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Full text of "First lessons in Chinese"

Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tlie Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023551272 



Cornell University Library 
PL 2065.Y33 

First lessons in Cliinese. 



3 1924 023 551 272 



Y33 



'&i^wwm^ 



FIRST 



LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



K/E'V". ZMI- T. ■y.A.TES, JD.ID. 



Revised and Corrected. 



SHANGHAI : 

American Presbyteeian Mission Press. 

1899. 



AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION. 



Those who have attempted to acquire a woi-king kaowledge 
of any of the spoken dialects of China by picking up isolated words 
from a vocabulary or dictionary, (like picking pebbles from the sea 
shore), kaow full well the necessity of a beginner's book ; one that 
is practical, and yet so simple that the learner will be encouraged 
by being able to use his acquirements from the first lesson. 

The design of the author of this manual is to supply, to some 
extent, this long-felt wantj and he is confident that any one who 
will take the trouble to master these lessons (the work of only a 
few months), will be in possession of the key to the spoken 
language, not only of this district, but, with a slight change in the 
sound of words (which can be easily acquired), of other districts 
also; for the general structure of the language (barring a few 
localisms) is the same everywhere. 

The importance of a thorough knowledge of the classifiers 
cannot be too strongly urged ; for it is impossible to speak of any 
visible object without using one of them, and it is important to a 
clear understanding of the matter under consideration that the 
correct classifier be used. 

A oarefal study of the inflected verbs will save months, if not 
years, of perplexiug uncertainty ; for the same forms will be found 
applicable to most other verbs. 



PREFACE TO NEW EDITION. 



l^^kNLY a few books have been published for the pnrpose of 
^ aiding students in acquiring the Shanghai vernacular. Of 
these, none has been more helpful to beginners than that of Dr.: 
Yates, which is now given to the public in a more convenient form, ' 
carefully revised and corrected, and with the old Romanization | 
replaced by that of the present Onion System. The ingenious but 
cumbersome phonetic representation of English sounds by Chinese 
characters has been omitted in this edition, and snch corrections 
made as seemed necessary to bring the work into harmony with 
present usage ; but the general plan of the book, and nearly all 
of the sentences, both Chinese and English, remain as before. 

Mrs. Yates, believing that a new edition would be helpful to 
missionary students in preparing for their work, accepted the 
oifer of the undersigned to prepare the work for the press. In 
this work many helpful suggestions have been received from Rev. 
Q-. F. Fitch, while two competent Chinese teachers, ^ ■? fb and 
M t $iP. have rendered valuable assistance in making corrections 
in the Chinese text. 

J. A. SILSBY. 



PRONUNCIATION OF SHANGHAI SYLLABLES AS 

REPRESENTED BY THE UNION SYSTEM 

OF ROMANIZATION. 



The trae pronaiiciatiou of Chinese sounds can only be learned 
fpom a Chinese teacher. A large majority of the sonnds have no true 
equivalent in English ; hence the student should bear in mind that 
any Romanization used does not represent English sounds, but Chinese 
sounds. This fact can not be too strongly emphasized. The com- 
mittee which formulated the present Union System of Jilomanization 
did not have in mind the representation of Chinese sounds by their 
nearest English equivalents so much as it had in view the production 
of a complete, simple and systematic table whereby all the Chinese 
sounds should be represented by Roman letters or combinations 
thereof — and this without the use of diacritical marks. It should be 
borne in mind by the student that this system does not divide a word 
into all its phonetic elements; but rather does it follow a plan well- 
known to Chinese scholars ; viz., that of dividing each syllable 
represented by a Chinese character into two elements — one initial 
and one final. 

THE miTALS. 

The Initials are divided into a " Higher," a " Middle " or "As- 
pirated," and a " Lower " Series. 

1. The Higher Series comprises sounds represented by jo, 
'm, 'c, t, ts, s, 'I, 'n, 'nij, 'ng, k, ky, ho, pure vowel sounds, i and 'w. 

2. The Middle or Aspirated Series comprises sounds repre- 
sented by p\f, t\ ts', k', ch, Kw, k, ky and hw. 

3. The Lower Series comprises sounds represented by 6, m, 
V, d, dz, z, I, n, ny, ng, g, j, gw, ' {or low vowel sounds, slighlly 
aspirated), y and w. 



VI 



N. B. Let it be remembered that the difference between the 
Higher and Lower Series of initial sounds is not so much a difference 
in consonantal quality as a difference in pitch ; hot there is a real 
consonantal difference. 

The following descriptions of sounds may be found helpful, but 
the true sound in most cases must be learned from a Chinese teacher. 
After each description there is given a Chinese character represent- 
ing, or containing, the sound described. 

p — pronounced much the same as in English, but a little harder 

and without any aspiration. "§■ /h^h ■> 

/>' — -aspirated ; somewhat as an American or Irishman would pro- 
nounce jo in pin, but with a still more decided aspiration, fg 
b — not quite so hard as in English. ^ k^- ■•--^•.•^<^- 
'm — higher and more explosive than m. % y^ U^ 
m—SLS in English, i^ yCZ. 
'v — a sound slightly harder and less aspirated than the English ' 

/—as in English, f^ "(p^ 

»— Nearly as in English, but often approaching w, with which 
it is often confused, fj 

t — harder and with less aspiration than in English. ■^ 

i'— with more aspiration. |^ 

rf— -softer than in English. ■^ 

ts — harder and less aspirated than in English. |j( 

ts' — with more aspiration. "J* 

«?^— softer than in English. The majority of Shanghai natives 
fail to distinguish between this sound and that represented by z. ^ 

s — as in English. ,§. 

z — softer and more sibiliant than in English. ]M 

'I — higher and more explosive than Z. ^ 

I — as in English. |§ 

'«— higher and more explosive than n. Jj 

n — as in English, p^ 

»y— higher and quicker than wy. f^ 



vn 

ny — Mach the same as n ia new, but with a more decided y 
sound following the,«. ^ 

'ng — higher and quicker than ng. — ^ 

ng — harder than ng in song. .|| 

k — harder and with less aspiration than in English. jJtl 

7c' — 'With more aspiration. Jg 

g — as in go, but softer. ^ 

hj — a peculiar sound which can not be represented by any 
English combination. Perhaps tky might better represent it. '^H 

ch — softer and with more aspiration than ch in church. ^ 

j — a little harder than j in jwgr. -^ 

kw — as qu in quart. ^ 
. kvf — the same sound aspirated and softer. ^ 

gw — softer than gu in Guelph. ^ 

Vowel initials are pronounced higher and purer than in 
English. 

A— as in hat. f^, Confused with f sounds by many natives. 

' — before an initial vowel indicates that the word belongs to the 
lower series and that the vowel is slightly aspirated. This aspiration 
is little more than a huskiness in the throat attendant upon the lower 
pitch of the voice. It should not be confused with h. ^ 

i — ^lighter than they sound — as in view. Only as an initial is 
the y sound given to i. In other positions i represents a vowel 
sonnd. g 

hy — somewhat like sh in should, but less sibilant. It is more 
like ti in initial. ^ 

y — as in young. JfjJ 

'w — higher, lighter and quicker than w. ^ 

hw — as wh in where. ^fC 

w — as in way. ^ 

DOK-YONG ZZ-MOO. 

In this class there is no clear and distinct vowel sonnd. The 
final sound in the syllables tsz, ts'z, dz, sz and z might be regarded 
as a vowel sound akin to that in the final syllable of able — prolonged, 



Till 

but without -any I sound, as given by some foreigners. Bdkins, Mateer, 
Bailer and others represent this sound by l, and would spell— ifsii, 
ts\ dzi, si and zi. Others insist that there is no true vowel sound 
in the syllables represented, and that there is only a prolonged 
sounding of s or z. The syllables represented by m, r, and ng, have 
a slight vowel sound before the consonant ; this sound being much 
the same as that represented by i in the list mentioned; m repre- 
sents much the same sound as m in chasm — prolonged ; and ng is 
much the same as ng in song, but generally less sonant ; r is an 
indescribable sound between that of the English r and I — or 
rather a blending of them. We give below a Chinese character 
representing the syllables described as Dok-yong Zz-moo. 
m—^ ts'z—^ sz — ,g r—M 

THE FINALS. 

The Finals are divided into three classes; viz., — 

1. Vowel Endings, comprising sounds represented by a, e, 
i, au, 0, 00, oe, eu, u, ui, ia, iau, and ieu ; also the Win-li ie. 

2 Nasal Endings, comprising sounds represented by ang, an, 
en, ten, ing, aung, ong, oen, ung, uin, and iang. 

3. Abrupt Vowel Endings, comprising sounds represented by 
ah, ah, eh, ih, auk, ok, oeh, uh, and iah. 

The ng sounds are less distinct than the English ng in song. 

Final n is sounded in the combination uin, but in other 
combinations does little more than lengthen out and impart a nasal 
quality to the preceding vowel. 

Final h and h are not pronounced : they indicate that the preced- 
ing vowel is pronounced in a short, abrupt manner. Single vowels 
followed by fc retain their long sound ; — followed by h are 
shortened. 

The vowels are sounded as follows : — 

a, ang, ak — a as in father. ^ ;fl ^ 

an, ah — a as in mat. ^ Jf 



IX 



e, en — e as in prey. "^ Bjl 

eh — e as in met. 5|t 

i, ien—i as ia caprice. ^ ^. la the corabiaation ien, ie may 
be regarded as a diphthoag, the e beiag lightly sounded, its 
quality being nearly that of e in prey. 

ing, ih — i as in pit. i^ ^ 

au, aung, auk — au as in fraud. [U] j^T ^ 

— as in no. ,B| 

ony — as ou in mourn, or as oo in moon. The trne sound seems 
to He between, or rather, it is a combination of the two English sounds 
in the words given. ^ 

ok — as in mote. § 

00 — as in moon. ,1^ 

oe, oen, oeh — oe somewhat as in the German Goethe. ^ ^ -^ 

eu — somewhat as i in mirth. Eu should be carefully distinguished 
from ir as in sir. Foreigners often mistake by adding an r to the 
vowel sonnd. ^g 

ung, uh — u as in sun. ,g, f^ 

M — somewhat as oo in foot, but lengthened oat. ^ 

ui — as u in the French vertu. j^ 

uin — ui sonjewhat like the preceding, but only to be learned 
from a Chinese teacher, U 

ia, iang, iak — short i is followed by a as m father. |^ ^ fij 

iev, — short i followed by eu. ^ 

ie — an occasional sound used in reading W&n-li : short i is fol- 
lowed by a sound akin to e as in prey. 

TONE SIGNS. 

" to the left of a word indicates the tone to be 'zany^sung. 
* to the right indicates the ckui'-suny. 
Final h or k indicate the zeh-sung. 
All other words are in the biny-suny. 



INDEX. 



Abuse .„ 

Add to .„ 

Adjectives, comparison of 

Adverbs 

Anchor 

Arrange, manage .» 

Ascend 

Ascend ; to get up 

Ask ; to enquire j to investigate.. 

Answer 

Bake ; to roast ... .- 

Banish ... 

Be .„ 

Bear or press upon 

Beckon 

Become rich 

Beg - 

Begin ; to commence ... ^ 

Believe ... — — 

Betroth 

Biud with ft cord 

Bite ; to bark 

Blow ... ... .— 

Boil 

Boil (as water) 

Bolt 

Bore 

Borrow or lend _ 

Break ... .- 

Broil ; grill >. 

Brush 

Bnild 

Build a wall 

Burn [as fuel') 

Buy 

Calculate 

Call; to tell 

Cancel ; to erase ... 

Care for ; be careful 

Carry a load 

Carry in the arms {as a child) .. 

Carve ; to cut 

Cast down ... ... .. 

Cast ; to found 

Catch ; to seize ; arrest ... 

Change 

Change a dollar into cash 

Choose : to select 



PAOE. 

143 

144 
39 
46 
137 
150 
141 
117 
93 
149 
114 
150 
78 
141 
1.38 
148 
120 
126 
110 
145 
121 
121 
121 
114 
148 
148 
140 
131 
123 
114 
118 
102 
102 
148 
96 
144 
140 
149 
146 
126 
138 
140 
139 
146 
117 
139 
145 
124 





PAGE. 


Classifiers 


4 


Climb 


148 


Come 


90 


Command ... .„ 


120 


Comfort 


148 


Conduct ; to guide 


132 


Confide, to... 


1-14 


Confisciite 


150 


Congeal ; to coagulate 


146 


CimjugHtion of verbs 


69 


Consecutive Conjunctione 


51 


ConjunctioiiB, etc 


57 


Consider ... ,„ ... « 


150 


Consult 


147 


Con tribute ; to tax 


131 


Cook 


149 


Counting ... 


1 


Count 


134 


Crawl 


148 


Create a disturbance 


149 


Criticise ... .„ 


149 


Cry « 


135 


Car.«e ... 


143 


Cut a mortise ... 


140 


Cut (with scissor-i) 


140 


Cat {with a small kni/e) 


112 


Cut {with sword or large knife) .« 


112 


Cut ; to engrave ._ 


116 


Decapitate ; to kill 


113 


Deceive, mystify 


151 


Deceive, to defraud 


141 


Demonstrative Pronouns 


36 


Defeat ; to frustrate 


149 


Deny ; to falsify one's word 


144 


Degrade 


148 


Deport one's self ; to treat 


150 


Deposit with another 


134 


Descend 


142 


Desire j to expect, to hope 


142 


Die 


139 


Dig 


119 


Divide; to separate 


146 


Do; to make _ 


84 


Draw a carriage... 


145 


Draw in or up by capstan 


137 


Drive i to urge ; to press 


149 


Dwell 


120 


Dye i.. 


139 



xl 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


Eat; to drink; to smoke, etc. ... 


92 


Kill 


113 


Economize 


140 


Kneel 


150 


Enoroaoli upon Qxs another's Imid) 


150 


Know 


103 


Envy 


141 


Lautih 


136 


BxHmine ; to scrutinize 


147 


hend {as an animal) 

Lean against ... 


132 


Exchange ; to barter 


145 


143 


Exercises with verba 


83 


Learn 


122 


Fail in business ... 


146 


Let go; put down 


127 


Eivll 


123 


Light a fire ... 


116 


Fall sick 


145 


Light a lamp 


116 


Fall {as the tide) 


124. 


Line ; to score 


143 


Fall down {as a house) 


137 


Listen 


108 


Fear; to dread 


118 


Live 


139 


Peel 


147 


Look ; a lock 


148 


¥\]e{ioithafle) '„'. 


149 


Look; to see 


105 


Finished 


161 ■ 


Look for ... 


107 


Flee; run away ... 


125 


I,ose 


136 


Float 


146 


Lose ^ 


1,32 


Fly 


125 


Lose {in trade) 


148 


Follow 


146 


Lower or take in sail 


137 


Forbid ; to prohibit 


150 


Lnot ... 


141 


Forfeit „ 


150 


Make ashamed 


140 


Forget 


106 


Miike a record ; to ascend 


141 


Forsake ; to desert 


125 


Make a prostration 


150 


Freeze 


146 


Manage ; to have the management 


of 147 


Gamble 


141 


Meatiure ... .., 


140 


Gain (prqfit) 


148 


Meet together 


139 


Gather {as fruit of Jlowers) 


149 


Meet ; to come in contact with ... 


133 


Gender of nouns ... 


42 


Melt ; to dissolve 


146 


Give birth to; to rear ... 


120 


Mix ; to get things confused 


141 


Give ; hand ; to give in marriage 


99 


Mood .„ 


65 


Go 


88 


Move 


119 


Graf t ; to splice 


142 


Nail « 


139 


Grind ; to wli«t 


149 


Nod 


145 


Guard ; to be careful 


146 


Number and person of verbs ... 


68 


Guess ' 


147 


Numerals ... 


1 


Hand or deliver in person 


133 


Nurse {the sich) 


148 


Hang or suspend... 


125 


Offend ; to transgress 


150 


TS.B,ii\ {as on a rope) 


137 


Open 5 to commence 


128 


Have ... ... .„ 


84 


Pawn 


145 


Heal 


148 


Pay a balance. ... 


149 


Hide or conceal „ 


128 


Pay money 


100 


H ide or secrete one's self 


150 


Personal Pronouns 


27 


Hinder ... ... 


149 


Peck '(flS o/owj). 


143 


Hoist a sail ,„ 


137 


Persuade ... 


145 


Hook 


151 


Perspire 


135 


Hours, days ot the week, months, 


etc. 61 


Pile one on top of another 


144 


Hypothecate 


145 


Plane - 


140 


Imitate ; to follow the example, etc. 146 


Pliint 


119 


Indefinite Pronouns 


38 


Play {as an instrument) 


147 


Inform 


135 


PlaKter {as a watt) 


149 


Injure ... 


148 


Plural of Nouns 


43 


Institute a suit at law ... 


135 


Point with the hand 


150 


Interpret 


147 


Pound (as a mortar) 


149 


Interrogative Pronouns ... 


31 


Pour out 


144 


Interrogutives 


59 


Pray 


146 


Invite ... 


143 


Prepositions 


63 


Iron ; to burn or scald 


116 


Present 


139 


Jump ; to leap .„ ... 


148 


Press down ; to oppress 


138 


Kick 


136 


Print 


136 



143 



Prop 

Prove ; to evince 

Provide 

Fry {with a lever) ... 

PqiusIi 

Push ; to shove ... 

Put down a sedan 

Put ; to place 

Quai-rel ... 

Riip, knock 

Bead ... ••• •- 

Rebel 

Receive ; to collect 

Receive ; or accept ... 

Recognize ; to confess ... 
Recommend 
Reconcile ; pacify 

Reduce ; to take froji 

Regret 

Regretted ■.■ .» ••• •' 

Reject ■ 

Repair 

Repeat from memory 

Repent ■ 

Rely upon 

Remember 

Retain ; to detain 

Return what has been borrowed 
Ride on horse-back ... .. 

Ring a bell < 

Rise {as tide, etc,')... ... •' 

Roll 

Roll up 

Rot or decay ... 

Row a boat ... ... 

Bun 

Bun {as water) . 

Sacrifice to 

Save {life or property) ... 
Save {time or labor) 

Saw 

Scrape - 

Scratch ... ... ... 

Seal ; to deify ; to exalt ... 
Secure j to become security for 
Seize ... 

Sell.„ 

Sell on credit 
Send forth ; to issue 
Separate ; to make distinct 
Sew, stitch 

Sift 

Shave 

Shut ; to close 

Sing 

Sink .>. 

Sit 

Sit ; or stay with for company . 

Skin ; peel ; strip.„ 

Slander 



PAGE. 

146 
147 
118 
140 
147 
137 
139 
131 
and 146 
112 
133 
150 
101 
133 
142 
149 
149 
147 
146 
143 
147 
127 
143 
146 
144 
143 
143 
136 
117 
144 
1X3 
148 
1.35 
134 
144 
131 
147 
151 
146 
140 
113 
142 
140 
140 
145 
138 
98 
143 
149 
149 
115 
149 
134 
129 
135 
135 
102 
148- 
147 
148 



Sleep ... — ..^ 

Smell _ 

iSoiik ; to immerse, to baptize 

Solder 

Speak J to afiSrm or testify 
bpill ... ... >•> 

Spin ™ 

Splash ' 

Split 

Sport ; to frolic ; to trifle 

Spread 

Spread ; to propagate 

Spread, danb or smear ... 

Squeeze - 

Slab 

Stand 

Steal ... ... ... 

Slep upon 

Slick ; to adhere... 

Stick {in the ground, as a flag, 

Mir; to agitate 

Stop ... — 

Strain ; to filter 

Strike ; to chastise ... 

string {as cash) ... ... 

Strive .^ 

(ftu tify ... 

Swear ... .^ 

Sweep 

Swim ... ._ 

Take 

Take by force ... 

Take from... 

Take hold of ... .„ 

Take up with hands 
Take to. pieces, or down... 
Take the anchor ... 

Tear 

Tempt 

Tense ... ... ..^ 

Think ; to consider 
Throw away ... ... 

Throw {as a stone) 

Tie „ 

Tie {as a parcel) 

Tow or crack (as a boat) 
Transfer ... ... ... 

Translate ... ... ... 

Turn (OS a wheel) .„ 
Turn over... ... 

Turn round .^ 

Twist ; to wring ... ... 

Twist {with the fingers) :.. 
Uiioover J to opeu... .„ 

Uudertitaud 

Vacillate, to disappoint ... 

Varnish or paint 

Verbs, and iuflection of the ver 

Verbioie... 

Violate a law or regulation 



etc,) 



pAOB. 
144 
145 
148 
146 
94 
135 
135 
148 
112 
147 
135 
148 
150 
138 
143 
103 
135 
137 
124. 
139 
145 
138 
149 
110 
148 
135 
150 
135 
113 
135 
116 
141 
144 
127 
ISO 
138 
137 
135 
142 
66 
109 
139 
12i 
142 
131 
137 
145 
147 
146 
147 
147 
138 
138 
150 
104 
150 
140 
b to eat 85 
78 
149 





PAGE. 






PAOO. 


Wait 


138 


Weloome a viaitov 


139 


Walk 


134 


Wet 


» 


i4a 


Water (as a garden) 


149 


Win 





136 


Waste, to squander 


140 


Wipe 


**■ m 


115 


Wash 


114 


Worship .., 


.M ■•« 


138 


Wear .„ 


135 


Wraugle ... 


*•> •« 


143 


Weave ... ... .„ 


135 


Write 


..* ••• 


lis 


Weigh 


140 


Yield ; to give 


plaoe to .., 


147 


Weights, etc 


60 









FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



3srTJIi/IEE.^IjS. 



1. One. I. 

2. Two. II. 

3. Threel III. 

4. Four. IV. 

5. Five. V. 

6. Six. VI. 

7. Seven. VII. 

8. Eight. VIII. 
9! Nine. IX. 

10. Ten. X. 
H. Eleven. XI. 

12. Twelve. XII. 

13. Thirteen. XIIT. 

14. Fourteen. XIV. 

15. Fifteen. XV. 
16.. Sixteen. XVI. 

17. Seventeen. XVII. 

18. Eighteen. XVIII. 

19. Nineteen. XIX. 

20. Twenty. XX. 



y^ 




FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



21. Tweaty-one. XXI. 

22. Twenty-two. XXII. 

23. Twenty-three. XXIII. 

24. TweDty-foiir. XXIV. 

25. Twenty-five. XXV. 

26. Twenty-six. XXVI. 

27. Twenty-seven. XXVII. 

28. Twenty-eight. XXVIII. 

29. Twenty-nine. XXIX. 

30. Thirty. XXX. 

31. Thirty-one. XXXI. 
40. Forty. XL. 

50. Fifty. L. 

60. Sixty. LX. 

70. Seventy. LXX. 

80. Eighty. LXXX. 

90. Ninety. XC. 

100. One hundred. C. 

101. One hundred and one. CI. 

102. One huildred and two. CII. 

103. One hundred and three. CIII. 

104. One hundred and four. CIV. 

105. One hundred and five. CV. 

106. One hundred and six. CVI, 

107. One hundred and seven.C VII. 

108. OnehundredandeightCVIII. 

109. One hundred and nine. CIX. 



-1" 



m 



^A 



nyan -ih. 

nyan-nyi". 

iiyan-san, 

nyan-sz". 

nyan-ng. 

nyan-ldk, 

nyan'-ts'ih. 

iiyau"-pah. 

nyan-°kyeu. 

San- sell.. 

san-zeh-ih. 

az'-seh. 

°iig-seh. 

loh'seh, 

ts'ik-sek. 

pah-seh.. 

"hyeu-seh. 

ih pak, 

ih pah 

ih pak 

ih pak 

ih pak 

ih pak 

ih pak 

ih pak 

ih pak 

ih pak 



ling ih. 
ling nyi", 
ling san. 
ling sz°. 
ling "ng. 
ling lok. 
ling tiih. 
ling pah. 
ling °kyeu. 



i;iRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



110. One handred and ten. CX. 


-H-h 


ih pak zeh. 


111. One hundred and eleven. CXI. 


-W+- 


ihpak zeh-ih. 


200. Two hundred. CC. 


^^ 


nyi° pak. 


300. Three hundred. OCC. 


=^1" 


san pak. 


400. Four hundred. OCGC, 


m-^ 


SB pak. 


500. Five hundred. D. 


£& 


°ng pak. 


600. Six 


hundred. DO. 


>^w 


lok pak. 


700. Seven hundred. DOC. 


^w 


ts'ih pak. 


800. Eig 


ht hundred. DCCC. 


AW 


pah pak. 


900. Nine hundred. DUCOO. 


AW 


°kyeu pak. 


1000. 


One thousand. M. 


-^ 


ih tsien. 


1001. 


One thousand and one. 


=f-mm 


ih ts'ieh ling ling 
ih. 


2000. 


Two thousand. 


=:^ 


nyi° tgien. 


5000. 


Five thousand. 


i^ 


°ng ts'ien. 


10,000. 


Ten thousand. 


-M 


ih man". 


20,000. 


Twenty thousand. 


-n 


nyi° man. 


60,000. 


Fifty thousand. 


S.M 


°ng man. 


100,000. 


One hundred thousand. 


+^ 


zeh man. 


500,000. 


Five hundred thousand. 


i+H 


"ng-seh man". 


900,000. 


Nine hundred thousand. 


A+^ 


"kyeu-seh man°. 


l.OOOjOOO. One million. 


-W^ 


ih pak man". 



JrfiST tESSONS IN CSIITESE. 



la spoken Chiaese, the force of the article " a, " or " an, " 
is expressed by the numeral — (Jh). All nouns take a word 
between the article and the noun, which may be denominated a 
classifier, as each of these different words denotes a class of objects. 
It is highly desirable that every student of the spoken language 
should, at the commencement of his studies, become thoroughly 
acquainted with these classifiers and the class of objects denoted by 
each; for a correct use of the classifiers will greatly facilitate com- 
munication with the Chinese. If a correct classifier be used before 
a word, it often leads to the meaning of that word, even if it be 
incorrec.tly pronounced. It must be borne in mind, however, that 
in Chinese, as well as in other languages, there are exceptions to all 
rules. A few nouns take two different classifiers. 

FiBST Classifier ^ (Jeuli). 



A man. 

A woman. 

An unmarried woman. 

A son. 

A daughter. 

A friend. 

A mandarin. 

A soldier. 

A native. 
A servant. 






ih kuh nyung. 

ih kuh "nyui-nyimg. 

ih kuh °siau-tsia. 

ih kuh °'eu-°tsz, or ih 

kuh nyi-°tsz. 
ih kuh noen". 

iy kuh hang-yeu. 

ih kuh kwen-'foo, or ih 
kuh kwen. 

ih huh ping-ting, or ih 
kuh ping. 

ih huh 'pung-di-nyung, 
ih kuh yong'-nyung. 



FIRST LE9S0]<rS IN CHlNlSSE. 



A sedan cooly. 

A sun. 
A moon. 
A. star. 
A body. 
A head» 

A face. 

A hearf. 

A nose. 

A doorway. 

A cannon. 

A battery. 

A bottle. 

A hat, cap, or bonnet. 

A stove. 

A grate. 

A dollar. 

A cash. 

A loaf. 

A cake. 

A biscuit. 

A buddhist priest. 

A nun. 

A tanist priest. 

A grave mound. 

An egg. 









ih hah jau°-pan, or ih 
huh jaa'^foo. 

ih huh nijih-deu. 
ih huh nyoe/i. 
ih ktih sing, 
ih huh sung'°i'i. 
ih huh deu. 
Ih huh mien°-h'ong. 
ih huh sing, 
ih huh bih-deu. 
ih huh mung-°h'eu. 
ih huh p'au°. 
ih huh p'au'-de. 
ih huh poo-U-bing. 
ih huh mau°-°tsz. 
ih huh °hoo-loo. 
ih huh °hoo-k'aung°. 
ih kuh yang-dien. 
ih kuh dong-dien. 
ih huh men-deu. 
ih huh kyi-dan-hau. 
ih kuh Vah-°ping. 
ih huh 'oo-zaung° . 
ih huh nyi-hoo." ' 
ih huh dau°-z. 
ih huh vung-san. 
ih huh dan°. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A scholar. 


-^mmK 


ih huh dok-su-iiyung. , 


A merchaut. 


-^i^^MA 


ih kuh sang-i'-nyung. 


A farmer. 


-^mmA 


ih huh tsong°-die)i-nyung. 


A carpenter. 


-^tKE 


ih kuh mok-ziang". 


A mason. 


-^^icE 


ih kuh nyi-°sz-ziang°. 


A painter. 


-^SE 


ih kuh ts'ih-ziang" . 


A tailor. 


-^mm 


ih kuh ze-vong. . 


A stone mason. 


->h«E 


ih kuh zah-ziang°. 


A horse boy, 


-^m^ 


ih kuh °mo-foo^ 


A table boy. 


—^m^ 


ih kuh si-tse°. 



Second Classifiek, '^ (tsak), denotes all animals, fowls, birds, 
AND insects; also all articles of furniture having feet 

OR LEGS, OR resting ON A BASE; ALSO VESSELS, BOATS, ETC. 



An elephant. 

A camel. 

A lion. 

A tiger. 

A cow. 

A water buffalo. 

A deer. 

A sheep. 

A goat. 

A hog. 

A dog. 






m 



ih tsak °giang. 
ih tsak lauh-doo, 
ih tsak sz-°tsz. 
ih tsak °lau-°hoo. 
ih tsak nyeu, 
ih tsak °sz-nyeu. 
ih tsak lok. 
ih tsak yang. 
ih tsak san-yang. 
ih tsak tsz-loo. 
ih tsak °keu. 



riRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A cat. 

A wild cat, 

A rat. 

A hare. 
A male. 
A donkey. 
A fox. 
A wolf. 
A squirrel. 
A weasel. 
A fowl. 
A pheasant, 
A duck. 
A goose. 
A turkey. 
A bird. 
A snipe. 
A quail. 
A crow. 
A magpie. 
A hawk. 

A minor. 

A sparrow. 
A swallow. 



mm 

i^Mi or 



mm 



mm 



ih tsak mau- 

ih tsak °ya-mau. 

ih tsak "lau-'fsz (°sz, 
"su^ or ih tsak °lau' 
dzong. 

ih tsak foo'-'tsz- 

ih tsak loo-^tsz- 

ih tsak li-'tsz. 

ih tsak 'oo-li. 

ih tsak zu-laung, 

ih tsak song-°sU' 

ih tsak waung-laung. 

ih tsak h/i- 

ih tsak °ya-kyi- 

ill. tsak ah- 

ih tsak ntjoo- 

ih isak °hoo-kgi- 

ih tsak °tiau. 

ih tsak tsok-hji- 

ih tsak en-dzung. 

ih tsak °lau-au. 

ih tsak au-fs'iak- 

ih tsak iiing. 

ih tsak pak-koo or pak- 
kwung. 

ih tsak mo-ts'iak, or mo- 
tsiang. 

ih tsak ien-°tss' 



8 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A pigeon. 
A dove. 
A crab. 
A butterfly. 

A bee. 

A mosquito. 

A wasp. 

A table. 

A chair. 

A stool. 

A chest of drawers. 

A drawer. 

A trnnb or box. 

A small box. 

A bed. 

A couch. 

A washstaud. 

A dining table. 

An office desk. 

A bucket, tub, or cask. 

A water kong. 

A shoe of sycee. 

A hand. 

A foot and lower leg. 

A finger. 



-^^^ 



mm 



m 

m 



'.h tsah heh-°tsz. 

•Ji tsah bek-koo. 

Ih tsah °ha. 

ih tsah 'oo-dih. 

ih tsah (or — '^) mih- 

ih tsak (or — ^) mung- 
°tsz. 

ill tsak (or — ■^) 'oo- 
fong. 

ih tsah de.-°lse. 

ih tsak iui'-'tsz. 

ih tsah ngeh-°tsz. 

ih tsah ts'eu-de. 

ih tsah tieu-ti. 

ih tsak siang-°tsz. 

ih tsak 'ah-°tsz. 

ih tsak xaung. 

ih tsah mi-doo-t'ah. 

ih tsak lea mien de-'tsz, 

ih tsak chuh van de-'tsz. 

ih tsak "sia-z'-de. 

ih tsak °dong. 

ih tsak sz-kaung. 

ih tsak nyoen-°pau. 

ih tsak °seu. 

ih tsah kyah. 

ih tsah tsih-deu. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



9 



An ear. 
A wash bowl. 
A plate. 
A dish. 
A saucer. 

A cup. 

A glass. 

A wine glass. 

A cooking stove. 

A clock. 

A watch. 

A well. 

A basket. 

A vessel or boat. 

A nail. 

An apple. 

An orange. 

A peach. 

A pear. 

One (of this class.) 




ih tsah °nyi-too. 
ih tsak mien°-hung. 
ih tsak hung-tsz. 
ih tsah dzang bung-''tsz. 
ih tsah dzo hung-°tsz. 
ih tsak pe'''tsz. 

ih tsak poo-li pe-°tsz, 
ih tsak poo-li pe. 

ih tsak °tsieu pe, 

ih tsak tHh-tsau". 

ih tsak z" -ming-tsong, 

ih tsak piau. 

ih tsak °tsing. 

ih tsak Ian. 

ih tsak zen. 

ih tsak ting, 

ih tsak kwo-^ong. 

ih tsak kyoeh-°tsz. 

ih tsak dau^tsz. 

ih tsak sang-li. 

ih tsak. 



Third Classifibe, jQ (°po), denotes tools, insteumbnts, ob akticles 

USED IN the hand, TOOLS, ETC. 



A knife or sword. 
A fork. 






ih °po tau. 
ih °po ts'o. 



10 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A spoon. 

A hammer. 

A file. 

An ax. 

A saw. 

A chisel. 

A pair of scissors. 

A pair of tongs. 

A chair. 

A fan. 

A Jock. 

A key. 

A broom. 

A tea pot. 

A kettle. 

An umbrella. 

One (or a handfall) 



JH# 


ih °po ts'au. 


w,mm 


id °po laung-deu. 


mmu 


ih "po ts'oo°-tau. 


m^m 


ih °po "foo-deu. 


mm'f' 


ih °po ke°-°tss. 


JEM^ 


ih °po zauh-°tsz. 


■mwTj 


ih °po tsien-tau. 


m^^ 


ih °po °hoo-jien. 


mm^ 


ih °po iui'-°tsz. 


mm^ 


ih °po sen°-°tsz. 


^m 


ih °po "soo. 


m^^ 


ih °po yak-dz. 


mmw 


ih °po "sau-'tseu 


■m^m: 


ih °po dzo-oo. 


m^m 


ih °po k'an-'oo. 


jE^ 


ih °po san. 


■JE 


ih °po. 



Fourth Classifier, j^ Cdiau), denotes objects long and winding, 

OE limber. 



A river or large stream. 
A river or large stream. 
A creek or canal. 
A ditch. 
A covered sewer. 



-mm 



ih diau Jcaung. 
ih diau ^oo. 
ih diau pang, 
ih diau keu. 
ih diau iung-keu. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



11 



An open sewer or drain. 

A bridge. 

A road. 

A street. 

An alley. 

A"rope. 

A tape or ribbon. 

A strip of matting. 

A quilt or blanket. 

A mattress. 

A sheet. 

A carpet. 

A pair of trowsers. 

A handkerchief. 

A towel. 

A dragon- 

Afish. 

A snake. 

An eel. 

A bar of iron. 

A gold bar. 

One's life. 

One (of this class). 



ih diau yany-keu. 
ih diau jau. 
ih diau loo", 
ih diau ha. 
ih diau long'-daung. 
ih diau zung. 
ih diau ta°. 
ih diau zih. 
ih diau "bi-deu, 
ih diau nyok-°bi>z, 
ih diau tan-°bi. 
ih diau mau-tan. 
ih diau Icoo'-°tsz. 
ih diau Jcyoeii'-deu. 
ih diau °seu-hyung. 
ih diau long, 
ih diau ng. 
ih diau zo, 
ih diau men-li. 
ih diau t'ih-diau. 
ih diau hyung-diau. 
ih diau sing'-ming", 
ih diau. 



.Fifth Classifibk, /^ (kung), denotes objects long and, usually, stiff. 



A stick of timber. 
A bamboo. 



ih kung mok-deu. 
ih kung tsok-deu. 



12 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


A rattan. 


-urn 


ih kung dung. 


A cane or stick. 


-mm 


ih kung "baung. 


A boat's mast. 


-mmf- 


ih hung giang-°t$z. 


A straw. 


-mm 


ih hung °tiau. 


A stem or stalk (of 
plants). 


-mm 


ih kung °kang. 


A rope. 


-mm 


ill hung zung. 


A thread. 


-mm 


ih hung sien. 



Sixth Classifier, 2|!C Cpung), denotes books, volumes. 



A volume, a book. 
An account book. 
A small blank book. 




ih °pung su. 

ih "pung tsang°-°hoo. 

ih °pung ''boo-°tsz. 



Seventh Classifier, n|) {°boo), denotes an entire work of one 
OR more volumes. 



A work of one or more 
volumes. 




ih °boo su. 



Eighth Classifier, ^ {zoo"), denotes massive objects. 



A mountain. 
A city. 
A temple. 
A house. 



—MM 



ih zoo" san. 
ih zoo" dzung. 
ih zoo° miau". 
ih zoo" vaung-°tsz. 



riRST LKSS0N8 IN CHINKS K. 



13 



A two-storey house. 

A pagoda. 

One (of this class). 




ik zoo" leu. 
ill zoo" tah. 
ih zoo°. 



Ninth Classifier, /E Kpih), denotes whole pieces of goods. 



A piece of cloth. 
A piece of broad cloth. 
A piece of silk. 
A piece of satin. 
A piece of velvet. 
A piece of shirting. 
A piece of drilling. 
A piece of camlet. 
A piece of grass clotb. 
Apieceof wliiteahirting 
A piece of long ells. 









ik p'ik poo°. 

ik p'ik too-loo-nyi. 

ih pHk dzeu. 

ik p'ik doen°-°tsz. 

ik p'ik i\yong. 

ik p'ik yang-poo". 

ik p'ih zia-vung-poo ° 

ih p'ik "yui-mau. 

ih p'ik mo-poo". 

ik p'ih p'iau bak poo° 

ih p'ih pih-hji. 



Tenth Classifier, |75 (p"«^»)i denotes hoesbs. 



A horse. 
A mule. 




ik p'ik °mo. 
ik p'ik loo°tsz. 



Eleventh Classifier, ^ (Jcw'e"), denotes slices oe portions ofthinqs. 



A piece of wood. 

A slab, a piece of stone. 



—WfM 



ik kw'e° mok-deu, 
ik kw'e° zah-deu. 



14 



FIllST LESSONS IN CHINBSE. 



A board. 

A slice of meat. 

A slice of bread. 

A piece of land. 

A pane of glas?. 

A dollar. 

A brick. 

A bit of cloth. 

A bit of silver, etc 




ih hw'e' "pan. 
ih lmfe° nyoh. 
ih hw^e° men-deu. 
ih hwe di°-bi. 
ih hw'e' poo-li. 
ih kw'e° yang-dien, 
ih hw'e' lok-tsen, 
ih hwe" poo", 
ih kw'e° nyung°tsz. 



A painting or engraving 
A chart or map. 




ihfdk wo". 

ih fok d^-°li-doo. 



FOURTBENTH ClASSIFIEE, ^ {dzuUg), DENOTES MACHINERY. 



Twelfth Classifier, I|1§ (/oS), benotes paintings or 
engravings, etc. 



Thirteenth Classifier, ^ (sen°), denotes broad objects. 



A door. 


-mf^ 


ih sen" mung. 


A window. 


—MM 


ih sen" ts'aung. 


A screen. 


MMUi 


ih sen° bing-fong. 


A fixed screen. 


-mm^ 


ih sen' hing-mung. 


A sail. 


mm 


ih sen bong. 



A steam engine. 



ih dzung "hoo-lung kyi- 
ehi°. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



15 



A mill. 
A loom. 
A carriage. 

A rail road carriage* 

A flight of stairs, or 
a ladder. 

A step of a door. 

An irrigating machine. 




ih dzung moo°-°tss, 

ih dzung pod'-hji, 

ih dzung °mo-ts'o. 

ih dzung °hoo-lung ts'o- 
"tsz. 

ih dzung voo-t'i (or woo- 
t'i). 

ih dzung dah-boo". 

ih dzung °sz-ts'o. 



Fifteenth Classifier, J^ (°ti)ig). 



A sedan chair. 

A bat. 

An umbrella. 


-mm 


ih "ting jau°-tsz. 
ih °ting mau°-°tsz. 
ih "ting san°. 



Sixteenth Classifier, ^. {we'), a term of respect. 



A visitor, a cnstomer. 


-^^A 


ih we" Uak-nyung. 


A teacher. 


fe^^ 


ih we' sien-sang. 


A doctor. 


-^M^ 


ih we laung-tsong. 


An nnmavried woman. 


-^'fe^J^liB. 


ih we" "siau-'tsia. 


A friend. 


-mm 


ih we° bang-yeu. 



Seventeenth Classifier, 5^ denotes sheets of paper. 



A sheet of paper. 



— SilR 



ih tsang °tsz. 



16 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A newspaper. 
A proclamation. 




h tsang sing-vung-°tsz. 
ih tsang kau'z". 



Eighteenth Classifier, ^J (ban), denotes firms, shops, etc. 



A firm. 


-^tf 


ih ban 'aung. 


A foreign firm. 


-^nn 


ih ban yang ^aung. 


A siiop. 


-^j^ 


ih ban tien". 


A shop of foreign goods. 


-^n^^j^ 


ih ban yang hoo° tien". 


A pawn shop. 


-^^a- 


ih ban °tien'taung°. 


A tea shop. 


-^m^ 


ih ban dzO'kwen°. 


A silk store. 


-^mwij^ 


ih ban dzeu-doen" tien". 


A wine shop. 


-^'Mj£ 


ih ban °tsieu tien°. 



Nineteenth Classifiee, §jj (foo°), denotes sets of things. 



A set of buttons. 

A pair of bracelets. 

A set of ear-rings. 

A pair of spectacles. 

A set of dominoes. 

A set of dice. 

A set of chop-sticks. 

A set of tools or instru- 
ments. 

A saddle and bridle. 




ih/oo" °nyeu-°tsz. 
ihfoo" dzauh-deu, 
ih foo° choen. 
ihfoo° °ngan-kyung. 
ihfoo" ba. 
ihfoo° deu°-''tsz. 
Uifoo" hdan. 

ihfoo° ka-sang. 
ihfoo° °m,0'Oen°. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



17 



Twentieth Classifier, ^ [saung), denotes PAiits. 



A pair of boots. 
A pair of shoes. 
A pair of socks. 
A pair of gloves. 




ih saung hyoo. 
ih saung 'a-°tsz. 
ih saung mak. 
ih saung °seu-tau 



Twenty-first Classifiek, ^^(j:,sung^, denotes idols, and a cannon. 



Aa idol (buddhist's). 


-M^ 


ih tsung vek. 


An idol. 


-m#^ 


ih tsung boo-sah. 


An idol (tanist's). 


— ^JlifM 


ih tsung zung-dau". 


A cannon. 


-n-^ 


ih tsung pau. 



Twenty-second Classifier, 'Q (paw), denotes bales of things. 



A bale of cotton. 


-%1l 


ih pau hwo. 




A bale of shirting. 


— -a^nj 


ih pau yang-poo°. 




A bundle of clothing. 


-^■^m. 


ih pau i-zaung. 




A bale of medicines. 


—^M 


ih pau yak. 




A bale of tobacco. 


-^m 


ih pau ien. 




A bale of merchandise. 


-^n^ 


ih pau hoo°-suh. 




A bale of silk. 


-nm 


ih pau sz. 




A bale of hemp. 


^MM 


ih pau mo-sz. 





18 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



TWENTT-THIKD ClaSSIFIEB, \^ {Ic'oo), DENOTES TREES, PLANTS, ETC. 



A tree. 


-mm 


ih Hoo-zu. 


, . A 


A flowering plant. 


-ffc^ . 


ih Moo hwo. 


' i 


A plant of vegetables. 


~m^ 


ih Uoo is'e". 




A plant of wheat. 


-\tw 


ih Uoo mak. 


f. 


A plant of rice. 


-mn 


ih Uoo dau. 




A bunch of grass, etc. 


~\m- 


ih k'oo "fs'au. 





TwENTT-rouETH CLASsiriEE, ^ (mien°), denotes flat objects. 



A mirror. 


-^^mf- 


ih mien° hyung°-°tsz. 


A flag. 


-mm 


ih mien ji. 


A gong. 


W^M 


ih mien kyung-loo. 


A drum. 


-mm 


ih mien" °koo. 



Twenty-fifth Classifiee, i'^ (te), denotes piles of things. 



A pile of timber. 
A pile of fuel. 
A pile of coal. 
A pile of brick. 
A pile of stones. 
A pile of earth. 
A pile of cloth. 
A pile of goods. 



■m:Mm 


ih te moh-deu. 


*^m 


ih te za. 


*iiei 


ih te me. 


m^m 


ih te lok-tsen. 


m^m 


ih te zah-deiu 


^% 


ih te nyi. 


m^ 


ih te poo°. 


mi^^ 


ih te hoo'-suh. 



FIRST LKSSOKS IX CHINESE. 



19 



TwE^a■T-SIxrH Classifier, $S (^hctuig), dknotes bundles of 

THINGS. 



A bundle of rattans. 


-mm 


a ^kr'uiig dung. 


A bondle of rice straw. 


-wm^ 


ih 'itrung dati'-ca. 


A bnudle of wood. 


-mm 


ih "hwung z.i. 


One baadle. 


-m 


ih "kic'ung. 



TWKNTT-SKVKSTU C1.ASSIFIKR, ^ (°it«CeR), DENOTES TUBTTLAR TB1XG3, 



A flate. 


Ww 


i* "been dih. 


A flageolet. 


-^m 


ik "hfCcii siau. 


A gnu. 


-m.%m 


a "heen ""nyau-fs'ituig. 


A pistol. 


-^^m 


ih 'heen "stu-ts'ia/ii}. 


A pen. 


^# 


''- "kicen pi''<. 


A pencil. 


-mm^ 


ik °hcen k'an-pih. 


A foot rale. 


-mR 


iA °k!Ct'n :> 7jt. 


A steel yard. 


-^n 


lA 'i/fc« '« uJig°. 



TWBSTT-KIGHTH CukSSlFIKK, ^ O^^ DENOTES A PAIR A BRACE, 



ETC. 



A pair of fowls. 
A brace of dncks. 
A brace of pheasants. 
A pair of pigeons. 
A pair of candle?. 



-m\ 






iA ft'' kyi. 
ih te° ak. 
ik te" '*ia-hii. 
ik te- h:/.-'f.^-. 
ih tt' l(^-tsok. 



20 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE, 



A pair of candlesticks. 
A husband and wife. 




ih te" lah-de. 
ih te" foo-ts'i. 



TWBNTY-NINTH CLASSIFIER, PJ {^k'eu). 


A book-case. 


-P«^ 


ik °k'eu su-dzu. 


A ward-robe. 


-P^J® 


ih "k'eu i-dzu. 


A cnp-board. 


-mkm 


ih °leeu °'wen-dzu. 


A coflSn. 


-Pit# 


ih °k'eu kwen-ze. 


A well. 


-p^ 


ih °k'eu "tsing. 



Thiktieth Classifier, 'i[^ Cdong), denotes caskp, tubs, and 

BUCKETS OF THINGS, ETC. 



A cask of wine. 


-mm 


ih °dong °tsieu. 


A cask of ale. 


-w^m 


ih °dor>g °lioo-tsieu. 


A barrel of flonr. 


-imm 


ih °dong koen-mien°. 


A bucket of water. 


-ttt 


ih °dong °sz. 


A keg of powder. 


-m^xm 


ih °dong "hoo-yak. 


A cask of butter. 


-mmm 


ih °dong "na-yeu. 



Thikty-first Classifier, ^% {bing), denotes bottles, or vials 

OF THINGS. 



A bottle of medicine. 
A bottle of wine. 



-mm 
Mm 



ih bing yak. 
ih bing "tsieu. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



21 



A bottle of ale. 


~m^m 


ih bing °k'oo-°tsieu. 


A bottle of vinegar. 


-mm 


ik bing ts'oo°. 


A bottle of oil, &c. 


IWyft 


ih bing yeu. 



THIRTT-bECOND GlASSIFIER, Jp| [siang), DENOTES BOXES OF THINGS. 



A box of tea. 


-mmm 


ih slang dzo-yih. 


A box of sycee. 


-mitw 


ih siartg nyoen-°pau. 


A box of dollars. 


-mnm 


ih siang yang-dien. 


A box of materials. 


-w^%. 


ih siang hoo'-suh. 


A box of toys. 


-H^ffli^ 


ih siang beh-siang° hoen 



Thirty-third Classifier, ^ {fong), denotes letters, and 

OTHER SEALED PARCELS, AS : 



A letter. 

Aa envelope. 

An official docnment. 



-mt 



-nxm 



ihfovg sing", 
ihfong sing°-fong, 
ihfong vung-su. 



Thirty-fourth Classifier, ^ (paung), denotes a guild, a class. 



The literary class. 


pMW^ 


dok-su paung. 


The mercantile class. 


^mm 


sang-i° paung. 


The Canton guild. 


MMW 


"Kwaung-tong paung. 


The Ningpo guild. 


WM^ 


Nyi/ng-poo paung, or 
Nyung-pok paung. 


The Nanking guild. 


^M^ 


Nen-kyung paung. 


Theentire guild or class. 


-^A, 


ih paung nyung. 



09 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Thikty-fifth Classifier, [p] (we), denotes times. 



One time. 
Two timfts. 
Three times, etc. 




ik we. 
°liang we. 
san we. 



Thirty-sixth Classifier, ^ ip'iau°), dentotes jobs, etc. 



A job of work. 

A business traasaction. 




ih pHau" sang-weh. 
ih p'iau" sang-f. 



Thirty-seventh Classifier, ^ {tsaung), denotes affairs. 



An affair. 
This affair. 
That affair. 
Two affairs. 




ih tsaung z'-t'i. 
'di tsaung z-'Ci. 
i tsaung z'-°t'i. 
°liang tsaung z-°t^i 



Thirty-eighth (Jlassifier, ^ (dzung), denotes a story. 



A three storied house. 
A seven storied pagoda. 




san dzung leu. 
fs'ik dzung t'a/i. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINKSE. 



23 



Thirty-ninth Classifier, |i( {dzaung°), denotes things piled one 

ON TOP OF THE OTHER. 



A pile of books. 
A pile of paper. 
A pile of dollars. 
A pile of clothes. 
A pile of plates. 




ih dzaung° su. 
ih dzaung° °tsz-deu, 
ih dzaung" yang-dien. 
ih dzauvg° i-zaung. 
ih dzaung" iung-°tsz, etc. 



Fortieth Classifier, ^ (°feo), denotes shares in business. 



One sbare. 

A business of three part- 
ners. 



-n 



ih "koo. 

san °koo vung°-deu. 



Forty -first Classifier, ^ {hen), denotes rooms. 



One room. 
A bed room. 
A parlor. 
An office. 
ShrofiPs room. 




ih lean. 

vaung-kan, vaung-deu. 

k'ak-daung-kan. 

°sia-z°-kan. 

tsang° -vaung-kan. 



24 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Forty-second Classifier, f|^ ( "i?^")' denotes garments, pibobs of 

BAGGAGE OR MERCHANDISE ; ALSO AN AFFAIR ; AS : 



A garment. 


-#3!c^ 


ih °jien i-zaung. 


An affair. 


-ff#ii 


in jien z - ti. 


This affair. 


n^mm 


di jien z - ti. 


That affair. 


r#ff*fi 


i °jien z^-t'i. 


Two packages. 


pif# 


"Hang °jien. 


Ten packages. 


+ff 


zeh °jien. 


Thirty pieces. 


=+# 


san-seh °jien. 



FoRTr-THinD Classipiee, j^ {da°), denotes rows of things. 



A row of houses. 


-##^ 


ih da" vaung-°tsz. 


A row. 


-^ 


ih da". 


A line of troops. 


-^^ 


ih da" ping. 


A row of trees. 


~mwi 


ih da" zu. 


In a row, or line. 


-m^ 


ih da" sang. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



25 



Numerals with Classifiers. 

In all the foregoing, the numeral ih has been used in the sense 
of the definite and indefinite articles, to denote singnlar objects. 
When it is desirable to speak of more than one object of either 
classifier, any other numeral may be substituted for ih ; but the 
appropriate classifier must, in all cases, be introduced after the 
numeral ; as : 



Three men. 
Ten eggs. 
Four fowls. 
Twelve swords. 
Nine knives. 
Two roads. 
Six sticks of wood. 
Seven boards. 
Three horses. 
Eight books. 
Seventeen doors. 
Four letters. 

Two hundred bales of 

silk 
Four hundred chests of 

tea. 



nnm 



san huh nyung. 
zeh kuh dan. 
8z-tsak kyi. 
zeh-nyi" °po tau. 
°hyeu °po tau. 
"Hang diau loo", 
lok hung mok-deu. 
ts'ih kw'e" 'pan. 
san p'ih "mo. 
pah "pung su. 
zeh-ts'ih sen" mung, 
sz° fong sing'. 

nyi pak pau sz, 

sz pah siang dzo-yih. 



26 



TIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Noun Omitted. 

Thus the learner should apply any, or all of the numerals 
learned in the first part of this manual to any, or all of the classifiers 
until he is perfectly familiar with their use. 

If the object under consideration is present, or is perfectly well' 
understood, omit the noun and simply use the numeral and classifier. 
Take the above examples. 



Three. 


-^ 


san huh. 


Ten. 


+>h 


zeh huh. 


Four. 


m% 


sz° tsah. 


Twelve. 


+-ffi 


zeh-nyi° °po. 


Nine. 


^m 


°hfeu °po. ■ 


Six sticks. 


i^m 


loh lung. 


Two. 


^# 


"liang diau. 


Seven. 


-tm 


tiih Uwe". 


Three. 


-ITC 


san p'ih. 


Eight. 


A* 


pah "pung. 


Seventeen. 


■^-tm 


zeh-tsih 8en\ 


Four. 


nn 


sz" fong. 


Two hundred bales. 


-^^ 


nyi" pale pau. 


Four hundred chests. 


mtim 


sz" pak siang. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



27 



SINGULAR NUMBER, 



NOMINATIVE CASE. 



POSSESSIVE CASE. 



OBJECTIVE CASE. 



I. ^ 'ngoo. 

You. (^ nong°. 
He, she, it. '^ yi. 



Mine. ^'r 'ngoo-kuh. 
Yonrs. i^ T* " oiig°-kuh_ 
His, hers, its. "^'T* yi-kuh. 



Me. ^ °ngoo. 
Yon. {^ woH^". 
Him, her, it. "^ye. 



PLURAL NUMBER. 



NOMINATIVE CASE. 



POSSESSIVE CASE. 



OBJECTIVE CASE. 



We. 


% 


nyi°. 


Onrs. 


%^ 


nyi°-kuh. 


Us. 


% 


•o 

nyi . 


Yon. 


m 


na". 


Yours. 


m^ 


na°-kuh. 


You. 


m 


na°. 


Tiiey. 


p^ 


yi-la. 


Theirs, 


pn^ 


yi-la-huh. 


Them.-^lfe 


yi-la. 



28 



FIKST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS, USED IN THE 
NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE CASES. 

SINGULAR NUMBER. 

NOMINATIVE CASE. 



I myself, 
you yourself. 
He himself. 
She herself. 
Itself. 




OBJECTIVE CASE. 



Me myself. 
Yon yourself. 
He himself. 
She herself. 
Itself. 




F.1RST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



29 



PLURAL NUMBER. 



NOMINATIVE CASE. 



We Ourselves. 
You yourselves. 
They themselves. 




na" z'-ka. 
yi-la z'-ka. 



OBJECTIVE CASE. 



Ourselves. 
You yourselves. 
They themselves. 




•o 07 

nyi z -ka, 

o 07 

na z -ka. 
yi-la z°-ka. 



EXERCISES IN THE PRONOUNS WITH A VERB 
AND A NEGATIVE. 



It is mine. 


m^^ 


°z^ °ngoo kuh. 


It is not miae. 


^1^4* 


'veh^ °z' "ngoo kuh. 


My hat. 


a^h'i'W 


"ngoo kuh mau-tsz. 


Your house. 


^^mf- 


nong° kuh vaung-°tsz. 


It is yoars. 


^iii- 


°z nong° kuh. 


It is not yours. 


^mm"^ 


'veh °z-nong° kuh. 



1 {Z',) the verb to be. 2. ('Veh) not, no. 



'30 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Is it, or is it not his ? 

It is liis (or hers). 

It is not onr?. 

We did not go. 

Ours have not yet 

arrived. 
Where are yours ? 

Ours are on board ship. 

They have not come. 
They have not yet come. 

These are my own. 

It is not yonr own. 

It is his (or her) own. 

We went ourselves. 

You yourself said so. 

They came themselves. 

Yon yourselves gave it 
me. 



mpvji^^p 



^ 






^ 






f 



^ 



i^ 



A 



m>? 



A 



"z yi nyi^ 'veh °z yi huh ? 

"t yi huh, 

'veh °z nyi" huh. 

nyi" 'veh chi°^ huh. 

nyi° huh 'veh-zung^ l^. 

na huh leh-la "'■a-'li ? 
nyi" huh leh-la° zen 

laung°. 
yi-la 'veh le. 
yi-la 'veh-zung le. 

°di-kuh °z "ngoo °z-lta * 
hull. 

'veh °z nong" z-ha huh. 
°z yi z°-ha huh. 
nyi" z°-ha chi° huh. 
nong° z-ha wo"' huh, 
yi-la z°-ka le huh. 

na" z°-ha peh^ °ngoo huk. 



The learner should not fail to run each of the above examples 
through all the persons of the pronoun, both singular and plural. 

3. Nyi, or. 4. Ghi', to go. 5. ' Veh-zung, not yet. 6. Le, to come. 7. Wo', to 
speak. 8. Peh, to give. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINKSE. 



31 



IlTTBK;I^.OC3-^TZ^E I^KyOItTOXJiTS. 



Who? I*^ °sa? 



Which? MM. "'alt? 



What? "^ sa"? 



So" (n^), in the sense of who, is applied to persons, — and only 
when we enquire after a person or persons wholly unknown, — and is 
almost always joined to the noun. 



Who? or Who is it? 


-^A 


sa° nyung ? 


Who said so ? 


«^Ai^l^ 


sa" nyung wo" kuJi ? 


Who did it? 


^Am^ 


sa" nyung tsoo" huh P- 


Who took it ? 


^AtM>^ 


sa -nyung tan''' huh ? 


Who brought it ? 


'^A+M^^h 


sa -nyung tan le huh ? 


Who has gone ? 


•^A*>h 


sa°-nyung chV huh 1 


Who wants it ? 


^A^^ 


sa" -nyung iau^ huh? 


Who opened the door ? 


^Amn 


sa" -nyung h'e* mung ? 


Who shut the door ? 


n#AlH 


sa°-nyung hwan^ mung ? 


Who came ? 


"^A^^ 


sa!" -nyung le kuh? 


Who has been in ? 


^Am^m^ 


sa° -nyung tsing°^ le hyih 
kuh? 



Which, % 1[ ('°a °li), is used to designate a certain number of 
persons or things, according to the numeral used before the classifier. 



1. Tsoo", to do. 2. Tan, to take. 3, lau', to want. 4. K'e, to open, 5. Kwan, 
to shut. 6. Tsing°, to enter. 



32 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Which one ? 


SPM-^h 


"'a-'liih kuh? 


Which book ? 


^a— *# 


"•a-'li ih °pung su ? 


Which road ? 


^PM-#i^ 


"'a-" Li ih diau loo" ? 


Which shop ? 


S5M-^J£ 


"'a-'li ih ban tieri ? 


Which two knives ? 


^pamffiTJ 


"'a-'li "Hang °po tatf^? 


Which three tables ? 


mM.^m^f' 


"'a-'li san tsak de-°tsz ? 


Which vessel ? 


MS.-'^m 


"'a-'li ih tsak zen ? 


Which steamer ? 


m 


"'■ar-°li ih tsak °hoo-lung, 
zen ? 


Which four doors. 


mmnmn 


"'a-'li sz" sen" mung f 



When the snbject of conversation is present, or is well under-* 
stood, the name or noun may be omitted, and simply the numeral 
and classifier may be used. Take the above examples. 



Which one p 
Which road ? 
Which book? 
Which shop ? 
Which two knives ? 
Which three tables ? 
Which vessel ? 
Which steamer? 
Which four doors ? 



fRa-2|s 






"^a-'li ih kuh ? 
°'a-°li ih diau ? 
"'■a-li ih °pung ? 
°^a-°li ih ban f 
°'a-°li 'Hang "po 1 
°''a-''li san tsak ? 
°^a-°li ih tsak ? 
"'a-'liihtsak? 
°'a-°li sz" sen° ? 



The learner should take many similar examples from the diflferent 
classifiers, both with and without the noun, using difl"erent numerals. 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



33 



Sa,° (r^), in the sense of what, is nsed when the name, character, 
description and wants of persons or things, and the meaning and 
explanation of things, are enquired after : it usually follows a verb, 
and commences a sentence without a verb, as : 



What name ? 
What is this called ? 
What occupation ? 
What trade, or business? 

What is the matter? or 
What business ? 

What business has he ? 

What do you want ? 

What does he want ? 

What are you doing ? 

What color ? 

What kind or form ? 

What price ? 

What o'clock? 
What news ? 
What weight? 
What day ? 
What year ? 

What disease ? 






sa ming-deu f 
°di-kuh kyau'^ sa ? 
sa° '■aung-iiyih ? 
sa" sang-V ? 

yi °yeu^ sa° z°-°tH ? 

nong° iau sai 

yi iau sa°? 

nong° la° tsoo" sa° ? 

sa° huh ngan-suh ? sa° 
ngan-suh ? 

sa° huJi yang°-&uh 1 

sa" ha"-dien ? sa° 'aung-: 
zing ? 

°kyi "tien-isong ? 

sa" sing°-sih ? 

sa° vung°-°liang ? 

sa° nyih-hyah? 

sa" nyien-vung° ? 

sa" kuk bing" ? sa'bing"' 
iong° ? 



1. Kyau.', to call. 2, Yen, to have. 



34 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



What did yon say ? 

What does he say ? 

At what time ? 

What is your honorable 
name ? 

What is the cause ? 
What is the meaning ? 
What is the use of it ? 
What place P 
What number ? 



P ^M 



9 






nong wo" huh sa° ? 
yi wo° sa ? 

sa° zung-kwaung? sa' 

z-'-eu ? 

tsung sing" sa° ? tsung 
sing ? 

sa° yoen-hoo" ? 

sa° °ka-sek? sa" i°-sz? 

sa° yong°-deu ? 

sa '■oo-daung ? sa 
dzang-hau ? 

sa° soo°-mah ? 



Sa" (n^), with an interrogative, is also used in the sense of any, 
and with a negative, of no or none ; as : 



Did yon say any thing ? 

I did not say any thing. 

Does he wish to say any 
thing ? 

He does not wish to say 

any thing. 
Have you any thing to 

say? 

I have nothing to say. 

Have you any prospect? 
I have no prospect. 
Have you any shirtings? 



mm^^- 


nong° wo° sa" °va f 


^^^^ 


°ngoo 'veh wd'lsa'. 


pmm^^^ 


yi iau° wo° sa° °va ? 


p^%%^ 


yi 'veh iau wo" sa°. 


^m^mm^ 


nong° °yeu sa" wo°-deu 
°va? 




°ngoo m-sa° wo°-deu. 

°yeu sa° maung°-deu 
"va? 

m sa° mau7ig°-deu. 
°yeu sa° yang-poo° va ? 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



S5 



I have. 


^t- 


°yeu huh. 


I have none. 


m-m 


m-meh. 


Have you any money ? 


m^m^f-^^ 


nong° °i/eu sa° nyung- 


Have you any employ- 
menti? 


mnmm 


tsz va ? 
nong° °yeu sa tsoo" °va ? 


1 have iio business. 


m^m 


m sa" tsoo° 


Has any one been here ? 


m'^A^^ 


°yeu sa nyung le "va ? 


No. 


m^A 


m sa" nyung. 


Have you any plan ? 


^^'mm 


°yeu sa° fah-tsuh "va ? 


Is there any answer ? 


^n^m^^^ 


°yeu sa" we sing° °va ? 


There is no answer. 


^•^0^ 


m sa" we sing°. 


Have you any other 
kind? 


'^mnm^^ 


°yeu sa° hih yang° °va ? 


I have no other kind. 


^"^^ij^ 


m sa" bih yang°. 


I have nothing more to 
say. 


mmmmm 


m sa" bih yang° wd'-deu. 


Have yon any thing to 
eat, (or drink) ? 


^■^pg-A^ 


°yeu sa° chuh "va ? 


I have nothing to eat. 


m^\f^ 


m sa" chuh. 



36 



riBST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



ide:m:oitste.^ti^e zpi^^onsroTJisrs. 



This, that. 


n^ if^ 


°di-kuh, i-kuh. 


This man. 


f^^A 


"di-kuh nyung. 


That woman. 


if^i^A 


i-lcuh "nyui-mjung. 


This chair. 


nmm^ 


°di °po iuf-'tsz. 


That table. 


&m^^ 


i (sale de-°tsz. 


This road. 


nm^ 


°di diau loo". 


That house. 


i^BB^ 


i dzoo° vaung-°tsz. 


This room. 


mm 


di kan. 


That door. 


&mn 


i sen" mung. 


These two doors. 


n^MMm 


"di-kuh °liang sen mung. 


Those three windows. 


Pt=MW 


i-kuh san sen ts'aung. 


These four swords. 


i^^mmjj 


°di-lmh sz °po tau. 


Those ten boxes. 


&^-\'^m=^ 


i-kuh zeh tsak siang-°tsz. 


Those ten boxes of tea. 


^^-[-m^m 


i-kuh zeh siang dzo-yih. 



Apply the above, and similar examples, to all the classifiers, 
with different numerals : also the following examples, in which the 
noun may be omitted, as on page 26. 



This one. 
These two. 
That one. 
Those three. 



n^ 






°di-kuh. 

°di-kuh °Uang tsak. 

i sen°. 

i-kuh san °pung. 



.J,J, 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



37 



These five. 


n^m.u 


°di-huh °ng hung. 


Those ten. 


if^-i-m 


i-huh sell °po. 


These two pairs. 


^"i^mm 


°di-kuh °liang saung. 


Those seven sets. 


^^t-bMlI 


°i-Jcuh ts'ikfoo". 


This boat, compared 


f^^mi^^^zif 


°di-tsak zen °pi-°tsz i- 


with that, is fast. 


^^ 


tsak kw'a". 



The study of the demonstrative pronouns, in connection with 
the different classifiers, with different numerals, will be a very 
profitable exercise. 



38 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



i^srnDEiPznsriTE i^iS/OnsroTJisrs. 



All. 


Mm 






"long-'tsong. 


All, most (i. e., meD, or 
things, in general). 


±m 






da'ke° 


Many, much. 


^^ 






too-hau. 


Few. 


^> 






°sau. 


Each. 


% 






me. 


Each one, each man. 


%k 






°'me nyung. 


Each kind. 


nm 






"'me yang". 


Each (thing). 


#ft 


m 


1, 


"'me °jien, °'me tsah, etc.m 


Every. 


# 






hauli. 


Every kind. 


^m 






hauh yang°. 


Every (thing). 


^n 


#1 


1, 


kauk °jien, kauh tsale, etc. 


Whosoever, no matter 


ji^ 


^m^ 


van-i°, *veh lung° sa° 


who. 


A 






nyung. ^ 


Whatsoever, no matter 


^ft»t i 


m 


'vek-lung" so", dzoe-U&n -• 


what. 


^ 


^w^ 


sa", 'veh hyui sa". 


Whichever. 


Mm 






dzoe-bien". 


Others. 


m^ 






bih-kuh. 


Other men. 


mx 






bih nyung. 


Other kind. 


mm 






bik yang". 


Other forms, or styles. 


mA^m^ 


m 


bih-kuh yang'-suh, bih 




m 






yang\ 


Other places. 


m^ 


m^^ 


bih-tiu°, bih dzang-hau". 



riEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



39 



The adjective f^ {°hau) good, well, has a very wide applicatioa 
in Chinese. ludeed, every thing that is good, well, suitable, correct, 
charitable, palatable, ready, etc., and, in fact, every thing that suits 
the taste, or is agreeable to the mind, may be said to be ^ °hau. 

The converse of nearly all the above may be expressed with 
equal latitude not by had, but by not good, ^ ^ 'veh °hau. 

Adjectives may be compared in Chinese. 

The superlative may be expressed in diiferent words ; but this 
is regular: 



Good. 


^ 


°hau. 


Better. 


^m 


°hau tien. 


Best. 


Ili^ 


°ting °hau. 


Bad. 


51? 


cheu. 


Worse. 


w^m 


cheu-tien. 


Worst. 


Tl£I? 


°ting cheu. 


Cold. 


'^ 


"lang. 


Colder. 


'(^m 


"lang-tien. 


Coldest. 


m^ 


"ting "lang. 


In like manner compare 






Hot. 


m 


nyih. 


White. 


a 


hah. 


Black. 


M 


huh. 


Green. 


U 


lok. 


Eed. 


U 


'ong. 


Blue. 


M 


Ian. 



40 



FIllST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Yellow. 


n 


waung. 




Short. 


m 


°toen. 




Long. 


m 


dzang. 




High. 


m 


kau. 




Low. 


% 


ti. 




Broad. 


p 


hw^eh. 




Narrow. 


m 


^ah. 




Deep. 


u 


sung. 




Shallow. 


»^ 


°tiien. 




Square. 


-Ij 


faung. 




Round. 


19 


yoen. 




Old. 


it 


°lau. 




Young. 


#4 


"eu-sang. 


' 


Fast. 


'1^ 


hwa". 




Slow. 


'If 


man°. 




Handsome. 


m 


ts'ui". 




Ugly- 


tft 


t o 

po . 




Early. 


#■ 


°tsau. 




Late. 


m 


an°. 




Heavy. 


%, 


°dzong. 




Light. 


u 


chung. 




Sharp, 


^ 


kw'a'. 




Dull. 


m 


dung°. 




Large. 


iK 


doo". 




Small. 


4^ 


"siau. 




Sweet. 


m 


dien. 




Bitter. 


^ 


"k'oo. 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



41 



Thick. 


^ 


°'eu. 


Thin. 


W- 


boh. 


Slippery. 


m 


wall. 


Hard. 


«M 


nganf. 


Soft. 


m 


°nyoen. 


Smooth. 


^ 


kwaung. 


Rough. 


% 


mau. 


Good, (moral). 


# 


°zen. 


Wicked. 


i& 


auh. 


Clear. 


m 


tsing. 


Muddy. 


m 


wung. 


True. 


m 


tmng. 


False. 


n 


"ka. 


Cheap. 


m 


Jung. 


Dear. 


M 


kyui'. 


Level. 


¥ 


bing. 


Light. 


% 


liang". 


Dark. 


Hb 


en". 


Rich. 


^i 


dze-°tsu. 


' Poor. 


H 


Jong. 


Wet. 


M 


sak. 


Dry. 


m 


koen. 



4"2 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



OIF THE C3-ElIsriDEI?^ OIF IsTOTJUS. 

I can trace bat two genders in Chinese. When applied to 
mankind, the masculine is indicated by ^ nen and the feminine by 
^ °nyui; as, 



A man, a male. 


HA 


nen-nyung. 


A woman. 


■^K 


°nyui-nyung. 


A male child. 


HS 


nen-noen. 


A female child. 


:*S 


°nyui-noen. 


A male servant. 


^M% 


nen^siang-puung. 


A female servant. 


■MM% 


"nyui-siang-paung. 



When applied to animals, the male is indicated by ^ yong and 
the female by |l^ ts'z ; as. 



A horse. 


M'^ 


yong °mo. 


A mare. 


iSM 


tsz °mo. 


A male cow. 


ti^ 


yong nyeu. 


A female cow. 


m^ 


tsz nyeu. 


A cock. 


mm 


yong kyi. 


A hen. 


mm 


ts'z kyi. 


A male dog. 


mm 


yong °keu. 


A female dog. 


m^^ 


ts'z °keu. 


Aiiuu a^id female. 


mm 


ts'z yong. 



riEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



43 



o:p the jpil,tj:rj^Xj o:f iroTjasrs. 

The only way of forming the plural of nouns in Chinese, is 
either by prefixing a numeral indicating the number referred to, 
or by leaving off the numeral and classifier; in which latter case, 
the term is generic ; as. 



Men, mankind. 


A 


nyung- 




Cows. 


^ 


nyeu. 




Fowls. 


H 


hyi. 




Forks. 


^ 


tso. 




Books. 


# 


m. 




Horses. 


jK^ 


"mo. 





Or by prefixing a numeral ; as, 



Seven men. 

A hundred horses. 

About ten men. 
Thirty or forty bales. 
About a hundred. 
About a thousand. 
About ten thousand. 

A half dozen. 






:^t 



■^^: 



^> 



te 



tsih kiJi nyung. 

ill pak tsak °mo. 

zeh soo" (or su) kuh 
nyung. 

san sz sell pari. 

pak po°. 

tsien °po. 



man °po. 



lok kuh ; lok tsak ; lok 
°po, etc. 



M 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A dozen. 

A dozen and a half. 

All men, or, men in 
general. 

Less than one hundred. 

More than that. 



+A>h +A 
AA i^WiA 



zeh-ni/i' huh; zelv-nyP- 
tsak ; zeh-nyi" °po, etc. 

zeh-puJi kuh ; zeltrpah 
tsak, etc. 

nyung nyung ; da -Ice 
nyung. 

'veil tail" ill pak; 'veh 

"men ih pak, 
'veh °ba. 



This term ('w7t ba) is used in reply, where the person spoken 
to is conscious tbat the amount, or number given or communicated, 
by the person speaking, is short of what it ought to be ; as, 



More than a hundred 
men. 

There are more than 
fifty dollars. 



^1—1" A 



'veh "ba ih pak nyung. 

'veh °ba "ng-seh yang- 
dieru 



The term ^ fg 'veh siau may be taken as the reverse of 'veh ha, 
or the reverse of more than necessary, or enough ; as. 



Less than that. 

It is not necessary for 
so much as that. 

Less than a hundred 
dollars. 

Ten catties are more 
than are necessary. 






'veh siau. 

'veh siau zeh-ke". 

'veh siau ih pak yang- 
dieiu 

'veh siau zeh kyung. 



riRST LESSONS IN CHINESE, 



45 



More than a hundred. 


-W^ 


ih pah too. 


More than a thousand 
soldiers. 


-^^:^T 


ih ts'ien too ping-ting. 


More than five hundred 
chests. 


3L^^m 


°ng pak too siang. 


More than thirty rooms. 


H+^^ 


san-seh too hxn. 


Near, (restricted to 
numbers). 


% 


maiu 


Near a hundred. 


%-w 


mau ih pah. 


Near fifty meo. 


%3L+A 


mau 'ng-seh nyung. 


Near three li 


^~M^ 


mm san °li loo°. 


One or more. 


i^JE 


hoen °po. 


A mau or two. 


TJ2A 


koen °po nyung. 


A dollar or two. 


^mnm 


hoen "po yang-dien. 



46 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



OIF JLZDVEE^BS. 



How? 

How do you know ? 

How did you know? 

How did you do it ? 

How? 

How now? 

How shall we manage 

it? 
How cau it be arranged ? 

How did he manage to 
get in P 

Why? 

Why don't you (he or 
she) come ? 

Why did you (he or 
she) do it ? 

Why don't yon (he or 

she) pay it ? 
Why do you (he or she) 

do so ? 

Why is it? 
When? 

When will you (he or 
she) come ? 



mm mfm 
mMmmn 

Mnmm 



mm>^ 



n^^n 



m 



°na-nung ? "na-hancf"- 
nung f 

nong° °na-nung- "liyavA 
tuU 

nong° na-nwng °hyau- 
tuh huh ? 

°n(.v-nung tsoo'-huh f 

"na-^ung ? 

yien°dze' °na-nung ? 

"nor-nung tsoo°-deu f 

°na-nung tsoo'-fah ? 

yi °na-hang°-nung tsing" 
le kuh? 

we'-sa ? we'-sa lau ? 

loe'-sa' 'veh le ? 

we'-S'.° lau tsoo° kuhf 
we -sa velijoo i 

we'-sa lau zeli-hi" tsoo" f 

we -sa lau l 
"kyi-z ? 

°kyi-z le ? 



FIRST LESSONS III CHINESE. 



47 



When will you (he or 
she) do it ? 

When did yon (h€ or 
she) go ? 

When did you (he or 
she) do it ? 

How long since you {he 
or she) came ? 

When is it due ? 

Now. 

I want it now. 

I don't want it now. 

Now it is too late. 

Just now, a little while 



Quickly. 
Go quickly. 
Come quickly. 

Do it quickly. 

Be in a hurry. 
Only. 

Only these two kinds. 
Only small ones. 



mm^^ 



^ 



m^m mm 
mm 






°kyi-z tsoo° ? 

°kyi-s clW-kah ? 
°kyi-z tsoo° kuli ? 

le tsz °kyi-z tse ? 

"kyirzjif "kyi-z tau° ji'i 

yven-dze", 
yien-dze' iau. 
yien-dze' 'veh iau'. 
yien-dze' le 'vehji°, 

k'an-k'an (or Kah-UcJi), 
'veh too "kyi-z. 

kw'a'-kiva', kwa'-Uen, 
'au-sau", 

kw'a'-tien (or kw'a'- 
kw'a") chi. 

kwa-tien (or kw\i°- 
kw'a") le. 

kw'a°-tien (or kwa°- 
kw'u') tsoo° ; tsoo° fe 
kw^a-tien. 

'au-sim , 'au-sau -tien, 
kw'a'-tien. 

pih-koo ; tsuh-tuh. 

tsuh-tuli °di huh °liang 

yang°. 
pih-koo °dim huh. 



48 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Thus, SO, etc. 

Not so. 

I want it so. 

It is so. 

Very. 

Verj' good. 

Very fast. 

Very high. 

Very large. 

Very happy. 

Immediately. 

Come immediately. 

Do it immediately. 

Return it immediately. 

Start immediately. 

But. 

The man is honest, but 
he is good for nothing. 

B)it he cannot speak 
English. 

Verily, truly, indeed. 

Moreover. 

Not only. 

He not only smokes 
opium, he moreover 
gaoibles. 






m^ 









MRmmm 



[BE zeh-ke" ; zeJi-lce°-nung. 

'veil °z zeh-he'-nung. 

iau zeJi-lce° kufu 

°z zeh-he' kuh. 

'man. 

'man °huu, 

man kw'a", 

'man kau. 
'man doo°, 

man k'a'-weh^ 
zku. 
zieu° le. 
zieu tsoo". 
zieu" wan, 
zieu °dong-sung. 

dan°-°z, dok°-°z, zen-r. 

nyung z lau-zeli, dan-z 
m.-sa' yong°-deu. 

dan-z yi 'veh we" wo' 
Da-lung wo", 

zeli-dze". 

r-°tsia or r-°tsien. 

'veh dan°. 

yi 'veh dan chuh ien, r- 
tsia° °too dong-dien. 



EIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



49 



Where ? 

Where are you going ? 

Where did yoa fiad it P 

Where iait to be bought? 

Where are you ? 

Here. 

I am here. It is here. 

Men of this place. 

Bring it here. 

It is not in use (current) 

here.* 
There is a brisk trade 

here. 
We don't want it here. 
There. 

How is it there P 
Is trade good there ? 
Pat it there. 

Slowly. 

Not so fast ; go slowly. 
Walk slowly. 



Mmm M 

mmm ^ 

iilii^ it'll 






"'or'li? «a° 'oo"-daung? 
'^a-°li daung ? °'a-°li 

1 tog o o 90, 0|> 

kwe f sa soo ? a- k 
deu ? sa" dsang-lmu ? 
etc. 

"'a-'li chi'? tau "'a-'li 

chi ? 
m" 'oo'-daung zing-dzak 

kuli? 
°'a-°li daung °yeu tuh 

°ma? 

nong° Ix "'■a-'li ? 
°tsz-di',°di-kw'e', dv-deu. 
leh-°li °tsz-di. 
°tsz-di nyung, 
tan tau" °tsz-di le. 

'tsz-di 'veil 'ang. 

"tsz-di" sang-i nau 
°mang. 

°tsz-di 'veil iau°. 

i-deu, i-kw'e°-, 

i-deu °na-nung ? 

i-deu sang-i °hau va ? 

faung° la i-hwe . 

man-man-tkn; man- 
man -nung. 

man-tien, 

man man-tsz° "tseu. 



LtteraHy,.It is no go here. 



60 



FIRST Wessons in Chinese. 



Go up slowly. 

Distinctly. 

Speak more distinctly. 

I do not see it distinctly. 

Ido not hear it distinctly- 

Besides. 

Have yon any besides 
these ? 

There were five hundred 
soldiers, besides bur- 
den bearers. 

Inasmuch, seeing, still. 
How much more ? 

If ye then, being evil, 
know how to give good 
gifts unto your chil- 
dren, how much more 
shall your Father 
which is ill heaven 
give good things to 
them that ask him ? 

Still more. Much more. 
Much worse. 
Much longer. 
Still dearer. 
Still better. 



lijaiJ>a;5l 



MM 

fSaJL 

MM MM 
MMM 



MMm 



man -mun -nung zaung 
chi. 

tsing-°saung. 

wo" le tsing-'saung tien, 

°ngoo k'oen° k 'veh ts'ing- 
"saung. 

°ngoo t'ing le 'veh ts'ing- 



dze° nga (we°) ; ling 
nga \pe ). 

dze°-nga (we^ wan °yeu 
va" y 



°yeu °ng pak kuh ping, 
dze'-we" wan" "yen 
t'iau tien sa" kuh. 

zanq'-''tsia, or zaung" 

tS Ul. 

'oo-hwaung°. 



na° °yeu 'dzoe-kuh nyung 
zang"- tsia hyau - tvh 
peh °hau meh-z" la r- 
°tsz, 'oo-hwaung" na 
T'ien Ya tau 'veh 
"Hung peh °hau meh-z 
la jeu yi kuh va" f 

kung'-ka ; yoeh-ka, 
kung°-ka 'veh °hau. 
kung°-ka dzang. 
kung'-ka kyui", 
kung°-ka °hau. 



PIERT I.BSSONS IN CHINESE. 



51 



OOItTSJhLiOTJTI^E OOIsrCTTJlsrOTIOIiT. 


Then, now. 


mm 


nan-meh. 


Now it is well. 


BM^m 


nan-meh °hau tse. 


Finish this and then do 


^nzn^ 


tsoo" °Jiau-tsz °di-kuh, 


something else. 


mMm^^ 


nan-meh tsoo° bili-kuh. 


Now he is happy. 


mi^^mm 


nan-meJi Tca^weh tse. 


Yesterday. 


wn w^z 


zo (zau) nyih, or zo-nyih- 
^tsz. 


He wentaway yesterday. 


1^B^0*>^ 


yi zo-nyih cln huh. 


He came to-day. 


^^m^^ 


yi kyung-tsau le huh. 


The more yon do, the 
more yon will be able 




yoeh-"z tsoo", yoeh-'z we° 
tsoo°. 


, to do. 




For the time being. 


^m 


°tsia tung. 


Too, ov 


BR (deDOting excess), 


^ t'uh. 


Too large. 


'i.-k 


t'uh doo°. 


Too small. 


i^A- 


t'uh °siau. 


Too many. 


>^^ 


iuh too. 


Too few. 


:^^> 


t'uh "sau. 


Too fierce. 


^^ 


t'uh hyong. 


Too stupid. 


^^ 


t'uh hung". 


Too clever. 


i^mm 


t'uh tsong-ming. 


Too salt. 


i^U M 


t'uh 'an. 



52 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Too young. 


mmn 


nykn hyi t'uh chung. 


Afterwards. 


#if 


ot o 

eu- seu. 


Until. 


w.m 


dzuh tau. 


Perhaps. 


^m 


•ok-°tse. 


I fear. 


^'^6 


"Jcong-p'o". 




0B 0^ 


nyUi-nyih, nyih-too, nyiJir 


Daily. 


Bm. 


dzok. 


Openly, frankly, etc. 


^m 


dzuh-lauh. 


Securely. 


m'^ 


°' wung-taung" , 


About. 


tm 


iak-hwe. 


About seventy bales. 


mm^-^^ 


iak-kwe tsih-seJi pau. 


Secretly. 


m^m 


en -en - It. 


Gently, with care. 


mun^ 


cliung-cliung-nung. 



FIRST MSSONS IN CHINESE. 



53 



OIP I=I?.EI=0SITI03SrS. 



Above. 

Below. 

Under, beneath. 

Inside. 

Outside. 

After. 

Behind. 

Before. 

From. 

To (to arrive at). 
When did you arrive ? 



Sim 



How many It from 
Shanghai to Peking ? 


On. 

On the table. 

On the chair. 




On the floor. 




On the carpet. 
On the ground. 
On the street. 





•^ 



W MM 

m 
± 



zaiing'-deu. 
°\m-°ti; °'au-°ti-deu. 
ti- au. 
"li-hyang. 
nga-deu. 



Ot 1 

eu, 

"^evr'ti, °'eu-°ti-d,eu, °^eu- 
deu. 

zien, zien-deu. 

°tang ; as, "tang "tsz-di" 

tau' i-deu. 
tau". 
°kyi-z tau -hill ? 

"tang Zaung° - "lie tau 
Pok-kyung, "kyi °li 
ho°? 

laung° {much used). 

de-tsz laung". 
iui-°tsz laung°. 

di laung" ; di-kauh 
laung°, di-°pan laung" _ 

di-tan laung . 
di-laung°. 
ka laung . 



54 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



On the way, or road. 


i^h, 




loo° laung". 


On the person. 


#± 




sung laung". 


On board ship. 


mt 




zen laung°. 


On the foot, or leg. 


mt 




kyah laung" . 


On the hand. 


^h 




°seu laung°. 


On the wall. 


ill- 




ziang laung". 


On the box or trnnk. 


Hf-h 




siang-'tsz hmng°. 


On the bed. 


m±. 




zaung laung°. 


On the window. 


WP V 




ts'aung °k'eu laung°. 


On the door. 


n± 




mung laung°. 


On the head. 


al± 




deu laung°. 


On the roof. 


M± 




ok laung°. 


On a (the) plate. 


^^± 




bung-°tsz laung". 


On shore. 


^± 




ngoen lmng°. 


On the water. 


i^h 




"sz laung°. 


In. 


m 




"li (mitch used). 


In Heaven. 


%\. 




t'ien laung°. 


In the box. 


m-i-m 




siang-°tsz °li. 


In the drawer. 


M\MM 




tieu-tH" "li. 


In the house. 


m'fm 




vaung-°tsz °li. 


In the parlor. 




^ 


k'ak-we" kan "li; k'aJe 
daung kan °li. 


In the dining room. 




is: 


chuh-mn kan °li; da"- 
tie" kan °U. 


In the chamber. 


u mm 


vaung kan "li; vaung- 
deu "li; vaung °li. 


In the store room. 


'X'^mn 




"hoo'zuh kan °li. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESB. 



55 



In the study. 
In the dressing room. 
In the bath room. 
In the office. 

In the compradore's 
room. 

In the stable. 

In the field. 

In the shop. 

In the hong. 

In the water. 

In the Winter. 

In the Summer. 

In the Spring. 

In the Autumn. 

In the daj'. 

In the night. 

In the church. 

In the school room. 

In the heait. 

In the ground. 

In the grave. 

In the well. 

In hell. 

In the go-down. 

In the canal. 

In the river. 






mm 
nm 



e± 



ais 



/S-iH 







'i^m 



su-vaung h.m °li. 
k^a-mien° kan °li. 
zing°-yok kan °li. 
sia-z' kan "IL 



tsang°-vaung °li. 

°mo-bang °li. 
dien °li. 
tien' °li. 
'aung °li. 
sz k. 
tong "li, 
au k. 

tsung °U, ts'ung laung" 
ts'ieic "It. 
nyih "IL 
ya ii. 

°li-pa°-daung °li. 
''auli-daung °IL 
sing °li. 
di-hi °li. 
vung-san "li, 
"tsing °li. 
di-nyok °lu 
"dzan-vaung °U, 
pang "li, 
'■00 °U. 



56 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



In the city. 


mm 




dzung °li. 


In the temple. 


mm 




• O Of ' 

rmau Lt. 


In the ship's hold. 


mm 




tsaung °li. 


In the eye. 


BRBftS 




'ngan-tsing "li. 


In this mouth. 


^i-nm 


"dirkuh nyoeh °li. 


In the ear. 


^^m 




nyi- too Li. 


In a (the) bottle. 


mm 




bing °lu 


Iq a (the) cask. 


mm, 




"dong "li. 


In the month. 


mm 




°tsz °li. 


In this. 


n^m 




°di-hih "li. 


In that. 


^^m 




i-kuh °U. 


In the wilderness. 


%mu 




hwaung-°ya °li. 


In the light. 


m:±m 


^m 


liang'-kwaung °li; liang' 
"li. 


In the dark. 


mMm 


mm 


en dong" "li; en °li. 


Within these two or 
three days. 


^^m= 


iBm 


°di-kuh ° liang san nyifi °li. 


In trouble. 


IS 


^m 


°k^oo-7iau "li; tse-nan °li. 


In prosperity. 


mmm 




hyang-fuh °U. 


In what ? 


'^m 




sa "li? 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESB,- 



57 



00IsrjTJIT0TI03SrS. 



Therefore. 

I had business, there- 
fore did not come. 

He is not honest, there- 
fore Ido not want him. 

Also, still, yet. 

Also the same. 

Also a merchant. 

This also is a good one. 

I also want to purchase. 

i also want to go. 

Do yoa still (or yet) 
want more ? 

Though, although, not- 
withstanding. 

Although he is old, he 
is still able to work. 

Because, for. 

* 

Why did you run away ? 

Because I was afraid. 

For this is thelaw and the 
prophets. (Matt. 7. 12.) 

It is because matters are 
(were) thus, I do (did) 
not wish to have any- 
thing to do with it. 






mm m^ 



soo-°i ; keh-lau. 

"ngoo "yeu tsz z°-°t'i, 
°soo-°i 'veil le. 

yi . 'veil lau-zeh, keh-lau 
°ngoo 'veil iau". 

°'a "z, wan. 

"'a °z zeli-ke . 

"'a °z sang-f nyung. 

°di-kuJi °'a °z "Iiau kali. 

"ngoo °'a iau °ma. 

"ngoo °'a iau" clii. 



wail i'lu va ? 






soe-°z ; soe-zen. 

yi soe-°z °lau, wan tsoo"- 
tuIir-°dong sang-weh. 

iung-we° ; we -tsz. 

we sa° Iau dau "tseu ? 

iung-we° "ngoo po°-ku/i. 

iung-we° lih-fah Iau 
sien-tsz "z zeh-ke°. 

we°-tsz zeh-ke° °ngoo 'veil 
iai° tah-kaung. 



58 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



If. 

That, so that. 

Then, well then. 

When yon shall have 
finished this, then do 
that; or. Finish this 
and then do that. 

If he will not do as I 
propose, then what 
will he do ? 

Lest. 

Take an umbrella, lest 

yoQ get wet. 
Neither, nor. 

Neither this nor that. 

In case, if, should. 
Either, or. 

Either to-day or to- 
morrow. 

And. 

The morning and even- 
ing. 

Books, etc. 






mm 









zah-sz ; zah-zen. 
°tung. 

tian-rmli, helir'meh. 

Tsoo°-°lmw-tsz "di-kuh, 
nan-meli tsoo° i-kuh. 

zak-sz° yi 'veil "Icunq 
tsau °ngoo, heh-^tmh 
yi °Uung tsoo° sa ? 

°sang-tsz. 

tan ih "ting san° °sang- 
tsz° ling sak. 

°'a 'veh. 

°di-hjbh 'veh °z, i-huh °'a 
'veh-°z, 

iaung° sz°, t'aung° zen. 

'■ok-z. 

'6k-°z kyung-tsau, 'oh-°z 
ming-tsau. 

lau. 

"tsau-zitng lau ya-kw'a. 

f!ii lau so". 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



59 



T:1TTEI?.K;0 G- J^TI VES . 



? (general interrogative 
particle). 

Have yon fonnd it ? 




zing-dzak va" 



Meh ^ — is used as an interrogative when yon have reason to 
expect or hope for an affirmative answer ; as, 



Is breakfast ready ? 




van' "hau mehf 



Sa n^ — as an interrogative, is sometimes found at the close, 
and sometimes at the commencement of a sentence; as, 



What do you want ? 
What price ? 




nong" iau sa ! 
80° ka-dien ? 



''A-'li |3P ^ — ^is also an interrogative. 



Where are you going ? 






nong° tau "^a-'li cln'i 
nong° tau °'a-''li 1 
°'a-°Zi chi ? 



]}^yi pj^ — ^is also used as an interrogative. 



Is it or is it not ? 
Is it good or not ? 




'z nyi 'veil °z ? 
'hau nyi 'veh-°hau ? 



60 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



■vvEiC3-i3:a?s, eto. 



A picul. 
A catty. 
An ounce. 
An ounce of silver. 
1-lOth of a Hang. 
1-1 0th of a dzien. 
1-1 9th of a fung. 
1-1 0th of a li. 

Tls. 12.33. 

Tls. 10.42.5.3. 

One dollar. 
A half dollar. 

A quarter of a dollar. 
Ten cents. 

One cent. 

An inch. 

1-tenth of an inch. 

A foot. 



— ^ 

-m 









-^n 



ill tan ; ih pak kyung^ 

ih- hyung ; zeh-lok-°liang, 

ih "liang. 

ih "liang nyung-°tsz. 

ih dzien. 

ih fung, 

ih li. 

ih 'au. 

zeh nyi °liang san dzien 
san fung. 

zeh °liang sz° dzien nyi 
fung °ng li san 'au, 

ih nyoen, ih yoen, ih 
k'we" yang-dien. 

ih hih te° k'e; pen 

kwe . 

ih kuh sz° k'e. 

ih kauh. 

ih fung, ih fung yang' 
dien. 

ih tsung° . 

ih fung. 

ih ts'ak. 



FIRST LKSSONS IN CHINESE. 



61 



Ten feet. 


-iz 


ih °dzang. 


Ten feet square. 


--^ 


ill faung. 


A mow. 


— mX 


ih "m. 


A foot square. 


-~R^-)j 


ih tsak hyien° -faung. 



h:otjk.s, id^ys OIF this ■week:. 



An hour. 

Half an hour. 

Quarter of an hour. 

A minute. 

A day. 

Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Saturday, 

A week. 

To-day. 

To-morrow. 

Yesterday. 






-^mn 



41 



mm 



in tien-tsong. 
pen° °tien-fsong. 
ih k'uh. 
ih fung. 
ih nyih. 

U-p..°, °li-pa-uyih. 
"li-pa ih. 

Of O lO 

k-pa nyi . 
°li-pa san. 

01 • o o 

k-pa sz . 

OT 00 

It-pa ng. 
°li-pa lok. 

ih huh "li-pa", ih "li-pa", 

kyung-tsau. 

ming-tsau. 

zau-nyih. 



62 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Day before yesterday. 
Day after to-morrow. 
Two days. 

Every day. 

Day. 

Night. 

Iq the day time. 

In the night. 

In the morning. 

In theevening(twilight). 

In the evening (dusk). 



Id the forenoon. 


h^H ±.m 


Id the afternoon. 


mm 


At noon. 


04» BaliS 


About midnight. 


^^m 


First half of the night. 


Y^^ 


The latter half of the 




aight. 


h^^ 


Just before daylight. 


^'^'^ 


Month, or moon. 


n 


A month. 


-^n 


A full month. 


mn 


This month. 


n^n 


Last month. 


tiH 



#0 

^0 

#0 00 
0^ 



011 



koo''-nyih-°tsz. 
°'eu-nyih, 
°liang nyih. 

°'me nyih, nyih-nyUi, 
nyih-too, 

nyih. 

o 

ya . 
nyih-°li. 

o 07. 

ya - h. 
°tsau-zung-deu. 

o 7f o 

ya Kwa . 

waung • hwung-°dong ; 

waung-hwung-deu. 
°zaung-pen°-nyiJi; "zaung 

tseu". 
°^au-tseu° ; "'au-pen- 

nyih ; °'au-tseu-°dong. 

nyik-tsong ; nyih-deu- 
dzuJu 

pen" ya °po. 

° zaung-pen-ya . 

"''au-pen-ya. 

t'ien-liang°-lcwa'. 
nyoeh. 

ih-kuh nyoeh. 
"men nyoeh. 
°di-kuh nyoeh. 
zien nyoeh. 



riEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



63 



Intercalary month. 

Next montk. 

First of the month. 

On or about the first of 
the month. 

The end (or last) of the 

month. 
The middle of the 

month. 
Half a month. 

Monthly, every month. 

First day of the month. 
Second day o f the month . 
Third day of the month. 
Fourth day of th e month . 
Fifth day of the month. 
Sixth day of the month. 

Seventh day of the 

month. 
Eighth day of themonth. 
Ninth day of the month^ 
Tenth day of the month. 

Eleventh day of the 

month. 
The twentieth. 

The twenty-first. 

Year. 

One year. 



MM ^iiiM 

M^4- 

— ^ 



nyung' nyoeh. 
"''au nyoeh. 
nyoeh-deu ; tsoo-deu. 

nyoeh-deu keung''. 

nyoeh "ti. 

nyoeh pen. 

pen -hull nyoeh. 

nyoeh-nyoeh; nyoeh- too, 
°'me nyoeh. 

ts'oo ih. 

tsoo tiyi. 

ts'oo san. 

ts'oo sz". 

ts'oo °ng. 

ts'oo lok. 

ts'oo ts'ih. 

tsoo pah. 
ts'oo "kyeu. 
ts'oo zeh, 

zeh-ih. 

nyi-seh. 
nyan-ih. 
nyien. 
ih-nyien. 



64 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Haifa year. 


#^ 


pen" nyien. 


This year. 


4^ 


kyung nyien. 


Last year. 


S^ 


jeu" nyien. 


Next year. 


^^ ^^ 


k'e nyien ; le nyien. 


The whole year. 




ih tsok nyien, tsok ih 
nyien, °men ih nyien. 


Every year. 




nyien dzang ; °'me nyien, 
nyien too; nyien-nykn. 


First half of the year. 


t^^^ 


zaung° pen° nyien. 


The last half of the year. 


I>^¥ 


^au pen nyien. 


The new year. 


m¥ 


sing nyien. 


The close of the year. 


¥^ 


nyien ya. 


The begin aiEg of the 
year. 


^mt 


nyien deu laung°. 


From the beginning to 
the end of the year. 


-mm 


ih nyien tau deu. 


About a year. 


#JE 


nyien °po. 


After the new year. 


^^ 


koo° nyien. 



1 1 :■ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 65 

I am not aware that any attempt has ever been made to conjugate 
and inflect the verb in Chinese through all its numbers, persons, 
moods and tenses, as it is done in English. As the attempt can not 
fail to be of great benefit to the student of the spoken language, 
I shall, at the risk of exciting a smile, try to throw some light upon 
this unexplored field. 

Any one familiarly acquainted with any of the spoken dialects 
may, by close observation, detect in the Chinese stereotyped manner 
of conveying their ideas, certain forms of expression which change the 
sense of the verb with every variation of form, somewhat analagous to 
what we find in English, in the Indicative mood, Present, Imperfect, 
Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future tenses ; also the Imperative mood and 
Participle. The same forms may also be traced through ail the tenses 
of the Subjunctive mood. Having tested this peculiarity in more than 
three hundred verbs, and finding that the moods and tenses are 
expressed in uniform manner, why may we not take this peculiarity 
of manner as a rule, inflect a verb through all its moods and tenses, 
and thus establish a rale for all other verbs that will be of infinite 
value to the student of the spoken language ? 

The five moods, Indicative, Potential, Subjunctive, Imperative 
and Infinitive, may be distinctly traced in the Shanghai dialect. 
The Indicative mood, present tense, is only distinguished from the 
Imperative and Infinitive moods by the personal pronoun, expressed 
or understood. 

The Potential mood prefixes to the verb such other auxiliary 
verbs as express possibility, liberty, power, will and obligation ; as. 



Ton can go. 



m^i: 



Nong° °Uau-°i chi 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



They can come io. 
He would not come. 

He can (Jias the physical 

power to) do it. 
He can {has the ahility 

to) do it. 

They ought to sell. 
He must come. 









Yi-la° °k'au-°i tsing" le. 
Yi 'veh-°Uung le. 

Yi nung tsoo". 

¥i 'we" tsoo°. 

Yi-la° iung-ke ma. 
Yi °tsong iau le. 



The Subjunctive mood, which represents an action under a 
condition, supposition, etc., is preceded by a conjunction expressed 
or understood ; or takes a suffix with the force of a conjunction ; as, 



If yon do not assist, we 
cannot do it. 

If yon do not find him, 
come back immediate- 

If it is finished, bring 
it. 






Zak-sz" nong° 'veh dang- 
paung, nyi" 'veh nung- 
keu tsoo°. 

Zah-sz° nong° zing yi 
'veh dzak, zieu" "tsenle. 

Zak-sz° °hau la tse, ''tan 
le. 



OBSEE.'v^Tionsrs 03sr the tezstsbs. 

Five tenses may^be traced in the Shanghai dialect : the Present, 
Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect, and the Future. 
The PEESENT TENSE has two distinct forms. 



The simple ; as, I eat. 
The progressive; as, I 



am eating. 




"Ngoo chuh. 
"Ngoo leh-W chuh. 



FIRST TiESSONS IN CHINESB. 



67 



The IMPERFECT TENSE has three distinct forms ; 
The simple ; as, 


late. 


ang;^ 


°Ngoo chuh-kiih. 


The progressive form ; as, 


J was eating. 


ateteP^ 


°Ngooleh-la cimh. 


And the emphatic form ; as, 


I did eat. 


^m\fz^ 


°Ngoo °z chuh-kuh. 


The PEKFECT TENSE ; as, 



I have eaten. 



urn ^pg 



"Ngoo ehuh-tse, or, °ngoo 
chuh-lc? -tse, or, °ngoo 
chuh-hoo'-tse. 



The PLXJPEEFECT TENSE ; aS, 



I had eaten. 



m, a all 



°Ngoo "i-kyung chuh-tse, 
or, "ngoo °i-kyung chuh- 
la-tse, or, °ngoo °i- 
kyung chuh-koo°-tse. 



68 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



The futuee tense ; as, 


I will or shall eat. 


^^Pg 


°Ngoo iau cliuli. 


The Imperative Mood. 


Eat. 


Pg vt± 


ChvJi, chuh laung". 



Each tense of the verb has two numbers, the Singalar and 
Plural, and each number has three persons, as in English ; but the 
form of the verb of each person, both Singular and Plural, is the 
same ; as, 



SINGULAR. 



1. I eat. 

2. You eat. 

3. He, she, or it, eats. 




"Ngoo chvJi. 
Nong° chuh. 
Yi cJivli, 



PLURAL. 



1. 


We eat. 


M\^ 


Nyi" 


chuh. 


2. 


You eat. 


Mp^ 


Na' 


chuh. 


3. 


They eat. 


PU\^ 


Yi-la chuh. 



WEST MSSONS IN CHINESE!. 



69 



The verb may be conjugated iu Chiaese ; as, present, eat Pi^ 
chnh ; inaperfect, ate P^ ^^ chuh-kuh ; perfect participle, having 
eaten Pg ^ cbub-tsz. It may be inflected as follows : — 



Indicative Mood. 


IS. ^ Present Tense, Simple Fobm. 


^ Singular. 


1. I eat. 


^P^ 


"iVjfoo cAmA. 


2. Yoa eat. 


{ip^ 


Nong' chuh. 


3. He, she, or it, eats. 


^p^ 


Yi chuh. 



PLtTRAL. 



1. We eat. 

2. Yon eat. 

3. They eat. 




Nyi" chuh. 
No," chuh. 
Yi-la chuh. 



ifi. ^ ^ Present Tense, Progressive Form. 
Singular. 



1. 1 am eating. 

a. Yoa are eating. 

3. He,she,orit,is eating. 




"Ngoo Uh-li chuh. 
Nong" leh-li° chuh. 
Yi Uh-W chuh. 



TO 



HRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Plxjeal. 



1. "We are eating. 

2. You are eating. 

3. They are eating. 






Nyf leh-li cliuli. 
Na" leh-li chuJi. 
Ti-la Ulir-li cliuh. 



"^ ^ Impeefect Tense, Simple Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. I'ate. 

2. You ate. 

3. He, or she, ate. 




°Ngoo ehuh-kuh. 
Nong" chuh-kuk. 
Ti chuh-kuh. 



Plural. 



1. We ate. 

2. Yoa ate. 

3. They ate. 




Nyi" chuh-hih. 
Na chuh-kuh. 
Yi-la chuhr-kuh. 



^ ^ ^ Imperfect Tense, Progressive Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. I was eating. 

2. Yoa were eating. 

3. He,orshe, was eating. 






°Ngoo lehr-la chvJi, 
Nong° leh-la' chuh. 
Yi leh-la chuh. 



FIBST LSSSONS IN GHINBSE. 



71 



$^ Plural. 


1. We were eating. 

2. Tou were eating. 

3. They were eating. 




i\y leh-la" chuh. 
Ka" leh-hx" chiih. 
yi-la° Uh-la chuh. 


^ ^4^ S Impekfect Tense, Emphatic Form. 

^ SlNGlTLAR. 


1. I did eat. 

2. you did eat. 

3. He, or she, did eat. 




"JS^goo °z chuh-kuh. 
Xong° °r chiJt-kuh. 
Ti °z chuh-kuh. 


^ Plural. 


1. We did eat. 

2. Ton did eat. 
a They did eat. 




Xyi" "z chuh-kuh. 
Na' °r chuh-kuh. 
li-la" °c chuh-kuh. 


^ Perfect Texse. 

^ SiXGULAE. 


l.|]I have eaten. 

2. Yon have eaten. 

3. He, or she, has eaten. 




°Ngoo chwh-tx. 
Xong° chuh-tse. 
Yi chiJi-tse. 



72 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Plural. 



1. We bave eaten. 

2. Yon have eatea. 

3. They have eaten. 




NyC cliuh-tse. 
Na chuh-tse. 
YiAa cliuh-tse. 



La'-tse and hoo'-tse are frequently heard in the perfect tense ; 
as, "ngoo chuh-la'-tse, or °ngoo dmh-hoo'-tse. The la" and lcoo° are 
not necessary to the sense. 



TIP -^ Pluperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. I had eaten. 

2. You had eaten. 

8. He, or she, had eaten. 



na^p^^ 



I^Q^SP^^ 



°Ngoo °i-kyung clmfi-tse. 
Nong° "i-hyung chuh-tse. 
Yi °v-leyung chuh-tse. 



Plural. 



1. We had eaten. 

2. You had eaten. 

3. They had eaten. 






iV?/i° °i-hyung chuh-tse 
Na °i-hyung chuh-tse. 
Ya-li" °i-kyung chuh-t 



La°-tse and Jcoo°-tse are frequently found in the pluperfect ; as, 



'Ngoo °i-kyung chuh-la'-tse, or, "Ifgoo "i-kyung chuh-koo'-tse. 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



73 



^ ^ FuTUBE Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. 


I will or 


shall eat. 


m 


ipg * 


°Ngoo 


iau cliuh. 


2. 


You will 


or shall eat. 


m 


ipg 


Nong" 


iau" chuJi. 


3. 


He will 


Dr shall eat. 


pm^ 


Yi iau 


° chuh. 



Plubal. 



1. We will or shall eat. 

2. You will or shall eat. 

3. They will or shall eat. 




Nyi" iau" chuh. 
Ifa iau" chuh. 
Yi-la iau" chuh. 



f The learner should bear in mind that iau has several meanings ; 
as, iau, to want ; iau° will or shall ; iau must ; and iau', ought. 



pj" POTENTIAL MOOD. 
II, ^ Pbesent Tense. 

^ SiNGULAE. 



1. I may or can eat. 

2. Yon may or can eat. 

3. He mav or can eat. 






°Ngoo 'k'aur'i chuh. 
Nong° "Uau-'i chuh. 
Yi °Uau-°i chuh. 



74 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Plueal. 



1. We may or can eat. 

2. You may or can eat. 

3. They may or can eat. 






Nyi "Icau-'i cliuh. 
Na° "k'ttu-'i chuh. 
Yi-lix "k'au-'i chuh. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
^ Present Tense, Simple Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I eat. 

2. If yon eat. 

3. If he or she eats. 




Zak-sz° "ngoo chuh, 
Zak-sz" nong° chuh. 
Zak-sz" yi chuh. 



Plural. 



1. If we eat. 

2. If you eat. 

3. If they eat. 




Zak-sz° nyi chuh. 
Zak-sz" na chuh. 
Zak-sz° yi-la chuh. 



^ ^ M Present Tense, Emphatic Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I do eat. 

2. If you do eat. 

3. If he does eat. 






Zak-sz° °ngoo "z chuh. 
Zak-sz° nong° °z chuh. 
Zak-sz° yi °z chuh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



75 



^ Plxjeal. 



1. If we do eat. 

2. If yoQ do eat. 

3. If they do eat. 






Zak-sz" nyi °z cliuh. 
Zak-sz° 7v:° °z oliuh. 
Zak-sz yi-la "z clluh. 



^ ^ It Present Tense, Progressive Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I am eating. 

2. If you are eating. 

3. If he is eating. 






Zak-sz° °ngoo leJi-W clmli. 
Zak-sz nong° leh-lC cliuh. 
Zak-sz°'yi leh-W chuh. 



Plural. 



1. If we are eating. 


^mm^m^ 


Zak-sz° nyi leli-W ehufi. 


2. If you are eating. 




Zak-sz° na hh-li chuh. 


3. If they are eating. 


pg 


Zak-sz" yi-la leh-li chuh 



!^ ■^ Imperfect Tense, Simple Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I ate. 

2. If you ate. 

3. If he ate. 






Zak-sz° °ngoo chuh-kuh. 
Zak-sz° nong° chuh-kuh. 
Zak-sz yi chuh-kuh. 



76 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



^ Plural. 



1. If we ate. 

2. If yon ate. 

3. If they ate. 




Zak-sz" nyi cJiuh-hjili. 
Zak-sz' na chuh-kuh. 
Zak-sz" yi-la chuli-huh. 



^ :fe S Impeefect Tense, Emphatic Foem. 
^ Singular. 



1. 


If I did eat. 


^^mm 


m^ 


Zak- 


sz" °ngoo 


°z chuh-hih, 


2. 


If you did eat. 


^nm 


ip^t 


Zak- 


sz° nong" °z chuh-kuh. 


3. 


If he did eat. 


^m^^\ft^ 


Zak. 


o . o 

sz yi z 


chuh-kuh. 



Plueal. 



1. If we did eat. 

2. If you did eat. 

3. If they did eat. 




Zak-sz° nyi °z chvJir-hih. 
Zak-sz° na" "z chuh-hulu 

Zak-sz° yir-la °z chuh-kuh. 



>^ ^ tr Imperfect Tense, Progressive Form. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I were eating. 

2. If yon were eating. 

3. If he were eating. 




Zuk-sz° °ngoo leh-la ckuJi, 
Zak-sz°nong° Uh-la chuh 
Zak-sz° yi leh-la' chuh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



77 



^ Plural. 



1. If we were eating. 

2. If you were eating. 

3. If they were eating. 




Zak-sz° nyi hh-la chuli. 
Zak-sz" na leh-la cliuh. 

Zah-ss" yi-la leh-la' chuh. 



^ Perfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I have eaten. 

2. If j'ou have eaten, 
.3. If he has eaten. 






Zak-sz °ngoo chuh-tse. 
Zak-sz" nong° cJiuh-tse. 
Zak-sz° yi chuh-tse. 



Plural. 



1. 

2. 
3. 


If we have eaten. 
If yon have eaten. 
If they have eaten. 




Zak-sz° nyi° chuh-tse. 
Zak-sz° na' chuh-tse. 
Zak-sz" yi-la chuh-tse. 



^U ^ Pluperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I had eaten. 



2. If yon had eaten. 



3. If he had eaten. 






Zak-sz° °ngoo "i-kyung 
chuh-tse. 

Zak-sz" nong" °i-hyung 
chuh-tse. 

Zak-sz" yi °i-kyung chuh- 
tse. 



WEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



^ Plural. 



1. If we had eaten. 

2. If you had eaten. 

3. If they had eaten. 






Zak-sz" nyi" "v-kyung 
c/mli-tse. 

Zak-sz" na "i-kyung 
chuh-tse. 

Zak-sz" yi-la °i-kyung 
chuh-tse. 



The Verb TO BE. 

This verb is irregular, and, in this dialect, restricted to beirig in, 
or at a place. ^ is generally considered to be the verb to be, but 
I can get nothing out of °z ^ but yes, or an affirmation. The idea 
of the verb to be is expressed, in this dialect, by ^ ^ leh-U°, if the 
person or thing is present ; and by J^ ^ leh-la", if it exists 
elsewhere, or if reference is had to something in the past. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

JE ^ Present Tense. 

^ Singular. 



1. I am here. 


^fe« 


"Ngoo Uh-li\ 


2. You are here. 


m^m 


Nong° leh-li". 


3. He, she, or it is here. 


pmm 


Yi kh-li". 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



79 



Plural. 



1. We are here. 

2. You are here. 

3. They are here. 




Nyi Uh-ir. 
Na leh-li. 
Yi-la leh-li 



^ ^ Imperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. I was there. 

2. Yon were there. 

3. He, she, or it was 
there. 




°Ngoo leh-la huh. 
Nong' leh-la huh. 

Yi leh-la' huh. 



^ Plural. 



1. We were there. 

2. You were there. 

3. They were there. 




Hyi' leh-la" huh. 
Na" leh-la huh. 
Yi-la leh-la huh. 



^ The Perfect Tense is not expressed by ^ fe leh-la, but 
by ^Ij tau ; as, 



I have been here, or 
there. 




"Ngoo tau-hyih-tse, or 
"Ngoo tau-hoo'-hyih- 
tse. 



80 



FIRST LESSON IN CHINESE. 



Singular. 



1. I have been here, or 
there. 


mmWiM 


°Ngoo tau-hoo'-hyih-tse. 


2. You have been here, 
or there. 


mmMWiM 


Nong" tau'-koo°-hyih-tse. 


3. He, or she has been 
here, or there. 


pm'^mm 


Ti tau-koo°-hy{/irtse. 



^ Plural. 



1. 


We have been here, 
or there. 


mm-^wim 


Nyi tau-koo'-hyiJi-tse. 


2. 


Yon have been here, 
or there. 


mm'M^m 


Na tau-hoo'-hyih-tse. 


3. 


They have been here, 
or there. 


pum-MWiM 


Yi-la tau-hoo'-hyih-tse. 



^ ^ Pluperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. 1 had been here, or 

there. 

2. You had been here, 

or there. 

3. He, or she had been 

here, or there. 






m 






°Ngoo "i-kyung tau-hoo'- 
hyih-tse. 

Nong° °i-hyung tau-hoo'- 
hyih-tse. 

Yi °i-hyung tau-hoo'- 
hyih-tse. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE, 



81 



^ Plural. 



1. We had been here 
(or there). 

2. Yon had been here 
(or there)i 

3. They had been here, 
(or there). 






Nyi °i-kyung tau-koo" 
hyih-tse. 

Na" °i-kyung tau-koo'- 
hyih-tse. 

Yi-la °i-kyung tau'-koo"- 
hyih-tse. 



m SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

I^ ^ Present Tense. 

^ Singular. 



1. If I am here. 

2. If you are here. 

3. If he (or she) is here. 




Zak-sz" °ngoo leh-li 
Zak-sz" nong° leh-W. 
Zak-sz" yi leh-W. 



^ Plural. 



1. If we are here. 

2. If you are here. 

3. If they are here. 




Zak-sz" nyi leh-li". 
Zak-sz" na" leh-li'. 
Zak-sz" yi-la leh-li". 



^ ^ Imperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. If I were there. 



^mn^u 



Zak-sz" "ngoo leli-la". 



82 



FIRST LKSSONS IN CHINESE. 



2. If yon were there. 

3. If he (she, or it) 
were there. 






Zak-sz" nong" leli-la, 
Zak-sz° yi leh-la". 



^ Plural. 



1. 

2. 
3- 


If we were there. 
If yon were there. 
If they were there. 




Zak-sz" nyi" leh-la"-. 
Zak-sz" na° leh-la". 
Zak-sz" yi-la leh-la°. 



•4r Pbrfbct Tense. 

^ SiNGULAE, 



1. If I have been here 

(or there). 

2. If yon have been 

here (or there). 

3. If he (she, or it) has 

been here (or there). 




Zak-sz" "ngoo tau-koo"- 

hyih-ise. 
Zak-sz" nong" tau-koo"- 

hyih-tse. 
Zak-sz" yi tau'-koo"- 

hyih-tse. 



Plueal. 



1. If we have been 

here (or there). 

2. If you have been 

-here (or there). 

3. If they have been 

here (or there). 




Zak-sz" nyi" tau-TcoO' 

hyih-tse. 
Zak-sz" na" tau-koo'- 

hyUi-tse. 

Zak-sz" yi-la tau-koo"' 
hyih-tse. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESB, 



83 



aIB ^ Pluperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 



1. If 1 had been here 
(or there). 




Zahss" °ngoo °i-kyung 
tau'-koo'-hyih-Ue. 


2. If yon had been here 
(or there). 




Zah-ss" nong° °i-kyung 
tau-koo'-hyih-tse. 


3. If he (she, or it) had 
been here (or there). 




Zak-sz" yi °i-kywng tau°- 
koo°-hyih-tse. 



Plural. 



1. If we had been here 
(or there.) 


^pmmm 


Zak-sz" nyi" °i-kyung 
tau • koo'-hyih-tse. 


2. If you had been here 
(or there). 




Zak-sz° na °irkyung 
tau-koo'-hyih- tse. 


3. Ifthey had been here 
(or there). 




Zak-sz° yi-la °i-kyung 
tau-koo'-hyih-tse. 



EXiEK^oiSES ^w^ith: -vei^bs, Ea?a. 



W&.^ 


Leh-la «a°? 


mn^ P^ 


Leh-la-huh ; yi lehrla- 


i&.^ 


kuh. 


pwmm 


Yi leh-la' "'a-li^f kh- 


MfeSliS 


la° "'a-li' ? 


W&.M^nM 


Leh-la "da-z'-kan 'li. 



Is he there ? 
He is there. 

Where is he (or it) ? 
He is in the office. 

The character gfe. rathe; than #,- is used in conjugating the verb, retaining 
^ for Buch expressions as Wi ^-—^d. 



WEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



If he is there, tell him 
to come here. 




Zak-sz" leh-la, hyau' 
(Jcau) yi le°. 


To have. 


w 


"Yen. 


Have you it (or any) ? 


iiw-A^, 


Nong° °yeu va .? 


I have it. 




°Ngoo °yeu li ; "ngoo 

O TO 

yen la . 


I have some. 


a^>h 


°Ngoo "yeu-kuh. 


I have it not. 


m^m 


"Ngoo'veh °yeu. 


I have none. 


^m-B. 


°Ngoo m-meh. 


Have you any on board 
ship? 


m±m^^ 


Zen laung" °yeu va ? 


No, none. 


^ mi^ 


'Yell, m-meh. 


Have they any ? 


PU^^- 


Yi-h. °yeu va ? 


Neither have they any. 


pn-^mi^ 


Yi-la °'a m-meh. 


Who has any ? 


^A-^^ 


8a nyung "yeu-hth ? 


No one has any. 

How long have yon had 
it? 


Am 


Toh 'veh "yen; m sa' 
nyung "yeu. 

Nong' °yeitr-tsz "hyi-z- 
tse? 


I have had it over a 

year. 
To do. 




°Ngoo °yeu-tsz Hi nyien 

too. 
Tsoo°. 


To work. 

Can you do it ? 




Tsoo° sang-weh; tsoo'' 
kong-foo. 

Nong° 'we' tsoo" va? 
Tsoo'-tuh-le va"? 


I can do it. 




°Ngoo 'we° tsoo°; °Ngoo 
tsoo°-tuA-le-]cuh. 


I can not do it. 




°Ngoo tsoo° 'veh k; 
°Ngoo 'veil 'w& tsoo". 



FIRST LKSSONS IN CHINESE. 



85 



Who caa do it ? 
There is a Canton man 

who can do it. 
Call him to come and 

do it. 
Just now he is not able 

to work. 
Tell him to come and 

try it. 
Who did it? 
I did it. 
He did it. 

When can you do it ? 
I can do it immediately. 

Wait a few days. 

I cannot wait. 

Are you at work on it? 

When will yon have it 

done? 
Within three days. 

Is it finished ? 
It is finished. 

Not yet. 

It will be done soon. 

Not for some time yet. 






mmx 

HHIM 






8a nyung 'ioe° tsoo" ? 

° Yeu ill-hull "Kwaung- 
tong nyung 'we" tsoo°. 

Kyau {hm) yi le tsoo°- 
meh-tse. 

Yien-dze° yi tsoo" 'veh 
°dong. 

Kyau (kau°) yi le° tsoo°- 
tsoo'-lcoen", 

8a° nyung tsoo°-kuh f 

°Ngoo isoo'-kuh. 

Yi tsoo'-huh. 

°Kyi-z °hau tsoo° ? 

Zieu "Iiau tsoo". 

°Tung "liang nyili; kak 
°liang nyih ; hyih 
°liang nyili. 

°Ngoo °tung 'veh tuh. 

Leh-la° tsoo° meh ? 

"Kyis tsoo" "hau ? 

San nyili °li. 

Tsoo" °liau meh'? °liau 

meh? 
Tsoo° "havrki'-tse ; °hau' 

la°-tse. 
' Veh-zung ; 'veh zung li. 
°Hau kw'a°-tse. 

Ml li" ; mi' z ; mi" la li'. 



86 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Do it quickly. 

Will he do it ? 

He will not do it. 

Has he done it? 

He has done it. 

Why do you not do it ? 

Because it can not be 

done. 
It can be done. 
I will try it. 

If yon do not do it well 
yon will work for 
nothing. 

Of course. 

I will pay you when the 
work is finished. 

What c^n yon do ? 

I can do any thing. 

Have you ever done it 
before ? 

I have done it before. 
When will you begin ? 

When did yon begin ? 

How long since you 
commenced ? 

I have been at it a long 
time. 

When will you finish ? 



MM 









't^Iiras 



;^ 



mzmt^M 



^5 



Kwa-twn tsoo°. 
"ITung tsoo°-va° f 
Yi 'veil "k'ung tsoo*. 
Tsoo" meh? 
Tsoo'-la-tse. 
We''-sa"vehtsoo"i 

' Veh °Jiau tsoo" 1ml 

"Hau tsoo° huh. 

"Ngoo tsoo°-°chi-le-k'oen^. 

Tsoo" le 'veil °1um rm\ 
bak tsoo°-kuh. 

Z-°zen. 

Sang-weh tsoo° 'hau-tsz 
lau, "tan dong-dien, 

Nong" 'we" tsoo" sa ? 
Yang" suJi 'we tsoo. 

Tsoo-koo-lufik m"? 

°Ngoo tsoo" koo" hyih 
tse. 

°Kyi-z tso0°-°chif 
Nong° °kyi-z tsoo°-°chi- 
kuh ? 

Tsoo'-tsz" °kyi-S't^ ? 

°Ngoo tsoo°-tsz ta-z-tse. 
"Kyi-z tsoo'-wen-pihf 



riEST LESSONS IN CBINEBE. 



87 



I don't want to do it. 
YoQ ought to do it. 
Yon ought not to do it. 
Don't do it. 
I am determined not to 

do it. 
Not allowable. 
It is allowable. 
Not difficult to do ; easy 

to be done. 

Difficult to do. 

Spoiled (in makiag"). 

Do it well. It is well 

done. 
It is badly done. 

To trade, or do business. 

A merchant. 

To write a composition. 
To become a man. 
To- economize. 
Can't afford to do it. 
He can afford it. 

To use violence. 

Don't be violent. 

The manner of doing 
(things). 



mmmm 



MA 






"Ngoo 'veh-iau' tsoo°. 

Nong" iung-he tsoo°. 

Nong" 'veh iung-he taoo". 

' Veh iau" tsoo°, 

°Ngoo ding'-hwe 'veh 
tsoo". 

Tsoo° 'veh-tuh-kuh. 
Tsoo'-tuh-kuh. 
Hau tsoo" ; yong°-yi' 
tsoo°. 

Nan tsoo" huh. 
Tsoo" wa-tse. 

Tsoo" l^ °liau-kuh. 

Tsoo" le 'veh-°hau. 
Tsoo' sang-i. 

Tsoo° sang-i" nyung ; 
sang-i" nyung. 

Tsoo" vung-tsang. 

Tsoo" nyung. 

Tsoo" nyung-ha. 

Tsoo" 'veh-°chi. 

Yi tsoo" -tuh-° chi-kuh. 

''Man tsoo" ; ngang" tsoo", 

' Veh iau 'man tsoo". 

Tsoo"-deu; tsoo" -f ah. 



88 



FIKST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



How can, or shall it be 
done? 


iPl^^fil 


"Na-nung tsoo'-deu ? 


He has injured his own 
cause. 


^^mw^m 


Yi z-ka tsoo" z°-ka. 


To defeat ; to frustrate. 


mm 


Tsoo'-ieh. 


I could not accomplish 
it. 


m^JM 


Tsoo° 'veil dzung-kong. 


To act for another. 


mx 


Be" tsoo°. 


A substitute. 


f^m>^ 


De° tsoo'-kuJi. 


How much can yon do 
in a day ? 


-nrnmrnik. 


Ill nyili tsoo'-tuh °kyi- 
luiu ? 


It can not be done in a 
day. 




Ih nyih tsoo" 'veh-ji ; 
or Ih nyih tsoo" 'veh 
°Jum. 


He is not inclined to do 
it. 


p^m^m 


Yi 'veh kau-hyung° tsoo'. 


To make clothes. 


fc^m 


Tsoo" ir-zaung. 


A tailor. 


m^n^ m 


Tsoo° i-zaung-kuh; ze- 
vong. 1 


Togo. 


*"^ 


Chi°. 


I am going. 


^*^ 


"Ngoo chi tse. 


Has he gone ? 


** 


Chi meh f 


He has gone. 


*^ 


Ghi-tse. 


He has not yet gone. 


i^^t* 


Yi 'veh zung chi. 


Did he go? 


** 


Ola va"^ 


He went. 


*^ 


GW-kuh. 


What has become of it 
(or him) ? 


mmi:-M; 


°'A4i cW-tse 1 


Where has he gone ? 




Tau "a-li chiT? "'a-li 
chi -tse 1 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



89 



Have you been? 

I have been. 

Have yon ever been ? 

I have been once. 

How long have- they 
been gone ? 

They have been gone 
but a short time. 

They went long ago. 
You can go. 

Go quickly. 

Go together. 

To go, or pass by; to 
pass over ; to pass 
away. 

Will yon go? or are 
yon going? 

I will go ; I am going. 

What are you going for ? 

Go and see. 

I am going, or will go 
now. 

Depart ; be off. 
Take it away. 
Take it with yon. 

Is it safe (or allowable) 
to go ? 









Clii -koo -imh ? 
GhV-koo°-tse. 
Ghi-koo'-hyih-meli ? 
Ghi-hoo'-hyih ih we. 

Cln-tsz °kyi-z-tse. 

Ght-tuh 'veh too hyih } 
Uan-Uan chi . 

Gill tsz dzang-°yoen-tse. 
Nong° °k'a'Ur°ichi ; Chi"- 

meh-tse. 
Kw'a-tien chi" ; iau 

hvoa-tien chi. 

Ilir-dau chi''. 
Koo° chi". 

Ghi" va° ? chi" meh ? 

Ghi°-hih. 
Ghi" tsoo" sa f 
Ghi" Koen. 

Yien-dze" zieti' iau chi". 

Ghi" "ha. 

Nau chi" ; tan chi". 

Ta" cht. 

"Hau chi" va° ? chi-tuh 



90 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



It is not safe (or allow- 


^^* *^ 


'Veh-Viauche ; chi'veh. 


able) to go. 


m 


tuh. 


Not intimate; not on 
speaking terms. 


^^* 


'Veh lecJn. 


To eradicate. 


*fl§: 


Ghe-feh. 


I will not (or do not) go. 


a^* 


"Ngoo 'veh chi". 


Go in. 


m^ 


Tdng'-chi'. 


Not inclined to go. 


^r^^* 


' Veh kaiirhyung" chi". 


! go along. 


* *^^ 


Ghi ; chi'-rmlirtse. 


To come. 


^ 


Le. 


Come in. 


m^ 


Tdng'-le. 


He came in. 


pm^^ 


Yi tsing° -le-huh. 


They have come in. 


^um^m 


Yi-la tsing''-le-tse. 


You had come in. 


mm^m^M 


Na" "i-hyung tsing°-k- 
tse. 


Has he come ? 


^M 


Le meh ? 


He has come. 


^m 


Le-tse. 


He has not come. 


p^^ 


Yi 'veh k. 


He has not yet come. 


p^^^ 


Yi 'veh sung le. 


He will come. 




Le ■ kuh ; Yi iau" le-kuk 


They will come in. 

Let him, or them come 
in. 




Yi-la iau tdng'-k-hdi, 
Nyang° yi tsing°-le. 


Tell him to come here. 




Kyau (kau°) yi le ; han' 
yile. 


He will not come. 


p^n^ 


Yi 'veh-Uung le. 


Come quickly. 


mk^ m^ 


Kw'a-tien le ; zieu le. 



riEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



91 



He will come soon. 




Le kw\°-tse; Yi sieu 
le. 


I can not come. 


^mm^ 


°Ngoo 'veil nung-heu le. 


Come to-morrow. 


mm^ 


Ming-tsau le. 


I have been here three 
times. 


^^'MW^-m 


°Ngoo le-hoo'-Jiyih san 
{aung". 


Yon can come; come 
ahead. 


^MM 


Le-meh-tse. 


To be on friendly terms ; 


im ^^ 


°'Waung-le; le-^waung; 


to correspond. 


515* 


le-chi". 


Hereafter. 


m^ 


Tsiang-le. 


Originally, formerly. 


*^ 1^^ 


"Pung-le ; hyang°-le. 


When will yon come ? 


^^^ 


"Kyi-z k? 


When did yon come ? 


m^^^ 


"Kyi-z le-kuh ? 


How long since yon 
came ? 


^zm^M 


Le-tsz °kyi-z tse. 


Bring it here. 


m^ 


Tan le. 


Bring it with yon. 


^^ 


Ta h. 


Come over. 


ii^ 


Koo° le. 


Where is it from ? 




•"A-li lef sa-'soo le? 


Where are yon from ? 




A n€W comer. 


f?5^t 


Sing le-kuh. 


Originally. 


n^ *^ 


Nyoen-le; °pung-le. 


Are they coming? 


Wft.^-^ 


LeJv-la le va ? 


They are coming. 


u^^ 


La" le-tse. 


Not time to accomplish 






an object within a 


^^n 


Le-'veli-ji°. 


given period. 







92 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Instigator. 

Whence does it ema- 
nate? 

To eat ; to drink ; to 
smoke ; to take med- 
icine. 

To eat a meal. 

To drink tea. 

To drink wine. 

To smoke. 

To take medicine. 

Have you dined? 

Not yet (eaten). 

I am eating. • 

I was dining. 

I have dined. 

I had dined. 

I don't want to eat. 

I am not able to eat ; 
have no appetite. 

I can eat. 

I can not afford to eat it. 

He can afford to eat it. 

I can not eat it; do not 
fancy it ; do not know 
how to go aboat eat- 
ing it. 

Dinner time. 



m 















Le-deu nyung. 

Sa le-vungf su" le-deu? 

Chuh. 

Chuh van". 

Chuh dzo. 

Chuh "tsieu. 

Chuh ien. 

Chuh yah. 

Yan chuh meh ? 

'Veh zung ; 'veh zung 
W ; 'veh zung chuh li, 

°Ngoo leh-li chuh. . 

°Ngoo leh-la' chuJi van. 

°Ngoo chuh-tse. 

°I^goo °i-kyung chuh-tse. 

"Ngoo 'veh iau" chuh. 

Chuh 'veh huh. 

°Ngoo chuh-tuh-lauJi. 
°Ngoo chuh-'veh-°chi. 
Yi chuh-tuh-°chi. 

Chuh 'veh-le. 
Chuh van°-dong. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



93 



Before dinner^ 
After dinner. 
Food. 

To finish eating. 
Have you finished eat- 
ing ? 

He has eaten it up. 

To get the worst of a 
bargain ; to be cheat- 
ed. 

To' retain unlawfully ; 
to appropriate to one's 
own use that which 
belongs to another. 

To suffer punishment ; 
to get the worst of 
an affair. 

If we make a living by 
serving another, we 
should obey his orders. 

If the rations are not 
equal, the operatives 
will not put forth 
equal effort. 

To get drunk. 

To eat enough; to eat 
to fullness. 

Not enough to satisfy 

appetite. 
To be injured by eating. 
To be imprisoned. 

To ask; to inquire; to 
investigate. 



Pgl^^ 

Pfil§ 

Pt;M 

mAmm 

mm 

pg€ 
pg^H 

P2^ ^m 
p^w^ 



Van° zien. 
ati 'ew. 
Chuk-jok ; chuh-deu. 
Chuh ding ; ohuh °liau. 

Chuli °hau meli ? 

Chuh-t'eh-tse. 

Chuh chui. 

Chuh Jcoo". 



Chuh °k'oo. 

Chuh bih-nyung °'wen- 

pen°, yeu bih-nyung 

sz°-hwen°. 
Chuh zuh 'veh chien- 

yuin, siang-°tang 'veh 

zi-sing. 

Chuh-tsoe°. 
Ghuh-°pau. 

Chuh 'veh-°pau. 

Chuh saung; chuh wa. 
Chuh hoen-sz. 

Mung". 



94 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I asked. 

I have asked. 

I had asked. 

I will ask. 

Ask him. 

Inquire the way. 

I beg to ask, or inquire. 

Inquire of others. 

Did you ask ? 

I did not ask. 

"Why did you not in- 
quire ? 

Go and inquire, or ask. 

Make definite inquiries. 

Unable to get informa- 
tion by inquiries. 

To judge, to try a per- 
son, or case. 

Have you ever in- 
quired ? 

I have inquired. 

I will make inquiries 
about it. 

I have inquired every- 
where. 

It is not necessary to 
inquire. 

To speak ; to say. 
I said so. 






rtJltS 



mm 

mmA 



mmm 



k:si 






^jLMW 



m^ 



°Ngoo mung'-kuh. 

°Ngoo mung" -la -tse. 
°Ngoo "i-kyung mung"-' 

hoo'-tse. 
°Ngoo iau° mung''. 

Mung" yi. 

Mung" loo". 

"Tsing mung''. 

Mung" bUi-nyung". 

Mung" va" f 

"Ngoo 'veil mung". 

We°-sa 'veh mung" f 

Chi' mung". 
Mung" ts'ing-"saung, 

Mung" 'veil tseh. 

"Sung-mung". 

Mung°-liyili va f 

"Ngoo mung°-koo"-Iiyih' 

tse. 
"Ngoo iau" m.ung°-mung°- 

k'oen". 
Kauli-tsu mung" tau- 

ka-tse. 

'Veil iau m,ung°-tvJi; 
'veh pill mung°-tuh. 

Wo". 

"Ngoo wo-kuli. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESB. 



95 



I have spoken. 

I had spoken. 

I will (or shall) tell. 

I did say so. 

' I did not say so. 

Don't say anything 
abont it. 

I will not speak of it. 

Who said so ? 

Ton said so. 

What did (or do yon) 

say? 
I did not say anything. 
Yon told me so. 

When did I tell you ? 

Able to speak (as a 
language). 

Unable to speaL 

I can not speak Chinese. 

You can speak it. 

You must speak the 
truth. 

Don't use violent lan- 
guage. 

Don't be so noisy. 

A sentence ; a word. 












°Ngoo wo'-la-tse. 

°Ngoo "i-hyung wo'-l.°- 
tse. 

"Ji'goo iau wo'-hJi, 

Ngoo °z wo°-kuh. 

°Ngoo "z 'veil wo'-hJi. 

'Yeh iau wo'-k'e-le. 

"Ngoo 'veh wo°. 
Sa" nyung wo'-kuh ? 
Nong° wo'-kuh. 

Nong" wo° sa° f 

°Ngoo 'veil wo' sa°, 
\ong° te" 'ngoo wo'-kuh. 
°Ngoo °kyi-z te" "nong 



wo l 
' We wo° ; wo°-tuh-le. 

'Yeh 'we wo° ; wo° 'veh le. 

Tsong-kok wo°, °ngoo wo" 
'veh le. 

Nong° wo° -tuh-U-kuh. 

Iau wo° lau-zeh wo° ; 
wo" tsung wo". 

' Yeh iau" wo° 'man wo". 

'Yeh iau nau -le° -° d. 
Ih kyui seh-wo". 



96 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



What are yon talking, 
about ? 

To speak evil. 

Don't slander people. 

There was not time to 
speak. 

Flattering words. 

Words spoken in vain. 

Laughable words ; words 
to amnse children. 

Idle words. 

Can not reconcile them. 

It is not necessary to 
say anything. 

Boastful words. 

False or imaginary 
words. 

To buy. 
I bought it. 

I did buy it. 

I am buying now. 

I was buying. 
I have bought. 

I had bought. 

I want to purchase. 



m 






^ ^j 






"Hong la" wo" sa ? 

Wo° clieu wo°. 

'Yell vm wo'-'liau bih 
nyung. 

Le-'veh-ji" wo'. 

K'ak wo° ; Kak-chi wo'- 
deu. 

Bah wo°-t^eJi. 

Siau wo". 

An wo . 
Wo" 'veh-'li 

'Veil iau wo°-tuh; 'veil 
pih wo°-tuh. 

Doo° wo°. 



°Ma. 

Ngoo °ma-lm7i ; "ngoo 
° ma-la' -kah. 

°Ngoo °z °ma-hih. 

Ngoo yien-dze hli-l% 
"ma. 

"Ngoo leh-la" °ma. 

Ngoo °ma-la"-tse. 

"Ngoo °i-kyung "ma-la". 



'Ngoo iau" "ma. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



97 



How much do yon 
want ? 

I do not wish to par- 
chase. 

Do yon wish to pur- 
chase ? 

Buy it. 

It can he bought. 

No where to be had. 

It is to be had. 

It can not be bought at 
that price. 

It can be bought at 
that price. 

Go and buy. 

To make a few pur- 
chases. 

Where did you buy it ? 

Have you bought ? 
I have bought. 

I have not yet bought. 

At what price did you 
buy? 

Bought at a moderate 
price. 

Paid a high price. 
Can not afford to buy. 






n^ 



:^ 






'M^ M^ 



4^ 



MUM 



f^ 






Nong" iau °ma °kyi- 
hau° ? 

"Ngoo 'veh-iau °ma. 

Nong" iau °ma va°? 
Iau' °ma va° ? 

° Ma-meh-tse. 

°Hau "ma-huh. 

M °ma t'su" ; "ma 'vek 
dzak. 

xeu ma tsu . 

o TL/r i 7 o 



'Ma 'veil "dong. 
"Ma tuli-°dong. 



°Ma iien sa°; °ma rmh-z. 



°'A-li-deu °ma-dzak 
Jcuhf 

° Ma-la' meh? 

"Ma-la'-tse. 

°Ngoo 'veh-zung "ma. 

Nong" "ma le S'l ka - 
dien? °Kyi dien °ma 
kuh? 

°Ma h jang. 

°Ma le kyui°. 
°Ma 'veh "chi 



98 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Can afford it. 

Did not succeed in bay- 
ing. 

1 want to buy more. 

Is it to be had ? 

It is to be had. 

Why don't yon pur-, 
chase ? 

He don't know how to 
buy. 

Not necessary to buy. 

Invoice price. 

How much have you 
bought ? 

1 have not bought 
much. 

Try to purchase. 

To sell. 

I sold it. 

I have sold it. 

1 had sold it. 

Will yon sell it ? 

Is it for sale? I will 
sell it. It is for sale. 

I will dispose of it. 

I can not sell it. 

Have you sold it ? 












°Ma tuh °chi. 

°Ma 'veil dzung-kong. 

°Ngoo wan iau °ma. 
°Yeu tuh °ma va? 

°Yeu tuh 'ma-Mi; 'yeu- 
ku/i. 

We aa 'veh "ma ? 
Yi 'ma 'veh le. 

'Vehpih "ma. 
'Ma ha". 

°Ma-tsz 'kyi-^hau ? 

"Ma tuh 'veil too. 

"Ma 'ma k'oen". 

Ma° ; ma'-t'eh. 

°ifgoo ma'-teh-kuJi. 

Ngoo ma'-ieh-tse. 

°Ngoo 'i-hyung ma'-t'eh- 
tse. 



Ia°-va'? iau' ma v(f? 



Ma'-hJi. 

'Ngoo iau ma'-t'eh yi. 
'Ngoo ma 'veh t'eh. 
Ma'-t'eh mehf 



FIRST tESSQNS IN CHINE8K. 



99 



To whom did you sell ? 
I have sold all. 
To sell at auction. 
It was sold at auction. 
I can not sell at that 

price. 
I will not sell (at that 

price). 
Selling price. 

To give ; to transmit by 
hand ; to yield to the 
power of; to give in 
marriage. 

Give (or hand) it to me. 

I shall not give (or 
• hand) it. 
He is not willing to give. 

I gave (or handed) it 
to him. 

Who gave it to yon ? 

I have given it. 

I have giveu it away. 

Give me notice (or 

warning). 
I endured a beating 

from him. 

Don't allow him to have 
i it. Don't give it to 
him. 

I have already given it 
to him ; I had given 
it to him. 









Ma' 


la' sa° nyung ? 


Ma" 


wen- 


tse. 


Fak 


ma' 




P'ak 


ma° 


-t'eh. 


Ma 


'veh 


°dong. 


'Veh 


ma' 




Ma' 


lea'. 





Pek 

Pell 'ngoo ; peh la' °ngoo. 

"Ngoo 'veil peh. 
Yi 'veh 'k'ung peh. 

'Ngoo peh yi-kuh ; 'ngoo 
peh la' yi. 

8a° nyung peh nong ? 

°Ngoo peh-la'-tse. 

'Ngoo peh-t'eh-tse. 

Peh sing' 'ngoo. 

'Ngoo peh yi 'tang. 

'Veh iaii' peh yi. 



'Ngoo 'i-kyung peh-h' 
tse. 



100 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Give him something to 
eat. 

When will yon give it 
to me? 

I will hand it to yon 
to-moiTow. 

To pay money. 

I paid it. 

I have paid it. 

I have already paid it ; 
I had paid it. 

Pay it. 

To pay out. 
To pay in. 

Not able to pay. 
Able to pay. 
Has he paid it ? 
He has not yet paid ? 
When will you pay me ? 
When did you pay ? 
Tell him to pay ? 
Ask him to pay. 

How much money is to 
be paid out to-day ? 

To whom didy on pay it ? 
I have paid it out. 



mmmm 



^i 






Peh tien sa° W yi chuh. 
Nong° 'kyi-z peh "ngoo ? 

Ming-tsau peh nong". 
Foo" 

"Ngoofoo'-kuh. 
°Xgoo foo'-h°-tse. 

'Ngoo "i-hyung foo'-la- 

tse. 
I 
Foo"-meh-tse. 

Foo°-tseh; foo'-tseh- 

chi. 
Foo" tdng° le ; foo" "'m 

le. 

Foo 'veh-tseh. 

Foo° tuh-tseh. 

Foo" la meh ? 

Yi 'veh-zung foo". 

°Kyi^zfoo° h° °ngoo? 

° Kyi-z foo". kuh? 

Kau yifoo'^'^au chC. 

Kau yi foo" °'au le. 

Eyung-tsau iau foo° 
tseh chi" "kyi-hau 
nywig°-tsz ? 

Nong° foo° la° sa° nyungf 

'^'^goo foo°-t'e/i-tse. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



101 



Unable to pay now. 

To pay in full. 

To receive ; to collect. 

To collect accounts. 

To receive payment for 
a lease. 

To receive house rent. 

To receive payment in 
kind. 

I have received pay- 
ment in full. 

Did yoa receive it ? 

I did not receive it. 

I did receive it. 

1 did not receive any- 
thing. 

A receipt. 

To finish or complete a 
work. 

A receipt in full. 

To suffer imprisonment. 

To entertain one in dis- 
tress. 

To clean up, to arrange 
things. 

To make a clean sweep 
of things. 

To draw tight (as a'cora). 
Draw it tight. 






mm 



Tien-dze'foo' 'veJi-tseh. 

Foo" tsing. 

Seu. 

Seu tsang°. 

Seu tsoo. 

Seu vaung-tsoo ; seu 
vaung-dien. 

Seu tsoo °mi. 

Seu tsing-la-tse. 

Seu-dzak va° ? 
Ngoo seu 'veh-dzak. 
Ngoo seu-dzak-kuh. 

Ngoo seu 'veh-dzak sa". 

Seu p'iau". 

Seu dzang. 

Seu ts'ing p'iau. 
Seu kan. 
Seu lieu. 

Seu zeh Viau. 

Seu kwah. 
Seu °kyung. 
Seu le "kyung. 



102 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To build. 

To build a house. 

To build a bridge. 

To bnild a boat, or 

vessel. 

To cast a gun. 

To erect a battery. 

To take census. 

To start a rumor. 

Have you completed 
your house ? 

It is finished. 

To build a city wall. 

To build a wall. 

To build a single brick 
partition. 

To pave a road. 

To sit. 

Please be seated. 

Sit down ; be seated. 

Sit a while. 

I don't wish to sit. 

I have no time to sit. 

Not room to sit, or be 
seated. 

Sit still. 

Sit on it. 

Eoom to sit, or be 
seated. 






L3B 



mm 



mn 



°Zau. 

°Zau vaung-'isz. 

"Zau ih-diaujau. 

°Zau zen. 



'^%\ 



o ry TO .Oto 

/lau p au ; tsu p au . 

^aic p au -de. 

Zau tsak-°tsz. 

Zau yavi-yien. 

Vaung'-tsz "zau-'Jum 
meh? 

Zau-°lmu-tse. 

Zau dzung-deu. 

Tst' ziang. 

Tsi° pUi. 

Tsr ka. 
"Zoo. 
Tsing "zoo. 

o r^ o 

£iOO ZOO. 

°Zoo iJi liyih. 
' Veil iau °zoo, 
°Ngoo m hong-foo 'zoo. 
°Zoo 'veil lauh. 

'Zoo la". 

'Zoo la hung'. 

Zoo tuh lauh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



103 



Oushioa for a seat. 

To sit ou a seat of 
judgment. 

A throne. 

To stand. 

Stand ; stand still ; is, 
or was standing. 

Stand up ; stand it on 

end. 
Can not stand ; unable 

to stand. 

Can not stand against 
such odds ; can not 
bear such losses. 

Can stand, etc. 

Stand to one side. 

To know. 
Do you know. 

Do not know. 
I know. 
I knew it. 
I have known it. 

I had known it. 

How long have yon 
known it? 

I have known it a long 
time. 






I. 



mm 



am. 



m 



°Zoo-nyoh. 

"Zoo daung. 

"Zoo-we". 
Lih. 

Lih la". 

Lih "chi le. 
Lih 'veh °dong. 

Lih 'veh dzii. 

Lih tuh dzu. 
Lih la pien-deu. 

°Hyau-tuh. 

°Hyau-tuh va"? "Hyau- 
tuh 'veh "hyau-tuh ? 

'Veh °hyavrtvh. 

"Ngoo "hyau-tuh. 

°Ngoo °hyau-tuh-kuh. 

°Ngoo °hyau-tuh-la-tse. 

"Ngoo "i-kyung Viyau- 
tu/i-la°-tse. 

Nong° °hyavrtvJi-tsz "kyi- 
z-tse ? 

°Ngoo °hyau-tuh-tsz 
dzang-°yoen-tse. 



104 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I have known it but a 
short time. 

I have always known 
it. 

I know a little about 
it. 

I know all about it. 

I know nothing about 
it. 

He knows. 

How I know. 

How did you find it 
out? 

Why do I not know ? 



Yon ought to know. 

What do you know ? 
Difficult to know. 

Easy enough to find out. 

(I) know it. 
You don't know. 

I knew he would come 
to grief. 

He has not yet known 
anything about it. 

To understand ; to com- 
prehend. 



^ 







^-1 



mmmn 
mmmm\ 



mMmm 
mmm 



Ngoo "hyaurtuJi 'veh too 
°kyi-z, k'an "liyau-tuh, 

°Ngoo ih-hyang° "hyav,- 
tuh-huh. 

°Hyau-tuh tieu; "yeu 
tien hyau-tuli. 

°Ngoo t'ok °hyau-tuh. 

°Ngoo ilv-ngan 'veJi'liyavr 
tuh. 

Yi °hyau-tuh-la'-tse. 

°Ngoo °hyau-tuh-U-tse, 

Nong° °nang °hyau-tuh'^ 
Nong° na-nung °hya,w- 
tuh ? 

'Yeu sa" 'veh "hyau-tuJi? 
We" sa° 'veh "hyau-tuhl 

Nong° iung-ke 'hyau' 
tuh. Nong" ke-iung 
hyau-tuh. 
Notig" °hyau-tuli^kuh sa f 

Van-nan °hyau-tuh. 
Yong-yi hyau-tuh. 

Hyuvrtuh-tse. 
Nong° 'veh "hyaw-tuJi. 

"Ngoo "hyau-tuh yi iau 
bang°-dzuk van-nan. 

Yi 'veh-zung °hyau-tuh. 
°Tong. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



105 



Do you understand ? 

I understand (or com- 
prehend). 

1 do not understand. 

I am unable to under- 
stand. 
It is incomprehensible. 
I do not yet understand. 

I don't comprehend 
anything about it. 

Now I understand. 

Can you comprehend 
it? 

I can not understand it. 

To look ; to see. 

I saw. 

I have seen. 

I had seen. 

Look. 

I did not see. 

Who saw it ? 

Have you seen it P have 
you ever seen it ? 

I have seen it ; I have 
seen it before. 

I have not yet seen it. 
I do not see it. 



i1^ 






fi 



fii 






°Tong va ? 

°Tong-kuh ; °ngoo °tong- 
kuh ; "tong-kuh- tse. 

'Veh °tong ; °ngoo 'veil 
"tong. 

°Ngoo "tong-veh-le. 

°Tong-'veh'le-kuh. 
"Ngoo 'veh-zung "tong. 

Ih-ngan 'veh "tong. 

°Tong-°li-tse. 

°Tong-tuJi-tseh m° .? 

Ngoo "tong-^veh-ts'eh. 

K'oen'. 

"Ngoo lcoen°-hyien-kuh. 

°Ngoo koen'-kyien'-tse. 

°Ngoo °i-hjiung k^oen°- 
kyien'-tse. 

JToen-Uoen-Koen. 

°Ngoo 'veh k'oen" -kyien". 

Sa' nyung Uoen-kyien ? 

K'oen -kyien-hyih va" ? 

°Ngoo k'oen -kyien-hyih- 

kuh. 
°Ngoo 'veh-zung Uoen. 

kyien'-hyih. 

"Ngoo 'veh k'oen -kyien. 



106 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I can not see it. 

I can (or do) see it. 

Look at me ; do as I do. 

I don't wish to see it. 

Don't look at it. 

Disagreeable to behold. 

To look down upon. 

Not in accordance with 
one's fancy. 

To inspect ; to examine. 

To attend theatres. 

Pretty ; handsome ; fine, 
etc. 

Not pretty, handsome, 
or fine, etc. 

How do yoa regard it ? 

I do not see distinctly. 
I can see distinctly 

To forget. 

Did yon forget ? or have 
you forgotten ? 

I have not forgotten. 

Do not forget, 

I will not (or did not) 
forget. 

I forget it. 






mm 
mm 

mmmm 



ju^m 






°Ngoo UoRn-wh-kyun. 
°Ngoo Uoen-tuli-kyimi, 
K'oen' "ngoo. 
"Ngoo 'veil iau Moen, 
' Veil iau Icoen. 
Nan Uoen. 
]£ oen - wlh-° chi, 

K'oen-veh-Uong'. 

E!'oen'-]ioen. 
Koen hyi. 

°Hau Uoen. 



' Veh °1iau Uoen. 

Nong" k'oeti-°chi-le "net. 
nung? 

°Ngoo Uoen 'veh tsing- 
"saung. 

°Ngoo Uoen-tuh ts'ing- 
°saung. 

Maung'-hyi. 

Maung" -kyi va" ? 

°Ngoo 'veh mmmg-hyi. 
' Veh iau mmrng'-hyi. 

' Veh maung°-hyi-kiJi. 

Ngoo maung°-kyt-tse ; 
maung°-hyi''-£eh-tse. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



107 



A forgetful fellow. 



By 



no means forget. 



Eemember. 

Do you remember ? 

To look for. 

To find. 

Look for it. 

Go look for it. 

Have you looked for it ? 

I have looked for it. 

Have yon found it ? 

Did you find it ? 

I have found it. 

I found it. 

I can not (or could not) 
find it. 

I did not find it. 

You must find it. 

I have not yet found it. 

Look everywhere. 

I have looked every- 
where and can not 
find it. 

If you do not find it, 
you must pay for it. 

I have looked every- 
where and can not 
find it. 



■^^E:^: 






^mm% ^ 



IE lEw 
lEtfS 

5 



^^^ 



mum 



Maung'-hyi doo". 
Maung°- kyi 'veh- tuh ; 

kyoeh-kyoeh 'veh iau" 

maung'-hyi . 

Kyi" ; hyi-tuh. 
Kyi" -tuh va ? 
Zing. 

Zing-dzak. 
Zing-zing-k'oen°. 
Chi zing. 
Zing-hyili rmh ? 
Zing-koo'-hyih-hih.^ 
Zing-dzak rmh ? 
Zing-dzak va" ? 
Zing-dzak-tse. 
Zing-dzah-kuh. 

Zing-'veh-dzak. 

Zing-veh-dzak-kuh. 
Tsong iau zing-dzak-ku\ 
' Veh-zung zing-dzak. 
Kauh-tsu zing. 

Kauh-tsu zing-tau -ka, 
zing-'veh-dzak. 

Zing-'veh-dzak meh, iau' 
nong" be-kuh. 

Zing-le zing-chi, zing- 
'veh-dzak. 



108 



riEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To listen ; to hear. 
I hear. 
I heard. 

He did not hear. 

Listen ; give attention. 

Do yon hear distinctly 
(or understandingly) ? 

I hear (understanding- 

Listen to me. 

Listen. 

To eavesdrop. 

To listen to a discoarse. 

To listen to singing. 

Pleasant to listen to. 

Not pleasant to hear. 

Don't listen. 

I don't want to hear. 

It shoald not be heard. 

I will follow your ad- 
vice. 

I have never heard it. 
I have heard it before. 

I have not yet heard of 
it. 

I have heard it reported. 






V.W 



^mm\i\ 



m 



nmm 



1^ 



MM 



Ting. 

°Ngoo iing-hyien. 

°Ngoo ting-hyieii'-laih. 

Yi 'veil t'ing-hyien ; yi 
'veil t'ing-tuli. 

Ting la". * 

Nong" t'ing - iuh - ts'eh 

o a 

va f 
°Ngoo t'ing-tuli-ts'eli. 

Ting °ngoo. 

Ting-t'ing-k'oen" ; t'ing 
la" lioen. ^ 

Ting pili-hyak. f ; 

Ting su. 

Ting tsaung". 

°Hau t'ing. 

'Yeh °/iau t'ing. 

' Yeh iau ting. 

"Ngoo 'veil iau" t'ing. 

Ting- veil -tuli ■ kuh. 
"Ngoo t'ing nong° ; °ngoo 
t'ing nong°-kuIi fang- 

/' o 
00 . 

"Ngoo 'veli-zung t'ing- 
hyien°-liyili. 

"Ngoo t'ing-koo"-liyili. 

"Ngoo 'veil - zung t'ing- 
kyien"-liyih. 

Ngoo t'ing-vung. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



109 



Don't listen to rumors. 
I can't brook that. 

I do not hear distinctly. 

I can hear very dis- 
tinctly. 

To think ; to consider ; 
to reflect. 

Think about it ; think 
awhile. 

Can not call to mind. 
Can call to mind. 

Consider the matter. 

Think of me ; remem- 
ber me. 

Did not think of. 

To think to no purpose. 

To consider fully; to 
think of every point. 

Can not think of every 
point. 

I think ; in my opinion. 

What do you ttink of 
it? 

To think of; meditate 
upon. 

To have designs upon. 

No designs, or expecta- 
tions. 



^^si^w 












' Veh iau t'ing yau-yien. 

°Ngoo iing-veh-tdng'. 

°Ngoo ting-veli-tiing- 
"saung. 

Ngoo ting - tnJi 'man 
tsing-''saung. 

°Siang. 

''Siang-''siang-h'oen°. 

° Svxng-'veh- tseh. 

°Siang-tuh-tseh ; "sving- 
dzak. 

" 8iang-°chi-le-lcoen° . ■ 

"Siang-dzak °ngoo. 

' Veh "siang-dzak ; 
'veh-dzak. 

Bak °sianq-{eli. 






Mit 



"Siang tau'-ka. 

°Siang 'veh tau'-ka. 

°Ngoo "siang. 

Nong° "dang °na-nung f 

Nong° ^ siang - "chi - le 

"na-nung ? 

° Siang-nyan . 
° Siang -den. 
M °dang-deu. 



110 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To believe. 

I do not believe it. 

Do you believe it ? 

I believe it. 

I have confidencein him. 

I have no confidence in 
him. 

It is difficult to believe. 

It is impossible not to 
believe it. 

To believe in Buddhist 
idols. 

Buddha. 

To believe in Jesus. 

To worship (or believe) 
in no God. 

Faith ; trust. 

Don't believe it. 

It won't do to take his 
word. 

To delight in. 

He delights in wine. 

To strike ; to chastise ; 
to fight. 

He struck me. 

They are fighting. 

Able to whip. 

Not able to whip. 















trmM 



Sing" ; siang-smg" . 
°Ngoo 'veh siang-sing°, 
Nong° mmg-sing'' va ? 
"Ngoo siang-sing°-hji,h. 
°Ngoo siang-sing° yi. 

°Ngoo 'veh mang-dng" yi. 
Van-nan siang-sing°. 

' Veh tuh 'veil siang-sing". 

Sing" Veh. 

Veh. 

Sing" Ya - soo ; siang' 
sing° Ya-soo. 

Pah 'veh dang - dng" ; 
pak 'veh sing". 

Sing^-iauh. 

' Veh iau dang-dng". 

' Veh °Jmu dang-sing° yi. 

Siang- dng°. 

Yi siang-dng° °tsieu. 

"Tang. 

Yi "tang °ngoo. 
Le7i-la° siang-°tang. 
"Tang-tuh-koo". 
°Tang-'veh-koo°. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Ill 



To fight a battle. 

To deliver a general 
charge. 

To gain a victory. 



To lose a battle. 

To shoot game. 

To shoot large game. 

To hit. 

To miss. 

To wound. 

To ring (or strike) a 
large bell. 

To thrash wheat. 

To thrash rice. 

To drive piles. 

To make inquiries. 

To make a bamboo 
fence. 

To build a cooking 
range. 

To make (any instru- 
ment of metal). 

To make a sword (or 
knife). 

To draw a plan. 
To prosecute at law. 
To speak in Mandarin. 



nm 

trWM 



Tang- tsang°. 
Kong-°tang. 

°Tang-yung ; °tang sung", 
tsang". 

°Tang~m; "Umg-ba ; 

tang-ba' -tsang". 
°Tang "tiau. 
Tang Uh. 
°Tang-dzak. 
°Tang-veh-dzak. 
"Tang-saung. 



°Tang tsong. 


Tang rnak. 


°Tang °dau. 


Tang tsaung. 


"Tang-t'ing' ; "tang-tsih. 


"Tang po. 


°Tang tsau-deu. 


"Tang. 


°Tang tau. 


°Tang °kau-°tsz. 


"Tang kwen-sz. 


"Tang hoen-wo'. 



112 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To slap one ia the face. 

To dress in a showy 
manner. 

Foolish and impudent 
talking. 

To strike fire. 

To kill. 

To injure by striking. 

To rap ; to knock. 

Knock at the door. 

To drive a nail. 

To break in pieces. 

To beat flat. 

Knock it ofl'. 

To pound. 

To cut (as with a small 
knife). 

To inflict a wound by 
cutting. 

Cut it open. 

Cut it in two. 

Cut it off. 

To cut (as with a sword, 
heavy knife^ or ax). 

To wound (as with a 
sword or ax). 

Cut it in two. 

Cut it off. 

To split. 



irrm . 



m 
m% 

mm 
m 

m 



"Tang nyi-kwawng. 
°Tang-pan°. 

°Tang-bang. 

°Tang °7ioo. 
"Tang sah. 

Tang wa ; °tang saung. 
K'au. 

ICau mung. 
K'au ting, 
K'au ae". 
Kau °pien. 
K'aiir-t'eh. 
Kau. 

Koeh. 

Koeh-saung. 
Koeh-k'e ; hoeh-h'e-le. 
Koeh-°doen. 
Koeh-t'eh. 

Tsan. 
Tsan 



Tsan °doen. 
Tsan t'eh. 
Fih. 



IIKST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



113 



Split it open. 
Can not split it. 
To split wood. 
To split off. 
To saw. 
Saw it off. 
Saw it in two. 

Saw it open. 

Too hard to be sawn. 

To sweep. 
Sweep the floor. 
Sweep it np. 

Sweep clean. 

To kill ; to decapitate ; 
to butcher. 

To execute a man. 
To butcher a beef. 
To kill a fowl. 
To- butcher a sheep. 
A slaughter house. 

f To wage war. 

f 

To gain a victory. 
To lose a battle. 
To write. 



mm 



m 






m^ 



mm wwm 



IK 



mm 
mm 
m^ 



P'ih-k'e-le; pHh^k'e. 

P'ih-'veh-k'e. 

P'ih Ha. 

PHIi-t'eh. 

Zih ; ha, 

Zifi-t'eh; ka-ieh 

Zih-°doen ; ha-°doin. 

Zih-lte-le ; ka'-k'e-le^ 

Zih-'veh-tauh ; k a-vgh- 
lauh. 

°8au. 

°Sau di ; °sau-°$au di. 

"Sau-t'en. 

°8au hoeli-lih ; "saw koen- 
zing". 

Sah. 

8ah nyung ; sah deu. 

Sail nyeu, 

Sah kyi. 

Sah yang. 

Sah nyeu dzang. 

Siang sah. 

Salv-yung. 

Sah-ba". 

"Sicir °daz°. 



114 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Write a letter. 

Have you written a 
letter ? 

I have written. 

To make a record (in 
an account book). 

Can you write P 

I can not write. 

He can write. 

Write it distinctly. 

Badly written. 

To boil. 

Boil a few eggs. 

I don't want them too 
bardi 

To grill ; to broil. 

Grilled fowl. 

Broiled steak. 

Broil it rare. 

Broil it well done. 

To bake ; to roast ; to 
warm one's self. 

To wash. 

Wash yonr hands. 

To wash one's feet. 

To bathe. 

To wash clothes. 



P^M PM 



m 



m^ 



'm'Yji' 



°Sia ill fong dng" ; °m 



8ing° °sia meJi ? 

Sing" °sia-la'-tse. 

°Sia tsang" ; °zaung 
tsang°. 

/> we sia va ? 

°Sia-'veh-le. 

Yi 'we °sia; yi "da-tul 
le. 

Z" °sia le tsing-'saimg. 

Z° °sia-tuh 'veh "horn. 

Zah. 

Zali °liang-kuli dan. 

' Veil iau t'v/i ngang°. 

Hyuin. 
Hyuin kyi. 
Hyuin nyeu nyok. 
Iau hyuin le sang, 
Iau hyuin le zok. 

Hong. 

Zing", 
Zing° °&eu. 
Zing° hyalc. 
Zing° yoh. 
Zing" i-zaung. 



PIE8T LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



115 



Wash clean. 

Can not wash it out. 

To wipe. 

Wipe or wash the face. 

Wipe it off. 

Wipe it. 

Wipe clean. 

Wipe the table. 

Wipe clean the knives, 
forks, etc. 

Wipe clean the plates, 
caps, etc. 

Can not wipe it off. 

Wipe it again. 

Wipe it till it is clean. 

Have yon wiped it ? 

I have wiped it. 

Yon have not wiped it 
clean. 

I want you to wipe it 
cleaner. 

I want you to wipe 
every day. 

To sew ; to stitch. 
'Take a stitch. 









mm 

mmnm 

m 



Zing" hoen-ging°. 

Zing'-velv-ieh. 

ICa. 

ICa mien. 

E^a-ieh. 

ICa-k'a. 

K'a leoen-sing'. 

K'a de-°tsz. 

Tau tso lau sa° A'a° 
koen-zing°, 

Bung-°tsz pe-°tsz lau sa 
Jca koen-zing". 

K'a-ve7i-tWi ; k'a-'vek- 
lauh. 

Tse" k'a. 

ICa dzuh-tau koen-zing°. 

K'a-hyih meh ? 

K'a-la-tse ; k'a-hyUi- 
kuh. 

K'a tuh 'veil koen-zing°, 

lau" k'a le koen-zing°- 
tien. 

lau nong nyili-too k'a- 
Ica. 

Ling. 

Ling ih tsung; ling 
°liang tsung. 



116 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To make clothes. 

To iron J to burn, or 
scald. 

To cat, or engrave. 

To cut characters, 

To engrave. 

To stereotype. 

To cat a stamp. 

To light a fire. 

Yon have lighted it 
badly. 

Light it again. 

To light a lamp, or 
candle. 

To light a fire (or lamp). 

It will not light. 

To take. 

Take it ; take it away. 

Bring it here ; bring to 
me. 

Dnable to take or carry 
it. 

Who took it ? 

He took it. 

Did any one see him 
take it ? 

I saw him, with my own 
eyes, take it away. 



B^^ 












Ling i-zaung. 

Taung°. 

Kuh. 
K'uh z. 
E?uh hwo. 

K'uh °pa'ttr-°t8Z. 

K'uJi iung°-°t3Z. 
Sang "hoo. 

Nong° sang le 'veh "hau. 

Tse" sang. 

°Tien tung. 

°Tien °lioo. 
°Tien 'veh dzak 
Tan. 
Tan c/ji°. 

Tan le. 

Tan 'veh °dong ; tan 'veh 
°chi. 

Sa° nyung tan ? 

Yi tani-kuh. 

Yen sa nyung k'oen"' 
hyien" yi tan va° ? 

"Ngoo tsing °ngan Moen- 
hykn yi tan chf. 



MRSf LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



117 



Where are you going 
with that ? 

Tate it out. 

Take it inside. 

Take it aud throw it 
away. 

I did not take it. 

Take it above stairs. 

Take it on board ship. 

To ascend ; to descend ; 
to get up. 

Get np. 

Come op. 

Go up ; mount ; ascend. 

Come down ; descend. 

Go down. 

Can not go up, or 
mount. 

Can not get up {Jor 
want of strength). 

Able to get up. 

To ride on horse back. 

To catch ; to seize ; to 
arrest. 

Catch him. 

Catch thief. 

To arrest a man. 

Unable to catch, or ar- 
rest. 



a* 

M±5tS 









mm 



"Bi-kuh nong' tan tau 
"'a-li cln ? 

Tan-ts'eh-chi°. 

Tan tau" "li-hyang' cln. 

Tan cln hwah-t'eh, 

°Ngoo 'veil tan-ku/i. 
Tan tau" hu-laung° cln. 
Tail tau zen-laung° cM', 

Lok. 

Lok-°chi-le. 
Lok-" zaung-le. 
Lok-° zaung-cln . 
Loh-°'au-le. 
Lok-°'au-chi'. 

Lok- 'veli-°zaung. 

Lok- veil-" chi. 

Lok-tuh-°chi. 
Ji °mo. 

Tsauli. 

Tsauh yi. 
Tsauli zuli. 
Tsauli nyung. 

Tsaulir-'veh-dzak. 



118 



WEST LESSONS IN CHINESE, 



Able to catch, etc. 

To arrest gamblers. 

Not sufficient force (or 
skill) to catch, or ar- 
rest. 

I have canght him. 

To make a dam. 

To make a grave mound. 

To reap wheat. 

To cut rice. 

To cut grass. 

To brush. 

To brush shoes. 

To brush clothes. 

To fear ; dread. 

Do yon fear ? 

I do fear. 

What do you fear ? 

I do not fear. 

Don't fear. 

There is nothing to fear. 

I am apprehensive he 
will not come. 

I fear you will lose 
money by it. 

I fear it will not suc- 
ceed. 

To fear death. 

To provide. 



mm 

mm 

m 



H'\ 






Tsauh- tuh-dzak. 
Tsauh "too. 

Tsauh-'veh-dzu. 

Tsauli-dzak-tse. 
Tsauh po°. 
Tsauh vung-san. 
Tsauh mak. 
Tsauh °dau, 
Tsauh "tsau. 
8eh. 

Sell 'a-'tsz. 
Seh i-zaung, 
P'o°. 

P'o° va" ? 
°Ngoo p'o"-kuh. 
PYsa"? 
"ITgoo 'veh p'o°. 
' Veh iau° p'o". 
Msa°p'o°. 

Tsuh-p'o" yi 'veh k. 

"ITong-p'o'' iau" zeh 
°pung. 

"K'ong-p'o" 'veh dzung- 
hong. 

Pt o o • 
SI. 

Yui-be". 






FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



119 



Make good preparation. 

Have yoa got every- 
thing ready ? 

I have everything 
ready. 

He has not provided a 
thing. 

To move. 

Don't move. 

Don't touch it; don't 
have anything to do 
with the matter. 

It is loose, or unstable. 

Steady, immovable. 

To start ; to embark. 

To commence work. 

It does not move in the 
least. 

To dig {as with a pick)- 

To dig up loosely. 

To dig np a garden. 

Too hard to dig. 

Dig it deep. 

Dig it deeper. 

To plant. 

To cultivate a farm. 

To cultivate a garden. 

What are you planting ? 



im^ 






lit 



m 
mm 



Yui-he "hau. 
Yui-be° "Iiau meh ? 

Yui-be" "hau-la'-tse. 

Ih yang 'veh-zung yui-b^. 

°Dong. 

'Veil iau °dong. 

'Veil tail "dong; °dong- 
'veh-tuh-huh. 

Tau-°dong-tse ; "dong- 
lau-°dong. 

'Bong °'a 'veil °dong. 

°Dong-sung. 

°I)ong-°seu. 

Ill nqan 'veil "dong. 



/' 



Bung°. 
Bung' song. 
Bung" yoen-di. 
Bung°-'veh-lauli. 
Bung" le sung. 
Bung° le mng-tien. 
Tsong°. 
Tsong dien. 
Tsong° yoen-di. 
Nong° la tsong° sa 'i 



120 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I am planting vege- 
tables. 

To plant flowers. 

Plant them well. 

Plant them deep. 

To sow, or do that from 
which one may expect 
evil fruit. 

Have you finished plant- 
ing? 

I have finished. 

To dwell. 

Where do yon live ? 

I live in the city. 

I live outside of the 
city. 

Can not dwell in so 
small a place. 

To give birth to; to 
rear. 

To beg. 

To beg for food. 

To dun. 

To dun for a debt of 
long standing. 

To get married. 

To beg for something in 
addition to what is 
due. 

To annoy. 

To command. 



mm 






m 
mm 

mWi 

mm 



Tsong" tse°. 

Tsong" hwo-°ts'au. 
Tsong° le "Jum. 
Tsong" le sung, 

Tsong° 'oo'-iang-kung. 

Tsong°-wen meh ? 

Tsong'-wen-tse. 

Dzu. 

Nong' dzu" la "'a-'li ? 

°Ngoo dzu la dzung °li. 

°Ngoo dzu la" dzung 
nga. 

Dzu-'veli'lauh. 

°Yang. 

i au. 
°Tau van. 
"Tdu tsang". 

T'au tsa°. 
Tau nyang-°tsz. 



'Tau 



nyau. 



1 au len . 
Fung'foo". 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESK. 



121 



Who gave the order ? 


^A^Mi 


Bet nyung fungfoo° ? 


To bind with a cord. 


B 


°Paung. 


Tie him to a tree. 


m^mt 


°Paung la" zu hung". 


To tie a man hands and 
feet. 


mm 


°Kwung°-paung. 


To tie (as a small par- 
cel). 


m 


Tsah. 


Tie it well. 


m^ 


Tsah "hau. 


To bite ; to bark; 


^ 


"Ngau. 


Will that dog bite ? 


5^ 


"Bi-tsak °keu iau "ngaii- 
kuh-va' ? 


He will bite. 


n^^ 


Iau" "ngau-kuh. 


He will not bite. 


^^ ^l^>^ 


' Yell °ngau ; 'veh °ngau- 
huh. 


Did you hear the dog 


\$mm^Mm 


Zo ya-deu "keu °ngau 


bark last night ? 


^s 


t'ing-kyien' m ? 


To blow. 


eJt 


Tsz. 


Blow it out (as a light). 


^W. 


Tsz-°iung. 


Can not blow it out. 


^^M 


Tsz 'veh-°mng. 


To blow into a l)laze. 


^U 


Tsz-yaung". 


Can not blow into a 
blaze. 


pk^^ 


Tsz ''veh-yaung"- 


Can be blown into a 
blaze. 


\^%U 


Tsz tuh-yaung°. 


Blow it off. 


?kU 


Tsz-ieli. 


Can not blow it off. 


^^m 


Tsz-'veh-t'eh. 


The wind blew it off. 


Mi^m^ 


Fong tsz-t'eh-kuh. 


To blow a trumpet. 


m^w 


Tsz tsau-kyuin. 


To play the clarion. 


!^ii'jB/\ 


Ts'z la -pa. 



122 



PIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To play the flute. 

Can not play. 

Try and blow it. 

To learn. 

To learn business. 

To learn to write. 

To learn the Shanghai 
dialect. 

To learn Mandarin. 

To learn the classic 
style. 

Difficult to learn. 

No inclination to learn. 

Just commenced to 
learn. 

Been learning a long 
time. 

To succeed in learning. 

Did not {or will not) 
succeed in learning. 

A school room. 

A pupil. 

Can not learn. 

Can learn. 

Confucian temple. 

The teacher of grad- 
uates. 

To aspire to a high 
degree of virtue ; to 
reform. 












m's 



i# 



Ts'z dill. 

Tsg-'veli-le. 

Tsz-tsz-Uoeii. 

'Auh. 

'Auli-sang-f. 

'Auh °sia z . 

'Auh Zaung" -"lie wo° . 
''Auh Kwen-wo'. 

'■Auh vimg-°li. 

Nan 'auh-kuh. 

M sing "siang 'auh. 

ICan 'auh. 

'■Auh-tsz dzang-°yoen- 
tse. 

'Auh dzung-kong. 

'Auh 'veil dzung-hong. 

'Auh'daung. 
''Auh-sang-°tsz. 
'Auh-'veh-le. 
'Auh-tuh-h. 
"■Auh kong, 

'Auh-°lau-ss. 
'Auh °hau. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



123 



To learn bad habits. 

The break (as a piece of 
timber or cord). 

It is brokeu (in two). 

Tobreak with the hands 
(as a Stick). 

It can not be broken. 

To fall. 

He had a fall. 

He (or it) fell down. 

It fell down of itself 

Be careful or you will 
fall. 

The price has fallen. 

How much has it fall- 
en? 

The price will fall. 

Let it fall. 

It is not likely to fall 
very mnch. 

He fell in the river or 
canal. 

Wounded by a fall. 
To rise (as tide, etc.). 
The price will rise. 
The price has risen. 
The rising tide. 

The flood tide has made. 






11 
m 



''Auh °liau. 

"Doen. 
°Doen-tse. 

' Wan-''doen. 

' Wan-'veh-°doen. 

Till. 

Yi tih-tsz' ih hau. 

Tih-°'au-le. 

Z°-ka tih-°'au-le. 

Taung-sing iau tih-kuh. 

Ko°-dien tih tse. 

Tih-tsz° °hyi-hau° ? 

Ka'-dien iau" tih-huh. 

Nyang" yi tih-meh-tse. 

'Veil kyien'-tuli tih sa 
"kyi-llau . 

Till la 'oo-°li. 

Tih saung; Tih "liau. 

°Tsang. 

Ka-dien iau "tsang. 

Ka°-dien "tsang-tse. 

Tsang" °sz; tsang" dzau. 

°Sz tsang" - tse ; dzau 
tsang" -tse; dzou le-ise. 



124 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



The tide ceases to rise. 

Has the flood tide 
made? 

The flood tide has not 
yet made. 

To fall (as the tide). 
The falliDg(or ebb) tide. 
The tide is falling. 

The tide ceases to fall. 

To choose ; to select. 

Select good ones. 

Select cheap ones. 

Select the most avail- 
able. 

Choose for yourself. 

Pick out. 

Can not make a selec- 
tion. 

To pick over tea. 

That which is left after 
making a selection. 

To stick ; to adhere. 

Will not stick (or ad- 
here). 

To throw (as a stone). 






M Mil^ 



mn^^ m 



w^^ 
WM^ 



la^h 






II lift u 



Dzau tsang" ding-tse ; 
bing °sz-tse. 

Dzau tsang" meh; dzau 
le meh; °sz tmng" 
meh? 

Dzau 'veh zung tsang° ; 
dzau 'veh zung le.^ 

Lauh. 

Lauh dzau; lauh "sz. 

Dzau lauh-tse. 

Dzau lauh ding-tse ; dzau 
kiuh-koo'-tse. 

°Kan; °kan-°mn. 

"Kan °hau-huh. 

°Kan jang-kuh. 

°Kan bien-nyi-hjJi. 

Ting° "kan. 
"Kan tseh le. 

°Kan 'veh-taeh. 

"Kan dzo-yih. 

"Kan dzang" la° kuh; 
°Kan dzung° la kuJi. 

Teh; teh dzu ; teh lau. 

Teh 'veh dzu ; teh 'veh 
lau. 

Teh. 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



125 



To flee; to run away. 

He has escaped. 

He will ruu away. 

Where has he escaped 
to? 

He can not escape. 
To fly. 

It has flown. 
It will fly. 
It can not fly. 

To fly up. 

To fly about. 

The feathered tribe. 

Birds and animals. 

To forsake ; to desert; 
to depart from, etc. 

He forsook me. 

Don't forsake me. 

From the time he left 
home till now. 

He has forsaken me. 
To hang ; to suspend. 
Hang it up. 
It is hanging up. 
Nowhere to hang it. 



m^ 



I* 



mm 

mmzmmm 
m 



Davr-°tseu. 
Dau-°tseu-tse. 
Yi iau dau-^tseu. 

Dau-°tseu tan °'a-°li 
chi" f 

Dau-°tseu \eh-teh. 
Fi. 

Fi-tse ; Fi-tsz chi-tse, 

Iau fi-huh. 

Yi 'veil 'we° fi ; fi 'veh 
°dong. 

Fi zaung° chi". 
Filefi chi". 
Fi-jung. 

Fi-jung °tseu-seu°. 

Li-k'e. 

Yi li-k'e-tsz °ngoo. 

'Veil iau li-Jc'e "ngoo. 

Li-k'e-tss° ok-°li tau 
nan, 

Yi li-k'e-tsg °ngoo tse. 

Kwo°. 

Kwo°-la' ; hwo°-°chi-le. 

Kwo°-°chi-la. 

M h.vo°-tsu. 



126 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To mate a display of 
lanterns ; to illnmiu- 
ate. 

To carry a load {as one 
man with a load sus- 
pended on the two 
ends of a stick). 

To carry a load (as a 
load suspended be- 
tween two men, on a 
bamboo). 

One man can not carry 
so heavy a load ; it 
will require two men. 

To carry a load on the 
back. 

To carry a load on the 
shoulder. 

To carry a load in one 
hand (as a bucket). 

Take it with yon. 

Bring it with you. 

To begin ; to commence ; 
the commencement. 

When will yon com- 
mence ? 

When will you com- 
mence (as an engage- 
ment) ? 

When shall it com- 
mence (as interest or 
rent)? 

When did j^on begin 
(as an engagement) ? 



^E 



fe 






m 
1^ 









MB&^ 



Kwo" tung. 
Tiau. 

Kaung. 

Ih huh nyung t'iau 'velir- 
°chi, iau° kaung-kuh. 

Pe". 

Jien. 

'Ling. 

Ta chi. 
Ta° le. 

° Chi ; ° CM -deu; k'e- 
dzang. 

"Kyi-z Ke-dzang ? 
°Kyi-z tsoo''-°chi ? 

°Kyi-z "chi'^ 

"Kyi-z tsoo" "chi-kuhf ' ' 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



127 



To repair. 


ft A%m 


Sieu; seu-tsauh. 


Take it and mend it. 


ta*^^ 


Tan-chi seu-tsauh. 


Eepairs. 


ftii 


8ieu-°li. 


To reform. 


ft* m^t> 


Sieu sung ; sieu sing. 


To take hold. 


m. 


Nyah. 


Take hold of it. 


m^L 


Nyah la. 


Hold fast. 


aft m.y^ 


Nyah-dzu° ; nyah-°hau. 


Take it in your hand. 


mM0-M 


Nyah la° °seu °li. 


Can not hold it. 


m^^ 


Nyah 'veh-dzu. 


To have charge of an 
affair, or work ; to 
exercise authority ; 
also the handle ol 
anything. 


m.^ 


Nyah °seu. 


No means of taking 
hold of it. 


um."^ 


M nyah-°seu. 


To crush in the hand. 


m^ 


Nyah se°. 


To let go ; to put down ; 
to discharge a gun ; 
to liberate. 


M 


Faung°. 


Let go. 


^^ 


Faung° °seu. 


Put it down. 


wr^^ nn 


Faung°-°'au-le ; faung" 
la°. 


Let him go. 


tkP^ 


Faung" yi chi. 


To set at liberty. 


nm 


Faung°-t'eh. 


Put it on the table. 


MUM'f'^ 


Faung° la" de-°tsz laung° 


To place money at in- 
terest. 


w^ 


Faung° tsa. 


To sell on credit. 


wm 


Faung" tsang" . 


"We do not sell on 
credit. 


%^WiM 


Nyi" 'veh faung° tsang" 



128 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To dismiss a school. 

To commit an incen- 
diary. 

To discharge a cannon. 

To fire crackers. 

To bleed. 

To fly a kite. 

Qniet your mind ; have 
no apprehension. 

I can not suppress my 
anxiety. 

Put it in the drawer. 

Put them down in one 
place. 

He has been set at 
liberty. 

To hide ; to conceal. 

Hide it. 

It is concealed. 

No place to conceal it. 

It can not be concealed. 

Concealed on his person. 

Don't conceal it. 

Where have you can- 
cealed it ? 

I have not concealed it. 
To open ; to commence. 
Open the door. 
Can not open it. 



M< 






M MM 

mm 







Faung° 'auh. 

Faung' °lioo. 

Faung° "pau. 
Faung° p'au-dzang". 
Faung" hyoeh. 
Faung° yau-°tsz. 

Faung -sing. 

i\ goo 'veh nung-heu 
faung°-sing. 

Faung° la ts'eu-t'i U. 
Faung° la ih kw'e°. 

Fau7ig°-t'eh-ise. 

JTaung" ; k'aung''-°long. 
K'aung°-°long. 
E^aung°-long la", 
M ¥aung° tsu°. 
K'aung 'veh-°long. 
K'au7ig la" sung-pien. 
'Veh iau k'aung°-°long. 

Kaung° la°'a-le'? 

Ngoo 'veh Uaung°-°long. 
K'e. 

K'e mung. 
K'e 'veh le. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



129 



Mast not be opened. 

It may be opened. 

I can open it. 

To open a box. 

Open the way. 

Not enough to meet 
expenses. 

To take anchor and set 

sail. 

To commence speaking; 
to open the mouth. 

To enlighten. 

To open a firm. 

To open a shop. 

Not yet opened. 

It is open. 

To commence business. 

To open a canal, etc.. 

To bloom. 

To scatter ; to separate. 

To fire a cannon. 

Don't make it public. 

To commence speaking, 

To shut ; to close. 

Shut the door, (or gate) 

Shut it well. 

Shut the window. 

Shut up. 



m^'i 



^ 



^mmm^ 



p 






mm 



mM 






'Yell °hau Ice. 
"Hau h'e-kuh. 
°Ngoo k'e-tuh-le. 
K'e siang-°tsg. 
Ke loo". 

''Yell heu-z" Tie-dau. 
K'e zen. 

ICe °k'eu. 

K'e dau. 

Ke ^aung. 

Ke tien". 

' Yell-sung k'e. 

K'e-l:°-tse. 

K'e °z ; k'e tsang. 

K'e '00. 

Ke liwo. 

San-Ve. 

Kepau . 

'Yeh iau" wo" -k'e. 

K'e "kaung. 

Kwan. 

Kwau mung. 

Kwan °hau. 

Kwan ts'aung. 

Kwan-°long ; kwan-meh. 



130 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



It is shut. 
Shut him out. 
Shut him in. 
To shut up shop. 
That shop is closed. 

This door will not shut. 

A custom house. 

The custom house in 
Shanghai. 

A custom pass (or bar- 
rier). 

Customs ; duties. 

To evade the duties ; 
to smuggle. 

To concern one. 

It concerns you. 

It concerns me. 

Does not concern. 

It does not concern me. 

To be in great straits 
(or peril). 

Give attention to for 
me ; also notify. 

Send me a message ; 
let me know. 

The god of war. 



mn\p 



IP 

mm 
mm fim 



a^i ^m 



u^l 






Kwan-li.t'-tse; kwan-tse. 

Kwan-tseh yi. 

Kwan-meh yi. 

Kwan tien". 

°Di ban tim haan-teli- 



°Di sen" jnung kwan 'veh 
"zaung. 

Kwan. 
Sing kwan. 

Kwan °k'eu. 

Kwan soe". 

Fi kwan ; t'eu soe. 

Kwan-dzak. 

Kwan-dzak nong ■ 

Kwan-dzak °ngoo. 

' Veil kwan. 

°Ngoo 'veil hwan; 'veh 
kwan °ngoo ; 'veh 
kwan °ngoo sa" z. 



Sing°-ming° kyau-kwan. 

Kwan-ts'ih. 

Kwan - tsau °ngoo ; 
kwan-ts'ih °ngoo. 

Kwan-ti" ; Kwan °Lau- 
ya. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



131 



To put; to place. 

place it securely. 

Place it level. 

Place even and in order. 

Can not place it level. 

Put it above. 

Put it below. 

Pat it on the table. 

Put it inside. 

Pnt it outside. 

Put it in the chest. 

To decorate ; the decora- 
tions of a room. 

A ferry boat. 

To set, or lay the table. 

To contribute ; to tax ; 

also a tax. 
House tax. 

Taxes. 

Impost tax. 

Quarterly tax. 

Monthly tax. 

To borrow, or to lend. 

To borrow money. 

Lend it to me. 

Can not borrow. 

I will not lend. 

It is borrowed. 



wmi 
n^^ 









Hi 



"Fa. 

Pa Viau. 
"Pa ling. 

Pa toen-tsung" . 
"Pa 'veil bing. 

Pa la" zaung°-de,u. 
°Pa la" °'au-°ti. 
°Pa la" de-°ts3 laung°. 

Pa la° °li-liyang°. 
"Pa la° nga-deu. 
°Pa la" siang-°tsz "li. 

°Pa-seh. 

"Pa-doo" zen. 
°Pa de-°tsz. 

Kyoen. 

Vaung-hyoen. 

Kyoen-li. 

Li~kyoen. 

Sz°-hyi° kyoen. 

Nyoeh kyoen. 

Tsia". 

Tsia° nyung'°tsz. 

Tsia° la °ngoo. 

Tda° 'veh-°dong. 

'Veh tsia°. 

'I'sia°-la°'kuh. 



132 



IIBST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



It is loaned out. 

Sub-let. 

Can you borrow it ? 

Don't borrow. 

To conduct ; to guide. 

Bring him in. 

Conduct bim out. 

The leader, the head 
man. 

The blind leading the 
bhnd. 

A pilot. 

A pilot boat. 

To nurse ; to take 
charge of a child. 

A collar. 

To conduct out of the 
way. 

To lead (as a animal). 

To lead a horse. 

Lead him in. 

Lead him out. 

To lead by the hand 
(as a child). 

To lose. 

(I) have lost it. 

How much did you 
lose? 









ijR^ 



^m^ mi 



T da -ts eh-clu la". 
°Tsen tsia°. 
Hau tsia° va° ? 
' Veil iau' Uia. 
°Ling. 

"Ling tsing°-le. 
"Ling tseh-cJn. 

Ling-deu nyung. 
Hah-°t8z °ling lmJi'°tsz. 

Ling-°haung-kuh. 
Ling-°kaung-zen. 



Ling "siau-noen. 



Ill diau °ling. 

"Ling tso. 

Chien. 
Chien °mo. 
Chien tsing° le. 
Chien ts'eh chi". 

Chien °seu. 

Seh-t'eh ; lauJi-t'eh. 

Seh-t'eli-tse ; lavJi-t'eh' 
tse. 

Seh-teh "kyi-liau ? 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



133 



He has lost all his 
capital. 

I have lost heavily. 

He cau't afford to lose. 

To meet; to come in 
contact with ; to hit. 

Did you meet him ? 
Did not meet (or see"). 
I met him. 

To butt (as a sheep or 
I' goat). 

To receive, or accept. 
To receive presents. 
To receive an honor. 
To suffer. 

To be imposed upon. 
To be put to the blush- 
To decline (a favor). 

To hand ; to deliver in 
person. 

Hand it to me. 

Can aot reach. 

Hand it to him. 

1 delivered it to him. 

To read. 

He can not read. 

A scholar ; a literary 
man. 












° Pung-dien ih zi seh- 
feh-tse. 

Seh-t'eh-tsz too-liau. 

Yi zeh 'veil °chi. 

Bang°-dzak ; bang°-deu. 
Bang°-dzah va° ? 
Bang° 'veh-dzak. 
Bang°-dzak-huh, 

Bang" ; dzaung°. 

"Zeu. 

"Zeu °li-'veh. 

O CT O O 

Zeu saung-sz - 
°Zeu °k'oo ; "zeu nan'. 
°Zeu waung. 
°Ze,u m-tsui". 
'Veil °zeu. 

Dzeu. 

Dzeu la °ngoo. 

Dzeu° 'veh-dzak. 

Dzeu la yi. 

"Ngoo dzeu la° yi. 

Dok; dok su; Koen 
su. 

Dok 'veil le. 

Dok- su-nyung. 



134 



WEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To rot. 

It is nnsound. 

It is not rotten. 

Mud. 

Muddy under foot. 

Yery muddy. 

To walk. 

Come here. 

Walk faster. 
Unable to walk. 

I walked. 

To riiD. 

To run a hofse-race. 

To count. 

Count and see how 
many (or much). 

Unable to count. 

I have already counted. 

To deposit with another. 

Deposit with me. 

To send a letter or 
message. 

To shave. 

To shave the beard. 

To shave the head. 



mm 



i^m 



Wfe^ 



mm 



Lan". 

Lan-tse. 

'Veh Ian". 

Lan'-hyi. 

Bi° laung° Ian", , 

Lan le °si. 

Tseu ; pau. 

Tseu le; pau le. 

Tseu h kw'a - tien ; 
hwa-tien tseu . 

Tseu" 'veh-°dong ; pau" 
'veh-°dong. 

Ngoo "tseu-hiJi ; °ngo'o 
pau le-huh. 

Bau. 

Bau "mo. 

'Soo. 

SoO'" soo-li oeii" . 

°Soo 'veh-tseh. 
Soo-koo -hyih-tse. 
Ky%. 
Kyi° la ngoo, 

XT' *o • o 

Ayi sing. 
Ti° 

I SOO. 

Ti' deu. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



135 



To sink (ia water). 
It will sink. 

To drowD. 

To spin. 

To weave. 

To spread out ; spread 
it out. 

To steal. 

Secretly. 

To roll up. 

To inform against. 

To institute a suit at 
law. 

To inform. 

To swear. 

To perspire. 

To strive. 

To spill. 
To swim. 
To sing. 
To cry. 
Don't cry. 
Unable to cry. 
To tear. 

To wear, to put on (as 
clothes). 



u 



1ii#f- 

^m mm 

tiivf 

^^ 
m 



Dzung. 

Iau° dzung-huh ; iau" 
dzung "'au chi-huh. 

Dzung sah. 

"Faung-so. 

Tsuh poo°, 

T'an-k'e-le. 

T'eu ; t'eu meh-zz. 
Teu-hen-tsz. 
° Kyoen-°long. 
Zaung°-fok. 

Kau-zcmng° . 

Kau-soo' ; kwan-tsau , 

Vah-tseu". 

Tseh 'oen. 

Yong° lih ; yong° sing ; 
•ping ming". 

° Tang-fan. 

Yeu °sz; long° °sz. 

Tsaung°. 

K'oh. 

^Veh iau" k'oh. 

K'ok 'veh-ts'eh. 

"Tsa-se". 

Tsak. 



136 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To put on clothes. 
To undress. 

To wear a hat, caj) or 
bonnet. 

To take off the hat. 

To laugh. 

Laughable. 

To excite laughter. 

To ridicule. 

To win (in a race or 
game). 

To lose, (do.). 

To kick. 

He will kick. 

To print, 

A stamp or chop. 

To stamp. 

Stereotype plates, or 
blocks. 

To print books. 

To soak through. 

To leak. 

To return what has 
been borrowed. 

Eeturn it to me. 

Return it to him. 
To return in full. 






i^ij 



en 
fP 









Tsak i-zaung. 
Toeli i-zaung, 

Ta mau-'tsz. 

Dzu mau'-°tse. 
Siau". 

O TT • O 

II au aiau . 

ZlH SUIU . 

"Lang-siau". 

Yung. 

Su. 

Tih. 

lau t'ih-hJi. 

lung"^. 

Iung° ; iu7ig°'''tsz. 

"Tang iung°. 

Iung°-°'pan. 

Iimg° su. 

lung"- 

Leu". 

Wan. 

Wan la° °ngoo; wan 
°ngoo. 

Wan la° yi. 

Wan is'ing-''saung. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



137 



I have returned it. 

: Not yet returned. 

To avenge oneself. 

To make good a loss, or 
expense. 

Not able to return, or 
make good. 

To hoist a sail. 

To hojst a flag. 

To lower, or take in a 
sail. 

To anchor. 

To take up the anchor. 

To pull out, or up. 

To pay back by install- 
ments. 

To draw in, or up by a 
capstan. 

To tow, or track (as a 
boat.) 

To pull in two. 

To pull down. 

To fall down (as a house, 
etc.) 

That house will fall. 

To haul (as on a rope). 
To push ; or shove. 
Push him out. 
To step upon. 



5Mfen)< 



mm mn 






mm 



mm 

Ml® 
^^ 






'f^mm 






Wan-la -tse ; wcin-tse. 
' Veh-zung wan. 
Wan-pau ; pau°-wan. 

Be-wan ; dzaung-wan. 
Wan 'veh-°chi. 

Tsa bong. 
Ts'a ji. 

Lauh bong. 

P^au num. 
Bah mau. 
Bah ; bah-teh. 

Bah-wan. 



Pe clden°. 
Pe "doen. 
Pe fan. 

Tan. 

°Di °zoo vaung-'tsz 
iau t'an. 

T^oo. 

Tsan. 

Ts'an tseh-ch'i". 

Dah. 



138 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To twist or wring. 

To press down by a 
weight; to crush; 
to oppress. 

To squeeze. 

To beckon. 

To seize. 

To twist with the fin- 
gers. 

To carry in the arms 
(as a child). 

To bow down to; to 
worship. 

To worship idols. 

To take to pieces, or 
down. 

Take it down, or to 
pieces. 

To stop. 

To wait. 

Wait. 

Wait a while. 
Tell him to wait. 

I have no time to wait. 
It will not do to wait* 
Wait and see. 

How long have yon 
waited ? 



m 

m 

m 
n 
nn m 

1? ^u 



^fe 






Lih. 

K'ah. 

€lah. 
Tsau. 
'La. 

°'Nyien. 

°Bau. 

Pa. 

Pa° veh ; pa° zung-dau. 
Tial. 

Tsah-t'eh. 

Bing ; ding la°. 
°Tung. 
°Tung la°. 

°Tung ih hyih ; °tung Hi 
"tung. 

Kyau yi °tung ih 'tung. 

M kong-foo °tung. 
"Tung 'veh-tufu 
°Tung 'tung k'oen". 

°Tung-tsz "kyi-z-tse ? 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



139 



I have waited a long 
time. 

To put down (a sedan). 

To change. 

I want you to chaage 
your manner. 

To nail. 

To live. 

Living. 

Lively. 

To die. 

He, or it, is dead. 

All men must die. 

To present (as a pres- 
ent). 

To conduct, or accom- 
pany, one a short dis- 
tance. 

To go out and welcome 
anyone. 

To stick (in the ground 
or elsewhere). 

To dye. 

To cast down. 

To throw away. 

To meet, to have an 
interview. 

To hold a meeting. 

Did you meet him ? 



m m 



°Tung-tsz dsang-°yoen- 
tse. 

°' Wan-hing ; ding-jau. 

Wen ; °diau. 

°Ngoo iau nong" wen 
yang°-suh. 

Ting". 
Well. 
Well la". 
Weh-'dong. 
°Si. 



m^ 



Mm 






't^ 



°Si-tse ; °si-t'eh-tse. 

o 

Nyung-nyung tsong iau 

o • 

SI. 

8ong°. 
Song°. 

Nyung-tsih. 

Ts'ah. 

°Nyien. 
Gwan 'au" le. 
Hwah-t'eh. 

We". 

Jjzui we . 
We°-dzalc m° "? 



140 



WEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I did not ; no. 

To call; to tell. 

Call him. 

Tell him to come. 

To scratch. 

To cat with scissors. 

To pry (with a lever). 

To plane. 

To bore. 

To cut a mortise. 

Ashamed. 

To varnish ; to paint 

To weigh. 

To measure. 

To save ; to economize. 

To save time, or labor. 

To waste; to use ex- 
travagantly. 

To waste time, or labor. 

To nse money extrava- 
gantly. 

To seal ; to deify ; to 
exalt to a high sta- 
tion. 

Seal it up. 

To seal up a house. 

To cut ; to carve. 

Cut a slice of meat. 



m 



mm 
m 



m 



We° 'veh-dzak. 

Kyau ; hau, 

Kyau yi. 

Kyau yi le. 

°Tsa. 

°Tsien. 

GIuxu. 

Bau". 

Tsoen. 

Zauh. 

Tan-tsong°. 

Tsih. 

Tsung, 

Liang. 

"Sang. 

°Sang hong-foo. 

Saung. 

Saung Icong-foo. 

Saung dong-dien. 

Fong. 

Fong-meh. 

Fong mung. 

Ts'ih. 

Tsih ill ho'e' nyok. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



141 



Cut a slice of bread. 


^M-rnmm 


Ts'ih ill kw'e° men-deu. 


Cut it open. 


^m^ 


Ts'ih-k'e-k. 


To bear upon. 


m 


Chung". 


Bear upon it. 


iMJi 


Chung" laung". 


Press it firmly. 


m^ 


Chung°-dzu. 


To loot. 


w n^m 


"'Loo; "'loo rmh-z. 


To mix ; to get things 
confused. 


^f^ 


°Ben-'oo°. 


To take by force. 


^ m^^ 


"Ts'iang ; "tsiang meh- 

o 

z . 
PHen°-°kwa ; °hwa- 


To deceive ; to defraud. 


m^ ^li 


t • o 

pien . 


A deceiver, a sharper. 


:^f- 


°Kwa-°tsz. 


To gamble. 


m mmm 


°Too ; "too dong-dien. 


To covet. 


^ 


Ten. 


To envy. 


]^M 


"Too-ji". 


Envious. 


^£.'ii> 


°Too-ji" sing. 


To ascend. 


± 


"Zaung. 


.Make a record. 


tm 


"Zaung tsang . 


To ascend a mountain. 


±iJj 


"Zaung san. 


To go up to the capital. 


t^tM 


"Zaung Pok-kyung. 


To go to heaven. 


±^ 


"Zaung t'ien. 


To land goods. 


ht& 


"Zaung hoo"-suh. 


To oil houses or any 


±m 


"Zaung yeu. 


wood. 






The place of honor. 


it 


"Zaung "seu. 


To put a signature to 
any instrument of 






±.^m 


"Zaung ming-deu. 


writing. 







142 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To be deceived, or im- 
posed upon. 

To descend. 

To descend a mountain. 

Come down. 

To go into the country. 

To embark. 

To ship goods. 

Below. 

Underneath. 

Under the table. 

To desire ; to expect ; 
to hope. 

No hope. 

He has hope. 

To tempt. 

To scrape. 

Scrape it off. 

To recognize ; to con- 
fess. 

Do yon know me ? 

I don't know you. 

Does he confess it ? 

He won't confess it. 

To graft; to splice. 

To tie. 

Tie it fast. 

To wet ; wet. 



X pa 

T 

TJSH 



^1 mm 

mm 
n 

mm 



ao' 



m^^^ 






"Zaung taung°. 

■Au. 

Au san. 

Au le. 
'Au" hyang. 
'Au zen. 
'Au" hoo'-suh, 
'Au" °ti-deu. 
°Ti-°'au. 
Be °ti-°'au. 

Maung". 

M nMung°-deu. 
Yi yeu Tnaung" -deii. 
Yung; "yung-yeu. 
Kwah. 
Kwah-t'eh. 

Nyung°. 

Nyung°-tuh "ngoo va ? 
JVgoo 'veil nyung" -tvJi. 
Yi nyung° va° ? 
Yi 'veh °Eung nyung' . 
Tsih. 
Voh 
Vok-lau, 
Sak. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



143 



To invite. 


if 


"TsHng. 


Invite him in. 


mpmi^ 


"Tsing yi tsing' k. 


To invite gnests. 


m^ 


"Tsing k'ak. 


Please be seated. 


m^ 


°Tsing-°soo. 


I beg to inquire. 


mm 


1 s mg mung . 


I solicit yonr instruc- 
tions. 


lift 


°Tsing hyau. 


To be regretted ; placed 






in an embarrassing 


It^if 


Nan-we-dzing. 


position. 






To peck (as a fowl). 


^ 


Zauh. 


To lean against. 


m 


Ge". 


To repeat from memory. 


f 


Pe". 


To repeat books. 


w» 


Pe" m. 


To line ; or score. 


tij 


Wak. 


To stab. 


n 


Ts'oh. 


To quarrel. 


mm 


8iang-mo°. 


To abuse. 


nrg 


Mo. 


To curse. 


5a 


Tseu, 


To wrangle. 


m 


Dzen". 


To remember. 


IB 


Kyi". 


Memory. 


iB>i:> 


Kyi-dng. 


Bad memory. 


iE>i:>^ii? 


Kyi'-sing 'veil "hau. 


Remember. 


IBfe nm 


Kyi" -la ; kyi'-tuh. 


To retain ; to detain. 


^ 


Lieu. 


I will retain one hun- 
dred. 


as-w 


°Ngoo lieu ih pak. 


Could not detain ; or 
retain. 


^^ft 


Lieu 'veh-dzu. 



144 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To sell ou credit. 

To rely upou. 

To confide to. 

You can trust him. 

It will not do to trust 
him. 

He is reliable. 

Put not your trust in 
man. 

To deny ; to falsify 
one's word. 

To ring a bell. 

To row ; to shake. 

To pour out. 

To add to. 

To pile one on top of 
another. 

To pile up. 

To take from. 

To take back. 

To calculate. 

Calculate and see how 
much. 

I can not calculate. 

An abacus. 

To sleep. 

Go to sleep ; go lie 
down. 

He is asleep. 

Unable to sleep. 



if; 






m Mm 

mm 

# Ah 

mm 



i^^ 



*Bi 



80. 

K'au° ; k'au'-t'auli. 

Tauh. 

°K'au-°i k'au'-t'auh. 

TauJi-'veh-tuJi. 

Tauh-tuli~huh. 

Tauh-veh-tuh nyung. 

La". 

Yau ling. 
Yau; yau zen. 
"Tau-ieli. 

Ka ; ka-t'ien ; t'ien ; 
t'ien tien. 

Hell ; dell laung°. 

Deh °chi-le. 

Nau-ieh. 

Nau-''tseii-le. 

Soen". 

Soen°-soen''-k'oen'. 

Soen°-'veh-le. 
Soen-ben. 
Kvoung° . 

Gill huung". 

Kwung''-°clii-la . 
Kiuung°-veli-°chi. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



145 



To sleep soundly. 

To sleep late. 

He has gone to sleep. 

To nod ; to be drows\'. 

To exchange ; to barter. 

To stir ; to agitate. 

To draw a carriage. 

To change a dollar into 
cash. 

To transfer. 

Transfer it to my name. 

To pawn. 

To hypothecate. 
To whom is it hypothe- 
cated ? 

It is hypothecated to 
me. 

To secure. 

A security. 

Will you secure ? 

I am willing to become 
security. 

I will not secure. 

To persuade. 

To fall sick. 

To betroth. 

To smell. 



mmm 









m 



UK 

m 



Hau kw'ung°. 
Kwung° an tsau. 
Kw''ang°-°chi-tse. 
K'eh-tsong°. 
Wen" ; diau". 
"Tsau. 
Too "^hiortso. 

Be" dong-dien. 

Wak. 

Wak la° °ngoo ming- 

au. 
Taung° ; tciung°-t'eh ; 
ah ; ah- t'eh. 

Ah ; ah-t'eh. 

Ah la" sa° nyung '^ 

Ah la° °ngoo. 

"Pau. 

°Pau-nyung. 

Nong° °k'ung °pau va° ? 

°Ngoo "Uung °pau-kuh. 

°Ngoo 'veh-°pau. 
Clioen. 
Sang-bing° . 
P'an-tsiiig. 
Hong". 



146 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To divide ; to separate. 

To follow. 

Follow me. 

According to ; to go 
towards. 

Imitate the sample. 

Follow my example. 

To solder. 

To cast ; to foand. 

To cast a caarion. 

To melt ; to dissolve. 

To freeze. 

To coDgeal ; to coagu- 
late. 

To turn (as a wheel). 

To float. 

To fail in business. 

To prop. 

To save. 

Save me. 

To pray. 

To repeut. 

To regret. 

To guard against; to 
be watchful. 

To care for ; be care- 
ful. 

To quarrel (as husband 
and wife). 






1^ 



1^ 



1^ 















ili> yj>i|l> 



iiE 



Fung-Ice. 
Kung. 
Kung °ngoo. 

Tsau. 

Tscni yang" . 
Tsau' °ngoo. 
'Oen. 

Kyau ; . tsu". 
Tsu" piiu. 
Yang. 
Ping-lam. 

KyiJi ; kyih-°long. 

°Tsen. 

°Tung. 

°Tau tsang° 

J'sang. 

Kyeu . 

Kyeu -kyeu °ngoo, 

Jeu ; "tau-kau . 

Hwe'-°ke. 

°Au-lau°. 

Baung-be°. 

Taung - sing ; °siau- 



Dau-chi°. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



147 



To punish. 

To reduce ; to take from. 

I will cut 3'our wages. 

To translate. 

To interpret. 

To manage ; to have 
the management. 

To turn round. 

To turn over. 

To consult. 

To run (as water). 

To skin ; to peel ; to 
strip. 

To feel ; to touch. 
To guess. 
Guess. 

To examine ; to scruti- 
nize. 

Examine. 

Unable to find out by 
examination. 

To prove ; to evince. 

To play (as an instru- 
ment with the fingers). 

To reject. 

To sport ; to frolic ; to 
trifle. 

To yield ; to give place. 



m 






H 



^^tU 






Vah-ban." 
Ngah. 

Ngoo 1(111° nyah nong° 
hong-dien. 

Fan; fan-yuh. 

Fan-wo" ; dzen-wo". 

Kyung-'seu. 

Zien°-°tsen-le. 
Fan'°tsen'le. 

Saung-Uang ; tmng- 
tsak. 

Lieu. 

Poh 

Moh. 

Tsoe-tsoe. 

Tsoe-tsoe-Uoen'. 

Dzo. 

Bzo-dzo-lcoen'. 

Dzo-veh-tseh. 
Te" ; te'-tsung"- 

Dan. 

Te"; ie-Uh. 
Beh-dang° ; long''-beh- 
siang". 

Nyang° 



148 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To soak; to immerse ; 
to baptize. 

To gain (profit). To 
make money. 

Profit. 

To lose, etc. 

To become rich. 

To heal. 

To spread; to propagate 
(as disease or a report). 

To jump ; to leap. 

To climb. 

To crawl. 

To splash. 

To boil (as water). 

To nurse (the sick). 

To sit or stay with for 
company. 

To slander. 

To lock ; a lock. 

To bolt ; a bolt or bar. 

To roll. 

To string (as cash). 

To comfort. 

To injure. 

To degrade. 

To burn (as fuel). 



m i« m 



m 



it? 






mi 



mm 



mm 



m 



[f&^ 



n 



m 



"TU 



Tsing°. 

Dzan". 

Bzan'-deu. 

Zeh ; zeh-ieh ; zeh- 
°pung. 

Fah-dze. 

I- lum; Jioen-°lmu. 

Fah; fah-h'e. 

Tiau. 

Bo. 

Ban. 

Zan ; zan''-°chi-le ; zan 
Ice. 

°Kwung. 
Su-tsang°. 

Be\ 

Wo°-°liau. 

"Soo. 

Sak. 

"Kwung. 

Tsen. 

Oen-we". 

'E\ 

Kak ; kak-t'eh. 

Sau. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



149 



To gathev (as fruit or 
flowers), 

To cancel ; to erase. 

To reconcile ; to pacify. 

To pay a balance. 

To criticise. 

To answer. 

To cook. 

To send forth ; to issue. 

To issue ti proclama- 
tion. 

To violate (a regula- 
tipa or law). 

To drive ; to urge ; to 
press. '■' 

To grind ; to whet. 

To piaster (as a wall). 

To file. 

To pound (in a mortar). 

To sift. 

To strain ; to filter. 

To water (a garden). 

To separate ; to make 
distinct. 

To create a disturbance. 

To hinder ; to frustrate. 

To separate ; to divide. 

Recommend (for a po- 
sition). 






p 

m mm 



M 






°Ts'e. 

Choen-t'eh. 

^Oo ; cJwen-'oo. 

°Tsau; °tsau-wan. 

PH-bing. 

We-deu. 

Sau; sau van'. 

Tseh. 

Tseh leau-z". 

°Van; "van /ah. 



°Koen. 

Moo. 

°Fung ; °fung pih. 

Ts'oo°. 

Song (ts'ung°). 

Sz {su). 

Lih. 

Kyau. 

"Li; °li tsing-°saung. 



Tsauh-yan. 
°Tsoo; °tsoo-°taung. 
Fung-k'e ; fung-pih. 



n . 



150 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To CDcroach upon (an- 
other's land;. 

To take up with both 
hands. 

To uncover ; to open. 

To point with the hand. 
To stultify. 

To vacillate ; to disap- 
point. 

To deport one's self to; 
to treat. 

I treated him kiudly. 

To oifend; to transgress. 

To hide or secrete one's 
self. 

To consult. 

To consider. 

To spread, daub, or 
smear. 

To arrange, to manage, 

To kneel. 

To banish. 

To forfeit. 

To confiscate. 

To rebel. 

To forbid ; to prohibit. 

To make a prostration 
(as before an idol). 

To add to. 



fl5 



m 



m mm 



mm 



m 



M 



Tsien°. 

Toeh. 

Hyih; Jiyih-lie. 
°Tien, "tsz-'tien. 
Dung-°tou. 

Tah-jau. 
"Be. 

_ Ngoo °de yi 'man °lmu. 
Tuh'°dzoe, 

Sen-long. 

Saung- liung. 
lang-soen . 

Tail. 

Ban. 

°Jm. 

Tsong'kyuin. 

Seh't'eh. 

Ts'ong-kong ; zeh-hwm. 

NyiJi. 

' Veh-°hyui. 

K'eh-deu. 

Ka. , 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



151 



Add a little. 


urn 


Ka-tien. 


To hook. 


m 


Keu. 


To deceive, to mystify. 


mm 


Mv-'ok. 


To deceive, to trick. 


mm 


Long'-dzung. 


To sacrifice to. 


^ 


Tsi". 


Fioished. 


TCW 


Wen-tse.