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DS 465.A15 *" ""'''*^*">' Library 
"*'lSiiillSwmiSlffia.°' 'he India 

3 1924 024 059 622 

Cornell University 

The original of tinis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

H E P R T 

cj^e e^m ^€€e^'m^ 




K.O.I.B., O.S.I., LL.D. 

'O <f>LXoL, 'ApyeLOiv OS t c^o^os, os re jiieo-^ets, 

OS re x^jOetorepos, 

vvv eTrXero epyov airadLV. 

Iliad, XII. 269-71. 











®|)ts Tolumt is IJttfttatctr 








Preface to the present Reprint ..... 
Preface to the First E«print, by Mr. P. C. Danvers 

I. Repoet on the Old Records op the India Office 

First Division. — Court Minutes, Court of Committees, and 
Legal and Miscellaneous Affairs of the Company 

Second Division. — Trading and Shipping, and General 
Commercial Affairs of the Company 

Third Division. — Foreign Relations of the Company 

Fourth Division. — The History of the Company in India . 

Fifth Division. — Factory Records .... 
Factory Diaries and Consultations 

II. Supplementary Note. — The Modebn Quest and Inven- 

tion OP THE Indies 
The " Old Travellers " . 
Parenthesis on the Commerce of the Saracens, and of 

Genoa, Venice, and Florence with the East 
Parenthesis on the Hanseatic League 
The " Old Travellers " (continued) 
The Portuguese Asia . 
The Dutch in the East . 
The English in India . 
The Company's Trade . 

The Chronicle of the " Old " East India Company 
The History of " The United Company," or the British 
Conquest of India ..... 

Inventory of the Company's Territorial Acquisitions . 

Subsequent Acquisitions of the Crown 

Conclusion ...... 

Appendices : 

Appendix A. — Report by Dr. George Birdwood, dated 17th 

April 1875, on certain Documents relating to the East 

India Company discoveied in the Political Department . 

Calendar of aforesaid Documents, prepared by Mr. W. 

Noel Sainsbury, C.B. . . . ■ 263 

Appendix B. — Reprint of the Introduction by Sir George 

Birdwood to The Baicn of British Trade to the East Indies 274 
Appendix C. — List of the East India Company's Charters 

found in the Accountant General's Department . . 282 

Appendix D. — Catalogue of the Parchment Records . 284 

Index ......•• 289 

Erratum ......-• 316 













I. Arms of the Old [London] East India" 

Company ...... 

II. Arms of the New [English] East India 


III. The Old East India House {from a" 

Butch print) .... 

IV. The Old East India House {from Wil 

Ham Overley's trade card) 

V. The East IndiaHouse, 1726-96 . . . ,„^^^^ ^^^j^ ^^^^^ 

VI. The East India House, 1?96-1858 . . 3 between pjp. 40 and 41, 

Vn. Sketch map of Bombay Harbour, 1626 {from a 
scrabble in David Davies' Journal in the India 
Office Records) ..... tofacep.2\4i 

to face each other 
between pp. 20 and 21, 

to face each other 
between pp. 38 and 39, 

Map of the European Discovei-ies made in the quest 
of India and in the Early Exploration of the 
Eastern Seas to face p. 100 

Map of the Early European Agencies, Factories, and 

Settlements in the Indian Seas 232 


The present reprint of my REPORT ON THE 0m ^tCOXti^ 
OF THE INDIA OFFICE having been undertaken as a 
business speculation by Messrs. W. H. Allen & Co., Ltd., 
I thought at first of giving it a more attractive character by 
the addition of a series of particularly interesting extracts 
from the documents to which it really is nothing more 
than a curtly descriptive Index. But the Keport having 
come into demand, not as an entertaining Calendar, but 
as a comprehensive working Index, I resolved, on second 
thoughts, to reproduce it exactly as originally printed in 
1879, and again in the autumn of last year. One little 
alteration I have indeed introduced, and that is the rele- 
gation of occasional illustrative remarks from the body of 
the Report to foot-notes. I have also added as foot-notes, 
both to the Report and the Supplementary Note, some of 
the Departmental Memoranda on special subjects eluci- 
dated by the India Office records, prepared by me subse- 
quent to 1879. Such are the note on Buonaparte at 
Longwood, at pp. 98-98, and the note on La Bourdonnais 
at pp. 242-248. The Report is now, therefore, more strictly 
than ever a bare and, so to speak, short-hand Index to the 
Supplementary Miscellaneous <3lXl ^tCOXttS enumerated 
in the Statistic and Commerce Departmental List, No. 
2,397, and the Lists furnished to me in 1879 by the other 
Departments of the India Office ; and I have been the 
readier to reduce it to this complexion from a natural 
desire to avoid using the official facilities I enjoy for the 
exploration of these ^Itf ^t^OttfS to the detriment of 
less-favoured students of English history, whose researches 
in them I have in no way forestalled. 

The Supplementary Note was originally written merely 
for my ovvrn information and guidance, and was only 

a 2 


printed with the Eeport because the late Sir Henry Yule 
thought it would be useful to others beside myself. It is 
nothing but a compilation, copied bodily out of my com- 
mon-place books on the history of Indian commerce and 
art, and very imperfect ; being disproportionately lengthy 
where it treats of subjects in which I am interested, and 
far too brief where they happen to be uninteresting to me. 
I wished therefore very much to recast it altogether, in the 
hope of better adapting it for general reading. However, 
Mr. Quaritch, a very partial friend of mine, and Messrs. 
Allen & Co. as the responsible publishers of the book, 
both insisted on the Supplementary Note standing as it 
first appeared ; and so it now reappears, a frequent foot- 
note indicating to the inexperienced where it is parti- 
cularly defective. 

The opportunity has been taken in the present Keprint 
to cc rrect certain errors, for the most part comparatively 
trifling, that had crept into both the Report and Supple- 
mentary Note ; and in a few cases the foot-notes have been 
amplified and fresh matter introduced. While making these 
corrections and additions, however, I have been careful to 
preserve throughout the identical paging of the first reprint ; 
and the two may, therefore, for all practical purposes, be 
regarded as earlier and later issues of the same edition. 

It is a true pleasure to me to here testify to the won- 
derful improvement that has been effected since 1879 in 
the order and condition of the India Office records. The 
credit of this is altogether due to Mr. P. C. Danvers, who in 
1884 commenced the first effective attempt to systemati- 
cally conserve and classify them, and render them promptly 
and safely accessible to the public. The first step was to 
procure more space for them than was formerly allowed ; 
and this having been obtained, the many thousands of 
loose papers that had hitherto been simply tied up in 
vaguely-assorted bundles were carefully collated with the 
documents in the better preserved regular series of the 
records, and bound up with them in chronological order ; 
the volumes comprising each series being consecutively 


numbered, and placed in distinct ranges of cases.* The 
royal charters, and other parchment records still in exis- 
tence, have been unfolded, cleaned, flattened, and, after 
careful examination, put away in large shallow boxes, 
shelved on a specially constructed locking skeleton cup- 
board, standing in the centre of the muniment, provided 
entirely for these " Parchment Records," as they are now 
designated, and other special relics of the late Honourable 
East India Company. The bulk of the documents in the 
general Record Rooms are distributed in such a way as, in 
the first place, to best subserve the purposes of the Depart- 
ments requiring constant access to them. But the conve- 
nience of the public has also been considered in the 
arrangements adopted, and, when they are completed and 
in full operation, it will be possible for anyone provided 
with the proper authority to obtain, within a few minutes, 
any volume that may be vpanted from any of the India 
Office Record Rooms. 

The systematic custody of the state records is also being 
simultaneously provided for in India, in accordance with a 
parallel and almost identical plan initiated by Professor 
G. W. Forrest, B.A. ; and thus in that country as well 
as here an immense mass of materials is being rapidly 
brought within the reach of all those whose duty it is to be 
fully and correctly informed on the history of the rise 
and progress of the Indian Empire. 

The Government authorities, both at home and in India, 
have, moreover, long been in the practice of compiling for 
Departmental or Parliamentary use occasional volumes of 
"Selections" from Despatches, Letters, Minutes, and 
other Papers, showing the principles and procedure of 
various branches of the British Administration in India, 
and also volumes of " Memoirs," detailing the history and 
organization of different Departments of the Government. 
The Memoir on the Indian Surveys, prepared by Mr. Clements 
Markham, C.B., in 1871, is a remarkable example of the 
latter kind of publications, and a model to which they 

* For particulars see Mr. Danvers' interesting " Report on the Records of 
the I'ndia Office," published in 1887 as a Parliamentary Paper [C. 50551. 

should in future be always conformed ; while of the former 
class we have a brilliant illustration in Professor Forrest's 
recently-issued Selections from the Records of the Foreign 
Department of the Government of India [Warren Hastings], 

In future the Government might still further promote 
the diffusion of a thorough knowledge of India by encou- 
raging private enterprise, firstly, in the fac-simile reproduc- 
tion of such graphic documents in their possession as those 
photo-lithographed by Mr. William Griggs, of Peckham, 
in the Journal of Indian Art for July last ; secondly, in the 
publication, verbatim et literatim, of selected series of the 
^IK l^WOVtrs, such as the Court Books, and Original 
Correspondence, after the manner of the publication, in 
1886, by Mr. Henry Steveps, of Vermont, of the first 
volume of the Court Books [see Appendix B.J ; and, 
finally, by extending the utmost possible assistance and 
patronage to trained scholars of recognized literary capa- 
city, who would be found willing to re-write the history 
of British India, or v?ell-determined portions of it, direct 
from the stored archives of Bombay, Madras, and Cal- 
cutta, and the India Office. Only when this is done 
will the a^Ui 'j^ttOVtf^ of the India Office have been put 
to their worthiest and most fruitful service. 

I am myself greatly indebted for the help rendered me 
by Mr. F. C. Danvers, in revising the present volume ; 
and my thanks are also due to Mr. William Foster, B.A., of 
the Registry and Record Department, for his assistance in 
seeing it through the press. In this trying work Mr. 
Foster has served me with the most perfect patience, 
efficiency; and loyalty, and I cannot too strongly express 
my obligations to him for his invaluable co-operation. 

To those of my readers ignorant of the symbolism of 
India, it may, perhaps, be as well that I should in con- 
clusion explain the meaning of the ritualistic ornamenta- 
tion in which I have indulged on the blank leaves at the 
beginning and end of this volume, and on its binding. 
The "right-hand svastika," stamped in red on the blank 
leaf facing the title-page, is, among modern Hindus, a 


symbol of Ganisa or Ganapati, and is commonly placed by 
them, instead of the image of Ganisa, at the head of 
invoices and other papers.* It is also the symbol of the 
male principle in nature, and of the sun of the upper 
world, that is, in his diurnal course from " East to Occi- 
dent;" and of the day, and summer, and light, and life, 
and glory ; and it is coloured dominical red, the proper 
tincture of the East. To the Hindu it is an abbreviated 
form of the salutation : 


Hail to Ganisa ! 

Lord of the Hosts of Heaven ! 

Of Whom are all Beginnings! 


The "left-handed svastika," or sauvastika,-f stamped in 
blue on the blank leaf opposite the last printed page of 
the book is the symbol of Kali, the Indian Mania. It is 
also the symbol of the female principle in nature ; and of 
the sun of the underground world, that is, in his noctur- 
nal course from " the utmost corner of the West " back 
to " the fiery portal of the East ;" and of the night, and 
winter, and darkness, death, and destruction ; and it is 
deeply dyed in " nadder blue," the conventional Hindu 
colouration of the West. J 

Where it is placed it is a graphic reduction of the 

invocation : 


Wail to Kali ! 

Leader of the Hordes of Hell ! 

Of whom is all Consummation ! 

The Dark Mother of Ganisa ! 

Wail ! 

On the cover the little ships placed in alternation 

between reversely revolving svastikas represent the 17th 

century fleets of the " Old" Bast India Company, sailing 

* Compare our ancient use of the phrase " Laus Deo " iu the same manner 
[see p. 72]. 

t See Professor Max Miiller in ScUiemann's llios [J. Murray, 1880], 
pp. 346-349. 

I The Hindu colour for the South is yellow, and for the North white ; and 
these four colours — red, yellow, blue, and white — correctly represent, accord- 
ing to the ritualism of India, the East, South, West, and North, on the ensign 
of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. 


in their golden progress from the waste "Water of 
oblivion " of the West into the light and life of the rich 
and gorgeous Kingdoms of the ever illustrious East. 

In antiquity, of which India is the last living reserva- 
tion, blue was everywhere regarded as the colour of the 
sea, and of the West, and red of the land, and of the East ; 
and in accordance with this ritualistic chromatism the 
Odyssey was, it is said, always wrapped up in blue cloth, 
and the Iliad in red. I cannot therefore help noting in 
this connection that the change of arms, and particularly 
in the dominant colours of the arms of the East India 
Company, as shown in Plates I. and II., foreshadowed 
its transformation from a mercantile corporation into a 
great military power. The change of mottoes is still more 
striking; and there were at the time those who clearly 
read its inauspicious significance : 

" For the Wise 
" Hare a divining Soul that never lyes."* 


30th November 1890. 

* These lines, and the phrase, previously quoted, " Water of oblivion " [of 
the West], are from Sir Kichard Fanshawe's rugged, and often obscure, but 
most fascinating version, in " ottava rima," of The Luciad or Portajah Histo- 
rical Poem [1655]. The stanza in which Da Gama thanks the Alniighty for 
his miraculous deliverance from the treachery of " the Moors " at one of the 
East African ports, concludes with the feeling lines : 

What Care, what Wisdom is of suffisance, 
The stroake of Secret mischief to preveut, 

Unless the Sov'raion GirAitDiAN from on high 

Snpply the strength of frail Humnnit]/ ? 

Da Gama's confession, to the Moormen, of his Christian faith is quaintly 
rendered : 

We worship Him, who is hy eucrij Nature 

{Invisible and visible) obay'd, 

Him who the Semisp/ieres, and every Creature 

(Insensible aud sensible) hath made ; 

Who gave Us his, and took on Him oii r feature. 

Whom to a shameful death his own betrayed ; 
Aud who from Heaven to liarlli came down in flue, 
That Man, by Him, from Earth to Heaven might olimbe. 

There is true poetry in the description of an altar-piece representing the 
Blessed Virgin Mary : 

On It, the picture of that Sdapu he plao't, 

In which the Holt Spirit did alight ; 

Tbe picture of the Dove, so white, so chast, 

On the Blest Vmaiu's head, so chaste, so white. 

And there is no suggestion in Camoens of the magic of the antiphonal 

repetition : " so white, so chast, so chaste, so white." 

Another happy touch is the line : 

The Waters of the Consecrated Dbbf. 

By Me. F. C. Danvebs, 

Registrar and Superintendent of Records, India Office. 

In reprinting the "Eeport on the Old Records of 
" the India Office," prepared by Sir George Birdwood 
in 1878, the detailed classification given to those docu- 
ments when the Report was first published has been 
eliminated, as it is no longer applicable to them under 
the existing arrangements. Since this Report was first 
issued some few of the documents then missing have 
been discovered, and wherever this has been the case 
amendments have been made accordingly. The docu- 
ments in the First Division described under the heading 
" Court Minutes," have been found to consist chiefly 
of the rough Minute Books from which the "Court 
Books " were most probably compiled ;* they, however, 
were evidently not confined to the rough entries of the 
proceedings of the Court of Directors at their regular 
meetings, but they contain also notes of events which 
occurred between the regular meetings of the Court, and 
possess, therefore, a greater value than would otherwise 
have been the case. The " Court of Committees " 
volumes also appear to contain rough entries only, and 
from the fact that so few of these now remain, whilst 
there exists no evidence that fair copies were ever sub- 
sequently made, it would appear that they were not 
intended as permanent records. The proceedings of 
the Committees of any importance requiring the con- 

* See, for instance, the following memorandum in Court Book No. VI., 
under the date of 26th April 1624: — "Here is a great dispute concerning 
" the King and the Lord Admiral omitted, but remains to be seen upon the 
" original copy. " 

firmation of the Court would necessarily find a place in 
the Court Books. It is, however, not by any means 
certain that these missing volumes, as well as those that 
are wanting from other lists of documents, have not, at 
some time or other, been sacrificed as waste paper amongst 
the hundreds of tons of Eecords so disposed of in former 

Amongst these Books are two which are particularly 
valuable as containing, so far as I have been able to 
ascertain, the only records extant of the separate pro- 
ceedings of the "English East India Company," These 
consist of Minutes of the " Court of Directors," the one 
being the first volume of those Minutes, and com- 
mencing the 7th September 1698, or two days after 
the date of their Charter, and extending to the 20th 
June 1699. There is then a gap of some years, and the 
only other volutne of the same series bears dates between 
the 21st July 1704 and the 8th January 1708. There 
are also four volumes of the Minutes of the " Committee 
of Managers," extending from the 31st July 1702 to the 
13th April 1709. This Committee was a Joint Com- 
mittee of the two Companies. On the 22nd July 1702 
an Indenture or Charter of Union between the two 
East India Companies passed the great seal, and on the 
24th idem each Company did, in pursuance of the said 
Charter of Union, elect twelve Managers for the united 
trade of the two Companies. The first Court of Directors 
of the United East India Company was held on the 23rd 
March 1709, at which date the union of the two Companies 
was completed. 

In the earlier Records of the East India Company 
there is almost an entire absence of copies of letters 
sent by them from this country to their several agents 
abroad ; but it is beyond doubt that these at one time 
existed. Probably, however, these were very few in 
the early years of their trade. A book has recently 
been found containing letters out and other documents 
up to 1616, after which there is an absence of letters 

out until '25th April 1653. On the 6th July 1607, at a 
Court of Committees held on that date, it " was 
^•' thought ffitt that all letters from and to India and all 
" the answers thereof be entered into a book and coated 
*' for future memorie as occasion may fall out." At a 
Court held on the 6th October 1609 it was further 
resolved as follows : — 

" And for as much as it is esteemed very needfull that 
*' all letters to and from the Company, and also material 
" writings, be coated and kept in a Eegister ready for every 
*' occasion, and that some fitt man may be given for that 
" business or for any other employment of the Company 
" about his Ma"^^ Court or otherwise. It was now ordered 
" and agreed that Mr. Eadm'^ Doe do confer and agree 
" with some fitt and faithful man for the doeing and 
" efiecting of this, or any other the Companie's affaires 
" wherein he shall be employed." 

On the 17th of the same month, "Ffrancis Sadler 
*' was admitted and sworn servant of the Companie for 
•' the registering of sundry letters and other writings fit 
*' to be coated, registered, and kept for the use of the 
" Company. And further to doe such other their 
*' services upon which they shall think good to employ 
« him." 

The earlier correspondence addressed from abroad to 
the Company is exceedingly scanty, not more than 
fourteen documents of date previous to 1610 having been 
handed down to the present time in the 0. C. volumes, 
besides which there are but very few of an earlier date 
amongst the loose miscellaneous documents. It appears, 
however, evident from references in the Court Books 
that many were received which are not now in exis- 
tence. From 1610 they become more numerous in 
each year. Some of the missing documents were pro- 
bably lost at a very early period. In 1614 " certain 
journals " were wanted which could not then be found, 
and it was consequently ordered* that all journals 

* Court Minutes, 13tb December 1614. 

should first be written in the Company's books before- 
being lent to any man, and that none were to use them 
without the consent of the Committees. The missing 
journals, which had been lent and could not be found,* 
were to be searched for. Some months later, in August. 
1615, a further Resolutionf was passed that none of the- 
Company's journals were thereafter to be lent " before- 
" copies of them be entered in their books, whereby the- 
" journals themselves have been lost to the great preju- 
" dice of the Company, and some things known which are 
" not fit to be published." After entry they were to be 
" delivered only to some principal persons of the Company 
" that shall desire the same." But all other persons 
wishing to inspect them were to be " satisfied with coming 
" and seeing them in the Office, or otherwise a copy of 
" them in the Books." 

Besides the defects in these volumes of Indian Cor- 
respondence, there are unfortunately considerable gaps 
in the Court Minute Books. Although the first volume- 
finishes with the 10th August 1603, the second does 
not begin till the 31st December 1606; there exists, 
however, one volume entitled " Miscellaneous Court 
Book," which contains a few entries between these two 
years. From the latter date until January 1610 the 
entries are complete ; then a hiatus of four years occurs, 
the third volume beginning with January 1614. The 
last entry in that book is dated the 17th November 1615, 
but the next Court Book does not begin before the 19th 
September 1617. The first missing volume between 
1603 and 1606 is perhaps of the most consequence,, 
because the correspondence does not supply the de- 
ficiency, which, in a measure, it fortunately does after 
that date. There are also other gaps in the Court 
Minutes in later years. 

It appears certain that at the union of the " London " 

* Court Minutes, 20th December 1614. 
t Court Minutes, 80th August 1615. 

^ith the " New " East India Company, the llecords 
belonging to the former were found in great disorder; 
and there is a Notice, without date, to the effect,—" That 
" at the dissolution of the Company, meaning when the 
" Old (or London) was absorbed in the United Company, 
*' great numbers of their Books and Papers were promis- 
" cuously put together, some of which have since come 
*' to the Trustees' hands, and more are inspecting by 
" their ' Register,' in order to obtain the necessary infor- 
" mation for answering Plaintiflf Yale's Bill ; and that 
" it will require a deal of care to separate and digest 
" them." 

In 1830 or 1831 an attempt was made to collect all 
the " Original Correspondence from India, with col- 
" lateral Documents, originating at any places between 
*' England and Japan " which were then extant. These 
were carefully bound, numbered, and catalogued, and 
form what is now known as the "0. C." Records. 
They extend from 1603 to 1708, and correspond to the 
Tolumes of letters from, and proceedings of, the Govern- 
ments in India of the present day. This collection, 
however, is sadly deficient, especially iu the earlier years, 
and does not contain all the documents that might 
have been included, several of which have continued 
as loose documents, tied up in bundles, to the present 
day. The great loss of early documents then ascertained 
naturally excited inquiry, and in 1835 the deficiencies 
in the Company's Records were brought prominently 
to notice, and an attempt was made to account for these 
^wherever they occurred, an inquiry, however, which does 
not appear to have resulted in the recovery of any of the 
missing documents. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the earliest "Marine 
Records " are missing, viz., the logs, journals, &c., of 
the first voyages of the East India Company ; and this 
loss is only partly compensated for by the publications 
contained in " Purchas hys Pilgrimes " and those of the 
Hakluyt Society. It appears that Mr. Hakluyt was 

consulted by the Court of Directors of the East India^ 
Company from the very commencement of their 
operations, and by an Order of the Court of the 16th. 
February 1601 certain warrants were ordered to be 
drawn, including one of ^610 to Mr. Hakluyt " for his 
" travails taken in instructions and advices touching 
" the preparing of the voyage, and for his former 
" advices in setting the voyage in hand the last year;" 
also " 30s. for three maps by him provided and delivered 
" to the Company." Mr. Hakluyt was appointed 
" Historiographer of the East India Company," and he 
seems to have been entrusted with the custody of the 
manuscript journals of all the East India voyages from 
1601 almost to the date of his decease in 1616. A few 
years later these documents came into the hands of the 
Eev. Samuel Purchas, who, instead of publishing them 
in extenso, formed compilations from them, which he 
pubhshed in " Purchas hys Pilgrimes " in 1625. Purchas 
died in the following year, and all trace of many of 
the earliest of these valuable historical records was sub- 
sequently lost. There is no evidence that they were 
ever returned to the East India Company. 

In the classification of the India Office Records, now 
in progress, all the loose documents will be assigned 
places in accordance with the nature of their subject 
matter, and be carefully bound, and thus placed beyond 
all ordinary risk of loss or damage ; the 0. C. volumes- 
will, however, be left untouched, and the loose docu- 
ments, which comprise several thousand papers, will be 
arranged in separate series, according as they consist 
of Home correspondence. Marine Records, or those re- 
lating to the various settlements or factories abroad. It 
will thus be seen that the arrangement adopted in the 
present Report is of a tentative nature only, rendered 
necessary, however, before those documents could be 
otherwise dealt with and assigned their proper places 
with the general Records of this Office, in consequence 
of the chaotic state in which they were found at the 

time it was made and the following Eeporfc on their 
principal contents written. 

On the completion of the new classification, the 
Records of this Office will be calendared in the same 
manner as is adopted at the Public Record Office, and 
they will thus be rendered more readily accessible to any 
who may desire to consult them. This, however, it must 
be added, will be the work of some years ; but it is 
intended that volumes containing the calendars of the 
earliest Records shall be issued from time to time as thej 
may be completed. 

F. C. Danvbrs, 
Registrar and Superintendent 
of Records. 
India Office, 
7th November 1889. 





" Qui mare teneafc, eum necesse rerum potiri." 
Cicero, Epist. ad Att., X. 

" And therefore the Sovereignty of the Seas being the most pre- 
cious Jewell of the Crowne, and next under God the priacipall means 
of our Wealth and Safetie ; all true English hearts and hands are 
bound by all possible means and diligence to preserve and maintain 
the Same, even at the uttermost hazzard of their lives, their goods 
and fortunes." 

Sir John Bueeoughs, Keeper of the Records 
in the Tower of London, 1651. 

" Behold then the true Form and Worth of Forraign Trade, which 
is : — The Great Eevenue of the King ; The Honour of the Kingdom ; 
The Noble Profession of the Merchant ; The School of our Arts ; 
The Supply of our Wants ; The Employment of our Poor; The Im- 
provement of our Lands ; The Nursery of our Mariners ; The Walls 
of the Kingdoms ; The Means of our Treasure ; The Sinnews of our 
Wars ; The Terrour of our Enemies." 

Sir Thomas Mtjn \_see p. 22], England's 

Treasure of Forravjn Trade, London, 


"Le Trident de Neptune est le Sceptre du Monde." 
Antoine Marin Lemieere, 

(Euvres, " Commerce," 1810. 




The papers submitted to me for classification were the 
supplementary miscellaneous " Old Records " enumerated 
in the Statistics and Commerce Departmental List, 
No. 2,397, and in the Lists furnished by the other Depart- 
ments of this Office. They have been re-arranged in the 
" Record Rooms" in the order of the amended List pre- 
fixed* to this Report ; my object in the re-arrangement of 
them having been to keep the "Factory Records," and 
all the documents relating to the Company's Factories, 
distinct from the other " Old Records " of the Company. 
All these papers have now therefore been classified under 
the following five divisions : — 

First, the Court Minutes, Committee Minutes, and 
papers relating to the Legal Affairs of the Company, and 
to Miscellaneous Matters connected with the Company ; 

Second, the papers relating to the Shipping, Trading, 
and General Affairs of the Company ; 

Third, the papers concerning the Foreign Relations of 
the Company, many of which it is difficult to really 
separate from Factory Records, the Company's relations 
with Japan and China, with the Dutch in the East, and 
with Persia, having chiefly been in connection with their 
factories in those countries ; 

Fourth, the papers relating to the History of the 
Company in India ; and 

Fifth, the Factory Records. 

* This List is omitted from the present reprint of the Report. 


I have carefully gone through all these papers with the 
purpose of coming to an opinion as to their comparative 
interest and importance ; and the opinion I have formed 
on the point is that every scrap of these papers is of 
interest and importance, and should be scrupulously 

Quite apart from the extraordinary history of the 
Bast India Company, every fact recorded in these papers 
has its significance for the student of the past. It 
would be useless therefore to attempt to make a selection 
from them ; for what one enquirer might overlook as of 
no interest, another would find of the highest impor- 
tance. For instance, what I have found most interesting 
in these records are the entries illustrative of the history 
of articles of trade, — such as the mention made of tea, 
opium, indigo, gum-lac, gamboge, and kino, and of 
shawls, carpets, and the like, — which to most persons 
would seem trivial, if not altogether worthless. The 
proper plan, therefore, to adopt with reference to these 
" Old Records," is to keep them in good preservation, — 
well bound, well arranged, and well classified, — so that 
whosoever may at any time desire to examine them shall 
at once know the volumes he wants and where to find 
them. And someone should be held directly responsible 
for their charge, and for a general knowledge of their 
contents ; and they should never be lent out of the Ofl&ce. 
They have at various times been lent out to persons who 
have not been sufiBciently careful to return what they 
borrowed ; as is evident from the references made in 
standard works to India OflBce papers that cannot now be 
found in the " Kecord Rooms " here. 

In the following description of the contents of the 
volumes into which the " Old Records " have been sorted, 
under the five divisions above enumerated, any matters 
of interest that have struck me in going rapidly, 
but page by page, through the volumes, are briefly 



Cottvt Minntt^, eouxt of ^omtntttccs, mts %tqsa 
a«tr iJftisfcllanfous Affairs ot t^t eompm^. 

* Court Minutes. — 26 volumes, from 1690 to 1765. 

Vol. 1, 1690-1694, contains a table of the Committees 
of the Company for the year 1693 ; namely, " for the 
Treasury," " for Shipping and Plantations," " ior Buying 
Goods," "for Law Suits and Debts," "for Private 
Trade," " for Secretary's Accounts," " for Surat Fac- 
tories," "for Surat Warehouses," "for tlie Coast and 
Bay" [i.e., Coromandel Coast, and Bay of Bengal], 
"for the Coast and Bay Warehouses," "for the Com- 
pany's Books and Accounts," for the Blew Ware- 
house " [see Evelyn's letter to Pepys, 23rd September 
1685], "for the Pepper Warehouse" [the Company's 
old Pepper Warehouses, under the Royal Exchange, and 
the Saltpetre Warehouses, were destroyed in the Great 
Fire of London, 1666], "for Writing Letters," "for 
[Ships] Husbands Accounts." 

Vol. 2, 1 698-99 :— appertaining to the "New" or 
"English [Bast India] Company," The first entry is of 
a Court held September 7th, 1698, "at Mercers' Hall," 
at which ",the Charter for the English Company^ 

* See Preface, p. 1 ; and p. 15 infra, " General Remarks on Court Minutes." 

t The " London East India Company," commonly called the " Old 
Company," was first incorporated by Queen Elizabeth on the Slst December 
1600, under the title of " 2'Ae Governor and Company of the Merchants of 
London trading into the East Indies." 

Courten's Association of the Assada [Madagascar] Merchants was esta- 
blished 1635, and united with the " London East India Company," 1650 ; 
although the Assada Adventurers were not all brought into the Company 
until 1657. 

Evelyn [see p. 22], in his Diary, has the following entries relating to the 
union of the " Adventurers " with the Company : — 

26th November 1657. " I went to London tea Court of tlie East India Company upon 
" its new union in Merchant Taylors' Hall, which was much disturbed by reason ol the Ana- 
" baptists, who would have the Adventurers obliged only by an engagement, without swear- 
" ing, that they still might pursue their private trade ; but it was carried against them. 


" trading to the East Indies, and bearing date Sep- 
"tember 6th, was brought in by Mr. Townsend ; and 
" the first Directors were chosen by a majority of the 
" Subscribers to the Joint Stock." 

Among the directors occur the names of Sir Theodore 
Jansen and Sir W. Scawen. At a Court held in 
"Skinners Hall,"* June 20th, 1699, were present, 

" Wednesday was resolved on for a General Court for election of officers, after a sermon and 

" prayers lor good success. The stock resolved on was 800,0001." 

27th November 1657. "I tooke the oath at the East India House, subscribing 500!." 

2nd December 1657. "Dr. Eeynolds [since Bishop of Norwich] preached before the 

" Company at St. Andrew Undershaft, on IS Nehemiah, 31 [' Bemember me, O my God, for 

" good'], shewing by the example of Nehemiah aU the perfections of a trusty person in 

" publique affaires, with many good precepts apposite to the occasion, ending with a prayer 

" for God's blessing on the Company and the Undertaking." 

10th December 1682. " I sold my Bast India adventure of 2501. principal for 7501. to the 

" Koyal Society, after I had been in that Company 25 years, being extraordinary advanta- 

" geous by the blessing of God." 

" The English Company [including ' The General Society,'' chartered by 
William III., 3rd September 1698] trading to the East Indies,^' commonly 
called " the New Company," was incorporated by William III., 5tli Sep- 
tember 1698 ; its cHarter running to 1714. 

The above Company of lilerchants of London, and the EngHsh Company, 
were finally incorporated under the name of " The United Company of Mer- 
chants of England trading to the East Indies " [commonly styled " the Honour- 
able East India Company "] in 1708-9. 

The following were the principal charters granted to the " London East 
India Company " : — 

1st, of Queen EKzabeth, 31st December 1600, "to 1615"; 2nd, of James 
I., 31st May 1609, "perpetual" ; 3rd, of the Protector, Oliver CromweU, in 
1657, " giving exclusive rights to the United Company " ; 4th, of Charles II. 
[" whose word uo man relies on"], 3rd April 1661, "perpetual" ; 5th, ditto, 
5th October 1677, "perpetual," and authorising the Company to coin money 
at Bombay; 6th, ditto, 9th August 1683, again " perpetual " ; 7th, of Wil- 
liam IIL and Mary, 7th October 1693, "perpetual" ; 8th and 9th, of Anne, 
dated, respectively, the 22nd April and 15th August 1709, to 1726, but 
actually to 1736. They practically united the " London " or " Old Com- 
pany " with the Enghsh " or " New Company." 

Of the above charters, the 1st and 2nd exist at the India Office only as 
copies ; of the 3rd and 6th nothing is known there ; and only the 4th, 5th, 
7th, 8th, and 9th, with others of the various documents under which the 
amalgamation of " the Old " and " New " Companies was effected, remain 

* The Skinners' Hall was originally in Coped Hall, but after " the Great 
Fire," in 1666, was rebuilt in Dowgate ; and there " the New Company " held 
its General Courts until its amalgamation with " the Old Company''- and 
they are said to have presented the Skinners' Company with a ship-load of 
sandal-wood for pannelling the new " parlour " there. 


among athers, Sir James Bateman, Sir E. Harrison, and 
Sir Thomas Master. 

Yol. 5, 1702-4. Under date October 8th, 1702, a 
list is given of the Eastern produce to be taken in ex- 
change for the bullion and commodities sent out in the 
Company's ships, on account of the oflBcers and ship's 
men. It includes " Cambogium " [see p. 27, Joint 
Stocks, Vol. 2], " Ambergreece," " Assafcetida," " Am- 
moniacum " [Tavernier mentions it among the exports 
from Ahmedabad], " Aggatts " ["Achats," see Evelyn, 
May 22nd, 1664, in an account of rarities brought to 
London by the East India Company], " Goa Stones," 
[Fryer tells us this once famous medicament was the inven- 
tion of Gasper Antonio, of the Paulistines monastery at 
Gosk, circa 1650], "Roman Vitriol" [i.e., Blue Vitriol, 
or Sulphate of Copper]. It is added : — " and any other 
" commodities which the Court shall not reserve for 
" themselves." 

Vol. 14, 1707-8. Contains a copy of the oath taken 
by the captains of the Company's ships, to be " true and 
" faithful to the said Company." 

Vol. 25, 1760-61, and Vol. 26, 1765, are Index 
volumes to the Court Books, the latter volume being 
completed only to the letter H. 

General Eemarlcs on the Court Minutes. 

The above " COURT MINUTES " are distinct from 
the " Court Books " or " Court Minutes " ranging from 
A.D. 1599 to 1858-59, in 1 91 volumes,*— the earlier of 
■which have been sent to the Public Record Office to be 

The " Original Correspondence " extends from 1603 
to 1 708, in 72 volumes ; and of these volumes also the 

* Since the present Report was first printed in 1879, the 1st volume of 
these Court Minutes, 1599-1603, has been printed from the original MS., 
verbatim et literatim [with an Introduction by myself (see Appendix B.)], and 
published by Messrs. Henry Stevens and Sons, St. Martin's Lane, London, 
1886, under the title of " Ike. Dawn of British Trade in the East Indies'' 


earlier have been sent to the Public Record Office.* Prom 
1708 the " Original Correspondence " has been 
arranged under the heads of the Presidencies from which 
it is received. 

The "General Court Minutes" [of the Courts of 
Proprietors] 1700-1858; the "Miscellaneous Home 
Letters " [from the Secretary to the East India Com- 
pany], 1700-1859; the "Despatches" to St. Helena, 
Surat, and other Factories, from 1700 ; and to Bombay, 
Madras, and Calcutta, from 1753 ; the " Proceedings " 
of the Governments of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, 
and all other Records of the Company, beginning later 
than the 17th century, are not included in the present 
Report. But of the unconnected later [i.e., 18th cen- 
tury] records of places of which there are earlier [i.e. 
17th century] records, the interest in which later records 
is now languid or obsolete, such as the Angengo, Gom- 
broon, Tellicherry, Tannah, and other unconnected 
"Proceedings" of the last century, I have been careful 
to make a note in this Report under the Fifth, or 
" Factory Records," Division. 

Court of Committees. — Six volumes, from 1613 to 
1727, the sixth being a volume of " Advertisements." 

The volume of "Advertisements" included under the 
present head in the re-classified list, is entered separately 
in the Department List, No. 2,397, p. 11. 

Vol. 1, 1613-21. In the Minutes of a Court of Com- 
mittees, holden the 17th October 1621, the name of a Mr. 
Halliday occurs as Governour. 

Vol. 8, 1634-59, entered,' under the present head, in 
the Departmental List, No. 2,397, was missing when this 
Report was first printed, but has since been recovered. 

Vol. 5, 1701-5. Records the allowances made to the 
officers and ships' companies in the Company's service. 

* Where, together with the Court Minutes, they have been included by 
Mr. Noel Sainsbury in his invaluable Calendars of Slate Papers, Colonial Series 
East Indies, of which four volumes have appeared, extending from 1613 to 1629, 


and the oaths taken by the Govemours, &c. " At a 
"general Court of Adventurers in the General Joint 
"Stock to the East Indies, holden the 30th April 
" 1701," among those present were, — Governor Sir T. 
Cooke, Deputy Sir Sam. Dashwood, Sir Th. Kawlinson, 
Sir Jonathan Andrews, Sir John Fleet, Sir W. Gore, 
Sir Henry Johnson, Sir W. Langhorne [Governour of 
Fort St. George, 1676-8], Sir Richard Levett, Sir W. 
Prichard, Mr. Vansittart. 

Vol. 6, 1709-1727. Contains the "Advertisements" 
of meetings of Courts, with the following list of the 
London papers in which, apparently, these advertise- 
ments were published, viz. : — The Daily Gourant, The 
Postman, The Daily Post, The Post Boy, and The Flying 

Legal Appaies of the Company. — Twelve volumes, 
from 1601 to 1782. 

A. Ten volumes, from 1601 to 1720, entered under 
this head in the Departmental List, No. 2,397. Vol. 10, 
1720, gives papers in the case of the East India Company 
versus Dubois. 

B. A volume, dated 1685 to 1699, oi Petitions, entered 
separately under that head in the Departmental List, 
No. 2,39'7. 

C. A volume of copies of the Company's Commissions 
to their Gov-ernours, Governours-General, Commanders- 
in-Chief, &c., from 1697 to 1782 ; not entered in the 
Departmental List, No. 2,397. 

Further Bemarhs on the papers relating to the Legal Affairs of 

the Company. 

Under this head, it will be convenient also to refer to 
the "East India Documents," 1606-1758, described in 
my report of April 17th, 1875, Statistics and Commerce, 
Departmental No. 531. They were calendared by Mr. 
Noel Sainsbury \_see Appendix A.j, and are deposited 


in the Library.* They are all original documents, and 
the most interesting of them is the roll of subscribers 
to the fund of 2,000,000Z. raised in 1698. This roll 
consists of 15 skins of parchment. [See infra, " Mis- 
cellaneous affairs of the Company," Sub-Section III., 
"Joint Stocks," Vol. 3, and Sub-Section IV., "Amal- 
gamation of the Two Companies," Vols. 1 and 2.J In 
the Library there are also preserved 11 f other original 

* They are now in the Record Department. 

t These 11 documents were in the India Office Library when this Report 
was first printed in 1879, but they were subsequently transferred to the re- 
organized Record Department, excepting No. 7, which must have interme- 
diately been mislaid or stolen by someone who had been allowed to refer to 
it, for it has disappeared. It was not the treaty of Allahabad itself, which, 
as above stated, is preserved in the room of the Under Secretary of State, 
Tjut whether it was a draft, or the official account of the ratification, of the 
treaty, I cannot, at this distance of time, say. On the transfer of the above 
enumerated documents to the Record Department, several others were found 
in the old cases that had been brought from LeadenhaU Street and stored in 
the Library; viz. : 1, Counterpart of a lease of a house in Bishopsgate Street, 
granted by [Sir] John Massingbird to John Tynte, 19th February 1631 ; 
2, Two decrees in Chancery, Hall and wife, executors of Bostocks, against 
Leigh and the East India Company, dated ^respectively the 5th September 
1689, and 13th May 1690; 3, Decree in Chancery, Atwood, HaKord, and 
others, against' Warr and the East India Company, 19th December 1691 ; 
4, Letters of Administration granted by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 
to John Spencer, senior, of the estate of Caesar Burton, late factor, Angengo, 
26th October 1730 ; 5, Letters of Administration granted by the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbury to John Spencer, junior, of the same estate, 10th 
December 1731 ; 6, Declaration of Trust by the " Old" East India Company 
as to bonds for 70,000Z., which by Lord Godolphin's award were deposited in 
the hands of Trustees appointed by the " New " East India Company, dated 
21st March 1709 ; 7, Charter granting to the " United " Company all the 
foreign debts due to the " Old " Company, 22nd April 1709 ; 8, Queen Anne's 
Acceptance of the surrender of the Charter of the " Old" Company, 7th May 
1709 ; 9, Apparently a record in an ejectment case, dated 8th October 1720 ; 
10, Address to Lord Cornwallis on his leaving Calcutta, dated 5th November 
1793 [His Lordship left Calcutta in October of 1793] ; and 11, Assignment 
of Warren Hastings' annuity [see No. 8 of above list of 11 documents], in 
repayment of 36,0001., dated 8th April 1796. 

Also whOe searching for No. 7 of the above list [pp. 18-20] of 11 docu- 
ments I discovered in one of the old cupboards in the Library the following 
documents :— 1, Grant of Arms to the " New " Company, dated 13th October 
1698, among the names of members of the Company mentioned in the Grant 
being those of Sir Henry Furness, Sir Theodore Jansen, Sir W. Scawen, 
(ieorge White, Thomas Vernon, Peter Paggen, Streynsham Master, Samuel 
Lock, and Edward Allen [see page 21, note] ; 2, Grant of Arms to HaUeybury 


documents relating to the East India Company, viz. :— 
1, Act of 6 Anne, for carrying out the award of Lord 
Godolphin; 2, Grant, of March 21, 1709, from the 
" Old " East India Company of their debts in Great 
Britain to Queen Anne, for re-grant to the Trustees of 
the " New " Company ; 3, Letters Patent of Queen 
Anne, of August 15, 1709, granting Sir Jonathan 
Andrews and others all sums owing to the " Old " 
Company before the surrender of their charter ; 4, Sur- 
render of the " Old " Company's charter, agreeably 
to the award of Lord Godolphin, March 25, 1709 ; 5 
Letters Patent of November 17, 1727, called the charter 
of George II. ; 6, Letters Patent of September 19, 
1767, granting to the Company a moiety of the plunder 
taken from the Nawab Nazim [Suraja Daula, " Sir 
Eoger Dowler "of " Black Hole " infamy] of Bengal ; 
7, Presentation by the titular Mogol, Shah Alam XL, 
of the Dewanee [_diwani, the oflfice, jurisdiction, and 
revenues of a ditvan or Minister of State] of Bengal, 
Behar, and Orissa, to Lord Clive, 1765; 8, Indenture 
of April 7, 1796, granting 4,000Z. to Warren Hastings 
for 18 years from 25 December 1795 ; 9, Further loan 

College, dated 21st March 1807 ; and 3, Two large folio volumes, of the 
1,444 signatures of the subscribers to the 2,000,0002, stock raised by the 
"New" Company, in pursuance of the Act of 5th September 1698, appoint- 
ing Commissioners to receive the said subscription. These volumes are 
therefore the legal list of subscribers to the 2,000,000Z. stock raised in 1698, 
and the "Roll" of subscribers above mentioned is probably the original 
rough list of the same. The 1,444 signatures were all taken from the 14th 
to the 16th July 1698 ; each page of signatures being attested by the signa- 
tures and seals of the Commissioners present; among whom may be noted the 
names of Samuel Lock, Bartholomew Shilbert, D. Devarenne La Breton- 
nide, Richard Harrison, John Boyd, George White, James Medlycott, John 
Paschal, and Thomas Chambers. 

[Added 1890.] Since the first reprint of this Report last year [1889], 
all the docimients numbered above, in the text and note [pp. 18-20], have 
been re-arranged by Mr. F. C. Danvers, in chronological order, and entered 
in a new " Catalogue of Parchment Records " [which I have printed at the 
end of this report as Appendix D.], excepting that Nos. 1, 4, 7, 9, and 11 of 
the list of 11 documents given above in the text have been omitted from the 
new Catalogue, as since they were in my hands, in 1879, they would seem to 
have disappeared. 

B 2 


of 50,000?., dated April 10, 1796 ; 10, Grant to the East 
India Company of booty and plunder in the late war 
with Tippoo Sahib, dated March 25, 1793; 11, Grant 
to the King's troops _of booty and plunder in the late 
war with Tippoo Sahib. In the room occupied by the 
Under Secretary of State is preserved the original 
treaty [in English and Persian] of Allahabad, dated 
16th [the date given in the books is the 12th] August 
1765, and bearing the signatures of Lord Clive and 
General Carnac, and the seal of Shuja-ud-Daula [the 
Nawab Vazir of Oudh]. In the Library Reading 
Room is hung in a glazed frame the holograph ap- 
proval, dated 6th November 1657, by Oliver Cromwell, 
of a petition, of no date or address, from the East 
India Company, to have " some good Ship and Frigott " 
sent to " St. Hellena Island " to protect the Company's 
merchant ships assembled there " from remote parts " 
against the Spaniards "out of Biskay" seeking to 
interrupt " our East India trade." The petition is 
signed among others by Thos. Andrew and [Sir] John 

Miscellaneous Affairs of the Company. 

I. — The Company's Seal. — One unbound document, and 

two volumes. 

The unbound document, dated 1658-bO, contains a list 
of the bonds passed during that period under the Com- 
pany's seal, and of the dividends declared. There are 13 
fages of names of persons. 

Vol. 1, 1667-1706, contains abstracts of bonds to the 
Custom House, copies of Covenants with Factors, and 
"An Abstract of several things passed under the Com- 
pany's Seal." 

Vol. 2, 1672-83, contains entries of bonds. This 
volume also is full of the names of persons. 

Plate I. Arms of the Old" [London] East India Company. 

\from the cover of a MS. Record entitled 
Gold and Silrer Eeceii-ed and Weiyhid, 1677]. 

Plate II. Arms of the"New" [English] East India Company. 

Ifrom the original Orani of Arms, dated 13 Oct. 1698]. 


II. — " Adventukees." — There are 1,9 volumes, from 
1631 to 1707, under this head, all full of the names 
of persons. Matiy of these volumes are stamped with 
the Gom,pany's arms.* 

Vol. 1, undated [? 1631-42]. — " Alphabett to ye 
" Lidger of ye third Joynt Stock of ye Marchants of 
" London trading [to] the East Indies." The following 
names occur : — Sir Morris Abbott, Sir Wm. Acton, Sir 
Jas. Cambell, Sir Wm. Cooper, Sir Francis Crane, Sir 
Th. Dawes, Sir Abraham Dawes, Sir Jarvais Elwaies, Sir 
Henry Garwaie, Sir John Gayer [? father of the Gover- 
nour of Bombay, 1694-1704], Sir Brian Johnson [cousin 

* These are the arms asagned to the Company in 1601 [see Stevens's Dawn 
of British Trade in the East Indies, p. 171], and they are very beautiful. The 
shield is divided into two compartments, the upper bearing, between two 
conventional red roses on a golden ground, an " additionment out of the 
arms of England," namely, a four-divided square, having, in its first and fourth 
quarters, a golden fleur-de-lis on a blue ground, and in the second and third, 
a golden lion, "passant guardant," on a ground of red ; and the lower, three 
quaint-fashioned ships, with streaming ensigns of St. George, in fuU saU on 
the tranquil azure of the new-found southern seas. The supporters are blue 
sea hons, flushed with gold, one on either side ; and the crest a sphere celes- 
tial, between standards of St. George, and overhung by the motto : — " Deus 
indicat." Below all is a second motto : — " Deo ducente nil nocet." See 
Plate I. 

After 1708-9, when the United Company was chartered, it received new 
arms, having for motto, — and there was rue indeed, for all " John Company's-'.' 
servants, with the difference, — " Auspicio Regis et Senatus Anglise " ; for 
crest a little lion, "regardant," holding a crown, toward the right, in the 
paws of its outstretched fore arms, [" the Cat-and Cheese ' of the old Indian 
Navy ;] and for supporters two big lions, " regardant," each holding in its 
left paw a St. George's pennon, and resting its right paw on a large white 
shield, divided boldly by St. George's scarlet cross, and displaying in its 
right upper quarter the reduced shield of the royal arms of England [Enghsh 
roses quartered with French lilies] surmounted by the imperial crown of the 

After this note was written, I discovered the original grant of arms to the 
" New " Company, dated 13th October 1698 [see p. 19, note']. They are 
identical with the arms borne by the late Honourable East India Company, 
thus affording another proof that the "Old" Company was altogether swal- 
lowed up by the " New." See Plate IL 


to Sir Henry Johnson, the great shipbuilder of Black- 
wall], Sir John Jacob, Thomas Mun [author of England's 
Treasure of Forraign Trade], Sir John Nulls (? KnoUys), 
Sir Paule Pindar [our Ambassador at Constantinople 
when Coryat was there, 1612] and Co., Sir Eobert Parke- 
hurst. Sir Wm. Russell, Sir John Watts, Sir John Wol- 
stenholme, Sir George Whitmore, Sir Ed. Wardour. 

Vol. 2, List of Adventurers, 1675. Among other 
names occur: — Sir Matthew Andrews [President of 
Surat, circa 1660] , Sir John Brownlow, Sir John Banks, 
Sir Th. Bludworth, Sir Sam. Barnardiston, Sir Francis 
Burdett, John Bulteele, Sir. Ed. Deering, Sir Jas. 
Edwards, JOHN EVELYN, Sir Th. Foot, Sir Gilbert 
Gerrard, Sir Mat. HoUworthy, Sir Nat. Heme, Sir Arthur 
Ingram, Sir Jonathan Keate, Sir Peter Leare, Sir John 
and Sam. LethieuUier, Sir John Moore, Sir Jas. Osinden 
[father* of Sir George Oxenden (or Oxinden), President 
of Surat, and 5th Governour (1st Company's) of Bombay, 
1668-9], Thomas Papillon [Deputy Governor, 1680-81], 
Sir John Robinson, Sir Eobert Vyner, Dr. Wallis. 

Vol. 3, 1691, gives, among others, the following 
names : — The King's most Excellent Majestie (7,0OOZ.), 
Dame Mary Ash [wife of Sir Joseph Ash], Sir Peter Apsley, 
Sir Benjamin Bathurst, The Duke of Beaufort [Henry, 3rd 
Marquess of Worcester, created Duke of Beaufort 1682], 
The Earl of Berkley [George, 14th Baron, created Earl 
of Berkeley 1679], Lady Arabella Berkley, Lady Henrietta 
Berkley, The Honble. Ch. Bertie, Sir Francis Bridgman, 
. Sir Edward des Bouverie, Lord Chandos [James Brydges, 
died 1714], Sir Job Charlton, Sir Francis Willoughby 
[deed.], Sir Thos. Willoughby [decd.j. Sir Thos. Chambers, 
Sir JOHN CHAEDIN, Dame Mary Clayton, Sir JOSIA 
CHILD [author ot A New Discourse of Trade], Sir J. 
Cropiey, Sir Thomas Cooke, Sir W. Coventry [decd.j. 
Dame Anne Coulston, Sir T. Davall, Sir Rob. Ducking- 

* Sir James Oxenden, through the marriage of his daughter Anne with 
Kichard, son of Sir Edward Master [1574-1640], was the grandfather of Sir 
Streynsham Mastei* [1640-1724], Governour of Madras, 1678-81. 


field, Sir Stephen Evauce [the celebrated jeweller and 
banker], Sir Th. Grantham [knighted for his services 
in suppressing Oapt. R. Keigwin's mutiny at Bombay, 
1683-84], Sir R. Geffreys, Sir W. Goulston, Sir W. 
Godolphin, Sir Joseph Heme [a sea-captain of the Com- 
pany's ; and son of Sir Nathaniel Heme] , Sir W. 
Hedges* [Governour and Agent in Bengal, 1681-2], 
Wm. Hewer, Sir Roger Hill, Sir Hele Hooke, Sir Abraham 
Jacob, Sir Wm. Langhorne, Philip Earl of Leicester 
[grandson of Robert Sidney, Viscount Lisle, and grand- 
nephew of Sir Philip Sidney], Dame Susanna Lear, Sir 
Simon Lewis, Sir T. Littleton, Sir Rich. Loyd, Sir John 
Matthews, The Honble. Baptist May, Mrs. Marg. Mas- 
singbird, Sir John Micklethwaite [deed.]. Sir John Mor- 
den, Sir Peter ParriYicine, Sir Thos. Rawlinson, Sir 
Jeremy Sambrooke [nephew of Jeremy Sambrooke, senior, 
and at one time in the Company's service at Madras, where 
he was imprisoned during the usurped Governourship of Sir 
Edward Winter [1665-8], Dame Jane Smith, SirW. Tur- 
ner, SirH. Tulce, Sir Jas. Ward, Sir Edmond Wiseman, Sir 
Joseph Williamson [principal Secretary of State in 1676]. 

Vol. 4, 1693, contains, among others, the following 
names : — Sir Stephen Anderson, Sir Rowland Aynsworth, 
Sir Wm. Barkham, The Honble. Rob. Boyle [deed.]. Sir 
Wm. Oronmer, Sir Humphrey Edwin, Thos. and John 
Elwiek, Sir John Fleet, Sir William Gore, Sir John Golds- 
borough [another of the Company's sea-captains, appointed, 
on the death of Sir John Child, 1689, " Supervisor, Com- 
missary-General, and Chief Governour in East India," 
with Sir John Gayer as his Lieutenant-Governour, died 
J 693], Sir George Meggot, The Honble. Charlotte Mor- 
daunt, " Their Majesties the King WiUiam and Queen 
Mary" [down for 7,000L]. 

Vol. 6, 1698, an account of the additional stock paid in 
May and June. The same names as before. 

* Since this report was first printed llie Diary of William Hedges, with 
extracts from the India Ofiice Records, edited by the late Sir Henry Yule, 
has been published in 3 vols, by the Hakluyt Society. 


Vol. 6, 1694. Among other names, the following 
occur : — The Countess Dowager of Anglesey, " Junior," 
[Lady Elizabeth Manners] , Sir Th. Abney, Sir Cornwall 
Bradshaw, Viscount Colchester [Richard Savage], The 
Earle of Devonshire [William Cavendish, 4th Earl of 
Devon, created Marquess of Hartington and Duke of Devon- 
shire, 1694J, John Danvers [afterward Sir John Danvers, 
of Culworth, 3rd Baronet], Sir Jas. Etheredge, Sir 
Humphrey Edwin, Sir Basil Firebrace, Sir Edward 
Frewen, Sir Henry Furnese, Sir Abraham Jacob, John 
Earl of Marlborough [the great general and diplomatist, 
created Baron Churchill, 1685, Earl of Marlborough, 1689, 
and Marquess of Blandford and Duke of Marlborough, 
1702], Sir Ch. Meredith, Sir Th. Millington, Sir John 
Parsons, The Duchess Dowager of Richmond and Lennox 
[Frances Theresa, grand-daughter of Walter, 1st Lord 
Blantyre], Sir Leonard Robinson, General Trelawny, 
Charles, 4th Marquess of Worcester [who married Rebecca, 
daughter of Sir Josia Child, and died 1698]. 

Vol. 7, 1695. 

Vol. 8, 1696. 

Vol. 9, 1699. " The King's most Excellent Majesty," 
7,l6bl. 6s. Od. [Queen Mary had died December 28, 

Vol. 10, J 70L " The King's most Excellent Majesty," 
7,166L 5s. Od. 

Vol. 11, 1702. " The Queen's most Excellent Ma- 
jesty," 7,166/. 5s. Od. [King Wilham died March 8th, 
1702, and Queen Anne succeed'ed.] 

Vol. 12, 1703. 

Vol. 13, 1707. This volume includes the following 
names, among others : — Sir Lambert Blackwell, Sir Sam. 
Blewitt, Sir Jas. Eyton, Sir W. Fazackerly, Sir W. Hum- 
freys. Sir Solomon de Medina, Moses de Medina, The 
Honble. W. Montague [deed.], Sir Isaac Rebow, The 
Lady Elizabeth Savage. 


III. — Joint Stocks. — Five volumes, from 1671 to 


Vol. 1, 1671, giyes the valuation of the Joint Stocks at 
that date. 

The first entry is " Good debts owing to the East India 
" Company, the 30th April 1671, by the bookes appeare 
'' 136,735/. 19s. Od." 

The next entry is "Desperate debts owing the Bast 
"India Company, 30th April 1671, as by' the bookes 
" appeare,* 65,642Z. 17s. 2d." 

The next entry is " Stocke in shipping 

" 17,709/. 18s. Sd." 

* The East India Company at this time banked with Alderman Edward 
Backwell, a banker in a large way of business in the days of Charles II., *ho 
likewise kept the accounts of His Majesty the King, James Duke of York, 
Prince Rupert, the Duke of Orleans, and aU the principal nobles and mer- 
chants of the time. 

In the year 1670 the East India Company had large transactions. Sums of 
money were paid into BackweU's bank on the Company's account by such 
merchants as Rodriques of Berry Street, John Houblon of Threadneedle 
Street [the first Governour of the Bank of England], Fransia of LeadenhaU 
Street, Peter Barr of Austin Fryar's [sic], Da Costa, Alderman [Sir Benjamin] 
Bathurst, Claud Hayes of Fenchurch Street, Michael Dunkin, Vandeputt, 
Alderman AUington, and Frederick and Co. of Old Jewry, and others. 
Michael Dunkin appears to have been the most important depositor. Several 
bankers and goldsmiths also appear as paying in large sums to the credit of 
the Company, such as Sir Robert Vyner, G. Snell, Thomas Row, Thomas 
Kirwood, Jerry Snow, &c. ; and the sums thus deposited probably represented 
the respective shares of the contributors in the Company's ventures to the 
East Indies. 

From March 1670 to March 1671 the- receipts were 237,900Z. In the month 
of August 1670 the receipts amounted to M,000Z. In the months of Sep- 
tember, October, November, and December the receipts were 190,250^., of 
which sum 175,000Z. rested in BackweU's hands until March 23, 1671, when 
gold and sOver bullion was purchased to the amount of 182,000Z., and between 
January and March 7,000i. was paid in to meet this sum. The East India 
Company made the following yearly gifts to Backwell : 25 lbs. of pepper, 
2 lbs. of nutmegs, 1 lb. of mace, 1 lb. of cloves, and 1 lb. of cinnamon. 

Edward Backwell, who lived at the Unicorn in Lombard Street, was ruined 
in 1672 by the closing of the Exchequer [in which the bankers of that time 
deposited their surplus cash as a loan to the King at high interest] by 
Charles II. These accounts are aU to be seen in the old ledgers kept at 
" Child's Bank " in Fleet Street, and I am indebted to Jlr. F. G. Hilton Price, 
F.S.A., F. G. S., for the above extracts from them. 


The next entry is " Goods remaining on hand . . » 
" 313,255/. lis. 6d." Among the goods are named 
" Guiny [i.e., juta or "jute," the fibre of Corchorus 
capsularis and C. olitorius, used by the Hindus chiefly in 
the manufacture of goni or " sacks " and " sacking "] 
Stuffes," " Jappan Gownes," " Ginghams," "Blew Long- 
cloth," "Punia [?"Pina," i.e., pine-apple fibre stuffs, 
called also " Pinascos "] Silke," "Pertian [Persian] 
Yarnes," " Thea "* [valued at 20s. per Ib.J. 

* Tea had been introduced into England some years preriously. The first 
mention of it by any English writer, so far as I can find, is in Pepys's Diary, 
25th September 1660, — " I did send for a cup of tee (a China drink), of which 
I had never drank before." In the same year, by Act 12 of Charles II., chh. 
23 and 24, a duty of 18d is imposed on every gallon of chocolate, sherbet, and 
tea, made for sale ; coffee being charged only id. Waller's lines, — 
" The best of Queens, and best of herbs, we owe 
To that bold nation which the way did show " 

— to India, are weU known. The East India Company purchased and pre- 
sented 2 lbs. of tea to King Charles H. in 1664, and 23| lbs. in 1666. The 
first order for its importation by the Company was in 1668 ; — " (Send home 
" by these ships 100 lbs. weight of the best tey you can gett" ■ and the first 
consignment of it, amounting to 143|^ lbs., was received from Bantam in 
1669. The generally received story is that Lords Arlington and Ossory were 
the first to introduce tea into this country in 1666 from Holland. 

The earliest mention of tea in the Old Kecords of the India OflBce is in a 
letter from ilr. R. Wickham, the Company's Agent at Firando, in Japan [see 
page 52], who, writing, 27th June 1615, to Mr. Eaton atMiaco, asks for •• a pot 
of the best sort of chaw.'' 

How highly a present of tea was prized in England during the 17th cen- 
tury may be judged from the following pertinent extracts from the earlier 
" Court Books " of the Company : — 

'22 August 1664. "TheGovemour acquainting ye Court that ye Factors 
haveing in every place failed ye Company of such things as they writt for to 
have presented his majestic with and that his ma"" might not finde himself 
whoUy neglected by ye Company, he was of opinion if ye Court thinck fitt 
that a silver case of oile of cinnamon which is to be had of Mr. Thomas 
Winter for 7bl., and some good Thea, be provided for that end, which he 
hopes may be acceptable, ye Court approved very well thereof." 

This entry refers to the present of 2 lbs. of tea made to Charles II. in 1664. 

3 July 1666. " The Court now left itt to the governour and deputie to 
dispose of the value of about 101. in Thea to some gentlemen where they see 
reason to place itt. " 

Writing also to Madras, 13 Feb. 1684/5, the Directors say:— 

"In regard Thea is grown to be a commoditie here, and we have occasion to 
make presents therein to our great friends at Court, we would have you send 
us yearly five or six canisters of the very best and freshest Thea ; that which 
wUl colour the water in which it is infused most of a greenish complexion is 
generally best accepted." 


Then follows this entry: "Remaming at Surratt, and 
" the factories subordinate," among which are named 
"Amadavad," Agra, "Bombay Island," Eajapore, and 

Vol. 2, 1G85, a similar book. Almost every de- 
nomination of cotton and silk goods in which the 
Company traded is to be found in this volume. It is 
invaluable. I here note only " Theas damaged" [see 
supra, under Vol. 1, 1671], " Shawles Carmania," 
" Cambodiam " [the first mention of Gamboge is m 
Vol. 3, "Court Books," under date October 13, 1615], 
"Lapis Tutia" [" Tushy-stone," or Tutty, an arti- 
ficially prepared argillaceous oxide of zinc, obtained 
from Persia*], "Carmania Wooll," " Tanna Stuffs" 
[silks]. The volume closes with a fist of all persons 
to whom the Company was then owing money, and with 
a statement of the total of the Company's estate. It 
appears that they owed the Almshouse at Poplar 4,200L 

Vol. 3. First entry, July 14, 1698, records the ap- 
pointment of Commissioners to receive the subscriptions 
to the English Company. The Governor and Company 
of the Bank of England were disqualified to act as 
Commissioners. The copy of the subscription list 
follows. The original list, which fills 15 skins of 
parchment, is fully described in my Eeport of April 17, 
1875 [see Appendix A.], and is now in the India Office 
Libraryt along with the other parchments described in 
that Report. [See supra, Section, " Legal Affairs of 
the Company."] Among the subscribers are to be 
found : — The King, Robert Cecil [brother of James, 
4th Earl ("the Catholic Earl") of Salisbury], The Earl 
of Montague, The Earl of Ranelagh, Lord Herbert of 
Cherbury, John Cowley, The Earl of Oxford [Aubrey 
de Vere], Charles Pox, Thomas Vernon [? brother of 

* Called also " Cadmia factitia" and " Cadmia fornacum. " There are 
three salts of this oxide commonly found in Indian bazaars : [1] nila tutiya, 
i.e., blue vitriol, or sulphate of copper; [2] hira tutiya, green vitriol, or sul- 
phate of iron ; and [3] safed tutiya, white vitriol, or sulphate of zinc. 

t They are now, 1889, in the Record Department. 


James Vernon, the father of Admiral Vernon], Lord 
Portland [Hans William Bentinck, created Baron Ciren- 
cester, Viscount Woodstock, and Earl of Portland, 1689], 
The Duke of Shrewsbury [Charles Talbot, 12th Earl, 
created Marquess of Alton, and Duke of Shrewsbury, 
1694, and died 1717 without heirs to the Marquessate 
and Dukedom] , The Duke of Devonshire. 

Vol. 4, 1707-1709. The old East India Company's 
interest book from 12th April 1707 to 17th March 1708/9. 
It contains about 9,000 names of persons. 

Vol. 5, 1708. Balance of the Company's books of 
interest, taken the 30th June 1 708. Contains a perfect 
list of names, beautifully written ; among others those 
of Sir Thos. Eawlinson, Dame Mary Kawlinson, and 
Honour Rawlinson. 

IV. — Amalgamation of the two Companies. — 
Five volumes, from J 708-1746. 

Vol. 1, 1708:— 

First entry. — Copy of award of the Lord High 
Treasurer concerning both Companies [i.e., the 
"London" or "Old" East India Company, and the 
" English " or " New Company "], signed " Godolphin " 
[Sidney, 1st Earl]. 

Second entry. — Agreement between the two Companies 
about Saltpetre. 

Third entry. — Old East India Company's Declaration of 

Fourth entry. — The schedule mentioned in the above 

Fifth entry.— rThe Grant from the Old East India Com- 
pany of their debts to the Queen, with schedule, which 
apparently gives the names of all the Writers and Factors 
then in the Company's service, and a list of all the debtors to 
the Company. Among other names in the schedule of 
Writers and Factors occur the following : — Gulston 
Addison [brother of Joseph Addison, and died Governour 
of Fort St. George, in 1709], Factor; Mathias Aram, 


Writer; John Bulteel, Writer; James Bruce, Factor; 
John Child,* Factor ; Daniel Dubois, Factor. 

Sixth entry. — Ee-grant by the Queen of the Old Bast 
India Company's debts to trustees for the United Com- 
pany, giving at the end a list of about 900 names of persons 
under covenant or obligation to the Company. 

[Compare the entries under the above six sub- 
headings with the Section on the " Legal Affairs of the 
Company" and "Further Remarks" on the same, 

* I do not know whether the above John Child was a son of Sh John 
Child or not. The family of Sir John's great brother, Sir Josia Child, 
became extinct in 1784, with the son of his second son. Sir Richard Child, 
created Viscount Castlemaine in 1718, and Earl Tylney in 1731 ; and through 
Catherine Tylney Long, a descendant of Sir Kichard's daughter. Lady Long, 
" the fortune of the Childs," says Sir Henry Yule [Diary of William Hedges, 
Vol. n., pp. 112-13], was carried to WLliam-Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley, 
afterwards ith Earl of Mornington. It is to this devolution of the fortune of 
the Childs that allusion is made in the lines from the Rejected Addresses : — 

" Bless every man possessed ol aught to give ; 
Long may Long-Tylney-Wellesley-Long-Pole live ! " 

Although the families of Sir Josia and Sir John Child banked, until they 
became extinct, at " Child's Bank," no connection has ever been established 
between them and the family of Sir Francis Child, the founder of the Bank. 
Sir Francis Child, Lord Mayor of Ltndon, 1698-9, and Member for the City 
in the 1st Parliament of Queen Anne, was the son of Robert Cbild, of Head- 
ington, CO. Wilts. He was bom in 1642, and, after serving his apprenticeship 
as a goldsmith to William Hall, London, went into the business of his uncle, 
William WTieeler, at the Marigold, in Fleet Street. On his uncle's death he 
married his daughter, and entered into partnership with Robert Blanchard, 
the firm taking the name of Blanchard and Child. Sir Francis had several 
daughters and sons, and those of the latter who entered the Bank were Sir 
Robert Child, Alderman of Farringdon Without, Sir Francis Child, Lord 
Mayor of London, 1732, and Samuel Child. The last named married and 
had two sons, Francis and Robert, both of whom became partners in the 
Bank, which, on the death of the latter, took the name of Child and Co., 
which it has ever since borne ; its present head being the Earl of Jersey, 
the great-great-grandson of Robert Child, through the marriage of his 
daughter, and only child, with John, 10th Earl of Westmoreland, at Gretna 


Seventh entry. — An Index of Contents to '• This 
Book " (Vol. 1, 1708), and of " Court Book." 

Eighth entry and last. — Copies of some orders of 
Courts of the Old East India Company relating to the 
trustees of the said Company. 

Vol. 2, 1708-9. Almost a duplicate of Vol. 1. 

Vol. 3, 1723-27. Copies of letters to the trustees of 
the Old East India Company, among whom are named, — 
Edward Gibbon [the great historian's grandfather, 1666- 
1736], Thos. Bowdler [? father of the Editor of the 
Family Shakespeare'], Charles Du Bois [formerly of the 
Madras Council], Arthur Moore. 

Vol. 4, 1727-29. Ditto. 

Vol. 5, 1737-49. Minutes of meetings of the trustees, 
signed in autograph by Charles Du Bois, and by " Edward 
Gibbon, Junior " [father of the historian and M.P. for 
Petersfield 1734, and for Southampton 1741], Hester Gib- 
bon, Edward EUiston, and Joseph Taylor — who all sign as 
•executors of the aforesaid Edward Gibbon. 

V. — Offending and Defaulting Servants of the 
Company. — Two volumes, one of which is bound in 
black calf, 1624^98. 

Vol. 1, 1624-54. Contains "Extracts out of the 
•" Court Booke of the East India Companye, concerninge 
"the errors and misdemenours of their servants, kepte 
" accordinge to order of Court, the 8th of December 
" 1626, and beginninge from September 1624." Full of 
"names of persons. 

Vol. 2, 1687-98., "A book of charges against Com- 
" manders of ships. Factors, and others. Anno Domini 
" 1687." Full of names of persons. The following 
names of places also occur in this volume : — Amoy, 
Bombay, Bencoolen, Carwar, Decca [Dacca], Fort St. 
George, Indapoora, Pattana [Patna], Syam, St. Helena, 

These two volumes were evidently the Black Books 
of the Company's "bad bargains," and are of very 


<3urious interest to the pursuer of the scandalous chronicle 
of society. In the first volume " Frauncis Day " is 
handed down to infamy for being "the first projector 
of the forte of St. George " ! [See p. 216.] The last 
entries in the Index to the second volume, are — " Zinzan, 
Mr., blamed, for opening letters, &c. "; " Zinzan, Mr., 
totally dismissed"; "Zinzan, Mr., deceased." This is 
the Mr. Zinzan who was on Sir John Child's Council at 
Surat during the suppression, by Sir Thomas Grantham, 
of Capt. R. Keigwin's mutiny at Bombay, 1683-84 ; and 
who for some time remained at Bombay as Governour 
after Sir Thomas Grantham had sailed home with Keigwin 
in 1685. 

VI. — OsTENDEBS. — One volume only, A.D. 1731-32. 

Contains copies of documents relating to the Ostend 
Company,* also to the trade between Sweden and the 

* The Portuguese, who were the first Europeans to visit India by way of the 
Cape of Good Hope, doubled by Da Gama, November 22nd, 1497, never put 
"their Eastern trade into the hands of an incorporated Company, except in the 
' year 1731 only, when the King gave permission to one ship, tb the exclusion 
of all other ships, to make one voyage to Surat and the Coromandel Coast. 
Except in this solitary instance, the monopoly of the Portuguese East India 
trade was always, until it was abolished in 1752, vested immediately in the 
Crown. However, various important articles stiU continued subject to royal 

" The Dutch East India Company " was formally instituted in 1602, by the 
union of the funds of various rival companies, that had sprung up in Holland 
in consequence of the success of Houtman's voyage in 1596-97. 

The first French East India Company was formed in 1604. The second in 
1611. The third in 1615. The fourth [Richeheu's], 1642-43. The fifth 
(Colbert's), 1644. The sixth was formed by the French East and "West 
India, Senegal, and China Companies, uniting under the name of " The Com- 
pany of the Indies," 1719. The exclusive privUeges of the Company were, by 
the King's decree, suspended in 1769 ; and it was finally abohshed by the 
National Assembly in 1790. 

The first Danish East India Company was formed in 1612, and the second in 

In 1617, Sir James Cunningham obtained from James I. a patent for the 
•estabUshment of a Scottish East India Company, but the concession was with- 
drawn in the following year. In 1695 William IH., anxious to ingratiate 
himself with the Scotch, and to obliterate the tragical memories of Glen Coe, 
sanctioned the incorporation of " Ihe Company of Scotland trading to Africa, 
and the Indies," for 21 years. The Company, however, miserably failed in its 


East. There is a letter dated Whitehall, April 6th, 
1731, signed "Holies Newcastle" [Thomas Pelham 
Holies,* Duke of Newcastle, married Lady Henrietta, 
daughter of Francis, 2nd Earl of Godolphinl, addressed 
to the Governour of the Company [i.e., our Company, 
not the Swedish] regarding an English merchant who 

very first venture, and, to appease the cruel disappointment of the sub- 
scribers, it was stipulated at the Union of Scotland with England, in 1707, 
that their capital should be returned to them, with interest at 5 per cent, per 
annum from the date of the incorporation of the Company [see p. 232, 

" The Ostend Company " was incorporated by the Emperor of Austria in 
1723, their Factors being chiefly persons who had served the Dutch and 
English East India Companies ; but the opposition of the maritime powers 
forced the Court of Vienna in 1727 to suspend the Company's charter for 
seven years. The documents in the above volume relate to this period. The 
Company, after passing through a very trying existence, prolonged through 
the desire of the Austrian Government to participate in the growing East 
India trade, beftame bankrupt in 1784, and was finally extinguished by the 
regulations which were prescribed on the renewal of the " Honourable East 
India Company's" Charter in 1798. 

When the Ostend Company was suspended a number of its servants were 
thrown out of employment, of whose special knowledge of the East Mr. 
Henry Koning, of Stockholm, took advantage, and obtained a charter for 
the Swedish Company, dated June 13th, 1731. It was supported chiefly by 
smuggling tea into Great Britain, until the British Parliament in 1784 
lowered the tax on tea, when the Swedish Company was immediately annihi- 

The Spanish " Royal Company of the Phillipine Islands " was incorporated in 
1733, in defiance of the treaty of Munster [1648], re-chartered in 1785, and 
again in 1803, and came to an end with the French conquest of Spain in 

The Prussian " Asiatic Company,'' founded in 1750, like the Swedish, prin- 
cipally occupied itself in the China trade, and died out about 1803-4 ; and 
the Prussian " Bengal Company," founded in 1755, came to its untimely end in 

The Austrian " Imperial Company of Trieste for the Commerce of Asia " was 
founded by William Bolts, an ambitious and discontented servant of the 
"Honourable East India Company," in 1775-81, and failed in 1785, entirely 
through Bolts being too much carried away by the dashing speculative spirit 
characteristic of the intellectual " Company promoter." 

* It was to his predecessor in the title, " John HoUes, Duke of Newcastle, 
Marquis and Earl of Clare, and Baron Houghton," that John Fryer [1698] 
dedicated his New Account of East India and Persia. 


had been attempting to obtain from the Grand Duhe of 
Tuscany, liberty to trade with India, and was stopped 
by Mr. Coleman, Her Majesty's " Residence " at 

VII. — The Swedish Company. — Two volumes, 
1732-33 and 1733-34. 

Vol. I, 1732-33. Copies of letters relating to the 
Swedish Company. In the account of the sale of 
piece goods at Gottenbourg, February 23rd, 1732, the 
following are named, — "Jaunes," "Verts," "Bleues," 
"Rouges," "Vert de peroquette," "Aurora," " Escar- 
late," "Vert enfonce," or "French Grain." Further 
on is a statement of the method of computing the 
Company's tonnage, and an alphabetical list of all the goods 
in which they at this time traded. 

Vol. 2, 1733-34. Complaints by the Swedish Company 
against the French and the English. 

The first entry is a declaration by Benjamin Bonnet, 
Notary Public of London, certifying the correctness of 
the translations contained in the volume. This declara- 
tion is stamped with impressed stamps, of the value of 
sixpence each, which are of a very beautiful design ; 
namely, a Tudor rose surrounded by the Garter, with its 
legend, and surmounted by the Imperial Crown of Eng- 
land, of the flattened Georgian style. 

VIII. — Unolassed papers eelating to the Miscel- 
laneous Affairs of the Company. 

Under this head are included the following volumes : — 

A. The volume entered at page 13 of the Depart- 
mental Record List, No. 2,397, under the title of " Par- 
liamentary Proceedings,^' 1710-11, and 1717. 


The first entry is a petition " To the Honourable the 
•" Knights, Citizens, Burgesses in Parliament assembled, 
"the humble petition of the Clothiers of the county of 
" Gloucester," to the effect that the East India Com- 
pany had bought cloth at low prices and forced their 
bonds on the petitioners ; " and at the same time have 
"entered out very considerable quantity of silver " [to 
the East]. The petition was referred to selected 
members, "and to all that serve for the countys of 
" Gloucester, Worcester, Wilts, Somerset, Cornwall, 
"York, and Southamptonshire." Dated " Sabti die, 
^' 17 Feb. 1716." 

B. The volume entered p. 13, List No. 2,397, under 
the title of " Home Letters," 1668-75. It contains matters 
relating to the ship Leopatd, to the Hugly Factory, and to 

C. A worthless Index, only to P, without title, and not 
entered in any list. 

D. The volume entered page 11 of the Departmental 
List No. 2,397, under the title of " Commissioners to India," 
1769-70. The volume contains : — 

First, the appointment of Henry Yansittart, Luke 
Scrafton, and Francis Forde, Commissioners* authorised, 
notwithstanding any powers granted to the Company's 
" Presidents and Council, to superintend, direct, con- 
" trol, manage,' and transact all the business and affairs 
^' of the Company in and through all parts of India, 
" during the good will and pleasure of the Company, 
" reserving nevertheless, &c." This document is dated 
September 15th, 1769. 

* These Commissioners constituted the well-known " Board of Super- 
visors." Their appointment was opposed with great vehemence by all who 
were interested in the corruption of the Company's servants ; but was carried 
at length by a General Court of the proprietors, disgusted by the failure for 
so many years of their covetous dreams of extortionate dividends. The 
" Supervisors," with their " Instructions," were put on board one of the 
icing's frigates for India, but through what seas she sailed, or to what bourn, 
is unknown. The frigate, and the Supervisors, and their letter of Instruc- 
tions were never seen nor heard of more. Such was the strange dismal end 
and perdition of all that acrimonious demand for investigation and reform. 
O si sic semper et ubique 1 


Second, the Instructions to the same Commissioners, 
of the same date. 

They are instructed to restore •peace to India upon a soHd 
and permanent basis, to that end providing effectually for 
the honour and security of their faithful ally " Mahomed 
Ally Cawn of Arcot " [the Nawab Mahomed Ali, styled 
" Prince of the Carnatic "]. 

If war he necessary, they are to direct the operations of 
the three Presidencies upon one uniform plan of action, 
" always hearing in mind that the preservation and security of 
" Bengal is of all others the most important object and conside- 
" ration to the Company." 

Bassein and Salsette are to be obtained under a solid 
right of title. 

The blank " Phirmaund " [Persian ferman, i.e., 
"order" or "concession"] of the Deccan is to be 
returned to the King, " heing a grant improperly oh- 
" tained." 

They are to remove unworthy civil and military 
officers, " but with great tenderness and circumspection." 

[In para. 20 the Mogol G-overnment is spoken of as 
" the Moorish Government. "'\ 

In para. 21-22, they are instructed : — " The channels 
"of trade should be in every respect free and uncon- 
" strained; no undue influence or exertion of power 
" should be used over the manufacturers ; for by fair 
"means only we wish to have the preference of the 
" markets obtained for them. Every degree of restraint is 
' ' contrary to the fundamental principles of trade and 
"commerce, which therefore are found to thrive the 
" most among a free people, for the number of manufac- 
" tures will always increase in proportion to the encourage- 
" ment and protection they meet with." 

They are to encourage the export of silk, yarn, and 

To inquire whether the scarcity of silver is general, and 
whether it is owing to exportation " or to the fatal conse- 
" quences of the gold coinage." 



All monopolies are to be discouraged, particularly in 
cotton, and they are to inquire into the abuses in the 
exclusive trade in Betle Nut, Tobacco, and Salt. 

To inquire also into the fortunes made by the Com- 
pany's servants in private trade. 

And also " into the enormous increase in the Company's 
" Military Establishments," &c. 

Third, a letter to same Commissioners of the same 
date, sent after them by the Aurora frigate. 

Fourth, a letter to same of September 26th, 1769, 
addressed to them " whilst at Portsmouth." 

Fifth, to same of November 10th, per Houghton. 

Sixth, to same, January 6th, 1770, per Bridgewater. 

Seventh, to same, March 23rd, per Morse and Lord 

Eighth, to same, June 17th. 

Ninth, to same, November 30th. 


^tatffnfl antf Si^t^^infl, antf lateral CEotttnt^rcial 

I. — Sales and Deliveries. — 19 volumes, from 1643 to 
1722, being the books of tbe sales and deliveries of 
goods in London. 

Vol. 1, 1643-52, marked outside " First Voyage " and 
"Second Voyage." It is the account of '^callicoes" 
delivered to sundry persons, to the value of over 28,000L 
The detailed accounts are highly interesting, both on 
account of the names of persons given, and of the 
denominations of piece goods, such as " Synda cloth " 
[Scinde clothj, «'Dymitty," " Synda dimities," "Baftas" 
[a kind of Calico, so called from bafta, "woven"], 
"Broderas" [Baroda cloth] .* 

* A proclamation of Charles I., in 1681, enumerating the imports and 
exports of the East India Company in that year, affords a good idea of the 
nature of the trade between Europe and the East Indies at this period. As 
quoted in Bruce's Annals, the Exports were : — " Perpetuanoes [strong 
" (' long-enduring ') wooUen cloths, much affected by the Puritans, originally 
" imported into England from the Netherlands] and drapery [broad cloths, 
" &c.], pewter, saffron, woollen stockings, silk stockings and garters, ribbands, 
" roses edged with gold lace, beaver hats with gold and silver bands, felt 
" hats, strong waters, knives, Spanish leather shoes, iron, and looking-glasses.'' 
And the IMPORTS : — " Long pepper, white pepper, white powdered sugar, pre- 
" served nutmegs and ginger preserved, myrabolums, bezoar stones, drugs of 
" all sorts, agate beads, blood stones, musk, aloes soccatrina, ambergrease, 
" rich carpets of Persia and Cambaya, quilts of sattin, taffaty, painted cali- 
" coes, benjamin, damasks, sattins and taffaties of China, quilts of China 
•' embroidered with gold, quilts of Pitania [Patania] embroidered vrith 
" silk, galls, worm-seeds, sugar candy, China dishes, and porcelain of aU 
" sorts." 

In the Treasure of Traffike published by Lewis Roberts, London, 1641, 
we have a succinct survey of the English textile manufactures of the same 
period, arranged under the head of the natural staples employed for the 
purpose : — " as are [1] Cotton Wooll and Yarns, of which is made Vermil- 


Vo]. 2, 1667-59. "Guynie stuffs" and "Guinea 
stuffs" [for G-unny stuffs]. 

Vol. 3, 1659-64/65. "Warehouse book of the New 
" General Joynt Stock, begun 29th July 1659." " Ducka 
[? Dacca] Dutties " [? dhotis'], "Topsails" [elsewhere 
" Tapseiles," evidently some denomination of cotton or 
silken stuff], "Small Pintadoe [(hand) 'painted'] 
"Quilts." This volume contains an invaluable list of 
piece goods. 

Vol. 4, 1664. Sale book for the 29th of March 1664. 
This is the book in which the entries were made during 
the actual sale on this day. They will be found clean 
copied into the previous volume 3. 

Vol. 6, 1665. Sale book of March 20th, 

Vol. 6, 1666. Ditto, April 20th. 

Vol. 7, 1669-71. Account of deliveries of goods sold. 

Vol. 8, 1669-72. Delivery book. Contains an in- 
valuable list of names of persons and goods sold. It is 
in perfect condition. 

Vol. 9, 1696-98. Accounts of sales. 

Vol. 10, 1699-1707. Accounts of sales of Bed Wood 
[Pterocarpus santalinus, ruckta-chandana, " Eed Sandal 
Wood" or "Red Sanders"] and Saltpetre. 

Vol. 11, 1704. Accounts of quarterly sales, made up 

" lions, Fustians, Dimities, and such others ; also [2] Fleece WooD, of which 
" is made wooUen-cloth, Sayes, Sarges, Terpetuanas, Bayes, and sundry other 
" sorts comprehended under the name of 'new drapery' with us; also [3] 
" Grograme [j(ros-^razn]-Yarne, of which is made yarnes, Grograms, Durettas, 
" silk-mohers, and many others late new invented StufFes ; [4] Flaxe, Hempe, 
" and the yarne thereof, of which is made all sorts of Linens, fine and coarse, 
" all Ropes, Tackles, Cables, and such like used in shipping ; [5] all raw 
" silke and throwne, whereof is made all manner of Silke-Laces, Sattins, 
" Plushes, Taffetas, Cally-mancoes, and many others.'' 

I take this paragraph from The Di-apei-s' Dictionm-y, by S. William Beck, 
pubUshed at The Warehousemen and Drapers' Journal Office, Aldersgate Street, 
E.G. It is an admirable work, accurate and scholarly, and should never be 
allowed to pass out of print. The above term " Cally-mancoes " occurs in 
every European language, but no satisfactory etymology of it is to be 


Plate III. The Old East India House, circa 1638-85. 

(from a Dutch print in the Britiah Museum). 

<^/^^^/^ ^/l ^ 

//d Eaft India Houfe /// Leaden-hall Street LONDON. 

Allft) Counters and all forts of Joyners worke done 
■ at Reafonable Rates — — 

Plate IV. The Old East India House, circa 1714-26. 

(from William Orerley's Trade Card, in the British MuseumJ. 


of the printed bills of sale, afterwards pasted into this 
volume, and the names of purchasers added in red ink. 
The sales were held at various places. 

First sale, March 28, at the East India House.* 
Pepper, Jambee ; Pepper, Light ; Pepper, White ; 
Pepper, Black; " Scummings and Flaggs;" Quicksilver; 
Stick Lack. 

Second sale, at the Blew Warehouse, in St. Helens. 
Cubebs, Vermillion, Copper, Mother of Pearl, Tortoise 
Shells, Quicksilver, Stick Lack, Safflower, Indico [the 
Company in its first trade with India inquired chiefly 
for Indigo, which had from the earliest ages been 
exported from Cambay], Green Ginger, Sugar Candy, 
Cassia Lignum, Aloes Epatica, Anacardium, Benjamin, 
" Charranoyl" [? some preparation of chan-as, i.e.. 
Cannabis sativa, or "Indian hemp"]. Sago, Gallingall, 
Cowries, Tincal [Sanskrit tankana, crude Borax, im- 
ported from Thibet] , Nux Vomica, Long Pepper, Cotton 
Yarne, Tea, Cake Lack, Elephants' Teeth, Shellack,t 

* The first " Assemblie," on tlie 25tli September 1600, of the subscribers 
to " the Old " East India Company was held in " the Founders' HaU," then 
situated in Founders' Court, Lothbury, but afterwards transferred to St. 
Swithin's Lane ; and the Company used the Founders' HaU for its meetings 
continuously from March 1601 to September 1602. For some time after this 
date it is said to have occupied rooms in the Nag's Head Inn, but I am un- 
aware of any adequate authority for the statement. From 1604 to 1621 its 
business was carried on in the house of its first Governor, Sir Thomas Smithy 
in Philpot Lane ; from 1621 to 1638 its regular offices were in Crosby Hall, 
Bishopsgate Street, then belonging to Lord Northampton ; in 1638 the Com- 
pany moved to the house of Sir Christopher CHtheroe, at that time Governour, 
in Leadenhall Street, and in 1648 to the house adjoining, then belonging to 
Sir William Craven ; in 1726 a new front was put to this house, which was 
entirely reconstructed by Jupp in 1796. When the unrivalled dominion of 
the Company was sequestrated to the Crown in 1858, the India Office was 
removed to the Westminster Palace Hotel in 1860 ; and finally to its present 
pretentious [in their internal decorative details] premises in St. James's Park 
in 1867. See Plates HI. to VL 

t Lac is a resinous exudation produced in India and Further India on the 
twigs and branches of certain trees, particularly the pipal or " sacred fig " 
[Urostigma religiosum], by the puncture of a species of kermes or cochineal 
insect called Coccus Lacca. These minute insects swarm in countless 


To be seen at " Bartolph Warfe ":— Cowries, Ked 
Saunders [see Red Wood, vol. 10 above], Sappan 
[Csesalpinia Sappan, patanga, or, in Malaya, sapang, a 
species of " Brazil Wood "]. 

To be seen at " Leaden Hall " : — China Kaw Silk, 
Bengal Eaw Silk, " Floretta " yarn [? Flos-silk]. 

To be seen at the East India House : — China Ware, 
both Nankeen Blue, and Painted Porcelain— an immense 
quantity ; also Japan ware. 

To be seen at Leaden Hall : — Piece Goods, among 
which. Ginghams, " Herba Lungees " [Longcloth of rhea 
or ramie fibre, i.e., China-grass; see p. 26, " Pinascos " 
or stuffs of pine-apple fibre], "Herba Taffaties " [Taffety 
(from tafta, "woven"), of same; compare "Herba 

To be seen at the " Blew Warehouse," St. Helens : — 
"Blew Longcloth," Damasks, Satins, Persian Taffaties, 
Velvet, Diapers, Chintz, "Painted Pelongs" [i.e., 
" Palampores " i.e., palang-posh, or "bed-covers," hand- 
painted], Gold Gauze, Chawools [Shawls]. 

numbers on the extremities of the trees attacked by them, and hence the 
common Indian denomination of this substance, laksha in Sanskrit and lakh in 
Hindustani, meaning " a hundred thousand. " From this word come our words 
"lac," " lacquer,'' a varnish of lac, and " lake," the red pigment [consisting of 
the bodies of the female Coccus Lacca embedded in the resin exuded about 
them], extracted by boiling it out from the " raw lac." Lac as produced on 
the trees from which it is gathered we call " stick lac," and the Hindus 
hliam-laVh, i.e. " raw lac," corrupted by us and other European peoples into 
"^Mm-lac," as a generic designation of all commercial forms of lac ; none of 
which, however, contain any admixture of gum with the native resin. The 
resin in the granular state to which it is reduced in washing out the colour- 
ing matter from it is " seed lac : " when this granular lac has been liquified 
over a fire, and allowed to consolidate in cakes, it is '.' lump lac " : and when 
again melted, and clarified, and run into thin flakes, it is the " shell lac," 
used so largely by hatters ; or, if run out in bright little drops, it is the 
" button lac " used in the preparation of sealing-wax and varnish. The term 
" shell lac " is translated directly from the Hindustani chapra-lac ; and an old 
commercial name for it was " Spanish-wax." " Lake lac," " lac-lake," or 
" lac-dye " is crude lake formed into little lumps like those of indigo. What 
the Lac Tigridis of Evelyn's Diary [22nd June 1664, quoted on p. 220, note\ 
may be, I do not know, and have never seen the appellation elsewhere. It 
may be corrupted from an Indian name of lac ; or it may have been used in 

































































1— 1 



















Vol. 12, 170k 
Vol. 13, 1704. 
Vol. 14, 1705. 
Vol. 15, 1705. 
Vol. 16, 1705. 
Vol. 17, 1707. 

These are all Sale Books, similar 
to Volume 11 ; and these seven 
volumes, 11 to 17 inclusive, are in- 
valuable records of the Company's 
trade at ]this period. I have not 
here copied out the names of all the 
denominations of piece goods entered 
in these important volumes, as they 
have been already published in the 
" Official Handbook to the British 
" Indian Section of the Paris Bxhi- 
" bition of 1878." Very complete 
lists of them are also given in Mil- 
burn's Oriental Commerce, 1813 ; and 
in Sir Henry Yule's Hobson-Jobson 
^ [article " Piece Goods "J, 1885. 

Vol. 18, 1715-28. Accounts of sales. 

Vol. 19, 1722. A Sales Book, similar in character to 
volumes 11 to^l7, but very dilapidated. 

II. — Gold and Silver. 

One volume, 1677-97, being accounts of gold and silver 
received and weighed. 

III. — Dyeing and Packing Cloth Bills. — One 
volume, 1704-1708. 

Among entries, — " Canvis Buckerams," Scarlets, 
" Camblets," and Camlets, "Auroras," '■' Qlosters 

Evelyn's day to discriminate Kermes [i.e., the Arabic kirmij, " insect" (speci- 
fically the female Coccus ilicis), whence " carmine " and " cramoisee," and 
through vermes, " vermiUion," " vermeU," et cetera], the "scarlet grain" of 
Asia Minor, from the Lac Sumatri, the " lake lac " or " lac-lake " of Further 
India. The best " lac dye " or "lake "comes from Pegu, Siam, and Chiua, 
and the best " lump lac " and " shell lac " from Bengal. 


IV. — Invoices op Goods to and from India. — Two 
volumes, from 1664 to 1675, invaluable records of 
the Company's trade at this date. 

Vol. 1, 1664-68. 

First entry. — Kules and directions for keeping the 
East India "Accompts" in England, August 12th, 

The first account is the invoice of the ship, " Constanti- 
nople Merchant," burden 300 tons. The last line of this 
invoice runs — " Some totall of this cargo, which God 
" prosper, 1,494Z. 13s. lOd." 

The invoices of the following ships are also given : — 
American, St. George, Betourne, Dorcas, Charles, Bantam, 
Coast Frigatt, London, Richard and Martha, Loyall Mer- 
chant, Rainbow j Unicorn, Blackmore, Loyall Subject, Rebecca., 
Constantinople Merchant, John and Martha, Morning Starr, 
Crowne, Antelope, Bombay Merchant, Humfry and Elizabeth, 

Vol. 2, 1674-75, contains invoices of London, Ccesar, 
Massingberd, Ann, Bombay Merchant, Unity [Fryer's ship]^ 
Eagle, Mary, Falcon. 

The Falcon was from Surat, and among the piece goods 
she brought were " Dolkas," "Nunsarees," "Deboys," 
and " Cambaja Brawles." 

These are all the names of towns [Dholka, Nansari, 
Debhoy, and Cambay] ; and the list shows that nearly 
every town and village of India in the 17th century 
manufactured piece goods, which generally received 
their commercial denominations from the places of their 

V. — Home Petty Cash. — Four volumes, from 1657 to 
1709, of no general interest. 

Vol. 1, 1657-60, almost perished out of existence. 
Vol. 2, 1659-69, in good condition. 


Vol. 3, 1666-74, in good condition. 
Vol. 4, 1705-1709, in tolerable condition. 

VI. — Peivatje Trade. — Five volumes, from 1768 
to 1782. 

Vol. 1, 1768-69, contains lists of goods sent out in the 
following ships : — Anson, to Coast and Bay ; Britannia, 
ditto ; Cruttenden, China ; Duke of Albany, St. Helena 
and Bencoolen ; Devonshire, to Coast and China ; 
Deptford, Bombay ; Duke of Kingston, Coast and Bay ; 
Duke of Grafton, ditto ; Duke of Cumberland, Bombay ; 
Essex, Fort St. George and Bombay ; Earl of Lincoln, 
Fort St. George and Bombay, and China ; Earl of 
Ashburnham, ditto ; Europa, Coast and Bay ; Fox, 
Bombay ; Grenville, Fort St. George and Bombay ; 
Glatton, China ; Harcourt, China ; Hector, China ; 
Hampshire, Bombay ; Havanna, Coast and China ; 
Houghton, Coast and Bay ; Lioness, Coast and Bay ; 
Lord Holland, ditto ; Lord Camden, Bombay ; Lap- 
wing, Bengal ; Marquis of Rockingham, Bombay ; 
Norfolk, Coast and Bay ; Nottingham, ditto ; Neptune, 
ditto ; Ponsborne, Fort St. George- and Bombay ; Pigot, 
Coast and China ; Plassey, ditto ; Prince of Wales, Coast 
and Bay ; Royal Captain, Bombay ; Royal Charlotte, 
Coast and Bay; Salisbury, ditto [her cargo included 
" Bulgar Hydes," i.e., Eussian leather] ; Speke, St. Helena 
and China ; Speaker, Bombay ; Triton, Coast and China ; 
Valentine, Coast and China; York, Fort St. George and 

Vol. 2, 1769-71. ^ 

Vol. 3, 1770/1-73. Full of similar lists of goods 

Vol. 4, 1772-76. "sent out in the Company's ships. 

Vol. 5, 1779-82. J 

These five volumes are invaluable for the complete 
view they give of the Company's export trade to India and 
the East for the included period. Many of them are 
stamped with the arms of the United Company. [See 
p. 21, note.] 


Shipping Papers. — Various, from 1610-11 to 

A. — Diaries. 

(1.) Sir H. Middleton's ship, sixth voyage, 1610-11. 

(2.) Sir W. Morris, on his voyage to India in the 
Harwich, 1699-1700. 

(3.) Ship Vlaardeng. Journal written in Dutch, 

(4.) Ship Adventure. Diary of Captn. Goodlad, 

(5.) Ship Samuel and Anna. Orders to Captn. Eeddall, 

(6.) Ship Edward and Dudley. Orders to Captn. 
Lambert, &c., 1703-4. 

B. — Various Shipping Papers. 

(1.) Inventories of Ships' Cargoes. — Vol. 1, 1611—13. 
Vol. 2, 1638-40. Vol. 3, 1708, is missing. I have put 
up in this bundle the " LoyaU Cook's" account, entered 
separately in the Statistics and Commerce Departmental 
List, No. 2,397. 

(2.) Index to Mariners' Books. — "Alphabet for the 
Mariners' Book," 1626 ; an Alphabetical List, apparently, 
of the sailors in the Company's service. 

(3.) Manners' Wages.— Yol 1, 1665-68. Vol. 2, 
1669-74. Vol. 3, 1675-76. Full of names of sailors. 

(4.) List of Stores, 1639, being a Steward's Book ; 
marked outside " Jonah's Booke." 

(5.) Inventories and Wills. — Vol. 1, 1639. Vol. 2, 
1660-61. Vol. 3, 1664^65. Full of names of sailors. 

Other Shipping Papers. 

Besides these shipping papers, there are the " SHIPS' 
JOUENALS " preserved in the Military [Marine] De- 


partment,* of which Mr. Clements Markham, C.B,, has 
given a listf at the end [pp. 263-77] of The Voxjages of 
Sir James Lancaster to the East Indies, published by the 
Hakluyt Society in 1877. 

Bcmarks on the Gompany^s earlier Voyages. 

The earlier voyages of the Company are distinguished 
as the "Separate Voyages" and the "Joint Stock 
Voijages." Stimulated by the discoveries of the 
Spaniards and the Portuguese, the English began as 
early as the reign of Henry VII. to endeavour to par- 
ticipate in the trade of India. They first attempted to 
reach India by the North- West and North-East Passages ; 
and they attempted these roundabout ways to the Bast 
in order to avoid the Portuguese. But, on the Dutch 
in 1598 boldly sending out their four ships under 
Houtman direct to the East by the Cape of Good 
Hope, the fuel of jealousy was added to the com- 
mercial ardour of the English to seize their share in 
the wealth of " Ormuz and of Ind," and the London 
East India Company was at once projected. In the 
first flame of avaricious rivalry the list of subscribers 
to the adventure was readily filled up, but the calls 
of the Committee upon them for the payment of the 
instalments of their contributions were imperfectly 
obeyed, and the Company, therefore, to avoid aU risk 
to themselves, instead of trading to India in their 
earlier voyages on the terms of a Joint Stock, arranged 
that the subscribers should, individually, bear the 
expense of each voyage, and reap the whole profits. 
It was under these regulations that the first so-called 
"Separate Voyages" were fitted out. But after 1612 

* They are now [1889] in the Record Department. 

t To this List may now [1889] be added the " Journal of the Eighth 
Voyage," under Captain John Saris, in 1611, mentioned at page xiii. of Mr. 
Markham's Preface as being then [1877] in the possession of the War Office, 
but wliich has since been restored to the India Office. 


it was found very difficult to compete successfully on the 
footing of individual ventures against the Portuguese 
and Dutch, and then the Company resolved that the 
voyages should be on the Joint Stock account, hoping 
thus to give a more efficient organization to the trade 
of England with the East.* This, however, only served 
to intensify the opposition of the Dutch, the most 

* Although all the " Separate Voyages,'' excepting the Fourth, were pro- 
sperous, the clear profits hardly ever being below 100 per cent., and in general 
reaching 200 per cent, on each voyage, they did very little to develope the 
trade opened by them with India, which never, during the period covered by 
them, became of any great national importance. The aggregate capital 
raised for these twelve voyages was no more than 464,2842., or an average of 
38,690Z. for each voyage ; which sum was, according to !Milburn, invested in 
the following manner : — 


In merchandise 62,411 

Bullion 138,127 

Shipping, stores, provisions .... 263,746 
and gave a profit, one voyage with another, of 138 per cent. 

With the institution of the " Joint Stock Voyages," all this was changed, 
in spite of the antagonism of the Dutch, which reduced the profits on the 
four voyages on the first " Joint Stock " account to 87| per cent, on the 
subscribed capital. Nevertheless, when in 1617 the second " Joint Stock " was 
opened, the sum of 1,620,040Z. was at once raised, the 954 contributors to it 
including 313 merchants, 214 tradesmen, 25 foreign merchants, 15 dukes and 
earls, 82 knights, 26 doctors of Divinity and Medicine, 13 ladies of title, 18 
" widows and virgins," and 248 undescribed persons ; and from this date the 
Company's trade became an imperial concern. In 1621 the Company pre- 
sented to Parliament " the estate of their trade from the beginning thereof in 
" 1600 to the 29th November 1621," from which it appears that in this period 
they had " sent forth to the Indies" 86 ships ; of which 36 returned home 
safely, laden ; 9 were lost ; 5 worn out by long service from port to port in 
India; 1 1 captured by the Dutch ; and 25 "do remain in India or on their 
" homeward passage." By their license the Company might in this period 
have shipped 910,0002. in foreign coins to India ; but " in aU the said time, 
•" upon all the said ships" they had "laden away," "as well out of these 
" Realms, as out of the Downs, Holland, and other places," no more than 
613,6812. And together with this money they had "shipped out of the 
" Realm, in woollens, lead, tin, iron, and other wares, to the value of 819,2112., 
" making together 932,8922." "And of all the before-mentioned monies and 
" goods sent into the Indies, there have been employed the value of 375,2882. 
" for the [un]-lading of 36 ships, which are returned home with sundry sorts 
" of wares, all of -frhich wares have produced here in England by sales 
" 2,004,6002." 


formidable antagonists the English ever had in the 
East, our trade with which from this date gradually 
languished until the massacre of Amboyna [17th Feb- 
ruary 1622/3] roused the patriotic spirit of the whole 
country in support of the interests of the Company. 
The massacre of Amboyna is, indeed, the turning-point 
in the history of the rise and progress of the British 
Empire in India. 

" The Separate Voyages." 

First Voyage, 1601-3, under "General" James Lan- 
caster, on board the Mare [commonly written Malice'] 
Scourge, re-christened Red Dragon. The " Vice- 
Admiral," the Hector, carried John Middleton, who 
died at Bantam, 1603. The other ships completing the 
squadron were the Ascension, the Susan, and the Guift 
[commonly written Gv£st]. John Davis, who had 
already made the voyage to the East Indies, with the 
Dutch fleet under Houtman [1598-1600], embarked on 
the Eed Dragon as Chief Pilot under Sir James 
Lancaster. [See also Appendix B.] 

Second Voyage, 1604-6, consisting of the Dragon, 
Hector, Ascension, and Susan, was commanded by Henry 

Third Voyage, 1606-9, commanded by Captain Keelinge 

Sir Josia Child, in his Discourses on Trade, published in 1670, treating of 
the gain to this country by the Company's trade with India, points out that, 
it provided us with " 25 to 30 of the most warhke ships of the kingdom, with 
" 60 to 100 mariners in each "; and supphed us fully, and at first hand, instead 
of through the Dutch, with pepper, cloves, cinnamon, nutmegs, mace, salt- 
petre, indigo, and calico, as well as with muslins, lawns, and cambrics pre- 
viously obtained from Flanders and Germany ; and furthermore with excess 
of pepper, and with cowries, and "painted stuffs," to the amount of 300,000Z. , 
for carrying on our trade with France, Spain, Italy, and Guinea. 

The "most warlike ships," referred to by Sir Josia Child, were of the then 
fast increasing type of the LoyaU Merchant [see p. 42], built for the Company 
by Captain MiUet in 1660, with three decks, and carrying 30 guns, being the 
first three-decker launched in England, and designed for the protection of 
the Company's merchandise against the pirates of Algiers, or " Turkish 
rovers " as they were then called. 


in the Dragon, with William Hawkins in the Hector, 
and David Middleton [brother to Sir Henry] in the 

Fourth Voyage, 1607-9, consisting of the Ascension, 
commanded by Captain Sharpeigh or Sharpey, and the 
Union, by Captain Richard Rowles, was unfortunate. 

Fifth Voyage, 1608, commanded by David Middleton of 
the Consent, the only ship sent. 

Sixth Voyage, 1610, consisting of the Trades Increase, 
commanded by Sir Henry Middleton, the Peppercorn, by 
Captain Nicholas Downton, and the Barling. 

The Trades Increase was by far the biggest merchant 
ship yet built in England.* She was of 1,100 tons 
burden, and was launched at Deptford, in the presence 
of King James I. and his Court, who were enter- 
tained on board by the Company with a splendid 
dinner, all served on dishes and plates of Ohinaware, 
then a great rarity in England. It was her disastrous 
fate to run aground in Bantam Roads, where, while 
being repaired, she careened over, and was set on fire 
and totally destroyed by the Javanese, in 1613 ; Sir 
Henry Middleton dying soon afterward of grief for her 

Seventh Voyage, 1611, commanded by Captain Anthony 
Hippon of the Glohe, the only ship sent. [Did Hippen's 
(now Prince's) Island, in the Straits of Sunda, derive its 
old name from Captain Hippon ?] 

Eighth Voyage, 1611, consisting of the Clove, Rector ., 
and Thomas, all under the command of Captain John 

Ninth Voijage, 1612, commanded by Captain Edmund 
Marlowe of the James, the only ship sent. 

Tenth Voyage, 1612, consisting of the Hoseander, 
Hector, James, and Solomon [James I., 1603 to 1625, 
Sully's " wisest fool in Christendom," the " English 

* For the tonnage of English war ships at this period, see pp. 74-6 of A 
Life of John Davis, by Mr. Clements Markham, C.B. George Philip and Son, 


Solomon " of his flatterers], commanded by Captain 
Thomas Best. 

Eleventh Voyage, 1612, was that of the Solomon in Best's 
Fleet, as the ninth was that of the James. 

Twelfth Voyage, also 1612, was that of the Expedition, 
commanded by Christopher Newport. 

The Expedition was commissioned chiefly to carry back 
to Persia Sir Kobert. Shirley [nearly always written 
Sherley in the India Office Kecords], Ambassador from 
Shah Abbas to King James I. Sir Robert, born 1570, 
had accompanied his brother Sir Anthony to Persia in 
1598 ; and was sent as Ambassador to England in 1612, 
and again in 1623; and died at Casbin, 13th July 1628. 
The two brothers made a most favourable and abiding 
impression in Persia, and Mr. Caspar Purdon Clarke, 
C.I.E., Keeper of the India Museum, South Kensington 
Museum, has several deeply interesting contemporary 
Persian water-colour paintings* of either the brothers 
Shirley or members of their English retinue. 

" The Joint Stoch Voyages." 

The First Voyage, 1613, consisting of the New Year's 
Gift, Hector, Merchant Hope, and Solomon, all under 
the command of Downton, is the only one on the 
Joint Stock Account of general historical interest. 
Peyton commanded the fleet which in January 1614/15 
took Sir Thomas Roe [on board the Lion'\ to India, 
as Ambassador from James I. to the " Court of the 
Great Mogol " [Jehangir, 1605-27] at Agra. Captain 
Benjamin Joseph commanded the fleet, consisting 
of the Charles, Unicorn, Globe, Swan, and Rose, 

* These water-colours are also interesting from being done in the Tar- 
taresque style of painting prevalent in Persia down to the reign of Shah Abbas 
[1585-1628], when the great change to the present Italianesque style of 
Persian painting was brought about through the influence of the young 
Persians sent by Shah Abbas to learn painting in Italy " under Raffael " 
[1483-1520], according to the tradition, as Mr. Caspar Purdon Clarke informs 
me, of modem Persian artists, and ^certainly under masters of the school of 



which in Fehruary 1615/16 took out Edward Terry 
[on board the Charles'] as " Chaplain to the Eight 
Honble. Sir Thomas Row, Knt." Sir Thomas Herbert 
went out with the fleet which sailed from the Downs 
"upon Good Friday," in the year 1626; and John 
Fryer with the fleet of 1672, composed of the London, 
Massengherd, Bomhaim, Unity [Fryer's ship]. Presi- 
dent, Ann, East India Merchant, Sampson, Ccesar, and 
Antelope, all commissioned as men of war, the English 
being at the time " at open defiance against the Dutch." 
John Ovington sailed from Gravesend 11th April 1689 
in the Benjamin, sent to Surat "as an advice-ship of 
•' that wonderful Revolution whereby their Sacred 
" Majesties [Mary and William III.] were peaceably 
" settled in the Throne." Mr. Markham has pointed 
out that William BafiBn served in the fleet, consisting of 
the London, Hart, Roebuck, and Eagle, which sailed in 
February 1619/20 under Captain Shillinge. The latter 
was killed in an encounter with the Portuguese fleet off 
Ras Jashk, at the entrance of the Strait of Ormuz, in 
January 1620/21, and Baffin died on the 23rd of January 
1621/22 of a wound received at the siege of a Portuguese 
fort on the island of Kishm, where he lies buried, a few 
miles due south of the island of Ormuz. Shillinge was 
buried near the town of Jashk. John Davis, Mr. 
Markham also notes, sailed as pilot on board the Tiger, 
in Sir Edward Michelborne's independent voyage, in 1604, 
to China and Japan, and was slain in an encounter with a 
Japanese junk off Bintang, in the Straits of Malacca, 27th 
December 1605. 



Persia. — 1621-30, two volumes. 

Vol. 1, 1621-22. Copies of letters from Ispahan, 
Ghilan, " Kharistan " ? [PLaristan, PFaristan, ?or 
Khusistan], Laur [Lar], Minaw [Minab], Gombroon 
[QsLmrun or Bandar Abbast], Jiyone or Jeroon [a name 
for Ormuz, i.e., Hurmuz, the famous island opposite 
Bandar Abbas], Kustack, Costaok, andChostack [Jasques, 
i.e., Jashk]. 

Vol. 2. Firmans and other documents from " Sawal 
[Shawal] A.H. 1036" [A.D. 1627] to " Zilkada [Zu-ul- 
Kaida], A.H. 1089 " [A.D. 1630]. The firmans are of 
the 42nd year of the reign of Shah Abbas [succeeded to the 
throne of Persia, 1585], and the 1st and 2nd years of the 
reign of Shah Safi [succeeded 1630]. Both volumes are 
of historical value. 

China and Japan. 

These volumes do not correspond with the entry 
at p. 1, Statistics and Commerce Departmental List, 
No. 2,397. The entry there is of the 4 vols. [viz. : Vol. 1, 
1672; vol. 2, 1685-86; vol. 8, 1699-1759; vol. 4, 
1721-1723] classed by me under the sub-section D of 
this Section. And besides these 4 volumes I found a 
series of volumes of " China Materials," numbered 
from 1 to 9 [sub-section A], of which volume 8 is 
missing; and two supplementary volumes [sub-section B], 
one of which relates to Japan ; and a separate volume on 
Japan [sub-section C]. 

D 2 


A. — ''Extracts towards a History of the Bise and 
Progress of the Trade with China." 

The extracts are from the Court's Letter Books and 
other records in the India Office, and from "Purchas, his 

Vol. 1, 1596-1675. 1 Vol. 3, 1682-1686. 

Vol. 2, 1673-1683. | Vol. 4, 1684-1699. 

The above 4 volumes were lent to the Kecord Office for 
examination, and have been duly returned. 

Vol. 5, 1694-1701. 
Vol. 6, 1699-1702. 
Vol. 7, 1702-1704. 

Vol, 8, missing. 
Vol. 9, 1712-1725. 

B. — Supplevient to China Materials. 

Vol. 1, 1600-1702, relates really to Japan. 
Vol. 2, 1606-1699, China. 

C. — Japan. 

One volume, 1614-1616, belonging apparently to a set 
entitled " Japan Miscellanies." This volume consists of 
copies of letters from Eichard Wickham, the Company's 
Factor at Firando. He makes the earliest mention of tea 
["chaw"] in the Company's Eecords, in his letter of 
27 June 1615, to Mr. Eaton at Miaco [see p. 26, note]. 

D. — Tonquin, Amoy, Canton, and Chusan. 

Vol. 1, 1672. Tonquin Journal and Register : — 
" Begun June ye 25, and December ye 7 ended." 
Apparently received ex Eagle, and recorded in London 
13th April 1675. A most interesting record of the 
Company's first trade in the Tonquin river. 

Vol. 2, 1685-86. History of the attempted settlement 
at Amoy. 


Vol. 3, 1699-1759. History of attempts to acquire 
and establish a trade at Chusan. 

Vol. 4, 1721-23. Consultations and Diary of James 
Nash and others, supercargoes of the four ships Eyles, 
Lyell, Walpole, and Emilia, at Canton. The cargo taken 
at Canton included " Grorgarons," i.e., silks, " Poises ? " 
" Tutenague " [from tutiya, "oxide of zinc," and nak, 
"like," tutenag being an amalgam of zinc, copper, and 
iron, largely exported from China to India, until super- 
seded by Silesian spelter], 

These are four invaluable volumes on the early trade 
of the Company with China. The impression of the 
Company's arms has been filched from the cover of 
vol. 2. 

[The China " PROCEEDINGS " in the next century 
extend from 1721 to 1840. J 

" The Dutch in the East." 

A. Five volumes, entered under this heading, " The 
Butch in the East," in Departmental List, No. 2,397. 
Vols. 1 and 5 are important historical records. 

Vol. 1, 1622-24, and 1650-54, contains proceedings 
before the High Court of Admiralty, and before the 
Commissioners; evidence in Latin supporting the Com- 
pany's complaint against the Dutch, 1622-25 ; and 
documents relating to Paulo Boon and Lantore, 
1616-1620 ; Jaccatra, 1619; Pepper; " The Massacre of 
Amhoyna" 1622/3 ; and to the Dutch trade in the Persian 

Vol. 2, 1625. "Lemmens to the Dutch East India 
Company," being the "Translate" of a Eemonstrance 
made by Francis Lemmens to the Dutch East India 
Company, in 70 paras., and also extracts of articles out 
of above remonstrance. 

Vol, 8, 1651-54. Complaints of the Enghsh East 
India Company against the Dutch Bast India Company. 


Vol. 4, 1684-86. Transactions touching Bantam, be- 
tween the English and Dutch Commissioners, 1685. 
Vol. 5, 1685-86, ditto. 

B. Five additional volumes, not in any previous list ; 
all of great interest and value. 

Vol. 1, no date. Marked on the back, "Connection 
"with the Dutch in the Eastern Seas," being "A state- 
" ment of the States and Princes in the Eastern Seas 
"with whom the Dutch appear at anytime to have had 
" connection, showing the nature and extent of that 
"connection. Compiled chiefly from two volumes of 
" copies and extracts of treaties bearing dates from the 
"year 1696 to 1797, which were extracted from the 
"Dutch Eecords at Batavia by a committee especially 
" appointed by the late British Government at Java for 
" that purpose, and transmitted by the Bengal Govern- 
"ment to the Court of Directors in 1818, together with 
" such collateral information as has been collected 
"from the earlier records by the East India Company, 
" and from earlier authorities." This is an invaluable 

Vol. 2, 1773. Palemhang Records. A few pages 

Vol. 3, 1785.) 

Vol 4 T^QI { Bencoolen Eecords. 

Vol. 5, 1813-20. Dutch Memoranda relating to Sir 
Stamford Raffles' s period. An important volume. 

General Remarks on the Dutch in the East. 

Besides the above records relating to the Dutch in the 
East, there are the papers catalogued in the " Printed 
Lists of Eecords," No. 1 and No. 2, bearing date the 
8th November, 1875, and the 9th February 1876, respec 
tively, enumerated separately in my confidential " Memo- 
randum on the Eecords in the India Office on the Dutch 


in the East," of January 17, 1878 [Statistics and Com- 
merce Department, No. 3,049], prepared for the Intelligence 
Department of the War Office. 

There are also " the Mackenzie MSS." in the Library, 
of which those relating to the Dutch are very important. 
See also, infra, Fifth Division, under " Damaged Papers," 
Bundle A., the reference to the packet marked " The 

* The organization of the administration of their trade with the East 
by the Dutch was followed in almost eyery detail by the English East India 

Their Civil Service took precedence of all others, and was divided into 13 
grades, viz., — 1st, that of Schrijuer, or "Writer," recruited from the de- 
serving soldiers of the Dutch Guards, pay, 9 to 14 guilders a month ; 2nd, of 
Under Assistant, 20 guilders a month, and 4 rix dollars for table money ; 3rd, 
of Upper Assistant, Book-keeper, or Secretary, 28 to 36 guilders, and 4 rix 
dollars table money ; 4th, of Onder-Koopnian [Anglice, Copeman ; cf. , chapman, 
copesmate', Copenhagen, Chippenham], or "Under Merchant," 36 to 45 
guilders, and 8 rix dollars table money ; 5th, of Koopman, 50 to 65 guilders, 
and 8 rix dollars ; 6th, of Opper- Koopman, 80 to 120 guilders a month, with 12, 
and at Ceylon and Batavia 13, rix dollars table money ; 7th, of Kommandnor 
[from the Portuguese Commendador, and the origin of the English Company's 
old Civil Service title of," Commodore " *], 150 guilders, and 20 rix dollars tahle 
money ; 8th, of Direktoor [the origin of the English Company's official title 
of " Directore," now spelt Director], 200 guilders, and 30 rix (/oKars table 
money ; 9th, of Governour, with the same salary and table allowance : 10th, 
of Members of the " Extraordinary Council of India," with the same salary 
and table allowance; 11th, of the " Ordinary Council of India," at Batavia, 
esich. 350 guilders a. month, and 100 rix dollars table money; 12th, of "The 
Director General," or " Second at Batavia,'' with 600 guilders a month salary, 
and 100 rix dollars table money ; and 13th, of " The Governour General of 
Batavia," with 1,200 guilders a month salary, and 200 rix dollars table money, 
and every time he visited the Fleet, which was always done upon a Fleet's 
departure for Holland, a " gratuity " of 1,500 rix dollars. Also, the Gover- 
nour General's allowances included wine and other liquors, and provisions of 
every description, without limitation ; and aU others down to the Assistants 
were allowed monthly, liquors, spices, oil, wood, rice, vinegar, candles, each 

* Even after the abolition of the English East India Company's Warehouses, on the 
withdrawal of its trading privileges in 1834, when with the other warehousemen " the Com- 
modore of the Blues " [i.e.. Indigo], "the Commodore of the Peppers," et cetera, were all pen- 
sioned off, this quondam Civil Service title continued to be borne by a certain grade of 
India Office Messengers, and two of these " Commodores of Messengers " are still living 
one as a pensioner, and the other in the active service, but no longer under his old deno^ 
mination, of the Secretary of State for India. Under the Company the Superintendent of 
" the Maids ' ' of the India House also bore the title of " Commodoress. ' 


according to his grade. Thus, the Upper Copeman's allowance was 20 
Canadars of Spanish wine per mensem, besides " Mum " \mumme, strong Ger- 
man beer. Tavernier notes that it was the principal delight of the Dutch at 
Batavia " to see new drinkes arrive, especially English beer, and that which 
they call mom, which comes from Brunswick"], " White AVine, and other 
" liquors, 24 li of Wax for Candles, Corn for Poultry, Rice for Slaves, &c. 
" So that the Diet Money allow'd them is only for Fresh-Provisions." 

The Military Service of the Dutch Indies was divided into only six 
grades, — 1st, of Private, with rank and pay of Under Assistant of the Civil 
Service ; 2nd, of Sergeant, with rank, pay, and allowances of Assistant ; 3rd, 
of Ensign, with rank, pay, and allowances of Under-Copeman ; 4th, of Lieu- 
tenant, with rank, pay, and allowances of Copeman ; 5th, of Captain, with 
rank, pay, and allowances of Upper-Copeman ; and 6th, of Major, with rank, 
pay, and allowances of Commodores. 

The officers of the Dutch Colonial Navy were also divided into six 
grades, — 1st, of Able-bodied Seaman, with rank and pay of Under Assistant ; 
2nd, of Third Mate, Gunner, and Boatswain, with rank, pay, and emoluments 
of Assistant, only that the Ship's Carpenters of this rank received from 40 to 
60 guilders a month ; 3rd, of Second Mate, with rank, &c., of Upper Assis- 
tant ; 4th, of Chief Mate, with rank, &c. , of Under-Copeman ; 5th, of 
Schipper, with rank of Copeman, and 60 to 100 guilders a month ; and 6th, of 
Kommandoor, ranking as Civil Commodore, with from 100 to 160 guilders 
a month, besides " Ship's Allowance," and " Road-Money " when La harbour 
at Batavia. 

The Chaplains were divided into Dominees, or Visitors of the Sick, with 
the pay and rank of Assistant, and Predicants, or " Preachers," with the 
pay and rank of Upper-Copeman. The Surgeons also had the pay and rank 
of Upper-Copeman. 

AU military, naval, and other officers gave place to Civilians of the same 

It is thus quite clear that the exclusive spirit of the Indian Covenanted 
Civil Service is based, not on Brahmanical traditions, but on the strictly 
mercantile organization of the administration of the Dutch Indies. It is 
clear, also, from the close care taken of their sick and disabled officers, and 
of the widows and orphans of their officers, by the Dutch, that it was from 
them that the English East India Company learned to make such methodical 
provision for the families of its officers ; both, in this respect, affording an 
example which, on account of their great worldly success, will be for ever 
memorable, not only of the pious observance of that part of Christian justice 
due from all masters to their servants, but also of the soundest commercial 
prudence and the highest public economy. 


Wtit ?^tstovg of fi)t €owa)ang in EnUta. 

The Feench in India. — Two volumes, 1749-59. 

Vol. 1, 1749-59. Extracts from the East India 
Company's advices regarding the conduct of the French 
on the coast of Coromandel, and the " country government 

The First Letter, dated Fort St, David, August 30, 
1749, and received May 10, 1750, that is eight months 
afterwards, was sent via Bussorah, as likely to reach 
London sooner than if sent round the Cape. 

At pp. 329-37 are letters from Admiral Watson, Clive's 
loyal coadjutor, giving an account of his victorious opera- 
tions in the Hoogly [Hugh], 1757. 

At p. 341 is Clive's own account of the decisive victory 
won by him, 23rd June 1767, on the " plain of Placis " 
or Plassey [i.e., Palasi, so called from the palas trees, 
Butea frondosa, growing on it]. 

This is a volume of the highest interest. It is in perfect 
order and preservation, and quite worth publishing 

Vol. 2, 1754-55. Further correspondence. 

General Bemarks on the French in India. 

There are innumerable papers on the French in India 
among the papers catalogued in the "Printed Lists of 
Records," Nos. 1 and 2, referred to above, under General 

* Since this Report was first printed, Sir W. Wilson Hunter, K. C.S.I. , 
CLE., has, in his work entitled The Indian Empire, its History, People, and 
Products, Trubner & Co., 1886, quoted direct from the above interesting 
original account of the battle of Plassey. 


Remarks on "the Dutch in the East.'" See "Printed 
Lists of Eeoords, Nos. 1 and 2," infra. The " CAE- 
NATIC COMMISSION " Papers extend from 1773 to 


One volume, 1779-1782. Narrative of the second 
war [1780-4] vrith Hyder Ali. A very complete com- 

General Remarks on Mysore. 

There are many papers relating to Mysore in the 
" Printed Record List," No. 2. See infra. 


The papers referred to in the three following paragraphs 
are not included amongst the " Old Records " treated of 
in this Report, and are here referred to simply to direct 
attention, in the present connection,, to the fact of their 

1. The papers in the " Printed Lists of Records," 
Nos. 1 and 2, relating to the Prench and other foreigners 
in India and other parts of the East. 

2. The papers in the *' Printed Lists of Records," 
Nos. 1 and 2, relating to the history of the Company in 
India, apart from the French and other foreigners. 

1717; the " CLIVE PROCEEDINGS," 1767-1766; 

Bengal, Behae, and Oeissa. 

One volume, dated on the back 1676. On the first 
page is written — " Specimen of Collections for an 


" History and Description of the Provinces of Bengal, 
" Behar, and Orissa." At page 106 and onwards is a 
very interesting letter on the piece goods made at 
Ballasore : Ginghams, "Herba Taffaties," " Herba 
Lungies," " and other Herba goods." It is noted that 
" the waters of the Casharry [? Koinsari] give the most 
" lasting die to them " [the said fabrics], "and within 
" two days journey of this place " [Balasor]. At p. 125 
and onwards is an interesting letter on raw silk, &c., 
and on the manufacture of "Taffaties" at Cossimbazaar. 
At p. 137 is described " the manner of providing cloth 
at Dacca."* 

* The muslins of Dacca, chequered, striped, spotted, flowered, and finest 
of all, the plain, which have been famous from Roman, and, as would 
now seem, from even Babylonian and Assyrian times, were first imported 
direct by the East India Company into England between 1660 and 1670 ; 
when the total export of these fabrics from Dacca amounted, in value, to 
1,000,000Z. The Company greatly fostered their manufacture, but their doom 
was sealed when in 1785 the use of the mule jenny in weaving was first in- 
troduced at Nottingham, and two years afterward 500,000 pieces of mushn, 
in imitation of the coarser Dacca denominations, were rolled off the power 
looms of Great Britain. The cry then was to protect the British manufac- 
turer from the competition of the Dacca weavers, and a duty of 75 per cent. 
was imposed on all Indian cotton goods. In consequence, the exportation of 
Dacca mushns to this country, the va'lue of which in 1787 stood at 30 lakhs of 
rupees, gradually feU to 8^ lalchs in 1807, and 8^ lakhs in 1813, until it ceased 
altogether in 1817, when the Honorable East India Company's Commer- 
cial Residency at Dacca was aboUshed. And although in 1825 the duty was 
reduced to 10 per cent, ad valorem, this had little effect in reviving the manu- 
facture of Dacca mushns, as about this very time English mule twist began 
to be largely imported for weaving into India, where its consumption rose 
from 3,063,556 lbs. in 1827 to 6,624,823 in 1831, to the almost entire exclu- 
sion of the use of native thread, from which alone the finer varieties of Dacca 
cloths can be made. Melancholy indeed, and a bitter rebuke to the people 
of England, is the contrast between the prosperous condition of Dacca unc^r 
the East India Company in the last century, and the impoverished state to 
which it was reduced when, at the beginning of the present century, the 
Imperial Parliament began to seriously interfere with the Company's admi- 
nistration in India. The terrible story is fuUy told in Surgeon James 
Taylor's admirable Sketch of the Topography and Statistics of Dacca, "printed 
by order of Government," at Calcutta, in 1840. Still more sad and humilia- 
ting is it to reflect that the desolation which then swept over Dacca also more 
or less overtook every one of the ancient polytechnical cities of India, and 
everywhere as the result of the disadvantages we so unrighteously enforced 


against them in their already unequal competition -with the rising manufac- 
turing towns of Nottingham, Warrington, and Glasgow. But in the fateful 
year 1857 a steam loom mill was opened at Bombay ; and now [in 1887-88] 
India again exports cotton manufactures to the annual value of Ks. 27,988,540. 
Thus the whirligig of Time brings in his revenges ! Dacca also still conti- 
nues to export small quantities of its hand loom flowered muslins to Perm, 
Syria, Egypt, and Turkey. 

The East India Company, in the days of its comparative freedom from 
Parliamentary interference, not only succeeded in confirming the prosperity 
of the indigenous manufactures of India, but was also the beneficent means 
of naturalizing in that country a new one, which has in some places become 
of considerable local value. They were compelled latterly to export large 
quantities of English woollen cloths to Bombay, Surat, Fort St. George, and 
Calcutta ; and some of these, the " Auroras," " Salisbury flannels," " Popin- 
jays," "Shalloons" [ras de Chalons], &o., of the " Old Records," were of very 
beautiful bright colours, rose, ivory white, French green, scarlet, " Telmont 
yellow," Mazarine blue, Turkey red, emerald green, Neapolitan yellow, black, 
&.O. , which made them universally popular, and at length led to their suc- 
cessful imitation in many parts of India. 



It is impossible to note everything I would of the 
contents of these voluminous records. All that I have 
done, as a rule, is, to indicate as briefly as possibly 
the general character of the contents of each volume, 
or collection of volumes. Further than that I only 
notice facts of universal interest. At the conclusion of 
the division, however, a concise account will be given 
of the history of our Factories, and early territorial 
acquisitions in the East. 

Abstbacts of Lettebs fbom vabious Factories. — 
Under this head twelve volumes are entered in the 
Departmental List, No. 2,397, from 1617 to 1722. 
Volumes 10, 11, and 12 are of Letters from the 
Company to their Factories. 

Vol. ], 1617-32, contains many letters from Thomas 
Baker in Persia. This is an exceedingly valuable volume, 
comprising abstracts of at least 114 letters which. are not 
to be found elsewhere. 

Vol. 2, 1669-80, missing. 

Vol. 3, 1699-1707. Letters from the Bay of Bengal, 
the Coast of Coromandel, Surat, Borneo, and China. 
A list is prefixed of the Establishment of Merchants^ 
Factors, and Writers at the above five Factories at the 
dates included. 

A. — "Bay of Bengal." —Merchants, among others. Sir 
Edward Littleton, Chief, under the " Old Company," of 
the Kazimbazaar Factory, 1679, and President, under the 
"NewCompany,"forthe "Bay of Bengali," 1698—1704-6. 


Factors, among others, Fulk Lacy, Surgeon. This is 
Dr. Fulke Lacey, " who died on board the Antelope, 
10th September 1699 " ; as did also, in the following 
December, Dr. Thomas Pendleton, " Our [i.e., the 
New Company's] designed Chyrargeon in the Bay " of 

Writers, among others, Mulis Lamb. 

B. — China. — Among Factors, William Travers. 

The letters as usual all relate to the details of the Com- 
pany's mercantile transactions. 

Yol. 4, 1716-22. 

Vol. 5, 1663-72. 

Vol. 6, 1675-95. Letters from various places subor- 
dinate to " Surratt," Very interesting. 

Vol. 7, 1696-1707. 

Vol. 8, 1664-76, missing [in 1878, but since found]. 

Vol. 9, 1677-1706, missing [ditto]. 

Vol. 10, 1658-73. From London. Standing rules of 
the Company to be observed in their several Factories. 
This is a volume of the highest interest, in perfect preserva- 
tion, and completely indexed. 

Vol. 11, 1672-79. Under date of London, December 
13th, 1672, is an order for goods, in which occurs this 
entry : " Salloos, made at Gulcundah, and brought from 
" thence to Surat, and go to England." 

Vol. 12, 1702-6. Letters from London. Orders for 
investments of cargoes, &c. 

Despatches and Lettees to India from the 
DiRBCTOES. — Nine volumes, 1656 to 1741. 

Vol. 1, 1655-59, contains copies of letters to Surat, &c., 
via Aleppo, from " the Committee of Adventurers in the 
" ships William, Benjamin, and Hopeful." [See Bruce's 
Annals, vol. I., p. 508.] 

Vol. 2, 1703-6. In one letter mention is made of 


^' Slabs of Totanague " [see p. 58]. At pages 220 and 286 
nre long lists of commodities. 

Under the lists of goods to be provided at Surat, 
page 220, are the following : — " Chintz, Persia, to be of 
" lively brisk colours, and no blacks, 5,000 pieces." 
" Chelloes, 4,000." " Tannah stuffs, of all colours and 
"stripes, 500." "Indigo, Agra and Lahore." " Oar- 
" mania wool, red, and other goods to be received from 
" Persia." The order concludes, " Send more or less as 
" procurable at encouraging prices." 

Under the list of goods to be provided in China, 
p. 286, are the following :— "Poisies" [?], "Goshees" [?], 
"Hockins" [?], "Paunches," " Pelongs," " Gelongs." 
They are all evidently silk goods. 

The list of goods to be provided at Fort St. George, 
p. 321, includes " Izarees," " Morees," " Bettelles," 
" Saserguntees," " Callawaypose," " Sadaruncharees," 
" Goaconcherulas," " AUegaes." These names, each under 
many forms of spelling, constantly occur. They are the 
names of piece goods, and, judging from the names of 
those goods sent from the Surat Factory, are generally to 
be traced to the names of the places of their production. 
A list of ships is given at p. 234. 

Vol. 3, 1706-7, a similar book. List of ships, p. 145. 
Lists of goods, pp. 157-15S. 

Vol. 4, 1707-8, a similar book, written up to p. 67 only. 

Five volumes of demi-official 
and semi-private letters from the 
Secretary of the Company to 

Vol. 5, 1730-32. 
Vol. 6, 1732. 

Vol. 7, 1732-34. -| various of their servants. Vol. 8 

Vol. 8, 1734-36. 
Vol. 9, 1736-41. 

contains a letter of November 
28th, 1735, from Cavendish Square 
to Mr. LethieuUier. 

Under this head I include the entries of 11 volumes 
at page 4 of the Departmental List, No. 2,397, A.D. 
1675 to 1786. 


Vol. 1, 1675-76. Copy of Puckle's Diary, Metchli- 
patam [MasulipatamJ and Fort St. George. 

Vol. 2, 1675-77. Copy of Streynsham Master's 
Diary, from London to Fort St. George. Sir Streynsham 
Master [continually spelt Masters] was Governour of 
Madras [1678-81] in succession to Sir William Lang- 
home [1670-8]. 

Vol. 3, 1678. Kecord of proceedings of the Court of 
Judicature at Fort St. George ; containing a list of houses 
taxed to pay for the cleaning of the " Black [also called 
" Christian," meaning native Christian] Town " of Madras. 
[See, infra, Angengo, Vol. I.J 

Vol. 4, 1679. Statement of the gold "coyned" by 
Mr. Richard Mohun , [dismissed in 1680 for defalcations 
in his accounts as Chief of Masulipatam], and in his 
absence by Vincent Sayon. 

Vol. 5, 1687. Copy of the Charter of James II. 
establishing a Municipality and Mayor's Court at Madras. 
Missing [in 1878, but since found and incorporated with 
the "Parchment Records." See Appendix D.]. 

Vol. 6, 1703-4.) Letters from various places in India 

Vol. 7, 1704-5.) to Fort St. George. 

Vol. 8, 1716. j " Translates of Phirmaunds." Im- 

Vol. 9, 1716. ) portant. 

Vol. 10, 1729. Catalogue of the Library of Fort 
St. George, Very interesting. The reading of the 
century in India was limited, but solid, and very 
feeding : — The Bible, Buchan's Domestic Medicine, 
Johnson's, Walker's and Sheridan's Dictionaries, 
Taplin's Farriery, Hoyle's Book of Games, Fanny 
Burney's, and the-then-equally-popular-but-now-utterly- 
forgotten-save-by-the-curious Charlotte Smith's, novels, 
the Sporting Dictionary, Brigg's, Glass's, and Farley's 
Cookery Books, Macpherson's Ossian, Don Quixote, 
and Gil Bias, Persian, and Arabic, even more 
than Hindoostanee Dictionaries, Bell's British Theatre, 
Shakespeare, Gibbon, Robertson, Hume and Smollett, 


Langhome's Plutarch, Gilchrist's East India Vade 
Mecum, Ainslie " on Cholera Morbus," and Struensee 
[not J. F.] "on Field Fortification." These were the 
works, in the order of the demand for them, carried out 
in every ship to India, at the end of the last century, 
and beginning of the present, before the time of 
Scott and Byron. Also, always, " all new books for 
" children." 

Vol. 11, 1786. A list of the EngUsh and other 
European captives at Mysore. An invaluable record of 

Twenty-seven Combined Volumes. — 27 volumes [found 
since my first examination of these Records], 1623 to 

Vol. 1, 1623-25. Consultations at Batavia, Surat, 
Amboyna, and Gombrone. 

Vol. 2, 1626-35. Ditto Surat, Batavia, Jambee, Ban- 
tam, Ispahan letters, and letters to Persia. A letter to 
" The Viceroy and Principals of the Portugall Nation in 
" Goa," in which the Viceroy is styled " The Padre Pro- 
" vincial," and "Your reverent Fatherhood." 

Vol. 3, 1634-59. Surat, Bantam, Fort St. George. 
The volume contains a letter from Sir John Massingbird, 
with two perfect seals on the back. Also a letter marked 
" Copia out of French." 

Vol. 4, 1659-66. Madraspatam, Bantam, Macassar, 
Bengal, Metchlipatam [Masulipatam]. 

Vol. 5, 1666-69. Bantam, Balasore. 

Vol. 6, 1669-72. Bombay, Jambee, Metchlipatam, 
Bantam, Golconda, Ceylon, Bengal. 

Vol. 7, 1672-75. Bombay, Metchlipatam, Japan, Ban- 
tam, Ballasore. 

Vol, 8, 1675-76. Bantam, Madras, Tonquene. 

Vol. 9, 1676-79. Tonquin, Fort St. George, Oossim- 
bazaar, Metchlipatam, Amoy, Tywan [Formosa], Hugly. 


Vol. 10, 1677-81. Tywan, Amoy, Bantam, Bombay, 
Tonqueen, Siam, Hugly. 

Vol. 11, 1681-82. Cossimbazaar, Hugly, Maulda, 
Engleswad, Syam. 

Vol. 12, 1682-83. Bantam, Syam, Dacca, Fort St. 
George, Batavia, Tonquin, Surat, St. Helena. 

Vol. 13, 1682-85. Macao, Amoy, Batavia, Bombay, 
Pattana, Metchlipatam , St. Helena. 

Vol. 14, 1685-87. Oonimero, Bombay, Fort St. 
George, Balasore, Fort York, Madapolam, Ouddalore, 
Porto Novo. 

Vol. 15, 1686-90. Bengal, Metchlipatam, Bombay, 
Fort St. George, Bencoolen, Fort York, St. Helena, 

Vol. 16, 1691-92. Bombay, Surat. 

Vol. 17, 1692-93. Fort York, Fort St. George, Bom- 
bay, Surat, Chuttanuttee. 

Vol. 18, 1693-94. 

Vol. 19, 1693-94 ; 1699-1701. 

Vol. 20, 1693-97. Acheen, Tonquin. 

Vol. 21, 1695-97. Fort St. George, Tonquin, Fort St. 

Vol. 22, 1697-98. 

Vol. 23, 1699. Bombay, Fort York, Surat. 

Vol. 24, 1699-1700. Fort St. George, Metchlipatam, 
Fort York or Tryamong, Surat. 

Vol. 25, 1699-1701. Fort St. George, Metchlipatam, 
Fort York, Fort St. David. 

Vol. 26, 1701-3. Cossimbazaar, Macao, Canton, 

Vol. 27, 1702-8. Amoy, Fort William, Fort St. 
George, Calcutta, Surat. 

Thk " I.P. [i.e., Injured Papers] Volumes." 

Vol. 1, contains loose and injured papers of various 
<lates, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1626, 1677, 1681, 1692, 1696, 
&c., relating to Batavia, Surat, Fort St. George, Chutta- 


nuttee, Madapolam, Metchlipatam, Balasore, Hugly, 
Tonqueen, Dacca. Most of the papers are in the old 
Court hand. 

Vol. 2, contains loose papers of all sorts from Pulicat, 
Surat, Maha (?), Bombay, Fort York, Armagaon, Hugly, 
dated from 1602 to 1682. 

Vol. 3, contains all sorts of loose papers from 1629 to 
1723. Among others, the Hugly Diary, from December 2, 
1681, to June, 1682. Copies of letters from Bantam, 
written in 1629-37. Minutes of Consultations at 
Bantam, in 1679. Memorandum dated Anno 1677, at 
Tonqueen. Minutes of Consultations at Fort St. George, 
1681. Copies of letters from Surat to the Factors at 
Broach, 1698. Letters from [Sir] Jno. Gayer from 
Swally, to various, 1700-1. Consultations and letters to 
and from Englesvad, Hugly, Scingee? [PGingi], 1681 
and other dates. Consultations, Fort St. George, 1693. 
Diary, dated 1701, of some Factors in China. Copies of 
letters, 1699. Consultations at St. Helena, in original, 

The " D.P. [i.e., Damaged Papers] Volumes." 

These are not entered in the Departmental List, 
No, 2,397, and are contained in four bundles, A, B, C, 
and D. 

Bundle A. 

Fragments of miscellaneous documents on trade, ships, 
commissions, the Dutch, law, accounts, invoices, remain- 
ders, valuations, bills of lading, policies of insurance, 
customs lists, and all sorts of odds and ends of corre- 
spondence, — just such a sack-full of torn papers as might 
have been gathered out of the waste paper baskets of the 
Company's offices in Crosby Hall, or the Leaden Hall, at 

E 2 


any time during the seventeenth century. The following 
documents may be noted : — 

A letter from Samuel Boyle, Bantam, dated January 13, 
161i/5, and endorsed " No moment." 

A letter from James Bagg, Junior, Plymouth, of Decem- 
ber 29, 1618. 

Letter from "Messieurs Cartwright and Cooper," on 
board the Dutch ship Agreement at " Taxell," bound for 
Bantam, dated 26th and 31st August 1619. 

A letter from John Clant, on board the Bull, Portland 
Bay, bound for Bantam, August 10th, 1619. 

A letter from George Kempe, Plymouth, of May 29, 
1621. The seal is perfect. 

A letter from Adrian Eoquigny, Eouen, January 30, 

Letters from Henry Whitaker, Amsterdam, July 25, 
August 15 and December 9 and 16, 1644, and July 9 and 
16, 1646. 

Letters from Francis Townley, Hamburg, November 
21 and 27, 1646. 

Letters from " Signers Gault and Isaac Yan der Vort," 
Venice, June 19 and July 26, 1647. 

Letter from Jer° Williamson Aschman, Middleburg, 
July 19, 1650. 

Letters from Ephraim Skinner, Kobert Balle, and 
Francis Gosfright, Livorno, August 25 and September 1, 
1674, advising purchase of coral. 

Letter from Wm. Berry, " Bourdeux " (Bordeaux), 1st 
November 1683. 

Letters from various Factories in India, 1613 to 

The packet marked "THE DUTCH" contains, among 
other papers : — 

The Company's petition in 1617 to the King, complain- 
ing " of the manifest and insupportable wrongs and abuses 
'• lately done by the Hollanders unto Your Majestie and 
' ' your Majesties said servants." 


♦' An Account General" with the Dutch [1620-21] 
for ships, goods, &c., taken by them, and unrestored. 

A copy of the States' letter to His Majestie [French], 
dated the Hague, August 20, 1619. 

The " Treaty of Defence "* of July 7, 1619. Irre- 
parably damaged ; endorsed, " There is a perfect copy in 
" ' List of Papers relating to the Dutch,' taken from the 
'• Law Presses No. 5 ; " but nothing appears to be known 
of it. 

" The state of the question [between the English and 
" the Dutch Companies] concerning restitution in the Low 
" Countries of goods brought thither, propounded by the 
" EngHsh and answered by the Dutch Commissioners in 
" Holland" [? January 7, 1621/22]. A most important 
historical document. 

" Minutes of that which passed at the Council Table 
" between the Dutch and English Commissioners 
" touching restitution," 10th July 1622. 

" Complaint to the King of the protraction of the nego- 
" tiations for restitution by the Dutch Commissioners, and 
" of the Dutch Company having, since the publication of 
" the Treaty, seized the islands of Lantore and Pulo 
" Boon," dated 28th July 1622. [The islands were seized 
in 1620, immediately after the proclamation of the Treaty 
of Defence, and the English people on them treated with 
merciless inhumanity.] 

" Copy of Sir Henry Marten's discourse [Counsel's 
" opinion] of the Black Lyon, with Mr. Birde's opinion in 
" concurrence," 1622. 

* This was the well-known Act of Amnesty and Oblivion between the 
Dutch and English ["London"] Companies for the disgraceful injuries done 
us by the Dutch in the East Indies. The treaty was to be binding for ten 
years, and on its ratification King James promised not to grant another 
charter to any person whatsoever during the term of the above treaty. The 
Dutch, however, continued to carry on their excesses against us just as arro- 
gantly and ruthlessly as before, until at last, on the 17th of February 1622/3, 
they barbarously massacred the whole establishment of the servants of the" 
English Company, at Amboyna. 


The Dutch reply (in Latin) to Sir Henry Marten, 

" The Company's answer to the propositions of the 
" Netherlands Bast India Company, which they desire to 
" be inserted into the rule and order for reglement of both 
'« Companies," 1622. 

" The present state of the business between the 
" English and Dutch Companies," 1622. 

"Copy of a letter to the Maim-es" [Heads] "of 
" the Dutch Company," [? 1624 or 1625]. Much 

" Letter to the Mayors of the Dutch Company," January 
24, 1624/25. 

" Order of the Dutch Ambassador in a dispute 
" between the Dutch and English Companies," May 23, 

•' Letter of the English Ambassadours to the Prince of 
" Orange ; in the camp at Boxtel," July 17, 1672. 

The packet marked "Accounts" contains, among 
others, the following papers : — 

" Abstract of the Stock adventured by the Company 
"from 1601 to 1619, as well in their Distinct" 
[" Separate "] " as Joint Voyages." Endorsed in red 
" Very important." It is in perfect preservation, and is a 
most important paper. 

" The proht and loss of the second Joint Stock from its 
" formation." 1615-39. 

" The nature and qualities of several Adventurers 
" behindhand in their subscriptions to the second Joint 
" Stock," 1620. Not a name can be read. 

" Account of the Subscriptions yet overdue," 1622. A 
much damaged fragment. 

"Note of the Adventurers yet unpaid for the Second 
Joint Stock," June t, 1624. All the names can be 
clearly read, and the following are noteworthy : — Thomas 
Erie Arundell [died at Venice 1646], William Aleyn, Anne 
Archer, Sir Greorge Abercromy, George Duke of Bucking- 


ham [i.e., George Villiers,* assassinated by Felton, 2Srd 
August 1628], Francis Benbowe, Theophilus Cope, Sir 
Lyonell Cranfeild [Lord High Treasurer 1621-24], 
WiUiam Coxe, Sir Edward Cockett, Sir Dudley Diggs 
[son of the astronomer, Thomas Digges, author of A 
Defence of Commerce, and supporter of the impeachment of 
Buckingham], Sir Thomas Dale, William Dyke, minister, 
Lady Lettice Danvers, Sir Clement Edmonds, Sir W. 
Garway & Co., Sir Edward Harwood, Geoege Hebiott 
[James I.'s "Jingling Geordie "], Sir Laurence Hide, 
Nicholas Hide, Lodwick Duke of Richmond and Lenox 
[Lodowick Duke of Lennox, created Earl and afterward 
(1623) Duke of Eichmond by James I.], Sir W. Lovelace, 
Phillip, Erie Montgomery [Philip Herbert, second son of 

* When the Company's business was taken over by the Imperial Parlia- 
ment in 1858, one of the first acts of the new masters of the India House in 
LeadenhaU Street was to make a great sweep out of the old records that 
from 1726 had been preserved there with scrupulous solicitude. They swept 
300 tons of these records out to the Messrs. Spicer, paper makers, to be 
boiled, bleached, and bashed into low class paper pulp ; and from one of the 
cartloads of them, on their way to the Messrs. Spicer's tanks, a paper was 
blown off by the wind, and picked up by a passer by, of whom, on my acci- 
dentally making his acquaintance some years afterwards, I purchased it for 
bl. It is addressed, " To my loving friends the Govemours and Company of 
the East India Merchants;" and endorsed, "November 28th, 1619. My 
" Lord of Buckingham about resigning his interest in my Lord of Warwick's 
" goods. Reed. Dec. 1, 1619." And it runs :— 

" After my heartfelt commendations. Whereas his Majesty by his former 
letters, about the beginning of the last summer, signified unto you that he 
was pleased to bestow upon me that part which belonged to him of the for- 
feiture incurred by the Earl of Warwick [Robert Rich] : Yet since he hath 
likewise pleased to write also in my Co : of Warwick's behalf, I have 
thought fit to signify unto you that I do wilhngly remit to him likewise all 
my interest and [an *obhteration] that I had therein by his Majesty's 
said warrant. And so I rest your veiy loving friend. 

[Signed] G. Buckingham. 

" Newmarket, 28 November 1619." 

The paper is sealed with the Duke's [Felton's man] own seal, the beautiful 
impression of which is as fresh as when made on the above November day^ 
just two hundred and seventy years ago. See also IJie Athenseum of 22nd 
February 1873, page 247. 

* The obliteration here is probably of the word "pretence"; i.e. judging from the 
Court Minutes ' ' of Ist December 1619, recording the receipt of this letter. 


Henry Earl of Pembroke, created Earl of Montgomery 
1606, succeeded his brother William as Earl of Pembroke 
1630, and died 1652],* Sir John North, William Erie 
Pembroke [brother of aforesaid Philip Herbert Earl of 
Montgomery], Henry [Wriothesley] Erie Southhampton, 
Henry Whitaker, John Westley, John Wiseman, Sir 
Henry Yelverton [Attorney-General 1617-'ll']. 

There is also a supplementary list of names of defaulters 
to the Second Joint Stock. 

" Abstract of the Estate in the Indies of the 3rd, 5th, 
" and 11th voyages." No date, but in good order. 

Under date 1613, I find the, apparently, " Bazaar 
Account " of someone living at Narsapoor. The form of 
the pages is that of the bazaar books still used by English 
housekeepers all over India. 

Under May 1632, is, apparently, the Surat Factory cash- 
keeper's accounts with the Native Broker, Gourdas. 

August 27, 1663. " Account of cash and goods deli- 
" vered to Henry Aldvrorth for presents and expenses, at 
" his going to Hugly with the Salt Petre boats." 
March 4, 1606/7, a paper headed — 

"Laus Deo, in London, the 4th March, 
" Anno Domini 1606." " Cargazon of the 
" money and goods laden on the Dragon, 
" Hector, and Consent, in the third voyage 
" to Bantam." A most interesting paper. 
It bears the mark here copied by me, which 
was the "general mark" adopted by the 
Company 81st Dec. 1600. 
Dated 1606. " A cargozon or proportion for a bark of 
" 44 tons for the parts about Oumina, with [what] money 
" the commodities will cost, and what is like to make of 
" them severally, set down in peazes and rials." Very 

Dated 1610. "Account of cloth purchased for the 
" eighth voyage of ships Thomas, Hector, and Clove." 

* It is to his son, Philip, that Sir Thomas Herbert's TraveU into Divers 
Parts of Africa and Asia the Great [1665] are dedicated. 


Bantam, 1614/6, January 15. " Cargazon " of " Pur- 
slane," [Porcelain ?] and " Camboja " [Gamboge] shipt in 
the James for the eighth voyage. 

Patanie, July 25, 1614. Invoice of goods landed from 
"the James, ninth voyage. 

1622, July. " Contents of a Chest of Chirurgery, for 
" Jaccatra House, laden upon the Abigail." A very 
interesting list of Materia Medica. 

1630, April 12. Cargazon of Charles. 

1643/4, March 23. Abstract of goods sent to Mocha 
" on a Jounk of Suratt." 

1 647/8, January 6. Invoice of goods laden 
on the Antelope from Surat, It bears the 
mark here copied. 

According to Fryer " the Company's Mark 
upon aU their Goods, Bales, and Parcels," 
shipped from Surat, "Ahmedavad," " Bom- 
baim," &c., in India, was this, here copied. 

1650/1 . " Generale carga van de negen Oost Indische 
" schepen namentlijck," &c., &c. 

1656/7, January 20. Swally. Invoice of 
ship Benjamin.* It bears the mark here 
copied. A most interesting invoice. 

* See page 62. 


] 659, May 6. Account of goods laden at Gambroon 
on the Mayflower, bound for Metchlipatam. 

The MAYFLOWER with the English Pilgrim Fathers, 
from Delft Haven, Southampton, and Plymouth, landed 
at Plymouth Rock, New England, December 25, 1620. 
Could it have been the same ship as the Company's May- 
flower ?* 

* This heedless question, although some good came of it, has been the 
caiise also of considerable confusion, as may be most conveniently shown by 
reproducing the following extract from a letter addressed by me to the 
Editor of the Daihj Telegraph on the 24th October 1889 :— 

" Sir Edwin Arnold, addressing his distinguished audience [Harvard Uni- 
versity], asks, ' Do you know that the Mayflower, which brought your an- 
cestors hither, went down in Indian waters off Masulipatam ? ' The 
suggestio fabi in this interrogation originated in the following manner : — 

" In 1878 I reported on the supplementary miscellaneous ' Old Records ' of 
the India Office, and as wherever I put in my thumb I pulled out a plum, 
instead of contenting myself with a eut-and-dried official description of them, 
for the mere purposes of classification, I put all the plums I found into my 
report, which, on account of its consequent interest, was published by Her 
Majesty's Printers for general circulation. One of the biggest of these 
plums, as I then thought it, was the following extract from the ' U. P. 
[Damaged Papers] bundle ' : — ' May 6, 1659. Account of goods laden at 
' Gambroon on the Mayflower, bound for Metchlipatam (i.e. Masulipatam).' 
On this extract I asked : ' Could this have been the same ship as the Pilgrim 
' Fathers' Mayflower V On the report going out to India it was there dis- 
covered that a Company's ship of the name of Mayflower had, about the same 
date, foundered in ' the Bay ' (i.e. of Bengal), and on the supposition, based 
merely on my question, that the two were identical, numerous newspaper 
articles appeared connecting the foundered Mayflower with the immortal ship 
of the Pilgrim Fathers. Again, the late JMr. Henry Stevens, of Vermont, of 
the publishing house of Henry Stevens and Son, London, an enthusiastically 
patriotic American, became deeply interested in my extract and question 
about the Company's Mayflower, and being convinced that she was the same 
Mayflower as that of the Pilgrim Fathers, determined to pubhsh every docu- 
ment in the India Office naming the sacro-sanct vessel. This resolution led 
to his publishing, as a commencement, the first volume of the " Court 
Minutes " of the East India Company, extending over the years 1599 to 1608, 
simply because a ship called Mayflowei- is constantly referred to in it. By 
the time that the volume was ready for publication I had begun to have 
serious misgivings of the identity of any of the Mayflowers belonging to the 
Company with the Mayflower, and in the introduction to Mr. Stevens' volume 
relegated my reference to the subject to a foot-note. Soon after its issue I 
was satisfied that there was no connection between them ; and in reviewing 
Ihe Dawn of British Trade to the East Indies — as Mr. Stevens named his book 
— ^in the Atliensmm for October 15, 1887, I remarked : — ' Mr. Stevens was 


No date. Abstract of Pinnace Lannarefs cargo for 

No date [?1614]. Invoice of goods laden upon the 
Advice for ' Jappan,' for the first voyage. 

Bantam, 1613. Remainder in Bantam on account of 
the 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 11th voyages. Unfortunately 
much damaged, or otherwise would have been invaluable. 

1629, November 20. " Amadavad," " household stuff," 
remaining in the factory, with their weight, &c. 

1629, December 6. An inventory of the "household 
stuff" at Surat. 

The packet marked " Bills of Lading," contains, inter 
alia, the following entries : — 

Bantam, 1614/5, January 1. Bill of lading in the 
James for the " Purslane " [porcelain ?]. 

1633/4, March 25. Bill of lading in the 
Palsgrave, from London to Surat. It bears 
the mark here copied by me. 

The packet marked "Policies and Insurance," con- 
tains, inter alia, the following entries : — Under date 
February 16, 1656/7, insurance of goods shipped on 

' allured into Ma patriotic undertaking by the romantic fancy that the May- 
' flower mentioned in this volume, as one of the ships inspected for the 
' Company's " first voyage " to India, was the veritable Mayflower that carried 
' the Pilgrim Fathers to America. Mayflower was a common name for a ship 
' in those days, and the one examined for the Company in 1600, and the 
' other possessed by the Company in 1659, which is believed to have subse- 
' quently foundered in the Bay of Bengal, must both have been larger ships 
' than the little craft of the Pilgrim Fathers. The Mayflower of 1600 must, 
' moreover, have ceased to exist in 1620, and that of 1620 long before 1659. 
' Only ships built of Indian teak could have kept the sea from 1600 to 1659, 
' like those used by the Phoenicians at Tylos, which Theophrastus tells us 
' had continued sailing for 300 years. " This question has now [1890] been 
finally set at rest by the discovery of an entry proving that the Company's 
Mayflower was of 280 or 300 tons burthen, whereas the historical Mayflower 
was of only 180 tons. 


the Three Brothers, homeward bound from Macassar, 
Bantam, &c. 

The packet marked " Customs House List " contains, 
inter alia, the following entry : — 

A printed list of goods imported into and exported from 
London, dated February 5, 1667/8, No, 28, and of goods 
exported by certificate. ^ 

From Amsterdam were imported silk, organzine silk, 
quicksilver, caraway seed, " Ozenbrigs," " Harfords," 
madder, safflower, argoll, castoreum, varnish, smallwares, 
drest bristles. 

From Middleborough, silks, linseed, clover seed, canary 

From Botterdam, nutmegs, mace, silk, hair stuffs, 
safflower, hemp, madder, " Tarras " or " Tattas," 
gally-tiles, snuffers, iron wire, thread. 

From Luheck ? " Hinterlands " goods are shown to 
have been imported from Ostend, Flushing, Harlem, Eoan 
[Eouen], Deipe [Dieppe], Nants [Nantz], Civill [Seville], 
Rochell [Eochelle], Norway, Barbadoes. 

The places named to which goods were exported from 
London are Hambro, Rotterdam, Porto [OportoJ, Lisbon, 
Cadiz, Dunkirk, Amsterdam, Bridges ? [Bruges ?], Bre- 
men, "Straits" [of Gibraltar], Tangier(s), St. Valery, 
Bilboa, " Bermoodos " [" the still vexed ' Bermoothes ' " 
of Shakespeare's Tempest\ "Legorn," Guinea, France, 
Ostend, Dieppe, " Burdaux," Middleboro', "Roan" 
[Rouen], Virginia, Barbadoes, New England, Canaries. 

The packet marked " Miscellaneous " contains, among 
other papers, the following : — 

1606. First page of Captn. Keelinge's Journal, of the 
" Third Voyage." 

1615 or 1615/6. Document endorsed " Contentions 
about Oxwick in Acheene." 

1626, September 8. Letter to Mr. Bagwell in 
Holland, to buy 2,000L worth of " Rials ; " stating also 
that the goldsmiths had been disappointed in their 


expectation to enhance the value of British coins by a 
Proclamation of the King to the contrary. 

1631. Acceptance by the Commissioners for repairing- 
St. Paul's Church, of Mr. Smethwick's offering. 

1643. "A draught of the South Land* lately dis- 
covered;" a rough sketch, much damaged, and only 
kept together by being backed with goldbeater's skin. 

1642/3, January 17. Copy of Company's bonds to Sir 
Peter Ricault, knight. 

1653, November 2. Letter from V. Markham, Auditor 
to the Company, recounting his services. 

Paris, 1664, May 26. Printed paper, being the frag- 
ment of an address to the French nation in favour of 
an East India Company [i.e., Colbert's Company]. The 
articles are complete. This is a very interesting docu- 

1706, and 1707, and 1708. Order for payment of 
gratuities to the Governour, Deputy, and Members of 

1720-23. The journal, in French, of the French ship 
of war, Le Content. 

No date. Mr. Sambrooke's argument in favour of a 
Joint Stock. 

No date. Abstract of the Earl of Devonshire's 

No date [?1637]. Instructions from Charles I. to 
Nicholas Wilford, sent on a mission to the " Emperor of 
Persia" to collect antiquities, take drawings of ancient 
buildings, and to procure information regarding " Mada- 
gascar, by reason of its propinquity to Persia." 

* This must be a draught either of Van Diemen's Laud, discovered by 
Tasman 24th Kovember, 1642, and named by him after Maria Van Diemen, 
the beautiful daughter of the Dutch G-ovemor of Batavia ; or of New Zea- 
land, also discovered by Tasman in 1642. Owing to the prejudice which was 
found to deter English emigrants, the name of Van Diemen's Land, or 
Demon's Land as they called it, was changed about 40 years ago to Tasmania 
in honour of its susceptible and romantic discoverer. It was not known to 
be an island until explored by Flinders, who, with Bass, discovered Bass's. 
Strait in 1799. 


No date. Particulars of [?the Company's] charitable 
gifts in Stepney, Poplar, &c. 

No date. Commons' Declaration and Impeachment 
against the Duke of Buckingham. 

No date. Supposed objections in Parliament against 
the Company answered. 

In the packet marked " Commissions " there are, 
among others, the following papers : — 

Circa 1613-14. A book marked " Doionton's Voijage " 
[1st Joint Stock], also "instructions in the voyage of 
the Hector, New Year's Gift, &c., 4 shipps." 

No date. Copy of King Charles's Commission to 
Captain Quaile of the Sea Horse to capture the ships of 
Spain in the East Indies. 

1640, 24 July. Commission of the King of France to 
Captain Digard of the Rose of Diepe. 

London, 1662, July 11. Commission to Captain 
Egmont of the George and Martha. 

[?1671, 20 Sept.] Commission of the Company to 
the Eear- Admiral of the Fleet bound to Bantam. 

In the packet marked " Ships " are, among others, the 
following papers : — 

1613. " Roll of the dead men out of the Clove, 
Hector, and Thomas." [Eighth voyage under Saris.] 
An interesting list of dead men's names. 

No date. Proceedings to recover gold plundered from 
the Morning Star by an Algerine pirate. 

In the packet marked " Minutes " there is, among 
other papers, the following : — 

November 7, 1705. An order, in original, for Blood 

In the packet marked " Trade " there are, among 
others, the following papers : — 

Sir J. Sambrooke's Report on the Progress of the East 
India Trade, begun in 1600. 

1620/1, February 22. Account of the bullion and 
goods exported by the Company since 1600. 

These are two important records. 


About 1640. Declaration of the grievances which dis- 
couraged the East India Company. 

1697, August 3. A packet of patterns from Persia, 
received overland, vid Aleppo, of silhs and dyes. Very 

No date. Papers 'giving prices of various articles in 
Persia, Arabia, and India. Very interesting. 

No date. Barloe's remonstrance against military ex- 
penditure on fortifications, &c., and regarding the great 
profits on inland trade in India. 

The packet marked " Diary " contains a diary from 
Dacca, 1678. 

The packet marked " Law " contains, under the date 
1621, copy of a bill filed in Chancery against Eichard 
Ohamberlyn and others by Benjamin Deicroe, the agent of 
the Company for discovery of new trades in Russia and 

Bundle B. — " Wilhs's Collection." 

This is a miscellaneous collection of damaged papers, 
like those already noted, sorted by Mr. Wilks, a clerk in 
the old Examiner's Office, and put up by him into leather 

The leather case marked " Various Dates " contains, 
among other papers : — 

A packet marked " Dutch," being copies of papers from 
1672 to 1742, and 1807 to 1819, relating to the Dutch in 
the East. 

Also a list of papers collected by the Committee of 
Bombay, appointed in 1797 for procuring information for 
the Company's Historiographer, and received by Mr. 
Bruce in 1802. The list is copied on paper of the date of 

In the leather case marked " Time Charles 1st," are the 
following papers : — 

1st. " Courten's Association," special grant of Charles I. 


for settling a trade at Goa and other parts of the East 

2nd. " Extracts of memorable passages encountered by 
ship Dragon, and Captain Weddell's Fleet." [The China 
Fleet of 1637.J 

3rd. Captain Weddell's relation of his China voyage 

4th. " Translate of the Mocha Phirmand, laid before 
the Committee of Correspondence, Oct. 21, 178 9." 

In the leather case marked "Bengal Pirmands," are 
the following papers : — 

1st. " Translate of Sultan Shauh Shujaes Neshaun 
[Sultan Shuja, Governour of Bengal, 1639-60] letters 
patent to the English in India," in Heg. 1066 [A.D. 
1666], being the 28th year of the reign of Shah Jehan. 

2nd. Account of trade at Balasore, Patna, Maulda, and 
MetcMipatam, 1670-76. 

3rd. " Translate of Kuffee Chauns [Eafi Khan], Nabob 
" of Orissa, his order or grant for confirmation of the 
" English privileges in said kingdom." In the 13th year 
of Aurungzebe [A.D. 1671]. 

4th. " Translate of Nabob Shausteth Catvne [Shaista 
" Khan, Governour of Bengal, 1664-77], Lord of the 
" Noblemen, his confirmation of the English privileges 
" in the kingdom of Bengala." In the 15th year of 
Aurungzebe [A.D. 1673]. This is the Cha-Est-Kan to 
whom Tavernier sold his great American pearl, the 
" biggest pearl that was ever carried out of Europe into 

6th. " Translate of a letter from Shausteth Gauhie 
" [the same Shaista Khan], Lord of the Noblemen, 
" Prefect of Bengala, in answer to one from Wares Cawne, 
" Great Chancellor of the Province of Bearra [Behar] 
" about the English." In the 18th year of Aurungzebe 
[A.D. 1676]. 

6th. Complaint, dated Fort St. George, March 10, 
1686/7, to the Great Mogol, of hindrances to the Com- 
pany's trade. 


7tli. Extract of treaty of peace with Nawab, or Gover- 
nour [Shaista Khan, 1680-9,] of Bengal, 1687. 

8th. Copies of letters, accounts, &c. laid before the 
Committee of Correspondence, 1790. 

List C. Papers [not a Bundle]. 
A rubbishy Index, indicating nothing. 

Bundle D. 

Contains, inter alia, fragment of the Journal of Peter 
Williamson Floris, a Dutchman in the Company's Ser- 
vice, for the 7th voyage [Glohe, Captain Hippbn, 1611 J . 
It relates to Masulipatam, " Petapoli," and " Paleakate " 

Cranganore, March 10, 1615/6. The Zamorin's letter 
to James I. [relating to the treaty obtained by Captain 
Keelinge, to trade and settle a Factory or House of Trade 
at Cranganore, and to expel the Portuguese from Cochin]. 
This is in triplicate. 

1625/6, March 1. Papers relating to the first Settlement 
of Armagaon. 

1632, November. " Translate of the 1st Masulipatam 

1633/4, February 21. Translation of the Golconda 

1633/4, February 26. Translation of the Matterahle 

Articles of Agreement with the King of Porqua. 

1668, September 12. Articles of Agreement with the 
King of Carwar. In duplicate. 

[? 1669.] Project of a Treaty with the Kajah of Cana- 
nore for the settlement of a factory at Biliapatam. 

1699, July 20. General Perwanna [Persian parwana, 
"permission," " pass," " concession,"] by the Nawab of 
Golconda to the Company. 


1711, October 23. Account of our first Settlement at 
Fort St. George. 

1716, November 13. Grant of " Divy Islands." 

1760/1, January 1. Agreement with the King of 

[Eeceived, 1756, November 9.] " Translate of 12 letters 
frcm the Nannah [Nana Famavis], received from Govin 
Sewram Punt at Ghereah"; that is, Gheria [i.e., "the 
Enclosure"], otherwise called Vijayadrug [i.e., "Fort 
Viclory "], the stronghold of the pirate chief Tuloji 
Angria, captured by the English sea and land forces 
under Admiral Watson and " Colonel Clive," acting in 
concert with the Peishwa's ships and troops, 12th April 

1667-1702. A packet of fragments of copies of letters, 
abstracts, and extracts, of which I can make nothing. 
Sivajee [Sivaji, founder of the Mahratta nationahty, 
1627-80,] is mentioned. 

1670-71. Grants on account of services against 

1671-81. Extracts, &c. Sivajee mentioned. 

Finally, a rough memorandum, dated 1817, regarding 
the posts of Registrar of Indian Records and Historiographer, 
— " abohshed." 

Wift iFattorg l^tatws anlr eonsultations. 

I. — SuEAT Eecobds [including " Swally," i.e., Suwali, 
the roadstead north of the mouth of the Tapti] . 

A. Twenty volumes of " Consultations," from 1631-32 
to 1702-4. 

Vol. 15, 1679. This is a typical volume, clearly written 
and in good condition. 

At page 5 is a petition to the Right Honble. Thomas 
Rolt, " Governour of Bombay, President of India, Persia, 


Arabia, &c." Rolt was third Company's Governour of 
Bombay, 1677-81, in succession to Gerard Aiingier, 
1669-77, and Sir George Oxenden, 1668-69 ; and in pre- 
cession to Sir John Child, 1681-90. 

At page 6 is a letter from JOHN FRYER asking to be 
made surgeon to the Surat Factory. 

At page 7, instructions are asked as to how the Presi- 
dent and Council at Surat were to comport themselves in 
the strife between " Sevagee " and the King of " Vizapore " 
{Bijapur, i.e., Ali Adil Shah, 1656-72, whose chivalrous 
general, Afzul Khan, was assassinated by Sivaji, on the 
hill side of Pertabghar, 1659]. 

At pages 23, 24, 25, lists of commodities. 

At page 69, notice of "Sevagee" fortifying "Hendry 
Kendry," the twin islets, now called Henery [i.e., Vondari, 
" Mouse-like "] Kenery, [i.e., Khandari, i.e., " Sacred to 
Khandaroo "], at the entrance of Bombay Harbour, to 
the southward. It was in 1679 that Sivaji's admiral 
took possession of Kenery, when, after a vain attempt 
to dislodge him by the English supported by the Sidi 
[Saed] of Jinjira, we occupied Henery. 

At page 86, details of proceedings with " Sevagee." 

Sivaji first looted Surat in 1664, and again in 1669-70. 
After this the Mahrattas, or " Seevagees," as they are 
sometimes termed in the India Office records, renewed 
their raids on it almost every year, down to 1676, when 
ihe wall of defence, begun in 1664, was completed, and 
fthe city thenceforward rendered safe against these pre- 
fatory attacks. Streynsham Master took part, under his 
.uncle. Sir George Oxenden, in the defence of the Com- 
pany's Factory in 1664 ; and again, in 1670, the new 
President [in succession to Oxenden, who died at Surat in 
July 1669], Gerard Aungier, deputed him, with a small 
party of seamen, from Swally, to occupy the Factory at 
:Surat, which he successfully held against Sivaji. It was 
for this latter service that Sir Streynsham Master received 
from the Company in 1672 a gold medal, bearing on one 
side the arms of Master, and on the other those of the 

F 2 


Company, with the Latin inscription, " Peo Meeitis 
coNTEA Sevageum apud Sueatt, 1670." See Sir Henry 
Yule, under " Master," pp. 225-6, " Diary of William 
Hedges," Vol. II. 

Vol. 20, 1702-4. A very different volume from the 
rest in size, but full of the same particulars of the daily 
routine of the Company's trade at Surat. Under date 
of January 26, 1702/3, mention is made of " Olibanum 

B. Forty-six volumes of letters from Surat, from 1635/6 
to 1706/8. 

In Vol. 5, 1662, p. 12, is copy of the letter containing the 
Duke of York's instructions to the Earl of Marlborough* 
for taking over the Island of Bombay from the Portuguese. 
At page 40, in a long letter to London, the prices of 
various commodities, " AUum," " Tynn," " Rough Amber," 
" Corrall," "Vermillion," are stated. 

* This was James Ley, third Earl of Marlborough, the eminent mathema- 
tician and navigator. He was slain in the great sea fight with the Dutch, 
June 3, 1665 ; and his body lies in Westminster Abbey. He had arrived in 
India on the 18th of September 1662, with a fleet of five ships, to take pos- 
session of the Island of Bombay as part of the Infanta Catherina's dower on 
her marriage with Charles II. The Portuguese in Bombay having refused 
to give up the Island, Marlborough landed the 500 soldiers with him under 
Sir Abraham Shipman, on the small Island of Anjeedeva, 12 leagues to the 
south of Goa, where having left them, he sailed away to England. The con- 
sequence was that Sir Abraham Shipman and most of his men miserably 
perished on this unhealthy spot of exposure during the rains of 1663-4. The 
100 survivors formed the cadre of the Honble. Company's 1st European 
regiment or Bombay Fusileers, afterward the 103rd Foot. The other regi- 
ment raised at the same time became known as " Kirke's Lambs," afterward 
the 2nd or " Queen's " Regiment. 

Under date the 15th May 1663, Pepys writes: — "The Portugalls have 
" choused us, it seems, in the Island of Bombay in the East Indys, for after 
" a great charge of our fleets being sent thither vrith full commission from 
" the King of Portugal! to receive it, the Governour by some pretence or 
" other win not deliver it to Sir Abraham Shipman, sent from the King, nor 
" to my Lord of Marlborough ; which the King takes highly ill, and I fear 
" our Queen wiU fare the worse for it." And under date of September 5, he 
speaks of " the disappointment of the King by the knavery of the Portugall 
" Viceroy, and the inconsiderableness of the place of Bombaim even if we 
" had had it." 


C. Forty- one volumes of letters to Surat from various 
sub-factories and other places, from 1628 to 1704-5. 

Vol. 3, 1655-56. Letter from Ispahan, giving list of 
prices there. 

Vol, 5, 1659-60. Letters from " Eajapore." 

Vol. 6, 1662-63, contains a narrative of the siege and 
capitulation of Cochin, p. 39 ; and the articles of agree- 
ment with the King of Porqua, p. 87. 

The Surat " PROCEEDINGS " extend from 1700 to 

Surat was a Presidency of the East India Company 
from 1612 to 1678; and again from 1681 to 1685-87, 
when the Presidency of Western India was finally trans- 
ferred to Bombay. Between 1629 and 1635 Surat was 
the chief seat of Government over all the Company's 
possessions in the East. 

Thomas Coryat, the author of " His Crudities," died 
at Surat in December 1617 : " killed with kindness," 
writes Fryer, by the English merchants, " who laid his 
rambling brains at rest." He was buried on the hill near 

II. — Bombay Records. 

A. Seventeen volumes of Diaries and Consultations, 
from 1669 to 1702-3. 

B. Forty-five volumes of letters from Bombay, from 
1672 to 1708-10. 

C. Forty-two volumes of letters to Bombay, from 
1673-74 to 1703-4. 

[The Tannah " PROCEEDINGS " extend from 1777 
to 1799.] 

Bombay was transferred to the East India Company 
in 1669 ; and their first Governour was, as above stated, 
Sir George Oxenden, 1668-9. The previous four Gover- 
nours of Bombay, appointed by the Crown, were Sir 
Abraham Shipman, his Secretary, Mr. Humfrey Cooke, 
who first took possession of the Island in 1665, Sir 


Gervase Lucas, who succeeded in 1666, and Captain 
Henry Garey, who ofl&ciated in 1667-8. 

III. — Angengo Records. — Two volumes. 

Vol. 1, 1717-22. Extract of letters as to the estate of 
late W. Gyfford. 

WiUiam Gyfford was Governour of Madras 1681-7, 
in succession to Streynsham Master, 1678-81 [see 
supra, under "Miscellaneous," Vols. 2 and 3], who 
had instituted a tax for cleaning the Black Town of 
Madras and building up a wall for its defence on its 
north and west sides. When Master left the inha- 
bitants petitioned against it, and " our too easy Agent 
Gyfford," elsewhere written of as " that heavy President 
Gyfford," aboHshed it. The popular memory of the 
opposition to this imposition, which led to open riot in 
1684, is still preserved in Madras in the name of " Wall 
Tax Street " leading along the remains of the west wall. 
He was succeeded in the Governorship of Madras by Ehhu 
Yale, 1687-92, who established the Factory at Cuddalore, 
and became a great benefactor of Yale College, U.S. 
Gyfford was possibly a descendant of Philip Gyfford, 
Deputy Governour of Bombay, who died 1676. 

Vol. 2, 1727. A most interesting account of the place, 
written on thin India paper, WHICH IS FAST 
PERISHING. The story of " Gunner Ince's " heroical 
defence of Angengo,* some time prior to 1717, is worthy 
of a place beside Clive's defence of Arcot, about 60 years 

The Angengo " PROCEEDINGS " extend from 1774 to 

The East India Company built a factory and fort at 
Angengo [Attinga, i.e., Anju-tenga, " Five Cocoa-hut 
Trees"] in 1695, but abandoned it in 1810, when 
the station was subordinated to their Political Resi- 

* Since tlie publication of the first edition of the Report this has been 
published in the Times of 27th July 1886. 


dent at Trevandrum. Angengo was the birth-place of 
Kobert Orme, " the British Thucydides," and "father of 
Oriental History." He was born here in 1728, and died 
in England in 1801. It was also the birth-place of Mrs. 
Daniel Draper, Sterne's [and the Abbd Eaynal's] " Eliza " ; 
who died in Bristol 1778, aged 35. "Eliza's Tree"at Masu- 
lipatam was swept away by the great cyclone of J 864.* 

IV. — Fort St. Gboege [Madeas] Records. 

A. Twenty-three volumes of Diaries and Consultations, 
from 1662-63 to 1705. 

B. Twenty-six volumes of letters from Fort St. George, 
from 1661-62 to 1704. 

0. Twenty-one volumes of letters to Fort St. Q-eorge, 
from 1672-73 to 1708-4. Vol. 13, 1687-88, is missing. 

Fort St. George was founded by Francis Day in 
1639-40, in subordination to Bantam ; and in 1653 was 
raised to the rank of an independent Presidency. 

V. — Fort St. David EECOBDs.t 

A. Diaries and Consultations, four volumes, namely, 
for 1696, 1698, 1702, and 1704. 

B. Letters, from Fort St. David, one volume, namely, 
for 1692-93. 

C. Translates of " Phirmans," dated from 1689 to 
1761, in two volumes. 

Fort St. David [Cuddalore] was built on a site pur- 
chased from the Mahrattas in 1690, and after the capture 
of Madras, in 1746, became for a time the chief settlement 
of the East India Company on the Coromandel coast. 

VI. — Metchlipatam [Masulipatam] and 
Madapollam Records. 
A. Thirteen volumes of Diaries and Consultations, 
from 1675 to 1685. 

* The Abbe Eaynal's apostrophe to Eliza Draper in his History of the 
Settlement and Trade of the East and West Indies, begins : — " Anjengo, thou art 
nothing, but thou hast given birth to Eliza ! " ; and it goes on in this absurd 
way for five 8vo. pages, in pica, every paragraph beginning with ' Anjengo^' 
or ' Eliza.' 

t ^ 8lso Cuddalore Records, p. 89. 


B. Thirteen volumes of letters from the above Factories, 
from 1640 to 1686. 

0. Eleven volumes of letters to the above Factories, 
from 1670-71 to 1685. 

The Metchlipatam [i.e., Machlipatam, "Fish-town"] 
or Masulipatam* Factory was founded in 1611 under 
Captain Anthony Hippon, who commanded the Globe in 
"the Seventh Separate Voyage." The English expelled 
by the Dutch from the Spice Islands found a refuge here 
in 1622. The place was taken by the Dutch in 1686, but 
was re-occupied in 1690 by the English ; to whom it was 
finally assigned after its recapture from the French [by 
Colonel Forde], in 1766. 

VII. — CoNiMEEO Records. 

Four volumes of Diaries and Consultations, namely, 
for 1682-83, 1683, 1684, and 1685. One volume of 
letters from Conimero [also Conimere, Conimeer] , 1684, 
and one volume of letters to Conimero, 1684. 

VIII. — Pettipollbe Records. 

Four volumes of Diaries and Consultations of 1683, 
1684, 1685, and 1686-87. Two volumes of letters from 
PettipoUee, for J 682-84 and 1685, and one volume of 
letters to PettipoUee, for 1684-85. 

* There is no certain etymology of the name of Masulipatam, the MauruXta 
of Ptolemy and Mao-aXto of the Periplus ; but it is strange that, from the 
time of the Periplus, Masulipatam has been famed for its muslins, and other 
artistic cotton textures, and that the word muslin is derived from Mosul 
[i.e., Mausul or Mausil], the Arabic name of the city which occupies part of 
the site of Nineveh, i.e., " Fish-Town " ; and that while on the coasts of 
Southern India masoK and masuli mean " fish," and masola on the Coro- 
mandel Coast means " fishing-boat," mahsul in Arabic means " a tax," and 
mahsuli "a revenue station." There used formerly to be an intimate connec- 
tion between the countries in the Persian Gulf and Masulipatam ; and the 
characteristic fabrics manufactured there are still exported to Peraa and 


The PettipoUee [Pettapollee, Pottapolle] factory, esta- 
blished by Captain Hippon and Peter Williamson Floris, 
is generally identified with Nizampatam, near Ellore, the 
name being derived from the neighbouring village of 


Two volumes of Diaries and Consultations for 1685 
and 1686. One volume of letters from, 1684 ; and two 
volumes of letters to, namely, for 1684 and 1685. 

The East India Company first settled at Cuddalore 
[Kudalur, "(the town at) the-Junction-of-two-Rivers"] 
in 1682, erecting Fort St. David for the protection of the 
place about 1690-1. 


Three volumes of Diaries and Consultations for 1692-93, 
1693-94, and 1694-95. 

The Company's Factory at Vizagapatam [Visakhapatam, 
"the City of Visakha," z.e., Mangala, or Karttikya, the 
Hindu Mars] was established in 1668 ; was seized by the 
Mogols in 1689 ; and restored to the Company in 1690. 


One volume, being a collection put together in 1788, 
relative to various Factories, " Tangore," " Armagaon," 
&c., from 1624 to 1681. 

Armagon, or Armeghon, the Company's first Factory 
on the Coromandel Coast, was built on the site of Chenna 
Kuppam, near Durgarayapatnam, in the Nellore District 
of the Madras Presidency, and was named after Arumugam 
Mudaliar, who greatly aided the Company in settling here 
in 1625. But the place was not very suitable for trade, 
and it had to be abandoned in 1638 in favour of Madras. 

* See also Fort St. David Records, p. 87. 


XII. —Calcutta, [including ChuttanutteeJ 

A. Eleven volumes of Diaries and Consultations, from 
1690 to 1806. 

The volume [6th] for 1698-99 entered in the Depart- 
mental List, No. 2,397, is missing;* vphile I have found 
a volume for 1697-98, not entered in the said Depart- 
mental List. In the Consultations Volume for December 
1694, reference is made to the wreck of the Royal James 
af)id Mary, which, is thus described in a letter to the Com- 
pany from Chuttanuttee, dated the 14th of that month 
(O.C. 5949) :— 

" The Royal James and Mary [James II. and Mary of 
" Modenaj arrived in Balasore Koad from the West Coast 
" in August, with 286 Behar and 415 lbs. of Pepper, and 
" Eedwood 268 candy 16 maunds, which she took in at 
" Madras ; but coming up the river of Hugly on the 24th 
" of September she fell on a sand on this side Tumbolee 
" Point, and was unfortunately lost, for she immediately 
" overset and broke her back, with the loss of four or five 
" men's lives." 

This shipwreck of the Royal James aiid Mary is obviously 
the origin of the name of the James and Mary Sandbank, 
which has hitherto been supposed, by people in Calcutta, 
to be an Anglo-Indian corruption of either jahaz-mara 
" [the place where] the ship struck," or jal-mari, " dead 

B. Ten volumes of letters from Calcutta to Chutta- 
nuttee, from 1690 to 1704-5. 

C. Eight volumes of letters to Calcutta and Chutta- 
nuttee, from 1677-78 to 1703-4. 

In 1686, the English retreating from Hugli established 
themselves under Job Charnock at Chatanati. The new 
settlement gradually extended itself to Kalikata [Calcutta] 
and Govindpur ; and from 1689 became the chief seat of 
the East India Company in Bengal. Fort William was 

* This volume has since been found. 


originally built in 1696 ; and the three villages of Chata- 
nati, Kalikata, and Govindpur were finally assigned to the 
Company in 1700. " The 24 Parganas," forming the 
sub-urban [Calcutta] " District " of the " Presidency Divi- 
sion " of Bengal, were ceded to the Company by Mir Jafir, 
our puppet Nawab Nazim of Bengal, 20th December 1757. 


A. Four volumes of Diaries and Consultations, namely, 
for 1676-77 and 1677-78, the volumes for 1678-79 and 
1679-80 being missing [in 1878, but since found] . 

B. Four volumes of letters from Hugly, namely, for 
1678-79, 1679-80, and 1680-82, the volume for 1684 
being missing [in 1878, but since found]. 

C. Four volumes of letters to India, namely, for 
1678-79, 1679-80, 1682-83, 1683-84. 

The East India Company's Factory at Hugh was 
established in 1640, in order to provide them with a 
better port for trading with Lower Bengal than Pippli in 
Orissa, vfhere they had a factory from 1624 to 1642. 


Eight volumes of Diaries and Consultations from 
1676-77 to 1684-85. 

The East India Company's first commercial agent at 
Kasimbazar was appointed in 1658. 

XV. — Maulda and Englbsvad Reooeds. 

Five volumes of Diaries and Consultations from 1680 to 

The East India Company had a factory at Maldah 
as far back as 1686. Angrez-abad, i.e., "English-town," 
corrupted by us into Englesvad, and " English-bazaar," 
gradually in the 17th century grew round the English 
Factory at Maldah, and is now the chief town of the 


XVI . — Pattana Records. 

Pour volumes of Diaries and Consultations from 1680-81 
to 1683-84. 

Patna [i.e., Pattana, "the City "], the ancient Patali- 
putra, the Palibothra of Megasthenes, was the seat of 
one of the Company's factories in Bengal so early as 

XVII. — ^Dacca Records. 

One volume of Diaries and Records for 1689-91. 

Dacca [Dakha, and so called from the dakh, or Butea 
frondosa, trees of the neighbourhood] was occupied by 
flourishing Dutch, English, and French factories in the 
17th century. 

XVIII. — Balasore Records. 

Three volumes of Diaries and Consultations for 1679-80, 
1680-81, and 1686-87. 

The right to establish a factory at Balasore [Bal- 
Eshwar, "Strength of God "] was granted to the Company 
in 1642 ; and in 1645, and 1646, in return, as the story 
goes, for medical services rendered to the Great Mogul 
[Shah Jehan, 1627-58], and to his viceroy the Nawab 
of Bengal [Sultan Shuja, 1639-60], by Surgeon Gabriel 
B(r)oughton of the Company's ship Hopewell, additional 
privileges were awarded to the Company in respect of 
their factories at Hugli and Balasore. It was to Balasore 
that the Pippli factory was transferred in 1642. 

XIX. — Records relating to Fort York, Fort Marl- 
borough, Java, Siam, and Macassar. 

A. Fort York. Four volumes of Diaries and Consulta- 
tions from 1695 to 1701-3. Three volumes of letters 
from Fort York for 1685-6, 1701-2, and 1702-3, and one 
volume of letters to Fort York for 1701-3. 


B. Fort Marlborough. Instructions relating to ship 
Duke, and diary, 1740-41. [The Fort Marlborough 
«' PROCEEDINGS " extend from 1704 to 1818. J 

C. Java. Two volumes of letters from Bantam, 
1649-50, 1666, and one volume of letters to Bantam, 

D. " Three extra volumes." 

E. Siam. One volume of Diaries and Consultations 
for 1683. 

F. Macassar. One volume, 1618-74. 

XX. — St. Helena Eecoeds. — Four volumes of 
Consultations, &c. 

Vol. 1, 1676. 

Vol. 2, 1694-95. Consultations. 

Vol. 3, 1695-96. 

An odd volume, dated 1677-1714. Copies of the laws 
and ordinances of St. Helena. This is one of the most 
interesting volumes of the Old Records. 

The Dutch, who first occupied the Island of St. 
Helena in 1645, abandoned it in 1651, when it v^ras at 
once taken possession of by the English. The Dutch 
expelled us from it in 1673, but we immediately retook 
it, and in December 1674 it vras formally granted by the 
Crown to the East India Company, by whom it was 
held until 1834, when the island was re-invested in the 

The St. Helena " PROCEEDINGS " date from 1704 to 

* I had in 1880 to determine whether there was any documentary evidence 
in support of a suggestion of Longwood having been conveyed to the 
Emperor Bonaparte, and the following extracts from the St. Helena Pro- 
ceedings in the India Office, made by me in the course of my search, are of 
sufficient interest to warrant my printing them here as a foot-note. 

The St. Helena Proceedings kept in the India Office extend, as above 
shown, from 1704 to 1835,* and therefore cover the whole period of the 

* After this was written sereral additional volumes were found, carrying these 
'Proceedings" back to 1676. 


There are no special separate Factory Records of the 

Emperor Bonaparte's captivity, viz., from 1815 to 1821. They fill five long 
■quarto volumes of MS. I looked through all these volumes page b^ page, and 
found that, while they contained many interesting allusions and references to 
Bonaparte, there was not a word in them of any conveyance of Longwood to 
■the Emperor ; on the contrary, they afforded presumptive evidence of no such 
conveyance ever having been made or contemplated. They contain occa- 
sional reports on the Company's farms on the island, and in these reports 
Longwood is also mentioned, showing that to the last it continued to belong 
-to the Company. 

I will now detail some of the entries relating to the Emperor which I have 
noted in the volumes. 

A. — Si. Helena Council Volume for 1815-16. 

1. Government Order of 11th September 1815 : — 

" A royal salute to be fired immediately in honour of the decisive victory 
obtained by the Duke of Wellington over Bonaparte in person, with the 
capture of 214 pieces of cannon. A festival for the garrison, with the usual 
allowance of wine, to be prepared and issued on Thursday. 

" (Signed) T. H. Brooke, Secretary." 

2. A Proclamation of 17th October 1815, setting forth that whereas 
H.R.H. the Prince Regent had been pleased to command that " General 
Napoleon Bonaparte " should be detained on the Island of St. Helena, and 
the Hon. Court of Directors have been pleased to issue orders consequent 
on this determination, the inhabitants of the island are warned from aiding 
or abetting the escape of the "said General Napoleon Bonaparte, or that of 

.any of the French persons who have arrived here with him " ; and are 
interdicted from " the holding any communication or correspondence with 
him or them,'' on pain of expulsion from the island. 

3. A Government Order of 17th October 1815, directing, under orders 
from the Prince Regent, that " General Napoleon Bonaparte " is to be 
" respected and considered on all occasions as a General" " The respective 
" officers of this garrison, therefore, whenever the said General Bonaparte 
" may pass, or they may in any way meet with him, are to turn out guards, 
" and otherwise show him the same marks of respect precisely as a General 
" in His Majesty's service [ not in chief coimnand] would be entitled to." 

4. Under the same date an entry is made to the effect that, Rear- Admiral 
Sir George Cockburn having signified his wish that the house at Longwood, 
hitherto the residence of the Lieutenant Governour, should be prepared for 
the reception of " (xeneral Bonaparte,"* it had become necessary that 

* The Emperor landed on the island IBth October, and slept the night in James' 
'Town. The next morning he rode out to see Longwood, which was to be set in order lor 

following places, but only " PEOOEBDING-S " : Tan- 

another house should be provided for the Lieutenant Governour, " the rent 
of which together with all expenses " are to be charged to the account of 
His Majesty's Government, in obedience to the foiirth paragraph of the 
Court's letter of 1st August 1815. 

5. Under date of 24th October 1815 is a letter from Mr. Secretary Brooke 
to Mr. Joseph Luson, Acting Agent of the Hon. East India Company at the 
Cape of Good Hope, in which, inter alia, it is stated that, the arrival at the 
island of General Napoleon Bonaparte having led to the importation of 
regular and ample supplies of live stock and other necessaries from the Cape 
of Good Hope, for the use of the troops and squadron stationed at St, 
Helena, " it becomes a question . . . whether the services of the St. Helena 
schooner will be any longer required here. " 

6. Under date of 30th October a Minute in Council allots compensation to 
His Excellency Rear-Admiral Sir George Cockburn for his removal "from 
Longwood. This IMinute is confirmed by the Council under date of 6th 
November following. 

7. Under date of 9th November is a letter from the St. Helena Council to His 
Excellency the Earl of Moira, Governor General in Council, Bengal, pointing- 
out how, owing to the residence on the island of " General Napoleon Bona- 
parte,'' and the other State prisoners who have followed his fortunes, and the 
consequent " large augmentation to our garrison besides naval armament," 
they were suddenly called upon to provide for an increased consumption of 
food, the supply of which was all the more straitened because of the cir- 
cumstance of all ships, except those of the King's Government and the East 
India Company, being prohibited from touching at the island during the 
detention there of General Bonaparte ; and they request, therefore, that their 
indents on the Government of Bengal for provisions may be punctually com- 
plied with. 

8. Under date of 14th December is a long Minute by Admiral Cockburn 
on the privations he had endured through giving up Longwood to Bona- 
parte. It reads very like the record of an " aboard of ship " quarrel. It is 
very petty, and possibly throws light on Admiral Cockburn's treatment of 
Bonaparte while the latter was at the Briars, of which Las Casas complains. 

9. Under date of 6th December, Admiral Cockburn transmits for the 
consideration of the Governor, Mr. Wilkes, " some regulations which I deem 
" necessary to be forthwith established for the better security of General 
" Bonaparte and his followers at Longwood." In consequence of the above 

Ms reception; but on his way back, having noticed the house called the Briars, and being 
very loth to return to the rooms which had been assigned as his temporary residence in 
James' Town, Sir George Cockburn at once allowed him to change his quarters to the 
Briars. He continued to live there until the 10th December, on which day he remored 
to Longwood. 


jore, 1771-1803 ; Tellicherry, 1777-93 ; Patna, 1714-17 ; 
and Gombroon, 1708-63. 

Geoege 0. M. BiEDWooD, M.p,, LL.D., 
Special Assistant, 
Statistics and Commerce Department. 

India Office, 
1st November 1878, 

17th November 1889 [date of first reprint], 
30th November 1890 [date of second (present) reprint]. 

a Proclamation was issued on the same day giving effect to Admiral Cock- 
burn's regulations. 

10, Under date of 11th December is another long letter from Admiral 
Cockbum, about his Longwood grievances. 

B. — St. Helena Council Volume for 1816-17. 

1. Under date of 30th March 1816 is a Proclamation to the inhabitants 
of St. Helena, informing them that " a letter addressed to one of the 
" foreigners detained in the island was some time since received under an 
" enclosure addressed to an inhabitant," and warning them that any of them 
who might receive such letters, and did not within twenty-four hours inform 
Sir George Cockbum, or whoever might be thereafter in custody of General 
Bonaparte, of the same, would be dealt with according to the spirit of the 
Proclamation of 17th October 1815, above noted. 

2. Under date of 22nd July is a letter from the St. Helena Council to the 
Earl of Moira, pointing out how the demand for labour had risen in conse- 
quence of the island having been adopted as- the residence of General Bona- 
parte, and asking for 350 labourers from China. 

3. Under a Resolution of Council of 7th September, Lieut. Nagle is allowed 
2701. for building his premises at Longwood. 

4. Under 30th September is a report on the Company's farms on the 
island, including Longwood. 

5. Under date of 9th December commence the Council's interminable 
proceedings with their Farm Superintendent, Mr. Breame, for depredations 
at Longwood, and other misconduct connected with that and the other 
farms. Mr. Breame was probably the most truculent subordinate the 
long-suffering East India Company ever had in their service, and the 
only motive the Council of St. Helena could have had in putting up 
with him for so many years must have been as a resource against 

C.—St. Helena Council Volume for 1817-18. 
1. Under date of 10th March 1817, a letter from Mr. Secretary T. H. 
Brooke to Mr. Joseph Luson, Agent to the Hon. E. I. C, Cape of Good 


Hope, indeuting for articles " for the Governor's use, Regimental Messes, 
Purveyor to General Bonaparte's Establishment," &c. 

2. Under date 17th August W, Balcombe, ^Purveyor to General Bona- 
parte, solicits that his disbursements on account of the establishment at 
Longwood may be met by bills on England instead of by cash payments in 
dollars. The order on this application is finally confirmed under date of 15th 

S. Under date of 10th November is a long letter from Mr. Secretary 
Brooke to Sir Hudson Lowe, the new Governor, about Mr. Breame and 

4. Under date of 15th December is the " Information of Mr. Bigger " 
regarding Mr. Breame's misconduct in connection with Longwood farm : 
" I have known him [Breame] to kill cattle for Longwood establishment, 
" and fin that establishment at the rate of Is. &d. a pound, and reserve one 
" third himself and charge it only at a shilling. Some time ago he killed a 
" veal calf which might have weighed about' 50 lbs., or half a hundred, and 
" sold 85 of it to the Longwood establishment, and the rest he kept 
" himself." 

B.St. Helena Council Volume fm- 1818-20. 
Nothing to note in present connection. 

^.—St. Helena Coimcil Volume for 1820-21. 

1. Under date of 7th December 1820, 125Z. granted to Mr. WUls, and lOOi. 
to Mr. Robinson, as compensation for any diminution in the supply of water 
on their lands from which they might have suffered since Longwood and 
Deadwood were drained in the year 1809. 

2. On 11th December 1820 (he storekeeper paid in the sum oflQbl on account of 
48 dozen champagne rejected hy General Bonaparte. 

- 8. Undek date of 14th May occurs the entry : — " Saturday, the 5th, 
DIED General Napoleon Buonaparte." The date in books, by an 
OBVIOUS misprint, is 3rd May. 

4. Under date of llth June the Island of St. Helena is again announced 
to be opened to all British ships, and those of aU nations in amity with Great 

This is all that is said of the passing away of the great Emperor, the 
greatest military genius that the world has known since Julius Caesar and 
Alexander the Great ; and the above are, I have Uttle doubt, nearly all th 
entries relating to Bonaparte and Longwood in these volumes. But the 
Proceedings all through refer to other correspondence, which probably 
stOl exists in the India Ofiice in Departmental compilations of which I am 
ignorant, and which would probably fill up the gaps in the history of 
Bonaparte's residence at Longwood as set forth in these volumes of the 

There is a great deal of other interesting matter in the volumes. Besides 
the correspondence with Mr. Breame, there is, under date of the 9th of July 
1821, a voluminous indictment of the Chaplain, Mr. Boys, for a sermon he 
preached at the Plantation House Church on Matthew xxi. 81, " Verily I say 
" unto you, that the publicans and harlots go into the kingdom of God 



" before you ; " wMch sermon the Governor in Ms Minute, which is con- 
curred in by his Council, declares was directed against himself and his col- 
leagues on the Council Board. 

Next, under 16th July, Mr. Brooke, now Member of Council, complains 
of a sermon delivered extempore by Mr. Boys the previous evening on the 
text, in Psalm xviii. 40 : — " Thou hast also given me the necks of mine 
enemies ; that I might destroy them that hate me." Mr. Brooke is certain, 
from the tenor of the sermon, and from Mr. Boys's gesticulations, that it was 
directed against himself and the rest of the Council. 

Under 10th July 1815 is a public notice that all persons found smoking che- 
roots in the streets wiU be considered as infringing the regulations prohibiting 
fire being carried about the streets, and fined in a sum not exceeding 51. 

Most interesting of all is the Proclamation of 24th August 1818, abolish- 
ing slavery on the island : — " Whereas by the universal concurrence of the 
" inhabitants, and slave populations on this Island, it was resolved at a meet- 
" ing held this day, that from and after the 25th day of December next, 
' being the anniversary of the birth of our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ, all 
" children bom of slaves shall be free, .... this is to give notice that the 
" above is to be considered as a Law of the Island, and that from and after 
" the 25th of December next, being the anniversary of our Blessed Lord and 
" Saviour, all children born of slaves on the Island are consequently to be 
"held free . . . ." 

This was done by the Hon. E. I. C. fifteen years before the abohtion of 
slavery in the Crown Colonies [1833] ; and it was a very beautiful idea, 
giving freedom to the new-born slaves as a gift in honour of the anniversary 
of the birth of Christ, and it is startling to stumble on it among the sordid 
entries of these sere and dusty quartos. See also The Atkenmwm of 23rd July 
1881, pp. 113, 114. 




G 2 

" Elizabeth, that p;lorioTis Star, was glorious beyond any of her 
predecessors. The G-reat Council of the Parliament was the nurse 
of all Her actions ; and such an emulation of love was between that 
Senate and the Queen, as it is questionable which had more affec- 
tion, the Parliament in observance unto Her, or She in indulgence 
to the Parliament. And what were the Effects ? Her Story told 
them. Peace and Prosperity at Home, Honour and Eeputation 
Abroad ; a Love and Observation in Her Friends, Consternation in 
Her Enemies, Admiration even in All, The ambitious Pride of Spain 
was broken by Her Power ; the distracted French were united by 
Her Arts ; the distressed Hollanders were supported by Her 
Succours. Violence and Injury were repelled ; Usurpation and 
Oppression counterwrought; the Weak assisted; the Necessitous 
relieved ; and Men and Money in Divers Parts sent out, as if 
England had been the magazine of them all. She was most Just 
and Pious to Her Subjects, insomuch that they, by a free possession 
of their Liberties, increased in Wealth and Plenty." 

Speech of Sir John Eliot, M.P. for St. Germains, 
1614, and 1625, 1626, and 1628. 


Capo M orn 
D. 1618 





W. 20 Gr 

E. 20" Gr. 









19097. I 2531. E & S. 


Note on the Discovery of India by way of the Cape 
of Good Hope ; and on the early Settlements of the 
European Nations on the shores and islands of the 
Indian Seas. 


The better to understand the interest and value of 
the Documents described in the foregoing Report, I 
found it desirable to examine all the works of travel and 
history, and of poetry and general literature, of the hundred 
years — which may be designated the Factory Period — 
covered by them. The present Note is the result of this 
special collation. 

The title given to it — " The Modern Quest and In- 
vention of the Indies " — indicates the conclusion to which 
my reading has led me, that the history of modern Europe, 
and emphatically of England, is the history of the quest 
of the aromatic gum resins and balsams, and condiments 
and spices, of India, Further India, and the Indian Archi- 

* The following letter from the late Professor W. Stanley Jevons, showing 
the connection between sun spots, the natural productiveness of " the 
Indies," and the manufacturing prosperity of Europe, was published in the 
limes of 19th April 1879 :— 


" Some months since you did me the favour to insert a letter on the 
subject of commercial crises, in which I endeavoured to answer objections 
against the notion that the activity of commerce in England ultimately 
depends upon the solar activity. Public men ask again and again what is the 
cause of the recent, and it may perhaps still be said the present, depressed 
state of trade. Yet the only answer which refers this state of things to a 
definite cause is treated with ridicule. I am repeatedly told that they who 
venture to connect commercial crises with the spots on the sun are supposed 
to be jesting. 


First I pass in review the "Old Travellers," from 
after Oosmas Indicopleustes to the date of the discovery 
of the sea way to India by Vasco Da Gama ; and then 
I treat of the Portuguese Asiatic Empire ; and the 

" So far as I am concerned in the matter, I beg leave to aflton that I never 
■was more in earnest, and that after some further careful inquiry I am per- 
fectly convinced that these decennial crises do depend upon meteorological 
variations of like period, which again depend, in all probability, upon cos- 
mieal variations, of which we have evidence in the frequency of sun spots, 
auroras, and magnetic perturbations. I believe that I have, in fact, found 
the missing link required to complete the first outline of the evidence. About 
ten years ago it was carefully explained by Mr. J. C. OUerenshaw, in a com- 
munication to the Manchester Statistical Society (Transactions, 1869-70, 
p. 109), that the secret of good trade in Lancashire is the low price of rice and 
other grain in India. Here again some may jest at the folly of those who 
theorize about such incongruous things as the cotton gins of Manchester and 
the paddy fields of Hindostan. But to those who look a httle below the 
surface the connection is obvious. Cheapness of food leaves the poor Hindoo 
ryot a small margin of earnings, which he can spend on new clothes, and a 
small margin, multiplied by the vast population of British India, not to men- 
tion China, produces a marked change in the demand for Lancashire goods. 
Now, it has been lately argued by Mr. Hunter, the Government statist of 
India, that the famines of India do recur at intervals of about ten or eleven 
years. The idea of the periodicity of Indian famines is far from being a new 
one ; it is distinctly discussed in various previous publications, as, for 
instance. The Companion to the British Almanack for 1857, p. 76. The prin- 
cipal scarcities in the North- Western and Upper Provinces of Bengal are 
here assigned to the years 1782-83, 1792-93, 1802-3, 1812-13, 1819-20, 
1826, 1832-33. Here we notice periodicity up to 1812-13, which, after being 
broken for a time, seems to recur in 1832-33. 

" Partly through the kind assistance of Mr. Garnett, of the British 
Museum, I have now succeeded in finding the data so much wanted to 
confirm these views, namely, a long series of prices of grain in Bengal 

" These data are found in a publication so accessible as the Journal of the 
London Statistical Society for 1843, Vol. 6, pp. 246-48, where is printed a very 
brief but important paper by the Rev. Robert Everest, Chaplain to the East 
India Company, ' On the Famines that have devastated India, and on the 
probability of their being periodical.' Here we have a list of prices of wheat 
at Delhi for 73 years, ending with 1835, stating in terms of the numbers of 
seers of wheat — a seer is equal to about 2 lb. avoirdupois — ^to be purchased 
with one rupee. As this mode of quotation is confusing, I have calculated 


Dutch Indies ; and finally of the English in the East, 
under the two heads of their widespread mercantile 

the prices in rupees per 1,000 seers of wheat, and have thus obtained the 
following remarkable table : — 

' Price of Wheat at Delhi. 


50 M. C. 














65 M. 




48 C. 


















38 C. 




100 M. C. 


25 C. 







1812 - 




,', 1813 - 



























167 M. C. 





1821 - 

















39 C. 




48 M. C. 



1827 - 




1828 - 



81 M. 




54 C. 

1830 - 

















40 M. 

1798 - 






1836 - 

— C. 

" The letter M indicates the maxima attained by the price, and we see 
that up to 1803, at least, the maxima occur with great regularity at intervals 


settlements or Factories, and the British Conquest ot 

of ten years. Referring to Mr. Macleod's Dictionary of Political Economy, 
pp. 627, 628, we learn that commercial crises occurred in the years 1763, 
1772-73, 1783, and 1793, in almost perfect coincidence with scarcity at 
Delhi. M. Clement Juglar, in his History of Commercial Ciises, also assigns 
one to the year 1804. After this date the variation of prices becomes for a 
time much less marked and regular, and there also occurs a serious crisis 
ahout the year 1810, which appears to be exceptional ; but in 1825 and 1836 
the decennial periodicity again manifests itself, both in the prices of wheat 
at Delhi and in the state of English trade. The years of crisis are marked 
with the letter C. 

" Taking this table in connection with a mass of considerations, of which I 
have given a mere outline at the last meeting of the British Association (see 
Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society oj Ireland, August 1878, 
pp. 334-342; Nature, 14th November 1878, Vol. XIX., pp. 33-37), I hold it 
to be established with a high degree of probability that the recurrence of 
manias and crises among the principal trading nations depends upon com- 
merce with the East. This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that these 
fluctuations are but slightly felt by the non-trading nations, and that what 
these nations do feel is easily accounted for as an indirect effect. 

"It has been objected by the Economist that this explanation cannot be 
applied to the earher crises in the years 1711, 1721, and 1732, because trade 
with India was then of insignificant dimensions. But the reading of many 
old books and tracts of the 17th and 18th centuries has convinced me that 
trade with India was always looked upon as of the highest importance. A 
large part of the poUtical literature of the time was devoted to the subject, 
and under the Mercantile Theory the financial system of the country wasframed 
mainly with an eye to Indian trade. The published returns of exports and 
imports probably give us little idea of the real amount of trade, as smuggling 
was very common in those days, and much of the Indian trade went on 
secretly in private ships, or indirectly through Holland. 

" Dr. George Birdwood has lately been studying the records of the India 
Ofiice, and he gives as the result of his extensive reading ' that the history 
' of modern Europe, and emphatically of England, has been the quest 
' of the aromatic gum resins and balsams, and condiments and spices, of India 
' and the Indian Archipelago.' (Jom-nal of the Society of Arts, 7th February 
1879, Vol. XXVII. , p. 192.) This closely corresponds with the view which 
I have been gradually led to adopt of the cause of decennial crises. 

" Let it be remembered, too, that, because the impulse comes from India, 
it does not foUow that the extent of the commercial mania or crisis here is 
bounded by the variation of the Indian trade. The impulse from abroad is like 
the match which fires the inflammable spirits of the speculative classes. The 


I give all the '•' Old Travellers' " routes : and identify 
the places, and Eastern products, they name ; in this, as 
regards the former, nearly always following the late Sir 
Henry Yule : and I have added any remarks made by them 
on the routes of mediaeval commerce, and its emporia, in 
the Indian Seas. 

The " Old Tbavellers." 

. The earliest trade between Europe and Asia was the 
overland trade carried on by the Phoenicians along the 
caravan road by which they are supposed to have 
originally emigrated, between B.C. 3000 and 2500, from 
the shores of the Persian Gulf to the narrow Medi- 
terranean coast of Syria. By it also the Eastern arts 
of pottery, ivory turning, glass making, enamelling, and 
wood carving were at last carried into the remotest 
recesses of Germany and Scandinavia, and profoundly 
influenced the primitive civilizations of those countries. 
The appearance among the prehistoric remains of Swit- 
zerland and Denmark of arms and implements of bronze, 
in succession to spear and arrow heads of flint, gene- 
rally affirmed to be due to the displacement of the 
primeval savage tribes of the West by the immigration 
of new races of a higher civilization from the East, pro- 
bably rather marks the age of the earliest Phoenician 

history of many bubbles shows that there is no proportion between the 
stimiilating cause and the height of folly to which the inflation of credit and 
prices may be carried. A mania is, in short, a kind of explosion of com- 
mercial foUy, followed by the natural collapse. The difficulty is to explain 
why this collapse so often comes at intervals of ten or eleven years, and I 
feel sure the explanation wiU be fotmd in the cessation of demand from India 
and China, occasioned by the failure of harvests there, ultimately due to 
changes of solar activity. Certainly, the events of the last few years, as too 
well known to many sufferers, entirely coincide with this view, which is, never- 
theless, made the subject of inconsiderate ridicule. 

" I am, &c. , 

" W. Stanley Jevons." 


intercourse with Europe ; and when gradually the trade 
between the East and West took to the routes by the 
Persian Gulf and the Ked Sea, it still remained in the 
hands of the Phoenicians ; and it continued in their 
hands,* and those of their natural successors, the Arabs, 
who had shared it with them in the Eastern seas from 
the first dawn of history, to the discovery, by the 
Portuguese, A.D. 1487-98, of the open passage to India, 
round the Cape of Good Hope. The adoption by 
nearly every civilised nation of the ancient world of the 
alphabet invented by the Phoenicians is the simplest, 
most striking, and surest proof of the wide extent and 
deep abiding influence of their vast and marvellous 

It was not, however, until the date of the Mace- 
donian invasion, B.C. 327, that the people of the West 
acquired any real knowledge of India. Alexander's 
expedition and the embassies of Seleucus and the 
Ptolemies carried our knowledge of that country from 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan to the delta of the Indus 
and the lower plains of the Ganges. The Periplus of 
the Erythrean Sea [circa A.D. 200 ; A.D. 80-90 accord- 
ing to C. Miiller] extended it to all the ports of Guzerat 
and Malabar, and beyond them to Masulipatam on 
the Coromandel coast, and to " the Gangetic Mart " 
[ ? Chittagong] at the head of " the great bay " of 
Bengal. Ptolemy's Tables [circa A.D. 150] show an 
acquaintance, derived apparently from the journals of 
trading vessels, with the v^hole series of ports on both 
sides of the Bay of Bengal ; though on the East side, 
and onward to the country of the Sinse, representing 
probably a port in Tonquin then subject to China, 

* The sea fight off Actium, B.C. 31, maybe arbitrarily fixed as the term of 
Phoenician commerce in the Mediterranean ; but it really went on in other 
hands, until it was again taken up by the Saracens, even as it had survived 
in full vigour the alleged destruction of Tyre, B.C. 686 and 332, and of 
Carthage, B.C. 146. 


the knowledge is looser, and perplexed by false theories 
of the Indian Ocean as a closed basin. [See Sir Henry 
Yule, in Dr. WiUiam Smith's Ancient Atlas, p. 24.] 
Cosmas Indicopleustes,* who traded in the Red 
Sea circa A.D. 535-50, gives a very clear account 
of the commerce between India and Egypt in 
his day. He says that the produce of Kalliana 
[Callian, represented in mediaeval times by Tannah, 
and in modern by Bombay] was brass [vessels], " sesa- 
mine " [^sisoo, Dalbergia sps.] logs, and cotton stuffs ; 
of Sindus, castorin or musk, and spikenard ; of Mal& 
[Malabar] pepper; and that from Tzinitza [China], and 
the other countries beyond ' Sielediba,' or ' Taprobane ' 
[Ceylon], came silk, lign-aloes, cloves, nutmegs, and 

The next notices of India are by THE AEABS. The 
voyages of Sindbad the Sailor, in the " Thousand 
and one Nights," belong to the ninth century, when the 
commerce of the Arabs under the Caliphs of Baghdad 
was at its highest activity. In his first voyage Sindbad 
reaches " the country of the Maharajah," a title given 
so far back as the second century to a Hindu king 
whose vast monarchy is said to have comprised the 
greater part of India, Further India, and Sumatra^ 
and Java in the Indian Archipelago ; and whose title 
continued to be borne afterwards by one of the 
sovereigns of the disintegrated empire, who reigned 
over the Kingdom of Bijanagar or Vijanagar, known 
later as "the Kingdom of Narsinga." In Sindbad's 
second voyage mention is made of the kingdom of 
' Riha ' [the Malay Peninsula according to some], and 
the manner of the preparation of camphor, produced in 
the mountain forests there, is accurately described. In 
the third voyage the island of ' Selaheth ' [Malacca] is 
mentioned. In the fourth he was carried to a country 
3ar], where he found men gathering pepper; and 

' Orosius [circa A.D. 400], in what he says of India, but vaguely follows 


from it he went to the island of 'Nacous' [the Nice- 
bars], and on to ' Kela ' [Quedah or Keddah]. In the 
fifth Toyage he is shipwrecked on the "island" [i.e. 
country] of the " Old Man of the Sea," probably some- 
where on the Ooncan coast. Thence he crossed the sea 
to the Maldives, and back again to the pepper country 
of Malabar, passing on to the peninsula of Comorin, 
where he found the " aloes wood " called santy [? Sanfi, 
{i.e., of " Sanf " or Maha Champa, S.E. Cochin China,) 
sandal-wood] ; and afterwards to the pearl fisheries of 
the Gulf of Manaar, whence he travelled back to 
Baghdad. In the sixth voyage he visited an " island " 
[i.e. country], where were superb " aloes " trees, of 
the kinds named santy [? sandal -wood] and comary 
[? Kumari, i.e. of ' Kumar ' or Camboja] ; and the island 
of ' Serendib ' [Ceylon], the limit also of his seventh and 
last voyage. 

The Abbe Kenaudot in his " Anciennes Relations des 
Indes et de la Chiiw" [Paris, 1718] gives the notes 
of travel of two Arab merchants, who apparently 
visited India and China in the ninth and tenth 
centuries, and are the first among Western writers to 
make mention of tea [tcha] and porcelain. They also 
mention arrack and rice. Suleiman, the author of 
the first part of the "Relations," was a merchant of 
Bussorah [founded by the Caliph Omar, A.D. 635, 
purposely to encourage the Indian trade by the Persian 
Gulf], about A.D. 851. Sir Henry Yule, in the pre- 
liminary essay to his "■Cathay, and the Way Thither," 
published by the Hakluyt Society in 1866, says that he 
gives a tolerably coherent account of the seas and 
places between Oman and China ; the ' Sea of Persia,' 
the ' Sea of Lar ' [which washes Guzerat and Malabar], 
the ' Sea of Harkand ' [from the ' Dibajat ' or Maldives, 
and ' Serendib ' or Ceylon, to ' Al Ramni ' or Sumatra] ; 
the Lankhabalus or Nicobar Islands, and the ' two 
[Andaman] Islands' in the ' Sea of Andaman,' and 
of ' Kalahbar,' a dependency of ' Zabaj ' [Java], ' Tayu- 


mah ' [Tiyomen Island] ; ' Kadranj ' [Siam] ; Sanf 
[Champa and Camboja] ; and ' Sandar Fulat ' [Pulo 
Condore]. The port in China frequented by the 
Arabs was ' Khanfu ' [the port of ' Kinsay ' or 
Hangcheu]. Abu Zaid, of Siraf, on the Persian Gulf, 
the author of the second part of the " Eelations," wrote 
in 916, and he begins by remarking the great change in 
the commerce of the East that had taken place in the 
interval since Suleiman wrote. A rebellion had broken 
out in ' Khanfu,' which had utterly stopped the Arab 
trade with China, and carried ruin to many families in 
distant Siraf and Oman. He gives also an account of a 
visit an acquaintance of his had made to "Khumdan" 
[Changgan or Singanfu], the capital of China. 

Ibn-Khuedadbah, who flourished about A.D. 869-885, 
is the first who makes mention of galangal and kamala 
[^Rottlera tinctoria'], and he also mentions porcelain, sugar- 
cane, pepper, aloes-wood, cassia, silk, and musk. 

Masudi of Baghdad [A.D. 890-956], who visited India 
and China about A.D. 916, mentions nutmegs, cloves, 
cubebs, camphor, areca nuts, sandal wood, and aloes wood, 
as productions of the Indian Archipelago. 

Edbisi of Sicily [A.D. 1099-1186] also mentions porce- 
lain, and the fine cotton fabrics of Coromandel, the pepper 
and cardamoms of Malabar, the camphor of Sumatra, 
nutmegs, the lemons of ' Mansura ' [near the old course 
of the Indus, N.E. of Hyderabad] on the ' Mehran ' 
[Indus] , the . assafoetida of Afghanistan, and cubebs as 
an import of Aden. He names the Concans as the 
country of ' Saj," i.e., of the sag or teak tree. 

The Jewish traveller, the Eabbi Benjamin of Tudela, 
who travelled in the East between 1159 and 1173, when 
already the Empire of the Abbaside Caliphs was rapidly 
declining, and the Turks were gaining the ascendancy at 
Baghdad, would appear not to have proceeded beyond 
the island of Kish [not to be confounded with Kishm], 
which for a long time was the real terminus of Indian 
trade through the Persian Gulf. All he relates of India 


and China is, according to Sir Henry Yule, mere hearsay. 
Kish he describes as the great emporium "to which 
^'Indian merchants bring their commodities, and the 
"traders of Mesopotamia, Yemen, and Persia all sorts 
"of silk and purple cloths, flax, cotton, hemp, mash 
^' [Phaseolus radiatus], wheat, barley, millet, rye, and 
^' all sorts of comestibles and pulse, which articles form 
"objects of exchange. Those from India export great 
^'quantities of spices." He refers to the pearls of the 
Bahrein Islands, and to the pepper, cinnamon, ginger, 
*' and many other kinds of spices " produced in Southern 
India, The island of ' Khandy,' by which he is supposed 
to mean Ceylon, he places at 22 days distance from Kish, 
and China 40 days beyond ' Khandy.' 

Ibn Batdta of Tangiers [b. 1304, d. 1377-78,] was 
the greatest traveller of all the Arab nation. He spent 
24 years [from 1325 to 1349] in travelling throughout 
the East, from Tangiers across Africa to Alexandria, and 
in Palestine, Syria, and Arabia; down the east coast 
of Africa to Quiloa ; across the Indian Ocean to 
Muscat, Ormuz, Kish, Bahrein, and El Catif; through 
Central Arabia to Mecca and Jiddah ; and again 
in Egypt and Asia Minor, and across the Black Sea to 
Cafifa or Theodosia, and by Azov or Tana, " on past the 
hills of the Russians," to Bolghar on the Volga ; but 
not daring to penetrate farther northwards into "the 
Land of Darkness." Returning south to Haj-Tarkan 
[Astrakhan], he proceeded, in the suite of the wife 
of the Khan of Kipchak, the daughter of the Greek 
Emperor Andronicus, westward to Soldaia [in the 
Crimea] and ' Costantiniah ' [Constantinople — he 
mentions ' Istamhul ' as a part of the city — ] ; 
whence, returning to Bolghar, he travelled on east- 
ward to Bokhara, and through Khorassan, to Cabul, 
Multan, and Delhi, where he remained eight years, 
1384-42. Being sent by the Sultan Mahommed Tughlak 
on an embassy to China, he embarked from ♦ Kinbaiat ' 
[Cambay], and after many adventures at Calicut [where 


he was honourably received by the ' Samari,' or 
Zamorin], and 'Hunawar' [Onore], and in the Maldive 
islands, and Ceylon, and Bengal, he at last took his 
passage toward China in a junk bound for ' Java,' as he 
calls it, but in fact Sumatra. Eeturning from China, 
he sailed direct from the Coast of Malabar to Muscat 
and Ormuz ; and travelling by Shiraz, Ispahan, Bus- 
sorah, Baghdad, Tadmor, Damascus, Aleppo, Jerusalem, 
and [for the fourth time] Mecca, Egypt, and Tunis, at 
last reached Fez again, after an absence from Marocco 
of half his lifetime. Subsequently he spent six years in 
Tisiting Spain and Central Africa, where he was the 
guest of the brother of a countryman of his own from 
Ceuta whose guest he had been in China. " What an 
enormous distance lay between these two ! " he exclaims. 
Such a fact well illustrates the extended ramifications 
of the Arabian commerce between the East and the 
West before it was subverted by the rise of the dominion 
of the Ottoman Turks, and the maritime discoveries oi 
the Portuguese. Notwithstanding the great interest 
and importance of the travels of Ibn Batuta, they failed 
altogether in attracting attention and influencing the 
desire, that soon afterwards began to agitate the 
(xenoese, to trade direct with India, The first detailed 
account of them was only published in Europe in 1808. 
He says that in his time Cairo was the greatest city in 
the world ' out of China,' and that the fi^nest trading 
ports he had seen were Alexandria in Egypt, Soldaia or 
' Sudak ' in the Crimea, ' Koulam ' [Quilon] and Calicut 
in India, and ' Zaitun ' [Chincheu] in China. He also 
describes Aden as a place of great trade, to which 
merchant-ships of large burden resorted from Cambay, 
Tannah, and all the ports of Guzerat and Malabar. 
Among the productions of the Indian Archipelago he 
describes gum benjamin, aloes wood, cloves, camphor, 
and sandal wood, and enumerates also cocoa-nut palms, 
areca-nut palms, jack trees, orange trees, mangos, and 
jamums [Eugenia Jambolana]. Porcelain, he says, is 


made in China nowhere except in the cities of ' Zaitun * 
and ' Sinkalan' [Canton]. It is exported to India, and 
elsewhere, passing from country to country until it reaches 

Abulfeda of Damascus [1273-1331], the celebrated 
Arabian geographer, also makes mention of the abun- 
dance of pepper; grown in Malabar, and the fine cotton 
manufactures of Coromandel. He divides Hindustan 
into al Sind, the country of the Indus, and al Hind, the 
country of the Ganges. North of India, beyond the 
Himalaya, the Arab geographers knew, under the name 
of Mawaralnahar [i.e., mawar-al-nahar, " beyond the 
river"], the vast plains extending westward from the 
Pamir Steppe, watered by the Oxus and Jaxartes, 
shown on maps of ancient classical geography as 
Scythia intra Imaum, and designated by modern geo- 
graphers Transoxiana. Abulfeda describes the plain of 
Samarcand " as the most dehghtful of all places which 
God has made." Beyond this region, Asia \_Scythia extra 
Imaum'] was occupied by his so-called Turks, a name 
used by Arab geographers in as diffuse a sense as 
that of Scythians by the ancients, and of Tartars by 
ourselves, and applied by them to the same Turanian 
hordes, included in the Hebrew Scriptures under the 
names of Gog and Magog, whose secular irruptions into 
the south lands of Asia, and sometimes into Egypt, 
constantly, from the earliest ages, interrupted the 
westward extension of Aryan civilization. In the 
national legends of Persia, the Oxus is fixed as the ever- 
lasting boundary between the Aryan and Turanian 
races ; but, in fact, the result of their immemorial 
struggle for the possession of the maritime table land of 
Iran has been to leave the Turanian race predominant 
over all the wide regions between the Indus and Oxus, 
and from the steppes of the Caspian Sea to the shores 
of the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf; while, under 
the Mo(n)gol Emperors of Delhi, their political 
supremacy was extended south-eastward beyond the 


Nerbudda and the Kistna. The fancy of the Arabian 
writers transformed the Gog and Magog of Ezekiel into 
two enormous giants, Yajuj and Majuj, who are said 
to have been shut up by Alexander within a stupendous 
castle at the extremity of Asia. Its walls, formed of iron 
and brass, and towering to the sky, are evidently the 
Altai Mountains, out of which hordes of barbarians 
had so often issued to devastate the world. Other tra- 
ditions of these destructive irruptions were probably the 
origin also of the mediaeval legends of the unclean 
" Shut-up Nations." 

WITH THE EAST. — ■ After the overthrow of the 
Western Empire by Odoacer, A.D. 476, and during the 
struggles between the Eastern Empire and the Persians 
and Saracens, the overland trade with the Bast lan- 
guished until the consolidation of the Saracenic power 
at Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad. But the trade by 
the Persian G-ulf was again thrown into disorder from 
the time, A.D. 866, of the ascendency of the Turkish 
Guard at Baghdad. The Seljukian Turks under Togrel 
Beg conquered Persia A.D. 1042. The Tartars under 
Hulaku Khan, a grandson of the famous Chingiz Khan 
[h. A.D. 1163, d. A.D. 1227], took Baghdad, and over- 
threw the Eastern Cahphate A.D. 1258. Palestine was 
conquered by the Fatimite Caliphs of Egypt A.D. 969 ; 
and in consequence of the persecution of the Christians 
by Hakem between A.D. 996 and A.D. 1021, Peter the 
Hermit began preaching the first Crusade against the 
Saracens in 1094. The eighth and last Crusade of 
St. Louis was concluded in 1272. It was during these 
times that VENICE, which was founded, about A.D. 452, 
by the last fugitives from the vengeance of Attila the 
Hun, established commercial relations with Alexandria 
and Constantinople. So early as A.D. 655, Venice had 
imported silks from the East, and from A.D. 802 dates 



her great trade in Eastern spices, drugs, and silks. 
GENOA had entered into the trade of the Levant even 
before Venice; and having, in the contests between 
the Greeks and Latins at Constantinople, contrary to 
Venice, sided with the Greek Emperors, obtained from 
them Pera and Smyrna, and Theodosia or Kafifa in the 
Crimea, and Tana or Azov [the ancient Tanais] at the 
mouth of the Don, as the emporia of its trade with 
India and the East by Persia and the ports of the 
Black Sea. About A.D. 1306-15 Genoa established a 
regular trade with Trebizond, and at one time pos- 
sessed also Marseilles, Corsica, and Elba ; but was always 
successfully kept by Venice from establishing commer- 
cial relations with Alexandria for the Indian trade by Aden. 
It was during the suicidal competition between Venice and 
Genoa that FLORENCE, under the wise administration of 
Cosmo de Medicis, obtained so splendid a participation in 
the Mediterranean traffic with the East. The Ust of goods 
sold at Pera, given in the " Lihro di Divisamenti di Paesi " 
[known also under the name of " Pratica della Merca- 
tiira "], written about 1340 by Francesco Pegolotti, 
a factor in the service of the Bsirdi of Florence, is 
the most detailed account we possess of the Oriental 
trade of Constantinople in the fourteenth century. 
Both Genoa and Venice derived great wealth and power 
from their co-operation in the Crusades, and both suffered 
immensely from the capture of Constantinople by the 
Ottoman Turks A.D. 1453, and Venice yet further in 
consequence of the- annexation of Syria and Egypt to the 
Ottoman Empire by Selim, A.D. 1516-17. It was in 
the interval between the fall of Constantinople and the 
Turkish conquest of Egypt that, in consequence of the 
ports of the Black Sea being closed to the Genoese, 
the Indian trade by the Eed Sea, centred in Alexandria, 
which had been encouraged by every means under the 
strong government of Saladin [1173-1193] and his 
successors, now reached in the hands of the Venetians 
its greatest development in mediaeval times. When 


Venice, A.D. 1475-87, acquired possession of Cyprus, 
Famagusta, in succession to Alexandria, became the 
emporium of its overland trade with the East, both 
through Egypt and Syria, and continued to be the first 
commercial city of the Levant until taken by the Turks 
A.D. 1670-71. 

The Hanseatic League is generally dated from A.D. 
1240-41, when Hamburg joined it; but an earlier con- 
federacy existed among the once pagan cities of East 
Germany, Bardewic, Julin, Staden, Winet, and others, 
whose very names have now almost disappeared from 
history, and continued down to Christian times the yet 
more ancient Phoenician trade, by which the yellow amber 
of the Baltic shores was carried by caravans across Europe 
to the mouths of the Po, and articles of Asiatic, and later 
of Etruscan and Greek art, were distributed throughout 
Germany and Scandinavia to " utmost Thule." In the 
time of the Goths and Vandals, Winet [cf. Venice] became 
the universal mart of Eastern Europe, and of the Asiatic 
trade through Russia ; and when finally destroyed, with 
Julin, by the Danes, about A.D. 1169, its pagan 
merchants withdrew to the new Christian cities founded 
on or near the shores of the Baltic during the twelfth 
century ; and thus began that commercial association 
of these cities, under the headship of Lubeck, 
afterward developed into the Hanseatic League ; the 
first object of which was to protect the confederated cities 
from the pirates of the Baltic Sea. The. word " Hansa " 

* Miss Jlelen Zimmem, the accomplished authoress of Heroic Tales from 
Ferdousi, has recently [1889] published in Mr. Fisher Unwin's " Stories of the 
Nations " series, a careful and interesting volume on The Hansa Towns, and 
I only regret that it was not in existence when, in 1879, I wrote the above 
paragraph on the League ; but I leave it as then written, contenting myself 
with directing any readers who may be interested in the subject to Miss 
Zimmern's admirable monograph. 

H 2 


simply means a " Society," " Company," " Association," 
or ''Corporation." Copenhagen* [i.e., copeman's or 
chapman's, commercial, cheaping, chipping, or chaffering 
haven (cf. Copemanthorpe, Chippenham, Chipping Norton, 
Chipping Camden)] was founded A.D. 1157, and always 
proved a powerful competitor with the Hanse towns ' of the 
opposite Pomeranian coast ' for the commerce of the 
Baltic; and when Winet was destroyed, the Swedes of 
the island of Gothland are said to have carried away any 
of its ruins, in iron, brass, and marble, that were curiously 
carved and wrought, and its great bronze gates, and to 
have used them in the architectural decoration of the 
town of Wisby, which also in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries became a great entrepot of the commerce, 
through Kussia, between the Bast and West. Consul 
Perry, in his highly interesting " Report on the Trade and 
Commerce of the Island of Gothland," dated December 10, 
1873, writes: "As far back as the eleventh century, 
" Gothland's commerce with the East by way of Nov- 
" gorod was already of much importance, and in 1158 
" Wisby was declared a free city by the Emperor Lothair. 
" England, Prance, Holland, liussia, Lubeck, and Rostock 
" had warehouses here ; and King Henry III. of England, 
" by a letter dated 1237, granted the merchants of Goth- 
" land liberty to trade all over England free from duty. 
" Whilst a member of the famous Hanseatic League, her 
" wealth grew almost fabulously, and the maritime code 
" \_Water-recht, " Water- right "] of Wisby, framed in the 
" twelfth century, has served as the model of all the navi- 
" gation laws of Europe. The valuable and yearly 
" recurring finds of Oriental coins " [chiefly Cufic, — so 
named from the Arabic inscriptions on them of the period 
of the greatness of the city of Cufa, where the coins of 
the early Abbaside Caliphate were struck] " and orna- 
" ments, as well as of Anglo-Saxon and German coins, 

* In Danish kiobe is " to buy," kiohand, " a merchant," and kiobenhaven, 
' commercial harbour." 


" bear witness to the former commercial intercourse 
" between the East, England, Denmark, Germany, and 
" this island." In Sweden, and especially in the island 
of Gothland, such an immense number of these Cufic 
coins has been found, that in the Stockholm Museum 
alone, Mr. 0. E. Markham tells me, 20,000 have been 
preserved, minted in about 70 different towns within the 
former dominions of the Abbaside Caliphs. Five-sixths of 
them were coined by sovereigns of the Samanian dynasty 
who reigned in Khiva, North Persia, and Transoxiana, 
from about A.D. 900 to 990. [There was a discovery of 
iJiese Cufic coins in the Orkneys also. Sir Henry Yule once 
told me.j A great mass of Eastern ornaments has also 
been found. There are numerous hints in the Sagas of 
this Eastern trade, along the obscure line from Khiva 
[Khwarazm, i.e. Chorasmia], round the north of the 
Caspian, and up the Volga, to Novgorod, and thence 
across Eussia to the Baltic : and it would seem that silver 
first came into Scandinavia by this route. There was an 
early distinction between the Easterling or Vandalic Hanse 
towns \_civitates Sclavica'], with Lubeck for their chief, and 
the Westerling or Teutonic Hanse towns, of which the 
capital was Cologne. As the trade with Venice and Genoa 
increased the Hanse merchants began to resort to the 
harbour of Sluys, the port of Bruges, for the purpose of 
exchanging the iron, copper, flax, hemp, and timber of the 
Baltic countries for the spices, drugs, and silks of the 
East, and the dried fruits and wines of Southern Europe. 
Thither also the English took their tin, lead, hides, rabbit 
skins, and wool ; and thus Bruges became, in the 
thirteenth century, the store city for the trade between 
England and the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas, and the 
universal mart of Europe, and so remained for nearly 300 
years. Bruges was, indeed, the first of the four great 
comptoirs established by the Hanseatic League ; the 
second being London, and the other two Bergen and Nov- 
gorod. In London, the office of the League, " Guildhala 
Teutonicorum," commonly called the " Steel Yard," i.e. 


Btaplehoff* or Warehouse, was in Thames Street ; and it 
had other " Steel Yards " at Boston and Lynn. With the 
fall of Constantinople and the extension of the Ottoman 
dominion in Syria and Egypt, the commerce of Bruges 
suffered proportionally with that of Genoa and Venice; 
and it suffered further also from the war, begun in 1482, 
between the Flemings and the Archduke Maximilian, 
which gradually drove its merchants to Antwerp. The 
merchandise of India and the East also reached Southern 
Germany through Milan, the common depot of the Vene- 
tians and Genoese, whence it was transported over the 
Alps to Augsburg and Nuremberg ; and during the hostile 
rivalry of Genoa and Venice many of the German towns 
opened direct communications With Constantinople, through 
which city the whole of Central Europe was supphed with 
Indian produce at Belgrade, Vienna, Eatisbon, Nurem- 
berg, Ulm, Augsburg, and other cities along the Danube. 
This trade was carried on until the subjugation of Servia 
by the Turks A.D. 1459. The myth of the Argonautic 
expedition probably points to the existence, from the 
remotest prehistoric times, of this line of overland trade 
between the East and West. 

The "Old Travellers" (continued). 

The destructive conquests of the Ottoman Turks made 
the nations of Christendom aware of the precarious tenure 
by which their overland trade with India was held, while 
at the same time they felt that its freedom from inter- 
ruption was essential to the progress of civilization in 
Europe : and these considerations now began to turn their 
thoughts towards the circumnavigation of Africa, and even 
led them, for a time, to hope, from the victorious career of 
Chingiz Khan [b. A.D. 1163 d. A.D. 1227] and Tamer- 

* The derivation usually given is from the mediseval Statera Romana : the 
adjective " Romana " here being a corruption of riman [cf. Rimmon] the 
nanif of the " pomegranate " shaped sliding weight or counterpoise [o-ra^/xds, 
sequipondium] of the steelyard [firydv, scapus] used by the Arabs, in suc- 
cession to the Phoenicians, and the Greeks and Romans. 


lane [b. A.D. 1335 d. 1405], that an understanding with 
the Tartars might further their aims of a settled commerce 
with the East. The first European missions into ' Grand 
Tartary ' [" India Major "] were indeed sent out with a 
view to staying the further advance of the Tartars. After 
the successive irruptions of the Goths, Vandals, Huns, 
Avars, Sclavs, and Turks into the West, it might well 
have been supposed that the surplus population of 
the Bast was exhausted, and that Europe would at 
last enjoy a prolonged period of peace and pro- 
sperity. But this expectation was cruelly dispelled 
by the overwhelming inundation of the Tartars in 
the thirteenth century under Chingiz Khan, whose 
son, Octal or Okkodai, pushed his ravages so far 
as Poland and the confines of Germany. Baton, a 
grandson of Chingiz, overran and made conquest of all 
south-eastern Kussia. Also, while Octal was attacking 
the Eastern frontiers of Europe, the Tartars were, 
by their advances through Persia and on Baghdad, 
threatening the sacred possessions the Crusaders had 
wrested from the Saracens in the Holy Land. Pope 
Clement IV., as the Spiritual Father of Christendom, 
felt, therefore, called upon to make an effort to deliver 
it from the abomination of desolation now imminently 
threatening it ; and accordingly the Franciscan friar, 
NICOLAS ASCELINUS, was sent, A.D. 1245, to 
the Tartar camp in Persia, by way of the Holy Land, and 
JOHANNES CAEPINI, another Franciscan, to the 
Tartar camp on the Volga, A.D. 1247. Carpini tra- 
velled through Bohemia, Silesia, and Poland, and on 
through the vast regions, then known under the name 
of Comania and now as the country of the Don Cos- 
sacks, watered by the Dnieper, the Don, the Volga, 
and the Yaik, until he at last came to the standing 
camp of 'Duke Bathy' [Baton], afterward known 
as the city of Sarai or Sara, on the Volga. Baton 
sent him on to the Imperial Court, where he arrived, 
by way of Lake Balkash, at the moment when Kuyuk 


was being elected to the Grand Khanship of the 
Tartars, in succession to his father Oct-ai or Okkodai 
Khan. On his return journey, passing rapidly through 
the camps of ' Duke Bathy ' and ' Duke Corrensa,' who 
guarded the Tartar frontier in Europe from the nations 
of the West, he reached Kiev in Kussia, within eight 
months of leaving the imperial Court of Kuyuk Khan. 
He is the first traveller into Mongolia whose narrative 
we possess. 

While St. Louis was engaged in the seventh Crusade, 
A.D. 1248-50, and the lieutenants of Octal or Okkodai 
Khan were simultaneously attacking the Saracens 
from the side of Persia, the Tartars and the French 
became united in a common cause. To consolidate 
their casual concurrence, the general who commanded 
the Tartar forces in Persia sent an embassy to the French 
King, expressing the respect he felt, for Christianity, 
and recommending that they should take combined 
action against their Saracen enemies. A French em- 
bassy was at once sent into Persia ; and at the same 
time the pious St. Louis, anxious to lose no oppor- 
tunity for securing the alliance of the Tartars, sent 
the Minorite friar WILLIAM DE EUBRUQUIS 
on his celebrated mission, A.D. 1253-56, to the Tartar 
chief Sartakh, whose territories bordered on the Black 
Sea. From Constantinople Rubruquis sailed to Soldaia 
in the Crimea, one of the entrepots at that time of the 
Black Sea trade in Russian furs, and Indian spices, 
drugs, and silks, through Constantinople, with the rest 
of Europe ; and thence he journeyed northward through 
the before-mentioned region of Comania, until he came 
to the camp of Sartakh, by whom he vs^as sent on to 
the court of his father Baton at Sara or Sarai. Here 
he was furnished with a guide to the Court of Mangu, 
who had succeeded his cousin Kuyuk as Khakan or 
Great Khan at Kara-Korum, on the verge of the great 
Mongolian desert. From the Mongol capital he re- 
turned to the Court of Batou on the Volga, and thence 


to Europe, not by the Crimea, but over the Caucasus, and 
through the country of the ' Lesgi ' [Lesghis] and ' Gurgi ' 
[Georgians], and Armenia, and by Iconium, where 
he had an interview with the Ottoman Sultan, and the 
Cihcian port of Ayas, and Cyprus, where, at Nicosia, he 
found his Provincial. Sir Henry Yule, in his introduction 
to " The Book of Ser Marco Polo," observes of the 
Cilician ports at this period [circa A.D. 1260] : " Alex- 
" andria was still largely frequented in the intervals 
' ' of war as the great emporium of Indian wares ; but 
" the facilities afforded by the Mongol conquerors, who 
"now held the whole tract from the Persian Gulf to 
" the shores of the Caspian and of the Black Sea, or 
" nearly so, were beginning to give a great advantage 
" to the caravan routes which debouched at the ports 
" of Cilician Armenia in the Mediterranean, and at 
" Trebizond on the Euxine." Rubruquis described 
Turkey [i.e. the kingdom of Iconium] at this time as 
having "no treasure, few warriors, and many enemies." 
He also strongly deprecated the system of sending poor 
friars like himself as ambassadors to the Great Khan, 
without office, presents, or any of the things that 
command the favour and respect of the profane. 

After these friars come the merchants of the Polo 
family. In the year 1266, Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, 
the father and uncle of MAECO POLO, were at 
Constantinople, whither they had gone from Venice 
with their wares. Taking counsel together, and having 
laid in a store of jewels, they resolved to cross " the 
Greater Sea" [Black Sea], on a venture of trade, to 
Soldaia ; where having stayed a while they thought it 
well to extend their journey further, " and travelled 
" until they came to the Court of a certain Tartar 
" Prince, Barca Kaan [Barka, a brother of Batou 
" Khan], whose residences were at Sara and Bol- 
" gara." While here, a great war broke out between 
"Barca and Alau [Barka's cousin Hulaku Khan], the 
"Lord of the Tartars of the Levant," and in the end 


•' Barca, the Lord of the Ponent," was defeated, and so 
the two brothers, Maffeo and Nicolo, could not get back 
to Venice by the way they had come, nor until they had 
gone " across the whole longitude of Asia." Leaving 
Bolghar they went on to * Ucaca ' [Ukak], and thence 
departing " and passing the great river Tigris " [Volga], 
traversed a desert country for 17 days until they came 
to 'Bocara' [Bokhara]. "Whilst they were sojourning 
" in that city there came from Alau, Lord of the Levant, 
" envoys on their way to the Court of the Great Kaan 
[Mangu Khan, brother of Hulaku], Lord of all the 
" Tartars in the world." At their request the two 
brothers joined their party, and journeyed a whole year 
until they reached the Court of Kublai Khan, who had 
now succeeded his brother Mangu as Khakan of the 
Tartars. Before the death of Mangu Khan, A.D. 1259, 
it had been intended to remove the seat of the Tartar 
capital from Kara-Korum into Cathay or Northern 
China; but this step, which in the end converted the 
Tartar Khan into a Chinese Emperor, was left to be 
carried out by Kublai Khan. The two brothers were 
received with great honour and hospitality by Kublai 
Khan, and when the time came for them to go back to 
Europe, he charged them with a letter to the Pope, 
begging that 100 persons of the Christian faith might 
be sent to him, acquainted with " the Seven Arts," 
and able clearly to prove that " the Law of Christ" was 
best; and declaring that, if this was done, he and all 
under him would become Christians. Kublai Khan 
also delivered into their hands a golden tablet as a 
passport throughout the Tartar Empire whithersoever 
they went. So the two brothers travelled back, on 
and on, and ever westward, until, after three long, 
adventurous years, they came at last to ' Layas in 
Hermenia ' [L'Ayas or Ayas], a port on the Gulf 
of Scanderoon, then " one of the chief places for 
" the shipment of Asiatic wares arriving through 
" Tabriz, and much frequented by vessels of the 


"Italian Eepublics." [Yule, "Marco Polo," note to 
Chap VIII. of Prolj In April 1269 they reached 
A.cre, where, hearing of the death of Clement IV., 
they returned to Venice, there to await the end of 
the long papal interregnum that followed. When 
Gregory X. was at last elected Pope, they forthwith 
[about November 1271] started on their second journey 
to the Court of Kublai Khan, this time taking 
young MAKCO POLO with them. From Acre they 
proceeded by Ayas and Sivas, and then by Mardin, 
Mosul, and Baghdad, to Ormuz, at the mouth of the 
Persian Gulf, hoping to go on to China by sea. This 
they were not able to do, and so, turning their faces 
landward, they traversed successively Kerman and 
Khorassan, Balk, and Badakshan, and ascended the 
upper Oxus to the Pamir plateau; "a route not known 
" to have been since followed by any European traveller 
" except Benedict Goes [1602-1607], until the spirited 
" expedition of Captain John Wood, of the Indian Navy, 
"in 1838." [Yule, "Marco Polo," Introduction.] 
Crossing " the steppe of high Pamere," the travellers 
proceeded by Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khoten, and the 
vicinage of Lake Lob, and through the Gobi desert, and 
on through Tangat, until at length, some time during 
the midsummer of 1276, they arrived at the " stately 
pleasure dome " of Kublai Khan " in Xanadu " [Shangtu]. 
And some time afterwards they proceeded with the Kha- 
kan to his capital, ' Cambalu ' [Cambala], now Peking. 
They rose rapidly in the Great Khan's favour. Young 
Marco was entrusted with several missions to different 
parts of the Empire, and to Chiampa or Southern 
Cochin China, and Southern India ; while to all the 
hints of the Venetian merchants to be allowed to return 
home with their gathered wealth, " the aged Emperor 
growled refusal ; " and, adds Sir Henry Yule, " but for a 
"happy chance we should have lost our mediaeval 
"Herodotus." Hulaku Khan ["Lord of the Levant"], 
the founder of the Mongol dynasty of Persia, was sue- 


ceeded by his son Abaka, who married a daughter of the 
Greek Emperor Michael Palseologus. His brother 
Nicolas, who succeeded him, became a Mahomedan, but 
his son Arghun Khan, who succeeded Nicolas, was hostile 
to the Mahomedans. He sent embassies [conducted 
by a Genoese] to the Pope, and to the Kings of France 
and England, proposing an alliance against the Saracens 
and Turks ; and in 1290 Edward I. sent Geoffrey 
de Laogley on a return mission to him. Now 
Arghun Khan, having lost his favourite wife in 1286, 
had sent to Kublai Khan to select another for him ; 
and about the very time that Geoffrey de Langley's 
mission was setting out for England, the Polos were 
commissioned by Kublai Khan to escort the new 
bride he had chosen for his great nephew from "far 
Cathay," by sea, to the Persian court. The bridal 
party sailed from the port of ' Zayton ' [Chincheu] 
in the spring of 1292. In the April following 
they would be in Sumatra, where they probably re- 
mained until September ; when, passing through the 
Straits of Malacca, they successively touched at Ceylon, 
at an Indian port on the Coromandel Coast, at Kayal, 
a port of Tinnevelly, and at other ports on the Malabar 
and Concan Coasts of Western India ; and at one of these, 
probably Tannah, they passed the monsoon of 1293. 
Marco Polo notices the fine cottons of Coromandel, and 
the abundance of pepper and ginger of Malabar, the 
incense of Tannah, and the pepper, ginger, indigo, and 
cotton of Guzerat. Sailing on the close of the monsoon 
from India, the party reached Ormuz about November 
1293, and the Persian camp two months later. Here 
the fair princess wept as she took leave of the three 
Polos, who went on to Tabriz, and, after a long halt 
there, proceeded towards Venice, where they arrived 
some time in 1295, having been absent from home 
nearly 24 years. The publication of '^The Book of Ser 
Marco Polo " was as the revelation of a new world to 
his countrymen, and although the slow circulation of 


that age retarded its eflfect, in the end it became one of 
the influences which inspired the mighty emprise of 
Columbus. Ptolemy had enormously exaggerated the 
eastern extension of Asia, and as the wonderful lands 
visited by Marco Polo lay still further eastward, it was 
thought that no great breadth of ocean rolled between 
western Europe and eastern Asia ; and full of this idea, 
Columbus launched boldly on the Atlantic, convinced 
that the first shores reached by him would be those 
of * Chipangu ' [Japan], Cathay, ' Chamba ' [Cochin 
China], and India. From the time of the Saracen con- 
quest of Egypt, Syria, and Persia, Christians had been 
forbidden to pass through those countries to the East, 
and the direct overland trade of Europe with India had 
entirely ceased. MARCO POLO, therefore, was the 
first Christian, after Cosmas Indicopleustes [circa 
A.D. 535-S50] to give a written account of India ; and 
the people of Europe, as they gradually came to know 
of his travels, were astonished at the survey of the 
immense kingdoms, far beyond the limits of what they 
had thought to be the uttermost bounds of Asia, 
he for the first time laid open to their view, and, as 
was hoped, to their commercial enterprise. His book 
is also a perfect Encyclopaedia of the mediaeval trade 
and arts of India and the Bast ; in brief, one of those 
like the Bible, the Iliad and Odyssey, the History of 
Herodotus, and Pliny's Natural History, " that shew, 
contain, and nourish all the world; "* books we never 
tire of, for they are always fresh.: and yet we owe 
its existence to the accident of his having late in life 
been taken in a sea fight by the Genoese, and thrown 
into prison ; where he was persuaded by a fellow 
prisoner to dictate his narrative to relieve the tedium of 
their captivity. As it has been newly translated into 
English, and edited by Sir Henry Yule, with notes, and 
maps and illustrations, it leaves, writes Sir Rutherford 
Alcock in the " Fortnightly Review " for July ISTO, scarcely 

* Love's Labour Lost, A. iv., s. 3. 


anything to be desired or hoped for as the fruit of further 
research, and is the most comprehensive and fascinating 
Tvork we possess on the mediaeval geography and history 
of the East. 

The following are the principal ports of the Eastern 
Seas described by Marco Polo : — 

' Kinsay ' [Hang-chau-fu] " the capital of the whole 
country of Manzi [Southern China]." It was said to 
be 100 miles in circumference, and to have in it 12,000 
bridges of stone. There were in the city 12 guilds of 
different crafts, and each guild had 12,000 houses in the 
occupation of its workmen. It was a wise ordinance 
of the King "that every man should follow his father's 
" business and no other, no matter if he possessed 
" 100,000 bezants." Inside the city there was a lake 
30 miles in compass, and all round it were beautiful 
palaces and gardens. The port of the city was ' Ganfu ' 
[Kanpu], 25 miles distant, "with a vast amount of 
-" shipping which is engaged in the traffic to and from 
" India, and other foreign ports; " and "a great river 
" flows from the city of Kinsay to that sea haven, by 
" which vessels can come up to the city itself." Below 
' Ganfu ' were ' Zayton ' [Thsiuancheu or Chincheu], 
and 'Fuju' [Fucheu], "a seat of great trade and 
" great manufactures. . . . Enormous quantities of 
" sugar are made there, and there is a great traffic 
" in pearls and precious stones, for many ships of India 
" come to these parts bringing many merchants who 
" traffic about the Isles of the Indies. For this city is, 
" you see, in the vicinity of the Ocean Port of Zayton, 
" which is greatly frequented by the ships of India with 
" their cargoes of various merchandise ; and from Zayton 
" the vessels pass on to the city of Fuju. . . . and 
" 'tis in this way that the precious wares of India come 
" hither." 

The ' Haven of Zayton ' [Chincheu] was " frequented 
" by all the ships of India, which bring hither spicery 


" and all kinds of costly wares. It is the port also that 
" is frequented by all the merchants of Manzi [Southern 
" China], for hither is imported the most astonishing 
•' quantity of goods, and of precious stones and pearls, 
" and from this they are distributed all over Manzi. And 
" I assure you that for one shipload of pepper that goes to 
" Alexandria or elsewhere, destined for Christendom, 
" there come a hundred such, aye, and more too, to this 
" haven of Zayton ; for it is one of the two greatest 
" havens in the world for commerce.'' 

Passing southwards to the Indian Archipelago, he 
describes 'the great country called Chamba ' ['Champa,' 
' Zampa,' ' Chiampa,' ' Tsiampa,' or Southern Cochin 
China], and ' the isles of Sondur and Condur ' [Pulo 
Condore], 'the great island of Java,' 'the island of 
Pentam ' [Bintang], and ' the island and city of Malaiur,' 
which may be Palembang, or Singapore, or Malacca. 
Sir Henry Yule considers the evidence conclusive against 
the existence of Malacca in Marco Polo's time. 
' Malaiur,' Marco Polo says, was a fine and noble city, 
and a great trade was carried on there in all kinds of 
spicery and all other necessaries of life. Marco Polo 
then describes 'Java the Less' [Sumatra], and the 
islands of ' Necuveran ' [the Nicobars] , ' Angamanain ' 
[the Andamans], and ' Seilan ' [Ceylon], whence he 
passes to ' the great province of Maabar ' [the Coro- 
mandel Coast], to which ' the merchants of Kis and 
Hormes, Dofar, and Soer [Suhar], and Aden,' bring 
great numbers of ' destriers and other horses ' to sell to 
the king. After meutioning the town of St. Thomas, 
he next describes 'the kingdom of MutfiU,' corre- 
sponding with Telingana, and taking its name pro- 
bably from 'Motapalle,' in the Guntur district of 
the Madras Presidency. "It is in this kingdom that 
" diamonds are got. ... No other country but 
" this kingdom of Mutfili produces them. ... In 
" this kingdom are also produced the best and most 
" delicate buckrams, and those of the highest price ; in 




" sooth, they look like tissue of spiders' web ! " The 
city of Cail [Kayal in the Tinnevelly district] he 
describes as " a great and noble city. It is at this city 
" that all the ships touch that come from the West, as 
" from Hormos, from Kis, and from Aden, and all 
" Arabia, laden with horses and with other things for 
sale." Of ' Coilum ' [Quilon] he says " a great deal 
of brazil is got here. . . . Good ginger also grows 
here. . . . Pepper too grows in great abundance. 
" . . They have also abundance of very fine indigo. 
" . . The merchants from Manzi, and from Arabia, and 
" from the Levant [Persia], come hither with their ships 
" and their merchandise, and make great profits both by 
" what they import and by what they export." 

After describing ' Melibar ' [Malabar] and ' Gozurat ' 
[Guzerat], he says of the kingdom of 'Tana' [Tannah], 
" no pepper grows there, nor other spices^ but 
" plenty of incense. . . . There is much traffic 
" here, and many ships and merchants frequent the 
" place ; for there is a great export of leather of various 
" excellent kinds, and also of good buckram and cotton. 
** The merchants in their ships also import various 
" articles, such as gold, silver, copper, and other things 
" in demand." 

Of the kingdom of 'Cambaet' [Cambay], he says, 
" There is a great trade in this country. It produces 
" indigo in great abundance, and much fine buckram. 
" There is also a quantity of cotton which is exported 
" hence, . . . and a great trade in hides, which are 
" very well dressed ; with many other kinds of mer- 
" chandise too tedious to mention. Merchants come here 
•' with many ships and cargoes, but what they chiefly 
" bring is gold, silver, copper, and tutia." 

In ' Zanghibar ' [Zanzibar], he says, " there is- a great 
" deal of trade, and many merchant vessels go thither ; 
" but the staple trade of the Island is elephants' teeth, 
" which are very abundant, and they have also much 
" ambergris, as whales are plentiful." 


Of 'Hormos,' ' Hormes ' or ' Curmosa,' Marco Polo 
Bays, " merchants come thither from India with ships 
" loaded with spicery and precious stones, pearls, 
" cloths of silk and gold, elephants' teeth, and many 
" other wares, which they sell to the merchants of 
" Hormos, and they in turn carry all over the world 
" to dispose of again. In fact 'tis a city of immense 
" trade." 

The other emporium of the Indian trade in the 
Persian Gulf was the island of Kisi [Kishi, Kish, or 
Kais]. " Baudas [Baghdad] is a great city, which used 
"to be the seat of the Calif of all the Saracens in the 
" world, just as Rome is the seat of the Pope of all the 
" Christians. A very great river flows through the city, 
" and by this you can descend to the Sea of India. 
" There is a great traffic of merchants with their 
" goods this way : they descend some 18 days from 
" Baudas, and then come to a certain city called Kisi, 
" where they enter the Sea of India. There is also on 
" the river, as you go from Baudas to Kisi, a great city 
" called Bastra [Bussorah], surrounded by woods, in which 
" grow the best dates in the world." 

Aden "is a port to which many of the ships of India 
" come with their cargoes ; and from this haven the 
" merchants carry the goods a distance of seven days 
" further in small vessels. At the end of these seven 
" days they land the goods, and load them on camels, 
" and so carry them a land journey of 80 days. Thia 
" brings them to the river of Alexandria [the Nile], and 
"by it they descend to the latter city. It is by this 
" way through Aden that the Saracens of Alexandria 
' * receive all their stores of pepper and other spicery ;. 
" and there is no other route equally good and con- 
" venient by which their goods could reach that 
" place." 

' Babylon ' is the name by which Cairo was known to 
Marco Polo. 

In Marco Polo's old age, and the years following his. 



death, a remarkable land trade, Sir Henry Yule has 
shown, sprang up between China and the trading cities of 
Italy, of which curious details are given in the book of 
Pegolotti already mentioned. The chief imports from 
the East were the rich satins and damasks of China. 
European linens were carried for sale on the way ; but to 
China itself, in general, only silver, to purchase goods 
there. Factories of Genoese merchants were established 
at Fokien, perhaps at Hangcheu and other cities. This 
trade probably came to an end about the middle of the 
14th century, after lasting 30 or at most 40 years. It 
was apparently carried on entirely by Italian merchants 
travelling to make their own purchases. Whether they 
undertook the trade by sea also is doubtful. 

MAEINO SANUTO, a Venetian nobleman, who 
travelled in the East about 1300-1306, in his book 
entitled "Liber secretorum fidelium Crucis, super Terra 
Sanctce recuperatione," presented to Pope John XII. at 
Avignon, initiates us into all the details of the course 
of the Venetian commerce with India at this period. 
Formerly, and even down to his time, it used to take 
the route by the Persian Gulf. The merchandise of 
Malabar and Cambay was first conveyed to Ormuz and 
Kish in the Persian Gulf, and v^as thence transported to 
Bussorah on the Euphrates, whence it passed up the 
Tigris to 'Baldac' [Baghdad] and across the Syrian 
desert to Antioch and Cilicia, where it was embarked 
for Europe on board the ships of Genoa and Venice. 
Latterly, however, the merchants of Southern Arabia 
had gradually recovered their old commerce, and part 
of the merchandise of India and the East now came 
into Europe by way of ' Ahaden ' [Aden] and ' Chus ' 
[Coptos] on the Nile, and Alexandria. The rarer 
commodities, such as cloves, nutmegs, mace, gems, 
and pearls, were still conveyed up the Persian Gulf 
to Bussorah, and on to Baghdad, whence they were 
carried to some port on the Syrian or Arabian Coast 
of the Mediterranean ; but all the more bulky goods, 


snch as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, together with 
a portion of the more valuable articles, were now 
reconveyed by the ancient route to the Eed Sea, 
and across the Libyan desert, and down the Nile to 

There is very little information directly bearing on 
the subject of this paper to be derived from the letters 
and reports of the Missionary Friars of the fourteenth 
century, published by Sir Henry Yule in his " Gathay, and 
the Way Thither," viz., the letters of the Franciscan 
Friar, John of Montecorvino [b. 1247, d. 1328], dated 
from ' Oambalec ' [Peking], the 8th January 1305 and 
February 1306; of Andrew of Perugia of the order 
of Minorite Friars, ' Bishop of Zayton ' in Manzi 
[Southern China], dated ' Zayton,' January 1326 ; of 
the Dominican Friar Jordanus, dated from ' Caga ' 
[Gogo] the 12th October 1321, and from ' Thana ' 
[Tannah], near Bombay, January 1323 ; and of the 
Franciscan Friar, Pascal of Vittoria, whose letter is dated 
from ' Armalec ' [Almalik, not far from the modern 
Kulja] 'in the Empire of the Medes,' on the feast of 
St. Lawrence, 1338 ; and " the Book of the estate of the 
Great Caan, set forth by the Archbishop of Soltania" 
[the Dominican Friar John de Cora] circa 1330. In 
the letter from the Dominican Friar Menentillus, for- 
-warding the copy of a letter from Friar John of Monte- 
corvino, among the products of " Upper India " he 
enumerates aromatic spices, pepper, ginger, brazil-wood, 
and cinnamon, and he refers to palm sugar and 

The famous Minorite Friar ODORICO DI POEDE- 
I^ONE [6. 1281, d. 1331], a Beatus of the Roman 
•Catholic church, travelled in the East and in India 
between 1316 and 1330. He proceeded by way of 
jConstantinopie and Trebizond, ' Arziron ' [Erzeroum], 
Tauris, ' Soldania ' [Sultanieh], and ' the sea of Bacuc ' 
[i.e., of Baku, the Caspian], ' Cassan ' [Kashan], ' lest ' 
£Yezd], and the ' Sea of Sand,' the ruins of ' Comerum ' 

I 2 


[Persepolis], and the kingdom of ' Chaldsea ' [Baghdad], 
to ' Ormes ' [Ormuz], whence he took ship to ' Tana ' in; 
Salsette, near Bombay. Here, or at Surat, in one of which 
places Friar Jordanus had deposited them, he gathered 
the bones of the four missionaries who had suffered 
martyrdom at Tana in 1321, and took ship again to ' Po- 
lumbum ' [Quilon]. He notices the immense quantity 
of pepper cultivated in ' Minibar ' [Malabar], where 
he also visited the coast towns of ' Flandrina ' 
[' Pandarani '] and ' Cyngilin ' [' Cynkali,' ' Shinkala,' 
' Gingala,' ' Jangli,' or Cranganore]. He then went on to 
' Mobar ' [the Coromandel Coast], " where lieth the body of 
St. Thomas," and thence in fifty days sailed to ' Lamori ' 
[' al Eamni '] and to the kingdom of ' Sumoltra ' [Su- 
matra]. From Sumatra he went on to Java, and to 
another island called ' Thalamasyn ' or ' Panten,' which 
has been thought to be Borneo, and thence to ' Zampa ' 
[Cochin China]. He next notices the island of ' Nico- 
veran' [Nicobars], and of ' Sillan ' [Ceylon], whence his 
narrative carries us at once to ' Upper India ' [China] 
and the Province of ' Manzi ' [Southern China], and 
the cities of ' Censcalan ' [Canton], ' Zayton ' [Chin- 
cheu], ' Fuzo ' [Pucheu], ' Cansay ' [Hangcheu], 
* Chilenfu ' [Nanking], and ' Cambalech ' [Peking], and to 
' Sandu ' [' Xanadu,' Shangtu], the summer residence 
of the Great Khan. He describes ' the lands of Prester 
John,' and ' the realm of Thibet,' and the Grand Lama, 
as Pope of the latter country. He also gives an account 
of his own dealings with the 'Devils of Tartary,' and of 
the ' Old Man of the Mountain.' 

JOHN DE' MARIGNOLLI, a Minorite Friar of the 
Franciscan monastery of Santa Croce at Florence, was 
sent by Pope Benedict on a mission to ' Cathay ' in 
1338. He sailed from Avignon to Naples, and thence 
to Constantinople, and on to ' Oaffa ' [Theodosia] in the 
Crimea, whence he proceeded to the court of the Khan 
of Kipchak at Sarai, on the Volga, who forwarded him 
on to ' Armalec ' [Almahk], the capital of the Chagatai, 


Khans of the ' Middle Tartar Empire.' He arrived at 
^ Cambalec ' [Peking] in May or June 1342, and after 
remaining there three or four years sailed from Zayton 
for India, the 26th December 1347, and arrived at 
' Columbum ' [Quilon], the following Easter. In 131^9 
he made a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas on 
the Coromandel coast, and thence sailed to ' Saba,' 
piously identified by him with the Sheba of the Bible, 
but vrhich was probably some country of Further India. 
Returning to India, he was driven to Ceylon, whence he 
sailed to Ormuz, and afterwards travelled by the ruins 
of Babylon to Baghdad, Mosul, Edessa, and Aleppo, and 
thence to Damascus, Galilee, and Jerusalem, making his 
way back to Italy by Cyprus. 

SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE, the author of, it is said, 
the first English book that appeared in print* [London, 
1499], would appear from his narrative to have tra- 
versed the whole East between 1327 and 1372, the date 
of his death. He speaks of " the marvyles of Inde," but 
it is certain he was never there. He may be described 
as the father of English sensation writers, and is not 
to be trusted even when he may be telling the truth. 

During the latter half of the fourteenth century, 
Tamerlane, taking advantage of the dissensions among 
the descendants of Chingiz Khan, succeeded in once 
again uniting the nomad hordes of Central Asia in a 
career of universal devastation. He was proclaimed 
Khan of the Chagatai, and made Samarcand his capital 
in 1369. He overran Persia in 1386-87, and Kipchak 
several times between 1387 and 1389, in the latter year 
reaching so far as Moscow. He took Baghdad in 1395, 
invaded India and stormed Delhi in 1898, invaded Asia 
Minor and Syria in 1400-1401, and defeated and captured 
the Emperor Bajazet at the great battle of Angora, July 
20, 1404. Tamerlane's triumphant campaign against the 
Ottoman Turks quickly drevy the princes of Christendom 

* TMs is incorrect, as the distinction of being the first printed English 
book is due to the JRemyeU of the Historyes of Troye, 1474. 


into relations with him. In 1393, Henry III. of Castile 
sent two noble knights, named Pelayo de Sotomayor and 
Fernando de Palazuelos on an embassy to his camp. 
They were received with distinction, and were present at 
the battle of Angora, and, on their return to Spain, 
Tamerlane sent an envoy of his own with them v?ith rich 
presents to the King of Castile, of jevsrels and women, 
among them being two lovely Christian damsels, named 
Angelina and Maria, whom he had rescued from the 
seraglio of the brutal Bajazet. King Henry thereupon 
determined to send another embassy to Tamerlane, at 
the head of which was DON RUY GONZALES DE 
CLAVIJO, whose narrative of it is of the highest 
interest, not only for the account it gives of Tamerlane, 
but for the light it throws on the caravan trade of the 
period through Persia. Yet it was not until 1869 that 
an English translation of it was made and edited by 
Mr. Clements R. Markham, C.B., for the Hakluyt 
Society. Accompanied by the returning Tartar envoy, 
Clavijo embarked at the port of St. Mary near Cadiz, 
in May 1403, and sailed through the Strait of Boni- 
facio to Gaeta, continuing his course through the 
Strait of Messina to Rhodes. Here he hired a ship to 
Chios, and there engaged another to Constantinople. 
Sailing through the " Strait of Roumania " [the Dar- 
danelles], he saw on one side "the land of Turkey," 
and on the other " the land of G-rsecia." He left 
Constantinople on the 14th of November, passing in 
the Bosphorus between two castles, one being named 
" el Guirol de la Grcecia," and the other " el Guirol 
de la Turquia." Disembarking at Trebizond he 
proceeded by ' Arsinga ' [Erzingan] and ' Aseron ' 
[ErzeroumJ through Armenia, and across the 'Corras' 
[Cyrus] to Tauris or Tabriz and Sultanieh in Azer- 
bijan. The latter city, now a mere mass of squalid 
ruins, he represents as then very populous, but not so 
large as Tabriz, although it had more trade. Every 
year in the months of June, July, and August, large 


caravans came there from India with spices, '• such as 
" cloves, nutmegs, cinnamon, manna, mace, and other 
"precious articles which do not go to Alexandria;" 
and from Ghilan with wrought silk, to be sent to 
Damascus, Syria, and Turkey ; and merchants came 
there for silks from all countries " even Venetians and 
Genoese." Silken stuffs, cottons, and taffetas also came 
to Sultanieh from Shiraz and ' Yesen ' [Yezd], and 
cotton threads and cotton cloths from Khorassan. 
" From Cathay vessels came within 60 days journey of 
" this city, having navigated the western sea . . . 
" and they came to a river which is 10 days journey 
" from the city of Ormuz." . . . These ships 
brought pearls and rubies from Ceylon [not from Cathay 
as Clavijo was told], and spices from India. " All the 
" merchants who come from the land of the Christians, 
" from Caflfa [Theodosia] and Trebizond, and the mer- 
" chants of Turkey and Syria, come every year at this 
" time [June 1404] to the city of Sultanieh to make 
" their purchases." From Sultanieh the embassy pro- 
ceeded, by Teheran, to Damghan in Khorassan, and by 
Nishapore, where Clavijo notices the " torquoises," to 
' Ojajan,' where they received a message from Shah 
Rukh, Tamerlane's celebrated youngest sou, inviting 
them to Herat. From ' Ojajan ' they went on to 
' Maxaque ' [Meshed] and 'Buelo,' after which they 
had to cross a desert of 50 leagues, at the end of which 
they found themselves in " the land of Tartary." They 
now crossed the ' Morghan ' [Murghab], and, after 
passing through ' Vaeq ' [Balk], " the great river 
Viadme " [the Oxus], " another of the rivers of Paradise 
" , . . which descends from the mountains, and flows 
" through the plains of the territory of Samarcand 
"... and falls into the sea of Bakou " [the Cas- 
pian]. Then, after travelling for several days, they 
came to the formidable pass of the " Iron Gates," in 
the mountain chain that guards Tartary " in the direc- 
tion of India," and going on to Quex [Kesh], the birth- 


place of Tamerlane, entered his beautiful capital of 
Samarcand, September 8, 1404. But Clavijo never saw 
the mighty destroyer, who was already dying. After 
being most hospitably entertained by his ministers the 
embassy departed on its return journey on the 21st of 
November, and, on reaching Tabriz, received the 
intelligence of Tamerlane's death, which took place 
at Otrar on the Jaxartes, February 19, 1405. From 
Trebizond, Clavijo took ship for Pera, where he found 
two Genoese carracks which had come from Caffa, 
.and were going to Genoa. He embarked on one of 
ihem, and, after stopping at Gallipoli to take in a 
cargo of cotton, and at Chios, and Gaeta, and at 
^Corsica "to spend Christmas Day," reached Genoa, 
January 3, 1406. He himself reached Seville the 
following March. 

In 1419 Shah Eukh sent Sadi Khoja on an embassy 
into China, and in 1442 he sent ABD-UK-RAZZAK on 
an embassy to India. Abd-ur-Razzak set out from Herat 
in January 1442, and proceeded by way of Kohistan and 
Kerman to Ormuz. He thus describes this port : " The 
" merchants of the seven climates, from Egypt, Syria, the 
" country of Roum [Anatolia], Azerbijan, Irak-Arabi, 
" and Irak-Adjemi, the provinces of Fars, Khorassan, 
^' Mawaranahar [Turkistanj, the kingdom of Deschti- 
" Kaptchack [Kipchak], the whole of. the kingdoms of 
*' Tchin [Northern China or Cathay], and Matchin [Manzi 
*' or Southern China], and the city of Khanbalik [Peking], 
" all make their way to this port, \Yhich has not its equal 
" on the surface of the globe. The inhabitants of the 
" sea coasts arrive here from the countries of Tchin, 
" Java, Bengal, the cities of Zirbad \_lndia extra Gangcm\ 
" Tenasserim, Sokotora [Socotra], Schahriuou [shahr-i- 
" nao, "New City," i.e., Siam], the islands of Diwah- 
" Mahal [Maldives], the countries of Malabar, Abyssinia, 
" Zanguebar, the ports of Bidjanager, Kalbergah, Gu- 
" jarat, Kanbait [Cambay], the coasts of Arabia 
" which extend so far as Aden, Jeddah, and Yembo. 


•' They bring hither those rare and beautiful articles 
" which the sun, the moon, and the rains have com- 
" bined to bring to perfection. . . . Travellers 
" from all countries resort hither, and in exchange for 
" the commodities which they bring, they can without 
" trouble or difficulty obtain all that they desire. 
" . . . For all objects, with the exception of gold 
" and silver, a tenth of their value is paid by way of 
" duty. Persons of all religions and even idolaters are 
" found in this city, and no injustice is permitted 
" to'wards any person whatever." From Ormuz, after 
two months' sojourn, Abd-ur-Razzak sailed for Calicut, 
but, being too late for the S.W. monsoon, was com- 
pelled to pass several months at Muscat. He landed 
at Calicut at the beginning of November 1442, and 
remained there until the middle of April 1443. He 
describes it as " a perfectly secure harbour, which, like 
" that of Ormuz, brings together merchants from every 
" city and from every country. In it are to be found 
" abundance of precious articles brought thither from 
" maritime countries, and especially from Abyssinia, 
" Zirbad, and Zanguebar. From time to time ships 
" arrive there from -the shores of the House of God 
" [Mecca] and other parts of the Hedjaz, and abide at 
" will for a greater or longer space in the harbour. 
" The town is inhabited by infidels, and situated on a 

" hostile shore The sovereign of the city 

" bears the title of Sameri The coast, 

" which includes Calicut and some neighbouring ports, 
" and which extends as far as Kayal, a place situated 
" opposite the island of Serendib, otherwise called 
" Ceylon, bears the general name of Malibar [Malabar]. 
" From Calicut are vessels continually' sailing for Mecca, 
" which are for the most part laden with pepper. The 
"inhabitants of Caiicut are adventurous sailors; they 
" are known by the name of Ghini-batehagan [sons of 
" the Chinese], an.l pirates do not dare to attack the 
-" vessels of Calicut. In this harbour one may find 


" everything that can be desired. One thing only is-- 
" forbidden, namely, to kill a cow or to eat its flesh."" 
Erom Calicut he went on by sea to Mangalore, " which 
" forms the frontier of the kingdom of Bijanagar," from, 
which port he continued his route by land to the city 
of Bijanagar, which he reached by the end of April. 
He gives a graphic account of the magnificence of this 
ancient Hindu city, where he was entertained in the 
most princely state by the King until the following 
November, when he returned to Mangalore. Going on 
to 'Honawer' [Onore] he there took his passage to- 
Ormuz, which port he reached April 22, 1444, — the- 
voyage from Onore to Ormuz having lasted 65 days. 

NICOLO CONTI, a noble Venetian, travelled in 
India and the East for 25 years, between 1419 and 
1444 ; and seeking in 1449 absolution from Eugene IV. 
for the sin of having once denied Christ on the borders 
of Egypt, in order to save from death his wife and 
children, who had accompanied him in all his pere- 
grinations, that Pope imposed on him the happy 
penance of relating his adventures to his famous secre- 
tary, Poggio Bracciolini, the immortal author of the 
" Facetice." Conti started from Damascus, where he 
had resided for some years and had learned the Arabic 
language, and, travelling in company with a caravan 
of 600 other merchants, passed over the deserts of 
Arabia Petrsea, and through Chaldsea to ' Baldochia ' 
[Baghdad]. Sailing thence down the river Euphrates 
for 20 days he arrived at 'Balsera ' [Bussorah], and 
four days after at the head of the Persian Gulf, and in 
five days more at the port of ' Colcus,' and afterwards 
at Ormuz. Sailing thence towards India he arrived, 
after 100 miles at ' Calacatia ' [' Calaite,' ' Calatu,' 
Kalhat in Arabia], a very noble emporium of the 
Persians. Here he stayed some time and learned the 
Persian language, when he and some Persian merchants- 
freighted a ship to India, " having first taken a solemn 
" oath to be faithful and loyal companions one to- 


" another." At the end of a month at sea he arrivect 
at Cambay, where, he observes, are "those precious 
" stones, sardonixes." Proceeding southward along the 
coast of Western India, after 20 days saihng he arrived 
at two cities on the seashore, " one named Pacamuria^ 
" and the other Helly." In these districts, he says, " grows 
" ginger, called in the language of the country beledi, 
" gebeli, and neli." Departing thence, and travelling for 
about 300 miles inland, he next arrived at " the great city 
" of Bizenegalia " [Bijanagar]. Eight days' journey from 
it he came to " the very noble city of Pelagonda " [? PaH- 
conda, now Ongule], and in twenty days more to the 
seaport ' Peudifetania ' [? Pudipatana, on the Malabar 
coast], " on the road to which he passed two cities, viz., 
" Odeschiria and Cenderghiria [? Chandgerry in the 
" Carnatic], where the red sandal-wood grows." He 
next arrived at ' Malepur ' [Maliapur, i.e., the city of 
Peacocks, or St. Thome], " where the body of 
" St. Thomas lies honourably buried ; beyond which," 
he says, " is another city, called Cahila [' Cail,' Kayal], 
" where pearls are found." He then crossed over to a 
" very noble island, called Zeilam [Ceylon], .... 
" in which they find, by digging, rubies, saffares, 
" garnets, and those stones which are called cats'-eyes. 
" Here also cinnamon grows in great abundance." He 
" afterwards went . on to the is'and of Taprobana, which 
" island is called by the natives Sciamuthera " [Sumatra, 
which is also called Taprobana, the ancient name of 
Ceylon, by others besides Conti], where he remained 
a year, and where he notices the pepper, long pepper, 
camphor, gold and duriano [Durio Zebethinus]. Leav- 
ing Sumatra, he arrived, after a stormy passage of 
16 days, at * Ternassari ' [Tenasserim], and afterwards 
sailed to the mouth of the Ganges, and up the river 
for 15 days until he came to ' Cernove.' He notice* 
the charming villas on both banks of the river, and 
plantations and gardens, " wherein grow vast varieties 
" of fruits, and above all those called musa [plantains]. 


" . . , . and also the nuts which we call nuts of 
"India" [' nuces Indicce ' or cocoa-nuts]. From 
* Oernove ' he went on to ' Maarazia,' and thence re- 
turned to Cernove, whence he went on to ' Buffetania ' 
[not to be confounded with ' Peudifetania '], and 
thence returning by the Ganges after a month's voyage 
he arrived at ' Eacha ' [Aracan], whence he crossed 
inland to the river Dava [i.e., d'Ava, the Irraw^addy], 
up which he sailed to the city of Ava. Here in his 
narrative Conti alludes to ' Macinus ' [i.e., ' Mahachin,' 
' Machin,' Burma], and 'Cathay' [Northern China], 
and its capital, " called Cambaleschia " [Peking], and 
the great city, called ' Nemptai ' ['Kinsay,' Hangcheu], 
Leaving Ava, he arrived at " the mouth of a moderate 
" sized river, where there is a port called Xeythona 
" [? Sittoungj, and having entered the river at the end 
" of ten days arrived at a very populous city called 
" Panconia [? Pegu] ," where he remained four months. 
Here, he says, they have " the pinus, oranges, chesnuts, 
" melons, . . . white sandal-wood, and camphor." 
[It is a mistake to translate "pinus," here, as "pine 
apples," for they are a product exclusively of America, 
which Iiad not then been discovered.] He now crossed 
io Java. He says that " in Further India are two 
"islands towards the extreme confines of the world, 
" both of which are called Java . . . distinguished 
" from each other by the names of the Greater and 
"Less" — the Java Major and Java Minor of other 
travellers, usually identified with Java and Bally, but 
by which Conti would seem to describe Java and 
Sumbawa. He remained in Java nine months. At 
15 days' sail beyond these islands, eastward, two others, 
he says, are found, " the one called Sandai [Ceram], in 
" which nutmegs and maces grow ; the other is named 
" Bandan [Bauda] ; this is the only island in which 
" cloves grow, which are exported hence to the Java 
" islands." Ceram and Bouro are the two largest of 
the Banda or Bandan islands. He also mentions the 


nori [or lori, i.e., " Excellent "] and the cachi [cockatoo] 
as birds of Bandan. Having quitted Java, he bent his 
course westward for a month to " a maritime city, called 
" Ciampa [southern Oochin-China], abounding in aloes- 
" wood, camphor, and gold." In another month he came 
to ' Coloen' [Quilon] in ' Melibaria ' [Malabar], where he 
again notices "ginger, called by the natives coZobi [i.e.^ 
eolombi, or of ' Kaulam ' or Quilon], pepper, brazil-wood, 
" and the cinnamon which is called [i.e., by Western 
travellers] crossa [i.e., ' canella grossa,' coarse cinnamon or 
cassia] ;" and describes the jack, amba [mango], and a tree 
he names cachi. After a further journey of three days he 
came to 'Cocym' [Cochin], and still going northward 
visited in succession ' Colanguria,' 'Paliuria,' ' MeMan- 
cota,' and then Calicut, " a noble emporium for all India, 
" abounding in pepper, lac, ginger, a coarser kind of 
" cinnamon, myrobolam, and zedoary." He then went 
on to Oambay, which he reached in 15 days, and re- 
turning to Calicut took ship to " Sechutera " [Socotra], 
where he spent two months. Departing thence in five 
days he reached Aden, " an opulent city remarkable 
" for its buildings ;" and thence he sailed " over to 
" .^jthiopia," and after seven days anchored in the port 
of ' Barbora ' [Berbera]. Sailing thence after a month 
he arrived at 'Gidda' [Jiddahj, and subsequently at a 
port near Mount Sinai, whence he crossed the desert 
to ' Carrae ' [Cairo], where he lost his dear wife and 
two of his children of the plague. From Egypt he reached 
Venice safely with his two surviving children. 

The account of the journey into India of 
ATHANASIUS NIKITIN, a Russian, was first 
published by Mr. Major, in his volume of the Hakluyt 
Society's publications entitled " India in the Fif- 
teenth Century," which includes also the separate 
narratives of Abd-ur-Razzak, Conti, and Santo Stefano. 
Nikitin started from Twer in 1468, and descended 
the Volga through Kazan, and the several Tartar 
" orda " [whence our word " horde " and the Hin- 


■dustani word " Ordu," meaning " camp "-language] 
or cantonments, and Sarai, to Astrakhan. Thence he 
went on to Derbend and Baku, where he crossed the 
'Doria KhvaHtskaia ' [Caspian Sea, or Sea of Khiva,] 
to ' Chebokhara ' [Bokhara]. He then recrossed the 
Caspian, and lived for six months at Sareh in 
Mazanderan, whence he went on by successive stages 
to Kashan, Yezd, and Bender [Bander-Abbas as it 
was afterwards called], to ' Hormyz ' [Ortnuz], where 
he crossed the ' Doria Hondustankaia ' [Indian Ocean] 
to ♦ Moshkat ' [Muscat], and thence to ' Kuzrat ' 
[Guzerat] and ' Kanbat ' [Cambay], where indigo 
grows, and ' Chivil' [Ohaul]. From Chaul he pro- 
ceeded inland to ' Jooneer,' and on to * Beurek ' [Beder], 
where he lived for four years, visiting, during his 
Btay there, ' Kalongher,' ' Kelberg ' [Kulburga] and 
' Pervota ' [Pervottum], " the Jerusalem of the 
Hindus." On his return home he embarked from 
' Dabyl ' [Dabul] ; and after being at sea a whole 
month, was driven somewhere on the coast of, as 
he says, 'iEthiopea,' whence he reached Muscat in 
12 days, and in nine more Ormuz. He then pro- 
ceeded by land through Shiraz, Ispahan, Kashan, Sul- 
tanieh, and Tabriz, to Trebizond, where he crossed 
the ' Doria Stembolskaia ' [Black Sea] to Caffa or Theo- 
dosia in the Crimea, where he safely landed, after 
SL stormy passage of a month's duration, in 1474. His 
description of the several ports of the Eastern Seas 
which were the chief resorts of commerce in his time 
is most interesting and instructive, as will be seen from 
the following extracts : — 

" Hormuz is a vast emporium of the world. You 
*' find there people and goods of every description, and 
*' whatever thing is produced on earth you find in 
" Hormuz. But the ;duties are high, — one tenth of 
*' everything." 

" Cambayat is a port of the whole Indian sea, and a 
" manufacturing place for every sort of goods, as 


■" talach [a sort of robe], damask, khan [satin], Uola 
" [blankets], and there they prepare the blue stone 
" colour [indigo]. There also grows leh daahhyh dalon." 
Elsewhere, he says " Cambat produces the agate." 

" Dabyl [Dabul in the Concan] is also a very extensive 
■*' seaport, where many horses are brought from Mysore, 
" Rabast [Arabia], Khorassan, Turkestan, Neghostan 
" [? Abyssinia] . It takes a month to walk from this 
" place to Beder and to Kulburgha." 

" Calecot [Calicut] is a port for the whole Indian sea, 

" which God forbid any craft to cross The 

■" country produces pepper, ginger, colour plants [dyes], 
" muscat, cloves, cinnamon, aromatic roots, adrach 
*' [ginger], and every description of spices, and every- 
■" thing cheap." 

" Ceylon is another not inconsiderable port [country] 
" of the Indian sea. There, on a hill, is the tomb of 
*' Adam, and in the vicinity are found precious stones, 
" fasstises [? emeralds], agate, cinchai [? diamonds], crys- 
^' tal, sumbada. Elephants and ostriches live there." 

The two principal inland cities of India described by 
iim are Beder and Bijanagar. "In Beder there is 
" trade in horses, goods, stuffs, silks, and all sorts of 
^' other merchandise, and also in black people. . . . 
" the rulers and nobles in the land of India are all 
^' Khorassanians." 

Elsewhere he describes Beder as the chief city of the 
-whole of Mahomedan India. 

Of Bijanagar [Hampi] he writes : " The Hindu Sultan 
^' Kadam is a very powerful prince. He possesses a nume- 
^' rous army, and resides in a mountain at Bichenegher. 
" This vast city is surrounded by three forts, intersected 
^' by a river, bordering on one side on a dveaiMul jungel, 
*' and on the other a dale. A wonderful place, and to 

^' any purpose convenient The town is 

*' impregnable." 

He mentions the following countries beyond India : 

' Shabait,' i.e., India trans Gangem, which produces 


silk, musk, sandal, gems, beads, elephants ; ' Pewqu ' 
[Pegu], the products of which are manik [ruby]^ 
iahhut [hyacinth], hjrpuh [? topaz]; and ' Cheen ' and 
' Machin ' [China], where porcelain is made. 

He mentions that diamonds are found in ' Eachoor.' 

He gives the following distances between the different 
ports and countries of the Eastern seas : 

Ten days from Ormuz to ' G-olat ' [KalhatJ ; from 
Kalhat to Degh, 6 days ; from Degh to Muscat, 6 days ; 
from Muscat to Guzerat, 10 days ; from Guzerat to Cam- 
bay, 4 days ; from Cambay to Chaul, 12 days ; from Chaul 
to Dabul, the last seaport in Hindostan belonging to the 
Mussulmans, 6 days ; from Dabul to Calicut, 25 days ; 
and from Calicut to Ceylon, 15 days ; from Ceylon to 
* Shabait,' one month ; from ' Shabait ' to Pegu, 12 days ; 
and from Pegu to China, one month ; — " all this by sea," 
he adds. 

Genoese, who visited India about 1494-99, as a 
merchant adventurer. From Cairo, where he laid in 
a stock of coral beads and other wares, he passed down 
the Nile to 'Cane' [Keneh], whence he travelled by 
land through the Egyptian desert for seven days to 
' Cosir ' [Cosseir] on the Ked Sea, where he embarked 
on board a ship which in 25 days carried liim to 
' Mazua ' [MassouahJ " off the country of Prester 
" John ; " and in 25 days more, during which he saw 
plenty of boats fishing for pearls, to ' Adem ' [Aden] ; 
and in 35 days more to Calicut. "We found that 
" pepper and ginger grew here ... and the nut 
"of India" [cocoa-nut]. From CaHcut he sailed in 
another ship, and in 26 days reached Ceylon, " in which 
" grow cinnamon trees, . . . many precious stones, 
" such as garnets, jacinths, cats'-eyes, and other gems 
" . . . and trees of the sort which bears the nut 
" of India." Departing thence after twelve days he 
arrived at a port on the coast of Coromandel, "where 
" the red sandal-wood grows ;" and, after a long stay. 


departing thence in another ship, after 27 days reached 
Pegu in ' Lower India.' " This country [Pegu] is 
" distant 15 days' journey by land from another, called 
" Ava, in which grow riTbies and many other precious 
" stones." From Pegu, where he suffered many andl 
great troubles, he set sail to go to Malacca, and, after 
being at sea 25 days, one morning found himself in a 
port of Sumatra, " where grows pepper in considerable 
" quantities, silk, long pepper, benzoin, white sandal- 
" wood, and many other articles." After further and. 
greater troubles suffered here, he took ship to Cambay,, 
where, after six months' detention among the Maldives, 
and subsequent shipwreck, he at length arrived, but 
stripped of all his goods. He notices that Cambay 
produced lac and indigo. In his destitution, he was 
assisted by a Moorish merchant of Alexandria and 
Damascus, and after a time proceeded, in the ship of the 
Sheriff of Damascus, as supercargo, to Ormuz ; in sailing 
to which place from Cambay he was 60 days at sea.. 
From Ormuz, " in company with some Armenian and 
Azami [Irak-Adjemi] merchants," he travelled by land, 
to Shiraz, Ispahan, Kazan, Sultanieh, and Tauris ;. 
whence he went on with a caravan to Aleppo, and. 
finally to Tripoli in Syria. 

LUDOVICO DI VAKTHEMA, a Bolognese, whose 
travels have been so admirably edited for the Hakluyt 
Society by the Kev. Dr. George Percy Badger, travelled 
in India and the Eastern seas from A.D. 1603 to 1608. 
First he sailed to Alexandria, and entering " the Nile 
arrived at Cairo." Then, returning to Alexandria, he 
took ship to ' Baruti ' [Beyrut], and travelled by Tripoli 
to Aleppo, " which is eight days' journey inland [from 
" Tripoli], which said Aleppo is a very beautiful city,. 
" and is under the grand Sultan of Cairo, and is the 
" mart [scala] of Turkey and Syria, and they are all 
" Mahommedans. It is a country of very great traffic 
" in merchandise, and particularly with the Persians 
" and Azamini [Adjemi], who come so far as there^ 



*' This is the route which is taken to go into Turkey 
" and Syria by those who come from Azemia [Irak- 
*' Adjemi]." From Aleppo he went southward by 
* Aman ' [Hamath] and Menin [near Helbon] to 
Damascus, "which is extremely populous and very 
*' rich. It is impossible to imagine the richness and 
" elegance of the workmanship there. Here you have 
" a great abundance of grain and of meat, and the most 
" prolific country for fruits that v^^as ever seen, and 
" especially for fresh grapes during all seasons . 
*' pomegranates and quinces . . . almonds and 
" large olives . . . the most beautiful white and 
" red roses that were ever seen . . . also good 
" apples and pears and peaches. ... A stream 
" runs through the city, and the greater number of 
" houses have very beautiful fountains of mosaic work. 
" The houses are dirty externally, but within are very 
*' beautiful, adorned with many works of marble and 
" porphyry." On the 8th of April 1503, Varthema set 
out from Damascus with the Haj caravan to Medina 
and Mecca, and he is the only European to this day 
who ever succeeded in reaching these Holy places by 
this route. Speaking of the merchandise of Mecca, he 
says: "Prom India Major there comes a great many 
"jewels and all sorts of spices, and part comes from 
" Ethiopia ; and there comes from India Major, from a 
" city called Bangchella [? Gaur in Bengal], a very large 
" quantity of stuffs of cotton and of silk." It was there 
that he first heard of the arrival of the Portuguese, by the 
Cape of Good Hope, in the East, from a Moor who traded 
with Venice and Genoa, and who complained bitterly to 
him that articles of merchandise were not arriving at 
Mecca as usual, and of the King of Portugal as the 
cause, " he being Lord of the Mare Oceano [Atlantic] 
" and of the Persian and Arabian Gulfs." From 
' Zida ' [JiddahJ , the port of Mecca, he took ship and 
went on to * Chameram ' [Camaran, an island olf the 
coast of Yemen] and Gazan [Jazan, a city of Yemen] 


and Aden, "the strongest city that was ever seen on 
" the level ground. It has walls on two sides, and on 
^' the other sides there are very large mountains. On 
^' these mountains there are five castles, and the land 
" is level, and contains about 6,000 or 6,000 families, 
*'.... This city is extremely beautiful. . . . 
*' It is the rendezvous of all the ships which come from 
" India Major and Minor, from Ethiopia, and from 
" Persia. All the ships that are bound for Mecca 
" put in here." Here Varthema again heard of the 
Portuguese. The year before his arrival at Aden 
some Portuguese ships had made their appearance in 
the sea between India and Ormuz, and seized seveii 
Arab ships, and murdered rnost of the crews ; and 
while Varthema was at Aden "there ran to the palace 
" forty or sixty Moors belonging to two or three ships 
" which had been captured by the Portuguese, and who 
" had escaped by swimming," and they denounced 
Tarthema as a Portuguese spy. On this the city 
rose in a tumult, and demanded to slay him. But 
the Sultan's officers interposed, and sent him to the 
Sultan at Eadaa, by whom he was thrown into 
prison. Being liberated at the suit of the Sultana, 
and having at length freed himself from her blandish- 
jnents, he obtained at Aden a passage on board a 
ship going to India. On the seventh day of the 
voyage his ship was driven into the African port of 
Zeila, " together with 25 ships laden with madder 
" to dye cloths ; for every year they lade as many 
" as 25 ships in Aden with it. This madder grows 
" in Arabia Felix [Yemen]." The city of Zeila he 
■describes as a " place of immense traffic, especially 
" in gold and elephants' teeth. Here also are sold a 
" great number of slaves .... and from this 
^' place they are carried into Persia, Arabia Felix, and 

"*' to Mecca, Cairo, and into India Much 

" grain grows here, and much animal food, and oil in 
^' great quantity, made not from olives, but from 

K 2 


" zerzalino [ingeniously and rightly identified by 
"Badger with juljulan or jinijili, i.e., ' gingelhj,' of 
" the Indian bazaars, Sesamum orientale], honey and 
" wax in great abundance." As soon as the weather 
became favourable, he set sail and arrived at ' Bar- 
bara ' [Berbera], and in 12 days more [being ap- 
parently unable to make the Persian Gulf] arrived at 
' Diuobandierrumi ' \ji.e., Diu Bander-er-Rumi, " Diu, 
the port of the Turks"]. "There is an immense 
" trade in this city. Four hundred Turks reside there 
"continually." From Diu he went to 'Goa' [Gogo, 
'Kukah'], whence he crossed the Indian Ocean to 
' Guilfar ' [Julfar] in the Persian Gulf, whence he 
visited ' Meschet ' [Muscat], and, crossing to the 
opposite shore of the Persian Gulf, " the noble city of 
" Ormus, which is extremely beautiful .... and 
" is the chief, that is, as a maritime place, and for 
" merchandize." From Ormuz he proceeded by land 
to " a city called Eri [Herat], and the country is called 
" Corazani [Khorassan], which would be the same as 
" to say ' The Romagna.' The King of Corazani 
" dwells in this city, where there is a great plenty and 
" an abundance of stuffs, and especially of silk, so that 
" in one day you can purchase here 3,000 or 4,000- 
" camel loads of silk. The district is most abundant 
" in articles of food, and there is a great market for 
" rhubarb. ... I quitted this place, and travelled 
" twenty days on the mainland, finding cities and 
" castles very well peopled." He returned to Ormuz 
by way of ' Schirazo ' [Shiraz], where he notes the 
" great abundance of jewels, that is, of turquoises, and 
" an infinite quantity of Balass rubies . . . from a 
" city which is called Balachsam [Badakshan]. And 
" in the said city there is a large quantity of ultra- 
" marine, and tucia [tutiija, an impure oxide of zinc], 
" and musk." From Shiraz he made with a Persian 
merchant an abortive attempt to reach ' Sambragante ' 
[Samarcand], failing in which he went back to Ormuz,. 


and there embarked on board a ship, and in eight 
days arrived at the port of ' Cheo ' [Kow] in the Indies ; 
whence he sailed on to ' Combeia ' [Cambay], "a most 
" excellent city, abounding in grain and very good 
" fruits. In this district there are eight or nine kinds 
" of small spices, that is to say, turhiiU [turpeth], 
" gallanga [galangal], spiconarda [spikenard], suphe- 
"■ tica [assafoetidaj, and lacra, and other spices, the 
^' names of which I do not remember. An immense 
" quantity of cotton is produced here, so that every 
" year 40 or 60 vessels are laden with silk stuffs, which 
" stuffs are carried into different countries. In this 
" kingdom of Combeia also, about six days' journey, 
^' there is a mountain whence cornehans are extracted, 
" and the mountains of chalcedonies. Nine days' 
*' journey from Combeia there is another mountain, in 
^' which diamonds [probably a vague reference to the 

" mines of Golconda] are found It is im- 

" possible to describe the commerce of the country. 
" About ■ 300 ships of different countries come and go 
*' here. This city, and another of which I will speak 
" in the proper season, supply all Persia, Tartary, 
" Turkey, Syria, Barbary, that is Africa, Arabia Felix, 
" Ethiopia, India, and a multitude of inhabited islands, 
" with, silk and cotton stuffs." 

Departing from Cambay, Varthema, after 12 days' 
voyage, arrived at * Cevul ' [Chaul]. "It possesses an 
" extremely beautiful river, by which a very great 
" number of foreign vessels go and return, because the 
" country abounds in everything, excepting grapes, 
" nuts, and chestnuts. They collect here an immense 
" quantity of grain, of barley [impossible], and of 
" vegetables of every description; and cotton stuffs are 

*' manufactured here in great abundance 

" There are in this city a very great number of 
*' Moorish merchants." In two days' voyage from 
Chaul he came to ' Dabuli ' [Dabul], where, he 
notices, were Moorish merchants " in very great 


"numbers;" and thence he sailed on to 'Goga' [Goa, 
'Sindabur'], from which place he proceeded inland, 
and after seven days arrived at " a city which is called 
" Decan " [Bijapur, the metropolis of the Mahomedan 
Kingdom of the DeccanJ. Keturning to the coast, in 
five days he reached the port of ' Bathacala ' [Beitkul, 
Sadaseoghur, or Karwar]. He observes "there are 
" many Moorish merchants here, for it is a place of 
"great trafl&c." He also visited the island of 'Anze- 
diva ' [Anjediva], "distant from the mainland half a 
"mile," and "travelling for one day from the aforesaid 
"island," arrived at ' Centacola ' [Ancola], and in two 
days more at ' Onor,' and afterwards at ' Mangolor ' and 
' Canonor.' "Here we begin to find a few spices, such 
" as pepper, ginger, cardamums, mirabolans, and a 
" little cassea." Having spent some days at Cananore, 
Varthema started on another journey up country 
" towards the Kingdom of Narsinga, and travelled on 
" the mainland for 15 days towards the East [N.E. by 
" N.J, and came to a city called Bisinegar [Bijanagar] 
" . . . a place of great merchandize, and is endowed 
" with all possible kinds of delicacies." Keturning to 
Cananore he went on, by way of ' Tormapatani ' [Dor- 
mapatamj, and * Pandarini ' [a famous port of the 
Middle Ages, 20 miles above Calicut], and ' Capogatto ' 
[close above Calicut], "to the very noble city of Calicut 
"... the head of India, that is to say . 
" the place in which the greatest dignity of India is 
" centred." Wherefore it appears fitting to Varthema 
at this point of his narrative " to bring the First Book 
"to an end, and commence the Second, which opens 
" with a graphic description of Calicut and of its King, 
" called Samory, which in the Pagan language means 
" God on Earth." This is the Zamorin of the Portu- 
guese discoverers of India, a name really signifying 
Lord of the Sea, a most appropriate title for the King 
of Calicut. Calicut he describes as situated on the 
open beachj and " the sea beats against the walls of the 


" houses." Yarthema found there merchants from all 
parts of the East, "very many Moorish merchants, 
" many from Mecca, and part from Banghella [Bengal], 
" some from Ternasseri [Tenasserim], some from Pego 
" [Pegu], very many from Cioromandel [Coromandel], 
" in great abundance from Zailani [Ceylon], not a few 
" from Colon [Quilon], and Caicolon [Kay an Kulam], 
" a very great number from Bathacala [Beitkul], from 
" Dabuli [Dabul], from Chievuh [Chaul], from 
" Combeia [Cambay], from Guzerati, and from Ormus. 
" There were also some from Persia and from Arabia 
" Felix, part from Syria, from Turkey, and some from 
"Ethiopia and Narsinga [Bijanagar, 'the Kingdom 
" of Narsinga ']. There were merchants from all these 
" realms in my time. It must be known that the 
" Pagans do not navigate much, but it is the Moors 
" who carry the merchandise, for in Calicut there are 
" at least 15,000 Moors, who are for the most part 

" natives of the country The time of their 

" navigation is this : from Persia to the Cape of 
" Cumerin, which is distant from Calicut eight days' 
" journey by sea towards the south,* you can navigate 
" through eight months in the year ; that is to say, 
" September to all April; then from the first of May 
" to the middle of August it is necessary to avoid this 
" coast because the sea is very stormy and tempestuous. 
" .... At the end of April they depart from the 
" coast of Calicut, and pass the Cape of Cumerin, and 
" enter into another course of navigation which is safe 
"there four months, and go for small spices;" that is, 
go and trade in the Indian Archipelago. He describes 
the pepper and ginger plants of Calicut at length, and 
among the fruit trees of the country mentions the 
ciccara [jack], amba or manga [mango], carcopal 

* The original has a full stop here, but I have ventured to change 
it to a comma, which makes the meaning of the paragraph perfectly 


[Garcinia Cambogia], comolanga [Kamaranga, Averrhoa 
Cai-ambola], malapolanda [plantain], and tenga [cocoa- 
-Qut]. He also mentions that a great quantity 
of sesamum seed [" zerzalino "] is produced in 
the country. Varthema's Persian companion, whom 
he had picked up at Shiraz, not being able to 
•dispose of his merchandise at Calicut by reason 
of the confusion caused by the quarrels of the 
Zamorin with the Portuguese, the two proceeded 
by river to ' Cacolon * [Kayan Kulam], where; he 
notices, were many "Christians of St. Thomas," and 
then to 'Colon' [Quilon] and ' Chayl' [Kayalj, where 
" we saw those pearls fished for in the sea, in the 
" same manner as I have already described to you in 
" Ormus." "We then," says Vaithema, "passed 
" further onwards, and arrived at a city which is called 
" Cioromandel [Coromandel], which is a marine dis- 
*' trict, and distant from Colon seven days' journey by 
*' sea. ... I found some Christians in this place, 
■" who told me that the body of St. Thomas was 
*' 12 miles distant from this place" [at Maliapur or 
■St. Thome]. " They told me that Christians could not 
" live in that country after the King of Portugal had 
" come there, because the said King had put to death 
■" many Moors of that country, which trembled through- 
•" out for fear of the Portuguese." He then crossed a 
'gulf of "12 or 15 leagues to ' Zailon ' " [Ceylon], 
where he notices the elephants, rubies, garnets, 
sapphires, jacinths, and topazes, and two fruits named 
melangoli [oranges] and carzofoU, and the canella or 
■cinnamon tree. From Ceylon he returned to the 
'Coromandel Coast, and at * Paleachet ' [PalicatJ, a 
" place .... of immense traffic . . . and 
•"especially in jewels" from Ceylon and from Pegu, 
he took ship to ' Tarnassari ' [TenasserimJ, a thousand 
miles across the sea, and arrived there in 14 days. 
" Silk is made there in large quantities, . . . and 
" cats which produce the civet." Thence he took 


**' the route towards the city of Banghella "* [? Gaur the 
capital of Bengal]. " The Sultan of this place is a Moor 
" . . . . and he [like the Bijapur Sultan] is always 
" at war with the King of Narsingha. This country 
■" abounds more in grain, flesh of every kind, in great 
■" quantity of sugar, also of ginger, and of great abundance 
■" of cotton, than any country in the world. And here are 
" the richest merchants I ever met with. Fifty ships are 
" laden every year with cotton and silk stuff's, .... 
" that is to say, hairam, namone, lizati, cioutar, doazar, and 
■" sinahafs [identified by Badger with sina-bafta, ' China- 
" woven ' cloths]. These same stuffs go through all Tur- 
•" key, through Syria, through Persia, through Arabia 
" Felix, through Ethiopia, and through all India. There 
" are also here very great merchants in jewels, which come 
'' from other countries." Next he sailed " about a thou- 
:sand miles to ' Pego ' [Pegu], and thence to ' Melacha ' 
[Malacca], opposite to which is "a very large island 
"which is called Sumatra." "Melacha pays tribute to 
" the King of Cini [Siam], who caused this place to be 
" built about 80 years ago, .... and truly I 
" believe that more ships arrive here than in any other 
" place in the world, and especially there come here all 
•" sorts of spices, and an immense quantity of other mer- 
" chandise. ... A great quantity of sandal-wood 
" and tin is found here." From Malacca he paid a visit 
to ' Pider ' on the island of Sumatra, where " grows a very 
-" great quantity of pepper and of long pepper, which is 
-" called molaga. . . . And you must know that in 
" this port there are laden with it every year 18 or 20 
" ships, all of which go to Cathai [China]. ... An 
" immense quantity of silk is produced in this country " 
:[see " Encydopcedia Britannica,'" article on Achin, by Sir 
Henry Yule], . . . "A great quantity of benzoin 
"is also produced here.'' He mentions also aloes- 
wood of three sorts, ccdampat [_kalambak, Aloexylon 

* It is doubtful whether Varthema ever got beyond the Malabar Coast. 


Agallochum of Cochin China], loban ["frankincense"]^, 
and hochor ["incense"], as if products of Sumatra, but 
the true aloes-wood is produced in Cochin China; and 
' lacea,' [the dye-wood of ' Tanarius major ' of Rumphius, 
not lac, the source of sealing-wax and lake]. Next 
Varthema accompanied the Persian on a long voyage 
to the 'island of Bandan ' [Banda island], "where 
"nutmegs and mace grow;" and from it visited the 
island of ' Monoch ' [the Moluccas], "where the cloves 
" grow ;" and the island of 'Bornei' [Borneo]; whence 
they crossed over to ' Giava ' [Java], and then returned 
to Malacca. Here his companion bought " 6,000 
" pardai worth of small spices, and silk stuffs, and 
" odoriferous things," and with them they sailed away 
together westward, and arrived again on the Coromandel 
Coast, probably at Negapatam, in 15 days. There he met 
22 Portuguese, the first, it would seem, he had himself 
fallen in with in India. From Negapatam he went 
round to Quilon and to Calicut, where he met two 
Milanese who had come in the Portuguese ships round 
the Cape of Good Hope to purchase jewels on behalf of 
the King of Portugal. They had landed at ' Cocin ' 
[Cochin], from which place they had deserted from the 
Portuguese to Calicut, to make cannon for the Zamorin. 
Making his way to Cananore, Varthema was employed 
for some time in the Portuguese service. He was 
present in the great fight between the Portuguese and 
the Zamorin's fleet, A.D. 1606, and was employed for 
a year and a half as factor at Cochin. Finally, on 
the (jth of December 1507, he left Cananore in the 
homeward-bound ship ' San Viccnzo.' After a course 
of about 3,000 miles he reached Mozambique, having 
passed Melinda, Mombasa, Kilwah, Sofala, Pate, and 
Brava on the way. Then the Cape was rounded, and 
the ' Sail Viccuzo ' passed northward under St Helena 
and Ascension, and finally anchored in the Tagus off 
Lisbon, where he was warmly welcomed by the King,. 
Don Emanuel, of Portugal. 


The high interest of Varthema's travels is that they 
were undertaken at the very time of the Portuguese 
discovery of the Cape route to India, and give us a 
detailed and accurate survey of the commerce of the 
Eastern seas as it existed just before it was to be 
completely revolutionized by this great event. The 
account published by Eoscoe of the rare and costly 
articles of the Indian trade presented by the Sultan of 
Egypt in 1487 to Lorenzo de Medici, affords a vivid 
idea of its general character between the fall of Con- 
stantinople, which ruined the Genoese trade with the 
East by the Black Sea, and the discovery of the passage 
to India by the Cape of Good Hope, which gradually 
undermined the Venetian trade by Alexandria and 
Eamagusta, and at last completely subverted the 
through overland trade between Europe and Southern 
Asia. The consequences of this revolution were of 
course greatly exaggerated by the Turkish conquest of 
Syria and Egypt, A.D. 1516-17. In Vansleb's "Pre- 
sent State of Egypt," published in 1678, we have the 
evidence of an eyewitness of the completeness of the 
ruin of that part of the ancient overland trade between 
the East and West which, previously to Da Gama's 
successful enterprise, had gone by way of Aden and the 
Bed Sea. 

The " Description of the Coasts of East Africa and 
Malabar " [Lisbon, 1516 ; London (Hakluyt Society), 
1866] left us by the Portuguese geographical discoverer 
Duarte Barbosa, born 1480, and assassinated at Zebu, 
one of the Philippine Islands, 21 May 1521, will be 
more fitly noticed farther on, in the list of works 
relating to India during the period of the supremacy of 
the Portuguese in Southern Asia. 

The Portuguese Asia. 

The Portuguese were the first who, after the Phoeni- 
cians, explored the South Atlantic coasts of Africa, and 


doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and they were the 
first to discover India by this navigation, and to open 
up to the nations of Europe the sea way through the 
Indian Archipelago, and on to China and Japan. The 
gradual advance in Western civilisation began, during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to force on the 
sovereigns of Europe a more scientific organisation of 
their administrative and executive powers, and at a pecu- 
niary expenditure out of all proportion to the resources 
derived from the royal demesnes and feudal tenures, 
that had hitherto sufficed for their maintenance. Hence 
the encouragement of trade, as the first necessity of 
national existence, by the enlightened statesmen of 
the period. The great wealth of Genoa and Venice 
attracted their particular attention to the commerce 
of India, and the accounts which Marco Polo brought 
home of the rich Eastern countries through which he 
had travelled excited the spirit of mercantile discovery 
and enterprise throughout Europe. As the Turks, 
succeeding to the Saracens, gained ground in Western 
Asia, the uncertain and dependent character of the 
overland trade with India became more clearly re- 
<2ognized ; and when Constantinople was taken by 
Mahomet II., and Genoa in consequence lost Pera and 
Caflfa, the whole thought of the people of Southern 
Europe, and more especially of the ruined Genoese, 
became anxiously set on the discovery of the pre- 
sumptive passage round the southw^ard extension of 
Africa to the Indies, and the establishment of direct 
commercial communications with countries where Nature 
seemed prodigal in the production of everything that 
could administer to the want and luxury of mankind. 
It was first attempted, as has been shown, to enter into 
relations with the Tartars, and much was at one time 
hoped for from an alliance with ' Prester John,' if haply 
his half-mythical kingdom might be found ; and at a 
later period, subsequent to Da Gama's voyage, the 
Genoese, in the hope of recovering their rapidly failing 


prosperity, proposed to the Grand Duke of Muscovy a 
plan for bringing the merchandise of India into Europe 
once more overland through Eussia. But it was in 
vain. The social and political condition of the age 
required a broader, securer, and more permanent basis 
for its commerce than the world had yet seen ; a 
universal basis, such as the ocean, free to all, as the 
common right of Nature, alone could give. Naturally 
it fell to the Atlantic States of Europe to discover 
the ocean highv^ray to India, the exploration of 
which was [first systematically undertaken by the 
Portuguese ; a people whose national character had 
been developed to the highest pitch of courage, energy,. 
and contemporary culture, in their long struggle for 
independence with the Moors, and who in Prince Henry 
"the Navigator" [b. 1394, d. 1460J found a leader 
worthy to direct them in the adventurous quest. He 
was the fourth son of King John the Great of Portugal 
by Queen Philippa his wife, the eldest daughter of 
John of Gaunt, and was therefore a great-grandson 
of Edward HI. of England. He gained so wide a 
reputation throughout Europe by the capture from 
the Moors in 1416 of Ceuta, then the centre of the 
commerce of Alexandria and Damascus with Africa 
and Europe, that he was asked by the Greek Em- 
peror Manuel Palsaologus to take the command of 
his armies against the Turks. But his mind had early 
been attracted " by the treasures of the Arabs, and of 
" rich India;" and, establishing himself at Cape Sagrez 
[i.e. Sacrum Promontorium], the extreme south-western 
corner of Europe, overlooking the mysterious waste of 
the yet unexplored Atlantic, he there devoted himself 
to the study of astronomy and navigation, and the 
elaboration of those plans of maritime discovery which 
at length laid open to Europe the whole of southern. 
Africa, the southern coasts of Asia, and Australasia in 
the Old World, and the New World of the Americas. 
The revenues of the Order of Christ, of which Prince 


Henry was the Grand Master, provided him with the 
means for carrying out his unbounded projects, in which, 
it must never be forgotten, his aim was as much the con- 
version of the heathen as the extension of the dominion 
and commerce of Portugal. He had already in 1412, 
before the reduction of Ceuta, sent a ship to make dis- 
coveries on the coast of Barbary, Cape Nun or Non, /.('. 
" No-Further," was the limit of the west coast of Africa as 
then known in Europe. But the ship sent by Prince 
Henry passed it, and reached Cape Bojador, so named 
from its great compass [for it " bulges " out 40 leagues into 
the Atlantic] ; and here were met those strong currents 
running past it that had been the real barrier to the 
circumnavigation of Africa by the Phoenicians and Car- 
thaginians from the West ; as those that, after the voyage 
of Da Gama, gave their name to Cape Corrientes, north 
of Delagoa Bay, had prevented the Arabs from circum- 
navigating the vast continent from the East. Long before 
this, however, the Norman navigators of Dieppe are 
reported to have explored the west coast of Africa to the 
south of Cape Nun, and to have established factories there, 
whence they imported many articles of African produce, 
including ivory, for the manufacture of the carved trinkets 
and figures for which Dieppe has ever since been known ; 
and in 1402 the Sieur de Bethencourt, a native of Grain- 
ville la Teinturiere in the Pays de Caux, settled a French 
colony in the Canaries [so called because they abounded 
with wild dogs], the discovery of which is also claimed by 
the Spaniards, who became masters of the islands in 
1483.* They were probably originally discovered by the 
Phoenicians, and have always been identified with the 
half fabulous Insulce Fortunatce of classical geography. 
When also the island of Madeira [so called from its woods] 
was discovered by the expedition sent out by Prince Henry 
in 1418-20, it was found to have been previously visited 
about the year 1344 by a young Englishman named 

* The " Canary-bird " was first brought to England about this date. 


Eobert Machin, who ran away to sea with " fair Anne of 
" Dorset " [really a Frenchwoman, Anne dArfet], and was 
fortuitously cast with his young wife on this island, where 
their romantic grave gives its name to the province of 
Machico. An expedition in 1434-86 succeeded in 
doubling Cape Bojador, and in 1444 the Portuguese 
-obtained the Papal Bull bestowing u.pon them the sove- 
reignty over all the lands that they had hitherto discovered, 
and all that should be discovered as far as the Indies. 
The several islands of the Azores, so called from the gos- 
hawks abounding on them, were discovered at different 
periods between 1440 and 1450, although the Flemings 
claim the exclusive discovery of them in 1445. Cape de 
Verde ["Green"] was reached in 1446, and doubled in 
1449 ; and in 1449 the Cape de Verde islands were dis- 
covered. In 1463, three years after Prince Henry's death, 
the Portuguese had reached the coast of Sierra Leone, so 
named from the nightly roaring of the lions in the 
mountains ranging along it ; and in 1484 Diego Cam 
made his great discovery of the Congo River. In 
1487 Bartholomew Diaz discovered the Cape of Good 
Hope, and called it Cabo Tormentoso, " Cape of Storms," 
"No," said the King [John II.] of Portugal, " Gaho 
■" Bona Esperanza rather," the " Cape of Good Hope " — of 
finding India. 

On the 12th of October 1492, Columbus, seeking 
India, discovered America. He appears to have 
formed his theory that the Indies could be reached by 
sailing to the west about 1474, from a study of the map 
constructed by Toscanelli of the travels of Marco Polo. 
After in vain offering his services, first to his native 
city Genoa, and then in succession to the Kings of 
Portugal, Spain, and England, he still maintained his 
faith in the possibility of sailing to India across the 
Atlantic ; and once, when lying sick of fever and hope 
deferred, he was greatly encouraged by a heavenly 
voice whispering to him : — " God will cause thy name to 
•" be wonderfully resounded through the earth, and will 


" give thee the keys of the gates of the- ocean, which- 
" are closed with a strong chain." The first American 
land he sighted was an island, where as soon as he 
had gained its shore, he set up a crucifix, and, kneeling 
down before it, thanked the Saviour who had enabled him 
through so many perils to accomplish the increasing pur- 
pose of his life from boyhood. Then, rising from hia 
knees, he proclaimed with a broken voice that henceforth 
the island should bear the name of San Salvador.* Such 
was his noble consecration of the quest of India. It was- 
at daybreak on Friday, August the 3rd, 1492, after 
eighteen years of weary supplication and heart sickness,, 
that Columbus, by the aid chiefly of the old and wealthy 
seafaring Spanish family of the Pinzons, at last set sail 
from Palos, carrying with him a letter to the Great 
Khan of Tartary. On the 2nd of October he was stiU 
sailing due west on the parallel of 26° north. On the 7th, 
Alonzo Pinzon, in the ' Pinta,' having seen a flight of 
green parrots going to the south-west, Columbus at once 
steered after them ' west-south-west '; and at midnight on 
the 11th, a sailor, Rodrigo de Triana, descried the verdant 
island, to which, at the break of dawn on the 12th, Colum- 
bus rowed in one of the ship's boats, being the first 
European to set foot on the new tropical world of America. 
It has been well said that never was an augury more 
momentous than the apparition of these tropical birds. 
America was actually first discovered by Bjorn Herjulfson, 
A.D. 986, and afterwards by Leif Erikson, who reached 
its shores somewhere between Boston and New York, A.D. 
994. But the memory of their discoveries had passed 
away. Had Columbus known anything of themf he 
would probably have steered his westward course more 

* The name thus given to it by Columbus has disappeared. It is now 
called Watling Island. 

t Others argue, that as Columbus went to Iceland in 1477, and could con- 
verse in Latin with the learned there, to whom the voyages of Bjom, Leif, 
and others were familiar, he vfas probably not ignorant of them ; and further 
that Columbus did not seek the northern lands discovered by the Norsemen,, 
but the East Indies. 


to the north, and not have followed, into the south, the 
clamorous streak of green perroquets, whose providential 
lead thus determined the distribution of the Celtic and 
Germanic races, and their whole future history, in the 
New World. By the Bull of May 4, 1493, the Pope con- 
firmed the King of Spain in the sovereignty of America, 
and strictly prohibited all persons whatsoever, on pain of 
excommunication, to touch at any port or place within 
an imaginary line drawn from Pole to Pole, 100 leagues, 
afterwards extended to 250 leagues, westward of the 
Azores. The Portuguese were to possess all eastward of 
this line. The Pope forgot, however, that there were two 
sides to a globe ; a fact which brought the rival sove- 
reignties of Spain and Portugal into colhsion on the dis- 
covery of the Philippine Islands in 1521 by Magellan, then 
in the service of the King of Spain. 

It was on Saturday, the 8th of July 1497, that the 
expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama sailed from 
the Tagus for the invention of India. Notwithstanding 
the passionate popular clamour against the undertaking. 
King Emanuel, who had succeeded John II. in 1495, was 
determined to prosecute the project of Prince Henry ; and 
three sloops of war, the Angel Gabriel, the Saint Raphael, 
and the Pilot, with a store ship, were fitted out, Vasco da 
Gama being commissioned admiral and general, and his 
brother Paul, and his Iriend Nicholas Coello, appointed to 
commands under him. About four miles from Lisbon, on 
the sea-shore, stands the sanctuary of Belem [i.e., Bethle- 
hem], built originally by Prince Henry ' the Navigator,' 
for the resort of sailors. Thither, the night before his 
departure. Da Gama conducted the companions of his 
expedition to pray for its success, and there they spent the 
whole night in the rites of their heart-felt supplication. 
The following day, when the adventurers marched into 
their ships, the entire population of Lisbon were on the 
beach, headed by an unending procession of priests in long 
robes, bearing banners and singing anthems, the whole 
crowd singing with themj; and when Da Gama gave his 



sails to the wind, not knowing to what fate they might 
hear him, the vast multitude remained immovable by the 
sea until he with his whole fleet had passed away out of 
their sight. On the 20th of November following, at noon, 
he doubled the great Cape of Good Hope, and, steering 
northward, sailed along the beautiful and richly wooded 
coast so accurately described by Camoens. On December 
the 8th, on leaving the wide bay that had been named 
St. Blaze by Diaz, a violent storm carried the fleet into 
the southmost sweep of the dreadful current running 
between the cape, thenceforward called Cape Corrientes, 
and the southern extremity of Madagascar, which, as above 
[p. 158] noted, had always prevented the Arabs from 
extending their southward voyages, along the East Coast 
of Africa, beyond the Mozambique Channel. On the 16th 
they sighted the island of Santa Cruz in Algoa Bay, where 
Diaz had set up a great cross. On the night of the 17th 
they passed the Eio do Iffante, the extreme point of 
Diaz's discovery, where Da Gama became extremely 
alarmed by the increasing force of the Mozambique cur- 
rent. Fortunately the wind was in his favour, and on 
Christmas Day ["Dies Natalis "] his fleet gained sight 
of the land he named Terra de Natal. On the 6th of 
January following [1498], the Festival of the Epiphany, 
they first saw the river called by them " dos Reyes," or 
" Eiver of the [three Twelfth Night] Kings ;" and on the 
22nd, after a short stay for refitting,* left the large river 
[the Quilimane] to which, from their meeting there two 
Arab merchants connected with the Indian trade, Da 
Gama gave the name of Rio dos Boos Signaes, or " Eiver 
of Good Signs"; dedicating at its entrance a lofty cross 
to Saint Raphael. On the 10th of March they anchored 
off the island of Mozambique, where Da Gama was de- 
lighted to hear that " Prester John " had many cities 
along the opposite African coast. On the 7th of April 

* De Barros places the refitting of the ships in the river "dos Beos 
Signaes" ; but others in the river " dos Reyes," the river "Misericordia" of 


they arrived at Mombas, where a plot for Da Gama's 
destruction was made between the Moors of the place and 
the pilots who had brought him from Mozambique. Sail- 
ing thence on the 13th of April they fell in with and 
captured two Arab ships ; and on Easter Day, the 15th 
of April, reached Melinda, where, Da Gama was informed 
by one of his Arab prisoners, would be found four ships 
belonging to the Christians of India. He was visited by 
the King of the place, and by some of the Indian Chris- 
tians, who warned him against going on shore ; and accord- 
ingly on Tuesday the ■24th of April he left the place, sailing, 
under the guidance of a Christian Indian pilot named Ma- 
lemo Canaco, due eastward. On Thursday, the 17th of May 
[1498], he sighted the Malabar Coast, and on Sunday, 
the 20th, cast anchor before the city of Calicut [Koli- 
Kukuga, " Cock-crowing "]. He was warmly welcomed 
by a Moor there who spoke the Portuguese language, and, 
with the permission of the Zamorin, at once established a 
factory, under the superintendence of Diego Diaz, the 
brother of the first discoverer of the Cape of Good Hope. 
He also dedicated a cross on the sea-shore before the city 
of Calicut to St. Gabriel. Visiting Anjediva, and another 
island near it, where he raised a cross to St. Mary, Da 
Gama, after having suffered much from the enmity of the 
Moors towards the Portuguese, set sail on his return 
voyage westward, from Anjediva, on the 5th of October, 
carrying a letter with him from the Zamorin to the King 
of Portugal, to the following effect : — " Vasco da Gama, a 
^' nobleman of your household, has visited my kingdom, 
" and has given me great pleasure. In my kingdom 
■' there is abundance of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, pepper, 
" and precious stones in great quantities. What I seek 
^' from thy country is gold, silver, coral, and scarlet." On 
the 2nd day of January 1499, Da Gama found himself 
off Magadoxa, and on the 7 th again anchored before 
Melinda, where he consecrated a cross to St. Stephen. 
On the first of February he reached the island in the 
Mozambique Channel on which he had landed on his 

L 2 


outward voyage, and where he now erected a cross to St. 
G-eorge. On the 3rd of March he touched at the Bay of 
St. Blaze, and on the 20th again doubled the Cape of 
Good Hope, and, at the end of August or beginning 
of September 1499, reached Lisbon, where he was 
received with great pomp by the King, Emanuel * the 
Fortunate,' and with unbounded popular rejoicings. In 
honour also of Da Gama's splendid achievement, King 
Emanuel rebuilt the chapel of ' Our Lady of Bethlehem ' 
as a stately church, and placed the statue of Prince Henry 
the Navigator ' over the great door, and his own and his 
Queen's over the smaller doors flanking it. 

But, already, before the arrival of Da Gama at Calicut^ 
the Portuguese had reached India overland. King John 
II., when he found that the difficulties of the passage to 
India round the Cape of Good Hope were likely to be sur- 
mounted, ordered Pedro de Covilham and Aflfonso de 
Payva to travel to India by Egypt, in order to obtain 
information respecting the trade and navigation of the 
Indian seas. They set out from Portugal in 1487, and 
proceeded by Naples, Ehodes, Alexandria, and Cairo to 
Tor on the Eed Sea. There they heard of the great trade 
with Aden and Calicut. Prom Aden, Payva went inta 
Abyssinia, and Covilham sailed in an Arab vessel to 
Cananore, and thence to Calicut and Goa, being the first 
Portuguese who was ever in India. He returned by 
Sofala, where he examined the gold mines, and received 
some information of the island of Madagascar, or " Island 
of the Moon " as it was called by the Moors ; and on 
arriving in Egypt he was met by the Rabbi Abraham of 
Beja, and Joseph of Lemago, two messengers who had 
been sent by King John II. to inquire after his progress, 
and from whom he learnt of the death of Payva. These 
men he immediately sent back to King John with the 
following report : — " That the ships which sailed down 
" the coast of Guinea might be sure of reaching the ter- 
" mination of the continent by persisting in a course to 
" the south, and that when they should arrive in the 


" eastern ocean their best direction must be to inquire for 
" Sofala and the Island of the Moon." Then Covilham, 
again taking ship to Aden, sailed on to Ormuz, and thence 
visited Abyssinia. Here he was kept a prisoner until 
1526, when he probably returned to Europe with the 
Embassy of Don Eodriguez de Lima. 

When the Portuguese at last, rounding the Cape of 
Good Hope, burst into the Indian Ocean like a pack of 
hungry wolves upon a well-stocked sheep-walk, they found 
a peaceful and prosperous commerce, that had been elabo- 
rated during 3,000 years by the Phoenicians and Arabs, 
being carried on along all its shores. The great store 
cities of this trade were then at Cahcut, Ormuz, Aden, and 
Malacca. Here were collected the cloves, nutmegs, mace, 
and ebony of the Moluccas, the sandal-wood of Timor, the 
costly camphor of Borneo, the benzoin of Sumatra and 
Java, the aloes-wood of Cochin China, the perfumes, 
gums, spices, silks, and innumerable curiosities of China, 
Japan and Siam, the rubies of Pegu, the fine fabrics of 
Coromandel, the richer stuffs of Bengal, the spikenard of 
Nepaul and Bhutan, the diamonds of Golconda, the 
" Damascus steel " of Nirmul, the pearls, sapphires, 
topazes, and cinnamon of Ceylon, the pepper, ginger, and 
satin-wood of Malabar, the lac, agates, and sumptuous 
brocades and jewelry of Cambay, the costus and graven 
vessels, wrought arms, and broidered shawls of Cashmere, 
the bdellium of Scinde, the musk of Thibet, the galbanum 
of Khorassan, the assafcetida of Afghanistan, the sagape- 
num of Persia, the ambergris, civet, and ivory exported 
from Zanzibar, and the myrrh, balsam, and frankincense 
of Zeila, Berbera, and Shehr. Erom Ormuz these costly 
commodities were transported in ships up the Persian 
Grulf and river Euphrates, and by caravans on to Aleppo 
and Damascus, and Trebizond, whence they were disti-i- 
buted all over Asia Minor, and Southern and Western 
Europe, and throughout Muscovy. The merchandise col- 
lected at Aden was sent on to Tor or to Suez, and thence 
by caravan to Grand Cairo, and down the Nile to Alexan- 


dria, where it was shipped to Venice and Genoa, and other 
ports of the Mediterranean. 

It became a vital object with the Portuguese on entering 
the Indian Ocean to possess themselves of the great Arab 
emporia of Calicut, Ormuz, Aden, and Malacca. The 
difficulties they had experienced in their first voyage at 
Calicut led them in their second voyage to India to send 
out a fleet of 13 ships with 1,200 soldiers, which sailed 
from the Tagus under the command of Cabral, in March 
1600. The sum of his instructions was, to begin with 
preaching, and if that failed to proceed to the sharp deter- 
mination of the sword. On his way out Cabral was driven 
by a storm on the coast of Brazil, of which country, not- 
withstanding the prior claims of Yanez Pinzon, one of the 
companions of Columbus, and of Martin of Nuremberg, 
he must be regarded as one of the discoverers. [Its 
name is derived from that of the well-known brazil-wood 
or " sappan" of the East Indies, a similar fiery coloured 
dye-wood having also been found in Brazil.] Cabral then 
proceeded on his voyage, and after visiting Sofala, Mozam- 
bique, Quiloa, and Melinda, arrived at Calicut in Septem- 
ber. Having quarrelled with the Zamorin, the latter 
instigated an attack on the Portuguese factory, which was 
pillaged and burnt, and the 50 people in it massacred. 
Cabral took ample revenge, and then sailed on to Cochin, 
where he settled a fresh factory and concluded an advan- 
tageous treaty with the Prince. He also visited Cranganore 
and Cananore. On his homeward voyage he visited the 
ports of Melinda, Mozambique, and Sofala, and compelled 
several of the chiefs on the east coast of Africa to become 
tributary to Portugal. One of his vessels, commanded by 
Peter Diaz, discovered the port of Magadoxa, south of 
Cape Guardafui. In March 1601, before Oabral's fleet 
had returned to Lisbon, four ships were sent out under De 
Nova, who on Lady Day discovered the island he called 
Conception. It first received the name of Ascension from 
Albuquerque, when re-discovered by him. May 20th, 1503. 
After landing at Cochin and Cananore, De Nova went on 


to Calicut, where he sank the fleet the Zamorin was pre- 
paring against the Portuguese. On his return voyage in 
1 502, he chanced, on St. Helena's day, to discover the 
island of St. Helena, which, on account of its excellent 
supply of water, has ever since proved of such advantage 
to all engaged in the India trade. In 1500 also, Gaspar 
Cortereal, who had been sent out by the King of Portugal 
to prosecute a westward route to India, discovered the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the southern coast of Labrador. 
When Cabral arrived in Portugal King Emanuel was con- 
vinced by him that it was only possible to secure the 
splendid fortune that had befallen him in the East by a 
show of great power, and if necessary by the exercise of 
overwhelming force ; and accordingly in 1502 he sent out 
a fleet of 20 ships to India under the command of the great 
Vasco da Gama, and obtained from Pope Alexander VI. 
the Bull which conferred on him the title of " Lord of the 
" Navigation, Conquests, and Trade of Ethiopia, Arabia, 
" Persia, and India." Da Gama on his outward voyage 
visited Sofala, and settled a factory there and at Mozam- 
bique, and compelled the submission of the Prince of 
Quiloa. Then proceeding to India he formed an alliance 
with the Kings of Cananore and Cochin against the Zamo- 
rin of Calicut, and having severely cannonaded the town 
and the Zamorin 's palace, and plundered a number of 
Arab ships in the roads, sailed back to Europe in Decem- 
ber 1503. In the same year 9 ships were sent out from 
Lisbon ; 3 under the great Alfonso de Albuquerque, 3 under 
Francisco de Albuquerque, and 3 under Antony de Sal- 
danha. Saldanha, who was the first Portuguese to visit 
Saldanha Bay [1503], was especially commissioned to 
block the Red Sea against the overland Indian trade 
through Egypt. One of his lieutenants, Ruy Lorengo, 
discovered the island of Zanzibar, and, with Mombas and 
Brava, made it tributary to Portugal in this year. Fran- 
cisco de Albuquerque, on reaching Cochin, found the King 
closely besieged by the Zamorin of Calicut, who had made 
war on him for entering into an alliance with the Portu- 


guese. He was Boon compelled to sue for terms, giving 
the Portuguese permission to build a fort at Calicut ; and 
Francisco de Albuquerque, after settling a factory at 
Quilon, and another at St. Thome, and leaving a detach- 
ment of his force for the protection of the allies of 
Portugal in India, set sail for Europe. Neither he nor 
his ships were ever heard of again. One of the ships 
commanded by him discovered on the outward voyage 
the Curia Muria islands, and also the island of Socotra, 
re- discovered in 1504-5 by Diego Fernandez Pereyra, 
commander of one of the ships in the small fleet sent out 
under Lopez Soarez in 15U4. The Portuguese disco- 
vered the island afterwards known by the name of Mau- 
ritius, in 1505. In the same year the King of Portugal 
sent out another large fleet of 22 sail and ] 5,000 men, 
under Francisco de Almeyda, the first Portuguese Gover- 
nour and Viceroy of India. He reduced Onore, and built 
a fort at Cananore. His son, in 1507, accidentally disco- 
vered the island of Ceylon. In 1506 King Emanuel sent 
out a fleet of 16 ships under Tristan da Cunha, who dis- 
covered the islands of that name, and also the island of 
Madagascar ; and another of 6 ships under Alfonso de 
Albuquerque, who rapidly extended the power and dominion 
of the Portuguese in the East. His instructions were to 
exclude the Indian traders from the Red Sea and the Per- 
sian Gulf. In 1507-9 a strong fort was built at Sofala ; 
Malacca was visited for the first time, Muscat rendered 
tributary and possession taken of Ormuz ; the Zamorin 
also was reduced to complete submission ; and the Maldive 
Islands were surveyed. In 1508 the island of Socotra was 
taken, and the island of Sumatra first visited ; as also was 
China in 1508-9, the date of the first discovery of that 
country, from the sea, by Europeans.* It was in this 
year that the pseudo Caliph of Egypt, secretly abetted 

* It was not until the expedition of Benedict Goes from Delhi in 1602-7 
that they at last learned to identify it with the " Cathay " of the overland 
travellers of the 13th century. Thus Milton, in Paradise Lost, written 


both by the Zamorin of Calicut and the Venetians, 
appeared in the Indian seas to dispute the sovereignty of 
the Portuguese in the East. The Venetians supplied the 
timber for building the Sultan's ships, carrying it with 
great difficulty from Alexandria to Suez ; and the fleet 
when ready sailed for India, and, falling in with a Portu- 
guese squadron at Chaul [some say Diu], defeated it ; 
Lorenzo de Almeyda, the Viceroy's son, being slain in the 
action. Their defeat raised a spirit of opposition to the 
Portuguese throughout W^estern India, but the Viceroy, 
collecting another fleet, took Dabul, and totally dispersed 
the Egyptian fleet off Diu in February 1509. Later in 
this year Albuquerque succeeded as Governour [not Vice- 
roy] to Almeyda, who died on his homeward voyage. In 
the meanwhile the island of Ormuz had revolted, and 
forced the Portuguese to retire to Socotra, a disaster so 
alarming to King Emanuel that he at once ordered out 17 
war-ships, with 3,000 troops, under the command of Don 
Francisco Continho, with orders to co-operate with the 
Viceroy. This reinforcement was in addition to the 13 
ships under De Aguiar, that had sailed a little earlier in 
the same year 1509. The first demonstration of the 
united fleets was against Calicut, but they had to withdraw 
from before it with great loss ; and then Albuquerque, in 
order to recover the prestige of the Portuguese, at once 
attacked and captured Goa, February 17, 1510. It was 
soon after retaken by the natives, but on Novem.ber 22 the 
Portuguese recovered possession of the place and made it 
the capital of all their possessions in the East. Albu- 
querque next set sail for Sumatra, and on July 24, loll, 

between 1655 and 1665, still distinguishes between them, Book XI. 

387-90 :— 

" from the destined walls 
Of Cambalu, seat of Cathaian Can, 
And Samarcand by Oxus, Temir's throne, 
To Paguin [Peking] of Sinsean Kings." 

Hakluyt, however, in 1600, wrote of rhubarb, "it oometh from Cathaio or 


seized Malacca, the key of the navigation, and emporium 
of the whole trade, of the China Seas and Indian Archi- 
pelago. Three of his ships were sent on, in 1511-12, 
to the Spice Islands, and visited Ternate, Bouro, Am- 
boyna, and Banda. They visited also Palembang in 
Sumatra, and other ships of the fleet visited Siam. The 
Portuguese also in this year plundered and destroyed 
Surat. In 1513 Albuquerque made an unsuccessful 
attempt upon Aden, whence he proceeded up the 
perilous Bed Sea, then for the first time entered 
by a Portuguese fleet. He wintered at the island of 
Camaran. Early in 1514 he recovered possession of 
Ormuz, and, returning to India, died off the bar at Goa, 
December 16, 1515, leaving the Portuguese Empire in 
the Bast at the height of its glory. In 1516, Soarez, 
the successor of Albuquerque, reduced Aden to temporary 
submission, took and burned Zeila, and unsuccessfully 
attacked Jiddah. In 1517 he personally led an expe- 
dition against Colombo, and forced the King to agree to 
the payment of 1,200 quintals of cinnamon annually to 
the Portuguese, who also obtained possession of Point de 
Galle. In this year also they settled a valuable trade 
at Canton, and took the town of Berbera on the Sumali 
Coast opposite Aden. In 151S, vsrhen Sequeyra succeeded 
Soarez as Viceroy, the Portuguese first opened their 
lucrative trade with Bengal. 

In 151G the Spaniards laid claim to the Banda 
[' United '] or five [really ten*] 'Nutmeg Islands,' and 
the Moluccas, or five ' Clove Islands,'! as falling 
within the line of their sovereignty laid down by the 
Papal Bull of 1493. From 1505 the Court of Spain 

* Namely, Pulo Banda, Pulo Nera, ' Lantore ' or Lontar, Pulo Ai or ' Pulo 
Wai,' Pulo Pisang, Pulo Run or 'Pulo Roon,' Pulo Suwanggi, Gunungapi, 
Pulo Kapal, and ' Rosengyn.' 

t The five small islets on the western side of Gilolo, the largest of the 
Molucca Islands, namely, ' Ternate,' ' Tidore,' Mortir, Makiyan, and Bachian. 
The name Moluccas is now extended to all the ' Spice Islands ' between 
Celebes and New Guinea. 


had earnestly engaged in the project of finding a way 
to the ' Spice Islands ' from the west, and in 1508 
Pinzon and De SoUs sailed in search of them, and ex- 
plored the coasts of South America to the 40th degree 
of south latitude. It was not, however, until 1616 that 
the Pacific was discovered, when Nunez de Balboa, who 
in 1510 had been placed in command of the Spanish 
colony of Santa Maria on the Gulf of Darien, having 
gone on an expedition into the. Sierra de Quarequa, 
suddenly, from one of its peaks, stared down on the 
boundless sea outstretched below him. From the 
narrow isthmus on which he stood, it extended east 
and west and south until lost in space. This was the 
true discovery of the Americas, the disclosure that they 
were not, as Columbus believed to his dying day, the 
easternmost coast of Asia, or a " West Indies," but a 
separate twin continent ; and as this new world with the 
vast waste of ocean beyond swam into his eyes, and all 
its moral significance flashed upon his mind, Balboa, 
kneeling down upon the scarped summit from which he 
gazed, raised his hands to heaven in silent wonder and 
amazement at the immensity of the revelation vouch- 
safed to him. Then, descending with all his men to the 
shore of the great unknown sea, and wading out into it, 
up to his waist, he claimed possession, with his drawn 
sword, of the infinite expanse, in the proud names of 
Aragon and Castile. In October 1515 De Solis was 
again sent out to discover the ' Spice Islands ' from the 
west, and in January 1516 entered the Eio de la Plata, 
originally named Eio de Solis ; its present name not 
having been given to the river until 1526, when Diego 
Garcia found some plates of silver, probably from the 
mines of Potosi, in the hands of the wild Indians on its 
banks. De Solis, having anchored in the mouth of the 
river, w^ent on shore to explore the country inland, when 
he and eight of his men were set upon and massacred 
by the natives, and roasted and devoured in sight 
of his ships ; whereupon the disheartened expedition 


returned to Spain. In 1617 Ferdinand Magellan, who, 
according to De Barros, had been present at the 
capture of Malacca in 1511, proceeded to Valladolid, 
and gave it as his opinion that the ' Spice Islands ' fell 
within the ISpanish boundary, and undertook to take a 
fleet thither by the south of the American continent. 
Accordingly in 1519 Charles V. gave him five ships 
for the purpose. Every one of them was accom- 
panied by a Portuguese pilot; and the Santiago was 
commanded by Joao Serrano, an old Portuguese, on 
whose knowledge of the East, and especially of 
the Moluccas, Magellan placed great reliance. On 
the 21st October 1520, St. Ursula's Day, he reached 
the Cape, called by him " Cabo de las Virgines " 
[Virgins' Cape], at the entrance of the Strait we call 
after Magellan, but named by him, in affectionate 
honour of his own flagship, San Vittoria. From many 
fires having been seen on the land south of the 
Strait, he named it Tierra del Fuego. On the 27th 
of November he emerged from the Strait into the 
open Pacific Ocean, and the Cape terminating the 
Strait on his left [on Tierra del Fuego] he named 
^' Cabo Deseado " [the "Desired"], now called Cape 
Pillar. On the 6th of March 1521, he discovered the 
beautiful islands to which, from the thievish pro- 
pensities ot their inhabitants, he gave the name of the 
Ladrones [' Thieves '] ; and on the 16th, the islands 
he called the Archipelago de San Lazaro, a name after- 
wards changed by Villalobos, in honour of Phihp II. of 
Spain, to that of the Philippines. On one of these 
islands Magellan was slain, 27th April, in a skirmish 
with the natives, brought on by his proselytising zeal ; 
whereon Joao Serrano and Duarte [Odoardo] Barbosa 
were elected joint commanders of the expedition.* On 
the 8th July 1521 they anchored before the city of 
Borneo; and on Wednesday, November 6th, 1521, 

* Barbosa was killed a month later ; and when Serrano also died, Carvalho 
was elected commander-in-chief. 


at last descried the long sought for Molucca Islands, 
for the discovery of which, by a western route, their 
daring adventure had been undertaken. On the 
8th they anchored at Tidore. In the following 
December, of the two remaining ships of the expe- 
dition, it was resolved to send the Trinidad back to 
Spain by Panama and the Strait of Magellan, and to 
take the Vittoria home, under Sebastian Del Cano, by 
the Cape of Good Hope. In order to escape the ob- 
servation of the Portuguese, her course was steered so 
far south as the 42nd parallel of latitude, but, with all 
their caution, they approached within five leagues of 
the Cape on the 6th of May 1522. On the 9th of July, 
when they reached the Cape de Verde Islands, they 
were obhged to put in at Santiago, where, to prevent 
the suspicions of the Portuguese being roused, they said 
that they had come across from America. It was here 
they discovered that in sailing round the world they 
had lost a day, for while by the Vittoria' s log it 
was Wednesday, the 9th of July, at Santiago it was 
Thursday, the 10th. On the 6th of September the 
Vittoria arrived at San Lucar, the only survivor of 
the noble fleet that had sailed from the same port on 
the 20th of September 1519. The circumnavigation 
of the world, originating in the dispute between 
Spain and Portugal about the possession of the 
Moluccas, was completed, and the sphericity of the 
earth demonstrated, against the authority of Cosmas 
Indicopleustes, which had ruled geographers for nearly 
a thousand years. Charles V. received Del Cano with 
the highest distinction, and conferred on him a life 
pension, and a coat of arms, with branches of clove, cin- 
namon, and nutmeg for bearings, and a globe for crest, all 
surmounted by the motto '' Primus circumdedisti me." In 
settlement of the dispute as to the respective rights of 
Portugal and Spain to the ' Spice Islands,' the King of 
Spain was confirmed in the sovereignty of the Philippine 
Islands, and the Moluccas were finally surrendered to 


the King of Portugal, with the provision that the 
latter was to lend the King of Spain 350,000 ducats 
in respect of any claims he might have on the 
Moluccas, in the possession of which the King of 
Portugal was not to be disturbed until the money was 

In 1520 the Bahrein Islands in the Persian Gulf 
were subjugated by the Portuguese, and in 1521 Diu 
and Acheen were unsuccessfully attacked, and Temate 
occupied. In this year also the Venetians, alarmed by 
the decrease of their overland trade, made a pro- 
posal to the King of Portugal to take all the spice 
annually imported into Lisbon by the Cape of Good 
Hope, at a certain fixed price; but the offer was 
rejected. In 1524 Vasco da Gama came out to India 
for the third time, as the 2nd Viceroy and 6th 
Governour. In 1526 the Portuguese were besieged by 
the Zamorin in their citadel at Calicut, and must have 
surrendered had not Da Gama [who died in 1527] arrived 
in time to relieve them. In 1525-26 they discovered 
New Guinea and Celebes, and plundered and destroyed 
Dofar on the coast of Arabia, and Massouah on the coast 
of Abyssinia. In 1527 Mangalore, Porca, and Chetwa 
were burnt by them ; and Tidore was taken from the 
Spaniards, and Borneo discovered. In 1539 the towns of 
Bassein and Tannah were subjected. In 1530 Damaun 
was taken, and permission obtained to build a fort at 
Diu; but the Portuguese were expelled by the natives 
from the island of Ternate. During 1630, 1531, and 
1532, Surat and Gogo, Pate, Mangalore, and most 
of the other towns on the coast of Guzerat, were de- 
stroyed by the Portuguese ; in 1532 Aden again became 
tributary ; and in 1534 Bassein was ceded to them in 
perpetuity. In 1537 they discovered the island of 
Magindanao or Mindanao ; and in this year Malacca 
was twice attacked by the King of Acheen. In 1538 
St. Francis Xavier was sent out to Goa with Don Garcia 
de Naronha, the 11th Viceroy, his object being the 


conversion of the natives to Christianity, in the hope 
that they would thus become better reconciled to the 
Portuguese rule. In the same year the Turks fitted out 
a strong fleet at Suez, and made an attempt upon Diu. 
They failed in this; but on their return to the Red 
Sea, they succeeded in expelling the Portuguese from 
Aden. About the year 1640 the Portuguese established 
their trade with Patania, Oamboja, and Cochin China; 
and in 1542 the coast of Japan was discovered by three 
Portuguese who were driven thereon in a junk bound for 
Siam and China. In 1545, the King of Cambay having 
attempted to drive the Portuguese from Diu, they took 
and destroyed Gogo. Delagoa Bay was visited by them 
for the first time this year. In 1547 the King of 
Acheen made another unsuccessful attempt on Malacca. 
In 1555 the Portuguese took and plundered Tatta on 
the Indus, and put 8,000 of the inhabitants to death. 

The first half of the 16th century was the period of the 
greatest renown of the Portuguese in the Indian Seas, 
although, after the death of Albuquerque, they appear, 
notwithstanding the large reinforcements sent to them 
from Europe, to have been rather employed in defending 
the possessions they had acquired, than in extending, or 
even consolidating, their power. From Japan and the 
Indian Archipelago to the Red Sea and Cape of Good 
Hope, they were sole masters and dispensers of the 
riches and treasures of the East, and their positions 
along the Atlantic Coast of Africa and in Brazil com- 
pleted their ultramarine empire. But from this very 
period its decay began. It was essentially a commercial 
empire that had been rapidly raised on an insufficient 
basis of territorial sovereignty ; and the Portuguese 
never commanded the necessary military and political 
resources for its maintenance and defence. They were 
also in another way unprepared for the commerce of 
which, through their splendid maritime discovery, they 
had obtained the controul. The national character had 
been formed in their secular contest with the Moors, and 


above all things they were knights errant and Crusaders, 
who looked on every pagan [" blackamoor "] as an 
enemy at once of Portugal and of Christ. It is impos- 
sible for any one who has not read the contemporary 
narratives of their discoveries and conquests to con- 
ceive the grossness of the superstition and cruelty 
with which the whole history of their exploration and 
subjugation of the Indies is stained. Albuquerque 
alone endeavoured to conciliate the goodwill of the 
natives, and to live in friendship with the Hindu 
Princes, who were naturally better pleased to have the 
Portuguese, as governed by him, for their neighbours 
and allies, than the Mahomedans whom he had expelled 
or subdued. It vpas the justice and magnanimity of 
his rule that did as much to extend and confirm the 
power of the Portuguese in the East, as the courage 
and success of his military achievements ; and in such 
veneration was his memory held by the Hindus, and even 
by the Mahomedans in Goa, that they were accustomed 
for years after his death to repair to his tomb, and there 
utter their complaints, as if in the presence of his shade, 
and call upon God to deliver them from the tyranny of 
his successors. The cruelties of Soarez, Sequeyra, 
Menezes, Da Gama, and succeeding viceroys, drove the 
natives to desperation, and encouraged the Princes of 
Western India in 1567 to form a league against the 
Portuguese, in which they were at once joined by the 
King of Acheen. But their undisciplined armies were not 
able to stand against the veteran soldiers of Portugal, 
WO of whom at Malacca utterly routed and put to 
flight a force of 15,000 of the enemy, with 200 guns. 
When, in 1578, Malacca was again besieged by the 
King of Acheen, the small garrison of Portuguese 
succeeded in inflicting a loss on him of 10,000 men, and 
all his cannon and junks. Twice again, in 1615, and 
for the last time in 1628, it was besieged, and on 
each occasion the Achinese were repulsed with equal 
bravery and good fortune. But these incessant attacks 


on the Portuguese were sigaificant of the decline of their 
empire, while the necessary increase of the military forces 
yearly sent out to the East proved an insupportable drain 
on the revenues and population of so petty a state as Por- 
tugal. In 1558, John III., King of Portugal, died, and 
was succeeded by Sebastian. The credit of the Portu- 
guese in Asia having greatly declined during the preceding- 
reign, Sebastian, in the hope of re-establishing it, 
appointed Don Constantin de Braganza, one of the royal 
family, to be the 20th Viceroy with almost sovereign pre- 
rogatives. But he was able to effect little more than the 
construction of a fortress at Damaun, and another at 
Manaar, and the reduction of the King of Jafnapatam to 
vassalage ; and the rapid sequence of the viceroys 
appointed after him destroyed all possibility of a revival 
of the Portuguese power, as the vigorous efforts of a 
capable governour were over and over again counteracted 
by the errors of an incompetent successor. Thus Don 
Luis D'Ataide's energetic rule, as 24th Viceroy, from 15G7 
to 1571, was followed within the next five years by the 
weak and disastrous administrations of no less than four 
different viceroys, Don Antony de Noronha, Antony Monez. 
Barreto, Don Laurence de Tavora, and Don James de 
Menezes. At this conjuncture, when it seemed as if the 
Portuguese empire of the Indies might pass away without 
observation, like the insubstantial pageant of a dream, 
Don Luis D'Ataide was sent out a second time, in 1579, 
as 29th Viceroy. Though he lived only one year, he suc- 
ceeded in restoring something of its old vigour to the 
government, but it was too late. In 1580, the year in 
which Don Luis D'Ataide died, the Crown of Portugal,, 
consequent on the death of King Sebastian in 1578,. 
became united with that of Spain, in Philip II. ; an event- 
which proved fatal to the maritime and commercial supre- 
macy of Portugal. It proved fatal in many ways, but 
chiefly because the interests of Portugal in Asia were now 
subordinated to the interests of Spain in Europe. 

In 1640 Portugal again became, a separate kingdom,. 



but in the meanwhile the Dutch, and English had 
appeared in the Indian Ocean, and before their indomi- 
table competition the Asiatic trade and dominion of the 
Portuguese had withered away as rapidly as it had sprung 
up. They obtained possession of Macao, as a station for 
their China trade, in 1586, but from this date the only 
notable events in their Eastern history are their repeated 

The Portuguese would appear to have, at different times, 
possessed the following places* in the East : — 

On the East Coast of Africa: Melinda, Quiloa, 
Querimba, Zofala, Mosambique, and Mombasa [expelled 
A.D. 1631]. 

In Arabia : Aden and Mascate [expelled by the Arabs 
A.D. 1648]. 

In Persia : Bazora and Ormuz. 

Jn India : Tatta on the Indus, Bandel, Diu, Damam, 
Assarim, Danu, St. Gens, Agaciam, Maim, Manora, 
Trapor, Basaim, Chaul, Morro, Dabul, Salsette, Bombay, 
Tana, Caranja, Goa, Onor, Barcelor, Mangalor, Cannanor, 
Calicut, Granganor, Cochim, Angamale, Coulam, Negapa- 
tam, " Meliapor, with the city which is a bishoprick of the 
*' late called St. Thomas," Masulapatam, and several other 
places on the Coromandel Coast, and in Bengal. 

In Ceylon : Manar, Point de Galle, Columbo, Jafna- 
patam, and other places. 

In Further India : Malaca, and factories at Pegu, Mar- 
taban, Junkceylon, and other places. 

In the Indian Archipelago : Mindanao, or Magindanao, 
the Moluccas, and Banda Islands, a fort on the island of 
Timor, and other places. 

In China : Macao, and the island of Formosa. 

All these possessions were held in subordination to the 
Supreme Government at Goa, where the Viceroy presided 

* I adopt, for the most part, the Portuguese spelling of the names of the 
places cited. 


over the civil and military, and an Archbishop over the 
■ecclesiastical, affairs of the vsrhole of Portuguese Asia. 
Strange to say, they had no possessions in either Java or 

The period of the highest development of their 
commerce was probably from 1590 to 1610, on the eve 
of the subversion of their power by the Dutch, and 
when their political administration in India was at its 
greatest degradation. At this period a single fleet of 
Portuguese merchantmen sailing from Goa to Cambay 
or Surat would number as many as 1 60 or 250 carracks. 
Now only one ship sails from Lisbon for Goa in the 
year, and the only remaining Portuguese possessions 
in India are Goa, Damaun, and Din ; so low have fallen 
a people who once commanded all the coasts of Africa 
and Asia from the Cape of Good Hope to China and Japan, 
and the whole commerce of the Eastern Seas. 

Contemporary loriters on the early Portuguese Period.* 

The narratives of contemporary travellers throw great 
light on the early operations of the Portuguese in India ; 
and the most interesting of them all is the description 
left us of The Coast of East Africa and Malabar, by 
Duarte [Odoardo] Barbosa, which was translated and 
edited for the Hakluyt Society, by the Honble. Henry G. 
T. Stanley, in 1866. Barbosa was a cousin [? brother-in- 
Jaw] of Magellan, and was with him at the capture of 
Malacca, and accompanied him in his voyage for the cir- 
cumnavigation of the globe. He fully describes the East 
African and Malabar Coast, Bijanagar, Bengal, Orissa, 
Further India,* the Indian Archipelago, and China, and 

* This reference to the contemporary writers on the Early Portuguese 
period of the commerce of Europe in the Indian Ocean, includes only those 
of them I happened to have looked through in the course of the prepara- 
tion of this Report, and ■would be quite inadequate as an independent review 
■of them, dissociated from the special purposes of my Report. 

M 2 


the trade of the Eastern Seas as it was found by the Por- 
tuguese on their first entering them. He gives a detailed 
account of the trade in rubies, diamonds, emeralds, 
and other precious stones, a special account of cloves, 
ginger, and cinnamon, and a most interesting price 
list of the drugs and spices then sold at Calicut ;. 
namely, "lacca"of Marbaban, " lacca " of the country, 
" atincar " [borax], " canfora grossa," "canfora" for 
anointing the idols, "Aquila" [eagle-wood], "genuine 
aloes " [i.e., aloes- wood or eagle-wood of superior 
quality], " almiscar " [musk], "beijoim" [benjamin], 
" tamarindos," " calamo aromatico " [sweet flag], 
"mirrha," " encenso," " ambar," " mirabulanos ["myro- 
bolaneiros " is another Portuguese spelling], eynblicos, 
bellericos, et quebolos," cassia, " sandalo vermelho " 
[red-saunders wood] , " espicanardo," "sandalo bianco" 
[sandal-wood], " noz moscada" [nutmegs], " macis," 
" herba lonbrequera " [wormwood], " turbiti," "anil" 
[indigo, i.e., 7ii7], " erva de vermes" [wild silk], " zer- 
"umbeth," " zedoaria," " sagapeno," "aloes sacotorino," 
"cardamomo," "rheubarbo," " atulia " [Lapis Tutia], 
" china cubela," [cubebs], " opio," and " opio " prepared 
in Cambay. 

Camoens travelled in India and the East, and wrote 
the greater part of the Lusiad there, between A.D. 1553 
and 1569.* On his return from Macao he was wrecked 
on the coast of Camboja, and of all his property suc- 
ceeded only in saving the MS. of the Lusiad, deluged 
with the waves, through which, clinging to a plank, he 
forced his way to the shore. It is not simply the 
national epic of the Portuguese, but the epic of the 
modern system of universal commerce founded on the 
discovery of the sea way to India. There can be no 
doubt of the historical truth which underlies the super- 
natural machinery and elevated imagery of Camoens' 

* He went out with the fleet commanded by Fernan Alvarez Cabrol in 


great poem ; and indeed his geographical descriptions, 
more particularly of the new found coasts of southern 
Africa, often fail through their very explicitness to affect 
the imagination, as Milton so powerfully does by his vague 
enumeration of 

"The less maritime kings, 
Mombaza, and Quiloa, and Melind, 
And Sofala, tlionght Ophir, to the realm 
Of Congo, and Angola farthest south." 

The real value of the Lusiad, however, is not as a 
record of authentic discovery, but as evidence of the 
higher moral and spiritual aims of the Portuguese in 
their inquisition of the Indies ; the history of which, but 
for the light thrown on it by Camoens, would only pre- 
serve the memory, better lost, of deeds of indescribable 
tyranny, senselessness, and shame. Ferdinand Mendez 
Pinto has incurred everlasting infamy as a liar, simply 
on account of the incredible atrocities he describes 
without any reticence or apparent consciousness of their 
guilt. It is to him that Congreve refers, in " Love for 
Love," II., 6 : " Ferdinand Mendez Pinto was but a type 
of thee, thou liar of the first magnitude," Sometimes 
he is contemptuously nicknamed "Mendax Pinto." 
But Faria y Sousa, the author of The Portuguese 
Asia, regards him as a truthful writer. He was a 
promiscuous vagabond, pirate, and cut-throat in the 
Eastern Seas, from 1537 to 1558 ; and his Pere- 
grinations, published in 1614, affords a harrowing 
picture of the frightful moral depravity and inhuman 
bloodthirstiness of the Portuguese adventurers of the 
period, and of the confusion and misery brought by 
them on the indigenous populations of the southern 
shores of Asia, whose peaceful overland commerce with 
Europe, of 3,000 years' growth, they overthrew within 
ii generation of Da Gama's rounding the Cape of Good 

In 1520 the Portuguese Governour in India sent an 
embassy by way of Ormuz to the Persian Court, the 


narrative of which by Antonio Tenreiro [Coimbra, 1560} 
is one of the earliest accounts we possess of the trade 
through Persia at the time when it first began to be affected 
by the competition of the Cape route. 

Nearly a century later, in 1611, Fray Gaspar de San 
Bernardino, of the order of St. Francis, undertook the 
journey by land from India by way of Mombas and 
Socotra and the Persian Gulf to Portugal ; and his narra- 
tive bears witness to the complete revolution that had 
now taken place in the course of the trade between 
India and Europe through the Euphrates Valley and 

To EngUshmen, one of the most interesting travellers 
in the East was ^Frangois Pyrard de Laval. He went 
out to India in 1601, and about 1609-11 was in Goa^ 
where, he tells us, he met Italians, Germans, Flemings, 
and Frenchmen, the adventurous spirits, in short, of 
every country of Europe, as well as of Asia. There too 
he met three Englishmen, among the first ever seen in 
India, who probably belonged to Hawkins' expedition, 
prisoners of the Portuguese : and he observes of them, 
with a sort of prophetic apprehension, that, even fast 
bound in irons as they were, they were a proud-looking 
set, who took every opportunity of showing their contempt 
for the Frenchmen and other foreigners around them. 
Before going to Goa, Laval had been detained for several 
years in the Maldive Islands, on which he is still the best 
authority. His Discours du Voyage, 1619, has recently 
been translated for the Hakluyt Society by Mr. Albert 

In 1663, Father Manuel Godinho, of the Society of 
Jesus, returned from Goa to Lisbon overland by way of 
Gombroon. He begins by deploring the almost total 
downfall of the Portuguese Asiatic Empire, and describes 
the rising trade of Surat, which city, under the English, 
had gradually supplanted Goa as the emporium of Southern 
India. He describes it as being then perhaps the richest 
emporium of the world. 


The Feregrinacion de la Mayor Parte del Mondo 
of Don Pedro Sebastiano Cubero was published at 
Saragossa in 1688. He set out about 1650 from 
Moscow with the Russian Ambassador to the Court of 
Persia. From Ormuz he sailed to " Damayn," and 
Surat and Goa, where he found the capital of Portu- 
guese Asia in a state of miserable decay, and its trade 
almost gone since the " perfidious heretics," the 
Dutch, English, Swedes, and Danes, had carried it off. 
From Goa he sailed to Masulipatam, and thence 
to Malacca, already in the hands of the Dutch, and on to 
Manilla, where he took ship across the Pacific to 

Giovanni Francesco Gemelli-Careri of Naples, in his 
narrative [Giro del Mondo], published in 1699, of six 
years travel round the world, notices that at this 
date the remnants of the Portuguese conquests in Asia 
were so inconsiderable as scarcely to defray their own 

The great work of Geronimo Osorio, De Rebus 
Emanuelis virtute et auspicio gestis, 1571, is universally 
recognized as of the highest authority on the early history 
of the Portuguese acquisitions in Asia ; and, as based on 
this, may be mentioned the useful compilation of Faria y 
Sousa, entitled Asia Portugueza, published in 1666-75 ; 
as also the Decadas da Asia, published by De Barros, 
1552-63. Major's Discoveries of Prince Henry the Navi- 
gator, published by the Hakluyt Society, in 1877, 
is a most excellent monograph on the life of the 
high-hearted leader of the modern exploitation of the 

The Dutch in the East. 

The Dutch were later than the English in trying to 
get to the East, but, owing to their early established 
indirect trade with India through Lisbon, they suc- 
ceeded in getting there before us, and they altogether 


■outstripped us in the great geographical discoveries of the 
17th century in the South Sea. 

Before Lisbon rose to notice, and while Venice and 
Genoa were still at the height of their prosperity, the 
carrying trade of the Netherlands for' its own fisheries 
and manufactures rendered its cities the natural 
entrepots for the commerce between northern and 
southern Europe. The imports of Genoa and Venice 
from the East were originally distributed over northern 
Europe by the merchants of Bruges, and through 
Central Europe by those of Nuremberg and Augsburg. 
When the trade was diverted to Lisbon, and Venice, 
and Genoa, Nuremberg, and Augsburg became in conse- 
quence deserted [and Bruges also, owing to the in- 
terruptions to which the port of Sluys was about this 
time subjected], the productions of the Indies were 
in turn distributed to northern Europe through Ant- 
werp ; and after the destruction of that city by the 
Spaniards [1676-1585], through Amsterdam. On the 
seven northern provinces ["United Provinces"] of the 
Netherlands declaring their independence in 1580, 
Philip II., under whom the Crown of Portugal was in 
the same year [1580-81] united to that of Spain, 
forbade the merchants of Amsterdam to trade with 
Lisbon. This interdict, however, served only the more 
to quicken the native spirit and enterprise of the Dutch, 
and the eventful period from the sack of Antwerp in 
1576 to the treaty of Westphalia or Munster in 1648 
was that of the rise of their Eastern commerce and 
dominion. By that treaty this energetic and indomi- 
table people actually compelled the Spaniards to trade 
with the East only by Cape Horn ;* and thus, by a 

* Discovered by Cornelius Schouten ia 1606 in one of the earliest Dutch 
voyages by the west to the " Spice Islapds." It was named after Hoorn, on 
the Zuyder Zee, the birthplace of Schouten and also of Tasman. The island 
near it was called Stateu Island, in honour of the States of Holland, and the 
passage between it and the main shore Strait Lemaire, from the projector of 
Schouten's voyage. 


■stroke of the pen as it were, deprived Spain and Portugal 
of all the advantages of the discoveries of Columbus 
and Da G-ama. Between 1602 and 1620 they seized the 
principal settlements of the Portuguese in the East, and 
l)y 1661 had expelled them from all but the lifeless 
remnants of their once world-wide empire they hold 
to the present day. At this time also they scarcely 
tolerated the English in the Indian Ocean, and the 
80 years from 1661 to 1741 was the time of the greatest 
fortune and power of the Dutch in the East. 

When the supremacy of Spain on the high seas was 
shattered at a blow by the destruction of the " Invincible 
Armada" in 1588, the merchants of Antwerp, who had 
emigrated to Amsterdam, at once saw their oppor- 
tunity for establishing a direct trade with India. At 
first, to avoid interference with the Portuguese rights 
under the Papal Bull of 1493, they, following the 
example of the English, attempted to open communi- 
cations with the East by sailing round the north coasts 
of Europe and Asia. William Barents made his first 
abortive attempt in 1594, and the second in 1595, and 
the third, in which he perished, in 1596. Then the 
Dutch resolved to take the direct passage round the 
Cape of Good Hope, and Cornelius Houtman's fleet 
was despatched to India. He left the Texel on the 
2nd February 1594/5, "crossed the Line " the 14th of 
June, " doubled the Cape " the 2nd August, landed at 
Sumatra the 11th July 1596, and entered the harbour 
of Bantam the 22nd July following. He returned 
to the Texel in 1597. Before his return another set 
of merchants had sent out James Van Neck; and 
Houtman's second expedition, in which he was slain, 
went out in 1598, and returned in 1600-1601.* Com- 
j)anies were now formed all over the United Provinces, 

* It was with this expedition, consisting of the Lion \_De Leemo] and Lioness 
[Z)e Leeiiwin'] that John Davis sailed [in the iton] as Chief Pilot. Plout- 
man's official title was General, but he is always designated the -Baas, i.e., 


and in 1602 they were amalgamated by the States General 
into one Joint Stock Corporation, entitled " The Dutch 
East India Company." They had in their first voyage 
to Bantam experienced much opposition from the 
Portuguese, in consequence of which a war commenced, 
by which the Portuguese interests in the East suffered 
considerably. In 1603 the Dutch, with a large force 
from Europe, made attempts to dislodge the Portuguese 
from Mozambique and Goa, but failed in both. On the 
other hand they succeeded, during 1604-5, in settling 
factories on the Coasts of Malabar and Coromandel, in 
Ceylon, and in Java, at Jacatra and Bantam. In 1604 
the Spaniards at Manilla, being aware of the defence- 
lessness of the islands in the Indian Archipelago under 
the Dutch, proceeded with an expedition and captured 
them all. But the Dutch fleet hurrying back from 
Malacca, the covetous siege of which they at once 
raised, succeeded in wresting the whole of the islands 
back again from the Spaniards, and in 1607 also 
expelled them from Ternate and Tidore. At this 
period the ever prosperous Hollanders are stated to 
have had factories at Mocha, in Persia, at Cambay, 
in Malabar, Ceylon, Coromandel, Bengal, Aracan, 
Pegu, in Sumatra, at Acheen, Jambi, and Palem- 
bang, in Java at Bantam, in. Camboja, Siam, Cochin 
China, Tonquin, China, and Japan, exclusive of the 
entire possession of the Moluccas and the factories 
taken from the Portuguese in the Banda Islands. The 
Mauritius, first discovered by the Portuguese in 1505^ 
had been occupied by the Dutch in 1598, and named 
after their renowned General and Stadtholder Prince 
Maurice of Nassau [Orange] . 

In 1611 they were driven out of Tidore and Banda 
by the Spaniards. In 1612 the King of Candy called 
in the Dutch to assist him against the Portuguese, and 
in return gave them the monopoly of the cinnamon 
trade of the island ; and in this year also they took Timor 
from the Portuguese. In 16l4 they established factories 


at Masulipatam, and in Siam, and in 1619 acquired the 
sovereignty of Java, where, on the 1 2th of August 
in that year, they laid the foundation of the city of 
Batavia [Jacatra] as the seat of the Supreme Go- 
vernment of the Dutch Possessions in India, which 
had previously been at Amboyna. It was about the 
same time, namely in 1622-23, that they founded the 
city of New Amsterdam [Manhattan], now New York, 
in America. On the 17th February 1622/3* they 
massacred the English in Amboyna; and although the 
English people, then entering on their troubles with 
the Stuart dynasty, were forced for a time to submit to 
the outrage, the lasting animosity of the nation was 
thereby all the more roused against the rivals of the 
"London" Company, which thenceforth was always 
sure of the popular sympathy in its deadly contest 
with the Dutch for predominance in the East. Yet 
from the date of the massacre of Amboyna to 1650 
was a period of great humiliation for England in the 
Indian Seas, and everywhere we were vilified and 
oppressed by the Dutch. 

The Dutch were the discoverers of Australasia. The 
idea which the ancients had of a Terra Australis 
originated simply in the extension by some of their 
geographers of the African continent eastward to the 
Malay Peninsula. There is better ground for the pre- 
sumption that the ' Great Java ' of the Portuguese of 
the 16th century really refers to Australia. It would 
appear to have been first sighted by a Spanish fleet 
which sailed from Peru with Quiros as Pilot Major in 
1596. In 1605 Quiros, accompanied by Louis Vaez 

* The date is frequently given as 1622 ; as that of the English "glorious 
Revolution " is invariably given as 1688 [" the Revolution of 1688 "] instead 
of 1689. The explanation is that until the " New Style " Calendar was- 
introduced into Great Britain in 1752, the year did not legally com- 
mence in England before the 25th of March ; and consequently before that 
year events that occurred in the months of January, February, and March 
[to 25th idem] usually bear, in official documents, the date of two years. This 
has been a constant source of perplexity to me, and doubtless often of 


•de Torres, commanded the expedition which discovered 
Tahiti and the New Hebrides. The latter islands 
he mistook for the broken coast of a new continent 
named by him Australia del Espiritu Santo, and he 
designed a capital for it, to be called ' the New Jeru- 
salem.' The following year Torres, who had become 
separated from Quiros in a storm, sailed from east 
to west through the strait that now bears his name. 
But before this Cornelius Wytfliet, in 1598, had 
distinctly indicated the position of Australia : — " The 
" Australis Terra is the most southern of all lands, 
" and is separated from New Guinea [first discovered by 
" the Portuguese in 1526] by a narrow strait," The 
Luca Antara, discovered by Manuel Godinho de 
Eredia in 1601, has also been identified with Australia. 
Still its first practical discovery was made by the 
Dutch. In 1606 one of their ships from Bantam 
reached Cape York at the top of the eastern main of 
the great Gulf, named, about 1628, after Pieter Car- 
pen tier, then Governor of the Dutch Indies. In 1618 
the Pera and Arnhem from Amboyna explored this 
Gulf, the latter ship giving its name to ' Arnhem's 
Land.' In 1623 Jan Carstensz was in the Gulf and 
named the River Carpenter. In 1616 Dirk Hartogs 
touched at ' Dirk Hartogs Island ' on the coast of 
Western Australia, which, after it had been further 
explored by the Dutch in 1628, received the name of 
'De Witt's Land.' In 1627-28 the Guldc7u Zeepaard, 
carrying Pieter Nuyts to the Dutch embassy in 
Japan, coasted along the whole of the Great Bight 
of Southern Australia. In 1642-44 Abel Tasman dis- 
covered Van Diemen's Land, so named after the 
daughter of the Dutch Governor at Batavia, and 
New Zealand, and further explored the coast of 
North Australia from ' Dirk Hartogs Island ' to 
' Arnhem's Land.' These great discoveries of the Dutch 
led to the States General formally naming the new 
found ' South Land,' New Holland. 


In 1635 the Dutch expelled the Portuguese from 
Formosa, in 1638 from Batecalo, Trinoomalee, Negomba, 
and Point de Galle, and in 1640, when Portugal again 
became a separate sovereignty, from Malacca. The loss 
of Malacca was a fatal blow to the Portuguese trade in 
the Indian Archipelago and with China, while its capture 
by the Dutch at once set them above all rivals in the East. 
In the same year the Portuguese, at the instigation of 
the Dutch, were expelled from Japan. In 1651 the 
Dutch settled a colony at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
abandoned St. Helena, which they had occupied since 
1645. In 1656 they obtained possession of Calicut 
from the Portuguese. In 1658 they captured Nega- 
patam [afterward, in subordination to Bantam, the head 
of all their establishments on the Coromandel Coast],. 
and Jafnapatam, the last stronghold of the Portu- 
guese in Ceylon. In 1661-64 they expelled the latter 
from Quilon, Cochin, Cananore, Cranganore, and other 
places on the Malabar Coast, and in 1669 from St. Thome 
and Macassar. 

The following is a list of their settlements and agencies 
submitted by the Dutch Company to the States General 
the 22nd October 1664 :— 

Amboyna, with its subordinate islands, "which supply 
" the whole world with spice " : the Banda islands, " which 
" produce nutmeg and mace " : Pulo Roon [sometimes 
spelled Eohun], " ceded to the English by treaty, but not 
"given over to them " : Ternate, and the other Moluccas : 
Macassar and Manado in Celebes : Timor : Bima on Sum- 
bawa, " where is a little trade in rice and sappan wood ": 
in Sumatra, Jambi, Palembang, and Indraghiri, " with a 
" contract for all the pepper procured on the west coast " ; 
[Acheen, i.e. " City of Peace," had been given up]. 

Malacca, with Tenasserim, and Junkceylon, i.e. Ujung 
Salang, " Salang Headland " : [the factory in Siam had 
been withdrawn, likewise the one in Ligor :] Aracan, an 
agency for the purchase of rice and slaves : in Tonquin, a, 
factory : in Pegu, factories at Ava and Sirian. 


In Coromandel, Pulicat, Negapatam, and Masulipatam, 
for the purchase of piece goods : in Bengal, ' Hugbley, 
Cossimbazaar, Dacca, Patna, "in command of a great 
" trade in silk, cotton goods, saltpetre, sugar, nee, &c.; 
in Orixa, a factory for rice and other provisions supphed tor 
Ceylon : Ceylon, one of the most important possessions 
of the Company,— with garrisons at Colombo; Pomt de 
GaUe, Negomba, Manaar, and Jafnapatam : Tuticonn, 
opposite Ceylon, with a good trade in cotton goods and 
pearls : in Malabar, Cochin, Cranganore, Quilon, Cana- 
nore :— " the Samorin of Calicut, and other princes have 
" contracted with the Company to sell all their pepper to 
"them": at Porca, whence "the English had been 
" ordered to withdraw ": in Guzerat, a factory at Surat, in 
charge of the trade of Hindostan, "which is very con- 
" siderable," with dependent posts at 'Amedabad' and 

In Persia, Gombroon and Ispahan : in the Persian 
Gulf, Bassorah: [in Arabia, Mocha had been recently 
given up]. 

The island of Mauritius. 

The Cape of Good Hope. 

Java, " where was their capital Batavia, producing pro- 
" digious quantities of rice, sugar, fruits, &c." 

In Japan the Company traded only and chiefly for gold 
md silver. 

In China no trade had yet been done, but mucli was 
hoped from the Emperor in consideration of the Dutch 
delivering him from the formidable pirate ' Coxenga.' In 
later documents their possessions also include Banjar- 
massin, Padang, Landak, and Succadana. 

In 1672-73 they took from us St. Helena, which we had 
occupied from 1651. Before the latter date they had held 
the island, which was discovered by the Portuguese in 
1501, from 1645. We recovered it immediately, and 
made it over [by Charter of Charles II., dated 16th 
December 1674] to the Enghsh [" London "] East India 


In 1677 William of Orange married the Princess Mary 
of England. 

In 1682 the Dutch expelled our factory from Bantam, 
thereby forcing us to abandon also our factories dependent 
on it in Siam and Tonquin, and at Amoy, and other places 
in the uttermost Indies. 

In 1(588-89 William of Orange became King of 

In 1693 Pondicherry was surrendered to the Dutch, 
but was restored to the French by the Treaty of Ryswick 

In 1769 the Dutch, comprehending the full significance 
of dive's great victory at Plassey, made a desperate effort 
to expel the English from Bengal, but were ignominiously 
repulsed by Colonel Eorde, and sueing for peace pledged 
themselves never in future to keep more than 125 Euro- 
pean soldiers in their Bengal factories. 

In the great wars from 1781 to 1811, Holland lost all 
her colonies to us ; but in 1813, when the country was re- 
stored to the House ot Orange, most of them were given 
back by us ; and Java in 1816, and Sumatra in 1824 in 
exchange for Malacca. 

The Dutch would have been unable to maintain their 
independence without the trade of the East^ and when 
they lost it they rapidly sank into their present state 
of commercial and political stagnation. They lost it 
entirely through the narrow and exclusive spirit in 
which they pursued it. Although their enterprise 
ended in the formation of an empire, their sole object 
from first to last was to engross the spice trade of the 
Moluccas and Banda Islands. With this object they 
made the mistake, and long persisted in it, of esta- 
blishing the seat of government in the remote island of 
Amboyna, and it was not until John Pietersoon Koen, 
on his own authority, transferred it to Java, and in 
1619 founded the city of Batavia, that the supremacy 
of the Dutch in the Indian Archipelago was secured. 
Still the sordid object of their pursuit, the monopoly of 
the spice trade, continued to injuriously afiiect their 


reputation, and gradually it undermined their power^ 
so inexorably true is it that "Man shall not live bj 
"bread alone." They suffered still more through the 
egotistical national spirit, characteristic of every Teu- 
tonic race, which blinded them to the true European 
policy of the United Provinces. If the Dutch,, 
instead of doggedly secluding themselves within 
their own green ' polders,' had opened up their canals 
to German commerce, and their Indian colonies to- 
German emigration, and had identified German in- 
terests vpith their own, they would have • maintained 
their supremacy on the seas, and probably supplanted 
us in the Empire of the Bast. They stood up boldly 
against us, and v^^ere hard to beat down ; but they were 
too few, and their great Eastern commerce, even with 
the possession of Java, had too straitened a basis of 
territorial sovereignty to have ever made it possible 
for their power to survive a protracted struggle with 
England. It was fortunate indeed for England that 
their early opposition to us at Bantam and Amboyna led 
to our transferring the seat of the English ["London"] 
East India Company's Government from the Indian 
Archipelago to the continent of India, the inevitable 
conquest of which gave us in the end the command of 
the commerce of the East, from Constantinople to Peking, 
and from Australia and New Zealand to the Cape of Good 

The present possessions of the Dutch in the Indian 
Archipelago are Bencoolen and Palembang on Sumatra, 
and the islands of Banca and Billiton off its coasts, the 
islands of Java, Madura, Bally, Lombok, and Celebes, 
districts on the west, south, and east coasts of Borneo,, 
the Moluccas or ' Spice Islands,' the Islands of Timor and 
Sumbawa, and districts on the western side of New Guinea 
or Papua. 

The contemporary works of travel connected with the 
early settlement of the Dutch in the East will be referred 
to among the books relating to the Factory Period of the 
English East India Company. 


The English in India. 

The first English attempts to reach India were by the 
north-west passage. In 1496 Henry VII. granted Letters 
Patent to John Cabot [Giovanni Gavotta] and his three 
sons to fit out two vessels for the discovery of this passage 
to India. They failed, but discovered the islands of New- 
foundland and St. John, and explored the coast of 
America from Labrador to Virginia. In 1527 Dr. Eobert 
Thorne, whose father was one of the discoverers of 
Newfoundland, and who himself had lived for many 
years at Seville in Spain, addressed a " persuasion to 
" King Henry VIII. for the discovery north-westward, 
" being a declaration of the Indies and lands discovered 
" and subdued unto the Emperor of Germany and King 
" of Portugal, and also of other parts of the Indies and 
" rich countries to be discovered." As the Portuguese 
had obtained a passage to India by a course to the 
south-east, and pretended a right, which they defended 
by force, to its exclusive occupation, he supposed that 
his countrymen might reach the same part of the globe 
by sailing to the north-w^est, and thus obtain a passage 
at once expeditious and undisputed. It is not certain 
whether Thome's representations had any direct effect 
on the mind of Henry VIII., but they contributed to 
encourage the efforts which were made at the period to 
find a practical way by the Arctic Ocean to India or 
' Gathay.' In 1549 Sebastian Cabot, the son of John 
Cabot, obtained sanction for a Charter from Edward 
VI., v^rhich was confirmed by Queen Mary, 1554-55, for 
" the discovery of lands, countries, and isles not before 
" known to the English," by this passage; and on the 
10th of May 1553 Sir Hugh Willoughby, with Kichard 
Chancellor [with whom was Stephen Boroughs] second 
in command, sailed on their wild errand. Sir Hugh 
and all his men perished miserably of cold in a river 
or haven called ' Arzina ' [WarsinaJ in Lapland, but 



Chancellor arrived at a port in the White Sea, 
where Archangel was afterwards [1584] founded ; and 
thus was Russia practically first discovered by the 
English. Sir Martin Frobisher thrice attempted to pierce 
a northern passage to the East, in 1576, 1577, and 1578, 
on behalf of the ' Company of Cathay ;' and having in his 
first voyage discovered an inlet on the Coast of Labrador 
running westward, he was on his return home " highly 
" commended of all men for the great hope he brought 
"of a passage to Cathaia." John Davis conducted 
three expeditions for its discovery, between 1585 and 
1587, under the patronage of the London Company 
entitled the " Fellowship for the Discovery of the 
" N,W. Passage." George Waymouth's abortive attempt 
in 1602, and John Knight's in 1606, were made after 
the adoption by the English of the route to India by 
the Cape of Good Hope, which was thought to be too 
long. Henry Hudson's three voyages were made in 
1607-08-09. As the N.W. and N.E. Passages had 
been found impracticable, he attempted in his first 
voyage to sail right across the North Pole. In his last 
voyage he discovered Hudson's Bay, which he thought 
to be the Pacific Ocean. In 1612 it was explored 
by Sir Thomas Button, who hoped to reach Japan 
by crossing it. He was disappointed, and the coast 
that blocked his further progress was therefore called 
"Hopes Checked." The designation has disappeared 
from modern maps, but the Cape off the entrance of 
Hudson's Strait still bears its quaint old name of 
" Hopes Advance." The last attempts to find the long 
desired outlet through North America and the Arctic 
Regions to the Bast were made by William Baffin in 
1612-13-15-16. It is interesting to find it stated in 
Ramusio [see Ilamel's Early Voyages to the White Sea,] 
that so far back as 1625 a Russian map was shown to 
a scientific person at Augsburg in order to demonstrate 
that it might be possible to reach India by way of the 
Icy Sea. It was not, however, till 1741 that Yitus 


Behring, a Captain in the Eussian Navy, discovered the 
broad strait, since known by his name, giving entrance 
from the Arctic Ocean to the Pacific. 

Chancellor travelled from the mouth of the Dwina 
to the Court of the Grand Duke of Moscow, and laid 
the foundation of the Eussian Company [as the " Com- 
'' pany for the Discovery of Lands not before known " 
was henceforth called] for carrying on the overland 
trade with India, through Persia, Bokhara, and Moscow. 
In 1557 Anthony Jenkinson and Eichard and Eobert 
Johnson sailed to Eussia to explore the route of this 
trade. From Moscow they went to " Nyse Novogorod," 
and down the Volga to " Ozan," whence they went on 
to Astrakan and to "Boghar" [Bokhara], from which 
place Jenkinson returned to Moscow in 1559. In 1561 
he was sent out again to explore the route through 
Persia, and, travelling by Moscow and Astrakan, he 
proceeded by way of Derbent so far as Casbin, where 
he met a number of native merchants from India. 
Chenier's expedition followed, and after that Eichard 
Johnson's expedition, of which Laurence Chapman is 
the narrator, was sent out in 1665. Jenkinson was 
again at Moscow in 1566 and 1571, in the interests of 
the Russian Company ; but although they laid the foun- 
dation of the sea-borne trade of Eussia, and of the 
Eussian Navy, the Company found it impossible to 
compete profitably with the Portuguese in the im- 
portation of Indian goods into Europe. Not even the 
most precious articles would now bear the costs of the 
overland transit. This gradually led to the formation 
of the Turkey and Levant Company in 1581, in the 
hope of establishing trading relations with India by 
way of the Levant and Persian Gulf. Peter the Great 
was very anxious to develope the trade with India 
through Eussia, and in 1717 sent Beckowitz, the son 
of a Circassian prince, to explore the Amu Darya : and 
in 1723 employed Peter Henry Bruce [Memoirs, &c., 
London, 1782] to survey the Caspian. John Elton [see 

N 2 


Jonas Hanway's Historical Account of British Trade 
over the Caspian Sea, 1753,] was also employed to 
survey the south-eastern frontier of Russia, and sent 
home so enthusiastic an account of the new opening by 
this route for English trade with India, that, in spite of 
the opposition of the Turkey Company and of the Bast 
India Company, an Act was passed permitting the 
importation of silk and other Eastern commodities 
through Russia. Unfortunately Elton's success with the 
Persians excited the jealousy of his Russian companions ; 
and Jonas Hanway had to be sent from St. Petersburg 
in 1743 to arrange the differences between them. It 
was in vain, and in 1746 the Russian Government 
formally announced that the English would no longer 
be allowed to pass through their territories for the 
purposes of trade with India. 

The Turkey and Levant Company [founded in 1581] 
having in the prosecution of their trade sent merchants 
from Aleppo to Baghdad, and thence down the Persian 
Gulf, and purchased Indian articles at Agra, Lahore, 
and Malacca, greatly stimulated the desire then pre- 
vailing in England for participating with Portugal in 
the direct trade with India by sea. In 1577 Sir Francis 
Drake fitted out four ships, and sailed through the 
Straits of Magellan, returning home [his expedition 
reduced to the Golden Hind] by the Cape of Good Hope. 
In the course of his voyage he touched at Ternate, one 
of the Moluccas, where the king agreed to supply the 
English nation with all the cloves the island pro- 
duced ; and Drake was thus the first person to open 
direct commercial intercourse between England and 
the East Indies, as well as the first Englishman to 
circumnavigate the globe. The first Englishman who 
actually visited India was Thomas Stephens in 1579, 
unless there be any foundation in fact for the state- 
ment of William of Malmesbury that, in the year 883, 
Sighelmus of Sherborne, being sent by King Alfred 
to Rome with presents to the Pope, proceeded thence 


to the Bast Indies to visit the tomb of St. Thomas [at 
Maliapur, " Peacock-town "], and brought back with him a 
quantity of jewels and spices. Stephens was educated at 
New College, Oxford, and in Goa was Rector of the Jesuits' 
College in Salsette. His letters to his father are said to 
have roused great enthusiasm in England to trade directly 
with India. In 1583 three English merchants, Ralph 
Fitch, James Newberry, and Leedes, went out to India 
overland as private mercantile adventurers. The jealous 
Portuguese threw them into prison at Ormuz, and again at 
Goa. In the end Newberry settled down as a shopkeeper 
at Goa [Fitch says he went home through Persia] ; Leedes 
entered the service of the Great Mogul ; and Fitch, after 
a lengthened peregrination in Ceylon, Bengal, Pegu, Siam, 
Malacca, and other parts of the East Indies, returned to 

In 1686, Sir Thomas Cavendish, following Drake's 
example, commenced his circumnavigation 'of the world, 
by the Straits of Magellan and the Cape of Good Hope, 
touching at the Ladrones on the way. 

In 1587, the Spaniards being about to invade England, 
a strong fleet was sent out under Drake to annoy their 
trade and that of the Portuguese ; and among the ships of 
the latter seized by him was the St. Philip, the first Portu- 
guese carrack coming from the East Indies the English 
had ever taken. The papers of this vessel afforded so 
much information as to the value of the Indian trade, that 
they are considered to have at last fixed the determination 
of the English to establish direct communication with 

Early in 1588 the Spanish Government complained to 
Queen Elizabeth of Drake and Cavendish having infringed 
their divine rights by sailing round the globe. Elizabeth 
haughtily replied that what it was lawful to Spaniards to 
do, was lawful also to Englishmen, " since the sea and air 
" are common to all men." Thereupon the Spaniards sent 
forth the " Invincible Armada " to conquer these islands. 
It was met by the Enghsh fleet under Lord Howard of 


Effingham, Lord Thomas Howard, Sir John Hawkins, Sir 
Martin Frobisher, and Sir Francis Drake, and scattered to 
the four winds. Its Providential destruction gave the 
English great confidence in their navy, and their ability to 
cope with the Spaniards and Portuguese on the high seas ; 
and from this date the merchants of London, like those of 
Holland, began earnestly to devise measures for opening 
direct commerce with the East Indies by the Cape of Good 

In 1591 some merchants of London fitted out three 
ships, the Penelope, Merchant Royal, and Edward Bonad- 
venture, under the command of George Raymond and James 
Lancaster, for trading in the East, and harrying the 
Spaniards and Portuguese. The expedition came to a bad 
end, and it was only after many grievous adventures that 
Lancaster at last returned home without his ship. 

In 1592 some English privateers captured the great 
Portuguese carrack the Madre de Dies,* and brought her 
into Dartmouth, when it was found that her principal 
cargo, after the jewels, consisted of aloes, ambergris, gum 
benjamin, cloves, cinnamon, cocoa-nuts, camphor,' civet, 
ivory, ebony, frankincense, ginger, galangal, hides, musk, 
myrobalans, mace, nutmeg, pepper, and porcelain vessels, 
raw silk and silk stuffs, and other piece goods, tafiaties, 
sarcenets, cloth of gold, calicoes, lawns, quilts, carpets, 
canopies, and various other rich commodities. There was 
also found iu her " The Notable Register or Matricola of the 
" whole Government and Trade of the Portuguese in the East 
" Indies," on which the memorial of the promoters of the 
London East India Company to Queen Elizabeth in 1699 
was principally founded. 

In 1596 Sir Robert Dudley fitted out three ships, under 
the command of Captain Benjamin Wood, for the India 
and China trade ; but the expedition was very un- 

* She was one of the fleet of six ships sent out from Lisbon to Goa 
under Ferdinand de Mendosa in 1591, and was taken on her return 


fortunate, not one of the company ever being heard of 

In 1599, the Dutch, who had now firmly established 
their trade in the East, having raised the price of pepper 
against us from 3s. per lb. to 6s. and 8s., the merchants of 
London held a meeting on the 24th September " at Foun- 
ders' Hall,"* under the Lord Mayor, and agreed to form an 
association for the purpose of establishing direct trade with 
India. Queen Ehzabeth also sent Sir John Mildenhall by 
way of Constantinople to the great Mogul to apply for 
privileges for the English Company, for whom she was 
then preparing a charter ; and on the 31st December 1600 
the English East India Company was incorporated by 
Eoyal Charter under the title of " The Governor and Com- 
pany of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies." 
The early "Voyages" of the Company, " Separate " and 
" Joint Stock," have already been enumerated in the body 
of the " Report on the Old Eecords" [pp. 46-50], and I 
now at once proceed to trace out the settlement of the 
Company's Factories in the East Indies. 


One of the documents connected with the Company's 
application for a charter was a memorandum distinguishing 
the countries in the East Indies with which the Spaniards 
and Portuguese had trade from those with which trade 
might be freely opened by the English. Among the latter 
they name — 

*' The Isle of Madagascar or San Lorenso, upon the 
" backeside of Africa." 

" The kingdoms of Orixa, Bengala, and Aracan." 

"The rich and mightie kingdome of Pegu;" and of 
"Jungalaon," Siam, " Camboia," and " Canchinchina." 

" The most mightie and welthy empire of China." 

* Now in St. Swithin's Lane, but then at Founders Court, Lothbury. I 
find no contemporary evidence of this meeting being held at Founders' Hall. 
It was possibly held in the house of Sir Stephen Evance, Lord Mayor of 
London. The meeting of the 23rd September 1600 was held in Founders' 


" The rich and goulden island of Sumatra ; " and 
"Java Major," "Java Minor," and Bally; Borneo, 
Celebes, Gilolo, and " Os Papuas." 

" The long tracte of Nova Guinea and the Isles of 
" Solomon." 

" The rich and innumerable islands of Malucos, and the 
" Spicerie, excepte the two small islands of Tidore and 
" Amboyno, where the Portugals have only two smal 
" forts ; " Mindanao and Calamines, •' and the greate and 
" smal Lequeos." 

" The manifold and populos sylver islands of the 
" Japones;" and "the countrey of Coray newely dis- 
" covered to the north-east." 

Sir Foulke Grevile, in replying to Sir Francis Wal- 
singham's demand for "the names of such kings as are 
" absolute, and either have warr or traffique with the 
" Kinge of Spaigne," begins, "in Barbarie with the 
" kingdoms of Fess and Morocco," and continues all 
round the coasts of Africa to " Sues " at the top of the 
Eed Sea [" in the bottom of this Sea "]. Then he goes 
round the peninsula of Arabia to Ormuz, and on 
through the countries beyond the Persian Grulf to "the 
" kingdome of Cambaia, which is the fruitfullest of all 
" India, and hath exceedinge greate traflBque." Then 
he passes in review " the cuntrie of the Malabars, 
" who are the best souldiers of India," subdivided 
into the six kingdoms of Baticola, Cochin, " Chananor," 
" Choule," "Coulon," and " Cal^chut." Beyond the 
Malabars "is the Kingdome of Narsinga," "then the 
" Kingdome of Orixen and Bengolen," " as also of 
" Aracan, Pegu, Siam, Tanassaria, and Queda." "The 
" island of Sumatra or Taprobuna is possessed by many 
" kynges, enemies of the Portugals; the chief is the 
" Kinge of Dachem, who besieged them in Malacca, 
•' and with his gallies stopped the passage of victualls 
" and traflScke from China, Japan, and Malacca." 
" The Kynges of Acheyn and Tor are in like sorte 
" enemies of the Portugalls." " The Philippinas be- 


" longed to the crowne of China, but, abandoned by 
" him, were possessed by the Spaniards, who have 
" traffique there with the merchants of China." " They 
" trafficque also with the Chinois at Mackau and 
" Japan." " And, lastlie, at Goa, there is great resort 
" of all nations from Arabia, Armenia, Cambaia, Ben- 
" gola, Pegu, Siam, Malacca, and China, and the 
" Portugals suffer them all to lyve there, after their 
" own manners and religions ; only for matter of justice 
" they are ruled by the Portugal law." This letter of 
Foulke Grevile affords an admirable bird's eye view 'of 
the political and commercial relations of the countries 
along the shores of Africa and Asia at the period of 
the first appearance of the English Company's ships in 
the Eastern Seas. A list of the principal imports from 
the East Indies into Portugal and Holland was also 
prepared by John Chamberlain for the Company, and 
proved most useful to them. As it has never before 
been published, I give it here entire, being indebted 
for it to Mr. Noel Sainsbury, of the Public Record 
Office, who has had it extracted from the " East Indies " 
series. Vol. I,, No. 19. 

" The Comodities of the Este Indies." 

" Sinemonde, pepercase, pepper callycowe [of Calicutl, 
longe pepper, cloves, maces, nutmegges, ginger, mira- 
bolanes in conserve, mirabolanes drye, grene ginger, 
nutmegges in conserve, synamon water, camfyer, 
burrassie, gallingale, cardamente, red sandes [red 
Saunders wood], white sandes [sandalwood], tamor- 
yndes [tamarinds], niyrre, balsam um, momya [wax 
from mummies], masticke, peper in pickell, muske and 
syvitt, amber greise, amber blacke, Benjamyn fyne, 
Benjamyn course, lignum allocs, blew Indea [indigo], 
lacrya to die wethall, hard wax, turbythe, radix china, 
alloies Sicotrinan, spignard, oyle of maces, rubarbe, 
goom appopanare, gum Selapin, gum Elemne, castorium. 


opium, tacamihaca, tutia, boill [?], Indies nuttes [cocoa 
nuts] , silke in clothe, silke rawe, clothe of erra [herba], 
paynted clothes, callycow clothe, ceanaznenas bengallas, 
lynen clothe of fyner sort than callycow clothe of 
goulde, pussellanas [porcelain] certain dishes and plates 
so called, targattes, ffaunes, a stone called bazar [bezoar], 
diamondes, rubyes, saffiers, esmeraldes, pearles greats, 
seide of pearle, turkeis [turquoise], callimas armaticus 
[calamus aromaticus], incense, zedoarya cubebes, quiltes 
of silke." 

Kichard Hakluyt also, the Archdeacon of Westminster, 
and indefatigable collector of narratives of voyages and 
travels, did very important service to the East India 
Company during the early years of its existence. As 
Mr. Winter Jones remarks in his edition [Hakluyt 
Society, 1850] of the Bivers Voyages, " Hakluyt sav?- 
" clearly the course in which lay the advantage and 
" glory of his country ; he saw that maritime traffic, 
" and the acquisition of territory by colonisation, were 
" the means by which England was to improve the 
" moral condition of her people, and maintain her 
" position as a great naval power." To promote these 
objects he actively engaged in schemes for the coloni- 
zation of Virginia, and liberally gave his time and his 
great stores of information to the work of establishing 
trade with India. He supplied the Company with instruc- 
tions for the guidance of their commanders, and with lists 
of products and of merchandise likely to be in demand at 
the various Eastern ports ; and he published the narratives 
of the earliest voyages to India. 

The following extracts are from his list of the chief 
places where " sondry sorte of spices do growe in the 
■' East Indies":— 

Pepper in Malabar, and embarked at " Onor, Barzelor, 
" Mangalor, Cananor, Crangenor, Cochin, and Coulan ; " 
'• all which places are in the Portugalas possession." 
"It groweth also about Calicut; but the Kinge of 
" CaUcut and they are seldom in amity." " Out of 


" the Portugales jurisdiction " it was to be obtained in 
the Isle of " Zeilon," and Sumatra, and "in Queda 
" on the Maine of Malacca," "also in the Kingdome of 
" Patane," in Siam, " in the territories neere Malacca," 
and in the ''Isles of Nicubar." "Long peper" was 
found in Sumatra, Pegu, " Bangala," and in the " Isle of 
" Baratene." 

" The best sinamon groweth in the Isle of Zeilon, the 
" Kinge whereof is the Portugales mortall enemy; where 
" nevertheless they have a small fort called Colombo. 
" Wild sinamon, called by the Portuguese Canella de 
" Mato, groweth in Malabar .... in the isles of 
" Nicubar, .... likewise ... in the islande 
" of Java, and on the Maine by Malaca." 

Cloves "in the isles of Maluco, namely, in Tarenate, 
" Tidore, Motelo, Machian, Bachian, Alatua; on the 
" north-west end of the Isles of Ceiran [Ceram], and in 
"the isles of Ambonio." "Great store of cloves are 
"to be sold in Bantam, and cloves are also brought 
" from Siam to Malaca." " In the isles of Tidore and 
" Ambonio the Portugales have two small fortes, as 
" appeareth by the greate Italian map, taken in the 
" Madre di Bios, which I have translated and caused to be 
" drawne for the Company." 

"Nutmegges and maces, chiefly in the Isle of Banda, 

" and the seven isles thereto adjoyninge, 

" likewise ... in three other greater isles to the 
" north-west, called Ama, Liazer, and Eucellas, 
" and in . . . Borneo, . . . NJava, and . . . 
" Sunda," and " in the Isle of Baratave." 

" The best camphora groweth in canes in the Isle of 
" Borneo," and " about Chiuchen, in a citty of China," 
and in Sumatra and Java. 

" Anil or Indico " in Cambaya, " but is sold good cheape 
" in Bantam." 

Amber is "found on the coaste of Africa about Gofala, 
" Mozambique, and Malinde," also near the isles of Mal- 
divar, and on the coast of China. 


" Muske cometh from Tartarie and from China. It is 
" often falsified by the Chinois and Jewes," 

" Civet, called by the Portuguese Algalia, is found in 
" Bengala, the which people falsifie." 

" Beniamin groweth much in the kingdome of Siam," 
and in Sumatra, Java, and the country near Malacca. 

" Frankincense . . . groweth in Arabia Felix." 

" Myrrhe . . . commeth out of Arabia Felix, and 
" out of the country of the Abassins." 

Manna from Arabia and Persia, " but most out of 
" the province of Usbeke, lying behind Persia, in Tar- 
" tarie." 

" Rheubarbe groweth about Campion, a province and 
" city lying north of China. It is most brought by land 
" through the country of Usbeke . . . and so cometh 
" to Ormus, and thence to Sumatra and Java. The best 
" is brought for the most parte over land to Venice. 
" Rheubarb also groweth abundantly in the country of 
" Malabar. It also cometh from Cathaio or China to 
" Malaca by water." 

' ' Sandalo or sanders are of three sorts, — white, yellow, 
" and red. The white and the yellow [sandalwood] which 
" is the beste come from the islands of Timor and Solar. 
*' . . . The red sanders grow in Coromandel and 
" Tenasseri, on the coast of Pegu." 

Snakewood, or Palo da Cobra " groweth most in the 
" Isle of Zeilon." 

Lignum aloes or " Palo d'aguilla," called in the Indies 
" Calamba," is most plentiful in Malacca, Sumatra, 
Camboya, Siam, " and the countries borderinge on the 
•' same." 

" The roote of China " grows in no place but China. 
" Of opium, tamarindi, mirabolans, spikenard, aloe 
" zocotrina, anacardi, calamus aromaticus, costus, cubebes, 
" galanga, &c., read Linschoten from the 78th to the 83rd 
" chapter." 

Next follows a long table of the prices of " diamantes" 
or "diamondes," rubies, "pearles," and "saphires;" 


and lastly " notes of certayne comodities in good request 
" in the East Indies, the Maluceos, and China," in which 
it is interesting to observe the great demand for silken 
and woollen stuffs and precious stones in the Bast, e.g., 
" velvets, damasks, satins, armesine of Portugal, safron, 
" and skarlets, , . . woollen cloth made at Venice 
" . . . murrey, violet, redmosine, skarlet, light or 
" grasse greene," and " emeraulds from Cairo and the 
'* Spanish Indies." Also are noted " opinno or aflfron," 
" chekines* of gold," and " counterfeiete stones . . . 
" brought from Venice, to deceve the rude Indians 
" withal." In completing his great work, Hakluyt said, 
with truth, ' ' the honour and benefit of this common- 
" wealth hath made all difficulties seem easy, and pains 
" and industry pleasant, and expenses of light value and 
" moment to me." 


The English were everywhere opposed from the first, 
as the Dutch had been, by the Portuguese ; but James 
Lancaster succeeded in the " First Voyage "t in esta- 
blishing commercial relations with the King of Acheen 
in 1602, and at Priaman in the island of Sumatra, and 
with the Moluccas, and at Bantam in the island of 
Java, where he settled a Factory or " House of Trade " 
in 1603 [see 1621, 1629-30, 1634-35, 1677, and 1682]. 

* That is, the Venetian zecchino, cecchino, or sequin ; which again is the' 
Arabic sihkat, a stamp for coins. In the mouth of Anglo-Indians of the 
17th century the word became chekine or cMckeen and chick, in which forms it 
is stUl current in India in such phrases as " to spend a chick " [4 rupees] ; 
"I bet you a chick " ; and " chicken stakes." We use the same word direct 
from the Arabic in the phrase " sicca-rupee." 

t These early voyages of the Company inspired Milton with some of the 
finest imagery in his descriptions of Satan. 
Thus in "Paradise Lost," Book II., 629-43 :— 

"Meanwhile .... 

Puts on swift wings 

Up to the fiery concave towering high. 


The good fortune of this voyage was so great that it 
induced a number of private merchants to endeavour 
to obtain a participation in the new trade; and in 1604 

As when far o£f at sea a fleet descried 

Hangs In -the clouds, by eijuinoctial winds 

Close sailing from Bengala, or the isles 

Of Ternate and Tidore, whence merchants bring 

Their spicy drugs ; they on the trading flood 

Through the wide Ethiopeau to the Cape 

Ply stemming nightly toward the pole. So seemed 

Far off the flying flend." 

And again, Book IV., 131-168 : 

" So on he fares, and to the border conies 
Of Eden, 

A sylvan scene 

Of stateliest view 

able to drive 
All sadness but despair; now gentle gales 
Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense 
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole 
Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail 
Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past 
Mozambic, off at sea north-east winds blow 
Sabean odours from the spicy shore 
Of Araby the Blest ; with such delay 
Well pleased they slack their course, and many a league. 
Cheered with the grateful smell Old Ocean smiles : 
So entertained those odorous sweets the fiend 
Who came their bane." 

Mr. Markham has pointed out, in the volume of Lancaster's Voyages edited 
'hj him for the Hakluyt Society, that Hamlet and Richard the Secorul were per- 
formed by the sailors of Keeling's ship the Dragon, in the Third Voyage ; and 
the Company's sailors were possibly equally well known to Shakespeare. The 
following are his two most interesting allusions to the new ocean trade with 
India : — 

" I will be cheaters [i.e., escheator — lapse-heir] to them both, and they 
shall be exchequers tome ; they shall be my East and West Indies, and 
I will trade to them both." — Merry Wnes of Windsor [1601], Act. I., 
sc. 3. 

" He does smile his face into more lines than are on the new map 
with the augmentation of the Indies." — Ttcelftk Night [1601], Act III., 
sc. 2. 

The "new map" thus immortalised was, Mr. Markham tells me, the 
map produced in 1599 by Edward Wright, on the projection called Mercator's, 
but the true principles of which were first demonstrated by Wright. The 
map is literally covered with lines, drawn from many centres to guide the 
eye on various bearings. Hence the allusion to " more lines than are on the 
new map." " The augmentation of the Indies " refers to the great exten- 
sion and improvement in delineating the lands of the East, for which this 
map was long famous. Japan, now, for the first time, assumes its modem 


James I. granted a license to Sir Edward Michelborne 
and others to trade "to Cathay, China, Japan, Corea, 
" and Cambaya." Michelborne, however, on arriving in 
the East, instead of exploring new sources of commerce, 
as the East India Company were doing, followed the 
pernicious example of the Portuguese in plundering the 
native traders among the islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. He in this way secured a considerable booty, but 
brought great disgrace on the British name, and much 
hindered the Company's business at Bantam. 

In 1604 the Company undertook their " Second 
Voyage," commanded by Sir Henry Middleton, who, 
notwithstanding the antipathy created by Michelborne's 
piratical proceedings, extended their trade to Banda 
and Amboyna. 

In the Company's " Third Voyage," 1606-7, con- 
sisting of the Dragon under Keelinge, the Hector 
under William Hawkins, and the Consent under David 
Middleton, Hawkins sailed direct to Surat, and 
thence sending the Hector on to Bantam, himself 
travelled to Agra, with a letter from James I. to the 
Great Mogul [Jehangir, 1605-27]. Through the 
machinations of the Portuguese he failed in his mission, 
and returned to England in 1613. At Bantam, the 
Dragon and Consent and Hector were loaded with 
pepper and other spicery, including a small quantity of 

shape, and there is a marked development in the geography of India, Ceylon, 
Cochin China, and Corea. 

One of the most remarkable of Shakespeare's allusions to India, as illus- 
trating the minute knowledge of the people of that country possessed by 
Englishmen in his day, is to be found in Henry VIII. [brought out as " All 
is True," 1613], Act V., sc. 8, where the Porter, resisting the angry mob at 
the door of the Palace Yard, exclaims : — " Or have we some strange Indian 
-with the great tool come to Court, the women so besiege us ? " 

The allusion is to the Saiva gosain, Vaishnava virayi, and other wandering 
devotees of Siva and Vishnu in their phallic aspects, who, on approaching a 
village, are met by the Hindu women, and pressingly entreated to honour 
them by accepting the hospitality of their persons. For particulars see 
Picart's Ceremonies et Covtwmes Religieuses, Amsterdam, 1728. 


cloves from Amboyna, which were sold in London for 
36,287Z,, or over twelve times the price paid for them, 
viz., 2,94:81. 13s. The net profits on this voyage amounted 
to 234 per cent, upon the original subscription. 

In the "Fourth Voyage," 1607-9, the Ascension under 
Keelinge, after the latter had obtained a grant of free 
trade to Aden, in April 1609, was vprecked oflf Diu ; and 
the Union under Richard RovfIcs, after loading with pepper 
at Priaman, was lost on her way home off the coast of 

In 1608 Captain D. Middleton, in command of the 
" Fifth Voyage," was prevented by the Dutch from 
trading at Banda, but succeeded in obtaining a cargo at 
Pulo Way. 

In 1608 also the Company constructed the Dockyard 
at Deptford [the "Royal Dockyard " was established there 
about 1513, and closed 13th March 1869] ; and this was 
the beginning, observes Sir William Monson, " of the 
" increase of great ships in England." At the date of 
Queen Elizabeth's death there were not more than four 
merchant ships in the kingdom of 400 tons each, and the 
whole number of ships was barely 150, of an average of 
150 tons each. 

In 1609 the Company received their new charter [dated 
31st May] from King James I., by which the exclusive 
privileges granted them by Queen Elizabeth to 1615 were 
made perpetual. 

In 1611 Sir Henry Middleton, in command of the 
" Sixth Voyage," after a vain attempt to settle an agency 
at Mocha, arrived before Cambay, and having resolutely 
repulsed the Portuguese, who tried to beat him off, 
obtained some important concessions from the native 
powers. He then proceeded to Ticcoo, in Sumatra, 
where, and at Bantam, he loaded the Peppercorn and 
Darling with pepper and spices, and sent them home ; 
he remaining behind to repair the damage done to the 
Trades Increase, of 1,100 tons, the largest merchant 
ship as yet built in England. She capsized, however. 


while being overhauled, and was then burnt by the 
natives ; and her loss so much affected Sir Henry that 
he died of grief shortly afterward. But notwithstanding 
her destruction, the net profits on this voyage were over 
120Z. per cent. 

In 1610-11 also. Captain Hippon, commanding the 
" Seventh Voyage," succeeded in establishing agencies 
at PettipoUee [? Pedapali] and Metchlipatam [Masuli- 
patam], on the Coromandel Coast, and in Siam, and 
opened a free trade also at Patania or Patany on the 
Malay Peninsula ; but he was prevented by the Dutch 
from trading at Pulicat. 

In 1612 the Company's fleet, of the " Tenth Voyage," 
under the brave and discreet Captain Best, was attacked 
off Swalley, the port of Surat, north of the mouth of 
the river Taptee, in overwhelming force by the Portu- 
guese, whom after four successive engagements he 
utterly defeated, to the great astonishment of the 
natives, for they had hitherto considered them to be 
invincible. The firstfruits of this decisive victory were 
the obtaining of the privilege to keep an English 
Ambassador at Agra, and the settlement of a factory 
at Surat, with subordinate agencies at G-ogo, Ahmed- 
abad, and Cambay. Trade was also opened with the 
Persian Gulf. But the chief trade of the Company 
was still with the Indian Archipelago, and though 
Surat was their greatest emporium in India, it long 
continued subordinate to Bantam [see 1606-7 and 

In 1612 Captain Newport, commanding the Expedition, 
of the " Twelfth " and last " Separate Voyage," took out 
Sir Kobert Shirley, and Sir Dodmore Cotton, the King's 
Ambassador to Persia [Shah Abbas], and after having 
failed to establish an agency at Diu, sailed on to Ticcoo 
[or Tecoaj and Bantam, and loaded home with pepper. 

In 1613, Captain Saris, commanding the " Eighth 
Voyage " [sailed 1611], established an agency at Eirando 
in Japan. 


In 1614 an agency was established by Mr. Edwards of 
the Surat factory at Ajmere. 

It was in this year the Dutch Government proposed 
to the Enghsh Government to put an end to the rivalry 
between the English and Dutch Companies in the East 
by amalgamating them, on the basis of their capture of 
the Moluccas from the Spaniards and the subscription 
of a joint capital stock of 1,200,000Z. But the English 
["London"] Company rejected the tempting offer, on 
the ground that war was a State business, and contrary to 
the course to be pursued in commercial enterprises, and 
intended to be pursued by them, and that it was opposed 
to sound commercial principles for two nations to join in 
monopolising a trade to the exclusion of others, and more- 
over impracticable. 

In 1615 Sir Dudley Digges published his famous 
pamphlet entitled A Defence of Commerce, showing 
that the re-export of Indian goods from England to the 
Continent had yearly exceeded the value of the bullion 
exported from England to India ; that the English 
nation had, from the time of the establishment of the 
East India Company saved 70,000Z. a year in the price 
of pepper and other spices ; and had further benefited 
from the commerce with India by the increase of the 
customs revenue and the building of great ships, and 
the employment of large numbers of Englishmen in the 
Company's business. In the previous year, 1614, the 
Company had exported to India 14,000/. worth of English 
woollen goods, "bays, kersies, and broadcloths," and 
10,000/. worth of iron, lead, and foreign merchandise, 
against 12,000/. sent out in bullion; while the shipping 
employed by them that year had cost 34,000/., and the 
provisioning of them and other contingent charges had 
amounted to 30,000/. more. 

In the same year Sir Thomas Roe was sent out by 
James I. as Ambassador to the Court of Jehanghir, and, 
on arriving at Agra in the follov^ring year, succeeded in 
placing the Company's trade in the Mogul dominions 


on a more favourable footing. Also in this year a 
temporary agency was opened at Cambello in the island of 

In 1616 we established factories at Calicut and Cranga- 
nore ; and the Danes established their factories at Seram- 
pore and Tranquebar, sold to us in 1845. 

In 1617 possession was obtained of the islands of Pulo 
Eoon and Eosengyn, and a factory was established at 
Macassar; and at this period the Company had, in the 
Archipelago, factories at Acheen, Jambi, and Ticcoo 
[or Tecoa] in Sumatra, at Bantam, Jacatra [afterward 
Batavia], and Japara in Java, in Banda, at Succadana and 
Banjarmassin in Borneo, at Patania in the Malay Penin- 
sula, at Siam, at Macassar in the island of Celebes, at 
Firando in Japan, at Masulipatam and Pettipollee on the 
Coromandel Coast, at " Amedavar," Agra, " Agimere," 
" Brampore," and Surat in "the Moguls Dominions," and 
at Oranganore and Calicut on the Malabar Coast ; the 
whole of these factories being subordinate to Bantam. 
The factory at Surat was the chief seat of the Company's 
Government in Western India [as it was of all their pos- 
sessions in the East Indies between 1629 and 1635], until 
the Presidency was transferred to Bombay in 1685-87. 
In the year 1617 also the Dutch established factories at 
Surat and Broach. 

In 1618 the English established a factory at Mocha; 
but the Dutch compelled us to resign all pretensions 
to the ' Spice Islands.' In this year also the Company 
failed in its trade with Dabul, Baticola, and Calicut, 
through a want of sincerity on the part of the 

In 1619 the Company was permitted to settle a factory 
and build a fort at Jasques, in the Persian Gulf. 

It was in 1619 also that the "Treaty of Defence" 
with the Dutch, to prevent the harassing and disastrous 
disputes that were always going on between them and 
ourselves in the East, was ratified, but it came to 
nothing. When proclaimed at Bantam, hostilities were 



solemnly suspended for the space of an hour, while the 
Dutch and EngUsh fleets, dressed out in all their flags, 
and with yards manned, saluted each other with great 
cordiality; but the treaty ended in the smoke of that 
stately salutation, and the perpetual and fruitless con- 
tentions between the Dutch and English Companies 
continued as before. 

Up to this time the English Company had not 
any portion of territory in sovereign right in the 
Indies, excepting the island of Lantore or Grreat 
Banda. This island was governed by a commercial 
agent of the Company, who had under him 30 Euro- 
peans, as clerks, overseers, and warehousemen ; and 
these, with 250 armed Malays, constituted the only 
force by which it was protected. In the islands of 
Banda, Pulo Boon, and Eosengyn, and at Macassar 
and Acheen, and Bantam, the Company's factories and 
agents were without any military defence. Such was 
the precarious situation of the English in the East on 
the eve of their long struggle for commercial equality with, 
the Dutch, whose ascendancy in the Indian Archipelago 
was already firmly established on the solid basis of terri- 
torial dominion and authority. 

In 1620 the Dutch, notwithstanding the Treaty of 
Defence, concluded the previous year, expelled us from 
Pulo Boon and Lantore, and in 1621 from Bantam. 
The fugitive factors attempting to establish themselves 
first at Pulicat, were eflfectually opposed there by the 
Dutch, and afterward found an asylum at Masulipatam 

In 1620 also the Portuguese made an attack upon the 
English fleet under Captain ShilUnge, but were again 
defeated with great loss ; and from this time the estima- 
tion in which the Portuguese were held by the natives 
of India steadily declined, while that of the English was 
proportionately raised. 

In 1620 also the Company established agencies at Agra 
and Patna : and the " Indico " or " Indian woad " imported 


from Agra this year amounted to 200,000 lbs., bought at 
Is. 2d. per lb. and sold in London at 5s. 

In 1621 Sir Thomas Mun, Deputy Governour of the 
Company, published his Discourse of Trade from England 
to the East Indies. In this he showed that the annual 
consumption in Europe of the following articles from 
Southern Asia then was : — 


Pepper - - - 6,000,000 

Cloves - - - 450,000 

Nutmegs - - - 400,000 

Indigo - - 350,000 

Mace - - - - 150,000 

Kaw silk [Persia] - - 1,000,000 

This, by the old overland route, would have cost 

1,465,000^, but by the new sea route cost only 511,458/. 

Moreover, the English consumption of these articles 

being about one tenth of the continental, the original 

price paid for them by the Company was more than 

recovered on the portion of them re-exported to the 

Continent : besides which the entire cost of the ships, 

VT^ages, provisions, and insurance, was paid out of the gross 

profits of the Company's trade to the English people. In 

fact, the only bullion exported by the Company out of 

England was but a fractional portion of what was imported 

into the country from the Continent of Europe in payment 

of their re-exported cargoes of pepper and other Indian 


In 1622 the English, joining with the Persians, attacked 
and took Ormuz from the Portuguese, and obtained from 
Shah Abbas a grant in perpetuity of half the customs of 
Gombroon. This was the first time that the English took 
the offensive against the Portuguese. ' 

On the 17th February 1622/23 occurred the " Massacre 
of Amboyna : " and from this time the Dutch remained 
masters of Lantore and the neighbouring islands, and of 
the whole trade of the Indian Archipelago, until these 
islands were recaptured by the English in the great naval 
wars between 1781 and 1793 and 1811. 


In 1624 the English, unable any longer to oppose the 
Dutch in the Indian Archipelago, withdrew nearly all their 
factories there, and in the Malay Peninsula, Siam, and 
Japan. Some of the factors and agents retired to the 
island of Lagundy in the Strait of Sunda, but were forced, 
by its unhealthiness, to abandon it. 

In 1625-26 a factory was established at Armagon on 
the Ooromandel Coast, subordinate to Masulipatam ; and in 
1628 Masulipatam was, in consequence of the oppressions 
of the native governor, abandoned for a time in favour of 

In 1626 the BngHsh, with the Dutch, seized the 
island of Bombay on the Malabar Coast from the Portu- 
guese, but for some unexplained reason immediately 
abandoned it.* 

* Among the " SHIPS' JOURNALS " preserved in the Record Depart- 
ment of the India Office are the " Journals '' of three Englishmen present on 
the occasion above referred to ; and, as they are the earliest EngUsh notices 
of Bombay, I extract at length the entries relating to this obscure and long 
forgotten, but, to aU " Ducks," deeply interesting event : — 

A. From Andrew Warden's Journal in the William : — " 1626, Oct. 15. In 
the moringn stood in and ankred and landed of y^ Eingles and the Duches 
sum 400 meane at the leaste and tocke the forte & caseH and the towne, and 
sett fire of it and all the towne, and all the howesem [housen, i.e., houses] 
theraboutes, the pepeU being all run away that night and ded caray away aU 
the best cometeies [commodities] levein nothein butt trashe. 

" Oct. 16. In the moringen we sate sayle." 

B. From John Viands Journal in the Discovery : — "1626. Oct. 13. This 13th 
daye we and the whole fiieete both of Enghsh & Duch went into Bumbay 
and came to an anckor in 9 fatham, one pointe beareinge W.N.W. p com- 
passe, the other S. S. W., the one 3 mile of, the other 3 leagus of ; this was in 
the entringe of the harbor. 

" Oct. 14. This dale we went with the whole ffleete in further, neare a 
small towne or village, where there were PortingaUs. Wee anckored and 
rode a mile of, in 6 fadd., one point p comp. beareinge W.S. W. 5 mile of, the 
other S. @ b. W. some 5 lea. of. Wee came soe neere the Towne with two 
of our shipps that wee droue them all awaye with our great ordnance, viz. the 
Morrice of the English, and y" Mauritius of the Duch. In safetie we landed 
our men on shore, whoe pilladged the Towne, and set their houses aU on fixe 
with their ffort neere the water side. Yea, we staide there the 15th daye 
doeinge all the spoyle that possiblie we could, but we gott nothinge to 
speake of but vittuall. Soe when wee had done all the harme we could, 
the 15th daye in the euening wee gott our men aboord leaueinge the Towne 
on fire, and 



" The letters B B is the Bay ; t is the Town ; Sy is the three rivers ; the Bo: 
(Boad) is two rooks, one both sides (P one each side). Where the stem (P) of 
the anchors (is), we rode before the great house without (outside) the stakes. 
Where the wood (is), is the island. The higher great pyramid is a castle, as 
we think, up in the land.. The letter G by the great tree is a hermitage. The 
letter ilf is a monastery, and the little town of cittjohn (? citizen) houses be- 
twixt it and the wood. Where the letter / (is), there were a dozen frigates 
riding. The letter N over Bassein is a nunnery." 

Plate VII. Sketch Map of Bombay Harbour, 1626. 

(from David Davies' Journal) . 


In 1629 the factory at Bantam was re-established as 
a subordinate agency to Surat ; and in 1630 Armagon, 
reinforced by 20 soldiers, was placed under the Presidency 
of Surat. 

In 1632 the Company re-established their factory at 
Masulipatam under a firman, known as the " Golden 
Firman," from the King of Golconda [Abdallah-Kulb 
Shah, 1611-72]. Under an extension of this firman, 
obtained in 1634-35, the Company founded a factory at 
Verasheroon [Viravasaram] . It was withdrawn in 1662 
and re-established in 1677. 

In 1633 Azim Khan, Governor of Bengal [1632-37], 
having received orders from the Great Mogul [Shah 
Jehan, 1628-58] " to expel the idolaters [Portuguese] 
from his dominions," the Portuguese fort at Hugli, under 
Michael Rodrigues, was seized after a brave resistance, 
and its defenders driven out of Bengal. None of them 

" The 16 daye in tlie morneinge when the winde cam of shore, wee wayed 
anckor, and went of to sea again." 

C. From David Dames' Journal in the Discovery. — 1626. " Oct. 13. The 
13th we went into the Baye and Roade w'i'out the stakes, as you maye see in 
the draft following. 

" The 14th the Moris & ij° Dutch shipps went in neere the greate howse 
to batter agaynst it, in w""" batterie ij° of the Moris ordnance spHtt ; the same 
dale we landed 300 men Englishe and Dutch and burnt all their kittjonns 
[citizens'] howses and tooke the greate howse w* ij basses [" the smallest 
kind of cannon used in the 16th and 17th centuries" — see Murray's New 
English Dictionary'] of brasse & one sakor [saker, i.e., literally, ' a hawk,' * a 
denomination of cannon] of iron. 

" The 16th all our men embarkqued aboorde the shipps being sonday in 
the evening, and lefte the greate howse w""" was boath a warehowse, a friory, 
and a forte, all afire burning w"" many other good howses together w"" two 
nywe frigates not yett frome the stockes nor fully ended ; but they hadd 
caried awaye all their treasur and all things of any valine, for aU were runde 
awaye before our men landed." 

The sketch map appended to David Davies' Journal is reproduced in the 
plate opposite [No. Vn.]. 

I am indebted for these extracts to Mr. W. Foster, B.A., of the Registry 
and Records Department under Mr. F. C. Danvers. 

* Professor Max Miillerhas pointed out in his iectures on language [2nd series, 1864, p. 229] 
how on the decline of falconry the names of the birds used in that sport were transferred 
to fliearma. Thus, the " musket " took its name from the dappled [" musoatus "] sparrow 
hawk. In Italy this bird [tei-iPu!o] gave the name of tei-zei-ulo to the pistol, and in Prance to 
the sacre, or, in English, saker, a gun of which there were three denominations, carrying 
shots weighing respectively i, 6, and 9 pounds. 


were personally ill-treated, but their "idols" were all 

ruthlessly destroyed. 

In 1634, by a firman dated February 2nd, the Company 
obtained from the Great Mogul the liberty to trade in 
Bengal, without any other restriction than that their ships 
were to resort only to Pipley, or Pippli, in Orissa, where 
they had had a factory from 1624. 

In 1634-35 Bantam was again raised to an independent 
Presidency ; and an agency was established at Tatta, or 
" Scindy." 

In 1637€ourten's Association [chartered 1635] settled 
agencies at Goa, Baticola, Carwar, Acheen, and Rajapore 
in the dominions of the King of Bijapur [Mahomed, 
1626-56]. Their ships had the year before plundered 
some native vessels at Surat and Diu, a piratical act which 
disgraced the Company with the Mogul authorities [who 
could not comprehend the distinction between the Com- 
pany and the Association], and depressed the English 
trade with Surat, while that of the " lustick Dutch " was 
proportionately increased. 

In 1638 Armagon was abandoned as unsuited for com- 
merce ; and in consequence Fort St. George ["Madras- 
patam," " Chineepatam "] was founded by Francis Day,* 
1639-40 ; the factors at Armagon being at once removed 

* In the first volume of the '^ Black Books" [see pp. 30-1], page 32, the 
following entry is made of a letter from " Surratt," dated " 27 Jan : Anno 
1641 " :— 

" Frauncis Day blamed to bee the first projector of the forte of St. George. 
The worke begunne by Frauncis Day and paid for out of the Company's 

Again, at page 33, among the charges which Andrew Cogan [Agent for the 
Coromandel Coast] is to be required to answer, the following head the 

" To answeare the building of the ffort St. George, the charge whereof 
hath cost from y first of March 1639 to yo 30th June 1643, pagods new 

" To give accompt whether it bee finished or how farre it is proceeded. 

" To answeare what the charge of y« souldiers monethly is to mainteyne the 
ffort ; as well for wages, victual! and otherwise." 

Mr. Cogan's answer to these interrogations wiU be found in O. C. 1751. 

I am indebted for these instructive extracts to Mr. W. Foster, B.A., 
of the Registry and Records Department under Mr. F. C. Danvers. 


to it. Fort St. George was made subordinate to Bantam, 
until raised in 1653-54 to the rank of a Presidency. Its 
site was the first territorial acquisition of the English in 

In 1640 the Company established an agency at Bus- 
sorah, and factories at Hughly and Carwar. 

The Company's trade having now become much ex- 
tended, their yard at Deptford was found too small for 
their ships, and they therefore purchased some copyhold 
ground at Blackwall, at that time a waste marsh, without 
an inhabitant ; and there they opened another dockyard, 
and built the Royal James, of 1,200 tons, the largest 
merchant ship yet seen in England.* 

In 1642 the factory at Pipley was transferred to Bala- 
sore ; and in this year the first regular despatches were 
received by the Company from Mr. Francis Day from both 
Fort St. George and Balasore. 

In 1645 additional privileges were granted to the Com- 
pany by Shah Jehan ; and in 1646 the Governor of Bengal 
[Sultan Shujah, 1639-60] made further concessions, 
placing the factories at Balasore and Hughly on the most 
favourable footing. At this period, 1645-50, however, 
the trade of the Company suffered great depression owing 
to the ascendancy of the Puritan party in England affect- 
ing the home demand for silks, figured stuffs, and other 
denominations of artistic piece goods ; and to rumours of 
the civil war in England having at length reached the 
East. The Company was seriously injured thereby, par- 
ticularly in Persia, where the " tragicall storye of the 
Kinge's beheadinge " [Charles I., 30th January 1649] 
made a deep and lasting impression. 

In 1647 Courten's Association established their colony 
at Assada, in Madagascar. 

* The Henry Grace de Dieu, commonly called the " Great Harry " of the 
Koyal Navy in 1522 is said, in the Pepysian papers at Cambridge, to have 
been of 1,500 tons burden ; but in aU other accounts it is given as 1,000 tons. 
The largest ship in. Queen Ehzabeth's Navy, the Triumph, commanded by 
Martin Frobisher against the Spanish Armada, was of 1,100 tons burden. 


In 1651 the Dutch founded their colony at the Cape 
of Good Hope, abandoning St. Helena, which they had 
held from 1645. Thereon the Enghsh Grovernment took 
possession of the island, which on being wrested from 
them by the Dutch in 1672-73 was at once re-taken by 
them, and made over to the Bast India Company by the 
charter of Charles TI., dated 16th December 1674. 
Already by the charter granted by Charles II,, the 3rd of 
April 1661, the Company had been authorised to plant 
and fortify St. Helena. 

In 1662 Cromwell, the author of the obsolete "Navi- 
gation Laws," " the Palladium of England," wearied out 
of all patience with the Dutch, on account of their long 
accumulated cruel injuries against the Company, at last 
declared war against them, and prosecuted it with such 
vigour that the Dutch were speedily constrained to entreat 
for peace on any terms the great Protector might please 
to prescribe. 

Accordingly, by the Treaty of Westminster, 1654, the 
Dutch agreed to restore Pulo Eoon [elsewhere " Rohun "] 
to the English Company, to pay them an indemnity of 
85,000/., and a further sum of 3,615Z. to the heirs and 
executors of the victims of the " Massacre of Amboyna." 
This settlement gave new life and spirit to the Company's 
trade, that at this time had, from various causes, but 
chiefly from the unyielding antagonism of the Dutch, 
become greatly depressed. But the rapacious and wily 
Dutch took care before ostensibly leaving Pulo Boon to 
grub up all the spice trees on the island ; and then, lest 
we might lay out new plantations of them, they, in de- 
fiance of the Treaty of Westminster, continued in surrepti- 
tious possession of the place, doing all the mischief they 
could to it, until Major Willoughby was appointed English 
Governour in 1663. But in 1664 the Dutch again seized 
the island, and held it until it was finally ceded to them by 
the Treaty of Breda, 1667. 

In 1653 the Company's factory at Lucknow was with- 
drawn. No record has been found of its establishment. 


In 1653-54 Fort St. George [Madras] was constituted 
a Presidency, with Mr. Aaron Baker, at that time 
Agent under the President at Bantam, as first 

In 1655, in the " Masulipatam Consultations " of 
December 4th, mention is made of a factory at Dala- 
padie, in addition to the factories at Verasheroon and 
Pettipollee already mentioned. In this year also the 
Company of " Merchant Adventurers," composed of the 
rump of Courten's " Association," obtained their charter 
from Cromwell to trade with India ; but in 1657 were 
united by Cromwell with the " London " Company. 

In 1656-57 the Dutch established a factory at Chin- 
surah. It was taken by us in 1795, given back to the 
Dutch in 1814-15, and finally ceded to us with Malacca, 
in exchange for Bencoolen, by treaty in 1824-25. 

In 1658 the Company established a factory at Cossim- 

bazaar [" Castle Bazaar "] ; and made their establishments 

in Bengal subordinate to Fort St. George, instead of to 

Bantam. This arrangement remained in force until 1681. 

In 1660-61 they established a mint at Madras. 

In 1661 the factory at Biliapatam was founded. 

In 1661 also Bombay was ceded, and in 1665 delivered 

up, to the British Crown ; and transferred by Charles II. 

to the East India Company by the charter of the 27th of 

March 1669, which specifies that the Port and Island were 

to be held by the Company, " as of the Manor of East 

Greenwich," in free and common soccage, at a farm rent 

of lOL, payable on the 30th of September each year. 

The seat of the Western Presidency was removed to 

Bombay from Surat in 1685-87. 

At this time the Company's establishments in the East 
Indies consisted of the Presidency of Bantam, with its 
dependencies of Jambi, Macassar, and other places in 
the Indian Archipelago ; Fort St. George and its dependent 
factories on the Coromandel Coast and in the Bay of 
Bengal ; and Surat, with its affiliated dependency of Bom- 
bay, and dependent factories at Broach, Ahmedabad, and 


other places in Western India, and at Gombroon in the 
Persian Grulf, and Bussorah in the Euphrates Valley. 

In 1663 the factories established at Patna, Balasore, 
and Cossim bazaar were ordered to be discontinued, and 
purchases made only at Hugly. 

In the years 1663 and 1 664, the English at Surat and 
in the Indian Archipelago were much harassed by the 

* " Great talk of the Dutch proclaiming themselves, in India, Lords of the 
" Southern Seas, and denying traffick there to all ships but their own, upon 
" pain of confiscation; which makes our merchants mud."— Pepys, 9th Feb. 

" This afternoon Sir Thomas Chamberlin " [son of the Judge William 
Chamberlayne, created a baronet 1642] " came to the office to me, and 
" shewed me several letters from the East Indys, shewing the height that the 
" Dutch are come to there, shewing scorn to all the English, even in our own 
" Factory there at Surat, beating several men, and hanging the English 
" standard St. George under the Dutch flag in scorn ; saying that whatever 
" their masters do or say at home they will do what they list and be masters 
" of aU the world there ; and have so proclaimed themselves Soveraigne of 
" all the South Seas ; which certainly our King cannot endure, if Parliament 
" will give him money. But I doubt, and yet do hope, they wUl not yet, 
" until we are more ready for it." — Idem, 15th Feb. 1663/64. 

" Mr. Coventry and I did long discourse of the business of the office " 
[Admiralty], " and the war with the Dutch, and he seemed to argue mightily 
" for the little reason that there is for all this. For first, as to the wrong we 
" pretend that they have done us, — that of the East Indies, for their not 
" delivering Poleron, — it is not yet known whether they have failed or no ; 
" and that of their hindering the Leopard cannot amount to above 3,000^., if 
" true."— 76«d, May 29, 1664. 

The English Company were the more exasperated by the hindrances and 
oppressions of the Dutch because their trade was at this time becoming 
prosperous, of which both Evelyn and Pepys give evidence. 

" One Tomson, a Jesuit, showed me a collection of rarities sent from the 
" Jesuits of Japan and China, . . . brought to London in the East India 
" ships for them, .... rhinoceros horns, and glorious vests [vestments] 
" wrought and embroidered in cloth of gold, with such lovely colours that for 
" splendour and vividness we have nothing in Europe that approaches it ; a 
" girdle studded with achats and rubies of great value and size, . . . knives, 
"... fanns with long handles curiously carved, and flUed with Chinese cha- 
" racters ; a sort of paper, very broad and tliin and fine, like abortive parch- 
" ment, exquisitely pohshed, of an amber colour, exceeding glorious and 
" pretty, and seeming to be like that which my Lord Verulame describes in 
" his ' Nova Atlantis ' ; prints of landskips, idols, saints, pagodas of most 
" ugly, monstrous, and hideous shapes ; pictures of men and countries, 
" painted on a sort of gum'd calico, transparent as glass ; flowers, trees, 
" beasts, birds, excellently wrought on a kind of sleeve silk, very natural ; 


In 1664 Surat was pillaged by Sivaji, but Sir George 
Oxenden bravely defended the English factory ; and the 
Mogul Emperor [Aurungzib, 1658-1707], in admiration 
of his conduct, granted the Company exemption from 
customs for one year. 

In this year also the Company suffered great loss through 
the decision against them that calico was to be regarded 
as linen.* 

In 1665, Mr. George Foxcroft, having been sent out as 
President at Fort St. George in succession to Sir Edward 
Winter, was [16th September] seized by the latter and, 
with his little son, and Mr. [afterward Sir] Jeremy Sam- 
brooke, thrown into prison ; Sir Edward Winter contuma- 
ciously holding on in office for three years more, or until 
22nd August 1668. 

In 1666, on the Honourable Sir Gervase Lucas becoming 
Governour of Bombay, he threw his officiating predecensor, 
Mr. Humfrey Cooke [Secretary to Sir Abraham Shipman], 
into prison for extortion and peculation. Cooke escaped 
to Goa, and there, with the assistance of the Jesuits, 
organized a levy for the capture of Bombay ; but was 
frustrated in his attempt, and proclaimed a traitor in 
J 668. 

In 1666 also tea was first imported for sale into England 

" divers drugs, that our druggists and physitians could make nothing of,. 
" especially one called ' Lac Tigridis ' " [see note on Lac, page 39] ; " several 
" book MSS. , a grammar, with innumerable other rarities." — Evelyn's Diary, 
22nd June 1664. 

"To ErifEe ; . . . and there he [Lord Brouncker] and Sir Edmund Pooly 
" carried me down into the hold of the India shipp [a Dutch prize] and 
" there did show me the greatest wealth he in confusion that a man can see 
" in this world. Pepper scattered through every chink, you trod upon it : 
" and in cloves and nutmegs I walked above the knees, whole rooms fuU. 
" And silks in bales, and boxes of copper-plate, one of which I saw opened."' 
—Pepys, 16th Nov. 1665. 

* "Sir Martin Noell told us the dispute between him, as farmer of the 
" Additional Duty, and the East India Company, whether calico be linen or 
" no ; which he says it is, having been ever esteemed so [I] ; they [the Com- 
" pany] say it is made of cotton woole, and grows upon trees, not like flax 
" or hemp. But it was carried against the Company, though they stand out 
" against the veTdict."— Pepys, 27th Feb. 1663/4. 


from Holland. The Company's first importations of tea, 
direct from Bantam, were received in 1669 [see p. 26, note]. 

In 1667 Pulo Roon was, as above [1654] stated, finally 
abandoned to the Dutch by the Treaty of Breda. 

In 1668 a factory was established at Vizagapatam. 

In this year [1668] also the survivors of the King's 
[Charles II. ] soldiers sent out with Sir Abraham 
Shipman to garrison Bombay, on the transfer of the 
island to the Company volunteered into their service, 
and became the cadre of the Honourable Company's 
"1st European Regiment," or "Bombay Fusileers," 
afterward the 103rd Foot. 

In 1671 the Company ordered the building of tvfo 
brigantines at Bombay, and this was the beginning of 
their famous Dockyard there. 

In this year also the Bombay Mint was founded ; and, 
by the King's Letters Patent, dated 5th October 1677, 
was authorized to coin " Rupees [rupya, silver-' stamped,' 
" i.e., ' coined,' from rupa, ' form '], Pices [i.e., paisa, 
" -jth of an anna, or ^^^th of a rupee], and BudgrooJcs"* 
[badaga-ruka, "base coin," ^ih of an anna, and identical, 
theiefore, with the present "pie," i.e., pai]. 

* Tavernier, writing in 1676 of " the money which the English and Hol- 
" landers coin in the Indies," says : — " Formerly the English never coined any 
" .Silver or Copper Money; for . . . they find it more profitable to carry 

" Gold from England than Silver But since the present King of 

^' England married the Princess of Portugal, who had in part of her Portion 
" the famous Port of Bomheye, where the English are very hard at work to 
" build a strong Fort, they coin both Silver, Copper, and Tinn. But that 
" Money wUl not go in Surat, nor in any parts of the Great Mogul's Domi- 
" nions, nor in any of the Territories of the Indian Kings ; only it passes 
" among the English in their Fort, and for some two or three leagues up the 
" Country, and in the Villages along the Coast, the Country people that 
" bring them their wares being glad to take that Money; otherwise they 
" would see but little stirring, in regard the Country is very poor, and the 
" people have nothing to sell butyl(/»(( Vitx, made of Coco-Wine ['tody'] and 
" Rice." , 

The earliest money struck for the use of the English in India were the 
"Portcullis" Crowns, haK-Crowns, Shillings, and Sixpences of Queen Eliza- 
beth, who would not permit the Company to transport the Spanish dollar into 
Asia, but insisted on the circulation of coins bearing her own imperious super- 
scription. The earliest coins minted by the Enghsh in India were of copper, 
stamped with the figure of an irradiated lingum, the phallic "Roi Soleil." The 


In 1672 the Company ordered factories to be esta- 
blished at Tonquin, Tywan, and Siam, and in Japan, and 
China. They sent a vessel to Japan, but in consequence 
of the King of England having married a princess of 
Portugal [Charles II. m : Catherine of Braganza, 1661- 
1662], were refused permission to trade there. The 
ship then proceeded to Macao, but here the Company's 
agents were greatly hindered by the intrigues of the 
Portuguese, and an attempt to open trade with Formosa 
proved equally unsuccessful. 

In 1673 the Hooblee factory, subordinate to Surat, was 
for the second time attacked by Sivaji. In this year also 
the notable fact is recorded of the Company having sent 
out Englishmen to Bengal to teach the Natives to dye 
silks the green and black colours in fashion at home. 

Between 1672 and 1674 the French settlement at 
Pondicherry [sometimes spelled ' Pont de Cheree ' as if 
Pont du Cheri, and Pordicheri] was founded by Martin. 

In 1675 the Company wrote out to their Agents in India 

mintege of this coin is unknown [? Madras], but -without doubt it must have 
served to ingratiate us with the natives of the country, and may have given 
origin to their personification of the Company under the potent title of Kum- 
PANi Jehan, which, in English mouths, became "John Company." The 
earliest known coins of the Bombay mintage are the four rupees in the 
British Museum, dated 1675, 1677, 1678, and again 1678, respectively. The 
first has stamped on the reverse the arms of the " Old " India Company as 
described at page 21, and the remaining three the Eoyal Arms of England of 
the date, viz. , quarterly, the three Lions of England, the Lion of Scotland, the 
Harp of Ireland, and the S fleur-de-lis of France. The first of the two 1678 
rupees is milled on the edge, milling having been introduced into the English 
Mint in 1662. In a Bombay rupee of 1687 the Company's arms reappear on 
•the reverse. See "The Coinages of the East India Company at Bombay," 
by the late Edward Thomas, in The Indian Antiquary. Fanams were also 
coined by the Company at Bombay during the reign of Charles 11. , bearing on 
the obverse two linked Cs [(TT)], and on the reverse the figure of the Hindu 
monkey-god Hanu-man [" Long-Jaw "] ; and these rare coins are now worth 
a pound a piece. Among the earlier numismatical types used by the Com- 
pany was their bale mark. The familiar scales were introduced late in the 
18th century, and the Arms of the United Company about 1803. The money 
circulated by the Company in India never bore the eifigy of a British 
sovereign until 1837, when they ceased to coin in the name of the titular 
«mperors of Delhi, and stamped their rupees with the head of King William IV. 


that Lahore Indigo was being undersold in London by 
West Indian; and that less lac would be required in 
future, because of "the new practice of using wafers 
instead of wax " for sealing letters. 

In this year, also, the sale of pepper began to fail in 
Turkey, and Eastern and Northern Europe, on account 
of the wars in Poland, Austria, and Turkey; and, as the 
wars continued, its place in the general domestic consump- 
tion of the west of Europe was gradually taken by ginger. 

About this time [1675] also, Indian piece-goods, or 

calicoes [i.e., of Calicut] and muslins [i.e., of Mosul,— 

see foot-note, page 88] of every description, began to 

largely supplant the use of cambrics, lawns, and other linen 

fabrics. " Byrampauts," "Beteelles" [Spanish, beatilla, 

"a veil"], Chintzes [chim,t, "figured"], " Dhooties " 

[dhoti, "loin-cloth"], "Guinea Stuffs" [i.e.. Gunny {goni, 

" sacking") Stuffs], and Long-cloths [lungi, a cloth passed 

" between the thighs "] made at Baroach, Jamboseer, 

Ahmedabad, and other places in Guzerat, were received 

from Surat, and later from Bombay ; white cotton cloths 

from Anjengo ; Chintzes of all sorts and Ginghams [the 

Tamil hitidan, and, borrowed, Javanese gingang] from 

Masulipatam, and, later, from Madras; and "Baftas" 

[bafta, " woven "], Bandannas [bandha, " bound," certain 

portions of the cloth being " bound " up in knots, to form 

the patterning, before being dipped in dye], " Herba [i.e., 

Jute {juta, "matted")] Taffaties" [tafta, "woven"], 

"Mulmuls" [malmal, "muslin"], et ccetera, collected 

from all parts of Hindustan, Allahabad, Mhow, Lucknow, 

Dacca, Patna, and Malda, and exported from Pippli, Hugli, 

and [after 1686-9] Calcutta.* 

* This profitable trade between India and England promised, all through, 
the last quarter of the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries, to grow 
to unbounded proportions, but after 1721 was deliberately and pitilessly 
destroyed by the prohibitory duties and other penal enactments enforced 
against it ; first, by those interested in bolstering up the woollen, linen, and 
sUk manufactures of this country in their rapidly languishing competition 
with the cheap, hght, and gaily-figured cotton cloths of India ; and then, after 
Sir Richard Arkwright's revolutionary invention [1767-69] had made it im- 


In 1677 the Javanese, at the instigation of the Dutch, 
sacked the Company's factory at Bantam, and assassinated 
the Agent; in consequence of which the factory books 
were closed and conveyed to the Court of Directors. 

In this year also the Company's factory at Madapolam 
is first mentioned. 

In 1678 permission was obtained for settling a factory 
at Tonquin : and in 1679 a factory was established at 

In 1681 Bengal was separated from Madras, and Mr. 
[afterwards Sir William] Hedges appointed " Agent and 
Governour" of the Company's affairs "in the Bay of 

possible to secure a monopoly for our woollen, linen, and silk manufacturers, 
by those interested in the new English cotton manufactures founded on 
Hargreaves's " spinning jenny" [1764-67], and Arkwright's " spinning frame." 
In 1700 it was enacted, " that from and after the 29th day of September 
" 1701 all wrought silks, and stuffs mixed with silk or herba, of the manu- 
" facture of Persia, China, or the East Indies, and aU calicoes, painted, dyed, 
" printed, or stained there, which are or shall be imported into this kingdom, 
" shall not be worn or otherwise used in Great Britain ; and all goods im- 
" ported after that day shall be warehoused and exported again." An Act of 
1721 imposed a fine of 51. upon the weaver, and of 201. upon the seller of a 
piece of calico ; and a like penalty for wearing, or using in any bed, chair, 
&c., such calico " or any stuff made of, or mixed with cotton, printed, dyed, 
" or stained," except muslins, and " caUcoes dyed aU blue." In 1736 this Act 
was so far modified that caKcoes manufactured in Great Britain were allowed 
to be worn provided the warp was of linen. In 1774 a statute was passed, 
expressly to encourage the English calico manufacturers, allowing goods 
whoUy of cotton to be made and used, and reducing the duty on the same 
from sixpence to threepence per yard. This started the great piece-goods 
industry of Lancashire. India still continued to enjoy a monopoly in the 
production of the fine mushns of Dacca. But when in 1785 the use of the 
"mule jenny" [invented by Samuel Crompton 1779] was introduced at Not- 
tingham, and two years afterward 500,000 pieces of muslin were woven in the 
United Kingdom, an end was at once put to the importation of this last im- 
memoriaUy famous denomination of the artistically perfected textile manu- 
factures of the East [see pages 59-60]. It is impossible, however, to sup- 
press for ever the industrial force of 200,000,000 of patient people in 
possession of so naturally productive a country as India ; and since the 
introduction at Bombay, in 1857, of Enghsh cotton mills, notwithstanding 
that the cost of building and working them there is double what it is at home, 
they have, for the past 33 years, been turning out yearly increasing quanti- 
ties of yams and cloths, until they are now actually supplying, in yearly 
increasing quantities, the lower counts of twists and coarser denominations 
of cotton cloths to all the chief Eastern markets, hitherto, that is from 1827, 
monopolized by Manchester. 



" Bengal, and of the factories subordinate to it, or 
" Cossimbazaar, Patna, Balasore, Malda, and Dacca. 
" A corporal of approyed fidelity, with 20 soldiers, to 
" be a guard to the Agent's person, and the factory at 
" Hooghly, and to act against interlopers." [See 1686, 
1689, and 1698-99.] 

In the same year Mr. [afterwards Sir John] Child, 
brother of Sir Josia Child, was appointed President at 

In 1682, the Company first ordered opium to be sent 
from Bengal to England ; but up to 1786 the importation 
amounted only to about 750 lbs. a year, being about one- 
tenth of the quantity received into England from other 
countries than India.* 

* It was not until 1773 that the Company undertook the supervision of 
the manufacture of opium in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. In 1797 the culti- 
vation of the poppy for opium was restricted to Behar and Benares, and dis- 
continued in Bengal. An immense trade had been going on between India 
and the surrounding countries in this drug long before the Company mono- 
polized it. Thus Barbosa [1516] mentions that the Chinese ships on their 
return voyages loaded at Malacca with "much anfam, which we call opium." 
Valentijn [1726] writes : — " Java alone consumes monthly 350 packs of 
opium, each being of 130 catis.'" And Hamilton [1727] : — "The Chiefs of 
" Caleout for many years had vended between 500 and 1,000 chests of 
" Bengal opium yearly up in the inland countries, where it is very much 
" used." The regular exports of the Company from Bengal began iu 1796. 
Opium smoking is known to have prevailed in China at least fifty years 
before this ; while the artistic elaboration of the opium pipe of the remoter 
parts of that country points backward to very remote centuries as the date 
of the origination of the habit. This, however, is a mere inference, and the 
recorded contemporary evidence of the extension of the use of opium from 
Egypt and Asia Minor renders it probable that its introduction into Persia 
and India, at least, was due to the Mahomedan traders of the 9th and 10th 
centuries A.D. If this was actually the case, we owe to them at once the 
provision of alcohol as the special stimulant of the western and northern 
nations of the Old World, and of opium as the favourite narcotic of its 
southern and eastern populations. For the New World there was tobacco ; 
and it is likely, in time, to everywhere supplant both ardent spirits and 
opium as the popular ^dp)x.aKOV vijTrcvflijs- In packet 14 of the collections of 
India Office Kecords enumerated in the Statistics and Commerce Depart- 
mental List No. 2,897, there is a letter, written in 1711, from Vizagapatam 
to Mr. Thomas Woolley, who was for more than twenty years Secretary to 
the " United [East India] Company," enlarging on the uses of opium to 
vegetarians. It will be found reprinted in the Times, 27th July 1886. See 


In 1682-83 Bantam was taken by the Dutch, and tho 
English, Portuguese, French, and Danes driven out. As 
a consequence the English Company was obliged to with- 
draw its factories from Tonquin, Amoy, Siam, and other 
places subordinate to Bantam. They, however, obtained 
a settlement at Bencoolen, on the south coast of Sumatra ; 
and there, in 1685-87, built Fort York,* and, in 1714, 
Fort Marlborough, to protect it against the Dutch. 

In 1684 we were expelled from the whole island of 
Java; but it was not until 1817 that we formally withdrew 
from Bantam. 

In 1683-84 Captain Richard Keigwin's curious mutiny 
against the authority of the Company at Bombay caused 
considerable alarm. It would make an interesting subject 
for an exhaustive monograph by such a v^riter as Mr. 
James Douglas. Whatever Keigwin's faults as an official 
may have been, he was a splendidly brave man, as his 
escalade of "Keigwin's Rock," St. Helena [15th May 
1673], and attack on " Sevagee's Armada" off Henery- 
Kenery [18th October 1679, see page 83] prove ; and 
one's personal sympathies are entirely with him in his 
quarrel with the Company's officials at Bombay, among 
whom both Mr. George Bourchier [also spelled Bowcher], 
and Mr. John Petit appear to have been disposed to 
extenuate, if not justify, his misconduct. 

In 1683 a factory was settled at Tellicherry ; and during 
1683-84, the one at Cuddalore was definitively established. 
There had been commercial relations with the latter place, 
and Thevnapatam or Tegnapatam [afterward Fort St. 
David], apparently, from 1674. 

In 1684 Sir John Child was made " Captain General 
and Admiral of India," and Sir John Wyborne " Vice- 
Admiral and Deputy Governor of Bombay." 

also my letters on the opium question in the Times of 6th December 1881 and 
20th January 1882. 

* William Dampier, the maritime discoverer, served for some time as a 
jgunner at Fort York. 

p 2 


In 1685 a factory was established at Priamau, an 
island off Sumatra, and fortified ; and an island on the 
Ganges was also fortified ; and the factory at Masuli- 
patam temporarily dissolved. Angengo was probably first 
occupied in this year, but its early history is obscure. 
[See pp. 8f5-7.J 

In 1685-87 the seat of the Presidency of Western India 
was finally transferred from Surat to Bombay [see 1617, 
1629-30, and 1661]. 

In 1686 the factory at Hugly was much oppressed 
by the Mogul Governour of Bengal ; and the Com- 
pany's business in India suffered generally from the 
wars of the Moguls and Mahrattas. Sir John Child 
was therefore appointed " Governour General,"* with full 

* Sir William Hunter, in the "Imperial Gazetteer of India,'' Vol. VT. 
[India], p. 370, after stating tliat Sir John Child was ^appointed " Governour 
General," with full power in India to make war or peace, observes in a foot- 
note: — "Sir George Birdwood's Report on the Old Records of the India Office 
' ' quotes this title from the MSS. It is therefore nominally a century older 
" than is usually supposed ; but Hastings was the first real Governour General. " 
On reading this I at once began to inquire into the question thus raised, but 
failed in being able to trace in the India OflSce MS. records the original 
authority for so early a use of the title of " Governour General." But 
finding that Mr. James Douglas, the author of A Book of Bombay [1883], and 
Round about Bombay [1886], two most interesting books of old local history, 
had also in the former volume, at page 60, applied this title to Sir John 
Child, I wrote to Mr. Douglas, asking if he could refer me to his authority 
for it. In reply, he wrote, 4th November 1886, as follows : — 

" I received yours of the 15th October yesterday ; and, as the mail is late, 
I am sorry I have not the time to consult books. I do not think that you, 
Mr. James Campbell [see Bombay Gazetteer, Surat, p. 98], and I could have, 
independently, called Sir John ChUd ' Governour General ' without authority 
for it. It is no doubt in Brace's Annals, which I have not beside me." 

"Mr. James Campbell's words, at page 98 of the Surat volume of the 
Bombay Gazetteer, are :— ' Bombay was [1687] to be fortified in the strongest 
' manner, and to become the capital of the Company's Indian possessions, 
' and the residence of the Governour General [Sir John Child].' " 

" I don't think we all three could have invented this name, and conclude 
it is in the second volume of Bruce, or in Anderson's English in Western 

It is clear, however, that Rlr. Campbell [like, and probably following, 
Bruce, Annak,!!., 668], uses the phrase descriptively, and not officially, and 
I suppose that in copying it out of his book, or from Bruce's Annals, I, 


power to make war or peace in India ; and ordered to 
proceed to inspect the Company's possessions in Madras 
and Bengal, and arrange for their safety. On the 20th of 
December the Company's agent Job Charnock [•' Chanak " 
of Indian writers], with his council, quitted the open 
factory at Hugly, and retired to Chuttanuttee.* [See 

Thevnapatam, or Tegnapatam, a suburb of Cuddalore, 
was first settled in this year [1686] ; and Fort St. David 
was definitively established there in 1690-92. 

In 1687-88 Sir John Wyborne and Mr. Zinzan [see 
page 31] were dismissedf the Company's service at 
Bombay for disputing the authority of Sir John Child. 

through heedlessly placing it between inverted commas, gave it a titular look 
and meaning. 

From an admirable little report by Mr. F. C. Danvers, Registrar and 
Superintendent of Records at the India Office, on the succession list of the 
Chiefs, Agents, and Governours of Bengal, it appears that Mr. [afterward 
Sir] William Hedges was the first Agent who was also styled Governour, 
1681-83. His successor, Mr. WiUiam GyfEord, from Fort St. George, was 
styled President and Governour, 1683. Then both these titles were dropped 
until the appointment of Sir William Eyre as President and Governour from 
1699 ; after whom they were borne by all his successors down to Warren 
Hastings, who was appointed [under Lord North's " Act for the Regulation 
of India," 1773] " Governour General," and was the first to bear that title in 
India, 1774-85. Lord [afterward Earl] Canning, the fourteenth Governour 
General, was the first Viceroy of British India, 1856-61. On Warren 
Hastings' appointment as " Governour General," the title of " Governour 
of the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal " remained for a time disused ; 
but was revived in 1833 as a second title of the Governour General, who 
continued to hold the separate office of " Governour of the Presidency of 
Fort William in Bengal " to 1853-4, when the offices were separated, and as 
much of " the Presidency of Fort William " as was not placed under the 
Lieutenant Governour of the North- West Provinces was made into a Lieute- 
nant Governourship of Bengal, with Mr. [now Sir Frederic] Halliday as first 
Lieutenant Governour. 

* The three villages included in the new English settlement founded by 
Job Charnock [b. ? , d. 1693] were called Chatanati, Govindpur, and 
KaJikata. Only the name of the last survives in the present Calcutta. 

t The entry, in the second volume of "the Black Books" [see above 
pp. 30-31], from a Bombay Letter of the 6th of January "1687/8, is : — " Sir 
John Wyborne and Mr. Zinzan quite turned out." From another entry, from 
a Bombay Letter of the 9th idem, it would however appear that Mr. Zinzan 


In 1688 the Post Office was established at Bombay. 

It was in this year also that the French obtained 
" Frasdangeh " or Chandernagore [Chandannagar, 
" Sandal-wood city"] from Aurungzib. 

In 1689 the Company retired from their factories in 
Bengal to Madras [see 1681 and 1698-99]. 

In the same year their factories at Vizagapatam and 
Masulipatam were seized by the Moguls, and the factors 
massacred ; and Bombay was pillaged up to the " Castle " 
walls, by the Sidi [SaedJ of Jinjira. 

It was in this year [1689] therefore that the Company, 
in order to acquire the political status of an independent 
power in their relations with the Moguls and Mahrattas, 
at last determined to consolidate their position in India 
on the basis of territorial sovereignty. To this end 
they formed the following resolution for the guidance 
of the local governments in India : — " The increase 
" of our revenue is the subject of our care, as much 
" as our trade ; 'tis that must maintain our force 
" when 20 accidents may interrupt our trade ; 'tis- 


" that we are but a great number of interlopers, united 
" by His Majesty's Eoyal Charter, fit only to trade 
" where nobody of power thinks it their interest to 
" prevent us ; and upon this account it is that the wise 
" Dutch, in all their general advices that we have seen, 
" write ten paragraphs concerning their Government, their 
" civil and military policy, warfare, and the increase of 
" their revenue, for one paragraph they write concerning 
" trade."* 

had already died on the 23rd of November previous, i.e., 1687. The charges 
against both Wyborne and Zinzan were for opening the secret letters to Sir 
John Child, and for their '• carriage " toward the latter, who is said to have 
"ill resented " the same. 

* This resolution was undoubtedly dictated by Sir Josia Child, the ruling 
spirit of the Company at this critical period. In the second volume of 
The Diary of Sir William Hedges, p. 117, Sir Henry Yule quotes the following 


In 1690 Sir John Child died at Bombay. 

In 1690-92 the factory at Thevnapatam, or Tegnapa- 
tam [Cuddalore], first settled in 1686, was fortified, and 
called Fort St. David. From 1746 to 1762 it became 
the chief seat of the Company on the Ooromandel 

In 1091-92 the factory at Baroach was dissolved. 

In 1693 the Company spent 90,000L in bribing the 
Privy Council to renew their charter, and prevent the 
iucorporation of the new " English Company." 

In 1694 Angengo was fortified from Bombay. 

In 1698, in spite of all their bribes, " the old East 
" India Company lost their business against the new 
" Company by ten votes in Parliament, so many of 
" their friends being absent, going to see a tiger baited by 
" dogs." [Evelyn's Diary, March 5th. j The new Com- 
pany was styled " the English Company trading to the 
" East Indies," in contradistinction to the old " Governour 
" and Company of Merchants of London trading into 
" the East Indies." On this " the Old Company " exerted 
itself " with a true Roman courage," as one of their 
official letters to their servants in India states ; and at 
Madras and elsewhere all their old factories and stations 
were resumed, so as to exclude " the New Company," 
and Bengal was again made independent of Madras. 
[See 1681, 1686, and 1689.] 

In 1698-90 the "London Company" obtained from 
Prince Azim Ushan, Governour of Bengal [1697-1704] 
a grant, confirmed by the Emperor Aurungzib [Prince 
Azim's father] in liOO, of the towns of Chuttanuttee, 
Kaleecutta [not yet known as Calcutta] and Govindpore, 
and pushed on the construction, commenced in 1696, of 

equally remarkable paragraph, attributed by him to Sir Josia Child, from a 
Company's letter to Fort St. George, dated 12th December 1687 : — " That 
" which we promise ourselves iu a most especiall manner from our new Pre- 
" sident and Council is that they will establish such a Politie of civill and 
" military power, and create and secure Such a large Bevenue to maintain 
" both at that place, as may bee the foundation of a large, well grounded, 
" sure English Dominion in India for all time to Come." 


Fort William, to this day the only stronghold the English 
possess in India. From this period Calcutta was virtually 
a separate Presidency, but was not formally constituted 
one until 1707. [See 1634, 1681, 1689. See also note 
on 1686. J 

In 1G98 the "English Company " established a factory 
in Borneo. 

In 1700, in consequence of the great cheapness of the 
silks imported by the Company from India, the English 
manufacturers forced the G-overnment to pass the Act, 
already quoted [page 225, 7iote], in connection with the 
popular agitation against the Company's importation of 
Indian cotton fabrics, whereby it was declared that from 
Michaelmas 1701 no Persian, Indian, or Chinese silks 
should be sold, worn, or in any way used in England. 

In 1708 a factory was established at Anjeram [? Anjier, 
in Java, on the Strait of Sunda] ;* and in 1714 Fort 
Marlborough [Bencoolen] was built in supersession of 
Fort York, built in 1685 [see under 1682-83]. 

In 1702-8-9 the "Old" ["London"] and "New" 
[" English "] Companies were amalgamated under the 
style of "The United Company of Mkrchants 
Trading to the East Indies ; " since commonly known 
and officially described as, " the Honourable Bast India 


In 1707 Aurungzib died, after a reign of upwards of 
50 years ; and from the period of his death commenced 
those internal troubles which gradually broke up the 
great Mogul Empire, and paved the way for the conquests 
of the Honourable East India Company. 

* Where is the tomb of Colonel Cathcart, who died on his voyage out to 
China, as British Ambassador to the Court of Peking, and was buried here 
in 1788 ? 

t In 1707 also the legislative union of Scotland with England was effected, 
and the "^tocefio" administered to the Scots on the occasion was the free 
return to them, out of English revenues, of the capital they had, in futile 
rivalry with the " London " Company, subscribed to the " Company of Scot- 
land trading to Africa and the Indies," founded in 1695, with five per cent. 

19097- I 2531- E. & S. 


With his death, therefore, and the union of the two 
Companies, the annals of the English Factories end, and 
the history of the British Conquest of India begins. 

I conclude this abstract and brief chronicle of the 
former period with an enumeration of the chief 
factories* established by the English from the com- 
mencement of their trade to the East until the union 
of the two Companies in 1702-8-9. Those mentioned 
in the deed of union, under the head of the " Old 
Company's" dead stock, are shown in italics ; while 
those of which separate records are extant are denoted by 
an asterisk [*]. 

In the Red Sea, or Aeabian Gulf. 
Aden and Mocha. 

In the Green Sea or Persian Gulf, and 
Jasques or Jask, Bushire, Bassorah, *Ispahaun, * Gom- 
broon, and Shyraz. 

In Western India, and on the Malabar Coast. 

Cutch, Cambay, Gogo, Rajbay or Rajbag, Ahmedabad, 
[' Amadavad '], Broach, *8urat and *Swally, Baroda 
['Brodera'], *Bombay, Rajapore [' Dundee-Rajpore'], 
Garwar, Baticola, Onore, Barcelore, Durmapatam, 
Cranganore, Mangalore, Cananore, Rattera, Brinjan, 
Porca, Carnoply, Tellicherry, Calicut, Cochin, Quilon, 

interest from that date added. The bribe pleased, quieted, and otherwise 
benefited the Scots, — 

"And prosp'rous actions always pass lor ■wise." 
We may not therefore after so prolonged a period discuss either its policy or 
morality, any more than question the goodly fruit of a tree because of the 
unsavoury compost about its roots. But the memory of a transaction, pro- 
fitable at once for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in 
state-craft, shovQd not be allowed to perish. 

* This list would be much more useful could the date of occupation of 
each place named be added ; but I have not found it possible to do so in time 
for the present [1890] reprint. 


In Southern India, on the Ooeomandbl Coast, 


Tuticorin, * Porto Novo [' Firingipet '], *Cuddalore, 
*Fort 8t. George [Madras, ' Chineepatam '], *Pulicat, 
*Armagaoii ['Dasarapatnam '], Viravasaram [Verashe- 
roon], Ingeram, *PeUipollee, *Masulipatam [' Metchli- 
patam '], *Madapollam, *Vizagapatam, *Golconda, 
*Tanjore, Bimlipatam, Biliapatam, Ganjam, *Oonimero, 
*Fort St. David [Tevnapatam], Chingee, Gingee, or 
Chingu, *Ballasore [' Bulramgurry '], Pipley. 

In Bengal and Hindustan. 

*Hughley, *Fort William, * Chuttanuttee [not yet merged 
in Calcutta], *Gossimhazaar [' Castle Bazaar '], Rajamaul, 
*Maulda, *Englesvad, Patna, * Dacca, Lucknow, Agra, 
Ajmere, Lahore, Burhampur ['Brampore 'J. 

In Fubtheb India, and the Malay Peninsula. 

*Siam, Cochin China, Pegu, *Patany or Patania, 
Quedah, Johore, Cambodia, Ligore. 

On the Island op Sumatea. 
*Acheen, *Jambee, Passaman, Priaman, Sillebar, Ticcoo, 
*Fort York, Bencoolen, Indrapur or Indraporee, *Tyamong 
or Tryainong. 

On the Islatsd op Java. 
Bantam,* Japara, Jacatra [afterward *Batavia]. 

On the Island of *Borneo. 
Banjarmassin and Succadana. 

On the Island of Celebes. 
Macassar,* and a residency at Menado. 

On the Moluccas, ob ' Spice Islands.' 
Factories on the island of Lantore or 'The Great 
Banda,' and on, the islands of Kosengyn, Pulo Way, and 


Pulo Rood, "their" [i.e., the London Company's] 
" ancient inheritance," and on the island of *Amboyna. 

In the Yellow oe China Sea. 

Magindanao, Tonquin, Pulo Condore, *Amoy, *Tywan, 
*Macao, *Canton, Chusan. 

In * Jap an. 

In the ^thiopic ob South Atlantic Ocean. 

*St. Helena : appertaining, writes Herbert, " to Afer 
" . . . . [because it is nearest that Continent] rather 
" than Vesputms." 

Such was the Factory Empire, extended through all the 
coasts and islands of Southern Asia, of the blue sea lions 
of the " Old " East India Company. 

Dutch, Italian, French, and English Books on the 
Factory Period.* 

Jan Hugo van Linschoten travelled in India from 
1683 to 1589, and Philip Baldseus about 1660 ; and the 
Voijages into ye Easte and Weste Indies [Dutch original, 
Amsterdam, 1596, and English translation, London, 1098] 
of the former, and the Description of the Coasts of Malabar 
and Garomandel [Amsterdam, 1672] of the latter, are two 
invaluable books for the information they give of the early 
days of the Dutch in the East, and their struggles ■with 
the Portuguese. 

Cornelius Le Bruyn's Voyage to the Levant, of 
which an English translation was published in 1702, 
although it does not include India, and scarcely, 
therefore, comes within the scope of the present Note, 
is here mentioned on account of the excellence of its 

* As in the case of the list of contemporary writers on the early Portu- 
guese Period, this enumeration of works relating to the English Factory 
Period in the East is very incomplete, particularly in the important Dutch 
histories and narratives and collections of voyages and travels, of the time. 
It is a list simply of my own familiar books on the subject, and is quite long 
enough for all practical purposes. " Onerat discentem turba librorum, non 


copper-plate illustrations, numbering 300, of the cities 
and people of the countries he describes, and particularly 
of the ruins of Persepolis, and other antiquarian remains, 
in Persia. 

In 1563, Caesar Frederick, a Venetian merchant, 
went by way of the Persian Gulf to India, and on to 
Pegu; and the account he gives of his travels was 
translated into English by Thomas Hichoch in 1588, 
under the title of Voyage and Travaill into India, 
the Indies, and beyond the Indies. He describes 
Cambay, where the commercial supremacy of the 
Portuguese was acknowledged, and Ahmedabad and 
Goa. He gives a very detailed account of the com- 
merce of Pegu, visited by him in 1568. It had 
previously been visited by Antonio Correa, who, shortly 
after the occupation of Malacca by the Portuguese, 
was despatched thither with the view of establishing 
trade with Burmah. It was subsequently [1583] 
visited by Gasparo Balbi ; and his Viaggio dell' Indie 
Orientate [Venice, 1590], and Csesar Frederick's narra- 
tive, are the best notices we possess of the last-named 
country until the publication of the modern works of 
Symes and Phayre. 

Pietro della Valle [Viaggi in Turchia, Persia, e Jndia, 
Venice, 1650-58-63] travelled in Persia in 1614-26, 
and Adam Olearius \The Voyages and Travels of the 
Ambassadors, German ed., Schleswig, 1647, English trans, 
by John Davies, 1662 and 1669] was secretary to the 
Duke of Holstein's embassy to Russia and Persia in 
1633-39 ; but neither of their narratives trenches on the 
proper ground of the Dutch and English factory period 
in India. 

Mandelslo accompanied the Duke of Holstein's 
mission to Russia and Persia, to which Olearius was 
secretary, in 1633-39 ; and from Bandar Abbas went 
on to Surat, Baroach, ' Brodera ' [Baroda], Ahmed- 
abad, Cambay, Lahore, and Vizeapore, returning 
to Denmark, where he landed, May 1, 1640, from 


Surat. The narrative of his Voyage and Travels, trans- 
lated by John Davies, was published in England, in one 
volume with Olearius's account of the Duke of Holstein's 
mission, in 1662 and 1669, and gives a most interesting 
account of our factory at Surat, and of the manner of 
life of the factors there. They were the inventors of the 
potent Greekish poteen, punch [Puntz of Mandelslo, Pawnch 
of Fryer], so called from the five [in Hindustani panch'] 
ingredients, spirit, lemon or lime juice, spice, sugar, and 
rose-water, used in its composition. The irevraTrXoa of the 
" merry Greeks " was composed of wine, honey, cheese, 
meal, and oil. 

Jean Baptiste Tavernier [Voyages en Turquie, en 
Perse, et aux Indies, 1576, first English translation, 
1677] travelled constantly in India between 1640 and 
1667 ; Jean de Thevenot [Voyages, 1689] visited the 
East in 1655—63 ; Francois Bernier [Histoire de la 
demiere Revolution des Etats du Grand Mogul, 1670, 
translated into English with his Voyage to Surat, 
London, 1671 and 1675] lived at the court of Aurungzib 
for 12 years [1658-70], and accompanied that monarch 
to Cashmere ; and " Sir John " Chardin [Journal du 
Voyage, 1st part published, London, 1686, and the 2nd 
and 3rd, Amsterdam, 1711], was in Persia and the 
East Indies from 1664 to 1681 ; and the works of these 
four accomplished Frenchmen rank among the most 
valuable records of travel in India that have ever been 

Sir Thomas Roe's admirable Journal of his Voyage 
to the East Indies, and Observations there during his 
Residence at the Mogul Court [1615-18], originally given 
in Purchas [ ] 625], was published separately in French, at 
Paris, in 1663. 

Henry Lord's Displatj of the Sect of Banians and Religion 
of the Parsees were pubhshed in 1630. 

Sir Thomas Herbert, descended from Sir W. Herbert^ 
the ancestor also of the brilliant Pembroke family, 
travelled in the East as secretary to the English 


embassy to Persia, from 1627 to 1629. His book, 
entitled A description of the Persian Monarchy now beinge, 
the Orientall Indyes, Isles, and other parts of the Greater 
Asia and Afrik, was published in 1634. He pluckily con- 
tends that Prince Madoc ap Owen Gwynedd discovered 
America 800 years before Columbus. The 3rd edition, 
1665, contains a beautiful etching of Persepolis by 
Hollar. Thomas Herbert is otherwise interesting as one 
of the Commissioners appointed to receive King Charles I. 
on his sale by the Scots to the English Parliamentarians 
in 1647. 

Edward Terry's Voyage, published in 1655, gives a most 
interesting account of Surat and Swally, and of Thomas 
Coryate's travels in the East, and death at Surat in 

John Ovington's Voyage to Surat was published in 

John Fryer, surgeon to the Company, travelled in 
Persia and India from 1672 to 1681, and his New Account 
of the East Indies and Persia, published in 1698, is the 
most delightful book ever published on those countries, 
and invaluable for the graphic descriptions it gives of the 
factory life, and general condition of the people of India in 
his time. 

Charles Lockyer was engaged in the Company's 
business in the Indian Seas about 1704, and his 
Account of the Trade in India, published in 1711, affords 
a complete account of the management of the commercial 
affairs of the English and Dutch East India Companies 
at that date. 

Mr. Clements Markham, C.B., in the volume of The 
Voyages of Sir James Lancaster to the East Indies, 
edited by him for the Hakluyt Society [1877], has given 
abstracts of the journals of voyages to the East Indies 
by the Company's commanders during the 17th century. 
Lancaster's voyages are republished from Purchas and 
Hakluyt [1589], but the rest are from the India Office 


Among other books to which my acknowledgments are 
also due must be mentioned the following : — 

Recueil^des Voyages de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales 
des Hollandois, 10 vols. 12mo, 1730 ; Eden's History of 
Travayle; Alex. Hamilton's New Account of the East 
Indies, 1727 : Bruce's Annals of the East India Company, 
1810; Peter Auber's various works on the East India 
Company, circa 1826 ; James Mill's History of British 
India, 1817 ; Milburn's Oriental Commerce, 1813 ; A. An- 
derson's History of Commerce, 4 vols, folio, 1787 [pub- 
lished anonymously] ; the four volumes, edited by Mr. 
Noel Sainsbury, of the Calendar of State Papers relating to 
the East Indies, 1513 to 1629 ; Cooley's History of Mari- 
time and Inland Discovery, 1830 ; and Lindsay's History of 
Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce, 1874-76. I have 
also derived great assistance from James Forbes's Oriental 
Memoirs, 1834 ; and Philip Anderson's delightful book, 
The English in Western India, 1856 [it is well worth re- 
publication, with the supplementary articles contributed 
by the author, subsequently to its publication, to the 
Bomhay Quarterly Review] ; and Mr. Talboys Wheeler's 
Madras in the Olden Time, 1862, and Early Records of 
British India, 1878.* Victor Jacquement travelled in 
India from 1828 to 1832, and Bishop Heber [who, before 
going to India, had visited Germany, Russia, and the 
Crimea] from 1823 to 1828 ; and the Correspondence 
pendant son Voyage dans VInde [1841-44] of the former, 
and the Journal [1828] of the latter, are two of the most 
instructive and important books ever given to the world on 

* To this list I must now [1889] add, beside the recent works by Henry 
Stevens, Sir Henry Yule, and James Douglas [acknowledged at pp. 15, 23, 
and 228, respectively], Dr. John Anderson's volume [" TrUbner's Oriental 
Series "] on English Intercourse with Siam in the Seventeenth Century ; and the 
Kev. H. B. Hyde's [of St. John's Church, Calcutta], First Bengal Chaplain 
[John Evans], published in the " Indian Church Quarterly Review." 



The period of the conquest of India by the Company 
is beyond that covered by the general mass of the sup- 
plementary miscellaneous " Old Kecords " here reviewed, 
and all that is necessary to be given under the present 
head is a catalogue of the Company's conquests, in illus- 
tration of the original firmans and numerous copies of 
firmans ["translates of phirmands "] enumerated in my 
" Eeport on the Old Records." It will be convenient 
however, to preface this inventory with a slight sketch 
of the history of India from the appearance of the 
Portuguese off the coasts of the peninsula to the 
close of the Company's last Charter. Messrs. Fidler 
and Craufurd's " Memorandum " of 1873-75 affords an 
admirable index to the records of the later part of this 
period, from 1708-9 down to 1858, when the Honour- 
able East India Company was extinguished as a poli- 
tical power, and the British Indian Empire was seques- 
trated to the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom. 

When the Portuguese first appeared in India, the 
seventh and last Afghan dynasty, of the House of Lodi 
[1450-1526], was the paramount power in Hindustan 
[" India alba "], while in theDeccan ["India nigra "] the 
Hindu Kingdom of Bijanagar, known to the earlier Euro- 
pean travellers and settlers in India as " the Kingdom of 
Narsinga," still maintained its independence. A number 
of petty Hindu states also flourished along its westward 
borders, on the 'Malabar Coast, of which Calicut under its 
Zamorins [i.e. Samudri, Sea-Kings] was one. Baber, the 
Founder of the Mogul Empire of Delhi, the son of the 
governour of Ferghana, and descended from both Chingiz 
Khan and Tamerlane, seized on Oabul in 1604, conquered 
the Punjaub in 1518, and met and overthrew Ibrahim 
Lodi on the plain of Panipat, March the 5th, 1526. 

It was under the fourth Afghan dynasty, of the House 
of Khilji [1288-1321], that the Mahomedans first 


invaded the Deccan in 1294. The Amirs established 
in the Deccan revolted against the House of Tuglak 
[1321-1412], the fifth Afghan dynasty of Delhi, in 
1347, when Zuffir Khan the Afghan founded the Great 
Bahmini dynasty that ruled at Kulburga from 1347 
to 1626. After this rebellion the rulers of Delhi [the 
Seiads, 1412-1450, and the House of Lodi, 1450-1526] 
never again crossed the Nerbudda into the Deccan until 
the reign of Akbar [1556-1605], the grandson of Baber. 
In 1526 the Bahmini Kingdom became divided into 
the Kingdoms of Bijapur [1489-1689], Baidar [1492- 
1609], Ahmednagar* [1490-1637], and Golconda [1512- 
1687] ; and in 1565 the kings of these four Mahomedan 
States united against the Hindu Kingdom of Bijanagar, 
then ruled by Earn Eaja, the seventh of the dynasts of 
Narsinga, and divided the bulk of it between them, the 
remainder falling to the Naiks, Zemindars, and Polygars 
of the Madras Presidency. It was then that Mysore 
[i.e. Mahishasura, the buffalo demon slain by Kali], 
hitherto tributary to Bijanagar, became independent, and 
the chief Hindu State of the Deccan. 

It was during the wars caused by the efforts of Akbar 
[third Mogul Emperor, 1556-1605] and his successors 
to reduce the Mahomedan Kingdoms of the Deccan 
to subjection that the Mahrattas gradually rose to 
supremacy both in the Deccan and Hindustan. Sivaji 
was born in 1627, and died in 1680. After Aurungzib's 
death in 1707 the Mogul Empire fell into rapid decay ,^ 
and the Punjaub, Eajputana, Oudh, Bengal, Behar, 
Orissa, Eohilcund, the Carnatic, and Hyderabad [under 
the usurping Nizam-ul-Mulk, Azef Khan, 1717-48] 
had already become virtually independent, when the 
whirlwind of Nadir Shah's invasion in 1739 swept over 
India. It was then that Baji Eao, the second Mah- 

* The kingdom of Berar, founded by the Ummad Shahi dynasty which 
ruled at Ellichpur from 1484 to 1574, was in the latter year annexed to 



ratta Peishwa, assembled the whole powers of the Deccan, 
and marched at their head to the relief of Delhi. As Baji 
Eao advanced Nadir Shah retreated, but in his army was 
Ahmed Shah Abdah [Durani], destined to overthrow the 
supremacy of the Mahrattas for ever, on the memorable 
plain of Panipat, in 1761. 

Such was the political condition of India in the reign of 
the 12th Mogul emperor, Mahomed Shah [1719-1748], 
on the eve of the British conquest. 

The French [Martin] had bought Pondicherry in 
1672-74,, Chandernagore in 1688, and Yanaon in 1706, 
Mahe was taken by them in 1725, and Carical ceded 
by the Eajah of Tanjore in 1739 : and in 1741 Dupleix 
became, in succession to Dumas [1736-41], Governour 
General of the Prench possessions in India. In 1740 
the Mahrattas invaded the Carnatic, then a dependency 
of the kingdom of Hyderabad, and the French, having 
given refuge to the Nawab's son, received the thanks 
of the Nizam-ul-Mulk [Azef Khan]. Dupleix now 
resolved to drive the English out of India, and the oppor- 
tunity was afforded him in the war betv?een England and 
France in 1744-48. Madras was surrendered to La Bour- 
donnais in 1746, and the English might then have really 
lost India but for La Bourdonnais' antipathy toward 
Dupleix, and the conclusion of the Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, and the concurrent deaths of the Great Mogul 
[Mahomed Shah] the Peishwa [Sahu], and the Nizam-ul- 
Mulk [Azef Khan], all in the same year, 1748, before 
the situation compromised by La Bourdonnais could be 

* The subject of La Bourdonnais' [Bernard rran9ois Mahd de la Bourdon- 
nais, b. at St. Male 1699] bribery has always had an interest for minds given 
to searching out mean and sordid causes for the great results of history. 
Having carefully read through the "Law Case, No. 31, of 3rd March 1752," 
the only original document in this country, I believe, in the matter, and cited 
by Colonel Malleson, History oj the French in India, page 157, note, I have 
been led to the opinion that it affords no conclusive evidence of the truth of 


The death of the Nizam-ul-Mulk was followed by a 
disputed succession between his sons, in which the 
English and French took opposite sides, with the result 

the charge. The capture of Madras by La Bourdonnais, its abortive ransom 
by Govemour Morse and his Council — which, according to the charge against 
him, La Bourdonnais was induced to accept by a bribe of 100,000 pagodas 
(40,000^.), — and the annexation of the town by Dupleix, and its final restora- 
tion to the English, formed an unconsidered episode of the war of the Austrian 
Succession, 1714-1748. That war at once brought England and France into 
conflict ; and the first hostile act of each country was to fit out a naval expe- 
dition for the destruction of the other's mercantile settlements in the Indian 

The English fleet was the first to arrive in the Bay of Bengal, in 1745, 
when Dupleix, the Govemour of Pondicherry, in great alarm, sent a large pre- 
sent to the Nawab of the Carnatic, who replied, as desired, by forbidding the 
English, who up to that time were his tributaries, from engaging in hostilities 
within any part of his dominions. The English fleet in consequence left " the 
Bay and Coast " in 1746. They had no sooner disappeared than La Bourdon- 
nais, with the squadron he had collected together with extraordinary energy 
from the Isles of France and Bourbon, entered it; and now Morse, the 
Govemour of Madras, 1744^-1749, in his turn applied to the Nawab of the 
Carnatic to restrain the French, as he had previously restrained the English, 
from hostilities, but, as Morse neglected to send a present with his applica- 
tion, it was left without an answer. In consequence, on 18th August 1746 
[as this interesting Law Case, in correction and amplification of the vague 
statements of our standard histories, informs us]. La Bourdonnais, with eight 
French ships under his command, appeared before the town of Madras, and 
fired a few shots into Fort St. George, and some broadsides into the Prin- 
cess Mary, one of the EngHsh Company's ships then in the roads, and after- 
ward lay to in the offing, or cruised up and down the Coromandel coast, in 
sight of the town and people of Madras. On 3rd September, Morse and his 
Council heard that La Bourdonnais had landed his men somewhere down the 
coast, and was marching on Madras ; and the next day he opened his attack 
on the town. On 10th September, Morse and his Council, excepting Mr. 
Fowke, came to a resolution to capitulate, and treat for the ransom of the 
place ; and for that purpose Mr. Monson, who was next to Morse in -Council, 
and Mr. Hallyburton, an English gentleman of Madras, who spoke French, 
were deputed to wait on " Monsieur La Bourdonnais," and settle terms with 
him. These, in brief, were that the town should pay 1,100,000 pagodas for 
its ransom ; and the charge of bribery and treason against La Bourdonnais is 
that he agreed to this ransom in consideration of a further sum of 100,000 
pagodas, to be given to him for his own private use and gratification. 
Dupleix quashed the treaty, and confiscated all the Company's property in 

Q 2 


that, in 1751, Salabat Jung, the third son of the Nizam- 
ul-Mulk, was installed at Aurungabad as Subadhar of 

Madras, and all private property, excepting only personal apparel and jewelry, 
and carried off all the chief people of the place prisoners to Pondicherry, 
and annexed Madras [appointing Paradis Govemonr] to the French posses- 
sions on the Coromandel coast. 

Had La Bourdonnais stood loyally by Dupleix at this conjuncture [after 
the example of our Enghsh officers in the early days of the Company's ad- 
ventures in India] the future dominion of India would, as far us we can now 
judge, have passed away from us altogether, and " the trade, navigation, and 
conquest of the Indies " fallen into the hands of the French. But La Bour- 
donnais, in a huff, set sail from Madras 29th October 1746, leaving Dupleix 
in the lurch ; thus throwing to the winds the greatest opportunity the French 
ever had of establishing their empire in the East. Dupleix fuUy understood 
this ; and that La Bourdonnais did not, is the true secret of his strange con- 
duct ; and not that he took a bribe ; or if he took it as a mere comphmentary 
present IdusiuriJ, that he was in the least influenced by it. 

After this the operations of the French and English against each other 
dragged on in an ineffective manner for a year or two more ; and on the 
conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, Madras was restored to 
the English Company. 

On his return to France, La Bourdonnais was at once thrown into the 
Bastille, on the charge of collusion with the Enghsh in the matter of the 
ransom of Madras ; but after a trial extending over three years [1748-51] 
was fuUy acquitted and set free. He died broken-hearted in 1755. His. 
acquittal by his own Government, which was inspired by the deepest resent- 
ment against him, is a strong fact in his favour; and Colonel MaUeson, a 
soldier as well as a historian, should at least have himself read the records 
of the case, not only in the India Office, but in the French Admiralty, before 
reviving so scandalous a charge against one of the noblest ornaments of the 
French Navy. La Bourdonnais acted with the gravest indiscretion, and that 
sufficiently accounts for his strange, and, in a political sense, culpable con- 
duct. That he was a traitor is, for anyone who is acquainted with his cha- 
racter, an impossible assumption. He was a brave, ardent, and adventurous 
sailor, whose only idea, in fitting out his expedition from Bourbon and Mau- 
ritius, was to harry the English trade in Indian waters, and exact war prizes.. 
Dupleix, on the contrary, was a prescient, calculating statesman, with a con- 
stitutional contempt for fighting [which he used to say "confused his. 
thoughts"], whose far-reaching policy was directed to the complete expul- 
sion of the Enghsh from India, and the raising of a great French empire on 
the foundations we had laid. From the moment, therefore, that these two 
men met they were in direct antipathy with each other, and in all these 
transactions at Madras in the autumn of 1746, La Bourdonnais' perverse part, 
from the first was to withstand and disconcert Dupleix's political plans. He 


the Deccan by Bussy, and the whole of Southern India 
virtually passed under French controul. 

acted after the manner of all the French leaders in India in the last century, 
and it is the common-place moral of history that it was in this manner they 
lost India. 

But to return to the evidence offered by Law Case, No. 31, of 3rd March 
1752. Colonel Malleson merely refers to it, without quoting it. I will now 
quote every material passage of it bearing on La Bourdonnais' alleged bribery 
and treason ; premising that the case arose from the objection of the Court 
of Directors of the East India Company to meet the bonds on which the sum 
required for the ransom of Madras was raised, on the ground that, in part at 
least, the bonds had been given, not to save the Company's property, but the 
private property of the Governour and his Council. Morse and the rest, 
excepting Fowke, examined by the Court, were really on their own defence, 
and it may be said that the only impartial evidence incriminating La Bour- 
donnais to the extent of his having received a complimentary gratification 
[dusturi] is that of Fowke. 

FoKo 3. — " Mr. Morse, late Governour of Fort St. George, in a letter to a 
Committee of the Court of Directors [18th January 1748], .... says: — ' I 
' take this occasion to advise you, apart, that in that transaction ' [ransom of 
Madras] ' we were under a necessity for applying a further sum besides that 
' publicly stipulated by the articles ' [of ransom],- ' which affair, as it required 
' privacy, was by the Council referred to myself and Mr. Monson to be ne- 
' gotiated.' " 

" Mr. Monson, in a letter to the Court of Directors [21st December 1748], 
says : — ' I am to acquaint you that, in treating for the ransom of the place, 
' we were soon given to understand that a further sum was necessary to be 
' paid beside that to be mentioned in the public treaty. You wiU easily 
' imagine from the nature of the thing that it required to be conducted with 
' some de^ee of secrecy. There was, however, a necessity for acquainting 
' the Council with it, though for form's sake and to preserve appearances 
' with the person [we were] treating with, it was referred to Mr. Morse and 
' myself to settle the matter with him ; I can, nevertheless, with great truth 
' assure you that aU the gentlemen of the Council were constantly faithfully 
' acquainted with every step that was taken in the matter, except Mr. Edward 
' Fowke, who, from the beginning of the treaty about the ransom, declared 
' that he would not join us in any of these measures, which by all the rest 
' were thought absolutely necessary at that juncture. . . . 

" ' It remains for me to acquaint you that we had no possible means for 
' raising the money but by giving the Company's bonds for it ; and this nego- 
' tiation was not kept secret from those who supplied the money on this occa- 
' sion, as they were to a man informed of the use it was borrowed for, before 
' they lent it, and thought by lending it they did a meritorious piece of ser- 


The English having, however, through Clive, retrieved 
their position in the Carnatic, the French, in 1757, sent 

' vice to the Company ; bonds were accordingly given for so much as we 
' could borrow under the Company's seal, and signed by Mr. Morse and all 
' the rest of the CounoU, except Mr. Edward Fowke. Part of the money 
' thus borrowed was actually paid to the person treated with, and the rest 
' was disbursed in defraying the charges of the garrison until the French 
' broke the capitulations and turned us out of the town.' " 

Folio 4. — " Mr. Monson, in his letter [3rd May 1749] . . . after excusing 
himself from declaring to whom . . . this money . . . was given, says : — ' I 
' hope I shall stand excused if I declare no further than that part of the 
' money was appropriated to pay six months' salary and two months' diet to 
' your covenant servants, with a month's arrear to the garrison, besides 
' sundry disbursements to the officers and sailors of the Princess Mary, to your 
' officers and mihtary that were going to Cuddalore, and some little advances we 
' judged necessary towards our future re-establishment, the rest of the money, 
' with the diamonds, was actually and bona fide applied to the purpose already 
' mentioned' [the payment of' "that person"], 'which, in the opinion of 
' those who were concerned in this business, would have redounded very 
much to the honour, the credit, and the real advantage of the Company.' " 

Folio 5. — "Mr. Edward Fowke . . . speaking [letter of 25th December 
1746] of the ransom . . . says : — ' In regard to ransoming of the town, after- 
' wards when Monsieur La Bourdonnais told us we might march out with 
' our swords and hats, I thought it ' [going out with swords and hats] ' much 
' more to your interest than to accept the terms that were agreed upon. . . . 
' I could have consented so far as five or six lacs. . . . Madras is but a tribu- 
' tary town . . . therefore for your Honours to be loaded with such a mons- 
' trous sum, and the Native Government not to feel any part of so severe a 
' blow, would, I am afraid, in future have a very bad effect, especially with a 
' little money laid out among the great men, which the French pretty well 
' know how to place.' " 

Again, 8rd March 1748 : — ' I can assure you, gentlemen, notwithstanding 
' I may have appeared so lukewarm in defence of your town ... I would 
' rather have sacrificed my life than to have acceded to those terms of agree- 
' ment, I thought them as directly opposite to your interest, honour, and 
' credit, as others thought them for it. ' In the same letter he says one of the 
bonds was brought to him to sign, and he wrote on it : — ' I acknowledge Mr. 
' George Jones to have brought me the above-mentioned bond to sign, but as 
' I do not approve the ransom, nor do I know whether 1 am now legally 
' authorized ' [being a prisoner of La Bourdonnais] ' to take up money on the 
' Company's account, I refuse to sign it.' 


out Lally expressly to expel them from India. Clive 
had been meanwhile called away to Bengal to avenge 

Folio 10. — In the examination (1753 ?) of the bond creditors by interroga- 
tories, Messrs. Abraham Franco, Jacob Franco, Aaron Franks, inter alia, 
say : — ' That they heard and believe that the then President and Council of 
' Fort St. George did, after the 10th September 1746, agree to give and pay 
' to Monsieur de la Bourdonnais 88,000 pagodas, but that they did not know 
' or believe that the said 88,000 pagodas, or any part thereof, were so agreed 
' to be paid in order to free or exempt the goods and effects of the mer- 
' chants and inhabitants . . . and particularly the goods and effects of the said 
' Governour in CouncO, or the said Solomon Solomons ' [one of the bond- 
holders] ' in their private capacity, from being seized, taken, or plundered, 
' but that the same was agreed to be given or paid to the said Monsieur de la 
' Bourdonnais, as a douceur or present on behalf of the said East India Com- 
' pany, with a view to reduce the amount or value of the ransom insisted on 
' by the said Monsieur de la Bourdonnais.' 

And the same further say (folio 11) : — ' They do believe in their con- 
' sciences that . . . the same and said present of 88,000 pagodas, as agreed to 
' be given to the said Monsieur de la Bourdonnais, was entered into for the 
' benefit and interest of the East India Company.' 

Folio 12. — " Francis Salvadore, executor- to Jacob Salvadore, says: — 'He 
' don't know, but hath heard and believes that the said President and Council 
' did, after the said 10th day of September 1746, agree to give or pay to or 
' to the use of the said Monsieur de la Bourdonnais the sum or value of 
' 88,000 pagodas, as at present, but whether ... in order to exempt or free 
' the goods and effects of the merchants or inhabitants . . . and particularly 
■ of the proper goods and effects of the said Governour and Council, in their 
' private capacity, or the said Edward and Joseph Fowke, or the said Jacob 
' Salvadore, ... he don't know nor has been informed.' " 

Folio 21. — In reply to certain interrogatories, Mr. Monson says: — 'He, 
' the said Mr. Monson, having afterwards ' [after the treaty of ransom had 
been settled] ' heard from Monsieur de la Bourdonnais that they must pay 
' him down 100,000 pagodas, if they expected performance of the agreement, 
' he cormnunicated such his information to the Council, who after deliberation 
' agreed to pay it, but says this money was not demanded for granting the 
' 15th and 16th Articles.' 

Again : — ' No receipt was taken or required for the money privately paid, 
' nor could any be insisted on in such a transaction, nor was any agreement 
' made for returning the 88,000 pagodas in case the treaty was rejected by the 
' Governour and Council of Pondicherry; and can't say whether the Governour 
' and Council of Pondicherry were ever informed of this private transaction.' 

Folio 23. — Mr. Fowke, in answer to the interrogatories, says : — ' He is a 
' stranger to the payment, but don't doubt the money being paid.' 


the massacre of the " Black Hole " on the plain of 
Plassey ; but in the course of the year Sir Eyre Coote 
arrived from England, and in December 1759 utterly 

In folio No. 11, Francis Salvadore, executor to Jacob Salvadore, seems to 
prove that Mr. Morse and Messrs. Edward and Joseph Fowke advanced 
money on the Council bonds for the ransom ; but I should like someone 
better acquainted with the phraseology of money dealings to examine this 
passage, before relying on it as of any pertinence in the present question. 

In the whole Case the extract from folio 28 seems to me the only evidence 
that any money was ever paid to La Bourdonnais by the way of dusturi. Ex- 
cepting Fowke, all the rest of the Council are out of court, and so would 
Fowke be, if, while he disapproved of the capitulation, he yet joined with Solomons, 
Salvadore, Franco, and the rest of these extortioners, in advancing money on the 
Council bonds he would not himself sign. Indeed, if Edward Fowke was per- 
sonally interested, as a sleeping partner with his brother Joseph, in the pro- 
spective profits of an usurious advance of the kind, this of itself would be a 
sufficient explanation of his refusal to join with Morse and Monson in signing 
the bonds for the amount, on the plausible pretext of his disapproving of a 
capitulation that could not possibly have been prevented. Besides, if every 
one who advanced the money knew for what it was intended, Dupleix, 
through his half-caste wife, to whom he owed so much of the success of his 
intrigues in India, would easily have obtained sufficient evidence against La 
Bourdonnais to convict him when he was put on his trial for corruption and 
treason on his return to France. On the face of the Case also very little of 
the 88,000 pagodas could have gone to La Bourdonnais ; and what Colonel 
MaUeson states is that he received 100,000. La Bourdonnais was probably 
quite capable of accepting a douceur or dusturi. It was the universal custom 
of his time. It was one of the perquisites of public office. But this docu- 
ment, cited, without quotation, by Colonel MaUeson, affords no evidence for 
reviving the charge of corruption and treason against La Bourdonnais after 
his acquittal by his own Government. It seems to me very probable that, in 
consideration of La Bourdonnais' " politeness and generosity in exempting 
Madras from pillage " [I am quoting from the Case from memory, for I can- 
not retrace the passage], the Governour, Nicholas INlorse, and his Council, 
agreed to make him a private present, and raised 88,000 pagodas for the pur- 
pose; that this sum was mostly otherwise expended; and that difficulty 
having arisen with the Court of Directors about refunding this and other 
sums embraced in the ransom, it was plausibly pleaded that this particular 
sum was paid to La Bourdonnais to secure the execution of a treaty of ran- 
som which was never executed but disavowed by Dupleix. 


and for ever annihilated the French power in India on the 
famous field of Wandewash.* 

Mir Jafir, whom we set up after Plassey as Nawab of 
Bengal, and from whom we obtained " the Zemindary of 
the 24 Pergunnahs," was deposed by us in 1760 in favour 
of his son Mir Kasim, but, owing to some disagreements 
with Mir Kasim, we reinstated Mir Jafir as Nawab Nazim. 
This led to " the massacre of Patna " [by Mir Kasim] in 
1763, avenged by the battle of Buxar in 1764, and the 
annexation of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa to the Com- 
pany's dominion. 

Hindustan was swept clear of its Afghan pests during 
the Rohilla war of 1775. 

* Bussy [Charles Joseph Patissier, Marquis de Bussy-Casteluau], who held 
a command in the French army under LaUy in this battle, was taken prisoner 
and sent home. He subsequently returned to India, where it was his misfor- 
tune to again endure defeat at the hands of Sir Eyre Coote ; when he retired 
to Pondicherry, where he died in 1785. Lally [Thomas Arthur] on surrender- 
ing Pondicherry to us 14th January 1761, was thrown into the Bastille until 
1766, when he was executed. Dupleix [Joseph Francois], who was recalled 
in 1754, died of a broken heart in 1763. Such were the sad fates of the 
three Frenchmen who played so distinguished, albeit disastrous, a part in the 
critical campaigns of the last century in the Carnatio. Their high-bred cour- 
teous bearing made an indehble impression on the natives of India, with 
whom they identified themselves in a way that seems only possible, among 
Europeans, to Frenchmen. A countryman of theirs, Michael Joachim Marie 
Eaymond, was, thirty years later, in command of the army of the Nizam of 
Hyderabad ; and, notwithstanding that he suffered it to be annihilated by the 
Mahrattas [under Perron] at Kurdla in 1795, his memory is held in such 
affectionate reverence at Hyderabad, where he died in 1798, that to this day 
the aimiversary of his death is celebrated by a general pilgrimage to his 
house and tomb. First his house is visited, and his uniform saluted, and then 
the people proceed, in crowds following crowds, to his tomb and adorn it 
with flowers, and fire volleys of musketry and salvos of artUlery before it, and 
at nightfall light it up with lamps. It bears no inscription, but is known 
over aU the country side as the tomb of Musa Rahman, " Moses the Compas- 
sionate"; and this popular corruption of the name and style of "Monsieur 
Eaymond," in translating him to Mahomedan sanctity, serves to exalt the fas- 
cination of his fame. Paradis [p. 244, note] died early during the first siege 
of Pondicherry. 


From the fall of Bijanagar in 1565 a Hindu dynasty 
reigned in Mysore until 1761, when Hyder Ali, an 
officer in the reigning Eajah's army, usurped his 
Sovereign's throne. This led to the four Mysore wars, viz., 
of 1766-69 ; of 1780-84, when Hyder Ali was defeated by 
Sir Eyre Coote on the very field of Wandewash where, 
22 years before, he had gained his decisive victory over 
the French ; of 1790-92, when half of Tippoo Sahib's 
dominions was divided between the English and their 
allies ; and of 1798-99, when we stormed Seringapatam, 
and restored Mysore to the dynasty of its ancient Hindu 

It remained only to deliver India from the predatory 
Mahrattas, whom it also took four wars to finally 
reduce; namely, those of 1775-82, 1803, 1804-6, and 

After this there was no power left in India to oppose 
or disturb our supremacy, and the Afghan wars of 
1839-42, although marked by untoward circumstances, 
and one great disaster, freed India trom all fear of 
being again devastated by such barbarous hordes as were 
led to the sack of Delhi by Tamerlane, Nadir Shah, 
and Ahmed Shah Durani ; while the third Afghan war, 
of 1878-81, enabled us to effect the strategic arrange- 
ments on the " North- West Frontier " that are believed 
to have rendered it impregnable against any civilized 
army likely to attempt an invasion of India from 
that quarter. Scinde was annexed in 1843, the Punjaub 
in 1848-49. Pegu [now Lower Burmah] in 1852, 
and Oudh in 1856.* The subversion of Turanian 
tyranny and the revindication of Aryan supremacy 
in India was now complete. The work of consolida- 
tion began with the famous reforms of Lord William 
Bentinck's administration in 1828 ; and was but con- 
firmed, through the overruling Providence of God^ 
by the terrible mutiny of the Bengal army in 1857 ; 

* Upper Burmah was annexed in 1885-86. 


the date of the beginning of the history of British India 
as an autonomous Empire ; to which the preceding century 
of conquest from 1757; and the antecedent century, from 
1600 to 1708-9, of merely trading relations, were but the 

The Queen of the United Kingdom was proclaimed 
Empress of India [Kaisae-i-Hind] the 1st January 

Inventory of the Company's Territorial Acquisitions. 

1639, — Madraspatam [" Chineepatam," Fort St. 

1668,— Bombay. 

1690, — Thevnapatam or Tegnapatam [Fort St. David] . 

1694-95, — Angengo. 

1700,— Calcutta. 

1708, — Tellicherry, and Ennore near Madras. 

1734, — Dharmapatam Island, Malabar. 

1742, — Villages in Chingleput, near Madras. 

1749, — St. Thome [Maliapur], near Madras, and Devi- 
kota fort in Madura District. 

1750, — Poonamallee, in Saidapet taluk, Chingleput 
District, Madras. 

1756, — Villages in the Colaba and Ratnagiri CoUec- 
torates, Bombay. 

1757, — " The 24 Pergunnahs," from the Nawab Nazim 
of Bengal. 

1759, — Nizampatam, Masulipatam, and other towns in 
the Godaveri and Kistna Districts, from the Nizam. 

1760, — Burdwan, Midnapore, and Chittagong,. from the 
Nawab Nazim of Bengal. 

1765, — Bengal and Behar, and Orissa, from the Mogul; 
and " The Company's Jaghire " in the vicinity of Madras, 
from the Nawab of Arcot. 

1766-68, — The "Northern Circars," Vizagapatam, &c., 
from the Nizam. 

1772, — Chunar and Allahabad forts. 


1775,— "The Zemindary of Benares," from the Nawab 
Vazir of Oudh. 

1776,— The Islands of Salsette and Karanjah, from the 

1 778, — Nagore, from the Kajah of Tanjore. 

1778,— The Guntoor Circar, from the Nizam. 

1783,— Porto Novo [Firingi-pet], Palicole [PalakoUu], 
and Ouddalore. 

1786, — Paulo Penang, from the King of Queda. 

1791, — Negapatam. 

1792,— Malabar [including Calicut], Dindigul, parts of 
Salem, Madura, and North Arcot Districts, Baramahal, 
&c., from Tippoo Sahib. 

1795-96, — Ceylon was taken from the Dutch, and 
annexed to Madras. It was established as a Crown 
Colony in 1801. 

1799, — Coimbatoor, North and South Canara, Wynad, 
the Nilghiri Hills, and parts of Salem and North Arcot, 
&c., from Tippoo Sahib ; and Tanjore, from the Bajah of 

1800,— " The Ceded Districts," from the Nizam; and 
the city, fort, and territory of Surat, with Bander. 

1801, — The Carnatic, from the Nawab of the 

1801, — Goruckpoor, Lower Doab, Bareilly, &c., from 
the Nawab Vazir of Oudh. 

1802, — Districts in Bundlecund, from the Mahratta 

1803, — Cuttack and Balasore, from the Rajah of 
Berar ; and the Upper Doab, Delhi territory, dsc, from 

1805, — Districts in Guzerat, from the Guicowar, and 
Karnal, in the Punjaub. 

1810,— Fatehabad. 

1812, — The Eatnagiri CoUectorate. 

1814,— Cochin. 

1815, — Kumaon, Dehra Dhun, Simla, and part of the 
Tarai, from Nepaul. 


1817, — Saugur, Huttah, Dharwar, &c., from the Mah- 
ratta Peishwa. 

1817, — " The Ahmedabad Farm," from the Guicowar. 

1818, — Khandeish, &c., from Holkar; Ajmere, from 
Scindia ; Poona, parts of the Concans, and Southern 
Mahratta country, from the Peishwa ; districts of the Ner- 
budda, Sumbulpoor, Patna, &c., from the Rajah of Berar. 

1820, — Southern Concan, from the Eajah of Sawunt- 

1822, — Beejapore and Ahmednugger, from the 

1824, — Sadras, in Chingleput District ; and Singapore,, 
purchased from the Rajah of Johore. 

1825, — Bimlipatam, in Vizagapatam District ; and 
Chinsurah and Malacca, from the Dutch, ceded in ex- 
change for Bencoolen. 

1826, — Assam, Arracan, Tavoy, Tenasserim, from the 
King of Ava. 

1832, — Cachar, lapsed. 

1834, — Coorg, from the Eajah of Coorg. 

1835, — Jaintia, Darjeeling, Ferozepore, Muzaffarnagar, 
Meerut, Bulandshahr, Alighar, &c. 

1839, — The Mandvi State, Surat, lapsed; Aden, cap- 

1841, — The Dooars [i.e., "Passes," from divara, "a 
door," " gate," as in Dwaraka, (" the City) of Gates "] 
of Bhootan, from the Rajah of Bhootan. 

1843,— Scinde. 

1845, — The JuUunder Dooab ; Serampore, and Tran- 
quebar, from the Danes, purchased for 20,000Z.* 

1 849, — The Punjaub and Sattara. 

1850, — Sumbalpur, Sikkim, Sanawar. 

1862,— Pegu. 

1853, — The remainder of Cachar and Berar, lapsed. 

* Tranquebar was the first possession [purchased in 1616 of the King of 
Tanjore] of the Danes in India. They also held Serampore in Bengal, Porto 
Novo [Firingi-pet] on the Coromandel Coast, Eddova, and Kolchery, on the 
Malabar Coast, and other forts and factories. 


1853-54, — Nagpur and Jhansi. 

1856, — Oudh and Tanjore fort. 

1857, — ^Jhaijjar territory, Punjaub. 

1858, — Bhanpur, Shahgarh, Central Provinces. 

Siihsequent Acquisitions of the Crown. 

1860, — Upper Grodavari Districts, Nimar, Harda, and 

1861, — The Panch Mahals, in Guzerat, and Shillong. - 

1865, — The Eastern Dooars, Dewangiri, and Bengal 

1878,— The Peint State. 

1881, — The Afghan Passes from Central Asia into 

1886-86, —Upper Burmah. 

Australia and New Zealand were occupied as British 
territories in 1770, and Tasmania in 1803. Labuan was 
ceded in 1846, and Hong Kong in 1842. Cape Colony, 
captured in 1806, and the Mauritius, in 1810, were 
confirmed in our possession by the Treaties of 1814-15. 
Ascension was occupied in 1815, and the Falkland 
Islands [resigned to us by Spain, 1771] in 1833. 
Gibraltar was captured in 1704; and Malta, captured 
in 1800, was guaranteed to Great Britain by the Treaties 
of 1814-16. Cyprus was acquired in 1878, and a Con- 
vention with the Sublime Porte was signed, by which 
the English Government, guided by similar con- 
siderations to those which led to the temporary 
treaties of 1809 and 1814 with Persia, undertook also 
the conditional Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. 
In 1882 we assumed the Protectorate and temporary 
military and [political administration of Egypt, expressly 
as commanding the highway of the overland commerce 
between Europe and India. 


Such is the last result of that rivalry for the trade 
of the East, which began between Jerusalem, and 
Edom, and Tyre ; was continued between Phoenicia 


and Egypt, and Assyria and Persia ; and, after the dis- 
ruption of the Roman Empire, was carried on in suc- 
cession by Genoa and Venice, Spain and Portugal, 
Holland and England, and England and France. 
Ancient history is very much the history of the struggle 
for the transit trade of the East by the Persian Gulf and 
Eed Sea ; and the modern history of the Old World is 
almost altogether based on the opening up of the 
ocean-way to India round the Cape of Good Hope. 
The whole current of the commercial and political, 
social and religious history of Europe was changed by 
Da Gama's discovery, Venice was deprived of her 
mercantile supremacy; Italy lost the prosperity that 
had again returned to her ; and Egypt, which for 2,000 
years had commanded the most advantageous of all the 
overland roads to the East, was suddenly deposed from 
her position of incontestible superiority. The com- 
mercial monopoly of the Arabs in the Eastern seas, 
and of the Jews as the inheritors of the traffic of the 
Phoenicians and Greeks in the Mediterranean, was de- 
stroyed at a blow, and that re-arrangement of the 
mercantile and state systems of Europe was commenced 
which has subsisted to the present day. We have seen 
in our own time, since the opening of the Suez Canal, 
and the return of much of the trade of the East to its 
ancient route through Egypt, how greatly the social 
and political condition and international relations of 
many of the European States have already been modi- 
fied. It has, indeed, been often said during the last two 
or three years [written in 1879] that Englishmen have 
become divided as to the policy this country should 
pursue in the so-called- Eastern Question. But our 
apparent differences of opinion are founded simply on 
a fundamental change of circumstances that has not 
yet been popularly appreciated. While all our Eastern 
commerce went by the • Cape of Good Hope we had 
little more concern in the affairs of Europe than of 
America. But no sooner was a practicable canal 


pierced through the Isthmus of Suez than the fact at 
once began to influence the course of our vast carrying 
trade, and our international relations with the countries 
lying along the new route opened to it. We may, 
therefore, the more readily understand the character of 
the revolution wrought, not only in the commerce and 
politics, but also in the whole moral and intellectual 
life of Europe, by Da Gama's discovery. Following im- 
mediately on the discovery of America by Columbus, 
it profoundly a,gitated the hearts and minds of the 
people of Europe. The rude multitude were stirred by 
an uncontrollable lust of riches* and spirit of adventure ; 
and the cultivated by the sense of renewed faith and 
hope in the divine deliverance of the world, at the 
moment when Christendom was almost sinking into 
the old despair of human destiny and duty that 
marked the decline of Imperial Kome. For aU men 
the sphere of human intelligence and sympathy was per- 
manently and indefinitely enlarged. The Spanish and 
Portuguese discoveries of the Indies were, for Europe 

* Ben Jonson lias given expression to tlie covetous hunger of wealth, 
excited in the vulgar by the discovery of America, in the " Alchemist ", [1611], 
Act 11. Scene 1 : — 

ilammon. Come on, Sir. Now you set your foot on shore 
In Novo Oi'be, Here 's the rich Peru ; 
And there within. Sir, are the golden mines. 
Great Solomon's Ophir ! he was sailing to*t 
Three years, hut we have reached it in ten months. 
This is the day wherein to all my friends 
I will pronounce the happy word Be Bich. 
This day tou shall bb Spectatissimi. 
You shall no more deal with the hollow dye. 
Or the frail card 

No more 
Shall thirst of satin, or the covetous hunger 
Of velvet . . . , 

..... make 

The sons of Sword and Hazard fall before 
The Golden Calf .... 

No more of this. You shall start up young Viceroys, 
> • . .... Be Eich. 


indeed, nothing less than the revelation of a new 
moral world, and the definitive emancipation of the 
human soul from the ghostly trammels of its 
obsequious bondage to secular and religious dogma- 
tism through all the dark centuries of the middle 
ages. Their quickening effect on the genius of 
Europe was at once made manifest. Camoens, the 
author of the first epic of modern times, was directly 
inspired by the discovery of India by his countrymen. 
He was rapidly followed by Tasso, Cervantes, Spenser, 
Shakespeare, Milton, Raphael, Michael Angelo, Titian, 
Luther, and Francis Bacon ; and the wide moral gulf 
which separates the genius of these men from the 
certainly not lesser genius of Roger Bacon, Aquinas, 
Giotto, and Fra Angelico, Chaucer, Gower, and Dante,* 

* There was a general looking forward to the discoveries of America and 
the Indies among the higher minds of Europe long before they were achieved 
by Columbus and Da Gama. The lines of Dante, in the Vision of Purgatory, 
in which he alludes to the " Southern Cross," are well known. Still more 
remarkable is the less generally known prophecy of Luigi Puloi [b. 1431, 
d. 1487], " are of the half serious line " : — 

" Men shall descry another hemisphere ; 
Since to one centre all things tend. 
So earth hy cnrious mystery divine 
Well balanced hangs amid the starry spheres. 
At onr antipodes are cities, states, 
And thronged empires, ne'er divined of yore. 
But see, the sun speeds in his western path 
To glad the nations with unexpected hght." 

The leading minds of ancient Rome would seem to have had an equally 
clear, if not even a clearer, conception of the as yet unrevealed lands lying be- 
yond the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Pliny [II., 65] positively asserts the 
existence of the antipodes ; and records [II., 67] the tradition of " certain 
Indians who sailing from India " for the purposes of commerce were driven 
by tempests to Germany. If the story had any foundation in fact, these 
Indians could only have been North American Indians, such as the Esqui- 
maux. Seneca's hackneyed line, " Nee sit Terris ultima Thule,'' is not so 
vague a prophecy of the New World as it appears separated from the con- 
text [Medea, 11. , 376-80] ; and reads Uke a positive indication of America 
when compared with a passage, quoted by me in the introduction to Stevens's 
Davm of British Trade in the East Indies, from the Quiestionum Naturalium 
Lihri Septem. Herein Seneca distinctly states that the distance from the west 
coast of Spain to the Indies was so short, that it could be sailed over, if the 


is the measure of the spiritual freedom that was con- 
quered for mankind by the discoveries of Columbus, 
Da Gama, and Magellan. The impression made by them 
on the English people was deep and abiding. It may 
be traced everywhere in the v^rriters of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, particularly in Shakespeare and Ben 
Jonson, and in the elevation of character of the 
historical men and women of the age. Even in their 
infamies, they seem superhuman. Da Gama's dis- 
covery changed the face of Europe from the Medi- 
terranean to the Atlantic ; and the British Isles, which 
had before been wasting in the obscurity of their 
native fogs, were at once placed in the forefront of the 
new line of human advancement ; and, as the geogra- 
phical centre of the four continents of the globe, they 
became, in the course of the next two hundred years, the 
common emporium of the whole sea-borne merchandise 
of the world. The establishment of the East India 
Company was the first step in the prodigious political 
development of England under the rule of Ohver 
Cromwell and during the reigns of William III. and 
Queen Anne ; and, all through the great wars that grew 
out of the French Revolution, it proved the chief corner 
stone of our unabated mercantile prosperity and naval 
supremacy. The possession of India, the command its 
possession gave us of the trade with the East, alone enabled 
us to contend victoriously against the European coalition 
with which Buonaparte threatened our industrial ascen- 
dency at the beginning of the present century ; and the 

wind was favourable, in a few days {see page 278, note]. It was always the 
quest and invention of the Indies that inspired Columbus and his English 
successors in their exploration of the New World ; and they but picked up 
the Americas, and the greater part of Australasia, as unconsidered trifles by 
the way. 

Plato's ' Island of Atlas ' is more a name of fiction ; a phantom land, like 
" Utopia," the " New Atlantis," and the " Terra AustraJis " of Bishop HaU's 
Mundus Alter et Idem, invented as the stage of a philosophical fable. Its only 
ground of fact was possibly the tradition, preserved in Egypt or at Carthage, 
of some remote Phoenician voyage beyond the " Pillars of Hercules " to the 
"Ilesperidian Coast" of Africa. 


peaceful possession of India is our chief stay in sustain- 
ing the preponderating productiveness and maritime pre- 
eminence of these islands in the crushing commercial 
competition marking its end.* 


* In the Athenseum of 28th January 1882 I wrote :— 

"The rapid extension of the commerce of America is a never failing 
soiirce of wonder. In round numbers the average values of the exports and 
imports of the United States for the five years ending with 1880 were 
140,000,000?. and 106,000,000?. respectively. The foreign trade of India for 
the same period is almost exactly half this amount, showing a less propor- 
tionate excess of exports over imports. A more striking proof of the ad- 
vancing prosperity of the country under our administration could not be 
adduced. It is an equally cogent proof of the close dependency of our com- 
mercial superiority on the prosperity of India. Every nation is essentially a 
shop, and oceans and rivers are the high streets of the nations. While the 
great traffic that has subsisted, and wUI always subsist, between the East and 
the West went by its overland routes, the nations situated along the 
Euphrates, the Nile, and the Mediterranean made the first and almost the 
whole profit of it. Then when at last it found its way round the Cape, the 
nations fronting the Atlantic, and particularly England, which fronts at 
once America and Europe, monopolised it, while the Mediterranean nations 
had, as it were, to put up their shutters and retire from business for nearly 
three hundred years. Now that trade is returning to its original overland 
routes, our disadvantage in relation to them is beginning to be seen, and 
would be seen still more clearly but for our immense dealings with America. 
But aU the same the Eastern trade is the great trade current of the world ; 
and France with her unique advantage of possessing a frontage both on the 
Mediterranean and the Atlantic, will, if she ever substantially competes with 
us in the trade of the East Indies, also draw to herself and away from us a 
proportionate amount of our American trade. The possession which she has 
just obtained of Tunis, — which is Carthage — the corner house of her Alge- 
rian shop frontage, gives her a commanding commercial position throughout 
the African side of the Mediterranean." 

In short, our ever imminent danger lies not in the political rivalry of the 
aggressive military powers of the Continent, for if unsupported by industrial 
productiveness and mercantile activity, this is not to be too greatly feared ; 
but is rather to be apprehended in the growing competition with us of the 
Mediterranean countries for the commerce of India. Since the opening of 
the Suez Canal the Eastern products formerly sent to Liverpool and London 
are being shipped in yearly increasing proportions to Havre, Barcelona, Mar- 
seilles, Genoa, Trieste, and Odessa. They are still carried chiefly in English 
bottoms, even when not consigned to Enghsh merchants ; but the time must 
come when they will be borne in French, Spanish, Italian, Austrian, Greek, 

R 2 


and Russian ships, loading at Karachi, Bombay, and Calcutta. There is no 
denying that just now America, North and South, has modified the old theory 
of the unequalled value to Europe of the trade with the East ; for if in tea, 
silk, and spices the East still holds its own, in aU the bidMer staples America 
seems, for the time, to have swamped both Asia and Europe. But the pre- 
ponderance of America cannot continue for ever, and India is already begin- 
ning to show that she is capable of competing even with the United States in 
the exportation of wheat ; and when India once begins to supply Europe with 
the food stuffs at present received from America, England will have to put 
forth her whole native force of enterprise to secure her traditional hold on 
the markets of the world. In this anticipation the immense importance of 
Egypt to this country, as securing to us some share of the profit on the 
transit of merchandise between the East and West, at once becomes obvious. 
Our whole future indeed seems involved in our right use of the opportunities 
afforded us by the protectorate we have established over Egypt. 


Appendix A. 

Kepoet by Dr. Birdwood on certain documents relating 
to the Bast India Company discovered in 1875. 

On my appointment to the Curator ship of the India Museum, 
Colonel Burne, C.S.I., sent me a box received by him from Sir 
John Kaye, on the retirement of the latter from office, with the 
statement that it had been lying in his room [Sir J. K.'s] from 
beyond the memory of anyone in the Political Department, and 
was said to contain very important documents. I found in 
it 51 tally-sticks, — a bag marked " fifteen pagodas," but which 
on being opened, I found to contain only two lumps of iron, — 
and forty parchments mixed up together in the greatest con- 

The parchments all relate to the East India Company, and 
with two or three exceptions are under the Great Seal. 

Several of the documents bear in the left-hand corner a 
vignette portrait, beautifully executed, of the sovereign reigning 
at the time of their engrossment. But in two or three instances 
they have been disgracefully mutilated by the cutting out of the 
vignette portraits. As a rule the Great Seal belonging to them 
is either missing or much damaged. There are, however, two 
or three fair specimens of it, and notably of that of the Lord 
Protector Cromwell, by Simon. 

Finding these documents of such interest in relation to the 
East India Company, and that it was impossible for me to de- 
cipher many parts of them, I wrote and asked Sir Duffus Hardy 
if he would be good enough to allow a Calendar of them to be 
prepared by an expert in the EoUs Office. The Calendar thus 
prepared, by Mr. W. Noel Sainsbury, is attached. 

I venture to suggest that the parchments should be carefully 
restored, and exhibited in this Office. I would not have them 
sent to the Museum. They are not idle curiosities to be toyed 
about in museums, but State Archives to be reverently kept in 
the India Office itself; and after restoration they should be 


rolled up, and put away in a glass cabinet in the Council Eoom. 
The [? draft] roll of the Original Subscribers of the 2,000,000Z. 
stock, which contains the names of nearly the whole of the 
well-to-do middle class people of England a century ago, should 
never again pass out of sight. 

The tally-sticks are mere curiosities, unless indeed, the fact of 
their not having been burnt is a proof of money still owing to 
the Indian Government by the Treasury. Tallies were, I believe, 
always kept until a debt was paid, and were then burnt. 

(Signed) George Birbwood, 
Curator of the India Museum. 

17th April 1875. 


Calendar of the aforesaid Documents prepared by 
Mr. W. Noel Sainsbuey, C.B. 

1. 9th August 1606 (4 Jac. I.). — The king's License to the 
Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the 
East Indies to utter, sell (and put to sale) spices, drugs, wares, and 
merchandises brought from the East Indies in whole packs or sacks 
unbroken, and to transport the same beyond the seas without loss, 
forfeiture, or penalty. A fragment difficult to decipher, of which a 
transcript has been made. The Great Seal in fair condition is pre- 

N.B. A Minute only of this License is in the Public Record Office. 
(Grant Booh, Jac. I., p. 28.) 

2. 22nd May 1609 (7 Jac. I.). Westminster.— The King's 
License to the Governor and Company of Merchants of London 
trading into the East Indies to sell any quantities of spices, wares, 
merchandises, and commodities in whole packs, sacks, or casks, un- 
garbled, to any merchant or other person, to be transported out of 
the realm, without incurring forfeiture for not garbling or cleansing 
trhem, upon payment of customs, notwithstanding any prohibition to 
the contrary. With the Great Seal mutilated. 

N.B. There is a Minute only of this License, dated 11th May 1609, 
in the Public Record Office. 

(Docquet and Grant Booh, Jac. L, p. 15.) 

3. 17th March 1610 (7 Jac. L). Westminster.— The King's Com- 
mission to Sir Henry Middleton, appointing him principal Governor 
or General of all merchants, mariners, and others shipped in these 
ships to the East Indies (the sixth voyage). With the Great Seal 

4. 17th March 1610 (7 Jac. I.). — A duplicate of the preceding 
Commission. With the Great Seal mutilated. 

5. 4th February 1623 (20 Jac. I.).— The King's Commission to 
the Governor and Company of Merchants trading into the East 
Indies, reciting a former Commission of 14th December, 13 Jac. I. 
(1615), giving them power and authority for punishing offences at 
sea, and granting, at the humble suit and intercession of said Governor 
and Company, power and authority to " make forth Commissions, 
Instructions, and Directions" to their President and Council of 
Defence in the East Indies to chastise, correct, and punish his 
Majesty's subjects employed on land by fine, imprisonment, or any 
other punishment, capital or not capital, as the laws of this Kingdom 
and martial law doth permit and require. Injured by damp. With 
the Great Seal mutilated. 

N.B. There is a Minute only in the Public Record Office of a Grant 
of the date above recited, viz., 14th December, 13 Jac. I. (1615), but 
it has reference to transporting foreign bullion and other things. 

6. 18th February 1628 (3 Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the 
Governor and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies, 
reciting former Letters Patent of 16th January, 15 Jac. I., to transport 


foreign coin, not to exceed lOO.OOOZ. yearly, without payment of cus- 
tom or subsidy ; also reciting further Letters Patent of 22nd March, 
2 Car. I., to transport 20,000Z. in gold or silver in English specie, on 
condition of their bringing into the Mint 25,000Z. of foreign coin 
within three months ; granting to said Governor and Company license 
to transport 60,0001. in foreign gold in their next intended voyage, 
a,nd, if they cannot supply themselves with foreign gold to that 
amount, to transport 40,000Z. in English gold, on condition of their 
bringing into the Mint 40,OOOZ. in foreign gold within six months. 
Injured hy damp. With Great Seal mutilated. 

It appears by the endorsements that there were shipped upon these 
Letters Patent : — 8th March 1627/8, in the Expedition, in foreign 
coin, to the value of 5,9001. ; in the Jonas, in foreign coin, to the 
value of 18,050Z. 24th March 1627/8, in the Jonas, in foreign gold, 
4,780Z. ; in English gold, 15,000Z. In all, 43,720Z. 

N.B. The License of 20th March, 2 Car. I., to transport 20,000Z. 
above recited, and a License of 15th February, 3 Car. I., to transport 
60,000Z., the foundation of the above Letters Patent, both under the 
King's Sign Manual, are in the Public Kecord Office. 

7. 14th October 1627 (3 Car. I.).— The King's Commission to 
Eobert Ducy, Ealph Freeman, Christopher Clitherowe, Sir Morris 
Abbott,* Henry Garway, Jeffrey Kirby, Eobert Jeffreys, Humfrey 
Browne, Clement Harby, Job Harby, Henry Lee, William Cokaine, 
Eobert Draper, George Strode, Thomas Mustard, and William Lee, 
of London, merchants, and John Barker, of Bristol, Abraham 
Jennyuges, of Plymouth, Gyles Green, of Weymouth, and Peter 
Taylor, of Exeter, merchants, Eobert Samon and William Case, 
Masters of the Trinity House, to inquire, search, discover, and find 
out what hath been disbursed, and in whose hands any part thereof 
remaineth undisturbed of the moneys collected by 1| per cent, on 
tonnage of shipping towards the expedition for suppressing the 
pirates of Algiers. In parts illegible. With Great Seal mutilated. 

N.B. There is another Commission on this subject in the Public 
Eecord Office (Sign Manuals, Car. I., Vol. 5, No. 12), dated 16th 
February 1628, with this memorandum : — " The like Commission did 
" lately pass the Great Seal, but it is now again prepared, with 
" addition of some Commissioners, and such further additions and 
" explanations as your Majesty under your Sign Manual hath been 
" pleased to direct." 

8. 24th March 1629 (4 Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the Governor 
and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies, reciting 
former Letters Patent of 16th January, 15 Jac. I., for transporting 
foreign coin, not exceeding the sum of 100,000Z. yearly, without pay- 
ment of custom or subsidy, and petition of said Company showing 
they have raised a stock of above 120,0002., which is intended to be 
employed in a particular voyage this year for Persia, in cloth, tin, 
kerseys, and other native commodities and manufactures of this 
Kingdom, and that said Company have made a contract with the 
King of Persia to bring a fourth part of the value of their commo- 
dities in ready money, either gold or silver, granting to said Company 
license to transport the sum of 60,000Z., whereby to enable them to 
make good their contract with the said King of Persia. Injured by 
damp. Without the Great Seal. 

* This is "the Honourable and Worthy ICnight Sr. Maurice Abbot," to whom, with 
others, Henry Lord dedicates his Biscoverie of ttie Sect of the Banians, and Keliqwn of the 
ParsoBs, 1630.— Geo. B. 


It appears by the endorsement that there were shipped upon these 
Letters Patents : — 

In the Discovery, in foreign gold, 8,800?. ; 
In the Charles, in foreign gold, 20,OOOZ. ; 
And in English gold, I6,900L 

9. lOth March 1630 (5 Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the Governor 
and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies, reciting 
former Letters Patent of 16th January, 15 Jac. I., for transporting 
foreign coin, which " only extends to foreign silver and bullion of 
silver," and granting to said Company license to buy and take up in 
England the sum of 8,000L in foreign gold, and to transport the 
same into the East Indies or Persia, without incurring any penalty, 
forfeiture, or other punishment, and without payment of custom or 
subsidy. With the Great Seal Mutilated. 

10. 1 7th October 1629 (6 Car. 1.) .—Letters Patent to the Governor 
and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies, reciting 
former Letters Patent of 16th January, 15 Jac. I., and petition of 
said Company that they have now enlarged their trade into Persia, 
where they shall have opportunity to vent yearly great quantities of 
cloth, kerseys, and tin, the commodities and manufactures of this 
Kingdom, and therefore shall have use of a greater proportion of 
gold, silver, and bullion than 100,OOOZ. mentioned in said former 
Letters Patent, granting them license to transport 120,000Z. yearly, 
whereof 40,000Z. to be in foreign gold or bullion of gold. The Great 
Seal to this Patent is wanting. 

11. 9th November 1630 (6 Car. L).— Letters Patent to the Gover- 
nor and Company of Merchants trading into the Bast Indies, reciting 
former Letters Patent of 16th January, 15 Jac. I., and granting 
to said Governor and Company license to buy and take up in England 
the sum of 30,000Z. in foreign gold, and to transport the same in six 
ships which they intend to furnish and send from hence before the 
end of March next to the East Indies or Persia, without payment of 
custom or subsidy. The Great Seal to this Patent is wanting. 

N.B. The License under the King's Sign Manual is dated 6th 
November 1630, and is in the Public Eecord Office. 

12. 21st November 1631 (7 Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the 
Governor and Company of Merchants trading into the Bast Indies, 
granting them license to buy and take up in England the sum of 
30,000Z. in foreign gold, and to transport the same in their next 
intended voyage with seven good ships into Persia and the East Indies, 
without payment of custom or subsidy. Without the Great Seal. 

It appears by the endorsement that there were shipped upon these 
Letters Patent : — 

In the Pearl, one chest of foreign gold ad valorem 8,863Z. 

In the Charles, ditto, ditto, containing 8,000Z. 

N.B. The above License under the King's Sign Manual, dated 19th 
November, is in the Public Eecord Office (Vol. 13, No. 69). 

13. 3rd March 1632 (7 Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the Governor 
and Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies, granting them 
license to buy, take up, and transport the sum of 2O,OO0Z. of foreign 
gold into the East Indies or Persia without incurring any penalty. 


forfeiture, or other punishtttent, and without payment of custom or 
subsidy ; and in case said Company cannot supply themselves with 
said sum in foreign gold, then it shall be lawful for them to buy and 
take up and transport what shall be wanting in English gold. 
Injured by damp. Without the Great Seal. 

14. 8th October 1633 (9 Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the Governor 
and Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies, granting 
them license, in regard by their Charter they have power only to 
transport foreign silver, to buy and take up, and to transport without 
payment of custom or subsidy in five good ships laden with tin, cloth, 
lead, and other native commodities of this Kingdom the sum of 40,000?. 
in foreign gold, and in case they cannot furnish themselves with so 
much in foreign gold, then to supply themselves with English gold, 
being no more than what hath formerly been granted them on the 
like occasions. Injured by damp. Without the Great Seal. 

16. 30th November 1685 (11. Car. I.).— Letters Patent to the 
C-overnor and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies, 
reciting former Letters of 16th January (15 Jac. I.), granting them 
license to transport a sum not exceeding 100,OOOZ. per annum in foreign 
silver or bullion of silver, and granting them license on their petition 
to buy and take up and transport in their intended voyage to the 
East Indies and Persia the sum of 30,000Z. in foreign gold, and what 
is wanting of said sum in English gold, without payment of custom 
or subsidy, in the Mary, Hart, and Swan. Injured by damp, and 
without the Great Seal. 

16. 7th August 1656. — Warrant of the Lord Protector to the Com- 
missioners of the Treasury and other Officers of the Exchequer to pay 
to the Governor and Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies 
the sum of 50,000Z. in three equal portions, viz., one third part in 
one year's time from the date of these presents, a second third part 
six months after the termination of said year, and the third part, the 
full residue and remainder of said sum, at the end of one year to be 
reckoned from the termination of aforesaid year. With the Great 
Seal, with the inscription " In the third yeare of freedome by God's 
blessing restored." 

17. 18th December 1660 (12 Car. II.).— Letters Patent to the 
Governor and Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies, 
granting them license to buy and transport the sum of 60,000Z. in 
foreign coin and bullion in this their intended voyage to the East 
Indies or Persia. With the Great Seal mutilated. 

N.B. A Petition of the East India Company to the King is in the 
Public Record Office, dated 8th October 1660, for a warrant to permit 
them to export 60,000Z. in coin and bullion. Also the order for said 
warrant, dated 1st December 1661. 

18. 14th November 1665. — Mandate of James, Duke of York, 
Lord High Admiral of England, to the Commissioners for Reprizals 
to sell the contents of the ship Golden Phoenix lately adjudged lawful 
prize by the Court of Admiralty. Latin. 

N.B. There is a Warrant in the Public Record Office of the same 
date as the above confirming a contract between the Duke of Albe- 
marle and the East India Company for purchase by the latter of two 
prize ships of the Dutch East India Company Slothany and Golden 
Phoenix. The contract itself is also among the State Papers. 


19. 6th February 1668 (20 Car. II.).-Acquittance under the 
threat beal to the Governor and Company of Merchants trading to 
the East Indies ; recites the Articles of Agreement of 7th November 
1665, between the Duke of Albemarle on the King's behalf, and 
Sir John Eobinson, Lieutenant of the Tower, and others on behalf 
of said Governor and Company, touching goods taken from two 
Dutch East India Ships the Slothany and the Golden. Phoenix, sold 
and disposed of for His Majesty's use for the sum of 154,969Z. 13s. M., 
the account thereof being examined and approved by the Commis- 
sioners for Prizes, and that the King doth by these presents remise, 
i-elease, and for ever quit claim unto said Governor and Company 
and their successors the above said sum, and all actions, suits, accounts, 
processes, claims, and demands whatsoever of or concerning the same. 

The vignette portrait of Charles II. has been cut out of this docu- 
ment, and the Great Seal is mutilated. 

20. 7th October 1672 (24 Car. II.).— Letters Patent to the East 
India Company, who having promised to lend the King 20,000L " for 
the supply of our occasions," and having been at great charge in 
fitting forth and keeping out at sea four ships to cruize to the 
-westward for the security of trade, towards which the King has 
-thought fit to allow them 2,O0OZ., and said Company having agreed 
to furnish the King with saltpetre to the value of 30,01)0?., and salt- 
j)etre to the value of 40,000Z. having been bought of said Company 
for satisfaction, of which an order was registered upon the King's 
revenue arising by fire hearths and stores, bearing date 13th 
JSTovember 1669, and said Company having made request that said 
40,000?. may be satisfied out of customs for goods and commodities 
imported by said Company from 1st December next, the Commis- 
sioners of the Treasury are required to pay to said Company out of 
the receipt of the Exchequer said sum of 20,000L, with interest at 
61. per cent, per annum from the time the same shall be paid into 
the Exchequer until the time of repayment, also said sums of 2,000Z., 
with interest at 61. per cent, per annum from 29th September last, 
and of 30,000Z., with 6 per cent, per annum from 10th October 
instant, and 40,000Z., with interest at 6 per cent, per annum from 
29th September last past. And for the better security of said 
Company to direct tallies to be levied upon the Receiver and Cashier 
-General of Customs and new imposts upon wines and vinegar for 
said sums of 20,000Z., 2,O0OZ., 30,000Z., and 40,000?., and interest as 
aforesaid, such Receiver General to discharge and satisfy said tallies 

- for said sums of 20,000?., 2,000?., and 30,000?., with interest as 
aforesaid, by six-and-twenty weekly payments of 2,O00Z. per week 
from 1st December next, and to discharge said tallies for said 
40,000?., with interest as aforesaid, out of the customs of such East 
India commodities as shall be imported by said Comjjany after 1st 
December next according to their request. 

With vignette portrait of Charles II., hut without the Great Seal. 

21. 7th October 1672 (24 Car. II.) .—Acquittance under the Great 
•Seal to the East India Company ; recites articles of agreement be- 
tween the Navy Commissioners and the East India Company, touch- 
ing the setting forth His Majesty's ships Dunkirk, Leopard, Mary 
Base, and Convertine to the East Indies at the King's charge to be 
freighted home by said Company, the return of said ships from the 
East Indies, and differences arising between said Company and 
-Navy Commissioners occasioned by the return of the Leopard with 


much dead freight, the receipt by said Company of 1,0007., for 
which tlipv were 'to pay 4,153f pieces of eight to Sir Gervase Luca,s, 
the King's Governor of Bombay, but who died before they were paid 
to him, the misfortunes which befel the Leopard from the obstruc- 
tions of the Dutch in India, who admitting the said Company's just 
demands for satisfaction, said Company were in a way of obtaining 
satisfaction when the Treaty of Breda was concluded, petition of said 
Company to be released from aforesaid articles of agreement, and 
from payment of said 4,153| pieces of eight, said Company's present 
of 2,000L money to the King, and bills of 282L 13s. 6d. and 
1,672 18s. due from the King to said Company for freight of the ship 
London. The King by these presents doth remise, release, and for ever 
quit claim unto said Governor and Company and their successors 
said articles of agreement and said pieces of eight, and all actions, 
suits, accounts, processes, claims, and demands in respect thereof. 

With vignette portrait of the King and the Great Seal attached. 

N.B. The King's letter to the Duke of York to order the JSTavy 
Commissioners to make above agreement is in the Public Record 

(Bom. Entry Book, Vol. 3, p. 11.) 

22. 27th October 1673 (25 Car. II.).— Letters Patent ratifying 
an agreement between Prince Eupert, Duke of Cumberland, and 
others. His Majesty's Principal Commissioners of Prizes, and the 
East India Company, by which the Company are to sell the goods 
taken from the Dutch ships Papenhurgh, Alphen, Arms of Trewere, 
alias Camphire, and Europa, on His Majesty's behalf, and pay the 
proceeds to Eichard Mounteney, His Majesty's Eeceiver General of 
Prizes, after deducting customs, tare and tret, and charges of house 
room, management, &c. The Company undertake that the goods 
when sold shall amount to 33,700Z. more than the above said rates 
(which are prescribed at length), and for the accommodation of His 
Majesty's occasions said Company will advance on account to said 
Eichard Mounteney 60,000Z. on 30th October instant, 50,000L on 
6th November following, and the remainder, whatsoever the sum 
may amount unto at the rates aforesaid, and the 33,7007. custom and 
charges provided for in these articles, and 6f per cent, which they 
allow to their buyers, first deducted, on 18th of said November. 

Injured by damp, with the vignette portrait of Charles II., but 
without the Great Seal. 

23. 6th March 1674 (26 Car. II.)— Eelease from Prince Rupert, 
Duke of Cumberland, and others. His Majesty's Principal Commis- 
sioners of Prizes, to the East India Company. Whereas the said 
Company (in accordance with the articles of agreement under the 
Great Seal of 27th October 1673) have sold the goods taken in 
the Dutch ships Papenburgh, Alphen, Arms of Treweer, alias Gam- 
phire, and Europa, for 174,7417. 9s. 8d., and paid thereof to Richard 
Mounteney, Receiver General of Prizes, 140,0007., and have given 
an account of the expenditure of the residue in customs, expenses, 
and charges of management, &c., said Commissioners by these pre- 
sents allow said account, and on His Majesty's behalf release and 
quit claim said Company from all demands on account of said 
goods or moneys. Signed by Eupert, Latimer, Ormonde, Craven, 
Henry Coventry, and (Sir John) Duncomb. Much injured by damp. 

24. 13th March 1674 (26 Car. II.).— Acquittance under the Great 
Seal to the East India Company. That whereas in pursuance of 


articles of agreement under the Great Seal of 27th October 1673, 
between Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland, and others, His 
Majesty's Commissioners of Prizes, and the East India Company, 
touching East India goods lately taken from the Dutch in the four 
ships Papenburgh, Alplien, Arms of Teweer, alias Camphire, and 
Europa, which were put in the Company's hands to be disposed of 
to His Majesty's most advantage, said Company have disposed of 
said goods for the sum of 174,741Z. 9s. 8d., and "have paid the same 
for His Majesty's use, or expended it in customs and charges, &c., 
His Majesty by these presents doth remise, release, and for ever 
quit claim unto said East India Company and their successors all 
suits, claims, and demands against said Company concerning said 
sum of money and goods. 

With vignette portrait of Charles II. 

Enrolled on the Patent Boll in the Public Record Office, Pat. 2(3, 
Gar. II., PL 4, No. 4, 3159. 

25. 21st October 1676 (28 Car. II.)— Warrant under the Great 
Seal to the Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury and Ex- 
chequer. Whereas the said East India Company have agreed to lend 
His Majesty the sum of 40,000Z. on the credit of the customs pay- 
able by them for East India commodities imported, after satisfying 
the sum of 87,000i. and interest still unpaid for 700 tons of salt- 
petre by them formerly sold to His Majesty, His Majesty doth by 
these presents authorize and direct said Commissioners and OfB.cers 
of the Treasury to cause payment to be made to said Company of 
said sum, with interest at 6 per cent., out of said customs aforesaid, 
and tallies to be levied accordingly upon the Receiver General and 
Farmers of Customs. 

With vignette portrait of Charles II. and the Great Seal mutilated. 
Enrolled on Patent Boll in the Public Record Office, Pat. 28, Gar. II., 
PL 1, No. 4, 3180. 

26. 24th January 1678 (29 Car. II.).— Warrant under the Great 
Seal to the Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury and Exche- 
quer. Whereas the East India Company have agreed to lend His 
Majesty the sum of 20,000Z., and to furnish His Majesty's stores 
with 754f tons of saltpetre, which at the price agreed on amounts to 
40,000?., or 60,000Z. in all. His Majesty by these presents authorizes 
and requires said Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury to 
cause payment to be made to said Company of said sum, with inte- 
rest at 6 per cent., out of the customs payable by them for East 
India commodities imported after the 1st November last past. 

With vignette portrait of Charles II., but the Great Seal is missing. 

27. 22nd November 1678 (30 Car. II.).— Warrant under the 
Great Seal to the Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury and 
Exchequer. Whereas the East India Company have agreed to lend 
His Majesty 8O,O00Z., and furnish His Majesty's stores with 363 tons 
12i cwts. 26 lbs. of saltpetre, of the value o"f 20,000Z., making to- 
gether 50,000?., His Majesty by these presents authorizes and 
directs said Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury to cause 
payment of said sum, with interest at 6 per cent., to be made to said 
Company out of the customs on East India commodities by them 
imported, after the satisfaction of the sum of 60,000Z. and interest 
mentioned in His Majesty's Letters Patent of 24th January last. 

The vignette portrait of Charles II. has been cut out, and but a 
fragment remains of the Great Seal. 


28. 18th September 1682 (34 Car. II.).— Warrant under the' 
Great Seal to the Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury and 
Exchequer. Whereas the East India Company have furnished His- 
Majesty's stores with 400 tons of saltpetre at the price of 15,3721., 
His Majesty by these presents authorizes and requires said Com- 
missioners and Officers of the Treasury to cause issue of said sum to 
be made to the Paymaster of the Ordnance, to be by him applied 
to satisfy said Company, payment to be made by tallies on tbe 
Eeceiver General and Farmers of the Customs of East India com- 
modities imported after the 25th March next, with interest at 6 per 

With vignette portrait of Charles II., and a fragment of the Great 

29. 5th July 1683 (85 Car. II.).— Warrant under the Great Seal 
to the Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury and Exchequer. 
Whereas the East India Company have agreed to furnish His 
Majesty's stores with 1,051 tons of saltpetre, which, at 38s. 6d. per 
cwt., amounts to 40,463/. 10s., His Majesty by these presents autho- 
rizes and requires said Commissioners and Officers of the Treasury to 
cause issue of said sum to be made to the Paymaster of the Ord- 
nance, to be by him applied to satisfy said Company, payment to be 
made by tallies on the Keceiver General and Farmers of the Customs 
of East India commodities imported after the 29th September next,, 
with interest at 6 per cent. 

With vignette portrait of Charles II., and the Great Seal mutilated. 

30. 12th November 1684 (36 Car. 11.).— The King to John Petit,. 
George Bourcher, Simon Cracroft, and Edward Littleton. Whereas- 
His Majesty is informed by petition of the East India Company 
that they, being said Company's servants, under oath and security 
for their truth and fidelity, have notwithstanding for several years 
past manifestly injured said Company in their trade in those parts, 
by endeavouring to lessen their reputation with the Native Kings 
and Governors, and to break contracts with some of them, making 
others for the protection of interlopers, and labouring to promote- 
their trade and interest and lessen the Company's, and that said 
John Petit is notoriously suspected to have been an encourager and 
adviser of the late rebellion at Bombay, His Majesty requires and 
strictly commands said Petit, Bourcher, Cracroft, and Littleton, 
within 14 days after His pleasure shall have been signified to them,, 
to come for England to answer the premises and such other matters 
as by the said Company shall be objected against them. 

31. 31st January 1688 (3 Jac. II.). — Acquittance under the Privy 
Seal to the East India Company and to the owners of the ship Anda- 
Iwzia. Whereas the ship Andaluzia, John Jacob master, found trading 
between the Cape de Bona Speranza and the Straits of Magellan 
without license of said Company, was, on the 7th of April last 
past, condemned, and sentence passed that said ship and goods were 
forfeited, one half to his Majesty and the other to said Company, 
according to the Letters Patent of said Company of 3rd April 
1661 ; and whereas His Majesty, at the instance of said Company, 
has consented that said ship be restored to the owners, and said 
goods sold, and the proceeds paid, one fifth to His Majesty and to 
said Company, and four fifths to the owners, which has been done 


accordingly, and the sum of 3,1611. Os. 2d. paid into His Majesty'^ 
Exchequer; His Majesty is pleased to accept said sum, and by 
these presents doth exonerate, release, and discharge said Company 
and said owners from ail claims and demands concerning the said 
ship and goods. Injured hy damp, and the Seal is wanting. 

32. 3rd October 1689 (1 Will, and Mary).— Warrant under the 
Great Seal to the Commissioners of the Treasury and Officers of the 
Exchequer. Whereas the East India Company on the 30th August 
last furnished Their Majesties' stores with 600 tons of brown salt- 
petre, which at i6l. per ton amounts to 22,500Z., and Their Majesties, 
have agreed that said sum shall be paid out of the customs and duties 
of East India commodities since the Ist August last imported or to 
be imported, except the duties lately by Act of Parliament appro- 
priated to the satisfaction of moneys due to the States General, and 
arrears due to the servants of the late King Charles the Second, Their 
Majesties hereby authorize and direct said Commissioners and Officers 
of the Treasury and Exchequer to cause payment to be made of said 
sum to the Paymaster of the Ordnance, to be by him paid to said 
Company as aforesaid, with interest at 6 per cent, per annum. 

With vignette portrait of the Kiry, but without the Great Seal. 

33. 14th July 1698. — Roll of subscribers for raising a sum not 
exceeding two millions upon a fund for payment of annuities after the 
rate of 81. per cent, per annum, and for settling the trade to the East 
Indies according to an Act made in the last Session of the last 
Parliament. Said subscribers undertake to unite their several shares 
and interests, and to be incorporated as a Company, and to trade in a. 
joint stock to the East Indies. 

The amounts of the several subscriptions vary from 20,000?., the 
highest, to lOOl., the lowest. Henry Purnese, 15,000?., is the first 

name on this roll, Jas. Courthop, 1001., the last name. Among the 
subscribers are the following, viz : — 


.John Smith, for Lord Portland - 10,000 

Sam Shepheard - - - 20,000 

Thos. Vernon - . - - 15,000 

John Lloyd ... - 4,000 
Jas. Vernon, for Duke of Shrewsbury - 4,000 

Jas. Vernon, for himself - 2,000 

Theod. Janssen - - - 15,000 

Gilbert Heathcote - - - 15,000 

Ditto, for his brother John - - 3,000 

Ditto, for his brother William - 3,000 

The Lord Chancellor - - - 2,000 

Henry Cornish - - - 10,000 
Por His Majesty : — 

Chas. Montague 

Ste. Pox - 

J. Smith 

Tho. Littleton 

Montagu - 5,000 

Eanelagh ... - 3,000 

Cha. Montague - - - 5,000 

Ste. Pox - - - - 4,000 

J. Smith ... - 2,000 

Tho. Littleton - - - 2,000 



Wm. Blathwayt - - 2,000 

The Earl of Orford 6,000 

Cha. Montagu - 4,000 

Thos. Clarke, for Jdo. Bromley 7,000 

John Chadwicke - - - 3,000 

John, Lord Culpeper - - 500 

Duke of Devonshire - - - 6,000 

Gilbert Heathcote - - - 2,000 
This roll consists of fifteen sTcins of parchment. 

34. 8th December 1703 (2 Anne).— Warrant under the Great 
Seal from George, Prince of Denmark, Lord High Admiral of 
England and Generalissimo of the Forces, granting letters of marque 
to Samuel Goodman in the ship Martha against ships, vessels, and 
goods belonging to France and Spain, their vassals, subjects, &c.. 
Her Majesty having on 14th May 1702 declared war against France 
and Spain. 

This document has suffered from damp, and only a fragment of the 
Seal remains. 

35. 20th August 1705 (4 Anne). — Grant of pardon under the 
Great Seal to the Governor and Company of Merchants of London 
"trading into the East Indies. Recites the substance of an Act of 
Parliament of 9 Will. III., intituled " An Act for raising a sum, not 
" exceeding two millions, upon a fund for payment of annuities after 
" the rate of eight pounds per centum per annum, and for settling the 
"' trade to the East Indies," the incor]5oration of a Company by the 
name of the "English Company trading to the East Indies," the said 
Governor and Company being on 22nd July 1 702 possessed of 315,000Z. 
of said subscriptions, and an indenture tripartite made on said 22nd 
July 1702, between Her Majesty, the said Governor and Company, 
and the said English Company, for settling all disputes between the 
two Companies, whereby the said English Company doth covenant to 
assist said Governor aud Company in bringing home their effects from 
the Indies, &c., and to pay to them so much of the additional duty 
•of five per cent, payable by said Act of Parliament on goods brought 
from the Indies as shall be paid to such English Company for the goods, 
Ac, of said Governor and Company, their agents and servants, and 
Her Majesty covenants to pardon both said Companies for all crimes, 
misdemeanours, &c., by either committed " from the beginning of the 
world " to the date of said indenture, except certain customs, duties, 
and saltpetre not yet paid or delivered. And whereas the said English 
Company, by deed of the 20th of July last past, have declared that 
certain informations in|the Court of Exchequer in the name of Alexander 
Gawn and others, claiming that the ships Regard, Howland, and 
■Ghamhers frigate (being the only ships of Governor and Company now 
abroad) were forfeited for certain seizures, were made without their 
direction or privity, and have released and quit claimed to jsaid 
Governor and Company all causes of forfeitures aud penalties which 
might arise by reason of said seizures or informations : Her Majesty 
by these presents pardons and quit claims to the said Governor aud 
Company, their agents and servants, for all offences and crimes 
done on the 22nd of July 1702 and since, contrary to said Act of 
Parliament, except duties, customs, breaches of bond, &c. 

Very much injured by damp, with the vignette portrait of Queen 
Anne, and the Great Seal, which is mutilated. 


36. 20th October 1732 (6 Geo. II.l.— Commission under the 
Great Seal to Eobert Jenkins, commander of the ship Harrington, 
carrying thirty-four guns and ninety-eight men, empowering him to 
apprehend, seize, and secure all pirates, freebooters, and sea rovers, 
being His Majesty's subjects, or of other nations associated with 
them, with their ships, moneys, and goods, as he shall meet with on 
the coasts and io the seas of India (whither he is going), or in any 
other seas, and bring them to trial to the end they may be proceeded 
against with the utmost severity of the law, and enjoining him to keep 
a journal of said pirates' ships, goods, moneys, arms, &c., and to take 
care of the bills of lading and all other papers found in them. 

This Commission bears the King's signature, hut the Great Seal has 
been sadly mutilated. 

37. 22nd August 1737 (11 Geo. II.). — Similar Commission under 
the Great Seal to William Jobson, commander of the Boyal George, 
carrying thirty guns and ninety-eight men. 

This Commission also bears the King's signature, hut the Great Seal 
is mutilated. 

38. 18th November 1745 (19 Geo. II.). — Letters of marque under 
the Great Seal to Harry Kent, commander of the ship Dragon, carry- 
ing twenty guns and ninety-nine men, against all ships and goods of 
Prance and Spain, their vassals and inhabitants. 

There is a vignette portrait of George 11. , hut the Great Seal i» 

39. 2nd July 1747 (21 Geo. II.). — Similar letters of marque 
under the Great Seal to Norton Hutchinson, commander of the 
Swallow, carrying fourteen guns and thirty-five men. 

With vignette portrait of George II. The Great Seal is missing. 

40. 16th October 1758 (32 Geo. II.). — Commission under the 
Great Seal to George Beamish, commander of the ship-Boyal George, 
carrying twenty-four guns and eighty men, to seize pirates. 

This Commission is in similar terms to No. 36 ; it has the King'» 
signature, but the Great Seal is wanting. 

W. Noel Sainsbtjrt. 

P.S., 2nd Eeprint. — The whole of the above 40 documents are now 
included in the new Catalogue of Parchment Records prepared under 
the direction of Mr. P. C. Dauvers since the first reprint of the pre- 
sent Eeport was issued last year [1889]. See Appendix B. 

Geo. B. 


Appendix B. 

Eeprint of the Introduction to 


As recorded in the Court Minutes of the East India Company, 


Printed from the Original Manuscript 


HENRY STEVENS of Vermont, 

And published by 


115, Saint Martin's Lane 

[Now (1890) 39, Great Eussell Street]. 




" Qui mare teneat, eum neoesse rerum potiri." — Ciceko, Ep. ad Att. , x. 

The History of the East India Company is a work that has still to 
be written, although from its rise, at the close of the sixteenth century, 
"to its disappearance thirty years ago, the Company was careful to 
provide all the necessary material for the task, and to place on formal 
record the simplest acts of its administration, and the reasons which 
prompted all its decisions. The value of these contemporary annals 
— for the Court Books, Factory Diaries, Consultations, and general 
■correspondence, really constitute a continuous narrative— has been 
only in a small degree impaired by the ravages of time, and by the 
neglect of less careful custodians than the men who originally deter- 
mined that their successors in office should gain by their example and 
•experience, and that the Company itself should not suffer in the eyes of 
posterity from any ambiguity as to its proceedings. The present 
volume, printed as a labour of love under the direction and at the 


•charge of the late Mr. Henry Stevens, is, so far as print can be made 
a facsimile of manuscript, identical with the first Court Book kept by 
the adventurers trading to the East Indies, who received from Queen 
Elizabeth in the last year of the sixteenth century a patent, or 
■charter, recognizing them as the East India Company, with a mono- 
poly of trade and specified privileges for a given term of years. 

The first entry is of the names of those persons who subscribed on 
22nd September, 1599, to " the pretended voiage to the Easte Indias, 
the whiche it maie please the Lorde to gsper ;" and the last is the report 
of a committee meeting on 28th June, 1603. Within those four years 
is contained the germ of every triumph subsequently achieved in the 
seas and lands of the East. The committees to which the adventurers 
entrusted the guidance of their affairs not merely laid down the coun- 
tries with which it was desirable to trade, and the English commo- 
modities for which their markets might provide a vent, but they 
dwelt upon the inconveniences of the long sea route by the Cape of 
Good Hope to India, and listened with approval to any project, how- 
■ever visionary, for bringing London nearer to the wealthy kingdoms of 
Asia. As will be seen, their hopes centred in the North-West pas- 
sage, which Eobert Thorne had been the first to advocate in Henry 
Vm.'s reign as furnishing a road to Cathay and India, and which 
long continued to dangle before the eyes of the Company as a 
glorious possibility, never realizing its promise until in our time the 
discovery had been made, and the feat accomplished, not by naval 
skill and daring, but by the connection of the two great oceans of 
the world by a line of railway. The early references to America 
■contained in this volume will be of peculiar interest to the descen- 
dants of the Pilgrim Fathers of the May Flower* who have so rapidly 
spread themselves over that mighty continent, and who have so bril- 
liantly carried on the commercial traditions of the Mother Country 
of us all. 

The present volume, the first Court Book, furnishes irrefragable 
evidence that the managers of the East India Company began their 
undertaking in a thoroughly practical and businesslike manner. They 
■encountered a rebuff, however, on the very threshold of their enter- 
prise, for after three meetings they were obliged to postpone their 
first voyage until the following year in consequence of the negotia- 
tions then in progress with Spain for the conclusion of a peace. The 
active life of the Company, therefore, did not commence until the 
meeting at Pounders' Hall, on 23rd September, 1600, whereat it was 
announced that "it was Her Ma^s pleasure that they shuld proceade 
in ther purpose." The first steps taken were the appointment of 
committees to select and purchase suitable vessels for the voyage, as 
well as the necessary stores and equipment. The Susan, or more 
strictly the Great Susan, the Bector, and the Assention, were the first 
three vessels purchased, and then, after protracted bargaining with 
its owner, the Earl of Cumberland, the Mare Scurge, afterwards re- 
named the Bed Dragon, was procured as the Admiral's ship.^^ These 
four vessels constituted what is termed " the First Yoyage, but a 

- * The East India Company possessed in 1659 a ship called the f^^V^}ZZL7^J^iI hS3 
Bubsequently foundered In the"^ Bay of Bengal. In '^J ^m^<>'"l\^''i^^iZn^l,fZj^ 
o/the India Ctfice [H.M.'s Stationery Office. 1879], I ask whether >VTlJj™„te from S 
ship as the May momr -Hrhlch landed the Dutch, Scotch, and English eimgrauts from Uellt 
Haven, Southampton, and Plymouth, in New England, 25 Dec, 1620. bee pp. /•s^o. 

S 2 


fiftli, and much smaller vessel, named the Gv,ift* was added to .them 
for the conveyance of some of the indispensable supphes of the 
squadron, and it was to be cast adrift at the discretion of the com- 
mander. The committees had to report to the Court every particular 
of their transactions with the owners of the ships, and these form 
the substance of the first half of the present volume. The inventories 
of the four ships named, given at pp. 15-20, pp. 22-4, pp. 42-4, are 
exceedingly curious, and mention everything on board from culverins 
and masts to " 1 pease pott & 2 gridirons." The Mare Scurge, of 600 
tons burden, and twice the size of the next largest vessel of the fleet, 
the Hector, cost 3,700L The 8usan was purchased for 1,600Z. ; but 
the prices given for the others are not stated. The Quift cost 300Z. 
These sums included everything on board, as well as the vessels 
themselves, and with regard to two of them it was) stipulated that 
the seller should take back his ship at half price on its safe return. 

The ships having been procured, the next thing was to make them 
ready for sea, and this was done with all dispatch ; the workmen on 
the Mare Scurge being allowed a barrel of beer a day lo prevent their 
running to the ale-house. They were then provided with their proper 
companies, the Mare Scurge having 200 men, the Hector 100 men, 
the Susan 80 men, and the Assention 80 men. The sailors received 
two months' wages in advance, and the officers were treated in an 
equally liberal manner. Great care was shown in the selection of the 
latter, and when the Lord Treasurer made a special appeal for Sir 
Edward Michelborne to be employed in the voyage the Court firmly 
refused " to imploy anie gent," and requested " leave to sort_ ther 
busines w*ii men of ther owne quality." Captain Ja-nes Lancaster was 
appointed Captain of the Mare Scurge, and Admiral of the Squadron. 
Captain John Middleton commanded the Hector, with the succession 
to the chief command in the event of Lancaster's death. Both these 
officers were also appointed principal factors. The Master of the 
Susan was Samuel Spencer, and of the Assention, Roger Hankin. 

The Company had difficulties of its own. Some of the adventurers 
were not prompt in paying up tlieir instalments, and in April, 1601, the 
Company was 7,000Z. in default, and had to appeal to the Lords of the 
Privy Council for special powers to deal with those that " shewe them- 
selves remisse & vnwillinge to f urnyshe there promyssed contribucons," 
and this request was granted. The order is a characteristic one, and 
will be found at pp. 165-6. The Comj^any issued warrants against 
the defaulters in accordance with this order, and we may assume that 
this summary mode of dealing was attended with satisfactory results 
as the subject gradually disappears from the Court Minutes. 

On 1st May 1601, the Court sanctioned the payment of "twentie 
merkes " to the King of Heralds for assigning Corporate Arms to the 
Company, but these were not the same lusigniaf of Community, with 
the motto " Auspicio Regis et Senatus Anglise," which, at a later date,, 
became renowned throughout the East. Very stringent rules were 
also passed for the maintenance of order in the Court, and some of 
them would not be without their value in a more august assembly at 
the present day, as, for instance, the regulation providing that no- 

* The received uamea of tie shijis here called Mare Scurgo, and Guift, are Malice Scourge 
and Gwest. The name of the Assention is usually spelled Ascension. 

t See pp. 21, note, and 222-3, mote. 


brother of the Company should speak to any one matter " above 
three sundry tymes." The penalty of doing so was 3s. 4d., a con- 
siderable amount in those days. Penalties of different amounts were 
inflicted for uncivil or intemperate speeches and behaviour, for inter, 
ruptions, such as private whisperings, &c., for breaking silence when 
enjoined by the Governour, for leaving the Court without permission, 
and the refusal to pay these fines or penalties entailed a term of 
imprisonment. For further information on these points the reader 
must be referred to pp. 201-4. 

It was in June, 1603, that news was received through a Frenchman 
that left the English fleet at sea of its safe return to European waters, 
but the first Court Book contains only special reference to the arrival 
of the Assention, from the officers of which vessel several letters were 
read in the General Court held on 6th June, 1603. Ten days later the 
reward of five pounds was assigned to Mr. Midleton of Plymouth 
"for hispaines rydinghetherw*!' the first report of the coming of the 
" Assention out of the East Indies." Special orders were sent down to 
Plymouth that the ship was not to break bulk until anchored in the 
Thames. Warehouses suitable for the reception of its cargo were 
taken, tithes were paid to the Lord High Admiral for a prize captured 
at sea, and on the 16th June the entrance of the vessel into the river 
was publicly announced. Six pounds had then to be paid for pilotage 
and 9171. for customs to the King [for James I. had succeeded " Good 
Queen Bess "], before the adventurers were in a position to know how 
their first journey had prospered. The Court Book says modestly 
that it afforded encouragement for a second venture, but for more 
exact and detailed information concerning the return of the East 
India Company's first squadron from Asia the reader will refer to the 
passages themselves. 

Very soon after the sailing of the first fleet for India by the Cape of 
Bona Speransa, the project of discovering a route to the East Indies by 
the North- West Passage was brought before the Court by "one George 
Waymoth* a navigator."" The subject was considered in a dual form ; 
first, whether the Company would take it up and be at the charge of 
fitting out two or three pinnaces, and secondly, if it would not accept 
this direct responsibility, would it leave the matter to private men, 
and reward their discovery by the surrender of the trade by this route 
for certain years ? Whether from fear of losing any of the privileges 
and advantages of the monopoly of trade with China and the East 
Indies, or from pure public spirit, it was determined that "the 
findinge out of the Northwest passage ' ' shall be " consented unto for 
a voyage." The readiness of the Court to undertake this quest, and 
to seriously take up George Waymouth's idea, can only be under- 
stood by realizing the state of geographical knowledge at the time, 
and the hopes of the commercial classes of the discovery of new and 
short routes to the Indies as well as of new countries. 

The discovery of the North- West Passage had been the first ambi- 
tion of English navigators. Henry VII.'s letters patent to John Cabot 
and his three sons in 1496 were for the discovery of this very route.f 
In the next reign Eobert Thome advocated the same project, which 
Sebastian Cabot revived under Edward. VI. and Mary, and the expe- 
dition of Sir Hugh Willoughby and Eichard Chancellor to the White 

* His name is afterwards spelt Waymoutli and Waymouthe. 
t See pp. 193-^5. 


Sea, partly a failure and partly a success, was really another attempt to 
solve the same problem. The voyages of Martin Frobisher, in 1576-8, 
■were the first to give any tangible ground of hope in the discovery of 
an inlet on the coast of Labrador running westward, and he was 
" highly commended of all men for the great hope he brought of a pas- 
" sage to Cathaia." These different attempts made in the course of a- 
century were so many endeavours to realize the predictions of Seneca* 
and Pulci.f The latter clearly prophesied that across the Atlantic 
would be discovered not only a new world, but a new route to the 

Political considerations confirmed the traditions kept alive by the 
bolder geographers and men of science of antiquity, and also of the 
Eenaissance. Da'Gama's discovery of the Cape route to the Indies had 
been to the benefit of a Portuguese monopoly, not of the commercial 
interests of Europe at large. For a century the Portuguese enjoyed 
as undisturbed a supremacy east of the Cape as the Spaniards had for 
three-fourths that period on the Spanish Main. When the English 
navy was in its infancy that of Portugal had reached its prime, and 
was, indeed, squacdering the magnificent inheritance of DaGamaand 
Albuquerque. It seemed to English navigators and merchants that 
the only practical way of coping with the Portuguese in the Eastern 
seas was by the discovery of a new route thither of which England 
might claim and possess the sole right of usage. In the sixteenth 
century English naval enterprise found its chief impulse in this con- 
sideration, and when the next century was marked by the beginning- 
of an East India Company whose programme was to compete with the 
Portuguese and Dutch — for the latter had also, and before us, em- 
barked on the same undertaking — in a trade by the Cape route, there 
were many who turned with unconcealed longing to the earlier scheme, 
as holding forth the promise of easier and more complete success. It 
was in this hankering feeling after a monopoly and a sway not to be 
disputed that men like George Waymouth and other advocates of 
the North-West Passage found their best opportunity and argu- 

Such were the prevalent views when Captain Waymouth proposed 
afresh search for theNorth-WestPassage, and obtained the sanction of 
the Court to his design. Although afleet had sailed only a few months 
before by the Cape route, then new to Englishmen, the generality of 
the Company showed every disposition to patronise another attempt 
to open a route peculiarly dear to the English, and identified with 
their name. Yet even in this m.atter, an unexpected obstacle presented 
itself in the alleged prior rights of the " Muskovia Companie," the 
parent of the Eussia Company of our time. Delays and objections 

* See Ma Medea, II., 376-80 :— 

'• Venieut annis secula seris 
Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum 
Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus, 
Tethysque uovos detegat orbes, 
Nee ait tevris ultima Thule." 

And again, his Qucealionum Naturalium Lihri Septem: — *'Curiosus spectator contemnit domi- 
" oilii angustiae. Quantum enim est quod ab ultimis litoribus Uispaniee usque ad Indos 
•* jacet ? paaciasimorum dierum spatium, si navem suam ventus implevit." See pp. 257-8. 

t Luigi Puloi, 1431-1487, " sire of the half-serious rhyme " :— 

" But see, the sun speeds in his western path 
To glad the nations with unexpected light." 


ensued as to the respective privileges of the two Companies, and the 
deliberations of chosen delegates did not greatly further any practical 
or definite conclusion. The discussion might have continued indefi- 
nitely had not the East India Company taken legal opinion as to their 
rights, and finding them ample for the purpose in hand, sanctioned 
the scheme as their " Second Voyage " to the Indies. Finding them so 
firm, the Muskovia Company waived their loftier pretensions, and 
proceeded to associate themselves in the enterprise. For the purposes 
of this voyage, a special levy of one shilling for each pound deposited 
by the adventurers for the Cape experiment was ordered, and special 
terms, mainly dependent, however, qn the result of his voyage, were 
made with Captain Waymouth. The objects of the journey itself are 
well expressed on pp. 198-9, whereat are recited some of the chief 
passages of Elizabeth's patent, as well as the reasons which swayed 
the decision of the Court. The formal agreement between the Com- 
pany and George Waymouth sets forth that the Governor and Company 
had deliberated on " the longe and tedious course w"^ hath berme 
" hitherto houlden by all such as do trade or sayle from these parts 
" of the world in to y^ East Indies alonge the coast of Europe and 
" Africa by y« Cape of Bona Esperansa and of the great adventures 
" w'''^ are borne in soe longe a viage by many kinds of daungers offered 
" therein, and beinge moved w*'* great hope that ther is a possibility 
" of discovery of a neerer Passage into y® said East Indies by seas by 
" yfi way of the North-west yf the same were vndertaken by a man of 
" knowledge in Navigacon, &c., &c.," and had in consequence en- 
trusted the task to Captain Waymouth. In a subsequent passage 
further details are supplied as to how it was thought this would be 
effected, and these constituted what would now be termed Captain 
Waymouth's sailing orders. He was to " sayle toward the coast of 
"Groynland into that part of the open seas w"*" is described in sundry 
" generall mapps by y^ name of fretum Dauies and shall passe on 
" forward in those seas by y® northwest or as he shall fynd the Passage 
" best to lye towards the parts or kingedomes of Cataya or China, or 
" If hacJcside of America." Queen Elizabeth attached suf&cient impor- 
tance to the undertaking to write a special letter to the Emperor of 
China, and " Kathai," the use of the double names for the one country 
implying rather the excess, or cautious completeness, of diplomatic 
courtesy than geographical ignorance. 

Considering the great expense to which the Company went in the 
matter, the many hopes that were based on the enterprise, and the 
confidence of the commander himself, the speedy, not to say the igno- 
minious, return of the expedition was extremely disheartening. The 
Court Book throws no further light on the cause of the failure of this 
well equipped expedition to achieve what was not then known to be 
impossible, than to attribute it to the intrigues of the minister or 
preacher, Mr. Cartwright. But Captain Waymouth endeavoured, 
and not unsuccessfully, to induce the Court to overlook his failure, 
and to take up new schemes for the discovery of another route, not 
by the North-west, but by the South-west, or round Cape Horn. 
-There is little doubt that he would have carried his purpose had he 
not allowed himself to be drawn into litigation with the Company 
about what he considered his just claims in the matter of the abortive 
voyage. These were firmly resisted, with the consequence that he 
failed not only to obtain his damages, but also to induce the Company 
to employ him on a fresh voyage, as had been intended. 


The opposition of the Court to Captain Waymouth's demands and 
propositions was made the more inflexible by the safe return of the 
ships that had sailed by way of the Cape of Good Hope. The arrival 
of the Aseention showed where the practically useful route to the 
Indies lay. It had its difficulties, delays, and dangers, but in com- 
parison with a mythical North-West passage it acquired greater sub- 
stantiality as one prosperous voyage regularly succeeded another. 
Hudson, Button, and Baffin followed at short intervals, and with more 
favourable results, in the footsteps of Waymouth ; but even their 
successes went to demonstrate the impracticability of the main pur- 
pose of their voyages, the opening of a North-West Passage. The 
first Court Book, characteristic in every particular and important in 
most, is historically curious as officially marking the first indication of 
the waning hopes of the school of Cabot and Frobisher, and the rising 
expectations, soon to be confirmed by facts, of that of Lancaster and 
Middleton, of Saris and Marlowe. The North- West Passage was a 
great idea based on an error of fact. The long and tedious route 
by the Cape was a magnificent certainty which supplied English 
naval skill and daring with their most profitable and glorious field 
of enterprise ; for the pretensions of the Portuguese to a monopoly 
being steadfastly repelled, the opulent trade with the Indies became 
the prize in a fair and open competition of merit and energy. The 
present volume is evidence, not of the triumph of the English Com- 
pany, but of the way in which they made up their minds to deserve 
and win it. The fruits of the victory they ultimately, after a contest 
of two centuries, secured over all rivals by the open ocean round the 
Cape of Good Hope, have been retained unimpaired now that the narrow 
seas from Gibraltar to Aden have become, since the piercing of the 
Suez Isthmus, the general thoroughfare to the Indies ; and if the 
North- West Canadian Pacific Railway should realize the anticipations 
of its projectors, the practical solution of the old North- West Passage 
problem would leave the English-speaking races victors still in the 
secular and mortal struggle of the leading countries of the civilized 
world for commercial ascendency and political existence. The states 
which, through degenerate weariness and faint-heartedness in well- 
doing, failed in this implacable competition are foredoomed to wrested 
greatness and enforced decay. 

Undying then should be our gratitude to the founders of the East 
India Company, for they were indeed the pioneers of the unparalleled 
colonial and mercantile prosperity of modbrn England : and we may 
be sure that wherever 

" The strong hearts of her sons " 

are not borne down, as they have been, for well nigh a whole genera- 
tion among ourselves, by the miserable sense of constantly reiterated 
public shame, but are kept up by the high hopes on which they are 
perennially nourished in the invincible Republic of the West, and in 
the proud dominions of the British Crown in the great South Sea, 
there the names of these middle class Elizabethan merchant adven- 
turers, who so well understood, when occasion called, how by trans- 
gressing, most truly to keep the moral law, will be for ever cherished 
and revered, as of " brave men, and worthy patriots, dear to God, 
and famous to all ages." 

Our own destruction, as a beneficent power among the nations, 
may be as inevitable, as our peril, arising mainly from the weakness 


of the historical instinct in the English democracy, at the present 
moment seems imminent ; but in the worst case we shall have 
bequeathed the secret of empire, in the New World and the Old, to 
more resolute inheritors of our common traditions and splendour. 

George Biedwood. 

India Office, Westminster, 

" Queen Elizabeth's Day " [17th NoveMher*], 1886. 

* The anniTersary of the accession of "the Most Mightie and Magnificent Empresse 
Elizabeth '* continued to be kept as a public holiday in England even within the last century, 
and it should still be so observed, at least in the India Office and in British India, and the 
State of Virginia, in praise perennial of Her imperious Majesty's heroic memory. 

" Cynthia prima fuit, Cynthia finis erit." 

" Her deeds were like great glusters of ripe grapes 
Which load the branches of the f ruitf ull vine, 
Offring to fall into each mouth that gapes, 
And fill the same with store of timely wine. 

+ **** + 

Her thoughts are Kke the fume of Frankincence, 
"Which from a golden Censer forth doth rise. 
And throwing forth sweet odoura mounts fro thence 
In rolling globes up to the vauted skies." 


Appendix C. 

List of the East India Company's Charters found in the 
Accountant Greneral's Department after the first 
reprint of my Eeport on the Old Kecords had nearly 
all passed through the press. 

1. 3rd April 1661.— Charter to the Governor and Company of 
Merchants of London trading to the East Indies, dated 13th of 
Charles II. A copy also exists : — See No. 23 of Catalogue of the 
Parchment Records [Appendix D]. 

2. 27th March 1669.— Grant of the Island of Bombay, dated 
20th of Charles II. 

3. 16th December 1674.— Grant of the Island of St. Helena, 
dated 25th of Charles II. 

4. 6th October 1677. — Charter confirming privileges and granting 
power to coin money at Bombay, dated 28th Charles II. 

5. 7th October 1693. — Charter confirming privileges, dated 5th 
of William III. and Mary. A copy also exists: — See No. 47 of 
Catalogue of Parchment Records [Appendix D]. 

6. 11th November 1693. — Charter prescribing orders and direc- 
tions, dated 6th of William III. and Mary. See also No. 49 of 
Catalogue of Parchment Records [Appendix D]. 

7. 3rd September 1698.— Charter of the " General Society " trading 
to the East Indies, dated 10th of William III. 

8. 5th September 1698.— Charter of the " English Company " 
trading to the East Indies. 

9. 14th July 1698. — Charter appointing Hugh Boscawen and 
others to take subscriptions for the General Society (English Com- 

10. 22nd July 1702. — Indenture tripartite between Her Majesty 
Queen Anne, the Company of Merchants of London, and the English 
Company, dated 1st of Queen Anne. 

11. Duplicate. 

12. 29th September 1708. — Decree of Chanceiy on Lord Godol- 
phin's award between the two Companies. 

13. 24th September 1726. — Charter to the United Company for 
establishing Mayors' Courts at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, dated 
13t,h of George I. 

14. 8th January 1753. — Charter for erecting and holding Courts 
of Justice, dated 26th of George II. 


15. 14tli January 1758. — Constitutional grant of plunder taken' 
since 19th September 1757, dated 31st of George II. 

16. Duplicate. 

17. 20th December 1760.— Charter to establish Courts of Judi- 
catui-e at Port Marlborough, dated 1st of George III. 

18. 2nd October, 1812. — Charter regarding property captured in 
war, dated 52nd George III. 

Geo. B. 

P.S., Second Eeprint. — All the above 18 documents are now in- 
cluded in the new Catalogue of Parchment Records, prepared under 
the direction of Mr. F. C. Danvers since the publication of the first 
reprint of this Eeport in 1889. See Appendix D. 

Geo. B. 


Appendix D. 



1st Sept, . 




31st Dec. . 
9th Aug. . 



22nd May . 



31st May . 
17th March. 



17th March. 
4th Feb. . 



14th Oct. . 

Catalogue of the Parchment Eecords,* prepared under 
the direction of Me. F. 0. Danvees, 2.3rd June 1890. 

Deed relating to property in Lime Street 

Queen Elizabeth's Charter. [Copy only.] 

Eoyal License to sell spices, &c., in bulk, 
and to export the same. [Seal.] 

Eoyal Licence to sell spices, <fcc., for export 
in bulk, ungarbled. [Seal.] 

James I.'s Charter. [Copy only.] 

Eoyal Commission to Sir H. Middleton for 
the 6th voyage. [Seal.] 

Duplicate of No. 6. [Seal.] 

Eoyal Commission granting judicial powers 
to the Company's servants in India. 

Eoyal Commision to Eobert Ducy and 
others to enquire into the disposal of the 
monies collected for the purposes of an 
expedition against the Algerian pirates. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Counterpart of lease of a house in Bishops- 
gate Street. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion. 

Cromwell's Warrant to the Commissioners 
of the Treasury for payment of 50,000J. 
to the Company. [Seal.] 

Letters Patent for shipment of bullion, 

Charter of Charles II., confirming and ex- 
tending former charters. [Seal.] 

10. 1628, 18th Feb. 





1629, 24th March. 

1629, 17th Oct. . 
1630, 10th March. 

1630, 9th Nov. . 

1631, 19th Feb. . 

1631, 21st Nov. . 

1632, 3rd March. 

1633, 8th Oct. . 
1635, 30th Nov. . 
1655, 7th Aug. . 

1660, 18th Dec. 

1661, 3rd April 

* This Catalogue includes all the documents enumerated in the text and foot-noteB of the 
present Beport. pp. 18, 19. aud 20, with the exceptions noted on page 19 ; and all the documents 
enumerated in Mr. Noel Sainsbury's Calendar [Appendix A, pp. 2^-73] ; and in the List of 
Documents found in the Accountant- General's Department [Appendix C, pp. 282-3], And it 
further includes five documents, namely, Numbers 40, 41, 49, 50, and 51, not entered in my 
Beport, Mr. Sainsbury's Colendari or the Accountant-General's List. — Geo. B, 



1661, 3rd April 
1665, 14th Nov. 

25. 1668, 6th Feb. 


1669, 27th March. 


1672, 7th Oct. , 


1672, 7th Oct. . 


1673, 27th Oct. 


1674, 6th March, 


1674, 13th March. 


1674, 16th Dec. , 


1676, 21st Oct. , 


1677, 5th Oct. . 


1678, 24th Jan. . 


1678, 22nd Nov. . 


1682, 18th Sept. . 


1683, 5th July . 


1684, 12th Nov. . 


1686, 12th April. 

Copy of No. 22. 

Mandate of James, Duke of York, Lord 
High Admiral, to the Commissioners for 
Keprizals to sell the contents of the prize 
Golden Phoenix. 

Acquittance under ,the Great Seal to- the 
E. I. Co., -with reference to the sum 
realized by the sale of the contents of two 
Dutch prizes, the Slothany and the Golden 

Letters Patent granting the island of Bombay 
to the E. I. Co. [Seal.] 

Letters Patent for the payment, by instal- 
meats, of 92,000Z. due to the E. I. Co. 

Acquittance under the Great Seal to- the 
E. I. Co., remitting certain monies due 
from them. [Seal.] 

Letters Patent ratifying an agreement be- 
tween Prince Eupert and others and the 
E. I. Co., for the sale of goods taken from 
certain Dutch prizes. 

Eelease from Prince Eupert and others of 
any further sums due on account of the 
sale of the above goods. [Seal.] 

Acquittance under the Great Seal to the 
E. I. Co., releasing them from all further 
claims on the same subject. 

Letters Patent granting the island of St. 
Helena to the E. I. Co. [Seal.] 

Warrant under the Great Seal to the Com- 
missioners, &c. of the Treasury and Ex- 
chequer, for the repayment of 40,O00L to 
the E. L Co. [Seal.] 

Letters Patent confirming former privileges 
and giving power to coin money at Bom- 
bay. [Seal.] 

Warrant to the Commissioners, <Sbc. of the 
Treasury and Exchequer, for the payment 
of 60,000Z. to the E. I. Co. 

Warrant to the Commissioners, &c. of the 
Treasury and Exchequer for payment to 
the E. I. Co. of 50,000Z. [Seal.] 

A similar warrant for payment of 15,372Z. 

A similar warrant for payment of 40,463/. 
10s. Od. [Seal.] 

The King to John Petit, George Bourcher,. 
Simon Cracroft, and Edward Littleton, 
requiring them to return to England to 
answer certain charges against them. 

Letters Patent confirming former charters 
and authorizing the Company to establish 
Courts of Justice, to raise military and 
naval forces, and coin money in India.. 
[Copy only.] 


41. 1687, 30th Dec. . Charter establishing a municipality and 

Mayor's Court at Madras. [Copy only.] 

42. 1688, 31st Jan. . Acquittance under the Privy Seal to the 

E. I. Co., and to the owners of the ship 


1691, 19th Dec. 


1693, 7th Oct. 


1693, 7th Oct. 
1693, 11th Nov. 


1694, 28th Sept. 


1695, 17th Jan. 


1698, 14th July. 

43. 1689, 5th Sept. . flail and Wife versus Leigh and E. I. Co. 

Two decrees in Chancery. [Seal.] 

44. 1689, 3rd Oct. . Warrant under the Great Seal to the Com- 

missioners of the Treasury and Exche- 
quer, for payment to the E. I. Co. of the 
sum of 22,500Z., for saltpetre purchased 
of them. 

Atwood, Halford, and others versus Warr 
and the E. I. Co. Decree in Chancery. 

Letters Patent confirming the E. I. Co. in 
their powers and privileges. [Seal.] 

Copy of No. 46. 

Letters Patent prescribing regulations for 
the conduct of the Company's business. 

Letters Patent establishing further regula- 
tions, &c. [Copy only.] 

Bye Laws. Approved by a General Court. 

Act 44, 9 and 10 William III., for raising a 
sum not exceeding 2,000,000Z., &c. 

Letters Patent appointing Commissioners 
to receive subscriptions for the " General 
Society "; with Schedule A., Draft Charter 
of General Society, and Schedule B., 
Draft of " the Charter for the Company 
to trade under a joint stock, which is to 
pass under the Great Seal " if the 
2,000,000?. be subscribed. [Seal.] 
,53. 1698, 14th July. . EoU of subscribers to the 2,000,000?. 

54. 1698, 14th-16th Two books of original subscriptions to the 

July. 2,000,000?. 

55. 1698, 3rd Sept. . Charter of incorporation of the "General 

Society." [See Shaw's " Charters," Pre- 
face, p. 13.] [Seal.] 
.56. 1698, 5th Sept. . Charter of incorporation of the English 

Company trading to the East Indies. 

57. 1698, 5th Sept. . Copy of No. 56. 

68. 1698, 13th Oct. , Grant of Arms to the English Company 

trading to the East Indies. 

59. 1702, 22nd July . Indenture Tripartite between Queen Anne 

and the two East India Companies, for 
uniting the said Companies. [Seal.] 

60. 1702, 22nd July . Duplicate of No. 59. [Seal.]. 

61. 1703, 8th Dec. . Letters of Marque to ship Jfartta. [Seal.] 

62. 1705, 20th Aug. . Grant of pardon under the Great Seal to 

the London E. I. Co. for all crimes, mis- 
demeanours, Ac, committed by them since 
" the beginning of the world." [Seal.] 


63. 1708, 29th Sept. . 

64. 1709, 21st March. 

65. 1709, 21st March. 

66. 1709, 22iid April. 

67. 1709, 7th May . 

68. 1709, 15th Aug. . 

69. 1720, 8th Oct. 

70. 1726, 24th Sept. 

71. 1727, 17th Nov. . 

72. 1730, 26th Oct. . 

73. 1731, 10th Dec. . 

74. 1732, 20th Oct. . 

75. 1737, 22nd Aug. . 

76. 1745, 18th Nov. . 

77. 1747, 2nd July , 

78. 1753, 8th Jan. . 

79. 1757, 19th Sept. . 

80. 1758, 14th Jan. . 

81. 1758, 14th Jan. . 

82. 1758, 16th Oct. , 

83. 1760, 20th Dec. . 

84. 1793, 25th March, 

85. 1793, 5th Nov. . 

The Earl of Godolphin's award between the 

Old and New E. I. Cos. 
Grant by the Loudon E. I. Co. of their 

debts in Great Britain to Queen Anne for 

re-grant to Trustees. 
Declaration of Trust of the London E. I. 

Co. as to bonds for 70,000Z. which by 

Lord Godolphin's award were deposited 

ia the hands of trustees appointed by the 

New E. I. Co. 
Grant to the United Co. of all foreign debts 

of the Old Company. [Seal.] 
Queen Anne's acceptance of the surrender 

of the Charter of the London Co. [Seal.] 
Letters Patent re-assigning to Sir . J. 

Andrews and others the debts in Great 

Britain due to the London Co. [Seal.] 
Apparently a record in an ejectment case. 
Letters Patent establishing Municipalities 

and Mayors' Courts at Madras, Bombay, 

and Calcutta. [Seal.] 
Letters Patent granting to the Company all 

fines imposed by the Mayors' Courts and 

Justices in India. [Seal.] 
Letters of Administration of the estate of 

Csesar Burton, late a factor at Angengo, 

granted to J. Spencer, Senior. 
Similar letters of Administration granted to 

J. Spencer, Junior, on the decease of his 

Commission to ship Harrington to seize 

pirates, &c. [Seal.] 
Similar Commission to ship Eoyal George. 

Letters of Marque for ship Dragon. 
Letters of Marque for ship Swallow. 
Amended Charter of Mayors' Courts at 

Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta. [Seal.] 
Letters Patent granting to the Company a 

moiety of the plunder taken from the 

Nawab Nazim of Bengal. [Seal.] 
Grant to the Company of all booty or 

plunder taken by their ships or forces 

alone. [Seal.] 
Duplicate of No. 80. [Seal.] 
Commission of ship Boyal George to seize 

pirates, <fcc. 
Letters Patent establishing Courts of Judi- 
cature, &c., at Port Marlborough. [Seal.] 
Grant to the E. I. Co. of the booty, &c., 

taken in the late war with Tippoo Sahib. 

Address to Lord Cornwallis on his leaving 



86. 1796, 7th April . 

87. 1796, 8th April . 

88. 1796, 8th April . 

89. 1800, 22nd Nov. 

90. 1807, 21st March. 

91. 1812, 2nd Oct. . 

92. Date indecipher- 

able [ ? 5th 
June 1747]. . 

Grant of an annuity to Warren Hastings of 
4,000Z. per annum for 18 years, com- 
mencing 25th Dec, 1795. [Seal.] 

Assignment of the said annuity as security 
for the repayment of 36,000^. [Seal.] 

Duplioate of No. 87. 

Grant to the E. I. Co. of booty taken from 
Tippoo Sultaun. [Seal.] 

Grant of arms to Haileybury College. [Seals.] 

Grant to the E. I. Co. of booty taken at 
Serhampore. [Seal.] 

(?) Commission to ship Delawarr to seize 
pirates, &c. [Seal.] 

Note. — Besides the above there are a number of parchments (some 
of ancient date) in the custody of the Legal Adviser. These 
are, however, as far as is known, of no public interest, being 
merely title deeds and leases of properties held at different 
times by the East India Company. 


Note. — The letter n indicates that the reference is to a 


Abaka, emperor of Persia, 124. 
Abassins, the country of the, 204, 
Abbaside Caliphs, the, 109, 116, 117. 
Abbott, Sir Morris, 21, 264. 
Abdallah Knlb Shah, king of Goloouda, 

Abd-nr-Razzak, travels of, 136 — 138, 

Abercromby, Sir George, 70. 
Abigail, ship, 73. 
Abney, Sir Thomas, 24. 
Abraham of Beja, Rabbi, 164. 
Abulfeda of Damascus, 112. 
Abu Zaid of Siraf , 109. 
Abyssinia, 186, 137, 143, 164, 165, 174. 
Accounts, committee for, 13 ; directions 

for keeping the E. I. Co.'s, 42. 
Achats, see Agates. 

Acheen, 76, 174, 175, 176, 186, 189, 
200, 205, 211, 212, 234; Gourteu's 
Association settles an agency at, 216 ; 
records relating to, 66. 
Acre, 123. 
Acton, Sir W., 21. 
Adam, tomb of, in Ceylon, 143. 
, Addison, Gulston, brother of Joseph, 
Additional Duty, the, 221«. 
Aden, 109, 111, 114, 127, 128, 130, 136, 
141, 144, 155, 164, 165, 166, 170, 178, 
233, 253 ; Marco Polo's description of, 
129 ; Varthema's description of, 147 ; 
taken by the Portuguese, 170, 174 ; 
captured by the Turks, 175 ; Oapt. 
Keelinge obtains a grant of free 
trade at, 208. 
Adjemi, 145. 

Admiralty, High Court of, 53. 
Adrach (ginger), 143. 
Adventure, ship, 44. 
Adventurers, lists of, 21. 
Advertisements, 16, 17. 
Advice, ship, 75. 
Affron, 205. 
Afghan dynasties of Delhi, the, 240, 

Afghanistan, 106, 109, 165. 
Afghans, 249, 250. 

Africa, 110, 111, 118, 149, 155, 156, 157, 
158, 162, 166, 175, 181, 199, 200, 201, 
203 ; Portuguese possessions in, 178. 

Afzul Khan, 83. 

Agaciam, 178. 

Agates, 15, 37r!, 143, 165, 220n. 

Agra, 27, 49, 63, 190,196, 209, 210,211, 
213, 234 ; Hawkins' visit to, 207 ; an 
agency established at, 212. 

Agreement, Dutch ship, 68. 

Ahaden (Aden), 130. 

Ahmed Shah Durani, 242, 250. 

Ahmedabad, 15, 27, 73, 75, 190, 209, 
211, 219, 224, 233, 236 ; Ahmedabad 
Farm, the, 253. 

Ahmednagar, 241, 253. 

Aix-la-Ghapelle, the peace of, 242, 244n. 

Ajmere, 211, 234, 253; an agency esta- 
blished at, 210. 

Akbar, 241. 

Alatua, 203. 

Alau Khan, 121, 122. 

Albemarle, Duke of, 266, 267. 

Albuquerque, Alphonso de, 166 — 170, 
176, 278. 

Albuquerque, Francisco de, 167, 168. 

Alcook, Sir Rutherford, 125. 

Aldworth, H., 72. 

Alexander the Great, 106, 113. 

Alexander VI., Pope, 167. 

Aleppo, 79, lll,;i33,145, 146, 165,196 ; 
letters sent via, 62; Varthema's de- 
scription of, 145. 

Alexandria, 110, 111, 113, 114, 121, 127, 
129, 130, 131, 135, 145, 155, 157, 164, 
165, 169. 

Aleyn, William, 70. 

Alfred, King, 196. 

Algalia, 204. 

Algiers, pirates of, 47n, 78, 264, 284. 

Algoa Bay, 162. 

Ali Adil Shah, king of Bijapur, 83. 

Alighar, 253. 

Allahabad, 224, 251; treaty of, 18n, 

AUegaes, 63. 

Allen, Edward, 18n. 

AUington, Alderman, 25n. 

Ally Cawn, Mahomed, 35. 

Almalik, 131, 132. 

Almeyda, Francisco de, 168, 169. 

Almeyda, Lorenzo de, 169. 

Almisoar (musk), 180. 

Almonds, 146. 



Aloes, 37n, 39, 107, 108, 109, 111, 141, 

153, 154, 165, 180, 198, 201, 204. 
Alcexylon Agallochum, 153. 
Alphen, ship, 268, 269. 
Altai monntains, the, 113. 
Alum, 84. 

Ama, the island of, 203. 
Amadavad, see Ahmedabad. 
Aman (Hamath), 1 46. 
Amba (mango), 141, 151. 
Amber, 84, 115, 180, 201, 203. 
Ambergris, 15, 37n, 165, 198, 201. 
Amboyna, 170, 188, 189, 192, 200, 203, 
207, 208, 211, 236 ; the seat of the 
supreme government of the Dutch 
possessions, 187, 191 ; the Massacre 
of, 47, 53, 69n, 187, 213, 218 ; records 
relating to, 53, 65. 
America, 140, 172, 194, 259n, 279 ; dis- 
covery of, 159, 160, 238, 266, 257n. 
American, ship, 42. 
American pearl, Taveruier's, 80. 
Ammoniacum, 15. 
Amoy, 30, 191, 225, 227, 235 ; records 

relating to, 52, 65, 66. 
Amsterdam, 68, 76, 184, 185. 
Amu Darya, the, 195. 
Anabaptists, a Court meeting disturbed 

by, 13». 
Anacardium, 39, 204. 
Anatolia, 136. 
Ancola, 150. 

Andaluzia, ship, 270, 286. 
Andamans, the, 108, 127. 

Anderson, Sir Stephen, 23. 

Andrew, Thomas, 20. 

Andrews, Sir Jonathan, 17, 19, 287. 

Andrews, Sir Matthew, 22. 
Andronicus, the Emperor, 110. 

Anfiam (opium), 226n. 

Angamale, 178. 

Angamanain (the Andamans), 127. 

Angel Gabriel, ship, 161. 

Angengo, 18n, 86, 224, 228, 231,233, 
251, 287; Gunner Ince's defence of, 
86 ; records relating to, 16, 86. 

Anglesey, Countess Dowager of, 24. 

Angola, 181. 

Angora, the battle of, 133, 134. 

Angrezabad (Englesvad), 91. 

Angria, Tnloji, 82. 

Anil (indigo), 180, 203. 

Anjediva, 84, 150, 163. 

Anjeram, 232. 

Anjier, 232. 

Ann, ship, 42, 60. 

Anne, Queen, 14n, 18n, 19, 24, 28, 29, 
258, 272, 282, 286, 287. 

"Anne of Dorset," 159. 

Anson, ship, 43. 

Antelope, ship, 42, 50, 62, 73. 

Antioch, 130. 

Antonio, Gasper, 15. 

Antwerp, 118, 184, 185. 

Appopanare, 201. 

Apsley, Sir Peter, 22. 

Aqua vitae, 222n. 

Aquila (eagle-wood), 180. 

Arabia, 79, 83, 110, 128, 130, 136, 138, 
143, 147, 149, 161, 163, 167, 167, 
174, 190, 200, 201, 204, 206n ; Portu- 
guese possessions in, 178. 

Arabs, the, 106, 109, 157, 158,162, 166, 
167 ; notices of India by the, 107, 

Aracan, 140, 186, 189, 199, 200, 263. 

Aram, Mathias, 28. 

Archangel, 194. 

A.rcher, Anne, 70. 

Arcot, 86, 262 ; the Nawab of, 35, 251. 

Areca nuts, 109, 111. 

Arfet, Anne d', 159. 

Arghun Khan, 124. 

ArgoU, 76. 

Argonantic expedition, the myth of the, 

Arkwright's spinning frame, 224n. 

Arlington, Lord, 26. 

Armada, the Spanish, 185, 197, 217n. 

Armagaon, 214, 216, 216, 234 ; note on, 
89 ; records relating to, 67, 81. 

Armalec (Almalik), 131, 132. 

Armenia, 121, 134, 146, 201. 

Armesine of Portugal, 205. 

Arms of Haileybury College, 18«, 288; 
of the E. I. Co., 18n, 21n, 43, 223n, 

276, 286. 

Arms of Trewere, ship, 268, 269. 

Arnhem, ship, 188. 

Arnhem's Land, 188, 

Arnold, Sir Edwin, 74n. 

Arrack, 108. 

Arsinga (Erzingan), 134. 

Arumugam Mudaliar, 89. 

Arundell, Thomas, Erie, 70. 

Arzina (Warsina), 193. 

Arziron (Erzeroum), 131. 

Ascelinus, Nicolas, 119. 

Ascension, ship, 47, 48, 208, 275, 276, 

277, 280. 

Ascension, the island of, 154, 166, 254. 
Aschman, Jer. Williamson, 68. 
Aseron (Erzeroum), 134. 
Ash, Dame Mary, 22. 
Ash, Sir Joseph, 22. 
Asia Minor, 4 In, 110, 133, 166, 226n. 
Assada, 217. 

Assada merchants, see Coorten's Asso- 
AssafcBtida, 16, 109, 149, 166. 

Assam, 268. 

Assarim, 178. 

Assyria, 255. 

Astrakhan, 110, 142, 196. 

Atinoar (borax), 180. 

Atulia, 180. 

Atwood, — , 18n, 286. 

Auditor to the E. I. Co., 77. 

Augsburg, 118, 184, 194. 

Aungier, Gerard, 83. 

Aurora, frigate, 36. 

Auroras (cloths), 33, 41, 60n. 

Aurungabad, 249. 

Aurungzib, 80, 221, 230, 231, 232, 287, 

Austin Vryar's, 26n. 


Austria, 224 ; the Ostend E. I. Go. in- 
corporated by the Emperor of, 32n ; 
the Imperial Company of Trieste, 

Australasia, 157, 187, 188, 192, 254, 

Ava, 140, 145, 189, 253. 

Avei-rhoa carambola, 152. 

Avignon, 130, 132. 

Ayas, see Layas. 

Aynswerth, Sir Rowland, 23. 

Azami (Irak-Adjemi), 145, 146. 

Azef Khan, 241, 242, 243. 

Azerbijan, 134, 136. 

Azim Khan, Governour of Bengal, 215. 

Azim Ushan, Governour of Bengal, 231. 

Azores, the, 159, 161. 

Azov, 110, 114. 

Baas, title of, 185n. 

Baber, the Emperor, 240, 241. 

Babylon, the ruins of, 133 ; Cairo known 

to Marco Polo as, 129. 
Bachian, 170h, 203. 
BackweU, Edward, the E. I. Co.'s 

banker, 25n. 
Badakshan, 123, 148. 
Badger, Dr., 148. 
Baffin, William, 50, 194, 280. 
Baftas (cloths), 37, 224. 
Bagg, James, 68. 
Baghdad, 107, 109, 111, 113, 119, 123, 

130, 132, 133, 138, 196 ; Marco Polo's 

description of, 129. 
Bagwell, Mr., 76. 
Bahmani Dynasty, the, 241. 
Bahrein Islands, 110, 174. 
Baidar, 241. 
Bairam, 153. 

Bajazet, Saltan, 133, 134. 
Baji Rao, 241, 242. 
Baker, Aaron, 219. 
Baker, Thomas, 61. 
:Baku, 131, 142 ; sea of, 135. 
Balachsam (Badakhshan), 148. 
Balasore, 59, 90, 92, 217, 220, 226, 234, 

252 ; note on, 92 ; records relating to, 

65, 66, 67, 80, 92. 
Balass rubies, 148. 
Balbi, Gaspare, 236. 
Balboa, Nunez de, 171. 
Balcombe, W., 97n. 
Baldac (Baghdad), 130. 
Bale mark of the E. I. Co., 73, 223n. 
Balk, 123, 135. 
Balkash, Lake, 119. 
Balle, Robert, 68. 
BaUy, the island of, 140, 192, 200. 
Balsam, 165, 201. 
Balsera (Bussorah), 138. 
Baluchistan, 106. 
Banca, 192. 
Banda, 140, 154, 170, 178, 186, 189, 

191, 203, 207, 208, 211, 212 ; Great, 

212, 234. 
Bandannas, 224. 
Bandar-Abbas, see Gombroon. 

Bandel, 178. 

Banghella, 146, 151, 153. 

Banjaimassin, 190, 211, 234. 

Bank of England, 25n, 27. 

Banker, the E. I. Co.'s, 25h. 

Banks, Sir John, 20, 22. 

Bantam, 26, 47, 48, 54, 68, 72, 73, 75, 
76, 78, 87, 185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 
192, 203, 205, 207, 208, 209, 211, 
212, 214, 215, 216, 219, 222, 225, 
227, 234; records relating to, 65—67, 

Bantam, ship, 42. 

Baramahal, 252. 

Baratene, 203. 

Barbadoes, 76. 

Barbary, 149, 158, 200. 

Barbora, 141. 

Barbosa, Duarte, 155, 172, 179, 226/i. 

Baroelore, 178, 202, 233. 

Bardewic, 115. 

Bardi of Florence, the, 114. 

Bareilly, 252. 

Barents, William, 185. 

Barka Khan, 121, 122. 

Barker, John, 264. 

Barkham, Sir W., 23. 

Barley, 110, 149. 

Barloe, — , 79. 

Barnardiston, Sir Samuel, 22. 

Baroach, 67, 211, 219, 224, 231, 233, 

Baroda, 37, 233, 236. 

Barr, Peter, 25n. 

Barreto, Antony Monez, 177. 

Bartolph Wharfe, 40. ~ 

Baruti (Beyrut), 145. 

Bassein, 35, 174, 178. 

Bass's Strait, 77n. 

Basses, 215n. 

Bassora, see Bussorah. 

Batavia, 55n, 56n, 77n, 188, 190, 211, 
234 ; founding of, 187, 191 ; records 
relating to, 54, 65, 66. See also 

Bateman, Sir James, 15. 

Bathurst, Sir Benjamin, 22, 25n. 

Batioola (Karwar), 150, 151, 189, 200, 
211, 216, 233. 

Batou Khan, 119, 120, 121 

Baudas (Baghdad), 129. 

Bayes (cloths), 38n, 210. 

Bazaar Account, a, 72. 

Bdellium, 165. 

Beads, 37«, 144. 

Beamish, George, 273. 

Beaufort, Duke of, 22. 

Beaver hata, 37n. 

Beckowitz, 195. 

Beder, 142, 143. 

Beeiapore, 253. 

Behar, 19, 58, 59, 80, 226n, 241, 249, 

Behring, Vitus, 195. 

Beijoim (benjamin), 180. 

Beitkul, 150, 151. 

Beja, Rabbi Abraham of, 164. 

Beledi, 139. 

T 2 


Belem, 161, 164. 

Belgrade, 118. 

Bellericos, 180. 

Benares, 226ji, 252. 

Benbowe, Francis, 71. 

Benooolen, 30, 43, 192, 219, 227, 232, 
234, 253 ; records relating to, 54, 66. 
See also Fort York and Fort Marl- 

Benedict, Pope, 182. 

Bengal, 41n, 43, 62, 165, 199, 200, 201, 
203, 205n, 215, 241 ; early notices of, 
106, 111, 136. 146,151,153,179,197; 
the English in, 23, 35, 80, 81, 216, 
217, 219, 223—231, 234, 249, 251, 
287; the Dutch in, 186, 190; the 
Portuguese in, 170, 178, 215 ; records 
relating to, 13, 16, 19, 58, 59, 61, 65, 
66, 80, 81, 90, 91, 92. 

Bengalo, herba, 40. 

Benjamin (benzoin), 37n, 39, 111, 145, 
153, 165, 180, 198, 201, 204. 

Benjamin of Tudela, trayels of, 109. 

Benjamin, ship, 50, 62, 73. 

Bentiuck, Earl of Portland, 28. 

Bentiuok, Lord William, 250. 

Benzoin, see Benjamin. 

Berar, 24l!i, 253. 

Berbera, 141, 148, 165, 170. 

Bergen, 117. 

Berkley, Earl of, 22. 

Berkley, Lady Arabella, 22. 

Berkley, Lady Henrietta, 22. 

" Bermoodos," the, 76. 

Berry, W.,68. 

Bertie, Honble. Oh., 22. 

Best, Captain Thomas, 49, 209. 

Bethencourt, the Sieur de, 158. 

Betle nut, 36. 

Bettelles, 63, 224. 

Beurek (Beder), 142. 

Beyrut, 145. 

Bezoar, 37n, 202. 

Bhanpur, 254. 

Bhootan, 165, 253. 

Bigger, Mr. , 97n. 

Bijanagar, 107, 136, 138, 143, 150, 151 , 
179, 240, 241, 250. 

Bijapnr, 83, 150, 153, 216, 241. 

Bilboa, 76. 

Biliapatam, 81, 219, 234. 

Billiton, 192. 

Bills of Lading, 67, 72—75 

Bima, 189. 
Bimlipatam, 234, 253 

Bintang, 50, 127. 

Birde, Mr., 69. 

Bishopsgate Street, 18n, 39n, 284. 

Bisinegar, 150. 

Biskay, 20. 

Bizenegalia, 139. 

Black Books, the Oo.'s, 30, 216n, 229n. 

Black Hole cruelty, the, 19, 248. 

Black Lyon, ship, 69. 

Black Sea, the, 110, 114, 120, 121, 142, 

Black Town, see Madras. 
Blachnore, ship, 42. 

Blackwall, 22, 217. 
Blaokwell, Sir Lambert, 24. 
Blanchard, Robert, 29n. 
Blankets, 143. 
Blathwayt, William, 272. 
Blew warehouses, the, 13, 39, 40. 
Blewit, Sir Samuel, 24. 
Blood money, 78. 
Bloodstones, 37n. 
Bludworth, Sir Th., 22. 
Bocara, 122. 
Bochor (incense), 154. 
Boghar, 195. 
Bohemia, 119. 
Boill, 202. 

Bojador, Cape, 158, 159. 
Bokhara, 110, 122, 142, 195. 
Bolgara, 121. 
Bolghar, 110. 
Bolts, William, 32n. 
Bombaim, ship, 50. 

Bombay, 14n, 21, 22, 23, 43, 60n, 73, 79. 
82, 86, 107 ; early notices of, 131, 132 • 
the Portuguese at, 178, 214 ; the Eng- 
lish at, 23, 27, 30, 31, 83, 84, 85, 211, 
219, 221,222, 224, 227, 228, 228n, 229, 
230, 231, 233, 251, 268, 270, 282, 285, 
287 ; capture of, by the English and 
Dutch in 1626, 214 ; charter granting, 
to the E. I. Co., 219, 282, 285; re- 
cords relating to, 16, 65, 66, 67, 85, 
282, 287. 
Bomlay Merchant, ship, 42. 
Bonaparte, see Napoleon. ' 
Bonifacio, Straits of, 134. 
Bonnet, Benjamin, 33. 
Books on the early Portuguese Period^ 

179 ; on the Factory Period, 235. 
Borax, 39, 180. 
Bordeaux, 68, 76. 

Borneo, early notices of, 132, 154, 165, 
200, 203 ; the Portuguese in, 172, 174 ; 
the Dutch in, 192 ; the English in, 211^ 
232, 234 ; records relating to, 61. 
Boroughs, Stephen, 193. 
Boscawen, Hugh; 282. 
Bostocks, — , 18n. 
Boston, 118. 

Bourchier, George, 227, 270, 285. 
Bouro, the island of, 140, 170. 
Bouverie, Sir Edward des, 22. 
Bowdler, Thomas, 30. 
Boxtell, 70. 
Boyd, John, 19n. 
Boyle, Honble. Robert, 23. 
Boyle, Samuel, 68. 
Boys, the Rev. Mr., 97n, 98n. 
Bracciolini, Poggio, 138. 
Bradshaw, Sir Cornwall, 24. 
Braganza, Don Constantiu de, 177. 
Brampore, 211, 234. 
Brass, 107. 
Brava, 154, 167. 
Brazil, 166, 175. 

Brazil wood, 40, 128, 131, 141, 166.. 
Breame, Mr., 96n, 97n. 
Breda, Treaty of, 218, 221, 268. 
Bremen, 76. 


Bridgewater, ship, 36. 

Bridgman, Sir Francis, 22, 

Brinjan, 233. 

Bristles, 76. 

Bristol, 87, 264. 

Britannia, ship, 48. 

Broach, see Baroach. 

Broadcloths, 210. 

Brocades, 165. 

Brodera, see Baroda. 

Broderas, 37. 

Bromley, John, 272. 

Brooke, T. H., 94n— 98n. 

Bronghton, Gabriel, 92. 

Bronneker, Lord, 221n. 

Browne, Hnmfrey, 264. 

Brownlow, Sir John, 22. 

Bruce, James, 29. 

Brace, John, 79. 

Bruce, Peter Henry, 195. 

Bruges, 76, 117, 118, 184. 

Brunswick, 66n. 

Buckingham, George, Duke of, 70, 78. 

Buckrams, 41, 127, 128. 

Budgrooks, 222. 

Buelo, 136. 

Buffetania, 140. 

Bnlandshahr, 253. 

Bulgar hides, 43. 

Bull, ship, 68. 

Bull, Papal, of 1493, 159, 161, 170. 

Bullion, 78, 210, 213, 263—266, 284. 

Bulramgurry, see Balasore. 

Bulteel, John, 22, 29. 

Bundlecund, 252. 

Buonaparte, see Napoleon, 

Burdett, Sir Francis, 22. 

Burdwan, 251. 

Burhanpnr, see Brampore. 

Burma, 140, 236, 250, 254. 

Burue, Colonel, 261. 

Burrassie, 201. 

Burton, Caesar, 18n, 287. 

Bushire, 233. 

Bussorah, 57,75, 108, 111, 129, 130, 138, 

178, 217, 220, 233. 
Bussy, M. de, 245, 249n. 
Butea frondosa, 57, 92. 
Button, Sir Thomas, 194, 280. 
Buxar, the battle of, 249. 
Byrampauts, 224. 

Oabo Deseado, 172. 
Cabots, the, 193, 277, 280. 
Cabral, 166, 167. 
Oabrol, Fernan Alvarez, 180. 
Cabul, 110, 240. 
Oachar, 253. 
Caohi, 141. 

Caeolon (Kayan Kulam), 151, 152, 
Cadiz, 76, 134. 

Cadmia factitia or fomacnm, 27n. 
Ccesalpinia Sappan, 40. 
Ccesar, ship, 42, 50, 
Caesar Frederick, 236. 
Oaffa (Theodosia), 110, 114, 132, 135. 
136, 142,156. 

Gaga (Gogo), 131. 

Oahila, or Gail, see Kayal, 

Cairo, 111, 113, 129, 141, 144, 145, 147, 
164, 165, 205. 

Calacatia, or Calatu, see Kalhat. 

Calamba, 204. 

Calamines, 200. 

Calampat, 153. 

Calamus aromaticus, 1 80, 202, 204. 

Calcutta, 60r!, 224, 234, 251, 282; 
founded by Job Charuook, 90, 229n, 
231 ; records relating to, 16, 66, 90, 
287; Fort William built, 90, 232. 

Calendar, the " New Style," 187n. 

Calicoes, 37, 37», 47n, 198, 202, 22., 
224, 225)!. 

Calicut, 224, 226)!, 240 ; early notices of, 
110, 111, 137, 141, 143, 144, 150, 152, 
154, 200, 201, 202 ; the Portuguese at, 
163—169, 174, 180,189; the Dutch 
at, 189, 190; the English at, 211, 233 

Caliphate, the Eastern, 118. 

Callawaypose, 63. 

Gallian, 107. 

Callymauooes, 38n. 

Cam, Diego, 159. 

Gamaran, the island of, 170. 

Gambaleo (Pekin), 123, 181—183, 140. 

Oambalu, 169n. 

Cambay, 37n, 39. 42, 165, 180 ; earlv 
notices of, 110, 111, 128, 130, 136, 
189, 141, 142, 144, 145, 149, 151, 200, 
201, 203, 204, 236 ; the Portuguese at, 
175, 179 ; the Dutch at, 'l86 ; the 
English at, 207, 208, 209, 233. 

Cambell, Sir James, 21. 

Cambello, 211. 

Gamblets, 41. 

Oambodlam, see Gamboge. 

Camboja (Cambodia), 108,109, 175, 180, 
186, 199, 234. 

Cambrics, 47n, 224. 

Camoens,xii., 162, 180,181, 257. 

Campbell, Mr. James, 228)1. 

Camphire, ship, 268, 269. 

Camphor, 107, 109,111, 139, 140, 141, 
165, 180, 198, 201, 203. 

Campion, 204. 

Cananore, early notices of, 150, 154, 164, 
200, 202 ; the Portuguese at, 166, 167, 
168, 178, 189; the Dutch at, 189, 
190 ; the English at, 81, 233. 

Canara, 252. 

Canaries, the, 76, 158. 

Canary bird, the, 158b. 

Canary wine, 76. 

Candy, sugar, 37n, 39. 

Candy (Ceylon), 110, 186, 

Gane (Keneh), 144. 

Canella, 141, 152, 208. 

Ganfora, 180._ 

Cannabis sativa, 39. 

Canning, Lord, 229)t. 

Gano, Sebastian del, 173. 

Canopies, 198. 

Gansay, see Hangcheu. 

Canterbury, Prerogative court of, 18» 


Canton, 112, 132, 170, 235 ; records re- 
lating to, 53, 66. 

Canvis Bnokerams, 41. 

Cape Colony, 254. 

Cape de Verde Islands, 159, 173. 

Cape of Good Hope, 45, 57, 146, 154, 
165, 156, 162, 163, 164, 173, J74, 175, 
179, 181, 185, 192, 194,196, 197, 198, 
205n, 206n, 255, 270, 275, 277, 278, 
279, 280; discovery of, 31n, 101, 106, 
159; the Dutch at, 189, 190, 218; 
Mr. Luson, Agent at, 95n, 96n. 

Cape of Storms, 159. 

Capogatto, 150. 

Captains of the E. I. Oo.'s ships, oath 
taken by, 15. 

Captives at Mysore, 1786, 65. 

Caranja, 178. 

Caraway seeds, 76. 

Caroopal, 152. 

Cardamente, 201. 

Cardamoms, 109, 150, 180. 

Carical, 242. 

Oarmania, 27, 63. 

Carmine, 40n. 

Carnac, General, 20. 

Oamatic, the, 139, 241, 242, 243n, 252. 

Carnatio Commission, the, 58. 


Carpenter River, the, 188. 

Carpentier, Pieter, 188. 

Carpets, 12, 37n, 198. 

Carpini, Johannes, travels of, 119. 

Carrae (Cairo), 141. 

Oarstensz, Jan, 188. 

Carthage, 106n, 158. 

Cartvpright, James, 68. 

Oartwright, Mr., 279. 

Oarvalho, 172. 

Carwar, 30, 81, 150, 217, 233. 

Carzofoli, 152. 

Casbin, 49, 195. 

Case, William, 264. 

Casharry River, the, 59. 

Cashmere, 165, 237. 

Caspian Sea, the, 117, 121, 131, 135, 142, 

Cassan (Kashan), 131. 

Cassia, 39, 109, 141, 150, 180. 

Castile, 171 ; Henry IV. of, 134. 

Castle Bazaar, see Cossimhazaar. 

Castorenm, 76, 107, 201. 

Cathay, 122, 125, 132, 135, 140, 153, 
168n, 169n, 193, 204, 207, 275, 278, 
279 ; the Company of, 194. 

Cathcart, Colonel, 232)i. 

Catherine of Braganza, 84«, 222h, 223. 

Oatif, El, 110. 

Cats'-eyes, 139, 144. 

Canoasus, the, 121. 

Cavendish, Sir Thomas, 197. 

Cavendish, William, Earl of Devon, 24 

Cecil, Robert, 27. 

Ceded Districts, the, 262. 

Celebes, 170n, 200 ; discovered by the 
Portuguese, 174 ; the Dutch in,' 189, 
192; the English in, 211, 234. 

Oenderghiria (Ohandgerry), 139. 

Cenecalan ("Canton), 132. 
Centacola (Angola), 150. 
Central Provinces, the, 254. 
Ceram, 140, 203. 
Cernove, 139, 140. 
Ceuta, 111, 157, 158. 
Oevul (Chaul), 149. 

Ceylon, 165, 207n ; early notices of, 107, 
108, 110, 111, 124, 127, 132, 133, 135, 
139, 143, 144, 151, 152, 197, 203, 204 ; 
the Portuguese in, 168, 178, 189 ; the 
Dutch in, 56n, 186, 189, 190: the 
English conquest of, 252 ; records re- 
lating to, 65. 

Chadwioke, John, 272. 

Cha-Est-Khan, 80. 

Ohagatai Khans, the, 132, 133. 

Chalcedonies, 149. 

Chaldsea, 132, 138. 

Ohamba or Champa (Cochin China), 
108, 109, 123, 125, 127,141. 

Chamberlain's list of Indian imports, 201 . 

Chamberlayne, William, 220n. 

Chamberlin, Sir Thomas, 220n. 

Chamberlyn, Richard, 79. 

Chambers, Thomas, 19n, 22. 

Chambers, ship, 272. 

Chameram, 146. 

Chancellor, Richard, 193, 194, 195, 277. 

Chancery, decrees in, 18h. 286 ; bill in, 

Chandemagore, 230, 242. 

Ohandgerry, 139. 

Chandos, Lord, 22. 

Changgan (Singanfu), 109. 

Chaplains, Dutch, 56n. 

Chapman, Laurence, 195. 

Chapra-lac, 40n. 

Ohardin, Sir John, 22. 

Charles L, 37n, 77, 78, 79, 217, 238, 
264, 265, 266. 

Charles IL. 14n, 2o», 26n,84rt, 190, 218, 
219, 223, 223n, 266—271, 282, 284. 

Charles V. of Spain, 172, 173. 

Charles, shin, 42, 49, 50, 73, 265. 

Charlton, Sir Job, 22. 

Charnook, Job, 90, 229. 

Charranoyl, 39. 

Charras, 39. 

Charters, see East India Company, <fec. 

Chaul, 142, 144,149, 151, 169, 178, 200. 

Chawools, 40. 

Chayl, see Kayal. 

Chebokhara (Bokhara), 142. 

Cheen (China), 144. 

Chekines of Gold, 205. 

Chelloes, 63. 

Chenier, — , 195. 

Chenna Knppam, 89. 

Cheo (Kow), 149. 

Cherbury, Lord Herbert of, 27. 

Cheroots, 98n. 

Chestnuts, 140, 149. 

Chetwa, 174. 

Chiampa or Ciampa (Cochin China), 
123, 127, 141. 

' Chicken-stakes,'' origin of the term, 


Ohievuli (Chaul), 161. 

Child, John, 29. 

Child, Rebecca, 24. 

Child, Sir John, 23, 29n, 31, 83", 226, 
227, 228, 229, 230b, 231. 

Child, Sir Josia, 22, 24, 29n, 47n, 226, 
230)1, 231n. 

Child, Sir Richard, 29n. 

Child Family, the, 29n. 

Child's Bank, 25n, 29n. 

Chilenfu (Nanking), 132. 

China, 26n, 327i, 37n, 40, 41n, 43, 53, 
96n, 102n, 105)!, 165, 220n, 225n, 226)i, 
232n, 277, 279 ; early notices of, 106 
—112, 122, 123, 126, 130, 132. 136, 
140, 144, 153, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 
204, 205 ; the Portuguese in, 156, 168, 
175, 178, 179, 189 ; the Dutch in, 186, 
190 ; the English in, 50, 63, 207, 223, 
235 ; records relating to, 11, 51, 52, 
53, 61,62, 67, 80. 

China Company, the French, 31n. 

China cubela (cnbebs), 180. 

China grass, 40. 

China, the root of, 201, 204. 

China ware, 37n, 40, 48. 

Chincheu, 111, 112, 124, 126, 131, 132, 
133, 203. 

Chineepatam, 234, 251. 

Chingee, 67, 234. 

Chingiz Khan, 113, 118, 119, 133, 240. 

Ohingleput, 251, 253. 

Chini-batchagan, 137. 

Chinsurah, 219, 253. 

Chintz, 40, 63, 224. 

Chios, 134, 136. 

Chipangu (Japan), 125. 

Ohimrgery, a chest of, 73. 

Chittagong. 106, 251. 

Chivil (Chaul), 142. 

Chocolate, duty on, 26n. 

Chorasmia (Khiva), 117. 

Chostack, 51. 

Choule, 200. 

Chnnar, 251. 

Chns, 130. 

Ohusan, 53, 235. 

Chuttauuttee, 90,229,231,234; records 
relating to, 66, 90. 

Ciccara, the, 151. 

CiDohai, 143. 

Cini (Siam), 153. 

Cinnamon, 47n, 110, 131, 135, 139, 141, 
143, 144, 163, 165, 170, 173, 180, 186, 
198, 201, 203 ; oil of, 2Gn. 

Cioutar, 153. 

Civet, 152, 165, 198, 201, 204. 

Claut, John, 68. 

Clarke, Mr. Caspar Purdon, 49. 

Clarke, Thomas, 272. 
Clavijo, travels of, 134—136. 

Clayton, Dame Mary, 22. 

Clement IV., Pope, 119, 123. 
Clitheroe, Sir Christopher, 39n. 264. 
Clive, Lord, 19, 20, 58, 82, 86, 191, 
246, 247 ; his account of the battle of 
Plassey, 57. 
Cloth of gold, 198, 202, 220n. 

Clove Islands, the, 170. 

Clove, ship, 48, 72, 78, 

Clover seed, 76. 

Cloves, 47n, 107, 109, 111, 130, 135, 140, 

143, 154, 163, 165, 173, 180, 196, 198, 

201, 203, 208, 213. 
Coast Frigate, the, 42. 
Coccus ilicis, 40)i. 
Coccus Lacca, 39)i, 
Cochin, early notices of, 141, 154, 200, 

202 ; the Portuguese at, 81, 166, 167, 

168, 189; the Dutch at, 189, 190; 

the English at, 233, 252; records 

relating to, 85. 
Cochin China, 207n ; early notices of, 

108, 109, 123, 125, 127, 132, 141, 154, 

165, 199 ; the Portuguese in, 175 ; 

the Dutch in, 186 ; the English in, 

Cochineal insect, the, 39n. 
Cockatoos, 141. 

Oockburn, Sir George,- 94ji, 9oi!, 96re. 
Cockett, Sir Edward, 71. 
Coco-wine, 222n. 
Cocoa-nuts, 111, 140, 144, 152, 198, 

Cocym (Cochin), 141. 
Coello, Nicholas, 161. 
Coffee, duty on, 26n. 
Cogan, Andrew, 216n. 
Coilum (Quilon), 128. 
Coimbatoor, 252. 
Coining of money in India, charters 

authorising, 14n, 282, 285. 
Coins, 46)1, 116, 117 ; early English 

coinages in India, 64, 222, 222n 
Cokaine, William, 264. 
Colaba, 251. 
Colanguria, 141. 
Colbert, M., 31»!, 77. 
Colchester, Viscount, 24. 
Coleus, 138. 
Coleman, Mr., 33. 
Colobi (ginger), 141. 
Ooloen (Quilon), 141. 
Cologne, 117. 

Colombo, 170, 178, 190, 203. 
Colon (Quilon), 151, 152. 
Columbum (Quilon), 133. 
Columbus, 124, 125, 159, 160, 166, 185, 

238, 2o7n, 258. 
Comania, 119, 120. 
Comary, 108. 
Combeia (Cambay), 149 
Oomerum (Persepolis), 131. 
Commissioners, English and Dutch, of 

1685, 54. 
Commissions, 17, 67, 78. 
" Commodore " as a Civil Service title, 

Commons, House of, 78. 
Comolanga, 152. 
Comorin (Cape), 108, 151. 
" Company for the discovery of Lands 

not before known," the, 195. 
" Company's Jaghire," the, 251. 
Conoans, the, 108, 109, 124, 143, 253. 
Conceptior, the island of, 166. 


Oondore, Pulo, see Pulo Oondore. 
Congo, the, 159, 181. 
Congrevo's Love for Love, 181. 
Conimero, 234 ; records relating to, 66, 

Consent, ship, 48, 72, 207. 
Constantinople, 22, 110, 113, 114, 118, 
120, 121, 131, 132, 134, 192 ; fall of, 
114, 118, 165, 156. 
Constantinople Merchant, ship, 42. 
Content, le, French ship, 77. 
Oonti, Nieolo, travels of, 138 — 141. 
Continho, Don Francisco, 169. 
Convertine, ship, 267. 
Cooke, Humphrey, 85, 221. 
Cooke, SirT., 17, 22, 
Cooper, John, 68. 
Cooper, Sir W., 21. 
Ooorg, 253. 

Coote, Sir Eyre, 248, 249ii, 250. 
Cope, Theophilus, 71. 
Copenhagen, 116. 
Copper, 39, 117, 128, 221re. 
Coptos, 130. 
Cora, John de, 131. 
Coral, 84, 144, 163. 
Corazani (Khorassau), 148. 
Corchorus capsularis, 26 ; C. oUtorius, 

Corea, 200, 207, 207n. 
Cornelians, 149. 
Cornish, Henry, 271. 
Cornwallis, Lord, 18«, 287. 
Coromandel Coast, the, 43, 88n, 165 ; 
early notices of, 106, 109, 112, 124, 
127, 132, 133, 144, 151, 152, 154, 
204 ; the Portuguese on, 31n, 178 ; 
the Dutch on, 186, 189, 192; the 
Danes on, 253n ; the French on, 57, 
242—248; the English on, 87, 209, 
211, 214, 216n, 219, 231, 234, 242 ; 
records relating to, 13, 57, 61, 89. 
Corras, 134. 

Correa, Antonio, 162n, 236. 
Corrensa, 120. 
Corrientes, Cape, 158, 162. 
Corsica, 114, 136. 
Cortereal, Caspar, 167. 
Coryat, Thomas, 22, 85, 238. 
Cosir (Cosseir), 144. 
Cosmao Indicopleustes, 102, 107, 125, 

Cossimbazaar, 59, 61, 91, 190, 220, 226, 

234 ; records relating to, 65, 66, 91. 
Costack, 51. 
Costus, 165, 204. 

Cotton, 27, 36, 37n, 39, 59n, 107, 109, 
110. 112, 124, 128, 135, 136, 146, 
149, 153, 190, 224, 224n, 232. 
Cotton, Sir Dodmore, 209. 
Coulam, or Ooulon, 178, 200, 202. 
Coulston, Dame Anne, 22. 
Court Minutes, see East India Co. 
Oourten's Association, 13n, 79, 216, 217, 

Courthop, James, 271. 
Covenants with Factors, 20. 
Coventry, Mr., 220n. 

Coventry, Henry, 268. 
Coventry, Sir W., '22. 
Covilham, Pedro de, 164, 165. 
Cowley, John, 27. 
Cowries, 39, 40, 47n. 
Coxe, William, 71. 
Ooxenga, the pirate, 190. 
Cracroft, Simon, 270, 285. 
Cramoisee, 40n. 
Crane, Sir Francis, 21. 
Oranfeild, Sir Lyonell, 71. 
Cranganore, early notices of, 132, 202 ; 
the Portuguese at, 166, 178, 189 ; the 
Dutch at, 189, 190 ; the English at, 
81, 211, 233; records relating to, 81. 
Crassa, 141. 
Craven, Earl of, 268. 
Craven, Sir Wm. , 39n. 
Crises, connection between sun-spots 

and commercial, lOln. 
Crompton's mule jenny, 225n. 
Cromwell, OUver, 14k, 20, 218, 219, 

258, 261, 266, 284. 
Cronmer, Sir W., 23. 
Oropley, Sir J., 22. 
Crosby Hall, 39b, 67. 
Crowne, ship, 42. 
Cruttenden, ship, 43. 
Crystal, 143. 

Oubebs, 39, 109, 180, 202, 204. 
Cubero, Don Pedro Sebastiano, 183. 
Ouddalore, 86, 87, 227, 229, 231, 234, 
246«, 252 ; records relating to, 66, 
89. See also Fort St. David. 
Cufic coins, 116, 117. 
Oulpeper, Lord, 272. 
Cumberland, Duke of, 268, 269 ; Earl 

of, 275. 
Camina, 72. 

Cunningham, Sir James, 31n. 
Curia Muria Islands, 168. 
Onrmosa (Ormuz), 129. 
Custom House bonds, 20 ; lists, 76. 
Cutoh, 233. 
Cuttaek, 252. 
Cyngilin, 132. 
Oynkali, 132. 

Cyprus, 115, 121, 133, 254. 
Cyrus, the, 134. 

Dabul, 142, 143, 144, 149, 151, 169, 
178 211 

Dacca, 30,' 38, 59, 190, 224, 225n, 226, 
234 ; note on, 92 ; records relating 
to, 66, 67, 92; muslins of, 59n. 

Dachem, 200. 

Da Costa, 25n. 

Da Cunha, Tristan, 168. 

Da Gama, Paul, 161. 

Da Gama, Vasco, xiin, 31n, 102, 155, 
156, 158, 161, 164, 167, 174, 176, 181, 
185, 255, 256, 257n, 258, 278. 

Daily Oourant, the, 17. 

Daily Post, the, 17. 

Dalapadie, 219. 

Dalbergia sisoo, 107. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, 71. 


" Damaged Papers," the, 67. 
Damascus, 111, 112, 113, 133, 135, 
138, 146, 157, 165 ; Varthema's de- 
scription of, ]46. 
Damasks, 37n, 40, 130, 143, 205. 
Damavm, 174, 177, 178, 179, 183. 
Damghan, 135. 
Dampier, William, 227h. 
Danish E. I. Co., the, 31n, 115, 183, 

211. 227, 253. 
Danu, 178. 

Danvers, Lady Lettice, 71. 
Danvers, Mr. F. C, viii, x, 1, 19n, 215n, 

229n, 273, 283, 284. 
Danvers, Sir John, 24. 
Darjeeling, 253. 
Darling, ship, 48, 208. 
Dasarapatnam, 234. 
Dashwood, Sir Samuel, 17. 
D'Ataide, Don Luis, 177. 
Dava, the, 1140. 
Davall, Sir T., 22. 
Davies, David, 215n. 
Davis, John, 47, 50. 185n, 194. 
Davis' Strait, 279. 
Dawes, Sir Abraham, 21. 
Dawes, Sir Thomas, 21. 
Day, Francis, 31, 87, 216, 217. 
De Agniar, — , 169. 
De Barros, — , 162n, 172. 
Deboys, 42. 

Decoan, the, 35, 150, 240, 241, 245. 
Deering, SirB., 22. 
Defence, the Treaty of, 69. 

Degh, 144. 
Dehra Dhun, 252. 

Delcroe, Benjamin, 79. 

Delagoa Bay, 158, 175. 

Delawarr, ship, 288. 

Delhi, 110, 133, 168n, 223n, 252 ; the 
Mogol Emperors of, 112, 240, 241 ; 
prices of wheat at, from 1763 to 
1835, 103n. 

Delia Valle, Pietro, 236. 

Denmark, 105, 117, 236 ; Prince George 
of, 272. 

De Nova, — . 166. 

Deptford, 48, 208, 217. 

Deptford, ship, 43. 

Derben4, 142, 195. 

Deschti-Kaptchack, 136. 

De SoUs, — , 171. 

Destriers, 127. 

Devikota, 251. 

Devonshire, Earl of, 24, 77 ; Duke of, 
28, 272. 

Devonshire, ship, 43. 

Dewangiri, 254. 

De Witt's Land, 188. 

Dharmapatam, 150, 233, 251. 

Dharwar, 253. 

Dholka, 42. 

Dhotis, 38, 224. 

Diamonds, 127, 148,144, 149, 165, 180, 
202, 204. 

Diapers, 40. 

Diaz, Bartholomew, 159, 162, 163. 

Diaz, Diego, 163, 

Diaz, Peter, 166. 

Dibajat (the Maldives), 108. 

Dieppe, 76, 158. 

Digard, Captain, 78. 

Diggs, Sir Dudley, 71, 210. 

Diggs, Thomas, 71. 

Dimity, 37, 38n. 

Dindigul, 252. 

Director, origin of the title, 55n. 

Discovery, ship, 214n, 215n, 265. 

Diu, 148, 169, 174, 175, 178, 179, 208, 

209, 210. 
Divy Islands, 82. 
Diwah-Mahal, 136. 

Doab, the Lower, 252 ; the Upper, 252. 
Doazar, 153. 
Doe, Eadmund, 3. 
Dofar, 127, 174. 
Dolkas, 42. 

Dominees, the Dutch, 56n. 
Dooab, the Jullunder, 253. 
Dooars, the, 253, 254. 
Dorcas, ship, 42. ■ 

Doria Hondustankaia, 142. 

Doria Khvalitskaia, 142. 

Doria Stembolskaia, 142. 

" Dorset, Anne of," 159. 

Douglas, Mr. James, 227, 228n, 239n. 

Downton, Nicholas, 48, 49, 78. 

Dragon, ship, 47, 48, 72, 80, 206n, 207, 
273, 287. 

Drake, Sir Francis, 196, 197, 198. 

Draper, Mrs. Daniel, 87. 

Draper, Robert, 264. 

Drugs, 37n, 114, 117, 120. 

Dubois, — , 17. 

Du Bois, Charles, 30. 

Dubois, Daniel, 29. 

Duckingfleld, Sir Robert, 22. 

Ducy, Eobert, 264, 284. 

Dudley, Sir Robert, 198. 

Duke, ship, 93. 

Duke of Albany, ship, 43. 

Duke of Cumberland, ship, 43. 

Duke of Grafton, ship, 43. 

Duke of Kingston, ship, 43. 

Dumas, M. , 242. 

Duncombe, Sir John, 268. 

Dundee-Rajpore, see Rajapore. 

Dunkin, Michael, 26n. 

Dunkirk, 76. 

Dunkirk, ship, 267. 

Dupleix, M., 242, 243n, 244n, 248n, 249h. 

Durettas, 38n. 

Durgarayapatnam, 89. 

Duriano, 139. 

Dutch, the, 47re, 70, 116, 201, 222, 230, 
238, 252, 253, 255, 266, 267 ; general 
remarks on, 54, 183—192; early 
voyages of, 45—47; the Portuguese 
and, 178, 179, 214 ; the English and, 
50, 69, 69n, 70, 88, 93, 199, 205, 209, 
211, 212, 213, 214, 216,218,219,220, 
221n, 222, 225, 268, 269; factories 
and colonies of, 92, 93, 211, 218, 219 ; 
possessions of, in 1664, 189 ; at the 
present time, 192 ; records relating 
to. 63—65 67, 68, 73, 79. 


Dutch E. I. Co., the, 32n, 53 ; founda- 
tion of, 31n, 186 ; the English E. I. 
Oo. and, 53, 68, 69, 70; proposed 
amalgamation with the English E. I. 
Oo., 210; colonial organization of, 

Duties, prohibitory, on Indian manufac- 
tures, 224n. 

Dutties, see Dhotis. 

Dwaraka, 253. 

Dyeing, 41, 223. 

Dyes, 79, 143. 

Dyke, William, 71. 

Eagle, ship, 42, 50, 52. 
Eaglewood, 180. 
£arl of Ashburnham, ship, 43. 
Earl of Lincoln, ship, 43. 

East India Co., the, 13, 13n, 15, 18, 20, 
25)1, 30, 55n, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 71n, 
72, 73, 77, 78, 79, 196, 210, 238 ; 
arms of, xii, 18n, 21n, 43, 223n, 276, 
286; bale mark of, 7A, 223n ; char- 
ters- of , 13, 14m, 19, 64, 208, 218,263, 
282—288 ; Court minutes of, a, 1, 2, 
3, 4, 11, 13, 15, 16, 30, 74n, 274; 
formation of the Old or London Co. , 
13n, 45, 199 ; formation of the New 
or English Co., 14ii, 27, 231, 272; 
roll of subscribers to the New Oo. , 
18, 19n, 27, 271, 286 ; amalgamation 
of the two Cos., 2, 4, Un, 18, I8n, 19, 
28, 232 ; proposed amalgamation with 
the Dutch E. I. Co., 210; ihe mer- 
chant adventurers incorporated with, 
219 ; early voyages of, 205 ; factories 
of, in 1709. 233 ; St. Helena granted 
to, 93, 190, 218, 282; Bombay 
granted to, 219 ; complaints against, 
and negotiations with, the Dutch, 53, 
54, 68, 69, 70, 79, 218 ; rules for 
Court meetings, 276 ; policy of, 230, 
231n ; stock adventured by, 1601 — 19, 
70 ; Sir J. Sambrooke's report on the 
trade of, 78 ; Sir Thomas Mun's 
ditto, 213; exports of, 1600—21, 78; 
imports and exports of, in 1631, 37n ; 
coinages of, 222n ; the various offices 
of, 39n. 

East India House, Un, 39, 40. 

East India Merchant, ship, 50. 

Easterling or Vandalic Hanso towns, 117. 

Eaton, Mr , 26)1, 52. 

Ebonv, 160, 198. 

Eddova, 253n. 

Edessa, 133. 

Edmonds, Sir Clement, 71. 

Edrisi of Sicily, 109. 

Edward I., 124. 

Edward III., 167. 

Edward VI , 193, 277. 

Edward and Dudley, ship, 44. 

Edward Bonadventure, ship, 198. 

Edwards, Mr. , 210. 

Edwards, Sir James, 22. 

Edwin, Sir Humphrey, 23, 24. 

Egmont, Captain, 78. 

Egypt, 60n, 107, 111—115, 118, 125, 

136, 138, 141, 144, 155, 164, 167, 

226n, 254, 255. 
Elba, 114. 
Elemne, gum, 201. 
Elephants, 143, 144, 152. 
Elephants' teeth, see Ivory. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 13n, Mn, 100, 197, 

199, 208, 217n, 222n, 223n, 279, 281, 

EUichpnr, 241n. 
EUiston, Edward, 30. 
Ellore, 89. 

Elton, John, 195, 196. 
Elwaies, Sir Jarvais, 21. 
Elwiok, John, 23. 
Elwick, Thomas, 23. 
Emanuel of Portugal, 154, 161, 1G4. 

167, 168, 169. 
Emeralds, 143, 180, 202, 205. 
Emilia, ship, 53. 
Enamelling, 105. 
Encenso, 180. 
Englesvad (English-bazaar), 91, 234 ; 

records relating to, 66, 67, 91. 
Ennore, 251. 

Eredia, Manuel Godinho de, 188. 
Eri (Herat), 148. 
Erikson, Leif, 160. 
Erzeroum, 131, 134. 
Erzingan (Arsinga), 134. 
Espicanardo, 180. 
Essex, ship, 43. 
Etheredge, Sir James, 24. 
Ethiopia, 141, 142, 146, 147, 149. 151, 

153, 167. 
Etruscan art, 115. 
Eugene IV., 138. 
Eugenia Jambolana, 111. 
Euphrates, the, 130, 138, 165, 182. 220. 
Europa, ship, 43, 268, 269. 
Evance, Sir Stephen, 23, 199. 
Evans, John, 239n. 
Evelyn, John, 22 ; extracts from his 

diary, 13, 13n, 15, 40n, 220n, 231. 
Everest, Rev. Robert, 102n. 
Expedition, ship, 49, 209, 264. 
Exports and imports of the E. I. Oo. in. 

1631, 37n. 
Eyles, ship, 53. 
Eynblicos, 180. 
Eyre, Sir William, 229«. 
Eyton, Sir James, 24. 

Factories, the E. I. Co.'s, 62, 68, 199 ; 
list of, in 1709, 233 ; records relating 
to, 11, 16, 61—96. 

Factors, covenants with, 20 ; lists of, 28,. 
62 ; offending and defaulting, 30. 

Falcon, ship, 42. 

Falconry, terms of, transferred to fire- 
arms, 215n. 

Falkland Islands, 254. 

Famagusta, 115, 155. 

Famines in India, 102n. 

Fauams, 223n. 

Fans, 220n. 

Fanshawe, Sir Richard, xiin. 


B'ariBtan, 51. 

Farnavis, Nana, letters from, 82. 

Fare, 136. 

Fasstises, 143. 

Fatehabad, 252. 

Fatimite Caliphs of Egypt, the, 113. 

Faunes, 202. 

Fazackerly, Sir W., 24. 

Pelt hats exported, 37n. 

Felton, John, 71. 

Ferghana, 240. 

Ferozepore, 253. 

Fez, 111, 200. 

Firando, 26n,52, 209, 211, 235. 

Fire of London, the, 13, 14n. 

Pirebrace, Sir Basil, 24. 

Piringipet, 234. 

Firmans, see Phirmaunds. 

Fitch, Ralph, 197. 

Flag, sweet, 180. 

Flaggs, 39. 

Flandrina (Pandarani), 132. 

Flax, 38n, 110, 117, 221n. 

Fleet, Sir John, 17, 23. 

Flemings, the, 118, 159. 

Flinders, — , 77n. 

Florence, 33, 113, 114, 132. 

Ploretta yarn, 40. 

Ploris, Peter Williamson, 89; journal 
of, 81. 

Flushing, 76. 

Plying Post, the, 17. 

Pokien, 130. 

Foot, Sir Thomas, 22. 

Porde, Colonel, 88, 191. 

Forde, Francis, 34. 

Formosa, 65, 178, 189, 223. See also 

Forrest, Professor 6. W., ix, x. 

Port Marlborough, 227, 232, 283, 
287; records relating to, 92, 93, 

Port St. David, 57, 89, 227, 229, 231, 
234, 251 ; note on, 87 ; records re- 
lating to, 66, 87. See also Cuddalore 
and Tegnapatam. 

Port St. George, see Madras. 

Fort William, see Calcutta. 

Port York, 227, 232, 234 ; records re- 
lating to, 66, 67, 92. 

Foster, Mr. William, x, 215n, 216n. 

Founders' Hall, 39n, 199, 275 ; note on, 

Fowke, Edward, 245n — 248n. 

Fowke, Joseph, 247re, 248n. 

Fox, Charles, 27. 

Fox, Stephen, 271. 

Fox, ship, 43. 

Poxoroft, George, 221. 

Franco, Abraham, 247n. 

Franco, Jacob, 247r8. 

Frankincense, 154, 165, 198, 204. 

Franks, Aaron, 247n. 

Pransia, — , 25re. 

Frasdangeh (Chandernagore), 230. 

Frederick, Caesar, 236. 

Frederick & Co., 25ra. 

Freeman Ralph, 264. 

French, the, 47n, 76, 78, 88, 92, 116, 
120, 124, 191, 208, 223, 227, 230, 
255, 272, 273 ; notes on the French 
in India, 57, 58, 242—249 ; the French 
E. I. Co., 31n, 77. 

Frewen, Sir Edward, 24. 

Frobisher, Martin, 194, 198, 217n, 278, 

Fryer, John, 15, 32n, 42, 50, 73, 83, 85, 

Puoheu, 126, 132. 

Furnese, Sir Henry, 18n, 24, 271. 

Purs, 120. 

Further India, 41, 107, 178, 179, 234. 

Fustians, 38n. 

Gaeta, 134, 136. 

Galangal, 39, 109, 149, 198, 201, 204. 

Galbanum, 165. 

GallipoUi, 136. 

Galls, STn. 

Gallv-tiles, 76. 

Gamboge, 1 2, 15, 27, 73. 

Ganfu (Kanpu), 126. 

Ganges, the, 106, 112, 139, ■ ( 

Gauisa or Ganapati, symbol of, xi. 

Ganjam, 234. 

Garcia, Diego, 171. 

Garcinia Cambogia, 152. 

Garey, Captain Henry, 86. 

Garnets, 139, 144, 152. 

Garters, 37n. 

Garwaie, Sir Henry, 21. 

Garway, Henry, 264. 

Garway, Sir W., and Co., 71. 

Gault, Signer, 68. 

Gaur, 146, 153. 

Gauze, gold, 40. 

Gavotta, see Cabot. 

Gawn, Alexander, 272. 

Gayer, Sir John, 21, 23, 67. 

Gazan (Jazan), 146. 

Gebelli (ginger), 139. 

Geffreys, SirR., 23. 

Gelongs, 63. 

Gemelli-Careri, Giovanni Francesco 

" General Society," the, 14n, 282, 286. 
Genoese, the. Ill, 113, 114, 117, 118, 

124, 125, 130, 135, 186, 146, 155, 

156, 157, 159, 166, 184, 255. 
George I., 282. 
George II., 19, 273, 282. 
George ni., 283. 
George and Martha, ship, 78. 
Georgia, 121. 

Germany, 47n, 105, 115, 118, 119, 193. 
Gerrard, Sir Gilbert, 22. 
Gheria, 82. 
Ghilan, 51, 135. 
Giava (Java), 154. 
Gibbon, Edward, the historian, 30 ; his- 

father and grandfather, ibid. 
Gibbon, Hester, 30. 
Gibraltar. 76, 254. 
Gidda (Jiddah), 141. 
Gilolo, 170n, 200. 


Gingala (Oranganore), 132. 

Gingelly, 148. 

Ginger, 37n, 39, 110, 124, 128, 131, 

139, 141, 148, 144, 150, 151, 153, 163, 

165, 180, 198, 201, 224. 
Ginghams, 26, 40, 59, 224. 
Gingi, see Ghingee. 
Glass-making, 105. 
Glatton, ship, 43. 
Olobe, ship, 48, 49, 81, 88. 
Gloucester, 34, 41. 
Goa, 15, 65, 80, Sin, 148, 150, 164, 169, 

170, 176, 178, 179, 182; 183, 186, 197, 

198)1, 201, 216, 221, 236. 
Goa stones, 15. 
Goaconoherulas, 63. 
Gobi Desert, the, 123. 
Godavari Districts, 251, 254. 
Godinho, Manuel, 182. 
Godolphin's Award, Lord, 18«, 19,28, 

282, 287. 
Godolphin, Francis, Earl of, 32. 
Godolphin, Sir W., 23. 
Goes, Benedict, 123, 168n. 
Gofala, 203. 

Gogo, 131, 148, 174, 175, 209, 233. 
Golat (Kalhat), 144. 
Golconda, 62, 149, 165, 215, 234, 241 ; 

records relating to, 65, 81. 
Gold, 35, 41, 128, 129, 137, 139, 141, 

147, 163, 190, 222. 
Gold lace, 37n. 
Golden Hind, ship, 196. 
Ooldm Phoenix, ship, 266, 267, 285. 
■Goldeborough, Sir John, 23. 
Gombroon, 142, 182, 190, 213, 220, 

233; records relating to, 16, 34, 51, 

65, 74, 96. 
Goodlad, Captain, 44. 
Goodman, Samuel, 272. 
Gore, SirW., 17, 23. 
Gorgarons (silks), 53. 
Gornokpoor, 252. 
Gosain, the Saiva, 207n. 
Gosfright, Francis, 68. 
Goshawlts, 159. 
Goshees, 63. 
Gothland, 116, 117. 
Goths, the, 115. 
Gottenbourg, 33. 
•Goulston, SirW., 23. 
Gourdas, 72. 
GoTernours-General, commissions to, 17 ; 

the title of, 228n, 229n. 
Govin Se-wram Punt, 82. 
Govindpur, 90, 229n, 231. 
Grain, 153. 
Oranganore, 178. 
Grantham, Sir Thomas, 23, 31. 
Grapes, Damascus, 146. 
Gray, Mr. A., 182. 
Great Harry, ship, 217n. 
Great Mogul, the, 80, 92, 197, 199, 207, 

216, 216. 
Green, Gyles, 264. 
Greenland, 279. 
Gregory X., 123. 
Grenville, ship, 48. 

Grevile, Sir Foulke, 200. 

Griggs, Mr. W., x. 

Grograme, 38n. 

Guardafui, Cape, 166. 

Guest, or Guift, ship, 47, 276 

Guildhala Teutouioorum, 117. 

Guilfar (Julfar), 148. 

Guinea, 47n, 76, 164. 

Giddene Zeepaard, ship, 188. 

Gum benjamin, see Benjamin. 

Gum lac, see Lac. 

Gums, 165. 

Gunny stuffs, 26, 38, 39, 224. 

Guntur district, 127, 252. 

Gunungapi, 170n. 

Gurgi (Georgians), 121. 

Guzerat, 106, 108, 111, 124, 128, 136, 

142, 144, 151, 174, 190, 224, 252, 

Gyfford, Philip, 86. 
Gyfford, William, 86, 229n. 

Hague, the, 69. 

Haileybury College, grant of arms to, 

18n, 288. 
Hair stuffs, 76. 
Haj Caravan, the, 146. 
Haj-Tarkan (Astrakhan), 110. 
Hakem. 113. 

Hakluyt, Richard, 5, 6, 169n, 202, 205. 
Halford, — , 18n, 286. 
Hall, — , 18n, 286. 
Hall, William, 29n. 
Halliday, Sir Frederick, 229«. 
Halllday, Mr., 16. 
Hallyburton, Mr., 243i2. 
Hamath, 146. 
Hamburg, 68, 76, 115. 
Hamlet played on board the Dragon, 

Hampi, 143. 
Hampshire, ship, 43. 
Hangoheu, 109, 130, 132. 140; Marco 
Polo's description of, 126. 

Hankin, Roger, 276. 

Hanseatio League, the, 115, 116, 117. 

Hanu-man, the Hindu monkey-god 

Harby, Clement, 264. 

Harby, Job, 264. 

Harcourt, ship, 43. 

Harda, 254. 

Hardy, Sir Dnffus, 261. 

Harfords, 76. 

Hargreaves' spinning jenny, 224n 

Harkand, sea of, 108. 

Harlem, 76. 

Harrington, ship, 273, 287. 

Harrison, Richard, 19n. 

Harrison, Sir E., 15. 

Hart, ship, 50, 266. 

Hartogs, Dirk, 188. 

Harwich, ship, 44. 

Harwood, Sir Edward, 71. 

Hastings, Warren, x, 18n, 19, 58, 228/i, 
229n, 288. 

Hats exported, 37re. 


Havamia, ship, 43. 

Hawkins, Sir John, 198. 

Ha-wkine, William, 48, 182, 207. 

Hayes, Gland, 25n. 

Heathoote, Gilbert, 271, 273. 

Heathcote, John, 271. 

Heathoote, William, 271. 

Hector, ship, 43, 47, 48, 49. 72, 78, 207, 
275, 276. 

Hedges, Sir William, 23, 225, 229n. 

Helbon, 146. 

Helby, 189. 

Hemp, 38n, 76, 110, 117, 221h. 

Hemp, Indian, 39. 

Hendry Kendry, 83, 227. 

Henry III., 116. 

Henry VII., 45, 159, 193, 277. 

Henry YIII., 193, 275. 

Henry III. of Castile, 134. 

Henry the Navigator, Prince, 157—159, 
161, 164. 

Henry Grace de Dieu, ship, 217n. 

Herat, 135, 136, 148. 

Herba goods, 40, 59, 180, 202, 224. 

Herbert, Philip, 72. 

Herbert, Sir Thomas, 50, 72n. 

Herbert, Sir WiUiam, 237. 

Heriott, George, 71. 

Herjnlfson, Bjorn, 160. 

Hermenia (Armenia), 122. 

Heme, Sir Joseph, 23. 

Heme, Sir Nathaniel, 22. 23. 

Hewer, William, 23. 

Hiohoch, Thomas, 236. 

Hide, Nicholas, 71. 

Hide, Sir Laurence, 71. 

Hides, 43. 117, 128, 198. 

Hill, Sir Roger, 23. 

Hind, Al, 112. 

Hindia, 254. 

Hinterlands, 76. 

Hippen's Island, 48. 

Hippon, Captain Anthony, 48, 81, 88, 
89, 209. 

Historiographer to the E. I. Co., 79, 82 ; 

Richard Hakluyt appointed, 6. 
Hockins, 63. 
Holkar, 253, 

Holland, 26n, 37n, 46n, 76, 222. 
Hollanders, see Dutch. 
HoUar, 238. 

Holies, John, Dnke of Newcastle, 32n. 
Holies, Thomas Pelham, Dnke of New- 
castle, 32. 
HoUworthy, Sir Matthew, 22. 
Holstein, Duke of, 236, 237. 
Honawer (Onore), 111, 138. 
Honey, 148. 
Hong Kong, 254. 
Hooblee, 223. 
Hooke, Sir Hole, 23. 
Hope's Advance, Cape, 194. 
Hopefull, ship, 62. 
Hopewell, ship, 92. 
Hormuz, see Ormnz, 
Horn, Cape, 184n, 279. 
Horses, 127, 128, 143. 
Boseander, ship, 48. 

Houblon, John, 25n. 

Houghton, ship, 36, 43. 

Houtmann, Cornelius, 31 n, 45, 47, 185. 

Howard, Lord Thomas, 198. 

Howard of Effingham, Lord, 197. 

Howland, ship, 272. 

Hudson, Henry, 194, 280. 

Hudson's Bay, 194. 

Hugli, 72, 90, 91, 92, 190, 215, 217, 220, 
224, 226, 228, 229, 234 ; records re- 
lating to, 34. 65—67, 91. 

Hugli River, the, 57, 90. 

HulakuKhan, 121, 122, 123. 

Huinfry and Elizabeth, ship, 42. 

Humfreys, Sir W., 24. 

Hunter, Sir W. W., 102n. 

Hutchinson, Norton, 273. 

Huttah, 253. 

Hyacinth, 144. 

Hyderabad, 109, 241, 242, 249n. 

Hyder Ali, 58, 250. 

lakhut, 144. 

Ibn Batuta of Tangiers, 110. 

Ibn-Khurdadbah, 109. 

Ibrahim Lodi, 240. 

Iceland, 160n. 

Iconium, 121. 

Icy Sea, the, 194. 

lest (Yezd), 131. 

Imports and Exports of the E. I. Co. in 
1631, 37n. 

Ince's defence of Angengo, 86. 

Incense, 124, 128, 154, 202. 

India Alba, 240. 

India Major, 119. 

India Nigra, 240. 

Indian Archipelago, the, 179, 189, 213, 
214, 219 ; English possessions in 
(1617), 211 ; Portuguese possessions 
in, 178 ; Dutch possessions in, 192. 
Indies nuttes, 140, 144, 202. 
Indigo, 12, 39, 47», 63, 124, 128, 142, 
143, 145, 180, 201, 203,-212, 224; 
amount imported about 1621, 213. 
Indraghiri, 189. 
Indrapoora, 30, 234. 
Indus, the, 106, 109, 112, 175, 178. 
Ingeram, 234. 
Ingram, Sir Arthur, 22. 
" Injured Papers," the, 66. 
Insulse FortunatsB, the, 158. 
Irak-Adjemi, 136, 145, 146. 
Irak-Arabi, 136. 
Iran, the table-land of, 112. 
Iron, 37n, 46n, 117, 210. 
Iron wire, 76. 
Iron Gates, the, 135. 
Irrawaddy, the, 140. 
Isle de Bourbon, 243n, 244n. 
Isle de Prance, 243n. 
Ispahan, 51, 65, 85, 111, 142, 145, 190, 

Istambul, 110. 

Ivory, 39, 105, 129, 147, 158, 165, 198. 
Izarees, 63. 


Jacatra, 63, 73, 186, 187, 211, 234. See 
also Bataria. 

Jacinths, 144, 1S2. 

Jack trees, 111, 141, 151. 

Jacob, John, 270. 

Jacob, Sir Abraham, 23, 24. 

Jacob, Sir John, 22. 

Jafnapatnam, 177, 178, 189, 190. 

Jaintia, 253, 

Jambi, 39, 186, 189, 211, 219, 234; 
records relating to, 65. 

Jamboaeer, 224. 

James I., Ire, 14n, 31, 48, 49, 68, 69, 
69n, 7],71n, 81, 207, 208, 263, 277, 

James II., G4, 90, 270. 

James, ship, 48, 49, 73, 75. 

■" James and Mary " sandbank, origin of 
the name, 90. 

James' Town, St Helena, 94n. 

•Jamnms, 111. 

Jangli (Cranganore), 132. 

Jansen, Sir Theodore, 14, 18n, 271. 

Japan, 26, 26n, 40, 125, 200, 201, 206n, 
207, 220n; the English in, 50, 156, 
165, 194, 209, 211, 214, 223, 235 ; the 
Dutch in, 186, 188, 190 ; the Porta- 
guese in, 175, 179, 189 ; records 
relating to, 5, U, 51, 52, 65, 75. 

Japara, 211, 234. 

Jashk, Ras, 50. 

Jask, 51, 211, 233. 

JaTa, 165, 200, 203, 204, 226»; early 
notices of, 107, 108, 111, 127, 132, 
136, 140, 141, 154 ; the English in, 
191, 205, 211, 227, 232, 234; the 
Dutch in, 186, 187, 190, 191, 192; 
records relating to, 54, 92, 93. See 
also Bantam and Jacatra. 

Java, Great (probably Australia), 187. 

Java minor, 127, 140, 200. 

Jaxartes, the, 112, 136. 

Jazan, 146. 

Jeffreys, Robert, 264. 

Jehangir, 49, 207, 210. 

Jenkins, Robert, 273. 

Jenkinson, Anthony, 195. 

Jennynges, Abraham, 264. 

Jeroon, see Ormuz. 

Jersey, Earl of, 29n. 

Jerusalem, HI, 133, 254. 

" Jerusalem, the new," 188. 

Jevons, Professor Stanley, lOln. 

Jewels, 146, 148, 152, 153, 165. 

Jews, 204. 

Jhaijjar territory, the, 254. 

Jhansi, 254. 

Jiddah, 110, 136, 141, 146, 170. 

Jinijili, 148. 

Jinjira, the Saed of, 83, 230 

Jiyone, see Ormui. 

Jobson, William, 273. 

John and Martha, ship, 42. 

John the Great of Portugal, 157. 

John II. of Portugal, 159, 161, 164. 

John III. of Portugal, 177. 

John XII., Pope, 130. 

John of Gaunt, 157. 

■' John Company," origin of the name, 

Johnson, Sir Brian, 21. 
Johnson, Sir Henry, 17, 22. 
Johnson, Richard and Robert, 195. 
Johore, 284, 253. 
Joint Stocks, the, 25, 70, 72, 77 ; the 

voyages on account of, 45, 46, 46re, 

49, 78. 
Jonah, ship, 44. 
Jonas, ship, 264. 
Jones, George, 246n. 
Jones, Mr. Winter, 202. 
Jonson's Alchemist, quotation from, 

Jooneer, 142. 

Jordanus, travels of, 131, 132. 
Joseph, Captain Benjamin, 49. 
Joseph of Lemago, 164. 
Journals, Ships', 3, 4, 5, 6, 44, 214n. 
Julin, 115. 
Juljulan, 148. 
Jullunder Dooab, the, 253. 
Junkceylon, 178, 189, 199. 
Jupp, — , 39re. 
Jute, 26, 224. 

Kadam, the Hindu Sultan, 143. 

Kadranj. 109. 

Kalakbar, 108. 

Kalambak, 153. 

Kalbergah, 136. 

Kalhat, 138, 144. 

Kali, symbol of the goddess, xi. 

Kalikata, 90, 229«, 231. See also Cal- 

Kalliana, 107. 

Kalongher, 142. 

Kamala, 109. 

Kamaranga, 152. 

Kanbait (Cambay), 136, 142. 

Kanpu, 126. 

Kara-Korum, 120, 122. 

Karanjah. 252. 

Kamal, 252. 

Karwar, see Carwar. 

Kashau, 131, 142. 

Kashgar, 123. 

Easimbazar, see Cossimbazaar. 

Kaulam (Qnilon), 141. 

Kayal, 124, 128, 137, 139, 152. 

Eayan Eulam, 151, 152. 

Kaye, Sir John, 261. 

Kazan, 141, 145. 

Keate, Sir Jonathan, 22. 

Keddah, 108. 

Keelinge, Captain, 47, 76, 81, 206n,. 
207, 208. 

Keigwin, Captain Richard, 23, 31, 227. 

Kela, 108. 

Kelberg, 142. 

Kempe, George, 68. 

Keueh, 144. 

Eenerv, island of, 83. 

Kent, "Harry, 273. 

Kerman, 123, 136. 

Kermes, 39n, 40n. 


Keraies, 210, 264. 

Kesh, 135. 

Khakan of the Tartars, the, 122. 

Kham-lakh, iOn. 

Xhan (satin), 143. 

Khanbalik, 136. 

Xhandeish, 253. 

Khandy, 110. 

Khanfu, see Hangchen. 

Kharistan, 51. 

Khilji, the House of, 240. 

Khiva, 117 ; the sea of, 142. 

Khorassan, 110, 123, 135, 136, 143, 

148, 165. 
Khotan, 123. 
Khumdan, 109. 
Khusistan, 51. 
Khwarazm, 117. 
Kiev, 120. 
Kilwah, 154. 
Kiubaiat (Cambay), 110. 
Kino, 12. 

Kinsay, see Hangchen. 
Kiola (blankets), 143. 
Kipohak, 110, 132, 138, 136. 
Kirby, Jeffrey, 264. 
Kirke's lambs, 84n. 
Kirwood, Thomas, 25h. 
Kish, the island of, 109, 110, 127, 128, 

129, 130. 
Kishm, the island of, 50. 
Kistna District, 251. 
Knight, John, expedition of, 194 
Knives, 37n. 
KnoUys, Sir John, 22. 
Koen, John Pietersoon, 191. 
Kohistan, 136. 
Koinsari, the, 59. 
Kolcherry, 253n. 
Koning, Henry, 32n. 
Konlam (Quilon), 111. 
Kow, 149. 

Knblal Khan, 122, 123, 124. 
Kukah, 148. 

Knlbnrga, 142, 143, 241. 
Kulja, 131. 
Kumaon, 252. 
Kumar (Oamboja), 108. 
Kumpani Jehan, see John Company. 
Kurdla, 249n. 
Kustack, 51. 
Kuyuk, 119, 120. 
Kuzrat (Guzerat), 142. 
Kyrpnk, 144. 

La Bourdonnais, M. de, 242 ; the alleged 

bribery of, vli, 242ra — 248b. 
Labrador, 167, 193, 194, 278. 
La Bretonnide, D. Devarenne, 19n. 
Labuan, 254. 
Lac, 12, 39, 141, 143, 145, 154, 165, 

220n, 224 ; note on, 39n. 
Lacca, 154, 180. 
Lacey, Dr. Fulke, 62. 
Lacquer, 39n. 
Lacra, 149. 
Lacrya, 201. 

Ladrone Islands, the, 172, 197. 

Lagundy Island, 214. 

Lahore, 63, 196, 224, 234, 236. 

Lake pigment, 89tt, 41n, 154. 

Lally, M., 247, 249n. 

Lama, the Grand, 132. 

Lamb, Mulis, 62. 

Lambert, Captain, 44. 

Lamori, 132. 

Lancaster, Sir James, 45, 47, 198, 205, 

27(j, 280. 
Landak, 190. 

Langhorne, Sir W., 17, 23, 64. 
Langlej', Geoffrey de, 124. 
Lankhabalus, 108. 
Lantore, theisland of, 53, 69,170n, 212, 

213, 234. 
Lapis Tuttia, 27, 180. 
Lapland, 193. 
Lapwing, ship, 43. 
Lar, 51 ; the Sea of, 108. 
Laristan, 51. 
LasCasas, 95n. 
Latimer [? Lord], 268. 
Lannaret, pinnace, 75. 
Laval, Franfoia Pyrard de, 182. 
Law papers, 11, 13, 17, 67, 79. 
Lawns, 47n, 198, 224. 
Layas, 122, 123. 
Lead, 46n, 117, 210, 266. 
Leaden Hall, the, 40, 67. 
Leadenhall Street, 25ra, 71n. 
Lear, Dame Susanna, 23. 
Leare, Sir Peter, 22. 
Lease, counterpart of a, 18«, 284. 
Leather, 43, 128. 
Le Bruyn, Cornelius, 235. 
Lee, Henry, 264. 
Lee, William, 2Q4. 
Leedes, — , 197. 
Leghorn, 68, 76. 
Leicester, Earl of, 23. 
Leigh, — , 18n, 286. 
Lemago, Joseph of, 164. 
Lemaire Strait, 184n. 
Lemmena, Francis, 53. 
Lemons, 109. 

Leopard, ship, 34, 220n, 267, 268. 
Lequeos, the, 200. 
Lesgi, 121. 
Lethieullier, Mr. , 63. 
Lethieullier, Samuel, 22. 
Lethieullier, Sir John, 22. 
Levant, the, 114, 115, 121. 
Levant Company, the, 195, 196. 
Levett, Sir Richard, 17. 
Lewis, Sir Simon, 23. 
Ley, James, Earl of Marlborough, 84n. 
Liazer, the island of, 203. 
Libyan desert, the, 131. 
Ligor, 189, 234. 
Lima, Don Rodriguez de, 165. 
Lime juice, 237. 
Linen, 38n, 130, 202, 224, 224« ; calico 

held to be, 221. 
Lingam, 222«. 
Linseed, 76. 
Lion, ship, 49. 


Lion, Dutch ship, 185n. 

Lioness, ship, 43. 

Lioness, Dutch ohip, 185re. 

Lisbon, 76, 154,155, 161, 164, 166, 179, 

182, 183, 184, 198k. 
Lisle, Viscount, 23. 

Littleton, Sir Edward, 61, 270, 271,285. 
Littleton, Sir Thomas, 23. 
Lizati, 163. 
Lloyd, John, 271. 
Loban (frankincense), 154. 
Lock, Samuel, 18n, 19n. 
Lodi, the House of, 240, 241. 
Lombok, 192. 
Lonbrequera, herba, 180. 
London, ship, 42, 50, 268. 
Long, Catherine Tylney, 29re. 
Long, Lady, 29n. 
Longcloth, 26, 40, 224. 
Long-wood, St. Helena, vii, 93n — 97r». 
Looking-glasses, 37n. 
Lord, Henry, 264n. 
Lord Camden, ship, 43. 
Lord Holland, ship, 43. 
Lord Mansfield, ship, 36. 
Lorenzo, Buy, 167. 
Lori birds, 141. 
Lothair, the Emperor, 116. 
Lovelace, Sir W., 71. 
Lowe, Sir Hudson, 97re. 
Loyall Cook, ship, 44. 
Loyall Merchant, ship, 42, 47n. 
Loyall Subject, ship, 42, 
Loyd, Sir Richard, 23. 
Lubeck, 76, 115, 116, 117. 
Luca Antara, 188. 
Lucas, Sir Gervase, 86, 221, 268. 
Luoknow, 27, 224, 234. 
Lungees, herba, 40, 59. 
Luson, Joseph, 95n, 96n. 
Lyell, ship, 53. 
Lynn, 118. 

Maabar, 127. 

Maarazia, 140. 

Macao, the Portuguese at, 178, 180, 
201 ; the Enghsh at, 223, 235 ; re- 
cords relating to, 66. 

Macassar, the Dutch at, 189 ; the 
English factory at, 211, 212, 219, 
234 ; records relating to, 65, 76, 92, 

Mace, 47)i, 76, 130, 135, 140, 154, 165, 
180, 189, 198, 201, 203, 213 ; oil of, 

Machian, 203. 

Machicho, 159. 

Maohin, Robert, 159. 

Machin (South China), 136, 144. 

Macinus (Burma), 140. 

Mackenzie MSS., 55. 

Madagascar, 13n, 77, 162, 164, 168, 199, 

Madapollam, 225, 234 ; records relating 
to, 66, 67, 87. 

Madder, 76, 147. 

Madeira, 158. 

Madoc ap Owen Gwynedd, 238. 
Madras (Eort St. George), 26n, 30, 31, 
43, 60, 63, 64, 80, g6, 89, 90, 217, 
219, 224, 225, 229, 229n, 230, 231n, 
234, 251, 286, 287 ; governours of, 17, 
22n, 28, 64, 86, 219; founded, 87, 
216; made a Presidency, 87, 217, 
219 ; Winter's mutiny at, 23, 221 ; 
captured by the French, 242, 242n — 
248n; Black Town, 64, 86; records 
relating to, 16, 64, 65, 66, 67, 82, 87, 
216n, 286, 287. 
Madre de Dios, ship, 198, 203. 
Madura, 192, 251, 252. 
Magadoxa, 163, 166. 
Magellan, 161, 172, 179, 258; straits 

of, 172, 173, 196, 197, 270. 
Magindanao (Mindanao), 174, 178, 235. 
Maha, 67. 

Maha Champa, 108. 
Mahe', 242. 

Mahomed, King of Bijapur, 216. 
Mahomed Shah, 242. 
Mahomet II., 156. 
Mahrattas, the, 82, 83, 87, 221, 228, 

241, 242, 249, 250, 252, 253. 
Maim, 178. 
Majuj and Yajuj (Gog and Magog), 

Makiyan, 170n. 

Malabar coast, the, early notices of, 
106—109, 111, 112, 124, 128, 130, 
132, 136, 137, 139,141, 155, 165, 179, 
200, 202, 203, 204, 240 ; the Portu- 
guese on, 163, 179, 189 ; the Dutch 
on, 186, 189, 190; the Danes on, 
253n ; the English on, 211, 233, 251, 
Malacca, early notices of, 107, 127, 145, 
153, 154, 183, 200, 201, 203, 204, 
226re; the Portuguese at, 165, 166, 
168, 170, 172, 176, 178, 179, 189 ; the 
Dutch at 183, 186, 189, 191,219; 
the English at, 196, 197, 219, 236, 
253 ; Achinese attacks on, 174, 175, 
Malacca, Straits of, 50, 124. 
Malaiur, 127. 
Malapolanda, 152. 
Malay Peninsula, the, 107, 187, 209, 

211, 214, 234. 
Maldah, see Maulda. 
Maldives, the, 108, 111, 136, 145, 168, 

182, 203. 
Male (Malabar), 107. 
Malemo Oanaoo, 163. 
Maliapnr, see St. Thom^. 
Malice Scourge, ship, 47, 275, 276. 
Malleson, Colonel, and the alleged 

bribery of La Bourdonnais, 242n. 
Malmesbury, WiUiam of, 196. 
Malta, 264. 

Manaar, 108, 177, 178, 190. 
Manado, 189. 

Managers, Committee of, 2. 
Mandelslo, travels of, 236. 
Mandeville, Sir John, 133. 
Mandvi, 253. 


Mangalore, 138, 150, 174, 178, 202, 233. 

Mangos, 111, lil, 161. 

Mangu Khan, 120, '122. 

Manhattan, 187. 

Manik (ruby), 144. 

Manilla, 183, 186. 

Manna, 135, 204. 

Manners, Lady Elizabeth, 24. 

Manora, 178. 

Jlansura, 109. 

Manzi (Southern China), 126, 127, 128, 
131,132,136. / . . . 

Map "with the angmeutation of the 
Indies," the, 206n. 

Marble, 146. 

Mardin, 123. 

Mare Scurge, ship, see Malice Scourge. 

Marignolli, travels of, 132. 

Marine Kecords, 5, 6, 44, 214n. 

Markhana, Mr. Clements, ix, 45, 48n, 
50, 117, 134, 206n. 

Markham, V., 77. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 24 ; Earl of, 84. 

Marlowe, Captain Edmund, 48, 280. 

Marquis of Rockingham, ship, 43. 

Marseilles, 114, 259n. 

Martaban, 178, 180. 

Marten, Sir Henry, 69, 70. 

Martha, ship, 272, 286. 

Martin, Fran9ois, 223, 242. 

Martin of Nuremberg, 166. 

Mary I, Queen, 193. 

Mary H., Queen. 14re, 23, 24, 60, 271, 

Mary of Modena, 90. 

Mary, ship, 42, 266. 

Mary Rose, ship, 267. 

Mascate, 178. 

Mash, 110. 

Massingbird, Mrs. Margaret, 23. 

Massingbird, Sir John, 18n, 65. 

Massingberd, ship, 42, 50. 

Massouah, 144, 174. 

Master, Sir Edward, 22n. 

Master, Sir Streynsham, 18», 22n, 83, 

86 ; diary of, 64. 
Master, Sir Thomas, 15. 
Mastic, 201. 

Masudi of Baghdad, 109. 
Masnlipatam (Metchlipatam), 88, 224; 
early notices of, 106, 183; the Por- 
. tuguese at, 178 ; the Dutch at, 88, 
187, 190 ; the English at, 88, 209, 
211, 212, 214, 215, 219, 228, 230, 
234, 251; "Eliza's tree" at, 87; 
records relatmg to, 64, 65—67, 74, 80, 
81, 87. 
Matterable Phirmaund, 81. 
Matthews, Sir John, 23. 
Manlda, 224, 226, 234; records re- 
lating to, 66, 80, 91. 
Maurice of Nassau, Prince, 186. 
Mauritius, 168, 186, 190, 244n, 264. 
Mauritius, ship, 214n. 
Mawaralnahar, 112, 136. 
Maxaque, 135. 

Maximilian, the Archduke, 118. 
May, Honble. Baptist. 23. 

Mayflower, ship, 74, 275 ; note on the 

Pilgrim Fathers', 74n. 
Mayors' Courts, 282, 286, 287. 
Mazanderan, 142. 
Mazarine blue, 60n. 
Mazua, 144. 

Mecca, 110, 111, 137, 146, 147, 151. 
Medes, the, 131. 
Mediois, Cosmo de, 114. 
Medicis, Lorenzo de, 155. 
Medina, 146. 
Medina, Moses de, 24. 
Medina, Sir Solomon de, 24. 
Medlycott, James, 19n. 
Meerut, 253. 
Megasthenes, 92. 
Meggot, Sir George, S3. 
Mehran (Indus), the, 109. 
Melacha (Malacca), 153. 
Melangoli, 152. 
Melianoote, 141. 
Melibaria (Malabar), 141. 
Melinda, 154, 163, 166, 178, 181, 203. 
Melons, 140. 
Menado, 234. 

Mendosa, Ferdinand de, 198re. 
Menentillus, 131. 
Meuezes, Don James de, 176, 177. 
Meniu, 146. 

Mercator's projection, 206«. 
Mercers' Hall, 13. 
Merchant Adventurers, the, 219. 
Merchant Hope, ship, 49. 
Merchant Royal, ship, 198. 
Merchant Taylors' Hall, 13«. 
Merchants, list of the E. I. Co.'s, 61. 
Meredith, Sir Oh., 24. 
Merry Wives of Windsor, 206w. 
Meschet (Muscat), 148. 
Meshed, 135. 
Mesopotamia, 110. 
Metchlipatam, see Masulipatam. 
Mexico, 183. 
Mhow, 224. 
Miaco, 26n, 52. 

Miohelborne, Sir Edward, 50, 207, 276. 
Micklethwalte, Sir John, 23. 
Middleburg, 68, 76. 

Middleton, Captain David; 48, 207, 208. 
Middleton, Sir Henry, 44, 47, 48, 207, 

208, 209, 263, 280, 284, 
Middleton, John, 47, 276. 
Middleton, Mr., 277. 
Midnapore, 251. 
Milan, 118. 

Mildenhall, Sir John, 199. 
Millet, Captain, 47n. 
Millet, 110. 

Millingten, Sir Th., 24. 
Milton's references to the East Indies, 

168n, 181, 206n. 
Minab, 61. 

Mindanao, the island of, 174, 178, 200. 
Minibar (Malabar), 132. 
Mints, 219, 222. 
Mir Jafir, 91, 249. 
Mir Kasim, 249. 
Mirrha, 180. 


Misericordia, the river, 162n. 

Mobar, 132. 

Mocha, 73, 80, 186, 190, 208, 211, 233. 

Moguls, the, 58, 89, 121, 123. 

Mohamed Ali, the Nawab, 35. 

Mohan, Richard, 64. 

Moira, Earl of, 95n, 96n. 

Molaga (long pepper), 153. 

Moluccas, the, early notices of, 154, 165, 
200, 203 ; the Portuguese and, 173, 
178; the Spaniards and, 170, 172, 
186 ; the Dutch and, 186, 189, 191, 
192, 210 ; the English and, 196, 205, 
210, 234. 

Mombasa, 164, 163, 167, 178, 181, 182. 
■ Momya (mummy wax), 201. 

Mongolia, 120. 

Monoch (the Moluccas), 154. 

Monson, Sir William, 208. 

Monson, Mr., 243n— 248w. 

Montagu [?Lord], 271. 

Montague, Charles, 271, 272. 

Montague, Earl of, 27. 

Montague, Honble. W., 24. 

Montecorvino, John of, 131. 

Montgomery, Earl of, 71. 

Moon, Island of the, 164, 165. 

Moore, Arthur, 30. 

Moore, Sir John, 22. 

' ' Moorish " Government, the, 35. 

Mordaunt, Honble. Charlotte, 23. 

Morden, Sir John, 23. 

Morees, 63. 

Morghan (Murghab), the, 135. 

Morning Starr, ship, 42, 78. 

Mornington, Earl of, 29r. 

Morocco, 111, 112, 200. 

Morrice, ship, 214n, 216n. 

Morris, Sir W. , diary of, 44. 

Morro, 178. 

Morse, ship, 36. 

Morse, Nicholas, 242n— 248n. 

Mortir, 170n. 

Moscow, 133, 183, 195. 

Moshkat, 142. 

Mosul, 8Sn, 128, 133, 224. 

Motapalle, 127. 

Motelo, 203. 

Mother-of-pearl, 39. 

Mounteney, Richard, 268. 

Mozambique, 154, 162, 163, 166, 167, 
178, 186, 203, 206n. 

Mozambique Channel, the, 162, 163. 

Miiller, Professor Max, xin, 215n, 

MulmulB, 224. 

Multan, 110. 

Mum, 56n. 

Mun, Sir Thomas, 22, 213. 

Munster, Treaty of, 32»n 184. 

Murghab, the, 135. 

Murrey cloths, 205. 

Musa (plantains), 139. 

Muscat, early notices of, 110, 111, 187, 
142, 144, 148 ; the Portuguese and, 
168, 178. 

Muscat (? musk), 143. 

Muscovy, 79, 157, 105. See also 

Muscovy Company, the, 278, 279. Set 

also Russia Company. 
Musk, 37n, 107, 109, 143, 144, 148, 165, 

180, 198, 201, 204. 
Musket, derivation of the term, 215». 
Muslins, 47n, 59n, 88n, 224, 225n. 
Mustard, Thomas, 264. 
Mutaii, 127. 
Muzaffarnagar, 253. 
Myrabolums, 37ra, 141, 150, 180, 198, 

201, 204. 
Myrrh, 165, 201, 204. 
Mysore, 143, 241, 250; papers relating 

to, 68 ; list of captives at, 65. 

Nacous (the Nicobars), 108. 

Nadir Shah, 241, 242, 250. 

Nagle, Lieut., 96n. 

Nagore, 252. 

Nagpur, 264. 

Nag's Head Inn, the, 39n. 

Namone, 153. 

Nana Farnavis, letters from, 82. 

Nankeen Blue, 40. 

Nanking, 132. 

Nansari, 42. 

Nantz, 76. 

Naples, 132, 164. 

Napoleon Buonaparte, 268; extracts 

from the St. Helena Records relating 

to, vii, 93n — 97n. 
Naronha, Don Garcia de, 1 74. 
Narsapoor, 72. 
Narsingha, 107, 150, 151, 153, 200, 240, 

Nash, James, 53. 
Natal, 162. 

Navigation Laws, the, 218. 
Neapolitan yellow, 60«. 
Necuverau (the Nicobars). 127. 
Negapatam, 154, 178, 189| 190, 262. 
Neghostan, 143. 
Negomba, 189, 190. 
Neli (ginger), 139. 
Nemptai (Hangcheu), 140. 
Nepaul, 165, 252. 
Neptune, ship, 43. 
Nerbudda, the, 113, 241. 
Nerbudda District, the, 253. 
New Amsterdam, 187. 
New England, 74, 76. 
New Guinea, 170n, 174, 188, 192, 200. 
New Hebrides, the, 188. 
New Holland, 188. 
" New Style " Calendar, the, 187n. 
New Year's Gift, ship, 49, 78. 
New York, 160, 187. 
New Zealand, 77n, 188, 192, 254. 
Newberry, James, 197. 
Newcastle, Duke of, 32. 
Newfoundland, 193. 
Newport, Christopher, 49, 209. 
Nicobars, the, 108, 127, 132, 203. 
Nicolas, emperor of Persia, 124. 
Nicosia, 121. 

Nikitin, Athanasius, travels of, 141 — 


Nile, the, 129, 130, 144, 145, 165. 

Nilghiri Hills, the, 252. 

Nimar, 254. 

Nineveh, 88n. 

Nirmul, 165. 

Nishapore, 135. 

Nizampatam, 89, 251. 

Noell, Sir Martin, 221n. 

Norfolk, ship, 43. 

Nori birds, 141. 

Noronha, Don Antony de, 177. 

North, Sir John, 72. 

North-East Passage, the, 45, 185, 193, 

North- West Passage, the, 45, 193, 194, 

277—280; the Fellowship for the 

discoyery of, 194. 
Northampton, Lord, 39n. 
Northern Circars, the, 251. 
Norway, 76. 
Nottingham, ship, 43. 
Novgorod, 117, 195. 
Noz moscada, ISO. 
Nulls, Sir John, 22. 
Nnn or Non, Cape, 158. 
Nansarees, 42. 
Nuremberg, 118, 166, 184. 
Nutmeg Islands, the, 170. 
Nutmegs, 37n, 47n, 76, 107, 109, 130, 

135, 140, 154, 165, 173, 180, 189, 198, 

201, 203, 213. 
Nux vomica, 39. 
Nuyts, Pieter, 188. 

Oath taken by the Govemours, &c., of 
the B. I. Co. , 17 ; by the captains, 

Ootai (Okkodai) Khan, 119, 120. 

Odesschiria, 139. 

Odoacer, 113. 

Odorico de Pordenone, travels of, 131. 

CEanaznenas bengallas, 202. 

Oil, zerzalino, 147. 

Ojajan, 135. 

Old man of the mountain, the, 132. 

Old Travellers, note on the, 105. 

Olearius, Adam, travels of, 236, 237. 

Olibannm, Sahaar, 84. 

Olives, 146. 

Ollerenshaw, J. C, 102n. 

Oman, 108, 109. 

Omar, the Caliph, 108. 

Ongnle, 139. 

Onore, 111, 138, 150, 168, 178, 202, 233. 

Ophir, 181. 

Opinno, 205. 

Opio, 180. 

Opium, 12, 35, 202, 204, 226. 

Oporto, 76. 

Orange, Prince of, 70. 

Oranges, 111, 140, 162. 

Orda, the Tartar, 141 

Ordu, derivation of the te^n:^, 142. 

Orford, Earl of, 272. 

Organziue silk, 76. 

" Original Correspondence '' volumes, 
the, x, 3, 5, 15. 

Orissa, 19, 58, 59, 80, 179, 190, 199, 
200, 226n, 241, 249, 251 ; English 
factories in, 91, 216, 234. 

Orkneys, the, 117. 

Orleans, Duke of, 25n. 

Orme, Robert, 87. 

Ormonde, Duke of, 268. 

Ormuz, 45, 60, 166, 183, 200, 204; 
early notices of, 110, 111, 123, 124, 
127—130, 132, 133, 136, 136, 138, 
142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 
166, 166 ; the Portuguese at, 168— 
170, 178, 181, 200; the English at, 
197, 213 ; records relating to, 51. 

Orosins, 107n. 

Os Papnas, 200. 

Ossory, Lord, 26. 

Osteud, 76. 

Ostend Company, the, 31, 32n. 

Ostriches, 143. 

Otrar, 136. 

Ottoman Turks, the. 111, 114, 115, 118, 
119, 124, 133, 156, 157, 175. 

Oudh, 20, 241, 250, 252, 254. 

Ovington, John, 50. 

Oxenden, Sir George, 22, 83, 85, 221. 

Oxenden, Sir James, 22. 

Oxford, Earl of, 27. 

Oxus, the, 112, 123, 135, 169i«. 

Oxwiek, 76. 

Ozan, 195. 

Ozenbrigs, 76. 

Facamuria, 139. 

Padang, 190. - 

Paggen, Peter, 18n. 

Pagodas, 220n. 

Painted cloths, 47n, 202, 225n. 

Palampores, 40. 

Palseologus, Manuel, 157. 

Palaeologus, Michael, 124. 

Palazuelos, Fernando de, 134. 

Paleaohat (Pulicat), 152. 

Palembang, 127, 170, 186, 189, 192; 

records relating to, 54. 
Palestine, 110, 113, 119. 
Palibothra (Patna), 92. 
Palicole, 252. 
Paliconda, 139. 
Paliuria, 141. 
Palm sugar, 131. 
Palo da Cobra, 204. 
Palo d'aguilla, 204. 
Palos, 160. 
Palsgrave, ship, 75. 
Pamir, 112, 123. 
Panama, 173. 
Panch Mahals, the, 254. 
Panconia, 140. 
Pandarani, 132, 160. 
Panipat, battle of, 240, 242. 
Panten, the island of, 132. 
Papenburgh, ship, 268, 269. 
Papillon, Thomas, 22. 
Papua, see New Guinea. 
Paquin (Peking), 169n. 
Paradis, M., 244n, 249n. 

V 2 


Paradise Lost, references to the East 
Indies in, 168)),, 181, 205n, 206n. 

Parchment Records, the, ix, 64 ; list of, 

Pardai, 154. 

Parkehurst, Sir Robert, 22. 

Parliament, 33, 46n, 78. 

Parrivioine, Sir Peter, 23. 

Parsons, Sir John, 24. 

Pascal of Vittoria, travels of, 131. 

Paschal, John, 19n. 

Passaman, 234. 

Pataliputra, 92. 

Patanga, 40. 

Patani, 37n, 73, 175, 203, 209, 211, 

Pate, 154, 174. 

Patna, 30, 92, 190, 212, 220, 224, 226, 
234, 249, 253; records relating to, 
66, 80, 92, 96. 

Paulo Roon, see Pulo Roon. 

Paunches, 63. 

Payva, Alphonso de, 164. 

Peaches, 146. 

Pearl, ship, 265. 

Pearl fisheries, 108, 152. 

Pearls, 80, 110, 126, 127, 129, 130, 135, 
144, 165, 190, 202, 204. 

Pears, 146. 

Pedapali, 89, 209. 

Pegolotti, 114, 130. 

Pegu, 41n, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 236 ; 
early notices of, 140, 144, 145, 151, 
152, 153, 165 ; the Portuguese in, 
178; the Dutch in, 186, 189; the 
English in, 197, 234, 250, 253. 

Point State, the, 254. 

Peishwa, the, 82. 

Peking, 123, 131, 132, 133, 136, 140 
169ri, 192. 

Pelagonda, 139. 

Pelongs, 40, 63. 

Pembroke, Earl of, 72. 

Penang, Pulo, 252. 

Pendleton, Dr. Thomas, 62. 

Penelope, ship, 198. 

Peninsular and Oriental Steam Naviga- 
tion Company's ensign, sin. 

Pentam (Bintang), 127. 

Ilei/TaTrXoa, the Greek, 237. 

Pepercaae, 201. 

Pepper, 13, 377i, 39, 47n, 53, 55n, 90, 107, 
108, 109, 110, 112, 124, 127, 128,129, 
131, 1.32, 137, 139, 141, 143, 144, 145, 
150, 151, 153, 163, 165, 189, 190, 198, 
199, 201, 202, 203, 207, 208, 210, 213, 
221n, 224. 

Peppercorn, ship, 48, 208. 

Pepys, Samuel, 13, 217)i ; quotations 
from the Diary of, 26, 84, 220n, 221n. 

Pera, 114, 136, 156. 

Peru, ship, 188. 

Pereyra, Diego Fernandez, 168. 

Perfumes, 165. 

Poriplus of the Erythrean Sea, the, 88k, 

Perpetuanoes, 37h, 38n. 

Perron, M., 249. 

PersepoUs, 132, 236, 238. 

Persia, 26, 27, 37n, 40, 60n, 79, 82, 217, 
225n, 226n, 232, 255 ; early notices 
of, 110, 112, 113, 114, 117, 119, 120, 
123, 125, 128, 133, 134, 138, 145, 147, 
149, 151, 153, 165, 183, 204, 236, 237; 
the Portuguese in, 167, 178, 181 ; the 
Dutch m, 186, 190 ; the English in, 
49, 63, 77, 195, 196, 197, 209, 213, 
217, 233, 238, 254, 264, 265, 266 ; re- 
cords relating to, 11, 51, 61, 65, 77, 
79 ; water-colour paintings from, 49. 

Persia, the Sea of, 108. 

Persian Gulf, the, early notices of, 88n, 
105, 106, 108, 109, 112, 113, 123, 130, 
138, 146, 148, 165, 182, 200, 236, 255 ; 
the Portuguese in, 168, 178 ; the 
Dutch in, 53, 190 ; the English in, 
195, 196, 209, 211, 213, 220, 233. 

Pertabghar, 83. 

Peru, 187. 

Perugia, Andrew of, 131. 

Pervota (Pervottum), 142. 

Perwanna, a, 81. 

Petapoli, see PettipoUee. 

Peter the Great, 195. 

Petit, John, 227, 270, 285. 

Petitions, a volume of, 17. 

PettipoUee, 81, 89,209, 211, 219, 234; 
records relating to, 88. 

Petty Cash Books of the E. I. Co., 42. 

Peudifetania, 139. 

Pewqu (Pegu), 144. 

Pewter experted to the East Indies, 37n. 

Peyton, Captain, 49. 

Phaseolus Jiadiatus, 110. 

Phayre, Sir Arthur, 236. 

Philip II. of Spain, 172, 177, 184. 

Philippa of Portugal, 157. 

Philippme Islands, the, 161, 172, 173, 
200 ; the Company of, 32n. 

Philpot Lane, 39n. 

Phirmaunds, 35, 64; Bengal, 80, 216; 
Fort St. David, 87 ; Maanlipatam, 
&c., 81, 215; Mocha, 80; Persian, 

Phoenicians, the, 75n, 105, 106, 115, 
118n, 155, 158, 165, 254. 

Pices, 222. 

Pider, 153. 

Piece goods, 40, 41, 42, 63, 190, 224. 

Pigot, ship, 43. 

PUgrim Fathers, the, 74, 275. 

Pillar, Cape, 172. 

Pilot, ship, 161. 

Pinascos, 40. 

Pinder, Sir Paule, 22. 

Pine apple fibre, 26, 40. 

Pine apples, 140. 

Pinta, ship, 160. 

Piutadoe Quilts, 38. 

Pinto, Ferdinand Mendez, 181. 

Pinus, the, 140. 

Pinzons, the, 160, 166, 171. 

Pipal, the, 39n. 

Pippli, the English factory at, 91, 216, 
224, 234 ; transferred to Balasore, 92, 


Pu-ates, 190, 273, 284, 287, 288. 

Plantains, 139, 152. 

Plantation House Chnrch, St, Helena, 

Plantations, Committee for, 13. 

Plassey, the battle of, 191 , 248 ; Olive's 
account of, 57. 

Plassey, ship, 43. 

Pliny, 257n. 

Plushes, 38». 

Plymouth, 68, 264, 275n, 277. 

Plymouth (New England), 74. 

Point de Galle, 170, 178, 189, 190. 

Poises, 53, 63. 

Poland, 119, 224. 

Policies, insurance, 67, 75. 

Polo, Maffeo, 121—124. 

Polo, Marco, 121—130, 156, 159. 

Polo, Nicolo, 121—124. 

Polumbum, 132. 

Pomegranates, 146. 

Pondicherry, 191, 223, 242, 243n, 247n, 

Ponent, the Lord of the, 122. 

Ponsbourne, ship, 43. 

Pooly, Sir Edmund, 221n. 

Poena, 253. 

Poonamallee, 251. 

Popinjays. 41, 60n. 

Poplar, 78 ; the almshouses at, 27. 

Porca, 81, 85, 174, 190, 233. 

Porcelain, 37n, 40, 73, 75, 108, 109, 111, 
144, 198, 202. 

Pordenone, Odorico de, 131. 

Porphyry, 146. 

Porqua, 81, 85. 

"Portcullis" money, 222n. 

Portland Bay, 68. 

Portland, Earl of, 28, 271. 

Porto Novo, 66, 234, 252, 253n. 

Portsmouth, 36. 

Portugal, 193, 201, 222n, 223, 225 ; 
united with Spain, 177, 184; the 
union dissolved, 177, 189. 

Portuguese, the, 81, 195, 216, 227, 235, 
240 ; general remarks on, 102, 155 ; 
early voyages. Sire, 106, 111, 146, 147, 
150, 132, 154, 176, 179, 184, 200— 
205, 207, 213, 236, 278, 280;. the 
Dutch and, 184, 185, 189, 235; the 
English and, 45, 46, 50, 65, 84, 196— 
200, 208, 209, 212, 213, 214 ; list of 
the possessions of, 178. 

Post Boy, the, 17. 

Postman, the, 17. 

Potosi, 171. 

Precious stones, 126, 127, 129, 143, 144, 
145, 163, 180, 205. 

Predicants, the Dutch, 56ra. 

President, ship, 50. 

Prester John, 132, 144, 156, 162. 

Priaman, 205, 208, 228, 284. 

Price, Mr. F. G. H., 25re. 

Prichard, Sir W., 17. 

Prince of Wales, ship, 43. 

Prince Regent, the, 94n. 

Princess Mary, ship, 243, 246n. 

Private Trade, 13,' 36, 43. 

Prussian E. I. Companies, 32/i. 

Pterocarpus santalinus, 38. 

Ptolemies, the, 106. 

Ptolemy, 106, 107n, 125. 

Puckle's diary, 64. 

Pudipatana, 139. 

Pulci, Luigi, 257«, 278. 

Pulicat, Varthema's description of, 152 ; 
the Dutch at, 190, 209 ; the English 
at, 209, 212, 234; records relating to, 
67, 81. 

Pulo Banda, 170n. 

Palo Gondore, 109, 127, 235. 

Pulo Kapal, 170n. 

Pulo Nera, 170n. 

Pulo Pisang, 170n. 

Pulo Roon (Poleroon), 170n ; the 
English and Dutch at, 69, 189, 211, 
212, 218, 220n, 222, 235 ; records re- 
lating to, 53, 69. 

Pulo Suwanggi, 170n. 

Pulo Wai or Pulo Ai, 170n, 208, 234. 

Pulse, 110. 

Punch, 237. 

Punia silk, 26. 

Punjab, the, 240, 241, 250, 252, 253, 

Purchaa, Rev. Samuel, 5, 6, 52, 237. 

Pnssellanas (porcelain), 202. 

Quaile, Capt., 78. 

Quarequa, Sierra de, 171. 

Quaritoh, Mr., viii. 

Quebulos, 180. 

Quedah, 108, 200, 203, 234, 252. 

Querimba, 178. 

Quex (Keah), 136. 

Quicksilver, 39, 76. 

Quiloa, 110, 166, 167, 178, 181. 

Quilon, early notices of, 111, 128, 132, 
133, 141, 151, 152, 154 ; the Portu- 
guese at, 168, 189 ; the Dutch at, 189, 
190 ; the English at, 233. 

Quilts, 37?i, 38, 198, 202. 

Quinces, 146. 

Quiros, 187, 188. 

Rabast (Arabia), 143. 

Rabbit skins, 117. 

Racha (Aracan), 140. 

Rachoor, 144. 

Radaa, 147. 

Radix China, see China root. 

Raffles, Sir Stamford, 54. 

Rafl Khan, 80. 

Rainbow, ship, 42. 

Rajamaul, 234. 

Rajapore, 27,85, 216,233. 

Rajbag, 233. 

Rajputana, 241. 

Ram Raja, 241. 

Ramie fibre, 40. 

Ramni, Al (Sumatra), 108, 132. 

Ramusio, 194. 

Rander, 252. 

Ranelagh, Earl of, 27, 271 


Uapbael, 49n. 

llatisbon, 118. 

Ratnagiri, 251, 252. 

Rattera, 233. 

Rawlineon, Dame Mary, 28. 

Rawlinson, Honour, 28. 

Rawlinaon, Sir Thomas, 17, 23, 28. 

Raymond, George, 198. 

Raymond, M., 249m. 

Raynal, Abbe, 87n. 

Rebecca, ship, 42. 

Rebow, Sir Isaac, 24. 

Records, leading divisions of the, 11 ; 
certain, not included in this Report, 
16 ; intended classification and ca- 
lendaring of, 6, 7 ; proper method of 
dealing with, 12 ; in disorder at the 
union of the two companies, 4 ; sold 
as waste paper, 2, 71n. 

Records, post of Registrar of Indian, 
abolished, 82. ' 

Red Dragon, ship, see Dragon. 

Red Sea, the, 106, 107, 181, 144, 155, 
164, 167, 168, 170, 175, 200, 233. 255. 

Red wood, 38, 90. 

Reddall, Oapt., 44. 

Redmosine cloths, 205. 

Regard, ship, 272. 

Retourne, ship, 42. 

Revolution of 1688, the, 50, 187n. 

Reynolds, Dr., 14n. 

Rhea fibre, 40. 

Rhinoceros horn, 220n. 

Rhodes, 134, 164. 

Rhubarb, 148, 169n, 180, 201, 204. 

Rials, 72, 76. 

Ribbands, 37n. 

Ricanlt, Sir Peter, 77. 

Rice, 108, 189, 190, 222n. 

Richard and Martha, ship, 42. 

Richard II. played on board the Dragon, 

Richelieu, Cardinal, 31n. 

Richmond and Lennox, Duke of, 7.1 ; 
Duchess Dowager of, 24. 

Riha, 107. 

Rio de la Plata, 171. 

Rio de Solis, 171. 

Rio do Iffanto, 162. 

Rio dos BBos Signaes, 162, 162n. 

Rio dos Reyes, 162. 

Roberts, Lewis, Sin. 

Robinson, Mr. , 97n. 

Robinson, Sir John, 22, 267. 

Robinson, Sir Leonard, 24. 

Roohelle, 76. 

Rodrigues, Michael, 215. 

Rodriques, — , 25n. 

Roe, Sir Thomas, 49, 50, 210. 

Roebuck, ship, 50. 

Rohilound, 241. 

Rohilla war, the, 249, 

Roi Soleil, 222n. 

Rolt, Thomas, 82. 

Roman vitriol, 15. 

Romania, Strait of, 134. 

Ropes, 38)1. 

Roquigny, Adrian, 68, 

Rose, ship, 49. 

Rose of Diejie, ship, 78. 

Rose-water, 237. 

Rosengyn, 170n, 211, 212, 234. 

Roses, Damascus, 146. 

Roses, artificial, 37n. 

Rostock, 116. 

Rotterdam, 76. 

Rottlera tinctoria, 109. 

Rouen, 68, 76. 

Roum (Anatolia), 136. 

Row, Thomas, 25n. 

Rowles, Capt. Richard, 48, 208. 

Royal Captain, ship, 43. 

Royal Charlotte, ship, 43. 

Royal Exchange, the, 13. 

Royal George, ship, 273, 287. 

Royal James, ship, 217. 

Royal James and Mary, ship, 90. 

Royal Society, the, 14n. 

Rubies, 135, 139, 144, 145, 148, 152, 

165, 180, 202, 204, 220n. 
Rubruquis, William de, 120, 121. 
Ruoellas, the island of, 203. 
Ruckta chandana, 38. 
Rupees, first coinage of, 222. 
Rupert, Prince, 25re, 268. 269, 285. 
Russell, Sir W., 22. 
Russia, 79, 110, 115, 116, 117, 119, 157, 

183, 194, 195, 196, 236, 239. See also 

Russia Company, the, 195, 278. See 

also Muscovy Company. 
Russian leather, 43. 
Rye, 110. 
Ryswiok, Treaty of, 191. 

Saba, 133. 

Sadaruncharees, 63. 

Sadaaeoghur, 150. 

Sadi Khoja, 136. 

Sadler, Ffranois, 3. 

Sadras, 253. 

Safflower, 39, 76. 

Saffron, 37n. 

Sagapennm, 165, 180. 

Sagas, the, 117. 

Sago, 39. 

Sagrez, Cape, 157. 

Sahu, the Peishwa, 242. 

Saidapet, 251. 

Sailors in the E. I. Co. 's service in 1686,44. 

Sainsbury, Mr. Noel, 16, 17, 201, 239, 
261, 263, 284n. 

St. Andrew Undersbaft, 14n. 

St. Blaze, bay of, 162, 164. 

St. Gens, 178. 

St. George, ship, 42. 

St. Helena, 20, 30, 43, 154, 227 ; dis- 
covery of, 167, 190 ; the Dutch and, 
93, 189, 190, 218; the English and, 
93, 190, 218, 235 ; grant of, to the 
E. I. Co., 93, 190, 218, 282, 285; 
Napoleon Buonaparte at, vii, 93n — 
98n ; emancipation of slaves at, 98n, ; 
records relating to, 16, 66, 67, 93, 
282, 285. 


St. Helena, Bishopsgate, 39. 

St. John, the island of, 193. 

St. Lawrence, the Gulf of, 167. 

St. Louis, 113, 120. 

St. Paul's, Commissioners for repairing, 

St. Petersburg, 196. 
St. Philip, ship, 197. 
St. Raphael, 161. 
St. Thome' (Maliapur), early notices of, 

127, 132, 133, 139, 152, 197; the 

Portuguese at, 168, 178, 189; the 

Dutch at, 189 ; the English at, 251. 
St. Valery, 76. 
Saj (teak), 109. 
Saker, 215n. 
Salabat Jung, 244. 
Saladin, 114. 
Salang Headland, 189. 
Saldanha, Antony de, 167. 
Saldanha Bay, 167. 
Salem, 252. 
Salisbury, Earl of, 27. 
Salisbury, ship, 43. 
Salisbury flannels, 60n. 
Salloos, 62. 

Salsette, 35, 132, 178, 197, 252. 
Salt, 36. 
Saltpetre, 13, 28, 38, 47n, 72, 190, 267, 

Salvadore, Francis and Jacob, 247n. 
Samanian dynasty, the, 117. 
Samarcand, 112, 133, 135, 136, 148, 

Sambragante, 148. 
Sambrooke, Jeremy (the elder), 23, 77, 

Sambrooke, Sir Jeremy (the younger), 

23, 221. 
Samon, Robert, 264. 
Samorin of Calicut, see Calicut. 
Sampson, ship, 42, 50. 
Samuel and Anna, ship, 44. 
San Bernardino Gaspar de, 182. 
San Lazaro, archipelago de, 172. 
San Lorenzo, see Madagascar. 
San Lucar, 173. 
San Salvador, 160. 
Son Vicemo, ship, 154. 
Sanawar, 253. 
Sand, Sea of, 131. 
Sandai (Coram), 140. 
Sandal wood (saunders), 38, 40, 107, 

109, 111, 139, 140, 144, 145, 153, 

165, 180, 201, 204. 
Sandar Fulat, 109. 
Sandu (Shangtu), 132. 
Sanf, 108, 109. 
Santa Cruz, 162. 
Santa Maria, 171. 
Santiago, 173. 
Santiago, ship, 172. 
Santo Stefano, 141. 
Santo Stefano, Hieronimo di, travels of, 

Santy, 108. 

Sanuto, Marino, travels of, 130. 
Saphetica, 149. 

Sappan wood, 40, 166, 189. 
Sapphires, 139, 152, 165, 202, 204. 
Saraeons, the, 106n, 113, 119, 124, 125,. 

129, 156. 
Sarai, 119, 120, 121, 132, 142. 
Sarcenets, 198. 
Sardonyxes, 139. 
Sareh, 142. 
Sarges, 38n. 
Saris, Captain John, 48, 78, 209, 280 j 

journal of, 45n. 
Sartakh, 120. 
Saserguntees, 63. 

Satins, 87n, 38n, 40, 130, 143, 205. 
Satinwood, 165. 
Sattara, 253. 
Saugur, 253. 

Saunders-wood, see Sandal-wood. 
Savage, Lady Elizabeth, 24. 
Savage, Richard, 24. 
Sawuntwarree, 253. 
Sayes, 38n. 
Sayon, Vincent, 64. 
Scanderoon, Gulf of, 122. 
Scandinavia, 105. 
Scaweu, SirW., 14, 18rt. 
Schahrinou (Siam), 136. 
Schirazo (Shiraz), 148. 
Schouten, Cornelius, 184n. 
Sciamnthera (Sumatra), 139. 
Scinde, 37, 165, 250, 253. 
Scindia, 252, 253. 
Soindy (Tatta), 216. 
Scingee, 67. 

Scottish E. I. Co., 31b, 232n. 
Scrafton, Luke, 34. 
Scumminga, 39. 
Scythians, the, 112. 
Seahorse, ship, 78. 
Sealing-wax, 40n, 154, 224. 
Sebastian of Portugal, 177. 
Sechutera, 141. 
Seiade, the, 241. 
Seide of pearle, 202. 
Seilan (Ceylon), 127. 
Selaheth (Malacca), 107. 
Selapin, gum, 201. 
Seleucus, embassy of, 106. 
Selim, 114. 

Seljukiau Turks, 113. 
Seneca, quotations from, 257n, 278, 

Senegal Company, the French, 31n. 
Separate voyages, the, 45 — 47, 205 — 

209; profits of the, 46n. 
Sequeyra, Don, 170, 176. 
Sequin, the, 205n. 
Serampore, 211, 253, 288. 
Serendib (Ceylon), 108, 137. 
Seringapatam, 250. 
Serrano, JoSo, 172, 172n. 
Servia, 118. 
Seaamine, 107. 
Sesamum Orientale, 148, 152 
Seville, 76, 136, 193. 
Shabait, 143, 144'. 
Shah Abbas, 49, 49n, 51, 209, 213. 
Shah Alamn.,19. 


Shah Jehan, 80, 92, 216, 217. 

Shah Rukh, 135, 136. 

Shah Safi, 51. 

Shahgarh, 254. 

Shaista Khan, 80, 81. 

Shakespeare's references to the Indies, 

Shalloons, 60n. 
Shangtu, 123, 132. 
Sharpeigh or Sharpey, Captain, 48. 
Shausteth Oawne, 80. 
Shawls, 12, 27, 40, 65. 
Sheha, 133. 
Shehr, 165. 
Shellac, see Lac. 
Shepheard, Sam, 271. 
Sherhet, duty on, 26n. 
Sherborne, Sighelmus of, 196. 
Sherley, see Shirley. 
Shilbert, Bartholomew, 19n. 
Shillinge, Captain, 50, 212. 
Shillong, 254. 

Shinkala- (Cranganore), 132. 
Shipman, Sir Abraham, 84n, 85, 221, 

Shipping, papers relating to, 11, 13, 37, 

44, 63 ; employed by the E. I. Go. in 

1614, 210. 
Ships' Journals, 3, 4, 5, 6, 44, 214n. 
Shiraz, 111, 135, 142, 145, 148, 152, 

Shirley, Sir Robert, 49, 209; Sir 

Anthony, 49. 
Shoes, Spanish leather, 37»!. 
Shrewsbury, Duke of, 28, 271. 
Shuja-ud-Daula, 20. 
Shuja, Sultan, 80, 217. 
" Shut-up Nations," the, 113. 
Siam, 41)8 ; early notices of, 109, 136, 

153, 165, 197, 199, 200, 201, 203, 

204; the Portuguese in, 170, 175; 

the Dutch in, 186, 187, 189 ; the 

Enghsh in, 30, 391, 197, 209, 211, 

214, 223, 227, 234; records relating 

to, 66, 92, 93. 
" Sicca-rupee," origin of the term, 

Sicily, Edrisi of, 109. 
Sidney, Sir Philip, 23. 
Sielediba (Ceylon), 107. 
Sierra Leone, 159. 
Sighelmus of Sherborne, 196. 
Sikkim, 253. 
Silesia, 119. 
Silesian spelter, 53. 
Silk, 26, 27, 35, 37n, 38n, 40, 53, 59,63, 

76, 107, 109, 110, 113, 114, 117, 120, 

129, 135, 143—146, 148, 119, 152, 

153, 154, 165, 190, 196, 198, 202, 

205, 217, 220n, 221n, 223, 224n, 232 ; 

imports of (1621), 313; patterns of, 

Silk, wild, 180. 
Sillan (Ceylon), 132. 
Sillebar, 234. 
Silver, 35, 41, 128, 180, 137, 163, 171, 

190, 200. 
Simla, 252. 

Simon, seal by, 261. 

Sina-baftas, 153. 

Sinae, the, 106. 

Sinai, Mount, 141. 

Sind, Al, 112. 

Sindabur, 150. 

Sindbad, voyages of, 107. 

Sindns, 107. 

Sinemonde, 201. 

Singanfu, 109. 

Singapore, 127, 253. 

Sinkalan (Canton), 112. 

Siraf, 109. 

Sirian, 189. 

Sisoo, 107. 

Sivaji, 82, 83, 221, 223, 227, 241. 

Sivas, 123. 

Skinner, Ephraim, 68. 

Skinners' Company, 14n; their Hall 
used for meetings of the New Com- 
pany, 14. 

Slaves, 5Gn, 143, 147, 189 ; emancipation 
of, at St. Helena, 98n. 

Slothany, ship, 266, 267, 285. 

Sluys, 117, 184. 

Smethwick, Mr. , 77. 

Smith, Dame Jane, 23. 

Smith, John, 271. 

Smith, Sir Thomas, first Governonr of 
the Company, 39n. 

Smyrna, 114. 

Snakeweed, 204. 

Snell, G., 25ra. 

Snow, Jerry, 25re. 

Snuffers, 76. 

Soarez, Lopez, 168, 170, 176. 

Socotra, 136, 141, 168, 1G9, 182. 

Soer (Suhar), 127. 

Sofala, 154, 166, 166, 167, 168, 178,181, 

Solar, 204. 

Soldaia, 110, 111, 120, 121. 

Sbldania, 131. 

Solomon, ship, 48, 49. 

Solomon Isles, the, 200. . 

Solomons, Solomon, 247n. 

Soltania, John de Cora, Archbishop of, 

Sondur, the island of, 127. 

Sotomayor, Pelayo de, 134. 

Sousa, Faria y, 181, 183. 

" South land lately discovered," map of 
the, 77. 

Southampton, Earl of, 72. 

Southampton, 74, 275n. 

Southamptonshire, 34. 

Spain, 20, 47)1, 78, 111, 158, 159, 161, 
210, 254, 255, 257n, 272, 273, 275, 
278 ; in the East Indies, 45, 170, 171, 
173, 174, 199n, 20] ; union of Portu- 
gal with, 177, 184 ; the Dutch and, 
184, 185, 186 ; the Enghsh and, 197, 
198 ; the Company of the Philippine 
Islands, 32n ; Sir Foulke Grevile's 
list of Eastern countries having rela- 
tions with. 200. 
Spanish leather shoes, 37re. 
Spanish wax, 40n. 


Spanish wine, 56)i. 

Speaker, ship, 43. 

Speke, ship, 43. 

Spelter, Silesian, 53. 

Spencer, John, senior, ISn, 287 ; junior, 

Spencer. Samuel, 276. 

Spice Islands, the, 88, 170, 171, 172, 
184)i, 211, 234. 

Spioerie, the, 200. 

Spices, 110, 114, 117, 120, 126, 127, 129, 
131, 135, 143, 146. 149, 154, 165, 174, 
189, 197, 202, 208, 210, 237, 263, 284. 

Spikenard, 107, 149, 165, 201, 204. 

Stadeu, 115. 

Stamboul, 110. 

Stamps, impressed, 33. 

Staten Island, 184n. 

Statera Romana, the, H8h. 

Steel Yards, the, 117. 

Stephens, Thomas, 196, 197. 

Stepney, 78. 

Sterne's Eliza, 87. 

Stevens, Jlr. Henry, x, 15n, 21n, 74n, 

Stick lac, 40?!. 

Stockings, 37)i. 

Strode, George, 264. 

Strong waters, 37n. 

Stu£fs, painted, 47n. 

Succadana, 190, 211, 234. 

Sudak (Soldaia), 111. 

Suez, 165, 168, 175, 200; Canal, 255, 
256, 259n. 

Sugar, 37h, 109, 126, 153, 190, 237. 

Sugar candy, 37;i, 39. 

Sugar, palm. 131. 

Suhar, 127. 

Suleiman, travels of, 108. 

Sultan Shuja, 92, 217. 

Sultanieh, 131, 134, 135, 142, 145. 

Sumali coast, the, 170. 

Sumatra, early notices of, 107 — 109, 111, 
124, 127, 132, 189, 145, 153, 165, 200, 
203,204; the Portuguese in, 168, 169, 
170; the Dutch in, 185, 186, 189, 191, 
192 ; the English in, 191, 205, 208, 
211, 228, 234 ; records relating to, 92, 

Sumhada, 143. 

Sumbalpur, 253. 

Sumbawa, 140, 189, 192. 

Sim spots and commercial crises, lOln. 

Sunda, 203; the Straits of, 48, 214, 

Supervisors, Board of, 34. 

Suraja Daula, 19. 

Surat, 13, 22, 27, 30, 31, 42, 50, 60n, 
210, 222», 224 ; early notices of, 132, 
182, 183, 236, 237, 238 ; the Portu- 
guese at, 31n, 170, 174, 179 ; the 
Dutch at, 190, 211, 220n ; the English 
at, 182, 207, 209, 211, 215, 216, 219, 
220, 226, 228, 233, 252, 253 ; the seat 
of the Western Presidency, 85, 211, 
219, 228 ; Mahratta attacks on, 83, 
221 ; records relating to, 16, 61, 62, 
63, 65—67, 72, 73, 75, 82—85. 

Surgeons, the Dutch B.I. Co.'s, 56n. 

Susan, ship, 47, 275, 276. 

Svastikas, the, x, xi. 

Swallow, ship, 273, 287. 

Swally, 83, 85, 209, 233, 288 ; records 

relating to, 67, 78, 82. 
Swan, ship, 46, 266. 
Sweden, 117. 
Swedes, the, 116, 188. 
Swedish E. I. Co., 31, 32n, 33. 
Switzerland, 105. 
Synda cloth, 87. 
Syria, 60n, 88re, 105, 110, 114, 115, 118, 

125, 180, 133, 135, 136, 145, 146, 149, 

151, 153, 155, 182. 

Tabriz, 122, 124, 134, 136, 142. 

Tacamihaca, 202. 

Tackle, 88n. 

Tadmor, 111. 

Taffaties, 37n, 38n, 40, 59, 135, 198, 

Tahiti, 188. 

Talach, 143. 

Talbot, Charles, Duke of Shrewsbury,, 

Tallies, 261, 262, 267, 269, 270. 

Tamarinds, 180, 201, 204. 

Tamerlane, 118, 133—186, 240, 250. 

Tana (Azov), 110, 114. 

Tanarius major of Rumphius, the, 154.. 

Tanassaria, 200. 

Tangiers, 76; Ibn Batata of, 110. 

Tangut, 123. 

Taujore, 234, 242, 252, 253n, 254 ; re- 
cords relating to, 82, 89, 95. 

Tankana, 39. 

Tannah, 27, 63 ; early notices of, 107, 
111, 124, 128, 131, 132; the Portu- 
guese at, 174, 178 ; records relating 
to, 16, 85. 

Taprobane, 107, 139, 200. 

Tapseiles, 38. 

Tapti River, the, 82, 209. 

Tarai, the, 252. 

Taronate, 208. 

Targattes, 202. 

Tarnassari, 152. 

Tarras (Tattas), 76. 

Tartars, the, H2, 113, 118—122, 132,, 

Tartary, 149, 160, 204. 

Tasman, Abel, 77)!, 184r!, 188. 

Tasmania, 77;!, 254. 

Tatta, 175, 178, 216. 

Tauris, 131, 134, 145. 

Tavernier, John Baptiste, 15, 66n, 80. 

Tavora, Don Laurence de, 177. 

Tavoy, 258. 

Taylor, Joseph, 80. 

Taylor, Peter, 264. 

Tayumah, 108. 

Tchin (Northern China), 136. 

Tea, 12, 27, 32n, 39, 52, 108 ; introduc- 
tion of, into England, 26n, 221. 

Teak, 75n, 109. 

Tecoa, see Ticcoo'. 


Tegnapatam, 227, 229, 231, 251. 

Teheran, 135. 

Telingana, 127. 

Tellioherry, 227, 233, 251 ; records re- 
lating to, 16, 96. 

Telmont yellow, 60n. 

Temir, 169re. 

Tenasserim, 136, 139, 151, 162, 189, 200, 
204, 253. 

Tonga (cocoa-nut), 152. 

Tenreiro, Antonio, 182. 

Ternassari, 139. 

Ternate, 170, 170n, 174, 186, 189, 196, 
203, 205n. 

Terra Australis, 187. 

■Terry, Edward, 50. 

"Teutonic Hanse Towns, 117. 

Tevnapatam, see Tegnapatam. 

Texel, the, 68, 185. 

Thalamasyn, 132. 

Thana (Tannah), 131. 

Theodosia, 110, 114, 132, 135, 142. 

Theophrastns, 75n. 

Thevnapatam, see Tegnapatam. 

Thibet, 39, 132, 165. 

Thomas, ship, 48, 72, 78. 

Thome, Dr. Robert, 193, 275, 277. 

Thread, 76. 

Three Brothers, ship, 76. 

Threedeoker, the first, launched in 
England, 47n. 

Thsiuanoheu, 126. 

Tloooo, 208, 209, 211, 234. 

Tidore, 170n, 173, 174, 186, 200, 203, 

Tierra del Puego, 172. 

Tiger, ship, 50. 

Tigris (Volga), the, 122. 

Tigris, the, 130. 

Timber, 107, 117. 

Timber, 165, 178, 186, 189, 192, 204. 

Tin, 46n, 84, 117, 153, 264, 266. 

Tinoal, 39. 

Tinnevelly, 124, 128. 

Tippoo Sahib, 20, 250, 252, 287, 288. 

Tiyomen Island, 109. 

Tobacco, 36. 
Toddy, 131, 222n. 

TogrelBeg, 113. 

Tomson, 220n. 

Tonquin, 106 ; the Dutch in, 186, 189 ; 
the English in, 191, 223, 225, 227, 
235 ; records relating to, 52, 65 — 67. 
Topaz, 144, 152, 165. 

■ Topsails, 38. 
Tor, 164, 165, 200. 
Tormapatani (Dormapatam), 150. 
Torres, Louis Vaez de, 188. 
Tortoise Shells, 39. 
Toscanelli, 159. 

Townley, Francis, 68. 

Townshend, Mr., 14. 

Trades Increase, ship, 48, 208, 809. 

Trading Affairs of the E. I. Co., papers 

relating to, 37, 38. 
Tranquebar, 211, 253. 
Transoxiana, 112, 117. 

■ Trapor, 178. 

Travers, William, 62. 

Treaty of Defence, the, 1619, 69, 211. 

Trebizond, 114, 121, 131, 134, 135, 136, 

142, 165. 
Trelawny, General, 24. 
Tretandrum, 87. 
Triana, Eodrigo de, 160. 
Trieste, the Imperial Company of, 32h. 
Trinoomalee, 189. 
Trinidad, ship, 173. 
Tripoli, 146. 
Triton, ship, 43. 
Triumph, ship, 217». 
Tryamong, 66, 234. 
Tsiampa, 127. 
Tudela, Benjamin of, 109. 
Tughlak, Sultan Mahommed, 110. 
Tuglak, the House of, 241. 
Tulce, SirH., 23. 
Tuloji, Angria, 82. 
Tumbolee Point, 90. 
Tunis, 111. 
Turbidi, see Turpeth. 
Turkestan, 136, 143. 
Turkey, 60n, 121, 134, 136, 145, 146, 149, 

151, 163, 224, 254. 
Turkey Company, the, 195, 196. 
" Turkish rovers," 47«. 
Turks, see Ottoman Turks, ana Sel- 

jukian Turks. 
Turner, SirW., 23. 
Turpeth, 149, 180, 201. 

Turquoise, 135, 148, 202. 

Tuscany, Grand Duke of, 33. 

Tushy-stoue, 27. 

Tutenague, 53, 63. 

Tutia, 27, 128, 148, 202. 

Tuticorin, 190, 234. 

Twelfth Night, quotation from, 206n. 

Twenty-four Parganas, the, 90, 249, 

Twer, 141. 

Tyamong, 234. 

Tynte, John, 18n. 

Tyre, 106re, 254. 

Tywan, 223, 235; records relating to, 
65, 66. See also Formosa. 

Tzinitza, 107. 

tJoaca (Ukak), 122. 

Ulm, 118. 

Ultramarine, 148. 

Ummad Shahi dynasty, the, 241n. 

Unicom, ship, 42, 49. 

Union, ship, 48, 208. 

Unity, ship, 42, 50. 
Upper India (China), 132. 

Urostigma religiosvm, 39n. 
Usbeke, the province of, 204. 

Vaeq (Balk), 135. 
Valentijn, 226n. 
Valentine, ship, 43. 
Valladolid, 172. 
Van der Vort, Isaac, 68. 
Van Diemen, Maria, 77n. 


Van Diemen's Land, 77n, 188. 

Van Neck, James, 185. 

Vandalio Hanse Towns, the, 117. 

Vandals, the, 115. 

Vandeputt, — , 25n. 

Vansittart, Mr. , 17. 

Tansittart, Henry, 34. 

Varnish, 76. 

Varthema, Ludovioo di, 145 — 155. 

Velvet, 40, 205. 

Venice, 68, 70, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 

122, 123, 124, ISO, 135, 141, 146, 155, 

156, 166, 169, 174, 184, 204, 205, 236, 

Verasheroon (Viravasaram), 215, 219, 

Vere, Aubrey de. Earl o( Oxford, 27. 
Vermeil, 41n. 
Vermillion, 39, 41n, 84. 
Vermillious (cloths), 37n. 
Vernon, James, 28, 271. 
Vernon, Thomas, 18n, 27, 271. 
Vernlam, Lord, 220n. 
Viadme (Oxus), the, 135. 
Vian, John, 2i4n. 
Viceroy, the title of, 229. 
Vienna, 118. 
Vijanagar, 107. 
Vijayadmg, 82. 
Villalobos, 172. 
Viragi, the Vaishnava, 207n. 
Viravasaram, 213, 219, 234. 
Virgines, Oabo de las, 172. 
Virginia, 76, 193, 202. 
Vitriol, 15, 27n. 
Vittoria, ship, 172, 173. 
Vittoria, Pascal of, 131. 
Vizagapatam, 226n, 251, 253; English 

factory at, 89, 222, 230, 234 ; records 
relating to, 89. 
Vizeapore, 236. 
Vtaardeng, ship, 44. 
Volga, the, 110, 117, 119, 132, 141, 195. 
Vyner, Sir Robert, 22, 25n. 

Wafers, introduction of, 224. 

Wall Tax Street, Madras, 86. 

Waller's reference to tea, 26. 

WaUis, Dr., 22. 

Walpole, ship, 53. 

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 200. 

Wandewash, battle of, 249, 250. 

War Office, 45n, 55. 

Ward, Sir James, 23. 

Warden, Andrew, 214n. 

Wardour, Sir Ed., 22. 

Warehouses, E. I. Co.'s, 13. 

Wares Cawne, 80. 

Warr, — , 18n, 286. 

Warsina, 193. 

Warwick, Earl of, 71n. 

Water-reoht of Wisby, the, 116. 

Wathng Island, 160n. 

Watson, Admiral, 57, 82. 

Watts, Sir John, 22. 

Wax, 148, 201. 

"Waymouth, George, 194, 277—280. 

Weddell, Oapt., 80. 
Wellington, Duke of, 94m. 
Weaterling Hanse Towns, the, 117. 
Westley, John, 72. 
Westminster, Treaty of, 218. 
Westmoreland, Earl of, 29«. 
Westphalia, Treaty of, 184. 
Weymouth, 264. 
Wheat, 110; prices at Delhi, 1763-1835, 

Wheeler, William, 29n. 
Whitaker, Henry, 68, 72. 
White, George, 18n, 19n. 
White Sea, the, 194, 277. 
Whitehall, letter dated, 32. 
Whitmore, Sir Geo., 22. 
Wickham, Richard, 26n, 52. 
Wilford, Nicholas, 77. 
Wilkes, Mr., Govemonr of St. Helena, 

" Wilks's Collection," 79. 
William III., 14n, 22, 23, 24, 27, 31n, 
50, 191, 258, 271, 272, 282, 286. 

William IV., 223n. 

William, ship, 62, 214n. 

Williamson, Sir Joseph, 23. 

Willoughby, Major, 218. 

Willoughby, Sir Francis, 22. 

Willoughby, Sir Hugh, 193, 277. 

Willoughby, Sir Thomas, 22. 

Wills, Mr., 97w. 

Wills, entries of, 44. 

Wines, 117. 

Winet, 116, 116. 

Winter, Sir Edward, 23, 221. 

Winter, Thomas, 26»i. 

Wire, iron, 76. 

Wisby, 116. 

Wiseman, John, 72. 

Wiseman, Sir Edmond, 23. 

Woad, Indian, 212. 

Wolstenholme, Sir John, 22. 

Wood, Capt. Benjamin, 198. 

Wood, Capt. John, 123. 

Wood-carving, 105. 

Wool, 27, 37n, 38n, 63, 117. 

Woollens, 37n, 46n, 60n, 205, 224n. 

WooUey, Thomas, 226n. 

Worcester, Marquess of, 22, 24. 

Wormseeds, 37n. 

Wormwood, 180. 

Wright, Edward, 206h. 

Wriothesley, Henry, Earl of South- 
ampton, 72. 

Writers, lists of, 28, 61; the Dutch 
E. I. Co.'s schrijver, or, 55n. 

Wyborne, Sir John, 227, 229. 

Wynad, 252. 

Wytfliet, Cornelius, 188. 

Xanadu, 123, 132. 
Xavier, St. Francis. 174. 
Xeythona, 140. 

Taik, the, 119. 
Yajuj and Majuj, 113. 


i'ale, Elihu, 86. 

Yale College, U.S., 86. 

Tale, — , 5. 

Yanaon, 242. 

Yarkand, 123. 

Yarn, 26, 35, 37n, 38n, 39, 40. 

Yelverton, Sir Henry, 72. 

Yembo, 136. 

Yemen, 110, 146. 

Yeaen, 135. 

Yezd, 131, 135, 142. 

York, Cape, 188. 

York Fort, see Fort York. 

York, James, Duke of, 25n, 84, 266, 

268, 285. 
York, ship, 43. 
Yule, Sir Henry, quoted, viii, 23n, 29n, 

41, 84, 105, 107, 110, 117, 121, 123, 

130, 131, 239n. 

Zabaj (Java), 108. 
Zamorin of Calicut, the, see Calicut. 
Zampa (Cochin China), 127, 132. 
Zanzibar, 128, 136, 137, 165, 167. 
Zayton (Chinoheu), 111, 112, 124, 126, 

131, 182, 133. 
Zeechino or sequin, the Venetian, 205n. 
Zedoarya, 141, 180, 202. 
Zeila, 147, 165, 170. 
Zeilon (Ceylon), 139, 151, 152, 203, 

Zerumbeth, 180. 
Zerzalino oil, 148, 152. 
Zida (Jiddah), 146. 
Zinc, oxide of, 27, 53, 148. 
Zinzan, Mr., 31, 229. 
Zirbad, 136, 137. 
Zofala, 178. 
Znffir Khan, 241. 

Page 26, note, line 5, for 18rf. read Sd. 

London: Printed by W. H, Alien & Co., Lim., 13 Waterloo Place. S.W.