surnames anc^ 
proper namesj age and residende '6f the pw^ilsl and bring ii 
to the school that entries, may be ma^de on the books. 

m^m m^x^i^m ir # # m i®^ .sHoh 

jsheng tau^ 'kwan 'koh .jen tsai' ti' ,chiun mien' .t'sien tso' 
,san ko' ,yih, the scholars on dirrimng 'dt the school are to 
pnahe three bows to the god of literature. 

^^Wt^ M ten' .lai^tsieu' ,kwei tso' after this they take 
their seats. . , 

iH.^ MWC^ff^^'i^^^.m litau' ye' 'lifang' .hioi 
tih .shi heu' 'ye chau' che' yang', at night when the school 
is dismissed they do this ngaim 


M W IW #^ Pi 1S H 'mei yueh ,c'liu ,yih .shih 'wu 
jSien ,sheDg 'ling ,t'a .men tau' .wen ti'' 'wu ti' ,k'wei ,sing 
mien' .t'sien tso' 'Hang ko' jyili, every month, on the first and 
fifteenth, the master is to tahe the pupils to make two bows 
before the gods of literature and military affairs and before 
K'wei-sing (a star in the Great Bear). 

,tih .jen ,yih ko' yueh' 'liang t's'i' ,t'sin tsi'tau' 'kwan jcliung, 
the superintendents twice a month go themselves to the school. 

Slv H ^'^^ wen' jkuTig 'k'o pa' ,t'a 'so nien' jtih ,sliu jC'lieu 
jC'huh yih' 'pen .lai chiau' ,t'a .sheuh pei', they inquire into 
the tasks of the pupils, take the books they read, select a volume 
and call on th'-.n to recite it without mistake. 

mmm^^^^M-^^i^Wct^^ 'sojen'^tihtsi' 
'cH jC'huli 'chi ko' .lai chiau' ,t'a ,shih jen', as to the 
characters the scholars know, they point them, and require their 
sound to be given. 

^m^'W^r-'AM^'X-nn^m ioVsM"yeu 
pei' .puh kwo' .lai .ho puh' jen' .teh i&i' ,tih, if any one can- 
not recite, and does not know characters correctly. 

JB 11. 6^ ii ^ Ifi ^ i^i ± IB M 'pa .t'a ,tih sing, .ming 
t'ieh tsai' .t'siang shang' chi' kwo', his name is pasted on 
the wall to indicate his fault. 

H^^gCif:^4#^lJm*r ,san t'si' puh' 'kai 
't'sing ,sien ,sheng ,fen ,pieh tseh'ta, after three times should 
he not improve, the master is desired to give him a heating 
on the hand proportioned to the offence. 

pei' jShu .sheuh, .jen' tsi' ,chen, 'sie fcsi' 'hau ,tih, 'shang ,t'a 
,mai .pih ,tih .t'sien, if they recite their books perfectly , give 
the sound of the characters correctly, and write neatly, they 
are to be rewarded with cash to buy writing pencils. 

•fe'[]d ^ ^ /-^ ±. It ,shu 'kwan 'li 'yen ta' .hioh ,sheng 
jC'hi fu' 'siau .hioh ;Sheng, ngai' 'ta chia' ,tih 'kan t'a c'huh 
c'hii', puh' 'chun shang' 'kwan, if in the school any old scholar 
ill treat any young scholar, and if there be any who are fond 
of fighting, they must be driven from the school, and not 
allowed to attend it 


M^^M:^M^^^fl^ ,ting ,si 'yeu .Yun 'shai 
tung' sh'i' 'yea .ming jtih, on the west of the capital the Cloud 
and water cavern is celebrated. 

puh' 'yuea tsai' ^kau ,slian ,pieQ shang', it is not distant from 
the coal mines, and is on the side of a high hill. 

chu' tsai' tung' .men t'i' k'eh' .jen 'ling lu' ,tih, there is a 
priest who lives at the door of the cavern, and leads the way 
for visitors. 

'^MiKWi^t^^ taiSclioli 'hwo'pa 'tseu tsin' c'hii', 
taking torches they enter. 

MW ^^M^MM:^)i^^dK '^ mien' ,tili .shik 
.t'eu 'fang fuh' ,ti]i 'shui .c'heng ,tih. ,ping, the stone within 
is like dropping water forming icicles. 

$S "A oh.e' ko' tung' 'yeu 'k'eu chiau' tsp' .nieu .lang 'k'eu 
ngai' teh. 'hen 'tsung yau' .p'a ,clioh tsin' c'hii', this cavern 
has a passage called the herdsman's passage, it is very low ; 
you must creep to pass through it. 

— i^^^:^ptS^. -yih ^^' tsin' c'hii' 'king chi' 'hen 
,to, all the way in, the curiosities are very numerous. 

^M^^M^^^MU 'yeu 'liang .t'iau .shih 
.lung 'pa 'sheu ,choh tung' 'k'eu, there are two stone dragons 
guarding the cavern entrance. 

^mmnmmm-^mn^-mn^m yen mi 

.lung .t'an shi' ,kan jtih .pai .lung .fan shi' 'yeu 'shui ,tih 
there is also a hlack dragon pool, which is dry, and a white 
dragon pool with water. 

>s, 'W J^ ;5^ Wt yen' 'yen ,shwen 'hu ,chwang, there is also a 
pillar called the tiger-tying post. 

iu !K.jU^\ ^ yt 'pa '^"'^^ 'pa chau' jchoh ,kwang, take a 
torch and shew a light. 

^^<U^ AP^IMM^M^M^ ,tang ,c'hu 'yeu .jen 
tau' tung' ,'li .lai .siiin 'chau 'pau .shih, formerly a man went 
into the cavern to seek for precious stones. 

^^@i^^il^#.^^T pull ,cM sheu' 'mo .yuen 
ku' ,t'a tsieu' 'si 'liau, I do not know what was the cause of it, 
hut -he died there. 

[59 3 

tsai' ,t'a ,tih ,shen shang' ,tsien .tsien ,tih .c'heng 'liau .shih 
.t'eu, water dropped on his body and gradually he was turned 
into stone. 

it^-^^M^M MWikM^ -2^ jcbn ,t'ang tsai' tung' 
'li mien' tab. ,choh ti', he is now lying in the cavern with his 
face to the ground. 

ai S H A (4 ft fBl- lej ^Ij S che' .sliiTi .t'eu .jen cHau'' 
tso' .hwei .hwei pilh. 'pau, this stone man is called the 
Mahometan selecting precious stones. 

*i^ASli§^7l^ -tsin' c;liu' ,pali 'li lu' 'yen 'shui, 
after entering for a distance of eight li there is water. 

J^ .ho shang' 'tsau pa' muh' jt'eu tso' 'liau ko' chah' .Ian 
puh' chiau' .jen tsin' c'hii' yen' 'yuen, the priests early made 
a wooden harrier to prevent persons going farther. 

.nien ,chien 'yen 'liang ko' .jen tsin' o'hii' mei' 'yen c'huh 
.laf, in tlie reign of Kia-h'ing {ahout 70 years since) two men 
entered and never came out again. 


1. Place and Direction. 
^ ^ 'li mien', inside, 
^y S3 ^^^' .t'eu' outside. 
$W ^ .c'heng 'li, in the city, 
J^ p?P .clieng wai', outside the city. 
^ Jq .c'hiau shang', on the bridge. 
\^ JQ .leu shang', up stairs. 
^ ® jching ,si, west of the capital. 
^ :^(^ jkung 'pei, north of the temple. 
^ tft ^^ '^^ •■^^" jtiiiigj ^'^^i of i^^ drum tower. 
JjSi'^ 'ti hia', under, 
^ JlS"T* 'chiauh 'ti hia', underfoot. 
is. ^t ^^^' >V^^^} °'^ ^^^* side, 
^[$ ^ iia' ,pieii, on that side. 

[ 60 1 

^ "llg miau' .t'sien, "before the temple, 

>T* •^ put' tsai', noi at home. 

'^E ^ tsai' ,cliia, ^ tsai', oi Aome. 

in. ■^ yu cte' k'wai' .er, J^ ^ che' .iai .er, here. 

•pE t^ tsai' nei', ^ Pp nei' ,cliung, among them, 

air paf tui' mien', |^ )i!^ tui' kwo', opposite. 

^' huh koli' c'hu', everywhere. 

w ^2 -^3-11 ,pien, on the south. 

mi ® jcteu .wei, py ^ si"mieii', all round. 

•w ^g .TUi 'kwa,i ,wan .er, round a corner. 

Au U-I 'peih jshan, northern mountains. 

Fh (ibB ,si .ku, wesi Za&e. 

'tt ^ ^ 'wang ,tmig 'tseu, go to the east. 

— ■ m. yik' .ckih, g^ tsien' .cMh, straight. 

5s ^ ^ j^'^' jcko ^tseu, fo gio hy a round aboutrway. 

^|» ^ 'na 'li, where ? ' . 

^5 ^ na' 'li, Wl^ ^ na' .kai .er, there. 

^1* — '^ la. 'na yik' .t'iau, tau', which road ? ' 

JO. ^^ 5^ eke' 'li .lai, come here. 

'li* 't' j^in jckung, in the heart. 

'ff 0U ^ 'wang .t'sien 'tseu, go forward. 

-. .. 2. Time. 

v^ -w. -^ O jckin i'ik', -^ ^ ,ckin .er, to-day. 

A^XiJJU. y^ n, .ming jik', ^ ^i -ming .er, to-morrow, ■►vv^ •»^. 

^* Z^Xpp y .tsok jik', Pp ^ .tsok .er, yesterday, ^a^' n- 

vwi"^^ "^yZ jckin ,t'ien, to-day. 

A? tLe, ^Ij ^ .ming ,t'ien, to-morrow. 

r ^iA«!&,^ keu' jik', ^^ keu' ,t'ien, day .after to-morrow ''«w' ^i 

^^A^ fiU^ .ju ,ckin, 51,^ kien' ,ckin, itow. 7«<.*" a/ws^ 

a. ''^ ^ © l> ,tang kia', g J^ jtang kien', now. tra^ 7^'^ 

O" -^ ^ ^ ^6ii' -laij afterwards. 

^ _l^ yij ^ ,sien yau', you must first. 

!''a«''?U ^ ^ ^ ™°^' ^®'^' •®'^' ^ ^. ^°^' ^si^'» afterwards; at last. 


f rifLM T^'m^i 'ngeu .jan, j^ ^ 'ngeu .er, occasionally, 
^■»^ 2^ i^ fi^ .siiin .c'hang, ^ ^ .c'hang .c'liang, constantly. >^-^ 
■fe»-iX^^ jE cheng', lE^ cheng' tsai', just us; just at. ta-J^ 7i^ 

i^^W ;t^ ^S ^9 .t'sai jkang, ^ .t'sai, /wsi womj. '^*'V^ 

/l^ '''^^ Wl '^ jJ^ang .t'saij ^ij ||lj ,kang ,kang, ^l] ,kang, jusi now. Kir^-lyjr» 

Zuv &fiMiL, ^ ^ tsieu' jsliwo', he then said, 

7nci</>ijfle. ^is^ 'mei .nien, every year. ,. 

-tW4 ?*<^ — • ^ .yih t's'i', o»ce.' ^ Jhi ^u^ — J^ w^LaL . / 

i*<^ Zxe, ^^ ^ ^"^^ -ian, suddenly. 

yt' «<£*^ Bi i^ 'i jcHiig, already. 

U.-^ y^ ^ ^ Chii' .nien, Zasi j/ear. (^-^^-^ ^--7-^ / 

■vn-w- -wit^ 9^ ^ .ming .nien, next year. ^'v^*^^ nr^Y*- ' 

^'^^ 'HA^'tt^ t^--^ ^ "^^^ >^^° jt'ien, a/?er f/iree d^ays, //tii .a^-ni£>~) 

t^^lu. -K^^fU-^-lE ^ jcheng yueh', _^rsi month. 

^^*tf ife* ytfu^^ -^ ^ jtuiig cH' yueh', eleventh month, 

^ yliiUM M lat' yueh', twelfth month. 

y^fi-iU. #^5^ -t'sien pan' ,t'ien, forenoon. -[J-^ ^"^ "^ 

'cu'-^^tti, ^^ ^ ^eu' pan' ,t'ien, afternoon. (^''^'^/^ ''^^^^ 

^^aiuei. ^ i^ *^^^ shwo', sai/ ii again. (j^£> /ds-a^J 

■a.laU.'aa'^/i^^ ■^••B*^ ^sa^ 3^^' ^®'^* »*s^^ '^'^h come ragfaiM a/?er 
■T^ three days. ^a^a^'w^/w A:^ ^;a^^ -dL ) 

^^H**^ ^ -^ ^ ^ er' yueh' 'li, in the second month. 

'■^t^ T^kM^^ 'c^i 'tien '.Chung, ^T ^ 'chi hia' ,<jhung, what 

is the hour? \<iJ^''ty^(lL»i^) tKef:tt:^&l^ 

Xi'^Z ^H# 'chi.shi, wA,aUtme? {/<e-'2S) ^ " 

— ■ 10 H^ -yih ko' 'li pai', one week. -LiuA /^^^ J^ 
=P 1® y3 pan' ko' yueh', AaZf a month, "^5\^ -v^«-^Siir f^', 
— • ^ ^^ yih' .nien pan', a year and a half. LaZ£,. im^ -^^ 
,, ZL^,^ ev' I'kehg (1) ^t'ien, the second watch. -rC' Kte.'iue,. ■\^''^'^' 

■ ^<JJ — ■ ,c'hu .yih, the first day of the month. -^Vi-^a/^ 

T^'tv a/i' ^^ ^ jc'hu 'chi, what day of the month is it? '(in the first 

decade.) ^*-^ \-if^ 

''ZAJLd£oi'-\;'^ ,sh.ili 'chi, what day of the month? (in the second 

decade.) Z^UC /<e.'^ 

■r\\aJiLsiji ^ + ^ er' .shih 'chi, do. (in the 3rd decade.) -vw^ "K^^ 

3. Affirmative and Negative Expressions. 

^*^^ ^ 'yeu, ^ 1^ 'yen ,tili, there is- there are. -f^a^' ^^ 
""^^^"^^J^ -^ .mei 'yeu, there is none; there are none. ^■n--n.ou>^J 

'^f^*^ y^ ,cho, it is so; yes. ' 

MMi^Ti^iie. '^ ^'B 'y^^ '^i* ** there any ? 
Z" iiK. . :§ Hy shi' ,tili, ^_ slii', yes; it is so. 
^t^uA. J^'oii^ ^ .puh t'soli', it is not wrong; it is sa. 
6a^ Z ^ ^^ .puh shi', ii is nof so. * 
K'o'^y^ PJ W 'k'o 'i> you may; it will do. 
^'o-Juiltiu^, A^ ^ jC'ha puh.' jto, it differs little. 
iv^iocL -^ >v^ P*!^' '^ij *^ *'* not far from it. 
i'/t, -yii^^^ ^, jcTia 'yuen, ii is very different. 
i«,»y Z' ^ >^ '^en shi', it is ^•er2/ true. 
a^Y"-^^ ^ 'tsung yau', you must. 
<— ' 7/ JH! >^ 'tsung shi', it must he... 
r. "1 yy ^1^ tsieu' shi', ii is jMsf... or eww of... 
j^^i- 2^ Iot >S -t'sai shi', it is then correct. 
■3ji^^ 7J M ^ -y^®^ s**'^'» ** *'* "^ lefore. 
'wu^ cJiXi ^ tRI pull' ,chu, ii matters not which. 
SlffiiLsii^yi^^f^ V^^' 'ohun, it is not certain; he does not permit. 
kfi^tU^"^ ^ puh' ting', it is not certain. 
^ta'CA't^^ 1^ 'y^u 't'sii, it is pretty; it is well. 
fmJii. c^'t*l|^^C -mei 't'sii, it is not pretty ; it is not well. 

'm'fiM.. ll^ -^ '^ '^'° puh' shi', is ii not so? 
■ ■ • > ~^ ^ -nnlif f'lrnnr ^ot the Same. 

not reasonable, 
'i ^\' \ * a"-"- •""'&J .„ will not do. 

'^xilJilA ^^ ^ P*^^ *'^^'' *^ '^"^^ '*°^ agree. 
^ j/^v ^E|^ .wu lun', without considering. 

;4«uX /i'<»t -^ Bfi •P^''^ V'^^'f 0'"'9^i ^°^S 'not a match for. 

II For the TariationB in tone of /f» pu wo*, see appendix I, paragraph 15, 


^ ^f* it put' 'chi, does not stop ; not only, 
y \v*ti.^ _^ ^ p^j^f jkwan, it does not concern. 
r^^W/^ ^ ping' .puh shii', it certainly is not. 
. tK^ >^ f H puh' 'tung, I do not understand. 
'uSt^ Z^ "^ jpuli' 'k'en, not willing ; I will not. 
i" PuM/A^ 5'J ^ jpili tau' 'pen, not so much as I gave for it. 
-t^ IM 1M -sui pien', do as you please. 

4. Common Adjectives. 

'^ y^ ta'j great, /J^ 'siau, Uttle. yd-L.^'^ 

tu, ^ ,to,many, ^ 'shau, few. ^iJuUe/ 

Kiie, ^tl ,lian, dry,)l^ ,sliih, wet; moist. ^<uu^ 
^^ 5^ tsing', clean, |^ ,tsang, dirty. ^Jife-^'?^ 
i^-t- "^ ,kau, HgfA,, "1^ ,ti, low. ^tT 

' ''**'* ^1 'k'wa,n,wide, ^ 'chaih, narrow. TSz^ 
jj^iflT 1^ 'jwan, so/i, ?1 ying*, hard. ^^"^ 

^^W g^ .c'hiung, poor, g fu', ricA. .J-*^ 

iZt, in H^ .heng ,tili, across j ^ g*! shu' ,tili, upright, -i^ tiu, 
U. ?fi^ .liang, cold, |^ joli', Aoi. T^y^^ 

■-f*^^ 'ut k'wai', ^MzcA;, i^ man', sZoio. ttt^ 

i^Y^&i 5§ Jl^ gy hien' .c'heng ,tili, ready-made ; ready. 
ICtiL f^ -^ 1^ ting' tso' ,tih, made/ to order. 
\^'^ /5 heu', thick, ^ .pauh, i/iire. d^o-h^ 

<^ PH" .t'ien, sweet, ^^ ,suan, sour. -<*i' 

^-M-' "^ 'k'u, fe-itter, ^ la', Aoi. -i-'^ 

'^ ^ 'lau, oZcZ, ^ ^.nien, ,c'liing, yoww^r'. "^^^ ^L^a^ 
-vj*" ^ n(?o'j hungry, 'fg' 'paa, satisfied, ^x^o~ti^ 

'jt-tdJ^ ^ l&^ 'sheng .t'sien ,tih, economical. 
i/t-tiAy^ ^ 1^ fei' .t'sien ,tih, wasteful in expenditure. 
^ jtf 'hau, good, >f» $f puh' 'hau, fcaii. ''jiA-.UL-iJU 
yrMU^r)] ^, si' jfang ,ti]i, square, [H .yuen, roMJwf. '^^^^ 
, x^ ^ iffl^ -P'ing .c'hang, common. ^ 

U%. M j^ei, fcZacfc; darft, Q. .pai, white. ^-vJi^ 
^ ^ ngan',, dark,.^ liaag', bright. ti^ 


^^ 5E jsHeng, raw j strange, ^ .sheu, fipe ; cooked. AiU-e^ 
'*'^^w<^ -^^ .oTiang, long, ^g 'twan, short. tff 

eivXi^ ^ kwei', c^ear; TiowoM^abZe, R^ tsien'j cheap; mean. 7.A^ 
<2i^^ '^ ,shen, deep, ]^ 't'sien, sAaZZow. <» t^'Ce- 

-^^'" I'n*' 'leng, coZ(?, )l^_ .nwaiij warm. tu) ^ 

^a^^ ^'isavL, early, 'S^ wan', late. ■^ si' , fine. tn>C' - ^ 

idoi^ ^Jj .sin, new, § chieu', oZcZ, TTA ,t'su, coarse. -^UaJ^ ^ ^' 

d**^ ^a jSung, loose; easy; light. ^ 'chin, fo'g'Af. hu*^^' 

"t^.^^^ J^ ,clien, irwe, 'j^ 'ctia, false. 7^ '^ 

£l>/XeJi^'^^ ^ 'lau .sliili, honest, ^ ^ ■.cliieli .sHli, _^rm. i^^Ct*^ -^^ 
iLi^i>^ ^ iS 'ctien jhii, humlle, ^ (^ ,chiau ngau', proud. tAZs^ -m^ 
§'i*vt{>n«*f ^ W 'fc'sung .ming, intelligent, -J^ pen', stupid. -^nfiun^ 

ii£^ ti^Jt' iM W^ pien' ,tang ^ "(^ ,fang pien', convenient. 1h^^ ^O-tt^ 
^6<2^(^^ ^ "cheng, entire, ^ g|, .tsa Ian', confused. ^ 7-J^^ -^He^ 

■^ ' ^ %^ w ^^' ^^'^'j dangerous, severe. -<U- 'e^ 

^at^f*^ '^ch.uB.g'yheavy,!^ ,c'hmg, light. ^'O^-^ 
i',t^^<tX^ El jC'hing .paih, plain; intelligible, 

'■UL ^tt^ ^ ^^'.nan .teh, rare, ^ ^ -yung i', easy. "5'"tI5' "^^ 
^J^/f/^^itf # 'liauk'an'.preii^. - (l46i: t>'-^ j 

5. Prepositions. 
Wfu*. ^^rLoi, 5^ -lio, ig .hwan, .hai, awcZ ; with. 
■^,duMf, ^ -lien, together with. |^| .t'ung, ^ ping', with. P-^^ 

t^'ir* ;^ ^ '*a; # .fsung, /rom. ^ .yeu, /rom; hy. 

2^.-' -^ tsai', af ; to he at. 

^4U^ (6l hiang', [towards ; to. 
■b^ j|^ .ken, witli ( as a conjunction sucli as and. ) 

^t^^ ^ ,tang, hefare, as in g ^ ]^ lu ,tang 'wo mien' .t'sien, 
before my face. "Im, '^'^sJt TUe. 

'tiJi: ^i tiii'i towards, in corresp0w,ence with, 
'iV, -iC^ ^ wei', for ; on account of. 

2w ,yiii> 13 ^ 'Ji^^ ^ei', feecawse o/. 

' iAvi^ 't^N 

[65 1 

6. Postpositions. 
Ci/ ?M 'li, in, as in ^ f g ^M .ya .men 'li, in the magistrate's office. 

ZJe- liF -t'sien, fee/ore, ^ IQ . ,ken .t'sien. Xk* Ai^ A^ 

t*nA^ Pp jchung, in, as in ^ fp nei' ,cliung, among them, tim^ C^hw 

^(CO ^ 'K ^6i'> iehind, f^ ^ .men heu', behind the door, ^na^ 'c*^^ 

^^ Jl shang', upon, as :^ Jtl ,slien shang', on the person. M>>^ ^^ 

''O 1^ hia', under, as •^'J* 'sheu hai', under the hand. a^U^ 'o'^ 

V^'*^^ ^h wai',0!«fe'rfe, asinf^ ^p .men wai', outside the door, 'yywt^ m'*^ 

yufj. ^ nei', inside, as inij^^ ^ ,sin nei', in the heart. ,d,oiw twvi 

7. Fragmentary Glauses at the end of Sentences. ■- 
X^ •^.i*«v J^ ^ tsieu' .wan, awcj i/iai loiM 6e sufficient. 
^in^ '0-<^^ ^ pien' pa', then let it he so. 

■d^ "hH- ^ ^ .t'sai 'hau, it is then all well. 
^^^ ^^^t^i^%^li\ (a .t'sai ,chi tau', and then you will know. 
■jOhnJiL z*i^ !^ )^ puh' .c'lieng, anjjxtewogative of remonstrance. 
,Zi^ ■^H^ WC WE tsieu' pa', then let it he so. 

^^^■Ut t4\uiJL ^ w tsieu' .chieh, and so finish the matter. 

8. Conjunctions. 

'^^^zTyi^M tan', M ^ tan' shi', K ^ 'cHh sM', hut. 
e^e •yucfi^ t^ ^ l^.teh .hien .ni, if he is at leisure. 

^ ^^ iSi f^ Wi -^ BE '^isn jsliwoh hwa' 'ye puh.* .neng, he 
could not even speak. Bit/ aJi^eXu 'o^ ^*;**tc^^ -y^a-^ 
^ ^ 1^ yv ^ ^ P^^' '^^'^ >tili .jen yeu' ,to, and had men 

are numerous. •f<UiZ&- '^^tiL'^^^^ -i^uLS^tik^ll ii^^-^y\c>^yLi^) 
"^J ^ i-u ^ W 'tau puh' 'pi .t'sung ..t'sien, yet it is not to he 
compared with the past. 'U^-fi.a^ *nf^<ra> tU^. 

'liau, although you should repent, yet it is too late. 
I l!/t'il<^luiL^ P^ *^ P^ jli®'^ ^'^' ^^^' '^°^' ^^^^ eating and drinking. 

^ ^^^ "^ '^ \oh.' sH' tsai' puh.' 'k'en ,tih, if again 
you are not willing. 1^ ^ i^«^ -fiuti^ 1'U^-'i;ci^ 

X<*v" 7^ ®fc ;S tsieu' shi', even if; but even. 

[66 j 

'utlA fLcA. ^v* ^ put' .tuL, not only--'-^^ .lien, hut also- — -^^ (iJd,.Aii^ ie. 

♦«- (-e-yft^ativ .lai ,t'a *ye pih' chii', even if he can n'ot db it, he must slill go. 
a^Tr.SiT^'' — p0 ^ — M ^ yit' mien' 'tseu yih' mien' 'siau, he both 
^k2;^^d^^ walked An-d ^i^ihd, or he 'walked o% sifiUihg. 
tiMm ^M^M^^^^ -twan sH' ,kwo lu' .hwan sM' 
ftX fell .lai jtihj whether you are phs^itg, or have coihe dn 

- - 'purpose. ^ %u^ t^ ;)i«if'-5W^ €oar im: )ni^ •r'^'^ 

^^Pf^TlRl^^ W"^' ^^ 'li'o y"Dg' 'liau fan' muh 
'yeu, 1 do not hnow whether you have dined or not ? 
Tp*^*.^^ ^ ]^ 1^ .ning.'ti puh' 'kan, rather die than dare do it. 
-^^^^ ^ "tE* ffiE^ «^ieu 'ye .wu .yih, entreatinq is also .of no use. ^ ^ 

yih.' 'hwei .er ,kwan ,Glioh, for a moment he opened it and 

then in a moment he closed it. 
^^OiLa^,*^ ^ .hwan, .haii or .hai, and, ^^ — "^ -hai 'yeii .yih.yang', 

and there is another thing. "yt^La. -t-ao '' <,a«,UL "f^^ux^ 
6-^:G'^W. -H- pi°g' 't'sie, and further, 
t^ ^, •'fp? M^ sliang' 't'sie, and if further, or still mxyre. 

iSi '^"tfii 'fft 'y® jshen 'ye ,t'singrboi/i deep and clear. «_. . j^i 
ti^, ^' '^J 'tau, hut, -^ 'ye, liit; and, 19; ^ 5^ #J^ 5|$ ,showh A ^ 

yau' .lai 'tau puh' .lai, he said he would come but did not. ' 

'UG'^ "tHi 'ye, but; and, '^■^'tgi M $f 'iii c'liii' 'ye ,keng 'ban, 
but it would be better for you ta^go. >yt^(tlu^ it^' ^ie^ "fi^i^-tf 

i*Kf ^'^'0 llfc .yin t'si', ^^'so 'i, therefore.. -^a-n'' y^'' 
ioMut 'il^ "^ ,yin wei', bs^ause, ^^ H>J ;;^ wei' jtih sW, because.' <^ <t*^ i 
iVft. ^itA.^^'f^ chisLh' ,i'a,, ^^^^m. yau' jt'a, m w^e*- ffesi^ /le, or so 

that he— -Z^* t^^ec. 

S^'wu'^'^l^'jll 'k'ung pV, Zesf. 

•^ X^ ^ ;^ W siii', 6r y^ii' ski', if. ^ 

tlX'XiiJ^^i cM' .Jan, t/i^ &e aUeadj^ *o; »s if *s so. 

9. iVwwes of Irhpofrted urti-eUs,. W6ixy etc 

^ JSfg, Jik' *^pen lali', Japan wax. 
W(^ "^ Vft >^^ -^^^ .yeu, sforaa;, 
JP^^QU) eaUpeire^ 


^ flit -liwang lali', yellow hees' wax. 
^Oi ^ .lieu .hwangj sulphur. 

10. Imports, Incense, Pepper, etc. 

^^ /B> ^* iHgan jsili ,liiang, gum benjam,in. 

^C --Sv Vm j^g^'ii jsih .yeuj oiZ 0/ grwm henjamin. 

1@ ^ .fan jhiang, sandal-wood. 

TflQ W .paih .hu ,tsiau, w/iiie pe^'f^'"' 

^ IHQ W^ .heih .Im ,tsiau, black pepper. 

J/2 ^ .c'hen jhiang, garroo-wood. 

1^ ^^ chiang' .liiang, lahka-wood. 

11. Imported Medicines, 

P^ ^ .ngo wei'j assafeetida. 

r. ^Jv /t^ shang' ,ping p'ien', cZeaw haroos camphor. 

p» pjv /j- hai' jping p'ien', refuse haroos camphor. 
"J ^* .ting jliiang, cloves. 
"^ ~y ^^ 'urn ,ting jhiang, mother of cloves. 
pP >S T^ ^ Yin' tu' ,nieu .hwang, Indian cow hezoar. 
j^ ^ .er .D'ha, cutch, catechu. 
7^ ^^ ^ >piiig -lang 'kau, betel-nut cake. 
j^X^ >pi^g -lang, betel-nut. 

^ ^ ^ '^®i .liwoh shen', pr ® ^ ,si shen', American 

^ '/^ ^ ^ ^ 'chien tsing' shen'' ,su shen', the ginseng root 

denuded of its hairy appendage. * ^ 
^ ^ 'ju jhiang, QUbunum, gum resin, ov-franhincen^.e. 
I'X. ^§ moh' yauh', myrrh. 
^ 7^ 'ffi ^^^' k'eu' ,hwa, nutmeg flowers. 
I^ ;^ juh' 'kwo, or |^ ^ ^ juh' teu' k'eu', nutmegs. 
S S. ^S .paih ten' k'en', -ro^e mallows. 
'^ ^ muh' ,hiang, putchuck. 
J^, ■^ ,si 'chiau, rhinoceros' horns. 
■^ ^ 'shui .yin, quicksilver. 
y^ ^ .yang yauh', opium. 

[ 68 ] 

^ 1w ^ >ping -lang ji, /ims&s of betel-nut. 

Rl •1^ juli' kwei', cinnamon. 

j^ "^ 'hu ,ku, tiger's bones. 

JB^ ■^ lah' 'chiau, deer horns. , 

^5© 'hiueh .ctieh, dragon's blood gum. 

"jK Wt j" ^^' t^^^g 'tsij lucraban seed. 

12. Imported Miscellaneous articles. 

y^ .^ 'hwo .sliih, flints. 

^p"^ ^j -yiin. 'mu 'c'liiau, mother of pearl shell. 

^^ ct: -ffl .t'ung 'nieu k'eu', brass buttons. 

w^ vff J Chi c'hi'j lacquered ware. 

S >i^ /wi '^^ jSung .shengj Manila cordage. 

a^ ,san, umbrellas. 

^» ^ jliiang .c'hai, fragrant wood. 

^y >S^ 'WS'i' .kwoh .mei, foreign coal. 

iK.^1 'ii'^o .jung, tinder. 

13. Imported Marine productions. 

-SLvm 1^ shang' yen' jWO, birds' nests, 1st quality. 
Fp ^^ ^ jChuDg yen' jWO, birds' nests, 2nd quality. 

P» ^^ ^ Ilia' yd' j^Oj ii'rds' nests, 3rd quality. 
^E, y^ ^^ jheili 'tai shen', 6ZacA; bicho-de-mar. 
pl y^ ^^ .pait 'hai shen', white bicho-de-mar. 
■^ j^ .paih. .yu c'hi', white sharks' fins. 
^ ^ j^ jlieili .yii c'hi', blach sharks' fins. 
^ J^ jkan .yu, or ^ f| .c'hai .yii, stockfish. 
■^ fli .yii tu', fish maws. 
g^ j^ .hien .yii, salt fish. 
'M & -y^ -V'h fish skins. 

5^ ^^ 'tai t'sai', agrar agar ; an edible fungus. 
^ J§^ ^ .nieu luh' ,cliin, buffalo and deer sinetcs. 
ft^ tJ^ ,hia 'mi, dried prawns. 
]^^ tan' t'sai', dried mussels. 
^^ ^ ^ »^^^ '^^ 'P'^' sAarfc skins. 

[ 69 ] 

14. Imported Dyeing and Colouring materials. 

5<r Pra ^ jja -Ian 'mi, cochineal. 

J\ P3 ta' ,t'sing, gamhier ; a mineral blue. 

^ ^ ,su muh, sapan-wood. 

^ 15B 'ts'i' 'keng, sticklac ; a vegetable medicine. 

TK ^k, 'shui tien', liquid indigo. 

'Mi 1^ -yu jchiauj isinglass. 

^ 1^ .p'i jCliiau, grZwe. 

^ ^ .t'eng .Hwang, gamboge. 

^6 JjC 'k'au .p'i, mangrove hark. 

\!y 1^ jsha .t'eng, rattans. 

15 Imported Wood. 

im ^^ >'^^ mut', ebony. 

!S /T^ 1m chung' mull' .wei, masts and spars; hard wood. 

^E -^ Wi jC'liing muh' .wei, masts and spars; soft wood. 

S 'A^ yK chung' muh' .liang, beams ; hard wood. 

^^7|^ ^4 chung' muh' 'pan, planks ; hard wood. 

^§ 7l^ -^ , oiling muh.' 'pan, planks ; soft wood. 

ff^ ^t 1® ^K '^^ ^^■''^' ^^''^' 'pan, ieafc planks, 

^I ^ .hung muh', red-wood. 

^ ;fi|j .mau shi', camagon wood, or rough persimmon. 

5^ 0® ^(H ^ >y^ -^^^ °^'-^' muh', kranjee wood. 

16. Imported Time pieces, Telescopes, etc. 

|g R^ ^a tsi' .ming ,chung, clocks. 
BsJF J^ ^< -slii .c'hen 'piau, watches. 
3^ ^ H^ ^ ^ ,chu ,pien .sLi .c'hen 'piau, watches, emailles 

a paries. 
"f" S.^^ jit'sien 'li ching', telescope. 

'^B^~F"S.§9i -^hw^ng 'yen ,t'sien 'li ching', o^ era glass. 
^1'^ kwa' ching', haiglng ml ror. 
^ -^ ^ ,0'hwen ,i ching', dressing glass. 
/V a ^ ipah ,yin .c'hin/ musical box. 

[70 ] 

17. Imported Cotton, Goods. 

'nJ /E '^E "M pu' 'p'ih jliwa man', cotton and piece goods 

printed and plain. 
^ ^ .tnien ,liwa, cotton. 
J^ E, TR -yuen 'saih pu', gfrei/ shirtings. 
FI fq, 'In -paili 'saili pu', w/iiie shirtings. 
^ -?£ TU -wu jhwa pu', plain stuffs. 
^r 5P» "In -sie .wen pu', twilled stuffs. 

■^ •?£ '@, 'm 'y^^ jhwa 'saih pu', figured coloured cottons. 
Wi ^ Ci 'nJ •'''^'^ jliwa 'saih pu', plain coloured cottons. 
^ TIJ jhwa pu'j fancy cottons. 
PI ^ 'ftJ .paih .t'i pu', w)M<e brocades. 
pl ^R 'fn .paih 'tien pu', loMie spotted shirtings. 
fP 'fS 'H? yi'^' ,hwa pu', printed cottons. 
^C ^^ 'fp chia' ,sha pu', cambric. 
)t ^&^ -J^T^S ,sha, muslin. 
Wi 'HJ t'^^S'i' pi'> damash. 
CT '^ 'fl? -l'®^ .t'iau pu', dimities. 

^' "2^ -^ 'fiJ koh' 'saih .mau pu', ginghams, different colours. 
W" ^ W 'flJ •'^^ .miem .fan pu', cotton and carwas duch. 
>f^ ;^ .mien ,sien, cotton thread. 
7^ j^ .mien ,sha, cotton ya-n 
^ffl ^ "iU si' .ma pu', fine linen. 
7m w mJ ,^'su .ma pu', coarse linen. 
[p] ^ .h vei .Jung, fwstic.ns. 
^ "fu 'yii P"') bunting. 

18. Imported Silk articles. 

■^ ipfl 'sheu .p'a, handkerchiefs. 
la .^ ^ olien jchin , g ' d threa i, real. 

i^ :sfe ^ 'chia jChin sien', gold thread, imitated. 
]0L ^^ ^^ jchen .yin sien', silver thread, real. 
"(^ ^ m^ '^^'^ -y^" sien', silver thread, imitated. 
V^ ^ B^ jto .lo .ni, Sroad cZof/i ; Spanish stripes. 

[71 J 

p¥ I^ pi' .cHi, long ells. 

■mW^^U -Ho .Ian 'yu twan', Dutch camlets. 

^ Pl ^ ^ .Ying .kwoh 'yii ,sha, Bnglish camlets. 

^ i^M 'yii .c'heu, hombazettes. 

/J"* ^ 'siau .ni, cassimeres. 

Mi, ^ -Jung sien', woollen yarn. 

McM4 .c'liwang jchaa, blankets. 

■fS 5^ ^ ,hwa 'tsien .jung, velveteens. 

^i jf^ 'yii -ling) lasting. 

yy* TPi ^^ 'siau 'yii .ling, imitation lasting, and Orleans lasting. 

5^ ^ 'tsien .jung, velvet. 

19. Imported Metals. 

5E SS) jsheng .t'ung, unmanufactured copper. 
^^ ^Sj .sheu .t'ung, manufactured copper. 
Hr. ^)( jslieng 't'ieh, unmanufactured iron. 
^i ^E .sheu 't'ieh, manufactured iron. 
'^ ^^ jC'hien k'wai', lead in pigs. 
^pl ,kang, steel. 
^l ,sih, tin. 

<^ P ^ 'ma 'k'eu 't'ieh, fiw^Zafes. 
P ^4^ ^S) J'ih' 'pen .t'ung, Japan copper. 
Wa /T^ jC'hien p'ien', lead in sheets. 
Fl ■^ .paih ,c'hien, spelter. 
^ ^i] ^J" .hwang .t'ung ,ting, brass nails. • 
]§ mi )^ ^ ^ jshang .c'hwen .yah tsai' 't'ieh, kentledge. 
^ W^ 't'ieh ,si, irow wire. 

20 Imported Precious Stones, etc. 

.ma 'nau, cornelians. 
5^ Jh ^ .ma 'nau ,chu, cornelian beads. 
Jrc J^ tai' mau', tortoise shell. 
W i^ ^f tai' mau' sui', broken tortoise shell 
^ J^ )-f' ,po .li p'ien', window glass. 

'shan .hu, coraZ. 

C 72 ] 

21, Imported Animal Products. 

"^ ^ .nieu 'chiau, buffalo horns. 

i^'T"' JjC jsheng .nieu .p'i, raiv buffalo hides. 

Wi T"" i^ -shea .nieu .p'i, tanned buffalo hides. 

5'S-Bb Jjc '^^i -l^ng -p'ij sea-otter shins. 

>^ 30^ IM J^ ta' .liu .li .p'i, large fox shins. 

/]'» W\ <)M ^ •'siau .hu .li .p% small fox shins. 

^ Jj^ 'hu .p'i, ii'grer shins. 

^fy J3^ pau' .p'i, leopard shins. 

%U Bl jtiau .p'i, marten shin. 

1^ JjC t'ah' .p'i, land-otter shin. 

W 1^ ^ .lauh ,liwan .p'i, racoon skin. 

W 'W JjC '^3'i lo' -P'ij beaver shin. 

Jyi. M^ ^ ,li'wei 'shu .p'i, squirrel shin. 

^ .®/ JjC -yiQ 'sliu -p'ij ermine shin. 

'/^ iW ^ '^^i '™^ -J^i sea-horse teeth. 

^g ^. ^ 'cheng siang' .ya, whole elephants teeth. 

^ ^ >T' sui' siang' .ya, brohen elephants' teeth. 

^ ^ t'*^' -P'ij ^''''"'^ shins. 

/^ ^ c'hi' .p'i, doe shin. 

J^ ^ jsi -P'ij rhinoceros shin. 

:^ ^ t'sui' .man, hing-fisher feathers. 

TU ^ ^ 'k'ung 't'sioh .mau, peacock feathers. 

22. Exported Oils, Wax, etc. 

^ .paih .fan, alum. 

P3 3^ it'sing .fan, green alum or copperas. 
/ V "^ y^ ,pali 'chiau ,yeu, anniseed oil. 
1^ K vft kwei' .p'i .yeu, cassia oil. 
^ W Vm poh' -to .yeu, peppermint oil. 
T"- Vra .nieu .yeu, butter. 
^ wi' yffl ,ctii .ma .yeu, sesamum oil. 
flSj yffl .t'ung .yea, oil of the dryandra tree. 
S. yffl teu .yeu, bean oik 


^ V^ chieu' .yeu, vegetable tallow. 

7^ YH .mien .yeu, cotton-seed oil. / 

^P^ Vffl pi' •™3' -yfiU; oiZ of palma-christi. 

Q Iwl -paili lah*, hees' wax. 

^^ ^ .oTia yeh', tea. 

/V '^ ,pah 'chiau, sta'/anniseed. 

^^ ^^ shoh' jliiang, musk. 

/V "^ 'ffif )Pali 'chiau /cha, hrohen anniseed. 

H^ J^ ^* -slii .c'lien jhiang, incense- sticks: 

23. ^icporfecZ Jfe^icwes.- 

r::^^ ,san nai', capoor cutchery. 
"I^Bh jChang 'nau, camphor. 
^ -^ sin' .shih, arsenic. 
i^ -^ kwei' .p'i, cassia lignea. 
7^ -f' kwei' 'tsi, cassia tuda. 

it -^^ '''''1 -f"^^ -ling* C/ima rooi (used for making biscuits.), 
f^ ^IH .c'lieng .cTiie, cuhebs. 
^ ^[ jliang jchiang, galan^al. 
j^ ^ .shih .hwang, yellow lead (massicot.)) 
^ ^ ta' .hwang, rhubarb. 
^^^i jchiang .hwang, tilrmerie'. 

Jl. ^ i^ ^ ^ shang' 'teng ,Kau .li ,shen, best Gor'ean 

"T* ^ i^ ^ ^ ^i^' '*'^°S' 1^3'^ j'i* ,slieli, inferior' Corean 

Jl ^ ^IlC ^ shang,'^ 'ieng Jili* 'pett ,slien, 6esi Japanese 

"^ ^ H 2|j ^ Ma' 'teng J'ik' 'pen ,shen, inferior Japanese' 

W^ ^ A ^ ,Kwan jtung .]'en ,slien, Manchurian ginseng.- 
Wc Jii ^ ^®^' ^^^' •P'ig> J/oMwgr deer horns. 
•^ lil ^ 'lau lull' .fung,; old deer horns. 
P|T ^^^ ,ChT*ng,' .kwoh .nieu .hwang; Chinese' cow beeoar'.- 
^iS )V^^ '™^"j cantharides. 

[ 74] 

i^ 4X kwei' jch'i, cassia twigs. 

^ J^ .c'hen .p'i, orange peel. ^^ -cliu p'i. 

Jl^^ ^ shang' 'teng yeu' .p'ij siiperior pumelo peel. 

(if ^ -chii .p'i.) 
"^ ^ ^ J^ hia' 'teng yeu' .p'i, inferior pumelo, peel. 
^ft ^pj ^^ poh' .ho yeh', peppermint leaf. 
"y Jp. jkan 't'sau, liquorice. 

^ '^ .sliih ,kau, ground gypsum ; plaster of Paris. 
5E|"p "X* 'wu pei' 'ts'i, nut-galls. 
^p ^ jfeng mill', honey. 

24. Exported Miscellaneous Articles. 

/^ "^ ^9 liau' 'sheu .chuh, bangles or glass armlets. 

'Yf tiff .chuli c'Ei', hamhoo' ware. 

i^ fliu ^ 'chia jshan .hu, false coral. 

'^iT pau' .chuh, _/ire-*orfo (formerly made of bamboo.) 

^ J^ 'y'i shan', feather fans. 

>^5? liau' c'hi', native glass ware. 

7^ ^ji liaa' ,chu, native glass beads. 

P^ 2|^ 'yii 'san umbrellas. 

^J .^ 'yun .shih, marble slabs. 

JgwH jt'uug 'ch'i hwa'j rice paper pictures, (pith paper,) 

(^^ ,t'uiig 't'sau.) 
^j^^ 'chi shan', paper /aws. 
'{B, ^^ v^ 'chia jChen ,chu, false pearls. 
"^ ^ 'ku wan', antiques j curiositiej j 1^ ^ 'ku 'tung. 
J^^;^ si' .k'wei shan', trimmed palm leaf fans. 
7|§_^^,'.t'su .k'wei shan', untrimmed palm leaf fans. 
i§^ l|fE ^ loh' t'o .mau, camel's hair. 
jj^ .^ ^ .mien .yang .mau, wool. 
|| [ ^ ^ ,shau .yang .man, goafs hair, 
^ ^ jchan sui', felt cuttings, or sui' ,chau, 
^ ^ 'ch'i ,hwa, paper flowers. 
+ jl^ 't'u .mei, Chinese coal. 

[ 75 J 

25. Exported Colours, Paper, etc. 

^ jQ .t'ung .poh., brass foil. 

Jjff. 7T .tung ,tan, red lead (ininiumJj 

^ j^ ,si]i .poll, tinfoil. 

Wt ^ .yin ,chu, vermilion. 

Vffl iw2 .yeu ,t^sih. hwa', oiZ paintings. 

^ XV .c'hien 'fen, white lead (ceruse.) 

^ TT .hwang ,tan, yellow lead (massicot.) 

^^jy? ,chu ,slia, cinnabar. 

JL^r'SR shang' 'teng 'oM, superior paper.. 

^^ wt t'sii' 'teBg 'cH, inferior paper. 

Vw W .yeu 'clii, oife«^ paper. 

^ moll', Indian inJc. 

'fW" jt'sih, paint. 

^g ,tsuTig, coir, tte thready bark of tlie tsung or coir tree. 

]^ .ma, hemp. 

jl^ !^ jteng 't'sau, Zamp wicTcs. 

JPS ^^ lii' ,cliiau, green dye. 

R ^ ^ 'Kwang ,tung soh', Canton twine hemp, 

W^Tu ^ >^^ jcheu soh', Sucheu twine hemp. 

^ ^ ,t'sili lii', green paint. 

Wi ^t li' c'hiau', oyster shells. 

^J .Be ^^' -P'^f S'^ss^ leather. 

i. ^ '^'''^ tien', dri/ indigo. 

'^\i J^ ,k'eBg jsha, manure cakes or poudrette. 

26. FaHows Exported Ware. 

^ *p* :p§ .nieu ,ku cTii', buffalo bone ware. 
■^ ■^ :§^ .nieu 'chiau o'M', buffalo horn, wafe. 
3^ ^ ^ si' .t'si c'hi', fine China ware. 
Tffl ^ ^ ,t'su .t'si clii', coarse China ware. 
S ^^ .paih .t'ung c'hi', pewter ware. 
'f^^Wf -liung .t'ung c'hi', copper ware. 
^ ^ muh' c'hi', wooc^ ware. 


jff siang' .ya c'M', ivory ware. 
mr 5ff jC'hih c'hi', lacquered ware. 

S T^ Wt vff -y^^ '^^ c'hiau' c'hi', mother of pearl ware. 
^ Sff •t'eng c'ni', rattan ware. 
lH ^ vff -t'an jhiang c'hi', sandal-wood ware. 
^g 5ff jchin c'hi'j gold ware. 
^ BE? jj™ c'hi', silver ware. 
Wv J@ 5ff tai' mai' c'hi', tortoise-shell ware. 
^ ^ .p'i ,siang, leather trunlts. 
!^TM -V'^ '^P-ng', leather loxesfor holding silver. 
&■ w "P'^ c'hi', leather articles. 
^u" jSl -yau. ho', earthen ware pottery. 
^ ^ 5? .hwang .t'ung c'hi', brass ware. 
^ )^ IP .t'ung .nieu k'eu', Irass buttons. 
^ ^y^ .t'ung ,si, brass wire. 
^£ ^^ jsheng .t'ung, copper ore. 
m wH /T chjgw' .t'ung p'ien', oZ(i sheathing copper. 

27, Exported Wood. 

'yj ^ .phuh ,kan, bamboo poles. 

1^ I^ .t'eng jeu', split rattans. 

"m^ mitt ,chwang .liang .t'o cha', piles, beams, cross-beams 
and pillars. 

^ ^8 TT •t'eng .jang 'ts'i, rattans stripped of barJ$. 
28". Exported Clothing. 

'ftJ -JC W^ P^' }i -filij cotton clothing. 
WM ■^ •fll^ -c'heu ,i ,fuh, silh clothing. 
J^ WCi 1^ ¥(l -p'l ,hiue twan' ,hiue, leather and'satin boots. 
J^ ?^|^ W^ -p'i -^i® twan' .hiai, leather and satin shoes. 
"^. ^^ 'ts'au .hie, straw shoes. 
Ppi .c'heu mau', silTc caps. 

\ ijjpj .chan mau', felt caps. 

• 'i'@ i^ 't'sau mau' ,pien, siraw hat braid. 


29. Native Linen and Cotton Manufactures. 

^Bl M. 'ftJ si' hia' pu', fine grass cloth. . 

TkB. ^ tIJ jt'su hia' p'u, coarse grass cloth. 

"I . tP 't'u pu', native cotton cloth. 

"W ^ ^ cliieu' .mien sii'j oW cotton rags. 

^m 'Si? ^B .mien pei' jt'ai, palampore ov cotton bed quilts. 

30. Exported Silh Manufactures. 

>fiB ■?£ .mien ,liwaj raw cotton. 

yjjQ /^ .hu js'i, Hu-cheu silk. 

i ^ 't'l jSij siZ/v produced in the neighbourhood. , 

^ ^ ,si ,cliing, thrown silk. 

S* ^S ^^ 'y® -t'san ,s'i, wild raw silk. 

^ ^ ,si tai', silk ribbons. 

^i^^*^ -Ian jkanTkwei' tai', silk sashes with cassia flower 

^^ jsisien', silk thread. 
J^ .c'lieu, pongees. 
f^ twan', satin. 
j^^ chiuen', lutestring. 
]^ ^ cheu' .sha, crape. 
>^ -ling, damask silk. 

^ lo, ZaM, a Kwd of silk striped across with flowers. 
^ ^ 'tsien .Jung, velvet. 
•^ ■^ sieu' hwo', embroidered goods. 

M ii^ 7^ ^ '^^ .mien .tsali hwo', siZA a«^ coiioji mixtures. 
HI )ll ^^ Si' ,o'huen .hwang ,sx, Sze-chuen yellow silk. 
N( 5^ ^ .t'ung jkung ,si, silk reeled from dupions. 
[Jj ^ ^ 1^ ;>Slian ,tung 'chien .c'heu, Shan-tung silk piece goods. 
^ ^ '"'^ei sien', tassels. 

ig, j|^ ^ koh' 'sheng .]MTag, floss from various provinces. 
M^M 'Kwang,tung .jung, Canton floss. 
K ^ -t'san 'chienj cocoons. 

Ml M M 1^^^' '^'^ -^'^^^ ''^•^"®® *^^^" 


[78 ] 
^ W im "X* ^°^' y^^g' -sill 'tsij matting. 

^ Wt -p'i 'fan, sKn rwg'*. 

,clian 'fan, druggets and carpets. 

31. Exported Articles of Food, etc. 

Ig ^ mili'^cliieu' .fang 'kwo, comfits and sweetmeats. 

tsiang' .yen, soy. 

.paih .fang, white sugar. 

c'hih. .fang, hrown sugar. 

,ping .fang, sugar candy. 

.hwang ,yen, tobacco. 

.pih ,yen, snuff. 
■^^ ,yen ,si, prepared tobacco in threads. 
jf!@ 5^ jJ^ii yeh', tobacco in leaf. 
Pj' H fti^ , Chung .kwot .pih ,yen, Chinese snuff. 
y^ BM^S .ta' .feu f sai', salted turnips. 
>^j^ 'fen ,si,'vermicelli ('fen ,ser.) 
VM 'chieu, samshoo. 
J^ ^^ 'hai f sai', seaweed. 
iK. AM 'hwo ,f ui, harrj,s. 
^% ^ ^ .hien ,chi tan', salted fowl eggs. 
^^ ^g pien' tan', preserved duck eggs (alsq^ -l^ -ifE)- 
\^ \lZ. 'Ian .jen, oK-ue seed ('Ian .jea.) 
/J3^|^ 'kan 'Ian, olives. 
'^ ■^ hing' .jen, apricot seeds or almonds. 
^^ ^3 jhiang hin', mushrooms. 
^^^T^^ ,chin ,chen fsai', dried lily flowers. 
^^ ^S^ muh' .er, wood ear. 
j^ U kwei' .ynen, lung ngan, a fruit. 
;^ UI IaJ kwei' .yuen jeuh', lung ngan, without the stone. 
^ ^ 11' jCh'i, lichee, a fruit. 
^ -f' .lien 'tsi, lotus nuts. 
^^'^,chi .ma 'sesamum seed. 

[ 79 ] 

> '^ "?£ ^ ^oh' ,liwa ,slieng, ov -^^^ .c'hang ,slieng 'kwo 

'fS Ec. "^ ,liwa sheng 'ping, ground-nut cake. 
_Q^ tea', heansj. a^ JS. ,heih teu', feZacfc beans. 
S. Wr teu' 'ping, feecwi cake. 

y^ ^ tI^ is '™i maih' .tsah .liang, r(Vc, u-heat and other cereals. 
/gg: §§ swan' .t'eu, onions. 
:^ -^ lih' 'tsi, chestnuts. 
^K ^R jlieili 'tsau, black dates. 
^I ^^ .hung 'tsau, re(^ dates. 

32. Common TJt&iisils. 
Ta'4. UhC ^^ ^J t'sai' ,tau, chopping knife. 

YruA- &*^^ ^0 i\^ mien' ctang', paste roller, or ,kan mien' kwun', stick 

for kneading. 
^ti^ :pii*v ^ ,^ .t'iau 'sau or .t'iau 'shu, straw brush. 
"tei ta^ •iH i 'tan 'ts'i, brwsJi made of [,dh\.m&\i) fowl feathers. 
Cii-L 5!!S5«A^'fty J* jshwah 'ts'i, brush of pig bristle^ (,cliu .man) or goat's 
hair (,slian .yang mau.) 
■^U^ ' ^\ jliwo, iron coolcing pan; jkwo'Tping, bread cakes baked in a pan. "•' 

VOL (jA*^'g^ -^ fan' .shau, Wee spoon; 'ta ,k-wo 'li .yau ,c'huli fan' .lai, 
take rice out of the pan. 

■^"^ <^^ s^ "^ 't'san 'ts'i, iroTO ladle; 't'ieh tso' ,tili, macZe of iron. 

4/Uit^ ^td*x ^^ "^ -^^^^ '*®''' P^'^i^J ^yi^ P'sng' tsieu' p'o', wiVA, onejjlow 
•^ ii is broken. 

Hi," fe'E 'wan, cwp; basin; fan' 'wan, rice 5owZ. 
rv*-' •^*4 t^ J '^^ '^^h C'^^ or hatchet ; ^^fc p'ih .c'hai, fo chop wood.Kud\. ^ 
/ iTUt" -h^ w^ -tS niien' 'pan, kneading board. 
74v[f ■Cd- y'C ia8 'iiwo .lu, stove; ^B ,slieng 'two .lu, Z/gfTii i/ie sZo-ye. A^xr 
j-j^ ^a -c'liui, mallet; .tsa ,tung ,si ,tih, /or beating things. 
•frjJ ihk^/ wS 'j jting 'tsi, nails; .lang .t'eu, hammer. 

Tt&V SpB chii', s«?t'; chii' muh' .t'eu yung' ,tili, wsfc? /or 6ri'«7«(7 woorf. 
« .. /^l/^ ^^ Tr -p'en 'ts'i, dish; basin ; 'k'o 'i 'si 'lien /or uashing the face. 
, , ~_ -^tPL "x" •P'i'^g' '^^^) bottle; jar ; .c'heng .yeu, to contain oil. 
"ij '^ j^ ;|;g .c'hu kwei', kitchen cupboard; .c'heng tieh 'tsi 'wan, to 
4JJL 'isCyi^ p ut away plates and basins. 

[80 ] 

X ^^'w**-^ ^ 'shui .hu, Tcettlej ,sliau ,k'ai 'shui, to hoil water. 

'^'****'?^ W 'stui ,shau, bucket; ,t'iau 'sliui, to carry water. 

- ■<b<^ p^ ^ 'ii 'saiij umhrella ; 'tang 'ii yung' ,tih, used to ward off rain 

y) vAu^ ^ .cTia .hu, tea-pot. jC "T" ,c'lia 'tsi, fork. "fe'trtv ^^ 

^'vU^^ .c'ha 'wan, iea-czip. |^ ^ .t'iau ,keng, spofW. ^iZt^^dL 

33. Vegetables and Fruits. 

b/v tx)'<e S ^ .paih t'saiS cabbage. ^ ^ ;p'u .t'au, grapes. -^ ^W^ 
J^^^ ^ 'tsa u,(ia<es. ^ -^ slii' 'tsi, persimmon. tl %o^ 

\ Tfe'p^^ ^5:ie' t'sai', mustard. ^ ^X ,liwa .hung, swaW ap^/es. }h W^ ^ 
C TUhfC^ ^ tie' mo', jrroMncZ do. ^i^^ .wu ,hwa ,kwo, yigr. VlCfu) 'kw 
l^'tjuS^ ^\ t^'^' jChe, sugar cane, ^p '\i, plums. A/' 

eA "^^t/^ "y* ^^^' '*^^j chestuut. . 

e ^/e*^^ .sHeng t'sai', Zeftece. J^ :^ .p'ing 'two, apples, ir^'^^ 
t TS'f^Si ^ 'chieu t'sai', scallions. 5« -lij pears. -Qt, 

ti.'tif't. ^^ ^v jPO t'sai', winter coarse greens. ^^ 5tt^^°8' •®^' opricots. tsf ''^ 
1:2^?^^'^ ^ c'hin t'sai, jparsZey. ^ :^^ ,hoh .t'au, waZnwfs. yURS^dM. 
Y^-t'uZm ^ -yuen ,sui, caraway. ^b ,t'au, peacTi. . '^ -cUo^ 

i-^tt^^"^ .lo peih', turnips; .hung .lo peih', carrots. ■(•"^ tU »m4v, 
•/^j^j„Jj.^^ jt'sung, onions; jfsung .t'eu onion bulbs. 
^^ ^ swan', garlic; ^^^f^ Chi* wei' puh' 'hau, unplea- 
sant odour. OcC yr\^ fwcUvfute/ (W-fiUeT^^'^^^poiaioes. ' 
•«3A Jit^I-U ^ ,shan yauh', Chinese yam; ,shan .yau .t'eu, English 
wi CuM.1^ ■^ teu' 'chiauh, bean pods. 
X€.(iM!u«^»>i^ jhiang jC'hun, edible leaves of the c'hun tree. . 

vw' ti^^^'k'Q t'sai', sow i/iis^e, >^: iH ta' chi', f ^lisiZe, /)> ^ 5^^ 
'siau ki', small thistle. d.ti C^IjC" 

V ^'^t^i^i -V'^ ^'^^^'' spinach; Vsai', crisp. q 

i-i^^U>' SI 'ngeu, ZoiMs roois; -j^ ^ .ho ,hwa, Zoiws. --♦'vMaaa, tvO 

• ^itWj ^^ _g, ^ .hwang teu' .ya, yellow bean sprouts. 

■t^dM\>S/>^^i 3. ^ liih' teu' t'sai'," g^ree?! bean sprouts. 

*~ ^ft ® /QiV jsi ,kwa, water melon; ■^ ^ .hu .lu, gourd. */*Vit^- t>*- 

jt-O' Ito 3E ■'^^ .wang ,kwa, or .hwang ,kwa,, cucumber. 

.^ fU^ ^ jtung ,kwa, ^ }Jk ,wo ,kwa, pumpkin. ■*<-■ "A-^ 

,-jU> ^ >^ -^^^ ,kwa, or_^ .fan ,kwa, flat yellow pumpkin, i^ . 

C 81 ] l^ 

34. Domestic Animals. 

UjL ^, chi, fowl ;^^,cUcMB.xi',coch.crow. ^^ dJU/i> 

"Tttwu- •K.fg .mau, cat; ^"^ ^ .ua 'lau 'shu, catch mice. -ha. toJL ■?^'< 

V'^U^"' ^ 'keu, diog ; ^ ^ k'an' ,cliia, watch the house, ito ^ ''^ 

^4^ TO jOliaj JJ^V >■ Bp^ ^ wei' ,chu, /eed jjtjrs. /U>isul 2^^ 

"Hv^'^ j|§ 'ma, Aorse J- T^ ,|§ pei' 'ma, saitiZe a /lorse. ■^^7' ttt^ 

^^"ij*^ <ip .nieu, cow; ^iHti jcliing ti', plough the ground- iice, oL^ 

l^-iA-^y. 3^.ja,ng, sheep j'j^^ fang' .yang, let out sheep to graze, ^m^ ^ 
JX. ^^>^ l|^ -^ .lii 'tsi, or .lii, ass; ,c']iieii c'hii' ting' 'chang, take him 
to be shod. 

Ct<, ^A^ 1^ "X* lo' 'tsi, mule; pa' ,t'a t'au' sTiang', ^jwi Aim in harness. 

' C-^ ^S jyah, dwcfc ; ^ ^ ,yah tan', duck eggs. -aiM, <t^ •«- ccL l 

V>^ ^ .ngo, g^oose ; ^ ^ .ngo .man, g'oose quills. -ja^ T-nJie. , 

35. £irds. 

OT^ "T" yen' 'tsi, swallow or mar^iw. 

yC wi jt'ien .ngo, swan. 

-S ^ hwa' .mei, white-eyed thrush. 

Wit ^© 'y® j*'^^' common pheasant. 

y^ SL feng' .twang, phcenix. 

^& 7J^ ,pan ,chieu, pigeon. 

ipl^ ^ .ngan ,c1iun, quail. 

/\ ^1 ,pali ,ko, raven. 

yS ^ 'I3.U ,kwa, (read ,ya,) ringed raven. 

M .yi°g. hawk. 

5§ l|pL ,fei t'sui', variegated Mng-fisher. 

W ?l -paili •ling, singing lark. 

^ ^ 'hi 'cliiueli, magpie. 

^ ^ .ying ,ko, parrot. 

^ 'HI 'k'ung 'c'hiiieli' peacock. 

^ -y- ,koli 'tsi, dove. 

W ^ 'ye »yali. '^'^a^e- 

^^ ^ >yuen ,yang, mandarin duck.. 

MM-^ ,7ms> fish-hawk. 

*X i^ tu' jC'hiuen, goatsucker. 

dK nm ^^' y^nS wild goose. 

yC 3^ ' ^wo jclii, turkey. 

wi ^ .sien .hauh, cra?ie. 

^ ^ ,chia 'c'hiiieh, /icmse sparrow, 

\^ ^^ ,sha jclii, grouse. 

^ 1^ 'pien 'tsui, hroad-hilled; ^^ 1^ ,tsieii 'tsni, sJiarp-iilled. 

J^ ™ ^ ^ 'i >V^ '^^^ .c'hatig) long tailed. 

7^ 1 » ^JK. °'^^' 'pai^g 'Sr t^'S *^* wings, are large. 

^ -^ ^ )to 'chang puh' ,fen lieu', web-fjoted. 

JM- fl? j^ .hung .poh .er, reci necked. 

7^ Jl shu' shang', on trees ; ^ ^ 'ta ,wo, m,aS;e £/ieir nes£. 

36. Fishes. 

J;li @ Jl 'pi mull' .ii, sole. 
•^■^ ,slia .u, shark. 
"^^ .chin .ii, goldfish. 
pl §g .paih shan', wAife eeZ. 
^ IP .hwang shan', yellow eel. 
^ip-^ 'chi .ii, bream. 
MM'^ .ii, carp. 
^5 ^ .nien, .ii, silure. 
R^>^ ■^ 'ti .ii, mackerel. 
^ ■^ j^ 'ta .u 'wang, fishing net. 
j^ ■^ ^ tiau' .ii ,keu, fish hook., 
^ J^ Jl ^ ,po .11 .ii ,kang, glass globe for gold fish. 
■4^ ■^ yJ2^ ,cliin .ii .o'hi, pond for gold fish. 
^ j^ jsien .ii, fresh fish. 
.hieiL .ii, salt fish. 

37. Gart Furniture, etc. 
-f' .wei 'tsi, cloth covering of a cart. 
. ^ "5^ ,c1ie .lien 'tsi, cari blind, 
,cTio .luu, carf wheels. 
"^ |jl§ -^ jcTie chang' *t&i, smji awning in front. 

[83 J 

W- ^ .cTie Vei, projecting wood behind a cart. 

^W'f' jC'lie >yaen 'tsi, the shafts of a cart. 

§^ i\j> 'keu ,sm, thepart that connects the cart with the wheels, 

$■ ^ "T* »c^e ,siang 't^, inside of a cart. 

^ gg .lung .t'eu, horse collar. 

^ ^ k'wa' .yuen, to sit on the shaft. 

^£ ^ 'kan jc'lie, to drive a cart. 

^ 'T' flt W- lo' '*'S'f ,1a ,,c'lie, mules draw the cart. 

p^ ^ ,k'ai jc'he to set a cart in motion. 

^^^'f' cMa' ,yuen lo' 'tsi, the shaft mule. 

3§^^ ,pien t'au', the side mule, or leading mule. 

»w ffll "T* '^^ pien' 'tsi, whAp. 

^^ ^. t'au' ,c1ie, io harness u cari, 

J^ ^ ,c'he .cheub, axle tree. 

38. TFor^* wsetZ in Building^ 

V0 J^ clii .t'siaug to huild a wait. 

^ l/S mo' .ni, <o plaster with mud. 

^ yj .ma ,tau, hemp. 

~/j 1^ jfang ,cliwen, square bricks ; 'lei ,cliweii, JwjVc? wp bricks. 

^''C .paih ,liwei, Zime ; to brush. 

W ^^ jt'sing ,hwei, blue lime ; a dark clay used to make a 

blue cernent. 
yB 3^ .ni 't'u, mud ; mortar ; tso' ahang' .ni, put on mortar. 
J^ J^ 'clian 't'sau, to mix straw. 
'SSM 'Still .t'eu, stone; man' .shili .t'eu, place stones (as a 

^ flB muh' .t'eu, wood; ^ sliang' .liang, ^jZace beams. 
^ 'wa, <i7es ; ^ Jl. ,ngan shang' 'wa, put on tiles. 
d^ ,p'i, large earth-bricks; gg lei ,p'i, to pile mud bricks. 
j^ -J" .wji tsi, reeds; .,cliiali .li ,ipa, 'to make a hedge. 
Vft w -yeu jC'hlh, paint ; shang' ,C'liih, to paint, 
y^ gif ,cliieli twan^, a partition. 
r. vft shang' .yeu, fo varnish. 

[84 ] 

39. Liquids. 

VH 'tsien, wine; samshoo ; ^ ,cheix 'tsieu, pour out wine. 

Ba t'su', vinegar; 'ff 'ta t'su', buy vinegar. 

Vft ,yeu, oil ; yih' ,cliin, .yeu, a catty of oil. 

wyffl jtsiang .yeu, soy; ,koli shang' .yen put some soy in it. 

^ ITj .nieu 'nai, cow's milk. 

5if VM .twang 'tsieu, brown samshoo, made of coarse rice. 

40. Clothing. 

^S Tr .p'au 'tsi, long robe with waist-band. 

wS ?^ jinien 'ngau, wadded gown without waist-band. 

■^ ^ 'k'an jcliien, waist-coat. 

WTO W J" naien k'u' 'tsi, wadded trowsers ; ^ t'au' k'u', leggings. 

ZrZ TE^ ta' kwa', Zpngr summer robe. 

^ ^^ 'ma kwa', jacket ; ^ Jq ,c'liweii shang', to put it on. 

Tg TT man' 'fcsi, cap ; *^ _L tai' shang', to put it on. 

^£, .hie, shoes ; J^ twan' .hie, sattin shoes. 

qplL jhiiie, boots ; ^ J[§ -^T* heu' 'ti 'tsi, thick-soled. 

"fM "T" wah"tsi, s^ocAe«</s ; JpL , tan wah' 'ts', single faced stockings, 

^T" ^ han' ,shan, shirt. 

/]"* T^ 'siau kwa', Aa^ summer robe. 

flS ^^ jJ^'U tai', girdle ; tcaist hand. 

jf^ "X* k'eu' ,tsi, button ; 'nieu 'tsi, button. 

'^ -y* 'liiig 'tsi, collar. 

41. Sickness. ' 

^ ^ 'ui puh' 'shwang k'wai', not in good spirits. 

^^M pull' jShi 'f «il>, not well. 

Bh ^ ^ '^^^ tai' .t'eng, head-ache. 

^^ jl^ ,fah jshau, feverish. 

^ ^i"^ )^^^ yauh' 'tsi, ajrwe.. 

fli ^ -^ itf t*!' »^^^ P'^'^' 'hsLU, stomach out of order. 

-^ ^ 'chang jC'hwang, <o have ulcers. 

[85 ] 

SSf W ,fali,liwun, to faint. 

1^ ^ -?• jeuh' lieu 'tsi, wen. 

^ S ,t'an jfeng, palsy. 

^ TT jhiah 'ts'i, blind man. 

sSf B^ ,iah 'yen, inflamed eyes. 

?\. ts 'chieu jc'hwang, raise blisters by moxce. 

*h> ®b >sin fiau', palpitation of the heart. 

^ ^ .hwang cheng', jaundice. 

t^ Avt^WJ jsi^iu hwa' puh' tung', indigestion. 

1r P^ 'L* >fah jDgeu ,sin, tendency Jo vomit. 

42. 5oai Furniture etc. 

JKv ^ jfsng -P'eng, a s«iZ. 

^ IB iwf y^ii' .liang .c'hwen, grram junJc. 

S^ J3H chan' .c'Hwen, war junJc. 

1^ tS 'P^i *TiS to ferry over. 

^ft ^ -ysn .c'hwen, saif 6oai. 

^g jt^sang cabin ; hold j hia' ,t'saiig, put down in the cabin. 

MB^Si^ ,t*sang 'pan, deck planks. 

Jgfif^ .cTiwen .wei, mast. 

JffiL "W jS^ jfeDg sin' .cli'i, a streamer. 

^Mi '^t •''^si jt^Dg, mast lanthom. 

®B WL t^iau' 'pan, s^ore plank. 

3^ ^- -uE jtsiang ,chiiin cbu', posis o?* which ropes are wound. 

Jjfc to', rudder J ^^WCi ,pan to', sieer io the right. 

Tf^ .wei, masi ; ^ )|^i ,t'ui to', steer to the left. 

^^Am •'^^i i^''^) fnast hoops. 

Sli 1^ j^s^g .hwan rij H«gf for tackling. 

vT ^u 't* liau', singing. 

JM JS« 'ting ,feng, contrary wind. 

>j>^ 4>P chau' chau', io row. 

*fe ^E >la .p'eng, raise f A.e sail. ' 

j|§ ;f-p. .c'hwen 'kan, path on side of boat. 

^^ jt'sang ,t'i, hatch way stairs. 


^ ^ 'kwan .cTiwen, r'i, chief boat-man, 
^ ^ neng* .c'hwen, to work the hoat. 
^'^ ,0'heng .c'hwenj the hoat men pole a hoat. 
^/p3i t'an' .sheng, towing rope. 
g ^ jkwan jt'sang, front cabin. 
y^ ;§w 'hwo jt'sang, cooking cabin. 
'Bif^'^^>W:MM^'Bfl^ yt. .men ,tih .d^iwen k'wai' 

siang' yen' ,ts'i si' jtih, i/0Mir 6oai is swift as a swallow. 
W «t ^ ffi ^ 'two ,chi ,tu stui' .ohauj the-boat men are all 


43. Fwrniiure of a Souse. 

^ -y' jcTioli 'tsi, table ; Jj ,faivg jch'oli, square table. 
f^ -f' 'i 'tsi, chair ; ^ ,c'liiueii 'i, round arm-chair. 
/fjn -y* wuk' 'tsi, stool; yueh' liang' ,clio]i, round table. 
>^^ 'pan_,teiig, longstooi; bench; er' .jen ,teng a stool f of two. 

^ kwei', cupboard; J^ Tpg 'ting ,skn g kwe?, «fees^ on the top 

of a cupboard. 
^ -f" ,siang 'tsi, chest ; .p'i ,siang leather trunk. 
'Sx Jit ,pei' ,clii, a long table on which bedding is piled. 
^ yu .c'ha ,clii, iea iaSfe. 

^RJ ^ .t'iau ngan', long high table ; ,sha ngan', table for books. 
^fe ^ .p'en chia'j Jasiw stand. 

^ ^ ,8hu chia', book^ttse; ,koh ,slia ,tili, /or pladng boohs. 
j© ifi .c'hu kwei', kitchen cupboard. 

^ ^ .king , siang, baggage trunk. ^ jp§ ,c1ia ,siang, iea cAes^. 
% 01 ,kwa .p'ing, _/?ower_/an -f^^fc ,hwa/p'en,_^ower jsofe. 
^^ fj ching' .t'ai, mirrow stand. 

^!^ ^^ man' eking', looking glass. 

■f^ hwa', jow^Mre; tsai' .t'siang shang' kwa' ,ohok AwMgr OM the wall. 

^j* -^ tui' 'tsi, hanging sentences in pairs. 

^ ^ 'chiau .ta, footstool or .ta 'ckiau teng' f Ae same, 

^ 7p§ ,shu , siang, book box. 

^ ^ ^ -tnk ,sku .p'an, a tray for pencils, inkstone, etc. 

^>ffit.^ muk' ,kwa .p'an, a tray on wMch is placed a frof 
grant melon. 

[87 ] 

TJ^ ^ man' oMa', hat stand. [flowers. 

^)pj) kwa' .p'ing, a hanging Jar; 'k'o 'i ,c'ha ,hwar,/o>' holding 

Wi ^ fan' jclioh, dining table. 

p^ .cTiwang, bedstead. 

jl^ ,teng, lamp ; kwa' ,teng, hanging lanthorn. 

44. Insects, Reptiles etc. 
^ ^g .ma ,i, awf ; loan' .p'a, crawling in disorder. 
^ SX cTieu' .c'hung, bug ; 'yau .jen, they bite people. 
^ ^ mih' ,feng, Aoney feee ; mill' ,feng ,wo, bee-hive. ^ 

S liR *™^' ■'^> booh worm ; ,c'hila ,s1ih, eat boohs. 
1^ ^K •li'^ jt'ieli, butterfly (read .tie) ; ,t'o c'hiau', leaves his shell. 

S^X^ .wu jkung, centipede; 'yau .jen 'yea .tuh, fAe^ Aave a 

poisonous bite. 
WH =?» yen' .yen, centipede with angular legs. 
SBS -t'san 'chien, chrysalis of the silk worm. 
^^ .c'han, or$|Pj6g ,chili .lieu, cicada or broad locust. 
$irt ,sih sliwai', or 4ffi# 'c'hii ^ctii, cricket. 
^a i 1^ tsan' .wang 'ma, hearth cricket. 
$E $51 joTiieu 'yin, or f^ffi A|s 'c'hii shan', eariA worm. 
^ "rC A .yung 'hwo .c'liung, _^re-/y. 
^ -^ 'ken tsau', fleo ; hwei' pang', f^ey can jump. 
S^ ,t'sang ,ying, housefly. 

!^ it^ .ma 'cha, ^ ^ .hwang .c'liung, migratory locust. 
^ -^ ,si 'tsi, louse. 
it ^ '*'''^ 'keu, mole cricket. 

^ -^ .wen 'tsi, mosquito ; Irr .wen chang', mosguito curtain. 
j|^-^ ,hieh'tsi, scorpion; .na 'i ,pa ,clioh .jen, they sting with 

their tails. 
^ .t'san, silk-worm ; 't'u ,si, produce silh. 
j^ ^ .lo ,si, sjJiVa/ sAe//; '^ ^ 'hai .lo, fow^r musical shells. 
1^ ^ ,chu ,cliu, field spider. 
3S. WL ^^ '^^ jkuli .cliung, weevil corn-eater. 
^ ^ -ha ,ma, toad. 
fi "^ -pai^ "^^^^ (-l^S -er,) sand-fly. 

[88 J 

45. Common Verbs., 

U^ Abolish, ^ c'Lu', ^ fei'. 
uc -Jki Accept, i\^ j^ ,slieu nah'. 
^ Add, M .cliia. 

:i''^pL^^ Affect, ^ ^ 'kan tung'. 
S-z^ '0 ^ Amputate, ^|J T» .la hia'. 

Zt^ Ascend, ._L shang. 
i^v-") R^^'i/Ask, ^wen',^yau',nR't'sing. 
we' *J> Avoid, ;%, 'mien, J^ pi', 
ij^ .tK,'' Baptize, |® Jtc jsti 'si. 
<u' tii^ Bathe, ^ ^ 'si 'tsau. 

.2^-^ Beat, ^ 'ta. 
(jfli^ Beat clothes, ^ ,shwai. 

^<w Wti»^Begin work, Jy lH tung' ,kung- 
i^*<j«J^Believe, 'fg^in', "(^^ sin' 
■>^^ ' -fuh, iS'f^ ,siangsin', 
i^^Jt^ Bend, ^ ,wan. 

<^e./l''^A«w Besiege,^ .wei k'wun'. 
f«^'*V^^'^ind, i^ ^ 'kwun 'pang. 

"t^^ Boil, ^ 'chu. 
C^tfiXe, Bolt, ^4 'shwen. [.hu. 

« 'oWitA. Burn in cooking, >^ R^ 'c'hau 
i<t ^*^►«^ Bury, ^ ^ .mai tsang'. 
-T^t^'^ Buy, ^ 'mai. 

.^^'V Calculate, ^C swan'. 
1.^ 5C Call, tS P^ ,chau ,hu. 

^^i-^^ Call out, 1^ .Jang. 
w,"!&4 Can, ^ .neng, -^ .teh. 
X" ht ^'^'^' ^ *^^'' ^^.pau. 
'^h^ijiP^'^^' ^ -^'l^S' It ^'cfi chu'. 
^<x.>^'' Choose, ^5^ 'chien 'siiien. 
: ^ImK. Comply, -f^^ ,i .t'sung. 
;i^^;i«A.'' Condemn, XE # ting' tsui'. 

Confess, ^, H jen' tsm.'.yf>^^ 
Congratulate, ^ §l'kungTii. Al~^<'^ 
Connect, "j^j^ ,tsieh sii'. 'tUid~"io^ 
Conquer, fi^ .teh sheng'.t«^^«>»t^ 
Cough, ^Jife .k'oseu'. it'^QoS' 
Cover, ^ _t. kai' shung'. iis. 7-^ 
Covet, ;^,t'an. . ^ j » 

Crack, ^ ^ lieh' ,k'ai., lietti-^ 
Crush, M^ y^h' h^ai'. aX "'^ 
Cry, tt4 chiau', PJ^ han'. fii^^"^, i&l 
Cure, ^^ chi"hau.4' '^'^ 
Cut,- ^1 .la, uith scizzor's, 'chiau. "Z*'*^ , 
Decide, ^ ^ ting' ,kwei. .dpy^ cmH^ 
Delay, ^ 3^ ,tan .koh. ta, fCoi^ 
Deliberate, ^ ^,ohen,choh.'S«,«>^Al^ 
Depend on, ^ ^ i'lai', ^f^ 

Descend, ^ "F ^ chiang,/ij«;'a'^ 
hia' .lai. 

Desire, ^ yuen'. -yK^!^ 

Desist, Jjt ft 'chi chu'. tJ^''^ * 
Despair, j^ 3^ .tsiu&h wang'.^w^'W^^ 
Destroy, ^^ 'hwei hwa'. .^j^^hjCa^ 
Detain, ^ ^ .lieu ,cho. ^j*- iitii«>U^ . 
Die, ^ 'si, ^iH: c'ha'shi'. i^^d't^ 
Differ, ^ ^ ,c'ho ,oho. 'teiR, BUJLj 
Diminish, ^^ 'chien 'shau. Afl,'^;l^^^ 
Direct, '^^^^ 'chi'tien.. %*,^ tCmf 
Disclose, S tH ^ lu' ,c'huh iCi:>liiidj 
.lai (also leu'.) tn. 

Discuss, ^ i^ pien' lun*. Ue.' ig^ 
Disperse, ^ ^ san' ,k'ai. a^ Ke. 
Disregard, '^^ -V^hkvi'.iialLiUo 


[89 ] 
4u ,siau hwa', 

Dissolve, j 

A^ hwa' 
•Yr\yydi Distinguish, yf" ^ ,feii .ming_ 
i\, dtvM^ Disturb, ^ ^ 'chiau tuug'. 
«<j -^ t)ivide, :^ §^- ,fen ,k'ai. 
li, 'fe/wX Divine, |5 K jclian puh'. 
ZiiuJ' Do, ^ tso'. 

^^^'K' Draw, ^ ,1a, ^tji ,t'o. 
/t^t€ Drive, ^^ 'kan. 
(C' vHUic Dry, El® ^^ shai' ,kan. [chu'. 
^(tAii-^Dwell, '^ chu'. Jg '^ ,cliii 
'^cMiMJL Eat, P^ ,c'bili. 
^^yv^ Endure, ^t> jfijf jen' nai'. 
'% 2^ Engrave ^J ^ ,keli tsi'. 
1^* 2t:Mr Enjoy, ^ ^ 'hiang shea'. 
J,' t^'.fii/' Enquire, ^ ^ 'ta ,t'ing. 
^ i^jNEnter, ^ ^ tsin' c'hii'. 
^-(^^Entice, )§] ^ 'yiii 'je"- 
^ Ai^L^ Entrust^ ft # ,t'o fu'. 
«C ;Xv^Escort, ^ J3| hu' sung'. 
<r iJLoJ^ Examine, ^ ^ 'k'au ,cliieu. 
I , ^t-W^Except, ^ .c'hu, J^ ;^h 'i wai'. 
;;j^^jgj^Exert yourself, ii| ^,c'liuh lih'- 
/*v/ liMf'Ci, Expand, j^ ^ ^,shen ,k'wan. 
< wi^l Extingu^h,^]^J^ mieh' mo'. 
^Wd^-'M.^ Faint, fl^ M ^ .liwun kwo' 

\,p^. ■ Pall, IJX. T ,tieli hia', :^ T^ 
^10-^ tiau' hia'. 
t' -e.;^ Ean, tl^ 'ta shan'. 
<i,^V P...r, t6 p'a'. 
-wwuc I'eed, P^ wei'. 
^^''.^ Feign, ft i^ 'ohia tso'. 
fe''/C)^ Fight, tr^'tachia'. 

Finish, ^ ^ tso' .wan. ?«^ ^ 
Fix, *^ T» ting' hia'. oU^ 'o 
Flatter, ^^ .^ feng' .c'heug. "vuv^ 
Fling, i5 .jeng. dyi 

Flow, *^ .lieu. C^-U 

Fly, ^ ,fei. ^ 

Forbid, ^it chin' 'chi, cl^ 
Forget, ]S -wang. '1/v-i 

Freeze, '/^ p^i tung' ,ping. ttS^ 
jfe .c'heng tsieu'. Z^ • 
"^1 'tu .t'sien. "trjt^u 

Fulfil, J? 


Give, Sl sung', ^ 'chih ('kei.) 4m*i^ 

.Go, ^ c'hii', ^'wang. Q-^N. 

Grieve, ^ pt^ ,yeu men'. 

Guard, Jc -»}-;• 'pa ■'sheu. 

Guess, ^3 ,t'sai, . 

Help, m M ,siang ,pang, 

^ ,pang chu'. 
Hide, 1^ |§ .t'sang nih'. 
Hire, M. ,tsu, % lin'. ['fah. "fe^/ 
Imitate, ^ .hioh, 5^ ^ hiau' '^ '^ 
Inform, ■^ qlf kau' su'. "A<j'^^ 

Injure, -^ ^ ,shang hai', ;p <^ / 

^ 'sun hai'. •di^e'* ^O^ 

Instruct, ^ r;I| chiau' hiiin^ li-t^ . 
Intercept, ^Hi .tsieh .Ian. Xtlfi^. 
Investigate, ^^.c'ha,c'hah.*^*(j 
Invite, gm 't'sing. '!tiiJ"v 

Kneel, .^ kwei'. [,chieh 'ts'i. '^if** 
Tie a knot, tr ^ ^ ''ta- ^'^ 
Ladle, i/'yi 'c'han. <^a, 

Lead, X^\ '^ 'yin tau'. J*^*^''' 

Leave it . U. re, '^ij ~J^ lieu ,cIjo. ti^ < 
-Leave a place, J/^ift gfj i .k'ui. -^ /j 

[90 ] 


t^ Lend, ^^ tsie*, 
^•^Xt^Let, |l| ^ ,c'liu}i lin'. 
«'iJ^ Lie down, Bft p .mien hia'. 
"i^'O^ 1^ T^ 'fang hia'. [hwa'. 

*^'e^ Lie, (falsely,) ^ ^ 'hwang 
(j/C€'^'' Lift, ^^'chii 'c'hi. ^^ 
H^ ti^''" .c'hing 'c'hi. 

'c'lneu. ^. k'an'. 
\ ifi chau' ,ying. 
,<j^< '^ Make, fj[ tso'. 
We." ^^'' Manage, ^ ^ 'kwan 'li. 
i' tiv^/'Mark, # fp 'ta yin' 

);M,-oljfiL Match, @E S p'ei' ,cbo. 
P'^-WMay, PT^'k'o'i. 
^V y Measure, ]g .liang. 
«jJi0^^^A4.Meet, 5® W ^' ,cha- 
-«i*i^ Mend, "^ ,siea. 
ij)et^ ««/fc»wMix, ^ ^ .t'iau .lio. 
^'^^wMock, Ji^lfhi' lung-. 
,j^ HX. Molest, ^;^ .nan .wei, 
y^ Nail, #r ting'. 

' iiM^ Obey, ^ ^ .tsan .t'sung. 
^^Waf Offend, -^p* :^|1 ,kan fan'. 
^"/^^ Oppose, +SJ^ -cbii chu'. 
L^ tLi, Ought, i@ "igT ,ying ,tang. 
■' ' j!^"'' Overturn, ^.-^J ,t'ui 'tau. 

^U Peel,fyj^poh.p|i. 

!l'^te(-i^®''^°'^^*®' ^ 5® * .c'hwen 
kwo' p'hii'. 

\wL yjilPerspire, [Ij VT" ,c1iuh ban'. 
^,^^ Plait, ^ if 'ta,pien. 

Plane, tl'] -p'an. l-v^ 

Plough, ^ ,keng or ,ching. fid. 
Pray, ^ -^ 'tau kau'. -fee' ^^^'^ 



Prepare, J^ 'jl^ ii' pei'. 

Print, fn yin.^ ^/u^'^ 

Proceed, Jl "ilO J^ shang'Zie-7vie.te^ 

.t'sien 'tseu. 
Produce, |i| ,c'huh, ^ \^ai.'iiel 
,sheng ,c'huh. [cheug'. ^ C^Xi^ 

Produce evidence, ^| pit 'yin tit"/ '" 
Prosper, J^ |JI ,hing wang'. t^l^tf^ 
Protect, ^^i 'pau yeu'. ■^,:»e'i4iLD' 
Parify.^'si. ^ ^' \ 

Pursue, ia. ^ ,chui 'kan. tVv^L "^^i^ 
Push, til ,t'ui. -jf'^ 

Rail at persons, ^ yVma' .jen. >*uC 2''»^ 
Reap, ^ ,sheu, :^ lien'. ^' /Jj/ 

Read, ^ .tuh. 

Rebel, ^^tsaii"fan. 7JU ^ 
Receive, ^^ sheu' ,chob. Jl^ aiie^ 

do. ^Ij -^ tau' 'sheu. "til^ Jiw 
Redeem, ^J .shub. L,yuen. -(.'/tk/ 


Refine, J^ lien'. ^> 

Reform, ^IC IE 'kai cbeng'. ^' ^^'^ 
Release, ^ ^^ ,k'ai ,sbib. ''I'Skf K'ioivu 
Remove, ^ ^^ ,pan ,cbia. -jajj Kc 
^spajj ia *S -P'ei .bwan. X (m^ m*^ 
Repent, -{^^ 'hwel'kai. ^aW*,' Jt^'' 
Reply, 111 ^ .bvrei ,tab. W.*^ 'fo^ 
Represent, ^ ^f ,tang tso'. ^ ■;feii 

tseb' pei'. i^aJL (f^^ 

[91 ] 

le- .04^ Rest, ^ ,^ ,ngan siTi. 
W- (%•«•' Return, |p] ^ .hwei c'hir' 
/(W^^ Eeward, _^ 'shang. 

Eide horses, i^ ,elii. 

Rub K .mo. 

't'sing jUgan. 
1 san' jk'ai, 

'''^^ Salute, HR ^ 

ei. K'& .Scatter, ^ % 

"^ Scoop, :j^ wah'. 

'•P cL^See, ^ Mj k'au' chien'. 

\a, Od^iA, Seize, ^ -^ .na ,olio. 

1-' |/^ fiend, tr II 'ta ,fat, fg ^f 

*^ <iia-nj' jshf 

1 Vn/h.? ''Serve, 

^ shi' feng'' 
,yau, ^ 'teu. 

efr^ ■fe^'' Shake, 

t''i> Shave, |Hj t'l'. 

H.vii'ei.- Shut, ^ ,kwan. 

tc'i^ '^i'^8'' 1^ Chang'. 

i:ith^<«^^i"S6' 'J^ ^ "^ shau' 
^ 'shai or seh. 

i?^^^;'^ Sit down, ^"T* tso' hia 

/ ^ -^ 'ta 'tsui pa' 'tsi. 
^ •P'A^n^ Smear, *^ .t'u. P^ ,p'en. 
'i a4iMi> Smile, '^'^ -han siau'. 
, Alji>- Smuggle, ^\ 1% ,t'eu shui'. 
ltkii>tiJLS,na^ candle, 3J^ ^ ^ ^ 
rtio jChiah c'hii' lah' ,hwa. 

^ ^^' Soothe, ^ ^ jUgan wei'. 



fiuaJU,fti< Speak, 1^ fS' ,shwoh hwa'. 
^ MD-iC Spend, ^ M fei' yung'. 
J'^ Spin, |]^ ^ 'I'ang sien'. 
'^^^ Sprinkle, ;g^. 's&a. 

Start, ^ ^ 'c'hi „shen. 

Sting, f Ij tVi'.. 

1 i 

Strike, tr 'ta. ^' 

Surrender, ^ )^ .t'eu.hiang. ^^fW '0 
Sustain, g ,tang. fet^^ 

Swear, ^ ^ .fah shi', |if^ 7J> 

Take, ^ .na, ^C 't'sii. tuv^ (?^'t 

Take up time, |>i |5^ ,tan "wu. ^ - "^ 
Taste, -^ .c'hang. 



Tear, ^ ^ ,si p'o', ^ ■f"^'^ 

Tempt, ^ '^ 'yeu hwoh', y^'^ /A/^ 

Thank, |^ ||f sie' sis'. 

Think, ^^ i^ ,si 'siang. 

Thirst, y^'k'oh. 

Throw, ^ ,jeng. 

Toast, i^ k'ang', i|^ 'k'au 

Translate, i]^ ^1 jfan i'. 

Tjeat, ^ 4^ k'an' tai^. 

Tremble," ^^ ,fah 'teu, ijfj UifJ' 

H^ III 'ta chan' chan'. '^tie/t^ t 
Try, fg^iS^ shi' sKi' k'an'. d^4^ A 
Turn back, J^.hwei 'chwen. av^ 4^ 
Wait, ^'^ 'tang heu'. "tit^-'^a^ 

Wake, @i 'sing. ^/^ns.) %U^^ 

Waken, W^ ^ chiau' 'sing. iij-oC ^0^ 
Warn, ^5^ 'ching chie'. (^La^' hU> 
Waste, :J^ ^ lang' fei'. ^^^ f^) 
Watch the house, ^ ^ k'an' K'Vko 

Weave, ^ ^ ,chih pu'. l^^-l^ ^^'^ 

Weep, ^ ,k'uh 


Weigh, ^ c'heng'.. ;^i'vU^'^ 

Wrap, ^ 7§ ,pau ,choh. ;;<2-(^-*t '^^(it-(! 
Wring dry, ^ ^ 'nieu ,kaii. 'r^MiJoll 'ftiX. 
Write, !^ 'sie. ^ ^ 

[ 92 1 

46. Distinctive Numeral Particles* 

^oC '(0 koS as in ' — 10 /V -yili ko' .jen, a man. Also of cash, 
loaves, etc. 

^^a^ ^ 'chan, small cup. Used of lamps, tea-cups, china-trays, etc, 
rC^,i^ 5i^ jchang, to stretch. Numeral of tables, bows, lips, etc. 
t^^^icJi ■^ jChih. Numeral of fowls, sheep, boats. 

'^**' 45c >^^- Numeral of pencils, fifes, branches. 

cJi-'i^ j^ c'hu', place. Numeral of places and houses. 
lU-t-Y^ ^ jfsMg, to seal. Numeral of letters and packets. 

/ti» ^^ chia', a support. Numeral of cannon. 

"/Cir^ ^IR ,ken, root. Numeral of poles, masts, etc. 

'/('fii^^ pj 'k'eu, mouth,. Numeral of coffins, bells, water vessels. 

■^tiue,^ 'n chien', divide. Numeral of things, clothes, 
s^-^Uie^ ^ chiuen', roll up. Numeral of pictures. 

/f'<^ ^ 'k'o, small head. Numeral of pearls and grain. 
. ^'io ^ ,k'o, rank ; order. Numeral of trees. 
iV<^ ^ 'kwan, pipe. Numeral of fifes, pencils. 

^■■n/^^^ k'wai', a piece of. Numeral of dollars, stones, etc. 

-Ci^A •f^ 'ling, neck. Numeral of mats, blinds, etc. 

•mi^ ]^ mien', face.. Numeral of flags, drums, etc. ,c'ha shang .c'hi 

'tsi, set up a flag. 
•^c' J2 'P^j handful. Numeral of knives, mallets, clubs, spoons, 

fu»/t^^i^ 'pen> root. Numeral of books, account books. 

•ft-'tif^ 05 'p'ih, <o pair. Numeral of horses, mules, etc. 
^f^''tb ^ p'u', to spread out. Numei-al of beds and couches. 

"^"^^ ^ P*^'' ^^^P- Used of situations. Che' pu' .t'ien ti', such a 
position as this. 

-d^" -^ 'so, place. Numeral of houses. 

•^-M^ fiS -t'eu, head. Used of animals. ,San 'paih .t'eu ,nieu, three 

hundred cows. 

* These particles are used to connect a number with its noun, ■vjhen that noun 
represents an individual thing, i. e. when it is an appellative noun. There 
are about forty such particles, and of these arbitrary usage determines 
■which shall be employed with any noun. 

[ 93 ] 

■C^^-^ '^ .t'iau, sprout branch- Numeral of collars, clubs, ropes, dogs, 

dragons, snakes, fishes, roads, doctrines, etc. 
'^?*«^ T^ 'ting, summit. Numeral of hats, sedan chairs. 

Va 7K 'to. Numeral of flowers. 

t^Ci. j^ to'. Numeral of walls. 

tS^ Bp twan', orderly. Numeral of things, affairs. 

2^* ^ tso', a seat. Numeral of inns, temples, hills, etc. 

Vtn't^^^ .wen. Numeral of copper cash. 

VHxC'' ^g .wei, tail. Numeral of fishes. 
io '^ wei', seat. Numeral of scholars, mandarins, teachers. 

47. Significant Numeratives.* 

d^M. g^ ,chang, a sheet of paper, skin, flat thin cakes, fipj 5^ TT ^SK 

'liang jchang .chuh 'chi, two sheets of bamboo paper. 
Srf 'L. ^, ,c'he, a carriage load or barrow load of wood, lime, bricks, etc. 
^ScieX ^ .che, a fold of paper. 

* |5^ chen', a gust or burst of wind, rain, hail (pau' 'tsi,) or 
thunder. ^ J — ' j^ ^ 'ta 'liau yih chen' .lei, there was 
a burst of thunder. 
C*^t4sr i^ ,choli, a table of rice. 
iX\}f '^i chu', a stick of incense.^ ^ .c'hwfin, a boat load of anything. ^ 7 — ^ Jift 1^ #. 
^ .lai 'liau yih' .c'hwen .hien .ii, a boat of salt fish has come, 

'jh^ JS^'ijjg.^ ^fuj, 'tsi^ a fold of cloth, of blinds, of curtains. 
^**'*^ ^ .feng, a sealedpacket of letters, etc. 
^(fti. ^^ 'hiang, a heap of silver. 
VK'fiitff'' lU 'k'eu, a mouthful of rice, etc. 
7C^ ^ jchien, an apartment of a house. 
CJ-A^'*' '^ chii', a sentence of books, words. 
7l^lt«i^ :^ k'wai', a piece of land, cake. 
■:^'*..nwY j^ .k'wun, a faggot or bundle of wood, strihg. 

• These words are used to ootinect number with material nonuB or with other 
notins, when a part of them needs to be spoken of. Significant numera- 
tives are definite or indefinite. Those which are definite are weights and 
measures. Those which are indefinite are here exemplified. 



'Cite- yg lieu', a stream or tract of water, land, etc. 

Ce^A^ >j»l£. lih', a grain of corn, etc. 

/^^ Ju 'pa-. * handful of rice, etc. 
yi-^m. 'Q ,pau, a bundle of sugar, clothes, etc. 

'^<i:e- fi^ .p'iau, a scoop of water, etc. 
^'CC' /y ,p'ien, a piece of land, water, clouds, snow; a, collection of 

y^*^ ^ p'ien', a piece of writing or of a book. 
■/L't^A. -^ 'P'i^j "'■ piece of cloth. 

Jv-tA. im -si^' ^ ™**'j ^ feast, » party of g'uests. 
■*^^ ^ shan', a fan, fold of a door. 
■■^^dt' •^ 'sheu, 0. liarid covered with blood, earth, etc. 
'<X lOOftv^^ >L,\ 'sheu .sin, a handful of rice„ etc. 
c^^ lS -t'ai, a load (carried by two persons) of anything. 

"^if^^ff tai', a tract of land, water, streets, clouds, etc. 
:^ay -PP tan', a load (100 catties) of anything. 

'^^'fee- la tau', a path or stream of lighL 

^s^ffllc ^ .t'eu, a /leaci or end of string. 
^i^ue -^fe jt'iau, a Zoaii (carried by one person.) 

cCCes, "^ .t'iau, a length of anything. 
;zi''<c^l|\'^ ,t'ieh, a piece of plaister, of gold leaf, etc- 
'2*^'' Tth 'f-ien, a do<, a little of. 
"t^fioJl, j^ .t'o/a heap of salt, of cash; a cake of pastry, etc. 

^ .t'o, a ball, made by winding ; a cake of pastry, etc. 
^^ta-n^ ^ tun', a meal of rice, etc., a beating (with 'ta, to strike.) 
^^t\JL ^ jtui, a heap of earth, fruit, stones; crowd of men, animals. 
,^!^ ^ .t'wan, anything round, a ball of hair, hemp, silk. 

^ ^ ,t'san, a meal. 

"Z^t/n^ ^ .t'seng, a story of pagodas towers.; ihickuess of paper, 

'^iel^m^i .tsieh, a joint or subdivisiqn of anythinjf, as of bamboo, a 
whip, a finger, the spine. 

yV-vv*;. ^ .wan, a pill ,pf medifijne, 

Tno 9t? ^^^'i '"*^^' '''^""''^' °^ medicine, food, etc. 

.[ 95 3 

48. Weights, Measures, Vessels, and other definite divisions. 
'^^ ^. 'clian, small cu 


£Uh)K )fi5 chan', a stage on a journey; in Kiang-nan 90 li 30 English 

miles ; in North China a distance varying between 60 and 
130 li. 

'^^^'^■^% K^ jchang, leaf oi a book, of paper, of gold leaf; a single skin. 

KjvC- jpL ,chang, section of a book. 

'(A4m£ ^ cliang', ten feet, or 141 inches English. 

It'x***, ^ c'hau', the lOOOfA fart of a sheng or -pint. 

V'^*^ ^^ c'heng', 10 catties or pounds weight. 

'tilflt^ ts. 'c'h'ih, Chinese /ooi; 14 inches and one-tenlh English. 

''/^ ^m -c'hu, a wardrobe ; hooh-case. 

"^^^ ^ ^ ,chung 'tsi, a cup. 

"r"'*^ ^^ ,+eii, a candareen or tenth part of a mace ; one cent; tenth of 
. an inch ; a minute. 

^^*^ ^ .hau, a small measure of length; tenth of a li. 

f O'^ \* hia', a stroke of the clock ; an hour. 

'/*A '2**ak'" IS- J* '^'^ '•'-'' '^ small box.. 

iyifjij^dX. -^JC hieh, ^"^ hwei' 'tsi, '^ j^ 'hwei .er, ('hwur, in north- 
ern China,) an instant of time.- 
^■4^/tti ^g .hu, a tea pot or wi^ie pot. 
'fuia£u ^^ ,huh, 10th part of a hau. 
-w-^-v^iv^ .huh, /ye iew. 

-^i.^ UK jkang, a large vessel for holding water, and other liquids. 
yC«:g J5 )keng (,ching in the north,) a watch, 5th part of a night ; 
counted from night-fall to day-break. 

^ij .k'eh, quarter of an hour. 

C/,a*k^ /r jC^iii; '^ cattfj, \\ tbs. English. 
Ci^i-^ ^^ 'c'hing, 100 men of land. 
•r^rr^ ■^ 'chioh, a drinking horn, a horn of wine; 'chianh, 4th of 
anything; corner. 

f.^k4l^^ chiiien', chapter of a book. 
. AJ-£^ -^ hoh', tenth of a sheng or pint ; in nortben usage, a handful. 

[96 J 

/^•i^nei fj ,kiing, a how, (as a measure for land) fi've feet. 

ci^ii^ 'flff cliii'j a sentence. 

ICiajC (^ kwaa', a pitcher ; a pot. 

AMTt-'Utl '^k, ~jf* .k'wang 'ts'i, a basket. 

^Wv tS kwei', a wardrobe ; cupboard. 

i\iJm ^^ jkwoh, a frying pan. 

C^ ^S .Ian, a basket. 

ila/)'' ^^ 'leu, a hamper (witli a small mouth.) 

^'^ ^, 'li, Cliinese mile, grd of an English mile. 

Ct^ Tm. .li, lOi/i. pori of a fen; 100th. par b of an inch. 

CiA/' p^ 'liangj a tael ; Ig oz; sixteenth of a catty, or l-12th of a tb. 

""■i^ HA 'meu, 'mu, 240 square pu', or 6, 400 square Chinese feet. 

■^i'y^^ ^p 'miau, « second. 

'i*^**- :^ .nien, a year. 

fr** ^ffl .p'an, a plate, or tray of earthenware or wood; 

"*^ ^fc .p'en, dish ; bowl ; basin. 

VTt&. ^g peng', an earthen pitcher. 

"/*-*<- ^£ ,pei, a wine cup. 

•''*^-<8- ^llk .p'iau, a cocoa-nut scoop. 

"L^m^ JpL -p'ing, a bottle ; tiase. 

-yo^^l^iw/E yih, 40/eei; of cloth. 

•VM'^ :^ Yim', five feet, used in measuring land. 

'd€li\, ^S ,shah, an instant (southern.) 

-^X\i£'''^^ 'shang, a forenoon or afternoon. 

yCAAA' "jgf 'sheu, a piece of poetry. 

C*U« yr jsheng, a pint measure (of rice IJ catties in the north.) 

CO iSL sh'i', a generation ; an age ; thirty years. 

Z H^ -shi, B^ ^ .shi .c'hen, B$ '(^ -shi heu', an hour j two 
English hours. ^ ^'*^1'^ ''** 


'nglish hours. ^ ^'**^1 

^ ,si, lOOi/i par^ o/ a .liau; 10th part of a hull'. 

.rf/^fc TJsg .siang, a chest ; 6oi» 

i^^ bUi', a year. 
jiiffO^^^ jsliau, a bucket. 
(jj;^ ^ ta', a generation. 

^,c' "M tan', apeculj one hundred catties ; 133^ English poundfti 
6U^. |g .fan, a pitcher. 

ticA' i^ fang',, a column of characters. 

'^•**'' •T^ 'teu, ten pints or sheng. 
c^^^'^')i^ -^^ .tieh 'tsi, a^jZaie. 
-cj^ W^si-ffR ^ 'fcien ,cliung, aw hour. 
tJtu^ 7C ,t'ien, a day. 
Zi^uL&xi "pjj ^ .tsieh c'hi', solar term ; 24:th of a solar yedt. 

Myi&. ^ .t'sien, a mace; tenth of an ounce or tael ('liang); apiece of 
coined money. 
itbilulL ^ ,t'soh, IQQth of a sheng or pint, 
ytifi'a^y TJ' t'sun'j a Chinese inch; 1. 175 of an English inch.' 
^*'^" iTO 't'uDgj « larrel; caslc or lucket. 
'Y'V^ ^ weng', a large water vessel. 

"^"^ wS Vail, a smaZZ &asm. 
y*-^ ^^jeh', a leafoi a book. 

49. Collectives^ 

'W*- ^4^ ^ "X* jclii 'tsi, a branch of flowers, of a family, of an army. 
tJ/UkM^ ^ c'hwen', a chain of cash, beads, pearls. 

"XXt^ PB f'l'j ** pair or sei of antitlietie'S;l sentences, of ear-rings. 
C cC- 'TT .bang, a ranA; of trees, of paralled threads. 
v»'"wiA. ^g .liQ^ ({ quiver of arrows. 
""■^-C ^^ 'hwo, a company of men. 
C*'^*'*'*'*Mj' ^ .chiiia, aw army. 
fift,.nu. y\ ^ ^ k'wai' .er, </ie whole of a thing. 
fl/k<v»N "^^ kwan', o chain of gold, precious stones or pearls. 
<jt>Y*v'^ ^^ .c'hiun, ajloch or /lerci of sheep, cattle, wblves. 

"[■CvC ^t 'ku, s^are in trade, divison of an army; breeze of wind. 
< '^'"'^ -^F •p'ai, a ro/'i of timber,- bamboo. 
/•''*-' 3il£ jpaiij a set of men ; ranlc of soldiers. 
"^* t^ rf* p'ien', a splinter ; collection of buildings. 


^>a 'sf jshwang, a pair of shoes, chopsticks (k'wai' 'tsi'.) 

ta> W ^^i'j "^ ''■'^^^ °^ land. 
,.^^ ^ ,tau, parcel of 100 or more sheets of paper. 
^/^ ^ t'au', a covering; cover of books, (several stitched Tolumes 
placed together in a loose cover are called a t'au.) 

^h^ ^ •'^'liij fcawwer, ^ i|5 — ' ^ .shuh 'na yih' .c'hi, to which 
u banner does he belong ? 

^t^ ^ .tsuh, kindred, clan. 

fflaC^ V$^ '^^'^'t 3- party of five or more soldiers. 

i^a^ ^ tui', a pair. 

50. Auxiliary Nouns of Quality. 

C^h^n-c^ ^ 'chung, sort of men ; portion of silver, j^ ^g yv che' 
'chung .jen, this sort of men. 

'£><^ II hiangS part oi ^sort oi. ^ — ^^^iM ^ '^ M 

— ■^^^iMM~¥''^ che' .yih'hiang' .t'sien shl' 

ku' .c'hwen ,tih, — na' .yih hiang' .t'sien shi ku' ,c'he 'tsi 

,tih, this part of the money is to hire a boat, and that to hiife 

a cart, ja — '^ ^'|pj ^^^' -J^^ hiang' sh'i' .t'sing, this 
sort of thing. 

^Uie tf ,kan, stem; sort of. i&if^^^ — ^A .t> ,men 

yen' shi' yih' ,kan .jen, they are another sort of people. 

-^^W lei', sort oi.'^^ — W.^ K -Puli sti' -yih lei' ,tih 

/ „ .jen, he is not the same sort of man. 
'^- ^ ,pan, the same in kind, sort of ; ^^^^ che' ,pan 
,kwang 'ching, this sort of appearance. 

r^ ^yang', kind of ; ^ 'JH A tSl che' yang' .jen 'p'in, this 
kind of men. 

51. Numeral Particles to Verbs. 

% ,fan, to turn over. ^ :§ — 1^ ^ T yeu' shi' yih' 
,fan ,lai 'liau, he is come once more. 

^0 ~p hia', nameral of strokes. fXT^~F^ 't^' 'liau , sap 
biaVchnng, it has struck three times. '- 



^"^ ''^ # -^ hwei' 'tsi, a meetiibg. •^ T "^"^ "^ o'li^' 'liau .yih 

^ hwei' 'ts'ij ?ie has gone once. 

r'^ ^ pien', to go completely round j numeral of seeing, g^ 3® ^ 

3® .t'siau kwo' 'liang ,pien, J have looked through it twice. 
-t ' u^ 5^ t'ang', a time ; numeral of any action. 
"t^a^ ^ jtsauj numeral of revolutions j as of oxen grinding, the sun 

^'^^ ^ ^'^'> repetition ; numeral of any action. 

' . 52. Phrases at an Inn J5 tien'. 

fiiieZ^uiy^ *tl i^;ffi "x* j^^ii tsing' ,wu ,tsi, a clean apartment. 
^^^ ^''^ /TO^^ jshau k'ang', light the hrick couch. 
Jt<i^CiiX.Ca^'.^ Pp ^ 'chu ,chi tan'j &oiZ eggs. 
2^*Y«-*w|«i».^ ^ 1^ jtsien .yang jeu', fry mutton. 
tS* eiu. Jl^^ tun' ,chi, siew /omZs. 
,^ Ktf»'^ **^''i^ ^ ^ 'ma ting' 'chang, shoe the horse. 
'htt*^ tAtieiui- P^ !^ ^ wei* 't'sau liau', feed him with straw and corn. 
'^^Ko'w-^^U. i^ P 5p| T jSheng 'k'eu wei', 'liau, the animals are fed: 

'V^^A. .<ti4, "^^^ .fang .t'sien, money for lodging. 
tk," fCx. ti£,i ^ f5 6^ 'ts. ,ching ,tih, the watchman. 
'^^'Uilt^dtiilS^ Jt ^ ^ i'ang' shang' tso' ,cho, sitting on the brick bed^lace. 
i('*»a^X^fA^ _h ^ M't'wun shang' ,p'u kai', tie up the bedding, "tay'tl ki 
iV'ti ■l4<Lti<<' ^?^ "? 'P'"^ P^' '*^^' spread out the mattrass. ^^_^^^^^tH kt, ix 
^a^lUc^-'^^fl- P^ ^ 't^ »^'^i P^^'^ unloose the coverlid. ^-"'"'^ 
iCott^tLxJ^^^^ Jt ^^ "5^ >sa shang' to' ,tsi, pack the pack saddle. 
^ ^^ -^.jkau .liang teu' ,tsi, millet and beans. 

[ wo ] 


Tones of the Peking dialect. 

1. Words ia the first tone class, _£. ^ shang ping, take 
the upper quick falling inflection ; by the falling inflection being 
meant the tone of commands in English. But this becomes the 
upper even monotone in combination with another word following. 
If a word of this class stands last without the accent^ it assumes 
the lower quick even monotone, as in plfj* j^ wai' ,pien, outside. 

2. "Words in the second tone class, _L ^ shang sheng, take 
the lower quick or slow rising inflection. The rising inflection 
is in English the tone of questions. "When two words of this 
class are placed together, the former takes the upper quick rising 
inflection, as in ot ^ 'si 'lien, wash the face. 

3. "Words in the third tone clasSj ^ ^ c'hii sheng, take 
the lower quick falling inflection, or the lower slow falling 
circumflex, which first falls aud afterwards rises. "When two 
words of this class are placed together, the last is pitched high, 
and becomes the upper quick falling inflection, 

4. "Words in the fifth class, f» ^ hia p'ing, take the upper 
quick rising inflection, or occasionally the upper quick rising 
circumflex, which is a double inflection, first rising and then 

5. "Words belonging primarily to the fourth tone class, y\ 
^ juh sheng, are, in the spoken dialect, distributed among the 
other tone-classes in the following manner : — 

Old tone-class. 

Inilial letter. 

Peking tone-class. 

"Upper juh sheng, 

k, t, p, s. 

ts, ch, h, w, y. 

Upper p'ing sheng, Jt "^ 

Lower juh sheng. 

k, t, p, s, 
ts, oh, h. 

Lower p'ing sheng, ~f^ ^ 

Lower juh sheng. I, m, n. 
I J. w, y. 

C'hu sheng, 


C 101 J 

Jtl^ This is the general law, but the exceptions are very 
numerous, and they admit, for the most part, of reduction to a 
few anbordinate laws, which here follow, numbered 6 to 9. 

6. Many upper juh sheng words, principally substantives, 
vyith the initials k, t, etc., and accustomed to be pronounced 
alone, are heard in the second tone or shang sheng, * e. g. j^ 
'hie, Uood ; "Q* 'pai, a hundred j ^ 't'ie, iron ; /^ 'c'hi, 
afoot; ^(j 'pei, north; ^ 't% a pagoda; ^ 'chiau, foot; 
s^ Vjj pencil. Many words whose usual tone is the first, take 
Jl ^ shang sheng for a special sense, as ; m k'iuk, which is 
,c'hu, ercoMd, but 'c'hii, a song. 

7. Words taken from the book language, and not used to be 
pronounced singly, or not themselves thoroughly colloquial, 
prefer the third tone or ^ ^ c'hii sheng; e. g. ^ t'e, 
purposely ; v^ c'hiiie, true; |g5 so, wew moon; ^ she, to place; 
^f k'e, a guest. When a word has the first tone for a common 
colloquial sense, as ^^ ,ko, to place, it often prefers ^ ^ 
c'hii sheng for another sense it may bear in combination, as !^% 
j^ ,tan ko', to remain anywhere for sometime. 

8. Certain syllables, usually with sibilant initials, have 
a preference for the fifth tone, or ~f* ^ ^i^ P'ing 5 e. g. chu, 
chi, chi, fu, ko, tse, te, jli3 fu, happiness ; f^f te, to obtain, etc. 

9. The reading tone of many juh sheng words which obey 
the preceding laws, is ^ ^ c'hii sheng ; and this is especially 
true of those that are colloquially attached to the first and fifth 
tone classes; all such, when used in poetry, are read with the 
intonation of c'hii sheng. In poetry, juh sheng words are all 
transferred to c'hii sheng, except a few found in shang sheng. 

10. Words arrange themselves in groups of two, three and 
four, regulated by accent. Tho accent falls usually on the last 
word in a combination of two ; on the second and fourth in a 
combination of four ; and on the first and last in a combination 
of three. But when, as often occurs, two sounds are so closely 

* Words needing to be pronounced singly would naturally adopt the second 
tone, which, in Peking, is enunciated with par^ioul^r distinctness. 


combined as to become one dissyllabic word, the accent is on tbe 
first J e. g. ^J^ .sben,mo, what? ^ffl 'wo ,men, we. 

11. When the accent is on the first of two sounds forming a 
dissyllabic word, or the one is significant and the other enclitic, 
the last loses its proper tone, and assumes that of _t ^ shang 
p'ing, the first tone class. This is the reason that the proper 
tone of the following, among many more common words, viz; 
^ .cho, .chau, it is so ; ^Si •^''j ^'^'"'S \i .men, door.; ^§ .t'eu, 
head; ^ 'mo, interrogative particle, ^ .ni, interrogative 
particle, -f' 'ts'i, son ; '['g .t'sing, thing, 9^ lo', final particle ; 
^ .ye, father ; ^ .lai, covie ; y^ 'lau, old ; '(Q ko', a particle, 
is in the Peking dialect habitually exchanged for Jl ^\ shang 
p'ing, in certain familiar combinations ; e. g. 

^ 7^ .lieu ,cho, leave it there. 

rej y\ .ya ,men, mandarin office. 

^« ^3 '^h jt'eu, within. 

"^ ^ .shen ,mo, what. 

"^ -f' 'lau ,tsi, father. 

^ 'Ifg sh'i' jt'sing, thing. 

•^ -^ 'lau ,ye, aged sir; a common title of address to mandarins. 

ini 5^ .hwei ,lai, come back. 

^ "^ 'ni ,lau, you my old friend. 

j^ ^(0 che' ,ko, this. 

12. The initials k, t, p, ch, and ts, are always aspirated 
in the fifth tone-class, except when the words to which they 
belong are derived from /v^'juh sheng. 

13. The presence of the initials 1, m, n, r, j, in the first 
tone-class, is limited to words which are exclusively colloquial, 
or afEected in tone by the particular position of the accent, as 
explained in law 12. 

14. The suffix j^ .er, attached to substantives and other 
words very extensively in the north, is frequently absorbed into 
the word to which it is attached. The final letters n, ng, and 
the vowels are then exchanged for r, while the tone of the word 
is kept and that of suffix is lost. 

Normal form. 

C 103 ] 


A IE -jen ,er 
^ j^ .t'sien ,er 
-^ j^ 'ping ,er 
^ j^ ,t'ien ,er 
M % .si ,er 
^ ^ k'wai' ,er 
^ -y* J^ ,chi 'ts'i ,er 
i^j^'pan ,er 








,chi 'tser 



e as in French le. 
e as in mercy. 
e as in mercy. 
e as in mercy. 
e as in French le. 

e as in French le. 

a as in a7-t. 

e as in mercy as /or. 

15 The words — ■ i, one and >p pu, not, vary their tone 
according to their position in the collocation of words to which they 
belong. Before a word in ^ ^ c'hii sheng they prefer hia p'ing. 
Before shang p'ing, shang sheng or hia p'ing, they take the 
c'hii sheng intonation, and when standing last they are heard in 
the fitst tone, e. g. ^ ^ .pu shi', it is not so j ^ ^ pu' .lai, 
he did ^t come ; ^ — ' ,c'hu ,i, the first day of the month. 

16. When the suffix ^ .er, is absorbed into the second of a 
repeated word, the word takes with 5Et -^"^i the shang p'ing tone. 
This is true whether the repeated word be in c'hii sheng, shang 
sheng, or hia p'ing sheng; e. g. 1^ '!§ ^ j^ man' ,mar ,ti. 


These laws serve for Tientsin as well as Peking, except that 
the first tone-class receives the lower slow even tone, and the 
third or c'hii sheng, the upper quick falling inflection. 

In the distribution of the juh sheng words among the other 
tone-classes, there is little difference between the usage of 
Peking and Tientsin. 

The student is recommended to verify these sixteen laws, with 
the aid of a native and Sir T. Wade's very useful Peking 
syllabary. The tones there assigned to juh sheng words will be 
found to be, in many instances, irregular and uncertain. Thus, 
@»^»^» chi, si, si, belonging to "f*^ hia juh, shoul^ 


be in p ^ hia p'ing, by law 5. But they are placed in the 
syllabary under _t n shang p'ing. A Pekinese whom I 

consulted transferred them at once to |^ ^ hia p'ing. In such 
cases, the difference of authorities indicates that a transition 
is taking place, and the law of change tells us which sound 
will ultimately prevail. 

I am happy here to take the opportunity of referring to assis- 
tance which I derived from suggestion by Mr. William Stronacb 
and Rev. 0. Goodrich in regard to some of the preceding laws. 


Tones of the Nanking dialect. 

1. "Words in the first tone class take for their distinctive 
intonation, the lower slow monotone, or sometimes the lower 
slow falling inflection, which consists of a slide of the voice 

2. "Words in the second tone class, Jl ^ shang sheng, take 
the lower slow rising inflection, or to express the thing differently, 
in enunciating them the voice slides upwards. 

3. "Words in the class known as ^ ^ c'hu sheng, take the 
quick falling inflection. 

4. Words in the fourth class, or ^^ juh sheng, are short 
in time. 

5. Words in l;he fifth class, or "f* ^ hia p'ing take the 
upper quick rising inflection. 


Tones at Ghefoo (Fuh-shan Men) (Ten-t'ai.J 

1. Words in Jl ^ shang p'ing, the first tone, take the 
lower slow rising inflection. 

2. Words in the second tone-class, Jl ^ shang shengj take 
the upper quick rising inflection. 

3. The third class, ^^ c'liii sheng, takes the upper quick 
falling inflection. 

4. The class called p ^ hia p'ing, takes for its intonation 
the lower quick falling inflection. 

5. Words of the fourth class, or juh shengi are distributed 
principally among the second and fifth classes; those of the 
upper division, or JQ y\ shang juh, preferring shang sheng, 
while such as are in the lower division, p ^ hia juh, are 
usually found in T*^ hia p'ing. 


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Asiatic Society. — Jouenal of the Eotal Asiatic Society of Qeeai 
Britain and Ireland. New Series. Vol. I. In Two Parts, pp. iv. and 
490, sewed. 1861-6. 16«. 
Contents. — I. Yajra-chhedikS, tie "Kin Kong King," or Diamond Sdtra. Translated from 
the Chinese by the Kev. S. Beal. — II. The F&ramitS-hridaya Sfitra, or, in Chinese, " Mo-ho-p6- 
ye-po-lo-mih-to-sin-king," i.e. "The Great P4ramit4 Heart Sfltra." Translated from the 
Chinese by the Eev. S. Beal. — III. On the Preservation of National Literature in the East. 
By Col. F. J. Goldsmid. — IV. On the Agricultural, Commercial, Financial, and Military Statistics 
or Ceylon. By E. E. Power.— V. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Vedic Theogony and 
Mythology. By J. Muir, D.C.L.— VI. A Tabular List of Original Works and Translations, pub- 
lished by the late Dutch Government of Ceylon at their Printing Press at Colombo. Compiled 
by Mr- M. P. J. Ondaatje. — VII. Assyrian and Hebrew Chronology compared, with a view of 
showing the extent to which the Hebrew Chronology of Ussher must be modified, in conformity 
with the Assyrian Canon. By J. W. Bosanquet.— VIII. On the existing Dictionaries of the 
Malay_ Language. By Dr. H. K. van der Tuuk. — ^IX. Bilingual Eeadmgs : Cuneiform and 
Phoenician. Notes on some Tablets in the British Museum, containing Bilingual Legends 
(Assyrian and Phoenician). By Major-Gen. Sir H.Kawlinson, K.C.B. — X. Translations of Three 
Copper-plate Inscriptions of the Fourth Century a.d., and Notices of the Chalukya and Gurjjara 
Dynasties. By Prof. J. Dowson, Staff College, Sandhurst. — ^XI. Yama and the Doctrine of a 
Future-Life, according to the Rig-, Yajur-, and Atharva-Vedas. By J. Muir, D.C.L.— XII. On 
the Jyotisha Observation of the Place of the Colures, and the Date derivable from it. By W. 
D. Whitney, Prof, of S.anskrit, Yale College, U.S.A. — Note on the preceding Article. By Sir E. 
Colebrooke, Bart., M.P. — XIII. Progress of the Vedic Religion towards Abstract Conceptions 
of the Deity. By J. Muir, D.C.L.— XIV. Brief Notes on the Age and Authenticity of the Work 
of Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhattotpala, and Bh^karacharya. By Dr. Bhau 
D^jt.— XV. Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy Language. By H. N. Van der Tuuk. — 
XYI. On the Identity of Xandrames and Krananda. By £. Thomas, Esq. 

Vol. II. In Two Parts, pp. 522, sewed. 1866-7. 16s. 

Contents. — ^I. Contributions to a Knowledge of Vedic Theogony and Mythology. No. 2. 

By J. Muir. —II. Miscellaneous Hymns from the Rig- and Atharva-Vedas. By J. Muir. — HI. 

Five hundred questions on the Social Condition of the Natives of Bengal. By the Eev. J. Long! 

—IV. Short account of the Malay Manuscripts belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society. By 

8 Linguistic Publications of Trubner 8f Co., 

DrvH. N. -van der TuuK— V. Tranjlation of the AmiUbha Sdtra from the Chinese. By the ReT. 
a Beal.— VI. The initial coinage of 'Bengal. By E. Thomas.— VII. Specimens of an Assyriair 
Metionary. By E. Norris.— VIII. On the Relations of the Priests to the other classes of [Indian 
Society in the Vedic age. By J. Muir.— IX. On the Interpretation of the-Veda. By the same. — 
X. An attempt to Translate from the Chinese a -work known as the Confessional SerTices.of the 
great compassionate Kwan Yin, possessing 1000 hands and 1000 eyes. " By the Rev. S. Beal. — 
.T-XI. The Hymns of the Gaupayanas and the Legend of King Asam&ti. By Prof. Max Muller. 
— XII. Specimen Chapters of an Assyrian Grammar. By the Rey. £. Hincks, D. D. 

Vol. in. In Two Parts, pp. 516, sewed. With Photograph. 1868. 22s. 
Contents.— I. Contributions towards a Glossary of the Assyrian Language. By H. F. Talbot. 
—II. Remarks on the Indo-Chinese Alphabets. By Dr.,.A. Bastian.— III. The poetry of 
Mohamed Rabadan, Arragonese. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley.— IV. Catalogue of the Oriental 
Manuscripts in the Library of King's CoUtege, Cambridge. By E. H. Palmer, B.A.— V. De- 
scription of the Amravatl Tope in Guntur. . By J. Fergosson, F.B.S.— VI. Remarks on Prof. 
Brockhans' edition of the Kathasarit-sagara, Lambaka IX. XVIII. By Dr. H. Kern, Prof, of 
Sanskrit, University of Lejden.— VII. The source of Colebrooke's Essay," On the Duties of a 
Faithful Hindu Widow." By Fitzedward Hall, D.C.L. Supplement : Further detail of proofs 
that Colebrooke's Essay, " On the JJuties of a Faithful Hindu Widow," was not indebted to 
the Vivadabhangarnava. By F. Hall.— Vlll. The Sixth Hymn of the First Book of the Rig 
Veda. By Prof. Max Muller.- IX. Sassanian Inscriptions. By E. Thomas. ^X. Account of an 
Embassy ftom Morocco to Spain in 1690 and 1691. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley.— XI. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the same.— XII. Materials for the History of 
India for the Six Hundred Years of Mohammadan rule, previous to' the Foundation of the British 
Indian Empire. By Major W. Nassau Lees, LL.D.— XIII. A Few Words concerning the Hill 
people inhabiting the Forests of the Cochin State. By Capt. G. E. Fryer, M.S.C.— XIV. Notes 
on the Bhojpur! Dialect of Hindi, spoken in Western Behar. By J. Eeames, B.C.S. 

Vol. IV. In Two Parts, pp. 521, sewed. 1869-70. 16». 
Contents. — I. Contribution towards a Glossary of the Assyrian Language. By H. F. Talbot. 
Part II.— II. On Indian Chronology. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S.— III. The Poetry of Mohamed 
Rabadan of Arragon. By the Hon. H. E. 3. Stanley.— IV. On the Magar Language of Nepal. 
By J. Beames, B.C.S. — V. Contributions to the Knowledge of Parsee Literature. By £. Sachau, 
Ph.D. — VI. Illustrations of the Lamaist System in Tibet, drawn from Chinese Sources. By 
W. F. Mayers, otH.B.M. Consular Service, China.— VII. Khuddaka Pdtha, a PMiText, with a 
Translation and Notes. By R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. — VIII. An Endeavour to elucidate 
Rashiduddin's Geographical Notices of India. By Col. H. Yule, C.B.— IX. Sassanian Inscriptions 
explained by the Pahlavi of'the Parsls. By E. W. West. — X. Some Account of the Senbyfi 
Pagoda at Mengdn, near the Burmese Capital, in a Memorandum by Capt. E. H. Sladen, Fohti- 
oal Agent at Mandalfi; with Remarks on the Subject by Col. H. Yule, C.B.— XI. The Brhat- 
Sanhita ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-Mihira. Translated from Sanskrit- 
into English by Dr. H. Kern.— XII. The Mohammedan Law of Evidence, and its influence on 
the Administration of Justice in India. By N. B. E. Baillie. — XIII., The Mohammedan Law of 
Evidence in connection with the Administration of Justice "to Foreigners. By the same. — XIV. 
A Translation of a Bactrian Paii Inscription. By Prof. J. Dowson. — XV. Indo-Parthian Coins. 
By E. Thomas. 

Vol. V. In Two Parts, pp. 463, sewed. With 10 full-page and folding Plates. 
1871-2. 18s. 6(f. 
Contents.— I. Two Jdtakas. The original Paii Text, with an English Translation. By V. 
Fausboll. — II. On an Ancient Buddhist Inscription at Keu-yung kwan, in North China. By A. 
Wylie. — III. The Brhat Sanhita ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-Mihira 
Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. — IV. The Pongol Festival in Southern, 
India. By C. E. Cover.- V. The Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of AiTagon. By the Right Hon. 
Lord Stanley of Alderley.— VI. Essay on the Creed and Customs of the Jangams. By C. B, 
Brown.— VII. On Malabar, Coromandel, Quilon, etc. By C. P. Brown.— VIII. On the Treatment 
of the Nexus in the Neo-Aryan Languages of India. By J. Beames, B.C.S.— IX. Some Remarks 
on the Great Tope at Sanchi. By the Rev. S. Beal.— X. Ancient Inscriptions from Mathura. 
Translated by Prof. J. Dowson.— Note to the Mathura Inscriptions. By Major-Gen. A. Cun- 
ningham, — XI. Specimen of a Translation of the Adi Granth. By Dr. E.Trumpp.— XII. Notes 
on Dhammapada, with Special Reference to the Question of Nirvana. By R. C. Childers, late 
Ceylon C.S— XIII. The Brhat-Sanhita ; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha- 
mihira. Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. — XIV. On the Origin of the 
Buddhist Arthakathas. By the Mudliar L. Comrilla VJjasinha, Government Interpreter to the 
Ratnapura Court, Ceylon. With Introduction by R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. — ^XV. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right Hon. Lord Stanley of Alderley.— 
XVI. Proverbia Communia Syriaca. By Capt. R. F. Burton.- -XVII. Notes on an Ancient 
Indian Vase, with an Account of the Engraving thereupon. By C. Home, late B.C.S.— XVIII. 
The Bhar Tribe. By.the Rev. M. A. Sherring, LL.D., Benares. Communicated by C. Home, 
late B.C.S.— XIX. Of Jihad in Mohammedan Law, and its application to British India. By 
N. B. E. Baillie.— XX. Comments on Recent Pehlvi Decipherments. "With an Incidental Sketch 
of the Derivation of Aryan Alphabets. And Contributions to the Early History and Geography 
of TabaristSn. Illustrated by Coins. By E. Thomas, E.R.S. 

57 and, 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 9 

Vol. VI., Part I, pp. 212, 'sewed, with two plates and a map. 1872. 8s. 

CoHTENTS. — The Ishmaelites, and tlie Arabic Tribes who Conquered their Country, By A. 
Sprenger.— A Brief Account of Four Arabic Works on the History and Geography of Arabia. 
By Captain S. B. Miles.— On the Methods of Disposing of the Dead at Llassa, Thibet, etc. By 
Charles Home, late B.C.S. The Brhat-Sanhit&j or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of 
Yaraha-mihira, Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern.— Notes on Hwen 
Thsang's Account of the Principalities of Tokh&ristfln, in which some Previous Geographical 
Identifications are Reconsidered. By Colonel Yule, C.B.— The Campaign of iElius Gallns in 
Arabia. By A. Sprenger.— An Account of Jerusalem, Translated for the late Sir H.M.Elliot 
from the Persian Text of NSsir ibn Khusrli's SafanSmah by the late Major A. E. Fuller.- The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon, By the Right Hon. Lord Stanley of Alderley. 

Vol. VI., Part II., pp. 213 to 400 and Ixxxiv., sewed. Illustrated with a Map, 
Plates, and Woodcuts. 1873. 6s. 

Contents. — On Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to Ballabhi. By James Fergusson, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. —Northern Buddhism. [Note from Colonel H. Yule, addressed to the Secretaiy.] 
—Hwen Thsang's Account of the Principalities of Tokhilristin, etc. By Colonel H. Yule, C.B.— 
The Brhat-Sauhita; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Variha-mihira. Translated 
from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. — The Initial Coinage of Bengal, under the Early 
Muhammadan Conquerors. sPart II. Embracing the preliminary period between a.h. 614-634 
(a.d. 1217-1236-7). By Edward Thomas, F.R.S.— The Legend of Dipankara Buddha. Translated 
from the Chinese (and intended to Illustrate Plates xxix. and l., * Tree and Serpent Worship '). 
By S. Beal. — Note on Art. IX., antS pp. 213-274, on Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to 
Ballabhi. By James Fergusson, D.C.L., F.R.S.-^Contributlons towards a Glossary of the 
Assyrian Language. By H. F. Talbot. 

Vol. VII., Parti., pp. 170 and 2i, sewed. With a plate. 1874. 8«. 

Contents. — The TJpaaampad&^Kammav&c&, being the Buddhist Manual of the Form and 
Manner of Ordering of Priests and Beacons. The P&li Text, with a Translation and Notes; 
By J. F. Dickson, B. A.— Notes on the Megalithic Monuments of the Coimbatore District, 
Madras. By M. J. Walhouse, late M.C.S. — Notes on the Sinhalese Language. No. 1. On the For- 
mation of the Plural of Neuter Nouns. By E. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S.— The Pali Text 
of the Mahdparinibbana Sutta and Commentary, with a Translation. By R. G, Childers, late 
Ceylon C.S. — The Brihat-Sanhita ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-mihira. 
Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. — Note on the Valley of Choombi. 
By Dr. A. Campbell, late Superintendent of Darjeeling.^The Name of the Twelfth Im&m on the 
Coinage of Egypt. By H. Sauvaire and Stanley Laiie Poole. — Three Inscriptions of Par3.- 
kfama B^bu the Great from Pulastipura, Ceylon (date circa 1180 a.d.]. By T. W. Rhys Da-vids. 
-^Of the Khar£j or Muhammadan Land Tax ; its Application to British India, and Effect on 
the Tenure of Land. By N. B. E. Baillie. — Appendix : A Specimen of ^ Syriac Version of the 
Kalilah wa-Dimnah, with an English Translation. By W. Wright. 

Vol. VII., Part II.,.pp. 191 to 394, sewed. With seven plates and a map. 1875. 8«. 

Contents. — Slgiri, the Lion Rock, near Pulastipura, Ceylon; and the Thirty-nintb Chapter 
of the Mah^vamsa. By T. W. Rhys Davids.- The Northern Frontagers of China. Part I, 
The Origines of the Mongols. By H. H. Howorth.— Inedited Arabic Coins. By Stanley Lane 
Poole.— Notice on the DluSrs of the Abbasside Dynasty. By Edward Thomas Rogers.— The 
Northern Frontagers of China. Part II. The Origines of the Manchus. By H. H. Howorth. 
—Notes on the Old Mongolian Capital of Shangtu. By S. W. Bushell, B.Sc, M.D.— Oriental 
Proverbs in their Relations to Folklore, History, Sociology ; with Suggestions for their Collec- 
tion, Interpretation, Publication. By the Rev. J. Long.— Two Old Simhalese Inscriptions. The 
SahasaMalla Inscription, date 1200 a.d., and the Ruwanwieli Dagaba Inscription, date 1191 a.d. 
Text, Translation, and Notes. By T. W.Rhys Davids.— Notes on a Bactrian Pali Inscription 
and the Samvat Era. By Prof. J. Dowson. — Note on a Jade Drinking Vessel of the Emperor 
Jahfingtr, By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. 

Vol. VIII., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with three plates and a plan. 1876. 8s. 

Contents.- Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS. in the Possession of the R.A.S. (Hodgson 
Collection). By Prof. E. B. Cowell and J. Eggeling.— On the Ruins of Slgiri in Ceylon. By 
% H. Blakesley, Ceylon.— The P4timokkha, being the Buddhist OSaoe of the Confession of Priests. 
The Pali Text, with a Translation, and Notes. By J. K. Dickson, M.A., Ceylon C.S.— Notes 
on the Sinhalese Language. No. 2. Proofs of the Sanskritic Origin of Sinhalese. By R. 0. 
Childers, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. 

Vol. VIII., Part II., pp. 167-308, sewed. 1876. 8s. 

Contents.— An Account of the Island of Bali. By R. Friederich.— The Pali Text of the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta and Commentary, with a Translation. By R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. — 
The Northern Frontagers of China. Part III. The Kara Khitai. By H. H. Howorth.— In- 
■edited Arabic Coins. II. By S. L. Poole.— On the Form of Government under the Native 
Sovereigns of Ceylon. By A. de Silva Ekanayaka, Mudaliyar, Ceylon. 

10 Linguistic Publications of Triibner ^ Co., 

Vol. IX., Part I., pp. 166, sewed, witli a plate. 1877. 8«. 

Contents.— Bactrian Coins and Indian Dates. By E. Thomas, F.B.S.— The Tenses of the- 
Assyrian Verb. By the Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A.— An Account of the Island of Bali. By K» 
Friedericl) (continued from Vol. VIII. n.s. p. 218).— On Ruins in Makran. ,By Major Mockler. 
— Inedited Arabic Coins. III. By Stanley Lane Poole,— Further Note on a Bactrian Pali Inscrip- 
tion and the Samvat £ra. By Prof. J. Dowson. — Notes on Persian Beltlchistan. Prom the- 
Persian of Mii-za Mehdy Kh£n. By A. H. Schindler. 

Vol IX., Part II., pp. 292. sewed, with three plates. 3877. 10s. Qd. 

Contents.— The Early Faith of Asoka. By E. Thomas, F.R.S.— The Northern Frontagers 
of China. Part 11. The Manchus {Supplementary Notice). Part IV. The Kin or Golden Tatars, 
By H. H. Howorth.-On a Treatise on Weights and Measures' by Eliyfi, Archbishop of Nislbin, 
By M. H. Sauvaire.— On Imperial and other Titles. By Sir T. E. Colebrooke, Bart., M.P.— Affi- 
nities of the Dialects of the Chepang and Kusundah Tribes of Nip^ with those of the Hill Tribes- 
of Arracan. By Capt. C. J. F. Forbes, F.R.G.S., M.A.S. Bengal, etc.— Notes on Some Anti- 
quities found in a Mound near Damghan. By A. H. Schindler. 

Vol. X., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with two plates and a map. 1878. 8*. 

Contents.— On the Non-Aryan Languages of India. By E. L. Brandreth,— A Dialogue oib 
the Vedantic Conception of Brahma. By PramadS. D&sa Mittra, late Offi. Prof, of AnglovSanskrit, 
Got. College, Benares.— An Accoimt of the Island of Bali. By E» Friederich (continued from. 
Vol. IX. N.S. p. 120).— Unpublished Glass Weights and Measures. By E. T. Rogers.— China. 
y\k Tibet. By S. C. Boulger.— Notes and Recollections on Tea CultiTation in Kumaon and 
Garhw&l. By J. H. Batten, late B.C.S. 

Vol. X., Part II., pp. 146, sewed. 1878. 6*. 

Contents.— Note on Pliny's Geography of the East Coast of Arabia. By Major-Gen. S. B.'Miles,; 
B.S.C. The Maldive Islands; with a> Vocabulary taken from Fran9ois Fyrard de Laval, 1602 — 
1607. By A. Gray, late Ceylon C.S.— On Tibeto-Burman Languages. By Capt. C. '3. F. S. 
Forbes, Burmese C.S. Commission.— Burmese Transliteration. By H. L. St. Barbe, Resident at. 
Mandelay.— On the Connexion of the Mons of Pegu with the Koles of Central India. By 
Capt. C. J. F, S. Forbes, Burmese C.C.— Studies on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic^ 
Languages, witb Special Reference to Assyrian. By P. Haupt. The Oldest Semitic Verb-Form. 
— Arab Metrology. II. El-Djabarty. By M. H. Sauvaire.— The Migrations and Early Hlstor;. 
of the White Huns ; principally from Chinese Sources. By T. W. Kingsmill. 
Vol. X., Part III., pp. 204, sewed. 1878. 8*. 

Contents.— On the Hill Canton of SfLldr,— the most Easterly Settlement of the Turk Race. 
By Roberts. Shaw. - Geological Notes on the River Indus. By Griffin W. Vyse, Executive- 
Engineer P.W.D. Panjab.— Educational Literature for Japanese Women. By B. H. Chamber- 
lain. — On the Natural Phenomenon Known in the East by the Names Sub-m-Kazib, etc., etc.. 
By J. W. Redhouse.— On a Chinese Version of the S&nkhya K&rik£i, etc., found among the 
Buddhist Books comprising the Tripitaka and two other works. By the Rev. S. Beal.— The- 
Rock-cut Phrygian Inscriptions at Doganlu. By E. Thomas, F.R.S. — ^Index. 

Vol. XI., Part. I., pp. 128, sewed, with seven illustrations. 1879. 5«. 

Contents.— On the Position of Women in the East in the Olden Time. By E. Thomas, F.R.S.: 
— Notice of Scholars who have Contributed to our Knowledge of the Languages of British India 
during the last Thirty Tears. By R. N. Cust.— Ancient Arabic Poetry: its Genuineness and. 
Authenticity. BySirW. Mulr, K.C.S.I.— Note on Manrique's Mission and the Catholics in the 
time of Shfi,h Jah&n. By H. G. Keene.— On Sandhi in Pali. By the late R. C. Childers.— On. 
Arabic Amulets and Mottoes. By £. T. Rogers. 

Vol. XI., Part II., pp. 256, sewed, with map and plate. 1879. 7*. Qd. 

Contents. — On the Identification of Places on the Makran Coast mentioned by Arrian, Ptolemy, 
and Marcian, By Major E. Mockler. — On the Proper Names of the Mohammadans. By Sir T.. 
E. Colebrooke, Bart., M.P,— Principles of Composition in Chinese, as deduced from the Written 
Characters. By the Rev. Dr. Legge.— On the Identification of the Portrait of ChosroesII.among 
the Paintings in the Caves 'at Ajanta. By James Fergusson, Vice-President. — A Specimen of' 
the Zoongee for Zumgee) Dialect of a Tribe of Nagas, bordering on the Valley of Assam, 
between the Dikho and Desoi Rivers, embracing over Forty Villages. By the Rev. Mr. Clark.. 

Vol. XI. Part III. pp. 104, cxxiv. 16, sewed. 1879. 8s, 

Contents. — The Gaurian compared with the Romance Languages. Part I. By E. L. 
Brandreth.— Dialects of Colloquial Arabic. By E. T. Rogers. — A Comparative Study of the 
Japanese and Korean Languages. By W. G. Aston.— Index. 

Vol. XII. Part I. pp. 152, sewed, with Tahle. 1880. 5*. 

Contents.— On "The Most Comely Names," i.e. the Laudatory Epithets, or the Titles of Praise- 
bestowedon God in the Qur'an or by Muslim Writers. By J. W. Redhouse. — Notes on a newly- 
discovered Clay Cylinder of Cyrus the Great. By Major-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B. — 
Note on Hiouen-Thsang's Dhanakacheka. By Robert Sewell, M.C.S. — Remarks by Mr.. 
Fergusson on Mr. Sewell's Paper.- A Treatise on Weights and Measures. By Eliyi, Archbishop. 
of Nislblu. By H. Sauvaire. (Supplement to Vol. IX., pp. 291-313)— On the Age of thfr 
Ajant& Caves. By RSjendralAla Mitra, C. I.E.— Notes on Babu R&jendral& Mitra's Paper on. 
the Age of the Caves at Ajantd. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S. 

57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 11 

Vol. XII. Fart 11. pp. 182, sewed, with map and plate. 1880. 6«. 

Contents.— On Sanskrit Texts Diecovered in Japan. By Prof. Max Muller. — Extracts from 
Seport on the- Islands and Antiquities of Bahrein. By Capt. Burand. Followed by Notes by 
Major<Gen, Sir H. C, Kawlinson, K.C.B. — Notes on the Locality and Population of the Tribes 
dwelling between the Brahmaputra and Ningthi Elvers. By the late G. H. Damant, Political 
Ofilcer, Nilga HlUs.-.^On the Saka, Samvat. and Gupta Eras. A Supplement to his Paper on Indian 
Chronology. By J. Fergusson, D.C.L.— The Megha-Satra. By C. Bendall.— Historical and 
Archfflological Notes on a Journey in South- Western Persia, 1877-1878. By A. Houtum- 
Schindler.— Identification of the " False Sawn " of the Muslims with the "Zodiacal Light" of 
Europeans. By J, W. Redhouse. 

Vol. XII. Part III, pp. 100, sewed. 1880. 4«. 

Contents.— The Ganrian compared with the Romance Languages. Part II. By E. L. 
Brandteth.— The Uzbeg Epos. By Arminius Yamb^ry.— On the Separate Edicts at Dhauli and 
. Jaugada. By Prof. Kern. — Grammatical Sketch of the Kakhyen Language. By Ber. J. N. 
Cushing.— Notes on the Libyan Langnages, in a Letter addressed to B. N. Gust, Esq., by Prof. 
F. W. Newman. 

Vol. XII. Part IV. pp. 152, with 3 plates. 1880. 8». 

COHTEBTS.— The Early History of Tibet, fi-om Chinese Sources. By S. W. Bushell, M.D.— 
Notes on some Inedited Coins from a Collection made in Persia during the Years 1877-79. By 
Guy Le Strange, M.R.A.S.— Buddhist Nirvana and the Noble Eightfold Path. By Oscar 
Frankfurter, Ph.D.— Index.— Annual Report, 1880. 

Vol. XIII. Part I. pp. 120, sewed. 1881. 6». 

Contests.— Indian Theistlc Reformers. 3y Prof. Monier ■Williams, C.I.E.— Notes on the Kawi 
Language and Literature. By Dr. H. N. Van der Tuuk.— The Invention of the Indian Alphabet. 
By. John Dowson. The Nirvana of the Northern Buddhists. By the Rev. J. Edkins, D.D, — 
An Account of the Malay " Chiri," a Sanskrit Formula. By W. E. Maxwell. 

Vol. XIII. Part II. pp. 170, with Map and 2 Plates. 1881. 8s. 

Contents.— The Northern Frontagers of China. Part V. The Khitai or Khitans. By H. H. 
Howorth. — On the Identification of Nagarahara, with reference to the Travels of Hiouen-Thsang. 
By W. Simpson. — Hindu Law at Madras. By J. H. Nelson, M.C.S.— On the Proper Names of 
the Mohammedans. By Sir T. £. Colebrooke, Bart., M.P.— Supplement to the Paper on Indian 
Theistic Reformers, published in the January Number of this Journal. By Prof. Monier 
■Williams, CLE. 

Vol. XIII. Part III. pp. 178, with plate. 1881. 7». &d. 

Contents. — The Avar Language. By C. Graham. — Caucasian Nationalities, By M. A. 
Morrison.— Translation of the Markandeya Purana. Books VII., VIII. By the Rev. B. 
H. Wortham.— Lettre k M. Stanley Lane Poole sur quelques monnaies orientales rares on in€dites 
de la Collection dcM. Ch. del'Eclase. ParH. Sauvaire.— Aryan Mythology in Malay Traditions. 
By ■W. B. Maxwell, Colonial Civil Service.— The Koi, a Southern Tribe of the Gond. By the 
Rev. J. Cain, Missionary.- On the Duty which Mohammedans in British India owe, on the 
Principles of their own Law, to the Government of the Country. By N. B. E. Baillie.— Ths 
L-Poem of the Arabs, by Shanfara. Ke-arranged and translated by J. W. Redhouse, M.B.A.S, 

Vol. XIII. Part rV. pp. 130, cxxxvL 16, with 3 plates. 1881. 10s. U. 

Contents.- The Andaman Islands andthe Andamanese. By M. V. Portman.— Notes on Marco 
Polo's Itinerary in Southern Persia. By A. Houturo-Schindler.— Two MalayMyths : The Princess 
of the Foam, and the Raja of Bamboo. By W. E. Maxwell.— The Epoch of the Guptas. By 
E. Thomas, F.R.S.- Two Chinese-Buddhist Inscriptions found at Buddha Gaya. By the,Rev. S. 
Beal. With 2 Plates.— A Sanskrit Ode addressed to the Congress of Orientalists at Berlin. By 
Rama Dasa Sena, the Zemindar of Berhampore: with a Translation by 8. Krishnavarma.— 
Supplement to a paper, " On the Duty which Mahommedans in British India owe, on the Principles 
of their own Law, to the Government of the Country." By N. B. E. Baillie.— Index. 

Vol. XIV. Part I. pp. 124, with 4 plates. 1882. ^s. 

Contents.- The Apology of Al Kindy: An Essay on its Age and Authorship, By Sir W 
Muir, K.C.S.I.— The Poet Pampa. By L. Rice.— On a Coin of Shams ud Dunyi wa ud Din 
Mahmfld Shih. By C. J. Rodgers, Amritsar.— Note on PI. xxviii. fig. 1, of Mr. Fergusson'a 
" Tree and Serpent Worship," 2nd Edition. By 8. Beal, Prof, of Chinese, London University.— 
On the present state of Mongolian Researches. By Prof. B. Julg, in a Letter to R. N. Cust.— 
A Sculptured Tope on an Old Stone at Dras, Ladak. By ■W. Simpson, F.R.G.S.— Sanskrit Ode 
addressed to the Fifth International Congress of Orientalists assembled at Berlin, faeptember, 
1881 By the Lady Pandit Rama-bai, of Silchar, Kachar, Assam ; with a Translation by Prof. • 
Monier Williams, CLE.— The Intercourse of China with Eastern Turkestan and the Adjacent 
Countries in the Second Century B.C. By T. Vf. Kingsmill.— Suggestions on the Formation of 
the Semitic Tenses. A Comparative and Critical Study. By G. Bertin.— On a Lolo MS. written 
oh Satin. By M. T. de La Couperie. 

12 Linguistic Publications of Trilbner /• Co., 

Tol. XIV. Part n. pp.164, with three plates. 1882. Is.U. 

CoKTENis.— On Tartar and Turk. By S. W. KoELtB, Ph.D.— Notice of Scholars who have Con- 
tributed to cur Knowledge of the Languages of Africa. By K. N. Cost.— Grammatical Sketch 
of the HauBa Language. By the Key. J. F. SohBn, F.R.G.S.,— Buddhist Saint Worship. By 
A. Lillie.— Gleanings from the Arabic. By H. W. Freeland, M.A.— Al Kahirah and its Gates. 
By H. C. Kay, M.A.— How the Mah4bhSrata begins. By Edwin Arnold, CS.!.— Arab Metrology. 
IV. Ed-Dahaby; By M. H. Sauvaire. 

Vol. XIV. Part III. pp. 208, with 8 plates. 1882. 8». 

Contents. — The Vaishnava Religion, with special reference to the Siksha-patrl .of the 
Modem Sect called Svami-Narayana. By Monier Williams, C.I.E., D.C.L.— Further Notte on 
the Apology of Al-Kindy. By Sir W. Muir, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., LL.D.— The Buddhist Caves of 
Afghanistan. By W. Simpson.— The Identification of the Sculptured Tope at Sanchi. By W. 
Simpson.— On the Genealogy of Modem Numerals. By Sir E. C. Bayley, K.C.S.I., CLE. 
. ' — The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, deciphered and translated, by A. H. Sayce. 

Vol. XIV. Part IV. pp. 330, clu. 1882. 14». 

CoNTBNTS. — The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, deciphered and translated, by A, H. Sayce. 
—Sanskrit Text of the Siksha-Patrl of the Svami-Narayana Sect. Edited and Translated by 
Prof. M. Williams, CLE. —The Successors of the Siljaks in Asia Minor. By S. L. Poole.— The 
Oldest Book of the Chinese {TheYh-King) audits Authors. ByT. de la Couperie. 

Vol. XV. Part I. pp. 134, with 2 pUtes. 1883. 6». . . , 

Contents. — The Genealogy of Modern Numerals. Part TI. Simplification of the Ancient Indian 
Numeration. By Sir E. C. Bayley, CLE. — Parthian and Indo-Sassanian Coins. By E. Thomsta, 
- F.B.S, — Early Historical Belations between Phrygia and Cappadocia, By W, M. Ramsay, 

Vol. XV. Part II. pp. 1 58, with 6 tables. 1883. 5«. 

Contents. — The Tattva-muktavalt of Gauda-pilm^andachakraTartin. Edited and Trans- 
lated by Professor E. B, Cowell.— Two Modem Sanskrit slokas. Communicated by Prof. E. B, 
Cowell.— Malagasy Place-Names. By the Rev, James Sibree, jun. — The NamakkSra, with 
Translation aod Commentary. By H. L. St. Barbe. — Chinese Laws and Customs. By 
Christopher Gardner.— The Oldest Book of the Chinese (the Yh-King) and its Authors 
'{continiied). By Terrien de LaCouperie.— Gleanings from the Arabic. By H. W. Freeland. 

Vol. XV. Part III. pp. 62-cxl. 1883. 6s. 

Contents. — Early Kannada Authors. By Lewis Rice. — On Two Questions of Japanese 
Archseology. By B. H. Chamberlain, M.R.A.S. — Two Sites named by Hiouen-Thsang in the 
10th Book of the Si-yu-ki. By the B«v. S. Beal.— Two Early Sources of Mongol History. By 
H. n. Howorth, F.S. A.— Proceedings of Sixtieth Anniversary of the Society, held May 21, 1883. 

Vol. XV. Part IV. pp. 140-iT. -20, with plate. 1883. 5s. 

Contents. — The Rivers of the Vedas, and How the Aryans Entered India. By Edward 
Thomas, F.R.S.— Suggestions on the Voice-Formation of the Semitic Verb. By G. Bertin.M.R.A.S, 
— The Buddhism of Ceylon. By Arthur Lillie, M.R.A.S.— The Northern Frontagers of China. 
Part VI. Hia or Tangut. By H. H. Howopth, F.8.A.— Index.— List of Members. 

Vol. XVI. Part I. pp. 138, with 2 plates. 1884. 7«. 

Contents.- The Story of Devasmit^. Translated from the Katba Sarit Sigara, Taranga IS, 
Sloka bi, by the Rev. B. Hale Wortham.— Pujahs in the Sutlej Valley, Himalayas. By William 
Simpson, F.E.G.S.— On some New Discoveries in Southern India. By R. Sewell, Madras C.S. — 
On the Importance to Great Britain of the Study of Arabic. By Habib A. Salmon^.— 
Grammatical Note on the Gwamba Language in South Africa. By P. Berthoud, Missionary 
of the Canton de Vaud, Switzerland, stationed at Valdfizia, Spelonken, Transvaal. (Prepared 
at the request of R. N. Oust. J— Dialect of Tribes of the Hindu Khush, from Colonel Biddulph's 
Work on the subject (corrected).— jGrammatical Note on the Simnfinf Dialect of the Persian 
Language. By the Rev. J. Bassett, American Missionary, Tabriz. (Communicated by B.. N. Cust.) 

Vol. XVI. Part II. pp. 184, with 1 plate. 9». 

Contents.- Etymology of the Turkish Numerals. By S. W. Koelle, Ph.D., late Missionary 
of the Church Missionary Soc, Constantinople.— Grammatical Note and Vocabulary of the 
Kqr-ku, a Kolaiian Tribe in Central India. (Communicated by R. N. Cust.)-The Pariah Caste 
in Travancore. By S. Mateer.- Some Biharl Folk-Songs. By G. A. Grierson, B C S Offl 
Magistrate, Patna.— Some further Gleanings from the Si-yu-ki. By the Rev. S. Beai.— On the 
Sites of Brahman&bld and Mansllrah in Sindh ; with notices of others of less note in their 
Vicinity. By Major-Gen. M. R. Haig. — Antar and the Slave Daji. A Bedoueen Legend By 
St. C. Baddeley.— The Languages of the Early Inhabitants of Mesopotamia. By G. Pinches 

57 and 59, Lied^ate Hill, London, E. C. 13 

„ Vol. XVI. Part III. pp. 74.-clx. 10». M. 

Contents.— On the Origin of the Indian Alphabet. By R. N. Cast.— The Ti king of the 
Chineee as a Book of Divination and Philosophy. By Rev. Dr. Edkins.— On the Arrangement of 
the Hymns of the Rig.veda. By F. Pincott.— Proceedings of the Sixty-flrst Anniversary Meeting 
of the Society, May 19, 1884. 

Vol. XVI. Part IV. pp. 134. 8«. 

, CoSTENTS.- S'uka-sandesah. A Sanskrit Poem, by Lakshmi-dasa. With Preface and Notes in 
English by H. H. Rama Yarma, the Maharaja of Trarancore, G. C.S.I. — The Chinese Book of the 

Odes, for English Readers. By C. F. R. Allen.— Note sur les Mots Sanscrits composes avec XffTf. 
PariiJiVan den.JJheyn, S.J.— Some Remarks on the Life and Labours of Csoma de Koros, 
delivered on the occasion when his Tibetan Books and MSS. vrere exhibited before the R.A.S., 
June 1 6, 1884. By Surgeon-Major T. Duka, M.D., late of the Bengal Army.— Arab Metrology. 
V. Ez-Zahr&wy. Translated and Aimotated by M, H. Sauvaire, de.rAc^d£mie de Marseille. 

. Vol. XVII., Part I., pp. 144, with 6 plates. 1885. \f)s.M. 

• COHTENTS.— story of Shjuten Dojl. From a Japanese "Makimono" in Six "Ken," or 
Bolls. By P. V. Diekins.— The Bearing of the Study of the Bantu Languages of South 
Africa on th^Aryan Family of Languages. By the Hey. F. W. Kolbe.— Notes on Assyrian 
and Akkadian Pronouns. By Q', Benin.— Buddhist Remains near Sarabhur, in Western 
Rajputana, India. By Surgeon-Major T. H. Hendley.— Gldaniiigs f^om the Arabic. By 
H. W. Freeland.— Dialects of Tribes of Hindu Khush, from Colonel Biddulph's Work on 
tlie Subject. II. Shina (Giljit Dialect). III. Kbowar [Chitral Valley). 

Vol. XVII., Part II., pp. 194, with 1 map. 1885. ^s. 

Contents. — Languages of the Caucasus. By B.. N, Oust.- The Study of the South Indian 
Vernaculars. By G. U. Pope, D.D.— The Pallavas. By the Rev. T. Foulkea.— Translation 
of, Books 81-93 of the Markandeya Purina. By the Rev. B. H. Wortham.— Notes on Prof. 
E. B. Tylor's " Arabian Matriarchate," propounded by him as President of the Anthropo- 
logical Section, British Association, Montreal, 1884. By J, W. Redhouae, LL.O.— The 
Northern Frontagers of China. Part VII. The Shato Turks. By H. H. Howorth. 

Vol. XVII., Part III., pp. 314, with 2 plates. 1885. 10s. U. 

CoNTBNTS.— Age of the Avesta. By Prof, de Harlez.— Chinese Game of Chess. Bj; H. F. 
W. Holt. — Cnstoma and Superstitions connected with the Cultivation of Rice in the 
Southern Province of Ceylon. By C. 11. J. le Mesurier.— Vernacular Literature and Folk- 
Lore of the Panjab. By T. H. Thornton, C S.l. — Beginnings of Writing in and around 
Tibet. By T. de Lacouperie.— Index. Proceedings of the Sixty -second Anniversary Meeting 
of the Society held on thelSth of May, 1835. List of Members. 

Vol. XVIII., Part I., pp. 128, with 2 platfis. 1886. 6». 

Contents.— Ancient Navigation in the Indian Ocean. By the Rev. J. EdkinSi D.D., 
Peking.— La Calle and the Country of Khomair, with a Note on North Africaii Marbles ; 
being the Report of a recent Tour addressed to H.M. Secretary of State. By Consul- 
General B. L. Playfair.— Bushmen and their Language. By G. Bertin.— Inscriptions at 
Cairo and the Burju-z Zafar. By Henry C. Kay.— Gleanings from the Arabic : Lament of 
Maisun, the Bedouin wife of Muawiya. By H. W. Freeland, M. A.— Discovery of Caves on 
the Murghab. 'By Gapt. De Laessoe and the Hon. M. G. Talbot, B.E. With Notes by W. 
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Gazetteer of the Central Provinces of India. Edited by Chaeles 
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Geiger. — Conteibittions to the Histoey of the Development of the 

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Goldstiicker. — On the Deficiencies in the Peesent Administeation 
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Gover. — The Folk-Songs op Southeen India. By Chaeles E. Govee. 

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Griersou. — Bihae Peasant Life ; being a Discursive Catalogue of the 

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32 Linguistic Publications of Triibner 8f Co., 

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Griffis. — CoEEA ; Without and "WiTHur. Chapters on Corean History, 
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Griffis. — The Mikado's Empibe. Book I. History of Japan from 
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Growse. — Mathuea : A District Memoir. By P. S. Geowse, B.C.S., 
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Hebrew Literature Society. See page 82. 

Hilmy. — The Liteeatuee op Egypt and the Soudan. From the 
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Hindoo Mythology Popularly Treated. — An Epitomised Description 
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presented, as a Memento of his visit to India, to H.E.H. the Prince of Wales, 
K.G., by His Highness the Gaekwar of Baroda. Small 4to. pp. 42, limp cloth. 
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Hodgson. — Essays on the Languages, Liteeature, and Eeligion 

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Hodgson. — ^Essays on Indian Subjects. See "Triibner's OrientaJ. 

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Hunter. — ^Tee Impeeial G-azetteee of India. By Sir "Wtt.t.taim- 
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57 and 59, Ludgate Sill, London, E.C. 33 

Hunter. — A Statistical Account of Bengal. By SirW. W. Huntee, 
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I. 24 FarganSs and Sandarbans, 
II. Nadiyd and JesBor. 
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IV. Bardwiln, BirbhUm and BSnkuri. 
V. Dacca, Bdkarganj, Fai-tdpur and Mai- 

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XVII. Singbham, CbutiS Ndgpurlribntary 

States and M&nbbUm. 
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KIX. Purl, andOrissa Tributary States. 
XX. Fisberies, Botany, and General Index 

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Hunter. — A Statistical Account of Assam. By Sir "W. "W. Htjnteb, 

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38. 6d. 
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Hunter. — An Account of the British Seiilbmeni of Aden 
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India. — ^Finance and Revenue Accounts of the_Goveenment of, for 
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Jacobs. — The Jewish Question. 1875-1884. A Bibliographical 
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Japan. — Map of Nippon (Japan) : Compiled from B'ative Maps, and 
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Juvenalis Satirse. — ^With a Literal English. Prose Translation and 
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Eaegi. — The Rig Ybda : the Oldest Literature of the Indians. By 
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cloth. 1886. 7s. 6rf. 

Eerrison. — A Common-place Book of the Fifdeenth Century. Con- 
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Kbrrison. Edited, with Notes, by Lucy Toulmin Smith. Demy Svo. with 
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Eitts. — A Compendium of the Castes and Tribes Found in India. 
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Knowles. — A Dictionakt op Kashmiei Pboveebs and Sayings. Ex- 
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Leitner.— SiNiN-I-IsLAM. Being a Sketok of the History and 

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Leitner. — History of Indigenous Edxtcation in the Panjab since 
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folio, pp. 588, paper boards. 1883. £5. 

Leland.— FtrsANG ; or, the Discovery of America by Chinese Buddhist 
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Leland. — The Gypsies. See page 69. 

Leonowens. — Life and Teatel in India. Being RecoUeotions of a 

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Illustrated, cloth. 1885. 10s. Gd. 

Linde. — Tea in India. A Sketch, Index, and Eegister of the Tea 

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Long. — Eastern Proverbs and Emblems. See page 4. 

Lowell. — Choson : the Land of the Moening Calm. A Sketch of 
Korea. By Percival Lowell. Super-royal 8vo. pp. X.-412, cloth. 1886. 24*. 

McCrindle. — The Commerce and Navigation of the Erythraean Sea. 
Being a Translation of the Periplus Maris Erythraei, by an Anonymous Writer, 
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Indus to the Head of the Persian Gulf. With Introduction, Commentary, 
Notes, and Index. Post 8vo. cloth, pp. iv. and 238. 1879. 7«. 6rf. 

IScCrindle. — Ancient India as Described by Megasihenes and 

Arrian. a Translation of Fragments of the Indika of Megasthen8s collected 
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W. McCrindle, M.A., Principal of Gov. College, Patna. With Introduction, 
Notes, and Map of Ancient India. Post 8vo. cloth, pp. xii.-224. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

McCrindle. — Ancient India as described by Ktesias, the Knidian, 
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Introduction, Notes, and Index. 8vo. cloth, pp. viii. — 104. 1882. 6s. 

McCrindle.^ANciENT India as Dbsceibed by Pioiemy. A Transla- 
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MacEenzie. — The History of the Eelations of the Government with 
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1884. 16S4 

57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E;0. 35 

Sladden. — Coots of the Jews. See " Ifumismata Orientalia," Vol. II. 

Man. — On THE Aboeiginai, Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. 
By E. H. Man, Assistant Superintendent Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 
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Demy 8vo. pp. xxviii.-298, with Map and Eight Plates, cloth. 1885. 10s. &d. 

Mariette. — Monuments of Upper Egypt. See page 65. 

Uarkham. — The Naekatives of the Mission of George Bosle, 
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with Notes, Introduction, and lives of Bogle and Manning, by C. R. Mabkham, 
C.B. Second Edition. 8to. Maps and Illus., pp. clxi. 314, cl. 1879. 21s. 

Marsden's Numismata OrientaUa. New International Edition. 
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Harsden. — Ntjmismata Obientalia Illfsteata. The Plates of the 
Oriental Coins, Ancient and Modern, of the Collection of the late W. Marsden. 
Engraved from Drawings made under his Directions. 4to. 57 Plates, ol. 31«. &d. 

Martin. — The Chinese : theie Education, Phuosopht, and Letters. 
By W. A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D., President of the Tungwen College, Pekin. 
8vo. pp. 320, cloth. 1881. 7s. 6<f. 

]IIason.r— Burma : Its People and Productions ; or, Notes on the Fauna, 
Flora, and Minerals of Teuaaserim, Pegu and Burma. By the Rev. F. Mason, 
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written by "W. Theobald, late Deputy-Sup. Geological Survey of India. 2 
Tols. Royal 8vo. pp. xxvi. and 560 ; xvi. and 781 and xxxvi. cloth. 1864. £3. 

Matthews. — Ethnologt and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians. 

By Washington Matthews, Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Contents : — 
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Mayers. — China and japan. See Dennts. 

Mayers. — The Chinese Goteenmbnt. A Manual of Chinese Titles, 
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Second Edition, with Additions by G. M. H. Playpair. Roy. Bvo. cloth, pp. 
lxx.-lo8. 1886. 15s. 

Metcalfe. — The Englishilan and the Scandinatian ; or, a Comparison 
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Author of " The Oxonian in Iceland, etc. Post 8vo. cloth, pp..512. 1880. 18s. 

Milton and Vondel. — See Edmundson. 

Mitra. — The ANiiaTJniEs of Oeissa. By Rajbndralala Mitea. 

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pp. 180. With a Map and 36 Plates. 1875. M 6s. Vol. II. pp. vi. and 178. 

1880. £4v4«. 
Mitra. — Buddha Gata; the Hermitage of Sakya Muni. By Rajen- 

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Moor. — The Hindu Pantheon. By Edwaed Mooe, F.R.S. A new- 
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Morris. — A Desceiptive and Histoeical Accomrr or the Godaveet 
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Mailer. — Ancient Insckipiions in Ceylon. By Dr. Edward MiiiLEE. 
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Munro. — Majoe-Geneeal Sie T. Mtjnko,^ Bart., K.C.B., Governor of 
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North. — Noeth's PitJTAECH, Foue Chaptees of ; Containing the Lives 
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Notes to the Text of the Tragedies of Shakespeare. Edited by Prof. F. A. 
Leo, Ph.D., Member of the Directory of the German Shakespeare Society; and 
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Notes, EouGH, op Jotjenets made in the years 1868-1873, in Syria, 
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Numismata Orieutalia. — The Intbenationai, Ntmismata Oeientalia. 

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The Coins of Southern India. By Sir W. Elliot. Royal 4to. pp Tiii -168* 
with Map and 4 Plates. 1886. 25s. ' 

,57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 37 

Hutt. — A Sketch of Samabitan Hisioht, Dogma, and Liieeatxtee. 

An Introduction to *' Fragments of a Samaritan Targum." By J. W. Nctt, 

M.A., &o., &o. Demy 8to. pp. 180, cloth. 1874. 6». 
Olcott. — A. Buddhist Cateoliisin, according to the Canon of the Southern 

Church. By Col. H. S. Olcott, 24mo. pp. 32, wrapper. 1881. 1«. 

Oppert. — Os THE Ancient Commeecb op India : A Lecture. By Dr. 

G. Oppebt. 8vo. paper, 50 pp. 1879. Is. 
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Inscbiptions. By Dr. G. Oppert. 8vo. paper, pp. -vi. and 74, with a Plate. 

1882. 4s. 

Orientalia Antiqua ; oe Documents and Researches eelating to 


Edited by Terrien de La Couperie, M.R.A.S., etc., etc. Fcap. 4to. pp. 96, 
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Oxley. — Egypt : and the Wonders of the Land of the Pharaohs. By 
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vui -328, cloth. 1884. 7s. U. 

Palmer. — Egyptian Cheonicies, with a harmony of Sacred and 

Egyptian Chronology, and an Appendix on Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities. 
By William Palmer, M.A., Me Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
2 vols. 8vo. cloth, pp. Ixxiv. and 428, and viii. and 636. 1861. I2s, 

FateU. — CowASJEE Patell's Cheonology, containing corresponding 
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Patell. 4to. pp. viii. and 184, cloth. 50s. 

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Paton.— A History of the Egyptian Eevoltjtion, from the Period of 
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Memoirs, Oral Tradition, and Local Research. By A. A. Paton. Second 
Edition. 2 vols, demy Svo. cloth, pp. xii. and 395, viii. and 446. 1870. 7s. 6rf. 

Phillips. — KoPAi-KuNDALA. A Tale of Bengali Life. Translated 
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Bengal C.S. Crown 8vo. pp. 240, cloth. 1885. 6s. 

Pfoundes.^ — Fu So Mimi Bukuro! — A Btjdget of Japanese Notes. 

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Phayre. — Coins of Abakan, etc See "Numismata Orientalia," 
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Piry. — Le Saint Edit. Litteeaixtee Chinoise. See page 63. 

Playfair. — The Cities and Towns of China. A Geographical Diction- 
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cloth, pp. 506. 1879. 25s. 

Poole. — Coins of the UBTUKf TuekumIns. See "Numismata Ori- 
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Poole. — A Scheme of Mohammadan Dynasties Dtteing the Khalifate. 
By S. L. Poole, B.A. Oxon., M.E. A.8., Author of " Selections from the Koran," 
etc. Svo. sewed, pp. 8, with a plate. 1880. 2s.. 

38 Linguistic Publications of Trubner Sf Co., 

Poole. — Aur Ihdex to Pekiodicai. Litekatuee. By "W. P. Poole, 
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Ralston. — Tibetan Tales. See Triibner's Oriental Series, page 5. 
Ram Raz. — Essat on the Akchitectttkb of the Hiisrrirs. By Eam Raz, 

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64, sewed. London, 1834. £2 2s. 

Rapson. — The Steugslb between England and Peance eoe Sttpeemact 
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Ravenstein. — The Russians on the Amtje ; its Discovery, Conquest, 
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Maps. 8to. cloth, pp. 500. 1861. 16. 

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Sayce. — An Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes. By A. H. 
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Triibner's Catalogue of Dictionaries and Grammars of the Principal- 
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Trumpp. — Grammak of the Pasto, or Language of the Afghans, com- 
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Weber. — Indian Litekaittee. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," p. 3. 

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57 and 59, Zudgate Sill, London, JE.C. 51 

Whitney. — Language apd its Sixmr, with especial reference to the 
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Second Edition. Cr., pp. xxii. and 318. 1881. 5s. 

Whitney. — Langtjage and the. Study oe Language : Twelve Lectures 
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Whitney. — Oeiental and LiNauisiic Studies. By "W. D. Whitnet, 
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First Series. The Veda ; the Avesta ; the Science of Language. 
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Bentley.. — Dictionaet and Gkamstak or the Kongo Language, as 
Spoken at San Salvador, the Ancient Capital of the Old Kongo Empire, West 
Africa. Compiled by the Eev. W, Holman Bentlet, Missionary of the 
Baptist Missionary Society on the Kongo. With an Introduction by R. N. 
Cust, Hon. Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. Demy 8to. pp. xxiv. and 
718, with Table of Concords, cloth. 1888. £1 Is. 

Bleek. — A CoMPAaAiiTE Gteammak op South Aekican Languages. By 

W. H.. I. Bleek, Ph.D. Volume I. I. Phonology. II. The Concord. 
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Bleek. — A Bbiee Account oe Bushman Folk Loee and other Texts. 

By W. H. I. Bleek, Ph.D., etc., etc. Folio sd., pp. 21. 1875. 2s. 6d. 
Bleek. — Eeynabd the Pox in South Afhica; or, Hottentot Fables. 
Translated from the Original Manuscript in Sir George Grey's Library. 
By Dr. W. H. I. Bleek, Librarian to the Grey Library, Cape Town,: Cape 
of Good Hope. Post. 8vo., pp. xxxi. and 94, cloth. 1864. 3s. 6(1. 

Callaway. — Izinganekwane, Nensumansumane, Nbzindaba, Zabantu 

(Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus). In their own words, 
with a Translation into English,and Notes. By the Rev. H. Callaway, M.D. 

Callaway.^ — The Keligious Ststem oe the Ajmazuiu. 

Part I. — Unkulunkulu; or, the Tradition of Creation as existing among the 

Amazulu and otherTrjbes of South Africa, in their own words, with a translation 

into English, and Notes. Bythe Rev. Canon Callaway.M.D. 8vo. pp. 128, 

sewed. 1868. 4s. 
Part II. — Amatongo ; or. Ancestor Worship, as existing among the Amazulu, in 

their own words, with a translation into English, and Notes. By the Rev. 

Canon Callaway, M.D. 1869. 8vo. pp. 127, sewed. 1869. 4s. 
Part III. — Izinyanga Zokubula ; or, Divination, as existing among the Amazulu, in 

their own words. With a Translation into English, and Notes. By the Eev. 

Canon Callaway, M.D. 8vo. pp. 150, sewed. 1870. is. ■ 
Part IV. — Abatakati, or Medical Magic and Witchcraft. 8vo. pp. 40, sewed. Is. Sd. 

52 Linguistic Publications of Triibner 8f Co. 

Christaller.— A Dictionaet, EngmsS:, Tshi, (Asaj^te), Akba ; TsM 

(Chwee), comprising as dialects Ak4n (As^nt^, Ak^m, Akuape'm, etc.) and 
VkDti ; Akra (Accra), connected with Adangme ; Gold Coast, West Africa. 
Enyiresi, Twi ne' l^'kran I Eiilisi, Otsiii_ ke Ga 

nsem - asekyere - nhoma. | wiemoi - asiSitsomo- wolo. 

By the Bev. J. G. Cbeistalleb, Rev. C. W. Looheb, Rev. J. Zimmebmann, 
16mo. 7s. 6d. 

Christaller. — A Geammar of the Asattte and Fanib IiAjuguaots, ealled 

Tshi (Chwee, Twi) : based on the Akuapem Dialect, with reference to the 
other (Akan and Fante) Dialects. By Rev. J. G. Cheistai.s-ee. 8vo. pp. 
xxiv. and203. 1875. 10s. 6d. 

Christaller, — Dictiowajit of the Asante and Fante LAserAGE, called 
Tshi (Chwee, Twi). With a Grammatical Introduction and Appendices on the 
Geography oi the Gold Coast, and other Subjects. By Rev. J. G. Chbistallek. 
Demy 8vo. pp. xxviii. and 672, cloth. 1882. £1 6». 

Cnst. — Sketch oe the Modern Lanqttages oe Aeeica. See " Triibner'a 
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Dohne. — The Fotjb, Gospels in Zttltj. By the Eev. J. L. Dohne, 

Missionary to the American Board C.F.M. 8vo. pp. 208, cloth. 1866. 5s. 

Dohne. — A Zttltj-Kaeih Dictionaet, etymologically explained, with 

copious Illustrations and examples, preceded by an introduction on the Zulu- 
Kafir Language. By the Rev. J. L. Dohne. Royal Svo. pp. xlii. and 418, 
sewed. Cape Town, 1857. 21«. 

Grey. — Handbook of Afeican, Attsteaiian, and Poitnesian Phi- 

LOLOOY. See page 49. 
Grout. — The Isizultt : a Grammar of the Zulu Language ; accompanied 
with an Historical Introduction, also with an Appendix, By Rev. Lewis Gbovt. 
Svo. pp. lii. and 432, cloth. 21s. 

Hahn. — Tstjni-||Goam. See "Triibner's Oriental Series," page 5. 

Eolbe. — A Language Sttjdt Based on Bantu ; or, An Inquiry into 
the Laws of Root-Formation, the Original Plural, the Sexual Dual, and the 
Principles of Word-Comparison; with Tables Illustrating the Primitive Pro- 
nominal System restored in the African Bantu Family of Speech. By the Rev. 
F. W. KoLBE, of the London Missionary Society, formerly of the Rhenish 
Herero Mission, Author of " An English-Herero Dictionary." Post Svo. pp-. 
viii, and 97, with Four Tables, cloth. 1888. 6«. 

Erapf. — DicnoNAEX of tms Stjahtli Language. Compiled by th8 
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Steere. — Shoet Specimens op the Vocabulaeies of Theee "Us-, 

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Steere. — Collections foe a Handbook of the Ntamwezi Language, 

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March. — A Compaeaiite Geammah op the Anglo-Saxon Langttage ; 
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Athar-nl-Adhar — Teaces op Centueles; or. Geographical and Historical 
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Newman. — A Diction akt op Mod:ehn Aeabic. — 1. Anglo- Arabic 

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Falmer. — The Song of ihe Eeed; and other Pieces. By E. H. 
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Palmer. — ^HnrLtisTAira, Pebsiaw, aitd A»abic Geammab S tmtt . tt ied. 
By E. H. Paimek. M.A., Cambridge. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. pp. 
vin.-104, cloth. 1885. S». 

BrOgers. — ^Notice on the Dinajes op the Ajbbasstde Dtsastt. By 
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Schemeil. — El Mtjbiakeb; or, First Bom. (In Arabic, printed at 
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Syed Ahmad. — Life op Mohammed. See Muhammed. 
Wherry. — Commentary on the Quran. See page 5. 


Bronson. — A Dictionaet nr Assamese aitd Engmsh. Compiled by 
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Catalogue of Assamese Books to be had of Messrs, Trubner % Co., Post free for 
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1888. 5*. 

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Budge. — The HisroEr op Esaehaddow. See " Triibner's Oriental 
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Catalogue (A) of leading Books on Egypt and Egyptology, and on 
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Clarke. — Eeseaeches ts Pee-hisioeic and Peoto-histoeic Compaea- 
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57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London E.G. 57 

Cooper. — An Archaic Dictionary, Biographical, Historical and Mytho- 
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GooFER. London, 1873. 8to. cloth, \5a. 

Hincks.-^^SpEciMEN Chapteks op ait Assteian Geammae. By the 
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Lenormant (F.) — CnAiDEAif Magic; its Origin and Development. 
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Lnzzatto. — Geammae of the Biblical Chaldaic Lansitage and the 
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Italian by J. S. Goldammer. Cr. 8vo. cl., pp. 122. 7*. 6d. 

Rawlmson,' — Notes on- the Eablt Hisioey of Babtlonia. By 
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Rawlinson,' — A Commentaet on the Cuneieoem Inscriptions of 
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BawUnson. — Inscbiption of Tmiath Pilesee I., King of Assteia, 
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Bawlinson. — Oittlines op Assyeian Histoey, from the Inscriptions of 
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Becords of the Past : heing English Translations of the Assyrian: and 
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Benan. — ^An Essay on the Age and ANTianiTY of the Book op 

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Sayce. — An Assyeian Geammae foe Compaeatitb Ptteposes. By 

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Sayce. — An Elementaet Gbammab and Reading Book of the Assyrian 
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Sayce. — Lectuees upon the Assyrian Language and Syllabary. 

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Sayce. — Basylonian Liteeattjee. Lectures. London, 1877. 8vo. 4«. 

Smith. — The Assyeian Eponym Canon ; containing Translations of the 
Documents of the Comparative Chronology of the Assyrian and Jewish King- 
doms, from the Death of Solomon to Nebuchadnezzar. By E. Smith. London, 
1876. 8vo. 9s. ______^^_^_^ 


Ctrey. — Handbook of Apeican, Atjsteaiian, and Polynesian Phi- 
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Ellis. — SouECES OP THE BASQUE AND Etettscan Langitages. See p. 48 . 

Van Eys. — OuTLnrEs or Basque Geammae. By W. J. Yak Ets. 
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Browne. — A BIngIxi PEmEE, in Eoman Character. By J. P. Beo^vne^ 

B.C.S. Crown Svo. pp. 32, cloth. 1881. 2s, 
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Yates. — A BengIij Geammae. By the late Eev. "W. Tates, D.D. 

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Bellew.— Feom the Indus to the Tigeis. A Narrative ; together with. 
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Duka. — An Essat on the Beahui Geammae. By Dr. T. Duka.. 
Demy 8vo. pp. 78, paper. 1887. 3s. 6d. 

67 and 59, Ludgate Sill, London, E.G. 59 

Hough's Geneeal OTTTLiifES OF Geogjeapht (in Burmese). Ke-written 

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STudson. — A Geammak oe the Bttemesb Langttage. 8vo. pp. 52, 

boards. Rangoon, 1883. 3«. 

Sloan. — A Peacticax Method with the Burmese Language. By W. 

H. Sman. Second Edition. Large 8vo. pp. 232. Rangoon, 1887. 12«. 6<?. 
We-than-da-ya, The Stoet of, a Buddhist Legend. Sketched from 

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Schools, Burma. With five Illustrations by a native artist. 4to. pp. x. — 80, 

paper. 1886. 5«. 


Acheson. — ks Index to De. WmiAMs's " Syllabic Dictionaet of the 
Chinese Languase." Arranged according to Sir Thomas Wade's System of 
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Baldwin. — A Manual of the Eoochow Dialect. By Eev. C. C. 

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BalfoTir. — Taoist Texts. See page 41. 

Balfour. — The Ditute Classic of Nan-hua. Being the "Works of 
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and 426, cloth. 1881. 14*'. 

Balfonr. — Waifs and Steats feom the Fae East ; heing a Series of 
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Balfour. — Leates feoh mt Chinese Sceap Book. See page 6. 

Ball. — The Cantonbse-made-east Vocabulaet. A small Dictionary 
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Ball. — Easy Sentences in the Cantonese Dialect, with a Vo- 
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" Cantonese-made-easy." Crown 8vo. pp. 8 — 24, cloth. 4s. 

Beal. — The Buddhist Teipitaka, as it is known in China and Japan. 
A Catalogue and Compendious Eeport. By Samuel Beal, B.A. Folio, sewed, 
. pp. 117. 7s. %d. 

60 Linguistic Publications of Triibner ^ Co. 

Beal.— The Dhammaiaba. See "Trvitner's Oriental Series," page 3. 
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Chalmers. — The OEionsr oe the Chinese; an Attempt to Trace the 
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Chalmers. — The Steitctuee of Chinese Chabactees, irNDEE 300 
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Craven. — The Popular Dictionary in English and Hindustani and 
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Dowson. — A Geammae of the Urdu or Hindustani Language. By 
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Eastwiek. — Khibad Apeoz (The Illuminator of the' Understanding). 
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Anderson., — Noese Mtthoiogt, or the Religion of our Forefathers. 
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with an Introduction, Vocabulary and Index. By E. B. Anderson, Prof, of 
Scandinavian Languages in the University of "Wisconsin. Crown 8vo. cloth. 
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Anderson and Bjarnason. — ViKnrG Taies op the Noeth. The Sagas 
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Cleasby.- — Appendix to an Icelandic -English Dictionaet. See 

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Edda Saemundar Hinns Froda — The Edda of Saemund the Learned. 
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Skeat. — A List oe English "Woeds, the Etymology of which is illus- 
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Tegner. — Feidthjof's Sasa, A Noesb Eomakce. By Esaias Tbgn£e, 
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'Thorhelson, Pall. — Diciionnaieb Islandais-Feajtcais. Yol. I. Part 
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Aston. — A Geammae of thb Japanese Weitibn Language. By "W. G. 

Aston, M.A., Assistant Japanese Secretary, H.B.M.'s Legation, Yedo, Japan. 

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Aston. — A Shoet Geammae of the Japanese Spoken Language. By 

W. G. Aston, M.A., H. B. M.'s Legation, Yedo, Japan. Third edition. 

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Black. — Young Japan, Yokohama and Yedo. A Narrative of the 

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Twenty-one Tears. By J. E. J3lack. Two Vols., demy 8vo. pp. xviii. and 418 ; 

xiv. and S22, cloth. 1881. £2 2s. 
^Chamberlain. — A Romanised Japanese Eeadbe. Consisting of 

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1886. 6s. 

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Dickins. — The Ou) Bamboo-Hbwbe's Stokt (Taketori no Okina 
no Monogatari). The JSarliest ot the Japanese Homances, written in the 
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Hepburn. — A Japaitese asd English Dictiohaet. "With an English 

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Hoffinann (Prof. Dr. J. J.) — Japaitese-Ekgijsh Diction aex. — ^Pub- 
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Imbrie. — Handboox op English-Japanese ExYMOLOGy. By "W. 

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Pfoundes. — Yv So Mna Bttctjeo. See page 37. 

Satow. — ^An English Japanese Dictiohabt op the Spoken Language. 
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Snyematz. — Genji MoNooAiAEt. The most celebrated of the Classical 

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254, cloth. 1882. 7». 6d. 


Newman. — ^Kabah VocAEtrLABT. Supplemented by Aid of a New 
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Garrett. — A Mantai English and Kanaeese Dictionaet, containing: 
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Bangalore, 1872. 18*. vt , t^- 

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KELTIC (CoKNiSH, Gaelic, Welsh, Irish). 
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Ehys. — Lectuees on "Welsh Philologt. By John Ehts, M.A., 

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Spurrell. — A Gkammae op the "Welsh Language. By "William 

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William Spuerell. Third Edition. Fcap. cloth, pp. xxv. and 732. 8s. &d. 

Stokes. — GoroELicA — Old and Early-Middle Irish Glosses : Prose and 
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Stokes. — ToGAiL Teoi ; The Destruction of Troy. Transcribed from 
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Stokes. — The Beeton Glosses at Oeleans. By "W. Stokes. 8vo. 
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Stokes. — Theee Middle-Ieish Homilies on the Lives of Saints Patrick, 
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Stokes. — ^Beuhans Mbeiasek. The Life of Saint Meriasek, Bishop 
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Stokes. — The Old-Ieish Glosses at "Wttezbueg and Carlseuhe. 
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Newman. — Libtan Vocabulaet. An Essay towards Eeproducing the 
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MAHRATTA (Marathi). 

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jSlsop's Fables. — Originally Translated into Marathi hy Sadashiva 

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Ballantyne. — A Geammae op the Maheatta Language. For the 

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Bellairs. — A Grammae op the Maeathi Language. By H. S. K. 

Bellaius, M.A., and Laxhan Y. Ashe.edkah, B.A. 12mo. cloth, pp. 90. 5s. 
Molesworth. — A Dictionaet, Maeathi and English. Compiled by 
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Holesworth. — A Compendium op Moleswoeth's Maeathi and English 
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Navalkar. — The Student's MLieathi Geammae. By G. E. Nataxkae. 

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Tnkarama. — A Complete Collection of the Poems of Tukarama 
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Parker. — A Concise Geammae op the Malagasy Language. By G. 

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Van der Tuuk. — Outlines op a Geammae op the Malagasy Language 

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Maxwell. — A Mabtjai, of the Maxat Lanstja&e. With an Intro- 
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D'Alwis. — ^A Desceiptive Catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, and Sinhalese 
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Seal. — Dhammapada. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," page 3. 

Bigandet. — Gaudama. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," page 4. 

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Childers. — The MAHipAEiNiBBijrAsriTA of the Stjtta-Pitaka. The 
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CMlders.— On Sandhi m Pali. By tbe late Prof. E. C. Childees. 

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Coomara Swamy. — ^Sutta NipiTA ; or, the Dialogues and Discourses 
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CoomSra Swamy. — The DathXvansa ; or, the History of the Tooth- 
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Davids. — See Btodhisi Bieth Stoetes, " Triibner's Oriental Series," 
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Davids. — SIgiei, the Lion Eook, neae Ptclastiptjba, and the 39ih 
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Dickson. — The PItimokkha, being the Buddhist Office of the Con- 
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Fausboll. — JliAKA. See under JItaka. 

Fausboll. — The Dasaeatha-JItaka, being the Buddhist Story of King 

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Svo. sewed, pp. iv. and 48. 2s. 6cl, 

FansboU. — Five JItakas, containing a Fairy Tale, a Comical Story, 

and Three Fables. In the original F&li Text, accompanied with a Translation 
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Fausboll. — Ten Jatakas. The Original Pali Text, with a Translation 
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Fryer. — ^Vitxiobata. (Exposition of Metre.) By Sanghaeakkhita 

Tbera. a Pali Text, Edited, with Translation and Notes, by Major G.. E. 
Fryer. Svo. pp. 44. 2«. 6rf. 

Haas. — Catalogtte op Sanskeit and Pali Books in the Libeaet of 
THE British Museum. By Dr. Ernst Haas. Printed by Permission of the 
Trustees of the British Museum. 4to. cloth, pp. 200. £1 Is. 

Jataka (The) ; together with its Commentary. Being Tales of the 

Anterior Birth of Gotama Buddha. For the first time Edited in the original 
Pali by V. Fausboll. Demy Svo. cloth. Vol. I. pp. 512. 1877. 28s. 
Vol. II., pp. 452. 1879. 28s. Vol. III. pp. viii.-544. 1883. 28s. Vol. 
IV. pp. I.-460. 1887. 28s. For Translation see under " Buddhist Birth 
Stories," page 4. 

The " Jataka " is a collection of legends in Pali, relating the history of Bnddha's trans- 
migration before he was born as Gotama. The great antiquity of this work is authenticated 
by its forming part of the sacred canon of the Southern Buddhists, which was finally settled at 
the last Council in 246 b.c. The collection has long been. known as a storehouse of ancient 
fables, and as the most original attainable source to which almost the whole of this kind of 
literature, from the Panchatantra and Pilpay's fables down to the nursery stories of the present 
day, is traceable ; and it has been considered desirable, in the interest of Buddhistic studies aa 
well, as for more general literary purposes, that an edition and translation of the complete 
■ work should be prepared. The present publication is intended to supply this ■want.—Athmaium^ 

67 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, JE.C, 91 

Mahawansa (The) — The Mahawaitsa. From the Thirty- Seventh 
Chapter. Revised and edited, under orders of the Ceylon GovernmBnt, by 
H. SuMANOALA, and Don Andkis de Silta Bathwantxjdawa. Vol. I. Pali 
Text in Sinhalese character, pp. xxxii. and 436. Yol. II. Sinhalese Transla- 
tion, pp. lii. and 378 half-bound. Colombo, 1877. £2 2s. 

Mason. — The Pali Text op Kaohchata»-o's Gbammak, with English 
Annotations. By Fkanois Mason, D.D. I. The Text Aphorisms, 1 to 673. 
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Ramayan of Valmiki. — 5 vols. See under Geiteith. 

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104 Linguistic Publications of Triibner 8j Co., 

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Weber. — IwDiAif Liteeatijee. See page 3. 

Whitney. — Atharva Veda PkXti91khta ; or, Caunak(ya Caturadhya- 
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Whitney. — Index Verbonim to the Published Text of the Atharva- 
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Williams. — A DicTioNAEr, English and Sansceit. By Sie 

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67 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E. C. 105 

AND Philological, on Subjects connected -wiia Sanskkit LiTERATunE. 
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Select Specimens of the Theatre op the Hindus. Translated from the 
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Wilson. — Select Specimens of the Theatee op the Hindus. Trans- 
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Third corrected edition. 2 vols. 8vo.,pp. Ixxi. and 384; iv. and 41 8, cloth. 2 Is. 

Contents. — Vol. I. — Preface — Treatise on the Dramatic System of the Hindus— Dramas trans- 
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Urvasi, or the Hero and the Nymph— TJttara K&ma Charitra, or continuation of 
the History ofE&ma. Vol. II.— Dramas translated from the Original Sanskrit — 
Mal&ti and MSdhava, or the Stolen Marriage— Mudr4 Bakshasa, or the Signet of 
the Minister — Ratafivall, or the Necklace — Appendix, containing short accounts of 
different Dramas. 

Wilson. — A. DicTiONAET in San^skeit and English. Translated, 
amended, and enlarged from an original compilation prepared by learned Natives 
for the College of Fort "William by H. H. Wilson. The Third Edition edited 
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Wilson (H. H ). — See also Megha Duta, Eig-Yeda, and Vishnu- 


Yajnrveda. — The "White Tajtjeveda in the Madhtandina Kecen- 

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MorfiU. — Simplified Serbian Geammae. By "W. E. Moefill, M.A., 
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Gushing. — Geammae of the Shan Language. By the Eev. J. N. 

Gushing. Large 8vo. pp. xii. and 60, boards. Rangoon, 1871. 9s. 
Gushing. — Elementary Handbook of the Shan Language. By the 

Eev. J. N. Gushing, M A. Small 4to. boards, pp. i. and 122. 1880. 12s. &d. 
Gushing. — A Shan and EngUsh Dictionary. By J. N. Gushing, M.A. 

Demy 8vo. cloth, pp. xvi. and 600. 1881. £1 Is. &d. 


Trumpp. — Geammae of the Sindhi Language. Compared with the 
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8vo. sewed, pp. xvi, and 590. 15s. 

106 Linguistic Publications of Trubner 8f Co., 


Aratchy. — Athetha "Waxya Dbepajsta, or a Collection of Sinhalese 
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Aratcht. 8to. pp. iv. and 84, sewe-l. Colombo, 1881. 2s. 6d. 

D'Alwis. — A Desceiptive Cataxo&tte of Sanskrit, Pali, and Sinhalese 
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Childers. — Notes on the Sinhalese Language. No. 1. On the 

Formation of the Plural of Neuter Nouns. By the late Prof. E. C. Childebs. 
Demy 8vo. sd., pp. 16. 1873. Is. 
Mahawansa (The)-^THE Mahawansa. From the Thirty-Seventh 

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H. Sumangala, and Don Andris de Silva Batuwantudavra. Vol. I. Fall Text 
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Steele. — An Easteen Love-Sioet. Eusa Jatakaya, a Buddhistic 
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Sinhalese Poem of Alagiyavanna Mohottala, by Thomas Steele, Ceylon 
Civil Service. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. xii. and 260. London, 1871. 6s. 


Erapf. — DicTioNAET of the Stjahtli Language. By the Est. Dr. L. 
Krapp. With Introduction, containing an ontUne of a Suahili Grammar. 
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Royal 8vo. pp. xl.-434, cloth. 1882. 30s. 


Otte. — SiMPLmED Geammae ov the Stvddise Language. By E. G. 
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Gottheil. — A Teeatise on Steiac Geammae. By Mae(i) Elia op Sob'^a. 

Edited and Translated from the Manuscripts in the Berlin Royal Library by 
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Kalilah and Dimnah (The Book of). Translated from Arabic into 
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Phillips.^THE DocTEiNE OP Abdai THE AposTiE. Now first Edited 
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8vo. pp. 122, cloth. 7s. 6d. 

Stoddard. — Geammae oe the Modeen Steiac Language, as spoken in 
OroOmiah, Persia, and in Koordistan. By Rev. D. T. Stoddabb, Missionary of 
the American Board in Persia. DemySvo. bds., pp. 190. 10s. 6d. 

67 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 107 


Catalogue of Tamil BooTcs sold by Messrs, Triibner ^ Co. post free for penny stamp. 


MATis. Auctore E. P. Constantio Josepho Beschio, Soo. Jesu, in Madurensi 
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Lazarus. — A Tamil Geammae, Designed for use in Colleges and Schools. 
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Arden. — A Peogeessfvi; Geammae of the Teltjgtj LANeuAGE, with 
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On the Alphabet and Orthography. — Outline Grammar, and Model Sentences. 
Part II. A Complete Grammar of the Colloquial Dialect. Part III. On the 
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Arden. — ^A CoMPANioif Telugu Reader to Arden's Progressive Telugu 
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Carr. — ft3-o[j?er*§ J^iToj^S'. a Collection of Telugu Peoteebs, 
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Csoma de Koros. — A Diciiowaet Tibetan and English (only). By 
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Csoma de Koros. — A Geammae of the Tibetan Language. By A. 
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Jaschke. — A Tibetait-Estglish Dictionaet. With special reference to 
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Jaschke. — Tibetan Geammae. By H. A. Jaschke. Crown 8vo. pp. 

viii. and 104, cloth. 1883. 6s. 
Lewin. — A Manual of Tibetan, being a Guide to the Colloquial Speech 

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Schiefner. — Tibetan Tales. See " Trubner's Oriental Series," page 5. 

Shaw. — A Sketch of the Tueki Language. As Spoken in Eastern 
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Arnold. — A Simple Teassiitebai Grammae op the Tuekish LAiraTrAGE. 

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Gibb. — OTTQMAir Poems. Translated into English Verse in their 
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Gibb. — The Stoet of jEwaD, a Romance, by Ali Aziz Efendi, the 
Cretan. Translated from the Turkish, by E. J. "W. Gibb. 8vo. pp. xii. and 
238, cloth. 1884. 7s. 

Hopkins. — Elemeniaet Geammak op the Tue^ish Lau-guage. With 

a few Easy Exercises. By F. L. Hopkins, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge. Cr. 8vo. cloth, pp. 48. 1877. 3s. 6d. 

Redhonse. — On the History, System, and Varieties of Turkish Poetry, 
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Bedhonse. — The Turkish Campaignbe's VADE-MEOtrM op Ottoman 

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selected Vocabulary, alphabetically arranged, in two parts, English and Turkish, 
and Turkish and English; also a few Familiar Dialogues ; the whole in English 
characters. By J. W. Redhodse, F.R.A.S. Third Edition. Oblong 32mo. 
pp. Tiii.-372, limp cloth. 1882. 6s. 

Redhoiise. — Oitoman-Tuekish Geammae. See page 50. 

Redhouse. — Tfekish and English Lexicon, showing in English the 
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Parts I. to III. Imperial 8vo. pp. 960, paper covers. 1885. 27s. 

Newman. — The Text op the Igittine Inscriptions, with interlinear 

Latin Translation and Notes. By Fbancis W. Newman, late Professor of 
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Browne. — An URiri. Primer in Edman Chaeactee. By J. F. Beowne, 
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Maltby. — A Peacticai Handbook op the Ueiya or Obita Language. 
By Thomas J. Maxtby, Madras C.S. 8vo. pp. xiii. and 201. 1874. 10s. 6<;.