(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The photographic history of the civil war .."

t,- 









(!|iirneU Uniuersity ICthrary 



3tl)ata, SJeui ^ark 



THE JAMES VERNER SCAIFE 
COLLECTION 

CIVIL WAR LITERATURE 



THE GIFT OF 

JAMES VERNER SCAIFE 

CLASS OF 1689 

1919 



Cornell University Library 
E 468 .7.M64 
V.3 
Photographic history of the civil war 




3 1924 025 944 251 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924025944251 



The Photographic History 
of The Civil War 



In Ten Volumes 




COPYHIGHT, 



, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



1864— A SHOT THAT STARTLED WASHINGTON 



After the shell whirled from the Confederate General Early's gun through the little house outside of Wash- 
ington City, shortly before this photograph was taken in July, 1864, consternation spread throughout the 
North, and surprise the world o^'er. A most audacious swoop down the Valley of Virginia, over the Potomac 
and across Maryland, had carried eight thousand seasoned veterans in gray to the very gates of Washington. 
A shot struck near President Lincoln himself at Fort Stevens. The capital was without sufficient trained 
defenders. Half a million Union soldiers were scattered south of the Potomac to the Gulf, but few remained 
north of the ri\-er when Early appeared after forced marches that tested the heroism of his devoted troops. 
Hastening on the afternoon of July 11th, two army corps arrived from Grant's army. Washington was 
saved; reluctantly the daring Confederates retreated, and abandoned their last invasion of the North. 



The Photographic History 
of The Civil War 

In Ten Volumes 



Volume Three 
The Decisive Battles 



INTRODUCTION BY 

FREDERICK DENT GRANT 

Major-General United States Army 
TEXT BY 

HENRY W. ELSON 

Professor of History, Ohio University 
PHOTOGRAPH DESCRIPTIONS BY 

JAMES BARNES 

Author of "Naval Actions of 1812" and "David G. Farraffut ' 



New York 

The Review of Reviews Co. 

1911 



OOPYRIGHT, 1011, BY PATRIOT PUBLISHING Co., SPRINGFIELD, MaSS. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION 
INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INC'LUDINt) THE SCANDINAVIAN 



Printed in New York, U.S.A. 



THE SCHWKINLEi; PKKSS 
NKW V(iI;K 



PREFACE 

THE introduction that follows from General Frederick Dent Grant is a simple state- 
ment of the large movements during the last year of the war in mass. In it the 
reader will find a concise summation of what follows in detail throughout the chapters of 
Volume III. 

It is amazing to the non-mihtary reader to find how simple was the direct cause for 
the tremendous results in the last year of the Civil War. It was the unification of the 
Federal army under Ulysses S. Grant. His son, in the pages that follow, repeats the busi- 
nesslike agreement with President Lincoln which made possible the wielding of all the 
Union armies as one mighty weapon. 

The structure of Volume II reflects the Civil War situation thus changed in May, 
1864. No longer were battles to be fought here and there unrelated; but a definite move- 
ment was made by "Grant versus Lee" on the 4th of May, accompanied by "The 
Simultaneous Movements" of Butler, Sherman, and Sigel — all under the absolute con- 
trol of the man who kept his headquarters near those of Meade, Commander of the Army 
of the Potomac. 

Against such concentrated strokes the enfeebled Confederacy could not stand. Only 
the utter courage of leaders and soldiers innately brave, who were fighting for a cause they 
felt meant home no less than principle, prolonged the struggle during the tragic year ending 
with May, 1865. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Ma^ — Theatre of Georgia and the Carolinas Campaigns 2 

Frontispiece — A Shot that Startled Washington 4 

Introduction 

Frederick Dent Grant 13 



Part I 

GRANT VERSUS LEE 

Henry TV. Elson 

The Battle in the Wilderness 21 

Spotsylvania and the Bloody Angle 51 

Attack and Repulse at Cold Harbor 79 



Part II 

THE SIMULTANEOUS MOVEIMENTS 

Henry W . Elson 

Drewry's Bluff Impregnable 93 

To Atlanta — Sherman versus Johnston 99 

The Last Conflicts in the Shenandoah 139 



Part III 

CLOSING IN 

Henry W. Elson 

Charleston, the Unconquered Port . 169 

The Investment of Petersburg 175 

Sherman's Final Campaigns 209 

[11] 



(HmxtmtB 

Part IV 

PAGE 

FROM WAR TO PEACE 

Henry W. Elson 

Nashville — The End in Tennessee 249 

The Siege and Fall of Petersburg . 271 

Appomattox 295 



Part V 

ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR FROM MAY, 1864, TO MAY, 1865 . 317 

George L. Kilmer 



Photographic Descriptions Throughout Volume III 
James Barnes 



"121 



INTRODUCTION 



By FREDERICK DENT GRANT 

Major-General, U. S. A. 




RIOT PUB. CO. 



QENEBAL ULYSSES S. GRANT AT CITY POINT IN 1864, WITH HIS 
WIFE AND SON JESSE 




/''^"^r^ 





i 





INTRODUCTION 

By Frederick Dent Grant 

Major-General, United States Army 

UPON being appointed lieutenant-general, and having 
assumed command of all the armies in the field, in 
]March, 1864, General Grant had an interview with Presi- 
dent Lincoln, during which interview Mr. Lincoln stated that 
procrastination on the part of commanders, and the pressure 
from the people of the North and from Congress, had forced 
him into issuing his series of military orders, some of which he 
knew were wrong, and all of which may have been wrong; 
that all he, the President, wanted, or had ever wanted, was 
some one who would take the responsibility of action, and 
would call upon him, as the Executive of the Government, for 
such supplies as were needed; the President pledging himself 
to use the full powers of the Government in rendering all 
assistance possible. General Grant assured the President that 
he would do the best he could with the means at hand, and 
would, as far as possible, avoid annoying the administration 
with unnecessar}^ demands. 

His first work was to inaugurate a plan of campaign for 
all the armies. During the first three years of the war, the 
various armies had acted independently — a condition which 
had enabled their enemies to reenforce each point of attack by 
drawing troops from points of inactivity. 

Having this in view. General Grant planned to move all 
the armies at once. He looked upon the Army of the James 
as the left wing, the Army of the Potomac as the center, and 
the troops operating under General Sherman as the right 

wing; all other troops being considered as cooperative 

[11] 







is^ 



'^^s; 









\eaa^MMS^ 




ntrnburtton bij Ollfn^ral J. i. Oirant * ^ 



.^i 




columns. He believed that by moving the whole line at the 
same time the greatest number of troops practicable would be 
brought against the armed forces of his enemy, and would 
prevent them from using the same force to resist the efforts 
of the Union army, first at one point and then at another, and 
that, by continuously hammering against their armies, he 
would destroy both them and their sources of supply. 

To carry out this idea, orders were given to the various 
commanders — on the 2d of April to Butler ; on the 4th, to Sher- 
man, and on the 9th, to JNIeade. In all these orders the same 
general ideas were expressed. To Butler he wrote: 

" You will collect all the forces from your command that 
can be spared from garrison duty ... to operate on the south 
side of James River, Richmond being your objective point." 

To Sherman he wrote: 

" It is my design, if the enemy keep quiet and allow me 
to take the initiative in the spring campaign, to work all the 
parts of the army together, and somewhat toward a common 
center. . . . You, I propose to move against Johnston's army, 
to break it up, and to get into the interior of the enemy's 
country as far as you can, inflicting all the damage you can 
against their war resources." 

To JNIeade he wrote: 

" Lee's army will be your objective point. Wherever 
Lee goes, there you will go also." 

Thus it will be seen that General Grant's plan with refer- 
ence to the movements of the Army of the Potomac was 
similar to that of Napoleon in the Russian campaign, while 
his plan in reference to the whole army much resembles the 
plan adopted by the Allies in their campaign against France 
in 1813-14. 

When these movements began, the situation was about as 
follows: In the possession of the Union was all the territory 
north of a line beginning at Fortress Monroe, following the 
Chesapeake Bay to the Potomac River, up that river to near 

[15] 




U//. 



'^■"y 



'M 



^ 



%A 



^^' 




\ainMMMm 




ntrnburttnn bg O^nt^ral J. i. ^rant * ^ 



r 



r 





Washington, the northern border of Virginia as far as Har- 
per's Ferry, covered by the Army of the Potomac; across the 
mountains into West Virginia, to the headwaters of the Hol- 
ston River in Tennessee, down that river and the Tennessee 
to Chattanooga, and thence along the JNIemphis and Charleston 
Railroad to the JNIississippi, which was also in Union hands. 
All south of that line was in the hands of the Confederates, 
except a few stations along the sea coast, the possession of 
which assisted in the blockade. 

Most of the opposing troops which were east of the Mis- 
sissippi had been concentrated into the armies commanded by 
Lee and Johnston; that commanded by Lee facing the Army 
of the Potomac and guarding Richmond, while that of John- 
ston was at Dalton, in the northern part of Georgia, facing 
Sherman and defending Atlanta, a great railroad center and 
a point of concentration of supplies for the Confederate troops, 
wherever they were stationed, east of the Mississippi River. 
Richmond and the armies under Lee and Johnston were the 
main objectives of the campaign. 

General Grant, as commander of the Union armies, 
placed himself with the Army of the Potomac, where the 
greatest opposition was to be expected, and where he consid- 
ered his personal presence would be of the greatest value, and 
whence he exercised general supervision over the movements 
of all the armies. 

The main movements being against Lee and Johnston, all 
other troops were directed to cooperate with the main armies. 
The movements of detached bodies would compel the Con- 
federates either to detach largely for the protection of his 
supplies and lines of communication, or else to lose them 
altogether. 

Everything being prepared, orders were given for the 
start, and all the armies were on the move by the 6th of May, 
with what results the chapters that follow will tell the reader 
in detail. 

[16] 




tttrohurtton b^ (Bmnnl J. i. ^rant -^ ^ 



Jk^^^^SSSa: 



\ n 



Early on the morning of the 4th of May, 1864, the Army 
of the Potomac moved out of its camp near Culpeper Court 
House and, heading toward Richmond, crossed the Rapidan 
at Germanna and Elj^'s fords and entered the Wilderness. 
At the same time the Army of the James moved from For- 
tress Monroe up the James River, landing on the south side 
of the James near City Point, threatening Petersburg. The 
army in the Shenandoah vallej^ had already started, and Sher- 
man was about to move. 

As the Army of the Potomac was marching through the 
Wilderness it was attacked by Lee, who had moved from his 
fortifications at Mine Run. The head of Lee's column met 
the Army of the Potomac near the Wilderness Tavern, and 
the struggle for military supremacy in the field began. This 
battle, locally known as " The Wilderness," had by the 7th 
of May spread along the entire line of the Federal armies, 
and was raging from the Atlantic Ocean to the IMississippi 
valley. Columns of men were engaged in battle on the James 
River, in the Wilderness, in the Shenandoah valley, and in 
northern Georgia. In a few days the question was to be de- 
termined whether the North or the South possessed the military 
mastery of the continent. The decision of this struggle is told 
in detail by the chapters which follow. 

From now on the tactics of Lee and Johnston were defen- 
sive, and they awaited the assaults of the Union armies behind 
fortifications. The Union center attacked and maneuvered, 
always by the left flank, while the right wing maneuvered 
generally by the right flank. One flank movement after an- 
other forced the Confederates out of position after position, 
until their main armies were thrown back to near the James 
River, to Staunton, Virginia, and to the Etowah River, Geor- 
gia. In the East, the great battle of Cold Harbor was fought, 
and a sudden flank movement to the left was made, the crossing 
of the James effected, and the carrying of the outer lines of 
Petersburg, which city, with Richmond, was immediately laid 

[17] 



f] 






U 



^■^ 




kimMM^Sm 



ntroburtton b^ (gnt^ral J. i. O^raut -4=- ^ 







?c:a^«a 



under siege. The junction of the armies of the James and 
of the Potomac now took place, and from this time on they 
together formed the left wing of the Union armies. The col- 
umn in the Shenandoah valley had jjenetrated to near Staun- 
ton and Lynchburg, in Virginia ; but their ammunition becom- 
ing almost exhausted, especially that for artillery, the army 
had to move over the mountains to\\'ard the Kanawha valley, 
thus leaving the Shenandoah valley open for General Early 
to pass through in making raids on the North ; while the right 
wing of the Union army pushed its way on through northern 
Georgia to the Chattahoochee River, which it crossed, and 
moved toward Atlanta. The first phase of the great campaign 
was thus ended, and the second phase now opens before us. 

As already described, the Shenandoah valley was left 
open to raids by Southern troops into the North, and so able 
a man as General Lee did not miss such an opportunity. A 
portion of the Confederates within the strong entrenchments 
of Petersburg and Richmond were detached under General 
Earlj', who marched down the Shenandoah, crossed the Po- 
tomac, and entered JNlaryland, penetrating as far as Wash- 
ington, for the defense of which city two corps were detached 
from the right wing. They succeeded in saving the national 
capital and in driving Early's forces to the north and west, 
and took uj) the line of the INIonocacy. Sheridan was given 
the command of the Federal defense. He soon placed himself 
in the valley of the Shenandoah, where his army now became 
the center of the LTnion line. 

The second phase was the adoption of the policy to keep 
the Confederate armies within the besieged cities, Richmond, 
Petersburg, and Atlanta, and actively to engage the outside 
troojis, to drive all the smaller bands to the south, to devastate 
the country from which supplies were drawn, and, as far as 
jjossible, to destroy the troops that gathered these supplies. 
In these movements the most active and most effective column 
was the Army of the Shenandoah, which soon sent the oppos- 








"-,iS 





ntroJiurttan b^ ^^u^ral J. i. (iraut 



4f- 



•^ 



K^ 



ing force, as Sheridan expressed it, " whirling through Win- 
chester," annihilated two armies gathered to protect the Val- 
ley, and destroyed all the war supplies it contained. 

In the meantime, the Confederate Government, finding 
that it was losing so much ground by its defensive policy, 
relieved Johnston, an officer of great ability, who was com- 
manding at Atlanta. Hood was placed in charge of that 
wing of the army. He immediately assumed the offensive 
and attacked the Army of the Tennessee on the 22d of July, 
but was defeated and thrown back, with great losses, into his 
works at Atlanta. 

Sherman soon followed Hood's lead by making another 
flank movement, which caused the fall of the city, the Con- 
federates e-^'acuating the place and moving to the west and 
north, threatening Sherman's line of supplies. Sherman fol- 
lowed Hood for a while, but it was soon decided to detach 
part of the troops under him, to concentrate them at Xash- 
ville, in Tennessee, so as to prevent an invasion of the North 
by Hood's army, and to abandon the lines of supplies to the 
rear; and then for Sherman to push on to the sea, cutting 
through Georgia, living off the country, and destroying as far 
as possible the store houses from which the army in Richmond 
gathered its food. 

Hood followed one of the detachments from Sher- 
man's arm}^ and penetrated as far north as Nashville, 
where, in December, the decisive battle of Nashville was 
fought. This reheved the country in the rear of the line from 
menace, and one might say that the Confederacy was lim- 
ited to the segment of a circle the circumference of which 
would pass through Richmond, Petersburg, Savannah, At- 
lanta, and Nashville. The policy maintained was continually 
to reduce the size of this circle until the Confederacy was 
crushed. 

Sherman turned north, marching through the Carolinas. 
Part of the troops that had fought at Nashville under Thomas 

[19] 



k^^^^Bst 




1/r 



8.(^i 






utrniiurtmu bg ^pui^ral 3. i. (grant 



♦ 



4}- 




^.. P 





were sent to AA^ilmington, under Schofield, after the fall of 
Fort Fisher. Sheridan's trooijers were pressed forward up 
the Shenandoah "S'alley, to cross over to the headwaters of the 
James Ri\'er, and down that stream to join the armies of the 
Potomac and of the James in front of Richmond and Peters- 
burg. Stoneman moved from east Tennessee into the Vir- 
ginias. The circle was contracted and the Confederacy was 
}n-essed on every side. This constituted the second phase of 
the great campaign, and the grand finale was about to be 
enacted. 

As soon as Sheridan reached the Army of the Potomac, 
his troojis were placed on the left of that army, to attack the 
remaining lines of communication between Richmond and the 
South. This forced the Confederates to detach large numbers 
of troops from their works, and, while thus weakened, the 
Arm}' of the Potomac assaulted and carried the lines in front 
of Petersburg on the 2d of April, 1865. The fall of the for- 
tifications around Petersburg opened to the Union armies all 
the lines of conmmnication which the Confederates had to the 
south from Richmond, and forced the evacuation of that city. 
A race was begun by the Confederates to get beyond the Army 
of the Potomac and Sheridan's troopers, to join Johnston, and 
so possibly to overpower Sherman's army. Sheridan suc- 
ceeded in heading Lee off and in forcing him from the rail- 
road, where his sujjplies were, while j^arts of tlie armies of the 
Potomac and the James followed and pressed Lee's ai'my in 
the rear, until the 9th of April, when he was nearly surrounded 
at Appomattox Court House and his j^osition was such that 
he was forced to surrender. 

With the fall of Richmond and Petersburg and the sur- 
render of Lee, the main prop of the Confederacy was broken, 
and all that was now necessary was to gather in the other 
Southern armies. As further resistance was useless, these 
armies asked for terms, which M'cre granted, and thus ended 
the third and last phase of the great campaign. 

[201 



f^^^SSSSSi 






PART I 
GRANT VERSUS LEE 



THE BATTLES IN 
THE WILDERNESS 




WRECKAGE OF TREES AND MEN, AS THEY FELL IN THE DENSE FOREST — VICTIMS OF THE MONTH S 
ADVANCE THAT COST 40,000 UNION DEAD AND WOUNDED 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



LTLYSSES S. GRANT 



GENERAL-IX-CHIEF OF THE FEDERAL ARMY IN 1805. 
BORN 1822; WEST POINT 1843; DIED 1885. 




COPVRfGHT, 19M, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



ROBERT E. LEE 



GENERAL-IN-CHIEF OP THE CONFEDERATE ARMY IN 18G5 
BORN 1807; WEST POINT 1829; DIED 1870. 





1 

■ „ f ■ 














■ 'Jk 


^ ■ ^ ■ 1 


_^ 3i8^ < \ 




JI0lm»^-^>'mmam><-^miMAhsi^^. mk iiir 


KdMii^MMiMlMflHHiillliliHM 







GRANT S FIRST MOVE AGAINST LEE 

ADVANCE OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, MAY 5, 1864 



The gleaming bayonets that lead the winding wagons mark the first lunge of one champion against 
another — the Federal military arm stretching forth to begin the "continuous hammering" which 
Grant had declared was to be his policy. By heavy and repeated blows he had vanquished Pemberton, 
Bragg, and every Southern general that had opposed him. Soon he was to be face to face with Lee's mag- 
nificent veterans, and here above all other places he had chosen to be in person. Profiting by the experience 
of Halleck, he aA'oided Washington. Sherman pleaded in vain with him to "come out West." Grant had 
recognized the most difficult and important task to be the destruction of Lee's army, and therefore had 
determined "to fight it out on this line." The Army of the Potomac was but one bodj' of the 533,447 Federal 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



PONTOONS AT GERMANNA FORD ON THE RAPIDAN 

BEGINNING THE "SIMULTANEOUS MOVEMENT" TO END THE WAR 



troops set in motion by the supreme word of Grant at the beginning of May, 1864. East and West, the 
concentrated forces were to participate as much as possible in one simultaneous advance to strike the vitals 
of the Confederacy. The movements of Sherman, Banks, Sigel, and Butler were intended to be direct 
factors in the efficiency of his own mighty battering on the brave front of Lee's army. All along the line 
from the Mississippi to the Atlantic there was to be cooperation so that the widely separated armies of the 
South would have their hands full of fighting and could spare no reenforcements to each other. But it took 
only a few weeks to convince Grant that in Robert E. Lee, he had met more than his match in strategy. 
Sigel and Butler failed him at New Market and Drewry's Bluff. The simultaneous movement crumbled. 




LEE'S MEN 



The faces of the veterans in this photograph of 1864 reflect more forcibly than volumes of historical es- 
says, the privations and the courage of the ragged veterans in gray who faced Grant, with Lee as their 
leader. They did not know that their struggle had alreadj^ become unavailing; that no amount of per- 
severance and devotion could make headway against the resources, determination, and discipline of the 
Northern armies, now that they had become concentrated and wielded by a master of men like Grant. 
But Grant was as yet little more than a name to the armies of the East. His successes had been 
won on Western fields — Donelson, Vicksburg, Chattanooga. It was not yet known that the Army of the 
Potomac under the new general-in-chief was to prove irresistible. So these faces reflect perfect confidence. 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEW 



CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS IN VIRGINIA, 1864 



Though prisoners when this picture was taken — a remnant of Grant's heavy captures during May and 
June, when he sent some ten thousand Confederates to Coxey's Landing, Virginia, as a result of his first 
stroke against Lee — though their arms have been taken from them, though their uniforms are anything but 
"uniform," their hats partly the regulation felt of the Army of Northern Virginia, partly captured Federal 
caps, and partly nondescript — yet these ragged veterans stand and sit with the dignity of accomplish- 
ment. To them, "Marse Robert" is still the general unconquerable, under whom inferior numbers again 
and again have held their own, and more; the brilliant leader under whom every man gladly rushes to any 
assault, however impossible it seems, knowing that every order will be made to count. 



wiiiiimiim 









THE BATTLE IN THE WILDERNESS 

The volunteers \\ lio composed tlie armies of tlie Potomac and Nortli- 
erii Vivirinia \\-ere real soldiei's now, inured to wax, and desperate in their 
determination to do its work without faltering or failure. This fsict — 
this change in the temper and morale of the men on either side — had 
greatly simplified the tasks set for Grant and Lee to solve. They knew 
their men. They knew that those men would stand against anything, 
endure slaughter without flinching, hardship without complaining, and 
make desperate endeavor without shrinking. The two ai-mies had become 
what they had not been earlier in tlie contest, perfect inntruments of icar, 
that could be relied upon as confidently as the machinist relies upon his 
engine scheduled to make so many revolutions per minute at a given rate 
of horse-power, and with the precision of science itself. — George Cary 
Eggle-stoii, in " The Histonj of the Coifedenite WarT 

AFTER the battle of Gettysburg, Lee started for the 
Potomac, which he crossed with some difficulty, but 
with little interruption from the Federals, above Harper's 
Ferry, on Julj"^ 14, 1863. The thwarted invader of Pennsjd- 
vania wished to get to the plains of Virginia as quickh^ as 
2)ossible, but the Shenandoah was found to be im2>assable. 
JNIeade, in the mean time, had crossed the Potomac east of the 
Blue Ridge and seized the principal outlets from the lower 
part of the Valley. Lee, therefore, was compelled to continue 
his retreat up the Shenandoah until Longstreet, sent in ad- 
vance with part of his command, had so blocked the Federal 
2)ursuit that most of the Confederate army was able to emerge 
through Chester Gap and move to Culpeper Court House. 
Ewell marched through Thornton's Gap and by the -Ith of 
August practically the whole Armjr of Northern Virginia was 
south of the Rapidan, prepared to dispute the crossing of that 
river. But ^Nleade, continuing his flank pursuit, halted at 

[281 





THE COMING OF THE STRANGER GRANT 



Hither, to Meade's headquarters at Brandy Station, came Grant on Marcli 10, 1864. The day before, in 
Washington, President Lincoln handed him his commission, appointing him Lieutenant-General in command 
of all the Federal forces. His visit to Washington convinced him of the wisdom of remaining in the East to 
direct affairs, and his first interview with Meade decided him to retain that efficient general in command of 
the Army of the Potomac. The two men had known each other but slightly from casual meetings during the 
Mexican War. "I was a stranger to most of the Army of the Potomac," said Grant, "but Meade's modesty 
and willingness to serve in any capacity impressed me even more than had his victory at Gettysburg." The 
only prominent officers Grant brought on from the West were Sheridan and Rawlins. 




•'/~\ 



Culpeper Court House, deeming it impvudent to attempt the 
Rapidan in the face of the strongly entrenched Confederates. 
In tlie entire movement there had been no fighting except a 
few cavahy skirmishes and no serious loss on either side. 

On the 9th of September, Lee sent Longstreet and his 
corps to assist Bragg in the great conflict that was seen to be 
inevitable around Chattanooga. In spite of reduced strength, 
Lee proceeded to assume a threatening attitude toward INIeade, 
and in October and earlj^ November there were several small 
but severe engagements as the Confederate leader attempted 
to turn INIeade's flank and force him back to the old line of 
Bull Run. On the 7th of November, Sedgwick made a bril- 
liant capture of the redoubts on the Rappahannock, and Lee 
returned once more to his old position on the south side of the 
Rajjidan. This lay between Barnett's Ford, near Orange 
Court House (Lee's headquarters), and INIorton's Ford, twenty 
miles below. Its right was also protected by entrenchments 
along the course of ISIine Run. Against these, in the last days 
of November, JNIeade sent French, Sedgwick, and Warren. 
It was found impossible to carrj^ the Confederate position, 
and on December 1st the Federal troops were ordered to re- 
cross the Rapidan. In this short campaign the Union lost 
sixteen hundred men and the Confederacy half that number. 
With the exception of an unsuccessful cavalry raid against 
Richmond, in February, nothing disturbed the existence of the 
two armies until the coming of Grant. 

In the early months of 1864, the Army of the Potomac 
lay between the Rapidan and the Rappahannock, most of it 
in the vicinity of Culpeper Court House, although some of 
the troops were guarding the railroad to Washington as far 
as Bristoe Station, close to JNIanassas Junction. On the south 
side of the Rapidan, the Ai'my of Northern Virginia was, as 
has been seen, securelj^ entrenched. The Confederates' ranks 
were thin and their supplies were scarce; but the valiant spirit 
which had characterized the Southern hosts in former battles 

[301 



V 





1, REVIEW OF REVIEWS C0> 



ON THE WAY TO THE FRONT 



The Streets of Culpeper, Virginia, in March, 1864. After Grant's arrival, the Army of the Potomac awoke to 
the activity of the spring campaign. One of the first essentials was to get the vast transport trains in readi- 
ness to cross the Rapidan. Wagons were massed by thousands at Culpeper, near where Meade's troops had 
spent the winter. The work of the teamsters was most arduous; wearied by long night marches — nodding, 
reins in hand, for lack of sleep — they might at any moment be suddenly attacked in a bold attempt to capture 
or destroy their precious freight. When the arrangements were completed, each wagon bore the corps badge, 
division color, and number of the brigade it was to serve. Its contents were also designated, together with 
the branch of the service for which it was intended. While loaded, the wagons must keep pace with the army 
movements whenever possible in order to be parked at night near the brigades to which they belonged. 




Ip Sattb in tl|? WilJi^nt^as ^ ^ ^ ^ 




<'^^ 



k' 




m 



g« 



E=?s5?; 



still burned fiercely within their breasts, presaging many des- 
perate battles before the heel of the invader should tread upon 
their cherished capital, Richmond, and their loved cause, the 
Confederacy. 

^Vithin the camp religious services had been held for 
weeks in succession, resulting in the conversion of large num- 
bers of the soldiers. General Lee was a religious man. The 
influence of the awakening among the men in the army dur- 
ing this revival was manifest after the war was over, when the 
soldiers had gone back to civil life, under conditions most 
trying and severe. To this spiritual frame of mind may be 
credited, j^erhaps, some of the remarkable feats accomplished 
in subsequent battles by the Confederate arm}'. 

On February 29, 1804, the United States Congress passed 
a law reviving the grade of lieutenant-general, the title being 
intended for Grant, who was made general-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States. Grant had come from his vic- 
torious battle-grounds in the West, and all ej^es turned to him 
as the chieftain who should lead the Union armj'- to success. 
On the 9th of jMarch he received his commission. He now 
planned the final great double movement of the war. Taking 
control of the whole campaign against Lee, but leaving the 
Army of the Potomac under INIeade's direct command, he chose 
the strongest of his corps commanders, W. T. Sherman, for 
the head of affairs in the West. Grant's immediate objects 
^^ere to defeat Lee's armj' and to capture Richmond, the latter 
to be accomplished bj^ General Butler and the Army of the 
James; Sherman's object was to crush Johnston, to seize that 
important railroad center, Atlanta, Georgia, and, with Banks' 
assistance, to ojien a waj^ between the Atlantic coast and 
]Mobile, on the Gulf, thus dividing the Confederacy north and 
south, as the conquest of the jNIississippi had parted it east and 
west. It was believed that if either or both of these cam- 
jjaigns were successful, the downfall of the Confederacy would 
be assured. 

[3-2] 




•'-m 




^»s: 







GHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS COu 



BELLE PLAIN, WHERE THE WAGON-TRAINS STARTED 



In Grant's advance through the desolate tract guarded by Lee's veterans, extending for ten miles along 
the south bank of the Rapidan and for fifteen miles to the southward, he was unable to gather a particle 
of forage. His train of wagons in single file would have stretched from the Rapidan to Richmond. Never 
was a quartermaster's corps better organized than that of the Army of the Potomac in 1864. General Rufus 
Ingalls, Chief Quartermaster, managed his department with the precision of clockwork. The wagons, as 
fast as emptied, were returned to the base to be reloaded. Nevertheless within a week the losses of this 
well-equipped Army of the Potomac in the Wilderness campaign made dreadful reading. But with grim 
determination Grant wrote on May 11, 1864: "I am now sending back to Belle Plain all my wagons for a 
fresh supply of provisions and ammunition, and I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all 
summer." 




r 





On a recommendation of General JNIeade's, the Army of 
the Potomac was reorganized into three corps instead of tlie 
j^revious five. The Second, Fifth, and Sixth corps were re- 
tained, ahsorbing the First and Third. 

Hancock was in command of the Second; Warren, the 
Fifth; and Sedgwick, the Sixth. Sheridan was at the head of 
the cavahy. The Ninth Corps acted as a sej^arate army under 
Burnside, and was now protecting the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad. As soon as JNIeade had crossed the Rapidan, Burn- 
side was ordered to move prompth'-, and he reached the battle- 
field of the Wilderness on tlie morning of INIaj^ 6th. On JNlaj^ 
24th his corps was assigned to the Armj^ of the Potomac. The 
Union forces, including the Ninth Corps, numbered about one 
hundred and eighteen thousand men. 

The Army of Northern Virginia consisted of three corps 
of infantr}^ the First under Longstreet, the Second under 
Ewell, and the Third under A. P. Hill, and a cavahy corps 
commanded by Stuart. A notable fact in the organization 
of the Confederate army was the few changes made in com- 
manders. The total forces under Lee were about sixty-two 
thousand. 

After assuming command. Grant established his head- 
quarters at Culpejjer Court House, whence he visited Wash- 
ington once a weeh to consult with President Lincoln and the 
Secretary of "War. He was given full authority, however, as 
to men and movements, and worked out a plan of campaign 
which resulted in a series of battles in Virginia unparalleled in 
history. The first of these was precipitated in a dense forest, 
a wilderness, from which the battle takes its name. 

Grant decided on a general advance of the Army of the 
Potomac upon Lee, and early on the morning of May 4th the 
movement began by crossing the Raj^idan at several fords 
below Lee's entrenched position, and moving by his right flank. 
The crossing was efi'ected successfully, the line of march tak- 
ing part of the Federal troops over a scene of defeat in the 

[34] 






CAMP IS BROKEN— THE ARMY ADVANCES 

To secure for Grant the fullest possible information about Lee's movements was the task of General Sharp, 
Chief of the Secret Service of the Army, whose deserted headquarters at Brandy Station, Va., in April, 1864, 
are shown in this photograph. Here are the stalls built for the horses and the stockade for prisoners. The 
brick fireplace that had lent its cheer to the general's canvas house is evidence of the comforts of an army 
settled down for the respite of winter. Regretfully do soldiers exchange all this for forced marches and hard 
fighting; and to the scouts, who precede an army, active service holds a double hazard. Visitors to Fed, 
eral camps often wondered at soldiers in Confederate gray chatting or playing cards with the men in blue and 
being allowed to pass freely. These were Federal spies, always in danger of being captured and summarily 
shot, not only by the Confederates, but in returning and attempting to regain their own lines. 



c 



\\t lattl^ in \\}t Htl^^rn^BS 



^ ■^- ^ ■^ 



?-n..^<a^ 



previous spring. One year before, the magnificent Army of 
the Potomac, just from a long winter's rest in the encamp- 
ment at Falmouth on the nortli bank of the RajDpahannock, 
had met the legions of the South in deadly combat on the 
battlefield of Chancellorsville. And now Grant was leading 
the same armj", whose ranks had been freshened by new recruits 
from the Xorth, through the same field of war. 

Bj^ eight o'clock on the morning of the -ith the various 
rumors as to the Federal army's crossing the Rapidan received 
bj' Lee were fully confirmed, and at once he prej^ared to set 
his own armj^ in motion for the Wilderness, and to throw him- 
self across the path of his foe. Two days before he had gath- 
ered his corps and division commanders around him at the 
signal station on Clark's Mountain, a considerable eminence 
south of the Rapidan, near Robertson's Ford. Here he ex- 
pressed the opinion that Grant would cross at the lower fords, 
as he did, but nevertheless Longstreet was kejjt at Gordons- 
ville in case the Federals should move by the Confederate left. 

The day was oppressively hot, and the troops suffered 
greatly from thirst as thej^ plodded along the forest aisles 
through the jungle-like region. The Wilderness was a maze 
of trees, vmderbrush, and ragged foliage. Low-limbed pines, 
scrub-oaks, hazels, and chinkapins interlaced their branches on 
the sides of rough country roads that lead through this laby- 
rinth of desolation. The weary troops looked upon the heavy 
tangles of fallen timber and dense undergrowth with a sense 
of isolation. Only the sounds of the birds in the trees, the 
rustling of the leaves, and the passing of the army relieved 
the heavy pall of solitude that bore upon the senses of the 
Federal host. 

The forces of the Northern army advanced into the vast 
no-man's land by the roads leading from the fords. In the 
afternoon, Hancock was resting at Chancellorsville, while 
Warren posted his corps near the Wilderness Tavern, in which 
General Grant established his headquarters. Sedgwick's corps 

[30] 



^ 





PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE "GRAND CAMPAIGN" UNDER WAY—THE DAY BEFORE THE BATTLE 



Pontoon-Bridges at Germanna Ford, on the Rapidan. Here the Sixth Corps under Sedgwick and Warren's Fifth Corps began crossing 
on the morning of May 4, 1864. The Second Corps, under Hancock, crossed at Ely's Ford, farther to the east. The cavalry, under 
Sheridan, was in advance. Bj' night the army, with the exception of Burnside's Ninth Corps, was south of the Rapidan, advancing into 
the Wilderness. The Ninth Corps (a reserve of twenty thousand men) remained temporarily north of the Rappahannock, guarding 
railway communications. On the wooden pontoon-bridge the rear-guard is crossing while the pontonniers are taking up the canvas bridge 
beyond. The movement was magnificently managed; Grant believed it to be a complete surprise, as Lee had offered no opposition. 
That was yet to come. In the bafBing fighting of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House, Grant was to lose a third of his superior 
number, arriving a month later on the James with a dispirited army that had left behind 54,920 comrades in a month. 




had followed in the track of Warren's veterans, but was or- 
dered to halt near the river crossing, or a little south of it. 
The cavalry, as much as was not covering the rear Avagon 
trains, was stationed near Chancellorsville and the Wilderness 
Tavern. That night the men from the North lay in bivouac 
with little fear of being attacked in this wilderness of waste, 
Adhere military maneuvers A^'ould be very difficult. 

Two roads — the old Orange turnpike and the Orange 
plank road — enter the "^Vilderness from the southwest. Along 
these the Confederates moved from their entrenched position 
to oppose the advancing hosts of the Xorth. Ewell took the 
old turnpike and Hill the jjlank road. Longstreet was hasten- 
ing from Gordonsville. The troops of Longstreet, on the one 
side, and of Burnside, on the other, arrived on the field after 
exhausting forced marches. 

The locality in which the Federal army found itself on the 
5th of INIay was not one that any commander would choose 
for a battle-ground. Lee was more familiar with its terrible 
featin-es than was his opponent, but this gave him little or no 
advantage. Grant, having decided to move by the Confederate 
right flank, could only hope to pass through the desolate 
region and reach more open country before the inevitable clash 
would come. But this was not to be. General Humphrej^s, 
who was JNIeade's chief of staff, says in his " Virginia Cam- 
paign of 1864 and 1865 ": " So far as I know, no great battle 
ever took place before on such ground. But little of the com- 
liatants could be seen, and its progress was known to the senses 
chiefly by the rising and falling sounds of a vast musketrj^ fire 
that continvially swept along the lines of battle, many miles 
in length, sounds which at times approached to the sublime." 

As Ewell, moving along the old turnpike on the morning 
of JNIay 5th, came near the Germanna Ford road, Warren's 
corps was marching down the latter on its way to Parker's 
store, the destination assigned it by the orders of the daj\ 
This meeting precii:)itated the battle of the Wilderness. 

[381 



\iu 






s^' 





REVIEWS CO. 



THE TANGLED BATTLEFIELD 



The Edge of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. Stretching away to the westward between Grant's army and Lee's lay no-man's-land — the 
Wilderness. Covered with a second-growth of thicket, thorny underbrush, and twisted vines, it was an almost impassable labyrinth, 
with here and there small clearings in which stood deserted barns and houses, reached only by unused and overgrown farm roads. The 
Federal advance into this region was not a surprise to Lee, as Grant supposed. The Confederate commander had caused the region to 
be carefully surveyed, hoping for the precise opportunity that Grant was about to give him. At the very outset of the campaign he 
could strike the Federals in a position where superior numbers counted Uttle. If he could drive Grant beyond the Rappahannock — as 
he had forced Pope, Bumside and Hooker before him — says George Cary Eggleston (in the "History of the Confederate War"), "loud 
and almost irresistible would have been the cry for an armistice, supported (as it would have been) by Wall Street and all Europe." 




i}t lattli' tu tl)? HtlJi^rn^BS ^ ^ ^ ^ 



vwrmrnmrnm-M 







V; 



I 




INIeade learned the position of Ewell's advance division 
and ordered an attack. Tlie Confederates were driven back a 
mile or two, but, re-forming and reenforced, the tide of battle 
AN'as turned the other way. Sedgwick's marching orders A^'ei-e 
sending him to the Wilderness Tavern on the turnjjike. He 
was on his May when the battle began, and he now turned to 
the right from the Germanna Ford road and formed several of 
his divisions on Warren's right. The presence of Hill on the 
plank road became known to INIeade and Grant, about eight in 
the morning. Hancock, at Chancellorsville, was too far away 
to check him, so Getty's division of Sedgwick's corps, on its 
way to the right, was sent over the Brock road to its junction 
with the plank road for the purpose of driving Hill back, if 
jiossible, beyond Parker's store. 

"Warren and Sedgwick began to entrench themselves when 
they realized that Ewell had effectively blocked their progress. 
Getty, at the junction of the Brock and the Orange plank 
roads, was likewise throwing up breastworks as fast as he 
could. Hancock, coming down the Brock road from Chancel- 
lorsville, reached him at two in the afternoon and found two 
of A. P. Hill's divisions in front. After waiting to finish his 
breastworks, Gettj^ a little after four o'clock, started, with 
Hancock supporting him, to carry out his orders to drive Hill 
back. Hancock says: " The fighting became very fierce at 
once. The lines of battle were exceedingly close, the musketry 



continuous and deadly along the entire line. 



The battle 



raged with great severitj^ and obstinacy until about 8 p.m. 
without decided advantage to either party." Here, on the 
Federal left, and in this desperate engagement. General Alex- 
ander Hays, one of Hancock's brigade commanders, was shot 
through the head and killed. 

The afternoon had worn away with heavy skirmishing on 
the right. About five o'clock INIeade made another attempt on 
Ewell's forces. Both lines were well entrenched, but the Con- 
federate ai'tillery enfiladed the Federal jjositions. It was after 

[40] 




May 
1864 



o 






i 







HEVieW OF REVIEWS CO. 



\^^^ERE ewell's charge surprised grant 



A photograph of Confederate breastworks raised by Ewell's men a few 
months before, while they fought in the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. In 
the picture we see some of the customary breastworks which both con- 
tending armies threw up to strengthen their positions. These were in a 
field near the turnpike in front of Ewell's main line. The impracticable 
nature of the ground tore the lines on both sides into fragments; as 
they swept back and forth, squads and companies strove fiercely with 
one another, hand-to-hand. Grant had confidently expressed the belief 
to one of his staff officers that there was no more advance left in Lee's 
army. He was surprised to learn on the 5th that Ewell's Corps was 
marching rapidly down the Orange turnpike to strike at Sedgwick and 
Warren, while A. P. Hill, with Longstreet close behind, was pushing for- 
ward on the Orange plank-road against Hancock. 



h^ lattl? in th^ lltl!i^rtt^0a 



<^ ^ -^ -^ 




dark when General Seymour of Sedgwick's corps finally with- 
drew his brigade, Avith heavy loss in killed and wounded. 

When the battle roar had ceased, the rank and file of the 
Confederate soldiers learned with sorrow of the death of one 
of the most dashing brigade leaders in Ewell's corps, General 
John ;M. Jones. This fighting was the preliminary strug- 
gle for position in the formation of the battle-lines of the two 
armies, to secure the final hold for the death grapple. The 
contestants were without advantage on either side when the 
sanguinary day's work was finished. 

Both armies had constructed breastworks and were en- 
trenched very close to each other, front to front, gathered and 
poised for a deadly spring. Earlj^ on the morning of May 6th 
Hancock was reenforced by Burnside, and Hill bj^ Longstreet. 

Grant issued orders, through JNIeade, for a general attack 
by Sedgwick, Warren, and Hancock along the entire line, at 
five o'clock on the morning of the 6th. Fifteen minutes before 
five the Confederates opened fire on Sedgwick's right, and 
soon the battle was raging along the whole five-mile front. 
It became a hand-to-hand contest. The Federals advanced 
with great difficulty. The combatants came upon each other 
but a few paces apart. Soldiers on one side became hopelessly 
mixed A\'ith those of the other. 

Artillery played but little part in the battle of the Wil- 
derness. The cavalry of the two armies had one indecisive 
engagement on the 5th. The next day both Custer and Gregg 
repulsed Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee in two separate en- 
counters, but Sheridan was unable to follow up the advantage. 
He had been entrusted with the care of the wagon trains and 
dared not take his cavalry too far from them. The battle was 
chieflj^ one of musketry. Volley upon volley was poured 
out unceasingly; screaming bullets mingled with terrific yells 
in the dense woods. The noise became deafening, and the 
wounded and dying Ijang on the ground among the trees made 
a scene of indescribable horror. Living men rushed in to take 

[421 



May 
1864 



■'^W^ 




LEE GIVES BLOW FOR 
BLOW 

Another view of Ewell's ad- 
vanced entrenchments — the 
bark still fresh where the Con- 
federates had worked with the 
logs. In the Wilderness, Lee, 
ever bold and aggressive, exe- 
cuted one of the most brilUant 
maneuvers of his career. His 
advance was a sudden surprise 
for Grant, and the manner in 
wliich he gave battle was an- 
other. Grant harbored the 
notion that his adversary would 
act on the defensive, and that 
there would be opportunity to 
attack the Army of Northern 
Virginia only behind strong 
entrenchments. But in the 
Wilderness, Lee's veterans, the 
backbone of the South's fight- 
ing strength, showed again their 
unquenchable spirit of ag- 
gressiveness. They came forth 
to meet Grant's men on equal 
terms in the thorny thickets. 
About noon. May 5th, the still- 
ness was broken by the rattle 
of musketry and the roar of 
artillery, which told that War- 
ren had met with resistance on 
the turnpike and that the 
battle had begun. Nearly a 
mUe were Ewell's men driven 
back, and then they came mag- 
nificently on again, fighting 
furiously in the smoke-filled 
thickets with Warren's now 
retreating troops. Sedgwick, 
coming to the support of 
Warren, renewed the conflict. 
To the southward on the plank 
road, Getty's division, of the 
Sixth Corps, hard pressed by 
the forces of A. P. Hill, was 
succored by Hancock with the 
Second Corps, and together 
these commanders achieved 
what seemed success. It was 
brief; Longstreet was close at 
hand to save the day for the 
Confederates. 




COPVH!GHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



It^ lattb in i\}t Wilhnxx^s^ ^ ^ ^ 



4- 



% 



the places of those who had fallen. The missiles cut branches 
from the trees, and saplings were mowed down as grass in a 
meadow is cut by a scythe. Bloody remnants of uniforms, 
blue and gray, hung as weird and uncanny decorations from 
remaining branches. 

The storj^ of the Federal right during the morning is 
easily told. Persistently and often as he tried, Warren could 
make no impression on the strongly entrenched Ewell — nor 
could Sedgwick, who was trjdng equally hard with Wright's 
division of his corps. But with Hancock on the left, in his en- 
trenchments on the Brock road, it was different. The gallant 
and heroic charges here have elicited praise and admiration 
from friend and foe alike. At first. Hill was forced back in 
disorder, and driven in confusion a mile and a half from his 
line. The Confederates seemed on the verge of panic and 
rout. From the rear of the troops in gray came the beloved 
leader of the Southern host. General Lee. He was astride his 
favorite battle-horse, and his face was set in lines of determi- 
nation. Though the crisis of the battle for the Confederates 
had arrived, Lee's voice was calm and soft as he commanded, 
" Follow me," and then urged his charger toward the bristling 
front of the Federal lines. The Confederate ranks were elec- 
trified by the brave example of their commander. A ragged 
veteran who had followed Lee through many campaigns, leaped 
forward and caught the bridle-rein of the horse. " We won't 
go on until you go back," cried the devoted warrior. Instantly 
the Confederate ranks resounded with the cry, " Lee to the 
rear! Lee to the rear! " and the great general went back to 
safety while his soldiers again took up the gage of battle and 
plunged into the smoke and death-laden storm. But Lee, by 
his personal presence, and the arrival of Longstreet, had re- 
stored order and courage in the ranks, and their original 
position was soon regained. 

The pursuit of the Confederates through the dense forest 
had caused confusion and disorganization in Hancock's corps. 

[44] 



May 
1864 



I 

■////////// / 






.,;.?>M,„«:jj/ 






TREES IN THE TRACK OF 
THE IRON STORM 

The Wilderness to the north of 
the Orange turnpike. Over 
ground hke this, where men 
had seldom trod before, ebbed 
and flowed the tide of tramp- 
ling thousands on May 5 and 6, 
1864. Artillery, of which Grant 
had a superabundance, was 
well-nigh useless, wreaking its 
impotent fury upon the defense- 
less trees. Even the efficacy of 
musketry fire was hampered. 
Men tripping and falling in the 
tangled underbrush arose bleed- 
ing from the briars to struggle 
with an adversary whose every 
movement was impeded also. 
The cold steel of the bayonet 
finished the work which rifles 
had begun. In the terrible 
turmoil of death the hopes of 
both Grant and Lee were 
doomed to disappointment. 
The result was a victory for 
neither. Lee, disregarding his 
own safety, endeavored to rally 
the disordered ranks of A. P. 
Hill, and could only be per- 
suaded to retire by the pledge of 
Longstreet that his advancing 
force would win the coveted 
victory. Falhng upon Han- 
cock's flank, the fresh troops 
seemed about to crush the 
Second Corps, as Jackson's men 
had crushed the Eleventh the 
previous year at Chancellors- 
ville. But now, as Jackson, at 
the critical moment, had fallen 
by the fire of his own men, so 
Longstreet and his staff, gallop- 
ing along the plank road, were 
mistaken by their own soldiers 
for Federals and fired upon. A 
minie-ball struck Longstreet in 
the shoulder, and he was carried 
from the field, feebly waving his 
hat that his men might know 
that he was not killed. With 
him departed from the field the 
life of the attack. 




COPYRIGHT, 19 M, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO 



That cohesion and strength in a battle-hne of soldiers, where 
the men can " feel the touch," shoulder to shoulder, was want- 
ing, and the usual form and regular alignment was broken. 
It was two hours before the lines were re-formed. That short 
time had been well utilized bj^ the Confederates. Gregg's 
eight hundred Texans made a desperate charge through the 
thicket of the pine against Webb's brigade of Hancock's 
corps, cutting through the growth, and wildly shouting amid 
the crash and roar of the battle. Half of their number were 
left on the field, but the blow had effectualh' checked the Fed- 
eral advance. 

AVhile the battle was raging Grant's general demeanor 
was imperturbable. He remained with INIeade nearly the whole 
da3" at headquarters at the Lacy house. He sat upon a stump 
most of the time, or at the foot of a tree, leaning against its 
trunk, whittling sticks with his pocket-knife and smoking big 
black cigars — twenty during the day. He received reports of 
the progress of the battle and gave orders without the least 
evidence of excitement or emotion. " His orders," said one 
of his staff, " were given Avith a spur," implying instant action. 
On one occasion, when an officer, in great excitement, brought 
him the report of Hancock's misfortune and expressed appre- 
hension as to Lee's purpose, Grant exclaimed with some 
warmth : " Oh, I am heartily tired of hearing what Lee is 
going to do. Go back to your command and try to think what 
we are going to do ourselves." 

Several brigades of Longstreet's troops, though weary 
from their forced march, were sent on a flanking movement 
against Hancock's left, which demoralized INIott's division and 
caused it to fall back three-quarters of a mile. Longstreet 
now advanced with the rest of his corps. The dashing leader, 
while riding with Generals Kershaw and Jenkins at the head 
of Jenkins' brigade on the right of the Southern battle array, 
was screened by the tangled thickets from the view of his own 
troo2)s, flushed with the success of brilliant flank movement. 



yi 



fiOl 





THE GRAVEYARD OF THREE CAMPAIGNS 

As this photograph was taken, May 12, 1864, the dead again were being brought to unhappy Fredericksburg, 
where slept thousands that had fought under Burnside and Hooker. Now, once more, the sad cavalcade is 
arriving, freighted still more heavily. The half-ruined homes, to which some of the dwellers had returned, 
for the third time become temporary hospitals. It was weeks before the wounded left. The Wilderness 
brought death's woe to 2,246 Northern homes, and Spotsylvania added its 2,725 more. At the South, 
mourning for lost ones was not less widespread. As a battle, the fighting at close quarters in the Wilderness 
was indecisive; as a slaughter, it proved that the deadly determination on both sides was equal. Grant, 
as he turned his face in anguish away from the passing trains of dead and wounded, had learned a bitter 
lesson — not only as to the fighting blood of his new command but also of that of the foe he had come to crush. 



^^~~"r=^ 



i% 



Itr lattb in tl|? Wtl^fnt^BS ^ ^ ^ ^ 



Suddenly the passing column was seen indistinctly through 
an opening and a volley burst forth and struck the officers. 
When the smoke lifted Longstreet and Jenkins were down — 
the former seriously wounded, and the latter killed outright. 
As at Chancellorsville a j^ear before and on the same battle- 
ground, a great captain of the Confederacy was shot down by 
his own men, and by accident, at the crisis of a battle. Jack- 
son lingered several days after Chancellorsville, while Long- 
street recovered and lived to fight for the Confederacy till the 
surrender at Appomattox. General Wadsworth, of Hancock's 
corps, was mortallj^ A\'Ounded during the day, while making a 
daring assault on the Confederate works, at the head of his men. 

During the afternoon, the Confederate attack upon Han- 
cock's and Burnside's forces, which constituted nearly half the 
entire army, was so severe that the Federal lines began to give 
way. T he combatants swaj^ed back and forth ; the Confederates 
seized the Federal breastworks repeatedly, onlj^ to be repulsed 
again and again. Once, the Southern colors were placed on 
the Union battlements. A fire in the forest, which had been 
burning for hours, and in which, it is estimated, about two 
hundred of the Federal wounded perished, was communicated 
to the timber entrenchments, the heat and smoke driving into 
the faces of the men on the Union side, and compelling them 
in some places to abandon the works. Hancock made a gal- 
lant and heroic effort to re-form his lines and push the attack, 
and, as he rode along the lines, his inspiring presence elicited 
cheer upon cheer from the men, but the troops had exhausted 
their ammunition, the wagons were in the rear, and as night 
was apjjroaching, further attack was abandoned. The contest 
ended on the lines where it began. 

Later in the evening consternation swept the Federal 
camp when heavy firing was heard in the direction of Sedg- 
wick's corps, on the right. The rej^ort was current that the 
entire Sixth Corps had been attacked and broken. What had 
happened was a surprise attack by the Confederates, 




.^ 



^,|§^ 



^"^s 




, PATRIOT PUB. CO.- 



A LOSS IN "EFFECTIVE STRENGTH "—WOUNDED AT FREDERICKSBURG 



Federal wounded in the Wilderness campaign, at Fredericksburg. Grant lost 17.3 per cent, of his numbers engaged in the two days' 
battles of the Wilderness alone. Lee's loss was 18.1 per cent. More than 24,000 of the Army of the Potomac and of the Army of North- 
em Virginia lay suffering in those uninhabited thickets. There many of them died alone, and some perished in the horror of a forest 
fire on the night of May 5th. The Federals lost many gallant officers, among them the veteran Wadsworth. The Confederates lost 
Generals Jenkins and Jones, killed, and suffered a staggering blow in the disabling of Longstreet. The series of battles of the Wilder- 
ness and Spotsylvania campaigns were more costly to the Federals than Antietam and Gettysburg combined. 




r 



\}t lattb in tl]f Mtl^rntraB ^ -^ -^ ^ 



commanded by General John B. Gordon, on Sedgwick's right 
flank, Generals Seymour and Shaler with six hundred men 
being captured. When a message was received from Sedg- 
wick that the Sixth Corjjs was safe in an entirely new line, 
there was great rejoicing in the Union camp. 

Thus ended the two days' fighting of the battle of the 
Wilderness, one of the greatest struggles in history. It was 
Grant's first experience in the East, and his trial measure of 
arms with his great antagonist. General Lee. The latter re- 
turned to his entrenchments and the Federals remained in their 
position. The first clash had been undecisive. While Grant 
had been defeated in his plan to pass around Lee, yet he had 
made a new record for the Army of the Potomac, and he was 
not turned from his purpose of putting himself between the 
Army of Northern Virginia and the capital of the Confed- 
eracJ^ During the two days' engagement, there were ten hours 
of actual fighting, with a loss in killed and wounded of about 
seventeen thousand Union and nearly twelve thousand Con- 
federates, nearly three thousand men sacrificed each hour. It 
is the belief of some military writers that Lee deliberatelj^ 
chose the Wilderness as a battle-ground, as it would effectually 
conceal great inferiority of force, but if this be so he seems to 
have come to share the unanimous opinions of tlie generals of 
both sides that its difficulties were unsurmountable. and within 
his entrenchments he awaited further attack. It did not come. 

The next night, INIaj^ 7th, Grant's march by the Confed- 
erate right fiank was resumed, but only to be blocked again 
by the dogged determination of the tenacious antagonist, a 
few miles beyond, at Spotsylvania. Lee again anticipated 
Grant's move. It is not strange that the minds of these two 
men moved along the same lines in military strategy, when 
we remember thej^ were both military experts of the highest 
order, and were now working out the same problem. The 
results obtained by each are told in the story of the battle of 
Spotsylvania. 

[50] 



-JJI 



ll^^^^SBsc 



if=^ 



PART I 
GRANT VERSUS LEE 



SPOTSYLVANIA AND THE 
BLOODY ANGLE 




QUARLES' MILL, NORTH ANNA RIVER — THE GOAL AFTER 
SPOTSYLVANIA 



1^ 



THE BATTLE OF SPOTSYLVANIA 
COURT HOUSE 

But to Spotsylvania history will accord the palm, I am sure, for hav- 
ing furnished an unexampled nuizzle-to-muz/,le fire ; the longest roll of 
incessant, unbroken musi<etry; the most splendid exhibition of individual 
heroism and personal daring by large numbers, who, standing in the 
freshly spilt blood of their fellows, faced for so long a period and at so 
short a range the flaming rifles as they heralded the decrees of death. 
This heroism was confined to neither side. It was exhibited by both 
armies, and in that hand-to-hand struggle for the j^ossession of the breast- 
works it seemed almost universal. It would be coiiunonplace truism to 
say that such examples will not be lost to the Kepublic. — GeneralJohn B. 
Gordon, C.S.A., in '^ Heminiscaires of the Civil War.'''' 

IMMEDIATELY after the cessation of hostilities on the 
6th of INIay in the Wilderness, Grant determined to move 
his army to Spotsjdvania Court House, and to start the wagon 
trains on the afternoon of the 7th. Grant's object was, by a 
flank move, to get between Lee and Richmond. Lee foresaw 
Grant's purpose and also moved his cavalry, under Stuart, 
across the opponent's path. As an illustration of the exact 
science of war we see the two great military leaders racing 
for position at Spotsjdvania Court House. It was revealed 
later that Lee had already made preparations on this field a 
year before, in anticipation of its being a possible battle- 
ground. 

Apprised of the movement of the Federal trains, Lee, 
with his usual sagacious foresight, surmised their destination. 
He therefore ordered General R. H. Anderson, now in com- 
mand of Longstreet's corps, to march to Sj)otsylvania Court 
House at three o'clock on the morning of the 8th. But the 
smoke and flames from the burning forests that surrounded 

[52] 






/'f 



'.'fl. 



m/ 



WM 



/////. 



"i/M, 



W//%/./ 



yj': 



yJK 



^"'-^^^ 




1,' 



' U' 



! P\ if , 






I, 




, REVIEW OF REVIEWS ( 



SPOTSYLVANIA COURT HOUSE 

WHERE GRANT WANTED TO " FIGHT IT OUt" 

For miles around this quaint old vUlage-pump surged the lines of two vast con- 
tending armies, May 8-12, 1864. In this picture of only a few months later, the 
inhabitants have returned to their accustomed quiet, although the reverberations 
of battle have hardly died away. But on May 7th Generals Grant and Meade, 
with their staffs, had started toward the little courthouse. As they passed along 
the Brock Road in the rear of Hancock's lines, the men broke into loud hurrahs. 
They saw that the movement was still to be southward. But chance had caused 
Lee to choose the same objective. Misinterpreting Grant's movement as a retreat 
upon Fredericksburg, he sent Longstreet's corps, now commanded by Anderson, 
to Spotsylvania. Chance again, in the form of a forest fire, drove Anderson to 
make, on the night of May 7th, the march from the Wilderness that he had been 
ordered to commence on the morning of the 8th. On that day, while Warren was 
contending with the forces of Anderson, Lee's whole army was entrenching on 
a ridge around Spotsylvania Court House. "Accident," says Grant, "often 
decides the fate of battle." But this "accident" was one of Lee's master moves. 



■■-..i ■ 



pots^ltiama m\h t{}t llcn^g ^Ittgb 



•vlj- 




Anderson's canii) in the Wilderness made the position unten- 
able, and the march was begun at eleven o'clock on the night 
of the 7th. This earh- start proved of inestimable value to 
tlie Confederates. Anderson's right, in the Wilderness, rested 
opposite Hancock's left, and the Confederates secured a more 
direct line of march to Sj^otsylvania, several miles shorter than 
that of the Federals. The same night General Ewell at the 
extreme Confederate left was ordered to follow Anderson at 
daylight, if he found no large force in his front. This order 
was followed out, there being no opposing troops, and the 
corps took the longest route of any of I^ee's trooi)s. General 
Ewell found the march exhausting and distressing on accoiuit 
of the intense heat and dust and smoke from the burning 
forests. 

The Federal move toward Spotsylvania Court House was 
begun after dark on the 7th. Warren's corjjs, in the lead, took 
the Brock road ])ehind Hancock's jiosition and was followed 
bj' Sedgwick, who marched by way of Chancellorsville. Burn- 
side came next, but he was halted to guard the trains. Han- 
cock, covering the move, did not start the head of his command 
until some time after dajdight. When Warren reached Todd's 
Tavern he found the Union cavalry under Merritt in conflict 
with Fitzhugh Lee's division of Stuart's cavalry. Warren 
sent Robinson's division ahead; it drove Fitzhugh Lee back, 
and, advancing rai)idly, met the head of Anderson's troops. 
The leading brigades came to the assistance of the cavalry; 
Warren was finally rejjulsed and began entrenching. The 
Confederates gained Spotsjdvania Court House. 

Throughout the day there was continual skirmishing be- 
tween the troops, as the Northerners attempted to break the 
line of the Confederates. But the men in gray stood firm. 
Every advance of the blue was repulsed. Lee again blocked 
the way of Grant's move. The Federal loss during the day 
had been about thirteen hundred, while the Confederates lost 
fewer men than their opponents. 

[54] 



V 





COPYRIGHT 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



MEADE AND SEDGWICK— BEFORE THE ADVANCE THAT BROUGHT SEDGWICK'S 

DEATH AT SPOTSYLVANIA 

To the right of General Meade, his chief and friend, stands Major-General John Sedgwick, commanding 
the Sixth Army Corps. He wears his famiUar round hat and is smiHng. He was a great tease; evidently 
the performances of the civilian who had brought his new-fangled photographic apparatus into camp sug- 
gested a joke. A couple of months later, on the 9th of May, Sedgwick again was jesting — before Spot- 
sylvania Court House. McMahon of his staff had begged him to avoid passing some artillery exposed to 
the Confederate fire, to which Sedgwick had playfully repHed, "McMahon, I would like to know who 
commands this corps, you or 1?" Then he ordered some infantry before him to shift toward the right. 
Their movement drew the fire of the Confederates. The lines were close together; the situation tense. A 
sharpshooter's bullet whistled — Sedgwick fell. He was taken to Meade's headquarters. The Army of 
the Potomac had lost another corps commander, and the Union a brilliant and courageous soldier. 




:potst|litamct mxh t[}t TMmh\^ Anrjb ^ ^ 








The work of both was now the construction of entrench- 
ments, A\'hich consisted of earthworks sloping to either side, 
with logs as a parapet, and between these works and the oji- 
posing army were constructed what are known as abatis, felled 
trees, Mith the branches cut off, the sharp ends projecting 
toward the a2)proaching forces. 

I>ee's entrenchments were of such character as to increase 
the efficiency of his force. They were formed in the shape 
of a huge V with the apex flattened, forming a salient angle 
against the center of the Federal line. The Confederate lines 
were facing north, northwest, and northeast, the corps com- 
manded b}" Anderson on the left, Ewell in the center, and 
Early on the right, the latter temporarily replacing A. P. 
Hill, who was ill. The Federals confronting them were Burn- 
side on the left, Sedgwick and Warren in the center, and 
Hancock on the right. 

The daj' of the 9th was spent in placing the lines of 
troops, with no fighting except skirmishing and some sharp- 
shooting. While placing some field-pieces. General Sedgwick 
was hit by a sharpshooter's bidlet and instantly killed. He 
was a man of high character, a most competent commander, 
of fearless courage, loved and lamented by the army. Gen- 
eral Horatio G. Wright succeeded to the command of the 
Sixth Corps. 

Early on the morning of the 10th, the Confederates dis- 
covered that Hancock had crossed the Po River in front of 
his position of the day before and was threatening their rear. 
Grant had susj^ected that Lee was about to move north toward 
Fredericksburg, and Hancock had been ordered to make a 
reconnaissance with a view to attacking and turning the Con- 
federate left. But difficulties stood in the way of Hancock's 
performance, and before he had accomplished much, JNIeade 
directed him to send two of his divisions to assist Warren in 
making an attack on the Southern lines. The Second Corps 
started to recross the Po. Before all were over Early made 




f/f 






1 



^"S^. ^ 



^« 





REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE APEX OF THE BATTLEFIELD 



McCool's house, within the "Bloody Angle." The photographs 
were taken in 1864, shortly after the struggle of Spotsylvania 
Court House, and show the old dwelling as it was on May 12th, 
when the fighting was at flood tide all round it; and below, the 
Confederate entrenchments near that blood-drenched spot. At 
a point in these Confederate lines in advance of the McCool 
house, the entrenchments had been 
thrown forward like the salient of a 
fort, and the wedge-shaped space 
within them was destined to become 
renowned as the "Bloody Angle." 
The position was defended by the 
famous "Stonewall Division" of the 
Confederates under command of Gen- 
eral Edward Johnson. It was near 
the scene of L'pton's gallant charge on 
the 10th. Here at daybreak on May 
12th the divisions of the intrepid Bar- 
low and Bimey, sent forward by Hancock, stole a march upon 
the unsuspecting Confederates. Leaping over the breastworks 
the Federals were upon them and the first of the terrific hand- 
to-hand conflicts that marked the day began. It ended in victory 
for Hancock's men, into whose hands fell 20 cannon, 30 standards 
and 4,000 prisoners, "the best division in the Confederate army." 




CONFEDERATE ENTRENCHMENTS NEAR 
"BLOODY ANGLE" 



Flushed with success, the Federals pressed on to Lee's second 
line of works, where Wilcox's division of the Confederates held 
them until re enforcements sent by Lee from Hill and Anderson 
drove them back. On the Federal side the Sixth Corps, with 
Upton's brigade in the advance, was hurried forward to hold the 
advantage gained. But Lee himself was on the scene, and the 
men of the gallant Gordon's division, 
pausing long enough to seize and turn 
his horse, with shouts of "General 
Lee in the rear," hurtled forward into 
the conflict. In five separate charges 
by the Confederates the fighting came 
to close quarters. With bayonets, 
clubbed muskets, swords and pistols, 
men fought within two feet of one an- 
other on either side of the entrench- 
ments at "Bloody Angle" till night at 
last left it in possession of the Fed- 
erals. None of tlie fighting near Spotsylvania Court House was 
inglorious. On the 10th, after a day of strengthening positions on 
both sides, young Colonel Emory Upton of the 121st New York, led 
a storming party of twelve regiments into the strongest of the 
Confederate entrenchments. For his bravery Grant made him a 
brigadier-general on the field. 




mum 



W' 



r 




a vigorous assault on the rear division, which did not escape 



without heavy loss. In this engagement the corps lost the 
first gun in its most honorable career, a misfortune deeply 
lamented by everj^ man in the corps, since up to this moment 
it had long been the only one in the entire army which could 
make the proud claim of never having lost a gun or a color. 

But the great event of the 10th was the direct assault 
upon the Confederate front. JNIeade had arranged for Han- 
cock to take charge of this, and the appointed hour was five 
in the afternoon. But Warren reported earlier that the op-' 
portunity was most favorable, and he was ordered to start at 
once. Wearing his full uniform, the leader of the Fifth Corps 
advanced at a quarter to four with the greater portion of his 
troops. The jirogress of the valiant Northerners was one of 
the greatest difficulty, owing to the dense wood of low cedar- 
trees through M'hich they had to make their way. Longstreet's 
corjjs behind their entrenchments acknowledged the advance 
M'ith very heavy artillery and musket fire. But Warren's 
troops did not falter or pause until some had reached the 
abatis and others the very crest of the parapet. A few, indeed, 
were actually killed inside the works. All, however, who sur- 
vived the terrible ordeal were finally driven back with heavy 
loss. General James C. Rice was mortally wounded. 

To the left of Warren, General Wright had observed 
what he believed to be a vulnerable spot in the Confederate 
entrenchments. Behind this particular place was stationed 
Doles' brigade of Georgia regiments, and Colonel Emory 
Upton was ordered to charge Doles with a cokimn of twelve 
regiments in four lines. The ceasing of the Federal artillery 
at six o'clock was the signal for the charge, and twenty min- 
utes later, as Upton tells us, " at command, the lines rose, 
moved noiselesslj^ to the edge of the wood, and then, with a 
wild cheer and faces averted, rushed for the works. Through 
a terrible front and flank fire the column advanced quickly, 
gaining the parapet. Here occurred a deadly hand-to-hand 

[58] 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRtOT PUB. CO. 



UNION ARTILLERY MASSING 
FOR THE ADVANCE THAT 
EWELLS ATTACK DELAYED 
THAT SAME AFTERNOON 

BEVERLY HOUSE, MAY 18, 1864 



The artillery massing in the meadow gives to this view the interest of an impending tragedy. In the foreground 
the officers, servants, and orderlies of the headquarters mess camp are waiting for the command to strike their 
tents, pack the wagons, and move on. But at the very time this photograph was taken they should have been 
miles away. Grant had issued orders the day before that should have set these troops in motion. However, the 
Confederate General Ewell had chosen the 18th to make an attack on the right flank. It not only delayed the 
departure but forced a change in the intended positions of the division as they had been contemplated by the 
commander-in-chief. Beverly House is where General Warren pitched his headquarters after Spotsylvania, 
and the spectator is looking toward the battlefield that lies beyond the distant woods. AttoT Ewell's attack, 
Warren again found himself on the right flank, and at this very moment the main body of the Federal army is 
passing in the rear of him. The costly check at Spotsylvania, with its wonderful display of fighting on both 
sides, had in its apparently fruitless results called for the display of all Grant's gifts as a military leader. It 
takes but little imagination to supply color to this photograph; it is full of it — full of the movement and detail 
of war also. It is springtime; blossoms have just left the trees and the whole country is green and smiling, but 
the earth is scarred by thousands of trampling feet and hoof-prints. Ugly ditches cross the landscape; the debris 
of an army marks its onsweep from one battlefield to another. 



^^^w- 




sMiMMMlm, 



potsgluama anb tlt^ llno^ii Attgk 



•^ 



WMimiwm 



% 



conflict. The enemy, sitting in their pits with pieces upright, 
loaded, and with bayonets fixed ready to impale the first Avho 
should leap over, absolutely refused to yield the ground. The 
first of our men who tried to surmount the works fell, pierced 
through the head by musket-balls. Others, seeing the fate of 
their comrades, held their pieces at arm's length and fired 
downward, while others, poising their pieces vertically, hurled 
them down upon their enemy, pinning them to the ground. 
. . . The struggle lasted but a few seconds. Numbers pre- 
vailed, and like a resistless wave, the column poured over the 
works, quickly putting hors de combat those who resisted and 
sending to the rear those who surrendered. Pressing forward 
and expanding to the right and left, the second line of 
entrenchments, its line of battle, and a battery fell into our 
hands. The column of assault had accomplished its task." 

The Confederate line had been shattered and an opening 
made for exijected support. This, however, failed to arrive. 
General IMott, on the left, did not bring his division forward 
as had been planned and as General Wright had ordered. 
The Confederates were reenforced, and Upton could do no 
more than hold the captured entrenchments until ordered to 
retire. He brought twelve hundred prisoners and several 
stands of colors back to the Union lines; bvit over a thousand 
of his own men were killed or wounded. For gallantrj^ dis- 
l^layed in this charge. Colonel Upton was made brigadier- 
general. 

The losses to the Union army in this engagement at 
Spotsylvania were over four thousand. The loss to the Con- 
federates was probably two thousand. 

During the 11th there was a pause. The two giant an- 
tagonists took a breathing spell. It was on the morning of this 
date that Grant penned the sentence, " I propose to fight it 
out on this line if it takes all summer," to his chief of staff. 
General Halleck. 

During this time Sheridan, who had brought the cavalry 

[CO] 



1864. 




wm 






W: 






r-^^ 





COPYRIGHT. 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE ONES WHO NEVER CAME BACK 



These are some of the men for whom waiting women wept — the ones who never came back. They be- 
longed to Ewell's Corps, who attacked the Federal lines so gallantly on May 18th. There may be some who 
will turn from this picture with a shudder of horror, but it is no morbid curiosity that will cause them to 
study it closely. If pictures such as this were familiar everywhere there would soon be an end of war. We 
can realize money by seeing it expressed in figures; we can realize distances by miles, but some things in 
their true meaning can only be grasped and impressions formed with the seeing eye. Visualizing only 
this small item of the awful cost — the cost beside which money cuts no figure — an idea can be gained of what 
war is. Here is a sermon in the cause of universal peace. The handsome lad lying with outstretched 
arms and clinched fingers is a mute plea. Death has not disfigured him — he lies in an attitude of relaxa- 
tion and composure. Perhaps in some Southern home this same face is pictured in the old family albiun, 
alert and full of life and hope, and here is the end. Does there not come to the mind the insistent question, 
"Why?" The Federal soldiers standing in the picture are not thinking of all this, it may be true, l)ut 
had they meditated in the way that some may, as they gaze at this record of death, it would be worth their 
while. One of the men is apparently holding a sprig of blossoms in his hand. It is a strange note here. 




\imMSMMMiA 



pntBtjlnctuta an^ X\\t llnnbg Angb ^ ^ 



r 



n 



H 



up to a state of great efficiency, was making an expedition to 
the vicinity of Richmond. He had said that if he were j)er- 
mitted to operate independently of the army he would draw 
Stuart after him. Grant at once gave the order, and Sheridan 
made a detour around Lee's army, engaging and defeating 
the Confederate cavalry, which he greatly outnumbered, on 
the 11th of JNIaj^ at Yellow Tavern, where General Stuart, 
the brilliant commander of the Confederate cavalry, was mor- 
tally wounded. 

Grant carefully went over the ground and decided upon 
another attack on the 12th. About four hundred yards of 
clear ground la}" in front of the sharp angle, or salient, of Lee's 
lines. After the battle this point was known as the " Bloody 
Angle," and also as " Hell's Hole." Here Hancock was 
ordered to make an attack at daybreak on the 12th. Lee had 
been expecting a move on the part of Grant. On the evening 
of the 10th he sent to Ewell this message: " It will be neces- 
sarj^ for you to reestablish your whole line to-night. . . . 
Perhajjs Grant will make a night attack, as it was a favorite 
amusement of his at Vicksburg." 

Through rain and mud Hancock's force was gotten into 
position within a few hundred yards of the Confederate breast- 
works. He was now between Burnside and Wright. At the 
first approach of dawn the four divisions of the Second Corps, 
under Birnej% ]Mott, Barlow, and Gibbon (in reserve) moved 
noiselessly to the designated point of attack. Without a shot 
being fired they reached the Confederate entrenchments, and 
struck with fury and impetuositj^ a mortal blow at the point 
where least expected, on the salient, held by General Edward 
Johnson of Ewell's corps. The movement of the Federals 
was so swift and the surprise so complete, that the Confed- 
erates could make practically no resistance, and were forced 
to surrender. 

The artillery had been withdrawn from the earthworks 
occupied by Johnson's trooj^s on the previous night, but 



May 

1864- 



^ 



'/ III 



n 




COPYRIGHT, Mil, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



DIGGING A LONELY GRAVE— AFTER SPOTSYLVANIA 



If we should take out the grim reminder of war's horrors, the 
dead man on the litter with the stiff upturned arms, we should 
have a charming picture of a little Virginia farm, a cozy little 
house with its blossoming peach trees in the garden and the big 
Chinaberry tree shading the front yard. But within a stone's 
throw lie scores of huddled heaps 
distressing to gaze upon. Only a 
few hours before they had been 
hving, breathing, fighting men; 
for here occurred Ewell's fierce 
attack on the 18th of May. The 
little farm belonged to a widow 
by the name of Allsop, and the 
garden and the ground back of 
the bams and outbuildings be- 
came a Confederate cemetery. 
Soldiers grow callous to the work 
of putting friends and foemen to 
rest for the last long sleep. Evi- 
dently this little squad of the 
burying detail have discovered 
that this man is an officer, and 




instead of putting him in the long trench where his comrades rest 
with elbows touching in soldierly alignment, tliey are giving him a 
grave by himself. Down at a fence corner on the Allsop farm 
they found the dead Confederate of the smaller photograph. 
He was of the never-surrender type, this man in the ragged gray 

uniform, one of the do or die 
kind that the bullets find most 
often. Twice wounded before 
his dauntless spirit left him was 
this gallant fellow; with a shat- 
tered leg that he had tied about 
hastily with a cotton shirt, he 
still fought on, firing from where 
he lay until he could see no longer, 
and he fell back and slowly bled 
to death from the ghastly wound 
in the shoulder. There was no 
mark on him to tell his name; he 
was just one of Ewell's men, and 
became merely a number on the 
tally sheet that showed the 
score of the game of war. 



JUST "ONE OF EWELL'S MEN" 




pntsijluama m\h tlt^ llcc^^ Angb 4- ^ 



ksMMMi2^m^ 



May 
1864 






Sfe 



iH-yj 



'■-■TT..,^ I 



developments had led to an order to have it returned early in 
the morning. It was approaching as the attack was made. 
Before the artillerj^men could escape or turn the guns upon 
the Federals, every cannon had been captured. General John- 
son with almost his whole division, numbering about three 
thousand, and General Steuart, were captured, between twenty 
and thirty colors, and several thousand stands of arms were 
taken. Hancock had already distinguished himself as a leader 
of his soldiers, and from his magnificent appearance, noble 
bearing, and courage had been called " Hancock the Superb," 
but this was the most brilliant of his military achievements. 

Pressing onward across the first defensive line of the 
Confederates, Hancock's men advanced against the second 
series of trenches, nearlj^ half a mile beyond. As the Federals 
pushed through the muddy fields they lost all formation. 
They reached close to the Confederate line. The Southerners 
were prepared for the attack. A volley poured into the throng 
of blue, and General Gordon with his reserve division rushed 
forward, fighting desperately to drive the Northerners back. 
As they did so General Lee rode up, evidently intending to 
go forward with Gordon. His horse was seized by one of the 
soldiers, and for the second time in the campaign the cry arose 
from the ranks, " Lee to the rear! " The beloved commander 
was led back from the range of fire, while the men, under the 
inspiration of his example, rushed forward in a charge that 
drove the Federals back until they had reached the outer line 
of works. Here they fought stubbornly at deadly range. 
Neither side was able to force the other back. But Gordon 
was not able to cope with the entire attack. Wright and War- 
ren both sent some of their divisions to reenforce Hancock, 
and Lee sent all the assistance possible to the troops struggling 
so desperately to restore his line at the salient. 

JNIany vivid and picturesque descriptions of this fighting 
at the angle have been written, some \ij eye-witnesses, others 
by able historians, but no j^rinted page, no cold type can 

[64] 





'^a; 



■^■•'^'K!*''- 



'«gS»i??3 I 




COPyRIGHr, 1911. PATRIOT PU6. CO. 



IN ONE LONG BURIAL TRENCH 



It fell to the duty of the First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery of General Tyler's division to put under ground the men they slew in 
the sharp battle of May 18th, and here they are near Mrs. AUsop's bam digging the trench to hide the dreadful work of bullet and 
shot and shell. No feeling of bitterness exists in moments such as these. What soldier in the party knows but what it may be his 
turn next to lie beside other lumps of clay and join his earth-mother in this same fashion in his turn. But men become used to work 
of any kind, and these men digging up the warm spring soil, when their labor is concluded, are neither oppressed nor nerve-shattered 
by what they have seen and done. They have lost the power of experiencing sensation. Senses become numbed in a measure; the 
value of life itself from close and constant association with death is minimized almost to the vanishing point. In half an hour these 
very men may be singing and laughing as it war and death were only things to be expected, not reasoned over in the least. 




ONE OF THE FEARLESS CONFEDERATES 




ssnMMMlSmL 



potsijltiauta auh tit? SlnnJiij Attgb * ♦ 




i^^^S^????!m»- 



^^ -4 





convey to the mind the reahties of that terrible conflict. The 
results were apj^alling. The whole engagement was prac- 
tically a hand-to-hand contest. Tlie dead laj^ beneath the feet 
of the living, three and four layers dee^). This hitherto quiet 
spot of earth was devastated and covered with the slain, wel- 
tering in their own blood, mangled and shattered into scarcely 
a semblance of human form. Dying men were crushed bj^ 
horses and many, buried beneath the mire and mud, still lived. 
Some artillerj' was posted on high ground not far from the 
apex of the salient, and an incessant fire was poured into the 
Confederate works over the Union lines, Avhile other guns kept 
u}) an enfilade of canister along the west of the salient. 

The contest from the right of the Sixth to the left of the 
Second Corps was kept up throughout the day along the 
whole line. Repeatedly the trenches had to be cleared of the 
dead. An oak tree twenty-two inches in diameter was cut 
down b}" musket-balls. INIen lea2)ed upon the breastworks, 
firing until shot down. 

The battle of the " angle " is said to have been the most 
awful in diu'ation and intensitj' in modern times. Battle-line 
after battle-line, bravely olieying orders, was annihilated. The 
entrencliments were shivered and shattered, trunks of trees 
carved into split brooms. Sometimes the contestants came so 
close together that tlieir muskets met, muzzle to muzzle, and 
their flags almost intertwined with each other as thej' waved 
in the breeze. As they fought with the desperation of madmen, 
tlie living would stand on the bodies of the dead to reach over 
the breastworks with their weapons of slaughter. Lee hurled 
his army with un2)aralleled Adgor against his opponent five 
times during the day, but each time was repulsed. Until three 
o'clock the next morning the slaughter continued, when the 
Confederates sank back into their second line of entrenchments, 
leaving their opponents wliere they had stood in the morning. 

All the fighting on the 12th was not done at the " Bloody 
Angle." Burnside on the left of Hancock engaged Early's 

[06] 





PATRIOT PUB. CO 



BETHEL CHURCH— WAITING FOR ORDERS 



The couriers lounging around the church door will soon be galloping away with orders; for it is the 23d of May, and, the afternoon 
before, Bumside, with his Ninth Corps, arrived and took up his headquarters here, within ten miles of the North Anna. In the " sidling" 
movement, as the Confederate soldiers called it, begun by Grant on May 19th, the corps of Hancock and Warren were pressing forward 
to Guiney's Station through a strange country, over roads unknown to them, while the corps of Bumside and Wright were still demon- 
strating against the Confederates at Spotsylvania. Here was an opportunity for Lee to take the initiative, and with his whole force 
either attack Wright and Bumside, or, pushing forward by the Telegraph Road, strike Hancock alone, or at most Hancock and Warren. 
But Lee, fearing perhaps to risk a general contest, remained strictly on the defensive, moving his troops out along the Telegraph Road 
to make sure of keeping between his adversary and Richmond. Meanwhile, Burnside, followed by Wright, marched on the evening of 
the 21st, and next day came up with Grant's headquarters at Guiney's Station. Here he found Grant sitting on the porch, reading 
the despatch that told of Sherman's capture of Kingston, Georgia, and his crossing of the Etowah River. Burnside was ordered for- 
ward to Bethel Church and thence to Ox Ford, on the North Anna, there on the 24th to be held in check by Lee's faultless formation. 



•1 '.\ 




pntsijlttmtta unh tl|? Slnn^n Attgl? ^ ^ 



\\i; 



,-'iife 



troops and was defeated, while on the other side of the sahent 
Wright succeeded in driving Anderson back. 

The question has naturally arisen why that " salient " 
was regarded of such vital importance as to induce the two 
chief commanders to force their armies into such a hand-to- 
hand contest that must inevitably result in unparalleled and 
wholesale slaughter. It was manifest, however, that Grant 
had shown generalship in finding the weak point in Lee's line 
for attack. It Avas imperative that he hold the gain made by 
his troops. Lee could ill afford the loss resistance would entail, 
but he could not withdraw his armj'^ during the day without 
disaster. 

The men on both sides seemed to comjirehend the gravity 
of the situation, that it was a battle to the death for that little 
point of entrenchment. Without urging by officers, and some- 
times without officers, thej^ fell into line and fought and bled 
and died in myriads as though inspired by some unseen power. 
Here men rushed to their doom with shouts of courage and 
eagerness. 

The pity of it all Avas manifested by the shocking scene 
on that battlefield the next day. Piles of dead lay around 
the " Bloody Angle," a veritable " Hell's Hole " on both sides 
of the entrenchments, four layers deep in places, shattered and 
torn bji' bullets and hoofs and clubbed muskets, while beneath 
the laA'ers of dead, it is said, there could be seen quiA^ering 
limbs of those aa'Iio still lived. 

General Grant Avas deeply moA^ed at the terrible loss of 
life. When he expressed his regret for the heavy sacrifice of 
men to General JNIeade, the latter re2:)lied, " General, Ave can't 
do these little tricks Avithout heaA^y losses." The total loss to 
the Union army in killed, Avounded, and missing at Spotsyl- 
vania Avas nearljr eighteen thousand. The Confederate losses 
have never been positively knoAvn, but from the best aA'ailable 
sources of information the number has been j^laced at not less 
than fifteen thousand. Lee's loss in high officers Avas AJ^ery 

[C8] 



May 
1864 



■>^/ 



-'^ 




THE REDOUBT THAT LEE LET GO 



This redoubt covered Taylor's Bridge, but its flanks were swept by artillery and an enfilading fire 
from rifle-pits across the river. Late in the evening of the 23d, Hancock's corps, arriving before the 
redoubt, had assaulted it with two brigades and easily carried it. During the night the Confederates 
from the other side made two attacks upon the bridge and finally succeeded in setting it afire. The 
flames were extinguished by the Federals, and on the 24th Hancock's troops crossed over without oppo- 
sition. The easy crossing of the Federals here was but another example of Lee's favorite rule to let his 
antagonist attack him on the further side of a stream. Taylor's Bridge could easily have been held by 
Lee for a much longer time, but its ready abandonment was part of the tactics by which Grant was being 
led into a military dilemma. In the picture the Federal soldiers confidently hold the captured redoubt, 
convinced that the possession of it meant that they had driven Lee to his last corner. 



p0t0||ltiama m\h tl|^ llonliif ^xx^k 



♦ 



^ 



severe, the killed including General Daniel and General Per- 
rin, while Generals Walker, Ramseur, R. D. Johnston, and 
jMcGowan were severely wounded. In addition to the loss of 
these important commanders, Lee was further crippled in 
efficient commanders by the capture of Generals Edward John- 
son and Steuart. The Union loss in high officers was light, 
excej^ting General Sedgwick on the 9th. General Webb was 
wounded, and Colonel Coon, of tlie Second Corps, was killed. 

Lee's forces had been handled with such consummate skill 
as to make them count one almost for two, and there was the 
spirit of devotion for Lee among his soldiers which was indeed 
practically hero-worship). All in all, he had an army, though 
shattered and worn, that was almost unconquerable. Grant 
found that ordinary methods of war, even such as he had ex- 
perienced in the West, were not aj^plicable to the Army of 
Northern Virginia. The only hope for the Union army was 
a long-drawn-out process, and with larger numbers, better 
kejjt, and more often relieved, Grant's armj^ would ultimately 
make that of Lee's succumb, from sheer exhaustion and dis- 
integration. 

The battle was not terminated on the 12th. During the 
next five days there was a continuous movement of the Union 
corps to the east which was met by a corresponding readjust- 
ment of the Confederate lines. After various maneuvers, 
Hancock was ordered to the point where the battle was fought 
on the 12th, and on the 18th and 19th, the last effort was made 
to break the lines of the Confederates. Ewell, however, drove 
the Federals back and the next day he had a severe engage- 
ment with the Union left wing, while endeavoring to find out 
something of Grant's plans. 

Twelve days of active effort were thus spent in skirmish- 
ing, fighting, and countermarching. In the last two engage- 
ments the Union losses were nearly two thousand, whicli are 
included in those before stated. It was decided to abandon the 
attempt to dislodge Lee from his entrenchments, and to move 



May 

1864 



^ 





lEVIEWS CO- 



"WALK YOUR HORSES" 



ONE OF THE GRIM JOKES OF WAR 



AS PLAYED AT 



CHESTERFIELD BRIDGE, NORTH ANNA 



The sign posted by the local authorities at Taylor's bridge, where the Telegraph Road crosses the North 
Anna, was "Walk your horses." The wooden structure was referred to by the military as Chesterfield 
bridge. Here Hancock's Corps arrived toward evening of May 23d, and the Confederate entrenchments, 
showing in the foreground, were seized by the old "Berry Brigade." In the heat of the charge the Ninety- 
third New York carried their colors to the middle of the bridge, driving off the Confederates before they 
could destroy it. When the Federals began crossing next day they had to run the gantlet of musketry 
and artillery fire from the opposite bank. Several regiments of New York heavy artillery poured across the 
structure at the double-quick with the hostile shells bursting about their heads. When Captain Sleeper's 
Eighteenth Massachusetts battery began crossing, the Confederate cannoneers redoubled their efforts to 
blow up the ammunition by well-aimed shots. Sleeper passed over only one piece at a time in order to 
diminish the target and enforce the observance of the local law by walking his horses ! The Second Corps 
got no further than the ridge beyond, where Lee's strong V formation held it from further advance. 




p0tBijluauta m\h 1I|? lloc^ii An^b ^ ^ 





iT 




^: 



» 



to the North Anna River. On the 20th of May the march 
Avas resumed. The men had suffered great hardships from 
hunger, exposure, and incessant action, and many would fall 
asleej) on the line of march. 

On the daj^ after the start, Hancock crossed the Matta- 
pony River at one point and Warren at another. Hancock 
was ordered to take position on the right bank and, if prac- 
ticable, to attack the Confederates wherever found. By the 
22d, Wright and Burnside came up and the march proceeded. 
But the vigilant Lee had again detected the plans of his 
adversary. 

JNIeade's army had barelj^ started in its purpose to turn 
the Confederates' flank when the Southern forces were on the 
way to block the army of the North. As on the march from 
the Wilderness to Spotsylvania, Lee's troops took the shorter 
route, along main roads, and reached the North Anna ahead 
of the Federals. Warren's corps was the first of Meade's 
army to arrive at the north bank of the river, which it did on 
the afternoon of May 23d. I^ee was already on the south 
bank, but Warren crossed without opposition. No sooner 
had he gotten over, however, than he was attacked by the Con- 
federates and a severe but undecisive engagement followed. 
The next morning (the 24th) Hancock and Wright put their 
troojis across at places some miles apart, and before these two 
wings of the army could be joined, Lee made a brilliant stroke 
by marching in between them, forming a wedge whose i^oint 
rested on the bank, oj^posite the Union center, under Burnside, 
which had not yet crossed the river. 

The Army of the Potomac was now in three badly sepa- 
rated parts. Burnside could not get over in sufficient strength 
to reenforce the wings, and all attempts by the latter to aid 
him in so doing met with considerable disaster. The loss in 
these engagements approximated two thousand on each side. 

On the 25th, Sheridan and his cavalry rejoined the army. 
They had been gone since the 9th and their raid was most 




4- 




*&^«<ii«i Is 




WHERE GRANT FOUND OUT HIS MISTAKE 



At those white tents above Quarles' Mill dam sits Grant, at his "General Headquarters" on the 24th of 
May, and he has found out too late that Lee has led him into a trap. The Army of Northern Virginia 
had beaten him in the race for the North Anna, and it was found strongly entrenched on the south side of 
the stream. The corps of Warren and Wright had crossed at Jericho Mills a mile above Quarles' Mill, and 
Hancock's crossing had been effected so easily at the wooden bridge just below Quarles' Mill. Grant had 
reenforced both wings of his army before he discovered that it was divided. Lee's lines stretched south- 
ward in the form of a V, with the apex resting close to the river. The great strategist had folded back his 
flanks to let in Grant's forces on either side. This and the following pictures form a unique series of illus- 
trations in panorama of the futile crossing of the North Anna by the Federals. 






THE UNDISPUTED CROSSING 
AT NORTH ANNA 

These pictures show the pontoon-bridge laid 
for the crossing of the corps of Warren and 
Wright at Jericho Ford, about four miles far- 
ther upstream than the Chesterfield or Tay- 
lor's bridge. The Federals met with no oppo- 
sition at this crossing, their sharpshooters being 
able to keep off the Confederates, while the 
pontonniers were at work. In the two upper 
pictures the old Jericho Mill stands on the north 
bank. On the eminence above it is the Gentry 
house and other dwellings, past which the am- 
munition-train is winding down the road to the 
crossing. Warren's Fifth Corps was soon to 
need its ammunition. The infantry were all 
across by 4 :30 in the afternoon of May 23d and, 
advancing over the ground seen in the lower 
picture, formed their lines on the edge of a 
wood half a mile beyond the south bank. The 
artillery was posted on the ridge. Before 
Warren could get into position Lee sent the 
whole of Hill's Corps against him. A brigade 
of Cutler's division was forced back, but after 
some sharp fighting the Confederates were 
driven back into their trenches, leaving many 
killed and wounded, and five hundred prisoners. 




COPYRIGHT. 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE REAR-GUARD 



Thus the Federals held the approaches to their pontoon-bridge at Jericho Mill during the sultry days of May (24.-20) while Grant was 
making up his mind that Lee's position could not be successfully attacked. The corps of Warren and Wright have all crossed the 
bridge, followed by the wagon-trains. Guards have been posted on either bank. The felled timber on the north bank was cut so as 
to allow the Federal reserve artillery to command the bridge. At either end sit two sentinels ready to challenge perfunctorily any 
straggler who may pass. The rest of the men have stacked arms and given themselves up to idleness, stretching their improvised 
shelters to shield them from the broiling sun. One man by the old mill is bathing his feet, weary with the long march. 





THE CAPTURED REDAN 
AND THE BRIDGE 

Across this insecure foot-bridge Hancock's 
troop had to pass in the attack on the Con- 
federate works which commanded Taylor's 
bridge on the North Anna. A tongue of 
land formed by the junction of Long Creek 
with the larger stream was the position 
chosen for the redan which is seen topping 
the ridge in the upper picture. Birney's 
division advanced across the bare and bar- 
ren plain of the little peninsula, and pressing 
across the shaky little foot-bridge at the 
double-quick, swept up the sharp height seen 
in the picture above, while three sections of 
Tidball's battery covered the assault of 
Pierce and Egan. As their line approached, 
the Confederates abandoned the redan and 
fled. The Federals, digging footholds in the 
parapet with their bayonets, clambered up 
and planted their colors. In taking the 
lov\er picture the camera was placed within 
the Confederate works looking toward the 
ground over which the Federals approached. 
The fresh earthworks in the foreground 
were hastily thrown up to strengthen the 
redan, which was originally built during the 
Chancellorsville campaign. 



WTIERE THE BATTLE-LINE WENT 
OVER 

On the pontoon-bridge in the lower picture 
crossed Smyth's division of the Second Corps 
on the morning of May 24th. Forming in line 
of battle on the south bank, they advanced and 
carried the Confederate works that commanded 
Taylor's or the Chesterfield bridge above. 
The Confederates at once brought up reen- 
forcements and attacked Smyth, who, also re- 
enforced, held his position during a furious 
rain-storm untU dark. Until the pontoons 
were laid, Grant could not get his army across 
the North Anna in sufficient force to make the 
attack he contemplated. The lower picture 
shows one of the two pontoon-bridges laid be- 
low Taylor's bridge so that its defenders could 
be driven off and the Federal troops enabled to 
use it. The railroad bridge below Taylor's 
had been destroyed, but still farther down- 
stream was an old foot-bridge. A short dis- 
tance above here the pontoons were laid. They 
can be seen in the upper picture beyond the 
pontonniers in the foreground, who are at work 
strengthening the foot-bridge so that it, too, 
can be used for the passage of the troops that 
were to retreat from the embarrassing pre- 
dicament into which Lee had lured them. 






r 




successful. Besides the decisive victory over the Confederate 
cavahy at Yellow Tavern, they had destroyed several depots 
of suj^plies, four trains of cars, and many miles of railroad 
track. Nearljr four hundred Federal prisoners on their way 
to Richmond had been rescued from their captors. The dash- 
ing cavalrymen had even carried the first line of work around 
Richmond, and had made a detour down the James to com- 
municate M'ith General Butler. Grant was highly satisfied 
with Sheridan's j^erformance. It had been of the greatest 
assistance to him, as it had drawn off the whole of the Con- 
federate cavalry, and made the guarding of the wagon trains 
an easy matter. 

But here, on the banks of the North Anna, Grant had 
been completely checkmated by Lee. He realized this and 
decided on a new move, although he still clung to his idea of 
turning the Confederate right. The Federal wings were Avith- 
drawn to the north side of the river during the night of ]May 
26th and the whole set in motion for the Pamunkey River at 
Hanovertown. Two divisions of Sheridan's cavalrj^ and War- 
ren's corps were in advance. Lee lost no time in pursuing his 
great antagonist, but for the first time the latter was able to 
hold his lead. Along the Totopotomoy, on the afternoon of 
JNIay 28th, infantry and cavalry of both armies met in a 
severe engagement in which the strong position of Lee's troops 
again foiled Grant's purj)ose. The LTnion would have to try 
at some other point, and on the 31st Sheridan's cavalry took 
possession of Cold Harbor. This was to be the next battle- 
ground. 



A 





[78 




PART I 
GRANT VERSUS LEE 



COLD HARBOR 




WAITING THE WORD FOR THE COLD HARBOR FLANKING MARCH 
UNION TROOPS REPULSED AT THE NORTH ANNA 






C 

0^ 


\ 

2 


s 




o 




tH 




ffl 


o 


1^ 


- 


OJ 


ta 


3| 


I 


-C 


(U 


a. 


C 


d 


li 




3 


^ 







a. 


c 


. -t^ 




rt 


rt 


s— d 


3 


fee 

o 

o 








Cu 


[» 






OJ 


t- 




.S2 




a ca 






QJ 


.2 j: 






w 


-d Z. 
^ 




a; 


— 






t-i 








o 
tic 

C3 


.^1 




-o 


•r 


1 s 






o 


••^ <L> 




_a 


»> d 




o 


4J 


d * 


H 


>. ji 


■> P 


re 






1> 


H 


-a 


^ 


1 ^ 

=8 & 




d 
o 






3 


ce "g 


H 







1^ 


-ft 

GO 






•g-g 


T-H 


^ 


g 


.^-i 




0^ 


'3 


©i 


B 




9 c 
-^ 


H 


cu 


"O 


tH '4^ 


:^ 


Id 




1$ 


1-5 


O 


g 


&1 


H 




■3 


d ^ 


:?; 








-r! 








OS 




i 


t- 4-- 


o 




t: 


ii s 


hJ 


s 


3 


g a 




w 
ff 




-0 


^^ 


^ 


c 


••^ w 




o 


a 




O 


^ 


■^ 


MJi 




ri 


0^ 


.a ^ 

d — 


a 


J2 


J3 


H 

1— ( 
>- 


.S2 


Is 


a *> 


!-^ 


■^ 


M 


^ a 






S 


X ■-" 


Vi 


is 


•r 


Qj K> 


H 


tUD 


■£ 


.is 








-d t^ 
■•^ D. 
e = 

a -° 

a K 


2 




c 




M 


rt 


-Q 


Z 


'« 





■§.a 


W 






g - 


H 


a 


bi 


S a! 




e 


rt 




i-* 


■g 






1 


gl 




13 


J 


.i d 




0^ 






&H 


s 


^ .2 




Qj 


ci 


*^ d 




"3 


s 






^ 


a3 +-' 




"o 


>•, 






^ 


^ 
rt 


- * 




-S 


a 


3 J- 




U 


^ 


aj 




.B 


u 


•- §• 








*j S 




1 




^g" 




S 


? t 




OJ 





- ^ 




in 


eu 
*" so 




^ 




c d 



< £ 




c 


d 


ti 




o 


-a 


o 


c 

o 









J3 


■- 


3 


+J 


K 


■3 







a 


<v 


-n 


rt 


fl 


n 






S 


C3 
4^ 


^ 


Wl 


-0 




JS 




(h 


a 

3 




'I' 



a 


'^ 


nn 




■X 


t. 





OJ 


rl 


•r 






1 


T3 


a 


l-H 
bij 


I- 




Si 




>-5 


1-1 






IHi "^ oT +j 



^ 1^ t- -^ 






o "O ^ 



<u U 



,n 


^ 


^ 


cC 




(h 






a 


Fh 






bJD 


Ph 



o o 






a 



p. 






d 

03 



O -s 



s ^ ~ 

^ =« 6/3 
O ^C 



ja CO O 



-o 



.^ Z 






S ^ d 
■d C 9 






CO OJ «4- 



o 

s 

3 



o 



fl 


M 


■l- 




_a 


1= 


Oj 


be 



C 




2^ 

-a 





en 

=1 




-S 


d 



bc 










TJ 

fl 

rt 


d 

a 





d 



C 



■3 .2 



'Be 'S 



o 



^ ^ lh 






Cj 



C « -=3 



«*-, ° 



d 



-o 
d 



—4 -TT' W 



a 



o 

I14 



_d 

C8 

"3 

d 



<1 

1 ^ 

pd cj 

H -d 



o 



d 



a d 

d j5 

d _a 

o •" 






O 



m 



o -^ 






S O 



■a t 
d ^ 



d 
O 






■g -g -d 



•p d .0 
S .2 2 



ai '-^ — 



■2 =« g 



t/2 -73 :2 

^' CO d 



1 '1 


t, 


'fi 


OJ 






ij 


C2 


a! 


c3 





fi- 




0, 


c5 












'I' 


^ 


a 


















■^ 


M 




^ 


ex 

3 














n 


d 










Ph 


^ 













3 


"0 


t-, 










t 


1— ( 








_o iJ iS 33 °" -S 



o m 



COLD HARBOR 



'i 




Cold Harbor is, I think, the only battle I ever fought that I would not 
fight over again under the circumstances. I have always regretted that 
the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. — General U. S. Grant in 
his '■'Memoirs.''^ 



i^. 



ACCORDIXG to Grant's well-made plans of march, the 
various corps of the Army of the Potomac set out from 
the banks of the North Anna on the night of May 26, 1864, 
at the times and by the routes assigned to them. Early on 
the morning of INIay 27th Lee set his force in motion bj^ the 
Telegraph road and such others as were available, across the 
Little and South Anna rivers toward Ashland and Atlee's 
Station on the Virginia Central Railroad. 

Thus the armies were stretched like two live wires along 
the swampy bottom-lands of eastern Virginia, and as they 
came in contact, here and there along the line, there were 
the inevitable sputterings of flame and considerable destruc- 
tion wrought. The advance Federal infantry crossed the 
Pamunkey, after the cavalr}% at Hanoverstown, early on INIaj^ 
28th. The Second Corps was close behind the Sixth; the Fifth 
was over h\ noon, while the Ninth, novs' an integral portion of 
the Army of the Potomac, passed the river by midnight. 

On the 31st General Sheridan reached Cold Harbor, 
which JNIeade had ordered him to hold at all hazards. This 
i:)lace, jDrobably named after the old home of some English 
settler, was not a town but the meeting-place of several roads 
of great strategic importance to the Federal army. They led 
not only toward Richmond by the way of the upper Chicka- 
hominy bridges, but in the direction of White House Landing, 
on the Pamunkey River. 

Both Lee and JNIeade had received reenforcements — the 



^A 









• ^W-::'?-..^ 




.if ' ."■ 








.... i ' ' ■ .■;^./^. ■'.■> -^ 


'"'■■.■.. 


4 


'.-.-.rf-iferrjHiWiiiin 




=-■ ---■•— -i 





COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



Rf:ADY FOR THE ADVANCE THAT LEE DROVE I5ACK 



Between these luxuriant bank.s stretch the pontoons and bridges to facilitate the rapifl crossing of the North Anna Ijy Hancock's Corps 
on May 24th. Thus was completed the passage to the south of the stream of the two wings of the Army of the Potomac. But when 
the center under Burnside was driven back and severely handled at 0.\ Ford, Grant immediately detached a brigade each from Han- 
cock and Warren to attack the apex of Lee's wedge on the south bank of the river, but the position was too strong to justify the at- 
tempt. Then it dawned upon the Federal general-in-chief that Lee had cleaved the Army of the Potomac into two separated 
bodies. To reenforce either wing would require two crossings of the river, while Lee could quickly march troops from one side to the 
other within his impregnable wedge. As Grant put it in his report, " To make a direct attack from either wing would cause a slaughter 
of our men that even success would not justify." 




ttark m\h Erpub^ at (Ealb Ufarbor 



V* 



XemMMMm 



former by Breckinridge, and the scattered forces in western 
Virginia, and by Pickett and Hoke from North Carolina. 
From Bermuda Hundred where (reneral Butler was " bottled 
up " — to use a j^hrase which Grant emploj^ed and afterward re- 
gretted — (xcneral W. F. Smith was ordered to bring the 
Kighteenth Corps of the Army of the James to the assistance 
of jNIeade, since Butler could defend his 2)osition perfectly 
well with a small force, and could make no headwaj^ against 
Beauregard with a large one. Grant had now nearly one 
hundred and fourteen thousand troojJS and Lee about eighty 
thousand. 

Sheridan's appearance at Cold Hai'bor was resented in 
vain by Fitzhugh Lee, and the next morning, June 1st, the 
Sixth Corjjs arrived, followed by General Smith and ten 
thousand men of the Eighteenth, who had hastened fromi the 
landing-place at ^Vhite House. These took position on the 
right of the Sixth, and the Federal line was promptly faced 
by Longstreet's corps, a jjart of A. P. Hill's, and the divisions 
of Hoke and Breckinridge. At six o'clock in the afternoon 
Wright and Smith advanced to the attack, which Hoke and 
Kershaw received with courage and determination. The Con- 
federate line was broken in several j^laces, but before night 
checked the struggle the Southerners had in some degree re- 
gained their position. The short contest was a severe one for 
the Federal side. Wright lost about twelve hundred men and 
Smith one thousand. 

The following day the final dispositions Avere made for 
the mighty struggle that would decide Grant's last chance to 
interpose between Lee and Richmond. Hancock and the Sec- 
ond Corps arrived at Cold Harbor and took position on the 
left of General Wright. Burnside, with the Ninth Corps, was 
placed near Bethesda Church on the road to JMechanicsville, 
while Warren, with the Fifth, came to his left and connected 
with Smith's right. Sheridan was sent to hold the lower 
Chickahominy bridges and to cover the road to White House, 




;s-n 



,^v 




o 


o 


1— 1 


o 


0^ 


ij 


o 




r^ 


'fi 


3 

cr 

Ml 




s 

0; 






-a 


.a 






-^ 


o 








^j 


O 



jf c 



a -^ -^ •= 



•s fe 



a §■ M 






c 
-a 



3 fe & 



IS 



-a 


a 






^ 


4; 


s 


§ 


*o 


£ 




K- 




<u 


cu 




-rr 






« 




IV 


IT 






3 


ffl 


Xi 




s 

s 

o 
a 


43 


a; 
+-1 

> 


4) 

1 


1 




-0 


cd 


ca 




-n 




s 


^ 


-a 


<y 


-c 



C T3 -^ 



ja -c 



4J 



3 B 



J3 
03 



;§ -r ^ 

?; B ci 



^ *^ 



-a 

B 



g ya 

-a -o 

.a ^ 

=3 -O 

— 4J 



J2 



'i T? s 






c 



-a 

o 

a 

C8 



=-■ PI y, J= 



^ H 






o 
a 

-a 
u 
ca 

M 

a 



c 



o H • 



^ :2 



:3 J3 



:a =a 

u O 

'3 ° 

a- O 



a 
a 
o 

a 



"^^ 



^ 



\eiisMMZMM 



m 



ttark m\h E^^juIb? at Ololh l^arlinr * ^> 






:>fl : 




wliich was now the base of supplies. On the Southern side 
Swell's corps, now commanded by General Early, faced Burn- 
side's and Warren's. I^ongstreet's corps, still under Ander- 
son, was opposite Wright and Smith, while A. P. Hill, on 
the extreme right, confronted Hancock. There was sharj) 
fighting during the entire day, but Early did not succeed in 
getting u2)on the Federal right flank, as he attempted to do. 

Both armies lay verj' close to each other and were well 
entrenched. I^ee was naturally strong on his right, and his 
left was difficult of access, since it must be approached through 
wooded swamps. "Well-placed batteries made artillerj^ fire 
from front and both flanks possible, but Grant decided to 
attack the whole Confederate front, and word was sent to the 
corps commanders to assault at half-past four the following- 
morning. 

The hot sultry weather of the preceding days had brought 
much suffering. The movement of troops and wagons raised 
clouds of dust which settled down upon the sweltering men 
and beasts. But five o'clock on the afternoon of Jime 2d 
brought the grateful rain, and this continued during the night, 
giving great relief to the exhausted troojis. 

At the hour designated the Federal lines moved prompth' 
from their shallow rifle-pits toward the Confederate works. 
The main assault was made by the Second, Sixth, and Eigh- 
teenth corps. ^Vith determined and firm step they started to 
cross the space between the op])Osing entrenchments. The 
silence of the dawning summer morning was broken by the 
screams of musket-ball and canister and shell. That move of 
the Federal battle-line opened the fierj^ fin-nace across the 
intervening space, which was, in the next instant, a Vesuvius, 
pouring tons and tons of steel and lead into the moving 
human mass. From front, from right and left, artillery 
crashed and swept the field, musketry and grape hewed and 
mangled and mowed down the line of blue as it moved on its 
aj^proach. 

[80 1 








I- 



rr:,'i:(JW3 



COLD HARBOR 

The battle of Cold Harbor on June 3d was the 
third tremendous engagement of Grant's 
campaign against Richmond within a month. 
It was also his costliest onset on Lee's veteran 
army. Grant had risked much in his change of 
base to the James in order to bring him nearer 
to Richmond and to the friendly hand which 
Butler with the Army of the James was in a 
position to reach out to him. Lee had again 
confronted liim, entrenching himself but six 
miles from the outworks of Riehmond, while 
the Chickahominy cut oft any further flanking 
movement. There was nothing to do but 
fight it out, and Grant ordered an attack all 
along the line. On June 3d he hurled the 
Army of the Potomac against the inferior 
numbers of Lee, and in a brave assault upon 
the Confederate entrenchments, lost ten 
thousand men in twenty minutes. 
Grant's assault at Cold Harbor was marked by 
the gallantry of General Hancock's division 
and of the brigades of Gibbon and Barlow, who 




PATRIOT PUB CO. 



WHERE TEN THOUSAND FELL 




on the left of the Federal line charged up the 
ascent in their front upon the concentrated 
artillery of the Confederates; they took the 
position and held it for a moment under a 
galling fire, which finally drove them back, but 
not until they had captured a flag and three 
hundred prisoners. The battle was substan- 
tially oA"er by half-past seven in the morning, 
but sullen fighting continued throughout the 
day. About noontime General Grant, who had 
visited all the corps commanders to see for 
himself the positions gained and what could be 
done, concluded that the Confederates were too 
strongly entrenched to be dislodged and ordered 
that further offensive action .should cease. .Ml 
the next day the dead and wounded lay on the 
field uncared for while both armies warily 
watched each other. The lower picture was 
taken during this w'cary wait. Not till the 
7th was a satisfactory truce arranged, and 
then all but two of the wounded Federals had 
died. No wonder that Grant wrote, "I have 
always regretted that the last assault at Cold 
Harbor was ever made." 



COPYRIGMf, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CU. 

FEDERAL CAMP AT COLD HARBOR AFTER THE BATTLE 



^I| ttark mxh Efpula? at dinih ^arhor 



\aisMMMm 



iJ^i 








The tliree corps of the Federal army had gotten in some 
places as near as thirty yards to the main Confederate en- 
trenchments, but to carry them was found impossible. The 
whole line was ordered to lie down, and shelter from the deadly 
fire was sought wherever it coidd be foiuid. The advance 
had occupied less than ten minutes, and before an hour had 
passed the greater i)art of the fighting was over. ]Meade, at 
headquarters, was quickly made aware that each corps com- 
mander had a serious grievance against his neighbor, and, 
strange to say, the complaints were all phrased alike. Gen- 
eral ]Mc]Mahon in " Battles and Leaders of the Civil War " 
explains this curious state of affairs: 

" Each corps commander reported and complained to 
General INleade tliat the other corjjs commanders, right or left, 
as the case might be, failed to jn-otect him from enfilading 
fire by silencing batteries in their respective fronts; Smith, that 
he could go no farther until ^N^right advanced u])on his left ; 
Hancock, that it was useless for him to attempt a fur- 
ther advance until Wright advanced upon his right; Wright, 
that it was impossible for him to move mitil Smith and Han- 
cock advanced to his sujjport on his right and left to shield 
him from the enemy's enfilade. These despatches necessarily 
caused mystification at headquarters. . . . The explanation 
was simple enough, although it was not knoA^n mitil recon- 
naissance had been made. The three corps had moved upon 
diverging lines, each directly facing the enemy in its imme- 
diate front, and the farther each had advanced the more its 
flank had become exposed." 

Xot yet imderstanding the real state of affairs INleade 
continued to issue orders to advance. To do so was now 
beyond human 2)ossibility. The men could only renew the 
fire from the positions they had gained. General Smith re- 
ceived a verbal order from JNIeade to make another assault, 
and he flatly refused to obey. It was long past noon, 
and after Grant was cognizant of the full situation, that 

[ 8S 1 







THE FORCES AT LAST JOIN HANDS 



Charles City Court House on the James River, June 14, 1804. It was with infinite relief that Grant saw the advance of the Army of 
the Potomac reach this point on June 14th. His last flanking movement was an extremely hazardous one. More than fifty miles 
intervened between him and Butler by the roads he would have to travel, and he had to cross both the Chickahominy and the James, 
which were unbridged. The paramount difficulty was to get the Army of the Potomac out of its position before Lee, who confronted 
it at Cold Harbor. Lee had the shorter line and better roads to move over and meet Grant at the Chickahominy ,-.or he might, if he 
chose, descend rapidly on Butler and crush him before Grant could unite with liim. '"But," says Grant, "the move had to be made, 
and I relied upon Lee's not seeing ray danger as I saw it." Near the old Charles City Court House the crossing of the James was 
successfully accomplished, and on the 14th Grant took steamer and ran up the river to Bermuda Hundred to see General Butler and 
direct the movement against Petersburg, that began the final investment of that city. 






jNIeade issued orders for the suspension of all further offensive 
operations. 

A Avord remains to l)e said as to fortunes of Burnside's 
and Warren's forces, which were on tlie Federal right. Gen- 
erals Potter and Willcox of the Ninth Corps made a quick 
capture of Karly's advanced rifle-pits and were waiting for 
the order to advance on his main entrenchments, when the 
order of suspension arrived. Early fell upon him later in the 
day but Mas repulsed. Warren, on the left of Burnside, drove 
Rodes' division back and rej^ulsed Gordon's brigade, which had 
attacked him. The commander of the Fifth Corps reported 
that his line was too extended for fm'ther operations and Bir- 
ney's division was sent from the Second Corps to his left. But 
by the time this got into position the battle of Cold Harbor 
was practically over. 

After the day's conflict the field presented a scene that 
was indescribable. It showed war in all its horror. It is even 
painful to attempt a record of the actual facts, so appalling 
was tlie loss and the sufi^ering. The groans and the moaning 
of the wounded during the night were heart-breaking. For 
three days many unfortunate beings were left lying, uncared 
for, where they fell. It was almost certain death to venture 
outside of the entrenchments. Where the heaviest assaults 
occurred the ground was literally covered with the dead and 
dying, and nearly all of them were Federal soldiers. Volun- 
teers who offered to go to their relief were in peril of being 
shot, yet many went bravely out in the face of the deadly fire, 
to bring in their wounded comrades. 

On the 5th, the Second Corps was extended to the Chicka- 
hominj", and the Fifth Corps was ordered to the rear of Cold 
Harbor. Tlie Eighteenth Cor2)s Avas placed along the JNIata- 
dequin. Lee threatened attack on tlie Gth and 7th, but he soon 
desisted and retired to his entrenchments. 

The losses to the Federal army in this battle and the 
engagements which preceded it were over seventeen thousand, 

[90] 



w 



w 



■^•-r^i^iP^ 





BACK TO THE OLD BASE 



AVliite House Landing, on the Pamimkey River, bustles with Ufe in June, ISO^. Onee more, just before the battle of Cold Harbor, 
McClellan's old headquarters at the outset of the Peninsula Campaign of "C'-2 springs into great activity. River steamers and barges 
discharge their cargoes for the army that is again endeavoring to drive Lee across the Chickahominy and back upon Richmond. Grant's 
main reliance was upon the inexhaustible supplies which lay at the command of the North. He knew well that the decimated and im- 
poverished South could not long hold out against the "hammering" which the greater abundance of Federal money and men made 
it possible for him to keep up. Hence, without haste but without rest, he attacked Lee upon every occasion and under all conditions, 
aware that his own losses, even if the greater, could be made up, while those of his antagonist could not. He believed that this was 
the surest and speediest way to end the war, and that all told it would involve the least sacrifice of blood and treasure. 



■^\ 



while the Confederate loss did not exceed one-fifth of that 
numher. Grant had failed in his plan to destroy Lee north 
of the James lliver, and saw that he ninst now cross it. 

Thirty days had passed in the campaign since the Wil- 
derness and the grand total in losses to Grant's army in killed, 
wounded, and missing was 54«,929. The losses in Lee's army 
were never accurately given, but they were very much less in 
proportion to the numerical strength of the two armies. If 
Grant had inflicted punishment upon his foe equal to that 
suffered by the Federal forces, Lee's army would have been 
l)ractically annihilated. But, as matters stood, after the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor, with reenforcements to the Confederate 
arms and the comparatively small losses they had sustained, 
Lee's army stood on the field of this last engagement almost 
as large as it was at the beginning of the campaign. 

For nearly twelve daj's the two armies lay within their 
entrenchments on this field, while the Federal cavalry was 
sent to destroy the railroad communications between Rich- 
mond and the Shenandoah A-alley and Lynchburg. One 
writer says that during this time sharpshooting was incessant, 
and " no man upon all that line could stand erect and live 
an instant." Soldiers whose terms of service had expired and 
were ordered home, had to crawl on their hands and knees 
through the trenches to the rear. Xo advance was attempted 
during this time by the Confederates, but every night at nine 
o'clock the A\'hole Confederate line opened fire with musket 
and cannon. This Mas done by Lee in apprehension of the 
possible withdrawal by night of Grant's army. 

The Federal general-in-chief had decided to secure Peters- 
burg and confront Lee once more. General Gillmore was sent 
by Butler, with cavalry and infantry, on June 10th to make 
the capture, but was unsuccessful. Thereupon General Smith 
and the Eighteenth Corjjs were despatched to White House 
Landing to go forward by water and reach Petersburg before 
Lee had time to reenforce it. 



■.:....^=M 




PART II 
THE SIMULTANEOUS MOVEMENTS 



DREWRY'S BLUFF 
IMPREGNABLE 




IN BATTERY DANTZLER — CONFEDERATE GUN COMMANDING 
THE RIVER AFTER BUTLEr's REPULSE ON LAND 



m 


^J9U 


'^ "^!^ 


*>£_ -•t'vl 


'mm 


:fi'0!^'i^:^ 


|m 


■'%?! 


l^^^^r'-'^ 



Charles Francis Adams, who, as a 
cavalry officer, served in Hutler's cam- 
paign, compares Grant's maneuvers of 
18(i4 to Napoleon's of 1815. While 
Napoleon advanced upon Wellington it 
was essential that Grouchy should de- 
lain Blucher. So Butler was to elimi- 
nate Beauregard wliile Grant struck at 
Lee. With forty thousand men, he was 
ordered to land at Bermuda Hundred, 
seize and hold City Point as a future 
army base, and advance upon Richmonil 
by way of Petersburg, while Grant 
meanwhile engaged Lee farther north. 
Arriving at Broadway Landing, seen in 
the lower picture, Butler put his army 
oN'er the Appomattox on pontoons, occu- 
pied City Point, May 4th, and advanced 
within tlu'ee miles of Petersburg, May 
9th. The city might have been easily 
taken by a vigorous move, but Butler 
delayed until Beauregard arrived with a 
hastilj" gathered army and decisively 
defeated the Federals at Drewry's Bluff, 
Mav 10th. LikeGrouchy, Butler failed. 



^ 






^" 






■<■■" ■ 






r 




,•& 


M,^ 


h 


V 


^ 




/^ 


¥ 




7;s^^^x^^^ikS 


J- 




\\ ' ' 


',:^ 


■'■-^^' iy 




HmIWB^MB^Bj^BBIBE^^-^ 


% 


^ 


'*««y?-'i^:!--'' -^^ 


M 


■-■^' ;■ jt'S^ ■ 




^ 


^&4|: 





PORT DARLING 



THE MASKED BATTERY 




WHERE BUTLER'S TROOPS CROSSED— BROADWAY LANDING ON THE APPOMATTOX 




BUTLER "BOTTLED UP" 

Butler, after his disastrous repulse at 
Drewry's Bluff, threw up strong en- 
trenchments across the neck of the 
bottle-shaped territory which he occu- 
pied between the Appomattox and the 
James. That was exactly what Beaure- 
gard wanted, and the Confederate 
general immediately constructed field 
works all along Butler's front, effectually 
closing the neck of this "bottle." Here 
Butler remained in inactivity till the 
close of the war. He built the elabo- 
rate signal tower seen in the picture so 
that he could observe all the operations 
of the Confederates, although he could 
make no move against any of them. 
Generals Gilmore and "Baldy" Smith 
both urged upon Butler the laying of 
pontoons across the Appomattox in 
order to advance on Petersburg, the key 
to Richmond. But Butler curtly replied 
that he would build no bridges for 
West Pointers to retreat over. 




BUTLERS SIGNAL TOWER 



THE LOOKOUT 




THE THIRTEENTH NEW YORK HEAVY ARTILLERY IDLING IN WINTER QUARTERS AT BERMUDA HUNDRED 




THE IMPASSABLE JAMES RIVER 



I'lic gun is in Confc-derate Battery Brooke — another of the defenses on the James constructed after Butler was bottled up. Here in 
1805 the gunners were still at their posts guarding the water approach to Richmond. The Federals had not been able to get up the 
ri\er since their first unsuccessful effort in 1862, when the hastily constructed Fort Darling at Drewry's Bluff baffled the Monitor and 
the Galena. Battery Brooke w-as situated above Dutch Gap, the narrow neck of Farrar's Island, where Butler's was busily digging 
his famous canal to enable the Federal gunboats to get by the obstructions he himself had caused to be sunk in the river. Even the 
canal proved a failure, for when the elaborate ditch was finished under fire from the Confederate batteries above, the dam was im- 
■ Icilf ully Vjlown up and remained an effective barrier against the passage of vessels. 




COPyRICHT. 1911, PATRIOT 



AN ADVANCE DEFENSE OF RICHMOND 



This Confederate gun at Battery Dantzler swept the James at a point where the river flows due south around Farrar's Island. "But- 
ler's Campaign" consisted merely of an advance by land up the James to Drewry's Bluff' and inglorious retreat back again. Far from 
threatening Richmond, it enabled the Confederates to construct strong river defenses below Fort Darling on the James to hold in 
check the Federal fleet and assist in keeping the neck of Butler's "bottle" tightly closed. The guns at Battery Dantzler controlled 
the river at Trent's Reach. In a straight line from Drewry's Blufl^ to City Point it was but nine miles, but the James flows in a suc- 
cession of curves and bends at all angles of the compass, around steep bluffs, past swamp and meadow-land, making the route by 
water a journey of thirty miles. If the Federal gunboats could have passed their own obstructions and the Confederate torpedoes, 
they would still have been subjected to the fire of Battery Dantzler from their rear in attempting to reach Richmond. 




ABOVE DUTCH GAP— A GUN THAT MOCKED THE FEDERALS 



This huge Confederate cannon in one of the batteries above Dutch Gap bore on the canal that was being 
dug by the Federals. Away to the south stretches the flat and swampy country, a complete protection 
against hostile military operations. The Confederate cannoneers amused themselves by dropping shot 
and shell upon the Federal colored regiments toiling on Butler's canal. Aside from the activity of the 
diggers, the Army of the James had nothing to do. 



PART II 
THE SIMULTANEOUS MOVEMENTS 



TO ATLANTA 




SHERMAN S MEN IN THE ATLANTA TRENCHES 







o 









■5 o . 

a *- .2 

n W rj 



^ -5 b 



c 




ta 


ri 


■n 


0) 




-n 










J3 




X 


'B 


2 


r^ 



a. - 
S 

3 
•r- Ci 



d 


D. 


a 


'■i 




-n 






J3 


ni 


C/J 


-C3 



-s s 



'^ 


-a 


Q 


_g 




o 






^ 


OJ 


w 


o 


Q 





^ « 



3 
o 



o 

« 






ij J= 



M 






■5 ja a; 

^^ Jj '^ 



Jl,-' 


B 


p- 




O 




(D 




T1 




o 


rt 


S 


4J 


-n 


M 


"CJ 


i 








rl 


^ 




nl 






OJ 


_^ 


ci 



S 5 



w 


^ 





J3 


ri 


w 


■n 


CD 






a 


ja 








a 


o 


.a 






'f- 




H 


OJ 


a 


a 


rfi 


ca 






c 






a 






r/l 




Ci 


a 


—r 


a 


t-t 


"3 














H 




a 

c3 


O 






M 


:73 


a 





'i '1 ^ 

o o 

•^3 S 









3 S >; ;S 

I I 1 § ^ 



an 

o 

-o 
c 



T3 



c -Q 



a 

3 

c 

St 






o 



5 -S 5 
° M pq 



*. -^ 

3 m 



.S !K 



fe 



.° ii 



IM ^ 






-O 

s 

C3 



O 3 ;> J3 



■S S 3 -O 
? '5 ° 3 
Si '^ " 3 



a ■S 3 



^ ^-1 jj 



o .fcl 



^ J3 



■a 
a 






c3 'S -_; • "^ 

f s i & s 

o p y 5 fc- 

0; '-" C cd cfl 

O a ^ ^ Ji 



a 



^^^^^^^^^^^ft 




H 




« 


^ ,"^ 


9 


aJvltei 


^1 




.. '^H 


^K' > '^ 


^jI^h 


Hl''iJ 




IbiI 


,.iv^| 


■,; m^ 


[ -' '^I^^t 


> \- ;,L;: ^ ^ 


jH^B^^I 


■i^n 


rfSJi^JH^^I 


.< ' ■ 



o 

M 
O 

w 

o 

H 

o 
o 
« 

Q 
« 

N) 

n 



a 

-o 



^ tH ? rH rj tH 

~ ^ M p S Si 

Q. Z3 o =i S -T3 



-a 

O 



ij -^ — 



ft 

a; 

-a 



a 

o 



T3 

a 

3 



-a 2 



o. 



S .3 





o 




C 






2 




*« 


o 




o 


-n 


c 


;h 


c 




o 












o 


Cfi 


_c1 


o 


."ti 


o 


d 


<v 




3 


a 






£3 


o 


CQ 










i-s 
















^ 




O 




'2 







3—3 



_g 2 -c •= 



3 B a 's 



o 



2 S ^ 

f-H «4-l -^ 



o 
o 



C3 

■a 





3 "O 



"a & 



J! 
Cm 



S »!^< 





? 


a 


" QJ, 

<u 5 


§ 


u 


i 


O 


M p 


G 


"a 




-o U 


-0 


_2 


X 


"^ 


ij ^ 


3 


=3 


S 


s 


0; 
j3 -O 


8 




■a 


■^ d 




w 


i 




13 =« 




1^ 

.2 -a 

a ' 


c 

J 


■r. 

c 


5? t 
> 

S ° 


1 

H 




;^ 


-iS be 




rf o 

^ a 




4> 


t^ bjD 


>i 






13 


P 3 


E? 


"rf -- 


O 

S 
o 




IS i: 


rf 


1 i 
^1 


K 


c. 


-^ a 


o 


1 


_0 

'SI 

c 

o 

J3 


s - 

«; is 

qH o 


1 


"2 £ 

OJ O 

J 5 

'■3 


25 


i 


1 


to 3 




c 
o 


§ 


0- ^ 

o * 


Q 


- a 


!> 

-G 


XJ qj 




i 


rf o 

°0 0; 


2i 


i s 


C 






^ 
K 


ll 


« 


i 


g- H 








y 








^ 


4^ O 


3 


J3 •« 






i2 ^ 


o 


-J3 


a 


o 


C3 


_o 


oJ c 






D, "O 


-o 


i: o 


w 


-t 


-^ 


<!» 


1- -« 


sc 




o 'a3 






o 

w 


1-' 

CM 






Eh 












x 


1 CO 


Wl 


' 3-1 




c 


II 




1^ c 

4-^ 1-3 


rf. 


0^ 


CD Z 


O 


0^ 
c3 


^ 
W 


_c 






•2 i 


p- 


-^ 


rt 




'« c 


Q 






O J3 

a 
o a, 


» 
C 




j2 








a o 

o 


§ 


^ ■§ 


X 




-a -o 

bo 4J 

a ■S 


:3 


•2 1^ 




« 


~ >, 


a 


"rf T! 




-M 




S 2 




o 
a 

-3 




1 

-a 


T rf 


f^ 


EyD C 


^ 


-3 h-) 




O 


'3 -^ 

a a 


t3 

o 
a 


3 

1 2 




b 


c3 '? 


o 




S 


^ ? 


« 


•5 u 

o a 




J 


2 "^ 





-Q rf 




o 
t 










O' 


3 ^ 


o 


rf 




m 
Ij 


S "3 


5 


3 ?;> 




S 




-o 


1 3 

rf J 




O -J 3 






m 






^ ^ ^ ^- 





C2 


% 


"53 


t 


Tl 


QJ 


(S 




' ' 


-n 


>i 






3 





■Tj O en 



^ .S 









H 


<; 


H 


"rt 




i< 










O 


a; 


c 

g 


OS 




S 


C 




o 

•-5 








O 




?i 




H 


C 


< 


u 




-a 


w 










o 
S 








^g 




c 
5 


4;' 




o 












S 


3 


^ 












2^ 




s 


- 


?^ 












c 




c 


■u 




^ 















■S E= 



6C 

3 




ce 


o 

^ 


^ 






o 


OS 


-0 

-a 


'4^ 


§ 






a 

-a 




1' 


Eh 


'c! 








S 


■z 


+j 




^ 


Q> 


^ 







mbling Bloc 


J3 
rj} 

-a 
.2? 


o 

a 

C-i 

o 

C 



2, 

a 







-d 
c 




o 


O 

fee 




a 




0^ 


.a 












OS 
be 
3 

g 




Sherm 




"3 




1 







TO ATLANTA 

Johnston was an officer who. l)v tlu' connnon consent of the niihtary 
men of both sides, was reckoned second only to Lee, if second, in the 
ijuahties which fit an officer for the responsibihtv of great commands. . . . 
He pi-actised a lynx-eyed watchfuhiess of his adversary, tempting liim con- 
stantly to assault his entrenchments, holding his fortified positions to the 
List moment, hut choosing that last moment so well as to save nearly every 
gun and wagon in the final withdrawal, and always presenting a front 
covered by such defenses that one man in the line was, by all sound mili- 
tary i-ules, ef[ual to three or four in the attaci<. In this way he constantly 
neutralized the superiority of force his opponent wielded, and made his 
campaign from Dalton to the Chattahoochee a model of defensive warfare. 
It is Sherman's glory that, with a totally different temperament, he ac- 
cepted his adversary's game, and played it with a skill that was finally 
successful, as we shall see. — Mqjor-General Jacob D. Cox, U.S.V., in 
'' Jflaiitn.''^ 

THE two leading Federal generals of the war. Grant and 
Sherman, met at Nashville, Tennessee, on INIarch 17, 
1864, and arranged for a great concerted double movement 
against the two main Southern armies, the Army of Northern 
Virginia and the Army of Tennessee. Grant, who had been 
made commander of all the Federal armies, was to take per- 
sonal charge of the Army of the Potomac and move against 
Lee, while to Sherman, whom, at Grant's request, President 
Lincoln had placed at the head of the jSIilitary Division of 
the ]\Iississippi, he turned over the Western army, which was 
to proceed against Johnston. 

It was decided, moreover, that the two movements were 
to be simultaneous and that thej^ were to begin early in May. 
Sherman concentrated his forces around Chattanooga on the 
Tennessee River, where the Army of the Cumberland had 

I lO-t 1 







V 




REVIEWS CO, 



IN THE FOREFRONT— GENERAL RICHARD W. JOHNSON AT GRAYSVILLE 



On the balcony of this little cottage at Graysville, Georgia, stands General Richard W. Johnson, ready to advance with his cavalry division 
in the vanguard of the direct movement upon the Confederates strongly posted at Dalton. Sherman's cavalry forces under Stone- 
man and Garrard were not yet fully equipped and joined the army after the campaign had opened. General Richard W. Johnson's 
division of Thomas' command, with General Palmer's division, was given the honor of heading the line of march when the Federals 
got in motion on May 5th. The same troops (Palmer's division) had made the same march in February, sent by Grant to engage 
Johnston at Dalton during Sherman's Meridian campaign. Johnson was a West Pointer; he had gained his cavalry training in the 
Mexican War, and had fought the Indians on the Texas border. He distinguished himself at Corinth, and rapidly rose to the com- 
mand of a division in Buell's army. Fresh from a Confederate prison, he joined the Army of the Cumberland in the summer of 1802 
to win new laurels at Stone's River, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. His sabers were conspicuously active in the Atlanta cam- 
paign; and at the battle of New Hope Church on May 28th Johnson himself was wounded, but recovered in time to join Schofield 
after the fall of Atlanta and to assist him in driving Hood and Forrest out of Tennessee. For his bravery at the battle of Nashville 
he was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., December 16, 1864, and after the war he was retired with the brevet of major-general. 



n Atlanta — ^lirrman vs. ^nljuatDii •*• * 



^ 





spent the ^\-inter, and where a decisive battle had been fought 
some months before, in the autumn of 1863. His army was 
composed of three parts, or, more proj^erly, of three armies 
operating in concert. These were the Army of the Ten- 
nessee, led by General James B. ]McPherson; the Army of 
Ohio, under General John JNI. Schofield, and the Army of 
the Cumberland, commanded l)y General George H. Thomas. 
The last named was much larger than the other two combined. 
The triple army aggregated the grand total of ninetj'-nine 
thousand men, six thousand of whom were cavalrymen, while 
four thousand four hundred and sixty belonged to the artil- 
lery. There were two hundred and fifty-four heavy guns. 

Soon to be pitted against Sherman's army was that of 
General Joseph E. Johnston, which had spent the winter at 
Dalton, in the State of Georgia, some thirtj^ miles southeast 
of Chattanooga. It was bj^ chance that Dalton became the 
winter quarters of the Confederate army. In the preceding 
autumn, when General Bragg had been defeated on Mission- 
ary Ridge and driven from the vicinity of Chattanooga, he 
retreated to Dalton and stojiped for a night's rest. Discov- 
ering the next morning that he was not pursued, he there 
remained. Some time later he was suj^erseded by General 
Johnston. 

By telegraph. General Sherman was apprised of the time 
when Grant ^\as to move upon Lee on the banks of the Rapi- 
dan, in Virginia, and he pre2:)ared to move his own army at 
the same time. But he was two days behind Grant, who began 
his Virginia campaign on JMay 4th. Sherman broke camp on 
the 6th and led his legions across hill and valley, forest and 
stream, toward the Confederate stronghold. Nature was all 
abloom with the opening of a Southern spring and the sol- 
diers, who had long chafed under their enforced idleness, now 
rejoiced at the exhilarating journey before them, though their 
mission was to be one of strife and bloodshed. 

Johnston's army numbered about fifty-three thousand, 

(1061 










^ 




^jMb^K^'^^ 




1 '*.,' 


WM ^'ili?;: 


iPiwjy 


'. If 1 




^OT^'iJi 


' -'"• •^S^ ■ "^ •■''""'*'' ' '''"'•'•' -''^7^'^ •" Bw'^^t :'•■«' ■ 


V'^S^UJV' •'> ^H 






rmmi 


jMl 


^3^^i-fj 




-•.--- "■^^■^--•i.um^im-^^-^M. 


s^;;r'^"'i=-5?^^;s:^ - -— ^^■■-^***a.. 






— ^v^ 


**^*r~''^;-" -• ., "-«=-i;afeT*<^*»»..._. ■ ■ 


':"-^-U 




^^•^-s 


.-; - ._ ,~'- 


_ '~-^"-t-ijfcfc ■ 



- REVIEWS CO. 



BEGINNING THE FIRST FLANK MOVEMENT 



In the upper picture, presented through the kindness of General G. P. Thruston, are the headquarters of General Thomas at Ringgold, 
Georgia, May 5, 1864. On that day, appointed by Grant for the beginning of the "simultaneous movements" he had planned to carry 
out in 1864, General Sherman rode out the eighteen miles from Chattanooga to Ringgold with his staff, about half a dozen wagons, 
and a single company of Ohio sharpshooters. A small company of irregular Alabama cavalry acted as couriers. Sherman's mess 
establishment was less bulky than that of any of his brigade commanders. "I wanted to set the example," he says, "and gradually 
to convert all parts of that army into a mobile machine willing and able to start at a minute's notice and to subsist on the scantiest 
food." On May 7th, General Thomas moved in force to Tunnel Hill to begin the turning of Johnston's flank. 




Eviews CO, 



rUNNEL HILL, GA., BEYOND WHICH JOHNSTON OCCUPIED A STRONG POSITION BUZZARD'S ROOST GAP 



(^ 



Atlanta — ^If^rman ua. JaliuHtott 4^ -^ 



M 



1^ 



^^v: 



and was divided into two corps, under the respective com- 
mands of Generals John B. Hood and Wilham J. Hardee. 
But General Polk was on his Avay to join them, and in a few 
days Johnston had in the neighborhood of seventy thousand 
men. His position at Dalton was too strong to be carried 
by a front attack, and Sherman was too wise to attempt it. 
Leaving Thomas and Schofield to make a feint at Johnston's 
front, Sherman sent ]McPherson on a flanking movement by 
the right to occupy Snake Creek Gap, a mountain j^ass near 
Resaca, which is about eighteen miles below Dalton. 

Sherman, with the main part of the army, soon occupied 
Tunnel Hill, which faces Rocky Face Ridge, an eastern range 
of the Cimiberland IMountains, north of Dalton, on which a 
large part of Johnston's army was posted. The Federal 
leader had little or no hope of dislodging his great antagonist 
from this imjiregnable position, fortified by rocks and cliffs 
which no army could scale while under fire. But he ordered 
that demonstrations be made at several places, especially at a 
pass known as Rocky Face Gap. This was done with great 
spirit and bravery, the men clambering over rocks and across 
ravines in the face of showers of bullets and even of masses 
of stone hurled down from the heights above them. On the 
whole they won but little advantage. 

During the 8th and 9th of May, these operations were 
continued, the Federals making but little imjiression on the 
Confederate stronghold. ^Meanwhile, on the Dalton road there 
was a sharp cavalry fight, the Federal commander, General 
E. M. JNIcCook, having encountered General Wheeler. Mc- 
Cook's advance brigade under Colonel La Grange was de- 
feated and La Grange was made prisoner. 

Sherman's chief object in these demonstrations, it will be 
seen, was so to engage Johnston as to prevent his intercept- 
ing jMcPherson in the latter's movement upon Resaca. In 
this Sherman was successful, and bj^ the 11th he was giving 
his whole energj^ to moving the remainder of his forces by the 

[108] 




May 
1864 



'/.#; 



^A 





REViEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



EESACA— FIELD OF THE FIRST HEAVY FIGHTING 



The chips are still bright and the earth fresh turned, in the foreground where are the Confederate earthworks such as General Joseph 
E. Johnston had caused to be thrown up by the Negro laborers all along his line of possible retreat. McPherson, sent by Sherman to 
strike the railroad in Johnston's rear, got his head of column through Snake Creek Gap on May 9th, and drove off a Confederate 
cavalry brigade which retreated toward Dalton, bringing to Johnston the first news that a heavy force of Federals was already in his 
rear. McPherson, within a mile and a half of Resaca, could have walked into the town with his twenty-three thousand men, but 
concluded that the Confederate entrenchments were too strongly held to assault. WTien Sherman arrived he found that Johnston, 
having the shorter route, was there ahead of him with his entire army strongly posted. On May 15th, "without attempting to as- 
sault the fortified works," says Sherman, "we pressed at all points, and the sound of cannon and musketry rose all day to the dignity 
of a battle." Its havoc is seen in the shattered trees and torn ground in the lower picture. 




REVIEWS CO. 



THE WORK OF THE FIRING AT RESACA 



^mMMMlMm.^ 



IT 



Atlanta — ^hn*man us. JchuBtnn 



•^ 



4- 



right flank, as ]McPherson had done, to Resaca, leaving a 
detachment of (leneral O. O. Howard's Fourth Corps to 
occn2)y Dalton M'hen evacuated. When Johnston discovered 
this, he was quick to see that he must ahandon his entrench- 
ments and intercept Sherman. JMoving by the only two good 
roads, Johnston beat Sherman in the race to Resaca. The 
town had been fortified, owing to Johnston's foresight, and 
jNIcPherson had failed to dislodge the garrison and capture it. 
The Confederate army was now settled behind its entrench- 
ments, occupj'ing a semicircle of low wooded hills, both flanks 
of the army resting on the banks of the Oostenaula River. 

On the morning of jNIay 14th, the Confederate works 
were invested by the greater part of Sherman's army and it 
was evident that a battle was imminent. The attack was 
begun about noon, chieflj" bj^ the Fourteenth Armj^ Corps un- 
der Palmer, of Thomas' army, and Judah's division of Scho- 
field's. General Hindman's division of Hood's corps bore 
the brunt of this attack and there was heavy loss on both sides. 
Later in the day, a portion of Hood's corps was massed in a 
heavy column and hurled against the Federal left, driving it 
back. But at this point the Twentieth Army Corps under 
Hooker, of Thomas' army, dashed against the advancing 
Confederates and pushed them back to their former lines. 

The forenoon of the next day was spent in heavy skir- 
mishing, which grew to the dignity of a battle. During the 
day's 02)erations a hard fight for a Confederate lunette on the 
top of a low hill occurred. At length, General Butterfield, 
in the face of a galling fire, succeeded in capturing the posi- 
tion. But so deadly was the fire from Hardee's corps that 
Butterfield was unable to hold it or to remove the four guns 
the lunette contained. 

With the coming of night, General Johnston determined 
to withdraw his army from Resaca. The battle had cost each 
armj^ nearly three thousand men. While it was in progress, 
jNlcPherson, sent by Sherman, had deftl}^ marched around 



[110] 



186-i 



ite^^^^sas: 





EView OF REVIEWS CO. 



ANOTHER RETROGRADE MOVEMENT OVER THE ETOWAH BRIDGE 



The strong works in the pictures, commanding the railroad bridge 
over the Etowah River, were the fourth fortified position to be 
abandoned by Johnston within a month. Pursued by Thomas 
from Resaca, he had made a brief stand at Kingston and then 
fallen back steadily and in superb order into Cassville. There 
he issued an address to his army announcing his purpose to 
retreat no more but to accept battle. His troops were all drawn 
up in preparation for a struggle, but that night at supper with 
Generals Hood and Polk 
he was convinced by them 
that the ground occupied 
by their troops was unten- 
able, being enfiladed by the 
Federal artillery. Johnston, 
therefore, gave up his pur- 
pose of battle, and on the 
night of May 20th put the 
Etowah River between him- 
self and Sherman and re- 
treated to Allatoona Pass, 
shown in the lower picture. 




In taking this the camera was planted inside the breastworks 
seen on the eminence in the upper picture. Sherman's army now 
rested after its rapid advance and waited a few days for the rail- 
road to be repaired in their rear so that supplies could be brought 
up. Meanwhile Johnston was being severely criticized at the 
South for his continual falling back without risking a battle. His 
friends stoutly maintained that it was all strategic, while some of 
the Southern newspapers quoted the Federal General Scott's 

remark, "Beware of Lee 
advancing, and watch John- 
ston at a stand; for the 
devil himself would be de- 
feated in the attempt to 
whip him retreating." But 
General Jeff C. Davis, sent 
by Sherman, took Rome on 
May 17th and destroyed 
valualjle mills and foundries. 
Tlius began the accomplish- 
ment of one of the main 
objects of Sherman's march. 



ALLATOONA PASS IN THE DISTANCE 




n Atlanta — ^Ij^rman tifi. ^clittBtnn 4- * 



riffrmf////m//mm 






s«^ 



Johnston's left with the A'iew of cutting off his retreat south 
by seizing the bridges across the Oostenaula, and at the same 
time the Federal cavalry was threatening the railroad to 
Atlanta which ran beyond the river. It was the knowledge 
of these facts that determined the Confederate commander to 
abandon Resaca. Withdrawing during the night, he led his 
army southward to the banks of the Etowah River. Sherman 
followed but a few miles behind him. At the same time Sher- 
man sent a division of the Army of the Cumberland, under 
General Jeff. C. Davis, to Rome, at the junction of the 
Etowah and the Oostenaula, wliere there were important 
machine-shops and factories. Davis captured the town and 
several heavy guns, destroyed the factories, and left a garri- 
son to hold it. 

Sherman was eager for a battle in the open with Johnston 
and on the 17th, near the town of Adairsville, it seemed as if 
the latter would gratifj^ him. Johnston chose a good position, 
posted his cavalry, dejjloyed his infantry, and awaited combat. 
The Union army was at hand. The skirmishing for some 
hours almost amounted to a battle. But suddenly Johnston 
decided to defer a conclusive contest to another time. 

Again at Cassville, a few days later, Johnston drew up 
the Confederate legions in battle arraj% evidently having de- 
cided on a general engagement at this point. He issued a 
spirited address to the army: " By your courage and skill you 
have repulsed everj^ assault of the enemy. . . . You will now 
turn and march to meet his advancing columns. ... I lead 
you to battle." But, when his right flank had been turned 
b}^ a Federal attack, and when two of his corps commanders. 
Hood and Polk, advised against a general battle, Johnston 
again decided on postponement. He retreated in the night 
across the Etowah, destroyed the bridges, and took a strong 
position among the rugged hills about Allatoona Pass, extend- 
ing south to Kenesaw Mountain. 

Johnston's decision to fight and then not to fight was a 



■11'2 









EVrEWS CO. 



ENTRENCHMENTS HELD BY THE CONFEDERATES AGAINST HOOKER ON MAY 25th 



These views of the battlefield of 
New Hope Church, in Georgia, 
show the evidences of the sharp 
struggle at this point that was 
brought on by Sherman's next 
attempt to flank Johnston out 
of his position at Allatoona Pass. 
The middle picture gives mute 
witness to the leaden storm that 
raged among the trees during 
that engagement. In the upper 
and lower pictures are seen the 




entrenchments which the Con- 
federates had hastily thrown up 
and which resisted Hooker's 
assaults on May 25th. For 
two days each side strength- 
ened its position; then on the 
28th the Confederates made a 
brave attack upon General Mc- 
Pherson's forces as they were 
closing up to this new position. 
The Confederates were repulsed 
with a loss of two thousand. 



THE CANNONADED FOREST 



M l£«i'# 


J^i 


J\ "^£1^ yC^ \'''' 


""- ^V ^^* 


■ ^A'' 


BP^'^^Hflj 










8 .' ^1 


^a 




■■ T' 


:M'^g^ :^^^ 




^i.:p3||,,.,, 1/'.. ' 


■■ ■•*■.•■ -.^t. 




^^^^Sffi^ 




'■('- ^: 


'^5^-:/.' 




k ,-■..■ 3k 
V ■ y. ■:#; 




' ■ f-fW' 








1 W:^-%^^ 





COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



ANOTHER POSITION OF THE CONFEDERATES AT NEW HOPE CHURCH 



^imrmMMm 



n Atlanta — ^It^rmau 110. ilnI|U0tnn ^ ^ 



P 



N 




cause for grumbling both on the part of his army and of the 
inhabitants of the region through which he was passing. His 
men were eager to defend their countrj^ and they could not 
understand this Fabian policy. They Avould have preferred 
defeat to these repeated retreats Avith no opportunity to show 
what they could do. 

Johnston, however, was wiser than his critics. The ITnion 
army was larger by far and better e(juipped than his own, 
and Sherman was a master-strategist. His hopes rested on 
two or three contingencies — that he might catch a portion of 
Sherman's army separated from the rest; that Sherman would 
be so weakened by the necessitj^ of guarding the long line of 
railroad to his base of supplies at Chattanooga, Nashville, 
and even far-a\\ay Louisville, as to make it possible to defeat 
him in open battle, or, finally, that Sherman might fall into 
the trap of making a direct attack while Johnston was in an 
impregnable position, and in such a situation he now was. 

Not yet, however, was Sherman inclined to fall into such 
a trap, and when Johnston took his strong position at and 
bej'ond Allatoona Pass, the Northern commander decided, 
after resting his arni}^ for a few days, to move toward At- 
lanta by way of Dallas, southwest of the pass. Rations for 
a twenty days' absence from direct railroad communication 
were issued to the Federal army. In fact, Sherman's rail- 
road connection with the North was the one delicate problem 
of the whole movement. The Confederates had destroyed the 
iron way as tliey moved southward; but the Federal engi- 
neers, following the army, repaired the line and rebuilt the 
bridges almost as fast as the army could march. 

Sherman's movement toward Dallas drew Johnston from 
the slopes of the Allatoona Hills. From Kingston, the Fed- 
eral leader wrote on ]May •2.3d, " I am already within fifty miles 
of Atlanta." But he was not to enter that city for many 
weeks, not before he had measured swords again and again 

On the 2.5th of ]May, the two great 

[114.1 



with his great antagonist 



May 
1864 



J^ 






, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



PINE MOUXTAIX, WHERE POLK, THE FIGHTING BISHOP OF THE CONFEDERACY, WAS KILLED 



The blasted pine rears its gaunt height above the mountain slope, 
covered with trees slashed down to hold the Federals at bay; and 
here, on June 14, 1864, the Confederacy lost a commander, a 
bishop, and a hero. Liout.-General Leonidas Polk, commanding 
one of Johnston's army corps, with Johnston himself and Hardee, 
another corps commander, was studying Sherman's position at a 
tense moment of the latter's advance around Pine Mountain. 
The three Confederates stood upon the rolling height, where the 
center of Jolmston's army awaited the 
Federal attack. They could see the 
columns in blue pushing east of them; 
the smoke and rattle of musketry as the 
pickets were driven in; and the bustle 
with which the Federal advance guard 
felled trees and constructed trenches at 
their very feet. On the lonely height the 
three figures stood conspicuous. A Fed- 
eral order was given the artillery to 
open upon any men in gray who looked 
like officers reconnoitering the new posi- 
tion. So, while Hardee was pointing to 
his comrade and his chief the danger of 
one of his divisions which the Federal 
advance was cutting off, the bishop- 
general was struck in the chest by a 
cannon shot. Thus the Confederacy lost 
a leader of unusual influence. Although 




a bishop of the Episcopal Church, Polk was educated at 
West Point. 'VMien he threw in his lot with the Confederacy, 
thousands of his fellow-Louisianians followed him. A few days 
before the battle of Pine Mountain, as he and General Hood 
were riding together, the bishop was told by his companion 
that he had never been received into the communion of a church 
and was begged that the rite might be performed. Immediately 
Polk arranged the ceremony. At Hood's headquarters, by the 
light of a tallow candle, with a tin basin 
on the mess table for a baptismal font, 
and with Hood's staff present as wit- 
nesses, all was ready. Hood, "with a 
face like that of an old crusader," stood 
before the bishop. Crippled by wounds 
at Gaines' Mill, Gettysburg, and Chicka- 
mauga, he could not kneel, but bent 
forward on his crutches. The bishop, in 
full uniform of the Confederate army, 
administered the rite. A few days later, 
by a strange coincidence, he was ap- 
proached by General Johnston on 
the same errand, and the man whom 
Hood was soon to succeed was baptized 
in the same simple manner. Polk, as 
Bishop, had administered his last bap- 
tism, and as soldier had fought his last 
battle; for Pine Mountain was near. 



LIEUT.-GEN. LEONIDAS POLK, C.S.A. 



~'W 



Atlanta — i>hrx*mau ub. Jnlnietnu 



* 



^ 





armies were facing each otlier near New Hope Church, about 
four miles north of Dallas. Here, for three or four days, 
there was almost incessant fighting, though there was not what 
might be called a i)itched battle. 

Late in the afternoon of the first daj^ Hooker made a 
vicious attack on Stewart's division of Hood's corps. For 
two hours the battle raged without a moment's cessation, 
Hooker being j^ressed back with heavy loss. During those 
two hours he had held his ground against sixteen field-pieces 
and five thousand infantry at close range. The name " Hell 
Hole " \\as applied to this spot by the Union soldiers. 

On the next day there was considerable skirmishing in 
different places along the line that divided the two armies. 
Eut the chief labor of the day was throwing up entrench- 
ments, preparatory to a general engagement. The country, 
however, was ill fitted for such a contest. The continuous 
succession of hills, covered with primeval forests, presented 
little 02)i)ortimity for two great armies, stretched out almost 
from Dallas to JNIarietta, a distance of about ten miles, to come 
together simultaneously at all points. 

A severe contest occurred on the 27th, near the center of 
the battle-lines, bet-\Neen General O. O. Howard on the Federal 
side and General Patrick Cleburne on the part of the South. 
Dense and almost impenetrable was the undergrowth through 
Mhich Howard led his troops to make the attack. The fight 
was at close range and was fierce and bloody, the Confeder- 
ates gaining the greater advantage. 

The next day Johnston made a terrific attack on the 
Union right, under ]McPherson, near Dallas. But JNIcPher- 
son was well entrenched and the Confederates were repidsed 
with a serious loss. In the three or four days' fighting the 
Federal loss was probably twenty-four hundred men and the 
Confederate somewhat greater. 

In the early days of June, Sherman took jiossession of 
the to^^ n of Allatoona and made it a second base of supplies, 

[IIC] 




k^- 



""IM**!:. 






JS-v#^ 



,:9 A 









COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OP REVIEWS CO. 

IN THE HARDEST FIGHT OF THE CAMPAIGN— THE OXE-HrNDRED-AXD-TWENTY FIFTH OHIO 

During the dark days before Kenesaw it rained continually, and Sherman speaks of the peculiarly depressing effect that the weather 
had upon his troops in the wooded country. Nevertheless he must either assault .lohnston's strong position on the mountain or begin 
again his flanking tactics. He decided upon the former, and on June 27th, after three days' preparation, the assault was made. At 
nine in the morning along the Federal lines the furious fire of musketry and artillery was begun, but at all points the Confederates 
met it with determined courage and in great force. McPherson's attacking column, under General Blair, fought its way up the face 
of little Kenesaw but could not reach the summit. Then the courageous troops of Thomas charged up the face of the mountain and 
planted their colors on the very parapet of the Confe lerate works. Here General Harker, commanding the l)rigade in which 
fought the 12.5th Ohio, fell mortally wounded, as did Brigadier-General Daniel McCook, and also General \\agniT. 



A». 




> 














1^ 


S£ 


















m 


^.^^m 


^g^,^,. 


"'^ 


liNi 








i..>l 




WHSim^..M^^^. • 


- s^mKL 


' "' ' 'M 






^MjattA 




> 






' , ;r- 


-■' < :'H 






'^-'C—jiV ^"^■■=V i' -r — '- 




«*»»- 


' _» 


■■"■•' ■ ",,',■"-*= 




1 








'V ■ 

'^^ ■■;■ 




"- ^^y^zJ. 


*;;'., ..., . -." •'•■, 


' --'^^"^'^':.- - 


i. !..".'* 


v-?^o ' ", ''-; « 


L'SV, / I 


.f«1#«™«.:~ 


■ 


.•i 








,'5 " ■'■-■ 




m 


L' ^1 


"^ 


./. * ^ • 





COPYRIGHT, 



. REVIEW OF REVIEV/ 



FEDERAL ENTRENCHMENTS AT THE FOOT OF KENESAW MOUNTAIN 




u Atlanta — ^Ij^rmau ub- Jcliustcn 4- ^ 



f 



f\ 



\ 



y\ 



after repairing the railroad bridge across the Etowah River. 
Johnston swung his left around to Lost IMountain and his 
right extended beyond the railroad — a line ten miles in length 
and much too long for its numbers. Johnston's army, how- 
e\'er. had been reenforced, and it now numbered about scA^enty- 
five thousand men. Sherman, on June 1st, had nearly one 
hundred and thirteen thousand men and on the 8th he received 
the addition of a cavalry brigade and two divisions of the 
Seventeenth Corps, imder General Frank P. Blair, which had 
marched from Alabama. 

So multifarious Avere the movements of the two great 
armies among the hills and forests of that part of Georgia 
that it is imjjossible for us to follow them all. On the 14th of 
June, Generals Johnston, Hardee, and Polk rode up the slope 
of Pine ^Mountain to reconnoiter. As they were standing, 
making observations, a Federal battery in the distance ojiened 
on them and General Polk was struck in the chest with a 
I'arrot shell. Pie was killed instantly. 

General Polk was greatlj^ beloved, and his death caused 
a shock to the whole Confederate army. He was a graduate 
of AVest Point; but after being graduated he took orders in 
the church and for twenty j^ears before the war was E])iscopal 
Eishop of Louisiana. At the outbreak of the war he entered 
the field and served with distinction to the moment of his death. 

During the next two weeks there was almost incessant 
fighting, heavy skirmishing, sparring for jiosition. It was a 
wonderful game of military strategy, played among the hills 
and mountains and forests by two masters in the art of war. 
On June 23d, Sherman wrote, " The whole country is one 
vast fort, and Johnston must have full fiftj^ miles of connected 
trenches. . . . Our lines are now in close contact, and the 
fighting incessant. . . . As fast as we gain one position, the 
enemy has another all readJ^" 

Sherman, conscious of superior strength, was now anx- 
ious for a real battle, a fight to the finish with his antagonist. 

[118] 



I p. 



:.i>3 





COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THOMAS' HEADQUARTERS NEAR IVIARIETTA DURING THE FIGHTING OF 

THE FOURTH OF JULY 



This is a photograph of Independence Day, 1864. As the sentries and staff officers stand outside the shel- 
tered tents, General Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, is busy; for the fighting is fierce 
to-day. Johnston has been outflanked from Kenesaw and has fallen back eastward until he is actually 
farther from Atlanta than Sherman's right flank. Who will reach the Chattahoochee first.' There, if any- 
where, Johnston must make his stand; he must hold the fords and ferries, and the fortifications that, with 
the wisdom of a far-seeing commander, he has for a long time been preparing. The rustic work in the pho- 
tograph, which embowers the tents of the commanding general and his staff, is the sort of thing that Civil 
War soldiers had learned to throw up within an hour after pitching camp. 




n Atlanta — ^hf rman ub. ^nltnstnn ^ ^ 







But Jt)liiiston was too wily to be thus caught. He made no 
false move on the great chessboard of war. At length, the 
impatient Sherman decided to make a general front attack, 
even though Johnston, at that moment, was impregnably en- 
trenched on the slopes of Kenesaw JNIountain. This was pre- 
cisely Mhat the Confederate commander was hoping for. 

The desperate battle of Kenesaw ^Mountain occurred on 
the 27th of June. In the earh^ morning hours, the boom of 
Federal cannon announced the opening of a bloody day's 
struggle. It Mas soon answered by the Confederate l)atteries 
in the entrenchments along the mountain side, and the deaf- 
ening roar of the giant conflict reverberated from the surround- 
ing hills. About nine o'clock the Union infantry advance 
began. On the left Avas JMcPherson, who sent the Fif- 
teenth Army Corps, led by General Jolin A. Logan, directly 
against tlie moiuitain. Tlie artillery from tlie Confederate 
trendies in front of Logan cut down his men by hundreds. 
The Federals charged courageously and captu.red the lower 
works, ))ut failed to take the higlier ridges. 

The chief assault of the day was by the Army of the 
Cumberland, under Thomas. IMost conspicuous in the attack 
were the divisions of Xewton and Davis, advancing against 
General Loring, successor of the lamented Polk. Far up on 
a ridge at one point, General Clebm-ne held a line of l)reast- 
A\'orks, supi>orted ])y the flanking fire of artillery. Against 
this a vain and costh^ assault was made. 

When the word was given to charge, the Federals sprang 
forward and, in the face of a deadly hail of musket-l)alls and 
shells, tliey dashed up the slope, firing as they went. Stunned 
and bleeding, they were checked again and again by the with- 
ering fire from the mountain slope; but they re-formed and 
2:)ressed on with dauntless valor. Some of them reached the 
l)arapets and ^yeve instantly shot down, their bodies rolling 
into tlie Confederate trenches among the men who had slain 
them, or back down the hill whence they had come. General 

■ 120 1 










THE CHATTAHOOCHEE BRIDGE 

'One of the strongest pieces of field fortification I ever saw" — this was Sherman's characterization of the entrenchments that 
guarded the railroad bridge over the Chattahoochee on July 5th. A glimpse of the bridge and the freshly-turned earth in 1864 is 
given by the upper picture. At this river Johnston made his final efi'ort to hold back Sherman from a direct attack upon Atlanta. 
If Sherman could get successfully across that river, the Confederates would bo compelled to fall back behind the defenses of the 
city, which was the objective of the campaign. Sherman perceived at once the futility of trying to carry by assault this strongly 
garrisoned position. Instead, he made a feint at crossing the river lower down, and simultaneously went to work in earnest eight 
miles north of the bridge. The lower picture shows the canvas pontoon boats as perfected by Union engineers in 1864. A number of 
these were stealthily set up and launched by Sherman's Twenty-third Corps near the mouth of Soap Creek, behind a ridge. Byrd's 
brigade took the defenders of the southern bank completely by surprise. It was short work for the Federals to throw pontoon bridges 
across and to occupy the coveted spot in force. 




PYRIGHT. 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



INFANTRY AND ARTILLERY CROSSING ON BOATS MADE OF PONTOONS 



^JL^ Atlanta — ^It^rman hb. JoliitBtcn 



4- 



vmmMsmim. 



;mnii 






Harker, leading a cliarge against Cleburne, was mortally 
wounded. His men A\ere swept back by a galling fire, though 
many fell with their brave leader. 

This assault on Kenesaw INIountain cost Sherman three 
thousand men and won him nothing. Johnston's loss prob- 
abljr exceeded five hundred. The battle continued but two 
and a half hours. It was one of the most recklessly daring 
assaults during the whole war period, but did not greath^ affect 
the final result of the campaign. 

Under a flag of truce, on the day after the battle, the 
men of the Xorth and of the South met on the gory field to 
bury their dead and to minister to the wounded. Thej' met as 
friends for the moment, and not as foes. It was said that 
there were instances of father and son, one in blue and the 
other in gray, and brothers on opposite sides, meeting one 
another on the bloody sloj^es of Kenesaw. Tennessee and 
Kentucky had sent thousands of men to each side in the 
fratricidal struggle and not infrequently families had been 
divided. 

Three weeks of almost incessant rain fell upon the strug- 
gling armies during this time, rendering their operations dis- 
agreeal)le and unsatisfactory. The camp ecjuipage, the men's 
uniforms and accouterments ^^ere thoroughly saturated with 
rain and mud. Still the warriors of the North and of the 
South lived and fought on the slopes of the mountain range, 
intent on destroying each f)t]ier. 

Sherman was convinced by his drastic repulse at Kenesaw 
JNIountain tliat success lay not in attacking his great antag- 
onist in a strong position, and he resumed his old tactics. He 
would flank Johnston from Kenesaw as he had flanked him 
out of Dalton and Allatoona Pass. He thereupon turned 
upon Johnston's line of communication with Atlanta, whence 
the latter received his supi)lies. The movement was success- 
ful, and in a few days Kenesaw INIountain was deserted. 

Johnston moved to the banks of the Chattalioochee, 

[ 122 ] 







Johnston's parrying of Sherman's mighty 
strokes was "a model of defensive war- 
fare, " declares one of Sherman's own divi- 
sion commanders, Jacob D. Cox. There 
was not a man in the Federal army from 
Sherman down that did not rejoice to hear 
that Johnston had been superseded by Hood 
on July 17th. Johnston, whose mother was 
a niece of Patrick Henry, was fifty-seven 
years old, cold in manner, measured and 
accurate in speech. His dark firm face, 
surmounted by a splendidly intellectual 
forehead, betokened the experienced and 
cautious soldier. His dismissal was one of 
the political mistakes wliich too often 
hampered capable leaders on both sides. 
His Fabian policy in Georgia was precisely 
the same as that which was winning fame 
against heavy odds for Lee in Virginia. 





GENERAL JOSEPH EGGLESTON 

JOHNSTON, C. S.A. 
BORN 1809; WEST POINT 1829; died 1891 




LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

JOHN B, HOOD, C. S. A. 

BORN 1831; WEST POINT 1853; died 1879 



The countenance of Hood, on the other 
hand, indicates an eager, restless energy, 
an impetuosity that lacked the poise of 
Sherman, whose every gesture showed the 
alertness of mind and soundness of 
judgment that in him were so exactly bal- 
anced. Both Schofield and McPherson 
were classmates of Hood at West Point, 
and characterized him to Sherman as 
"bold even to rashness and courageous in 
the extreme. " He struck the first offen- 
sive blow at Sherman advancing on At- 
lanta, and wisely adhered to the plan of 
the battle as it had been worked out by 
Johnston just before his removal. But 
the policy of attacking was certain to 
be finally disastrous to the Confederates. 



kssMM^mm 



Atlanta — ^h^rman tis. Jobustnu ^ -^ 





Sherman folloAving in tlie hoj^e of catching him while crossing 
the river, liut the wary Confederate had again, as at Resaca, 
prepared entrenchments in advance, and these were on the 
nortli ])ank of tlie river. lie hastened to them, tlien turned 
on the approaching Federals and defiantly awaited attack. 
But Sherman remembered Kenesaw and there was no battle. 

The feints, the si)arring, the flanking movements among 
the hills and forests continued day after day. The immediate 
aim in the early days of July was to cross the Chattahoochee. 
On the 8th, Sherman sent Schofield and JNIcPherson across, 
ten miles or more above the Confederate position. Johnston 
crossed the next day. Thomas followed later. 

Sherman's position was by no means reassuring. It is 
true he had, in the space of two months, pressed his antag- 
onist back inch hy inch for more than a hundred miles and 
was now almost ^\itliin sight of the goal of the cam})aign — 
the city of Atlanta. But the single line of railroad that con- 
nected him with the Xorth and brought sui)plies from I^ouis- 
ville, five hundred miles away, for a himdred thousand men 
and twenty-three thousand animals, might at any moment be 
destroyed by Confederate raiders. 

The necessity of guarding the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad was an ever-present concern with Sherman. Forrest 
and his ca\'alry force were in northern JNIississippi waiting 
for him to get far enough on the way to Atlanta for them 
to 2:)Ounce upon the iron May and tear it to ruins. To pre- 
vent this General Samuel D. Sturgis, with eight thousand 
troops, was sent from ^Memphis against Forrest. He met him 
on the lOth of June near Gimtown, jNIississippi, but was sadly 
beaten and driven back to JMemphis, one hundred miles away. 
The affair, nevertheless, delayed Forrest in his operations 
against the railroad, and meanwhile General Smith's troops 
returned to ^lemphis from the Red River expedition, some- 
what late according to the schedule but eager to join Sherman 
in the advance on Atlanta. Smith, however, was directed to 



July 
1 8()'4. 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEW 



PEACH-TREE CREEK, WHERE HOOD HIT HARD 

Counting these closely clustered Federal graves gives one an idea of the overwhelming onset with Hood become the aggressor on July 
20th. Beyond the graves are some of the trenches from which the Federals were at first irresistibly driven. In the background flows 
Peach-Tree Creek, the little stream that gives its name to the battlefield. Hood, impatient to signalize his new responsibility by a 
stroke that would at once dispel the gloom at Richmond, had posted his troops behind strongly fortified works on a ridge commanding 
the valley of Peach-Tree Creek about five miles to the north of Atlanta. Here he awaited the approach of Sherman. As the Federals 
were disposing their lines and entrenching before this position. Hood's eager eyes detected a gap in their formation and at four o'clock 
in the afternoon hurled a heavy force against it. Thus he proved his reputation for courage, but the outcome showed the mistake. 
For a brief interval Sherman's forces were in great peril. But the Federals under Newton and Geary rallied and held their ground, 
till Ward's division in a brave counter-charga drove the Confederates back. This first effort cost Hood dear. He abandoned his 
entrenchments that night, leaving on the field five hundred dead, one thousand wounded, and many prisoners. Sherman estimated 
the total Confederate loss at no less than five thousand. That of the Federals was fifteen hundred. 




PALISADES AND CHEVAUX-DE-FRIS,E GUARDING ATLANTA 



At last Sherman is before Atlanta. The photograph shows one of the keypoints in tlie Contederate 
defense, the fort at the head of ^larietta Street, toward which the Federal lines were advancing from 
the northwest. The old Potter house in the background, once a quiet, handsome country seat, is now 
surrounded by bristling fortifications, palisades, and double lines of chevaux-de-frise. Atlanta was engaged 
in the final grapple with the force that was to OA'ercome her. Sherman has fought his way past Kenesaw 
and across the Chattahoochee, through a country which he describes as "one va.st fort," saying that "John- 
ston must have at least fifty miles of connected trenches with abatis and finished batteries." Anticipating 
that Sherman might drive him back upon Atlanta, Johnston had constructed, during the winter, heavily 
fortified positions all the way from Dalton. During his two months in retreat the fortifications at At- 
lanta had been strengthened to the utmost, ^^^lat he might have done behind them was never to be known. 




, R£^'Jew OF REVIEWS CO. 



AFTER THE SHARPSHOOTING IN POTTER'S HOUSE 



One gets a closer look at Potter's house in the background opposite. It was occupied by sharpshooters 
in the skirmishing and engagements by which the investing lines were advanced. So the Federals made 
it a special target for their artillery. After Atlanta fell, nearly a ton of shot and shell was found in the 
house. The fort on Marietta Street, to the northwest of the city, was the first of the inner defenses to 
be encountered as Sherman advanced quickly on July 21st, after finding that Hood had abandoned his 
outer line at Peach-Tree Creek. The vicinity of the Potter house was the scene of many vigorous assaults 
and much brave resistance throughout the siege. Many another dwelling in Atlanta suffered as badly 
as this one in the clash of arms. During Sherman's final bombardment the city was almost laid in ruins. 
Even this was not the end, for after the occupation Captain Poe and his engineers found it necessary, 
in laying out the new fortifications, to destroy many more buildings throughout the devastated town. 




n Atlanta — ^hrrmau us. Jnlntstcu ^ -^ 



take the offensive against Forrest, and Avith fourteen thou- 
sand troojjs, and in a three days' fight, demoralized him badly 
at Tupelo, jNIississippi, July l-ith-lTth. Smith returned to 
jMemi)his and made another start for Sherman, when he was 
suddenly turned back and sent to ^Missouri, where the Confed- 
erate Cxeneral Price was extremely active, to help Rosecrans. 

To avoid final defeat and to win the ground he had 
gained had taxed Sherman's powers to the last degree and was 
made possible only through his superior numbers. Even this 
degree of success could not be expected to continue if the rail- 
road to the Xorth should be destroyed. But Sherman must 
do more than he had done; he must capture Atlanta, this 
Richmond of the far South, with its cannon foundries and its 
great machine-shops, its military factories, and extensive army 
supplies. He must divide the Confederacy north and south 
as Grant's ca2:)ture of 'N'ickslnu-g had s])lit it east and west. 

Sherman must have Atlanta, for ])olitical reasons as well 
as for military 2)urposes. The country was in the midst of 
a presidential campaign. The op2)Osition to Lincoln's re- 
election Mas strong, and for many weeks it was believed on 
all sides that his defeat was inevitable. At least, the success 
of the I^nion arms in the field was deemed essential to Lin- 
coln's success at the polls. Grant had made little progress in 
A'^irginia and his terrible repulse at Cold Harbor, in June, had 
cast a gloom over every Northern State. Farragut was oper- 
ating in INIobile Bay; but his success was still in the future. 

The eyes of the supporters of the great war-president 
turned longingly, expectantly, toward General Sherman and 
his hundred thousand men before Atlanta. " Do something 
— something spectacular — save the party and save the country 
thereby from jiermanent disruption!" This was the cry of 
the millions, and Sherman understood it. But withal, the 
ca2:)ture of the Georgia city may have been doubtfvd but for 
the fact that at the critical moment the Confederate Presi- 
dent made a decision that resulted, unconsciously, in a decided 



^ 



\ 



128] 






COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE ARMY'S FINGER-TIPS— PICKETS BEFORE ATLANTA 



A Federal picket post on the lines before Atlanta. This picture was taken shortly before the battle of 
July 22d. The soldiers are idling about unconcerned at exposing themselves; this is on the "reserve post." 
Somewhat in advance of this lay the outer line of pickets, and it would be time enough to seek cover if 
they were driven in. Thus armies feel for each other, stretching out first their sensitive fingers — the pickets. 
If these recoil, the skirmishers are sent forward while the strong arm, the line of battle, gathers itself 
to meet the foe. As this was an inner line, it was more strongly fortified than was customary with 
the pickets. But the men of both sides had become very expert in improvising field-works at this stage 
of the war. Hard campaigning had taught the veterans the importance to themseh'es of providing 
such protection, and no orders had to be given for their construction. As soon as a regiment gained a 
position desirable to hold, the soldiers would throw up a strong parapet of dirt and logs in a single night. 
In order to spare the men as much as possible, Sherman ordered his division commanders to organize 
pioneer detachments out of the Negroes that escaped to the Federals. These could work at night. 









n Atlanta — ^l|pnnan hb. JInltnstnn ^ ^ 



service to the Union cause. He dismissed General Johnston 
and inii anotlier in his j^lace, one who was less strategic and 
more impulsive. 

Jefferson Davis did not agree with General Johnston's 
military judgment, and he seized on the fact that Johnston 
had so steadily retreated before the Northern army as an ex- 
cuse for his removal. On the 18th of July, Davis turned the 
Confederate Army of Tennessee over to General John B. 
Hood. A graduate of West Point of the class of 1853, a 
classmate of ]\IcPherson, Schofield, and Sheridan, Hood had 
faithfully served the cause of the South since the opening of 
the war. He was known as a fighter, and it was believed that 
he would change the policy of Johnston to one of open battle 
M'ith Sherman's army. And so it proved. 

Johnston had lost, since the ojjening of the campaign at 
Dalton, about fifteen thousand men, and the army that he now 
delivered to Hood consisted of about sixty thousand in all. 

While Hood was no match for Sherman as a strategist, 
he was not a weakling. His policy of aggression, however, 
was not suited to the circumstances — to the nature of the 
countrj' — in view of the fact that Sherman's army was far 
stronger than his own. 

Two days after Hood took command of the Confederate 
army he oft'ered battle. Sherman's forces had crossed Peach 
Tree Creek, a small stream flowing into the Chattahoochee, 
but a few miles from Atlanta, and were approaching the city. 
They had thrown up shght breastworks, as was their custom, 
but were not expecting an attack. Suddenly, however, about 
four o'clock in the afternoon of July 20th, an imposing col- 
umn of Confederates burst from the woods near the position 
of the Union right center, under Thomas. The Federals 
were soon at their guns. The battle was short, fierce, and 
bloody. The Confederates made a gallant assault, but were 
pressed back to their entrenchments, leaving the ground cov- 
ered with dead and wounded. The Federal loss in the battle 

[130 1 






"^s; 



' . . 


j 


» . V 

■-■vi, ,_ 1 . 




■•■'■■ .-? 

• '■ ■■cii" 
^ •.:■■■■ ■:'%' 


.-■■ - K 


.« ■ - 


■ ■•■•-J' 


' it 


r. 


is. 








.- 'm^- 






^ ^ 

-^;i>.^.- 




, -*», ■■ ■-- 


/"C-.-'--;-'- 


, ■■- ;>*,-;^■■i- 












■jj-'jBc 



Xoar the ti-ec seen in the upper pieturc tlic 
l)ra\e and wise Mel'herson, one of Sherman's 
best generals, was killed, July 22d. On the 
morning of that da;\-, MePherson, in exeellent 
spirits, rode up with his staff to Sherman's head- 
(|uarters at the Howard House. The niglit be- 
fore his troops had gained a position on Leg- 
gett's Hill, from which they eould look over the 
Confederate parapets into Atlanta. MePherson 
explained to Sherman that he was planting bat- 
teries to knock down a large foundry which the 
position commanded. Sitting down on the steps 
of the porch, the two generals discussed the 
chances of battle and agreed that they ought to 
be unusually cautious. MePherson said that 
his old classmate Hood, though not deemed much 
of a scholar at West Point, was none the less 
brave and determined. Walking down the road 
the two comrades in arms sat down at the foot 
of a tree and examined the Federal positions on 
a map. Suddenly the sound of battle broke 
upon their ears and rose to the volume of a gen- 
eral engagement. MePherson, anxious about 
his ne\\ly gained position, called for his horse 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW 

THE SCENE OF McPHERSON'S DEATH 



and rode off. Reaching the battlefield he sent 
one orderly after another to bring up troops, and 
then riding alone through the woods to gain 
another part of the field, ran directly into a 
Confederate skirmish line. Upon his refusal to 
surrender a volley brought him lifeless to the 
ground. The battle of Atlanta, on July 2'2d, 
was Hood's second attempt to repel Shernjan's 
army that was rapidly throwing its cordon 
around the city to the north and threatening to 
cut his rail communication with Augusta to the 
eastward. To prevent this, it was imperative 
that the hill gained by MePherson should be 
retaken, and Hood thought he saw his oppor- 
tunity in the thinly extended Federal line near 
this position. His abandoned entrenchments 
near Peach-Tree Creek were but a ruse to lurr 
Sherman on into advancing incautiously. Sher- 
man and MePherson had so decided when Hood 
began to strike. McPherson's prompt disposi- 
tions saved the day at the cost of his life. A 
skilful soldier, tall and handsome, universally 
liked and respected by his comrades, he was cut 
off in his prime at the age of thirty-six. 







■-■'A ^yi^ 


^m 




n*^^^-^"^^ 


^^H 




H 


BJI^^B 




^S 


WB^-,. '^^'^^^^dj^mBSBHI 




H 






^ 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 

DEBRIS FROM THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA 



Allmtta — ^hi>rmau its. ilnhnstnii ^ -^ 



T 



--^ 



A 





July 
1864 



of Peach Tree Creek was placed at over seventeen hundred, 
the Confederate loss being much greater. This battle had 
iieen planned by Johnston before his removal, but he had been 
A\aiting for the strategic moment to fight it. 

Two days later, Jvdj' 22d, occurred the greatest engage- 
ment of the entire campaign — the battle of Atlanta. The 
Federal army was closing in on the entrenchments of Atlanta, 
and was now within two or three miles of the city. On the 
night of the 21st, General Blair, of ]McPherson's army, had 
gained possession of a high hill on the left, which commanded 
a view of tlie heart of the city. Hood thereupon planned to 
reca2)ture this hill, and make a general attack on the morning 
of the 22d. He sent General Hardee on a long night march 
aroiuid the extreme flank of IMcPherson's army, the attack to 
be made at daybreak. ^Meantime, General Cheatham, who had 
succeeded to the command of Hood's former corps, and Gen- 
eral A. P. Stewart, who now had Polk's corps, were to engage 
Thomas and Schofield in front and thus prevent them from 
sending aid to ]McPherson. 

Plardee ^^as delayed in his fifteen-mile night march, and 
it was noon before lie attacked. At about that hour Generals 
Sherman and JNlcPherson sat talking near the Howard house, 
which was the Federal headquarters, when the sudden boom 
of artillery from beyond the hill that Blair had captured an- 
nounced the o])ening of the coming battle. INIcPherson quickly 
leajjed upon his horse and galloped away toward the soimd of 
the gims. jNIeeting Logan and Blair near the railroad, he 
conferred ^\'ith them for a moment, A^'hen they separated, and 
each hastened to his place in the battle-line. JMcPherson sent 
aides and orderlies in various directions A\'ith despatches, until 
but tM'o were still with him. He then rode into a forest and 
was suddenly confronted by a portion of the Confederate 
army under General Cheatham. " Surrender," was the call 
that rang out. But he ^\-heeled his horse as if to flee, when he 
was instantly shot dead, and the horse galloped back riderless. 

[ 132 ] 



Uk^^^^sat 






COPYRIGHT, 



, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE FINAL BLOW TO THE CONFEDERACY'S SOUTHERN STRONGHOLD 



It was Sherman's experienced railroad wreckers that finally drove Hood out of Atlanta. In the picture the rails heating red-hot 
amid the flaming bonfires of the ties, and the piles of twisted debris show vividly what Sherman meant when he said their "work was 
done with a will." Sherman saw that in order to take Atlanta without terrific loss he must cut off all its rail communications. This he 
did by "taking the field with our main force and using it against the communications of Atlanta instead of against its intrench- 
ments." On the night of August 25th he moved with practically his entire army and wagon-trains loaded with fifteen days' rations. 
By the morning of the 27th the whole front of the city was deserted. The Confederates concluded that Sherman was in retreat. 
Next day they found out their mistake, for the Federal army lay across the West Point Railroad while the sohliers began wrecking it. 
Next day they were in motion toward the railroad to Macon, and General Hood began to understand that a colossal raid was in 
progress. After the occupation, when this picture was taken, Sherman's men completed the work of destruction. 




n Atlanta — ^In^rman ub. Jnltttstnu 



.> 



'^• 



W 



July 
1864 



The death of the brilhant, dashing young leader, James 
Ji IMcPlievsoii, was a great blow to the Union army. But 
JM, ^ thu'ty-six years of age, one of the most promising men in the 
-.•oinitry, and already the commander of a military department. 
jMel'herson was the only man in all the Western armies whom 
Grant, on going to the East, j^laced in the same military class 
with Sherman. 

Logan succeeded the fallen commander, and the battle 
raged on. The Confederates were gaining headway. They 
captured several guns. Cheatham was ])ressing on. pouring 
volley after volley into the ranks of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee, which seemed about to be cut in twain. A gap was 
opening. The Confederates were pouring through, (xcneral 
Sherman was present and saw the danger. Calling for Scho- 
tield to send several batteries, he placed them and poured a 
concentrated artillerj' fire through the gap and mowed down 
the advancing men in swaths. At the same time, Logan 
pressed forward and Schofield's infantry was called up. The 
Confederates were hurled back with great loss. The shadows 
of night fell — and the battle of Atlanta was over. Hood's 
losses exceeded eight thousand of his brave men, whom he 
coidd ill spare. Sherman lost about thirty-seven hundred. 

The Confederate army recuperated within the defenses of 
Atlanta — behind an almost impregnable barricade. Sherman 
had no hope of carrying the cicy by assault, while to surround 
and invest it was imjjossible with his numbers. He deter- 
mined, therefore, to sti'ike Hood's lines of supj^lies. On July 
•28th, Hood again sent Hardee out from his entrenchments to 
attack the Army of the Tennessee, now under the command 
of General Howard. A fierce battle at Ezra Church on the 
west side of the city ensued, and again the Confederates were 
defeated with heavy loss. 

A month passed and Sherman had made little j^jrogress 
to^^"ard capturing Atlanta. Two cavalry raids which he or- 

but the two railroads from the 

[ 13-t 1 



V^' 



ganized resulted in defeat 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE RUIN OF HOOD'S RETREAT— DEMOLISHED CARS AND ROLLING-MILL 



On the night of August 31st, in his headquarters near Jonesboro, Sherman could not sleep. That day 
he had defeated the force sent against him at Jonesboro and cut them off from returning to Atlanta. This 
was Hood's last effort to save his communications. About midnight sounds of exploding shells and what 
seemed like volleys of musketry arose in the direction of Atlanta. The day had been exciting in that city. 
Supplies and ammunition that Hood could carry with him were being removed; large quantities of pro- 
visions were being distributed among the citizens, and as the troops marched out they were allowed to 
take what they could from the public stores. All that remained was destroyed. The noise that Sherman 
heard that night was the blowing up of the rolling-mill and of about a hundred cars and six engines loaded 
with Hood's abandoned ammunition. The picture shows the Georgia Central Railroad east of the town. 







^ 


4-1 


(S 










^- 










a; 


c; 


c^' 










c 


be 


c/2 


>. 


"i^ 


'ff! 


W 


a 


**" 




Ti 


."t^ 


ill! 


is 




■g 


S 


o 


H 
Q 


rt 
rt 


rJ:; 


'ri 










Q 


c 


a 


F 


\ii 


n; 


C^ 


F 


'A 
O 


<; 


S 


8 


Q 


c 


H 


O 




6 


0^ 






^ 


ffi 


W 








a 








H 


C3 












O 


^ 


P 


o 










t- 






j:3 




^ 


■^ 




sr 




;^ 


"o 










3 



-n 


[5 


s 


— 












w 






M 


s 


1^ 


-C 


W 




'-*-' 




a: 




o 


rt 
p: 












o 


Q 


Oj 



1= 6- 



c 


o; 




c 


Q-' 


o 


J= 


o 



S s 



< J cS 




a 

o 

-d 



-a 



3 i; 



ri 


-n 




« 


-ij 


.3 














^ 


■^ 


-n 








-i-> 


<u 










-n 






OJ 


S 


bfi 




tjj 



I-; 


-o 


ri 


-3- 


C! 




n 






O 




o 








a 




;-i 


a 


'. ^ 


^ 


H 


s 








T 


i_i 


o 


O 








/< 






o 






'xj 


rt 


n3 


rn 


+2 


^ 


W 


rt 




en 








O 




2 


0; 


§ 






o 






« 



d -^ 



■i a 



si 

3 



^ iu 



^ i! ^ 



o K 



OJ _^ 



eA 


■ ■ 


ja 


!^ 




is 


ca 


t3 




















O 


o 


'5 


U 


rt 


d 










8 


-S 




Atlmtta — ^Ii^rman 110. Sniiuatnn -^ ^ 




south into Atlanta were considerably damaged. But, late in 
August, the Xorthern commander made a daring move that 
proved successful. Leaving his base of sui)plies, as Grant had 
done before A^icksburg, and marching toward Jonesboro, Sher- 
man destroyed the INlacon and Western Railroad, the only re- 
maining line of supplies to the Confederate army. 

Hood attempted to block the march on Jonesboro, and 
Hardee was sent with his and S. D. Lee's Corps to attack the 
Federals, while he himself sought an op2)ortunity to moAC u])on 
Sherman's right flank. Hardee's attack failed, and this ne- 
cessitated the evacuation of Atlanta. After blo-\\'ing uj) his 
magazines and destroying the supplies which his men could 
not carry M'ith them. Hood abandoned the city, and tlie next 
day, September 2d, General Slocum, having succeeded 
Hooker, led the Twentieth Corjis of the Federal army witliin 
its earthen walls. Hood had made his escape, saving his army 
from capture. His chief desire would have been to march 
directly north on INIarietta and destroy the depots of Federal 
supphes, but a matter of more imjiortance prevented. Thirty- 
four thousand LTnion prisoners were confined at Andersonville, 
and a small body of cavalry could have released them. So 
Hood placed himself between Andersonville and Sherman. 

In the early days of Sejjtember the Federal hosts occupied 1/ 
the citj^ toward which they had toiled all the summer long. At 
East Point, Atlanta, and Decatur, the three armies settled for 
a brief rest, while the cavalry, stretched for many miles along 
the Chattahoochee, protected their flanks and rear. Since May 
their ranks had been dejileted by some twenty-eight thousand 
killed and wounded, while nearly four thousand had fallen pris- 
oners, into the Confederates' hands. 

It was a great price, but whatever else the capture of 
Atlanta did, it ensured the reelection of Abraham Lincoln to 
the presidency of the United States. The total Confederate 
losses were in the neighborhood of thirty-five thousand, of 
which thirteen thousand were prisoners. 

[138] 



. 1 



tl 



"'V 



Ji>B 




S-«4?: 



PART II 
THE SIMULTANEOUS MOVEMENTS 



THE LAST CONFLICTS 
IN THE SHENANDOAH 




THE CAPITOL IN WAR TIME 



o 



B 2 







« 



O 



o -o 



o ~i « tu i: 



^ f !!i 








r 





S 


Q 


:2 


3 




1^ 


c 

g 


fi 




0^ 





" 


y- 


rt 


c3 


rt 


Ji 


a 


'oJ 







^ 


ffi 


bo 


T 


rt 




■'jj 


^ 


Oj 







a 










33 


■ H 




cd 

a 




y 






i-j 


•— ' 


-+ 







^ 


H 


CO 
GO 


Oj 


hH 


"S 











S 


-t: 


.S 


'rt 


3 


e 




-c 


.2 


^0^ 


CO 


5^ 




3 








w 




0^ 


rt 
^ 


>- 


'u 

Q/ 




H 


J} 


c 









'^ 


ffi 


(-,' 


-^ 



s 

o 



^ :9 i? 





*o 


;-i 




t; 


^ 

Cu 







S 


3 


0^ 


g 





s 




0/ 





s 


a; 




c 

,0 






c- 






3 




t 




2 

rt 


-0 


.S 


rt 


3 

a 







t* 






p. 








(-, 


>, 


w 









tn 






"0 



0^ 


1 




rt 





IS 


43 








cf 










.3 


3 






s 


a 





kl 




>5 


3 


.Eo 




e^ 


c 




■5 


'2i 


.2 


0. 


3 







Eh 

a- 






3 


C 








_jj 





'^ 


-0 


D. 

a 


J3 




a °B 






a -o 



o 



_a -^ a 0- 



o .a - 












3 
O 



■5 s £ 



5 -n 



3 



O 3 

'S, X 







o 



S2 

rjj 

'A 

o 

yA 

cc 

M 

K 
K 

H 
H 

W 

Q 

H 

o 



.a " s •= 



o 



'A 



"I C3 

o 5 






o 



^ -^ <b 



c K-1 = 



5 a " a s 
j2 £ -E ^ S 



^ -5 



a o 



■t: 13 .s :: 



a 


o 


J^ 


O 










tn 


fi) 


.q 


c 












T-1 




fl 



c 






:p * 



o hJ 



^ O 



Ci 



=~ 


-TS 




°n 


K 






•c 


^ 
3 


^ 


2 


& 

rt 


^ 

-§ 




3^ 



S 



t^ ^ i 



^ Oj W ^ 



o 






o 
O 



^H O 'i 

ago 
s ^ b 
> c o 









>■ 3 -2 

= C 3 



U O 5 








THE LAST CONFLICTS IN THE 
SHENANDOAH 

Sheridan's operations were eliaraeterized not so iiiueli, as lias ])een 
supposed, by any originality of method, as by a just appreeiation of the 
proper manner of eoinhining the two arms of infantry and cayalry. He 
constantly used his powerful body of horse, which under his disciplined 
hand attained a high degree of ])erfection, as an impenetrable mask be- 
hind -which he screened the execution of )naneu\ei's of infantry columns 
luu'led with a mighty momentum on one of the enemy's flanks. — WiUittin 
Szcintou, ill " C/niijjiiig7i.s of the Aniiy of the Potovuic.'''' 

ON July 12, 18()-i, in the streets of Washington, there 
could be distinctly heard the boom of cannon and the 
sharp firing of musketry. The excitement in the city was 
intense. The old sjjecter " threaten Washington," that for 
three years had been a standing menace to the Federal au- 
thorities and a " verj^ present help " to the Confederates, now 
seemed to have come in the flesh. The hopes of the South and 
the fears of the North were apparently about to be realized. 

The occasion of this demonstration before the very gates 
of the city was the residt of General Lee's project to relieve 
the pressure on his own army, by an invasion of the border 
States and a threatening attitude toward the Union capital. 
The i)lan had worked well before, and I^ee believed it again 
\vould be effective. Grant was pushing him hard in front of 
Petersburg. Accordinglj^ Lee despatched the daring soldier. 
General Jubal A. Early, to carry the war again to the north- 
ward. He was to go by the beautiful and fertile Shenandoah 
valley, that highway of the Confederates along which the 
legions of the South had marched and countermarched until 
it had become almost a beaten track. 

With that celerity of movement characteristic of Confed- 






-WS 









THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON I\ 186;J 



When the Capitol at Washington was threatened by the Confederate armies, it was still an unfinished structure, betraying its incom- 
pleteness to every beholder. This picture shows the derrick on the dome. It is a view of the east front of the building and was taken 
on July 11, 1863. Washington society had not been wholly free from occasional "war scares" since the withdrawal of most of the 
troops whose duty it had been to guard the city. Early's approach in July, 1864, found the Nation's capital entirely unprotected. 
Naturally there was a flutter throughout the peaceable groups of non-combatants that made up the population of Washington at 
that time, as well as in oflicial circles. There were less than seventy thousand people living in the city in 1864, a large proportion 
of whom were in some way connected with the Government. 



Ixt Hast Cnutets tu t\}t M)mm\hii*xh 4- -^ 



p' 




erate marches. General Early prepared to sweep from the 
valley the fragmentary bodies of Union troops there collected. 
I>ess than a M'eek after receiving liis commission, he encoun- 
tered the forces of General Hunter at I^ynchl)urg, Virginia. 
There was some skirmisliing, but Plunter, wl:o did not have 
enough ammunition to sustain a real battle, returned west- 
ward. For tlu-ee days Early's barefoot, half-clad soldiers fol- 
lowed tlie retreating columns of Hunter until the latter had 
safely filed his men through the passes of the Blue Ridge 
ISIountains and into tlie Kanawha valley. 

The Slienandoah valley was now uncovered, but not as 
Eee liad expected. Believing that if Hunter were defeated 
lie would retreat down the Valley, Early had been instructed 
to follow him into ^Maryland. But the Federal general liad 
gone in the other direction, and southwestern Virginia had 
thereby been placed in great danger. The question was, how 
to draw Hunter from his new position. To pursue him fur- 
ther would have been a difficult task for Early. So it Avas 
decided to carry out the plans for a march into JNIaryland, in 
the hope of luring Hunter from his lair. So Early turned 
to the north with his seventeen thousand troops, and marching 
under the steady glare of a July sun, two Aveeks later, his 
approach was the signal for the Union troops at INIartins- 
l)urg, luider Sigel, to fall back across the Potomac to JNIary- 
land Heights. The road to Washington A\'as thus blocked at 
Harper's Ferry, where Early intended to cross. He there- 
fore Mas compelled to get over at She])herdstown, while 
Breckenridge engaged Sigel at Harper's Ferry. Once across 
the river, Early's scouting parties quickly destroyed miles of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, cut the embankments and 
locks of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, levied contributions 
upon the citizens of Hagerstown and Frederick, and pushed 
their tattered ranks of gray in the direction of the Federal 
capital. On the 9th of July, the advance lines of the Confed- 
erate force came to the banks of the INIonocacy, where they 

[144] 





PROTECTING LOCOMOTIVES FROM THE CONFEDERATE RAIDER 

The United States railroad photographer, Captain A. J. Russell, labeled this picture of 18G4: "Engines stored in Washington to pre- 
vent their falling into Rebel hands in case of a raid on Alexandria." Here they are, almost under the shadow of the Capitol dome 
(which had just been completed). This was one of the precautions taken by the authorities at Washington, of which the general 
public knew little or nothing at the time. These photographs are only now revealing official secrets recorded fifty years ago. 













d^ 


mtM 


^HHHHJ^H 








iikJ 


^ 


m 


W^ 


^^^^^^^^1 


1 








■^^^ 


^ 


ril 




■ 






n 


SSw^P 


^^B v 


'V-^L ^^^H 


^■^^■nX; _. ■r_^''^;-;-g2 


^■l^^hHk ' - -^ '''"^ 


H «SbP^'^w''^»'25-^" 


H 




wBf^^ 


P 


wBSi^^^ 


m 




^^ ^3i^'«'<9' ''^'^^j.i^^lHHHR 




^^«^SP 


H 


Iji 




--'■'""" 




^ 


mMm^ 


*■••■' .iu^l^^^^''^^^ 


r" 




i 


«di 




iVj 


^g^^Hi^O 


M^^"'^ . • ;i 




-.. . 








M 


^^^^'■'^^ 


"C 



111, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



ONE OF WASHINGTON'S DEFENDERS 



Heavy artillery like this was of comparatively little use in repulsing such an attack as Early might be expected to make. Not only 
were these guns hard to move to points of danger, but in the summer of '64 there were no trained artillerists to man them. Big as 
they were, they gave Early no occasion for alarm. 




l|r Hast (EnufltrtB in tl)^ ^I|ntanboaI) * -^ 



July 
1864 



#' 



a«n,.^,t:a«=^ 



found General Lew Wallace posted, with eight thousand men, 
half of Early's numbers, on the eastern side of that stream, to 
contest the apjiroach of the Southern troops. 

The battle was brief but bloody; the Confederates, cross- 
ing the stream and climbing its slipper}' banks, hurled their 
lines of gray against the compact ranks of blue. The attack 
was impetuous; the repulse was stubborn. A wail of musketry 
rent the air and the Northern soldiers fell back to their second 
position. Between the opposing forces was a narrow ravine 
through whicli flowed a small brook. Across this stream the 
tide of battle rose and fell. Its limpid current was soon crim- 
soned by the blood of the dead and wounded. Wallace's col- 
umns, as did those of Early, bled, but thej^ stood. The result 
of the battle for a time hung in the balance. Then the Federal 
lines began to crumble. The retreat began, some of the troops 
in order but the greater portion in confusion, and the victo- 
rious Confederates found again an open way to Washington. 

Xow within half a dozen miles of the city, with the dome 
of the Capitol in full view, the Southern general jjushed his 
lines so close to Fort Stevens that he was ready to train his 
forty pieces of artillery upon its walls. 

General Augur, in command of the capital's defenses, 
hastily collected what strength in men aiid guns he could. 
Heavy artillery, militia, sailors from the navy yard, convales- 
cents, Government emi:)loyees of all kinds were rushed to the 
forts around the city. General Wright, with two divisions of 
the Sixth Corps, arrived from the camp at Petersburg, and 
Emory's division of the Nineteenth Corps came just in time 
from New Orleans. This was on Julj^ 11th, the verj^ day on 
which Early appeared in front of Fort Stevens. The Con- 
federate had determined to make an assault, but the knowledge 
of the arrival of Wright and Emory caused him to change his 
mind. He realized that, if unsuccessful, his whole force would 
be lost, and he concluded to return. Nevertheless, he spent 
the 12th of July in threatening the city. In the middle of 



116 1 




\^ 




ENTRANCE TO WASHINGTON FROM THE SOUTH— THE FAMOUS "CHAIN BRIDGE" 

The sentry and vedette guarding the approach to Washington suggest one reason why Early did not make his approach to the capital 
from the Virginia side of the Potomac. A chain of more than twenty forts protected the roads to Long Bridge (shown below), and 
there was no way of marching troops into the city from the south, excepting over such exposed passages. Most of the troops left for 
the defense of the city were on the Vu-ginia side. Therefore Early wisely picked out the northern outposts as the more vulnerable. 
Long Bridge was closely guarded at all times, like Chain Bridge and the other approaches, and at night the planks of its floor were 
removed. 




COPVhICHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 

LONG BRIDGE AND THE CAPITOL ACROSS THE BROAD POTOMAC 




\}t Hast (Hflufl-trtB in tl)? #Ii^nan!i0al| -^ ^ 




the afternoon General Wright sent ont General Wheaton with 
Bidwell's brigade of Getty's division, and Earh^'s pickets and 
skirmishers were driven back a mile. 

This small engagement had many distinguished spec- 
tators. Pond in " The Shenandoah Vallej^ " thus describes 
the scene: "On the parai)et of Fort Stevens stood the tall 
form of Abraham Lincoln by the side of General Wright, who 
in vain warned the eager President that his position was swept 
by the bullets of sharjsshooters, until an officer was shot down 
-within three feet of liim, when he reluctantly stepped below. 
Sheltered from the line of fire, Cabinet officers and a group of 
citizens and ladies, breathless with excitement, watched the 
fortunes of the fight." 

Under cover of night the Confederates began to retrace 
their steps and made their way to the Shenandoah, with Gen- 
eral Wright in pursuit. As the Confederate army was cross- 
ing that stream, at Snicker's Ferry, on the 18th, the pursuing 
Federals came upon them. Earlj^ turned, repulsed them, and 
continued on his waj^ to Winchester, where General Averell, 
from Hunter's forces, now at Harper's Ferry, attacked them 
with his cavalrj^ and took several hundred prisoners, two days 
later. The Union troops under Wright returned to the de- 
fenses of Washington. 

The Confederate army now became a shuttlecock in the 
game of war, marching and countermarching up and down, 
in and across, the valley of the Shenandoah, in military ma- 
neuvers, with scarcely a day of rest. This fruitful valley was 
to be the granary for its supplies. From it, as a base of op- 
erations, Earl}" would make his frequent forays — a constant 
menace to the peace of the authorities at Washington. 

General Crook was sent up the Valley after him, but at 
Kernstown, near Winchester, on July 24th, he met a disas- 
trous defeat and made his way to the north side of the Poto- 
mac. Early, now in undisj^uted possession of the Valley, 
followed him to JNIartinsburg and sent his cavalry across the 

fU81 



%i 



\y~\ 





.jp^ 




m^^^^^^^ 


i'flHH| 


Pt# J 


;^H 


BWB^JM: 


■P^ 


'^^M^jH' 


"'f'\. 


,>^. ^^^>jllUHB^^^BB 


.J~ 1* > </ .^^p 


i 


* J 


'. 


■^'- ■ *i^ 




~ •■"-■ >«»»"■ ■ 



■ REVIEWS CO. 



GENERAL JUBAL A. EARLY, THE CONFED- 
ERATE RAIDER WHO THREATENED 
WASHINGTON 



"My bad old man," as General Lee playfully called 
him, was forty-eight years of age when he made the 
brilliant Valley campaign of the summer of 1864, 
which was halted only by the superior forces of 
Sheridan. A West Point graduate and a veteran of 
the Mexican War, Early became, after the death of 
Jackson, one of Lee's most efficient subordinates. 
He was alert, aggressive, resourceful. His very 
eccentricities, perhaps, made him all the more suc- 
cessful as a commander of troops in the field. "Old 
Jube's" caustic wit and austere ways made him a 
terror to stragglers, and who shall say that his fluent, 
forcible profanity did not endear him to men 
who were accustomed to like roughness of speech? 




I][0 ICaat OlnnHtrtH in t\}t ^[}munhiin\} -^ -^ 







m 



border river. With a bold movement General McCausland 
swept into Chambersburg and demanded a ransom of war. 
Comjjliance was out of the question and the torch was applied 
to the town, which in a short time was reduced to ashes. Gen- 
eral Averell dashed in pursuit of JNIcCausland and forced him 
to recross the Potomac. 

The Federal authorities were looking for a " man of the 
hour " — one whom they might pit against the able and stra- 
tegic Early. Such a one was found in General Philip Henrj" 
Sheridan, whom some have called the " Marshal Ney of Amer- 
ica." He Ai-as selected by General Grant, and his instructions 
were to drive the Confederates out of the A^alley and to make 
it untenable for any future military operations. 

It was a magnificent setting for military genius. The 
men, the armies, and the beautiful vallej^ coml)ined to make 
it one of the great strategic campaigns of the war. The 
Union forces comprising the Army of the Shenandoah, as it 
was afterward called, amounted to about twenty-seven thou- 
sand men; the Confederates, to about twenty thousand. There 
was over a month of preliminary skirmishing and fighting. 
Cavalry raiders from both armies were darting hither and 
thither. Sheridan pushed up the Valley and fell back again 
toward the Potomac. Early followed him, only to retreat 
in turn toward Winchester, Sheridan now being pursuer. 
Both generals were watching an opportunity to strike. Both 
seemed anxious for battle, but both were sparring for the time 
and place to deliver an effective blow. 

The middle of September found the Confederate forces 
centered about Winchester, and the Union army was ten miles 
distant, with the Opequon betAveen them. At two o'clock on 
the morning of September 19th, the Union camp was in mo- 
tion, preparing for marching orders. At three o'clock the 
forward movement was begun, and by daylight the Federal 
advance had driven in the Confederate pickets. Emjitying 
into the Opequon from the west are two converging streams, 

[150] 



^BSpiM 







TFtlOT PUB. CO. 



A HOUSE NEAR WASHINGTON STRUCK BY ONE OF EARLY'S SHELLS 



The arrival of Grant's trained veterans in July, 1864, restored security to the capital city after a week of fright. The fact that shells 
had been thrown into the outskirts of the city gave the inhabitants for the first time a realizing sense of immediate danger. This 
scene is the neighborhood of Fort Stevens, on the Seventh Street road, not far from the Soldiers' Home, where President Lincoln 
was spending the summer. The campaign for his reelection had begun and the outlook for his success and that of his party seemed 
at this moment as dubious as that for the conclusion of the war. Grant had weakened his lines about Richmond in order to protect 
Washington, while Lee had been able to detach Early's Corps for the brilliant Valley Campaign, which saved his Shenandoah supplies. 




Iir ICast Olontets in tlt^ ^It^nanboali -^ -^ 



Sept. 
1864 



*ll 



> 



2 





forming a triangle with the Winchester and INIartinsburg pike 
as a base. 

The town of Winchester is situated on this road, and was 
therefore at the bottom of the triangle. Before the town, the 
Confederate army stretched its lines between the two streams. 
The Union army would have to advance from the apex of the 
triangle, through a narrow ravine, shut in by thickly wooded 
hills and gradually emerging into an undulating valley. At 
the end of the gorge was a Confederate outwork, guarding the 
approach to Winchester. Both generals had the same plan of 
battle in mind. Sheridan would strike the Confederate center 
and right. Early was willing he should do this, for he planned 
to strike the Union right, double it back, get between Sheri- 
dan's armj^ and the gorge, and thus cut off its retreat. 

It took time for the Union troops to pass through the 
ravine, and it was late in the forenoon before the line of battle 
was formed. The attack and defense were alike obstinate. 
Upon the Sixth Corps and Grover's division of the Nineteenth 
Corps fell the brunt of the battle, since they were to hold the 
center while the Army of West Virginia, under General Crook, 
would SM'eep around them and turn the jjosition of the op- 
posing forces. The Confederate General Ramseur, with his 
troops, drove back the Federal center, held his ground for 
two hours, while the opposing lines were swept by musketry 
and artillery from the front, and enfiladed by artillery. JNIany 
Federal prisoners were taken. 

B}^ this time, Russell's division of the Sixth Corps emerged 
from the ravine. Forming in two lines, it marched quickly to 
the front. About the same time the Confederates were also 
being reenforced. General Rodes plunged into the fight, mak- 
ing a gallant attack and losing his life. General Gordon, Avith 
his columns of gray, swept across the summit of the hills and 
through the miu-ky clouds of smoke saw the steady advance of 
the lines of blue. One of Russell's brigades struck the Con- 
federate flank, and the Federal line was reestablished. As the 

\ 152 1 





COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIFWS CO, 



THE FIRST CONNECTICUT HEAVY ARTILLERY, ASSIGNED TO THE DEFENSE OF WASHINGTON 



When Early approached Washington from the north, in 18G4, the crack artillery companies, like that represented in the photograph 
(the First Connecticut Heavy), had all left the city to its fate. In the spring of 1802, as this picture was taken, just before the be- 
ginning of McCIellan's Peninsula Campaign, Colonel Tyler was in the act of examining a despatch at the sally-port of Fort Richardson, 
Arlington Heights, Virginia. During the first two years of the war the Government devoted a great part of its energies to the de- 
velopment of a strong line of fortifications around the capital city, on both sides of the Potomac. Washington's nearness to the Con- 
federate lines made such precautions necessary. The political significance of a possible capture of the national capital by the Con- 
federates was fully appreciated. The retaining of large bodies of troops for the protection of Washington was a fixed policy during 
1861 and 1802, as the first commander of the Army of the Potomac knew to his sorrow. As the war wore on, the increasing need of 
troops for the investment of Richmond, coupled with the apparent security of the capital, led to a reversal of that policy. Washington 
was practically abandoned, in a military sense, save for the retention of a few regiments of infantrj', inckuling a very small proportion 
of men who had seen actual fighting, and the forts were garrisoned chiefly by raw recruits. 



Vm MMim m 



\\t IGast Olmtfttrts in X\}t ^li^naubnal) ^ ^ 




'^loMi^^^l. 



division moved forward to do this General Russell fell, pierced 
through the heart hy a piece of sliell. 

The Fifth JNIaine battery, galloping into the field, unlini- 
bered and with an enfilading storm of canister aided in turn- 
ing the tide. Piece by piece the shattered Union line Avas 
I^icked up and reunited. Early sent the last of his reserves 
into the conflict to turn the Union right. Now ensued the 
fiercest fighting of the day. Regiment after regiment ad- 
vanced to the wood only to be hurled back again. Here it 
was that the One hundred and fourteenth New York left 
its dreadful toll of men. Its position after the battle could 
be told by the long, straight line of one hundred and eighty- 
five of its dead and wounded. 

It was three o'clock in the afternoon ; the hour of Early's 
repulse had struck. To the right of the Union lines could be 
heard a mighty yell. The Confederates seemed to redouble 
their fire. The shivering lightning bolts shot through the air 
and the voUej's of musketrj^ increased in intensity. Then, across 
the shell-plowed field, came the reserves under General Crook. 
Breasting the Confederate torrent of lead, which cut down 
nine hundred of the reserves while crossing the open space, they 
rushed toward the embattled hues of the South. 

At the same moment, coming out of the woods in the rear 
of the Federals, were seen the men of the Nineteenth Corps 
vmder General Emory, who had for three hours been Ijnng in 
the grass awaiting their opportunity. The Confederate bul- 
lets had been falling thick in their midst with fatal certainty. 
They were eager for action. Rushing into the contest like 
madmen, they stopped at nothing. From two sides of the 
wood the men of Emory and Crook charged simultaneously. 
The Union line overlapped the Confederate at every point and 
doubled around the unprotected flanks. The day for the 
Southerners was irretrievably lost. They fell back toward 
Winchester in confusion. As they did so, a great uproar was 
heard on the pike road. It was the Federal cavalry under 



.164 



^ 





lOT PUS CO, 



WHERE LINCOLN WAS UNDER FIRE 



This is Fort Stevens (originally known as Fort Massachusetts), north of Washington, near the Soldiers' 
Home, where President Lincoln had his summer residence. It was to this outpost that Early's troops 
advanced on July 12, 1864. In the fighting of that day Lincoln himself stood on the ramparts, and a 
surgeon who stood by his side was wounded. These works were feebly garrisoned, and General Gordon 
declared in his memoirs that when the Confederate troops reached Fort Stevens they found it untenanted. 
This photograph was taken after the occupation of the fort by Company F of the Third Massachusetts 
Artillery. 



General Torbert sweeping up the road, driving the Confed- 
erate troojjers before them. The surprised mass was pressed 
into its own hues. The infantry was charged and many pris- 
oners and battle-flags captured. 

The sun was now sinking upon the horizon, and on the 
ascending slopes in the direction of the town could be seen the 
long, dark lines of men following at the heels of the routed 
army. Along the crest of the embattled summit galloped a 
force of cavalrymen, which, falling upon the disorganized regi- 
ments of Early, aided, in the language of Sheridan, " to send 
them whirling through Winchester." The Union pursuit con- 
tinued until the twilight had come and the shadows of night 
screened the scattered forces of Early from the j^ursuing cav- 
alrymen. The battle of ^Vinchester, or the Opequon, had been 
a bloody one — a loss of live thousand on the Federal side, and 
about four thousand on the Confederate. 

By daylight of the following morning the victorious army 
was again in pursuit. On the afternoon of that day, it caught 
up with the Confederates, who now turned at bay at Fisher's 
Hill to resist the further approach of their pvirsuers. The posi- 
tion selected by General Early was a strong one, and his antag- 
onist at once recognized it as such. The valley of the Shenan- 
doah at this point is about four miles wide, lying between 
Fisher's Hill and Little North ]\Iountain. General Early's 
line extended across the entire valley, and he had greatly in- 
creased his already naturally strong position. His army seemed 
safe from attack. From the summit of Three Top INIountain, 
his signal corps informed him of every movement of the Union 
army in the A-^alley below. General Sheridan's actions indicated 
a purpose to assault the center of the Confederate line. For 
two days he continued massing his regiments in that direction, 
at times even skirmishing for position. General Wright pushed 
his men to within seven hundred yards of the Southern battle- 
line. While this was going on in full view of the Confederate 
general and his army, another movement w^as being executed 

[15f,] 







COPYRfGHT, )9I1, PATRIOT PUS CO 



WAR DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS AND CLERKS IN WAR-TIME 



Non-combatants of this type formed the main rehance of tlie authorities against Early's veterans in July, 
1864. The forces available, prior to the arrival of the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps from Grant's army, are 
summarized by General Barnard thus: "The effective forces were 1,819 infantry, 1,834 artillery, and 63 
cavalry north of the Potomac, and 4,064 infantry, 1,772 artillery, and 51 cavalry south thereof. There 
were besides, in Washington and Alexandria, about 3,900 effectives and about 4,400 (six regiments) of 
Veteran Reserves. The foregoing constitute a total of about 20,400 men. Of that number, however, but 
9,600, mostly perfectly raw troops, constituted the garrison of the defenses. Of the other troops, a consid- 
erable portion were unavailable, and the whole would form but an inefficient force for service on the lines." 






.Ol 



which even the A'igilant signal officers on Three Top JNIountain 
had not observed. 

On the night of Sex^tember 20th, tlie troops of General 
Crook were moved into the timber on the north bank of Cedar 
Creek. All dnring the next day, they lay concealed. That 
night they crossed the stream and the next morning were again 
hidden by the woods and ravines. At five o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the 22d, Crook's men were nearly opposite the Con- 
federate center. ]\Iarching his men in perfect silence, by one 
o'clock he had arrived at the left and front of the unsuspecting 
Early. By four o'clock he had reached the east face of Little 
Xorth ]Mountain, to the left and rear of the Confederates. 
"\'\^liile the movement was being made, the main body of the 
Federal army was engaging the attention of the Confederates 
in front. Just before sundown. Crook's men plunged down 
the mountain side, from out of the timbered cover. The Con- 
federates were quick to see that they had been trapped. They 
had been caught in a pocket and there was nothing for them 
to do except to retreat or surrender. They preferred the 
former, which was, according to General Gordon, " first stub- 
born and slow, tlien rapid, then — a rout." 

After the battle of Fisher's Hill the pursuit still continued. 
The Confederate regiments re-formed, and at times would 
stoj) and contest the approach of the advancing cavalrymen. 
By the time the Union infantry would reach the place, the 
retreating arm}'' would have ^'anished. Torbert had been sent 
down Luray Valley in pursuit of the Confederate cavalry, with 
the hope of scattering it and seizing New INIarket in time to 
cut off the Confederate retreat from Fisher's Hill. But at 
JMilford, in a narrow gorge. General Wickham held Torbert 
and prevented the fulfilment of his plan; and General Early's 
whole force Avas able to escape. Day after daj^ this continued 
until Early had taken refuge in the Blue Ridge in front of 
Brown's Gap. Here he received reenforcements. Sheridan 
in the mean time had gone into camp at Harrisonburg, and for 






, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



A MARYLAND VILLAGE ON THE LINE OF EARLY'S RETREAT 



This is a winter scene in Poolesville, a typical village in this part of Maryland, overrun for the last time 
by Confederate armies in the summer of 1864. Early passed through the place on his second day's march 
from Washington, closely pursued by General Wright's force of Federals. After Early had made good 
his escape and threatened to levy heavy toll on the defenseless communities of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania if he were not vigorously opposed, Grant selected Sheridan for the task of clearing the Valley of 
Confederates and finally destroying its value as a source of supplies for Lee's array. Sheridan waited 
until Early had been seriously weakened before he assaulted him ; but when he struck, the blows were 
delivered with tremendous energy. The battles of the Opequon, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek (the latter 
made memorable by Read's famous poem, "Sheridan's Ride"), drove Early back to New Market and 
wholly broke the Confederate power in that part of Virginia. This photograph (loaned by Mr. George 
A. Brackett, of Annapolis), was taken when the Eighth Minnesota held it, in the winter of 1862. 







1]^ ICast Olmtfl-trts in t\^t Bl^mmxhonl} -^ 



some time the two armies lay watching each other. The Fed- 
erals were haA'ing difficulty in holding their lines of supply. 

With the Valley practically given up by Early, Sheridan 
was anxious to stop here. He wrote to Grant, " I think the 
best policy will be to let the burning of the crops in the Valley 
be the end of the cam]jaign, and let some of this army go some- 
M'here else." He had the Petersburg line in mind. Grant's 
consent to this jjlan reached him on October 5th, and the fol- 
lowing day he started on his return march down the Shenan- 
doah. His cavalry extended across the entire valley. With 
the unsparing severity of war, his men began to make a barren 
waste of the region. The October sky was overcast with clouds 
of smoke and sheets of flame from the burning barns and mills. 

As the army of Sheridan proceeded down the Valley, the 
undaunted cavaliers of Early came in jJnrsuit. His horsemen 
kept close to the rear of the Union columns. On the morning 
of October 9th, the cavalry leader, Rosser, who had succeeded 
Wickham, found himself confronted by General Custer's divi- 
sion, at Tom's Brook. At tlie same time the Federal general, 
Wesley JNIerritt, fell ujjon tlie cavalry of Lomax and Johnson 
on an adjacent road. The two Union forces were soon united 
and a mounted battle ensued. The fight continued for two 
hours. There were charges and countercharges. The ground 
being level, the maneuvering of the squadrons was easy. The 
clink of the sabers rang out in the morning air. Both sides 
fought with tenacity. The Confederate center held togetlier, 
but its flanks gave way. The Federals charged along the 
^vliole front, witli a momentum that forced the Southern cav- 
alr^-men to flee from the field. They left in the hands of the 
Federal troopers over three hundred prisoners, all their artil- 
lery, except one piece, and nearly every wagon the Confederate 
cavalry had with them. 

The ]S^orthern army continued its retrograde movement, 
and on the 10th crossed to the north side of Cedar Creek. 
Early's army in the mean time had taken a position at the 



ICO 









0^ 


.3 


-^ 






3 


a 

■a 


H 








> 

"3 


1=1 

a 


a 





1 




i) 


*j 




1" 




bo 






0) 


CD 







m 

ri 


■5 


"o 


+J 






b£) 

2 


a 



d 

13 




rt 


'0 


m 






"3- 


jd 





"o 




« 


^fl 





4^ 




rt 






d 




& 


■a 


Wl 


d 




rt 


OJ 


"pl 


> 






T3 


Ct! 


rf 




"S 


OJ 


nd 






ai 


0; 


"r* 


fl 




_> 





-CI 






^ 


CO 


Ifl 


c3 




B 

CM 


>. 


*o 


1 






d 


« 




^C 


W 





1 

(D 

a 


m 






i 






H 


■3 


d 




^ 




> 


eg 






1 


^ 


J 


773 


-3 


w 


H 


73 


=! 


txa 


H 




.s 


S' 


" 


s 


1 


«1 


■T3 


^ 


U' 


be 





d 


"rt 


c 


g 


"■^ 




>■ 




',3 


Oj 






Vj 




s 


^ 
^ 


OJ 


b 


1 


& 


^ 


-d 


P5 










P 










CQ 
w 


-a 



a; 


T3 

^ 







IS 


^ 


d 


d 
.2 


-si 


be 





■0 

-d 






K 


6 
S 


T3 




-a 
a 




fc 


en 


« 


C3 


t-i 



o 


'^ 


£; 


, 








rC 




g 




T3 


"3 


•v 

§ 


o 


'o 


-M 


s 







fl 


1— ( 


3 


bc 




^ 






d 






« 


3 







"c. 










d "S 

•"^ -^ 1^ 



ca 


■1^ 


ji 


w 




a 
J 


-0 




e 


d 


PU 










'a 




d 


4J 







OJ 


OS 




fe 


-d 


to 

d 


'd 


-0 





.2 





0) 


rJd 


'-P 




X 


■M 


ri 


-0 


71 




u 


XI 


a 


-Jd 

•-a 


Oh 



> 





CO 


CO 

:a 

a 


t-j 


13 


'B. 





d 
S 


03 

jd 


d 


(-. 




K) 


^ 


CL, 


J 


:§ 


03 


"o 


'■p 


'C 


13 


d 


OT 


c 


.2 


-t-» 




? 


0) 


d 








> 





■M 


-4J 


.9 


a 


to 

CO 


■1-9 


M 








H 


.3 


cfl 







i}t SlaBt Ccnfltrts in tl)? i>l]^nauli0al| ♦ 



♦ 



$i 



wooded base of Fisher's Hill, four miles away. The Sixth 
Corps started for Washington, but the news of Early at Fish- 
er's Hill led to its recall. The Union forces occupied ground 
that was considered practically unassailable, especiallj^ on the 
left, where the deep gorge of the Shenandoah, along whose 
front rose the bold JNIassanutten JMountain, gave it natural 
jjrotection. 

The movements of the Confederate army were screened bj^ 
the wooded ravines in front of Fisher's Hill, while, from the 
summit of the neighboring Three Top JMountain, its officers 
could view, as in a panorama, the entire Union camp. Seem- 
ingly secure, the corps of Crook on the left of the Union line 
was not well protected. The keen-eyed Gordon saw the -weak 
point in the Union position. Ingenious plans to break it down 
were quickly made. 

INIeanwhile, Sheridan was summoned to Washington to 
consult with Secretarj^ Stanton. He did not believe that Early 
proposed an immediate attack, and started on the 15th, escorted 
by the cavalry, and leaving General Wright in command. At 
Front Royal the next day word came from Wright enclosing 
a message taken for the Confederate signal-flag on Three Toj) 
INIountain. It was from Longstreet, advising Early that he 
would join him and crush Sheridan. The latter sent the cav- 
alry back to Wright, and continued on to Washington, whence 
he returned at once by special train, reaching Winchester on 
the evening of the 18th. 

Just after dark on October 18th, a part of Early's army 
under the conmiand of General John B. Gordon, with noiseless 
steps, moved out from their camp, through the misty, autumn 
night. The men had been stripped of their canteens, in fear 
that the striking of them against some object might reveal 
their movements. Orders were given in low whispers. Their 
path followed along the base of the mountain — a dim and nar- 
row trail, uj)on which but one man might pass at a time. For 
seven miles this sinuous line made its way through the dark 

[ lCi2 ] 



Oct. 
1864. 



^ 



.>#lf»^- 




:w w u,j 

mm \\ I, i' 






O 

2; 



o 
o 






« 

a 

< 

I 

o 

M 

crj 
Ph 
W 

m 

< 

X 






a CI. rf _^ 

a . . S 



J2 



-G 0^ .^ 



?:; J3 



-Q -a 



« ^ 






■o -« - 



£ s -^ =^ 



IS 






3 



^ U -» 



~ T" "-rt +-' 

f\i t^ ^ t\-i 



a 
u 



=3 - ^ 



^8-5 



S ^ ■« 









3 

K 



T3 



a 

3 

o 



3 -f "P 



M p^ 3 i; 






3 



§ -3 



u 



Xi 






< O ^ 



gorge, crossing the Shenandoah, and at times passing within 
four hundred j^ards of the Union j^ickets. 

It arrived at the appointed place, opposite Crook's camp 
on the Federal right, an hour before the attack was to be made. 
In the shivering air of the early morning, the men crouched on 
the river bank, waiting for the coming of the order to move 
forward. At last, at five o'clock, it came. They plunged into 
the frosty water of the river, emerged on the other side, 
marched in " double quick," and were soon sounding a reveille 
to the sleeping troops of Sheridan. The minie balls whizzed 
and sang through the tents. In the gray mists of the dawn 
the legions of the South looked like phantom warriors, as thej^ 
jioured through the vuimanned gaps. The Northerners sprang 
to arms. There was a bloody struggle in the trenches. Their 
ej'es saw the flames from the Southern muskets; the men felt 
the breath of the hot muzzles in their faces, while the Confed- 
erate bayonets were at their breasts. There was a brief strug- 
gle, then panic and disorganization. Only a quarter of an 
hour of this yelling and struggling, and two-thirds of the 
Union army broke like a mill-dam and poured across the fields, 
leaving their accouterments of war and the stiffening bodies 
of their comrades. Rosser, with the cavalry, attacked Custer 
and assisted Gordon. 

INIeanwhile, during these same early morning hours. Gen- 
eral Early had himself advanced to Cedar Creek by a more 
direct route. At half-j^jast three o'clock his men had come in 
sight of the Union camp-fires. Theji- waited under cover for 
the a^^proach of day. At the first blush of dawn and before the 
charge of Gordon, Early hurled his men across the stream, 
swej^t over tlie breastworks, captured the batteries and turned 
them upon the unsuspecting Northerners. The Federal gener- 
als tried to stem the impending disaster. From the east of the 
battlefield the solid lines of Gordon were now driving the fugi- 
tives of Crook's corps by the mere force of momentum. Aides 
were darting hither and tliither, trying to reassemble the 

[164] 





V •■ 



COPifllGMT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



GENERAL PHILIP H. SHERIDAN IN THE SHENANDOAH CAMPAIGN 



Two generations of schoolboys in the Northern States have learned the lines 
beginning, "Vp from the south at break of day." This picture represents Sheri- 
dan in 1864, wearing the same hat that he waved to rally his soldiers on that 
famous ride from "Winchester, twenty miles away." As he reined up his panting 
horse on the turnpike at Cedar Creek, he received salutes from two future Presi- 
dents of the United States. The position on the left of the road was held by 
Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, who had succeeded, after the rout of the Eighth 
Corps in the darkness of the early morning, in rallying some fighting groups of 
his own brigade ; while on the right stood Major William McKinley, gallantly 
commanding the remnant of his fighting regiment — the Twenty-sixth Ohio. 




.ignr/n/?7Pmm 



\}t SJaat OInufltrta in X\\t ^iTruanbnal) -^s^ 



•$• 






\ii^ 



5«. 



crumbling lines. The Nineteenth Corps, under Emory, tried 
to hold its ground; for a time it fought alone, but after a des- 
perate effort to hold its own, it, too, melted away under the 
scorching fire. The fields to the rear of the army were covered 
with Avagons, ambulances, stragglers, and fleeing soldiers. 

The Sixth Corps now came to the rescue. As it slowly 
fell to the rear it would, at times, turn to fight. At last it 
found a place where it again stood at bay. The men hastily 
gathered rails and constructed rude field-works. At the same 
time the Confederates paused in their advance. The rattle of 
musketry ceased. There was scarcely any firing except for the 
occasional roar of a long-range artillery gun. The Southern- 
ers seemed willing to rest on their well-earned laurels of the 
morning. In the language of the successful commander, it was 
" g'lorj' enough for one day." 

But the brilliant morning victory was about to be changed 
to a singular afternoon defeat. During the morning's fight, 
when the Union troops were being raj^idly overwhelmed with 
panic, Rienzi, the beautiful jet-black war-charger, Avas bearing 
his master, the commander of the Federal army, to the field of 
disaster. Along the broad valley higliway that leads from 
Winchester, General Sheridan had galloped to where his em- 
battled lines had been reduced to a flj'ing mob. While riding 
leisurely away from Winchester about nine o'clock he had 
heard umnistakable thunder-peals of artillery. Realizing that 
a battle was on in the front, he hastened forward, soon to be 
met, as he crossed JNIill Creek, by the trains and men of his 
routed army, coming to the rear with appalling rapidity. 

News from the field told him of the crushing defeat of 
his hitherto invincible regiments. The road was blocked by 
the retreating crowds as they pressed toward the rear. The 
commander was forced to take to the fields, and as his steed, 
flecked Avith foam, bore him onward, the disheartened refugees 
greeted him with cheers. Taking ofi^ his hat as he rode, he 
cried, " We will go back and recover our camps." The words 

[166] 








EVIEW OF KEviewa CO. 



SHERIDAN'S CAVALRY IN THE SHENANDOAH— GENERAL TORBERT AND HIS STAFF 



Sheridan appointed General Alfred T. A. Torbert Chief of Cavalry of the Army of the Shenandoah in August, 1864. General Tor- 
bert had been a regular army officer and was now a major-general of volunteers. This photograph was taken in 1864, on the vine- 
covered veranda of a Virginia mansion occupied as headquarters. In all the operations in the Valley during September and 
October, Sheridan made such good use of the cavalry that this branch of the service leaped into prominence, and received a goodly 
share of the praise for eliminating the Valley of Virginia from the field of war. 



c 



emMMMsm. 



\}t IGast (Hflutets in % ^I|manboaI| ^ ^ 



Oct. 
1864 





seemed to inspire the demoralized soldiers. Stragglers fell 
into line behind him; men turned to follow their magnetic 
leader back to the fight. 

Vaulting his horse over the low barricade of rails, he 
dashed to the crest of the field. There was a flutter along the 
battle-line. The men from behind their protecting wall broke 
into thunderous cheers. From the rear of the soldiers there 
suddenly arose, as from the earth, a line of the regimental flags, 
which waved recognition to their leader. Color-bearers reas- 
sembled. The straggling lines re-formed. Early made an- 
other assault after one o'clock, but was easily repulsed. 

It was nearly four o'clock when the order for the Federal 
advance was given. General Sheridan, hat in hand, rode in 
front of his infantry line that his men might see him. The 
Confederate forces now occuj^ied a series of Mooded crests. 
From out of the shadow of one of these timbered coverts, a col- 
umn of gray was emerging. The Union lines stood waiting 
for the impending crash. It came in a devouring succession 
of volleys that reverberated into a deep and sullen roar. The 
Union infantry rose as one man and passed in among the trees. 
Xot a shot was heard. Then, suddenh^ there came a scream- 
ing, humming rush of shell, a roar of musketrj;' mingling with 
the yells of a successful charge. Again the firing ceased, except 
for occasional outbursts. The Confederates had taken a new 
2)osition and reopened with a galling fire. General Sheridan 
dashed along the front of his lines in ])ersonal charge of the 
attack. Again his men moved toward the lines of Early's 
fast thinning ranks. It was the final charge. The Union 
cavalry swept in behind the fleeing troops of Earty and sent, 
again, his veteran army " whirling up the Valley." 

The battle of Cedar Creek was ended; the tumult died 
away. The Federal loss had been about fifty-seven hundred; 
the Confederate over three thousand. Fourteen hundred 
Union prisoners were sent to Richmond. Never again would 
the gaunt specter of war hover over Washington. 

[108] 




PART III 
CLOSING IN 



CHARLESTON, THE 
UNCAPTURED PORT 




CONFEDERATE GARRISON COOKING DINNER 
IN RUINED SUMTER 1864 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 

MAKING SAXD-BAGS INSIDE FORT SUMTER IN 1864 



traveled thousands of miles and wTote thousands 
of letters in the search for such photographs. Of 
the priceless examples and specimens, several 
are here reproduced. How rare such pictures are 
may be judged by the fact that some of the men 
prominent and active in the circles of Confed- 
erate veterans, together with families of former 
Confederate generals and leaders, were unable 
to lay their hands on any such pictures. The 
natural disappointment in the South at the end 
of the war was such that photographers were 
forced to destroy all negatives, just as owners 
destroyed all the objects that might serve as 
souvenirs or relics of the terrible struggle, think- 
ing, for the moment at least, that they could not 
bear longer the strain of brooding over the 
tragedy. Constant ferreting, following up 
clues, digging in dusty garrets amid relics buried 
generations ago, interviews with organizations 
like the Daughters of the Confederacy (to the 
Charleston chapter of which acknowledgment 
must be made for the picture of the Charleston 
Zouaves) — only after such exertions did it be- 
come possible to show on these pag(>s the coun- 
tenances and bearing and drill of the men who 
held Charleston against the ever-increasing 
momentum of the Northern power. 



The story of how these photographs in uncon- 
quered Sumter were secured is a romance in itself. 
No one, North or South, can escape a thrill at the 
knowledge that several of them were actually taken 
in the beleaguered port by George S. Cook, the Con- 
federate photographer. This adventurous spirit was 
one of the enterprising and daring artists who are 
now and then found ready when and where great 
events impend. He had risked his life in 1863, 
taking photographs of the Federal fleet as it was 
bombarding Sumter. The next year, while the 
magnificent organization of the Northern armies 
was closing in day by day; while the stores and 
homes and public buildings of Charleston were 
crumbling into pitiful ruins under the bombard- 
ment; while shoes and clothing and food were soar- 
ing to unheard-of prices in the depreciated Confed- 
erate currency, Cook still ingeniously secured his 
precious chemicals from the New York firm of 
Anthony & Co., which, curiously enough, was the 
same that supplied Brady. Cook's method was to 
smuggle his chemicals through as quinine! It is 
only the most fortunate of chances that preserved 
these photographs of the Confederates defending 
Charleston through the nearly half century which 
elapsed between their taking and the publication of 
the Photograph Histoby. Editors of the work 



m 

- Z'-'Ji'* 
















^^ 


ir- 


'^■p^.ii.'ix:^ ,' ,'■ 








-■■Si ;-;.'/• 


■ ^-^ -.-7 ; -*■ 








^m"' 'r>^ 


















'■ *>' 


^^:„^^■ ■ 


/-■"*%? 


-»^-*i»5.-*- 


. -""""-:.*''' -~ ' ■ ' 




""^ ■.*' - 



COPYRIGHT, 191' 



THE TOTTERING WALLS OF THE FORT SHORED UP 




EVIEW OF REVItWS CO. 



THE CONFEDERATE CAMP WASHINGTON. LOCKED IN ON THE SANDY BEACH NEAR SULLIVAN INLET 
WHERE THE SOUTH CAROLINA WARRIORS MAINTAINED THEIR MILITARY POST FOR FOUR YEARS 




COPYRIGHT, 1911. REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 

CHARLESTONS FAMOUS ZOUAVE CADETS DRILLING AT CASTLE PINCKNEY 







COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



EEM.\IXS OF THE CIRCULAR CHURCH .\N"D "SECESSION HALL," 
WHERE SOUTH CAROLINA DECIDED TO LEAVE THE UNION 



"Prodigies of talent, audacity, intrepidity, and 
perseverance were exliibitcd in the attack, as in 
the defense of the city, wliich will assign to the 
siege of Charleston an exceptional place in mili- 
tary annals." Thus spoke the expert of the 
French Journal of Military Science in I860, only 
a few months after this attack and defense had 
passed into history. Charleston was never 
captured. It was evacuated only after Sher- 
man's advance through the heart of South Caro- 
lina had done what over five hundred and fifty- 
seven days of continuous attack and siege by 
the Federal army and navy could not do — 
make it untenable. When, on the night of 
February 17, 18C5, Captain H. Huguenin, lan- 
tern in hand, made his last silent rounds of the 
deserted fort and took the little boat for shore, 
there ended the four j'cars' defense of Fort Sum- 
ter, a feat of war unsurpassed in ancient or 
modern times — eclipsing (says an English mili- 
tary critic) "such famous passages as Sale's de- 
fense of Jellalabad against the Afghans and 
Havelock's obdm-ate tenure of the residency at 
Lucknow." Charleston with its defenses — Forts 
Sumter, Moultrie, Wagner, and Castle Pinck- 
ney from the sea and tlie many batteries on the 
land side — was the heart of the Confederacy, 



and some of t'le most vigorous efforts of the 
Federal forces \Aere made to capture it. Though 
"closed in" upon more than once, it never sur- 
rendered. But beleaguered it certainly was, in 
the sternest sense of the word. It is a marvel 
how the photographer. Cook, managed to get 
his supplies past the Federal army on one side 
and the Federal blockading fleet on the other. 
Yet there he remained at his post, catching 
witli his lens the ruins of the uneaptured fort 
and the imtakcn city in 180-t. How well he 
made these pictures may be seen on the pages 
preceding and the lower picture opposite. They 
furnish a glimpse into American history that most 
people — least of all the Confederate veterans 
themselves — never expected to enjoy. Those 
who actually knew what it was to be besieged 
in Petersburg, invaded in Georgia, starved in 
Termessee, or locked up by a blockading fleet — 
such veterans have been astonished to find these 
authenticated photographs of the garrison be- 
leaguered in the most important of Southern ports. 




COPYRIGHT 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 

ON " THE B.VrTERY," CHARLESTON'S SPACIOUS PROMENADE 




-!*Vt 



1 




J*fl^: 






.-^: 



^. 




-'>:.««? 



INSIDE FORT MOULTRIE LOOKING EASTWARD OUTSIDE FORT JOHNSON — SUMTER IN THE DISTANCE 

GRIM-VISAGED WAR ALONG THE PALMETTO SHORE-LINE OF CHARLESTON HARBOR 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE DESOLATE LNTERIOR OF SUMTER IN SEPTEMBER, 1863, AFTER THE GUNS OF THE FEDERAL FLEET 

HAD BEEN POUNDING IT FOR MANY WEEKS 




IN CHARLESTON AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT 



So long as the Confederate flag flew over the ramparts of Sumter, 
Charleston remained the one stronghold of the South that was 
firmly held. That flag was never struck. It was lowered for an 
evacuation, not a surrender. The story of Charleston's deter- 
mined resistance did not end in triumph for the South, but it did 
leave behind it a sunset glory, in which the valor and dash of the 
Federal attack is paralleled by the heroism and self-sacrifice of 
the Confederate defense, in spite of wreck and ruin. 



PART III 
CLOSING IN 



THE INVESTMENT 
OF PETERSBURG 




ON GRANT S CITY POINT RAILROAD — A NEW KIND 
OF SIEGE GUN 




WHERE THE PHOTOGRAPHER "DREW FIRE' 



June 21, 1864., is the exact date of the photograph that made this picture and those on the three following pages. A story goes with 
them, told by one of the very men pictured here. As he looked at it forty-six years later, how vividly the whole scene came back to 
him! This is Battery B, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, known as Cooper's Battery of the Fifth Corps, under General G. K. Warren. 
On the forenoon of this bright June day, Brady, the photographer, drove his light wagon out to the entrenchments. The Confederates 
lay along the sky-line near where rose the ruined chimney of a house belonging to a planter named Taylor. Approaching Captain 
Cooper, Brady politely asked if he could take a picture of the battery, when just about to fire. At the command, from force of habit, 
the men jumped to their positions. Hardly a face was turned toward the camera. They might be oblivious of its existence. The can- 
noneer rams home a charge. The gunner "thumbs the vent" — but "our friend the enemy" just over the hill observes the movement. 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE MAN WHO REMEMBERED 



and, thinking it means business, opens up. Away goes Brady's horse, scattering chemicals and plates. The gun in the foreground 
is ready to send a shell across the open ground, but Captain Cooper reserves his fire. Brady, seeing his camera is uninjured, recalls 
his assistant and takes the other photographs, moving his instrument a little to the rear. And the man who saw it then, sees it all 
again to-day just as it was. He is even able to pick out many of the men by name. Their faces come back to him. Turning the 
page, may be seen Captain James H. Cooper, leaning on his sword, and Lieutenant Alcorn, on the extreme right. In the photograph 
above is Lieutenant Miller, back of the gun. Lieutenant James A. Gardner was the man who saw all this, and in the picture on the 
preceding page he appears seated on the trail of the gun to the left in the act of sighting the gun. The other officers shown in this 
picture were no longer living when, in 1911, he described the actors in the drama that the glass plate had preserved forty-six years. 




JUST AS THE CAMERA CAUGHT THEM 



General Warren's Corps had arrived in front of Petersburg on the 17th of June, ISG-t, and Battery B of the First Pennsylvania Light 
Artillery was put into position near the Avery house. Before them the Confederates were entrenched, with Beauregard in com- 
mand. On the 17th, imder cover of darkness, the Confederates fell back to their third line, just ^^sible beyond the woods to the left it 
the first picture. Early the next morning Battery B was advanced to the line of entrenchments shown above, and a sharp interchange 
of artillery fire took place in the afternoon. So busy were both sides throwing up entrenchments and building forts and lunettes that 
there had been very little interchange of compliments in the way of shells or bullets at this point until Photographer Brady's presence 
and the gathering of men of Battery B at their posts called forth the well-pointed salute. Men soon became accustomed to artillery 




THE MAN WHO REMEMBERED 



and shell-fire. It was not long before Battery D was advanced from the position shown above to that held by the Confederates on 
the 21st of June, and there Fort Morton was erected, and beyond the line of woods the historic Fort Stedman, the scene of some of 
the bloodiest fighting before Petersburg. If you look closely at the second photograph, you will perceive a man in civilian clothes; 
Lieutenant Gardner (standing just back of the man with the haversack) thinks that this is Mr. Brady himself. There are fifteen 
people in this picture whom Lieutenant Gardner, of this battery, recognized after a lapse of forty-six years and can recall by name. 
There may be more gallant Pennsylvanians who, on studying this photograph, will see themselves and their comrades, sur\i\ing and 
dead, as once they fought on the firing-line. 




"WHERE IS GRANT?" 
This heavy Federal battery looks straight across tlie low-lying country to Petersburg. Its spires show in the distance. The smiling 
coiintry is now to be a field of blood and suffering. For Grant's army, unperceived, has swung around from Cold Harbor, and " the 
Confederate cause was lost when Grant crossed the James," declared the Southern General Ewcll. It was a mighty and a masterful 
move, practicable only because of the tremendous advantages the Federals held in the undisputed possession of the waterways, the 
tremendous fleet of steamers, barges, and river craft that made a change of base and transportation easy. Petersburg became the 
objectiveof the great army under Grant. His movements to get there had not been heralded; they worked like well-oiled machinery. 
"Where is Grant?" frantically asked Beauregard of Lee. The latter, by his despatches, shows that he could not answer with any 
certainty. In fact, up to the evening of the 13th of June, when the Second Corps, the advance of the Army of the Potomac, reached 




HEAVY ARTILLERY JUST ARRIVED BEFORE PETERSBURG— 1864 
the north bank of the James, Lee could not learn the truth. By midnight of the 15th, bridges were constructed, and following the 
Second Corps, the Ninth began to cross. But already the Fifth and Sixth Corps and part of the Army of the James were on their 
way by water from White House to City Point. The Petersburg campaign had begun. Lee's army drew its life from the great fields 
and stock regions south and southwest of Richmond. With the siege of Petersburg, the railroad center of the state, this source of 
supply was more and more cut off, until six men were made to live on the allowance first given to each separate Southern soldier. 
Outnumbered three to one in efficient men, with the cold of winter coming on and its attendant hardships in prospect, no 
wonder the indomitable Southern bravery was tried to the utmost. Sherman was advancing. The beginning of the end was 
near. 




THE BUSIEST PLACE IN DIXIE 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW i 



- REVIEWS CO. 



City Point, just after its capture by Butler. From June, 1864, until April, 1865, City Point, at the 
juncture of the Appomattox and the James, was a point of entry and departure for more vessels than 
any city of the South including even New Orleans in times of peace. Here landed supplies that kept 
an army numbering, with fighting force and supernumeraries, nearly one hundred and twenty thousand 
well-supplied, well-fed, well-contented, and well-munitioned men in the field. This was the marvelous base 
— safe from attack, secure from molestation. It was meals and money that won at Petersburg, the bravery 
of full stomachs and warm-clothed bodies against the desperation of starved and shivering out-numbered 
men. A glance at this picture tells the story. There is no need of rehearsing charges, counter-charges, 
mines, and counter-mines. Here lies the reason — Petersburg had to fall. As we look back with a retro- 
spective eye on tliis scene of plenty and abundance, well may the American heart be proud that only a few 
miles away were men of their own blood enduring the hardships that the defenders of Petersburg sufl^ered in 
the last campaign of star^•ation against numbers and plenty. 




THE TEEMING WHARVES 

No signs of warfare, no marching men or bodies lying on 
tlie blood-soaked sward, are needed to mark this as a 
war-time photograph. No laboring boss would have 
fallen into the position of the man on the top of the em- 
bankment. Four years in uniform has marked this fel- 
low; he has caught the eye of the camera and drawn up 
at "Attention," shoulders back, heels together, and arras 
hanging at his side. There is no effect of posing, no affec- 
tation here; he stands as he has been taught to stand. 
He is a soldier. No frowning cannon could suggest the 
military note more clearly. Just beyond the point to 
the left, above the anchorage and the busy wharves, are 
General Grant's headquarters at City Point. From here 
it was but a few minutes' ride on the rough military rail- 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO 

SUPPLIES FOR AN ARMY— BELOW, AN ENGINE OF THE U. S. MILITARY RAILROAD 



way to where the one hundred and ten thousand fighting 
men lay entrenched with the sixty-six thousand veterans 
in gray opposed to them. A warship lying where these 
vessels lie could drop a 12-inch shell into Petersburg in 
modem days. From here President Lincoln set out to 
see a grand review and witnessed a desperate battle. 
Here General Sherman, fresh from his victorious march 
from Atlanta to the sea, came up in the little gunboat 
Bat to visit Grant. During the last days, when to the 
waiting world peace dawned in sight. City Point, to 
all intents and purposes, was the National Capital, for 
from here President Lincoln held communication with his 
Cabinet officers, and replied to Stanton's careful injunc- 
tions "to take care of himself" with the smiling assurance 
that he was in the hands of Grant and the army. 





A MOVABLE MENACE 



The 17,000-pound mortar, "Dictator," was run on a flat-ear from point to point on a curve of the railroad track along the bank of 
the Apjjomattox. It was manned and served before Petersburg, July 9-31, 1864, by Company G, First Connecticut Artillery, during 
its stay. \\'hcn its charge of fourteen pounds of powder was first fired, the car broke under the shock; but a second car was prepared 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE RAILROAD MORTAR 



by the engineers, strengthened by additional beams, tied strongly by iron rods and covered with iron-plating. This enabled the 
" Dictator " to be used at varioiis points, and during the siege it fired in all forty-five rounds — ^nineteen of which were fired during 
the battle of the Crater. It was given at last a permanent emplacement near Battery No. 4 — shown on the following pages. 




EVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE DICTATORS OF THE "DICTATOR 



Here axe the men who did the thinking for the great mortar that rests so stohdly in the midst of the group. They are its cabinet 
ministers, artillerymen everj' one, versed in the art of range-finding and danger-angles, of projectory arcs and the timing of shell-fuses. 
In the front line the two figures from left to right are Colonel H. L. Abbott, First Connecticut Heavy Artillery, and General H. J. 
Hunt, Chief of Artillery. In the second, or rear line, also from left to right, the first is Captain F. A. Pratt; second (just behind 
Colonel Abbott), Captain E. C. Dow; fourth (jast behind and to General Hunt's left), Major T. S. Trumbull. 





jii....j& i 


''"'»'^v" ■ ■■ ■ ' •»^ _^5ia 


-"-'' 






Bii 





A PERALAJSTENT POSITION 




THE RAILROAD GUN'S EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



91 1, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



These nine men are the executive committee that controlled the actions of the great mortar, and a glance at them shows 
that they were picked men for the job — men in the prime of life, brawny and strong — they were the slaves of their pet monster. 
Some shots from this gun went much farther than they were ever intended, carrying their fiery trails over the Confederate entrench- 
ments and exploding within the limits of the town itself, over two and a quarter miles. The roar of the explosion carried consterna- 
tion to all within hearing. In the lower picture is the great mortar resting in the position it occupied longest, near Battery No. 4. 




POINTED TOWARD PETERSBURG 



wmmww 



%i) 



^ 



THE INVESTMENT OF PETERSBURG 

I'lie cause was lost, but the end was not yet. The noble Army of 
Nortliern ^'il■ginia, once, twice conqueror of empire, must bite tlie dust 
before its formidable adversary. — Licufciiuitt-General James Longstrcct, 
C.S.A., ill '■'■From Manas.sas to Ajipomuttod.^'' 

THE disastrous failure of the Uuion army on the san- 
guinary battlefield of Cold Harbor, in June, 1864, de- 
stroyed Grant's last chance to turn the Confederate right 
flank north of Richmond. He could still try to turn Lee's 
left and invest Richmond from the north, but this would not 
have interfered with the lines of supply over the James River 
and the railroads from the South and West. The city could 
have resisted for an indefinite time. If Richmond were to fall, 
it must be besieged from the south. 

The movement from Cold Harbor began after dark on 
June 12th, and JMeade's whole arm}^ was safely over the James 
River at Wilcox's Landing by midnight on the 16th of June. 
The little citj^ of Petersburg is situated twentj^-one miles 
south of Richmond on the southern bank of the Appomattox, a 
small stream threading its way through the Virginia tidewater 
belt, almost parallel Avith the James, into which it flows. In 
itself the town was of little value to either army. But it was the 
doorway to Richmond from the south. Three railroads from 
Southern jDoints converged here. To reach the Confederate 
cajjital, Petersburg must first be battered down. At this time 
the town ought not to have been difficult to capture, for its 
defenses were but weak entrenchments, and they were not 
formidably manned. General Smith, who reached Bermuda 
Hundred by water, with his corps, on the night of the 14th, 
was ordered by Butler, under instructions from Grant, to move 
on Petersburg at daylight. 

[188] 



^/, 










COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE DIGGERS AT PETERSBURG— 1864 



There was not a day during the whole of the nine months' siege of Petersburg that pick and shovel were 
idle. At first every man had to turn to and become for the nonce a laborer in the ditches. But in an 
army of one hundred and ten thousand men, in the maintenance of camp discipline, there were always 
soldier delinquents who for some infringement of military rules or some neglected duty were sentenced to 
extra work under the watchful eye of an officer and an armed sentry. Generally, these small punishments 
meant six to eight hours' digging, and here we see a group of Federal soldiers thus employed. They are 
well within the outer chain of forts, near where the military road joins the Weldon & Petersburg Railroad. 
The presence of the camera man has given them a moment's relaxation. 



The Confederate forces at Petersburg were now com- 
manded by General Beauregard. He had conjectured what 
Grant's plans might be, and in order to prevent the capture 
of the town and enable him to hold Butler at Bermuda Hun- 
dred, he called on Lee for immediate reenforcement. But the 
latter, not yet convinced that Grant was not moving on Rich- 
mond, sent only Hoke's division. On the day after Meade 
began to move his army toward the James, Lee left the en- 
trenchments at Cold Harbor. Keeping to the right and rear 
of the Union lines of march, by the morning of the 16th, he had 
thrown a part of his force to the south side of the James, 
and, by the evening of the 18th, the last of the regiments had 
united with those of Beauregard, and the two great opposing 
armies were once more confronting each other — this time for 
a final settlement of the issue at arms. The Union army out- 
numbered that of the Confederates, apjiroximately, two to one. 

The contest for Petersburg had already begun. For two 
days the rapidly gathering armies had been combating with 
each other. On June 15th, General Smith pushed his way 
toward the weakly entrenched lines of the city. General Beau- 
regard moved his mien to an advanced line of rifle-pits. Here 
the initial skirmish occurred. The Confederates Avere driven 
to the entrenched works of Petersburg, and not until evening 
was a determined attack made upon them. At this time Han- 
cock, " The Superb," came on the field. Night was falling but 
a bright moon was shining, and the Confederate redoubts, 
manned by a little over two thousand men, might have been 
carried by the Federals. But Hancock, waiving rank, yielded 
to Smith in command. No further attacks were made and a 
golden ojjportunity for the Federals was lost. 

By the next morning the Confederate trenches were be- 
ginning to fill with Hoke's troops. The Federal attack was 
not made until afternoon, when the fighting was severe for 
three hours, and some brigades of the Ninth Corps assisted the 
Second and Eighteenth. The Confederates were driven back 

[190 1 



M I 



/' 



%r\ 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



MAHONE, "THE HERO OF THE CRATER" 



General William Mahone, C. S. A. It was through the promptness and valor of General Mahone that the Southerners, on July 30, 
1864, -were enabled to turn back upon the Federals the disaster threatened by the hidden mine. On the morning of the explosion 
there were but eighteen thousand Confederates left to hold the ten miles of lines about Petersburg. Everything seemed to favor 
Grant's plans for the crushing of this force. Immediately after the mine was sprung, a terrific cannonade was opened from one hun- 
dred and fifty guns and mortars to drive back the Confederates from the breach, while fifty thousand Federals stood ready to charge 
upon the panic-stricken foe. But the foe was not panic-stricken long. Colonel McMaster, of the Seventeenth South Carolina, 
gathered the remnants of General Elliott's brigade and held back the Federals massing at the Crater until General Mahone amved 
at the head of three brigades. At once he prepared to attack the Federals, who at that moment were advancing to the left of the 
Crater. Mahone ordered a counter-charge. In his inspiring presence it swept with such vigor that the Federals were driven back 
and dared not risk another assault. At the Crater, Lee had what Grant lacked — a man able to direct the entire engagement. 




[}t inuestm^nt at frt^rsburg 



^ 



•i^ -i^ 4"* 





a 



■^fe^ 




some distance and made several unsuccessful attempts during 
the night to recover their lost ground. Before the next noon, 
June 17th, the battle was begun once more. Soon there were 
charges and countercharges along the whole battle-front. 
A^either side yielded. The gray and blue lines surged back and 
forth through all the afternoon. The dusk of the evening was 
coming on and there was no prospect of a cessation of the con- 
flict. The Union troops were pressing strongly against the 
Confederates. There was a terrible onslaught, which neither 
powder nor lead could resist. A courier, dashing across the 
field, announced to Beauregard the rout of his armjr. Soon 
the panic-stricken Confederate soldiers were swarming in re- 
treat. The day seemed to be irreparably lost. Then, suddenly 
in the dim twilight, a dark column was seen emerging from 
the M'ooded ravines to the rear, and General Gracie, with his 
brigade of twelve hundred gallant Alabamians, plunged 
through the smoke, leapt into the works, and drove out the 
Federals. Now the battle broke out afresh, and with unabated 
fury continued until after midnight. 

Earl}^ on the morning of the 18th, a general assault was 
ordered u^Jon the whole Confederate front. The skirmishers 
moved forward but found the works, where, on the preceding 
day, such desperate fighting had occurred, deserted. During 
the night, Beauregard had successfully made a retrograde 
movement. He had found the old line too long for the number 
of his men and had selected a shorter one, from five hundred to 
one thousand yards to the rear, that was to remain the Con- 
federate wall of the city during the siege. But there were no 
entrenclaments here and the weary battle-worn soldiers at 
once set to work to dig them, for the probable renewal of the 
contest. In the darkness and through the early morning hours, 
the men did with whatever they could find as tools — some with 
their baj'onets, or split canteens, while others used their hands. 
This was the beginning of those massive works that defied the 
army of Grant before Petersburg for nearly a ^^ear. By noon 

19-2 : 





i?S 



««;ga?i 




eviEws CO. 



^VHAT EIGHT THOUSAND POUNDS OF POWDER DID 

The Crater, torn by the mine within ElHott's Salient. At dawn of July 30, 1864, the fifty thousand Fed- 
eral troops waiting to make a charge saw a great mass of earth hurled skyward like a water-spout. As it 
spread out into an immense cloud, scattering guns, carriages, timbers, and what were once human beings, 
the front ranks broke in panic; it looked as if the mass were descending upon their own heads. The men 
were quickly rallied; across the narrow plain they charged, through the awful breach, and up the heights 
beyond to gain Cemetery Ridge. But there were brave fighters on the other side still left, and delay among 
the Federals enabled the Confederates to rally and re-form in time to drive the Federals back down the 
steep sides of the Crater. There, as they struggled amidst the horrible debris, one disaster after another 
fell upon them. Huddled together, the mass of men was cut to pieces by the canister poured upon them 
from well-planted Confederate batteries. At last, as a forlorn hope, the colored troops were sent forward; 
and they, too, were hurled back into the Crater and piled upon their white comrades. 





of that day they had assumed quite a defensive character. 
Again the Federals attempted to break the Confederate hne. 
All during the afternoon, regiments were hurled against the 
newly made works. Artillery bombarded here and there with 
but little effect. At times the attacking force would come 
within thirty yards of the entrenchments, only to recoil. Night 
came, and in front of the trenches the ranks of the Union dead 
lay thickly strewn. 

During these four days, divisions and batteries were being 
added to both armies, and when the Union assault was success- 
fully repulsed in the twihght hours of June 18, 1864, those two 
grim adversaries, Grant and Lee, stood in full battle array — 
this time for the final combat. The siege of Petersburg began 
the next day. 

It was a beautiful June Sabbath. There was only the 
occasional boom of some great gun as it thundered along the 
Appomattox, or the fretful fire of picket musketry, to break 
the stillness. But it was not a day of rest. With might and 
main the two armies busil}^ plied with pick and spade and axe. 

In an incredibly short time, as if by magic, impregnable 
bastioned works began to loom about Petersburg. JNIore than 
thirty miles of frowning redoubts, connected with extended 
breastworks, strengthened by mortar batteries and field-works 
of every description, lined the fields near the Appomattox. In 
front were abatis — bushy entanglements and timber slashings. 
Bomb-proofs and parapets completed these cordons of ofi^ense 
and defense — the one constructed to keep the Federals out; 
the other to keep the Confederates in. So formidable were 
the works, that only twice during the siege was there any seri- 
ous attempt made by either army upon the entrenchments of 
the other, and both assaults were failures. 

It was Grant's purjiose to extend his lines to the south and 
west, until they ^\'Ould finally envelop Lee's right flank, and then 
strike at the railroads, upon which the Confederate army and 
Richmond dej)ended for supi:)lies. On June 21st, two corps. 



194 1 






PATRJOT PUB, CO, 



COLORED TROOPS AFTER THE DISASTER OF THE MINE 



On July 30, 1864, at the exploding of the hidden mine under 
Elliott's salient, the strong Confederate fortification opposite. 
The plan of the mine was conceived by Colonel Henry Pleasants 
and approved by Bumside, whose 
Ninth Corps, in the assaults of 
June 17th and 18th, had pushed 
their advance position to within 130 
yards of the Confederate works. Pleas- 
ants had been a mining engineer 
and his regiment, the Forty-eighth 
Pennsylvania, was composed mainly 
of miners from the coal regions. The 
work was begun on June 25th and 
prosecuted under the greatest diffi- 
culties. In less than a month Pleas- 
ants had the main gallery, 510.8 feet 
long, the left lateral gallery, 37 feet 
long, and the right lateral gallery, 
38 feet long, all completed. While 

[c] 




FORT MORTON, BEFORE PETERSBURG 



finishing the last gallery, the right one, the men could hear the 
Confederates working in the fortification above them, trying 
to locate the mine, of which they had got wind. It was 
General Burnside's plan that General 
Edward Ferreros division of colored 
troops should head the charge when 
the mine should be sprung. The black 
men were kept constantly on drill and 
it was thought, as they had not seen 
any very active service, that they were 
in better condition to lead the attack 
than any of the white troops. In the 
upper picture are some of the colored 
troops drilling and idling in camp after 
the battle of the Crater, in which 
about three hundred of their comrades 
were lost. The lower picture shows 
the entrenchments at Fort Morton, 
whence they sallied forth. 



i]t iluti^Btm^nt 0f f ^tj^rsliurg ^ 



•*• 



•^ 



'//////////// l/flCJ'. 



\\ 



^x^ 



the Second and Sixth, moved out of their entrenchments to 
ca2)tin-e the AVeldon Raib'oad, and to extend the hne of invest- 
ment. The region to be traversed was one characteristic of the 
tidewater belt — dense forests and swampy lowlands, cut by 
many small creeks. The morning of June 22d found the two 
army cor2)s in the midst of tangled wilderness. There was 
some delay in bringing these divisions together — thus leaving 
a wide gap. While the troops were waiting here, two divisions 
of A. P. Hill's corps were advancing against them. Hill led 
IMahone's division through a ravine close by. Screened by the 
intervening ridge, the Confederates quickly formed in line of 
battle, dashed through the pine forest, with a fierce, wild yell, 
and swiftly and suddenly burst through the gap between the 
two Federal corps, attacking the flank and rear of Barlow's 
division. A withering volley of musketry, before which the 
Northerners could not stand, plowed through their ranks. The 
Federal line was doubled upon itself. The terrific onslaught 
was continued by the Confederates and resulted in forging to 
the entrenchments and capturing seventeen hundred prisoners, 
four guns, and several colors. At dusk Hill returned to his 
entrenchments. The Second and Sixth corps were joined in 
a new position. 

At the same time the cavalr3% under General James H. 
Wilson, including Kautz's division, started out to destroy the 
railroads. The Confederate cavalry leader, General W. H. 
F. Lee, followed closely, and there were several sharp en- 
gagements. The Union cavalry leader succeeded, however, 
in destroying a considerable length of track on both the Wel- 
don and South Side railroads between June 2'2d and 27th. 
Then he turned for the works at Petersburg, but found it a 
difficult task. The woods were alive with Confederates. In- 
fantry swarmed on every hand. Cavalry hung on the Fed- 
erals' flanks and rear at every step. Artillery and wagon 
trains were being captured constantly. During the entire 
of June 28th, the Union troopers were constantly 

[19G] 



night 




m 





COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



AN OASIS IN THE DESERT OF WAR 



Throughout all the severe fighting south of Petersburg the Aiken house and its inhabitants remained un- 
harmed, their safety respected by the combatants on both sides. The little farmhouse near the Weldon 
Railroad between the lines of the two hostile armies was remembered for years by many veterans on both 
sides. When Grant, after the battle of the Crater, began to force his lines closer to the west of Petersburg 
the Weldon Railroad became an objective and General Warren's command pushed forward on August 18, 
1864, and after a sharp fight with the Confederates, established themselves in an advance position near 
Ream's Station. Three gallant assaults by the Confederates on the three succeeding days failed to dis- 
lodge the Federals. In these engagements the tide of battle ebbed and flowed through the woods and 
through thickets of vine and underbrush more impenetrable even than the "Wilderness." 



Ii0 dluu^Btm^ut 0f fi^t^rshurg ^ 



•^ -i^ 



^ 



\r. 



V"V 



,<i>a3 



k 



harassed on every hand. They fell back in every direction. 
The two divisions became separated and, driven at full speed in 
front of the Confederate squadrons, became irreparably broken, 
and when they finally reached the Union lines — the last of them 
on July 2d — it was in straggling pai'ties in wretched plight. 

On June 25th. Sheridan returned from his raid on the 
Virginia Central Railroad. He had encountered Hampton 
and Fitzhugh Lee at Trevilian Station on June 11th, and 
tm-ned back after doing great damage to the Railroad. His 
supply of ammunition did not Avarrant another engagement. 

Xow ensued about five weeks of quiet during which time 
both generals were strengthening their fortifications. How- 
ever, the Federals were covertly engaged in an undertaking 
that was destined to result in a consi)icuous failure. While 
the Northern soldiers were enduring the rays of a blistering 
July sun behind the entrenchments, one regiment was delving 
underneath in the cool, moist earth. It was the Forty-eighth 
Pennsylvania regiment of the Ninth Corps, made up mostlj^ 
of miners from the upj^er Schuylkill coal-district of Pennsyl- 
vania. From June 2.5th until July 23d, these men were boring 
a tunnel from the rear of the Union works to a j^oint under- 
neath the Confederate fortifications. Working under the 
greatest difficulties, with inadequate tools for digging, and 
hand-barrows made out of cracker boxes, in which to carry 
away the earth, there was excavated in this time a passage-waj^ 
five hundred and ten feet in length, terminating in left and 
right lateral galleries, thirty-seven and thirtj^-eight feet re- 
spectively. Into these lateral galleries eight thousand pounds 
of gunpowder were j^acked and tamped, and a fuse attached. 
On July 28th, everything was ready for the match to be ap- 
plied and for the gigantic ujjheaval, sure to follow. 

Grant, in order to get a part of I^ee's army away, had 
sent Hancock's corps and two divisions of cavalry north of 
the James, as if he might attack Richmond. The ruse was 
successful. Preparations were then completed to fire the mine, 

[198] 



Julv 
1864 



'n i' 



r 



■^ 



*. 1/ 






I 





. PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE SAFE END OF THE MOVING BATTERY 



The Federals were not the first 
way trucks. In the defense of 
Days' and at the attack on 
Savage's Station the Confeder- 
ates had mounted a field-piece 
on a flat-car and it did severe 
damage to the Federal camps. 
But they possessed no such 
formidable armored truck as 
this. Propelled by man-power, 
no pufling locomotive betrayed 
its whereabouts; and as it 
rolled along the tracks, firing a 
shot from time to time, it must 
have puzzled the Confederate 
outposts. This was no clumsy 
experimental toy, but a land 
gunboat on wheels, armored 
with iron-plating, backed by 
massive beams. 

At the Globe Tavern General 
Warren made his headquarters 
after the successful advance of 



to use a gun mounted on rail- 
Richmond during the Seven 




THE GLOBE TAVERN, WELDON RAILROAD 



August 18th, and from here he directed the maneuvers by 
which the Federal lines to the westward of Petersburg were 

drawn closer and closer to cut 
off the last of Confederate 
communications. The country 
hereabout was the theater of 
constant activities on both sides 
during the autumn, and skir- 
mishing between the hostile 
forces was kept up far into 
November. The old tavern was 
the very center of war's 
alarms. Yet the junior officers 
of the staff were not wholly 
deprived of amenities, since the 
Aiken house near by domiciled 
no less than seven young ladies, 
a fact that guaranteed full pro- 
tection to the family during the 
siege. A strong safeguard was 
encamped within the garden 
railing to protect the house from 
intrusion by stragglers. 



c 



\aiBsiMmm& 



W 



\}t ilutirstmatt of pft^rsburg 



•^ 4- 



•i^ 






\>, 



/^? 



? r^a) 



tear a gaj) in the Confederate works, and rush the Union trooj^s 
into the opening. A division of colored soldiers, under General 
Ferrero, was selected and thoroughlj^ drilled to lead the charge. 
Everj^thing was in readiness for a successful attack, but at the 
last moment the colored division was replaced by the First 
Division of the Ninth Corps, under General Ledlie. The 
explosion was to take place at half -past three on the morning 
of July 30th. The apjjointed time had come. Everything 
required was in its place, ready to perform its part. Less than 
four hundred feet in front were the Confederate works, and 
directly beneath them Mere four tons of powder waiting to per- 
form their deadly work. 

Then the Federals applied the matcli. The fuse sputtered 
as the consuming flame ate its way to the magazines within the 
tunnel. The men waited in breathless suspense. In another 
moment the earth would be rent by the subterranean upheaval. 
JNIinute after minute passed. The delay was unbearable. 
Something must have gone wrong. A gallant sergeant of the 
Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, Henrj^ Rees bj^ name, volunteered 
to enter the gallery and find out why the fuse had failed. It 
had parted witliin fifty feet of the powder. Rees returned for 
materials to resjilice the fuse, and on the way out met Lieuten- 
ant Jacob Douty. The two men made the necessary repairs; 
the fire was again applied, and then — at twenty minutes to five 
— the ground underneath trembled as if by an earthquake, a 
solid mass of earth shot two hundred feet into the air, and a 
flame of fire bvirst from the vent as from a new-born volcano. 
Smoke rose after the ascending column. There in mid-air, 
earth, cannon, timbers, sand-bags, human beings, smoke, and 
fire, hung suspended an instant, and bursting asunder, fell 
back into and around the smoking crater >vhere three hundred 
Confederates had met their end. 

'V'N^hen the cloud of smoke had cleared away, the waiting 
trooj^s of Ledlie charged, Colonel JNIarshall at the head of the 
Second Brigade, leading the way. They came to an immense 

[2001 



July 
1864 






r^g!«i;.!ii?|j 




COPYRIGHT, 1911 PATRIOT PUB, CO. 



FEDERAL FIGHTERS AT REAMS' STATION 



These men of Barlow's First division of the Second Corps, under command of Brigadier-General Nelson A. Miles, gallantly repulsed 
the second and third attacks by the Confederates upon Reams' Station, where Hancock's men were engaged in destroying the Weldon 
Railroad on August 24, 1864. In the upper picture is seen Company D of the famous "Clinton Guard," as the Sixty-first New York 
Infantry called itself. The picture was taken at Falmouth in April, 1863, and the trim appearance of the troops on dress parade in- 
dicates nothing of the heavy losses they sustained when at Fredericksburg, led by Colonel Miles, they fought with distinguished brav- 
ery against Jackson's men. Not only the regiment but its officers attained renown, for the regiment had the honor to be commanded 
by able soldiers. First, Francis C. Barlow was its colonel, then Nelson A. Miles, then Oscar A. Broady, and lastly George W. Scott. 







i}t UnmBtmmt af l^ttnBbur^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



opening, one hundred and seventy feet long, sixtj^ feet wide, 
and thirt)^ feet deep. They chmbed the rim, looked down into 
the pit at the indescribable horrors, and then plunged into the 
crater. Here, they huddled in inextricable confusion. The 
two brigades poured in until the yawning pit was crowded with 
the disorganized mass. All semblance of organization van- 
ished. In the confusion, officers lost power to recognize, much 
less to control, their own troops. A regiment climbed the slope, 
but finding that no one was following, went back to the crater. 

The stunned and paralyzed Confederates were not long 
in grasj)ing the situation. Batteries were soon planted where 
they could sweep the approach to the crater. This cut off 
the possibility of retreat. Then into the pit itself poured a 
stream of wasting fire, until it had become a veritable slaugh- 
ter-house. Into this death-trap, the sun was sending down 
its shafts until it became as a furnace. Attempts were made 
to pass around the crater and occupy Cemetery Hill, which 
had been the objective of the Federals. But the withering 
fire prevented. The colored troops, who had been originallj^ 
trained to lead in the charge, now tried to save the daj^ Thej' 
passed by the side of the crater and started for the crest of the 
hill. They had not gone far when the Confederates deliA^ered 
a countercharge that broke their ranks. 

The Confederates were being rapidly reenforced. At 
eight o'clock Mahone's division of Georgians and Virginians 
swejit onto the field, to the scene of the conflict. Thej^ had 
been hidden from view until they were almost ready for the 
charge. The Federals, seeing the intended attack, made ready 
to resist it. Lieutenant-Colonel Bross of the Twenty-ninth 
Colored regiment sprang upon the edge of the crater with the 
Union flag in his hand and was quickly struck down. The 
men began to scramble out after him, but before a line could 
be formed the Confederates were on them, and the Federals 
were driA-en back into the pit, already overflowing with the 
living and the dead. Huge missiles from Confederate mortars 



" 202 1 










FORT MAHONE— "FORT DAMNATION" 



91 1, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 





RIVES' SALIENT 



TRAVERSES AGAINST CROSS-FIRE 




GRACIE'S SALIENT, AND OTHER FORTS ALONG THE TEN MILES OF DEFENSES 

Dotted with formidable fortifications such as these, Confederate works stretched for ten miles aroimd Petersburg. Fort Mahone was 
situated opposite the Federal Fort Sedgwick at the point where the hostile lines converged most closely after the battle of the Crater. 
Owing to the constant cannonade which it kept up, the Federals named it Fort Damnation, while Fort Sedgwick, which was no less 
active in reply, was known to the Confederates as Fort Hell. Grade's salient, further north on the Confederate line, is notable as the 
point in front of which General John B. Gordon's gallant troops moved to the attack on Fort Stedman, the last desperate effort of 
the Confederates to break through the Federal cordon. The views of Grade's sahent show the French form of chevaux-d£-frise, a 
favorite protection against attack much employed by the Confederates. 




1)0 iluu^stmritt nf ^ttnBbnv^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



iaszs^mmm 



n.,,.6:^ 



rained into the awful chasm. The muskets left by the retreat- 
ing Federals were thrown like pitchforks among the huddled 
troops. The shouts, the explosions, the screams, and groans 
added to the horror of the carnage. The claj- in the pit was 
drenched Mdth the blood of the dead and djdng. The Southern- 
ers pushed in from both sides of the crater, forming a cordon 
of bayonets about it. The third and final charge was made, 
about two in the afternoon, and the bloody fight at the crater 
was ended as the brigade commanders followed Burnside's 
order to withdraw to the Federal lines. Both of Ledlie's brig- 
ade commanders were captured in tlie crater. The total Fed- 
eral loss in this disastrous affair was over thirty-nine hundred, 
of whom all but one hundred were in the Xinth Corps. The 
Confederates lost about one thousand. 

Now came a season of comparative quiet about Peters- 
burg, except for the strategic maneuverings of the Federals 
who were trying to find weak jilaces in the Confederate walls. 
On August 18th, however, Grant sent General Warren to cap- 
ture the Weldon Railroad. Desperate fighting Avas to be ex- 
pected, for this was one of the important routes along which 
sup2)lies came to the Confederate capital. The Federal forces 
moA'ed out quietly from their camp, but the alert Beauregard 
AA'as ready for them. By the time Warren had reached the 
railroad, near the Globe Tavern, four miles from Petersburg, 
he was met bj" a force under Heth which at once drove him 
back. Rallying his troops, Warren entrenched on the railroad. 

The fight was renewed on the next da}% when, strongly 
reenforced by Lee, the Confederates burst suddenly upon the 
Federals. JNIahone thrust his gallant division through the Fed- 
eral skirmish line and then turned and fought from the rear, 
while another division struck the right wing. The Union force 
was soon in confusion; more than two thousand were taken 
prisoners, including General Joseph Haj^es, and but for the 
arrival of the Ninth Corps, the field would have been lost. 
Two days later, Lee again attacked the position by massing 



f20-t 





'^ 



■^' 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATHIOT PUB. CO. 



THE DEFENDERS' COUNTER-MINE 



The sinister burrow opens within the Confederate Fort Mahone, seen more fully at the top of the preceding page. Fort Sedgwick, 
directly opposite Fort Mahone, had been originally captured from the Confederates and its defenses greatly strengthened. So galling 
did its fire become, and so important was its position to the Confederates, that early in the siege they planned to lay a mine in order 
to regain it and perhaps break through the Federal lines and raise the siege. The distance across the inten'ening plain was but fifteen 
hundred feet. The Confederates ran their main gallery somewhat more than a third of this distance before finally abandoning it, the 
difficulties of the undertaking having proved too great. This tort was named after General William Mahone, who was conspicuously 
engaged in the defense of Petersburg, and whose gallant conduct at the explosion of the Federal mine under Elliott's salient saved 
the day to the Confederates. Weak as were the defenses of Petersburg in comparison with the strong investing works of the Federals, 
they withstood all assaults during nine months except when Elhott's salient was captured during the battle of the Crater. 




WHERE GORDON'S MEN ATTACKED, FORT STEDMAN 



At Fort Stedman was di- 
rected the gallant on- 
slaught of Gordon's men 
that residted so disastrous- 
ly for the Confederates on 
the 25th of March. For 
no troops could stand the 
heavy artillery and mus- 
ketry fire directed on them 
from both flanks and from 
the rear at daylight, ^^^^at 
was left of this brave divi- 
sion, shattered and broken, 
drifted back to their own 
line. It was the forlorn 
hope of Lee's beleaguered 
army. Fort McGilvery was 
less than one-half a mile 
from the Appomattox River, 
just north of the City 



t^^JVf^ 







THE POWDER MAGAZINE AT FORT McGILVERY 



Point Railroad, at the ex- 
treme right of the Federal 
line. It was one of the 
earliest forts completed, 
being built in July, 1864. 
Fort Morton, named after 
Major St. Clair Morton, 
killed by a sharpshooter's 
bullet in July, 1864, was 
renowned as the place from 
which the mine was dug and 
from which the disastrous 
attempt to break through 
the Confederate lines was 
made on July 30th. Fort 
Morton lay almost in the 
center of the most active 
portion of the lines, and was 
about a mile south of Fort 
Stedman. 




FORT MORTON, OPPOSITE THE CRATER 




A POSITION OF COMPLETE DEFENSE, FORT MEIKLE 



, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



Almost every one of the 
forts in the long Federal 
line was named after some 
gallant officer who had lost 
his lite in action. Thej' 
might have been termed the 
memorial forts. The al- 
most circular entrenchment, 
strengthened by logs and 
sandbags and defended by 
the formidable abatis of 
tree trunks, was named after 
Lieutenant-Colonel George 
W. Meikle, of the Twentieth 
Indiana Volunteers. From 
the position shown we are 
looking directly into Peters- 
burg. Military observers 
have conceded that the 
fortifications surrounding 







THE SWEEPING LINES OF FORT SEDGWICK 



Petersburg were the most 
remarkable of any in the 
world. Before the end of 
October, 1864, the Army of 
the Potomac occupied a 
formidable .cordon of de- 
fenses that stretched for 
more than thirty-two miles, 
and comprised thirty-six 
forts and fifty batteries. 
For years succeeding the 
war excursions were run 
from New York and from 
all parts of the country to 
this historic ground. It 
took three days to com- 
plete the tour. Then most 
of the forts were in the con- 
dition in which we see them 
pictured here. 




FORT RICE, AS THE CONFEDERATES SAW IT 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUI 



1 % 

\airamMzmA 




r 



^\ 



A 



\^\ 



thirty guns and pouring volley after volley of fierce fire into 
the ranks of blue. The Union lines stood firm and returned 
the fire. Finally, the fighting JNIahone, with his matchless band, 
was brought to turn the tide. The attack was made with his 
usual impetuousness, but the blue-clad riflemen withstood the 
terrific charge, and the serried ranks of JNIahone fell back. 
The Weldon Railroad was lost to the Confederacy. 

Hancock, ^vho had returned from the north side of the 
James, proceeded to destroy the road, without hindrance, until 
three daj^s later, August 25th, when General A. P. Hill made 
his appearance and Hancock retreated to some hastily built 
breastworks at Ream's Station. The Confederate attack was 
SAvift and terrific. The batteries broke the Union lines. The 
men were panic-stricken and were put to flight. Hancock tried 
in vain to rally his troops, but for once this splendid soldier, 
who had often seen his men fall but not fail, was filled with 
agony at the rout of his soldiers. Their rifle-pits had been lost, 
their guns captured and turned upon them. Finalh^ General 
Nelson A. INIiles succeeded in rallying a few men, formed a new 
line and, with the help of some dismounted cavalry, partly 
regained their former position. The night came on and, under 
cover of darkness, Hancock withdrew his shattered columns. 

The two great opposing armies had now come to a dead- 
lock. For weeks they lay in their entrenchments, each waiting 
for the other to move. Eacli knew that it was an almost hope- 
less task to assail the other's position. At the end of Septem- 
ber, General Ord, with the Eighteenth Corps, and General Bir- 
ney, with the Tenth, captured Fort Harrison north of the 
James, securing a vantage-point for threatening Richmond. 
The Union line had been extended to within three miles of the 
South Side Railroad, and on October 27th, practically the 
whole Army of the Potomac was put in motion to secure this 
other avenue of transportation to Richmond. After severe 
fighting for one day the attempt was given up, and the Union 
troops returned to the entrenchments in front of Petersburg. 

[208] 



-y? 



II 






^ 



\f\\ 






iv^ 



^ 




TART 111 
CLOSING IN 



SHERMAN'S FINAL CAMPAIGNS 





WAITING FOR THE MARCH TO THE SEA 



After the capture of Atlanta, says Sherman, "all the army, officers and men, seemed to relax more or less and sink into a condition 
of idleness." All but the engineers! For it was their task to construct the new lines of fortifications surveyed by General Poe so 
that the city could be held by a small force while troops were detached in pursuit of Hood. The railroad lines and bridges along the 
route by which the army had come had to be repaired so that the sick and wounded and prisoners could be sent back to Chattanooga 
and the army left free of encumbrances before undertaking the march to the sea. In the picture, their work practically done, the men 
of the First Michigan Engineers are idling about the old salient of the Confederate lines southeast of A*-' nta near which their camp 




:eVIEW OF REVIEWS CO, 



CAMP OF THE FIRST MICHIGAN ENGINEERS AT ATLANTA, AUTUMN, 1804 



was pitched. The organization was the best known and one of the most efficient of the Michigan regiments. It was composed almost 
entirely of mechanics and trained engineers and mustered eighteen hundred strong. The work of these men dotted the whole theater 
of war in the West. The bridges and trestles of their making, if combined, would have to be measured by the mile, and many of them 
were among the most wonderful feats of military engineering. The First Michigan Engineers could fight, too, for a detachment of 
them under Colonel Innes at Stone's River successfully defended the army trains from an attack by Wheeler's cavalry. The march 
to the sea could not have been made without these men. 
[c] 




others, white-bonnettod women in the group, cluster around 
their chairs and other belongings not yet shipped. Tlie last 
train of refugees was ready to leave Atlanta. Sherman out- 
lined very clearly his reasons for ordering the evacuation of the 
city by its inhabitants. He wrote on September 17, 18C-t: "I 
take the ground that Atlanta is a conquered place, and I pro- 
pose to use it purely tor our own military purposes, which are 
inconsistent with its habitation by the families of a brave 
people. I am shipping them all, and by next Wednesday the 
town will be a real military town, with no women boring me 
every order I give." 



THE LAST TRAIN WAITING 

This series of three photographs, taken a few minutes apart, 
tells the story of Sherman's order evicting the inhabitants 
of Atlanta, September, 1864. A train of cars stands empty 
beside the railroad station. But in the second picture piles of 
household effects appear on some of the cars. This disordered 
embarkation takes little time; the wagon train advancing in the 
Erst picture has not yet passed the camera. By the time the 
shutter clicked for the bottom photograph, every car was heaped 
with household effects — bedding and pitiful packages of a dozen 
kinds. Unfortunate owners dangle their feet from the cars; 




CHATTELS APPEAR ON TOP OF THE CARS 




THE CARS PILED HIGH WITH HOUSEHOLD GOODS— THE LAST TRAIN OF INHABITANTS READY 

TO LEAVE ATLANTA 




, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE END OF THE RAILROAD DEPOT 



The crumpled wreck is hardly recognizable as the same spacious train-shed that sheltered such human activities as those pictured op- 
posite, yet this is the Atlanta depot. But such destruction was far from the wanton outrage that it naturally seemed to those whose 
careers it rudely upset. As early as September, Sherman, with Atlanta on his hands, had deemed it essential for the prosecutions of 
his movements and the end of the war that the city should be turned into a military post. So he determined "to remove the entire 
civil population, and to deny to all civilians from the rear the expected profits of civil trade. This was to avoid the necessity of a 
heavy garrison to hold the position, and prevent the crippling of the armies in the fields as heretofore by ' detachments " to guard and 
protect the interests of a hostile population." The railroad station, as the heart of the modern artery of business, was second in im- 
portance only to the buildings and institutions of the Confederate government itself, as a subject for elimination. 







SHERMAN'S FINAL CAMPAIGNS 

I only regarded the march from Atlanta to Savannah as a " shift of 
base," as the transfer of a strong army, which had no opponent, and had 
finished its then work, from the interior to a point on the sea coast, from 
whicli it could achieve other important results. I considered this march 
as a means to an end, and not as an essential act of war. Still, then as 
now, the march to the sea was "■enerallv rejrarded as somethintt extraordi- 
nary, something anomalous, something out of the usual order of events; 
whereas, in fact, I simply moved from Atlanta to Savannah, as one step in 
the direction of Richmond, a movement that had to be met and defeated, 
or the war was necessarily at an end. — General W. T. Sheritum, hi his 
^'' Alemo'irs.^'' 

THE march to the sea, in which General Wilham T. 
Sherman won undying fame in the Civil War, is one 
of the greatest pageants in the world's warfare — as fearful 
in its destruction as it is historic in its import. But this was 
not Sherman's chief achievement; it was an easj^ task com- 
pared with the great campaign between Chattanooga and 
Atlanta through which he had just passed. " As a military 
accomplishment it Avas little more than a grand jDicnic," de- 
clared one of his division commanders, in speaking of the 
march through Georgia and the Carolinas. 

Almost immediatelj' after the capture of Atlanta, Sher- 
man, deciding to remain there for some time and to make it 
a Federal military center, ordered all the inhabitants to be 
removed. General Hood pronounced the act one of ingen- 
ious cruelty, transcending any that had ever before come to 
his notice in the dark history of the war. Sherman insisted 
that his act was one of kindness, and that Johnston and Hood 
themselves had done the same — removed families from their 
homes — in other places. The decision was fully carried out. 

[2U] 







COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE ATLANTA BANK BEFORE THE MARCH TO THE SEA 



As this photograph was taken, the wagons stood in the street of Athxnta ready to accompanj' the Federals 
in their impending march to the sea. The most interesting thing is the bank building on the corner, com- 
pletely destroyed, although around it stand the stores of merchants entirely untouched. Evidently there 
had been here faithful execution of Sherman's orders to his engineers — to destroy all buildings and property 
of a public nature, such as factories, foundries, railroad stations, and the like; but to protect as far as pos- 
sible strictly private dwellings and enterprises. Those of a later generation who witnessed the growth of 
Atlanta within less than half a century after this photograph was taken, and saw tall ofEce-buildings and 
streets humming with industry around the location in this photograph, will find in it an added fascination. 




w 



Il^rmmt B 3xnni Olam^jtatgna -^ ^ ^ ^ 






INIany of the peojjle of Atlanta chose to go southward, others 
to the north, the latter being transported free, by Sherman's 
order, as far as Chattanooga. 

Shortly after the middle of September, Hood moved his 
army from Love joy's Station, just south of Atlanta, to the 
vicinity of JNIacon. Here Jefferson Davis visited the encamp- 
ment, and on the 22d he made a speech to the homesick Army 
of Tennessee, which, reported in the Southern newspapers, 
disclosed to Sherman the new plans of the Confederate lead- 
ers. These involved nothing less than a fresh invasion of Ten- 
nessee, which, in the opinion of President Davis, would put 
Sherman in a predicament worse than that in which Napoleon 
found himself at Moscow. But, forewarned, the Federal 
leader prepared to thwart his antagonists. The line of the 
Western and Atlantic Railroad was more closely guarded. 
Divisions were sent to Rome and to Chattanooga. Thomas 
was ordered to Nashville, and Schofield to Knoxville. Recruits 
were hastened from the North to these j^oints, in order that 
Sherman himself might not be weakened by the return of too 
many troops to these places. 

Hood, in the hope of leading Sherman away from At- 
lanta, crossed the Chattahoochee on the 1st of October, de- 
stroyed the railroad above JMarietta and sent General French 
against Allatoona. It was the brave defense of this place by 
General John M. Corse that brought forth Sherman's famous 
message, "Hold out; relief is coming," sent by his signal 
officers from the heights of Kenesaw INIountain, and which 
thrilled the North and inspired its poets to eulogize Corse's 
bravery in verse. Corse had been ordered from Rome to 
Allatoona by signals from mountain to mountain, over the 
heads of the Confederate troops, who occuj^ied the valley 
between. Reaching the mountain pass soon after midnight, 
on October 5th, Corse added his thousand men to the nine hun- 
dred already there, and soon after daylight the battle began. 
General French, in command of the Confederates, first 




^M!^^:^ 





COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



"TUNING UP "—A DAILY DRILL IN THE CAPTURED FORT 

Here Sherman's men are seen at daily drill in Atlanta. This photograph has an interest beyond most war pictures, for it gives 
a clear idea of the soldierly bearing of the men that were to march to the sea. There was an easy carelessness in their appearance 
copied from their great commander, but they were never allowed to become slouchy. Sherman was the antithesis of a martinet, but 
he had, in the Atlanta campaign, molded his army into the "mobile machine" that he desired it to be, and he was anxious to keep 
the men up to this high pitch of efficiency for the performance of still greater deeds. No better disciplined army existed in the world 
at the time Sherman's "bummers" set out for the sea. 



'V.' 




iTfrman's iFutal OJampatgna ^ ^ 4- ^ 



'-v^ 



^\> 



v^i 




summoned Corse to surrender, and, receiving a defiant answer, 
oj^ened with his guns. Nearly all the day the fire was terrific 
from besieged and besiegers, and the losses on both sides were 
very heavy. 

During the battle Sherman was on Kenesaw JNIountain, 
eighteen miles away, from which he could see the cloud of 
smoke and hear the faint reverberation of the cannons' boom. 
When he learned by signal that Corse was there and in com- 
mand, he said, " If Corse is there, he will hold out; I know 
the man." And he did hold out, and saved the stores at Alla- 
toona, at a loss of seven hundred of his men, he himself being 
among the wounded, while French lost more than a thousand. 

General Hood continued to move northward to Resaca 
and Dalton, passing over the same ground on which the two 
great armies had fought during the spring and summer. He 
destroyed the railroads, burned the ties, and twisted the rails, 
leaving greater havoc, if possible, in a country that was already 
a wilderness of desolation. For some weeks Sherman fol- 
lowed Hood in the hope that a general engagement M'ould 
result. But Hood had no intention to fight. He went on to 
the banks of the Tennessee opposite Florence, Alabama. His 
army M^as lightly equipped, and Sherman, with his heavily 
burdened trooj^s, was unable to catch him. Sherman halted 
at Gajdesville and ordered Schofield, with the Twenty-third 
Corps, and Stanlej^ with the Fourth Corps, to Thomas at 
Nashville. 

Sherman thereupon determined to return to Atlanta, 
leaving General Thomas to meet Hood's apjDearance in Ten- 
nessee. It was about this time that Sherman fully decided to 
march to the sea. Some time before this he had telegraphed 
to Grant: "Hood . . . can constantly break my roads. I 
would infinitel}^ prefer to make a wreck of the road . . . send 
back all my wounded and worthless, and, with my effective 
army, move through Georgia, smashing things to the sea." 
Grant thought it best for Sherman to destroy Hood's army 

[21R] 



w^ 











COPYRIGHT. 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



CUTTING LOOSE FROM THE BASE, NOVEMBER 12th 



"On the 12th of November the railroad and telegraph communications with the rear were broken and the army stood detached from 
all friends, dependent on its own resources and supplies," writes Sherman. Meanwhile all detachments were marching rapidly to 
Atlanta with orders to break up the railroad en route and "generally to so damage the country as to make it untenable to the enemy." 
This was a necessary war measure. Sherman, in a home letter written from Grand Gulf, Mississippi, May G, 1803, stated clearly 
his views regarding the destruction of property. Speaking of the wanton havoc wrought on a fine plantation in the path of the army, 
he added: "It is done, of course, by the accursed stragglers who won't fight but hang behind and disgrace our cause and country. Dr. 
Bowie had fled, leaving everything on the approach of our troops. Of course, devastation marked the whole path of the army, and 
I know all the principal officers detest the infamous practice as much as I do. Of course, I expect and do take corn, bacon, ham, mules, 
and everything to support an army, and don't object much to the using of fences for firewood, but this universal burning and wanton 
destruction of private property is not justified in war." 



o 



first, but Sherman insisted that his plan would put him on 
the offensive rather than the defensive. He also believed that 
Hood would be forced to follow him. Grant was finally won 
to the view that if Hood moved on Tennessee, Thomas would 
be able to check him. He had, on the 11th of October, given 
permission for the march. Now, on the 2d of November, he 
telegraphed Sherman at Rome: " I do not really see that you 
can withdraw from where you are to follow Hood without 
giving up all we have gained in territory. I say, then, go on 
as you i^ropose." It was Sherman, and not Grant or Lin- 
coln, that conceived the great march, and while the march 
itself was not serioush^ opposed or difficult to carry out, the 
conception and purpose were masterly. 

Sherman moved his army b)^ slow and easy stages back 
to Atlanta. He sent the vast army stores that had collected 
at Atlanta, which he could not take with him, as well as his 
sick and wounded, to Chattanooga, destroyed the railroad 
to that place, also the machine-shops at Rome and other 
places, and on November 12th, after receiving a final despatch 
from Thomas and answering simply, " Desj^atch received — all 
right," the last telegraph line was severed, and Sherman had 
deliberately cut himself off from all communication with the 
Northern States. There is no incident like it in the annals of 
war. A strange event it was, as Sherman observes in his 
memoirs. " Two hostile armies marching in opposite direc- 
tions, each in the full belief that it was achieving a final and 
conclusive result in a great war." 

For the next two days all was astir in Atlanta. The 
great depot, round-house, and machine-shops were destroyed. 
Walls were battered down; chimneys pulled over; machinery 
smashed to pieces, and boilers punched full of holes. Heaps 
of rubbish covered the sj^ots where these fine buildings had 
stood, and on the night of November 15th the vast debris was 
set on fire. The torch was also applied to many places in the 
business part of the city, in defiance of the strict orders of 

[220] 



/ 



(Hf 


M 


w 


^ 


^ 




1 


-r-M^y^^ 


/xJ=4Xj%, 


M^OlSi 


^p9o^^) 


^^^^v^ 




Mj 1 

-<r4 



'A 




COPi-RlGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE BUSTLE OF DEPARTURE FROM ATLANTA 



Sherman's men worked like beavers during their last few days 
in Atlanta. There was no time to be lost; the army was gotten 
under way with that precision which marked all Sherman's 
movements. In the upper picture, finishing touches are being 
put to the railroad, and in the lower is seen the short work 
that was made of such public buildings as might be of the 
slightest use in case the Confeder- 
ates should recapture the town. 
As far back as Chattanooga, while 
plans for the Atlanta campaign 
were being formed, Sherman had 
been revolving a subsequent march 
to the sea in case he was successful. 
He had not then made up his mind 
whether it should be in the direction 
of Mobile or Savannah, but his 
Meridian campaign, in Mississippi, 
had convinced him that the march 
was entirelyfeasible, and gradually he 
worked out in his mind its masterly 
details. At seven in the morning 
on November 16th, Sherman rode 
out along the Decatur road, passed 
his marching troops, and near the 
spot where his beloved McPherson 
had fallen, paused for a last look at 
the city. "Behind us," he says, 
"lay Atlanta, smouldering and in 




ruins, the black smoke rising high in air and hanging like a 
pall over the ruined city." All about could be seen the glistening 
gun-barrels and white-topped wagons, "and the men marching 
steadily and rapidly with a cheery look and swinging pace." 
Some regimental band struck up "John Brown," and the thou- 
sands of voices of the vast army joined with a mighty chorus in 
song. A feeling of exhilaration per- 
vaded the troops. This marching 
into the unknown held for them the 
allurement of adventure, as none but 
Sherman knew their destination. 
But as he worked his way past them 
on the road, many a group called 
out, "Uncle Billy, I guess Grant is 
waiting for us at Richmond." The 
devil-may-care spirit of the troops 
brought to Sherman's mind grave 
thoughts of his own responsibility. 
He knew that success would be re- 
garded as a matter of course, but 
should he fail the march would be 
set down as "the wild adventure 
of a crazy fool." He had no in- 
tention of marching directly to 
Richmond, but from the first his 
objective was the seacoast, at 
Savannah or Port Royal, or even 
Pcnsacola, Florida. 



RUINS IN ATLANTA 




rm7^m//m'/mu 



l]?rmau Jtnal OlampatgtiB ^ ^ ^ ^ 



ff 



M 



Cajitain Poe, who had the Mork of destruction in charge. 
The court-house and a large part of the dwelhngs escaped 
the flames. 

Preparations for the great march Avere made with ex- 
treme care. Defective wagons and horses were discarded; the 
numher of heavy guns to he carried along was sixtj^-five, the 
remainder having heen sent to Chattanooga. The marching 
army numbered about sixty thousand, five thousand of whom 
belonged to the cavalry and eighteen hundred to the artillery. 
The army was divided into two immense wings, the Right, 
the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by General O. O. 
Howard, and consisting of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth 
corps, and the Left, the Army of Georgia, by General Henrj^ 
W. Slocum, composed the Fourteentli and Twentieth corps. 
Sherman himself was in supreme command. There were 
twenty-five hundred wagons, each drawn by six mules; six 
hundred ambulances, with two horses each, while the heavy 
guns, caissons, and forges were each drawn hy eight horses. 
A twenty days' supply of bread, forty of coffee, sugar, and 
salt was carried with the armj% and a large herd of cattle M'as 
driven on foot. 

In Sherman's general instructions it was provided that 
the army shovild march \>y four roads as nearly parallel as 
possible, excejit the cavalry, which remained under the direct 
control of the general commanding. The army was directed 
" to forage liberally on the country," but, except along the 
roadside, this was to be done by organized foraging parties 
appointed by the brigade commanders. Orders Avere issued 
forbidding soldiers to enter private dwellings or to commit 
any tresjjass. The corjos commanders were given the option 
of destroying mills, cotton-gins, and the like, and where the 
army was molested in its march by the burning of bridges, 
obstructing the roads, and so forth, the devastation should be 
made " more or less relentless, according to the measure of 
such hostility." The cavalry and artillery and the foraging 



1 222 1 



Nov. 
1864 





^^ 




'-^ 





HEVIEWS CO. 



THE GUNS THAT SHERMAN TOOK ALONG 

In Hood's hasty evacuation of Atlanta many of his guns were left behind. These 12-pounder Napoleon bronze field-pieces have been 
gathered by the Federals from the abandoned fortifications, which had been equipped entirely with field artillery, such as these. It 
was an extremely useful capture for Sherman's army, whose supply of artillery had been somewhat limited during the siege, and still 
further reduced by the necessity to fortify Atlanta. On the march to the sea Sherman took with him only sixty-five field-pieces. 
The Negro refugees in the lower picture recall an embarrassment of the march to the sea. "Negroes of all sizes" flocked in the army's 
path and stayed there, a picturesque procession, holding tightly to the skirts of the army which they believed had come for the sole 
purpose of setting them free. The cavalcade of Negroes soon became so numerous that Sherman became anxious for his army's sus- 
tenance, and finding an old gray-haired black at Covington, Sherman explained to him carefully that if the Negroes continued to swarm 
after the army it would fail in its purpose and they would not get their freedom. Sherman believed that the old man spread this 
news to the slaves along the line of march, and in part saved the army from being overwhelmed by the contrabands. 




NEGROES FLOCKING IN THE ARMY'S PATH 




ll^rman B Jtual Olant^atguB ^ ^ ^ ^ 



r 



:r^ 




parties were i)ermitte(l to take liorses, mules, and wagons from 
the inhabitants without hmit, except that they were to dis- 
criminate in favor of the j^oor. It was a remarkable military 
undertaking, in which it was intended to remove restrictions 
only to a sufficient extent to meet the requirements of the 
march. The cavalry was commanded In^ General Judson Kil- 
patrick, who, after receiving a severe wound at Resaca, in 
Maj% had gone to his home on the banks of the Hudson, in 
New York, to recuperate, and, against the advice of his phj^si- 
cian, had joined the army again at Atlanta. 

On November 15th, most of the great army was started 
on its march, Sherman himself riding out from the city next 
morning. As he rode near the spot where General McPher- 
son had fallen, he paused and looked back at the receding city 
with its smoking ruins, its blackened walls, and its loneh^ 
tenantless houses. The vision of the desperate battles, of the 
hope and fear of the past few months, rose before him, as he 
tells us, " like the memory of a dream." The day was as per- 
fect as Nature ever gives. The men were hilarious. They 
sang and shouted and waved their banners in the autumn 
breeze. JMost of them supposed they were going directly 
toward Richmond, nearly a thousand miles awa}\ As Sher- 
man rode past them thej^ would call out, " Uncle Billy, I 
guess Grant is waiting for us at Richmond." Only the com- 
manders of the wings and Kili^atrick were entrusted with the 
secret of Sherman's intentions. But even Sherman was not 
fully decided as to his objective — Savannah, Georgia, or Port 
Royal, South Carolina — until well on the march. 

There was one certainty, however — he was fully decided 
to keep the Confederates in suspense as to his intentions. To 
do this the more effectually he divided his army at the start, 
IIoM-ard leading his wing to Gordon by way of McDonough 
as if to threaten JNIacon, while Slocum proceeded to Coving- 
ton and JNIadison, with jNIilledgeville as his goal. Both were 
secretly instructed to halt, se^'en days after starting, at Gor- 

[ 224 1 




Nov. 
1864 





The task of General Hardee in defending 
Savannah was one of peculiar difficulty. 
He had only eighteen thousand men, and 
he was uncertain where Sherman would 
strike. Some supposed that Sherman 
would move at once upon Charleston, 
but Hardee argued that the Union army 
would have to establish a new base of 
supplies on the seacoast before attempt- 
ing to cross the numerous deep rivers 
and swamps of South Caiolina. Har- 
dee's task therefore was to hold Savan- 
nah just as long as possible, and then to 
withdraw northward to unite with the 
troops which General Bragg was as- 
sembling, and with the detachments 
scattered at this time over the Carolinas. 
In protecting his position around Savan- 
nah, Fort McAllister was of prime im- 
portance, since it commanded the Great 
Ogeechee River in such a wa3' as to pre- 
vent the approach of the Federal fleet. 




THE DEFENDER OF SAVANNAH 



Sherman's dependence for supplies. It 
was accordingly manned by a force of 
two hundred under command of Major 
G. W. Anderson, provided with fifty 
days' rations for use in case the work 
became isolated. This contingency did 
not arrive. About noon of December 
l.'ith. Major Anderson's men saw troops 
in blue moving about in the woods. 
The number increased. The artillery 
on the land side of the fort was turned 
upon them as they advanced from one 
position to another, and sharpshooters 
picked off some of their officers. At 
half-past four o'clock, however, the 
long-expected charge was made from 
three different directions, so that the 
defenders, too few in number to hold 
the whole line, were soon overpowered. 
Hardee now had to consider more nar- 
rowly the best time for withdrawing 
from the lines at Savannah. 



/^ ^ ''^II^^IBBaR^&C 


r^. 


dS@iiWiyiK4.;:^'i 


^ -t^^HH^^E^Bi^^^^^l 


1 

•1 










' i' • '■ ■ <■' 


1 ■ *< 




SSI 


4 ^^*^,w-.^r 




NX _ 








^■. V-*^^''''J^^»<-'';gf ' 


:^ 






iST'^HI! 


Hi^RiBV!^^^^S]|^HIP^9^3B'' 


B^_2^^ 


mcpm 





COPYRIGHT, lyil, PATRIOT PUS. CO, 



FORT McAllister— THE last barrier to the sea 




FROM SAVANNAH'S ROOF-TOPS— 186.5 

No detailed maps, no written description, eoulrl show better than these clear and beautiful photographs the almost impregnable posi- 
tion of the citj'. For miles the higher ground on which it was possible to build lay on the south bank of the river. From onlj' one direc- 
tion, the westward, could Savannah be approached without difficult feats of engineering, and here the city was guarded along the 
lines of the Georgia Central Railroad by strong entrenchments, held by General Hardee's men. Sherman perceived that a frontal 
attack would not only be costly but effort thrown away, and determined that after he had taken Fort McAllister he would make a 
combination with the naval forces and invest the city from all sides. The march to the sea would not be completed until such a 
combination had been effected. On the evening of the 12th Sherman held consultation with General Howard and with General Hazen 




OVER THE IMPASSABLE MARSHES 



COPyRJGHT, 19t1, REVFEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



of the Fifteenth Corps. The latter received orders from Sherman in person to march down the right bank of the Ogeechee and to 
assault and carry Fort McAllister by storm. He was well informed as to the latter's defenses and knew that its heavier batteries 
pointed seaward, but that it was weak if attacked from the rear. General Hardee's brave little force of 10,000 were soon to hear 
the disheartening news that they were outflanked, that McAllister had fallen, and that Sherman and Admiral Dahlgren, in command 
of the fleet in Ossabaw Sound, were in communication. This was on the 13th of December, 1864, but it was not until nine days later 
that Sherman was able to send his historic despatch to President Lincoln that began with: "I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, 
the City of Savannah." 




kssMMZMm 



Itprman s iFtnal Olampatgna 



\\ 



x\\: 



^'^-^^ 



^ ^ -^ -4^ 



don and ^Milledgeville. the latter the capital of (xeorgia, about 
a hundred miles to the southeast. These two towns were 
about fifteen miles apart. 

General Hood and General Beauregard, who had come 
from the East to assist him, were in Tennessee, and it was 
some days after Sherman had left Atlanta that thej^ heard 
of his movements. They realized that to follow him would 
now be futile. He was nearlj^ three hundred miles away, and 
not only were the railroads destroyed, but a large part of the 
intervening country was utterly laid waste and incapable of 
supporting an army. The Confederates thereupon turned 
their attention to Thomas, who was also in Tennessee, and was 
the barrier between Hood and the Northern States. 

General Sherman accomjjanied first one corps of his 
arm}' and then another. The first few days he spent with 
Davis' corps of Slocum's wing. When thej^ reached Coving- 
ton, the negroes met the troops in great numbers, shouting 
and thanking the Lord that " deliA^erance " had come at last. 
As Sherman rode along the streets they would gather around 
his horse and exhibit every evidence of adoration. 

The foraging jiarties consisted of companies of fifty men. 
Their route for the day in which they obtained supplies was 
usually parallel to that of the army, five or six miles from it. 
They would start out before daylight in the morning, many 
of them on foot; but when they rejoined the column in the 
evening they were no longer afoot. They were astride mules, 
horses, in familj^ carriages, farm wagons, and mule carts, 
which thej' jjacked with hams, bacon, vegetables, chickens, 
ducks, and everj^ imaginable product of a Southern farm that 
could be useful to an army. 

In the general orders, Sherman had forbidden the soldiers 
to enter jjrivate houses ; but the order was not strictly adhered 
to, as many Southern people have since testified. Sherman 
declares in his memoirs that these acts of pillage and violence 
Mere exceptional and incidental. On one occasion Sherman 

[ 228 1 



Nov. 
1864 





WATERFRONT AT SAVANNAH, 186.5 

Savannah was better protected by nature from attack by land or water than any other city near the Atlantic seaboard. Stretch- 
ing to the north, east, and southward lay swamps and morasses through which ran the river-approach of twelve miles to the town. 
Innumerable small creeks separated the marshes into islands over which it was out of the question for an army to march without 
first building roads and bridging miles of waterways. The Federal fleet had for months been on the blockade off the mouth of the 
river, and Savannah had been closed to blockade runners since the fall of Fort Pulaski in April, 186^. But obstructions and power- 
ful batteries held the river, and Fort McAllister, ten miles to the south, on the Ogeechee, still held the city safe in its guardianship. 




FORT McAllister, that held the fleet at bay 




Irrrmau 3^mal Olampatgns ^ ^ -^ ^ 



\emmmmm7/mi 



Nov. 
1864 



Hv 



'.^itSi 



saw a man with a ham on his musket, a jug of molasses under 
his arm, and a big piece of honey in his hand. As the man 
saw that he was observed by the commander, he quoted audibly 
to a comrade, from the general order, " forage liberally on 
the country." But the general rej^roved him and explained 
that foraging must be carried on only by regularly designated 
parties. 

It is a part of military history that Sherman's sole pur- 
pose was to weaken the Confederacj^ by recognized means of 
honorable warfare; but it cannot be denied that there were a 
great many instances, unknown to him, undoubtedly, of cow- 
ardly hold-ups of the helpless inhabitants, or ransacking of 
private boxes and drawers in search of jewelry and other 
famity treasure. This is one of the misfortunes of war — one 
of war's injustices. Such practices always exist even under 
the most rigid discipline in great armies, and the jubilation 
of this march was such that human nature asserted itself in 
the license of warfare more than on most other occasions. 
General Washington met witli similar situations in the Anier- 
ican Revolution. The practice is never confined to either army 
in warfare. 

Opposed to Sherman were Wheeler's cavalry, and a large 
portion of the Georgia State troops which were turned over 
by General G. W. Smith to General Howell Cobb. Kilpat- 
rick and his horsemen, proceeding toward Macon, were con- 
fronted by Wheeler and Cobb, but the Federal troopers drove 
them back into the town. However, they issued forth again, 
and on November 21st there was a sharp engagement with 
Kilpatrick at Griswoldville. The following day the Con- 
federates were definitely checked and retreated. 

The night of November 22d, Sherman spent in the home 
of General Cobb, who had been a member of the United States 
Congress and of Buchanan's Cabinet. Thousands of soldiers 
encamped that night on Cobb's j^lantation, using his fences 
for camp-fire fuel. By Sherman's order, everj''thing on the 



[2301 




11 «, 




. PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE FIFTEEN MINUTES' FIGHT 



Across these ditches at Fort McAllister, through entangling abatis, over palisading, the Federals had to fight every inch of their way 
against the Confederate garrison up to the very doors of their bomb-proofs, before the defenders yielded on December 13th. Sherman 
had at once perceived that the position could be carried only by a land assault. The fort was strongly protected by ditches, pali- 
sades, and plentiful abatis; marshes and streams covered its flanks, but Sherman's troops knew that shoes and clothing and abundant 
rationswerewaitingforthem just beyond it, and had any of them been asked if they could take the fort their reply would have been in 
the words of the poem : " Ain't we simply got to take it? " Sherman selected for the honor of the assault General Hazen's second division 
of the Fifteenth Corps, the same which he himself had commanded at Shiloh and Vicksburg. Gaily the troops crossed the bridge 
on the morning of the 13th. Sherman was watching an.xiously through his glass late in the afternoon when a Federal steamer came 
up the river and signaled the query: "Is Fort McAllister taken.''" To which Sherman sent reply: "Not yet, but it will be in a minute." 
At that instant Sherman saw Hazen's troops emerge from the woods before the tort, "the lines dressed as on parade, with colors flying." 
Immediately dense clouds of smoke belching from the fort enveloped the Federals. There was a pause; the smoke cleared away, and, 
says Sherman, "the parapets were blue with our men." Fort McAllister was taken. 








plantation movable or destructible was carried away next day, 
or destroyed. Such is the ])rice of war. 

By the next night both corps of the Left Wing were 
at INIilledgeville, and on the 24tli started for Sandersville. 
Howard's wing was at Gordon, and it left there on the day 
that Slocnm moved from INIilledgeville for Irwin's Cross- 
roads. A hundred miles below JNIilledgeville was a place called 
INIillen, and here were many Federal prisoners which Sherman 
greatly desired to release. "^Vith this in view he sent Kilpat- 
rick toward Augusta to give the impression that the army was 
marching thither, lest the Confederates should remove the pris- 
oners from jNIillen. Kilpatrick had reached Wajmesboro when 
he learned that the 2)risoners had been taken awa3^ Here he 
again encountered the Confederate cavalry under General 
"\\nieeler. A sharp fight ensued and Kilpatrick drove Wlaeeler 
through the town toward Augusta. As there was no further 
need of making a feint on Augusta, Kilpatrick turned back 
toward the Left Wing. Wheeler quickh^ followed and at 
Thomas' Station nearly sin-rounded him, but Kilpatrick cut his 
A^ay out. Wheeler still pressed on and Kilpatrick chose a good 
l)osition at Buck Head Creek, dismounted, and threw up breast- 
works. Wheeler attacked desperately, ])ut was repulsed, and 
Kilpatrick, after being reenforced by a brigade from Davis' 
covi)s, joined tlie Left Wing at Louisville. 

On the M'Jiole, the great march was but little disturbed by 
the Confederates. The Georgia militia, proba])ly ten thou- 
sand in all, did what they could to defend their homes and 
their firesides ; but their endeavors were futile against the vast 
hosts that were sweeping through the country. In the skir- 
mishes that took place between Atlanta and the sea the militia 
was soon brushed aside. Even their destroying of bridges and 
sujiplies in front of the invading army checked its progress 
but for a moment, as it was ])repared for every such emergencj\ 
Wheeler, with his cavalry, caused more trouble, and engaged 
Kilpatricks attention a large part of the time. But even he 



sW's 







,■>■,- '*, r**-! 
"■•■■ '■*.- 

.,-,, /-^j. .,■5.*: .' -'^r^vi 

■ / " -v' ■ -■t**^i>i^ ■-■'4*. -•■ ■> ^ 1 »^,flt>i- 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



A BIG GUN AT FORT McALLISTER 

Fort McAllister is at last in complete possession of the Federals, and a group of the men who had charged over these ramparts has 
arranged itself before the camera as if in the very act of firing the great gun that points seaward across the marshes, toward Ossabaw 
Sound. There is one very peculiar thing proved by this photograph — the gun itself is almost in a fixed position as regards range and 
sweep of fire. Instead of the elevating screw to raise or depress the muzzle, there has been substituted a block of wood wedged with 
a heavy spike, and the narrow pit in which the gun carriage is sunk admits of it being turned but a foot or so to right or left. It 
evidently controlled one critical point in the river, but could not have been used in lending any aid to the repelling of General Hazen's 
attack. The officer pointing with outstretched arm is indicating the very spot at which a shell fired from his gun would fall. The 
men in the trench are artillerymen of General Hazen's division of the Fifteenth Corps; their appearance in their fine uniforms, polished 
breastplates and buttons, proves that Sherman's men could not have presented the ragged appearance that they are often pictured as 
doing in the war-time sketches. That Army and Navy have come together is proved also by the figure of a marine from the fleet, who 
is standing at "Attention" just above the breach of the gun. Next, leaning on his saber, is a cavalryman, in short jacket and chin-strap. 




l|frman Jiual Olampat^ttB -^ -^ ^ ^ 



Nov. 
1864 





did not seriously retard tlie irresistible progress of the legions 
of the Xorth. 

The great army kept on its way by various routes, cover- 
ing about fifteen miles a day, and leaving a swath of destruc- 
tion, from forty to sixty miles wide, in its wake. Among 
the details attendant upon the march to the sea was that of 
scientifically destroying the railroads that traversed the region. 
Battalions of engineers had received special instruction in the 
art, together with the necessarj^ implements to facilitate rapid 
work. But the infantry soon entered this service, too, and it 
was a common sight to see a thousand soldiers in blue stand- 
ing beside a stretch of railway, and, when commanded, bend 
as one man and grasp the rail, and at a second command to 
raise in unison, which brought a thousand railroad ties up on 
end. Then the men fell uj)on them, ripping rail and tie apart, 
the rails to be heated to a white heat and bent in fantastic 
shapes about some convenient tree or other upright column, 
the ties being used as the fuel with which to make the fires. 
All public buildings that might have a military use were 
burned, together with a great number of private dwellings 
and barns, some by accident, others wantonly. This fertile 
and prosperous region, after the army had passed, was a scene 
of ruin and desolation. 

As the army jjrogressed, throngs of escaped slaves fol- 
lowed in its trail, " from the baby in arms to the old negro 
hobbling painfully along," says General Howard, " negroes 
of all sizes, in all sorts of patched costumes, with carts and 
broken-down horses and mules to match." Many of the old 
negroes found it impossible to keep pace with the army for 
many days, and having abandoned their homes and masters 
who could have cared for them, they were left to die of hun- 
ger and exposure in that naked land. 

After the Ogeechee River was crossed, the character of 
the country was greatly changed from that of central Georgia. 
No longer were there fertile farms, laden with their Southern 

[2341 





THE SPOILS OF VICTORY 



THE TROOPS THAT MARCHED 

TO THE SEA 

BECOME DAY-LABORERS 

Here iire the men that marched to the sea 
(k)ing their turn as day-laborers, gleefully trun- 
dling their wheelbarrows, gatheringup everything 
of value in Fort McAllister to swell the size of 
Sherman's "Christmas present." Brigadier- 
General W. B. Hazen, after his men had suc- 
cessfully stormed the stubbornly defended fort, 
leported the capture of twenty-four pieces of 
ordnance, with their equipment, forty tons of 
ammunition, a month's supply of food for the 
garrison, and the small arms of the command. 
In the upper picture the army engineers are 
busily at work removing a great 48-pounder 
8-inch Columbiad that had so long repelled the 
Federal fleet. There is always work enough and 
to spare for the engineers both before and after 
the capture of a fortified position. In the wheel- 
barrows is a harvest of shells and torpedoes. 
These deadly instruments of destruction had 
been relied upon by the Confederates to protect 
the land approach to Fort McAllister, which was 



much less strongly defensible on that side than 
at the w'aterfront. While Sherman's army was 
approaching Savannah one of his officers had his 
leg blown off by a torpedo buried in the road and 
stepped on by his horse. After that Sherman 
set a line of Confederate pr soners across the 
road to march ahead of the army, and no more 
torpedoes were found. After the capture of 
Fort McAllister the troops set to work gingerly 
scraping about wherever the ground seemed to 
have been disturbed, trying to find and remove 
the dangerous hidden menaces to life. At last 
the ground was rendered .safe and the troops 
settled down to the occupation of Fort McAllister 
where the bravely fighting little Confederate 
garrison had held the key to Savannah. The 
city was the first to fall of the Confederacy's 
Atlantic seaports, now almost locked from the 
outside world by the blockade. By the capture 
of Fort McAllister, which crowned the march to 
the sea, Sherman had numbered the days of the 
war. The fall of the remaining ports was to 
follow in quick succession, and by Washing- 
ton's Birthday, 1865, the entire coast-line was 
to be in possession of the Federals. 




•*C ■■■ ■*'. ■ ■■■' 










SHERMAN'S TROOPS DISMANTLING FORT McALLISTER 




yemsHMMsm, 



l|0rmau iFtnal (Eampai^uB ^ -^^ ^ ^ 



\\ 



%i 



"^J^-Kifc^ay^^ 



harvests of corn and vegetables, but rather rice plantations and 
great j^ine forests, the solemn stillness of which was broken 
bj'' the tread of thousands of troops, the rumbling of wagon- 
trains, and by tlie shouts and music of the marching men and 
of the motley crowd of negroes that followed. 

Day by day Sherman issued orders for the progress of 
the wings, but on December 2d they contained the decisive 
words, " Savannah." What a tempting prize was this fine 
Southern city, and how the Northern commander would add 
to his laurels could he effect its capture! The memories cling- 
ing about the historic old town, with its beautiful parks and its 
magnoha-lined streets, are part of the inheritance of not ovAy 
the South, but of all America. Here Oglethorpe had bartered 
with the wild men of the forest, and here, in tlie days of the 
Revolution, Count Pulaski and Sergeant Jasper had given 
up their lives in the cause of liberty. 

Sherman had jjartially invested the city before the middle 
of December; but it was well fortified and he refrained from 
assault. General Hardee, sent by Hood from Tennessee, had 
command of the defenses, with about fifteen thousand men. 
And there was Fort JNIcAllister on the Ogeechee, protecting 
the city on the south. But this obstruction to the Federals 
was soon removed. General Hazen's division of the Fifteenth 
Corps was sent to capture the fort. At five o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 13th Hazen's men rushed through a shower 
of grape, over abatis and hidden torpedoes, scaled the parapet 
and captured the garrison. That night Sherman boarded the 
Dandelion, a Union vessel, in the river, and sent a message to 
the outside world, the first since he had left Atlanta. 

Henceforth there was communication between the army 
and the Federal squadron, under the command of Admiral 
Dahlgren. Among the vessels that came up the river there 
was one that was received with great enthusiasm by the sol- 
diers. It brought mail, tons of it, for Sherman's army, the 
accumulation of two months. One can imagine the eagerness 

[ 230 ] 




/A'K^ 



.--*/ 



^, 




With much foresight. General Hardee had 
not waited for Sherman's approach, but before 
the Federal forces could prevent, had marched 
out with his force with the intention of joining 
Johnston. There were in the neighborhood of 
some twenty thousand inhabitants in the city 
of Savannah when Sherman took possession, and 
the man who had made a Christmas present of 
their city to Lincoln had no easy task before 
him to preserve order and to meet the many 
claims made upon his time by the responsibili- 
ties of city government. But Sherman regarded 
the war as practically over and concluded that he 
would make it optional with the citizens and their 
families to remain in the city under a combina- 
tion of militarj' and civil government, or rejoin 
their friends in Augusta or the still unsurrendered 
but beleaguered town of Charleston. After con- 
sulting Viith. Dr. Arnold, the Mayor, the City 
Council was assembled and authorized to take 
charge generally of the interests of those who 
remained. About two hundred of the families 
of men still fighting in the Confederate army were 
sent by steamer under a flag of truce to Charles- 
ton, but the great majority preferred to remain 




DESTRUCTION THAT FOLLOWED WAR 



r- 








IS ,•' 


/u • V -- 


■ 






¥'&^ 




- -J 


1 


l&A 


1 


N 


:,y 


1 


B^^^St 


i^ 


i r 


l.^!Z^M 


IimI^ 


•i^mw^ J, i 


^7 


•'. -' f ■■■'■ d-i- . ■ -'•■^ 


"T!^^ 




(i^f* "S^T f 


j m.Mmf^ 


^ 




, — *-« 






■.."if '"it- i-,- ; ,. - 



in Savannah. During the night before the 
Federal occupation, fires had broken out and a 
scene of cliaos had resulted. There is no doubt 
that Sherman had destroyed vast amounts of 
Confederate stores, that he had torn up railway 
tracks and burned stations, and that his army 
had subsisted on what supplies it could' gather 
from the country through which it had pas.sed, 
but in the bitter feelings of the times, rumors 
scattered by word of mouth and repeated by 
newspapers as deliberate accusations had gone 
to the extreme in stating the behavior of his 
army. Yet, nevertheless, many Confederate 
officers still in the field confided their families to 
Sherman's keeping and left them in their city 
homes. Cotton was contraband and although 
the Confederates sought to destroy it, as was 
jiist and proper, at Savannah thirty-one bales of 
cotton became a prize to the army. The news- 
papers were not suppressed entirely and two 
were allowed to be publislied, although under 
the closest censorship. But as we look at the 
ruins of fine houses and deso!ated homes we 
begin to appreciate more fully Sherman's own 
solemn declaration that "War is Hell." 



RUINS AT SAVANNAH, 18fi5 




ll^rmau Jinal Olampatgns ^ ^ ^ 



^ 



B3 



\r\ 



vfiih which these war-stained veterans opened the longed-for 
letters and sought the answer to the ever-recurring question, 
" How are things at home? " 

Sherman had set his heart on capturing Savannah; but, on 
December 15th, he received a letter from Grant which greatly 
disturbed him. Grant ordered him to leave his artillery and 
cavalry, M'ith infantry enough to suj^jport them, and with the 
remainder of his army to come bj^ sea to Virginia and join 
the forces before Richmond. Sherman prepared to obey, but 
hoped that he would be able to capture the city before the 
transports wovdd be ready to carrj^ him northward. 

He first called on Hardee to surrender the city, with a 
threat of bombardment. Hardee refused. Sherman hesitated 
to ojien with his guns because of the bloodshed it would occa- 
sion, and on December 21st he was greatly relieved to discover 
that Hardee had decided not to defend the city, that he had 
escaped with his army the night before, by the one road that 
was still open to him, which led across the Savannah River 
into the Carolinas. The stream had been spanned by an im- 
provised pontoon bridge, consisting of river-boats, with planks 
from city wharves for flooring and with old car-wheels for 
anchors. Sherman immediatel}^ took possession of the city, 
and on December 22d he sent to President Lincoln this mes- 
sage: " I beg to present to you, as a Christmas gift, the city 
of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty heavy guns and plenty 
of ammunition, and also about twenty-five thousand bales of 
cotton." As a matter of fact, over two hundred and fiftj^ guns 
\\'ere captured, and thirty-one thousand bales of cotton. Gen- 
eral Hardee retreated to Charleston. 

Events in the West now changed Grant's views as to 
Sherman's joining him immediately in Virginia. On the 16th 
of December, General Thomas accomplished the defeat and 
utter rout of Hood's army at Nashville. In addition, it was 
found that, owing to lack of transports, it would take at least 
two months to transfer Sherman's whole army by sea. There- 




f 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRJOT PUB CO, 



HOMEWARD BOUND 

Wagon-trains leaving Savannah. Here the wagon-trains of the victorious army are ready just outside of Savannah for the march 
■ northward. The troops, in high glee and splendid condition, again abundantly supplied with food and clothes, are impatient to be 
off. But a difficult country confronts them — a land of swollen streams and nearly tropical swamps like that in the lower photograph, 
picturesque enough, but "bad going" for teams. Near this the Fifteenth Corps passed on its way to Columbia. It is typical of the 
spongy ground over which the army must pass, building causeways and corduroying roads. Sherman himself rated this homeward 
march as a greater achievement than his much-sung "Atlanta to the Sea." 







^^ V'iiv 


f^k 


^^^^1^^. -^-'^^MM 




: ■■ ■"#' 


» 


— • — 5 


W' 




V'-««r- 


.^^\<>'., 


■1 >-■■ ''i-l 


^->M 


ifc.--..-. ' ?^ :- TV '... . '^n^^Hfe^Af-^-' ' 


'>• 


■ •,' ' '' 


■Vv 


■*'■ %vi 


^?* 






.'V 






l^»/^ 


• 




1 






'li** 


. - • 










Kffi^^ ^^Ai3 






y 


/' 






WwL 


^|§?^^''-:^:-::''::3 


\ 






* 


,«•■ 


1 
















\ 














>— .»-•• .'- ■• ■> 


gig; 




- V ' 'jplp^ 


\'; 




^ 


|J.. 


• 






"■.i5' - \^^'.;--<;''«I'«'.?ri\m».' , ■ " ':; '''.-. A 




\:'v^*. 






% ■ 


/■^ 








ll 


IHHHHIil 


1 






> 

■1/ 


^ '. 




^4S ■ 




^ff'^ 


fK 




:S 


<:^ 


^ 




^ 


10 ^' 




1^ 




^%% 




6 

■ s 




i 












mm 


m 




i 


s 


1 






b 1 



COPYRIGHT, 19- 



V 



,;■!»» 



-* * * 




c 
o 

B 


3 

o 


a 


C 


c 




.=^ 






a 


^ 




o 










g 


03 






T3 


bo 



i; S — 



P =4- 





D, 




CI. 




n 


:< 


j^ 






►-1 


i-i 


o 




« 




< 




o 


rt 



"^ a£i 



s 




■u 


7 


£ 








fc^ 


Pi 


O 










^ 




a; 


QJ 












h^ 










^ 










H 


.', 




>> 


T3 


Pm 




c 


^ 


fi 


< 


fl 


CJ 




;3 


O 


o 


0; 




a 


Q 


d 




■r 


W 




c 


c 




c 


U5 

B 
o 
o 

.2 


-0 


1 

3 


u 




i 






a 


-0 
s 

3 


S 

"C 


o 














t- 


























o 










a 
a 


1 


j3 












■b 




^ 


-a 


_g 









c 


CL 


C. 




























a 






— 


C! 


-t-' 




p: 


8i 





'o 




2 

a 


■5 

a 


"0 








5 2 






■f= 2 E 



j3 




<1 



o 

H 
-a; 

O 

H 
M 

O 
O 

Q 

a 

^; 
I— I 






« 






&•! 



03 
C 

O 



•T3 
J3 



i:^^ 






2 £ ^ 



c 

c 



.5 tc -o 



c 



i3 =3 



M 



J1 


^ 


t/J 


C 


>, 






m 


3 


c: 


tH 


+j 


fS 


3 


<U-' 


J3 



S E 





THE CONGAREE RIVER BHIIXiK 



THE EMPTY PRISON 





THE PRESBYTERIAN LEC'TIRE-ROOM 



HUNT S HOUSE 





FREIGHT DEPOT, SOUTH CAROLINA RAILROAD 



THE CATHOLIC CONVENT 



AS COLUMBIA LOOKED AFTER SHERMAN'S ARMY PASSED, IN 1865 




HOME OF STATE SURGEON-GENERAL GIBBS 





THE LUTHERAN CHURCH 




EVANS AND COGGSWELL S PRINTING SHOP 



DESERTED MAIN STREET 





THE SOUTH CAROLINA RAILROAD OFFICES 



THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, WASHINGTON STREET 

WHAT WAR BROUGHT TO THE CAPITAL OF SOUTH CAROLINA 
[c] 



~^ 




kmMMmm. 





-3' 






Iji^rman s 3\xm\ Olampatgns 



•fy 



^ ^ 



^ 



fore, it was decided that Sherman should march through the 
Carohnas, destroying the raih'oads in hoth States as he went. 
A httle more than a month Sherman remained in Savannah. 
Then he began another great march, compared with which, as 
Sherman himself declared, the march to the sea was as child's 
]}\si\. The size of his army on leaving Savannah was j)i'ac- 
tically the same as when he left Atlanta — sixty thousand. It 
was divided into two wings, under the same commanders, 
Howard and Slocum, and was to be governed by the same 
rules. Kilpatrick still commanded the cavalry. The march 
from Sa\'annah averaged ten miles a daj^ which, in view of the 
conditions, was a very high average. The weather in the early 
part of the journey was exceedingly wet and the roads were 
well-nigh imjiassable. Where they were not actually under 
water the mud rendered them impassable until corduroyed. 
Moreover, the troops had to wade streams, to drag themselves 
through swamps and quagmires, and to remove great trees 
that had been felled across their pathwa}^ 

The city of Savannah was left under the control of Gen- 
eral J. G. Foster, and the Left Wing of Sherman's army under 
Slocum moved up the Savannah River, accompanied by Kil- 
patrick, and crossed it at Sister's Ferry. The river was over- 
flowing its banks and the crossing, by means of a pontoon 
bridge, was efl^ected with the greatest difficulty. The Right 
Wing, under Howard, embarked for Beaufort, South Caro- 
lina, and moved thence to Pocotaligo, near the Broad River, 
whither Sherman had preceded it, and the great march north- 
ward was fairly begun bj^ Februarj^ 1, 1865. 

Sherman had given out the word that he expected to go 
to Charleston or Augusta, his purpose being to deceive the 
Confederates, since he had made up his mind to march straight 
to Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. 

The two Avings of the army were soon united and they 
continued their great march from one end of the State of South 
Carolina to the other. The men felt less restraint in devas- 

[ 24* ] 





ia 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO 



THE MEN WHO LIVED OFF THE COUNTRY — HEADQUARTERS GUARD ON THE MARCH THROUGH 

NORTH CAROLINA 

These men have not been picked out by the photographer on account of their healthy and well-fed appearance; they are just average 
samples of what the units of Sherman's army looked like as they pressed on toward Fayetteville and the last battle in the Caro- 
linas, Bentonville, where General Johnston made a brave stand before falling back upon Raleigh. The men of the march to the 
sea were champions in covering ground. The condition of the roads did not seem to stop them, nor the fact that they had to fight 
as they pressed on. During the forced march to Bentonville the right wing, under General Howard, marched twenty miles, almost 
without a halt, skirmishing most of the way. 




Itrrmau s iFutal OlampatgttB 



<^ 



4- -^ 



\msMMMm 



Feb. 
1865 








tating the country and desi)oiling the people than they had 
felt in Georgia. The reason for this, given by Sherman and 
others, was that there was a feeling of bitterness against South 
Carolina as against no other State. It was this State that 
had led the procession of seceding States and that had fired 
on Fort Sumter and brought on the great war. No doubt 
this feeling, which pervaded the armj", ^^'ill account in part fcr 
the reckless dealing with the inhabitants by the Federal sol- 
dierj^ The superior officers, however, made a sincere effort 
to restrain lawlessness. 

On February 17th, Sherman entered Columbia, the mayor 
having come out and surrendered the cit5^ The Fifteenth 
Corps marched through the city and out on the Camden road, 
the remainder of the armj^ not having come within two miles 
of the city. On that night Columbia was in flames. The con- 
flagration spread and ere the coming of the morning the best 
l^art of the city had been laid in ashes. 

Before Sherman left Columbia he destroj^ed the machine- 
shops and everything else which might aid the Confederacj^. 
He left with the mayor one hundred stand of arms with which 
to keep order, and five hundred head of cattle for the destitute. 

As Columbia was apjjroached by the Federals, the occu- 
pation of Charleston by the Confederates became more and 
more untenable. In vain had the governor of South Carolina 
jjleaded with President Davis to reenforce General Hardee, 
A\'ho occupied the city. Hardee thereupon evacuated the his- 
toric old citj'' — much of which was burned, whether bj^ design 
or accident is not known — and its defenses, including Fort 
Sumter, the bombardment of which, nearly four years before, 
had precipitated the mighty conflict, were occupied by Colonel 
Bennett, who came over from JNIorris Island. 

On March 11th, Sherman reached Fayetteville, North 
Carolina, where he destroyed a fine arsenal. Hitherto, Sher- 
man's march, except for the annoyance of Wheeler's cavalry, 
had been but slightly impeded b}^ the Confederates. But 

[246] 



P^ 



J. 





r 










.'■■ 




.1 


kJ^^Jl«> ^ 


3. * T" 


j^i 




^^£^■1 


\m 






'," 


li^ 




"'■^M^ 


^.-.*J\/, Xv< -'l ^^.^ 


•'lil 


ii- 


Pf 


m "> 


') "^1,-^ 


■■ ''^^'"j&^^k-Mf^ A, "^C- 


¥ 


m *. 


r.^^ Jfj 










>■ ■iuinijM>»' f 




--■. 




"Bi 


■i 


fej 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 

COLOR-GUARD OF THE EIGHTH MINNESOTA— AVITH SHERMAN WHEN JOHNSTON SURRENDERED 

The Eighth Minnesota Regiment, which had joined Sherman on his second march, was with him when Johnston's surrender wrote 
"Finis" to the last chapter of the war, April 27, 1865. In Bennett's little farmhouse, near Durham's Station, N. C, were begun 
the negotiations between Johnston and Sherman which finally led to that event. The two generals met there on April 17th ; it was a 
highly dramatic moment, for Sherman had in his pocket the cipher message just received telling of the assassination of Lincoln. 




COPVHIGHT, lyir, REVIEW OF REVIEW 



THE END OF THE MARCH— BENNETT'S FARMHOUSE 




Itrrmatt*0 Mxxni (^nmpm^xxB 



•^- j^' -^ •^ 




m 



<->^'' 



■^'^^ 



liencefortli this Mas changed. General Joseph B. Johnston, 
his old foe of Resaca and Kenesaw JMountain, had been re- 
called and was now in command of the trooi)s in the Carolinas. 
No longer would the streams and the swamps furnish the only 
resistance to the progress of the Union army. 

The first engagement came at Averysboro on jNIarch 
ICth. General Hardee, having taken a strong position, made 
a determined stand; but a division of Slocum's wing, aided 
by Kilpatrick, soon put him to flight, with the loss of several 
guns and over two hundred prisoners. 

The battle of Bentonville, which took place three da^'s 
after that of Averysboro, was more serious. Johnston had 
placed his whole army, probabij^ thirty-five thousand men, in 
the form of a Y, the sides embracing the village of Benton- 
^'ille. Slocum engaged the Confederates while Howard was 
hurried to the scene. On two days, the 19th and 20th of 
]March, Sherman's army fought its last battle in the Civil 
War. But Johnston, after making several attacks, resulting 
in considerable losses on both sides, withdrew his army during 
tlie night, and the Union army moved to Goldsboro. The 
losses at Bentonville Mere: Federal, 1,604; Confederate, 2,34<8. 

At Goldsboro the Union army M'as reenforced by its 
junction -with Schofield, who had come out of the West M'ith 
over tM'enty-tM'O thousand men from the army of Thomas in 
Tennessee. But there was little need of reenforcement. Sher- 
man's third great march was practically over. As to the rela- 
tive importance of the second and third, Sherman declares in 
his memoirs, he would place that from Atlanta to the sea at 
one, and tliat from Savannah through the Carolinas at ten. 

Leaving his army in charge of Schofield, Sherman went 
to City Point, in ^"irginia, M'here he had a conference -with 
Creneral Grant and President Lincoln, and plans for the final 
campaign Mere definitely arranged. He returned to Golds- 
l)oro late in JNIarch, and, pursuing Johnston, received, finally, 
on April 26th the surrender of his army. 

[ '2-tS ] 



April 
1865 




-W''' 
* 



PART III 
CLOSING IN 



NASHVILLE— THE END 
IN TENNESSEE 




GUARDING THE CUMBERLAND — WHERE THOMAS WATCHED 
FOR HOOD AT THE NASHVILLE BRIDGE 





FORT NEGLEY, 



THE I^IPOSING DEFENSE 



OF NASHVILLE 



.r 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



Perched on a hill overlooking Nashville stood Fort Negley — a large, complex citadel ready for action at 
any time. Though it was little called upon, its very aspect would have caused an enemy much reflection 
ere deciding to attack. Within the work were two casemates (one of which is shown in the fine photo- 
graph above) covered with railroad iron and made bomb-proof with earth. Fort Negley was designed 
and built on the German polygonal system early in 1862 and was regarded as satisfying the most exacting 
of the Old World standards as an up-to-date fortification. By the middle of November, 1864, with Sher- 
man well on his march to the sea, the struggle in middle Tennessee had reached a crisis. Hood had 
invaded the State and Thomas had confided to Schofield the task of checking the Southern army. 
Thomas himself sent out his couriers and drew in all the available Federal forces to Nashville. There he 
meant to give battle to Hood when the Confederate leader, racing Schofield, should reach the State 
capital. The dramatic running fight between Hood and Schofield from Columbia to Nashville is graphi- 
cally described in the accompanying text. 



THE BATTLES OF FRANKLIN AND 
NASHVILLE 



The Army of Tennessee under General Hood, pursuing its march 
northward late in Novendjer and early in Decend)er, came upon the Fed- 
eral forces under General Schofield at Franklin, and General Thomas at 
Nashville, Tennessee, where desperate battles were fought, until Hood's 
army was reduced to skeleton connnands and forced to retreat. — Ijcutcnunt- 
Gena-itl Jiimc.s Longfitrcd, C.S.A., in '■^ Frum Maudnstis to Appumaftihi'.^'' 

WHILE Hood Mas turning back from Atlanta in the 
great northward movement, which, in the hopes of the 
Confederacy, would bring the Army of Tennessee to the banks 
of tlie Ohio, there was gathering at and around Xashville a 
force to dispute the jjrogress of Hood. General Thomas was 
sent by Sherman " to take care of Tennessee," and he was 
ljrei)aring to weld many fragmentarj^ bodies of troops into a 
fighting army. 

After a month of bold maneuvering, the advance of 
Hood's army appeared, on the 2Gth of October, at Decatur, 
on the south side of the Tennessee. It had been a time of 
jjcrplexity to the Federal authorities and of intense alarm 
throughout the North. Hood had twice tliro\\'n his army be- 
tween Sherman and the latter's base; had captured four garri- 
sons, and destroyed thirty miles of railroad. His movements 
had been bold and brilliantly executed. 

At Decatur, Hood found himself too far east to join with 
Forrest, whose cooperation Mas absolutely necessary to him. 
So he moved M'estward to Florence M'here the first division of 
his army, Mith but little opposition from Croxton's cavalry, 
crossed the Tennessee on the 31st. Forrest liad gone doMU the 
river to intercept the Federal line of su2:iplies. At John- 

['252] 



v~v 




CHATTANOOGA FORTIFIED IN 180i 

When Hood made his audacious movement upon Sherman's communications, by invading Tennessee — without however tempting 
the Northern commander from his grim course — Chattanooga was the only point in Thomas' Department, south of Nashville, which 
was heavily garrisoned. This town became the supply center for all the Federal posts maintained in eastern Tennessee. Therefore 
it had been well fortified, so strongly in fact that Thomas, who had just begun his great concentration movement, was able b3' Decem- 
ber 1st to draw Steedman away to the Elk River and thence to Nashville. It was from a point on the hill a little to the right of the 
scene shown in the lower photograph on this page that the picture of Chattanooga fortified was taken. 




CHATTANOOGA AND THE iVHLITARY BRIDGE 









raukliu m\h '^n&i}miU ^ ^ ^ ^ -^ 



sonville he disabled the gunboats to such an extent that 
they M'ere burned to prevent their faUing into his hands. 
The fire spread to the Federal stores on the levee and $1,500,- 
000 of Government proj^erty thereby was destroj^ed. The gar- 
rison held firm. Forrest withdrew his troops and crossed the 
river above the town. He had received orders to join Hood 
as quickh" as possible and reached Florence on November 14th. 
General Hood was now free to invade Tennessee. Sherman 
had sent the Fourth Corps, under Stanley, and the Twenty- 
third, under Schofield, the latter in command of both, back to 
Thomas, and this force was now at Pulaski to oppose Hood. 

On the morning of November 19th, the army of Hood was 
put in motion. The day was disagreeable. It sno^^'ed and 
rained, and there was sleet and ice for the men to face. Over 
the slippery roads the army trudged, led by the cavalrj^ of the 
daring Forrest. The Avary Hood did not choose to be 
" checked at Pulaski," but passed adroitly by on the other side, 
urging his ranks forward toward Columbia on the Duck River. 

At midnight of the 23d, General Schofield learned of the 
movements of Hood. He knew that if the latter reached Co- 
lumbia he could easily capture the garrison at that place and 
then be free to cross the river and cut him off from Thomas. 
The sleeping troops were quickly aroused and in an hour 
were making their way through the night to Columbia, twenty- 
one miles distant. Another column, led by General Cox, start- 
ing somewhat later, was pushing rapidly over another road to 
the same point. It was a race between the armies of Hood and 
Schofield for the crossing at Columbia. The weary, footsore 
Federals barely won. Cox, by taking a cross-road, came to 
the rescue only a few miles south of Columbia, as Forrest was 
driving the Federal cavalry back, and the little army was saved. 

Tlie Union army entrenched itself for battle. Works were 
thrown up while the wagon trains were retreating beyond the 
river. But it was found impracticable to hold the position. 
All during the night of the 27th, there was a steady stream of 

[ 254 ] 






COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF KEVIEWS CO. 



THE "BUSINESS OF WAR" AT AN ALABAMA RAILROAD STATION— FEDERALS CON- 
CENTRATING AT STEVENSON BEFORE THE NASHVILLE BATTLE 



Early in the winter of 1864, this station in the little Alabama town fairly hummed with the movement of 
men and horses and supplies. Schofield's division of Thomas' army was being concentrated there for the 
campaign which culminated, in the middle of December, at the bloody battle of Nashville. A business- 
like crowd is shown in this picture, of soldiers and citizens, with more than one commanding figure in the 
foreground. The railroad played a part most important and most vulnerable in the Western campaigns. 



oBSMMMEm 



r 





rmtkliu mtJi KaBlmiU 



r 



* 



4^ -^ 4^ -^ 



men, wagons, and artillery, passing o^'el• to the north side of 
Duck River. Xot until daylight did the rear guard burn the 
railroad bridge and scuttle the ])ontoon boats, behind them. 

The 28th of November was a suspiciously quiet day in 
front of Columbia. Not so, along other parts of the river bank. 
About noon, at various points, squads of Confederate cavalry 
appeared, indicating their purpose to cross, which was finally 
accomplished. 

At daybreak the next morning, with Hood himself in the 
lead, the Confederate army, headed by one of its most cour- 
ageous divisions, was quickly marching again to intercejit the 
retreat of Schofield. Spring Hill, fifteen miles north of Co- 
lumbia, was the objective of Hood. This was a brilliant piece 
of strategy, and the Confederate general hurried his columns 
along that he might reach the point first. Succeeding in this 
he could easily turn the Union flank, and nothing could save 
that army. It all depended on who should win the race. 

The Confederates marched lightly. It was a beautiful, 
crisp morning and the men were in high hopes. There was 
every prospect of their winning, since the Union army was 
heavy and it moved sluggishly. To save the Federal wagon 
train, and its contents of food, clothing, and ammunition, which 
was slowly moving along the roads to the north, with only the 
little force of ^\'arriors in blue interposing between them and 
the eager Confederate legions. General Stanley was ordered 
forward, to make a dash to the rescue. As he neared the town 
he saw on his right the Confederate columns abreast of him on 
a parallel road. A little further on, he was informed that For- 
rest's cavalry was approaching rapidly from the east. 

Xo time was now to be lost. Although his men were 
M'eary from their hurried march, they were pushed forward at 
the double-quick into town. The opposing forces met on the 
edge of the village; a light skirmish followed, in which the 
Federals secured the main approaches to the town. 

Schofield's army was in a splendid position to invite attack. 

[256] 




JL 





COPYRIGHT, 191- 



■RIOT PUB, CO. 



RUSHING A FEDERAL BATTERY OUT OF JOHNSONVILLE 



When Thomas began to draw together his forces to meet Hood at Nashville, he ordered the garrison at 
Johnsonville, on the Tennessee, eighty miles due west of Nashville, to leave that place and hasten north. 
It was the garrison at this same Johnsonville that, a month earlier, had been frightened into panic and 
flight when the bold Confederate raider, Forrest, appeared on the west bank of the river and began a noisy 
cannonade. New troops had been sent to the post. They appear well coated and equipped. The day 
after the photograph was taken (November 2,Sd) the encampment in the picture was broken. 




raukltu m\h Nafil|iitlb 



■^ -^ -^ 



^ <^ 



mm/iim 



\\ 



^ 



y.' 



The forces were wideh^ scattered, and the situation was indeed 
critical. The afternoon of November 29th records a series of 
lost opportunities to the Confederates. From noon until seven 
o'clock in the evening the little force of Stanley was completely 
isolated from the main army. Hood had sufficient troops lit- 
erally to crush him, to cut off the retreat of Schofield, and 
thereby to defeat that wing of the Federal army. During the 
afternoon and evening there were various attempts made on 
the Union lines, which were stoutly resisted. The vigor of 
the repulse, the lack of concentration in the attack and, per- 
haps, the coming of evening saved the day for the Federals. 

The Confederates bivouacked for the night near the pike. 
Brightly their camp-fires gleamed, as the Federal wagon trains 
and the columns of Northern soldiers trudged along through a 
moonless night, within a few rods of the resting Confederates. 
The Southern troops were plainly visible to the Federals, as 
they were seen moving about the camp. There was constant 
apprehension lest the Southern army should fall upon the pass- 
ing armj% but the officer who was ordered to block the Federal 
march made but a feeble and partial attack. Hood realized 
that he had lost the best opportunity for crushing Schofield 
that the campaign had offered, and deplored the failure most 
bitterly. 

Schofield reached Spring Hill about seven in the evening. 
At the same hour the last comj^any of his troops was leaving 
Columbia, about eleven miles away. All through the night the 
procession continued. The intrepid Stanley stood guard at a 
narrow bridge, as the long train wended its way in the darkness 
over the hills in the direction of Nashville. At daybreak, as 
the rear wagons safely passed, and the skirmishers were called 
in, the advance columns, under Cox, were reaching the outskirts 
of Franklin. 

This village, situated on a bend of the Harpeth River, 
was admirably located for a great battle. On the north and 
west, it was protected by the river. Beyond the stream, to the 



Nov. 
1864 



//A 



^ 



4^ 



^' 




COPYRIGHT, T91I, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



FORT NEGLEY, LOOKING TOWARD THE CONFEDERATE CENTER AND LEFT, AS 

HOOD'S VETERANS THREATENED THE CITY 



It was Hood's hope that, when he had advanced his Hne to the left of the position shown in this photo- 
graph, he might catch a weak spot in Thomas' forces. But Thomas had no weak spots. From the case- 
mate, armored with railroad iron, shown here, the hills might be easily seen on which the Confederate 
center and left were posted at the opening of the great battle of Nashville. 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE PRIZE OF THE NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN— THE STATE CAPITOL 



[c] 



nmMMimM 



w_ 



rankltu anli Nasl|iitU^ -4' 



4* 



^' 



<^ •$■ 




PiOi-th, were three prominent hills, giving excellent elevations 
for batteries, and commanding a broad plain that lay in front of 
the town. These were utihzed by the Federals. To the south 
were low ridges on which an attacking party might entrench. 

Schofield had not expected to give battle at Franklin. He 
was hurrying his men to reach the protecting entrenchments 
of Nashville. But he would not be taken unawares. Though 
his men had marched and fought by tiu-ns for a week, by day 
and night, until thej^ were on the point of exhaustion, yet the 
tired and hungry troops, before they had prejjared their morn- 
ing meal, laid down the musket and took up the spade. Soon 
entrenchments stretched along on two sides of the town. Bat- 
teries of artillery were placed at the front and in the rear, 
guarding the lines of probable attack. To this protecting 
haven, the weary regiments, one by one, filed, until, by noon, 
the last one had safely found its way to the entrenched walls of 
Franklin. The wagon trains passed over the Harpeth and the 
troops would soon follow after. But this was not to be. Even 
then, the Confederate vanguard was close at hand. 

It was a glorious Indian summer afternoon. For two 
hours the Federal troops had been looking through the hazy 
atmosphere to the eastward hills. The day was already begin- 
ning to wane, when from the wooded ridge there emerged the 
stately columns of the army of Hood. On a rise in front of the 
Union lines stood Wagner's two brigades, in uniforms of blue. 
They were stationed, unsupported, directly in front of the Con- 
federate approach. It was evident that " some one had blun- 
dered." But there thej^ stood, waiting for the imjjact of the 
line in gray. A concentrated roar of musketry burst forth and 
thej^ were engulfed in the on-sweeping torrent. 

The Confederate ranks plunged on, carrying the helpless 
brigades along. With tremendous momentum they rushed 
toward the works. The guns along the Federal line were silent. 
They dare not fire on their own routed men. The weight of the 
oncoming mass of humanity broke through the first line of 

[260] 




'""""-'. '^'B^ilf?^ 




A STATE HOUSE STOCKADED 



PATRIOT PUB, CO, 



Shortly after the occupation of 
Nashville by the Union forces in 
February, 1862, General Morton, 
of the U. S. Corps of Engineers, 
began work on its fortifications. 
Around the capitol were built 
earth parapets and stockades, 
and enough room was provided 
to mount fifteen guns. The 
strong, massive structure, plen- 
tifully supplied with water, 
could easily accommodate a regi- 
ment of infantry — enough in 




such a citadel to hold an entire 
army at bay. This, however, 
was but a part of the entire line 
of defenses he planned. He was 
intending to fortify Morton and 
Houston Hills, and a third on 
which Fort Negley was actually 
constructed. The pictures show 
the city which the works were 
built to defend, but which Mor- 
ton was prepared to leave to the 
enemy if forced to retreat within 
his lines. 



THE STOCKADE AND THE PARAPET 




THE NASHVILLE CAPITOL FORTIFIED 



REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 




raitklm m\h ^asl]utlb 



•^ 



^ 



-^ -^ 



^ 





¥^' 




*1%1 



Federal infantr^^ The center of the Union front had been 
pierced. Like a wedge the Southern troops thrust themselves 
through the opening. Two captured batteries began an enfilad- 
ing fire upon the broken Union lines, and from the right and 
the left the pitiless fire poured upon their flanks. The shattered 
regiments were past re-forming for the emergencj^. The teams 
from the captured batteries galloped to the rear. The dajr was 
nearlj' lost to the Union army. 

Colonel Opdycke of Wagner's division had brought his 
brigade within the lines and was ready for the emergency. 
Turning toward his men to give the order to charge, he 
found they had already fixed their bayonets for the des- 
perate encounter. Behind these men stood the Twelfth and 
Sixteenth Kentucky regiments in the same attitude. " First 
Brigade, forward to the works," came tlie ringing words of the 
colonel. His men scarcely needed the order. Following their 
gallant leader, they saw him ride forward, empty his revolver, 
then use it as a club in a hand-to-hand fight, and finally 
dismount and grasp a musket. The men fought like demons, 
in their desperate endeavor to stem the tide of gray. 

Stanley, at his headquarters beyond the river, had seen the 
impending disaster to the troops. Galloping to the scene of 
battle, he was about to order Opdycke to the attack. He was 
too late to give the command but not too late to enter the con- 
flict. Cheering his men, he rode into tlae death-dealing contest 
in which he Mas presently severely wounded. The bayonet and 
the clubbed musket were freely used. The breach was closed, 
and the day was all but won by the Federals. 

The recaptured guns now poured their charges of death 
into the shattered ranks in gray. But tlie courageous Southern- 
ers were not to be thus outdone. The cloud of smoke had 
hardly cleared from the field when they again took up the gage 
of battle. In sheer desj^eration and with an ai^palling reckless- 
ness of life, they thrust themselves upon the Union lines 
again and aofain, onlv to recoil, battered and 

\ 262 1 



bleeding. 





i 



i^ 






THOMAS— THE "ROCK OF CHICKAMAUGA" WHO BECAME THE "SLEDGE OF NASHVILLE' 



Major-General George Henry Thomas, Virginia-born soldier loyal to the Union; commended for gallantry in the Seminole War, and 
for service in Mexico; won the battle of Mill Spring, January 19, 1862; commanded the right wing of the Army of the Tennessee 
against Corinth and at Perryville, and the center at Stone's River. Only his stability averted overwhelming defeat tor the Federals 
at Chickamauga. At Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge he was a host in himself. After Sherman had taken Atlanta he sent 
Thomas back to Tennessee to grapple with Hood. How he crushed Hood by his sledge-hammer blows is told in the accompanying 
text. Thomas, sitting down in Nashville, bearing the brunt of Grant's impatience, and ignoring completely the proddings from Wash- 
ington to advance before he was ready, while he waited grimly for the psychological moment to strike the oncoming Confederate host 
under Hood, is one of the really big dramatic figures of the entire war. It has been well said of Thomas that every promotion he re- 
ceived was a reward of merit; and that during his long and varied career as a soldier no crisis ever arose too great for his ability. 




rmtklht nnh 'NuBlpxik 



4- 4- 



* 



^ 



||ii(('f|/M 






Evening fell upon the battling hosts, and long into the night 
there was heard the sharp volleys of musketry. Thus closed 
one of the fiercest of the minor struggles of the Civil War. At 
midnight, Schofield withdrew from the trenches of Franklin 
and fell back to Thomas at Nashville. 

JNlany gallant Southern leaders fell on the battlefield of 
Franklin, whose loss to the Confederacy was irreparable. Five 
generals and a long list of field-ofiicers were among the 
killed. General Patrick Cleburne, a native of Ireland and a 
veteran of the British army, and General John Adams, both 
fell in the desperate charges at the breach in the Federal lines 
when AVagner's brigades were swept headlong from the front 
of the battle-line. 

Hood aj^peared before the army of Thomas, on December 
2d. Prej)arations at once began in both camps for the decisive 
contest. Hood was furnishing his armj' with supplies and with 
shoes, and throwing up entrenchments parallel to those of the 
Union arm}'. Thomas was remounting his cavalry and in- 
creasing the strength of his works. The city was well fortified. 
On the surrounding hills the forts bristled with cannon. But 
the Federal commander was not ready for battle. 

Thomas was not a born military strategist. But he was a 
remarkable tactician. No battle of the war was better planned 
and none was so nearly carried out to the letter of the plan as 
the battle of Nashville. It has been said that this j)lan of 
Thomas is the only one of the entire war that is now studied 
as a model in European military schools. 

But Thomas was not acting qviickly enough to satisfy 
Grant and the Washington authorities. Day after day, tele- 
grams and messages poured in on him, giving advice and urg- 
ing immediate action. Thomas stood firm. Finally an order 
for his removal was issued but never delivered. In a telegram 
to Halleck, Thomas stated that if it was desirable to relieve him 
of his command he A^ould submit without a murmur. 

T'inally, preparations were completed. But, just then a 

[ 204 ] 







f, 




^^?: 






■^■'^.-^^y. 




''*^- *.. 



„.f^-v #% 



'l^.' 



REVIEW OF REVIEWS C 



THIRTY-TWO OHIO REGIMENTS FOUGHT AT NASHVILLE— A TYPICAL GROUP OF VETERANS, FROM THE 
ONE-HUNDRED-AND-TWENTY-FIFTH— "OPDYCKE'S TIGERS " 

Ohio's part in 1861-65 was a large one, promptly and bravely played. Thirty-two regiments, besides cavalry companies and artillery 
batteries from that State, were in service in the operations around Nashville. Colonel Emerson Opdycke, afterwards brevetted major- 
general, commanded the One-Hundred-and-Twenty-fifth Ohio as part of the rear-guard at Spring Hill. Some of these troops are 
shown above The lads in the lower picture made up the band of the Onc-Hundred-and-Twenty-fifth. 




THE "TIGER BAND' 



COPVHIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 

OF THE ONE-HUNDRED-AND-TWENTY-FHTH OHIO BEFORE NASHVILLE 




x^aukltn mib Nasliutlb 



•^ -^ -^ -^ -^ 




severe storm of freezing rain poured down upon the waiting 
armies and held the country in its frigid grasp. The ground 
was covered with a glare of ice. Horses and men slid and 
sprawled on the slippery surface. It was impossible to move 
an army under such conditions. Still the bombardment of 
messages from the East continued. 

On December 14th, the ice began to melt. That night 
Thomas called a council of his corps commanders and laid 
before them his well-matured j^lans for the morrow's battle. 
Then he telegraphed to Grant that the ice had melted and the 
attack Mould be made in the morning. Had the storm con- 
tinued, the attack must have been postponed and Thomas prob- 
ably would not have been the hero of Nashville. Even as 
it was, Logan Avas hurrying from the East toward that citj^ to 
take conmiand of the army. When he reached Louisville, in 
Kentucky, on the 17th, he heard that the battle was over and 
he came no farther. 

At four on the morning of December 15th, reveille 
sounded through the Union camp of fifty-five thousand sol- 
diers. Two hours later, the men were standing in array of bat- 
tle. The air was soft and even bahiiy. A heavy river-fog hung 
over the lowlands and across the city. In the dense pall, regi- 
ments of soldiers, like phantom warriors, moved across the 
country. 

By nine o'clock the sun had pierced the mist and to the 
observers on the hilltops it was a brilliant spectacle. The battle- 
lines were rapidly forming. With the precision of a well-oiled 
machine, the battalions were moving to their places. Squad- 
rons of cavalry were j^assing along the lowlands to take their 
position in the battle-line. Great guns glinted through em- 
brasures read}^ to vomit forth their missiles of destrviction. 

The plan of the battle of Xashville as formed by Thomas 
was simple — a feint attack on the opposing army's right, the 
striking of a sudden and irresistible blow on his left, followed 
by successive attacks until the Southern army was battered into 

f 266 1 





00 




COPYRIGHT, I9n, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THOMAS ADVANCING HIS OUTER LINE AT NASHVILLE, DECEMBER ICth 

Camp-fires were still smouldering along the side of the abatis where the lens caught the field of Nashville, while Thomas' concentric 
forward movement was in progress. Note the abatis to the right of the picture, the wagons moving and ready to move in the back- 
ground, and the artillery on the left. White tents gleam from the distant hills. A few straggling soldiers remain. The Federals 
are closing with Hood's army a couple of miles to the right of the scene in the picture. 




GUARDING THE LINE DURING THE ADVANCE 




raukltu m\h Nashtiilb 



^ 



^ 



•^ -^ 



\iM-miMMm 



disorganization and routed. About forty-five thousand Fed- 
erals were actually engaged at Xashville. Against them Hood 
mustered some thirty-eight thousand Confederates. 

At eight o'clock, Steedman sent Colonels JNIorgan and 
Grosvenor to demonstrate on the Confederate right. This was 
gallanth' done, in the face of a severe fire, and so closely did 
it resemble a genuine attack that Hood was completely de- 
ceived. At once, he drew troops from his center to strengtlien 
the endangered flank. Then on the Union right, infantrj' 
and dismounted cavalry mo^^ed out against the weakened Con- 
federate left. 

The cooperation of these two arms of the service was al- 
most perfect. Soon, the battle was raging along the entire 
front. The Federal forces were gradually converging. The 
Confederate lines were being crowded from their first position. 
JNIontgomery Hill, the salient point of the Confederate defense, 
was a strong position commanding a view of tlie surrounding 
country. It was here that one of the most daring assaults of 
the daj' was made. At one o'clock. Colonel Post's brigade 
dashed up the hill, direct at the works on the summit. The 
color-bearers forged rapidly ahead. At the top, without a mo- 
ment's hesitation, the troops plunged across the works, captur- 
ing guns and men. 

Still, the flail of war kept pounding at the Confederate 
center. Hour after hour, the Union lines, compact and un- 
yielding, battered the ranks of the Southern troops. As the 
sun set on the evening of that day, the army of Hood fovmd 
itself more than two miles from the place it occupied in the 
morning. 

The new day found the Confederate general still un- 
daunted. During the night he had formed a new line of battle. 
It was shorter, stronger, and more compact than that of the 
preceding day. Works had been thrown up in front, while 
behind rose a range of hills. These were strongly fortified. 
The second position was stronger than the first. 

[268] 





'I. 




PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



NASHVILLE WATCHING THE FIGHT TO A FINISH BETWEEN HOOD AND THOMAS 



When Hood attacked Nashville, early in December, 1804, the Union army, under Thomas, was entrenched in a semi-circle on the 
wooded hills about the city, both flanks resting on the Cumberland River. Hundreds of spectators watched the fighting from the 
other hills. The picture at the top of this page was taken on the heights to the east, on December loth. The view at the bottom 
was looking northwest. The spectators caught by the alert photographer might not have realized the tremendous significance of 
the struggle going on before them, but they could all witness the mathematical precision of Thomas' tactics. The checking of Hood 
at Nashville made Sherman's position secure in the heart of the Confederacy. 




THE BATTLEFIELD FROM THE MILITARY COLLEGE 





i.M 



tankltit mxh Nashtiilb 



i^ 



V 



•^ 



^ 



It was i^ast noon before Thomas was ready to repeat the 
tactics of the preceding day. On the Confederate right was 
Overton's Hill, a strongly fortified position. Colonel Post 
was designated to lead the Federal attack. Supported by a 
brigade of negro troops, the assaulting columns moved up the 
steep ascent. With precision the lines marched toward the crest 
of the hill. All was well mitil the final dash was to be made, 
when a withering fire drove them back to the foot of the hill. 

The extreme Confederate left also rested upon a hill. To 
Colonel JMclNIillen -was given the task of wresting it from the 
possession of the Southern troops. Forming his regiments, — 
the One hundred and fourteenth Illinois, the Ninety-third In- 
diana, the Tenth INIinnesota, the Seventy-second Ohio and the 
Ninety-fifth Ohio — into two lines, he rapidly moved forward. 
The approaching lines of attack were received with a hail of 
musketry, and grape and canister from the Confederate artil- 
leiy. But uuM^averingly the cheering ranks carried the position. 

The success of this charge on the right insi^ired the left, 
and again the attempt to carry Overton's Hill was made, this 
time successfully. These successes of the Union lines became 
contagious. A general forward movement was made along the 
entire front. It was irresistible. No troops could withstand 
such an impact. Hood's splendid and courageous army was 
routed. From thirty-eight thousand men who entered the fight 
it was reduced to a remnant. Flinging aside muskets and 
everj^thing that would impede progress, the army that was to 
revivif}^ the hopes of the failing Confederacy was fleeing in 
utter confusion along the Franklin pike through Brentwood 
Pass. This Confederate Army of Tennessee had had a 
glorious history. It had fought with honor from Donelson and 
Shiloh to Atlanta and Nashville. It had been at Murfrees- 
boro, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and ^lissionary 
Ridge. Now, shattered and demoralized, it was relentlessly 
jiursued beyond the Tennessee River, never again to emerge 
as a fighting army in the SoutliAvest. 



Dec. 
1864 






-4 



-w' 





PART IV 
FROM WAR TO PEACE 



THE SIEGE AND EALL 
OF PETERSBURG 




UNION PICKET NEAR FORT MAHONE, 
THE CONFEDERATE STRONGHOLD 




THE FINISHED PRODUCT 



It is winter-time before Petersburg. Grant's army, after the assault of October 27th, has settled down to the waiting game that can 
have but one result. Look at the veterans in this picture of '64 — not a haggard or hungry face in all this group of a hundred or more. 
Warmly clad, well-fed, in the prime of manly vigor, smiling in confidence that the end is almost now in sight, these are the men who 
hold the thirty-odd miles of Federal trenches that hem in Lee's ragged army. Outdoor life and constant "roughing it" affects men 
variously. There was many a young clerk from the city, slender of limb, lacking in muscle, a man only in the embryo, who finished his 
three or five years' term of service with a constitution of iron and sinews like whip-cords. Strange to say, it was the regiments from 
up-country and the backwoods, lumbermen and farmers, who after a short time in camp began to show most the effect of hardship 





f 


# 






'. 


1 


^^^^^r 






I 


r \ 


Bl ..g 






JgLpag 






^, 


Josm 


^ 


,^fP?>f^^^ 


\-«<«7*w'*'^"' ■' ■■ -■■■"::'■■ ,'. 


^^M 


m 




'iHI ' 


'Mf/^-'" M /£ A 


jr-^:^-.:''';":'^.t|? 


"■'*"«'-%?" 


tf* Tp? 


w »■; 


^^^L^^*-^ 


^w< 


H //v.- 


• ■-»•" - ■ ■ 


ii^ 


' 










> 


1 


• 








^^5 


^ 






. 4 


^^H^^^^^^^^^H 


^^jl 


rH 






%-^' < 










'^^^ 


..---^^ 


• . ' /| 


i/f 


V§ 




^^^ " 


^ 


^ '^^F . ' ^M 


|i 








w^ 


7'"" 






" ' ' ' • 




C"^" 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO, 

UNION VETERANS OF TRENCH AND FIELD BEFORE PETERSBURG— 1864 

and sickness. They had been used to regular hours, meals at certain times, and always the same kind of food — their habits had 
been formed, their sleep had not been interfered with; their stomachs, by which they could tell the time of day, rebelled at being 
obliged to go empty, their systems had to learn new tricks. But the city recruit, if possessed of no physical ailment or chronic 
trouble, seemed to thrive and expand in the open air — he was a healthy exotic that, when transplanted, adapted itself to the new 
soil with surprising vigor — being cheated of his sleep, and forced to put up with the irregularities of camp life was not such a shock 
for him as for the "to bed with the chickens and up with the lark" countryman. This is no assuming of facts — it is the result of 
experience and record. But here are men of city, farm, and backwoods who have become case-hardened to the rugged life. 




PETERSBURG THE BESIEGED CITY 



Tluis we see Petersburg as, 
with a powerful glass, it 
might have been seen from 
the north bank of the Ap- 
pomattox, looking south 
over the ruined town in 
April, 1865. As the rail- 
road center south of Rich- 
mond, it was, at the out- 
break of the war, one of the 
largest cities of ^'irginia. 
It was Grant who first util- 
ized its importance in lead- 
ing up to the capture of the 
capital. Although all mis- 
siles apparently evince a 




selective intelligence, at 
times in any bombardment 
there are naturally objects 
which give range to the 
gunners and become targets 
for their aim. Chimneys 
and smokestacks, and, alas ! 
in some cases, steeples, 
were picked out between 
the sights before the lan- 
yard was pulled. In Peters- 
burg the churches suffered 
least, but buildings such as 
the mill and the gas-house, 
with its 80-foot stack, were 
crumbled into ruins. 



THE RLTXED MILL 




\MIERE THE LIGHT FAILED— GAS WORKS AT PETERSBURG 




COPVRJGHT, 1911. PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



BOLINGBROKE STREET— HISTORIC HOUSES BOMBARDED 



In the houses down this quiet street, Hable at any moment to be pierced by shot, as some of these have been, the women of Peters- 
burg, with all the courage the daughters of the South invariably have shown, went bravely about their self-imposed tasks, denying 
themselves all luxuries and frequently almost the necessities of life, to help feed and take care of the men in the trenches that 
faced the Federal lines. During the siege, from June, 1864, to April, 1865, led by the wives of some of the officers high in com- 
mand, the Petersburg citizens, and the women especially, exhibited high heroism in nursing the wounded and aiding the army. This 
street was named after a distinguished Revolutionary family, whose mansion during the Revolution had been seized and made the 
headquarters of Benedict Arnold. Arnold, after his defection from the Continental cause, had been sent into Virginia to destroy 
the property of prominent Revolutionists. 

[c] 




A BATTERED RELIC OF COLONIAL DAYS IN PETERSBURG 



This beautiful old mansion on Bo- 
lingbroke Street could look back to 
the days of buckles and small 
clothes: it wears an aggrieved and 
surprised look, as if wondering why 
it should have received such buffet- 
ings as its pierced walls, its shattered 
windows and doorway show. Yet 
it was more fortunate than some of 
its near-by neighbors, which were 
never again after the \dsitation of 
the falling shells fit habitations for 
mankind. JIany of these handsome 
residences were utterly destroyed, 
their fixtiu-es shattered beyond re- 
pair; their wainscoting, built when 
the Commonwealth of Virginia was 




COPyRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT F 

THE SHATTERED DOORWAY 



ruled over by the representative of 
King George, was torn from the 
walls and, bursting into flames, made 
a funeral pyre of past comforts and 
magnificence. The havoc wrought 
upon the dwellings of the town was 
heavy; certain localities suffered 
more than others, and those resi- 
dents who seemed to dwell in the 
safest zones hafl been ever ready to 
open their houses to the sick and 
wounded of Lee's army. As Grant's 
troops marched in, many pale faces 
gazed out at them from the win- 
dows, and at the doorsteps stood 
men whose wounds exempted them 
from ever bearing arms again. 



THE DEMOLISHED DINING-ROOM 

OF A 

HANDSOME MANSION 



HAVOC OF BOMBARDMENT 

IN A 

PETERSBURG HOME 




la this room, nearly a hundred years before, the red-coated officers of His Britannic Majesty's troops had gathered at the long 
mahogany table, which, with the glittering sideboards and the old portraits, had furnished the apartment. They were unbidden 
guests and were invaders. It was with enforced courtesy that the lady of the house, whose husband and two sons were wearing 
the blue and buff of the Continental Arm_y, received them. And now, in 1865, this lady's desccndents, the heirs to the old maasioQ, 
have been forced to move by another invasion that brought home to them the stern decrees of war. The two maiden ladies of proud 
lineage had been forced in the early stages of the siege to move their belongings to a safer place. The house had been stripped 
of furnishings; against the noble old walls the Federal guns had knocked for admittance, presenting no billet of lodgment with a 
sweeping bow, but rudely bursting in. After the war was over, its occupants came back; but still, if you should visit them, they 
could point out to you the traces of the siege. 




i 




THE SIEGE AND FALL OF 
PETERSBURG 

It is not inipvobable that Grant niig'ht have made more headway by 
leaving a sufficient part of his armv in tlie trenches in front of l'etersl)urg 
and by moving witli a heavy force far to the west upon Lee's connnunica- 
tions; or, if it were determined to capture the place a inain fortt\ by 
making a massed attack upon some point in the center after suitable min- 
ing operations had weakened Lee's defenses and prepai'ed for such an 
operation. But the end was to come with opening spring. To the fer- 
sighted, this was no longer douljtful. Tlie South nuist succund) to the 
gi'eater material resources of the North, despite its courage and its sacri- 
fices.— Cofo/«7 T. A. Dodge, U.S.A., hi "J Bmr.s-Eye View of Our Civil 
War.'' 

DURING the winter of 1864-65, General Lee, fighting 
Grant withont, was fighting famine within. The shiv- 
ering, half -clad soldiers of tlie Sonth crouclied over feehle fires 
in their entrenchments. The men were exposed to the rain, 
snow, and sleet; sickness and disease soon added their horrors 
to the desolation. The finances of the Government were almost 
gone. The life of the Confederacy was ebbing fast. 

Behind Union breastworks, early in 1865, General Grant 
was making preparations for the opening of a determined cam- 
paign with the coming of spring. INIile after mile had been 
added to his entrenchments, and they now extended to 
Hatcher's Run on the left. The Confederate lines had been 
stretched until they were so thin tliat there was constant danger 
of breaking. A. P. Hill was posted on the right; Gordon and 
Anderson held the center, and Longstreet was on the left. 
Union troops were mobilizing in front of Petersburg. By 
Februarj" 1st, Sherman Avas fairly off from Savannah on his 
northward march to join Grant. He was weak in cavalrj' and 

[2781 






GHT, 101 1. 



APPROACHING THE POST OF D.\XGER— PETEKSBITRG, 1865 




A FEW STEPS NEARER THE PICKET LINE 



COPYRIGHT, i■)^^, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 






^:^?^t 




IN BEHIND THE SHELTER 



COPVRiCHT. 1911, PATRIOT PUS, CO. 



For nine months of '64-'6.5 the musket-balls sang past these Federal picket posts, in advance of Federal Fort Sedgwick, called by the 
Confederates "Fort Hell." Directly opposite was the Confederate Fort Mahone, which the Federals, returning the compliment, had 
dubbed "Fort Damnation." Between the two hues, separated by only fifty yards, sallies and counter-sallies were continual occur- 
rences after dark. In stealthy sorties one side or the other frequently captured the opposing pickets before alarm could be given. 
No night was without its special hazard. During the day the pastime here was sharp-shooting with muskets and rifled cannon. 




w 



l\t §>u^t m\h iFall nt l^tttxBbunj, 



-ij^ -^ -^ 



X 



^ 



-^. 



Grant deterniined to bring Sheridan from tlie Shenandoah, 
whence the bnlk of Early's forces had been withdrawn, and 
send him to assist Sherman. Sheridan left Winchester Febru- 
ary 27th, wreaking much destruction as he advanced, but cir- 
cumstances compelled him to seek a new base at White House. 
On ]March 27th he formed a junction with the armies of the 
Potomac and the James. Such were the happenings that 
l^rompted Lee to prejjare for the evacuation of Petersburg. 
And he might be able, in his rapid marches, to outdistance 
Grant, join his forces with those of Johnston, fall on Sherman, 
destroj' one wing of the Union army and arouse the hopes of 
his soldiers, and prolong the life of his Government. 

General Grant knew the condition of Lee's army and, 
with the unerring instinct of a military leader, surmised what 
the plan of the Southern general nmst be. He decided to 
move on the left, destroy both the Danville and South Side 
railroads, and jDut his army in better condition to pursue. The 
move was ordered for JNIarch 29th. 

General Lee, in order to get Grant to look another way 
for a while, decided to attack Grant's line on the right, and gain 
some of the works. This would compel Grant to draw some of 
his force from his left and secure a waj^ of escape to the west. 
This bold plan was left for execution to the gallant Georgian, 
General John B. Gordon, who had successfully led the 
reverse attack at Cedar Creek, in the Shenandoah, in Oc- 
tober, 186-1. Near the crater stood Fort Stedman. Between 
it and the Confederate front, a distance of about one hundred 
and fifty yards, was a strij^ of firm earth, in full view of both 
picket lines. Across this space some deserters had passed to 
the Union entrenchments. General Ciordon took advantage 
of this fact and accordingly selected his men, who, at the sound 
of the signal gun, should disarm the Federal pickets, while fifty 
more men were to cross the open space quickly with axes and 
cut away the abatis, and three hundred others were to rush 
through the opening, and capture the fort and guns. 

[280] 



]\Iarcli 
1865 







PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



SECURITY FROM SURPRISE 




THE MOLE-HILL RAMPARTS, NEAR THE CRATER 

These well-made protections of sharpened spikes, as formidable as the pointed spears of a Roman legion, are cheraux-dc-Jriae of the 
Confederates before their main works at Petersburg. They were built after European models, the same as emploj'cd in the Napo- 
leonic wars, and were used by both besiegers and besieged along the lines south of the Appomattox. Those shown in this pictiire 
were in front of the entrenchments near Elliott's salient and show how effectually it was protected from any attempt to storm the 
"Works by rushing tactics on the part of the Federal infantry. Not far from here lies the excavation of the Crater. 



\smMmMmm 



\\t Wxt^^t anb Jail of p^t^rsburg 4- 



•fy ^ 



March 
1865 



o\ 



\ 



At four o'clock on the nioniing of JNIarcIi 25, 1865, Gor- 
don had everything in readiness. His chosen band wore white 
strips of cloth across the breast, that they might distinguish 
each other in the hand-to-hand fight that would doubtless 
ensue. Behind these men half of Lee's aruty was massed to 
support the attack. In the silence of the early morning, a gun- 
shot rang out from the Confederate works. Not a Federal 
picket-shot was heard. The axemen rushed across the open 
and soon the thuds of their axes told of the cutting away of 
the abatis. The three hundred surged through the entrance, 
overpowered the gunners, captured batteries to the right and 
to the left, and were in control of the situation. Gordon's corps 
of about five thousand was on hand to sustain the attack bvit 
the remaining reser-\'es, through failure of the guides, did not 
come, and the general found himself cut off with a rapidly in- 
creasing army surrounding him. 

Fort Haskell, on the left, began to throw its shells. Under 
its cover, heavy columns of Federals sent by General Parke, 
now commanding the Ninth Corps, pressed forward. The 
Confederates resisted the charge, and from the captured Fort 
Stedman and the adjoining batteries poured volley after vol- 
ley on Willcox's advancing lines of blue. The Northerners fell 
back, only to re-form and renew the attack. This time they 
secured a footing, and for twenty minutes the fighting was ter- 
rific. Again they were repulsed. Then across the brow of the 
hill swept the command of Hartranft. The blue masses lit- 
erally i^oured onto the field. The furious musketry, and ar- 
tillery directed by General Tidball, shrivelled up the ranks of 
Gordon until they fled from the fort and its neighboring bat- 
teries in the midst of withering fire, and those who did not 
were captured. This was the last aggressive efi'ort of the ex- 
piring Confederacy in front of Petersburg, and it cost three 
thousand men. The Federal loss was not half that number. 

The affair at Fort Stedman did not turn Grant from his 
plans against the Confederate right. With the railroads here 

[ 282 ] 



fj ; 



il\ 



\i\ 



u 



H 



X^\ 




K 



PRAYERS FOR RELIEF AND PRAYERS 
FOR VICTORY 

This church at Petersburg stood near the to- 
bacco warehouses shown in tlie lower picture, 
and here the Federal prisoners confined in the 
old brick building were praying for victory as 
they listened to the boom of cannon and the 
rattle of musketry tln-ough the terrible winter 
of '64 and '65. But every Sunda}-, in this 
church, prayers to the God of Battles for relict 
from the invader were raised in fervent zeal of 
spirit. In all the eamps, and in all the cities of 
the North and South, throughout the war, each 
side, believing firmly in the justice of its cause, 
had regularly and earnestly thus appealed to the 
Almighty for the triumph of its arms. 

In the Southern army in particular, religious 
fervor was liigh. During the pre\ioi.is winter, 
while Lee's troops were encamped on the Rapi- 
dan, revivals had swept nearly every soldier into 
the church. General Gordon says that "not 
only on the Sabbath day, but during the week, 
night after night, for long periods these services 
continued, increasing in attendance and interest 
until they brought under religious influence the 




WHERE PRAYER ROSE FOR THE WANING CAUSE 



;*>«• 




COPVniGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUD. CO. 

WHERE PRISONERS PRAYED FOR LIBERTY 



great body of the army. Along the mountain- 
sides and in the forest, where the Southern camps 
were pitched, the rocks and woods rang with 
appeals for holiness and consecration, with 
praises for past mercies and earnest prayers for 
future protection and deliverance. Thousands 
of these brave followers of Southern banners 
became consistent and devoted soldiers of the 
Cross." And the same officer recalls that during 
the siege of Petersburg, especially after the at- 
tack on Fort Stedman, religious devotion was 
uncooled. "From the commander-in-chief to 
the privates in the ranks, there was a deep and 
sincere religious feeling in Lee's army. When- 
ever it was convenient or practicable, these 
hungry but unyielding men were holding prayer- 
meetings. Their supplications were fervent and 
often inspiring." 

On the memorable 2d of April, in the Rich- 
mond church in which he had been baptized and 
confirmed scarcely three years before. President 
Jefferson Davis received the ominous tidings sent 
by Lee to the capital of the Confederacy that 
both Petersburg and Richmond would have to 
be evacuated before the morning of April 4th. 
There followed a night of terror. 




It? ^'xt^t mxh Jail of f ? t^^rs^ntr9 



4- 4- 



•§• 



[■rmmr/ m ^m 






*v, 



»'/ '*-/ 



destroyed, Richmond would be completely cut oft'. On the 
morning of the 29th, as lireviously arranged, the movement 
began. Sheridan swept to the south with his cavalry, as if he 
were to fall upon the railroads. General Warren, with fifteen 
thousand men, was Morking his way through the tangled woods 
and low swamps in the direction of Lee's right. At the same 
time, Lee stripped his entrenchments at Petersburg as much as 
he dared anil hurried General Anderson, with infantry, and 
Fitzhugh Lee, with cavalry, forward to hold the roads over 
which he hoped to escape. On Friday morning, [March 31st, 
the opjjosing forces, the Confederates much reenforced, found 
themselves at Dinwiddie Covu-t House. The woods and swamps 
prcA^ented the formation of a regidar line of battle. Lee made 
his accustomed flank mo^'ement, Avith heavy loss to the Federals 
as they tried to move in the swampj^ forests. The Northerners 
finally were ready to advance when it was foimd that Lee had 
fallen back. During the day and night, reenforcements were 
coming in from all sides. The Confederates had taken their 
position at Five Forks. 

Early the next afternoon, the 1st of April, Sheridan, re- 
enforced by AVarren, was arranging his troops for battle. The 
day was nearly spent when all was in readiness. The sun was 
not more than two hours high when the Northern army moved 
toward that of the South, defended by a breastwork behind a 
dense undergrowth of pines. Through this mass of timber 
the Federals crept with bayonets fixed. They charged upon 
the Confederates, but, at the same time, a galling fire poured 
into them from the left, spreading dismay and destruction in 
their midst. The intrepid Sheridan urged his black battle- 
charger, the famous Rienzi, now known as Winchester, up and 
down the lines, cheering his men on in the fight. He seemed 
to be everywhere at once. The Confederate left was streaming 
down the White Oak Road. But General Crawford had 
reached a cross-road, bj^ taking a circuitous route, and the 
Southern army was thus shut off from retreat. The Federal 



[Conrhided on parje 394] 







To this gallant young Georgia officer, 
just turned thirty-three at the time, 
Lee entrusted the last desperate effort 
to break through the tightening Fed- 
eral lines, March 25, 1865. Lee was 
confronted by the dilemma of either 
being starved out of Petersburg and 
Richmond, or of getting out himself 
and uniting his array to that of John- 
ston in North Carolina, to crush Sher- 
man before Grant could reach him. 
Gordon was to begin tliis latter, 
almost impossible, task by an attack 
on Fort Stedman, which the Confed- 
erates believed to be the weakest point 
In the Federal fortifications. The 
position had been captured from them 
in the beginning, and they knew that 
the nature of the ground and its near- 
ness to their own lines had made it 
difficult to strengthen it very much. 
It was planned to surprise the fort before 
daylight. Below are seen the rabbit- 
like burrows of Grade's Salient, pa.st 
which Gordon led his famished men. 
WTieu the order came to go forward, 
they did not flinch, but hurled them- 




GENERAL JOHN B 

C. S. A. 



selves bravely against fortifications far stronger than their own. 
Three columns of a hundred picked men each moved down the 
slope shown on the left and advanced in the darkness against 



Stedman. Tliej- were to be followed 
by a division. Thi'ough the gap 
which the storming parties were 
expected to open in the Federal lines, 
Gordon's columns would rush in both 
directions and a cavalry force was to 
sweep on and destroy the pontoon 
bridges across the Appomattox and to 
raid City Point, breaking up the Fed- 
eral base. It was no light task, for 
although Fort Stedman itself was 
weak, it was flanked by Battery No. 
10 on the right and by Battery No. 11 
on the left. An attacking party on the 
right would be exposed to an enfilad- 
ing fire in crossing the plain; while on 
the left the approach was difficult be- 
cause of ra\'incs, one of which the Con- 
federate engineers had turned into a 
pond by damming a creek. All night 
long General Gordon's wife, with the 
brave women of Petersburg, sat up 
tearing strips of white cloth, to be tied 
on the arms of the men in the storming 
parties so that they could tell friend 
from foe in the darkness and confusion 
of the assault. Before the sleep-dazed 
Federals could offer effective resistance, Gordon's men had pos- 
session of the fort and the batteries. Only after one of the sever- 
est engagements of the siege were the Confederates driven back. 



GORDON, 




GRACIE'S SALIENT — AFTER GORDON'S FORLORN HOPE HAD CHARGED 




PRISONERS TO PHIL SHERIDAN 



This group of the five thousand Confederate prisoners captured March 31st is eloquent of the tragedy in progress. Dire was the 
extremity of the Confederate cause in March, 1865. The words of the gallant leader in the last desperate and forlorn hope that 
charged Fort Stcdman, General Gordon, give a pen-picture of the condition of the Southern fighting men: "Starvation, literal starva- 
tion, was doing its deadly work. So depleted and poisoned was the blood of many of Lee's men from insufficient and unsound food 
that a slight wound, which would probably not have been reported at the beginning of the war, would often cause blood-poison, 
gangrene and death, yet the spirits of these brave men seemed to rise as their condition grew more desperate." But not only was 
it physical ailments and consequent inability to fight their best which brought about the downfall, it was numbers, the overwhelming 
numbers that were opposed against them. In an interview with General Gordon, Lee laid before him his reports, which showed how 
completely he understood the situation. Of his own fifty thousand men but thirty-five thousand were fit for duty. Lee's estimate 




FILL RATIONS AT LAST 



of the forces of Grant was between one hundred and forty thousand and one hundred and fifty thousand. Coming up from Knox- 
ville was Schofield with an estimated force of thirty thousand superb troops. From the valley Grant was bringing up nearly twenty 
thousand more, against whom, as Lee expressed it, he "could oppose scarcely a vidette." Sherman was approaching from North 
Carolina, and his force when united with Scofield's would reach eighty thousand. It was impossible, and yet it was after this, that 
Gordon made his charge. South of Hatcher's Run, at the very westernmost part of the Confederate entrenchments, Sheridan fell 
upon the Confederate flank. It was a complete victory. With General Merritt and General Griffin sweeping in, the cavalry charged 
the works and five thousand Confederates were taken prisoners, besides those killed and wounded. The Federal loss was less than 
seven hundred. This was the last day of March. Lined up here we see some of these captured thousands about to receive their 
first square meal in many months. 




OPYRtGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUS. CO. 



APRIL SECOND— WHERE LEE WATCHED 



From this mound General Lee watched the final Federal attack begin near Hatcher's Run on the morning of April 2, 18G5. It was 
a serious party of officers that gathered in this battery on the inner line of Confederate fortifications before Petersburg. On the 
preceding days at Hatcher's Run, and again at Five Forks, Lee had attempted to break through the besiegers, but the efforts were 
futile, and no sooner had they ceased than the Federal army began to gather itself for the last grapple. All night of April 1st, till 
four in the morning, the Federal artillery had kept up a terrific bombardment along the whole line, and at daybreak Lee saw the 
Sixth Coqis advancing to the assault. As they broke through the Confederate lines and wheeled to attack Fort Gregg, Lee called 
his staft' about him, telling them to witness a mosl gallant defense. A moment later they saw the Stars and Stripes unfurled over the 
parapet. The depleted and worn-out Confederates had spent themselves to the last gasp. Xot even Lee's veterans could fight 
starvation and overwhelming numbers at once. "This is a sad business!" were Lee's words as he turned to his staff. Couriers 
were bringing in reports of disasters all along his lines, and he gave the orders necessary for the holding of such of the interior defenses 
as would enable the Army of Northern Mrginia to abandon Petersburg and Richmond. 



APRIL SECOND— "THIS IS A SAD BUSINESS" 

As his general watched, this boy fouglit to stem the Federal rush— but fell, his breast pierced by a bayonet, in the trenches of Fort 
Mahone. It is heart-rending to look at a picture such as this; it is sad to think of it and to write about it. Here is a boy of 
only fourteen years, his face innocent of a razor, his feet unsliod and stockingless in the bitter Ai)ril weather. It is to be hoped 
that the man who slew him has forgotten it, for this face would haunt him surely. Many who fought in the blue ranks were young, 
but in the South there were whole companies made up of such boys as this. At the battle of Newmarket the scholars of the Vir- 
gina Military Institute, the eldest seventeen and the youngest twelve, marched from the classrooms under arras, joineil the forces 
of General Breckinridge, and aided by their historic charge to gain a brilliant victory over the Federal General Sigel. The never- 
give-in spirit was implanted in the youth of the Confederacy, as well as in the hearts of the grizzled veterans. Lee had inspired 
them, but in addition to this inspiration, as General Gordon wTites, "every man of them was supported by their extraordinary con- 
secration, resulting from the con^•iction that he was fighting in the defense of home and the rights of his State. Hence their unfal- 
tering faith in the justice of the cause, their fortitude in the extremest privations, their readiness to stand shoeless and shivering in 
the trenches at night and to face any danger at their leader's call." 




COPYRIGHT, 19'1, PATHIOT PUB. CO, 




■ 4 i^' 



*,',■ 



* ' ^ mC t ""i — j . 
















I -ii 






-a 
s 



■H rH 



s --c 



^ be ^ 





dj 


'^ 


cfi 












1> 










^ 


h 










^ 


a 




:^, 


K 




rJd 


C3 
(3 


O 


OJ 






4_, 


c 


"3 


'A- 






^ 


u 


rf 




.J> 


a 


o 


^ 

rt 


OJ 


H 






^ 


H 


a 


C3 


o 


M 


-ii! 






W 








t-^ 










0^ 


-rl 


'hr 


Q 




t- 


3 


H 


m 


^ 


^ 






cd 


rJ3 


H 


'— ' 




+J 


CfJ 








Ph 








hH 


^ 


<^ 




l^ 






P 


a 


T3 


o 

0) 


1 


H 


rt 


3 


S 










W 


C 






o 


rt 


C3 


-j3 


a 


r^ 


^ 


^ 


-rr] 


jj 


-n 




s 


o 


a-. 


p: 


o 




a 


.y 

« 


\^ 


rt 


-M 


a 


H 


c= 


o 


'J5 


<d 


_a 


^ 


a 



-H O fe 



IS 



■e *^ a 



3 

o 






a; 




4) 

-a 


•^ 






o 


*o 


cS 


■)-• 


w 


p: 


n 


a 


n 


o 












-d 


^ 


y 


S 


-o 


•y 


o 


c 




w 



-'*'^. 










PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



FRESH AMMUNITION IN THE PATH OF THE CHARGE 



A veritalnle battle-photograph, in the fresh path of the charge within the Confederate works that had so long held the Federals back. 
This picture was taken Aery shortly after the rattle of their muskets had rung the knell of Petersburg. Beyond the parapet are the 
Federal lines and the intervening plain over which the men came at the double-quick that morning. Some regiment has halted here 
to replenish its ammunition. Boxes of cartridges have been hurried up and impatiently broken open. There was no time for the 
eager men to fill pouches and belts. Grabbing handfuls of the cartridges, they have thrust them into their pockets or the breasts 
of their jackets. Then, leaving many of the boxes but half emptied, they pressed on, loading as they ran. The picture is an eloquent 
l)it of still life; even the belts and cartridge-pouches cast away in impatience tell of the hurry and heat of battle. 



It was the grand old Sixth Corps that crowned 
its splendid record on April 2d in the last great 
charge of the war upon an entrenched position. 
Silently the troops had been brought out on the 
night of the 1st and placed in position just in 
the rear of their own picket line. The dark- 
ness hid the intended movement even from the 
watchful eyes of the Confederate pickets. Or- 
ders for the strictest silence had been imposed 
upon each man. But suddenly the pickets 
broke out firing, and it was only with great ex- 
ertions that the officers quieted the Federal 
outposts. The men in the columns had main- 
tained their positions without a sound — not a 
shot fired, not a word uttered. At half-past 
four in the early morning a signal gun from 
Fort Fisher boomed and flashed through the 
early light. Rushing forward, breaking the Con- 
federate line of outposts, down streamed the 
blue masses upon the main line of the defenses. 
Into their faces the men in gray poured deadly 
volleys from behind the earthworks and fines of 
spiked abatis. The latter were rolled aside, 
carried by main force and tossed into the 
ditches. General Wright, in command of this 




COPYRIGHT, 



RiOT pue. CO, 



ABATIS AND DEFENDER IN THE DITCH 




body of men, knew from the shouts even before 
he saw the flag upon the breastworks that the 
wedge had been driven home. Leaving behind 
their own dead and wounded lying mingled with 
the bodies of the brave defenders, without wait- 
ing for orders, men from each division of the 
Sixth Corps pressed ahead, broke up the South 
Side Railroad and cut the telegraph wires. When 
the officers had at length calmed the ardor of 
their troops and re-formed the lines, a large part 
of the corps wheeled to the left and dashed along 
the Confederate entrenchments, soon overcame 
all resistance and swept victoriously forward as 
far as Hatcher's Run, capturing artillery and a 
large number of prisoners. There they were 
again re-formed, marched back to the original 
point of attack, and thence pushed forward in 
conjunction with the Twenty-fourth Corps to 
complete the investment of Petersburg. In this 
advance some Confederate batteries, very dash- 
ingly handled, inflicted considerable loss until 
they were driven behind the inner lines of en- 
trenchment, when the Union troops were halted 
with their left resting on the Appomattox. Peters- 
burg had fallen. The end was only a week away. 



PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



AFTER THE LAST GREAT CHARGE 



I|? Bxe^t anb iFall of f^t^rshurg -^ -^ ^ 



April 
1865 



. Jk^^^^SBSSE: 



r 






cavalry had dismounted and was doing its full share of work. 
The Confederates soon found themselves trapped, and the part 
of their army in action that day was nearly annihilated. About 
five thousand prisoners were taken. 

With night came the ne^s of the crushing blow to Lee. 
General Grant was seated by his camp-fire surrounded by his 
staff, when a courier dashed into his presence with the message 
of victory. Soon from every great gun along the Union line 
belched forth the sheets of flame. The earth shook witli the 
awful cannonade. JNIortar shells made huge parabolas through 
the air. The Union batteries crept closer and closer to the 
Confederate lines and the balls crashed into the streets of the 
doomed city. The bombardment of Petersburg was on. 

At dawn of the 2nd of April the grand assault began. 
TJie Federal troops S2)rang forward with a rush. Despite the 
storms of grape and canister, the Sixth Corps plunged through 
the battery smoke, and across the walls, pushing the bra\'e de- 
fenders to the inner works. The whole corps penetrated the 
lines and swept everything before it toward Hatcher's Run. 
Some of the troops even reached the South Side Railroad, 
where the brave General A. P. Hill fell mortally wounded. 

Everywhere, the blue masses poured into the works. Gen- 
eral Ord, on tlie right of the Sixth Corps, hel])ed to shut the 
Confederate right into the city. General Parke, with the Ninth 
Corps, carried the main line. The thin gray line could no 
longer stem the tide that was engulfing it. The Confederate 
troops south of Hatcher's Run fled to the west, and fought 
General JNIiles until General Sheridan and a division from 
JNIeade aj^peared on the scene. By noon the Federals held 
the line of the outer works from Fort Gregg to the Aj)- 
pomattox. The last stronghold carried was Fort Gregg, at 
which the men of Gibbon's corps had one of the most desperate 
struggles of the war. The Confederates now fell back to the 
inner fortifications and the siege of Petersburg came to an end. 



■ 29-t 1 





PART IV 
FROM WAR TO PEACE 



APPOMATTOX 






IN THE WAKE OF LEE'S RETREAT 



THE RUINS OF RAILROAD 



BRIDGE AT PETERSBURG 



APRIL, 1865 




PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



The scene that met the eyes of the Union cavalry on April 3d. The ashes of a bridge, locomotive, train 
and all, as they had fallen the day before on the gravelly shore of the Appotomax. When the lines south- 
east and west of the city were captured on April 2d, Lee had seen that retreat was the only resource left. 
His haggard but undaunted veterans began this final movement at eight o'clock in the evening, passing 
to the north side of the Appomattox by the pontoon, Pocahontas and "railroad" bridges. These were 
given to the flames immediately after crossing, in order to hinder the pursuit. Though there were in the 
fields of Mississippi and Alabama supplies enough to feed Lee's army for a whole year, the means of trans- 
portation was so poor that all through the winter they had suffered from hunger. Now the only avenue 
of supply that had remained in their control was seized by the LTnion armies. The possibility of joining 
with Johnston's forces, or of making a la.st stand where the pursuer should put himself at a disadvantage, 
was the hope which sustained the famished heroes in gray as they left behind them the burning bridge. 



'^*-*^^?v?*». ft. 



^ v~ 




COPYRIGHT. 



TR10T PUS. O 



THE CAPITAL OF THE CONFEDERACY FALLEN 



Tlio ruins of the armory in the foreground, the pillars of the Petersburg and Richmond Railroad bridge across the James, a few houses 
in Manchester beyond the stream — this picture of desolation revi\-es the scenes of wild commotion in Richrnond on the 2d and 3d 
of April, 1865. On the 2d. a quiet Sunday, Jefferson Davis, at morning service in St. Paul's Church, received a despatch from Gen- 
eral Lee, announcing the imminent fall of Petersburg and the necessity of retreating that night. Mr. Davis left his seat calmly; but 
by half-past eleven a strange agitation began to appear in the streets, and by noon the worst was known. A hubbub of excitement, 
the rumbling of trains and rattling of wagons filled the afternoon. I!y .sunset bands of ruffians made their appearance on the prin- 




THE DESERT AND THE WASTE PLACES IN RICHMOND, APRIL, 1865 



cipal streets. That night was full of the pandemonium of flight. Orders for the burning of the arsenals and all public buildings 
were issued before the officers of government left the city. To prevent drunkenness the alcoholic liquor was emptied into the gut- 
ters. The explosion of the magazines threw high into the air burning fragments which fell upon the adjacent buildings in Richmond 
and even across the river in Manchester. The hundreds of blazing piles lighted up the river with the brightness of day as it rushed 
sparkling beneath the high-arched bridges past the flaming cities. At early dawn, amid the roar of the explosions and of the falling 
buildings, the clatter of Union cavalry was heard in the streets. The capital of the Confederacy had fallen. 




miiiimiiiwA 



^1 



^^M,„,t^b^ 



APPOMATTOX 

I now come to what I liavc always regarded — shall ever regard — as 
the most creditable episode in all American history — an episode without 
a blemish, imposing, dignified, simple, heroic. I refer to Appomattox. 
Two men met tiiat day, representatiye of American ciyilization, the whole 
world looking on. The two were Grant and Lee — types each. Both 
rose, and rose unconsciously, to the full height of the occasion — and than 
that occasion there has been none greater. About it, and them, there 
was no theatrical display, no self-consciousness, no effort at effect. A 
great crisis was to lie met ; and they met that crisis as great countrymen 
should. Consider the possil)ilities ; think for a moment of what that day 
might haye been; you will then see cause to thank God for much. — 
General Charles Fraiuis Adams, i^.S. V., in Phi Beta Kajipa Addrcsn de- 
livered at the Uuiver.sitj/ (yf Chicago, June 17, 1902. 

WE are now to witness the closing scene of one of the 
greatest tragedies ever enacted on the world's stage. 
INIany and varied had been the scenes during the war ; the actors 
and their parts had been real. The wounds of the South were 
bleeding ; the North was awaiting the decisive blow. Thousands 
of homes were ruined. Fortunes, great and small, had melted 
away by the hundreds of millions. In Richmond, the citadel of 
the waning Confederacy, the people were starving. The 
Southern army, half clad and without food, was but a shadow 
of its once proud self. Bravely and long the men in gray 
had followed their adored leader. Now the limit of endurance 
had been reached. 

It was the second day of April, 1865. Lee realized that 
after Petersburg his beloved Richmond must fall. The order 
was given for the movement to begin at eight o'clock that 
night. The darkness of the early morning of the 3d was 
suddenly transformed into a lurid liglit o\ ercasting the heavens 

f 300 1 



.^ 



y^X 





PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



TWELVE HOURS AfTER, AT THE PETERSBURG COURTHOUSE 



The night of April 2d was a tense one for the Federal troops in the trenches. The brigade of Colonel Ralph Ely was to charge 
at four o'clock in the morning, but at half-past two he learned that only the Confederate picket-lines remained. His command 
was formed for attack and advanced quickly across the opposing works. It then re-formed and pushed into the town, arriving at 
the courthouse shortly after four o'clock. At 4.28 a.m. the flag of the First Michigan Sharpshooters was floating from the stafl^. 
Major Lounsberry, in command of the detachment, was met in front of the courthouse by three citizens with a flag of truce, who 
surrendered the town in the name of the mayor and common council. The committee were assured of the safety of private prop- 
erty, and, according to the report of the mayor, so long as the brigade was in the city "the conduct of both officers and men was 
such as to reflect [honor] on our cause and cast a luster of glory over the profession of arms. " This is one of the series of photo- 
graphs taken April 3d by the enterprising artist with the Federal army; and the clock-face in the courthouse tower shows that the 
picture was made at ten minutes of four that afternoon. 




ppnmatt0x anJb H?? b ^itrr^nb^r ^ ^ ^ 



aaM^MBMrn 



for miles around the famous city whose name had become a 
household word over the civilized world. Richmond was in 
flames! The capital of the ConfederacJ^ the pride of the South, 
toward which the Armj^ of the Potomac had fought its way, 
leaving a trail of blood for four wearj' years, had at last suc- 
cumbed to the ovenvbelming power of Grant's indomitable 
armies. 

President Davis had received a despatch while attending 
services at St. Paul's church, Sundaj^ morning, the 2d, advis- 
ing him that the city must be evacuated that night, and, leaving 
the church at once, he hastened the preparations for flight with 
his personal papers and the archives of the Confederate Gov- 
ernment. During that Sabbath day and night Richmond was 
in a state of riot. There had been an unwarranted feeling of 
security in the city, and the unwelcome news, spreading like 
an electric flash, was paralyzing and disastrous in its effect. 
Pi'isoners were released from their toils, a lawless mob overran 
the thoroughfares, and civic government was nullified. One 
explosion after another, on the morning of the 3d, rent the 



air with deafening roar. 



as the magazines took fire. 



The scene 



was one of terror and grandeur. 

The flames spread to the citj^ from the ships, bridges, and 
arsenal, which had been set on fire, and hundreds of buildings, 
including the best residential section of the capital of the Con- 
federacj', M-ere destroyed. 

When the Union army entered the city in the morning, 
thousands of the inhabitants, men, women, and children, were 
gathered at street corners and in the j^arks, in wildest confu- 
sion. The commissary depot had been broken open hy the 
starving mob, and rifled of its contents, until the place was 
reached by the spreading flames. The Federal soldiers stacked 
arms, and heroically battled with the fire, drafting into the 
work all able-bodied men found in the city. The invaders ex- 
tinguished the flames, and soon restored the city to a state of 
order and safety. The invalid wife of General Lee, who was 

[302] 



April 
1865 





COPVRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



IN PETERSBURG— AFTER NINE MONTHS OF BATTERING 



This fine mansion on Bolingbroke Street, the residential section of Petersburg, has now, on the .'ill of April, fallen into the hands of 
straggling Union soldiers. Its windows have long since been shattered by shells from distant Federal mortars; one has even burst 
through the wall. But it was not till the night of April 2d, when the retreat of the Confederate forces started, that the citizens be- 
gan to leave their homes. At 9 o'clock in the morning General Grant, surrounded by his staff, rode quietly into the city. The streets 
were deserted. At length they arrived at a comfortable home standing back in a yard. There he dismounted and sat for a while on 
the piazza. Soon a group of curious citizens gathered on the sidewalk to gaze at the commander of the Yankee armies. But the 
Union troops did not remain long in the deserted homes. Sheridan was already in pursuit south of the Appomattox, and Grant, after 
a short conference with Lincoln, rode to the west in the rear of the hastily marching troops. Bolingbroke Street and Petersburg soon 
returned to the ordinary occupations of peace in an effort to repair the ravages of the historic nine months' siege. 



asMMSMSm 



ppnmattox auii H?^ b ^urr^u&^r ^ ^ ^ 






exposed to danger, was furnished with an ambulance and cor- 
poral's guard until the danger was past. 

President Lincoln, who had visited Grant at Petersburg, 
entered Richmond on the 4th of April. He visited President 
Davis' house, and Libbj- Prison, then deserted, and held a con- 
ference with prominent citizens and army officers of the Con- 
federacy. The President seemed deeply concerned and 
M'eighted down with the realization of the great responsibilities 
that M'ould fall upon him after the war. Only ten days later 
the nation Mas shaken from ocean to ocean by the tragic news 
of his assassination. 

General Lee had started on his last march by eight o'clock 
on the night of the 2d. By midnight the evacuation of both 
Petersburg and Richmond was completed. For nine months 
the invincible forces of Lee had kept a foe of more than twice 
their numerical strength from invading their stronghold, and 
only after a long and harassing siege were thej^ forced to re- 
treat. They saw the burning citj^ as their line of march was 
illuminated by the conflagration, and emotions too deep for 
words overcame them. The woods and fields, in their fresh, 
bright colors of spring, were in sharp contrast to the travel- 
worn, weather-beaten, ragged veterans passing over the verdant 
plain. Lee hastened the march of his troops to Amelia Court 
House, where he had ordered supplies, but by mistake the train 
of supplies had been sent on to Richmond. This was a crushing 
blow to the hungry men, who had been stimulated on their 
tiresome march by the anticipation of much-needed food. The 
fatality of war was now hovering over them like a huge black 
specter. 

General Grant did not proceed to Richmond, but leaving 
General Weitzel to invest the city, he hastened in pursuit of 
Lee to intercept the retreating army. This pursuit was started 
early on the 3d. On the evening of that date there was some 
firing between the pursuing army and Lee's rear guard. It 
was Lee's design to concentrate his force at Amelia Court 

[304 



April 
1865 






J9H| 






1 


H 


R 




6- ', ■ji,"' 






■-**$i^ 


- ■ . , ,,,^- -.^B^* "■■,„..■ 


*• ■" ■'^jia!'*^* 




l!»^ 


.f-'-^i' 








> 


■■■'.■. 

)i 1. : • 


H 


"~ '-^^" ■" -■■%-■' 




V ^ 


-..:I„^'i^-.---:^:^^i^;-:-:J 





SUPPORTING THE PURSUIT OF LEES ARMY 
A Federal wagon-train moves out of Petersburg to feed the troops pursuing Lee, in those early April days of '65. The Army of Northern 
Virginia has taken no supply trains on its hurried departure from Petersburg and Richmond. It depends on forage. Within the ne.xt 
week Grant's troops are to be brought almost to a like pass. If the surrender had not come when it did, the pursuit would have been 
brought to a stop for the time being by lack of subsistence. The South Side Railroad, which crossed Indian Town Creek on the trestle 
shown in the smaller picture, was the only railroad line in the possession of the Confederates at the end of the siege of Petersburg. 
It was their only avenue of supplies, but Sheridan's victory at Five Forks made it possible to cut the line. Lee was thus compelled 
to evacuate both Richmond and Petersburg. The bridge is to the west of Petersburg on the main line of the railroad. 




THE LAST RAILROAD INTO PETERSBURG 




r 



4. P 







pp0matt0x au^ IC?? s f>wrrnt&^r ^ ^ ^ 



House, but this was not to be accomplished by the night of the 
•ith. Not until the 5th was the whole army up, and then it 
was discovered that no adequate supplies were within less than 
fifty miles. Subsistence could be obtained only by foraging 
parties. No word of complaint from the suffering men reached 
their commander, and on the evening of that disappointing day 
they patiently and silently began the sad march anew. Their 
course was through vmfavorable territory and necessarily slow. 
The Federals were gaining upon their retreating columns. 
Sheridan's cavalry had reached their flank, and on the 6th there 
was heavy skirmishing. In the afternoon the Federals had ar- 
rived in force sufficient to bring on an engagement with Ewell's 
corps in the rear, at Sailor's Creek, a tributary of the Appomat- 
tox River. Ewell was surromided by the Federals and the 
entire corps captured. General Anderson, commanding the 
divisions of Pickett and Johnson, was attacked and fought 
bravely, losing many men. In all about six thousand Confed- 
erate soldiers were left in the hands of the pursuing armj^ 

On the night of the 6th, the remainder of the Confederate 
armj' continued the retreat and arrived at Farmville, where 
the men received two days' rations, the first food except raw or 
parched corn that had been given them for two days. Again 
the tedious journey was resumed, in the hope of breaking 
through the rapidly-enmeshing net and fonning a junction 
M'ith Johnston at Danville, or of gaining the protected region 
of the mountains near Lynchburg. But the j^i'ogress of the 
weak and weary marchers was slow and the Federal cavalry 
had swept around to Lee's front, and a halt was necessary to 
check the pursuing Federals. On the evening of the 8th, Lee 
reached Appomattox Covn-t House. Here ended the last 
march of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

General Lee and his officers held a council of war on the 
night of the 8th and it was decided to make an effort to cut their 
waj" through the Union lines on the morning of the next day. 
On the 7tli while at Farmville, on the south side of the 

[ 300 ] 



April 
1865 



J. 








COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATFilOT PUB. CO. 



WAITING TO PRESS THE ADVANTAGE 

This is a scene near the railroad station on April 3, ISGj. Muskets of the Federal troops are staeked in the foreground. Evidences 
of the long bombardment appear in the picture. The foot-bridge shown in the smaller picture is at the point where the old river road 
crossed the run west of Old Town Creek. In the distance can be seen the trestle of the South Side Railroad. This bridge shook under 
the hurrying feet of Meade's heavy advancing column, as the pursuit of Lee was pressed. 




ON THE LINE OF PURSUIT 



[c] 



tesMMMSSm 



'% 



A 



A 



'.' -r-^x 



^/ 



^pnmattnx nxxh ^£ttB Bnmxihn ^ 



<^ •^i- 



Appomattox River. Grant sent to Lee a courteous request for 
the surrender of the Army of Northern ^^irginia, based on the 
liopelessness of fiu'ther resistance on the jiart of that army. 
In re2)ly, Lee expressed sympathy with Grant's desire to avoid 
useless effusion of blood and asked the terms of surrender. 

The next morning General Grant replied to Lee, urging 
that a meeting be designated by Lee, and specif j^ing the terms 
of surrender, to which Lee replied promptly, rejecting those 
terms, which were, that the Confederates lay down their arms, 
and the men and officers be disqualified for taking up arms 
against the Government of the United States until properly 
exchanged. When Grant read Lee's letter he shook his head 
in disai^pointment and said, " It looks as if Lee still means 
to fight; I will reply in the morning." 

On the 9th Grant addressed another communication to 
Ivce, repeating the terms of surrender, and closed by saying, 
" The terms upon whicli peace can be had are well understood. 
By the South laying down their arms they will hasten that 
most desirable event, save thousands of human lives, and hun- 
dreds of millions of property not yet destroyed. Sincerely 
ho])ing that all our difficulties may be settled without the loss of 
another life, I subscribe myself, etc." 

There remained for Lee the bare possibility, by desperate 
fighting, of breaking through the Federal lines in his rear. To 
Crordon's corps was assigned the task of advancing on Sheri- 
dan's strongly supported front. Since Pickett's charge at Get- 
tysburg there had been no more hopeless movement in the 
annals of the war. It was not merely that Gordon was over- 
\vhelmingty outnumbered by the opposing forces, but his hun- 
ger-enfeebled soldiers, even if successful in the first onslaught, 
could count on no effective support, for Longstreet's corps was 
in even worse condition than his own. Nevertheless, on tlie 
morning of Sunday, the 9th, the attempt was made. Gordon 
was fighting his corps, as he said, " to a frazzle," when Lee 
came at last to a realizing sense of the futility of it all and 




April 
1865 




7// 





■^:^v. 





PATRIOT PUB. CO. 



THE FRESHET THAT DELAYED GRANTS PURSUIT 

The roads leading west from Petersburg crossed and recrossed the Appomattox and its tributaries. The spring floods impeded, though 
they did not actually check. Grant's impetuous pursuit of Lee. By the time Lee had reached Amelia Court House (April 5th). Grant's 
van was at .Jetersville. Lee halted to bring up provisions; as he said in his official report, the ensuing delay proved fatal to his plans. 
The provisions that he expected to find at Amelia Court House were captured by the Federals. 




THE FLOODED APPOMATTOX 



^ 



}j;iflmattox mxh ^£ttB ^ux*r^uli^r ^ -^ ^ 



'^V/ 



t^\ 



ordered a truce. A meeting with Grant was soon arranged 
on the basis of the letters ah'eady exchanged. The conference 
of the two world-famous commanders took place at Appomat- 
tox, a small settlement with only one street, but to be made 
liistoric by this meeting. I^ee was awaiting Grant's arrival at 
the house of Wilmer ]McLean. It was here, surrounded bj^ 
staff-officers, that the terms were written by Grant for the final 
surrender of the xVrmy of Northern Virginia. The terms, and 
their accejitance, were embodied in the following letters, writ- 
ten and signed in the famous " brick house " on that memorable 
Sunday : 

Appomattox Couut Hoi'se, A'irginia, 
April 9, 1865. 
General: In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of 
the 8th instant, I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of 
Northern A'irginia on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers 
and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer to 
be designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers 
as YOU may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not 
to take up arms against the Government of the United States until 
properly exchanged ; and each company or regimental commander to 
sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery, 
and public property to bo parked and stacked, and turned over to the 
officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the 
side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This 
done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to 
be disturbed by the United States authority so long as they observe 
their paroles and tlie laws in force where they may reside. 

U. S. Grant, Lieuicnant-General. 
General R. E. Lee. 

Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, 
April 9, 186.5. 
General: I have received your letter of this date containing the 
terms of the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia as proposed 
by you. As they are substantially the same as those expressed in your 

[3101 



Api'il 
1865 



k^^^SSsfc 




THE LANDMARK OF THE CONFEDERATES' LAST STAND 



-.<r 



The Union army, after the fall of Petersburg, followed the streaming Confederates, retreating westward, and came upon a part of 
Gordon's troops near High Bridge over the Appomattox, where the South Side Railroad crosses the river on piers 60 feet high. Han- 
cock's (Second) Corps arrived on the south bank just after the Confederates had blown up the redoubt that formed the bridge head, 
and set fire to the bridge itself. The bridge was saved with the loss of four spans at the north end, by Colonel Livermore, whose party 
put out the fire while Confederate skirmishers were fighting under their feet. A wagon bridge beside it was saved by the men of Bar- 
low's division. Mahone's division of the Confederate army was drawn up on a hill, north of the river behind redoubtS; but wheE 
Union troops appeared in force the Confederates again retreated westward along the river. 



tMm^^^l ^..m^ 




1 


■:s ^^-^ ' tM 


^y^ 




23j 


^RBAIV^^F 




■yfy- _ 




WKv^K^- 


_, , 1 


V^^^Btm^iaik 


■H 






m- 





HIGH BRIDGE 







I 



C-i^ 



W '^_ ;5 



>le 



ppnmattnx m\^ H?^ b ^urr?ub?r 



•^ -i^ 



4- 



letter of tlie 8tli instant, tliey are accepted. I will proceed to designate 
the proper officers to carry the stipulation into effect. 

R. E. Lek, General. 
Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant. 

When Federal officer.s were seen galloping toward the 
Union lines from Apjiomattox Court House it was quicklj^ 
surmised that Lee had surrendered. Cheer after cheer was sent 
up by the long lines throughout their entire length; ca])s and 
tattered colors were waved in the air. Officers and men alike 
joined in the enthusiastic outburst. It was glad tidings, 
indeed, to these men, who had fought and hoped and suffered 
tlirougli the long bloody years. 

When Cirant returned to his headquarters and heard 
salutes being fired he ordered it stopped at once, saying, " The 
war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again; and the best 
sign of rejoicing after the victory will be to abstain from all 
demonstration in the field." 

Details of the surrender were arranged on the next day 
by staff-officers of the resjjective armies. The jjarole officers 
were instructed by General Grant to permit the Confederate 
soldiers to retain their own horses — a concession that was most 
^\'elcome to many of the men, who had with them animals 
brought from the home farm early in the war. 

There were only twenty-eight thousand men to be paroled, 
and of these fewer than one-third were actually bearing arms 
on the day of the surrender. The Confederate losses of the last 
ten days of fighting probably exceeded ten thousand. 

The Confederate supplies had been captured by Sheridan, 
and Lee's army was almost at the point of starvation. An 
order from Grant caused the rations of the Federal soldiers 
to be shared witli the " Johnnies," and the victorious " Yanks " 
were onlj^ too glad to tender such hospitality as was within 
their power. These acts of kindness were slight in themselves, 
but they helped immeasurably to restore good feeling and to 

[312] 








■-V-— I-Si 




APPOMATTOX STATION— LEES LAST ATTEMPT TO PROVISION HIS RETREATING ARMY 

At this railroad point, three miles from the Court House, a Confederate provision train arrived on the morning of April 8th. The sup- 
plies were being loaded into wagons and ambulances by a detail of about four thousand men, many of them unarmed, when suddenly 
a body of Federal cavalry charged upon them, having reached the spot by a by-road leading from the Red House. After a few shots 
the Confederates fled in confusion. The cavalry drove them on in the direction of Appomattox Court House, capturing many prison- 
ers, twenty-five pieces of artillery, a hospital train, and a large park of wagons. This was Lee's last effort to obtain food for his army. 




COPYRIGHT, 1911, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO 

FEDERAL SOLDIERS WHO PERFORMED ONE OF THE LAST DUTIES AT APPOMATTOX 

A detail of the Twenty-sixth Michigan handed out paroles to the surrendered Confederates. 



12; 
o 



Q 
Q 

Q 
2; 



■^ g -a 



a, 
p. 
< 



ca •*-' . .i! 



S fS 



C3 


?? 


o 

■♦J 


>i 


.?. 


S 


■5 


>= 


T3 








r 




O 


be 


^ 


a 


C/) 


H 





o 


fl." 


« 


nt 






j3 


ca 


CJ 


o 


^ 


■'-' 


e- 


fi 



-Q 3 











^ 


o 




a" 


4-1 




.5 
'a 


o 


j3 
1 


1 
a 


bn 


w 


01 




o 


^g 




a 


*r^ 


hJ 


a 



j3 -a 



5 



n 



o< "3, 



^ j^ -~ r: 0. -c3 



CI 


r> 


tH 


Q^ 


O-J 




V} 


c 




O 




c. 


_o 


J3 


a 


rt 



a 5 



o 



-o 



-g 
'3 
ft 



= .t: a -a 



a 

T3 



ja 



■S s . =S 



- o ° 

-o a .2 
-a 

a 






£ ^ 



O 'V 



-13 



qj ^ r- 



H •£ 



j3 




O 






l-l 






m 



a '' j5 



.a bo 



Z. a 
.2 'o 



a £ 



fl 



ffl o. -3 

-^ a ^^ ^ 

13 hH .5 pt( 



S 5 " r-^ 
a — s ^ 






ca .„ 

a. ^ 



a -" 
a =- 



-5 a 2 :a 
o « "^ -a 
"ITI M «3 a 



JS ^ o i 5 



^ -a 



3 ^ 



^ a '^ 



-0 

- -^ 3 .a S 
-S 2 a = 









s^^^«.^=s^'^I 








a 


4; 


1 







-^ 







i>.^ 


_a 







^ 


d 


.ti 


--J 




1^ 


bo 
3 


4^ 



'■^ 






w p 

a s 



o 



■a g J << 



-a o. 
be a 



-a a =: '2 ~ 



-« a s 



■4-1 .M 



'Y' 



^ 



iSBMMMMm 



jjpnmattox an^ '€,tt\ ^mxtx^n ^ 



•A. 



^ 







associate for all time witli Appomattox the memory of reunion 
rather than of strife. The things that were done there can 
never be the cause of shame to any American. The noble and 
dignified bearing of the commanders was an example to their 
armies and to the world that quickly had its effect in the gen- 
uine reconciliation that followed. 

The scene between Lee and his devoted army was jjro- 
foundly touching. General Long in his " JNIemoirs of Lee " 
says : " It is impossible to describe the anguish of the troops 
when it was known that the surrender of the army was inevita- 
ble. Of all their trials, this was the greatest and hardest to 
endure." As Lee rode along the lines of the tried and faithful 
men wlio had been with him at the Wilderness, at Spotsyl- 
vania, and at Cold Harbor, it ^vas not strange that those 
ragged, weather-beaten heroes were mo^'ed by deep emotion 
and that tears streamed down their bronzed and scarred faces. 
Their general in broken accents admonished them to go to their 
homes and ])e as brave citizens as they had been soldiers. 

Thus ended the greatest civil war in history, for soon after 
the fall of the Confederate capital and the surrender of Lee's 
army, there followed in quick succession the surrender of all 
the remaining Southern forces. 

While these stirring events were taking place in Virginia, 
Sherman, who had swept up through the Carolinas witli the 
same dramatic brilliancy that marked his march to the sea, ac- 
complishing most effecti^'e work against Johnston, was at 
Goldsboro. When Johnston learned of the fall of Rich- 
mond and Lee's surrender he knew the end had come and 
he soon arranged for the surrender of his army on the terms 
agreed upon at Appomattox. In the first week of JNIay 
General " Dick " Taylor surrendered his command near INIo- 
bile. and on the 10th of the same month, President Jefferson 
Davis, who had been for nearly six w^eeks a fugitive, was over- 
taken and made a prisoner near Irwinsville, Georgia. The 
Southern Confederacy was a thing of the past. 

[3101 





PART V 



ENGAGEMENTS OF 
THE CIVIL WAR 

MAY 1864— MAY 1865 




THE END 

RUINS OF THE RICHMOND ARSENAL, 

APRIL 1865 



ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR 

WITH LOSSES ON BOTH SIDES 
May, 186-4— June, 18G5 



CHRONOLOGICxVL sunimaiy and record of historical events, and of 
important engagements between the Union and the Confederate 
armies, in the Civil AVar in the United States, showing troops participating, 
losses and casualties, collated and compiled by George L. Kilmer from the 
official records of the Union and Confederate armies filed in the United 
States War Department. JNIinor engagements are omitted; also some con- 
cerning wJiich statistics, especially Confederate, are not available. 



MAY, 1864. 

1 to 8. — Hudnot's Plantation, and near Al- 
exandria, La. Union, Lee's Ca\'. Divi- i 
sion of Gen. Banks' army; Confed., 
Troops of Gen. Richard Taylor's com- 
mand. Losses : Union, 33 killed, 87 
wounded; Confed., 25 killed, 100 
wounded. 

4 to 31. — Yazoo City expedition, including 

Benton and Vaughan, ^liss. Union, 
nth, 72d, and 76th 111., 5th 111. Cav., 
3d U. S. Colored Cav., 7th Ohio Bat- 
tery; Confed., Troops of Gen. Jos. E. 
Johnston's command. Losses: Union, 5 
killed, 20 wounded. 

5 to 17. — Kautz's Cavalry Raid from Suf- 

folk to City Point, Va. Union, 5th and 
nth Pa. Cav., 3d N. Y. Cav., 1st D. C. 
Cav., 1 section 4th Wis. Battery; Con- 
fed., Holcombe Legion, detachment 59th 
Va. and Home Guards. Losses: Union, 
l-i killed, 60 wounded, 27 missing; Con- 
fed., 180 (about) wounded and cap- S 
tured. 
5. — Roanoke River, N. C. Union, gunboats, 
Ceres, Commodore Hull, Mattabesett, 
Sassacus, Seijmour, JVi/alitsing, jMiama, 
and IVhitehead ; Confed., iron-clad ram 
Albemarle. Losses: Union, 5 killed, 26 
wounded; Confed., 57 captured. 
— Dunn's Bayou, Red River, La. Union, 
56th Ohio, gunboats Signal, Covington, 
and transport Warner; Confed., Gen. 
Richard Taj'lor's command on shore. 

* No record 



Losses: Union, 35 killed, 65 wounded, 
150 missing; Confed.* 

to 7. — Wilderness, Va. Union, Forces com- 
manded by Gen. U. S. Grant; Army of 
the Potomac, Maj.-Gen. George G. 
Meade; Second Corps, Maj.-Gen. Han- 
cock; Fifth Corps, ]\Iaj.-Gen. Warren; 
Sixth Corps, Maj.-Gen. Sedgwick; Cav- 
alry Corps, Maj.-Gen. Sheridan; and 
Ninth Corps, Maj.-Gen. Burnside. Con- 
fed., Army of Northern Virginia, Gen. 
R. E. Lee; First Corps, Lieut.-Gen. 
Longstreet ; Second Corps, Lieut.-Gen. 
Ewell ; Third Corps, Lieut.-Gen. A. 
P. Hill; Cavalry Corps, Maj.-Gen. Stu- 
art. Losses: Union, 2216 killed, 12,137 
wounded, 3383 missing; Confed. (esti- 
mate) 2000 killed, 6000 wounded, 3400 
missing; Union, Brig.-Gens. Wadsworth 
and Hays killed; Confed. Gens. Jones 
and Jenkins killed, and Stafford, Long- 
street, and Pegram wounded. 

to 9. — Rocky Face Ridge, Ga., including 
Tunnel Hill, Mill Creek Gap, and Buz- 
zard's Roost. Union, Military Division 
of the jMississippi, commanded by Gen. 
W. T. Sherman : Army of the Cum- 
berland, Maj.-Gen. Thomas; Army of 
the Tennessee, Maj.-Gen. McPherson; 
Army of the Ohio, ]Maj.-Gen. John M. 
Schofield, Elliott's and Stoneman's Cav- 
alry; Confed., Army of Tennessee, Gen. 
J. E. Johnston, commanding; Hardee's 
Corps, Hood's Corps, Wheeler's Cavalry. 

found. 



[318 




FORT MORGAN FALLEN AFTER A STUBBORN DEFENSE 

Among the decisive events of 1864 was the L'nion victory of Mobile Bay, August 23d. These smoke-blackened walls of the citadel, 
F'ort Morgan, its shattered face, are silent witnesses to the stubborn nature of the defense, and the folds of the American flag in the 
distance proclaim the success of Farragut's attack. Gradually the Confederacy was being hemmed in and its resources exhausted. 
The bay fight itself took place on the morning of August 5th. The success of Admiral Farragut at New Orleans in the previous year 
had made him eager to close the remaining great gulf port to the blockade runners. After several months of effort he secured the 
necessary cooperation of a land force, and of four monitors to deal with the powerful Confederate ram Tenncsxee. The naval oper- 
ations were entirely successful, but Fort Morgan had received hardly a scratch, and the commander sturdily refused to surrender. 
A constant bombardment of two weeks was necessary to reduce it, during which the \N-oodwork caught fire and tlireatened to set off 
the great powder magazines. It was only when defense was obviously futile tliat General Page raised the white flag of surrender. 



lEurjagrmntta of tl]^ (Hiutl War 



Losses: Union, '200 killed, 637 wounded; 
Confed., 600 killed and wounded. 

6. — James River, near Cit_v Point, Va. 
Union, gunboat Commodore Jones; 
Confed., Torpedo operators on shore. 
Losses: Union, 53 killed, -18 wounded 12 
and gunboat destroyed. 

C and 7. — Richmond and Petersburg Rail- 
road, near Chester Station, Va. Union, 
Portion of Tenth and Eighteenth 
Corps; Confed., Hagood's Brigade. 
Losses: Union, 48 killed, 256 wounded; 
Confed., 50 killed, 200 wounded. 

7. — Baj^ou La Mourie, La. Union, Portion 12 
of Sixteenth Corps ; Confed., Gen. Tay- 
lor's command. Losses: Union, 10 
killed, 31 wounded. 13 

8. — Todd's Tavern, Va. Union, Sheridan's 
Cav. ; Confed., Stuart's Cav. Losses: 
Union, 4-0 killed, 150 wounded; Confed., 
30 killed, 150 wounded. 

8 to 18. — Spotsjflvania, Fredericksburg Road, 

Laurel Hill, and Xy. River, Va. Union, 
Army of the Potomac, ^Laj .-Gen. Meade; 
Confed., Army of Northern Virginia, 
Gen. R. E. Lee. Losses: Union, 2725 
killed, 13,-ll6 wounded, 2258 missing; 
Confed., 1000 killed, 5000 wounded, 
3000 missing; Union, Maj.-Gen. Sedg- 
wick and Brig.-Gens. Rice and Steven- 15.- 
son killed; Confed. Gens. Daniel and 
Perrin killed; INIaj.-Gen. Ed. Johnson 
and Brig.-Gen. Steuart captured. 
9. — Varnell's Station, Ga. Union, First Div. 
McCook's Cav.; Confed., Wheeler's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 4 killed, 25 wounded, 18.- 
100 captured. 

9 and 10. — Swift Creek or Arrowfield Church, 

Va. Union, Tenth and Eighteenth 
Corps, Army of the James ; Confed., 
Gen. Beauregard's command. Losses: 
Union, 90 killed, 400 wounded; Confed., 
500 killed, wounded, and missing. 
— Cloyd's ^Mountain and New River 
Bridge, Va. Union, 12th, 23d, 34th, 
and 36th Ohio, 9th, 11th, 14th, and 
15th W. Va., 3d and 4th Pa. Reserves; 19 
Confed., Gen. A. G. Jenkins' command. 
Losses: Lnion, 108 killed, 508 wounded; 
Confed., 600 killed and wounded, 300 
missing. 20.- 

9 to 25. — Sheridan's Cavalry Raid in \\r- 
ginia, including engagements at Beaver 
Dam Station. Soiith Anna Bridge, Ash- 
land, and Yellow Tavern. Union, Sheri- 
dan's Cav. ; Confed., Stuart's Cav. 

[ ?.10 1 



Losses: Union, 50 killed, 174 wounded, 
200 missing; Coh/V(/., killed and wounded 
not recorded, 100 captured; Confed., 
!Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart and Brig.- 
(ien. Jas. B. Gordon killed. 

to 16. — Fort Darling, Drewry's Bluff, 
Yn.. Union, Army of the James, Gen. 
B. F. Butler, commanding; Tenth Corps; 
Eighteenth Corps; Confed., Gen. Beau- 
regard's command. Losses : Union, 390 
killed, 2380 wounded, 1390 missing; 
Confed., 400 killed, 2000 wounded, 100 
missing. 

to 17. — Kautz's Raid on Petersburg and 
Lynchburg Railroad, Va. Union, 6 
killed, 28 wounded. 

to 16. — Resaca, Ga. Union, Fourth, 
Fourteenth, Twentieth, and Cavalry 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland, Maj.- 
Gen. Thomas; Fifteenth and Sixteenth 
Corps, Army of the Tennessee, jNIaj.- 
Geri. McPherson, and Twenty-third 
Corps, Army of the Ohio, !Maj.-Gen. 
Schofield; Confed., Army of Tennessee, 
Gen. J. E. Johnston, commanding; 
Army of Mississippi, Lieut. -Gen. Leon- 
idas Polk. Losses: Union, 600 killed, 
2147 wounded; Confed., 300 killed, 1500 
wounded, 1000 missing. 

— Xew Market, Va. Union, Maj.-Gen. 
Sigel's command; Confed., Gen. J. C. 
Breckinridge's command. Losses: 
Union, 93 killed, 482 wounded, 256 
missing; Confed., 42 killed, 522 
wounded. 

—Rome and Kingston, Ga. Union, Sec- 
ond Division of Fourteenth Corps and 
Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland. Con- 
fed., Gen. Johnston's command. Losses: 
Union, 16 killed, 59 wounded. 
— Bayou De Glaize or Calhoun Station, 
La. Union, Portions of Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth Corps, and Cavalry of Nineteenth 
Corps; Coji/erf., Gen. Taj'lor's command. 
Losses: Union, 60 killed, 300 wounded; 
Confed., 500 killed and wounded. 

to 22. — Cassville, Ga. Union, Twentieth 
Corps, Maj.-Gen. Hooker; Confed., Gen. 
Johnston's command. Losses: Union, 10 
killed, 46 wounded. 

—Bermuda Hundred, Va. Union, Tenth 
and Eighteenth Corps, Army of the 
James ; Confed., Gen. Beauregard's com- 
mand. Losses: Union, 702 killed and 
wounded. Confed., (estimate) 700 killed, 
wounded, and missing. 



While the navy was per- 
fecting the blockade along 
the coast, General Grant at 
Petersburg was trjang to 
get across Lee's entrench- 
ments. In the fall a par- 
tially successful attempt 
was made on the lines be- 
tween Petersburg and Rich- 
mond. On the night of 
September 28th-29th, the 
Tenth Army Corps under 
General D. B. Birney, and 
the Eighteenth Army Corps 
under General Ord, crossed 
the James near this place, 
drove back the Confederate 
skirmishers, and by half- 
past seven in the morning 
advanced three miles north 
through the dense woods to 
Fort Harrison. Stannard's 
division then came upon 
open ground before a strong 
line of earthworks mounting 




heavy guns, and protected 
bj' a battery on the crest of 
a hill. The troops charged 
fourteen hundred yards 
across a deeply plowed field 
in the face of a galling fire 
of artillerj' and musketry. 
After a pause at the foot of 
a hill, the head of the col- 
umn carried the parapet of 
the fort and planted the 
flag on one of its massive 
traverses. In an attempt 
to drive the Confederates 
entirely from the position 
General Ord was severely 
wounded. On September 
30th the Confederate Gen- 
eral R. H. Anderson, com- 
manding Longstreet's Corps, 
attacked the captured fort, 
making three separate 
charges, but was repulsed 
with a loss of some two 
thousand men. 



^YHERE ORD CROSSED THE JAIIES 




PALISADES AND PARAPET .\T PORT HARRISOX 



lEttga^^mmts nf tl;? (Uml War 



33 to 28. — Xortli Anna River, Jericho Ford 
or Taylor's Bridge, and Totopotomoj' 
Creek, Va. Union, Second, Fifth, and 
Ninth Corps, Army of the Potomac, 
I\Iaj.-Gen. Aleade; Confed., Arm^^ of 
Northern Virginia, Gen. R. E. Fee. 
Losses: Union, 18(j killed, 9-i2 wound- 
ed, 165 missing; Confed., :2000 killed 
and wounded. 

24.— Wilson's \Miarf, Va. Union, 10th U. S. 
Colored, 1st D. C. Cav., Battery B U. S. 
Colored Artil. ; Confed., Fitzlmgh Lee's 
Cav. Losses: Union, 2 killed, 21 
wounded; Confed., 20 killed, 100 
wounded. 

25to June 4.— Dallas, Ga., also called New 
Hope Church and Allatoona Hills. 
Union, Fourth, Fourteenth, Twcntietli, 
and Cavalry Corps, Array of the Cum- 
berland, Maj .-Gen. Thomas ; Twenty- 
third Corps, Maj. -Gen. Schofield; Fif- 
teenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth 
Corps, Army of the Tennessee, Maj.- 
Gen. ]\IcPherson — Division of the !Mis- 
sissippi, Maj .-Gen. Sherman; Confed., 
Army of Tennessee, Gen. J. E. John- 
ston, commanding. Losses: Union, 
2100 killed, wounded, and missing; 
Confed., 369 killed, 1921 wounded. 

36 to 29.— Decatur and Moulton, Ala. 
Union, 1st, 3d, and 4th Ohio Cav., Sec- 
ond Cavalry Division ; Confed., Eod- 
dey's Cav. Losses : Union, 48 killed 
and wounded; Confed., 60 killed and 
woimded. 

27 and 28. — Hanovertown, Hawes' Shop, and 
Salem Church, Va. First and Second 
Divisions, Cavalry Corps, Maj .-Gen. 
Sheridan ; Confed., detachments of Lee's 
Army. Losses: Union, 25 killed, 119 
wounded, 200 missing; Confed., 475 
killed, wounded, and missing. 

30. — Hanover and Ashland, Va. Union, Wil- 
son's Cavalry; Confed., Young's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 26 killed, 130 wounded. 
— Old Church, Va. Union, Torbert's 
Cavalry; Confed., Cavalry of the Army 
of Northern Virginia. Losses: Union, 
16 killed, 71 wounded. 

JUNE, 1864. 

1 to 13. — Cold Harbor, Va., including 
Gaines' ^lill, Salem Churcli. and Hawes' 
Sliop. Union, Second, Fifth, Sixth, 
Nintli. and Eighteenth Corps and Sheri- 



dan's Cavalry ; Confed., Army of Nortli- 
ern Virginia, reinforced by the fresh di- 
visions of Breckinridge, Pickett, and 
Hoke. Losses: Union, 1844 killed, 9077 
wounded, I8I6 missing; Confed., 1200 
killed and wounded, 500 missing. 

2. — Bermuda Hundred, Va. Union, Tenth 
Corps; Confed., Gen. Beauregard's com- 
mand. Losses: Union, 25 killed, 100 
wounded ; Confed., 1 00 killed and 
wounded. 

4. — Panther Gap, W. Va. Union, Ha_yes's 
Brigade of Second Division, Armv of 
AVest Virginia ; Confed., Gen. Breckin- 
ridge's command. Losses: Union, 25 
killed and wounded; Confed., 25 killed 
and wounded. 

5. — Piedmont, W. Va. Union, portion of 
Army of West Virginia, commanded by 
Maj .-Gen. Hunter; Confed., Gen. 
Vaughn's Cav. Losses: Union, 130 
killed, 650 wounded; Confed., 460 
killed, 1450 wounded, IO6O missing. 
Confed. Gen. W. E. Jones killed. 

6. — Old River Lake or Lake Chicot, Ark. 
Union, Sixteenth Corps; Confed., Mar- 
maduke's Cav. Losses : Union, 40 killed, 
70 wounded; Confed., 100 killed and 
wounded. 

9. — Mt. Sterling, Ky. Union, Burbridge's 
Cav ; Confed., Morgan's Cav. Losses : 
Union, 35 killed, 150 wounded; Confed., 
50 killed, 200 wounded, 250 captured. 

9 to 30. — Kenesaw Mountain, jNLarietta or Big 
Shanty, Ga., including general assault 
on the 27th, Pine Mt., Golgotha, Gulp's 
House, and Powder Springs. Union, 
Fourth, Fourteenth, and Twentieth 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland, Maj.- 
Gen. Tliomas; Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and 
Seventeenth Corps, Army of the Ten- 
nessee, Maj. Gen. McPherson; Twenty- 
third Corps, ]\Laj.-Gen. Schofield. Di- 
vision of the Mississippi, Maj. -Gen. W. 
T. Sherman; Confed., Army of Tennes- 
see — Gen. J. E. Johnston, commanding. 
Losses: Union, 1370 killed, 6500 
womided, 800 missing; Confed., 468 
killed, 3480 wounded, missing not re- 
corded. Union, Brig.-Gen. Harker killed 
and Col. D. McCook mortally wounded; 
Confed., Lieut. -Gen. Polk killed. 
10. — Petersburg, Va. Union, portion of 
Tenth Corps and Kautz's Cav.; Confed., 
Gen. R. E. Colston's command. Losses: 
Union, 20 killed, 67 wounded. , . 



[?,ii] 



THE OPPOSING 

LINES 

NEAR RICHMOND 



This picture represents the 
main bomb-proof at Fort 
Brady. After the capture 
of Fort Harrison the Union 
authorities strengthened 
that position by construct- 
ing a hne of fortifications 
southward to the James. 
Fort Brady was at the 
southern end. conunanding 
the river. The bomb-proof 
was built of heavy cross 
timbers, covered with fif- 
teen feet of solid earth, and 
its entrances were at such 
an angle as to be safe from 
anv cross-fire. The lower 










.^^S^S^Si^iV^i 



picture shows similar pre- 
cautions of the Confed- 
erates. Though Fort Har- 
rison was lost, Fort Gilmer, 
a little farther north, was 
held, and a line of entrench- 
ments was strengthened 
from the rear of Harrison to 
the James. This j)articu- 
lar picture shows a ditch 
twenty-sc\'on feet deep dug 
to present the running of 
mines from the adjacent 
Federal lines. The man in 
shirt sleeves standing in the 
dilch is General Peter S. 
Michic. acting Chief En- 
gineer for the I'nion armies 
about Petersbm-g. He had 
directed the con,struction of 
Fort Brady, and is now, in 
.\pril. 1865. investigating 
the ( 'onfederate engineering 
operations. 



A WELI^PROTECTED MAGAZINE. FORT BRAD'i' 




lOT Pua. CO. 



THE 27-FOOT DITCH AT FORT GILMER, GUARD AGAINST FEDERAL MINES 



iEugag^m^utfi af tl]^ Qltutl War 



— Brice's Cross Roads, near Guntown, 
Miss. Union, 81st, 95th, 108th, ll.'ith, 
llith, and 120tU 111., 72d and i)5th 
Ohio, 9th Minn., 93d Ind., 55th and 
59th U. S. Colored, Brig.-Gen. Grier- 
son's Cavalry, the -ith :\Io., 2d N. J., 
19th Pa., 7th and 9th 111., 7th Ind., 3d 
and -1th Iowa, and lOtli Kan. Cav., 1st 
111. and 6th Ind. Batteries, Battery F 
2d U. S. Colored Artil; Confed., For- 
rest's Cav. Losses: Union, 223 killed, 
39 i wounded, 1623 missing; Confed., 
96 killed, 396 wounded. 
— Cj^nthiana and Kellar's Bridge, Ky. 
Union, 168th and 171st Ohio; Confed., 
^lorgan's Cav. Losses: Union, 21 
killed, 71 wounded, 980 captured; Con- 
fed.* 

10 and 11. — Lexington, W. Va. Union, Sec- 

ond Division Army of West Virginia ; 
Confed., ^IcCausland's Cav. Losses: 
Union, 6 killed, 18 wounded. 

11 and 13. — Cynthiana, Ky. Union, Bur- 

bridge's Cav. ; Confed., Morgan's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 150 killed and wounded; 
Confed., 300 killed and wounded, -100 
captured. 

— Trevilian Station, Va. Union, Sheri- 
dan's Cav.; Confed., Gen. Wade Hamp- 
ton's Cav. Losses: Union, 102 killed, 
470 wounded, 435 missing; Confed. (in- 
complete) 59 killed, 258 wounded, 295 
missing. 

13. — White Oak Swamp Bridge, Va. Union, 
Wilson's and Crawford's Cav. ; Confed., 
detachments of the Army of Northern 
Virginia. Losses : Union, 50 killed, 250 
wounded. 

14. — Lexington, ]\Io. Union, Detachment 1st 
]Mo. Cav. Losses: Union, 8 killed, 1 
wounded. 

15. — Samaria Church, Malvern Hill, Va. 
Union, Wilson's Cav.; Confed., Hamp- 
ton's Cav. Losses: Union, 25 killed, 3 
wounded; Confed., 100 killed and 
wounded. 

15 to 19. — Petersburg, Va., commencement of 
the siege that continued to its fall 
(April 2, 1865). Union, Tenth and 
Eighteenth Corps, Army of the James, 
Ma j .-Gen. B. F. Butler"; Second, Fifth, 
Sixth, and Ninth Corps, Army of the 
Potomac, Maj.-Gen. Geo. G. Meade; 
Confed., Gen. Beauregard's command, 
reenforced bv two divisions of Lee's 



army on June 18th. Losses: Union, 
1688 killed, 8513 wounded, 1185 miss- 
ing; Confed. (estimate), 5000 killed, 
wounded, and missing. 

16. — Otter Creek, near Liberty, Va. Union, 
Hunter's command in advance of the 
Army of West Virginia ; Confed., Mc- 
Causland's Cav. Losses: Union, 3 killed, 
1 5 wounded. 

17 and 18.— Lynchburg, Va. Union, Sulli- 
van's and Crook's divisions and Aver- 
ell's and Duffie's Ca^-., Army of West 
Virginia ; Confed., Gen. Jubal Early's 
command. Losses: Union, 100 killed, 
500 wounded, 100 missing; Confed., 
200 killed and wounded. 

19. — Destruction of the Confed. cruiser Ala- 
hama, off Cherbourg, France, by U. S. 
cruiser Kearsarge. Losses: Union, 3 
wounded; Confed., 9 killed, 21 wounded, 
10 drowned, and 70 captured. 

31. — Salem, Va. Union, Averell's Cav.; Con- 
fed., Gen. McCausland's Cav. Losses: 
Union, 6 killed, 10 wounded; Confed., 
10 killed and wounded. 

33 and 33.— Wcldon Railroad, Williams' 
Farm or Jerusalem Plank Road, Va. 
Union, Second and Sixth Corps and 
First Division of Fifth Corps, Army of 
the Potomac; Confed., Gen. A. P. Hill's 
Corps. Losses: Union, 1-12 killed, 654 
wounded, 2166 missing; Confed.* 

33 to 30.— In front of Petersburg, Va. 
Union, Fifth, Ninth, Tenth, and Eigh- 
teenth Corps ; Confed., Army of North- 
ern Virginia. Losses: Union, 112 killed, 
506 wounded, 800 missing. 
— Wilson's Raid on the M^eldon Rail- 
road, Va. Union, Kautz's and Wil- 
son's Cav. ; Confed., Gen. W^. H. F. 
Lee's Cav. Losses: Union, 71 killed, 
262 wounded, 1119 missing; Confed., 
365 killed and wounded. 

33 and 34. — Jones's Bridge and Samaria 
Church, Va. Union, Torbert's and 
Gregg's Cavalry Divisions ; Confed., 
Hampton's Cav. Losses: Union, 54 
killed, 235 wounded, 300 missing; Con- 
fed., 250 killed and wounded. 

35 to 39.— Clarendon, St. Charles River, 
Ark. Union, 126th 111. and 11th Mo., 
9th Iowa and 3d IMich. Cav., Battery D 
2d Mo. Artil.; Confed., Gen. Price's 
command. Losses: Union, 1 killed, I6 
wounded ; Co?!/erf., 30 killed and wounded. 

* No record found. 



324 







THE LAST PORT CLOSED 



COPYRIGHT, 



Fort Fisher, captured January 15, 1865. With the capture of Fort Fisher, Wilmington, the great importing depot of the South, on 
which General Lee said the subsistence of his army depended, was finally closed to all blockade runners. The Federal navy con- 
centrated against the fortifications of this port the most powerful naval force ever assembled up to that time — fifty-five ships of war, 
including five ironclads, altogether carrying six hundred guns. The upper picture shows the nature of the palisade, nine feet high, 
over which some two thousand marines attempted to pass; the lower shows interior of the works after the destructive bombardment. 




INSIDE FORT FISHER— WORK OF THE UNION FLEET 



PATHIOT PUB. CO. 



iEugag^m^utB at tl)^ Ctutl Har 



JULY, 18C4. 

1 to 31. — In front of Petersburg-, including 

Deep Bottom, New Market, and Mal- 
vern Hill, on the '27th, and Federal mine 
explosion on the .'SOth under a Confed- 
erate fort. Union, Second, l-'ifth. Ninth, 
Tenth, and Eighteenth Corps; Confed., 
Arm^' of Northern Virginia. Losses: 
Union, 85.'] killed, ^-168 wounded, 1558 
missing; Confed.* 

2 to 5. — Nickajack Creek or Smyrna, Ga. 

Union, troops under command of Maj.- 
Gen. Sherman; Confed., Cien. John- 
ston's command. Losses: Union, 60 
killed, 310 wounded; Confed., 100 
killed and wounded. 

3 to 10. — Expedition from A'icksburg to 

Jackson, Miss. Union, First Division, 
Seventeenth Corps; Ctr.ifcd., Gen. ^^'irt 
Adam's command. Losses: Union, '220 
killed, wounded, and missing; Confed.* 
3. — I'ort Johnson, James Island, S. C. 
Union, Troops of De])artment of the 
South; Confed., Gen. ^^'. B. Taliaferro's 
command. Losses: Union, 19 killed, 97 
wounded, 135 missing; Confed.* 

4 to 7. — Bolivar and Maryland Heights, Va. 

Union, Maj.-Gen. Sigel's Reserve Di- 
vision; Confed., Gen. Jubal Early's 
command. Losses: Ionian, 20 killed, 80 
wounded. 

5 to 7. — John's Island, S. C. Union, Maj.- 

Gen. Foster's troops; Confed., Gen. W. 
B. Taliaferro's command. Losses : 
Union, Ifi killed, 82 wounded; Confed., 
33 killed. 92 wounded. 

5 to 18. — Smith's Expedition, La Grange, 

Tenn., to Tupelo, Miss. Union, First 
and Third Divisions Sixteenth Corps, 
one brigade L^. S. Colored Troops and 
Gricrson's Cav. ; Confed., Forrest's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 85 killed, 567 wounded; 
Confed., 210 killed. 1019 wounded, 119 
missing. 

6 to 10. — Chattahoochee River, Ga. Union, 

Army of the Ohio, Maj.-Gen. Schofield ; 
Armv of the Tennessee, Maj.-Gen. Mc- 
Pherson ; Army of tlie Cumberland, 
]Maj.-Gen. Thomas — Division of the ]\Iis- 
sissi)ipi. ^laj.-Gen. ^V. T. Sherman; 
Confed., Gen. J. E. Johnston's com- 
mand. Losses: Union, 80 killed, 150 
wounded, 200 missing. 



7. — Solomon's Gaj) and Middlctown, Md. 
Union, 8th 111. Cav., Potomac Home 
Brigade, and Alexander's Baltimore 
Battery; Confed., Gen. Early's com- 
mand. I,osses: Union, 5 killed, 20 
wounded. 
9. — Monoeaev, Md. Union, First and Sec- 
ond Brigades of Third Division, Sixth 
Corps, and detachment of Eighth Corps ; 
Confed., Gordon's, Breckinridge's and 
Rodes' divisions under Gen. Jubal Early. 
Losses: Union, QS killed, 591 wounded, 
1188 missing; Confed.* 

11 to 33. — Rousseau's raid in Alabama and 
Georgia, including Ten Islands and 
Stone's Ferry, Ala., and Auburn and 
Chewa Station, Ga. Union, 8th Ind., 
5th Iowa, 9tli Ohio, 2d Ky., and ith 
Tenn. Cav., Battery E 1st Mich. Artil. ; 
Confed., Troops of Gen. J. E. .John- 
ston's command. Losses: Union, 3 
killed, 30 wounded; Confed., 95 killed 
and wounded. 

13. — ]''ort Stevens, AVasliington, D.C. Union, 
Part of Nineteenth Corps, First and Sec- 
ond Divisions Sixth Corps, Marines, 
Home Guards, citizens, and convales- 
cents; Confed., Gen. Early's counnand. 
Losses: Union, 280 killed and 3\() 
wounded; Confed.* 

17 and 18. — Snicker's Gap and Island Ford, 
Va. Union, Army of West Virginia, 
Maj.-Gen. Crook and portion of Sixth 
Corps; Confed., Gen. Early's command. 
I>osses: Union, ,30 killed, 181 wounded, 
100 missing. 



Union, Duffle's Cav.; 
Union, 121 killed and 



18. — Ashby's Gap, Va. 

Confed.* Losses: 

wounded. 
19 and 30. — Darksville, Stevenson's Depot, 

and Winchester, Va. Union, Averell's 

Cav. ; Confed., Cavalry of Gen. Early's 



command. Losses: Union, ,38 killed, 
175 wounded, 300 captured; Confed., 
300 killed and wounded, 300 captured. 

30. — Peach Tree Creek, Ga. Union, Fourth, 
Fourteenth, and Twentieth Corps, Maj.- 
Gen. Geo. H. Thomas; Confed., Gen. 
J. B. Hood's army. Losses (estimates) : 
L'nion, 300 killed, 1110 wounded; Con- 
fed., 1113 killed, 2500 wounded, 1183 
missing. 

22. — Atlanta, Ga. (Hood's first sortie.) 
Union, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seven- 
teenth Corps, Maj.-Gen. McPherson ; 

No record found. 



[320 1 




, REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



THE REFIGE OF THE DEFENDERS 



When the wounded leaders (Lamb and Whiting) in command of F^ort Fisher saw il wis impossible to hold out much longer, they were 
removed on stretchers along the sea-coast to Battery Buchanan, pictured at the bottom of the page. The spent musket-balls from 
the stubborn battle still raging in the fort fell like hailstones around the party. The garrison itself soon retreated to Buchanan, where 
two miles of level sand separated them from the FVderal troops, now in full possession of the fort. But the}' were defenseless, for 
the guns in Buchanan had been spiked, and no means of escape was at hand. Consequently, when the Federal General J. C. Abbot 
arrived in the night with two regiments. Colonel Lamb surrendered to him and his superior. General A. H. Terry, the works, with the 
force of a thousand men and some sixty officers. Thougli the Federal army captured Fort Fisher, the cooperation of the fleet was 
necessary to success. During the two days of almost ceaseless bombardment a tliousand tons of shot and shell were poured upon the 
defenses, wrecking nearly every gun and wcjunding or killing those of the garrison who dared to man the pieces. 




Engagements nf t\}t Oltutl liar 



Confed., Gen. J. B. Hood's command. 
'Losses -.Union, 500 killed, 2111 wounded, 
1000 missing; Confed., S-ISS killed, 4000 
wounded, 2017 missing. Union, Gen. 
jNlcPherson killed. 

23 and 24. — Kernstown and Winchester, Va. 
Union, Portion of Army of West Vir- 
ginia; Confed., Gen. Early's command. 
Losses: Union, 1200 killed and wounded; 
Confed., 600 killed and wounded. 

26. — Wallace's Ferry, Ark. Union, 15th 111. 
Cav., (jOtli and 56th U. S. Colored 
Troops, Co. E 2d U. S. Colored Artil.; 
Confed., Gen. Price's command. Losses: 
Union, 16 killed, 32 wounded; Confed., 
150 wounded. 

26 to 31. — Stonenian's raid to ]Macon, Ga. 
Union, Stonenian's and Garrard's Cav.; 
Confed., Cavalry of Gen. Hood's army, 
local garrisons and Home Guards. 
Losses: Union, 100 killed and wounded, 
900 missing; Confed.* 
— AlcCook's raid to Lovejoy's Station, 
Ga. Union, 1st Wis., 5tli and 8th 
Iowa, 2d and 8th Ind., 1st and 4th 
Tenn., and Itli Ky. Cav. ; Confed., de- 
tachments of Gen. Hood's command. 
Losses: Union, 100 killed and wounded, 
500 missing. 

27. — JMazzard Prairie, Fort Smith, Ark. 
Union, 6tli Kan. Cav.; Confed., Gen. 
Price's command. Losses: Union, 12 
killed, 17 wounded, 152 captured; Con- 
fed., 12 killed, 20 wounded. 

28. — Atlanta, Ga. (Second sortie; at Ezra 
Church.) Union, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, 
and Seventeenth Corps, Maj.-Gen. How- 
ard ; Confed., Gen. Hood's command. 
Losses: Union, 100 killed, 600 wounded; 
Confed., 642 killed, 3000 wounded, 1000 
missing. 
28 to Sept. 2.— Siege of Atlanta, Ga. Union, 
Army of the Military Division of the 
jSIississippi, ]Maj.-Gen. W. T. Sherman; 
Confed., Army of Tennessee, Gen. J. B. 
Hood, commanding. Losses : Careful es- 
timates place the casualties at 40,000 on 
each side. 



AUGUST, 1864. 

1 to 31. — In front of Petersburg, Va. Union, 
Second, Fifth, Ninth, and Eighteenth 
Corps ; Confed., Army of Northern Vir- 

* No recor 



ginia. Losses: Union, 158 killed, 623 
wounded, 296 missing; Confed.* 
2. — Green Springs, W. Va. Union, 153d 
Ohio; Confed., troops of Gen. J. H. 
Morgan's command. Losses : Union, 
1 killed, 5 wounded, 90 missing; Con- 
fed., 5 killed, 22 wounded. 
5 to 23. — Forts Gaines and Morgan, jNIo- 
bile Bay, Ala. Union, Thirteenth Corps 
and Admiral Farragut's fleet of war 
vessels ; Confed., fleet commanded by 
Admiral Buchanan and land forces 
under Gen. D. H. Maury. Losses : 
Union, 145 killed, 170 wounded; Con- 
fed., 12 killed, 20 wounded, 280 cap- 
tured. 
7. — Moorefield, Va. Union, 14th Penna., 
8th Ohio, 1st and 3d W. Va., and 1st 
N. Y. Cav.; Confed., McCausland's and 
Bradley T. Johnson's Cav. Losses : 
Union, 9 killed, 22 wounded; Confed., 
100 killed and wounded, 400 missing. 
9. — Ex2:)losion of ammunition at City Point, 
Va. Losses: Union, 70 killed, 130 
wounded. 
10 and 11. — Berryville Pike, Sulphur Springs 
Bridge and White Post, Va. Union, Tor- 
bert's Cav. ; Confed., Gen. Early's com- 
mand. Losses: Union, 30 killed, 70 
wounded, 200 missing. 
13. — Near Snicker's Gap, Va. Union, 144th 
and 149th Ohio; Confed., Gen. R. H. 
Anderson's command. Losses: Union, 
4 killed, 10 wounded, 200 missing; Con- 
fed., 2 killed, 3 wounded. 
14 to 18. — Strawberry Plains, Va. Union, 
Second and Tenth Corps and Gregg's 
Cav. ; Confed., detachments from Gen. 
Lee's army at Petersburg. Losses : 
Union, 327" killed, 1855 wounded, 1400 
missing; Confed. (estimate), 1000 killed, 
wounded, and missing. 
15. — Fisher's Hill, near Strasburg, Va. 
Union, Sixth and Eighth Corps and 1st 
Cav. Division Army of the Potomac ; 
Confed., Gen. Early's command. Losses : 
Union, 30 wounded. 
16. — Crooked Run, Front Royal, Va. Union, 
Merritt's Cav. ; Confed., Kershaw's di- 
vision and Fitzhugh Lee's Cav. Losses: 
Union, 13 killed, 58 wounded; Confed., 
30 killed, 150 wounded, 300 captured. 
l'?' — Gainesville, Fla. Union, 7Sth Ohio 
Mounted Inf. Losses: Union, 16 killed, 
30 wounded, 102 missing. 

d found. 



[ 328 ] 




s =" 



a 
O 



« 

Q 

a 
< 

o 

T 

o 

H 
Ph 

a 
o 



O. ^ ;= 



.^ 


-Ti 






c 


CO 

a 


S4 












to 




-CI 








-a 




o 


f3 






^ 


-t-* 




j:^ 


O 






H 


o 


=3 

O 




d 




o 


j: 
■t-' 




o 




CJ 


cti 




a 


3 



j3 



o ^ 



j3 

-a 






O fe 



c 

■-S 



O 



I— ( (-. W 



-a 



o H 



fl S 



■5 -= r ■5 

N D. ii *^ 

S 2 -g -S 





OJ 






-a 






H 


a 


'^ 







d -= 



< ^ 






lEugag^ttuutB of tl|^ (Utiitl liar 



29. 



— W'inclit'ster, Va. Union, New Jersey 
Brigade of Sixth Corps and \A'ilson s 
Cav. ; Confed., Gen. Early's eomuiand. 
Losses: Union, 50 wounded, il50 miss- 
ing. 
18, 19, and 30.— Six-mile House, Weldon 
Kailroad, \'a. Union, Fifth and Ninth 
Corps and Kautz's and Gregg's Cav. ; 
Confed., Gen. A. P. Hill's corps. Bush- 
rod Johnson's division, Dearing's bri- 
gade and Hampton's Cav. Losses: 
Union, 251 killed, 1155 wounded, 2879 
missing; Confed.* 
18 to 33.— Raid on the Atlanta and AVest 
Point Railroad. Union, Kilpatrick's 
Cav.; Confed., ^X. H. Johnson's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 400 wounded. 

31. — Summit Point, Berryville, and Flowing 
Springs, Va. Union, Sixth Corps, and 
IMerritt's and Wilson's Cav.; Confed., 
Rodes' and Ramseur's divisions. Losses: 
Union, Goo killed and wounded; Confed., 
400 killed and wounded. 
— Memphis, Tenn. Union, detachments 
of 8th Iowa and 11 3th 111., 39th, 4.0th, 
and 41st Wis., 6 1st U. S. Colored, 3d 
and 4th Iowa Cav., Battery G 1st Mo. 
Lt. Artil. ; Confed., Forrest's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 30 killed, 100 wounded; 
Confed., 100 killed and wounded. 

21 and 33.- Oxford, Miss. Union, 4th Iowa, 
11th and 21st Mo., 3d Iowa Cav., 
12th Mo. Cav.; Confed., F'orrest's Cav. 
Losses : Confed.* 

23.— Abbeville, Miss. Union, 10th Mo., 14th 
Iowa, 5th and 7th Minn., Stli Wis.; Con- 
fed., Forrest's Cavalry. Losses: Union, 
20 wounded; Con/ed., 34 killed, wounded, 
and missing. 

24. — .Jones' Hay Station and Ashley Sta- 
tion, Ark. Union, 9th Iowa and 8th and 
11th Mo. Cav.; Confed., Troops of Gen. 
Price's command. Losses: Union, 5 
killed, 41 wounded; Confed., QO wounded. 

24 and 35. — Bermuda Hundred, Va.. Union, 
Tenth Corps ; Confed., troops of Gen. 
Lee's command. Losses: Union, 31 
wounded ; Confed., 6l missing. 

24 to 37. — Halltown, Va. Union, portion 
of Eighth Corps; Confed., Gen. Early's 
command. Losses: Union, 30 killed, 
141 wounded; Confed., 130 killed and 
wounded. 

35. — Smitlifield and Shepherdstown or Kear- 
neysville. Va. Union, Merritt's and 

* No record found 
[ 3'.m ] 



Wilson's Cav.; Confed., Gen. Early's 
command. Losses: Union, 10 killed, 90 
wounded, 100 missing; Confed., 300 
killed and wounded. 

— Ream's Station, Va. Union, Second 
Corps and Gregg's Cav. ; Confed., Gen. 
A. P. Hill's command. Losses: Union, 
110 killed, 529 wounded, 2073 missing; 
Confed., 7~0 killed and wounded. 
-Smithtield, Vn. Union, Third Division 
•Sixth Corps and Torbert's Cav. ; Con- 
fed., Gen. Earl}''s command. Losses: 
Union, 10 killed, 90 wounded; Confed., 
200 killed and wounded. 
31 and Sept. 1. — Jonesboro, Ga. Union, 

Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth Corps and Cavalry Corps ; Con- 
fed., Gen Hardee's Corps, Gen. S. D. 
I>ee's Corps, Army of Tennessee, Gen. 
J. B. Hood, commanding. Losses : 
Union, 1149 killed and wounded; Con- 
fed., 1400 killed, wounded, and miss- 
ing. 

SEPTEMBER, 1864. 

1 to 8. — Rousse.iu's pursuit of Wheeler in 
Tenn. Union, Rousseau's Cav., 1st and 
4th Tenn., 2d Mich., 1st Wis., 8th Iowa, 
2d and 8th Ind., and 6th Ky. ; Confed., 
Wheeler's Cav. Losses: Union, 10 
killed, 30 wounded; Confed., 300 killed, 
wounded, and captured. 

1 to Oct. 30.— In front of Petersburg. 
Union, Army of the Potomac; Confed., 
Army of Northern Virginia. Losses : 
Union, 170 killed, 822 wounded, 812 
missing; Confed.* 

3. — F'ederal occupation of Atlanta, Ga. 
(Evacu.ation by Hood's rear-guard dur- 
ing the night of the 1st.) Union, Twen- 
tieth Corps. Losses : Confed., 200 cap- 
tured. 

3 and 4.— Berryville, Va. Union, Eighth 
and Nineteenth Corps and Torbert's 
Cav. ; Confed., Anderson's command. 
Losses: Union, 30 killed, 182 wounded, 
100 missing; Confed., 25 killed, 100 
wounded, 70 missing. 

4. — Greenville, Tenn. Union, 9th and 13th 
Tenn., and 10th Mich. Cav.; Confed., 
Morgan's Cav. Losses: Union, 6 
wounded; Confed., 10 killed, 60 
wounded, 75 missing; Confed., Gen. 
.John H. Morffan killed. 



THE FORT 



THAT \EVER 



SURRENDERED 




SUMTER FROM 

THE SAND-BAR, 

APRIL, 1805 



i^4 . 







THE UNION PHOTOGRAPHER IX SUMTER AT LAST 



^lOT PUB CO. 



The shapeless ruins of 
Sumter, demolished by eigh- 
teen months of almost con- 
stant fire from Federal bat- 
teries, appear in the top 
picture, of April 14, 1863, 
the anniversary of Major 
Anderson's evacuation in 
1861. Next comes the 

Federal fleet dressed with 
flags for the celebration; and 
below, a group at the foot 
of the pole listening to 
Henry Ward Beecher. In 
the foreground stand the 
soldiers and sailors who 
had taken part in the 
ceremonies of raising on the 
shining white staff the very 
flag that had been lowered 
exactly four years earlier. 




On the night of this gala 
occasion President Lincoln 
was shot in Washington. 
Sumter had in a sense be- 
come a symbol of the Con- 
federacy. Repeated efforts 
had been made to conquer 
its garrisons. But with a 
tenacity of purpose typical 
of the South, its shattered 
walls were transformed into 
an eartliwork impregnable 
to assault and lending the 
aid of its six heavy guns 
to the defenses of Charleston 
Harbor. It was evacuated 
only on the night of Feb- 
ruary 17th, when South 
Carolina needed every man 
that could possibly be sum 
moned to oppose Sherman. 



RAISING THE FLAG, APRIL 14th 



lEugtig^mrntB of t\}t dtutl Har 



10.— Capture of Fort Hell, Va. Union, 99tli 
Pa., -20th Ind., 2d U. S. Sharpshooters. 
Losses: Union, 20 wounded; Confed., 90 
prisoners. 

13. — Lock's Ford, Va. Union, Torbert's Cav. ; 
Confed., Gen. Early's command. Losses : 
Union, 2 killed, 18 wounded; Confed., 
1 8 1 captured. 

16. — Sycamore Church, Va. Union, 1st D. C. 
and 13th Pa. Cav. Losses: Union, 100 
killed, wounded, and captured; Confed., 
50 killed and wounded. 

16 and 18.— Fort Gibson, hid. Ter. Union, 
79th U. S. Colored and 2d Kan. Cav. 
Losses: Union, 38 killed, 48 missing. 

19 to 22.— Winchester and Fisher's Hill, Va. 
Union, Sixth, Eighth, and 1st and 2d 
Divisions of the Nineteenth Corps, Av- 
erell's and Torbert's Cav., Maj.-Gen. 
Phil. Sheridan ; Confed., Gen. Jubal 
Early's command. Losses: Union, 749 
killed, 4440 wounded, 357 missing; 
Confed., 250 killed, 1777 wounded, 
2813 captured; Union, Brig.-Gens. Rus- 
sell and ^Mulligan killed; Confed., ]Maj.- 
Gen. Rodes and Brig.-Gen. Godwin 
killed. 

23.— Athens, Ala. Union, 106th, 110th, and 
114th U. S. Colored, 3d Tenn. Cav., re- 
enforced by 18th Mich, and 102d Ohio; 
Confed., J'orrest's Cav. Losses: Union, 
950 missing; Confed., 5 killed, 25 
wounded. 

26 and 27. — Pilot Knob or Ironton, j\Io. 
Union, 47th and 50th l\Io., 14th Iowa, 
2d and 3d Mo. Cav., Battery H 2d ]Mo. 
Lt. Artil. ; Confed., Gen. Sterling Price's 
command. Losses: Union, 28 killed, 56 
wounded, 100 missing; Confed., 1500 
killed and wounded. 

27.— Centralia, ]\Io. Union, three cos. 39th 
Mo.; Confed., Price's forces. Losses: 
Union, 122 killed, 2 wounded. 
— Marianna, Fla. Union, 7th Vt., 82d 
U. S. Colored and 2d !NLaine Cav. ; Con- 
fed., Troops of Col. A. B. Montgom- 
erv's command, including Anderson's 
militia. Losses: Union, 32 wounded; 
Confed., 81 missing. 

28 and 30.— New Market Heights or Laurel 
Hill, Va. Union, Tenth and Eighteenth 
Corps and Kautz's Cav.; Confed., Gen. 
R. S. Ewell's command, supported by 
Longstreet's Corps under R. H. Ander- 
son. Losses : Union, 400 killed, 2029 

* No reco 



wounded; Confed., 2000 killed and 
wounded. 
30 and Oct. 1,— Poplar Springs Church, Va. 
Union, First Division Fifth Corps and 
Second Division Ninth Corps; Confed., 
Gen. A. P. Hill's Corps. Losses : Union, 
187 killed, 900 wounded, 1802 missing; 
Confed. (estimate), 800 killed and 
wounded, 1 00 missing. 
— Arthur's Swamp, Va. Union, Gregg's 
Cav. ; Confed., Hampton's Cav. Losses : 
Union, 60 wounded, 100 missing; Con- 
fed.* 

OCTOBER, 1864. 

2. — Waynesboro, Va. Union, portion of 
Custer's and Merritt's Cav.; Confed., 
Gen. Early's command. Losses: Union, 
50 killed and wounded. 
— Saltville, Va. Union, 11th and 13th 
Ky. Cav., 12th Ohio, 11th Mich., 5th 
and 6th U. S. Colored Cav., 26th, 30th, 
35th, 37th, 39th, 40th, and 45th Ky. 
Mounted Inf. ; Confed., Gen. Breckin- 
ridge's Infantry, Col. Giltner's Cav., 
13th Va. Reserves (Home Guards). 
Losses: Union, 54 killed, 190 wounded, 
104 missing; Confed., 18 killed, 71 
wounded, 21 missing. 

5. — Allatoona Pass, Ga. Union, 7th, 12th, 
5()th, 57th, and 93d 111., 39th Iowa, 4th 
Minn., 18th Wis., and 12th Wis. Battery; 
Confed., Gen. French's command. l/oss- 
es: Union, 142 killed, 352 wounded, 212 
missing; Confed., 127 killed, 456 wound- 
ed, 290 missing. 

7 and 13. — Darbytown Road Va. Union, 
Tenth Corps and Kautz's Cav.; Confed., 
troops of Gen. R. E. Lee's command. 
Losses: Union, 105 killed, 502 wounded, 
206 missing; Confed.* 

9. — Tom's Brook, Fisher's Hill or Strasburg, 
Va. Union, Merritt's, Custer's and Tor- 
bert's Cav.; Confed., Rosser's and Lo- 
max's Cav. Losses: Union, 9 killed, 67 
wounded; Confed., 100 killed and 
wounded, 180 missing. 
13. — Reconnaissance to Strasburg, Va. Union, 
Maj.-Gens. Emory's and Crook's troops; 
Confed., Gen. Early's com'mand. Losses : 
Union, 30 killed, 144 wounded, 40 
missing. 

— Dalton, Ga. Union, troops under Col. 
Johnson, 44tli U. S. Colored; Confed., 

•d found. 



■ 332 1 



The calm sunlight of April, 1865, is falling 
on the northern face of the fort which had 
withstood a severer bombardment than 
any other fortification attacked during the 
Civil War. This wall was across the fort 
from the one upon which the heavy Union 
batteries on Morris Island concentrated 
their fire. But many a shot passing over 
the southern wall struck this rampart 
from the inside, making breaches that 
had to be patched with gabions. Patched 
in this way it continued to the end of the 
war, frowning across the waters of the 
bay upon the blockading fleet and the 
Union batteries. Thus it looked when, 
on February 18, 1865, Colonel Bennet, in 
command of the United States forces at 
Charleston, was rowed across from Cum- 
mins Point toward Fort Moultrie. Forty 
yards east of Sumter he met a boat filled 
with musicians who had been left behind 
by the Confederates. He directed one of 
his subordinates to proceed to Sumter and 
raise the American flag above the ram- 
parts — for the first time in four years. 




SUMTER ONCE MORE IN PEACE 




Sumter, inside the face of which the out- 
side is shown above. The skill with 
which gabions were employed to strength- 
en the ramparts is apparent. A descrip- 
tion of the relinquishment of the position 
follows in the words of Major John John- 
son: "On the night of the 17th of Febru- 
ary, 1865, the commander. Captain 
Thomas A. Huguenin, silently and with- 
out interruption effected the complete 
evacuation. He has often told me of the 
particulars, and I have involuntarily ac- 
companied him in thought and feeling as, 
for the last time, he went the rounds of 
the deserted fort. The ordered casements 
with their massive guns were there, but 
in the stillness of that hour his own foot- 
fall alone gave an echo from the arches 
overhead. The labyrinthine galleries, as 
he traversed them, were lighted tor a 
moment by his lantern; he passed out 
from the shadows to step aboard the little 
boat awaiting him at the wharf, and the 
four years' defense of Fort Sumter was at 
an end." 



THE DESERTED DEFENSES 





WITHIN THE DEADLY ZONE AT PETERSBURG 

The officers' quarters of Fort Sedgwick, a Ijomb-proof stnictiire, was a post of honor in the Federal line, as it invariably drew the hot- 
test fire. It stands immediately behind the salient at which the guns were served. On the right is the " Blessed Well " of Fort Damna- 
tion. The commands garrisoning this fort, were changed more frequently than any other. Regiments were continually moved from 
one part of the line to the camps near City Point to recuperate, while fresh troops were brought up from that base to take their places. 
General John Grubb Park commanded the Ninth Goips, and it was this Ijody of Federal troops that advanced from behind 
Fort. Sedgwick and, supported by its guns, seized the Confederate entrenchments opposite in an assault made on April 2, 1S65. 





A \\TXTER DUG-OUT 



CAVE D\\\ELLERS 




RIOT PUB. CO, 



A CONFEDERATE MILL IN '65— WHERE THE SOUND OF THE GRINDING WAS LOW 



The wonder is that Lee's starving army was able to hold out 
as long as it did. This well-built flour-mill was one of many 
which in times of peace carried on an important industry in the 
town. But long before the siege closed, all the mills were empty 
of grain and grist. Could Lee have 
kept the flour-mills of Petersburg and 
Richmond running during the last 
winter of the war, disaster would not 
have come to his famished forces so 
early in 1865. At the beginning of 
the year but one railroad, a canal, 
and a turnpike remained by which 
supplies could be gotten into Peters- 
burg from Wilmington, N. C, and 
Charleston, S. C. These were the 
last two ports that the blockade- 
runners still dared venture into with 
supplies for the Confederacy. Not 
only was food scarce, but the de- 




serters from Lee's army, averaging about a hundred daily, re- 
vealed plainly the fact that the Confederate troops with their 
threadbare, insufficient clothing, were in a most pitiable condi- 
tion. Not only was food lacking, but ammunition was rimning 
\i>\y. During 1804 the supply of per- 
cussion-caps for the Confederate army 
had been kept up only by melting the 
copper stills throughout the South. 
Now even these were exhausted, and 
there were no more supplies of cop- 
per in sight. Hundreds of heartrend- 
ing letters were intercepted and sent to 
Lee's headquarters. " Mothers, wives, 
and sisters wrote of their inability to 
respond to the appeals of hungry 
children for bread or to provide proper 
care and remedies tor the sick, and in 
the name of all that was dear appealed 
to the men to come home. 




o 
U 









-o 
a 



r- *^ 



W -f 







f^ 


Tl 


0/ 




'fcj 


m^ 


i^ 


a 




o 


n 


D, 




w 


d^ 


a; 


% 


ad 
•c 
o 

"o 


z; 




tii 


F- 


o 

X 


3 




3 


< 


CO 

c3 


a 






H 


2 


-h 


!> 


J3 


p 

1 


d 


.9 


2 


.3 


a 


_a 


ca 


C 


-Q 


M 










tJ 










H 


c: 


-o 


i 


a 


fl^ 


rt 


^ 




, 


<1 


0^ 


u 
rt 


rt 


^ 


hJ 


4; 


rt 


o 


2 


< 


l-l 


Ctl 




rn 


'^ 


w 

TS 


C= 


a 


=fl 


fc 




n 




^ 


H 


tn 




J3 


m 


Eh 






a 

o 


^' 



£ .s a .H 



— >-. 13 — 



T3 
-O 
•3 



^ 
C 





c 




IS- 












Oj 






D. 


C^ 


Ph 


s 


a> 


-n 


J3 










■*-' 


o 


j: 


a 


c 
O 


1 


p 

"o 






^ 




a 


«o 




n, 


CO 


*o 


o 


1— 1 




O 




CO 


& 


^ 




<3 


;5 


g 


fe 


.2 


n 




c 


HI 


i-j 


2 


c 




te »J M 

■3 2 '-^ ^n 

a s a i 

-g M ." 

•" a -o Dh 

a 5 & 9= 

§ 5P a .S 

CC c« -t-J 

^ ij o ^ 

o o a oj 

^ S3 >> =« 

^ ^ S 

t: 2i s 1* 

c' _a <u 

a ■ - 



cc o 

bx) a 



a s 



O cj 

■ -a 






a J 
a -g o 



o 






o 



o 



^ a 

be o 

a o 



=* a - 

a oj t- « 

CS fl Q^ ^ 

S^ o t" K 

-2 cs a 

o ^ _a 

(J rt rt rt 



■5 -a s j3 

^ - a a 

„ cs rt aj 

-a „ Q ^ 

a a " s 

-a 2 ti . 

a; -S - -a 

a a a 

° ti S o 

•= ^ i 



■tt a 

j3 "" 






s :2 -a 

'> QJ 54-1 ^ 

.^ 'S ^ 

C^ i -^ X! 

=? 3 Ji a 

a a ■s «^ 

+^ o 2 t- 

t. ^ ?J 

?< .S fe » 

(h tS C; 

<M- ta o a 

■tr' S o « 

O; g fH 

a =« ^ jia 

W en ^ Sd 

rt 03 w Cfi 

^ -3 S >. 

a ^ a cs 

.2 a= o e: 

■^ -^ " I' 

jj I* -a M 

■S -a ^ E 

a § ° ■■ 
o 









lEngag^mnttB of tht (Etutl Har 



Gen. Hood's .-idxance troops. Losses: 
Union, 400 missing. 

15. — Glasgow, j\Io. Union, -iSd Mo., and de- 
tachments of 17th III, 9th Mo. Militia, 
13th Mo. Cav., 62d U. S. Colored; 
Confed., Gen. Sterling Price's command. 
Losses : Union, 400 wounded and miss- 
ing; Confed., 50 killed and wounded. 

19. — Cedar Creek, Va. (Sheridan's Ride.) 
Union, Sixth Corps, Eighth Corps, and 
First and Second Divisions Nineteenth 
Corps, Merritt's, Custer's, and Torbert's 
Cav.; Confed., Gen. Jubal Early's army- 
Losses: Union, 6i*l killed, 31.S0 wound- 
ed, l.^yi captured or missing; Confed., 
8'-30 killed, 1510 wounded, 1050 missing; 
Union, Brig.-Gen. Bidwell and Col. 
Thoburn killed; Confed., ^Lij.-Gen. 
Ramseur killed. 

26 to 39.— Deeatur, Ala. Union, 18th Mich., 

102d Ohio, 68th Ind., and 1 ith U. S. 
Colored; Confed., Gen. J. B. Hood's 
army. Losses: Union, 10 killed, 15 
wounded, 100 missing; Confed., 100 
killed, 300 wounded. 
37. — Hatcher's Run, Va. Union, Gregg's 
Cav., Second and Third Divisions Second 
Corps, Fifth and Ninth Corps; Confed., 
Gen. Hill's Corps, Fitzhugh l>ee's and 
M. C. Butler's Cav. Losses: Union, 
l66 killed, 1017 wounded, 699 missing; 
Confed., 200 killed, 600 wounded, 200 
missing (Federal estimate). 
— Destruction at Plymouth, N. C, of the 
Confed. ram Albemarle, by Lieut. W. 
B. Cushing, U. S. N., and 1-1 officers and 
men. Losses: Union, 2 drowned, 11 
captured. Confed.* 

— ^lorristown, Tenn. Union, Gen. Gil- 
lem's Cav. ; Confed., Forrest's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 8 killed, 12 wounded; 
Confed., 210 missing. 

27 and 28.— Fair Oaks, Va. Union, Tenth 

and Eighteenth Corps and Kautz's Cav.; 
Confed., Gen. Longstreet's command. 
I^osses: Union, 120 killed, 783 wounded, 
•100 missing; Confed., 60 killed, 311 
wounded, 80 missing. 

28 and 30. — Newtonia, Mo. Union, Col. 

Bkmt's Cav.; Confed., Gen. Price's com- 
mand. Losses: Confed., 250 killed and 
wounded. 
29.— Beverly, W. Va. Union, 8th Ohio Cav.; 
Confed., troops of Gen. Breckinridge's 
command. Losses: Union, 8 killed, 25 



wounded, 1 .'> missing; Confed., 17 killed, 
27 wounded, 92 missing. 



NOVEMBER, 1864. 



5. — Fort Sedgwick or Fort Hell, ^^a. Union, 
Second Corps; Confed., trooj)s of Gen. 
Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. 
I^osses: Union, 5 killed, 10 wounded; 
Confed., 15 killed, 35 wounded. 

12. — Newtown and Cedar Springs, Va. Union, 
Merritt's, Custer's, and Powell's Cav.; 
Confed., troops of Gen. Early's com- 
mand. Losses: Union, 81 wounded, 100 
missing; Confed., 150 killed, wounded, 
and missing. 

13. — Bull's Gap., Tenn. Union, 8tli, 9th, and 
13th Tenn. Cav.; Confed., advance of 
Gen. Hood's arm}\ Losses : Union, 5 
killed, :i6 wounded, 200 missing; Con- 
fed.* 

17.— Bermuda Hundred, Va. Union, 209th 
Pa. ; Confed., troops of Gen. I>ee's army. 
Losses: Union, 10 wounded, 120 missing; 
Confed., 10 wounded. 

31.— Griswoldville, Ga. Union, AValcutt's 
Brigade First Division, Fifteenth 
Corps, and First Brigade Third Divi- 
sion Cav. ; Confed., Gen. Gustavus W. 
Smith's Georgia Militia. Losses : Union, 
13 killed, 69 wounded; Confed., 5 killed, 
172 wounded, 2 missing. 

32. — Rood's Hill, Va. Union, Torbert's Cav.; 
Confed., Gen. Early's command. Losses: 
Union, 18 killed, 52 wounded; Confed.* 

24. — Lawrenceburg, Campbellville, and Lynn- 
ville, Tenn. Union, Hatch's Cav.; Con- 
fed., Cavalry of Hood's army. Losses: 
Union, 75 killed and wounded; Confed., 
50 killed and wounded. 

26. — Sandersville, Ga. Union, Third Bri- 
gade First Division, Twentieth Corps; 
Confed., AVheeler's Cav. Losses: Union, 
100 missing; Confed., 100 missing. 

26 to 29. — Sylvan Grove, Waynesboro', 
Browne's Cross Roads, Ga. Union, 
Kilpatrick's Cav. ; Confed., Wheeler's 
Cav. Losses: Union, 46 wounded; 
Confed.* 

29 and 30.— Spring Hill and Franklin, Tenn. 
Union, Fourth and Twentj'-third Corps 
and Cav.; Confed., Gen. J. B. Hood's 
army. Losses: Union, 189 killed, 1033 
wounded, 1104 missing; Confed., 1750 
killed, 3800 wounded, 702 missing. 

* No record found. 




COPYRIGHT, 1911 



HAVOC UNCONFIXED— THE RICHMOND ARSENAL 

As the camera clicks in April, 1865, the long-defended citadel of the Confederacy is at last deserted; 
its munitions of war no longer ready for service against an enemy; its armies at a distance, 
retreating as rapidly as their exhausted condition permits. These fire-blasted and crumbling walls 
are a fit symbol of the condition of the South at the close of the war. The scene at this arsenal on 
the night of April 2d was one of the most brilliant and splendid of the whole conflict. The arsenal 
was near the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad at the James River. The high-arched bridges ablaze 
across the stream, the deafening reports of exploding magazines, the columns of white smoke rising 
high into the sky lurid from thousands of shells bursting in the arsenal, the falling of the broken frag- 
ments among the already panic stricken fugitives — all these features created a scene such as the world 
. has seldom witnessed. Early in the morning of April 3d the clatter of Federal cavalry was heard in 
the streets. The Stars and Stripes waved. Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy no longer. 



[c] 



lEngag^m^nta nf tl|p dtutl Har 



Union, Mnj.-Gens. Staiile_v and Bradley 
wounded; Confed., ]\Iaj.-Gen. Cleburne, 
Brig.-Gens. Adams, Strahl, Gist, and 
Granbury killed, Maj.-Gen. Brown and 
Brig.-Gens. Carter, Manigault, Quarles, 
Cockrell, and Scott wounded. 
30.— Honey Hill or Grahamsville, S. C. 
Union, 25th Ohio, 56th and 155th N. Y., 
26th, 32d, 35th, and 102d U. S. Colored, 
oith and 55th Mass. Colored; Confed., 
Georgia jMilitia under Gen. G. W. 
Smith, S. C. Battery. Losses: Union, 91 
killed, 631 wounded; Confed., 8 killed, 
42 wounded. 



DECEMBER, 1864. 

1. — Stony Creek Station, \A'eldon Railroad, 
Va. Union, Gregg's Cav. ; Confed., 
Capt. Waldhauer's command and Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee's Cav. Losses: Union, 40 
wounded; Confed., 175 captured. 

1 to 14.— In front of Nashville, Tenn. 
Union, Fourth, Twenty-third Corps; 
First and Third divisions of Sixteenth 
Corps; Wilson's Cav.; Confed., Gen. 
Hood's army. Losses: l^nion, 16 killed, 
100 wounded; Confed.* 

1 to 31. — In front of Petersburg. Union, 
Army of the Potomac; Confed., troops 
of Lee's army. Losses : Union, 40 killed, 
329 W'ounded ; Confed.* 

4. — Block-house No. 7, Tenn. Union, Gen. 
Milroy's troops ; Confed., Gen. Bate's 
division of Hood's army. Losses: Union, 
100 killed, wounded, and missing; Con- 
fed., 87 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. 

5 to 8. — Murfreesboro', Tenn. Union, Gen. 

Rousseau's troops; Confed., Gen. Bate's 
command. Losses: Union, 30 killed, 175 
wounded; Confed., 197 missing. 

6 to 9. — Deveaux's Neck, S. C. Union, 56th, 

127th, 144th, 155th, and 157th N. Y.', 
25th Ohio, 26th, 32d, 33d, 34th, and 
102d U. S. Colored, 54th and 55th Mass. 
Colored, 3d R. I. Artil., Naval brigade 
Bat. F, 3d N. Y. Lt. Art., and gunboats; 
Confed., troops of Gen. Samuel Jones' 
command. Losses: Union, 39 killed, 390 
wounded, 200 missing; Confed., 400 
killed and wounded. 

7 to 11. — Weldon Railroad Expedition. 

Union, Fifth Corps, Third Division of 

* No reco 



Second Corps, and Second Division Cav- 
alry Corps, Army of the Potomac; Con- 
fed., Gen. A. V. Hill's conmvmd. Losses: 
Union, 100 killed and wounded; Con- 
fed.* 
8 and 9.— Hatcher's Run, Va. Union, First 
Division, Second Corps, 3d and 13t]i 
Pa. Cav., 6th Ohio Cav.; Confed., Gen. 
Hill's command. Losses: Union, 125 
killed and wounded; Confed.* 
8 to 28. — Raid to Gordonsville, Va. Union, 
Merritt's and Custer's Cav.; Confed., 
Cavalry of Gen. Early's army. Losses: 
Union, 43 killed and wounded. Confed.* 
10 to 31. — Siege of Savannah, Ga. Union, 
Fourteentli, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and 
Twentieth Corps of Sherman's army; 
Confed., Gen. W. J. Hardee's command. 
Losses: Union, 200 killed and wounded; 
Confed. (estimate), 800 killed, wounded, 
and missing. 
13 to 31. — Federal raid from Bean's Station, 
Tenn., to Saltville, Va., including Abing- 
don, Glade Springs, and Marion. 
Union, Stoneman's Cav. ; Confed., Gen. 
J. C. Breckinridge's command. Losses : 
Union, 20 killed, 123 wounded; Confed., 
126 wounded, 500 missing. 
13. — Fort McAllister, Ga. Union, Second 
Division of Fifteenth Corps; Confed., 
Garrison commanded by Maj. W. G. 
Anderson. Losses: Union, 24 killed, 
110 wounded; Confed., 48 killed and 
wounded, 200 missing. 
15 and 16.— Nashville, Tenn. Union, Fourth 
Corjjs ; First and Third Divisions Thir- 
teenth Corps ; Twenty-third Corps ; Wil- 
son's Cav., and detachments colored 
troops, convalescents ; Confed., Gen. J. 
B. Hood's army. Losses: Union, 387 
killed, 2558 wounded; Confed., 4462 
killed, wounded, and missing. 
17. — Franklin, Tenn. Union, Wilson's Cav. ; 
Confed., Forrest's Cav. Losses: Con- 
fed., 1800 wounded and sick captured. 
(Incident of Hood's retreat from Nash- 
ville.) 
35.— Fort Fisher, N. C. Union, Tenth Corps 
and North Atlantic Squadron, com- 
manded by Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter; 
Flag-Ship, Malvern; Iron-Clads: Canon- 
icus, Mahopac, Monadnocli:, New Iron- 
sides, Saugus; Screw-Frigates: Colorado, 
Minnesota, Wahash; Side-Wheel Steam- 
ers (first class) : Powhatan, Susqiie- 

rd found. 



[ 340 




COPYRIGHT, 



EMPTY VAULTS— THE EXCHANGE BANK, RICHMOND, 1865 

The sad significance of these photographs is all too apparent. Not only the bank buildings 
were in ruins, but the financial system of the entire South. All available capital had been 
consumed by the demands of the war, and a system of paper currency had destroyed credit 
completely. Worse still was the demoralization of all industry. Through large areas of 
the South all mills and factories were reduced to ashes, and everywhere the industrial system 
was turned topsy-turvy. Truly the problem that confronted the South was stupendous. 




^*>Tnior FuB CO. 



WRECK OF THE GALLECO FLOUR MILLS 



lEugag^m^utfi of tlj^ Ctuil Wnv 



28.- 



hanna; Screw Sloops: Brooklyn, Juniata, 
Mohican, Shenandoah, Ticonderoga, Tiis- 
carora; Screw Gun-Vessels: Kansas, 
Maumee, Nyack, Peqtiot, Yantic; Screw 
Gun-Boats: Chippewa, Huron, Seneca, 
UnadiUa; Double-Enders : Iosco, Macki- 
naw, Maratanza, Osceola, Pawtuxet, Pon- 
toosuc, Sassacus, Tacony; JSIiscellaneous 
Vessels : Fort Jackson, Monticello, Ne- 
reus, Quaker City, Rhode Island, San- 
tiago de Cuba, Vanderbilt; Powder Ves- 
sel : Louisiana; Reserve: A. D. Vance, 
Alabama, Britannia, Cherokee, Emma, 
Gettysburg, Governor Buckingham, How- 
quali, Keystone State, Lilian, Little Ada, 
Moccasin, Xansemond, Tristram Shandy, 
Wilderness; Confed., North Carolina 
troops in garrison, commanded by Col. 
^Villiam Lamb, Gen. Hoke's Division 
outside. Losses: Union, 8 killed, 38 
wounded; Confed., .3 killed, 55 wounded, 
^80 prisoners. 
-Egypt Station, ^liss. Union, -ith and 
ntii 111. Cav., 7th Ind., 4th and 10th 
Mo., 2d Wis.. 2d N. J., 1st Miss, and 3d 
U. S. Colored Cav.; Confed., troops of 
Gen. Ciardner's army under Gen. Gliol- 
son. Losses: Union, 23 killed, 88 
wounded; Confed., 500 captured; Con- 
fed., Brig.-Gen. Gholson killed. 

JANUARY, 1865. 



11 



Beverly, AV. Va. Union, 3 itli Ohio and 
8th Ohio Cav.; Confed., Gen. Breckin- 
ridge's command. Losses: Union, 5 
killed, 20 wounded, 583 missing; Con- 
fed.* 

13 to 15.— Fort Fisher, N. C. Union, Por- 
tions of Twenty-fourth and Twenty- 
fifth Corps and Admiral Porter's fleet ; 
Same ships as Dec. 25th above, with 
the exception that the Nyack, Keystone 
State, and Quaker City were not present 
and the Montgomery, Cuyler, Aries, 
Eolus, Fort Donelson, and Republic had 
been added to the fleet ; Confed., Same 
as Dec. 25th above. Losses: Union, 
184 killed, 749 wounded; Confed., 400 
killed and wounded, 2083 captured. 

25 to Feb. 9.— Combahee River and River's 
Bridge, Salkahatchie, S. C. Union, Fif- 
teenth and Seventeenth Corps; Confed., 
Wade Hampton's Cav. Losses: Union, 
138 killed and wounded; Confed.* 



FEBRUARY, 1865. 

5 to 7. — Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, 
Va. Union, Fifth Corps and First Di- 
vision Sixth Corps and Gregg's Cav. ; 
Confed., troops of Gen. A. P. Hill's 
and Gen. J. B. Gordon's Corps. Losses: 
Union, 171 killed, 1181 wounded, 186" 
missing; Confed., 1200 killed and 
wounded; Confed., Gen. Pegram killed. 
8 to 14.— Williston, Blackville, and Aiken, 
S. C. Union, Kilpatrick's Cav.; Confed., 
Wheeler's Cav. Losses: Union*; Con- 
fed., 240 killed and wounded, 100 miss- 
ing. 

10. — James Island, S. C. Union, Maj.-Gen. 
Gillmore's command; Confed., troops of 
Gen. Hardee's command. Losses: Union, 
20 killed, 76 wounded; Confed., 20 
killed, and 70 wounded. 

11. — Sugar Loaf Battery, Federal Point, N. 
C. Union, Portions of Twenty-fourth 
and Twentj'-fifth Corps ; Confed., Gen. 
Hoke's command. Losses: Union, 14 
killed, 114 wounded. Confed.* 

16 and 17.— Columbia, S. C. Union, Fifteenth 
Corps, Army of the Tennessee, com- 
manded by Major-General John A. 
Logan; Confed., troops of Gen. Beaure- 
gard's command. Losses: Union, 20 
killed and wounded ; Confed.* 

18 to 32. — Fort Anderson, Town Creek, and 
Wilmington, N. C. Union, Twenty- 
third and Twenty-fourth Corps, and 
Porter's gunboats ; Confed., Gen. 
Hoke's command. Losses : Union, 40 
killed, 204 wounded; Confed., 70 killed, 
400 wounded, 375 missing. 

33. — Douglas Landing, Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Union, 13th 111. Cav.; Confed., troops of 
Gen. Kirby Smith's command. Losses : 
Union, 40 killed and wounded; Confed., 
26 killed and wounded. 

27 to March 25.— Cavalry raid in Virginia. 
Union, First and Third divisions of 
Sheridan's Cav. ; Confed., Gen. Jubal 
Early's command. Losses: Union, 35 
killed and wounded; Confed., 1667 pris- 
oners. 



MARCH, 1865. 

3. — Waynesboro, Va. Union, Sheridan's 
Cavalry Corps. Confed., Maj.-Gen. 
Jubal Earlv's command, Rosser's Cav. 



* No record found. 



,S4? 




COPVRIGHT, 191 1, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 

SIGNS OF PEACE— CONFEDERATE ARTILLERY CAPTURED AT RICHMOND AND WAITING SHIPMENT 



Never again to be used by brother against brother, these 
Confederate guns captured in the defenses about Rich- 
mond are parked near 
the wharves on the 
James River ready for 
shipment to the national 
arsenal at Washington, 
once more the capital of 
a united country. The 
reflection of these in- 
struments of destruc- 
tion on the peaceful sur- 
face of the canal is not 
more clear than was the 
purpose of the South to 
accept the issues of the 
war and to restore as far 
as in them lay the bases 
for an enduring pros- 
peiaty. The same de- 
votion which manned 
these guns so bravely 



and prolonged the 
human powers to 




contest as long as it was possible for 
endure, was now directed to the new 
problems which the ces- 
sation of hostilities had 
provided. The restored 
Union came with the 
years to possess for the 
South a significance to 
be measured only by the 
thankfuhiess that the 
outcome had been what 
it was and by the pride 
in the common tradi- 
tions and common blood 
of the whole American 
people. These captured 
guns are a memorj' there- 
fore, not of regret, but 
of recognition, gratitude, 
that the highest earthly 
tribunal settled all strife 
in 1865. 



COEHORNS, MORTARS, LIGHT AND HEAVY GUNS 



iEugag^m^utB of tl|p diutl Uar 



Liisses: Union "^j Confcd., killed and 
wounded not recorded, 1603 captured. 
8 to 10.— ^Vilcox's Bridge, N. C. Union, 
Palmer's, Carter's, and Ruger's Divi- 
sions, of Gen. Schotield's command; 
Confcd., forces under Gen. Bragg from 
Hood's Army of Tennessee, and Hoke's 
North Carolina division. Losses: Union, 
65 killed, 379 wounded, 953 missing; 
Confed., 1500 killed, wounded, and 
missing. 
16. — Aver^'sboro', X. C. Union, Twentieth 
Corps and Kilpatrick's Cav. ; Confed., 
Gen. Hardee's command. I^osses: 
Union, C)S killed, 531 wounded; Confed., 
108 killed, 540 wounded, 217 missing. 

19 to 21. — Bentonville, N. C. Union, Four- 

teenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and 
Twentieth Corps, and Kilpatrick's Cav. ; 
Confed., Gen. J. E. Johnston's army 
and Wade Hampton's Cav. Losses : 
Union, 191 killed, II68 wounded, 287 
missing; Confed., 239 killed, 1691 
wounded, 673 missing. 

20 to April 6. — Stoneuian's raid into South- 

western Va. and North Carolina. Union, 
Palmer's, Brown's, and Miller's Cavalry 
Brigades; Confed.* Losses.* 

22 to April 34. — Wilson's Raid, Chickasaw, 
Ala., to Macon, Ga. Union, Gen. James 
H. Wilson's Cav.; Confed., Forrest's 
Cav., local garrison and State Militia. 
Losses: Union, 63 killed, 315 wounded, 
63 missing; Confed., 22 killed, 38 
wounded, 6766 prisoners. 

25.— Fort Stedman, in front of Petersburg, 
Va. Union, First and Third Divisions 
Ninth Corps; Confed., Gen. John B. 
Gordon's Corps, supported by Lee's ar- 
tillery in the forts. I^osses : Union, 70 
killed, -121 wounded, 523 captured; Con- 
fed., 800 killed and wounded, 1881 miss- 
ing (Federal estimate). 
— Petersburg Trenches. Second and 
Sixth Corps; Confed., Gen. R. E. Lee's 
command. Losses: Union, 103 killed, 
864. wounded, 209 missing; Confed., 
killed and wounded not recorded, 831 
captured. 

26 to April 9.— Siege of Mobile, Ala., includ- 
ing Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. 
Union, Thirteenth and Sixteenth Corps 
and Acting Rear-Admiral Thatcher's 
fleet; Confed., Gen. D. H. Maury's land 
forces, five gunboats under Commodore 

* No rec 



Farrand. Losses: Union, 213 killed, 
1211 wounded; Confed., 500 killed and 
wounded, 3000 to 1000 captured. 

29.— Quaker Road, Va. Union, Warren's 
Fifth Corps and Griffin's First Division, 
Army of the Potomac; Confed., Part of 
Gen. R. E. Lee's Army. Losses: Union, 
55 killed, 306 wounded; Confed., 135 
killed, 100 wounded, 100 missing. 

31.— Boydton and White Oak Roads, Va. 
Union, Second and Fifth Corps; Con- 
fed., part of Gen. R. E. Lee's command. 
Losses: Union, 177 killed, 1131 wounded, 
556 missing; Confed., 1000 killed, 235 
missing. 

— Dinwiddie C. H., Va. Union, First, 
Second, and Third Divisions Cavalry of 
the Army of the Potomac; Confed., Cav. 
under Gen. Fitzhugh I-ee and Gen. W. 
H. F'. Lee. Losses : Union, 67 killed, 
351 wounded; Confed., 100 killed and 
wounded. 



APRIL, 1865. 

1. — Five Forks, Va. Union, First, Second, 
and Third Cav. Divisions and Fifth 
Corps; Confed., Gen. Geo. E. Pickett's 
command. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's Cav., in- 
cluding Rosser's and Munford's Divi- 
sions. I>osses : Union, 121 killed, 706 
wounded; Confed.* 

2. — Selma, Ala. Union, Second Division 
Cav., Military Division of the Missis- 
sippi; Forrest's Cav. Losses: Union, -12 
killed, 270 wounded, 7 missing; Confed., 
killed and wounded,* 2700 captured. 
— Fall of Petersburg, Va. Union, Sec- 
ond, Sixth, Ninth, and Twenty-fourth 
Corps ; Confed., Part of Gen. A. 
P. Hill's and Gen. J. B. Gordon's 
Corps. Losses: Union, 296 killed, 2565 
wounded, 500 missing; Confed., killed 
and wounded not recorded, 3000 prison- 
ers (estimate). 

3. — Fall of Richmond, Va. Union, Gen. 
Weitzel's command ; Confed., Local Bri- 
gade and other forces under command 
of Gen. R. S. Ewell. Losses: Confed., 
6000 prisoners, of whom 500 were sick 
and wounded. 

5. — Amelia Springs, Va. Union, Crook's 
Cav. ; Confed., Gary's Cav. I>osses : 
Union, 20 killed, 96 wounded; Confed.* 

ord found. 



rail I 



One of the proudest days of the nation — 
May 24, 1865— here lives again. The 
true greatness of the American people was 
not displayed till the close of the war. 
The citizen from the walks of humble life 
had during the contest become a veteran 
soldier, equal in courage and fighting 
capacity to the best drilled infantry of 
Marlborough, Frederick the Great, or 
Napoleon. But it remained to be seen 
whether he would return peacefully to the 
occupations of peace. European nations 
made dark predictions. "Would nearly a 
million men," they asked, "one of the 
mightiest miUtary organizations ever 
trained in war, quietly lay aside this re- 
sistless power and disappear into the un- 
noted walks of civil life?" Europe with 
its standing armies thought not. Europe 
was mistaken. The disbanded veterans 
lent the effectiveness of military order and 
discipline to the industrial and commercial 
development of the land they had come 
to love with an increased devotion. The 
pictures are of Sherman's troops marching 




COPYRIGHT, 191 I, PATRIOT PUB. CO. 

THE RETURN OF THE SOLDIERS— THE GRAND REVIEW 




down Pennsylvania Avenue. The horse- 
men in the lead are General Francis P. 
Blair and his staff, and the infantry in 
flashing new uniforms are part of the 
Seventeenth Corps in the Army of Ten- 
nessee. Little over a year before, they 
had started with Sherman on his series of 
battles and flanking marches in the strug- 
gle for Atlanta. They had taken a con- 
spicuous and important part in the battle 
of July 22d east of Atlanta, receiving and 
finally repulsing attacks in both front and 
rear. They had marched with Sherman 
to the sea and participated in the capture 
of Savannah. They had joined in the 
campaign through the Carolinas, part of 
the time leading the advance and tearing 
up many miles of railway track, and oper- 
ating on the extreme right after the battle 
of Bentonville. After the negotiations 
for Johnston's surrender were completed 
in April, they set out on the march for the 
last time with flying colors and martial 
music, to enter the memorable review at 
Washington in May, here preserved. 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, PATRIOT PUB. CO, 

THE SAME SCENE, A FEW SECONDS LATER 



iEngagrm^nta nf t\\t Oltutl Mar 



6. — Sailor's Creek, Va. Union, Second and 
Sixth Corps and Sheridan's Cav. ; Con- 
fed., Gen. E. S. Ewell's command, and 
part of Gen. R. H. Anderson's. Losses: 
Union, 166 killed, 1011 wounded; Con- 
fed., 6000 killed, wounded, and captured. 
( Federal estimate. ) 

I.— High Bridge and Farmville, Appomattox 
River, Va. Union, Second Corps and 
portion of Twenty-fourth Corps ; Con- 
fed., rearguard of Gordon's and Long- 
street's Corps and Fitzhugh Lee's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 571 killed, 71 wounded, 
and missing; Confed.* 

8 and 9.— Appomattox C. H., Va. Union, 
Twenty-fourth Corps, one division of 
the Twenty-fifth Corps and Sheridan's 
Cav.; Confed., Gen. Fitzhugh I>ee's Cav. 
Losses: Union, 200 killed and wounded; 
Confed., 500 killed and wounded. 

9. — Gen. R. i]. Iac surrendered the Army of 
Northern Virginia to the Army of the 
Potomac and the Army of the James; 
Lieut. -Gen. U. S. Grant. Confed., sur- 
rendered and paroled, 27,805. 
12 and 13.— ^Montgomery, Ala. Union, Sec- 
ond Brigade, First Division Cav. ; Con- 
fed., Gen. D. W. Adams' command. 
Losses: not recorded. 
16. — West Point, Ga. Union, 2d and 4th 
Ind. Cav., 18th Indpt. Bat. Ind. Light 
Artil. ; Confed., Brig.-Gen. R. C. Tyler 
with 300 men. Losses: Union, 7 killed, 
29 wounded; Confed., 19 killed, 28 
wounded, 218 missing. Brig.-Gen. R. C. 
Tyler killed. Last organized Confed- 
erate resistance East of the Mississippi. 
— Columbus, Ga. Union, Fourth Divi- 
sion Cav. ; Confed., Gen. D. W. Adams' 
command. Losses: Union, 6 killed, 21 
missing; Confed., killed and wounded 
not recorded, 1200 captured. 
26. — CJen. Jos. E. Johnston surrendered the 
Army of Tennessee and other commands 
to the Army of the Tennessee, the Army 
of Cieorgia and the Army of Ohio; ]Maj.- 
Gen. W. T. Sherman. Confed., surren- 
dered and paroled, 31,243. 



MAY, 1865. 

4. — Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered with 
Army of the Department of Alabama to 
Maj.-Gen. E. R. S. Canby. Confed., 
surrendered, 42,293. 

10. — Capture of Jefferson Davis, President of 
the Confederate States of America, at 
Irwinsville, Ga., by the 1st Wis. and 4th 
!Mich. Cav. Losses: Union, 2 killed, 4 
wounded, caused by the pursuing parties 
firing into each other. 

— Tallahassee, Fla. Surrender of Gen. 
Samuel Jones' command to detachment 
of Wilson's U. S. Cav. under !NLij.-Gen. 
]\IeCook. Confed., surrendered, 8000. 

11.— Chalk Bluff, Ark. Surrender of Gen. 
Jeff. Thom])son's command to forces un- 
der Gen. ^L Grenville Dodge; Confed., 
surrendered, 7454. 

13 and 13. — Palmetto Ranch, near Browns- 
ville, Tex. Union, 34th Ind., 62d U. S. 
Colored and 2d Tex. Cav. under com- 
mand Col. ¥. H. Barrett ; Confed., troops 
commanded by Brig.-Gen. Jas. H. 
Slaughter. Losses: Union, 115 killed 
and wounded; Confed.* 

33 and 24. — Grand Review of the Federal 
armies on Penns3'lvania Avenue, Wash- 
ington. Lieut. -Gen. U. S. Grant, Maj.- 
Gen. George G. Meade and Maj.-Gen. 
W. T. Sherman occupied the reviewing 
stand. 

36. — Surrender of Gen. E. Kirby Smith 
(Army of the Trans-Mississippi Depart- 
ment) to Maj.-Gen. E. R. S. Canby. 
Confed., surrendered, 17,686. 
— In addition to the surrenders noted 
above, there were paroled at Cumberland, 
Maryland, and other stations, 9337; in 
the Department of Washington, 3390; in 
Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, 
and Texas, 13,922; at Nashville and 
Chattanooga, Tenn., 5029. Miscellane- 
ous paroles in the Department of Vir- 
ginia amounted to 9072. Total number 
paroled, according to the statistics of the 
War Department, was 174,223. 



* No record found. 



I 340 ] 



Review of Twentieth Army Corps, May 
24, 1865. To the strains of popular airs 
the Grand Army of the Republic marched 
from the shadow of the Capitol to the 
front of the Executive Mansion. But 
amid the bayonets flashing in the sun- 
light each soldier was saddened by the 
thought of companions in arms who were 
not by his side and who would never re- 
turn to waiting mother or sweetheart. 
In the Union armies alone three hundred 
and fifty-nine thousand men had lain 
down their lives in the Civil War, and 
the losses in the Southern armies raised 
the total to over seven hundred thousand. 
Most of these were young fellows, their 
years of vigorous acti\'ity yet unlived. 
If by a sudden catastrophe Cleveland or 
Pittsburgh were utterly destroj-ed, the 
loss to the nation would not be so great. 
Behind the glamor of military achieve- 
ment hes the cruel cost to be compen- 
sated for only by the necessity for decid- 
ing the questions that had threatened 
the foundations of the American nation. 




COPYRIGHT, lyil, PATRIOT PUR, CO. 

•'WHEN THIS CRUEL WAR IS OVER" 




The record of the Twentieth Corps was 
distinguished. It was engaged in the 
constant battling and skirmishing of the 
.Atlanta Campaign. In the final opera- 
tions these troops were the first to enter 
the city on the morning of September 2. 
18C4, and it was to General Slocum, their 
commander, that the mayor surrendered. 
For two months they held Atlanta and 
its approaches from the North while the 
rest of Sherman's army was engaged in 
attacking Hood"s retreating columns. In 
the march to the sea the corps was com- 
manded by General A. S. Williams. At 
Savannah the troops again had the honor 
of being the first to enter an evacuated 
city, the second division marching in on 
the morning of December 21, 1864. In 
the march through the Carolinas the 
corps was in the thick of the fight at 
Bentonville, repulsing successive attacks 
with the aid of its artillery. Another 
change in the commanding officer was 
made on .\pril 2d, when General J. A. 
Mower succeeded General A. S. Williamf 



PATRIOT PUB CO. 



READY TO TILL THE FIELDS OF PEACE 




^ -^ .3; _Si 

'■^ 4_> 13 — ' 



^ - -3 



Q 

Z: 

Pi 
C 

K 



05 
H 



3 




fg 


i 


"rt 


JS 


;h 




•c 


rx! 














ci 




F^ 


O 


1^ 


-*: 


Si 


< 


-n 




c 


-o 


<v 


B 



P3 



? 


W 


% 






, 


CJ 




f— 1 




^, 


H 


O 


0; 


-n 




o 




■-U 


C 






5n 


i 

aj 








> 


^ 


^ 


t-T 


o 


a 


g 


a. 


■c 

0- 


■? 




^ 


-O 


C 


n 


- 


is 

+^ 

"n 




'o 




(-1 

1 


a 


(- 




<!/ 


-a 
8 

■t; 




-a 
n 




IS 

-o 






S ^ 



c4 a -3 






o o o « 

c- "-^ '■^ t- a 

« O ly aS o 

o C' c f^ t; 

Jh CC CO e- 44-1 



.2; 'Xj 



S g'n •« •S ^ 



O 



-a 
H 



-c •« oc 



=^ -rt — 



S e 



J3 

H 



S= c «■ 





bn 




-o 


















> 


■^ 


S 




^' 


id 














0^ 


J2 


en 


a 




s 

s 












tn 
'c3 




a 

3 












i'> 




X 


O 


Si 

1 


^ 


>> 


c3 






H 

s 

o 




.1 
=3 


1 


j3 


0(1 


ji 


2 





is 


U. 










o 
o 


!= 


•*-! 


^ 






J3 

a 

■rj 






o 


is 








r! 


-r3 


-0 

c 


*! 












1^ 


O 




e 

03 


1 






"n 






- \ 


% ' 


c\% 










THE FINAL ACT OF THE DRAMA 



This is the finale, the last tableau of the Great Drama of the Ci^'il War — a drama that for four years had 
held the stage of half a continent with all civilization for an audience. In late April of '65 a photographer 
visited Point Lookout Prison, Maryland, and was present when the last Confederate prisoners took the 
oath of allegiance to the flag under whose shadow they stand as their Iiands touch simultaneously the 
Bibles — one held by each group of four. At the desk, administering the oath, .sits the Commander of the 
Department of St. Mary's, General James Barnes, who since recovering from his wounds at Gettysburg 
had been in charge of more captured Confederates than there were in Lee's last army. It is a moving 




THE LAST CONFEDERATE PRISONERS TAKE THE OATH AT POINT LOOKOUT 



sight; it stirs the emotions, to look at the faces of these men, now returning from exile to their war-ridden 
country and desolated homes. Theirs is the hardest task in all the world — to conquer defeat and begin 
anew, under changed surroundings and conditions, the struggle for existence. Bravely the Southerners 
faced it, as bravely as they had faced the line of blue-clad men who are their enemies no longer. Long 
before fifty years had passed, when again the war cloud had risen and the country called for men, during 
the Spanish War, in the great camps at Chickamauga — "the sons of those sires, at the same camp-fires, 
cheered one flag where their fathers fought." 



\\\\V^\\|l<\\\\\\\\\\\\«^\V\\\^^