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Full text of "Gazetteer of the province of Oudh ..."

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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




GIFT OF 



H. M. Secretary 
for India 



„„ ._ Cornell University Library 
PS 4 85.09A2 

Gazeneer of the province of Oudh ... / 




3 1924 024 153 987 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924024153987 



GAZETTEER 



OF THE 



PROVINCE OF OUDH. 



VOL. I.-A. TO Gr. 



d^uHiSlietS iv autj^oiitg. 




^>-'""""% 



'Oy. 



r,^ ■t<"tr, 

LUCKNOW: r"' 

PEINIED AT THE OUDH GOVEKKMENT PRESS, 



1877, 



>»^^ , 



INTRODUCTION.* 



CHAPTER I. 

The latest annexed of the kingdoms of India forms the centre 
of that vast plain which has been for centuries the peculiar 
site of Hindu civilization, and is distinguished by the name of 
Hindustan proper from those other parts of the Indian conti- 
nent where the colonization of the old Aryan conquerors has 
been less complete, and their religious and social system has 
less thoroughly eradicated or absorbed into itself the beliefs and 
languages of the aboriginal inhabitants. Stretching from the 
Ganges to the hills, and about equidistant from Delhi on the 
one side and the extreme east of Behar on the other, it divides 
this region into two nearly even parts ; and as the scene of the 
great national epic, the two greatest of the reforming movements 
which have agitated the national religion, and the earliest as well 
as the last of those Muhammadan governments, in its resistance 
to which the national spirit was most severely tried and gave the 
most convincing proofs of its wonderful vitality, it is second to 
no part of the continent in its command over the sympathies of 
the native, and the interest and difficulty of the problems which 
it presents to its European administrator or historian. Nowhere 
are the traditions of the past more ancient and more vividly 
felt, and nowhere is the civilization — rooted in a soil of unsur- 
passed fertility and grown up in a population of exceptional 
density — more fully developed and more homogeneous than in 
this the last case where Western statesmanship has been brought 
face to face with the requirements of an Eastern people. 

With a total area of 23,930 square miles, Oudh lies between 
the extreme latitudes of 25°84' and 29°6' north, and longitudes of 
79°45' and 83°11' east. Only where the Ganges marks its south- 
western frontier is one whole side separated by a natural boun- 
dary from neighbouring governments. Naipal marches with it 
all along the north, with a frontier for the first sixty miles to the 
east, running along the foot of the lowest range of the Himalayas, 
and from tJhat point advanced for some distance into the sub- 
Himalayan Tarai. To the east and the west it is enclosed by 
the older-acquired districts of the North- West Provinces — with 
Jaiinpur, Basti, and Azamgarh on one side, and Shahjahdnpur, 
Farukhabad, and Cawnpore on the other. 

* By Mr. W. C. Benett, C S., Assistaut Commissioner, 



" INTUODUCTIOif. 

A narrow strip of Government forest runs along tHe north, 
and the whole of the rest of the province is a fertile plain, with 
less than 1,500 square miles,^ or only about 6 percent, of the 
area, unfit for cultivation. The surface here and there is varied 
with almost imperceptible undulations, but there is nowhere 
any striking feature to break that level horizon, or any obstacle 
but the rivers to the straight lines of communication. The 
country has a gentle slope from the north-west, where the highest 
point of 600 feet is reached on the Khairigarh plateau, to the 
south-eastern frontier, which in one place falls as low as only 
230 feet above the sea level. This slope determines the course 
of the drainage, and is followed with more or less exactness by 
all the numerous streams. The principal of these — the Ganges, 
the Gumti, the Gogra, and the Rapti — have an aggregate dry- 
weather discharge of 18,800 cubic feet per second ; and it has 
been estimated that the entire river discharge, including the 
smaller streams, rather exceeds 20,000 cubic feet, or half the 
quantity in the five rivers of the Punjab. But this estimate is 
probably rather too low. All along the north the surface is being 
gradually raised by fl.uvial action. The mountain torrents which 
pour into the Chauka and the Rapti spread during the rains 
over the neighbouring plain, leaving a thick deposit of detritus' 
from the hills. These deposits are sometimes of pure sand, 
and at others of the richest clay ; but the general result every- 
where is a slow elevation of the land over which the drainage' 
has to pass, which in places has caused the formation of large 
unhealthy swamps at the foot of the hills. All the main rivers, 
with the exception of the Gumti, and many of the smallerstreams, 
have beds hardly sunk below the level of the surrounding country : 
swollen by the rains and melting of the snows where they take 
their rise, they burst through the insufficient restraint of a few 
feet of mud or sand, and carving out, now at one point and now 
at another, new courses, carry destruction to the villages on their 
banks. It is impossible to forecast the course these inroads will 
take, but following a well known law, their general direction 
is the north-west. Besides the great rivers, there are many 
streams of secondary importance, and the whole face of the country 
is seamed with innumerable small, channels, which carry off 
the surplus water of the rains and dry up before the commence- 
ment of the hot season. . - 

The drainage is ^further provided for by countless jhlls'or 
ponds, only two of which (Behti in Partabgarh and Sdndi' in 
Hardoi), with areas of fourteen and ten square miles, can- be 
dignified with the name of lakes. These jhils are usually merely 



INTRODUCTION, HI 

shallow depressions, caused, some of them, by the action of the 
rains on pre-existing inequalities of the soil, and some of them 
proved by their shape to be the remains of former river beds : and 
they are invaluable, not only as a preservative from floods; but 
still more so as reservoirs from which the neighbouring fields are 
irrigated for the spring harvest, and the cattle provided with water 
during the dry months. 

The average distance of water from the surface has been esti- 
mated in the reports on the Sarda Canal project at twenty-eight 
feet. But it varies greatly in different parts of the province. In 
the Tardi or sub-Himalayan tract it is rarely more than fifteen, 
and sometimes as little as four or five feet. South of the Gogra 
wells have to be sunk to a depth of from twenty-five to sixty feet 
before water is struck. The soil is naturally a rich alluvial deposit 
of light loam, stiffening in places into pure clay, and here and" 
there degenerating into barren sand. By far the greater part of 
the land returned as unculturable is made up of the wide lisar 
plains of the south and west, which are covered by a thick saline 
efflorescence known as reh, fatal to any growth except the hardiest 
grasses. So many contradictory theories have been advanced, 
and so little is known of the nature and causes of this agricultural 
curse, that the short preface to a Gazetteer is not the place for 
their consideration ; but it seems unquestionably to be a frequent 
result of over-cropping, and that a thicker population does more 
to increase than any known remedy to obviate it. Except minute 
particles of gold, which are washed down by the hill torrents in 
quantities too infinitesimal to repay their collection, valuable 
minerals are not known to exist. Salt was manufactured to a large 
extent during the native rule, and might be still, if it were not 
for the direct preventive action of Government. Nodules of car- 
bonate of lime, known as " kankar," are found in considerable 
deposits all over the province just below the surface, and afford 
an excellent material for hardening roads and the production of 
lime for building. 

The animals and birds of Oudh are those which are found 
all over the Gangetic plain, but several species formerly common 
have now disappeared before the advancing population. Not long 
ago wild elephants were caughiby the Rdjas of Tulsipur in the 
forests which skirt the north of Gonda, and Government officials 
allowed remissions of revenue for damage which they did in vil- 
lages far advanced into the plain. Now it may be occasionally 
reported that a solitary tusker has lost his way to the foot of the 
hills ; but such instances are rarely well substantiated, and the 
animal is practically unknown. Herds of wild buffaloes formerly 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

roamed in tlie forests of Kheri, but it is now many years since 
the last pair of horns fell to a European sportsman. Men- 
yet live who remember the time when tigers swarmed along 
the banks of the Rdpti, and the names of more than one village 
record the terror they inspired. Now they are very scarce 
indeed, even along the immediate foot of the hills, and only 
occur in any numbers in the jungles of Khairigarh. Leopards 
are more common, and are found in the eanebrakes and 
thickets along the banks of all the streams to as far south as the 
Gogra. They do little damage, except by occasionally killing 
small calves and pigs, and their extreme wariness and migratory 
habits make it very difficult for the sportsman to mark them 
down. Nilgde are found in herds all over the province, and' it 
is a frequent complaint that their numbers and the depredation* 
they commit on the crops have much increased since the villa- 
gers have been disarmed. Hindus generally, for there are some 
exceptions, class them with cows, and hold them sacred from 
harm; but the Muhammadans rejoiced in a slaughter which pro- 
tected their fields, gave them a wholesome change in their usual 
grain diet, and was an offensive assertion of their distinctive 
creed. Black buck are still common everywhere, and may be seen ] 
in great numbers on the lisar plains of the Ganges and the Gumti. 
Spotted deer are more shy, and they are probably disappearing 
with the tiger and the wild buffalo. During the cold weather the 
surface of the jhils is studded with innumerable flocks of teal and 
wild duck, while their reedy marges are the favourite haunt of 
snipe, but it is probable that this bird is less frequent here than 
in the rice-fields of Bengal. Jungle fowl breed in the Tardi for- 
ests, and peacock abound in every district. It is perhaps hardly 
correct to class cattle among the wild animals of the province, 
as there is no evidence of their ever having been indigenous in 
that condition ; but the herds of villages depopulated during the 
native rule still wander among the jungles at the edge of the 
cultivated land and defy capture or domestication. The chief 
enemies to human life are wolves and snakes, of which large num- 
bers are destroyed every year without apparently any sensible 
diminution in the mischief done by them. 

For domesticated animals, there is no lack of horses, cattle^ 
buffaloes, donkeys, pigs, sheep, goats, and fowls, and if there is 
no strain which even approaches average excellence, the dwarfed 
and ugly breeds of the country are at least hardy and prolific. 
Innumerable herds of diminutive cattle graze along the edge of 
the northern forest, and are driven into the highler plateaus for 
the hot months. They are cheap, and though insignificant in 



INTRODUCTION, V 

appearance and slow in progression, will do harder work with the 
plough, and drag heavier weights for a longer time than the magni- 
ficent produce of Gujarat and Hansi. The, indigenous breeds of 
ponies, of which there are a few, are of about the size of an ordi- 
nary English donkey, hideous to look at, and usually vicious in 
disposition, but, like the cattle, they are hardy, and will go long 
marches under heavy packs. Goats are bred for their milk and 
flesh, and sheep for their wool, matton being almost unknown as 
an article of food. 

The flora of the reserved Government forests is rich and 
varied, but nothing can be attempted here in the shape of an 
exhaustive description, and mention must be confined to those 
varieties of wood which are of principal utility or value. First 
among these is the sd.khu or sdl tree, whose timber is of the 
highest importance for every kind of building purpose. The 
finest logs are cut in the Khairigarh jungles, and, attached to 
boats in lots of six or eight together, floated down the Gogra to 
Bahramghat, where they are sawn by steam into planks or beams. 
The utmost attention of the forest ofiicers is engaged in pre- 
serving the hitherto inferior growths to the east of the line from 
the various causes which impair their excellence, — the reckless 
fires which are kindled in February or March to lay bare young 
shoots of grass for grazing, the incessant destruction of the 
smaller trees by cattle, and the deliberate thefts of the border- 
ing villagers. Of inferior but still considerable value are the 
shisham with its fine hard wood ; the dhau, which is prized for 
the manufacture of cart-pins and shafts ; and the tikni and asna, 
both of which afford material for furniture or the roofing of sheds. 
The khair or catechu acacia grows in great quantities, and the 
residuum obtained by cutting its wood into chips and boiling them 
down affords a valuable article of commerce and the means of 
subsistence to a peculiar caste. 

The most beautiful of the wild trees which are allowed to 
flourish among the villages and give Oudh scenery its special 
charm are the three great representatives of the fig tribe — the 
banian, the pipal, and the pdkar. Their massive trunks seamed 
with cauntless fissures, the wide spread of their branches, and a 
height often attaining 140 feet, give these magnificent domes a 
religious grandeur, and have gained for them the loving venera- 
tion of the people. Of the wild vegetable products by far the 
most important is the mahua. This grows in great quantities 
in the jungles all over the province, but it is only when the jun- 
gles are cleared that its full value is apparent. The flowers, 
which formerly dropped into a tangled brake of grass and 



VI INTRODUCTION. 



underwood, are then collected from the bare ground, and are either 
used in the manufacture of spirits or preserved as an article of 
food, unwholesome, it is true, and innutritious, but adequate to 
keep alive the' poorer classes during the bad months which pre- 
cede the cutting of the autumn harvest. The fruit when it 
ripens affords a useful oil, and the wood is the staple timber for 
roofing the villagers' huts. So serviceable is this tree that in 
many parts of the province, and especially where the soil is at 
all poor, the people prefer to let it stand rather than break up 
the land under its barren shade, and when the spring crops are 
scanty, its stored flowers are simply invaluable as a supplement 
to the food-supply. The produce of the plough is similarly aided 
by the abundant but poor and nauseous berries of the wild plum 
and makuiya, as wellas by the waternut known as singhdra, the 
roots and seeds of the lotus, and the wild rice which abounds in 
every jhil. 

The first place among cultivated trees is held by the mango, 
which is never found wild, and whose occasional presence in 
jungles is a certain proof that the neighbourhood was formerly 
under the plough. There is no village and hardly any respectable 
family which is without its plantation, and even members of 
the lower castes will think no effort thrown away to acquije a 
small patch of land on which to plant a few trees, which shall 
keep alive their memory or that of their dearest relations to^ 
whose names they dedicate them. A cultivator, who would 
quit his house and his fields with hardly a regret to commence 
life under better circumstances elsewhere, can hardly ever over- 
come the passionate affection which attaches him to his grove, and 
the landlord who gives up a small plot of barren land for this pur- 
pose to an industrious family is more than repaid in the hold 
which he thereby gains over his tenant. As much as a thousand' 
square miles is covered with these plantations, usually of one or 
two acres each, but sometimes, when the property of a wealthy 
zamindar, occupying a much larger area. The fruit, which in- 
the good seasons — that is, about every third year — is gathered in 
enormous quantities, is small, stringy, and to our taste too strongly- 
flavoured with turpentine, but it is very sweet and overflows with 
juice, and the people themselves prefer it to the large cultivated- 
varieties which find favour in our eyes. The tamarind is planted 
near or in the collections of huts which form the village sites, andi 
its masses of feathery foliage lend a charm to the scene and a. 
dense shade for rustic conferences, while the fruit is highly prized 
as an article of food and is a valuable property to the zamindar. 
The neighbourhood of houses of the better classes is marked by 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

graceful clumps of bamboo, wbose stems supply all the smaller 
wood for building, besides serving a thousand miscellaneous 
wants. Among the less important varieties of fruit are the be! 
(whose astringent but agreeable juice is a good preventive of 
dysentery), the plantain, the jack-fruit, the guava, and several 
kinds of limes and oranges. 

The climate is less damp than that of Bengal and has greater 
varieties of temperature, while it avoids at once the parching 
drought and the opposite extremes of heat and cold which are 
found in, the Punjab. Its three seasons — the rains, the cold, and 
the hot — are well marked off, the first commencing with fair uni- 
formity in the middle of June, while the second extends from 
early in October to the end of February, March only being a 
disputed month. The thermometer during the five years from 
1868 to 1872 never rose above 118° in the shade and 168° in the 
sun, and never fell below 39°. Extreme cold is not to be expect- 
ed in a country so near the tropics and so little raised above the 
sea- level, but neither is the heat excessive for long together nor 
often greater than what with the appliances of pankhas and 
grass tatties can be borne without great distress. It is most 
oppressive in the rainy season, when, even with the thermo- 
meter at a lower point, the air resists all means of artificial 
cooling, and the lungs have to inhale the damp suffocating 
atmosphere of a hothouse. As a rule, the heaviest downpours 
are in July and September, but they are exceedingly capricious, 
and the harvests have more to fear from badly-timed than from 
excessive or insufficient rains. Any deductions as to the food- 
supply from the total number of inches which fall within the 
year rest on irrelevant premises and are nearly certain to be mis- 
taken. Water is most wanted at the commencement of the 
rainy season to assist the sowings and strengthen the growth of 
the young plants. A break during the end of July and beginning 
of August will do no great harm, and will actually benefit some 
crops, such as the Indian-corn, so long as it is followed in time by 
a fall sufficient to save the rice from drying up and swell the 
forming grain. A constant succession of heavy showers and sun- 
shine at the beginning, of September doubles the weight of out- 
turn, and when the crops are cut, at the end of September and 
for a few days in October, light rain is urgently wanted for 
the ploughing and sowing of the second harvest. It is the 
failure of these latter rains which is most common and most to 
be dreaded, and it was such a failure, succeeding an insufficiency 
in the earlier months, which resulted in the partial famine of 
1874 With this proviso as to-their value the totals of rainfall 



VIU 



INTRODUCTION. 



Inches. 
24 
34 
22 
53 
23 
38 
60 
65 
40 
81 
43 
drying up of 



for the following years are given 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 
showing an average of nearly 40 inches. The drying up of the 
rains, which a powerful sun accomplishes with great rapidity, is 
followed by three of the most delicious months that any country in 
the world can show. During November, December, and January 
the climate falls little, if at all, short of actual perfection. The 
nights and mornings are cold and bracing, and though away from 
the ground the freezing-point is never reached ; large quantities 
of ice are collected in the shallow pans which are exposed for that 
purpose. The middle of the day is of a bright and temperate 
heat, which allows the sportsman, protected by a pith hat, to 
pursue his game on foot all day without danger and without 
distress, and the keen air of the evening permits the enjoyment 
of a blazing camp fire. The continual fine weather is ordinarily 
broken by a light rainfall at the end of December or beginning 
of Januaiy, which is of incalculable benefit to the young spring 
crops, and if succeeded by another moderate shower just before 
they ripen, secures a plentiful harvest. In February the heat 
begins to increase, and violent winds blow from the west, carrying 
clouds of scorching dust. It is towards the end of this month, 
when the hopes of the agriculturist are close on fulfilment, and 
the mango trees are covered with flower, that hail occasionally 
falls, cutting off the stalks of wheat and barley close to the ground 
and destroying every germ of fruit. This curse, however, if 
terrible in its ravages, is usually confined in its sweep, and rarely ,■, 
does more than carve a well-defi.ned path for no very considerable 
distance. 

In March the crops are cut, and with the baring of the 
ground the hot weather sets in. The prevailing wind south of 
the Gogra is then from the west. The atmosphere is lurid 
with heat and thickly laden with fine grains of dust swept up 
from the parched plain. The torrid desolation which reigns 
without enhances the contrast afforded by the comparative cool- 
ness which screens of scented grass filling every doorway and 



INTRODUCTION. • IX 

assiduously moistened secure for the interior of the house. 
Even in the evening, when the winds subside, the dust remains 
suspended in the air, and it is only in the early morning before 
the sun has risen that out-door exercise is moderately enjoy- 
able. To the north of the Gogra during the same period 
the wind is from the east, the dust very much less trying, 
and the heat, both in the morning and the evening, far more 
moderate ; but a west wind is indispensable for the luxury of 
tatties, which is there almost unknown. For rather more than 
a month before the rains the whole country is exposed to occa- 
sional dust-storms. Huge columns of dust, discernible for miles, 
sweep across the land, and their density is often sufficient to 
create a darkness like night. When they have passed they are 
usually followed by light showers, and a temporary fall of 
temperature which aflfbrds intense relief after the burning heat. 

In a climate where all violent extremes are avoided, 
and where a rainfall neither insufficient nor excessive assists 
the natural fertility of an alluvial soil, a considerable variety 
of artificial crops is naturally raised. There are three princi- 
pal harvests — the kharif, which is sown at the commencement 
of the rains and cut in September ; the henwat or Aghani, 
cut in December ; and the rabi in March ; besides miscel- 
la,neous crops which come to perfection, the sugarcane in 
February, cotton in May, tobacco and mustard-seed in January, 
and sanwan in almost any month of the year. The principal 
kharif staples are rice, Indian-corn, and the millets, and the 
choice of crop is determined by the lay and character of the soil, 
nice grows best in low stiff land, where the water accumulates 
first and is most slowly absorbed, maize on a light soil raised 
slightly above the floods. The yield of the first is sometimes as 
much as twenty maunds per big ha or 2,600fts. per acre, but 
three-fifths of that is considered a fair outturn ; the latter will 
occasionally yield four cobs to the stalk, but it is seldom that 
more than three are fertile, and the agriculturist is contented 
with two good heads. The yield is heavier than that of rice, 
3,300tt)S. per acre being an outside and 2,000ft)S. a fair average 
crop per acre. The smaller millets are less productive, grow on 
inferior soils, and exact less trouble in cultivation. Among the 
inferior crops wich are cut during the rains are mendwa, kdkun, 
and kodo, diminutive grains which form the principal diet of the 
very poor. The finer kinds of rice, which, instead of being 
sown and reaped on the same land, are transplanted in August 
from nurseries near the village site, do not ripen till the end of 
November, and form the most valuable item of the henwat crop 

2 



INTRODUCTION. 



The average yield is at least 20 per cent, greater than that of th^e 
early autuinn varieties, and the grain is smalleir, better flavoured, 
and commands a rather higher price. The taste of the native 
differs diametrically frona that of the English m^arket, and the 
consideration in which the different kinds of rice are held varies 
inversely with their size, The only other hen wat crops which 
deniap,d notice are the Idhi, a rnustard, from whose seed oil is ex- 
traqtedwith a yield of about 700tt)S. per acre, and valuable on 
account, of the high price it commands, and two small species of 
pulse, the mling and mdsh, which are dried/ split, and eaten with 
rice. Sugar, which shares with rice, whep-t, and oilseeds the fi?rst' 
pl9.ce among Oudh products, occupies the land the whole year^ 
bejing laid dpwn in March, and not cut till the following February, 
It requires much labour and several waterings, but the profits in 
ordinary years ajmply repay the outlay^ and the produce of a single 
acre will often be sold or more than Es. 100. The- stalks- are 
chopped into short lengths, and the juice expressed in a rough 
wooden mill by a heavy pole turned ;by oxen. The sugar is then 
separated frojn the watery elements by evaporation, and the result 
is the, coarse . gur, which is formed into cakes like balls of clay, 
and in that shape taken to the market. The dry refuse of the 
stalks is stored to feed the cattle during the hot months. The 
spring crops, whose cutting commences in the middle of March, 
about a month after the sugar is off the ground, are sown in Octo- 
ber, immediately after the conclusion of the heavy rains. A few 
inferior crops may be gathered in before, but it is not till the- 
fires of the Hpli are out that the sickle is laid to the wheat. 
This is of two principal varieties, the bearded and the bald, and an 
average good crop will yield ten maunds to the bigha, or l;300H>s. 
to, the, acre,, while it occasionally and in exceptionally favoured- 
loqalitieswill reaph an extreme limit of nearly twice that amount. 
In appraising these averages it should be borne in mind that 
they are for ordinary good crops on fair land without exceptional 
advantages, and without, on the other hand, any fatal drawbacks. 
For, estimating, the food-supply of the province from the total 
area under cultivation, or as a basis from which to deduce rents, 
they would be exceedingly misleading, and it is not too much 
to say that any estimate of the kind. is worse than useless. 
In a purely, agricultural province like Oudh, where the almost- 
complete absence of raip, for eight months in the year allows^ 
no growth of natiiral grassps, _ very much land is brought under • 
the plough which in countries otherwise situated i would ; b©' 
reserved for pasture. The, methods ;of cultivation vary immeu'- 
sely .for, the same crop, and only lands where a harvest may b&^ 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

expected with some certainty are prepared with the assiduous 
care which wheat cultivation demands. If the rains are un- 
usually favourable large areas will be sown broiadfcast 6h nearly 
unprepared soil, with the anticipation of only a v6ry small 
outturn. Large areas, already exhausted by a rice crop, will 
be sown with a similar expectation, and though sOme "tolerably 
correct estimate can be made of the extent of land under the 
two crops, the inferior soils and the careless cultiviattidn adinit 
neither of being classified nor estimated with any approadh to 
accuracy, and for this reason it is quite hopeless to endeavour 
to guess the total produce of any one district or to deduce frdin 
it the average outturn per acre. 

The variety of other spring crops is almost infinite. It is 
then that the principal oilseeds — the mustard, the flax, the til, and 
the castor-oil — are gathered in. The gram, whose young leaves 
are plucked iand prepared like spinach, while its seed afibrdB the 
best food for horses, and when split and parched the favourite 
refreshment to wayfarers who have no means of cooking a meal, 
is harvested soon after the wheat. Another small pulse, the 
masur, and pease ripen rather earlier, and with barley are the 
earliest crops to be garnered. When everything else but cotton 
is off the ground, arhar, a tall bush loaded with pods which 
contain a seed used as dal, is cut, and with it the agricultural 
year of labour is at an end for the majority of cultivators, who 
take a short rest before beginning the ploughings for next year's 
rice and wheat. This plant not only yields a very heavy crop of 
valuable seed, reaching iiot uncommonly on a well manured ^dil 
3,500tt)S. per acre, but its stalks are of the greatest service in 
forming a framework for thatches. Large quantities are sown 
sparsely in fields whose main produce consists of crops which 
ripen and are cut at an earlier season, such as kodo, Indian-corn, 
and mdsh, and the outturn in such cases is of course but small. 
The great drawback to its cultivation is its excessive sensitive- 
ness, and a very slight frost will wither every tree for miles. 

Round most of the village sites there occXir patches of garden 
cultivation, where the "murdos" and the "kachhis," the most 
laborious and skilful of husbandmen, raise on a soil highly 
manured and highly irrigated small but valuable crops of opium, 
spices, vegetables, and tobacco. The principal spices are aniseed, 
coriander, cumin, and red pepper, while among the vegetables 
may be numbered potatoes, carrots, onions, garlic, egg-plant, 
and ghuiydn. Cabbages and cauliflowers have recently been 
introduced ; they are very popular and occasionally cultivated with 
great success. In the hot months cucumbers and countless 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

varieties of gourd grow almost wild from the refuse heaps, or 
wreathe the low-thatched cottages, and along the sandy banks of 
rivers sweet melons and water-melons yield not very excellent 
fruit in profuse abundance. 

This concludes a rapid survey of the natural features, the 
climate, and the products of a province which is dependent for its 
wealth solely on its fertile soil, its moderate rainfall, and its 
generous sun. Without any of the precious metals, without coal 
or iron or valuable quarries, it has nothing to stimulate the manu- 
factures which in other countries support a crowded population, 
but relies solely on its teeming harvests and the copious natural 
products which supplement the food-supply derived from cultiva- 
tion. On these it lives, and these only does it export to procure 
the money drawn by taxes, the greater part of which is spent 
beyond its own limits. A succession of bad years necessarily 
entails suffering and starvation to the people, and threatens the 
Government with financial disaster. 

The scenery is, as might be expected, entirely devoid of any 
features of boldness or grandeur : everywhere there are four ele- 
ments, and four only, to the picture. The sky, covered in the 
rains with masses of magnificent clouds, in the cold weather a 
level sheet of uninterrupted blue, and later on brazen and lurid 
with heat; the lakes, whose still surface reflects the colour above; 
the groves and the brilliant expanse of crops. If there is rarely 
any beauty of form beyond what grace is lent to small scenes by 
the grouping of trees and water, the colour at least, when the 
ripening harvests are seen in an atmosphere whose transparent 
clearness is saved from glare by a soft and almost imperceptible 
haze, is beyond all description lovely, and the never-absent abun- 
dance of the richest foliage gives a sufficient variety to every 
landscape. 



CHAPTER U. 



The extraordinary fertility of the soil, and a climate which re- 
duces to a minimum the necessity of artificial subventions to 
human life, have called into existence a population of extreme 
density, and directed its energies almost exclusively to agricultural 
pursuits. The explored world not only shows no other equal area 
so thickly peopled, but nowhere also in at all comparable cases is 
there such an entire absence of large cities and of the arts and 
manufactures which contribute to the support of mankind. Oudh 
with its 23,930 square miles has 11,17'4,287 inhabitants, or an 
average over the whole area of 476 to the square mile. Belgium, 
the most populous country in Europe, and England, whose teem- 
ing multitudes spread all. over the world in search of a living 
which they cannot find in the narrow limits of their own not 
unfertile home, have averages of 400 and 344 souls to the square 
mile, and these figures are swollen by the populations of crowded 
centres of trade and industry where the principal means of sub- 
sistence are procured from abroad. In the whole of Oudh ther« 
is, with the exceptions of Lucknow and Fyzabad, no town of even 
moderate size, and not only are far denser crowds provided with 
food entirely from the soil on which they live, but they are com- 
pelled to export food elsewhere to procure the other necessaries 
of life. 

Of the eighteen towns in the province with a population of 
over 10,000, one only, Tanda, owed its prosperity to manufactures, 
a prosperity which was called into existence less than a hundred 
years ago by the enterprise of a Scotch immigrant, and of which 
now it may be said that hardly a trace has survived the competi- 
tion of machine-made fabrics with the excellent but more expen- 
sive cotton cloths of its industrious artizans. Of the remainder, 
Bahraich, Shahabad, Khairabad, Sandlla, Eudauli, Bilgrdm, 
Jais, Sandi, and Zaidpur were originally military colonies of the 
Muhammadans, and share the decay of the power of their [found- 
ers ; Balrdmpur, Gonda, Laharpur, Purwa, and Mallanwan were 
centres where small numbers of grain and money dealers collected 
under the protecting fort of a Hindu chieftain, while Fyzabad 
and Lucknow sprang up round the court which selected them 
successively for its residence. 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

The village in Oudh is not a single collection of houses, but 
a small arbitrary revenue subdivision, corresponding more nearer 
■with the parish than with any other institution in England. Th& 
number of hamlets in any particular village varies with its area 
and the convenience its lands offer for building from only one to 
sometimes as many as fifty ; and by far the greater majority of the 
second rank of towns which the Oudh census, taking as was ua 
avoidable the revenue divisions for its framework, recorded as 
having populations of from 2,000 to 10,000 souls will be found 
on examination to be really many separate groups of houses scat- 
tered over units of property of more than the average size. With 
the exception of the few small local marts, where the rural popu- 
lation of the neighbourhood collects on stated days of the week 
for the petty household barter, the congregations of human beings 
living on contiguous sites are generally minute indeed. Extremis 
accuracy in a case where old sites are constantly being deserted 
and again occupied is hardly attainable, but the census must be 
substantially true when it gives the number of separate hamlets 
at over 77,000, and the average aggregate of inhabitants to each 
at only 150. The people are nowhere drawn together by the 
more complex wants of the civilization with which we are familiar. 
Their simple huts can be run up in a few weeks on any spot 
which is sufficiently elevated above the rain-floods, and their 
almost only object is to be as near as possible to the fields they 
cultivate. A new settler, especially if he be of high caste and 
tent a considerable tenement, will generally prefer to build a 
detached house close to his own fields. In the course of time his 
children and grandchildren will relieve the overcrowded house 
by adding houses of their own, and these, with the hovels of the 
low caste attendants, the chamar and the slave ploughman, will 
form a hamlet which, if of sufficient size, may eventually attract 
a blacksmith, a carpenter, a washerman, or a barber. 

Small centres of trade where all the wants of the rural com- 
munity are provided for occur everywhere at distances of only a 
few miles apart. They consist usually of a few mud huts along 
the sides of a road, with perhaps one or two buildings, whose 
upper storey and roof of tiles mark them out as the residences of 
the leading grain-dealers and money-lenders, professions which 
are commonly combined. Besides these there is the brazier, who 
supplies the brass pots for eating and drinking, which constitute 
almost the whole household furniture of the bulk of the people, 
a few clothiers with scanty stocks of low-priced cotton goods or 
coarse woollen blankets, a sweetmeat-shop, and one or more sheds 
under which a grain-parcher prepares oyer his fire of dead leaves 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

the dried pulse or Indian-corn which the religious ordinances 
against eating bread away from the hearth on which it is cooked 
leaves as the sole refreshment for the wayfarer. On the days, 
generally two in the week, on which bazar is held ;the shade 
under the trees lining the roadside is occupied by the temporary 
stalls, where pedlars and grocers display on grass mats spread over 
the ground their strings of glass beads, brightly coloured bracelets 
of lac or glass, tobacco (dried for chewing, or mixed up into a 
paste with sugar for smoking), and a meagre assortment of the 
commoner kinds of spices and vegetables. 

What the bazars are for trade the chaupals or village 
squares are to the political life of the people. In all the larger 
villages, as a rule, in front of the house of the leading resident 
zemindar, may be found open spaces where the inhabitants 
collect after the labours of the day, under the shade of spreading 
tamarinds or banians, to discuss the local news, the last action of 
the magistrate, the rent demanded by the landlord, rumours of 
new taxes or the intentions of a distant government, the price 
of grain, the weather, the harvest, the health of the neighbour- 
hood. It is there that the collective conduct of the little society, 
whether to resist or yield to fresh demands, is determined on, and 
the judgment of tribunals of their caste-fellows is pronounced on 
offenders against the caste rules which guide every action in 
life. 

In their dwellings, as in their clothes and food, the wants 
of the people are' of the very simplest description. Of a total of 
2,610,000 houses, which shelter families of on an average about 
four persons each, only 19,400 are of brick, and the majority of 
these have been erected in the days of their prosperity by the 
Muhammadan settlers, whose ideas of comfort and luxury are in 
every way more advanced than those of the old Hindu inhabitants. 
These brick houses are sometimes very substantial and well built, 
with one or two upper storeys, surrounding a small square en- 
closure, into which the dwelling-rooms open through verandahs 
supported by massive and elaborately carved pillars of salwood. 
But such are now extremely rare. The ordinary residence of the 
wealthiest Hindu chief was very different. A large area was 
planted with dense masses of bamboo and prickly shrubs, through 
wliich narrow winding paths led to an open centre, surrounded on 
all>ides by a moat. On this the family of the chief himself, his 
soldiers, his servants, and a few artizans in iron and wood tenanted 
a cluster of mud cottages in which the best was hardly-to be dis- 
tinguished from the worst. The example of the late Muhamma- 
dan government has encouraged building, and the peace of our 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

own made the old fort an anachronism ; but though rich Hindus 
may occasionally indulge in a more ambitious architecture, they 
still as a body prefer the walls of fresh mud, cooled in the hot 
weather by a constant evaporation, which sheltered their fore- 
fathers from the sun, and the gaudy and ill-contrived mansion, 
which has been constructed for the admiration of visitors, is sup- 
plied with out-houses of the older fashion where the owner can 
consult his own tastes in life. 

The houses of the small zemindars and richer inhabitants 
of the village are almost always of mud, and consist of two or 
three courtyards, surrounded with dark rooms, unlighted except 
by the doorway, and with a broad thatched verandah running 
along the wall in which the principal entrance is made. In this 
verandah carts are kept, cattle stalled, and sojourning friends or 
faqirs entertained. The inner courts are occupied by the women, 
and contain the hearths round which the undivided family col- 
lects naked to the waist for their meals. Hollow pillars of mud 
and wattle support the roof, which is commonly of thatch, and 
preserve the store of grain. The poorer cultivators are fortunate 
if they can take in one small yard, and build against the south 
wall of the low enclosure one or more diminutive sleeping-rooms ; 
the majority have to be contented with tiny hovels of mud, or 
sometimes merely screens of twigs and leaves. 

By the census only 6,542,870 (or 58 per cent, of the whole 
population) is returned as agricultural, but this is an obvious 
under-statement, and due to the fact that nearly all the castes 
with special occupations supplement their trade by the tillage of 
a few fields. The 232,000 persons who are returned as engaged 
in the ennobling duty of defending their country will, as a rule, 
be found to be members of cultivating families who are employed 
by the landlords in realizing rents from their own class ; the 
407,000 manufacturers of textile fabrics and dress are probably 
so only in virtue of the name of their caste : in reality they are 
either mere serfs or day-labourers engaged on the soil, and at the 
most eke out a livelihood depending mainly on that source by the 
sale of coarse cottons woven by themselves or their women in 
their spare hours and when the ground has rest. And similar 
criticism is applicable to most of the other elaborate divisions 
made by the report. Ninety-two per cent, of the population is 
rural as opposed to urban, and a conjecture which makes 72 per 
cent, of the whole employed in agriculture has probable grounds 
and can hardly err on the side of exaggeration. The majority of 
the million and a half of labourers should certainly be reckoned 
as agriculturists. 



INTRODUCTION. XVU 

There are in fact hardly any other productive occupations. 
The wants of the village societies are provided for by the exis- 
tence usually of at least one family in each society of the 
castes of blacksmiths, carpenters, and leather-dressers. These 
build and repair their carts and ploughs and make them shoes. 
Cloth and brass vessels, as has been seen, come from the bazars^ 
and their price is settled by ordinary trade competition. This 
is not the case with the labour of the village artizans, which, 
like rent, is determined by custom, and is even now almost every- 
where remunerated by a fixed share of the village produce. They 
are really integral parts of that complete political system which 
has for its basis the grain heap on the threshing-floor at the end 
of the harvest, and take their place more correctly with the rdja, 
the village proprietors, and the tillers of the soil than with the 
trading classes. Before annexation large numbers of the lower 
castes were employed in weaving cotton and distilling spirits 
from sugar or mahua flower, and their looms and stills paid an 
annual duty to the raja within whose territories they were worked. 
Both occupations are still in existence, but the first has received 
a fatal blow from the competition of Manchester, and the second 
has been formulated by the excise system, which converts the 
independent distiller into a paid Government servant. The salt 
industry has been completely annihilated. 

The finer products of the Lucknow workmen prove to what 
a degree of artistic excellence the inhabitants of the province 
might attain if the development of their energies were not ham- 
pered by want of capital, want of markets, and the old restric- 
tions which make it so difficult for any one to join or succeed in 
any occupation which was not that of his father before him. The 
silver engraved work, the gold and silver lace, and the embroide- 
ries in gold, silver, or silk thread on velvet and cashmir would , 
compete both for beauty and cheapness with similar manufactures 
in any part of the world ; but the number of workmen engaged 
and the gross annual value of the trades are too small to elevate 
them to even a provincial importance. 

The external trade of the province takes two main lines- 
one by the river route of the Gogra to Lower Bengal, the other 
through Lucknow and Cawnpore ; and there are besides inconsi- 
derable transactions in cotton and salt, hill ponies, spices, and 
gums with Naipal. The Government returns for the last eight 
years (1867 — 1874 inclusive) show an excess of more than three 
millions in imports over exports, the totals being £13,966,000 for 
the first. aaainst £10,865,000 for the second. T\xe highest point 
both in exports and imports was reached m 1869, when the former 

3 



XVUl INTRODUCTION. 

attained a value of £2,826,621, and exceeded the latter by nearly 
£300,000, the single instance in which the balance of trade in 
commodities has been in favour of the province. The main arti- 
cles of import are cotton (raw or in thread), salt, and English 
piece-goods, with average annual values of £340,000, £400,000, 
and £400,000 respectively : and these, the main wants which the 
province cannot supply from its own resources, are nearly paid 
for by the export of its agricultural produce, which, in the prin- 
cipal items of edible grains, sugar, and oilseeds, aggregates on an 
average over a million sterling per annum. But the uncertainty 
of registration and the difficulty of appraising the commodities 
at their real value make these returns liable to great suspicion. 

The foundation and framework of the social system i& here 
and elsewhere in India, caste; but the divisions vary in num- 
ber and in relative importance all over the continent, and no 
sketch of a province would be complete without, at any rate, a 
short description of the principal groups among which its inhabi- 
tants are distributed. Outside the Hindu polity, but assuming 
in its relations with it the attitude of a distinct caste, are the 
Muhammadans, who are far less numerous here than in any 
other part of Upper India, forming only a tenth of the popula- 
tion. They again are subdivided into a number of subordinate 
classes, under the four great heads of Sayyads, Shekhs, Pathdns, 
and Mugals ; but though the grand doctrme of the equality of 
all men before God taught by their prophet has become vitiated 
by long contact with and antagonism to a foreign religion, it 
still retains almost the whole of its real vitality. Their lower 
castes are generally trade-unions, and though they tend to make 
trade hereditary, they place no insurmountable obstacle in the 
way of any one of their members who wishes to leave the occu- 
pation of his father for another. Caste prejudices are to be found 
strongest as the social scale is descended among classes converted 
from and living in daily conversation with Hindus. The ancient 
ingrained view of humanity is not wholly eradicated, but free- , 
dom from it is a sign of respectability, and the more a Muham- 
madan prospers, the more enlightened is the contempt which he 
at least professes for other distinctions than those of merit. The 
upper orders hardly regard caste in anything, and certainly not 
in the all-important subjects of marriage and eating in common. 
It is this which constitutes the real strength of the faith and 
not only preserves it from absorption, but enables it to win daily 
converts from Brahminism. Men who are profoundly indifferent 
to the names and numbers of the deities they are asked to worsM-p 
are never so wholly dead to the higher instincts of hum'Bnity as 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

to be able to bear with complacency the loathing and aversion 
of their fellow-men, or to acquiesce in an inferiority which was 
derived solely from the accident of birth, and which no merit 
and no achievement can exalt. The mere abstract truths of reli- 
gion might be preached for centuries to deaf ears, but it is a fact 
which cannot fail to be recognized, and in its recognition to bear 
practical fruit, that the Kori or the Chamar must always submit 
to scorn and outrage from the other ranks of his co-religionists, 
that his every aspiration will be contemptuously repressed, and 
that if by something little short of a miracle he attains some 
slight success in life, his advancement will only add anger to the 
feelings with which he was previously regarded : whereas he has 
only to change the symbols of his faith in order to be admitted to 
a community which has no outcasts, to become, however poor, a 
fellow-man, and to be enabled to indulge in the ambition of rising 
to the highest positions open to his countrymen, where his ex- 
traction will be forgiven, and his family after two or three gene- 
rations be enrolled in the ranks and bear the sounding names of 
nobility. The small groups of Muhammadan cultivators form 
scattered centres of revolt against the degrading oppression to 
which their religion hopelessly consigns the lower castes of Hindus. 
In joining them they not only acquire freedom, but find a society 
in which they can marry and give in marriage, and satisfy the 
gregarious instincts of man. It is this which gives Muhammadism 
its decisive superiority over Christianity, The latter has no 
centres of life among the people, and conversion to it entails an 
isolation which is intolerable, and worse than the worst social 
tyranny. It is worth while to add that this motive has freer 
play, and that conversions are likely to be far more frequent when 
the two religions are living peaceably side by side under a govern- 
ment which protects both and represses both impartially, than in 
the days when Hinduism borrowed coherence from a constant 
acting struggle with its rival. 

In the hio-her ranks the Muhammadans number 7S taluq- 
dars, some of whom, as the Rajas of Utraula and Nanpara, are 
descended from old local chieftains, who had long ago conquered 
for themselves places in the Hindu hierarchy, and differed in little 
but their religion from their Hindu compeers. Many more, and 
at the head of all the great chieftains of Hasanpur Bandhua, 
■were of ancient ruling Hindu families, who adopted the faith of 
Muhammad in the days when that faith conferred influence at 
the powerful court of Agra, and some few owe their estates to 
office or favour with the late Lucknow kings. The old colonies- 
such as those of Bilgram, Kdkori, Malihabad, and Rudauli— 



XX INTEODUCTION. 

sent out a number of men distinguished in science, administration, 
and war, and though the light of Eastern learning has paled, and 
the sword rarely finds opportunities of winning fame, they still 
provide the English Government of North India with numbers of 
its ablest servants, and contribute one of the most important of 
its elements to the only learned profession — the bar. As culti- 
vators the Muhammadans are scattered all over the country, and 
vie with the Kurmi and the Murio in industry and the sue ■ 
cessful tillage of the finer crops, such as sugar and opium : as 
weavers they share with the lower Hindu caste, from whom their 
artizans are mostly derived, the monopoly of the manufacture of 
cotton cloths. 

The comparatively small numbers of the Muhammadans are 
a far less significant proof of the importance of Oudh as a centre 
of Hinduism than the enormous numerical predominance of 
Brahmans. The sacred class counts no less than 1,400,000 souls 
(or about one-eighth of the whole), and between a fifth and a 
sixth of the Hindu population, and every one of them is invested 
with a reverence which no extreme of abject poverty, no infamy 
of private conduct, can impair, and which is beyond anything 
which a mind not immediately conversant with the facts can con- 
ceive. They are invariably addressed with the titles of divinity 
or highest earthly honour. The oldest and highest of the mem- 
bers of other castes implore the blessing of the youngest and 
poorest of theirs ; they are the chosen recipients of all charity, 
and are allowed a license in their private relations with the in- 
ferior castes which would be resented as a deadly injury in any 
but themselves. In return for this position of unparalleled su- 
premacy they renounce actual empire, of which they admit the 
Chhattris to be the proper repositories, and number only six 
among the taluqdars of the province. The most important of 
these— the late Mahdraja Man Singh and Raja Krishn Datt Rdm 
of Gonda— acquired their estates, not as ancient chieftains, but in 
the later days of Muhammadan rule, the one as a Government 
official of exceptional ability, the other as a large capitalist, whose 
wealth and influence made him indispensable ahke to the revenue 
collector and the villager. 

The main duties of the Brahman are, not the service of 
particular deities, for that is usually left to the religious orders 
which are above caste, but the direotion of the family life of the 
people down to the smallest acts-— from the solemnization of mar- 
riage and performance of funeral rites to the selection of a 
favourable day for starting on a journey or cutting the ripened 
porn. No ceremony, no feast, is perfect unless conducted under 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

their auspices and commencing with their entertainment. The 
last sciences which svirvive are those bearing on the daily life of 
a people, and in the decay of Hindu learning it is the Brahman 
only who studies the old languages of the country to make him- 
self conversant with ceremonial and astrology. Their great 
numbers have far exceeded the wants of their votaries or the 
limits of the widest charity, and we find them employed in 
almost every pursuit, without, however, any loss to their inherent 
sanctity. As cultivators they abound, but are undesirable, not 
only because they are lazy and careless — and one of their two 
great divisions declines to touch the plough, and relies on a 
wasteful slave labour — but still more from the impossibility of get- 
ting a full rent from them, and the difficulty of making them 
pay any rent at all. They are good soldiers, and the generic 
term of " Pdnde," which was applied to the men of our sepoy 
army, is derived from one of their subdivisions, Avhile the in- 
fluence they exercise over the people makes them invaluable in 
the manao-ement of estates and the realization of rents. They 
encroach largely on the proper employment of the third or 
Vaisya caste, and supply a great number of the village money- 
lenders, and when no other pursuit is_ open to them, they will 
work with the spade on roads and railways. Menial service with 
men of their own religion they will not submit to, nor would it 
be accepted from them. 

Next in importance to them are the Chhattris, formerly 
the rulers of the whole, now the landowners of the greater part, 
of the province. Their position in this light will be seen more 
clearly in the next chapter. It is enough to say here that, as the 
professed soldiers, they supplied notonlv the whole body of chief- 
tains, but the greater number of the intermediate class between 
the chief and the cultivator, who held particular villages on the 
condition of rendering feudal service._ They now, therefore, con- 
stitute the main element of what is known as the zamindar 
class (the word zamindar has many meanings) and hold more 
independent villages, more subordinate rights in the soil, than 
any other class in the province. The sword was the weapon 
of their trade and their principal means of subsistence. Now 
that it is no longer in request, they are driven back in over- 
crowded numbers on land too narrow for their support, and are 
compelled to submit to a poverty which offers no prospect of 
alleviation. Tall, brave, handsome, and generous, they are hardly 
excelled by any yeomanry in the world, and they are as much 
elevated above the lower classes by their traditions^and pride of 
birth as they are above the Brahmans by the absence in their case 



XXU INTRODUCTION. 



of an excess of veneration to lift them beyond tlie control of public 
opinion. In spite of their predominance in the proprietorship 
of the land, they are not relatively very numerous, and form 
about a twentieth part of the whole population. There are 
numerous subdivisions. None of them belong to the very highest 
rank of Hindu aristocracy, and in point of dignity they stand 
half-way between the great princely families of the west, who 
have their headquarters at Jaipur or Udaipur, at Mainpuri or 
Bhadawar, and the less pure Chhattris of Behar and Ben- 
gal. 

The Muhammadans, the Brahmans, and the Chhattris ac- 
count for about a quarter of the whole population in Avhich they 
are the predominant classes. The remainder consists of the 
lower Hindu castes, and'those whose religious pretensions raise 
them above, or whose misfortune of birth abases them below, 
the whole system. The first of these supplies more than a half, 
and the last a little more than a fifth, of the people. The strictly 
religious orders, though of the highest political importance, are 
inconsiderable in point of numbers. 

The lower classes of Hindus are distributed into two classes 
recognized by the sacred books, the Vaisyas and Sudras, and to 
these must be added a third, of more recent origin and doubtful 
position, the Kayaths. The Kayaths and Vaisyas, or the writing 
and trading classes, properly number hardly a million, of which 
nearly 700,000 belong to the former. 

The Sudras — admitted Hindus, but not allowed to wear 
the sacred thread — are distinguished from the lowest classes of all 
by the fact that their brass vessels are considered pure, and a 
Brahman or Chhattri will take water drawn in their lotas, while 
he would reject it with loathing if it had come into contact with 
the cup of a Chamar or a Kori. The most numerous among these 
castes are the Ahlrs, whose proper duty is to tend the cattle of 
the community, but who are found as cultivators in every dis- 
trict. With a total of 1,160,000 souls, they slightly exceed the 
Chamars, and are a little below the Muhammadans, while they 
leave the numerical supremacy of the Brahmans unchalleng- 
ed. 

The best tenantry, the most industrious and successful 
cultivators, and the most peaceful and estimable members of 
society are furnished by the two classes of Kurmis and Murdos 
■whose virtues are known all over Northern India, and who num- 
ber in Oudh rather more than a million souls. They are the 
backbone of the wealth of the province ; and, though they will pay 
very high rents, the value in whi<^ they are held will deter a 



IKTRODtJCTION. ' XX 111 

landlord from driving them off his estate by excessive extortion, 
and they are usually to be found in what is, for their position 
and unambitious wants, a state of comparative affluence. Though 
war is not their trade, they are not destitute of spirit, and are 
capable of being converted into good soldiers. 

The other numerous subdivisions, of which the remaining 
three millions of pure Hindus are made up, it is unnecessary to 
deal with in detail. If the Supreme Being made the Kahar with 
the distinct purpose of catching fish and carrying his betters on his 
shoulders ; the Gareria to tend sheep ; the Barhai, the Lobar, the 
Kumhar to work in wood, iron, and clay ; the Teli for oil, and the 
Luniya for salt ; the Halwai to make sweetmeats for the Hindu, 
and the Nao to shave his beard, those purposes have been very 
largely lost sight of, for, though each caste retains the monopoly 
of the labour which was its proper destiny, it also very largely 
supplements that means of subsistence by tilling the soil. 

Of the lowest stratum of the whole society many of the 
divisions are certainly, and all probably, derived from the old 
aboriginal stocks who lived in the country before the Aryan 
colonization. Some of them, such as the Pasis, who number 
nearly 700,000, command a certain amount of consideration, 
were valued formerly as soldiers, and still furnish the greater 
part of the rural police. Others, and particularly the Bhars and 
the Tharus, cling in small self-sufficing groups to the skirts of 
the jungle and the hills, and hold aloof from the rest of the 
community. Nats and Kanjars live in the same state of isola- 
tion, and wander over the face of the country with their small 
movable villages of matting and leaf-screens : and those are 
most happy who escaped being assigned any distinct functions 
in the Hindu caste system. The lowest depth of misery and 
degradation is reached by the Koris and Chamars, the weavers 
and leather-cutters, to the rest. Many of these in the northern 
districts are actually bond slaves, having hardly ever the spirit 
to avail themselves of the remedy offered by our courts, and 
descend with their children from generation to generation as the 
value of an old purchase. They hold the plough for the Brah- 
man or Chhattri master, whose pride of caste forbids him to 
touch it, and live with the pigs, less unclean than themselves, in 
separate quarters apart from the rest of the village. Always on 
the verge of starvation, their lean, black, and ill-formed figures, 
their stupid faces, and their repulsively filthy habits reflect the 
wretched destiny which condemns them to be lower than the 
beast among their fellow-men, and yet that they are far from 
incapable of improvement is proved hy the active and useful 



XSIT INTRODUCTION. 

stable servants drawn from among them, who receive good pay 
and live well under European masters. A change of religion is 
the only means of escape open to them, and they have little 
reason to be faithful to their present creed. 

The census returns more than 130,000 members of reli^ 
gious orders. But this is a great exaggeration, as is clearly 
. shown in one instance, which besides forms a curious illustration 
of the caste system. When we read that there are upwards of 
40,000 Goshalns, we should remember that only very few of 
these belong to the religious orders at all. The Goshain, or 
member of the distinct religious order instituted by Shankard- 
charya to maintain the cultus of Mahadeo, is enrolled by the 
adoption of another Goshdin from some one of the pure Hindu 
castes. From the moment of his adoption he loses his old caste 
altogether and acquires a new one, among the essential duties of 
which is celibacy. As long as he remains chaste there is no diffi- 
culty, and he continues to be considered one of those orders whose 
renunciation of the world has released them from the bonds of 
caste. But breaches of the rules are frequent, and when a Goshain 
takes a wife and settles down with his family to agriculture, it is 
clear that he no longer belongs to the religious order. Neither 
can he return to any ordinary caste, for his adoption constituted 
a real new birth annihilating his former position. He remains 
therefore a Goshain by name, and adds a new caste to the society. 
Secular Goshalns are exceedingly common, and it may safely be 
said that at least three-fourths of the religious mendicants re- 
turned' under that denomination are really common villagers, hold- 
ing a somewhat undefined position in a new caste not contem- 
plated in the original framework of the system. The religious 
Goshdins resemble monks in other particulars besides celibacy — 
living in small societies in monasteries apart from the community, 
possessing frequently considerable wealth in land, dealing in 
asafcetida where chartreuse is unknown, and enjoying in a com- 
fortable life a fair compensation for their inability to marry. 

The influence exercised by members of the religious orders, 
which it would be difficult to over-estimate, depends in no way 
on the peculiar sectarian dogmas they may hold, but solely 
on the real or supposed austerity of their lives ; and exceptional 
austerity, combined with learning or genius, elevates a man to a 
position far above the purest caste or the highest |worldly rank. 
Mahant Jaggiwan Das of Kotwa, who taught the worship of 
the pure name and instituted the sect of Sattnamis, had for his 
disciples the greatest rajas of Oudh, none of whom would have 
ventured to be seated in his presence or to treat him otherwise 



INTRODUCTION. XIT 

tlian as a revered master. His successors number their votaries 
by hundreds of thousands, and exercise over them an undisputed 
spiritual sway. Members of the higher orders of ascetics^Param 
hanses, and Dandis— though not wishing to create a following for 
themselves, are received everywhere as equals or superiors by the 
wealthiest noblemen, vho honour themselves iu doing them 
reverence. 

The dogmatic religion of the people is extremely simple. 
They believe that there is one Supreme Being, who has many 
distinct aspects and manifestations, n-oAXcov 'ovoftartuv /lop^ij /t^a^and 
they further believe that in his most benignant aspects he 
has submitted to several incarnations. In its origin the religion 
is an anthropomorphised pantheism ; the unity of nature is re- 
cognized in the real unity of God, and all the various and seem- 
ingly hostile powers of good and evil of which the natural world 
is made up, are typified in the different persons of the Divinity — 
a solution of the problem of life which leaves no place for a 
devil. To all but their professional devotees it is a matter of 
complete indifference whether a man selects for the primary 
object of his devotion the power of destruction or the power of 
creation ; and though the pure and lovely figure of Vishnu in hia 
last incarnation has, from its local associations and in virtue of its 
own surpassing beauty, the first place in the affection and worship 
of the masses, there are none who do not frequently pour 
libations of water and hang votive wreaths of flowers before the 
black stone which symbolizes Mahadeo. The kindred doctrines of 
transmigration, and of life as a penance for sin Avhere pain can 
only be avoided by a renunciation of all pleasure, combined with 
a strono-ly felt fatalism, lie at the root of the ethical conceptions 
of the people. 

But by far the most important of the tenets they hold 
are those which centre round the institution of caste, and the 
rules which that makes compulsory dwarf into insignificance 
all the other elements of their religious life. Every Hindu 
believes that men are born into natural orders, as well defined 
and as impossible to change voluntarily as the difterent species of 
animals ; but his maintenance of his position depends on the 
observance of a number of rules extending to the commonest 
transactions of life, and the stamp set on him at his birth is 
ifso facto changed or altogether effaced by his infringement 
of them. Whether or no that forfeit has been incurred it is for 
his caste-fellows to determine. The principal of these rules is 
that which ordains that a men shall belong to the lowest caste 
with which he has eaten. If a Brahman has broken bread with 

4 



XXVI "INTRODUOTION. 

a- Vaisya he immediately becomes a Vaisya himself, if with a 
Chamar a Chamar, with a Muhammadan a Muhammadan : and if 
he were to sit at meals with an English officer he would become 
a Christian, even though his host were a pagan in belief and he 
Avas himself ignorant of the first doctrines of the faith, because 
the Hindu mind cannot conceive of any one being out of a 
•caste, and the Englishman, having been born in the caste of 
Christians, must remain a member of that caste, whatever 
faith he may adopt, until he forfeits it by the non-observance 
of caste rules. For the maintenance of his position it is not 
in the least necessary that a man should observe any of the 
higher laws of morality. A Brahman may be virtuous or 
vicious like* the member of any other caste or any animal, but 
the soul that was born with him can only be affected in its 
nature by that essential contact with a member of some other 
■caste which occasions a complete natural change. And it is not 
■every kind of contact which conveys such a change. A Brah- 
man cohabits with a Chamdr woman : he is polluted indeed, but 
he remains a Brahman and she a Chamar ; he smokes her pipe, 
and he immediately by the law of nature becomes a Chamar 
himself, and must seek a livelihood by cutting leather or tending 
horses. As a rule the prohibitions to which most importance is 
attached .are those which involve a constant watchfulness, but 
do not lay a strain on the stronger passions of humanity. 

The above is a mere sketch of an institution whose effects 
are of the highest consequence politically in a focus of Hindu 
life such as Oudh is. A complete picture would require many 
modifications, but it has only been thought worth while here 
to dwell on the main lines as they affect the character of the 
people and their political future. One of the first results is 
the extraordinary stability given to the social system of which 
it is the foundation. A man cannot rise in caste, and society 
is to a great extent secured from the convulsions with which 
individual ambition might threaten it. By friendly intercourse 
with any caste except his own a man must incur the penalty of 
separation from his own people and the loss of all that is dear 
to him. So men of one trade live entirely together ; they have no 
opportunity of learning another. An art can hardly be lost, and 
the worst misfortunes which can befall the society still leave 
it with all its component parts intact. The isolation of the 
different ranks makes it very difficult for any new impulse to run 
through all from the highest to the lowest, and change from 
within is almost an impossibility. The pride of race which is 
common to all humanity combines with the belief in caste to 



INTRODUCTION. XXVll 

resist all influence from without. An Englishman would not 
eat with a Hindu if he thought that he would thereby cease to 
be an Englishman, and the Hindu has a far more extravagant 
idea of his own natural superiority than even we have. The 
qualities which secure it from decay equally deny it all power 
of development and completely arrest the. completion and free 
circulation of labour without which progress is impossible. As 
an instrument of police repression it is within its own range of 
unsurpassed efficiency, and in formalizing and giving its utmost 
force to the sanction of public opinion it excels any other code 
in the world in its choice of a penalty. It only fails in the 
selection and limitation of the offences to which its penalty is 
applied. 

Before estimating its effects on the national character, 
it is as well to attempt an outline of the character itself. There 
can be no doubt that the different nations of the world are 
distinguished by peculiar moral and intellectual traits, or at any 
rate, by the predominance in special cases of traits common to 
all, and the inhabitants of the various parts of the Indian 
continent are for this purpose as distinct as the different peoples 
of Europe. Still, generalizations as to national character are so 
exceedingly complex, and rest on such a multitude of ill-under- 
stood and conflicting single intances, that there is hardly 
anything on which it is more difficult to form a true opinion 
— any case where hasty decision at first sight is so certain to be- 
wrong. We pride ourselves on our national honesty ; but that is 
hardly the first virtue with which a foreign dealer in Manchester 
cottons would credit us. 

"Writing two centuries before Christ, of the Hindus most 
like those of Oudh in the neighbouring kingdom of Patna, an 
educated Greek selected as the leading feature in their character 
their honesty and integrity in the ordinary relations of life ; and 
paradoxical as it may sound to most English ears, it is probable 
that this is almost as true of the Hindu village of to-day as it 
was of the Buddhist court of two thousand years ago. Even 
among our own servants no one can fail to have been astonished 
at the absolute safety with which large sums of money may be 
entrusted to their keeping, when theft would be almost impos- 
sible of detection and would secure them comfort for the re- 
mainder of their lives. In the higher ranks the well-paid and 
educated office clerks are faithful and trustworthy beyond any 
other class of men who can be procured for their responsible, 
duties. What has been said applies to their relations with foreign 
masters, for whom they can rarely feel any affection, anjl who not 



XXVlll INTEODUCTION. 

unfrequently regard them with a suspicion which would be itself 
enough to make most men dishonest. In their relations with 
their own people the quality is far more conspicuous. Trade 
transactions involving enormous sums are carried through with a 
want of precaution which we should consider idiotic, but which 
is justified by the rarity of breaches of faith. In a country 
where writing is an art as common as it is with us, large debts 
are contracted every day on nothing but the verbal security of 
the borrower ; and if there may be occasional repudiation in our 
Courts, the fact that that security is still considered sufficient is 
ample proof that the debts are honourably acknowledged among 
the parties themselves. In such cases limitation is never thought 
of, and families who have emerged from poverty will discharge 
debts contracted by their ancestors a century back, of which no 
other record exists but an entry in the money-lender's private 
ledger. Their whole social system postulates an exceptional 
integrity, and would collapse at once if any suspicion of dis- 
honesty attached itself to the decisions of the caste panchayats. 
This point is worth insisting on, as on it depends the whole of 
their future as a self-governing nation, and though much has 
occurred to impair their character in this respect, it would be 
unsafe to deny them at any rate the capacity for the first of poli- 
tical virtues. This quality may be said to extend to all ranks. 
Their remaining merits will be more readily acknowledged, but 
are more partial in their distribution. The courage and high 
sense of honour of the Brahman and Rajput, the thrift and indus- 
try of the Kurmi, are patent to the shallowest observer, and all 
perhaps may claim a natural aversion to cruelty, a gay, buoyant 
disposition of mind, and an imagination easily impressed by 
beauty or humour. 

Their grand national defect is a want of steadiness, an 
absolute incapacity of maintaining resolutions on most subjects 
in the face of what would seem to us the most trifling discourage- 
ments. And this defect is very much intensified by the system 
of caste. The mind of man does not seem capable of retaining 
for daily use more than a limited number of moral principles, and 
an inevitable result of the complete success of any priestly regime 
is the substitution of tithes and cummin for the weightier 
matters of the law. The noblest of Hindu reformers, Nanak, 
Kablr, and Eamdnand, have always lifted up their voices in protest 
against the degradation ; but the Hindu, whom a strong penalty 
constrains to pay constant and watchful attention to small matters 
of ablution and ceremonial, has his mind diverted from higher 
duties enforced by no such certain penalty. His volatile nature, 



INTRODUCTION, XIIX 

always ready in moments of strong excitement to forget the 
more elevated rules of morality, is still further weakened by 
having been accustomed to accord them only a secondary place 
in his ordinary views of life. It is this which makes it so very 
dangerous to trust him implicitly. Honest and faithful under 
common temptations, he has no living moral principles to sustain 
him under the strong and unreasonable accesses of passion to 
which he is liable, or against sudden or extraordinary appeals to 
his cupidity. On the other hand, his ancient literature, full of 
the noblest sentiments, familiarizes him with high ideal rules of 
conduct which bear fruit when circumstances are favourable. Of 
circumstances he is pre-eminently the creature : a richly-gifted 
child, but a child to the day of his death, capable of the grandest 
self-devotion or of the basest moral turpitude. 

The natural kindness of disposition, the ready pity for 
suffering and willingness to relieve it, which colour all their reli- 
gion and poetry, and are strongly exhibited in their dealings 
with the lower animals, are diverted and limited in their rela- 
tions with one another by the same sentiment of caste. The 
charity, which all regard as the first of moral duties, is displayed 
only for Brahraans, and for men of another caste than their own 
they have as little fellow-feeling, and perhaps less, than would 
be commanded by an ox or a horse. Within its reduced sphere, 
and particularly among members of the same family, their bene- 
volence is most active and exemplary. To the outer world it 
assumes a passive attitude, and their aversion to the sight of 
pain makes them the most merciful of at any rate the peoples 
of Asia. 

The other great cause which has affected their character 
for the worse is their long subjection to unsympathetic foreign 

masters,—" muto-v yap t' apertjs antoaivvrm, ivpvma, Tlsvs 

Avspos Bvr avjiiv Kara SovXiof '^ftap eXifmy 

The vices and corruption of a Muhammadan despotism are the 
same everywhere, and are apt to be regarded as the necessary 
features of all A siatic Government. Honesty in political con- 
duct cannot be expected where it would hardly be recognized as 
a virtue : where the honest man is as likely to be ruined as the 
knave by the caprice of a stupid and resistless tyrant, and 
where the only means of softening a fall, against which no merit 
provides security, must be obtained by fraud. The atmosphere 
of the court for the last eight centuries has directly stimulated 
chicanery and intrigue in all their worst forms, and almost ex- 
tinguished the respect due to integrity. It is the stability which 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

his caste-system has given to his own society which the Hindu 
has to thank that the disease has not penetrated deeper, and aa 
yet remains a mere surface ulcer, dangerous but curable. There 
is no denying the abominable mendacity and corruption which 
disgrace the relations of natives with their rnlers. But the cause 
is patent. Their exceptional honesty in their dealings among 
themselves gives grounds for hope that, under a Government 
which rewards merit and promotes a public spirit, the vice may 
be eradicated, and even now the higher judicial ranks give ex- 
amples of probity of which any country in the world might 
be proud. , 

In physique the people of Oudh are the medium height, 
with light, active bodies, and well-proportioned limbs, capable 
of great endurance, but inferior in strength to Europeans and 
the inhabitants of the Punjab and Afghanistan. Their features 
are generally well formed ; their eyes and teeth remarkably good; 
and their carriage and movements full of grace and ease. In 
colour they are half way between the olive-brown of the Kash- 
miri and the swarthiness of the Bengali. The distinctions of 
birth are strongly marked : and the Chhattri excels all other 
castes in his superior stature and strength, the greater regu- 
larity of his features, and fairness of his complexion. 

And it is this class which furnishes all the best examples 
of the national character. It is impossible to think badly of 
a race who, from among the dozen chiefs cf a single district, 
could produce in one season of national convulsion two such 
eminent instances of loyalty and devotion to opposite sides as 
the present Maharaja of Balrampur and the late Eaja Debi 
Bakhsh Singh of Gonda — the one who risked his property and 
his life to save a handful of English friends, and remained their 
firm protector when it seemed certain that their cause was lost ■; 
the other who did not join the standard of national revolt till 
he had escorted the treasure and the officials of a Government 
he hated to a place of safety, who was the last in the field 
■when fighting was possible, and who, though offered an honour^ 
able reception and the whole of his immense estates by his con- 
querors, elected to sacrifice position and wealth, and die a starv- 
ing exile in Naipal rather than desert his defeated mistress. 
Their fortunes were different, but their chivalrous honour the 
same. 



CHAPTER III. 



The surface and soil of the province, its rivers and its lakes, 
its animals, and the plants which contribute to human existence, 
have been passed in review. The people, with their castes and 
social system, have been described; and we have seen them bound, 
as perhaps no other race of the world is bound, in the chains 
of a superstition which is not without features of nobility, and 
which seems equally incapable of development and impervious to 
decay. Now it becomes necessary, in a brief historical sketch 
avoiding as much as possible subjects of controversy, to trace the 
progress of the various elements whose combination produced 
the political position which confronted us at annexation, and to 
fecount the measures by which that position has been dealt with. 

Long before the dawn of authentic history, Oudh stands out 
in the fuUiblaze of legend and poetry. Ajodhya, its eponymous 
city, was the capital of that happy kingdom in which all that the 
Hindu race reveres or desires was realized as it can never be 
realized again, and the seat of the glorious dynasty which began 
with the sun and culminated after sixty generations of blameless 
rulers in the incarnate deity and perfect man, Rama, Whether 
criticism will finally enroll the hero among the highest creations 
of pure imagination, or accord him a semi-historical personality 
and a doubtful date, it is barren to speculate : history is more 
nearly concerned with the influence which the story of his life 
still has on the moral and religious beliefs of a great people, and 
the enthusiasm which makes his birth-place the most highly 
venerated of the sacred places to which its pilgrims crowd. 

Under any circumstances, the colonization of this province 
must have been very early, and the burial-place of the great Muni 
Agastya, on© of the first pioneers of Aryan progress, is pointed 
but near Colonelganj, a few miles to the north of the Gogra. At 
the commencement of true history, when, the Aryan race, 
through Buddha, gave birth to the religion, which, expelled from 
its original home, still dominates more than a third of mankind, 
Oudh was a populous country, ruled from Sravasti by not the 
least important of the six kings of Madhyadesha or Hindustan 
proper. Its capital was the scene of the prophet's earliest and 



XXXU INTRODUCTION, 

most sucessful labours, his favourite resting-place during the rainy- 
months, and the recruiting-ground from which some of the chief 
among his immediate disciples were drawn in. It long remained 
one of the principal seats of Buddhist learning, and six centu- 
ries after the foundation of the religion, contributed two of the 
great schools of doctors which attended the famous synod 
convened by the Scythian conqueror Kanishka at Cashmere. 

After a long blank, broken only by a few of the ridiculous 
and uninteresting fables with which a religious zeal embellished 
its claims, the next information is to be gained from the pages of 
Ptolemy, Avhose scanty contents are as important as they are 
difficult to interpret; He divides the country between three 
kingdoms — that of the Tanganoi, whose southern limit was the 
Go^ra ; the Maraemdai, whose rule stretched through central 
Oudh deep into the heart of Bengal ; and the Amanichai or 
Manichai, in a narrow strip along the backs of the Ganges. South 
of these, and with a territory reaching from Allahabad to Gwalior, 
was Sandrabatis. The towns in Oudh proper were Heorta, 
Eappha, Baraita, Sapolas, and perhaps Taona. The most north- 
ern of the people are easily identified as the T^ngana, who 
brought the heroes of the Mahabharatha a tribute of horses and 
gold from the hills. It is singular to find them here on the sole 
occasion when authentic history records their name, and they 
must have been a mountain tribe, ethnically perhaps connected 
with the aboriginal Gonds and Tharus. The only trace of their 
existence now surviving is the name of the small ponies of south- 
ern Nepal, which are called Tanghans in the same way as a horse 
of Arabian blood is known as an Arab. The Maraemdai are 
well known as a trans-Indus people. They may have conquered 
the territory ascribed to them in the first century B. C. at the 
time of the great Scythian invasion, and that they should be 
found here may point to the existence of a Scythian dynasty at 
Patna before the glories of the greater Guptas. Of the Amani- 
chai (or Manichai) nothing is known ; but it is more probable 
that the town of Manikpur, which coincides with the position 
which the geographer assigns them, should owe its name to them 
than to the ubiquitous Manik Chand of Kanauj, whose date, at the 
end of the twelfth century, is far too late for many of the remains 
now to be found there. The probable conjecture that Sandra- 
batis is the Greek version of Chandravati is strengthened by the 
fact that the Sombansis (or Chhattris) of the lunar race, who now 
hold a diminished raj in Partabgarh, but were even in modern 
times of vastly greater importance than they are at present, cherish 
traditions of a great kingdom which their ancestors once ruled from 



INTRODUCTION. XXXlll 

Jhusi, a town whose ruins have been discovered in the neigh-" 
bourhood of Allahabad. 

It was impossible that the transcribers of long lists of names, 
every one of which was absolutely strange to them, should avoid 
constant errors, and the mistakes seem frequent with the letter I. 
The almost certain reading Tanganoi has a variant, Ganganoi, 
and the position on the map and similarity of the names perhaps 
justify us in reading Baraita Baraila, and recognizing in it the 
present town of E,ae Bareli, which is built on remains of an un- 
known antiquity, and is almost certainly not named after the 
Edja Bal, who was defeated and slain by Nasir^ud-din in 1246 A.D. 
The same considerations would lead us to read Sapolas Sapotas, 
a natural and obvious Greek translation of Sawattha, as the an- 
cient city of Sravasti was called in the Prakrit, which was con- 
temporaneous with the Antonines. The remaining towns, Heorta 
and Rappha, there are no means of identifying. 

The great interest in this record lies in the fact that the two 
people whom it shows to have been dominant in Central Hin- 
dustan were neither of them of Hindu origin, one being abori- 
ginal, the other Scythian ; of the third nothing certain can be 
said, but there is a good probability that a large Hindu kingdom 
flourished on the southern bank of the Ganges, and that the 
descendants of its ruling family may be still found near their old 
seat of empire. 

The epoch of Ptolemy saw the culminating glory and the 
final ruin of the great kingdom of Srdvasti, which had for eight 
centuries at least maintained a leading position among the states 
of Northern India. Vikramdditya, the last of its kings whose 
name we possess, crowned the achievements of his race by 
defeating Meghavahana, the powerful king of Kashmir, and 
restoring the fanes and holy places of Ajodhya. That so cele- 
brated a shrine, distant less than fifty miles in a straight line from 
the capital, should have been allowed to fall so completely into 
decay is a matter for surprise, and we are driven to suppose 
either that the Gogra formed the southern limit to an area of 
civilization stretching along the foot of the mountains, or that 
legend has exaggerated the desolation of the place and the merits 
of its restorer. 

We have seen that Ptolemy represented the Scythians as 
coterminous with the trans-Gogra kingdom along its southern 
frontier, and it was to them that the power of Vikram^ditya 
himself, or of one of his immediate successors, finally succumbed. 
The legends of Ajodhya, whose antiquity marks the unbroken 

5 



XXXIT INTRODUCTION. 

existence of the city, when they relate that Samundra Pala m 
the guise of ajogi juggled the king of Srdvasti out of bis empire, 
embalm the tradition of a war which subsequent accounts prove 
to have been among the fiercest and most destructive which have 
ever laid a flourishing country waste. History at once becomes 
silent, and not more than three centuries later, when the Chinese 
pilgrim. Fa Hian, visited in Sravasti one of the most sacred seats 
of his religion, he found the once populous city, whose circuit of 
lofty walls enclosing the remains of countless palaces and temples 
even now attests its former greatness, inhabited by only a few 
destitute monks and devotees. Two hundred years later, when 
Hweng Thsang repeated the pilgrimage, its desolation was even 
more complete, and its approach almost impossible by a journey 
through dense forests full of herds of wild elephants. 

Its subjection to the power of Patna closes the ancient his- 
tory of Oudh, and though we may conjecture that on the extinc- 
tion of that kingdom it fell tinder the dominion of Kanauj, we 
hear no more of its princes, its saints, or its people, and the break 
in its records probably marks the extinction of its civilization 
and the relapse of the greater part of the country into the forests 
which were afterwards known as Banaudha. It is to this an- 
cient period that the numerous remains of walled towns and 
forts, which have been erroneously ascribed in popular tradition 
to the Bhars — a people with no high cultivation, but the last of 
the great extinct powers which ruled in Oudh — almost certainly 
belong. There are probably no remains in India whose explo- 
ration under competent supervision would disclose objects of 
greater interest or throw more copious light on an important 
and obscure period of history, 

"With the struggle which ended in the overthrow of Kanauj, 
the last Hindu empire which had any pretence to include the 
whole of the continent north of the Vindhyas, and which sealed 
in blood the final victory of the Brahman over the Buddhist, the 
modern history of the province opens in dark and doubtful legend. 

It was the Tharus, if local tradition is to be trusted, who 
first descended from the hills, and in the eighth or ninth century 
A.D, cleared the jungles as far as Ajodhya, The aboriginal 
tribes, who even at the present time are the only people whom 
a constitution impervious to fever enables to contend with the 
malaria of the jungles and become the pioneers of civilization 
were subjected about a century after their settlement to a 
princely family of Sombansi lineage from the North-West. This 
family was reigning at or near the ruins of Sravasti when Sayyad 



INTKODOCTION. SXXV 

Salar occupied Bahraich for three years with his invading force 
of Muhammadans, and the remains of that ancient city, with the 
modern corrupt name of Sahet Mahefc, are pointed out as the fort of 
Suhel Dal, the last of the race and the conqueror' of Musalmans. 
A curious legend accounts for the downfall of the dynasty, and 
proves it to have been one of the last in Upper India which pro- 
fessed the doctrine of the Jains. Suhel Dal came in hot from the 
chase a few minutes before sunset, and his princess, fearing that 
the chase of the day would prevent his eating his evening meal, 
sent up to the roof of the house the wife of his younger brother, 
whose surpassing beauty detained the sinking sun. Till the supper 
was ended the damsel stood and the god watched, and then as 
she left her post a sudden night ensued. The prince enquired 
why there had been no twilight, and the guilty passion which 
arose from his discovery of the truth was followed by his punish- 
ment in the total destruction of his fort during an appalling tempest. 
The historicalf act underlying the story is the subversion of this 
small northern kingdom by Sri Chandradeo, the Rathor monarch 
of Kanauj, ingthe last quarter of the eleventh century. The 
memories of the Jain rule yet cling to the deserted city, and mem- 
bers of that religion are said still to make pilgrimage to a spot 
which besides gave them the third and one of the most famous 
of their Tirthankuras. A small temple, dedicated to Sambhunath, 
is the only modern building in the whole expanse of ruins. 

The period immediately following the destructive inroads of 
Mahmiid Ghaznavi saw the rise in Southern Oudh, the Duab, and 
the country between the Ganges and Malwa of the short-lived 
power of the Bhars. Who these people are it is well known, as 
they still exist in considerable numbers on the verge of cultivation, 
and are one of the few castes who can commence jungle clearing 
with impunity. Their short stature and black skins, their features 
and their habits, their passion for the chase, and inability to settle 
down as tenants paying a full rate of rent, stamp them as ethnical 
brothers of the Donjs, the Tharus, the Kewats, and the Gonds, 
and the numerous other aboriginal tribes whose despised remains 
yet linger unabsorbed by the conquering Indian stock. The his- 
tory of their rule is not so obscure as is generally supposed, and 
tradition is rendered intelligible by two inscriptions from Ajai 
Garh and Kalinjar in Bundelkhand and a passage from Farishta.* 

* Another reference to this kingdom is tp be found in Al Ullii f Elliot's History of 
India Vol 11 p. 46). Asi must have been Ajai Garh. The Chaiidal Bliar, (jr nameless out- 
caste Bhawar ' needs no explanation. ForBhawaras a variant of Btiar Wc Lasstn, V"l. I., 
p. 448. note,' quoting Hamilton. For the last Bbar kings also see labakat-i-Nastri faiiot's 
Vol. li , p. 348. 



XXXVi INTRODUCTION. 

From these we learn that a man, whose name is not gi^en, 
but who is described as the foimder of his family, possessed him- 
self of the fort of Ajai Garh. ■ This unknown founder of the Ime 
is conjectured by Lassen (vol. III., p. 798) to have been a 
revolted vassal of Vijoya Chandra of Kanauj. He was followed 
on an independent throne by Jahun, Jahana, Gangadhar, Kamala, 
and finally Malika. The humility of their origin is made clear by 
the inscriptions, which give no name for their first ancestor and a 
duration of only four generations, as Jahana, Gangadhar, and Ka- 
mala were own brothers, and which invest Mdlika with none of the 
usual sounding titles of sovereignty, though there can be no_ doubt 
that he was a reigning prince over a large territory, and which re- 
cord that the members of the family were compelled to live together 
in a portion of the Kalinjar fort especially set apart for their 
use, a fact which clearly proves that they were considered as out- 
castes by the other Hindu residents. Lassen considers that the 
Chandels are proved by their pedigree to be descended from the 
same stock, and we find them, therefore, at first of no family at all, 
then as Kdyaths, with the title (on the inscription) of Thakur, and 
finally as full Chhattris with a well-known flaw in their pedigree, 

Dalki, the brother of Md,lika, on the overthrow of the last 
Kanauj king, conquered the whole of the Dud,b ; and Farishta 
records the utter defeat and destruction of Dalki and Malki, who 
had royal forts at Kalinjar and Karra, and held the whole country 
as far as Malwa in their possession, by Nasir-ud-din Muhammad, 
the king of Delhi, in 1246 A.D. The universal tradition of South- 
ern Oudh, which preserves the memory of the reigns of E,djas 
Dal and Bal, proves that these princes were really Bhars, and 
that the whole of the south of the province as far as the Gogra 
was included in their dominions. It is more than probable that a 
far greater portion of the country was then covered by jungle than 
is now the case, and the rise of the low aboriginal tribes to 
dominion on the ruins of the power of their high caste rulers is 
paralleled by several instances in the only authentic continuous 
record of Indian history we possess — the Raj Tarangini of Kash- 
mir. The overthrow of the Bhars was followed by the establish- 
ment, much as we find them now, of the principal elements of 
modern Oudh society. The country was divided into a number 
of small chieftainships, ruled over by clans, who, whatever their 
real origin may have been, all professed themselves to be of the 
ruling caste of Chhattris. Many of these, such as the Kanhpurias 
of Partabgarh, the Gaurs of Hardoi, and their offshoot that 
Amethias of Rae Bareli, are probably descendants of men or 



INTRODUCTION. XXXVU 

tribes who flourished under the low caste government : others, 
such as the Bisens of Gonda and Partabgarh, and many other 
leading clans of the north, appear to have been derived from old 
Chhattri or quasi-Chhsittri stocks, established for time out of mind 
on or near their present, settlements. But the nobler families, the 
Bais of Baiswara, the Bachgoti Chauhans of Sulfcanpur, the 
Sombansis of Partabgarh, and the Kalhans of Gonda, are dis- 
tinctly proved by their traditions to have immigrated, — the first 
two from the Duab, the Sombansis from near Allahabad, and 
the Kalhans from the far south-west. 

From this point forward any general sketch of the history of 
Oudh becomes a task of almost insurmountable difficulty. The 
record of facts, though copious and unbroken, descends in two 
streams, which hardly touch one another, and which it is often 
nearly impossible to connect. On the one hand, we have the 
Muhammadan historians, who give accounts of the great princes 
sent from the conquering camp at Delhi to rule a province which 
during the first period of Muhammadan occupation was of the 
first importance to the empire. From them we hear of the wars, 
the intrigues, the rebellions, the magnificence, and sometimes the 
vices of these royal lieutenants ; but the barren and uninteresting 
lists were written by men who had no sympathy with, or know- 
ledge of the real inhabitants of the country — a people from whom 
they were separated by a strange religion, unintelligible social 
customs, a foreign origin, and the contempt engendered by con- 
quest. Page after page may be turned over, and, except when 
some crowning victory has to be recorded, or mention is made of 
the assistance lent by a powerful local chieftain to his Muham- 
madan overlord, the existence of the mass of the Hindu nation is 
absolutely ignored. On the relations which subsisted between 
the people and their natural princes, and between the latter and 
the central power, the amount of the taxes, and how and by 
whom, and to whom, they were paid, the maintenance of order 
and dispensation of justice, we are left in almost complete darkness. 
What is of value is a fairly exact chronology, which enables us to 
dispose in something like order all that it is possible to disentan- 
gle from the local tradition which forms the other source of informa- 
tion. As, however, this local tradition is as silent with regard to the 
foreign rulers as their historians were on the subject of the people, 
it is extremely difficult to establish points of contact between 
the two. It may be said with certainty that the two records corres- 
ponded to two entirely distinct streams of history, and the Tatar 
khan and Hindu rdja represented two societies domiciled on the 



XXXYIU INTRODUCTION. 

same soil Avith hardly any interaction of mutual effect. The most 
important political results of their co-existence were the follow- 
ing : — The foreign rule took the position of the old paramount em- 
pires, such as dominated from Patna or from Kanauj, It became 
impossible for any Hindu to attain the position of raja of rajas. 
The very memory of the corporate, political, and religious life of 
the whole people was extinguished, and for it were substituted 
the petty aims and petty interests of States often smaller and more 
insignificant than the smallest principalities of Germany. On 
the other hand, the old and compact social system ot the Hindus 
presented a barrier against which the wildest excesses of barbarian 
fury expended themselves in vain. Thousands might be slain and 
tens of thousands led into captivity, but the Brahman "still con- 
trolled the family life of the people ; their Chhattri lord collected 
them for battle and disposed of their disputes in a court governed 
by rules which appealed to their sense of justice, and the cultiva- 
tor continued to till his fields, confident that when the storm was 
passed he should be allowed to retain them on the payment of 
the customary share of the produce. The worst tyrants, whose 
superior energy or intelligence made them formidable to the land, 
had no further effect than a series of bad harvests. When they 
were gone, all the old elements of society resumed the exercise of 
their various functions, and repaired a desolation which could only 
last for a time. It is this ancient and stable civilization which 
saved the fertile provinces of India from the fate inflicted by con- 
querors of kindred race, and not more cruel or barbarous on the 
equally fertile plains of Central Asia. When this has been said, 
almost all that is of importance in the political history of Oudh, 
from the final Muhammadan conquest in the beginning of the 
thirteenth century to the establishment of a Muhammadan dynasty 
on the throne of Lucknow, has been exhausted. Throughout 
five hundred years of foreign domination the story has been the 
same, the same struggle being carried on with varying conditions 
of strength on one side or the other, but, except on one occasion, 
with no attempt at coalescence into a united national polity. 

The fortunes of the great Muslim lords who ruled from 
Bahraich or Manikpur belong, where they have any interest at 
all, to the history of the Muhammadan government of India. The 
vicissitudes of the petty Hindu states into which the country was 
parcelled out do not admit of being combined into any general 
abstract. 

For some time the newly-established Hindu chiefs in the south 
seem to have been engaged in a desultory contest with the 



INTRODUCTION. • XXXIX 

remains of the Bhar kingdom, and its traces were hardly effaced 
when they were menaced by a far greater danger in the rise of 
a strong Muhammadan state in their close neighbourhood at 
Jaunpur. The ablest of the so-called Eastern emperors, Ibrahim 
Shah Sharqi, had his attention especially attracted by the country 
which lay directly in the path from his capital to Delhi, and used 
every effort to bring it more closely under the control of his 
government. His lieutenants were established in every principal 
town, and Muhammadan law ofl&cers were appointed to adminis- 
ter their unknown and partial system of justice. For a time these 
things were borne, and the most powerful chieftains sought refuge 
in flight ; but a purely artificial regime can rarely long survive 
its founder, and the death of Shah Ibrdhim was the signal for 
the rise of the people. The foreign agents of his policy were 
massacred, and the lead of the Hindu reaction was taken by Raja 
Tilok Chand, by far the most important of the native chieftains 
who have from time to time left a mark on Oudh history. Of 
a family possibly descended from the old emperors of Kanauj, he 
combined, with the consideration commanded by high birth, a 
natural capacity for statesmanship, and a mind singularly free 
from the prejudices of his race. Eeserving for himself a tract, 
subsequently known as the twenty-two parganas, and stretching 
from Lucknow to the confines of the Partabgarh district, he con- 
stituted himself judge in the disputes between neighbouring chief- 
tains, and asserted more than once his power of reinforcing the 
warrior class from the most worthy among the inferior elements 
of his army. The feebleness which marked the decay of the Af- 
ghan empire seemed to have again brought within the sphere of 
possibilities the realization of the idea of a large Hindu state — the 
paramount authority of the most powerful prince over a number 
of subordinate chieftains, each exercising undivided power within 
his own territories. A hundred years of comparative peace, 
during which the ruling clans established more firmly their hold 
upon the country, and brought the lands at a distance from their 
central forts under cultivation and the control of the younger off- 
shoots of their houses, were followed by the whirlwind of Bdbar's 
invasion. 

The great Afghan captains whom that prince defeated in 
Oudh have left no representatives, and the four pages describing 
the events which attended his entry to Ajodhya, where it is pos- 
sible that the Hindu chiefs rallied round the centre of their reli- 
gion, are missing from all the known copies of his memoirs. The 
only record remaining is an ancient mosque, which preserves 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

the invader's name on the holiest spot of all — the birthplace of 
Rama. 

In the troubled times which followed the death of the first 
Mughal emperor of India, Oudh was the focus of disaffection to the 
rulino- house, and it was not till more than forty years later that 
it owned the clemency and power of the great Akbar. The con- 
stant revolts and victories on which that power was based brought 
the province into prominent notice, and it was for some time one 
of the most important and honourable among the viceroyalties of 
the empire. The revenue system, introduced a few years earher 
by the Afghan emperor Sher Shah, was perfected by Akbar : 
and in an Indian province the revenue administration exhausts 
almost every element of value in its political history. It is not 
proposed to repeat in detail the regulations which are described 
with minute distinctness in the Xin-i-Akbari, but the informa- 
tion to be gained from that bookmay be supplemented from local 
records and tradition. The arbitrary revenue divisions, originally 
proposed on the basis of the amount of revenue to be collected, 
were either never introduced or yielded in a very short time to 
the ancient parganas, which almost always were coterminous with 
the authority of a Hindu chief. Lists of villages with their 
assessments were prepared with laborious accuracy. Qaniingos 
and chaudhris were appointed for each pargana, usually from 
among the residents themselves, to superintend their preparation 
and annual correction, and it is probable that now, for the first 
time, the treasury of the empire acquired any precise account of 
the sources from which its income was drawn. We have sufficient 
information to be able to conclude what measures were adopted 
to meet the great difficulty which has always met the administra- 
tor in his attempt" to collect the revenue direct from the village 
heads or the cultivators themselves. The Hindu chiefs were 
powerless, it is true, against the empire in its most flourishing 
days, but they remained a standing menace to its weakness. To 
exterminate them was out of the question. The limits of their 
petty states wers preserved in the only form of revenue division 
with which it was possible to govern, and it was certain that 
their authority, national and long-established, would be re-as- 
serted at the first opportunity. The only policy was to refrain 
from driving them to extreme, and to conciliate them as far 
as possible by honourary distinctions and employment. They 
were consequently provided for by concessions out of the revenue. 
Some were allowed to hold certain villages of the raj revenue- 
free, and devote the collections entirely to their private purposes, 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

others were conceded small dues from every village at each 
harvest. Members of the aristocracy were given posts at court 
or commands in the imperial army ; high-sounding titles, and 
drums, and standards of varying grades of dignity were conferred 
with good political effect on a people singularly impressible by 
such distinctions, and the chieftain of Hasanpur Bandhua (a 
member of one of the highest and most ancient Chhattri families), 
who had adopted the court religion, was recognized as the head 
of the hierarchy of southern chieftains, with power to invest 
them with the title of raja. The strength of the central power 
meant peace in the provinces, and it is possible that the Hindu 
lords, free from the apprehension of external danger and the 
expense of maintaining forces of their own, were moderately 
contented in a position which was the best compatible with 
imperial necessities. This period is at any rate looked back upon 
as one of the brightest in their annals, which under the first 
Mughal emperors are singularly free from accounts of dissension 
or revolt. 

One of the principal results of the strong government was 
that the younger branches of the ruling houses almost invariably 
cast off their allegiance to the head of the clan, and when we 
again find the Hindu element assert its predominance, the ancient 
rajas have yielded the leadership to the most able and vigorous 
among the cadets, the small states have been split up into a num- 
ber of those still smaller baronies which formed the basis on which 
the present taluqas are founded. When the Muhammadan empire 
was broken up in the last days of Aurangzeb by the rise of the 
Mahrattas, the chieftains of Oudh at once acquired an almost com- 
plete independence. An enterprising governor from Allahabad 
or the west might occasionally endeavour to realize the reve- 
nue, but he was sure to be met in arms and eventually compelled to 
withdraw. 

The Hindus, as was natural, broke out at once into internal 
war, and once more the ablest of their leaders applied themselves 
to the enlargement by conquest from their neighbours of the terri- 
tories under their authority. The successes of the Kanhpurias 
of Tiloi, the Bais of Daundia Khera, both cadet famiUes, and the 
Bisens of Gonda, called into existence states of no great extent 
it is true, but larger than had been known since the days of Akbar. 

"When the great Nawab Saadat Khan was appointed wazir 
and received Oudh as his fief, he found his entry opposed by the 
local chieftains. The Bais seem to have yielded after a parley, 
and the Kanhpurias with only a sham resistance, but the Khichara 

6 



Xlii INTRODUCTION. 

of Fatehpur, who might historically be included in an account of 
Oudh, were only quelled after a doubtful battle and the death of 
their raja, while the Raja of Gonda actually defeated the Nawab'a 
lieutenant and made his own terms, by which he retained his 
ancestral state as a separate fief, paying only a moderate tribute. 
It is to this period that we owe two of the most spirited of the 
national ballads, the sword songs of A rdru Khichar and Datt 
Singh Bisen. The first two Nawabs, Saadat Khan and Safdar 
Jang, were men of statesmanlike ability ; they were harassed 
besides by imperial cares, and exposed to constant attacks from 
the Kohillas on one side and the Mahrattas on the other. It is, 
therefore, no wonder that they appreciated the advantage of con- 
ciliating their hardly-won subjects, and they not only employed 
Hindus as the highest of their ministers (one of whom, Newal Ede 
!K%ath, justified his appointment by throwing back the Rohillas 
from Pyzabad with a bravery uncommon in his caste) but were 
contented to collect their revenues on the basis of the old par- 
gana divisions through the old pargana chiefs. The prosperity 
which the country enjoyed under their rule is attested by the 
bridges, wells, and forts which were then constructed, and justifies 
the conclusion that happiness is best secured by the presence of 
a strong central government, which preserves while it keeps in 
subjection all the elements of native society. "Whether that so-* 
ciety would naturally develop such a central power from within 
itself it is difiicult to say : but it is nearly certain that its rise 
would be through seas of blood and years of anarchy. 

With the defeat of Buxar this state of things came to an end, 
and the last chapter of the history commences with the British 
alliance, British resident, and British protection from the con- 
sequences of bad government, to end in the direct assumption 
by the British of the rule of the province as the only remedy 
for the intolerable evils, which were chiefly the result of their 
Own unavoidable interference with its affairs. The first end of 
the policy of the Lucknow kings — a policy which they would 
never hgtve dared, or having dared would most certainly have 
been expelled were it not for the strength of foreign bayonets-^ 
was the complete annihilation of the power of the rajas and the 
.realization of the gross rents direct from the cultivators. In this 
policy they never even nearly succeeded. In single instances 
all over the country the result was gained, and there is hardly a 
raj, perhaps not one in the whole province, which was not at 
^one time or another held by Government officials dealing directly 
iwith the tenauts while its chief was in flight ; but, on the other 



introduction: xliii 

hand, thereis perhaps hardly a case where the chieftak did not 
return after a dispossession of a few years, and recover,, if not his 
whole property, at any rate a large number of his villages. There 
were, in fact, two hostile powers, with interests diametrically op- 
posed, but neither strong enough to gain a decisive victory. If, 
on the one hand, the king was powerless to evict the nobles, sO 
neither could they expel a king behind whom was the whole force 
of the British Government. Of the relations of the king to that 
Government it is unnecessary to write ; they are a matter of well- 
known history, and may be found described at length in the pages 
of Mill and the blue-book which justified annexation. Of his re-^ 
lations to his subjects, the best idea will be gained from a short 
account of the principal measures which emanated from Lucknow, 
and a sketch of the social condition of the province when the king- 
dom came to an end. 

It is perhaps worth while to sum up in a single paragraph 
the result of the preceding pages. Oudh had been many times 
conquered and owned monarchs of many diverse nationalities, 
but its history, down to the advent of the Muhammadans, had 
been a history of hegemonies. From that time it becomes the his-' 
tory of a foreign domination. The difference and its reason are 
not obscure. Even if the Hindu superiority in civilization was 
not greater over the earlier than the latter invaders, the Muham- 
madans differed from their predecessors in being animated by the 
bigotted zeal of a new and fervid religion. The earlier invaders' 
were in a very short time absorbed into the Hindu caste system^ 
adopted the religion of the country, and became an indistinguish- 
able portion of the national polity. The Muhammadans could 
neither join nor be received into the ranks of their subjects. From 
the time of their conquest the history of the country is modified 
by the introduction of a new dominant element which refused to 
be assimilated, and the main interest centres in not the spontane- 
ous development of a homogeneous system, but the struggle of an 
anterior civilization to maintain itself against rulejs who were 
untouched by its spirit and opposed to it both by interest and 
religious feeling. 

That struggle it has survived, but with the loss of every prin- 
ciple of internal development— of everything which makes a 
civiUzation valuable. In a short sketch like the above it was 
unavoidable that none but the main features should be clearly 
presented, at a sacrifice of the accuracy which depends on a 
minute attention to subordinate details. If the Hindu chiefs 
only have been mentioned it must not be forgotten that they were 
nothing more than the highest point of a very complex structure,^ 



Xliy INTRODUCTION. 

In considering their position it would be erroneous to compare 
them with either the patriarch of an eastern tribe or the chieftain 
of a sept or clan. In their relations with their peasantry the family 
tie entered not at all. Either they had very few blood relations 
living in dependence on them, or, as was more common, the young- 
er branches of their families threw off allegiance altogether and 
established separate states. In the complete absence of any pre- 
tence of common origin with the mass of the people, they most 
nearly resembled the feudal lords of mediaeval Europe. But here 
again the resemblance is only superficial. What made the Oudh 
barons so strong is that they were a necessary element in the 
religious system of the country. Their race had been set apart 
by immemorial tradition and the sanction of all sacred literar 
ture as the wielders and representatives of Hindu power. The 
Chhattri ruler was as indispensable as the Brahman priest, and 
his might and magnificence were — and are — still gloried in by 
the people as the visible manifestation of their national prosperity. 
"With his destruction the national system is broken up, and it is 
this fact which commands for him the unquestioning obedience, 
and it may almost be said the enthusiastic afiection, of his subjects 
— an obedience and afiection which can never be conciliated by the 
best rulers of a foreign race and religion. His position was then 
in its essential qualities that of the national king, however small 
his territories may have been, and his functions were distinctly 
royal. He was the natural receiver of the share of the cultivators' 
produce which formed the principal source of revenue ; he assess- 
ed and collected all the other taxes within his domain, the tran- 
sit and ferry dues, the imposts on bazars, and the fees paid by 
the owners of stills and looms. It illustrates the blindness of the 
Muhammadans to their rights and duties as governors that they 
hardly ever contested these small taxes with him, but confined 
their rapacity to the one very lucrative source of income— the 
land. Eight up to annexation we find the rdjas who had then 
become taluqdars still collecting the minor taxes all over their 
domains, even in cases where they had lost nearly every one of 
their ancestral villages. Besides being the receiver of the re- 
venue, the Hindu chief called out the militia of his territory for 
war at his own sole will and with an authority which was never, 
disputed. He apportioned out the waste lands to tenants for, 
cultivation, decided the suits of his subjects in his cutcherry, and 
enjoyed, besides, a number of varying rights in wild produce re- 
sembling the rights attached to an English manor. 

The last hundred years contain the history of the conversion, 
of thQ raja into the taluqdar. With the exception that there is le^ 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

bloodshed and fewer of the horrors which attended the struggle 
elsewhere, Gonda presents so typical an instance of the pro- 
cess which was going on all over the province that no apology 
is needed for substituting the plain story of its events for a more 
general description. Raja Datt Singh had extended the con- 
quests of his father and grandfather, and ruled over a small 
state which stretched from the Gogra to the Kuwana, covering 
an area of about twelve hundred square miles. When Saddat 
Khan re-established Muhammadan supremacy in Oudh, the rdja 
extorted from his weakness a semi-independent position, which left 
him in undisturbed possession of his fief on the payment of an 
annual tribute. This position was maintained till near the end of 
the eighteenth century, when Shiva Parshad Singh, the last 
of the real rajas, was defeated and slain in battle with the 
Lucknow forces led by a British oflScer. The chief of the servants 
of his raj was Chain Pdnde, a banker, who had brought his capital 
from Ikauna to trade with it under the Gonda chieftain. The 
death of Shiva Parshad Singh left a legal heir in his nephew, 
Guman Singh, a lad of ten years of age, and a brother, Hind<ipat 
Singh, to administer affairs during the minority. Chain Pdnde, 
the old banker, had died, and his three sons, Karia, Bakhtawar, 
and Mardan, commanded the Gonda militia and exercised an un- 
remitting vigilance over the interests of the youthful raja. It 
was not till they discovered that his life was in daily peril from 
the machinations of his guardian, who would by his death 
acquire an undisputed right to the succession, that they inter- 
fered. Hindiipat Singh and all his children were murdered, 
and the Oudh Government, making the event a pretext for dis- 
regarding its previous engagements, sent a force to occupy the 
state and take Gum^n Singh prisoner. A few years of capti- 
vity at Lucknow were ended by his marriage with the daughter 
of the celebrated Jagjiwan Das of Kotwa, whose influence as a 
religious teacher secured even at a Muhammadan court attention 
to his demands. On his return to his territories he discovered 
that they had been made the appanage of the Bahii Begam, and 
that her officers exercised rule and collected the rents. His sub- 
sistence was provided for by the grant of a few villages and a 
small annual payment in cash from the income of his raj. In time 
the intelligent and humane officer, Saif-ud-daula, who adminis- 
tered the country for the Muhammadan Government, gave place 
to feeble and incompetent successors, who found the best security 
for their collections in the influence and comparative wealth 
of the dispossessed raja. On the other hand, the villagers 
themselves were apt to look up to him as their natural head, and 



Xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

preferred the managieinent by his servants to the unrepressed 
extortions of a rabble of Muhammadan soldiers. 

With him had returned the Pande brothers, who had partici-' 
pated in his exile, and their even superior wealth, their distin- 
guished position and abilities, and their Brahman caste, miade 
them not inferior to the raja himself as a mainstaiy to officials 
pressed from Lucknow for rents which they could not feaKze, 
and as a refuge to village owners groaning under the intolerable 
tyranny of the nazim's subordinates. Two separate estates grew 
up within the old territories of the raj, as one village affcier 
another, and often whole clusters of villages in a single year, 
were joined to the revenue engagements of either the rdja or the 
Pande, and at annexation the former held an estate of 250 the 
latter of 350 square miles. These events are, as it has been saidj 
typical of what was going on all over the province. Everywhere 
the r^jas were stripped of their old position and replaced by 
Government officials ; everywhere they retained a footing, either 
by peaceful residence or by the maintenance through bands of 
desperate outlaws of a continual state of warfare ; the officers 
of the king found it everywhere impossible to realize the revenue 
without the intervention of some powerful local chief or in- 
fluential capitalist. The result was that there grew up out of 
the old raj system a system of large estates, consisting each of a 
number of villages arbitrarily collected under a single revenue 
engagement. The old rdj boundaries were rarely maintained, 
except in the distant regions to the north, where the influence 
of the king's government was only feebly and fitfully exercised. 
But the new taluqdars were almost always the old feudal lords, 
and in the few instances of what were known at annexation as 
auction taluqas, it involves no great license of historical con- 
jecture to say that they must eventually have returned to the 
old chieftainships from the lands of which they had been cut 
out. 

Before dealing with the other classes connected with the soil, 
it is necessary to define what is meant by land revenue with 
as much briefness as is consistent with an understanding of the- 
relations which subsisted between the subordinate tenants and- 
their lords. 

Land revenue, as it existed for time out of mind in India, was 
the portion of the gross produce of his fields which the occupant 
paid to the state. This has been assessed at different shares by 
different rulers and by the same ruler under differing circum- 
stances. Akbar fixed it at one-third, and the rule in Oudh during* 
historical times has been for the tenant to pay one-half of the/ 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlvii; 



.produce after deducting the expenses of cultivation, an arrangement 
by which the state got about a third. Theoretically there was no 
such thing as rent or landlord. The gross produce was piled up on 
the threshing-floor. First the village servants and the labourers 
who helped to get in the harvest or attended to the plough-bul- 
locks took their fixed dues, and what was left was divided equally 
between the cultivator and the state ofiicial. For a very long time, 
however, the theory has only been carried out in rare instances. 
The first modification was the introduction of a middleman 
.between the cultivator and the state, and the simplest form his in- 
tervention took was the following : — The raja appointed a head- 
man, known as muqaddam or mahtau, whose duty it was to keep 
the village under cultivation, superintend the harvesting and divi- 
sion of the grain, and prevent the cultivators from migrating into 
•another territory. For these services he was recompensed by the 
receipt of one-tenth of the heap which formed the raja's share 
of the produce. A further modification was introduced when the 
village was alienated for a valuable consideration and in perpe- 
tuity under a grant of kirt, by which the grantee was allowed a 
quarter of the grain heap on his engaging to pay Government the 
remaining three-fourths. These, however, were only modifications 
of the original plan. A complete revolution was brought about 
by two main causes, the increasing density of the population and 
the influx of large quantities of coined silver. 

It requires but little consideration to understand that a 
tenant can afibrd to pay a larger portion of the gross produce of 
an extensive area under poor cultivation than he can of a smaller 
area under high tillage. As tenements diminished in size the 
gross produce per acre increased, but the tenant's needs remained 
the same, and he had to meet them from the outturn of a smaller 
area. He could only do this by reserving for himself a larger 
portion of the crop. This difficulty was solved by the introduc- 
tion, which has become universal, of a money rent for highly, 
cultivated lands. 

The next factor in the revenue system to be considered is, 
though it has not yet been referred to, perhaps the most import- 
ant of all. Throughout the province there exist in almost every 
village large communities of the higher castes, Brahmans, Chhat- 
tris or Muhammadans, who furnished nearly all the fighting 
power of the rdja. These communities were allowed, under cer- 
tain conditions, to retain the complete management of the villages 
in which they resided, or of definite groups of villages, sometimes 
conferred on them in jdglr, but more often admittedly theirs from 



Xlviii INTRODUCTIOK. 

long prescription. It was to them that the superior authority, 
whether Hindu or Muhammadan, looked for the payment of 
the revenue : and as some fields at least in every village were 
held at money rents, while it was next to impossible to make any 
trustworthy grain appraisement for the large areas which were 
in the direct cultivation of their numerous co-sharers, it became 
the custom to assess them for a lump sum in cash, which was 
generally fixed by a rough conjecture of the outside they could 
be compelled to pay. 

In the case of taluqas, the Lucknow officials similarly took 
the outside which could be safely demanded. There was no real 
principle of assessment, and the proportion of his total income 
paid as 'revenue varied in the case of each taluqdar with the 
means of resistance he had at his command. 

It has now been seen how the original idea of Indian land re- 
venue, as the portion of the gross produce due to the state, was 
modified by the introducticn of money rents, by the growth under 
various circumstances of giMasi-proprietary communities between 
the cultivator and the king, and the co-existence of what were 
practically two hostile governments on the same soil. ' If the 
money paid for the fertile fields round the village site looked 
like rent, and if the cash assessments on the village commu- 
nities and the sums collected from taluqdars by ndzims might 
for convenience be not very improperly described as a land tax, 
it should, however, be remembered that the resemblance is only 
on the surface. The old system continued to form men's notions 
on all things connected with the possession of the soil and its 
liabilities. It influenced every transaction. In many localities it 
was still in full force, and it remained the ultimate standard of 
reference in disputes as to the amount of payment to be made in 
any particular instance. Even now if any tenant objects to the 
amount demanded from him it is far from uncommon for the 
landlord to agree with him to resort to the old grain division, and 
the procedure was still more frequent before annexation. If the 
value of the produce received by the landlord is less than the 
cash rent he demanded, his demand was shown to be extortionate: 
if not, the tenant was convinced of its justice. At any rate, till 
the introduction of European forms of thought, the very idea of a 
landlord absolutely owning the land and at liberty to put it up to 
competition and knock it down to the highest bidder had never 
entered the minds of the people. The rights of the over-proprie- 
tor were confined to the receipt of a fixed customary share of the 
produce or the money which represented that share, subject to 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

deductions in favour of the middle classes which intervened be- 
tween the taluqdar or the Muhammadan government and the 
actual tiller of the soil. Whatever other rights he possessed — and 
it is not to be denied that he could evict tenants at his will, just as 
the English parliament can confiscate private property at will — 
were derived not from any private ownership, but from the same 
source as gave him the miscellaneous taxes and the command of 
the militia, his theoretical position as head of the petty state. 

The above review has made us acquainted with all the prin- 
cipal classes of agricultural society in Oudh at annexation : the 
ndzim or king's officer, the taluqdar grown out of the raja or 
the capitalist, the village communities basing their title on pur- 
chase, military grant, or immemorial prescription, and the culti- 
vator himself. Only the muafidar (or assignee in special cases 
of the land revenue) has been omitted, as his case was not one 
of general importance or interest. The sketch will be completed 
by a short account of village communities and their relations 
with superior powers. 

The original assessment under which they paid their land 
revenue was in all cases, whether they held as birtias on sale or 
as old subordinate zamindars from prescriptive right, based on 
an appraisement of the value of the gross produce of the village 
lands. Their special privileges were of two kinds. A stated 
deduction, varying from one-tenth to one-fourth, was made from 
the state share in their favour. And the state share from the 
fields in their own cultivation was fixed at a lower proportion to 
the gross produce than in the case of unprivileged cultivators. 
The former right was converted into cash when the total payment 
on the village was assessed in money and was then known as nan- 
kar. When once it had been so converted it almost always 
remained stationary, and lost all proportion to the gross assess- 
ment. Thus, a village revenue would originally be assessed at 
Rsl 400. Against this a deduction of Es. 100 would be allowed 
as nankar to the village zamindars. In the course of time culti- 
vation increased and the village was assessed at Rs, 1,000, but 
the nankar still remained Rs. 100. Again, a hostile taluqdar 
laid the whole waste, and the villagers were all either killed or 
in flight. The Government papers would then show assessment 
Es. 100; deduct nankdr, Rs. 100; net payable, nothing. Still, 
though it ceased to vary with the assessment, the nankdir allow- 
ance was subject to revision on the application of the zamindar. 
The second right, that is to say, cultivation at favourable rates, 
was never perhaps wholly absent from the calculation when the 
village owners held their whole village on the condition of a 
"* 7 



1 INTBODTJCTION. 

lump revenue payment, but it became of very great importance 
when the taluqdar or ndzim put them aside and collected direct 
from the individual cultivators. Then their sir lands, as they 
were called, either paid very low rates in comparison with other 
tenants or remained altogether unassessed. It was not uncom- 
mon for the superior landlord when he took over the village 
management to set apart a certain area, either at no rent at all or 
at a fixed low rent, in favour of the community, but it was more 
usual to extend the privilege to all the lands they held themselves 
whether the area was great or small. 

The general position of these village communities was not 
a bad one. They had no absolute right to the control of the 
whole village, but they were generally allowed it from motives 
of convenience, and the hold which their high caste and residence 
on the spot gave them over the other cultivators, put great diffi- 
culties in the way of interference against their will. They very 
frequently, however, did willingly consent to relinquish a control 
which made them responsible for a heavy assessment, and in 
other cases the taluqdar was strong enough to manage the vil- 
lage himself without consulting them. In either case, whether 
their dispossession of the whole village was against or with their 
consent, they always retained their low- rented sir and usually 
the cash nankar. Other circumstances combined to render their 
position tolerable. When the assessment became too high they 
defaulted. In a year or two the ndzim was changed. There was 
no continuity of Government, and their default became a for- 
gotten and undemanded arrear ; or if things came to the worst, 
they could retire to a neighbouring jungle, burn the crops and 
house of any one who attempted to cultivate, and leave the 
ndzim the alternative of re-admitting them at a reduced demand, 
and with arrears wiped off, or of deriving no income at all from 
their village. A third course still more frequently adopted was 
for them to ofi^er their village to a powerful taluqdar, whose 
interest would induce him to assess them moderately, join their 
force with his in resisting the demands of the Lucknow officials, 
and secure a low revenue payment for the whole estate. Besides 
the means at their command for resisting exactions, the profits 
of their villages were supplemented from other sources. Very 
large numbers found employ in the Company's armies, and not only 
-relieved the pressure on the soil, but remitted their savings to 
add to the wealth of the community. Still more were engaged 
in the large forces which the unsettled position of every taluqdar 
•compelled him to maintain, and not a few drew pay from the 
King of Oudh. All these causes contributed to make them as a 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

body fairly well off. The provision which their firm hold on the 
soil secured for their families gave them a social position inde« 
pendent of their caste, and enabled them to seek in marriage 
the daughters of clans who would have at once rejected the 
advances of men of the same class but not village zamindars. 

The power to which we are the more direct successors claims 
some separate notice, though the most important of its effects on 
the history of the country have already been detailed. Of the six 
potentates who filled the throne of Lucknow in the present cen- 
tury, two only paid any attention to the government of their 
subjects or their own more immediate interests in the state. The 
rest remained sunk in a sensual apathy or absorbed in ferocious 
excitements, unmoved by the constant remonstrances of the British 
residents, careless of the dishonesty and treachery of the servants 
they employed, blind to the emptiness of their treasury, and deaf 
to the cries of an oppressed people. The hideous palaces with 
which their bad taste and vulgar extravagance had defaced Luck- 
now were impenetrable fastnesses, where public affairs were never 
allowed to intrude for a moment on the more important avo- 
cations of selecting a new courtesan, criticising lifeless erotic 
poetry, or rewarding the insipid flattery of a swarm of low-caste 
hangers-on. Not even the national passion for distinction could 
reconcile the more manly, not of the outside public, but of the 
king's own servants to honours prostituted by every revolting 
use, and the great nazims, Darshan Singh and Mdn Singh, 
steadily declined any title which bore the stamp of the court. 

The prime ministers who were entrusted with the adminis- 
tration of the state present a hardly more attractive picture. 
Muhammadans and hangers-on of the court, they cared nothing 
and knew nothing of the interests of a population which was in 
the main Hindu. Under no control and insecure in the slippery 
tenure of their office, they had no reason for being honest, no 
other end but the provision of resources against the inevitable 
day of their disgrace. Two things, and two only, were demanded 
of them by the necessities of their position — money for the 
pleasures of their master, and a fortune for themselves. It was 
no wonder that they were absolutely indifferent to the means by 
which the treasury was filled, or that at least half of an income 
of a million S'terlingwas appropriated to the personal use of them- 
selves and their king. 

The country under them was parcelled into revenue charges, 
which varied in number at different times, but were on an aver- 
age somewhat smaller than the districts of the present day. To ' 
these were appointed ofiicers with the title of n^zim or chakladar 



lii INTRODUCTION". 

accordiag to the extent of the charge but with equal powers 
and the same duties. Those duties were pratjtically confined to 
the realization of as much money as could be extracted from the 
land, and to this all other considerations were subordinated. We 
have already seen the difficulties with which the constitution 
of the xural society hampered their task, And their position neces- 
sitated the maintenance of a considerable armed force. The un- 
disciplined rabble which followed their camp was supplemented by 
more regular forces commanded by British officers, and stationed 
at convenient points ail over the country. With a few excep- 
tions they were reared at court, and incapacitated by their educa- 
tion and prejudices from \inderstanding the society over which 
they were placed. They neither knew nor cared whether their 
rule was mild or oppressive so long as they could remit sufficient 
sums to save themselves from disgrace at headquarters, and real- 
ize enough over and above to provide for themselves and their re- 
tinues of needy dependents. 

The two native sovereigns who must be exempted from the 
reproach of absolute indifference to their duties were Saddat Ali 
Khan, who ruled from 1798 to 1814, and Muhammad Ali Shah, 
who occupied the throne between 1837 and 1842 A.D. The 
first of these signalized his reign by two measures of the highest 
importance, the thorough revision of the land revenue, and a series 
of regulations for the export of grain, which were meant to pro- 
vide against the periodical famines to which the province is liable, 
and the most terrible of which was at the time yet fresh in men's 
memories. The principal objects effected by the revenue reform 
were the separate assessment of every village, and the impositionof 
a fair tax on the countless plots of land which the prodigal liberality 
of his predecessors had exempted from contributing to the state 
treasury. The work was well carrieid out, and served as the basis 
of the land revenue demand right up to annexation. There can 
be little doubt that the grain laws, which prohibited exportation 
when the price of flour fell below 40tt)S. for a rupee, were dictat- 
ed by a statesman-like appreciation of what were at the time the 
real needs of his kingdom. 

The reforms of Muhammad Ali Shah were more excellent in 
their intention than appreciable in their effects. The first was 
the attempt to organize a machinery for the administration of 
justice ; the second, the substitution of the amani for the ijdra 
system in distributing the revenue appointments. The judicial 
reform was never more than a dead letter. All the officers ap- 
pointed were Muhammadans, and the Muhammadan law only 
was to govern every tribunal. The judges were subjected to no 



INTRODUCTION, liii 

control, and acknowledged no responsibility. Their only object 
was to make their places as profitable as possible to themselves. 
They had, moreover, no power to see that their judgments were 
executed, and the ndzims were too much engaged in the realiza- 
tion of the revenue, and -too utterly indifferent to the disputes of 
the people among themselves, to interfere in their support. 
Lastly, the law itself was one which did not meet the require- 
ments or satisfy the sense of justice of the mass of litigants, and 
denied the Hindu all remedy as against the Muhammadan. 
The people of course preferred their own panchayats and the 
cutcherries of their ancestral chieftains to a resort to courts whose 
first object was to extort a heavy bribe, who were powerless of 
action, and whose orders conveyed either a redress which was 
inapplicable or no redress at all. 

That so much importance should have been attached at 
the time to the measure by which revenue appointments were 
made subject to the payment of a fixed annual sum, instead of 
being as heretofore exposed to auction in open market, is only 
one of the things which show how imperfect was the information 
of the Calcutta Government in all the affairs of Oudh. In prin- 
ciple no doubt the measure was admirable ; but with an apathetic 
king and ministers and officials bent on nothing but private ends, 
who was to superintend its execution ? 

The only difierence it made was one of account to the ndzims 
and chakladars. Money, which was before collected as govern- 
ment revenue and appropriated by the collector, after he had 
paid the sum for Which his appointment had been knocked down, 
now was realized as nazrdna, or took any one of the numerous 
channels which official dishonesty is ingenious in devising. The 
loss to the revenue was shown either in a diminished rent-roll or 
in arrears beyond the hope of recovery. The receipts of the 
state continued to decrease, while the actual collections were as 
before limited only by the nazim's power of extortion, and 
neither the king nor the people were in the slightest degree 
affected by the change. 

These, then, were the elements of the society which came 
under British rule. The king, who exercised no royal functions, 
but was simply a heavy charge on the public treasury — the 
corrupt and infamous capital — the ministers insecure in their 
offices and alive to no interest but their own — the empty courts, 
which denied justice and suffered every crime and every villany 
to triumph unchecked from one end of the land to the other — have 
all passed away, and the place is taken by our own administrative 
machinery. The stable elements which remained for us to deal 



liv INTRODUCTION. 

with were a population of industrious labourers holding their 
lands on rents fixed by custom, a system of yeoman commu- 
nities in possession of varying rights in almost every village, 
and a number of great landowners generally the representatives 
of the old Chhattri chieftains, but in a few instances capitalists 
who had been called into an abnormal position by the abnormal 
, circumstances of the time, elements all knit together by a polity 
which was older than the oldest tradition, and ready when left 
to their own unchecked action to resume their ancient places 
in the immemorial structure. 



CHAPTER IV. 



If the promise of events is to bear fruit in fulfilment, Febru- 
ary 13th, 1856, is the most important day in the whole annals 
of Oudh, for it was then for the first time that its society was 
brought under the influence of a power with solvents strong 
enough to disintegrate eventually its compact organization. Our 
first essay on administration was based on ignorance and ended in 
disaster. The ofiicers who were entrusted with the all-important 
work of settling the land revenue had been imbued with the 
principles of the so-called Thomasonian school, and shared the 
prejudices of the only native society with which they had been 
personally acquainted, that of the court. The first told them 
that the village communities were the only element in the 
country which deserved to be maintained ; the second that the 
taluqdars were a set of grasping interlopers, in arms against the 
officials and tyrants to the people, whose sole object was to 
defraud Government of its revenue. The result was that orders 
were issued to disregard them wherever it was possible, and to 
take the engagements everywhere from the yeoman classes. In 
fact, the policy which Lucknow had for so many years been en- 
deavouring to put in practice was to be carried out at once by 
main force. The instructions were well acted up to. The chieftains 
were stripped of nearly all their villages and a settlement made 
in which they were entirely left out of consideration. What the 
result would have been it is difficult to conjecture. But little more 
than a year had elapsed when the great sepoy nmtiny broke out, 
and allowed them to show that it was easier to deprive them of 
their property than of their influence. The English power had 
hardly fallen when they at once resumed more than their former 
position. Again they collected the revenue without question 
throughout their territories ; again the armed levies rallied around 
them against the stranger ; and long after the defeat of the muti- 
neers, they had to be subdued one by one and their forts razed to 
the ground before the authority of Government could be re-estab- 
lished. 

One thing at least had been made evident, that policy and 
ju&tice alike forbade their being overlooked in the new settlement 
which the pacification of the province necessitated. The leading 
principle of the second revenue settlement, whose main lines re- 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

main intact to the present day, was to preserve the status of the 
various classes at annexation. The taluqdars as they gave in their 
adhesion were invested with all the villages they had held in the last 
year of native rule, and the lists they furnished were confirmed 
after a summary inspection by the local officers. Soon after the 
arrangement was ratified by the Governor-General, who engaged 
that their titles should be protected from all question subject to 
the maintenance of any subordinate rights which might be proved 
against them. The interference of the civil courts was precluded 
by a proclamation which declared the whole land of the province 
confiscate for rebellion and free to be disposed of by Government 
as it thought fit, and they were further secured by sanads in which 
Governmentexpresslyconveyedtoeachof them separately the lands 
they had claimed as their own. Mortgage by the village zamindari 
communities was one of the many forms under which the villages 
had been attached to the chieftains' engagement, and it was subse- 
quently enacted that the terms of the Governor-General's grant 
did not prevent the redemption of such mortgages if executed 
within a specified period of limitation. But though a few villages 
have passed out of their estates under this rule, it has not 
materially afi'ected their position. Finally, their legal status 
was clearly set forth, and the principles by which the devolution 
of their properties was to be governed determined by Act (Act I. 
of 1869.) 

The next class to be dealt with were the middlemen 
between the chief and the cultivator, to whom the name of 
zamindar has been appropriated in Oudh, Those who had engaged 
direct with Government previous to annexation were maintained 
in their position, and enrolled as landowners responsible for the 
revenue of their several villages. The remainder, whose pro- 
perties formed the units out of which the greater part of the 
taluqas had been made up, were at first held entitled, under 
the reservation of subordinate rights made when the sanads 
were issued, to such rights and such only as they could prove 
themselves to have possessed in the last year of native rule, the 
object being to reproduce as exactly as possible the proprietary 
status of the various orders at the moment when we took over 
the country. The sanads had originally done these men a great 
injury by creating a presumption of full proprietary title in 
favour of their over-lord and throwing on them the whole burden 
of the proof that their subordinate rights were in existence. 
The taluqdar's title had been accepted on his mere Word after 
what was often a nominal scrutiny : theirs had to go through 
the ordeal of a civil court. It was soon found that to restrict 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

their proof to the circumstances of a single year entailed intoler- 
able injustice and hardship, and they were allowed to claim any 
rights of _ which their possession could be shown within the twolve 
years which preceded annexation. The strongest of their rights 
was to hold the whole village in perpetuity at a rent fixed by the 
courts, failing that, they might be decreed the sir lands] or nank^r 
allowances, such as have been described in the last chapter, their 
groves, their tanks, or their houses, manorial rights in waste lands, 
and the small dues which were levied by the proprietor from the 
lower classes of cultivators. It was afterwards considered that 
to constitute a body of middlemen who intercepted the passage 
of the rent from the actual cultivators to the men from whom 
Government realized its revenue was impolitic, and in 1866 an 
Act was passed demanding a strictness and comprehensiveness of 
proof for cases in which whole villages were claimed in sub-set- 
tlement, which made the majority of such claims practically 
hopeless of success ; at the same time, a few clauses were added 
which facilitated the establishment of rights in sir, and tended to 
maintain the zamindars in the possession of all the lands in their 
immediate occupation at the lowest rent compatible with the 
interests of the state. The same policy was followed in the Rent 
Act of 1868, which in one of its sections secured a right of oc- 
cupancy in the fields ploughed by themselves to any ex-proprietors 
who had been unsuccessful under the former regulations. 

It has been seen that subordinate rights had been created, 
not only by long prescription, but in some parts of the province 
still more frequently by recent contract. These contract sub- 
proprietors based their title on deeds of what was known as hirt 
or shanhalap, granted them by the taluqdars for a valuable con- 
sideration. Their case never formed the subject of legislation, 
but was dealt with under the ordinary rules of civil law,* and 
such rights passing under their purchase were decreed them as 
they could prove to have been enjoyed vdthin the legal period of 
limitation. These sales in the northern districts constantly ex- 
tended to whole villages — in some cases, almost a whole pargana 
had been so conveyed — and there, at any rate the middlemen 
who had been carefully guarded against when of the class of 
old zamindars received full recognition. More frequently and 
more widely throughout the province the sales applied to small 
plots of land, and resulted in the creation of a class of small tene- 
ments held under decree at a low rate of rent. 

The position of the ordinary cultivators soon received pro- 
minent notice and became the subject of a lengthy nvestigat'on, 

8 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

The blue-book which contained the results of the inquiry proved 
two things — that the landowners did constantly evict tenants 
during the nawabi, and' that rents were fixed by custom and not 
by competition ; but ifc is doubtful whether the real relations 
which subsisted between the cultivator and the raja were as well 
understood then as they are now. There was no legislative inter- 
ference with the position of tenants without special rights till the 
Kent Act of 1868, which established competition as the sole basis 
of their relations with their landlords, legalized eviction while it 
prescribed the procedure and restrictions under which it was to 
be enforced, and secured compensation for improvements made 
at the tenant's own cost. 

It had been seen from the first that the realization of the 
revenue would be impossible unless all the various and conflicting 
interests in the soil were clearly defined, and the officers who 
were appointed to make the assessment were constituted civil 
courts for their adjudication and embodiment in a complete record 
of rights. After long and bitter litigation, that task has now 
been nearly accomplished, and it is possible to form an approxi- 
mately accurate idea of the distribution of the land of the pro- 
vince among the various classes holding recognized rights in it. 

The units of property are, as has been stated above, the vil- 
lages, of which the country contains 25,842, with an average area 
of a little less than a square mile each. Of these, 15,553 are 
divided among 410 properties, which pay an annual revenue to 
Government of upwards of £500 each ; the remaining 10,290 are 
held by 6,950 village communities. So, roughly speaking, the 
the old chieftains have retained three-fifths of the province ; two- 
fifths have escaped them altogether, and belong to the classes 
intermediate between them and the cultivator. 

The returns of tenures are not quite complete, but they are 
sufficiently so to prove that rather more than a tenth of the 
625,000 tenants of the province hold on decree an area amount- 
ing to a third of the whole cultivation, and enjoy proprietary pri- 
vileges against the landowners who are responsible for the Gov- 
ernment revenue. The size of the ordinary farm held by single 
cultivators without rights is about four acres. 

The village communities are generally large coparcenary 
societies, containing each a number of separate properties, who 
either hold the lands in common, dividing what escapes of the 
rents when all charges have been paid ; or have divided all the 
lands, and collect and defray, each of them separately, the rents 
and charges on their divided share of the property ; or hold some 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

of the lands in the same property in common and others severally. 
The 7,000 village communities which know no superior land- 
lord contain more than 60,000 proprietors, whose ill-defined 
rights and constant disputes form a perennial source of trouble and 
litigation. The soil, therefore, parcelled out in tiny farms of four 
acres each, has to support, besides the cultivators themselves, 
about 400 large landowners, above 60,000 small proprietors, and 
rather more than that number of sub-proprietors holding an in- 
termediate position between the cultivators and the landlord; 
and above all, comes the great landlord — the State, with its un- 
varying and inexorable demand. 

The land revenue demand under the late king's government 
rose within the last ten years of its existence from £1,399,000 
to £2,702,000; but the value of the accounts of the royal trea- 
sury may be estimated when we find that, within the same period 
of enormous nominal increase, the actual receipts fell from 
£1,318,000 to £1,063,000. Besides this, there were practically no 
taxes of any importance. When we assumed charge of the pro- 
vince a rough assessment was made, on the basis of the accounts 
for the five years preceding, at a little over a million sterling. 
Officers were very soon appointed to fix the land demand on a 
more scientific basis for thirty years, and as their estimates came 
in the revenue gradually rose, till now, at the conclusion of the 
work of revision, it stands at about one and a half million. The 
chief remaining taxes are the excise on spirits and the stamps on 
valuable securities and applications to the courts, which yield- 
ed last year £73,000 and £93,000 respectively. Miscellaneous 
sources which do not properly come under the head of taxation 
yield some £65,000 more, to which the principle contributions are 
£28 000 from the Government forests and £16,000 from the post- 
office. There are, besides, two other great sources from which thei 
imperial treasury draws an income — the first, in the strictest sense 
of the word, a tax ; the second, the profits of a trade, for which 
the people of the country only provide the material at a fair price 
and with no loss to themselves. At the lowest estimate the Oudh 
peasant pays the exchequer £200,000 annually for the salt he 
consumes, and a profit t»f £500,000 is derived from the trade in 
the opium which he grows. 

The taxes proper, then, are those on the land, the salt, litiga- 
tion and civil contracts, and spirituous liquors, and they yield 
altogether about £1,865,000 annually to the State, which derives 
a further income of nearly £600,000 from sources which involve 
no drain on the country and are analogous to the receipts from 



Ix INTRODUCTION. 

private enterprise. The total cost of administration amounts to 
J565,000, leaving a surplus to be credited to the empire of 
£1,300,000 from the actual taxation, or more than two-thirds of 
the whole sum realized, while the total imperial income, including 
the profits of the great monopolies and after satisfying all local 
charges, amounts to £1,900,000, or over 75 per cent, of the gross 
receipts. 

Many branches of the local administration — ^the jails, the po- 
lice, the educational and medical establishments, registration, and 
municipal charges — are shown in a separate account, and the im- 
perial subvention of £220,000, already included in the preceding 
paragraph as part of the ordinary expenses of administration, has 
to be reinforced by further local taxation in rates, cesses, octroi 
and ferry dues, and other miscellaneous impositions, yielding an 
annual revenue of about £375,000. 

The administration is of the ordinary non-regulation type, 
the province being divided into twelve districts, each under a 
deputy commissioner, with four commissioners and a Chief Com- 
missioner to supervise the whole. The j udicial work is transac- 
ted entirely by the administrative ofiicers, with a separate high 
court in the judicial commissioner as an ultimate resort of ap- 
peal. Each deputy commissioner has at his disposal a small 
staff of European and native assistant and extra assistant com- 
missioners and tahsildars. When this arrangement was made the 
population was estimated at six millions, or only half its real 
amount, while the land revenue was only two-thirds of what it 
stands at present. The consequence is that the charges are very 
heavy, much more heavy indeed than in any other part of India. 
The average population under the control of a single officer is 
little short of a million, or rather less than twice as much as in 
the Punjab, more than twice as much as in the Central Provinces, 
and exceeding British Burmah and Berar in a very much higher 
population. The amount of the work to be done is determined 
mainly by the number of the people, and in an Oudh district is 
not only heavier beyond aU comparison than that in the districts 
of any other non-regulation province, but equals in the revenue 
department, while it exceeds in every other, the work for which 
a collector in the North- West, with his vastly more elaborate 
and more expensive establishments and the experience of nearly 
a century of English rule, is responsible. 

The main innovations on the rule of our predecessors, for 
which the province is indebted to us, are as follows : — The neces- 
sary force which is at the root of all order has been completely 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixi 



reorganised; tlie persons by whom it is wielded have been changed, 
and its instruments and methods defined. Where formerly three 
hundred native chiefs executed their commands through the 
first handful of stalwart adherents available for the purpose, twelve 
deputy commissioners now carry out the orders of the courts 
and the administration, and repress offences against social order 
through men set apart as the official servants of the community. 
In the punishment of the more heinous forms of crime the 
change has been eminently beneficial, and the certainty and sever- 
ity of the penalties inflicted on the offences by which it is threat, 
ened have ensured a security to life which in the anarchy of 
twenty years ago would have seemed an impossible dream. The 
same remark applies to the safety of property against open force ; 
but it may be doubted whether the more humane treatment 
of the minor classes of crime has not led to an increase of 
theft. 

For the enforcement of civil liabilities, our courts have pro- 
vided means expeditious and trustworthy beyond anything that 
has been known in the province before, and in themselves exceed- 
ingly cheap, though the expenses of the heavier classes of cases 
are raised by the high fees demanded by legal practitioners, a 
kind of man who wherever he is allowed to exist will always be 
detested and employed. Just and prompt in their decisions, the 
tribunals are greatly hampered by the unceasing press of work, to 
which the scantiness of their numbers and other multifarious 
calls on their time expose them, in seeing that their orders are 
properly carried into effect. 

An elaborate scheme of education embraces every part of the 
province. Schools have been established within easy distances 
throughout all the districts, and an elementary education is offered 
at the expense of the State to every child of whatever position in 
life. More advanced subjects of study are taught in the schools 
of all large towns, and in Lucknow there is a college (with a 
separate establishment for the sons of the taluqdars) where 
almost every branch of western or oriental learning may be 
acquired. The opportunities of knowledge are eagerly welcomed 
by the keen intellect and inquisitive temper of the people, and 
the new institutions are already thronged by some sixty thousand 
pupils. The cause of' education is further advanced by the pri- 
vate enterprise of Munshi Newal Kishor at Lucknow, whose busy 
press disseminates, even beyond the utmost limits of the empire, 
a cheap, abundant, and useful literature, and is of greater public- 
benefit and importance than many State institutions. Another 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

impetus is given to the free exchange of thought by the cheap 
and efficient organization of the post-office. 

Perhaps the most effective and judicious method by 
which the State can promote the wealth of the people is the 
opening out of easy communications for trade, and this duty has 
not been lost sight of During the native rule there were no out- 
lets but the great river thoroughfares, which were reached only 
by difficult and dangerous cart-tracks, open one year and plough- 
ed up at the caprice of the men through whose lands they 
passed the next, where the slow and heavy bullock-carts were 
delayed on their long journeys by endless detours and the con- 
stant danger of being upset or broken to pieces. The streams 
by which the country is intersected were crossed on rudely con- 
structed rafts and boats, and in the rains were often wholly 
impassable. "Within the last twenty years all the principal 
rivers, except the Gogra below its junction with the Sarju, 
have i)een bridged at convenient intervals, and a bridge of boats 
makes the passage of even that formidable water perfectly easy 
during eight months in the year. Metalled roads of unsurpas- 
sable smoothness and excellence connect most of the principal 
towns, and the rough cart-tracks, which are the indigenous 
means of transit, have been entrusted to a special department 
to be repaired and preserved from encroachment. Lastly, a line 
of railway has j ust been completed which brings Lucknow, the 
centre of the province, into easy communication with Shdhja- 
hdnpur, Cawnpore, Benares, and the great timber mart at Bahram 
ghat. 

An effort has been made to familiarize the people with the 
principles of self-government as understood by ourselves by 
the institution of municipalities, where the residents of the chief 
centres of trade and population decide on matters connected with 
the health and internal police of their towns, and the means by 
which the necessary local expenses may be met. Dispensaries 
scattered all over the country bring the most useful drugs of the 
European pharmacopoeia and the advice of trained native doctors 
within the reach of the poorest classes. The general principles 
of sanitation are being constantly inculcated, and an elaborate 
system of returns of vital statistics endeavours to lay bare all 
facts important to the health of the province. 

Prom the near stand-point of a contemporary, and in the 
very midst of the events, it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to 
form a correct opinion of the ultimate tendency of all these 
great measures of change, and yet the question is of the most 



INTRODUCTION. Ixiii 

absorbing interest of any that can be asked. Some provisional 
answer is absolutely essential for intelligent action, and a few 
facts at any rate are clear beyond the possibility of controversy. 
It can hardly be doubted that the interests of the finest class in 
the country, that of the nobles and warlike yeoman proprietors, 
have been injuriously affected. Sales of land are of alarming fre- 
quency. Landlords who remain are struggling with difficulties 
that tax them to the utmost, and a large number of the greater 
estates, with an annual income of £400,000, have only been saved 
from certain ruin by the generous and politic action of Govern- 
ment in taking their debts upon itself. The subject was alluded 
to with the following remarks in the ^nnual report of 1873 : — 

It is owing to our system that tlie thousands who formerly aided the soil 
with their earnings sent from afar are now living on it a dead burden where they 
were formerly an active support. It is owing to our system that girls are reared 
in hundreds, not only to be so many more mouths to feed, but to involve their 
fathers still deeper in debt to meet their marriage expenses. It is owing to our 
system that men are no longer allowed to kill themselves by scores in agrarian 
quarrels ; that the march of famine and epidemic disease is checked ; that quinine 
is being brought to the door of every fever-stricken sufferer ; and that in every 
district there are sanitary measures in progress which have for their object the miti- 
gation of disease and the prevention of death. Owing to these causes the popula- 
tion which have only the land to look to for their support are annually becoming 
more and more numerous. The consequences are not difficult to foresee. When 
the land cannot yield more than is sufficient for the mouths dependent on its pro- 
duce, it follows that nothing is left wherewith to meet the demands of the State, 
which claims one-half of the rental, or any other demand. From whatever quarter 
the demand is made the people are unable to meet it, and the land, which is the 
security for the claim, must be transferred in satisfaction of what is due on it. 

All this is quite true. The stimulus to population derived 
from our leaden peace, and the annihilation by the same cause 
of one of the principal sources of livelihood, are among the most 
unavoidable difficulties with which both the landowning classes 
and our Government are obliged to contend. But the large 
estates are threatened as well as the small, and it cannot be said 
that the taluqdar who owns five hundred villages owes his ruin 
to the increasing numbers of his family or the loss of his em- 
ployment. He would more probably complain of the inexorable 
regularity of the demand, which claimed the utmost that his pro- 
perty could pay on fixed days and without making any allowance 
for his private necessities or the circumstances of his estates. He 
would point out that formerly he met a lower taxation at the 
times when it was most convenient for him to pay ; that he 
would very probably be able to satisfy the present demand if the 
same allowances were made to him, and he was not driven to 
borrow at a ruinous interest money which he was certain ql 



Ixiv INTRODUCTIOW. 

realizing in full a few months later. He would ask you to 
consider that the old and effective means of collecting rent, to 
■which both he and his tenants had been accustomed, "were now 
regarded as criminal offences ; and would urge that, if the use of 
the lathi and the slipper were inconsistent with a more perfect 
order, the State should at any rate provide some substitute ; and 
that if courts were appointed to realize his rents for him, the 
least that could be expected is, that they should be allowed time 
to perform the work efficiently ; and he would probably conclude 
by representing the injustice of arming the official with short, 
stringent methods of exaction from himself, while he for the 
collection of the same money, was allowed only the ineffectual 
procedure of a regular suit against his tenants or under-proprie- 
tors. And these are the chief causes which threaten the landed 
classes : for the less wealthy among them, their increasing num- 
bers and diminished sources of subsistence ; for all, the rigid 
exaction on fixed days of a heavy demand from a property whose 
proceeds fluctuate with every season, the forcible abandonment 
of old and inability to use the new ways of collecting rent, their 
position between a sharp weapon against themselves and a blunt 
weapon in their own hands against their tenantry. 

Of the more general tendencies of our rule one at least is 
equally obvious, the disintegration of the existing structure of 
society. The caste system absolutely requires for its safety the 
ignorance of the lower orders. It is at any rate to the honour of 
our common humanity that no large classes of men will long 
submit to a position of inferiority and degradation when they 
have learnt to distrust the ascribal of it to an unalterable decree 
of fate. The Brahmanical order has as yet perhaps hardly lost 
anything of its old vitality but with schools, railways, news- 
papers, post-offices, and a Government which owes it no respect, 
its doom, if far off, is eventually assured. Yet it should be 
remembered that with all its glaring faults it has been the salt 
of the country that the national character owes it the preserva- 
tion of all that it contains worthy of praise, and that it has sup- 
ported its race for centuries under the unparalleled strain of a 
hostile barbarous despotism. When it is gone, as go it surely 
must, will anything be left in its place, or will the whole country 
be reduced to a dead and hopeless level of slavery ? Or is there 
any middle way which will allow it, by assuming a new de- 
velopment, to meet the altered circumstances? No certain 
answer can be given, but one clear duty is indicated. If the 
possibility of a national rule is to remain — unless we are pre- 



INTRODUCTION. IxV 

pared to stifle all the elements of national order, and by- 
putting nothing in their place to condemn the people to the 
■worst of all fates, political annihilation — we must keep them 
familiarized with the habits and thoughts of Government. It is 
■ttbsolutely necessary that we should associate them with ourselves 
in all departments of the administration, and inform their minds 
and raise their characters by the privileges and responsibilities 
of office. 

Similar, and hardly less important in its effect, is the intro- 
duction of English courts and English forms of legal thought. 
The old despotism practically never interfered in the civil disputes 
of its subjects and rarely stepped in to punish crime. Offences 
against social order were repressed by the summary vengeance 
of the raja when they exceeded, as in the instance of notorious 
dacoits> the limits of endurance, or they were, in the cases to which 
it applied, visited with the penalty of exclusion from caste ; 
civil disputes were arranged when between men of the same 
class by easte arbitration boards, otherwise by the order of the 
local chieftain. The confusion between political and religious 
ordinances, which is one of the principal defects of their faith, 
prevented Muhammadans from applying any but the elaborate 
provisions of their own law when called on to act as judges, 
and their action in that capacity among a people to whom their 
law was either unintelligible or abominable was impossible. That 
a Hindu, for instance, should allow their rules to guide a dispute 
as to the devolution of property or the proprietary status of women 
is simply inconceivable. It resulted that there was nothing to 
obscure in the eyes of the people the administration of their 
owti law by the instruments consecrated to that purpose from 
among themselves by their own immemorial custom. All that 
is now altered. One of these instruments, the chieftain, has been 
entirely superseded, and if men of. different castes disagree they 
are compelled to resort to the arbitrament of our tribunals. The 
decisions of caste panchayats are weakened by the existence of 
a co-ordinate and sometimes superseding jurisdiction. The law 
itself, however much we attempt to enforce it in its completeness, 
is essentially modified by having to work through the forms of a 
foreign procedure and in the mind of a judge tinged with 
foreign lines of thought. It need not be pointed out how power- 
fully this change reacts as a solvent of the old social system of 
the country. 

Of the economical tendency of our rule it is ex-ceedingly 
di£Bx;ult to judge clearly. It has been seen that this is an exclu- 

9 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

sively agricultural country : that the commencement of any other 
form of production is hampered by the division of the people into 
castes, and the absence of every kind of mineral wealth. We 
give its existing resources their utmost value by opening out 
means of communication, but we have not called any new industry 
into life, nor does there seem to be any prospect of doing so at 
present. In return for the economical advantages it receives it 
has to pay for a Government more expensive than any that have' 
preceded it, and which spends the greater part of the money it 
collects beyond the limits of the province. 

In fine, we have to administer a country rich in vegetable 
products and densely inhabited by a people distributed by an 
ancient and unshaken polity into definite and unaltering orders,' 
The beat of these classes is piled up in stratum above stratum of 
proprietors and under-proprietors on the land from which all the 
wealthisderived. The immediate tendency of our rule is unfavour- 
able to the higher classes : to the Brahman because it undermines 
the system on which his power is based by the diffusion of a hostile 
knowledge and by the direct substitution of our courts and forms 
of legal thousrht for his own : to the Chhattri because one of his 
occupations is gone, and his other source of livelihood, the tenure 
of the land, is imperilled by the increasing numbers of the pro- 
prietary population which it is called on to support : by the 
blind rigidity with which Government enforces its demand againsi 
him, and by the withdrawal of the old and substitution of a new 
method of collecting the means by which that demand is. to be 
met. The lower classes have reason to be thankful for their deli- 
very under a strong order from oppression and their advance- 
ment through education. If this is correct, a few lines of policy 
may be clearly indicated. We may more than compensate the 
people for the loss of an old system by fitting them to adopt 
a better. The wisdom of admitting them to the higher ranks of 
the administration has been recognised by the appointment of 
two tried native officials and one young taluqdar of the highest 
family to the rank of assistant commissioner, an appointment 
which would be eagerly welcomed by men of the best blood and 
position. The ruin of the landowning classes, and consequent 
degradation of the fine body of yeoman proprietors, would be an 
indelible stain on our administration, and that Government' is 
keenly alive to this is proved by the repeated revisions of the 
assessment and its direct interposition with a large loan of public 
money to- save the larger estates from their creditors. The evil 
would be sensibly mitigated, perhaps wholly averted, if the deputy 



INTRODUCTION. IxVU 

commissioners, instead of being loaded with fresh burdens, were 
given time to enquire carefully into all the difficulties which 
attended their revenue administration ; if they were free from the 
constant pressure of superior officers, whose distant view disables 
them from forming as true an opinion as themselves, and permit- 
ted a limited discretion ; if the rent courts were regarded not so 
much as tribunals for the registration of decrees, but rather as the 
administrative machinery for realizing rents, and allowed suffi- 
cient leisure and establishments to discharge their proper duties, 
duties which under the present arrangement can hardly fail of 
being almost entirely overlooked. And surely, with the enor- 
mous surplus it pays to the imperial treasury, the province has 
the right to ask for an official staff of sufficient strength to pre- 
serve its property from destruction. 



A GAZETTEER 

OF THK 

PROVIN CE O F OUDH. 

A. TO G. 

AGAl—Pargana RjImpur — Tahsil BihAb — District PARTAEGARH.—This 
town is on th« road to Rae Bareli : the river Sai is three miles to the east. 
Partabgarh is distant twenty-seven miles: Rae Bareli, twenty-eight. It is 
rather a collection of hamlets than a. town. This used to be the border- 
land between the taluqas of Rajapur and Rampur. The population 
amounts to 4,603 Hindus and 107 MusaLtaans. There is a Government 
school attended by 30 children : one temple to DebL On ' Chait ashtimi*' 
there is a fair here, attended by about 1,000 people. 

AHANKXRIPUR — Pargana Amsin — Tahsil 'Fyzabab— District Ftza- 
BAD. — This village is twenty-two miles from Fyzabad; the road to Akbar- 
pur and also the railway pass through it. One Inchha, a Brahman, receiv- 
ed this village as glebe land : he founded a bazar, Goshainganj ; and the 
wife of Madbo Singh, the Barwar Taluqdar, founded another, called Katra. 
The town is called after AhanMri Rae, the Barwar chief, who founded it. 
The population consists of 1,187 Musalmans, all Sunnis, and mostly 
weavers by trade; and 1,779 Hindus. There are two mosques and one 
Government school. There 1.°, a considerable trade in hides carried on 
here; they are exported to Galcutta. 

AHMADNAGAR — Pargana HaidaeABAD — Tahsil MuHAMDl — District 

Kheei. — A village in pargana Haidarabad, district Kheri, in which the 

river Sarlyan has its source. The soil is good and well supplied with 

water. Ruins of a mud fort. 

Area ... ... ... ... ... I,.3S0-63 acres. 

Population ... ... ... ... ... 1,272 soul^. 

AIHAR — Pargana Dalmatj — Tahsil Lalganj — District Rae Bareli.— 
A small town, situated on the road from Bareli to the tahsil staticSn, Lal- 
ganj, five miles from Dalmau. 

The population is 2,734, of whom 720 are Brahmans, nearly all worship- 
pers of Shiva, to whom a temple has been erected. It is considered un- 
lucky to pronounce the name of the place, and it is locally named Nunia 
Gaon. 

AJGAIN— Pargana Jhalotar Ajgais— Tahsil Mohan— District Unao.-- 
A large village in pargana Jhalotar Ajgain, lying ten miles north-east of 
ITnao, on the railway from Lucknow to Cawnpore. There is a station 
here; it was formerly the head-quarters of a pargana of the same 
•name. It was formerly called Bhanp^ra, after its founder Bhan Singh, a 
Dikhit : its name was altered at the bidding of the astrologer iu order to 
make the place prosperous; it is called Ajgain, from Aja, a name for 

* March. 



2 AJG— AJO 

Riahma, the creator. The population is 2,566, of whom 85 are Musal^ 
mans. There are to masonry houses and 529 of mud. 

AJG £01^— Pargana MoHilN AviRXS—Tahsil MokaS— District Unao;— 
This is merely a large village," situated at the north-west end of the. par* 
gana," on the banks of the Sai, and about ;three miles to the, south of Auras, 
It balongs.to a family of Rajputs, of the Janwar tribe, who are said to have 
founded it on their way from Sultanpur to Nims^r-Misrikh to bathe. The 
same story is current about all the Rajput colonizations in this part of the 
country, and probably merely means that they came about the same time. 
It would then be some ten generations ago, or (say) 250 years, — at the 
commencement of the seventeenth century. There is an extensive Mh.ia. 
the centre of the village, which is said to have belonged to the Lodhs. The 
masses of broken brick that cover it speak of a different people or different 
customs and circumstances than those of its present inhabitants. The 
population is 3,481, who are mostly Hindus, and all of the agricultural, 
classes. The place is noted for the fine tobacco leaf grown here. 

A . Government school is established, at which the attendance is 24. Of 
the population, 69, are Musalmans. 

AJODHYA* — (Ajodhya) — Pargana. Haweli Otjdh — Tahsit Fyzabad — 
District Eyzabad. — ^A townin the district of Fyzabad,' and adjoining the 
city. of that name, is to, the Hindu what Mecca is to the Muhammadans, 
Jerusalem to the Jews ; it has in the traditions of the orthodox a highly 
mythical origin, being founded for additional security, not on the transitory 
earth, but- on -the chariot -wheel of the Great Creator himself. It lies 
26° 47' north latitude and 82° 15' east longitude, on the banks of the 
G;ogra.- The name Ajodhya is explained by well-known local pandits to 
be derived from -the Sanskrit words — ajud, unvanquished ; also Aj, a name 
of Brahma. — ' The unconquerable city of the creator.' But- Ajodhya is 
also called Oudh, which in Sanskrit means a promise ; in aUusion, it is 
said, to the promise made by R'^m Chandar when he went in exile, - to 
return-atthe end of fourteen years. These are the local derivations; I 
am not prepared to say to what extent they may be accepted as correct. 
Dr. Wilson of Bombay thinks the word is taken from yudh, to fight, ' The 
city of the fighting Chhattris,' 

Area. — The ancient city of Ajodhya is said to have covered'an area of - 
12 jojan or 48 Icos, and to havebeen the capital of Uttar-Kausala or Kosala 
(the northern treasure), the country of the Surajbans race of kings, of whom 
Ram Chandar was fifty-seventh in descent from R£ja Manu, and of which 
line Rdja Sumintra was the one hundred and thirteenth and last. They 
are said to have reigned through the Satya, Treta, and Dwapar yugs, and. 
two thousand years of the KaU or present yug or era. 

With the fall of the last. of Rama's line, Ajodhya became a wilderness, - 
and the royal races became dispersed. From different members of this: 
scattered people, the rdjas of Jaipur, Udaipur, Jamber, &c., of modern times, 
on the authority of the " Tirhut Katha," claimed to descend. Even in the 
days of its desertion, Ajodhya is said still to have . remained a cornpa^. 
rative paradis e; for the jungle ■ by which it was overrun was that 

* By f . Carnegy, Esci., Comtnissionef. 



AJO 3 

s-weet-smelling Keora, a plant which to this day flourishes with unusual 
luxuriance in the neighbourhood. 

Then came the Buddhist supremacy under Asoka and his successors ; 
a Brahmanical revival then supervened. With this period the name of 
Bikramdjit is traditionally and intimately associated, when Buddhism 
again began to give place to Brahmanism. 

_To Bikramajit the restoration of the neglected and forest-concealed 
Ajodhya is universally attributed. His main clue in tracing the ancient 
city was, of course, the holy river Sarju, and his next was the shrine, 
still known as Nageshwar-nath, which is dedicated to Mahadeo, and which 
presumably escaped the devastations of the Buddhist and Atheist periods. 
With these clues and aided by descriptions which he found recorded in , 
ancient manuscripts, the different spots rendered sacred by association 
with the worldly acts of the deified Rama were identified, and Bikramajit 
is said to have indicated the different shrines to which pilgrims from afar 
still in thousands half-yearly flock. 

Rdmlcot. — The most remarkable of those was, of course, Ramkot, the 
stronghold of Ram Chandar. This fort covered a large extent of ground, 
and, according to ancient manuscripts, it, was surrounded by twenty bas- 
tions, each of which was commanded by one of Ram's famous generals after 
whom they took the names by which they are still known. Within the 
fort were eight royal mansions, where dwelt the Patriarch Dasrath, his 
wives, and Ram, his deified son. 

SamuTidra Pal Dynasty. — According to tradition. Raja Bikramajit 
ruled over Ajodhya for eighty years, and at the end of that time he was out- 
witted by the Jogi Samundra Pal ; who, having by magic made away with 
the spirit of the raja himself, entered into the abandoned body ; and 
he and his dynasty succeeding to the kingdom, they ruled over it for 
seventeen generations, or six hundred and forty-three years, Which gives 
an unusual number of years for each reign. 

The Sribdstam Dynasty. — This dynasty is supposed to have been 
succeeded by the trans-Gogra Sribastam family, of which Tilok Chand 
was a prominent member — a family which was of the Buddhist or 
Jain persuasion, and to which are attributed certain old deoharas, or 
places of Jain worship, which are still to be found in Ajodhya, but 
which are of modern restoration. It was probably against the Sribas- 
tam dynasty that Sayyad Salar made his ill-starred advance into 
Oudh, when, in the earliest Muhammadan invasion, he and his army 
left their bones to bleach in the wilds of Bahraich. (See Chronicles of 
Unao, pages 83 to 85.) But the hold of the trans-Gogra rulers of 
Ajodhya was soon after this lost, and the place passed under the sway 
of the rajas of Kanauj. Their power, however, according to hazy 
tradition, seems for a time to have been successfully disputed by the 
Magadha dynasty, whose temporary rule is still acknowledged. 

The Kanauj Dynasty. — Subsequently to this,, the Muhammadans 
njade another partial advance into Hindustan, in alliance with Kanauj, 
whose raja it again restored to sovereignty; but in these parts this. 

a2 



AJO 

sovereignty was altogether repudiated, and minor local rulers sprang 
up throughout the land, and a period of territorial confusion then 
prevailed, which was only finally terminated by the Muhammadan 
conquest. A copper grant of Jai Chand, the last of the Kanauj 
Eathors, dated 1187 A. D., or six years before his death, was found 
near Fyzabad, when Colonel Caulfield was Resident of Lucknow. (See 
Asiatic Society's Journal, Volume X, Part I, 1861.) 

Sir H. Elliot mentions that on the occasion of BikramfJj it's visit to 
Ajodhya, he erected temples at three hundred and sixty places rendered 
sacred by association with Rama. 

Of these shrines but forty-two are known to the present generation, and 
as there are but few things that are really old to be seen in Ajodhya, 
most of these must be of comparatively recent restoration. There are 
also six mandirs of the Jain faith, to which allusion has already been 
made. It is not easy to over-estimate the historical importance of the 
place which, at various times and in different ages has been known by the 
namesofKosala, Ajodhya, and Oudh; because it may be said to have given 
a religion to a large portion of the human race, being, the cradle alike of 
the Hindu and the Buddhist faith. 

Of Buddhism, Kosala has, without doubt, a strong claim to be consi- 
dered the mother. Kapila and K^sinagara, both in Gorakhpur and both 
of that country (Kosala), are the Alpha and Omega of Sakyamuni, the 
founder of that faith. It was at Kapila that he was bom; it was at Ajodhya 
that he preached, perhaps, composed those doctrines which have conferred 
upon him a ' world wide fame ; and it was at Kasinagara that he finally 
reached that much desiderated stage of annihilation by sanctification, 
which is known to his followers as ' Nirvana,' B. C. 550. 

Again, it is in Ajodhya that we still see pointed out the birth-place 
of the founder, as well as of four others of the chief hierarchs of the 
Jain faith. Here it was that Rikhabdeo of Ikshwaku's royal race 
matured the schism, somewhat of a compromise between Brahmanism 
and Buddhism, with which his name wiU ever be associated. 

It may be observed that the Chinese traveller, Hwen Thsang, found 
no less than twenty Buddhist monasteries, with three thousand monks 
at Ajodhya, in the seventh century, and also a large Brahmanical po- 
pulation with about twenty of their temples ; so that, after the revival 
of Brahmanism, the idea of monasteries was probably borrowed from 
the Buddhists ; or, may it not have been that whole monasteries went 
from the one faith to the other, as they stood ? If a Gaur Brahman in 
these days can legitimately supervise a Jain temple, it seems just pos- 
sible that the sectarian feelings of the Brahmanists, and Buddhists, and 
Jains of former times, were less bitter than we are liable to suppose. 

The monastic orders. — There are seven akhdras, or cloisters, of the 
monastic orders, or Bairdgis disciples of Vishnu, in Ajodhya each of 
which is presided over by a mahant or abbot ; these are 

1. Nirbdni or Silent sect, who have their dwelling in Hanoman Garhi. 



AJO 5 

2. The Nirmohi, or Void-of-affection sect, who have establishments 
at Ram Ghat and Guptar Ghat. 

S. Digambari, or Naked sect of ascetics. 

4. The Khaki, or Ash-besmeared deTotees, 

5. The Mahdnirbdni, or literally Dumb branch. 

6. The Santokhi, or Patient family. 

7. The Niralambhi, or Provisionless sect. 

The expenses of these different establishments, of which the first is by far 
the most important, are met from the revenues of lands which have been 
assigned to them, from the offerings of pilgrims and visitors, and from the 
alms collected by the disciples in their wanderings all over India. 

The Nirhiini sect. — I believe the mahant of the Nirbdni Alchdra or 
Hanoman Garhi has six hundred disciples, of whom as 

1. Kishan Dasi. many as three of four hundred are generally in attend- 

I Mani Rdmi ance, and to whom rations are served out at noon daily. 

4. Jankisaran Dasi. The present incumbent has divided his followers into 
four thaJcs or parties, to whom the names of four disciples, 

as marginally noted, have been given. 

There are in this sect — -fiifst, lay-brothers, second anchorites ; the former 
do not abandon the world, the latter first make a round of the sacred 
places, Dwarka, Jagannath, Gya, and are then admitted to full brother- 
hood : celibacy is enforced — all castes are admitted, but Brahmans and 
Ghhattris have two exceptional privileges, they are admitted over the age 
of sixteen and they are exempted from servile offices. 

Nirmnhi sect. — It is said that one Gobind Das came from Jaipur some 
two hundred years ago, and having acquired a few bighas of revenue-free 
land, he built a shrine and settled himself at Ram Gh^t. Mahant Tulsi 
Das is the sixth in succession. There are now two branches of this 
order, one at Ram Ghat, and the other occupying the temples at Guptar 
Ghat. They have rent-free holdings in Basti, Mankapur, and Khurdabad. 

The Digambari sect. — Sri Balram Das came to Ajodhya two hundred 
years ago, whence it is not known, and having built a temple settled 
here. Mahant Hira Das is the seventh incumbent. The establishment 
of resident disciples is very small, being limited to fifteen ; they have 
several revenue-free holdings in the district. 

The Khdhi sect. — When Ram Chandar became an exile from Ajo- 
dhya, his brother Lachhman is said, in his grief, to have smeared his 
body' with ashes and to have accompanied him. Hence he was called 
Khdki, and his admiring followers bear that name to this date. In the 
days of Shujd-ud-daula, one mahant, Daya Ram, is said to have come 
from Chitarkot, and having obtained four bighas of land, he thereon 
established the akhdra, and this order of Bairdgis now includes 180 
persons of whom 50 are resident and 130 itinerant. This establishment 



AJO 

has some small assignments of land in this, and in thfe Gonda district. 
Ram Das, the present mahant, is seventh in succession from the local 
founder of the order. 

The Mahdnirbdni sect. — Mahant Parsotam Das came to Ajodhya from 
Kota Bundi in the days of Shuja-ud-daula, and built a temple at 
Ajodhya. Dayal Das, the present incumbent, is the sixth in succession. 
He has twenty-five disciples, the great majority of whom are itinerant 
mendicants. The word Mahanirbani implies the worshipping of God 
without asking for favours, either in this world or the next. 

The Santokhi sect— Mahant Rati Ram arrived at Ajodhya from Jaipur 
in the days of Mansdr Ali Khan, and building a temple founded this order. 
Two or three generations after him the temple was abandoned by his 
followers, and one Niddhi Singh, an influential distiller in the days of 
the ex-king, took the site and built thereon another temple. After this, 
Khushal Das of this order returned to Ajodhya and lived and died 
under an Asok tree, and there the temple, which is now used by the 
fraternity, was built by Ramkishan Das, the present head of the com- 
munity. 

The Niralambhi sect— Sri Birmal Das is said to have come from Kota, 
in the time of Shuj^-ud-daula, and to have built a temple in Ajodhya, 
but it was afterwards abandoned. Subsequently Narsingh Das of this 
order erected a new building near Darshan Singh's temple. The 
present head of the fraternity is Ram Sewak, and they are dependent 
solely on the offerings of pilgrims. 

The Janamasthdn and other temples. — It is locally affirmed that at the 
Muhammadan conquest there were three important Hindu shrines, with 
but few devotees attached, at Ajodhya, which was then little other 
than a wilderness. These were the " Janamasthan," the " Swargaddwar 
inandir" also known as " Ram Darbar," " Treta-ke-Thakur." 

On the first of these the Emperor Babar built the mosque, which still 
bears his name, A. D. 1628. On the second, Aurangzeb did the same, 
A.D. 1658 to 1707 ; and on the third, that sovereign or his predecessors built 
a mosque, according to the well-known Muhammadan principle of enforc- 
ing their religion on all those whom they conquered. 

The Janamasthdn marks the place where Ram Chandar was bom. The 
Swargaddwar is the gate through which he passed into paradise, possibly 
the spot where his body was burned. The Treta-ke-Thakur was famous 
as the place where Rama performed a great sacrifice, and which he com- 
memorated by setting up there images of himself and Sita. 

Bdhar's mosque. — According to Leyden's Memoirs of Bdbar, that Em- 
peror encamped at the junction of the Serwa and Gogra rivers two or three 
hos east from Ajodhya, on the 28th March 1528, and there he halted seven 
or eight days, settling the surrounding country. A well-known hunting 
ground is spoken of in that work, seven or eight Jcos above Oudh, on the 
banks of the Sarju. It is remarkable that in all the copies of Babar's life 
now known, the pages that relate to his doings at Ajodhya are wanting. 



AJO H 

In two places in tlie Babari Mosque, the year in -whicli it was built, 935 
H., corresponding with 1528 A. D., is carved in stone, along with inscrip- 
tions dedicated to the glory of that Emperor. 

If Ajodhya was then little other than a wilderness, it must at least have 
possessed a fine temple in the Janamasthan ; for many of its columns are still 
in existence and in good preservation, having been used by the Musalmans 
in the construction of the Babari Mosque. These are of strong, close- 
grained, dark-colored or black stone, called by the natives Icasauti (liter- 
ally touch-stone slate,) and carved with different devices. To my think- 
ing these more strongly resemble Buddhist pillars than those I have seen 
at Benares and elsewhere. They are from seven to eight feet long, square 
at the base, centre and capital, and round or octagonal intermediately. 

Hindu and Musalman. — The Janamasthan is within a few hundred 
paces of the Hanoman Garhi. In 1855, when a great rupture took place 
between the Hindus and Muhammadans, the former occupied the Hanoman 
Garhi in force, whUe the Musalmans took possession of the Janamasthan. 
The Muhammadans on that occasion actually charged up the steps of the 
Hanoman Garhi, but were driven back with considerable loss. The Hindus 
then followed up this success, and at the third attempt took the Janam- 
asthan, at the gate of which seventy-five Muhammadans are buried in the 
"martyrs' grave" (Ganj-i-Shahidan.) Eleven Hindus were killed. Several of 
the King's regiments were looking on all the time, but their orders 
were not to interfera It is said that up to that time the Hindus and 
Muhammadans alike iised to worship in the mosque-temple. Since British 
rule a railing has been put up to prevent disputes, within which, in the 
mosque, the Muhammadans pray ; while outside the fence the Hindus have 
raised a platform on which they make their offerings. A second attempt 
was made shortly afterwards by Molvi Amir Ali of Amethi ; the object was 
to seize the alleged site of an old mosque on the Hanoman Garhi. 

The two other old mosques to which allusion has been made (known 
by the common people by the name of N'aurang Shah, by whom 
they mean Aurangzeb) are now mere picturesque ruins. Nothing has 
been done by the Hindus to restore the old mandir of Eam Darbar. 
The Treta-ke-Thakur was reproduced near the old ruin by the Raja of 
Kalu, whose estate is said to be in the Panjab, more than two centuries 
ago ; and it was improved upon afterwards by Aholya Bai, Marathin, 
who' also built the adjoining ghat, A. D. 1784. She was the widow of 
Jaswant Rae, Holkar of Indor, irom which family Rs. 231 are still annually 
received at this shrine. 

The Jain Hierarchs. — The generally received opinion of this sect is, that 
they are a branch of the Buddhists who escaped the fate of the orthodox 
followers of Gautama in the eighth and ninth centuries, by conforming 
somewhat to Brahmanism, and even helping to persecute the Buddhists 
Hence many Jains acknowledge Shiva, and in the south are even divided, 
into castes. The precise period of the schism is unknown. _ The_ Jains 
recognize twenty-four Jenas or tirthanJcdras, or hierarchs, and in this they 
resemble the Hindus. 



8 AJO 

Aflhuith. — The first of these and founder of the sect was Adinath, also 
called Rishabhaniith, also Adisarji-dwal and Eikhabdeo. This Jena was 
Jbirieeu times incarnate, the last time in the family of Ikshwaku of 
iiie Solar race, when he was born at Ajodhya, — his father's name being 
Niibi, and his mother's, Miru. He died at Mount Abu, where the oldest 
tomple is dedicated to him, A. D. 960. The Jains, according to Ward 
(recent edition), allege that they formerly extended over the whole of 
Arya and Bharatha-Khanda, and that all those who had any just preten- 
sions to be of Chhattri descent were of their sect, and on the same autho- 
rity Rishabha, another name for the same hierarch, was the head of this 
atheistical sect. 

AjUndth, &c. — Ajitnath, the second son of these Jenas, Abhinandanansith, 
the fourth, and Sumantnath, the fifth, were all born at Ajodhya, and died at 
Parasnath. Chajadraprabha, the eighth, was born at Chandripur, the local 
name of Sahet Mahet (Bahraich), and died also at Parasndth, as did Anant- 
anath, the fourteenth, born at Ajodhya. Temples now exist at Ajodhya, 
dedicated to the five hierarchs born there, of which details will be given fur- 
ther on). 

It is clear, then, that Ajodhya had much to do with the propagation of 
the Jain- Atheist faithj and the Chinese travellers found that faith, or its 
sister Buddhism, rampant there in the sixth century, as it was across the 
river at Sahet Mahet, the great Oudh-Buddhist capital. 

Pre-MuhaTnmadan Jain Templet— A. great Jain mandir is known to 
have existed at Ajodhya, when the Muhammadans conquered Oudh, on the 
spot now known as Shah Juran's tila, or mound. (See the account of 
Adinath's temple further on). 

Antique Jain Images. — ^I have now in my possession two elaborately 
carved stone images, discovered some years ago on the banks of the 
Gumti, in the village of Patna, in pargana Aldemau, Sultanpur district, of 
which General Cunningham to whom I sent a photograph, writes as fol- 
lows : — " I beg also to thank you for the photograph of the two statues, 
which is particularly valuable to me, from the very perfect state of pre- 
servation of the figures. They are not, however, Buddhist, but Jain 
figures. No Buddhist figures are ever represented as naked, and it is 
only the statues of the Digambar sect of Jains that are so represented. 
Both figures represent the same hierarch, vis., Adinath, who is the first 
of the twenty-four Tirthanlcdrs of the Jains. Adindth is known by the 
wheel on the pedestal, which is represented end on, instead of sideways, 
as in many other sculptures." 

These statues were discovered under ground by some Bairagis about 
the year 1850 A. D., who had their discovery widely proclaimed by 
beat of drum, setting forth that Jaganndth had appeared to them in a 
dream and had indicated to them where he lay concealed in the ground 
and that if he were released and set up in the neighbourhood, the 
necessity for long pilgrimages to the distant Pooree Would cease. They 
found him at the spot indicated, had him set up as ordered, and now 
proclaimed the fact for the benefit of pilgrims at large. For one 



season the imposition took, and thousands of Hindus made tlicir oneriiigs 
at the new shrine ; and great was their disgust when the fact was after- 
wards revealed by a learned pandit that the images pertained to the Bhars, 
who, according to the holy man in question, were in the habit of sacrificing 
Brahmans to such images as these. "We have in this remark a strong 
mdication that the Bhars were Jain-Buddhists. Thereafter the images 
lay unheeded in a dung-heap, till discovered and removed without opposi- 
tion by Mr. Nicholson, of the Fyzabad Settlement. 

Modern temples. — I have already said that there are now several Jain 
temples at Ajodhya. They were all built about one hundred and fifty 
years ago, to mark the birth-places of the five hierarchs who are said to 
have been born there, by one Kesari Singh, a treasurer or servant of 
Nawab Shuja-ud-daula, whose great influence with that ruler obtained 
for him permission to build these temples of idolatry even amongst the 
very mosques and tombs of the faithful. I now give some brief notes on 
each mandir. 

No. 1. To Adindth, the first hierarch. This is situated in the Murai 
Tola, near the Swargaddwar, on a mound on which there are many tombs 
and a mosque. It is half-way up the mound, and the key is kept by a 
Musalman who lives close by. * 

No. 2. To Ajitndth, the second avatar. This is situated west of the 
Itaura tank, and contains an idol and inscription. It was built in 1781 S.,' 
and is surrounded on all sides by cultivation. 

No. 3. To Abhinandanandth, the fourth avatar, situated near the 
sarai. It contains an inscription. 

No. 4. To Sumantndth, the fifth avatar, within the limits of Ramkot. 
In this temple there are two idols of Parasnath, one of the two most popular 
incarnations, and three of Nemn^th. There is an inscription setting 
forth that the temple was built in Sambat 1781. 

No. 5. To Anantandth, the fourteenth avatar, whose footprint it 
enshrines. It contains an inscription, as in the last case, and is situated on 
the banks of Golaghat Nala, on the high bank of the Gogra, a most 
picturesque site. 

Brahman attendant. — All these five temples are superintended by a 
Gaur Brahman, named Ajudhia Pande, who has not yet, he says, joined the 
Jain sect, although his son has. He justifies his position by saying he is an 
alien here, and would do anything for a livelihood. He is paid by the 
representatives of a Sarawag community in Lucknow, Ganeshi Lai and, 

• The local Musalman tradition is that one Makhdum Shah Juran Ghori (whose descend- 
ants still hold property in Ajodhya and take the fees at the Jain shrine) came to Oudh 
at the end of the twelfth century, with Sultan Shahdb-ud-di'n Ghori, and rid Ajodhya of 
Adinath, who was then a torment to the people, for which service lands were assigned to 
him, on which he founded the present Baksaria Tola. Now we know that a temple was 
dedicated to Admath at Abu, nearly 250 years before that ; so that what Shah Jtiran no 
doubt did do, was to destroy the mandir that we also know then existed at Ajodhya, sacred 
to the same Adinath, and to build thereon the Muhammadan edifices which gave to tho 
mound the name by which it is still known, viz., Shah Juran-ka-Tila. 



10 AJO 

GhSsi L^l. Sarawag is the ordinary lay name for a Jain, and meang 
literally a hearer. It seems that the Jains select Gaur Brahmans as 
spiritual guides, because they do not eat fish or flesh, or drink wine. 

But, in addition to these five Digambari temples there is a sixth or 
Sitambari mandir, dedicated also to the first avatdr, Ajitnath, by 
Udai Chand Oswal of Jaipur, and in the keeping of his priest, Khushal 
Chand Jati. It is situated in the Alamganj Muhalla, and was built in 
Sambat 1881. It contains images of Ajitnath in pink stone, of the 
five shrines, (panch-tirtha) in metal, besides holy footprints, &c., 
and it commemorates nineteen events connected with the conception, 
birth, and rehnquishment of the world of the five avatars born at 
Ajodhya. 

The Digambari sect (to which the five Ajodhya hierarchs belonged) 
worship only naked images, or, according to the etymology of the word, 
those who are clothed in space alone. The Sitambari sect again worship 
covered figures, or, etymologically, those who are clothed in garments. 

The Maniparbat. — The Brahmanical tradition about this mound, 
the ancient name of which was Chattarban, is, that when Kama was 
waging his Ceylon war, Lachhman was wounded by a poisoned arrow. 
Hanoman, the monkey-god, was despatched through the air to fetch an 
antidote from the Himalayas. Unfortunately the messenger forgot the 
name of the herb, but to make amends he carried off a whole mountain 
in the palm of his hand, feeling certain that the antidote would be 
there. As he returned bearing the mountain over Ajodhya in mid-air, 
a clod fell therefrom, which is no other than the Maniparbat. Mr. 
Hunter, I think, relates a similar tradition amongst the Santals. It 
is from this legend that the monkey-god was always represented as 
bearing a rock in his hand. 

General Cunningham describes the Maniparbat as an artificial mound, 
sixty-five feet in height, covered with broken bricks and blocks of kankar. 
The common people in these days call the mount the Orajhar or Jhawwa- 
jhar, both expressions indicating basket-shakings, and they say that the 
m.ound was raised by the accumulated basket-shakings of the laborers 
who built Ramkot. The same tale is told of the similar mounds at Sahet 
Mahet, at Benares, and at other places. This moimd General Cunningham 
points out as the ' stupa' of Asoka, two hundred feet in height, built on 
the spot where Buddha preached the law during his six years' residence 
here. That officer infers that the earthen or lower part of the moulid 
may belong to the earlier ages of Buddhism, and that the masonry part 
was added by Asoka. 

Rdja Nanda Bardhan, ofMagadha. — I have repeatedly been assured by 
Mahardja Man Singh that within the present century an inscription was 
discovered buried in this mound, which ascribed its construction to Raja 
Nanda Bardhan of the Magadha dynasty, who once held sway here.* The 

* This man is accredited with the suppression of Brahmanism in Ajodhya, and "With the 
establishinent of the non-caste system adopted by society generally, wh^u the population at 
large were denominated Bhars. 



AJO 11 

Maharaja further stated that the inscription was taken to Lucknow in 
Nasir-ud-din Haidar's time, and that there was a copy of it at Shahganj, 
but all my attempts to trace either the original or copy have failed* It is, 
however, noteworthy that the Maharaja's information, whether reliable or 
not, IS confirmatory of the inference which General Cunningham had drawn 
from independent data. 

Sugriva and Kahir parta^.— General Cunningham thinks he identified 
two other mounds, on the Sugrivaparbat, which he describes as a mound ten 
feet high, and which he imagines is the great monastery of Hwen Thsang 
(500 X 300), which is south-east of and within five hundred feet of the Mani- 
parbat; and five hundred feet due south, he identified another mound, 
which is twenty-eight feet high, and which he thinks is the Kabirparbat, 
or the Stupa described by Hwen Thsang as containing the hair and nails 
of Buddha. 

On this point I have the following remark to make : — General Cunning- 
ham admits a connexion between the Maniparbat and the Ramkot. Now, 
two of the largest bastions or mounds of Ramkot are called to this day 
Sugriva, and Kabir tila or parbat ; so that it would seem that their con- 
nection with Ramkot is more direct, and they appear to be entitled to 
dispute identity with the spots indicated by the General, to which no tra- 
ditions locally attach. 

The Tombs of the Patriarchs. — Adjoining the Maniparbat are two tombs, 
of which General Cunningham writes that " they are attributed to Sis 
paighambar and Ay6b paighambar, or the Prophets Seth and Job. The 
first is seventeen feet long and the other twelve feet. These tombs are 
mentioned by Abul Fazl, who says : ' Near this are two sepulchral 
monuments, one seven and the other six cubits in length. The vulgar 

Prinsep mentions this ruler as Nandivardhana, (a Takshae, according to Tod, ) of the 
Sunaka dynasty, kings of Bharathkhanda, part of the Magadha Empire. 

We may have here some clue as to who the Bhars were : people begotten by the conquer- 
ing soldiers of Bardhanfrom Gya, who were probably of the aboriginal type of that country, 
as well as those people of this province who accepted the conqueror's yoke, without taking 
themselves off to other countries, as many no doubt did ; and in the Rajputs of Eastern Oudh 
in these days, we may thus have the offspring of a mixed people, the blood of which may 
have been improved by subsequent intermarriage with those, who, for the sake of their faith, 
went elsewhere, and whose descendants in rare instances, so far as the Fyzabad district 
is concerned, returned and settled in Oudh, after the Muhammadan conquest. 

This may help to account for the strange fact, that none of the Chhattri clans with which 
I am familiar, can carry their pedigrees back beyond the Muhammadan period. Of most of 
these clans it can with perfect truth be said that they are indigenous and local, some of them 
going so far even as to admit a Bhar origin. 

In all our researches there is nothing more marked than the numerous traditions that 
connect Oudh with the east on fhe one hand, and with the south and south-west on the 
other. The explanation of it may perhaps be, that it was from Ajodhya that Rama convey- 
ed the doctrines of the Vedas to Ceylon and the south : it was from G-ya that the wave of 
the opposing Buddhists superiority came, with Nanda Bardhan ; and it was from Ujjain in 
the south-west that Bikramajit came to restore the Brahman glories of Ajodhya. The 
Oudh traditions of the one period take the founders of the Buddhist and Jain faiths from 
Kosala, towards Gya and ParasnAth ; while to those of the other period, half the clans and 
tribes of the province still trace their origin to such places as Ujjain, Mangipatan, and 
Chittorgarh . ^ 

« This information has since been corroborated by the learned pandit l/madatt of Ajodhya, 
who informs me that he made a translation of the inscription between thirty and forty years 
ago. He, too, has lost his copy and cannot now describe the contents, 



U AJO 

pretend that they are the tombs of Seth and Job, and they relate 
wonderful stories of them.' This account shows that since the time 
of Akbar the tomb of Seth must have increased in length, from seven 
cubits, or ten and a half feet, to seventeen feet, through the frequent repairs 
of pious Musalmans." These "tombs are also mentioned at a later date, 
in the Araish-i-Mahfil. To these tombs Colonel Wilford adds that of 
Noah, which is still pointed out near the police station. The Colonel's 
account is as follows : " Close to Ajodhya or Oudh, on the banks of the 
Gogra, they show the tomb of Noah, and those of Ayub, and Shis or 
Shish, (Job and Seth). According to the account of the venerable 
Darvesh who watches over the tomb of Nuh, it was built by Alexander the 
Great, or Sikandar Rumi. I sent lately (A. D. 1799) a learned Hindu 
to make enquiries about this holy place : from the Musalmans he could 
get no further light ; but the Brahmans informed him that where Nuh's 
tomb stands now, there was formerly a place of worship dedicated to Ga- 
nesha, and close to it are the remains of a bdoli, or walled well, which is 
called in the Puranas Ganapat Kund. The tombs of Job and Seth are 
near to each other, and about one bow-shot and a half from Ntih's tomb ; 
between them are two small hillocks, called Soma-giri, or the mountains 
of the moon : according to them these tombs are not above four hundred 
years old ; and owe their origin to three men, called N"uh, Ayub, and Shis, 
who fell there fighting against the Hindus. These were, of course, con- 
sidered as shahids, or martyrs ; but the priests who officiate there, in order 
to increase the veneration of the superstitious and unthinking crowd, 
gave out that these tombs were really those of Noah, Job, and Seth, of 
old. The tomb of Nuh is not mentioned in the Ain-i-akbari, only those 
of Job and Seth." 

On these quotations I have only to add that the distance between the 
tombs is greater than stated, being nearly a mile as the crow flies ; while 
it is not the tomb of Nuh, but those of the other two men mentioned, 
that are close to the Ganesha Kund. 

Darshan Singh's Temple. — This temple, now more generally known as 
Man Singh's was built twenty-five years ago by the former raja, and there 
is nothing more artistic in that line in modern Oudh. ,It is dedicated to 
Mahadeo, and is of finely-cut Chunar stone, most of the figures and orna- 
ments having been prepared at and brought from Mirzapur. The idol is 
a fine bloodstone from the Narbada, which cost Es. 250 there. The 
marble images are from Jaipur. The splendidly toned large bell was cast 
here, from a model which was injured on its way from Nepal ; it is a 
credit to local art. 

The Bah'u, Begam's Mausoleum. — It was arranged by treaty between 
the British Government, the Bahu Begam, and the Nawab of Oudh, that 
three lacs of sikka rupees of her riches were to be set apart for the erec- 
tion by her confidential servant, Darab Ali Khan, of her tomb, and that 
the revenue of villages to the aggregate amount of Sikka Rs. 10,000 per 
annum were to be assigned for its support. 

The Begam died on the 27th of January 1816. Darab Ali laid the 



AJO 13 

foundations and built the plinth, when he also died, on the 10th of Aiiwust 
1818. 

Panah Ali, vakil, and Mirza Haidar, the son of an adopted dauglitor, 
then carried on the work through a series of years, when, with the Cdin- 
pletion of the brick work, the grant of three lacs came to an end, and the 
beautiful edifice remained unfinished till after the mutiny of 1857. 

In Ghazi-ud-din Haidar's time the assignment of revenue was given up 
on his placing in the hands of the British Government Rs. 1,66,666-10-8, 
the interest of which, at the then prevailing rate of 6 per cent., was to 
yield the equivalent annual sum of Rs. 10,000, for the support of the 
tomb. This sum seems to have been regularly received and disbursed 
by the native management until the year 1839. Complaints were then 
made to the Resident of irregularity in the disbursements, and this led 
to the organization of the Wasiqa Department in 1840. 

Under this new management a considerable surplus was soon accunm- 
lated, and in 1853-54 a proposition was submitted to and sanctioned by 
Government, under which Rs. 41,727-11-3, out of a then existing surplus 
of Rs. 59,262-11-6, was to be spent in finishing the tomb, the balance 
being carried to the credit of Government. The work was being carried 
on under the supervision of Captain A. P. Orr, when the mutiny occurred, 
and the unexpended balance of the sanctioned estimate, or about Rs. 6,000, 
was plundered. The tomb was finally completed by the Department of 
Public Works, after the re-occupation of the province. 

In sanctioning the proposition mentioned in the penultimate paragraph 
in January 1854, the Government remarked that it was a great loser by 
the arrangement it had entered into, under which it was to allow 6 per 
cent, on the money funded by Ghazi-ud-din Haidar ; and, looking to the 
fact that in late years the whole grant had not been expended, it resolved 
on reducing the interest on the loan from 6 to 4 per cent., the then 
current rate. At this rate the annual income of the endowment was re- 
duced from Sikka Rs. 10,000 to Company's Rs. 6,606-10-8. 

This latter sum was still further reduced in January 1855 to Company's 
Rs. 5,833-5-4 ; but it was again raised to that sum under the orders of 
September 1859, at which it has since been continued. 

Rs. 1,000 per annum are reserved by Government for the repairs, 
through its own oJKcers, of the building, and the remainder of the annual 
allowance is spent by the native managers in religious ceremonies, periodi- 
cal illuminations, &c. 

Had the arrangements entered into with the Begam been throughout 
maintained, instead of a considerable diminution, there would have been 
a large increase in the sum now annually available, for the suitable keep- 
ing up of the finest building of the kind in Oudh. 

The population of Ajodhya is ... 7,518 
„ , \ Shia ... ... 1,6.30 

Musalmans I g^jj^j _ __ 889 



Shaivi 


2,075 


Hindu Vaishnavi 


2,222 


Nanakshahi 


100 


Aghori ... 


10 


Other sects 


592 



14 AKB 

There are 1,693 houses of which 732 are masonry; and unusually large 
proportion. There are &6 Hindu temples, of which 63 are in honor of 
Vishnu and 33 of Mahadeo ; there are 36 mosques. There is also a ver- 
nacular school. There is little trade at Ajodhya. The great fair of the 
Ramnaumi, at which 500,000 people assemble, is held here ; it is described 
in the district article Fyzabad. 

AKBARABAD — Pargana Muhamdi — Tahsil Muhamdi — District Kheri. — 
A village in pargana Muhamdi, having groves towards the north and 
north-east, and a scrub jungle to the north-west. The country is well 
watered from tanks and wells. Akbarabad belongs to Raja Musharraf 
Ali Khan, Taluqdar of Magdapur. It was lost by his family about A. D. 
1784. His father. Raja Ashraf Ali Khan, recovered it in A. D. 1836. 

Area in acres ... 561 '5 

Population ... 631 

TT- J (Male 322') „-,k 

^""^''^ I Female 283 j=^°5 

Muliammadans ... lTj„lf„i„iQ > =26 



( Female 



AKBARPUR-SINJHAULI Pargana*— Tahsil Akbkrfvr— District Fy- 
ZABAD. — Prior to the days of the Emperor Akbar, the capital of this pargana 
was called Sinjhauli. This name is to be traced to Sojhawal Rawat, a 
chief amongst the Bhars, who built a fort, calling it after himself 
Sojhawalgarh, in which he lived and ruled. Even after the dispersion 
of the Bhars, Sojhawalgarh continued to be the seat of the Government 
revenue officers, and in process of time the name became con-upted into 
Sinjhauli. 

In the days of Akbar, the fort, bridge, and bazar of Akbarpur were 
built, and to them that Emperor's name was given. Thenceforth the 
collections were made in this fort. 

From that time the pargana was entered in the official records as 
Akbarpur-Sinjhauli. It is bounded on the north by Tanda, on the south 
by Surharpur, on the east by Birhar, on the west by Majhaura. 

It is said that in former days the neighbourhood of Akbarpur was 
covered with jungle, in which resided a famous saint, whose name was 
• Sayyad Kamdl.-f- This man, it is affirmed, was killed by freebooters, 
and his body buried within the precincts of the present fort, where his 
tomb is still pointed out. On hearing of the murder of this martyr, the 
Emperor is said to have ordered the erection of the bridge and fort ; 
the latter, in view to the suppression of such crimes in future. 

Akbarpur, the capital of the pargana, is a Muhammadan town, which 
was formerly of some importance, and still contains ruins of fine buildings 
— a sarae, imambara, and old tombs. On the high west or left bank of 
the river Tons is the old fort and the fine masonry bridge already 
mentioned spans the river and the low alluvial land which extends for 
some hundreds of feet eastward on the right bank. Within the fort is 

* By P. Carnegy, Esq., Commissioner, 
t A different man from the Kamal Pandit mentioned in the Chdndipur Birhar article. 



AKB 



15 



a masjid, and from inscriptions on its ■walls, and also on the south face 
of the bridge it appears that these were built under the authority of the 
Emperor Akbar, under the supervision of Muhammad Muhsin, who was 
probably a nazim or qiladar, although this is not recorded, in the year 
of the Hijri 976, or a little more than three centuries ago. So that this 
bridge is of the same period as the forts of Allahabad, Agra and Attok, 
and the town of Fatehpur-Sikri, all built by Akbar, who was born in A. D. 
1543, began to reign, when thirteen years of age, in 1556, and died on 
the 13th October 1605, or Hijri 1014. 

The bridge is still in good preservation, having been repaired since the 
British rule. Its great strength and solidity may be judged from its age 
and present condition. In order to secure the mosque from dilapida- 
tion, the usual artifice has been resorted to, of adding a verse to the inscrip- 
tion, calling down the wrath of Heaven on the heads of such of the 
faithful as neglect the repairs of this house of prayer. 

Akbarpur gives its modem name to the pargana, and is still the head- 
quarters of a tahsil sub-division, the building being within the old fortress.- 

The occasion of Akbar's visiting this part of the country is thus tradition- 
ally related. — Nawab Kh^n Khdnan, the prime-minister sent his favorite 
slave Fahim, to Naipal, to purchase elephants. When the latter arrived 
at Jaunpur, he was so struck with the place, that he determined to perpe- 
tuate his name in connexion therewith by building a bridge. He was told 
by the builders that he alone could bridge the Gumti who could pave the 
foundations with gold. Nothing daunted, Fahim deliberately flung some 
bags of money into the stream. The builders stayed his hand, and at once 
acknowledged that he was the man for the situation, and the work was 
commenced. When funds failed, Fahim addressed the wazir and procured 
more ; and when the bridge was completed, he wrote and said he had 
returned as far as Jaunpur, but he could proceed no further unless the 
Emperor came in person to ensure arrangements for the convoy of the 
elephants to Akbarabad. The Emperor did come, and saw for himself the 
great work that his slave had constructed, and he forgave the deception 
that had been practiced upon him. It is said that on his return to Agra, 
the Emperor passed through this part of Oudh, and then ordered the 
bridge, fort, and mosque of Akbarpur to be erected, and the town to bear 
his own name. 

The pargana formerly contained the seven Tappas marginally mentioned. 

It originally consisted of 959 mauzas 
and 8 chaks. 

When Azamgarh was ceded by the 
wazir to the British in 1801, 24 
other mauzas were transferred to 
Akbarpur from pargana Mahul of 
Azamgarh, and so it contained 983 
mauzas and 8 chaks at annexation. 
These, under our settlement and 
transfer operations, have now been 
reduced to 364 demarcated villages. 









Number 




Hames. 




of mauzas. 


Sikandarpur 






118 


Natvi ... 






137 


Sarsara 


.. 




144 


Sisdni ... 


.. 




82 


Karmaul 






74 


Kantar 




... 


148 


Halvali 







256 



16 AKB 

Until t1ie (Liya of Nawab Asif-ud-daula the rfevenue arrangements of 
the pargana were made through three different departments, m^.,— the 
Kh£sa, 613 mauzas ; the Aimma, 122 mauzas ; and the Jagir, 248 mau- 
zas. In the time of Saadat Ali, these distinctions were abandoned, one 
collecting agency was adopted, and the Tappa territorial sub-division fell 
into disuse. 

The pargana is bisected by the river Tons, which is navigable up to 
the capital in the rains, and it is touched on portions of its northern bor- 
ders by the river Gogra, and the small stream known as the Thirwa. It 
contains eleven jhils and twenty-three ponds which retain water through- 
out the year, besides other more precarious excavations. 

Since the overthrow of the Bhars there have been twenty-four influen- 
tial families in whom property in the soil has from time to time vested, of 
which twelve were Muhammadan and twelve Hindus. Of some of these 
a slight sketch will now be given. 

The Muhammadans. 

1st. — Sayyad Taj and his three companions are said to have come from 
Arabia in the days of the Ghori dynasty, and to have settled in Sinjhauli. 
He acquired property, and a tank of his construction, in which there are 
eight stone pillars, is still pointed out.* The living descendants of one 
of these men are numerous ; and for a time one branch was possessed of a 
qanungoship, but this was lost. 

Of these people, Shekh Tasawwar Ali is the only man of the family who 
has now any rights in the soil, and he is a sub-proprietor in mauza 
Kadanpur, They are Shias. 

<2,nd. — Sayyad Ahnad, Shia, of Arabia, came during the Toghlaq period, 
and settled in Darwan. Two of his line, Sayyad Phul and Piare after- 
wards became powerful proprietors, but after three or four generations 
they dwindled into insignificance ; and although the family can still be 
traced in three villages, they hold no property 

3rd. — Sayyad Sidaimdn, a powerful and wise Shia merchant, came from 
Naishapur, in the province of Khorasan, in North Persia, in 806 Hijri, or 
1403 A. D., settled in mauza Atrora, and married into the family of Sayyad 
Phul, just mentioned. He acquired much property, and his tomb and the 

* Since this was written, I have had an opportunity of visiting this picturesque spot. 
There is a large tank which is annually emptied by irrigation operations. In its centre is 
a mound connected only by a causeway on one side, with the surrounding country. On 
this mound is a stone tomb, over which are eight roughly-shewn stone pillars, surmounted 
by a small brick dome, which has recently fallen in. The whole is over-shadowed by a fine 
old tamarind tree. On one of the interior cornices I found the following inscription in 
Persian (Arabic character) the existence of which is not generally known in the neighbour- 
hood : — "This building was erected in 782 Hijri (1380 A. D.). Thisdome is within a 
reservoir, which is surrounded by fruit trees. The land is within Sinjhauli. The Qazi 
(to wit, Sayyad T^j) has assigned (waqf) these (i. e., the land and groves) for the support 
of the tomb, the Koran readers> the carpets, and carpet-spreaders, the lights, the mosque, 
and the well." This inscription shows that it was not during the Ghori dynasty that 
Sayyad Taj settled here, as tradition has it, but a hundred and fifty years afterwards, in 
the days of Kroz Toghlaq, who founded the city of Jaunpur about 1359 A. D, 



AKB 17 

spot where lie resided are still pointed out in the village. A fair is held 
there annually on the I7th of Rajjab, the anniversary of his death, where 
two or three hundred people assemble for the day to honor his memory. 

There is still a numerous progeny extant, including the Pirpur and 
Kataria taluqdars. In three villages only, however, do members pi this 
family still hold sub-proprietary rights. 

The house of Pirpur. — The history of the Pirpur taluqa, owned jointly 
by Mir Baqar Husen and Mir Ghazanfar Husen is as follows : — 

When Akbar Shah built the town and fort, which are still here known by 
his name, the descendants of Sayyad Sulaiman above-mentioned, who had 
greatly multi-plied, were appointed hereditary chaudhris of the pargana, 
which also bears that name. At a subsequent period, the estates which the 
family had in the meantime created, became sub-divided into five portions, 
as per margin. Of these, the property of Nos. 1, 4, 

1. Sayyad Fahim-ud- ^^^ g^ ^^.^ j^g^j ^j ^^le taluqdars whose names are men- 

2. Gliulam Ali. tioned above, although Chaudhri Mehndi Husen, claim- 

3. „ Fida. ant as heir of No. 1, stilllives ; while the lands of Nos. 2 

4. „ ^^^i'"- and 3 are in the independent possession of Malik Hidd- 
" ■ yat Husen. All these persons, viz., Baqar and Ghazanfar 

Husen, Hidayat Husen, and Chaudhri Mehndi Husen, are descended from 
the female line, or have married female descendants of the five brothers 
above marginally referred to. 

About one hundred years ago the portions of Nos. 4 and 5 were in the 
possession of Chaudhri Muhammad Hdfiz ; when he died, his widow, Bholi 
Bibi, succeeded him. They had an only daughter, piarried to Khwdja 
Badar Ali of Tajpur ; and this person carried on the business of the pro- 
perty under his mother-in-law. About the year 1193 Fasli, or 1786 A. D., 
this Badar Ali was killed by the Panwars in a fight, when his son Qasim 
Ali was an infant. 

Previous to this, in the reign of Shuja-ud-daula, one Jamshed Beg, a 
Risaldar, had risen to rank in the King's army, and his history is as fol- 
lows : A Government official happened to be passing through the village 

of Jetupur, pargana Aldemau, during the reign in question, when the 
residents turned out and murdered him ; a force was sent to exterminate 
the inhabitants, and amongst others, one Makhan Singh of the Raghu- 
bansi tribe was killed. The infant son of this man was then carried off by 
the force and taken before the Nawab, and in a moment of caprice he 
took him under his protection, made a Muhammadan of him, and being 
himself a Mughal, gave him the name of Mirza Jamshed Beg. In process 
of time this man rose to command a Risala of 1,700 cavalry, and was 
deputed with his regiment to Akbarpur. In his regiment there was a 
subordinate officer, named Mirza Muhammad AH Beg, who was in high 
favor with the Commandant. 

In those days, the neighbouring taluqa of Aurangnagar of 57^ mauzas. 
was in the kabuliyat of the Khdnzadas of Hasanpur, and a friendship soon 
sprung up between this Muhammad Ali Beg and Raja Roshan Ali Khan, 
the head of that clan. The result of this friendship was, that Jamshed 



18 AKB 

Beg deputed Muhammad Ali Beg to obtain from his friend (the raja) the 
farm (the family alleged gift) of the Aurangnagar property for him (the 
Risdldar). During the remainder of Jamshed Beg's life he retained this 
farm, Muhammad Ali Beg, still familiarly remembered in these parts as 
the Mirzai Sahib, managing it for him as his agent. After Jamshed Beg's 
death, for two or three years the Mirzai carried on the farm. In the 
interim he purchased the village of Pirpur from the Malikzadas, who were 
the old zamindars, and made it his head-quarters ; and this was followed 
by having the kabuliyat of the Aurangnagar estate made out in his own 
name, under the designation of taluqa Pirpur. 

We have seen above how, by the death of Badar Ali, his mother-in-law, 
Bholi Bibi, was left alone to bring up her infant grandson Qasim, and to- 
manage her property. At this time the Mirzai had established his repu- 
tation as a powerful and just administrator, and so it occurred to the 
lady in question to make over the management of the property, which had 
come down from Sayyad Basawan, consisting of 40 mauzas, to him , alone 
with the infant heir. This she accordingly did, and from that time that 
taluqa also got included in the Pirpur kabuliyat, which went on growing 
in the usual snow-ball fashion under its able rulear, until in 1225 Fasli, or 
1818 A. D., when it had reached to 645 mau/as. The Mirzai had never 
married in these parts, and had no offspring, and he had brought up the 
child, Qasim Ali, as his own son; consequently on his death, in 1226 Fasli, 
or 1819 A. D., Qasim Ali succeeded him in the entire fine property that 
had been created during a long and energetic rule. After Qasim Ali had 
held the property for three years, he had to give place to the weU-known 
Ghalib Jang ^ to. whom, through royal favor, the property was then farmed. 
Qasim Ali sought the intervention of the British Government, and after 
a period of two years he was restored to possession, through the represent- 
ations of the Resident of Lucknow, in 12S1' Fasli, or 1824 A. D, During 
the remainder of his rule, which is stiU favorably remembered, he. added 31 
mauzas to the already large property, and died in 1233 Fasli, or 1826 A.D. 
The further vicissitudes of this estate need not be given: some 79 
villages were taken from it by the Rajkumars : at annexation it still 
contained 599, all of which have been retained by the owners. 
The Sayyad Basawan mentioned above lived in the reign of Alamgir, 
and I have seen an original sanad, which is in the possession of the present 
owners, bearing that Emperor's seal, granting privileges to the said Sayyad 
in the thirteenth year of that reign, or (say) A. D. 1671. 

6th. Shehk Ahmad Qittdl (the slayer), a Shia, came from Lorestan, 
1 Loreuur ^ province of Persia, along with Makhdum Ashraf 

2. Pirpur. ■ Jahangir (see Paegana ChXndipur Birhar), and took 

3. Hashimpur. up his residence in Lorepur Palhan. There were at one 
5 SSirfabad *™® ®^^^®^ distinct branches of this man's descendants 

6. Sayyadapur. ownmg land, and they are marginally indicated by the 

7. AbduUapur. name of their former estates; but the possessions of 
9' A^t?*""^^ *^®^® ^^^® ^^^'^ absorbed into the taluqas, of Saman- 

10.' Kffipur Maiwal. P^^'^ . ^^^. Pirpur. The taluqdar of the former place, 
H, TJninowiL ' Malik Hid^yat Husen, is the present representative 



AKB 19 

of the Lorepur branch and of the line. These people all assume the desig- 
nation of Malik ; but why, I cannot say : for it will be seen that their 
common ancestor was a Shekh. 

The house of Samanpur. — Malik Hidayat Husen, the present taluqdar, 
is eleventh in descent from Shekh Ahmad Qittal, the originator of the 
family. 

The hereditary property of this branch of the family originally consisted 
of three mauzas, including Lorepur Palhan, the parent village. So matters 
remained till Malik NuruUa rose to influence, and between the year 1166 
and 1170 Fasli, or 1759 and 1763 A. D., his revenue engagements includ- 
ed fifty villages, besides having some of the jagir villages of Iftikh^r-ud- 
daula, mentioned in the Surharpur Report, in farm. 

This state of things was continued during the lives of Maliks Rflhulla 
and Najaf. The latter was succeeded hy Malik Ramzdn Bakhsh, who in- 
creased the property by adding to it in 1197 Fasli, or 1790 A. D., eleven 
villages, (Masenda, &c.,) the muafi of Hikmat Husen Khan, resumed by 
order of Nawab Asif-ud-daula. This property then consisted of 61 mauzas, 
the revenue of which was paid to the above-mentioned Iftikhar-ud-daula, 
who was muafidar of 247^ mauzas, had an assignment, and was brother of 
the Bahd Begam. 

In 1202 Fasli, or 1795 A. D., owing to the ill-conduct of Zafar-ud-daula, 
Bande Ali Khan, the son of the former muafidar, and grandfather of Zain- 
ud-din, one of the present agents of the Begam's trust, this jagir was 
resumed, and the revenue arrangements were entrusted to Mian Almas 
Ali Khan, the far-famed eunuch. This man entrusted the direct manage- 
ment of the whole jagir, including his own villages, to Malik Ramzan 
Bakhsh, who retained charge till 1212 Fasli, or 1805 A. D., when he was 
formally allowed to engage for 308 mauzas, under the name of taluqa 
Samanpur. Of these, as already shewn, 247^ were assigned villages, which 
had been resumed ; and 61 were villages previously acquired. 

Between that year and 1220 Fasli, or 1813 A. D., 24| more villages were 
absorbed from the Akbarpur chaudhris and others into this taluqa. Ram- 
zan Bakhsh was succeeded in 1231 Fasli, or 1824 A. D., by his son Tafaz- 
zul Husen, who, two years afterwards, added taluqa Reori and other vil- 
lages to his estate, increasing it to 364 villages. Between that time and the 
annexation of this province, this taluqa was still further increased by the 
addition of twenty-two other villages. Malik Tafazzul Husen died after the 
mutiny, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Malik Hidayat Husen 
the present taluqdar. 

The notorious rebel ndzims, Muhammad Husen and Mehndi Husen, first 
rose to influence in the service of the late taluqdar, whose paid agents they 
formerly were ; and there is little question that, had the annexation been 
but a little delayed, they would soon have appropriated their master's pro- 
perty. They made the late taluqdar, who was a puppet in their hands, 
join them with a contingent in the occupation of Gorakhpur, and when 

b2 



20 



AKB 



631 


3,150 


856 


3,100 


243 


1,200 


60 


300 


30 


150 


321 


1,600 


86 


460 


130 


650 


104 


520 



they were afterwards driven thence by the Gdrkhas, the Malik was igno- 
miniously brought home by his people, stretched on a charpoy, as if he were 
a corpse. 

Chief Towns. 
The following are the chief towns and villages in this pargana : — 

Number of houses. Souls, 

1. MiibArakpirr 

2. Akbarpur Siiahzadpur 

3. Auramgnagar 

4. Maharajganj 

5. Eaeulpur 

6. Lorepur ... ... 

7. Haidarganj 

8. "Samanpur 

9. Baralipur ,.. „. 

There are, besides, markets held at ten different places, but at which 
there are no residences, where the people periodically assemble to carry on 
trade. 

Sheines, Fairs, &o. 

1. MasatMpur alias Bhidon. — Sayyad Masaud, is said to have come from 
Arabia, and to have died at this place in 420 Hijri. He is traditionally 
believed to have made disciples of two famous local necromancers, named 
Sahja and Kalka. The tombs of these two men are at this place. Pilgrims 
who are beset by evil spirits, remain for a day and make offerings thereat, 
on their way to the greatest shrine of Kachhauchha, mentioned in the 
Chandipur Birhar Report, where these are finally cast out. 

2. Shah Ramzdn's Dargdh. — Shah Najm-ud-din, Isfahani, alias Shah 
Eamzan, was one of the associates. 

Distribution of property. 
Landed property is now thus distributed in the pargana : — 



Estates. 


Proprietor. 


Number of yillftges. 


Pirpur ... u. 


B£qar and Ghazanfar H 


usen ... 113 


Samanpur 


Malik Hidayat Hisen 


143 


Kataria ... ... ^- 


Karimat Husen 


7 


Birhar ... 


The four Babus 


24 


Meopur ... 


The three branches 


24 


Dera 


Eaja Shankar Bakhah 


5 


Moretra... 


TheThakurain ... 


8 


Khapradili 


Eamsarup Singh... 


2 


Bhiti ... „ 


Jai Datt Singh ... 


1 


Grants ... 


Loyal Snbahdars... 


3 


Independent 


Various 


34 




Total villas 


es ... 364 



AKB 21 

The area of this pargana was 263 square miles ; 8 villages were added 
to it, and there are now 272. The population consists of 54,843 Hindus, and 
9,083 Musalmans, being at the rate of 475 to the square mile, according to 
the census of 1869. 

Only 129 square miles are cultivated ; the soil, products and cultiva- 
tion, do not differ from those throughout the district. 

AKOBBJ.— Pargana Mauranwan — Tahsil Purwa — District TJnao. — A 
large village eleven miles south-east from Purwa, and thirty-one from Unao, 
It is near a lake, and half a mile west of the road, leading from Unao to 
Eae Bareli. It is alleged to have been founded by Akbar Singh a Manwar 
Chhattri, from Dharanagar. 

The population is 4,121, of whom 34 are Musalmans. There are very 
many Chhattris ; in this ancient town there is no temple, mosque, or 
masonry building. 

ALAMN AGAR* Pargana. — Tahsil SHAHABAD^DisfWci Hardoi,— A wild 
backward pargana, in the extreme north of Tahsil Shahabad, in the Har- 
doi district. The Sukheta stream on the west, and the Bhainsta on the 
east, separate it from parganas Shahabad, and' Pihani. On the south it is 
bounded by pargana North Sara. On the north and north-west it touches 
th« districts of Kheri and Shahjahanpur. Its greatest length and breadth 
are ten and a half and nine miles. Only 19 of its 59 square miles are cul- 
tivated. 

Four of its forty-three villages are uninhabited jungles, the property of 
Government. The surface is level. To the east and west, along the banks of 
the Sukheta and Bhainsta, spread almost unbroken belts of dhak (Butea 
frondosa) and thorn jungle that teem with nil-gae, wild hogs, hares, 
pea-fowl, grey partridge, and bush quail. The cost and labour of guarding 
his crops from the depredations of wild animals is a heavy drag on the 
cultivator, so that wherever the neighbouring jungle is thickest, there 
rents are lowest. Down the middle of the tract, mid-way between the two 
streams, a partial clearance has been made, and is extending. 

The proportion of light and sandy soil (6Mr) is far lower than any- 
where else in the district, being only 14 per cent, of the cultivated area. 
Good loam (dumat), and clay, (matidr) abound. The water-supply is copious 

Nowhere else in the district is so large a portion, 59 per cent, of the cul- 
tivated area, watered. Five-sixths of the irrigation is from wells, and the 
rest from tanks, ponds, and the Sukheta. The Bhainsta dries up - too 
soon to be of much use, except to moisten the fields along its banks and by 
percolation to raise the water level in the wells. In two-thirds of the 
villages large kachcha wells, worked with bullocks and a leathern bag, are 
dug for from Rs. 2 to 8, and last from two to four years. In three villages 
lever wells with an earthen pot (dhenJdi) are used, which cost from Rs. ^ 
to 5, and have to be renewed each year. The soil is especially adapted to 
the 'growth of sugarcane; and the nearness of the Rosa Factory at 

* By A. Haxington Esq., B. A., c. s., Assistant Commissioner, 



22 ALA 

Shahjahdnpur, only sixteen miles off, will some day develope this backward 
branch of the agriculture of the pargana. 

There is no scarcity of cultivators at present, but the pressure of popula- 
tion upon soil, only 258 to the square mile, is too light to stimulate the 
lazy Nikumbhs to stub their wastes and improve their careless tillage. 

Less than six acres is the average area of cultivation to each plough, 
a lower one than anywhere else in the district. Roads are much wanted. 
A cart-track, for it is little more, runs through the pargana from north- 
west to south-east, on the way from Shahjahanpur to Pihani. The staple 
products are millet, wheat, barley, gram, country cotton, and arhar. Of 
the 43 villages, 22J are owned by Nikumbh Rajputs and 9 by Chamar 
Gaurs, 4 have been decreed to Government, 1 is held by Tiwari Brahmans, 
2 by Kayaths, and 4 J by Muhammadans. The tenures are zemindari and 
imperfect pattidari. 

The land revenue demand, excluding cesses, amounts to Rs. 24,.5l7, — a 
rise of 89 per cent, on the summary jama, and falls at Rs. 1-15-7 per cul- 
' tivated acre; Re. 0-10-5 per acre of total area, Rs. 11-6-3 per plough, Rs. 
2-4-3 per head of agricultural, and Rs. 1-9-9 of total population. 

The population is 15,221. Hindus to Muhammadans are 13,713 to 
1,508 ; males to females, 8,398 to 6,823 ; and agriculturists to non-agricul- 
turists, 10,965, or 72 per cent., to 4,256. Three-fifths of the Muhamma- 
dans are converted Ahirs (Ghosis). A fifth of the Hindus are Chamars. 
Nikumbh Chhattris are rather less than a sixth ; Brahmans, Basis, and 
Ahirs, make up nearly a third. Of the other castes, Banians and Mur^os 
are most numerous. 

No melas are held. There is a village school at Karawan (33), with a 
branch at Bijgawan (32). Weekly markets are held at Karlwan on 
Wednesdays, and at Para on Sundays. Until 1703 A. D., Alamnagar was 
included in the great Kheri pargana of Barwar Anjana, Sarkar Khaira- 
bad. Local tradition sketches the following outline of the pargana's past 
history. Thatheras held it until, at some uncertain period in the later 
days of Hindu dominion, a band of Gaur Chhattris, headed by Raja Kuber 
Sah crossed the Ganges from Kanauj and crushed them out. Later on, 
about a generation before the fall of Kanauj, the Nikumbhs got a footing 
in the pargana in this wise.— A body of Kachhwaha Chhattris under the 
leadership of Naruk Sah, left Arwal, in Jaipur, and sought service under 
the Tunwar raja of Delhi. By him they were deputed to reduce the rebel 
Bhais Ahirs of Pipargaon, in Farukhabad. 

They did their work, and were rewarded in the usual fashion with a 
grant of the rebel tract. 

To Nanhar Singh, son of Naruk Sah, were born four sons, — Narpat, 
Magru, Gajpat, and Jhagrli. Of these, Gajpat and Jhagrti were fortunate 
enough to render signal service to Santan, the powerful Sombansi rdja 
of Santan Khera (Sandi). Santan had fallen into disfavour with his chief 
the raja of Kanauj, and was in durance there. The Kachhwahas, Gajpat' 
and Jhagrli, procured his release. In gratitude for their help, Raja 



ALA 2g 

Santan conferred on them the title of Nikumbh (Nekkdm), and added 
the more substantial benefit of 52 villages for Jhagrti S^h in the neighbour- 
hood of Barwar and Lonara in the Sandila country, and of 52 more for 
Gajpat Singh in what is now pargana Sandi. Of these, the chief were 
Palia and Malhautu. The third son, Narpat Singh, remained with his father 
on the Farukhabad side of the Ganges. The fourth, Magrti Sah, was 
rewarded for good service, with leave to settle in that portion of what is 
now the Alamnagar pargana, which had not been already appropriated 
by the Gaurs, and in and near Fatehpur Gaind in what is now pargana 
Shahabad. 

Side by side, doubtless not without constant feuds, the Gaurs and 
Nikumbhs occupied this tract, until, in the reign of Akbar, the Gaurs, then 
headed by Raja Lakhmi Sen, waxed rebellious and were dislodged 
by Nawab Sadr Jah^n, the illustrious founder of the line of Pihani Say- 
yads. The fortunes of the Nikumbhs fell as the star of the Sayyads rose. 
Village after village fell into the grasp of the Muhammadans, until at last 
all that was left to the Nikumbhs was Bahlolpur, their earliest settlement 
in these parts. So they called it Raho (the last left), and by this name 
is the ruined site of Bahlolpur still called. But the troubles of the 
Nikumbhs were not at an end. A deeper deep was in store for them. In 
the following reign, at a wrestling-bout between Gopdl Sah, Nikumbh, 
and Taj Khan, a Pathan in the service of Sadr Jahan, the Nikumbhs and 
Sayyads fell out. The Nikumbhs got the worst of it ; Bahlolpur, too, 
passed away from them, and the Sayyads named it Alamnagar, in honor of 
the reigning Emperor Alamgir the first (Aurangzeb). The Nikumbhs 
did not recover their position until about ninety years ago, when Asif-ud- 
daula resumed the revenue-free domain of the Pihani and Muhamdi 
Sayyads (then represented by the Sombansi pervert. Raja Ibadulla Khan), 
and gave to the depressed Nikumbhs and Gaurs an opportunity of again 
engaging for their lost possessions. 

ALDEMAU Pargana — Tahsil Kadipue— DisiHci StjltAnpue. 

PAET I. 

Historical. — * The pargana of Aldemau is in shape an irregular square, 
and was considered to be one of the most productive, as it was undoubtedly 
the largest, in the Fyzabad district, in the extreme south-eastern corner 
of which it was situated ; it is now in the extreme north-east of Sultan- 
pur. 

It contains 562 villages and 223,S73 acres, or 349 square miles. It is 
traditionally asserted that there were two brothers, who were prominent 
leaders amongst the Bhars, named Aide and Malde, the former of whom 
built a fort and city on the high left bank of the river Gumti, calling the 
latter by his own name, and adding to it the common affix of Man. The 
pargana takes its name from this city, which is now in ruins. But little 
is known here of the people of whom these brothers were the chiefs, further 
than that traces of them are still seen, such as old forts and ruined town^ 
ships, in no less than forty-nine places in this pargana. 

By P. Carnegy, Esq., Commissioner, 



24 ALD 

As far back as can be traced, the pargana was sub-divided into ten tap- 
pas, viz., — (1) Sarwan, (2) Rohiawan, (3) Bewanna, (4) Harai, (5) Makraha, 
(6) Haweli, (7) Jatauli, (8) Earaunda, (9) Katghar, and (10) Imlak. The 
tappa is an old sub-division well known in the neighbouring districts of 
Gorakhpur and Azamgarh, and which was retained in the last settlement 
of the former : and persons of respectability and note of by-gone ages are 
mentioned in old documents, with reference to the influence they possessed 
in the tappa where they lived. 

It is affirmed that during the rule of the Bhar leaders named above, 
eight members of different clans came to them in search of service, and 
were appointed to the management of, and located in the territorial divi- 
sions just indicated, by them, in the following order. 

Jagnag Rae, Raghubansi, a descendant of Raja Raghu, one of the ancesr 
tors of the illustrious Ram Chandar of Ajodhya, came, and was followed by 
Bawan Pande, Kantani, and these men were settled and employed in tappa 
Harai. Then came Siripat Rana, Sakarwar, a horse merchant, from Fateh- 
pur-Sikri, near Agra, where many of his clansmen still have villages, and 
joined the Bhars and was employed and settled in tappa Makraha. He 
was followed by Man Singh, Bais, from Baiswara, who was settled in Hamid- 
pur-Warri, (which, however, was not a tappa,) and founded a colony. After 
this came Johpat Sah, Ujjainia, from Ujjain, and he found employment in 
tappa Rohiawan. Then Kidar Sukul arrived, and was appointed managing 
agent of tappa Imlak, and was followed by Sarwan Tiwari, who was estal^ 
lished in tappa Sarwan. Next came Dhodhar Upaddhia, who was located 
in tappa Katghar, while the Kurmis, who cannot be said, traditionally, even 
to have come from elsewhere, are found managing tappa Bewanna. Last 
of all came Mutkar Pande, Sarwaria, and in him was vested the manage- 
ment of tappa Haweli. 

As long as the Bhars continued to maintain their power, the persons 
above-mentioned, or their heirs, are said to have carried on their duties as 
dependents in the positions which had originally been assigned to them ; 
but in process of time the Bhar supremacy languished as the Muhammadan 
power became gradually consolidated, and soon the aboriginal race lost their 
footing entirely. 

It would appear that revenue engagements were then entered into on 
the part of the conquerors, with the parties found in actual management, 
and who were thus maintained in the possession of the jurisdictions which 
had been entrusted to their care by their now deposed masters. 

This state of things is supposed to have gone on for a considerable period, 
and the next known phase of transition is, that the Sakarwar and Raghu- 
bansi colonies, having greatly outstripped the other parties, soon began to 
absorb the possessions of the Brahman and Kurmi families. I shall now 
give a brief account of the different original colonies to which aUusion has 
been made, premising by noting that there are no data from which we can 
give the order or probable period of advent, and that the number of gene- 
rations said to intervene, between the founder of the colony and the people 
now alive, is in each case liable to question. 



ALD 25 

/. — The Sakarwdrs. — It is asserted that in the seventh generation from 
Siripat Rana, reverenced as being the founder of this colony, lived Rana 
Bhimal Sih, who had two sons, (1st) Bhimal Mai, and (2nd) P6ran Mai. 
Of these, the former also had two sons, Kalian Sdh and Pirtumi Sdh. 

Puran Mai was an adherent and courtier of the Emperors of Delhi in 
the days, it is asserted, of Tamerlane (A. D. 1399), but more probably of a 
successor ; and by constant association with the Muhammadans at court he 
was led to embrace their religion. This man had two wives : first, a Hindu 
one before conversion, who had borne him Hindu offspring ; and subse- 
quently, a Muhammadan one, by whom he had two sons of the latter creed, 
named Dule Khan and Bariar Khan. After the death of the brothers 
Bhimal Mai and Ptiran Mai, their offspring separated their interests, and 
ever since the Hindu branch of the clan has been known as Taraf Kalian, 
and the Muhammadan branch as Taraf Dule. At this moment 16 villages 
of this pargana are mainly populated by the Hindu faction of this once 
powerful clan, while there are still 9 villages inhabited by the Muhamma- 
dan portion. How they have diminished before the rapidly rising and 
rival Rajkumar tribe, may be gleaned from the fact that ofl&cial documents 
shew that at the end of the last century there were over 117 villages in 
the possession of the two branches. The two principal properties of the 
clan were — 1st, Kalianpur, which however became sub-divided some gene- 
rations ago into four estates ; and, 2nd, Allahdadpur, which became ab- 
sorbed into the taluqa of Babu Umresh Singh in 1248 Fasli. They are now 
proprietors of 6| and sub-proprietors of 45 villages, and the present gene- 
ration of these people consider themselves 31 removes from their common 
ancestor. 

II, — The Raghuhansis. — The now living members of this clan assert 
that they are in the thirty-fourth generation from Jagnag Rae, their 
original foimder, who, they think, came into the pargana from no greater 
distance than Ajodhya. This would make them of older localisation than 
the Sakarwars ; and this, it is believed, they really are. We have some- 
thing like authentic information, that up to within 5 5 years back the 
people retained all the property they had ever possessed, which amounted 
to 69 villages. Since then, however, their proprietary possessions have 
been reduced to 18 villages, while they are sub-proprietors of 8, and they 
form the majority of the population in 15 villages. 

jjl_ The Ujjainias. — It is said that when the Bhars were exterminat- 
ed this clan increased and multiplied to some extent in the pargana ; but 
there is not much indication left now of by-gone prosperity, for we find 
from our oldest records that in the end of the last century they only held the 
settlement of a single village. 

They are at the present time sub-proprietors of three villages and resi- 
dents of four others, and they consider themselves to be in the twenty- 
fifth generation from the founder of the clan, who, they say, came from 
Uijain. Other Rajput clans in Oudh also trace their origin to emigrants 
from that country, and amongst them the Bais of Baiswara are said to be 
descended from Chand, who came from Ujjain, when Bikramdjit governed 
Mdlwa. 



26 ALD 

There seems to have been more intimacy between Oudh and Malwa in 
those ancient times than there is now : for, did not this same king restore 
the obliterated Ajodhya temples. We find, as I have just said, the de- 
scendants of one of that country populating a whole distiict in Oudh, and 
here is a clan in this district taking its name from the capital. And if we 
look back to the mythical age, we find the exiled Rama wandering in 
these southern wilds, and we learn of one of his successors, R^ja Dirgbans, 
the last of the solar line, leaving Ajodhya and taking refuge in the south, 
where he founded the Dirgbansi clan. 

IV. — The Bais. — This clan never gained much head in the pargana, and 
fifty-five years ago, of which time we have something like authentic in- 
formation, they had no proprietary possessions ; but we find them, at the 
present time, sub-proprietors of nine and a half villages, of which the chief 
and also parent village is Hd,midpur. Fotir only of these villages, however, 
are inhabited by the clan. They consider themselves in the twenty-seventh 
generation from Man Singh, who came from Baiswara, and from whom 
they claim to descend. 

V. — The Suhuls.— The offsprings of Kidibr Nath Sukul profess to be in 
the twenty-sixth generation from that person, their accepted ancestor. 
Forty-four years ago they were still zemindars of two and a half villages ; 
they are now proprietors of three and a quarter villages, and sub-proprie- 
tors of three and a half, while they inhabit ten villages. 

VI. — The Tiwdris. — The offspring of Sarwan Tiw£ri say they are 
twenty-five removes from the common ancestor. They were zamindars 
of three villages forty-four years ago, and they still are of two villages. 
They are also sub-proprietors of two villages,- while they form the majority 
of the population of six others. 

VII. — The Updddhias. — The progeny of Dhodhar Upaddhia were more 
prosperous than the other Brahmans, to whom reference has above been 
made. They now state they are in the twenty-fifth generation from their 
originator. Forty-four years ago they owned eleven and a quarter villages, 
and thanks to their prowess in the use of the matchlock and sword, which 
won for them the name of Talwarias, their possessions have remained in- 
tact. They, however, only inhabit seven of these villages. 

VIII. — The Pdndes (two families). — 1st. — The descendants of Mutkar 
Pande Sarwaria, in Haweli, think themselves now to be in the twenty- 
eighth generation from their progenitor, he who crossed from Gorakhpur 
(Sarwar). They held as proprietors two and a quarter villages so far back 
as forty-four years ago. They are still proprietors of a single village, and 
sub-proprietors of two and three-quarter villages, while they constitute the 
major part of the inhabitants of six villages. 

^nd.- — The offspring of Bawan Pande Kantani, in Harai, consider them- 
selves to be in the thirty-second generation from their progenitor. They 
had lost aU superior rights, antecedent to the period of which we have 
aiithentic information, but they are still in possession of three villages as 
sub-proprietors, while they are found populating seven villages. 



ALD 27 

IX. — The Kurmis. — These people cannot say where they came from, 
and think that they belong to the soil. They are said to have been influ- 
ential before the Bhar power began to decay, and they still talk of the 
days when their taluqa consisted of over fifty villages ; but there is no 
authentic record of their independent proprietorship. They had lost it 
before the commencement of the present century. They are still sub-pro- 
prietors of three and a quarter villages. Asai Kurmi is said to have held 
rank in the Emperor Akbar's army, and to have had a grant of 52 villages 
conferred upon him in consideration of his military services. 

X. — The Kdyaths. — There is a considerable colony of this class in the 
pargana, who also trace back to the period of the Bhars, and, like the 
Kurmis, are not conscious that their ancestors came from elsewhere. They 
have, from time to time, improved their opportunities, and at present they 
o^vn nineteen villages, besides being sub-proprietors of one or two others. 

XI. — The Muhainmado.ns. — There is a considerable difference of opi- 
nion as to the time when the Musalmans first settled in the pargana. The 
Hindu qanlingos afiirmthat it was only in the days of Akbar (1556 — 1605) 
that the faithful began to inhabit the pargana, some of whom came armed 
with rent-free grants, while others came as officials or retainers. But the 
Muhammadans themselves describe their advent to have taken place at a 
much earlier period, when the Sultan Sharqiya, or Eastern Kings of Jaun- 
pur, held sway between 1399 and 1457 A. D. ; and that the first of their 
faith who ventured here was one Sayyad Shuja Kirmani, who came to 
Aldemau and expelled the Rajbhars. 

Subsequently in the days of Taimur (A. D. 1398), or one of his early 
successors, he was followed by one Shekh Makhdtim Mardf, and most of 
the villages whose names have ' dbdd' affixed to them trace their origin to 
one or other of these two men or their offspring. The last-named indi- 
vidual and his descendants appear to have been men of religious vocations, 
and, as such, enjoyed considerable rent-free grants and much prosperity ; 
and the remains of many of their tombs are still to be found amongst the 
ruins of what was once the city of Aldemau. After the days of Alamgir 
(A. D. 1707), when the Mughal empire began to wane and the EajkumArs 
became dominant in the pargana, many of the descendants of the above- 
named Sayyad and Shekh migrated to Gorakhpur, Bareli, Patna, and 
elsewhere, finding these parts incompatible with their continued pros- 
perity. 

As far back as we can trace (1205 F.) with any regard to authenticity, 
the Musalmans (not being converted Eajputs) held proprietary rights in 
35 villages in this pargana : they are now proprietors of 14| villages and 
sub-proprietors of none, while they constitute the majority of the popula- 
tion in four villages only. 

XII. — The Rdjkumdrs. — Though last, not least, of the dominant races 
that have ruled in this pargana, we come to the Rajkumars. 

They were the last in order of all those that have been enumerated to 
establish themselves here, but they soon became by far the most powerful 
and the rights of other clans have rapidly declined in presence of their 



28 ALD 

continued prosperity until the present moment, when this fine pargana; 
(as well as others in this and other districts) may be considered as the 
zamindari of the clan. 

It is affirmed that in the reign of AUa-ud-din Ghori (A. D. 1153—56), 
but more probably of one of his successors of that dynasty, Bari^r Singh, 
Chauhan," fled from his home and established himself first in the village of 
Jamuawan and afterwards in Bhadayyan, both of which places are in the 
Sultanpur district. 

The family annals have it that this occurrence took place in A. D. 1248, 
hence it could not have been in the reign indicated. 

The clan to which Bariar Singh, the common ancestor, belonged, has 
now five branches, from which circumstance it is likened to the five fingers 
of a man's hand : these are the Chauhan, the Rajkumar, the R^jwar, the 
Bachgoti, and the Khanzada, the three last of which own no villages in 
this pargana. 

Opinions seem divided as to the birth-place of Bariar Singh ; some say 
it was Sambhal-Moradabad, others Mainpuri (the undoubted country of 
the Chauhans), while, according to Sir H. Elliott, it was Sambhar-Ajmer. 
There is also doubt as to this man's reason for leaving his home. It is 
well-known that after the overthrow of the Hindus, under Raja Pirthwi, 
by the Muhammadans, the Chauhans were specially singled out for extir- 
pation by the conquerors, and it is said that it was to seek an asylum from 
this fate that Bariar Singh sought refuge in these parts, changing the 
name of his clan the better to effect his purpose. That seems to be a 
proper and satisfactory reason for the act ; but there is a much more 
romantic one, viz., that the father of Bariar Singh, who had already 
twenty-two sons, aspired to the hand of a young bride, and the only condi- 
tion on which she would agree to become his wife was that, in the event 
of a son being born, he should succeed to the title ; and in due ' course this 
followed, which so much discomfited the twenty-two former sons that they 
all dispersed themselves over the country to push their fortunes, Bariar 
Singh's destiny having led him to Eastern- Oudh. Those that rely on this 
version of the story relate that Bariar Singh accompanied AUa-ud-din 
Ghori, whom he joined at Mainpuri, as he was on his way from Delhi to 
subjugate the Bhars, and that he assisted in the overthrow of Raja Bhim- 
sen as an officer in the army ; and it is affirmed that after this the con- 
quered country was given to Bariar Singh for his services. 

The Rajkumars, through B^iar Singh, claim direct descent from R^ja 
Kundh Raj, the brother of R4ja Pirthwi Raj, the hero of Delhi (A. D. 
1193). I give an abstract of ihe genealogical tree of the Fyzabad part of 
the clan from the ancestor just alluded to, down to the present date. It 
is a curious thing of its kind, and it professes to be correct. 

EUiott's Glossary relates that Raja Sangat was the great-grandnephew 
of Raja Pirthwi, and he had twenty-two sons, and that these were super- 
seded by the youngest in consequence of an agreement to that effect when 
their father took to himself a young wife. Now it will be seen that this 
tallies well with the tree, and with the family traditions, which show that 



ALD 29 

Rana Sangat Deo had twenty sons, who left their homes under precisely 
similar circumstances, and of whom Baridr Singh was one. 

There is this inconsistency however, that, whereas Rdja Sangat was only 
three removes from Raja Pirthwi according to the Glossary, there are six- 
teen removes between the latter and R^na Sangat Deo by the family tree. 

Raja Pirthwi was killed at Delhi in A. D. 1193, while the advent of 
Bariar Singh into Oudh is described to have taken place in A. D. 1248. 
There are fifty-five years between the two dates, and assuming them to be 
right, there is every likelihood of the Glossary version being correct. 

Bariar Singh had four sons, here known by the names of — (1) Asal, (2) 
Gogai, (3) Ghatam Deo, and (4) Raj Sdh. (Sir H. Elliott gives them as 
Googe, Gage, Ghatum, and Raee). Of these, in the Fyzabad district, we 
have to do with the progeny of the fourth, R^ja Raj Sah, who had three 
sons : 

I. — Raja Bhup Singh, Bachgoti of Dikauli, from whom descend, 1st, 
the Raja of Kurwar (one of the oldest principalities in Oudh), and the 
taluqdars Jai Datt Singh of Bhiti and Abhai Datt of Khajrahat, who are 
still called Bachgotis, whose history will be given in detail when I report 
on the pargana in which their property is chiefly situated ; 2nd Makat 
Rae's representatives, who hold Katawan, Mahmfidpur, and other villages 
in pargana Sultanpur ; and 3rd, the offspring of Jai Chand Raj. This 
latter had a son, Tilok Chand, who discontented with the lot of the 
younger branch, sought service with the Emperors of Delhi, voluntarily 
became a Musalman, and is the ancestor of the Khanzadas, the head of 
whom is the Raja of Hasanpur-Bandhua, in zila Sultanpur. 

II. — Diwdn Chakrasen Rae, Bachgoti, the ancestor of the Dallippur- 
Patti house, and not connected with this district ; and 

Ill.^-Isri Singh, Rajkumar of Bhadayydn, zila Sultanpur, and from 
whom all the Rajkumd.rs of Fyzabad descend. 

Advent into Fyzabad. — It is believed to be about 250 years since the 
offspring of Baridr Singh, having become too numerous to find room on 
the right bank of the Gumti, and powerful enough to encroach on the 
property of their neighbours, crossed over to the left of Fyzabad 
bank, and by degrees established six colonies. The first of these was 
under Birbhadr SSi, who planted himself at Dera, and from whom the 
rajas of that house spring. The second was Kirat Sah, at Nanamau, the 
ancestor of the taluqdar of that ilk. The 3rd was Khande Rde, who 
fixed himself at Kayathwara, and from him the smaller communities of 
tappa Imlak descend. The fourth was Madhukar Sah, who got Meopur, 
and from whom the taluqdars of (1) Meopur-Daharwa, (2) Meopur- 
Bardg^on, (3) Meopur-Dhalla, and (4) Paras-Patti, all spring. The fifth, 
Hari R^e' got Pakarpur, and to him trace back all the small clansmen 
of the south-east comer of the district. And the sixth. Jalap R^e, at 
Barw^ripur, from whom spring all the communities in the vicinity of 
K^dipur. 



30 ALD 

These families first obtained a footing by absorbing the smaller K^ath, 
Brahman, Kurmi, and Musalman zamindars, partly by purchase and 
partly by force, and they rapidly possessed themselves of the properties 
of the Raghubansis, Sakarwars, Ujjainias, and Bais, and soon over-ran 
the pargana. From time immemorial these people have been notoriously 
turbulent ; they are commented upon with regard to this in the histories 
of the reigns of Sikandar Lodi (A. D. 1488), of Sher Shah (A. D. 1540), 
and of Alamgir (A. D. 1658). Their doings within the recollection of 
people still living are quite in keeping with the reputation which they 
had so long ago established. The Rajkumars of the pargana have long 
been divided into three great factions : 1st, those that followed the lead 
of the taluqdar of Dera ; 2nd, those that followed the chiefs of Meopur ; 
and 3rd, the Tirwaha communities, who always made common cause in 
resisting the aggressions of all enemies, whether they belonged to the 
first and second factions just named, or whether they were outsiders. 
There was deadly feud among these three factions down to annexation, 
and much is the blood that has been shed from their jealousies ; but one 
faction would sometimes join another in resisting the third, or in attack- 
ing another clan. 

This part of the pargana history would be incomplete, were I not to 
detail some of the chronicles of this powerful clan ; and this I now 
propose to do, premising that I shall confine my remarks principally to 
times within the memory of men who are still alive. 

I. The house of Dera. — ^At the commencement of the present century, 
Bdbu Madho Singh was the ruler of this estate, which then consisted of' 
101 villages. He was the youngest of four brothers : of these, the eldest, 
Beni Bakhsh, held the taluqa for three years, and died of small-pox at 
the early age of nineteen. He had already proved his metal, when the 
Dera house, assisted by Pirpur and Nanamau, was arrayed against, and 
under his leadership vanquished the Meopur party, backed by the Tir- 
wdha communities who assembled to contend for the village of Srirampur, 
about 1798. On that occasion 300 men are said to have been killed, 
and as many more wounded. There are still many rent-free tenures 
on the Dera estate granted to families who lost members in this 
well-remembered fight. The second brother was Balkaran Singh, who 
shot himself because he was not allowed ' by his elder brother to storm 
the position at Srirampur, before the arrangements for the battle were 
complete. Of the third brother, all I know is that he died childless. 

Babu Madho Singh is favourably remembered as the successful leader 
in the action at Masora, and as a proprietor who managed his property 
respectably ; he died in the year 1823, He was succeeded by his widow, 
Thakurain Dariao Kunwar, a most remarkable woman, who after him 
for twenty-five years, through toil and turmoil, not only bravely held her 
own, but after the fashion of the landlords of her period, added to her 
estates, more so, indeed, than her husband had done in his lifetime. 
Such redoubted neighbours and contemporaries as Fateh Bahadur, 
Sarabdan Singh, and Shiurdj Singh (of the Meopur branch), although 
they hesitated not to attack a British military treasure escort on the 
highway, cared not to molest her. 



ALD 31 

She "was a match for the Native Government officials, but it was one 
of her idiosyncrasies — an uncommon one in those days — to pay her 
revenue punctually. So secret and well-organized were her movements, 
that she would spend days with her friends in the old British territories, 
without her absence from Dera being even suspected. Twice a year re- 
gularly, she paid all her retainers, and daily, at ten o'clock, their rations 
were served out to them. Her management of the estate was unique. 
She quarrelled, soon after succeeding, with the old hereditary agent, 
Bandu Misir, and under some apparent misapprehension of her orders 
he was killed. This induced her to lease out her property on favourable 
terms, including even villages that had always been under direct 
management ; and this system she carried out to the last, to the great 
benefit and satisfaction of her tenantry. This was, undoubtedly, a good 
system of management as far as the lady and her tenants were concerned, 
but it has created difficulties in the way of the settlement officer, who 
has been often much puzzled to know whether many of these long- 
existing leases originated in old rights, or in agreements above. Sleeman 
relates how Siuambar Singh and Hobdar Singh, the notorious leaders of the 
Gargbansi clan, fell while trying to regain from this extraordinary woman 
the taluqa of Barsinghpur, of which, with the assistance of the nazim, 
she had dispossessed them in the year A. D. 1838. The direct line, as 
will be seen by the following statement, ended with the husband- of this 
thakur^in. 

Chhatar Bingb 
had two sons. 
1. Edim Kalandar Singli 2. Garul Singh 

had l son. had 4 sous. 

Bimprak&s 1. Haghuuath. 2. Samundar Singh. 3. Hanumin, 4. Bhawanidfn Sihgb 

2 sons. 6 sons no descendants. his son, AudAn Singh» 

I. Gurdatt Singh 2. Jagdts ESa 1. Kunjan Singh now lambardar 

4 sons. childless. his son. of J Banni. 

1. Bent Bakhsh Singh (had a 1. Chhatrsdl 
daughter Dilr^j, who ascend- his 3 sons. 

ed the Gadi for 5 months). 1. EAja Rustam Sih, childless. 

2. Balkaran Singh ) „Miai„„ 2. ESo BariSr Singh 3 daughters 

3. GajrSj Singh j-cmioiess. 3. Shankar Balchsh Singh (2 sons) heir. 

4. M4dho Singh (whose 
widow, DariiSo Kunwar, 
held for 25 years) 

Madho Singh had left a niece, Dilraj Kunwar, married into a Gorakh- 
pur family, the daughter of his eldest brother, Beni Bakhsh Singh ; but it 
was known that the thakurSin disliked the next male collateral heir, 
Babu Rustam Sah, and it was supposed that she therefore entertained an 
intention of adopting a son from the Shiiigarh branch of the clan. This 
was so entirely contrary to the views and interests of the heir in question, 
that in 1847 he took the matter of succession into his own hands. He 
was then at the head of 300 men, in the service of the Maharaja Man 
Singh, the nazim of the day ; and it is believed that, in what follows, he 
was assisted, if not instigated, by his master. There had long been feud 
between the thakurdin and Rustam Siih, and the latter, indeed, had 
attempted to take Dera by storm, in which assault his father, Chhatrsal 
Singh, was killed, in 1846. The son thereafter organised a system of 
spies to watch the thakurdin, and to achieve by stealth what he had failed 
in by force. His intention, openly admitted, was to kill her, if he could 
find her. He soon found the opportunity. The thakur^in determined to 



32 ALD 

pay one of her secret unattended visits to the Ajodhya fair, for the pur- 
pose of bathing ; she was followed by the spies, who immediately commu- 
nicated with their master. She was soon traced by the babu to the Stiraj 
Kund tank, where he suddenly rode up to her litter, and found her 
attended by the five men who carried her, and by a confidential retainer or 
two. She at once asked who the horseman was, and was answered, " I am 
he whom you are searching for, and who has long been looking for you." 
She invited him to dismount, which he did, and sat beside her litter. She 
then addressed him, begging him to remember that no disgrace had ever 
befallen the house of Dera — none had ever been lepers, one-eyed, or other- 
wise contemptible — and to look to it that he maintained the credit of the 
family : having thus said she laid her head at the babu's feet, and added, 
" Now I am in your power and I am ready to die." Here a companion of 
the babu's, who was in his confidence, rode up and suggested that the 
hour had come ; but Rustam Sah replied, that no one that placed their 
life in his hands should be hurt ; so he desired his own men to convey her 
over the Gogra, where they had connections, and he set off for Dera. She 
was duly carried across the river, and it is related, as an instance of her 
indomitable pluck, that during the nine days she was kept there, she never 
drank water. She was then compelled to write a deed in favor of Rustam 
Sah, which I have seen, and she was then released ; but so great was the 
shock that her proud nature had sustained, that in a few months she pined 
and died. For a short time Dilrdj Kunwar the niece, of whom mention 
has been made, attempted to obtain the property ; but with the aid of the 
nazim her claim was soon negatived. Rustam Sah was put in formal 
possession by the nazim, and expended Rs. 35,000 in propitiating the clans- 
men. The nazim then moved from Dera, where he hard been encamped, 
to Kadipur ; Rustam Sah and a large gathering accompanying the camp. 
There, in the presence of the official named, the babu first discovered 
what the intentions of the former really were, and that he was being 
made a tool of; for he overheard a conversation in which the estate of 
Dera was spoken of as Mangarh, a name the nazim had just given to it, 
calling it after himself ! The truth at once flashed across Rustam Sah's 
mind, and he replied, with his rough and ready wit, " Well, its proper 
name is Dipnagar, but henceforth let it be Mangarh or Be-imdngarh, as 
circumstances may indicate." A fight would instantly have ensued, and 
the raja, who related these facts to me not a fortnight before he died, 
assured me that he was ready at the moment to spring at the nazim and 
murder him ; but a pandit, who was present, interfered, saying that the 
moment was not propitious,; and so the conflict was postponed. By the 
morning Rustam S^h had sought an asylum across the British border. A 
few months subsequently final terms were made, and by an expenditure of 
Rs. 9.5,000 the babu was duly installed as taluqdar of Dera. The estate 
consisted of 336 villages, paying Rs. 80,419 per annum to Government at 
annexation. In Madho Singh's time, AD. 1808, the property consisted of 
183 villages, paying an annual rental of Rs. 26,615 to Government. 

Rustam Sah's services during the mutiny were excellent. He suffered 
much at annexation under the revenue policy of that day, and lost most 
of his villages. StiU he gave shelter, and safe convoy to Benares, to a 
party of the Sultanpur fugitives. While I was in charge of the Jaunpur 



ALP 33 

Intelligence Department, before the re-occupation of Oudh, lie offered to 
establish the British rule if I would go to Dera Lord Canning would 
not then allow me to accept the offer, but some months afterwards Mr, 
Forbes was deputed on this duty. Throughout the rebellion Eustam Sah 
was a staunch supporter of our Government, and for this he was made a 
Raja and had valuable estates conferred upon him in addition to his former 
possessions. In the recent death of this admirable landlord, the district 
has suffered a severe loss, and I shall greatly miss him, for at all times I 
found in him a practical, out-spoken, common-sense man, who could be 
consulted with confidence and satisfaction. 

Dera is a highly interesting locality from its associations, mythical as 
well as historical. When Ram Chandar returned from his successful attack 
on Ceylon, it was necessary for him to seek absolution from the consequences 
of having killed Rawan, the offspring of a Brahman, by bathing : and it 
was ordained that this ceremony should be performed in two places. The 
first of these places was to be indicated to him by his there seeing a crow 
bathe in the river, and in so doing it would become white. This incident 
is believed, by his admirers, actually to have occurred at Dhopap, a ghdt 
on the Gumti, in the village of Shahgarh, four miles from Dera. There, 
then, R^m Chandar bathed, and obtained his first absolution, subject to a 
second, one in the Gogra at Nirmali Kund, near Guptar Ghat,^ Fyzabad. 
Subsequent to this purification. Ram Chandar is said to have crossed the 
Gumti at Dera the same evening, and here he is supposed to have per- 
formed the lamp-sacrifice (called Dipcharhana), and thenceforth the place 
was known as Dipnagar. Why the name was changed to Dera, no one 
can explain. Fifty or sixty thousand persons stiU flock from places two 
and three days journey distant, to seek like absolution for such sins as 
they may have committed. No produce is brought for sale. The village 
of Harsen, which adjoins Dera, is also reverenced for its associations ; for 
it is said that after performing the sacrifice of lamps just referred to, R£m 
Chandar slept in this village ; hence its name, from Har ( Parmeshwar or 
Mahadeo), and sen, to sleep. 

Overhanging this Dhopap bathing ghdt, and situated on the right high 
bank of the Gumti, is a fine old masonry fort, the river-face of which was 
of stone, some of which is still left, the past history of which seems to be 
disputed. One account is that its name is Garha, and the builder was, 
it is said, one of the Bhar sovereigns of Oudh, who imported stone by 
water for its construction from Naipal. Soon after the capture of Sultan- 
pur it fell into the hands of the Musalman invaders, who have since 
restored it, partly in brick and partly in mud. The other account is that 
the fort was built by Sallm Shah, alias Jalal Khan, and it is shown in our 
maps and is more commonly known by his name. He was the second son 
of the renowned Sher Shah, the successful rival and repeated vanquisher of 
the Emperor Humdyun, and the conqueror of the country from Bengal 
to the Panjab, but who was killed at the taking of Kalinjar and buried in 
the well-known mausoleum in Sasseram tank. Salim Shah succeeded his 
father in A. D. 1545, and reigned nine years. He built, besides this fort,, 
that portion of the Delhi palace, the name of which even Humavdn could, 
not change, from Salimgarh. 



3* ALD 

This fort is undoubtedly of great age : trees have taken root in the 
masonry subsequent to its becoming a ruin even, and have since grown old 
and withered away. There is an old. mosque behind the fort, originally of 
five domes, three of which only remain standing, which is still known as 
the Madarsa. In it there is a curious old monogram in stone of the names 
in Arabic of God and the Prophet. In the fort there is also a cutting in 
stone, in shape like a crown, but there is no inscription ; and opposite this 
idol the sacrifice of goats is performed by numbers every year. It appears 
to me more than probable that this is the site of a considerable Bhar town, 
which was selected by the Muhammadan king named, from its commanding 
position, as a stronghold in the heart of the Bachgoti country, to overawe 
that people, who, it has been shown, were in these days turbulent.* 

Five miles further up the river is P^pargh^t, ten miles south-east of 
Sultanpur. Here are the ruins of a city that Mansfir Ali Elhan, Safdar 
Jang, attempted to build a century and a quarter ago ; but, ere the walla 
had reached many feet in height, the plague broke out, and the work was 
suspended, never to be resumed. It was then that Fyzabad was founded 
by the Subahdar just named, and which was extended and improved by his 
successor, Shuja-ud-daula., 

The Meopur house. — The second great faction of the RajFumar clan are 
the descendants of Dal Singh, Taluqdar of Meopur, who lived about a 
hundred years ago, when the property consisted of 65 villages, paying 
Government Rs. 9,32-5, The greater part of his property was inherited by 
his son Zalim Singh, a few villages for subsistence having been given to a 
younger son, XJmrao Singh, a notorious plunderer, the ancestor of the 
Rdjkumars of Paras-Patti. 

Old Zalim Singh, ruled for many a long year, and increased his posses- 
sions according to the fashion of the period. A reference to the tabular 
statement below will show that he had five sons, and during his lifetime he 
is known to have made a distribution of his property amongst these. In 
the year A. D. 1809, war was declared between the rival houses of Dera 
and Meopur, regarding the possession of the village of Masora, pargana 
Birhar, and parties were organized for battle. Babu Madho Singh of Dera 
in person led the attack, and he was assisted by the Pajwdr clan and others; 
this party was successful on that terrible day, and old Zilim. Singh, and his 
three eldest sons, Sangr^m Singh, Subhdo Singh, and Pahlwd,n Singh, were 
aU killed ; while the fourth son, Zorawar Singh, received seventeen wounds. 

Seven months afterwards, the battle was renewed, when Sarahdan 
Singh, the grandson of old Zdlim, avenged the death of his father and 
grandfather, slaying the leaders of the rival faction and retaining possessioiii 
of the field for the time. 



* Half a century after Salim Shah, the eldest sou of Akbar, named Salun, rebelled and 
took possession of Oadhin A. D. 1600. (See Elphinstone. ) He assumed the title of Sultau 
Salim, and made rent-free grants, the sanad for one of -which is to be seen at Surharpur, 
in this district. On the death of Akbar he succeeded to the throne under the title of 
jahangir. In the sanad just alluded to, pargana Surharpur and the Qaz Ilahi are both 
spoken of. 



ALl) 35 

It will facilitate reference here to tabulate the descendants of Zalim Singh. 

Zalim Singh of Meopur, 
had five sons. 



1st son or party. 2nd son or party. 8rd son or party, 4th son or party. 6th son ov party. 

SangrSm Singh had 2 sons SubhAo Singh PahlwAn Singh ZorSwar Singh aagridwan 

Banjit Singh, Sarabdto Singh had 6 sons. had 8 sons died childless, Singh 1 son 



1 had 2 sons 

ShiudishtnarAln, Jagdeo Singh 

had 2 sons (became Muhammadan) 
Udresh Chandresh Umresh Singh. 
Singh ^Singh. 



1st ShiurAj — 2nd Fateh — 3rd Raghublr and his share Jarbandan 

Singh Bahddur dayal cost bloodshed. Singh 2 sons 

1 son 2 sons died child- M^dhoparshSd and 

Israj Singh 1st Lallu S^h less. another. 

2nd Abhaidatt Singh. 



2 


3 


4 


6 


Sitalparshdd 


Bliaironparshdd 


Shiuparshdd 


Sarumdin 


2 Bons 


1 son 


had 2 sons. 


1 son 


1 Niddhi 


dead. 




Algu. 


2 Chauhdrja. 









1 

Sarabjft 
had 2 sons 
Jagat Singh, one 
dead. 

Of the persons named in this table, the following are alive : — 

Of the first party, Udresh Singh and Chandresh Singh, joint taluqdars 
of Meopur-Daharwa. Jagdeo Singh, became Musalman and abdicated 
in favor of his younger brother, Umresh Singh, who is now taluqdar of 
Meopur-Baragaon. 

Of the second party, all except Subh£o Singh, Sarabjit Singh, and 
Sitalparshad Singh. But just before annexation the possessions of this 
branch were absorbed by Udresh Singh and his brother, of the first party, 
and the descendants of Subhdo have now only sub-proprietary rights left 
in a few villages. 

Of the third party, Isrdj Singh, and LaUu Sdh, the joint taluqdars of 
Meopur-Dhalla. 

Of the fourth son, there was no issue. 

Of the fifth party, Madhoparshad and a younger brother are alive, but 
their possessions have been absorbed by the Meopur-Dhalla branch. 

When the fourth son Zorawar Singh, died, about forty years ago, the 
descendants of the first and third sons quarrelled about his share. He usually 
lived with the third party, and they considered themselves entitled to all 
his share. Sarabdan and Shiudishtnard,in of the first party opposed this, 
and arbitrators were appointed. Fateh Bahadur, of the third party, 
invited the two last-named persons to meet in the Bhaisauli grove and 
arrange matters. They went in good faith with half-a-dozen followers, 
thinking that as the rendezvous was in the British territory, there was 
little to fear. They had scarcely taken their seats on a charpoy when they 
were set upon by an armed party and murdered in cold blood. After 
judicial enquiry, the three brothers — Shiuraj Singh, Fateh Bahadur, and 
Raghubirdayal Singh, were outlawed by the British Government. 

Shiuraj Singh subsequently met his fate in the following manner: Before 
annexation. Major A. P. Orr was Assistant to the Superintendent, Oudh 
Frontier Police ; he had long been watching the movements of Shiuraj 
Singh, and he had traced him to the camp of the then nazim, Man Singh, 
at Amola, pargana Birhar. He determined on his capture. The only 
hope appeared to be by a stealthy approach, and a harassing forced march 

c 2 



36 ALP 

had to be made. The weather was cold ; it had gained all pight, a^ad so the 
legions that followed the nazim had sought shelter in the neighbouring 
villages. Presently two Europeans, attended by one or two sawars and 
runners, were seen to pass within a few paces of the ndzim's tent. They 
were challenged, and, as agreed upon, gave themselves out as belonging to 
a British cavalry regimen b, which, they said, was encamped in the neigh- 
bourhood. They were allowed to pass on : one of the runners then pointed 
to a man under a tree, who was attended by one or two others, and said 
that that was Shiuraj Singh. One of the sawars then seized the outlaw by 
the hair, the latter swore an oath, and a scuffle ensued ; the sawars were 
cut down, Shiuraj wounded in the thigh, and the confusion was complete. 
The European officers threw themselves on the protection of the nftzim, 
who fortunately sheltered them. The wounded outlaw was carried off 
westwards by his now assembled followers, and, as fate would have it, fell 
into the hands of Captain Orr's outstripped escort, who decapitated him. 
Thus ended a brave, though rash, encounter : but for the rain, Shiuraj 
Singh would have been attended, as usual, by his 200 desperadoes, and the 
result would have been different. Fateh Bahadur Singh was seized at 
Benares under disguise, and sentenced to transportation for life, but died 
the following day in the Jaunpur Jail, not without suspicion of having 
poisoned himself. 

It will be seen from the details above recorded, that of the five sons of 
Zalim Singh of Meopur, the descendants of the first and third have absorbed 
the estates of the second, fourth, and fifth, while two of our great taluqdar 
houses have sprung from the first son, viz., 1st, Udresh Singh and Chan- 
dresh Singh of Meopur-Daharwa, and 2nd, Umresh Singh of Meopur-Bard- 
gaon. Two great houses have also sprung from the third son, viz., 1st, 
Israj Singh, and 2nd, LaUu Sah of Meopur-Dhalla. When I allude to the 
two last-named babus as forming two houses, I must note that they hold 
under a joint sanad, but they have frequent disputes, and they have made 
a private partition of their holdings. They have now succeeded to the 
estate of the fugitive Eaghubirdayal Singh, through his widow who held it, 
and died childless. Eaghubirdayal left a second widow, but she was set 
aside on the plea of having been married when her husband was an outlaw. 

At the time of, or shortly before, old Zalim Singh's dep-th, the Meopur 
property consisted of 289 villages, paying Rs, 48,420 to Government ; his 
offspring held no less than 548 villages at annexation, paying Rs, 1,45,356 
per annum to Government. 

Meopur-KMs.—This is the present village of the second great faction 
of the clan. It was first inhabited by Rdjkumars ten generations ago, when 
Madhukar Sah crossed the Gumti and occupied it. The village contains 
174 houses and 745 acres of land, and it is held in three portions by the 
three taluqdars whose estates have Meopur prefixed to their other names, 
and who cling to their respective ancestral portions, with much pride and 
pertinacity. There was formerly a mud fort here, the site of which is now 
marked by a much-reverenced mound of earth. But, although this was the 
parent village of this faction of the Rdjkumars, their great Stronghold was 
the fort of Dw^rka. This fort is in the south-east comer of the district, 
on the left bank of the Gumti, and overhanging it. 



ALD 87 

It is mentioned as follows by Dr. Butter : — 

" This fort is garrisoned by 1,000 men, the followers of Fateh Bahadur, 
a notorious freebooter. His father Pahlwan Singh, his uncles Zorawar 
Singh and Sangram Sah, and his grandfather Z^lim Singh, carried their 
depredations so far, habitually plundering all boats that passed the fort, and 
having on two occasions intercepted the pay sent from Jaunpur for the 
troops at Sultanpur, that about A. D. 1812 it was thought necessary to 
make an example of them. Accordingly the 42nd Eegiment Native 
Infantry, then stationed at Sultanpur, reinforced by artillery and infantry 
from Benares, and also by the Chakladar Ghulam Husen and his escort, 
the whole under the command of Colonel FaithfuU, after breaching the fort, 
took it by assault, with the loss of an officer and 8 men killed. The 
place was then occupied for some years by a detachment from Sultanpur. 
Sarabdan Singh commanded the fort during the siege and assault ; and 
he now lives in the Azamgarh district. Fateh Bahadur, then a boy, 
and now about thirty years of age, was present at the storming of the fort, 
and after the withdrawal, six years ago, of the British detachment, repaired 
and re-occupied it ; he is now the terror of aU Aldemau, which at different 
times he has ravaged. He is a troublesome subject to the Oudh Govern- 
ment, paying no more than the old assessment of his lands, Rs. 50,000, 
and being prepared for resistance or for flight, should any additional 
demand be made. Boats, unprotected by the presence of an European, 
are subjected to undue detentions and exactions when passing Dwarka and 
some other points on the Gumti." * 

The old cantonment at Dwarka is still marked by an old well, and some 
pipal trees which grow on the site of the old lines. Mounds of earth 
and broken bricks show where the ofiicers' houses stood, and there are the 
remains of the old fort which is still difficult of approach, from ragged and 
steep ravines. But the dense, thorny jungle, extending over thousands of 
acres, has disappeared, and cultivation is now carried up to the ditch and 
works. The natural position must have been very strong, and the artificial 
works, immense. 

The house of Ndnamau. — This is one of the six original families of the 
clan that crossed the Gumti, and settled at this beautiful spot on the 
left bank of the river, three miles above Dera. This taluqa is held by a 
coparcenary community, of whom Babu Sitla Bakhsh is primus inter pares. 
The estate consisted of 73 villages at annexation, paying Rs. 19,172 to 
Government, and circumstances have led to its being taken under direct 
management. The taluqdar I have found intelligent and exceedingly 
useful in the way of communicating information, of which he possesses 
a great stock ; and in arbitrating the disputes of his clansmen. He has 
always made common cause with Dera in the numerous faction fights. 
This property is deeply mortgaged, and is unremunerative, from the lands 
being split up and held by endless numbers of the coparcenary body. 

There was formerly an image of uncut stone at Ndnamau, dedicated to 
MahMeo, and known as Narbadeshwar-Mah^deo. This stone was brought 



* Dr. Butter's Topography of Southern Oudh. 



38 ALD 

from the Narbada river. Ishwar is one of the names of Mahadeo, and the 
name of this particular representation of that idol was Narbadeshwar, 
which became gradually corrupted into N'arbadesur* The image has, 
however, long since disappeared, 

The Paras-Patti house. — This estate was formerly considered a taluqa, 
but it has now been ruled not to be one, as it has been subject to sub- 
division. 

The family, as has already been recorded, is descended from TJmr^o Singh, 
a turbulent brother of Zalim Singh, and it therefore belongs to the Meopur 
faction. But Paras-Patti is situated close to Dera, and probably for this 
reason, ever since the two brothers just named quarrelled and separated, 
Umrao Singh and his successors, like the Thakurs of Nanamau, always 
joined Dera in their faction quarrels. 

It remains to mention that besides many isolated villages held by indivi- 
duals or petty communities, there are in this pargana twenty estates or 
mahals, made up of from five to thirty-two villages or fractions of such, 
and held by influential parties of this clan. These estates generally lie 
in a high belt of land, running along the left bank of the Gumti, the 
entire length of the pargana, and extending north from it to a depth of 
four or five miles. 

From its position with regard to the river, this locality is known as the 
Tirwaha. These Tirwaha Rajkumars formed the third great faction of 
the clan, and they were at once so numerous, so cohesive, and so weU led, 
that they had little difficulty in holding their own, when it came to blows, 
either against Meopur or Dera. They were usually led by the chiefs of 
Barwaripur, Pdkarpur, and Tawakkulpur. 

Fairs and Shrines. At Hamidpur. — There is an asthdn (spot or abode) 
in this village dedicated to the goddess of destruction, Debi. Fairs are 
half-yearly held, on the 24th and 25th of each Kuar and Chait, which are 
visited by four or five thousand persons, who never stay over the night : 
nor is produce of any importance brought for sale. 

Begethua. — There is an astMn here dedicated to Mahablr, or Hanomdn, 
the monkey-god. The country round about was formerly a dense jungle, 
and all trace of the shrine, which is deemed to be of immense antiquity, 
had confessedly been lost ; but about a century ago, Ramparshad Das, an 
Ajodhya Bairagi of renown, whilst traversing the woods, came upon this 
spot, which inspiration is believed to have pointed out to him as the 
long lost shrine. A weekly fair has ever since been held on Tuesdays, 
and in the estimation of Hindus the spot is thought to be second only 
to Ajodhya in sanctity. There is also a large annual fair on the first 
Tuesday after the twentieth day of the month of Sdwan, which is attended 
by about 20,000 persons, who come from considerable distances for the 
purpose. 



* It has been suggested that MaMdeo is a vague, general name, and Ishwara distinctiTe 
name ; as Parmeshwar, tne Eternal Being. 



ALD 39 

There are two ponds here, named Makri-Kund and Hattia-Haran, 
which have important mythological associations. The story of these is, 
that one Makri was a fairy at the court of the god Indra, who incurred 
the displeasure of her master, and was visited with his curse, and, in con- 
sequence, became a tadpole, inhabiting this pond. To her many importu- 
nities that she might be released from this low state, Indra at length 
listened, and she was assured that, should she succeed in touching the foot 
of Mahabir, the monkey-god, she would be restored to her former self. 
During the war in Ceylon which followed between Ram Chandar, the hero 
of the Rajputs, and Rawan, the champion of Buddhism (?) Lachhman, 
the brother of the former, was sorely wounded, and Hanoman was deputed 
to the Himalayas to fetch a charmed herb (miil-sajiwan) to effect his 
cure. On his journey Mahabir tarried at Begethua. Rawan having 
heard of the deputation of Mahiibir, despatched his own maternal uncle 
Kalnima, to intercept and detain him until the wounded Lachhman should 
die in the absence of the drug. On his arrival at this spot, Mahabir 
oncountered Kalnima in the garb of a devotee, and being beguiled by the 
latter, he agreed to adopt him as his future preceptor and guide. But 
Mahabir was thirsty from travel, and he was accordingly referred to the 
Makri-Kund for water, and while he was drinking, the golden oppor- 
tunity was accorded to the suffering tadpole for which she had waited so 
long. She was at once restored to her former fairy shape, and exhibited 
her gratitude by divulging to Mahabir the plot of his enemy. The 
monkey-god then conceived the design of murdering Kalnima,. but having 
the fear of the consequences of taking the life of a Brahman before his 
eyes, he sought counsel of the fairy. She soon pointed out an escape from 
the embarrassment, and this was. by simply bathing in the neighbouring 
pond, called Hattia-Haran, and having afforded this information she dis- 
appeared into the clouds. Having rejoined the devotee, Mahdbir des- 
patched him by driving him into the bowels of the earth, and he obtained 
the promised absolution by bathing in the pond indicated. 

The Mansdpur Fair. — About sixty years ago, Damar Das, Raghubansi 
of this village, gave himself up to prayer, and attained celebrity as a success- 
ful divine. He was succeeded by his pupil Nihal Das, who also acquired 
fame. The latter excavated a tank thirty years ago, and having had water 
■carried from all the different well-known Hindu bathing-places, such as 
Allahabad, Muttra, Gya, Hardwdr, &c., in the presence of an immense assem- 
bly of men of the order, it was poured into this tank. Since then a bath- 
ing fair has been held at this place twice a year, on the 30th of Kartik and the 
24th of Chait, which is attended by 20,000 people of the vicinity, when 
offerino-s are made on the site of the funeral pyre of D4mar Das. The visitors 
rarely stay over the night, and no goods of importance are brought for sale. 

The Bharonadi Fair. — A Brahman by name Dharmangat Pande, a 
descendant of Mutkar Pande, was murdered by the Rajkumars of this 
village, and this sin was visited on the heads of the latter by the spirit of 
the deceased, for they soon lost the village. The memory of the Brahman 
martyr is still honored on the 2.5th of the month of Kuar, when a fair is 
annually held, which is attended by about 2,000 of the neighbours : no 
produce of note is brought for sale. 



40 ALI 

The Fair of Karre-Deo, at Aheta. When the Sakarwar Rajputs had 
taken the place of the subdued Bhar tribe in this locality, the former clan 
brought their hereditary idol, a stone image, and set it up in this village, 
and to this day offerings are regularly made to it on all occasions of 
marriages, births, and rejoicings generally, by both the Hindu and 
Musalman branches of the Sakarwfo clan. There is an annual fair held 
on the first Tuesday after the 15th day of Jeth, more especially to do 
honor to the idol, when about 2,000 of the neighbours assemble for the 
■ day. 

Dargdh MaJchdiA,m Mdriif. — Allusion has already been made, in treat- 
ing of the Musalmans of the pargana, to Shekh Makhdiim M^rlif He lived 
in the town of Aldemau, when it was in its zenith, much respected and 
honored, and when he died, he was there enshrined. A large fair used 
annually to be held to commemorate his deaths but this has been discon- 
tinued for many a year. 

Juriya Shahid, in the same locality, is a tomb, respected as that of 
a blessed martyr, where offerings used to be made by those afflicted with 
ague ; hence its name. But for a century nearly, the place has lost its 
charm, and has consequently fallen into disrepute. 

Aldemau contains 349 square miles, or 223,373 acres. Of this area, 
112,480 acres are cultivated, 5,971 are planted with groves, 72,342 are barren. 
The Government revenue is Rs. 2,32,880, whicQi falls at the rate of Rs. 1-9-0 
per arable acre. The population is 187,308, being at the rate of 532 to the 
square mile. Of this population, 32,171 are Brahmans, 35,291 are Chamars ; 
but there is nothing on this point deserving of remark. Dostpur is the 
principal town. Several classes of professional thieves have their homes in 
this pargana. 

ALIABAD Town — Pargana Rxjdatjli — Tahsil Ram Sanehi — District 
Baea Banki. — This town lies about thirty miles east of the Sadr, on 
the district road from Daryabad to Rudauli.. 

Population 1,734— Musalmans 933, Hindus 801. Longitude, 81° 41' 
north ; latitude, 26° 51' east. The majority of the inhabitants are Musal- 
man weavers. The town is supposed to be about five hundred years old, 
and was formerly celebrated for its cloth manufacture. It was a ren- 
dezvous for cloth merchants for all parts of the country, but the trade has 
declined with the introduction of English goods. 

The size and number of the now dilapidated buildings attest its former 
importance^ 

ALIGANJ— Pargraiia Bhije — Tahsil Lakhimpue — District Kheei.— 
A town in a pargana of the same name in the district of Kheri, situated 
on the right of the road from Lakhimpur to Bhfir ; has a good soil, is 
well watered from tanks and wells, and is surrounded by groves of 
mango trees.. 

Has a market on Tuesdays and Saturdays, at which articles of country 



A-MA— AME 41 

consumption are sold. There are the ruins of an old mud fort. Latitude 
28° 9'; longitude, 80° 40'. Population 1,133. 

AxfpuE — Pargana Daundia Khera — Tahsil Puewa — District Unao. — 
Lies twenty-one miles south of the tahsil station, and twenty-six east of 
Unao. The river Ganges flows three miles to the south of it. 

It was founded by a Sayyad Musalman, whose name was Ali Akbar, 
some eight hundred years ago. The soil is principally loam with some clay. 
The site lies rather low, but the situation is pleasing. Climate and water 
good. Groves in abundance. Two markets weekly for corn. Goldsmiths, 
carpenters, and potters work here. There are mostly mud built houses. 
Population is as follows : — 

Hindus ,.. , ... ,.. 1,406 

Muhammadaus ... ... ... 22 



Total ... 1,428 

The Hindu population is divided as follows : — 



Btahmans 

Chhattris 

Kayaths 

Baniitas 

Pasis 

Other castes 



330 

311 

12 

18 

27 

70S 



AMANIGANJ — Pargana Mahona — Tahsil Malihabad — District Luck- 
now. — This was a market founded by Asif-ud-daula, on his way to Rehar 
to fight the Rohillas; he founded one Amaniganj in Malihabad, and on his 
return he founded Amaniganj in this pargana, on the lands of village Banoga. 
Banoga was a village belonging to the Th^napati Panwars, whose ancestor. 
Ram Singh, occupied it after slaying the Pasi proprietors, and because of 
the immense woods round he called it Banoga. 

It was in the Nawabi, the highway of the traffic from Lucknow to 
Biswan, and so on to Khairabad, and again from Bisw^n to Fyzabad. The 
amount of business done was very considerable. The annual bazar sales 
are now about Rs. 27,700, chiefly of agricultui-al produce. Manufactured 
country cotton stuffs take a small place. 

One of the Government vernacular schools is placed here. 

The population, including that of Banoga, is 1,600. The bazar consists 
of one regular street. There are no masonry houses. 

AMETHI — Pargana Mohanlalganj — Tahsil Mohanlalganj — District 
Lucknow. — Amethi Dingur on the Lucknow and Sultanpur road at 
the seventeenth milestone from Lucknow, was the old head-quarters of the 
pargana which was known as the Pargana Amethi, till R^ja Himmat Gir 
Goshd.in transferred it to Goshainganj, which he built and called after himself, 
in the reign of Shuja-ud-daula, in 1754. With a change in the towns came 
also a change in the name of the pargana, which was thenceforth known 
as tke Goshainganj pargana. 



42 AME 

The town is situated off the road to the left and is buried in trees, and 
the visitor has to thread his way through the long winding alleys formed 
by the high walls of the agglomeration of mud houses which compose the 
town, coming sometimes across a gateway which leads into the court-yards 
of some impoverished Musalman residents, or the grass-covered dome of 
the tomb of some old Muhammadan saint. A larger proportion than 
usual, amounting to half of the whole population which numbers 7,128 
souls, is Muhammadan, and the town contains several Musalman muhaU.as, 
two of which — the Malikzada and Ansari — are very old. The date of the 
foundation of the town is unknown, but Amethi is a common name of a 
village and is probably of Bhar origin. It seems to have been an advanced 
post of the Bhar kingdom that was ruled by the Bhar Raja Baladatt, 
from Bahraich, as he maintained a force here to keep in check the two 
Banaphar Rajput leaders, Alha and Udal, who had been sent by the Ka- 
nauj raja to subdue the country of Oudh. They must have met with a 
check, for they do not seem to have advanced further, and a great battle 
is said to have been fought on a plain on the borders of the pargana 
about twenty miles to the west, and which is known as the Lohiiganj — 
' The town of blood.' Alha and Udal had a fortified camp in the village 
of Pah^magar Tikaria. The next scene was the invasion of Sayyad Salar 
in whose track Amethi fell ; he sent forward one of his lieutenants, Malik 
Ytisuf, who took and held the town. It is his descendants that inhabit 
the Malikzada muhalla, where the tombs of six martyrs (Shahids) attest 
the severity of the resistance, he met with. Of these, the two best known, 
are the tombs of Jugan Shahid and Sej-ud-dm Gada Shahid. In honor 
of the latter a festival is held in the month of Jeth, called the Hara-tale 
festival — The "under the Hara tree" festival. It is held on the same 
day as the festival in honor of Sayyad Salar at Bahraich. The Musalman 
invasion seems to have led to no further result. Sayyad Salar's defeat at 
Bahraich and his own death, as well as that of the Bhar Raja BaMdatt, 
seems to have drawn off both parties. The next occupants of the town 
and the pargana were the Chamar Gaur Rajputs of the country near 
Kangari, whose invasion took place probably at the end of the fourteenth 
century. The most famous of this family seems to have been Raja Din- 
gur, after whose time the town was called Amethi Dingur, and his tribe 
was known as the Amethia Rajputs. They, in turn, gave way before 
another invasion of the Musalmans, headed by Shekh Abid Husen, Ansari, 
and retired to their present seats in Kumhrawan and Haidargarh, in the 
district of Bara Banki. This Shekh was the father of the chaudhri fami- 
ly of Sahnipur, and some of this same tribe stiU inhabit the Ansdri 
muhalla of the town. From this time the Musalman element in the 
place increased. Two celebrated saints lived here in the time of Jalal-ud- 
din Akbar — Hazrat Bandagi Mian and Shekh Baha-ul-Haq ; and so 
widely known was the sanctity of the former, that the town began to be 
known as the Amethi of Shekh Bandagi Mian. When Akbar was on 
his way back from the conquest of Bengal, he turned aside to visit the saint 
and at his bidding, the platform on which he sat and on which his shrine 
is now built advanced six paces to meet the coming monarch ; and in such 
reverence is his memory held that even the dispossessed Amethia Rajputs 
make offerings to his tomb on their visits to the place : some muafi land 



AME 43 

was granted by the Emperor Akbar, and is still maintained by the Bri- 
tish Government. Besides these two, there is the shrine of Shah Yusuf 
Qalandari Faqir and numerous mosques. The Hindu religion has been 
suppressed, as no Hindu has dared to build a temple. A resident of Amethi 
and a member of the family of Shekh Bandagi Mian's was Maulvi Amir 
Ali Faqir, who in the last days of Wajid All's reign led a crusade for the 
destruction of the Hindu temples of the Hanoman Garhi at Fyzabad. An 
injunction was issued against his doing so by the King's Government. He 
did not obey and was killed in a fight that took place at Shujdganj, near 
Bhilsar, in the Bara Banki district, between himself and the King's troops, 
headed by Captain Boileau, that had been sent to stop him. The town now 
has a somewhat deserted-looking condition, due to the effect of old, unre- 
paired houses. 

The annual sales at the bazars amount to Ks. 3,600, and the weaving 
trade flourishes. There are no less than ninety-five families of the weav- 
ing (Juldha) caste in the town, and the butchers drive a thriving trade in 
the sale of skins and horns and suet of cattle slain for the consumption of 
the Musalman population. No less than Rs. 1,200 worth of skins form 
the annual sale of skins at the rate of one a piece. The Government ver- 
nacular school is attended by some 110 pupils, and a small girls' school is 
attached. 

The number of houses is 1,494. 

AMETHI Fargana — Tahsil Raipue — District Sultanpue.* — This large 
and important pargana is bounded on the south by the district and 
pargana of Partabgarh ; on the north by the parganas of Isauli and 
Sultanpur ; on the east by Tappa Asl ; on the west by Pokha Jiis. 

It is of a quadrangular shape, covering an area of 299 square miles, of 
which 131 are cultivated ; 59 are barren, and the rest is arable. The popu- 
lation is 160,752, being at the rate of 638 to the square mile ; of these 
only 5,491, or about 3 per cent, are Musalmans, 27,767 are Brahmans, 
nearly 17 per cent. This is a very high average for Oudh. 14,605 are 
Chhattris, and 14,724 are Chamars, 23,372 are Ahirs. 

It is an out-of-the way pargana, in which a colony of Chhattris has 
exercised undisturbed rule for many generations. 

Of the 365 villages all but one are owned by the Chhattri clan, the 
Bandhalgoti, and out of them Raja Madho Singh of Amethi has 318 vil- 
lages, covering an area of 265 square miles, and paying a revenue of 
Rs. 1,96,417. His fort was taken after the mutinies in 1858 ; he was the 
Bond's History of last chief of any consequence whose submission was fol- 
the Mutinies, Vol. lowed by pardon and restoration ; he had saved several 
II, 533. Europeans at the commencement of the outbreak, and 

was therefore treated with leniency. There are eighteen temples of Maha- 
deo, two of Debi ; there are also six mosques, several of them costly erec- 
tions, built by retired dancing girls. 



* By A. F. Millctt, Esq., Assistant Commissioner. 



44 AME 

The Bandhalgoti clan is not found out of Oudh, nor does it possess a 
single village beyond the borders of this pargana. Mr. Carnegy states that 
they are descended from a Dharkarin, or female bamboo-splitter, who mar- 
ried one Chuka Pande, a servant of the raja of Hasanpur. It is alleged that 
they still, on certain ceremonial occasions, make religious offerings to a speci- 
men of the ancestral implement, the banka or knife used in splitting the 
bamboo. 

The origin of the Bandhalgoti is thus related by themselves, and 
their annals have been ably abstracted by the Settlement Officer, 
Mr. Millett, C. S. :— 

The Bandhalgotis, Bandhilgotis, or Banjhilgotis, according to their own 
The Bandhakotis account, are Slirajbans by origin, and belong to the par- 
ticular branch of the clan now represented by the Raja 
of Jaipur. About 900 years ago, Suda Rie, a scion of that illustrious 
house, leaving his home in Narwargarh, set out on a pilgrimage to the 
holy city of Ajodhya. His route lay across the Amethi pargana, where, 
near the present village of Raipur, half overgrown with tangled weeds and 
briars, a deserted and dilapitated shrine of Debi suddenly presented itself 
to his view. The Bhars then held sway, and few vestiges anywhere re- 
mained of Hindu places of worship, so the pious pilgrim resolved to tarry 
awhile near the one accident had brought him to. Having performed his 
devotions he lay down to rest, and in his slumbers saw a vision of the 
Goddess of the Fane, who disclosed to him a lofty destiny ordained for 
him and his descendants,— they were to become hereditary lords of the 
territory in which he was then a temporary sojourner. Prepared to 
further to his utmost the fulfilment of so' interesting a prophecy, he de- 
termined to abide henceforth in his future domains, and relinquishing his 
uncompleted pilgrimage, entered into the service of the Bhar chieftain. 
His innate worth soon manifested itsplf iu many ways and secured his 
elevation to the post of minister. His Bhar master now designed, as a 
crowning act of favour, to bestow his daughter upon him in marriage ; but 
a Surajbans, though he might condescend to serve a barbarian, might not 
suUy his lineage by a misalliance, and Suda Rae contemptuously refused 
the profiferred honor. The Bhar chief, in offended pride, at once deprived 
him of his office, and he returned to Narwargarh. But his mind was 
ever occupied with thoughts of the promised land ; he collected a picked 
band of followers and marched against Amethi. The Bhars were defeated 
with a great slaughter, and the Slirajbans occupied their territory. 
Siida Rae established a fort on the spot where he had seen the pro- 
phetic vision, and included therein the ruined shrine, in grateful comme- 
moration of the divine interposition of his fortunes which occurred there. 
After the lapse of a few generations, the line of Siida Rae threatened to 
become extinct for the sixth in descent from him remained childless in 
his old age. In the village of Kurmu, however, resided Eanakmun, one 
of those mighty saints whose irresistible piety carried every thing before 
it. To him Mandhata Singh poured out his tale of woe, and humbly 
invoked his aid ; nor in vain, for by means of the saint'& prayers and 
austerities the threatened calamity was averted. A son was bom to 



AME 



45 



Mandh^ta Singli, and he was at first caHed Sut Sah ; but when he was taken 
to be presented to the saint, the latter suggested that his name should be 

PEDIGREE OF THE BANDHALGOTI CLAN. 



Kfihandeo. 

Dewanagi. 

Stidli Singh. 

Stida Efte. 

Dalla Eae. 

Indra Man. 

. Kharag Siiigh. 

Hari BSh, 

I 
piw^n S^h. 

Mandhilta Singh. 

Sijt B&h or Bandhu. 

Manohar Singh. 



Rde Singh. 
p^araiui). 



Kdwat Siih. 
(Bardgdon). 



Saugr^m Singh, 
(Kannu). 



DharAmfr. 
(Tikri). 



Eakhmangat Singh. 

I 

"R&m Sahd (Easr^w^i) 

(Kasrdwdn). 



R^j Singh. 
UdUw^n (Amethi.) 

Sri Rfim Singh. 

3£il Bdhan. 



I 
.Sri Rdmdeo. 



DharmAngat Singh. 
Dallp Sdh. 



R.an Singh. 
(Hewalgarh). 



Kunwar Singh. 
(Gangoli). 



Shydm LAL 
(Barna Tlkar). 



Sultan Sih. 
(Shahgarh). 



Bibram Sdh. 



II I 

Lachhmi Nardin Tilok SAh. Pritam Sdh. 
(Kannu). (Amezna). (ftdjgarh). 



Tej Singh. 
(Amethi). 



I 
Sujah Sdh, 

Dalip Sdh. 



LAI Sdh. 



Jai Singh, 
(Amethi). 



Hirde Sdh. 
(Jagdispur), 



Gambhir Singh. 
(Gangoli). 



Drig Sdh (Kasdni). 



Himniat Siih. 
(Kohni). 



Indra Singh. 
(Gangoli). 



Ajab Sdh. 
(Iroethi). 



Abijhiit Singb. 



Pah^r Singh. 
(Amethi). 

Himmat Sdh. 



Barward Singh, 



Mdn Singh. 
(Amai.) 



Chhatarpdl Singh, 
(Kasrdwdn.) 



Gurdatt Singh. 



Drigpdl Singh, 



Pirthlpdl Singh. 



Jai Chand Singh. 
Kannu Kasrdwdn.) 



Har Chand Singh. 



Dalpat SAh. 

Bisheshwar Singh. 
(Amethi.) 



Arjun Singh. 

Mddho Singh. 
(Amethi.) 



46 AME 

changed to one more expressive of the peculiar circumstances of his birth 
and he was therefore re-named Bandhu ; his descendants to mark their 
recognition of the important place he holds in their history, have since 
called themselves Bandhugotis, the children of Bandhu, or popularly 
Bandhalgotis. 

In the next generation this surname belonged to a single individual, 
for Bandhu was blessed with one only son, Manohar Singh. From this 
time, however, the family began to increase and multiply. Manohar 
Singh had six sons, Rae Singh, Rawat Sah, Sangram Sah, Ran Singh, 
Kunwar Singh, and Raj Singh, who are conspicuous as having been the 
first to divide between them the lands they inherited from Suda Rae. 
A family quarrel, whether regarding the partition or not is uncertain, arose 
between them, and they agreed to refer the matter in dispute to Tilok 
Chand, the illustrious Bais chieftain. Tilok Chand, say his panegyrists, 
was endowed with a happy faculty of settling every troublesome question 
presented to him in a facetious and off-hand way, at once hit upon the 
titular signification of most of the brothers' names. "Why," said he, 
" you aU seem to me to be much on a par, so divide your estates between 
you, and dignify yourselves with titles corresponding by your names. Rae 
Singh is already a Rae, Rawat Sah, a Rawat, Kunwar Singh, a Kunwar 
Ran Singh shall be Rana ; Raj Singh shall be Raja, and lest Sangram 
Singh alone should remain untitled, I dub him Thakur." A partition 
was accordingly made, and each brother, with the exception of the eldest, 
whose share was as usual larger than the rest, received 56,000 bighas. 
The following were the estates thus formed : — 



Rae Singh, Naraini. 
Rawat Singh, Baragaon. 
Kunwar Singh, Gangoli. 



Raj Singh, Marawar. 

Sangrdm Singh, Kannu Sangrampur. 

Raj Singh, Udiawdin* and Bihta. 



It is important to notice that all of these lie on the south and east sides 
of the pargana. The distribution of titles here alluded to, or a very similar 
one, is, I may remark, common to many Chhattri tribes. The Chandels 
divide themselves into four families, raja, rdwat, r^e, and rana, as also 
do the Gautam,-f- while the Amethias lay claim to the titles of raja, rde, 
and rfina.J 

Of Manohar 's six sons. Raj Sah, the ancestor of the present head of the 
The Bandhalgotis Bandhalgoti clan, is, by general consent, said to have 
of Amethi or Udia- been the youngest ; if the same evidence bestows on him 
■"^" _ the title of Rdja, it is solely because of the accident of 

name. But it was nevertheless from this very generation that his house 
began to take precedence of the rest. Raj Singh succeeded in adding to 
the share he originally received those of his brothers Ram Singh and 
Kunwar Singh, (so say the legends, nor is there anything to discredit 
them) a circumstance which does not necessarily "postulate any 



* The estate of Eaj Singh and his descendants continued to be called Udiawan until annexa- 
laUer nam '' '^ "^"^ ^° ""''^ better known as Amethi that I shall throughout call it by the 

t Slliot's Supplementary Glossary, Chandel and Qautam, 
X Chief clans of Bai Bareli district, page 24. 



AME 47 

pre-eminence on liis part. His two brothers are'said to have died childless ; 
and if at the time of their death, they were living in a state of union with 
him, he would be sole proprietor of the treble portion. The lead thus 
obtained at the outset his descendants were probably enabled to keep, and 
even increase, by the fact (evidenced by the genealogical table) that for 
some generations there was a single heir to their estate, which tended to 
preserve its importance ; whereas it appears that, in the collateral branches, 
a contrary agency was at work in the destructive process of sub-division. 

It was not till the time of Sri Eamdeo, fourth from Eaj Singh, that 
any troviblesome younger sons required to be provided for. Eamdeo had 
two brothers, Shyam Lai, who received the Bama Tikar estate, and 
Dhardmir, who received that of Tikri. 

The name of Dharamir refers this event to the reign of Sher Shah.* 
As Tikri lies on the extreme east, and Bama Tikar on the extreme west, 
of the pargana, it would appear that up to this time the southern half of 
it only was in the occupancy of the Bandhalgotis. About half a century 
later, however, the Ain-i-Aibari (Akbar's Laws) shows they had spread 
over the entire pargana ; nor are the traditions of the tribe inconsistent with 
the information thus obtained. Eamdeo's grandson, Eam Sah£e, is said 
to have received as his portion Kasrawan, on the northern boundary of 
the pargana, while his great-grandson Sultan Sah got Shahgarh, interme- 
diate between Kasrawan and the older estates. The full extent of Ban- 
dhalgoti conquest was now reached ; and henceforward, when new estates 
were required, they had to be . formed by sub-divisions of those already 
in existence, until in process of time the 39 zamindars of Amethi became a 
proverbial expression. 

Most of these changes were silently and gradually accomplished, for the 
history of even the principal branch of the famUy is for centuries wrapped 
in impenetrable obscurity. A faint glimmer of light at last breaks in upon 
it in the time of Gurdatt Singh, a little more than a hundred and twenty 
years ago. Gurdatt Singh followed the then fashionable practice of defying 
the local authorities, and rendered himself so conspicuous in this respect 
that in 1743 the Kawab Safdar Jangf deemed it necessary to march 
against him in person. Gurdatt Singh, shut himself up in his fort at 
Edipur, where he offered a successful resistance to the besieging force for 
18 days (a period suspiciously like that of the Mahabharat), and then 
finding the post no longer tenable, made his escape into the neighbouring 
Eamnagar jungle. The Eaipur fort was now destroyed, and Gurdatt 
Singh's estate underwent one of those temporary dissolutions known as 
being taken under direct management. From this event, it is said, dates 
the establishment of the Amethi chief's head-quarters at Eamnagar. 

Drigpal Singh, son of Gurdatt Singh, recovered the estate. He died in 
1798, leaving two sons, Har Chand Singh, and Jai Chand Singh. The latter 
became separate proprietor of Kannu Kasrawan, the former inherited the 
remainder of Drigpal Singh's possessions, and in the well-known extent of 

* See paragraph 332, Sultanpur Settlement Beporlr. 

t The account given to me says Shuja-ud-daula, but this raises a tliffionlty about dates, 



48 AME 

his inheritanee lies the first tangible clue to the progress of the Amethl 
taluqa. From his father he obtained 153 villages ; and these alone he 
held until 1803. In the following year, however, having worked himself 
into the good graces of the Ndzim SftalparshM, he was allowed to engage 
for the entire pargana, with the single exception of Raghipur, The 
present raja contends that he was thus put into possession of no more than 
had been taken from his grandfather in 1743 ; but there is no conclusive 
proof that such was the case, or that any of his predecessors had ever held 
the same position of authority. Nor did Har Chand Singh enjoy it long. 
In 1810, Saddat Ali Khan, aided by his diwan, Dayd Shankar, made a land 
settlement of the province, large estates were broken up, and the respec- 
tive portions of them settled with their rightful proprietors. This measure 
led to the cancellation of Har Chand Singh's pargana engagement, and he 
was deprived of all but 48 rent-free villages. In the same year, very possi- 
bly chagrined at this, degradation, he abdicated in favor of his son Dalpat Sah. 
But the policy of Saadat Ali Khan was too strongly opposed to the spirit 
of the age to produce any permanent result, and before three years had 
well elapsed, Dalpat Sah found himself in possession of all that his father 
had held before 1803. Arjun Singh, a second son of Har Chand Singh, was 
then alive ; but forbearing to make any demand upon his elder brother, 
succeeded in making a comfortable provision for himself by the independ- 
ent acquisition of Gangoli. 

Dalpat Sah died in 1815, and the estate he transferred to his heir 
Bisheshwar Singh was no larger than Drigpal Singh had held at the time 
of his death in 1798. Almost immediately, however, it swallowed up several 
of its weaker neighbours of an aggregate bulk equal to half its own ; and 
then, as if worn out with the exhaustion consequent on such' a mighty 
effort, remained in a state of torpidity for more than a quarter of a 
century. 

Bisheswar Singh died childless in 1842, and the inheritance devolved on 
his cousin Madho Singh, the present raja. The Amethi domains were 
thus augmented by the not inconsiderable estate of Gangoli, but it yet 
remained for them to receive their last and principal accession. In the 
year 1845, Maharaja Man Singh was appointed to the Sultanpur nizamat, 
and the first events of his term of office portended but little good to the 
fortunes of the house of Amethi. The mahiiraja was not of a temper to 
possess the semblance without the substance of authority, and was prepared 
to make his power felt throughout his district. The ambitious young chief 
on the other hand, was equally determined to shape his course exactly in 
accordance with his own notions of propriety ; and, if necessary, to resort 
to arms to prevent official interference. Hostilities were the natural con- 
sequence of such a state of things, and a grand battle was fought in the 
year 1845 between the forces of the nazim and the taluqdar. 

It was followed by an indecisive result however, and the combatants 
soon began to perceive that more advantage was likely to be gained by 
negotiation than warfare. Arrangements were entered into in the highest 
degree favourable to Madho Singh ; and in pursuance of them he was in the 
same year admitted to engage for the revenue of the entire pargana with 



AME 49 

tlie exception of a few estates which enjoyed the protection of the Huzfif 
Tahsil. From this time he applied himself principally to the consolida- 
tion of his now immense domains. Those who readily bowed their heads 
to the new yoke were maintained in possession, unless they were so un- 
friended, or their credit was so poor, that they could not furnish the cus- 
tomary security for the payment of their rent; in which case they were 
without hesitation set aside. The hhayyas* had their villages either 
handed over to some experienced lessee accustomed to large and trouble- 
some charges, or to the commandants of the nazim's troops, who took a 
" qabz" of them, Kannu Kasrawan and Shahgarh alone gave any serious 
trouble ; the proprietor of the former was not finally overpowered until 
after three years of stout resistance ; the latter, though it at first lost its 
independence, recovered it a few months before annexation. 

In the land settlement which then took place, Amethi shared the fate 
of most large taluqas, and was almost completely broken up, but only to 
be re-constituted in the following year, immediately after the mutiny. At 
the commencement of the disturbances, Rftja Madho Singh distinguished 
himself by the protection and kindness he afforded to some fugitives from 
Sultanpur, who were endeavouring to make their way into Allahabad j 
but afterwards he warmly espoused the rebel cause ; nor was it, until the 
British army under the command of Lord Clyde, was encamped before his 
fort, that he tendered his submission. At the land settlement, which 
ehortly afterwards took place, he was admitted under the terms of the 
general amnesty to engage for his estate, and it is now confirmed to him 
by sanad. It comprises 321 out of 364 villages in the pargana, and pays 
to Government a revenue of Rs. 1,96,776. 

The present owner of the Amethi estate is ordinarily and correctly styled 
rdja ; but how long the title has been in the family I cannot pretend to 
say with certainty. Raj Singh and his descendants may quite possibly have 
borne it for many generations ; there is no tangible proof that they did 
not, and as little that they did. Gurdatt Singh, the first of those who 
lived recently enough to be well remembered, is sometimes spoken of as 
babu, sometimes as raja ; Drigpal Singh, his successor, appears to have 
assumed the more lofty title, but it is doubtful whether he ever obtained 
any popular recognition of his right to it. Har Chand Singh and Bisheshwar 
Singh were unquestionably rdjas ; they are said to have formally received 
the necessary investiture from the Hasanpur chief It is interesting to 
notice that the seal of the former (in which he bears this title) was engraved 
in the same year apparently as he obtained the lease of the pargana. 

Dalpat Sah, intermediate between Har Chand Singh and Bisheshwar 
Singh, is commoidy called babu, the explanation given of which is, that 
during the time he held the estate, his father Har Chand Singh was alive, 
and that it would consequently have been a breach of etiquette for him to 
adopt the title of raja. 

The present taluqdar never troubled himself to get his claim to the 



* The brotherhood. 



50 AME 

dignity formally acknowledged by the Raja of Hasanpur ; *before annexa- 
tion it rested on his being the successor of those who had previously borne 
it ; it has now been admitted by the British Government.-|- 

I now pass on to the history of collateral branches, which may be dis- 
The Bandhalgotis' tinguished into those collateral to R£j Singh himself 
early collateral brancli- and those collateral to his descendants. Regarding 
*^- the first a very few words will be sufficient. It has 

been seen that the estates founded by Ran Singh or Ran and Kunwar 
Singh fell almost immediately into the hands of Raj Singh; and it was 
only in the matter of time that those of R^e Singh and Sangrara Singh 
experienced a different fate. By partitions, mortgages, and grants to Brah- 
mans, they gradually dwindled into insignificance, and what little of them 
then remained was included in the raja's general lease of 1846'. Bardg^on 
aione has retained its individuality, and some little importance, up to the 
present time. This may be partly due to the fact, that notwithstanding 
numerous partitions, no separate properties have been formed, and thus 
though a few heaids may have now and then been broken in internal 
dissensions, a broad point has always- been opposed to any aggression 
offered fron^ without. At the same time Baragaon is not as large now as 
it once was, foir up to nine generations ago it included also Kohra-Muham- 
madpur, which was then taken from it by Babu Himmat S^h, ancestor 
of the present holders. In the mutiny the zamindars of Baragaon rendered 
themselves a little conspicuous by evincing a disposition to be troublesome, 
and a body of troops had to be sent to their villages, where a large seizure 
of arms was made after the zamindars had pretended to have given up all 
they possessed. 

The Bandhalgotis' ^^ ^^^ estates held by the cadet branches of Raj 
later collateral brancli- Singh's house, four only, Tikri, Shd,hgarh, Kannu Kasrd- 
*^- wan, and Gangoli, are worthy of any special mention. 

The interest that attaches to Tikri is connected with the history of 
its founder, which is thus told by his descendants, 
of Tikri. *" ^° '^ Dharamir received from his brother, R^ja Ramdeo 
a moderate-sized estate of 42 villages ; but he 
lived in stirring times, and being of a warlike disposition, he offered 
himself as an ally to Raja Hasan Khan, then preparing for the conflict 
•with Riwa. When the hostile armies were pitched in sight of each 
other^ it was agreed that a general battle should be avoided, and that both 
sides, having appointed champions, should abide the issue of a single com- 
bat. Dharamir represented the raja of Hasanpur, and after a stubborn 
fight, in which he himself was covered with wounds, defeated and killed 
his adversary. In return for this signal service, Hasan Khan ceded to him 
five large villages, Sarwawan and others, intermediate between Tikri and 
Hasanpur. It reads like a tale of western chivalry that his valour was 

* Unless I am mistaken, lie is mentioned under this title in some fiscal documents pro- 
duced by his opponent in the Kannu Kasrawan case. In those produced by himself I do not 
think he is so styled. 

t The facts concerning this title are very obscure, there is no doubt that this rAja was 
popularly known as Lai Madho, if he had any real claim to the title of rAja it would have been 
popularly recognised whether the recognition by Hasanpur had been granted or not. — Editor 



AME 61 

further rewarded with the hand of a Bachgoti bride* Broken up by succes- 
sive partitions on the one hand, and on the other, hemmed in by territory on 
which encroachment was out of the question, the importance of Tikri very 
soon declined; its present dimensions are indicated by its second name, 
Athg^on. It was not, indeed, without difficulty that it managed to resist 
the attacks of others. About six generatons ago, Babu Man Singh, brother 
of the then taluqdar, received as his portion the village of Amai. Accord- 
ing to one account he obtained Tikri also, but it was not in possession of 
the donor, and it was therefore a condition of the gift that he should for- 
cibly estabhsh himself in it. He did so, and the previous owners were 
driven out ; but they took refuge in the surrounding jungles, and watching 
their opportunity surprised Man Singh in Amai, and killed him. This 
act of retribution has never been forgotten, and the name of the village in 
which it was perpetrated has become a forbidden word, Badigdon, or other 
words of similar import being usually employed in referring to it. 

This may explain how Tikri and many of its off-shoots continued inde- 
pendent until 1846. 

In the sweeping changes which then took place they were re-absorbed 
into the present estate ; but the old spirit of the ex-proprietors is yet but 
partially tamed, and if the rija holds any villages, the acquisition of which 
has been of doubtful profit and advantage, I am under the impression it is 
those to which I allude. 

Sh^hgarh was founded by Babu Sultan Sah, brother of Bikram Sah. It 
derives its name from a fort he built and called after 
of SMb'^arif^^^^"^^' himself It is reputed to have consisted at first of 121 
villages, and to have been distinguished as "Tafriq 
Sultan Sahi." If this story were rehable, it would be of the greatest value 
in illustrating the growth of the Amethi taluqa. It would seem to imply 
that a regular partition occurred, and to define the magnitude of an indi- 
vidual share. The idea of such a partition receives some apparent support 
also from the fact that a few villages are now divided in fractional shares 
between Amethi and Shdhgarh. But reference to the history of those 
villages shows that up to a comparatively recent date they were held by 
other proprietors, and that they were then divided into two distinct por- 
tions, one of which was subsequently included in Shahgarh, and the other 
in Amethi. Again, Sultan Sah was one of four brothers, and if a formal 
distinction of shares took place, those of three juniors should have been 
exactly equal, whereas it is not pretended that they were even approxi- 
mately so. It is highly probable, moreover, that the extent of Sultan Sah's 
portion is considerably exaggerated, for it does not appear that Shdhgarh, 
with all its off-shoots and acquisitions, ever numbered more than 132 
villages. 

From 1803 to 1810 Shahgarh was, with the rest of the pargana, leased 
to B^ja Har Chand Singh, but was again taken from him by the land settle- 
ment of the latter year. It then comprised no more than 40 villages, and 

* This account, it will be seen, diflfers from that given by the Bachgotis. I think it at 
all events exceedingly probable that this is the period to which the story of the Bandhalgotis 
being in the Hasanpur service must be referred. 

D 2 



52 AME 

it had become only half as large again, when in 1846 it for the second time 
fell into the hands of the Amethi taltiqdar, in the general lease he obtained 
from Maharaja Man Singh. To this summary mode of dealing with his 
estate, Balwant Singh, the proprietor, yields anything but a ready acquies- 
cence, so to silence his opposition, Rdja Madho Singh seized him and held 
in confinement. In this sorry plight he remained at the time of General 
Sleeman's tour. " Madhoparsh^d of Amethi," writes the Resident, " has 
lately seized upon the estate of Shahgarh, worth twenty-thousand rupees a 
year, which had been cut off from the Amethi estate, and enjoyed by a 
collateral branch of the family for several generations. He holds the pro- 
prietor Balwant Singh in prison in irons, and would soon make away with 
him were the Oudh Goyernment to think it worth while to enquire after 
him." 

This passing allusion was not by any means the extent of the interest 
the Resident took in the fortunes of the luckless Balwant Singh. On his 
return to Lucknow he brought the matter before the Darbar, and though 
some time first elapsed, ultimately succeeded in procuring the release of the 
captive and the restoration to him of his estate. These events happened 
at a critical juncture for Balwant Singh, that is, about the end of the year 
1855, for had they been delayed but a few months longer, Shahgarh would 
have been in Amethi, at annexation, and so must have remained perma- 
nently incorporated with it. 

When gratitude goes hand in hand with self-interest it seldom halts, and 
it is not surprising therefore that Babii Balwant Singh was a warm 
adherent to the British cause during the disturbances of 1857. He distin- 
guished himself by the good service he then rendered, and now holds the 
estate he recovered in 1855 with a title protected by a taluqdari sanad. 

The common account of the origin of Kannu Kasraw^n is, that it was 
m, -D jx, 1 X- given in the year 1798 as a chaurdsi to Babu Jai Chand 
of W^S^n. Singh, brother of Har Chand Singh. It consists mainly, 
as its name denotes, of the two estates of Kannu and* 
Kasr^wan. Of these the former was one of the six shares of the earliest 
recorded partition; but having gradually, with the exception of a few vil- 
lages, become united with the share of Raj Singh, it was afterwards con- 
ferred as a chaurasi on Lachhmi Narain, second son ofBikram Sah, whose 
descendants are still resident in it. Kasrawan, also said to be a chaur£si, 
has been already mentioned as having been given to Babu R£m Sahde a 
little previous to the time of Akbar. Whether in the year 1798 Kannu 
was in the hands of Raja Har Chand Rae is open to doubt, but it may be 
positively asserted that Kasrawan was not. Kannu fell an easy prey to 
Jai Chand, but it was not till eight years after that he established himself 
in Kasrawdn, and even then it was with the assistance of his brother, at 
that time lessee of the pargana. These two estates together gave him but 
60 villages, to which before Har Chand's lease had terminated, he added 24 
more, thus completing the mystic number implied in the word chaur&i. . 

How long this numerical exactitude continued is not clearly ascertain- 
able ; it is enough that the estate increased considerably during the fol- 
lowmg 30 years. It then began to exhibit signs of approaching decay. 



AME 53 

and Lai Arjun Singh of Gangoli thought to find a fitting opportunity for 
making encroachments on it. He paid the penalty of the attempt with 
his life, for he was killed by Pr%parshad, one of the sons of B^bu Jai Chand 
Singh. Pragparshad and his brother now deemed it prudent to lekve 
their houses, but it would be erroneous to suppose that in so doing they 
were actuated by fear of the consequences of outraged laws, the breach of 
which they would have to atone whenever they were captured. It was 
simply that the nazim at that particular time was friendly to the interests 
of the Gangoli chief. In the very next year another person was appointed 
to the office, who, without the slightest scruple, re-admitted the fugitives 
to engage for their estates. 

The nominal inclusion of Kannu Kasrawan in the Amethi lease in 1846 
the proprietors quietly ignored. Raja Madho Singh accordingly availed 
himself of the influence of his friends at Lucknow to procure the issue of 
a sentence of outlawry against them, coupled .with the confiscation of their 
estate; and even these orders only took effect in 1849, when after a good 
fight in which they were worsted, they were convinced that further resist- 
ance would be unavailing. Thenceforward they became as thorns in the 
sides of their victorious rival, who was compelled to fix military detach- 
ments here and there in order to check their raids. This desultory strug- 
gle was relieved by a single event of note ; in 1853 Raja Madho Singh 
contrived to bring about the death of Bikramajit, a brother of Pragpar- 
shad, and thus in some measure avenged the death of his father Arjun 
Singh. 

At annexation the surviving brothers were for a while reinstated ; but 
though Bhagwdn Singh, son of Bikramajit, did good service with Sir 
Hope Grant's force in the mutiny, the restitution of his estate to him on 
re-occupation became impossible ; it was in the raja's possession at annex- 
ation, on whom it was therefore necessarily bestowed in perpetuity. The 
circumstances of the family, however, received no little extra-judicial con- 
sideration ; and the rdja at last consented to make them a pecuniary 
allowance on the understanding that they should cease for ever to prose- 
cute their claim to Kannu Kasrawan. As they infringed this condition, 
the raja declined to fulfil his part of the engagement, and they then insti- 
tuted a civil suit against him, the termination of which was that they were 
declared to have forfeited all claims arising out of the agreement on which 
they sued. 

Gangoli was, like Kannu, one of the estates formed by the first known 
partition which almost immediately passed into the 
The Bandhalgotis of poggegsiou of the present raja's ancestor. After the lapse 
^°^° of some generations, it was given by Jai Singh, the head 

of the family at the time, to his brother Indar Singh, whose descendants 
continued to hold it ( except from 1803 to 1810 ) under independent en- 
gagement with local authorities until 1815. Lai Arjun Singh, son of 
Raja Har Chand Singh, then appropriated it. The correct account of this 
transaction is, that it was given to him by his father as a chaurasi ; but this 
slurs over the important difficulty of the so-called donor's want of control 
over it at the date of the alleged gift when Arjun Singh took it. Moreover, 



64 AME 

it consisted not of 84, but 10 ordinary villages, for the support of a raja's 
brother remained to be rectified by several subsequent accessions. The story 
of Arjun Singh's death has been already told in connection with Kannu 
Kasrawan ; he left to his son Madho Singh the very respectable inherit- 
ance of 101 villages, acquired during a short period of 27 years. In 1842 
Raja Madho Singh also succeeded his cousin Bisheshwar Singh in Amethi ; 
and his two estates becoming thus blended together, the separate existence 
of Gangoli terminated. 

Occupying almost the centre of the Amethi pargana lies a cluster of 
villages, the principal of which is Bihta. The ex-pro- 
'^Bihte!*^''*'^"''^"^ prietary residents style themselves Bandhalgotis, and 
their claim to do so, in the present day at least, is gene- 
rally admitted, but otherwise they are thorough Ishmaelites, debarred all 
social intercourse with the remainder of the clan. They are indeed of all 
the Bandhalgotis the only ones who cannot point to the name of their 
ancestor in the general pedigree. As to their location in their present 
seats, they talk vaguely of a grant of land they received from the Emperor 
Akbar, or with more precision admit that they know nothing whatever 
about it. The Bandhalgotis say they represent a very old stratum of 
society more ancient even than the Bhars, an acme of antiquity which 
their namesakes leave unchallenged. A tappa to which Bihta gives its 
name is unanimously represented to be one of the oldest possessions of the 
raja's family, and yet the residents claim to have held it in the yet more 
remote past. From all these facts it would appear that with the single 
exception perhaps of the Bais of Udi^wan, the Bandhalgotis of Bihta are 
the oldest proprietary body in the pargana. This goes a very little way, 
however, towards explaining who they are. In the absence of all certain 
information it is permissible to supplement with argument the few facts 
we are acquainted with concerning them. In the first place they share 
with Sut Sah's descendants the name of Bandhalgoti, and yet are altogether 
unconnected with them. The inference is that either the former or the 
latter are misnamed, and that it is the former rather than the latter ; it is 
easy to understand why after their subjection they should endeavour to 
pass themselves off as kinsmen and equals of their conquerors, who on 
their side had little inducement to identify themselves with their defeated 
foes. But if they be thus deprived of the name they now bear, it becomes 
necessary to furnish them with another, not a very simple task perhaps, 
and yet not altogether a hopeless one. It is, under any circumstances, a 
reasonable presumption that their chief village was founded by them, and 
that it received their tribal denomination ; if the antiquity of their pro- 
prietorship be not ever-estimated, it is further probable that it was the 
centre from which cultivation radiated, and that it gave its name to a 
larger tract, as the process of reclamation went on until it extended to the 
entire pargana ; conversely then, some clue to the now lost name of the 
tribe should be found in that of the pargana and their chief village. 

In their present state, Bihta and Amethi certainly bear little resem- 
blance to each oth,er, but this does not show there has always been the same 
dissimilarity. In the first place, it is an almost invariable rule that a par- 
gana is called after a village, and it should therefore be possible to find 



AME 55 

the site, occupied or unoccupied, of a former village of Amethi ; but unless 
my present speculation be correct, I have searched for this in vain. I 
know of no grounds whatever for concluding that the Amethi of the maps 
marks the spot where the old village was ; it simply denotes the head- 
quarters of a tahsil. Again, the pargana is properly speaking not Amethi 
but Garh Amethi,* and this points either to its containing two previously 
separate divisions of that kind, or to a similar conjunction of two of its 
constituent villages. In this instance, the latter seems the more probable 
as there is never known to have been a distinct pargana of Garh Amethi. 
A village of the name on the other hand is readily found ; and that it is 
the particular one wanted is rendered likely by the fact that it contains 
"an old Bhar fort in a commanding position overlooking a lake," while the 
existence of a brick fort in Garh Amethi is expressly mentioned by Abul 
Fazl-f-. The eponymous village still remains to be discovered ; and in its 
absence Bihta appears to be the most promising field of search ; firstly, 
because Amethi being coupled with Garh was presumably contiguous 
to it, or at least in its vicinity, and Bihta, though it does not now adjoin 
Garh, is within a very short distance of it, and, so far as known, the inter- 
vening villages are of comparatively recent creation ; secondly, because 
Bihta can boast of an extreme antiquity; and thirdly, because it is known 
to have been a place of some importance and the head-quarters of a 
tappa. That Bihta itself is identical with the missing village need only 
be doubted in consequence of the absence of nominal identity. 

This brings one round again to the question whether that identity did 
not once exist. What leads me to suggest this is that there are unmis- 
takeable signs of both names having deviated from earlier known forms : 
Bihta alone is now the name of the village, as that 9f a tappa, it is also 
recorded Bishta. There is the high authority of the Ain-i-Akbari, on the 
other hand, for reading Ain Bahti for Amethif. Thus we have Bihta, 
Ainbahti, which differ from each other only to an extent that may be 
explained by the hypothesis that, in the former an elision of the initial 
short syllable has taken place— a process by no means unprecedented^:. 
Again, if in the one case sh has become a simple li, the same may very 
possibly have happened in the other. And if these changes be made, the 
names of villao-e and pargana become respectively Ambishta and Ambihta. 

The first deduction from these arguments is, that Bihta is neither more 
no ' J than Amethi, the parent village of the pargana : the second is, 
that the pretended Bandhalgotis of Bihta were originally Ambashtas, one 
of the mixed classes enumerated in Manu's code. 



■PnTTOR's Note —The proximity of two clans of Chhattris bearing the same name one of 
which asserts, and the other, the goyeming and landowning clan, denies identity of origin is 
Tn antiquarian problem which presents itself m every district m Oudh. In Kheri the present 
T^nwlrs of the feudal house of Oel Kaimahra, deny any connection with the others Imng 

,?rrl them so the Bisens of R^mpur Dhingwas in Paitabgarh ignore their low y brethren, the 
rTfnstrceofallSthatofthe Tilok Chaudi Bais who deny boldly that they are of the 
^reat Banian which spreads over all O.idh, see artkle Rai Bareli. 
^#Tti» palled so in the Aln-i-Akbari, and also m documents of comparatively recent date. 

+ Compare also the loss of the 5 in the word Bamitha, which is correctly Bambhi (Elliot's 

^T ComparTth^^commo^ E^^Ush Vord press-gang, which is an abbreviation of impress 



56 AME 

It is somewhat opposed to this view that the Ambashtas are mentioned 
in the Vishnu Purana, and are there said to belong to the north of Jndia, 
while atlases give a tribe Ambantx in the same region ; but next to the 
Ambashtas in the Vishnu Purana list come the Parasikas, and these 
belong to the north also. At the same time, General Cunningham says 
that the native name of the famous Prasii of Palibothra is Palisiya or 
Parasiya ; and he gives a derivative form of the one Palasaka, so that the 
corresponding derivative of the other is evidently Parasaka. Now I do 
not mean to assert that these two tribes are the same ; I am at least 
warranted in saying that the presence of a paxticnlar tribe in the north or 
west is no argument against the existence of its namesake in the east. 
That the Ambashtas in the latter direction aJone were referred to by 
Manu I do not say; on the contrary it is by no means impossible that they 
were connected with each other, for whatever may have been the case 
regarding the Parasakas, numerous instances might, I believe, be cited of 
branches of the same tribe being found at a very early period on opposite 
sides of India : the Kambojas of Cochin may serve as aa example. 

The history has now been sketched of each division of theBandhalgotis 
as given in or suggested by their own legends ; it re- 
Geuerarremarks!' mains to notice what is to be ascertained concerning 
them from other sources. Some twenty or " more gene- ■ 
rations ago," says Mr. Camegy, in his Notes, " there were two brothers in 
the service of the then Chief of Hasanpur in the Sultanpur district. Their 
names were Kunnu Pande and Chtichu Pande. The first of these formed 
an alliance with an Ahirin, and from this union are descended all the 
Kanhpurias. The other married a Dharkdrin in the raja's service, and 
from her are sprung all the Bandal, Badhil, or Banjhilgotis, including the 

great chief who is third in rank in the province The Bandhal- 

goti tribe, on certain occasions, still make offerings to the implement 
of their maternal ancestor, the b^nka or knife used in splitting the bam- 
boo". 

A comparison of this account with that given by the Bandhalgotis 
themselves raises the question whether they are of Slirajbansi extraction, 
and settled where they now are after conquest and expulsion of a horde of 
Bhars, or whether they are of aboriginal descent. From th^ foundation 
of their fortunes to the service of their common ancestor with the raja of 
Hasanpur a third origin is assigned to them. Sir H. Elhot says they are 
a tribe of Eajputs of Chauhan descent, but I do not know on what autho- 
rity the statement rests, nor have I been able to find anything in corrobo- 
ration of it. With regard to the theory which makes their Chhattri 



In their case refutation is easy. They say they are descended from SffiMhan, 42nd from 
whom was Tilok Chand, hut that they the descendants of Tilok Chand alone survive and that 
the other forty-one generations have left no other progeny. This is absurd, what really 
happened was that Tilok Chand was the chief of the clan when it was formally Hinduised 
he of course was made a Chhattri just as the Gond chiefs have recently been made Chhattris' 
his clansmen were left in their sudra or aboriginal degradation just as the Gonds now are In 
process of time the clansmen too became civUised, and assert their rights to be admitted as 
Chhattns within the poUty established by Manu ; so will the Gonds, in due time both 
truly plead blood relationship to the chief, this the latter denies because he then would have 
to admit an aboriginal or at least » common and unclean ancestry for himself. 



AME 67 

status of local development, the Bandhalgotis freely admit that one of their 
number was enlisted on the side of the Raja of Hasalipur in his dispute 
■with the Baghels, and that in return for services then rendered, a tract of 
land was made over to him by the raja. Again while they describe their 
former home to have been at Narwargarh, the town of Hasanpur was, 
until the time of Hasan Khan, i. e., just until the mutiny point in the 
annals of the Bandhalgotis and Bachgotis, commonly known as Narwal. 
And further, whereas the Bandhalgotis derive their name from Bandhu, 
there is contiguous to Hasanpur a village named Bandhua ; and a slight 
eminence on the border of a tank between the two is still pointed out as 
the" site of the residence of the Bandhalgoti servant of the riija. The 
story of the misalliance may seem to find some support in one form of the 
clan appellation, for Banjhilgoti is a very possible corruption of Bansjhil- 
goti, and though the exact word Banjhil does not exist, a very similar one 
Bansphor shows that the bamboo-splitting industry furnishes the basis of 
a caste distinction. 

The obverse of the picture, however, is not quite blank. To trace the 
source of the Bandhalgoti traditions, it is curious that in claiming alliance 
with the Jaipur family they should hit upon as the home of their ancestor 
the very place it occupied before its removal to Jaipur, and the strange- 
ness of the coincidence is enhanced by the fact that Siida R£e's pilgrimage 
into Oudh agrees in date with the Kachhwaha migration-f-. 

The imputed veneration of the b^nka or bamboo knife is explained away 
by a trifling modification of the name of the instrument. By the elision 
of the final a the knife of the bamboo-cutter is transformed into the poni- 
ard bdnk, of the warrior ; and herein, whether consciously or unconsci- 
ously they furnish what is perhaps an indication of western connection, 
for the poniard, the professed object of their reverence is the symbol of 
Narwar, * the very State from which Siida E,^ is represented to have come. 
With respect to the Hasanpur grant, they assert that Dharamir was the 
recipient, and that he was not the ancestor of the whole clan, but a young- 
er brother of the then chief, and founder only of a collateral branch, viz., 
Tikri. Even he, too, they say, was the ally and not the servant of Rdja 
Hasan Khan. 

Respecting the alleged Pande paternity of the Bandhalgotis, it may be 
noted that Bhansiawan, by some pointed out as their first resting-place in 
Amethi, is still occupied by a Pande brotherhood, and in Udiawan, one of 
their very earliest acquisitions, tales are still extant of a P^nde proprietor. 
The Ain-i-Akbari, moreover, peoples pargana Garh Amethi with Bahman- 
gotis, no doubt identical with those now called Bandhalgotis. This, how- 
ever, is the third inference it has been seen possible to draw from their 
chameleon-like mutations each of them in some measure neutralizes the 
others. Regarding the termination " goti " also, the following points are 
I think, worthy of notice. It is commonly said to signify the got or gotra 
to which a tribe belong. " Properly those only are gotes," says Sir H. Elliot 
" which bear the name of some Rishi progenitor, as Sandilya, Bh^raddwaj, 

* See list of Symbols given in the second volume of Prinsep's Antiquities. 
+ Elliot's Supplementary Glossary, Amethiaa. 



58 AME 

Bashist (Vasishtha), Kasyapa" but it has become the custom to call all 
sub-divisions of a tribe gets, and according to the Puranas there are no less 
than 10,000 ; now so far as my information goes, notwithstanding this vast 
number of gots, two Rajput tribes only, the Bachgotis and Bandhalgotis 
have assumed them as their ordinary designation ; and these by some odd 
chance have contrived to settle not only in the same province, but also in 
immediate juxtaposition; this may of course be pure accident : it may be 
something more. 

In the settlement report a common origin is assigned to the Bandhalgotis 
and Kanhpurias. This does not profess to follow the traditions of those 
concerned, which make Ghdchu Chirch orSuchh, progenitor of the 
Kanhpurias only and ignores the Bandhalgotis altogether. The only 
circumstance bearing on the point that I can find is that Kdnh is the 
eponymous ancestor of the Kanhpuria clan, and Kdhandeo is the root 
of the genealogical tree of the Bandhalgotis. This may either be an 
indication of their common descent, or it m.ay have given rise to the 
story which asserts it. Again, the name of the district which the 
Bandhalgotis now occupy suggested some connection between them and 
the Amethias, but all they have in common is that they both settled 
in places called Amethi. K one happened to pick up a new name by 
doing so, the other did not. 

With respect to matrimonial alliances, the Bandhalgotis give their 
daughters to the Tilok Chandi Bais, R^thors, Bhadwarias and Bisens of 
Manjhauli, and take the daughters of Bachgotis ( of the more important 
houses ) Dirgbansi, Bhale-Sultan, Raghubansi, Bilkharia, Jadubansi, and 
Bisens of Manikpur ; while there is reciprocity on this point between them 
and the Baghels, Gharwars, Ghauhans of Mainpuri and Panwars.* 

Regarding the localities in which Bandhalgotis are found. Sir Henry 
Elliot particularizes Banaudha and Bundelkhand, and says there are a few 
also in Haweli Ghazipur. The first are evidently those of Amethi ; re- 
garding the others, I have not been able to ascertain anything. -f 

The Amethi people are under the impression that there are namesakes of 
theirs in the vicinity of GuptarGhat near Ajodhya, but local enquiry proves 
them to be mistaken in this respect. They are more correct in sup- 
posing that a Bandhalgoti colony lies a little further north near Manikapur. 
A trustworthy tradition ascribes their arrival in those parts to the com- 
mencement of the 14th century A. D.; and at one time they appear to have 
enjoyed considerable importance but aBisen has occupied their gaddi for 
six generations, and they now retain few vestiges of their former greatness. 
As to their connection with this northern colony, the Bandhalgotis of 
Amethi make no positive statement ; they do not altogether disown it ; 
but, on the other hand, they do not admit that it belongs to their frater- 
nity ; some af&rm it is an off-shoot of the house of Naraini ; others profess 
ignorance as to its origin. Still further to the north, in the extreme west 
of Naipal is a peculiar dis-Hinduised and degraded tribe called Bujhal 
Gharti, their superstitions " are neither Buddhist nor Brahman, but yet 

* This is what the Bandhalgotis say, I cannot vouch for its accuracy. 
+ The only books I have been able to consult are Oldham's Report and Census o£ the 
Ghazipur district, which, however, should be amply sufficient. 



AME 



69 



cognate with an early Brahmanism, which in its present state is either a 
rudiment of something that has to be developed, or a fragment of some- 
thing that has fallen into decay." If Manikapur was colonised from Ame- 
thi, there is something more than the resemblance of their name to Ban- 
jhilgoti to indicate that these Bujhal Ghartis represent a continuation of 
the same northerly migration. 

I have now given such information as I have been able to collect regard- 
ing the history of the Bandhalgotis. It is sufficiently clear on all but the 
two material points of their origin and antiquity. With respect to the 
latter, there is no inherent improbability in their statement that they settled 
in their present abodes as much as nine centuries ago. The account 
which makes the clan of mean origin gives it an existence of more than 
twenty generations, so that their own annals, which make the present raja 
twenty-sixth in descent from the founder, may easily be credited. Now 
in private life a generation may be calculated as eqiiivalent to 33 years,* 
so that Slida Rae must have lived between 800 and 900 years ago. To 
apply another test : Dharamir lived in the reign of Sher Shah, So Suda 
Rae, who is placed just twice as far back in the pedigree, must have lived 
about the beginning of the thirteenth century. About the same result 
also is arrived at by following the legend which makes Raj Singh a con- 
temporary of Tilok Chand, if, indeed, it be not too dangerous to trust to 
light derived from such a historical will-o'-the wisp as the Bais chieftain ; 
even according to the most moderate calculation therefore, it may be con- 
cluded that, whether the Bandhalgotis be of pure Surajbansi origin, or a 
spurious tribe, " Nawa-Chhattris," as they are sometimes called, their set- 
tlement in the Amethi pargana must be referred to at least as early a date 
as the immigration of any of the acknowledged Chhattri clans of the dis- 
trict. But as to their origin, I forbear to express a decided opinion, leaving 
it an open question for those who choose to determine on the data I have 
furnished. I can only say of them as was once said of the Douglasses, that 
we do not know them "in the stream, in the root, but in the stem". 

In order to complete this account of a great Indian county, I append a 
list of the principal religious edifices erected within its limits, or near to 
its borders : — 

List of Hindu and Muhammadan Temples in Isauliand Amethi 

parganas. 



Namo of 
pargana. 


Name of -village. 


Kame of temple. 


Eemakks. 


Ametti ... 


Kamnagar 


Shivala 


Built by Raja Madho Singh, Taluqdar of 
Amethi, at a cost of Ra. 300, in 1272 Fasli. 


Ditto ... 


Sara Kliimiua ... 


Ditto 


Built by Babu Earn, at a coat of Rs. 2,500 in 
1269 EaaU. 


Ditto ... 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Built by Durga Bakhah, at a coat of Ka. 1,500, 

in 1272 Fasli. 



* Prinsep'a Antiquities I, 251, 23 years ia the average period allowed for these genera, 
tions of rulers, 



60 



AME— AMI 



Name of 
pargana. 


Nama of village. 


Wame of temple. 


Bemakks. 


Amethi ... 


rshwarpur 


Ditto 


Built by Pandit Laobhmandatt, at a cost of 
Ks. 1,000 in 1271 Fasli. 


Ditto ~... 


Kakwa 


Ditto 


Built by Pandit Bhawanidin, at a cost of 
Es. 1,000 in 1268 Pasli. 


Ditto ... 


Piirabgaon 


Ditto 


Built by Pandit LaoUimandatt, at a cost of 
Ks. 1,200, in 1266 Fasli. 


Ditto ... 


PuraDebidatt ... 


Ditto 


Built by Pandit Debidatt, at a cost of Es, 1,500 
in 1266 Fasli. 


Ditto .. 

Ditto 

Ditto 


Gauriganj 

Ditto 
Paraauli 


Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 


Built some 40 years ago, at a cost of Es. 1,500 
Ditto. ditto ditto 
Built by Chandka Kabar, at a cost of 
Es. 1,500, in 1260 Fasli. 


Ditto ... 


Bhatgaon 


Temple of Debi 


Built by Nand Earn Upaddbia, at a cost of 
Es. 1,000, 60 years ago. 


Ditto 


Ditto 


.SMvala 


Built by Mansfoam, Gold-smith, at a cost of 
Ks. 1,200, in 1262 Fasli. 


Ditto ... 


Raipur 


Ditto 


Built by Shiudayal, Banian, at a cost of 
Es. 500, in 1240 Fasli. 


Ditto ... 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Built by Pandohi, Banian, at a cost of 
Ks. 800, in 1242 Fasli. 


Ditto ... 


Ditto 


Ditto 


BuUt by Dewdn Sobha Eae, at a cost of 
Es. 300, 45 years ago. 


Ditto ... 


Panduria 


Ditto 


Built by Eaja Lai Madbo Singh, at a cost of 
Es. 600, 25 years ago. 


Ditto ... 


Aksdra 


Ditto 


Built by Musafir, Kalwar, at a cost of Ks. 800, 
50 years ago. 


Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto ... 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto ... 
Ditto 


Batinra Naktur 
Rdipur 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Gauriganj 
Chandaria 


Temple of Debi 
Mosque 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 


Built by Kaja Bisheshwar Singh, 40 years ago, 
Built by Khwaja Muhammad Pandh, at a 

cost of Rs. 1,500. 
Built by Bandi, prostitute, at a cost of 

Ks. 1,500. 
Built by Mangto, prostitute, at a cost of 

Es. 1,200. 
Was built at a cost of Es. 100, 60 years ago. 
Built by Chorhar in 1271 Fasli. 
Built at cost of Es. 200. 



AMIRNAGAE — Pargana Magdapue — Tahsil Mtjhamdi — District Kheri. 
— ^A large village in pargana Magdapur ; is situated on the left side of the 
road from Lakhimpur to Muhamdi, having groves towards its north-east 
and south-east,- and a well-cultivated country on its other sides. It lies 
ahout 5 miles from the right bank of the Kathna. 

It has a market in which articles of country consumption are sold. R^ja 
Musharraf Ali Khan, Taluqdar of Magdapur, is the proprietor of the village. 



Area in acres 
Population 



1,263-2 
622 



AMO— AMS 61 

M^i« {^: ::: ::: ::: ::: :::?!?] ^83 
^-^'i^ 1^^ ;;: ::: :;; ::; zllll ''' 

AMOSI — *Fargana Bijnaur — Tahsil Lucknow — District LucKNOw. — 
Amosi is situated near the centre of tlie Bijnaur pargana, about 8 miles 
from Lucknow, a little to the west of the Lucknow andCawnpore road, and 
4 miles from the town of Bijnaur. 

It has no pretensions to be classed amongst the towns of Bijnaur, and is 
noteworthy only as the head-quarters village of a clan of Chauhans who 
invaded the pargana somewhere about the middle of the fifteenth century. 
They at one time seem to have occupied the greater part of the pargana, 
but gave way to the Shekhs of Bijnaur. The Chauhans say that the whole 
pargana was previously held by Bhars, whom they attacked and drove out, 
and they point to a large mound outside the village where th^ buried the 
fallen Bhars. The village contains a population of about 2,350 souls, of 
whom nearly all are Hindus, and many of them the proprietary cultivators 
of the soil. There are 388 houses, all kachcha ; and the neatest among 
them, with its brick pillars and a verandah, is the small Government school 
at which some 65 boys attend. In the village is the door-post of the house 
of the old Chauhan leader, Brinaik, whom they revere under the name of 
Brinaik Baba, and make offerings to him on the occasion of any auspicious 
event, as the marriage or the birth of a boy. The village is surrounded on 
all sides by wide usar (barren) plains. Of the population 82 are Musal- 
mans, and 2,072 are Hindus. 

AMRITAPUR — Pargana Kheri — Tahsil Lakhimpur — District Kheri. — 
A village in pargana Kheri. Articles of country consumption are sold. 
The average sale of cotton fabrics is estimated at Rs. 4,000 annually. It 
belongs to Raja Anrudh Singh, Taluqdar of Oel. 



Area in acres... 

Cultivated 

Culturable -waate 

Barren 

Population ... 

TT- ^ Male 

Hindus j j.gjjj^e 

Muliammadans | jemlle 



628-59 
387-81 
175-41 
65-37 
837 
337') 



.. 285 J 
.. 109 i 
.. 106 I 



622 

215 



AMSIN Parganaf — Tahsil Fyzabad — District Fyzabad. — The pargana 
Amsin has an area of 68,311 acres, of which 42,543 acres are cultivated, 
10,203 are fit for cultivation, and 15,505 acres comprise the unculturable 
waste and the sites of villages and towns. 

The pargana is bounded on the north by the river Sarju or Gogra, on 
the south by the river Madha, on the east by Pargana Tanda and 
on the west by Parganas Haweli Oudh and Pachhimrath. 

In the Nawabi there were 294 villages, 14 chaks, 1 jot in the pargana, 
of which 282 villages, 5 chaks and 1 jot were parent villages, and the re- 
mainder were dakhiUs. 

* By H. H. Butts, Esq., Assistant Commissioner, 
t By Mr. Carnegy, Commissioner. 



62 AMS 

At annexation 301 villages were included in the pargana under sum- 
mary settlement. These 301 villages are now demarcated as 135 villages 
only, the remainder being recorded as dakhili villages. In the recent re- 
arrangement the pargana received 49 mauzas from Pargana Pachhimrath, 
and six mauzas from pargana Tanda, so that it now consists of 190 vil- 
lages separately demarcated. The Government revenue is Es. 63,085, 
being at the rate of Re. 1-9-6 per arable acre. For the slight alteration 
of boundaries effected recently see the table given in article Fyzabad. 
There are now only 181 villages. 

When the Bhars held the country they are said to have managed this 
portion of district from their fort at Pali alias Sarae Dula, and the pargana 
was then called "Pali" after the fort. Afterwards when Anup Sah, an offi- 
cer of the Government, came to settle the boundaries of the parganas he 
found that there were two parganas known by the name of Pali, of which 
one was near Sultanpur. He therefore re-named this pargana " Sirwa 
Pali" (Sirwa being a village adjacent to P^li), both of which villages pos- 
sess a certain local interest as sacred bathing places. 

About 1170 Fasli, Roshan Ali Khan, the Chief of Hasanpur, in the Sul- 
tanpur district, acquired a large portion of this pargana, and made his local 
head-quarters at Amsin, where he built a fort, and whence he managed his 
taluqa. This fort being the strongest and best fortified place in the' neigh- 
bourhood was afterwards used by the revenue officers of the native Govern- 
ment, and from it the pargana derived its present name. 

To the north of the pargana runs the fine river Sarju alias Gogra, which 
separates the district from Basti zila. To the south there is a small river 
Madha, which flows into the Biswi nadi at Karampur and Chiontipara, 
Pargana Akbarpur. The latter disgorges itself into the Gogra at Shahroz- 
pur, Pargana Maunath Bhanjan in zila Azamgarh. The river Madha 
at the driest seasons is often devoid of water. It takes its rise in the Bara 
Banki district from a jhil at mauza Basorhi. Further east, at Akbarpur, 
this small stream assumes the name of " Tons." 

JMls and Tanks. — There is a considerable jhll at Atraura, which reser- 
voir is known by the name of Achhna, and it discharges its superfluous 
water into the Gogra at Tanda. Besides this there are jhils of considerable 
size atMahda, Bhadona, Dumaha, Gauhania, Durg^pur, Bhadanli, Mednipur, 
Deora, Jijjwat and Darwdn. There are some 1,216 jhils and tanks of sorts 
in the pargana. The pargana is well covered with timber as a rule, the 
mango, bamboos, and the fig tribe being amongst the trees most commonly 
seen. 

Jungles. — In former times there were five great jungles called Hardi 
(after the village of that name), Qazipur-Guriir, Tikri, Khichhalwa, and 
Chandardip. Of Hardi two-thirds is still uncleared, Qazipur has been given 
in grant to Umanda Singh, Barwar, and of this more than two-thirds has 
been brought under cultivation. .Tikri. — This jungle has been made over 
in grant to Dalthamman Singh, Barwfc The name of the grant is Ganga- 
pur, and half of it has already been cultivated. Khichhalwa was granted 
to Raghubar Singh and Ramdin Singh, Barwars, and half has been put 



AMS 63 

tinder the plough. Chandardip has been inclnded with Eustam Sah's 
taluqa, and some two-thirds is under cultivation. 

Co')n'munications. — Under the native Government there were two main 
roads ; one from Fyzabad to Tanda, along the banks of the Gogra, has an 
almost unbroken avenue of very fine mango trees, planted, it is said, -by 
Sitla Bibi of Tanda, in memory of her departed husband, a banker at 
Benares. The avenue was made to shelter numerous pilgrims passing 
along the road to Ajodhya, and the planting is said to have been done in 
1223 Fasli. The second road was from Akbarpur through Amsin Khas to 
Fyzabad, and is sparsely planted. 

The present roads kept up by Government are all unmetalled. They are — 

I. — From Fyzabad to Mahrajganj, from which place it branches into 
two, the one on the right leading to Atbarpur and Jaunpur, and 
that on the left, to Tanda and Azamgarh. 

There are seven ferries on the Gogra in the pargana, viz : — 

Sirwa, TJniar, Bara, Begamganj, Dalpatpur, Jarhi, Mama. 

Nos. 1, 3 and 5 are those at which there is most traffic. 

Towns, bazars. — There are no large townSj but there are nine villages in. 
which bazars are held, viz : — 

. . . Saturday and Wednesday. 

... Friday and Sunday. 

. . . Monday and Friday. 

Saturday and Wednesday. ' 
Tuesday and Saturday. 
Saturday and Wednesday. 

"■ ) Small bazars with no fixed days for 
" " ( open market 

Chuno-i used, under the Nawabi rule, to be levied at all these markets, 
the zamindars taking 4 annas, the qan-flngos 1| anna, and the chakladar 
lOJ annas in every rupee of chungi received. 

Holy places and shrines. — There is a mela called " Singi Rikh (Rishi)" 
held in " Kartik-sudi-puranmdshi," and again in Chait-sudi 9th, at mauza 
Sirwa on the banks of the Gogra, and about two kos east of Begamganj alias 
Dilasiganj. The local history of the sacred character of this place is as 
follows : — 

In the days of Raja Dasrath, king of Ajodhya, Singi Rikh, a holy 
man (muni) of Singi Rampur (three kos east of Famkhabad on the banks 
of the Ganges, and where too a mela of Singi is held) came to Ajodhya. 
Dasrath had no children, and in consequence requested the intercession of 
the holy man, who offered up prayers in his behalf. The result was the 
birth of four children, of whom the eldest was Ram Chandar, the second 
Bh^rath, the third Satrughna and the fourth Lachhman. In those times the 
city of Ajodhya is said to have extended from its present site to mauza 



1. 

2. 
3. 


Goshainganj 

Begamganj 

Tandauli 


4. 


TJniar 


5. 
6. 


Mahrdjganj 
Katra 


7. 
8. 
9. 


Aghaganj 

Mahbubganj 

Amsin 



64 AMS 

Sirwa, wliere the eastern gate was. At this gate, the raja sat m devotion 
until his prayer for children was complied with, and hence the reverence 
attached to the spot. 

There is another fair at Rani Ghat at Begamganj held in Chait-sudi 9th 
and again in Kartik-sudi-puranmashi. , This spot was fixed upon'ahout 100 
years ago by the Barwar chieftain Dilasi Singh as a bathing-place for his 
clan, in consequence of their being excluded from Ajodhya by the enmity of 
the Surajbansi Chattris. This Dilasi Singh was the founder of Dilasiganj, 
by which name the village is much better known in the locality than 
under its more modem name of Begamganj. It was here that the 
unhappy European fugitives from Fyzabad, some 12 in number, were nearly 
all slaughtered by the I7th Native Infantry in 1857. 

At mauza Kasba there is a shrine of Kalika Debi but no fair is held 
there. Kahka is said to have appeared there some 300 years ago in the 
form of a woman. A few people make offerings of ghi, &c., at intervals at 
the shrine. 

Population.— The Brahmans are by far the most numerous class, and 
next after them the Hajputs. Besides these two there is no very marked 
preponderence of any one class. There are but few bankers or mahajans, 
and the few that do exist are men of small means whose floating capital is 
supposed to be about Rs. 3,000 each. The entire population is 98,452, 
being at the rate of 813 to the square mile. 

Arbcient history. — Traces of the Bhars are as numerous in this pargana 
as elsewhere, and they, have as totally disa;ppeared. Ruins of their 
buildings are still visible in mauzas Khiwar, Alapur, Tikri, Marnu, Ma- 
dhopur, Jijjwat, Badaghpur, Bandhanpur, Basaura, Pakrela, &c. 

1. The Barwar and Chdhu Chhattris. — The Barwar and the Raikwar 

^ _ Chhattris are the aristocracy of the pargana. The former 

Chibi' Families. , , . ,, r i • ^.i • i t i j j 

at one time were allpoweriulm the neighbourhood, and 

owned 159 villages. All these have within the last 30 years passed into, 

the hands of the absorptive chiefs of Mahdona, and the present Barwar 

chiefs Dalthamman Singh and Nadir Sah (the latter of whom is a 

hopeless lunatic) are comparatively speaking poverty-stricken gentlemen. 

One history of the Barwars is as follows : — 

They are an off-shoot of the great Bais clan, and came from Daundia 
Khera in the Baiswdra country some 300 years ago. The two founders of 
the family, and sons of Chhatar Sen alias Churi Kul, were — 

(1). — Bariar Singh (hence the name Barwar Rajputs). 
(2). — Chahu Singh (whence the Chahu Rajputs). 

These two brothers, for some reason that is not known, were imprisoned 
by Akbar at Delhi. The elder of the two brothers, during his incarcera- 
tion, had a dream by night, in which he saw a deity, who announced 
himself as Karia Deota, and promised them deliverance and future great- 
ness, and at the same time pointed out the spot where his eflSgy was 
buried in the earth. 



AMS €5 

Soon afterwards, on their release, they sought for and found the effigy, 
and carried it off to mauza Chitwan in the Pachhimrath pargana, where 
they set it up as the ohject of their demestic adoration, and where it is 
still worshipped by both branches. Hereabouts the Barwars rapidly 
became very powerful, and in 1227 Fasli they were found in possession of 
123 villages 8J biswas 6J chaks, giving a Government revenue of 
Es. 28,301, whilst the other branch, the Ghahus, held 36 villages 5 J biswas 
paying a revenue of Es. 5,900. This vast estate, acquired chiefly vi et 
urniis, and partly by purchase, afterward within the short space of ten 
years, i. e., between 1230 Fasli and 1239 Fasli, with the sole exception of 
about two villages, passed away from the Barwars, and became incorpo- 
rate with taluqas Pirpur, Dera, Kurwar, and Mahdona. The Barwars as 
a rule are now very badly off, though the chiefs Dalthamman Singh and 
Nadir Sah have retained one or two villages in the Basti district. 

Another account of the Barwars, and given by Dalthamman Singh 
himself, is as follows ; — 

The family is an off-shoot of the great Bais clan, and some hundreds of 
years ago came from mauza Mungipatan alias Pathanpur south-west of 
Jaipur, where their Eaja Salbahan had a fort. 

They settled at mauza Chitwan Kariq,, six miles south of Begamganj. 
The Bhars held the country in those days, and had a stronghold at Tikri, 
This the Barwars besieged, took, and razed to the ground and upon the 
ruins thereof they founded a village, and called it Diroa. By degrees 
the Barwdrs acquired a considerable estate, which they called taluqa Tan- 
dauli, and which the king of Delhi granted to them rent-free on account 
of military services rendered by the family. , 

The story of this military service is somewhat similar to the old legend 
of the battle of the Horatii and Guriatii, when the armies of Eome and 
Alba met. It is as follows : — 

The king of Kanauj had a beautiful queen named Padmani, the fame of 
whose charms reached the ears of the emperor of Delhi and inflamed his 
desires. Ten of the Barwars, who were amongst the bravest a,nd most 
heroic of the monarch's soldiers, volunteered to go and carry off the fair 
lady. Furnished with a boat, provisions, arms, and money, they arrived 
at Kanauj, surprised the queen as she was bathing and conveyed her to 
their boat. Great was the consternation, and a large army set off in pur- 
suit. By keeping the middle of the stream the Barwars managed to escape 
attack, but so soon as they had to leave the river and journey by land, the 
whole army was upon them. The Barwars were said to have been almost 
invulnerable heroes and of surpassing strength. As the army came up, one 
of the brothers turned, and single-handed engaged and checked the whole 
host whilst the other nine sped on with their prize. The contest ended 
after a time with the death of the heroic Barwar. The army again hurried 
after the fugitives, when another hero (Sawant) turned round, and devoted 
himself after the manner of the first one, slaughtering numbers of the 
enemy before he himself fell. In this way eight out of the ten Sawants 
fought and died, and by their so doing, enabled the two surviving heroes to 
enter Delhi with their lovely prize. The king, astounded at this display of 



66 AMS 

valour, loaded the two survivors with honours, and ordered them to select 
a rent-free j%ir of 14 kos circumference. They replied that, being Hindus, 
they preferred a jagir in the vicinity of Ajodhya, whereupon at once a 
farman was made out, giving them a jagir, extending from Tanda on the east 
to Marnapura alias Jalaluddinganj on the west, and from Chitwan on the 
Madha river to the south, to the banks of the Gogra on the north. This jagir 
of course they had to go and conquer for themselves, which they did, and 
their estate was made a distinct pargana, and called Pali. After the lapse 
of many years a Subahdar of Oudh ordered the Barwars to pay a revenue 
equal to one-fourth of the rental. Some of them refused to do so, and in con- 
sequence a portion of their estates, equal to the revenue demanded, was 
coniiscated and made into a distinct pargana, called Aurangabad-Naipur. 

About 136 years ago an ancestor of Dalthamman Singh increased his 
possessions by purchasing the two muhals, Tikri and Bharsari, consisting 
of 17^ mauzas of the Aurangabad-Naipur pargana, from their impover- 
ished proprietors. Dalthamman Singh is the representative of this 
branch, Nddir Sah of the branch that owned taluqa Tandauli. 

The Barwars were notorious for the practice of infanticide. Two 
daughters of the chief family, who were suffered to live, have married, the 
one the Janwar ex-raja of Ikauna in the Bahraich district, the other, the 
Raikwar raja of Ramnagar-Dhameri in the Bara Banki district. The 
Barwars generally selected wives from the Palwar, Kachhwaha, Kausik 
and Bais* Thakurs. In 1220 Fasli there was a severe fight at Eajapur 
between the Barwars under Fateh Singh (ancestor of Nadir Sah) and 
Madho Singh, Taluqdar of Dera, The dispute was about the possession of 
taluqa Ahankaripur, which Dera claimed by purchase from the Barwars. 
Some 200 persons were killed, but Madho Singh gained the day, and has 
held the taluqa ever since. 

There isfound a goodly sprinkling of Barwars inmauzas Tandauli, Kanakpur, 

Note on raEBAnwABs by the Oitioiat- Salon, Dewapur, Kumbhia, Bhadauli, 

iNQ CoMMisRioNBK. Baraull, Mahrajpur and Chachakpur. 

oi'^:e''lll^!T^:i:'^Z^L^'':n:r^ The Ch^hu branch of the family is 

Bais origin. The one that they are an ofiF- most nunjerOUS m mauzaS Dalpatpur, 

shoot trom Baiswara, the other that like Jurhi, Baraip^ra, Alapur and Maya, 
the Bais of that ilk, they also came from rp, two bran pbpq marrv into the 
Mtmgipatan. They date their advent ^'^^ two Drancnes mariy mm me 

300 years back, during which time they Same families, but not With each other, 
have passed through 20 generations. H. J'Jie Raihw&r Cllhattris. — The 

ly''^:^ti:^t::^^:^l^:^ttl':Z. n-t inost powerful Rajput family is 

observed that the latter are not worship- that of the RaikwarS. 

pers of Karia Deota. It is far more pro- The tradition is that about 800 

bable that Uke numerous colonies who are vpstq no-r. aninn+ T?^a nnrl rtTiinn Rflp 

known as Bais in this district, they are ^^^^^ ^g° Uajpat JXae ana Ijrnma me 

of eqiaivooal indigenous descent, and both Came irom Ramnagar-Dhameri, m the 
the Barwars and their brethem the Cha- Bara Banki district, to mauza Samda 

hus are unknown, except in the centres • xi ■ T^nro■anfl tn nrrnno-p n marriacre 

where we here find them located. ™. ^^^^^ ^^^?^^' }'^ arrange a marriage 

The heroic tradition which Dalthamman With the BaiS ChhattriS, who have Since 

Singh relates has, I have not the smaUest disappeared. The mission WaS SUC- 

S'clan!'" ^PP'^°P"^*^'^ fr^om^ some ^.^ggf^jj^ ^^^ ^^^ j^^jy g^jg received aS 

* JVoie.— This is strange when they urge aBaia origin. 



AMS 67 

her dower mauza Bilwari in this pargana. Here the Eaikw^rs settled. 
After some years Gajpat Rae took service with Dari Shah, a malikzada 
and zamindar of mauza Sirwa. This malikzdda, being childless, on his 
deathbed adopted Gajpat, who performed his funeral obsequies and 
succeeded to his zamindari. In 1193 Fasli the Raikwdrs added ten 
villages to their estate, and until 1229 Fasli they remained qubliliatdars 
of 14 villages. In 1230 Fasli Mir Ghuldm Husen, Chakladar, had these 
14 villages included in the Barw^rs taluqa, but the Raikw^rs still retain 
under-proprietary rights in them. 

The descendants of Ghina Rae in like manner became powerful, and in 
1219 Fasli they were in possession of 34 villages 13 J biswas, called taluqa 
Reori. Between 1222 Fasli and 1233 Fasli, however, the whole of these 
villages came into taluqa Samanpur, the property of Malik Ramzan 
Bakhsh. In one of the pattis of the old Raikwars taluqa, the original 
Raikwar proprietors are still found as under-proprietors. 

The Gajpat R^e branch are well-to-do, and the Ghina Rae family are 
fairly off at the present time. The Gajpat Rae branch are found in mauzas 
Sirwa and Gauhania. The Ghina Rde branch are found living in mauzas 
Reori, Uniar, Bithtira and Madhopur. There were in former times several 
taluqas of 8 or 10 villages each belonging to Chandels, Brahmans, Bais 
and Kayath families. All have long since been broken up, and their 
history offers nothing of interest. 

III. The S-Arajbansi Ghhattris. — The Surajbansi Chhattris had formerly 
a considerable taluqa of 40 villages in this pargana. The taluqa was 
called Narma Pawari. They lost 21 villages between 1185 Fasli and 1254 
Fasli, and the remaining villages all passed away from them in 1255 
FaslL FuU details of this clan will be found under pargana Haweli 
Oudh. 

Mauza Tema. — There was a severe fight in 1259 Fasli for the possession 
of this village, between Babu Jai Uatt Singh, taluqdar of Bhiti, and Raja. 
Rustam Sah, taluqdar of Dera. The fight took place at mauza Tejapur, 
and some 150 persons are said to have been killed. Babu Jai Datt Singh 
gained the day. 

IV. The Kdyaths. — There is a curious legend of the qanungos of this 

parsrana. It is, that 400 years ago the 
Note BY OmoiATiNQ Commissioner. ^- c rt t. at xti' 

■^^"^^^ raja of Gaur, by name JNarpat Das, 

•Under the head of Gaur Kdyaths in ^ q^^^^ Kdvath, Was treacherously 
EUiot's Supplemental Glossary there IS ouri- , , , >,,/+i,„ "RraTiTnaTiq Into thp 

ousoonfiriiation of this legend. It is there brought by the liraJimans iiito the 

set forth that Nasir-ud-din, the nephew of power of Bakhtldr Khlljl, a (jrCneral 
Balban, introduced several Gaur Kayaths ^f Shahab-ud-dm Ghori, king of Delhi, 

from Bengal into t'^^^^^'f/' ^^^"^[nted by whom he was incarcerated, near 

about 600 years ago, when he appointed "J ".\ „ . i, j i o i, 

them qdntogos of Niz£mabad. ^ Bhadoi, Delhi. Narpat Dfis had 12 sons who 
Kol, Ghosi and Chiriakot, in Stiba Alia- -^gre given 12 parganas as qantingos, 
^^^- . „. „ „fl„„„ u:„„ and 12 muhals in zamindari. In 

In this notice Sir Henry confines his re- '^^'■>- 

marks to his own territory, the N.-W. P. Azamgarh there are 3 parganas— 

But our local tradition carries the legend Qhazipur one — Benares one — Mirza- 

, further ^- ^' p^j. one — Durbhimga one — Gwalior 

one— and in Oudh four, of which one is Amsin. 

£ 2 



68 AMS 

General remarks. — The population is generally poverty-ridden, and 
when one comes to consider that the far greater portion of the pargana 
belongs to taluqdars, this is not a happy result of the taluqdari tenure. It 
would rather lead one to believe that the taluqdars are a hard rack-renting 
elass. 

The general and indeed almost sole occupation of the population is that 
of tilling the soil. The people in this part of the district use tiled roofs 
in preference to thatch. It is quite the exception to see a thatched 
dwelling. 

Cultivation is very good throughout the pargana. All crops are culti- 
vated except bajra and mung, which are rarely seen. The area in culti- 
vation, kharif and rabi is about equal, sugar-cane is very largely cultivated, 
cotton and indigo but rarely, and the poppy (opium) is not a favourite crop. 

Wheeled traffic. — ^Wheeled traiSe is almost unknown. One very rarely 
sees a two-bullock cart and never a four-bullock one. The few carts there 
are belong to the taluqdars and rich zamindars. The stores in demand at 
the local bazars, and the exports and imports by river Gogra, are carried 
on men's heads or on ponies. 

Alluvion and diluvion. — For the last 100 years there has been no 
diluvion to any extent. Two years ago there was a slight alluvion in 
three villages^ viz., at Sirwa, Raslilpur, Bharipur and Uniar. The par- 
gana has high steep banks along the Gogra with the deep stream at 
the foot of the bank, and consequently is not so subject to change by 
fluvial action as the opposite lowlands of the Basti district. 

Irrigation. — ^There are 1,379 wells in the pargana, from which and jhils 
(which as before stated are numerous) the lands are artificially watered. 
In the north of the pargana, along the Gogra, the wells have to be sunk 
a great depth before water is reached, viz., 34 feet. In the south, how- 
ever, water is found at 20 feet ; nearly all the wells are masonry, as others, 
do not stand. 

Education. — There are several village schools established in the pargana, 
viz., at Dilasiganj Goshainganj, Tandauli, Jtiri, and other places. 

Forts. — There were no forts in the pargana, but there were several forti- 
fied houses (kots), notably one at Tandauli belonging to Mahardja Sir Man 
Singh, one at Tejapur belonging to Raja Rustam Sdh, at Samdakot of 
Jahangir Bakhsh, at Uniar the kot of Mahk TafazzulHusen, at Lachchigarh 
the kot of Babu Jai Datt Singh, and at Dharmpur the kot of Thakurain 
Raghunath Kunwar. 

Exports and imports. — Urd (vetch) is the chief export by the river 
Gogra, and chawal, (rice) dhan, (paddy) and makfii (Indian corn) are im- 
ported by the same route. 

Cattle. — ^The homed cattle to the north of the pargana, where the graz- 
ing on the river manjhas is abundant, are above the average ; but as a gener- 
al rule the cattle are a very inferior and starvation-dwarfed set of animals. 

The transfer of landed property in the pargana has been wholesale. 



ANS— ARW 



69 



The Barwars, Raikwars, and Stirajbansi Chhattris, who formerly held the 
whole, have now only six villages. 

The following table shows the present proprietary possession : — 



Caste of owuer. 


Number of 
villages. 


Nature of tenure. 


Date at which 
formationof estate 






commenced. 


Brahman (Maharaja Man Singh) 


79 


Taluqdari 


1823 


Bachgoti 


8 


Ditto 


1821 


Rajkumar 


10 


Ditto 


1763 


Gargbansi 


44 




1819 


Muaalmaa 


21 


Ditto 


1813 


Khanziida 


1 


Ditto 


1813 


JBarwar, Eaikwar 


6 


Zamindari „. 


From very remote 
times. 


Surajbansi 


1 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Eajkumar, Kayath 


7 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Eent-free ... „. 


3 

1«0 


Ditto 


Ditta 



It appears then that 163 of the 180 villages have been taken possession 
of by six taluqdars, generally during the last 60 years, and that the great 
body of old yeomen proprietors are now, it appears, living in these villages. 
It is to be hoped that the landowners do not press them severely. 

ANSARI — Pargana Haidaegarh — Tahsil Haidargarh — District Baea 
JBanki.— A village on the road between Rae Bareli and Haidargarh. It was 
founded by Raja Raipal Singh. It is pleasantly situated on a plain. The 
population is 2,093, 

ANTU — Pargana Partabgarh — Tahsil Partabgarh — District Partab- 
GAEH. — This town was founded by Ant Khan, a cavalry officer in the service 
of Bharak Chand, the taluqdar of Partabgarh. The road from Bela to 
Amethi passes through it ; the Sai river is 3 miles distant, and Bela 13, 
The population consists of 1,752 Hindus. 

ARJUNPUR* — Pargana Katiari — Tahsil Bilgeam — District Haedoi. — 
A village of 331 mud houses, chiefly occupied by Qanaujia Brahmans, 
on the Hardoi and Farukhabad border, between the Ramganga and the 
Ganges, 7 miles north-east from Farukhabad and 16 west from Sandi. 
Only noteworthy as being the parent village, per gdon, of the Katiar 
Chhattris in the Hardoi district. (See K^atiari.) Population 2,649. 

ARWAL* — Pargana Katiaei — Tahsil Bilgeam — District Haedoi. — ^A 
Bais village of 518 mud houses, between the Ramganga and Ganges, 11 
miles south-west from S£ndi. The Bais Chhattris claim to have acquired 
it, with Karanpur and Alampur peaceably by purchase from Bhurjis 
(grain-parchers) 800 years ago, in the time of their ancestor, Chdhat Deo 
of Kami Graspur near Kanauj. The population amounts to 2242. 

* By Mr. A, H. Harington, c. s., Assistant Commissioner, 



TO ASA— ASI 

ASAISH alias KAHISH — Pargana BaNGARMAU — Tahsil Safipuk — 
District Unao. — Is a village in the pargana of Bangarmau, tahsil Safipur, 
14) miles north-west of the tahsil, and 33 in the same direction from the 
station of Unao. The road from Sitapur through Bangarmau to Sandila 
passes about one mile from this place on the west. There is no krge town 
near, nor any river. It is said to have been founded by one Asa, of the 
Gaddi caste, in the time of the Emperor Humayun, more than 300 years 
ago, but the exact date is not known. The name is probably derived from 
Xsa, the founder. The soil is mostly loam. The town is on a plain. The 
scenery pleasing, climate good, and water fresh. It is now kiiown as 
Kahish, but official records still bear the name of Asaish. At an early 
period one Ahli Thakur, an officer in the raja of Mitauli's service, came 
here, and putting all the rightful owners to death by treachery, took pos- 
session of the place. There are none of his descendants left here now. 
Hindus and Musalmans live amicably. There is no sarae, tahsil, thana, 
bazar or school here, but there are three fairs in the year, one in March, 
one in October, and one in August, each lasting one day, at which toys, 
sweetmeats, &c., are sold. 



Population"' ... ... .... ... 1,815 

Hindus — 
Brahman 

Chhattri 



Banian 

Kayatli 

Pasi 

Other castes 



188 

221 

15 

16 

141 

1,062 



Total ... ... 1,643 

Muaahnana ... ... ... ... ... 172 

Total ... ... 1,815 

There are 236 mud houses. 

ASHRAFPUR KACHHATJCHHA— Par^aTia Bxkrkr— Tahsil Tanda— 
District Fyzabad. — ^This place is only famous in connexion with the 
ancient saint, Makhdiim Sahib. It is pleasantly situated near the sacred 
mound (see Birhar,-Rasulpur). The population is 2,350, of whom 1,318 
are Musalmans, all Sunnis and 1,032 are Hindus. There are two masonry 
mosques. 

K^IL— Pargana {See TAPPA ASL.) 

ASIWAN Pargana— Tahsil Mohan. — District Unao. — This pargana lies 
to the north-east of Unao. It is 18 miles long by 9 broad ; its area is 
100 square miles, divided into 119 townships ; the population is 60,188, 
being at the rate of 601 per square mile. The land revenue is Rs. 84,462, 
which is Re. 1-5-4 per acre. 

The neighbourhood is generally picturesque, 2,730 acres are covered 
with groves, but a portion is rendered barren by the saline element in the 
soil. 

The land is high and rather sandy. Water to the north near the river 
Sai is found_at about 30 feet, to the south at 45 feet. The land is mainly 



ASI 71 

owned by village communities ; only 10 square miles belong to taluqdars. 
A fine masonry Thdkurdwara at Katra, and a good mosque at Rasulabad 
are worthy of notice; the latter was built in 1083 H., A.D. 1664, as an 
inscription testifies. Several tombs of Sayyad Masalid's followers are 
pointed out in this pargana. The Gamhelas are among the principal pro- 
prietors in it. They are described as follows by Mr. Elliot : — 

" The Rasulabad and Asiwan parganas are full of a caste called Gamhelas, 
who profess to be descended from the Mahrors, but to be illegitimate, an 
Ahir woman having been their ancestor. The Mahrors too agree in this 
story, but the Gamhelas are so enormously numerous, that it is difficult to 
conceive that they should have all descended in so short a time from a 
single pair. They are found in great numbers in Rohilkhand, and are 
considered the best cultivating class in these parts. 

" They do not wear the sacred cord or take the title of Singh, and marry 
solely among each other. The Mahrors call themselves of the Kasyap- 
gotra, and though all their neighbours, as well as they themselves, agree 
in the above account of their origin, no difficulty is made by the smaller 
clans, such as the Gahlots, Janwars, &c., in giving their daughters to them 
in marriage, and almost all of the neighbouring clans are ready to marry their 
sons into these Tilok Chandi Rajputs. But the greatest family in the 
district belonging to the second or grantee class of occupants is that which 
takes its name from Rasulabad. The founder of the house was Sayyad 
Anwar, one of the Naishapuri Sayyads, who inhabit Moh£n in the TJnao 
district. He held several important posts under the Mughal Govern- 
ment, such as the Government of Gwalior and Biana and the Faujdari of 
Khairabad, and his son Mujahid Ali Khan was appointed in 1670 Fauj- 
dar of Baiswara. It was about this time that Hari Singh, the Dikhit 
raja of Parenda, went into rebellion, and threw the country into disturb- 
ance by his raids. Pariar has always been a very sacred place in Hindu 
estimation, and then, as now, thousands of pilgrims came from the north 
to perform their devotions there. From Mohan to Pariar the road lay 
through a wild uncultivated country, and on the very borders of Dikhitdna, 
and here the raja's followers lay in wait to plunder any wealthy pil- 
grims. It was to protect them that in the year 1672 Mujahid Ali Khan 
built the fort of Rasulabad half-way between Mohan and Pariar. 

" Within its precincts rose a mosque, the inscription on the face of which 
contains the number of the year. Soon after Saadat Khan was made 
Governor of Oudh, Mujahid died and was succeeded by his nephew Mutd- 
hir Ali Khan. Saadat Khan was a native of Naishapur himself, and was 
naturally willing to use his influence in behalf of his countrymen. He 
obtained from the king the grant of a large estate, containing 121 villages, 
which Mutahir Ali enjoyed throughout his life-time. The estate was not 
compact, some of its villages lying as far off as the Bijnaur pargana in 
Lucknow, and on his death these outlying portions were resumed, and the 
remainder, consisting of about 70 villages, which lay contiguous to Raslil- 
abad, were made into a separate pargana. The offices of chaudhri, qazi, 
and q^nungo were all bestowed on different members of the family. These 
offices they have retained, but when the official support of the court was 



72 ASI 

withdrawn they had not power to maintain themselves in possession of the 
land, and gradually the greater part of their villages reverted to the 
original owners. The present head of the house, Chaudhri Mansah Ali, was 
a man of considerable weight in the country, and would have restored the 
influence of the family ; but the conspicuous part he took in the rebellion, 
opposing Sir BL Hav&loek's. advance at ITnao and Bashirgasj, sending ia 
his adherence to the Nana, cutting up our outposts, and murdering his 
prisoners in cold blood , made it impossible to extend the terms of the 
amnesty to him in their fullest sense. His life was spared, but his estates" 
have been confiscated, and a small portion of them, with the town of 
Rastilabad itself, has been given to the younger branch." 

Colonel Sleeman writes* a* follows abottt a NawaH Governor of the 
district : — • 

" The brief history which I propose to give of Bakhsh Ali, the late con- 
tractor for the Rastilabad district, is as follows : — ^Muqaddara Aalia, one of 
the consorts of the king Nasir-ud-din Haidar, was the daughter of Mr, 
George Hopkins ' Walters, a half-pay of&cer of one of the regiments of 
British Dragoons, who came to Lucknow as an adventurer. He there 
united himself (though not in marriage) to the widow of Mr. Whearty, 
an English merchant or shopkeeper of that city, who had recently died, 
leaving this widow, who was the daughter of Mr. CuUoden, an English 
merchant of Lucknow, one son, now called Amir Mirza, and one daughter, 
now called Sharif-un-nisa. By Mr. Walters this widow had one daughter, 
who afterwards became united to the king in marriage (in 1827), under 
the title of Muqaddara Aulia. 

" Mr. Walters died at Lucknow, and the widow and two daughters went to 
reside at Cawnpur. The daughters were good-looking, and the mother was 
disposed to make the most of their charms, without regard to creed or colour. 

" Bakhsh Ali, a Dom by caste, who had been by profession a drummer to 
a party of dancing girls, served them as a coachman and table attendant. 
At Cawnpore he cohabited with Mrs. Walters, and prevailed upon her to 
take her children back to Lucknow as the best possible market for them, 
as he had friends at court who would be able to bring them to the notice 
of the sovereign. They were shown to the king as soon as he succeeded 
his father on the throne in 1827. He was captivated with the charms of 
Miss Walters, though they were not great, demanded her hand from the 
mother, and was soon after united to her in marriage according to the 
Muhammadan law. A suitable establishment was provided by the kino' 
for her mother, father-in-law, brother, and sister ; and as His Majesty con^ 
sidered that the manner in which Bakhsh Ali and her mother had hitherto 
lived together was unsuitable to the connection which now subsisted between 
them, he caused them to be married in due form according to the Muham- 
madan law. The mother and her three children now changed their creed 
for that of Islamism, and took Muhammadan names. 

" By a deed of engagement with the British Government, beanng date' 



Volume I., 325. 



ASI 



73 



the 1st of March 1829, the king contributed to the five per cent, loan the 
' sum of sixty-two lacs and forty thousand rupees, the interest of which at 
five per cent, our Government pledged itself to pay to the four females. 

" Shar(f-un-nisa and her brother and his son continued to live with 
Bakhsh Ali, who, upon the wealth and pension left by Muqaddara Aulia to 
her sister, kept up splendid establishments both at Lucknow and Cawnpore. 

" At the latter place he associated on terms of great intimacy with the 
European gentlemen, and is said to have received visits from the Major- 
General commanding the division and his lady. 

" With the aid of his wealth and the influence of his brother doms (the 
singers and fiddlers who surround the throne of his present majesty), 
Bakhsh Ali secured and held for some years the charge of this fertile and 
populous district of Rasulabad, through which passes the road from 
Lucknow to Cawnpore, where, as I have already stated, he kept up bands 
of myrmidons to rob and murder travellers, and commit all kinds of 
atrocities. This road became in consequence the most unsafe of all the 
roads in Oudh, and hardly a day passed in which murders and robberies 
were not perpetrated "upon it. 

" Proof of his participation in these atrocities having been collected, 
Bakhsh Ali was in October 1849 seized by order of the Resident, tried 
before the King's Court, convicted and sentenced to imprisonment, and 
ordered to restore or make good the property which he was proved to have 
taken, or caused to be taken, from travellers. His house had become filled 
with girls of all ages, whom he had taken from poor parents, as they passed 
over this road, and converted into slaves for his seraglio. They were all 
restored to their parents, with suitable compensation ; and the Cawnpore 
road has become the most safe as well as the best road in Oudh." 

The most disgraceful passages of the above sketch from Lucknow life 
have been omitted. It is instructive as showing how the vices and cor- 
ruption of the court re-acted upon the province and caused the ruin of 
fertile districts. 

ASIWAN — Pargana AsfwAN — Tahsil MohaN. — District Unao. — This town 
is situated 16 miles north-west of Moh£n and 20 miles north of Unao, on the 
unmetalled road leading from Lucknow to Bangarmau. Safipur lies 8 miles 
to the south-west. It is said to have been founded by a dhobi or washer- 
man called Asun, who gave it his own name eight hundr^ed years ago. The 
population is 5,817 as follows : — 

Musalmans 

Bralimans 

Fasis 

Aiiirs 

Baiiiaus ... 

Kayatha 

Other Hindus 

There are no resident Chhattris. There are 1,228 houses, of which 51 
are of masonry ; there are 9 mosques, 10 temples of Mahadeo and 2 of Debi. 
There is a good masonry caravanserai built by Qamar Ali Khan. Markets 



... 


1,656 
539 


• •■ .- 


205 


• • 


321 


•.. 


250 


*•• •■ 


4 

2,842 



74 ASO 

are held twice a week, and the annual sales of grain amount to Rs 14,500. 
Coarse cloth called " dhotar " is manufactured. The situation is rather flat, 
but the climate is healthy, and the water good. This town has no history 
worthy of relation. Qamar Ali, formerly Darogha under king Nasir-ud-din, 
resided here. 

Habib-ur-Rahman was a chakladar under the Oudh king, and holds a 
large estate under the English. Another native, Ghulam Ali Khan, con- 
structed a mosque and sarae. 

ASOHA PARASANDAN Pargana—TahsWPvRW a.— District Unao.— One 
Asa Rikh, a devotee who used to reside here, founded the town and called 
it Asohama Qila. See also Elliot's Chronicles of Unao, pages 13 and 14, 
" Mythic age." This pargana, like the others, is first heard of under this 
name in the time of Akbar Shah. There are no traditions ascertainable 
connected with this pargana. There is a tomb of one Hazrat Shah in 
village Kantab, and also a temple to Mahabir. At the latter place a fair 
is held every year in the month of Jeth, where some 2,000 persons con- 
gregate. The Bais are said to have driven oiit the Ahirs and settled 
themselves on the lands of this pargana. The soil to the south and east 
is mostly sand, to the north and west loam and clay. 

The crops chiefly grown are bajra and barley. The Sai river runs 
through this pargana, which is 12 miles long by 10 miles broad, and com- 
prises 42 villages. 

Tte area ia acres is ... ... ... 28,358 3 

Taluqdari ... ... ... ... 9,111 

Zamindari ... ... ... ... 11,519 

Pattidari ... ... ... ... 7,728 3 

The land revenue amounts to Rs. 34,237. The assessment falls at 
Rs. 1-3-3 per acre. There are 1587 acres under groves. The last census 
returns give 31,323 as the number of inhabitants. 

The Sengar Chhattris are the principal inhabitants of Asoha. Elliot 
writes as follows: — "In the year 1527, when Babar Shah was stiU engaged 
in reducing the many independent chiefs of Hindustan, and before his great 
victory over Rana Sanga, several of the Afghan leaders who had served under 
the preceding Lodi dynasty, came in and submitted to him. Among these 
was Shekh Bayazid, who received a jagir of a crore of dams (2^ lacs of 
rupees) in Oudh. Subsequently, he seems to have been put in a kind of 
general command of this province (he might be called the subahdar, only 
that that term is hardly correct for this date), and to have taken advan- 
tage of it to rebel. 

Joined by his brother Mardf Farmlili, and by another Afghdn, Shekh 
Biban, he opposed Babar's crossing the Ganges at Bangarmau, and made 
a long running campaign of it, till at last he was subdued. This Shekh 
Bayazid had in his service two Sengar Rajputs whom he brought from 
Jagmohanpur, across the Jumna, by name Jagat Sah and Gopal Singh. 
They raised and commanded a cavalry regiment which was cantoned near 
the village of Simri, in pargana Asoha, and after his defeat, they settled 
quietly down in the pargana, making Kantha their head-quarters. For 



ASO 76 

eleven generations they remained peaceably there, keeping the Lodhs, who 
had been the original zamindars, in subjection. During this time they 
were joined by another family of the same clan, who followed them from 
Jagmohanpur, and settled in Parsandan. In the eleventh generation, the 
Lodhs who had never thoroughly acquiesced in their loss of position, sud- 
denly rose against the Sengars, and killed the majority of them, but allowed 
the women and children to escape. The fugitives did not think it safe to 
go to their brotherhood in Parsandan but lied to Jagmohanpur, and return- 
ing thence with an accession of strength, the sons of the murdered Sengars, 
Askaran on Gopal's side, and Gurbir, on Jagat Sah's side, recovered their 
father's possessions in the country. Ever since the time of Salim Shah, the 
Pathans of Amethi Dingur, &c., had been growing very powerful, and had 
established their authority over a great part of the three parganas of Asoha, 
Gorinda, and Parsandan. This invasion has left its traces in the double 
names which a great number of the villages of these parganas bear, and the 
original Hindu name, and another the Muhammadan. The Sengars, how- 
ever, had returned from Jagmohanpur in such strength that they were no 
longer inclined to submit to these encroachments, and in a great fight near 
Bani, the Pathans were defeated and driven across the Sai. 

Part of the Sengars who had returned with Askaran settled in Kantha, 
and the rest removed to Manora. The Parsandan family also broke up 
into two branches, one of which removed to Kusahri and received the title 
of Chaudhri of pargana Gorinda. Thus the clan was divided into five 
branches, Parsandan, Kusahri, Manora, and the two houses of Kantha. 
This, division remains to the present day, except that in Kantha itself, the 
descendant of Jagat Sah, Umrao Singh, took a leading part in the rebellion, 
and lost his landed property, and Ranjit, descendant of Gopdl is now the 
sole proprietor there. From these four centres the families, branching 
out, founded or took possession of other villages. The following statement 
shows the number of villages possessed by members of each branch in 
1262 F. S. :— 

Parsandan ... ... ... Eight villages. 

Kuaahri ... ... ... ... Three ,, 

Manora „ .. ... ... Nine ,, 

Kantha ... ... ... ... Eight ,, 

Askaran's son Pranu had two sons, the youngest of whom, Kapdr, was 
renowned for his bravery. He defeated Angad Singh, a Naihesta Bais 
taluqdar, who attempted to encroach on his ancestral estate. The bard 
commemorates his valour, and the power of his opponent, in the following 
couplet : — 

" Angad tere Dhak men rahe na koi bhir, 
Bethar Eawat jab rahe aur Kantha rahe Kapur. 
Angad, no man stood thine onset before, 
But in Bethar the Eawat, in Kantha Kapur." 

ASOHA — Pargana Asoha Paesandon — Tahsil Puewa — District Unao. — 
Is a village 10 miles north of the tahsil station and 32 miles east of Unao. 
There is nothing known of its foundation excepting that it was peopled 
by a sage named Aswasthama* (a personage in the well-known poem 

» In the pargana article the foundation of Asoha is ascribed to Asa Rikh. 



76 



ATfi 



Mah^bharat.) It takes its name from its founder. Surface uneven, soil 
dumat, (loam) and matiar (clay), jungle none, groves of mango trees and 
mahua trees all around the place. 

Climate healthy, water fresh. 



Population — 



Temples 5. 



Hindus 
Muhammadans 



1,250 ■) 



Total 1,251. 



Latitude 
Longitude 



26° 38' N. 
80° 50' E. 



ATEHA Pargana — Tahsil Partabgarh—D /sirici Paetabgarh. — This 
pargana is the most northerly in the district ; the river Sai flows to 
the south. Its area is 79 square miles, of which 41 are cultivated; its po- 
pulation is 44,643, or 565 to the square mile. Of these 5,488 are Brahmans 
5,255 are Chhattris, 5,471 are Ahirs, 4,934 are Chamars. The major por- 
tion of this pargana belongs to Kanhpurias. The trans-Sai portion of the 
district always possessed strong forts, Ateha, Sujakhar, and others, the for- 
mer was gallantly defended by the rebels in 1858. 

The Settlement Officer writes as follows : — 

In this pargana are included 68 villages held as follows : — 





Taluqdari. 


Mufrid. 


Total. 


Kanhpuria 


43 


J3 


56 


Braliiuan 


1 


2 


3 


Kdyatk 





2 


2 


Sayyad 





1 


1 


Shekh 





1 


1 


Pathan 





2 


2 


Government villages 





3 


3 



Total 



ii 



24 



68 



Mr. King writes : — • 

" The Bhars were here again, as everywhere, and in Ranki their fort is 
I a d Drietors point^d o^*- The landholders are Kanhpurias, mainly 
of Sahu's posterity. 

" The villagers of Dara, Ambikapur, and Chahin trace their descent from 
Uran, third son of Kanh aforesaid. The villages of 
Salt villages. Khanipur, _ Rehua, Raha, Tikar, Udaipur, and Muraini 

are noted for the salt-producing earth, and are full of Lonias. 

"There is but one large estate in the pargana. In 1180 Fasli, Jham 
Singh was Taluqdar of Ateha, which appears to have 
Taluqa Ateha. -^^^^ -\^^^ ^^g estate, and by his violence and oppression 

drew the attention of the Bahli Begam, in whose jagir of Salon this 
pargana was. Jham Singh was forced to fly : but in 1184 Fasli, he was 
caught and imprisoned at Fyzabad for 12 years. His mother got one 
village allotted to her for her maintenance, viz., Rampur Kasia on the Sai 



The scene of Brigadier WetheraU's exploit in November 1858, when the fort was fired bv 
ThelwaU's Sikhs.— P. C. ^ 



ATE 77 

" The fugitive cliief s estates were handed over to Bijai Singh, zamindar 
The Mustafabad es- of the village of Lakehra, who held them up to 1205 
*^^^- Fasli. Jham Singh never recovered anything ; and, 

after gaining his liberty, died in 1214 Fasli. His son Dirgpal formed an 
alliance with a freebooter, Zabar Singh of Bundaha, and so disturbed the 
country that it was found necessary to keep him quiet by giving him 
three villages. From this he rose speedily, and by the year 1243 Fasli, 
his son Ram Ghulam had acquired all the villages known as the Musta- 
fabad Ilaqa. In consequence of the misconduct of Shiuambar Singh, ta- 
luqdar of Rij^pur, a small estate of nine villages, Ram Ghulam, in 1256 
Fasli, got this estate and whole pargana in revenue engagement. He 
was himself in opposition to the nazim in 1262 Fasli, and in 1263 Fasli 
his engagement included only the Mustafabad estate. In 1264 he got 
only 11 villages out of the 28 of which that estate was composed. 

" In 1266 Fasli, Ram Ghulam adhered to the Baiswdra chieftain Beni 
Madho ; and his estates were confiscated and bestowed 
IdmSingtr^^"" Oil the raja of Tiloi for services rendered to Govern- 
ment, with which I am not acquainted. Thakur Ram 
Ghulam is now admitted to interviews with the officers of Government, and 
he has a provision of Rs. 1,800 per annum secured by grant of four villages 
A hal Khersk noted in the margin in Unao. He is a very good 

2. Panahpur. specimen of the Oudh baron, and I consider it a very 

3. Barolii. ^ unfortunate thing that he should not have had an 

4. JamokaBangar . opportunity of distinguishing himself as a taluqdar. 

" Jham Singh aforesaid had two sons, Dirgpal and Barwand ; of the 
The Kijapur es- former we had traced the descendants. Barwan's issue 

tate. is found in Shiuambar Singh, taluqdar of Rajapur, a 

small estate of nine villages paying Rs, 6,199 revenue. These villages 
were acquired gradually since 1209 Fasli. 

" The TJmrar estate is held by Ishri Bakhsh, a relation of the Kanh- 
purias. He traces his descent from an uncle of Jham 
The TJmrar estate. Q[^g\^ It is not an old estate ; it now consists of six 
villages and pays Rs. 6,065 revenue. 

" The estate was acquired by the Kayaths as most of this class have acquir- 
.ed them, by service and the favour of Government officials. 
The Ateha estate. Lakhapur and Puranipur, however, are said to have 
belonged to these Kayaths for a long time. 

"Rdnki is the only place of antiquarian note in the pargana. It is un- 
doubtedly a place of great antiquity, as I have in my 
■^'■^^^' possession two coins which were recently dug out of the 

ruins, one of which is an undoubted Bactrian, while the other, at least as 
old, has at present defied all attempts at identification by those who possess 
some knowledge of the subject. At the same time, I am given to under- 
stand that no coin answering to the appearance of the one in question is to 
be found in Prinsep's standard work on Indian antiquities. From the ex- 
tent of its remains R£nki must at one time have been a very large and 
populous place. At one end are to be seen the ruins of the old fort 



78 ATE 

surrounded by a wide and deep fosse. Mr. Benett has recorded that Ranki 
is " the traditional seat of the Government of R^ja Bharthari, elder brother 
ofBikram^jit. This unfortunate prince was cheated by his brother out of 
a magic fish, the digestion of which gave the knowledge of all things that 
occurred in the three worlds. He dissembled his disappointment and re- 
tired to the distant solitudes of Oudh,wherehe founded the city of Ranki. 
The present inhabitants say that Ranki is the Bhar name for a wine-seller. 
Two or three hundred rupees expended in excavations on this spot would 
amply repay the outlay in the acquisition of antiquities which would now be 
invaluable. The siege and capture of Rampur in 1858 were described as 
follows : — 

" The column under the orders of the Brigadier, consisted of the 1st 
Troop of royal horse artillery, a company of foot artillery with siege guns, 
a party of the 79th Highlanders, ,the Beluch Battalion, 9th Punjab In- 
fantry, and the 1st Sikh Cavalry and Dehli Pioneers, and immediately in 
its line of march to join the head-quarters division, under the Commander- 
in-Chief, lay the important position of Rampur, which consisted of a fort 
surrounded on three sides by a very strong intrenchment, constructed, 
across the neck of a bend of the river Sai. The fortifications consisted of 
a line of six bastions, connected by curtains, of a total length of 700 yards, 
behind which was a kind of citadel ; the whole being surrounded by a 
dense jungle, which concealed a village protected by a small mud fort. 
The approach to the place was difiicult, on account of the jungle being 
thick and swampy ; and, in one place, it became necessary to construct a 
causeway before the troops could advance. The force arrived before the 
place at 10 A. M. on the 3rd of November, at which time the strength of 
the enemy consisted of about 4,000 men, most of them sepoys of the late 
l7th, 28th, and 32nd Native Infantry, many of them still wearing the uni- 
form of the Government, and carrying its arms. Soon after 10 o'clock 
the heavy guns were put in position, and, under cover of their fire, a wing 
of the 9th Punjab Infantry, under Captain Thelwall, advanced towards 
the works on the face next the river. Here they were received by a heavy 
fire of grape ; but Captain Thelwall, believing he should achieve a great 
success by a rapid movement, instead of waiting for his supports, gave the 
word to his Sikhs to charge, and in a minute those hardy soldiers dashed into 
the intrenchment, through the embrasures, capturing two guns, which they 
immediately turned against the fiying enemy. The sepoys rallied, and seeing 
that their assailants were but few in number, made a vigorous attempt 
to drive them out, but two companies of the 79th, with four companies of 
the Beluches, came opportunely to the assistance of their comrades, and 
the attack was repulsed : but the rebels fought with great bravery, and 
disputed the advance inch by inch. 

" A series of hand-to-hand fights ensued, and in the midst of the struggle, a 
large mine containing 8,000 lbs. of powder, said to be the principal magazine, 
blew up, and hurled many of the combatants into the air. Colonel Farquhar, 
in command of the Beluch battalion, was shot through the knee while bring- 
ing up the support, and his leg had to be amputated. The fight continued 
with unflinching determination on both sides until 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon, when the enemy, having made one last and fruitless effort to expel the 



ATE— ATW 79 

British troops, gave up the contest, and fled through the jungle, pursued, as 
■well as possible, by the cavalry. No guns could be sent after them ; but in 
the struggle and flight the loss of the enemy amounted to 300 men. Upon 
gaining possession of the fortifications, the captors found seventeen guns and 
five mortars, most of which were rendered unserviceable; they also discovered 
a foundry for casting cannon, an establishment for making gun carriages, 
and a laboratory for gunpowder. 

" The colours of the 62nd Native Infantry, which had been carried off by 
the mutinous sepoys, were also captured, and the rebel bearer of them cut 
down by a Beluch in single combat. The loss on the side of the British 
force was comparatively trifling ; and after dismantling and blowing up the 
fortifications the column pursued its march to join the Commander-in-Chief 
at Amethi." 

ATEHA — Pargana Ateha — Tahsil Partabgarh — District Partabgaeh. 
— The place was founded by Thakur Jodha Singh, who cut down the " 
forest. A road from the town joins the Partabgarh andRae Barehroad at 
Lalganj ; another road from Salon to Ateha passes through it. The Sai river 
is six miles to the souths and Bela, the sadr station, is twenty-six miles to 
the east. 

This was a famous place in the old times, many a battle having been 
fought here. Ranjit Singh, the ancestor of the last taluqdar. Ram Ghulam 
Singh, left the old fort here, in accordance with a treat}' made with the 
imperial general, and fixed his residence in Rampur. This happened nine 
generations ago. 

There is a temple here dedicated to a local deity, Bhainsa Swar ; on its 
altar are offered buffaloes and goats, and the shrine is greatly reverenced 
by the Kanhpuria Chhattris. There is also an imamb^ra and a vernacu- 
lar school with 30 boys. The population consists of 858 Bindus and 138 
Muhammadans. 

ATRATJLI* — Pargana GuNDWA — Tahsil Sandila — District Haedoi. — 
Atrauli (2,615). A good sized Bais village, of 376 mud houses, eleven 
miles north-east from Sandila. It is one of 81 villages said to have been 
wrested from the Gaurs by the Bais eleven generations ago. 

There is a weekly market, and a village school averaging 38 pupils. 

ATWA PIPARIA AND MAGDAPUR Pargana — Tahsil MvsAMm— Dis- 
trict Kheri. — These two parganas present much uniformity of soil and 
cultivation. They lie — the latter south, and the former north — between 
the rivers Kathna and Gumti. 

In each there is low, swampy land along the banks of the former river, 
succeeded by a belt of s£l forest to the westward, from two to three miles 
broad ; through this the surface gradually rises, and when cultivation is 
reached, the soil is high dry loam ; it sinks again in the centre till water in 
the wells is found at only 9 or 10 feet from the surface. Towards the 



By Mr. A, H, Harington, c, s., Assistant Commissioner. 



80 ATW 

Gumti the surface rises again, and in the south-west comer almost assumes 
the form of sand-hills for a mile or two ; thence going northwards along 
the Gumti, the level gets lower and the soil firmer very gradually. The 
two pargaaas form the two halves of a parallelogram running north and 
south between the two rivers, whose highest elevation and poorest soil is 
at the south-west corner, whose best land is in the extreme northern belt, 
and whose level sinks gradually from south-west to north-east ; the highest 
part is about 530 feet above the sea. 

The entire area of Atwa Piparia, including the Government grants and 
forests, is 64 square miles ; that of Magdapur is 56 square miles. 

Atwa Piparia formed part of pargana Barwar and of the great estate 
given to Sadr Jahan by Akbar. (See History of Pargana 
History. Barwar). 

In 1190 Fasli the raja of Muhamdi was taken prisoner, the estate Avas 
then broken up, and engagements were taken from the old zamindari body 
consisting of Brahmans and Bachhil Chhattris. The latter are descendants 
of the famous Chhipi Khan, whose history is' related in that of Barwar. 
The Bachhil Chhattris are said to have had 282 villages on each side of 
the Gumti, and to have held Barwar, K^mp, and Gola. They were much 
reduced however, a number of them managed to get engagement for their 
villages on the break up of the Muhamdi raj ; among them was the father 
of Bhagwant Singh, the famous rebel. He was-permitted to engage for 
both the parganas, but in 1836, owing to some quarrel with the officials, 
he was deprived of part of the estate and commenced a life of dacoity. He 
had a fort at Atwa near the ri-ver Kathna, in dense jungle, which extended 
then and now down the river to Nimkhar and upwards to the Tarai ; 
while across the Kathna stretched the Kukra Mailani forests which reach 
the lower range of the Himalayas. 

On a little hillock in this spur of the great jungle Bhagwant Singh 
settled himself and thence creeping down along the river in the shelter of 
the forest, he used to emerge at night and plunder villages as far south as 
Sandila, in Hardoi. 

Sleeman describes, as follows, what happened on one occasion : — 

" Bhagwant Singh, the last Bachhil Rajput, who held the estate of Atwa 
Piparia, had been -for some time against his sovereign; he had committed 
many murders and robberies, and lifted many herds of cattle within the 
bordering district of Shahjahanpur ; he had given shelter in his own estate 
to a good many atrocious criminals from that and others of the bordering 
districts. 

"He had, too, aided and screened many gangs of Badhiks. In 1841A.D., 
the Resident, Colonel Low, directed every possible effort to be made 
for the arrest of this formidable offender, and Captain Hollings, the second 
in command of the 2nd Battalion of Oudh Local Infantry, sent intelligencers 
out to trace him. They ascertained that he had with a few followers taken 
up a position two hundred yards to the north of the village of Ahrori, 
pargana Gopamau, in a jungle in the Bangar pargana, about twenty-eight 



ATW 81 

miles to the south-west of Sitapur, where that battalion was cantoned, and 
about fourteen miles west from Nimkhar. Captain HoUings made his 
arrangement to surprise this party, and on the evening of the 3rd of July 
1841 A. D., he marched from Nimkhar at the head of three companies of 
that battalion, and a little before midnight he came within three-quarters of 
a mile of the rebel's post. After halting his party for a short time, to 
enable the ofificers and soldiers to throw off~ all superfluous clothing and 
utensils, Captain Hollings moved on to the attack. When the advanced 
guard reached the outskirts of the robber's position about midnight, they 
were first challenged and then fired upon by the sentries. The subahdar 
in command of this advanced guard fell dead, and a non-commissioned 
officer and a sepoy were severely wounded. The whole party now fired 
in upon the gang and rushed on. 

" One of the robbers was shot, and the rest all escaped out on the opposite 
side of the jungle. The sepoys believing, since the surprise had been com- 
plete, that the robbers must haveleft all their wealth behind them, dispersed, 
as soon as the firing ceased and the robbers disappeared, to get every man as 
much as he could. While thus engaged, they were surrounded by theGohdr 
(or body of auxiliaries which landholders used to send to each other's aid 
on the concerted signal) and fired in upon from the front and both right and 
left flanks. Taken by surprise, they collected together in disorder ; while the 
assailants from the front and sides continued to pour in their fire upon them, 
and they were obliged to retire in haste and confusion, closely followed by 
the assailants, who gained confidence and pressed down as their number 
increased by the quotas they received from the villages the detachment had 
to pass in their retreat. All efforts on the part of Captain HoUings to 
preserve order in the ranks were in vain. His men returned the fire of their 
pursuers, but without aim or effect. At the head of the auxiliaries were 
Pancham Singh* and Mirza Akbar Beg of Deoria, and they were fast closing- 
in upon the party, and might have destroyed it, when Girwar Singh, 
Tumandar, came up with a detachment of special police of the Thuggee 
and Dacoity Department. 

" At this time the three companies were altogether disorganized and dis- 
heartened, as the firing and pursuit had lasted from midnight to daybreak ; 
but on seeing the special police come up and join with spirit in the 
defence, they rallied, and the assailants, thinking the reinforcement more 
formidable than it really was, lost confidence and held back. 

" Captain Hollings mounted the fresh horse of the Tumandar, and led 
his detachment without further loss or molestation back to Nimkhdr. His 
loss had been one subahdar, one hawaldar, and three sepoys, killed ; one 
subahdar, two hawaldars, one naik, and three sepoys, wounded and miss- 
ing ; Captain Hollings's groom was shot dead, and one of his palanquin- 
bearers was wounded. His horse, palanquin, desk, clothes, and all super- 
fluous clothing and utensils, which the sepoys had thrown off preparatory 
to the attack, fell into the hands of the assailants. Attempts were made 
to take up and carry off the killed and wounded, but the detachment was. 



* Of Ahrori 



82 AUR 

so hardly pressed that they were obliged to leave both on the ground. The 
loss would have been much greater than it was, but for the darkness of the 
night which prevented the assailants from taking good aim; and the 
detachment would have been cut to pieces but for the timely arrival of the 
special police under Girwar Singh. Four months after, in November, 
Pancham Singh, of Ahrori, himself cut off the head of the robber Bhagwant 
' Singh, with his own hand, and sent it to the Governor Farid-ud-din with 
an apology for having, by mistake, attacked Captain Hollings's detach- 
ment. The Governor sent the head to the king with report, stating that 
he had, at the peril of his life and after immense toil, hunted down and 
destroyed this formidable rebel. His Majesty, as a reward for his valuable 
services, conferred upon Farid-ud-din a title and a first-rate dress of honour." 

After the murder of Bhagwant Singh, the estate of Atwa Piparia was 
held under the direct management of the chakladars, or the villages con- 
stituting it were let out to farmers. 

Musammat Gaura, widow of Bhagwant Singh, was allowed to hold the 
village of Atwa revenue-free up to annexation. The regiment of Captain 
Fida Husen was posted to the Muhamdi chakla. He was entrusted with 
the management of the entire estate from A. D. 1850-51 up to annexation 
in 1856. He holds it still. Fida Husen Khan obtained from Raja Ashraf 
Ali Khan, who had no concern with the estate, a deed of gift for it in lieu 
of a sword. In reality the possession of Fida Husen Khan was no more 
than that of a Government manager ; but the summary settlement of 
1858-59 having been made with him, and a taluqdari sanad having been 
granted to him, he has thereby obtained a permanent, hereditary, and 
transferable proprietary title. The entire pargana belongs to Fida Husen 
Khan, except one village held by qanungos ; two hamlets have been decreed 
in subordinate right to members of the Bachhil clan. There are 30 mauzas ; 
the population is 8,796, or 201 to the square mile, leaving out the grants. 

Ahirs are the most numerous caste, but Kisans and 
History o ag apur. Jj^tji-^os are present in more than average proportions. 

The history of Magdapur is the same as that of Atwa Piparia up till 
1851 ; then the Rdja of Muhamdi obtained possession as a farmer. There 
is a separate article on this pargana. 

Six years afterwards, at annexation, the Rdja was recognized as the pro- 
prietor of the whole pargana, except six villages held by Bdchhil Chhattris, 
Brahmans, and others. The area of the pargana is 56 square miles. Of 
these 36 villages the summary settlement demand was Rs. 6,177-3-0, or 2 
annas 9 pie per culturable acre. The population is 9,949, of whom Ahirs 
form 22 per cent. 

Two unmetalled roads pass through the pargana, both leading by different 
routes from Lakhimpur to Muhamdi. There are no tovms, trade, or manu- 
factures worthy of notice. Rice and millet are the principal crops. 

ATJRANGABAD — Pargana Axjeangabad — Tahsil Muhamdi — District 
Kheri — A town from which a pargana in the district of Kheri derives its 
name, was founded by Nawab Sayyad Khurram in the time of Aurangzeb, 
Emperor of Delhi, and called after his name Aurangabad. It is situated 



AUR 83 

about six miles north of the road from Sitapur cantonments to that of Shdh- 
jahanpur ; it is about twenty-eight miles north-west of the former and 
thirty-eight miles east of the latter. 

Latitude 27° 47' ; Longitude 83° 27/ 

Tieffenthaler describes it as " having a brick built palace enclosed with 
a wall, and adjoining a fort of quadrangular ground plan, and having 
hexagonal towers." This building and fort were built by the said Nawab at 
the time of the foundation of the town. The former, in a decayed state, 
is in the possession of the descendants of the founder, and the latter is in 
utter ruins The walls of one solitary bastion are standing, and a part of 
it after necessary repair is occupied by the local police station. Its site is 
surrounded by an open fertile country, though the land is not of the best 
quality. Since 1785 it has been Government property, and has been 
declared such by a judicial decree, dated 27th September 1866. A small 
market is held here twice a week, on Tuesdays and Sundays ; articles of 
country consumption are exchanged and sold. The annual average values 
of Native and European cotton and silk fabrics do not exceed Rs. 500 and 
E.S. 400 respectively. 

Population 2,842 — Hindus 1,944, Muhammadans 898. 

AURANGABAD — Pargana Atjeangabad — Tahsil Misrikh — District Si- 
tapur. — Contains 3,000 souls, and is the residence of the Taluqdar Mirza 
Agha Jan, whose ancestor, Bahadur Beg, acquired the surrounding country 
in jagir from the Emperor Aurangzeb, in whose honour he named the town. 
It had been previously in existence under the name of Balpur Pasau hav- 
ing been founded by the Panwar Rajputs. 

The town is four miles to the east from NimkhSr and the Gumti. A 
bazar is held twice a week ; cotton and salt are sold to a considerable 
amount, the annual value of the sales being put down at Rs. 66,060. 

The climate of the place is salubrious, the soil good. It contains only 
one pakka mosque. To the north there is a tank, held holy by the 
Hindus. 

The boys attending the school number 46. The kachcha houses are 589, 
and few pakka. 

AURANGABAD Pargana — Tahsil Muhamdi — District Kheei. — This 
pargana is the most southerly in Kheri, projecting into the Sitapur dis- 
trict ; it is bounded on the north by Magdapur, on the east and west by 
the Kathna and Gumti ; the latter a navigable stream. It lies high, the 
town being 484 feet above the sea, the same elevation as Lakhimpur ; the 
drainage is good. 

At the time of the assessment the pargana consisted of 114 regularly 
demarcated mauzas, of which nine were jungle grants along the banks of 
the river Kathna. Subsequently, certain grants were amalga,mated with 
adjoining vilUages. Therefore 107 villages, including 4 muafi villages, have 
been separately demarcated ; they comprise an area of 61,377 acres, out 

r 2 



84 AUK 

of which 32,835 were under crops, being 60'05 per cent, of the total assess- 
able area of 54,681 acres. Of the 6,696 acres unassessed, 1,199 are under 
groves and 759 were held revenue-free. The percentage of irrigation is 
only 20"55, which is smaller than what has been found in other parganas. 
The reasons appear to be that 47 per cent, of the cultivated area is under 
kharif crops, to 38 per cent, in the adjoining pargana of Pasgawan. There 
is much high and undulating land in this pargana along the river Gumti 
where wells cannot be used, and, except in very dry years, much irriga- 
tion is not resorted to for the wet cultivation on the lower levels of the 
Gumti. The average number of acres of cultivation to each plough is 
6'66 ; 1-33 acres of cultivated land to each head of the population. 

The pargana comprises a total area of 116 square miles, with a popula- 
tion of 248 to the square mile ; but if the area under grants be deducted 
in order to obtain better data, then the area assessed will stand at 99 square 
miles, and population at 283 per square mile. The general features of 
the pargana will be best understood by drawing a line from north to south 
through the centre of the pargana passing through Qasba Aurangabad, 
dividing it into equal parts ; when the half of the pargana lying to the 
west of this line will be found to consist of high, arid, sandy plains, 
undulating and broken over the river Gumti, along which are ranged the 
poorest class of villages, and those owing to the sailab cultivation along the 
river. 

The eastern half of the pargana consists of villages of the first and 
second classes, with dumat soil generally of different shades of fertility. 
Here water is nearer the surface, and kachcha wells stand for a year or more, 
according to locality. Dofasli crops are met with in the " jhabar" depres- 
sions by the river, and the cultivation is much superior in every respect, 
reaching up to the edges of the belt of jungle grants. 

Aurangabad, in common with all the parganas lying between the Gumti 
and the Kathna, greatly requires irrigation ; the two streams above-men- 
tioned lie much below the level of the country. 

Aurangabad was one of the seats of the great Sayyad rdj which governed 
the country from Pihani to the Gogra. Their history is told under district 
Kheri. In Aurangabad they met the advancing forces of the Gaur 
Chhattris and were defeated. 

The population of the pargana is 28,823, of whom Musalmans are only 
1,737 ; this is rather remarkable, as Musalmans have been the chief pro- 
prietors for many years. Brahmans number 3,696 ; Chhattris, 2,021. 

The soil being light, cultivators of good caste are very few. 

The town of Aurangabad with its ruined fort, and the monument erected 
over the spot where the Shahjahanpur fugitives were massacred in 1857, 
are the principle objects of interest. ' The metalled road from Sitapur to 
Shahjahdnpur runs through this pargana. 

AURANGABAD Pargana — Tahail Miseikh — District Sitapur. — Pargana. 
Aurangabad is bounded on the west and south by the river Gumti, which 



AUR S5 

separates it from the Hardoi district, on the north by pargana Misrikh, 
and on the east by Kurauna. Its area is 60 square miles. 

With the exception of a few villages to the north-east, the pargana is a 
poor one. If it be divided into two parts by a line running paralled to the 
Gumti and about 4 miles from it, we shall find that the villages, between 
the line and the river are very indifferent. The soil is bhur, there is no 
tarai, and the sand which is blown over them from the river banks is very 
destructive to vegetation. The other part of the pargana is good, especially 
the villages round about and including Aurangabad Kh4s. Irrigation is 
rare. There are no lakes, forests, tanks, or rivers within the boundary of 
the pargana. The percentage of first class crops is small. 

The area is thus classified : — 

Acres. 
Cultivated land ... ... ... 24,806 

Culturable „ ... ... ... 8,550 

Muafi „ ... ... ... 90 

Barren „ ... ... ... 4,856 



Total ,.. 38,302 



and on this the incidence of the Government demand is as follows : — 

Es. A. P. 
On cultivated ... ... ... ... ... 13 7 

,, malguzari ... ... ... ... ... 13 7 

„ total area ... ... ... ... ... 11 10 

The population numbers 19,365, which is thus distributed :-^ 

„. , (agricultural ... ... ... 10,037 

nrnaus •••(non-agricultural ... ... ... ;',068 

,., , I agricultural ... ... ... 834 

Musalmana .- j nSi^.agricultural .. 1,426 

The Musalmans thus are llj per cent, of the entire population. There 
are 323 souls to the square mile. To each head of the agricultural popula- 
tion there are about 2| acres of cultivation and 3 acres of malguzari land. 
The people live in 4,064 houses, to each of which there are thus 4'7 inha- 
bitants. Two roads run through the pargana, one from Sitapur through 
Ramkot and Misrikh, the other from Khairabad through Machhtehta. 
They meet at Nimkhar (see Town History) on the Gumti, which is 
fordable at that place during the dry weather, and from which a road runs 
to Hardoi. Water communication is afforded by the Gumti. The princi- 
pal bazars are held at Aurangabad Khas and Mmkh^r or Nimsir, to the 
histories of which towns the reader is referred for particulars regarding the 
markets, as ako the sacred buildings and old fort at the latter town. The 
- pargana produces nothing beyond the ordinary staples of the province. 
No manufactures are carried on ; no mines or quarries are worked. 

Aurangabad is not mentioned in the " Ain-i-Akbari," because its forma- 
tion into a pargana dates only from the British annexation. But under 
Todar Mai the lands were included in Nimkhdr, which embraced the lands 
of six muhals, namely, Maholi, Misrikh, and NimJchdr in Sitapur and 
Kasta, A'bgdon and Sihandardbad in the Kheri district, and which formed 
part of Sarkar Khairabad. All this territory of Nimkhar was granted by the 



86 AUE,— BAB 

Emperor Aurangzeb in jagir to one Mirza Bahadur Beg, who founded a 
new town where Balpur stood, and called its name Aurangabad, in honour 
of his royal patron. This was in 1670 A. D. The Mirza did not long 
possess this enormous property. What remained at his death was divided 
between his two sons, the elder taking what is now known as the Aurang- 
abad taluqa, the younger taking the Qutubnagar estate. 

As the pargana stands now, it consists of thirty-four villages, seven of 
which are a recent addition from Misrikh, and these are distributed as 
follows : twenty-seven, taluqdar of Aurangabad, one, taluqdar of Saadat- 
nagar, "Raja Shamsher Bahadur Beg, one, Musalman zamindar, one, 
Gosham zamindar, four, Kayath zamindars. Raja Shamsher Bahadur - 
got his villages on the occasion of a marriage. It is noticeable that there 
are no Rajput zamindars in the pargana, and that too, though before the 
time of Mirza Bahadur Beg above-mentioned, it was owned by Panwdr 
Rajputs. 

For notices of the Qutubnagar and Saadatnagar taluqdars, the reader is 
referred to the history of pargana Misrikh, in which their estate and 
ancestral villages are situated. 

AURAS — Pargana Mohan— Auras — Tahsil MoniN — District Unao. — 
Lies sixteen miles north-west from tahsil, and twenty-six miles north 
from sadr station Unao. An unmetalled road from Unao to Sandila 
passes through it. The Sai runs past one mile to the south, where it has 
lately been crossed by a masonry bridge. 

Some five hundred years ago the merchant tribe called " Ursaha," resi- 
dents of Sandila, made this their route for traffic. At that time there was 
a great wood here. Ram Mai, one of the tribe, had the jungle cut down 
and peopled the village, calling it Aurds after the tribe of Ursaha. 

The soil is principally loam ; in some places it is very light. The surface 
is level, there is no jungle near, climate good, and water fresh. A school 
for Urdu and Nagri established here by Government. There are 46 boys — 
41 Hindus and five Musalmans. There are two markets weekly, where are to 
be obtained com, tobacco, vegetables and English and country-made cloths. 
Annual sales amount to about Rs. 500. Earthenware, gold and silver 
trinkets, are the principal manufactures. The population is divided as 
follows : — Hindus, 1,330 ; Muhammadans, 47 : total 1,377. 

There 'are 307 mud-built houses. 

Latitude 26° 54' north ; Longitude 80° 33' east. 

B. 

BABHNIPAIR* Pargana — Tahsil TJinAJiLA— District Gonda.— The small- 
est pargana in the Gonda district, covers an area of 42,985 acres, or 
67 square miles. It lies on the southern frontier, and is bounded on the 
north by the parganas of Manikapur and Burhapara, on the south and east 

* By Mr. W. 0. Benett, c. s., Assiatant Commissioner. 



BAB 



87 



by tbe North-Western Provinces district of Basti, and on the west is co- 
terminous with pargana Nawabganj. In shape it is a long, narrow strip 
running east and west, and broadening in the centre, with a greatest length 
of seventeen and a greatest breadth of seven miles. The eastern half of its 
northern frontier is washed by the river Bisuhi, which is separated from 
the cultivated tracts by a narrow belt of jungle. The rest of the pargana is 
densely populated and under minute and careful tillage. The whole is a 
perfectly level, slightly raised plain, with no distinctive natural features 
beyond a number of small lakes which accumulate the water of the rains. 
Irrigation is very general, a^nd water found within from 10 to 20 feet of 
the surface : 6,700 acres are irrigated from wells, of which 737 are of brick ; 
while 492 tanks and ponds water 5,415 acres, giving a total irrigated area 
of 12,115 acres, or nearly half of the whole cultivation. 

The pargana may be divided into two distinct tracts — the jungle belt 
which has been apportioned between six Government grantees, and the old 
cultivated villages on which land revenue has been assessed. The latter 
number 135, with a total area of 36,647 acres, of which 24,924 or 69 per 
cent., are under cultivation ; while the grants cover 6,327 a"cres, of which 
only 2,017, or 32 per cent., having been brought under the plough, the 
total proportion of cultivation to non-cultivation being G24 per cent, over 
the whole pargana. The land is all of a good dumat, or mixture of clay 
and sand, never rising to pure clay, or so sandy as to be incapable of 
tillage : 18,865 acres are under autumn and 18,655 under spring crops, 
while 11,535 acres bear two harvests in the year. 

The principal agricultural products are autumn rice and wheat, and the 
areas under each of the main crops are shewn in the following table : — 



Autumn rice. 


Winter rice. 


Wheat. 


Gram. 


Aid. 


Poppy. 


13,140 


3,350 


4,795 


3,530 


3,090 


9G0 



The population amounts to 31,029, or 463 to the square mile, and is dis- 
tributed according to the settlement, which on this point are more trust- 
worthy than the census returns over 575 hamlets and detached houses. 
There is not a single place of importance, or one village of above 1,000 
inhabitants, and the people are wholly engaged on agriculture. The census 
o-ives 7,675 inhabited houses, with an average of 4'04 persons to each ; 
while the number of inhabited houses according to the settlement returns 
is only 5,365. Hindus are in an overwhelming ma,jority, counting 29,785 
souls against 1,244 Muhammadans. The most numerous castes are Brah- 
mans, Chamars, Ahirs and Kurmis, who number by the settlement returns 
respectively, 4,169, 4,510, 3,740, and 2,994 persons. The pargana is utterly 
undistinguished either for any manufacture or commerce. There are no 
roads, except the rough cart tracts which connect the villages with one 
another, and enable them to pour their surplus rice and oil-seeds into the 
marts of Nawabganj or Shdhganj on the banks of the Gogra. 

The only place of any religious importance is the new shrine of Chhipia, 



88 .BAB 

which is treated in a separate article. The old limits of the raj, were once 
much more extensive than they are at present, and succes&ive losses reduced 
it at annexation' to the three small tappas of Pipra, Chanda, and Babhni- 
pair Khas. Since then there has been no change in its boundaries. In 
1800 A. D., the Government demand was Rs. 7,723, which rose in two 
years to Rs. 12,744. This seems to have exhausted the riches of the place, 
and for the next fifteen years the revenne remained steadily at about Rs, 
8,000. In 1818 A. D. it rose again to Rs. 10,520, and continued to increase 
from Rs. 16,000 ( 1821 to 1826 ) to Rs. 20,000 ( 1829 to 1836 ). In 1837 
Raja Darshan Singh wasnazim, and screwed up the demand to Rs, 27,568, 
an extortion from which the pargana did not recover for the remainder of 
native rule ; for, though the same official managed to collect Rs. 20,991 in 
1842 A. D., the average receipts till amiexatioai varied from Rs. 13,000 to 
Rs. 15,000 per annum. When we took over the country it was found 
that 17,802 acres were under crultivation at a rent of Rs; 34,868, and the 
land revenue was fixed at Rs. 21,655. Within fifteen years the increase 
of cultivation has been enormous, and when the land was re-surveyed for 
regular settlement in 1871, it was found that 26,941 acres were under 
cultivation at an admitted rent of Rs. 61,756. 

It was impossible to take full rents at once from the villages recently 
reclaimed from the jungle, and the Settlement Ofiicer proposed a progres- 
sive demand as follows ;— 

Es. 
1873 to 1877 ... ... 42,055 

1878 to 1880 ... ... 42,825 

1881 to 1883 ... ... 44,100 

and for the remainder of the thirty year settlement Rs, 44,390 ; the rates 
being in the final year Rs. 1-12-6 per cultivated acre, and Rs. 1-5-0 per 
acre on the whole area of the assessed portion of the pargana. The Gov- 
ernment grants have not yet come under assessment. 

The present Raja of Babhnip&r is the head of the only legitimate family 
of descendants from the old Kalhans Rajas of Khurasa, whose sway extend- 
ed from Gonda far into the Gorakhpur district. As the famous Ratan 
Pande (See Gonda pargana article) was sitting dhama on Achal Narain 
Singh, the last Kalhans Raja, for his sins and profligacy, the younger Rani, 
who was bom of a Chhattri house in the present pargana of Rasulpur 
Ghaus,* took compassion on the old man's sufferings and offered him food 
and drink. This he declined, but in return for her civility he prophesied 
to her the coming ruin of her family, and exhorted her to fly for safety to 
her father's house, adding that her progeny should be Rajas ; but that even 
as his eyes had sunk in through fasting, so should every chieftain in her 
family be blind. The curse has only been partially fulfilled, as though 
there have been one or two blind Rajas of Babhnip^ir, the majority of them 
have been unaffected in their eyesight. Bhing Singh, the posthumous 
son of Raja Achal Narain Singh, was bom a few months after the fall of 
the Khurasa raj, in what is now the Basti district, and when he grew up 
possessed himself of a small chieftainship, embracing the present parga- 
nas of Raslilpur Ghaus, Babhnipair, BurhapSra, and part of tappa Hathni 

• Of the Basti district. 



BAB— BAG 89 

m Manlkapur. He was soon afterwards stripped of the Burhapdra par- 
gana by Alawal Khan, the aggressive leader of the Pathans of Utraula, 
who after a long struggle, which utterly depopulated the pargana, finally 
expelled the Kalhans. Sixth in descent from Bhing Singh was Madhukar 
Singh, whose sons. Raj Singh and Himmat Singh, divided the inheritance, 
the former taking Rasulpur Ghaus with the title of rdja, the latter, as 
babu, Babhnipair. The grandson of Raj Singh, Kesri Singh, was killed in 
battle by RAm Singh, Raja of Bansi, who forcibly possessed himself of 
the pargana of Rasulpur Ghaus. The murdered man left an infant grand- 
son, Shuja Singh, who was adopted by his cousin, the childless Babu RSm 
Singh of Babhnipair, and transferred the title of Raja to that pargana. His 
son, Abdhut Singh, held the raj till 1821 A. D., and was succeeded by the 
blind Raja Jai Singh, who died only a few years before annexation. As 
he had no children, his nephew, Indrajit Singh, became Rdja, but did not 
enjoy the honour long, and was succeeded by his infant son. Raja Udit 
Pragash Singh, during whose minority the ancestral estates are held in 
the guardianship of the Court of Wards. Almost all the villages are held 
by Brahman birtias, who, however, enjoy the minimum of rights. If the 
village was held at grain rents, they were allowed one-tenth of the land- 
lord's share in the produce ; and if money rents were agreed upon, they 
simply paid the full value of the village without getting any drawback, as 
was usual in the case of birtias in other parts of the district. Sometimes 
the villages assigned them in birt were entirely withdrawn from them, and 
they were allowed instead small plots of rent-free sir. They were all 
Brahmans and as Brahmans generally do, have increased in numbers, till 
the rent is barely enough to keep them alive : they know no trade, can 
get no service and to plough they are ashamed. 

BACHHRAWAN — ParganaBACK^RAwAN — TahsilBiGBUAiGANj — District 
RaeBaeeli. — This town is situated on the road from Rae Bareli toLucknow, 
but three other roads exist from this town to Sultanpur, Unao, and Haidar- 
garh. 

The country is rather bare of trees, but the soil is fertile. The popula- 
tion is 4,934, of whom 1,136 are Kurmis and 928 Brahmans ; these all wor- 
ship Shiva. There is a Government thana ; a school attended by 55 pupils. 
There are five temples to Mahadeo, and a market three times a week. 

BACHHRAWANPargrawa — Tahdl Digbijaiganj — District Rae Baeeli. — 
This pargana derives its name from the principal town which was found- 
ed by Bachhraj Pande, the chaudhri of the place. This pargana also, like 
others of this estate, was in the possession of the Bhars, notwithstanding they 
were subdued successively by Malik Taj-ud-din of Masalid's army and the 
Bais Rajas. The pargana was at length taken from them in 820 Hijri, when 
Sultan Ibrahim of Jaunpur totally annihilated them. At that time one 
Qazi Sultan, descendant of Qidwa-ud-din, (who had entered Oudh at the 
invasion by Qutub Shah of Delhi), joined with a few attendants the Sultan 
of Jaunpur in his expedition against the Bhars, and therefore was granted 
the zamindari of this pargana, and he took up his residence in the village 
Thulendi (which was founded by Thula, a Bhar nazim of the place), ap- 
pointing it the head-quarters of the pargana. Ibrahim of Jaunpur then 
divided the whole of this pargana into two tappas or divisions, tappa 



90 BAG 

Ashan and tappa Sidhauli, each of which he placed under the charge of 
a collector or amil, and called this pargana Thulendi. 

This arrangement remained till the time of Nawab Asif-ud-daula, when 
Hdja Niwaz Singh, a Brahman nazim, transferred the head-quarters of 
the pargana from Thulendi to Bachhrawan, and since then it has been called 
pargana Bachhrawan. Now the pargana comprises fifty-eight villages ; 
its length from east to west is twelve miles and breadth from north to south 
nine miles, and its area is ninety-four square miles. It is bounded on the 
east by pargana Hardoi ; on the west by parganas Nigohdn of Lucknow and 
Mauranwan of TJnao ; on the south and north by parganas Bareli and 
Kumhrawan, respectively. 

The pargana was formerly nearly all in the possession of the descendants 
of Qazi Sulta,n, but gradually they were deprived of the greater portion 
of their estates by the Kurmis and Bais. The Kurmis, called Jaisw^rs, 
came from the neighbourhood of Kanauj some four hundred and seventy- 
five years ago, when a great famine had caused much distress in that 
country. One Kesho Das, the ancestor of the present Kurmis of this par- 
gana, entered the service of Bachhraj Pande Chaudhri, the founder of the 
village Bachhrawdn, and the latter having been killed by the then governor 
of the place, Kesho Das joined the governor ; he gave proofs of fidelity, and 
was therefore nominated to succeed the Chaudhri BachhrJij Pande. He 
obtained a good estate in zamindari, but his descendants gradually incur- 
red debts, and have mortgaged and sold a great portion of the so-acquired 
estate to Chandan Lai a Khattri banker of Mauranwan ; the villages so trans- 
ferred being combined together, are called the taluqa of Thulendi. 

The Bais Har Singh Rae, the son of Karan Rae, separated himself from 
his brothers in Nahesta, and brought Sidhauli and some other villages into 
his possession by the sword ; his descendants increased their possessions by 
degrees, till one descendant, Eaja Hindpal Singh, came to hold the taluqa 
of Karauli-Sidhauli, and another, Thakur Bhagwan Bakhsh, the taluqa of 
TJdrahra. Of the ancestors of Raja Hindpal of Karauli-Sidhauli, Bhdn 
Singh was the most powerful, and to his estate belonged the Pargana 
Sissaindi, which was granted to the ancestors of Raja Kashi Parshdd, the 
present taluqdar, as a gift. The descendants of Qazi Sultan now possess 
only six villages, and these also are mortgaged to the Thulendi taluqdar. 

The system of tenure is as follows : — 

Taluqdari ... t.. ... ... 441 

Grant ... ... ... ... X 

Zamindari ... ... ... ... 51 

Pattidari ... ... ... ... 7 



Total ... 58 villages. 

The area of the pargana is 60,395 acres, and the Government revenue 
Rs. 1,40,192, the rate per acre being on an average Rs. 2-6-0. 

The population is composed of all castes, high and low. The Muham- 
madans are chiefly of the Sunni sect. The higher caste Hindus — Brah- 
mans, Kayaths, and Chhattris — belong to the Shaivi creed, and are more 



BAG 91 

numerous than those of Vaishnavi and Shakti faith ; of the lower castes, 
the Kurmis number nearly 6,000 in this pargana, and they are well skilled 
in the art of agriculture, and rank next to Kachhis and Muraus in this 
respect. But there is nothing in the caste statement to account for the 
high jama. The total population of the pargana amounts to 60,867, of 
which 48,090 are Hindus and 2,777 Muhammadans ; this is at the rate of 
563 to the square mile. Of the rivers, the Sai forms the boundary between 
this pargana and pargana Maurdnwan of Unao, and then flows away to 
pargana Bareli. It is of no use for purposes of irrigation, but on the con- 
trary sweeps away the standing crops when it overflows its banks. There 
is another river in this pargana, called Naiya, which dries up altogether 
after the rainy season is over. These are the only two rivers. The soil is 
chiefly loam and clay ; bhur or sandy soil is scarcely found, save in the 
western parts near the river Sai. Irrigation is carried on for the most part 
by tanks. Water is found at an average depth of 32 feet. 

This pargana is very fertile owing to its having a' good number of tanks. 
During the king's reign salt was manufactured in twelve villages, about 
280 maunds, of the value of Rs. 171 per annum ; but it is not made now, 
though the manufacture of saltpetre is still carried on in eleven villages ; 
the outturn amounts to 1,050 maunds per annum. The pargana abounds 
in groves of mango and mahua trees. Other trees are met with — jamun, 
kathal, gular, tamarind, bel, bargad, pipal, and babul ; but these are 
neither plentiful, nor are they of much value. There are six markets held 
in this pargana, viz., Girdharaganj, (2) Hasanganj, (3) Kundanganj in vil- 
lage Karanpur, (4) Rampur Sidhauli, (6) Rajamau, (6) ShekhpUr Samodh. 
The first is held on Tuesdays and Fridays, the second, third and fifth are 
all held on Saturdays and Wednesdays, the fourth is held on Mondays and 
Fridays, and the sixth on Sundays and Tuesdays. The fourth, fifth and 
sixth, viz., of R£mpur, Rajamau and Shekhpur, are not of any importance. 
On the day they are held, the traders of the few neighbouring villages 
assemble and carry on their business. The usual articles offered for sale 
are com and cotton. The markets of Girdharaganj, Kundanganj and 
Hasanganj are of most importance and best known, as they stand exactly 
on the roadside from Bareli to Lucknow. There are saraes also for the 
accommodation of travellers and merchants, and there are some shops in 
these ganjes in which necessaries can be purchased at any time. In all 
these three markets on the days they are held almost every kind of com- 
modity is brought from other districts, as salt and cotton from Cawnpur, 
utensils from Mirzapur, cotton from Benares, Tanda, Farukhabad, &c. 

The cattle market is that of Girdharaganj, and the cattle dealers attend 
this market chiefly in the rainy seasons from beyond the Gogra, and from 
the district of Tirhut. !N othing is exported from this pargana except gur 
and rice, which are sometimes bought to be sold again at Cawnpur. No 
fair is held throughout this pargana, and neither is there any place of pil- 
grimage for Hindus or Muhammadans. 

In the village Thulendi there stands the tomb of Taj-ud-din, who was 
of Masalid's army, and two reservoirs, one called ChhotaHauz (small reser- 
voir), and the other Bara Hauz (large reservoir), both erected by the 
same TSj-ud-din. The remains of a mud fort built by Sultan Ibrahim of 
Jaunpxir are also to be seen in Thulendi. 



92 BAD 

BADO SARAI — Fargana Bado Sarai — Tahsil Fatehpue — District Baea 
Banki. — Bado Sarai is situated on the district road from Ramnagar to 
Daryabad, about twenty miles north-east of the sadr, and is said to have 
been founded some five hundred years ago by Badd<i Shah, a faqir. It lies 
3 J miles west of the river Gogra. 

Latitude 27° north, and longitude 81° 30' east. 

There are several muhallas or wards — muhalla Rastogian (a caste of 
Banians), muhalla Bazdar£n (formerly king's regimental bandsmen), 
muhalla Mah^ Brahmanan. To the west of the river lies the shrine of 
Mald,mat Shah, faqlr, who died about one hundred and fifty years ago. It 
is not visited by people from a distance, but is considered a place of great 
sanctity in the neighbourhood. Offerings are daily made, and the disciple 
in charge, after putting aside what he requires for his own use, leaves 
his hut at dusk, and with a peculiar cry calls the jackals, who dispose of 
the remainder. The people credit the jackals, with a supernatural 
sagacity, in distinguishing between the gifts which have been offered up 
from sincere motives, and those which the donors have given only to be 
seen of men, asserting that the animals eat the former and refuse the 
latter. A religious tiger is also said to come over from Bahraich and pay 
an annual visit to the shrine. There are a great number of petty Musal- 
man proprietors. During the reign of Nawab Asif-ud-daula, the pargana 
of Bado Sarai was held as a jaglr by one Afrid Ali, an eunuch, who gave 
away numerous plots of ground rent-free to the Musalman inhabitants of 
this town, and of Katra, a Muhammadan village situated half a mile east 
of Bado Sarai. 

At a distance of four miles east-south-east of the town is the temple of 
Jaganndth Das, of the caste of faqirs called Sattnami. 

In front there is a fine ijrick tank, in which thousands bathe during the 
fair held in April and October. 

BADO SARAI Pargana — Tahsil Fatehpue — District Baea Banki. — This 
pargana lies west of the Gogra river, east of pargana Bhitauli and Daiya- 
bad. It partly consists of the high lands west of the old bank of the 
river, and partly of the low tarai extending to the present channel. This 
part of the pargana requires no irrigation. Its area is forty-eight square 
miles, of which twenty-four are cultivated. There are fifty-six villages 
with a population of 27,4.13, or 571 to the square mile. Of these, 4,550 
are Musalmans. The pargana is called from the town, which see. 

It anciently was the property of the Raikwars : its administrative his- 
tory is that related by the q^nHngos : it is reprinted here as a specimen of 
the official annals of an Oudh district, they merely record the changes of 
oppressors. 

Formerly the parganas Bado Sarai, Ramnagar, Muhammadpur, and 
Lalpur-Rampur Mathura (trans-Gogra), formed pargana Sailuk The 
Amil of Oudh resided in Bado Sarai, whither the collections were brought. 
The q^nungos all belonged to one family. On Surat Singh's ancestors 
acquiring power, the other parganas were separated from Bado Sarai. 



BAD 93 

1207 to 1225J'.— In 1207F, Bado Sarai, then containing one hundred 

, „. , mauzas, was given in jagir to Mir Afrid Khan Khw^ja 

fatti'o?sr"sS ■ Sara, and was retained by him up to 1225F In 

1226 it was again made Khalsa. The jagirdars 

collections were Rs. 44,000 of which grant to — 

Mirza Melmdi All Khan, Ndzim ... ... Es. 7,000 

Balance to Jagirdar .. . ... ... ... -,, 37,000 

1239i''. — Bado Sarai was leased aHong with pargana Daryabad to Amirt 
Lai Pathak of Sarae. This chakladar plundered 
Estimates of Pdthah's colkc- the two parganas in such a way, that a large 
1239F '*""*_ g portion was thrown out of cultivation, and the 

1240F .". '.". 76,475 zamindars compelled to mortgage their estates ; 
a24lF '.'.'. '..'. 57,205 and in 1241F. the collections were Rs. 16,967 

less than those of 1240F. 

1241J'. — Amirt hil Pdthak died, and on account of the state into which 
the parganas had fallen, no farmer would renew the contract. Ehsan 
Husen Khan, son of Subhan Ali Khan, Kamboh, was appointed to make the 
collections " amdni." The two districts began to 
1244 to 1250F. recover, and in 12442''. were incorporated in the 

nizamat of Sultanpur under the control of Raja Darshan Singh, who re- 
tained them till 1250. No increase or decrease of the capabilities of the 
two parganas seems to have taken place in this interval ; no villages were 
thrown out of, or brought into cultivation. 1251i^. — Bado Sarai along with 
pargana Daryabad Rudauli was contracted for by Raja Imddd Ali Khan. 
He transferred the taluqas of Kajri and Marochih from pargana Bado Sarai 
to Islamabad alias Haraha, pargana Daryabad. 12511'. — Owing to these 
transfers the jama of 125li'. was Rs. 35,605 (Bado Sarai alone). 1252, 
1253, and 1254i^. — Bado Sarai with chakla Daryabad was in Raja Man 
Singh's contract : things remaining as before. 1255F. — In accordance 
with the remonstrances of the Resident, the whole ilaqa was made amdni, 
pargana Bado Sarai and chakla Daryabad Rudauli were entrusted to 
Munna LAl, Kayath of Lucknow. 

1256 and 12572^. — Girdhara Singh, Kumedan (Commandant), on the 
security of Gur Sahae, Diwan, nominally amdni, really by contract col- 
lected for two years. No enquiry was made, and as much was extorted 
as could be got, and some villages were in consequence thrown out of 
cultivation. 

1258, 1259 and 1260F. — Bakhtdwar Singh, amdni, made his collections 
after enquiry as to capacities, &c., reducing the amount to Rs. 28,872. 

During the three years of Bakhtawar Singh's tenure the pargana 
recovered from Girdhdra Singh's extortions. 1261i^. — Bado Sarai alone 
was entrusted to Muhammad Husen of Lucknow, amdni, whose collections 
are estimated at, in 1261, Rs. 34,156 ; in 1262, Rs. 34,456. 

There are several kinds of soil and cultivation, &c. Chief productions — 
sugarcane, wheat, rice. 



94 BAH 



BAERAICH DISTRICT ARTICLE.* 



ABSTEACT OF CHAPTERS. 



I. — Natural features. II. — History. III. — General, Materla.l, 

Social, Economical, and Administrative aspects. 

IV. — Land tenures. 



CHAPTER I. 

NATURAL FEATURES. 

Latitude, Longitude, Area, Position, and Boundaries — Re-distribution of territory between 
Bahraioli, Gonda, and Bara Banki — Physical features determined by the course of the 
Gogra and RApti — Centre plateau— Its limits — The plain of the Gogra— Evidence of 
fluvial action — -The Kauriala river — The Girwa — The Sarda and the Sarju — The old 
coarse of the Sarju — Other affluents of the Gogra — The Tirhi — The soil of the plain of 
the Gogra — The Eapti — The Bhakla — Navigation of these rivers — The Bhinga and 
Tulsipur Tarai — Lakes and stramps — Forests— Tulsipur forest — Ikauna jungles — 
Climate — PreVailing winds, &c. — Rainfall — Hailstorms — Roads — Imperial roads— First 
class district roads — Second class district roads — Forest roads^Main ferries on the 
Gogra — Minor ferries on the Gogra — The Girwa and Rapti ferries — Market towns. 

The Bahraich district lies between latitude 28° 22' 50" and 27° 4' 3" 
north, and longitude 82° 10' 46" and 81° 8' 46" east, 

tude'ancfarea'^'^ ^°^^^' ^^^ ^^'^ ^^ ^^^^ °^ 2,682 square miles prior to some 
minor rectifications of boundary which are to be 
noted. 



Position and bound- 



It is one of the frontier districts of Oudh, its 
northern boundary marching with the Naipal State 
for a distance of 80 miles. 



This line which runs in a south-east direction, parallel with the trend 
of the Himalayas, forms one of the sides of the very perfect triangle, 
which comprises the district. The western side of this triangle is pro- 
vided by the Kauriala river, called in the lower part of its course the 
Gogra, the base by the Gonda district. The apex is at Kates near Bhar- 
thapur, and 94 miles from Rohonda, near Bahramghat, which forms the 
southern extremity of the base, the northern end being at Sandhaura 
Tarai near Durgapur. The base is _ 55 miles long in a direct line, but 
its line is more irregular than the sides of the triangle. The population 
is 774,640, being at the rate of 285 to the square mile. 

* The Bahraich article is mainly drawn from the Settlement report by Mr. Boys, c. s, 
The editor has contributed little except to Chapter III. 



BAH 
TABLE No. I, 
District Bahraich, area and population. 



95 





Pargana, 


Si 
=1 

a o 


Area in British 
square miles. 


Population. 


o 

" ID 


■3 


i 

o 


13 

1 
o 

137 

146 

136 

17 


s 

Id 


a 


1 


1 
1 


i 


tl 

p 


i 


Bahraich , 

Ikauna 

Bhinga 

Tulsipur 

Total 

Fakhrpur 

Hisdmpur 

Total 

Nanpara 

Charda 

Dharmanpur 

Total 

District Total ... 

Europeans 

Eurasians 

Prisoners and em- 
ployes in jail ... 

Grand Total ... 


329 

213 

1.57 

32 

721 

314 
363 

677 

314 

177 

66 


333 

261 

305 

93 


84,777 
75,799 
67,171 
10,128 


17,391 

3,622 

7,357 

318 


53,680 

40,813 

38,737 

5,573 


48,488 

38,608 

35,791 

4,871 


102,168 
79,421 
74,528 
10,446 


307 
304 
244 
112 




992 


436 


237,875 


28,688 


138,803 


127,760 


266,563 


266 


i { 

m 1 

15 i 


383 

298 


205 
168 


125,899 
107,486 


14,200 
22,105 


74,045 
67,928 


66,054 
61,663 


140,099 
129,691 


366 
435 


M I 


681 


373 


233,385 


96,395 


141,373 127,717 


269,690 


366 


i 


521 
212 
304 


260 

139 

50 


124,100 
58,326 
22,627 


24,472 
6,965 
1,694 


78,385 
34,031 
13,552 


70,187 
31,260 
10,769 


148,572 
65,291 
24,321 

238,184 


285 

309 

81 


^ L 


557 


1,037 


449 


205,053 


33,131 


125,968 


112,216 


229 




1,965 


2,710 


•,1,258 676,313 


98,124 


406,744 367,693 


774,437 


285 






'** 






20 
5 

156 


14 
1 

7 


34 
163 


... 




1,965 


2,710* 


1,258 676,313 


98,124 


406,925 


367,715 


774,640 


285 



Subsequent to the commencement of settlement operations the excres- 
cences of the district on the south have been lopped 
Kedistribution of ter- off and made over to Gonda, so that now the border 
Ind'oondr^''^^^''''"'^ ^^^® between thq districts is fairly straight. Gonda has 
compensated Bahraich for these cessions by the 
transfer to the latter district of 32 villages comprising 64 square miles of 
the Tulsipur pargana. This additional bit of territory gives Bahraich a 
portion of the first of the hill ranges, the watershed of which forms here 
the boundary between Naipal and British India ; recent negotiations with 
Naip^l have, it is believed, brought the boundary down to the foot of 
these hills. 

At the same time that this re-distribution of territory was made, the 



* 2,598 according to Settlement Report. 



96 BAH 

Bhitauli estate, the only Cis-Gogra part of Bahraich, was transferred to 

Bara Banki, and the district thus made conveniently 

Ee-distribution of ter- compact and symmetrical ; as redefined, it measures 

TndBark B^nld ''^'^''''''' ^,598 square miles, but this is exclusive of grants, 
and forests. * 

The physical features of the district are well marked and are deter- 
mined by the course of the two fine rivers which 
Physical features de- flow through it, the Gogra and the Rdpti. A belt 

termmed by the course ?• i i • i .°t,i i j ■ j ""^ An r j. 

of the Oogra and Rapti. 01 comparatively high table-land, raised some 40 leet 
above the level of the country on each side of it, 
The centre plateau. ^^^^ through the district in a south-east direction,, 
forming the watershed of these two rivers. 

This belt is very well defined, and has a nearly uniform breadth of 
about 12 or 13 miles. 

The river Bhakla, called in the lower part of its course the Singhia,. 
J, y ., an affluent of the Rapti, determines its limits north- 

eastwards, while its south-western bank runs from 
the Chakia jungle past Sara and Nanpara to Bamhni ; thence making a 
bend eastwards it reaches Bahraich itself, which is built on its very edge. 
Near Bahraich the Tihri, a drainage stream, takes its rise, and flows for 
some distance under the bank ; then, keeping to the north-east of Baghel 
Tal, leaves the district not far from Gangwal. 

This belt of high ground comprises the western portion of pargana. 
Charda, the eastern half of Ndnpara, nearly the whole of pargana 
Bahraich, and about half the southern half of Ikauna. It measures about 
670 square miles in extent. 

The great plain of the Gogra stretches away from the edge of this high 
ground to the river itself, which flows in a direction 
Go-Sa ™ ot t e gguth-east at a distance varying from 10 miles in 
the north to 3-5 in the south. Common tradition 
asserts, and the whole face of the country supports the theory, that in ages 
past the Gogra flowed immediately under the high bank described above,and 
that it gradually receded westward until it reached its present course. 

The numerous channels with which this alluvial plain is scored in aU 
parts testify to the fact that it has been subjected at 
action ""^^ different times to fluvial action. These channels, of 

which some now form mere drainage streams and 
some are dry throughout the greater part of the year, have a general direc- 
tion, tortuous as their courses are, parallel to that of the river and thus 
suggest the notion that at sometime or other they formed the actual bed 
of the river which has now deserted them, while such lakes as the Nigri,. 
Ganaur, Anarkali, Chittaur and Baghel Tal, can never have been scored 
out by anything but a very large volume of water such as now finds its 
way in the Gogra, known in the upper part of its course as the Kauridla. 

* The area is differently stated at 2,710 and 2,636 square miles in statistical tables of 
1873, pages II and XXV, at 2,652 in census table No. Ill, prepared in December 1874> 
The attempt to attain accuracy is hopeless, 



BAH 97 

The Kauriala issues from the hills of Naip^l at a place called the Shisha 
The Kauriala river. P^ni or " Crystal Waters," some 24 miles north of 
Bharthapur. Flowing deep, clear, and silent through 
the gorge which affords it an outlet from the mountains, it finds itself 
within sight of the plains through which it has to run its course ; it then 
sweeps violently down, rapid after rapid, over immense houlders, which it 
has during the course of ages brought down with it from the hills. 

Almost immediately after it debouches, the stream splits into two, the 
The Girwa Girwa flowing eastward with a volume of water 

superior to that of the main stream. Even in the 
cold season when the waters are at their lowest, in most places it is with 
difficulty that an elephant can cross these streams, parted though 
they are, so violent is the rush of water. After a course of about eighteen 
miles through the midst of fine sal forests and over rough stony beds, the 
twin streams enter British Territory at the very extreme north-western 
corner of the district where the Kauriala is joined by the Mohdn. A 
few miles below Bharthapur, they reunite ; from the point of junction 
their bed is sandy. 

Almost immediately below the confluence of the Kauriala and Girwa, 
The Sarda. *^® stream is joined by the Suheli from the Kheri 

district, but it receives no affluents of any import- 
ance from the Bahraich side until, after forming the boundary of the 
district for about 47 miles, it is joined at a point just above Katai Ghit 
by the Sarju. 

This stream, which enters the district from Naip^l about 22 miles from 
the Kauriala down the frontier line, is separated from 
The Sarju. ^j^^ latter by a high tract of forest land ; it flows almost 

due south with an exceedingly tortuous course of 70 miles (from point to 
point 30 miles only), and falls into the Kauriala at the place noted above. 
Less than eighty years ago, however, this stream, instead of joining the 
Kauriala in this district, flowed in a distinct channel of its own, and united 
with the Gogra in the Gonda district. It was a European merchant trading 
in timber who found the Sarju channel a difficult and tedious road, and by 
way of securing more expeditious river transit for his logs turned the stream 
into an old channel which ultimately conducted its waters into the Kauriala. 

The old stream flowed from a point just below Takia Ghat between 

Bitinhiyan and Patruyia and between Kakaraha and 

The old course of the j^t^^ira Kalan, whence its course is marked to the pre- 

^^^^' sent day by the Chhota Sarju. This last mentioned 

stream stiU conveys surplus surface water southwards in the old channel, 

passing within a mile of Bahraich itself and running through the Hisampur 

pargana. It ultimately joins the Gogra at Paska in the Gonda district. 

At Katai Ghat, just below the confluence of the Kauriala and Sarju th& 

united streams are swelled by the Chauka and 

Other affluents of the D^hdwar from the Kheri district, but the river, now 

°^*' called the Gogra, receives no more affluents from the 

east side after the Sarju as long as it remains the boundary of Bahraich at 

G 



98 BAH 

Bahramghat ; however, it is joined from the west by a branch of the Chauka, 
which with it, forms the Duab in which lies the Bhitauli estate aboye- 
mentioned. 

The Tirhi may also be considered as belonging, so far as Bahraich is 

The Tirhi concerned, to the plain of the Gogra ; it is an unnavig- 

able, sluggish, weedy stream, flowing from Chittaur 

Jala, about 3 miles from Bahraich town, in a southernly direction until it 

passes into Gonda. 

The whole of the Gogratic plain consists of alluvial soil of various dates, 

but in many parts, more especially in the north and 

of th^^Gbgrf *^^ ^^*™ particularly in the valley of the Sarju, almost annual 

deposits of fertilizing soil are left by the retiring floo4s. 

The R^pti, whose valley lies on the northern side of the plateau described 
The Eapti above, enters British Territory from Naipal, about 

midway between the two extremities of the frontier 
line of the district, and has a course of 81 miles (from point to point 42 
miles) from Gulariha in Charda to Qalandarpur in Gidrahiy^n ilaqa. It 
is a very sinuous stream, and it is continually changing its course, but it 
flows in a deep channel confined by high banks, and only in more than 
ordinarily wet seasons overflows to any great extent. These overflows,^ 
however, are sufficiently frequent to keep the alluvial soil of- the villages 
within their range fresh and productive. 

The Bhakla is a Tarai stream which comes from the NaipAl lowlands, 
and in the dry weather is fordable at all points, but a 
* *■ sudden fall of rain commits such a volume of water to it 

to be carried off that it rises some 20 feet in less than as many hours. It 
swirls down on these occasions with such violence that several attempts of 
the district authorities to bridge it have failed. It flows for the greater 
part of its course almost immediately under the high banks previously 
mentioned, and it joins the Rapti under the name of Singhia, just above 
Sahet Mahet. The Duab included between these two streams is one of 
the most fertile portions of the district. For the river traffic see the sec- 
tions on the trade. 

All of these rivers are navigable. The R^pti and the Kauriala for boats 
carrying 1,200 local maunds, or 20 tons, the others for smaller boats through- 
out the year, but during the rains large barges ascend the river Sarju to 
Khairi bazar and thence carry grain. 

The smaller boats used will carry 200 local maunds, or 3 tons, and 
require 2 feet of water when loaded; they are hollowed out of rough trees, 
cost about Rs. 80, and will last with care and with none but minute repairs 
for twenty-five years. They are owned solely by Gorias, vulgarly believed 
to be a branch of the Kahdrs, who hire out their boats and their own ser- 
vices, if the owner is not the oarsman; half the hire goes to the former, half 
is divided among the latter. 

Except the grain traffic there is nothing of any importance. Sugar 
comes up from Azamgarh, There is no river side population, The fisheries 



BAH 99 

are small; for instance, 8 miles of the course of the "Sarju have. been 
let for years for Rs. 40, now raised to Rs. 100 per annum, and the lessee 
has only planted Narkul seed in his property. None of the rivers have 
been embanked or dammed. The Sarju offers great facilities ; the old 
course of this river forms a loop as it were, leaving the Gogra at Khairi 
Ghat and rejoining it at Kamyar Ghat ; it might easily be made naviga- 
ble for the whole of the year. 

At the north-east corner of the map lies the only bit of genuine Tarai 
Th Bh' <i T 1 country in Bahraich, viz., the Durgagur iMqa and 

sipur Tarai* ^^ " ' *^® northern portion of Bhinga. To these must be 
added the Tulsipur villages transferred from Gonda. 
This tract of land is separated from the valley of the R^pti by a belt of 
forest 20 mUes long and about 5 broad, which follows the line of that river. 
It lies very low, and is a great rice-producing area, being, during the rains, 
almost continuously under water. It is drained by a number of small 
hill streams, which, though almost dry in the cold season, bear a very 
different appearance in the rains. These ultimately all join the Kaihan 
which falls into the R^pti, about 8 miles above the confluence of 
the Rapti and Singhia. 

The chief lakes and swamps of the district have been named already as 
being evidently the result of the scouring of the 
Lakes and swamps. q^^^ The largest of them, Bagh'el Tal, is a fine 
sheet of water 2^ square miles in extent. The Ganaur and Anarkali lakes 
each measure about 450 acres, the Nigria Jhil 380 acres. To these may be 
added Maila Tal, 150 acres, not far from Rahwa, Mde Tal, in the Rapti 
valley, 85 acres, and Sita-dohar Tal, 380 acres, 4 miles west of Ikauna. 
The last mentioned owes its existence partly to the Buddhist mounds and 
m.onuments on its banks, the materials of which have all been excavated 
from this lake ; most of them are navigable by flat-bottomed boats. 

The Bahraich forests lie along the Naipdl frontier, and are for the most 
Torests P^"^ continuations of the tracts of jungle included within 

that territory. 

They have an area of 281 square miles, and geographically may be di- 
vided into five sections, though departmentally there are seven divisions. 

1st. The Bharthdpur Forests. — These have an area of 13 square miles, 
and are included between the Kauriala and the Girwa. 

2ncl. The Bharmdnpur Forest. — This with the Ainchwa or Babai 
jungles forms the watershed of the Kauriala and Sarju. The area is 173 
square miles. 

3rd. The Chakia Jungle. — This lies on the western bank, of the high 
ground which forms the watershed of the Sarju and Rapti. 

Aith. The Charda or Bhuria Jungles. — These lie on the eastern bank 
of the same ridge, and look down upon the Duab included between the 
Bhakla and Rapti. They form a small and not very valuable section, the 
area being only 13 square miles. 

G 2 



100 



BAH 



5th. The Bhinqa Forest. — This has been mentioned as separating the 
Tarai from the valley of the Rdpti. Its area is 61 square miles. 

The Tulsipur forest lies under the first range of hills ^stretching away 

Tiilsipur Forest. ^™^ ^"^^^^ ^°'^* ^^*° ^"^^ plain for a distance of about 4t 
to 5 miles, and up the sides of the hills to the frontier 
line, which here is the ridge crest, or was till recently. 



Ikauna Jungles. 



Besides the above, which are reserved tracts, may be mentioned the 
Ikauna jungles, which run in a belt 20 miles long and 3 
miles broad, in a south-east direction, through the pargana 
of that name. This tract has no timber of any value, but it affords capital 
grazing ground and fuel supply for the villages around. 

In point of climate the district assimilates in some points to Bengal. 
Climate '^'^^ temperature is certainly cooler by several degrees 

than that of districts south of the Gogra, but the air, as a 
rule, is more laden with moisture, and is therefore not. so bracing. Natives 
in Government employ who are residents of the cis-Gogra tracts, usu- 
ally, evince great reluctance to serve in these parts. It does not appear, 
however, that the climate is bad for Europeans, and the reputation that 
the station has got for ' Bahraich fever ' is hardly deserved. 

The prevailing winds are from the east, and even when in Bara Banki 
Prevailing winds, &o. the hot blasts are blowing steadily from the west, the 
wind here presses up towards north-west. 

For the last eleven years the rainfall has averaged at Nanpara, the most 
Kainfall northerly of the registering stations, 4-5 inches, at Bah- 

raich, the central station, 46 inches, and at Hisampur, 
the most southerly, 44 inches. It is remarkable that Nanpara, which is 
near the hills, and the forests which are known to attract the clouds, does 
not show a heavier fall than the southern stations. 



Btatement of rainfall in Bahraich district for fourteen years, from 1860-61 

to 1873-74. 





Bahraich. 


Kordaar. 


NSnpiira. 




TearSi 


















Inches, 


Tenths, 


Inches. 


Tenths. 


Inches. 


Tenths. 




1860-61 


27 


31 


39 


i 


28 


5 


31 


1861-62 


70 


10 


66 


% 


60 


4 


621 


1862-63 


49 


2 


43 


9 


62 


3 


511 


1863-64 


56 


81 


52 


54 


48 


0| 


52J 


1864-65 


20 


9 


23 


3 


27 


8 


24 


1865-66 


47 


n 


35 


2 


43 


4 


4l| 



BAH 



101 







Eahraioh. 


Kordaar. 


Nitnpdra. 




Years. 


















Inches. 


Tenths 


Inches. 


Tenths. 


Inches. 


Tenths. 




1866-67 




32 


If 


41 


5 


38 


2 


37 


1867-68 




30 


4 


41 




39 


9 


37 


1868-69 




41 


9i 


38 


6 


28 


7i 


m 


1869-70 




38 


8 


34 


2 


43 


5 


381 


1870-71 




78 


2 


87 


6 


72 


6 


79i 


1871-72 




71 


4 


83 


... 


69 


9 


74f 


1872-73 




36 




37 




49 


5 


401 


1873-74 




31 




35 


... 


31 




32J 


1874-75 




43 


3 


55 


4 


51 


3 


50 


Averag« 


! for 14 years 


54^ 



This table is derived from otter sources ; it harmonizes pretty well with the remarks 
in the text. 

Note. — I may here describe the effects of Bahraich hail extracted from a report. " The 
storm which occurred on the evening and night of the 1st February 1874 came from the 
south south-weat, and seems to have crossed the country to the north-east, in a belt about 
2 miles broad in the Bahraich pargana ; there may be another zone of disturbance still fur- 
ther to the west. I could not study the matter for want of a good map. 

" The principal damage done was to the wheat ; in some places I counted ten white ears 
in the square yard ; these were all, or almost aU, standing, but on lifting the head it came 
away, the stalk had rotted for about a quarter of an inch, and on placing the stalk beside 
the sheath, the rotten part always reached down to a corresponding little white soar on the 
outer sheath. 



"The stalk had been struck by the hail and not broken, but paralyzed, and the 
head had turned white. For one head of this description there were five which were not 
upright, but with broken stalks often at an acute angle yet still alive and vigorous . These 
had been struck on the head, forced down, and the stalk bent without being killed. 

" The curious thing was that those which were really beheaded were standing in'almost 
all cases quite erect. The gram was very much injured in village Lengri Gular ; it was difld- 
cult to determine what damage had been done by worms and what by hail ; the former in 
every case leave a hole behind them, which it is not easy to see from above ; the hail kills 
the gram by paralyzing the pod with a blow. It was so backward in Pachdeori, or already 
ruined by drought, that the hail had caused little injury . The effects of the storm were very 
unevenly distributed. In some fields the loss was, I should think, one-fourth of the whole 
in Lengri Gilar, in adjoining fields not one-twentieth. 

"I noticed that the much damaged fields all lay near groves, and that the grain was 
laid in these fields in a way which high wind might account for, but not hail. 

' ' There was perhaps other agency, and at last it was admitted that these groves were the 
covered ways through which the Nil-gae entered and left the cultivation at night froni the 
adjoining grass jungles. These fields were not protected by wattle hedges; the Nil-gae had 
lain down on or pressed down the stalks, and wherever this had occurred the hail had struck 
the larger surface exposed by the horizontal stalks, often breaking them off at the knots, 
and thus done much more extensive damage than when the crop was standing." 



102 BAH 

The roads in the district are of foxir classes : — 

1. Imperial. 2. First class district roads. 3. Second class district 
Roads. roads. 4. The ordinary bullock-cart tracks. 

Of the imperial roads there are two : — 

1. To Lucknow, vid Bahramghat. This line runs direct south from 
Imtierial roads Bahraich for 34 miles through this district. It 

is embanked and bridged throughout, but during 
the heavy rains in 1871, the fine bridge over the Chhota Sarju was washed 
away by the floods. It is intended to metal this road. At Bahramghat 
there is a bridge-of-boats in the dry weather which connects it with the 
metalled line to Lucknow and with the railway, the terminus of which is 
at the southern end of the bridge. 

2. From Bahramghat to Gonda. This line runs throughout this district 
for 14 miles in an almost due easterly direction from Bahrampur, passing 
through Colonelganj. 

There are several first class district roads, all ra- 
roSr* "^^^ '^'^*"'"' diating from Bahraich, which is itself in the centre 
of the district. 

1. To Nanpara, 21 miles almost direct north and thence to Naipdl- 
ganj on the other side of the frontier, the line running for 12 miles beyond 
Nanpara in a north-east direction within British Territory ; this line is 
bridged throughout. 

2. To Bhinga, 23 miles. This road crosses the Bhakla and the Eapti, 
both unbridged. It is embanked in some places. 

3. To Ikauna, 23 miles, and thence to Balr^mpur in Gonda for a dis- 
tance of 6 miles more up to the new boundary of the district. This line 
is bridged and embanked in some places. 

4. To Piagpur, 18 miles, and thence to Gonda for a distance of 6 miles 
further within the Bahraich limits. 

5. To Colonelganj (now transferred to Gonda) 33 miles. This is a fair- 
weather road only. 

The second class district lines run for the most part in a circle round 
Second class district Bahraich, crossing the main district roads, at a dis- 
^°^^- tance averaging about 20 miles from Bahraich. 

1. Nanpara to Bhinga ... ... ... ... 29 miles. 

2. Bhinga to Ikauna 

3. Ikauna to Piagpur ... 

4. Piagpur to Kurasar . . 

5. Kurasar to Sisia 

Saimgiion near Baujidi 

6. Sisia to Shiupur 

7. Shiupur to Nanpara ... 
Thus completing a circle of 118 miles. 

class district lines run from Nanpara to Motipur 
vid Saraghat, 14 miles ; Bahraich to Chahlari- 
ghat, 20 miles ; Bahraich to Katai^at ... 90 ,, 

The Forest Departments are now cutting roads through the forest sec- 
j, ^ , , tions, which will greatly improve the means of corn- 

ores roa . munications between the different parts of the dis- 

trict in the north. 



... 12 

... 14 

... 17 

... 

... 21 

... 17 

... 8 

Other 2nd 



BAH • lOS 

Main ferries on "^^^^ main ferries across the Gogra are at: — 

the Gogra. 

1. Kat^igh^t at the meeting of the roads from Ndnpara and Bahraich 
to Kheri, seven small boats. 

2. Chahlarighat at the meeting of the roads from Bahraich, Ndnpdra, 
and Kurasar to Sitapur, ten small boats. 

3. Faruaghat on a cart track from Baundi to Biswdn, three large boats 
and two small. 

4. Bahramghat on the road to Lucknow. There is a bridge-of-boats 
here throughout the dry season, and a ferry well served with large boats 
during the rains. 

Minor ferries on There are other smaller ferries as follow, coming from 

the Gogra. the north — 

1. Kamnagarghdt, on a cart track from Naipdl through Kates to Khai- 
rigarh, one small boat. 

2. Bharthapurghat, three small boats. 

3. Shitabighdt, opposite Chhilwa on a cart track from the northern 
part of Dharmdnpur pargana to Khairigarh, three small boats. 

4. Matehraghat, on a cart track to Kheri, one small boat. 

5. Zalimnagarghdt, on a cart track from Mangauria to Isanagar, two 
small boats. 

6. Thathu^ghat, on a cart track from Nanpara to Isanagar, two small 
boats. 

7. Ghanapurghat, on a cart track from Nanpara to Firozabad, two small 
boats. 

8. Bamhnighat, a little below Chahlarighdt, one small boat. 

9. Keoraghat, on a cart track from Baundi to Biswan, four small boats. 

10. Far^ighat, on a cart track from Nang^on to Eamnagar in the Bara 
Banki district, three large and two small boats. 

The Girwa and ^^ *^® Girwa there is a ferry at Bhawaniapur, with 

Eapti ferries. one small boat, and on the Rapti there are ferries at — 

1. Gangapur, on a cart track from the north of the Charda pargana to 
Naipal, one small boat. 

2. Guka, at the meeting of the boundaries of the Bhinga and Charda 
parganas with the Naipdl line, two small boats. 

3. Pipraghdt, on the road from Bahraich to Bhinga, two small boats. 

4. Parasrampur, three small boats. 

6. Harhai, on road from Ikauna to Bhinga, one small boat. 

6. Gurpurwa, on a cart track from Ikauna to Durgapur. 

7. Tumaighdt, where the eastern boundary of Durgapur iMqa touches 
the Rdpti, two small boats. 



104 



BAH 

MAEKET TOWNS. 



Marlcets are held at the following places in the district, the commodities sold 

being mainly for local consumption only, except grain, 

which is brought for exportation. 



W 



Name of bazar. 



Siaia 

Mahrajganj 
GolSganj 
Baundi Kli^s 

Jaitapur 

Marowa 

Khaira 
Pachdeori 

Jarwal 

Khatgaghat 
Bahrampur 
Saugana 
Gandhara 



1st, 2nd, 

or 
3rd class, 



2nd class 

2nd 
3rd 
2nd 

1st 

3rd 

3rd 
3rd 

2nd 

1st 

2ud 

3rd 



2nd 



Where situated. 



On the Gogra, on 
road from Bah- 
raich to Sitapur. 

On the Chahldrighat 
road. 

To the west of Baun- 
di. 

Near the road from 
Kurasar to Sisia. 



Four miles o£f the 
road (west) to Bah- 
ramghat. 



In the 
estate. 



Chahlari 



In the Eahwa estate 



In Baundi near Ka- 

taighit. 



On the Bahramghat 
road. 



Four miles north of 
HisAmpur on the 
lesser Sarju. 

At the end of the 
Bahramghat road. 



Two miles south- 
west of Kurasar. 



The head-quarters 
of the Aubhfipur 
taluqdars. 



Market days.. 



Sunday and 
Tuesday, 



Saturday and 
Tuesday. 

Friday and 
Monday. 

Tuesday and 
Saturday, 



Sunday and 
Thursday. 



Tuesday. 



Tuesday and 
Saturday. 

Tuesday aud 
Friday. 



Monday and 
Friday. 



Tuesday and 
Saturday. 



No open mar- 
ket here on 
Tuesdays. 

Monday and 
Friday. 

Thursday. 



Bemarks, 



The head-quarters 
of the Bayyads of 
Jarwal. 



A large assemblage 
of the country 
people. 



This is a cattle mar- 
ket. 



BAH 

MARKET TOWl^B.— (Continued.) 



105 



1 

■s 

i 


I^ame of bazar. 


1st, 2iid, 

or 
3rd class. 


Where situated. 


Market days. 


Eemarks. 














■ij 


Katwa 


3rd class 


Near Jarwal. 


Tuesday and 
Saturday. 




1 - 


Kiirasar 


2]id 


51 


On the Bahramghat 
road. 


Tuesday and 
Saturday. 




Belwapara 


3rd 


>J 





Tuesday ... 


A small fair at Ma- 
liiiblr's temple. 




Patupur 


3rd 


)) 


Near Harharpur. 


Friday and 
Saturday 






Colonelgaiij 
Nanpara 


1st 

1st 


»» 


Fourteen miles east 
of Bahramghat. 

On the road to Nai- 
pal. 


Every day. 
Ditto. 


The centre of the 
(jrain-trade ia 
Itahraich. Large 
barf^aji.s are made 
here, and the graia 
sent down the 
river. The mart 
is now included 
in the Gonda dis- 
trict. 




KJiaira bazar 
Sbiupur 


1st 
2iid 


5» 


On the road to Kheri 
vid Kataighat, on 
the Sarju. 

On the road to Katai- 
ghat. 


Ditto. 
Ditto. 


Large grain bar- 
drains are made 
here, and the 
grain exported by- 
way of the River 
Gogra. 

Ditto ditto 




Burui 


1st 


>t 


Ditto ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto ditto 


L 
fc 


Katgliar 


1st 


)J 


North of Nanpara, 
four miles east of 
the Sarju. 




A lartje share of the 
Naipdl trade passes 
through this bazar. 


1^ 


Jbala 


3rd 


J» 


In the south of the 
pargana. 


Tuesday and 
Saturday. 






Ikauna 


2nd 


If 


On the road from 
Bahraich to Bal- 


No fixed day. 




^ 








rampur. 






K 

5 ^ 

M 

M 


Lacbbmaiipur ... 


3rd 


JJ 


In the Durgapur, on 
north bank of the 
Eapti. 






L 


Gangwal 


2nd 


J? 


South of the road to 
Gonda. 




The head-quarters of 
the Gangwal taluq- 
dar. 



106 



BAH 
MARKET TOWNS.— (Continued.) 



E-! 

K 






Name of bazar. 



BMaga 



Bhangha 



Harharpur 



Katra Mudfi 



Nawabganj Aliabad 



Charda Khaa 



1st, 2nd, 

or 
3rd claaa. 



2nd class 



2nd 



3rd 



2nd 



2nd 



3rd 



3rd 



Wiere situated. 



One mile from 
north bank of 
Eapti. 



the 

the 



One mile from the 
south bank of the 
Rapti. 



On the south bank 
of the Rapti, on 
the road to Bhinga. 

Seven miles north of 
Nanpara, on the 
road to Naipalganj. 

On the Rapti 



The head-quarters of 
Nawab Nisar Ali 
Khan, on the bor- 
der of the Nanpara 
pargana. 

T\fo miles off the 
Naipalganj road, 
east. 



Market days. 



No fixed day. 



Every day. 



Ditto. 



Tuesday and 
Saturday. 



Monday and 
Friday. 



Remarks. 



The head-qnarters of 
the Bhiuga taluq- 
dar. 



Bardar Sher Sinph'a 
head-quarters, for- 
merly a first class 
mart for Naipdl 
products, iron, &c. 
Naip&lganj on the 
other side of the 
frontier has now 
taken the trade 
from here. 



Established by the 
taluqdar, a loyal 
grantee. 



Established by ma- 
h^rdjaof Balrdm- 
pur, of whose es- 
tates in this dis- 
trict this place is 
the head-quarters. 



BAH 107 



CHAPTER II. 
HISTOEY. 

Tie Gandharp Ban and Banaudlia — Uttar-Kosala, the kingdom of Lava son of Earn — Srilvasti, 
his capital -Description of the ruins of Sravasti — The (Jharda fortress-city — Uttar-Kosala, 
the cradle of Buddhism — Hian's account of Sravasti— The decline of Buddhism and of 
Sravasti — Other Buddhist remains — The Bhars and Bhar remains — Their origin — No 
traces of them in the existing population — The period of their rule and of the Tharu 
dynasty of Gonda — Sayyad Salar's birth and youth — He invades Hindustan — The religious 
raid of Sayyad Salar — The " Mira-at-i-Masaudi" — He reaches Satrikh — A detachment sent 
against Bahraich — The north and south confederacy— Sayyad Salar arrives in Bahraich — The 
battles on the Kosdla and final defeat of Sayyad Salar — This invasion is connected with 
the expedition of Ahmad Nialtagin — Points of coincidence in the two invasions — Explanation 
of Barhaqi's silence regarding Salar Masaud — No permanent hold obtained on the country — ■ 
Nasir-ud-din overthrows the Bhars — The Ansaris of Hisampur — Nasir-ud-din, brother and 
namesake of the Bhar destroyer, is made Governor of Bahraich — Shams-ud-din Bahraichi — 
Bahraich a separate Government from Oudh at this time — The aspect of country in 1250 
A.D.— Dugaon— The district from 1250 to 1340 A.D. —Muhammad Tughlaq's visitto Bahraich 
■ — The sketch continued by estates — The Sayyads of Jarwal, their origin and early history — 
Ghayas-ud-din bestows a muafi grant of 25,000 bighas on Jamal-ud-din in Jarauli — Date 
of this settlement — Firoz Shah's march through Bahraich — Bariar Sah his Risaldar — Kroz 
Shah's visit to the shrine of Sayyad Salar in 1374 A. D. — Bariar Sah establishes himself at 
Ikauna — The Eaikwars migrate from Kashmir and settle in Eamnagar — Saldeo is brought 
to Bamhnanti — The Raikwars establish themselves in the west — The district at the end of 
the fifteenth century — Bahlol Lodi and his nephew the Black Mountain — Parganas JBUjhat, 
Sultanpur Kundri, and Dangdun — The legitimate inferences from these revenue statements 
— Sarkar Bahraich — The modern parganas corresponding with muhals of the " A'ln-i-Akbari" 
— Evidence that the Muhammadan hold on the north was very weak — Eaja Harhardeo's grant 
Harhardeo founds the Harharpur ilaqa — The separation of the Eahwa audChahlari ilaqa from 
Bamhnauti or Baundi — The Katha estate — The separation of the Balrampur branch — Maha 
Singh — The extent of his grant— The Charda, Gujiganj, and Bhinga oflf-shoots and the 
Bahraich birts — The Gangwal branch — The northern parganas during this period— Salouabad 

Nanpara — Himmat Singh's clearing lease — His success — Madar Bakhsh of Naupara — 

The progress in Nanpara— Munawwar Ali Khan — He marries the daughter of Mehndi Quii 
Khan — The disastrous quarrels of the ranis — Sir J ames Outram's account — The Luoknow 
parasites — The increasing prosperity of the estate — The fate of the Gujiganj ilaqa — The pro- 
gress in the north not materially affected by the changes in the administration— The 
Sujauli (Dharmanpur) pargana— The acquisition of the Tarai parganas — The Naipal war 
and the cession of the Tarai — The grantees of the ceded lands— The suppression of the 
Banjaras, a result of the cession — The whole of the SujauU pargana thus thrown into the 
hands of the Jangre Thdkurs— The Charda ilaqa-^Itg condition at annexation — The 
MaUapur ilaqa — Ihe restoration of the Tarai parganas to Naipal in 1860 A. D.— The 
Bhinga pargana — At first held by members of the Ikauna family — Afterwards trans- 
ferred to the Bisen — The Bhinga ilaqa included in the Bahu Begam's jagir — Half the 
estate confiscated — The history of the southern parganas during the Nawabi— Raja 
Datt Singh of Gonda — Alawal Khan — Alawal Khan and his Afghans — Jagirs in Bah- 
raich The system continued down to the time of Asif-ud-daula — The resumptions by 

Asif-ud-daula — No jagirs granted after the accession of Saadat Ali Khan — The taluqdars' 
position under the first five Nawabs — The Raikwars, an exception to that rule — The con- 
tract system — The Piagpur estate — Its extension subsequent to the death of Saadat Ali , 

ji^han Number of khalsa villages in 1815 A. D. — Bahraich khalsa— Fakhrpur khalsa 

His&mpur khalsa — Meaning of the word " khalsa" — Hakim Mehndi — Hadi Ali Khan com- 
mences the incorporation of the khalsa lands in the taluqdars' estate — The extent of the 
absorption — The Jarwal estates ; their ruin — Mir Hadi Ali Khan's administration— Darshau 

gingh RaghubarDayal — Captain Orr's description of the district afterthe two years' adminia- 

tration of Raghubar Dayal— The district has not yet recovered from the effects— The estates 
which suffered most — Colonel Sleemau's notes— Comparison of the revenue before and after 
Raghubar Dayal's administration — Subsequent nazims— Oudh is annexed— The Bahraich 
staff of officers— Their work— The results of summary settlement of 1856 in the taluqdari 
estates Ihe rebel taluqdars — Confiscations — Conclusion. 



108 BAH 

SECTION 1.— Mythic Period. 

There is but little in the Hindu Epics from which information can be 
The Gandharp Ban gathered of the dynasties which held sway in an- 
and Banaudha. cient times in the country to the north of the Sarju 

or Gogra. The portion of that country now included within the limits 
of Bahraich formed a part of the Gandharp Ban, the vast forest, the 
remains of which still exist unfelled, to the north of the district and in 
the Tarai country of Naipal, The Gandharp Ban was separated from the 
Banaudha which covered the country between the Sarju and the Gumti 
by the former river. Accordingly Brahma himself is said to have chosen 
this district as his own especial kingdom, and calling together a company 
of holy Rishis to have established his worship in the midst of these lonely 
wilds. Hence arose the name ("Bahraich or Brahm-aich",) the assembly 
of Brahma. 

Under the name of Uttar-Kosala the same country north of the Sarju 

formed a portion of the great kingdom of Ajodhya, 

Uttar-Kosala, the and was governed by Lava, the son of Rama, but it 

oriw"^ ^'■™' '"^ seems that the name of Uttar-Kosala should more 

strictly be applied only to the trans-Rapti portion of 

the country, the cis-Rapti districts being known as Gauda, a name which 

survives in " Gqnda." 

The capital of Lava was doubtless the city of Sravasti, now known as 

Sahet Mahet, the remarkable ruins of which are situ- 

Sr^vaati, his capital. ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ borders of this district on the south bank 

of the river Rapti. This city is said to have been built by Raja Sravasta 
the son of Yuvanaswa, of the solar race, and the tenth in descent from 
Surya himself. 

The following description of these most interesting ruins is by General 
Cunningbam who visited them in 1861 A D. : — " The 
niSfrf &sti^ ^''^ '^'"^^'i '^ity of Sahet Mahet is situated between 
Ikauna and Balrampur, 5 miles from the former and 
12 miles from the latter, and at nearly equi-distance from Bahraich and 
Gonda. In shape it is an almost semicircular crescent, with its diameter 
of one mile and a third in length curved inwards and facing the north-east 
along the old bank of the Rapti river. The western front whieh runs due 
north and south for three quarters of a mile is the only straight portion 
of the enclosure. The ramparts vary considerably in height ; those to the 
west being from 35 to 40 feet in height, while those on the south and 
east are not more than 25 or 30 feet. The highest point is the great north- 
west bastion which is 50 feet above the fields. The north-east face or 
shorter curve of the crescent was defended by the Rapti, which still' flows 
down its old beds during the annual floods. The land ramparts on the 
longer curve of the crescent must once have been defended by a ditch, the 
remams of which yet exist as a swamp, nearly half a mile in length at 
the south-west corner. Everywhere the ramparts are covered with frag- 
ments of brick of the large size peculiar to very ancient cities ; and though 
I was unable to trace any remains of walls except in one place, yet the 
very presence of the bricks is quite sufficient to show that the earthen 
ramparts must once have been crowned by brick parapets and battlements. 
The portion of the parapet wall which I discovered still standing in the 



BAH 109 

middle of the river face was 10 feet thick. The whole circuit of the old 
earthen ramparts, according to my survey, is 17,300 feet, or upwards of 
3i miles." 

There are the ruins of another city of smaller dimensions, but of almost 
exactly similar character, at Charda in the Charda 
^_ The Charda fortress- pargana in this district, about 40 miles to the north- 
west of Sahet Mahet, and there cannot be a doubt 
but that it dates from the same age as that larger and better kntjwn 
fortress-city. It probably formed one of that chain of fastnesses which 
are to be found lying along the foot of the Himalayan range, and agreeing 
with this view is the derivation assigned by the natives to its name,_ it 
being they say, the fourteenth " chaudah" of this system of forts. 

Section II. — Buddhist Period. 

It is, however, not until the time of Sakya Buddha, viz., the sixth 
century B. C, that anything approaching historical 
cuL^rBuddhism^^ '"'^" ^^''°^^ ^^ attainable regarding this district. Uttar- 
Kosala may without any presumption claim to have 
been the cradle of Buddhism. It was at Kapilanagara (now Nagar near 
Basti), the country of the Sakyas, that Buddha was born, and it was at 
Sravasti that he passed nineteen years of his life in retirement and 
preparation for Nirvana. King Prasenajit, son of Maha Kosala, then 
reigned in Sravasti (570 B. G.,) and together with his minister Sudatta 
became a convert to the new faith. It is not then to be wondered at that 
the city should be crowded with buildings erected during Buddha's life- 
time, and subsequently for the propagation of the creed and in honour of 
its prophet. 

We find accordingly from the account of Fa Hian, the Chinese pilgrim 
who visited this city in search of relics and Buddhist 
S VaS^'"'^ account of -^^^^^^ in 410 A D., and who has left a most interest- 
^^^^^ '■ ing description of his travels, that the fortress (then 

in riiins) abounded in the remains of monastic buildings (viharas), memo- 
rial pillars, shrines, &c., all connected with the rise and propagation of 
Buddhism. These relics which are described with some minuteness by 
Fa Hian, who also gives the legends connected with them, have most of 
them been identified by General Cunningham and detailed in his archae- 
ological report (Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, Part I, No. IV, 1865). 

Fa Hian describes the city at the time of his visit 410 A. D., as contain- 
ing only about 200 families, as the Ceylonese annals 
The decHne of Bud- g ]j. ^f ^^g Khir^dhara as king of Swatthipura 
hism and of Sravasti. ^^^ Srdvasti) between A. D. 275 and A. D. 302. 
General Cunningham concludes that the decline of the city must have 
taken place during the fourth century, and that it was probably connected 
with the fall of the Gupta dynasty. 

Other Buddhist remains have been identified at Tandwa, a village about 

Other Buddhist re- 9 miles to the west of Sahet Mahet, and in this 

nxains. village to this day the Hindus worship under the 



no BAH 

name of Sita Mai, a statue of Maha Maya, Buddha's mother. In the 
neighbourhood of Charda fort mentioned above are several mounds and 
ruins of enclosures which excavation would doubtless prove to be' monas- 
teries and stupas similar to those of Sahet Mahet. Buddhist coins have 
also been found in an old site of a building on the banks of the Gogra. 

Section III. — The Bhars. 

The gleam of light that the Buddhist pilgrim's records throw upon the 

history of this part of the country completely fails us 

Tlie^Bliars and Bhar ^^^^^ ^^^ ^f^j^ Century A. D., and for four hundred years 

there is no clue beyond the merest tradition to the 
state of the country or the races which ruled it. In common with the rest 
of Eastern Oudh the district is said to have been under the dominion of 
the Bhars dtxring this period, and every ruin with any claim to antiquity is 
ascribed to these people. The name of Bahraich itself finds another deri- 
vation from this race. In the Hisampur pargana there are a number of wells, 
small ruined forts, and old village sites, the principal of which are in Pu- 
rem, Kamae, Jarwal, Mohri, Bhokaura Sakantha, Kasehri-Buzurg, Has- 
na Mulai, Waira-Qazi, and Bhauli-Dih, and all of which, according to local 
tradition, owe their existence to the Bhars, while in the north the large 
city forts described above, Sahet Mahet and Charda, are also by the com- 
mon folk believed to have had a like origin. 

Whether they were aborigines or the remnants of Chhattri races which 
_, . . .^ remained in this part after their suppression by 

the kings of the Gupta dynasty, and which as 
soon as that dynasty fell rose upon its ruins to an independent position 
with what approached sovereign power, until in their turn they had to 
give way before the advancing wave of Rajputs from the west, can only as 
yet be matter of conjectiire. In support, however, of Sir H. Elliot's theory 
that they are connected with Ahirs, I may mention a traditionary rite in 
the Raikwari families of this district, by which certain customary offices 
are always performed for the children of this caste by an Ahirin, the suc- 
cessor and representative of the widow of a Bhar raja, who was slain by 
the founder of the Baundi house. The Bhar princess is said to have gone 
to Delhi to obtain redress for the murder of her lord, and to have only 
desisted from pursuing her vengeance to its end on the promise of Raik- 
war to allow her to perform the rite alluded to. 

If there is any truth in the fact that Bahraich was peculiarly the country 

of this race, it is somewhat surprising that not a 

thfrJZIplpuSoa. tr^<=e Of them is to be found in the existing popul^ 

tion. ihe descendants of those who escaped the sword, 

and who did not noigrate, must either have died out gradually or have been 

absorbed during the last six centuries in the rest of the population, but I 

can quote no instance of any family which is of reputed Bhar descent. 

There is no evidence here in support of the theory, though, of course, it is a 

possible one and certainly as good as any other, that the remnants of this 

people have gradually been received into the " elastic fraternity of 

Rajputs." 



BAH 111 

The Bliars seem to have been the dominant race from about the end of 
the eleventh, though it is possible that the Thdru dy- 
rnle^a d^f f°th ° Th'*^'" ^^^^7 °^ Gonda contested the supremacy with them 
dynastyof Gonda. ^ '^ during the tenth and eleventh centuries. General Cun- 
ningham gives the traditional genealogy of the Thdru 
r^jas of Gonda and their probable dates as follows : — 

A. D. 900 1. Mora-dhaj or Maynra-dhwaja. 

,, 925 2. Haus-dhaj or Hansa-dhwaja. 

,, 950 3. Makar-dhaj or Makara-dhwaja. 

,, 975 4. Sudhanwa-dhaj. 

,, 1000 5. Suhridal-dhaj. 

This last mentioned prince is called also Suhal-ddr, Sohil-dar, and 
Suheldeo, the last name being that by which he lives in the mouths of the 
common folk. 

He is also variously stated to have been a Th^ru, a Bhar, a Kalhans, or 
a Bais Rajput, or a Sarawak, but of his religion and of his date there can 
be but little doubt. Some curious old legends show him to have been 
a Jain, and universal tradition connects him with the only historical event 
of those times affecting this district of which we know for certain the 
exact dates, viz., the crusade or " crescentade" of Sayyad Salar. 

Section IV. 

The account of this event is given in an historical romance written by 
The religious raid of 9.^f , Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of 
SayyadSalir of Mira-at Jahangir, entitled " M^ra-ut-^-31asaud^. Iheworkis 
-i-Masaudi. said by its author to have been mainly based on a 

book called the " Tawarlkh-i-Mahmlldi," written by one Mulla Muhammad 
Ghaznavi, who was servant of Sultan Mahmlid Subuktagin, and who, 
following in the train of Salar Sahti and of the Prince of Martyrs, related 
events of which he had personal knowledge. Though perhaps but little 
reliance is to be placed on the details contained in this history, it may be 
accepted as a trustworthy account of the main facts of the campaign and 
as being at any rate a true representation of the then tradition. 

Sayyad Salar Masaud was the son of Salar Sahti, one of the generals of 
Sayyad Salax's birth Sultan Mahmud and of Sitr Mualla, own sister of that 
and youth. conqueror. He was bom in the year 1015 A. D., 

and passed his youth in the field, accompanying his father and his uncle 
in "the victorious campaigns which time after time laid waste the north- 
west of India and made Mahmud its master, though not its possessor. 
When he was sixteen years of age he was advised by his uncle to quit 
the army for a time until the enmity which the Sultan's marked 
preference for him and even for his counsels had excited in the nobles of 
the Court had subsided, and Sayyad Salar, inspired by martial and reli- 
gious fervour, begged to be allowed to carry the sword and Islam into the 
interior of Hindustan. 

Crossing the Indus and occupying Mooltan he 
HeinvadesHindustan. arrived before Delhi eighteen months after setting out. 



112 BAH 

Here he was reinforced from Ghazni and the city fell into his hands. 
Remaining there six months, he proceeded to Meerut, which he occupied 
with resistance, and passed on to Kanauj, the Rae of which place receiv- 
ed him as a friend, but passed him on to his neighbours. 

After ten days' march the invader reached Satrikh, which is said at 
that time to have been the most flourishing of all 
e reao es a n . ^j^^ towns and cities of India. It was moreover a 
sacred shrine of the Hindus and abounded in good hunting grounds. 
This place has been identified with Satrikh in the Bara Banki district, 
but its description tallies better with Ajodhya, the old name of which is 
Vesakh.* Here Salar Masaud fixed his head-quarters, sending out his 
lieutenants on every side to proselytize and conquer the country. 

Sayyad Saif-ud-din and Mian Eajjab, the kotwal of the army, were 

despatched against Bahraich, Mir Sayyad Aziz-ud-din 

^A detachment sent -^q^ celebrated as the Lai Pir, against Gopamau, and 

Malik Fazl against Benares, Bahraich at this time 

seems to have been a desolate country, for supplies had to be procured by 

Salar Masaud from Saddahur (now Siddhaur) and Amethi, two towns 

between Satrikh and Karra Manikpur, and conveyed to the division of 

the army in Bahraich. 

A confederation of the Raes of Bahraich and the other northern districts 
The north and south and of the Princes of Karra Manikpur in the south 
confederacy. now threatened Masaud, but Salar Sahu, his father,, 

who had joined him at Satrikh, marched against the latter chiefs and 
overthrew them. In Bahraich, however, the pagans were pressing the 
army of Islam very hard, and Masaud determined to go and retrieve the 
day. 

The date of arrival in Bahraich is fixed as the I7th of Shaban in the 
Sayyad Salstr arrives year 423 H. = 1033 A. D. In the neighbourhood 
in Bahraich. of Bahraich there was a tank with an image of the 

sun on its banks, a shrine sacred in the eyes of all the unbelievers, and 
Masaud, whenever he passed by it, was wont to say that he would like to 
have the spot for a dwelling place, when he would, if it pleased God, 
through the power of the spiritual sun, destroy the worship of the 
material. 

The E.aes of the country who were at first daunted by the presence of 
The battles on the *^® joung warrior gradually took heart and assem- 
Koaala and final defeat bled in force on the banks of the river Kosala. This 
of Sayyad Salar. -^^as probably tbe Kauriala, in the direction of which 

stream the Hindus would naturally retire before 
a foe advancing from Ajodhya. Masaud defeated them there, time 
after time, until the arrival of Sohar-Deo or Suhel-Deo in the unbelievers' 
camp turned the tide of battle in their favour. They now closed in on 
Masaud's quarters at Bahraich, and on the 18th day of the month Rajjab- 
ul-Murajjab in the year 424 H. = 1034 A. D., the Pnnce of Martyrs fell 

* Satrikh in the Bara Banki district is undoubtedly the correct locality ; there is a shrine in 
honour of the martyr and his father who died here, and a great annual gathering still celft' 
brates the event. 



BAH 113 

with all his followers. The soldier saint was buried by some of his ser- 
vants in the spot which he, had chosen for his resting place, and tradition 
avers that his head rests on the image of that sun the worship of which 
he gave his life to overthrow. 

There can be but little doubt but that the expedition, an abstract of the 
This invasion con- account of which has just been given, was the pre- 
nected with the expe- Cursor, Or perhaps a part, of the invasion undertaken 
^tion of Ahmad Nial- in the Same year, 1033 A. D., by Abmad Nialtagin, a 
° '. reputed son of Mahmud's. This general, who was 

appointed Governor of Hindustan, is related. to have "exacted ample tri- 
bute from the Th^kurs/' Crossing the river Ganges and marching down 
its left bank, he penetrated as far as Benares and returned to Lahore 
laden with spoil. 

There is a remarkable coincidence in the causes 'of the two expeditions 
^. , . as related in the "Mira-at-i-Masaudi" and the "Tarikh- 

inaTtVlTnvalTr us-Subuktagin" Written by Abul Fazl Baihaqi in 
the year 10.59 A. D., vtz., the enmity and jealousy of 
the chief minister of Mahmud Khwaja Hiisan, who naturally was quite 
willing to see his rivals despatched on such dangerous missions. Again, 
Sayyad Salar Masaud was the nephew of Mahmud, and Ahmad Nial- 
tagin was his reputed son ; both were in high favour with the Sultan, and 
it would therefore be not at all surprising to find them making a joint 
expedition into Hindustan, to be free from their common enemy the Khwaja. 

It is difficult, however, to explain why Baihaqi makes no mention of 

Salar Masaud. Perhaps the reason may be found in 

WrsuLncrregarding *^® reluctance of the historian to record anything so 

Salar Masaud. disastrous as the results of this expedition, but in all 

the six copies of the " Tarikh-us-Subuktagin" that 

exist, a vacuum occurs immediately after the account of Ahmad Nialtagin's 

raid to Benares, and it is therefore not unreasonable to conclude that the 

last pages would have given us some account of Masaud's crusade. 

, Section V. — Subsequent Muhammadan invasions and settlements. 

Whatever may have been the immediate effect of these invasions, it is 
clear that they did not give the Muhammadan power 
obfa^eZnttetunt^ry^ «f ^^^ ^««t any permanent hold on the country, and 
it IS not until the middle of the thirteenth century 
that anything like a government was established in the trans-Gogra dis- 
tricts. 

In ,1226 A. D. Malik ISTasir-ud-din Miihammad, elder son of Sultan 
Sbams-ud-dm Altamsh, who was appointed to Oudh, 
throws tlfeBhaT''" " overthrew the accursed Bartuh (Bhars) under whose 
hands and swords more than one hundred and twenty 
thousand Musalmans had received martyrdom ; he overthrew the rebel 
infidels of Oudh and brought a body of them into submission,"* and it 
was doubtless under his auspices that the first colonies of Muhammadans 
settled in the south of the Bahraich district. 



* Tabaqat-i-Nasiri by Manhaj-ua-Siraj. 

H 



114, BAH 

These were the Ansaris who, driving out the Bhars, settled themselves 

in Pachamba, Hisampur, and Tawakkulpur, occupying 

The Ansans. ^^^ bringing under cultivation some two hundred and 

fifty villages. In the last mentioned village they are said to have built 

an imposing fortress with fifty-two towers. 

It was they who gave the name of Hisampur to the old town of Pureni, 
Hisampur ^^^ capital of the Bhar Chief Pliran Mai, who is said to 

have been overthrown by Hisam-ul-Haq, one of the 
comrades and co-martyrs of Sayyad Salar. It is, however, not unlikely 
that the name was bestowed with a more interested motive than the wish 
to show respect and honour to the dead, and that it was a compliment to 
Malik Hisam-ud-din Tughlaq, who was Governor of Oudh about the year 
1240 A. D.* 

In 1242 A. D. Sultan Alla-ud-din, son of Rukn-ud-din, came to the 
throne, and one of his first acts was to release from 
Nasir-ud-c'i i, brother prison his uncle Nasir-ud-din, brother and namesake 
mtrSSr.isJd: Of the destroyer Of the Bhars, and to appoint him to 
Governor of Bahraioh. the charge of the district of Bdhraich. Nasir-ud-din 
came with his mother, and "in that country and in the 
hills he fought many battles against the infidels. Under his kind rule 
Bahraich attained great prosperity. The fame of victorious and success- 
ful government spread in aU parts of Hindustan, so that the princes and 
nobles who were disgusted with the rule of Alla-ud-din sent letters to him 
pressing him to come to the capital."-!- He started from Bahraich in a 
litter disguised as a woman, and ascended the throne immediately on 
his arrival at Delhi. This was in 1246 A. D. 

The new Sultan does not seem to have forgotten old friends, for we find 

him summoning one Jalal-ud-din from Oudh to take 

raich*"^ " ' ' ^ ' up the office of qazi of the State, and soon afterwards 

in 1853 Shams-ud-din of Bahraich was honoilred in 

the same way. 

It is clear that Bahraich was a distinct government from that of Oudh 
at this time, for Imam-ud-din Rihan, the disgraced 
Bahraioli a ^epar^e minister of Sultan Nasir-ud-din, was relegated to his 
at tWa time. ™™ ^ ^®^ °^ Bahraich in 12.54 A. D., at the same time that 
the Government of Oudh was held by one Katlagh 
Khan. Taking advantage of his distance from the court, the ex-minister 
employed his time of exile in hatching plots, in consequence of which his 
fief was bestowed on Malik Taj -ud-din Sanjar, who, though kept in du- 
rance for some time by Imam-ud-din's friend Katlagh Khan at Ajodhya, - 
at length managed to escape across the Sarju and make good his position 
in Bahraich. 

Section VI. — The district in the thio'teenth century. 
It is probable that up to this time the jungle held its own as far south and 
The aspect of country west as the edge of that belt of high ground which has 
in 1250 A. D. fceen described as running through the district in a 

l ui . : , —^ 

* Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. 
t Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. 



BAH 115 

south-easterly direction (see geographical description), and that the plain of 
the Sarju and the Gogra alone yielded anything to the inciperial treasury. 

On the edge of this same tabk-land and on the banks of the Sarju, about 
Dugaon. ^^^^ miles west of the present town of Ndnpara, 

there exist the remains of a very large and most 
substantially built town. The houses (for the ruins appear to be merely 
those of private dwellings and not of temples or tombs) are built of burnt 
bricks, and it must have been a place of considerable importance. It bears 
the name among the country folk of Dugaon, and ^ is unmistakeably the 
same city as that mentioned by Abul Fazl in the Ain-i-Akbari as a com- 
mercial centre of mark, the trade with the hill people being considerable. 
Here also there was a mint for copper pice. As we are told that Nasir- 
ud-din during his brilliant administration of this district made his power 
felt even in the hills and rendered Bahraich prosperous in the extreme, it 
is not improbable that it was under his auspices that this town was estab- 
lished. By the end of Shah Jah^n's reign it was deserted, the legend 
being that a saintly mendicant in a fit of ill -humour cursed it so effectually 
as to cause the inhabitants to leave it en masse. The tomb of the spite- 
ful old man Shah Sdjan is now the resort of pious pilgrims, and a large 
fair is held on the site of the old town. 

For the best part of a century after Nasir-tid -din's reign there appears 

The district from 1250 to be nothing to record regarding this district. The 
to I3i0 A. D. Ansaris were gradually extending their hold over the 

country in His^mpur, but the Bhars were evidently not yet crushed, for as 
late as the end of the fourteenth century Bhar chieftains held sway both in 
this pargana and in Fakhrpur. In the year 1340 A. D. the first of the series 
of grants by the reigning power was made from which sprang the great- 
ness of most of the taluqdars' houses in this district. 

It was in this year that the Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq paid a visit to 

Muhammad Tugh- the tomb of Sayyad Salar at Bahraich, and it was doubt- 
laq's visit to Bahraich. less in connection with this visit that the Sayyads of 
Jarwal first obtained a footing in Hisampur. 

Having come so far in this historical sketch, it will be well now to follow 
it up as much as possible estate by estate, giving the 

The sketch conti- account of each of the settlements during the fo.ur- 
nued by estates. teeuth and fifteenth centuries on which the subsequent 

history of the district turns. 

Section "VH — TTie Muliammadan and Rajput settlement, — 1340 A. D. 

1450 A. D. 

The ancestors of the Sayyads of Jarwal came from Persia, Sayyad Abii 
f T Talib having to fly before Changez Khan with all his 
wa?thetrorigiu and family to Khurdsan. Finding himself still unsafe 
early history. there he came on to Lahore, where he died. His son 

Aziz-ud-din in the year 1286 A. D. came on to Delhi, and AlM-ud-din, his 
son came into Oudh and took up his quarters at Bado Sarai in the Bara 
Banki district : JaMl-ud-din and Jamal-ud-din, Alld-ud-d(n's sons, succeeded 
their father, and Jalal-ud-din falling under the unmerited displeasure of 
the Sultan Ghayas-ud-din, paid the forfeit with his life. 

II 2 



116 BAH 

This circumstance established the fortune of the family, for the king 
Oh ' d-dm be- relenting when it was too late, endeavoured to make 
stows a muafi grant of amends by bestowing on the brother Jamal-ud-dm 25,000 
25,000 bighas on Ja- bighas of land, revenue-free, in Barhauli and the same 
ma-ud-din in Jarauli. ^^^ -^ Jarauli on the Bahraich side of the Gogra. The 
grantee found no difficulty in gaining possession of the estate on the south 
bank, but he found it no easy task to establish himself in Jarauli. A Bhar 
E,aja,Ghhatarsal by nameheldthe villages, and itwasnot until Sayyad Zikria, 
son of Jamal-ud-din, obtained possession of the fort of Jarauli by stratagem 
that the Muhammadans succeeded in making good their position. 

This is said to have happened in the year 1340 A. D., the year of Muham- 
Date of thia settle- mad Tughlaq's progress through the country to 
ment. Bahraich, wherein doubtless lies the true explanation 

of the successful occupation. 

The next reign, that of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, was celebrated for several 
Firoz Shat's march expeditions to Bengal, and from the account given in 
tbrough Bahraich. the Tarikh Firoz Shahi of Shams-i-Siraj Afif of the 

first of these campaigns, there can be no doubt but that the Sultan's line 
of march lay through this district. He is said to have marched towards 
Bengal to a point on the Kosi near its junction with the Ganges, but 
finding the passage difficult, he marched for 200 miles up the Kosi and 
crossed it below Chumparan at the place where the river issues from the 
mountains. Chumparun is situated in the hills to the south-east of 
Almora, and it may safely be concluded that the Kosi here mentioned is 
the same as the Kosala of the author of the Mira-at-i-Masaudi which has 
above been identified with the Kauridla. The point of crossing was pro- 
bably near the Shisha Pani, and the description of the torrent of water 
which " carried down stones of five hundred maunds' weight like straws" 
gives a good idea of the rapidity of the Kauriala as it escapes from the 
hills. Continuing his march eastward by Rachap (Rajhat), Khorasa 
(Khurassur in Gonda), Gorakhpur and Tirhoot, the Sultan arrived in Ben- 
gal, where we need not follow him. 

Accompanying him probably on this march was a young Risalddr by 
BaridrSahhiaRisal- name Bariar Sah, the younger of six sons of a Janwar 
^^^- chief whose home was in the fort of Bomgarh near 

Neemuch. The young soldier had joined the imperial army to seek his 
fortune, and it is not difficult to imagine him coveting a grant in the wild 
tracts of Bahraich through which he passed. 

In the year 1374 A._D. the Sultan again visited Bahraich, but this time 
Kroz Shah's visit to with the pious object of paying his devotions at the 
the shrine of Sayyad shrine of the martyr prince, and once again the Risdl- 
Salar in 1374 A. D. (J^j-^ accompanied him. The eastern portion of the dis- 
trict was at this period infested with lawless marauders, and Firoz Shah, 
looking about for some one to rid him and the country of the gang, select- 
ed the Janwar soldier and chained him with the duty. So speedily and 
completely did he accomplish his task that his master made over to him 
the whole of that tract of country in which he had restored order. 



BAH 117 

The Risalddr took up his position at Ikauna, then called Kh^npur MahSda 

Bariar Sah estab- ^^^ became the founder of that great family -which 

liskes himself at Ikau- has provided in the course of seventeen generations 

"*• lords for so many estates in this and the neighbouring 

districts of Gonda. 

It was about forty years aftej: the Janwar settlement was effected, viz.. 
The Raikwars mi- ^-bout 1414 A. D., during the anarchy that prevailed 
grate from Kashmir throughout Hindustan on the decline of the house of 
and settle in E&una- Tughlaq, that two brotbers, Partab Sdh and Dtinde 
Sah, Surajbans Rajputs, migrated from Raika in Kash- 
mir and finally took up their abode at Ramnagar in the Bara Banki district. 

Partdb Sdh died, and his two sons Saldeo and Baldeo made away with 
their uncle and sought service with the Bhar raja of 
to^Bamhnauti ^"'°''2^* Ramnagar. The Raja of Bamhnauti on the Bahraich 
side of the river, by name Dipchand, also a Bhar chief 
during a visit to his relative of Ramnagar was struck with Saldeo's capa- 
city for business, and on his return home brought him back with him to 
Bamhnauti. The Raikwdr (the emigrant from Kashmir had taken a tribal 
name from their native village) served his master so well and increased 
the revenues of the estate so satisfactorily that the raja in his pride took 
to resisting the authorities. Saldeo took advantage of the opportunity, 
slew his master, and possessed himself of the estate. This was probably 
about 1450 A. D. 

From that day to this, the Raikwars have been masters of the western 
portion of the district. The three great estates of 
The Raikwara estab- Baundi, Rahwa and Ohahlari, besides the 52 villages 
Ush^themselves in the ^^0^^ ^^ tj^e Kaikwari Muhals which are now includ- 
ed in the northern portion of the Hisampur pargana, 
were all held by descendants of the enterprising Saldeo. 

Section VIIT. — The district at the end of the fifteenth century. 

The district at the end At the end of the fifteenth century then we find 
of the fifteenth century. the district occupied much as follows : — 

The Ansaris and the Sayyads in the south (Hisampur), the Janwdrs in 
the east (Ikauna), and the Raikwars in the west (Fakhrpur) held the southern 
portion of the district, while the northern parganas were in all probability 
quite independent under the sway of hill chieftains. 

Bahlol Lodi had re-established the Muhammadan empire and extended its 
territory once more to the foot of the Himalayas dur- 
Bahlol Lodi and his ing his reign of thirty-eight years from 1450 A. D. 
nephew the Black Mouu- ^.^ ^^33^ ^^^ -^ ^^^ under the government of his 
^^^' nephew Muhammad, famous by the name of " Kala- 

pahar" or "Black Mountain," who was appointed by his uncle in 1478 A. D. 
to the fief of Bahraich, that these northern districts were reminded once 
more of the days of Nasir-ud-din, but it is unlikely that the operations of 
his troops in this part were anything more than mere raids or that any 
permanent hold was obtained over the country. 



118 



BAH 



ence from these revenue 
statements. 



As long as this energetic soldier held the district, it is possible that the 
hill chiefs acknowledged the imperial sway, and it 

ParganasEajhatjSul- appears from some revenue accounts of 1488 A. D. 
D^'dtm ^'"''^"' '''"^ that in that year the Tarai pargana of Rajhat (B^nki) 

^^ ™" was held by Raja Sangram Sah of Sali^na in the 

hills who nominally paid a revenue of Rs. 64,921 for it. At the same time 
Sultanpur Kundri (Jamddn and Malhipur) is recorded as paying Rs. 25,983, 
and Sujauli (Dharmanpur and Padampur Mahalwara) Rs. 99,413. Dangdtin 
(Bhinga) vfas held by a hill raja named Udatt Singh at a jama of Rs. 81,325. 

These statements of revenue, however, were probably mere boasts, and it 
may safely be assumed that such a remote part of the 
The legitimate infer- empire as this paid nothing to the imperial treasury 
save what was levied by the troops that subjugated it. 
The record of the nominal payment, however, serves to 
prove that these northern parganas were at this time at any rate partly 
under cultivation. It seems to have been the high belt of country, des- 
cribed in paras. 6 and 7 of the geographical section, and which forms the 
watershed of the two rivers the Gogra and Rapti, which longest resisted 
reclamation, where the jungle till within the last eighty years has defied the 
axe. The low alluvial lands of Jamdan and Malhipur seem to have been 
under the plough from an early date, and the villages belonging to Qasba 
Dugaon were doubtless those lying in the fertile basin of the Sarju. 

Section IX.—Akbar 1556-1605 A. D. 

In the time of Akbar, this district, together with a portion of the Tarai, 
. was formed into the administrative division called 

SarkarBahraioli. " Sarkar Bahraich." The following form shows the 

area and assessment of the eleven muhals or parganas as assessed by Todar 
Mai and recorded in the Ain-i-Akbari. The areas recorded are those of 
cultivation only, and are shown in pakka bighas. The revenue is shown 
in dams (40 dam = one rupee.) 



M .. p. . 


Forts. 


Area in 


Revenue in 


ReTenue-free 


No. of 


No. of 






litighas. 


dims. 


in dims. 


horsemen. 


footmen. 


Bahraicli 


Masonry on 
bank of 
Sarju. 


619,226 


9,134,141 


402,111 


600 


4,500, 


Behra 




926 


37,135 








Hisampur 


Masonry ... 


107,400 


4,747,035 


1,601 




500 


Dangdoi 




80,436 


440,562 




900 


2,000 


Kajhat 




4,064 


166,880 






1,000 


Bajauli 




124,710 


877,007 








Sultanpur 




20,141 


166,000 




... 


700 


Pakhrpur 


Ditto ... 


101,720 


3,157,876 


56,765 






Firozabad 


Masonry ... 


108,301 


1,933,079 


4,107 


200 


700 


Qila Nawagarh 




470,301 


2,104,858 


50 




1,000 


Khurasa 


Masonry ... 


27,489 


1,315,051 


2,628 


100 


1,000 


Total 


1,664,714 


24,079,624 


467,212 


1,850 


11,400 



BAH 



119 



The modern parganas 
corresponding with 
muMls of tlie Alu-i- 
Akbari. 



The muhals •which are given in the above form 
correspond with the parganas as at present defined as 
follows : — 



Old name of mu- 
h^liiithe Alu' 
i-Akbari. 



Bahraioh .. ■ 



Behra ...- 



Hisampur 



Dangdoi . 



Sultanpur - 
I 

r 
I 

Eajhat ...■ 



Bajauli(see 
Sujauli . 



Present name o£ pargana, estate, Ac, corresponding with 
muhill ill column I. 



I. — All Baliraiijli pargana 

IT. — All Ikauua pargana except the trans-Eapti portion, 
1782., Durgapiir Ilaqa 
III.— All Nanpara, except the Mallapur villages (63 villages) 

and 70 villages in the north-west comer 
IV. — All Charda, except the Duab between the Bhakla and 
the Eapti 

V. — Bhinga, the portion which lies between the Bhakla 
and the Eapti ... 
I. — Bhinga pargana, (a portion) 65 villages, viz., those 
lying between Rapti and Oudh Forest, Sections 
VI and VII ... 

II.— Naipal, 77 villagea, held tUl 1816 A. D. by Eaja Ddng 
of Naipal ; they were ceded to the British by the 
Naipal Sovereign by the Treaty of Sigauli and were 
made over to the Oudh Government. The raja 
of Tulsipur held them till annexation under the 
name of Ilaqa Banki. They have now been again 
made over to the Naipal Grovernment... 
I. — Hisampur pargana, except the Raikwari muhals now 
included in it to the north .. 

Note. — The remainder of old Hisdmpur is now included 
in the Gonda district 
I. — Bhinga pargana, a portion, 78 villages, i)iz., those 
lying in the Tarai between the forest and the 
Tulaipur pargana 

II. — Tulsipur pargana, 83 villages, viz., lying between 
Bhinga and the hills, and lately excluded from 
Gonda district and included in Bahraioh 
III. — Ikanna pargana, a portion, viz., the trans-Eapti por- 
tion known as the Durgapur ilaqa 
I. — Charda pargana, 70 villages, known as Ilaqas Jam- 
dan, Jdmnahan, and Malhipur, included in the 
Duab between the Bhakla and the Rapti 

II. — Naipal, 21 villages, held by the hill r^ja of Saliana 
up to 1816 A. D., when they were ceded to the 
British and made over to the Oudh Government. 
They were held by the Tulaipur raja in his Banki 
estate, and were restored to the Naipal Govern- 
ment in 1860 
L — Naipil. The whole of Eajhat with the exception of 
70 villages is now included in Naipal. It was held 
prior to 1816 by Eaja Kansa Sah of Saliana, was 
ceded to the British by the treaty of Sigauli, and 
has been held since by the Tulsipur raja in his 
Banki estate. It has now been restored to Naipal... 

II. — Nanpara pargana, 70 villagea. These lie in the ex- 
treme north-west comer of the Nanpara pargana ... 
I. — Dharmanpur pargana, comprising the present ilaqas, 
Bharthapur, Amba, Tehri, Dharmanpur, and Man- 
gauria 

II. — Naipal, 72 villages, held by Eana Kulraj Singh up 
to the mutiny under the name of the Padampur- 
Mahalwara estate, ceded to the British in 1816 and 
again restored to Naipal in 1860 



Name of district or 
territory in whicii 
the muMl is now 
included. 



Bahraioh. 



, Bahraich and 

Naipal. 



J 

f Bahraioh and 
( Gonda. 



Bahraich. 



Bahraich and 
Naipal. 



NaipEil and 
Bahraich. 



Bahraioh and 
Naipal. 



120 



BiAH 



Old name of 
mulial in the 
AIn-i-Akbari, 



Present name of pargana, estate, &c., carrespbnding with 
muhal in column I. 



Name of district or 
tenitory in which 
the muhdl is now 
included. ■ 



■( 
I 

Faklirpur ■{ 



L 



Qila Nawa- 
garli 



Firozabad 



Khurasa ... 



I.— Faklirpur pargana, except the north-western portion 

comprising the ^hahlaji and part of the Baundi 

estates 

II. — Hisampur pargana, the Eaikwari muhals, viz., the 

northern section of the present Hisampur pargana . . , 

III. — Pargana Firozabad in Kteri... 

L — Fakhrpur pargana, a portion, viz., that comprising 

the (Jhahlari and a part of the Baiindi estates 

IJ. — Nanpara pargana, a portion, viz., that comprising the 

Mallapitr villages 
Note. — The remainder of old Firozabad is in the Kheri 

district. 
All in the Gonda district 



V Bahraich. 

Kheri and 
Sitapur. 



Bahraich & 
Kheri. 



Gonda. 



that 

Muhammadan hold on 
the north was Very- 
weak. 



From this identification of muhals and from a glance at the small aniount 
Evidence that the ^^ revenue leviable from the northern Tarai parganas, 
Rajhat, and Behra, it is clear that even under Akbar's 
rule the Muhammadan sway was almost nominal in 
these remote districts. In Rajhat, too apparently, a 
force of 1,000 footmen had to be maintained to keep possession even of 
the few thousand bighas that did pay revenue to the Delhi Government, 
while in D^ngdoi, the Tarai pargana to the east, a still larger force of 
2,000 footmen and 900 horse had to be maintained to keep the hill chief- 
tains in check. 

Section X. — The Raihwdrs. 

It was in the time of Akbar that the Raikwar Harhardeo, fourth in des- 
, cent from Saldeo of Bamhnauti, who had been sum- 
Rdp Harhardeo s j^^^g^j ^q ^.^^j^ ^ explain a breach of good manners 
in levying toll from one of the princesses as she 
passed through his estate on a pilgrimage to Sayyad Salar's shrine, ren- 
dered such assistance to the Sultan in the expedition organised by him 
against I'dgar, the rebellious Governor of Kashmir, that he obtained the 
grant of the zamindari of nine parganas or portion of parganas as follows : 
Fakhrpur, Hisampur, half Firozabad, Rajpur (Chahlari), Bansura (in Sita- 
pur), Seota (in Sitapur), Sailuk (Bhitauli), Garh (in Kheri), Bamhnauti 
(Baundi), but this grant does not appear to have consisted of anything 
more than a certain rent charge of the land, and possession did not neces- 
sarily accompany it. 

Harhardeo returned about 1590 Ai D. to his home to find his son Jitdeo 
seated on the gadi, the Raikw^rs having despaired 
th?HX°uril£."'' Of the return of their chief. The father refused to 
oust his son, and retirmg to Tappa Baunraha which 
was owned by a Brahman, he married his daughter, an only child, and 
founded the -Harharpur iMO[^ of fifty-two villages still owned by his 
descendants, but now split up into no less than fourteen distinct muhals. 



BAH 



121 



About the year 1600 A. D. the Baundi or Bamhnauti estate was split 
separation of ^^^'^ ^^O' Parasram Singh, the elder son of JItdeo, 



The _.^ _. . 

the Eahwa and taking fths of it and his brother Gajpat fths, to which 

B^^" f'^°"^B ^di"^ ^® ^^^® ^^^ name of Rahwa, and about thirty years 
later a third branch estate was founded by Dharm- 
dhir Singh, grandson of Parasram, who took the pargana of Rajpur and 
set up for himself in Chahlari. It was at this time that the " Haq Chaha- 
rum " in five out of the nine parganas granted to Harhardeo was resumed, 
viz., in Fakhrpur, Hisampur, half Firozabad, Bansura, and Sailuk. 

After the division of the original estate above noted, the three ilaqas. 
The Katha estate Baundi, Rahwa, and Chahldri, suffered no more 

disruptions except in one instance in the Rahwa 
family, one of the younger sons of which, a grandson of Gajpat, turned 
Musalman, and with Delhi Court influence managed to set up for himself 
with twenty villages (the Katha estate). These were, however, afterwards 
absorbed into the Rahwa ilaqa. The genealogical table of the family is 
annexed. 

Pedigree of the Raikwdr family, shoxoing the three main branches, 
Baundi, Rahwa, and Chahldri. 



PartSb Sah _ 



from Ralka in Kashmir 



_DtindeSah 



S^ldeo (Bamhnauti) 

I 
Lakhandeo, 

Bharmdeo. 

I 
Harhardeo. 



Bdldeo (Rdmnagai). 



by 2ud Trite 



Jitdeo 



SangrAm (Tappa Baunraha, 52 villages, now called 
Harharpur, Haikwari muh^ls. 



Parasram Singh (-Iths of the iliqa) Baundi. 



Mdn Singh. 



Gajpat Singh (^hs of il4qa) Rahwa. 



Harnar^tiB Singh (16 villages in Bhaydi, 
ancestor of Hanwant and Kaghblr of 
Marauncha). 



Taj Singh. 
I 



Bubal Singh. 



Dharmdhir Singh, (ChahUri). 



I 



Bdj Singh. Nasir Singh aliag 
Isliim Singh, Katha 
" I j iliqa. 



Nasilb Singh. 



Sujfo Singh (Garh 
naqa). 



Bambhar Singh died childless ; his 
widow adopted younger son of 
Eimmat Singh Chahldri. 
I 
Madan Singh. 

Daswant Singh (killed at Bdmnagar). 

Succeeded by a bastard son Shitipar- 
shdd Singh. 



(Matda Singh (died Hiromat Pah^r Singh, 
childless). Singh. | 



Debi Singh. 

I 
Udatt Singh. 

Pirthi Singh. 

Ranjlt Singh, 

Baridr Singh. 



Madan Singh adopted Niwdz Singh, 
by the widow of | 

Sambhar Singh of Gend Singh. 
Bamhnauti. | 

Parshdd Singh. 

Bdz Singh- 



■I 
Jaskaran Singh, 



I 



I 



Dhaukal Singh. 
Jaewant Singh, 



MindMta Singh, Bahidur Singh Pirthtpiil Singh. Sripal Singh, 

I (Bakaln iliqa) I I 

I Bhayi i. _^___::^;i__ ' 

Hardatt (died at -Shiiidarshan Singh Balbhiddar Singh, rebell ChHatatpdl Eaghitodth Singh . 
Port Blair). (Bukain ildqa, I , , , ^mh I 

Bhayai). Dngbjjai Singh, dead; dead. 



122 BAH 

Section XI. — The Janwdrs. 

In the meantime the Janwars in Ikauna were fast extending their 
possessions. Mddho Singh, seventh in descent from 
The separation of Bariar Sah, had retired to Balrampur, leaving his 
branch ^''■^'*™P"'' brother Ganesh Singh in the ancestral village. Whether 
Madho was the elder or the younger brother is naturally- 
disputed, now that the branch house has eclipsed the glory of the main 
line. 

Ganesh Singh's son Lachhminarain is reputed to have been a man of 
M h' Sin h strong hand with a lust of power and conquest, but it 

™^ ■ was Maha Singh who was the hero of the family. This 

noble was contemporary with Shah Jahan, and in 1627 A. D., obtained a 
farman from that emperor by which were granted to him a similar per- 
centage of the Government revenue under the name of " Haq-Chaudhari," 
as that granted to the Eaikwar Harhardeo. 

The extent of the grant was very large, the parganas Bahraich, Salona- 
bad, Sujauli, Raj hat, Sultanpur Kundri, Garh Qila Na- 
The extent of hia ^^^ Ddngdun Behra, together with Tappa Bihti in par- 
' gana Kurasar and Tappa Ramgarh Gauri in Gonda, 

being comprised in it. The percentage was Rs. 19-11 annas in theRs. 100 
from all revenue-paying villages and 4 annas per 1 Rupee and 6 sers per 
maund of grain, in all "aimma" (revenue-free) estates, besides the one- 
fourth of all rights in waters (jalkar), grazing and transit dues, &c. In 
short, a footing was given to the Janwars in the whole of the northern por- 
tion of this district. 

Maha Singh does not seem to have been slow to follow up the advantage 
TheCharda Gdii- ^^^^h this grant gave him. Already one Jagannath 
ganj, and Bhinga Singh of his family had migrated to the Charda ilaqa, 
off-shoots and the and now Maha Singh's own brother Rudr Singh went 
Bahraich birts. westward also and founded the Gujiganj estate (Jam- 

ddn and Malhipur ). It was probably before this that a cadet of the family 
crossed the river and took possession of the Bhinga ilaqa, and in Bahraich 
pargana, Maha Singh, evidently under the authority of that the farman 
gave him, gave birts to enterprising Brahmans and others, of deserted and 
jungle villages. He never, however, seems to have ever held any actual 
possession of Bahraich villages, and he was probably never able to make 
good his hold on any of the Tarai parganas except Dangdiin. 

In 1723 A, D. Partab Singh, younger brother of Chain Singh of Ikauna, 
grandson of Maha Singh, was deputed by the taluqdar, 
branch, ^^"^ his brother, to guard the border estate of Dubaha from 
the attacks of the Bisen raja of Gonda. This part of the 
Ikauna estate lay south of Ikauna, and was peculiarly exposed to attacks 
from this quarter. Partab Singh occupied the outpost and kept the raids 
off the estate ; but feeling himself strong enough, he at length set up for 
himself and founded the Manikapur estate, afterwards called the Gant^wal 
ilaqa, comprising in all about ninety-six villages. 



BAH 123 

Section XII. — The Northern parganas. 

While the Raikwdrs and the Janwars were thus spreading themselves 
The northern par- °^®^ west and east, the north was still held by the 
ganas during this hill chiefs and by the tribes of Banjaras, who, under 
P^"°*^- cover of the woods, penetrated far south. 

Shah Jahan at the beginning of his reign had conferred on Salona 
Begam, wife of his favourite child Prince Dara, 148 
a ona a . villages in what is now the Nanpara ilaqa, and had 

given the name of pargana Salonabad to the grant. The attacks of the 
Banjaras, however, prevented the occupation of the estate, and the jagir 
was abandoned by the lady, for in Maha Singh's farman pargana Salon- 
abad was one of those made over to that noble. 

In 1047 H. = 1637 A. D., Rasul Khan Togh, Pathan, a Ris^ldar in the 
service of Shah Jahan, was appointed keeper of the fort 
dnpara. ^^ Bahraich, and for the pay of his company of soldiers 

five villages of very doubtful value were assigned him in Pargana Salona- 
bad, These five hamlets were, however, destined to become the nucleus 
of one of the finest estates in Oudh, that of Nanpdra. The Risald^r lived 
at Kumaria in Baundi, and Rastil Khan and his son Jahan Khan are 
buried there. Muhammad Khan, the second in descent from Rasul Khan, 
was the first to settle in Nanpara, and it was his son Karam Khan who 
may be said to have founded the estate. The office of fort captain had 
probably been relinquished when Muhammad Khan left Bahraich, but 
the family still continued to be mansabdars and to hold their jagir some- 
what increased in extent. Karam Khan, however, exerted himself so 
successfully against the Banjaras that he gained among the country folk 
the title of rdja, and left his son Mustafa Khan an estate apart from his 
jagir, which was .sufficiently large to pay revenue to the amount of Rs. 6,000, 
the sum demanded from him by Major Hancock on the part of the Oudh 
Government. Refusing to pay, he was carried off to Lucknow, where he 
died in 1777 A. D. 

During this period Pargana Rajhat and half of Sujauli was held by the 
Hill Raja of Saliana, while Guman Singh of Jagan- 
clea^^"ease ^'°^^'^ nathpur, probably one of the Ikauna family, held 
nominally the remainder of Sujauli and a part of 
Sultanpur Kundri. That the jungle, however, was too much for Janw^r 
colonists is evident from a clearing lease deed given by Asif-ud-daula's 
orders to Himmat Singh of Piagpur in the year 1788 A. D. From this 
document it appears that out of 1,734 villages embracing the whole of the 
country comprised in what is now in Nanpara, Charda, Dharmanpur, and a 
portion of the Naipal Tarai 1,486 were entirely deserted and were leased to 
Himmat Singh for ten years at a progressively increasing jama, rising from 
Rs. 1,101 to 17,808. 

This same lease deed shows that in that year the Nanpara ilaqa con- 
sisted only of fifty-nine villages besides twenty-three villages jagir. 

With the last decade of the eighteenth century there set in an era of pro- 
gress for these northern tracts. Himmat Singh's exer- 
His success. ^j^^^g y^^j-Q jnainly directed to clearing the dense jungle 



124 BAH 

which covered the Charda pargana. His success was complete, and from 
that day to this the forest has been driven back steadily- to the edge of 
the high bank of the Bhakla. 

In Nanpara Sali Khan succeeded Mustafa Khan, and in 1790 A. D. left 

the estate to Madar Bakhsh, who in sixteen years so 

Madar Bakhsh of extended the cultivation that the revenue rose from 

On the death of Madar Bakhsh in 1807 A. D. his son Munawwar Ali 

Khan was a child of only a year old, and the estate 

The progress m mn- ^^ j^^j^j j^j^.^^ ^^^-j jg^g ^ j)^ ^j^^^^ Munawwar Ali 

Khan's mother filed her engagement for Rs. 1,10,000, 
a clear proof of the extension of cultivation and of the increasing prosper- 
ity of the ilaqa. 

When, however, Munawwar Ali Khan in 1827 A. D. took the manage- 
ment into his own hands, he succeeded in resisting the 
Munawar Ah Khan, demands of the chakladar so far as only to pay from 
Rs. 50,000 to 60,000. This taluqdar was a man of energy and great 
courage, but his contentions with Raja Darshan Singh must have thrown 
back the estate considerably. Raghubar Dayal, however, the scourge of the 
Fakhrpur and Bahraich parganas, did not venture to interfere with him. 

In 1847 A. D., in an iU-starred moment, he married one of the fashion- 
He marries the ^^1® ladies of the Lucknow Court, the daughter of 
daughter of Mehndi one Mehndi Quli Khan, brother of a Kumedan of a 
QuhKhan. Najib corps. From that day to this the estate has 

been cursed. 

The Raja returned to Nanpara with his bride and died* a few days after. 
The elder Rani succeeded to the management in the 
reu'oftheS '^''^'" ^^me of her infant son Jang Bahadur, and for two 
years ruled peaceably, but the younger wife contrived 
to obtain the support of the queen mother in Lucknow, and for five years 
an unceasing warfare raged throughout the ilaqa between the partisans 
of the two women. This disastrous contention found a prominent place 
in the report submitted by the Resident on the state of Oudh in 1855, 
and may be said to have been one of the chief instances of the misrule 
which then prevailed, which ultimately induced the Court of Directors 
to issue its fiat for annexation. 

Sir James Outram then wrote : " Nanp£ra, one of the richest districts in 
. , Oudh, with magnificent fertile plains intersected in all 

accLit ' "" ^ directions by rivers and streams, and yielding Munaw- 

war Ali Khan, the late Raja, upwards of three lakhs of 
rupees yearly, since the Raja's death is reduced to such a state that it does 
not now yield the king anything at all, though upwards of 1,20,000 rupees 
have been spent every year on the troops stationed there. The whole of 

* He was shot through the body by the accidental discharge of a gun, one barrel of which 
he was loading in a hauda, his only companion in which was, it ia said, a dancing girl, who 
tried in vain to staunch the blood.' 



BAH 125 

the villages are deserted and in ruins ; not a single chhappar (thatch) is to 
be seen for miles and miles. Kalian Khan, the elder rdni's karinda, about 
four years ago burnt down the whole of the villages in the district " 

At annexation the rightful heir was of course admitted to engage, and 
The Lucknow para- Mehndi Quli Khan and his party had to retire into 

^^*^^" seclusion. It was not long after re-occupation however 

before they again appeared in Ndnpdra. 

The natural capabilities of this ilaqa are such that it is impossible but 

that the estate should prosper, and within the last ten 

^The increasing pros- years the cultivation has been extended 84 percent. 

pen y o e es ate. ^fhile its revenue has been increased 120 per cent. It 

now numbers no less than 286 villages ( hadbast ). 

Shortly before Madar Bakhsh's death in 1807 A. D., the Gujiganj taluq- 
dar, Dariao Singh, the great grandson of Rudr Singh, 
The fate of the brother of Maha Singh of Ikauna, had by his re- 
"Jifian] qa. cusancy drawn down upon himself the strong hand of 

Sa^dat Ali Khan. He was attacked in 1806 A. D., by a confederacy of 
the neighbouring nobles, acting under orders from Lucknow, was crush- 
ed, andhis estate divided among the taluqdars of Nanpara (Madar Bakhsh), 
of Piagpur (Himmat Singh), and of Charda (Duniapat Singh). They first 
took the villages which lay on the eastern border of his estate about Dandi 
Kusan, the Pidgpur man got the southern portion of the du£b between the 
Bhakla and the Rapti, now called the Malhipur estate, and Duniapat Singh, 
(nephew of Himmat Singh), who had managed during the period that 
had elapsed since the date of the clearing lease to make himself independ- 
ent of his uncle, added to Charda the Jamdan villages which formed the 
northern portion of the same duab. 

The taluqdars of the north now yearly increased in importance, and, as 
The progress in the ^^^ growth of their estates_ was but little affected by 
north not materially the changes in the administration which materially 
afiected _ by the influenced the position and landed interests of the 
mi^ftTation ^^^ ^^' S'"®^* zamindars of the more southern portion of the 
district, it will be better to follow their annals to the 
close of the Nawabi. 

The Sujauli pargana at this time, i. e., prior to 1816 A. D., was almost 
The Sujauli (Dhar- entirely held by Banj^ras, who refused to pay tribute 

manpur) pargana. to any one. In Himmat Singh's patta, dated 1788 A. D. 

Aijun Singh, a Banjdra, is mentioned as holding 155 villages, while no 

less than 800 villages were deserted owing to the, raids of these very fierce 

foresjiers. 

Some years after this, the Dhaurahra Raja, on the other side of the river, 
managed to get a footing in the Bharthapur and Amba Tehri ilaqa which 
now form the northern portion of the Dharmdnpur pargana, and the Isd- 
nagar taluqdar, who was of the same house as the Dhaurahra man, ob- 
tained a similar hold on a tract in the south of the pargana, 'wrhich was all 
nominally included in one village, Mangauria. The centre .pprtion, of the 
pargana, however, was still held by the Banjaras. 



126 BAH 

But an event was impending which considerably strengthened the power 
The acquisition of of the Oudh Government in this part of its dominions, 
tlie Tarai parganas. and which rendered these nobles of the north more 
secure in their possessions than they could have been, while the Banjaras 
and the hill tribes were ready both in their front and on their flank to 
harass and even despoil them. This was the acquisition of the Tarai 
parganas. 

In 1814 A. D. the attitude assumed by the Naipdl Government towards 
The Naipal war and the Honourable Company became so aggressive that 
theceasion of the Tarai war became inevitable. It was declared on 1st No- 
vember 1814 and resulted in the treaty of Sigauli, which was signed on 4th 
March 1816. By the 3rd Article of this treaty the whole of the lowlands 
between the rivers Kali (Sarda) and Rapti, besides other territory to the 
east, was ceded to the Company, and on the 1st of May following, these 
lands, together with the district of Khairigarh, were made over by the 
British to the Oudh Government in satisfaction of a loan of a crore of rupees 
borrowed by the Company from the Nawab Wazir in the previous year. 

The Chauhan Raja of Tulsipur profited most by this arrangement and 
The grantees of the obtained the larger portion of the ceded territory, the 
ceded lands. former holder Raja Kansa S^h of Saliana in the hiUs 

being killed by the Tulsipur grantee in 1821, and his estate, called after- 
wards the Banki ilaqa, being occupied by the Chauhan. The western por- 
tion of the ceded lands have been held by the family of Rana Kulraj 
Singh, the taluqdar of Padampur Mahalw^ra. 

As a result of this annexation and cession may be noticed the suppres- 
The suppression of sion of the Banjaras in the Sujauli (Dharm^npur) 
the Banjaras a result pargana. The taluqdar of Isanagar was at this time a 
of the cession. minor, but his guardian and uncle Bakhtawar ren- 

dered such signal service to the Chakladar Hakim Mehndi in his expedi- 
tion against these turbulent gentry, that they were no longer able to hold 
out, and their villages were made over to the assisting noble. It was no 
doubt the cession of the Tarai to the north that encouraged the Hakim to 
sweep away these Banjaras once for all. 

The confiscation of their lands threw the whole of the pargana, barring 

The whole of the Su- ^ ^^^ villages on the east held by the Nanp^ra raja, 

jauli pargana thus into the possession of the Jangre families who held 

thrown into the continuously until annexation. , The pargana was 

TUkurs ^""^^ ^^T^'^ included in the Bahraich nizamat, the revenue 

being paid into the Khairabad treasury. 

Regarding the Charda ilaqa there is but little to record. From the time 

that Himmat Singh first obtained his clearing lease 

The Oharda Ilaqa. ^^^^i annexation, it was a period of stea,dy progress, 

the successive Taluqdars, Duniapat, Mahipat, and Jodh Singh, extending 

the cultivation by means of labour imported from the Gonda district. The 

pargana suffered much, however, during Raghubar Dayal's reign of terror. 

At annexation there was comparatively but little waste left to come 

Its condition at an- under the plough, and the estate which the Taluqdar 

nexation. Jodh Singh forfeited by his non-submission under the 



BAH 127 

term of the proclamation was an exceedingly valuable one. It has noW 
been bestowed on the maharaja of Balrdmpur, Sardar Hira Singh, and 
Nawab Niwazish Ali Khan. It numbered 428 villages (Nawabi). 

The portion of the Gujiganj ilaqa which the R^ja of Piagpur secured 

Tke Malliipur iHqa. for himself in 1805 A. D., has always been more or 

less under cultivation from very early times. It is 

still held by the Piagpur man under the name of the Malhipur iMqa, 23 

villages.* 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to record that after the suppression of the 
The restoration of sepoy rebellion, the English Government, to mark its 
the Tarai parganas to sense of the value of the support rendered to it by 
Naipal in 1860. the Naipal Darbar, restored the whole of the lowlands 

lying between the river Kali (Sarda) and the district of Gorakhpur which 
had belonged to the State of Naipal in 1815 and were ceded to the 
British Government by the treaty of Sigauli. The treaty effecting this 
•restoration was signed on 1st November 1860. The territory so ceded cor- 
responds" almost exactly with the old parganas of Rajhat and Behra and 
a portion of the Sujauli pargana. It comprised the Padampur, Mahalwara, 
and B^nki estates. 

To complete the sketch of the history of the northern portion of the dis- 
trict, it is necessary to pass eastward to the Bhinga 
The Bhmga pargana. pargana ; as in the case of the Tarai parganas lying 
farther west, the hill Rdjas held possession of a portion of this one also 
as late as 1669 A. D. The Rdja of Phalabang held 20 villages and a 
Raja of Jartili held 58 villages in Dangdun, which corresponds as nearly 
as possible with that part of Bhinga which is trans-R^pti and a portion 
of Tulsipur. 

These villages lay to the north of the pargana, but the Ikauna family 

At first held by mem- ^^'^ already established themselves in Durgapur on 

beis of the Ikauna the north side of the Rapti. A cadet of this family 

fanuly. also at this time held that portion of Bhinga which 

includes Bhinga proper and the Kakardari ilaqa. 

The Banjaras, however, were as troublesome here as in the north-west of 
the district, and the Janwd,r was fain to make over his 
Afterwar(fe trans- interest in the estate to a marriage connexion by name 
^"^^ " Bhawani Singh, a Bisen, a younger son of the Gonda 

Raja. This man succeeded well in repressing the Banjaras and estab- 
lished his position securely. He brought under his sway all that portion 
of the pargana which lies between the Rapti and the forest, as well as a 
considerable portion of the Tardi which lies to the north of the belt of 
forest, and in time he acquired a number of villages on the south bank of 
the river. There was probably no jungle on the lands, occupied in this 
way, nor does it seem that any attempt was ever made to clear the belt 
which runs parallel to the R^pti. 



* Concerning the connection between the Piagpur snd Charda families, see article "Charda.' 



128 BAH 

Up to 1816 A. D. the ilaqa was included in the j%ir of the Bahii 

The Bhiuga ilaqa in- Begam, and, like all the estates assigned to her, 

eluded in the Bahu felt the irnmeasurable advantage of being exempt 

Begam's jagir. from the interference of the grasping revenue 

officials. The present Raja is the seventh in descent from Bhaw^ni 

Singh. Some cannon were found concealed on his 

fisSted*^^^'*^*^""'"' father's estate, and as a penalty for this he forfeited 

half of his possession. The confiscated portion in the 

district is now held mainly by the Maharaja of Balrampur. 

Section XIII. — The Southern, pO'fgwnas during the Nawahi rule. 

The history of the southern portion of the district has been carried down 

to the commencement of the independent rule of the 

soJh:™aLldur! NawabWazirsofOudh. _ It is necessary now to sketch 

ing the Nawabi. the condition and administration of these parganas 

during the reigns of those princes. 

It has been mentioned that in 1723 A. D., a member of the Ikauna 

family established himself in an independent position 

Gondr, AlllariLn"^ i° t^^^ South of the Ikauna estate. His doing so was 

the signal for the commencement of a series of raids 

and counter-raids between the Raja of Gonda, Datt Singh, and the Bahraich 

Pathans who came to Partab Singh's assistance under Alawal Khan. 

This gentleman was a captain of free lances who had his head-quarters 
.Sit Bahraich, and who was ready to lend his merce- 
hisAfehana ^^ ^ naries to any one who could offer good pay or a fair 
chance of plunder. He , and his co-bandits were pro- 
bably descendants of some of those Afghans who swarmed in the Court of 
the Lodis and who were sent flying across Oudh by Humdyun, Babar's 
eldest son, in 1526 A. D. However this may be, they seem at this time to 
have been very, numerous and to have been almost masters of Bahraich. 
It is within the memory of residents of the town still living that at the 
Muharram festival, the tazia processions were attended by a troop of some 
300 of these Pathan musketeers, and to this day on the same occasion the 
kettledrums of Datt Singh of Gonda which were carried off in the fights 
above alluded to are paraded in triumph through the streets of Bahraich., 

At this time the assignments of lands in the district in revenue-free 
'- ■ -R \. • -i, service tenure were very extensive. In Pargana Bah- 

Jagira m Bahraich. ^^-^j^ ^^one no less than 858 villages were held by one 
\Nawab Mirza Muhammad Jahdn in jagfr, while another grantee, Sayyad 
Muzaffar Husen, held 60 villages, and 127 more were assigned in ordinary 
revenue-free tenure to others. 

The same system of jagirs was pursued by Saddat Khan's. successors down 

to A'sif-ud-daula. In 1750 A. D., Raja Newal Rae, 

The system continu- Safdarjang's minister, held 54 villages, and in 1756, 

rfA-Xd-dauK *"^' Mairam Ali Khan was .granted ,148 villages on this 

tenure, while Giiji Beg Khan and Sayyad Mir Was&a 

Khan held for niany years betw;een them, no_ less than 346 townships. 



BAH 129 

In 1775 A. D., however, Shuj^-ud-daula died, and his successor, A'sif- 
„, ud-daula, pressed by his pecuniary obligations to the 

Aaif-ud-daida. ^°"^ ^ British Government, resumed all these grants with the 
exception of 255 villages which that Nawah's minis- 
ter, Mir Afrid Ali Khan, managed to retain for himseE No sooner was 
Asif-ud-daula dead, than the minister had to relinquish his hold of this 
grant which was resumed and brought on the revenue roll. The nazim 
of the day, however, Rae Amar Singh, thought it a pity that such an estate 
should have no master, and therefore appropriated it. 

Since the accession of the reformer and economist Saadat Ali Khan no 

jagir has been granted in Bahraich, save the Bhinga 

No jagi'rs granted estate, which, under the engagement executed by that 

of Saadat Ali^Kiran""^ Nawab in favour of the Bah6 Begam, was, together 

with Gonda, made over to the lady in 1798 A. D. 

She held undisturbed possession of this jagir until her death in 1815 A. D. 

During the reigns of the first five Nawab Wazrrs of Oudh the great 

taluqdars of the district were held thoroughly well in 

The taluqdars' posi- check. They can hardly be said to have been masters 

Nawabs.''*^'^''* ^^^ i^ t^eir own estates. A tahsildar resided in each of 

the ilaqas, Ikauna, Gangwal, Piagpur, and Charda, 

and watched the Government interests ; the taluqdars having little to do 

with the management of their estates beyond assisting the tahsildar in his 

collections and enjoying the produce of a few villages set apart for their 

maintenance. 

The Raikwar taluqdars, however, seem to have been more favoured than 
The Eaikwar an ex- their feUow-nobles in the east of the district, and be- 
ception to this rule. tween the years 1796 and 1816, the Baundi Raja in- 
creased his estate from 67 villages to 261, obtaining 114 from the portion 
of pargana Firozabad which was transferred to the Bahraich nizamat in 
1796 A. D., and 80 villages from the crown or khalsa lands of Fakhrpur. 
The Rahwa man in the same way acquired 32 villages from the khdisa 
lands and 5 from Firozabad during the same period, his estate consisting 
of 42 villages only in 1796 A. D., and of 79 villages in 1816. 

Saadat Ali Khan had on his accession instituted the contract system. 
The contract system, under which the local governors were bound to pay 
mto the king's treasury a certain stated sum and were 
allowed to appropriate any excess collections. The system worked well 
enough while its author held the reins, and this district was peculiarly for- 
tunate in its nazim for this period. The ten years of the rule of Balki- 
das, qanungo, and his son Rae Amar Singh from 1807 to 1816, were the 
most prosperous of any that Bahraich has experienced under native go- 
vernment. It was not until the accession of Ghazi-ud-din Haidar that the 
disastrous effects of the farming system showed themselves. From the 
death of Saadat Ali Khan until the deposition of Wajid Ali Shah the dis- 
trict scarcely enjoyed a single year of rest or freedom from the merciless^ 
exactions of its grasping administrators. 



ISO B4-H 

Before entering on the history of the aggrandisement of the taluqdars 
™ p., , , and the absorption of the kh^lsa lands into their ilaqas, 

lagpur es a e. ^^^^^i were the result of the lax administration of the 
last four decades of the Nawabi rule, the rise of the Piagpur estate must 
be noticed. The founder of this ilaqa, Bhayya Himmat Singh, was fourth 
in descent from one Prag, a successful agriculturist who held some four or 
five villages under the protection of the Ikauna taluqdar, with whose fa- 
mily the Piagpur man claims to be connected. The Janwd.rs of Ikauna 
and Gangwal, however, disclaim any sort of relationship with him, and 
assert that he is of another tribe (gotr) of Janwdrs altogether. Himmat 
Singh was the same who has been noticed above as being the protegd of 
jfeif-ud-daula and the lessee of Charda. He is said to have held 30,000 
bighas of cultivation turned with his own ploughs, and to this day his 
"sir" is proverbial. The Charda clearing lease gave him in 1788 A. D., a 
start in the world, and he is reputed to have kept A'sif-ud-daula in remem- 
berance of him by sending him a princely present of supplies on the occa- 
sion of the marriage of one of the king's sons. His object was attained, 
and he acquired independent possession of a number of villages which 
formed the nucleus of the very fine estate which his descendant now 
possesses* 

It was, however, not until after the death of Saadat Ali Khan in 1814 

Its extension subae- -A- D-j that this estate, in common with those of all 

quent to the death the nobles in the district, entered on that period of 

of Saadat Ali Khan. extension which rendered them tempting objects of 

spoliation to successive n£zims. 

At this time the independent villages held under direct engagement 
Number of khalaa with the State and commonly called khalsa numbered 
villages in 1815 A, D. qq less than 1,295, as follows : — 

Parganna Bahraich 
,, Fakhrpur 

„ Hiaampur 



Vaiages. 


Kevemie. 


621 
209 
465 


1,55,835 
59,551 
80,497 



1,295 2,95,883 



The Bahraich khalsa lands, 621 villages, comprised the estate of 255 
Bahraich khalsa. villages which has been noticed above as forming the 

jagir of Mir Aiiid Ali Khan, afterwards held by Rae 
Amar Singh, the Tiparaha estate of 24 villages, and the Sfikha estate 
of 10 or 12 villages held by some Sayyads. The remainder consisted 
of small estates held some by the birtia grantees of Maha Singh of 
Ikauna, others by hereditary muqaddams (head-men) of the Kurmi agricul- 
tural class, whose position differed little, if at all, from that of zamindars, 
and others by nominees of the nd.zim of the day. 

* The Janwar family declares its descent from one Prag, who along with his brother Joga 
came from Balapur Tirha and got a village or two together. 

The estate was first called after its founder Pragpur, then it became Pi£gpur. This 
family now has commensality with that of Ikauna and Balrampur, although it i^ denied 
that they are of one blood. The fact is most curious if true, and it is to be expected that 
litigation will, some time if it has not already, shed light upon it, because we have here the 
formation of a clan by a kind of confarreation when there was no common ancestor. 



BAH 131 

The khalsa in Fakhrpur consisted almost entirely of the Raikw^ri co- 
Faklirpur khalsa. parcenary community mentioned already, comprising 
108 villages, and the Kanera and Butora iMqa of 28 
villages owned by the old qdnfingo family of Fakhrpur. 

In Hisimpur the villages held by the Sayyads, numbering no less than 
Hisfimpur khdlsa. ■^^'^' ^^^ ^^^ Amb^pur estate, 49 villages, held by a 

Shekh family of qdnlingos, composed for the most part 
the so-called khalsa, a word which does not necessarily imply any more 
exclusive right of property on the part of the State in these lands 
than existed in theory with regard to the estates held by the taluqdars. 

The word seems to have had its origin in the qanlingo's office, and to have 
Meaning of the word been Originally applied to all those estates the accounts 
" l^^a-" ofwhich were then kept distinct from those of the more 

influential taluqas. As will have been inferred from the above detail of the 
kh£lsa villages, many of the properties included under that heading were 
ancestral estates that had been held by their owners for quite as many gene- 
rations as the nobles themselves could count in their pedigrees. The Sayyads 
of Jarwal and the Raikwars of Harhaxpur are notable instances of this. 

R^e Amar Singh held the contract for Bahraich for two years after the 
Hakim Mehndi death of Saadat Ali Khan, but in 1817 Hakim Mehndi 

who already held the farm of the adjoining districts of 
Khairabad and Muhamdi, bid a lakh of rupees over the Lala's payment 
for the previous year and obtained the district. The account of the murder 
of the Rae by this man is given in Sleeman's Diary (Vol. I, page 50.) He 
held the contract for two years, when he was compelled to retire before 
the machinations of those whom he left behind him at Lucknow. Although 
a murderer, be was then justly regarded as a man of high character. 

Hadi Ali Khan alias Saif-ud-daula, succeeded, and he at once demanded 

an increase of two annas on the demand in Rae Amar 

Hadi Ali Khan com- Singh's time. He found it difficult to realize this 

mences the i?<=orpora. exorbitant demand, and as a means to this end com- 

tion of the khalsa lands i ,, , • ^- p j.i i i ^i i i • ,-, 

in the taluqdars' estate, menced that mcorporation 01 the khalsa lands in the 
taluqdars' estates under which, at the expiry of his 

term of office in 1827 A. D., a period of nine years, no less than 439 villages 

had been transferred to the nobles. 

Under his successors the same nefarious system was pursued, and between 
The extent of the ab- the years 1816 and year of annexation; 1856 A. D., 

sorption. 788 villages were thus absorbed in the great estates. 

The taluqdars who divided the spoils were as follows : — 

Baja of Ikauna 

„ Piagpur 

Baundi 

Kalhans Rajputs of the Chhedwara estate 

Baja of Hahwa 

„ Gangwal 

,, Nitnpara 
Taluqdar of Charda .,. 

„ Bhinga ... 

788 4jOS 

I 2 



Villages. 


Revenue. 


224 


1,03,047 


186 


95,041 


172 


77,270 


110 


73,543 


41 


28,397 


25 


18,846 


16 


9,402 


12 


3,668 


2 


570 


788 


4,09,784 



132 BAH 

while tlie Tiparaha taluqdar during the same period had increased his 
estate from 24 villages to 48. The revenue noted above is that at which 
the villages were included in the ilaqas, and which, it may be assumed, 
was the very utmost that they were capable of paying. No sooner had 
the taluqdar got a village fairly in his grasp than he scorned to pay any 
but a sum considerably less than that which had been realized from it 
hitherto. 

The 110 villages acquired by the Kalhans Eajputs of Guw^rich pargana 
in Gonda, and many of those absorbed by Baundi, were 
th^irruiQ^^^ estates ; crested from the old family of the Jarwal Sayyads, who 
in 1816 A. D. held no less than 247 villages, but who 
prior to annexation had lost all but 138. The story of their ruin goes that 
the Nazim Mir Hddi Ali Khan was anxious to obtain the daughter and 
heiress of the old Sayyad, the head of the principal branch of the family, 
in marriage for his son. The honour was declined, and the nazim resolved 
that the slight should, not go unpunished. The Jarwal estates had been 
under protection of Huzur Tahsil for some years, but before Mir Hddi left 
the district he got them brought under his own management and accom- 
plished his end. In the year 1827 A. D., 98 villages of the Hisampur 
khalsa were made over to the Kalhans and other Rajput taluqdars, nearly 
all of these being the property of the Sayyads. 

Mir Hadi held the district a second time a few years later, and notwith- 

' standing the course of action described above, his ad- 

f ^.^fd'+Tn; * ministration of the district contrasts well with that of 

aclmimstration. ir. 

some 01 his successors. He was the first who held the 
districts of Gonda and Bahraich united under one nizamat, and after the 
first few years of his holding office, he seems to have been able to entertain 
hopes of keeping his charge more or less permanently, and to have restrained 
himself from those more oppressive acts of extortion and violence which 
the contract system encouraged. 

Darshan Singh, the father of the late Maharaja Mdn ' Singh, succeeded 
Darstan Singli. ^^^ Hadi, and on the first occasion of his holding 

office he did no harm, but when in 1842 A. D., he 
resumed charge of the nizamat, he came commissioned to coerce the great 
landholders who, under the measures, of the last twenty-five years, had 
been gradually attaining a position from which it was difficult to dislodge 
them. It was during his two years' administration in 1842-43 that he 
made the fatal mistake of embroiling himself with the Naipal Government 
in his pursuit of the young E^ja ofBalrampurinto that Darbar's territory. 
On account of this, such pressure was brought to bear on the Court at 
Lucknow that Darshan Singh was banished, only, however, to be recalled 
two months after. He died soon after, leaving three sons, R^madhin, Ra- 
ghubar Singh, also called Raghubar Dayal, and M^n Singh. 

The second of these sons, Raghubar Dayal, held the contract of the Gonda- 
Eaghubar Day^. Bahraich nizSmat for 1846 and 1847 A.D., and terri- 
ble those years were. It was a reign of terror such as 

has seldom been experienced by any province under the worst days of 

native rule. 



BAH 



133 



Captaia Orr's descrip- 
tion of the district 
after the two years' 
admiaistration of Ra- 
ghubar Dayal. 



Captain Oir, -who was deputed by the Eesident at Lucknow to pass 
through the district that had been affected by this 
scourge, writes in 184I9 : "The once flourishing districts 
of Gonda and Bahraich, so noted for fertility and 
beauty, are now for the greater part uncultivated ; 
villages completely deserted in the midst of lands 
devoid of all tillage everywhere meet the eye : and from Fyzabad to Bah- 
raich, I passed through these districts, a distance of eighty miles, over 
plains which had been well cultivated, but now lay entirely waste, a scene 
for two years of great misery ending in desolation." 

It is unnecessary here to recount all the atrocities committed by this 
The district has not man. Colonel Sleeman in his Diary, Volume I, pages 
yet recovered from 70-95, has given a vivid description of them ; as he 
the effects. remarks, " no tjrrant ever wrote his name in such a 

legible hand," but the execration in which that name is held in this district 
will outlast even the effacement of the handwriting. It will be long, how- 
ever, ere the district recovers from the wholesale devastations of Rughu- 
bar Dayal and his crew. Bahraich suffered far more from him than Gonda, 
and it is not too much to say that the scanty population of this district as 
compared with Gonda is due in a great measure to this fact. He not only 
devasted the country, he actually depopulated it. 

The estates that fared the worst under his infamous rule were the ilaqas 
The estates which Baundi, Rahwa, Piagpur, Gangwal, and Charda. 
suifered most. Nanpara, Bhinga and Ikauna owed their comparative 

impunity, the first named to the strong hand of its master, Munawwar 
Ali Khan, and the two latter to their distance from Raghubar Dayal's head- 
quarters. The cis-Rapti portions of Bhinga, however, and the Ikauna 
lands situated in the Bahraich pargana did not escape. 

Colonel Sleeman, who made a progress through the district in 1849, 

-,,,„! . i makes the following report on the condition of the 

Colonel Sleeman s notes. .., ^^ , •.i^-ni -i i/~( i i- 

principal estates m the Eanraich and Gonda dis- 
tricts : — 



Names of estates. 


Present Condition. 




f Baundi 


Almost waste. 




1 Eahwa 


Ditto. 




1 Nanpara 


FalUng off. 




J Charda 
•■• 1 Gangwal 


Ditto. 


Bahraich 


Much out of tillage. 




1 Piagpur 


Ditto. 




Ikauna 


Ditto. 




, Bhinga 


Recovering. 






Balrampur 


Well tilled. 






Tulsipur 


Ditto. 






TJtraula 


Much out of tillage. 






Manikapur 


Ditto. 






Babhnipair 

The Chhedwara estates 


Ditto. 


Gonda 


*«■ ' 


All well tilled. 






Bishambharpur ... 


Kaja Debi Bakhsh, in good order. 






Akbarpur 


In good order under Eamdatt Pande. 






Singha Chanda ... 


Ditto. ditto. 






.Birwa 


A little out of tillage. 



134 BAH 

In 1845, under Wajid Ali, the nizamat of Gonda-Bahraich actually 
f, . J., paid into the treasury 11| lakhs. In 1846 Eaghu- 

venurbefor™and after bar Dayal paid 14 lakhs, but in 1848 under Inchha 
Eaghubar Dayal's ad- Singh it was with difficulty that 6 lakhs could be 
numstration. realized, while nearly the whole of this reduced re- 

venue was collected from Gonda. It is scarcely matter for wonder that 
the incidence now of the revised jama in the one district should be so 
much lighter than in the other. 

Bahraich now offered but little spoil to tempt its nazims to any further 
«„i,=,„„„o^+ „i:,™= devastation, but inasmuch as the main agent of 
liaghuDar Uayal m his atrocities, Gauri bhankar, re- 
mained in the district as a tahsildar under Inchha Singh and Man Singh, 
the former uncle and the latter brother of Eaghubar Dayal, it could hardly 
be expected that the land should have much rest. 

Section XIV. — Annexation. 

Eetribution for this misrule and relief for the oppressed people was, how- 
Oudh is annexed ever, near at hand, and on the 7th of February 1856, 

Sir James Outram, Eesident at Lucknow, issued the 
proclamation by which the government of the territories of Oudh was 
thenceforth vested exclusively in the Honourable East India Company. 
The masterly and statesman-like letter of the 4th of February from Mr. 
Edmonstone, Secretary to the Government of India, to the address of the 
Eesident, detailed the constitution of the Commission to which the destinies 
of Oudh were to be entrusted. 

Bahraich was made the head-quarters of a division, Mr. Wingfield being 
appointed Commissioner. Captain Bunbury was 

officers ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ° Deputy Commissioner, but he was shortly succeeded 
by Captain Eeid. Mr. Cunliffe, a civilian, and Mr. 

Jordan, of the Uncovenanted Service, completed the staff. 

The work that devolved upon, and was accomplished by, these officers in 
the course of the next fourteen months seems in 

Their wor . review to have been incredible. The formation and 

organization of police and tahsildari establishments, the institution of the 
various courts of justice, the arrangement and supervision of jails, the 
investigation of claims to revenue-free grants, excise, and, above all, the 
settlement of the land revenue, formed the chief points to which they 
had to direct their attention. This work was diversified by an occasional 
scour across country to suppress a famous band of dacoits under Fazal Ali, 
who had been in the service of one of the contending parties in the Ndn- 
para estate, and who, now that their occupation there was gone, declared 
themselves sworn enemies to the new order of things, which bid fair to in- 
terfere with their profession. 

It would be out of place in a sketch like this to discuss Che principles 
The results of summary upon which the summary settlement of the land reve- 
settlement of 1856 in the nue was made, but it may be noted that the changes 
taluqdan estates. pf possession in property, owing to the adoption of 

those principles, were in this district only very slight. Out of 3,682 vil- 
lages which, in the year preceding annexation, were held by the taluqdars. 



BAH 1S5 

they were maintained in possession of 2,998. Of the remaining 684,305 
were included in one estate (Baundi) from which the taluqdar was excluded^ 
not as having no right to these villages, but on account of defalcation in the 
payment of the revenue, while 230 were deserted villages, and on that 
account settled with no one. From 78 villages only were the taluqdars 
ousted, the adverse claimants being declared the owners of the properties. 

This being the case, it is matter for surprise that so many of the large 
The rebel taluqdara landholders in this district should have declared 
against us in the troubles which ensued as to neces- 
sitate, on our re-occupation of the province, the confiscation of no less than 
1,858 villages belonging to them. The chief delinquents among them 
were the Rajas of Chahldri and Dhaurahra, the Bhitauli Raja, and the 
Raja of Baundi. These took an actively hostile part against us, but the 
three first named can hardly be said to have disgraced this district, as the 
estates of the two first on this side of the river were included at that time 
in Sitapur and the Malldpur districts, respectively, while the estate of 
Gur Bakhsh Singh of Bhitauli belonged to Daryabad. The Raja of Baundi 
naturally objected to the rule of those who had enforced so strictly their 
legitimate demands, and it is scarcely to be wondered at that he should 
have endeavoured to seize the opportunity afforded to him of recovering 
his estate and resenting his ejectment. 

The villages belonging to the above-named taluqdars, which were after^ 
Confiscations. wards confiscated, numbered 440, as follows : — 

Eija of Chahliri ... ... ... 33 villages. 

„ Dhaurahra ... ... ... 26 ,, 

,, Bhitauli ... ... ... 76 ,> 

,, Baundi ... ... ... 305 ,, 

Total ... 440 

The remaining 1,418 villages, which were confiscated for rebellion were 
held by the following taluqdars : — 



Eaja of Ikauna 
„ Charda 
„ Tulsipur 
,, Eahwa 

Taluqdar of Bhinga 
,, Tiparaha 


... 


506 villages 

428 

313 „ 

14 
138 

19 „ 




Total 


1,418 „ 



Those of the last three in the above list were forfeited on account of 
cannon which were found concealed on their estates subsequent to re-occu- 
pation ; those of the three first for failure to surrender themselves within 
the time allowed by the proclamation. 



Note. — The Kaja of Dhailrahra was a boy ; the Thakur, not Raja, of Chahlari was ail 
infant. It is true his father was killed fighting gallantly at the battle of Nawabganj against 
Sir Hope Grant, but at that time hardly any taluqdara had submitted themselves. The 
fact was that the Bhitauli, Chahlari, and Baundi chief were all Eaikwars ; the two former 
were guided by the head of the clan, the lord of Baundi. The Queen of Oudhhad secured 
his devotion by going to his fort after the capture of Lucknow and throwing herself upon 
his protection. 



136 BAH 



CHAPTER III. 

GENERAL, MATERIAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL, AND ADMIN- 
ISTRATIVE ASPECTS. 

Situation of the district unfavourable to trade — Trade centres formerly limited to seats of 
Government, &o. — Risk in transit in the Nawabi — Signs of security in present times — 
The Naipal trade— Timber — Bahramghat timber market — Timber from Government forests — 
The Niinpara cattle a myth — The railway to Lucknovir — Main lines of traffic — Manufactures 
— Schools — Four classes of schools — The zila school — English town schools — Vernacular 
town schools — Village schools— List of village schools in the district— Indigenous schools — 
The difficulties met by the Education Department — ^A weak point in our village schools — 
Density of population per square mile of cultivation — Hindus and Musalmans — Agricul- 
turists and non-cultivators — Oaate — Distribution of population — Size of villages — Detail of 
castes — Distribution of certain castes — Infanticide — The land-owning castes — The condition 
of the cultivator — Signs of improved condition — The peasant and the money-lender — The 
rate of interest^Grain loans— Several social and economical agencies — Emigration — 
Immigration — Rise of prices — Droughts — Moods— Agriculture — Wages — The Smoak system 
of servitude— Contract labour — Rents ; Their increase — Grain rents : Their bad effects — 
Causes of rise of rents— Indebtedness of the peasantry — Agricultural operations and 
instruments — Irrigation — Droughts of 1868 and 1873 — Grain rents an obstacle to irrigation 
• — Produce — Crop area — Main staples — Mixed crops— Outturn — Rice- Size of farms — 
Extension of cultivation — Prices — Famines— Value of landed property — Municipalities 
— Character of the Committees — Improvements — Revenue of ditto — Dispensaries — 
Number of cases treated, cures, failures and death— Cost — Diseases — Goitre — The main 
use of dispensaries — Opium, only a small area under poppy— Outturn and value — Amonni; 
consumed in district — Distilleries — Outturn — Duty— Three kinds of liquor— Nawabi 
prices compared with present prices — Administration of the forests — The drawbacks to 
their conservancy — The excellent roads — Frontier roads — Revenue — Contract system-r- 
List of trees, &c. — Post Office — Imperial lines — Rural post offices — Mr. Currie's scheme — 
Weights and measures — Table of weights in the Nawabi — The "ratti" and "ghunghchi," 
difference in weight — Difference between the English Government tola and the Bahraich 
tola — The new Government ser— Liquid measures and measures of capacity — Local 
weights still in use, the paseri— Liquid measures and measures of capacity- — Long measure 
— Yard measure — Coinage — The Gorakhpuri paisa — Other copper coins — The exchange 
effected by Sayyad Salar's fair — The Government S-pie piece — The value of Re 1 in the 
various copper coins — The rupee pieces current in the Nawabi— The Company's rupee less 
valuable than the native coins — General administration — Revenue — Expenditure — Courts : 
Criminal, Civil, Police — Crime — Accidental deaths. 

Bahraich has little trade except the export of grain, ghi, timber, down 
Trade and Manufac- its rivers. This produce is all credited to Fyzabad in 
t»res. the official returns, because it is not estimated till in 

its down-river journey it reaches a statistical office, which happens to be in 
that district. The trade is not what might be expected from the fertility 
of the soil and thinness of the population. That with Naipal alone is 
recorded officially: for 1873 the exports thither were valued at Rs. 1,53,166, 
of which Rs. 1,06,000 consisted of cloths, English and Indian : the only 
other matters of any importance were — 

Cotton Es. 7,164 

Salt „. „ „ 11,403 

Hardware «. „ 7,063 

Bahraich, if properly cultivated, ought to send great quantities of sugar 
and tobacco into Naipal ; as it is, it has a mere transport trade. 

The imports amounted to Rs. 26,800, grain, ghi, and spices being the 
main items. The trade across the boat-bridge at Bahramghat is not re- 
corded either ; it consists mainly of rice, ghi, hides, lac, and kutch. 



BAH 



137 



Signs of security in 
present times. 



The only import worthy of notice, besides the piece-goods and salt 
already enumerated, is dcii or split lentils, such as urcZ and arftar; this 
from Lucknow and Cawnpore. Trade no doubt will increase. 

The Settlement Officer takes a favourable view as follows : — 

" Since the establishment of our rule the district has experienced a change 
in this respect which must impress even those who 
are the most loth to admit the advantages of our 
administration. The long trains of grain-carts going 
south and east, which are now met filtering in from the outlying villages 
to join the main roads, and the salt wagons filing up from Bahramghat 
■northwards to Bahraich and on to Naipal, are sufficient to indicate the 
readiness with which the trading commimity appreciate safe roads and 
sure markets." 

As no means are taken to obtain any returns of the imports and exports 
from this district, except those from and to Naipal, 

The Naipal trade. -^ would be difficult to give even an approximate 

estimate of the amount of produce which is supplied by this district to the 
rest of India ; but the following statement, showing approximately the 
annual trade with Naipal, is interesting : — 



Exports to Naipal. 


Imports from Naipal. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Mds. 


Es. 




Mds. 


Es. 


Salt 


2,286 


15,161 


Cereals 


82,598 


1,24,967 


Sugar 


2,926 


10,203 


Oilseeds 


25,450 


52,577 


Metals, brass vessels, &o. 


381 


12,520 


Iron ... 


1,297 


11,370 


Cloth, piece-goods, &o. ... 


... 


1,60,398 


Spices... 


7,482 


73,655 


Miscellaneous 




9,498 


Hides ... 
Timber 
Ghi ... 


843 
5,224 


2,200 


Total 


... 


2,07,780 


8,223 








30,621 








Miscellaneous 
Total 


... 


1,229 




... . 


3,04,842 



The above figures are merely for the trade which passes the frontier at 
Gularia and on the roads to Nanpara and Katghar. These are the main 
lines for the traffic. As might be expected, the main exports to Naipal are 
piece-goods and cloth of kinds, while the registered imports consist chiefly 
of cereals, oilseeds, spices, and ghi. 

The timber from the Naipdl forests, great quantities of which have been 
felled during the last ten years, is mostly conveyed 
Timber. down the rivers Kauriala and Etipti on rafts. 



138 BAH 

Two .fair-sized canoes lashed together are sufficient to float some fifteen 
or sixteen average-sized logs. The number of logs which have passed down 
the Rapti during the past three years is estimated at 5,977. No correct 
register has been kept of the timber imports from Naipfil down the Kauriala, 
but in 1868 about 44,000 logs were sold at the Naipalese dep6ts on the^ 
river and its tributaries. These logs have been coming down ever since, 
no sales having been allowed since that year. It is, however, reported that 
75,000 logs are now collected at the dep6ts, and that a sale of these will be 
effected shortly. Timber is no longer sold to contractors in the forests as 
formerly. It is cut by Darbar agency and carted to the depots, where it is 
sold by auction. 

The logs average about 40 cubic feet, and sell at the dep6ts at about 12 
annas per cubic foot. The price at Bahramghat is about Rs. 1-4 per cubic 
foot, but Rs. 2-12 if cut and squared. 

The main timber mart on the Gogra (Kauriala) is at this last-mentioned 
place on the right bank of the river, whence the logs 

maS'"^''^* *™'^^'' ^^e conveyed southward to Lucknow a,nd Cawnpur 
by road. A large quantity, however, is worked up 

into scantlings at the Government workshops which are established here. 

The Government forests have not as yet turned out much timber from 
the Bahraich forest sections. During this past year, 
me^tforeatr"' ''^™" ^lo^evsr, the Bharthlpur section has suppKed a large 
number of sissoo trees to the Gun-carriage Agency, 
which has a dep&t and workshops at Bd.zpur, a frontier village in the extreme 
north-west corner of the district. The contractors for dry wood also have 
succeeded during the past years in removing from the forests a vast quan- 
tity of inferior timber which is said to have clogged the market to a con- 
siderable extent. 

The Bahraich district is generally credited with a source of wealth, of 
which I have in vain sought for any trace, viz., the 
^Tte NSnpara cattle a N^^p^ra breed of cattle. The less said about this 
famous breed the better, for the cattle of the Nanpara 
district are as wretchedly small and weak as those of any other part of 
Oudh. In the Khairigarh ilaqa, however, on the other side of the river 
opposite Ndnpara and Dharmanpur, the class of cattle is very fine, and it is 
possible that some of these bullocks coming from the north vid Nanpara 
have obtained for that place a name which it does not deserve. 

The Khairigarh animals are deservedly famous, and are thoroughly ap- 
preciated in this district, to which numbers are annually brought by well- 
to-do cultivators, who themselves visit Khairigarh to make their purchases. 
A couple of young steers of this breed will cost as much as Rs. 60 to Rs. 
80, while three-year-olds wiU cost fully Rs. 120 the yoke. 

The opening of the railway from Bahramghat to Lucknow may be ex- 
pected to give a great stimulus to the trade of Bah- 
■Hie railway to j-aich, and will serve in some measure to break the 
°^' isolation of the district which at present checks the 

development of its commerce. 



BAH 189 

At present the main lines of traffic lie in the north ,of the district to 
Main lines of traffic, ^^^lairighat on the Gogra, while the gi-ain of the 
eastern parganas for the most part finds its way to 
Nawabganj opposite Fyzabad, going by the Gonda road. The whole of 
the produce of the Bahraich, Fakhrpur, and Hisampur parganas, however, 
and a very large portion of the through-traffic from Naipal, is brought 
down to Colonelganj (now transferred to Gonda) and to Bahramghat, 
whence it is either sent down the river or passes on to Lucknow.* 

Of manufactures there may be said to be none. Everj^ pargana has its 

J- . villages, with small colonies af weavers who turn out 

a fair quantity of coarse cloth, and Bahraich itself 

boasts of some very good felt, the manufacture of which is a speciality of 

that town and Jarwal. 

Education. Four The Government schools in this district as in 

classes of schools, ^^j^^^^ ^^^ ^f f^^^. ^j^g^^g ._ 

1st. — ^Zila schools, which prepare their pupils for matriculation in the 
Calcutta University. 

271x1. — ^Middle-class English, or, as they are also called, English town 
schools, which prepare youths for ordinarj' clerkships, &c. 

2rd. — Vernacular town schools, which give the best educatio'n that can 
be given in the vernacular. 

4i/i. — Village schools similar to English national schools, where the 
general population can be well grounded in the rudiments. 

In Bahraich town there is the zila school with 105 boys and 6 masters 
while there are three branch schools in the suburbs 

The zila schools. ^-^j^ ^ masters each and 50, 41 and 40 boys, respec- 

tively ; total number of boys, 236. Persian, English, and Urdu are taught 
at this zila school, Nagri only at one of the branches, and Urdu only at 
the other two. The cost of these establishments is about Es. 420 per 
mensem. 

At Baundi and Ikauna, the tahsils of the Edja-e-R^jgan of Kaplirthala, 
there are two English town schools ; that at Baundi 
EngHsh town schools. ^^^^^ >jq ^^y^ and 3 masters, that at Ikauna 50 
boys and 8 masters. The cost of these schools, Es. 176 per mensen, is 
borne half by Government and half by the Eaja-e-Edjgan. There is also 
a school of this class at Bhinga maintained entirely by the taluqdar 
with 79 pupils. 

Of Vernacular town schools there is only one, viz., at Nanpara. This 
has 74 boys and 2 masters, its cost being Es. 46 per 

Vernacular town mensem; but Nawab Nisar Ali Khan supports a 
schools. somewhat similar school with 43 boys at Nawabganj 

Aliabad in the Charda pargana. 



* An internal trade during the rains is kept up on the Sarju river ; boats drawing three 
feet come up from the Gdgra ; leaving it at Kamyarghat, they load gram at Banjanaghat 
near Bahraich. This avoids some cart carriage to the bank of the Gogra. 



140 BAH 

It is intended that ultimately there should be 75 village schools, but at 

present there are only 39 established. There are only 

age so 00 . 1^406 boys in the village schools : the entire number 

attending school is under 2,000, not more than 2 per cent, of the boy 

population. 

Of indigenous schools it is difficult to get any returns, but in Bahraich 
town there are 12 schools kept by pandits, molvis 

n igenous so oo s. ^^^ others, at which 213 boys are educated ; and the 
American Mission has a school of 42 boys : about half of these learn 
Persian and read the Koran, the other half reading Nagri and Kaithi. 

The Education Department has had to make the most of a very small 
Ti,„ A-ffi„ uv» ™ 4- income from the cess in this district hitherto, and the 

The difficulties met pi -it iii. o i. t. 

by the Education De- expenses 01 building school-nouses, ojc, nave been 
partment. heavy at starting. Now that the revised assessment 

has come into force, we may hope to see the full complement of village 
schools instituted. Some of the taluqdars of ihe district take a real in- 
terest in the spread of education. 

A point in which our village schools seem to fail is in the class of boys 
that at present attend them. This is mainly compos- 
out viSre schools '"^ ^^ °^ children- of the Banian and Kayath castes. 
Before our educational system can claim to be called 
national, it must be able to draw into the village school-house not only the 
children of classes with whom already a modicum of elementary knowledge 
is a tradition, but also the sons of the purely agricultural classes, — the 
Kurmi, the Lodh, the Ahir, and the Chamar. In proportion as the attend- 
ance register shews a higher percentage of these and other non-profes- 
sional and non-commercial castes, in the same degree may we hope that 
we are reaUy getting hold of the rural population. By a settlement 
officer no result can be more devoutly desired than ■^hat the ryot should 
be able to make his own estimate of his fair share of the grain on the 
threshing floor, to confute the patwari by his own papers, and to calculate 
with some degree of accuracy the loss that he incurs by getting into the 
Banian's books. 

The total population of the district as assessed is 835,826, giving an 

. average density of 347 souls per square mile of total 

opu a ion. ^^g^ (excluding reserved forest tracts), and of 639 

souls per square mile of cultivation. The relative density per square mile 

of total area in the eight parganas is shewn as follows: — 

1. Hisampur 458 souls per square mile o£ total area. 



2. 


Bhinga 


401 


ditto 


ditto, 


3. 


Palchrpur 


367 


ditto 


ditto. 


4. 


Charda 


338 


ditto 


ditto. 


5. 


Ikauna 


S13 


ditto 


ditto. 


6. 


Bahraich 


311 


ditto 


ditto. 


7. 


Nanpara 


310 


dftto 


ditto. 


8. 


Dharmanpur 


173 


ditto 


ditto. 



BAH 141 

If, however, the population per square mile of cultivation be taken, the 
Per square mUe of parganas will rank thus— 
cultivation. 

1. Hiadmpur 870 souls per square mile of cultivation, 

2. Bahraich 804 ditto ditto. 

3. Fakhrpur 646 ditto ditto. 

4. Nanpara 580 ditto ditto. 

5. Ikauna 570 ditto ditto. 

6. BMnga 532 - ditto ditto. 

7. Dharmanpur 507 ditto ditto. 

8. Charda 463 ditto ditto. 

Hisampur, it will be noticed, keeps its place, but Bahraich goes up from 
6th to 2nd, while the rice-growing parganas Bhinga and Charda fall to the 
bottom of the list. 

Of the total population, the Hindus form 87'3 per cent, and the 
Hindus and Musal- Musalmans 127 per cent, — the Musalmans being found 
mans. chiefly in Hisampur and Nanpara, the districts res- 

pectively, of the Sayyads and the Pathins, and in the town of Bahraich 
itself. In all the northern parganas, with the exception of Nanpara, they 
are very scarce indeed. 

Out of a total Muhammadan population of 103,659, only 54,717, or 
53 per cent, are agriculturists. Of the Hindus, on 

cuSurists'^^ ^'^^ °°°' *-^® °*^^ ^^^^' *^® agriculturists comprise 66 per 
cent, of the whole body. I may remark here, how- 
ever, that the above returns, which are those of the census taken in 
1869 A. D., under-state, I feel sure, the proportion of agriculturists. It is 
quite impossible in a district like Bahraich that one-third of its population 
can be non-cultivators. It is probable that many of the castes whose 
names indicate a non -agricultural calling have been entered in the census 
papers as non-cultivators without any enquiry as to whether they actually 
follow that calling, or whether they do not combine cultivation with it. 
According to settlement returns the proportion of culturists to non-cultur- 
ists is nearly 5 to 2 instead of 4 to 2 only. 

That the population is well distributed throughout the district may be 
judged from the fact that, in addition to 1,930 in- 

Distribution of po- jjafcited villages, which give their names to their res- 
^" ^°^' pective demarcation circles, there are in the district 

6,315 hamlets, making in all a total of 8,245 separate clusters of home- 
steads, or, as near as possible, 3 to every square mile of total area. In 
Hisampur there are 6 such separate hamlets to every square mile ; in 
Fakhrpur there are 4 ; in Ikauna, Bhinga, Nanpara, and Charda, there 
are 3 • and in Bahraich and Dharmanpur 2 only. 

Out of the 2,021 hadbast circles in the old district, 91 have no inhabit- 
ants, and of the remainder, 788 have under 250 inhab- 

Size of villages. -^^j^^g . ggg ij^ve over 250 and under 500 inhabitants. 



272 


500 




750 


157 


750 




1,000 


50 


, 1,000 




1,250 , , 


23 


, 1,250 




1,500 


31 


, 1,500 




2,000 


21 


, 2,000 




inhabitants. 



142 



BAH 



In the detail of castes the different classes have been arranged in the 
order of numerical superiority. The percentage of each 
caste is as follows : — 



Detail of castes 


cas 


Order. 


Caste. 


1 


Ahir 


2 


Kurmi 


3 


Brahman 


4 


Chamar 


5 


Kori^ 


6 


Kahar 


7 


Lodh 


8 


Pasi 


9 


Murao 


10 


Kajput 


11 


Pathans 


12 


Nao 


13 


Banian 


14 


Gararia 


15 


Lonia 


16 


Teli 



Nwmher. 



11-6 


91,479 


10-2 


79,723 


9-6 


71,215 


7-3 


56,329 


4-7 


37-500 


4-3 


32-319 


4-1 


31,231 


3-7 


29,808 


2-7 


21,411 


2-7 


20,514 


2-6 


21,288 


20 


15,740 


2-0 


15,725 


1-9 


15,068 


1-9 


14,064 


1-9 


13,253 


29-8 




1000 





Others 



With such a population the district cannot but be considered as singu- 
larly favoured ; the -whole of the above castes, -with the exception of Nos. 
3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, being good cultivators. 

The Brahmans are found in the greatest numbers in Fakhrpur, Bahraich, 
and Ikauna parganas, there being very fe-w indeed in 
the northern parts. The Ahirsare fairly equally 
distributed throughout all the parganas, while the 
Kurmis are found thickest in Hisampur, Nanpara, and Charda. The 
Muraos, as might be expected, affect chiefly Hisampur, though they also 
are found in fair numbers in all parganas ; and in the very depths of the 
jungles of Dharmanpur, snug colonies of these industrious cultivators, 
with fine turmeric gardens, are met with. 

The land-owning castes. The Rajputs 0-vm 749 Villages out of 2,011 thus : — 



Distribution of cer. 
tain castes. 



Janwar 

Kaik-war 

Biseu 

Kalhans 

Chauhan 

Panwar 

Others 



368 -Tillages. 

157 

103 

81 

27 

4 

8 

749 



The other principal land-o-miing castes are : — 



Sikh 

Pathan ... 
Sayyad ... 
Shekh ... 
Kayath ... 
Nanak Shahi faqir 
Khattri . . . 
Brahman ... 
Others 



490 -yillages. 
391 

76 

66 

64 

55 

16 

21 

83 



BAH 143 

Of the 490 villages now held by Sikhs, all, with the exception of about 
20, were owned in the Nawabi by Janwars and Eaikw^rs. 

None of the castes in Bahraich call for special mention ; there are no hill 
tribes, or any of distinct aboriginal extraction : the pnly one of local in- 
terest is the Thdru, described fully in the Kheri and Gonda articles ; they 
number 1,741 in this district. Nearly the whole population is agricul- 
tural, and the statistics about those engaged in other occupations are not 
trustworthy. 

There can be little about but that the general condition of the cultivat- 
ing class is improving very fast in this district. Popu- 
cultivator ^°^ ° ^ lation is still sufficiently scanty to set agriculturists 
at a premium ; and though in some estates they are 
probably as much disinclined to shift their quarters as the ryots in more 
populous districts, and thus are more likely to tolerate oppression at the 
hands of the landlord than they otherwise might be, stiU the existence of 
the immense tract of waste land owned by men who are bidding for culti- 
vators on all sides, cannot but give the ryot a great advantage in the 
settlement of the terms on which he is to hold. 

As a rule, now-a-days the cultivator sets apart his own seed-grain at 
harvest time, and even though hard pressed during the 
condHL"^ ""P^^oved yg^j.^ refrains from touching this sacred store. No 
sign can be better than this, for no link in the chain 
which binds him to the Banian can possibly be stronger than such a 
necessary loan as seed. At the doors, or just within the threshold of most 
cultivators' houses, may be seen those earthenware amphora-like granaries 
(dheri), which are a sure indication of thrift and independence of the 
money-lender ; and if we penetrated farther into the dwelhng, we should 
find in most cases a full set of brazen vessels. 

Notwithstanding, however, these proofs of comparative prosperity, it is 
too much to expect that such a creature of habit as 
throne" Jeiider ^^^ *^® ordinary Indian peasant can altogether break off 
his connection with the village usurer. However little 
necessity there may be for it, he cannot avoid every now and then borrow- 
ing a little at ruinous interest, and there are many who actually think that 
their respectability is at stake in this matter. The taluqdars themselves 
are not free from this mistaken notion, for many of them, notably one 
who has one of the finest estates in the district, come periodically into 
Bahraich to transact a little business with their bankers. 

The rate of interest varies from Ks. 2 to Rs. 3-2 per cent, per mensem, 

being equivalent to Es. 24 to 37| per cent, per annum ; 

The rate of interest. ^^^^ when it is remembered that as long as the loan is 

not a very heavy one the security is fairly good, it makes it a matter of 

wonder that the asdmi cannot be made to see his own interest. 

It is, however, more often the case that grain is advanced to the ryot to 

be repaid at harvest time at the current rate, and 

Gram loans. something more by way of interest. The peculiar 

form of loan called " up" is one which is never made except a few weeks 



144 BAH 

before harvest. It is then that the last year's stock of grain stored in the 
dheri begins to run low, and the ryot finds himself tempted to run up 
an account at the Banian's. 

Instead of doing this, however, he borrows a sum of money as lip, the 
conditions being that the loan should be repaid at harvest time in grain at 
the market price of the time, with five or ten sers of grain per rupee 
extra by way of interest. These are very stringent conditions, considering 
the short period for which the loan is made." 

Several matters bearing upon the condition of the people may be briefly 
indicated. There is little immigration into the district as a whole, but the 
more thinly peopled parganas have received a considerable influx since 
annexation, more, however, as the result of peace and order than from any 
voluntary effort of population elsewhere to relieve the pressure upon land, 
many of those who were emigrants in former days having now returned. 
' Prices are rapidly rising, — vide the accompanying table, under heading 
" prices," giving the rates for the last ten years. Famines have been 
referred to in the Fyzabad article. Bahraich has suffered from flood, 
drought, cattle-disease and fever, very considerably during the last ten 
years. The remarks made on this subject in the Kheri article apply 
equally to this the adjoining district. Floods are common, for Bahraich 
has the heaviest average rainfall of any district in Oudh except Kheri. 
In Bahraich tahsil its average for the last nine years has been 47 inches, 
but it has sometimes had 79 and 74 inches as in 1870 and 1871, and 
sometimes 31 or 32 inches as in 1868 and 1873. 

Tested by the character of the agriculture, the condition of the people 

cannot be regarded as prosperous. The better crops 

gricu ure. requiring more laborious cultivation and repaying it 

by a heavier return are conspicuous by their absence. Further on are 

given crop returns borrowed from the settlement report. 

The entire cultivated area is 751,000 acres. Allowing for the fact that 
about one-fifth of the land is double-cropped, there will be each year 
almost exactly 900,000 acres of crops sown and reaped. Of this vast area 
only 8,200 are planted with garden crops as follows : — 

Cotton ... ... ... ... 2,900 

Tobacco ... ... ... 700 

Sugarcane ... ... ... 2,500 

Vegetables ... ... ... 2,100 



8,200 



This is less than one per cent., while the proportion in other districts 
reaches four per cent. The cultivation consists mainly of rice, barley, 
Indian-corn, and mixed crops. They require little labour either in plough- 
ing or irrigating. Cultivation is of a perfunctory nature ; the out-turn is 
poor, the ca|pital invested in agricultural improvements, such as wells, is 
small ; the people consequently are not able to bear hard times, to resist 
the stress of bad seasons, or bear up against the burthen of heavier rents 
by the application of increased industry. There is little steady industry in 



BAH 145 

feet, and consequently the condition of the people has altered since the 
settlement report was written. 

Wages in Bahraich seem, when paid in money or grain by the day or 
_ month, to be about the same as in other places. A 

common rate is one anna, and a kachcha seroicha- 
bena or parched grain, generally maize, per day ; this is worth about eight 
annas in the month ; and we have again the rate of Rs. 2-4 per month of 
twenty-eight days, which is usual in Sitapur, at least in the thinly-peopled 
parts of that district 

One anna alone without the grain allowance is paid to well-grown youths. 
There is less irrigation in Bahraich, and consequently less demand for labour 
at the wells and tanks. The people state that the ordinary rate of wage is 
five pice if the labourer offers his services, but one anna and parched grain 
considered equal to half an anna if the employer makes the first advances. 

The sdwak system, here pronounced saunJc, is in full force, as indeed every- 
, where east of the Gogra. Under it a man of any of the 

e sawa sys em. £^^^ castes — Lodk, Chamdr, Kori, Kurmi — ^receives 
an advance from a farmer and becomes his bond serf for life, or till he pays 
off the advance, which, it must be noted, does not bear interest. The or- 
dinary sum so given varies from Rs. 30 to Rs. 100, and for this a man binds 
himself and his children down till the remotest generation. It is quite 
common to meet men whose fathers entered into these obligations, and who 
still labour in their discharge, although well aware that they can discard 
them and be free to sell their labour in the open market whenever they 
choose. I have also met instances of swank in which men had been turned 
adrift by their masters who, owing to the drought, had either no employment 
or no food for them ; they professed at any rate their willingness to return 
whenever their masters' circumstances allowed it, and admitted their 
right to recall them. 

Such men receive nominally one-sixth of the crop, whatever it be, on 
which they have laboured as ploughmen and reapers. The general division, 
though, is slightly different. The unit of measurement and sub-division is 
ten. fcmseris, or fifty local sers, from this is taken IJ panseris or l| sers 
for the ploughman, and 2^ sers or half a fanseri for the ploughman's 
wife ; but this last payment is conditional upon her performing the two 
duties of grinding grain for the master's family and of making the cowdung 
cakes which are used as fueL The farmer is not bound to concede these 
privileges and their payment, nor the labourer to undertake them. The 
former thereby retains some check upon the females of his hinds, whose 
tongues he dreads with terror which Englishmen can hardly conceive. 
When the crop is a bad one, of course the saunkia suffers with the rest, — 
more so, in fact, because it is almost impossible that he can have any fund 
of savings to fall back upon. 

The farmers complain that this ancient form of servitude is now broken 
at pleasure, and that they have to humour their labourers into a continuance 
of voluntary dependence. Otherwise they simply defy their masters to put 
them into the civil jail, in which they cannot be kept more than six months, 
at a time, and are maintained by their masters. 

K 



146 BAH 

It would be hardly possible legally to uphold this ancient custom, because 
the reciprocal right of the labourer to be maintained by the farmer, in case 
his share of the crop be insufficient, would have also to be provided for. 

The name is derived, it is said,* from Srdwak, Sanskrit for a pupil, and is 
the same ordinary Jain word for a layman. This may be ; the word may 
have been transmitted in passing through the Buddhist transition period ; 
but the change is a radical one, for the Sanskrit word which means a pupil, 
and which can only refer to one of the twice-born to whom the hearing of 
the sacred books is confined, has now been applied exclusively to the lowest 
class, that which is forbidden even to hear read, much less to read, the 
Vedas. The fact that Sawaks are confined to the four castes — Chamars, 
Koris, Lodhs, and Kurmis — ^is very curious. Are they the descendants of 
the original Sudras — a, name which is now rarely heard in Oudh, except 
from some Kayath, who wishes notice to be taken of the fact that he does 
not admit his own Sudraship ? According to Manu's system the duty of 
the Sudras was to serve the other three castes ; these four castes now per- 
form that duty and are to a certain extent in the position of slave plough- 
men, yet it would be a great mistake to call them slaves. 

They have definite duties to perform, and some of the household work 
their wives may or may not execute; and they have fixed wages, from which, 
if Oudh seasons and soil were more favourable, they might save money. A 
Siwak is attached to every plough. Only one plough is allowed on the 
average for about seven acres and a half, and supplementary spade husbandry 
is largely used so as fully to employ the Sawak's time. 

An average crop ftom this Avill be about 7,000 lbs. ; at 900 lbs. to the 
acre, the Sawak's share, including his wife's, will be 1,400 Sbs., half of it 
superior grain which he can exchange for 1,000 lbs. of inferior but whole- 
some grain. His whole earnings will then be 1,700 lbs. of grain, from which 
a man with a wife and two children cannot properly be sustained. 

It would not appear, therefore, that a status which must be generally 
one of annually increasing indebtedness can ever have been the fixed and 
authentic condition of a large class. Further, we have here the distinct 
element of contract supervening. Are we to suppose that when the class 
of Sudras emerged partially from servitude, this contract system was devised 
to perpetuate the old theoretical status, when the actual situation of the 
parties accorded with the latter ? It is more likely that the system arose 
in time of famine when the richer class maintained their poorer neighbours 
and their families, and the head of the family in return bound himself to 
serve for mere subsistence. 

In many . individual instances the plan was adopted in order to secure 
harvest labour at a time when it was scarce ; it was regarded as a means of 
compelling men to labour hard and regularly in a time of rude plenty and 
thin population, when a half savage people, as now in Jamaica, satisfied its 
hunger without difficulty, and refused to work till again pressed by want. 

At present the only motive for entering into the contract is want of food, 



* Gonda article. 



BAH 147 

and that this is an increasing motive, is shown by the increasing numbers 
of Sawaks.^ Every second man met with in the fertile plains of Hisdm- 
pur is a Sawak, and it seems strange to an Englishman to listen to the 
proprietor pointing to them as they stand behind or drive the four-footed 
cattle at the ploughs. He descants upon the sums he paid for them ; — fifty- 
one rupees for that one, sixty for his neighbour, because the latter had a 
large family, which went with the lot. 

Further, of recent years it is said, mainly since annexation, the Ahir 
caste has been drawn reluctantly into the Sawak status. The caste as 
yet protest against it, and when the matter is brought before the brother- 
hood formally, the oifender is expelled from amongst them, — in local 
phrase, has his pipe put out. The pressure of poverty is too great, and 
the caste winks at all but the most open violation of their rule. 

There is also in Bahraich the contract system under which a labourer 
Contract labour. breaks up waste land with spade husbandry at a fixed 
rate. For average land that now current is two bfghas 
for one rupee ; this includes merely turning over the clods with a large 
hoe. A stout man can do his two bighas and earn his rupee in ten days, 
or nearly three rupees per month, by job-work ; but such a labourer will 
be rather an athlete, and will eat one ser of flour per day. An ordinary 
labourer will spend fourteen days over his two bighas, and earn only two 
rupees per month. A modification of the sawak system called the ulti 
sdwaJc has been recently introduced. Under it a labourer receives an advance 
of six to twelve rupees, and gives his services for one year, receiving in 
addition the usual share — one-seventh of the crop. Other landholders pay 
their labourers two rupees a month, a blanket in winter, and possibly a 
couple of local maunds of grain as a reward at harvest. 

The district, on the whole, is in a very backward condition ; there are 
Eents ^'^ mines or European industries of any kind ; there 

are no reform societies, local institutions or printing 
presses. 

It is believed, however, that the tenantry are better off than elsewhere in 
Oudh, at least the local officers assert it. 

Rents are lower than in other districts. The last official return is as 

follows : — 

Es. A. P. 

Per acre, land suitable for rice ... ... ... 3 14 2 

wheat 

maize, barley 
cotton 



opium 
oilseeds 
sugar 
tobacco 



3 14 2 

3 5 8 

3 8 9 

9 12 

3 6 6 

7 7 

8 4 



It is no doubt true that plenty of good land can still be got at such rates, 
but the average rents paid are considerably higher, perhaps about ten per 
.cent, lower than those recorded as prevailing in Bara Banki. 

Cultivation is of a backward character. Little sugarcane or garden crops 
are grown. There is good tobacco, but not in large quantity ; consequently 

K 2 



148 BAH 

low rents may press as hardly upon fciadly-cultivated land as higher rents 
upon more productiye areas. I found four rupees per local bigha, or about 
twenty rupees per acre, p3.id for good tobacco land, and one rupee to one 
rupee four- annas per loe^I bjgha, five rupees to six rupees four annas per 
acre, as the ordinary ra.te for wheat, peas, rice, arhar, in south Bahraich, 

In two villages taken at random in pargana Fakhrpur, leaving out the 
Neotala Haudigaon Brahmans who on account of their religious position 
hold at favourable rates, all the rest of the tenants 
belonging to above twenty different castes hold according to the taluqdars' 
rent-roll 4,675 bfghas recorded at 1,640 Government bjghas, or 1,025 aeres, 
paying Es. 5,195, or above Rs. 5 per acra AJloAving for the usual under- 
statement of assets, eleven shillings per acre would be about the rate. 
There was rto sugarcane in these viliages, and they comprised an average 
of bad pultivators, such as Chhattris and Musalmans. Rents exhibit more 
variation between the different classes, and more consideration for the 
Brahman and Chhattri clans in Bahraich than in cis-Gogra Oudh. Brah- 
mans pay twelve annas where other castes pay one rupee generally. They 
give the landlord only one-third of the gross grain produce when other 
castes pay one-half. The rise of rents has been very rapid of late. In six 
or seven years that of Brahmans has risen over extensive tracts of country 
in south Bahraich from 8 annas to 12 annas, or 50 per cent., while other 
castes have been raised to 20 amias for ordinary land, from 10 annas or 
from grain rents. 

The increase of grain rents is also noted ; it was formerly customary for 
tenants breaking up wastelands to hold on exceptionally low terms for two 
or three years so as to remunerate them for the labour and expense incurred. 
Tenants now, at any rate in southern Bahraich, break up land paying half 
the crop as grain rents from the first year. The landlords defend the rise 
of rents on the ground that the tenants are very lazy, and that they require 
the spur of high rent to induce them to cultivate properly. This is partially 
true ; the Brahmans are extremely lazy ; they depend for their cultivation 
almost entirely upon their Sawaks alresidy described ; they will not touch a 
plough with their own hands ; they occasionally condescend to handle a 
spade for an hour or two in the day, but continuous hard labour is apparently 
beyond their powers. On the other hand, however, it must be remarked, 
that they have no inducement to be industrious, for, adjoining theirs are 
the fields of Muraos who have been paying high rents, but have been recent- 
ly raised still higher. 

I quote a few instances out of many. A Mur^o in Rampurwa has 
8 local bighas of garden cultivation near the village site and 9 in the 
outer lands, the hdr ; for this he paid Rs. 24 six years ago ; it was 
then raised to 25, then to 35, and this year, although harvests have 
been bad for three seasons, to Rs. 41. A fair rent for the land, which 
was ordinary, would have been Rs. 30 at the utmost, and the Govern- 
ment revenue, which is supposed to be half the rent, was not more than 
Rs. 15. It is obvious that in such cases rents are only limited by the possi- 
bility of exaction from the helpless, for the Murao was of course in debt, and 
could not leave the village to seek a more profitable farrh elsewhere. The 
rise of rents is well exemplified by the garden lavnds. These consist really 



BAH 149 

of ordrsary fields worth about One rupee per local bfgha, tolerably near the 
village site. The Mur^o occupies them ; the first year he pays one rupee 
per bigha or thereabouts ; after two years he pays Es. 1-8, and after three or 
four he finds himself at Rs. 3-S, which seems the ordinary rate for good 
garden lands in south Bahraich. This is equal to Rs. 17-8 per acre. 

In addition, he will pay one anna in the rupee for the chaukidar and the 
patwdri jointly. This is not an unfair tax, if not Superadded to a too 
high rent ; jts amount will not exceed by more than fifty per cent, the 
actual cost of the two village officers named. There is a considerable im- 
migration from Sitapur and Bara Banki to the more favoured parts of 
Bahraich, which has a more equable climate and steadier rains. This in- 
flux perhaps causes a greater rise of rents than in other districts. 

Withal, the tenantry in Bahraich Seem better fed and healthier than 
those in Bara Banki or Sitapur. There are very many under-fed and meagre 
creatures no doubt, but the proportion of such is not so large as elsewhere : 
perhaps high rents have not had time to produce any noxious effect. 

In many cases in this district grain rates are simply half and half, in 
other cases the tenant gets allowances for his ploughmen, such as are de- 
scribed in the Sitapur article. 

The village ren-t-rolls do not exhibit in 1874 any great increase upon past 
years, at least nothing commensurate to the increase 
Eiae of rent stated by the tenants, and admitted to have occurred 
by the landlords' agents. But these rent-rolls are very incorrect ; they do 
not include the sir or home farms occupied by the landlord or lessee, nor 
do they include in many cases the lands held upon grain rents. Much of 
the real increase is concealed. It is only by taking the names of indivi- 
dual tenants from the mass, and testing their tenures and terms, not only 
by the rent records both of past years and present, but also by the revenue 
survey measurements, that a conclusion can be arrived at. This laborious 
process I have had to perform. Further, the leases of entire villages 
exhibit almost uniformly a steady rise. It is true the lessees in many 
cases have lost money and been sued for the amount due under these 
leases ; but unless there had been at any rate a nominal increase in the 
rents imposed upon the cultivators in detail,, the village lessees would not 
have bid such high sums. 

The Brahmans in the mass do not probably pay much higher sums than 
formerly, because some of them allow the increased rent to accumulate, 
and then wipe out the balance by disappearing. In many cases they 
return, as there is great difficulty in getting other castes to occupy the 
la^nd from which Brahmans have been ejected. 

As every S'awak is a bankrupt, and as the S^waks form a large propor- 
Indebtedness of tliB tion of the whole, it may be gathered that the agri- 
peasantry., cultural classes are deeply embarrassed. That their 
condition is becoming worse receives support from the fact that a caste 
formerly exempt from this servitude is now subject to it— that of the Ahirs. 
The price of a Sawak has also declined from an average of about Rs. 100 
tc ani average of Rs. 40: This, it appears to me, is mainly, if not altogether, 
due to th^ grestbei? supply of tobour owiiJg to^ greater poverty. 



150 '" BAH 

The farmers, it is true, state that their Sawaks run away more often than 
formerly, but this complaint does not seem well founded ; they can only 
now escape to Naipdl, but they could formerly run there and anywhere 
else in Oudh either ; there were no courts to enforce the bonds and compel 
the runaway's return. At any rate they engage just as many Sawaks or 
even more than formerly, but they pay less money for them, possibly 
because the courts will not recognise this same slavery. 

There is little calling for special remarks under this head. Ploughing 
Agricultural opera- is performed in the usual way. Five acres in 
tions and instruments. the upper lands and seven in the Tar^i where the 
cultivation is mainly of kharif, is considered a fair allowance for one 
plough. A pair of ordinary plough bullocks cost from Rs. 10 to Rs. 15 per 
head, but if of such size and strength as to be suitable for road work, a 
pair will cost Rs. 50 to Rs. 80. 

A good pig costs Rs. 3, a male buffalo Rs. 10, a female Rs. 16. 

A plough complete, including the share, will cost Rs. 1-4. A harrow, 
which is merely a log of wood, may be got for 8 annas ; a pick -axe, more 
like a hoe, costs 12 annas ; a khurpa for digging up grass and roots costs 
2 annas. 

The entire stock for a farm of five acres will not be worth more than 
Rs. 35, not including sugar-mill or boiling-pans, which are little required 
in this district. 

The subject of the cottier farmer's profits has been treated in detail in 
the account of Kheri. 

In Bahraich irrigation is less attended to than in other parts of the 
province, partly perhaps because the rains are more 
Irrigation. constant, and partly because the popxilation being more 

sparse and cultivation more careless, less labour is undergone. 

The whole of the uparhiCr estimated at 1,200 square miles, needs irriga- 
tion. Wheat, peas, sanwan, masur, should be watered from three to five 
times. When the September rains close early, as on the 16th September 
1873, the rice also requires copious irrigation. As there were no sufiicient 
means at hand it dried up in the year in question. 

The area irrigated recorded in the settlement papers is entered at 43,128 
acres, but this is wholly incorrect, being only 5 per cent, of the total acre- 
age ; probably 200,000 acres are commonly irrigated whenever wheat or 
garden crops are grown. More wells are visible from the Bahraich and 
Gonda road than from any other Oudh highway which I have seen. Irri- 
gation is conducted partly from rivers and tanks, but mainly from unlined 
wells at which the dhenklis described in the Kheri and Bara Banki articles 
are used. On the average, water is met with at 10 to 14 haths, or 15 to 
21 feet from the surface in the uparhar. The levers are worked all day ; 
two men will water eight to ten local biswas in a day, so the water-supply 
is better than in Bara Banki ; an acre wiU then be watered once in eleven 
days at a cost of Rs. 2-1, each labourer costiag one anna and a half Wheat, 
which takes three waterings, will cost Rs, 6-3 per acre, and with the 



BAH 151 

expense of digging the well which falls in ev«ry year and will water only 
four acres during the season, the entire cost per acre for wheat may be 
estimated at Rs. 6-8 ; but, again, every third year the winter rains are so 
heavy that one or two waterings may be dispensed with. An average cost 
of Rs. 4-12 per acre for wheat per season maybe estimated. Sdnw£n takes 
five waterings and wUl cost Rs. 6 ; it is sown in February and reaped in 
May, and cannot be trusted to the rains. 

River water is used even for tobacco in Bahraich ; it is watered six or 
eight times. Some of the rivers, such as the lower or ancient Sarju, might 
very easily be dammed. There are large natural basins, some of which it 
is almost impossible to believe are not artificial, everywhere within ten 
miles of the Gogra ; they represent ancient channels of its waters ; cultiva- 
tion on the banks is excellent, and crops luxurious. By damming the 
sluggish streams these abundant harvests might be extended over the 
thirsty and starved-looking crops which are met -with, on the uplands. Nor 
is it likely that tenants-at-will will go to the expense of making irrigation 
channels and raising a large crop by copious waterings when the probable 
result is that their rent will be increased. 

The tank water is raised in small wicker baskets, which do not hold half 
as much as those used in the more populous southern districts ; in other 
words, labour is lighter where the population is more sparse. In many 
cases there are five waterings given to the crop ; one or two to soften the 
land before it is ploughed, and three after the crop germinates. A few, 
very few, masonry wells have been made in places where the water lies 
near the surface. A well in which two levers can be worked at once can 
be made if water is only 15 feet off, and firewood abundant, for Rs. 90. 
From it two local bighas or f ths of an acre can be irrigated in a day with 
the labour of four men, and it will supply ten acres in the year with 
whatever water is requisite. 

The ten acres will be watered once in 25 days at a cost of 6 annas per 
day, or Rs. 9-6 for the whole : this will be 15 annas per acre, or Rs. 2-13 
for three waterings. But to this sum must be added interest on the cost 
of the weU, at 15 per cent., Rs. 13-8 per annum, or Rs. 1-5 per acre. The 
total cost will be Rs. 4-2 per acre for three waterings, or Rs. 3-3 for two. 
Of course tenants on grain rents will not and do not make wells on such 
terms, nor indeed will it be to the interest of others to do so. 

The following table gives the rainfalls on the occasions of the last two 
droughts in 1868 and 1873 which preceded the scarcities of 1869 and 
1874. Their features, it will be observed, have much in common. In 
each there was no rain from> about September 20th till January or Feb- 
ruary of the ensuing year. The monsoon closed three weeks too soon, but 
in 1868 the latter rain,m2!.,in January and February, was also almost wholly 
deficient. In 1873 the former rain, that in June, amounted to only half 
an inch instead of the average five inches. This of course in each case ag- 
gravated the loss caused by the failure of the main monsoon. In 1868 the 
rabi or winter crop was the main sufferer ; in 1873 the kharif was sparsely 
sown because the rain commenced too late, and suffered from drought 



152 



BAH 



because they closed so early. The necessity of artificial irrigation is thus 
manifest :— - 





186S. 


1873. 


Total rainfaU. 






Rainfall from 1st June to 1st October 


46-6 


27-5 


„ from Isfc October to Slat Deeember 


00 


ffQ 


„ in June .. „. 


6-9 


0-6 


,, in September. 


6-4 


6S 


„ in October 


0& 


00 


Bate of rain oommenomg 


5th Jtme 


1 8th Jimei 


„ of rain ending 


21st September 


16th September. 


Eain in January, February of ensuing year 


0-4 


3-3 



The Settlement Officer reports that irrigation is in great measure dis- 

-.,... j^ eouraged by the system of grain rents. Very few 

by^J^ rentt'""""^ ^naats will work all day at the bucket when half 

the increased produce dne to the labour will go to 

the landlord. 

It is not exactly apparent why the same argument does not apply to 
ploughing. There is no doubt that grain rents tend to slovenly and care- 
less tillage of all kinds, but probably they affect irrigation no more than 
ploughing, harrowing, or weeding. The rent-paying lands in the district 
amounted in 1870-71 to 311,776. acres, or 41 per cent, of the whole ; 59 
per cent, then, is still under this bad rent system ; it is giving place to a 
better one with a fair rapidity. The Settlement Officer writes as follows : — 

The prescribed returns (No. 10) show the areas under each class of crop 
, as entered in the khasra of the year of measurements 

ro uce crop areas. ^^^ ^^^ pargana. The areas for the whole district 
are as follows : — 



Crop. 


Area in acres. 


Pencentage of 
Khart. 


Percentage 

of total 
cultivation. 


Eharif. 
Eice 

Indian-corn. 
Juir 
Mash 
Kodo ... ... .^ 

Other kharif 


167,041 

76,217 

10,565 

I 12,388 

' 17,104 

67,012 


47-7 

21-8 

3-0 

1 

3,& 
19-0 


28-0 

9-1 

1-3 

1-5 

' 2.-4 

I 8 


ToiAi Kha.r£p ... 


850,327 


100-0 





BAH 



153 



Baii. 


Area in acres. 


Percentage of 
Eabi. 


Percentage 

of total 
cultivation. 


Wheat... 

Barley... 

Wheat and barley mixed 

Kape seed 

linseed... 

Sarson ... 

Cotton ... 

Gram ... 

Masur ... 

Arhar ... 

Tobacco... 

Sugarcane 

Peas 

Other rabi 

Vegetablea 


54,411 

65,416 

37,936 

24,935 

8,059 

1,256 

2,932 

12,711 

9,731 

11,95& 

724 

2,480 

3,397 

1,63,416 

2,122 


13-6 

16-3 

9-4 

6-3 

20 

■3 

•7 

3-2 

2-4 

3 

■2 

•6 

•8 

40-7 

■5 


65 

7-8 

4-5 

30 

•9 

•1 

■3 

1-5 

11 

1-4 

•1 

■3 

•4 

19-5 

•2 


Total Eabi .... 
Recent fallow 

TOTAE CuLTlVATIOir ... 


4,01,481 
84,349 
8,36,157* 


100 


100 
100 



The mam staples thus are shown to be in order of breadth of land sown : 
first, rice ; second, Indian-corn ; third, barley ; fourth, 
Main staples. wheat ; and these four grains alone cover 47'9 per 

cent, of the whole cultivated area. 

Of the areas under rice and Indian-corn, no less than 54,904< acres of the 
former and 41,&81 acres of the latter, in all 96,885 acres. 
Double crop area. ^^^ cropped a second time at the spring harvest. 

It is a very prevalent custom in this district to sow mixed grains, no less 
than three or four different crops being commonly seen 

Mised crop. growing together. It is a custom which usually accom- 

panies careless cultivation, and it will gradually die out as it becomes 
necessary for the agriculturist to abandon a haphazard style of tUlage, and 
to make the most of his land. A large portion of the area entered as 
" other rabi" consists of these mixed crops, which it was impossible to 
classify under any other head. 

The average out-turn of the main staples on which the produce estimates 
were based was determined by the settlement depart- 

Outtum. ment. The estimated out-turn of each crop differed 

somewhat in each pargana according to the character of soil, &c.,. but 
the following may be taken as the average : — 

Wheat ... "■. •" 7 maunda per bigha. 

Wheat and barley mixed 

Barley 

Itape seed 

Other rabi 

Bice 

Indian-corn 

Other rabi 



& 


ditto. 


6 


ditto. 


6 


ditto. 


H 


ditto. 


6 


ditto. 


6 


ditto. 


4 


ditto. 



* This return is apparently fairly correct, much more so than others elsewhere printed. 
Vide Appendix J., Sarda Canal Ktepoxtj and Anijual Statistical Forms. 



134 BAH 

The out-turn of fodder, chaff and straw is an important matter from a 
military point of view. It is generally supposed that a 
Fodder. ^^^^ q£ wheat or rice grain should yield about the same 

■weight, and a quarter more, straw and bhusa ; thus an average crop of 
wheat is twelve maunds or 984 lbs. per acre, the straw will be 1,230 lbs. per 
acre. In this district, owing to the abundance of grazing, such fodder is 
remarkably cheap. After harvest five maunds for a rupee is an ordinary 
price, while the Lucknow market rate will be eight annas a maund. The 
straw of gram or maize bears a larger proportion to the grain. 

It will be apparent from the above statistics that the cultivation in 
Bahraich is inferior. Tobacco, sugarcane, and garden crops only reach 
together about 10,000 acres, or little more than one per cent. 

The cultivation of sugarcane is prohibited by local custom in some places, 
but the same superstition prevails in Kheri, which nevertheless exhibits 
about five per cent, of high cultivation. 

Rice is, as will appear above, the most important 
^°®" crop in Bahraich ; a few details may therefore be given. 

The entire crop may be divided into two great classes : — 

First, the kharif rice, which is sown in Asd,rh, about the beginning of 
July, and is cut in Kartik. The most important species in this district are 
the sathi, batisa, mutamari, anjani. 

Second, the aghani rice, which is sown in Sawan, July — August, and is 
cut in Aghan, November. The most important kinds are gauria, jarhan, 
bilar, sutiari, raitasi, rudwa, karangi. 

Third, the transplanted rice, the mahin or bhartw^ri ; this is sown with 
the first and reaped with the second : the extra time required is due to the 
delay and impeded growth caused by transplanting, which is done when 
the water is from six to sixteen inches deep. 

The principal species used for transplanting are dherwa and latera. 
All the rice is, as a rule, sown in water, but rice for transplanting may 
be sown in moist earth, although it, too, must be transplanted into water. 

Good crops are per acre for BiaAfo 14 to 18 maunds. 

» „ for aghani 8 to 12 „ 

„ tor kharif .^. ... 6 to 10 „ 

No improvements have been made in the quality or length of staple. 
The average area tilled by each cultivator ranges from 3'47 acres in 
Size f farms Hisampur to G'ST acres in Charda pargana ; the aver- 
ize arms. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^-^ ^^^^ adult cultivator with his family is 
5 J acres throughout the district. 

According to the census returns the agricultural population of the dis- 
trict is 495,750,* and there will be If acres to each member of the culti- 
vating community. But this return is incorrect ; the numbers of the 
agricultural population are considerably larger. Of the total population, 
774,000, 600,000 will be dependent upon agriculture. The crop area is 
752,000 acres : this will give exactly an acre and a quarter for each agricul- 
tural inhabitant, and less than one acre for each of the entire population. 

* Census Eeport, page 35. 



BAH 



153 



All the people are dependent upon the district itself for food, there being 
no import of grains except a little pulse from Bara Banki. 

If the statistics given in the settlement report can he relied upon, there 
Extension of oultiva- has been a great increase of cultivation from 609,742 
tion. acres in 1858 to 837,253 acres in 1868. This is equi- 

valent to an increase of 64 per cent. 

In this latter area, however, fallow has been included ; in the former it 
has not. It would be almost impossible in fact in the grain rented lands 
for the village accountant to record the area of fallow, and it is never done. 
We may therefore deduct the fallow 85,000 acres, and the actual area under 
cultivation is 752,000 acres. The real increase therefore is only 49 per 
cent. Much of this increase, however, is deceptive. In 1858 a good part 
of Bahraich was in rebellion, and the Begam of Oudh's forces threatened 
the country from across the Il^pti up till 1859. Much of the land would 
therefore have been waste temporarily on that account. Still the increase 
of cultivation, after all allowances, must have benefited the people. 

A table showing the range of prices in Bahraich for the last ten years is 
Prices, and famine. appended. They are, it will appear, about 10 per 
cent, lower than those prevalent in Lucknow, but are 
rapidly rising : — 
Statement showing details of produce and prices in HaTiraicTi district for tJie 
ten following years 1861 to 1870. 





: 


ffi 


S 


CD 


O 


p 


« 


s 


O 


O 


1 ■ 






bj] 


(30 


bD 


bO 


M 


bfl 


bp 


bo 


tm 


^ s 










ca 


ca 


^ 


CS 


ea 


cS 


CO 


O 01 








€ 




F-> 


U 


b 


h 


s 


n 














(U 


ff 


O 


? 


<o 


? 


O >t 


Description of produce. 


% 


% 


i 


% 


5 


% 


g 


s 


s 


& 


gS 










TjT 


lO* 








oT 


o" 


s ■** 










U) 


<o 








CD 


ts. 


Ch 




41 


534 


58J 


50 


CO 

461 


■ s 


2 


2 


CO 


CO 

564 


■5 


Paddy 


464, 


,53 


53 


584 


51A 


Common rice* 


19J 


22 


214 


m 


14i 


12| 


15f 


144 


114 


14 


16A 


Best rice 


16 


164 


16 


15i 


11 


lOf. 


12 


llf 


10 


13i 


13i 


Wheat 


26f 


42i 


36i 


20i 


J44 


14 ■ 


26f 


25i 


13i 


19i 


23* 


Barley 


45i 


59J 


59J 


59 


20 


19i 


48f 


414 


33 


26i 


42i 


Bajra 

Juar 












... 


,,, 


25i 






25i 


d\ 


ssj 


56i 


56" 


26i 


24i 


424 


43 


22i 


27i 


40tV 


Gram 


28i 


444 


484 


40i 


20 


16i 


284 


33f 


15 


I7i 


31t'o 


A.rh&^iCytis'US Cajan) 


394 


44 


43 


35| 


21i 


m 


38i 


431 


181 


191 


32tV 


XTrd or Maeh (Pha- 
























seolus Max) 


29J 


36 


314 


23 


12f 


13i 


20J 


271 


13| 


12 


22 


Mothi (PTiaseolus 
























AconitifoUus) 


30^ 


431 


39 


314 


17 


I7i 


26| 


38i 


lU 


134 


28t°o 


Mting {Phaseolus 
























Mungo) 


23i 


26i 


16J 


16 


12i 


12J 


274 


14i 


lOi 


Hi 


16t% 


Masur, (Urintm liens) 


384 


564 


61 


39i 


214 


17 


39i 


45 


19 


194 


34i 


Ahsa or Matra (Pisnm 
Sativum) 


36 


58i 


63 


57 


25i 


m 


374 




m 


15| 


374 


Ghuiyan {Arum Colo- 
casia) 


35| 


48 


31i 


39 


34J 


36 


35| 


38 


38 


42 


37 i 


Sarson (Sinapis Dioho- 

tOW/d •'• 


161 


16J 


15i 


15i 


144 


144 


14 


131 


12i 


111 


144 


Lahi, (Sinapis nigra) 
Eaw sugar 


20i 
3 


181 
2f 


18| 
3 


21 
3 


164 
3i 


18 
3 


19i 
3i 


10 
3 


14f 
3 


15i 
3 


18i 
3 



* The rate entered for " common rice" must be wrong. 



156 BAH 

Kodo is tbelo-west-priced grain, btit its stipply is not Ve*y regular, nor is 
that of sanw^n. The stibject of prices is, however, so closely connected with 
that of famine and scarcity, that they must be treated together. 

The districts of Bahraich and Gonda may be considered as ofle, and first a 
sketch of what is now (February 1874) occurring in Gonda-Bahraich may 
be given, as it seems to be typical of every year of scarcity. _ From the 
soutbem portion of those districts an immense export of kodo, juar, maize, 
and a little rice is going on from every ghat on the river Gogra, which 
forms their western boundary, and by country carts to Oolonelganj and 
Nawabganj. 

Meanwhile, in the nOTthern portions of those very districts, many would 
be starving if large Government relief works were not in progress, yet there 
is abundant communication, good roads and rivers, connecting the export- 
rag and the starving portion of the districts. 

The starving parganas are Balrampur, Utraula, Nanpara. The following 
are the prices now current (February 15, 1874) in that neighbourhood: — 

Kodo, grain 

Kodo, husked ~ 

Wheat 

Gram ... ... _ 

Bice ... > 

Ju^r 

Maize ... ... ... 

In Gonda, itself the following are the rates :- 



Wheat ., 

Maize , 

Ju^r ... M. 

Kice ,« 13 

The latter rates also prevail in the central station, Bahraich. 

These are not famine prices. Wheat in IS&O- was 8 sers for the rupee ; 
in 18^5, 10 sers for the rupee ; in 1861—10 sers for the rupee, yet there 
was no famine. Now there is a partial famine when wheat is 14 sers, and 
one grain, kodo, wholesome enough if unmildewed, can be got at 22'7. 
Therefore comparatively high prices in one year do not indicate scarcity, 
nor a compaira.tively low price abundance. Again, the high prices of Bal- 
rampur and Nanpara do not attract grain thither. On the other hand, at 
any rate up' till a very recent period, there was exportation to a large extent 
from Nanpdra to districts where the present rates are no higher, or even 
lower, than in Nanpara. 

In point of fact, the graim prices m a district stricken by famine apply 
merely to a portion of the food of the people. Famines commence first 
with a want of money and employment ; there is no great competition for 
the grain, for it is beyond the means of the masses, and it makes no dif- 
ference to. tha ma^iO£ity whethea: j,iiaK,. theia; mam f^od now, is 16 sers or 24 
per rupee. 



Sera per rupee. 




22 7 


... 


14- 


... 


14-5 




14-7 


... 


12-2 


..." 


15-7 




15-7 


Sers 


per rupee. 




14 


!•• 


16 



BAH 157 

They live on the wild fruit of the gdlar, the corolla of the mahua, the 
calyx of the semal or cotton tree in Gonda-Bahraich. I have repeatedly 
heard the comparatively good effect of these diets discussed recently. The 
demand for grain does not increase, and the Banian does not raise his prices 
till he finds that more people are "willing and able to buy than he can 
supply. So in XJtraula, BaJrampur, and Nanpara, prices have not risen 
high. The people have no m.oney and no employment, so they do not 
compete for the stores remaining. There are as yet supplies of grain in 
the immediate vicinity. A fair spring harvest of wheat is rapidly ripen- 
ing, and here we find another principle at work, checking the upward 
tendency of prices ; in fact, there are so many crops that there is always a 
chance or a probability of one or other turning out well If a grain-dealer 
holds out for the rising rates, he may be disappointed and find himself 
foiled by the new harvest coming into the market. On the other hand, a 
Liverpool merchant knows pretty well that when one crop is harvested no 
new one can come in for a twelve month ; he can tell what the supplies 
are and what scarcity will occur. 

This year the October rice harvest did pretty well ; the November one 
was a failure, but the maize, kodo, and m£sh reaped in those months have 
done tolerably well. Wheat, which will be ripe in the middle of March, 
is doing very well ; arhar and gram are doing badly, but s^nwan is being 
now largely sown, to be reaped in May, and it may turn out well. 

So the local dealer at these extremities of civilisation does not raise his 
prices, for the few who now buy from him would become still fewer, and his 
stock might suddenly be thrown on his hands ; nor does the foreign dealer 
send cargoes to these places, for an additional supply would not be taken 
up by the famishing at the previous rate; it would supply a slightly larger 
circle at a slightly lower rate, and it would go off very slowly. Grain, in fact, 
will only seek a mart wliere there is not only a high price, but also plenty 
of money causing an effectual demand. 

If, then, high prices of former years were not accompanied by famine, 
what do they indicate ? Most probably they were the result of real high 
prices caused by scarcity elsewhere, although in these parts labour and 
money or grain were sufficient for the maintenance of the people. In these 
parts the people are extremely poor and have no savings ; if not mere ordin- 
ary rates for the staples would not be beyond their means, as they now 
are. Generally we may say that there are numerous factors of what is 
commonly called famine. 

First. — ^Want of employment for the day-labouring class. This has 
happened in Nanpara, where the rice crop died, and the annual labourers 
were turned off, because their masters had no stores of food wherewith to 
feed them. 

Second. — Deficiency of grain in the store-houses and in the field. We 
cannot tell whether this has happened or not. The wheat Crop is a good 
one so far ; it may have been, and apparently has been, sown on a much 
more extensive area than usual. It may largely make up for other fail- 
ures. ■ 



158 BAH 

Third. — High grain or money rents, accompanied by a heavy demand 
for grain in Bengal or elsewhere, will certainly bring on chronic scarcity, 
which either of the former causes may aggravate into famine. 

As a rule, in north Oudh there can be no absolute famine till after the 
rabi crop has been gathered in. The reason is as follows : — 

The lower classes live during ten months of the year on the kharif 
grains, rice, kodo, juar, bajra ; these are the food of the masses. In almost 
any case of bad seasons there must be at any rate a five-anna crop of these. 
What is comparative drought for the rice is good seasonable weather for 
maize ; there is therefore, even in the worst years, at any rate sufiScient 
stock of these crops in the country to last for four months, from November 
tiU March, when the supply is eked out by the wild fruits already men- 
tioned. 

If, however, there is a bad rabi or spring crop succeeding, or if there is 
a large export of kharif grain to pay rent or revenue, there may be famine. 
This year the latter cause has been at work : from every part boats have 
been lading for Patna and Bengal. During much of this period consump- 
tion prices have been actually higher than in Patna, 

Nanpara. Balrtopur. Patna. 

Wheat ... ... ... ... ... 14 16- 

Barley ... ... ... ... None ill market 19- 
Gram ... ... ... ... ... 19 147 

Juar ... ... ... ... ... 19 157 

But, it may be repeated, the former is not an effectual demand : it is the 
demand of paupers who will take the grain at those prices but on credit. 
It will be gathered from the above that it is impossible to determine what 
are famine prices in districts like Gonda and Bahraich. When there is 
any general scarcity, they will be the first to suffer, as in the limbs of the 
dying the pulse ceases to be perceptible, while the heart is in full action. 
There may be scarcity of food, or there may be a scarcity of money, or 
there may be both. Now at any rate the effect of a bad season cannot be 
alleviated by the stores of former abundances. 

The Bahraich famines of former years have been sketched in the Fyza- 
bad article. The local authorities declare that famine prices are 12 sers 
for wheat and 18 sers for maize. But no rule of the kind can be laid down. 
We had no famine when wheat was at 10 sers, and we have famine when 
kodo can still be got for 24 sers. On the comparative prices of wheat and 
maize in times of plenty and scarcity I cannot enter. The ofiicial returns 
though roughly correct for wheat, are very incorrect for the poorer grains. 

The only rule to be laid down is, that when the cheapest grain com- 
monly sold in the market reaches 20 sers for the rupee, or when the maizes 
as ju£r, bajra, reach 17 sers, it is then time to test whether the people 
have money to buy at those rates by opening public works. Some of the 
features of the grain trade are hardly explicable on any theory of price. 

For instance, now, in February 1874, carts may be met taking Indian- 
corn on the same road from Nawabganj to Gonda, and other carts from 
Gonda or the immediate neighbourhood to Nawabganj. It was clear that 
the one was to supply the retail trade, the other the wholesale trade. 



BAH 



159 



The direction in whicli the dealer sent his stock was also partly influenced 
by his residence, by his mercantile connexions and their locality ; but after 
making all these allowances, the conclusion is nearly inevitable that some 
of the transactions and prices cannot be explained by any ordinary prin- 
ciples of commercial dealing. The prices of grain in the scarcity of 1869-70 
are given in the following table from the Government Gazette. It un- 
fortunately contains no reference to kodo. 

Statement op Prices. 





Retail Sale, quantify per rupee. 






Articles. 


July 
1869. 


August. 


Septem- 
ber. 


October. 


Novem- 
ber. 


January 
1870. 


February 
1870. 




M. S, C. 


M. S. C. 


M. S. 0. 


M, s. c. 


M. s. c. 


M. S. C. 


M. S. C. 


Wheat, Ist quality... 


13 6 


13 10 


14 4 


12 10 


12 2 


11 8 





Do. 2nd quality... 


14 


14 10 


14 12 


12 14 


12 10 








Gram, 2ud quality... 


20 


17 


17 6 


15 











B4jra 























JuAr 


19 8 


18 


18 


31 


28 


26 12 





Arhar 


19 12 


18 


18 


15 


12 


13 





Urd 


13 2 


12 


12 12 


11 8 


8 li 


11 'o 


Mas6r 


20 12 


18 


18 


15 


10 2 


16 





Mting 


10 


9 


9 


8 4 


10 8 


11 12 





Eice, 2nd quality ... 


11 


10 4 


10 


11 


14 


14 






Transfers of landed property have not been sufficiently numerous to 
Value of landed pro- enable US to deduce its average market value from 
party. Sales. such transactions. In Hisdmpur 2,129 acres assessed 

at Es. 1,943 have been sold for Es. 28,689-3-9, or at the rate of Es. 13-7-7 
per acre, being 14f years' purchase. These properties were ordinary 
village lands, for the most part under cultivation. In the Nanp^ra par- 
gana a jungle grant of 6,070 acres in extent, which had been purchased at 
a sum slightly in excess of the Government upset price, was sold by the first 
grantee after an occupation of only one year for Es. 54,120, the purchaser 
being liable for Es. 12,150 more, the balance of the original price remaining 
unpaid to Government. The full price paid therefore was Es. 66,270, or 
Es. 10-14-8 per acre. No revenue is payable on this grant.* 

Considering the improvable character of most of the estates in this dis- 
trict and the moderate revenue which has been assess- 
ed upon them, I am of opinion that it would be 

* In 1873 and 1874 there were 557 mortgages and sales of landed property and houses 
registered ; the amounts of the transactions aggregated Rs, 12,97,216. 



General value. 



160 



BAH 



exceedingly difficult to purchase land anywhere in this district at less than 
fifteen years' revenue, and far the larger number of properties would fetch 
considerably more than this. 

Municipalities have been established in Bahraich and Nanp^ra, and, so 
far as the experience of two years in the case of the 
raSric^mmiuils: former town, and one year in tha,t of the latter, justi- 
fy a judgment, have been worked with moderate suc- 
cess. The non-official members who have been appointed consist of two 
loyal grantees, the agent of the E.aja-e-Eajgan of Kaptirthala, and several of 
the principal mahajans of the city. When sufficient confidence and sense of 
their responsibility shall have been acquired by these parties, it is probable 
that the committee wiU benefit by their opinions independently expressed, 
and be entitled to esteem itself a representative body. At present the view 
that is taken of town government by these gentlemen is somewhat one- 
sided and self-interested, and all endeavours that have been made by the 
vice-president and the other official members to reach with taxation the' 
Banian and other well-to-do classes have been thwarted by the opposition 
of the commercial element ; while even those other members- of the com- 
mittee who are more educated and enlightened, and from whom assistance 
might have been expected, have not been able to free themselves from the 
tendency which most men have to dislike and resist taxation which affects 
directly their own incomes. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, however, a great deal of good has 

been effected ; the conservancy establishment works 
mprovemen 3. ^^jj^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^^^^ ^-^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^j^ ^ ^iee^p 

the outside of the platter clean is certainly gaining ground. 

The town police too are, it is believed, considered by the people to have 
rendered property much more secure than it was before a regular system of 
ward and watch was established. At present this is as much as we can 
expect, and if we can discern a decided improvement under the above two 
heads, the municipality may be said to be worth its salt. 

The revenue is mainly realized from the octroi collections, which amount 
to Ks. 11,700 per annum. A poll tax of half anna on 
pilgrims to the shrine of Sayyad Salar at the last 
annual fair yielded more than Es. 2,000. 

There are two charitable dispensaries in the district, one at the sadr 

. station and the other at Hisampur. The returns shew 

lapensanes. ^ steady increase in the number of applications for 

relief. For the last four years the average number of patients has been as 

follows ; — 



Revenue. 





g 

S 


Out-door. 


3 


Average daily attendauoe. 




In-door. 


Out-door 


Total. 


Bahraich ... 
Hisampur ... 


165 
55 


5,542 
2,365 


5,707 
2,420 


8-50 
3-55 


37-91 
31-56 


46-41 
35-M 


Total 


220' 


7,907 


8,127 


12-05 


69-47 


81-52 



BAH 



161 



Of the 8,127 persons ttus annually treated, tlie num"ber of cures, failures, 
and deaths is shewn thus : — 





Cured aiii 
relieved. 


Ceased, to 
attend, or 
no better. 


Died. 


TotaL 


Bahraich 
HisSmpur 


4,978 
2,315 


710 
103 


19 
2 


5,707 
2,429 


Total 

■ 


7,293 


813 


21 


8,127 



89 per cent, being successful cases. The number of capital operations, on 
the average, is at Bahraich 17 per annum, and the number of minor opera- 
tions is at Bahraieh 128 per annum, at Hisampur 80 per annum. 

The whole cost of the maintenance of these establishments is very 
Coat. moderate. 

The average receipts are : — ■ 



Baliraich 
Hisampur 



Total .. 



SabscriptaoHfc, 


Government 
grant. 


Other sources 


Total. 


■ European. 


Native. 


Es. A. P. 
210 


Es. A. P. 
627 8 
181 12 


Ra. A. P. 

1,127 12 

582 12 


Ea. A. P. 
123 12 


Ea. A. P. 

2,089 8 

764 8 


210 


709 4 


1,710 8 


123 12 


2,853 8 



The average expenditure is : — 







Establisliment, 


Dieting patients 
and bazar 
medicines. 


Contingencies. 


Total. 






Es. A. P. 


Ks, A, P. 


Es. A. P. 


Rs. A. P. 


Bairaich 





1,317 4 


263 12 


250 8 


1,831 8 


Hisampur 


Total 


604 4 


82 4 0' 


39 4 


625 12 




1,821 8 


346 


289 12 


2,457 i 



Thus it appears that each patient treated costs as near as possible 4 annas 
10 pies, not a very extravagant doctor's bill. 

h 



50-2 per cent. 


13-3 




6-1 




60 




3-3 




2-9 




2-8 




2-3 




1-8 




1-2 




1-2 




1-0 




■9 




•7 




61 




1000 


per cent 



162 BAH 

The percentage of the various classes of diseases treated at the Bahraich 
sadr dispensary during the last two years is as 
Diseases follows :— 

Goitre 

Skin diseases ... 

Fever 

Abdomen ... 

Genito-urinary disease 

Rheumatism 

Syphilis 

Chest disease ... 

Injuries ... 

Diarrhoea 

Bye disease 

Ear disease 

Leprosy 

Dysentery 

Other diseases ... 



The goitre disease is excessively prevalent in the lowlands about Fakhrpur, 

and nothing has contributed more to the popularity of 

Goitre. the dispensary than its. successful treatment of this 

class of cases. No. less than 5,875 sufferers from this repulsive disease 

have applied for, and in almost every case obtained, relief during the past 

two years. 

It is in dealing with special diseases of this kind, skin diseases, &c., that 
our dispensaries are particularly useful. As a rule, 
those who are attacked with fever, diarrhoea, dysent- 
ery, &c., prefer to remain and die in their own homes. 

Indeed, in almost all cases of this kind, they are unable from weakness to 

attend as out-patients, and there would be room for only a very small 

number as in-door patients. 

Owing probably to the distance of this district from the head-quarters of 
any opium agency, but very little opium has been as 
Opium. yg^ grown in the district. The opium agent was 

withdrawn from Bahraich in 1863, but the department determined on en- 
couraging poppy cultivation, and has deputed an assistant to promote its 
extension. The area under poppy during the ten years ending 1870, is 
shown below : — 



The main use of dis- 
pensaries. 



Season. 


Cultivation in agency 
bSghas. 


Produce in maunds. 


186,0-61 


682 






164 


32 5| 


1861-62 


1,594 


'l9 


... 


257 


144 


1862-63 


2,243 


• .. 




336 


5 ' 


34 


1863-64 


3,120 


13 


... 


485 


12 


10 


1864-65 


2,719 


15 


... 


282 


22 


41 


1865-66 


Nil. 




Nil. 




1866-67 


mi. 




mi. 




1867-68 


5,512 




... 


831 


20 


8 


1868-69 


6,583 


'l4 


... 


884 


21 


%■ 


1869-70 


7,536 


... 


... 


964 


6 


V. 



BAH 163 

From this statement it appears that the average gross out-turn of opium 

„ ^ , , , per bigha is 6 sers 1 chhatak. For this the cultivator 

Out-turn and value. ■ -jii-L j^ r -n r- r n 

IS paid at the rate oi Rs. 5 per ser tor ail opium 

delivered at the agency at Fyzabad. To the cultivator therefore the 

value of the average produce is Rs. 30-5-3 per pakka bigha. 

Opium is sold retail at the Government treasury at the sadr station, 
, and at Nanpara and Kurasar, at the rate of Rs. 16 a 

in the district. "™* ser, and the average receipts for the last 10 years 
have been about Rs. 4,160, showing a total consump- 
tion of 260 sers, or of one tola weight for every two dozen adults in the 
district. Little as this seems, the consumption is steadily on the increase, 
the amount sold now at Bahraich being more than double what it was 
ten years ago. That the consumers mostly reside in the towns of Bahraich 
and Ndnpara is what would be anticipated, both these towns comprising a 
large number of Muhammadans among the population. This idea is con- 
firmed by the fact that at the outlying tahsil at Kurdsar, where there is no 
urban population, the sale is almost nil, though the density of the general 
population there is much greater than in the northern parganas. 

Under the central system there is only one distillery in the district, at 

which there are 21 stills turning out, on an average of 

DiatiUenes-out-turn. ^^^ j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 5q 321 gaUons of liquor per 

annum. This out-turn gives a consumption throughout the district of as 
nearly as possible one gallon per annum for every ten adults. Consider- 
ing the character of the Bahraich climate, this amount is certainly not 
excessive, and though the returns shew that the consumption is year by 
year increasing, there are hardly grounds at present for the charge that we 
are teaching the natives to drink. There are 357 retail vendors' shops in 
the district, being about one to every 7^ square miles of area. 

The duty on the spirit as it is issued from bond is 1 rupee or 12 annas 
per gallon according to the strength, the limits of 
^°*y- which is fixed at 24 degrees below proof for first 

class liquor, and 30 degrees below proof for second class. 

Far the larger portion of the spirits distilled in this district is obtained 
Three kinda of liquor. ^^^^ mahua, this kind of liquor being the most po- 
pular, as it is the cheapest. The spirit distilled from 
molasses is of two kinds, that obtained from gur being more expensive 
than that obtained from shira. The out-turn of the past year of the several 
kinds and the price of the same is shown below : — 

Gallons . Price per gallon. 

Mahua „. ... ... First clasa") ej 254 f 1 12 8 

... Second ,, 'j ' (.1 



Shira 
Gur 



5 

First class ) o nnn f 2 10 1 

Second „ \ "^''^^ 1 1 14 

First class i o noo f 2 12 9 

Second „ i ^'^^^l 2 



Total of all Wnds ... 56, 996 

Average price, Rs. 2 per gallon of 6 bottles. 

l2 



Ui BAH 

In the Nawabi the standard measure for spirits was the hdnels or bottle, 
which held from 10 to 12 chhatiks weight of liquor, and 
Nawabi prices com- 
pared witli present 8 bottles of ttis size of first-class sharab "^ 
prices. 12 ditto „ second „ j, > cost Ee. I. 

16 ditto (, third „ ,, } 

It thus appears that the price of liquor is now on the average nearly four 
times that at which it was Sold in the Nawabi. In face of these figures 
our dbkari system can Scarcely be charged with eiicouraging drunkenness. 

The seren sections into which the forests are divided departmentally 
are under the charge of an assistant conservator, with 
tion prior ttm^T^m.'^ ^ ^*^^ °^ rangers and foresters. Prior to the year 
1868 the forests seem to have been left pretty much 
to themselves. The conservancy was entrusted mainly to native agency 
or to European superintendence (supervisors of a class from which nothing 
but a lax discharge of duties and confused accountfi could be expected). 

A marked improvement in the management of the forests has resulted 

from the appointment to the charge of them of re- 

The drawbacks to sponsible officers. The conservancy now is as strict 

conservancy. ^ •. n -u i • '' ■ -xx j j 

as it well can be as long as grazmg is permitted, and 
the " three-mile rule" (which allows all residents within that distance to 
cut the unreserved woods for private use) holds good. It certainly is not 
desirable that either of these rights should be confiscated, but there is no 
objection that can be reasonably urged against shutting up certain por- 
tions of the forest into which no one but the foxest officers should be 
allowed entry. 

The excellent roads which are being driven through the various sections 
Forest roads dividing the forest into convenient blocks, will mate- 

rially facilitate the carrying out of such a system, 
at the same time that they render timber operations more feasible, and 
confer a benefit on the surrounding country by opening up communica- 
tions. 

One line deserves especial mention, viz., that which, in all the sections 
Frontier roads. adjoining the Naipal territory, has been cut along the 

frontier, thus serving the double purpose of a road 
and a permanent boundary. It would not be difficult to connect the ends 
of these roads by a similar track carried along the frontier, and thus secure 
a line of communication which would be very useful in the event of disturb- 
ances on the borders. 

The more systematic administration of the forests has resulted directly 

revenue ^^ increased revenue, the net profit from the division 

being in 1867-68, Rs. 7,432-14-4 ; in 1868-69, Rs. 

21,892-12-1 ; and in 1869-70, Rs. 25,691-15-0. For the past three years-- 

The average receipts have been ... ... Ra. 33,219 3 8 

The average expenditure ... „ 13,175 13 11 



Average net pfofli ... Ks. 20,043 5 9 



BAH 165 

There can be no doulat but that the revenue collected by the department 
Contract system. would have been considerably more than this if the 
ruinous system of giving contracts for forest produce, 
&c., had not been adopted and adhered to long after it was found to have 
failed. It is almost impossible at the auctions to prevent combinations, 
which, when effected, completely defeat the efforts of Government to secure 
fair bids. 

The general post office has two main stations in the district, viz., at 

ffl T -1 Bahraich and Nanpara, and an imperial post runs 

lines °^ ce. mpena every day to and from these post offices and to Luck- 

now vid Bahramghat, to Gonda and Fyzabad via 

Pidgpur, and to Sitapur vid Chahlarighat. 

The scheme for the rural post offices was drawn up by the settlement 
officer, and these are now in full working order, the 

Eural post offices. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ defrayed from the dak cess, which amounts 

in this district, as re-defined, to Rs. 2,773-8-4, and from the Government 
subsidy amounting to Rs. 576. Fifteen post offices have been opened, 
situated for the most part on the district lines of road, and at such distances 
apart as to secure for each office a circle area of not more than 5 miles in 
radius. All police stations were selected as centres of circles. This course 
was followed with a regard to administrative convenience, and also to give 
the district officer an opportunity of supervision through his thanadar. 
Since however the scheme has been started, the direction of these rural 
offices has been taken by Government out of the hands of the local officials, 
and made over to the imperial postal department. 

The table of weights in use prior to annexation 

Weightsand measures. ^^^ ^^ foUoWS :— 



4 jau or barley corns 
8 ratti .. 

12 masha 

5 tola ... 

20 tola = 4 chhatak 
80 tola = 16 „ 
2 sera = 160 tola 
2 panseri = i sers 
40 sers 



1 ratti. 

1 mdsha. 

1 tola. 

1 olihatak. 

1 pao. 

1 ser. 

1 panseri, kachoha. 

1 dhara. 

1 maund, 



The ratti is the seed of a jungle creeper, white, hard, and dry. It is 
„, ,,. , . ,, slightly heavier than the ghunghchi, also a seed of a 

The ratti and ghungh- & ■'-,■,, j -,, ?i i j. i • "u • i • 

cM • difference in Creeper, bright red with a black spot, which is used m 
weight. Lucknow as the standard weight, and consequently the 

Bahraich weights all through the table were proportionately heavier than 
those in use in that city. 

The difference amounts to one in twelve, twelve Lucknow m^shas being 
only equal to eleven Bahraich mashas. 

The English Government tola falls short of the Bahraich tola by 12 
between ^^^^^^ OT 1^ mashas ; in other words, the former is one- 
the EngUsh Qovern- eighth less in weight than the latter. Thus the Gov- 
ment tola and the Bah- ernment ser of 80 tolas (Government) contains only 
raich tola. jq ^o^^s Bahraich weight, and the Government maund 

of 40 sers (Government) is equivalent to 35 Bahraich Nawabi sers. 



1€6 BAH 

The late Coinage Act has brought the regulation ser very much nearer 
the local ser, thus : — 

The old Government ser = 32| ounces = 80 Government tolas. 

Tie new Govern- The new Government ser = 36 ounces = 87| 

ment ser. Government tolas. The old Nawabi ser = 37| ounces 

= 91f Government tolas. It still, however, falls short of that ser by 

1| ounces. 

We may remark that for all practical purposes of an agricultural commu- 
nity this ser described so elaborately does not exist except in the town of 
Bahraich itself. The above divisions of the ser are the same as those 
detailed in Prinsep's Useful Tables, page 96, and in the ordinary Indian 
almanacs, and it is possible that some such work was drawn upon for the 
details, whose authenticity is thereby assured. The real Bahraich ser, as 
indeed that in indigenous use everywhere in North India, is not a paJcJca 
ser but a kachcha ser, whose weight varies infinitesimally, but with cer- 
tain rather narrow limits. The number of rupees is the initial element of 
the variation with which the two series diverge. 

In southern Bahraich, at Sisia for instance, the scale is as follows for the 
kachcha or local ser : — 

Maund. Panseri. Ser. Chhatak or ganda. Es. or tolas. Mashaa. 

1 = 8 = 40 = 260 = 1,595 = 15,697 

1=5= 32i = 299 = 1,962 

1 = 6^ = 371 = 392i 

1 = 5J = 60J 

1 = lOi 

Now the pakka ser diverges from the above both in the number of rupees 
in the ganda and the number of gandas in the ser. 

The former seems a divergence which may be a local irregularity without 
formal or extensive sanction, the latter is so broad and of so extensive 
adoption that it seems based on some different principle of measurement, 
perhaps belonging to a different era, or adopted by a different race or em- . 
pire from that which used the pakka ser. The two sers are compared 
through the medium of the panseri and the Jcachcha maund in their rela- 
tions to the pakka ser and the pahJca maund. 

The panseri* is popularly said to be equal to 2, 2|, or 2| pakka sers in 
different parts of Bahraich, or indeed of Oudh, and the kachcha maund 
equals 16, 18, or 20 pakka sers ; but in reality there are numerous minute 
variations : the local maund used in Bahraich, as above detailed, weighs 
1,495 tolas or 15,697 mashas ; the tola is the old Chihradar rupee of 173 
grains. It would appear that the masha, which consists of eight rattis 
natural grain, is a fixed weight all over India, although of course it may 
vary infinitesimally. The rupee or tola is designed to be twelve mdshas, 
but the covetousness of princes debasing the weight of the coin, lowered 
it to ten mdshas or ten and a half ; then the community, finding their 
weighing unit less than what it was, rather than change the rest of the 
scale, increased the number of these tolas in the next unit, the chhatak : 

* Five local or small sers. 



BAH 16? 

tKus they took 5| of the new tola instead of 5, and it will be observed 
that they thereby retained the chhatak at 60 ni5,shas. They avoided, in 
fact, the interference of the coinage and its variation with their weights 
by increasing the number of the coins when the latter were diminished in 
weight. 

So far therefore the two metrical systems proceed together ; they diverge 
at the ser ; six and a half chhataks go theoretically to the kachcha ser, and 
sixteen to the other. The former is evidently the old system of North India 
adopted by Akbar, whose maund was 34| lbs., just about the average of the 
local maunds above described. 

The present English bazar ser being equal to 87f tolas of 173 grains each 
or 35J ounces, the local maund is equal to about 17J sers or 38 lbs. 
avoirdupois when the local panseri consists of 32 gandas or chhatak ; if it 
is less, as sometimes of 30 gandas, a proportional reduction must be made. 
In order to find out what are the values of the local weights, this last is 
the question always to be asked. The panseri and the ganda are the 
local units ; the number of rupees or tolas in the ganda must also be 
asked, because six rupees is the number in use here, but four rupees in 
Gonda,{vide that article); the panseri contains 25 to 28 gandas of six rupees. 
When the panseri equals B2^ gandas the Bahraich kachcha ser iS equal 
therefore to 6§- chhataks of the Government ser and the local maund con- 
tains 17 Government sers. The panseri contains 2^ Government sers, or 
about 79-5- ounces of 437J grains ; the ser is therefore almost equal to a 
pound avoirdupois, and for small measurements may be used as its 
equivalent. 

The universal use of the panseri, as also of the term pdnohonmdl, for the 
entire produce of the field, and the assignment of one equal share, apart 
from these five, viz., of one-sixth to the ploughman or actual labourer, all 
seem a part of the ancient system recorded by Manti, under which one- 
fifth went to the king. In Bahraich there is, as stated in the settlement 
report, a local large or pakka ser but its derivation is not given. It is 
derived from the panseri of 32 gandas and is half of that weight. The 
origin of this local unit is unknown, and its application is very limited ; in 
Bahraich itself the batisi panseri is used collaterally, and exclusively in 
the neighbouring local marts. 

The large ser is 16 gandas, and as the Government ser is supposed to 
be 14 gandas, the present grain rates are found by deducting one-eighth 
from the market rate of the larger or lambari ser. But this is not strictly 
correct. If the ganda is calculated as equal to six of the present rupee 
weighing 180 grains, then a pound avoirdupois is equal to 6'47 gandas, 
and the standard ser to 14-26 gandas. The native avoided any such 
complication by using a ganda of 5f Government tolas or rupees. 

In the above calculation I have used the following elements of ac- 
count : — One tola or rupee = 180 grains avoirdupois, about eighty-five of 
which form a Government ser ; 5f tolas = one ganda ; sixteen gandas = 
one local large ser ; fourteen, or more correctly fourteen and one quarter, 
= one Government ser. 



168 BAH 

Tke -whok subject is mvolred in confusion because we have broken 
down the panseri system. "We have raised the weight of the rupee on 
which it was based from 172 to 180 grains ; we no longer furnish the 
legal unit of weight upon which the whole metrical system of Upper 
India, at least as far as I know, was founded. The rupee, the ganda, the 
panseri, the kachcha maund, formed the ancient series; but the rupee, 
was, I know, originally 173 grains, — see Prinsep's Useful Tables, page 8, 
and for the LucknoW coinage, page 56. 

The present rupee , weighs 180 grains ; the local dealers after a time 
follow each variation of the unit, and endeavour to adopt their panseri to 
it ; bxit as there is no legal unit of weight a simple multiple of which 
Would constitute any weight in ordinary bazar use, it is almost impossible' 
to test the correctness of any bazar weight except by comparison with 
those used by men of probity in the immediate neighbourhood. 

In conclusion I may simply state that th-e panseri, the local unit, should 
weigh 32 gandas ; that each of those gandas should weigh about 5^ rupees 
sikka of 192 grains, or six Farukhabad rupees of 180 grains. The Gov- 
ernment ser and maund weights have been introduced, and it is to be 
hoped that their adoption will shortly be rendered compulsory. Practical- 
ly, the rupee is the initial unit, and all inquiry into rattis or ghunghchis 
is, for agricultural or trade purposes, useless. 

The uncertainty of the weight not only opens a door to fraud, but. 
renders conviction for it practically impossible, when local officers are 
ignorant of principles which guide the native metrical system — a system by 
which nine-tenths of all trade operations are still conducted. In Bahraich. . 
bazar I tested a grain-dealer's panseri weight ; he admitted it ought ta 
weigh 32 gandas each of six Machhlidar rupees (each 173 grains, vide 
Prinsep's Tables). It did weigh two sers and six chhataks. Now a ser 
equals 14,400 grains, and it will appear that it really did weigh 32 gandas, 
each of six rupees of 178 grains, and that the local maund :so weighed will 
weigh exactly 18 bazar sers or 17| imperial sers. According to the pro- 
portion used by Gtovernment in making up the official grain-rates, the 
panseri should have been f |- of the Government ser, or two sers four and 
a half chhatdk. By his own admission this grain-dealer's weight, which 
w^as only used in huying grain, was nearly four per cent, too heavy. 
The weight consisted of a large stone to which additional matter had 
been glued on at the bottom with strong resin. This dealer had adroitly 
adopted the altered coinage so as to get his grain cheaper. The tobacco 
'maund in Bahraich, as in Sitapur, consists of 25 panseri, or more than 
three ordinary maunds. 

The liquid measure was referred to weight, the "kanch" or bottle con- 
Liquid measures and ta™°f .t^^^ee pao Or sixty tolas weight of liquid. In 
measures of capacity. stich things as Oil, &c., no fixed measure was used, the 
actual weight only determining the quantity. The 
" kanch" was used chiefly to measure wine and spirits. Fixed measures 
of capacity there were none. 

The standard measure for length was the " hath," which was the average 

Long measure. length of the forearms of three men taken at random. 

From a comparison of the different standard yard 



BAH 169 

measures in use in the Bahraich bazax, I have ascertained that the cubit 
thus determined was as nearly as possible equal to 18f inches. The table 
then proceeded as follows : — 

3 Haths = 1 gattha or kasi = 56 inotes. 
20 Kasis = 1 kachcha jarib = 93 feet 4 inches. 
110 Jaribs = 2,200 kasia = 1 kos = 3,422 yards feet 8 inolies. 

Thus the kos was short of two English statute miles by about 98 yards. 

Yard measure. '^^® J^^ measures mentioned above are as follows, 

three in number : — 
First. — The bazzazi or sikandari gaz = 1| hdtha = 2 feet 4 inches. 
This yard is by far the oldest of the three, and has from time immemorial 
been used by the weavers and the cloth merchants, also for measuring all 
kinds of country-made cloth. 

Second. — The Qatai gaz = IJ haths = 2 feet 8| inches. 

This is used by the tailors in measuring the cloth when they make it up, 
and also by masons, carpenters, &c., in all measurements in work connected 
with their trade. The cubic contents of all excavations effected by hired 
labour will be determined by this yard. 

Third. — The ilahi gaz = 2J haths = 42 inches. 

This yard was only introduced about 40 years ago when European 

piece-goods for the first time began to find their way into the market. 

Among the natives it is universally looked upon as an English measure, 

and to this day European cloth and nothing else is measured by this yard. 

The local land surveyors state that in their reckoning 2\ ungals equal 
one girah, ten girahs equal one hdth or cubit, and three haths are equal to 
one kasi, which is generally measured by a man taking two paces, equi- 
valent to 75 ungals or fingers'-breadth. 

There are none of the elaborate differential scales used in surveying. 

According to the standard mentioned by the Settlement Officer, a local 
bigha will be a square of 93 feet 4 inches, viz., of 968 square yards, not 
one-third of the Government bigha of 3,025 square yards, and curiously 
enough this is exactly one-fifth of the acre of 4,840 square yards. Others 
state that the local bigha has been determined, and that 2 bighas 17 bis was 
16 biswdnsis of the local bigha are equal to one Government bigha. 

No authority could be quoted for the latter statement. 

The copper currency of the district in the Nawabi consisted mainly of 
the well-known Gorakhpuri paisa. One paisa of this 
Coinage. The Gorakh- currency was worth some 30 years ago from 20 to 24 
pun paisa. gandas or '' fours" of cowries. For the last two or 

three decades, however, the value of the coin, as measured by cowries, has 
been decreasing, and at the present time its market value varies from 12 
to 8 gandas of these shells. 

The Sher Shahi paisa was also current, being worth only 16 or 16^ gandas, 
while the copper coin current on the other side of the 
Other copper coins. Qogj-a, in Bara Banki, called Maddu SAhi and Nawab 
Sihi, was worth from 21 to 26 gandas. 



170 BAH 

The fair at the Sayyad Sdlar's dargah is said to have considerably 

The exchange affect- affected the exchange for some time after its occur- 

edby the Sayyad Salar rence in each year, owing to the large influx of cowries 

fair. at that time, the poorer class of pilgrims casting in 

their offerings in these mites. 

The Government 3-pie piece, though containing far less copper than 

the Gorakhpur coin, commands a higher price, fetch- 

The GoTemment 3- j always one ganda more than its unofficial, though 
pie piece. °. ^ ,. •' , ,,° ' ° 

weightier, brother. 

The number of Gorakhpuri paisa in one rupee varied from 18 to 22 
The value of 1 rupee gandas, and at the present time it stands at 19^ 
in the various copper gandas. The Government 3-pie piece (or " double" 
''o™^- as it is called), however, exchanges invariably for its 

standard value of 16 gandas or 64 to the rupee, this rate of exchange' 
being determined solely by the fact that it is received at this value at the 
Government treasury. 
The rupee pieces The rupees which were most commonly current 

current in the Na-wabi. were as follows : — - 

1. " Chihradar" or Company's rupees, weight 10| mashas. 

2. " Shamsher Shdhi" coined at Lucknow by Amjad Ali Shah, weight 
10 mashas, but worth more than No. 1 by one paisa. 

3. " Sher Shahi" coined at Lucknow by Ghazi-ud-din Haidar,10 m&has 
weight, worth the same as INo. 1. 

4. " Paridar" or fairy coin, coined at_Lucknow by Wajid Ali Shah, 10 
mdshas weight, worth one paisa more than No. 1. 

5. " Putlidar" or puppet coin, coined at Lucknow by Muhammad Ali 
Shah, 10 mdshas weight, worth the same as No. 1. 

6. " Machhlidar" or fish coin, coined at Lucknow, but in the name of 
the Delhi Emperor Shah Alam, 10 mashas weight, worth 1| pice or 2 pice 
more than No. 1. 

7. " Gararidar" or edged coin, coined in Farukhabad in the name of 
Shah A'lam, 10 mashas 3J rattis in weight, same value as No. 1. 

8. " Farukhabadi," named from the place at which it was coined, 
Muhammad Shah of Delhi, 10 mashas weight, same value as No. 1. 

9. " Kaldar" or ribbed coin, coined by Shah A'lam at Farukhabad, 10 
mashas 3^ rattis in weight. 

10. " Chdryari," coined by Akbar Shah at Delhi, weight 10 mdshas 2 
rattis, worth 2 annas more than No. 1. This coin is square in shape. 
Its silver is peculiarly pure, and it is - popularly said to have the excellent 
virtue of betraying the thief who should be unlucky enough to be put to the 
well-known rice test in its presence. 

11. "Pahari" or hill coin, from the mint of one Bikram Sah, a hill 
chieftain, weight 5 md,shas, value 6J annas. 

12. " Dakhain" or " Kurwa," also called " Rakabi," a thick but small 
coin, with Hindi characters, weight 9 mashas 6 rattis, value 12 annas. I 
have been unable to ascertain whose coin this is. 



BAH 



171 



It will be noticed that the Company's rupee, though heavier by half a 
The Company's mitsha than most of the coins from the native mints, 
rupee less valuable has always been considered so far alloyed as to reduce 
than the native coins, j^s value below them. Very few rupees other than those 
of Government currency are now found in circulation, the old coinage hav- 
ing been mostly melted down by the silversmiths, its re-issue having been 
prohibited by Government when it had been once paid into the treasury. 

Bahraich is administered by a deputy commissioner, and generally four 

General Admin- assistant and extra assistant commissioners, besides 

istration. three tahsildars and nine honorary assistant magistrates : 

all of the latter have criminal powers, four civil, and one only has revenue 

powers. 

The revenue and expenditure appear in the accompanying tables. 

The latter was Rs. 1,23,871 in 1872, or twelve per cent, of revenue ; but 
the temporary settlement department has now concluded its labours and the 
cost of administration in 1873 is about Rs. 90,000, or less than nine per 
cent, of the revenues. 

This sum, however, does not include the district police which is paid Rs. 
55,052 by the local Government,* nor the other departments, whose cost 
since 1871 has been defrayed from provincial funds and an imperial grant.-[- 

Income tax is now abolished ; it yielded in 1873 Rs. 13,022, paid by 
184 persons, of whom 55 were in trade or banking, 
one was a lawyer, three were in service, and 125 were 
connected with the land as owners or occupiers. 

Receipts in 1872. Es. 

Recent settlement revenue collections ... ... ... 9,15,416 



Income tax. 



2. Bents of Government villages and lands 

3. Income tax 

4. Tax on spirits and drugs 

5. Stamp duty 

6. Law and justice 



Total 



Expenditure. 1871-72. 

Revenue refunds and drawbacks 

Miscellaneous refunds 

Land revenue ... ••■ 

Deputy Commissioners and establishment 

Settlement 

Excise or abkari 

Assessed taxes 

Stamps ... 

Law and justice 

Ecclesiastical 
Medical ... 



( Service of process... 
\ Criminal courts . . . 



Total 



19,865 

32,185 

63,178 

3,593 

10,34,237 



1,240 
1,515 

37,009 

38,143 

2,814 

207 

1,831 

4,541 

29,971 

6,600 
1,23,871 



The tabular form subjoined is borrowed from the Police Report 



* Annual Report, 1872. 

" + Their cost in 1873 was Rs. 72,166; including education, dispensaries, and public 
works the entire cost of administration was Rs. 2,16,200, at least this amount only was 
STjent'in the district. The expenses of the sujpervising executive agency and of the 
appellate courts external to the district are not included in the above. 



172 



BAH 



There are eight th^nas or police stations whose names, and the popula- 
tion subject to each jurisdiction, are given in the accompanying table. 
The rural police numbers 2,467. Another table shows the criminal sta- 
tistics for the last six years. It will appear that crimes against pro- 
perty have more than doubled during the period ; accidental deaths aver- 
age about 420 per annum ; snake-bites caused about 145 deaths per annum. 

A reward of two annas per head is paid for each snake destroyed ; the 
number brought in varies from 20 to 132sannually, and the charge upon 
the revenues consequently becomes as much as Rs. 16-8 per annum. Thirty- 
five wolves have been killed, and three hundred and eighty-eight wolf 
cubs in the last seven years. The reward is five rupees or five rupees eight 
annas. Fifty tigers have been slain in this space of time, but many are 
killed by sportsmen who do not claim the reward. In one year, 1869-70, 
thirty-four tigers were accounted for. 

Statement showing the Population of Thdnas in the district cf Bahraich. 



Name of Th^na. 




















Populatioi 


1. 




Bahraich 






.. 100,094 


Ikauna 


... ,,, ,,, , , 






44,138 


Ehinga 


... •■• ■■■ ... 






... 126,119 


Piagpur 


.«• 






78,656 


Sisia 


... ... ... ... 


>■• 




73,597 


Kurasar 


... ..> ... 






... 143,019 


Nanpara 


1- 






., 143,382 


Motipur 




Total 




64,698 
... 773,775 




Statistics of the Police in 1873. 












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1,786 


1,415 


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371 





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176 BAH 



CHAPTER IT. 

LAND TENURES. 

The nature of the ancient tenures doilbtf ul— Thetennrea now mainly talttqdari-^ Their growth 
due to (1) grants of waste lands to nominees of the Government — Examples— Or (2) tO dOiH' 
missions granted to oflBcers selected for the administration of the country — Examples — Or 
(3) in a grant by the State of a certain percentage of the revenue — Or (4) a lordship would 
be evolved out of a coparcenary community — Examples — Or (5) the taluqdar has been 
superimposed over the zamindars — Talnqdari estates in Eahraich classed— Their origin— 
Occasionally separated from the parent estate — Primogeniture and the Hindu law of par- 
tition — The Raihwdri complex muhdls — Origin of biris — Rights acquired by the birtia — 
Large sums paid for these birts — Security of tenures — The independent position of 
birtias in certain cases — Birts given by the Janwars — Specimen — Birt deed — Charitable 
birts — Dih, its nature— Specially mentioned in deeds of sale — J)ih in some peculiar cases of 
m.ortgages— Significance of this — Ndnhdr the same as in other districts — MdnkAr Delii — 
Lessees' Nankar or Ohahdrum — Ndrikdr tanihwdhi — Ohahdrum and daswant — Their origin 
in clearing leases — Sir — Its nature, extent, &c. — Its wide signification — Compared with 
the relics of commonable properties in England — The parallel of the common mark — Groves 
■ — Two classes of tenures — Class I — Class II — The extent of rights in ponds — Minor 
zamindari riglits — Anjuri — Biswa — The status of the muqaddam — Qaasi-^nuqaddams — In 
the khdlsa prescription availed^Chaudhris— Customary freehold in the west— Period 
during which the courts have been open — The numbers of claims moderate — Eesuit of 
this part of the litigation — Sub-settlements — Very few claims in the northern jparganas — 
Reason of this — The condition in the southern parganas diflferent^The claims m Bahraieh 
and Ikauna — Results of the litigation iu sub-settlements — Shares — Sir in taluqa —Claims 
■withheld — Reasons for this — Result of claims to sir, nankar, tfcc, in taluqas — No right of 
any kind decreed in 1,522 ta.luqdari villages — Birts, small holdings— Character of the litiga- 
tion — The realizable revised demand — Will be increased by the rasadi jamas and by 
resumption of revenue-free holdings — Incidence of the revised demand — Area under per- 
petual assessment — Confiscation and loyal grants — Statement of reve nue survey of the 
district^Statement of lands confiscated by British Government in 1868 A. D. — List of 
taluqdars of the district, with the names of their estates — Amount of area and jama.* 

The comparatively deserted and waste condition of the country on this 
side of the Gogra in olden times may account for the 

The nature of the absence of any traces of the more ancient land tenures 
ces'sarily doubtful!" ^^^ ^^i^ district. Portions of it were cleared of the 
jungle only to be deserted once more, when the effects 
of the climate, the attacks of wild animals, and predatory habits of the 
woodmen of the north, had rendered the struggle with the forest an 
almost hopeless task. Of the northern tracts, such an account would 
certainly be true until a very recent date, and it is therefore not to be 
wondered at, that in this part of the district there is absolutely no vestige 
remaining of the proprietary system which was prevalent in bygone days. 
In all probability no such fixity of residence was ever obtained by any of 
the bodies of the colonists as to generate even any definite system of 
collective property, much less any recognition of individual ownership. 
Where land was so plentiful and ploughs so few, there could have been 
but little necessity for any but the most simple rules for the definition of 
each man's right, and the regulation of the agricultural affairs of the 
community. 

* The tenures of Bahraioh are treated at great length in the settlement report, and the 
information there given has been largely transferred to these pages, as it applies with more 
or less exactness to tlie districts of Gonda and Kheri also. 



BAH 1V7 

In the southern portion of the district, however, it might have been 
expected that some trace of the original proprietary bodies would have been 
found. This, however, is not the case, and all the remnants of proprietary 
communities, such as these referred to, now in existence, trace their origin, 
a few of them, to dates earlier than three centuries ago, and the greater 
number of them to a very much more modem period. 

The estates of Bahraich are now held, as might be expected from a 

^, ^ . perusal of the historical sketch (Chapter II), for the 

Ihe tenures now mam- . j.-j.ij-i Ix. ■ 

ly taluqdari. most part, m taluqdari tenure, the superior proprie- 

tary right resting in one single person — the lord of 
the domain, and perhaps in no district in the whole of Oudh can the ffeudal- 
ization of the country be said to have been so complete at annexation as 
here. The conditions necessary to the quick development of feudal tenures 
have from the first been especially favourable in this district. The large 
tracts of waste, the almost total absence of strong proprietary communities 
capable of resisting the encroachments of the taluqdar, and the isolated 
situation of the country, cut off as it was from the seat of Government by 
a river difficult to cross, combined to expedite the acquisition by the lord 
of that suzerainty which the policy of the British Government has now 
secured for ever. 

The attainment of this superior and independent 
suzerailtieT* du°e^ to ) Position by the taluqdar was effected in various ways, 
grants of waste lands to A tract of the waste land alluded to would be made 
nominees of the Gov- over by the Government or its representative to some 
emment. enterprising Soldier or courtier, or to some cadet of a 

house already established, either with the direct object of getting the 
country under cultivation or in reward for some service rendered, or per- 
haps with the view of securing the grantee's absence from the court where 
he had rendered himself troublesome. In such cases as these the lord's posi- 
tion from the very first would be absolutely independent, and all cultivators 
settled by him would really be in a state of villenage, enjoying no rights 
but such as were granted by the free wiU of the lord, or were purchased 
from him. 

A very simple example of this tenure exists in the Chard a ilaqa. Eighty 
P , years ago this estate was completely waste, and was 

made over to the ancestor of the ex-taluqdar of the 
present day to make what he could of it. It was not apparently at first 
made over ill full proprietary right by the king, but the tailuqdar was never 
interfered with, and the ancestor of every ryot on the estate — a very large 
one — has been located by the lord himself, or by those to whom he dele- 
gated the work. Under such circumstances no right could possibly exist, 
on the part of the cultivators which were not created by the taluqdar him- 
self The Nanpara estate, one of the largest in Oudh, was formed in a very 
similar way. The account of its growth will be found in the historical 
sketch. In this case also far the larger number of the villages which are 
now comprised within it were established by the taluqdar himself, and 
those which were obtained by conquest had been, most of them, settled in 
a similar way by the person: from whom they ■tt^ere wrested. Here again 
the taluqdar was sole lord from the first. 

M 



178 BAH 

In other cases an officer of the Government, generally in those days 

^ /„. , ■„„•„„„ a soldier, -would be sent to a particular district, more 

Or (2) to oommiasions nii iin, n i 

granted to officers of tlie than usually lawless and lordless, to restore order, and 
Government for the ad- if possible, exact the revenue due to the State. In 
mmatration of the payment for these services, and sometimes to enable 
him to maintain the necessary forces to keep his 
charge in quiet, he was often granted whole or part of the revenue which 
he could collect from his district. He was, in fact, a great beneficiary, en- 
dowed with all the powers of the Government, from which his grant 
emanated, for the collection of the taxes, repression of crime, and the 
general administration of his fief The office and grant so obtained were 
seldom originally bestowed for more than the single life, but it is not 
difficult to understand that, in a wild district like Bahraich, both the office 
and the privileges attached thereto would have a tendency to become 
hereditary. The lawless bands who had thus been reduced to subjection 
would after a time gradually come to regard their controller as their 
natural lord ; while he on his part, in order to strengthen his position, would 
be ready to accord the leading men among them substantial privileges on 
condition of service. Rights, however, apart from those of his own creation, 
he would be slow to recognise, and in estates which have been formed in 
the above manner under-proprietary rights not based on grants or purchase 
from the lord are unknown. 

The great Ikauna estate (see historical sketch) is a notable instance 

of a fief acquired in this way. For seven gener- 

Examples. ^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^-^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ Risaldar, 

and enjoyed without making any payment to the State the whole of the 
revenues of his benefice, the fiction being maintained that he was only 
the servant of the Government. When the office was abolished and the 
revenue-free grant resumed, the grantee's position had become so strong 
that he was without hesitation regarded as the lord of the soil. 

Another somewhat singular mode in which the suzerainty of an estate 
Or (3) in a grant by '^^p acquired is also illustrated in the same ilaqa. 
the state of a certain Originating apparently entirely in the favour of the 
percentage of the re- Delhi sovereign, a grant was made to one of the most 
influential of the Ikauna line of a certain percentage 
of the revenue of all villages comprised in a very wide area of country 
outside the limits of the ancestral estate, The grant also detailed certain 
other dues, to a share of which the grantee was entitled in the same vil- 
lages. It is noticeable that the taluqdar never apparently obtained any 
possession of the lands named in the deed, but he seems so far to have 
exercised his right under it that he sold and bestowed on various parties 
the right to bring under cultivation certain areas of land hitherto waste, 
conferring on them all the rights within those areas which have generally 
been considered the perquisites of the owner of the soil. The right thus 
exercised by the lord of dispo'sing of the waste lands of the country declared 
to be included in his fief tallies almost exactly with the right of approve- 
ment exercised by the great feudal lords in Europe. The tenures thus 
created will, however, come more particularly under examination when 
we consider the nature of birts, A similar suzerainty over several 



BAH 179 

sub-divisions of territory was conferred also on the Raikwdr Raja of 
Baundi, and in right of this we find him claiming a lordship over villages 
outside his own estates. His authority, however, here seems to have been 
only nominal, and there is no trace of his having exercised any such right 
of approvement over the waste as in the Ikauna case. 

A fourth mode in which the taluqdar came into existence was one in- 
Or (4) a lordship dependent of any grant from the ruling power. The 
would be evolved out members of a coparcenary community, so long as their 
of a coparcenary com- numbers were Small and the shares in the estate few 
"'"^' and well defined, would be able to maintain equality 

among themselves, and no member would aspire to a superiority over the 
rest, but with the extension of the area of the estate and an increase in the 
number of members composing the community, separation of interests 
would be inevitable. The act of separation would estrange those who 
formerly held well together ; quarrels between the holders of the shares 
would arise, originating in the very partition itself, and continuing until 
the owners of one portion of the property had acquired most decided super- 
iority over the rest. To attain this superiority, it would be absolutely 
necessary for the division aspiring to it to choose a leader, and there would 
be every opportunity for this leader, whose ofiice would naturally tend to 
become hereditary, to aggrandize himself and his family at the expense 
of those whom he represented. In fact, the lord would be evolved out of a 
community of freemen. 

Of suzerainties of the class above described. I can name no notable in- 
stance in this district, unless it be that of the Sayyads 
Examples. ^^ Jarwal. The number of shares into which the inhab- 

ited quarter of the village of Jarwal itself is divided, is clear proof of the 
equality of the interests of different divisions of the family in former days; 
but fifty years ago we find that there was only one man of mark in the 
whole family, who owned well nigh all the estate. The Balrdmpur estate 
is a more modern instance of the gradual absorption by the chief of the 
family of all the rights belonging to the brotherhood. In this case, on 
our assumption of the Government of the province, we found the younger 
members of the families still struggling to free themselves from the hold 
attained over them by the head of the family. Our decrees in the settle- 
ment court have now stereotyped the state of things which we found exist- 
ing, and the position of the head is permanently established. 

There remains the well-known and often-described method by which, 
during the last four decades of the Nawabi rule, vil- 
Or (5) the taluqdar lages which had hitherto been independent were 
OTer^the zaSa^r?'^*^ gradually absorbed into the estates of the great taluq- 
dars. The process finds illustration in the historical 
sketch. It is most pithily described by the native expression that a taluq- 
dar first " approved" of a village and then " digested" it. The period 
required for the satisfactory digestion of a township varied, as may be sup- 
posed, with the toughness of the morsel. In some cases the former zamin- 
dar or proprietary community had been already so broken by the tyranny 
of the ndzim that for the sake of peace and quietness they gladly saw their 
rights pass from them so long as they could be tolerably well assured of 

M 2 



180 



BAH 



not being ousted from the land actually in their own occupation. The 
taluqdar, finding them complaisant, would allow them this much, and would 
be pretty sure to permit them to hold the bits of land around the homestead 
denominated " dih." Where, however, the cultivatijig community were 
strong in themselves and \mited in their determination to resist the lord's 
encroachments, he sometimes had to abandon it. This, however, but very 
rarely happened, for, as has been noted above, this district has, with the 
exception of the Raikwari muhals, been always well-nigh destitute of such 
strong proprietary bodies. As a rule, the extinction of all valuable righta 
on the part of the ex-proprietor was prompt and complete. 

The taluqdari estates in this district are thirty-six in number and com- 
prise 1,760 villages, the revised assessment of which 
Bal^ldoh^dassed!'^^ ''' ^* ^^ 9,61,481-9-a Of these eleven are ancestral, 
seven have been acquired within the forty years imme- 
diately preceding annexation, while eighteen are estates which having 
been confiscated from their original owners, have been conferred on loyal 
grantees. The number of villages comprised in these three classes of es.- 
tates is shown thus : — ■ 



Class op Estate. 


Number 

of 
estates. 


Number 

of 
villages. 


Revised 

Government 

demand. 


Ancestral 

Newly-acquired 

Loyal grants 


11 

7 
18 


828 
138 
794 


Es. A. P. 

4,76,811 5 6 

81,196 13 2 

3,83,473 7 


TOTAI. 


36 


1,760 


9,41,481 9 8 



It must also be borne in mind that the 794 villages which are now held 
in loyal grant were confiscated from parties who had held the greater 
number of them for many generations, — one ilaqa, that of Ikauna, being 
one of the oldest in Oudh. 

In connection with the description of the mode in which the taluqdari 
tenures arose, should be noticed the species of tenure 
tlifix'Jrigin. ^''' ^^o^^ ^s Bhay^i. In nearly all of the families of 
the lord in this district the principle of primogeniture 
has regulated the succession to their estates. Inasmuch, however, as this 
principle debarred the younger members of a family from all share in the 
property, and in but few cases did these brethren leave their father's house 
for service, or with any other object, it became necessary for the heir on 
succeeding to his ancestral estate to provide for them. This was done 
usually by apportioning them one, two, or three villages each for their 
maintenance, to be held rent-free. The number of villages so assigned 
depended entirely on the generosity of the donor or his apprehensions of 
trouble in the future if he neglected to provide suitably for his portionless, 
but perhaps high-spirited, brethren. For the first generation the villages 



BAH 181 

would probably be held free of demand, and on the death of the recipient 
a low rent would be fixed. Ultimately, when two or three generations 
had passed and no ties of near relationship restrained the head of the family 
he would resume the grant altogether, and the descendants of the Bhayya 
would be found in the same villages, perhaps, holding their immediate 
cultivation at favourable rates, but in no other respect in any better posi- 
tion than ordinary cultivators. 

Occasionally it happened that the Bhayyas waxed sufficiently strong to 
Occasionally separ- f^ce the taluqdar and get their appanages separated 
ated from tte parent from the parent estate. In such cases, however, we 
*^***^- always find the lord watching his opportunity, and it 

is seldom the recalcitrant villages are not sooner or later re-united to the 
main property. 

Among the Raikwars of Fakhrpur there has always been a struggle going 
on between the rule of primogeniture and the ordinary 
Hinrir"otpart.w' Hindu law of partition. The separation of the Rahwa 
and Chahlari estates and the temporary separation 
of two other clusters of villages subsequently recovered by the lord, illus- 
trate the triumph of the latter principle. 

The independent villages owned by others than taluqdars number only 
251, and of these far the larger number are held by 
iti^^*''°^''*''^'"'°™"°" zamindars, the nature of whose tenure only so far 
differs from that of the taluqdars' suzerainty that 
the property is liable to sub-division among the heirs of an owner deceas- 
ing. 

In some instances the ownership at present rests in one or perhaps two 
or three individuals, and it will be several generations probably before par- 
tition breaks the properties up into what are known as pattidari estates. 
Only 24^ villages in the whole district are at the present time held by 
coparcenary communities, the members of which hold their shares in sever- 
alty, while for fiscal purposes their estate is considered as undivided. 

The Raikwari intermixed properties, mention of which has been made 
in the historical sketch, form now for the most part 
Tlie Eaikw£rl complex distinct and separate estates, the sharers in which 
™" '^ ^' hold in common, and they therefore cannot strictly be 

classed under the head of pattidari. About thirty years ago, however, 
before the severance of the shares of the different branches of the commun- 
ity was completed, these estates would have afforded a most perfect example 
of a large coparcenary property. In these properties at the present day 
there are no less than twenty-five distinct muhals running through ninety- 
six villat^es, but in only eight of these estates do the shareholders hold in 
severalty. Eighteen out of the twenty-five estates are covered by the 
sanad of the Mahant Harcharan Das. 

This very singular tenure, which so far as whole villages are concerned 

may be said to be peculiar to the northern tracts of 

Birt9. Their origin. ^^iQ province^ is confined in this district to two 



182 BAH 

parganas, Ikauna and Bahraich. Originating doubtless in first, the desire 
of the great landlords to bring under tillage the vast wastes which in early 
times in these districts formed the greater part of their fiefs ; and secondly, 
their desire to make the reclamation immediately remunerative so far as 
their own revenues were concerned, a birt consisted in the sale of the right 
to settle on a certain plot of waste, and to enjoy all such valuable perquisites 
as would necessarily result from that occupation. 

Thus, all tanks dug and groves planted by the birtia, all dues leviable 
KigMsacquiredbytlie from the Cultivators, would be secured for ever to 
birtia. Hm. 

In addition to these rights, the dahyak or the tithe of the gross produce of 
the village was often stipulated for and obtained by the birt purchaser. In 
this district, however, out of the numerous claims that have been based on 
birt grants, in only one has any mention been made of this right. 

These privileges were often purchased for sums which in old days seem 
to have been altogether out of proportion to the 
thesTbirts""^^ ^^^ °^ annual profits which, under ordinary circumstances 
in later times, could be extracted from the manage- 
ment of a malguzari village. 

This would induce a belief that the security of tenure in such cases was 
Security of tenures, more than usually good, and that^ a birtia making 
such a purchase would probably calculate on being 
maintained in possession for at least a generation. It is remarkable, too, 
but that the birtias were almost invariably Brahmans, and even though the 
birt did not in any cases of sale partake of the nature of a gift made for 
devout reasons, still the high caste of the purchaser, doubtless rendered his 
tenure more secure than it would otherwise have been. Again, it would 
not be the interest of the lord to disturb the birtia in his village as long as 
he was improving its value, and thus it may be taken for certain that for very 
many years after the purchase the birtia retained. the management of the 
village, while, under ordinary circumstances, it would be most natural that 
he would remain the headman responsible to the lord for generations to 
come. 

There is, however, no trace in any birt deed that has been produced that 
any right of management was conferred by such 
No rigM of lease or sales. On the contrary, the terminology of the usual 
ma^gement conferred conditions implies that no such privilege was con- 
templated in these transactions. An express provi- 
sion was almost universally made, that the beneficial interests above noted, 
which were strictly limited in their extent, should belong and be secured to 
the birtia, whether he held the lease of the village, or the lord collected his 
rents direct from the cultivators. It was manifestly more convenient that 
the birtia, connected intimately as he was with the village and its concerns ' 
from the very date of its settlement, should be the one to engage for the 
due collection and payments of the rents to the lord ; but there is nothing 
to indicate that the lord's power of giving the lease where he willed was 
controlled in any way save by his own sense of what was fair or conducive 



BAH 183 

to his own interest. In but few birt pattas is any mention whatever made 
of the amount of rent payable or to be paid, and in none (which there is 
reason to believe are genuine) is any fixed rent mentioned. In fact, the 
measure of the birtia's right is the limited beneficial interest above de- 
tailed, extended by the favour or self-interest of the lord. 

Already in this chapter mention has been made of a peculiar mode in 

which a lord exercised his rights as suzerain, bestow- 

^.'^''^i'?4^P<'''4^''*P°^.i- ing on certain parties what may be called his "right 
tion 01 birtias in oertam „i' „ I" • j.t_ j. j? j.i_ j. j • ^ • j. 

eases. °* approvement m the wastes of that district over 

which he had received from the sovereign a nominal 

proprietary right. These birtias seem from almost the very first to have 

been independent of the lord from whom they derived their right to settle, 

and, generations afterwards, we find the villages so colonized undergoing 

the process of feudalization a second time and becoming absorbed into 

the estate of that very lord who Originally alienated his right in them. The 

birtia having established his village, and his descendants having formed 

a proprietary village community, the lord comes upon the scene again, and, 

incorporating the township in his estate, bestows on the members of the 

ex-proprietary body their nankar, &c. 

On the other hand, those of the birt villages of this class which escaped 
this process of re-absorption, retained aE. characteristics of zamindari vil- 
lages, and now form some of the few independent townships in this 
district. 

Birt grants in this district are identified with and almost exclusively 
confined to the Ikauna family, or owners of estates 
J n"ar' ^^^° which have been at, one time or another connected 

with that house, and the practice seems to have been 
borrowed from Gonda, where these cessions were far more common than they 
were here. The great Maha Singh (see historical sketch) seems to have 
been the first to adopt the custom to any extent. The Gangwal taluqdar, 
whose family, however, is an off-shoot of the Ikauna house, granted birts 
in later times. 

SpEoniEK. BietDeed. . A specimen patta is 

Birt patta dated Sdwan Sudi 8, 1288 F. Patta given in the margin, the 

executed by Sri Krishnparshdd Singh. genuineness of which is 

I have given Tulsiram Misr a birt. He is to get ^A-mUfpA „„rl nn +Tin 

continuously village Ganeshpur, tanks, groves "dill," admitted, and On the- 

parja (house-dues), "anjuri, biswa, bondha." He is to Strength 01 wnicn the 

get continuously the zamindari dues, whether the birtia, with the taluqdar's 

S:iSentrL°'^70rvfbeenyLn° *^'^ ^"^^^^^ consent obtained a decree 

Witnesses,— Bankan Singh, Sangam Misr, written lOr SUD-Settlement — pos- 
by Bhawdiii Bakhsh, scribe. Note. On the top of this is session to be hereditary 
the K^ja's sign-manual. ]but not transferable. 

Bishunprit birts were cessions similar in almost every respect to the bai 
or purchased birts, save that these were given to 
Charitable birts. Brahmans for the honour and glory of God (if not for 

that of the giver), and no consideration was taken. 

It was seldom that such grants were resumed within the lifetime of the 
giver, and the stricter course was undoubtedly not to resume them at all; 



184 BAH 

but in few cases did any such scruples act, and It may be assumed ttat feiV 
of the more valuable privileges attaching to the grant survived the donor. 

This tenure is by no means peculiar to this district, but I believe that it 
jy„ . , , is far more generally met with in the northern, and 

particularly in the trans-Gogra parts of the province 
than elsewhere. The word in its primary sense means the deserted site 
of a village ; but in the mouths of claimants in the courts it universally 
means that portion of a village which was once covered with houses, but 
which now, either from decay or desertion of the buildings, has become 
once again open waste, or has been taken up for cultivation. Thus, the 
dih land in a village which has been founded for some years will be found 
lying in and aboiit the inhabited quarter, usually cultivated and always 
well-known and recognised by the community. Existing houses, with 
their small plots of cultivation adjoining (Bhara or Ghar-ke-pichhwdra), 
are not " dih," which is strictly confined to the sites of former buildings. 
It follows that no dih land can exist in a newly-founded village. 

The land so rendered vacant was always considered the special property 
Dill the peculiar pro- of the owner of the village, and the right to hold 
perty of tte owner of the possession of it, free of all demand whatever, was one 
■^^*S®- which he generally managed to retain intact long 

after he was stripped of all other signs of proprietaryship. So closely did 
an ex-proprietor cling to his dih land, that the mere fact of a man other 
than an ordinary farmer of the village holding possession of it rent-free 
raises a presumption in favour of his being an old proprietor, which it is 
generally safe to trust as a guide in an inquiry into his antecedents. 

In all deeds of sale the dih universally is specially mentioned, together 
Specially mentioned with the groves, tanks, house-dues, and other per- - 
in deeds of sale. quisites which form the customary manorial rights in 

the village. 

It would often happen that a proprietor of a village would mortgage it . 

Dih in some peculiar in the usual phraseology, but that the mortgagee 
cases of mortgage. would Only obtain possession of the rights above noted, 

the mortgagor being left to manage the village, to be responsible for loss, 
and to enjoy the profits as before. In fact, the dih, tanks, groves, &c., and 
where it existed, the nankar, represented the extent of a proprietor's rights ; 
and when he parted from these he made known to the whole world that he 
had parted with all claim to the dominium. 

Nothing could more clearly indicate the absence of all necessary connec- 
Signifioance of this. *^°" between the ownership of a village and the right 
to engage for it under native rule. Indeed, the right 
to engage was always such a questionable advantage, that it was not 
reckoned among the benefits appertaining to ownership. The enjoyment 
of the manorial rights, including the dih, was, however, a privilege having 
a definite value, and consequently could form the subject of transfer and 
hypothecation without any difSculty being experienced in estimating the 
amount of consideration. The mortgagee would, in most cases, probably 
be rather glad than otherwise to allow the mortgagor to retain the 



BAH 185 

tnanagement, so long as he held all the tangible and certain sources of profit. 
The right to engage, or perhaps, to speak more correctly, in many instances, 
the duty of engaging, might or might not pass with the transfer of pro- 
prietary right. It was in the power of the revenue authorities to allow 
the proprietor to engage or not ; and though in the majority of cases it was 
manifestly more convenient that he should do so, still very often a farmer 
was appointed and the proprietor restricted to the enjoyment of his actual 
rights, which, as we have seen, were of a very limited, though definite, 
value : when sales took place the prices obtained were consequently low. 

There is nothiug in this subordinate tenure to distinguish it from the 
„. . , , right or the privilege known by the same name in other 

in other^dLtriote °^^ *^ districts. It consisted originally in the drawback al- 
lowed to the zamindar by the revenue authorities from 
the demand made on the estate, and constituted the main portion of the 
ostensible profits of the property. Its amount varied with the extent to 
which the landlord could manage to ingratiate himself with the nazim of 
the day, or with the influence which he could bring to bear in still higher 
quarters. In the case of taluqdars, it took the form usually of revenue- 
free land, villages from one to ten in number being held thus free of all 
demand by most of the principal landowners. With petty zamindars the 
allowance was generally made in cash, and it may be doubted whether in 
many cases the demand was not often fixed with reference to the amount 
that would have to be remitted in nankar. The only check upon such 
double-dealing would be the obligation under which the revenue collector 
would be of allowing the zamindar his nankar in hard cash or land in 
lieu, if engagement on his terms was decUned. 

A few of the minor subordinate rights can here only be indicated. 
Dehi ndnkdr is an allowance in money from the taluqdar to the under- 
proprietor. 

Ndnkdr tankhwdhi was an allowance made to qantingos, chaudhris, and 
other officials from, each village. 

Chhorwa was an allowance made as of grace to lessees. 

Chahdrum and daswant mean, the former one-fourth, the latter one- 
tenth ; they were originally probably grants made to the man who cut 
down the forest and settled the cultivators. In other cases they were 
granted to old proprietors or influential residents of the village to keep 
them contented and loyal. They came to be other forms of nankar, and 
as such were often encroached upon and sometimes forfeited by the land- 
lord. 

This gain differed in scarcely any point from the tenure as known in 

other parts of Oudh. It may be said to have consist- 

Sfr. Its nature, ex- ^ ^^ ^^ ^-j^^ j^^j^^j ^^ ^j^g immediate occupation of the 

' "■ original proprietors at the time that the village was 

incorporated in the ilaqa. No land subsequently taken up by their ploughs 
would be considered sir except by the express permission of the lord, and 
on such extra fields the under-proprietor would pay full rates, or, as was the 
more general rule, rent in kind. The sir thus defined, might be cultivated 



186 BAH 

after incorporation by the under-proprietors themselves or by cultivators 
put in by them. It always, in this district, paid rent, the rate being 
somewhat lower, but not as a rule very much lower, than that paid 
by ordinary cultivators. It was not the policy of the taluqdar to drive 
the ex-zamindar from the village, however much it might be his object 
to crush out his independence in other ways. 

Had he done so, a large number of the old cultivators would probably 
have followed their old master, and the village would not have recovered 
such a blow for many years. It was rather his plan to keep the ex-pro- 
prietor in his old position as the headman of the village, provided this 
could be secured together with a due amount of subjection ; and to effect 
this it was absolutely necessary to allow him to retain his home cultivation, 
while the somewhat favourable rate at which he was allowed to hold soothed 
his pride, always an important element to be considered in the settlement 
of such questions, and recoiiciled him to the new state of things. 

In its wider signification, of course, the word sir indicates all the culti- 

Its wider significa- vation tilled with the private ploughs of any one in 

tion. possession of, or charged with, the management of 

an estate, — the " home-farm" in fact ; but as a sub-tenure its meaning is 

limited to the definition above given. 

The tenure, as it exists now, may be most aptly compared with the relics 
Compared -with the of the " commonable" fields in England and Scotland, 
relics of commoDable attention to the existence of which has lately been 
properties in England. drawn by Sir H. Maine in his " Village Communi- 
ties." The Burgess acres of the Burgh of Lauder noticed by him (page 95) 
may almost certainly be said originally to have constituted the separate 
share, if not the " sir," of the 105 members of the old agricultural com- 
munity. Generations hence, when the sir lands, which have now been 
decreed to ex-proprietors in accordance with their shares, have passed by 
numerous transfers out of the hands of the particular family to whom they 
have been adjudged, the various plots thus held in subordination to the 
landlord, but in a measure independent of him, will be the only trace that 
we shall have of the existence of the old communities. 

It has not unfrequently happened that claims have been preferred by 
Kakhanna. The tenure members of the old cultivating community to certain 
described. plots of meadow land as " pasture" grounds. 

The right is never claimed as a general one over all the waste land in 
the village, but a particular area, a portion of such waste, is always named. 
The meaning of the word, which is " land set apart," would support the 
idea that separate portions of the waste were thus made over to, or rather 
retained by, the ex-zamindar when his property was merged in the lord- 
ship. The holder of this rakhauna would have the exclusive right to 
graze his cattle thereon, to cut the thatching grass, &c., but it is uncertain 
whether he would be allowed to break up the land for tillage or not. 

My inquiries lead me to believe that this was not permitted, and that 
the holder of raJchauna, so breaking it up, would be liable to pay full rent 
on it. 



BAH 187 

The parallel of the In this instance, again, we have the corresponding 
common mai-k. common mark in England wherewith to compare it. 

Sir H. Maine, page 92, quotes Marshall's description of ancient common- 
able lands — " On the outskirts of the arable lands, where the soil is adapted 
to the pasturage of cattle, one or more stinted pastures or hams were laid 
out for milking cows, working cattle, or other stock which required 
superior pasturage in summer." Let us suppose, when one of these Eng- 
lish communities passed under the yoke of the lord, and the township 
became the manor, that the freemen of the community, besides retaining 
their portion of the arable mark (their sir), succeeded in retaining these 
stinted pastures (raJchauna), and we have the parallel exact. The lord, we 
may be quite sure, would resist any attempt on the part of the freemen to 
bring these pastures under tillage without bis express permission, which, if 
given, would probably be accompanied by stipulations as to rent, &c., more 
stringent than those already in force regarding their free tenemental acres. 

It is not impossible that in this we may have the key to the difficulty 
met with by Sir H. Maine in the fact that, intermixed with the tenemental 
or freehold lands, are found many large tracts which are copyhold of the 
manor, while some also are held by the intermediate tenure known as 
customary freehold. May not these intruding tracts held on these base 
tenures have originally been the rakhauna of the freemen, subsequently 
brought under cultivation under special provisos ? 

Grove tenures may be divided into two classes : — 1st. Those cases in 
GroTes ; two classes which the grove was planted by the under-proprietor, 
of tenures. while he was in proprietary possession of the village, 

and of which he has retained possession. 

2nd. — Cases in which the grove has been planted by a cultivator or 
under-proprietor subsequent to the incorporation of the village in the ilaqa. 
All other cases are exceptional, and depending, as they do, on special cir- 
cumstances, need not be noted here. 

In the first class noted above, the grove, together with the land on which 
-. it is planted, constitutes an integral part of the under- 

proprietary holding of the ex-zamindar. He had full 
power to cut down the trees, to replant, or to make what use he liked of 
the ground. 

The taluqdar did not interfere with his full right to sell and mortgage 
the grove, and never dreamed of exacting rent from him. If the trees fell, 
and the ground thus became available for cultivation, it would still remain 
the property of the under-proprietor, and would probably be considered 
an adjunct of and subject to the same rules as to rent, &c., as his other 
lands in the village. If the under-proprietor held rent-free lands in the 
village, the vacated plot would be held rent-free also ; if they were subject to 
a low rent, a similar rent would probably be demanded from this plot also. 

In the second class of cases, the customs regulating the tenure differed 
_ somewhat in different estates ; but in all parts of the 

^^^ ■ district the following customs held good, provided 

that the grove was planted with the permission of the landlord. 



188 BAH. 

The piece of land being made over to the planter, he was allowed to sow 
it and to reap all the crops which the land might bear ; as long as the 
trees were young, he could make arrangements with some other cultivator 
to tend the trees for him, allowing him the use of the ground in and 
among the trees for his trouble. When the grove arrived at maturity, 
in its whole produce, including the fruit, the fallen and dead wood, &c., 
was the sole property of the planter, so long as the trees stood. He alone 
had the privilege of cutting the long grass ( sarpat ) generally planted in 
the first instance around the grove for its protection from cattle. He had 
also the sole right to the grazing of the land of the grove. If, however, 
the trees fell and the land became thus vacant, the landlord alone had the 
right to cultivate it, and the grove-holder could not replant without per- 
mission. Neither could he cut the trees except one or two now and then 
for his own immediate use without the zamindar's permission. He had, 
however, the freest power of sale or mortgage of all the rights above detailed; 
all groves left ownerless by the extinction of the family of the owner or 
by its desertion of the estate became the property of the zamindar. 

No one of the very few privileges enjoyed by the ordinary cultivators 
fn,» ^.,==«c=,;«„ «f „ has tended more directly to raise their character, or 

J.I16 possession oi di ^_ •/» •!• i i • 

grove induces a feeling rather keep it from smkmg lower than it would 
of independence. otherwise have done, than the possession of these 

rights in the mango groves planted by their ancestors. 

It is seldom that we find the grove in possession of any one but the 
descendant of the original planter. It may have been mortgaged over 
and over again, but a sale outright seldom occurred. 

The tdl was always one of the rights enumerated in deeds of sale, &c.. 
The extent of rights as the unquestioned right of the original proprietor of 
in ponds, &o. the village. The interest extended to all the sponta- 

neous products of the ponds, — fish, reeds, wild rice, water-nuts, &c.; and 
if the under-proprietor's fields lay near to them he probably would be en- 
titled to draw water from them for the irrigation of his fields before the 
other cultivators. The rights in excavated tanks would be better defined 
and more freely acknowledged than in the natural hollows, or in swamps 
and marshes. 

Minor zamindari This, though not a tenure, may properly be 

rights. Anjuri. noticed under the above heading. 

The old zamindar or hirtia was entitled to four chhat^ks of grain for 
every maund in the outturn of each cultivator's plot. This amounted to 
25 seers per 100 maunds. It was strictly a zamindari perquisite, but was 
never levied by taluqdars or by zamindars other than Brahmans, as the 
due partook of the nature of alms, and Brahmans only could accept charity. 
Zamindars not of this caste would nominate some pandit or Brahman, 
of the village to receive the due instead. 

Anjuri of another kind was a purely eleemosynary custom. It was 
then called " hdth uthwa, " and consisted of a few handfuUs of grain placed 
around the corn heaps by the cultivator for the bhumhdr, the attendant 
on the village gods, the pandit and the faqir. There was no measure for this, 



BAH 189 

but it was doled out according to the generosity or close-fistedness of the 
donor. The recipients were denominated " dehabirti," and it was open to 
the zamindar to remove these men from their office and appoint sub- 
stitutes. 

This again was a zamindari right in some instances, one biswa of land 

in each man's cultivation being set apart for the za- 

iswa. mindar or birtia. Like the " anjuri " it is not taken 

by non-Brahman zamindars. The same amount of land is also set apart 

by each cultivator for the pandit, whose duty it is to name the propitious 

time for sowing. We will now describe the muqaddam or farmer. 

The status of the thrifty and industrious muqaddam varied from that 
The status of the of a head-man temporarily appointed by the revenue 
muqaddam. authorities to carry on the agricultural management 

of a village, and invested with no rights of any kind and no authority 
save that which he derived from the express commission of those who 
appointed him, to that of a quasi-zamindar, possessed of privileges 
no less valuable and no less recognised than those of the landlord 
proper. 

The different degrees in their positions depended on various circum- 
stances, the chief of which was doubtless length of tenure. A muqaddam 
appointed for a season or for a special purpose might, favoured by the 
course of events, retain his hold on the village until by prescription he 
acquired a standing fully as good as that of the zamindar. He would 
gradually establish his right to ndiikdr, dih, and all other zamindari rights 
in the event of the revenue authorities holding his village direct. He 
would even acquire the right to sell and mortgage, and such transfers 
would be held good. It was, however, only in the khalsa lands or villages 
held direct from the nazim that such complete rights as these were, or, 
from the nature of the case, could be acquired. 

It is not seldom that we find even in the lords' estates men in the man- 
atyement of villages calling themselves muqaddams ; but, unless the origin 
of their incumbencies can be traced to a time antecedent to the incorpora- 
tion of the village in the estate, the tenure will be found to have nothing 
in it of a proprietary character, and the muqaddam himself to be nothing 
more than a head steward removable at pleasure and claiming no privileges 
other than those accorded him by the taluqdar. 

In the khalsa villages, on the other hand, the continual changes of the 
district officials allowed the origin of the tenure to fall 
In the khalsa villages more quickly into oblivion ; and inasmuch as the class 
presorip ■ from which these farmers were almost universally 

taken is that of the most industrious cultivators, it was directly to their 
interest to maintain the muqaddams in their position even when doubts 
might exist as to their exact status. 

The position and duties of chaudhris in some estates corresponded in 

. great measure with that of muqaddams of this class, 

the main difference being that chaudhris, as a rule, 

had the management of five or six villages, while the latter's charge was 

confined to one or at the most two. 



190 BAH 

Looking once more to the traces of ancient tenures in the west, it is by 

no means improbable that some of those intermediate 

Customary freehold ^g^urgg known as customary freehold, which are said 

by the jurists to exist only on lands that once formed 

a part of the king's domain, may, in their origin and nature, not differ 

materially from these muqaddami holdings. 

In both cases the rights enjoyed were of various strengths, ranging from 
those of the freeholder down almost to those of the villein. It is not im- 
possible that in the west the king would accord privileges to villeins set- 
ling on his own reserved lands, similar in character, though varying in 
degree, to those accorded by the lord to the members of the old proprietary 
community, — just as in the east the nazim would be willing to grant to 
enterprising farmers of a good class, who might be induced to improve the 
state lands, a beneficiary interest in the villages so occupied by them 
similar to that held by ordinary zamindars, and similar also in kind to 
those rights which were accorded by the taluqdar to the members of an 
ex-proprietary community. 

The courts were open for the preferment of claims from the commence- 

Keeord of rights. ment of settlement operations in October 1865 until 

the 31st March 1871, a period of 6 J years, and their 

business may be said to have been concluded on the 30th September 1871. 

During these six years, 7,496 claims of all kinds have been adjudicated, 

a number which is sufficient of itself to indicate 

m^deUr *^e mildness of the litigation when compared with 

that of other districts. I propose in going through 

the figures to make such remarks as seem necessary regarding each 

class of cases. 

Proprietary right. — The greater portion of the district being held under 

sanad, the claims to proprietary right were necessarily 

Claims to proprietary few ; at summary settlement only 259 villages were 

ufnumbeT''"^^^"^* settled with others than taluqdars, and it is only in 

the independent muhals that claims to the superior 

right were admissible. Of the 1,154 cases that fall under this head, 386 

were merely formal claims preferred against Government, and the number 

of real suits is therefore reduced to 768 ; out of this number the claimants 

have been successful in 111 or in 14'6 per cent. 

The result of this litigation is, that of the 259 villages settled with others 
-o 14. ftT.- ^ f '^^^^ taluqdars 10 have been decreed to taluqdars 
thSaW " ^ ^^d 35 have been decreed the property of Govern- 

ment. The remammg 214 are still held by non- 
taluqdars, and in 44 out of these the ownership has changed hands. 

These mutations, however, are more apparent than real ; only forty-seven 
villages have actually changed hands throughout the whole district, com- 
prising 2,011 villages. 

When it is noticed that at summary settlement 1,760 villages were 
settled with the taluqdars, and that now no less than than 1,825 claims4o 



BAH 191 

sub-settlement have been preferred, it migbt perhaps be inferred that 

the rights of under-proprietors are very strong in this 

Sub-settlements. Tte district, at any rate in the imaginations of the claim- 

very'weak!'^ ° '^'^^'^^ ^^^^ themselves. No idea could be more erroneous. 

The fact that 570 or nearly one-third of the whole 

number of claims were withdrawn before being called on for hearing, is of 

itself a strong indication of the weakness of the general run of the cases of 

this description ; and of the 1,003 which were dismissed on trial, far the 

larger number were consigned to the records without the statement of the 

defendant being recorded. 

The plaintiff's own deposition was sufficient to show that he had no 
shadow of claim to any such right as is conferred by a sub-settlement. 
Many who had never held any sort of proprietary connection with the 
village came forward in the hope perhaps that they might get something. 

In the northern parganas scarcely a single claim to sub-settlement was 
preferred save in estates which had been conferred 
thJnortheni pargauas™ °^ ^^^^^ grantees, and in which perhaps the claimants 
took this mode of showing that they did not alto- 
gether approve of the change of masters. 

In the north, however, as will be gathered from a perusal of the histo- 
Keaaon of this ^^^^ sketch, the head-men of the villages, where they 

existed at all, had no grounds whatever for imagin- 
ing that they had any rights in the land other than such as they had ob- 
tained through the favour and protection of the taluqdar, for nearly the 
whole of this part of the country dates its permanent colonisation from 
such a recent date that each man's family history is known to his neigh- 
bour, and there is no room for a vague appeal to that ancient and ancestral 
connection with the village which is generally advanced as the real ground 
on which a decree is claimed. 

In the south, on the other hand, the villages have been long established, 
and any member of a family more influential thaa 
The conditions in the the rest in the hamlet who could look back upon 
fere^nt^™ pa^ganas dif- generations during which perhaps the village may 
have changed hands more than once, while his an- 
cestors retained their homesteads and their position as head-men, would be 
far more likely to persuade himself that he was possessed of such a right 
as the sarkdr would recognise. 

In the Ikauna and Bahraich parganas, however, claims were preferred 
The claims in Bah- which undoutedly were based on bona fide rights 

raich and Ikauna. acquired in the villages in older times. The origin of 

these rights has been alluded to in the historial sketch. 

Of the 173 claims to sub-settlement which were either settled by com- 
Eesults of the litiga- promise or decreed in favor of the plaintiffs, 168 were 
tion in sub-settlements, in pargana His^mpur and 127 in one estate, namely, 
IMqa Ranipur. The villages comprised in this estate belong to the Raik- 
war community mentioned in historical sketch and chapter on tenures, and 
were only included in the Mahant Gurnardin Dfe's qubdliat a few years 
prior to annexation. Some of these were mortgaged to the taluqdar and 



192 BAH 

some were merely entrusted to him. In all of them amicable agreements 
were effected, the taluqdar giving the plaintiffs most favourable terms. 
Throughout the district 68 villages and one portion of a village have been 
obtained in sub-settlement by the under-proprietors the claimants having 
obtained terms as follows :— 

18 Tillages and ) at rental 10 per cent. | in excess of the Government 

one portion J '^ \ revenue. 

42J ditto ditto 10 to 20 per cent. ditto ditto 

8 ditto ditto above 20 ditto ditto ditto 

684 

Besides these, one village and one portion of a village have been decreed 
in farm in hereditary but not transferable right; Of these 68^ villages 45| 
were decreed in the estate above mentioned, Ranipur, and 7^ in Waira 
Qazi, one of the estates held by the Sayyad of Jarwal. Of the remainder 
5;^ villages were awarded in sub-settlement by the British Indian Associ- 
ation. 

The zamindari and pattidari estates only comprise 251 villages in this 

gjjg^j.gg district, and it is therefore no matter for surprise that 

there were only 647 claims to share instituted : nearly 

one-half of these were amicably settled, rather more than one-fourth were 

dismissed, 60 were judicially decreed, and 100 were withdrawn. 

Notwithstanding that a large number of the claims to sub-settlement of 
Sir in taluqa whole villages were altogether groundless, there was 

a sufficient proportion of cases in which the claimants 
had doubtless at one time or another held connection proprietary or quasi- 
proprietary with the village, to justify the expectation that a fair amount 
of sir, nankar, would be decreed. These anticipations have not been real- 
ized, the amount of land and cash decreed in sub-tenures and under-pro- 
prietary right in taluqas being excessively insignificant compared with the 
vast area of these large estates. 

This is partly accounted for by the fact that in two parganas where it is 
Claims withheld. likely that such claims would have been decreed most 

freely, namely, Bahraich and Ikauna, very few of those 
whose suits for the whole villages have been dismissed have come forward 
to secure minor rights. In the Ikauna ilaqa, in which probably many an 
old birtdar who failed to establish his claim to an entire village might 
have obtained something in the shape of dih, sir, &c., not a single man has 
come forward. In this estate no under-proprietary rights of any sort have 
been recorded. 

This reluctance on the part of under-proprietors to prefer their claims 
Eeasona for this. ^^J ^® accounted for partly by their unwillingness to 
risk anything more in the court. They saw petition 
after petition consigned to the records when the claims to whole villages 
were under investigation, and they did not gather much hope from this of 
being successful in more humble suits. A still more powerful reason, how- 
ever, for acting as they did is to be found in the course followed by the 
agents of the loyal grantee who holds the estate, in making it thoroughly 
well-known throughout the ilaqa that the under-proprietor's only chance 



BAH 



195 



of obtaining anything from them lay in looking only to them and not to 
the courts for what they wanted. It is impossible to say how far the 
demands of the under-holders in this and the other iMqas of the Kaja-e- 
E,ajgd,n of Kapurthala may have been settled out of court, but I am 
inclined to think that now that the settlement courts are closed and claims 
can only be advanced on full stamp, the agents will not be hard upon 
those who have not opposed them. 

Out of 938 claims to sir, dih, daswant, nankdr, dldafi, &c., in all taluqas 

483, or rather more than half, have been decreed, 

Result of olaima to while in 43 more the petitions were withdrawn, and 

tS.uqaa. ' *°" "" i* ^^J therefore be concluded that in these also the 

plaintiffs got something. The amount decreed is as 

follows : — 



Ndnkar land rent-free 

Daswant rent-free 

Dih rent-free 

Total cultivation rent-free 

Sir land at favorable rates 

Homesteads 

Groves in under- proprietary riglit 

Ponds and marshes 

Pasture land 

Total land decreed in taluqas „ 



Cash nank£r m ditto 



By 
consent. 



Decreed on 
trial. 



Bfghas. 

570 

312 

84 



966 



1,228 

67 

5.35 

53 

34 



2,883 



Es. A. 

128 8 



Bighas. 

779 
611 
268 



1,658 



5,501 
185 

2,398 

75 

290 



Total. 



Bighas. 

1,34» 
923 
352 



10,107 



Es. A. 
2,148 8 



2,624 

6,723 
252 

2,933 
128 
324 

12,990 



Es. 

2,277 



Inasmuch as the whole of the above land and cash has been awarded in 
176 villages only, such settlements having been de- 
No rights of any creed in 69 others, it will be seen that the under-pro- 
prietary rights recorded in 1,515 villages out of 1,760 
owned by taluqdars are absolutely nil. 



kind decreed in 1,522 
taluc^dari villages. 



Very few suits have been registered under the head of birts, as all claims 
to entire villages in virtue of birts have been included 
Birts, small holdings ^^der the head of sub-settlement. Birt grants of 
small holdings were very rare in Bahraich. 

The district may be certainly congratulated on the mild character of the 
Character of the liti- litigation from the first to last. In very few cases 
gation. has any bitter feeling been generated, and if the claims 

preferred in some of the loyal grantees' estates had been met in a some- 
what more generous spirit by those who have themselves received such 

N 



19^ BAH 

substantial proof of the liberality of Government, there would be little 
cause to regret the action of our courts in any but a very few cases. 

The revenue which' is actually realisable under the revised assessment 

The realisable revised is aS folloWS : — 
demand. 

Es. As. P. 
Estates assessed at the ordinary rate of assessment ... 9,56,065 14 1 
Estates paying a q^uit-rent only 5&,2-i2 

10,15,307 14 1 



This gives an increase of 798 per cent, on the summary demand. The 
ubove, however, does not include the jama which has been assessed on 
revenue-free areas resumable after the first or second life. 

The incidence of the revised assessment for the' whole district (under- 
Incideuce of the re- standing by that term in the revenue-free and quit- 
vised demand, rent estates the assessment as calculated for the pur- 
poses of estimating cesses) falls with an incidence — 

On cultivation @ 1 6 7 percent. 

On assessed area ... ... ... ._• ... „ 14 ,, 

Ontotalarea , „ 12 3 „ 

and it varies on cultivation from Rs. 1-11-10 per acre in His^mpur to 
Es. 1-1-2 per acre in Dharmanpur, while on total area it varies from 
Rs. 14-8 per acre in Hisampur to Rs. 5-11 per acre in Dharmdnpur. 

The total area (equivalent to 23 percent, of the whole district as assess- 
Area under perpetual ed) now held under perpetual assessment is as 

assessment. follows : — 

Area ia acres. Hevenue, Incidence per acre 

total area. 

Es. A. P. 
Eaja-e-Eajgan of Kaptirthata ... 247,122 59,242 3 10 

Maharaja of Balrampur ... 117,889 1,24,305 1 lOJ 



Total 365,011 1,83,547 11 10 

It has already been mentioned, in historical sketch, that out of 3,682 
Confiscations and loy- villages and hamlets held by the taluqdars in the 
al grants. year prior to annexation, no less than 1,858, or morp 

than half, were confiscated for complicity in the rebellion of 1857 A. D. 
Of these, 313 were comprised in the Tulsipur estate which has been made 
over to the Naipal Government, 

In 1869 A. D., therefore, the Government found itself with 1,545 villag- 
es at its disposal, having an aggregate area of 657,153 acres or 1,027 
square miles, being as near as possible ^V of the district as now assessed. 
The estimated rental of these lands at the present time is Rs. 10,54,005-2-8. 

This large and valuable area has been distributed partly in revenue-fi-ee 
tenure, partly in perpetual settlement, and partly at the ordinary rate and 
term of assessment, among the parties whose names appear in the state- 
ment appended. All those grantees, with the exception of those marked*, 
obtained these assignments for loyal service rendered to the Government 
either during the troubles of 1857 or on some previous occasion. 



BAH 



195 



It will be seen that tKe Edja-e-Rdjgan of Kaplirthala has obtained the 
hon's share of the grants, having received in acknowledgment of the sig- 
nal services which he rendered us during the mutiny no less than 887 
villages (sumnaary settlement). Of these, 381 villages, viz., the iMqas 
Baundi and Bhitauli, are held by him at a perpetual rate of payment, 
equivalent to half the summary assessment. His rental is Es. 6,4!O,OO0rhis 
revenue Rs. 1,83,000, his profits Rs. 4,57,000. 

The Mahdrdja of Balrampur also holds all his villages, 424 in number, 
in perpetual settlement, but at the revised rate of assessment. 





o 
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24,530 


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5,155 

515 

1,175 

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4,370 
1,180 

140 












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15,029 




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nd confiscated in 
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Eija-e-Kajgan of 
Kapurthala ... 

Maharaja of Bal- 
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3 


Maharaja of Bal- 
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Sher Singh 

Bhujang Singh... 

■Taugli Singh ... 

Sarabjlt Singh ... 

Indarjit Singh... 

Jiwan Singh ... 

*Lachhman Par- 
shad, &o. 


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198 



BAH 



Comparative statement of the Revenue Survey, district Bahraich. 





Name of pargana. 


■s 

1 


Area in acres by tlie Revenue SurFey. 




Xame of 
tahsil. 


1 

3 






1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


s 


Kurasar... 


(■Hisampur 
(.Pakhrpur 

Total 

C Bahraich 
-{ Ikauna 
LBhinga 

Total ... 

fNanpara 
■{ Charda 
L Dharmdupur ... 

Total ... 

Total ... 

Grants 

Oudh Reserved 
Forests 

Grand Total ... 


447 
288 


138,215 

122,440 


72,853 
66,763 


48,614 
53,013 


259,682 
242,216 






735 


260,655 


139,616 


101,627 


501,898 




Bahraich... 


327 
241 ' 
156 


76,821 

100,714 

88,419 


97,118 
63,898 
17,293 


35,108 
21,094 
11,241 


209,047 
185,706 
116,953 






724 


265,954 


178,309 


67,443 


511,706 




Nanpara ... 


311 

177 
64 


158,696 
88,863 
28,959 


110,625 
21,043 
44,303 


35,996 

8,287 

14,391 


305,317 

118,193 

87,653 






552 


276,518 


175,971 


58,674 


511,163 






2,011 


803,127 


493,896 


227,744 


1,524,767 

11,579 
180,028 






4 
6 


887 
2,253 


10,242 
165,624 


450 
12,151 






2,021 


806,267 


669,762 


240,345 


1,716,374 





BAH 



199 







1 
a 


aundi is 
Istimrari 
Es. 49,006. 




bis man is 
dead lately, 
no heir ia 
named. 








Muafi for life, 
has estates 
in Gonda 








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s 


a 


• t3 : 




. . . 






: -.'^ 










"^ 


a 


: 2 : 


s 


: : : 




'• '. I 


Ditto 
Ditto 
Bahraich an 




'• ■ ; 


U '• 


en 
to 


1 

ft 

o 

<D 

1 

>5 


Bahraich 
Ikauna a 
Fakhrpur. 
Nanpara 


1 


Ikauna 

Fakhrpur 

Bhinga 


i 


Kuraaar 
•Hisampur 
Ditto 


tuaampur 
Hisiimpur 
Ditto 
1 Ditto 

Charda 

1 


Ditto 
Fakhrpur 
Bhinga 


Dharm :npu 
Ditto 

Total 


3 


O 


Eaja Narpat Singh ... 
MaharajaKharg Singh 

of Kapurthala. 
Eaja Jang Bahadur 


, Khan. 

Maharaja Drig Bijai 
Singh of Balrampur. 

EajaSitlaBakhshSingh 

Edja Eaghunath Singh 

Bhayya Udaipartab 
Singh. 

Thakur Fateh Muham- 
mad. 

Nirman Singh 

Niwazish AU 

Eaja Sher Bahadur 
Singh. 

Eaghubar Siagh 

Zafar Mehndi 

Mahant Harcharan Das 


Mirtunjai Bakhsh Singh 
Indarjit Singh 
Ka7,ini Husen 
Nawab Niwazish Ali 

Khan. 
Sardar Hira Singh . . 
Sardar Jugjot Singh ... 
Sardar Baghel Smgh, 

son of late Suchet 


Smgh. 
Rao Muneshur Bakhsh 
Raja Ranjit Singh ^. 








1' ;^ ; 








; : : 


: : : 


: : :'tJ 

. . 08 




: i 




1 
2 


Piagpur 

Ikauna and Bann 

Nanpara 


1 


Gangwal 

Rahwa 

Bhinga 


1 


Inchhapur Umri 

Ambapur 

Barhauli 


Bhundiari 

Alinagar 


Katka Morauta 
Mustafabad 
Waira Qazi 
Nawabganj Aliab 


Jamdan 
Chahlari 
Bhangha 








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Tt^ 


in tot* 


CO 


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(MM-* 
r~i t^ r^ 


•H rH r^ rH 


SSS 


M CO 





200 



BAH 



BAHRAICH* Pargana — Talisil Bahraich — District Bahraich.— The 
pargana of this name of the present day comprises only about one-third 
of the area included within its limits under the native government. 
Bhinga and Ikauna, with a portion of the Nanpara and Charda parganas, 
which are creations of the English Government, all formed a portion of 
Bahraich ; at present the pargana is bounded on the south-west by the 
Hisampur and Fakhrpur parganas, on the east by Ikauna, and on the 
north by Bhinga, Charda, and Nanpfira. 

Its area is 329 square miles ; its- greatest length from south-east corner to 
the north-west being thirty-two miles ; its average breadth thirteen miles. 
It forms a portion of a belt of low table-land which runs through the dis- 
trict in a south-easterly direction, having Nanpara and Bahraich towns on 
its south-Western edge. This plateau, about 30 feet high, forms the water- 
shed which divides the two river basins of the Rapti and the Gogra. It is 
well-known that in old days the latter river flowed close under the high 
bank which limits the pargana on the south-west, and it has left its traces 
in several large jhils and lakes which doubtless formed originally part of 
its bed, notably the Aaaikali Jhil and Baghel Tal. 

The high level of the country accounts for the absence of rivers. The 
pargana is well wooded, some of the mango groves being of unusual size, 
but the most marked feature, perhaps, of this part of the district is the 
wide expanse of waste land. Out of a total area of 329 square miles, only 
111 were at time of measurement under the plough. The soil is generally 
a good loam consisting of about frds clay and ^rd sand. With fair farming 
and irrigation it is calculated to produce excellent crops. Water is met 
with at an average depth of 18 feet : the mode of irrigation most in vogue 
being the levers or " dhenklis " which are generally found placed in clusters ; 
about ^rd of the total area of cultivation is under irrigation. The follow- 
ing table shows the crop areas of the year 1866 A. D. in acres : — 



1 


13 


1 


1 




ii 

a o 
1-1 




S3 

O M 


t5i 




Ii 


8,015 


5,850 


4,248 


67 


30,780 


3,614 


10,154 


23,213 1 65,941 


15,384 


81,325 



The revised Government demand is distributed as follows :- 





o 

1^ 


S W 


1^ 


Incidence of Government 
demand. 


Class of Tillage. 


j0 . 


11- 
CSS 


1. 


.fj fTerpetual settlement 
^ 30 years ditto 

I'j Total 

Independent villages 
Eevenue-free for lifetime only 
Eevenue-free for ever 


8^ 

2eo 


2 
278 

280 


Ks. A. P. 

245 

88,199 12 8 


Es. A. P. 

7 5 
14 7 


Es. A. P 
3 6 
9 


Bs. A. P. 

OSS 
7 11 


88,444 12 8 


1 4 7 


9 


7 Jl 


m 

16i 
6i 


32 
13 
3 


4,115 S 9 


1 10 10 


12 1 


11 2 


TOTAl 


21i 


16 






... 


... 


^Gbakd Total 


,. 327 


328 


1,02,560 2 6 


15 2 


9 4 


8 3 



* ]<y Mr. H. S. Boys, c, s., AsBistaut Commissioner. 



BAH 



201 





The population is shown 


ini 


bhe following 


table :- 


— 




Agriculturists 


50,523 


-g ^ 1 Brahman s ... 
S B I Chhattris 


13,808 

2,566 

2,000 

1,751 

351 


roentage is — 
2 per cent. 

9 „ 
9 „ 

8 „ 

rom the Chhedtrara 
ome from the Ikauna 
xs from Baundi. 


1 


Non-agriculturists 


34,254 


1 

1 

o 


Kay aths 
Others 




Total ... 


84,777 


Ahfr 

Pasi 

Teli 

Chamar 

Dhobi 

Kurmi 

Kahdr 

Kori 

Murao 

Lodh 

Lonia 

Lohar 

Others 


9,617 

4,807 
2,135 
4,693 
2,144 
8,712 
3,097 
8,703 
2,393 
1,602 
1,507 
1,123 
8,141 


t 
t 

< 


Agriculturists 


5,072 
12,319 


S CO M rt ■"OK 


Non-agriculturists 


^ JK tH ■'(3 *rt d ^ ja 

Ph -3 ^ S '3 J :S ^ »- fS 


1 


Total ... 


17,391 






Agriculturists 


55,595 




i 


." •*^ 




Non-agriculturists 


46,573 




Sayyad 

Shekh 

Pathan 

Julaha 

Ghosi 

Others 


480 
1,491 
1,774 
801 
823 
360 


CJ3U ^ « ^ 

IT"" 


Hi 

1 


Males 


53,680 


Ph . . . . 

-d 


H 


Females 


48,488 


s 


ic.s'-S' 






Miscellaneous 
Total ... 


2,662 
102,168 


s Brahma 
Sarwari 
Kanauj 
Sangalc 
Others 


Grand Total ... 


102,168 




307 


rg 


1 


D. 01 souis per sq^uaitj 
nile 




o 



District roads run through the pargana from — 

Bahraich towards ... ... ... ... ... Gonda. 

Ditto to ... ... ... ... ... Ikauna. 

Ditto to ... ... ... ... ... Bhingd. 

Ditto towards ... ... ... ... ... Nanpara. 

while cart tracks ramify in all directions. The traffic is mainly grain, 
which is exported from the pargana to the bazars of Colonelganj and Na- 
wabganj in Gonda district, and vid Bahramghat to Lucknow. 

Bazars there are none, save the Bahraich market, which itself has no- 
thing in it but articles of everyday local consumption. There is an immense 
annual gathering of the common folk at the fair held in May at Sayyad 
Salar Masaud's shrine, but this mela is not frequented by the better class 
of natives ; and little but pots and pans, women's ornaments and cloths of 
sorts, is bought or sold. Th ere are Government village_schools at — 

... 32 boys. 

26 „ 

36 „ 

40 „ 



Piagpur 

Barwan 

Raepur Madanjot. 

Eaedih 



besides the Bahraich town schools, (which see). 



134 boys. 



202 BAH 

There are district post offices at Pi^gpur, Tilokpur on the Ikauna road, 
and Kakandu on the road to Bhinga. It is possible that this pargana, 
which is a part of the ancient Kosala country, was the scene of the labours 
of Buddha to redeem his fellow beings from the " assembly of Brahma" 
(see Bahraich town), for on the borders of this district in the Ikauna ilaqa 
originally included in this pargana, is situated the great city of Sahet 
Mahet, which is identified by General Cunningham as the retreat of Bud- 
dha, while at Tandwa village, also in the Ikauna ilaqa, still exists a mound 
which is probably identical with that raised over the relics of the body of 
Kasyapa Buddha. Tandwa or Towai was the birthplace of the " expected 
one," while to this day Hindus worship under the name Sita an image of 
the mother of the prophet and reformer. 

In the Charda ilaqa (which see), which was also included in this pargana, 
there is another of these forts surrounded on different sides by mounds of 
ruins which may once have been stupas similar to those of Sahet Mahet, 
and the wilds of the Gandharp Ban (see Bahraich town) may well have 
favoured the attainment of that state of self-absorption which was the 
object of the Buddhist. The Bhars by their very name claim this part of 
the country as their own, and it was not until two centuries after the 
religious raid of Salar Masaud that' they seem to have commenced to 
migrate. The history of this pargana up to the end of the fifteenth century 
is to be found in the district article. In 1478 A. D. Muhammad, sumamed 
the " Black Rock" (Kalapahar), nephew of Bahlol Lodi, was appointed by 
his uncle governor of Bahraich, and it seems that under his strict rule the 
district was once more reminded of the days of Nasir-ud-din, for in that 
year the most northern parganas are recorded as paying by no means a 
contemptible sum as revenue into the imperial chest. After this the his- 
torians are silent regarding this district until the reign of Muhammad 
Shah Tughlaq when, after the suppression of a revolt on the part of A'in- 
ul-Mulk, vicegerent of Oudh, the Sultan paid a visit to Bahraich and 
" devoutly made offerings to the shrine of the martyr Sayyad Salar 
Masatid." This was in 1340 A. D. 

Sultan Firoz Shah succeeded Muhammad Shah, and he also towards the 
end of his reign received the tonsure and made a pilgrimage to the tomb 
of Salar Masaud in the year 1374 A. D. It was in his reign that the first 
Rajput settlement was made in this district (see Ikauna). From the 
Janwar, who then received his grant, have sprung the founders of several 
other estates in these parts, some of which survived the vicissitudes of 
Nawabi rule, and some are known only to tradition. The ilaqas of Ja- 
gannathpur and Gtijiganj (see Charda) and the Bhinga estate (see Bhinga) 
were all once held by cadets of this house, while Gangwal and Balrampur 
in Gonda are still held by members of the same family. The Pidgpur 
Raja, a Janwdr also, claims to be of the same stock, but his pretensions are 
not admitted. In the time of Akbar there were jSgirs held in this pargana 
to the value of Rs. 10,050, and the country was sufiiciently disturbed to 
require a force of 4,500 footmen and 500 horse to keep it in order. The 
cultivation then measured 6,19,226 bighas pakka, which, however, only 
yielded a revenue of Rs. 2,53,353, or about 6^ annas per bigha, another 
indication of the backward state of this pargana, for in His^mpur to its 



BAH 203 

soutli the revenue assessed by Todar Mai averaged Ks. 1-1-6 per Ibigha. 
The system of jagirs was pursued by the Nawab Wazirs of Oudh up to 
the time of A'sif-ud-daula, the management of the lands so given being 
carried on distinct from that of the revenue-paying estates. In 1713 A.D. 
one Nawab Mirza Jahan held no less than 858 villages, and another 
grantee 80 villages, out of 2,430 in this pargana, -while, besides these 
extravagant assignments, 127 villages were held in ordinary revenue-free 
tenure. During the next sixty years other jagirdars held similar grants 
amounting to 548 villages, nearly all of which were in the Bahraich par- 
gana. In 1775 A. D., however, Shuja-ud-daula died, and his son i^sif-ud- 
daula was so pressed by his pecuniary obligations to the British Govern- 
ment that the jagirs all came under resumption, save one of 255 villages, 
which one of Asif-ud-daula's own ministers took care to secure for himself 
On the death of Asif-ud-daula in 1798 this also was resumed, sgid no more 
jagirs have since been granted in this district save the Bhingailaqa, which 
Saadat Ali Khan made over under treaty to Bahu Begam under the 
guarantee of the British Government. This jdgir was held by the lady 
till her death in 1815 A. D. 

Up to the death of Saadat Ali Khan it had always been the policy of 
the Lucknow Government to keep the independent villages that were held 
by their occupants immediately under the Crown out of the grasp of the 
great taluqdars of the district, but the commencement of the reign of his 
successor saw also the beginning of that process of absorption which has 
left in the whole of this large pargana out of 621 khalsa villages that 
existed in 1816 A. D. only 80 undigested. Since that year the Raja of 
Ikauna managed to secure for himself no less than 224 of these villages, 
while Piagpur has absorbed 178 and the Tiparaha taluqdar 48. 

Prior to 1817 A. D., in each of the five great estates which were com- 
prised within the limits of this pargana viz., Ikauna, N^npara, Piagpur, 
Charda, and Gangwal, a tahsildar was appointed on the part of Government 
to look after its interests and hold the power of these taluqdars in check, 
but on the accession of Gh^zi-ud-din Haidar, the reins were loosed, the 
tahsildars withdrawn, and the nobles allowed complete control within their 
estates. The contract system had lately been adopted, and its effects upon 
this pargana and the Bahraich district generally under such men as Hakim 
Mehndi (1817-1818 A. D.,) Raja Darshan Singh (1836 and 1838), and 
the fiendish Raghubar Singh (1846-1847), are well described in Sleeman's 
diary, volume 1, pages 48-122. The pargana has not yet recovered the 
devastations of this last mentioned tyrant, and fine groves of mango trees 
which break the monotony of extensive plains of grass- mark the sites of 
villages which were laid waste at that time. Now that the revised revenue 
demand has been fixed the cultivation is advancing with rapid strides, and 
it will not be many years before the park-like aspect of the country will 
dissolve into that of a vast garden. 

BAHRAICH Town* — Pargana Baheaich — Tahsil Bahraich — Dis- 
trict Baheaich.— Bahraich (latitude 27° 35' north; longitude 81° 40' eastj 
approximately 470 feet above the sea level) is the sadr station of the 
frontier district of the same name. It is situated in nearly the centre of 

* By H. S. Boys, c. s. Assistant Commissioner, 



204 BAH 

the district on tlie road from Bahramghat to Naipdlganj, being thirty-six 
miles north of Bahramghat, and twenty miles south of JSTanpara. Placed 
on the edge of a high bank under which once flowed the river Gogra, it 
claims to be the prettiest of all the stations in the province. The ground 
undulates in all directions, affording excellent sites for the houses of the 
European residents and for the Government offices, while the fresh green 
of the tamarinds and date palms which here abound is most grateful to 
the eye. The climate assimilates in many respects to that of Bengal, and 
is cooler by several degrees than that of the more southern districts. The 
average rain-fall for the years 1861 to 1869 was 40 inches. 

The name Bahraich has more than one derivation assigned to it. 
Brahma is said to have settled a number of holy priests in the Gandharp 
Ban, and hence, according to some, the place was called Brahm-aich 
"assembly of Brahma" : another and more probable origin of the name lies 
in the fact that formerly the whole of the country around was held by 
the Bhars. The first historical event connected with the place is the 
crusade A. H. 424 of Masaud, son of Salar Sahu (see Bahraich pargana), 
who IS buried here. His shrine is one of peculiar sanctity, and is said to 
have been erected over a spot formerly sacred to the worship of the sun, 
the place having been selected by the martyr for his final resting place, 
who said that he would, if it pleased God, through the power of the 
spiritual sun, destroy the worship of the material. The shrine is main- 
tained by the reputed descendants of some servants of the hero, and is 
visited on the first Sunday in Jeth and during the week succeeding by 
crowds of pilgrims of the lower order, both Musalmans and Hindus, from 
all parts of Upper India. It is estimated that at least 150,000 people 
assemble at this fair. The tombs or dargahs of several fellow-martyrs of 
Masaud are situated in and around Bahraich, and are more or less the 
objects of veneration. The best known of these is that of Rajjab Silar 
or Mian Rajjab, the confidential slave of Masaud's father and the kotwal 
of the army. The author of the Mira-at-i-Masaudi takes pains to correct 
two erroneous reports that were, and, indeed, still are current concerning 
this man, some saying that he was sister's son to Masadd, and others that 
he M-^as the father of Firoz Shah. The latter idea no doubt has its origin 
in the similarity of the names and in the fact that Firoz Shah paid a visit 
to Bahraich (see Bahraich pargana.) There exists also here a famous 
Muhammadan monastery founded in 1030 F. by one Mir Inayat Shah, a 
saint from Mooltan. Another holy man, by name Amir Shah, came in 744 
Hijri from Baghdad by way of Lahore and Delhi to take up his residence 
at Bahraich, where his shrine, at which miracles are still reputed to be 
wrought, is to be seen. Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Emperor of Delhi, who 
made a progress through Bahraich in 776 Hijri, is said to have had an 
interview with this saint and to have bestowed on him and other good 
Musalmans very substantial gifts in the way of muafi and jaglr. Since 
the time of Akbar the town has been the administrative centre of 
Government in Sarkar Bahraich, which included a portion of the Gonda 
district, and the population has always mainly consisted of the idle 
followers of the revenue officers for the time being. Asif-ud-daula, who 
was fond of the good sport which this .district has always afforded, sojourned 
here for a while several times and built the Daulat Kh^na, a handsome 



BAH 205 

range of buildings now in ruins, for his residence. E^e Amar Singh, who 
was nftzim from 1811 A. D. to 1816, also built a very substantial house 
for himself, which now serves for a police station and dispensary. As a 
commercial town Bahraich never seems to have thriven. The inhabitants 
are poverty-stricken in the extreme, and it is with difficulty that the 
municipality lately established raises funds to meet its necessary expend- 
iture. The trade is almost entirely for local consumption; the total 
value of goods paying octroi in 1870-71 being Rs. 3,72,276, of which sum 
E,s. 1,65,756 represented grain, Es. 43,919 sugar and gur, Es. 20,172 ghi 
Es. 23,839 dried fruits, Es. 27,067 oil, Es. 24,362 spices, dyes, &c. 

The through traffic was reckoned at Es. 2,19,594, and consisted princi- 
pally of gi-ain, Es. 51,988; sugar and gur, Es. 14,238; ghi Es. 42,524; 
oil Es, 76,950; timber Es. 14,414; and tobacco Es. 10,816; neither of the 
above returns includes piece goods and copper, in which the local trade is 
fairly brisk. Hides also come from the north and pass southward in 
considerable quantity. There is a Government zila school, which, with 
three branches in various muhallas of the town, numbers 240 scholars 
under twelve masters. There are also twelve indigenous schools with 211 
scholars, who learn, about half of them Persian, and half of them Nagri 
and Kaithi. The American Methodist mission have stationed a native 
pastor in the town, who has a school with forty-two boys learning Nagri, 
Kaithi, and Urdu. The population with that of the suburb of Bashir- 
ganj numbers 20,213, of whom 10,908, or rather more than half, are 
Musalmans. There are 4,260 houses, of which 393 are of brick, 43 being 
private dwelling-houses, and 350 shops. The police station has a force of 
eighteen foot constables and one mounted, with four officers and a deputy 
inspector. The Government dispensary has an average daily attendance 
of forty-five patients, its annual cost being Es. 1,718. At the sadr dis- 
tillery there is an annual out-turn of 55,996 gallons of spirits from twenty- 
one stills, yielding a revenue of Es. 28,949. 

BAHEAMPUE* — Pargana Hisampur — Tahsil Kurasar — District Bah- 
raich.— (Latitude 27° r 33" N., longitude 81° 32' 03" E.), lies on the left 
bank of the Gogra, thirty-five miles from Bahraich, on the main road from 
that place to Lucknow. The river here is spanned from November till May 
by a bridge of boats, but during the rains the waters rise in many years so 
high as to flood all the surrounding country on the north bank. Bahram- 
pur itself is fast being cut away by the action of the river, which year by 
year here changes its course. It is well-known that centuries ago it flowed 
immediately under Bahraich, thirty-five miles to the north. The village is 
said to take its name from Bahram Khan, one of Sayyad Salar's ofiicers, 
who met his death, in the invasion of 425 H., at the hands of the Bhars, 
who then held the neighbouring country. The martyr's tomb has only 
lately been washed away hy the river. Asif-ud-daula founded a bazar 
here, known as Nawabganj, but the trade is but small. The grain bar- 
gains are all made at Colonelganj, a village fourteen -miles to the east, and 
Bahrdmpur sees but little of either exports or imports except in transit. 
The main articles of export from the Bahraich district by this route are 

* Mr. H. S. Boys, c. s., Assistant Commissioner, 



206 BAH— BAI 

grain, timber, skins, ghi, bliang, tobacco, mats, iron, and hill honey. The 
imports are mainly cloths and silks, iron and brass utensils, salt and 
prepared leather. A large quantity of the exports goes direct by boat to 
Simaria Ghat near Patna. The population numbers 1,3-56 souls, of whom 
1,204 are Hindus and 152 Musalmans. There are 411 mud houses, two 
shiwd,las, and two thdkurdwdras ; three mosques, a school, and a sarae. 
The school has forty-five boys. The imperial line of road from Bahraich 
to Lucknow passes through this place, and is metalled from Bahramghat 
to Lucknow, thirty-nine miles. The terminus of the branch line of rail- 
way from Bahramghat to Lucknow is at the southern end of the bridge 
of boats. 

BAHTA MUJAWIE, — Pargana Bangaematt. — Tahsil Safipur — District 
Unao. — This village is 18 miles distant from the tahsil and 35 from the 
sadr station Unao, in a north-westerly direction. The unmetaUed road from 
Unao to Sitapur through Sandila passes one mile from it. There is no 
large town near. The river Sai runs past about one mile distant to the 
north. 

The date of its foundation is not known, but as it was inhabited by the 
Mujawirs (attendants) on the monuments of AUahhaq in B^ngarmau, it is 
now called Bahta Mujawir. 

It is situated on a plain and has a jungle towards the south, about a 
mile or two distant. 

Hindus are more numerous, but they and the Muhammadans live amicably 

It has a pleasing appearance, good climate, and sweet water. 

There are two fairs during the year, one in March, and the other in 
August at which nearly 400 people assemble on each occasion, sweetmeats,, 
toys, &c., are brought for sale. These fairs last one day each. 

There are 247 mud-built houses here, and the population amounts ta 
1,209, of whom 1,106 are Hindus, and 103 Moslems. 

Latitude 26°55' north. 

Longitude 80°20' east. 

BAHURA'JMAU — Pargana Harha — Tahsil Unao — District UnAO.— A 
village in pargana Harha, fourteen miles south-east of Unao, on the road 
from that town to Rae Rareli. The Mahror Kahars mentioned in pargana 
Harha obtained the land surrounding the place from Raja Tilok Chand, 
and called it after the Bahti Raja or the Raja's wife, who selected the 
spot for them. The population is 1,229, of whom 245 are Chhattris, 
mostly of this Mahror clan. The place is of little importance. 

BAILA BHELA — Pargana Rae Baeeli — Tahsil Rae Baeeli — District 
Rae Baeeli. — This town, or rather collection of hamlets, is situated two 



BAI— BAK 207 

miles to the east of the Bareli and Dalmau road. The country round is 
well cultivated and fairly wooded. The population is 4,887, of whom 294 
are Chhattris and 260 Brahmans. There is a school at which forty-one 
boys learn Urdu. There is a temple to Mahadeo, the principal deity of 
the inhabitants. Markets are held twice a week. 

BAILGA'ON — Pargann Puewa — Tahsil PuRWA — District Unao. — Is five 
miles north-west of the tahsil and sixteen miles south-east of the sadr sta- 
tion. The Lon stream runs near the north-east corner. The time of its 
foundation is unknown, but it was very long ago. There is the ruin of a 
fortress built by Raja Achal Singh, Bais. There is a Nagri school attend- 
ed by about thirty-two boys. Two markets weekly. About four or five 
thousand people attend. The trade consists in jewellery, in wood and iron, 
implements of husbandry, and cloth. Dumat and matiar soil. The site 
is uneven ; a tolerable climate and good scenery. Groves of mango trees 
and mahua surround it. No jungle, and the water is both fresh and salt 
in different wells. 

Population — 

Hindus^ ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,199 

Muliammadans ,., ... ... ... ... ••• 20 

Total ... 1,219 

Temple 

Annual amount of sales ... ... ... ..• Est 

BAXSAR — Pargana Daundia Khera — Tahsil Purwa — District TJnao. — 
This village in pargana Daundia Khera lies on the Ganges, 32 miles south- 
east of Unao ; it was the first seat of the Bais clan, and conquered by Raja 
Abhai Chand, who called it after the shrine of Mahddeo Bakeswar. A 
great fair is still held here in Kartik, when 100,000 people assemble to 
bathe in the Ganges, said to be particularly sacred at the place because it 
flows slightly towards the north ; the sales at the fair reach Rs. .5,000. The 
population is 1,222, of whom 12 are Musalmans. It was at this spot that 
the fugitives from Cawnpore came ashore and took refuge in a temple 
where most of them were massacred ; the affair is thus related by Major 
De la Fosse : — 

" We got down to the river and into the boats without being molested in 
the least ■ but no sooner were we in the boats and had laid down our 
muskets, and had taken off our coats, to work easier at the boats, than the 
cavalry (our escort) gave the order to fire. Two guns that had been hid- 
den were run out, and opened upon us immediately, while sepoys came 
from all directions and kept up a brisk fire. 

" The men jumped out of the boats, and instead of trying to get the boats 
loose from their moorings, swam to the first boat they saw loose. Only 
three boats got safe over to the opposite side of the river, but were met there 
by two field-pieces, guarded by a number of cavalry and infantry. Before 
these boats had got a mile down the stream, half our party were either 



208 BAL 

killed or wounded, and two of our boats had been swamped. We had 
now only one boat crowded with wounded, and having on board more than 
she could carry. The two guns followed us the whole of the day, the 
infantry firing on us the whole of that night, 

" On the second day a gun was seen on the Cawnpore side, and opened 
on us at Najafgarh, the infantry still following us on both sides. On the 
morning of the third day the boat was no longer serviceable. We were 
aground on a sand-bank, and had not strength sufficient to move her. 
Directly many of us got into the water we were fired upon by thirty or 
forty men at a time. There was nothing left but to charge and drive them 
away, so fourteen of us were told to go and do what we could. Directly 
we got on shore the insurgents retired ; but having followed them up too 
far, we were cut off from the river, and had to retire ourselves as we were 
being surrounded. We could not make for the river, but had to go down 
parallel, and came at the river again a mile lower down, where we saw a 
large force of men right in front waiting for us, and another lot on the 
other bank, should we attempt to cross the river. On the bank of the 
river, just by the force in front was a temple. We fired a volley and made 
for the temple, in which we took shelter, one man being killed and one 
wounded. From the door of the temple we fired on every insurgent who 
showed himself. Finding they could do nothing against us while we re- 
mained inside, they heaped wood all around and set it on fire. 

" When we could no longer remain inside, on account of the smoke and 
heat, we threw off the clothes we had, and each taking a musket, charged 
through the fire. Seven of us out of twelve got into the water ; but before 
we had gone far two poor fellows were shot. There were only five left 
now, and we had to swim, while the insurgents followed us along both 
banks wading, and firing as fast as they could. After we had gone about 
three miles down the stream, one of our party, an artilleryman, to rest 
himself, began swimming on his back, and not knowing in what direction 
he was swimming, got on shore, and was killed. When we had gone down 
about six miles, firing on both sides ceased ; and soon after we were hailed 
by some natives on the Oudh side, who asked us to come on shore, and 
said that they would take us to their Raja*, who was friendly to the Eng- 
lish. We gave ourselves up, and were taken six miles inland to the R£ja, 
who treated us very kindly, giving iis clothes and food. 

" We stayed with him for about a month, as he would not let us leave, 
saying the roads were unsafe. At last he sent us off on the 29th of July, 
to the right bank of the river, to a zamindar of a village, who got us a 
hackery." 

BALAMAU — Pargana Balamatj — Tahsil SANDfLA — District Hardoi. — 
Balamau (2,376). — A rich Kurmi village of 518 mud houses, near the left 
bank of the Sai, fourteen miles north-west from Sandila, and three miles 
to the west of the Lucknow road, district Hardoi, gives its name to the 
Balamau pargana. There is a daily market and a village school averag- 
ing forty-four pupils. 



The Tilok Chaudi Bais, Eaja of Moramiau. 



BAL 209 

BALAMAU Pargana* Tahsil Sa-sj){la.,— District Hardoi.— A little par- 
gana of fourteen villages, lying in the north-western corner of the Sandila 
sub-division, district Hardoi. The Sai flows along its western side, 
separating it from parganas Bangar and Mallanw^n; on the north it is bound- 
ed by pargana Gopamau, and on the east and south by Sandila. Its 
greatest length and breadth are eight and a half and four and a half miles. 
It covers twenty-five square miles, of which eighteen are cultivated. The 
surface is level except to the west, towards the Sai. The soil is productive 
though light. A rich strip of ' tarai' land fringes the river, flooded at times 
after late and heavy rains, and generally in-igable from the river until the 
end of December. A good deal of jungle has been broken up since 
annexation, and little now is left. About a quarter of the cultivated area 
is irrigated, partly from weUs, but chiefly from tanks and ponds, of which 
there are a hundred and eighty-two, and from the river. Mud wells 
can be made almost everywhere. In the light soil towards the river the 
cheap little hand wells ( dhenkli ) are chiefly used. These are dug for a 
rupee or a rupee and half, and generally have to be renewed each year. To 
the east, away from the river, where the soil is more stiff, larger kachcha 
weUs are made for six and eight rupees and last for from three to five years. 
The staple products are wheat, barley and gram. Beds of the nodular 
limestone (kankar) are found in Bara Guman, Katka, and Balamau. 
Kachhwaha Chhattris hold eight of the fourteen villages ; Nikumbhs, 
two ; Kayaths and Kashmiri Brahmans, one each ; Sukul Brah- 
mans, two. Four villages are taluqdari, two zamindari, the rest imperfect 
pattidari. The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Rs. 20,408, and 
falls at the rate of Rs. 1-12-6 per cultivated acre, Rs. 1-4-11 per acre 
of total area, Rs. 11-2-5 per plough, Rs. 2-13-4 per head of the agricul- 
tural, and Rs. 1-13-8 per head of the total population. The population is 
11,1-59, or 446 to the square mile. Of these, 10,329 are Hindus, and only 
830 Muhammadans. A fifth of the Hindus are Cham£rs ; an eighth Brah- 
mans ; Barhis and Kurmis each make up a ninth ; Chhattris are only a 
fourteenth. Ahirs predominate among the remainder. 

Males to females are 5,859 to 5,300 ; agriculturists to non-agriculturists, 
7,197 to 3,962. There is a daily market at the pargana town Balamau. 
There, too, is the only school, a village one, averaging forty-four pupils. 

At Kalauli, two miles east from Balamau, a mela is held in April, attended 
by some six thousand persons. The pargana is not mentioned in the 
Ain-i-Akbari, but is said to have been formed towards the end of Akbar's 
reign. It takes its name from one Balai Kurmi, who flying northwards 
from D^dhia Tiriva some three hundred years ago, to escape from the 
oppression of the Chandels, found an asylum with the Kachhwahas of 
Marhi, through whose lands he passed. Settled by them in the neigh- 
bouring forest, he cleared and peopled it, and founded the village of Balai 
Khera, now Bdlamau. 

At first the pargana contained forty-two villages, but during the present, 
century Raja Gobardhan Lai, Faqir Muhammad Khan and Chaudhris 



By A. H. Harington, Esq., c. s., Assistant Commissioner. 



210 BAL 

Mansab Ali and Hashmat Ali, the Chakladars of Mallanwfin, Kachhandan, 
Sandila and Malihabad, threw two-thirds of them into pargana Sandila. 

Another tradition tells that five hundred years ago, Tiwari Brahmans 
held the tract ; that they were expelled by Kachhwdhas, and that years 
afterwards Balai Kurmi assisted the Kachhwahas to beat off a Musalman 
raid upon Marhi from Roshanpur near Bilgram, and was rewarded by 
them with a strip of their jungle. 

BALMIAR BARKHA'R — Pargana Muhamdi — Tahsil Muhamdi — District 
Kheri. — ^A village in pargana Muhamdi, situate at a distance of about 
four miles from the west bank of the Gumti, having a tank towards the 
north-west. 

In Hindu books it is related to have been the residence of RSja Bairat, 
the ruins of whose fort are still seen. There are visible marks of its hav- 
ing once been a magnificent city. There is a Hindu temple. Balmiar Bar- 
khar and several other villages formed the jagir of -Raja Newal Rae, who 
was deputy of Nawab Mansiir Ali Khan of Oudh. The said Rdja trans- 
ferred by gift this Balmiar Barkhar to Nirohin, who was ancestor of the 
Chaube community, to whom it now belongs, and whose right has been 
confirmed by a judicial decree of 25th October 1867 A. D. 

The population amounts to 419, of which 409 are Hindus and only 10 
Muhammadans. * 

BALRAMPTJR Townf — Pargana BalrImpvu-^— Tahsil UTEAULA^-Dis- 
trict GoNBA. — Balrampur, the largest town in the Gonda district, is 
situated on the north bank of the Suwawan river, and about two miles to 
the south of the Rdpti. One kachcha road connects it with Gonda, from 
which it is distant twenty- eight miles; and another runs through it from 
TJtraula, sixteen miles to the east, to Bahraich, which is forty miles to the 
north-west. A removable bridge-of-boats at the Sisia Ghat admits of the 
transit of carts across the R£pti from December to the beginning of the 
rainy season. The site, a little raised to the north, slopes into swamps 
along the Suwawan, and the overflows of that river and the Rapti join 
during the rains, covering all but a few high spots, and occasioning great 
misery at the time, and some fever when the floods abate. 

The population at the last census numbered 14,026, of which 3,402 were 
Muhammadans ; and there are 3,035 houses, of which only 25 are of brick. 
Of the religious buildings, 37 are dedicated to Mahadeo, 9 to Vishnu, 5 to 
Kali, 2 to Mahabir ; and there are 17 mosques, none of any great preten- 
sion. About a mile to the north of the town, the Mahdrdja a few years 
ago noticed a small brick temple dedicated to Bijleshwari Debi, and re- 
marked that, were it not for the sacred banian tree which shaded it, he 
would build the goddess a lofty house of stone. On that very night, it is 
said, the tree was uprooted by a hurricane, and the Mab^rija is now 



• For an account of the antiquities of this place, see article Kheri. 
t By W. C. Benett, Esq., c. s., Assistant Commissioner. 



BAL 211 

erecting on the spot a very handsome stone temple, profusely carved by the 
best artists of Benares. Once a week the inhabitants of BaMmpur troop 
forth in their best clothes to pay their respects at the place which the 
goddess had so palpably singled out for her favour. A school and a police 
thSna are the only public buildings. The former was built by the Maha- 
rdja, and is largely indebted to his liberal support. One hundred and 
forty boys are instructed in English, Persian, Urdu and Hindi, and 
the best of them have attained considerable proficiency, reading difficult 
English poetry fluently. The principal private building is, of course, the 
Maharaja's house, an imposing pile in the Indo-Palladian style of architec- 
ture, enclosing a large court, on one side of which are ranged the dwelling- 
houses and offices, on the other the stables and out-houses for the accom.- 
modation of its master's hundred elephants. A garden, a deer enclosure, 
a caged tiger, and a few chained leopards, complete the establishment. 
Not far to the west of this is a very fine solid house, built three storeys 
high, round a central open space, as in Italian houses. The founder of 
this was one Moti Gir Goshdin, a wealthy jewel merchant. His descendants 
now live on the ground-floor and out-houses, while the upper story has 
been occupied by the Maharaja's lithographic printing press, whence are 
issued books in Hindi and Urdu, dealing chiefly with morality, medicine, 
religious ceremonial, and the history of the owner and his ancestors. A 
collection of Hindi poetry has been published, and a Hindi translation of 
the Raj-tarangini and an edition of the chief local ballads are promised. 
The old bazar was a little narrow street running down to the Suwawan, 
but this has been almost entirely deserted for the new and more commo- 
dious shops built in two cross streets of a respectable width by the present 
Maharaja. Here are found a few good clothiers who supply the wants of 
the Maharaja and his principal dependents, and the usual braziers, grain- 
dealers, grocers and druggists, form the population of the town and its 
neighbourhood. There is sufficient custom to admit of a daily bazar. 
The principal grain merchants of the south of the district find this a 
convenient dep6t for the surrounding rice country, and till Sir Jang Baha- 
dur adopted his present closely protective commercial policy, numbers of 
Naipalese used to flock here to barter the spices and iron of the hills for 
cotton clothes, blankets and salt. 

There are no manufactures of great importance, but coarse cotton cloth, 
coarse blankets and felt, knives, and round clothes' baskets (pitdras) of 
cane from the neighbouring banks of the Kuwana, are produced in limited 
quantities. A force of twenty-two town policemen preserves order and 
indifferent cleanliness. Except two houses of the Shankarach^rj Goshains, 
which are common in these parts, there is no peculiar religious sect ; but 
this is the only town in Oudh where I have seen the ancient custom of 
the Ohaturmasha retirement, recalling the earliest legends of Buddhism, 
regularly observed. Hundreds of travelling mendicants collect here for the 
rains, and when they again depart oh their pilgrimages receive a small 
present of clothes from the Mahdrdja. There are no great fairs, but on the 
ninth day of Muharram, about 6,000 Muhammadans collect with flags at a 
spot sacred to Kardmat Ali, a local saint. It is singular that they should 
have poached on the traditions of Buddhism, and point out a small sakhu 

02 



212 BAL 

tree as the growth of the tooth-brush of the object of their venerations * 
The town is comparatively modern, and derives its name from the pargana ; 
the original seat of the, Balrdmpur Rajas being the little village of Dhosahi, 
contiguous to the west. It has no peculiar history. On the rare occasions 
when the whole pargana was kachcha, it was the seat of a Government 
tahsildar, and a royal news-writer was maintained to report on the occur- 
rences in the Tarai, 

BALRAMPTIR Pargana — Tahsil TJtraula — District Gonda. — A large 
pargana in the Gonda district. Is bounded to the north by the Tulsipur 
pargana, to the west by Bahraich, the south by the Kuwana river, pargana 
TJtraula, and the Rapti, and to the east by Tulsipur and the district of 
Basti in the North-Westem Provinces. Its total area is 396 square miles, 
its greatest breadth twenty-four, and greatest length thirty-three miles. In 
shape it is something like a retort, the bulb being to the west, while the 
stem runs out between the two Raptis and the parganas of Utraula and 
Tulsipur. 

It falls naturally into three divisions, one lying between the Rapti and 
the Kuwana, in which the soil is generally of a fair dumat, but poorly popu- 
lated, and not under careful cultivation. The banks of the Kuwana are 
fringed by dense cane brakes, which are haunted by a few leopards, and, it 
is asserted, a solitary tiger. These are succeeded by a narrow belt of forest, 
consisting generally of small sal trees, and fuU of spotted deer, nil-gae, and 
pigs. After this comes a low-lying plain, covered with khar grass, and con- 
taining patches of very inferior cultivation, graduating into the more fully 
tilled vfllages of the northern half. In the rains the Rapti overflows its 
banks and spreads a destructive flood over the low lands as far as the 
Suwdwan river, which cuts the division in half, and, an inconsiderable 
stream at other times, is then a copious river. 

The second division is the duab between the Rapti and the Btirhi 
Rapti, a long strip extending across the whole breadth of the district, and 
widening towards the Basti frontier. It contains a few good villages, but 
generally suffers greatly from the floods of both rivers, which in many 
places join during the rains, leaving generally a barren sandy deposit. 
Higher at both extremities, the centre of this division is occupied by an 
extensive tract of grass waste, which is for months under three to five feet 
of water, and can only be reclaimed by the erection of expensive embank- 
ments. The land to the north of the Btirhi Rapti is generally of a fine 
clay and well cultivated. Its most striking feature is the number of hill 
torrents by which it is intersected. Flowing between high cliffs for a few 
miles after they leave the jungles of the Tarai, they encounter at the Bal- 
rampur frontier a low plain sloping gently to the south, and at their junc- 
tion with the Burhi Rapti, run level with surrounding fields. Generally 
shallow streams of water, they are subject to sudden flushes at the end of 
the hot weather and in the rains, and breaking down huge fragments of the 



* Vide Julien's Memoirea sur lea contrfes Ocoidentales, par Hiouen Tsang Vol. I. p. 292. 
BndcLha's tooth-brush is said to have sprouted into a tree at Vaisakh, wrongly I think iden- 
tified with Ajodhya, by General Cunningham, Archseological Journal Vol. I, S18,— Editor, 

t By W. C. Beuett, Esq., c. s. Assistant Commissioner, 



BAL 213 

cliffs, which confine them to the north, inundate the surrounding country 
and deposit far and wide the detritus of the hills. The destruction they 
occasion is worst on the low-lying lands bordering the Burhi Rdpti, which 
are for miles blinding wastes of white sand. This sand is, however, 
occasionally varied by a deposit of rich stiff clay, which in a short time 
amply repays cultivation. It follows that the whole surface of this division 
of the pargana is being gradually raised, and the low lands which formerly 
produced fine rice are being converted into wheat and gram fields ; the 
proportion of the spring to the autumn and winter crops is being constantly 
changed to the advantage of the former. The rivers have already been 
mentioned ; of them, the Kuwdna is a sluggish, steady stream, prevented 
by its sloping banks and their thick jungles from doing any damage to the 
surrounding lands. The Suwawan has not sufficient volume materially to 
alter the character of the country, but the Rapti and Burhi Rdpti are 
impetuous torrents, whose low, bare, sandy banks enable them to change 
their courses every year with a caprice that defies calculation or prevention. 
Whole villages pass from one side to the other in a single rainy season. 
There are a few jhils to the south of the Rapti, but hardly any elsewhere, 
and now here, except in the Kuw^na jungles and the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the capital, is the country well-wooded. 

Water is everywhere near the surface, and is struck at an average depth 
of not more than ten feet. Small kachcha wells can be made at the 
expense of a rupee, and in the stiffer soils will sometimes last for two sea- 
sons, but, except for poppy and other garden crops, they are rarely used, as 
rain usually falls in the middle or at the end of February, and the excess of 
water ruins crops that have been artificially irrigated earlier. For drinking 
purposes, square wells lined with planks of wood can be constructed for 
Rs. 10, and will last from fifteen to twenty-five years. 

The principal agricultural products are winter rice and various kinds of 
chik peas, while fair wheat crops are grown all over the pargana, and au- 
tumn rice is very common. Lahi, a description of mustard used for making 
oil, is largely raised for exportation, and yields a very valuable return to 
the minimum of labour. The number of acres under each of these crops 

is as follows : — 

Winter rice 45,640 

Autumn rice „ 23,030 

^/*™ - ??'^^^] 35,200 

Masiir _ 11,700) ' 

Wheat 23,730 

Lahi 10,U5 

The total area under cultivation is 186,000 acres, leaving 66,000 acres, or 
about 27 per cent, of the whole, uncultivated. Thirty-three thousand 
acres or not quite 18 per cent, of the cultivation, is under two crops. The 
tillage is not usually of a high class, and the small proportion of the popu- 
lation to the total area, combined with the natural productiveness of the 
soil, leads to the practice of roughly breaking up outlying fields with the 
spade and sowing them scantily with inferior grains, such as gram and 
peas, the cultivator being remunerated by the smallest return. As a na- 
tural consequence, rents are almost always in kind, money never being paid 
except for the few highly manured fields round the homestead, which are 
devoted to poppy or vegetables, or very rarely a poor sugarcane crop. 



214 BAL 

Much of the ploughing — ^in fact all where the cultivators are Ohhattris 
or Brahmans — is done by ploughmen of the peculiar status described at 
length in the district article. The superior value of labour in a scanty 
population is shown by the fact that, besides other exceptional privileges, 
the slave here takes as his share of the produce one maund out of five, 
while his less fortunate brother in the crowded southern parganas only 
takes one of seven. Common cultivators are enticed and retained by the 
provision of materials for their huts, and a small standing loan of about 
Rs. 10, and bearing no interest, for the purchase of plough cattle ; both 
house and loan are forfeited, if the settler abandons or declines to cultivate 
his fields. 

It is said that formerly the town of Balrampur was the centre of a con- 
siderable trade with Naipal, and that the highlanders used to come down in 
large numbers to barter the products of their hills — gold, spices,and horses — 
with the rice and cotton cloths of the plains. Any commerce of this kind 
which may at one time have existed, has been entirely crushed by the repres- 
sive policy of Sir Jang Bahadur of Naipal, who draws a large revenue from 
bazar fees, aM consequently endeavours to confine all dealings to his own 
markets. The Goshains of Balrampur are reputed to have been great jewel 
merchants, or rather smugglers ; and a story which relates how one Moti Gir, 
whose fine house is still in existence at Balrampur, on being overtaken by 
the soldiers of the Naipal king, discharged into the air two hundred match- 
locks full of pearls in order to avoid detection, illustrates at once the 
extent and the risk of this form of traffic. At present the chief trade is 
through Nawabganj with Bengal, where rice and oil seeds are exchanged 
for salt, clothes and coined silver. The local markets of Mathura and 
Bakampur are described in separate articles. One unmetaUed road passes 
through the pargana and connects Utraula to the east with Bahraich to the 
w«st ; another runs from BaMmpur to Gonda. The villages are connected 
by rough cart tracks and communication between the northern and southern 
banks of the Rapti is kept up by means of large flat-bottomed ferry boats, 
and a stationary bridge of boats at Sisia, at the nearest point to the town 
of Balrampur. 

The population by the settlement returns is 135,586, and by the regu- 
lar census taken two years before, 160,237. It is spread over 228 demar- 
cated villages, or 992 hamlets, at the moderate density of 368 souls to the 
square mile according to the settlement, and by the regular census 405. 
The settleinent statistics give the high average of 11 acres to each culti- 
vating family, and 8 acres to each plough ; but the prevalence of spade 
labour makes the latter average easily intelligible. Of the total census popu- 
lation, 140,641 are Hindus and 19,596, or nearly 14 per cent., Muham- 
madans. The percentage of males to females among the Hindus is 94-7» 
and among the Muhammadans, 92-4. Practically, the whole population is 
agricultural; manufactures are wholly wanting, and if a man does not plough 
himself, (and there are few families of carpenters, blacksmiths, or banians, 
who do not cultivate small tenements in addition to their regular employ- 
ments,) he is at any rate immediately engaged in facilitating the ploughing 
of others. The census division into agricultural and non-agricultural was 
clearly not understood by the men who took the returns, and is of no value; 



BAL 215 

it may also be remarked that the census was taken here before the revenue 
survey, and that, in consequence, all its areas are wrong. For the distribu- 
tion of castes I have been obliged to rely on the settlement returns; and if 
their numbers are slightly under the mark, they may at any rate be 
depended on for tolerably accurate proportions between the different classes 
of inhabitants. Of these, by far the most numerous are the Kurmis, 
Brahmans, and Ahirs, who head the list with 3,630, 3,190, and 2,961 
houses, respectively, or, allowing 4^ to each house, 16,335, 14,355, and 13,325 
souls. The Kurmis are, as elsewhere, excellent agriculturists, and belong 
almost all to the Gujarati division — another sign of the curious connexion 
which exists between this country and the distant Gujarat. The Brahmans 
belong to the Sarwaria division, and claim a superiority not conceded to them 
by their Kanaujia brethren on the score of abstinence from meat of all 
kinds and smoking tobacco, and refusal to touch a plough. There are nearly 
1,700 houses of Koris, who are usually bond slaves, and whose families spin 
at their homes large quantities of coarse cotton cloth. Chhattris are unusu- 
ally scarce, and the returns only give them 400 houses in the whole par- 
gana. A few scattered houses of Bhars and Tharus yet remain, but the 
mass of the old aboriginal population has been displaced by more careful and 
thrifty classes of cultivators, and taken refuge in the fever-guarded fastnesses 
of the Tarai jungle. Wandering encampments of people, akin to the great 
Gipsy family, are very common — Siarkhawwas — wild smart men, but with 
good straight features, who hunt on foot with spears and a fine breed of 
dogs, jackals and pigs, and are said not to refrain even from fairly fresh 
carrion ; or Qalandars, a tribe which subsist chiefly on begging, breeding 
asses and mules, and prostitution, and profess a rude and superstitious form 
of Muhammadanism. Some of the wealthiest men in the pargana are the 
Shankarach£rj Goshains, of whom a short sketch is given in the district 
article. Many of them are large grain merchants, and they almost ^mono- 
polize the trade in jewels, spices, unwrought gold, and asafoetida. Their 
celibacy and usual practice of only adopting one son as successor prevents 
their being very numerous. 

The native assessments since 1799 A. D. are preserved in the q^ntingo's 
papers, and show with extraordinary distinctness the rapid progress of the 
pargana in population and wealth. In the first year, for which records 
exist, the Government demand was Es. 48,247, which rose within four 
years to Rs. 61,000, and after annual fluctuations fell again in 1816 
A. D. to Rs. 30,291. This was followed by a tolerably steady rise, till 
in 1833 A. D. the demand was Rs. 1,67,925 ; this fell in 1837 A. D. 
to Rs. 89,133, but three years later again rose to Rs. 1,43,920. With 
the exception of one year, the revenue remained steadily within a few 
thousands of this sum, and at annexation stood at Rs. 1,38,000. The 
exceptional year was when Raja Darshan Singh, is said to have collected 
Rs. 2,88,823 ; and as he had chased the rdja into Gorakhpur, and made 
a practice of transferring to his own treasury not only the whole rents, 
but, as far as he could, the whole agricultural stock of every district 
which was fortunate to own him as nd.zim, it is possible that the account 
is correct. At annexation the Raja submitted his village accounts, and 
the Government demand was fixed at Rs. 1,34,035. In the winter of 
1871-72 A. D. the pargana was again assessed, and the Government 



216 BAL 

demand fixed at Es. 2,37,090, giving a revenue rate per acre of Ks. 0-15-2 
on the whole area, and Rs. 1-3-2 on cultivation, and Ks. 1-4-10 per head 
of pppulation. The rates on ordinary villages were very much higher, and 
ranged from Rs. 1-6-0 to Rs. 2-3-0 per acre, but the average was reduced 
by the large sandy or marshy tracts which were entered as cultivation, 
though the sowings were in the one case with the object rather of reclam- 
ation than of immediate profit, and in the other case only of the half wild 
pea which is used for fodder, and not divided with the ordinary grain 
crops. Attention was also paid to the fact that, in a country of grain rents, 
the out-turn of rent is much more variable and^dependent on the seasons 
than where money rents are in use. As a reward for his loyal and distin- 
guished services in the mutiny, the Maharaja has been allowed a deduction 
of 10 per cent, on this assessment, which has also been fixed for perpe- 
tuity. The receipts of Government are further reduced by Rs. 20,235 of 
revenue remissions, the greater part of which are for the life of the present 
Maharaja. With the exception of a few very small independent holdings, 
not amounting to ^ per cent, of the area, the whole pargana is the sole 
property of the Maharaja. The sub-proprietary right cases have not yet 
been all decided, but the majority of claims have been dismissed, and it is 
not likely that such rights will be decreed in more than a very few villages. 

For many centuries previous to the first Muhammadan invasion, this 
must have been a densely populated district, as it was the centre in turns 
of powerful Buddhist, Brahmanical, and Jain kingdoms ; but all that is 
known of its earlier history is connected with the ancient town of Sahet 
Mahet, and has been recounted at length in that article, so it need not be 
repeated here. On the destruction of the last local dynasty by the Rathors 
of Kanauj, about 1072 A. D., we find one of those phenomena so common 
in Indian history, and so diflScult to realize. The remnants of the defeated 
ruling clan migrate in a body to the hills, the once populous villages become 
waste, and the fertile fields of wheat and rice give place to a dense jungle 
of sal and mahua ; fever and dysentery complete the work : and three 
centuries afterwards, when the curtain of history is again lifted, the new 
settlers find a trackless forest, broken here and there by rare clearances of 
aboriginal tribes, Bhars and Tharus, fever-proof by constitution, earning 
a precarious livelihood by the chase and rude tilth, and owing a distant 
allegiance to the Dom kingdom of Gorakhpur. The new comers were the 
Janwars who assert that they were originally Chauhans of the Narbada 
valley, and who arrived in this district towards the middle of the fourteenth 
century. A curious tradition relates that as one of the earliest of their 
Rajas was hunting, he saw a wolf pick up a child and carry it to his den. 
The Raja pursued it, and after having followed up the winding passages 
of the cavern for some time, came suddenly upon an open space, where he 
saw a venerable faqir sitting with the boy on his knees. He recognized 
at once that the wolf was nothing less than a jogi, who had assumed that 
form, and prostrated himself in silent reverence. In return for his religious 
conduct, the holy man blessed him and his offspring, that for all time to 
come no wolf should prey on a Janwar's child, and the blessing is said to 
exist in full efficacy to the present day. The first six of the Janwar 
chiefs ruled in undivided power at Ikauna, and their history belongs to that 
pargana. No separate pargana of Balrampur then existed, but the whole 



BAL 217 

was included even as late as the Ain-i-Akbari In the vast sub-montane 
division of Rdmgarh Gauri, which embraced in the two tappas of Tulsipur 
and Daman-i-koh the future raj of Tulsipur. In the seventh generation 
from the original invader, Madho Singh, Janwar, separated from his brother 
Ganesh Singh, the Ikauna Raja, and reduced a tribe of Barhis (carpenters), 
who held, under the leadership of one Khemu Barhi, the tappas of Ch^wal 
Khata and Paydlpur between the Rapti and the Kuwana. 

His son, Balram Das, early in the reign of Jahangir, founded the present 
town of Balrampur, and re-named the pargana. This appears to have 
been here, as elewhere in Oudh, a period of active development of power 
with the Chhattri tribes ; and Balram Das, assisted by his cousin. Raja 
Lachhmi Narain Singh of Ikauna, reduced in succession the small chief- 
tainships of Mathura and Itror to the north of the Rapti, which now form 
the western and eastern halves of the raj on that side of the xiver. Who 
the defeated lords were, there are now no means of ascertaining ; but 
tradition asserts that they were Janw^rs of the same family as their con- 
querors, and gives them, according to the conventional computation in 
use here, each a chieftainship of seven hos in extent. 

The Balrampur raj had at this time attained its greatest extension ; to 
the west the boundary between it and Ikauna passed, as it does now, nearly 
due north and south the ruins of Sahet Mahet ; to the north the Tulsipur 
pargana was a vast unnamed forest, whose scanty settlements of Kurmis 
had not yet been subjugated by the Chauhans of Naipal, and who, by 
admitting the zamindari of the Balrampur Raja, laid the foundation of 
a dispute, which was not settled till both parganas were again united 
under one chieftain after the mutiny. The eastern boundary was then, 
as it always has been since, contested with the Pathana of Utraula, but 
probably differed but little from the one now laid down ; while the forest 
tract between the Kuwana and the Bisuhi to the south had not been wrested 
from the Janwars by the superior power of the Bisens. The next war was 
in the latter half of the seventeenth century, when the Pathans of Utraul% 
under their able leader Pahar Khan, harried the country as far as Ikauna, 
This probably happened during the chieftainship of Pran Chandar, who was; 
the grandson of Balram Das, and contemporary with the weak reign of Raja 
Chhatars^l Singh of Ikauna. The next fifty years are not distinguished by 
any events of importance, and there is nothing worth recording till the 
development and consolidation of the great power of the Bisens made 
themselves felt by their northern neighbours. The Gonda raj was finally 
and definitely extended over the tract between the Bisuhi and the Kuwana, 
while a Bisen was put in possession of the old JanwSr lordship of Bhinga, 
The superior power of Raja Datt Singh, Bisen, seems to have prevented any 
serious resistance to his encroachments, and the southern and north-western 
boundaries of BaMmpur have not been altered since. The Janwar Rajas, 
Chhatar Singh and Narain Singh, resisted in two pitched battles, but 
without success, the first lieutenants of the dynasty who commenced with 
Sa^dat Khan, and set an example of resistance to the exactions of the 
Lucknow court which was followed by aU their descendants till annexation. 
In 1777 A. D., Raja Newal Singh ascended the gaddi of Balrampur, and 
is remembered as one of the most famous warriors of bis race, Oftea 



218 BAL 

defeated but never subdued, he engaged the royal nazims in twenty-two 
pitched battles, and succeeded in keeping the revenue paid for his pargana at 
a pitch which made it little more than a tribute. He was visited in 1795 
A. D. by another Raja Newal Singh, a Chauhan chieftain, who had been 
driven out of an extensive principality in the lower Himalayan valleys by 
the King of Naipal. He sought and obtained the friendship of his Janwar 
namesake, and possessed himself, apparently without resistance, of the 
eight forest tappas which now make the Tulsipur pargana. The pride 
of the old Janwar chief was respected, and his ancient zamindari claims 
acknowledged by the promise of a small annual tribute. Of Newal Singh's 
two sons, the eldest, Bahddur Singh, spent the whole of his short life in 
fighting, first, the Tulsipur Eaja, Dalel Singh, who, on succeeding to the 
chieftainship, promptly repudiated the engagements made by his father, and 
next with the Nazim Ahmad Ali Khan by whom he was defeated and slain. 
The second son, Arjun Singh, became Raja on the death of his father Ne- 
wal Singh, after a long reign of forty years, in 1817 A. D., and died in 1830 
A. D., after having signalized himself in two fights with his Bhinga 
neighbour. He was succeeded by Raja Jai Narain Singh, who died young 
and without ofifspring in 1836, and was succeeded in his turn by his bro- 
ther) the present Mah^rdja Sir Digbijai Singh, K. c. s. i., then a boy of 
eighteen. The new Raja inaugurated his reign by an attack on the Utraula 
Raja, Muhammad Khan, and in a sudden foray defeated the Pathdns, burnt 
Utraula, and carried off as trophies the Korans of his rival. He next sent 
a message to the powerful Raja of Tulsipur, demanding the zamindari dues 
which had been so often claimed by his ancestors. The demand was of 
course taken as an insult, and furnished the pretext for an irregular war- 
fare which lasted for some time without any decisive results. The turbu- 
lent and aggressive spirit of the young Raja combined against him all the 
old enemies of his family, and he found it advisable to take refuge for a 
time with the Raja of B^nsi. On his way there, he and his seven follow- 
ers were waylaid by Nal Singh, an old agent of his own, who had lately 
taken service with the Raja of Utraula, and escaped with difficulty the 
greatly superior force of the Pathans, losing one of his retainers. His 
return to Balrampur was followed by a few years of peace broken only by 
an unimportant engagement with Shankar Sahae Pathak, the celebrated 
niizim. Two years later, the terrible Rdja Darshan Singh was appointed 
to the Gonda-Bahraich division, and at once proceeded to loot and bum 
the town of Balrampur. Its Raja fled to Gorakhpur, and in the next year 
attempted to return to his people by the lower range of the Naipal hills. 
Darshan Singh received intelligence, and at once by an extraordinary forced 
march crossed the frontier an,d surprised the Raja's encampment, who barely 
escaped with his life. The punishment of Darshan Singh for this daring 
violation of the territory of a friendly power is a matter of Oudh history. 
On the removal of the dreaded nSzim, the Raja came down from Naipdl 
and resumed the engagement for his entire rdj, which he held uninterrup- 
tedly till annexation. The unnatural war between the Raja of Tulsipur 
and his son enabled him again to advance in arms his zamindari claim, 
and the dispute was compromised on the part of his enemy by the pay- 
ment of a small sum in money and the revenue-free grant of a cluster of 
villages under the Tulsipur forests. In the principal of these, Bankatua, 



BAN 219 

he built a small fort, and now has a large and comfortable shooting-box. 
The last four or five years before annexation were employed in inces- 
sant frontier disputes with the Raja of Utraula, which completely desolat- 
ed the country for miles on either side of the doubtful line. When the 
mutiny broke out, he alone of all the chieftains of the division never wav- 
ered in his allegiance to the British power. The commissioner and district 
officers were then at Secrora, the civil station of Colonelganj, and the Raja 
sent a powerful escort to protect them from the mutinous soldiery. On their 
arrival at Balrampur he removed them at first to his strong fort of Pathan- 
kot between the two Rdptis, and finally sent them on with a sufficient 
guard to Gorakhpur. This loyal behaviour exposed him to the hostility 
of the rebel Government and a farman was issued from Lucknow dividing 
his dominions between his old enemies of Utraula, Tulsipur, and Ikauna. 
At the same time the rebel nazim was directed to burn down Balrampur 
and carry out the partition. He marched into the pargana, but though 
the hostile forces remained in opposite encampments for a few days, neither 
of them cared to attack the other, and the Government officer was soon 
called away by more pressing necessities. In the trans-Gogra campaign 
which concluded the mutiny, the Begam, Raja Debi Bakhsh Singh of 
Gonda, the Nazim of Gorakhpur, and the Marahta leaders, had all con- 
centrated their broken forces at the foot of the hills. Rdja Digbijai Singh 
joined the advancing British force, and remained with it till the remnants 
of the rebel army were finally driven into Naipal. For his distinguished 
loyalty he was granted the whole of the confiscated pargana of Tulsipur, 
besides large estates in Bahraich ; 10 per cent, of the Government revenue 
on his ancestral estates was remitted, and it was promised that the first 
regular settlement of his estates should be perpetual. He was also honoured 
with the title of Maharaja and the Knight Gommandership of the Star of 
India. The last fifteen years have been marked by that peaceful progress 
in wealth and population which leaves nothing for the annalist to record. 

BANGAR Pargana^ — Tahsil Hardoi — District Hardoi. — ParganaBangar 
lies high and level along the right bank of the little river Sai in the 
heart of the Hardoi district, midway between the Ganges and the Gumti. 
Along the greater part of its eastern side the Sai separates it from 
parganas Gopamau and Balamau : Bawan bounds it on the north : Sandi 
and Bilgram on the west ; Mallanwan on the south. 

Populous, well-wooded and watered, and fairly tilled, its 96 villages cover 
an area of 143 square miles, of which 85 are cultivated. Its greatest 
length and breadth are twenty and fourteen miles. Rivers and streams it 
has none except the Sai, here called Bhainsta ; but a wealth of jhlls 
and ponds (1,252 ) spreads over it, and a host of wells (2,736) attests the 
copiousness of the water-supply. Thirteen per cent, of the total area is 
returned as barren, 58 per cent, is cultivated, and 29 per cent, culturable. 
Of the cultivated area a third is irrigated : tank irrigation is somewhat in 
excess of that from wells. Some parts of the villages along the Sai are 
irrigated from it. A third of the soil is third class ( bhtir ) but except 
towards the Sai on the east, where, as in the neighbourhood of all rivers, 
it is Hght, uneven, and sandy, the bhur is generally of fair quality and 

• By A. H. Harington, Esq., c. s., Assistant Commissioner, 



220 BAN 

irrigable. The depth at which water is found ranges from 15 to 26 feet, 
except near jhils, where, from percolation, it is exceptionally near the sur- 
face. The wells most in use are little hand ones, worked with two earthen 
pots and a string over a revolving pulley (charkhi), and dug at a cost of 
from one to three rupees. They water from 5 to 10 kachcha biswas daily, 
or from -Vth to |th of an acre. At Tas Khera, near the Baita jhil, they are 
dug for six annas. The large leathern bucket (pur) wells worked by bullocks 
were found at survey in only two, and lever wells (dhenkli) in only four 
villages. 

The wells fall in for the most part and have to be renewed every year ; 
in about a fourth of the villages they last for two years, and in a few 
places as long as five years. Much of the jungle has been cleared since 
annexation, but a good deal still remains and almost every village keeps up 
its patch for grazing and firewood. The pargana is crossed by four un- 
metaUed roads. Three of these diverge from Hardoi, the head-quarters of the 
district, at the northern apex of the pargana, towards Sandi, Bilgram and 
Sandila, passing respectively along the north-western edge, down the west 
centre, and along the eastern edge and the south-eastern corner is crossed 
by the new road from Sitapur vid Misrikh and Nimkhar to Madhoganj and 
Mehndigh^t on the Ganges near Kanauj. This road it is intended to metal. 

The Oudh and Eohilkhand Railway, too, from Lucknow to Shdhjahanpur, 
runs roughly parallel to the Hardoi and Sandila road within a mile of 
the eastern border. But the centre of the pargana, a triangle with its apex 
at Hardoi, and its base twelve miles south and as many in length, is without 
any made roads, — a want that helps to keep rents low and cultivation back- 
ward. The staple products are the cereals — barley, b4jra, wheat, arhar, and 
gram. At survey these occupied nearly four-fifths of the cultivated area — 
barley and bajra alone amounting to nearly half of the whole produce ; 
mash, judr, rice, country cotton, and moth, made up nearly another fifth ; 
sugarcane was returned for only 776 acres ; and garden vegetables, opium, 
tobacco and indigo, for only 400 acres. After making due allowance for 
suppression of assets, these figures point clearly to a backward state of culti- 
vation. There are a few beds of kankar, but no stone quarries. Saltpetre 
might be manufactured. The climate of the tract is good, especially to 
the north, towards Hardoi. The ninety-six villages are grouped into fifty 
muhals. Thirteen villages are taluqdari, thirty-eight zamindari, forty-four 
pattidari, and one bhayyachara. The Chamar Gaurs predominate among 
the proprietors with forty-four and a half out of ninety-six villages. The 
Gahilwars and Dhakaras each hold nineteen in the north-west and south- 
east of the pargana ; Kayaths own ten, Sayyads two, and Brahmans and 
Ahirs one each. The Government demand is Rs. 85,990, excluding cesses — 
a rise of 68 per cent, on the summary assessment. It has been collected 
since November 1866. The pargana contains 54,494 inhabitants, or 381 
to the square mile. Hindus to Muhammadans are 52,337 to 2,157; males 
to females, 30,467 to 24,027 ; agriculturists to non-agriculturists, 38,884 
to 15,660. Chamdrs, Basis, Ahirs, and Gaurias, constitute nearly half of the 
population ; Brahmans and Rajputs rather more than a sixth. There are 
3,061 Muraos and 1,796 Vaishyas. There are no fairs of any size or im- 
portance. At Harjioi there is an Anglo- Vernacular zila school averaging 



BAN 221 

109 pupils ; a branch (44) in the town, and another in Maholia, a neigh- 
bouring village (20). 

There are village schools at Turtipur (37) and Khajurahra (37). There 
are no female schools. Markets are held at Hardeoganj in Hardoi, and at 
Pakohra on Sundays and Wednesdays, and at Sathji in Khajurahra on 
Thursdays and Mondays. 

History. — The early history of the Bangar closely resembles that of 
pargana Bawan. The name is used here, as in the North-Western 
Provinces, to denote high-lying lands out of the -reach of river action, as 
distinguished from the low-lying ' Kachh' or ' Khadir' tracts. 

Here, as in pargana Bawan, the earliest historical event known to local 
memory is the passage of Sayyad Salar's army in 423 Hijri (1032 A. D.). 
In mauza Isauli is to be seen to this day the grave of one of the martyrs 
(Shahid Mard). The expedition in which he feU may, probably, have been 
that led by Sayyad Aziz-ud-din, the Lai Pir, from Satrikh, against Gopamau, 
mentioned in Chapter III of the Mira-at-i-Masatidi. The date assigned by 
the author of this work to Sayyad Salar's invasion is of very doubtful 
accuracy. Of greater interest and importance are the traditional accounts 
of the coming of the Eajput clans, and the expulsion of the Thatheras. 

The earliest Rajput immigrants seem to have been the Gaurs. The 
favorite account current at Khajurahra, the central village of the Gaur 
taluqa of (the late) Dal Singh, runs thus : — Of old, Khajurahra was held 
by the Thatheras. Eleven hundred years ago, our ancestor, Thakur Raghu- 
n£th Singh of Ndrkanjari, near Indor, served under the Raja of Kanauj, 
and in reward for gallant service was made Amil of Bangar. Bihar was 
chosen by him for his residence, and thence he used to send the tribute 
collected by him to Kanauj. Once he had to go on special business to 
Kanauj to see the Raja. 

While he was away, a son was born to him, of whom the astrologers fore- 
told that his star was fortunate and that he would become king of the land. 
The Thatheras were then lords of this country, and they, fearful of the 
future, caused the astrologers to spread it abroad that if the babe's father 
should set eyes on him, he would surely die. Thus they did ; and the 
child's mother, to avert her husband's doom, buried her little one alive. 
But when Raghundth Singh returned and heard what had happened, he 
hastened and dug out his child. And lo, it was still living, but one of its 
eyes was blind, and they named him Ganga Singh Kdna, or one-eyed, 
and he grew up brave and wise ; and when Raghund.th Singh died, one- 
eyed Ganga was appointed in his stead. In those days the Thatheras had 
waxed rebellious and refused tribute. So one-eyed Ganga sought aid from 
Kanauj and brought an army from thence, and fought and slew the rebel 
Thatheras and crushed the revolt, and such as he did not put to the sword 
he drove out from their homes to be wanderers over the face of the land. 
And the Raja was glad, and bestowed upon him all the realm of the 
Thatheras for his own. Now Ganga Singh had two sons, Jaskaran and 
Amda, and they divided the inheritance between them. Jaskaran took 
what are now Baragdon and Maholia Rawat, Hardoi, Kasr^wan, Bhitauli, 
Sarayyan, Mawayya, and Amdaha ; and Amda Singh took Khajurahra, and 



222 BAN 

Nir, and Isauli, and Dhir Maholia, and Behta Chand, and Keoli, and 
Naiagaon. 

Another account runs in this wise : — 

In the Treta Yug, the Gaurs were of the Siirajbans stock. Eight 
hundred years ago, in the time of Raja Jai Chand of Kanauj, Kisar Baha- 
dur Singh came from Narkanjari to bathe at Nimsar. Before this time 
the Thatheras had held the Bangar, but now the land was well nigh waste 
and desolate : and Klsar Bahadur sought and got it as a gift from his king 
and took possession of Bangar and Bilgrdm ; but afterwards the Muham- 
madans drove out the Gaurs, but not altogether. 

The Gaurs of Turtipur thus relate the story of their settlement : — 

" About 700 years ago, our ancestor Bhat Deo came from Ndr Nol, near 
Delhi, and, under the protection of the Raja of Kanauj, settled at Ndr- 
kanjari, about twenty-two kos to the south-east of Kanauj, and there he 
lived for many years ; and when his descendants had become great i^i num- 
ber, one of them crossed the Ganges and took up his abode here, and named 
the place Bhat Deo, in honour of the founder of his house (now a deserted 
site at BihSr, with an ancient masonry well and bargad tree), and his 
descendants multiplied and spread themselves around on every side; 
and one of them founded Bihar, and one, from whom we are sprung, 
founded Maholia. And from Maholia, Rdja Sale Singh moved to Hardoi, 
and from Hardoi, Hdthi Singh and Hazari Singh cleared away the forest on 
all sides, and founded Turtipur on a deserted village site of the Thatheras, 
known as Deb Turtipur, and kept up its ancient name ; and from that 
time till this the Gaurs held it." 

In Hardoi itself they tell a somewhat different tale, — " About 700 years 
ago. Sale Singh, Ghanidr Gaur, came from Narkanjari, near Indor, with 
the army of Alha and Udal and drove out the Thatheras, who then reigned 
here and seized their lands. And Sale Singh had two sons, Anang Singh 
and Narain Singh, and the first of these had two and the other three sons, 
and the five cousins divided the Hardoi lands among them. To the two 
sons of Anang Singh was given Thok Uncha, and to the three sons of 
Narain Singh, Thok Ran Mai and Thok Chauhdn and Thok Alu, and 
from that time till now we Gaurs have always held the three Thoks." 

" The parent village of the Dhakaras is Bfkapur. Some of them claim 
to have come hither direct from Dharwar, others from Mainpuri. Thus the 
Dhakaras of Ajramau, Udru, and Khajuri, say : — 

" Long, long ago, our ancestor Bhtiran Singh came from Dharwdr in the 
west and slew and drove out the Thatheras and seized their fort at Kordra, 
which lies between Ajramau and Bikapur, and his descendants spread on 
each side, to Bikapur and to Banapur, and Munna Singh and Subha Singh, 
from whom we are sprung, left Banapur and settled at Ajramau sixty 
years ago." 

But others of the clan say : " Our ancestor was the Raja of Mainpuri a 
thousand years ago. Thence he with an army to bathe in the sacred 
waters of Nimkhar-Misrikh. The Thatheras then ruled in this land and 



ba'N 



223 



our Rdja saw that it was good, smote the Thatheras in their stronghold 
of Korara and crushed them utterly and seized their lands for himself. 
The parent village of the Gahilwars is Gaura. Seven hundred years ago, 
say they, our ancestors Damar Singh and Mohan Singh went out from 
holy Kdshi (Benares) in quest of service, and found it under Raja Jai 
Chand of Kanauj, and settled at Singhirampur (near Kanauj) ; and after 
a time, to reward their good service, he bestowed upon them twenty-four 
villages on this side of the Ganges, and they drove out the Thatheras and 
settled down in Gaura (Gaura Khera is one of the dihs, or deserted village 
sites of the Bangar), and each of them took twelve of the villages. Damar 
Singh took Sara and the villages that pertain to it, and Mohan Singh 
took Bhadaicha and the villages that pertain to it, and their descendants 
grew and multiplied." 



Mohan Singh. 
MIn Singh. 



The Gahilwar pedigree does not support the tradition. It gives only 

eight generations, or two hundred years 
since the time of Mohan Singh's immi- 
gration. The Ain-i-Akbari makes no 
mention of pargana Bangar. It was 
not constituted, in fact, till 1215 F (1807 
A. D.). Up to that time it was included 
in pargana Bilgram. Inthatyearpargana 
Bilgram was diAdded into Kachh and 
Bangar, or low lands and high lands. 
The division had been decided on six 
years before, in 1209 F., when R^ja 
SitalparshM Tirbedi was n£zim of 
Bilgram, but it was not effected tUl 
1215 F., when Mirza Agha Jdn became 
chakladar under Hakim Mehndi Ali 
Khan. At this time, too, both parganas were transferred to the nizamat of 
Khairabad. Up to that time they had been included in Sarkar Lucknow. 

The condition of the Bangar during the later days of the native govern- 
ment of Oudh has been graphically described by General Sleeman. When 
he visited it twenty-three years ago, the term covered a far wider area 
than that comprised in pargana Bangar only. His description will be 
found under the heading Gopamau, to which it more appropriately belongs. 



Nirpat Singh, 
Jai Singh. 

Mardau Singh. 
Gunai Singh. 

Bhupat Singh. 

Naina Singh. 

Hanwant Singh 
(now alive). 



Bhiman Singh. 

Bhlkham Singh. 

Nar^in Singh. 

Sewa Singh. 

Khushal Singh, 
(now alive). 



BANGARMAU Pargana — Tahsil Safipub — District Unao. — This large 
pargana lies at the north-west comer of the Unao district, bounded 
on the north by the parganas of Mallanwan and Kachhandan, in the 
Hardoi district ; on the west by the Ganges ; on the south by Fatehpur. 

It is nineteen miles long and fourteen miles broad ; the area is 173 
square mUes, or 112,377 acres, of which 65,833 are cultivated, 26,104 are 
arable, and the rest is barren. The population is 89,419, or 518 to the 
square mile. The soil is chiefly loam and clay ; water in the wells to the 
west and south of the pargana is to be found at 15 feet from the surface, 
but this is in the tarai of the Ganges. To the north and east the wells are 
48 feet deep. 



224 BAN 

Fever is prevalent in the low land. The land is held under the different 

tenures, as foUows : — 

Acres. 



Taluqdari 


... 25,600 


Pukhtadari 


... 1,986 


Zamindari 


... 5.3,741 


Bhayyachara ... ... 


... 1,865 


Pattidari 


... 28,776 


GoverDment 


408 



The land revenue is Es. 1,37,140 or Rs. 1-2 per acre. There is no jungle, 
but nil-gae and black buck are to be found on the high lands, and wild pigs 
abound near the river. There are seven bazars in the pargana, and near the 
Ganges two small fairs are held, but they are of no interest or importance. 

The earliest Muhammadan settlement in the Unao District was founded 
at Bangarmau, about the year 1300 A. D. At that time the town of 
Newal, close to Bangarmau, was occupied by a Hindu Raja, named Nal, 
regarding whose history or caste tradition is silent. The Muhammadans 
after conquering Kanauj had settled there in large numbers, and from it a 
saintly man, named Sayyad AUa-ud-din came to Bangarmau, wishing to 
remain quietly in the neighbourhood of the city. Raja Nal would not 
permit this, and sent men to turn him out, on which the saint 'cursed him, 
so that he and aU his people perished ; and by the power of the curse the 
town was turned upside down, and remains so to this day. The ruins of 
it are still to be seen stretching to a considerable extent along the banks 
of the Pachnei nadi, and the present village of Newal is built on the 
mound. Whenever the plough or the spade turns up relics of the ancient 
town, such as iron tools or stone vessels of domestic use, they are all found 
to be lying topsy-turvy in the ground. After this Sayyad Alld.-ud-din 
founded the city of Bangarmau, and when he died he was buried there, and 
they buUt a shrine over his grave, the inscription engraved on which 
gives the date 702 A. H., or 1302 A. D. His descendants are still guard- 
ians of the shrine, which formerly was rich and famous, but now is decayed 
in popular esteem, and has been deprived of the revenues with which a 
more pious age had endowed it. 

Newal was occupied by one of his disciples, whose descendants still 
inhabit it, but Bangarmau never became a thoroughly Muhammadan town. 
Several families of all classes of Muhammadans, Sayyads, Shekhs, and 
Pathans, live in it, but not in any large numbers, and they are almost aU 
families of men who have been induced to settle there by grants they have 
received from Government. 

BANGARMAU — Pargana Bangaematt — Tahsil SAFiPtrR — District UnAO. 
— The town in the pargana of same name and tahsil of Safipur lies thirty- 
one miles from Unao on the north-west near the river Kalyani, and the 
road from Unao to Hardoi. The land lies high, and the soil is sandy. The 
population is 7,619, of whom Muhammadans amount to 3,046 ; Brahmans 
are 714, and only one Chhattri. There are no fewer than sixteen mosques ; 
only one temple ; 781 masonry houses, nearly half of the entire number. 
There is a school with 60 pupils, of whom only 11 are Musalmans. There 
are markets every Sunday and Wednesday. The water in some of the weUs 
is very brackish, but the place is healthy. The history of the ancient town 
is given under Pargana Bangarmau. 



BAN— BAR 225 

BANSA* — Pargana MALLANWi:N — Tahsil Bilgr^m — District Haedoi, 
2,116 inhabitants. — A fine thriving village of Kanaujia Kurmis, six miles 
north-east from MaMnwan, in the Mallanwdn pargana, district Hardoi : 
518 mudhouses: a village school, averaging thirty-eight pupils. Bansa 
has been held by Kanaujia Kurmis for more than seven centuries. Their 
ancestor, Basu, for loyal service to the Hindu Raja of Kanauj in expelling 
the rebellious Thatheras at some uncertain period before the fall of Kanauj, 
was rewarded with a grant of land and founded B^nsa upon it. 

BANSURA — Pargana Sadkpvr— Tahsil Bari— District Sitapxje. — Is nine 
miles south-east across country from Sadrpur Kh^s, and thirty-nine miles 
from Sitapur. No high road runs through or near it, but good water 
communication is afforded by the Chauka, on the right bank of which 
river it is situated. Five miles to the east, and across the river, lies Rdm- 
pur Mathura. The population numbers 2,822, residing in 253 kachcha 
houses. There is not a pakka house in the town. The Government build- 
ings are an opium godown and a school, which is attended by fifty-one 
scholars. At the bazar, which is held thrice a week, the annual yearly value 
of the sales is Rs. 4,500. The place is not notable in any way ; it is the 
property of the Mahmudabad taluqdar. 

BANTHAJR, — Pargana Haeha — Tahsil TJnao — District Unao. — The town 
lies on the road from Purwa to Cawnpore, in pargana Harha, five miles 
south of Unao. Thakur Kesri Singh Gaur, the leader of his clan, lived 
here formerly ; vide pargana Harha. The soil is sandy ; the village is 
surrounded with numerous mango groves ; it is healthy, although the water 
is brackish. Gaddis are said to have lived here formerly in the forest ; they 
were all slaughtered, and this town was founded by Garabdeo Gaur, who 
called it from the ban or forest which he found on its site. A vernacular 
school, with twenty-seven pupils, five temples to Mah^deo and one to Debi 
are the institutions of the place. The population is 2,807, of whom fifty are 
Musalmans and 780 are Brahmans. A few of the houses are masonry. 

BARA — Pargana Bhagwantnagae — Tahsil VvnyfA—District Unao. — 
Is sixteen miles south of tahsil and twenty-four miles east, of Unao. An 
unmetalled road passes through this village to Baksar. The Ganges flows 
five miles to the south. No large town near : it was founded by Raja 
Pann's brother. Raja Bara of the Bhar tribe, some two thousand years ago ; 
takes its name from the founder. Some fresh and some brackish water 
here. There is an indigo manufactory. 

Goldsmiths and carpenters work here. 

Distribution of population. 

Hindus. Musalmans Total. 

Brahmans ... ... 485 55 1,738 



Chattris 
Kayatha 
Fasis 
Aliirs 
Other castes 



139 

26 There are 177 mud built houses, and 
55 two temples dedicated to Debi. 


948 



Total ... 1,683 

Latitude 26° 21' north; longitude 80° 46' east. 



* By Mr. A. H. Harington, c. s., Assistant Commissioner. 



226 BAR 

BARA BANKI DISTRICT ARTICLE. 



ABSTEACT OF CHAPTERS. 



I. Nat UEAL FEATURES. II. — Ageicultuee. III. — Administration. 

IV. — HiSTOET. 



CHAPTER I. 

NATURAL FEATURES. 

Situation of the district, natural features, general aspect, change of head-quarters from 
Daryabad to Bara Banki — Table showing the area and population — Table showing details 
of land revenue, number of villages and division of proprietary tenures — Statement 
showing to what castes the villages were decreed at the regular settlement — Elvers — 
The Gogra— The Gumti — The Kalyani — The Jamuriha and Eeth — The means of com- 
munication afforded — Drainage — Eoads — The railway — The unmetaUed roads, tanks, 
and jhfls — ^WeUs — Groves— Climate— EainfaU — ^Wild animals — Flora. 

Physical features and geography. — The Bara Banki district, a component 
of the Lucknow division, lies at the very heart of Oudh, and forms as it 
were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate. It is 
situated hetween 27° 19' and 26° 30' north latitude, and 80° 81' east 
longitude ; it runs in a soxith-easterly direction, confined by the nearly 
parallel streams of the Gogra and Gumti. With its most northern point 
it impinges on the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is 
washed by the waters of the Gogra, beyond which lie the districts of 
Bahraich and Gonda. Its eastern frontier marches with Fyzabad, and the 
Gumti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the district 
of Sultanpur. On the west it adjoins the district of Lucknow. The ex- 
treme length of the district from east to west may be taken at fifty-seven 
miles, and the extreme breadth at fifty-eight ; the total area is about one 
thousand seven hundred and sixty- nine square miles : its population amounts 
to 1,102,165, being at the rate of 630 to the square mile. 

General aspect. — To the eye of the traveller accustomed to hiU scenery, 
the fair level district presents a tame appearance ; it is for the most part 
flat to monotony, there is an utter absence of mountains ; the most elevated 
point is about four hundred and thirty feet above the sea ; and there are few 
points of view from which any expanse of country can be surveyed. The 
verdure and beauty of the groves with which it is studded in every direc- 
tion redeem the prospect from bare ugliness, and when the spring crops are 
green and the jhils yet fuU of water, the richness of the landscape is very 
strikiag. Here and there patches of uncultivated waste are to be seen, 
but a high assessment and security of tenure are rapidly converting them 
into waving fields of com. Towards the north, especially along the old 
bank of the Gogra, the ground is undulating and richly wooded, while to 
the south there is a gentle slope down to the Gumti. The monotonous level 
is broken on the north by an abrupt fall, the ridge running parallel to the 
Gogra at a distance of from one mile to three miles, is said. to indicate what 
was formerly the right bank of the river. The district is intersected at 
various parts by rugged ravines. 



BAR 



227 



Change of head-quarters. — ^The sadr station was placed at annexa- 
tion, and also after the matinies at Daryabad ; but owing to the stagna- 
tion of water in the immediate vicinity of the town, and to the prevalence of. 
fever, the head-quarters were removed in 1859 to Nawabganj Bara Banki. 

The Government ofi&ces and private houses are now built on a plain 
which is well drained by ravines ; the situation has hitherto proved to be 
very healthy. Indeed, it is understood from the surgeon of Her Majesty's 
75th Regiment, when the regiment was stationed here in 1858-59, that their 
sick list had never been so small as at Bara Banki. With the exception of 
the neighbourhood of Daryabad, the health of the district has been year 
after year remarkably good. The district originally contained three tahsils 
and thirteen parganas ; but Bhitauli was transferred from Bahraich, and in 
1870 two parganas — Dewa and Kursi — were added from Lucknow, pargana 
Haidargarh from Rae Bareli, and pargana Subeha from Sultanpur. Twenty- 
three separate villages of the Lucknow district were also included in Dewa. 
The area and population of the district are now as shewn in the following 
table : — 

Table No. 1. 





District Bara Banki — Area and population. 








Paiganas. 


i 

a . 
■sa 

1^ 


Area in Bri- 
tish square 
miles. 


Population. 


P. 


1 


.J 


! 

50 
82 
32 
25 
40 
229 


1 


i 
a 

1^ 


i 


1 


•i 


■3g,-S 

■all 


Bara 
Banki. 


Nawabganj 
Dewa 
Satrikh 

Siddhaur, North 
Partabganj 

Total 
Siddhaur, South 
Haidargarh ... 
Subeha 

Total 
Surajpur 

Daryabad ... 
Rudauli .» 
Basorhi 
Mawai MahoMra 

Total 
Fatehpur 
Kursi 

Muhammadpur ... 
Bhitauli ... 
Eamnagar 
Bado Sarai 

Total 
European 
Eurasian 

Prisoners and em- 
ployes in jaU .., 
Grand total 


77 

163 

42 

56 

54 

3^2 

168 

118 

86 

372 

107 

241 

196 

44 

51 

639 

251 

91 

83 

41 

168 

56 

690 

2,093 


79 
141 
46 
35 
56 
357 


47,808 
62,235 
21,694 
21,221 
32,149 

185,107 
62,720 
67,676 
54,037 

184,333 
62,955 

118,458 
94,861 
18,585 
38,884 


15,030 
9,687 
2,463 
4,249 
6,019 

37,448 

12,747 
3.882 
4,690 

21,319 
2,998 

14,288 

26,041 
4,369 
3,971 


33,273 
37,723 
12,229 
13,036 
19,544 
115,805 
39,106 
36,307 
29,032 


29,565 
34,199 
11,928 
12,424 
18,624 

106,740 
37,272 
35,251 
29,695 

102,218 
32,356 
64,399 
61,177 
11,377 
21,436 

190,748 


62,838 
71,922 
24,157 
25,460 
38,168 


795 
510 
525 
722 
683 




222,545 


705 


Us 


106 
103 

88 

297 


74 

59 

48 

181 


76,378 
71,558 

58,727 


722 
694 
644 


104,445 
33,594 
68,347 
59,725 
11,577 
21,419 

194,662 
48,980 
19,719 
17,463 
14,133 
43,405 
14,224 


206,663 


685 


Ij 


96 

214 

173 

34 

71 

588 

154 

89 

62 

62 

112 

48 

527 

X769 


62 

137 

113 

25 

38 

375 

102 

47 

44 

.S2 

SO 

24 

329 


65,953 

132,746 

120,902 

22,954 

42,856 


687 
620 
695 
675 
603 


M 


333,743 


51,667 


385,410 


655 


1, 


76,905 
30,966 
31,191 
25,320 
71.546 
22,863 


16,888 
6,493 
1,905 
1,344 

10,453 
4,550 


44,813 
17,740 
15,633 
12,531 
38,594 
13,189 
142,500 


93,793 
37,459 
33,096 
26,664 
81,999 
27,413 


609 
421 
534 
430 
732 
571 


^ 


258,791 


41,633 


157,924 


300,424 


570 




... 


152,067 


37 
6 

123 

566,190 


30 
3 

12 
545,975 


67 
9 

i;-i5 


•■■ 




1,099 961,974 


11,12,165 6.^0 



p2 



228 



BAR 



Land Revenue.— Th-e following table gives details respecting land 
revenue of the former district. 



Name of pargana. 


Demand of sum- 
mary settlement. 


Eevlaed demand 
excluding cesses. 


Revised demand 
including cesses. 


Rate per acre of 
revised demand 
excluding cesses. 






Es. A. 


P. 


Ea. 


A. 


p. 


Ea. A. P. 


Ea. A. P. 


Nawabganj 


... 


72,349 


I 


9.3,335 








95,668 6 


1 13 6 


Partabganj 


... 


52,210 2 


1 


66,635 





ol 68,300 14 


1 13 9 


Satrikh 


... 


41,039 





49,245 








50,476 2 


1 10 10 


Siddhaur 


... 


1,39,444 





1,78,095 








1,82,547 6 


1 15 5 


Efimnagar 


... 


63,309 4 





93,843 








96,189 1 4 


1 4 11 


Bado Sarai 


... ... 


22,562 





27,971 








28,670 4 4 


14 7 


Fatehpur 


... 


96,115 





1,33,947 








1,37,295 10 9 


1 5 10 


Muhaminadpur 


26,234 5 





41,002 





42,027 9 


10 7 


Dajryabad 


... ... 


1,28,671 13 10 


1,87,764 





1,92,458 1 7 

1 


1 5 11 


Eudauli 


... 


83,609 


7 


1,55,549 





1,59,437 11 9 


I 6 6 


Surajpur 


... 


59,088 6 


9 


1,00,910 








1,03,432 12 


1 10 2 


Mawai Maholara 


32,077 4 





67,762 








59,206 9 


14 3 


Baaorhi 


... ... 


19,295 


2 


34,152 








35,005 12 8 


1 8 11 




Total 


8,35,994 4 


6 


12,20,210 








12,50,715 3 11 


17 8 



The district of Bara Banki, as it existed before these additions were 
made, covered an area of 1,285 square miles, or 828,011 acres ; the revised 
jama was Es. 12,55,840, or Es. 1-8 per acre. The rate per acre on cultiva- 
tion was Es. 2-4-7, and on arable area, Rs. 1-15-1 per acre. There were 
1,595 villages in all. Of these, 1,032 belong to taluqdars or other large 
proprietors. See the table near the close of this article.* 

There are now 2,093 villages, and the proprietary tenures are divided, 
as appears in the following table, among the Hindus and Musalmans. It 
will appear that the Musalmans have 938 villages, or nearly half, 47 per 
cent, of the whole ; they form 11 per cent, of the population. The Chhat- 
tris are mainly Eaikwars — see article Bhitauli ; and Si'irajbans Chhattris 
— see SloTajpur and Daryabad, 



* The land revenue of the present district is Es. 15,77,678, being Es. 2-3-10 per acre o£ 
cultivation. 



BAR 



229 



Statement shoiving to what castes the villages were decreed at the 
Regular Settlement of Bara BanJd. 



Name of tahsil. 



RjimSaneliiGhat 
Haldargarh 
Fatehpur 
Nawabganj 

Total 



639 266 
372 279 
690 1 331 
392 j 60 

20931 826 



I 
m 

I 1^ 



7 2 






SI S 

ga 

m 



Is 






11 



Rivers : The Gogra.—lihe principal river in the district is the Gogra, at 
a short distance from Bahramghat; in the Fatehpur tahsil the rivers 
Chauka and Sarda meet, and their united stream is called the Gogra. 
Both those component rivers take their rise in the Himalaya and at their 
confluence form a stream, which at Bahramghat is in the rainy season 
from one and a half to two miles, and in the dry season half mile in breadth. 
The Gogra divides the Bara Banki district from the districts of Bahraich 
and Gonda. It flows in a south-easterly direction past Fyzabad, and fin- 
ally empties itself into the Ganges at Arrah, above Dinapore. This river 
is navigable for flat-bottomed steamers as far as Bahramghat, a few such 
vessels having got up so far during the year of mutiny, 1857; but the 
traffic is at present confined to country boats which ply in considerable 
numbers between Bahramghat and Sarun district, carrying grain, rape seed 
and linseed. It has been stated that the ancient course of the river is 
indicated at a distance of from one to two miles from the existing right 
bank by a ridge about 20 feet high. The low lands between the ancient 
and present channels generally have fine crops of rice, but the water some- 
times lies too long after the rains and rots them, and the spring crops 
cannot be sown. The river is not utilized for purposes of irrigation. 

The Qumti. — Next in importance is the Gumti, which runs through 
the tahsil of Haidargarh and separates the Bara Banki district from the 
districts of Lucknow, Sultanpur and Fyzabad. It runs like the Gogra in 
a south-easterly direction, has a well-defined bank and a stream which is 
fordable in the dry weather, and is about 40 yards broad. There is con- 
siderable traffic on the Gumti by country boats, and large quantities of 
grain have been exported from Oudh to the Lower Provinces by this 
route in times of scarcity. This river has hitherto been but little used 
for irrigation, its only affluents in the district are as follows : — 

Kaly&ni. — The Kalyani rises in the Fatehpur tahsil, and after wan- 
dering through the district in a most tortuous course, empties itself into 
the Gumti near the village of Dw^rk^ur. In the dry season it is a mere 
thread of water confined between steep banks, but in the rains it is subject 
to heavy floods. The water of this stream is not extensively used for irri- 
gation. 



230 



BAR 



The Jamuriha and Retk— The Jamuriha and Reth, both in the Nawab- 
gani tahsil, are the only other streams in this district worthy of notice. 
Their general characteristics are the same : steep and rugged banks broken 
by innumerable ravines, mere drains in dry weather but becoming angry 
torrents during the rains ; they flow into the Gumti. There are no towns 
on the banks of the rivers, and no large communities living either by fish- 
eries or by river traffic* 

Means of communication afforded.— Details concerning these rivers, 
and the traffic upon them, wiU be given under their several names. The 
Gogra flows for forty-eight miles on the border of the district ; the dry 
weather discharge is 19,000 cubic feet. The principal ferries are at Kai- 
thi, Kamiar, and Paska Ghat ; there is a boat-bridge during the cold sea- 
son at Bahramghat. 

The Gumti flows for 105 miles through, or on the border of the district, 
but its course is so circuitous that the direct distance from the point of 
entrance to that of exit is only forty-two miles ; it is not therefore so use- 
ful for navigation, and it lies too low for irrigation ; its dry weather dis- 
charge is 500 cubic feet. Its water is actually at a lower level than that 
of the Gogra. At the junction of the Kaly^ni the former is only 301 feet 
above the sea ; at Rudauli, the watershed between it and the Gogra the 
altitude is 340 feet; and at Kaithi Ghat the Gogra is 314 feet. 

The drainage of Bara Banki is very good. The level of the watershed on 
the north of the district, between the Gumti and the Gogra, is about 414 
feet near Fatehpur ; thence it sinks to 340 feet at Rudauli. The level of the 

* In tlie rains of 1872, tlie river Kalyani presented a vast volume of water 269 feet 
broad, 337 feet deep, rushing along with a velocity of 574 miles per hour and with a, 
discharge of 51,540 cubic feet per second. In ordinary monsoons the highest discharge is 
about a quarter less than this. 

The river is crossed by the railway with a girder bridge with (6) six openings, each 
of 60 feet. 

The flood discharges of other rivers of the district were as follows where they are 
crossed by the railway — 













Flood dis- 


Pargana, 


Elvers. 


Water-way 
lineal feet. 


Height. 


Mean 
Telocity. 


charge per 

second 

Cubic feet. 


Eudauli 


Kasera 


90 


20-2 


2-61 


3,562 


Ditto 


Bumria 


120 


147 


6-42 


7,711 


Daryabad 


Bamhinia 


60 


10-0 


3-26 


1,966 


Ditto 


Saipur ndla 


60 


187 


4-17 


2,005 


Partabganj 


Jamuria 


60 


22-5 


277 


3,240 


Ditto 


Keth 


15 


127 


8 -as 


1,590 


Hamnagar 


Jamuria 


60 


157 


874 


6,771 


Ditto 


Jamuria ... 


30 


9-5 


9-17 


2,772 


Ditto 


Sidnapur 


75 


5-5 


3-21 


1,928 


Ditto 


Bahonia 


150 


13-0 


3-55 


5,485 


Ditto 


Nurhia 


120 


10-2 


3'96 


4,759 


Haidargarh 


Gumti ^. 


588 


417 


357 


34,869 



It is difficult to determine in every instance what are the rivers referred to in the 
above list which has been received too late for local correction and identification. The 
revenue survey maps and the Indian Atlas do not exhibit them. 



BAR 231 

Gumti is, as we have seen, 301 feet ; so there is a fall of 113 feet in about 
forty miles from north-west to south-east ; while the lateral declensions of 
the watersheds towards the Gumti and Gogra are as much as 90 feet in 
fifteen miles. The consequence of these slopes is that, towards the Gumti 
and Kalyani, there is a rapid flow of water in the rains ; the torrents cut 
for themselves passages. From both rivers ravines radiate out in all direc- 
tions wrinkling the level of the country ; these are filled with brush-wood, 
and were the haunts of the robbers who made this place so notorious in 
the Nawabi. There are several higher levels than those given above, re- 
corded on the Government maps and' the Atlas of India ; but these latter 
are the artificial levels raised on certain pinnacles erected for the purpose 
by the surveyors at regular intervals. 

Roads : LucJcnow to Fyzahad. — The imperial road from Lucknow to 
Fyzabad enters the district at about twelve miles from Lucknow, and passes 
for forty-six mdes through the district ; it is well aligned, raised, metalled, 
and bridged : trees are planted on each side at drainage and level, and 
there are good encamping grounds from ten to thirteen miles apart. 

Frotn Nawahganj to Bahramghat. — About a mile eastward of Nawab- 
ganj the high road sends an off-shoot to Bahramghat, which is also metal- 
led. Th is is the direct route from Lucknow to Bahraich and Gonda, and 
before the opening of the railway carried a considerable timber traffic, the 
logs being floated down from the forests in Naipd.1 and the Tardi and land- 
ed at Bahramghat. 

The Railway. — The traffic along the metalled roads from Lucknow to 
Fyzabad and Bahramghat has lately been partially absorbed by the Oudh 
and Rohilkhand Railway which was opened from Lucknow to Nawabganj 
in April 1872, and to Bahramghat and Fyzabad in November 1872. 

Unmetalled roads. — TJnmetaUed roads, completely bridged, connect all 
the principal towns and markets. The following are the most important : — 

Nawabganj to Debiganj via Zaidpur 
Nawabganj to Fatehpur vid Dewa 
Kamnagar to Fatebpur 

„ ,, Saadatganj 

„ ,, Daryabad 
Daryabad to Eudauli 

„ „ Tiiaitnagar 
Debiganj to Naipura Ghat on the Gumti towards Haidargarh , 

Tanks and jhUs. — Tanks and jhils are numerous, especially in the tah- 
sils of Daryabad, Ram Sanehi Ghat, and Nawabganj. Seven per cent, of 
the area is covered with water; many of the tanks are in course of being 
deepened, the earth taken out of them being used to replenish cultivated 
land, and doubtless much more would be done in this direction but for the 
difficulty of adjusting conflicting rights in the tanks. Some of the jhils 
are navigable by small boats for purposes of sport or pleasure. The finest 
jhil in this district, that named Bhagghar, is situated in the Ramnagar 
pargana ; it does not cover above two square miles. There is another in 
Dewa, covering about five square miles with water and marsh. 

Wells. — Kachcha wells for irrigation can always be constructed when the 
soil is sufficiently firm to render them durabloj and under the most favourable 



22 


miles. 


18 




14 




Ti- 




ls 




15 




4 




21 


» 



232 



BAR 



circumstances they will last as long as forty years. Water is generally 
at about 30 feet from the surface, and is drawn in the usual manner in a lea- 
thern bag worked by a pair of bullocks. In no case are two buckets used 
from one well. North of the Kaly^ni river kachcha wells, as a rule, cannot 
be dug. 

Groves. — The district is rich in mango groves, the total area of these 
groves being no less than 43,172 acres. Up to the present time the trees 
have not been subjected to any destructive agency beyond a few being 
felled for burning bricks for bridges. The people love their groves both 
for the fruit they yield, and still more on account of their grateful shade, 
and when land is taken up for public purposes it is found that proprietors 
part with their groves with more reluctance than with their cultivated 
land. Under the liberal orders of Government, that 10 per cent, of the 
area planted with groves shall not be assessed, there is no reasonable 
excuse for their destruction. 

Climate. — The average rainfall for the last nine years has been 41 inches, 
namely — 



1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869, 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873 


83. 


31. 


53. 


21. 


36. 


62. 


64- 


40. 


33. 



but the fall in 1870-1871 was quite exceptional in amount; the extraordin- 
ary variations in annual rainfall will be noted. In all respects the district, 
as might be expected from its situation, is an average one, and its rainfall 
is exactly the average of the province. The rain returns furnished from 
the district do not agree with those printed in the Eevenue report of 1872. 

In 1870 and 1871 the district suffered considerably from floods, especially 
in the neighourhood of Daryabad and along the course of the Kalyani ; in 
1873, as in 1868 and in 1865, there were droughts, but not very serious. 

Wild animals. — The feroe naturoB are the same as in Lucknow, except 
that black buck get very scarce as the sportsman proceeding eastward 
approaches the valley of the Gogra ; they are found in scanty numbers 
along the western portion of the district, on the bare plains on the Gumti 
slope of the watershed. The nil-gae, on the other hand, are common in the 
jhau or tamarisk jungle near the Gogra, The deaths from snakes and 
wild beasts are given under the administrative section in a tabular form. 
Although 7* per cent, of the area is recorded as covered with water, there 
are few good lakes for wild fowl shooting. 

The Flora. — The flora of the district is the same as that fully described 
in other parts of this work. Groves cover almost 5 per cent, of the total 
area, but the railway and its demands for firewood have largely reduced 
their amount lately. The large jungles which formerly existed near Sdraj- 
pur have been, in great measure, brought under the plough but some are 
still kept as firewood reserves : they consist mainly of — dhak,^ karaunda,^ 
rus,^ intermingled with pipal,* babdl,^ bel,^ semal,'' and amaltas. 



* 6-98. 

1 Bastard teak, Buteafrondosa. 

2 Corinda, Corissa carcmdas. 

3 Malabar nut, Adhatoda vaaica. 



4 Ficus religiosa. 

5 Acacia Arahica. 

6 Aegle marmelos. 

7 Bed cotton tree, Bombax Jiepiaphyllu 



BAR 233 

CHAPTER II. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Agricultural classes and operations — Crops — Irrigation — Tlie oustomof well digging —Wages 
—Rents — Size of thebigha — The people — Condition of the people— Land improve- 
m^ts — Reasons why little progress is made — Embarrassments of the landlords — 
Prices — Famine — Fisheries — Railway traffic — Manufactures — Weights and measures 
— Principal castes. 

Agricultural classes or operations. — The principal agricultural caste is 
that of the Kurmis, who are very numerous in this district, nunihering 
149,460; but cultivators belong to all castes. The area under cultivation 
in the year of survey amounted to 703,360 acres. Nor has this area largely 
increased. According to the of3Bcial returns, the crops covered in 1871 an 
average of 678,000 acres, which must be wrong, as the dofasli (two cropped 
land) lands should raise the area to at least 800,000 acres. Wheat is the 
principal crop, the average is about 200,000 acres : rice about 130,000 acres. 
The staples are the same as those described in the Lucknow account.* 

Of the 534,000 acres of cultivation in the old district, 156,000, or only 
28 per cent., were irrigated mostly from wells. The jhlls are not utilised for 
purposes of irrigation so much as they might be. Sub-division of property 
and want of energy hinder the landlords from making the most obvious 
improvements. A great jhil and swamp near Dewa covers about five 
square miles ; an easily made and repaired embankment would reclaim 
three, besides rendering the water available for irrigation at a higher 
level. 

The Settlement Department supplied the statistics in the accompany- 
ing table ; they are similarly deficient because the double crops are not 
entered. 

One fact, however, may be gathered from them, which is, that the irri- 
gated area must be considerably larger than that which is given above. 

There are in this return 191,000 acres of crops which are always irrigated. 

Besides, there will be about 20,000 acres of peas which are always irri- 
gated, and barley is sometimes watered ; probably the generally irrigated 
area of the district will be 220,000 acres, or 41 per cent., instead of 28 
per cent, the official estimate, and the area which can be irrigated is always 
larger than what is irrigated in any particular year. This view is con- 
firmed by comparison with the adjoining district of Fyzabad, the irrigated 
area is 58 per cent, in the latter district, it is a mere continuation of the 
same plateau running south-west between the Gumti and the Gogra which 
forms the district of Bara Banki, the tillage, the water level, the strata of 
the subsoil are similar in the two districts, and such a variation in their 
areas of irrigation as 28 and 58 per cent, is impossible. 



* The above are from the annual statistical returns. 



234 



BAR 



This will be seen more clearly by comparing their crop areas drawn from 
the settlement returns : — 





Crops ordinarily 


Crops 


Percentage 




irrigated. 


nnirrigated. 


of irrigation. 


Ba;a, Banki 


220,000 


314,000 


41 


Fyzabad 


220,000 


386,000 


36 



It will appear that when the crops requiring and receiving irrigation are 
produced in about the same proportions in the two districts, the land 
capable of irrigation in one district will approximate in area to that in 
the other. 

The salient features ef Bara Banki cultivation are wheat and rice, which 
occupy three-sevenths of the area. Sugarcane is much attended to. 

Opium cultivation has increased from 2,681 acres in 1868, to 7,111 acres 
in 1873, but this has probably been attended with a decrease in garden 
crops, such as sugarcane tobacco ; all of these require high cultivation, and 
came to 27,200 acres, or 5 per cent, of the total area in 1868. 

The average out-turn of opium is now 1,400 maunds annually, for this, 
at Es. 5 the ser. Government pays the cultivators Rs; 2,80,000. The 
average out-turn in 8J sers per acre. 

Areas of crops, Bara Banki* 





Unirrigated. 


Irrigated. 




Juar 


16,291 






Juar and bajra 


12,685 


■ a* 




Eice 


83,579 






Wheat 


... 


1,63,736 




Cotton 




883 




Sugarcane ... ... — 


••• 


20,082 




Indigo ... « 


••• 


48 




Tobacco 


•» 


1,162 




Barley 


53,103 


.^ 




Gram 


47,582 


... 




Poppy 


•■• 


2,681 . 




Vegetables 


... 


2,564 




Oilseeds 


5,704 


(*- 




Miscellaneous 


1,24,093 






Total 


3,43,037 


1,91,156 


=5,34,193 



Irrigation. — Irrigation is very costly, at least in most places ; the water 
will be raised by three or four lifts from the pond ; at each lift two men, 
relieved every hour, work the swing basket in ordinary use, and two 
men are in the field guiding the water. Eighteen men will work therefore 
at a four lift water-course ; and there are some with seven lifts, they 
will labour all day and irrigate three and a half kachcha bighas, about 3,600 
square yards. They will receive each one anna per day and a kachcha ser of 



Old district. 



BAR 235 

roasted ju&. At present,* i. e., just after the harvest when judr is cheapest, 
it is worth nine panseris or 20 pakka sers per rupee. Therefore, the 
eighteen men will get a little ahove seven annas worth of grain each. 
One irrigation of these, 3,600 yards, will therefore come to one rupee 
nine annas, or three rupees two annas for the two waterings which are 
absolutely required in most seasons ; this will be four rupees three annas 
per acre. From a small kachcha well, about eight kachcha biswas — the 
people allege six — can be watered by a man and a boy in a day : the man 
pulls up a water pot over a pulley, the boy guides the water. 

They will thus water an acre in twelve days at a cost of two rupees 
four annas, or four rupees eight annas per acre. In addition, this kind of 
well has to be dug afresh every year ; this costs about one rupee eight 
annas, to be distributed over five acres : so that this kind of irrigation will 
cost about four rupees thirteen annas per acre. 

A cheaper kind of apparatus can be used in some wells, namely, a leather 
bucket drawn up by a pair of bullocks or four men ; they will work contin- 
uously about two-thirds of a day and water one bigha and a half, or 
one thousand six hundred square yards, costing with the man to guide the 
water only 7^ annas, or 22|^ annas per acre : two rupees thirteen annas 
for the two waterings required. Most of these wells, however, will cost 
at least five rupees, being larger and deeper ; they will water about ten 
acres and generally have to be dug afresh every year ; therefore eight 
annas per acre must be added, and the cost of the well will be three 
rupees five annas per acre. The land-owners here whom I have con- 
versed with never heard of unlined wells lasting for forty years, or for 
four either, except in rare cases. Artificial irrigation, which for wheat and 
other cereals would supply three waterings at Rs. 2-8 per acre, would be a 
boon undoubtedly if the peasants would find another market for their labour 
made idle by a canal. Whether the increased cultivation of garden crops, 
high farming generally, and the breaking up of waste lands would furnish 
that, is the question. The crops ordinarily irrigated, are wheat, sugar- 
cane, peas, maslir, besides the garden crops, which require more copious 
waterings. 

In another kind of well six men will puU up the leather bag ; three men 
will relieve half of them every hour, two men will work the buckets, and 
three distribute the water ; they wiU receive each a panseri or five sers 
kachcha mash, at present (December 1873) worth two annas almost; 
therefore the two bighas or two thousand one hundred square yards wiU 
cost Rs. 1-12 for one watering, or four rupees an acre. With such wells 
the owners say that they cannot afford to water more than once. 

Beyond the Kalydni river to the north and east, all the weUs are of the 
small kind, in which only gharas can be used, suspended either from pulleys, 
or the most expensive kind of all, from dhenklis or levers. These wells in 
many villages may be seen in every second field ; water is only about 20 
feet from the surface, and to the careless observer the supply of water will 
seem certain and abundant. Closer observation, however, will discover that 

» December 1873. 



236 BAR 

a great number of the long-armed levers which, loaded with a heavy mass of 
clay impend over the mouths of the wells, are idle even in the watering 
season, and a look down the cavity will reveal the fact that the sides of the 
well have fallen in, and that the owners are digging it out again. 

As a rule, the wells have to be scooped out and the twig lining replaced 
every second day, often twice a day : further, the water is hardly ever 
deep enough to fill the clay pitcher which is used ; it comes up half full, a thin 
stream trickles along the channel, and in many villages only five to 
seven kachcha biswas can be watered by two men working, as they say 
themselves, far into the night. A kachcha biswa is about 55 square yards ; 
it will take two men fourteen days to water an acre once, and will cost 
Es. 3-4. As a general rule, the as^mis, when questioned, said they could 
not afford to water twice, the labour is so enormous ; those who do admit 
that two or three waterings are advantageous. Melons and sugarcane get 
seven or eight waterings. Many of the tenants decline to dig these wells where 
the subsoil is sandy ; they point to heaps of earth evidencing vain attempts 
previously made, and say that it does not pay to make three or four wells 
which fall in before any water is drawn. In some districts it is like pros- 
pecting for minerals or digging for treasure rather than a regular agricul- 
tural operation. I give an actual example of the difficulties encountered. 
In Fatehpur, Kale Khan, Shekh, employed twenty-eight men, to each of 
whom he paid one anna and one ser and a half of juar to water four 
kachcha bighas of wheat once from a distant tank ; this cost him Es. 3-12 
or Es. 4-6 per acre for one watering. Further, when his waterinsc Tvas half 
finished, the old yeomen proprietors of the village, now included in a taluqa, 
rose and threatened to burn his haggard if he drew any more water, 
although he had been authorized to draw from this tank by the lord 
of the manor. The cultivators declare that well water is superior to 
that from tanks for irrigation in the proportion of ten to seven. 

The custom in well The following official note on the subject of digging 

'iiggi'^g- wells in Bara Banki is by the late settlement officer 

of the district : — 

" As to actual practice with respect to construction of kachcha wells, 
&c., by cultivators not possessing right of occupancy, and as to the dig- 
ging of kachcha wells by the above class, I beg to report that e. little differ- 
ence of opinion exists as to the tenant's right to dig a well without ask- 
ing permission. I am clear, however, that in the majority of cases no such 
permission is asked ; and where it is, there is some special reason. One 
very usual incident is that the well is dug not exactly in the tenant's 
holding, but in the patch of '^sar land outside ; here permission would 
naturally be asked from the lord of the soil, as also where the landlord's 
sanction is required for a carrying water-course across intervening holdings. 
The pure and simple digging a kachcha weU in the tenant's own land I 
believe to be whoUy within his power. I may add that tenants having 
leases do not vitiate them by digging wells, or even by a really objection- 
able practice from the landlord's point of view, viz., planting groves. 
The landlord only insists on his power of cutting down the grove at 
re-entry, leaving the wood with the lessee or his grantee. The landlord 
gives no aid in the making of kachcha wells. The ordinary cost of a 



BAR 237 

kachcha well varies from Rs. 2-8 to Rs. 8. The average cost is about 
Rs. 3. I may be excused poiixting out that it would be bad economy, and 
from a Hindu point of view, irreligious too, to hinder the digging of wells, 
Asking permission would be a mere form, and, if it ever existed, has fal- 
len into desuetude. The practice with reference to pakka wells is differ- 
ent, — the asami does ask verbal permission and for several reasons : 
First. — Because, as a general rule, the zamindar supplies wood to burn 
the brick, and gives permission to dig for clay. Second. — Because the 
digging a pakka well gives the asami tacitly or expressly a quasi occu- 
pancy-right in his holding, i. e., the asami's expenditure gives him certain 
interest in the soil, whose creation requires the zamindar's assent. The 
amount and kind of the interest varies ; the custom of some villages is 
that the asamis shall hold at a lower rate than he previously paid for 
five years ; of others, that his rent shall not be raised for fifteen years ; 
of others, that he gets a patch of mwcl/i land, as Mr. Wood assures me; 
of others, that he holds at the same rate for five years, and that the then 
increment shall have certain limits for ever. In many cases express ver- 
bal contracts are entered into on this matter ; in others tacit assent to 
the custom of the village is presumed ; the landlord who agrees to the 
digging of a well is supposed to know and accept the consequences. It 
must be remembered that, as a rule, owing to the intermingled nature 
of holdings, the well will water many fields besides those of the digger, 
who is only entitled to first serving. The rent of those who share in this 
water wiU be raised by the landlord, who will thus profit largely in the 
increased value of the surrounding land from his tenant's expenditure. I 
have heard it quoted as a proof of mere tenant status, that the occupier 
had asked permission to dig pakka wells which a holder of sir could build 
at his pleasure." 

" With reference to planting trees, the consent of the landlord is neces- 
sary ; in fact, nothing can be more certain, so that there is no necessity for 
quoting authority or urging argument." 

" I have already pointed out that a lessee for a term of years may plant 
a grove ; a yearly tenant would find any such attempt met with by 
prompt rooting out of his young trees." 

According to the returns of the old district, the details of irrigation are 
as follows : — 

Acres. 

Irrigated by jhfla or tanks ... ... ... 53,505 

,, by streams ... ... ... ... 21,368 

„ byweUs ... ... ... ... 106,980 

Unirrigated 383,610 

The tank water is, of course, more or less precarious ; in dry seasons they 
are early exhausted. On the other hand, in such emergencies, wells are more 
copiously dug. 

Wages. — Ordinary wages are Rs. 2-8 per mensem for a skilled agricul- 
tural labourer ; in addition, one kachcha maund of grain worth about one 
rupee, and a blanket worth about Rs. 1-8, raise the remuneration for labour 
to Rs. 33 per annum in the neighbourhood of towns in rural districts ; 



238 BAR 

Rs. 2 per mensem is more common. These farm servants state that 
their wives do not, as a rule, work. 

In the preceding paragraphs we found labourers working at irrigation 
from tanks receiving one anna per day and grain worth three-fifths of a 
rupee in the month. This would be Rs. 2-5 per mensem if the labourer 
worked twenty-eight days ; but it is evident that this is an unnaturally 
low wage — the result of custom — and only maintained because each one in 
his turn accepts and pays his wages. In the case of the labourers at the 
wells, perhaps harder work, we found that the labourer got five sers kach- 
cha, equal to 2J sers pakka, in Fatehpur, worth about two annas, or Rs. 
3-12 per mensem, if regularly employed, which in the case of such labour 
is, of course, impossible. Labour on the roads is paid at the rate of two 
annas a day for excavators and one and a half anna for hodmen : carpen- 
ters and smiths get three annas per day ; wages have not risen. 

Rents. — Rents in Bara Banki are very high. Ordinary rates are, says, 
the tahsildar, Rs. 7 to Rs. 8 per kachcha bigha for garden lands : this 
would be Rs. 32 to Rs. 37 per acre in Kuntur, Muhammadpur ; they rise, he 
says, to Rs. 21 per kachcha bigha, or Rs. 96 per acre. My own inquiries 
show that in Dewa, Nawabganj, thirteen fields, not under garden crops, 
selected at random, were locally measured at 53 bighas ; their aggregate 
area was 54,260 square yards, or llj acres, and their rent was Rs. 129, or 
Rs. 11 per acre. Six fields of garden crops were rated — 9^ bighas, mea- 
sured 7,907 square yards, and paid rent Rs. 29-15, or Rs. 18-5 per acre. 
The highest admitted rent amongst those tested was. Rs. 3-8 per nominal 
bigha, although Rs. 6 was stated to be paid. But rents seem to be raised 
rather by diminishing the size of the bigha. The kachcha bigha ought to' 
measure 2| to the Shahjahanpur bigha of 3,025 square yards ; it ought 
therefore to be 1,212 square yards, or exactly one quarter of an acre : but 
the foregoing statistics prove that it averages about 1,000 square yards in 
the ordinary lands. In garden lands the bigha averaged 830 square yards 
and sank as low as 528 square yards. In this way one field nominally at 
Rs. 3-8 per bigha, and containing 658 yards, paid a rental of Rs. 4-6, or 
about Rs. 32 per acre. The tahsildar in his averages is perhaps not far 
wrong ; and an average rent of Rs. 10 per acre for ordinary lands, and 
Rs. 25 for garden lands, may be accepted as usual ; but in lands which 
cannot be irrigated, about Rs. 7 per acre. A number of fields taken at 
random in Fatehpur gave a rent of Rs. 685 for 98 acres. One rupee per 
bigha, or Rs. 4 per acre, seems the ordinary rate for lands on the outer 
edge of the village ; but if the soil is saline, or sandy, rates are lower than 
these. 

The tenantry complain that the bigha is liable to change, and that it is 
smaller than in the Nawabi ; they admit, however, that prices of grain are 
higher, but affirm on the other hand that crops are smaller, so that on the 
whole their balance and livelihood are smaller and equally uncertain. 

An average farm is about 4 acres. The tenantry are deeply involved in 
debt ; they complain now that the money-lenders refuse to advance them 
any more. The rates of interest are the same as in the Nawabi, Rs. 2 to 
Rs. 3-4 per cent, per month, besides the usurious rates called " up", and other 



BAE 239 

names described in the Kheri article and equivalent to 150 per cent, per 
annum. Rents are rising rapidly : numerous tenants examined stated that 
they paid more than they had been paying five years ago. The average rise 
was, as appears from my note-book, 14 per cent, upon men who continued to 
cultivate the same fields ; but much larger increases were taken from new 
men who had taken lands in place of ejected or emigrated tenants. 

Condition of the people. — The majority of those who were inspected 
and examined gave very deplorable details. This may partly be due to 
the fact, that the better class of tenants do not themselves labour, and 
only those who are poor and reduced are met with in the fields. 

A pair of bullocks fit to plough with is worth Rs. 25, so the security was 
insufiScient. A paucity of bullocks was very apparent : one man with only 
two pairs of buUocks was working 83 village bighas, or about 18 acres ; he 
had sold the rest. The day labourers generally owed only Rs. 8 to Rs. 10, 
but the small farmer's men with 3 to 15 acres, owed, as a rule, Rs. 40 to 
Rs. 100. The universal cry was one of uniform decay, — bad crops, and 
rack rents ; there were certainly no prosperous men in the field, some 
looked hardy and healthy enough ; it turned out generally that they had 
relations in service. There was no attempt to exaggerate, nor to flatter 
the sahib ; their statements about rent when tested by the patwaris' books 
turned out to be true , they spoke, some plaintively, some few sullenly, 
most in a dull, hopeless tone. Their rice crop had been in 1873 an utter 
failure, and half of their cold weather crop was either destroyed or in a 
very perilous condition, but they worked away doggedly, pulling up the 
pitchers of water, struggling to save the wheat and peas on which alone 
they could place any reliance.* 

Land vrnproveinents. — Besides, there were in some instances enormous 
tanks, useless owing to the dissensions or want of enterprise of their land- 
owners. I will quote an instance. 

A mile south of Fatehpur, one Raja Gobardhan dug a great tank ; the 
huge mounds of earth which surrounded it on four sides have now become 
hard as granite ; it is well situated, I believe, to catch the flow of water 
from the north, but unfortunately one corner of about twenty yards, to- 
wards which the incline lies, has been left without a mound ; consequently 
the water flows away as fast as it flows in. An expenditure of Rs. 50 upon 
earthwork would have filled up the breach, but there are joint owners 
deeply in debt, and quarrelling ; consequently a great and picturesque 
public work is useless. Crops all round it are dying from want of water, 
and beneath its massive rampart the peasants were laboriously raising a 
scanty and costly supply of water with the primitive levers and the fragile 
pitcher. Just as the builder, a Government collector, left it unfinished 
two hundred years ago, so it is now. So rarely in the course of the cen- 
turies does an energetic and enterprising land-owner come forward. Hun- 
dreds of other tanks which the industry of ancient times provided are 

* A curious piece of evidence as to the value of time in India and the small remuneration 
of labour is afforded by the gleaners ; they come out to the harvest field as in England, but 
they gather up not entire heads, but single grains of wheat ; entire heads are rare, for the 
latter they compete with the ants. 



240 BAR 

allowed to silt up, althougli a little expenditure of labour in carrying away 
the deposit to the fields would be doubly repaid by the excellent manure 
so afforded, and the increased capacity of the basin for the storage of water. 
But the tenants will not labor to improve fields from which they can be 
ejected whenever their spring crop has been reaped. 

Among improvements which are popularly supposed to be made regu- 
larly in Oudh, are masonry wells for purposes of irrigation ; some twenty 
thousand of such are recorded as being now used for agricultural purposes 
in Oudh. I have never seen a masonry well built for irrigation purposes 
in Bara Banki ; I have only seen one being so used even, and that was for 
the Deputy Commissioner's garden. I have been told of three or four being 
so applied near the qasbas, but the application was limited to two or three 
bighas of garden land or sugarcane in the immediate neighbourhood, and 
was supplementary to the proper and original purpose of the well, that of 
providing drinking water for men and cattle. 

In many cases the masonry wells would not bear the exhaustion of their 
water by irrigation, the sides would fall in. The water is required for other 
purposes ; often it would be dirtied by using the big leather bucket. These 
masonry weUs might no doubt be used more than they are, but in any case 
extensive irrigation from them cannot be expected, and it would be most 
expensive. While I write in a season of utter drought, December 29th, 
1873, not one is being used for this purpose in the large town of Fatehpur, 
although two have been used, each for two or three bighas, previously 
during the season. Tanks are not any longer made for irrigation purposes, 
although still occasionally constructed for ornament, or in the formation of 
villages. 

Reasons why little progress is made. — The reason of this is variously 
stated ; all admit the fact ; some urge that the landholders are idle and 
improvident, many of them are not so ; yet they do not construct tanks 
which would drain their villages in wet seasons and irrigate their lands in 
dry. 

Others think that there is distrust of Government ; but if this was gener- 
al, land would not sell for such high prices. An able writer in the Indian 
Observer thinks that these tanks were made in former times by landlords 
when division of grain between them and tenants was the mode of land 
tenure in vogue. This may be, but there are extensive areas in which this 
division stUl prevails, and they are just as backward in this respect. The 
writer urges that the landlord would be inclined to make tanks himself if he 
would share equally in the increased produce due to irrigation. But he may 
now share equally — ^nay, take the lion's share ; yet he makes no tanks. 

The truth seems to be, that these ancient tanks are of two kinds : first, 
those constructed from benevolence or ostentation by the local raja when the 
empire was parcelled out of among some hundreds of Hindu principalities 
— doubtless many were also made in times offamine from necessity ; second, 
those constructed for purposes of land improvement and profit by the 
village communities, which under Manu's laws only paid one-sixth of their 
produce to the sovereign and had practically fixity of tenure. Formerly 
there were only two sharers in the produce of the soil— the raja and the 



BAR 



241 



ryot ; both had their proportions defined by law and prescribed by custom 
—the cultivating community' — ^men who would see most readily and clearly 
what improvements were needed, who could carry them out most cheaply 
m spare hours, and who would profit most largely — ^namely, five-sixths by 
them,_ doubtless willingly entered upon such works. The proof of this is, 
that in Madras the village communities which form the nearest present 
parallel to the ancient system do engage largely in such labours. There 
are now three classes who share in the produce of the soil, — the ryot, who 
gets half or three-fifths, but of this the whole is absorbed by the expense 
of the more costly cultivating processes ; the landlord, who gets one-fourth 
or one-fifth ; and the Government, which gets one-fifth or one-sixth. Of 
the three, the last alone has a fixed share in the produce, and it alone 
evinces any inclination to make permanent improvements. The tenants, 
cannot, for they are too heavily in debt, have too smaU a share in the 
produce, and no security that that share will not be curtailed. In fact 
there is an ever present risk that if they improve a field by putting on 
more manure or more water, the rent will be raised permanently on 
account of an improvement which may be only temporary. 

The cultivating village proprietary communities in Oudh are the only 
class which might be expected to' make works of this class. But they 
are too much in debt ; the individualism and litigious spirit of the present 
society doubtless obstruct such joint labours for the general good. 

That the large proprietors do not make such works is due partly to 
their dread of an enhanced land assessment, partly to the difficulty and 
obloquy which still attend a general rise of rents, but mostly to their 
own want of money, to their indifference to the state of their ryots, and to 
personal extravagance. In fine, no one class has a strong motive or an 
undivided interest in making improvements, and public spirit is practically 
dead. 

Embabeassments- of the Landlords. 

This naturally leads to the debts of the land-owning classes. 

In Bara Banki, in 1872, the following transfers or liens were effected :— 



Description. 



Amount. 



Deeds of gift 

Deeds of sale above Rs. 100 
Deeds of sale less than Rs. 100 
Deeds of mortgage ... 

Total 




I have not been able to obtain the details for previous years; but in 
Fatehpur pargana, for instance, during the period which elapsed from 
July 1871 to November 1873, there were 95 deeds of sale, whose amount 
was Rs. 46,197 ; and 304 deeds of mortgage creating liens upon property 
to the value of Rs, 1,17,638. 

Q 



242 



BAR 



Now, three-fifths of all the villages in Bara Banki are the property of 
wealthy talnqdars, who do not mortgage their villages ; the land revenue of 
Bara Banki is Rs. 15,44,000 : therefore in one year the smaller proprietors 
involved their estates to about the extBnt of one year's revenues ; at this rate 
they would part with all their property in about twelve or fourteen years. 

In 1873 the transactions were as follows : — 



Description. 


Number. 


Amount. 


Deeds of gift ... .». 

Deeds of sale 

Deeds of mortgage ... 


16 

420 

1,857 


Es. 

840 
1,69,570 
3,67,253 


Total 


2,293 


5,37,663 



It would appear from the above that there wiU shortly be little land left 
to mortgage. 

In Fatehpur the Government revenue is Rs. 1,32,192 ; in this pargana 
the great landholders of Jahangtrabad, Bilahra, Bhatwamau, Mahmudabad, 
own just half the pargana ; they have not mortgaged any of the property. 
Therefore, in two years and four months among properties assessed at 
Rs. 66,000 there have been mortgages or sales to the extent of Rs. 1,64,000 ■ 
at this rate, too, all the small estates in the pargana will be transferred in 
about twelve years, valuing land at twelve times the Government revenue. 

There is, however, one consideration, which is, that the sales very largely 
represent not entirely new transactions, but the results of previous mort- 
gages, with small additional loans or accretions from interest. The initial 
transaction in each case is generally the mortgage. After making every 
allowance for this, the prospect is still alarming. 

Prices. — I append a return showing the prices during the last ten years 
prepared for the Secretary of State ; this does not contain some of the 
cheapest grains, such as kodo, sanwan, which are generally about 15 per 
cent, cheaper than juar and moth. 

At present (December 1873) in Fatehpur the following are the prices 
for the chief food-grains, and they are thought rather alarming : 



Kodo^ 
Sanwan ... 
Bari juar ... 
Chioti jufo 
Moth 
Gram 
Mastir 

Wheat ... 
Barley 
Eioe 
Urd 
Arhar 



... 28 sers for the rupee. 
... 28 ditto, 

20 ditto. 

20 ditto. 

20 ditto. 

18 ditto. 

17 ditto. 

15 ditto. 

not to be seen. 

17 sers for the rupee, 

17 ditto. 

13 ditto. 



BAR 



243 



"With reference to kodo, it must be remarked that the above is the price 
for the entire grain ; if it is husked, in which case it can be boiled as rice, 
it is then also 20 sers for the rupee. In fact, there seem to be three kinds 
of food-grains as respects price : first, the cheap and nasty, which are un- 
wholesome ; they are about 28 sers now, but wiU rise rapidly in price as 
the stock from the last harvest diminishes ; second, there are the cheap and 
sound, but unsavoury, grains — moth, judr, bdjra ; these are at 20 sers the 
rupee: then come the nutritious and savoury grains — arhar, gram, rice, wheat; 
these vary from 18 to 13 sers per rupee, according to the kind of preparation 
used and the abundance of the crop. A poor man will now eat his morning 
meal of juar ground and made into coarse, unleavened cakes ; this is eaten 
without any relish ; at evening he will eat kodo, husked, and made into 
pottage called kodo-ka-chdwal, or he will eat in the middle of the day 
roasted juar called chabena ; he will possibly eat a little arhar along with 
his evening pottage, but that is a luxury which his Banian may or may 
not allow him. 

Statetnent showing details of produce and prices i/n Bara Banhi district 
for the ten following years from 1861 to 1870. 



Description of produce. 


% 


IS 


g 
1 


5 


i 


1 




6 
1 


^ 


^ 


■si 

< 




34i 


s 

341 


i- 

34i 


00 

26 


s 

CO 

22g 


21? 


pH 


oo" 
1 


m 

1 


o 

S 


Paddy 


224 


28f 


16? 


194 25 


Common rice (husked) 


lt\ 


14i 


141 


13? 


log 


10| 


llg 


15? 


9? 


124 


12t% 


Best rice (husked) ... 


7 


7 


7g 


5J 


5i 


5J 


54 


5? 


54 


54 


5t 


Wheat ... ... ~- 


23? 


311 


341 


194 


191 


12? 


151 


224 


12? 


144 


20|- 


Barley 


30g 


19g 


37i 


231 


241 


20? 


23J 


261 


174 


164 


24 


Bajra 


21i 


m 


31S 


17S 


201 


17? 


201 


20| 


lOf 


154 


19t^ 


Juar 


3U 


36i 


281 


2ii 


231 


17! 


23 


27i 


174 


211 


24f 


Oram 


27i 


35i 


40g 


24J 


18 


181 


21? 


34g 


124 


18 


25 


Arhar, Cytisus cajwn... 


341 


43 


344 


m 


26J 


15 


151 


38? 


171 


20 


274 


Urd or Mash, Phaseolus max ... 


28^ 


m 


274 


131 


131 


11 V 


14? 


284 


13? 


14 


19t^ 


Mothi, Phaseohta aconUifolius... 


22| 


181 


31g 


24§ 


17 


174 


16 


354 


15 


174 


214 


Mxmg, Phaseolus mwago 


221 


241 


234 


m 


12* 


9? 


144 


14 


111 


111 


154 


Masur, Ervum lens ... 


261 


30 


16^ 


201 


19g 


174 


154 


34S 


164 


174 


2H 


Ahsa or Matra, Pimm sativum. . . 


m 


38J 


434 


17f 


23A 


18? 


181 


384 


134 


19J 


27 


Ghuiyan, Arum colocasia 


41i 


28 


44g 


331 


291 


184 


344 


34| 


291 


28i 


32i 


Sarson, Svna^ dichotoma (Roxb.) 


16^ 


m 


13J 


15^ 


161 


154 


134 


13i 


15? 


121 


14t'o 


Lahi, SinapU nigra ... 


171 


151 


15i 


14J 


16# 


154 


m 


151 


154 


134 


15* 


Kaw Sugar... 


H 


4 


_H_ 


_Jh 


3S 


4^ 


31 


_3J 


H 


4j' 4 


N, B.-T 


hese 


rates 


are al 


)out5 


!Oper 


cent, 1 


00 hi 


gb. 









Q 2 



244 



BAK 



Fami/ne. — The subject of famine is treated under th.e articles Lucknow 
and Fyzabad. The last great famine was in 1837 ; at that time grain rose to 
five sers for the rupee; in I860, 1869, flour was for some months at eight 
sers for the rupee, in 1873 at eleven sers. 

Famine will be indicated as approaching whenever the millets or barley 
are at eighteen sers for the rupee for more than a month ; but great floods 
cause more urgent distress than droughts, even when they only do the 
same damage. The effect of droughts is that there is an abundant 
demand for labour on irrigation works, while floods put a stop to all 
agricultural operations. In 1871-72 floods raised the price of wheat to an 
average of twenty-four and eighteen sers respectively, but in 1873 drought 
has raised it to fifteen sers. Bara Banki has two navigable rivers, besides 
direct connection with the great cities of Cawnpore and Lucknow. The 
railway within the district is laid for about seventy-three miles with a 
single line of rails ; importation or exportation of grain upon a large scale 
is always feasible. 

Statement of prices current for the under-mentioned months during 
the scarcity of 1869-1870. 

Eetail Sale, — Quantity per Rupee. 



Articles. 


July 1869. 


Aupnisfc 
1869. 


September 
1869. 


October 
1869. 


November 
1869. 


January 
1870. 


February 
1870. 


Wheat, 1st quality 


M. S. 

11 


c. 
8 


M. S. C. 

12 


M. S. 
10 


c. 
8 


M. S. 0. 

10 


M, S. C. 
9 12 


M. S. C. 



M. s. 0. 
11 8 


„ 2nd „ ... 


12 





12 4 


11 





10 4 


10 


4 





12 


Gram, 2nd „ .... 


13 


8 


13 8 


12 


4 


10 12 


11 








10 


Bajra 




















14 








16 


Juar 











1 2 





21 


~0 18 








16 


Arliar 


19 





14 


13 





10 


10 








12 


Urd 


12 





11 14 


10 





9 


13 








14 8 


Masur 


15 





14 


10 





10 


11 








12 


Mfing 


12 





9 


9 





8 


11 








14 


Eice, 2nd quality... 


9 





9 


9 





7 


13 








14 



Fisheries.— The following account of the Bara Banki fisheries is drawn 
from the Inspector General's report of 1873 : — 

" The tahsildar of Fatehpur states that no persons give themselves up 
to fishing as a sole pursuit, but the castes that fish are Guryas and 
Kahars. The weekly_ market is stated to be sufficiently well supplied, the 
cost of large fish being one anna, and small fish half an anna a ser. 
A larger proportion of the people, it is asserted, would be consumers of 
fish could they obtain it. The supply, has not increased, and the size of 
the smallest mesh of the nets is givei) at one inch or thereabouts. Fish 



BAR 



245 



are trapped in the irrigated fields during the rains. The implements 
used in fishing are jdl, tdpa, halqa, paihra, dagganshist, barbat, chaundhi, 
chan, dorpauri, khawri.* 

" The tahsildar of Nawabganj reports there being 200 or 300 persons 
who fish, but all pursue other occupations. The fishermen castes are 
Guryas and Kahars. Very few fish, and only in the cold season, are sold 
in the weekly markets ; the larger sorts at one anna and the smaller at a 
quarter of an anna a ser ; whilst first class mutton fetches three annas 
and second class two annas a ser. A larger proportion of the population, 
it is observed, would eat fish if they could obtain them. The supply has 
not increased. The smallest mesh of nets is given at half an inch square. 
Fish are trapped during the rains in the irrigated fields. Nets and 
implements for taking fish are katia, balbishist, and tapa.""I- 

Railway Traffic. — The principal seat of goods' traffic upon the rail- 
way is Bahramghat. The accompanying table furnished by the railway 
authorities represents the details of the exports and imports in 1873, The 
principal passenger station is Nawabganj, also the head-quarters of the 
district. Another table shows the goods and passenger traffic for 1873 : — 

Bahramghat Rail/way Station Returns. 





GW. 


Bice. 


Judr 
grain. 


Cotton 
seed. 


Hides. 


Kutch. 


Lao. 


Salt- 
petre. 


Timber. 




May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 


mds. 

35 

78 

421 

1,065 

1,473 

1,060 


mds. 

23 
69 

172 
135 

105 


mds. 

620 

1,734 

510 

231 

147 


mds. 

158 

76 

332 

184 


mds. 

49 
39 
26 
36 
92 
114 


mds. 

260 
164 
102 
18 
72 
200 


mds. 

"3 
100 
131 
193 
130 


mds. 

243 
... 

"23 

"55 


mds, 

6,387 
3,734 
8,689 
15,321 
3,261 
8,121 


Outward. 


Total ... 


4,132 504 


3,242 


750 


356 


876 


557 


321 


45,513 






Piece-goods 


Salt. 


Linseed. 




May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October „. 


mds. 

324 

240 

45 

57 

71 

300 


mds. 

1,173 
2,596 
1,027 
845 
2,146 
2,640 


mds. 

3,765 

2,192 

2,255 

250 

35 


Inward. 


Total ... 


1,0 


37 


10,4 


27 


8,4 


97 





There is a large trade over the boat bridge at Bahramghat, consisting 
mainly of timber, rice, and other food seeds, oil seeds, cattle, hemp from 
Bahraich, of cotton cloths, metal utensils, salt and pulse, such as urd, from 
Southern Oudh and Cawnpore ; the receipts from passage duties amounted 



* Para. 298, " Francis Day's Fresh Water Fish and Fisheriea of India and Burma." 
t Para 297, " Francis Day's Fresh Water Fish and Fisheries of India and Burma." 



246 



BAR 



to Rs. 2,01,767 in the fifteen years 1859 — 1874, or an average of Rs. 
13,451 per annum, the expenses of maintenance in the same period 
amounted to Rs. 1,02,781 or Rs. 6,852 per annum ; during the last eight 
years the average receipts have been above Rs. 16,000, a fact which 
.evidences the increase of trade. 

In 1873 the traffic at the various stations on the railway within the 
boundaries of the Bara Banki district was as follows : — 





Outward. 


Inward. 


1 






43 


. 


4=- 




4^ 


d 


^ 


a 


stations. 


^ 


i 


1 


i 


S 


1 




g 


•§. 




M 


§ 


fl 


a 


1 


g 


g 


3 


s 




1 


3 


S 


s 


S 


1 


i 


£ 


ii- 

.a a 

R 




No. 


£ 


Tons. 


£ 


No. 


£ 


Tons. 


MUes. 


Rudauli 


20,617 


849 


102 


52 


21,003 


906 


927 


302 


56 


Makhdiampur 


6,873 


246 


34 


20 


6,387 


219 


322 


129 


47 


Daryabad 


13,750 


489 


42 


24 


13,606 


484 


184 


88 


42 


Safdarganj 


11,124 


334 


27 


13 


11,080 


304 


6 


3 


30 


Nawabganj 


71,396 


2,095 


1,152 


451 


68,724 


1,933 


1,579 


682 


18 


Damlidapur . . 


2,588 


33 


7 


2 


2,032 


15 




... 


21 


Biudaura 


7,800 


175 


7 


4 


6,855 


139 


225 


97 


29 


Ramnagar 


9,960 


249 


150 


32 


9,364 


218 


16 


7 


33 ' 


Mahadeo 


2,813 


60 






3,404 


78 


... 




37 


Bahramghat 


22,344 


1,129 


3,667 


1,487 


22,672 


1,125 


1,473 


691 


39 


Juggaur 


1,602 


26 


1 




1,087 


14 




>•■ 


11 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



Manufactures. — List of cloths manufactured by weavers of the Nawab- 
ganj tahsil, with the number of weavers residing in the tahsil : — 

Tapti, of English thread. 

Garha, of country „ 

Gazi „ „ 

Dhoti „ „ 

Mahmlidi „ „ 

!&hasa „ „ 

Charkhiina for petticoats, both of English and country thread. 

Adhotar, of both English and country thread. 

Susi, n „ „ 

Bilra „ „ „ . 

Weavers are 1,910, of whom Koris number 141 and Julahas 1,769. 

Weights and measures of length and capacity. — The local Jeos is about 
one mile and a half. Forty sers make a maund here as everywhere else ; 
but the local maund varies in every bazar. In Jharka, five local sers are 
equal to two Government , sers, and the local maund to sixteen sers ; in 
Nawabganj, five sers equal to 2^ regulation sers ; in Ramnagar, Dewa, 
Zaidpur, Tikaitganj, to 2^; in Fatehpur to 2^, and the local maund 
equals l7, 18, and 20 regulation sers respectively. 

Even when the Government ser is nominally used, it is varied to suit 
the convenience of the capitalist. Sugar is bought by the ser weighing 92 
rupees or tolas, and sold by one weighing 80. The selling ser of ghi is the 
same as for sugar, but the buying ser is 99 tolas. This 92 tolas ser is 
called the dahsera, and is used also for tobacco and spices. I have entered 
into the question of land measures in connection with rents, 



BAE 247 

I may add that in Fatehpur, where the bighas and maunds are both 
large, it turned out from inspection of a number of village papers that 
1,772 regulation bighas equalled 5,141 village bighas; therefore each 
village bigha equals 1,040 square yards. There 4f make an acre, but 
here, as elsewhere, the bigha was quite arbitrary, varying from 750 to 
1,200 square yards. 

Principal castes. — The principal castes of Bara Banki are as follows, 
with their respective numbers : — 



{Sayyad ... 

Shekh ... 

Pathan ... 

Julaha ... 

Kunjra ... 

Brahman... 

Chhattri ... 

Ahir 

Chamar .,. 
] Kahar 
I Kurmi ... 
I Piisi 
(."Vaishya ... 



Hindus 





Approximate per 


Number 


centage to entire 




population. 


6,830 


<•• 


29,694 


24 


16,704 


14 


32,357 


3 


7,209 


04 


96,152 


9 


45,543 


4 


130,136 


12 


62,925 


54 


23,703 


2 


149,460 


14 


99,602 


9 


18,311 


n 



The only matter worthy of note is the great number of Kurmis. They 
prevail mainly in this district and in Partabgarh. 

The occupations of all the above castes are mainly agricultural, except 
Julahas, who are weavers — the Kunjras, who are green grocers and dealers 
in, not growers of, market produce — and the Vaishyas, who are traders 
and shop-keepers. The castes are the same as those detailed in Lucknow, 
the adjoining district. The caste system acquires a local interest in con- 
nection with the distribution of property. 

Sayyad and Shekh* Musalmans hold above 900 villages out of the 
2,038 in the district, nearly half of the entire land ; they number in all 
only 36,524. Chhattris hold 826 villages, or 40 per cent. ' in number ; 
they are only 4 per cent., and the possessors of the land only form a mere 
fraction even of these few. On the other hand, the whole body of the 
aboriginal population, the P£sis, the Kahars, the Chamd,rs, have no right 
in the land whatever. The Kurmis, who are, 14 per cent, of the popula- 
tion, have 1^ per cent, of the land. The Ahirs, a powerful and intelligent 
body of men, who form 12 per cent, of the entire population, have only a 
single village. It appears, then, not only that landed proprietors are a 
mere fraction of the population, but that the greater portion of the 
people — the great majority of the races which inhabit the district, and 
which have no kinship, fellowship, or commensality with the minority — 
has either no share in the land, or such a minute one as to be not worthy 
of mention. Of 104 castes which are to be found in the district, only six 
have any right in the soil worthy of mention ; these are the Brahmans, 
Chhattris, Sayyads, Shekhs, K%aths, Kurmis. 

* I assume that the Khanzadas, as alleged by themselves, are („) gg^ cameg/s Notes on 
Shekhs. (a) JJaces, page 69. 



243 



BAR 



CHiiPTER Tir. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

Adnuniatrative divisions and staff— Eevenue — ^Expenditure— Taxation — Police and crimes. — 
Table of accidental deaths— Education — Post Ofiace— Table shewing area of estates. 

Administrative divisions and official staff. — There are four tahsils 
whose population has been already given ; each is presided over by an 
officer who collects the revenue and exercises civil and criminal jurisdic- 
tion. The thdnadars or police officers are nine ; their stations, with their 
respective jurisdictions, are as foUows : — 



TMna. 


Population. 


Nearest tahsil. 


Nawabganj 






■•1 ' 


168,975 


Nawabganj. 


Zaidpur 






... 


101,878 


Ditto. 


Tikaitnagar 


••• 


• •• 


... 


133,357 


Ditto. 


Sanehi Gliat 


... 






118,199 


Eiini Sanehi Ghat. 


Bhilsar 


... 






150,754 


Ditto. 


Fatehpur 


... 


• .• 


••. 


109,590 


Fatehpur. 


Kursi 




• f* 


• a. 


84,719 


Nawabganj. 


E&mnagar ' 


... 


■ •• 


• ■a 


11.9,275 


Ditto. 


Haidargaib 


Total 


... 


aaf 


128,506 


Haidargarh, 




1,116,253 





Courts. — There are a deputy commissioner, two assistant commissioners, 
three extra assistant commissioners, four tahsildars, and four honorary 
magistrates — all of these gentlemen have civil, criminal, and revenue 
powers. 

Revenue. — The revenue of the district in 1871-72 is shewn in the 
following table : — 





1871, 


1872. 


1. Eeoent settlement revenue collections 

2. Eents of Government villages and lands 

3. Income Tax ... 

4. Tax on spirits... 

5. Tax on opium and drugs ... „. 

6. Stamp duty ... .., 

7. Law and Justice 


Es. 

15,75,056 

65,000 

5,923 

60,251 


Es. 

15,75,217 
1,860 
20,228 
44,34-6 
5,359 
56,995 
10,251 


Total 


••••-• 


17.14,356 



The expenditure was Rs. 1,11,803, or less than 7 per cent, of the 
revenue, which is the largest of any district in Oudh. Comparisons 
between this year and 1860 are not given, because the area has been 
considerably enlarged since that date, The above is, hpwever, only the 



BAR 249 

imperial expenditure ; police and other local matters are paid for from 
provincial funds, from wliicli an allotment is annually made. The local 
funds in 1872-73 amounted to Rs. 2,31,742, the expenditure to Rs. 65,571. 
It is obvious that such a state of things was due to exceptional causes, and 
the details are therefore of no value and will not be given here. 

The following table is from the Accountant General's Financial State- 
ment : — 



Imperial Expenditure, 1871-72. 



Eevenue refunds and drawbacks 

Miscellaneous refunds 

Land revenue 

Deputy commissioners and establishment 

Settlement ... 

Excise or abkdri ... ... 

Assessed taxes ... ... 

Stamps 

T _. J • J.- S Service of process 

Law and justice | Criminal courts 

Bcclesiastical 
Medical 



Es. 

1,747 
3,522 

- I 52,677 

!!". 15 

3,139 

366 

1,008 

5,371 

38,242 

... 4,200 



1,10,287 



Police. — The district police numbered in 1871-72 four hundred and 
ninety, costing Rs. 43,703, according to annual report; but the police 
report of 1873 puts the cost at Rs. 65,750. 

Taxation. — Few remarks are called for on this head. 

The land tax in the former district of Bara Banki was at annexation, 
excluding local cesses, Rs. 8,35,994 ; during the years 1865 to 1867 it was 
raised to Rs. 12,25,21*0, a rise of 40 per cent. The revenue in general — 
what with an intrinsic increase of the rate, and what with additions to its 
area— has nearly doubled ; the expenditure has increased very slightly. 

Under the Income Tax Act of 1871, only 855 persons were brought 
under assessment, which yielded Rs. 14,456 ; of these persons, 212, paying 
Rs. 11,634, were owners of land. 

Cri/mes. — There is nothing exceptional about the crime or criminals of 
Bara Banki. The following table exhibits the crimes of the district. It 
will appear that in six years the reported cases of house-breaking or 
house-trespass increased from 2,037 to 6,611, and the convictions from 
100 to 361. Infanticide does not appear in this, as convictions are never 
obtained. A census is taken annually of aU Chhattris families in certain 
suspected villages to whom the criine is almost confined. 

In 1871 a census was taken of the entire Rajput population in 900 
villages of this district, but in none of the thfinas did infanticide appear 
to flourish so generally as in parts of the adjoining districts. In Rdmnagar 
alone the Raikw^rs seem to be very prone to the practice of this crime. 
In 63 villages the proportions were as follows : — 

Adult males 1,026 females 673. 
OWldfeu „ 293 „ 195. 



250 



BAR 



The females then are only 39 per cent, of the total, or 65 per cent, of 
the males ; they should be 92 per cent ; it would appear from this, that 
41 per cent, of the females, or two out of every five born, have been made 
away with. 

The following table exhibits curious results : — 





No. of villages. 


Children up to 4, 
Male Female, 


Persons above 4. 
Male Female. 


Percentage of 
girls to boys. 


Of womeu 
to meu. 


1867 ... 
1872 ... 


... 133 
... 145 


658 615 
641 569 


4,871- 3,680 
7,450 4,831 


95 
89 


75 
64 



We do not know how many of the women are married ; this informa- 
tion would be valuable because women hardly ever marry in their own 
villages. 

Native opinion declares that a daughter is shanhalp, a gift sanctioned 
by religion, and it is not, strictly speaking, becoming for a father even to 
see his daughter after marriage ; consequently young girls when they . 
attain the age of puberty are married off into other villages, only the 
unmarried girls are natives of each village ; and for them only the village 
is accountable. 



Crime Statistics for Bar a BanJci district 














Cases reported. 


Cases convicted. 




^ 


» 






rJ 


CN 










































s - 


S 




19 






7 


12 


CO 

8 


8 


13 


rH 


Murders and attempts 


9 


15 


11 


16 


11 


3 


Culpable homicide ... 


7 


6 


3 .4 


6 


10 


5 


4 


2 


S 


1 


7 


Dacoity .., 




•■■ 


3 4 


3 


7 


■ •• 




• •• 


1 


., 


2 


Robbery ... 


7 


7 


11 


40 


44 


32 


2 


3 


3 


16 


7 


8 


Eioting and unlawful assembly 


27 


36 


30 


37 


50 


42 


24 


30 


27 


32 


39 


31 


Theft by house-breaking or 
























house-trespass 


2,037 


2,877 3,629 


3.868 


4,229 


6,611 


100 


90 


204 169 


179 


361 


Theft, simple 


774 


1,004 1,406 


1,406 


1,419 


1.757 


208 


255 


336 


,356 


314 


621 


Theft of cattle 


106 


81 


156 


122 


204 


260 


13 


23 


30 


22 


47 


115 


Offences against coin & stamps 


5 


6 


4 


8 


4 


11 


4 


3 


3 


5 


2 


6 



Comparative inemorandum of accidental deaths for the years 1867, 
1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, in district Bara BanU. 





Suicides., 


drowning. 


By snake- 
bite. 


By 
wild quad- 
rupeds. 


By fall 

of 

buildings. 


By other 
causes. 


Total. 


Tears. 


"i 

19 

14 


■3 

25 
38 


1 

56 

41 

82 

123 

109 

134 


54 

72 

67 

108 

137 

166 


■3 

19 
45 
69 
44 
36 
53 


1 

33 
76 
71 
66 
64 
65 


1 
1 

• •• 

"i 


1 
& 

1 

"i 

1 


14 

2 

7 

22 

112 

7 


.2 
iS 

4 
1 
3 

24 
101 

14 


i 

21 
21 
36 
25 
38 
61 


7 
. 6 
12 
14 
18 
16 


Ill 
1-09 
184 
215 
315 
254 


! 


1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 


99 
165 
163 
223 
346 
-241 



BAR 



251 



Statistics of the police of the district of Bam Banlci in 1873. 




« 


■s 


1 
II 


1 


1 

s 


■s 

1 

ID 


a. 
II 


u 

a 

<D d 


6 

a 

o 


1 
s 




1 
1 

8 


1 

■s 


1 




8 


umber 
Sums 

ative 


^ 

fl 


SS2 




1^ 


1 




l| 


II 


1 

3 






^ 


a . ^ 


l2i 


< 


fi 


a* 


IZi 


!5 


i2i 


15 


ig 




Eegular police 


65,750 


3 


82 


343 


... 


f 1 to 

I 5-19 


1 to ■) 

2,893 5 


2,466 


7,667 


4,128 


3,134 


983 




Village watch 


90,316 


... 


65 


3,370 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




Municipal police ... 


4,308 


... 


5 


63 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 






Total 


1,60,374 


3 


142 


3,776 


3,921 


... 




2,466 


7,667 


4,128 


3,134 


985 





Education. — There is in Bara Banki itself one central school at which 
English is taught and boys are prepared for the University Entrance 
Examination. The number of the pupils on the rolls amounted to 247 
in 1871, and 298 in 1872. There were also a number of vernacular 
schools whose progress and statistics are shewn as follows : — 



1871 
1872 



No. of 
Bchools. 

68 
90 



No. of pupils 
on rolls. 

2,829 
8,889 



Average Fees 

attendance. collected, 
fis 



1,960 
2,565 



632 
822 



Post Office. — The Post Office returns appended exhibit the first the 
working of the entire system, the second that of the rural d^k only, a 
comparative statement is given of the latter for 1864 — 1874. 

It would appear that the institution is thoroughly valued, as the num- 
ber of letters conveyed by the district d^k has increased 60 per cent, and 
the last return shows 1,66,000 letters and papers delivered in one year. 

Baea Banki. 

Statistics shewing the number of letters and papers received in the 
district office in 1873-74. 



Letters. 


Papers. 


Packets. 


Parcels, 


Number of 

letters given 

out for 

delivery. 


Number 

of letters 

returned 

undelivered. 


Number of 

papers given 

out for 

delivery. 


Number of 

papers 

returned 

undelivered. 


Number of 

packets 

given out for 

delivery. 


Number of 

packets 

returned 

undelivered. 


Number of 

parcels 
given out 

for 
delivery. 


Number of 
parcels 
returned 
undeliver- 
ed. 


155,428 


8,710 


10,634 


390 


1,716 


26 


988 


32 



252 



BAR 



Baba Banki. 

Statement shewing the working of the district dak in 1864 aTid 1874. 





1S64. 


isr4. 


Number of miles of dAk line 

„ „ runners ... • ... 

Cost 

Number of covers delivered... 

„ „ returned undelivered 
Total number of letters sent to District Post Office 
Postage realized... 


Rs. 

Hs. 


63 

14 

771 

15,755 

4,732 

19,787 

2,269 


Es."" 3^761 

24,687 

2,249 

26,936 



List of taluqdars paying a Revenue of Its. 5,000 and above in the i 
trict Bara Banki. 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 

22 

23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 



Name of taluqdar. 



I 



Eaja Amir Hasan Khan 
Raja Sarabjit Singh 
Eaja f arzand All Khan 
Maharaja Kharak Singh 
Widow of Maharaja Man 

Singh 
Eaja Narindra Bahadur 
Eani Lekhraj Kunwar 
Raja Kazim Husen Khan ... 
Eaja Sher Bahadur Singh.,. 
Eaja Nawab Ali Khan 

Baja Thakni; Singh 
Kite Abhiram Bah 
Mi'r Eazzaq Husen 
Badshah Husen Khan 
Mir Buniad Husen and Am- 

jad Husen 
Mir Amjad Husen 
Hakim Karam Ali 
Qazi Ikram Ahmad 
Pande Bahadur Singh 
ChaudhriMuhammad Husen 
Muhammad Amir and Ghu 

lam Abbas 
Ahmad Husen and WAjid 

Husen 
Nasir-ud-dm 
Bakhshi Harparsh£d 
Riasat Ali 
Shin Singh 
Sayyad Husen 
ChaudhriGhulamFarid and 

Mahbub-ur-Eahman. 
Ihsan Easu] 





Number 




of 


Name of t^luqa. 


i 


1 




•1 


•s 




1 

72 


1 
.33 


Koandanda 


Eamnagar 


195 


71 


Jahangirabad ... 


65 


16 


BhitauU 


46 




Garhi Ahar 


14 


2 


Haraha 


50 


16 


Surajpur 


61 


7 


Bilahra 


37 


4 


Kamiar 


7 


3 


Adampur Bhat- 


' 




purwa 


6 


1 


Tirbediganj 


5 


1 


Rampur 


29 


10 


Narauli 


K5 


10 


Bhatwdmau ... 


21 


4 


Bhanmau 


8 




Suhelpur 


9 


1 


Guthia 


18 




Satrikh 


11 


1 


Usdamau 


14 


.>> 


Karkha 


11 


4 


Shahabpur 


6 


2 


Gadia 


8 


8 


Gaura 


6 


fi 


Xilauli 


8 


.3 


Shekhpur 


6 


12 


Muhammadpur 


5 


22 


Purai 


6 


8 


Barai 


24 


22 


Amfrpur 


6 


8 



Total area. 



E. P. 



37,063 

1,09,121 

39,698 

43,118 

13,100 
39,856 
37,530 
15,596 
13,560 



3 27 
2 5 

2 26 

3 10 
1 30 



6,940 17 



Government 
revenue. 



Es. As. P. 



1,868 


30 


17,448 


30 


23,359 





9,226 





2,683 


2 10 


4,318 


2 5 


6,473 


3 15 


10,843 


2 32 


5,657 


1 13 


6,598 


1 21 


4,144 


3 12 


9,020 


1 20 


3,792 


3 25 


2,764 


1 10 


4,063 


1 18 


5,164 


2 30 


6^958 


2 25 


18,563 


3 


4^683 


1 10 



50,346 





4,24,381 


4 6 


61,467 


2 8 


10,586 





13,080 





53,856 





59,563 10 


18,659 





6,115 





9,273 





3,019 





24,585 


3 


28,232 


8 


10,139 


3 9 


5,045 





8,965 





13,975 





18,875 





8,201 


8 


13,362 


U 8 


8,763 13 


20,450 





5,840 


6 8 


3,280 





6,811 


12 9 


6,551 


10 


8,067 






26,744 14 
7,030 14 



BAR 



253 



List of talug[dars paying a Bevenue ofBs. 5,000 and above in ihe district 
Bara Banki. — (Continued.) 





ITame of t'aluqdar. 


Name of taluqa. 


Number 
of 


Total area. 




!_ 


! 


■s 


GoTernment 
roTenue. 












A. 


R. P. 


Rs. A. P. 


30 


Nawab Ali Khan 


MaUa Eaeganj 


4 


8 


2,858 


1 35 


6,220 


31 


Inayatulla and ImamuUa 
















and Ikram Ali 


Saidanpur 


13 


1 


4,807 


2 25 


10,400 


32 


Thakur Shiu Sahae 


Simrawan 


6 


3 


3,281 





7,125 


33 


Raghunath Singh 


Rech 


1 




, 1,182 


3 35 


2,100 


34 


Girdhari Singh 


Gokulpur 


6 


3 


4,765 


1 38 


9,182 8 


35 


Sher Khan 


Neora 


1 


13 


3,325 


2 31 


4,711 4 


36 


Warn r Ali Khan 


Barauli 


4 


36 


5,674 


10 


7,973 7 


37 


Autdr Singh 


Ranimau 


10 


4 


5,405 


1 


7,433 


38 


AU Bahadur and Autar 
















Singh 


Usmanpur 


21 


4 


8,260 


1 20 


16,620 


39 


Thakur Guman Singh and 
















Rudr Partab Singh ... 


Bhikhampur &c. 


3 




1,057 


3 20 


925 


40 


Thakurain Ikhlas Kunwar 


LUar 


2 


6 


2,861 


1 23 


2,082 5 4 


41 


Chaudhrain Beohl-un-nisa 


Bhilwal Kh4u- 














and Murtaza Husen ... 


pur 


35 


8 


28,504 


3 


34,946 6 


42 


Raja Bhagwant Singh ... 


Pokhra Ansiiri 


23 


3 


28,859 





25,224 


43 


Thakur Pirthi'pal Singh ... 


Ramnagar 


8 


1 


5,621 





8,234 8 


44 


Babu Bhikbam Singh ... 


Akhiapur 


3 




1,551 





2,325 


45 


Raja Bihari Lai 


Rabhi 


1 




277 





380 


46 


Shiuratan Singh . 


Sarde Gopi ... 


3 


... 


1,326 





1,335 12 


47 


Babu Nabi Bakhsh Khan 


Chak Duna ... 


1 




65 





102 6 


48 


ShekhAbidAU 


Saidahar 


10 


12 


6,261 


2 39 


8,670 14 6 


49 


Musammat Said-un-niasa 


Ganaura 


3 




831 


3 35 


2,550 


50 


Babu Pirthipal Singh ... 


Udahpur 


4 




2,102 


35 


2,450 


51 


Chaudhri Musahib Ali and 
















Karfm Bakhsh 


Din Panah ... 


5 


1 


6,949 


1 


5,600 


52 


Shams-un-nisa 


Jasmada 


3 




920 


15 


3,200 



234 



BAR 



CHAPTER IV. 

HISTORY. 

District has always been turbulent and ill-conditioned — Statement of towns, houses, 
wells, and religious buildings in the district — History of the district—Colonel 
Sleeman's description of Eamnagar DhaiDeri, &o. The Bahrela Rajputs — the story 
of Ganga Bakhsh Rawat— taluqas of Eamnagar, Haraha, Surajpur, Jahangirabad, 
ilaqas of Barai, JRudauli, Bara Banki during the rebellion— Medical aspects. 

District has always been turbulent and ill-conditioned. — This district 
has always been a most turbulent . and ill-conditioned one. The reason 
probably is that the Musalmans and the Rajputs, or, in other words, the 
town party and the country party, are pretty equally balanced. There are 
here a number of great Musalman colonies, and their inhabitants have not 
been so tolerant as in other parts of Oudh. 

In Zaidpur, for instance, a town with a population of over 10,000, the 
majority of whom are Sunnis and Hindus, there is not a single religious 
edifice for the use of either. The lords of the soil are Shias ; they form a 
mere fraction of the population; but seventeen mosques have been provided 
to attest their zeal and their intolerance. The following table conveys some 
interesting information concerning these towns. It appears that there are 
eighty-six Hindu temples, four Jain shrines, and 144 Musalman mosques 
or meeting houses. In all there are 234 religious edifices. These are of 
masonry. 

The temples of Mahadeo in his ling representation are as numerous as 
those of all other deities put together. 

Statement shovn/ng the towns of Bara Banki district with their houses, 
wells, religious buildings dhc. 





Number 
of 


Number 
of 




Hindu 




Muhammadan reli- 
gious buildings. 










houses. 


wells. 


buildings. 


Sunni. 


Shia. 




Names of mauzas. 


^ 


.a 


i 
t 


M 

19 
29 

8 
26 
10 
20 
14 

9 
39 

48 
4 

226 


3 

7 
1 

6 
6 
1 

"3 

1 

1 
14 


1 

1 

3 


ID 

Q 

1 

1 
1 


i 

1 
2 


U 

S 

a 

1 


1 

3 

1 


3 

1 

8 
1 


f 

R 

1 


1 
1 

1 


2 


1 

1 


W 


1 


H 


Nawabganj 

Bara Banki 


11 

3 

10 

385 

100 

71 

20 

31 

39 

3 

13 

99 

785 


3,695 

627 

863 

1,115 

1,605 

2,784 

329 


52 
15 
22 
20 
71 
107 
23 




7,411 
2,728 
2,177 
4,305 
2,890 
4,847 
801 
2,269 

4,805 
2,136 
3,267 


3,195 
1,265 
1,407 
6,375 
2,509 
6,770 
933 
1,793 

"909 
1,314 
3,927 


10,606 
3,993 
3,584 

10 680 


Satrikh 


1 R 


1 


"7 
1 
2 


io 


"2 


Zaidpur 

Daryabad 

EudauU 

Aliabad 














3 
1 

"2 
2 
1 


6 
3 

1 
2 
3 


1 


1 
2 


1 

1 
1 

"i 


12 
25 
4 
8 
4 
1 
6 
8 


"e 


5,399 
11,617 
1,734 
4,062 
3,200 
5,714 
3,450 
7,194 


Siddhaur 


914 19 


4 








Bado Sarai 

Eamnagar 


638 
1,305 

834 
1,921 


155 
69 
43 

157 




1 




Kuntur 


1 
2 

15 


"4 

15 


1 
2 

20 


2 


Fatehpur 


6 


5 


1 
4 


4 


1 


Total „. ... 


16,630 


753 


42 


18 


22 


7 


85 


37,636 


30,397 


71,233 



BAR 255 

History. — The early history of the Bara Banki district is perhaps more 
obscure than that of any other in Oudh, partly because less perhaps has 
been done for its elucidation, partly owing to the change in the ownership 
of land. About half of the district is now owned by Musalmans ; it is not 
known when they acquired this predominance. 

The following parganas are mentioned in Akbar's time with their re- 
spective owners — vide A'm-i-Akbari. 

SarJcdr Oudh. 

Sailuk (now Ramnagar aud Muhammadpur) ... Raikwars. 

Daryabad ... ... ... ... Chauhans, Eaitwara 

Eudauli ... ... ... ... ... Bais, Chauhans. 

Subeha ... ... ... ... Kajpiits. 

Satrikh ... ... ... ... ... Ansari Musalmans, 

Bhitauli ... ... ... ... ... Eajputs, Jats. 

Dewa ... ... .». ... ... Eajputs. 

Sihali ... ... .... ... ... Eajputs. 

Siddhaur ... ... ... ... ... Nayazi Afghans, Eajputs. 

Fatehpur ,.. ... „. ... ... Shekhzidas, Eajputs. 

Kursi ... ... ... ... ... Eajputs. 

The disintegration of the^ Hindu clans in this district is sufficiently 
apparent from this list ; the proprietary possession of large, continuous tracts 
by one single Chhattri caste, which prevails elsewhere in Oudh, does not 
appear here. The Musalman invaders had made their first permanent set- 
tlement in this district at Satrikh, in H. 421, A. D. 1030 ; from thence 
they had for years waged a fierce and proselytizing war. In successive 
battles the Hindu had been defeated ; their attempts to poison or assassin- 
ate Sayyad Salar had failed, but the war of extermination which ensued 
crushed the remains of Hindu independence and annihilated the faith in 
large districts by the wholesale massacre of its professors. Sihd,li, for in- 
stance, was conquered, ancj its sovereign, a Siharia Chhattri, was killed. 
Kunttir was captured, and its Bhar queen, Kintama slain. The death of 
Sayyad Salar, 1032 A. D., was merely a temporary check ; the Musalman 
invaders were now animated by a desire to revenge their young martyr, as 
well as by the usual motives of plunder, proselytism and conquest ; a 
second invasion consequently ensued. 

In A. D. 1049, 441 H., the Kings of Kanauj and Manikpur were 
defeated and driven from Oudh by Qutub-ud-dm of Medina. The Musal- 
man invasion was more successful in Bara Banki than elsewhere. In 586 
H., 1189 A. D., Sihali was conquered by Shekh Nizam-ud-din of Herat, 
Ansari. Zaidpur was occupied by themin H. 636, when Sayyad Abdul W^hid 
twenty-three generations ago turned out the Bhars, altering the name of the 
town from Suhalpur. The colony of Musalman Bhattis, which now occupies 
Mawai MahoMra, is reported to have arrived about the same time, although 
some place it as early as H. 596, 1199 A. D. They came from Bhatnair 
or Bhattiana, in the Punjab and Rajputana ; it is possible that, as they 
allege, they were a colony left by the Ghori king, who five years before 
had taken Kanauj ; but it is more probable that they were converts and 
emigrants from the parent city, when Jessulmere was 

See Tod's Kajasthan, ^^^^^^ ^^^ sacked by AlM-ud-din in 1295 A. D. Bhat- 



256 BAR 

under Imdm Joth Khan and Mustafa Khan, they drove out Bais Chhattris 
from Barauli, Brahmans and Bhars from Mawai. 

Rudauli was occupied about H. 700, in the -reign of Alla-ud-din Khilji, 
whose forces had just about the same time destroyed Anhalwara, Chittor, 
Deogir, Mandor, Jessulmere, Gagraun, Bundi, in fact nearly every remain- 
ing seat of Chhattri power. Easiflpur was conquered about 1350 A.D. 756 H. 
Daryabad was founded about 850, H. 1444 A. D., by Dari^o Khan 
Subahdar. Fatehpur was colonized by Fateh Khan, a brother of Darido 
Khan, and about the same time. 

The villages of Barauli and Barai, near Rudauli, were occupied, and gave 
their name to large estates about the middle of the fifteenth century. 

Simultaneously, however, with this latter immigration of the Musalmans 
there was one of Chhattris. The mysterious tribe of Kalhans, which 
numbers some twenty thousand persons, are said to be descended from 
Achal Sing, who came in as a soldier of fortune with Dariao Khan about 
1450 A. D. 

At this time Ibrahim Shah, Sharqi, reigned at Jaunpur. Oudh was the 
battle ground — ^the border land between that dynasty and the Lodis of 
Delhi — and their princes, as the tide of conquest surged backwards and 
forwards, settled Hindu soldiers as garrisons, — the war being now one 
between Moslems, and no longer one of religion. The Kalhans are said to 
have come from Gujarat, the same nursery of Chhattris from which the 
Ahban, the Panwar, the Gahlot, the Gaur, the Bais, and many other Oudh 
clans, are believed to have emigrated. 

This Achal Singh is declared to have been of an Angrez bans or stock, 
and there is no doubt that on the borders of Gujarat and Baluchistan many 
foreigners who had arrived both by land and sea voyages did settle down 
and gradually blend with the Hindu race, assuming suitable places in the 
caste system. A migration further east, far from all local traditions of 
original impurity, would in time render their origin one of unquestioned 
orthodoxy in popular repute, just as Indo-Scythians,* and even Portuguese 
are said to have blended with Western Rajputs. At any rate, this Rdja 
Achal Singh is a great name in the middle ages of Oudh ; he had large 
property — some state that his capital was Bade Sarai, on the old bank of 
the Gogra ; and the story that he was overwhelmed with nearly aU his 
houses by an irruption of the Gogra -f- because he had perjured himself to 
his wife's family priest, is a favourite tradition of Oudh. He had, it is 
stated, only a grant of eight villages originally; now his descendants have 
six great taluqas, mostly situated in Gonda, Kamiar, Paska, Shahpur, 
Dhanfiwan, Pardspur Ata ; they hold on both sides of the Gogra, just as 
the Raikwars do to the north, and the J^ngres beyond them again in 
Kheri and Bahraich. Similarly, the isolated Sdrajbansi estate of Hard,ha 
and the Sombansi Bahrelia estate of Surajpur were establised by small 
colonies of Chhattri soldiers, who had been dismissed from service about 
eighteen generations ago. These S^rajbans assert an emigration from 
Bansi in Gorakhpur and a connexion with the Sirneyts ; the Chauh^ns of 

* Wilson's Vishnu Parana, Hall's Edition, Vol. II. p. 134. 
+ Camel's Caster of Oudh, p. 47. 



BAR 257 

Fyzabad, Sombansi of Partabgarh, and Gaur of Amethi, send them daugh- 
ters ; they marry their own to the Bais and Chauhdns of Mainpuri. 

The great Raikwdr colony of Baundi E£mnagar, deserves more detailed 
notice. The estates of Baundi Ramnagar (originally Keshw^mau), Rampur, 
Chahl^ri, Rahwa, Malldpur, up till 1858, extended along both sides of the 
Gogra for about sixty miles in the districts of Bara Banki, Sitapur, Kheri, 
Bahraich. Baundi* and Chahlari were forfeited for rebellion, but the others 
are still owned by Raikwar chiefs. 

These Raikwars are said to have originally colonized this part of the 
country under the orders of Alla-ud-din Ghori ; they came from Raika, in 
Kashmir. Partab Sah and Dunde Sah settled at or near Sailuk ; Partab 
Sah died, leaving two sons, Saldeo and Baldeo. The family was unfortu- 
nate. The nephews pretended a prophecy that the uncle must be sacrificed 
for the future greatness of the family. Propitious signs indicated the 
right place, and then Dunde Sah, weary of life, held out his head to be 
struck off by his nephews. Henceforth the family was prosperous. There 
were two Bhar Rajas ruling on opposite sides of the river, one at Ramnagar 
in Bara Banki, one on the eastern bank at Bamhnauti, now Baundi. Bfil 
took service with the former, Sal with the latter ; each in time acquired 
the confidence of his master, and then supplanted or slew him. Little 
more is known of the Raikwar clan in Bara Banki for many years. 

Nominally, at any rate, Sailuk which included Ramnagar and Muham- 
madpur was granted to the Baundi Raja-f" Harhardeo by the Emperor 
Akbar, but it is not known whether the cis-Gogra Raikwars really remained 
independent, or not. In 1165 H., A.D. 1751, the Raikwars seem to have 
headed a great Hiadu movement to shake off the Musalman Government. 

Safdar Jang, the wazir, had been absent at Delhi ; his naib, Newal Rae, 
had been defeated and killed at the Kali nadi three years before by the 
Baugash Afghans of Farukhabad, who then overran the whole province 
except a few of the fortified towns. In 1749, Safdar Jang himself, with an 
army of 60,000 men, was defeated by them ; and if at this time the Oudh 
Chhattris had risen, the Mughal authority might have been overthrown, 
but they waited till after Safdar Jang, in 1750 A. D., 1164 H., had bribed 
or beaten the Rohillas oat of the country.^ 

Then the tribes gathered themselves together under the leadership of 
Anup Singh, the Rdja of Ramnagar Dhameri ; the JanwSr of Balrdmpur, 
the Bisens of Gonda, and numerous other lords assembled their forces for 
an attack on Lucknow, now denuded of the troops which had gone into 
Rohilkhand. The Shekhzadas of Lucknow came out to meet the enemy, 



* Tte obstinate rebellion of the Raikwars seems to have been mainly due to the unfortu- 
nate fact, that the Queen of Oudh on being driven from Lucknow, March 1858, threw her- 
self into the fort of Baundi, where she remained for some months — the chivalrous owner 
became enthusiastic in her cause. 
+ Bahraich Settlement Report, p. 34. 
t History of the Rohillas pp. 109—112. 
Imad-us-Saadat, pp. 7, 25, 33. 
MiU's India. Vol. ll., p. 328. 
Dow's Hindustan, "Vol. II., p. 319. 

R 



258 BAR 

they were joined by the Khanzadas of Mahmudabad and Bilahra, who 
were connected with them by marriage. 

The battle was fought at Chheola Ghat on the Kalyani, on the road to 
Lucknow. The Musalmans, headed by Nawab Muizz-ud-din Khan of Mah- 
mudabad, won the day. The Balrampur raja was killed it is said, and an 
immense number of the allied host, some 15,000 were killed or wounded 
on both sides. Nor would this number be at all remarkable when large 
armies, inflamed against each other by religious hatred in addition to the 
ordinary motives, fought at close quarters. From this event dates the rise of 
the Khdnzadas. The Raikwars were proportionately depressed ; the estates 
of both Baundi and Ramnagar were broken up, and but a few villages left 
with the raja. The process of agglomeration commenced again, seventy years 
afterwards, about 1816, on the death of the sagacious Saadat Ali Khan, 
and before annexation, in 1856, the E,d,mnagar raja had recovered the 
whole family estate and added to it largely, while his brother of Baundi 
had similarly added 172 villages to his domain.* An account of the Raik- 
wars, slightly differing from the preceding, is given under article Bhitauli. 
The clan declares itself to be of Slirajbans origin ; they marry their daugh- 
ters to Bais and Chauhans, they receive the daughters of Surajbans, Chan- 
del, Bisen, and Janwar. There are other Cbhattri clans in the district, but 
they have generally sunk from the position of proprietors to that of culti- 
vators. Above all, this is the case with the Chautians ; they formed a por- 
tion of the great colony which occupies the west of Fyzabad, Pachhimrath, 
and Mangalsi, extending into Rudauli and Daryabad in this district. There, 
too, they have succumbed to chakladars and taluqdars ; they are very nu- 
merous, very proud, and poor ; they number about 3,000 in Bara Banki 
and 9,000 in Daryabad, and had 565 villages. The great estate of Maha- 
raja M^n Singh in Fyzabad and Bara Banki was formed mainly out of 
their possessions, much of it recently. Some villages, like Intg£on for 
instance, were acquired since annexation. 

The principal chiefs of Bara Banki are thus referred to in the settlement 
report : — 

Taluqa of Bdmnagar. — " The large property consisting of 253 
villages belongs to Raja Sarabjit Singh, of whom mention has already 
been made. The Raja is the head of the Raikwar clan, who, accord- 
ing to Mr. Elliot, " immigrated to Oudh from the hill country about Kash- 
mir eighteen generations or 450 years ago, that is, about 1400 A. D. It is 
a curious fact that whereas all Rajputs place a special value on the wood 
of the nim tree, theRaikwars alone are forbidden to use it." 

Taluqa of Hardha. — The present proprietor of this taluqa is Raja Na- 
rindr Bahadur, the head of the Sdrajbans Thakurs. His father, R^ja 
Chhatarpat Singh, is yet alive. Both father and son are afflicted with 
mental incapacity. The estate, which consists of sixty-six villages, paying 
a revenue of Rs. 55,000, is under the management of the local authorities, 
and there it is likely to remain. Certain members of the Raja's family 
fortunately held the estates of Ranimau Qiampur in a separate qubtiliat 

* Bahraicb Settlement Keport, page 49. 



BAR 259 

in the Nawabi, and they have thus escaped being placed under the taluq- 
dar's sanad. 

Taluqa of SlJ,rajpur. — This estate comprises fifty-six villages. The pre- 
sent proprietor is Raja Udatt Partab Singh, the head of Bahrelia Bais Tha- 
kurs. Here, again, the Raja is mentally and physically unfit to manage 
his estate ; but so long as his maternal grandfather, Udatt Narain, livas 
there is no fear of under-proprietors, tenants or patwaris defrauding the 
family. 

The late Rdja Singji was a most formidable and violent landholder until 
he was attacked by Maharaja Man Singh, captured and taken prisoner 
to Lucknow, where he died in jail. It was mainly owing to the bad 
example set by Singji that the Daryabad district was so turbulent un- 
der the native Government, that amils and chakladars were to use a 
native expression unable to breathe in it — (S'dk men dam charhta 
tha.) 

Taluqa of Jahdngirabad. — The taluqdar of Jah^ngirabad is a Qidwai 
Shekh, Rdja Farzand Ali Khan. He owes his position to two circumstances : 
(1) his marriage with the daughter of R^ja Razzaq Bakhsh, the late 
proprietor of the taluqa ; (2) to a fortuitous incident which occurred about 
three years before annexation. Farzand Ali was the darogah in charge of 
the Sikandarbagh at Lucknow. On one occasion of the last king of Oudh 
visiting the garden, he was struck with the appearance of this young man, 
and presenting him with a khilat, directed him to attend at the palace. 

With such a signal mark of the royal favour, Farzand All's advance- 
ment was rapid, and, under the interest of the influential eunuch, Bashir- 
tid-daula, he obtained a farman designating him the Raja of Jahanglra- 
bad. This taluqdar followed the deposed king to Calcutta, and was there 
during the mutinies. Raja Farzand Ali is very intelligent, and well able 
to manage his estate with prudence and circumspection. 

Taluqa of Barai. — Chaudhri GhuUm Farid, a Siddiqi Shekh, is the 
largest landholder of the Rudauli tahsil. He owns thirty-nine villages. At 
the summary settlement before annexation, he contemplated depriving the , 
children of his cousin, Mumtaz Ahmad, of their share in the estate, 
unmindful of the past long possession of his cousin; but at the earnest 
representations of Sayyad Abdul Hakim, an extra assistant commissioner, 
who was respected throughout the district, he made a fair division, 
which is in force up to date ; in fact, he gave them half the estate. 

Taluqas of Rudauli. — It would be too long a story to mention each ta- 
luqa, for there are in all forty-three. 

An account of the remaining great families is given under the headings 
of parganas Bhitauli, Daryabad, and Sdrajpur, in which they reside. 

Events of the 7nutiny.—A few remarks may be made about the events 
of the mutiny. Unlike what occurred in the districts of Hardoi, Gonda, 
and Lucknow, the whole body of the taluqdars in this district joined the 
cause of the deposed king and the mutineers. They offered no resistance 
however, of any moment to the advance of the British troops after the 

b2 



260 BAR 

capture of Lucknow ; in the battle of Nawabganj, described further on, 
the English fought with the Raikwar levies of Baundi and Chahldri from 
Bahraich and Sitapur, not with the Musalmans of Rud-auli or Daryabad. 

The following extracts from Sir Hope Grant's " Sepoy War" refer to 
three of the largest estates or principalities in the district — Bilahra, Bhitau- 
li, and Jahangirabad : — 

" On the 16th April we reached Bilahra, from whence I made a recon- 
noissance to a ford in the river Ghurshupper, but found it impracticable 
for guns. On the 19th April we marched for Ramnagar, six miles from 
Bhitauli, and belonging to a raja of considerable importance, who was said 
to have a strong force. On our arrival we found, as usual, every thing de- 
serted. I sent the cavalry forward to reconnoitre, and they brought back 
a magnificent elephant with two splendid tusks, and a large sawari camel. 
The rider looked the greatest villain unhung, and must have belonged to 
one of our irregular regiments. The same afternoon I took the cavalry and 
Middleton's battery to look up the Begam, but found she had bolted ; - 
we nearly lost three of our guns and a team of horses by taking the wrong 
channel. 

" We started before daybreak on 21st April, and arrived at Mussowlie, 
half-way to Nawabganj, where Jang Bahadur's Gurkhas, were stopping. 
The European officer in command had great difficulty to contend with in 
marching through a country so filled with rebels. His force consisted of 
8,000 men, with twenty guns ; yet, he could only reckon on 2,000 men for 
actual fighting purposes. 

" He had 2,000 sick and 4,000 carts ; and each of the latter being filled 
with tents, private property, and loot, required, according to the usages of 
these troops, a man to guard it. On 22nd April I heard that there was in 
the neighbourhood one of the strong Oudh mud forts, Jahangirabad, 
surrounded by a jungle which was almost impenetrable, and traversed by 
few roads. 

" This fort belonged to a chief of the name of Rivja Razzaq Bakhsh, who 
had been playing a double game throughout the mutiny, and I thought it 
would be well to teach him a lesson. The same morning he came into 
camp with profuse protestations of good behaviour and fidelity, and offered 
to hand over to us the only three guns which he said he had in his posses- 
sion. 

" I took with me two squadrons of cavalry, and after picking our way for 
some time through the jungle, we came to the gate of his stronghold, 
which we entered. Inside was a dense jungle of bamboo and a thick thorny 
plant, through which it was impossible to advance, except by a narrow, 
tortuous path. At last we came up to a miserable mud house, which he 
called his palace. The people were very civil, and told us that the guns 
had been sent away to the Commissioner ; but one of our Sikhs, who are 
famous hands at making discoveries of concealed property, found out two 
guns in an enclosure where no one had thought of looking. We imme li- 
ately caused the gate to be burst open, and secured a 9 and a 6-pound t. 
I sent for some bullocks of the worthy Raja, and found that they were 
Government animals which the old scoundrel had stolen, A native also 



BAR 261 

informed me that there was another gun close to the gate by which we 
entered; and on further search we found a 9-pounder, most skilfully 
masked, facing the road along which we had travelled, double-shotted 
with grape and round shot, ready primed, and having a slow match fixed 
and lighted. All this looked very suspicious, especially as at the same 
time an ofiicer reported that he had found a number of treasonable papers 
in the Rdja's house. 

" I therefore resolved not to let the old gentleman off, and the next day 
I sent a force, under Brigadier Horsford,* from Nawabganj to destroy the 
place. This was thoroughly carried into execution; — the jungle was 
burned, and the palace levelled to the ground."i- 

Sir Hope Grant writes as follows of the battle of |Nawabganj : — I 
" A large body of fine, daring zamindari men brought two guns into 
the open and attacked us in rear. I have seen many battles in India, and 
many brave fellows fighting with a determination to conquer or die ; but 
I never witnessed anything more magnificent than the conduct of these 
zamindars. 

" In the first instance they attacked Hodson's Horse, who would not face 
them, and by their unsteadiness placed in great jeopardy two guns which 
had been attached to the regiment. Fearing that they might be captured 
I ordered up the 7th Hussars, and the other four guns belonging to the 
battery, to within a distance of 500 yards from the enemy ; they opened a 
fire of grape which moved them down with terrible effect, like thistles 
before the scythe. Their chief, a big fellow with a goitre on his neck, 
nothing daunted, caused two green standards to be planted close to the 
guns, and used them as a rallying point ; but our grape-fire was so de- 
structive that whenever they attempted to serve their pieces, they were 
struck down. Two squadrons of the 7th Hussars under Sir William Eussell 
and two companies of the 60th Rifles, now came up and forced the surviv- 
ors to retire, waving their swords and spears at us, and defiantly calling 
out to us to come on. The gallant 7th Hussars charged through them 
twice, and killed the greater part of them. Around the two guns alone 
there were 125 corpses. After three hour's fighting the day was ours ; we 
took six guns and killed about six hundred of the enemy. Our own loss in 
killed and wounded was sixty-seven ; and, in addition, thirty-three men 
died from sunstroke, and 250 were taken into hospital." 

Concluding remarks. — The population of Bara Banki is very dense, 
six hundred and thirty to the square mile ; the owners of property are, to 
an unusual extent, Musalmans ; they are dissevered from the Hindu people 
by religion, custom, and residence ; they are extravagant in their personal 
habits, and charitable to their numerous kindred ; many of the estates are 
small ; the result is that the landlords press hard upon the cultivators, and 
rents are perhaps higher in Bara Banki than in any 
^®°*^- other district of Oudh, Nor are commerce and ma- 

faetures more flourishing. 



• Now Major General Sir Alfred Horsford, K. c, B., Commandiiig tlie South-Eastern District, 
+ Pages 264-270.— "Tie Sepoy War," by Sir Hope Grant. 
J Pages 291-292,—" The Sepoy War. " 



262 BAR 

There still exists a considerable manufacture of coarse cloth in this district 
the weavers reside chiefly in Siddhaur and Nawabganj ; their productions 
are of the commonest kind, and their earnings are miserable — about one 
and a quarter anna per day for each adult. 

It has not been considered consistent with the scope of this Gazetteer to 
mention in this place other facts which are recorded in the settlement re- 
port, which, however, are of importance in estimating aright the condition 
of this district and its future prospects. The following account of medical 
aspects is by the civil surgeon : — 

Fevers. — Malarial fevers are endemic in this district, prevailing through 
the entire year, but with greater intensity during, and immediately after, 
the rainy season. 

Intermittent fever. — Intermittent fever of the quotidian type is that 
most commonly met with, and is undoubtedly the cause of about one-third 
of the sickness of the district. The tertian tjrpe is not so frequently seen, 
being in proportion to the quotidian of 1 to 25. 

Remittent fever. — Eemittent fever is not a common disease here. The 
following return of admission^ during 1873 to the Sadr Dispensary may 
be taken as a fair example of the relative numbers attacked by these 
diseases : — 

Ague, quotidian 1,036 

,, tertian ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 42 

Eemittent fever 45 

Malarial poison. — The malarial poison does not generally exist in a 
concentrated form, and most of the cases seen in this district are of a mild 
character. Comparatively speaking, this part of the province may be said 
to be particularly free from fever of a fatal type. 

Causes. — The causes of this disease are the absence of proper sub- 
soil drainage, want of cultivation, the existence of numerous jhils, the 
water of which, highly charged with decomposed vegetable matter, is gra- 
dually dried up ; the miasma arising from the muddy bed as the water 
recedes ; contamination of water in wells in seasons of flood ; drinking of 
jhil and tank water which is always charged with malarious poison. 

Predisposition to disease. — The mass of the people are predisposed 
to the disease ; they are badly fed and suffer from many privations ; this, 
by depressing their mental and physical powers, renders them more sus- 
ceptible to the influence of the malarious poison. 

Cholera. — The deaths from cholera during last five years are reported 
as follow : — 

1869 ... 1,272 1 1871 ... 4,612 I 1873 ... 86 

1870 ... 910 I 1872 ... 1,536 I 

This disease is epidemic, and is generally introduced to the district 
by pilgrims returning from some cholera infected fair, to spread with 
greater or less severity according to the season of year or condition the 
people may be in. The hot months April, May and June, and the months 
immediately succeeding close of rains, October and November, seem most 
favourable to its spread. 



BAR 263 

Small-pox. — This disease may be said to be epidemic in this district, 
every month in the year returning deaths under this head. 

Cattle disease. — No cattle disease has been reported in this district 
since 1871-72. A few cases occurred during those years in the Kursi, 
Fatehpur, Ramnagar and Nawabganj portions of the district. 

There is no record to show the number of cattle attacked, or the number, 
which died ; so far as I can learn, the cattle of this district have not 
suffered from the extension of cultivation at the expense of the pasture 
lands. 

Fairs. — The following are the principal fairs and religious festivals held 
in this district. 

Lodhora. — At Lodhora, a village one and a half miles from Ram- 
nagar, two annual fairs are held ; they take place generally in the last 
quarter of the moon, in February or March ; and in October or November, 
about 8,000 to 10,000 persons assemble — all Hindus. The fair lasts from 
twenty-four to forty-eight hours. Respectable females do not attend the 
February and March fairs for fear of being insulted during the holi, which 
commences immediately after the fair. In the fair held in October or 
November, there are more women than men present. The principal cere- 
money consists in pouring holy water over the idol of Mahadeo, and then 
the offering of a few pice and sweetmeats. Vows are made, and requests 
are supposed to be granted. This idol is the principal attraction. Sweet- 
meats, parched gram, sugarcane, are the principal articles sold. A few 
cloth merchants from Cawnpore generally visit this fair. 

Kotwa. — A fair is held at Kotwa in the November of every year ; 
from sixty to seventy thousand Hindus generally assemble. The ceremony 
consists in the offering of pice and sweetmeats to the idol Mahadeo in the 
temple, and bathing in an adjoining tank, which is supposed to wash away 
all their sins. Cheap jewellery, sweetmeats and Manchester goods are the 
principal things offered for sale. 

Satrikh. — At Satrikh, a village five miles from Nawabganj, a fair 
is held by the Muhammadans at the shrine of one of their saints. It 
generally takes place in the month of May. Fifty to sixty thousand true 
believers assemble and remain a couple of days ; offerings of small coins and 
handfuls of grain are made at the shrine of Salar Sahu. Sweetmeats and 
dishes of roast beef are sold. The fair is very profitable to the proprietors 
of the shrine. 

Makhd-O/m Sdhib-ka-mela. — Makhdfim Sahib-ka-mela is held at qas- 
ba Rudauli in the May of every year, about the same time as the 
Satrikh fair. It is a Muhammadan assembly, at which about fifty 
thousand people attend : it lasts a couple of days. Prayers are offered up 
at the shrine of one of their saints, and offerings of money, cloth and grain 
are made. 

BARA BANKI — District Bara Banki. — This may be considered the head- 
quarters, it gives name to the district. It is about a mile to the north 
of Nawabganj, and the civil station is built for the most part on land 



264 BAR 

belonging to it. This is a place of great antiquity, and wiis known befdre the 
Muhammadan conquest as Jasnaul, — from Jas, a raja of the Bhar tribe, 
who is said to have founded it some nine hundred years ago. With a 
change of proprietors came a change of name. The Musalman owners divid- 
ed the lands into twelve shares, over which the respective proprietors quar- 
relled so incessantly that they were called the " Barah Banke," or twelve 
quarrelsome men. Banka, in Hindi, meaning a bully or brave. The 
present coparceners fully keep the reputation established by their ancestors. 
Others derive the name from ban, meaning wood or jungle, and interpret 
Bara Banki as the twelve shares of jungle. The lands belongmg to this 
town are much sub-divided, and the inhabitants are chiefly small Musalman 
proprietors and their dependants. The American Mission has established 
a school in the town, under the supervision of a native preacher. 

The population, with Nawabganj-, amounts to 14,4'89. Further particu- 
lars are given under that town. 

BAEA'GAON — Farganoi Maholi — Tahdl Misrikh — District Sitaptje. — 
Baragaon, in pargana Maholi, district Sitapur, lies north-west from 
Sitapur 17 , miles as the crow flies. No high road, canal, or river, passes 
through it. The nearest road is that which joins Maholi to Mitauli ^nd 
Kasta, and that is five miles distant. The population numbers 2,066, who 
live in 442 mud houses ; there not being a masonry house in the town 
with the exception of a few shops in the bazar. It dates from very 
remote times, and its founders were Hindus. Two good bazars are 
held here, at which cotton, salt and iron from the North -Western Pro- 
vinces are sold. The bazar contains also a number of sugar-dealers' shops 
in which sugar made on the spot is sold, and there are also cloth-merehants 
and mahajans. The yearly value of these sales is estimated at Es. 57,852. 
The town boasts of a school, at which the daily attendance averages 57. 
Besides a shivala there are seven masonry tanks. The climate and soil 
are both good. 

BARAI — Pargana Bihae — Tahsil Kvsda— District Paetabgaeh. — This 
village lies near the road from Bihar to Manikpur, 87 miles from Bela and 
40 from Allahabad. 

The population consists of 1,901 Hindus and 712 Musalmans. 

There is a tomb here of one Pir Bahr£m, to which Musalman disputants 
gather and take an oath over the saint's remains. 

There is a Government school. 

BARETHA— Pttrgrawa Haweli Oxtkh — Tahsil ¥YZABAD~District FvzA- 
BAD. — A small town three miles from Fyzabad ; the place is said to 
have been founded by Raja Ram Chandar's washerman (Baretha). It stands 
on the bank of the Gogra. The road from Surajkund to Ajodhya and the 
road from Fyzabad to Ajodhya cross each other here. The population is 
2,550, of whom 50 are Muhammadans. There are 610 mud-walled houses. 
There, are 32 temples, of which 27 are in honour of Vishnu and 5 of 
Mahddeo; there is also one masonry mosque. 

Three-fifths of the population are of the Vishnivite sect. 



BAR 265 

BARI Pargana — Tahdl Bari — District SiTAPtTE. — ^Pargana Bari, which 
takes its name from the town of Bari, is bounded on the north by Par- 
gana Pirnagar, on the east by Pargana Mahmudabad, on the south by 
Pargana Manwan, and the west by the Sarayan river {vide Sitapur.) 

In shape it is rectangular, the longest sides being the north and south, 
and its area is 125 square miles, of which 80 are cultivated. The detail 
in acres is as follows: — 

Cultivated acres ... ... ... ... 50,309 

Culturable „ ... ... ... ... 11,699 

Rent-free „ ... ... ... ... 966 

Barren „ ... ... ... ... 16,2S5 

The incidence of the revised jama is — 

Es. As. P. 

On cultivated ... ... ••• ... 1 14 5 

On culturable ... ... .... ... 1 7 10 

On total area ... ... ... ... 1 2 10 

The population numbers 50,337, and is thus distributed — 

Hindus, agricultural ... ... ... ... 29,322 

„ non-agricultural ... ... ... ... 16,367 

Total ... 45,689 



Musalmans, agricultural ... ... ... ... 338 

„ non-agricultural ... ... ... 3,310 

Total ... 4,648 

and these 50,337 live in 10,105 Bouses. 
These figures give the following averages: 402 individuals to the square 
mile, 4'8 to each house. 

The Musalmans are 9 per cent, of the entire population. To each head 
of the agricultural population there are If acres of cultivation and two 
acres of malguzari land. There are 129 hadbasti villages which are thus 
held: taluqdari 46; zamindari 83. i 

There are no very marked physical features except on the west side, 
where the drainage into the Sarlyan has cut up the villages bordering on 
its banks to a considerable extent. The banks of this stream are steep; 
no tarai lands are found along it, and irrigation from it is unknown. The 
only high road through the pargana is the metalled road from Lucknow 
to Sitapur, which runs within two miles to the east of Bari Khas. There 
is a cross country road to Misrikh, which crosses the Sarayan at Dhaurahra 
Ghdt. 

There are no melas or fairs in the pargana. The bazars are six in 
number, as follows: — Bhandia, Incha Khera, Mirzapur, Bari Tirsoli, 
Turain ; at these nothing but the ordinary necessaries of life are to be 
purchased. There are no manufactures peculiar to the pargana, nor any 
special agricultural product, mines or quarries. 

The general character of the soil is good. Irrigation is plentiful from 
the many jhils which here exist; water is fetund at a depth not exceeding 
20 feet from the surface of the earth, and kachcha wells stand well. 



266 BAR 

The pargana was formed as sucli by the celebrated Todar Mai, out of 
215 villages belonging to Manwdn, which were subsequently increased to 
825; and thus remained up to annexation. They were demarcated at 
regular settlement into 129 mauzas. 

The early inhabitants are said to have been Kachheras and Ahirs, who 
held the district till 500 years ago, when they were dispossessed by one 
Partab Singh from pargana Kursi. • He received a farman for the property 
from the Emperor Tughlaq as a reward for his having adopted the faith of 
Islam and taken the name of Malik Partab. One hundred and seventy-five 
years later, and twenty-five before Tibdar Mai's settlement, Mubarak a 
son of the Emperor Humayun, came to hunt in the neighbourhood and 
built a shooting-box — in the Hindi tongue a Bdri — where now Bari Khas 
stands. Round this Bari sprang up the houses of his followers, and one 
Makhdiim of Khairabad built a house of prayer in the town, which is 
there now. The place became a qasba, and when Todar Mai's settlement 
officers came to demarcate the pargana, they found a Qazi and Kayaths 
already in office there. It is the head-quarters of a tahsil. 

The greater part of the pargana is held by Bais, of whom the chief 
proprietors are Beni Singh ofKanhmau, and Jawahir Singh of Basahidih: 
both taluqdars. There are some Panwars also, part of the great Panwar 
colony, who possess the neighbouring pargana of Manwan or Mannaudi, 
to the history of which pargana the reader is referred for the date of their 
occupation of the country. 

The Bais settlement is of anterior date. In 1035 Fasli, or 250 years ago, 
Bhikhamdeo and Bhan Singh, great-grand-sons of Tilok Chand, the cele- 
brated progenitor of the Bais of Baiswara, were appointed as nazims under 
Kesho Das, the diwan of the Oudh Subahdar of the period, and the holder 
injagirof this part of the country. In 1038, the jagir was confiscated, but 
the two nazims remained in possession as taluqdars. In 1051 the property 
was divided in two, each taluqdar taking one-half of it. In 1075 Bhan Singh's 
estate was sub-divided into three, between his three sons Rup Singh, Jagat 
Singh, and Dariao Singh. From Rup Singh are descended the lambardars 
of Jairampur and Phulpur, and from Dariao Singh sprang the zamindars of 
Maheshpur and Bikrampur. Jagat Singh had two sons, Gend Singh and 
Madkar Sdh. This estate was divided between them. From the former 
came the taluqdars of Kanhmau ; from the latter the taluqdars of 
Basahidih. 

PEDIGREE TABLE. 



Bhikliaindeo. Bhan Singh. 



Eup Singh. Jagat Singh. Dariao Singh. 

Gend Singh. , Madkar Singh. 

Lambardars of Kanhmau, taluqdars. Basahidih, taluqdars. Lambardars of 
Jairampur, Phul- Maheshpur and 

P'^r- Bikrampur. 



BAR 267 

Partdb Singh, above-mentioned, had three sons before he turned from 
Hinduism to Islam, and one subsequent to his conversion by a Musalman 
wife. The descendants of the former are still in possession of some of 
their ancestor's villages, but the gi-eat bulk of his estate went to his 
Musalman son, whose descendants became hereditary chaudhris of the 
pargana, and the present representative of the family, Lutf Ahmad, is still 
recognized by that title. 

BArI Town — Pargana B/Cri — Talisil Baei — District Sitapue. — Bdri is 
said to have been founded by Mubarak, son of the Emperor Humayun, 
about 24 years before Todar Mai's settlement. The prince having come 
to hunt in the Oudh jungles, built a shooting-box and country house — a 
Bdri — on the spot, round which a tbwn sprang up. 

Another account states that the name is derived from the Bdri caste of 
Musalmans who once lived here, but it is mentioned by the Arabian Geo- 
graphers.* 

The town is 23 miles south from Sitapur, and is two miles west of the 
metaUed road, which joins that place with Lucknow, from which city it is 
29 miles to the north. An unmetalled road 20 miles in length, connects 
it with Mahmudabad in the east, and one mile to the west is the Sarayan 
river, fordable during the dry season, but rising to a great height in the 
rains. There are no other communications. 

Bari has a population amounting to 3,042, who reside in 860 mud 
houses. 

It is a poor place, without any trade, the annual value of the bazar sales 
beino- but Rs. 7,000. As a seat of a tahsil it has some local celebrity, and 
there are the usual Government institutions in it, viz., a post office, a police 
station, a school, where seventy boys attend, and a registry office. The 
tahsil and police station are on the site of the old Government fort. The 
place is well wooded. 

There are no manufactures, nor is there any ancient building in the town. 

BARI THANA — Pargana Sapivvb.— Tahsil Safiptje — District TJnao. — 
This small town lies 24 miles north of the sadr station Unao on the road 
from Mianganj to Bangarmau. It was founded by Sayyad Abdul Bdri in 
1796 Hijri, during the reign of Sikandar-bin-Nasir-ud-din. Abdul Bari 
conquered the country from the Shd,hi tribe. Sayyad Salar Sahli, uncle 
of Salar MasaM, had previously visited this place. The town is pleasantly 
situated. There is a vernacular school here attended by seven Hindus and 
sixteen Musalmans. Population 1,633, of whom 213 are Musalmans. 

BARSINGHPUR — Pargana Jhalotae Ajgain — Tahsil Mohan — District 

Unao. This village lies 12 miles south-west of the tahsil and eight miles 

north of the sadr station, Unao. An unmetalled road runs to Rasulabad. 
No town of any importance near. It was peopled by one Barsinghdeo, 

* Kanauj has now fallen into neglect and ruin, and Bari, which is three days journey from 
it on the eastern side of the Ganges, is now the Capital. 
Al Biruni quotpd in Elliot's Index, Vol, I, page 54, 



268 BAE 

ancestor of the present possessors, about 400 years ago, previous to -whicli 
time it was all jungle. 

It takes its name from its founder. The soil is principally sand with 
some clay. It is on level ground, and the neighbourhood void of jungle. 
The situation is tolerable. Climate good and water fresh. No bazar or fair, 
and no manufactures. 

The population is divided as follows : — 



Hindus, 




Muhammadans, 


Total. 


Brahmans ... 350 
Chliattria ... 317 
Kayaths 

Pasis ... 164 
Ahirs ... 267 
Other castes „. 1,163 


21 


2,285 


Total 


.. 2,261 







There are 402 mud built houses and one temple to Mahadeo. 

BARWAN Pargana* — Tahsil Haedoi — District Haedoi. — A backward, 
roadless, and somewhat inaccessible pargana of the Hardoi district lying 
along both sides of the Garra, between the central " hangar" or high lands, 
and the low-lying " kachh " country along the Ganges and Eamganga. It 
is the westernmost portion of the Hardoi tahsil, and is bounded by Parganas 
Katiari and Sandi on the west and south, Bawail on the east, and Saroman- 
nagar and Pali on the north. It contains 69 villages, and covers an area 
of fifty-three square miles, thirty-three of which are cultivated. Its great- 
est breadth from east to west is ten and a half, and length seven miles. 

It lies immediately to the west of, and below the sandy ridge that marks 
the western edge of the hangar, the point from which, centuries ago, the 
Ganges and its tributaries, the Ramganga and Garra, commenced their 
gradual recession westwards. Its natural features are a high irregular 
bank of sand on the east, sinking at first with a sudden drop of some 
twenty feet, and then more gradually westward into a low marshy tract, 
watered by winding streams and numerous jhils, and overgrown here and 
there with patches of low dhak jungle. 

The Sukheta separates this tract from a narrow strip of clear good land, 
beyond which the Garra flows from north to south of the pargana, dividing 
it into nearly equal portions. To the west of the Garra there is very little 
jungle, but a quantity of low level land, subject to floods, and covered, 
where not cultivated, with coarse grass, and changing gradually from stiff 
clay to light unproductive bhllr as it rises almost imperceptibly from the 
flood basin of the Garra to the western edge of the pargana midway between 
the Garra and Eamganga. 

The Sendha nala and its tributary, the Gudhia, flow along part of this 
western side, but no river or stream intervenes between it and the Garra, 
while marshes and jhils so numerous to the east of that river are here few 
and far between. The Gauria and Karwa are, next to the Sukheta, the 

* By Mr. A. H. Hariiigtoji, c, s. Assiatant Commissioner. 



BAR 269 

cMef streams in the eastern tract. After heavy rains the Garra and Su- 
kheta overflow their banks and flood all the lower portion of the pargana. 
In such years the autumn crop is altogether lost, and ploughing for the 
spring harvest is delayed so long as to diminish its out-turn. 

The pargana seems to divide naturally into six tracts, viz., the villages 
lying along and on the sandy eastern ridge ; the jungle, and lower down to 
the south, the tarai villages between the ridge and the Sukheta; the 
rich, damp villages enclosed between the Sukheta and the Garra and lying 
along both banks of the Garra ; the tarai villages beyond the Garra ; and 
lastly, the sandy tract in the west of the pargana. Only five or six villages 
belong to the first of these divisions. They are characterized by an uneven 
surface of very light, unproductive sandy soil, few wells, and low rents. 
The villages on the ridge are the worst. The country gradually improves 
as it sinks westwards into the tar^i. 

The jungle villages are twelve in number. All have been assessed as 
second or third class. They suffer from the ravages of wild hogs and 
nil-gae in proportion to the extent of the adjacent jungle. The soil is 
for the most part fair, but in places clayey, stiff, and difiicult to work. 
Water is everywhere near the surface, so that the lever (dhenkli) wells 
can be dug for from 1 to 3 rupees. Owing, however, to the frequent 
floods, they rarely last here for more than a year. Here and there the 
large wells worked by bullocks are made cheaply for Rs. 3 and 4. In 
this tract rents are slowly rising, and cultivators seeking for land. The 
jungle country falls gradually southwards with the streams which water 
it into the eastern tar^i " chak" of fifteen villages. Among these there 
is not a single first class one. In all there is too much water. In only 
three are wells required or made. All suffer much from the overflowing 
of the Garra, the Sukheta, their affluents, and the jhils and tanks. 
Much of the soil is cold, stiff clay, hard to work, and indifferently produc- 
tive. But in spite of these drawbacks none of these villages are really bad, 
and all have been rated as second and third class. Crossing the Sukheta 
you reach a belt of fourteen villages lying along or near both sides of the 
Garra. Their liability to flood and diluvial action prevents most of them 
from being placed in the first class, but they suffer less from the overflow 
of the Garra than villages farther from it to the east and west. Irrigation 
here is cheap and plentiful. The lever wells are in vogue. They fall in 
every year, but are dug for 1 or 2 rupees. Beyond this tract lies the western 
tarai group of seven villages. It differs from the eastern tarai in being 
subject to flooding from the Garra only. There is much less jungle. There 
are no jhils or ponds. 

The proportion of cold clayey soil is smaller. The lever wells are made, 
where required, for from Rs. 1-8 to 3. The western bhiir tract, of fifteen 
villages occupies the whole of the space between this group of villages and 
the Sendha nala on the border of the pargana. In about half of these 
villages the soil is so sandy and bad that wells are not made at all. The 
kachcha wells fall in before the water is reached, and the people have not 
foresight or energy enough to apply for taqawi advances and build masonry 
ones. Here and there sand hills break the level, wherever the soil is lightest 
and water most scarce. In the other half, levsr wells can be made for 1 .and 



270 BAR 

2 rupees, but have to be renewed every year. The larger wells worked by 
bullocks- are rare. Barley, wheat, bajra, and rice are the staple products. 
Nearly a third of the cultivated area is under barley, a fifth under wheat, 
another fifth under bajra, and about an eighth under rice. Gram, arhar, 
moth and juar cover most of the remainder. Sugarcane might be grown 
to a considerable extent, but during the year of survey only 142 acres of it 
were shown in the field registers. Roads are sorely wanted. The Sandi 
aud Shahabad road just skirts the pargana on the eastern ridge, but there 
is not a yard of road besides. 

The maps show a road from Tiria to the Garra, but it is only a cart-track, 
almost impracticable for the greater part of the year. The western half 
of the pargana is more open, and carts can get along, though not without 
difficulty, to Sandi, Fatehgarh and Pali after the floods have run down and 
the country has dried. Beds of nodular limestone (kankar) are found at 
Sahra, Motipur, and Chatorha. Sombansi Thakurs hold 68 of the 69 vil- 
lages. The Chamar Gaurs own one. 

The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Rs. 28,435, a rise of 53 
per cent. The rate is Rs. 1-5-8 per cultivated acre ; Rs. 0-13-6 per acre 
of total area; Rs. 8-9-10 per plough; Rs. 2-1-11 per head of the agricul- 
tural, and Rs. 1-7-6 per head of the total population. 

The pargana is inhabited by 18,739 Hindus and 467 Muhammadans : total 
19,206, or 362 to the square mile. Males to females are 10,752 to 8,454, 
and agriculturists to non-agriculturists 13,402 to 5,804. In the Hindu 
agricultural population of the pargana, half of which consists of Sombansi 
Rajputs, the percentage of females to males is only 75 '6. Nowhere else 
in Oudh, except in pargana Chandra, in the Sitapur district (75 "7,) does so 
low a proportion of females exist in this branch of the population, the 
percentage of the province , ranging from 95'7 in Rae Bareli to 831 in 
Hardoi, with an average of 90-7. 

The only other Hardoi parganas which show as badly as Barwan in this 
respect are Alamnagar and Pachhoha (761.) 

Sombansi Rajputs constitute nearly a third, and Chamars nearly a sixth 
of the total Hindu population. Brahmans one-fourteenth ; the remainder 
is mainly composed of Muraos, Kahars, Pasis, and Ahirs. 

On the 29th of November and 7th April a rather large mela is held at 
Barsuia at the tomb of a faqir. From ten to- fifteen thousand persons 
attend it. It lasts only one day. 

There are village schools at Barwan (50) ; Sakra (31) ; Aub^dpur (35) ; 
Lonar (35) ; and a female school numbering 20 pupils has been started at 
Barwan. IJntil towards the close of the twelfth century A. D., the Barwan 
country was held by the Thatheras, tributaries of the Chhattri Rajas of 
Kanauj. Its chief village (now Barwan) was then called Baburhia. 

A strong body of Sombansis, headed by Raja S^ntan, moved southwards 
from Delhi, at some uncertain period before the fall of Kanauj, and 
established themselves at Santan Khera (Sandi). 

Thence they gradually extended their dominion over what are now the 
Barwan, Pali, and Saromannagar parganas, expelling the Thatheras from 



BAR 271 

all that they had been able to hold against the Gaur invaders under Kuber 
Sah. In the beginning of the 15th century (see pargana Sandi) Raja 
Barwan, grandson of S^ntan II, who had fled away to the Kumaon hills, 
was allowed by the Governor of Kanauj to resume possession of his grand- 
father's domain and to establish himself at Baburhia, the deserted town of 
the Thatheras which he re-named Barwan. 

In his old age Raja Barwan determined to go on a pilgrimage to Kashi 
(Benares) and sent for Lakhmi Sen, the eldest of his four sons, to make over 
the kingdom to him. Lakhmi Sen was out fishing, and refused to come 
till he had finished his sport ; so Karan Sen, the second son, became Raja 
and left Barwan and settled at Siwaichpur in Pargana Pali. 

His two other brothers, Randhir Singh and Ram Singh, remained at 
Barwan. After a time they quarrelled, and Randhir Singh killed Ram Singh 
and fled away to his wife's family in Khakatmau Dahelia, in Farukhabad. 
The widow of the murdered Rdm Singh returned to her father's house in 
Aiha (Farukhabad), and there gave birth to a posthumous son, who was 
named Udiaj it. When Udiajit grewup he married a Dhakar Thakurain, 
and collecting followers from his own and his wife's clansmen, marched 
to Barwan, drove out the Thatheras who had again possessed themselves 
of it, and established himself in his grandfather's place. Udiajit had 
two sons, Askan and Har Das, and seven grandsons. Six of these left 
Barwan and settled in Chandpura, Nagamau, Gobindpur, Behgaon and 
Baranra, — villages which to this day are held by their descendants. The 
seventh, Parmanand, the son of Askan, remained at Barwan and built a 
strong fort upon the ruins of the old Thathera town. His three sons Bas 
Deo, Todar Mai, and Bhagwan D^s, were men of mark. Bas Deo found a 
career under his mother's father Kalka, a Bais, Raja of Partabgarh, whom 
he succeeded, Kalka dying sonless. Todar Mai and Bhagwan Das attend- 
ed no court and paid no tribute. They and their clansmen were for- 
midable archers. AH attempts to coerce them failed. At last they were 
persuaded to send their sons Ghazi and Bahadur to Akbar's Court at Delhi. 
These young warriors took military service under the great emperor, and 
so won upon him by their prowess in the Deccan campaign, that he bestow- 
ed upon them the title of Khan and a rent-free grant of Barwan. The deed 
of grant has been lost, but the grant has been respected ever since. It was 
one of the few muafis upheld by Saadat Ali Khan, and has been maintain- 
ed in perpetuity by our own Government. 

Pargana Barwan is said to have been constituted in 990 Hijri (1582 
A. D). The Ain-i-Akbari gives its area at 66,052 bighas ; revenue 2,00,000 
dams, cesses 26,385 dams ; garrison 500 foot soldiers and 20 troopers. In 
those days it is believed to have consisted of 84 villages. At present there 
are only 69. The Sombansis have held it uninterruptedly for four and'a 
half centuries. They have alwaj's given much trouble to the revenue 
authorities, and were, till lately, notorious thieves and cattle-lifters. 

Once, about a hundred years ago, the Chakladar of Sandi Pali unsuccess- 
fully bombarded the Barwan fort for nine days. Forty years ago another 
Chakladar of Sandi, Qutub-ud-din Husen Khan, attacked it with a superior 
force. The Sombansis evacuated it by night. • Their fort was razed, the 
town burned, and a Government police post established on its ruins. For' 



272 BAE— BAS 

four months Barwan lay desolate and deserted, but when Qutub-ud-dm 
Husen Khan was succeeded at Sandi by Molvi Far?d-ud-din' Husen Khan, 
the Sombansis were allowed to return and rebuild their town and fort. 
Once again, thirty years ago, the king's troops under Captain Barlow 
attacked Barwan, and twenty lives were lost. And in 1848 the village 
was burnt down by Captain Bunibury, of the King's army, and his regiment 
" without any other cause," says General Sleeman " that the Barwan 
people could understand save that they had recommended him not to 
encamp in the grove close by. The fact was that none of the family 
would pay the Government demand or obey the old amil Hafiz Abdullah 
and it was nesessary to make an example." In the mutiny, Madho Singh, 
the present head of the Barwan muafidars, who had been appointed thana- 
dar of Barwan at annexation, was attacked and surrounded by a rebel force. 
Some blood was shed, and the town burned. At re-occupation the fort 
was destroyed. A police post has since been established at the neighbour- 
ing village of Naktaura, two miles north-east of Barwan. Within its area 
of 53 square miles, the pargana contains twenty-one " dihs" or deserted 
village sites, most of which are believed to be of Thathera origin. 

BARWAN — Pargana Baewan — Taksil Hardoi — District Hardoi, 1584 
inhabitants. — The village which gives its name to the pargana, is now an 
insignificant village of S44 mud houses, with a .population of 1,087 agricul- 
turists and 407 non-agriculturists. 

It lies on the right bank of the Garra, 13 miles west of Hardoi, 19 miles 
east of Fatehgarh, and 7 miles north-west of Sandi. It has little trade of 
its own ; but cotton, grain, timber, hides, and sugar pass doAvn the Garra 
by boat in quantities from Bareli, Shahjahanpur, Anupshahr, and Pilibhit 
on their way to Cawnpore, Mirzapur, and Benares. 

BAEWAR — Pargana Pasgawan — Tahsil MuHAMDi — District Kheri. — 
This town is situated on an open plain of fertile soil, having groves and 
cultivated country all around. Latitude 27° 50', longitude 80° 24'. 

There are the remains of a brick -built fort which was built by Nawab 
Muqtadar Khan, great grandson of Nawab Sadr Jahan, in the time of 
Aurangzeb, and of a decayed mud-walled sarae, which is not frequented 
now. Barwar has no market, but a sugar manufactory. It has four 
mosques and one Hindu temple. It has been Government property since 
A. D. 1785, and has been declared as such under a judicial decree. 



Population 
Tj- J (Male 

Hindus ... I Female, 
( Male 
Mubammadans [pej^ale! 



3,407 
1S}2,500 

482 j 907 



425 \ 

BASKHA'RI — Pargana Birhae — Tahsil TisTiA.— District Ftzabad. — 
This little town is situated about nine miles west of Birhar, 50 miles south- 
east of Fyzabad. For the foundation of this town and the tradition which 
recites how it came by its name, see the account of Birhar. The famous 
saint Makhdum Ashraf was the founder, and his. family still owns it 

The road from Fyzabad to Azamgarh passes through the town ; the 
population consists of 612 Musalmans and 1,894 Hindus. Of the latter, 
217 are Brahmans ; 'the- others axe mostly Kurmis, Banidns, and agricultural 



BAS 273t 

castes. There are only two Chhattris. There are three mosques, two tem- 
ples to Mahadeo, and one to Debi. A small police station or chauki, and a 
Government school are among the institutions of the place. 

BASORHI Pargana^Tahsil Ram Sanehi — District Bara Banki. — This, 
small pargana lies north of Mawai Maholdra and south of Daryabad. The 
river Kalydni, abounding in ravines, and bordered by high jungly banks, is 
on the west. Its area is 34 square miles, of which 25 are cultivated ; there 
are 44 villages, of which 14| belong to taluqdars and 29i- to zamindars. 
The population is 22,954, being at the rate of 675 to the square mile. 
Of these, 4,369 are Musalmans. The pargana was a very turbulent one 
under the native sovereigns of Oudh ; here is an incident culled by Sleeman 
from the annals of the neighbourhood. 

" The Amil rode by my side, and I asked him about the case of the marriage 
procession." " Sir," said he, " whatyou heard from Seoraj-od-Deen is.all true. 
Imam Buksh had a strong fort in his estate of Ouseyree, five miles to our 
right, where he had a formidable gang that committed numerous dacoitees 
and highway robberies in the country around. I was ordered to attack him 
with all my force. He got intimation, and assembled his friends to the 
number of five thousand. I had not half the number. We fought till he 
lost seventy men, and I had thirty killed and fifteen wounded. He then 
fled to the jungles, and I levelled his fort with the ground. He continued, 
however, to plunder, and at last seized the bridegroom and all the marriage 
party, and took them to his bivouac in the jungles. The family was very 
respectable and made application to me, and I was obliged to restore him 
to his estate, where he has lived ever since in peace. I attacked him 
in November 1848, and he took off the marriage party in February 
following." " But" — said a poor hackery-driver who was running along by 
my side, and had yesterday presented me a petition — " You forgot to get 
back my two carts and bullocks which he still keeps and uses for his own 
purpose, though I have been importuning you ever since." " And what 
did he do to you when he got you into the jungles ?" " He tied up and 
flogged all who seemed respectable and worth something, such as merchants 
and shop-keepers, and poked them with red-hot ramrods till they paid all 
they could get, and promised to use all the influence and wealth of their 
families to force the Amil to restore him to his estate on his own terms :" 
" And were the parties married after their release ?" " Yes, Sir, we were 
released in April, after the Amil had been made to consent to his terms, 
and they were married in May ; but I could not get back my two carts." 
" And on what terms did you restore this Imam Buksh to his estate ?" " I 
granted him a lease, sir, said the Amil, at the same rate of five thousand 
rupees a year which he had paid before."* 

Area of crops. 

Acres. 

JuAr and baira ... ... ... ... .., 200 

Kice 3,006 

Wheat ... 5,029 

Sugarcane ... ... ... ■•• ••. ••• 2i)0 

BaJley 2,012 

Gram — ... ••• ••• ••■ — ^15 

Miscellaneous ... ... ... ... ••• 4,242 

* Sleeman'a journey through Oudh, Vol. IL, p. 252. 



274 BAW 

BAWAN BUZURG — Pargana Bareli — Tahsil Rae Bareli — District Rae 
Bareli. — This town is situated on the road from Bareli to Digbijaiganj. 
It was founded by the Bhars and conquered from them by Faqir Khan, 
an Afghan follower of Ibrahim Sharqi ; his descendants still own it. 

It is embosomed in trees, and boasts of twelve masonry houses. There 
is a school attended by only 27 children ; the manufacture of shields was 
formerly carried on here with great success. The population is 4,607. 

BilWAN Pargaria* — Tahsil Hardoi — DistrictKAHDOi. — Pargana Bdwan, 
district Hardoi, lies midway between the rivers Garra and Sai, and forms 
part of the watershed of both. Parganas Sandi and Bangar bound it on 
the south, Barwan and Saromannagar on the west, North Sara on the 
north, and on the east South Sara and Gopamau. With an extreme 
length and breadth of 11| and lOJ miles, it covers an area of 69 square 
miles, 45 of which are cultivated. No stream or river fertilizes it, but 
there are numerous (591) jhils and tanks, especially down the middle and 
eastern portion of it. From these a tenth of the cultivated area is irrigat- 
ed, and two-tenths more are watered from wells. 

For the most part the tract is level, but here and there on its western 
side it breaks into slight undulations, especially where it nears the sandy 
ridge that, running from north to south through the district nearly parallel 
with the old high road from, Bilgr^m and Sandi to Shahjahanpur, seems 
to mark the easternmost point from which at some remote period the 
Ganges commenced its gradual recession westwards. Here, as elsewhere, 
the predominance of light, sandy, uneven bhtir indicates that the area in 
which it occurs was once wandered over by a shifting river. Such soil 
covers two-fifths of the cultivated portion of the pargana. Water is pro- 
curable at a depth of from twelve to eighteen feet on the right western 
side, and from twenty-five to thirty-five feet on the east. On the bhiir, 
hand wells (" rahti" or " charkhi"), costing from eleven to three rupees, are 
mainly used. They rarely last more than one year. On the eastern side, 
where the soil is more tenacious, the large (pur) wells worked by buUocks 
are used, as well as the smaller hand and lever ones. 

In the south and east of the pargana there is still ^ considerable quantity 
of dhak (Butea frondosa) jungle, but it is rapidly disappearing. As the 
country is generally open, and nowhere cut up by streams or rivers, it suf- 
fers less than other tracts from the want of good roads. The unmetalled 
road from Lucknow to Shahjahanpur vid Hardoi and Shahabad traverses 
a great part of its eastern side, while a few villages on the west lie on the 
district road (like all the Hardoi roads unmetalled) from Sandi to 
Shahabad. In the south the pargana is crossed by a cart-track leading 
from Hardoi to the Garra on the way towards Farukhabad. This line of 
road has never been finished, and the portion of it which was lined out 
as far as the Garra is not now repaired and kept up. The Bawan country 
to the west will greatly benefit whenever funds can be found for opening 
up this, the most direct route to Farukhabad, as an alternative to the 
present road vid Sandi. 

* By Mr. A, H. Harington c. s., Assistant Commissioner, 



BAW 275 

The staple products are barley, wheat, b^jra, moth, arhar, millet, sugar- 
cane, and mfeh. Of these, the first three represent about four-sevenths of 
the cultivation of the pargana. Sugarcane in the year of survey occupied 
only a twenty-fourth part of the cultivated area. Kankar is found in 
Thatheora and Behti near the winding Baita jhil. 

_ The Chamar Gaurs hold 35 villages, more than half the pargana ; five 
villages belong to Raghubansis ; four to Sombansis ; one each to Chandels, 
Eaikw^rs, Bais, and Chauh^ns. Muhammadans own four, Kayaths two, 
Brahmans one. One is a jungle-grant sold to a European. One is held 
in severalty by Gaurs, Kayaths, and Sayyads. In 44 villages the tenure 
is pattidari, in 13 zamindari. 

Excluding cesses, the Government demand is Rs. 45,251, a rise of 48 
per cent, on the summary assessment. It falls at Rs. 1-9-3 per acre of 
cultivation; Rs. 1-0-6 per acre of total area; Rs. 11-12-0 per plough ; 
Rs. 2-6-7 per head of the agricultural, and Rs. 1-11-10 per head of total 
population. 

The pargana is populous. The total number of inhabitants is 26,037, or 
377 to the square mile. Hindus to Muhammadans are 25,173 to 864 ; 
males to females 14,108 to 11,920 ; agriculturists to non-agriculturists 
18,769 (72 per cent.) to 7,268. More than a fifth of the Hindus are 
Chamfe ; a fourth are Chhattris, principally Chamar Gaurs ; Brahmans 
and Basis, about equally numerous, make up another fifth. Among the 
remainder, Ahirs and Gararias predojninate. 

A bathing mela is held in honour of Darshan Debi at the Sdrajkund, 
or tank of the sun, at Bawan on the first Sunday in Bhadon. It is said 
that up to forty years ago, between two and four thousand persons assem- 
bled, but now-a-days the attendance has diminished to a tenth of that 
number. Another sacred spot in Bdwan is the place where Makhdtim 
Sahib Abul Qasim, a contemporary of Sayyad Sdlar Masaud, is said to 
have spent a forty days' fast. Every Thursday evening some two hundred 
persons visit his shrine and offer sweetmeats, and light small lamps in his 
honour. At Kalhaur, the deserted city of the Thatheras, he is worshipped 
in Baisdkh. 

There is an aided vernacular town school at Bawan (95) ; a branch of 
the zila school at Thatheora (25) ; a girls' school at Bawan (16) ; and 
village schools at Kaundha (40) ; and Manpur (58). Bawan, the chief 
town of the pargana, is said to have been founded by Raja B^l, a Daitya 
(probably a Turanian prince) before Dasrath and Rdma reigned in 
Ajodhya. The earliest historical, or nearly historical, event remembered in 
local tradition is, that on the arrival of Sayyad Salar Masaud at Kanauj, 
a detachment of his army was despatched to Bawan and fought there. 
Those of the invaders who fell were buried near the Slirajkund in Bawan. 
The next and chief historical event of the pargana is the expulsion of the 
Thatheras by the Gaurs shortly before the Muhammadan conquest of India. 
Kalhaur, or Kilho as it is popularly called, was the chief stronghold of the 
Thatheras in this part of Oudh. That it was of considerable size is shown 
by the height and extent of its debris which cover several acres in the 
heart of the tree-jungle of Danielganj. The remains of a huge masonry 

S2 



278: BEH 

well, 15 feet in diameter, and a ruined tank called Rdmkund, are still to 
be seen. Tradition says that Raja Jai Chand of Kanauj deputed Mahd 
Singh, Gaur of Narkanjari, and Kuber Sah, Gaur of Garhganjana near 
• indor, to collect annual tribute from the Thatheras in what are now 
parganas Bawan and Sara. For three years these crafty Gaurs received 
the tribute, but instead of remitting it to Kanauj, represented to the 
itaja that the Thatheras were rebellious and refused to pay. So a strong 
force was despatched from Kanauj. The wretched Thatheras were burnt 
out and put to the sword, and the Gaurs settled down on their lands. 

Another form of the tradition closely resembles that current in the 
Bangar (see article Bangar). Kuber Sah had gone to Kanauj to deliver 
the annual tribute. While he was away from home twin sons were born 
to him. Of these the Brahmans in attendance on the Thathera chief pre- 
dicted that they would achieve greatness and expel him from his kingdom. 
To avert such disaster the Thathera chief ordered the babes to be done 
away with, and the Brahmans giving out that if Kuber Sih should return 
and look upon his children's faces he would die, caused them to be buried 
alive. Hardly had the deed been done when Kuber Sah returned, heard 
the evil news, and had the babes dug up. Both were still alive. One of 
them had lost an ej'^e, and was accordingly named Kana (one-eyed). The 
other was named Anai and Pakhni (lit. " under the wall"). From them 
are sprung the Kana and Anai (or Pakhni) sub-divisions of the Gaurs. 
On more than half the pargana the Gaurs have retained their hold till now. 

The Am-i-Akbari gives the area of the pargana as 60,063 bighas, and the 
military force posted in it as consisting of twenty troopers and a thousand 
foot. A few of the Bawan villages have since been added to parganas 
Barwan and Sandi. There are eleven " dibs" or deserted village sites, all 
of which are attributed to the Thatheras. 

BEHTI OR BETI — Pargana BihXr — Tahsil KvNDA-^Distrid Partabgarh. 
— This village is beautifully situated on the bank of a large lake covering 
in the rains about ten square miles ; to the north is a high bank covered 
with groves of magnificent trees ; the lake, edged with rich crops and 
orchards, stretches away to the south, and three miles off flows the Ganges, 
in the dry bed of whose ancient channel the lake lies. The depth varies 
from three to eight feet. In 1241 this lake was dry ; its bed was sown 
with wheat, and a lac of rupees worth is said to have been the out-turn of 
the grain. The Government sent down an officer, Harpal Singh, to 
attach the proceeds ; in the fight which took place 500 men were killed. 

In dry weather the area covered with water is 2,810 bighas, or 
nearly three square miles. It is reported that this lake was dug by the 
Raja of Ajodhya, as a religious jagg, or votive offering, and burnt grain is 
still dug up in great quantities from beneath the surface. 

An ancient building exists on an island in the middle of the lake, which 
is celebrated for its wild fowl and fish ; a royal prince built this for a shoot- 
ing lodge. The population consists of 1,733 persons ; there is one temple 
to Mahadeo, one to Mahabir, and one to Vishnu, 



BEH— BET 277 

BEHTI KALAISr — Pargana Sareni — Tahsil Lalganj — District Rae 
Bareli. — The river Lon flows to the south of this town, which is of no 
importance ; it is embosomed in groves over which rises the spire of a fine 
Hindu temple to MahAdeo recently erected at a cost of Rs. 50,000. A 
small school attended by thirty-two boys is another institution ; the popu- 
lation is, 4,798. No road passes near the town. 

BELA — Pargana, Partabgarh — Tahsil Partabgarh — District Partab- 
GAKH. — This town is called after Bela Bhawdni, whose temple is on the 
bank of the Sai. In 1209 Fasli, the place was settled as a cantonment 
for the Oudh auxiliary force. It is on the metalled road from Allahabad 
to Fyzabad ; it is four miles from Partabgarh and thirty-six from Allaha- 
bad. A fine bridge of nine arches over the Sai was destroyed in the 
floods of 1870 ; it has since been rebuilt. The population is 2,746. There 
are four mosques, one Anglo-vernacular school, attended by thirty-five 
Musalmans and 97 Hindu youths. MacAndrewganj adjoins this town ; its 
annual sales are about Rs. 60,000. Here the Government district officers 
reside and have their offices. 

BENIGANJ* — Pargana Sandila— Ta/tsiZ Sandila — District Hardoi — 
Beniganj — 2,284 inhabitants, a good-sized village, mainly Ahir, of 545 mud 
houses, 21 miles south-east from Hardoi, and sixteen miles north from San- 
dila on the unmetalled road from S